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The Plant World 



AN ILLUSTRATED 
MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 
THE WILD FLOWER PRESERVATION SOCIETY 

OF AMERICA 



ESTABLISHED 1897 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES LOUIS POLLARD, A. M. 
F. H. KNOWLTON, Ph. D. 
CORNELIUS L. SHEAR, A. M. 
FRANCIS E. LLOYD, Ph. D. 
EDWARD L. MORRIS, A. M. 



VOLUME VII 



1904 

THE PLANT WORLD COMPANY 
Washington, D. C. 



Index. 



ILIvUSTRATlONS. 



PLATE PULI,-PAGE PLATES. 

I. Iron-wood Tree {Casziarina eq^dsetifolia) 

II. View of the City of Agaiia, Guam, from Mr. SaiTord's 
Ranch 

III. Henry E. Baura 

IV. Young Buffalo Carrying Water in Bamboo Vessels , . 
V. Ipoynea leptophylla 

VI. The Bush Morning- Glory ; its storage-roots, and repro- 
ductions by root-shoots 

VII. A spike of " beardless " barley and one of the ordinary 
two-rowed barley, showing also the three spikelets 

of each root and some kernels 

VIII. Fig. I, Flowers of the "beardless" barley seen from 
the side next the floral axis ; Fig. 2, Subtending 
' ' glumes ' ' of flowers of ' ' beardless ' ' barley . . . 

IX. The Agatia River 

X. Rev. Jose Bernardo Palomo y T 

XI. A primeval forest in Guam, showing epiphytal forms . 
XII. A Vegetable Mimic 

XIII. School children and their teacher. Island of Guam . . 

XIV. View of the Island of Guam from the hill behind Agaiia 
XV. Experiments in Plant Physiology 

XVI. Street of Agana, Island of Guam, after a hurricane . . 

XVII. The Agana River, showing textile screwpine {Pitheco- 

lobium dulce) and coconut palms 

TEXT FIGURES. 
Fruit and winged seeds of Casuarina equisetifolia ; seed of En- 

tada scandens ; seed of Miccuna gigantea 

Fig. I, Red Oak {Oiiercus rtibra) ; Fig. 2, Texan Red Oak 

(^Querms Texayid) ; Fig. 3, Pin Oak {Qiiercus palustris) . . 



FACING PAGE 



25 
40 

53 
109 

1 12 



137 



148 
163 
166 
189 

195 
213 

237 
260 

261 
285 



5 
33 



iv INDEX 

PAGE 

Fig. 4, Black Oak {Qiierais velutina) ; Fig. 5, Scarlet Oak 
(yQ. coccinea) ; Fig. 6, Spanish Oak {O. digitata) ; Fig. 7, 
Bear or Scrub Oak {Q. 7ia?ia) ; Fig. 8, Blackjack (Q. Mary- 
landica) ; Fig. 9, Willow Oak (^Q. Phellos) ; Fig. 10, Shingle 

Oak {Q. ii7ibricaria) 34 

Fig. II, Corn or Basket Oak {Q. Michauxii) ; Fig. 12, Chest- 
nut Oak {Q. Pri7ius) ; Fig. 13, Yellow Chestnut Oak {Q. 
acumhiata) ; Fig. 14, White Oak (O. alba) ; Fig. 15, Post 

Oak {Q. minor) 35 

Fig. 16, Mossy-Cup Oak (^Q. macrocarpa) ; Fig. 17, Overcup 

Oak {Q. lyrata) 36 

Figs. 1-4, Frost-weed ice wings ; Fig. 5, Diagrammatic sketch 

showing formation of snow rolls 64 

Flowering branch and detached flower of Scaevola koeiiigii . . 83 

AUTHORS. 

PAGK 

Anderson, Mary Perle 123 

Atwell, C. B 252 

Bailey, W. W 68, 174, 276 

Barrett, O. W 15, 66, 150, 226, 248, 301 

Barnes, Dr. Clara 245 

Beal, W. J 42, 152 

Blanchard, W. H : . . . 305 

Blodgett, Frederick H 63 

Britton, Elizabeth G 70. 97 

Britton, N. L 17 

Broadhurst, Jean 87, 152, 258 

Cannon, W. A 184 

Copp, G. Gordon 176 

Deland, Margaret 203 

De Vries, Hugo 231 

Dobbins, Frank 14 

Fitzpatrick, T. J 220 

Goetting, Mrs. A. E 72, 170 

Gorman, M. W 18 

Griggs, Robert F 196 

Hazen, H. H 151 



INDEX V 

PACK 

Kaufman, Pauline 200, 250 

Knowlton, F. H 23, 45, 73, 100, 156, 181, 206 

Lloyd, Francis E 48, 76, 102, 132, 158, 183, 208, 230, 258, 280 

Marble, Mrs. F. L 198 

Morris, E. L 109 

Nehrling, H 93, 118, 137 

Painter, Jos. H 227 

Pepoon, H. S 44 

Pollard, Charles Louis 302 

Price, Sadie F 32 

Roosevelt, Theodore 8 

Safford, Wm. E. . i, 25, 36, 53, 81, 113, 141, 163, 189, 213, 237, 261, 285 

Schneck, J 253 

Scofield, C. S 146 

Scott, Agnes 255 

Shear, C. L 172 

Squires, Walter Albion 41 

Tullsen, H 11 

Waters, C. E 60, 103, 224 

Wetzsteiu, A 277 



TITLES AND SUBJECTS. 

PAGE 

Abronia 72 

A Carnivorous Gall ,. 187 

A Christmas Outrage 16 

Aerotropic, Roots not 211 

A New Journal for Nature Study 161 

Announcement 3^4 

Another Method of Oxygen Determination 102 

A Simple Method of Studying Plants 7° 

A Vegetable Mimic 196 

Basket Willows, The 226 

Baum, Henry E 3^ 

" Beardless " Barley, The Glumes of 146 



vi INDEX 

PAGB 

' ' Beautifying the Home Grounds, ' ' Our Opportunity for ... 68 

Black Fungi, The 172 

Blackberry, Millspaugh's 305 

Bog Plants, The Origin of 184 

Bog Water 234 

Botanical Club of Brooklyn, N. Y., The Hulst 149 

Botany as a Factor in Education 280 

Botany, Popular 310 

Branches and Leaves, The Shedding of 158 

Bud Scales as Nectar Glands 211 

Bud, What is a, and how long does it retain its Identit}- .... 42 

Birds and Insects, The Relations of Plants to 69 

Bureau of Plant Industry, The St. Louis Exhibit of 268, 298 

Bush Morning-Glory, The 109 

Carnations, Propagation of 45 

Castor Oil Plant, Seed Dispersal in the .... 160 

Christmas Outrage, A 16 

Chrysanthemums 182 

Cobalt Chlorid in Transpiration Experiments 132 

Correction and Comment 15 

Correspondence 301 

Cover your Indoor Plants with Glass 233 

Dandelion Flower Stalks, Growth of 103 

Destruction of a Farm Flora 44 

Determination of Oxygen Obtained from Plants 76 

Development of the Egg in Vaucheria 311 

Dry Regions, Liverworts in 185 

Dry Rot of the Potato 160 

Education, Botany as a Factor in 280 

Egg in Vaucheria, Development of the 311 

Exhibit of the N. Y. Horticultural Society 250 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Naturalist on the Island of 

Guam ... I, 25, 36, 53, 81, 113, 141, 163, 189, 213, 237, 267, 285 

Extremes Meet 97 

Farm Flora, Destruction of a 44 

Field Study of Pollination 133 

Florida, The Beginning of Spring in 93, 118, 137 

Fossil Fungi 187 



INDEX Vll 

PAGK 

Frost-Weeds and Other Winter Notes 63 

Fungi, Fossil 187 

Fungi, Origin of Parasitism in 210 

Fungi, The Black 172 

Gall, A Carnivorous 187 

Geotropism of Polyporus 224 

Growth of Dandelion Flower Stalks 103 

Hair Cap Moss, The 134 

Hybridization in the Honey Locust 252 

Idaho, Wild Flowers of Prairie and Canyon in Northern ... 41 

Improvement of Oxygen Determination Method 102 

Insects, The Relations of Plants to Birds and 69 

Kentucky Oaks 32 

Leaves, The Study of 102 

Life, Nature Study as a Training for 87 

Liverworts in Dry Regions 185 

Lleren : The, A Rare Root Crop 150 

Magazine, The Story of a 302 

Maple Sap Flow, The 104 

Millspaugh's Blackberry 305 

Mimic, A Vegetable 196 

Morning-Glory, The Bush 109 

Mucoraceae, Sexual Reproduction in the 232 

Mycological Club, The Ohio 134 

Native Plants, The Protection of Our 123 

Nature Fad 255 

Nature Study, A New Journal for 161 

Nature Study as a Training for Life 87 

Nectar Glands, Bud Scales as 211 

N. Y. Horticultural Society, Exhibit of the 250 

Niagara and the Forests 204 

Northern Idaho, Wild Flowers of Prairie and Canyon in . . . 41 

Notes from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dakota 11 

Oaks, Kentucky 32 

Ocheyedan Mound, The June Flora of 220 

Ohio, The White Prickly Poppy in Northwestern 377 



Vlll INDEX 



PAGE 



Olivia and Caroline Phelps-Stokes Fund for the Protection of 

Native Plants 17 

On Lonely Rocks and Sand-Edged Bhiflfs 170 

Oregon Wild Flowers in Need of Protection 18 

Origin of Parasitism in Fungi 210 

Origin of Species, The Method of Experimentation Upon the . . 231 

Our Forest Policy 8 

Our Opportunity for "Beautifying the Home Grounds" ... 68 

Oxygen Determination, Another Method of 102 

Oxj^gen Determination Method, Improvement of . 102 

Oxygen obtained from Plants, Determination of 76 

Paeonia lutea 207 

Pansies 182 

Parsleys, The 14 

Peonies Again 181 

Petiole Buds, Propagation by 250 

Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dakota, Notes from 11 

Plant Physiology in the High School 258 

Plant Wounds and Natural Pruning 60 

Plants, Determination of Oxygen Obtained from 76 

Plants, Some Unusual Woody 174 

Plants, The Protection of Native 152 

Plants, The Protection of Our Native 123 

Plants, The Relation of to Birds and Insects 69 

Pollination, Field Study of 133 

Pollination in the Primrose 183 

Polyporus, Geotropism of 224 

Popular Botany 310 

Potato, Dry Rot of the 160 

Primrose, Pollination in the 183 

Propagation by Petiole Buds 252 

Propagation of Carnations 45 

Protection of Native Plants, Olivia and Caroline Phelps-Stokes 

Fund for the 17 

Protection of the Wild Flowers 176 

Pruning, Natural, Plant Wounds and 60 

Pure Science and the " Practical " 159 

Pussy Willows 245 

River Botanizing 276 

Roots, a Simple Method of Studying 76 

Roots not Aerotropic 211 



INDEX IX 

PAGE 

Seed Dispersal in the Castor-Oil Plant i6o 

Sexual Reproduction in the Mucoraceae 222 

Some Unusual Woody Plants 174 

Spring in Florida, The Beginning of 93, 118, 137 

St. L,ouis Exhibit of the Bureau of Plant Industry, The .... 268, 298 

Story of a Magazine, The 302 

Strawberry, The < 206 

Tanier, The Oldest Crop 248 

The Hulst Botanical Club of Brooklyn 149 

The Basket Willow 226 

The Beginning of Spring in Florida 93, 118, 137 

The Black Fungi 172 

The Bush Morning-Glory 109 

The Glumes of " Beardless " Barley 146 

The Guapa, an Egregious Economic 225 

The Hair Cap Moss 134 

The Story of a Magazine 302 

The June Flora of the Ocheyedan Mound 220 

The Maple Sap Flow 114 

The Method of Experimentation Upon the Origin of Species . . 231 

The Ohio Mycological Club 134 

The Origin of Bog Plants 184 

The Parsleys 14 

The Protection of Our Nativ^e Plants 123 

The Protection of Our Native Plants 152 

The Lleren : A Rare Root Crop 150 

The Relations of Plants to Birds and Insects 69 

The Shedding of Branches and Eeaves 158 

The St. Louis Exhibit of the Bureau of Plant Industry .... 268, 298 

The Strawberry 206 

The Study of lycaves 102 

The White Prickly Poppy in Northwestern Ohio 277 

This Season near Washington 182 

Transpiration Experiments, Cobalt Chlorid in 132 

Trees, Undraped 67 

Undraped Trees • 67 

Vacation Notes 200 

Vaucheria, Development of the Egg in 311 

Vegetable Mimic, A . 196 



X INDBX 

PAGE 

Washington, This Season near 182 

Ways of the Zinnia, The 198 

What is a Bud and how long does it retain its Identity .... 42 

Wild Flowers in Need of Protection, Oregon 18 

Wild Flowers of Prairie and Canyon in Northern Idaho .... 48 

Wild Flowers, Protection of the 176 

Winter Notes, Frost- Weeds and Other 63 

Woody Plants, Some Unusual 174 

Zinnia, Ways of the 198 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Plant-Geography upon a Physiological Basis. By Dr. A. F. W. 

Schimper 52 

The Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute. By 

Frederick V. Coville and Daniel Trembly MacDougal ... 90 
New Elementary Agriculture. By C. F. Bessey, lyawrence 

Bruner and G. W. Sweezey 100 

Systematic Pomology. By F. A. Waugh 107 

A Guide to the Study of Lichens. By Albert Schneider ... 135 

Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds in the Home. By H. W. Conn . . 136 

Bog-Trotting for Orchids. By Grace Grey lock Niles 161 

Mosses with Hand-IyCns and Microscope. By A. J. Grout . . 162 

Harriman Alaska Expedition. Vol. V. Cryptogamic Botany . 187 

Plant Breeding. By h. H. Bailey 188 

New England Ferns and their Common Allies. By Helen 

Eastman 212 

Carter's Nature Study with Common Things. By M. H. Carter 235 

The Classification of Flowering Plants. By Alfred Barton Rendle 236 
The Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools. By F. E. Eloyd 

and Maurice A. Bigelow 283 

Briefer Articles. 

Pages 14-15, 41-42, 67-68, 150-151, 174-175,224-227, 252-253, 276-278, 

305- 

Editorial. 
Pages 20, 42, 71, 99, 130, 155, 181, 205, 229, 256, 279, 309. 

Obituary. 
Page 130. 



INDEX XI 

Our Teacher's Department. 
Pages 48, 76, 102, 132, 158, 183, 208, 230, 258, 280, 310. 

Reviews of Educational Literature. 
Pages 50, 77, 135, 161. 

The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 
Pages 23-24, 45-47, 73-75. loo-ioi, 156-157, 181-182, 206-208. 

Wild Flower Preservation Society of America. 
Pages 16, 43, 71, 99, 130, 155, 181, 205, 229, 256, 278, 305. 

Book Reviews. 
Pages 52, 80, 106, 135, 161, 187, 212, 235, 283. 




ZlJ^' 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII. Plate \.- 




Iron-wood tree (Casuarma equisetifolta) growing at the edge of the sea. 



The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 



VoL VII JANUARY, 1904 No. i 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XIV. * 

By William E. Safford. 

The Ilig River broadens at its mouth into a small bay, the waters of 
which are brackish. On its southern margin there is a growth of Nipa 
frHtica7is, a stemless palm allied to the ivory-nut palm (Phytelephas), 
with great heads of drupes near the water's edge, recalling those of the 
screw-pines. Though introduced from the Philippines, it has established 
itself near the mouths of nearly all the streams of this island, and as in 
the typical ' ' Nipa Formations ' ' has associated itself with Chry sodium 
aiireuvt, the widely-spread marsh-fern, and other plants which love brackish 
water. A little farther up the streams, where the water is fresh, beds 
of reeds occur iPhragmites phragmites) , and on the banks are trees of 
Hibiscus tiliaceiis and betel palms {,Areca catechu^. 

Our way now lay directly south across an eminence called Matento, 
covered with "jack-in-the-box" {Hernandia peltata) and other trees, 
then along a fine strip of sandy beach between the escarpment of a plateau 
(the Sabana de Lagiiifia) and the sea. Carpets of purple-flowered morn- 
ing-glories {Ipo?7ioea pes-caprae) covered the coral sand near the water's 
edge and there were many trees of iron -wood iCasiiarina equisetifolia) 
so close to the sea that their roots had been bared by the waves. These 
trees seem well able to re sist the strong winds which prevail on this 

* Continued from the December issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



2 THE PI^ANT WORIvD 

weather coast. Trees with thick foliage would probably be uprooted, 
but the wind sweeps through their leafless branches with little resistance, 
though the trees here have a battered appearance and are twisted and 
gnarled from the effects of the many storms and hurricanes which have 
visited the island. They scarcely bore any resemblance in their general 
contour to the straight, slender saplings from which the Samoans make 
their spears or the perfect trees which form avenues at Waikiki, near 
Honolulu, yet they are the same species. In Eastern Polynesia they are 
called toa, which also signifies "warrior"; here they are called gago. 
It is interesting to note that though they grow well with their roots im- 
mersed in sea-water they are not necessarily dwellers of the beach. On 
the upland regions of this island, called sab anas, they occur sparsely 
scattered among the sword-grass {.Miscanthus florididus) . These sabanas, 
or savannas, are characterized by lack of drainage, and it may be that 
the conditions necessary for the growth of the iron wood are moisture 
just below the surface, plenty of sunlight, and a free sweep of the wind. 
Some of the finest specimens on the island grow on the south coast of the 
island, between Merizo and Inarahan. (See figure.) The branches, which 
are jointed like horse-tails {.Equiseta) , look from a distance like pine- 
needles, and the many-celled woody fruit are like certain pine-cones, but 
are of a spherical shape. Many of these were strewn on the beach and some 
of them still contained seeds. Throwing a number of them into the sea 
they floated like corks and were soon brought back by the waves, and 
when I tossed a handful of the winged seeds into the air they were 
carried inland by the fresh breeze which was blowing. This is an inter- 
esting demonstration of the forces which play a part in the distribution 
of plants. The buoyant fruits may be carried from island to island by 
ocean currents and gain foot-hold upon the sandy beaches ; and the 
winds will carry inland the seeds, which will establish themselves where 
conditions are favorable. The delicate membranous wing of the seed is 
strengthened bj- a slender rigid rib, evidently the persistent style. 

Back of the outer line of vegetation and sometimes mingling with it 
grew typical trees of what Schimper has called the " Barringtonia Form- 
ation": Barringtonia speciosa, Barringtojiia raceniosa, Terminalia catappa, 
Hibisctis tiliacetis, Thespesia populnea, Calophylliivi ijiophylhini, Her7iandia 
peltata, Morinda citrtfolia, and an Apocynaceous tree resembling Cerbera 
(probably Ochrosia viarian7iensis) . Nearly all these trees have fruit or 
seeds specially adapted for floating.* In the Barringtonias and the Apocy- 
naceae there are fibrous husks ; in Morinda citrtfolia there is a distinct 
air-chamber, and in some of the sea-beans (^Muaina gigantea and Entada 
scandens^ there is a large air-space between the kernels (cotyledons) and 

♦See Guppy, H. B.— " The dispersal of plants as illustrated by the flora of the Keeling or Cocos 
Islands," Tratisactions of the Victoria Institute, 1890. Also Schimper—" Die Indo-malayische Strand- 
flora, p. 165." Taf. vii. Jena, 1891. 



THE PLANT WORI.D 3 

the hard shell. The peculiar four-angled fruits of Barringtonia spedosa 
covered the beach so thickly in many places that it was impossible to walk 
without stepping on them. Many of them were germinating and there 
were also hundreds of young seedlings of iron wood and Terminalia. 
Just above the high-water line I noticed several large logs and parts of 
wrecks of vessels riddled with teredo borings and covered with barnacles. 
Some of the largest logs looked like Oregon pine. They must have come 
from the direction of America, as Guam is directly in the path of the 
great Pacific current which flows to the westward, urged onward by the 
almost constant trade- winds. 

We crossed a stream called the Sadog Togcha by fording, and shortly 
afterwards we came to a little shed on the margin of the sea, in which a 
woman was sitting by an iron kettle braiding miniature baskets of young 
coconut leaflets, which she filled with the almond-like kernels of Ter- 
minalia nuts ( Talisai) . Under the kettle a fire was burning and in it was 
sea- water. The old lady was making salt. Here, I thought, is an ex- 
ample of thrift. She will sell the salt at Agana and will probably send 
the nuts to Manila, where they will be made into confections. A young 
girl was collecting fuel for the fire. From time to time we heard a crow 
caw. This bird (.Corvus kubaryi), the old lady said, is very fond of the 
Terminalia nuts as well as of corn. After resting awhile we proceeded 
on our way, the old lady and girl joining us and leaving their fire still 
burning under the kettle. Then I realized that this was Dona Francisca, 
the owner of the farm in the valley of Tarofofo, for which I was bound. 
She asked why her son-in-law had not accompanied us, and was much 
distressed when she heard of his accident ; but I reassured her, telling 
her that our doctor had already drawn the stick from his foot, and that 
he would receive the best of care at the hospital. As we proceeded on 
our way we caught up with a man on cow-back who was playing bugle- 
calls on the hollow petiole of a papaya leaf ^Carica papaya) . Some of the 
calls were quite elaborate, and when I first heard him I thought that he 
had gotten a new bugle in Agana and was trying his skill as a trumpeter. 

We were now opposite a break in the barrier reef called the Demon's 
Passage (^Saguan Aniti), and soon afterwards we climbed up a promon- 
tory called As Kiroga by means of steps cut in the solid rock. This is 
named in honor of Don Jose Quiroga, who won great distinction in the 
early history of these islands on account of the relentless war he waged 
against the natives, alternately driving them from island to island in the 
north and reconcentrating them on Guam. On this rocky promontory the 
most conspicuous plant was Cycas circinalis, which grew in great profu- 
sion. The general effect of the landscape was that of an ideal sketch of 
vegetation during the Carboniferous age. No living plant is more inter- 
esting to me than these strange palm-like trees, with their rich green, 



4 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

glossy, fern-like fronds. Though they bear large edible farinaceous nuts, 
yet they do not have true flowers. Their naked ovules, borne in the 
notches of modified leaves of the female plants, correspond with the 
macrosporangia of cryptogams and the small pollen sacs on the under side 
of modified leaves of the male plant correspond with the microsporangia. 
Fertilization is effected by means of spermatozoids having spiral bands 
of moving cilia. They set me to thinking of the ancient strange forms 
now extinct which come to light from time to time in a fossil condition, 
and especially of the so-called cycado-filices, which were intermediate 
between the cycads and the true ferns. This recalled the fact that in 
geological ages Nipa-like palms formed thickets in the estuaries of England 
like that which I have just seen in the Ilig River. The occurrence of 
these tropical forms is recorded in the Eocene clays of Sheppey, an island 
at the mouth of the Thames, where fossil fruits (^Nipadites) very much 
like those of Nipa have been found. 

We now caught a glimpse of the beautiful little bay of Tarofofo 
which the captain of the Nero has asked me to examine. Outside of 
its entrance was a milky line of breakers. Along its shores there was 
no sign of a village or of any living thing. At the time of the arrival of 
the Spaniards on this island the vicinity of Tarofofo bay was inhabited 
by the proudest and bravest of all the natives. More than all the 
rest they clung to the customs of their forefathers and refused to accept 
the teachings of the missionaries. Don Juan Antonio de Salas, who 
arrived on the island in 1678, determined to break their pride, so he 
marched upon the villages of Tarofofo and Pigpug, guided by two natives 
named Ayihi and Soon, whom their fellows regarded as despicable trai- 
tors. The natives defended themselves as best they could, with their 
simple slings and lances, against the fire-arms of the Spaniards, but they 
were defeated, and their villages were burned to ashes, together with 
their boats, their stores of rice, representing months of toil, and every- 
thing el.se belonging to them. The Spaniards themselves tell the sad 
.story.* 

Descended the slope and made an examination of the bay. I was told 
that during a great part of the year it was difficult for boats to enter and 
leave the little harbor. It seemed to me that it would be unwise to land 
the cable here. Moreover, on this side of the island the sea deepens 
suddenly, while the other side is sheltered from the wind during the 
greater part of the year, and there the bottom slopes more gradually. I 
should think the best place for landing the cable would be on the penin- 

'•"'El Goveruador * * * los siguio, y quenio los Pueblos de Picpuc, y Tarufofo con todas sus 
haziendas, y mas de veinte bancas, mucho arroz, y otros bastitnentos. Desvaratose la trinchera con 
que se avian fortificado, y dando la vuelta per aquella costa, todos los demas Pueblos salieron con sus 
preseutes, y socorro para la Milicia, pidiendo amistad, que se les concedi6 con las condiciones ordi- 
narias, ventajosasdla Christiaudad."— Padre Francisco Garcia. Vida y martyrio de el Venerable Padre 
Diego Luis de Sanvitores. p. 568. Madrid, 1683. 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 5 

sula of Orote, where there is a gradually-shelving beach and where a 
landing can be effected at any time. 

Turning inward, we followed along the north shore of the Tarofofo 
River. I asked where the road might be, and was directed to a seething 
stream of liquid mud into which we plunged. Seeing the old lady, who 
acted as our guide, floundering on ahead of me, I offered her my cow, but 
she declined to mount it, saying that she was used to the road, and that 
I would get my white duck uniform wet and muddy. So I remained 
perched upon the animal's back, with my legs drawn up as high as possi- 
ble. As we proceeded the water became more shallow. The old lady 
informed me that in a few months the valley would be dry, and that she 








^V 




e-MT 



On the left, fruit and winged seeds of Casuarina eqiiisetifolia ; on the right, 
above, seed of Entacla scandens ; on the right, below, seed of Afuciina 
giga7iiea. These seeds will endure transportation long distances in salt 
water. See text, p. 2. 



would then plant it in corn. We reached dry land at last and found 
ourselves in a most beautiful valley. In the midst of a plantation of the 
finest fruits which grow upon the island there was a large house, 
raised on posts from the ground and thatched with Nipa leaves. A 
number of little children ran out to meet us, crying: " O, little grand- 
mother, what have you brought us ? " Then I saw the use to which the 
tiny baskets of Terminalia goodies were destined — each little tot received 
one from the grandmother, and when we entered the house they fairly 
overwhelmed her. She sat down on the bamboo floor, and they climbed 
about her, pulling down her thin gray hair and loving her with all their 
might. Taking some young leaves of the coconut palm she began to 
make them all sorts of toys, little stars and crosses, and little two-winged 
birds which seemed to fly, suspended from a fibre of the leaf at the end 
of a reed. 



6 THE PLANT WORLD 

The walls of the main room were decorated with the gaudy shells of 
the " painted crab," a triton shell perforated to serve as a trumpet hung 
from a nail by the door, and in a little alcove a lamp of coconut oil 
burned before a bright-colored picture of the Virgin. A large trough 
used for tanning, turned upside-down, served as a settee. There was also 
a bench of Ifil wood and a table of the same material, which shone like 
mahogany. In a few minutes I heard a terrible commotion among the 
pigs under the floor, and found that one of them was about to be killed. 
As there is a law to the effect that all animals intended for food must be 
killed at the village slaughter-houses (so that they may first be inspected), 
the old lady asked permission that the pig be killed, before her son-in- 
law proceeded with the butchering. Its throat was cut and in a few 
minutes all its bristles were singed off by torches of dry coconut leaves. 
Seeing two young girls engaged in preparing supper I asked whether 
they had any cycas nuts in the house. They showed me a bag full of 
the prepared kernels, and I asked them to make me a tortilla of them. 
They said that they had plenty of rice and corn, and they could not 
understand why I should want a tortilla of fadang when there were so 
many other better things to eat. However, they made me a thin cake of 
the powdered nut, and I found it indeed to be inferior to rice and to corn. 
The fadang nuts are poisonous when fresh. The kernels must be soaked 
and the water changed repeatedly before they are fit to eat. They are 
then dried and stored for use in times of scarcity of other food. 

The supper was excellent. Fortunately we had some venison, so I 
declined to partake of the recently-killed pig. With the exception of the 
venison, which was from the neighboring savanna on top of the island, 
and the rice, which was grown near the village of Inarahan, everything 
on the table had been produced in this little valley : eggs, yams, taro, 
tortillas of corn, coffee of fine quality, brown sugar from coconut sap, 
oranges and pineapples, and the coconuts, which furnished a cool, deli- 
cious drink. We could have had chicken, and the old lady offered to have 
chocolate prepared from beans grown on her own plantation. Even the 
salt was of her manufacture, and the family had slippers made of deer- 
skins tanned by the sons-in-law. Everything about the place bore 
evidence of thrift. The old lady spoke with pride and affection of her 
daughters and sons-in-law. She had been living many years in this 
happy valley, which had been granted by the government to her husband, 
and she could not understand how any one else could acquire a just title 
to it. 

Before going to bed the lights were extinguished and a smudge was 
kindled to drive out the mosquitoes. I was shown into a side room, where 
a comfortable bed of mats had been prepared for me on the split bamboo 
floor. My pillow was a cushion stuffed with floss from the silk-cotton 



THE PLANT WORI.D 7 

tree iCeiba peyitayidra) . I was wakened only once or twice by the quar- 
relling of the pigs beneath the house, and I heard a distant roar, or rather 
a murmur, which I thought was the surf. This morning when we awoke 
it was raining hard. The thatched roof was perfectly tight and the eaves 
overhung so that the door and windows could be left open. When the 
rain ceased I heard once more the noise of rushing water, and I found 
that it was not the surf, but a river which issued from a cavern, or grotto, 
at the base of a clifiF a short distance from the house. This river dis- 
appears on the mesa more than a mile distant and reappears in this valley. 
Growing about the entrance to the cavern I saw a number of ferns and 
several trees of Barringtonia racemosa ^Langaasag) ^ and on hearing the 
cooing of doves I discovered a pair of beautiful fruit pigeons {,Ptilinopus 
roseicapillus) in a neighboring bread-fruit tree, beautiful birds with green 
plumage, crimson caps, yellow bellies and purple bands across the breast. 
They bear a close resemblance to the Manu-tangi, of Samoa, and have 
the same habit of pressing their beak down against their breast when 
they utter their peculiar note. The natives call them Tottot. 

Near the door of the house I noticed a large stone having a cylin- 
drical hole in it. This is used for husking rice. I was told that such 
stones are often found and that they were used by the Antigiws. When 
I expressed an interest in antiquities my hostess told me of some stones 
standing in parallel rows at a spot near which I would pass on my 
return . 

We now prepared for our return trip. My cow was saddled and several 
chickens were caught while feeding, by means of a noose of fibre on the 
end of a fishing-pole. We were accompanied by the wife of the injured 
man, who seemed much concerned about him and carried a number of 
dainties to him.* 

I am now back home. Susana had a good supper prepared for me, 
and I have said good-night to the son of the old blind man of Yona, who 
lent me his sleek little cow to carry me back to Agaiia. He has refused 
to sell her to me at any price, saying that his father often comes to town 
on her back, and that he would trust no other cow. The injured man 
in the hospital is doing well. Susana has taken charge of the fruit and 
eggs and chickens given me by my friends at Tarofofo and has sent them 
in return a supply of tobacco and canned meats, which I keep to exchange 
for favors conferred upon me. 

As I think of my interesting experience of yesterday and to-day a 
feeling akin to envy seizes me, and I take my Virgil from the shelf and 
turn to the Georgics. Here it is in the second book: ' ' O fortunatos 
nimium, sua si bona norint, agricolas / " What a picture it is of what I 

♦of my return trip I have written elsewhere. See Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution 
for 1903, p. 508. 



8 THE PLANT WORLD 

have just seen ! — the peace and quiet of a life remote from discordant arms, 
the earth pouring forth the ready fruit from the soil, the unadorned pillars 
of the house, the unadulterated oil, the natural wealth, the leisure which 
all should enjoy, even the grottos and murmuring waters {speluncae 
viviq7ie laais), the game from the forest, the youths enduring toil and 
content with little, and the human and divine love. Good old Cowley 
has translated it most beautifully, and has said many fine things about 
the joys of an agricultural life, which Horace would not exchange even 
for the splendor of an emperor's palace. "Husbandmen," he says, 
"live by what they can get by industry from the earth, and others by 
what they can catch by craft from men." 

As I go to sleep I hear once more the little children calling: " O, 
little grandmother, what have you brought us?" 

[to be continued.] 



Our Forest Policy. 

By Hon. Theodore Roosevelt. 

[President Roosevelt delivered an address before the Society of American Forest- 
ers on March 27, 1903, which has since been published by the Department of Agricul- 
ture. It contains so much that is pertine\it and of interest to our readers that we 
reprint here selected portions of the address. — Ed.] 

First and foremost, you can never afford to forget for one moment 
what is the object of our forest polic}'. That object is not to preserve the 
forests because they are beautiful, though that is good in itself; nor 
because they are refuges for the wild creatures of the wilderness, though 
that, too, is good in itself ; but the primary object of our forest policy, 
as of the land policy of the United States, is the making of prosperous 
homes. It is part of the traditional policy of home making of our coun- 
try. Kver)'^ other consideration comes as secondary. The whole effort 
of the Government in dealing with the forests must be directed to this 
end, keeping in view the fact that it is not onl}^ necessary to start the 
homes as prosperous, but to keep them so. That is why the forests have 
got to be kept. You can start a prosperous home by destroying the 
forests, but you can not keep it prosperous that way. 

And you are going to be able to make that policy permanently the 
policy of the country only in so far as you are able to make the people 
at large, and, above all, the people concretely interested in the results in 
the different localities, appreciative of what it means. Impress upon 
them the full recognition of the value of its policy, and make them earn- 
est and zealous adherents of it. Keep in mind the fact that in a Govern- 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 9 

ment such as ours, it is out of the question to impose a policy like this 
from without. The policy, as a permanent policy, can come only from 
the intelligent conviction of the people themselves that it is wise and use- 
ful, nay, indispensable. We shall decide, in the long run, whether or 
not we are to preserve or destroy the forests of the Rocky Mountains 
accordingly as we are or are not able to make the people of the mountain 
States hearty believers in the policy of forest preservation. 

That is the only way in which this policy can be made a permanent 
success. You must convince the people of the truth — and it is the 
truth — that the success of home makers depends in the long run upon 
the wisdom with which the nation takes care of its forests. That seems 
a strong statement, but it is none too strong. 

You yourselves have got to keep this practical object before your 
mind ; to remember that a forest which contributes nothing to the 
wealth, progress, or safet}^ of the country is of no interest to the Govern- 
ment, and should be of little interest to the forester. Your attention 
must be directed to the preservation of the forests, not as an end in 
itself, but as a means for preserving and increasing the prosperity of the 
nation. 

"Forestry is the preservation of forests by wise use," to quote a 
phrase I used in my first message to Congress. Keep before your minds 
that definition . Forestry does not mean abbreviating that use ; it means 
making the forest useful not only to the settler, the rancher, the miner, 
the man who lives in the neighborhood, but, indirectly, to the man who 
may live hundreds of miles off down the course of some great river, 
which has had its rise among the forest-bearing mountains. 

The forest problem is in many ways the most vital internal problem 
in the United States. The more closely this statement is examined the 
more evident its truth becomes. In the arid region of the West, agri- 
culture depends first of all upon the available water supply. In such a 
region forest protection alone can maintain the stream flow necessary for 
irrigation, and can prevent the great and destructive floods so ruinous to 
communities farther down the same streams that head in the arid regions. 

The relation between the forests and the whole mineral industry is an 
extremely intimate one ; for, as every man who has had experience in 
the West knows, mines can not be developed without timber, usually not 
without timber close at hand. In many regions throughout the arid 
country ore is more abundant than wood, and this means that if the ore 
is of low grade, the transportation of timber from any distance being out 
of the question, the use of the mine is limited by the amount of timber 
available close at hand. 

The very existence of lumbering, of course, — and lumbering is the 
fourth great industry of the United States, — depends upon the success of 



10 THE PLANT WORLD 

our work as a nation in putting practical forestry into effective operation. 
As it is with mining and lumbering, so it is in only a less degree with 
transportation, manufactures, commerce in general. The relation of all 
of these industries to forestry is of the most intimate and dependent 
kind. * * * 

Even the grazing industry, as it is carried on in the Great West, 
which might at first sight appear to have little relation to forestry, is 
nevertheless closely related to it, because great areas of winter range, 
available and good for winter grazing, would be absolutely useless with- 
out the summer range in the mountains where the forest reserves lie. 

As all of you know, the forest resources of our country are already seri- 
ously depleted. They can be renewed and maintained only by the co- 
operation of the forester with the practical man of business in all his 
types, but above all, with the lumberman. And the most striking and 
encouraging fact in the forest situation is that lumbermen are realizing 
that practical lumbering and practical forestrj'- are allies, not enemies, 
and that the future of each depends upon the other. The resolutions 
passed at the last meeting of the representatives of the lumber interests, 
which occurred here in Washington, were a striking proof of this fact 
and a most encouraging feature of the present situation. So long as we 
could not make the men concerned in the great lumber industry realize 
that the foresters were endeavoring to work in their interest, and not 
against them, the headway that could be made was but small. We shall 
be able to work effectively and bring about important results of a perma- 
nent character largely in proportion as we are able to convince those 
men, the men at the head of that great business, of the practical wis- 
dom of what the foresters of the United States are seeking to accom- 
plish. * * * 

The United States is exhausting its forest supplies far more rapidly 
than they are being produced. The situation is grave, and there is only 
one remedy. That remedy is the introduction of practical forestry on a 
large scale, and of course that is impossible without trained men, men 
trained in the closet, and also by actual field work under practical condi- 
tions. 

You have created a new profession of the highest importance, of the 
highest usefulness to the State, and you are in honor bound to your- 
selves and the people to make that profession stand as high as any other 
profession, however intimately connected with our highest and finest 
development as a nation. You are engaged in pioneer work in a calling 
whose opportunities for public service are very great. Treat that calling 
seriously ; remember how much it means for the country as a whole. 
The profession you have adopted is one which touches the Republic on 
almost every side — political, social, industrial, commercial ; to rise to its 



THE PI.ANT WORLD 11 

level you will need a wide acquaintance with the general life of the 
nation, and a view-point both broad and high. * * * 

I believe that the foresters of the United States will create a more 
effective system of forestry than we have yet seen. If not, gentlemen, 
if you do not, I shall feel that you have fallen behind your brethren in 
other callings ; and I do not believe that you will fall behind them. 

Nowhere else is the development of a country more closely bound up 
with the creation and execution of a judicious forest policy. This is, of 
course, especially true of the West, but it is true of the East also. For- 
tunately, in the West we have been able, relatively to the growth of the 
country, to begin at an earlier day, so that we have been able to establish 
great forest reserves in the Rocky Mountains, instead of having to wait 
and attempt to get Congress to pay large sums for their creation, as we 
are now endeavoring to do in the Southern Appalachians. 

In the administration of the national forest reserves, in the introduc- 
tion of conservative lumbering on the timber tract of the lumberman and 
the woodlot of the farmer, in the practical solution of forest problems 
which affect well nigh every industry and every activity of the nation, 
the members of this Society have an unexampled field before them. 
You have a heavy responsibility, — every man that does serious work, 
work worth doing, has on him a heavy responsibility, — for upon the 
development of your work the development of forestry in the United 
States and the production of the industries which depend upon it will 
largely rest. You have made a good beginning, and I congratulate you 
upon it. Not only is a sound national forest policy coming rapidly into 
being, but the lumbermen of the country are proving their interest in 
forestry by practicing it. 



Notes from Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak. 

By H. Tullsen. 

As THE aspect of the vegetation is not necessarily the same at points 
separated by only a few miles, in this region, I will state at the outset 
that the remarks here made apply to the flora of the upper portion of the 
valley of Medicine Root Creek, a branch of White River. This creek 
flows through the high miocene hills and plains which belong to the 
formation surrounding the Black Hills. The creek plain is very far 
below the general level of the adjacent country. 

Our earliest flower is Cymopterus acaulis, called by the Ogallala Sioux 
the Cheyenne turnip. It is to be found on the high plains about the 



12 THE PLANT WORLD 

middle of March. The pasque-flower {^Pulsatilla hirsiitissima) comes 
next. In the deep and rocky ravines this beautiful flower may be seen 
during the month of April. A little while after the pasque-flower first 
comes into bloom the leaves of various other perennial plants, anxious to 
greet the spring, show themselves above the surface of the ground. 
Among these we see the first foliage of vervains, pentstemons, Malvas- 
trum coccineum, and others. 

Late in April we find in bloom a yellow violet, most probably Viola 
scabriusaila, which clings close to the gravelly soil in the shelter of the 
hills. About the same time we find the kidney-leaved crowfoot {Ranun- 
ailus abortivus) in bloom near the brook. 

One of our most conspicuous flowers in spring is Le^icocrinum mon- 
tanum. The white blossoms stud the broad plains like countless stars. 
By May 25 it has about disappeared from the open prairies, but along 
fences and in sheltered nooks it still lingers now and then, somewhat as 
vanquished species for ages still linger upon restricted areas after having 
been driven from the main field of strife. About May 20 it is noticeable 
that Zygadenus venenosus has taken the place of Leucocrinum as the most 
abundant and widespread plant of the plains. 

Anogra albicaulis, an evening primrose, grows exuberantly in old 
abandoned fields. Its conditions of existence have thus been improved 
through man's agency, for hereabouts on the virgin prairie it grows 
sparsely. 

Close to the creek in summer we have the seaside crowfoot ( Oxy- 
graphis cymbalaria^ . Pentstenion grandiflorus grows in the bottom- 
lands — most abundantly where trees are fewest — and seldom meets its con- 
geners of the hills. It is a most attractive-flowered species, and is with 
us but a short time. Wild Columbine grows in thickets on the flood-plain 
of the creek. 

The prickly poppy {Argemone intermedia) is sometimes an annoying 
weed in grain-fields. On the hills is found the handsome Mariposa lily 
{Calochoj'tus Nuttallii^ . In company with it grows Ratibida coluninaris , 
a compositous plant, the yellow-rayed form of which is everywhere on 
the higher ground, while the brown-rayed form, which in Coulter's 
Manual is called pulcherrima, is very rare. A very handsome and promi- 
nent object on the hills in summer and autumn is Bratoieria angiistifolia, 
the narrow-leaved cone-flower. The button snake-root {,Laci7iaria 
punctata) appears in July and August. It is more abundant in the sand- 
hills near the Nebraska line than here. 

Steironema ciliatum haunts the shaded copses on the lower grounds. 
It must be a favorite of the fauns and satyrs, so secluded does it remain. 
So successfully does it shield itself from the gaze of man that it is not well 
enough known to have received a vernacular name except in botanical 



THE PLANT WORLD 13 

works of recent date, although it is common enough and more attractive 
in apearance than many flowers that are known the world over. 

In my consideration of the above-mentioned plants I have paid atten- 
tion to neither affinities nor order of appearance as to season. Among 
the many other plants that grow here should be mentioned species of 
Anemone, Pentstemon, Yucca, Linum, Cactus, Tradescantia, etc., all con- 
spicuous for floral or other features. 



Prof. C. S. Sargent and his son, Mr. A. R. Sargent, have just re- 
turned from a six months' trip abroad, most of the time having been spent in 
Russia, Siberia, Corea, and Manchuria, with stops at Java and several 
Chinese ports. As a result of this journey they sent or brought home 
some 8,000 specimens of bulbs, seeds, or plants, and we may look in the 
near future to some valuable additions to the list of novelties for Ameri- 
can gardens. These will, of course, be first tried in the Arnold Arbore- 
tum, which is, in many respects, the most valuable collection in this 
country. 

Mr. H. Kggert writes that he has found the southwestern marsh 
rosemary (^Linionmm linibatuni) , mentioned in Dr. MacDougal's recent 
article as one of the curious desert plants of New Mexico, growing also 
in Texas on salt flats. He says, "The Texas plant differs from the New 
Mexican in its closer flowering and shorter peduncled leaves." 

The Plant and Animal Breeders' Association was organized in St. 
Louis on December 29. Its object is the study and practical investiga- 
tion of the laws of heredity. 

It has been said in public lectures that the Germans love their forests 
for their money value. This is a very erroneous assertion, for nowhere 
else are trees and forests held in greater veneration for their beauty and 
indispensable usefulness while growing than in Germany, in contrast to 
the rule here so prevalent to denude forest land entirely without preserv- 
ing any original growth for the continuance of their beneficial use. But 
a gradual understanding of the real issue in forestry is noticeable. — The 
Hartford Times. 

We have learned, with great regret, of the death of Mr. Henry E. 
Baum, whose interesting series of articles on the breadfruit was com- 
pleted in the December issue of this magazine. Mr. Baum was assistant 
in tropical agriculture in the United States Department of Agriculture, 
and though still a young man, he had accomplished some important 
studies in the origin and history of tropical fruits. A sketch written by 
his associate, Mr. William E. Safford, will be published in the next issue 
of The Plant World. 



14 THE PLANT WORLD 



Briefer Articles. 



THE PARSLEYS. 

Next to the composites in abundance and conspicuousness of the 
members might be placed the parsleys. From the time that the first 
meadow parsnip, Zizia aiirea, shows its golden umbels in the meadows 
until the tall gaunt stalks of the parsnip scatter their seeds on the 
early snows, this family is hardly without some representative in 
bloom in field, swamp, or meadow. The one just mentioned, Zizia aurea, 
is usually to be found coming into bloom in late April or early May and 
is a companion of the bluets and robin's plantain. Soon after in woods 
or thickets, or even by open roadsides, may be found one or both of the 
sweet cicely accredited to this region, usually the smooth species, 
Washingtonia loyigistylis. By this time the season of the parsleys is 
fully on, although the}^ do not reach their maximum abundance until 
late in the summer. 

In rich woods one is almost sure to find one of the sanicles — usually 
Sayiiaila Marylandica, although ^. gregaria, S. Canade?isis, and 5*. tri- 
foliata are all put down as native to southern New England and west- 
ward. 

This spring I found for the first time the Lonewort, Deringa Canaden- 
sis. Although it is not put down in the manuals as a rare plant, it was 
my first sight of it in eastern New York. It is given as a monotypic 
genus of Eastern America and Japan. 

One of the most noticeable of all the parsleys is the great angelica, 
Angelica atropurpurea, which can be found in moist situations, where 
it often attains a height of six feet or more, the large hollow stems 
usually being in evidence until the next spring. In the same localities 
as the great angelica and in bloom about the same time can be found 
many other members of this family, among them being the marterwort or 
cow-parsnip — Heracletim lanatum ; also the hemlock water-parsnip, 
Sium cicutaefoliiim , noticeable for its variable leaf forms. 

The poisonous soursquash root, Cicuta maailata, is generally to 
be found in the low swamps, and sometimes its near relative, the Cicuta 
bulbifera, which can not be mistaken because of the bulblets borne in 
the axils of its upper leaves. 

In very wet places or even in sluggish streams the little marsh penny- 
wort, Hydrocotyle Americana, is sure to be found. To the casual 
observer this plant bears little resemblance to the other members of the 
Umbelliferae, although it is as truly a parsley as the great angelica. 



THE PLANT WORLD 15 

Many of our parsleys have come to us from across the water, some 
being garden plants that have escaped, and in many cases these have be- 
come troublesome weeds. To this class belongs the wild parsnip, Pas- 
tinaca sativa, which now adorns (?) almost every roadside in the Eastern 
States. Of much more beauty is the wild carrot, Dancus carota, the 
original of our garden variety. Its white nest-shaped umbels have a 
beauty of their own and quite deserve their occasional name of Queen 
Anne's lace. 

This list may be much extended, as I have only mentioned the more 
conspicuous and abundant species. A day spent with the parsleys in 
August will be sure to fill the collector's box and take up a wide space in 
the note-book. Frank Dobbins. 

Shoreham, N. Y. 

CORRECTION AND COMMENT. 

The following statement appeared recently in a magazine which is 
trusted to give us accurate impressions of travellers : ' ' This tender little 
tree-plant (Coffee) is grown under the shade of the wide-spreading Ma- 
lango. Mocha, and Guava trees — the latter having the preference, as the 
famous Guava jelly is made from its fruit." Talk about travellers' yarns ! 
The author, in attempting to tell us of the trees used as shade for coffee 
in Porto Rico, evidently let his pen improvise a bit. He probably knew 
that the "wide-spreading" Malango is the common Elephant's Ear, or 
Taro (^Colocasia escu lento), a succulent unbranched Aroid with a starchy 
rhizome, sometimes cultivated as a root crop. It is possible that he saw 
a Moca tree iAndira inennis) in or near some coffee plantations, and 
of course it would be more artistic, considering the text, to spell it 
"Mocha." And we must needs forgive him for the popular error of 
confusing " Guaba " ilnga vera) with " Guava," or, as we call it here, 
' ' Guayabo ' ' iPsidium gxiajavd) . The Guaba is usually a small tree in 
the plantations, while the Guayabo is a wild shrub in open pastures. 

Only one tree in the lot of " majestic protectors," as he calls them ! 
And that one not recognized as good coffee shade, being far inferior to 
the Guama ilnga laurina) and the Guaba (/. vera). We are prepared 
to receive almost any kind of ' ' information ' ' regarding the much- 
maligned Malango, but to see it in the role of a wide-spreading, majestic 
protector of coffee does make us gasp. 

Verily, it will not be long now before photographs from air-ships will 
clear up all questions of international politics, ethnology, ecology, etc. 
Apparatus suspended from said ships will give us ' ' complete details ' ' of 
the ethics and superstitions of the Papuans and the Oyampis. But in the 
meantime will not some long-distance, idealizing journalist give us a lyric 
on the " Mighty violet with gnarled bole " ? O. W. Barrett. 

Mayaguez, Porto Rico. 



16 THK PI.ANT WORI.D 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



The new membership dues of the Society are now in effect. Mem- 
bers desiring The Plant World will pay $1.50 a year, and bills will 
be sent to them on the assumption that they will wish to receive this 
publication, in which all the news of the Society and essays relating to 
plant protection are printed. Those who do not wish the magazine will 
pay annual dues of fifty cents, and should notify the Secretary to that 
effect when their present subscription expires. All correspondence should 
be addressed to Mrs. N. L,. Britton, Secretary, New York Botanical 
Garden, Bronx Park, New York City ; but dues may be sent direct to the 
Treasurer, Dr. C. E. Waters, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

We print herewith a full list of the Patrons and Fellows of the Society 
to January 1, 1904. The life membership fund, composed of contribu- 
tions from this source, now amounts to $600, and ought to reach $1,000 
by additional enrollments before the opening of the spring season. 

PATRONS. 

Mrs. George Lewis, New York City. 

Miss Caroline Phelps-vStokes, New York City. 

Miss Olivia E. Phelps-Stokes, New York City. 

FELLOWS. 
Mrs. P. Hackley Barhydt, New York City. 
Mr. J. Hall Browning, Teuafly, N. J. 
Miss M. W. Bruce, New York City. 
Mr. H. T. Estabrook, Boston, Mass. 
Mr. George W. Fiss, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Weston S. Gales, New York City. 
Mr. Archer M. Huntington, New York City. 
Dr. George G. Kennedy, Readville, Mass. 
Miss Caroline Phelps-Stokes, New York City. 
Miss Olivia E. Phelps-Stokes, New York City. 
Mrs. Joseph M. White, New York City. 
Miss V. S. White, New York City. 



Reprints of the following will be supplied to all members who desire 
them. They should be circulated freely. 

A CHRISTMAS OUTRAGE. 

The following clippings tell their own story. Thej- should afford the 
strongest argument that can be advanced for an active, united movement 
against the extravagant use of evergreens at Christmas. Think what it 
would mean if the supply of coniferous trees, already being sacrificed by 



. THE PIvANT WORI.D 17 

the wholesale in the pulp- wood mills, should be entirely exhausted. 
What if the holly and ground pine should become extinct? The only 
way it can be prevented is by individual effort as well as by helping the 
Society in its work. These clippings should be reprinted freely. 

The supply of Christmas trees in Washington far exceeded the demand. 
Some of these were carried away for fire-wood yesterday, while the 
remainder were placed in a pile on the haymarket grounds and a match 
applied. It was estimated that 2,000 trees of various kinds remained 
unsold the day after Christmas. The loss was considerable, as manj'^ of 
them had been shipped long distances, two carloads of sweet-scented and 
symmetrical balsam trees having come from Canada. The duty alone on 
this lot was over $75. — The Washington Post. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 17. — Frightened at the prospect of an over- 
stocked market and a serious financial loss, the Christmas tree syndicate 
here late this afternoon decided upon the destruction of thirty full car- 
loads of spruces and pines that were lying in the West Philadelphia yards 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, thereby cutting the supply in half. 

At dusk this evening a locomotive started out of the switchyard with 
a string of fifteen cars. These were run to a dump some distance from 
the city, where they were saturated with oil and the torch put to them. 
A second string of cars was afterward taken to the same place. 

Altogether 4,000 trees were consumed between dusk and midnight. 
There are now in Philadelphia about 3,000 trees to supply a normal demand 
of 5,000. — The New York Sun. 

The Philadelphia Christmas tree dealers who saturated 4,000 trees 
with oil and then burned them in order to keep prices up by a more 
limited supply deserve to be hanged on the trees that are left till they 
almost gasp for breath. 

Are there not 4,000 families in Philadelphia that can't afford to buy 
Christmas trees at any price? — The New York Sun. 



The Director-in-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden authorizes 
the following announcement of the proposed allotment of the Stokes fund 
for the coming year. It will be observed that the fund is to be utilized 
in several different ways, all in co-operation with the Society, which is 
fortunate in receiving this assistance in its work. We hope that there 
may be many essays submitted in competition for the prizes. With the 
consent of the Garden, the prize- winning essays will be reprinted in The 
Plant World from the Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 

OLIVIA AND CAROLINE PHELPS-STOKES FUND FOR THE PROTEC- 
TION OF NATIVE PLANTS. 

Since the establishment of this fund by the Misses Stokes in 1901, 
and largely through the stimulus which it has afforded, a great public 
interest in the preservation of native plants has been developed, and the 
literature on the subject has become quite large. 



18 THE PLANT WORI.D 

A society has been formed for the moulding of public opinion in this 
matter and the diffusion of information concerning it, with a membership 
all over the country. 

In 1902 most of the income of the Stokes Fund was used for the pay- 
ment of prizes for essays on the protection of native plants, and for the 
distribution of printed copies of these. In 1903 a series of lectures was 
arranged for, and delivered by Mr. C. L. Pollard, Secretary of the Wild 
Flower Preservation Society, in ten central and eastern cities, which were 
reported in the newspapers and thus reached a wide audience. 

The plan adopted for 1904 contemplates — 

(1) The distribution of prize essays, 

(2) Arrangement for additional lectures. 

(3) The printing of notices to be posted wherever it is practicable. 

The essay for 1904 will be in competition for the following prizes, 
payable April 15th : 

(1) A first prize of $25.00. 

(2) A second prize of $15.00. 

(3) A third prize of $10.00. 

The essay must not exceed three thousand words in length and must 
be clearly written or type-written in triplicate, and must be submitted to 
the Director-in-Chief of the New York Botanical Garden not later than 
March 1st; they become the property of the Garden, which does not 
undertake to return any essay submitted. The three prize essays will be 
printed in the Journal of the Garden, and republication of them is invited 
from other journals, magazines, and newspapers. 

Presentation of essays in competition for these three prizes is now 
invited from any one interested, under the above conditions. 

N. I^. Britton, Director-ill- Chief . 



OREGON WILD FLOWERS IN NEED OF PROTECTION. 

By M. W. Gorman. 

[It has beeu generally supposed that active measures for plant preservation are 
needed chiefly in the Eastern States ; but Mr. Gorman shows conclusively in this 
article that the work of the Society should be prosecuted on the Pacific Coast, where it 
is hoped some local chapters may be formed during the coming year. — Ed.] 

The population of our city is not yet large enough (about 120,000) 
to greatly endanger the existence of many of our wild flowers, but the 
time to begin a campaign for the furtherance of the objects of the Wild 
Flower Preservation Society |isj now, before any serious harm has been 
done. 

The flowers and ferns in the vicinity of Portland most liable to injury 
or extermination through inconsiderate and indiscriminate plucking are : 



THE PLANT WORLDS 19 

Struthiopteris Spicant, Sword Fern. — Dug up and largely used for 
decoration about the holidays and during the winter. 

Adiaiihim pedatum, Northern Maiden-hair. — Considerably used for 
decoration, though rather fragile. 

Erythronmm gigmitezim, Large Adder 's-tongue. — Gathered in unlim- 
ited quantities when in flower. Slowly being exterminated. 

Calochortus Tohniei, Purple Cat's-ear. — Much less abundant than the 
preceding, but gathered considerably and slowly disappearing. 

Trilliuvi ovatum, Large Wake-robin. — Very abundant, but plucked 
indiscriminately, and gradually being exterminated. 

Iris tenax, Common Blue Flag. — Gathered in great quantities, but 
owing to spreading in waste places and old pastures, it is holding its own. 

Calypso bulbosa, Calypso. — One of the most beautiful of our native wild 
flowers, but owing to its beauty and fragrance it is both plucked and dug 
up for potting so ruthlessly that its extermination is only a question of 
time. 

Achlys triphylla, Western May-apple. — Very inconspicuous as a 
flower, but abundant in open woods, and gathered in immense quantities 
for its leaves, which are quite fragrant when drying. It is plucked 
unsparingly by idle boys, who tie it up in small bundles and make such a 
trafiic in selling it to households and shops that it is rapidly disappearing. 

Berberis Aquifolium, Oregon Grape. — Although its bright yellow 
flowers are rather fugacious, the adoption of this beautiful evergreen 
shrub as the State flower of Oregon by the State Board of Horticulture 
has caused it to become more and more used for decoration, not only for 
the holidays and winter generally, but for weddings, parties, and church 
festivals, etc., for which purposes its handsome, durable, holly-like leaves 
are eminently suitable. To such an extent is this custom now in vogue 
that the shrub will eventually disappear in the vicinity of all the large 
towns in the State. 

Berberis yiervosa. False Oregon Grape. — Smaller than the preceding 
species, but strongly resembling it in other respects, this shrub is gathered 
in great quantities and used for the same purposes. Being more abun- 
dant, however, and not quite as great a favorite for decorative use, it so 
far appears to be holding its own. 

Philadelplms Lewisii, Mock Orange. — Blooming in June when most of 
the early species are already past flowering, this lovely shrub is gathered 
in large quantities, and will in time disappear. 

Ribes sanguineum, Red Flowering Currant. — One of the earliest of 
our spring flowers, and so abundant that in April the hillsides are colored 
with its handsome pink racemes. It is such a favorite, however, and is 
plucked so ruthlessly that a small but perceptible diminution in quantity 
is already noticeable. 



20 THE PLANT WORLD 

Rhamnus Purshiana, Oregon Bearwood. — This tree is in no danger 
on account of its flowers, which are rather inconspicuous, but the bark 
is in such demand for medicinal purposes that a continuance of the prices 
prevailing this season will result in the practical extermination of the 
species within a few years. 

Cor?i7is Nuttallii, Flowering Dogwood. — The showy white involucres 
of this species cause it to be indiscriminately gathered when in bloom, 
but it is such a rapid grower that it eventually gets beyond the reach of 
the destroyer, and, so far, it is not perceptibly diminishing except where 
stricken by forest fires. It is being used as an ornamental tree in many 
lawns but does not bear transplanting well. 

Among the numerous introduced species to be found in this locality 
only the two following may be referred to here : 

Chrysanthemum Lejicanthemum , Ox-eye Daisy. — This hardy immi- 
grant is to be found abundantly in bloom from March to July, and sparingly 
so for about three months longer. It is gathered without limit by young 
and old alike, but notwithstanding this it appears to be gaining ground, 
if anything, owing to its rapid spreading over pastures and roadsides and 
its rejection by stock generally. 

Centaiirea Cyanus, Bachelor's Button. — One of the prettiest of our 
introduced plants, and considered a troublesome weed by farmers. It is 
gathered in great quantities, but as it does not spread over pastures and is 
easily destroyed by cultivation, it is steadily disappearing, except in 
neglected fields. 

Portland, Oregon. 



Editorial. 



We extend to all present and prospective readers of The Plant 
World a hearty New Year's greeting. With this issue our magazine 
enters upon its seventh volume, and as we announced in December, we 
have felt justified in slightly increasing the annual subscription price, for 
reasons which will be apparent in the little sermon which follows. 

It is by no means an easy task to blow the editorial trumpet and to 
convince our readers of our perfect sincerity. Still, any journal is ex- 
pected to set forth its claims to patronage, or it would become difficult 
for the public to select its reading matter intelligently. Our older readers, 
of course, do not need to have the development of the magazine dis- 
cussed, since they have only to compare the last volume with the first 
and form their own judgment as to the extent of improvement. But 
there are many who will be reading The Plant World this month for 



THE PLANT WORLD 21 

the first time, and many others who have made our acquaintance only 
during the past year. We may be pardoned for taking the space to out- 
line for their benefit the general policy which this publication has followed 
throughout its career. 

The Plant World is a magazine dealing with plants and plant life ; 
and it is primarily intended for the people. It does not publish descrip- 
tions of new species nor technical revisions of groups. We believe that 
contributions intended for the student should be printed in publications 
which reach the eyes of all students, and which are primarily devoted to 
original research. 

The public does not care about the means by which a scientific result 
is attained, except in a general way; but it has a very vital interest in 
the practical efifects of the achievement and its bearing on economic 
problems. It is just here that we have aimed to supply a need, and we 
have been enabled to do so largely through the cooperation of the pro- 
fessional botanists of America, who have responded generously to our 
appeals and contributed freely to our columns. We have thus been able 
to claim absolute reliability for the information which our articles con- 
tain ; and almost every phase of plant life has been covered, as may be 
seen by reference to our annual indexes. We wish especially to empha- 
size the fact that some of our professional contributors have given, in 
simple and comprehensible language, information which could only be 
obtained elsewhere from technical publications. 

The articles written by amateur students and nature lovers constitute 
another class of reading matter, to which we attach special importance, 
as it appeals, perhaps, more directly to the general public. There the 
great requisite is not the subject-matter, but the way in which it is 
handled. Any school girl can write a composition describing a walk in 
the woods in early spring. It will tell about a shy hepatica peeping up 
through its winter blanket of brown leaves, the delicate trailing arbutus 
nestling amid the snowdrift, and the cowslips spreading a golden mantle 
over the swamp, and a line or so of poetry will be sprinkled like liberal 
seasoning through every paragraph. There are some writers, like Gibson 
or Burroughs, who can do this sort of thing artistically and give positive 
pleasure. But when the average person writes in this style it indicates 
that he is either deficient in the power to observe the facts of nature or 
that he is playing to the gallery in an effort to win applause from the 
constituency that considers a scientific truth or a Latin name something 
to be shunned like the plague. Our popular magazines are full of this 
type of article, which we have always attempted to exclude from our 
pages. On the other hand, he who has the knack of observation will 
take the same topic and write entertainingly of what he has observed, 
leaving out the statements of obvious fact. Our last volume contains 



22 THE PIvANT WORI.D 

many examples of this genuine style ; and we welcome any record of 
original observation, no matter how simple it may seem. As a concrete 
illustration, let us take a patch of jewel weed in blossom. The writer of 
* ' popular ' ' botany would perhaps speak of the ' ' dainty slipper-like 
blossoms flashing their bright bits of color through the woodland," but 
would he notice how a twist of the flower stalk, when the blossom is fully 
expanded, brings it beneath the shelter of an adjacent leaf so that the 
reproductive organs need not be injured by a sudden shower? Would 
he pass on to observe how this is not an accidental circumstance, but is 
the universal habit of this plant ? We earnestly commend the considera- 
tion of this point to the general reader, and we ask him to make a careful 
comparison of The Plant World with any existing journal of its class. 
If, after doing this, he feels minded to oflfer us suggestions as to possible 
improvement in our standards, we shall consider it the best possible favor. 
We have enlarged our editorial staff by two members : Professor 
Francis E. Lloyd, of the Teachers' College in New York City, who will 
build up a department on methods of teaching biology and nature study ; 
and Mr. E. ly. Morris, of the Washington High Schools, who will have 
charge of our exchanges, and will also contribute some educational articles. 
Dr. Knowlton will continue "The Home Garden and Greenhouse," 
which will be helpful to the owner of a small garden in selecting the 
best plants for his purposes. Mr. Shear will prepare some articles on 
the fungi, including some of the more obscure groups. Mr. Safford's 
interesting account of Guam will extend through the volume, and will 
be concluded in December. Those who have not this series complete 
should lose no time in obtaining the back numbers, for there is no book 
dealing so thoroughly with this remote island possession. The Wild 
Flower Preservation Society will continue to publish accounts of its work 
and the various educational essays. Notes of travel, descriptions, and 
photographs of rare plants will continue to be an important feature of 
the magazine. A series by Mr. Pollard on " Misapplied Plant Names " 
will be commenced later in the year. We are also promised an article by 
Mi.ss Alice I^ounsberry, author of "Southern Wild Flowers." 



Sale of Cut Flowers. — According to a recent issue of Cotintry Life in 
America the sale of cut roses in the United States amounts to about 
$6,000,000 a year; carnations, $4,000,000 ; violets, $750,000, and Chrys- 
anthemums, $700,000, and the annual production is estimated at 
100,000,000 each of roses and carnations, and 50,000,000 for violets. To 
show the high prices prevailing during Christmas week the following list 
of prices, in Boston, is quoted from a report in the January 2d issue of 
American Gardening : Wholesale prices, which were hardly half the retail 
price, were from $6 to $20 per hundred for tea roses, $1.00 each for Ameri- 
can Beauty roses, $8 to $10 per hundred for carnations, and $1 to $2 for 
violets. The supply, even at these figures, was less than the demand. 



THE PIvANT WORI.D 23 



The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by F. H. Knowi^ton. 

[The editor of this department will be glad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature, and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject] 

The Chinese Flowering Apple.— This tree iPyriis spectabilis) is very 
highly recommended by Mr. J. W. Manning as a lawn tree or for lawn 
growing planting in masses. It is a perfectly hardy tree of upright habit 
and quick growth and bears a rich, glossy green foliage. ' ' Early in June 
is the flowering period, at which time the branches are literally hidden 
by the profusion of flowers ? " It occurs in several double or semi-double 
flowering forms as well as in the single form, the color being white, 
tinged, and streaked with red and pink. Best of all it is an annual 
bloomer. 

Propagation of Carnations. — The carnation has become such a popular 
flower of late years that the methods of propagation and culture have of 
necessity changed to keep pace with the intensive culture. The method 
of making and rooting cuttings of these newer and "higher strung" 
varieties is well set forth in the following article, by Mr. James T. Scott, 
the hill grower. It appeared in American Gardening for January 2, 1904. 

The cultivation of the Carnation, like everything else, has of late 
years changed considerably. There can not be said to be any fixed law 
here. Our modus operandi must ever change as requirements demand. A 
few years ago, when the smaller-flowering varieties were all we knew, the 
cuttings were usually propagated about the middle or end of March. 
These varieties all threw lots of superfluous "grass," and, not having 
then to stand the strain of such intense cultivation, their growth was 
much freer and constitution hardier than in their present-day offspring. 

The Carnations of to-day, with their larger flowers and longer stems, 
and their tendency to produce less superfluous growth, demand a much 
longer period to mature. The fact that we have to house earlier for 
present-day results compels us to make an earlier start. 

In gardening practice we used to propagate all our other stock, such 
as Roses, Chrysanthemums, and bedding plants, first ; and, having the 
cutting bench clear of all these, we propagated the Carnations last. If 
we had our cuttings then well rooted, it was hardly thought necessary to 
pot or box them up before transferring them to their outdoor summer 
quarters, and they were often planted outside right out of the cutting bed. 

The modern Carnation has changed all this, and our mode of proced- 
ure has had to change accordingly. We are not raising a race of Carna- 
tions to-day to fit the old-time requirements, but the new Carnation is 
demanding new requirements, and we must change our policy to suit. It 
is conceded now by all the up-to-date growers that instead of being the 
last to occupy the cutting bed, the Carnation must be the first ; and after 
that it must be carefully attended to and considerable growth made before 



24 THE PLANT WORLD 

planting outside, if planted outside at all. Moreover, the present-day 
varieties do not throw the same number of cuttings as the older kinds ; 
neither is their growth and quality so uniform. A more rigid selection 
is necessary. The cuttings can not be pulled off promiscuously, but they 
must first have attained a sufficient size and quality before being taken off 
at all. In the older kinds any of the small lateral shoots gave fairly 
good results, and the selection of cuttings was a matter of very little 
importance. 

To-day it is of first importance. You can not now take six or eight 
cuttings off one shoot, but the weaker growths must all be disbudded 
some time previous, and only one or two left on one shoot to develop 
into cuttings. 

The selection of cuttings is a thing of first importance at all times. 
Not only do your future results depend upon the nature and maturity of 
the cutting itself, but as like begets like it is always necessary that the 
cuttings be taken only from plants that are vigorous and healthy, that 
show no bursting calyx and whose flowers show no blemishes. You can 
not with safety go into a house to-day and pick off all the cuttings, say, 
in one afternoon — in a hap-hazard manner — that you are likely to need. 
It is better to mark all the plants in your collection that are healthy and 
vigorous, that show flowers of good substance and perfect color, and propa- 
gate from them only. 

Propagation by cuttings is an unnatural means of reproduction any- 
way. The tendency of all our Carnations and Chrysanthemums is to go 
backward in a year or two, and a more rigid selection will be necessary as 
the standard of our stock improves. 

Again, it is generally considered (although this is but a good all-round 
guess) that our worst plague to-day — the stem-rot — commences on the 
cutting bench. There is no doubt much evidence to support this theory, 
and it would be well, having this in mind, to use every known precaution 
as a preventive. 

First. Have the sides and the bottom of the propagating bench thor- 
oughly washed with a mixture of hot lime and sulphur, of a good thick 
consistency. 

Second. Use only clean sand, and never use the same sand twice for 
the same purpose. 

Third. Do not have the cuttings over-crowded. This prevents a cir- 
culation of air, and when one cutting goes off it is sure to infect the 
others. 

Fourth. Discard the varieties that have shown themselves to be most 
subject to it — G. H. Crane, for instance — and when your young plants 
are rooted and potted up put them in another house away from the 
older stock. 

[to be concluded.] 



The Plant aa^orld. 



VOL. VII. Plate 11. 




The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII FEBRUARY, 1904 No. 2 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XV.* 

By William E. Safford. 

Wednesday, November 15. — Benigno, my new boy, is busily engaged 
in clearing a site for a house on my ranch above San Ramon. The tough 
Triphasia bushes are hard to cut, and several times he has stepped upon 
the sharp spines of the wild yams, which are very abundant there. To- 
day I came across an interesting plant of a bright orange-scarlet color, a 
leafless saprophyte, destitute of chlorophyl, growing on the roots of other 
plants. The whole plant is waxy and translucent. The flowers are 
unisexual, and closely crowded together. The male flowers have a reg- 
ular perianth, but the female flowers have none. The latter consist of 
a one-celled ovary having a single ovule and a long style. It is evidently 
a Balanophora ; but I think it differs from the Tahitian and Fijian 
species, which is of a pale yellow color. Every night when Benigno 
goes home he takes a bundle of lemoncito wood, neatly trimmed, for 
fuel. Both the lemoncito and the guava are abundant and their wood is 
fine for cooking. Susana does not let the boys come home without wood. 
I don't know what she expects to do with it all — the bodega beneath the 
kitchen already has a supply sufiicient for several months. She manages 
to keep everybody about the house busy. Often when I come home I 
find her pulling weeds or raking the gravel walk, or perhaps planting 

* Continued from the January issue. Begun in September, 190?. 



26 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

some new vegetable. She superintends drying my plants while I am at 
office, and when Benigno and Francisco are within hearing she tells me 
that I have a set of lazy, trifling boys in my employ. They are all fond 
of her, however, and obey her willingly. She feels that she owns a share 
in all my belongings, and speaks of "our house," "our ranch," and 
" our chickens." She always refers to me as "the seiior," and calls me 
"master." I must say, I am delighted to be owned by such a good, 
worthy soul. The other day, in speaking of the fever now prevailing, 
she declared that if I should be stricken nothing would induce her to let 
them take me to the hospital ; that she would bring her mat and sleep 
on the floor by my bed-side and take care of me herself. 

I rescued Benigno from a very unhappy position. It seems that on 
this island there is a recognized system of peonage by means of which, 
if a person is so unfortunate as to get into debt, he is almost in the con- 
dition of a slave. Several complaints have been made to me recently of 
the " escape " of servants. The other day one of the principal ladies of 
the island came to my office asking that I cause her servant, Benigno 
Acosta, to be arrested for violation of his contract with her. He had 
left her ranch without permission and refused to return, though he was 
in debt to her and was required by his contract to work for her until his 
indebtedness should be cancelled. She brought with her a contract duly 
signed and witnessed, which reads as follows : 

'Mutual Agreement between Dona Luisa Quitiigua de Cardenas and Benigno 

Acosta, alias Dec he. 

"in the City of Agana, on the twenty-third of November, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and ninety-eight, we, Doiia Luisa Quitugua and 
Benigno Acosta, alias Deche, both natives and residents of this city, 
adults, the first residing in Cabeceria No. 8, and the second in the 20th 
Barangay, both parties claiming to be in the full enjoyment of their civil 
rights, freely and spontaneously state : 

" 1st. Doiia Luisa Quitugua of her own accord authorizes herself to 
take the aforesaid Benigno Acosta, to hold him in her domestic service 
or to charge him with the care of her farm situated in the locality called 
'ipao,' to attend to her cattle, large and small, and the fowls there 
existing, for their protection and breeding {/omenta y procreaci6?i) ; to till 
the soil and plant whatsoever articles may be necessary, as well as to 
plant five coconuts each day. 

"2nd. That she authorizes herself likewise to hold the said Acosta 
for the beforementioned service without limiting the time, as long as the 
latter fulfills the conditions of this contract if it so suit the interests of 
the authorizer. Dona Luisa Quitugua, with the pay of two pesos a month 
and a third part of the products of the planting which he may perform 
obligatorily, such as maize, sweet potatoes, and other root-crops, but 
excepting the cattle and coconuts. 

"3rd. If any cattle, great or small, or any other kind of stock or 
product be lost or die, and the said Benigno Acosta does not justify the 
cause of it and does not in due time inform his mistress regarding it, the 



THE PLANT WORLD 27 

said Benigno Acosta shall be responsible for its payment either in money 
or by replacing the dead or lost animal by another of the same kind and 
size. 

" 4th. The said servant, Benigno Acosta, shall be equally responsible 
for the payment of any damages caused by the stock under his charge 
before those injured arrive to lodge complaint with the competent author- 
ities, the mistress consequently not being held responsible for any damage 
caused by the said animals, according to this article. 

" 5th. It shall be the duty of the servant, Benigno Acosta, under the 
strictest responsibility, to watch for and collect all fallen coconuts, and 
to keep his mistre.ss informed as to all that may happen to whatever is 
under his care on the estate of ' Ipao,' and without being able to sepa- 
rate himself from this service without first making good or paying the 
penalty of any breach of this contract resulting from his carelessness or 
negligence. 

" 6th. The contracting Benigno Acosta, alias Deche, receives in this 
act from his mistress, Doiia Luisa Quitugua, the quantity of sixteen 
pesos, in prepayment of his wages of two pesos monthly. 

" 7th and last. Benigno Acosta, alias Deche, after having been in- 
formed as to the significance of the clauses of this contract, accepts it in 
all its parts and obliges himself to enter from this day the domestic ser- 
vice of the contracting Dona Luisa Quitugua ; to have in his charge for 
raising and protection all animals whatsoever and other interests existing 
on the estate of 'ipao,' without prejudice to the coconuts now there; 
to clear and break up the ground, and plant whatsoever articles may be 
necessary, having for himself a third part of the product of the crops of 
maize, .sweet potatoes and other tubers ; and to plant daily five coconuts ; 
for all of which he shall receive a salary of two pesos monthly in order 
that this contract may be carried out. 

Thus they declare and authorize in the presence of the witnesses 
Don Vicente Herrero and Don Jose Calvo. 

"Signed, in behalf of Benigno Acosta at his request (he being unable 
to write his name), Jose Pangelinan (rubric). Vicente Herrero (rubric). 
Luisa Quitugua (rubric). Jose Calvo (rubric)." 

At the bottom of this contract were entered the following charges 
against Benigno : 

Debit. 
For 3 chupas of biscuit d 6 cuartos - - 18 

2 sperm candles a 1 real ~2 

6 reales in silver -6 

3 small pigs lost while under his charge • • 14 — 

1 iron bucket -4 

1 knife and 2 hens 1~ 

On being questioned by me Benigno stated that he had entered the 
services of Doiia Luisa in order to obtain enough money to pay the fun- 
eral expenses of his mother — he had no other way of getting money. He 
said that he had expected to repay her in a short time, but that she kept 
him in debt by charging him for various things, and that it seemed to 



28 THE PLANT WORLD 

him he would never be free again. He did not see how he could be held 
accountable for utensils and animals missing from the ranch, for Doiia 
Ivuisa repeatedly sent him to the city upon errands, and the things 
disappeared during his absence. Though he was allowed by the contract 
one-third of all the corn, sweet potatoes and other things he might raise, 
yet Dona Luisa kept him busy burning lime, and this gave him no time 
to do agricultural work, and as nothing was said about lime in the con- 
tract she would not let him share in the profits she received from it, 
though he collected both the wood for the kiln and the lime-stone. He 
said that he was no better off than a slave, and he begged me to pay 
his debt to Dona Luisa and let him work for me until he reimbursed me. 
The candles he was charged with he thought had been given to him as 
a present by Dofia Luisa. They were a votive offering to the Virgin at 
Sumay, to whose shrine he had made a visit so that his foot might get 
well. 

After listening to what Dona Rufina had to say, I told her that I 
would not compel Benigno to go back to her, but that I would see that 
she should be paid the amount of his indebtedness. She said: "But, 
Sefior, he signed this contract, and I wish to hold him to it — how am I 
to get any one else in his place? " I told her that I would take Benigno 
in my employ and would cause him to cancel his indebtedness by degrees, 
paying her one-half of his wages each month. "But it will be a long 
time before I get my money back at that rate," said she. "How long 
do you think it would have been before he attained his freedom had he 
continued your servant?" I replied. So I have taken Benigno in m}^ 
service, offering him six pesos a month and his board. 

Friday, November 17 . — The U. S. S. Newark is at anchor in the harbor. 
Captain McCalla, the commander, \4sited Agaiia to-day, and showed 
great interest in everything pertaining to the island, the natives, and 
our men. He visited the hospital, where we have a number of fever 
patients, both American and native, and asked if he could not do something 
for their comfort. He thought it would be a wise measure to pipe water 
to the town from the neighboring hill, as the shallow wells from which 
many of the natives get their water for drinking and cooking are undoubt- 
edly contaminated. He was struck especially with the primitive method 
of sawing boards from logs, which is common in this island, and said he 
would second our request to the Government for a saw-mill. I was sorrj^ 
that I had no way of entertaining him ; but I sent to his ship a basket 
of limes and lemons from my own trees, which will last until he reaches 
Manila. The N'ewark made the passage from San Francisco to Honolulu 
(2,200 geographical miles) in a week, and from Honolulu to Guam 
(3,300 miles) in fifteen days. She is carrying a number of naval appren- 
tices to the Philippines. 



THE PIvANT WORLD 29 

Some time after Captain McCalla's visit we received a supply of pre- 
pared cereals, jelly, raspberry vinegar, evaporated cream, from Mrs. 
McCalla, accompanied by the following note from the Captain : * 

" My Dear Safford : I return you an invoice from Mrs. McCalla of 
a few things which I beg you will transfer to the doctor for the general 
use of all his patients, feeling sure that he will make the best use of the 
packages, three in all. I am only sorry that I can not send six months' 
supply for the town and garrison sick, but I beg that you will accept the 
desire for the deed in this case. You can consider the things as an 
exchange for the bushel of delicious limes you were so good as to send 
me, and which I divided among the officers. 

' ' I had the pleasure of meeting your excellent padre on our way to the 
landing and I was greatly pleased with his good and kindly face. The 
happy and pleasant faces and politeness with which the Governor was 
received uniformly are the best indications of the progress you are all 
making to improve the condition of these poor islanders, who have suffered 
in so many ways from the rule of Spain. Be assured that nothing tells 
so surely and so effectively as example ; and I feel the greatest satisfac- 
tion in having had the opportunity to see for myself what great progress is 
being made by our officers. Very sincerely, 

"B. H. McCai^la." 

Sunday, November 26. — This day the Governor took up his residence 
in the palace. He brought with him the band from the Yosemite, and 
this morning we had some good music in the plaza. The roof of the 
palace has been put in good condition, and the wood-work has been 
painted. The Governor's steward and house servants are enlisted men — 
Japanese. He has a pair of white stallions which he bought at Manila, and 
a Filipino coachman to drive them. He has a fine outfit of table-linen, 
silver, porcelain, and glass-ware. The Major has accepted his invitation 
to go to the palace to live, but he says he regrets to leave my comfortable 
house. 

Friday, December 1. — Yesterday was Thanksgiving Day. We had not 
received the President's proclamation in time, so the Governor issued one 
of his own, calling upon the inhabitants of this island to abstain from all 
unnecessary work and assemble at their respective places of worship and 
give thanks to Almighty God for their many blessings, their freedom 
from epidemics, earthquakes and hurricanes during the past year ; their 
liberty to worship God as they please, and their deliverance from the 
tyranny of unworthy preceptors. A solemn mass was said in the 
cathedral by Father Palomo, and our band took part in the services, 



*It was very gratifying afterwards to read extracts from the oflBcial report made by Captain 
McCalla to the Navy Department, in which he spoke in a most appreciatory manner of both the Gov- 
ernor and myself In speaking of the natives he says : " If smiling faces on the part of all whom we 
saw as the Governor drove from the landing place at Piti to the capital and return were an indication 
of contentment and satisfaction with the methods recently adopted on the island, then I am certain 
that the new administration is already most successful."— ZjfZ/er to the Chief of Bureau »f Navigation. 



30 THE PIvANT WORLD 

playing the intermezzo from Mascagni's Cavalleria Rusticana at the 
offertory^ The proclamation had been translated by Father Palomo into 
the Chamorro language, and sent to all the villages on the island. It 
was the first real American fiesta that the natives had been called upon to 
celebrate, and they were not quite sure how to go about it. I received 
reports from several gobernadorcillos, stating that the people had assem- 
bled at the local churches ; and, forming processions, they had marched 
through the villages " with the glorious national banner at their head, 
and on every side were heard cries of patriotism and loud salvos." The 
Major collected together a few of the marines and one or two natives, 
and held services in a private dwelling. It was a disappointment to him 
that so few Guam people attended, but they are Catholics and consider it 
wrong to assist at the services of any other religious sect. 

I had issued invitations to a number of leading natives to a Thanks- 
giving dinner. Turkeys are scarce on the island and I failed to secure 
one, but Susana had gotten a fine piece of venison for me. I have not 
received the table-cloths I have ordered, so Susana covered my large 
round table with a sheet, and in the center placed a cluster of fragrant 
white spider-lilies i^Hymenocallis littoralis) ; above the center hung a 
large Japanese paper lantern with much red in it. My spoons are the 
work of the village silversmith, who made them out of coin. The knives 
(with real Toledo blades) were lent me by Father Palomo, and Susana 
had borrowed a few dishes to supplement my own. Most of the porce- 
lain was Japanese, brought directly from Yokohama by the little schooner 
of Captain Harrison. The Major dined at the mess. He pretended to 
feel very much hurt because I had not invited him to my party. Before 
he left the house he helped Susana set the table, spaced the plates 
properly, and said he would give fifty dollars to stay and hear the con- 
versation. My guests were : Father Palomo ; Don Justo Dungca, the 
justice of the peace ; Don Juan de Torres, the island treasurer ; Don 
Gregorio Perez (Susana's brother), the gobernadorcillo of Agana ; Don 
Ivorenzo Franquez (father of my boy Vicente), captain of the native 
company which acts as rural police, and Don Jose Herrero, of whom I 
have spoken so often, an entertaining companion and a good fiddler. 

Susana had prepared a fine dinner. The menu included good chicken 
soup, with rice; delicate little fish from the sea called "tiao," with fried 
bread-fruit ; a good roast of venison, with tomatoes, egg-plant, and 
" seguidillas " (^Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) , like tender string beans, 
having four ruffles up and down the sides of the pods ; peppers stuffed 
with spiced meat; chicken and rice; a crab omelette ; salad, like slaw, 
made from the heart of a coconut palm, with hard-boiled eggs ; jelly made 
from the sour-sop (^Anona muricata) ; real preserved citron made from 
Guam fruit by Susana ; and a sweet dessert like apple-sauce made from 



THE PLANT WORLD 31. 

pumpkin or squash and flavored with lemons from my garden ; and 
throughout the dinner, in place of potatoes (which can not be grown here), 
yams and taro. Everything went off finely. Susana was a most import- 
ant personage. She took it upon herself to carve the venison (much to 
my relief) and serve the coffee (which she had toasted herself and ground 
on a stone metate). 

After dinner we sent for two of Don Jose's sons, who brought a man- 
dolin and guitar and their father's fiddle. The table was cleared and I 
got out my zither. Don Jose's youngest boy, Jesus, also came and 
danced a fandango for us most gracefully. Just as the Major came home 
we had struck up " Oh, Susana, Don't You Cry for Me " ; and the Major 
laughingly said: "Susana, that song is about you." Whereupon 
Susana was overcome with embarrassment and left for the kitchen. There 
I found her a short while afterwards washing dishes. She had pressed 
my orderly into service to wipe them for her. I told her that everything 
had been fine and that I was proud of her. The dulces were especially 
good, the pumpkin as fine as apple-sauce. She said : "just wait, senor, 
until the lemoncitos are ripe; I '11 make you some fine marmalade." 
These are the berries of Triphasia trifoliata, the bushes which overgrow 
my hill-top ranch. Their flowers are as sweet as jasmines and their 
fruit has the flavor of Curasao liqueur. 

I now have two fine ranches of my own. I have built a little coconut- 
thatched house on the one overlooking San Ramon, on the spot which I 
chose during my first walk with Don Jose Herrero. The view from it is 
very fine — the wide expanse of water in the distance, the white line of 
breakers marking the barrier reef, the pale blue lagoon, the fringe of 
coconut palms along the beach, and the thatched and tiled roofs of the 
city below me variegated with plenty of growing trees and shrubs. My 
little green-and-red house smiles up at me from across the Plaza de 
Magellanes. When Susana wishes one of the boys from the ranch she 
has only to hang a table-cloth from the window as a signal. Down below 
me on the right rises the tile-capped belfry of the old church near which 
is the house of Father Palomo. Across the great marsh, to the eastward, 
I can see my other ranch, also on a hill, with two clumps of coconuts 
growing upon it. Behind me the land slopes into a valley and rises 
again. Near the bottom of the hill beyond the valley I have a small hut 
where my man lives who cultivates a little garden I have started there. 
I visit my ranches daily, going to the foot of the precipice, across the 
marsh, on my wheel, and climbing the steep escarpment by the aid of 
life-lines of banyan roots. I like to feed the chickens myself. They 
usually come running to meet me and follow me when I go. I often 
have to chase them back. Nothing more beautiful than this island could 
be imagined ; and no one could wish for more pleasant occupation nor 
for kinder friends. Above all, I feel it a privilege to be engaged in 
work which really counts — work in which I can be of some use to people 
who need me. 

[to be continued.] 



32 THE PIvANT WORLD 



Kentucky Oaks. 

By Sadie F. Price. 

[This article, which is probably the last oue written by Miss Price before her death 
a few months ago, was kindly sent to us by her sister. The drawings are also the 
work of Miss Price, and as most of the species enumerated occur throughout the South- 
eastern States, we believe that the article will be of much interest to those who wish 
to learn to recognize the oaks. — Ed.] 

Though Kentucky can boast of no historic trees, as the Concord and 
Hartford elms ; the Danbury elm under which Washington danced ; or 
the one at Middletown under whose shade Dickens wrote a chapter of 
"Edwin Drood," and where a banquet was spread for the illustrious 
Commercial Traveller for the house of Human Interest Brothers ' ' ; and 
though it has few so large as the ones that Dr. Holmes so loved and 
wrote so charmingly about ; and none in age equal to the oaks of Eng- 
land under whose branches the Druids worshipped, or the yews that are 
still flourishing at the age of 1,000 years, yet Kentuckians should be 
proud of their trees. 

The destruction of the forests still goes on, however, with great waste 
and with no thought of to-morrow. All who are interested in trees are 
earnestly watching the progress of the ' ' selection ' ' system at the Bilt- 
more forests. " Two things have at least been proved by the work that 
has been done at the forest. These are that large trees, surrounded by 
a dense growth of smaller ones, may be felled and removed with com- 
paratively very unimportant injury to the young crop, and that the 
additional cost of the necessary care, beyond that of ordinary destructive 
lumbering, is so small as to be out of all proportion to the result. This 
will be of inestimable value to owners of wood lands." 

The Forestry Division of the Agricultural Department, Washington, 
publishes a report on Forestry, telling farmers how they may manage their 
trees to advantage. This may be had for the asking. 

In towns there seems to be less appreciation of the tree. If errors 
are made in the grading, the two or three hundred-year old oak or elm 
that adorns the pavement is laid low with as little compunction as the 
farmer would mow a field of ' ' white top ' ' ; and in towns that boast the 
electric light and the steam roller the trees are mutilated with as little hesi- 
tation. The roller's path is marked by fire, and leaves a track of burned 
boughs along its course. The engineer pauses in the shade, not heeding 
or caring that the steam is killing the green boughs above his head. To 
know the trees, to have a "speaking acquaintance" with each variety, 
is to admire them the more and to feel a wish to save them from needless 
destruction. 



THE PLANT WORLD 



53 



While all farmers know the White and Chestnut Oak at a glance, 
yet when it comes to the Red Oak group many mistakes are made in 
identification. Below is a list with short descriptions and sketches of the 
Kentucky oaks. Many mixed or hybrid forms are found here ; but this 
list includes only the more important ones, the true species. 

RED OAK GROUP. 




Red Oak {.Quercus rubra, L.) (Fig. l). — 
A large forest tree with dark gray bark. 
Leaves about 8 inches long, cut into large 
triangular lobes, bristle-tipped. Acorn two 
to four times as long as cup ; the latter 
broad saucer-shaped and flat at base. 
Wood hard, coarse-grained, color light 
reddish- brown. Along streams and at 
sink-holes and springs. 

Pin Oak (^Quercus palustris, Du Roi) 
(Fig. 3). — Bark rough when old, dark- 
brown. Tree about 120 feet high, the lower 
branches drooping. Leaves deeply cut into 
narrow lobes, bright green and shining 
above, duller and with tufts of hairs in the 

axils of the veins beneath. Cup 

small, 4 to 6 inches broad; wood 

strong, light colored. 

Texan Red Oak (^Quercus 

Texana, Buckley) (Fig. 2). — A 

tree similar to the preceding 

two and often mistaken for them. 

A large tree, with reddish-brown 

bark, broken into ridges and 

plates. Leaves more deeply cut 

than red oak and not with such 

narrow lobes as the pin oak ; 

bright green and shining, turning 

red in the autumn. Acorn two to 

three times as high as the cup, 

often striped. The first time 

that this tree — a southwestern oak — was listed in this State was in 1893, 

when I found it in Warren County. It is known locally as "Red 

Oak " or " Spotted Oak," and a tree at Earlington known as " Yellow- 
bottom Oak " may possibly be this Texan oak. 




34 



THE PLANT WORLD 




Scarlet Oak (^Quercus coccinea, 
Wang.) (Fig. 5). — A tree similar 
to the preceding, with inner bark 
pale reddish or gray . Leaves thin, 
bright green above, turning scarlet 
in the fall ; the lobes oblong, few- 
toothed ; cup top - shaped, acorn 
twice as long as the cup, light 
colored. 

Black Oak {,Q. velutina. Lam.) 
(Fig. 4). — A large tree, very com- 
mon, with rough, dark brown bark, 
inner bark bright orange. Leaves 
deeply lobed, large, dull above and 
usually pubescent on the veins be- 
neath. Acorn about an inch broad 
ad equally high. 
Span ish Oak ( Quercus digitata , Marsh . ) 
(Fig. 6). — Wood hard, coarse-grained. 
Leaves dark green above, rusty beneath, 
deeply cut into 3 to 7 lobes ; lobes often 
scythe-shaped, terminal lobe often elong- 
ated ; acorn small. Common in sand soil. 
Bear Oak or Scrub Oak iQ. nana, 
(Marsh.) Sudw.) (Fig. 7).— A shrub, or 
small tree in the mountains, maximum 
height 25 feet. Leaves 2 to 5 inches 
long, 3 to 7 lobed, lobes triangular ; acorn 
small. 

Black Jack iQaerais 
Marylandica , M uench . ) 

(Fig. 8). — A common tree in dry soil, about 60 feet 
high, with rough, nearly black bark. Leaves dull, rusty 
beneath, 3 to 5 lobed ; acorn small. 

Water Oak {Querais nigra, L.).— Bark gray in ridges. 
Leaves obovate, 1 to 3 lobed at the apex, on some entire, 
leathery, bright green above; acorn small. Along 
streams and swamps. 

"Bartram's Oak" {Q. heterophylla, Michx.) has been 
listed in this State by De Friese. It is generally con- 
sidered a hybrid of the Willow Oak and the Red Oak. 
Willow Oak (^Quercus Phellos, L.) (Fig. 9).— A tree 





THE PLANT WORLD 



35 



with rough bark, in ridges. Leaves lance-shaped, entire, bristle-tipped, 
2 to 4 inches long; fruit small. 

Shingle Oak {Quercus imbricaria, Michx.) (Fig. 10). — A large tree, 
common, with lance-shaped leaves, entire, leathery, dark green above, 
rusty be7ieath; acorn small. 

CHESTNUT OAK GROUP. 

Swamp White Oak {Qj/erciis platanoides , Lam., or Quercus bicolor, 
(Willd.) Sudw.). — A large tree with flaky gray bark. In swamps and 
moist soil. Leaves coarsely toothed, occasionally lobed, dull above, 
tomentulose beneath ; acorn rather sweet, about an inch high. 

Corn or Basket Oak {^Quercus Michauxii, 
Nutt.) (Fig. 11). — A large tree with gray 
flaky bark. Leaves bright green and shin- 
ing above, sharply toothed, pale and gray- 
ish beneath; acorns large, 1 to 1/4 inch 
high, and broad. In moist soil. I listed this 
in Warren County for the first time in 1893. 
Chestnut Oak (^Quercus Pri7uis, L.) 
(Fig. 12). — In dry soil, generally on sandy 
hillsides ; bark brown and flaky. Leaves 
coarsely toothed with rounded teeth, green 
above and rather dull beneath ; acorn 
large, two to three times as high as the cup. 
A valuable tree. 

Yellow Chestnut Oak, " ' Chinquapin 
Oak" (^Quercus acuminata, Michx.) (Fig. 13). — Tree much resembling 
the chestnut. Leaves coarsely toothed, teeth sharply pointed, 4 to 6 
inches long ; acorn about 1 inch, black and sweet. 

Scrub Chestnut Oak (^Quercus prinoides , Willd). — This shrub or small 
tree is reported from Bell and Harlan counties. The leaves are similar 
to the Chestnut Oak, but much smaller. It is also called " Chinquapin 
Oak." 

WHITE OAK GROUP. 

White 0^\i<<Quercusalba, L.) (Fig. 14).— 
A symmetrical, beautiful forest tree, of great 
value. The bark light gray, scaling off in thin 
plates. Leaves lobed with coarse rounded 
lobes, 7 inches long, turning crimson in the 
autumn ; acorn long, three to four times longer 
than the cup. 

Post Oak {Quercus minor, (Marsh.) Sarg.) 
(Fig. 15). — A common, well-known tree, with 





36 



THE PLANT WORLD 



rough gray bark. 




Leaves deeply cut into rounded lobes, dark green 
above, dull brown below, turning yellow- 
brown in the autumn ; acorn small. 

Overcup Oak ^Quercus lyrata, Walt.) 
(Fig. 17). — A large, handsome tree; along 
streams. Leaves lobed in beyond the middle, 
thin ; acorn round, nearly or quite immersed 
in the thin cup. 

Mossy - Cup Oak {,Quercus macrocarpa, 
Michx.) (Fig. 16). — A large tree with flaky 
bark. Leaves irregularly lobed, the middle 
lobe the larger, 4 to 8 inches long ; acorn 
large, the scales of the cup forming a fringe 
about the nut. 



Henry Elwood Baum. 

By William E. Safford. 

It is with a feeling of deep sorrow that I write of my dead friend, 
Henry Elwood Baum. During his long siege of illness and throughout 
the period of his fancied convalescence, when he battled so manfully for 
health and strength, I could not help sharing in his hope for recovery, 
though I knew at heart what the end must be. When it did come, and 
I stood beside him in his last sleep, looking at the tired face, upon which 
an expression of beautiful peace had at last settled, I felt like one who 
beheld a younger brother wrongfully condemned to die ; and a feeling of 
outrage against nature itself overcame me. Try as I might, it was impos- 
sible to convince myself that it was the act of Providence to take away 
this boy at the very threshold of a career which promised so much. I 
never had a friend more disinterested, an associate more eager to be of 
help, nor an acquaintance whose tastes and natural endowments so emi- 
nently fitted him for the life's work he had chosen. 

Henry Elwood Baum was born in Washington April 6, 1881 ; he died 
December 20, 1903, in the twenty-third year of his age. He was the son 
of William H. and Elizabeth HenningBaum. His father, a well known 
business man of this city, is a descendant of John Christian Baum, a 
Hessian, who came to America during the Revolution and settled first in 
Pennsylvania and then in Georgetown. Henry was educated in the graded 
schools and at the Central High School of Washington, from which he 



THE PLANT WORLD 37 

graduated in 1900, and shortly afterwards he became connected with the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Of his high school career his instructor 
in biology, Professor W. P. Hay, who more than any other inspired in him 
the love for natural science, has written the following appreciatory 
account : 

' ' I first became acquainted with Henry Baum when he came to me 
as a pupil in biology in the Central High School. He was a member of 
a large class, but in a very short time he made himself conspicuous by his 
earnest and systematic methods of work. He showed clearly that he 
wanted to learn, and it was a great pleasure to me to extend to him all 
the facilities of my laboratory and devote to his instruction a good deal 
of time beyond the regular hours of recitation. His enthusiasm carried 
him considerably beyond the work outlined for the classes, and before 
the close of the year he was working with a small group of boys selected 
mostly from the advanced classes. The training which he thus secured 
was that which comes from original investigation and he was not slow to 
recognize the value of it. In the following year he again came to me, 
and as he had already covered most of the work of the advanced class I 
had the pleasure of planning a special line of work for him. I turned 
over to him for identification and labelling the High School collection of 
birds and mammals, then numbering about 2,000 specimens. The work 
seemed eminentl}' suited to his methodical nature, and in a surprisingly 
short time all the specimens were named and properly arranged. On 
looking over his work I was surprised to find that he had also prepared 
a card catalogue of the collection, in which the number and location in 
the case of each specimen was recorded, together with such data as he 
thought to be of value. He was at the time an officer in the battalion of 
High School Cadets and the duties connected therewith required much 
of his time, but I never found that he neglected any of his work on that 
account. It was his intention at that time to become a teacher, and he 
realized that a good teacher must know much more than he is expected 
to teach. 

' ' I think it was at my suggestion that he adopted biology as his 
specialty. He entered the U. S. Department of Agriculture after gradu- 
ating from the High School, and the same qualities which he had shown 
in his work at school made him almost invaluable in his new sphere. 
His kind and helpful spirit, his unselfishness and devotion to duty 
endeared him to his new associates just as they had endeared him to his 
teachers. I am sure I voice the sentiment of all who knew him at the 
High School when I say that his untimely death was most deplorable, 
removing from the world one who must have become a most useful mem- 
ber of society." 

The following is a tribute from Mr. O. F. Cook, under whom he 
worked in the office of Tropical Agriculture, and for whom he felt a deep 
attachment : 

" Mr. Baum looked upon the practical work of the Department as an 
educational opportunity preferable to the formal instruction of schools. 
That the choice was based on good judgment was shown by the rapidity 



38 THE PIvANT WORI^D 

with which he secured footing in many branches of knowledge and at 
the same time rendered himself a useful and respected member of our 
scientific community. He was earnest, capable, willing, and kind. 
That the months of pain and weakness are peacefully ended need not be 
deplored, but his absence after the interval of a year is still a daily regret 
to us. 

His mental habits and inclinations led him to approach a new sub- 
ject from the historical standpoint. He assisted with the greatest 
enthusiasm in the collection of botanical data from the works of the 
early explorers of America, and he had already unearthed many impor- 
tant references which had been overlooked by De Candolle and other 
writers in this field. The same zeal and industry would surely have 
carried him far in this neglected borderland between science and human 
history." 

I met Henry Baum first while working at the National Museum. I 
was attracted to him at once, not only by his personality, but by his evident 
desire to be helpful to me in my work. Day after day I would receive little 
slips in the morning mail , calling my attention to certain passages from books 
he was reading, relating to the origin of cultivated plants, the history of their 
discovery, or their geographical distribution. Afterwards, when I was on 
duty at the Naval War Records Office, just before my resignation from 
the Navy to enter upon m^^ present work, he visited me at the Depart- 
ment Library ; and I was impressed with the genuine love he seemed to 
have for the histories of early voyages and tales of adv^enture. I then 
had the pleasure of introducing him to two of the finest works of this 
nature I know : Dampier's " New Voyage Round the World " and Bur- 
ney's "Chronological History of Discoveries in the South Sea." He 
afterwards expressed his admiration for Dampier and his appreciation of 
the sympathetic manner in which Burney wrote of primitive peoples who 
had the discomforts of civilization thrust upon them against their will. 

During our association in the Department of Agriculture I was often 
struck with his wonderful memorj^ and his system of keeping a record of 
all information derived from his researches which might prove useful 
either to himself or his associates — an index rerum, as well as a catalogue 
of authors and titles of books. Every day of his absence from office we 
felt the need of his help. In reply to inquiries, however vague, concern- 
ing a date, or a locality, or an authority, he would in most cases refer 
us to the very page of the book we needed. 

Several times during the latter part of his illness he fancied himself 
strong enough to return to his work. Slowly and painfully he climbed 
the stairs to his office, stopping to notice that his name was still in its 
place on the bulletin board, and settling into his chair with a feeling of 
relief to find that it was not occupied by some one else. Then he would 
open the drawers of his card catalogue and pick up one of his favorite 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 39 

books, with an expression of tenderness on his face, as though it were a 
beloved object. At times he would speak of going to some place where 
he might have work to occupy his mind, feeling that he would surely 
get well if he could forget his condition. He said that he tmist get well — 
he had planned so much work. 

He had a little library of standard books, mostly historical and scien- 
tific, but some purely literary ; and he asked me to get for him a pub- 
lished "List of General Reading in English Literature," by William 
Lyon Phelps ; taking comfort in the thought that though he could not 
work, he could at least do something for self-improvement. Among the 
books on his library shelves were works of Fiske, Parkman, and Wash- 
ington Irving, Green's " Short History of the English People, " Justin 
McCarthy's " History of Our Own Times," Darwin's " Voyage of the 
Beagle" and "Origin of Species," Ruskin's " Stones of Venice " and 
" Modern Painters," Quatrefage's " Human Species," Peschel's "Races 
of Man," translations of Homer's "Odyssey" and of Marcus Aurelius's 
"Meditations." Among the more modern writers were Kipling and 
Stevenson, for both of whom he had great admiration. After his death 
Stevenson's letters to Sydney Colvin, published in Scribners' Magazine, 
, were found arranged for binding. He also had Draper's "Conflict 
Between Religion and Science." 

He was an orthodox Christian, a member of Trinity Church, the 
rector of which, Rev. Richard P. Williams, Arch-Deacon of the District 
of Columbia, visited him during his illness, not only as his pastor, but 
as a personal friend. It was he who officiated at the funeral ceremonies, 
both at the house and at the grave in the Congressional Cemetery. A 
meeting of the Trinity Chapter of the Brotherhood of Saint Andrew was 
held after his death to draw up resolutions expressive of sympathy to his 
family and of the high esteem in which he was held by the members of 
the brotherhood, of which he was vice-director. He had also been 
editor of the Trinity News* 

When he was no longer able to read he passed his time in cutting 
from magazines reproductions of pictures of the old masters and of photo- 
graphs of landscapes. These he mounted neatly in portfolios. All of 
them showed wonderful discrimination and appreciation for the beautiful, 
both in art and nature. He also formed an album of photographic views 
of the Potomac River and the country surrounding it, dwelling with 
pleasure over views of Great Falls and of Plummer's Island, which is 
occupied by the Washington Biologists' Field Club. Of this club he was 
secretary -treasurer at the time of his death, and he took part personally 
in buildingtheclub-hou.se which crowns the rocky summit of the island. 

His last literary work was the series of articles on the breadfruit, 

*See Trinity News, Washington, D. C, January, 1894, p. 2S. 



40 THE PLANT WORLD 

appearing in The Plant World (in the September, October, and Decem- 
ber numbers, 1903). He also amused himself by making a card cata- 
logue of the library of Mr. Charles L. Pollard, editor of this magazine. 
He had looked forward eagerly to the completion of the series of his 
breadfruit articles, frequently asking if the last proof had come. He 
said that somehow things always look better in print, but that he 
feared he had not said everything about his subject which he might 
have said. He was also a little anxious about forms of expression, 
and said he hoped some day to attain a good style. Nothing during 
his illness seemed to please him more than a courteous note he re- 
ceived from Dr. Edward L. Greene, the eminent botanist, acknowl- 
edging the receipt of a reprint of an article in Science on ' ' The Name of 
the Breadfruit." * He said, as he showed me the note, " I suppose he 
thought it a little thing to do, but it means a great deal to me to have 
my article appreciated by a man of Dr. Greene's standing." 

Toward the end, though surrounded by every comfort that parental 
love could devise, and attended day and night by his faithful mother, he 
would at times be impatient, doubtless on account of his enforced in- 
activity ; but this at last ceased, and the occasional half-pleading petu- 
lance was replaced by his old look of gentleness. When the proof did 
come he was dead. It was my sad duty to correct it as he lay waiting for 
the last rites to be performed . Nothing in my life has impressed me as more 
pitiful than the passive body of this dear boy lying within touch of the 
desk which his father had bought at his request, to make his room look 
as much like an ofl&ce as possible. On the desk were the last catalogue 
cards he had written, the handwriting still beautiful and clear, and round 
about on shelves and tables were books, books, books. The last I think 
he read was Walter Pater's "Marius," which I had lent him. Its 
ending will always be associated in my mind with that of his own short 
life. 



We no longer have the great love for tube-roses that formerly made 
an extensive market for these fragrant flowers, says Country Life in 
A^nerica. As they became more and more generally used in funeral de- 
signs the demand grew less, apparently because people associated their 
odor with funerals. North Carolina growers, who have shipped nearly 
all of the tube-roses, are now experimenting with the Bermuda Easter 
lily and it is not at all unlikely that before long they will devote their 
attention to the more popular flower. 

* Science, October a, 1903. Vol. 18 (n. s.), p. 439- 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII, Plate III. 




H'^/VoaAA^.VO'' 



C\AWV\/ 



FROM A PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN 8Y H.S FRiENO HENRY M. MAZEN 



THE PLANT WORIvD 41 

Briefer Articles. 



WILD FLOWERS OF PRAIRIE AND CANYON IN NORTHERN IDAHO. 

Southern Idaho is chiefly a desert tableland. Its predominant flora 
is of the xerophytic type characteristic of the Great Basin. The northern 
extremity of Idaho extends into that vast region of mountain forest from 
which spring the headwaters of the Fraser, the Columbia, the Athabasca, 
and the Saskatchewan. That portion of Idaho contained between the 
Salmon and Clearwater rivers is an elevated prairie or tableland and has 
a sufficient rainfall to enable agriculture to be successfully carried on 
without the aid of irrigation. It is known as Comar Prairie and is the 
ancestral home and hunting grounds of the Nez Perce Indians. 

The rolling grassy surface of the prairie on the east drops suddenly — 
a sheer descent of twenty-five hundred feet into the depths of Clearwater 
Canyon, east of which it rises in broken mountain ridges to the Conti- 
nental Divide along the summit of the Bitter Roots. On the southwest 
is the still deeper Salmon River Canyon and beyond are the lofty and 
rugged ranges of the Seven Devils. On the west are the low-lying 
Craig's Mountains, wooded to their summits. 

Though situated so far north, the plant life of Comar Prairie makes its 

appearance quite early in the spring. Early in February, as soon as the 

Chinook winds have melted the snow from the southern slopes of the 

canyons. Ranunculus glabert'imus may be found in blossom. Soon the 

warm slopes and sunny spots at the bases of the basaltic cliffs are colored 

with the golden yellow petals of this little butter-cup. From this time 
until midsummer there is a constant succession of bloom. By the begin- 
ning of June prairie and canyon are one vast flower garden — gardens 
wild and beautiful, not planted by man and untarnished by his hand. 

Erythroniums, anemones, mertensias, delphiniums, claytonias, gera- 
niums, lupines, dodecatheons, veronicas, and phloxes grow almost every- 
where. On the mountain slopes and summits tiny flowers are to be 
found whose real homes are far away on the Arctic tundra. On the lower 
prairies and meadows calochorti, brodiaeas, and veratrums flourish — 
beautiful flowers from the sunny climate of California. Whole fields are 
aglow with the yellow flowers of umbelliferae and compositae. Here and 
there are plots of the deepest red where the castillejas grow. Camassia 
escule?ita grows on moist land along the streams and hollows of the prairie. 
Its bulbs were formerly the chief food supply of the Indians. This plant 
gives to the prairie its name. 

By the middle of July the rains have usually ceased, and the greater 
part of plant life having ripened, its seeds become dry and withered above 
ground. Its life has been stored away in subterranean stem and root 
and tuber, there during the cold autumnal rains and beneath the winter 
snow to store up energy till another springtime calls it again to light and 
growth. Walter Albion Squires. 

Evanston, Illinois. 



42 THE PLANT WORLD 

WHAT IS A BUD AND HOW LONG DOES IT RETAIN ITS IDENTITY? 

Three or four years ago a friend who was a leader in agricultural 
experiment station work gave an address, the leading portion of which 
hinged on the definition of a bud as exemplified in an apple tree. He 
made the statement that no bud of a living tree ever ceased to exist as a 
bud, unless it terminated in a flower or was by some means killed. A bud 
never lost its identity. I wrote criticising his views, and he replied with 
quotations from others, still believing he was right and that I was wrong. 

I looked up all the definitions I could find and still wished to secure 
others ; hence I brought the question before the Botanical Society of 
America for a few moments at its last meeting in Washington. Profes- 
sors Bessey and Barnes were appointed a committee to assist us in a 
report. 

I quote their definitions and restate my own. Here are the words of 
Professor C. E. Bessey : "in the growth of a shoot it frequently happens 
that the elongation of the stem is checked for a time, while the leaves 
continue their growth for a while longer. The result is a collection of 
leaves, mostly closely packed together into a pretty solid mass, and this 
we call a ' ' bud. ' ' Usually the leaves are considerably modified, the outer 
ones soon becoming, etc. — (skipped a line). A bud is thus a quiescent 
state of a shoot." 

And here are the words of Professor C. R. Barnes : "A bud is simply 
that portion of a shoot in which the rudimentary members are protected 
by the overarching of the older lateral members. A bud has no such 
thing as identity^ its state of development and general character being 
merely modified in adaptation to the seasonal variations to which it is 
subject." 

My own definition to my friend was nearly identical with the last sen- 
tence as quoted from Professor Barnes : "A bud of any of our woody 
plants, at least in the Northern and Central United States, is dormant or 
nearly so during the winter, but when spring arrives the bud develops 
leaves, node above node, each bearing one or more leaves. While grow- 
ing, a bud does not retain its identity for two weeks in succession." 

W. J. Beal. 



Editorial. 



We feel sure that our readers will be more interested in Professor 
Lloyd's outline of the work he proposes to accomplish in connection with 
our Teachers' Department than in any midwinter botanical reflections 
of our own, and we therefore propose to establish a record for editorial 
brevity this month. We trust that The Plant World in its new dress 
is finding favor among those to whom it has hitherto been a stranger. 



THE PLANT WORLD 43 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



We give space this month to an interesting and highly suggestive 
article by Dr. H. S. Pepoon, of Chicago, showing how one generation 
can witness the extinction of nearly one-half of the indigenous flora on a 
large farm. The cutting out of the trees probably brought this about 
more speedily than any other means ; and it illustrates the need of saving 
our woodland if we would save other vegetation. Miss Price's article on 
" Kentucky Oaks," published in another part of this issue, also bears on 
this question. 



In the current issue of Bird Lore Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright has a 
stirring sermon on the text ' ' Keep on Pedaling. ' ' The metaphor is taken 
from the days when every one was learning to ride the wheel, and the 
constant cry, as she says, "of the perspiring instructor who ran beside 
was ' Keep on pedaling ; if you stop you 're a goner ! ' " 

Mrs. Wright applies this to the Audubon Society, and points out that 
it will not do to rest on the laurels gained after several years of work. 
The cause of bird protection needs constant pushing or the public would 
very speedily slip back into the old comfortable state of indifference, and 
bird feathers would again come into fashion. Precisely the same advice 
applies to the members of our own Society. We have heard and also seen 
in print the statement that wild flower protection is assured, now that 
societies have been formed to promote it. Nothing is farther from the 
truth. The battle is only just begun. Nor will it be won by mere tacit 
approval of our efforts. Start an active campaign of education in your own 
town. Use your personal influence with your friends against indiscrim- 
inate flower picking. Find out what plants are most in need of preserv- 
ation and devote your attention to them . Do some real work, and never 
be satisfied until you can feel that there is a genuine awakening of public 
.sentiment in the matter. Then perhaps you can go a step farther and 
secure influence looking toward the establishment of municipal parks, 
where the plants will be properly cared for. We are always glad to help 
you in any way if you will tell us something of local conditions and 
requirements. 

When you are doing missionary work among your friends, be sure 
to explain to them that under our amended constitution those who do 
not wish this magazine need only pay an annual fee of fifty cents, and 
they are just as welcome in the Society. Of course those who can afford 
the additional dollar will have the advantage of securing valuable reading 
matter. 



44 



THE PLANT WORLD 



DESTRUCTION OF A FARM FLORA. 
By H. S. Pepoon. 
I HAVE been much interested in the movement that seems to be gath- 
ering added force as the months go by, and that has for its object the 
preservation of our wild plants. It certainly will receive my hearty co- 
operation in every possible way, the more so because I live in the midst 
of a people who are waging the most relentless war of extermination 
against a number of the most beautiful of our native orchids and lilies. 
It might surprise the reader to learn that I have seen 300 showy lady- 
slippers {^Cypripedmm reginae) gathered by a thoughtless trio in two hours' 
time ; but so it is, and these plants are now numbered by tens when five 
years ago they were in troops of hundreds. 




SC4l« ''•». a j(jmJ>t. 



Fig. 1. A farm of 226 acres in 1876. There are 120 acres of woodland, 9 springs, and a 
" living" stream. The farm contains 355 species of plants. 

Fig. 2. The same farm in 1904. There are only 18 acres of woodland, no springs, and 
no stream. The plants number only 200 species, 155 having been exterminated in 28 
years. 

In this same line it may be of interest to relate the history of my old 
home farm in northwestern Illinois. It was a woodland originally — with 
several ' ' sloughs " as we called them — low-lying ravines or small valleys, 
very wet along the lowest level, running through from north to south. 
The woodlands were oak — with many ' ' flat openings ' ' near the heads 
of the ravines. The soil varied from a rich black loam in the heavy 
timber to a thin clay on the hillsides. Every hollow had a spring, and 
the main valley always possessed a fine running stream. This was at a 
time when 120 acres of the 226 were in forest growths. 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 45 

My " mouth waters " as I think of those days. The rich woods were 
full of red baneberry, blue cohosh, may-apples, spikenard, ginseng, 
shin-leaf, tway-blade, pogonia, bracted and showy orchids, yellow and 
showy lady-slippers, wild yams, Solomon's seal, bellwort, trilliums, and 
jack-in-the-pulpits. Not one of these plants is now found on the farm. 
Gone they are, with the trees they loved. 

To refer to what some reader may believe to be a sad blunder on my 
part, viz., the showy lady-slipper in rich moist woodlands: The books 
say in " bogs, etc."; but, alas, the books are often at fault, for in north- 
western Illinois these plants always grew in woods, or on hillsides or bluffs. 
Here about Chicago they behave according to the books, but not there. 
The beautiful calopogon had the same unconventional way — growing 
only on bald bluffs. In the woods with thin soil grew asters, shin-leaves, 
violets, lousewort, painted cups. In the " flat openings " were found wild 
indigo, " pennyroil," as we called it (the Koellia of to-day), pink poly- 
galas, purple guardias. The " sloughs " (pronounced " slew ") yielded 
turks-caps and meadow lilies, marsh bellwort, button snake-root, closed 
gentian and pussy-willows galore. 

All are gone. I have a list made out in 1876 enumerating 355 plants 
on that famed farm. To-day there are barely 200, and these are the 
"plebeians" and "toughs," "tramps" and "rabble" of the plant 
world. The royal ones are all missing. 

Here the destroying factor has doubtless been the removal of the 
forest with its kindly influence in affording shelter and plentiful and 
evenly-distributed moisture. A similar fate awaits, I fear, all forest 
plants, for man seems determined to clear the earth of trees of natural 
growth, leaving it bare and desolate under the fierce heat of our summer 
sun. 



The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by Dr. F. H. Knowlton. 

[The editor of this department will be glad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature, and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject.] 

Propagation of Carnations (concluded from January issue. From 
Atnericayi Gardening) . — The making of the cutting is very simple. Having 
found your ideal cutting, which, with the present-day stronger growing 
kinds, should be from 2/4 to 3 inches long, break it off intact from the side 
of the flowering stem. Many prefer to cut away part of the grass, but this 
is not necessary at the present season. The propagating houses at the 
present time are kept closer on account of the prevailing dull weather and 
colder outside temperature than they will be later on. Therefore, the 



46 THK PI.ANT WORI^D 

vitality of the cutting is not endangered by evaporation, and the closer 
atmosphere prevents wilting. Moreover, the bottom heat at present is 
more regular than at any other time, still more insuring success. 

Some prefer to insert the cuttings without touching them with the 
knife at all. They come through all right, but we use the knife to merely 
pare off the ragged edge from the base, and there is little doubt but it is 
an assistance. 

Our cuttings are given about 2 inches of space each way in the sand 
bed. We make a straight line across the bench with a sharp-pointed 
stick about 1 inch deep, and then take the cutting between the forefinger 
and thumb of the right hand and press it into the cavity. This pressing 
down also firms them sufficiently, and the whole thing is done by one 
movement. A good watering is given and a slight shade for a few days ; 
then on bright days afterwards a slight sprinkling overhead to keep them 
fresh. 

The temperature of our house runs about 52 degrees — slightly higher 
during the day — and the bench being directly above the pipes, the 
bottom temperature is about 10 degrees higher. Propagated at this time, 
95 per cent, of your cuttings will root, and in many cases every one 
of them. The process usually takes about three weeks. 

Do not pot up as soon as the first roots appear, but always give them 
a few days more, and they won't feel the change so badly. 

After potting, put them back in the same place for a few days to re- 
cover, and then transfer them to a lighter, airier house. 

The question of using pots or flats will now be uppermost, but we 
certainly believe that the advantage lies with the pots. It takes more 
time, of course, and slightly more space, but the young plants take to 
the pots more quickly, and, moreover, a ball of roots is formed. If pots be 
not at your disposal, or space is limited, when a shift is necessary you 
can then transfer them into flats ; but having made a ball in these first 
pots it will be found to be of great value to them in after life. It will 
stick to them even at lifting time if they are planted outside, and if all the 
other soil should be knocked off they will at least have this to fall back 
on. 

Do not use a very rich soil for first potting. There is no need for a 
hurried, soft growth now. The hardier growth is better able to with- 
stand the many attacks of insects and fungi. 

Fumigate regularly, or scatter tobacco stems around freely to keep in 
check the arch-enemy, "green fly," and pinch out the points of the 
shoots to insure a bushy habit, as occasion demands. Move into larger 
pots or flats as soon as the first pots are full of roots. Never subject 
them to a high temperature or close atmosphere ; and the foundation for 
a successful crop of flowers for next fall will be laid. 



THE PIvANT WORIvD 47 

Getting Ready for Spring. — It is now high time that plans were being 
made and steps taken for next season's work. Go over the results of 
last summer's effort and try to find wherein the failure lay — if such 
there was — or determine the factors which contributed to success and 
plan to duplicate them this year, or, what is better, to improve on them. 
The great amount of moisture last year may have been beneficial to some 
plants and just the reverse for others. Recall the conditions and resolve 
to " improve on nature " the coming season. The florists and seedsman's 
catalogues are now at hand, each larger and better (!) than ever before, 
and each resplendent in bright colors. If time and space are limited, 
don't be deceived into venturing your all on the novelties so loudly pro- 
claimed ; stick to the old favorites until you know something better to 
supply their places with. 

If you would have asters from early summer until the chrysanthe- 
mums put in an appearance, now is the time to start them. For the very 
earliest. Queen of the Market is recommended, and for others use the 
Semple, Comet, Victoria, etc. Sow the seed in flats or shallow pans, 
just covering seed by pressing into the soil, and keep them from drying 
out by covering with a plate of glass. When the plants are large enough 
to handle well, transplant them into flats or small pots, and give them 
plenty of head room. They can be grown to single flowers by pinching 
out the branches and buds, but for home use they are best left with sev- 
eral branches and flowers. If it is planned to have a bit of the Vernon 
begonias it is now time for the seed to be in the ground. Secure well-sifted 
light soil and press the seed down with a board or piece of glass, no other 
covering of soil being necessary; but keep the soil from drying out while 
they are germinating. Stock plants of this variety if saved over from 
last season should now be propagated and by spring will make good 
plants in 4-inch pots. But the garden side should not be neglected. For 
very early tomatoes start the seed by February 1st, sowing in flats at least 
three inches deep. The soil should be light and not too rich, and the 
seed sown in drills two inches apart, and firmed down with a board. As 
with the flower seeds above mentioned, care must be taken to prevent the 
soil geting dry before the seed has germinated. When the plants show 
their true leaves pot off into 3 -inch pots, using rich soil, and shift as re- 
quired. For early use the Dwarf Champion is probably one of the best. 

Winter Bulbs. — By planting at intervals of ten days or two weeks 
there should have been a succession of such desirable bulbs as paper white 
narcissus, freesias, ixias, tulips, and hyacinths. The first mentioned may 
be grown successfully in water, but perhaps does better in soil, while the 
others require soil. As the freesias have a tendency to sprangle, the plants 
should be tied up just as the flower buds begin to appear. After flowering 
water should be withheld somewhat until the bulbs are ripened off, when 
they will be in good shape for next fall's planting. 



48 THE PI.ANT WORIvD 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. Lloyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

In opening a new department of The Plant World it is earnestly 
hoped that this journal will extend its usefulness to a special but very 
large class of people, comprising all the teachers of botany in both the 
elementary and secondary schools in this country. It will be seen that 
this must include both those whose interests are confined to the teaching 
of Nature Study and those who are occupied in the instruction of pupils 
in the high school. We are prone to think that these extremes of teaching 
have little in common, but we do not have to meet this issue in order to 
agree that all teachers alike have to do with the same materials, and that 
in order to succeed in interesting our pupils, be they young or old, we must 
ourselves be vitally interested in plants and their ways on the one 
hand and in good methods of presenting knowledge about them on the 
other. Now, there is no one who knows all about either of these, but 
there are very many who have worked out in their experience numerous 
handy and clever ways of presenting various topics ; and moreover there 
are many whose special interest in particular lines of botanical study and 
whose familiarity with particular groups of plants as they grow in the 
field have given them a grasp of the details which enables them to point 
out many facts important and interesting to teachers. But very few of 
these persons have laid it on their conscience to help their fellows in the 
profession by putting their ideas into print ; and yet, I take it, the things 
which grow out of a teacher's experience are the very things which are 
of most value to other teachers. I believe therefore that this department 
can attain its greatest efiiciency only with the cooperation of the teachers 
themselves, to whose interests The Plant World appeals. To such the 
opportunity is offered for the publication of short helpful papers, which 
shall embody experience, and which may, for this reason, be illuminating 
and encouraging to others. 



As indicated in the foregoing paragraph, the teacher is interested in 
two phases of knowledge, or we might perhaps better say, he looks at 
the same body of knowledge from two different viewpoints. If he be 
a teacher of botany, the great mass of botanical knowledge, or at any 
rate some parts of it, are of great if not of absorbing interest to him. At 
the same time, his calling leads him to inquire what parts of this wide 
field of knowledge are of importance to the pupil, and how these may be 
handled in the class-room and laboratory so as to obtain the best results 
possible from them in pleasure, information, and training. The intelligent 



THE PLANT WORLD 49 

answer to this question and its application in teaching are at the root of 
successful education, so far as botany is involved. It is the concern of 
every intelligent teacher to try to solve this problem and to put his results 
into shape so that they can be used as part of general experience. It 
will be our aim to stimulate teachers to the performance of this public 
duty. 



Field work ! With what a mixture of feelings many teachers think of 
this part of the work of botanical study ! Every one in harmony with 
modern ideas of teaching will agree that direct contact with plants as 
they grow in the fields and woods, ponds and streams, is of the very 
highest value. What of laboratory work if the pupil is not the better 
able to interpret plants in their environment ? And what of books if after 
reading them he does not the more desire to seek the higher authority 
in the living thing? But how to do it with a large class, or even a 
small one, and how to get measurable results without losing interest and 
spontaneity, — in a word, how to make field exercises apart of real educa- 
tion, getting all the good results and none of the bad, — this is a question 
of moment which few of us pretend to have solved. It would be a real 
service if this department could be the means of diffusing ideas which 
have grown out of actual experience. Any one thing definitely accom- 
plished, and a detailed account of the ways and means, could not but be 
of value to others. There are many more problems awaiting thoughtful 
experiment and discussion. 



Teachers know their own needs at least just as well if not better than 
any one else. What a " want column " might be filled with them ! 

The editor of this department earnestly hopes that it can be made a 
sort of clearing-house for the exchange of ideas. If we are to carry out 
our simile in practice, our readers must be willing to put their ideas into 
shape for exchange and send them to us. We hope also that they will 
be ready to offer their thoughtful suggestions as to ways in which this 
department may be developed to meet their needs. In this way the 
editor will be the better guided in his effort to make The Plant World 
more useful to a greater number of people. 



Speaking of wants recalls to mind not a few important problems 
which frequently confront the teacher. One of the most difficult of these, 
which every instructor of large classes has constantly to face, is that of 
fairly estimating quickly and efficiently the quality and quantity of work 
done by his pupils, but without entailing a loss of time and energy in 
the grind of reading .scores of papers. Have any of our readers worked 
out some way of doing this ? Can the interest of the pupils be increased 
rather than diminished by a test method ? How do you do it ? 



50 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

SOME OF THE THINGS WE WOULD LIKE TO DO. 

Publish notes and communications upon methods of teaching in nature 
study and high-school botany, derived from the experience of teachers. 

Give brief accounts of new botanical work in various directions, in- 
cluding the results of research and exploration. 

Present brief, impartial reviews of educational literature in the fields 
of nature study and botany. 



NOTES. 

Hampton Institute is the scene of exceptional activity in the direction 
of nature study at the present time, as is evidenced by the series of 
excellent leaflets which are appearing, and which may be had at the 
nominal price of fifty cents the dozen, by addressing the Hampton Insti- 
tute Press, Hampton, Va. The scope of the leaflets which have appeared 
is indicated by their titles. These are as follows : " Nature Study," by 
J. E. Davis; " How Seeds Travel," by Neltje Blanchan ; "Evergreen 
Trees," by Ethel B. Gowans; "Seed Planting," by C. L. Goodrich; "The 
Life History of a Butterfly "; "Roots," by C. L. Goodrich ; "Beautify- 
ing Schoolhouses and Yards," by Sarah W. Brown; ".Winter Buds," 
by Julia Ellen Rogers ; " Soils," by C. L. Goodrich ; " The Meaning of 
the Flower," by Addie Jayne ; "Plowing," by C. L. Goodrich; "A 
Child's Garden," by Emily K. Herron ; " How to Make Friends with 
the Birds," by Neltje Blanchan, 

We are reminded by a paragraph in the January Country Life in 
America that now is the time to collect twigs, bring them into the house, 
and watch their development. No one but those who have watched the 
early growth of twigs at close range can realize the vast amount of pleasure 
and instruction to be gained in this way. Any amount of material for 
the school can be obtained in even a short walk in a few city lots — if 
these can be reached. Those more favorably situated than many city 
children and their teachers might do a good work by collecting material 
on their excursions and sending them to their less favored friends in city 
schools. 



REVIEWS OF EDUCATIONAL LITERATURE. 

LiFB ON THE Farm, or Scientific Agriculture Simplified. A 
Reading Book for Grammar and High Schools, ^y Hiram H. Shepard. 
Illustrated, pp. 166. Chicago : A. Flannagan Co. 

This book is divided into six chapters, which treat successively of the 
soil, plants, trees, insects, birds and bacteria, and so covers fairly the 
various topics related to farm life. The composition is terse and clear, 
the type is large, and the printing excellent. It is the hope of the author 



THE PLANT WORLD 51 

that his book will help to heighten " the appreciation and enjoyment of 
nature, and to elevate the dignity and nobility of farm life." This is 
surely a worthy desire. Educators, especially those who have interested 
themselves in the value of nature study, recognize the very great import- 
ance of ameliorating the conditions of country life, in order that our 
country population may increase in numbers and that the productiveness 
of the soil shall constantly increase. The only sure way to accomplish 
this is by means of education, which must lead the farmer of the future 
to see beyond the mere manual labor of his calling. Any effort to this 
end must be welcomed. 

One or two criticisms are perhaps justified. It would seem unneces- 
sary to use such expressions as ' ' drinking in " to express the function of 
roots, when no more difficult word than ' ' absorbing ' ' needs to be used. It 
is the aim, in part, of the reading lesson to become acquainted with and 
accustomed to the use of new words, and to make this use exact. Why 
avoid this issue ? Again, in some places the statements are rather too 
dogmatic. There are some subjects about which we are not completely 
informed as yet, and when such are treated it would be better to make 
qualified statements, and thus indicate the extent of our knowledge and 
of our ignorance. The effect of this on the pupil would be to help in the 
cultivation of a judicial attitude of mind, for which education should 
certainly aim. The teacher who uses the book will do well to keep this 
in mind, and stimulate his pupils to read critically rather than merely 
absorptively. 

The illustrations do not compare favorably with present-day stand- 
ards, and the photographic reproduction of a badly-* 'stuffed ' ' woodpecker 
has little to recommend it. The price at which a reader must be sold 
prohibits lavish and expensive illustration ; so much the more reason for 
doing a little well, and cutting out pictures which do not carry convic- 
tion, such as that on page 111. May we not believe that the school 
should seek to form ideals in the matter of aesthetics? If so, our children 
should have the best in quality, even if it be little in quantity. i,. 

"Use and Care of the Microscope" is the title of a handy and 

valuable little guide to the manipulation of the microscope, by Edward 

Bausch. The important things to know about the matter treated are 

very clearly set forth, and the text is amplified by good diagrams which 

will put the beginner in a position to understand the mechanism and 

workings of the instrument. The book, though small, contains more 
than it is necessary to give to the high school pupil, but every teacher will 
find it a real help in formulating the few simple rules which are always 
useful when a class begins work with the microscope. The book, which 
contains 38 pages, is issued by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Co., Roch- 
ester, N. Y., and may be had upon application. L. 



52 THK PI.ANT WORI.D 

Book Reviews. 



PIvAnt-Geography upon a Physiological Basis. By Dr. A. F. IV. 
Schhnper. Authorized English translation by William R. Fisher, 
revised and edited by Percy Groom and Isaac Bay ley Balfour. With 
photogravure portrait, five collotypes, four maps, and 497 other illus- 
trations. Royal 8 vo, half morocco, pp. xxiv+840. Price, 42.y net 
($14). Also in four parts; price, 9s ($3) net per part. Oxford: 
The Clarendon Press. 

Since the fascinating study of plant ecology began to gain headway 
in this country, a universal desire has been felt for a comprehensive 
treatise on the subject. Schimper's " Pflanzengeographie," published 
six years ago, fulfilled this requirement except in one respect — it was 
not a convenient ready reference book for American scholars, who found 
themselves obliged to build up a nomenclature of their own, sometimes 
by adaptation of German phrases, more often by purely inventive pro- 
cesses. Thus the same idea is frequently expressed by different words 
in American ecological papers. The association of certain types of 
plants under similar edaphic or climatic conditions has been designated 
variously as an "association," a "society," a "community," or a 
" formation." The latter is the word preferred by Schimper. 

The translation which Professor Fisher, with the assistance of Pro- 
fessors Groom and Balfour, has given to the world, is truly a monu- 
mental piece of work, and one which has laid the whole botanical frater- 
nity under obligations. It not only places Schimper's storehouse of 
information within the reach of every one, but it will do much to stimulate 
original study of ecological problems. Professor Schimper had intended 
to supervise this translation, making it in some sense a revision as well, 
but his untimely death prevented the consummation of this hope, and the 
work therefore remains unchanged from the original in scope and treat- 
ment. The attractive form in which the book has been issued by the 
Oxford University press is also noteworthy, and the paper has been well 
selected to give effect to the many beautiful half-tones and wash-draw- 
ings with which it is illustrated. 

The contents of ' ' Plant-Geography ' ' were discussed in the reviews 
of the original German edition. For the benefit of those unfamiliar with 
the work it may be said here that Part I is devoted to a discussion of the 
various factors, such as heat, light, water, etc., affecting plant distribu- 
tion ; Part II describes the various plant formations and " guilds," and 
Part III contains a detailed description of the various zones and climatic 
regions of the earth, with the characteristic vegetation of each, 

c. L. P. 



The Plant World. 



Vol. Vll, Plate IV. 




CQ 



> 

c3 






The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII MARCH, 1904 No. 3 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XVI.* 

By William E. Safford. 

Friday, December 8. — The Solace arrived yesterday, bringing us four 
new marine officers and mail from San Francisco and Honolulu. Re- 
ceived a polite letter from Mr. David Haughs of the Hawaiian Botanical 
Garden in reply to a request for some plants of Bignonia venusta and two 
species of Bougainvillea which are cultivated there. One of the latter 
has beautiful bracts of a brick red or flame color ; the other is the com- 
mon magenta B. spectabilis. Captain Dunlap, of the Solace, brought me 
six fine navel orange trees from the Cox Seed Company, of San Fran- 
cisco (cost $8.50, including packing). On the receipted bill was written: 
The box should be placed on deck in as cool a place as possible and 
watered once a week. On arrival at Guam, plant out immediately." 

Captain Russell, of the marine corps, has gone home sick and 
Captain Ingate is suffering from the effects of a painful surgical 
operation — we fear blood poisoning. Typhoid fever is now epidemic — 
we have lost three of our men and another is dying. Dr. Grunwell, 
the junior medical officer of the Yosemite, lives at Agafia and attends 
to natives and enlisted men alike. By his untiring devotion to his duty, 
his gentleness and kindness, he has done more than any one else to win 
for us the love of the natives. 



•Continued from the February issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



54 THE PLANT WORLD 

Our fine Jersey bull is dead, also the pretty little cow that had the 
calf on board the Brutus at Honolulu. They seemed unable to accom- 
modate themselves to the green food growing here and began to fail after 
the supply of baled hay and bran gave out. It is possible that they ate 
plants which the native cattle have learned to avoid. There are several 
good forage grasses growing on the island ; among them Capriola dac- 
tylon ("Grama"); Panicuni distachynni, Eragrostis tetiella, and the 
tender Stc7iotaphruni subulahim ( " Las-aga " ) . The fine tropical guinea 
grass (^Pa7iicum viaxhnuni) and Para grass (^Panicum molle) have not yet 
found their way here. Both should be introduced as well as the prolific 
"Teosinte" {^Etichlaena luxurians). Some time ago the bull climbed 
to the second story of the palace by the steps leading to the terrace in 
the rear, and walked into my office. During the long passage of the 
Brutus from San Francisco I had inspected his pen daily to see that he 
received proper care, and I knew that he regarded me as a friend, but I 
was not prepared for his visit to my ofiice. When he burst into my room 
my clerk and I withdrew by the other door in as dignified a manner as 
possible. The poor animal was evidently in trouble and had come to me 
for relief. I often went to the pasture behind the palace to see that he 
was properly cared for, and he must have seen me go up the terrace 
steps. It was with no little difficulty that he could be persuaded to go 
down again. I had been trying some divorce cases and my clerk sug- 
gested that possibly the toro had come to consult me officially in conse- 
quence of some family matter. Cattle here suffer greatly from ticks 
(Acaridae), which have even been known to cause them to sicken and 
die. The natives rub them down and curry them almost daily. In the 
livers of many of the animals killed at the slaughter-house are found 
parasitic fluke worms. The cattle and buffaloes of the island are prob- 
ably immune from many of the diseases which are liable to attack those 
recently introduced. 

Sutiday, December 10. — Trouble in the village of Agat. The Gober- 
nadorcillo has arrested the Justice of the Peace and locked him up in the 
calaboose. Investigation necessary. It is bad enough to preserve har- 
mony between the natives and our enlisted men — it is more difficult to 
regulate family quarrels. 

Thursday, December 14. — My birthday. The Major gave a dinner 
party in my honor, inviting the Governor and several officers, as well as 
Father Palomo. Father Palomo would eat but little, saying that he was 
not accustomed to so late a dinner, and that my Thanksgiving party had 
made him ill. The Governor sent over a damask table-cloth from the 
palace, and brought me a fountain pen as a birthday present. Susaua 
covered herself with glory. The Major had given her carte blanche to 
buy everything she might need and insisted on bearing all the expense 



THE PIvANT WORI.D 55 

himself. He has been my guest since his arrival at Agana and has 
chosen this way to express his appreciation of my hospitality before 
leaving my house for the palace. 

Sunday, December 17 . — Trip to Mataguak, Yigo, and Santa Rosa, 
near the northern end of the island, to visit the fincas of Padre Palomo, 
Doiia Rufina Quitugua, Don Gregorio Perez, and Dona Joaquina Kam- 
inga. Up before daylight, and after a substantial breakfast left my 
house, accompanied by Don Gregorio's son Manuel, Dofia Rufina's 
nephew, and a godson of Dona Joaquina, who brought me a cow to ride, 
all saddled and bridled. Morning delightfully cool ; moon still shining; 
took the road leading to the Caroline Islanders' village, parallel to the 
beach, then after passing between several coconut fincas, reached a place 
called lyupog, or Lupug, which signifies a hole or depression in the 
ground, and takes its name from an enormous sink-hole. This is of an 
oval shape, about sixty by fifty feet at the top and is lined on the inner 
slope with dense vegetation. The sides are of coral rock little modified 
by erosion. The northern part of Guam consists of ancient coral reefs, 
forming terraces which undoubtedly mark successive upheavals of the 
island. Through the coral .several volcanic hills rise, one called Tuyan, 
or La Barrigada, in the middle of the island, at no great distance from 
Agaiia, others farther north called Mataguak and Santa Rosa, for which 
I was bound. In the southern part of the island, which is mountainous, 
there are many rivers and springs, but in the part we were about to visit 
there is not a single stream , except on the immediate slopes of Mataguak 
and Santa Rosa. The natives who have fincas there have to haul water 
in carts for themselves and their stock, or carry it in bamboos slung over 
the backs of oxen or buffaloes. In the rainy season enough water may 
perhaps be caught by placing receptacles against coconut trees or screw- 
pines, into the trunks of which notches have been cut, but in the dry 
season not enough rain falls for the use of the farmers. Cisterns have 
been dug by some of them, but the porous ground lets the water sink 
through and no attempt has yet been made to line a cistern with water- 
tight cement. 

Among the plants growing in the sides of the ' ' lupog ' ' were a green 
herbaceous Piper with aromatic leaves resembling the Kava pepper of 
Polynesia (^Piper niethysticiim), a large aroid called " Papao " by the 
natives, and a number of ferns. One of these {.Polypodium ptaictatum) 
has simple leathery fronds dotted over with sori ; another resembles a 
tree-fern (Alsophila). Noticed also Pteris marginata, Asplenium falca- 
tum, A. laserpitiifoliion, and the common Aspidium tinituni. Ferns 
were also abundant on the trees, some of them climbing the trunks, 
others perched on the branches like huge birds' nests, and others form- 
ing graceful pendant tufts from the crotches of the limbs. Among the 



56 THE PI^ANT WORI.D 

climbing ferns of Guam, by far the most interesting is Huviata hetero- 
phylla, which was first described from this island and takes its generic 
name from the village of Umata (or Humatag) in the roadstead of which 
the ships used to anchor. Its sterile fronds are simple — the fertile ones 
are pinnately lobed and prettily crenated. I first saw this species on the 
shore of Pangopango Bay, Samoa. Other climbing ferns are Davallia 
solida ("Pugua machena"), with bright green glossy divided fronds, 
Polypodiuvi adnascens, with small simple, entire, linear-lanceolate fronds, 
and Polypodhan phytnatodes ( ' ' Kahlau " ) , with fronds like huge leathery 
oak leaves. Among the epiphytal species the most conspicuous is Asplen- 
ium nidus, the birdsnest fern, which the natives call "Galak," and 
associated with it are Acrostichuin spicatimi and the well-known sword 
fern Nephrolepis aaita and N. exaltata var. hirsutula, the long narrow 
simply-pinnate fronds of which hang down from the limbs most grace- 
fully, together with tassels of the grass-like Vittaria elongata and Ly co- 
podium phlegvtaria. Another interesting epiphytal fern is Ophioglossum 
pendtdum, called " Leston " (ribbons) by the natives. I have not vSeen 
a single Adiantum, Hymenophyllum, or Trichomanes on the island. 
The only epiphytal orchid I noticed was one with inconspicuous brown- 
speckled flowers (^Luisia teretifolia Gaud.) which was named by Gaudi- 
chaud after Don Luis de Torres of this island. The natives call it 
" Wild onion " (Seboya halom-tano). Another orchid growing on logs, 
practically without leaves, proved to be Taeniophyllum fasciola (Forst). 

From time to time we came to clearings in the forest, where natives 
were cutting down trees and clearing away thickets of screw-pine, Cycas 
circiyialis, and many kinds of undershrubs. When a forest is cleared 
they first plant taro, bananas, and plantains. Afterwards, as they get 
rid of the stumps, they plant corn (maize), and finally they establish 
their coconut groves, setting out the sprouting nuts neatly and regu- 
larly in rows. Sometimes they leave a huge banyan standing, perhaps 
because it is too much of an undertaking to cut it down. It is unneces- 
sary to leave shade trees in Guam for coffee and cacao plantations. 
Such clearings as we saw to-day are good fields for the collector of epi- 
phytal and parasitic plants. I looked for Dischidia puberula, which was 
collected on this island by Gaudichaud, but I failed to find it. Some of 
the plants of this genus are interesting from the fact that they have 
leaves modified into pitcher-like receptacles (ascidia). A succulent 
plant with three-nerved leaves was called by the boys Tupun-aytcyu 
(crabs-sugar-cane), owing to the fact that the vegetable-feeding Ayuyu, 
or robber-crab {.Birgus latro), is very fond of it. Susana has one of 
these crabs in the kitchen and is fattening it with coconuts for the table. 

Among the forest trees we saw several which I have not been able to 
identify — one called ' ' Yoga, ' ' with limbs spotted like our sycamore, and 



THE PLANT WORLD 57 

with buttresses around the base of the trunk, small oblong-lanceolate 
leaves growing thickly together, and fruit resembling large blue grapes, 
but tasteless and hard and eaten only by birds and flying foxes ; another, 
called "Katod," which is said to be poisonous, dust from the wood 
causing sores on tiie body, and a third, called "Hodda," upon which 
the black, starling-like Sali were feasting. It is evidently a species of 
Ficus. Its fruit resemble small red crab-apples, but they are fibrous and 
tasteless. Around the base of the trunk are branching aerial roots. 
I have not been able to identify the giant banyan, which the natives call 
Nunu." One of these trees which we saw at a place called Fanigayan 
was throttling to death an Ahgao tree. Its aerial roots had twined about 
the trunk of the Ahgao, and growing together wherever they came in 
contact, were clasping it tighter and tighter. The "Nunu" does not 
always begin life as an epiphyte. I have seen several specimens begin- 
ning to germinate on the edge of a cliff, one on a stone wall, and one on 
the ruins of a house of masonry. It is in no sense a parasite. The 
wood is soft and useless. The bark is tough and has been used for tapa- 
cloth. The juice is astringent and is used as a remedy for checking the 
flow of blood. Another Ficus, called "Taguete," or "Tagete," has 
aerial roots growing from the trunk but not from the limbs. Its wood 
is sometimes used as fuel. 

The Ahgao {.Premna gaiidichaudii) is sometimes called " Wild Elder " 
by the Spaniards, owing to the resemblance of its flowers to those of a 
Sambucus. An allied species growing in the Philippines is called Argao 
or Alagao by the natives and Sauco (Elder) by the Spaniards. The 
wood of the Ahgao is hard and very durable, though inclined to be 
crooked and knotty. It is much used in Guam for posts of houses — 
logs twelve feet long and a foot and a half in diameter are sometimes 
obtained. The leaves are about five inches, with petioles an inch and a 
half long. They are broadly ovate, shortly acuminate, entire and smooth 
when old. 

A second species of Premna growing on this island (P. mariannarum) 
has much smaller leaves. They are oval or nearly round, short-petioled, 
and are either obtuse or shortly acuminate, and somewhat cordate at the 
base. As in the case of many other Verbenaceae, these trees yield 
medicines. 

We passed patches of cultivation (principally maize and coconut plan- 
tations) belonging to Manuel Manalise, Vicente Agustin, and Juan de 
Ribera. At one place the road was covered with fallen spikes of small 
flowers of a " crushed-strawberry " color. They proved to be the inflor- 
escence of Entada scandens, a giant climbing leguminous plant belonging 
to the family Mimosaceae. It seems surprising that a plant with flowers 
so minute should have legumes as large as a sabre scabbard. These are 



58 THE PLANT WORLD 

woody and are indented on both sutures between the seeds. Each joint 
contains a large, circular, compressed, smooth, shining, brown bean, 
about two inches in diameter. They are often called " sea-beans," and 
are used sometimes for making snuff-boxes. The natives of Guam call 
the plant "Gaye," or by its Philippine name "Gogo," and the seeds 
" Bayog." The joints composing the pod break apart from each other 
and from the thickened sutures, which remain as a rigid empty frame. 
The stem often grows to the thickness of a man's arm and to the length 
of a hundred feet. When green it is tough, but on drying loses its 
strength. It is very saponaceous and in Guam as well as in the Philip- 
pines it is crushed and used for washing. In the West Indian plants the 
flowers of this species are white, but those I saw to-day were of a deep 
pink or strawberry color, as I have described them. The leaves are 
bipinnate, with few pinnae, and the rachis terminates in a tendril ; leaflets 
few, small, glabrous; flower spikes single or in pairs growing from axils 
of old leaves. 

At a place called Liguan, where the road was full of sharp coral-rock, 
we caught up with a boy leading a young buffalo. Slung across its back 
were several large bamboos filled with water.* It is interesting to note 
the absence of pottery among the aborigines of this island. In Mexico 
water-jars and gourds are used for carrying liquids ; in Samoa hollowed 
coconuts play the part of water-bottles ; but on this island the East 
Indian custom of making water- vessels out of large bamboos prevails. 
These are cut into convenient lengths, usually consisting of three or four 
joints, and the septa at the nodes are all removed but the lowermost. On 
the limbs of the trees overhanging the road there were numerous parasitic 
ferns, and at many places there were thickets of the screwpine called 
" Kafo " by the natives (^Pandayius fragrans) . On my hill-top property 
the trees of this species have short trunks which fork dichotomously ; but 
here in the forest the trunks of some rose straight and slender to the 
height of fifteen feet before branching. The Kafo is easily distinguished 
from the Aggak, or textile pandanus of the island iP. fasciailaris) by the 
color and texture of the leaves. Those of the Aggak are glaucous and of 
great tensile strength, while the Kafo leaves are bright green and are 
easily broken. A third species, the " Pahong," or knob-fruited screw- 
pine (^Panda?i7is dubius), has much broader and coarser leaves, too stiff 
and brittle for textile purposes ; though on some islands after being made 
flexible by heat they are woven into coarse mats of inferior quality. The 
drupes composing the large compound fruit terminate each in a point 
and present the appearance of a giant Fijian war-club head studded with 
blunt projections. Their kernels as well as those of the Kafo are edible, 
but they are not commonly eaten by the natives. The fleshy part of the 

*See Plate (frontispiece). 



THE PLANT WORLD 59 

drupes, which in some coral islands is a food staple of the natives, is never 
eaten in Guam. The textile "Aggak " grows here only in a state of 
cultivation, as it is represented on the island by only one sex and can 
not therefore propagate itself. In the same way the seedless breadfruit 
grows only where planted, while the fertile form of the species, called 
"Dugdug, " is one of the most common forest trees, often growing to 
great size. Specimens we saw to-day had buttressed trunks. 

We had now reached a terrace called the ' ' Egso Liguan, ' ' and changed 
our course from northeast to east. At one place the road crossed a ledge 
of crystalline limestone (marble?) into which the cart-wheels had worn 
ruts. In about an hour we climbed another terrace, the " Egso as Ad- 
das," beyond which we saw a plantation belonging to Juan Martinez, 
Chief of Barangay. We now left the road, so as to make a short cut 
northward to Mataguak, where Father Palomo's plantation is situated. 
On entering the narrow crooked path through the woods my hat was 
pulled off my head and my face cruelly scratched by the recurved thorns 
of a Pakao bush {,Guila7idina bonducella) . I stopped to pick a few of its 
prickly pods, which contain the stony seed sometimes called sea-beans 
or nicker-nuts. The Spanish name ' ' Unas de Gato ' ' (Cats-claws) seemed 
to me especially appropriate for this bush. The boys now brought me a 
number of small red berries called Otot, about the size of currants, each 
containing a single large seed with its testa longitudinally grooved. It 
is probably a species of Ardisia. They have a pleasant acid taste, some- 
what like that of tamarinds, but they are eaten only by birds. Another 
plant we found here ("Seyaihagon "), with broad cordate leaves having 
a deep basal sinus, and suggesting our stemless Asarum in its manner of 
growth, proved to be an orchid (^Nervilea arragoana) allied to our Po- 
gonias. Its succulent tubers are often chewed by the natives to allay 
thirst. I also found the pretty little creeping Rubiaceous plant Geophila 
reniformis, having white flowers and small red fruit like our partridge- 
berries. This is one of the few low plants growing in the woods of Samoa. 
Mrs. Stevenson collected it near Vailima, and thought she had found in 
its fruit a substitute for cranberries. 

After passing through the plantations of Joae Ariola and Mariano de 
Castro, where we saw some fine coffee plants and coconuts, we crossed a 
ridge and descended into a sheltered valley where the ground was moist 
and the soil looked rich. Here we saw some pretty fair cacao plants, 
but they were all planted too close (2 meters apart). On many of them 
the fruit had been damaged by rats. These are great pests on the island. 
During our trip to-day we saw hundreds of them in the woods. They 
were not timid, but would often sit up on their haunches like squirrels 
and watch us as we passed. They also do harm to maize and in a less 
degree to unripe coconuts. We were now very close to the Sabana of 



60 THE PLANT WORLD 

Matdguak. On the finca of Dona Rufina Quitugua we saw a fine grove 
of vigorous young coconut trees. Those on Father Palonio's plantation 
just beyond were too closely crowded. The trees were spindling and the 
fruit small. At the foot of the Sabana of Matdguak, where there is a 
small river and the ground is moist, we found an excellent piece of land 
which is apparently rich in clay ; and on our way back to the Yigo 
road we passed through much fine coffee and fairly good cacao. The 
finest coconut plantation of this part of the island belongs to Manuel 
Matanane, the son of Juan San Nicolas. In this the trees are very far 
apart and the intervening land has been cultivated for catch crops of 
maize and sweet potatoes. It was the intention of the owner to plant 
cacao between the rows, but he abandoned the idea. The coconuts though 
very young were large and vigorous ; some of them had begun to bear 
when three years old, while in other good localities five years is the usual 
age. The natives think these trees are too far apart. Usually trees are 
planted on this island at a distance of 5 or 6 meters from one another ; 
but 7 or even 9 or 10 meters are not too much. I noticed to-day that in 
the plantations where the intervening ground is not cultivated the natives 
are careful to keep the weeds clear for a radius of 2 meters about each tree, 
allowing them to remain lying on the surface to mulch the ground. 

We had now reached the district called Yigo, near Mount Santa Rosa. 
After a short visit to the fine ranch of Felix Perez, son of Don Gregorio, 
where we saw excellent coffee, cacao, and coconuts, we proceeded to Don 
Gregorio 's ranch. We arrived there about one o'clock, having walked at 
least fifteen miles by the route we had followed. 

[to be continued.] 



Plant Wounds and Natural Pruning. 

By C. E. Waters. 

Perhaps we do not always remember, when we go into the woods, 
that the trees with tall, clean trunks were not always so smooth and lofty, 
but started as small plants with branches near the ground. How is it, 
then, that there is so little evidence of those old branches when they 
grow larger ? The tree must be able, in some way or other, to get rid of 
them without injury to itself. This requires breaking the branch in some 
way, in spite of the fact that perhaps the greatest danger to which a plant 
or animal can be exposed is a wound by means of which bacteria may 
enter and cause blood poisoning or decay, as the case may be. Every 
healthy organism, whether plant or animal, is able to resist such attacks 
for some time, which is not a bad thing for the bacteria, as otherwise it 



THE PLANT WORLD 61 

would be like the bear living by sucking its own paws — there would soon 
be nothing but bacteria left to feed on one another. In our own bodies 
we have the white blood-corpuscles whose function it is to destroy any 
bacteria that may find an entrance into the blood. In some diseases 
infected spots are shut off from the rest of the body by layers of resistant 
tissue that keep the "germs" from getting into the general circulation, 
and in time causes their destruction from lack of food. Plants do not 
have white corpuscles, but it is certain that they have some means of 
resisting such attacks. 

Perhaps the simplest way of keeping out bacteria would be the drying 
of the tissues around the wound, and we find that this takes place fre- 
quently. The hard, dry cell walls do not easily yield nourishment to the 
"germs," as we know from the length of time seasoned timber lasts. 
Cellulose, which is the principal constituent of the cell-walls, is closely 
related to sugar, starch, glucose, and a number of gums, but it is much 
more resistant to the action of chemicals, and digestive fluids do not 
readily dissolve it. When the wound is fresh there is a greater chance 
that the cellulose maj^ be eaten away. After drying it resists the attacks 
long enough to give the plant an opportunity to strengthen its defenses. 
Among many cryptogamous plants this is the sole method of protection, 
while only a few phanerogams depend on it alone. As a rule, they 
produce a layer of " wound-cork " that cuts off the injured spot from the 
underlying parts of the stem. This is nearly a complete cure in the case 
of the more tender parts. Woody stems form a " callus " by the growth 
of the surrounding cells that afterwards form a corky layer. The new 
wood gradually spreads over the wound until the edges meet and 
coalesce. Outwardly it seems as if there had been no harm done, but 
the injured cells inside remain brown and dead, and can be seen until 
the decay of the tree, by cutting into the wood. 

When a thin section of the ' ' wound wood ' ' is examined under the 
microscope it is seen to be made up of nearly cubical cells that are quite 
unlike the usual elongated cells of normal wood. As the tree increases 
in diameter these wound cells become more and more like those of 
uninjured wood. 

Many plants possess strongly-smelling ' ' ethereal oils ' ' that play a 
part in warding off enemies that might otherwise use them for food. 
These substances are often contained in special glands or receptacles. 
The different gums and resins occur in similar canals and receptacles 
throughout the plant. One of their principal uses seems to be to flow 
out and cover up wounds, and in this way to prevent the entrance of 
injurious fungi or bacteria. Cherry-tree gum is familiar to all, and 
the resin on pines and the related trees will keep away almost anything, 
including bacteria, but a small boy with climbing proclivities. 



!f^/*. 



'^ir^ 



62 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

Most of the information here gfiven was obtained from Strasburger's 
" Lehrbuch der Botanik," but the subject was suggested by seeing some 
peculiar lumps on the trunks of beeches. There seemed to be no especial 
reason for their presence until it was noticed that nearly every one had 
either a dead twig protruding from it or showed some sign to indicate 
that one had been there. It is evident that a dead branch is in reality a 
serious kind of wound, for the decaying wood is in such close connection 
with the main stem that there is great danger of the infection being com- 
municated to the whole plant. When the dead branch breaks off close 
to the trunk the problem is practically the same as when the bark is 
injured, and new wood is formed around and over the stump and finally 
encloses it. Many of the " knots " seen in lumber are simply these old 
branches that were enclosed in this wa3^ They are darker than the 
surrounding wood because the}^ were exposed and had begun to decay. 
The lumps on the beeches showed what efforts the trees were making to 
cover the tiny dead branches. In some cases they were so successful 
that there was nothing on the surface to show that a twig was underneath. 
But when they were cut open it was all plain enough, and a little search 
revealed all stages, from twigs not yet buried to those with the tip still 
showing and then the final step when all trace was gone. In the course 
of time the knobs disappear, and there is nothing to show that they had 
ever been there, except when we cut into the wood and see the " knot." 

The beech is a tree whose branches are very responsive to light . One 
close in to the trunk will often grow only a small fraction of an inch each 
year, while another at the end of a prominent branch in the full sunlight 
may grow a foot or more in the same time. The winter bud-scales of 
the beech leave ring-like marks around the twig when they fall off, and 
by these we can tell the age of the branch. They are most conspicuous 
on the under side of the twig, for they seem to disappear sooner on the 
upper side, probably on account of the slightly more rapid growth there. 
Occasionally a twig scarcely a span in length will represent the growth 
of a quarter of a century, but this does not give a correct idea of the age 
of the tree, because most of the growth of the latter is at the top, where it 
has enough light. No doubt the twig started to grow when the tree was 
quite small, and it would be of interest to cut into the trunk of some 
dead tree to see just how far we can trace the branch. The main point, 
however, is that it is in an unfavorable situation, and in time succumbs, 
and at last breaks off. When the stump is short the tree has little diffi- 
culty in protecting the wound in the way already described. The longer 
stumps are the cause of the formation of the lumps seen here and there. 

The beech is not the only tree that gets rid of its superfluous branches, 
though we do not often see trees with such knobs as we have described. 
When a tree grows in the open it may have low branches in a healthy 



THE PLANT WORLD 63 

condition, but wherever they are crowded together the lower ones die. 
They are unable to receive enough light, and the upper ones do the work 
for the entire tree. As fast as they die and drop off the scar is covered 
as we have seen. Failure to do this properly and soon enough results in 
permanent injury, and the decayed portion spreads down through the 
trunk, giving in time a hollow. 



Frost-Weeds and Other Winter Notes. 

By Frederick H. Blodgett. 

To THE winter botanist there usually comes a hope, as he starts for 
his half-frozen swamp, that he may somewhere on his ramble find some 
one or more of the ' ' Frost-Weeds ' ' with their curious and beautiful 
crystals. It was the good fortune of the writer some time ago to be one 
of a small party of these winter ramblers, and to find a considerable group 
of the Dittany with frost crystals of ice in several forms, some of which 
were fortunately preserved as sketches, made directly from the speci- 
mens (see page 64). 

One of the most beautiful of the crystals seen was the one shown in 
the sketch as Fig. 1. This band of ice issued from the side of the stem 
at nearly right angles, and extended for a half inch in a nearly straight 
line. Beyond this point it curved to the left and downward so that the 
tip was a little lower than the under side of the band of ice as it issued 
from the stalk. In making this cur\^e the tip formed nearly a complete 
turn, as is shown in the figure. Along the concave side of the band 
there appeared a wavy line ; this was formed as a slightly raised portion, 
and was present on the one side only. In section the band was slightly 
triangular, as appears in the sketch. 

The second sketch shows a crystal which was almost flat for most of 
its length, but which formed a hollow, somewhat tubular expansion at 
the end. This is shown in the sketch, as is also the banding of the whole 
formation, by parallel lines of less dense ice, giving the appearance of 
darker material. The formation of the hollow end is a puzzle for which 
it would be hazardous to risk a guess, so the sketch is left to take care 
of itself. In the third case several ice crystals emerged from the same 
stem at nearly the same point and in their development assumed curves 
and irregular outlines to which it is difficult to do justice in a drawing. 
Figures 3 and 4 show two views of this specimen, one in front, the other 
in a position as if viewed from the point "a," Fig. 3. 

The day following the snowfall of January 10 showed some interest- 
ing features in places where there were steep slopes with a few trees or 



64 



THE PLANT WORLD 



shrubs at the top. The best one of several places observed was the cut 
on the Laurel trolley road between Langdon and the Queens Chapel 
Road. Here the cut is quite steep, and along the top there is a consider- 
able amount of shrubbery. The edge has a slightly overhanging position 
so that any body or object falling from these would strike the slope at 
nearly its steepest point. The snow falling from the shrubbery striking 




Figs. 1-4. — Frost-weed ice wings, reduced one-fourth. Fig. 4 is side view from point a 
of Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5. — Diagrammatic sketch showing formation of snow rolls on January 10. a, Sec- 
tion of roll, the center being the mass of snow which fell from vegetation at A. 



upon the steep part of the slope immediately below, adhered to the snow 
on the slope, and by its momentum started to roll down the side of the 
cut. The snow had melted just enough to make the formation of snow- 
balls easy, and as the ball started to roll down the slope the snow adhered 
together and rolled up very much on the principle of cotton batting. As 
the rolling mass was small at first, however, the actual shape assumed 
was very closely that of a snail shell. Helix, the more so as the snow 



THE PLANT WORIvD 65 

picked up by the rolling ball gradually widened as the bottom of the slope 
was reached. This natural ball rolling was so abundant on the side of one 
cut that much of the snow was removed in this way from the south side 
of the cut, and was accumulated as " snail-shells " at the bottom of the 
slope. Subsequent freezing weather preserved these odd formations for 
nearly or quite a week. The melting snow maintained the coils, melting 
fastest where the layers were in contact. The same thing occurred on 
some cuts along the B. & O. R. R. near Relay. 

The necessary condition for the formation of these snow rolls is a 
steep-topped slope, and shrubs or other plant growth from which snow 
can fall upon the steepest part of the slope, and the snow in a sufficiently 
moist condition to pack easily. Under these conditions the snow drop- 
ping from the branches of the plants will form the ' ' snail-shells " as it 
rolls down the side, sometimes tipping over when part way down the 
slope, or forming a slanting track on the snow. 

On the night of January 30 there was a decided fog covering the 
higher portions of College Park, while the lower portions were compara- 
tively clear. The next morning the objects which had been covered by 
the fog were thick with hoar frost. Plants, trees, wires, fences, and even 
the snow itself had the frosting of the night. The effect was as striking 
perhaps in the case of the grasses as with any other one group of objects, 
unless one excepts the twigs of Norway Spruce. The whole surface of 
the exposed objects was covered by the frost crystals, sometimes to a 
depth of a half inch. The frost was especially abundant on the north- 
eastern side of the trees or other objects. When these were first seen in 
the morning, the wind was blowing from the south, that is, against the 
clean side of the frosted wires or shrubs, but at midnight there was very 
little wind from any direction. It may be that the action of the southerly 
breeze through the night or early morning checked the formation of frost 
crystals on the more exposed side. 

In connection with the frost plants it may be noted that ice crystals 
are sometimes formed of a similar character but with no connection with 
any plant or other living thing. On January 3d curved crystals of ice 
were seen in the cracks of a sunken barrel forming the coping to a spring, 
which resembled in all respects those formed on frost- weeds. They were 
formed at places where there was a very slow flow of a small amount of 
water, which froze as fast as it reached the air, the temperature falling 
to 6° during the night. The curved forms that most of the crystals 
assumed was probably due to the water coming through the crevices a 
little faster on one side than on the other even of the same spot of leak- 
age, freezing as it came. That side of the crystal was made longer than 
the other on which the supply was greatest, assuming a convex curva- 
ture, while the slower-formed side was forced or formed into a concave. 



66 THE PIvANT WORLD 

The cluster so formed was made up of crystals extending in all directions 
from the source of water, but nearly all the crystals were curved away 
from the median line of the spot through which the water trickled, for 
the current of water, slow as it was, was a little faster at its center than 
at its edges," and as it froze as fast as it reached the air in either case, one 
side became convex, as already explained. From the median line as a 
center, the crystals radiated outward, forming complicated groups as 
those from adjacent centers approached or overlapped in their develop- 
ment. An effort to get a picture of the barrel showing the crystals was 
unsuccessful, owing to the darkness of the interior of the spring, but 
the effort will be repeated when the opportunity is afforded. The pres- 
ence of considerable sediment in the freezing water made the crystals 
nearly the same color as the surface of the barrel staves, between which 

they were formed. 
College Park, Md. 



A NEW organization called the American Breeders' Association was 
perfected at St. Louis December 29 and 30, 1903. It includes both animal 
breeders and plant breeders, also scientists who are interested in the study 
of heredity in plants and animals. 



To the Editor of The Plant World : 

Now that the late Mr. Henry E. Baum has given us a very interesting 
history of the introduction of the breadfruit into tropical America, will not 
some one give us a companion account of the origin of the cultivated 
banana ? Surely there are few subjects of greater interest or importance. 
Although some 200,000,000 of people are largely dependent upon the ba- 
nana for their existence, and though it figures in the diet of about one-third 
of the human race, its origin is still obscure so far as I can learn, and 
perhaps no plant is less well known in respect to the taxonomic relations 
of its hundred or more species and varieties. It is one of the four most 
important food plants of the present day, and its importance will consid- 
erably increase as we depend more and more upon the tropics to supply 
our needs. As soon as we begin to eat things for their nutrient values 
the day of banana flour will be postponed no longer. Let us hear how 
this magnificent plant found its way to the remotest corners of the torrid 
zone — we don't ask the author to attack the disheartening subject of the 
synonymy of the varieties if he will only tell us whether we must regard 
the plantains as of the same species as the true bananas. 

Mayaguez, Porto Rico. O. W. BARRETT. 



THE PLANT WORLD 67 

Briefer Articles. 



UWDRAPED TREES. 

Trees are perhaps as beautiful in their undraped condition as when 
clothed with foliage. Each has its peculiarity of branching and makes its 
own silhouette against the sky. I doff my hat to any grand old elm — one 
whose quaint branches twist and turn and writhe, like the locks of some 
mighty Gorgon. Such a tree is ever beautiful — now, when the limbs are 
bare ; in spring, when the brown buds cover it ; and in summer, when 
piled high with green. Note the magnificent buttresses of the trunk ! 

And how characteristic are the boles or trunks of trees, each as indi- 
vidual as a human face ! Take the mossy elm ; the clean gray, mottled 
beech ; the chestnut, smooth and polished when young, long scored 
when old ; the iron-wood, with its tense muscles standing out like those 
of a wrestler ; the oak, with its close intricacy of creases ; the hickory, 
with tough, resistant columns ; and the snow-white shaft of the ladj^- 
birch. 

Consider the various buds : How marvelous is their provision for pro- 
tection ! There are, for instance, those of the horse-chestnut, varnished 
without, and within packed with soft warm wool. The hickory has 
almost coriaceous scales ; a neat bundle in all cases. Here see the infinite 
variety of shapes, from the long-pointed bud of the beech to the insignifi- 
cant ones of the oak or the green and prominent ones of lilac. From 
these buds we can learn the future manner of branching, as also the 
position of leaves. The crescentic scars beneath the buds show where 
leaves once stood. If then the buds are now opposite, so were and will 
be the leaves. 

The fall of the leaf is a curious matter. Early in the season in many 
plants, our trees especially, there begins to be formed a line of separation 
between leaf -stalk and parent stem. This, as the season advances, grows 
deeper and deeper until finally the attachment is only nominal . Then mere 
gravity, the disturbance by wind or rain, serves to detach the leaf. If 
frost should occur, a layer of ice is formed in this incision, and all the 
leaves fall as by word of command. The piles of fallen leaves are them- 
selves interesting. Fresh, glossy, sweet-smelling at first, they soon 
become dry and wrinkled. Thoreau has compared some dried leaves, 
perhaps those of oak, to the tin and iron cuttings around a foundry. The 
likeness is often very marked. 

How infinite are the forms of these fallen leaves ! Nature, in fashion- 
ing them, indulges in the wildest vagaries and fancies. It is interesting 
to pick up some clean, well-marked leaf, like that of the tulip tree, the 



68 THE PLANT WORLD 

magnolia, or the sugar maple, and study its marvelous veining. See 
how, in many cases, the margin is reinforced to prevent lashing by the 
wind. This is done by arches and counter-arches. A skilful architect 
is here. 

Even now the woods are not devoid of green. Besides the pines, 
junipers, hemlock and the like, one finds mountain-laurel, rhododendron, 
princes-pine, pyrola, and the lovely club-mosses. Many herbaceous plants 
keep for a long time verdant. Indeed, there is no season when the 
forests are dull. W. W. Bailey. 



OUR OPPORTUNITY FOR "BEAUTIFYING THE HOME GROUNDS." 

Great interest attaches to the efforts which many are exerting to im- 
prove the appearance and attractiveness of their house grounds. While 
the efforts, in the past, mainly have been the easy ones of those having 
abundant means, the interest has belonged to all who have had oppor- 
tunity to see the improvements made. At present, the efforts are shared 
by a much larger part of the public, in some cases even to the point of 
self-denial. 

The widespread desire to-day to have neat, attractive grounds and 
yards is directly the result, in part, of the descriptions and illustrations of 
the beautiful in wild and cultivated Nature which are regularly coming 
before us in such journals as Country Life in Atnerica, and the department 
of " Beautiful America " in The Ladies' Home Journal. 

Another phase of the matter comes before us in the very practical 
paper "Beautifying the Home Grounds," by Mr. L. C. Corbett. This 
paper has recently appeared as "Farmers' Bulletin No. 185," issued by 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Mr. Corbett recognizes that the 
formal setting of extensive grounds is the privilege of but few, and ac- 
cordingly passes such conditions briefly. He does show that nearly 
every one who has any yard can make it a little paradise. 

It is probably true, or at least should be, that every reader of The 
Plant World has already begun to call in Nature's assistance to make 
his or her ' ' home grounds ' ' more pleasing by planting this or that group 
of some favorite plant. And our opportunity is what? To systematize 
the work till the available plot, large or small, is as attractive as the cir- 
cumstances will permit. But further, to encourage, yes, incite our 
neighbors to try their fortunes along similar lines. There is need, after 
necessities of life are provided, to produce the environment which shall 
be relaxing and cheering to all in the household. E. L. m. 



THE PlyANT WORLD 69 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



THE RELATIONS OF PLANTS TO BIRDS AND INSECTS. 

It may not have occurred to many of our readers to associate the 
movement for the preservation of our native plants with the work of the 
Audubon Association and the Entomological Department at Washington, 
but there is no question that much of the change in the number and 
habits of our native birds is due to the changes made by man in the 
extermination of the native plants on which they feed, and that many of 
the ifisedicides which are so largely in use in agricultural communities are 
made necessary by the destruction of the natural enemies of the insects, — 
the birds, — and that they in turn do much to drive the birds away. 
That the balance of life can not be disturbed in any given region without 
causing countless unforeseen changes is best illustrated by Darwin's story 
regarding the connection between the clover, bumble-bee, mice, cats, and 
old maids. The cat has also become a strong disturbing factor in the 
extermination of our wild birds, and combined with the destruction of 
native trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants the surroundings of all 
our cities and towns will account in a great measure for their disappear- 
ance. Some of the worst insect pests are not natives here, and it takes 
some time for the native birds to learn to like them. 

' ' It has been found that when the Colorado beetle or potato-bug 
started on its progress eastward, it met with but little resistance until it 
reached the State of Iowa. Here, so the story is told, a farmer noticed 
that after anointing his potato vines with Paris green a number of rose- 
breasted grosbeaks lay dead on the ground in the morning. He watched 
the birds and found that they were bolting the objectionable insects with 
avidity. The grosbeak was the pioneer, but as the years have gone by 
other eastern birds have conquered their distrust of the new food and 
relished it." 

The latest observations relate to the cotton boll weevil, which it has 
been found the mocking-bird will eat. It seems likely but for the great 
diminution in the number of mocking-birds the Texas pest would never 
have gained a foothold, or that with more stringent laws for protecting 
them the great problem of the Southwest is solved. It is also probable 
that ground-feeding birds such as the grackles and pipilos would probably 
accomplish quite as much. 

In 1896 the United States Government caused the food of the blue jay 



70 THE PLANT WORLD 

to be investigated. It was found that three-fourths of its food consists 
of vegetable matter and that the remainder was composed mostly of 
insects. It was found that they ate insects every month in the year, the 
percentage varying from one in January to sixty-six in August, and that 
large numbers of grasshoppers, crickets, and locusts, as well as the cater- 
pillars of the browntail and gypsy moths, are destroyed by them. 

There is no question that bushes and trees producing juicy edible 
fruits are very attractive to birds, and that robins, thrushes, and king- 
birds frequent the wild cherry, elder, dogAvood, tupelo, and viburnum 
and the tangles of blackberries as long as there is any fruit to be found. 
In the fall the goldfinch may be looked for in the woody tangles of 
composites among the golden -rods and asters and the chickadees on the 
sweet-gums and other native trees in the winter. We can not expect the 
native birds to remain with us if we destroy all the native plants and in 
place of their favorite food and nesting places give them cultivated trees 
and shrubs and smooth grassy lawns ! It makes very little difference to 
the birds what man does if he does not disturb them and leaves enough 
food and shelter. They will nest close to a railroad track with hundreds 
of trains thundering past, or settle in the midst of factories and overhead 
traffic, like the wild duck in the Genesee River at Rochester — if only the 
proper food and shelter is at hand. Elizabeth G. Britton. 



NOTES. 



Mr. Charles L. Pollard, former secretary of the Society, will lec- 
ture on wild flower preservation before the Brooklyn Institute on May 18. 
He has made extensive additions to his collection of plant photographs, 
some of which will be exhibited for the first time on that occasion. 

Arrangements have not yet been completed for the lectures to be 
delivered under the auspices of the Stokes fund of the New York Botan- 
ical Garden. A tour of various eastern cities will probably be made in May 
by some lecturer selected by the Garden on the recommendation of the 
Executive Committee of the Wild Flower Preservation Society. Full 
announcement will be made in the April issue of The Plant World. 

We have not received recent reports from our local chapters, and 
would urge the officers to send in accounts of their work for publication . 



THE PLANT WORLD 71 

Editorial. 



One result of the advance in our knowledge of plant development 
and relationships has been that many of the familiar old descriptive terms 
have entirely lost their technical applications and are now found only 
in popular usage. The chief reason for this state of affairs is that the 
botany of earlier generations was confined to the study of flowering 
plants. Little or no attention was paid to the hosts of fungi, seaweeds, 
and mosses that awaited examination, and such subjects as physiology 
and cytology were scarcely known. So it happened that botanical 
terminology was concerned almost wholly with the various organs of 
seed plants, all of which received special names based on their supposed 
analogies. But the development of the theory of evolution, in connec- 
tion with the discoveries of organs in the lower plants exactly corre- 
sponding to those of the higher, has rendered this class of words no 
longer applicable. Yet they are firmly grounded in popular usage, and 
we can not arbitrarily kill a word, though we may create a dozen better 
ones to take its place. Hence, the writers of modern text-books labor 
under the disadvantage on the one hand of using language that may be 
scientifically inaccurate, and on the other, of using technicalities beyond 
the comprehension of the readers whom they address. It is a difficult 
problem, in truth ; for in these days of lively interest in nature study, 
the public demands full information condensed into a few chapters — the 
wisdom of generations evaporated to the crystallizing point, and the un- 
happy' author is accordingly unable to digress from his subject to give 
needful explanations. Even the best of our books on descriptive botany 
give a distorted idea of plant affinities simply because they make use of 
worn-out descriptive terms. To illustrate this, let us consider the words 
"phanerogam" and "cryptogam," familiar to every one who has read 
even elementary botanical literature. Flowering plants, or seed plants 
as w^e prefer to call them, were originally called phanerogams (which 
means open or evident marriage) because within the more or less showy 
flowers were found what were supposed to be sex organs, called stamens 
and pistils. The transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil, the 
resulting fertilization of the ovules and development of the seeds, con- 
stituted apparently a simple process, entirely analogous to sexual repro- 
duction in animals. On the other hand, the ferns and all lower plants 
were seen to develop from spores, which were evidently without sex ; so 
they were called cryptogams, this word meaning a hidden or secret 
marriage. 

But what are the facts ? Modern science has proved to us that seed 
plants produce spores like all other plants ; that the stamens and pistils 



72 THE PLANT WORLD 

are not sex organs but simply give rise to the latter, and that the whole 
process of fertilization is so complicated, and the sex cells so minute, 
that it can only be studied with the aid of microscopes. So far from be- 
ing "evident" therefore, it is extremely obscure. On the other hand, 
the cryptogams afford plenty of examples in which the sex organs can 
be seen with very little magnification, and the process can be examined 
with ease. Even artificial hybridization has been performed with certain 
ferns. 

Now this teaches us that in using the common word cryptogam for 
one of the lower plants we are perpetuating an inaccuracy of the gravest 
kind. Yet, our literature is full of these examples. Of the many books 
which approach the study of plants from the popular aspect, we recall a 
few which are entirely free from the bondage of antiquated terminology. 
One of the best of these is Professor Coulter's "Plants," in which the 
relationships of the higher and lower plants are presented from the 
proper phylogenetic standpoint. This book also affords proof that an 
author need not be dry when he is accurate ; for it possesses all the fas- 
cination for general reading that comes with a clear and forceful presen- 
tation of the subject. More of these books are what we want in order 
to clarify botanical terminology and purge it of these relics of scientific 
antiquity. 



ABRONIA. 



When June days come and from each stream and pool 

The sun-heats weave a gauzy mantle cool 

That westward floats till, reaching mountains high, 

Leaves all its lace in crystals 'gainst the sky — 

So the Abronia, blossom of the Plain, 

Thro' all the day swells its sweet buds amain ; 

But as the sun sinks in the glowing west 

A subtle perfume stirs within its breast, 

And when the morning breaks with lark-notes gay, ' 

On all the desert sand-hills, brown and gray, 

It lies like driven snow to greet the day ! 

— Mrs. A. E. GOETTING. 

[All through the northern half of Colorado the white abronia runs rampant, feed- 
ing with its long tap-root below the desert ; but in Arizona the pink variety takes its 
place, far smaller and less fragrant. No seeds, scarcely, of this white one ever ger- 
minated, nor did I succeed in transplanting a single individual, even though with only 
seed leaves. — a. e. g.] 



THE PLANT WORLD 73 

The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by Dr. F. H. Knowi^ton. 

[The editor of this department will be iilad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature^ and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject.] 

Orchids. — It seems to be now demonstrated beyond any reasonable 
doubt that Osmunda roots are the best medium in which to grow orchids, 
since those who have given leaf-mold, "Jadoo," etc., a full trial have 
definitely abandoned them. Not that the orchids secure any special 
nourishment from the Osmunda roots, for such is not the case, but, by 
being practically indestructible, it prevents clogging and "out-put" 
which the other substances induce. But the plants, although called air 
plants, must have some source of food other than the air, and after re- 
peated experiments it has been shown that the Cookson formula has 
solved the question. This is as follows: " Three ounces of nitrate of 
potassium, two ounces of ammonium phosphate, by weight, dissolved in 
three gallons of water ; then one liquid ounce is used of this solution to 
each gallon of water applied to the plants." 

Calla Lilies. — The ordinary directions for growing this plant recom- 
mend, after the blooming season is over, that the pot be turned on its 
side in the shade and be permitted to dry out during the summer, shaking 
out the plants and repotting in the fall. The occasional recommenda- 
tions are to permit the plant to grow on during the summer, placing in a 
larger pot with such new soil as can be forced around it when it is time 
to bring the plants inside again. After full trial of both methods, I can 
only say that my success has been far greater with the latter than with 
the former. Two years ago I permitted the plants to grow on slowly all 
through the summer, and the following winter there were blossoms in 
profusion. Last summer the plants were dried out and repotted last 
fall, but the blossoms have been conspicuous by their absence. 

You can grow flowers anywhere, if you only know the proper kind for 
each location, says Country Life m America. There is no portion of the 
earth's surface that can not be covered by some kind of plant growth, 
nor a situation so desperate that it could not be redeemed with the life 
and cheer and color that flowers give. You have only to select the right 
variety of seed and you will find that there is no clay too tough, no sand 
too hot and dry, no rocks too devoid of soil, no winter too severe. If you 
have a swamp and are afraid of it, you can transform it into a water-lily 
pond or a bog garden. If you own a bit of woods you can fill it 
with wild flowers. In the heart of the biggest city a ten-inch hole can be 
made in the pavement, as they do in Boston, to cover the wall of the 
house with vines. The slums have their window-boxes, and houseleeks 



74 THE PLANT WORLD 

grow upon the shingles of a roof. Even the dump-heap that you pass 
daily need not be an eyesore. Put a package of sun-flower, poppy, or 
morning-glory seed in your pocket, and scatter the seed over the offending 
spot. And of all the people who enjoy the transformation, you will enjoy 
it the most. 

Early Flowers in Cold Frames. — If you will build a cold frame you 
may have violets, wall-flowers, forget-me-nots, and pansies in March, 
hepaticas " and trailing arbutus in April, together with wood-violets, 
wood-anemones, and the many other wild flowers, thus starting the 
flower season two months ahead. Again in October and November, 
when everything outside has been nipped by early frosts, the cold frame 
preserves a few choice heliotropes, begonias, Marguerite carnations, nas- 
turtiums grown in pots, scarlet sages ; and the queen of the autumn, the 
chrysanthemum, is seen in all her glory. — Country Life in America. 

Varieties of Potatoes. — During the season of 1903 nearly one hundred 
varieties of potatoes were tried on the trial grounds of American Garden- 
ing, and of these the following were selected as the winners : Extra 
early — Eureka, Early Snowball, Early Whiton, and Krine's Lightning. 
Early to medium — Early Ohio, White Ohio, New Queen, Red Triumph, 
Early Puritan, Early Michigan, Early Thornton, and Peck's Early, the 
last four being " highly recommended for the home and private garden." 
Medium to late — Potentate, Vornheim, King of Michigan, Chicago Mar- 
ket, and Great Dandy. Late and for general purposes — Green Mountain, 
Bonanza, Thiton's Mammoth, and Yellow Elephant. 

A New Fern. — Nephrolepis Scottii, the latest addition to the number 
of beautiful sports from the Boston fern, originated in the greenhouses 
of John Scott, Brooklyn, three years ago. * * * The habit of the 
plant is dwarf er and much denser than that of the typical Boston fern, 
the fronds also being shorter and less erect, their arching form giving 
a graceful, fountain-like contour to the plant. A remarkable uniformity 
in size and growth is noted in the fronds, which is carried out also in 
the character of the plants themselves when seen in numbers and in 
various sizes in the greenhouses. 

Mr. Scott states that the variety will not grow rank, even under exces- 
sive feeding. Notwithstanding its denseness, the fronds in the center of 
the plant do not grow long-jointed nor shed the pinnae, as is the case 
with the Boston fern when over crowded, and the reason for this is obvi- 
ous in the tough, leathery texture of the foliage. 

Its rapidity of increase is well -evidenced in a densely -packed bench 
of plants at Mr. Scott's Flatbush greenhouses, which was planted with 
single runners last August, and in the immense stock of the variety now 
held by Mr. Scott from what was. only three years since, one small plant 
with four fronds. 



THE'PLAN'T WORI.D 75 

It is no reflection on the other excellent forms of Nephrolepis exaltata 
already disseminated to say that this one is the first to come into danger- 
ous competition with the type known as the Boston fern. The Boston 
fern is distinctly the leading plant in the country for dwelling-house cul- 
ture, and its popularity in this line seems not to have suffered in the 
slightest degree from the recent distribution of two elaborately decorative 
forms. If it has a fault at all it is that under generous cultivation it is 
apt to attain an unwieldy size and become inconveniently large for the 
average room in a city dwelling. The compact, symmetrical growth of 
N. Scottii furnishes the ideal form, while its moderate size and its con- 
tentment under closely-crowded conditions will be appreciated when 
valuable bench-room is taken into consideration, and its hard-fibered 
fronds give assurance that it will withstand rougher treatment than its 
illustrious parent, all of which invests it with much promise as an all- 
around standard commercial plant. Mr. Scott is to be congratulated on 
his find, and the trade owes him its gratitude for this addition to the 
limited list of plants whose qualities fit them especially for popular 
favorites. N. Scottii is to be disseminated next June. — Gardening for 
February 1, 1904. 



Opportunities for those prepared to carry on independent study of 
special problems in botany are steadily becoming more numerous. The 
Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Tucson, Ariz., 
is especially planned for the study of xerophytic vegetation, and the 
Tropical Station of the New York Botanical Gardens, at Cinchona, 
Jamaica, for tropical vegetation. The expense involved is not excessive. 
For example : The cost for a trip to Cinchona, say from New York, in- 
cluding a six weeks' stay, is from $140 to $200 ; for two months, $10 to 
$30 more. L,ocal expenses in Tucson are very reasonable. 

A NEW plant has been discovered in South America which is said to 
contain twenty to thirty times as much sugar as the ordinary cane or the 
sugar beet, says Country Life in America. This plant, a' species of Eupa- 
torium, is an herb which grows eight to twelve inches high. Its pos- 
sibilities as a rival to the sugar cane and sugar beet are being carefully 
investigated. 

A USEFUL little pamphlet entitled ' ' Beautifying the Home Grounds, ' ' 
by Professor L. C. Corbett, appears as Farmers' Bulletin No. 185 of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. The suggestions are sound and easily 
followed, and the pamphlet should be consulted by every one who has a 
back yard or lot to cultivate. 

Mr. a. a. Heller has issued another installment of his periodical, 
Muhlenbergia, in which he publishes some new California plants. 



76 THE PIvANT WORLD 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. IvLoyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, 

A SIMPLE METHOD OF STUDYING ROOTS. 

A VERY satisfactory little arrangement for the observational and experi- 
mental study of roots has been used by me. It is made of a piece of glass, 
some sphagnum moss, a sheet of strong paper — which should be oiled 
or paraffined, the latter preferably — and a bit of string. Lay a good lot of 
the broken-up and cleaned moss on the glass, to which it is to be firmly 
tied by means of the paper and the string in such a manner as to leave 
the glass face uncovered, and one edge of the package, so to speak, open. 
Seeds may now be planted in the moss at any desired depth, against the 
glass. By placing the whole device in various positions, the corres- 
ponding behavior of the roots and shoots may be observed. All the roots 
can be made to grow against the glass by tipping it forward. Laying 
the glass on its face, the roots will wander here and there, seeking to 
penetrate the glass. By alternately tipping to the right and left (assum- 
ing the observer to be facing the glass) at intervals of one to three days, 
a wav>' tap root may be produced which will produce lateral roots only 
on the outer, and not on the concave, faces of the curves. If a piece 
of blue litmus paper is laid on the glass before the moss is adjusted, 
wherever the roots come into contact with it the acid reaction will be 
shown. 

This arrangement, it will be seen, replaces to some extent, at least, 
the ordinary root cage or box, which is of necessity more bulky and less 
adaptable for experimentation. Any desired position may be maintained 
by leaning it against a vertical surface, as a wall or the inside of a desk, 
provided that the glass used is small enough. Or a stand may be con- 
structed of heavy wire by bending it after the manner of a photograph 
frame stand. Another advantage lies in the ease with which any number 
of these may be had for the use of large classes, thus making it possible 
for each pupil to conduct his own experiments. Any suitable size may 
be chosen, uniformity in this regard being desirable in the case of large 
classes. 



DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN OBTAINED FROM PLANTS. 

Teachers of elementary botany who have attempted the experiment 
outlined in almost every text-book for the collection and determination of 
oxygen excreted by water plants have probably all experienced consid- 
erable diSiculty, if not failure, in carrying it out. They will therefore 
be glad to learn that a simple and effective method for this experiment 



THE PLANT WORLD 77 

has been devised by Professor H. M. Richards, of which he has very- 
kindly handed me the brief description found below. 

For a suitable plant from which to collect oxygen, Cabomba answers 
well, and may usually be purchased from dealers in gold fish, etc. If 
this is not to be obtained, however, any submerged plant will serve with 
varying degrees of efl&ciency, and Elodea has most frequently been used. 
It is of distinct advantage to enrich the CO 2 "content of the water 
by passing small bubbles through it from a generator, being careful, 
however, not to collect them ! The gas from the plant may be collected 
in the usual way, by means of an inverted filter, by displacement of water. 

''Operation I. — Collect gas sample from plant in a small (2 dram) vial. 

''Operation II. — Fill a glass tube closed at one end, say of 3-4 mm. 
diameter, and 30 cm. long, with mercury, and invert over a dish of 
mercury. 

Operation III. — Bring the mouth of the vial containing the gas sample 
to the lower end of the tube, under mercury, and dip it so as to allow the 
gas to enter the tube. Some of the gas will probably be lost, but this 
will not affect the result. 

"Operation IV. — Remove the tube from the mercury bath, closing it 
with the finger-tip and cautiously allow the mercury to escape while the 
open end of the tube is plunged in a solution of Pyrogallol and KOH, 
with the result that the mercury is now replaced by the testing solution. 
If this tube is now allowed to stand, the level of the solution will 
rise within the tube until all the oxygen has been absorbed, and in a 
successful experiment this should be more than \ (approximately) of the 
original volume of gas in the tube. If the end of the tube be tightly 
closed with the finger-tip it may be shaken to hasten the absorption of 
oxygen. 

This experiment may be done on a scale large enough for a whole 
class to see it." 

It may be added that the method of determining the amount of oxygen 
present by an absorbent has in my experience been found much more sat- 
isfactory than that of attempting to increase combustion, as of glowing 
charcoal. The greater weight of the mercury column introduces a slight 
error, which however may be disregarded. 



REVIEWS OF EDUCATIONAL LITERATURE. 

Some interesting results have been obtained by Dr. D. T. MacDougal* 
from the study of soil temperatures by means of a new type of soil ther- 
mometer known as the " Hallock Thermograph." Essentially, this 
instrument consists of a thermometer made of a large metal bulb and a 
long fine-bore metal tube, the upper end of which is attached to metal 

• " Soil Temperatures and Vegetation," Mo. Wtalher Review, August, 1903 



78 THE PLANT WORLD 

drums which move in accord with the expansion and contraction of the 
fluid (kerosene oil) which fills the thermometer tube and drums. The 
movement is transferred to a lever which writes the record on a revolv- 
ing cylinder after the manner of an ordinary thermograph. The records 
reported upon were obtained by burying the bulb at a depth of one foot, 
and had been carried along for fourteen months at the New York Botan- 
ical Garden. 

The maximum daily temperature of the soil occurs between 8 and 11 
p. M., and the minimum between 8 and 10 a. m. Since the most favor- 
able temperature for the absorption of water by roots is above the tem- 
peratures actually recorded, it follows that the conditions for the absorp- 
tion by roots of water from the soil is most favorable when plants least 
need it, viz, at night, and least favorable when they most need it, i. e., 
nearing mid-day. This helps to explain the great amount of water 
excreted by plants, as from grass leaves. 

During any twenty-four hours throughout a year the greatest amount 
of variation was only 2° C. (3.6° F.), and this only twice. The least 
daily variation occurred in winter and was 1° C. (1.8° F.). From this 
it is seen that the upper parts of plants are subjected to very much 
greater temperature variations than the roots, and the whole relation of 
leaf activity to root activity is thereby affected. Thus, the warming 
of the sap as it rises alters its ability to hold in solution the salts and 
organic materials. Descending currents, with organic substances from 
the leaves, meet reversed conditions. 

It is, further, of very great interest to know that, after December, the 
soil conditions become increasingly more favorable for root activities. 
The temperatures are little lower in February than in April or May, 
when the pushing out of new parts above ground is at its maximum. 
Comparative studies of different localities will certainly be of interest. 

A THOROUGHLY good piece of physiographic ecology has been done by 
Professor W. F. Ganong, whose results have appeared in the Bota?iical 
Gazette * Of recent years there has been a very considerable amount of 
attention given in the schools to geographic ecology, and the later text 
books designed for the high school have contained elementary presenta- 
tions of the subject. While I, for my own part, do not believe that much 
of value can be done in this direction with high school pupils, neverthe- 
less, a few things may be done well. This is, however, contingent upon the 
knowledge and experience of the teacher. But up to the present time 
comparatively few teachers have had the opportunity to study physio- 
graphic ecology under the guidance of a competent instructor. For 
such a summer's careful self-instruction might very profitably be under- 

* " The Vegetation of the Bay of Fundy Salt and Diked Marshes ; an Ecological Study." Botanical 
Gazette, September to December, 1903. 



THE PLANT WORLD 79 

taken to the very great advantage of both body and mind. A wise plan 
to follow is to take a good production as a standard. This should be 
carefully studied and analyzed, in order to get an orderly notion of what 
directions one's observations should take. With this as a starter, armed 
with a camera and collecting folio, an enthusiastic student of botany will 
accomplish a great deal. 

As such an example for study and emulation, the paper above 
referred to can be thoroughly well recommended. The more so because 
the author has very clearly pointed out, in his conclusion, the direction 
of study which should be followed in this kind of work. I may quote 
the leading sentences of this part of his paper which indicate these : 

"First. A collectiou and description of the actual facts as to the kinds of plants 
which occur in a given region, as to their visible features, and as to the way in which 
they are grouped. * * * 

"Second. An exact study and clear expression of the facts as to the physical fea- 
tures of the environment which can affect plant life. * * * 

" Third. There must be made a thorough study, not only of the structure and de- 
velopment of the important plants which give character to the different parts of a vege- 
tation, but also of their physiological characteristics quantitatively expressed. * * * 

"Fourth. A knowledge of the true nature of plant competition and co-operatiou 
is essential." * * * 

A pretty large task ! and yet it is quite possible for any one really 
interested to undertake the first of these. 

There is a feeling of gratification experienced by every one with the 
least touch of the historical sense in seeing and studying the work of the 
masters who have passed away. For this reason teachers of botany have 
to thank Dr. Grout* for bringing the classical figures of Schimper's " Re- 
cherches sur les Mousses " within their reach. The use of some of the 
plates of the " Bryologia Europaea " is no less to be commended. These 
beautiful and highly instructive drawings will prove of very great help 
to those who desire to study the general morphology of the mosses. 

An interesting paper on " Old-Time Flowers "t by Maurice Maeter- 
linck will be enjoyed by all who do not ignore the aesthetic aspect of 
plants. This article might very properly be used as a reference for high- 
school pupils' reading. It is prettily illustrated. 

We have received the announcement of the Alstead School of Natural 
History. Those who wish to have a few weeks of profitable field study 
of plants and animals under guidance could hardly find a more delightful 
locality than this in southern New Hampshire. Information may be had 
by addressing Mr. William L. W. Field, Melton, Mass. 

* " Mosses with a Hand Lens and Microscope." Part I, |i.oo. Published by the author, 360 Lenox 
Rd., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

t The Outlook, 76 : 319, February 6, 1904. 



80 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

J. M. Thorburn & Co. have issued their seed catalogue for 1904. 
This is a brochure of 144 pages, with the contents arranged in alpha- 
betical order, and contains a great amount of valuable information. 
Those who are fortunate enough to teach in schools with gardens can 
not do more wisely than to use this catalogue as a basis of choice of seed. 
It is certainly the most scientifically arranged and compiled trade pub- 
lication relating to plants issued in America. 



Book Reviews. 



The Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution. 
By Frederick V. Coville and Daniel Trembly MacDougal. Publica- 
tion No. 6, Washington, U. S. A. The Carnegie Institution, Novem- 
ber, 1903. 58 pp., 29 full-page illustrations, 4 figs. 

A most important account of the deserts of North America has just 
been issued by the Carnegie Institution under the above title. It is im- 
possible in a few words to review fully this splendid paper, but we may 
take occasion to say that teachers who have not enjoyed the experience 
of seeing desert vegetation for themselves will find in it a most vivid por- 
trayal of its chief general features. The illustrations are unsurpassed, 
and would serve admirably to beautify the laboratory wall when properly 
framed in groups. The educational value of the paper is enhanced by 
the historical and economic descriptions. Geography teachers, for ex- 
ample, would find the account, accompanied by figures, of the develop- 
ment of our geographic knowledge of the deserts very valuable. For 
the first time an account of the Indians' method of obtaining water from 
the cactus for drinking is given. This is another work which should find 
its way to the school reference library. F. E. L. 

The Physiology of Plants. A Treatise upon the Metabolism and 
Sources of Energy in Plants. By Dr. W. Pfeffer. Second fully re- 
vised edition, translated and edited by Alfred J. Ewart. With many 
illustrations. Volume II. Oxford : The Clarendon Press. 
It is a pleasure to welcome the second volume of Professor Ewart's 
excellent translation of Pfeffer's scholarly work, corresponding to Theil I 
Band II of the German edition. This part deals with growth in its va- 
rious phases ; with the influence of external conditions on growth ; the 
differentiation of cells and organs ; reproduction, variation and heredity ; 
and the power of resistance to extremes. 

The book was reviewed in these pages at the time of the appearance 
of the first volume (see The Plant World 3, 112), and it is only neces- 
sary to add that the second volume is equally attractive in binding and 
typography. As the author himself has said, the work is in no sense a 
text book but a complete presentation of our knowledge of plant physi- 
ology at the present day. C. L. P. 



The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII APRIL, 1904 No. 4 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XVI I.* 

By William E. Safford. 

Don Gregorio's house is situated near the foot of Mount Santa Rosa. 
It is one of the best country houses on the island, having a corrugated 
iron roof and a floor of " ifil " wood {hitsia bijtiga). It is raised six 
feet from the ground on posts and is surrounded by a few ornamental 
Codiaeums and bushes of scarlet Hibi.scus. Near the house there is a 
Carambola tree {Averrhoa carambola) , which the natives of Guam and 
the Philippines erroneously call ' ' Bilimbinis " or " Balimbines ' ' ; and 
one of the few grape-vines growing on the island, bearing large white 
grapes of not very good quality. 

While Dona Rosa and her daughters were preparing dinner for us I 
lay down in a hammock to rest and dropped off to sleep. For a pillow 
Dona Rosa gave me a cushion of red cotton stuffed with the floss of the 
silk-cotton tree (^Ceiba pentandra), which the natives call "Algodon de 
Manila." When dinner was ready I was called and my hammock 
unslung to make way for the ifil-wood table. This wood is somewhat 
cross-grained and is not easy to plane and polish. Both the floor and 
the table had rough patches in places, where the grain of the wood ran 
the wrong way. There were few chairs and no bed in the house. We 
sat on a bench to eat our dinner. In their country houses the natives 

* Continued from the March issue. Beg^un in September, 1902. 



82 THE PLANT WORLD 

usually spread their mats on the floor at night and sleep there. This is 
not unhealthful, since the entire house is raised from the ground. 

Our dinner consisted of a savory stew of tender young chickens, some 
venison from the neighboring forest, soft-boiled eggs, taro and yams, 
together with some of my Susana's good bread which we had brought 
with us. Don Gregorio is Susana's brother. As Gobernadorcillo of 
Agaria he is very efficient. To-day he was obliged to investigate the 
cause of the death of a native whose body was found lying beneath a tree 
near one of the southern towns of the island ; and consequently he could 
not come with us as he had intended. For dessert we had some bananas 
of the variety known here as ' ' Platanos de Manila ' ' and some excellent 
oranges. The latter are so plentiful that tons of them are now lying on 
the ground rotting. Even the pigs are tired of them and will no longer 
eat them. If sugar were cheaper I think it would pay to manufacture 
orange marmalade on a large scale for exportation to the United States. 
Dona Rosa gave me a carambola to eat — a pellucid, green, oblong fruit 
with five angular longitudinal ridges, giving to a cross-section the shape 
of a five-pointed star. Within, it is of the color and consistency of a green 
cucumber, and it has a pleasant sweet-acid taste, somewhat like that of 
goose-berries. Very good tarts are made of the fruits and in Guam the 
natives sometimes make dulces by boiling them with sugar. 

After dinner we walked to the top of Santa Rosa Mountain, a volcanic 
hill not much more than one thousand feet high. Its crater may still be 
traced, though its edge has been much broken down in places. The 
immediate vicinity of Santa Rosa is devoid of trees. The soil consists 
largely of clay and in places resembles red ochre. It is very fine, and 
when wet of a pasty consistency. Unlike the coral platform of the 
" mesa," it retains water and can not even be drained. On our way up 
the slope of the mountain, noticed several buffalo wallows in which the 
red, muddy water stood as in a tank. The vegetation consisted chiefly 
of sword-grass, or " neti " {Misca?it/ins floridulus) , the cutting edges of 
which are found under a lens to be armed with minute sharp teeth. 
There are many areas like this, situated principally on knolls or high 
lands. They are usually entirely devoid of trees or have only a sprinkling 
of iron-wood {.Casuarhia equisetifolia) growing upon them. Here they are 
called "sabanas." Noticed some patches of a coarse labiate, called by 
the natives " Batunes " {Afesosphaerion capitattan) , with straight rough 
stems and globular axillary heads of small flowers with hispid calyces. 
Found several ferns, including the widely-spread Gleichenia dichotoma, 
also patches of Lycopodiiun cernuum, which I had before collected in the 
Hawaiian Islands (the ' ' Wawae-iole, " or ' 'Rats-foot, ' ' of the Hawaiians) . 
These plants grow on the slopes and top of Santa Rosa. Two of the 
most interesting plants on Santa Rosa were shrubs which I had often 



THE PLANT WORLD 



83 



before seen growing near the edge of the sea. One of them iPemphis 
acidula), called "Nigas" by the natives, is a bush with grayish pubescent 
branches and small sessile, crowded, densely pubescent leaves. Its small 
axillar>' pinkish flowers have a regular six-parted campanulate calyx 
and 6 petals, alternating with the calyx-segments. The calyx is 




Flowering branch and detached flower of Scaevola kofnigii. 



12-ribbed. and between the segments there are small intermediate teeth ; 
stamens, 12. 

The other sea-shore plant was Scaevola koenigii, called ' ' Nanaso ' ' by 
the natives, a large bush woody below, with cylindrical smooth green 
branches, obovate leaves tapering at the base and having a stout midrib; 



84 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

flowers with white tubular corollas, at first regular, but soon opening by 
a slit down the side and forming the shape of a miniature five-lobed fan. 
Corolla lobes thick and stiff at the middle part, but with the edges thin 
and more or less toothed and ciliate ; style strongly curved, hairy, pro- 
truding through the slit in the corolla tube ; stigma with a ciliate cup 
surrounding it; drupe oblong-globose, lobed, white, crowned with the 
persistent calyx-segments and containing a bony two-celled stone. These 
two plants are found on the coasts of many tropical countries. They 
usually grow close to the edge of the sea. It is evident that they are not 
necessarily salt-loving species, since they reappear on the high sabanas. 
They are entirely absent from the forests : the conditions favorable 
to them seem to be plenty of sunlight, wet soil, and a free sweep of the 
wind. 

From the top of Santa Rosa we had a view of nearly the entire island. 
Nearly due east (per pocket compass) we could see Punta Mate ; nearly 
west, Punta Hilaan ; to the northeast, Punta Anao ; farther to the north- 
ward, Punta Ivafag ; a little west of north we could make out the point 
of Taga, below which there is a sandy beach called Talague, or Tarragui, 
and in the precipitous side ("ladera") a cave ("liyafig"), inhabited by 
swifts (^Colocalia fucipkaga) , called " Yaydguag " by the natives. The 
northernmost point of the island, Letegyan (called "Ritidian" on charts), 
we could not see on account of intervening high land. About west-by- 
north we could see the Sabana of Mataguak, which we had already 
visited ; nearly west-southwest, Tomhon, or Tumhun Point ; about 
southwest-by-south, the rounded hill of Tuyan, or "La Barrigada," 
shutting out the city of Agaiia from our view, but not Asan point, 
beyond it. We could also see the Vigia back of Agana, and beyond 
this the higher mountains near Agat. Nearly due south my com- 
panions pointed out Punta Luhuiia ; to the south-southeast, Punta 
Hanom ; and about southeast-by-east a hill close to the sea, near 
which my guide, Vicente Taitano, has his rancho. Looking toward the 
southern end of the island along its east coast, we could make out 
Punta Asiga beyond the Talofofo River, bearing nearly south-southwest ; 
just inside of this, Punta Ipan, north of the mouth of the Talofofo 
River ; then Punta Ilig, and, much nearer to us, Punta Pagat ; and 
about southwest, just to the left of the slope of La Barrigada, Punta 
Taugan. Down below us to the westward we could see the house of 
Dofia Joaquina de Kaminga, my guide's god-mother, and a little nearer, 
on the edge of the treeless sabana, the ranches of Jose Flores and his 
father, Don Manuel. Don Manuel Flores is the father-in-law of Don 
Gregorio Perez, our host. The two families are now having a bitter 
feud over a large tract of land granted to Don Gregorio, situated in the 
northeastern extremity of the island, lying north of an east-and-west line 



THE PLANT WORLD 85 

through Punta Lafag and to the eastward of a north-and-south line 
passing through the point where the road descends the cliff on the north 
coast to Talague. 

I have given the preceding bearings thus in detail because I have 
been unable to make them plot on any of the charts of the island I have 
seen. It seems to me that the whole east coast of the island has been 
imperfectly survej'ed ; the position of Santa Rosa as indicated on the 
charts is certainly wrong. It should be plotted much nearer the east 
coast of the island.* 

While we were looking northward the misty horizon suddenly cleared 
and we saw the island of Rota very distinctly. This is the next island to 
Guam in the chain of the Ladrones or Marianne Islands. It was fre- 
quently the place of refuge in the early days for natives who were driven 
from Guam by the persecution of the Spaniards. At the time of its colo- 
nization the northern part of the island was thickly populated ; now it 
has not a single village; only the names of their sites have survived. 
In the reports made by the early missionaries it is recorded that in the 
year 1674 churches had been built in the villages of " Ritidyan " and 
Tarragui ' ' and the natives of those villages plied themselves dili- 
gently many hours each day and even a great part of the night to the 
study of the Christian doctrine. Their zeal was undoubtedly increased 
by the burning of a number of villages of which the inhabitants had 
refused to accept the teachings of the fathers and had harbored enemies 
of the faith. The little children never tired of singing prayers and 
hymns, and the fathers translated some of the principal mysteries into 
verse in the language of the island. These couplets the natives sang as 
they walked along the roads by day and in their houses and villages by 
night, "the sweet name of Jesus and Mary resounding on all sides where 
so few years before these words had never been heard." The facility 
with which the children learned was marvelous ; in less than two 
months, says Padre Garcia, they knew all the prayers and couplets of 
the Christian Doctrine and such other articles of faith as they were 
capable of mastering. The older people learned the doctrine also, though 
it took them much longer to do so, and little by little the chanting of 
myths and traditions of their ancestors was replaced by the singing of 
sacred songs taught by the missionaries. 

The following pages I take literally from the annual report of the 
missionaries for the year 1674, published at Madrid in 1683, in the work 
of Padre Francisco Garcia already cited. They will illustrate without 
comment the methods used in converting these simple people who had 
so kindly welcomed the Spaniards to their little island : 

•A map of the island of Guam will be published later in this series. 



86 THE PIvANT WORIvD 

' The quickness and facility in learning were aided much by the 
emulation which the natives of one village had with those of another, as 
to which knew best the doctrine, challenging each other to those holy 
contests at which the padres assisted as judges. When one village goes 
to another in response to a challenge, the padre of the residence arranges 
a solemn procession. The banner of the doctrine goes in front, the 
boys following on one side and the girls on the other ; and after them 
the men and the women in the same order. The boys and girls wear 
wreaths of flowers or leaves on their heads, and palms in their hands, 
and white garments, which are the prizes given by the padres to those 
who learn the best. On the road they sing prayers and sacred songs 
with such modesty and composure that it seems a procession of angels. 
On arriving at the other village the padre of that residence comes forth 
to meet them with a like procession. Afterwards in a public and roomy 
place they have their contest of prayers and mj^steries, and when this is 
finished they receive their prizes, engaging in decent sports, and return- 
ing well pleased to their village, wishing for another day of contest so 
that those who have not won distinction this time may seek satisfaction 
later. Of these and other holy devices the ministers of the gospel avail 
themselves so as to facilitate the instruction of these poor islanders. 

" The missionaries wishing that this education should spread over the 
whole island, the Sargento-mayor [Don Damian de Esplana] tried to per- 
suade the hostile villages to peace, particularly the village of Tumhun, 
where they had martyrized the venerable Padre Sanvitores ; for many vil- 
lages would follow the example of this one for good, as they had before 
followed it for evil. It was apparent, according to the maxims of the 
venerable Padre Sanvitores, that all pious means should be attempted 
before using force, and that they should avail themselves of persuasion 
before arms, though they say the danger which always exists is that these 
barbarians mistake piety for cowardice. Thus it now happened that they 
paid no attention to the proposal of the Sargento, who marched upon the 
village of Tumhun and entered it on the 14th of November. He found 
it vacant, for the Indians had retired. He attacked a boat, followed it a 
good distance, entering the sea with his horse, which swam until he 
reached it, and lifting a half moon which he carried in his hand he slew 
the man who was steering, the same who several years before had put to 
cruel death Damian Bernal. Others who tried to escape by jumping into 
the water he made prisoners, and he ordered the dead Indian to be quar- 
tered and placed between two poles as a warning to the rest ; and having 
set fire to the whole village he returned to the presidio. 

After such good success he determined to pass to the northern 
islands of the group in order to punish .some delinquents who were there 
and to smooth the way for the Evangelical Ministers ; but when he was 
about to leave he received news that the Indians of the forest allied with 
those of Chuchugu and their confederates had determined to kill all the 
padres remaining on the island as soon as he had gone ; and these rumors 
and panics grew with the death which they inflicted upon one of our 
friendly Indians without other apparent cause than of his friendship for 
us. The Sargento regretted it much, and on the 17th of December he 
marched against the rebels of Chuchugu and Mapaz, which he considered 
to be chiefly responsible for this death. He fell upon them suddenly and 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 87 

attacked some ranches which the natives had built in the midst of the 
forest, as they dared not inhabit their former villages. Don Joseph de 
Tapia killed one and the rest escaped. Don Damian wished to punish 
other villages, but desisted owing to the prayers of some Indians and 
hoping that these chastisements would suffice to move them to peace. 
In these wars, besides the hope of copious fruit in the future, the Ivord 
gathered some in the present time in baptisms of children performed by 
Padre Thomas Cardeiioso, who accompanied the Mariano squadron. 

"A new temple was built in the village of Tupungan ; and on ac- 
count of the devotion of the Sargento-mayor it was dedicated to Santa 
Rosa, from whom he had received particular favors. More than three 
hundred persons assisted at this church with notable benefit from the 
Doctrine ; and with this work was brought a close the year 1674, which, 
though very bloody at the beginning, was very happy at the end, many 
baptisms having been performed during its course, and a greater harvest 
being promised for the year to come." 

[to be continued.] 



Nature Study as a Training for Life. 

By Jean Broadhurst. 

The duty of the school to prepare the child for life is now questioned 
by no one. It is therefore somewhat surprising to find that the subjects 
best fitted to do this are either ignored or handled in the way least likely 
to secure such a result. 

Success in life depends primarily upon the power to think. This in- 
cludes the ability and the willingness to see things as they are, to compare 
them, to eliminate the unnecessary details, to estimate correctly the in- 
fluences exerted by or upon them, to interpret and to forecast results. 

Educators have claimed that arithmetic offers the best training for all 
this and that the solution of arithmetical problems insures competency in 
solving the problems of life. Can this be true when in no department of 
life — whether commercial, professional, or scientific — are the problems 
that confront us capable of being stated so explicitly, dependent on so 
few conditions, and never influenced by forces not included in the initial 
data ? In life, can deduction be safely made from so few instances ? 
Are the results ever so easily and definitely predicted or so readily and 
truly interpreted when attained ? Real problems are rarely settled defi- 
nitely and quickly ; questions must be held in the mind, new evidence 
must be gathered and judgments must be revised. 

No subjects are better adapted to accomplish this than the natural 
sciences. Here we find an abundance of material. Because of its abun- 
dance, its very complexity, the ease with which varying conditions may 



88 THE PLANT WORLD 

be applied, the interdependence of individuals, the interrelation of physi- 
cal laws, the inability surely to forecast results, and the difficulty in read- 
ing many of them correctly, all prove these sciences of great value for 
the training needed. Here the child may and should use the methods 
he will be forced to use later. Here the child may become an original 
investigator ; the pupil who completes successfully one piece of work 
must assume the attitude of a scienti.st toward a new invention, a busi- 
ness man toward a new venture, or that of a professional man in adopting 
a new method. 

Believing this, the following experiment was made with a class of 
seventh grade (year) boys. There were seventeen in the class, from ten 
to fourteen years of age, and showing the usual range of mental equip- 
ment and facility. Beside the language-nature work, the class had had 
little work of the kind, especially in the grammar grades. This was due 
to certain conditions beyond control ; not because the subject was not 
part of the course of study. 

The boys were told that they were going to make a tree book — one 
that their people at home could use to name the trees. The tree books of 
Professor Apgar and Miss Keeler were held up and the illustrations shown, 
but the keys or text were not shown nor referred to in any way. The 
books were shown for the sake of the illustrations and to make the pupils 
feel that the subject was worthy of effort. The class decided to make a 
collection of leaves instead of drawing the leaves — a fortunate decision, 
as they found it often necessary to refer to the leaves to correct errors or 
to add omitted points. 

At the school store the pupils purcha.sed a package of unruled paper 
for five cents and a manila cover (two for one cent). The paper and 
the cover were perforated by two holes on one long side, but not tied 
together until the work was completed. The leaves of various trees 
were provided for the class. The class worked two hours a week, or 
four periods of forty minutes each, of which ten minutes was usually given 
for a study period. The work described below made a series of eighteen 
lessons. 

Most of the work was individual work, but the class thought over the 
suggestions or criticisms of any member, accepting or rejecting them as 
the majority thought best. 

The silver maple and the sugar maple were taken first. The boys 
began by writing full-sentence descriptions. Terms were given them 
only when needed ; the boys were allowed to use any word their expe- 
rience suggested (as wavy instead of sinuate, etc.), it being the thing, 
not the term, which is important. Before all had finished the two trees 
mentioned above one boy said that it would take a long time to write 
about very many trees and even longer to name them from pages of 



THE PLANT WORLD 



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THE PLANT WORLD 



written matter. To this the answer was made that they might use a 
better way if they could find one, and the boys were asked to hand in 
suggestions the next day. Among the other papers was the following : 
1st leaf. 2d leaf. jd leaf. 

Description. Description. Description. 

Compare first. Compare first and second. 

This the boys would not accept, as it would take even more space and 
work than the old way. The author claimed that the important part 
was the comparison and that alone could be read. No use was directly 
made of this, but it led to a discussion in which the condensed form in 
which the daily school program was arranged suggested a model where 
the leaves might be at once described and compared, and the following 
form was offered : 



Size . . 
Color . . 
Veining 
Placing 
Shape 
Edge . 



First tree. 
Silver maple. 



7 m. 

Gr. white below. 

Radiate. 

Pairs. 

Five-lobed. 

Irreg. toothed. 



Second tree. 



Third tree. 



The boys had all been holding their books vertically, and the objec- 
tion was at once made that but three or four trees could be done on one 
page. Next came the proposition to place the topics across the page and 
the names of the trees vertically. This was followed and four or five 
trees were described in this way, one working at the board and the rest 
in their books. Soon the boys found that there were more things worth 
mentioning than the points before mentioned. Upon their suggestion 
another column was made down the right edge, which was headed 
" Remarks," and contained such data as " often has gall strings " and 
*' is round between teeth." 

At this point the class began to do individual work ; four pupil 
teachers were asked to help in distributing leaves or occasionally to give 
a word after a pupil had defined the condition which demanded a new 
expression. 

When about fifteen leaves had been described in this way, one of the 
books was taken at random, and one description read aloud without 
the name. Some thought the tree described was the beech, others the 
chestnut. Several books were consulted and in many the two descriptions 
varied only in size. Other descriptions were found to be very similar. 
Naturally the pupils were asked, " Are these leaves alike ? " "Where do 
they differ ? " " What does your book lack ? " " What do you suggest ? ' ' 
" What shall we head this new column ? " Here the columns, base, tip, 
and leaf -stalk were added. 



THE PLANT WORLD 



91 



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92 THK PlyANT WORLD 

When compound leaves were first described (Hickory, No. 19) the 
class added a column headed "Kind," in which to note whether the 
leaves were simple or compound. A separate column was also added for 
lobes or leaflets. 

By this time all the class had found the page too narrow for the num- 
erous headings and they copied the descriptions holding the books hori- 
zontally, or with the greater length from left to right, and drawing the 
vertical lines over two pages at once, as the book lay open upon the 
table. The third and fourth sheets were done in the same way and when 
being used were often detached and placed below the first two sheets, so 
that all four were in view at once. 

Most of the class thus described twenty-four trees, the descriptions 
being individual work mainly. The three or four sheets made a great 
deal of reading matter to read if one wished to name a tree, and one boy 
suddenly objected, saying that one might have to read nearly every 
description before striking the one desired. This was exactly what was 
wanted : first, to make the pupil see in what his work lacked ; and second, 
how to correct it. This same pupil said that if he had put the evergreens 
on one sheet and the deciduous trees upon other sheets the work of naming 
would be easier. The class, of course, objected strongly to recopying 
the mass of material, and so were led to devise the plan of putting in 
front of the book a page which should be divided into two columns — one 
for evergreens and one for deciduous trees. If the leaf to be named were 
evergreen, it would be necessary to read the descriptions of evergreen 
trees only. Here, those who had not previously numbered the names of 
the trees saw the advantage of doing so. It was at once noticed that this 
division helped materially with evergreens, but did not help with decidu- 
ous trees. " What can we do for this group ? " was the next question, 
and the class decided to divide deciduous leaves into simple and com- 
pound leaves. (That this was the next suggestion may have been chance, 
or because there were .so few compound leaves in the series used.) Here 
again the compound leaves were easily named, but it took a long time 
to name a simple leaf from the descriptions, and the simple leaves were 
divided into single and opposite. In the same way the single leaves were 
classified as lobed, entire, and not entire. These sheets were placed in 
front of the descriptive pages. 

At this stage the supervisor of the Boys' Department was asked to 
come into the class-room and try to name a leaf from the boys' books. 
He selected a chestnut leaf, and acting as if it were unknown to him, 
had the boys show him how to use the book, and traced it from " decidu- 
ous " to " simple, ' ' then to ' ' single, ' ' and then to ' ' not entire. ' ' Under 
the "not entire " leaves were listed — 4, poplar; 5, beech; 7, chestnut; 
9, oak; 10, witch hazel ; 14, sweet birch; 11, elm. The supervisor failed 



THE PLANT WORLD 93 

to find the name, as the book used had " 7, chestnut," described as heart- 
shaped at the base. The class corrected this mistake, showing their 
books and pressed leaves as proof. 

Next, the descriptions of a few trees were read from Gray's botany 
and names supplied by the class. They then corrected the sizes of some 
of the leaves, as the sizes given by the pupils were based upon one or 
two leaves only. 

Later, a professor from another department, who was nevertheless 
interested in work of the kind, used the books before the class, and found 
them to work fairly well. He then tried to name a leaf not described by 
the boys, but could not, thus proving the work reasonably definite. Some 
small faults — such as too great abbreviation of words without an explan- 
atory key, or the using of one symbol for different words, as R for ' ' round ' ' 
and also for " radiate," were noted. 

The good results obtained by such work are, first, the accomplish- 
ment of a definite piece of work ; and second, training of the kind most 
needed for real life and success in the world. The boys found that mis- 
takes, lack of detail, and neglect of essential characteristics meant poor, 
unsatisfactory results. They were forced to ask themselves, "Why is 
this poor? " and to find a way of correcting the lack or mistake. They 
could but see the evil of generalizing upon too few instances, and the 
need of revising judgments. 

The work with trees is ordinarily limited to recognizing the various 
kinds. The boys gained that, without a doubt, and much more, not the 
least important being the power to classify this knowledge. 
N. J. Normal and Model Schools. 



The Beginning of Spring in Florida. 

By H. Nehrling. 

Spring-time in the northern parts of our country is usually very 
unsatisfactory, particularly at its beginning in March. The winter with 
its long strain lies behind us, but cold and rough winds, ice and snow 
are still prevailing. From the top of an elm or some other tall tree the 
first robin announces its arrival by its lorn, flute-like song. In spite of 
chilly winds and flurrying snow the dainty bluebird makes its appearance. 
Flying about in the wintry landscape it incessantly utters its indescribably 
sweet warble, filling the heart of every lover of nature with hope and 
delight. No flower is yet to be seen in woodland or meadow. Weeks 



94 THE PLANT WORLD 

will pass before the first blossoms of the hepatica and the snowy trillium 
open. During the first daj^s of April the ringing notes of the song spar- 
row and the musical call of the phoebe are heard, and swarms of black- 
birds of different species carry the message of spring's advent from their 
southern winter home northward. The host of the most beautiful spring 
migrants and summer sojourners, the wood warblers, those lovety sylvan 
ornaments, so strikingly in harmony with the gala days of spring, the 
brilliant scarlet tanager, and Baltimore oriole do not appear before the first 
or second weeks of May — and even May is a very fickle and undecided 
month in the northern parts of our country. 

How different is all this in Florida, the land of sunshine and flowers ! 
The seasons come and go without drawing sharp lines. The sweet, violet- 
like fragrance of the Carolina jessamine, pervading the air since New 
Year's Day, is no longer enjoyed. The delicious perfume of the orange 
blossoms wafted by the gentle breezes to quite a distance, belongs to the 
past. Only a few powerfully scented flowers of the banana shrub {.Mich- 
elia fuscata) , the last of the season, can be detected among the dense 
evergreen foliage. Although we are scarcely without flowers a day in 
the year, even here the beginning of spring shows some marked changes. 

The winter rains are now mostly over and the dry season begins. At 
this time of the year the gardens and woodlands show such a wealth of 
many-hued flowers that only October and November seem to outrival 
the spring flora in beauty and vigor. The allamandas, the antigonon, 
the Chinese hibiscus, the Tecoma stans, the glowing Bignonia venusta, 
and the dazzling salvias are all in their glory in the autumn months. 
The variety, dainty forms and colors, loveliness, fragrance, and the tender 
sweetness and fresh beauty, however, here as elsewhere, belong to early 
spring. 

How full of beauty and anticipation is the first day of the vernal 
season ! The gardens and the apparently desolate pine woods are adorned 
with flowers in such a profuse abundance as to attract immediate atten- 
tion. The air resounds with the strains of many birds. Last night the 
chuck-will's-widow, the whippoorwill of this southland, for the first time 
this year uttered its loud and charmingly melodious and characteristic 
whistles among the palms, bamboos, magnolias, waxmyrtles, and other 
evergreen trees and shrubs near my cottage. Not far away a second 
and a third one answered. The marvelous song of the mockingbird can 
now be heard all day long and frequently during the night. Cardinal 
robins are ver\' numerous in the garden all the year round. They look 
gorgeously beautiful among the dense evergreen foliage of the magnolias 
and among the equally dense Himalayan cypresses. Their cheerful song, 
heard from all sides, fills the heart with rapture. In the early morning 
hours I am greeted by the clear, voluble song of the thrasher near my bed- 



THE PLANT WORLD 95 

room window. My colony of martins has just arrived from their 
winter quarters. They utter their jubilant notes continually while flying 
around the nesting boxes and bin houses which I have put up for their 
accommodation and which they now carefully examine. The last strag- 
gling phoebes bid us farewell in joyful ecstasy. Bluebirds are also heard 
now and then, but they neither show their familiar ways, nor do they 
utter that sweet and happy warble to which we are accustomed since our 
boyhood days, and which makes the bird the most beloved harbinger of 
spring at the North. Here they are strange in their ways and not at all 
familiar, rather timid and of retiring habits, breeding invariably in the 
piney woods far from human dwellings. The tufted titmouse is a noisy 
bird in the garden and very inquisitive, and the same may be said of the 
Carolina chickadee. Of all the bird songs now heard in m}'- gar- 
den and yard, there is none more gushing, more sparkling and energetic, 
than that of the Carolina wren. The three last-named birds breed in 
the nesting boxes which I have placed among the branches of oaks and 
other trees. My orange grove swarms with chipping and field sparrows. 
They are all preparing for their northward journey and they will all have 
left in the course of a few days. The noisiest and most conspicuous bird 
of the garden is the crested flycatcher, its loud whistling notes being con- 
stantly heard from early dawn until sunset. It is the most familiar of all 
the birds here, breeding always in one of the nesting boxes near the house. 
The pretty little ground doves fearlessly move about among the bananas, 
crinums, heliconias, alpinias, marantas, strelitzias and kaempferias near 
the house, always in pairs. Their exceedingly melancholic cooing notes 
are heard for a long time in the early morning hours. Like the mock- 
ingbirds, cardinals and shrikes, they prefer to build their nests in the 
dense, thorny orange trees. That part of the garden which shows a dense 
growth of Magnolia grandiflora, waxmyrtles, hollies, American olives, 
cypresses (particularly the Himalayan Cicpressiis torulosa), camphor trees, 
oleander, myrtles, pittosporums, camellias, grevilleas, and clambering 
Elaeagnus reflexa, is at present the favorite abode of the thrasher, the 
catbird, and the white-eyed towhee. Their call-notes are often heard, and 
the thrasher and towhee are searching the old leaves underneath the 
densest grov/th for insects. During the preceding season I saw the last 
catbird as late as May 9. It is always in full song before it leaves and its 
peculiar cry is often heard during the warm winter days and most fre- 
quently at present. The pretty little blue-gray gnatcatcher is a perma- 
nent resident of the garden. I have found its exquisite lichen-covered 
nest saddled on a horizontal branch of a willow oak as early as April 6. 
My ornamental grounds are bordered by a small lake — Lake Audubon, as 
I have named it. A pair of red-winged blackbirds have taken up their 
abode among the tall grass and sedges. For hours at a time the anhinga, 



96 THE PLANT WORLD 

or snakebird, sits motionless on the water's edge, the wings spread out 
in a perpendicular way. You can see the conspicuous white wing spots 
plainly for quite a distance. Great blue herons, little blue and little 
white herons, and now and then a sandhill crane walk about among the 
water plants on the lake's edge. Among the rare and beautiful birds 
visiting the lake I have seen the limpkin and the purple gallinule. The 
pied-billed grebe, here invariably called helldiver, is a constant resident, 
nesting among the reeds. It does not seem to mind the presence of the 
alligator, of which a few small specimens occur in the lake. I frequently 
hear the strange notes of these birds during the night. As none of the 
birds are allowed to be molested, they are rather tame, allowing a close 
approach. The osprey soars over the lake almost daily, and the interest- 
ing Everglade kite is often noticed. Bald-headed eagles I have seen 
here more frequently than anywhere else. 

On the border of the "paradise," a small cleared depression in the 
woods between the garden and the orange grove, the quail finds excellent 
hiding and nesting places among the dense ferns and the tall grass. As 
shooting is not allowed on the premises, these birds live here in large 
coveys during fall and winter, but now they are mated and you will only 
see them in pairs. Their loud whistle, sounding like "bob-white," is 
one of the most familiar bird-notes near my cottage. Several rabbits 
share their home with the quails. A common tenant of the garden is 
the kingbird, but here it is much less lively and noisy than in the North, 
its notes being rarely heard. They are weak in comparison to the notes 
which are uttered by the bird in its northern home. It builds its nest 
in the tops of the tall pines. The blue jay is abundant everywhere, and 
the same holds true of the loggerhead shrike. The fish crow often enters 
the garden in swarms. They are cunning marauders, robbing birds' 
nests and feasting on mulberries, of which the trees are loaded. They 
breed in tall pines, and preferably in cabbage palmettos. I have planted 
a large number of mulberry trees for the sake of my feathered tenants. 
Mockingbirds, catbirds, thrushes, and blue jaj^s enjoy the fruit im- 
mensely, but the cedar birds, which move about silently in large flocks, 
obtain most of it — in fact, they are gorging themselves with the juicy 
berries. In the orange groves and flatwoods the meadow lark is quite 
common, and its clear, sweet, but plaintive warble, which comes in soft, 
whistling tones, falls constantly on m}' ear while writing these lines. 
The sprightly wood warblers are not as abundant in Florida as I expected 
them to be. In the height of migration I have seen in Texas ten times 
as many as in Florida. Only the nij^rtle warbler is very abundant from 
early in November to about the beginning of April, and the palm warbler 
is also a common winter resident of my garden. The first-named .species 
is always found in the wax myrtles, the berries of this beautiful dense 
evergreen forming its main diet in winter. The golden-crowned and the 
ruby-crowned kinglets, common winter sojourners, left for the northern 
breeding range only a few days ago. Several stragglers may .still be seen 
now and then. 

[to be continued.] 



THE PLANT WORLD 97 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



Mr. Charles L. P0L1.ARD will lecture on " Vanishing Wild Flowers " 
in Springfield, Massachusetts, at 8 p. m., April 25, 1904, under the 
auspices of the Botanical Club of that city. In May he will give a 
lecture in the regular botanical course of the Brooklyn Institute. It is 
expected that new local chapters of the Society will be organized in both 
these cities. 



Our Secretary, who is now in Florida, sends this suggestive article 

from the field : 

EXTREMES MEET. 

The Secretary of the Wild Flower Preservation Society left New 
York City with several inches of snow on the ground and two or three 
feet of frozen soil beneath it : in twenty-four hours was seeing peach and 
plum trees in bloom in Georgia, and within forty-eight hours reached 
Miami, where the oleanders and roses were in full bloom, with the 
temperature ranging as high as 85° ! Verily extremes do meet in this 
land of ours, when railroads make such direct and rapid connections. 
But uppermost in my mind during all those miles of journey through the 
pine lands of Georgia and Florida has been the thought — Why should 
people be ' ' frozen to death ' ' in the North while countless millions of 
trees are being actually burned alive in the South in order to clear the 
land for crops of various sorts ? In the Carolinasand Georgia it is cotton 
that is the staple ; in Florida the crops that pay vary in diflferent regions. 
The citrous fruits — oranges, lemons, grape-fruit, and limes — have yielded 
from $4,000,000 to $5,000,000 this season; pine-apples, $2,500,000; 
tomatoes, $3,000,000 ; and potatoes, beans, egg-plants, and peppers about 
an equal amount. Nearly all these fruits and vegetables are eaten by 
people who pay "fancy" prices for them, since they are luxuries, while 
fuel is a necessity which even the ver}- poor can not do without. The 
laws of supply and demand are such that the railroads make special rates 
and provide special facilities for the transportation of these luxuries, 
whereas wood, either as lumber or as fuel, can not be sent by rail, the 
prices are so excessive, but must be shipped by water as "ballast" for 
vessels. Some is used locally, being made into crates and baskets for 
vegetables, but no one yet has realized the immense possibilities of these 
southern forests as affording fuel for the Northern States. An old mill- 
man has suggested that if the sawdust from the sawmills were to be com- 



98 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

bined with the waste from the turpentine stills and made into fuel-bricks 
a superior kindling could thus be manufactured at exceedingly low rates. 
At the time of the coal strikes during the winter of 1902-1903 this sug- 
gestion was also made in the New York Herald, and several countries 
abroad were mentioned in which such fuel-bricks were in use. It is 
stated that the wood of the Florida pine iPiniis Elliottii) warps soon after 
being cut into lumber, but makes excellent fuel, as it becomes fat with 
resin when dry. 

The region southwest from Miami is known as the ' ' homestead 
country." It includes that portion of Dade County known as the Ever- 
glades, which has recently been opened to settlers by means of drainage 
canals and the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway southwest 
from Miami to Cape Sable. The railroad has been surveyed to the Cape, 
and the surveyors established a base of supplies at Camp Jackson last fall 
and cut out a road that has been used very little since, so that it is as 
rough a tract of country through which to travel as there is in the region. 
The last settlers cluster around the " Silver Palm " Schoolhouse, named 
for the palm Coccothrinax Garberi, which here reaches a height of from 
five to nine feet, but unfortunately has been almost invariably injured by 
fires, so that scarcely a perfect specimen was seen. In fact, although we 
went fifteen miles south of any habitation, we traversed no pine-land 
which had not been burned over, and only the ' ' hammocks ' ' have escaped. 
These are islands of hardwood vegetation, in which the shade is so dense 
that the ground remains moist, and which therefore contain a peculiar 
and varied growth of plants. Here one finds plants which also occur in 
Cuba and the West Indies ; in fact, the vegetation of the hammocks is 
entirely different from that of the pine-lands, and has largely escaped the 
destruction by fire from which the latter have suff'ered, so that in them 
may be found new species of plants which have not yet been reported 
in Florida. This was our object in visiting this region, but as each ham- 
mock seems to contain some species peculiar to itself it will be a long 
while before all of them can be explored. Dr. John K. Small visited 
several of them last November and discovered a tree-fern and two species 
of filmy ferns hitherto unknown in Florida ! 

The natives have a wholesome fear of these hammocks on account of 
the diamond-back rattlesnake, whose bite is sure death ; so this and their 
immunity from fire may preserve some of the native vegetation, which 
in the pine-lands is sure to be destroyed by fire and cultivation. It seems 
hard to believe that any one could make a living out of such rocky and 
soilless land and be able to market anything they might grow with any 
profit. They say that a large percentage must be spent on fertilizers 
and more on crates and baskets ; yet scattered through these miles of 
desolate pine-land will be found tiny fields of tomatoes and small groves 



THE PLANT WORLD 99 

of oranges and mango trees. The broad prairies that lie between, now 
filled with sedges and dotted with pink sabbatias and calopogons, will 
ultimately all be planted with potatoes and tomatoes, and the pine-lands 
with velvet beans and pineapples. Considering the distance they have 
to transport their produce and the roughness of the roads, the present 
settlers seem victims of misplaced confidence until we remember that the 
spot where Miami now stands was in the same condition ten years ago ! 
Several large tracts of land are alread}' in cultivation south of Cutler and 
Perrine. In the words of Dr. Perrine, for whom the last station is 
named, " the sterility of the soil is made up for bj^ the fertility of the 
air." Dr. Perrine was certainly a victim of misplaced confidence, for he 
was killed by the Indians during the Seminole war ! He had been given 
a grant of land by Congress on condition that he should introduce new 
plants into cultivation and establish a settler in each township. He did 
introduce several plants of economic value — the cocoanut, banana, guava, 
mango, grape- and breadfruit, mulberry, sisal and agave, besides many 
ornamental plants, such as the royal poinciana, hibiscus, fiddle-flower, etc., 
many of which have escaped from cultivation and still survive on the 
abandoned sites of former homes of settlers massacred by the Seminoles. 
Recently the patent rights have been granted by Congress to the descend- 
ants of Dr. Perrine, and they have fulfilled the original conditions of the 
grant and established in every township a settler who will devote himself 
to raising tomatoes and shipping them to markets of our northern cities. 
Thus do railroads make even the wilderness pay — but why can not we 
buy pine kindlings in New York ? Elizabeth G. Britton. 



Editorial. 



The current issue of The Plant World reaches its readers at a 
season when there is perhaps the least uniformity of climate in the va- 
rious parts of our wide land. To the majority, dwellers in New England 
and the Middle States, spring is just opening and unfolding its marvel- 
ous possibilities of bud and blossom, of fruit and seed. The long, cold 
winter with its lavish snowfall has at least prevented the damage that 
comes from alternate freezing and thawing, and now that the spirit of 
spring is upon us we may hope for an unusual wealth of those charming 
early flowers which in this part of the country are the belles of the long 
procession. But in our Southern States the trees will be in full leaf and 
the bloom will suggest that of early summer. The pine barrens have 
already brought forth their many floral treasures, and the thermometer, 



100 THE PLANT WORLD 

hovering in the eighties, certainly completes the illusion of summer 
fulness. Mrs. Britton's letter from Florida, published elsewhere in this 
issue, illustrates strikingly how great are the extremes of climate and 
temperature at this season. The circuit is not complete until we visit 
Canada, and there find great banks of ice and snow, with the buds on 
the trees not yet swelling, and the frosty air conveying little promise 
of the birds or the flowers. In the Western States the climate is more 
equable and there is less diversity between North and South ; but altitude 
there plays a more important part in the regulation of plant life. 

It is a joyous season, and a time when popular interest in plants is at 
its height. Go to the woods and see what there is to be seen. Trans- 
plant, if you will, some of the wild flowers to your home garden ; but 
remember the lessons of the past months and guard the rare species. You 
can do better missionary work in the spring than at any other time. Let 
us help you in this by sending literature to those whom you think might 
be benefited by reading it. Send us your notes and observations freely. 
Get all the enjoyment there is to be had from close contact with the 
sweet, fresh breath of the woods and the companionship, not of animals 
or plants alone, but of life — wholesome, invigorating, outdoor life. 



The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by Dr. F. H. Knowlton. 

[The editor of this department will be glad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature, and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject.] 

Japanese Maples. — To those who have but a limited lawn space we 
would recommend the growing of a specimen plant of the Japanese maple. 
It is of very graceful though slow growth, the branches having a tendency 
to droop somewhat, while the deeply -lobed and cut leaves are very at- 
tractive. It makes a compact crowded shade when grown in the open, 
and not the least of its attractiveness is the bright color of the foliage 
assumed in fall. 

Spring Flowering Shrubs. — In the southern and middle portions of 
the country, where there is usually a protracted period of very hot, dry 
weather during mid-summer, and when many residents are sojourning 
at seaside or mountain resorts, it is difficult to secure a succession of 
blooming shrubs or hardy perennials that will fill up this trying period. 
We have in mind a small suburban place which meets these conditions, the 
family being usually absent for three months during the hottest period, 



THE PLANT WORLD 101 

and which has consequently been arranged to supply a succession of 
bloom from earliest spring well on into June. Beginning with a supply 
of crocus, hyacinths, and tulips, which put in an appearance as soon as 
the first warm days appear, they are followed or accompanied by jonquils 
of various types ; then comes Forsythia of two species, spiraea in variety, 
the Japanese Snowball {^Vibiirmim plicatiwi), Kerria japonica, burning- 
bush in several colors, peonies, and a succession of Iris, from the bright 
Spanish Iris to the late-flowered and magnificent Japanese Iris. A hardy 
hedge supplies many native as well as exotic bloomers, from the blood- 
root, lungwort, and hepatica, which come in earliest spring, to the rho- 
dodendrons and azaleas, red bud {.Cercis), fringe-tree, and the stately 
magnolias. From April 1st to June 15th this place is a mass of bloom, 
but for the next two and a half months but little is in evidence, when 
the fall bloomers begin their succession, such as hydrangea, blue spiraea, 
and the host of composites. 



The; dwarf banana of Bermuda first came from the Canaries. The 
fruit is little larger than a man's finger, and is compact in texture and 
rich in flavor. The fruit grown in summer is of higher quality than that 
grown in winter — if the word winter can be applied to a land in which 
the mercury rarely registers as low as fifty degrees and in which frost is 
unknown. The single bunch that the tree bears should weigh, of this 
dwarf sort, from twenty-five to sixty or even seventy pounds. There is 
almost no expense required in maintaining the plantation after it is once 
established, and the gross annual income should be from four hundred 
dollars to five hundred dollars per acre. The little bananas are consumed 
entirely by the local markets, for Bermuda is visited by tourists, it has a 
large garrison, and the resident people — some over seventeen thousand 
all told — are fond of the fruit. — Country Life in America. 

An Appreciative Comment. — The March number of The Plant 
World, which is the official organ of the Wild Flower Preservation So- 
ciety of America, is especially noteworthy for its popular presentation of 
out-of-the-way botanical matters. Frederick H . Blodgett describes ' ' Frost 
Weeds and Other Winter Notes " ; C. E. Waters discusses ' ' Plant Wounds 
and Natural Pruning ' ' ; the ' ' Extracts from the Note-Book of a Naturalist 
on the Island of Guam ' ' are continued, and there is an abundance of brief, 
direct, and valuable miscellaneous matter. — Boston Tratiscript. 



102 THE PLANT WORLD 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. Lloyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, j\ew York City. 

THE STUDY OF LEAVES. 

Teachers of nature study will read with interest the article which we 
print in this issue, by Miss Jean Broadhurst, of the New Jersey Normal and 
Model Schools. In it is described a successful attempt to get a class of boys 
to study the leaves of trees in an independent, virile manner, and to learn, 
not merely to use an analytical key, but to make one. Miss Broadhurst 
is to be commended for giving an inductive account of what was actually 
done in her class-room, and she shows that it is possible to make the 
subject which was taken up a real problem rather than a memory 
exercise. 

We should be glad to publish the results of similar attempts by other 
teachers. 



IMPROVEMENT OF OXYGEN DETERMINATION METHOD. 

In our last issue we described a method of oxygen-determination as 
used by Professor H, M. Richards. In the last sentence we stated that 
"the greater W'Cight of the mercur>^ column introduces a slight error, 
which however may be disregarded." This however is true only when 
the mercury column is short (two to three inches) and will rapidly become 
greater as the column lengthens. Recently, however. Professor Richards 
has perfected the manipulation so as to eliminate this error. 

When the gas has been collected in a closed tube over mercury, close 
the open end tightly with the thumb, and, holding the whole under water 
in an oblique position with the closed end the lower, allow so much 
water as will enter the tube. One must be a little careful in order not 
to lose the gas, and this is done by removing the thumb only just enough 
to allow the water to enter. The negative pressure is thus released. 
Keeping the tube tightly closed with the wet thumb, mark the amount 
of the gas sample by sticking a label on the outside of the tube. Proceed 
to apply the pyrogallol test and note the diminution of the volume of gas. 



ANOTHER METHOD OF OXYGEN DETERMINATION. 

For the purpose of demonstrating the liberation of oxygen by plants 
I always use the freshest-looking leaves which can be found in the woods 
at the time of year when they are needed. Ash leaves work well, and 
the best results have been obtained with some butternut leaves that came 
up late from the stump of a recently-felled tree. The leaves were packed 



THE PLANT WORLD 103 

loosely in a large flask, which was then filled with water that had 
been previously saturated with carbon dioxide by allowing it to bubble 
through for half an hour. The flask was completely filled and then 
closed with a stopper with two holes. Through one hole went a delivery 
tube to conduct the gas under the mouth of a tube closed at one end and 
inverted in a strong solution of caustic soda or caustic potash, to absorb 
any carbon dioxide that might be carried over by the oxygen. This 
tube should not project into the flask, but should end at the inner side of 
the stopper. More or less of the water in the flask is driven out by the 
escaping gases, and a considerable amount of oxygen may be left behind. 
In order to collect this a funnel is inserted through the second hole in the 
stopper when the apparatus is set up. At the end of the experiment, 
that is to say, when the flask has stood in bright sunlight for a day or 
two, the gas remaining in the flask is forced into the inverted tube by 
pouring water into the funnel. By the arrangement just described the 
gas which is collected in the tube is fairly pure oxygen. Without further 
purification it will cause a stick with a spark on the end to glow brightly. 
The caustic potash can be removed easily before placing the thumb over 
the end of the tube, in order to invert it, by allowing water from the tap 
to flow into the dish for a few moments. The heavier solution soon runs 
out of the tube and is replaced by water without the loss of gas. 

C. E. Waters. 



GROWTH OF DANDELION FLOWER STALKS. 

A CAREFUL study of the behavior of the flower stalks of the dandelion 
has been made by K. Miyake, * who divides the period of development into 
three stages : 1 . From the appearance of the peduncle to the middle of the 
flowering time. This occupies from seven to ten days, according to con- 
ditions. At the close of this stage the peduncle has attained one-third to 
one-half its ultimate length. 2. From the middle of flowering to the 
beginning of seed development. This occupies six to eight days, during 
which time the peduncle grows only about one-tenth of its whole ultimate 
length or even less. 3. From the beginning of seed development until 
the fruit is ripe. This occupies seven to ten days, during which the 
peduncle lengthens rapidly to two to three times its length at flowering 
time, and takes a vertical position, whereas during the second stage it is 
more or less bent. The region of maximum elongation lies near to the 
receptacle, and becomes narrower as the limit of growth is reached. 

It will be seen that there are two periods of rapid growth separated by 
one of very slow growth. Miyake concludes as follows : 

* Ueber das Wachstum des Blutenschaftes von Taraxacum. Beihefte z. Bot. Centralbl. i6 : 403. 
1904. 



104 THE PLANT WORLD 

This remarkable behavior of the peduncle of Taraxacum has an im- 
portant biological significance. It remains relatively short during the 
time of blooming and the early part of the seed ripening, and at this time 
especially the peduncle in many cases reduces its height by bending, so 
that damage by wind, rain, and other agents may be for the most part 
avoided. Thereafter, just before the scattering of the fruits, the peduncle 
takes again an upright position, grows with constantly increasing 
rapidity until it is twice or three times its length at the flowering time, 
so that the wind may in the most efficient manner scatter the fruits." 

A similar behavior in the flower stalks of other plants has been no- 
ticed by several authors, but especially interesting are the observations 
made on certain molds (^Phycomyces nitens, by Carnoy and by Errera, 
and Mucor Mucedo and Pilobolus anomahis by Brefeld), from which it 
appears that the aerial stalks which produce the sporangia are arrested in 
their lengthening when the spores are developing, but elongate greatly 
afterwards. 

Miyake's method was to measure at the same time each day the lengths 
of the peduncle and to record his observations in tabular form. He used 
also the familiar method of using ink markings to determine the zone of 
growth. And his results are based on Japanese and American plants. 

It may be noted finally that there is very much of this kind of careful 
observation which can be carried on by any earnest teacher who desires 
to be also a student, without any apparatus. It is this accurate quanti- 
tative method of studying common plants which contributes to efficient 
education. 



THE MAPLE SAP FLOW. 

A REMARKABLE bulletin has been issued from the Vermont Agricultural 
Experimental Station, entitled " The Maple Sap Flow," being Bulletin 
No. 103, by C. H. Jones, A. W. Edson, and W. T. Morse. It appears 
from an extensive note on page 51 that Professor L. R. Jones, of the 
University of Vermont and Botanist of the Station, has had a very large 
share of the responsibility for the planning and carrying out of the 
extended investigations into the physiology of the maple tree connected 
with the production of sap. The 184 pages of the pamphlet are crowded 
with the data collected during five seasons of study, and the interpre- 
tations based on them will certainly be of much value, both economically 
and to science. We can do no more here than to indicate briefly some 
facts and conclusions of general interest : 

1. The leaf area of a tree fifteen inches in diameter and fifty feet high 
was estimated to be in one season (1899) 8,846 square feet, and in the 
following (1900), 14,930 square feet ; or otherwise expressed, one-fifth 



THE PLANT WORLD 105 

of an acre and one-third of an acre. Aside from the value of this esti- 
mate, it will be seen that, inasmuch as the amount of sugar obtained 
from a tree during a sugaring season depends upon the activity of the 
leaves during the previous growing season , that there will be considerable 
difference due to this variation in amount of leaf surface. This in turn 
will depend on the various conditions which prevail during the growing 
season, as e. g. the inroads of insects or the amount of sunshine. 

2. It was also calculated that during twelve days, during the unfold- 
ing of the leaves, 481.6 pounds of water previously found in the stem 
were lost by transpiration. This does not include water ab.sorbed from 
the soil. 

3. The pressure of sap is largely independent of gas pressures, and 
indeed much greater than can be explained by the amoinit of pressure 
exerted by the expanding gases in the stem under the influence of the 
rises in temperature actually found. It would appear that the pressure 
found is due to the activities of the living cells of the sapwood, and is, 
in part at any rate, an osmotic phenomenon. The root pressure has no 
bearing on the pressure in the trunk. 

4. The significance of the accumulation of water in large amounts 
in the stem is to be found in the necessity of having a ready and abund- 
ant supply during leaf expansion. 

5. From a good tree the yield of sap varies from nothing on a poor 
day to 8,300 grams, containing 354 grams of sugar, on a good day. 

This excellent study, from which we have gleaned for our readers 
but a few of the many valuable data, deserves wide and careful study. 
Teachers will find it a very instructive essay, and it is to be hoped that 
the edition is large enough for a very wide distribution. 



The Fourth Annual Report of The Home Gardening Association of 
Cleveland, Ohio, has recently been received. This association has cer- 
tainly done a splendid work. It has "pointed out a way to make the 
city wilderness to bloom, to cause flowers to blossom in the smallest 
places." Its object has been accomplished by the distribution of seeds 
and bulbs, by the delivery of lectures in schools on gardening and its 
results, by the holding of flower shows, and by the offering of prizes. It 
is planned to extend its influence and aid during the coming season to 
the establishment of school gardens. Teachers will find in the report of 
twenty-six pages many valuable suggestions and some useful information 
in regard to gardening as an educational factor. 

" Tree Studies " is the title of two series of photogravures, " Trees 
and Their Barks " and "Leaves, Flowers, Fruits and Buds," which will 
be published by Romeyn B. Hough. Judging from the examples we 
have seen, we may say without reserve that nature-study teachers will 



106 THE PI.ANT WORI^D 

find them exceptionally good and useful. For information address the 
publisher, at Lowville, N. Y. 

The following literature will be very useful to those teachers who are 
planning for their spring field excursions : 

Robison, C. H. " Outlines for Field Studies of Some Common Plants." 
Published by the author, Oak Park, 111. 25 cents. 

Caldwell, Otis W. "A Laboratory Manual of Botany." New York: 
D. Appleton & Co. Chapter IX, dealing with the examination of 
plant societies. 

Bailey, L. H. " Lessons with Plants." New York: The MacMillan Co. 
Has good suggestions on making collections which will mean some- 
thing. 

A USEFUL pamphlet upon the economic aspect of algae, as related to 
water supply, is separately printed from the Year-book of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture for 1902. It is entitled " The Contamination of 
Public Water Supplies by Algae," by George F. Moore. 

Another interesting paper is by Julia W. Snow, " The Plankton Algae 
of Lake Erie." (U. S. Fish Commission Bulletin for 1902, pp. 369-394.) 
Both papers are well illustrated with colored plates. 

School Science, March, 1904, contains a report of a discussion of the 
College Entrance Requirements in Botany of the Middle States and 
Maryland Association of Schools and Colleges, which took place at the 
meeting of the Biology Section of the Central Association of Science and 
Mathematics Teachers. It is gratifying to note that the sense of the 
speakers was generally favorable to the outline of the committee. 



Book Reviews. 



New Elementary Agriculture. By C. E. Bessey, Lawrence Bruner, 
and G. W. Swezey. Pp. x + 194, illustrated. Lincoln, Neb.: The 
University Publishing Co., 1904. 

This little book is one of the many indications that, at the present 
time, the nature study of rural schools should, in the opinion of many 
educators, be made to take the direction of elementary agriculture. It 
is especially intended to represent that fair amount of knowledge which 
a teacher in Nebraska holding a second or higher grade county certificate 
should have, and as such receives the endorsement of the Hon. James 



THE PLANT WORLD 107 

Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, and of Mr. William K. Fowler. State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction of Nebraska. 

We wholly agree with Mr. Fowler when he takes the view that school 
work may profitably be correlated with instruction in agriculture and 
nature study, and we would say that a school garden, with the actual 
work intelligently directed, not onh' " might " but will prove an inspir- 
ation to harvest toil and better living. It is to be hoped that Mr. Fowler's 
indirect suggestion will bear fruit. 

The book deals, in twenty short chapters, with plants, insects, birds, 
other wild animals, and the weather in their relation to the form, and 
with the breeds of plants and animals of chief agricultural importance. 
The presentation of these topics discussed by five different authors (the 
names of only three appear on the title page) is clear but brief — too brief 
in some parts qf the book. The chief lack will without much doubt be 
found in the inability of the teachers themselves to give the work in the 
schools in such practical form as will make it educative in the best sense. 
Mere information will not give teachers the necessary ability. They 
must have some sound training in these lines, else the text-book method 
of studying natural history as regards the farm will prevail. f. e. l. 



Systematic Pomology. Treating of the Description, Nomenclature and 
Classification of Fruits. By F. A. Waugh. Illustrated. New York : 
The Orange Judd Company, 1903. 

Professor Waugh 's compact little volume, received some weeks ago, 
has been compelled, owing to the pressure of other reviews, to await the 
notice which it merits. It is the first work on pomology which has 
seemed to us to approach the popular ideal, and the information which 
it gives to growers as to the proper method of drawing up and publishing 
descriptions of varieties is distinctly a valuable feature of its contents. 
The author does not enter into any discussion of the many horticultural 
varieties on the market, nor does he deal at all with methods of culture ; 
but chapters are devoted to the classification of each of the important 
groups of fruit, as apples, peaches, pears, etc., with full discussion of the 
characters to be observed and the principles to be followed. The rules 
of the Lazy Club and the code of the American Pomological Society are 
given in detail. The book contains both photographic and diagrammatic 
illustrations. It is thoroughly modern in treatment, and is to be highly 
recommended to amateur and professional fruit growers. c. l,. p. 



108 THE PLANT WORLD 



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The Plant World. 



Vol. VII. Plate V. 




Ipomoea leptophylla Toir. 
Facsimile uf original plate by Dr. John Torrey, in i848. 



The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII MAY, 1904 No. 5 

The Bush Morning-Glory. 

By E. L. Morris. 

The history of our knowledge of the bush morning-glory, which is a 
commonly known plant to those familiar with the plains east of the Rocky 
Mountains, is interesting, and may be outlined as follows : This species, 
then without a name known to white men, was first collected in July, 
1820, along the sources of the Canadian River, which region is now com- 
prised in northern Colorado, adjacent southeastern Wyoming, and south- 
western Nebraska. The fortunate finder was Dr. E. James, on the sur- 
veying expedition under the command of lyieut. Col. Stephen H. Long of 
the United States Corps of Engineers. The plants with many others were 
sent to Dr. John Torrey for identification. But these morning-glory 
specimens were in poor condition or incomplete, and Dr. Torrey did not 
describe them in his list of Dr. James's plants. 

In 1842 Lieut. John C. Fremont collected like plants from the forks 
of the Platte River (in Nebraska) to the Laramie River (in Wyoming). 
Dr. Torrey, in 1843, listed Lieutenant Fremont's plants in his " Cata- 
logue of Plants collected by Lieutenant Fremont, in his Expedition to the 
Rocky Mountains." The specimens of the bush morning-glory he de- 
scribed as — 

'' Ipomcea leptophylla, new species. Stems branching from the base, 
prostrate, glabrous, angular ; leaves lanceolate-linear, very acute, entire, 
attenuate at the base into a petiole ; peduncles 1 to 3-flowered ; sepals 
roundish-ovate, obtuse with a minute mucro. Forks of the Platte to 
Larimie River. July 4-September 3. Imperfect specimens of this plant 



110 THE PLANT WORLD 

were collected about the sources of the Canadian, by Dr. James, in Long's 
Expedition ; but they were not described in my account of his plants. 
The root, according to Dr. James, is annual, producing numerous thick 
prostrate, but not twining stems, which are two feet or more in length. 
The leaves are from two to four inches long, acute at each end, strongly 
veined and somewhat coraceous. Peduncles an inch or more in length ; 
those toward the extremity of the branches only 1-flowered ; the lower 
ones bearing 2,3, and sometimes 4 flowers, which are nearly the size of 
those of calystegia sepium, and of a purplish color. Sepals appressed, 
about five lines long. Corolla campanulate-funnel form, the tube much 
longer than the calyx. Stamens inserted near the base of the corolla ; 
filaments villous at the base ; anthers oblong-linear, large. Style as long 
as the stamens ; stigma 2-lobed ; the lobes capitate. Ovary 2-celled, 
with two ovules in each cell." 

This species was again collected by Lieut. Col. W. H. Emory, be- 
tween the middle of July and the middle of August, 1846, along the 
upper part of the Arkansas and head waters of the Canadian, " " between 
longitude 99° and 103° i' * * * between latitudes 38 and 36." 
This Canadian River must not be confused with the one visited by Lieu- 
tenant Long and Dr. James, for it is about 200 miles farther south. Dr. 
Torrey, in "Appendix No. 2" of the report on Lieutenant Emory's 
Reconnaissance, published in 1848, amends his former views by stating — 

" The stems are often erect, about two feet high, and of a bushy ap- 
pearance. From the appearance of the specimens, I should suppose the 
plant were a perennial, but according to Dr. James it is an annual." 

With this he figures on Plate XI a flowering branch, pistil, capsule 
and seed, all natural size (see Plate V of this issue). A particular sta- 
tion for this morning-glory is given as " Walnut Creek" (somewhat 
west of Greatbend, Kansas), in the journal of Lieut. J. W. Abert of 
Emory's command, under date of July 12, 1846. Lieutenant Abert says 
further, under July 14, — 

"We were obliged to remain here all day, still waiting the pleasure 
of the waters. In the meanwhile I set one of the men to work to dig up 
a root of the beautiful prairie convolvulus iipomea leptophylla). This 
man worked for several hours, for the ground was extremely hard, so 
that he was at last obliged to tear it up, leaving much of the tap root 
behind. This root extended for about one foot and of not more than 
one and a half inches in diameter; then it suddenly enlarged, forming 
a great tuber, 2 feet in length and 21 inches in circumference. The 
Cheyenne Indians told me that they eat it, that it has a sweet taste, and 
is good to cure the fever. They call it badger's food, and sometimes the 
man-root, on account of its great size, for they say some of them are as 
large as a man." 

In " Louisiana " along the Middle Fork of the Red River (now west- 



THE PLANT WORLD 111 

ern Oklahoma and adjacent Texas), Dr. G. C. Shumard, botanist under 
command of Captain R. B. Marcy, in 1852 collected this now becoming 
familiar plant. In his letter to Captain Marcy, Dr. Torrey says — 

Dear Sir : I have examined the collection of plants that you brought 
from the headwaters of the Red River towards the Rocky Mountains. 
The flora of this region greatly resembles that of the upper portion of the 
Canadian. It is remarkable that there occur among your plants several 
species that were first discovered by Dr. James, in Long's Expedition, 
and have not been found since until now. Your collection is an inter- 
esting addition to the geography of North American plants, and .serves 
to mark more clearly the range of many western species." 

In the same year. Dr. Woodhouse collected the same species along the 
North Fork of the Canadian River, on the Sitgreave expedition to the 
Zuni and Colorado Rivers, as cited also by Dr. Torrey. 

In the ' ' Enumeration of the Plants " "of that portion of the Rocky 
Mountain range, at the headwaters of South Clear Creek, and east of 
Middle Park, " " collected in this district, in the summer months of 1861 ' ' 
by C. C. Parry, M. D,, Professor Asa Gray cites, in 1862, — 

rponura leptophylla, Torr. Sandhills of the Platte ; a characteristic 
plant of the plains." 

From 1862 to 1878 scattered collections brought in additional material 
so that Dr. Gray in his " Synoptical Flora of North America, 1878," 
was able to extend the geographic range of the bush morning-glory to 
include " plains of Nebraska and Wyoming to Texas and New Mexico." 
In the second edition (1886), in addition to the technical description, 
he characterizes these plants as " a striking and showy species, first col- 
lected, in Long's Expedition, by Dr. E. Ja?nes, who singularly mistook 
it for an annual," with " root perennial, immense, weighing from 10 to 
100 pounds." The group of species to which ours belongs is further 
characterized as ' ' erect or diffuse, feebly if at all twining, never creep- 
ing or even pro-strate. ' ' 

In Britton and Brown's "illustrated Flora," 1898, the maximum 
weight attained by the roots is given as 25 pounds. This limit is quite too 
low, and must have been recorded for a specimen which was thoroughly 
dried, as the fresh roots contain a large amount of water. 

In his " Manual, 1901," Dr. N. L. Britton extends the range north- 
ward into South Dakota. 

Professor L. H. Bailey, in his " Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, 
1900," says— 

This species is adapted for very dry places because of its enormous 
tuberous root-.stocks, which often weigh 100 lbs. and extend into the 
subsoil for four ft. It sometimes thrives where no rain has fallen for 
one to three years. The plant is beautiful when in flower." 



112 THE PLANT WORLD 

Regarding the reproduction of the bush morning-glory, it may be 
generally concluded that most of the plants grow from seeds. The num- 
ber of seeds produced is very large, a mature plant bearing a thousand or 
more blossoms each season, each of these, if fully pollinated, producing 
four seeds. It has not been the fortune of the writer to collect seedlings 
in the field, but through the courtesy of Mr. Theodor Holm, he has seen 
a seedling raised in Washington, from seeds from Kansas. The striking 
thing about the seedling is the great similarity between the cotyledons 
or seed leaves of this species and those of the common climbing morning- 
glory i^Ipomoea purpurea) . 

The foregoing facts make emphatic the finding, in Grant County, 
Nebraska, July 17, 1903,* evidence of another method of reproduction of 
this species. This method is vegetative, and consists of the formation of 
new plants at the apex of horizontal, or nearly horizontal, lateral root- 
shoots (see Plate VI). The writer, with three Nebraskans, had dug out 
one of the large plants to ascertain the size of the root. This was in 
Cherry County, on the 15th of July. One of the ranchmen stated that 
the plants start with roots not having an enlarged storage part. In Grant 
County there were numerous young plants, so search was made for the 
youngest plants, seedlings if possible. No seedlings were found, but a 
tiny plant was noted which evidently was of the then present season. 
It was slowly dug out, and was found to have, besides its vertical root, 
a horizontal one extending from the upper part of the vertical root. This 
was traced up the slope of the sand hill for fifteen or twenty deci- 
meters, where it was found growing from the upper part of an older ver- 
tical root. The parent root probably was five or more years old. Of 
course the horizontal root-shoot then proved to be not a part of the 
younger plant itself. This method of reproduction is quite exten- 
sive among plants, but Mr. Holm informs me that only two other 
species of the morning-glory family (^Convolvulaceae) have the same re- 
corded for them. Irmisch described it for Convolvzdiis althaeoides , and 
Warming for Convolvuhis arvensis, both of the Old World, and the second 
naturalized in this country. 

One character of the root-shoot of the bush morning-glory deserves 
notice. The bud terminating the root-shoot, and about to form a new 
plant, appears to be formed backwards if that term may be used. In- 
stead of pointing away from the apex of the root-shoot, the bud appar- 
ently starts growth in the direction of the dorsal surface of the root- 
shoot. The advantage of this is the rapid formation, at the proper time, 
of disruptive tissue ; not at the base of the bud which is to produce the 
downward vertical root of the new plant, but by the part which is to pro- 

* Appreciative acknow^ledgment for the above opportunity is hereby made to the Division of 
Grass and Forage Plant Investigations, United States Department of Agriculture ; June-Sejitember, 
1903- 



The Plant Wopld. 



Vol. Vll. Plath VI. 




The Bush Morning-glory ; its storage roots, and reproduction by root-shoots. 



THE PLANT WORLD 113 

duce the upward vertical stem. The actual disruption from the parent 
root-shoot takes place when the new plant has become self-supporting 
through its own root. This manner of bud formation from root-shoots 
has been ably described and figured by Mr. Holm, for our common po- 
gonia or snake-mouth {Pogonia ophioglossoides) . It probably will be in- 
teresting for our readers to consult this paper by Mr. Holm in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Science for January, 1900. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Figure i . A mature plant of Ipomoea leptophylla Torrey. This plant was collec- 
ted in Cherry County, Nebraska ; its root, the bush having been cut off at the soil line, 
weighed forty pounds, a. The storage part. 

Figure 2. The root of a plant probably five or more years old. a. As in figure i. 
b. The horizontal root-shoot, c. Branches of the root-shoot, apparently with aborted 
terminal buds. 

Figure 3. The root of a plant about three years old. a. As in figure i. * 

Figure 4. A plant of one season, produced from the terminal bud of a root-shoot. 
a. The beginning of the storage enlargement, d. The bud. 

Figure 5. Diagram of the cross-section of a root several years old and weighing 
about twenty-five pounds. 

Figure 6. The terminal bud of the root-shoot, with the developing root and stem of 
the new plant, d. The plane of rupture between bud and root-shoot. 

Figures 1-5 were drawn by Miss Mausie G. Cameron, of Washington, D. C. ; figure 
6 by the writer. 



Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XVI 1 1.* 

By William E. Safford. 

After our trip to the top of Mount Santa Rosa we visited the finca 
of Doiia Joaquina de Kaminga, the daughter of my friend Don Jose Her- 
rero and widow of a Dane who was murdered by a Filipino some time 
before our arrival. The murderer had been tried and convicted, 
but the approval of his sentence was never received from the Spanish 
authorities at Manila ; so he is still in the calabozo beneath the tri- 
bunal awaiting his fate. Doiia Joaquina has a large house on her estate, 
roofed with corrugated iron. It is in good repair, but needs painting, 
as unprotected wood soon deteriorates in a moist tropical climate. Her 
land is of excellent quality, especially for cacao-culture, and it produces 
fine coconuts and oranges. 

* Continued from the April issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



114 THE PLANT WORLD 

This island seems to be unusually well adapted for the cultivation of all 
kinds of citrus fruits. Lemons and limes occur in abundance but are little 
used by the natives — hundreds of tons of them go to waste each year. 
Citrus medica, which yields the "citron" of commerce, grows with little 
or no care, but sugar is dear and few people take the trouble to preserve 
the rind. Fragrant bergamots grow spontaneously in the forest. They 
would yield fine essential oil. Shaddocks of several varieties occur both 
with pink and with yellow or white pulp, some of great size and with thick 
rind like that of the citron. They are not, however, equal in flavor to 
the varieties of grape-fruit, or pomelos, of our home markets, and are 
seldom gathered by the natives. There is no reason Why pomelos of fine 
quality should not be introduced into the island. Even mandarin oranges, 
or "tangerines," have been successfully introduced, but there are only a 
few trees bearing fruit. 

I have been trying to straighten out for my own satisfaction the 
various Citrus fruits growing here, but it is not an easy matter. From a 
botanical point of view the existing classification is far from satisfactory; 
but this is true of most plants which have been cultivated as long as those 
of this genus. Some authorities, for instance, regard the lemon, lime, 
and citron as distinct species, since they reproduce true to seed, and do 
not readily intercross when growing near one another ; others consider 
them all as subspecies, or varieties, of Citrus medica L. The typical 
Citrus medica, or true citron, has a very thick white rind between the 
skin and the pulp. In this respect it is imitated b}^ the shaddocks or 
pomelos of Guam, which are, however, of a very different shape and are 
considered a distinct species iCitriis decuviana^ . The shaddocks, on the 
other hand, differ so much among themselves that it it is hard to believe 
that they are all of the same origin. Lemons and limes are frequently 
confused by those who know them only in their preserved form or as 
ingredients for " cocktails " or sherbets. They are very distinct. The 
lemon has the shape of the citron, and all those of Guam have the 
oval form and the nipple at the end, which characterize the best 
varieties. The lime is smaller, of a globular form, and has no nipple at 
the tip. Moreover, it has a flavor of its own, which is very distinct from 
that of the lemon and citron. It seems probable to me the lemon and 
citron are varieties of the same species, while the lime has a distinct 
origin. Engler considers it as a form of Citrus hystrix. Whatever may 
be its origin, I think the name Citrus acida would be very appropriate 
for it. Botanists may investigate its origin and settle it to suit them- 
selves. What is certain is that the acid-lime is a plant with well-defined 
characteristics, and it differs as radically from the lemon and citron 
as does the orange. It is frequently compared with Citrus limetta, the 
sweet-lime, and sometimes with Citrus lumia, the sweet-lemon, but it is 



THE PLANT WORLD 115 

distinct from both of them. I have seen neither of the latter forms on this 
island. This acid-lime is shaped like a small orange and has a thin, 
smooth skin. Both the lemons and limes are constant bearers. Flowers 
and fruit are always seen on the trees together. Oranges, on the other 
hand, ripen at definite seasons, usually twice a year. The trees burst 
into bloom at the beginning of the rainy season, and recall the 
blooming fruit trees of our own spring. Another characteristic which 
the lemon and lime share in common, and in which they differ from the 
orange, is their habit of sending up numerous shoots from the roots. 
They are consequently used for hedges, and if neglected they form dense 
thickets like those of the " lemoncito " or orange-berry iTriphasia tri- 
foliata), which is overrunning this island in certain districts. 

I think it very probable that the bergamot is a variety or subspecies 
of the orange, which it closely resembles in shape and habit. The fruit 
is not edible and is valued only for the delightful fragrance of the rind. 
The natives use it for washing the hair. 

From a botanical point of view the most interesting Citrus of the island 
is the wild orange, which seems to be identical in all respects with the 
indigenous orange of Samoa and the Fiji Islands. In Guam, just as in 
Samoa and Fiji, the natives use the fruit for washing. Both the pulp of 
the fruit and the leaves are saponaceous. In Fiji it is the leaves which 
are chiefly used for washing ; in Samoa it is the fruit. So extensive is 
its use on those islands that its name ' ' inoli ' ' has been adopted as the 
name for "' soap." In Guam the fruit is not only used for washing the 
hair and body but also for clothing. It is a common sight on this island 
to see scores of women standing waist-deep in the river washing linen 
with wild oranges for soap and corn-cobs for rubbers. The linen is 
spread out upon a wooden tray {batea), rubbed over with a half-orange, 
and vigorously scrubbed with a corn-cob. In places where the current 
is sluggish the surface of the river is often covered with refuse oranges 
and corn-cobs. Seemann has referred the Fijian wild orange to Citrus 
vulgaris of Risso, and Reinecke, in his " Flora der Samoa-Inseln," has 
followed Seemann. The Europeans in Fiji and Samoa call it the bitter- 
orange. Whatever may be the proper name to apply to it, it differs 
undoubtedly from the form known in Europe as the bitter-orange in its 
saponaceous properties, though like that form (called C. vulgaris or C. 
bigaradia) its leaves have broadly-winged petioles. The blossoms of the 
bitter orange of Europe are the source of a perfume and the fruit is one 
of the chief sources of orange marmalade. The fruit of the wild orange 
of the Pacific islands could not be used in this way. It is not edible. For 
the present I shall call our wild orange Citrus aurantiuvi L- Linnaeus 's 
description applies to the wild form. He designates the cultivated sweet 
orange as the variety Citrus aurantiuvi si^iensis, or the ' ' Chinese orange. ' ' 



116 THE PIvANT WORLD 

It is interesting to note that in the Spanish West Indies the common 
name for the sweet orange is " china." 

Friday, December 22. — To-day an old lady came to me in great trouble. 
Her pigs had been caught in a neighbor's garden and were in the pound. 
Would n't the seiior forgive her the fine ; she had been very careful to 
keep them at home ever since the Governor's order was published two 
weeks ago. To-day she had to go to see a sick friend, and had left each 
of them tied by one leg to a bed-post, but they had gotten loose in some 
way, and the first she knew of it was when she was told that the police 
had taken them. She was a poor woman, and would n't the kind sefior 
pardon her this once — she had no money with which to pay the fine. To 
be sure, in the time of the Spaniards the pigs and other animals were 
seldom put in the pound — now even the poor chickens were restricted, 
and the people were taking them to their ranches. It was very hard on 
the poor. I explained to her that it was very hard on her neighbors to 
work in their gardens and to have them scratched up by other people's 
chickens or ruined by other people's animals. We had not made laws to 
oppress but to benefit the people of Guam, and I could not remit the fine. 
The old lady then burst into tears and said she did not see how she would 
be able to get her pigs back, and her distress seemed so real that I felt 
myself in danger of weakening. Then a happy thought struck me : 
Here, Senora, ' ' I said, ' ' the fine must be paid ; but, if you will let me, 
I will give you the money with which to pay it. " She took the half-peso, 
but proceeded to cry harder than ever, tried to kiss my hand, and called 
down all the blessings of Heaven on my head as she curtsied out of my 
ofiice. I watched her as she crossed the plaza to the tribunal, behind 
which the pigs were confined. She seemed fairly to skip, and I must 
confess that the pleasure I felt in the good soul's joy was worth much 
more to me than the half -peso. After all, I suppose most acts of charity 
are simply forms of selfishness. 

I some times feel that I never was intended to be a judge. It is easy 
enough to make laws for the good of the community. For me it is some 
times very hard to inflict punishment on those who violate them. The 
other morning just as I was finishing my breakfast I heard a tap at my 
door, and a little boy came in upon his knees, crying as though his heart 
would break. He came up to me and tried to kiss my hand. " What is 
the matter, little man?" I asked, " Grace ! Grace ! " he sobbed (and 
I never in my life felt such an odd sensation as at that moment), " Seiior, 
they have my papa in the prison ; and I came to ask you to let him come 
home." "Who is your father?" I asked, with a lump in my throat 
and a stinging sensation about my eyes. "Anderson, sefior — Juan An- 
derson, the man who shot the pig for eating his corn." Then I remem- 
bered the report made to me of a man who had killed a pig for having 



THE PLANT WORLD 117 

gotten into his garden and destroyed his corn. The owner of the pig 
could prove that Anderson had killed it, but Anderson had been unable 
to prove that this was the self-same pig that had ruined his garden patch. 
So when an appeal was made to me to reverse the decision of the justice 
of the peace I had declined to interfere. Moreover, the native justice, 
Don Luis de Torres, an official quite recently appointed by us to take the 
place of Don Justo Dungca, is a man of sterling qualities ; and I did not 
wish his first official act to be discredited. We wish the natives to re- 
spect the native authorities, who, at best, find it no agreeable task to 
carry out the duties of their office ; so I felt it my duty to uphold 
Don Luis in his decision. What was I to do ? I could not help feeling 
sympathy for the distress of this man and his family. He bears an ex- 
cellent reputation among his neighbors, but they say he has a proud 
nature and is inclined to take the law into his own hands when he has 
difficulties to settle. I realized that I had no business having any feeling 
about the matter ; but here I was, feeling very foolish and uncomfortable, 
simply because a youngster had come to me snivelling about his father. 
When I looked down at the little fellow, however, with his tear-stained 
face and his look of mute appeal, I could not resist. "Come along, little 
man," I said. " I can not set your father free, but we can both go over 
to the palace and ask the Senor Governor to grant him a pardon." So 
hand in hand we crossed the plaza, and in a few minutes we stood before 
the Governor. When I explained the situation, and, while commending 
the justice of the peace for his zeal in carrying out the provisions of the 
law, told the Governor that to my mind the man thought himself justified 
in shooting the animal, and that one of the prerogatives of a Governor 
was the right to pardon, the Governor drew himself up with great dignity, 
and extending his right arm in a most dramatic manner exclaimed, "Let 
him be pardoned ! " So I hastily wrote an order which he signed, and 
a few minutes later we were over at the prison and the little boy was in 
his father's arms. Anderson looked like a man of spirit, and it must 
have been humiliating to him to have suffered imprisonment. He saluted 
me in a most respectful manner, but before he went I thought it well to 
let it be known that the act of the Governor in pardoning him should not 
be construed into a reversal of the action of the justice of the peace, whose 
authority and dignity we wished to have recognized by the natives. 

Sunday, December 24. — Captain Ingate, of the Marine Corps, died this 
day. I could not bear to see him buried in the old grave-yard, where 
the three poor fellows who preceded him are lying covered with wet 
sand and human bones, so I offered a part of one of my ranches for a 
cemetery, a beautiful spot near a clump of coconut palms on the edge of 
the mesa overlooking the sea. I myself marked out the grave and had 
the weeds cleared away. Ingate died in consequence of gangrene result- 



118 THE PLANT WORLD 

ing from a surgical operation. In digging the grave the men had to use 
crowbars and picks, as the raised platform which forms the mesa turned 
out to be a solid mass of coral rock. 

Monday, December 25. — This has been a sad Christmas for us all. The 
Governor had issued invitations for a dinner party at the palace. We 
thought he would postpone it out of respect for Ingate ; but he sent his 
orderly to say that he expected us. He was at one end of the table, the 
Major at the other, and I at his right hand. There was a printed menu 
with some witty things upon it d. pj^opos of the occasion , and there was 
music by the band ; but jokes fell flat and nobody could pretend to be 
merry. Only a short time before, Ingate and I had been taking wheel 
rides together and playing duets on our zithers. He was to have been at 
the dinner. He was a delightful companion, and we all felt his loss. 
Somebody mentioned his name; but the Governor exclaimed, "He 's 
dead — let him rest ! " Everybody was still, and I think all of us realized 
how little difference it would have made if we too were lying up on the 
mesa beneath the stars. 

[to be continued.] 



The Beginning of Spring in Florida.— II. 

By H. Nehrling. 

Skunks, foxes, opossums, and raccoons are quite numerous every- 
where, and for this reason the hen-house has to be locked every night. 
Squirrels are much less common here than in all the other parts of our 
country which I have visited. The common flying squirrel, however, is 
abundant, and I have always trouble to keep it out of the nesting boxes 
which I provided for the birds. Being nocturnal in its habits and a 
great robber of birds' nests, it is no easy matter to protect the martins, 
crested flycatchers and Carolina wrens and other hole breeders from the 
ravages of this squirrel. The black rat or house rat is very abundant, 
and as it is particularly fond of the sweet fruit of the berry-bearing species 
of cocoa-palms, it becomes very noxious. Among mammals occurring 
here I must mention the very common wood rat {^Neotoma floridayia) and 
the salamander (^Geomys tuza floridanus), really a gopher.* A house 
mouse I have not yet seen in Florida, but there are several field mice. 

At this time of the year snakes are quite abundant. The bright warm 
sunshine induces them to leave their hiding places. We do not find 
them on the ground only, but several species climb trees and bushes 

•Here they call tbe real gopher " salamander," and the common land turtle is called " gopher." 



THE PLANT WORLD 119 

with great dexterity. I often find the black snake coiled up among the 
bamboos basking in the sunshine. The so-called " coach-whip," a light 
brown large snake, and the jet-black "gopher snake," with a mother-of- 
pearl-colored under side, are both very swift climbers. Both the coral or 
bead snake and the scarlet snake are very common, and near the house 
I have frequently found the spreading adder, a vicious-looking animal, 
but perfectly harmless. In the tangled masses of shrubs, ferns, and 
grass in and around the ' ' paradise, ' ' and even in the garden, among palms 
and magnolias, quite a number of very large diamond rattle-snakes and 
the small ground rattlers have been killed. The first-named one is a 
very dangerous reptile, and its protective coloration does not easily betray 
its whereabouts. We usually become aware of its presence when we hear 
it rattle. There is no time to lose in getting out of its way, as it will 
strike at you immediately. Only a few days ago I came in contact with 
a huge specimen under a shrub where I was hoeing. Quietly coiled up, 
the head in the centre, it awaited my approach. I was not aware of the 
danger until I heard the warning of its rattle. A sudden dash toward 
me soon followed, but a violent stroke with the hoe ended its life. There 
is a place near the edge of the lake, a well-like excavation, which is called 
"moccasin hollow," because it swarms with the most dangerous of all 
our venomous snakes, the water moccasin, a short, thick, sluggish and 
exceedingly ugly creature. The water snake, often confounded with 
the former, is very common about the lake, but though an unpleasant 
and ill-tempered reptile, it is perfectly harmless. 

The yuccas, palms, dasylirions, in fact almost all plants, are swarm- 
ing with lizards, or chameleons as they are invariably called. These 
beautiful creatures change their color from a light gray to a beautiful 
deep green and blackish constantly. They are very swift, jumping from 
one branch or leaf to the other. We see them climb along the walls of the 
house and they enter fearlessly even the rooms. We may often see the 
male blow up his throat like a pouch. This assumes a bright orange-red 
color and adds considerably to the beauty of the animal. There are four 
other species of lizards, but the chameleon is the most abundant and the 
most attractive of them all. 

The woodlands, particularlj^ in moist places, are now adorned with 
beautiful flowers. Although I have never had an opportunity to cast 
my eyes upon such vast masses of brilliant colors as on the prairies of 
Texas or on the mountain sides of the Alleghenies, there is no doubt 
that flowers are found in Florida in unrivalled abundance and variety. 
We may gather a hundred species in a few hours' ramble in early spring. 
My favorites just now are the various andromedas with beautiful bell- 
shaped waxy flowers, the different huckleberry bushes and the azaleas 
on the edges of the lakes and creeks and on the banks of swamps. The 



120 THE PLANT WORIvD 

flatwoods, especially where fire has burnt the old grass, are a sheet of 
white color and the large lily-like flowers pervade the air with a delicate 
spring-like fragrance. This is the zephyr flower or "Easter lily" 
{Zephyr anthes Treatiae), its beauty lasting for several weeks. Among them 
we find frequently the orange-yellow button-like blossoms of Poly gala hdea 
and the exquisite yellow Pingiiiada lutea (called here the Florida prim- 
rose), and the blue Pingidcula elatior . The three bloom, all winter long, 
but they are particularly fine at present and in company of the zephyr- 
anthes. The first blossoms of the yellow water-lily and of the white 
water-lily, both very fragrant, are now opening. The number of deli- 
cate and beautiful flowers in the woods is so large that I can only men- 
tion a very few. The Cherokee bean is one of the most conspicuous. 
Attired in rich crimson it is a great ornament wherever found. The 
blue-eyed grass, the fine Florida iris (/rw hexagona), the Nemastylis 
coelestis, the star-grass {^Hypoxis ereda) are in full bloom. The creep- 
ing Clitoria viariana, producing an abundance of showy large flowers 
which vary a good deal in color and are at times very sweet-scented, and 
a yellow and a rosy-red vetch, are fine plants near the house where the 
ground is not worked very often. Mitchella repens, the partridge berry, 
fulfils its mission of adorning the ground underneath magnolias and wild 
olives with an evergreen carpet. It is now in flower, exhaling its deli- 
cate fragrance from the twin- blossoms. Among the waxy flowers will 
be found many of the bright red berries. The fringe tree, growing 
in the same locality, is a mass of white bloom. On dryer soil the white 
stars of Oldenlandia rotioidi folia, a tiny plant clinging close to the ground, 
are most abundant. They are found almost throughout the year. The 
large rosette-like prostrate masses of Commelina communis, bearing flowers 
of a lovely heavenly blue in the greatest profusion, are opening their first 
buds. In June and July these masses of blue arrest the attention even 
of those who do not care much for the beauty of nature. They always 
remind me of a small tuberous-rooted commelina of Texas, with flowers 
almost as fragrant as a heliotrope. A delicate tradescantia with rosy- 
purple flowers is at present abundant among the grass. 

The floral show of the gardens, however, outrivals by far that of the 
woodlands. Earge bushes of pink and white oleanders, covered with a 
sheet of bloom from top to bottom , have a wonderful effect on the bushes 
of the garden and among magnolias and huge wax myrtles. The flowers 
are so showy that large bushes in full bloom can be seen a mile away. 
The pink-flowered kind is deliciously fragrant. As they are ablaze with 
flowers for at least two months of the year the oleanders belong to the 
most satisfactory and valuable shrubs of our Florida gardens. Different 
kinds of pinks, verbenas, marigolds {Tagetes), nasturtiums, antirrhinums 
(snapdragon), and petunias are all in full bloom. The cosmos shows a 



THE PLANT WORLD 121 

very marked peculiarity in my garden, especially the orange-yellow var- 
iety " Klondyke." It usually grows eight to ten feet high and flowers 
abundantly from August to November. Plants of self-sown seed, how- 
ever, flower early and when only a few inches high. They light up the 
garden wonderfully at present. On the verandas the exquisite purple 
Bignonia speciosa and the bright yellow Bigoyiia Tweediana expand 
their large and showy flower-trumpets. The coral plant {,Russellia jun- 
cea) with tall spikes of brilliant red flowers, and Cuphea ruicropetala, bear- 
ing an abundance of large yellow and red blossoms, the indigo-blue 
eranthemum i.Daedacala?ithus nervosus) with charming deep-blue flowers, 
and the hortensia (^Hydrangea horteyisis) are at their best now. The 
latter here bears immense deep-blue flower-trusses, instead of rosy-red 
ones, which is the typical color. The bottle brush shrubs, particularly 
Callistemon speciosus,yN\'Cii bright scarlet flowers, the deeper scarlet C. 
rigidus and the closely-packed, very intense, glowing deep crimson 
Metrosideras lanceolatus almost vie in beauty and floriferousness with 
the oleanders. A small growing species with creamy-white flower bushes 
and a large straggling kind with purplish blossoms will come into flower 
a little later. These Australian shrubs do exceedingly well in Florida. 
Allamanda Wi/liamsii and A. 7ieriifoliairon\ the American tropics begin 
to expand their bright yellow bell-shaped flowers on a background of 
dense glossy foliage. They will flower abundantly until cut down by 
frost late in fall. No other plant in flower at present attracts so much 
attention as Bauhinia purpurea. The luxuriant foliage as well as the 
large and charming flowers remind us that we are in a semi-tropical 
clime. The large glaucous two-lobed leaves are very unique among 
garden plants. The main attraction, however, are the multitudes of 
blossoms, somewhat similar in size, shape, and coloration to those of 
Cattleya mossiae. They show a combination of a delicate rose, rich pur- 
ple, yellow, and brown. This shrub or small tree never fails to excite 
the enthusiasm of every flower lover. The white species, B . acuminata., 
is continually in flower and its large pure white blossoms are very showy. 
The rose, though mostly a winter bloomer, is the undisputed queen 
of all the flowering plants in every garden where it receives careful at- 
tention. In Florida the Noisette roses, the tea and hybrid tea roses, the 
polyantha and Banksia roses, and a number of hybrid perpetual roses 
have found a congenial home. They are seen everywhere in unexcelled 
beauty and in the greatest profusion and luxuriance. The glowing deep 
red Agrippina and the Pink Daily are the most common of all. In 
old gardens we may often come across immense bushes of them and they 
are flowering almost constantly, needing very little coaxing, which is 
necessary in the case of the finer hybrids. The yellow, deliciously 
fragrant Marechal Niel — my particular favorite — is in the full splendor 



122 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

of her royal beauty. Gigantic bushes trained over verandas are carrying 
thousands of exquisite blossoms. Gloire de Dijon, perhaps the most 
beautiful of all roses, showing a combination of rosy-salmon and yellow 
in the large fragrant blooms, is used as a climber as well as in bush- 
form. The rare Chromatella or Cloth of Gold, bearing an abundance of 
deep golden-yellow flowers, the white Lamargue, the deep red Reine 
Marie Henriette, the orange-yellow Allen W. Richardson, the dainty 
blush-colored Woodland Margaret are blooming with wonderful luxuri- 
ance on porticos and pillars. There is no end of tea roses ! They are 
found in every good garden in the greatest variety. Among the hybrid 
perpetuals I shall only mention the glowing red General Jacqueminot, 
the velvety crimson Prince Camille de Rohan, and the deep rose-colored 
Paul Neyron. All the roses here are at their best when spring begins. 
As soon as the dry reason is well on the way they rest for a while, being 
in full splendor again in autumn. 

Tourists and settlers very often regret not to find their favorite 
flowers of the North, missing especially the lily, the iris, the paeony, the 
perennial phlox, the lilac, and the geranium. As a matter of fact the 
gardens of Florida are far excelling those of the North in beauty, variety, 
and splendor. The many evergreen trees and shrubs, the palms and 
bamboos, the saga palms, and agaves, the yuccas and banana imbue 

every cottage and villa garden with a decidedly tropical appearance. In 
place of the lilac we have here the China tree, one of the most beautiful 
and shapely shade trees in existence. Covered in early spring with a 
wealth of beautiful lilac-colored flowers, its delicious lilac-like perfume is 
almost overpowering, especially during the night. It will remain in full 
splendor for more than a fortnight. The lilies and irises of the North 
are represented by a large varietj^ of amaryllis, crinums (here mostly 
called lilies), field lilies (Hymenocallis), zephyranthes, ismenes — true 
children of the tropics. Some of the true lilies also grow well enough, 
if carefully attended to, especially the Easter lily and Lilium longiflortmi. 
In August the showy wild lily of the flatwoods, Lilium catesbaei, is very 
abundant. 

The first day of spring finds the ground covered with a brilliant car- 
pet of Phlox drummondii, the colors varying from pure white through all 
shades of red to deep maroon. It comes up year after year from self- 
sown seed wherever it has been cultivated. The flowers are borne in 
such profuse abundance as to attract immediate attention. The showy 
coreopsis (^Coreopsis tinctoria, C. tinctoria var. atropiirpjirea, C. Druvt- 
mondii) and the gaillardia are usually found among the phlox. They also 
propagate them.selves by self-sown seed. Very common in all door yards 
and a plant of great merit is the Madagascar periwinkle ( Vinca rosea, V. 
rosea alba, and V. rosea oculata). It is cosmopolitan in the tropics and 
the large rosy-purple or white flowers, the latter with or without a red- 
dish eye, are very showy and the plant everblooming. It grows like a 
weed when once planted. 

[to be concluded.] 



THE PLANT WORLD 123 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



The following essay, written by Miss Mary Perle Anderson, was 
awarded the first prize of twenty-five dollars in the Stokes fund compe- 
tition of 1904, New York Botanical Garden. It is reprinted in full from 
Wv^ Journal oi that Institution. 

THE PROTECTION OF OUR NATIVE PLANTS.* 
By Mary Perle Anderson. 

For ages Nature worked upon a great bare continent, and slowly, so 
slowly that a passing century saw no change, she won her victory. Great 
forests softened the outlines of mountains ; vast reaches of waving grass 
made beautiful the monotony of plains, and everywhere flowers were scat- 
tered with lavish hand. She hid them in the deepest glades of the forest 
and sowed them broadcast on the meadows ; she begirt the lakes, and 
bordered the streams, and hung the hillsides with their beauty. 

And the making of a single flovv^er ! They were begun far back in 
the distant centuries, and some are not done yet ; indeed, perhaps none 
of them are. It would seem as if in color and structure and form Nature 
had tried every possible combination, but the experiments are going on 
to-day with undiminished energy, and with the choicest results of the 
ages. For many were discarded long ago, some for reasons known to 
us, and more for those known only to herself. 

While it is true that the resources of Nature are unlimited, still she 
may be sadly hampered ; the results of the ages may be lost and the on- 
ward movement slackened. It took countless centuries to make this con- 
tinent the land that Columbus found it, and in four hundred years — four 
trifling centuries — what havoc has been wrought ? The tide of destruction 
rises higher with each succeeding year. To an alarming extent it has 
swept over the forests, and wherever it passes, the primeval vegetation is 
known no more. 

In many localities the wild flowers that bloomed in the familiar places 
of our childhood have disappeared from their haunts. The woodland 
blossoms went with the woodland ; the violets and cowslips and Jack-in- 
the-pulpits died out soon after the wet corner of the meadow was drained ; 

♦Awarded the first prize of twenty-five dollars, competition of iqo4, from the Caroline and Olivia 
Phelps-Stokes Fund for the Preservation of Native Plants. Reprinted from ihe. Journal of the New 
York Botanical Garden. 



124 THE PLANT WORLD 

the fair colonies of hepaticas that for generations had flourished on the 
northern slope of the terrace went down forever before the relentless 
plough. These are the causes that can not be controlled. The cutting 
of the woodland, the draining of the meadow and the cultivation of the 
upland are necessary and lawful results of advancing civilization. Be- 
cause then so many of our native plants must necessarily perish, it be- 
hooves all who love them to put forth greater energy to stem the tide of 
needless waste and destruction that in many places is leading to their ex- 
tinction. 

While we welcome every indication of a growing appreciation of flowers 
among our people, it is with consternation and a tightening of the heart- 
strings that the real lover of flowers beholds the victims of the massacre 
exposed for sale in our city streets. 

Those poor little bunches of trailing arbutus ! Who does not know 
them ? All the beautiful green leaves cut away, and the poor little up- 
turned blushing faces crowded together ! Those of us who have tenderly 
brushed away the dry brown forest-leaves and found these ' ' babes in the 
wood " awake and timidly peeping out, catch our breath and hurry by. 
The dainty little Mitchclla, the partridge-berry, is by no means infre- 
quently to be found at a flower-stand. The Christmas fern (^Polystichum 
acrostichoides) is ruthlessly consumed by the florist ; and the same may 
be said of the southern Galax, whose beautiful shining leaves surround 
many a bunch of hothouse violets, a strange and foreign union to those 
who understand, and one as lacking in artistic feeling as would be a deli- 
cate La France rose with its foliage supplanted by sturdy oak leaves. 

The gathering of these woodland treasures for the city market is 
largely the work of Italians who make it their regular business. With 
no thought beyond the present need, they are a dangerous foe to such 
plants as have a market value. The trailing arbutus can not be trans- 
planted with success. Surely it would be a matter of deep regret if, in the 
years to come, the " Mayflower " that welcomed the Pilgrims should live 
only in story and song. 

This constantly increasing demand for the wild things from the 
country is one of the hopeful signs of the times. It should be met and 
met intelligently. A new industry, the raising of wild flowers on their 
native soil, will certainly arise in the near future. Wild flowers reach 
their culmination only under favorable conditions of heat and light, soil 
and water-supply, and some have fallen into the mycorhiza habit and are 
dependent on certain fungi in the soil. It is almost an impossibility to 
imitate these conditions and bring them about artificially. Man can do 
much, but he has yet to prove that he can make as good a sand-dune or 
peat-bog or pine-forest or birchen slope as Nature. 

With proper care, a patch of trailing arbutus might be made to yield 



THE PIvANT WORLD 125 

quite a little annual income, and the same may be said of the Sabbatia, 
so familiar to the Plj^mouth tourist, the cardinal flower, the fringed gen- 
tian, the columbine, the white pond lily, the sand violets iViola pedata) , 
and some of our more showy native orchids that have a gregarious ten- 
dency, such as the pogonia, calopogon, arethusa, and the lady's slippers. 
From one spot in a peat-bog in Michigan, last June, eighteen hundred of 
the showy lady's slippers {.Cypripedium reginae) were gathered at one fell 
swoop. The writer herself was guilty a few summers since of turning a 
dozen children loose in an acre of pogonias near Bayville on the Maine 
coast. The little vandals fell upon them and slew them by thousands, 
and yet seemed to make no impression on the prevailing pink-purple 
tone of the meadow. 

Such places might be made to yield a perpetual income. Transplant- 
ing and fostering young plants, distributing the seeds, and discretion in 
harvesting, in a word, aiding instead of thwarting Nature, could not fail 
in valuable and financial results. Just as large tracts of once worthless 
land on the Maine coast now yield something like fifteen dollars per acre 
from the yearly cutting of young fir-trees for the Christmas season, and 
as many acres of undrained swamp in Michigan are being utilized for the 
growth and production of peppermint, so might the sand-barren and the 
peat-bog and even the stagnant pool be made to yield a wealth of flowers 
with an economic, an educational, and an esthetic value. 

The college girl who would gladly return to her country home if only 
there were some way by which she might make her own spending money 
for books and magazines and the new wants that are one of the results 
of college education, might profitably and joyously enter upon this work. 
It would be difficult to find a more truly educational and benevolent field 
of usefulness. To send into the heart of a great city real bits of the real 
country ! While it is true that ultimately a great majority of the flowers 
find their way into the homes of the rich, still the florist's window, like 
the month of June, "may be had by the poorest comer "; and the crowd 
pauses and lingers longest about the window where the first spring wild 
flowers are displayed. 

Also childhood is alike the world over, and while we can not but de- 
plore a condition where among sixty children in a certain grade of a 
school in one of the poorest and most crowded districts of New York City, 
no one child knew all of the four common flowers, the violet, clover, 
buttercup, and daisy, still it is equally true that the children of the rich 
know but little of the charms of the country. 

In addition to the market of the florist, there is growing up in our 
high-schools a demand for material that is in itself a problem. Some of 
our larger high-schools receive this material literally by the barrel. Un- 
less there be some rational way of supplying this demand, the study of 



126 THE PLANT WORLD 

botany according to present laboratory methods will defeat its own pur- 
pose, for as now carried on in many places, it is a serious cause of the 
devastation of some of the most interesting of our native plants. Here 
again the training and experience of the college girl would be of ines- 
timable value. Her flower-farm might cooperate with high-school work, 
not only in the way of providing material, but of adding descriptions and 
photographs of the various habitats of the specimens used. When a pu- 
pil knows that his columbine was one of a group growing in the crevice 
of a rock in a certain photograph, it means vastly more than a columbine 
in the air without anchorage or environment. 

Thus far we have considered the question largely from the industrial 
side, and have suggested means for supplying the reasonable demand for 
wild flowers without lessening the number of species or even individuals. 

Not till the property owner realizes that there is a money-value in these 
things will the slaughter by the lawless collector cease. In France one 
must pay to enter certain preserves where the scarlet anemones grow, and 
then he may gather for himself and carry away but a limited quantity. 

Probably the rarest of our plants have suffered quite as much at the 
hands of the collecting amateur botanist as in any other way. The old 
methods of high-school work requiring the preparation of an herbarium by 
the pupil have been supplanted by field-work which deals with the plant 
association rather than the individual. The aim of the old was the recog- 
nition of the plant in the field ; now simpler methods bring about the 
same result which has become the means to a higher end. Fortunately 
in the evolution of the botanist the doctrine of phylogenesis holds, and 
the student of to-day passes rapidly through this phase, where, scarce a 
generation ago, the great majority halted. But all honor to those who 
by patient labor have made possible for us an easier path to a broader 
view. 

To the ecologist, the student of physiographic botany, a new earth is 
revealed. Shore and swamp and meadow, upland, ravine, and river-bot- 
tom take on a new meaning. From the flora of a region he reads the 
past and prophesies the future. Because the problem is so mighty, 
reaching backward into the dim past, and forward into an unknown fu- 
ture, it is with a spirit of reverence and humility that he goes about his 
work. He treads softly lest he step upon some fragile flower ; he stops 
to replace the vine whose tendrils caught his sleeve. This is Nature's 
own laboratory, and he looks upon the results of the long, long experi- 
ments with wonder and veneration. To break a branch, or pull a flower, 
or crush a seedling would be sacrilege. 

It is in the cultivation of a spirit like this that the beautiful places of 
earth will be preserved. We must begin with the children. Here is the 
opportunity of the teacher of nature-study. The new hunting with the 



THE PLANT WORLD 127 

camera in place of the gun is already gaining ground ; the new herbarium 
composed of mental pictures should find its way into our schools. 

The child who can close his eyes and describe accurately and vividly 
a plant and its surroundings, is started in the right direction. Last May 
the children of the first primary grade of a school in Chicago were taken 
thirty miles to see the flowers on the flood plain of the Des Plaines River. 
They had in a measure been prepared for this during the winter. It had 
been a favorite exercise for their nature-teacher to say, " Now, we will 
all close our eyes. I see an elm leaf ; can you see it? " 

For a moment there would be silence, then a chorus of " I can see 
it!" "lean .see it!" "Mine's notched," " Mine 's notched twice," 
"Mine's one sided," " Mine is too" ; then over in the corner a little 
wail — " Where is it ? I can't see it anywhere." 

" She was n't here that day we had the elm leaves." 

" I can make her one on the blackboard, may I? " 

"I'll make a ripe one all dry and brown." 

"I'd rather make a nice green, live one." 

And it would end in each drawing the thing as he saw it, a present 
consummation of Kipling's view of a happy future. 

There was quite a stock of leaves of various kinds, and even whole 
trees that could be seen with the eyes closed, but only teacher could see 
hepaticas and spring beauties and bloodroots. 

So it was a great and momentous day when we set out for River 
Forest. All had agreed to gather no flowers where it would spoil a pic- 
ture, and because the teacher knew where the most beautiful pictures 
were, all were to keep close to her. The first picture was a colony of 
several families of hepaticas on the side of the terrace leading down into 
the basin. We noted the open blossoms, the nodding buds, the soft furry 
covering of the buds and young leaves, and the rich red-purple tones of 
the old ones. We looked and looked and closed our eyes and looked 
again. Then we went on to the great host of spring beauties camping 
on the plain. Later, we tarried by a mass of purple phlox at the foot of 
a linden tree. The morning's work consisted in fixing these three pic- 
tures and a fourth which was the landscape, the general setting for them 
all, the old flood-plain with its magnificent elms and white maples then 
in blossom, the broad blue river on one side, the terrace on the other, 
and the sunshine over all. 

Each then selected a single flower to take home as a souvenir and we 
hurried to the train. The children were perfectly satisfied with their one 
blossom ; the beautiful scene was left unmarred, and to this day those 
little folks can close their eyes and see their four River Forest pictures. 
Had they gathered the flowers, their interest would have centered on 
that, the picture remaining would have been confused, and the final 



128 THE PLANT WORLD 

memory that of the faded flowers in their little hot hands. But the 
flowers that they really brought home are, dare we say, immortal? 

In contrast with this, let us for a moment consider the cruel waste 
that is going on among the mountain flowers in the region of Colorado 
Springs. On certain days in the week special trains run " flower-trips " 
which are largely patronized b}^ tourists. They recklessly pull up and 
tear up the flowers, and return with great armfuls and basketfuls, and in 
their ungoverned enthusiasm, they often deck the cars and festoon the 
engine with them ! 

Beautiful places like these that are accessible to a great city should in 
some way be preserved. They might well become a part of the great 
park-system that in some States has become an important factor. Unfor- 
tunately in many of these reservations no restrictions have been placed 
on the gathering of herbaceous plants, more than that the roots are not 
to be disturbed. The trees and shrubs are protected, and woe to him who 
breaks a twig ! But he who plucks the last pink lady's slipper, perchance 
the last of a thousand generations, goes unchided. This is a sad mistake, 
for ten thousand may look at a lady'' s slipper , but only one can pluck it. 

As a result of this negligence, many of the wild flowers that were the 
glory of Middlesex Fells, one of the most beautiful of the reservations in 
the vicinity of Boston, have disappeared and their places know them no 
more. So long, however, as the policeman and eternal vigilance are 
necessary in order to insure protection, the word " negligence " is per- 
haps too strong a term. The guards at the Botanical Garden in New 
York may prevent the carrying awa}^ of flowers, but it is almost an im- 
possibility to prevent their being gathered in those portions where it is 
desired to keep the wild and natural state. Signs are posted at short in- 
tervals, but not until our people have become educated into the spirit 
will they also keep the letter of the law. 

Like many other evils, then, the final remedy lies in education. We 
must have more of the spirit of the poet who was content to ' ' gaze upon 
the wild rose and leave it on its stalk." We may rest assured that he 
did not pick the "violet by a mossy stone," nor did he venture among 
the daffodils, those glorious daffodils that have made sunshine for a hun- 
dred years. Had he gone stumbling about among them, gathering the 
finest here and there and treading down their crisp green leaves, he could 
never have transferred the untouched vision to others. 

Finally, the government has power to preserve in a large way the fine 
formations of this countr5^ Tracts of virgin forests in different sections 
should be set aside on which Nature may continue her experiments un- 
molested, tracts that should forever be free from the axe, and so far as 
possible protected from fire. 

The climax-forests of the United States reach their highest develop- 



THE PLANT WORLD 129 

ment in the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. They are the 
beech-maple type, and contain not only the greatest number of species of 
trees, but also of shrubby undergrowth and herbaceous plants. 

On the east shore of Lake Michigan there are places where in a half 
hour's walk one may pass through a succession of sand-dunes showing 
all stages in vegetative development from the desert to the luxuriant 
forest. Close by the lake are the shifting dunes with never a plant upon 
them ; back of these are the fixed dunes with a sparse vegetation of a 
xerophytic character ; farther inland are dunes where the scrub-pine 
gives way to the white pine, and the black oak is supplanted by the red 
and then the white. Each successive dune shows a richer vegetation 
then the preceding till finally the last of all has become truly mesophy- 
tic, and shows a forest of elm and ash and maple with seedlings of the 
beech just coming in. Here are bloodroots and hepaticas, and even the 
delicate maidenhair fern, one of the most mesophytic of our native plants. 
Such a series can teach us more than we now know how to interpret, and 
once broken, it can never be replaced. 

The Everglades of Florida have a most peculiar formation, absolutely 
without parallel. At the present time they are being drained and used 
for the cultivation of pineapples. 

Our noble sequoias, the " Big Trees " of the far West, are an endemic 
species, and more of them should be reserved. 

Such characteristic formations as the above and others of equal impor- 
tance should be preserved, and to this end steps should be taken at once, 
for changes are so rapid that it will soon be too late. Only by the prompt 
action of our State Legislatures and National Government will our country 
be saved from the fate of all countries of older civilization. Lloyd Praeger 
says in his ' ' Irish Topographical Botany " : " It is not easy to conjec- 
ture the primeval condition of the fertile portions of this country, before 
tillage, grazing, and drainage began to play their part. We can conceive 
great woods and thickets, open park-like land and grassy downs, but the 
details of the primitive vegetation we may never know." 

The question of the preservation of our native plants is a vital one. 
It concerns all our people, from the President of the United States to the 
little child of the kindergarten. Only by the hearty cooperation of all can 
the day be saved and Nature come into her own again. 



Dr. C. E. Waters, Treasurer of the Society, will make the annual 
spring lecture tour on its behalf, with the aid of a grant from the Stokes 
fund of the New York Botanical Garden. The dates and itinerary have 
not been definitely arranged, but Dr. Waters proposes to devote himself 
to the Middle States, probably visiting Harrisburg, Elmira, Binghamton, 
Utica, Albany, Poughkeepsie, Yonkers, Newark, Trenton, and Wash- 
ington. Correspondence from clubs or persons interested is invited. 



130 THK PLANT WORI.D 



Editorial. 



The article which Mr. John Burroughs wrote for the Atlantic Moyithly 
in March, 1903, severely criticising the writings of several other natu- 
ralists, seems to have kindled a fire of discussion which although smoul- 
dering for a time has now broken out with fierce vigor. The question at 
issue is whether the remarkable stories and cited instances of animal 
intelligence so familiar to us in the works of Thompson Seton, Long, 
Roberts, and others can be considered authentic and accepted as observa- 
tions of scientific value ; or whether in the attempt to make a readable 
book some of these gentlemen have not taken undue liberties with nature 
and indulged themselves in a little harmless romancing. The question 
is one which can scarcely fail to interest the plant student, even though 
it may not concern him very closely. Owing to the limitations of plant 
growth and existence, any attempt to record observations of dubious 
authenticity could be in most cases easily detected. 

The discussion to which we refer has for the most part been carried on 
in the pages of Scie?ice. The Plant World does not care to express an 
opinion on the controversy at the present time ; but we regret that the 
argiunentinn ad hoviinem should have been made so prominent a feature 
of the criticisms expressed by various scientists in the articles that have 
come to our notice. 



OBITUARY. 



The botanical world has lost a number of its most highly esteemed 
and accomplished members during the past few weeks. The death of 
Dr. Karl Schumann, of Berlin, removes one of the most scholarly and 
skilled of German taxonomists. Dr. Schumann was especially known 
for his work on the cacti, though he had also specialized in the Asclepi- 
adaceae and Apocynaceae. 

In this country, the death of Mr. William M. Canby, of Wilmington, 
Delaware, removes from us one of the most kindly and genial of gentle- 
men as well as one of the few surviving contemporaries of the early days 
of Gray and Torrey. Mr. Canby was known as an enthusiastic collector 
and patron of collectors ; his immense private herbarium was sold to 
the New York College of Pharmacy some years ago, but he immediately 
began another for the Delaware Society of Natural History, which had 
attained large proportions. 



THE PLANT WORLD 131 

Mr. Frederick A. Walpole, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, died on May 11, of typhoid fever, at Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia. In many respects his loss is almost irreparable. Though a com- 
paratively young man, he had attracted attention and gained a wide 
reputation by the beautiful execution and remarkable accuracy of his 
drawings of plants, which have been used for several years to illustrate 
the botanical publications of the Department of Agriculture ; some have 
also appeared in the narratives of the Harriman Alaska Expedition. 
Personally, Mr. Walpole was one of the most modest and unassuming of 
men, with a great charm of manner. He leaves a large collection of 
unpublished drawings. 

As WE go to press we learn also of the death of Dr. H. H. Behr, for 
many years professor of botany at the California College of Pharmacy, 
author of the ' ' Flora of the Vicinity of San Francisco ' ' ; also of that of 
Dr. Jose Ramirez, of the Institute Medico Nacional in the city of 
Mexico. 



NOTES. 

Professor F. S. Eari,e has resigned from the staff of the New York 
Botanical Garden and has left for Cuba to assume the directorship of the 
newly-organized agricultural station near Havana. He will have with 
him as assistants Mr. Carl F. Baker, Mr. Percy Wilson of the Garden, and 
Mr. William T. Home, late Fellow in botany at Columbia University. 

Miss Mary Perle Anderson, whose prize essay on plant protection 
appears elsewhere in this issue, has been appointed instructor in botany 
at Mount Holyoke College. 

Mr. Wiluam R. Maxon, of theU. S. National Museum, has recently 
sailed for Jamaica to continue his studies on the ferns of the island. 

Dr. George T. Moore, of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, has recently accomplished one of the most needed and successful 
works of the century, in dealing with the pollution of drinking-water 
supplies by algae and other plant organisms. The need of a preventive 
or cure has been long too well known in many of our cities. The 
adequate and at the same time economic method has appeared only after 
Dr. Moore's untiring energy and repeated experiments expended on this 
problem. His success, too, is to a large extent due to the able labors of 
his assistant, Mr. Karl F. Kellerman. The method followed, without 
going into details, is a treatment of the infected waters by varying 
solutions of copper sulphate. The whole problem is covered in Bulletin 
No. 64, Bureau of Plant Industry, of the above Department. 



132 THE PLANT WORI.D 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. IvLoyd, 

Teachers College^ Columbia University, New York City. 

COBALT CHLORID IN TRANSPIRATION EXPERIMENTS. 

I DESIRE to bring to the attention of teachers of elementary botany a 
well-known but little-used method of demonstrating quickly the loss of 
water by plants. This is done by the use of cobalt chlorid. All that is 
needed is a small amount of a 5-per-cent solution of this substance into 
which some filter paper is dipped. When dry this paper will be brilliant 
blue in color, but upon the slightest access of moisture the brilliancy of 
color is lost and gradually the paper turns to pink. Cobalt chlorid is 
thus seen to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of moisture. 

One method of using this cobalt paper is to suspend a bit of it, which 
has been previously dried, inside a bell-jar, under which is placed a 
growing plant, after taking the precaution however of covering the soil 
and flower-pot in which it grows. After a short time and long before 
any condensation of water takes place on the sides of the bell-jar, the 
increase of humidit}^ of the enclosed air is indicated by the cobalt paper. 
In order to make this experiment logical a similar bell-jar should be set 
up with the cobalt paper inside, but without the plant. 

This experiment as here outlined was first introduced into elementary 
work by Professor Atkinson of Cornell University,* and is especially 
useful for demonstrating transpiration to a class. Individual students 
may however use cobalt paper in a still more instructive way. 

If an uninjured leaf is laid on the table and a bit of dry cobalt paper 
is laid upon it and covered with a small piece of glass, with merely press- 
ure enough to apply the paper close to the surface of the leaf without 
injury, the water escaping by transpiration will gradually change its 
color and the rapidity of the change will depend of course upon the kind 
of leaf and upon the number of stomata present. By this method, the 
upper and lower surfaces of the same kind of leaf may be compared and 
also leaves of different texture with different surface characters may be 
studied comparatively. 

A very simple and effective little device for applying cobalt paper to 
the upper and lower surfaces of the same leaf at the same time mav be 
made as follows : 

Take two pieces of transparent celluloid about 1 Vz inches square and 
a strip of cobalt paper about 2 inches long and % inch wide. Fold this 
strip once across the middle. Place it between the pieces of celluloid, 
which are to be held together by a wire paper clip. The spring of the 

*See " First Lessons in Plant lyife," p. 97. 



THE PLANT WORI.D 133 

celluloid will keep the pieces appressed to each other. After a prelim- 
inary drying of the cobalt paper, this device may be adjusted by engaging 
a portion of a leaf blade between the folds of the cobalt paper, which will 
be pressed firmly but not too tightly to the upper and lower leaf surfaces of 
the celluloid. The relative rapidity of the transpiration of the upper and 
lower surfaces may thus be determined in the same leaf at the same time. 
Any number of these little appliances may easily be made at a trifling cost. 
An important pedagogical advantage lies in the ease with which accurate 
comparative results may be obtained by 3-oung pupils. Those of our 
readers who wish to test this device may each receive one upon applica- 
tion to the editor of this department. 

The cobalt method is of course qualitative only, although this does 
not decrease its value when used for obtaining comparative results. If 
it is desired to know the exact volume of water given off by a plant, 
other methods must be used, of which the one most commonly used in 
elementary work is that of weighing a growing plant. Every one is 
more or less familiar with this method through its exposition in the 
various text-books. It is worth while however to point out here that 
the results of this experiment may be made much more vivid to the 
student if the loss of weight is represented by a corresponding volume 
of water. Thus, when a small geranium with five leaves was shown to 
lose 5.5 grams of water in twenty hours — 5.5 cc. of water were then 
measured out in a graduated vessel. To what the loss of weight is due 
must be shown by a qualitative experiment, for which, as suggested 
above, cobalt paper may be used. 



FIELD STUDY OF POLLINATION. 

Much as has been done upon this part of botanical study, the subject 
is still open to investigation with a promise of useful results, if a fair 
amount of time and patience, coupled with careful observation, be put 
upon it. This is evident, to speak specifically, from the results of recent 
observations made on the English Primrose, one of the plants which 
Charles Darwin studied, by two English naturalists. We shall take occa- 
sion, in a subsequent issue, to summarize these studies. Meanwhile, we 
would point out that we have in this country many plants similar to the 
primrose, in that they have heterostyled flowers — i. e., the style is long in 
the flowers of one and short in tho.se of another individual. Our common 
Bluet is one of these. We would like very much to get the cooperation 
of a number of observers in collecting data concerning this plant. What 
can be done is indicated in this brief outline : 

Select a definite area well occupied by plants, and direct attention to 
these as continuously and often as circumstances will permit. Make a 
rough estimate of the number of flowers open ; note weather condition at 



134 THE PLANT WORLD 

each observation, as windy, cool, still, warm, etc. Watch for visiting 
insects ; see if each kind visits, with any degree of persistence, different 
flowers. Observe carefully if the insects act definitely and efficiently in 
transferring the pollen. In order to get identification, catch the insects 
which you see visiting the flowers, and forward to this department. 
Postage will be refunded. 



THE HAIR CAP MOSS. 

Observations made in northern Vermont of two common species of 
the Hair Cap Moss — Poly trie /mm commune and P. jiuiiperinum — ' ' indicate 
that for these two species the escape of the sperm cells and the maturing 
of the archegonium for their reception occurs in April, and that the 
maturing of the spores within the sporophyte takes place one year from 
the following August. The early stages of the development of the spor- 
ophyte progresses rather slowly. Later, in July and August, growth 
seems rapid ; then again in the fall, growth is slower. Let those who 
wish to get motile sperms search in April for male rosettes in which the 
white tips of the antheridia may be seen just peeping out from between 
the scales of the rosette, if one looks carefully with a good glass. Let 
such plants dry slightly, then by wetting them for mounting they will 
show the discharge of the sperm mother cells." * 



THE OHIO MYCOLOGICAL CLUB. 

Our readers, and all others who are interested in nature, or, more es- 
pecially, in fungi, may become members of The Ohio Mycological Club 
with no further formality than that of sending ten cents to Professor W. 
A. Kellerman, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. In return they 
will receive the Mycological Bulletins, which we can say without reserve 
will be very useful to teachers and pupils. The beautiful half-tone illus- 
trations alone more than justify the less than trifling expenditure. Let 
every one interested join at once and both help and share in the good 
work done by Professor Kellerman. 



Corn smut has long been a serious scourge, and before its nature 
was understood no particular effort was made to combat it. In the last 
twenty years a conservative estimate of the damage done by this disease 
would aggregate $40,000,000 to $50,000,000. In all probability the loss 
would have been $10,000,000 more in the last eight or ten years but for 
the systematic educational work done by the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture and by the State Experiment Stations. Estimating the expense 
for the year 1903 by the United States for the support of its Department 

* " The Fruiting Season of the Hair Cap Moss," Phebe M. Towle and Anna E. Gilbert. The Bryol- 
ogist, March, 1904. 



THE PLANT WORLD 135 

of Agriculture at $5,000,000, it appears that the average annual loss 
outright through corn smut is about two-fifths of the amount of moneys 
appropriated for the amelioration of our agricultural condition. We are 
still more willing to lose than to pay for prevention. 

NOTES ON EDUCATIONAL LITERATURE. 

The following articles are of interest to teachers of biology : 
Albert Perry Brigham. "The Fruits of Science Teaching." School 

Science, January, 1904. 
A. J. Grout. " Biology as an Added Interest in Life." School Science^ 

April, 1904. 
Otis W. Caldwell. " Is the Course for College Entrance Requirements 

Best for Those Who Go No Further." School Scie7ice, April, 1904. 

Teachers who are especially interested in leading their pupils to the 
study of birds will find a little book entitled ' ' Wild Birds in City Parks, ' ' * 
by Herbert Eugene and Alice Hall Walter, of very great service, not 
alone for its actual content but for the valuable hints it throws out. Mr. 
Walter is an enthusiastic teacher, who succeeds eminently in awakening 
his students to an energetic and appreciative study of nature, and this 
book, which is now in its third edition, bears ample evidence of this. 
Its specific object is to publish suggestions and help in the study of wild 
birds which appear in Lincoln Park, Chicago, of which 145 have been 
actually observed by himself or his pupils. Brief diagnostic descriptions 
of these are given, together with charts which embody the results of 
observations for six years previous to publication. A large blank chart, 
for entering migration records, printed upon durable paper, is added. 
The publishers offer separately colored plates of almost all the birds 
mentioned in the book at the small cost of 2 cents each or 129 for $1.95. 



Book Reviews. 



A Guide to the Study of Lichens. By Albert Schneider. 2d ed.; pp. 

12 + 234, illustrated with 21 plates. Boston : Knight & Millet, 1904. 

The lichens have resisted popular attack as materials for study perhaps 
as effectively as any other group of plant organisms. This is partly due 
to difficulties inherent in the materials, but more especially to the lack of 
students of the group willing to expend the effort necessary for putting 
our knowledge into form for general elementary use. For this reason this 
manual by Dr. Schneider should find a wide field of usefulness, which, 
we hope, will not be curtailed by its rather too technical descriptive 

Chicago: A. W. Muniford, 1904. 66pp. 



136 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

matter. In spite of this, however, we believe that many will be led to 
turn their attention to this fascinating group of plants, the lichens. 

Several preliminary chapters are concerned with general considera- 
tions, including the history of lichenology, the uses and nature of lichens, 
their morphology, physiology, and geographical distribution, to which 
are added directions for their collection and preservation. The second 
part of the book is devoted to a manual of genera and species. The 
determination of the genus is facilitated by means of keys, in the 
making of which it had been better to use microscopic characters, if that 
is possible. 

We fear that the author does not help the cause of science nor of 
human interest when he speaks of lichens as ' ' the most altruistic of all 
living organisms, since they live wholly for the good of others." We 
are not justified in imputing to plants the virtue of self-sacrifice. So 
far as our knowledge goes, we are led to believe that lichens do live 
wholly for themselves, and are in no manner excepted from the general 
necessity of struggling for existence. 

Several plates are devoted to the representation of structural and spore 
characters, which will help students in the work of identification. 

For the aid of beginners, the publishers offer for sale sets of fifteen 
representative species of crustose, foliose, and fruticose lichens, fully 
named. The price is $1.75 the set. f. e. l. 

Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds in the Home. By H. IV. Conn. 

pp. 6 + 293, illustrated. Boston : Ginn & Co., 1903. $1.00. 

Professor Conn, the well-known bacteriologist, has given us in this 
book a very simple, popular but nevertheless scientific account of the 
various organisms named in the title, which are of interest to us because 
of their direct economic and hygienic importance. This account is not 
simply descriptive of the organisms, but of their activities as well, and is 
accompanied by an exposition of hygienic principles stated clearly, and 
based upon knowledge of causes. The scope of the book is indicated 
by the following : molds, their nature and conditions of growth, their 
role in causing decay and disease, and their useful products ; yeasts, and 
the phenomena of fermentation ; bacteria, their physiology ; preservation 
of foods ; ptomaine poisons ; diseases of bacterial origin ; contagious 
diseases and their prevention, together with many practical hygienic 
suggestions. In an appendix of 18 pages are given a number of simple 
outlines for bacteriological study. The volume is well printed and well 
illustrated. It should be found on the school reference shelf and could 
very well be used as a book for reading for high-school students. This 
is true, not alone because of the clearness of exposition, but also because 
of the emphasis laid upon accurate knowledge of causes. f. e. l. 



The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 



Vol. VII JUNE, 1904 No. 6 



The Beginning of Spring in Florida.— III. 

By H. Nehrling. 

Perhaps I should have placed our glorious native evergreen Magnolia 
grandiflora at the head of the list of flowering and beautiful plants. It 
is the grandest and most charming of all our trees. Specimens in my 
garden, standing alone and receiving some attention, are perfect pictures 
of beauty, very dense and broad, and branching up from the ground. 
The exceedingly beautiful large glossy foliage and the noble habit of 
growth alone should recommend this tree for universal cultivation down 
below Mason and Dixon's line. They are just now unfolding their 
beautiful glossy light-green foliage, which in time assumes a much 
darker color. In some varieties the young foliage shows a rosy-red or a 
brownish hue. The first flowers usually open with the beginning of 
spring — immense white chalices, pervading the air with a powerful and 
peculiarly delicious perfume. The sweet bay {.Magnolia glauca) is also 
in flower at present, and its white, powerfully-fragrant blossoms are 
borne in abundance. The growth of this species is rather straggling and 
quite open. 

The coral honeysuckle, a native species, is found everywhere on the 
ground. Old stumps are overgrown with it. It has been planted on 
trees and bushes, on trellises and on tops of small pine trees placed in 
the ground. Large specimens when in flower present a magnificent sight. 
I do not like them during the autumn and winter months ; being desti- 
tute of foliage, or nearly so, they look bare and ugly. I even decided 



138 THE PLANT WORLD 

to remove most of them. Their present beauty, however, satisfies and 
pleases me. The entire mass of fresh foliage is densely studded with 
bright coral-red flower trusses, and the humming-birds are always around 
them. Not so beautiful in flower, but sweeter and of much finer growth, 
is the evergreen Japanese honeysuckle, of which I grow several varieties. 
The foliage shows a deep glossy green color, and the white flowers, 
which change to a dingy yellow when fading, are very fragrant. 

While strolling through the garden we inhale a delicate clover-like 
odor. Only after searching long and carefully we find the insignificant 
small flowers which exhale this characteristic perfume among the dense 
foliage of Elaeagnus reflexa, a strong grower, clambering high into the 
trees by means of reflexed hooks, reminding somewhat of thorns with 
blunt points. This Japanese evergreen, like so many others from the 
same country, is well adapted to the soil and climate of Florida. Another 
species of the same genus, Elaeagnus fnacrophylla, with fine lustrous 
foliage, silvery- white underneath, is the most ornamental of all the 
species. Elaeagnus simonii is a very rampant grower, being just now an 
object of great beauty. The young fully-developed leaves are very dense 
and of a glossy silvery hue. When the setting sun strikes them the 
picture is so charmingly beautiful that no pen or pencil can do it full 
justice. It has the inclination to climb, forming dense tangled masses of 
foliage and branches. 

At no time of the year are the different species of coco palms more 
beautiful than in early spring. Although inhabitants of the American 
tropics, most of the species are perfectly hard}^ in Florida. In rapid suc- 
cession they push up their large pinnate leaves. The different species 
are well marked in foliage, flowers, and fruit, each specimen being a perfect 
picture of beauty. All the larger specimens are now encircled with large, 
solid and hard club-like flower-spathes — not unlike base-ball clubs, only 
pointed at the end. They stand upright at first, but finally bend 
downward. After having attained their proper size, these clubs burst 
open and immense flower-scapes, yellowish in most species, yellow and 
purple in others, hang downward. They are shedding their pollen in such 
profuse abundance that the entire ground underneath these palms is cov- 
ered with it. Honey-bees are swarming among these flower-scapes. The 
foliage of all these palms has a glaucous hue, several of them looking 
decidedly blue, contrasting beautifully with the deep glossy green of the 
magnolia and wild olive. Other interesting palms in flower now are the 
South European Chaviaerops humilis, the oriental Phoenix reclinata and 
P. spinosa, and the native saw palmetto. 

The most magnificent flower-show, however, is yet to be seen — the 
grandest and most dazzling floral display I ever beheld. You may get a 
glimpse of it from the veranda of the house if you look in the direction 



THE PLANT WORLD 139 

of the " paradise." Through vistas of young oaks and pines patches of 
glowing red color are visible. The " paradise " is enclosed by the wood- 
lands and consists of groups of palms, magnolias, camphor trees, masses 
of Elaeagmis reflexa, young pines, a sweet myrtle fifteen feet high, star 
anise bushes, and tangled masses of honeysuckle and Carolina jessamine. 
Garlands of smilax and grape-vines ( Vitis cordifolia) festooning the pines 
add considerably to the picturesqueness of the scene. Groups and large 
specimens of the native Yucca aloifolia and Yucca Treculeana, from 
Texas, form a very ornamental background. On the west side a group of 
Florida cedars, grown from seed which I gathered in the fall of 1895 in 
St. Augustine, and now about eight to ten feet high, was planted for the 
accommodation of the beautiful red cardinals. These birds, as well as 
mocking-birds, find excellent hiding and nesting places among these dense 
evergreens. This place, lying deeper than the surrounding woodland, 
has a rich, moist soil. Large beds under the shade of young spreading 
pines show masses of gorgeous lily-like umbels of flowers on stems about 
two feet high. Usually four widely-open, short-tubed flowers are carried 
on a scape, each individual flower measuring from seven to eleven inches 
in diameter. They are of noble form and unrivalled beauty. More than 
a thousand bulbs are planted together. The flowers vary from an almost 
pure white or a delicate rosy and creamy white, lined or veined and suf- 
fused with crimson, to a deep glowing red. The fiery orange and scarlet 
varieties predominate ; the light ones are rare. The red color, relieved 
by pure white bands on the segments, appears as if sprinkled with gold- 
dust — an exceedingly dazzling hue when the rays of the sun strike the 
flowers. I do not know another flower so gorgeously beautiful, of 
such brilliancy, and so refined and grand as these amaryllises. Many 
hybrids, especially the light-colored ones, have a very spicy fragrance. 
All of them were obtained by cross-fertilization in my greenhouse at 
Milwaukee after experimenting for years with the best European hybrids 
and the true species from the American tropics. 

After having made our way through a labyrinth of evergreen shrubs, 
tangling masses of smilax and other creepers and tall ferns, the path leads 
to the slat-house on the edge of the lake, where fancy-leaved caladiums 
and thousands of seedling amaryllis are planted out in rows. Many of 
these seedlings are now in bloom. The most distinct and beautiful ones 
are provided with names and labelled. In the garden near the house 
large clumps of the orange-scarlet Hippeastruin (amaryllis) equestre and 
H. Johnsoni are in full bloom, each clump pushing up from ten to thirty 
and more flower-scapes. The H. equestre always bears two flowers on 
a scape, while the H . Johnsoni carries from four to six and even seven in 
an umbel. Such masses are gorgeous beyond description. Here we also 
find large clumps of the white Crinum asiaticufn, sinicum (the St. John's 



140 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

lily) and the purplish-red Crinum amabile and C. a7igushcm in flower, 
carrying immense umbels of deliciously-fragrant flowers. As these plants 
form tropical masses of foliage and flowers throughout the year, they are 
stately ornaments of the garden, attracting the immediate attention of the 
flower-lover. 

The warm sunny day of the middle of April passed. The martins go 
to roost. The short twilight goes and the wonderful white moonlight, 
much brighter and much more intense than in the North, floods the 
warm sandy earth. Under her gentle light all that is sordid or homely 
vanishes and the beauty of the world is complete. How glorious, how 
full of poetry are these spring nights ! We find it impossible to stay in 
the room. The chuckwillswidow's notes call us out on the veranda to 
enjoy the soft balmy air and the beauty of nature. How glorious are the 
stars — how varied their light! Some of them show beautiful yellow, 
others decidedly white tints ; and all are sparkling intensely. The forms 
of the palms and bamboos, of the bananas and yuccas are exquisitely 
picturesque. The air is heavy with the sweet perfume of the magnolia, 
the rose, the China tree, the night jasmine and the Japanese honey- 
suckle. Fireflies swarm among the trees and shrubs. The low, soft 
murmuring in the pines and the rustle of the palm leaves never cease. 
The air is full of strange sounds ; frogs often utter tones reminding one 
of distant human voices. The chuckwillswidow calls incessantly; the 
mocking-bird bursts out in joyful exaltation and the cardinal joins in 
a jubilant mood in the indescribably serene and harmonious concert of 
the night. So enchantingly beautiful, so harmonious, so full of poetry 
are these moonlight nights that we seem to be carried away into a fairy 
land. 

Florida is the land of the lover of nature, of all those who seek recre- 
ation and rest from life's weariness. Though her sandy soil gives us the 
impression of poorness, though we may not gather riches — Florida is 
always beautiful, always glorious. She is the real panacea for mind and 
body. We may spend our days in the bright sunshine and enjoy the 
evenings on the broad open verandas. We may gather flowers through- 
out the year in woodland and garden, and we may inhale her soothing 
and salubrious air almost constantly out of doors. But, even here, spring 
with its magnolia blossoms and bird concerts is the most promising, the 
most poetical season of the year, full of anticipations and surprises. 



The prize offered by the Plant World Company for the best twenty- 
word advertisement of The Plant World has been awarded to Mr. 
John ly. R. Trask, Springfield, Mass. 



the: PI.ANT WORIvD 141 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XIX.* 

By William E. Safford. 

Monday, Jamiary 1, 1900. — Received many visits from my Chamorro 
friends and a New Year's greeting from the Japanese merchant Iwasawa, 
neatly written in English. This day the Governor issued the following 
proclamation abolishing the system of peonage which we found existing 
on this island : 

Proclamation ! 
' ' To the Inhabitants of Guam : 

' ' In issuing this decree the Government desires and earnestly invokes 
Divine blessing and guidance in its official action and in the daily pur- 
suits and occupations of the citizens of Guam. 

"By the cession of the Isle of Guam to the United States of America, 
all of the authority, power and responsibilities of sovereignty were trans- 
ferred to this Government, and in transforming and organizing the new 
political power the surest and speediest route to success, prosperity and 
happiness for the inhabitants of this island is by benevolent assimilation 
to the fundamental principles that constitute the basis of Free American 
Government. 

HonCvSt labor with just compensation, dignified by faithful considera- 
tion of the mutual interests and welfare of all persons concerned, should 
insure prosperity to this community; whereas, the existing labor-degrad- 
ing system of human bondage and unjust, indefinite servitude or Peonage, 
permitted during the late Spanish control in this island, is, in fact, a sys- 
tem of Slavery, and as such, is subversive of good government, is an 
obstacle to progressive civilization, a menace to popular liberty, and a 
violation of the sacred privileges guaranteed by the Constitution of the 
United States. 

"Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by his 
Excellency, the President of the United States, I, Richard P. I^eary, 
Captain United States Navy, Governor of the Isle of Guam, do hereby 
announce and publicly proclaim absolute prohibition and total abolition 
of Human Slavery or Peonage in the Isle of Guam on and after the 
Twenty-second day of February, A. D. 1900, and all persons are hereby 
commanded to comply with the requirements of this proclamation. 

"/« witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and have caused 
the seal of the United States Naval Station, Isle of Guam, to be afiixed. 

"Done at Agana, Isle of Guam, this First day of January, in the 
year of our Lord, One Thousand Nine Hundred, and of the Independ- 
ence of the United States of America, the One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth. "Richard P. I^eary, U. S. N., 
[ SEAL . ] " Governor. ' ' 

* Continued from the May issue. Beguu in September, 1902. 



142 THK PLANT WORLD 

The Officers' Mess gave a dinner party this evening at which I was 
a guest. During the dinner a man came rushing in saying that the cap- 
tain of one of the neighboring villages had been assaulted by several of 
our marines, and he was afraid that he might be killed. This man was 
appointed by us to be chief of Aniguak. To-day he arrested a marine 
for being drunk and disorderly and brought him to Agatia with his hands 
tied behind him. This aroused the indignation of many of the other 

marines, who said that they would like to see a G d nigger lay 

his hands on them . When night came they set out to look for the native 
official, who sought refuge in the house of a sister living in Agaiia. A 
mob gathered and broke through the walls of the house. The man 
sought refuge on the roof and finally escaped to the woods. We have 
been having considerable trouble lately with some of our men. As a 
rule they are a fine set of fellows and their officers are justly proud of 
them. The large plaza in front of the Palace has been leveled off for a 
parade ground, on which the men drill and find recreation in base-ball. 
They have a billiard-room at the barracks, and everything possible has 
been done for their comfort. But they have been discontented lately on 
account of having to dig sewers and lay pipe lines. They are not accus- 
tomed to work of this kind and can not stand it in this climate. A num- 
ber of them have been stricken with fever and several have died. There 
are no theatres or places of entertainment. It is impossible for them to 
get a glass of wine or beer and both officers and men who have nothing 
of special interest find that time drags heavily on this island. It is very 
different when men. are afloat and the ship visits new places from time to 
time after intervals of cruising. After all, the men are healthy male 
animals, and few of them are celibates by choice. The result is that 
complications arise. Some of them wish to marry and settle on the 
island; others have left wives behind them, and others do not wish to 
tie themselves down. The problem is not a simple one. It has never 
been solved either for soldiers or sailors. It is too often the case that 
people who exclaim against the vow of celibacy taken by the Catholic 
clergy expect the men of our service, who can not take their wives with 
them, to lead lives of strict virtue. 

Friday, January 5. — As it is necessary for us to keep the roads and 
bridges on this island in repair and to educate the natives, we must have 
some source of income. We wish the island to be at least self-supporting. 
The Governor asked me to make out a scheme for the classification of 
lands and the levying of a land tax. I accordingly submitted a scheme 
of classification for his approval, which resulted in the following : 

General Order 1 
"No. 10. J 

" 1. The Spanish system of taxation on Real Estate is hereby abol- 



THE PLANT WORLD 143 

ished, and in lieu thereof a land tax shall be levied, collected and paid to 
the Government in accordance with the following classification : 

''Class I: — Lands within the limits of the towns and villages, com- 
prising the yards surrounding the dwelling houses, or land suitable for 
erecting dwellings within the said limits shall be taxed at the annual rate 
of Four Pesos (Mexican) per hectare. 

' ' Class II: — Stretches of low land along the coast suitable for raising 
cocoanuts ; low fertile land suitable for raising cacao or coffee ; low 
marshy land susceptible of irrigation and suitable for raising rice or 
sugar, and islands lying near the coast, shall be taxed at the annual rate 
of 50 cents (Mexican) per hectare. 

''Class III : — Virgin forest land, with rich soil, requiring clearing, 
and suitable for agricultural purposes or for pasture, shall be taxed at the 
annual rate of 30 cents (Mexican) per hectare. 

"Class IV: — Land on the Mesa or uplands, not susceptible of irriga- 
tion nor within easy reach of water for stock, and suitable for tobacco 
and sweet potatoes or corn, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 15 cents 
(Mexican) per hectare. 

' ' Class V: — Marsh lands not suitable for the cultivation of rice or 
sugar shall be taxed at the annual rate of 10 cents (Mexican) per 
hectare. 

"Class VI: — Sabana land with soil so thin as to permit nothing but 
sword grass and iron- wood to grow upon it, shall be taxed at the annual 
rate of 5 cents (Mexican) per hectare. 

"2. The lack of facilities for transportation of cattle and produce 
making it difficult to reach the market, until otherwise ordered a reduc- 
tion of twenty per centum (20 p. c.) will be allowed on the foregoing 
rates for the following named districts, viz : Umata, Merizo, Ynarajan, 
Tarafofo, Ilic, Pago and the districts of land lying to the northward and 
eastward of a straight line connecting Pt. Aguy and Pt. Lujuna. 

"3. Upon the payment of a land tax a certificate of payment will be 
issued and before registering a title to or transferring any portion of land 
the certificate of tax payment therefor must be presented for inspection 
as a proof of ownership. 

" 4. The provisions of this order go into effect immediately, and the 
tax will be paid semi-annually, on the thirtieth day of June and the 
thirty-first day of December of each year." 

Monday, January 8. — It is not a pleasant task to inflict punishment 
upon those violating the peace. The Governor has decided that when 
troubles arise between enlisted men and natives the cases shall be tried 
by a civil court and not by a court martial. It seems to me that I have 
already enough to do, but the Governor this day appointed me "judge 
of the Criminal Court of the Island of Guam," and ray appointment 
stated that I was to act in this capacity ' ' in addition to your other 
duties." I shall try to perform the duties faithfully, but I must confess 
that I think I am ill fitted for the office of judge. If this is a naval sta- 
tion, as it is claimed, I do not see why offenses committed by enlisted 
men should not be tried by courts-martial. 



144 THK PLANT WORIvD 

Thursday, January 18. — To-day paid thirty-one pesos to the Sacristan 
Mayor for the piece of land I bought from him day before yesterday. It 
adjoins my Didigue property, and consists of a point of land extending 
into the "Cienaga," or Swamp, bordering the river. I wanted it for 
planting taro in the marshy part, mangos and other trees requiring 
moisture on the edge of the swamp, and coconuts and other trees on the 
higher land. At present it is overgrown with a thicket of Inga trees, 
lemoncito, and other brush, and on the margin several clumps of spiny 
bamboo. It will take some time to clear it. 

My orderly brought me some branches to-day of a second species of 
Clerodendron, called like the common one, which has been continuously 
in bloom since our arrival, " Lodugao." This species has a fruity odor 
and has narrow lanceolate leaves. It is not now in bloom. It is said to 
be medicinal and is very bitter. 

At four o'clock went to look at a ranch situated on the eastern side 
of the Cienaga. Turning up the hill from San Antonio, continued to the 
southward. Saw a number of people on the road, one a little girl who 
calls me her novio, a dear little thing who on Sundays goes to church 
wearing a dress with a long train, and a white handkerchief on her head, 
a short white jacket with wide flowing sleeves ; she looks as quaint as 
the children painted by Van Dyck and Velasquez. Found that the peo- 
ple were going to the ranch of Don Reducindo de San Nicolas, where 
every January a ' ' novena ' ' is celebrated in honor of Nuestra Senora de la 
Concepcion. Arrived at the ranch, situated near the road. About it 
fine coffee plants growing. Door of house wide open, showing altar with 
many candles on it and an image of the Virgin. In front of house an 
arch of bamboo. Yard in front of house clean ; ground covered with 
coconut leaves, on which the people assisting at the novena were to 
kneel. I went toward the old ladies who were apparently receiving the 
guests, recognizing my friend Doiia Antonia Perez. I said: "Good 
afternoon, ladies. You have not invited me to the novena ; but you see 
I have come notwithstanding. ' ' They all came up and shook hands with 
me, one of them saying that I was indeed welcome ; that they all con- 
sidered me as the head of one great family and themselves my children ; 
and that everybody in Guam was saying that I was working for the real 
good and happiness of the Chamorros. 

After shaking hands all around again went on our way. Turned to 
right toward the river — corn field, patch of sweet potatoes growing well, 
tobacco pretty fair. Reached ranch near which for the first time I saw 
cactus growing in Guam, a species of prickly pear, or Opuntia, called 
here " I^engua de Vaca." Introduced, but not well established. This 
ranch belongs to Felix de Leon y Palomo and his son-in-law Felix Mani- 
busan. The prickly pear I was informed had been brought from Father 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 145 

Palomo's house, in which Don Pedro Duarte is now living, and had orig- 
inally corae from Manila. 

Continued in the direction of the river. Came to ranch of Joaquin 
Flores, where there was a small plantation of coffee and seven mango 
trees. None of them had fruit but one, and it only had four mangos on 
it. Joaquin Flores is the father of the man who married the sister of 
Rufina Quitugua, from whom I bought my house. His son is dead. 
The little boy whom the doctor cured of the fever is his grandson . 

Returned saw the novena in full sway, all the candles on the altar 
blazing. Saw a ranch at some distance very near the river, belonging to 
Nicolas de la Cruz. This looks like good soil. This locality called Utan, 
south of Mongmong. Entered property of Juan Martinez, where I saw 
the father of my mozo, Jose Mendiola, and his brother. The father is a 
leper. His right hand is in a horrible condition, nearly all of the fingers 
gone. The brother has his face nearly all eaten off ; yet he seems to 
suffer no pain. They do little but feed the chickens on the ranch. On 
the way up here one of the women we saw, from the same locality in 
which the pretty little girl lives, had a face most horrible to behold, with- 
out eyelids, and with only holes where the nose and mouth should be. 
Poor things ! Without doubt the sins of their fathers are visited upon 
them. 

Next to Juan Martinez on the south is the ranch of the alcalde, Juan 
del Rosario. Here found jujube tree {Zizip/ms jiijiiba), called by the 
natives "apple" {^manzana), but bearing a plum-like fruit, small and 
yellow, containing a single stone. Sweetish and slightly astringent, with 
a flavor somewhat like that of an apple. The branches of this tree are 
drooping. They bear glossy alternate leaves with three longitudinal 
ribs, their lower surface silky white. lycaves not symmetrical. Branches 
with small thorns. I know of no other jujube trees on the island. 

Friday, January 19. — We have been having more trouble between the 
enlisted men and the natives. The other night a native came to my house 
with his entire family. He was in a sorry plight and seemed much terri- 
fied. He said that a short time ago two marines had entered his house 
in the middle of the night and had almost stepped upon the baby, which 
was asleep on the floor near the door. He made a complaint and had 
thereby incurred the ill-will of the enlisted men. The following evening 
as he was returning home he was seized and thrown bodily into a bed of 
lilies. He and his family were afraid to remain in the house and im- 
plored my protection. I think that all the trouble has been caused by 
the man's sister-in-law, who does not bear a good reputation. The man 
himself is frequently absent from home foraging for chickens and other 
provisions for the officers' mess. During his absence his wife and her 
sister have been accustomed to receive visits from the marines. In con- 



146 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

sequence of the complaint made by this man the Governor this day issued 
the following order : 

"General Order \ 
"No. 11. J 

" 1. It is to be regretted that the licentious and lawless conduct of 
some of the men belonging to this station has made it necessary to issue 
this order, which is intended to be a reminder that in assuming control 
of this island the Government is pledged to fulfill its guarantee of abso- 
lute protection of all the rights and privileges of the residents of Guam, 
in their homes and in their lawful pursuits of life. 

"2. Attention is hereby called to the fact that the natives of Guam 
are not ' damned dagoes,' nor ' niggers,' but they are law abiding, re- 
spectful human beings who have been taken under the protection of the 
United States government and who are as much entitled to courtesy, re- 
spect and protection of life and liberty in their homes and in their occu- 
pations as are the best citizens of New York, Washington or any other 
home city. 

The several disgraceful cases of assault committed by persons 
attached to this station, interfering with the functions of local officials, 
ruthlessly destroying private property, viciously violating the sanctity of 
native homes, etc., were worthy only of the dastardly cowards and black- 
guards who were implicated in those acts, and it is deeply regretted that 
the Government has thus far been unable to sufficiently establish the 
identity of the culprits and their abettors in order that they might be 
brought to justice. 

" 4. For the preservation of the well-earned reputation of the Amer- 
ican Na\^ as champions in succoring the needy, aiding the distressed 
and protecting the honor and virtue of women, it is earnestly hoped that 
the honorable, self-respecting portion of this command will unite their 
efforts in using all lawful means within their power to discourage and 
suppress every known tendency on the part of others to commit lawless 
acts that would cast dishonor and shame on the service in which we have 
shared the honors and trials of wars and to which we have dedicated our 
official lives." 

[to be continued.] 



The Glumes of ''Beardless" Barley. 

By C. S. Scofield. 

One of the varieties of barley frequently cultivated in this country 
and known as ' ' beardless " or " Nepaul ' ' barley is strikingly different 
from the more ordinary varieties in the structure of its flowering glume. 
This plant, technically known as Hordeuvi trifiircahwi ( Schlecht.) Jacq., 
is probably of central Asiatic origin. It appears to have been found by 
Dr. J. Forbes Royle of the medical staff of the Bengal army, about 1830, 
in the Himalaya Mountains. 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII. Plate VII. 




f I 
I I 





A spilce of •• beardless" barley and one of the ordinary two-rowed barley, showintj' 
also the three spikelets of each node and some kernels. Natural size. 

Negative from Dept. of Agriculture. 



THE PIvANT WORIvD 147 

In 1837 it was brought to the notice of European botanists by a 
description published by Schlechtendal, and for some time after that it 
received no small amount of attention from them on account of its curious 
abnormality. 

In order to emphasize the points of interest of this plant it might be 
well to describe briefly the normal arrangement and structure of the bar- 
ley flower. 

A glance at Plate VII will show that barley flowers are borne in a 
dense terminal spike, at each joint of which three flowers stand side by 
side. Each of these is subtended by two narrow glumes, usually shorter 
than the flowering glumes. In the case of the two-rowed barley, only 
one flower at each node produces a grain, but the glumes of all three are 
always present. Each flower of barley has two glumes, an outer and an 
inner one, surrounding the three stamens and the single ovary that later 
matures into the grain, which fills out the glumes and remains, in most 
cases, attached to them. 

The ' ' beardless ' ' barley does not differ materially from the ordinarj'^ 
cultivated plant, except in the structure of the outer floral glume. As 
will be seen in the plate, the outer glume of barley usually ends in along 
stiff awn when the flower is fertile ; when it is not, the awn is undevel- 
oped. In this " beardless " barley, however, the tip of the outer glume 
is without an awn, but bears instead a three-branched structure which 
gives the species its name. Of these branches, the two lateral ones end 
usually in sharp tips and the other, the central one, becomes a sort of 
hood or sack. 

A careful examination of one of these glumes, when it is yet young 
and green and therefore easy to manipulate, shows some bewildering 
facts. It will be found that this central hood is an extension of the outer 
glume,* the recurving edges of which overlap and often become more or 
less grown together. In the base of this hood, which is its outer end, 
one finds a variety of interesting conditions. Most commonly there will 
be found the rudimentary parts of a flower, unequally developed. Again, 
one may find unmistakable signs of an embryonic spike or spikelet, that 
is, a slender axis bearing small bracts, very irregular and decidedly imma- 
ture. Or again, one may find only a single bract like the inner glume 
of the regular flower attached at this distal base and lying inside the 
folding edges of the hood. 

It becomes evident, after examining a number of these glumes, that 
the structures produced in it follow no fixed rule, but assume any one of 
numerous forms and follow it to a greater or less degree of completion. 
There is an instance published where a mature seed, somewhat smaller 

* This extension is obviously not a metamorphosed awn, as one often finds a short tooth or blunt 
awn on the upper sideof the glume at the juncture of the main glume with the proliferation. 



148 THE PLANT WORLD 

than the normal, has been found in this hood, and another case where 
an axis with three nodes, each bearing bracts, has been observed. As a 
rule, however, much less development is found, and sometimes the hood 
is almost empty. 

The lateral branches of the glume do not appear to indulge in the 
production of abnormal growths at their tips. They usually end in acute, 
attenuated points. This immunity, however, is not shared by the glumes 
that subtend the flowers, as is shown in figure 2 of Plate VIII. These 
glumes, which in most cases terminate in slender, straight awns, as is 
shown at the left of the figure, in rather rare cases develop the condition 
shown at the right of this figure where at their tips they indulge in 
proliferation like that of the outer flowering glume. So far, however, no 
case has been noted where this proliferation resulted in anything more 
than the production of one or two unequal, bract-like structures. In 
fact, this appears to be the first time that the proliferation of the subtend- 
ing glumes has been observed. 

Not the least curious thing about this proliferation is that in both cases 
the structures are borne in a reversed position with respect to the main 
axis of the plant. This applies to the central branch of the flowering 
glume and to the subtending glumes. No case of reversal or proliferation 
has been observed on the lateral branches of the flowering glume. This 
reverted position is shown by the direction of the pubescence in both cases 
and also by the direction of the floral organs when they occur in the 
hood. 

As would be only natural, this curious structure has been freely com- 
mented upon from time to time by botanists in the past and its signifi- 
cance has been as freely conjectured. It has been assumed that Nature 
is wont to reveal her secrets through abnormalities, and the secret behind 
this one has been earnestly sought. To mention and discuss the various 
views already published would be to write a book, and one of doubtful 
value at that. A brief review of some of these has made it plain that 
the knowledge of the morphology of grasses is still deplorably incomplete. 

In 1824, at least six years before the plant now under discussion was 
known, Raspail, in discussing the embryology of grasses, said that he 
would not be surprised to find some time a grass, the lower (outer) flower- 
ing glume of which might serve, through its median nerve, as the axis 
of other flowers — a truly remarkable prediction. In 1869 Masters, in 
discussing this plant in his " Vegetable Teratology," expresses a doubt 
as to whether or not a flower bud has ever been found actually on a leaf, 
and he concludes as follows : 

The occurrence of an adventitious axial structure with rudimentary 
flowers has been adduced in support of the opinion that the lower palea 
(flowering glume) is, at least so far as its midrib is concerned, an axial 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII. Plate Vll 




Fit;. 1. — Flowers of the " beardless " barley seen from the side next the floral axis, 
^lume at the rii;ht contained well-detined anthers. Enlarged six times. 



The 




Fig-. 2. — SiibtendiniJ glumes of flowers of " beardless " barley, normal form at the 1 
and proliferated ones in the center and at the right. Enlarged six times. 

Negatives from Dept. of Agriculture 



eft 



THE PLANT WORLD 149 

rather than a foliar structure, but in the present uncertain state of our 
knowledge as to the morphology of the grasses it is hazardous to risk any 
explanation founded on so exceptional a case as that of the Nepaul bar- 
ley. " 

In 1894, Penzia, in his " Pflanzen-Teratologie, " discusses this plant 
briefly and gives a long list of references to its literature, but says that 
though many and varied opinions have been advanced as to the signifi- 
cance of this structure, a really satisfactory explanation isyet tobe given. 
All of which is probably as true to-day as it was when written. 

It does not appear from the literature that any student has as yet 
studied the cell structure of this proliferated glume, at least no account 
of such an investigation has been noted. Those botanists who have de- 
scribed or discussed the plant have been content to reason by analogies 
and base their conjectures accordingly. 



THE HULST BOTANICAL CLUB OF BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

A NUMBER of persons interested in botany decided to form a club for 
the interchange of ideas and the furthering of an interest in botanical 
subjects. On the 13th of April, the club was organized and was named 
in memory of Dr. George D. Hulst, who for many years was president 
of the Department of Botany of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences. Dr. HuLst was probably better informed regarding the local 
flora than any other botanist. The special work the club has undertaken 
is the making of an exhaustive list of the flora of Long Island. 

The charter members are Mesdames Caroline A. Creevey, Ida W. 
Conklin, Alice H. Shepard, Margaret H. Piatt, Rebecca L. Palmer, 
Emma L. Kingsland Low, Grace Grout, Annie Morrill Smith, Carolyn 
W. Harris, Dr. A. J. Grout, and Mr. Wood. 

Dr. A. J. Grout was appointed director, Mrs. Carolyn W. Harris, 
secretary. At the first meeting it was decided that the Hulst Botanical 
Club would form a Chapter of the Wild Flower Preservation Society of 
America. 









150 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

Briefer Articles. 



THE LLEREN: A RARE ROOT CROP. 

Though perhaps one of the oldest cultivated plants, Calathea allouya 
is almost unknown outside of the West Indies ; it is occasionally cultiva- 
ted in Trinidad and several other of the British Antilles but appears to 
attain its greatest development and popularity in Porto Rico. 

Taxonomically it stands in the Zingiberaceae near Phrynium. In 
habit above ground it resembles the Turmerics (Curcuma) but has the 
pseudo-stem of Amomuni ; the subterranean habit is very similar to that 
of some of the Phryniums. According to Grisebach, the flower is small, 
white, and borne in roundish heads, like those of ginger — very unlike 
the large, fragrant, pale lilac, radical flower of Calathea (^Phrynimn) zeb- 
rina . 

The clumping habit of the family is exemplified in the slow-spread- 
ing cluster of 10 to 25 loosely attached " heads, " each of which bears a 
false stem composed of 4 to 8 erect, sheathing petioles. These " heads " 
may be considered as a kind of short stem, some 2 to 3 inches long and 
about 1 inch in diameter, or as a rhizome lying just beneath the surface 
of the soil and receiving at its base the roots and tuber stipes. New 
shoots are produced either from the tip of the " head " or from the side ; 
thus the individual head is at least biennial while the clump is, of course, 
perennial. Growth ceases at the end of the rainy season, about Decem- 
ber, and begins about April ; the mat of dead leaves serves to protect the 
succulent, truncate " heads" from the fierce winter's sun. 

The oblong-linear or linear-lanceolate leaf blade tapers abruptly at 
the tip but runs very gradually at the base into the slender, yellowish, 
channelled petiole. The strong veins, running at a rather small angle 
with the miario, especially near the base, give the tamina a somewhat 
corrugated appearance; and though the petiole is always erect and rather 
stout, the midrib allows the long blade to droop gracefully. 

Strong clumps growing in rich, cool soil or in partial shade attain a 
height of 3 or even 4 feet, the leaves from the central heads being much 
taller than those from the outside of the clump. By nature the lyleren 
is evidently a plant of the jungle and shaded river banks. At present it 
does not appear to grow wild anywhere in Porto Rico ; like the * ' Yautia ' ' 
(^Xanthosoma .spp.), it seems to have become through its hundreds of 
centuries of domestication an utter slave to human husbandry. In fact 
it rarely flowers and never (?) produces seed ; while it is not impossible 
to find natives who will admit having seen the large " Yautia" (Xanth- 
osoma) flowers, I have been unable to find one who remembered seeing 
those of the lyleren. 



THE PLANT WORLD 151 

The most important part of this interesting plant, however, is the 
peculiar tuber-like bodies which are borne on slender roots, or stipes, 
from 3 to 6 inches beneath the soil surface. This pseudo-tuber is oval or 
elliptic in shape, from 1 to 2 inches in length, and covered with a thin 
smoothish cuticle of a pale yellowish color — about the color of a postal 
card ; a few small rootlets are attached to the outer skin as well as to the 
stipe. The fact that no " eyes " are present precludes its being termed a 
tuber, but the abruptness with which it arises at the tip of the more or 
less specialized root which is not continued within the starch body, mark 
it as the limit of a root running tuberward. The center of this body, to 
the extent of about one-third of the entire content, is occupied by a 
translucent portion of a firm and crisp but gelatinous nature ; the main 
portion resembles the interior of the common potato but is finer-grained 
and much more gummy. Though the glutinous character disappears 
upon cooking, the crispness remains even after prolonged boiling. 

The thin cuticle being removed after cooking, there appears a delicious 
morsel, snow-white outside, semi-transparent in the center, which may 
be eaten as a side dish with butter, or, as many prefer, as a relish with 
salt, like radishes ; it is also good in soups. From December to May it 
it is fairly common in the markets and is also frequently sold, cooked 
but not peeled, in the streets in the evening — a dozen or so tied in a 
bunch with the attached root-stems, at 1 cent per bunch ; they thus take 
the place of peanuts. 

The flavor of the Lleren is difficult to describe — there is certainly a taste 
like sweet-corn, and something quite its own besides. The surest thing 
about it is that if you try it once you will again. O. W. Barrett. 

Mayagiiez, P. R. 



To the Editor of The Plant World : 

In the March issue Dr. C. E. Waters dealt to some extent with plant 
pathology. He makes the statement that " in our own bodies we have 
the white blood corpuscles whose function it is to destroy any bacteria 
that may find an entrance into the blood." Thanks to Ehrlich we now 
know that bacteria, or their toxins, are rendered harmless by the produc- 
tion of an antitoxin, and that the duty of the leucocytes is to act as 
scavengers and remove the debris, including the dead bacteria. 

I think that Burrows was the first to discover that plants, as well as 
animals, have infectious diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. Now to 
come to the point of this letter : What protection have plants against 
bacteria that have gained an entry to the organism ? Is an antitoxin 
produced ? I can find no literature upon the subject. It seems to me 
that the question should afford a magnificent field for work that should 
have a practical as well as a scientific value. H. H. Hazen. 

Johus Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, Md. 



152 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



The following note from Professor Beal shows that good work for the 
cause is being carried on at the Michigan Agricultural College : 

About forty years ago a large portion of Ingham County in central 
Michigan, where the capital is situated, was in its primitive condition, 
covered by trees, shrubs and smaller wild plants. The Agricultural Col- 
lege in this county owns a farm of 676 acres. Among the students are 
many who admire flowers and most study them. One after another, and 
in twos, threes and half dozens, the species of plants are hunted down 
and dug up. Extensive marshes and swamps hav^e been drained and 
burned over ; forests have been removed and the land planted to farm 
crops. At the college and vicinity plant fiends are found among the 
students, and especially among the children of the neighborhood. People 
from the cities and villages drive to the woods and by-ways, carrying 
home not only the flowers and foliage, but large quantities of roots as 
well. 

To do the best we can, most of the interesting wild plants in this 
county are doomed, sooner or later, to extinction. The brightest side of 
this picture is to be found in the botanic gardens or school gardens, 
where all hands strive to plant and help care for many species in variety. 

At the college named, we have posted notices and have inserted notes 
of warning in the college paper, possibly to some effect. W. J. Beal. 

Agricultural College, Mich. 



THE PROTECTION OF OUR NATIVE PLANTS.* 

(a plea to teachers.) 
By Jean Broadhurst. 

Again comes the cry, "Protect our native plants." The strongest 
economic and aesthetic reasons have been often and convincingly pre- 
sented, but the need for protection continues. The people who destroy 
have not been reached. Why, can best be shown, in considering briefly 
the classes most destructive to our native vegetation. 

Few people are willing to make money slowly enough to respect the 
rights of others now, or those of the next generation. Plants of direct 
or indirect economic value will need protection as long as there is com- 

* Awarded the second prize of fifteen dollars, competition of 1904, from the Caroline and Olivia 
Phelps-Stokes Fund for the Preservation of Native Plants. Reprinted from the/o/ona/o/M^ A'i'zf 
Vork Botanical Garden. 



THE PIvANT WORLD 153 

petition in business ; one might add they will never receive it until 
Americans cease to feel that Yankee genius will "find something else 
when that is gone." 

Those who ' ' love flowers ' ' form a class following next in destructive- 
ness. The aesthetic reasons which should appeal to this class fail because 
the desire for possession follows appreciation so closely. Many a little 
culprit stammers only, " I wanted it." It is not astonishing that love of 
the beautiful is so closely connected with crime ; they are related as 
intimately as love and passion. This leads to most ruthless destruction. 
At Bronx Park last year large piles of flowers might be seen at the exit 
gates, left there by violators of conspicuous signs. Wholesale devasta- 
tions may be witnessed by watching the returning crowds at some of the 
uptown ferries. Masses of fragile blossoms which will never revive are 
carried over on every boat in the early flowering season. And for what? 
A gentleman handed his wife a final addition to her floral spoils, saying, 
" Now you have a bouquet for every window," meaning, not their dispo- 
sition in the house, but the customary and too hasty mode of exit from it. 

As new towns develop we expect to lose many of our woodland treas- 
ures. It is one of the prices of civilization, without doubt. Yet need 
we lose our trees ? Ignorant real estate officials are doing more to destroy 
these than we realize. How many of our new towns located on cleared 
woodlands are entirely destitute of trees ! Often trees are planted ; two 
or three years afterwards one may see lines of dead trunks, with here and 
there a lone survivor, usually a foreign poplar, which affords neither 
shade, fruit, nor yet pleasure to the eye. Along the Hudson River acres 
of young native trees (not available for timber) have been so destroyed. 
Here at least ten thousand were destroyed for every one planted. 

In this same district fresh air and other charitable societies have un- 
consciously aided in this destructive work. Hundreds from New York 
City are sent daily to a small creche where the ground owned could only 
with difficulty provide standing room for the hordes brought there. The 
woodlands near by have consequently suffered heavily. Such societies 
should not transport more people than they can entertain on their own 
grounds, or more than they can control elsewhere. Guilds and societies 
for distributing flowers in schools and tenements are also responsible for 
much damage in this direction. A general appeal sent out in 1902 to the 
numerous branches near New York and Philadelphia asks for flowers and 
twigs, but gives no advice or warning about collecting these. The sup- 
ply is evidently considered inexhaustible. There is no anxiety about 
future school and tenement children. One pamphlet states persuasively, 
" from o?ie bush or tree the desired forty can be obtained." Would you 
like forty twigs taken from your lilac bush or forty terminal branches 
from any of your trees ? 



154 THE PIvANT WORLD 

Briefly, these are the main factors with which we must cope. Some- 
thing may be done with the last class mentioned, but the druggist, 
manufacturer, and lumberman feel that they can not afford to listen to 
us ; the real estate agent values graded lots above shaded ones, and will 
continue to do so as long as the former sell. But most discouraging 
seems the larger class of the careless, the selfish and the ignorant who 
will continue to despoil our hedges, meadows, and woodlands. Most of 
them will never see our pamphlets nor hear our lectures. How can we 
reach them ? How can we influence them ? A child who lives in a 
paved, walled street will pick and pull the flowers at last within his 
reach until he can hold no more. How can we control this? 

Answer this with another question. How do we propose to reach, 
control, and elevate the masses brought into our country daily ? We 
shall find our answers identical — through our schools. But we have 
no right to claim it here unless it be for the highest good of the child. 
Having shown that, it will not be too much to ask that all educational 
leaders should lend their aid to preserve the native plants. 

The wholesale, ruthless destruction, the instantaneous gratification of 
desire, the ignoring of other and of future rights have undoubted effects 
upon the characters of all yielding to them. A bird in the hand is not 
worth two in the bush. A broken, bedraggled flower, lying limp in the 
hand, is not worth the sturdy growing one, with its bright, upturned face, 
at which price it was purchased. How little was gained by its momentary 
possession may be told by the speed with which the child discards it. 
Could he be made to feel this and the price of his fleeting sense of satis- 
faction, the safety of many of our threatened plants would be assured. 
Children are devoid of the higher appreciation of the beautiful. A little 
girl from New York looked long into the cup of a dainty, pink orchid, 
and then asked, " Why did He turn pink, Auntie? " Can not this finer 
sense be used to advantage ? It will not be difficult as we ignorantly as- 
sume. This desired preservation will mean unselfishness and forbear- 
ance or self-restraint. What higher individual aim than the first ? What 
greater test of character than the second ? Here temptation takes a visi- 
ble form and the results are no less tangible. What better material is there 
for the work educators are striving to accomplish ? The psychological 
values of these claims can but appeal to educational leaders and their co- 
workers. Is it too much to ask for concerted, definite action, leading 
ultimately to the development of the high, noble character described by 
Emerson when he wrote the following lines on forbearance ? 

" Hasl thou named all the birds without a gun ? 
Loved the wood -rose and left it on its stalk ? 
At rich men's tables eaten bread and pulse? 
Unarmed, faced danger with a heart of trust ? 
And loved so well a high behavior 
In man or maid, that thou frota speech refrained, 
Nobility more noble to repay ? 
O, be my friend and teach me to be thine. " 

State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. 



THE PI^ANT WORLD 155 

Editorial. 



The deposition by Professor Edward L. Greene, late of the Catholic 
University, of his entire herbarium of 20,000 specimens at the National 
Museum serves to emphasize the importance of placing these valuable 
private collections in the custody of some public institution. Aside from 
the immense benefit thereby secured to students, there is the practical 
consideration of safety for the collection, and the destruction by fire of 
one of the most valuable private herbaria in America a few years ago 
affords a good instance of a loss that might have been avoided by a timely 
disposition of the specimens in fireproof quarters. 

We take this occasion also to call attention to the uses of the National 
Herbarium as an aid to the solution of economic problems in agriculture, 
horticulture, etc. There are many who fail persistently to appreciate the 
necessity of maintaining a government bureau devoted, like the Museum, 
to investigations in pure science. This unfortunate misconception has 
gained ground in Congress, and the result has been that all appropria- 
tions for the purchase of specimens by the Museum during the coming 
fiscal year have been withheld. Many standard collections, therefore, 
will go to other institutions, and there will be a gap in the historical ac- 
cumulation of material in the National Herbarium. 

It requires no technical knowlege and very slight consideration of the 
subject to appreciate the folly of this attitude and its harmful reaction on 
the progress of the various scientific departments of the government. A 
herbarium is the working library of the botanist, and in some form or 
other it is essential to the specialist in any branch of the subject. Not 
only is it used for the purposes of identification, the study of relationships 
between wild and cultivated plants, useless weeds and valuable drugs, 
etc., but it affords authentic material of recognized species for dissection 
or laboratory culture. Without its extensive seed collection, supple- 
mented by the complete specimens in the National Herbarium, the seed 
laboratory of the Department of Agriculture would have been unable to 
carry out its important work of the last few years for the farmers in the 
matter of securing pure seeds. So also the study of forage and other 
economic grasses is absolutely dependent upon the presence of a large and 
full collection of grasses not only of this country but of the world. 

It is possible that Congress has been influenced in its action in this 
matter by the fact that the Museum is soon to have a new building ; and 
we may hope that full justice will then be done in the matter of appro- 
priations not only for the purchase of material but for the purpose of ex- 
plorations and the salaries of an adequate number of assistants. We trust 
that those who are enlightened as to the value and importance of the gov- 
ernment collections will keep this matter before the public and before 
Congress. 



156 THE PLANT WORI.D 



The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by Dr. F. H. Knowi^ton. 

[The editor of this department will be glad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature, and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject.] 

Watering Plants. — In the more southern portions of the country, or 
for that matter in any part where extensive periods of dry weather are 
liable to occur, it is often a matter of difficulty, where it is not possible 
to use a hose, to keep certain plants supplied with the requisite amount 
of moisture. In a small garden, for instance, where it is desirable to keep 
a few hills of melons, squashes, cucumbers, etc., or plants of pepper, 
egg-plant, and the like, it can be easily and economically done by half 
sinking a 5 or 6-inch flower-pot in the middle of the hill or by the side 
of a plant, which is filled once a day with water. This gradually seeps 
through the sides of the pot or through the bottom hole and supplies the 
requisite moisture without causing the baking of the soil that follows 
watering on the surface of the ground. If flower-pots are not available, 
an old tin can with several holes punched in bottom and sides makes a 
fairly good substitute. 

Spraying for Insects. — It is too well known to need comment that all 
our plants are subject to attacks of insects, and unle.ss prompt steps are 
taken to subdue them the crop will prove a failure. The striped bugs and 
so-called " stinking squash bugs " of cucurbitaceous plants, the cabbage 
worm affecting all allies of the cabbage, the potato beetle, etc., must be 
held in check or the plants may be ruined. This is easily done by 
spraying with Paris green, which may be diluted with flour or plaster 
and applied dry, or better with water, which can be applied with a water- 
ing can or small sprayer, of which there are numerous effective kinds. 
The cabbage, however, should not be sprayed with Paris green after the 
heading-up has commenced, but the worms may be killed with ordinary 
insect powder. Currants and gooseberries are easily cleared of the currant 
worm by applications of white hellebore. 

Transplanting Holly. — There is perhaps no evergreen shade or small 
tree that is more attractive when well grown than a good specimen of the 
common holly i^Ilex opaca). This is usually considered a difficult bush 
to transplant, but I have found that success may be made practically 
certain if the leaves are removed when the plant is re-set. The best time 
to transplant is early spring before growth has started, and after the 
shrub is firmly set in its new position cut off every leaf with a pair of 
shears and the percentage of loss will be very small. 



THE PIvANT WORIvD 157 

Peonies. — Undoubtedly the correct way to spell this word is paeony, 
but the use of peony has in a way been legitimitized by the formation 
of the American Peony Society, and apparently this spelling has come 
to stay. Be this as it may, the subject, perhaps too long neglected, has 
come to the front undoubtedly within the past few years. The peonies 
of the old-fashioned gardens, which we all remember, have now been 
so modified and improved that one would hardly recognize them. In 
place of the scarlet, pink, and white varieties of the old gardens we have 
almost every shade imaginable; and, too, the shape has changed until 
they look more like roses than the " pineys " we remember. We reprint 
below a short article on growing these plants by amateurs, and from time 
to time will give lists of desirable forms, methods of culture, etc. 

The Peony as Seen by an Amateur. — In the acquisition and culture of 
the newer varieties of peonies the amateur has a great pleasure in store. 
Few of those who find the solace of their leisure hours in floriculture 
have any conception of the improvement which has been made in the 
Peony. They are all accustomed to the sturdy plants, which, resisting ex- 
posure, neglect and ill usage, stood in the old-fashioned garden, flaunting 
each spring their blossoms of white, red, and pink. Grand old plants 
these were, and worthy progenitors of the exquisite creations of the 
modern hybridist, which are now first offered to flower-lovers ; but the 
Peony-lover of a generation ago would hardly recognize his favorite 
flower in the gorgeous blooms he will see at the coming exhibition of 
the American Peony Society. The most vivid crimsons, the most satiny 
pinks, the most creamy whites, will feast his eye in every gradation of 
shade, and every variation of form and shape that Nature, with her 
wealth of ingenuity, can devise. But to meet the wants of the amateur, 
beauty of form and color is not enough. These are often secured by 
care, skill, and appliances which are entirely beyond the reach of the 
ordinary person. The amateur needs a plant whose culture is simple 
and whose needs he can supply, and the Peony in these respects is the 
typical flower for him. In his garden and with his own hands he can 
produce as fine blossoms as the expert who originated and produced the 
variety. Given a good ordinary soil, well fertilized with a shovelful of 
old manure, and a few months' healthy exercise, and the amateur, in his 
limited space and with his limited means and appliances, can set and 
start a plant which will each year increase in size and beauty, and with 
each successive spring will cause him to bless the day when he planted 
it. So optimistic am I as to the future of the Peony that I believe it will 
be for the next decade the most planted and most popular hardy flower. 

Go to the coming exhibition, Mr. Amateur, See the flowers; buy 
the roots and plant them, and see for yourself if my encomiums are not 
warranted. — Frank B. Lown, in American Gardening. 



158 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. IvI^oyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

THE SHEDDING OF BRANCHES AND LEAVES. 

The Central American rubber tree, Castilla, presents an unusual 
example of self-pruning. The young tree has long, gracefully-curved 
branches, which, as they do not persist, may be called temporary or de- 
ciduous. These arise in the usual fashion in the axils of the leaves, and 
are loosened and at length released by the softening of a special layer of 
tissue at their bases. There is left a shallow, conical scar-pit, which 
is soon covered by the bark and becomes indistinguishable. All the 
branches which are produced for three or four years are thus got rid of. 
At the end of this period permanent branches are developed. Such a 
branch arises as an adventitious bud found near the side of the base of a 
temporary branch. " On young trees it is very easy to distinguish tem- 
porary from permanent branches, from the fact that the latter are directed 
obliquely upward at an angle of about 45 degrees, while the temporary 
branch near which it arises is almost or quite horizontal." * It appears 
also that these permanent branches may exceptionally be shed. 

This behavior of the rubber tree in question is, of course, only a 
special case of a very general phenomenon. It is generally understood 
that the fall of the leaf in the autumn is brought about by the formation 
of a separation-layer of tissue which allows the easy removal of the leaf 
without exposing the inner tissue as a wound. In compound leaves, each 
leaflet is provided with its own separation-layer, and the leaf therefore is 
not cast off as a whole. It is interesting to recall that the Boston Ivy 
has two kinds of leaves, unifoliate and trifoliate. The former are pro- 
duced on younger shoots, while the latter are found in seedlings and on 
the older parts of the plant. Whether, however, there is a single blade, 
or there are three leaflets, each has its own separation-layer, so that we 
find here an apparent exception to the general rule that single leaves fall 
as a whole, petiole and all. If compound leaves were absent, it would fairly 
be argued that the Boston Ivy has been derived from a form with com- 
pound leaves, on the evidence of the persistence of the habit of separating 
the terminal leaflet. 

But the special interest attaching to this plant is the example it affords 
of a habit analogous to that of Castilla. In the autumn a transverse 
separation-layer is formed at each node of the terminal portions of the 
stems which have not, on the approach of cold weather, lost their herba- 

*Cook, O. F. " The Culture of the Central American Rubber Tree." U. S. Dept. Agric, Bur. Plant 
Ind., Bull. 49. October, 1903. 



THE PlyANT WORI.D 159 

ceous character. Those parts of the stem, therefore, which would be 
unable to withstand the cold of winter are removed. In many plants 
the flowering shoots are removed in a similar manner, as an example of 
which we may note the shedding of the staminate catkins of poplars. 

Another very instructive instance is that of Fouquieria Macdougalii, 
one of that group of curious desert shrubs called by the Mexicans 
"ocotillo." The behavior of this plant has been recently described by 
Miss Winifred T. Robinson,* and is briefly as follows. 

Within the petiole of the leaf, in the cortex of the under side, a strand 
of hard mechanical tissue is formed, the development of which is begun in 
the bud. This is accompanied by the differentiation of a separation-layer, 
placed longitudinally in the petiole, between the mechanical tissue and 
the outer layers of cortex. So far as known, this is the only genus in 
which a separation-layer is so placed. On the approach of drought or 
the cold .season, the leaf-blade is cast off, leaving behind a spine which 
has been previously formed. In this unique waj^ the ' ' ocotillo ' ' conforms 
to the spinose type of desert vegetation. 

Finally the striking adaptation seen in the catbriar (Smilax) may be 
mentioned. The leaf of this plant is provided with two tendrils, which 
are, erroneously, I believe, usually regarded as of stipular nature. These 
are situated near the base of the petiole. A transverse separation-layer 
is formed in this leaf in the petiole above the tendrils, so that, although 
the blade is shed, the plant is still supported in position by the now 
woody tendrils, which persist through the winter and are of remarkable 
strength. 

It will be seen, I think, that this subject offers an attractive field for 
observation, and is especially suitable for field study for students. 



PURE SCIENCE AND THE "PRACTICAL." 

Admirable work has been done by Dr. George T. Moore, of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, in developing ' ' a method of destroying or 
preventing the growth of algae and certain pathogenic bacteria in water 
supplies." t It has been shown that copper sulphate, " in a dilution so 
great as to be colorless, tasteless and harmless to man, is sufficiently toxic 
to algae to destroy or prevent their appearance. ' ' It is probable that copper 
in some form may be used to destroy mosquito larvae. It is evident that 
the results of Moore and Kellerman will be of very far-reaching economic 
importance. The Bulletin which embodies the results of their investiga- 
tions exemplifies in an exceptional way the unexpected practical outcome 
of investigations in pure science. Few people would have suspected that 

*" The spines of Fouquieria." Bulletin Terr. Club, 31 : 45. January, 1904. 
+ Bur. Plant. Ind., Bull. 64, by George T. Moore and Karl F. Kellerman. 



160 THE PLANT WORLD 

investigations on the toxic action of ' ' ions ' ' on protoplasm were to lead 
to such immediately beneficial results as the purification of city water 
supplies at a trifling cost. 



DRY ROT OF THE POTATO. 

The wide-spread disease of the potato known as ' ' dry rot ' ' is caused 
by a member of one of the lower orders of fungi, the Moniliales, Fusarium 
oxysporum. This fungus has been known for nearly a century, but has 
only recently been understood.* 

The potato plant is attacked through the roots, from which the under- 
ground branches and tubers are invaded by the fungus. Toward maturity, 
the affected plants are seen to be dwarfed and the root system is so weak- 
ened that the stems become prostrated. Ultimately the foliage wilts, 
dries, and turns dark brown. The tuber is occupied at its base by the 
parasite, the presence of which is indicated by the discoloration of the 
flesh. The damage from this disease is due chiefly to the spread of the 
fungus in the tubers during storage. This may be checked b)' keeping 
them cool and dry. Since the plants are infected from the soil, little 
value is to be attached to spraying. At present there is no method known 
for ridding the .soil of this fungous " weed." 



SEED DISPERSAL IN THE CASTOR-OIL PLANT. 

It has been calculated t that the amount of energy expended in pro- 
jecting the seeds of one castor-oil plant of average stature and produc- 
tiveness (bearing 696 seeds) is .0024 horse-powers per second. If each 
plant requires 4 square feet of ground space, one acre would accommo- 
date 10,890 plants. On this assumption, the amount of work by this 
number of plants in exploding their carpels would be that capable of 
being performed by " one good .strong horse "in 26 seconds. The cal- 
culation is interesting, as the results indicate that there is an enormous 
expenditure of energy by plants in ways that are generally but little 
appreciated. 

The particular part that the plant plays in this matter is the produc- 
tion of fruits with walls of such character that in drying the energy 
required to expel the seeds is set free at once. The significance of this 
to the plant is shown by the fact that, inasmuch as the seeds are thrown 
to an average distance of 3.65 meters, in a period of 100 years 105 acres 
would be populated by castor-oil plants, assuming, of course, environ- 
mental conditions to be otherwise favorable. It should be pointed out 
that this is only one method of dissemination. 

* Smith, E. F., and Swingle, D. B. " The Dry Rot of Potatoes Due to Fusarium oxysporum." 

tDandeno, J. B. "The Mechanics of Seed Dispersion in Ricinus communis." Bull. Torr. Club, 
31 : 89. February, 1904. 



THE PLANT WORLD 161 

REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL LITERATURE. 

The coming physiology of the school is to be a far different thing 
from that which has for the great part occupied the time and energies of 
children. By this we mean that the newer and better kind is to be com- 
parative physiology of animals and plants, with the result that young 
people will have, as well as a more comprehensive view of living things, 
a better and saner idea of the workings of their own bodies. 

One of the most enthusiastic advocates of this newer type of elemen- 
tary physiology teaching is Mr. J. E. Peabody, whose book, a develop- 
ment of his earlier " Laboratory Execises in Anatomy and Physiology," 
has been published by the MacMillan Company.* It is called " Studies 
in Physiology, Anatomy and Hygiene." One of the best things that we 
can say is that the book represents the work actually done in a high school 
in New York City, and those who are engaged in teaching physiology will 
find it eminently helpful. It is simply to bring this to the attention of 
teachers that this brief note has been written. 



A NEW JOURNAL FOR NATURE STUDY. 

Beginning in January, 1905, a new educational journal, to be entitled 
The Natzire Study Review, will be published bi-monthly under the man- 
aging editorship of Professor M. A. Bigelow, of Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York. The editorial committee further con- 
sists of L. H. Bailey, Dean of College of Agriculture, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y.; H. W. Fairbanks, Investigator and Author of Text-books 
of Geography, Berkeley, Cal.; C. F. Hodge, Professor of Biology, Clark 
University, Worcester, Mass.; J. F. Woodhull, Professor of Physical Sci- 
ence, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. There are 
in addition fifty-two advisers and collaborators, representing all sections 
of this continent. 

The purpose and scope of this periodical are such that every nature- 
study teacher will find it indispensable. The price is to be $1.00 the 
volume. For further information, address Tke Nature Study Review, 
Teachers College, New York City. 



Book Reviews. 



Bog-Trotting for Orchids. By Grace Grey lock Niles. Pp. xvi, 310. 
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Under this suggestive title Miss Niles presents an attractive volume 
that reflects in its pages her enthusiasm as a " bog-trotter ' ' and her 
appreciation of the beauties of plants in the wild state. The first feature 

•Pp. i8, 332. New York, 1903. 



162 THE PLANT WORLD 

likely to be noticed by the general reader is the wealth of excellent illus- 
trations, many of them in colors. We are acquainted with no other book 
in which so many of the rarer orchids are depicted in their natural colors, 
and these are as a rule fairly accurate. 

The first part of ' ' Bog-Trotting ' ' is devoted to a series of chapters 
giving accounts of various trips to special regions, or in search of par- 
ticular species. The narrativ^e is interesting, but it is to be regretted that 
the author often lacks literary finish in her style and is sometimes a trifle 
faulty in grammatical construction. There is a too frequent repetition, 
moreover, of similar experiences ; the accounts of excursions for the 
ram's head moccasin flower, one of the rarest of our native orchids, might 
for example have been gathered together in a single chapter and thus 
rendered more effective. As it is, the author's experiences with this and 
other species of interest are scattered through the book in such a way that 
all possibility of securing a climax is lost and the reader's interest wanes 
in spite of himself. 

The second part of the book is occupied with a technical synopsis of 
the New England orchids, each genus and species being described at 
length. Of this work we can only say that the author should have 
omitted it. A list of references to Britton's or Gray's Manual would 
have served the purpose quite as well, and it is scarcely necessary to add 
that a book intended for popular reading, bearing such a title as this one, 
should not have its pages cumbered with technical matter. Moreover, the 
descriptions, though fairly well drawn, betray the hand of the amateur in 
taxonomic work. The botanist will smile, for example, at the form of 
the statement in the generic description of Habenaria that the flowers 
"are ornamented with spurs, fringed petals and throats." Equally un- 
fortunate is the publication of a new species, ' 'Habenaria Andrezvseii [sic] 
white n. sp. (per letter), 1903," which is apparently the form of hybrid 
between H. psycodes and H. lacera, published in Rhodora (3 : 245, 1903). 
.In a popular work of this kind no botanist would think of hunting up 
citations, and the publication of new names or combinations is quite 
indefensible. 

We regret the necessity of calling attention to these defects, but it is 
manifest that Miss Niles should have given more serious consideration to 
the form and scope of her work. The redeeming feature of the book, as 
we have intimated, is the abundance of fine illustrations, and for these 
alone it is worth possessing. c. i,. p. 



Mosses with Hand-Lens and Microscope. A Non-Technical Hand- 
book of the More Common Mosses of the United States. Part II. By 
A. J. Grout, Ph. D. New York : Published by the author. 

Advance sheets of the second part of Dr. Grout's excellent manual 
have reached us, and they confirm the good impression made by the first 
part. When this work reaches completion its accurate illustrations, clear 
descriptive treatment and beautiful typography and presswork will not 
only serve to give it a prominent place in the bryologist's library but 
will make it indispensable to those who are entering as novices upon the 
study of the mosses. c. l. p. 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII, Plate IX. 






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The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII JULY, 1904 No. 7 



Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XX/ 

By William E. Safford. 

Friday. February 2. — Up early for a walk along the beach beyond 
San Antonio. Returning, followed the bank of the river where it runs 
parallel to the coast before emptying into the sea. Was struck with the 
great number of food plants growing everywhere. Complaints are con- 
tinually made that our people are suffering for lack of food, and the papers 
have represented the natives of this island as in a starving condition. 
The trouble is that when ships touch here few provisions are taken off to 
them, the natives preferring to raise only enough for their own consump- 
tion. The foreigners will not take the trouble to cultivate a taste for 
the nutritious taro, yams, and plantains, which are plentiful, but say that 
there is nothing edible to be found. On the banks of the river this morn- 
ing I saw growing an abundance of useful plants : bananas, bread-fruit, 
coconuts, and taro ; besides the pandanus called aggag, which has the 
strong leaves used by the natives for cordage and for lashing the thatch 
to the roofs of their houses. While standing on the stone bridge I saw 
a number of eels (true fresh water anguilas), which the natives of this 
island call hasule, and a species of Kuhl ia, which the natives call pulan\ 

* Continued from the June issue. Beg^n in September, 1902. 

\Kiihlia rupesiris (Lacep); see page 75 of Report of the Director of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 
for 1900. Honolulu, 1901. 



164 THE PLANT WORLD 

There is another fresh-water fish in the river, one of which my boys 
caught and put in my well. It is a species of Eleotris iE.ftisca), a fish 
about six inches long belonging to the goby family. The study of the 
distribution of fresh-water fishes on oceanic islands is one which must be of 
great interest to the zoologist. In Samoa there are also eels and Kuhlias 
in the streams and in the Hawaiian islands several species of Kleotris in 
fresh- water streams and ponds. 

Crossed the bridge near the old distillery where brandy was formerly 
made from fermented coconut sap, and called on Don Juan de Torres, 
our Island Treasurer. Don Juan's house is one of the largest and finest 
on the island. It is constructed of masonry and the spacious rooms have 
floors of polished ifil wood. The house is surrounded by many choice 
flowers and shrubs.* As I went up the stone steps leading to the terrace 
the air was filled with the fragrance of henna {.Lawsonia inermis), which 
the natives call ciiiamomo. It has very much the odor of mignonette, 
and in Jamaica is called " mignonette bush." 

Found Don Juan at breakfast and accepted his invitation to take a 
cup of coffee. His wife. Dona Juliana, is the niece of my faithful 
Susana, the daughter of her brother Jose Perez. Dona Juliana is a lady 
of charming manners. She is better educated than most of her sex on 
the island. It was a source of surprise to me recently in registering the 
lands of the natives to find that a number of them could not sign their 
names. The other day when I handed an old lady a quill to affix her 
signature to a statement she had made, she excused herself, saying that 
she had forgotten to bring her glasses with her. A neighbor offered her 
his, but still she hesitated. Finally she turned to me and said : "Really, 
senor, if you had not written your name for sixty years, you too would 
have forgotten how ! ' ' And indeed the good soul has had no need to 
sign her name. She knows no one outside of the island. She does 
not even have to read, for she knows her prayers by heart, and there is 
no daily paper in Guam. 

Don Juan in explaining the situation of the island told me that most 
of the governors had discouraged education among the natives. He said 
that before the middle of the century just passed there was a great scarcity 
of books on the island. In Agaiia there was but a single grammar and 
that was owned by Don Silvestre Inocencio Palomo y Rodriguez, the 
father of my reverend friend Padre Jose Palomo. In the schools of the 
island only the merest rudiments were taught, and Don Inocencio's gram- 
mar was passed from boy to boy until it was quite worn out. 

From Don Juan I got some interesting notes concerning the families 
of Torres and of Palomo, the members of whom have always been among 

♦This fine house was destroyed by the earthquake of September 22, 1902, which also ruined the 
old bell-tower of the church. 



THE PLANT WORLD ' 165 

the most distinguished citizens of Guam. Don Silvestre Palomo is men- 
tioned frequently in the archives of the island. He served as Ayudante 
Mayor de la Dotacion, with the rank of captain, and was often of great 
service to the governors. He knew the Spanish language better than any 
other Chamorro on the island, and took pains that his son Jose should 
receive a classical education. He was devoted to the interests of his 
brother Chamorros and on many occasions he defended them from in- 
justice on the part of the island authorities, many of whom were over- 
bearing and avaricious and tried to take advantage of the simple islanders 
for their own selfish ends. This gained for him the sobriquet of the 
" Chamorro Cato," which was sometimes sarcastically applied to him by 
the Spaniards. His wife was the daughter of the celebrated Sargento 
Mayor Don Luis de Torres, the friend of Chamisso, Eschscholtz, Kotze- 
bue, Freycinet, and Gaudichaud, all of whom have borne testimony of 
esteem and friendship for him in their published works. This lady was a 
woman of unusual education and accomplishments, but at the same time 
was a thrifty housekeeper. She was a devoted mother, but was very 
firm and unrelenting in dealing with her son Jose. Father Palomo has 
told me how he used to rise every morning at four o'clock to go with his 
mother to church. She impressed upon him the importance of saying his 
prayers every night before retiring, and was very careful as to his associates. 
She spoke English well and French pretty well. She even knew mathe- 
matics and " could ascertain the Dominical Letter, Golden Number, and 
Epact of each year." She also knew the cause of the tides and of the 
changes of the moon. With all this ' ' she was adroit in all household tasks 
and in handiwork of aggag (Pandanus) and coconut leaf weaving, for mak- 
ing hats, mats and thatch, and was skilful in tailoring and seamstressy." 
With such a woman for a mother it is not strange that Jose Palomo 
should grow up to be a man of sterling character and good habits. 

Don Silvestre Palomo was a wide-awake business man. He made 
several trips to Manila for the purpose of buying goods. On returning 
from the last one in March, 1856, smallpox broke out on the schooner in 
which he had taken passage. Don Silvestre came ashore but was soon 
stricken with the disease and taken to a country house in a secluded spot 
to the right of the road leading to Sinahaiia, where he died. The epi- 
demic of smallpox which followed was terrible. It lasted until the fol- 
lowing November and carried off more than two-fifths of the population. 

Both Don Juan de Torres and Father Palomo have been most kind in 
giving me instruction in the Chamorro language. It is very interesting 
to find that in its grammatical structure it has affinities with the lan- 
guages of such remote islands as Madagascar and Java. This is especially 
shown in the use of infixes. Thus from the imperative chule, " carry," 
we derive the preterite chumule, by inserting the particle um before the 



166 THE PLANT WORLD 

first vowel, and by reduplication we get the present indicative chumu- 
chule, "lam carrying," which may be likened to our progressive form. 
This peculiarity is found also in the Philippine Islands and in the Khmer 
language of Cambodia, on the continent of Asia. 

It is with a feeling of deep gratitude that I acknowledge my indebted- 
ness to Father Palomo for his many acts of kindness to me and his valu- 
able assistance and advice since my arrival on this island. Father Palomo 
at my request gave me a short sketch of his life. From it I take the 
following extracts : 

" I was born on the 19th of October, 1836, and was baptized on the 
23d following, with the names Jose Bernardo Palomo y Torres. I was 
brought up almost like a cenobite in his cell, and had but little liberty 
according to your American standard. You may say that I was enslaved, 
but I bless that thrall and thank my dear parents for it. 

"Fray Pedro Leon del Carmen taught me some things ; and in 1858, 
two years after my dear parents had been taken away by the smallpox, 
I went to Manila. The following January I went to Cebu to see my 
Bishop, and was ordained by him on the 11th of December of the same 
year. Five days after my ordination he appointed me assistant to the 
priest of Agaiia. I then returned to Manila, whence I sailed for Guam 
in the following September." 

Father Palomo was appointed at various times cura of Saipan, the 
islands of Tinian and of Rota, after which he resumed his post at Agaiia, 
where he acted as assistant until, on the arrival of the Americans, Padre 
Francisco Resano, the Augustinian Recollet friar acting as Provincial of 
his order on the island, was compelled to surrender his charge, leaving 
him the only priest on the island.* 

In speaking of his old teacher. Fray Pedro Leon del Carmen, Father 
Palomo said : ' ' His example has always been an incentive to me to be a 
good man and to treat young men with kindness." t 

The Governor recently issued the following general orders forbidding 
religious instruction in the schools of the island, making it obligatory for 
all children to attend school and for all natives to learn to sign their 
names, and recommending all residents to learn to read, write, and speak 
the English language : 

General Order \ 
"No. 13. J 

" 1 . Every adult resident of this island must learn to write his or her 

* of the expulsion of the friars from Guam I have already spoken in the entry in my note-book of 
the 6th of September, 1899, where Father Palomo's tribute to his good teacher will also be found. 

tThe accompanying portrait is taken from a photograph of Father Palomo by L. P. Pinkston, who 
has since been appointed lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps. The bright sunlight has g^ven 
to Father Palomo's kindly face a scowling expression which is foreign to it. 



The Plant World, 



Vol. VII, Plate X. 




Rev. Juse Bernaidu Palumo y Tunes. 

From a photograph by L. P. Pinkston, U. S. M. C. 



THE PLANT WORI.D 167 

own name before the first day of July, 1900, unless prevented from doing 
so by physical disability. 

" 2. The signature must be plain and legible, suitable for use when 
required in legal documents or commercial transactions, and must be 
without ornamentation, scroll or other rubrical decoration. 

' 3. Any citizen may procure from the Government a suitable sample 
of his or her written name for use as a copy to be imitated in practice 
and instruction. 

"4. All residents are recommended to utilize every available oppor- 
tunity to learn how to read, write and speak the English language, thereby 
improving their own mental condition as well as preparing themselves 
for assisting their children, who are required by law to attend school. 

Generai, Order \ 
"No. 12. J 

" 1 . The system of Public Education in this island is hereby placed 
under the supervision and exclusive control of the Government, and all 
necessary expenses for the maintenance of the public schools will be 
defrayed by the Government. 

"2. Religious instruction in favor of any particular church or creed 
is prohibited and all religious training heretofore required by the late 
school customs or rules must be eliminated from the course of instruction, 
as the proper place for religious teaching is the home-circle, church, chapel 
or Sunday school. 

"3. All children between the ages of eight years and fourteen years 
must attend school, unless excused therefrom by competent authority for 
good reasons that interfere with their attendance. 

' ' 4. Instruction in the English language will be introduced in the public 
schools as soon as suitable teachers can be provided, and it is expected 
that the present force of native teachers will cheerfully and harmoniously 
co-operate with the teachers of English in order that the greatest benefits 
may be derived by both scholars and preceptors." 

Siinday, February 4. — With Don Jose Herrero for a walk over the hills 
back of Agaiia. As we were going up the road toward my ranch a little 
boy came running up to Don Jose and tried to kiss his hand, saying ' 'Man, 
senor,^'' an abbreviation for "l kiss your hand, sir." Don Jose, my 
friend of the funny stories and the jolly fiddler, immediately assumed an 
air of dignity and, making the sign of the cross in the air, said : ''Dios 
te ayude y te litre de todo malo / " (May God aid thee and deliver thee 
from all evil.) Then turning to me in a half -apologetic manner he said : 

You see, seiior, these young people about here look upon me as a father. ' ' 
With all his gaiety, Don Jose is deeply pious. On reaching a cross on the 
top of the hill he uncovered his head and repeated the little prayer : 

" Adoro te, santa Cruz, puesto en Monte Calvario, 
Donde muri6 mi Jesus, de manos y pies clavados." 

Don Jose then told me that on the spot where we were standing there 
used to grow a great nunu (banyan tree). It was thought to be a resort 



168 THE PLANT WORLD 

for mananiti (spirits), and people were afraid to pass by, especially after 
night-fall. Of course Don Jose does not believe in such superstitions. 
Some people told of ghosts without heads (it was a custom of the aborig- 
inees to keep the heads of the departed in baskets suspended in their 
houses, where they offered a sort of worship to them in times of distress); 
others said that there were malignant spirits in the forests which some- 
times clutched people round the neck when riding along in the darkness. 
Don Jose said that it was considered unlucky to joke near ladte, as the 
parallel rows of pillars are called, or to speak irreverently of the ancients. 
He did not believe in such things, but many thought it best to be on the 
safe side; and "besides, seiior, who knows what means the Devil may 
adopt to do harm to Christians ! ' ' 

I asked Don Jose to take me to the place where Father Palomo's 
father had died ; so we took a little road which led down into a valley on 
the right and found a plantation in a flourishing condition, where there 
were coffee, and fruits of many kinds growing. Don Jose told me that 
the first act of Father Palomo when he returned from Manila, after 
having been ordained, was to come out to this ranch and gather up the 
bones of his father. He carried them to Agaiia and had them buried 
beneath the floor of the church. There are many tombs under the floor. 
It is now covered with ifil boards, but the stones are beneath with the 
inscriptions on them. 

We resumed our journey and took a little path leading down the hill 
from the road to Sinahaiia. Passed a great funnel-shaped sink-hole, and 
shortly afterwards reached a ranch belonging to Maria Gogiie, where we 
found no one at home. Then we went to a ranch now owned by Don 
Jose Herrero, which he had received from his nephew, Jose Portusach. 
It was the old estate of Father Ciriaco del Espiritu Santo, the thrifty 
priest who came here years ago from the Philippines and who did so 
much to develop the resources of the island. In the archives I find him 
mentioned frequently. He was a good tiller of the soil, and took great 
interest in agriculture. Don Jose showed me the ruins of the house 
built by Padre Ciriaco as a country resort. It was a massive structure 
of masonry. One gable is still standing and the worn steps of coral 
limestone are in perfect condition. The other gable has been destroyed 
by a banyan tree, the roots of which spread over it like the arms of a 
huge octopus. The interior is heaped with debris of plaster and stone, 
in which a dense thicket of acacias and other shrubs has sprung up. 
" This house," said Don Jose, " was a favorite resort of Governor Villa- 
lobos, who would come out here with Padre Ciriaco and spend several 
days together. I remember Governor Villalobos very well — Don Fran- 
cisco, we used to call him. His cook played the flute very well. He 
was very pious and used to have processions and litanies in the palace. 



THK PlyANT WORLD 169 

But with all his piety he was a great admirer of the fair sex. My mother's 
second husband was Don lyuis Portusach. When he died he left money 
in trust to my mother for the benefit of their son, my half brother, 
Joaquin Portusach. This money was placed in the hands of the Governor, 
Don Francisco, who, to prevent its being spent, bought this place 
from Padre Ciriaco. It was a good house then, strong and well con- 
structed ; but in the course of years the roof decayed and the timbers 
were taken away and used elsewhere. I remember the deed of convey- 
ance. It began like this : ' Yo, Ciriaco del Espiritu Santo, vendo a los 
herederos de lyuis Portusach una casa de piedra con cocal por la cantidad 
de 425 pesos. ' After the death of Portusach my mother married Francisco 
Salar, from Murcia in Spain. He was a brave man, afraid of nobody, 
and in Spain was so defiant of the laws that they exiled him to this 
island. Though he had little or no education he was a man of great 
intelligence. He behaved so well that he soon won the respect of every- 
body. I realize now what he did for me, though he used to make me 
work so hard that I wished he would drop dead. I used to love to play 
the fiddle and guitar and hated to study ; but he realized the disadvantage 
of growing up without an education, and he made my brothers and 
myself study hard. Blessed be God! " 

The tobacco in the low valleys is now in good condition. The corn 
crop in the valley of Tarofofo, which was flowing with water at the time 
of my visit last November, is turning out very well. We are now hav- 
ing fine weather with only occasional light showers. The wind is con- 
stantly from the northeast (steady trades) and we are in the midst of 
what is called the dry season. 

On our return we stopped for a while at Don Jose's hill-top ranch, 
where we got a refreshing drink from a green coconut. We found Don 
Jose's daughter, Doiia Maria, in the little chapel which had been con- 
structed on the ranch, saying her rosary before a simple cross of wood. 
She had been feeding her chickens and had stopped a while to pray. The 
air was filled with the perfume of aroma (^Acacia far^iesiayia) , sweet as 
honey. From Don Jose's ranch the view of the town below us was lovely 
with its red tiled roofs and plumy coconut trees and the turquoise lagoon 
beyond. My own little green and red house smiled up at me from 
across the plaza, and I though I could distinguish my good Susana look- 
ing out of one of the windows as though she were waiting to see me 
coming before getting ready the chocolate. 

[to be continued.] 



170 THE PLANT WORLD 

On Lonely Rocks and Sand-Edged 

Bluffs. 

By Mrs. A. E. Goetting. 

All through the middle valley of the Wisconsin stand high, precip- 
itous rocks with their sandstone sides and bases worn into cracks, crev- 
ices and chasms by the surgings of prehistoric waters or the grindings of 
glacial ice. These rocks often stand out alone on the prairie, but oftener 
in groups cut off in ages past from the surrounding bluffs. So many arms 
and points are thrown out from the rocky highlands that innumerable are 
the pockets found nestling between these ancient capes and peninsulas. 

Though it be delightful to sit on some shelving ledge and picture the 
sea-mosses and weeds that once animated these little coves, it is far more 
so to study from day to day the multiple forms with which nature now 
covers these old sea-walls and ocean beds. Seeds of Jack-pines, dropped 
in colonial days by blue-jay or crow, sprouted and grew on the very 
summits of these "earth-born castles," and now, spite of past winds, 
heats and droughts, they stand with bent, scraggy forms and denuded 
tops athwart the sky. Their famished roots in search of food and mois- 
ture have locked and interlocked in their wanderings downward through 
cracks and crevices till often they make a natural ladder upon which the 
daring climber mounts to the top. 

On the sloping sides and shelving tablelands the lower pines mingle 
their dark hues with those of the stunted oaks and graceful birches, while 
beneath them their needles form resinous mats upon the oaken-leaved 
carpet, delightful to scent but treacherous to step upon. The southern 
exposures are bold, dry, and naked, but on the north the loose sand is 
enriched by a thin coating of leaf -mold, which is taken full possession of 
by a great variety of stocky runners and creepers, many of them being 
evergreen. 

Here the graceful bearberry (^Ardostaphylos) , with its small shining 
leaves, nestles in patches, often throwing out sprays a yard long before 
rooting, and in early June it is adorned with the waxen, pink, urn-shaped 
blossoms so common to members of the Heath family. This creeper 
grows sparingly on the rocky bluffs, but it runs rampant on northern 
sand-barrens and in piney woods, being far more beautiful than that found 
growing on the Rocky Mountains. But while in Wisconsin its praises 
are yet to be sung, in Colorado it is famous as the Kinikinick, made 
world-renowned by the pen of H. H.; and yearly the tourists go into 
raptures over its glossy sprays as they see it decking the mountain 
hermitage of her who was once its lover. The Kinikinick of the West 
has few associates, but in Wisconsin it must vie with a dozen other 



THE PLANT WORLD 171 

aspirants for the place of honor ; perhaps for this very reason its beauty- 
has been overlooked. Like all this class of wildings, it refuses to flourish 
out of its haunts. 

Trailing and erect ground-pines and cedars (Lycopodiums and Selag- 
inellas) crowd their stems above, and underground stems and rootlets 
below, but the erect, overshadowing stems of the Prince's pine or pipsis- 
siwa ^Chimaphila) outdo in size, shape, and gloss the oval leaves of the 
bearberry. The creeping pines and cedars, belonging to lower forms of 
vegetation (club mosses), have no flowers on sides or tips, only yellow 
masses of spore gold ; but the Prince wears in June his crown of five or 
more drooping jewels, star-like in shape, waxen in texture, and roseate 
in hue. What wonder then that the tiny bells of the Kinikinick ring in 
vain its owner's praises ! 

The stocky wintergreens i^Gaidtheria) , too, are here, and, nothing 
daunted, plow their underground stems readily among the other creepers, 
throwing up from their axils tufts of three to five aromatic evergreen 
leaves. This plant often sports fruit and flower at the same time. 

The false wintergreen (^Pyrola), the chickweed wintergreen (^Trien- 
talis), and the dwarf cornel {.Cormcs Canadeyisis) join a host of ferns in the 
general push for earth and air. 

On the upper reaches the large pink lady's-slipper (^Cypripediiim can- 
diduvi) may sometimes be found in May, while near the foot many other 
orchids hide. With so many pushing, energetic, racing plants can there 
be room for other beauties? Oh, yes ! for rootlets love to crowd, and 
then, too, as the season advances, some plants die down, to be quickly 
followed by other growths. 

Mosses : What may be said about the countless mosses that velvet 
these slopes and nestle in loving warmth around the plants of higher 
life? Bush-like bunches of white, gray, and sea-green lichens blend 
their softening hues among the yellow and myrtle greens of the true 
mosses, and often little patches of rattlesnake plantain iGoodyera) add 
their satin sheens to these never-fading tints of the hillside. The rocks 
projecting at all angles from the parent bluff give tints of gray, toned 
down by rock lichens and brown and green plates of the true liverworts. 
In the crevices and on the edges of overhanging rocks creep the wiry 
brown rootstocks of the sturdy little poly pods, which watch with their 
countless brown eyes the melting snows, foretelling the coming of spring's 
queen . 

From the Baraboo bluffs northward to Superior, the trailing arbutus of 
Pilgrim fame makes its home, becoming more luxuriant in its growth 
and more plebeian in its ways as it creeps nearer the Arctic ; but here in 
its southern limits it is shy and seeks only favored localities. 

Trailing arbutus. Queen of May ! I will seek thee where thy gar- 



172 THE PLANT WORLD 

ments trail only over mossy stretches, and where thy sweetness adds but 
to airs redolent with the spicy breath of pines ! Though the day be cold 
and dark and dreary, our queen will not withhold her gifts, for she is no 
mincer of soft airs, and though she refuses to be petted in the garden, 
she never refuses the caresses of the northern blast. The cluster of buds 
formed a year ago now nestle among the brown leaves, ready to open 
their eyes after the first warm shower. Often we need to scratch away 
the leaves to find the shell-tinted pinks of the clusters beneath. Do not 
pick only the blossoms and tie them in tight bunches, such as are sold 
on all the northern trains during the month of May ; but pick sprays of 
leaves with their axillary clusters in all their native beauty. Gather 
some mosses, too, gray and green ; and when you get home, mount them 
upon a platter, and over this bank trail your sprays, that others may see 
the queen as she sits upon her woodland throne. 

Yes, and gather many more sprays, and, putting them in tin cans, 
mail them to friends who at this haunting season are longing for the pets 
of their childhood ; mail them to the sick and weary, that their perfume 
may bring to them the woodside and glen ; and mail them to those who 
have never seen this sweetest flower of earth ; for what the chambered 
nautilus was to those ancient sea beds, the arbutus is to its dry beds to-day. 



The Black Fungi. 

By C. L. Shear. 

The systematic botanist and plant-lover whose interests are restricted 
to the flowering plants is continually trampling under foot, not only figur- 
atively, but literally, many of the most interesting and beautiful members 
of the vegetable kingdom. Fallen leaves, branches, and decaying logs 
bear thousands of minute fungi, many of which are so small as to be 
scarcely discerned by the unaided eye. An ordinary hand lens will, 
however, reveal the chief microscopic characters of these plants. In this 
article it is intended to direct attention to but one of the many groups of 
fungi which occur in such places. About 50,000 species of fungi have 
been described. Of these, the large and conspicuous forms, like toad- 
stools, mushrooms, and pufT-balls, constitute a very small part. 

The Pyrenoinycetes, or black fungi, as they are sometimes called by 
botanists when wishing to use a non-technical term, are suflSciently 
numerous, varied, and interesting to fill a book rather than a few pages. 
Though exceeding common and abundant, they have no common names, 
as they rarely attract the attention of any but botanists, and unfortu- 
nately but few of them. 



THE PIvANT WORI.D 173 

Those who are looking- for a fertile field for research can here find 
problems in abundance, either biologic or toxonomic. Of the ten thousand 
or more species which have been described, the complete life history of 
perhaps less than one hundred is known. In regard to our systematic 
knowledge of them Dr. Underwood has very truly said that "there is 
scarcely a genus that is not in crying need of a revision." 

The majority of these plants are considered saprophytic — that is, the 
form which produces asci occurs on dead animal or vegetable matter. 
Many which are now classed as saprophytic apparently pass the early 
stages of their life as parasites. The name Pyrenomycetes — which is 
derived from two Greek words, pyren, meaning the stone of a fruit, such 
as an olive, and mycetes, a mushroom or fungus — was first applied to 
these plants by the distinguished Swedish mycologist EHas Fries in his 
great work on fungi entitled " Systema Mycologicum " (1821-29), which 
was intended to include in its three small volumes descriptions of all the 
fungi which had been described at that time. Some idea of the rapid 
increase in our knowledge of these forms of life may be gained from 
the fact that Saccardo in the sixteen bulky volumes of his ' ' Sylloge 
Fungorum " has not yet included all the species described. 

But to return to the Pyrenomycetes . They constitute one of the chief 
divisions of the great group Ascomycetes, and may be distinguished from 
other ascus-bearing forms, such as the cap fungi, by the perithecium, the 
globular or flask-shaped body in which the asci or spore sacs are enclosed. 
These perithecia usually open by means of a pore at the apex, which is 
called an ostiolum (little mouth), in order to permit the escape and 
distribution of the spores which perform the function of reproduction and 
are analogous to the seeds of the flowering plants. The perithecia are 
mostly small and dark-colored. They rarely exceed one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, and most are half that size or less. When occurring 
singly, as they do in many genera, they are not so easily noticed as when 
they occur in groups or masses, as they frequently do. In the genus 
Hy poxy Ion, the perithecia are arranged on a stroma or matrix, forming 
more or less globular masses, varying in size from that of a pea or 
smaller to a hickory nut. This genus is very common, and specimens 
can be found at almost any time on old fallen branches of various decid- 
uous trees, especially alder and birch. If one cut a section of one of 
these with a pocket-knife he will be able to distinguish the separate 
perithecia which form a layer about the mass. 

Many forms produce their perithecia beneath the bark and can only 
be detected by the slight pustular elevation of the bark or by the groups 
of minute black mouths which protrude slightly. To study the spores the 
compound microscope is necessary, but good instruments are becoming 
so cheap that few botanists, even amateurs, can afford to be without one. 



174 THE PIvANT WORLD 

A new stand giving sufficient power and facilities for the study of most 
microscopic fungi except bacteria can be purchased for from fifteen to 
thirty dollars, and frequently an excellent second-hand instrument can 
be obtained. The wondrous beauty and diversity of form and color 
exhibited by the spores of many of these fungi will well repay one for the 
trouble and expense involved in a compound microscope. 

In regard to literature and other matters of interest to those who wish 
to know more about these plants I shall have to speak at another time. 
Meanwhile, any one wishing further information or assistance may receive 
it for the asking in so far as I am able to give it. 



Briefer Articles. 



SOME UNUSUAL WOODY PLANTS. 

Few things give the plant-lover a greater surprise than to find plants 
of familiar genera, or even species, assuming unusual proportions. 

I remember once, in company with the late George Hunt, long the 
Nestor of Rhode Island botanists, alighting upon a Jack-in-the-pulpit of 
enormous proportions. We did not presume to pluck or even question 
one who was so large and " so clear in his high office.''' He must have 
been a bishop at least, as he had grown as tall and become as stocky as 
any hot-house calla. All the colors were richer, clearer than I ever have 
seen in Arisaeina. 

One of the most marvelous ranges in height is seen in our wild 
lettuce, Lactuca Canadensis L,. Gray's Manual says 4 — 9° high ; I am 
sure I have seen it in favorable locations 15 to 18°. " The readiness is 
all " ; to wit, the location. This is a determining factor in the remarkable 
range of heights seen in Canada flea-bane, Erigeron Canadensis ly. One 
may find it depauperate, single-headed, on a dusty road-side. Again, it 
may be 10 or more feet high in a cultivated field where it has escaped a 
napping farmer. 

One must receive a shock, who, traveling in Northeast Asia, comes 
upon practically suffrutescent Umbe Hi ferae. After all though, our own 
Heracleum is a fair preparation for startling phenomena in that family. 
Again, on Block Island, I have seen our common pond-lily, Nymphaea 
odoraia, so large as to make me question whether I had not discovered 
an extra-regional Victoria. 

In reading books of scientific travel — and what reading is more de- 
lightful than say Bates, or Belt, or Hooker, or Ball? — one frequently 



THE PI.ANT WORLD 175 

meets with accounts of arboreous plants which his experience has led him 
to consider as invariably weeds. 

Decidedly the most interesting volume of travel I have read of late is the 
"Uganda Protectorate," by Sir Harry Johnson. On pages 170-172, 
Vol. I, there is a vivid description and beautiful plates given of two 
species of giant Lobelia, L. Shihlmanni Schw. and Deckeni Hensl, so 
utterly distinct from one another ' ' that no one but a botanist would 
know that they were closely related." One of them, appearing exactly 
like a Dracaena, makes its first appearance on Mount Ruwenzori, at 
7,000 feet altitude, and extends therefrom upwards to the snow limit. 

As the plant grows in height, the lower leaves fall in succession, 
leaving the stem round and smooth, " so that at maturity it exhibits a 
large bunch or mop of sword-like leaves at the end of a woody stem of 
small diameter, 20° or over in height. From the middle of the mop of 
leaves there starts a flower-spike, which may be as much as three feet in 
height. This is, at the same time, very slender and is covered through- 
out the whole length with blossoms concealed from sight by large green 
bracts." The blossoms themselves are greenish white inclining to red. 
This is Lobelia Stu/ilmanni Schweinfurth. 

The other high mountain species. Lobelia Deckenii Hensl, is about 
fifteen feet in height, the flower stalk sometimes nearly six feet long, and 
much thicker than in the last. The flowers are ultra-marine blue. The 
author says: "The green bracts to a great extent conceal the flowers, 
which grow at right angles to the stalk, though when the flowers are 
absolutely mature they reveal for a day or two an exquisite shimmering 
of blue all up and down the stalk. These (two) Lobelias, with their 
aloe-like leaves and strange flower-columns, remind one, I can not say 
why, of monuments in a cemetery. They would certainly be handsome 
additions to our ornamental flora." 

In the same volume (I, page 168) mention is made of a giant ground- 
sel, Senecio Johnsto7ii^ of Mt. Kilimanjaro, and a new colossal species on 
Ruwenzori. 

Many other delightful surprises occur to the botanist in reading this 
superb work. Sir Harry is on a political mission but nothing seems to 
escape his keen eye and trained intelligence. Were it not that besides 
the wonderful flowers one would meet with very formidable mammals, 
reptiles and insects, he would feel as if he must abandon ordinary pur- 
suits and seek the Dark Continent. Wm. Whitman Baii^ky. 

Brown University. 



A TIMELY article on "The Value of Field and Herbarium Work," 
by William P. Holt, is to be found in School Science for June, 1904. 



176 THE PI.ANT WORIvD 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



PROTECTION OF THE WILD FLOWERS.* 

By G. Gordon Copp. 

Efficient protection of the wild flowers will be best accomplished, and 
most fully accomplished, when every lover of nature adds his mite of 
effort to the gracious task, demonstrating a wide-spread interest in the 
subject. 

The fields of endeavor must be as broad as the wildwoods that the 
Wild Flower Preservation Society of America would protect, and the 
methods of protection as numerous as the plants the society would pre- 
serve, and yet but one plan presents itself to me as preeminently important. 

Enlist the services of the school teachers as the most serviceable of 
allies and through them reach the children, with whom the future of the 
wild flowers rests in far greater degree than with their elders. 

My school days were over long before the school teachers of New York 
were expected to convert each member of a most cosmopolitan class into 
botanist and geologist, artist and artizan, nature student and linguist, 
regardless of previous condition, nationality or temperament. 

Consequently, my first introduction to botany was through the kindly 
offices of a young country school teacher, at an age considerably past the 
schoolboy period, when I could best appreciate real beauty of face and 
form and mind. 

I^et me confess she possessed all three to a marked degree. This I dis- 
tinctly remember, but all that remains to me of her botanical instruction 
is the recollection that I armed her with a razor to aid in her researches 
afield on her return to her country charges. 

Even then I loved the wild flowers too well to enjoy dissecting them, 
and with the additional disadvantages of the teacher's absence, multiple 
regrets totally foreign to botany, and the impression that the delightful 
study was mainly based on the destruction of all things rare and beautiful 
to be studied, is it strange that botanical knowledge halted with me there ? 

I have since learned much on lines less destructive, and to me far 
pleasanter. So would say, beyond all things urge the teachers to relegate 
the dissecting knife to the realms of tools of last resort, and their use to 

* Awarded the third prize of ten dollars, competition of 1904, from the Caroline and Olivia Phelps- 
Stokes Fund for the Preservation of Native Plants. Reprinted from the Journal of the New York 
Botanical Garden. 



THE PLANT WORLD 177 

a period when the matiirer mind of the pupil would lead him ever to pre- 
serve rather than destroy. 

Of the necessity of the knife in the identification of a strange or puz- 
zling fruit or flower I am fully aware ; but placed in the hand of a child, 
what surer guide could be afforded to the manifold habits of destructive- 
ness afield that real lovers of the flowers so much deplore and the society 
is fighting so hard to overcome ? 

Magnitude and quantity, distinctive features of the age and typical to 
a degree of New York conditions, makes the work of the economist in 
any line especially difficult. In no department is this more true than 
along the lines of the self-imposed task of those who are urging saving 
ways in the enjoyment of the wild flowers. 

Nature studies in the schools, where the classes average anywhere 
between forty and sixty pupils each, and the modern school house is a 
goodly town of from one to three thousand rising young citizens, inclu- 
ding their future wives and sweethearts, demand such quantities of living 
greenery and blossoms as can not fail to impress the individual with the 
boundless prodigality of Nature, rather than with the power of man to 
overcome even Nature's bounteousness by his careless destructiveness. 

Urge the teachers then to impress the scholar with the fact that every 
leaf and twig and blossom is far more beautiful in its native wild than he 
can possibly make it on paper, and is likely to have, if not positively 
known to have, numbers of utilitarian purposes other than its needful 
subservience at times to educational ones. 

Above all, urge the teachers to impress upon youthful minds the rare 
merit of unselfishness in their rambles through the wilds. If a favorite 
flower, and children early learn to know their favorite blossoms, is found 
blooming alone, teach the child the merit of leaving the dainty little 
recluse to fulfil the law of its being and multiply its kind ; and no one 
will be more delighted than the child who, later on, discovers that the 
fragile little waif has succeeded, thanks to the lesson of human self- 
restraint, and is no longer a lonely dweller among alien blooms. 

If the favorite blooms are of more sturdy, prolific habit, teach the 
child the true kindness of leaving some of even the best beloved blossoms 
for the delight of late comers who may love them still more dearly. And 
last, but perhaps most valuable of the lessons afield, teach the children to 
know and love the flowers which can best withstand indiscriminate pluck- 
ing and will best repay the task of carrying to city homes ; for no lover 
of flowers, and least of all those who are striving to protect them, wishes 
to limit the delights of woodland rambles, but rather to enhance them in 
all ways possible, and the most direct way is through the gateway of 
knowledge. 

They would have all who best enjoy God's gracious gifts of sunny 



178 THE PIvANT WORI.D 

plain and wooded hill, of sylvan dales and laughing streams, know the 
flowers as they know the faces of their dearest friends. Then will the 
daintiest plants and blossoms which languish and refuse to be comforted 
amid alien surroundings be enjoyed to the utmost in their native haunts, 
while their sturdier brethren will be sought for with all the more eager- 
ness for home decoration. 

The ever-graceful daisy ranks high among these latter flowers, and so 
sturdy is it that the farmer would rise up and call him blessed who could 
eradicate it from his fields, while the army of those who love the star-like 
beauty of its golden-hearted, silver-rayed blossoms may rest content in 
the knowledge of its indestructible vigor. 

And what more dainty than the violet of wayside and meadow, or 
more pregnant with the poetry of spring and the charm of the annual 
resurrection which few of us are yet so self-absorbed, or so case-hardened, 
by even the driving life of the greater cities, as to be totally oblivious to. 

There are many others as beautiful as they are sturdy ; but all this is 
merely suggestive, and these are mentioned simply because they are so 
well known and are so typical of such of the wild dwellers of wood and 
plain as can best withstand the demand for home decoration and the 
almost instinctive and much-cultivated desire to possess. 

Home decoration is included in the lessons of the school-room ; and the 
trend of thought on floral lines might well be directed toward the hybrids 
to the lasting benefit of their wild sisters. Man-made to a degree, and 
in many instances deprived of the power of reproducing their kind, a 
power which brings their wilder sisterhood thus much nearer their Creator, 
the creations of the horticulturist's art are in far nearer keeping with the 
artificial surroundings of the ball-room, or the often but little less hybrid 
conditions of many city homes, than the wild flowers could possibly be. 

Older pupils might be taught the utter incongruity of associating the 
dying glories of the woodlands' most delicate plants with the budding 
hopes and aspirations which should prevail in every feature of a wedding 
celebration. And this is no imaginary danger to the wild flowers, but, 
on the contrary, is a recent and rapidly-growing menace ; wild plants, 
and the daintiest of their kind, having been a marked, and in some in- 
stances an exclusive, feature of the decorations at several recent wed- 
dings. 

Of the pleasures of the cultivation of flowers as against the delights 
of merely picking them, only to watch their more or less rapid decay, 
there is but little to be suggested to the teachers, because already they 
are doing all in their power, so far as the limited facilities of class- 
rooms will permit, to cultivate a taste for living plants, while their en- 
deavors in that direction have led to the suggestion of roof gardens or 
possibly a conservatory as additions to modern school buildings, to relieve 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 179 

the teachers of the trials and disappointments peculiar to window-gard- 
ening under most adverse conditions. 

Now a word or two as to some of the conditions which confront New 
York members of the society in their endeavors to preserve the wild 
flowers. Difficulties increase with the increasing love of the children for 
flowers of every kind and quality and with their insatiate longing for 
them ; a longing which there are few opportunities of gratifying in a 
large city which is rapidly devouring the suburbs in its speedy growth. 

This longing finds expression in frequent demands for "just one 
flower ' ' made on any and every one who carries a handful of blossoms 
through the city streets. A bouquet of bushel-basket dimensions would 
not outlast a half-mile walk if an attempt was made to satisfy this crav- 
ing by the gift of a single blossom to every child that asks for one. 

Is it strange, then, that every stretch of wild accessible to such flower- 
starved children should be denuded of every bit of bloom in a twinkling, 
or more singular that whole handfuls of such indiscriminately-plucked 
blossoms are almost as quickly discarded, because they incontinently wilt 
and die almost before they can be carried from the cool recesses of their 
native woods? 

The parks, valuable as they are as breathing places, only partially 
satisfy this flower hunger, because in them the child may admire but 
must not pick, nor even handle, bud or blossom, leaf or fruit ; almost as 
great a restriction as the glass windows of the florists' shops in the heart 
of the great city, through which they peer longingly at the fragrant 
treasures so far beyond their reach. 

The larger and wilder parks in the northern suburbs, and notably the 
New York Botanical Garden preserve in Bronx Park, where the wild 
flowers are treasured beyond the showiest of hybrids, have felt the de- 
structive effects of this craving for flowers to a marked degree. Warn- 
ing signs are displayed, but have little effect, and the predominating ex- 
cuse of older offenders, " I didn't think it any harm to pick a few wild 
flowers," gives but little promise of greater discretion on the part of 
children. 

It must be confessed that the Director-in-Chief of the Botanical Gar- 
den has thus far not had the heart to attempt to enforce punishment upon 
the youthful offenders for satisfying a heart-hunger so apparent. I cer- 
tainly can offer no suggestion as to its cure, although to even remedy it 
would be to accomplish much in the preservation of the wild flowers. I 
only know that it would require a fortune in a city of a million and a half 
of inhabitants, and executive ability of rare character, to satisfy it. 

Again I have only told of conditions in the hope that others may be 
able to suggest means to meet the evils. The most effectual way to dis- 
courage trafl&c in wild flowers and plants lies in the refusal of their friends 



180 THK PIvANT WORI.D 

to purchase them ; but this was long since recognized and is being urged 
at every opportunity. 

In conclusion, let me suggest that if ever the time recurs when the 
now over-filled hours of the New York school teacher admit of leisure for 
those semi-social chats with the scholars which once gave opportunity for 
the inculcation of much valuable knowledge not mentioned in the curri- 
culum, it might aid the cause of the wild flowers materially to tell the 
scholars of the widespread good accomplished by judicious use of the 
income of the Phelps-Stokes fund. 

The fund is a sum of $3,000 donated by Caroline and Olivia Phelps- 
Stokes, on condition that the income of it be always devoted to the pres- 
ervation of native plants. Much good has been accomplished in dissem- 
inating able essays paid for from the income of the fund, in giving wide 
currency to literature of like character, and by a course of equally able 
lectures in many cities, the expenses of which work were also paid for out 
of the fund income. 

What more likely than that from the ranks of the merchant princes, 
the soldiers, sailors, and more humble toilers, or the few multi-million- 
aires now developing among the pupils, some will in time swell the fund 
for the preservation of native plants. 

This is certainly of most vital importance to the movement, for in 
these days of strenuous endeavor all projects of importance must indeed 
be wafted toward the goal on golden wings to attain any very marked 
success. 



Prof. W. L. Bray, of the University of Texas, has prepared a bulle- 
tin on the "Forest Resources of Texas," which should prove of great 
value to the residents of that State, especially in view of the fact that of 
all the States in the Union Texas has the largest wooded area. Nor does 
this include the chaparral growth extending throughout the Rio Grande 
country, but only the vast timber section of east Texas and the central 
and far western woodlands. These are estimated at 64,000 square miles. 
Much of this territory has been cut over, especially in the shortleaf and 
longleaf pine sections, but conservative estimates still place the merchant- 
able forest area of Texas at 27,000 square miles. There is now annually 
cut about 125,000 acres of timberland, yielding about a billion board feet. 
The lumber industry is exceeded in value only by the cotton and cattle 
industries. In its forests Texas has sixty-one species and varieties of trees 
of commercial importance. 



THE PLANT WORLD 181 

Editorial. 



We have several times taken occasion to call attention in these 
columns to the commendable enterprise evinced by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture in maintaining a party of trained botanical explorers, 
charged with the duty of seeking out the remote corners of the earth and 
securing, not only new plants adapted to our own country, but improved 
strains of old and well-known vegetable standards. Without attempting 
an enumeration of all, mention may be made of the date palm, success- 
fully introduced into our arid West ; Japanese rice, which is less liable 
to loss by breaking ; improved races of fungus-resisting cotton, maca- 
roni wheat, etc. ; but all these are overshadowed by the discovery 
made in Guatemala by Dr. O. F. Cook, a botanical explorer, of an in- 
sect — a brown ant — which is the deadly enemy of the cotton boll weevil. 
If the attempt to introduce this insect into the ravaged cotton fields of 
the South is successful it will mean an annual saving to this country of 
half a dozen times the sum now expended in the whole Department of Ag- 
riculture. This achievement should be brought prominently to the atten- 
tion of Congress and should be potent in securing as large appropriations 
for the Bureau of Plant Industry as can be judiciously handled. This is 
a country of vast size and almost unlimited resources, and when we con- 
sider the small sum now expended per capita or per acre in bringing up 
our agricultural resources it should seem a sufficient argument for lib- 
erality. 



The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by Dr. F. H. Knowlton. 

[The editor of this department will be glad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature, and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject.] 

Peonies Again. — Although the blooming season for this splendid flower 
is now past, it is well to be thinking of next season and its possibilities in 
this line. As the amateur whom we quoted in the last issue well said, 
there are doubtless many who saw this season's wonderful productions 
who vowed to have some himself next year. Such as made this resolve 
may be getting ready for the attempt. The place in the grounds where 
they are to go should be carefully selected, as they need a dry, well- 
drained, and well-enriched soil. This should be plowed or spaded deep 
now and have thoroughly incorporated with it a good amount of manure, 
preferably chicken manure, and it will have time to thoroughly decay 



182 THE PLANT WORLD 

by planting time. The peony may be set in both spring and fall, but 
probably the best season is the early fall, as the plants get established 
before winter comes on ; but one should not hesitate to plant in spring 
with hope of any but good results. It is well not to begin with inferior 
stock, for while good plants cost a little more in the start they are far 
better in the end. Select a few well-known and acknowledged varieties 
and get them from a reliable dealer and the result will amply justify the 
outlay. 

Chrysanthemums. — We naturally turn from the new favorite — the 
peony, to the old stand-by — the chrysanthemum, which should now 
be receiving some extra care if the next fall's crop of bloom is to be up 
to the standard. The plants set in the open ground should be carefully 
looked after to see that insects are kept within bounds and that the 
requisite moisture is supplied. If grown in pots, the plants should now 
be in 6- or 8-inch pots and making a stocky growth. They must not be 
allowed to lack for moisture, for a single wilting may seriously impair 
the blooms, and yet this should not be overdone. Experience is the 
best teacher in this matter. 

This Season Near Washington. — In the vicinity of Washington the 
present season has been one of surprises. In the first place, it was two 
or three weeks late on account of the severe winter, but when once under 
way things came with a rush, and never before has vegetation looked 
better than now. The trees and shrubs in the parks and reservations are 
beautifully fresh and vigorous looking, and few of the flowering kinds 
have ever given a more bountiful supply of bloom. Frequent rains have 
helped things along, and the outlook is good for an abundant harvest. 
The gardens, though later than usual, are in promising shape. The crop 
of strawberries was hardly up to the standard, however, as the vines suf- 
fered from cold, and just at the cropping season severe rains interfered 
with the picking and marketing of the crop. Cherries were fairly abun- 
dant, but rotted on the trees to some extent, due to the excess of mois- 
ture at the critical time. Tomatoes are just coming in and the other 
vegetables are apparently in good shape for full crops. 

Pansies. — Don't forget to make preparations in time for next spring's 
display of this attractive flower. Secure the seed by the middle of August, 
or in any event not later than September first. Start the seed in flats, 
and when the plants have three or four leaves set eight inches apart in a 
cold frame. The plants will then have ample time in which to get well 
established before stopped by cold weather, but will begin growing early 
in spring and will give an abundance of bloom from March to May. 



THE PLANT WORLD 183 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. LLtOyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

POLLINATION IN THE PRIMROSE. 

In an article entitled ' ' Observations on the Pollination of the Prim- 
rose," * Dr. F. E. Weiss reexamines, in the light of observations made 
by him in the spring of 1903, the question of the means of pollination 
and the significance of heterostylism in the English primrose. His 
general conclusions are that the flowers of this plant are both close- 
and cross-pollinated efficiently. It was held by Darwin, and has been 
generally accepted as true, that the seed of close-pollinated flowers produce 
weaker offspring than those of cross-pollinated, and this point Darwin 
sought to prove experimentally, with results which have not been contro- 
verted, although they have been brought into question by field observers. 
According to Weiss, the primrose flower is at first upright, but is later 
horizontal or pendent. Exposed as the plants are to the action of strong 
winds, it is easy to believe that the short-styled flowers would as a result 
of the shaking by the wind be close-pollinated while in the vertical posi- 
tion and similarly the long-styled form while in the horizontal. In the 
cowslip, the opposite behavior is noted. In both, however, so far as the 
mechanical facts are concerned, these may be interpreted as well for 
close-pollination as for cross-pollination. It remains, therefore, to deter- 
mine whether, in nature, the one method preponderates over the other, 
and concerning this there is as yet no general agreement. That this is 
true is attributable to only one cause, namely, that as yet a sufficient 
number of exact observations have still to be made. The observations 
of Weiss indicate the value of quantitative methods and the importance 
that further study should lay greater emphasis upon this method. 

Weiss examined regularly each day, between 11 A. m. and 1 p. m., two 
large patches of primroses. During eight occasions he observed the 
flowers to be visited by about fifty insects. Two visits to two other 
stations yielded fourteen insects exclusive of numerous small butterflies 
(^Andrewas) . Of all these the most constant visitor is a long-tongued fly 
(^Bomby litis), which pollinates the flower in the manner familiar to all. 
Certain bumble-bees behave similarly, and other bees, however, are not 
at all regular or efficient in pollination, while the Andrewas are to be 
compared in general effectiveness to the fly Bombylius. 

There is obviously a considerable discrepancy between the number of 
insect visitors reported by Weiss and the great number of flowers, though 
the chances for cross-pollination even under these conditions would be 

* The New Phytologist, 2 : 99, April and May, 1903. 



184 THE PI.ANT WORI^D 

greater than would seem, if we knew the length of life of the flower. 
Edward Bell * takes issue with Weiss, and, admitting his premises, 
believes that cross-pollination through insect visitation the exception. 
Bell's observations, coupled with evidence from other sources, seem to 
strengthen the validity of the exception he takes. We need not here 
enter into the details of the discussion, since we wish more particularly 
to point out that, although this plant has been studied again and again, 
we can not yet point to any satisfactory conclusion. We have still to 
determine quantitatively whether close-pollination preponderates over 
cross-pollination, or the reverse, and whether either one of these methods 
has a value to the plant over the other in the struggle for existence. It 
is at this point, therefore, that we stand. To put the matter in a general 
light, we may ask these questions about any particular plant. The field 
for observation and experiment in this direction is by no means closed, 
but rather we are just at the beginning. If any one wishes to catch the 
spirit of scientific inquiry, and to put himself in a position to understand 
the tendencies of modern botanical thought, he can do this by selecting 
a plant and making the study of it a constant task till results are yielded. 
I have suggested in a previous issue that our Houstonia, or Bluets, offers 
a most excellent material for such study. It is heterostyled, grows 
readily and rapidly, and is abundant in its area. It is small enough so 
that a cage or net could be placed over a plant or clump so as to prevent 
the access of insects. Increasing experience will indicate the precautions 
to be taken. Close- and cross-pollinations may be made by hand, and 
the conditions of seed formation controlled in this regard. The growth 
of plants from these seeds may be followed, and re-pollinations may be 
made on these plants. 

Finally, it may be added that persistent individual effort in observation 
and experiment is bound to succeed. It is only necessary to have clearly 
in mind the goal at which the effort is to be directed, and to carefully 
exclude error from all operations. If any one is hereby stimulated to 
undertake such work, the instructive little book by Professor ly, H. 
Bailey, entitled " Plant Breeding," will be sufficient to orient him. 



THE ORIGIN OF BOG PLANTS. 

A PERUSAi, of Scharff's history of the European fauna, which by the 
way no teacher of biology can afford to do without, serves to sharpen the 
appetite for every work which bears on the origin of organisms, whether 
animal or plant, of any country. Scharff traces the routes by which the 
denizens of the British Isles came hither and he establishes their ancient 
homes. This awakens in one the wish that similar work might be done 

♦"The Pollination of the Primrose," Nature Notes, 15 : 63, April, 1904. 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 185 

for portions at least of our own country. It is, therefore, very gratifying 
to turn over the pages of Transeau's recent paper on the geographic dis- 
tribution of the bog plant societies of North America,* in which a real 
contribution to our knowledge of the origin of at least one class of our 
plants is very satisfactorily presented. 

The present distribution of bogs extends from the mouth of the St. 
I^awrence River, on the east, to the Great L,akes, and northwestward into 
the Mackenzie basin. The present distribution also of such plants as the 
larch and birch, and other bog plants, indicates that in preglacial times 
their distribution was circumpolar. How the bog plants came to occupy 
their habitats of to-day is accounted for of course by the encroachment 
of the ice in the glacial period driving before it whatever plants could 
endure its cold, and killing what could not do so, and in post-glacial 
times by the retreat northward of whatever plants were most hardy. In 
this last connection it happened that many plants anciently associated 
together were again thrown into each other's company, so to speak, but 
not all, and this forms the center of interest in Transeau's paper. 

In certain regions where there are bogs, as in northern Ontario, which 
are surrounded by coniferous forests of pine, spruce, and fir, the ancient 
relations of the bogs to the forests are maintained. In northern Indiana, 
northern Ohio, and southern Michigan, however, the case is different. 
The zonal succession of plants in any bog is the same, and the bog plants 
are for the most part the same as farther north ; but immediately outside 
the bogs, when conifers are absent, they show no order of succession to 
forest societies. How may this anomaly be explained? 

Briefly, it is shown that in the southern extension of the coniferous 
forests, and of the plants which make up the present-day bogs, because 
of the encroachments of the ice sheet, and in the retreat north of the ice, 
and the retrogression of these plants, there was a division in the coni- 
fers. One portion occupying the west and the other the eastern part of 
the ice sheet, while the bog plants occupied favorable positions along the 
whole ice front. In the retrogressive movement of the plants, the bogs 
to the east and the west were therefore surrounded by coniferous forests, 
as they are found at the present time. But the bogs between these arms, 
those in northern Ohio, northern Indiana, and southern Michigan, be- 
came surrounded by the oaks, hickories, maples, ash, and elm forms, 
which were strangers to the ancient bog plants. 

W. A. Cannon. 



LIVERWORTS IN DRY REGIONS. 

It has become increasingly felt that the very interesting group of 
plants, the Liverworts, are not properly appreciated bj^ teachers. These 

* Botanical Gazette, 36: 401, 1903. 



186 THE PIvANT WORLD 

forms are apparently insignificant, and so do not call attention to them- 
selves except from those who have given them some study. A little 
experience, however, in collecting them, and a fair amount of inquiry 
into their structure and habits, will put one into possession of an inter- 
esting and, for teaching, very useful body of knowledge. 

One of the least widely known phases of the biology of the Liverworts 
is their ability to withstand drought, and the correlated structural modi- 
fications, which in some cases are to be found, are well worthy of note. 
We are glad, therefore, to direct attention to an article upon this subject 
by the well known student of these and allied organisms. Professor D. 
H. Campbell, to be found in the recent issue of Torreya.* Attention is 
directed in this paper more especially to the behavior of the hepatics of 
California. The species found in the region of San Francisco Bay are 
able to withstand, with little or no harm, the protracted drought of the 
summer season, which sometimes extends over a period of six months. 
Although the heat is not excessive, and the dryness is mitigated by the 
mists from the ocean, the conditions are such that the hepatics remain 
quite dried up and dormant. When the rains commence they regain 
their turgid condition, and in a few hours growth recommences, as 
appears from a careful study of two species by Mr. H. B. Humphrey. 
The sexual organs, which are sometimes present during the dry season, 
develop and mature in about two weeks. These plants were also shown 
by experimental methods to be able to resist decimation much greater 
than to which they are normally exposed. 

Special devices are to be found in some forms for protection against 
the excessive loss of water. Among such may be classed the hairs or 
scales which protect the growing point. These sometimes secrete a 
mucilage, as do also certain cells within the tissue of the plant, and this 
secretion has probably a role to play in the storage of water. Anthoceros, 
for example, secretes a large amount of mucilage, and this is very probably 
important in this way, and the colonies of the gelatinous alga Nostoc, 
which are to be found in the Anthoceros , may also be interpreted as 
analogous to the mucilage cells proper of this plant. Geothallus , a plant 
which is adapted to the still dryer climate of southern California, has the 
ability to form a peculiar tuberous structure. This is formed by the 
enlargement of the interior tissues, which become loaded with reserve 
food, and these are protected by a rind developed from the outer cells. 
The thallus, with the exception of a small growing point near the tuler, 
dies away, and from this growing point a new plant is developed upon 
the return of the necessary moisture condition. Members of certain 
other genera behave similarly. 

It is very instructive also that the prothallia of certain ferns are able 

• 4 : 8i-86, June, 1904. 



THE PLANT WORIvD 187 

to withstand drought, just as the liverwort, although this delicate struc- 
ture is ordinarily supposed to be entirely dependent on a constant supply 
of moisture. Thus, for example, the prothallia of a Gyninogravivie have 
been allowed by Dr. Pierce to remain quite dry during an entire summer, 
and, when moistened, they resumed their growth. 

There is evidently in these little plants an abundant opportunity for 
a great deal of interesting observation and study. 



FOSSIL FUNGI. 

It appears highly probable that the peculiar structures found in cer- 
tain fossil rootlets from the English coal measures, and described by F. E. 
Weiss,* are the preserved remains of a mycorrhizal form, so that we may 
be fairly certain that the symbiotic condition dates as far back as the 
Carboniferous. This fact is instructive not alone in itself, but as an illus- 
tration of the value of refined methods as applied to the study of fossil 
remains. 

The same author describes a parasitic fungus which is found in the 
rootlets of Stigmaria,'\ the giant lycopod root type. 



A CARNIVOROUS GALL. 

A CURIOUS gall, induced on an oak iQuercus leptobalamis) by a Cy- 
nips, has been described by an Italian botanist, Mattei. The surface of 
the gall produces two kinds of hairs — those which, as the author suggests, 
are active in secreting a viscous material that catches small insects, after 
the manner of the secretions on Drosera leaves, and those which have 
the form of a four-armed star, similar apparently to the hairs in the traps of 
Utriailaria. These are supposed to absorb the materials resulting 
from the digestion of the small animal forms captured. It would 
seem, therefore, that this gall is analogous to the leaves and traps of the 
carnivorous plants, though the real significance of the matter is at present 
not settled. 



Book Reviews. 



Harriman Alaska Expedition. Vol. V. Cryptogamic Botany. Pp. 
404, 44 plates. New York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 

The first of the volumes devoted to the botanical fruits of this remark- 
able expedition has been awaited with much interest, and an examina- 
tion of the pages is calculated to arouse wonder at the scarcity of crypto- 
gamic material obtained by previous collectors. For example, only 15 
fungi had been hitherto reported from the whole of Alaska, whereas the 

* Annals of Botany, 18: 255, April, 1904. \The New Phytologist,i: 63, March, 1904. 



188 THE PLANT WORLD 

members of the Harriman expedition secured 254, even without the aid 
of a professional mycologist. 

The lichens are treated by Professor Clara E. Cummings, who enumer- 
ates 462 species. The mosses number 280 ; this portion of the work, by 
Cardot and Theriot, together with the Algae, by Saunders, and the 
Hipatics, by Evans, had been already published elsewhere. The ferns 
are treated for the first time by Professor Trelease. 

The book is a superb example of typography, presswork, and binding, 
and the plates are fully up to the standard of scientific requirements. 

c. L. P. 

Plant Breeding. Being Five Lectures upon the Amelioration of Do- 
mestic Plants. By L. H. Bailey. Third edition. New York: The 
MacMillan Company, 1904. 

As Professor Bailey well said in the preface to the first edition of this 
little work, which appeared in 1895: "There is no subject associated 
with the care of plants respecting which there is so much misapprehension 
and imperfect knowledge as that of the origination of new forms." To 
the uninitiated it seems a marvel that there should be so many ' ' new ' ' 
or ' ' improved ' ' plants and vegetables placed on the market each year, and 
the suspicion has gained wide acceptance that many of these are but 
exploitations of old things under new names. While in some cases this 
may be true, the fact remains that actual new varieties are constantly 
appearing, and the mystery surrounding their production is, in the popular 
mind, profound. But it is coming to be known that there are certain 
more or less definite laws underlying and governing the production of 
new races, and while we do not by any means possess full knowledge on 
the subject, each season marks a decided advance. Particularly has this 
advance been rapid within the eight years intervening between the first 
and the present editions of this book, during which time there has been 
a ' ' re-defining of what a variety is ; thereby we have come to recognize 
the fact more clearly than heretofore, that not all differences in plants 
are of equal importance or significance. ' ' More especially has there come 
to be a growing belief that the offspring of hybridization follow definite 
laws. The facts as at present understood are well set forth in the book before 
us, of which lack of space forbids more than enumeration of the lecture 
headings. The first is devoted to the fact and philosophy of variation, 
the second to the philosophy of the crossing of plants considered with 
reference to their improvement under cultivation, while the third tells 
how domestic varieties originate, the fourth discusses recent opinions 
on the evolution of plants, and the final lecture deals with pollination or 
how to cross plants. A glossary, full bibliography of the subject, and a 
careful index completes the book. It is perhaps needless to add that this 
book must be in the hands of every intelligent devotee of this fascinating 
subject. F. H. K. 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII. Plate XI. 




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The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII AUGUST, 1904 No. 8 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XXL* 

By WilIvIAm K. Safford. 

Tuesday, February 6. — This morning, while at breakfast, Susana sud- 
denly exclaimed: " Look, sefior, the signal is up! A vessel has been 
sighted." She handed me my glasses, and without rising from my chair 
I looked up at the signal station on the brow of the hill behind the town, 
and there hung the signal — a vertical form, signifying a steamer. My 
first impulse was to sit down and write letters, as most of the ships stop 
but a few hours to get the mail ; but my work had to be attended to and 
there were already twenty people waiting outside my office across the 
plaza, some with land titles to be registered, others with petitions of vari- 
ous kinds, and others with complaints against some neighbor for infring- 
ing upon their land or for having killed a pig or cow found destroying a 
plantation. The land cases I act upon myself, the petitions I submit to 
the Governor, and the smaller cases I turn over to the native justice of 
the peace, Don Luis de Torres. 

The steamer proved to be the U. S. transport Warren, with General 
Wheeler on board. He is accompanied by his secretary and Mr. William 
Bengough, a correspondent for Harper^ s Weekly, who is on his way home 
from the Philippines. General Wheeler's mission is somewhat unusual. 
He has been ordered by General Otis, the military Governor of the Philip- 
pines, to visit this island and investigate the conditions existing here, the 

* Continued from the July issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



190 THE PLANT WORLD 

administration of the officials, the work accomplished and in contempla- 
tion, and the public advantages the island affords by reason of location 
and physical features. The orders were issued incompliance with a tele- 
gram from the War Department, stating that "the President would be 
glad to have Joseph Wheeler perform this duty." The order was prob- 
ably issued in consequence of complaints made of interference on the part 
of the Governor with the religious and civil rights of the inhabitants. In 
informing the Governor of General Wheeler's approaching visit, the 
Admiral in command at Cavite directed him to receive the General with 
all the consideration due his rank, distinguished .services, and high char- 
acter, and to give him unofficially all possible information and facilities 
for the performance of his mission, but to decline to recognize his instruc- 
tions as official. A later telegram was received from the Navy Department 
stating that by order of the President, General Wheeler proceeds to Guam, 
and directing that the Governor of Guam recognize his visit as official ; 
but that General Wheeler's authority isonl3'^to report upon the condition 
of things there. A copy of this communication was forwarded by General 
Otis to General Wheeler, and handed by him to the Governor on his arrival . * 
At General Wheeler's request I was detailed to accompany him on a 
tour of inspection over the island. The Governor offered his two fine 
white horses to the General and his secretary, and Don Pedro Duarte 
kindly lent two of his horses to me and Mr. Bengough. Our trip this 
afternoon was across the island to Pago and back. During the journey 
General Wheeler asked me many questions about the island and the inhabi- 
tants. I told him of the steps we had taken to protect the natives against 
strangers coming to the island for the purpose of speculating in land ; of 
the circumstances which led to the orders restricting and finally abolishing 
the manufacture and sale of alcoholic liquors ; of the growing scarcity of 
fowls, pigs, and provisions by their unrestricted sale to visiting ships; 
of our efforts to induce natives to secure legal titles to their farms and to 
interest them in agriculture and the rearing of animals ; of the patriotic way 
in which the natives celebrated Thanksgiving day ; and of the loyalty with 
which Father Palomo had seconded all our efforts toward improving the 
condition of his people. I explained to him the old system by means of 
which the natives had been tempted to go into debt so as to be held in a 
condition of peonage, and the custom of paying in advance for their copra, 
so that they might take the equivalent in goods from the traders instead 
of money ; and I tried to explain the system of land taxation which I had 
devised after reading Henry George's works on the subject. The General 
seemed to be very much interested, and asked me what steps we had taken 
toward the education of the natives. I told him that we had no money 

*See " Report on the Island of Guam," by General Joseph Wheeler, U. S. Army, published by the 
War Department, June, 1900. 



THE PIvANT WORIvD 191 

to pay adequate salaries to American teachers, but that we hoped to 
have a fund from the taxes on land and on imports. It seemed hard to 
pay duties on articles coming from the United States, but I could think 
of no other way to keep enough funds on hand for the running expenses 
of the island. Our justices of the peace and gobernadorcillos have to be 
paid if they are asked to take their time from their regular occupations ; 
and as for the native teachers in the villages, they were receiving only 
three pesos a month and were obliged to work in the fields for their 
subsistence. When the General questioned me as to the land taxes, I 
told him that I had purposely taxed all land irrespective of improvements, 
so that the few people who had gotten possession of large tracts which 
they did not utilize in any way would not refuse to sell land to young 
men anxious to clear and cultivate the soil. 

From time to time the secretary would ask me about the trees, flowers, 
birds, and island products, putting down the information in a note- book.* 

After passing through the village of Sinahana our way lay for the most 
part through woods. On the margin of a small lake the General's atten- 
tion was attracted by the bright red leaves of Cordylhie ternmialis, which 
led me to speak of the practice of the Hawaiians of planting this species 
about the graves of their dead, to keep off the spirits. This suggested 
the subject of the wide-spread belief in spirits, and I told the General of 
the aitii of the Samoan forests and the aniti, or gente del inonte, which 
haunt the banyan trees and the prehistoric stone pillars of this island. 
The road beyond this was fairly good, except in a marshy place where 
it was over-arched by bamboos. When we reached the tablet on the 
crest of the hill half way across the island, Mr, Garrett, the secretary, 
copied the inscription which Don Pablo Perez had caused to be placed 
theret to commemorate his success in making the road passable for vehicles 
in the year 1853. 

On reaching the opposite side of the island we rode out to the beach 
at the mouth of the Pago River. There we saw a number of fish traps 
consisting of wicker fences extending into the sea. These are constructed 
of bamboo. Poles are driven into the sand, placed about four feet apart, 
and around them is woven, basket fashion, strips of bamboo twisted into 
a rope. The natives also fish with cast-nets, and at low tide visit the 
tide pools with spears. Night fishing with torches is also practiced ; but 

*This information was afterwards published in General Wheeler's report. As many of the words 
were unusual, it is not surprising that there were mistakes. Unfortunately I had no opportunity to read 
the proof. The report, for instance, states that Anona reticulata, the custard apple, has a flower " like 
a yellow hollyhock, which belongs to the same family, Malcaveae," a note which was intended to be 
inserted in the succeeding paragraph under the description ot Hibisctis tiliaceus, a tree belonging to 
the Malvaceae. It refers to the fruit of" .sycas" (Cycas), and, under farinaceous foods, to the Polyne- 
sian "aryroot" (arrow-root, Tacca pinnatifida) \ and in the list of birds it mentions the white "turn" 
(tern, Gygis alba) and "sand-peckers" (sandpipers). 

tSee General Wheeler's report, p. i6. 



192 ' THE PIvANT \VORI.D 

the natives of Guam are now essentially agricultural and fishing does not 
play nearly so important a part in their economy as it does in that of 
many other oceanic islands.* 

On our way back General Wheeler questioned me regarding our system 
of land taxation. It is evident that complaints have been made regarding 
it. Those upon whom it will be a burden are the claimants of large tracts 
of unimproved land, which were taken up as " pastures." Don Vicente 
Herrero has a large area on the east coast of the island south of the Yigo 
district, and he claims sixteen square miles along the coast between the 
Ilig and Talofofo rivers in the southern portion of the island. These he 
inherited from his father, Don I^uis Herrero, the brother of my friend 
Don Jose. Don Vicente had made complaints against 5^oung men who 
had entered his land and had started small plantations upon it. He was 
not willing to sell the land to them, nor was he able to cultivate it himself 
on account of the lack of labor. One young man, who had cleared 
the forest and started a fine grove of coconuts on a site adjoining Don 
Vicente's plantation in the northern part of the island, declared that he 
had no idea that the land belonged to Don Vicente, but that it was a 
virgin forest when he began his work on it, and it had cost him years of 
toil to bring it to its present state. Don Vicente said he was willing to 
pay the man for his labor. The man said that he " would not conform " 
(agree) with this proposal, for he had prepared this cocal for his son who 
was growing up. Don Vicente suggested that he might go elsewhere 
where the land had not been taken up and begin anew. Then the man 
turned and said : " Seiior, Don Vicente saw me clear the forest, plant my 
haigues (young coconuts), and work day after day to keep the weeds and 
undergrowth down. He never told me it was his land, and never warned 
me to desist. Now that it is all done, he wants the result of my work, 
saying he will pay me, and that I can go again and start a new planta- 
tion. But, senor, I am not so young nor so strong as when I did this 
work, and I do not feel able to attack the forest anew. Who knows but 
what I may lose my health. I now support the family of my brother, 
whose plantation is next to mine. He has been bed -ridden for several 
years. I am willing to pay Don Vicente for his land, if it really is his." 
On consulting the land register I found an entry made for a large tract 
of land between two capes, in the name of Don lyuis Herrero, who claimed 
to be in possession of it. As a matter of fact within this area there were 
several small farms of natives, which had been there before the title had 
been granted ; and I failed to see what right Don L-uis had to declare 
himself the possessor of the entire tract. I was informed that he had 

*See Alexander, A. B. " Notes on the Boats, Apparatus, and Fishing Methods Employed by the 
Natives of the South Sea Islands," in Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1901, p. 
828-9. 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 193 

offered to pay off* the proprietors of these small farms, and some of them, 
thinking he had the law on his side, agreed to his terms. The same 
thing had happened in the southern portion of the island, where his claim 
included the beautiful farm on the Talofofo River which I visited last 
November. Evidently it was not right that these titles should be granted. 
At this rate the entire island would be monopolized by a few men, who 
would exact rent from the actual tillers of the soil. 

I decided that either Don Vicente should sell his land to the man who 
cleared the forest and planted the coconuts, or that this man should be paid 
for his labor, the price to be paid in each case to be decided by a board of 
appraisers appointed for the purpose. Don Vicente said he would not sell 
the land, and the owner of the coconuts said he would not sell the result 
of his labor. Finally I decided that as the principals could come to no 
understanding that the man who had done the work had a better right 
to its fruits than the man whose father happened to get a grant for land 
which he had taken no steps to improve nor to utilize in any way. Don 
Vicente said that he was not willing to " conform" to my decision, but 
the Governor upheld me. It was then that I proposed the tax on all land 
irrespective of improvements, so that the few who had come into the pos- 
session of titles for large tracts which were not utilized would find it to 
their interest either to sell land to those wishing to cultivate it, or would be 
obliged to turn it in to the Government rather than pay taxes on property 
that would yield them no income.* 

In early days many of the English villages had lands adjacent to them 
which were dedicated to the uses of the inhabitants ; where they might 
gather turf or let their geese and cattle graze. In time, however, most of 
these commons were appropriated by rich men for their own use or con- 
verted into parks, for the alleged purpose of " refining and humanizing" 
the common people. lyittle by little the land was enclosed with fences and 
the paths which the people had freely trod were blocked by barriers. The 
real effect of this was to benefit the rich and to make the poor more numerous. 
Sometimes a compensation was promised to those deprived of the privileges 
of the land thus enclosed; but this was for the most part miserably inade- 
quate and was often left unpaid. Mill describes the proceedings as ' ' legal- 
ized spoliation . " t I can not help thinking of the fate of the masses of Eng- 
lish poor when I see the tendency of a few people here to gain possession of 
large tracts of land. It seems to me mistaken kindness to try to thrust 
civilization ' ' upon these simple people, who are a thousand times happier 
and freer than the masses of poor in any large city of the world. Those 

* The object for which this order was formed was soon afterwards realized. Don Vicente Herrero 
turned over to the Government all of the land in the southern part of the island claimed by him, except 
a narrow strip along the shore. 

t Mill, J. S., " Dissertations and Discussions," Vol. 2, p. 213. 



194 THE PLANT WORLD 

who dwell upon the advantages of ' ' progress ' ' and the necessity for 
bettering the condition ' ' of the natives have usually in mind the system by 
means of which the more astute and stronger can make their simpler and 
weaker brothers do their hard work for them and content themselves 
with the tough parts of the beef, if indeed they are so fortunate as to have 
meat, while their " betters " enjoy the tenderloin. I picture with horror 
the results which would follow the discovery of precious metals on this 
island or the establishment of factories, in which the workers would have 
to content themselves with a small fraction of the fruit of their toil. 
Most writers on political economy consider society only in the light of its 
power to produce. It seems to me that that community is the most for- 
tunate which has the least poverty and the greatest amount of happiness, 
not the one which has stored up the greatest wealth. 

Wealth usually goes to the few ; freedom from poverty may be common 
to all. In this little island there is not now a family which can not gratify 
its wants ; but if the land is swallowed up by a few individuals, the re- 
maining inhabitants must be their serfs or peons, or become day-laborers, 
which are so necessary in " more civilized " communities. In southern 
California nearly all the descendents of the Mexicans are either servants 
or day-laborers. Scarcely a single ranch remains in the possession of the 
descendents of the family which owned it at the time of the American 
occupation. I sincerely hope that this will not be the case in Guam fifty 
years from now. In Australia the natives are nearly extinct, most of 
them having died off from the effects of introduced alcoholic beverages ; 
others from insufficient food or the inability to resist the effects of cold 
and exposure after having enjoyed the luxury of blankets which civiliza- 
tion has brought them. 

Wednesday, Febr^iary 8. — With General Wheeler, Mr. Garrett, his 
secretary, and Mr. William Bengough to visit the northern portion of the 
island. On our way Mr. Bengough took a number of photographs.* 
Mr. Bengough proved to be a most delightful companion. He congratu- 
lated me on the opportunity my position gives me for doing good work, 
and establishing and confirming the rights of the natives. We visited the 
ranch of Susana's brother, Don Gregorio Perez, and climbed to the 
top of Mount Santa Rosa, from which we had a fine view of the island. 
After a good dinner at Don Gregorio 's Mr. Bengough took a photograph 
of our host and his family, t with a breadfruit tree in the background. 
Of this part of the island, the view from Santa Rosa, and the products of 

*The accompanying photograph was taken by Mr. Bengough to illustrate the forest vegetation and 
epiphytal growth on the island. General Wheeler is standing by one of the Governor's white stallions 
beneath a tree covered with epiphytal ferns, and the writer, dressed in white duck uniform, is 
near by. 

tThis photograph is reproduced opposite page i6 of General Wheeler's report. 



THE PLANT WORI.D 195 

Yigo district and the adjacent country I have already spoken. We re- 
turned to Agana, reaching home at half -past eight o'clock. During the 
whole day I have been impressed by General Wheeler's energy and cheer- 
fulness and the courteous manner which marked his intercourse with the 
natives. As we passed along he secured specimens of the floss of the silk- 
cotton tree {.Ceiba pentandra) , bark of Hibiscus tiliaceiis, from which our 
boys soon twisted a very good rope, and leaves of the Pandanus which 
yields the material for hats and mats. He also tasted the berries of the 
lemoncito ^Triphasia trifoliata), picking them off the bushes from his 
saddle ; and stopped several times to watch natives clearing the woods 
preparatory to planting coconuts and coffee. All the questions he asked 
bore evidence to his interest in the success of the United States colonial 
policy. It was evident that he wishes the island to be made self-support- 
ing or even profitable, and that every effort shall be made to develop its 
resources. 

Thursday, February 8. — We intended to visit the south end of the 
island, but as it would have been hard on the horses, it was decided to 
let them rest and to wait until to-morrow. In the mean time Don Pedro 
Duarte, who was secretary to the last Spanish governor, and who under- 
stands the customs of the island, sent messages to the gobernadorcillos 
of the southern villages, informing them of our purposed visit. General 
Wheeler called with me on Father Palomo, and asked him a number of 
questions regarding affairs of the island. Father Palomo made no com- 
plaints whatever, but in reply to a direct question of the General stated 
that the Governor had forbidden the ringing of the church bells for early 
mass ; had issued an official order forbidding the public celebration of 
holy days (General Order No. 4) ; and had prohibited religious instruc- 
tions in the public schools of the island. These orders were in no way 
criticised by Father Palomo, but the General had been informed by I^ieu- 
tenant-Colonel Aguilar before leaving Manila that the orders with regard 
to religion are distasteful to the majority of the people of this island, 
which is undoubtedly true. As to the necessity of ringing the church 
bell, I have seen a score of natives, few of whom possess a clock, huddled 
together at the church door between two and three o'clock in the morn- 
ing, so as to be sure to be in time for four o'clock mass. The Governor 
told the General that the early ringing of the bell disturbed the sick in 
the hospital. His orders prohibiting it were given verbally through the 
medium of a messenger and were not published in the form of an official 
general order. 

[to be continued.] 



196 THE PLANT WORLD 

A Vegetable Mimic. 

By Robert F. Griggs. 

During the spring of 1902, while visiting the Department of Alta 
Vera Paz, Guatemala, we were introduced by Mrs. William Owen, of 
Sepacuite, to a small calabash tree of the family Crescentiaceae, which 
had attracted her attention because of the curious resemblance of its pods 
to those of cacao, from which comes the chocolate bean. The resemblance 
is indeed striking. The fruit is elliptical and pointed at both ends like a 
cacao pod and it is of the same size. The two are so similar that while 
standing on my desk in a jar it was mistaken for a cacao pod by persons 
familiar with that fruit. When seen growing in the forest the two are 
even more similar. Both belong to that peculiar class of tropical plants 
which bear their flowers and fruit on old branches instead of on recent 
twigs like our common temperate plants. The fruits hang by short 
peduncles from large branches bare of leaves and give the trunk a very 
bizarre appearance. 

The plant belongs to the genus Amphitecna established by Miers 
to accommodate a species described as Crescentia macrophylla. The 
only other species is Amphitecyia nigripes, also first considered a Crescentia, 
but referred to Amphitecna by Baillon. Both were described from 
greenhouse specimens grown in Europe, and as the records of the im- 
porters had been lost, the original habitats were unknown, though one 
species (^macrophylla) was later collected in Tabasco. Neither species 
has been studied in the wild state and knowledge of both has re- 
mained very fragmentary, especially with regard to their fruits, for 
though pods of both species have been seen they have not been fully 
described. Amphitecna differs from the other American genera of Cres- 
centiaceae by its completely two-celled ovary. In fruit the ovary of 
another plant (Enallagma) is also two-celled by a false dissepiment, but it 
is hard and round like the calabash. Externally the fruit of Parmentiera 
also somewhat resembles that of the present species, but it is one-celled 
and the calyx is spathe-like and early deciduous. 

The fruit of the other genus, the hard spherical one-celled calabash, is 
so familiar that the differences between it and the soft pod under con- 
sideration need not be pointed out. Crescentia and Parmentiera have a 
peculiar leaf habit, resembling that of the conifers, in that special dwarf 
branches are provided which bear the leaves in bunches, giving the plants 
a characteristic appearance. The other two genera have a leaf arrange- 
ment more like those of plants familiar to us. 

It has not been easy to place our plant specifically, for though its 
general appearance is similar to that of Amphitecna macrophylla, there are 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII, Plate XII. 




THE PLANT WORLD 197 

some points of divergence. The corolla of our specimen is strongly 
arcuate while Seeman's was nearly straight ; and the buds are not as long 
as broad, while his are more than twice as long as broad. Further, he 
describes a pod ripened at Kew as lignified, rostrate at both ends and 
only one inch thick, resembling that of the unicorn plant {^Martynia pro- 
boscidea). This certainly could apply only to a very different fruit from 
any we have seen. But notwithstanding these discrepancies the plants 
may be more similar than would at first appear. Seeman's fruit ripened 
in a greenhouse and may well have been abnormal from imperfect fertili- 
zation or some other cause. The differences in the flowers and buds 
might be due to individual peculiarities or to poor drawing. So for the 
present it seems best to consider our plant Amphitecna macrophylla. 

"O-hoch," as the Indians call the plant, grows to be a small tree 
with a trunk about half a foot in diameter, from which arise several spind- 
ling branches, bare except at their tips, where twenty or more leaves are 
arranged in a great rosette five feet in diameter. The leaves are about 
2/^ feet (75 cm.) long, 6 inches (15 cm.) broad, spatulate or oblanceolate, 
gradually narrowed to the long cuneate base, nearly sessile, rounded or 
acute at the tip, entire or subundulate, mid-rib large and prominent, 
stiff, green on both sides and glabrous, but dull contrasting with the 
glossy leaves of Crescentia and Parmentiera. 

The flowers are borne from the trunk or larger branches sometimes on 
special dwarf branches an inch long. The buds are nearly spherical, 
flattened and apiculate on top, tearing open irregularly in aestivation 
but frequently with an upper and a lower lip. The corolla is greenish - 
white, irregularly scalloped but not fimbriate. Just inside the jaws of 
the calyx the tube has a deep transverse fold or contraction which dimin- 
ishes its size by half. 

The fruit is 6/4 inches (16 cm.) long, 2>4 inches (6 cm.) thick, trav- 
ersed by several longitudinal ridges, some of which divide toward the 
base. The gores between the ridges are nearly smooth, while in most 
species of cacao ( Theobrovia) the ridges are replaced by grooves and 
the gores are more or less knurly and irregular. The rind is coriaceous, 
not lignified like a calabash. The pod is two-celled by a weak membran- 
ous dissepiment. The cavities are filled with seeds packed in pithy mat- 
ter. As in the calabash this mass is attached to the sides by several 
membranes running parallel to them. The seeds of our specimen (not 
quite ripe) are about eleven -sixteenths of an inch (16 mm.) long, five- 
sixteenths of an inch (7.5 mm.) broad and half as thick, ovoid with two 
small knobs on the end of the dorsal side, along which runs a groove where 
the edges of the cotyledons come together. The latter are longer than 
broad, not kidney-shaped, but yet resembling those of a bean. Between 
them lies the narrow, almost linear plumule, with lanceolate leaves half 



198 THE PLANT WORLD 

as long as the cotyledons and a thick caudicle a little shorter. The seeds 
seem to show for the genus a greater aberrance from the other Crescenti- 
aceae than is shown in any other character. Those of the other genera 
are very similar to the seeds of Bignoniaceae except that the wings are 
lacking. But one would hesitate to assign to Amphitecna, Bignoniaceous 
affinities from the seeds alone. 

The plant was collected on Sepacuite, a large coffee finca belonging 
to Messrs. Owen and Champney, located a few miles northeast of Senaju, 
at an altitude of about three thousand feet above sea level. It is one of 
the plants of the undergrowth of the deep forest, growing where sun- 
light never penetrates, and managing to get along on the subdued light 
filtered through the branches above. It grows, however, luxuriantly in 
the clearings, where it gets the full benefit of sunlight. 

The plate shows flowers, fruit, and a portion of a leaf natural size. 



The Ways of the Zinnia. 

By Mrs. F. L. Marble. 

The study of seeds and the early development of plants is always full 
of interest. These observations become more effective with the aid of a 
microscope. 

Let us consider the Zinnia and its peculiar ways. Being a composite, 
each Zinnia blossom is composed of many tiny flowers. These are of two 
kinds — the ray-flowers, forming the bright fringe about the edge of the 
blossom, and the disk flowers, which compose its center. Just as the 
flowers composing a Zinnia blossom are of two kinds, so are the seeds of 
two kinds. The ray-flowers produce seed after their kind, and the disk- 
flowers follow the habits of their ancestors. Just as the tiny flowers grew 
side by side to make a Zinnia blossom, so the seeds cluster on the dry, 
cone-shaped head. The seeds are not large, and it is tedious to pick 
them from the chaff. However, the seeds of the ray-flowers still cling to 
the faded, petal-like straps, so they can be found with little trouble. The 
seeds of the disk-flowers cluster close to the heart of the blossom. The 
disks are apt to drop off early, making these seeds harder to find in the 
midst of the abundant chaff. 

Each seed is contained in an akene, or outer covering, consisting of 
a shell-like surface with the softest of silky linings to come next to the 
seed. In these akenes lies the individuality of the seeds. 

The akene of the ray-flower is long and slender. It has three fine 
obtruding ribs, which are outlined with feather-like hairs. After it has 



THE PIvANT WORLD 199 

been in the ground a few days it becomes transparent, showing plainly 
the shape of the young plant within. Then a rootlet begins to force its 
way out of the lower portion of the akene. This root is glistening white, 
with a slender, pointed tip that works its way through the earth. The 
akene splits by the growth of the root. When the root has taken firm 
hold of the earth the movement starts upward. The young plant uses 
the akene as a shield for its delicate cotyledons. They are too frail to 
press through the earth unprotected. When the plant is above ground 
the expanding cotyledons throw off the akene, and their silvery color 
changes to green in the sunlight. 

The akene of the disk-flower is broader than that of the ray-flower, 
and not so long. The shape of the upper portion of the akene reminds 
one of an old-fashioned water bottle. The place where the disk dropped 
off looks like the neck of the bottle. The outer fiber of the akene is finer 
than that of the ray-flower. It has two flat sides instead of the three 
ribs, and little down can be seen upon its surface. It is lighter in color 
and more transparent. The differences are so marked that it is hard to 
believe that the two seeds matured on the same flower head. The early 
development of the plant is as that from the seed of the ray-flower. They 
show above the ground about the same time. Not until both young 
plants have thrown aside the akenes do they lose their individuality. 
Then they begin the normal growth of Zinnias above ground. From this 
time it is impossible to tell from which akene they came. 



An important botanical congress is to be held in St. Louis during 
the week beginning September 19, at which addresses on various recent 
branches of research will be made by eminent botanists of this country 
and Europe. Among the latter will be Professor Hugo de Vries, of Am- 
sterdam, and Dr. Karl Goebel, of Munich. 

More than thirty years ago an eminent botanist called attention to 
the beauty of our native thorn trees and their suitability for hedges and 
for ornaments of the lawn. Their hardiness, graceful shapes, thick 
foliage and brilliant fruit -clusters all recommend them, while their ability 
to flourish under a severe pruning is an added virtue in the eyes of those 
who desire formal shapes. Yet, up to the present time, our thorn trees 
remain the ornaments, not of private grounds, but of waysides and pas- 
tures ; while the only pruners to exercise their skill upon them are the 
cattle, which eagerly browse upon the young shoots. Many a pasture 
contains shrubs fitted to grace a public park and worthy of a considerable 
pilgrimage on the part of lovers of the beautiful. — Comitry Life in America. 



200 THE PLANT WORLD 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



Mrs. N. Iv. Britton, Secretary of the Society, has gone to Nassau, 
in the Bahamas, and requests that members address correspondence re- 
quiring immediate attention to Dr. C. E. Waters, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Maryland. She will return about the end of Sep- 
tember. 

Plans are on foot for an elaborate meeting of the Society and its 
friends in connection with the gathering of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science at Philadelphia next December. Suggestions 
as to the program will be welcomed from any one interested. 



VACATION NOTES. 

By Pauline Kaufman. 

So MUCH has been said concerning the destruction of the neighboring 
wild flowers by the summer colony in the country that I am continually 
asking myself why my experience in that direction should be, as I have 
been told, unique. A part of several vacations spent in Central Valley, 
N. Y., resulted, the first year, in the finding of the rare rue spleenwort 
fern, so situated in a park, open to the public, that almost every visitor 
must pass it. Each succeeding year I approached in fear and trembling to 
find, to my surprise and gratification, that the treasure remained untouched. 

The walking-fern is certainly attractive, and of this there was no lack ; 
some of the rocks being fairly carpeted. Here, too, one saw no evidence 
of molestation. Wild flowers abounded in great variety. The rocky 
fields were red with columbine. Immense leaves of hepatica and blood- 
root gave proof of the extraordinary beauty of the blossoms now passed. 
Various orchids appeared in their season. Occasionally we would meet 
three or four children with a few flowers. So far as we could see, this 
was the extent of the plundering. In the eyes of the owner of this tract 
of land the maidenhair fern was of paramount value, yet we never saw 
that it appreciably decreased. May not the absence of guardians and of 
the usual " Do not " have done more to protect than to tempt. This 
reminds me of the experience of an acquaintance who, finding a flower 
rare in his locality, put a little note on a nearby tree, begging for its 
preservation. On his second visit there was no trace of the flower, but 
a note replacing his, stating that there were others within a few miles. 

Perhaps the fact that our host had a fine flower garden, from which 
the table was daily decorated, contributed to the peaceful blossoming of 



THE PLANT WORLD 201 

field and forest. Still, that would not account for abstinence on the part 
of guests of other houses. Black-eyed Susans, whose number was legion, 
and various berries were the only victims. Even at the annual fair the 
decorations, which were very pretty, consisted of pond lilies. Queen 
Anne's lace, asparagus, and the commoner ferns. 

At Atlantic Highlands and Long Branch, where one must go farther 
afield for the flowers, it is less surprising that depredation should be almost 
unknown. In Spring Lake, N. J., four years ago the site of an old mill 
pond revealed a wealth of cardinal flowers, such as one might dream about 
but rarely hope to realize. A long-planned visit to the spot, two years 
after, resulted in bitter disappointment. The water had again come to 
its own. 

Part of the summers of 1902-1903 were spent at Avon, N. J., where 
the flora is quite remarkable. The first year the total absence of interest 
in the flowers was noticeable. There were more lovers of the sea, the 
river, the lakes, and the trolley than of the woods ; and these distractions 
seemed amply to fill the day. The walks that were taken were for exercise 
only. Here, where one had but to cross the street to find rare and beau- 
tiful plants, and a walk around the lake disclosed flowers of every hue, 
the water gemmed with pond lilies and bladderwort, not the slightest desire 
for them was shown by either natives or visitors. The lilies were gathered 
in more accessible places next to the trolley, under the bridge, by a 
couple of young boys . These were sold . This past summer more interest 
was shown, but as most of the flowers were gathered on the highways, 
and would have eventually fallen victim to the mower, it seemed a better 
fate to give pleasure for a few more days. Daily trips to nearby places, 
Como, Belmar, Sea Girt, Manasquam, and Bay Head, showed the same 
conditions. At the last-named place we saw two people with a bunch of 
cotton-grass or pussy-toes, of which we also gathered a bunch. A lady 
in the car, after admiring their tawny beauty, asked where we had found 
them. 

There was but one house that I knew of where quantities of flowers 
were used as decorations, and here the children told me they had looked 
in vain for the hole which their gathering should have made. In this 
whole region the highways and byways are full of flowers and free to the 
public. In that part of the Catskills that we visited was the same absence 
of vandalism, such teachers as were there gathering only what they were 
compelled to for the next season's work. 

From a friend living in a well-populated town with woods quite ac- 
cessible I gather that the picking of flowers is confined to the hepatica 
and violet in the spring, to the daisy, and then, in fall, to the fringed 
gentian, of which she says there is an unlimited supply and the desire 
for which is created by the verses taught in school. 



202 ' THE PLANT WORLD 

Many of the places near the city are as yet undespoiled. Parts of East 
Chester, still full of wild flowers, are with very few exceptions visited 
only by women, who gather up the broken tree branches. 

Repeatedly have we gone to various parts of Mosholm, meeting no 
more than two people all day long. In one place hepatica could be picked 
within two feet of the street through which the trolley runs. In another, 
much farther oil, thousands of dicentia bloom annually. In a third, 
fringed gentian holds its own, quite near the cars, too. That one or two 
others find this, there is sufficient proof ; but they, too, exercise self- 
control. The haunts of the yellow cypripedium, though known to quite 
a number of people, were until last year but little disturbed. This change 
may be due to the cutting down of adjacent trees or to other agencies not 
human. A twenty-minute ride on the train will bring you to another 
fairy-land of rock pink and columbine, in spring. Here you may meet a 
couple of boys going fishing. The houses seem set right in among the 
wild flowers. 

Other places visited in September show that the cardinal flower was 
most valued. Little else seems to have been taken. The dogwood has 
suffered more than any plant I know. Here I have seen vandalism 
enough. But with that exception, cultivation, the building of new roads 
as well as houses, drainage, and the cutting down of timber have done 
more to deprive us of our wild growth than countless flower-gatherers. 

Near Astoria a few years ago a swampy field was blue as the sky with 
fringed gentian. Underground heat was applied so that great fissures 
were seen. Corn replaced the flowers. 

Beyond Bronx Park there is a residence park which was three years 
ago full of the pink azalea or Pinkter flower. The Italians in the neigh- 
borhood cut down many of the fine trees during the night, trampling the 
undergrowth to pieces. In self-defense the residents cut down almost all 
that remained, creating utter desolation. There had been a swamp full 
of marsh marigold ; this was drained. Another part of the park where 
Trillium cerunum grew quite plentifully now grows potatoes. At Bed- 
ford Park, just facing the museum building but outside of the Bronx, 
there was a deep swamp where pogonia and calopogon grew profusely. 
Many other rare things grew here. This was drained and the ground 
carried off. Concerning this wiping out of existence, I feel a keen personal 
loss, as I have never seen these orchids elsewhere near the city. Have 
been told that they grow at Far Rockaway, but of the two ladies who 
know where, one is subject to ivy poisoning and the other to hay fever, 
so I guess that's safe until cut up into city lots. 

A friend living almost " in the heart of the ancient wood," where 
acres of land were flaming with the painted cup, had to see that flower 
make way for corn. Another part of the same woods, full of rare wild 



THE PIvANT WORLD 203 

flowers, among them thousands of the pink cypripedium, was ruined by a 
portable saw-mill. This monster spread devastation far and wide. My 
friend, a flower-worshiper, transplanted what she could, her cry being, 
"Oh, if only I could buy up all that land !" That seems to be the only 
way to preserve the wild flowers. 



* It is surprising that church decoration displays sometimes so little 
" consideration " for the lily of the field ! The beautiful red lily of July, 
for instance, growing at the roadside, is pulled by the hundred by ruth- 
less hands, for the purpose of beautifying the church. Often the tiny 
bulb is dragged out of its sheltering crevice, and so is lost to all the 
summers to come. Picked thus, in great, tight bunches, and crowded 
into vases for altars or communion tables, it can hardly glorify God nor 
be enjoyed by man. 

This method of decoration is not only not " considering the lily," but 
it is generally singularly unsatisfactory and ineffective. In fact, wild 
flowers are not useful for decorative purposes ; they need, for their full 
beauty, the background of solitude ; — one red lily, or two, or three, with 
tall grass, or the greenness of briers and milkweed and scrub maples, 
may be very beautiful and suggestive ; but in a mass the beauty and sug- 
gestiveness is almost always lost. 

It is better, and far more effective, to use for church decoration a 
large simple treatment of branches, or long lines of vines, with here and 
there, perhaps, some deep, rich note of color such as garden flowers sup- 
ply much better than the shy and single blossoms of the fields and woods. 
The story is told of some one who had zeal, not according to knowledge, 
who made a rope of crow-foot violets to decorate a pulpit, using of these 
delicate and perfect creatures hundreds of single blossoms ! It was a 
slaughter of the innocents ; and furthermore, it was entirely ineffective 
as a decoration. 

This effort to protect our native wild flowers may well begin in the 
church, taking as the text that we are to "^ consider the lily," — not in 
large and meaningless bunches, not in the passing beauty of its violent 
death through careless human hands, but we are to consider the lily of 
the fields, how it grows ! Margaret Deland. 



Mr. J. W. T. Duvel has recently published (Bull. 58, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Dept. Agric.) a very valuable paper on the Vitality and Ger- 
mination of Seeds, deduced from a series of experiments extending over 

* Reprint of Leaflet No. 8, Society for the Protection of Native Plants. 



204 THE PLANT WORI.D 

a period of nearly five years. He concludes that " moisture is the chief 
factor in determining the longevity of seeds as they are commercially 
handled, since seeds stored in dry climates retain their vitality much 
better than when stored in places having a humid atmosphere. Seeds 
can endure any degree of drying without injury ; that is, by drying in a 
vacuum over sulphuric acid, and experiments have shown that by the 
judicious use of bottles and paraffined packages seeds can be preserved 
practically as well in one climate as in another." 

Niagara and the Forests. — In the opposition to the bill now pend- 
ing in the New York Senate under the terms of which Niagara Falls would 
be completely given over to the Ontario lyight and Power Company, there 
is a pleasant unanimity on the part of the press of the State. It would 
have been better, however, if that opposition had manifested itself while 
the bill was pending before the House, through which it was allowed to 
pass triumphantly, attracting little or no attention. While the bill for 
the destruction of the falls is pending, the State Commissioner of Forests 
calls attention to the designs of the lumbermen and the Wood Pulp Trust 
on the State forest reservation of 20,000 acres in the Adirondacks. The 
two interests, probably but one, have seriously encroached on the reser- 
vation, and are claiming its best portions, and the manner in which they 
propose to clinch their hold is in the nature of a bill which, singularly 
enough, is receiving the serious consideration of the IvCgislature. It 
provides that the Attorney-General, the State Forest Superintendent and 
the Superintendent of Fisheries shall each appoint an employee of his 
office — not excluding messengers or janitors — to whom the claims of the 
depredators are to be submitted, and the judgment of the tribunal is to be 
final. The peculiarity of the bill is that at any time either one, or all, 
of the three employees may be removed by his superior ofiicer and another 
substituted in his place. The effect of the bill, judicially, would be to 
oust the established courts of the State of all jurisdiction, and to confer 
it on the made-to-order tribunal. The practical effect of the bill need not 
be diagramed. With the passage of the two bills the falls would be de- 
stroyed, and the Adirondack reservation of spruce and poplar and pine 
would be denuded of its magnificent forests. The second bill is worse 
than the first. With an ousting of the water company the falls would 
be restored, but with the deforesting of the Adirondacks there would re- 
main nothing but rocky moimtahis , and the money in the pockets of the 
wood-pulpers. To both measures not alone the press of New York, but 
the press of the entire country, ought to enter a most vigorous protest. — 
The Commercial Tribune. 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 205 

Editorial. 



Americans have for some time been priding themselves on the sup- 
posed superiority of educational methods prevailing here, but occasionally 
it is good to see ourselves as others see us. The Mosby Educational Com- 
mission, composed of prominent English educators, spent many months 
in studying our system of education, from the kindergarten to and beyond 
the university, and the preliminary report of their work has just been 
published by Professor Henry E. Armstrong. While finding much that 
is good and not a little that is of superior merit. Professor Armstrong 
concludes that a considerable portion is more or less superficial, and 
especially does he pass these strictures on our so-called " nature study." 
When this nature-study idea began to gain a foothold a few years ago it 
spread from one end of the country to the other like an epidemic, but it 
may surprise many to learn that much of it is not the "real thing." 
Rather is it " nature love," as Professor Armstrong says, than " nature 
study " in its best phase, and when one stops to think of it, how could it 
have been otherwise when a great body of teachers accustomed to teach 
by the book were suddenly called upon to give instruction about nature. 
"Don't humming-birds and bumble-bees belong to the same class?" 
asked a public school teacher of the writer ! Doubtless this same teacher 
would have said that a whale was a fish, that swallows could hibernate 
at the bottom of lakes and ponds, and live frogs be split out of the 
solid trunks of trees. These examples of what Mr. Dooley aptly calls 
assorted mis-information ' ' have been regaled to our children under the 
pretext that it was nature study. The love of nature is undoubtedly 
an excellent thing to inculcate — would there were more of it; but it is 
or may be quite a different thing from intelligent nature study. Walks 
afield, valuable at least from the hygienic point of view, the pulling apart 
of a flower, or the collecting of birds' eggs may be far from the legitimate 
object in mind. What we need in this country, and what we will ultimately 
have, is a body of teachers who have themselves been properly taught 
before they have been set the difficult task of instructing the children. 
Furthermore, the daily press requires liberal need of education in its 
selection of paragraphs on natural science topics. The attitude of most 
editors in this matter is inexplicable if we assume them to be in any 
way anxious for truth. The writings of students and observers are set 
aside for bizarre stories of wonderful tropical plants exhibiting human 
intelligence, or of trees that poison all who pass by them ! The need 
was never greater for a large and well -trained body of teachers and 
writers on biological topics. 



206 THE PLANT WORI.D 

The Home Garden and Greenhouse. 

Conducted by Dr. F. H, Knowlton. 

[The editor of this department will be glad to answer questions of a rele- 
vant nature, and also to receive short articles on any phase of this subject.] 

The strawberry. — Fruit growing has unquestionably made rapid prog- 
ress during the last twenty years. This progress has not only been 
scientific but practical. We know more about the principles involved 
and why these principles should be applied. The discussions of practical 
men, the methods of cultivation and the many practices involved have 
been largely along the lines of producing fruits commercially, and while 
the gardener has perhaps not figured largely in these discussions he has 
been ever ready to help and many have acquired a remarkable proficiency 
in growing the finest fruits. Among the most important fruits with which 
the gardener has to deal is the .strawberry, and to the small area devoted 
to them high quality and a long season are requisite. It has become 
almost a part of our language that a garden should exemplify such horti- 
cultural virtues as cleanliness, high culture and enrichment of the soil, 
and the gardener will find these virtues incumbent upon him in growing 
strawberries. There are many excellent varieties which are reliable, such 
as Sharpless, Sample, Haverland, Clyde, Marshall, Gandy, Brandywine, 
etc. These may be relied upon when one does not know from personal 
local experience that other varieties are better, for locality and differences 
in soil have much to do with the success or failure of different varieties. 
A trial bed as a means of determining which are suitable varieties in a local- 
ity is an educational experiment and should be more extensively practiced. 
One conservative gardener has grown Sharpless for the last ten years 
without renewing his stock or adding thereto. He grows good fruit but 
he certainly is not progressive. The strawberry bed should be arranged, 
if possible, so that water may be supplied if necessary. The ground should 
be deep, well drained, and thoroughly enriched with good barnyard manure. 
Ground bone and other commercial fertilizers in addition are also recom- 
mended by many growers. The system of planting best adapted to the 
gardener is the hill system. In practice the superiority of the fruit is 
evident. This consists of planting in rows two and one-half feet apart 
and the plants twelve or eighteen inches apart, removing all runners. 
The individual plants become very strong and produce large quantities 
of fruit. Constant cultivation and absolute cleanliness from weeds, how- 
ever, will determine the quality. Frequently a dry spell occurs during 
the fruiting season which may ruin or greatly diminish the crop, hence 
the advisability of having water convenient. Some gardeners apply 
manure water when the berries are swelling and when choice table fruit 



THE PIvANT WORLD 207 

is demanded. Thinning the young blossoms will also assist in giving 
superior fruit. As with many other kinds of fruits, care should be exer- 
cised in picking. A quantity of new baskets should be on hand at the 
commencement of the season. Don't use leaves to hide the stains from 
previous use. A picking stand holding a half dozen baskets is one of 
the greatest helps, which after once using one would not readily dispense 
with. It is easily made with half a barrel hoop for a handle. It reduces 
the possibility of disfiguring the fruit, as is the case when a person tries 
to carry too many baskets at once. Planting may be done in early spring 
or in August. With pot-grown plants spring is preferred by many when 
a good supply of plants is obtainable. In good weather the pot-grown 
plants will produce a good crop the following spring. The duration of 
the bed will usually be two seasons, depending on the attention and care 
it has received. Gardeners sometimes allow runners to grow in order to 
get new plants. This is not good practice ; a portion should be grown 
for that purpose. Now is the time when much care must be given the 
strawberry bed or the effects will be noticed next spring. It is not neces- 
sary to enumerate cultural details with which every gardener is familiar. 
It may be well to mention, however, that mulching or some kind of win- 
ter protection should be provided for them, not so much for frost as the 
alternate thawing and freezing. I^ong straw manure scattered over the 
bed after the ground has become frozen is a good method. — Francis 
Canning, in Gardening. 

Paeonia lutea. — A plant of this distinct and rare species is at present 
in flower in the Himalayan house at Kew, where it is planted out in a 
border, in a light position among other plants, says a correspondent of 
the Gardeners' Chronicle of June 11. It was received as a young plant 
from the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, in 1898, and flowered at Kew for the 
first time in 1900, when a figure was prepared for the Botatiical Magazine, 
t. 7788. This species forms a perennial woody stem, after the style of 
its near relative P. Mo7itan, but does not attain nearly to the dimensions 
of that species. The Kew plant, although some seven or eight years old, 
has only formed a woody stem about eight inches high. The greater part 
of the annual stems dying back to almost the base, the woody stem elon- 
gates but very little each year. Early in the present spring, when growth 
should have commenced, for some reason or other the buds on the woody 
stems refused to start, and it was feared that the plant would die ; but to 
our surprise several growths appeared from below the surface of the soil, 
near the base of the old stems, while a few others appeared about two feet 
away ; these have all grown vigorously and are now just coming into 
bloom. The flowers are usually solitary and terminal, but occasionally 
the more vigorous shoots produce two and even three blossoms each. The 
flowers are of bright yellow color, two and one-half inches in diameter, 



208 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

with six to ten petals, and numerous short stamens of the same color as 
the petals, and in the center of which are three small green carpels. The 
leaves are ternatisect, of soft texture, a foot or more in length and about 
the same in breadth, and more or less glaucous both above and below. 
For the introduction of this lovely plant into European gardens we are 
indebted to the Abbe Delavay, who discovered it in the mountains of 
Yunnan, S. China, in 1882, and who sent seeds home to the Jardin des 
Plantes. Part of the young stock came into the hands of Lemoine, of 
Nancy, who worked up a stock and introduced it to commerce. From an 
account of this plant which appeared recently in an American paper, it is 
stated to graft readily on the roots of the herbaceous peony. I have not 
tried this method, but have several times endeavored to work it on to 
those of P. Moidan, but without success. It will no doubt prove to be a 
useful plant to the hybridist on account of its color, and may be the pro- 
genitor of a new race of peonies. In the note which accompanies the 
figure in the Botanical Magazine mention is made of the interesting fact 
that double and single forms occur in both the wild and cultivated state. 
The Kew specimen has so far only produced single flowers. 



Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. Eloyd. 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

The editor of this department is at the present writing enjoying the 
privileges offered by the Desert Botanical Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution, at Tucson, Arizona. The object of the Laboratory is to make 
it possible for the student of desert plants to get at the living material in 
the field, but with the facilities at hand which are necessary for work ; and 
this object is amply fulfilled. 

The building is situated on the side of a hill of volcanic rock, formerly 
used by the Prapago Indians as a " trinjera," or fortress, to which they 
retired from the attacks of the Apaches. Evidences of such occupation 
are plentiful as one approaches the summit of the hill. The surface is 
very stony, with occasional outcrops of the solid rock. There are also 
a goodly number of pictographs to be found on the smoother rock faces. 

The vegetation of the surrounding area is of very great interest to the 
botanist. The most striking plant of all, and the one which catches the 
eye at once, is the giant cactus {,Cereus giganteus), a great, green-ribbed 
column, with one or more arms projecting outwards and upwards mid- 
way its length. Nor does one cease to wonder on extended acquaintance 
at these remarkable products of nature — they unfailingly command the 
attention. There is something uncanny in their sentinel-like stillness. 



THE PIvANT WORI.D 209 

Even in a strong wind there is but little movement, although there may 
be heard its whistling through the spines. About the first of June the 
flowers are produced at the top of the column, two dozen or more, crowded 
together, and usually on one side. The corolla is white, with long tube. 
Several hundreds of small beetles and many small wasps may be found 
crawling about within the flower, apparently feeding on the pollen and 
nectar and incidentally pollinating the stigma. As the fruit enlarges the 
flower dries and hardens into a black protuberance which ultimately 
becomes separated from the fruit. At this time the tops of the cactus 
columns present a curious shaggy appearance, as if their hair stood on 
end. The fruit is oval, about three inches long, green, becoming lighter 
and yellowish when ripe, and is much sought after by the Papagos. At 
maturity the pericarp splits open longitudinally into two or three pieces of 
unequal size, which bend back and disclose brilliant red lining and a 
pulpy mass of red seed-stalks in which are buried very numerous small 
black seeds. These red-hued split fruits look like flowers until examined 
at closer range, and are quite beautiful. As the fruits fall away, the top 
of the plant is restored to its smoothness until the next flowering season. 
The seeds germinate readily. The fully-sprouted seedling is a half to 
three-quarters of an inch in length, with two triangular fleshy cotyledons, 
and attains this size in about a week. In another week a small plumule, 
looking like a pin-cushion full of pins, appears. 

Several other kinds of cacti are to be found. Most common is the flat- 
stemmed prickly pear, Optintia Engehnanni. The tree-opuntia (^A. 
arborescens') , a plant with cylindrical stems and spreading tree-like form, 
is next in abundance. It attains a height of about six feet. The color 
is dark reddish-green. Another striking species, closely related to A. 
arborescens, is the " Cholla."* It grows on the mesa at the foot of the 
hill. It is very readily recognized by its massed clusters of branches and 
its numerous long yellowish spines, which give the plant a light, shining 
appearance in the sunlight. Not the least interesting is the little half- 
clambering cactus, Opiintia leptocaulis, which is nearly always found grow- 
ing in association with some other shrubby plant, usually the creosote 
bush {.Covillea tridetitata) , thus obtaining mechanical protection, profit- 
ing also perhaps from the partial shade. It has irregularly cylindrical 
branches three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. 

Growing in the same formation with the giant cactus are the small 
Cereus Fe?idleri, with brilliant flowers ; the large barrel cactus, Echi7io- 
cadus wislizeni, which is supplied with large fish-hook spines ; and hid- 
den in the shade of other plants, its small relative, the little Mamillaria 
Goodridgii, with crowded radiating white spines, and a single slender 
brown-hooked spine projecting outwards. 

* Pronounced ' ' Choya. ' ' 



210 THK PI.ANT WORI.D 

Of the remaining vegetation, the most characteristic forms near the 
Laboratory are the ocotilla {Fouquieria splendejis) , the paloverde (^Parkin- 
sonia microphylla) , species of cat's-claw (^Acacia), one of Lycium and 
of Celtis, and the creosote bush iCovillea). The first two named are the 
more prominent elements. The ocotilla has the form of an inverted cone, 
the spreading, tapering branches forming the sides, and the single short 
base the apex of the cone. When there is sufficient water in the soil the 
branches are thickly studded with rosettes of slightly glaucous, rich 
green leaves. The flowers, scarlet in color, are borne in a rather large 
inflorescence at the ends of the branches, and when in flower in early 
spring the plant is an unusually fine sight. The bark of the ocotilla 
is very waxy, burning like a candle, and is therefore useful in starting 
a fire. 

The paloverde is a small tree, branching from the base with irregular 
spreading branches. Its bark is green, by which fact the Spanish name 
is suggested. The smaller branches gradually taper into spines and 
bear few small compound leaves. These are more frequently absent 
altogether, but the plant is nevertheless able to carry on its work. 

All these plants, and many more which space daes not permit of men- 
tion, are awaiting the investigator, in a rare climate, with a wide sweep 
of country, of mesa and mountain, stretching as far as the eye can reach, 
with every necessity at hand — a unique opportunity for the inquiring 
botanist. 



ORIGIN OF PARASITISM IN FUNGI. 

Some very interesting experiments have been made in England by 
Massee, by which he has been able to cause certain fungi to change their 
behavior in a remarkable way. A fungus which under normal conditions 
is parasitic on one species only may be induced to penetrate the tissues 
of the leaf of a strange host by injecting the leaf with the juice extracted 
from the usual host or with a particular substance, which in some cases 
may be separated from the extracted juice. Similarly, fungi which usually 
feed upon dead plant materials may be educated to become parasitic. The 
explanation of this phenomenon is found in the fact that the germ-tubes 
of a particular fungus are positively sensitive toward a certain substance ; 
and if this is present in the leaf they will penetrate the tissues unless there 
is some other substance present toward which they behave negatively. 
For example, Botrytis chierea, which is a very common parasite on many 
plants, can not attack apples because of the presence of malic acid, 
although saccharose, toward which the fungus is positively sensitive, is 
present. 

It is held by the author that immunity to the attack of fungi enjoyed 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 211 

by individuals belonging to a species which is usually attacked is due to 
the absence of the special cheraotactic agent from these individuals.* 
Further, that parasitism in fungi is an acquired habit. 



BUD SCALES AS NECTAR GLANDS. 

The Para Rubber Tree (^Hevea brasiliensis) possesses two kinds of 
extra-floral nectaries. t These are (l) small circular glands, similar 
apparently to those seen in the castor-oil plant, which occur on the 
upper surface of the petiole, near the bases of the leaflets, of which there 
are three; and (2) large conspicuous glands occurring on certain of the 
bud scales. These are stipular in nature, and the lowermost of a bud are 
of the ordinary functional type, that is, are protective in nature. Above 
these, however, the stipules become thickened, nearly circular in trans- 
verse section. The epidermis of their upper surfaces is made up of one 
to three layers of columnar glandular cells, the secretion of which collects 
beneath the cuticle, by the bursting of which the nectar escapes. This 
appears to be the only instance recorded of bud scales serving as nectaries. 



ROOTS NOT AEROTROPIC. 

The view has generally been accepted that the roots of ordinary 
plants are sensitive to gases, or more particularly, that they curve toward 
or away from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon -dioxid. Such, however, 
seems not to be the case. Miss Mary E. Bennett \ has experimented with 
the tap-roots of corn, pea, radish, cucumber and lupine seeds, and has 
shown that the curvatures made by these roots, such as had previously 
been observed by Molesch and attributed to their aerotropism, are due 
not to their reactions toward gases but toward water. 



The relation of De Vries's theory of mutation to Darwin's theory 
of the origin of species may be said to be not generally well understood. 
For this reason every teacher and student will find it profitable to read 
a very interesting article by a countryman and near neighbor of Professor 
de Vries, Professor Hubrecht, of the University of Utrecht. It is to be 
found in the Popzdar Science MontJily for July, 1904. The key-note of 
the paper lies in the following words, " * * * his (De Vries's) great 
and imperishable merit consists in this, that his important and extensive 
experiments have provided us with a reliable basis concerning a subject 
about which Darwin had not fully made up his mind." 

*Ann. Bol., April, 1904. 

t Parkin, J., Ann. Bot., 18: 217, April, 1904. 

t "Are Roots Aerotropic? " Bot. Gazette, 37 : 241, April, 1904. 



212 THK PI.ANT WORI.D 

On June 28 Professor Hugo de Vries began his lectures in the summer 
school of the University of California, at Berkeley, on the "Theory of 
the Origin of Species and Varieties by Means of Mutation." In contrast 
with the larger part of Darwin's followers, De Vries assumes that slow 
and gradual development has not had any prominent part in the evolu- 
tion of organisms in general. He pointed out that in the evening prim- 
roses species and varieties are originated by sudden leaps and repeatedly, 
each new form arising in quite a number of individuals from the old stock, 
at once and without preparation as intermediates. The stock itself is not 
changed by the process, as it would be by those slow and gradual changes 
which are assumed by Wallace and others to occur. 

The lectures have to deal with the occurrence of elementary species, 
constant varieties, ever-sporting or inconstant varieties, mutation and 
fluctuation. They are attended by about sixty students, which is an 
exceptionally large number when compared with that ordinarily in at- 
tendance at science lectures. It is to be hoped that the lectures will be 
published as a whole, in order that Professor de Vries may be enabled 
to reach the attention of the many students of biology in this country. 



Book Reviews. 



New England Ferns and their Common Allies. By Helen Eastman. 
Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

This is an attractiv^e little volume which will doubtless serve a useful 
purpose in introducing many to the study of these interesting plants, and 
as such should find a wide sale. Beginning with an enumeration of the 
fruiting season of the several species of ferns, followed by a list of the 
preferred habitats and hints to beginners, we come to the body of the 
work, in which the forms are taken up in systematic order. The common 
and scientific names are given, together with a brief but fairly complete 
description, with the size, place where usually found, and often a bit of 
history, etc. The illustrations, which are fairly numerous, are said to be 
by an entirely new and original process, but which seems to be merely 
one of shadow-printing. Some of these illustrations are pretty good, but 
many are nearly worthless for purposes of identification. Occasionally 
a slip is noted, as when the green spleenwort i^Aspleyiiuni viride) is said 
to be confined to the mountains of Vermont. The book is attractively 
printed and will doubtless be found useful to would-be students. 

F. H. K. 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII, Plate XIII. 




The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 



Vol. VII SEPTEMBER, 1904 No. 9 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XXII.* 

By William E. Safford. 

Friday, February 9 . — With General Wheeler and Mr. Garrett to make 
a tour around the southern end of the island, visiting Asan, Agat, Umata 
(Humdtag), and lualahan. No horse was available for Mr. Bengough, 
so he remained at Agafia, amusing himself in looking over my books, two 
hundred of which were purchased by me in Samoa from the library of 
Robert Louis Stevenson. Many of the latter have marginal markings 
and some have annotations and criticisms. One of the most interesting 
of all is Stevenson's father's Bible, which is interleaved and has copious 
annotations throughout the entire New Testament. Another is a finely- 
bound copy of Madame de Stael's " Delphine," which was presented to 
Stevenson's mother as a prize for excellence in French. It bears the in- 
scription ''Prix de frau^ais decerne h Mile. Margaret Isabella Balfour. — 
A. F. Gtiillerez, Fdivibourg, 19 Jidllet, 1844.''^ Another is Jamieson's 
" Dictionary of the Scottish Language," which bears the name of Lewis 
Balfour, Stevenson's maternal grandfather, on the fly-leaf of each of 
the two volumes, followed by the inscription, " presented by Mrs. Brown 
Somervill, 26 June, 1820." With this standard work at hand Stevenson 
could have no fear of his Scottish idioms or vocabulary. Among the books 
which had belonged to his father's father is the "History of Fife and 
Kinross," by Robert Sibbald, with "Robert Stevenson" written in ink 

* Continued from the August issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



214 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

on the title page. It was for his two grandfathers that Stevenson was 
named " Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson," a name which he afterwards 
modified to the more euphonious "Robert lyouis Stevenson." The 
History of Fife and Kinross ' ' furnished him with much of his material 
for his " Coast of Fife " in " Random Memories." Another book closely 
associated with the Stevenson famil}^ is his uncle Alan Stevenson's 
"Account of the Skerryvore lyighthouse, " a large, heavy quarto, with 
the back loose. On the fly-leaf of the first volume of D'Aubigny 's ' ' His- 
tory of the Reformation " is written in his father's hand, " Robert Lewis 
Stevenson from his Father and Mother on his 15th birthday"; and 
written in a bo^'ish hand in lead pencil, in the second volume, I found 
*' C^est moi qui a fait cela, R. S." Other books recall his essaj^s and other 
writings. August Longnon's ' ' Etude biographique sur Fraugois Villon ' ' 
served as a basis for Stevenson's essay on Villon. Bonnemere's " Histoire 
des Camisards " reappears in entire paragraphs, and sometimes pages, 
of "Travels With a Donkey," and another work connected with the 
classic journey across the Cevennes is Peyrat's " Histoire des Pasteurs 
du Desert," the second volume of which he says his foot encountered 
as he slipped into his sleeping-bag when "camping in the dark." 
There are guide-books for various districts of France : " Geographic de 
I'Allier, du Var, et de la Dordogne," and " Les Villes d'Hiver de la 
Mediterranee, " containing descriptions of the principal winter resorts of 
Southern France. A number of the books have Stevenson's Skerryvore 
name-plate ; others have his visiting card pasted in them : 

Mr. Robert Louis Stevenson 

Skerryvore Savile Club 

Bournemouth. Piccadilly. 

Several of them relate to the Duke of Wellington, a life of whom 
Stevenson contemplated writing. Others, relating to Scottish history, 
were to serve as a source of a Romantic History of the Highlands, 
which Stevenson had in view. Among the translations of Greek classics 
are Homer's "Odyssey" and the "Iliad," both of which are much 
marked ; Plato's "Apology of Socrates, the " Crito," and " Phaedo," a 
thin black volume, which is the ' ' crib ' ' to which he refers in ' ' Vailima 
Letters " ; and the Oxford translation of Sophocles's Tragedies. There 
are also a few books which were presented to Stevenson by their authors. 
The most interesting of the latter is Marcel Schwob's " Coeur Double," 
a book dedicated to Stevenson. Written in ink in English is the follow- 
ing inscription : ' ' To Robert Louis Stevenson this book is dedicated in 
admiration of ' Treasure Island, ' ' Kidnapped, ' the ' Master of Ballantrae, ' 
in the name of the new shape he has given to the romance, for the 
sake of our dear Francis Villon. — Marcel Schwob." There are also 
presentation copies of Gabriel Sarrazin's " Poetes Modernes de 1' Angle- 



THE PLANT WORLD 215 

terre," and a volume of " Summer Sermons from a Berkshire Pulpit," 
by Phillips Brooks's friend, William Wilberforce Newton, with an in- 
scription dated Pittsfield, January 17, 1888. 

Among the French books are Flau1)ert's ' ' Correspondence ' ' ; Dumas's 
"Vicomte de Bragelonne," a book very dear to Stevenson; " Lettres 
de Marguerite d'Angouleme," the contemporary and friend of Marot ; 
Renan's " Souvenirs d'Enfance et Jeunesse," " I'Antechrist," "lesEvan- 
giles, ' ' and ' ' le Cantique des Cantiques ' ' ; and ' ' I'Ensorcelee, ' ' by Barbey 
d'Aurevilly, an author in whom Stevenson was much interested, and in 
whose Norman stories he took great delight. I have also Stevenson's copies 
of Maurice de Guerin's " Journal," edited by Trebutien ; Georges Sand's 
Correspondence, ' ' almost read to pieces ; Flaubert's ' ' Education Senti- 
mentale " ; and the " Poesies de vSulh'- Prudhomme." Other interesting 
works, in Latin accompanied by French translations, are those of Horace 
and Martial and the " Confessions de Saint Augustin," the first part of 
the last work marked with a number of marginal comments, the latter part 
uncut. 

I have shown my Stevenson books to many people, but I know of no 
one who manifested more sincere reverence or more intelligent apprecia- 
tion for them than Mr. William Bengough. After his departure from the 
island he wrote me a very courteous note expressing appreciation for the 
poor hospitality I was able to offer him and of his intense delight in my 
books. My little home, he said, was like an oasis in a desert. The day 
after his departure my faithful Susana said : " Jesiis! sefior, the gentle- 
man did nothing but read and read. He read in every book on the 
shelves. He did not want to eat, and when I went home for the night 
he was still reading. I think surely he must have read the whole night 
long ; and, seiior, it was not in one, but in all the books." 

Of our trip to Inalahan and the other villages in the southern part of 
the island. General Wheeler has already written in his official report. 
We were received everywhere with smiling faces. We found all the 
villages neatly swept, and the houses sweet and clean. Those who had 
flags of the United States displayed them, the rest hung out tiny white 
ones. In several places we were met by the school masters and mistresses 
with a company of little children dressed in white. As we rounded the 
head of the bay of San Luis de Apra, I called General Wheeler's atten- 
tion to the mangroves which form a dense thicket along the shore : 
Rhizophora imicronata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, the red-flowered Luninitz- 
er a pedicel lata, and the great tree Heritiera littoralis, with keeled nuts. At 
Agat we were invited to luncheon by a Spanish gentleman. On approach- 
ing Umata we were met at some distance from the town by a committee of 
leading citizens. Bells were rung, guns were fired, and every one gave vent 
to expressions of loyalty to the United States and of respect to the ' ' Captain 



216 THE PLANT WORLD 

General," as they called General Wheeler, evidently thinking that his 
office corresponded to that held by the Governor, or Captain General, of 
the Philippines under the Spanish Government. At Merizo we were 
received with even greater demonstrations of good will, and were enter- 
tained by the citizens with a fine dinner. It was dark when we reached 
Inalahan. The citizens had gone to the northward to meet us, expect- 
ing us to come by way of Pago and Talofofo. When we were discovered 
coming from the opposite direction the bells started ringing and guns 
were fired. The people flocked to us and the little son of the native 
gobernadorcillo, Juan Napute, marched by General Wheeler's side, play- 
ing the accordeon. Both Napute and his little boy are fine types of 
natives. I think that they are perhaps more like the primitive Chamorros 
than any other citizens of the island. General Wheeler seemed deeply 
touched by the fervent expressions of loyalty and friendship on the part 
of these good people, so different, he said, from what he had found in 
the Philippines. We were taken to the best house of the village, and 
after enjoying a good supper were about to go to bed. General Wheeler 
must have been tired, but he gave no evidence of it. When he was half 
undressed a knock came at the door and a citizen said some of the ladies 
of the place, hearing that we were to leave at a very early hour the next 
morning, begged to pay their respects to the Captain General. I inter- 
preted the message to the General, and suggested that he was probably 
too tired to receive them. But he replied : ' ' No, indeed ; ask the ladies 
to wait a moment, and I will dress." So he put on his boots once more, 
adjusted his uniform, and received the visitors with the grace and courtesy 
which characterized his bearing during our entire trip. He seemed never 
to tire nor to be vexed by mishaps. On informing our callers that we 
would be glad to see the people of Inalahan the following morning, they 
took leave, and we were soon asleep on comfortable beds, between fresh, 
snow-white sheets. 

Saturday, Febrjtary 10. — Up early, after a refreshing sleep. General 
Wheeler held quite a reception. Nearly all the people of Inalahan came 
to pay their respects, including the ladies ; and Doiia Filomena de Torres, 
the school mistress, made quite a pretty speech. 

After a good breakfast we started across the Island for Apra, accom- 
panied b}^ six of the citizens, who formed a voluntary escort. Though 
it rained at intervals throughout the forenoon and the General must have 
been wet to the skin, he never once lost his equanimity. I think he is 
the most cheerful man with whom I have ever traveled. During our 
trip we stopped from time to time to drink from green coconuts. Coco- 
nut water is very refreshing and quite wholesome as long as the nuts are 
green. As they grow riper the water thickens and becomes milky. It 
is then no longer fit to drink, as it tends to cause inflammation of the kidneys 



THE PLANT WORLD 217 

and bladder. On the high hills behind Inalahan the soil was in places 
red and very slippery. Notwithstanding- the rain and the bad roads the 
General would pause from time to time, exclaiming: "isn't this air 
delicious ! " or " What a magnificent view ! ' ' The southern portion of 
the island across which we passed is volcanic and mountainous, and offers 
a striking contrast to the northern portion, which consists almost entirely 
of a raised platform, or " meseta," of coralliferous limestone, so porous 
that it will not hold water. The other day, in going from Agatia to Santa 
Rosa, we noticed that the road ascended to the top of this platform by a 
series of terraces which are not apparent from the sea, owing to the dense 
vegetation. These ancient reefs show unmistakable evidence of successive 
upheavals of the entire island. Santa Rosa itself and one or two neigh- 
boring peaks which burst through the coral are undoubtedly volcanic. 
The craters are no longer perfect in outline, but do not look very ancient. 
They were evidently active after the upheaval of the platform, as the 
adjacent coral rock shows evidence in many places of having been mod- 
ified by heat, and to have afterwards formed crystalline carbonate of lime. 
In the southern part, across which we passed to-day, there is a succession 
of volcanic peaks, approximately a thousand feet in height. At places 
the surface of the higher portion of the island is bare or covered with 
sword grass with a sparse growth of ironwood i^Casuarina equisetifolia) , 
to which I have before referred as characteristic of the flora of the outer 
beach. Wherever this tree grows it is a sign of lack of drainage. Other 
portions of the interior of the island have a pretty fair growth of grass, 
sufficient to support cattle and carabaos, one or two herds of which we 
saw as we passed along. On descending into a valley to ford one of the 
streams we found the road, reduced to a narrow path, had by constant 
usage cut so deep into the earth that it was impossible for the General 
to ride through it. In places the perpendicular sides of the trail were as 
high as a horse's head. 

During our trip the General had taken testimony in several villages 
concerning the conduct of the friars who had been living on the island 
Ijefore our arrival. It was apparently distasteful to him to induce the 
natives to testify against their will. He reassured them repeatedly, say- 
ing that he had come to find out the truth, and that he did not wish to 
harm any one. The loyalty of a sweet-faced woman in one of the villages 
was touching. Nothing would induce her to betray the friar who had 
given her the house in which she lived, and who had supported her and 
her children. When questioned as to the paternity of her children she 
replied that their father was a Chamorro who had sailed away on a whal- 
ing ship, but she refused to give his name. She caught the little ones 
in her arms and held them as though she was afraid they might be taken 
from her. And with it all she maintained a proud, dignified bearing, 



218 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

which did not fail to command our respect. But it is not the province 
of these notes to discuss matters of this nature. In all churches there 
are men who keep their vows and men who break them ; and it is not 
strange that in this little island, so far removed from the discipline and 
supervision of a bishop and peopled by human beings naturally affectionate, 
resolutions made under the influence of ascetic surroundings and the 
example of men shielded in their monasteries from the attractions of 
women should be overwhelmed by the mighty force of love, which has 
filled the world with living creatures. Of course, society must be pro- 
tected by codes of morals, and there must be a legal as well as a religious 
tie to bind husband and wife. Otherwise polygamy might prevail and 
many mothers would find themselves abandoned without the right to 
appeal for support from those equally responsible for the advent into the 
world of their helpless little ones. It was not charged by any one that the 
friars had been licentious. They were accused simply of having mated 
without possible authority of the law or sanction of the church. The 
affection shown by the poor women who were questioned yesterday could 
not have been feigned ; rather, I should say, it could not be concealed. 
I am sure it inspired us all with respect. Considered logically, the 
unhappy condition of these women and many others before them living 
on this island is apparent. Here they are, with all the responsibility of 
bringing up their little ones and of making good men and women of them, 
without the material or moral support of a strong mate to help them, and 
with no hope for further happiness except in the love of their children. 
After all, most of the rules which society has evolved are founded on a 
sense of what is right and just. 

On our way to the landing the General questioned me further regard- 
ing our system of land taxation. I am afraid he was not in thorough 
sympathy with my endeavors to make it impossible for men on this island 
to acquire large tracts of land. He said that we must look forward to 
the progress of civilization, and that if there was general equality among 
men there would be little achieved for mankind in general. Wealth and 
capital are necessary for advancement, and the specialization of human 
beings is necessary for the prosperity of a race just as specialization of 
the various organs of the body is an advantage to each being. This 
seems very logical, and yet when I looked down upon the little farms 
and thought of the just pride of each family on this island in its coconut 
grove, coffee plantation, or corn-field, I felt that if a simpler state of 
organization means greater and more general happiness, simpler it should 
remain. After all it seems no more than fair that hardworking members 
of the body, as told in the fable, should growl at the ease and comfort 
enjoyed by the belly. If it were not for specialization they would not 
die with the destruction of that important part. In Guam if one member 



THE PIvANT WORLD 219 

of a family dies, even though it be the father, the others continue self- 
supporting, each capable of producing sufficient food and clothing to 
sustain life, and possessing the requisite skill to build a dwelling. This 
would be very different if each family should depend for its support upon 
the skilled labor of one person. Death in his case would mean poverty 
and suiferiug for the rest. Poverty and suffering would most certainly 
come to this island with the monopolization of the land by a few people 
and the abandonment of individual farms owned by the farmer for the 
daily wages of an employer who would reap the greater part of the fruit 
of the laborer. The beneficial effect of occupying ownership of small 
farms has been commented upon by many writers, who have contrasted 
the happy, prosperous condition of the Swiss peasant proprietors with the 
misery of wage earners in other countries. In Switzerland, as in Guam, 
though the conditions of climate are very different, and provision for the 
winter renders forethought and the storing up of food necessary, the 
natives of many districts live entirely upon the produce of their land, with 
the exception of a few articles of foreign growth. In Guam the natives 
have the advantage of producing their own coffee, and many of them even 
get the salt necessary for their families by evaporating it from sea-water. 
On the other hand they are ignorant of the art of weaving, and depend 
upon imported fabrics for their clothing, but their dress is simple and 
sufficient cotton stuff to last for a year can easily be gotten by each mem- 
ber of the family in exchange for a small proportion of the fruit of his 
toil. Even the children work in the corn-fields, gather coffee, as we 
gather blackberries, and assist in preparing copra from the meat of the 
coconut. All labor is performed freely and joyfully, and there is no 
restraint. The father and mother begin to provide for the future of each 
child in its earliest infancy, clearing the forest, planting coconuts, and 
tenderly caring for the plantation, which nothing will induce them to sell. 
An English traveler in describing the conditions in one of the rural dis- 
tricts of Switzerland, where the whole of the land belongs to the peasantry, 
states that " in no country in Europe will be found so few poor as in the 
Engadine." In other countries peasant proprietors sometimes combine 
to construct irrigating ditches. So in Guam owners of adjacent rice fields 
cooperate for the advantage of one another. When such conditions are 
contrasted with those of more highly organized social communities, accom- 
panied by chronic starvation and widespread pauperism, who can hesitate 
to offer a prayer that the people of this island may continue to hold on 
to their homes and farms, and to resent any effort on the part of grasping 
men to monopolize large tracts of land.* 

* Whatever General Wheeler's opinion may have been regarding the advisability of the steps we 
had taken for the protection ot the natives, he has given us credit for good intentions. " There is no 
question," he says, " but that the Governor and his aid, Lieutenant Safford, have used their best judg- 
ment in framing the orders which have become thelawsof the Island of Guam."— OflBcial report, p. 35, 
1900. 



220 THE PLANT WORIvD 

Alfred Russell Wallace in his work on ' ' Land Nationalization ' ' closes 
with the following quotation from Mr. J. Boyd Kinnear's " Principles of 
Property in Land " : " Who does not see how much happier England will 
be when instead of one great mansion, surrounded by miles beyond miles 
of one huge property, farmed by the tenants at will of one landlord, tilled 
by mere laborers, whose youth and manhood know no relaxation from 
rough mechanical toil, whose old age sees no home but the chance of charity 
or the certainty of the workhouse, there shall be a thousand estates of 
varying size, where each owner shall work for himself and his chileren, 
where the sense of independence shall lighten the burdens of daily toil, 
where education shall give resources, and the labor of youth shall suffice 
for the support of age." 

Whatever may be the advisability of nationalizing land, the benefits of 
occupying ownership are undoubted ; and many of the conditions pictured 
by Kinnear as ideal actually exist in Guam. In this island little effort 
is made to accumulate capital in the form of money ; but within late years 
the attention of every inhabitant has been directed to the planting of 
coconut groves, the product of which will be a certain means of liveli- 
hood. And in clearing the forest and establishing his grove the labor 
of youth will suffice for the support of age. 

[to be continued.] 



The June Flora of the Ocheyedan 

Mound. 

By T. J. FiTZPATRICK. 

About a mile southeast of the village of Ocheyedan (pronounced 
O-chee-dan) in Osceola County, Iowa, lies a gravel mound known as 
" Ocheyedan mound." For a long time the summit of this mound has 
borne the reputation of being the highest point above sea level in Iowa. 
Its rival is claimed to be the summit of a moraine lying a few miles to 
the northwest, which may be a few feet higher. 

From the data at hand the summit of the Ocheyedan mound is thought 
to be 1670 feet above the sea level. Passengers approaching the village 
from the east over the Rock Island railway see the mound rising abruptly 
on the southern horizon. The mound is a conspicuous land-mark, seen 
from afar, and appears abruptly as a little mountain on a drift plain. 
The mound is really a double one. The major part and the portion 
usually considered extends in general from the northwest to the south- 
east. Its length is about two hundred yards and the width not far from 



THE PIvANT WORLD 221 

one hundred yards while the height is approximately one hundred feet. 
The summit is about twenty feet in width. The sides are precipitous, 
while the ends are of gentle slope, which condition has been turned to 
account in locating a driveway from the northwest to the summit for the 
pleasure of the view there presented. This portion of the mound may 
be said to be double-headed, there being a slight depression about mid- 
way of the summit ridge with corresponding slight contractions on the 
sides, thus giving a two-humped appearance. Immediately southeast of 
the larger part and attached to it by a short neck is the smaller part of 
the mound, which extends from the northeast to the southwest. The 
length and width are each about the same as the like dimensions of the 
larger part, namely two hundred yards, while the height is probably less 
than fifty feet. The summit is broad and triple-headed, the necks 
however being only slight depressions and the sides gently sloping. 

The entire hill is composed of sand and fine gravel, there being no 
surface soil, the gravel everywhere appearing between the clumps of 
grass and flowers. A few boulders of medium size are to be seen on the 
summit and sides. The drift material consists of limestone, Sioux 
quartzite, granite, porphyry, all thrown together in any ratio and loosely 
cemented with iron and lime. Krosion apparently has accomplished 
little since the hill was left stranded on the plain by the retreating 
glaciers. 

This mound has long been noted as the " hill of mourning." Nicol- 
let explains this by the following : ' ' Otcheyedan — a name derived from 
a small hill, the literal meaning of which is ' the spot where they cry'; 
alluding to the custom of the Indians to repair to elevated situations to 
weep over their dead relatives." — Nicollet Report, p. 27. 

From the summit toward the west and south one may behold the 
magnificent view of the drift plain which stretches away for miles. This 
plain is nearly free from boulders and there are no trees save a few in 
small groves planted by the settlers. To the north, east, and northwest 
low hills with occasional lakes or marshes and the planted groves are to 
be seen. One marsh lies immediately at the base of the mound on the 
north side. 

It was the 19th day of June, 1904, when the writer visited the mound. 
The flora at this time of the year while somewhat mixed is prevailingly 
a prairie one. On the summit Stipa spartea Triu., which was growing in 
patches and was in fruit, and Aster sericeiisV&L\\.., in leaf, were common. 
Frequent species were Oxytropis la^ttberti Pursh, Rosa arkayisaiia Porter, 
and Koeleria cristata Pers. Psoralia esadenta Pursh was occasionally to 
be seen. Zygadenus elegans Pursh was scarce. Echinacea angtistifolia 
DC. was infrequent and only coming into leaf. 

The flora of the north side comprised as common species Amorpha 



222 THE PLANT WORLD 

canescens Nutt., which here grew in patches, Zygaden^is elegans Pursh, 
Lithosperrmun canescens Lehni., Pidsatilla hirsutissima (Pursh) Britton, 
which was past the fruiting stage, and Astragalus adsiirgens Pall, grow- 
ing in clumps which were two feet in diameter. Many clumps of the last 
were noted. The writer finds no record of Astragalus adsurgens Pall, hav- 
ing been previously collected in Iowa. The species ranges on the prairies 
of the States to the north and west and northwestward to British Colum- 
bia. The finding of the station on Ocheyedan mound makes an interest- 
ing extension of the known range of the species. The frequent species 
were Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill., Equisetum laevigatum A. Br., and 
Astragalus caryocarpus Ker. growing in large patches. Stipa spartea 
Trin., Psoralea esculenta Pursh, Panicjun leibergii Scribner, and Rosa 
arkansana Porter were infrequent. Only one specimen of Acerates 
viridi flora EH. and one of Oxytropis lamberti Pursh were picked up. 
Near the base of the hill were collected Brassica nigra (L-) Koch., 
Tradescantia virginica L., Phlox pilosa L-, and Zi2ia cordata DC. In an 
abandoned gravel pit it was found that many of the above-mentioned 
plants had crowded into the open space along with Lepidium virginicum. 
L., Hordeum jubatuni\i., Oenothera serrulata Nutt., and Salsola tragus Li. 

The flora of the south side comprised as common species Amorpha 
canescens Nutt. and Coreopsis palm ata Nutt. which had not as yet reached 
the flowering stage. The frequent species were Castilleja sessiliflora 
Pursh, Stipa spartea Trin., Panicmn leibergii Scribner, Oenothera serru- 
lata Nutt., which was frequent in spots, Aster sericeusYeni., Afitennaria, 
the prairie species, probably campestris Rydberg, and Sisyrinchium 
ajigustifolium Mill. The grass Koeleria cristata Pers. was infrequent, as 
well SiS Lithosperniu?n canescens Lehm., Equisetum laevigatum. h,. Br., and 
Echi7iacea angustifolia DC. Zygadenus elegans Pursh was conspicuous 
by its absence. 

At the southeast end of the hill there was found two large puff balls, 
six inches in diameter, large specimens of apparently Calvatia cyathi- 
formis (Bosc.) Morgan. The spores in one specimen were partly blown 
away, the cup-shaped persistent base constituting the bulk of the re- 
mains. 

The small part of the mound has its flora scattered throughout its 
extent, there apparently being no preference for position. Common 
species were Stipa spartea Trin., Aster sericeusY^ni., Amorpha canescens 
Nutt. , and Coreopsis palmata Nutt. The frequent species were Aster pate?is 
Ait. and Rosa arkansana Porter, while the infrequent ones were Lygodesmia 
juncea Don, Koeleria cristata Pers., Psoralea esculenta Pursh, and Litho- 
spermum canescens Lehm. 

At the foot of the main mound along by the marsh the following 
species were common : Psoralea argophylla Pursh, Vicia americana 



THE PLANT WORLD 223 

Muhl., Payiiaim leibergii Scribner, Anemone pennsylvanica L., and 

Lathyrtis venosus Muhl. The frequent species were Equisetum laevi- 

gaUun A. Br., Rosa arkansana Porter, RJms radicaus L., Equisetum 

arvense L., and Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt. The infrequent species 

were Onosmodijim carolinianiim (Lam.) DC, Zizia cordata DC, Phlox 

pilosa L-, Oxalis stricta L., Thalidnitn pnrpurascens L., Delphinium, 

azureum Michx., Scrophularia leporella Bicknell, and Brassica nigra (L.) 

Koch. There were no trees or shrubs about the marsh. 

In the marsh a grass, Phalaris arundinacea L., was very common and 

constituted the bulk of the flora, seemingly ninety per cent of it. Lysi- 

viachia thyrsiflora L. was frequent in the small open spaces while 

Utricularia vulgaris L. was common. Several species of sedges were 

also frequent. Lying on the surface of the water or on the muddy shore, 

stranded probably by the receding water, was a mixture of Riccia fluitans 

L. and R. natans L. 
Estherville, Iowa. 



We are in receipt of the announcement of the Handicraft Schools of 
Hartford, Conn., in which there appears a gratifying list of courses in 
botany, nature study, gardening and practical farming. 

The Rudbeckia known as" Golden Glow' ' is a very desirable and showy 
plant at this time. It may be planted as a single specimen on the lawn, 
or in a clump in the hardy border, where it produces a perfect mass of 
color at a time when flowering plants are at more or less of a premium. 
As it has a tendency to fall over when unsupported it is well to give them 
a rest made of a circle of stout wire supported on three legs, or as a sub- 
stitute, an old flour-barrel hoop with strips of lath for legs. This should be 
put over the plant early in the season and all the stems trained through it. 

In an article on the fetiches in the National Museum, published recently 
in The Washi?igto7i Post, occurs a description of the Chinese " Kou chi," 
better known as the vegetable lamb or Scythian lamb. It is the woolly root- 
stock of a fern (^Dicksotiia Barometz^; but the writer of this article makes 
the astounding statement that "it is composed principally of the plant 
known as rhizome, and springs from seed. ' ' Of course a rhizome is simply 
an underground stem, and no fern ever springs from seed ; but anything 
passes for science in the columns of the daily press. In view of the 
repeated published complaints about such rubbish, it is strange that repu- 
table newspapers do not make an effort to secure the same accuracy of 
fact here that they require in matters of history or in general news items. 



224 THE PLANT WORLD 

Briefer Articles. 



GEOTROPISM OF POLYPORUS. 

While wandering on Mount Sunapee, N. H., my attention was 
attracted by a prostrate log with several large bracket-fungi, Polyposis, 
upon it. Not being a student of the fungi, I do not know the species, 
but can only say that it was one of the familiar woody ones with the 
lower surface marked with small, dot-like pores. They form " brackets " 
upon trees, and are often collected by " summer boarders," who draw 
landscapes of doubtful beauty upon the white under-surface by means 
of a pin or pointed stick. 

These fungi are perennials and last for several years. The first season 
they are not more than two or three inches across. The next year a new 
spore-bearing layer grows over the one of the preceding season, but this 
time it is considerably larger. In succeeding years the process is repeated, 
so that the bracket grows downward and outward from the original point 
of attachment to the tree trunk. The growth of the spore-bearing layer 
is evidently " geotropic " ; that is, it is influenced by the earth's attrac- 
tion in the same way that roots grow downward. When viewed from 
above the only white that can be seen is a narrow rim around the edge 
of the bracket. The advantage of having the spore-bearing layer on the 
under-surface is obvious. If the tiny pores were directed upward the 
first rain or heavy dew would fill them with water, which would be very 
slow in evaporating. The chances are that the spores would suffer and 
perhaps decay. Besides this the pores would be sure to become filled 
with dust that would prevent the escape of the spores. 

This geotropism had never been brought to my attention until I saw 
the log mentioned above. When the tree was erect the fungi grew on it 
for several years, as could be seen by making a section of a bracket and 
counting the .spore-bearing layers. The fall of the tree did not kill the 
fungi, but it did put them in an awkward position on edge, instead of 
horizontal. The first season a new growth started on the face of the 
bracket, about opposite the point of attachment to the trunk of the tree, 
and true to its tendencies, it took a horizontal position, at right angles to 
the original growth. The next year, 1903, a new layer was formed in 
the usual way on the one preceding. In addition to these springing from 
the centers of several of the brackets, there were some smaller outgrowths 
from other parts of the original ones, thus giving a sort of terraced effect. 

More than once I have seen other woody fungi that had a spore- 
bearing layer upon what was at first the upper surface. In these cases 
the log or stick on which they grew had rolled over and inverted them. 

C. E. Waters. 



THE PLANT WORLD 225 

THE GUAPA, AN EGREGIOUS ECONOMIC. 

As ITS local name implies, the Porto Rican Guapa iDracontium 
asperum C. Koch) is a strikingly beautiful plant of unusual aspect. 

This most interesting aroid was reported long ago from Brazil, but 
it seems to have been lost sight of until it turned up recently as an eco- 
nomic in Porto Rico. And even here it is never cultivated by the natives, 
being left to fight its own battles with the tangled vegetation in the 
Dumb-cane (^DicffenbacJiia seguinc) thickets and cool mountain ravines. 

In the pedately multifid leaf and large conn a relationship with 
Amorphophallus is indicated, but the spathe is comparatively very small 
and the corm increases year by year without being exhausted by flower- 
ing. 

The leaf, which is usually single, frequentlj' stands 6 and even 8 feet 
high, with a circumference of some 15 or 20 feet around the ijedately 
decompound blade. The slender erect petiole is covered with granula- 
tions and minute spine-like bodies oi many colors which scintillate with 
a beautiful iridescence in the sunlight ; its internal structtu'e is coarse 
like that of the Banana. The blade is borne upon three nearly equi- 
distant ribs which join the petiole at a small angle ; its tissue is broken, 
or rather torn, into very irregular flutings and decussations, thus form- 
ing numerous holes as in Monster a deliciosa. 

The corm grows slowly, taking some five years to attain a diameter 
of six inches. A specimen over one foot in diameter has been photo- 
graphed. The crowded offsets are loosely attached to the convex upper 
surface around the base of the petiole ; these are flattened, obovate, more 
or less branched, and from one to two inches long. The under surface of 
the corm is flat or even quite sharpl^^ concave in old specimens, and since 
it bears no roots is smooth and lighter colored. 

Though not considered equal to the native " Yautias " iXanthosoma 
spp.), these corms, in times of scarcity of other roots, are searched out 
by the " jiberos " or country people. When fresh the starchy matter is 
of a yellowish color, firm and of fine texture without fibrous tissue ; 
when cooked the color becomes orange or reddish and in consistency and 
flavor resembles a rich Hubbard squash. 

Though probably 99 per cent of the new plants arise from offsets, 
the Guapa knows another way, more commendable, if less sure — .seeds. 

The reddish mauve spathe is borne on a short stalk of the same color, 
which arises from the center of the corm after the leaf has died down in 
the dry season. Flecks and dashes of olive, pink and black are scattered 
over the outside while the interior shades from purple in the upper por- 
tion to olive maroon below. The top of the spathe is slightly hooded so 
that the comparatively small oval opening appears at one side ; there is 



226 THK PI.ANT WORI^D 

no constriction, but the base of the commissure is extended into an auri- 
cular sinus body of greater or less prominence. 

The spadix is invisible through the opening in the spathe, and indeed 
it would seem that the spathe might just as well be hermetically sealed, 
for I doubt that any insect would enter it and remain long enough to 
effect cross-fertilization, on account of the odor which emanates there- 
from. 

This poisonous perfume is the great blotch on the character of a very 
interesting member of a wonderful family. Other Aroids possess fetid 
(like Helicodiceros) or nauseating (like Colocasia) odors, but the effluvium 
of the Guapa is positively dangerous, causing nausea and severe headache, 
which persists several hours. Not only does this odor seem to penetrate 
the whole respiratory system, but with a menthol-like persistency it can 
be actually/*?// in the nostrils long after inhaling it. 

Wherefore we leave the Guapa alone in its glory when it blooms. 

O. W. Barrett. 

Mayagiiez, Porto Rico. 

THE BASKET WILLOW. 

The culture and manufacture of basket willow have not attained in 
the United States the degree of perfection and profit that mark the in- 
dustry in Europe. This is for several reasons, the most important being 
the relative compensation of labor and the failure of the American grower 
to adopt the most improved methods. The growing, harvesting, care, 
and manufacture of willow require manual labor wholly unassisted by 
machinery. The cheap labor of Europe has grown willow and woven it 
into baskets at a profit impossible with us and our better-paid labor. 
American ingenuity has still further complicated the issue by producing 
a cheap split wood basket to take the place of the more expensive and 
durable willow. Thus an industry of good possibilities is languishing. 

The Bureau of Forestry has taken up the matter and given it careful 
study. Its expert has thoroughly investigated the methods of culture 
and manufacture both in this country and in England, Germany, and Hol- 
land. In addition the Bureau has established a willow plantation on the 
Department's experimental grounds near Washington, D. C, where the 
best species of basket willows were set out on different soils and spaced 
in accordance with different methods of planting. The results of this 
research will shortly be made known by the Bureau in a bulletin entitled 
"The Basket Willow." 

The growing of basket willows was introduced into the United States 
some sixty years ago by German basket makers, who settled in western 
New York and Pennsylvania. They first attempted to use wild willows, 
but soon abandoned these as impracticable and imported the purple or 



THE PI.ANT WORLD 227 

Welsh willow. They grew the rods and the manufacture into baskets 
was made profitable by whole families engaging in the weaving. Their 
product has always been a cheap variety of basket, since they use steam 
in peeling the rods, which gives them an undesirable dark color. When 
the industry was extended farther west and down to the Baltimore dis- 
trict, Maryland, hand -peeled rods were used and a much higher grade 
basket manufactured. But this country, in the extensive use of willow 
ware, has never approached Europe, where are found not only heavy farm 
baskets and receptacles made of unpeeled willow, but market, clothes, 
and fruit baskets of peeled willow, furniture, hampers, and trunks, and 
most artistically wrought split willow ware designed for countless other 
uses. Could all these be as cheaply manufactured here as there, their 
use by us would doubtless be as extensive as that across the sea. For 
willow ware is not only prettier than its substitutes, but what is still 
more important, lighter and more durable. 

Another use for willow in this country is found in the growing de- 
mand for willow furniture, which has become fashionable in the North, 
while in the warm climate of the South it is rapidly taking the place of 
upholstered furniture. Good wages can be paid in the manufacture of 
this kind of furniture. It is a profitable industry and steadily growing 
in importance, while willow basket making has barely held its own in 
the last decade. The demand for furniture material has been met to 
this time chiefly by importing French rods. But this can be changed if 
our own willow growers will adopt more scientific methods of culture and 
market their rods only after they are well seasoned — not soon after cut- 
ting, as is now customary. 

In the bulletin the Bureau will issue in a few days every aspect of 
willow culture and manufacture is exhaustively treated. The character 
of the ground to be used, preliminary cultivation, planting, weeding and 
cultivation, cutting, sorting, peeling, and packing, all are discussed 
thoroughly, and advice as to each branch of the work is clearly given. 
The virtues and defects of the different species of willows suited to 
basket manufacture are described. Inundation in the spring after harvest 
and before the new crop season opens is a new aid in protecting the holts 
from insects and in fertilizing the sets especially advised by the Bureau. 



Dr. C. E. Waters 's note on Pogonia verticillata in the November 
number of the Plant World and his statement in regard to the rarity 
of its flowering in the vicinity of Baltimore, reminds me that the past 
spring I found several dozens of those orchids in a wooded ravine near 
Washington and of the very many plants examined there were but four 
flowering specimens seen. Jos. A. Painter. 



228 THE PLANT WORI.D 



The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



The next issue of The Plant World will contain the official list of 
nominees for the forthcoming vacancies on the Board of Managers. There 
will be six vacancies, for which twelve names will be submitted by the 
Board. Under the terms of our Constitution any ten members in good 
standing may file an independent nomination with the Secretary at any 
time after the official list has been published. 

We would like to make a special feature in the next issue of the 
work done by our members in advancing the cause of plant protection. 
We therefore extend a cordial invitation to every member to send in a 
brief report of what he has attempted or accomplished in this line during 
the summer. Even if you have only talked with people about the sub- 
ject, send us a line saying so. A few individuals outside of our ranks 
have occasionally inquired what the Society was doing to justify its ex- 
istence. Let its own members answer the question. The official side of 
its activities will be found set forth in the forthcoming annual report. 

Mrs. Britton, our Secretary, has returned from the Bahamas, and 
may be addressed, as usual, at the New York Botanical Garden. The 
address of the Treasurer, Dr. C. E. Waters, is now Bureau of Standards, 
Washington, D. C. 



THE PLANT WORLD 229 

Editorial. 



The individual point of view is always interesting, and we take occa- 
sion this month to comment on two diametrically opposite expressions of 
opinion received from subscribers to this magazine. One correspondent 
briefly asks that his subscription be discontinued, adding that the maga- 
zine contains " too much Guam and too little Plant World." Oddly 
enough we received only a short time before this a long letter from another 
correspondent, who is enthusiastic about this self-same series of Guam 
articles, and who regards them as the most valuable contribution to the 
magazine. This view has been expressed by many other subscribers 
during the past two 3^ears. In fact, we do not hesitate to venture the 
assertion that Mr. SafFord'sextreraely graphic pictures of life on this lonely 
island possession of Uncle Sam's have afforded pleasure and information 
to nine out of ten of our readers. That they have not been confined to a 
mere cataloguing of the plants observed is the very feature that has 
inspired them with interest. It is not advisable to limit rigidly to any one 
topic a magazine intended, as this is, for the people. We print articles 
dealitig with plants in the broad sense. We do not aim to describe them 
or to give instruction in botany. That we leave to the text-books and to 
the " untechnical " magazines. The public will gain a thousandfold by 
reading articles of the type to which our correspondent objects ; and we 
advise those whose set of the Guam articles is incomplete to supply the 
deficiencies at an early date. After the series ends, in December of this 
year, it may be diflScult or even impossible to secure the missing numbers. 

Professor Hugo de Vries, director of the Botanic Garden at Am- 
sterdam, and widely known for his interesting and highly original re- 
searches upon the origin of species in plants, has been lecturing in various 
cities of the United States. At the request of Professor Lloyd, the editor 
of our teachers' department, he has kindly written, expressly for The 
Plant World, a short article explaining the methods of experimentation 
to be followed in studying the origin and relationship of species. The 
article will be found in the teachers' department of this issue. 

We greatly regret the unavoidable delay in publication this 
month. In view of our record for punctuality during the past two years 
we trust our subscribers will be lenient. The October number will appear 
at the usual time. 



230 THE PI.ANT WORI^D 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. Lloyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, A^etv York City. 

The month of September sees the teacher back at his work. After a 
season of refreshment and invigoration, the duty of taking the classes 
through the elementary course in botany is again upon him. A vital ques- 
tion for each to ask himself is, Shall it be the same course as I gave last 
year ? The outline which it is required to follow is perhaps the same ; 
the text-book, also. Even the materials which are provided may be 
according to contract and as nearly the same as those provided last year 
as business methods may make them. Does this mean that you are going 
to do the same things, say the same things, and give the last year's course 
over again ? 

I think we may believe that there are few American teachers who 
would answer this question in the affirmative. It would be un-American 
in essence. And yet we know well that we find ourselves in the danger 
of falling into habits and ruts, when we would do otherwise. It is there- 
fore well for us to take time to think about our own salvation. What 
can we do to improve our teaching and our own intellectual life ? For- 
tunately here are two birds which may be killed with one stone. 

Remember, in the first place, that the text-book is behind the times. 
Every month brings its harvest of new knowledge about plants. It is 
part of the teacher's privilege to share this. Look out for that part of it 
which will fit into your course to its enrichment. Let your pupils know 
about the new things. They will soon see that botany is a live subject 
and that you are a live teacher. The Plant World will help you to 
do this. Perhaps you can lead your pupils to form a biological club, for 
the purpose of taking excursions and doing some voluntary reading. Let 
the club subscribe for a few periodicals which will help to give them a 
broader outlook ; it will cost but a few cents from each member. If it is 
a large club, it may have sections devoted to different interests, as, for 
example, a bird section or a tree section. 

Be the leading student in your classes. Learn ; work on the materials 
yourself ; do experiments, especially if you have no apparatus ! Develop 
your power to get results independently of conditions. Test every method 
outlined in the text-book, and do not be satisfied until you feel sure that 
you can not improve on it. You can not fail, in doing this, to develop 
your critical ability. 

Pursue a field of study. Make it your hobby to work at some problem. 
If you have your heart in it, you can do some good work. It may be 
small in amount, and it may take some time. If you feel the need of 



THE PI. ANT WORI.D 231 

direction, you may feel warranted in addressing any botanist and asking 
for help. I do not wish to be understood as saying that original research 
can easily be done by any one. What I do assert, however, is this. An 
intelligent teacher, who can teach, ought to be capable of giving himself 
training by prosecuting a thorough study of a particular subject. Every 
careful bit of work done will lead him to and prepare him for the next. 
Power increases with accomplishment. Small successes stimulate to 
greater ones. Even if time and strength are too limited to allow deep 
penetration into a problem, individual initiative and power may be de- 
veloped, and these qualities make the teacher to experience that mental 
elasticity which is a prime factor in the successful teacher. 



The question of the origin of species has during the post-Darwinian 
period of discussion become clouded. The real basis of scientific thought 
has been partially lost sight of, namely, experimental observation upon 
the living organism. Very little new light comes by the way of academic 
discussion and analysis. If we are to gain more knowledge of organic 
nature we must find out by inductive methods what is actually going on. 
Part of the great value of the work of Professor de Vries lies in this 
that it has again sounded loudly the principle that the ' ' test of doctrine ' ' 
is experiment. Professor de Vries has made a beginning full of promise ; 
that he has set a pace hard to follow need not be said. Nevertheless, 
there are many who, with a word of guidance and suggestion, may be 
well able to play a small, perhaps, but yet worthy part in the solution of 
the problems of plant evolution. It is with great pleasure, therefore, that 
we print the following lines written by Professor de Vries for The 
Plant World to the teachers of this country, 

THE METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION UPON THE ORIGIN 

OF SPECIES. 

BY HUGO DE VRIES. 

Tlie origin of species has to become an object of experimeutal investigatiou. In 
the first place the polymorphy of our ordinary wild plants has to be studied, and the 
single types, which are met with in field observations, have to be tested by sowing ex- 
periments during two or more generations in the garden. If the flowers are protected 
against the visits of insects, which may be done by enveloping the inflorescences or 
the single flowers in paper bags, bound with a thread around the stem below the flower ; 
and if the seeds are gathered and sown separately for each single individual — which is 
the great principle — the progeny will prove uniform and constant in most of the in- 
stances. It is, however, necessary to ascertain the fact in each single case, and to 
discover all those cases which behave otherwise, and which may become the starting 
points for long series of new discoveries. Such work does not require vast laboratories 
or rich installations, and I desire especially to emphasize that all friends of nature are 
earnestly requested to take part in the work. Hundreds of species have to be tried, in 
order to prove the general rule and to find out the exceptions. Assiduity and correct- 



232 THE PLANT WORLD 

uess are the two great qualities required for such work ; but on the other hand, the 
work itself will stimulate and invigorate these qualities. Experimental work on 
heredity should now be done, in some line or other, by any one who takes interest in 
the great questions which in botany and zoology are at the present so universally atul 
so vividly discussed. 



SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN THE MUCORACEAE. 

Mucor is such a well-known plant, and is so constantly used in ele- 
mentary text books, but has withal proved so refractory in the matter of 
producing zygospores on time in business-like fashion, that we welcome 
the report of the studies of Blakeslee,* in which are embodied results that 
will be of interest to every teacher of elementary botany. 

It appears that there are among the Mzicoraceae two physiological 
types distinguishable by their behavior in the production of zygospores. 
Certain forms, of which Sporodinia, very common on toadstools of various 
kinds, stands as an easily obtainable example, produce zygospores if 
grown from the non-sexual spores, or mycelium of a single individual 
{,homothallic) , comprising the majority of the species. On the other hand 
there are other forms, of which Rhizopus and Mucor are examples, which 
refuse to do so under these conditions. It further appears, however, that 
the individuals of the latter class fall into two races or strains denominated 
by the author the (-h) strain and ( — ) strain ; and when the mycelia of 
two individuals, one of which is of the ( + ) strain and one of the ( — ) 
strain, come into contact, zygospores are produced Oieterothallic) ; while 
if the mycelia of two plants of the ( + ) strain and of two plants of the ( — ) 
strain come into contact, no zygospores are produced. These two strains 
differ therefore physiologically, and this may further be evidenced in other 
ways. Thus one strain called the ( — ) generally displays less vegetative 
activity, as shown by the production of smaller non-sexual spores or 
sporangia, or by less luxuriant, slower mycelial growth, or it may suffer 
the rapid loss of the power to produce the sexual elements, which is re- 
tained indefinitely by the other (called the +) strain. These differences 
are regarded as indicating corresponding sexual differences, a view which 
is borne out by the fact that, if two plants of different species or even 
genera, and of different strains come into contact, attempts at zygosporic 
reproduction are made, while if the plants are of the same strain, i. e. , both 
( + ) or both ( — ), no such attempt will be made. If this interpretation 
prove correct, then the homothallic forms are bisexual or hermaphrodite 
and the heterothallic forms are dioecious, a conclusion further justified 
by the behavior of a homothallic type toward the ( + ) and ( — ) hetero- 
thallic strains. Thus, if a homothallic mucor be grown between the ( + ) 

* Blakeslee, A. F.," Sexual Reproductiou iu the Mucoiaceae," Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., 
40: No. 4, 1904. 



THK PLANT WORI^D 233 

and ( — ) strains of a heterothallic kind, the homothallic kind will attempt 
zygosporic reproduction with both ( + ) and ( — ) strain plants, from which 
the bisexual nature of the homothallic form is inferred. 

The general fact of the existence of two strains is beautifully demon- 
strated by Blakeslee by planting, on the surface of an agriculture medium, 
spores from previously determined strains in such a manner that, if the 
view be correct, the contiguous lines of the different mycelia will form a 
geometrical figure, the lines of which will be studded with zygospores or not 
according to the strains in juxtaposition. The paper is accompanied by 
photographs, showing such geometrical figures of surprising regularity. 

The conclusion of this matter, in a word, is the majority of the 
Mucoraceae are sexually differentiated, but that the difference is one not 
evident structurally but physiologically. The minority, on the other 
hand, are hermaphrodite. 

A few points remain to be mentioned. Blakeslee shows that certain 
races exist among the heterothallic forms which do not respond to (+) 
and ( — ) strains, which are known to occur in the .same species. It is 
also known that in Mucor vuicedo, the power of conjugation may be lost 
by cultivation under unfavorable conditions. Thus, there may arise a 
" neutral " strain. 

In regard to the process of conjugation it is pointed out that the 
descriptions usually given in the text books are incorrect in representing 
i^is. pro gametes (the gametes of descriptions) as arising on neighboring 
hyphae, and as approaching and finally uniting. The truth is that the 
progametes arise when hyphae, capable of forming them, touch each 
other; and they always remain in contact, but, by their growth, force 
the hyphae apart. 

Differences in the size and form of the conjugating tubes or progametes 
are inconstant, and are not correlated wilh the sexual differences, which 
are purely physiological. 



COVER YOUR INDOOR PLANTS WITH GLASS. 

Many teachers and others who have tried to cultivate plants in the 
school-room have suffered disappointment from time to time from the 
failure of the plants to cope with the very dry atmosphere of indoors, 
especially when steam heat is used. The dryness of this atmosphere is 
much greater than that of a desert, and so failure is to be expected, especi- 
ally in the case of delicate things such as many ferns. The writer when 
a child built, with his father's help, a window conservatory a yard square, 
in which a rock-work was arranged with a miniature waterfall and pond, 
so as to get a landscape effect. In the water pollywogs, small fish and 



234 THE PLANT WORLD 

salamanders had a natural existence. The delight of watching the growth 
of the delicate and rapidly-growing forms of ferns was to be compared in 
value only to the really great gain of knowledge which has stood me in 
good stead all through life to the present time. The same results may be 
obtained by enclosing the plants grown in window-boxes in a glass frame, 
and the method of constructing such a frame is well described by W. P. 
Hay. * By adopting some such device, which may be constructed at small 
cost, the growing — if so it can be called — of the usual dusty , dried-up starve- 
lings of the average school-room could well be avoided. I have seen 
the method used in some schools in Chicago where they had liverworts, 
mosses, ferns, etc.. growing well and in abundance. It is quite possible 
for children to become acquainted with the commoner forms of all kinds 
of plant life by the use of glass in the form of miniature conservatories 
and aquaria. 



BOG WATER. 

It is well known that the plants which grow in peat bogs possess 
anatomical characters similar to those of plants which grow in situations 
exposed to dryness. This is explained by saying that peat bog waters 
are physiologically dry ; that is, their composition or physical condition 
is such that the plants whose roots are exposed to them have difficulty in 
absorbing the water necessary to their physiological demands. It has 
been believed that this is due to the large amount of substances in solu- 
tion, which produces an unfavorable physical condition, by raising the 
osmotic pressure. 

Livingston has, however, shown, as a result of the examination of bog 
waters from various localities, that this explanation can not be regarded as 
tenable. His general conclusion is that ' ' bog waters do not have an appre- 
ciably higher concentration of dissolved substances than do the streams 
and lakes of the same region, ' ' from which we must infer that if the char- 
acters of bog vegetation depend upon the water, they must be due to the 
chemical nature of the very small amounts of dissolved substances 
present." 

Kearney t has shown that the soil-water of sea beaches and dunes 
contains, contrary to the generally accepted notion, but a very small per- 
centage of salts in solution. Samples were taken from various points on 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. 

*" A Miniature Conservatory in a City Home," Country Life in America, 5: 249, January, 1904 ; 
illustrated. See also Waters, C. E., "An Indoor Fernery," Plant World, 6: 87, April, 1903. 

t Kearney, T. H., " Are Plants of Sea Beaches and Dunes True Halophytes," Bot. Gaz., 37 : 4*4> 
June, 1904. 



THE PLANT WORLD 235 

Without presenting the details, the extremes of percentages at various 
depths (3-9 dm) and positions (from dune marsh to the seaward limit of 
vegetation) are 0.03% (in one instance) to 0.003% on the Atlantic, and 
0.15% — 0.06% on the Pacific coast. Ordinary cultivated soils of the 
Eastern United States contain soluble matters in percentages varying 
between 0.02 — 0.2. The author concludes that the character of sea beach 
and dune vegetation is xerophytic rather than halophytic, and it is to 
be compared directly to the corresponding vegetation of the beaches and 
dunes in inland and lake regions. 

Teachers will read with much profit an excellent essay by Mark 
Sullivan, on "The Personality of President Eliot," in The Outlook for 
August 6, 1904. The advance of scientific education in America is 
attributable in no small degree to the influence of this broad-minded 
scholar. To study his life and work is necessary to the proper culture 
and education of the teacher of to-day. 

Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, in the September Ladies' Home Journal, 
addresses to teachers some pertinent and valuable thoughts and suggestions. 



Book Reviews. 



Carter's Nature Study with Common Things. By M. H. Carter, 
Department of Elementary Science, New York Training School for 
Teachers. Cloth, square 12mo., 150 pages, with illustrations. Price, 
60 cents. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago : American Book 
Company. 

The object of this book is to teach young pupils how to observe nature, 
to learn to answer the question ' ' What is it ? " as a preparation for the 
future question, "Why is it?" The subjects of the lessons are fruits 
and vegetables which can be readily and economically obtained for study. 
The lessons are so arranged and of such length that they can be handled 
each in a single recitation, even in classes where the teacher has had no 
special training in science. They are planned to set forth what the child 
can learn for himself in one hour about the subject of the day's study. 
Each illustration tells a story, and is a model of arrangement and descrip- 
tion, to be followed by the pupils, who are, however, to make their own 
drawings direct from the object itself. These lessons have been tested 



2 36 THE PLANT WORLD 

in the school-room and will solve successfully the problem of an adequate 
elementary laboratory training for the lower grades. f. h. k. 

The Classification of Flowering Plants. — ^y Alfred Barton Rendle. 
Vol 1., Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons. Cambridge University 
Press. London: C. J. Clay & Sons; New York: The MacMillan 
Company, 1904. 

Previous reviewers of this work have borne testimony to its accuracy 
of description, its scholarly treatment, and especially to the general ex- 
cellence of the historical sketch with which it is introduced. We consider 
the most valuable feature of the book to be that it presents a detailed 
classification of the seed plants from the phylogenetic standpoint, and it 
is refreshing to find that the terminology no longer savors of the antique. 
Analogies and homologies are carefully drawn, and the highly specialized 
reproductive organs of the sporophyte are no longer treated as if they 
were objects of special creation. To be sure, as one reviewer has pointed 
out, there is still a tendency to refer to stamens as " male " and pistils as 
" female " organs, but this is a concession to popular understanding and 
does not reflect upon Mr. Rendle's scholarship. 

In the matter of classification, the book follows the prevailing tone of 
British conservatism in the matter of family and ordinal lines, though the 
sequence and nomenclature is in the main that of Engler. We fail to see 
why the various categories are not made consistent in their termination, 
the advantages of the termination -aceae for families and -ales for orders 
being so apparent as scarcely to require demonstration. 

The excellent text figures with which the book is illustrated will 
enhance its value to students. We know of no other single reference 
book in the Englinh language containing complete descriptions of all the 
families of seed plants with the exception of the series published in this 
magazine a few years ago, which were written for popular rather than 
professional use. For this reason the concluding portion of Mr. Rendle's 
valuable contribution to the literature of our science will be awaited with 
eager interest. ;• R. T. 



The Plant World. 



VOL. VII, Plate XIV. 




The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 

Vol. VII OCTOBER, 1904 No. 10 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam — XXIII.* 

By Wii.i,iam E. Safford. 

Thursday, February 22. — The Albatross has arrived with Alexander 
Agassiz and his party on board. They have been cruising among the 
coral islands of the Pacific for the purpose of studying the formation of 
coral reefs and atolls, and the geology of the Pacific Islands generally. 
For several months I have been saving newspapers and magazines for the 
officers attached to her. The expedition left San Francisco the latter 
part of last August, visiting the Marquesas, the Paumutus, Tahiti, Tonga- 
tabu, the Cook group. Nine Island, Vavau, Fiji, the Ellice and Gilbert 
groups, Jaluit (Marshall group), and the Eastern Carolines, including 
Kusaie, Ponapi, and Truk. From the Carolines they came to Guam. 
Throughout the entire cruise they have taken soundings together with the 
temperatures of the bottom and surface of the ocean and specimens of the 
bottom. They did not visit Samoa. 

Mr. Agassiz visited Agana to-day. I spent the entire morning with 
him, giving him what information I could regarding this island ; telling 
him of its flora and fauna, of the ancient and modern inhabitants, the 
language, customs, and arts of the natives, and the antiquities to be 
found. Mr. Agassiz asked me a number of questions about the physical 
geography of the island. I described as well as I could the features of 
the various parts I had visited, the mesa, or elevated coral platform of 

* Continued from the September issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



238 THE PLANT WORI.D 

the northern half of the island with the volcanic outcrop of Santa Rosa, 
the cliflFs bounding the west coast of the northern half, the terraces one 
encounters on the road from Agaiia to Yigo, and the occurrence in various 
places of funnel-shaped sinks Uupog) in the coralliferous limestone. I 
then described the volcanic mountains of the southern part of the island 
across which General Wheeler and I passed the other day, the smooth, 
slippery, naked surface of the red earth contrasting with that of the 
verdure-clad northern region, and the deeply cut river valleys. I also 
spoke of the disappearance of certain streams on the island, of the cavern 
in the Talofofo valley from which the river issues, and Matan-hanom, the 
lake which is the source of the Agaiia River ; and I described the broad 
coral flats and barrier reefs along the west coast of the island, with their 
level floor of fine coral sand. 

Mr. Agassiz said that Guam is perhaps the most interesting island 
which the Albatross has visited, combining as it does elevated coral- 
liferous limestone platforms and volcanic outcrops, together with coral 
reefs in process of formation. The general features of the island recall 
those of Nine, Eua, and Makatea. With the exception of Viti Levu and 
Vanua lycvu, of the Fiji group, Guam is the largest island encountered 
on the cruise. I had heard that it was Mr. Agassiz 's object in making 
this cruise to gather evidence to disprove Darwin's theory of the forma- 
tion of atolls and coral reefs ; but after hearing him tell of his observa- 
tions I felt convinced that he was only seeking the truth irrespective of 
any theory. He spoke with great respect of Semper's work in investi- 
gating the coral formations of the Pelew group, but he does not agree 
with Darwin and Dana in their theory, that subsidence has been the 
great factor in the formation and growth of coral reefs in general. Too little 
importance, he thinks, has been attached to the forces causing the denuding 
of elevated coral islands and to the part played by submarine erosion. Mr. 
Agassiz thinks that many atolls were originally raised platforms of coral, 
and that they have been cut down gradually, sinks having been formed in 
them like those on this island, surrounded at first by high rims and after- 
wards cut into islets, with passes between them leading from the ocean into 
the enclosed sound. He thinks that barrier reefs have also been formed in 
very much the same way. On leaving he said that he would send his 
assistant. Dr. Mayer, to call upon me. The Governor invited him to 
stay at the palace to-night, but he declined, saying it had been his rule 
to sleep on board the ship during the entire cruise. 

In Mr. Agassiz's preliminary report on the scientific results of the 
expedition he describes the northern half of Guam as an irregular mesa 
of limestone "cut by deep crevasses, full of pot holes and sinks." In 
reality the mesa is so regular that a cart may be driven over it, and much 
of the coral comprising it is little modified. 



THE PLANT WORLD 239 

Received a visit from Ensigns Miller and Kempff and Dr. Moore of 
the Albatross and Mr. A. B. Alexander, Fishery Expert. I am sorry to 
hear that Mr. Charles H. Townsend is no longer with the expedition. 
He collected birds at the various points visited by the Albatross. Mr. 
Kempff and Dr. Moore assisted in collecting land-shells and other inverte- 
brates, and Mr. Alexander made a special study of the canoes and 
methods of fishing employed by the Pacific islanders. The results of Mr. 
Alexander's observations will be published by the Fish Commission.* 

I was reminded by Susana to-night that this was Washington's birth- 
day. She said that Father Palomo had preached a sermon after mass this 
morning, telling of the noble patriot and good man Don Jorge Washing- 
ton, who did so much for the Americanos. I understand now why 
Father Palomo asked me the other day to lend him some book telling of 
Washington's career and the services he had rendered his country. It 
looks as though these good people are going to be patriotic Americans. 
They celebrated last Thanksgiving day with great enthusiasm, marching 
in processions with flags flying; and they already look forward to the 
Fourth of July. Mrs. Rumberg, the wife of an American settler on this 
island, whom we recently appointed school teacher, has already taught the 
children the "Star-spangled Banner." They sing it with great vigor, 
but I fear they have only a vague idea of the meaning of the words. 

Friday, February 23. — I have spent nearly the entire day with Mr. 
Alfred Goldsborough Mayer, one of the scientific staff of the Agassiz 
expedition. This morning we went to the top of the hill behind Agana, 
from which we had a delightful view of Agana with its thatched and tile- 
roofed houses, the fringe of coconuts along the beach and the milky 
white streak marking the barrier reef, with the opening into the little 
harbor opposite this town. To the northward we could see the elevated 
mesa, almost a plane surface inclined a little from east toward the west 
coast, with the heights of Santa Rosa and Mataguak in the extreme north 
and the swelling lower elevation of Tiyan ( ' ' the Belly ' ' ) almost in line 
with them, but much nearer, densely covered with forest growth. Along 
the coast we could see the point of Amantes, not so high as I had thought, 
and, showing faintly a little outside of it, the point of Nigo near the ex- 
treme northern end of the island. (See Plate XIV.) 

We then took the road leading across the island toward Pago, and 
turning to the right, after following it a short distance, we visited the 
locality called Fonte, and proceeded to climb Makahna (the " Bewitched 
Mountain"). As we began to ascend its slope Dr. Mayer called my 
attention to the fact that the coralliferous limestone was tilted instead of 
lying in a horizontal bed as it does on the mesa. After a while we came 

*See Alexander, A. B., '• Notes on the Boats, Apparatus, and Fishing Methods Employed by the 
Natives of the South Sea Islands." U. S. Fish Commission Report for 1901, pp. 741-829. 



240 THE PLANT WORLD 

to the line separating the limestone from the volcanic rocks. Here the 
limestone was metamorphic and there were no vestiges in it of fossils, 
and in several places Dr. Maj^er broke off masses of crystalline calcite. 
He said that the calcination of the limestone showed it to have been 
heated since its elevation. It was not a question of the elevation of a 
mass of coral which had formed about a submarine volcanic peak, but of 
a volcanic eruption after the mass had been elevated. There was no 
evidence of recent volcanic action, and unlike Mount Santa Rosa, no 
vestige of a crater. On the slope of the mountain I collected some ferns 
(Gleichenia, Lindsaya, and Pteris) and a tiny yellow-flowered Hypoxis. 
In going through a patch of sword-grass {.Miscanthus Jioriduliis) I cut 
my hand in spite of precautions. With a lens I could see that the 
margin of the leaf of this grass is armed with minute sharp transparent 
teeth inclined toward the apex. 

Makahna is less than 1,000 feet high. At its summit we saw the 
remains of a signal station. We had a magnificent view. The city of 
Agaiia was concealed beneath the edge of the cliffs, but a great part of the 
island appeared to us as though spread out on a map. Dr. Mayer pointed 
out to me the effects of denudation on the slopes of the volcanic peaks to 
the southward. Although the products about us were plainly volcanic, 
it appears that much of the red soil elsewhere which I had regarded as vol- 
canic in origin is simply disintegrated limestone colored by iron oxide. 
Where this has been washed down into valleys and become mixed with 
organic matter it forms a stiff, black, adobe-like soil. 

During our excursion Dr. Mayer's assistant, a sailor from the Alba- 
tross, had been busy collecting insects, blue-tailed, bronze-striped lizards, 
land-shells, and other things. He seemed to enjoy his work thoroughly. 
The butterflies were of small size as a rule. Some of the dragon flies 
were bright scarlet. Dr. Mayer told me of some interesting work in which 
he had been engaged — investigating the sense organs of lepidoptera. He 
has also studied the phenomena of color in the wings of moths and 
butterflies ; not only the origin and nature and development of the color 
itself in the individual, from its larval to the full-grown stage, but also the 
laws of variation in allied species and varieties, and the phenomena of 
mimicry in those forms which imitate the colors and color-patterns of 
others of distinct species. His observations prove, among other things, 
that the scales of lepidoptera do not strengthen the wings or aid the 
insects in flight, but are for the most part merely color-bearing organs 
developed under the influence of natural selection.* During the present 
cruise he has been interested in the study of jelly-fish and other marine 



*Dr. Maj'er is now Curator of the Museum of the Brooklyn Instilutue of Arts and Sciences. For 
his observations " On the Color and Color-patterns of Moths and Butterflies," see Bull. Mus. Compara- 
tive Zoology at Harvard College, No. 30, p. 169 ; 1897. 



THE PLANT WORIvD 241 

invertebrates and in land molluscs, as well as in the general problems of 
the growth of coral reefs. His observations led him to the discovery that 
pelagic animals are much more abundant in regions of great ocean cur- 
rents and near the coasts of large islands and continents than far from 
land, and that animals which swim at the surface at night sink deep 
below the surface in the daytime. 

Dr. Mayer told me that distinct terraces could be seen from the sea- 
ward in the cliffs bordering the east coast of the northern portion of the 
island and that there were caverns at a considerable elevation above the 
level of the sea which must have been worn by the waves before the 
upheaval of the island to its present height. I had heard of several of 
these " liyang,'' which the natives say are frequented by bats, but I have 
not yet visited them. One thing which makes me hesitate to place implicit 
confidence in the theory of submarine erosion is the fact that there are 
comparatively few reefs on the east or windward side of the island, which 
is most subjected to the action of the waves and currents ; while on the 
west, or lee side, occur broad coral flats as level as a floor, bounded by 
a barrier reef and covered by very shallow water. The elevation of 
the island a few feet would convert these flats into a new terrace, and in 
a few years it would become covered with vegetation and resemble the 
terraces already existing on the island. Mr. Agassiz believes that many 
of the interior lagoons or sounds have been eroded by submarine action 
from solid coral. Here in Guam we have an ancient lagoon which has 
become a marsh (/a Cienaga) almost choked up by reeds and other veg- 
etation and enclosing a number of islets on which coconuts are growing. 
Instead of being deepened by erosion, this lagoon is gradually becoming 
filled up. In excavating ditches for draining in the cienaga my men 
recently came upon coral a few feet below the general surface of the 
marsh. Moreover, the depths of such harbors as that of Apia, in Samoa, 
and of San I^uis de Apra, in Guam, are so great and the coral growth 
seems to be so constantly encroaching upon them that I cannot believe 
they were excavated by erosion. It seems quite possible, however, that 
there are coral atolls which have been formed by the dissolving of 
limestone or dead coral in the center while the live coral of the periphery 
continues to grow. It is interesting to note the occurrence of marine 
molluscs and of fishes in lagoons entirely enclosed by a rim of coral. I 
have already recorded the bubbling forth of fresh-water springs i^bobo) near 
the line of high water and even from below the surface of the sea near the 
coast of this island, in the vicinity of Tutuhon. These are probably the 
outlets of subterranean drains from sinks ilupog) in the interior of the 
island. 

When we reached home we found that Susana's nephews had been 
collecting specimens of our fresh- water fishes for Mr. Agassiz. I think 



242 THE PLANT WORLD 

we have only three species, an eel Oiasule), a. species of Kuhlia (/>?^/a«), 
and an ugly species of Eliotris, several of which are swimming about in 
my well. 

Dr. Mayer seemed to enjoy his day. We had some talk about the 
economic conditions on the island. I was pleased with his attitude 
toward the natives. He congratulated me on being engaged in work 
which I find so much to my taste, and said that it was a pleasure to meet 
a man so contented with his lot. He left me with a cordial invitation to 
visit him at Cambridge, and on his return to the Albatross sent me an outfit 
of C5''anide bottles, screw-topped jars, and other things for use in collecting. 
The cruise of the Albatross is now finished. She leaves here to-morrow for 
Japan, where the party will take passage in a steamer for San Francisco.* 

Monday, March 12. — Several cases have recently come before me in 
which merchants have complained of the failure of natives to fulfill con- 
tracts to supply them with copra (dried coconut meat). The Governor 
was filled with indignation when I told him of the system by which the 
crops of the natives are engaged and paid for beforehand, the natives 
being encouraged by the traders to go into debt as deeply as possible. 
As a consequence of an interview with him yesterday I have issued the 
following circular : 

" Government House, Agana, Guam, 

' ' March 12, 1900. 

To the Merchants of Guam : 

" GentIvEmen, The Governor has directed me to inform you that he 
is now preparing an order in which he forbids the making of copra or 
other products of the soil the currency of this island. Goods sold must 
be paid for in money. 

" 2 . The practice of permitting people to make debts by furnishing 
them with merchandise to be paid for at some future time in copra not 
yet harvested at the time of making the debt is forbidden. 

" 3. Every encouragement is to be given to industry and thrift, and 
one of the means to this end will be that the people be paid for their 
products in money, so that it may be possible for them to practice economy 
and they will not be obliged to spend immediately the value of the crops 
reaped by them, and will not be kept in debt. The encouragement of 
indebtedness is of the same nature as the pernicious system of peonage, 
in consequence of which persons on this island have been kept for decades 
under the power of their creditor, being obliged to furnish him with the 
products of their soil or with the labor of their hands. This is absolutely 
contrary to the principles of personal liberty which every subject of the 
United States has the right to enjoy." 

* Reports of some of the results of the Agassiz Expedition to the Tropical Pacific have been pub- 
lished in the Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. See Vol. XXVI, 
p. 117, " Some Species of Partula from Tahiti — A Study in Variation," by Alfred Goldsborough Mayer ; 
and p. 139, " Medusae," by Agassiz and Mayer. See also Vol. XXVIII, "The Coral Reefs of the Tropical 
Pacific," by Alexander Agassiz. Cambridge : 1903. 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 243 

Tuesday, March 13. — The question of taxation is one of great interest. 
When the island was seized by the Americans the officer who came ashore 
to take possession of it in the name of the Government is reported to have 
said to the natives : ' ' Now you are free American citizens ! No more 
taxes ! " I have heard this story several times from natives, who with 
a shake of the head and a smile would say : "Seiior, we now pay more 
taxes than ever before ; we are taxed for the guns we carry, the fields we 
cultivate, the houses we live in, and even for our dogs. Besides this, we 
have to work on the roads or pay the equivalent in taxes." I explained 
to them as well as I can that the money we receive for taxes does not 
leave the island, but is expended in salaries for teachers, native officials, 
and the expenses of the island government ; that roads and bridges must 
be kept up for the convenience of the natives themselves ; that dogs are 
taxed to prevent their becoming a nuisance ; and that guns are taxed to 
keep an account of the individuals who own weapons. I^ieutenant Craven , 
of the Yosemite, has been interested in the theory of " single tax," and 
has lent me some of Henry George's works. I like George's attitude 
toward mankind in general ; his sympathy with the workman, — the 
producer, — his hatred of selfish monopolies, and his protest against the 
condition of serfdom, or vassalage, in which poor people are born in 
many parts of the world. I feel great satisfaction when I think of the 
abolition of peonage on this island, which appears to be common in all 
Spanish countries, a system by which people sold themselves or their 
children, incurring debts and making contracts in which they accepted 
money in advance and were allowed $1.50 per month silver (75 cents 
in our money) for their labor in cancelling their indebtedness, the victim 
being encouraged to increase his indebtedness by continuing to receive 
goods on credit for himself, his parents, his grandparents, uncles, aunts, 
or cousins. When such a person left the employ of his master he was 
said to have " escaped " as though he were a slave. 
The Governor this day issued the following : 

"Government House, Agana, Guam, 

" March 13, 1900. 
General Order No. 15. 

" 1 . All owners of land or claimants of land are hereby warned that in 
order that their ownership be recognized they must acquire legal titles to 
the said land and have it registered according to law in the ofl&ce of the 
Registrar of I^ands in Agaiia before May 15, 1900. 

"2. All owners of lands are hereby ordered to send to the Registrar of 
lyands without delay a statement as to the extent and nature of their land, 
so that they may be assessed accordingly for the tax which becomes due 
June 30, 1900. After that date no titles will be recognized as valid unless 
the claimant of land wishing to prove ownership presents tax receipts for 
the land in question. 



244 THE PLANT WORLD 

3. All those wishing to pay the taxes for the current half-year, begin- 
ning January 1 and ending June 30, 1900, may do so before the 1st of 
July if they please ; but any mistake in specifying the nature of the land 
or its extent will be subject to correction when discovered." 

Americans are protesting against the levying of duties upon articles 
brought here from the United States. If discrimination were made in 
favor of American merchants all others on the island would fail, and the 
American company here would have the monopoly ; so that the govern- 
ment would have no income whatever from the custom house. It is upon 
our receipts from that source that we expect to pay our school teachers, 
and if we can not count upon them I do not see how the island govern- 
ment can be self-supporting. The American officials pay no direct taxes, 
and goods admitted for the Naval Station are free. 

Saturday, April 7 . — The Yosemite is about to go to Japan to be docked, 
taking as passengers a number of sick from the hospital, who have been 
ordered home. We have been having about fifty on the sick-list, a 
large number for so small a command. Dr. Grunwell, who has been 
doing fine work among the natives, is much run down and is going 
to Japan to recuperate. 

The end of the dry season is approaching and the natives are prepar- 
ing their fields for planting corn on the mesa and the higher parts of the 
island. The soil in these places is not deep enough to permit ploughing. 
Near one of my ranches I have been watching the progress of a tobacco 
plantation. First the seed was sown and shaded under a canopy of coco- 
nut leaves. Then the seedlings were transplanted into a sort of nursery 
and shaded. Then they were set out in regular rows in the field, each 
one shaded by half of a coconut husk. They did pretty well in spite of 
the dryness of the season. Day after day the women and children carried 
water for more than a mile to water them, keeping down the weeds 
between the rows, and examining the plants for tobacco ' ' worms. ' ' The 
plantation flourished until an epidemic like cholerine made its appearance 
on the island and almost every native became ill. No deaths resulted, 
but the poor people were too sick to work, and the tobacco was eaten up 
almost entirely by the "worms " (sphinx-moth larvae). The rice crop 
has also proved a failure this year. I admired the energy of the natives, 
who prepared the fields with great patience, forming the irrigating ditches 
and setting out the young plants one by one. I expected a good crop of 
rice, when suddenly the rice fields turned yellow and the plants seemed 
to sicken. I do not know why. The crop did not pay for the labor 
expended upon it. Nothing pays on this island so surely as coconuts ; 
and even these may be destroyed by hurricanes. It is impossible to culti- 
vate coffee, sugar, or cacao on a great scale, owing to the lack of labor. 
Each family produces only enough for its own use. There is more than 



THK PLANT WORLD 245 

enough land for the natives but not sufficient for the cultivation of coffee, 
cacao, sugar, tobacco, or rice for export. The natives will not readily 
part with their land. They take great pride in their ownership of 
farms. All, or nearly all, are planting coconuts, copra being the only 
article of export from this island. The natives say it is as good as money, 
as every ounce of it can be sold. It would be a great benefit if some 
method of drying it could be introduced, in which the meat of the coco- 
nut would retain its whiteness and not become rancid. Its market value 
would surely increase. There is no reason why good edible oil should 
not be extracted from it, taking the place of lard or butter in cooking and 
in making confections. 

My own ranches are in flourishing condition. I have many broods of 
young chickens and several hens sitting. The other day one of the nests 
was broken up by a cat, which ate the eggs. A lizard ( Varaymus) 
ate up two of my pigeons, but there are ten more in my ranch above 
San Ramon. I am fast reaching the state of the natives, in being inde- 
pendent of markets and shops. I now produce nearly everything I need ; 
but I have not yet followed the example of the natives in evaporating my 
own salt from sea-water. I find that the chickens flourish better on corn 
than on grated coconuts. The universal theory among my neighbors 
seems to be, " What is the use of paying money for what you yourself 
can produce ! " I find that I must confine myself pretty closely to 
vegetables which have become well established here ; and I am glad to 
eat taro, yams, and bread-fruit with relish. Too few settlers in the tropics 
try to learn to like things distasteful to them on first trial. My attempts 
to cultivate beans, pease, sweet corn, melons, and other vegetables like 
those at home have not been successful . They grew rankly at first ; but 
the fruit rotted before it matured. Perhaps I shall have better success if 
I plant the seed at the close of the rainy season, so that the dry season 
shall in a measure correspond with our summer. 

[to be continued.] 



Pussy Willows. 

By Dr. Ci.ara Barrus. 

The cheerless windy days of March offer but few inducements for a 
ramble over fields and in the woods, still, when the children begin to 
bring in the pussy willows and the partridge berries we may know that 
there is something worth searching for out of doors. Even though we 
found only the willow catkins we should be well repaid for the tramp 
after them. One has a tender feeling for the gray silky " pussies " just 



246 THE PLANT WORLD 

peeping from their dark, protecting scales along the red- or olive-colored 
stems. 

Who is there among us as he rubs the downy catkins across his lips 
and smells the pungent willow odor, that does not recall his childhood 
days, his playmates, and the place where he was born ? We gather twig 
after twig with something of the eagerness that we knew long years ago ; 
the music of the swollen brook singing at our feet carries us quite back 
to the time when the pussies, the child, and the year were all in the 
same glad springtime. 

If we put these twigs in water and let them stand in the sunshine it 
will not be many days before the pussy look disappears — we shall have a 
group of yellow cats instead. The warmth and sunlight mature the tiny 
flowers concealed beneath the furry coverings and a shower of yellow 
pollen betrays the presence of the hitherto hidden flowers. 

The alder thickets along the brook are hung with their red-brown, 
scaly catkins. These have a secretive, unpromising air, yet before many 
weeks they will change to nodding, yellow tassels. These Alders are 
queer people. The male and female members of the household can not 
agree well enough to live in as close proximity as do those of most flowery 
families. The male members (the tassels) group themselves on one twig 
of the family tree, while the females congregate by twos and threes within 
speaking distance, on a separate twig, looking like miniature pine cones. 
" Familiarity breeds contempt " think the female Alders, while the males 
agree that " distance lends enchantment to the view." 

Down by the water among the alders I found a few deserted birds' 
nests. One feels a kind of attraction for these abandoned homes ; I took 
one out of its forked place in a tree ; it was no easy matter to get it out — 
the branching twigs of the alder made it hard to reach, and the nest was 
snugly fixed on the limb, held there by a long narrow strip of weather- 
beaten cloth, tangled with strips of tough, coarse marsh grass. I don't 
know what bird built that nest, but it was built to stay ; it was filled with 
dried seeds, acorn shucks, and hazel nut shells. It is said that field mice 
appropriate these abandoned nests in winter ; I wondered if that is how 
the acorn shucks got there. 

Other nests were found, less firmly fixed on the limbs, and built of 
finer grass and mud, presumably robins' nests. They were empty and 
as forlorn as is a vacant house with the furniture moved out, carpets up, 
curtains down, and floors swept bare and clean. 

A sudden gloom took possession of me as I recollected the well-known 

lines : 

" For time will teach thee soon the truth, 
There are no birds in last year's nest." 

Although I believe the ornithologists say that there's more poetry than 



THE PI.ANT WORLD 247 

truth in this statement. How much my gloom may have been due to a 
gradual darkening of the sky, to a few snowflakes flying in the air, and 
to a suspicious moisture in the soles of my boots, I'm not able to say, but 
gloom is out of place even on a March day, when one is down in a bog 
listening to the chirpings of the tree sparrows and to the noisy music of 
the hurrying brook. Soon a glad surprise dispelled the passing cloud ; 
in the hollows, still filled with ice and snow, I found the earliest blossom 
of the spring. 

Who would have believed that spring flowers are already here ? Yet 
it is true. I gathered the treasure from its watery bed. Thoreau called 
it the "hermit of the bog " ; I wonder if you know its other names. L^et 
me describe it, for, despite Juliet's remarks, we know there's something 
in a name, though this by any other name would doubtless smell as sweet. 
Its flowers appear before its leaves. Go to any swampy place in March 
and you will find the soft, moist earth pierced by the purple spathe, 
which encloses a cluster of the earliest flowers of spring. This spathe is 
a beautiful, mottled, magenta envelope which is commonly taken to be 
the flower itself. It arches over the inclosed blossoms in the form of a 
cowl, through the opening of which appear the tiny, inconspicuous flowers 
arranged in a round fleshy spike. The plant is very similar in plan, 
though very different in appearance, from the Jack-in-the-Pulpit who 
will begin sermonizing to us before many weeks. It is also a first cousin 
to the immaculate Calla, though Calla never deigns to notice the country 
cousin. You will scarcely believe that the fleshy spike inside the cowl 
contains fifty or more tiny flowers, but with your magnifying glass you 
can see that each flower has four sepals, four stamens and one pistil. 
The flowers are closely packed in a cone-like head which early becomes 
covered with a soft, yellowish pollen which the bees are not slow to find 
even in early March. Along in April the green leaves appear (they are 
scarcely visible now), growing to be one or too feet long, bright green, 
hardy and conspicuous in the barrenness of April vegetation. They say 
that bears eat the leaves of this acrid plant. It is probably an appetizer 
to them as water cresses are to us. The root of this plant has a biting 
taste. I remember when a child having a piece of the dried root grated 
into molasses and given me for a croupy cough. I also remember the 
odor of that dried root ; I smelled it again to-day while gathering the 
purple cowls. The fragrance of the plant is such that if you smell it 
once you will never forget it. It reminds you of a certain spiteful little 
creature of the woods that one is always glad to shun for excellent reasons. 
This first flower of the new year — the real harbinger of the spring — is 
the Symplocarpus foetidus, but his brother hermits, when they wish to be 
familiar, nick-name one another " Skunk Cabbage." 

This welcome pledge that spring is near is of the earth, earthy ; but 



248 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

somehow it lifts our thoughts above the earth, for along with the pussy- 
willows and the alder catkins, it announces the sure approach of the 
fickle maiden Spring. One leaves the swamp with the stirrings of hope 
that these harbingers alwaj's awaken, when lo ! in the distance the plain- 
tive warble of the bluebird makes assurance sweetly sure — the winter is 
over and gone, the song of the bluebird is heard in the land. Jaded, 
indeed, must be the ear on which this loved note falls if the hearing of 
it does not thrill to the very core of one's being. 



Tanier, the Oldest Crop. 

By O. W. Barrett. 

Of all the plants which made life possible to the wild men of Old 
Caribea, the handiest was undoubtedly the Tanier. It grew in the loose 
alluvium along the forest streams and its tempting tubers were continually 
in evidence to the savage ancestors of the forefathers of the Arawaks. 
The idea of the goodness of these roots once grasped, a few worthless 
plants pulled out from among the edible ones, a sprouting tuber fragment 
purposely trodden into the soil — and agriculture was begun. 

There is very good reason, as Mr. O. F. Cook has shown,* for believ- 
ing that the cultivation of economic plants originated in Tropical America ; 
and in many ways the Tanier appears to have been cultivated longer than 
any other plant in this region. Nearly all the cultivated plants of the 
world readily produce seed ; but the Tanier, though flowering under 
favorable circumstances, has entirely lost its natural power to ripen seeds. 
Some varieties of the yams, the sweet potatoes, and even of the banana 
occasionally bear seeds in the home of the Tanier ; but many of their 
varieties have been introduced from other regions and their varieties are 
not so numerous in islands like Jamaica and Porto Rico as those of the 
Tanier. 

As a vegetable slave this remarkable old crop has been spared the fate 
of most economics — exile from its own home ; for, strange as it may 
seem, the Tanier still remains almost unknown outside of Tropical 
America. Other food-plants have been carried to the far corners of the 
earth ; others less easily propagated and less productive, like the taro 
and the yam, have become staple articles in all hot countries, Central 
America included. This apparently paradoxical fact will undoubtedly be 
explained when the history of agriculture is better known. 

The family Araceae is one of the most interesting and important in 
the realm of plants ; the genius Colocasia alone includes about fifty edible 

*" The American Origin of Agriculture," Popular Science Monthly, October,. 1903. 



THE PI.ANT WORLD 249 

varieties (the taros) and Xa^ithosoma (the taniers) holds about the same 
number of kinds. Until recently the Taniers were confused with the 
Taros, the usual local confusion of names helping to perpetuate the error 
even among those who must have known better. To be sure there is 
some similarity between the two plants in their appearance above ground, 
but the intrinsic characters of the leaves, flowers, and roots are very dis- 
tinct. 

Though its varieties have scores of names throughout Tropical 
America, " Yautia " is probably the oldest name of which we have any 
record ; this was the general term applied by the aborigines when the 
Spaniards arrived in Porto Rico, the island which, from the first, was most 
famous for its agricultural advancement. And in this island has the 
Yautia ' ' reached its highest development — running here into some 
twenty distinct native varieties. About ten kinds are grown in the Wind- 
ward Islands ; northern South America has but very few ; Cuba and Hayti 
have half a dozen or less ; and the few varieties of Central America appear 
coarse and unproductive in comparison with the Porto Rican sorts. Taya, 
Tanier, or Cocoe are the common names in the British West Indies ; in 
Cuba and Santo Domingo both Taro and Tanier are included under the 
name ' ' Malanga ' ' ; while in the Central American republics it passes 
under almost as many names as there are Indian tribes. 

Few plants yield a higher proportion of food material for the weight 
of the entire plant than does the Tanier ; in fact fulh^ 75 per cent of the 
weight of some types is food. In the " Rollisa " variety of Porto Rico 
the tubers comprise about 35 per cent of the weight of the living plant 
and the edible rootstock about 20 per cent more ; the young leaves are 
also edible, closely resembling spinach when boiled, but having more 
"body " and a richer flavor. The central stem, or rhizome, of many 
varieties is commonly eaten by the poorer classes but contains some fiber 
and only 15 to 20 per cent of starch. 

The obovoid or roundish tuberous roots are borne just below the 
surface of the soil, loosely attached at right angles to the central stem. 
In cropping, the leaves are grasped in the hands and the whole mass of 
tubers usually comes up with one good pull, and a quick shake will detach 
most of them from the parent root. Individual tubers weigh from a few 
ounces in some types to one and one-half or even two pounds in the better 
sorts. Each plant produces from two to four pounds, but since six 
thousand to ten thousand plants can be grown on an acre the yield is six 
to twenty tons of superior roots containing 20 per cent to 30 per cent of 
starch and little fibrous matter. Five to ten tons of the rhizomes, which 
may be utilized for feeding swine or for making starch, may be added to 
these figures. By removing the first tubers as soon as ripe, by means of 
a "machete," and allowing the plant to remain in situ for six months 



250 THE PIvANT WORI^D 

longer, a second crop may be harvested ; by this method, called " castra- 
tion " in Trinidad, it is estimated that an acre of Tanier can be made to 
yield thirty tons of tubers at one planting ; few crops can produce one- 
half of this amount. 

Though preferring rich, moist loam, the Tanier is content with almost 
any soil ; like its near relative, the Taro, or Elephant's Ear, it revels in 
plenty of fresh water, but while the leaf development may be greater in 
wet situations the tuber percentage suffers. The leaves vary from pale 
green to deep mauve purple; in some sorts, like the "Palma," leaves 
three feet wide by four feet long are common. A Tanier field in its prime 
is a beautiful sight. 

Boiled, fried, or baked, the better kinds of Tanier are superior to the 
Irish potato ; though most varieties are not so " mealy " they are richer, 
firmer, and possess more distinct flavor. Most sorts are pure white, but 
four are pinkish purple, and several are of various shades of yellow. The 
roots keep fairly well after harvesting and would undoubtedly endure 
shipping to the Central States. 

And now that the days of popular prejudice against anything new in 
the food line are dying out fortunately, we may expect to see the rare 
and royal old Tanier soon entering the northern markets and rapidly 
gaining favor as one of the best of many good things to come out of the 
Tropics. Twenty thousand years late but it will win ! 



Exhibit of the New York Horticultural 

Society. 

By Pauline Kaufman. 

Under the auspices of the Horticultural Society of New York the 
fifth annual exhibition of wild and cultivated flowers took place at Bronx 
Park Museum on May 11th and 12th. As usual, the Agassiz Association 
of Bedford Station had the best showing of wild flowers, though owing 
to the backward season the number of specimens was smaller than that 
of last year. The violet family was well represented by such members 
as Viola cucidlata, variety palniata ; V. catiina, rotundifolia, palustris, 
rostrata being the rarest of the purple ones ; blanda, lanceolata, priniu- 
laefolia, and striata of the white variety, V. Canadensis being white and 
purple in parts ; scabriuscida alone was yellow. Trillixim gra^idiflorum 
and Wake Robin made a fine appearance. Orchis spedabilis, and Cypri- 
pedium parviflorinn in buds, bluets, columbine, wild ginger, Robins 
plantain, early everlasting, wild geranium, several of the mustards, shad 
bush, bellwort, Dutchman's breeches, blood root, dwarf ginseng, corn 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 251 

gromwell, beautiful Mertensia, or Virginia cowslip, in white, lavender, 
pink, light and dark blue sprays, and some in which the pink and blue 
were combined, were all here, as were some sedges, three of the equise- 
tums, mosses, Calt/ia, a pitcher plant and many others. An alpine 
rockery showed many varieties of cactus, sedum and native rock growths, 
the star of this collection being a plant of the Edelweiss, which is now 
being protected by the Government. Cacti from other countries were also 
shown, among them a small plant with a beautiful rose-pink flower six 
inches across. This plant had a pecuniary value which I thought 
excessive, but the man who brought the flower to such perfection told me 
he could give an amateur gardener such a plant full of buds, which he 
would guarantee would never bloom, so much was to be considered in its 
care. There is always a prize for a novelty, and this was won by a superb 
golden-yellow Calla, with large green leaves spotted with white. The 
flowers were much larger than the ordinary white one, the whole plant 
being simply regal, and forming a fine contrast to the neighboring cactus. 

An immense fern (^Nephrolepis exaltatd) bore fronds which shaded 
beautifully and looked as though the priniae were three deep. It attracted 
much attention. Unfortunately this is sadly malodorous. Other rare 
plants were Vriesia spletidens, with barred leaves and maroon flowers, 
resembling the gladiola in bud. ATillandsiabore three parted blue flowers, 
with yellow-tipped stamens and blue pistils, emerging from a scarlet bract. 

The most peculiar of a group of orchids was Laelia Digbyana, greenish- 
white in color, whose tubular lip ended in an appendage much like side 
whiskers and beard of long pale green hair. A Schombertsia had large 
golden, bell-like flowers, the fluted lip edged with white. There were 
several other rare and wonderful orchids in this class. 

Begonias and crotons in endless variety. Among a collection of cut 
flowers were Ixora with its stiff green leaf bunches of four-petaled red 
flowers. Clerodendron with white bracts and scarlet flowers. Thun- 
bergia fragrans , Stephanotis floribiuidiis with six parted white trumpets. 
Bougainvillia, the Japanese paper flower, with solferino bracts, and small 
tubular flowers of similar hue. False Acacia, the largest Gardenia ( Veitchii) 
I have ever seen, and so sweet-scented. Camellias of deepest pink. 
Branches of rose-colored flowers looking like English daisies, but more 
purple, were called Aicraria hybrida, and the brilliant scarlet Anthurium, 
well named flamingo flower. A plant quite well known was the Clivia, 
its flower stem bearing many orange lilies. Near by was a much rarer 
one, Schizmatoglottis 7-uhellum, the hard long leaves tapering to a point, 
the spadix bearing pepper-like pods of green, yellow and scarlet. 

The exhibition closed with a business meeting, followed by a very 
interesting lecture on ' ' Common Trees and their Uncommon Flowers, ' ' by 
J. Horace McFarland. 



252 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

Briefer Articles. 



PROPAGATION BY PETIOLE BUDS. 

In September, 1898, while collecting algae along the north branch of 
the Chicago River I found a phaenogamous plant growing in the mud, 
which I hoped might be made to grow in an aquarium. I placed it there 
and a few days later noticed that four or five of its lower leaves had 
dropped upon the water and had developed plantlets at the base of their 
petioles. Other leaves fell which likewise developed plants. I then 
pulled off leaves, hit or miss, and searched with a lens for a rudimentary 
bud but failed to find one. Placing these leaves in water they soon de- 
veloped young plants, as in the instance just mentioned, at the base of 
the petiole where it had been torn off from the stem. 

A dozen of these plantlets thus started in water were transferred to 
moist soil and placed under glass and allowed to develop in the hope that 
the species might be satisfactorily determined. Their growth was observed 
for nearly a year. For three months they were living in open garden soil. 
But the experiment proved a failure, all the plants dying before a flow- 
ering stem could be produced. So far as one could judge from leaf form 
and arrangement the plant may have been a species of Lobelia, probably 
L. Kahili L. 

The interesting point to which I would call attention is that here we 
have a plant growing by the riverside, upon the flood plain, which by the 
dropping of its leaves when its environment is disturbed may be propa- 
gated by adventitious buds at the base of the petiole and distributed by 
the flotation of these budding leaf -stalks to new localities. 

Buds do not arise from these leaves otherwise than at the base of the 
petiole even though the leaf be cut or injured to induce their develop- 
ments, as is commonly done with the leaves of begonias. 

C. B. Atwell. 



HYBRIDIZATION IN THE HONEY LOCUST. 

The Honey Locust, while nowhere abundant, is found here in almost 
all situations, from the poorest, dry est hill sides to the richest alluvial 
bottom lands. Within these variations of surroundings there grow many 
different types of this species, from a low, spreading, useless, short-bodied 
tree, to a majestic forest giant over 150 feet high, with a trunk clear of 
branches 40 to 70 feet. In the former condition the bark is close and 
inclined to be smooth, while in the latter the bark becomes more rough 
and broken into large flakes, similar to those of the Shag-Bark Hickory. 
In this last form there are few thorns, while in the upland form the body 



THE PLANT WORLD 253 

and limbs are usually fairly covered with immense thorns. Where this 
species grows isolated in fields and pastures, or is cultivated on lawns, 
it grows into a beautiful well-formed rounded top, with long, gracefully 
drooping branches, and frequently entirely free from thorns. The Water 
Locust on the other hand is found only along the muddy borders of ponds 
and bayous in alluvial bottom lands, where it stands in water most of the 
year. It is a smaller tree, with more open and airy top. The bark is 
smoother, the twigs and branches have more of a greenish tinge. The 
thorns are also more slender but fully as long as in the former species. 
The leaves vary considerabl}^ in both species, but in general features are 
so much alike that it appears impossible to find a constant or reliable 
difference. 

The only really constant distinctive difference is in the fruit. In 
Gleditsia triacayithos the pods are many-seeded, of a dark, dull brown color, 
from 6 to 15 inches, twisted and filled with a engary pulp. While in G. 
aquatica the pods are iVi to 2/4 inches long, usually one-seeded, smooth, 
shining and of a light brown color, not twisted and destitute of pulp. 
The number of seeds is subject to occasional variation to two, and on a 
few occasions I have found three seeds in one pod. The vicinity of Mt. 
Carmel, 111., is the northernmost limit of this species so far as I can 
learn. 

I have found here what appears to be two forms of hybrids. In one 

the pistillate plant appears to have been G. aqiiatica fertilized by G. tria- 

canthos. It stands in the muddy border of a pond, among a group of 

trees that are all true G. aquatica ; while G. triacayithos is some distance 

away on higher ground and sandy soil. In the second case the tree grows 

in a group of G. triacanthos , and it stands in a sandy ridge about 500 

yards distant from a pond where grows G. aquatica. In both instances 

the pods are the distinguishing feature. These are very much alike in 

both trees ; being about 5 inches long, lY-z inches wide, smooth, shining, 

of a light brown color and entirely destitute of pulp. Otherwise the trees 

can not be distinguished from the trees among which they stand. They 

are both about 50 feet high, with short stems and spreading branches, 

and stand about 5 miles apart. J. Schneck. 

Mt. Carmel, 111. 



The Commercial Status of Durum Wheat ' ' is the title of a very 
interesting paper by Messrs. Carlton and Chamberlain, which relates to 
the introduction in this country, and the increasing value of, macaroni 
or ' ' durum ' ' wheat. Besides treating at length on the value of this grain 
for bread-making, the paper is specially valuable for collating numerous 
recipes for cooking semolina and macaroni, the two best known products 
of durum wheat. M. 



254 THE PIvANT WORI.D 

The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



OFFICIAL NOMINATIONS FOR THE BOARD OF MANAGERS. 

The terms of the following Managers expire with the current year : 

Prof. W. J. Beal, Michigan Agricultural College. 

Mr. Joseph Crawford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Walter Deane, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Chari<es L. Pollard, Springfield, Mass. 

Dr. William Trelease, Missouri Botanical Qardeu. 

Prof. C. F. Wheeler, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture. 

Our constitution requires the Board to prepare a list of not less than 

two nominations for each vacancy, and to print the same in the October 

issue of our official organ. The following large list of nominees has been 

selected by vote of the Board, with the idea of giving opportunity for 

careful choice by the members : 

Prof. W. J. Beal, Michigan Agricultural College. 

Mr. Joseph Crawford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Walter Deane, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Charles L. Pollard, Springfield, Mass. 

Dr. William Trelease, Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Prof. C. F. Wheeler, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture. 

Prof. W. A. KellERMAn, Ohio State University. 

Prof. F. E. Lloyd, Teachers College, New York. 

Mr. Charles F. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Alice Lounsberry, New York City. 

Prof. Clara E. Cummings, Wellesley College. 

Mr. Stkwardson Brown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. N. L. Britton, New York Botanical Garden. 

Dr. D. T. MacDougal, New York Botanical Garden. 

Dr. F. H. Knowlton, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Miss Juliet C. Patten, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. F. V. CoviLLE, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture. 

Prof. E. A. Apgar, Orange, N. J. 

Mr. J. Horace MacFarland, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Prof. J. W. Harshberger, University of Pennsylvania. 

Any ten or more members of the Society may secure the addition of 
other names to the above list of nominees by filing the nominations, duly 
signed, with the Secretary not later than November 12. The revised list 
will be printed in the next issue of The Plant World, and voting will 
thereafter begin. To make the matter clearer, let us repeat : If you have 
a friend who is a member of the Society, and whom you would like to 
see nominated for the Board of Managers, secure the signatures of nine 
other members besides your own and send in the nomination, but do not 
send in any ballots until further notice. Address the Secretary of the 
Society, at the New York Botanical Garden. 



THE PIvANT WORLD 255 

The following letters are self-explanatory : 

"Washington, D. C, October 12, 1904. 

Dear Madam : Will you please notify rae at your earliest conven- 
ience whether or not The Wild Flower Preservation Society of America 
will meet in affiliation with this Association at the Philadelphia Meeting 
during Convocation Week, December 27, 1904, to January 2, 1905. Will 
you also inform me of the names and addresses of the President and Sec- 
retary of your Society, and if possible give an estimate of the probable 
attendance in case you expect to meet with us. An early reply will 
greatly oblige. Yours very truly, Iv. O. Howard, 



Mrs. N. L-. Britton, 

"Bronx Park, New York, N. Y." 



Peri?ianenf Secretary. 



" Dr. L. O. Howard, "October IS, 1904. 

* 'Permanent Secretary of the American 

Association for the Advanceynent of Science, 
" Washington, D. C. 
"Dear Dr. Howard: The Wild Flower Preservation Society of 
America holds its annual meeting in December, subject to the call of its 
Board of Managers, and I have no doubt that they will be glad to avail 
themselves of the opportunity which you offer us of meeting in ' Convo- 
cation Week' at Philadelphia. The attendance is not likely to be large, 
fifty possibly. The President is Dr. Charles E. Bessey, University of 
Nebraska, lyincoln, Nebraska, and I am the Secretary. 

' ' In arranging for the date of meeting it will be desirable not to con- 
flict with the meetings of the botanical section of the Botanical Society 
and also to avoid the date of the Sullivant Moss Chapter Meeting. 
" Very sincerely yours, Elizabeth G. Britton, 

''Secretary.^' 



NATURE FAD. 

By Agnes Scott. 

The so-called nature study has become a fad, and unfortunately the 
many nature-books have failed of their true mission, for the authors have 
not taken the attitude of missionaries to help educate the public to value 
and enjoy the plant life in the solitude of fields and woods without 
destroying them. To gain real knowledge of flowers and ferns is to 
study their charms and characteristics in their native homes, to observe 
their growth from bud to blossom ; this alone will awaken the true mean- 
ing of love for these mute little friends. 

It is to be regretted that in our neighboring towns we meet children in 
the woods ruthlessly pulling the pink lady's-slippers by the hundreds, and 
unfortunately they mercilessly gather each year the beautiful pogonia, 
calopogon, arethusa, and cotton-grass or pussy-toes. In a swamp near 



255 THE PIvANT WORLD 

by, where the wild callas grow profusely, there is danger of utter desola- 
tion of these rare flowers. Selfishness and ignorance seem unlimited in 
consideration for the most interesting wild flowers. The town of Easton 
is noted for its wealth of wild flowers, but there are no thoughtful inter- 
preters to awaken the children to value and love the wild flowers and 
to help save certain of the more interesting plants now threatened with 
extermination. 

If teachers and ministers throughout the country would aid in instruct- 
ing the public in the real value of nature study, and to insure them against 
the baneful and thoughtless flower-picking, this would mean a great day 
when we should see all with hearts and eyes turned rightly, becoming 

more humane toward the plant life of the nature- world. 
South Easton. Mass. 



Editorial. 



Apropos of our remarks in the last issue on the contents of this mag- 
azine we print below verbatim two letters, written, oddly enough, on the 
same date. They will serve admirably to illustrate our point that it is 
impossible to please everybody, and that in literature as in dietetics, 
" one man's meat is another man's poison." We think the majority of 
our readers will coincide in their opinions with the writer of the second 
letter, although it is to be noticed that our other correspondent tolerates 
the Guam articles. If The Plant World followed the models of the 
Botmiical Gazette and the Torrey Bidletin, its articles would be exclusively 
technical, and absolutely unintelligible to the majority of our readers. As 
for the * ' lessons in botany, ' ' we are not aware that we are printing any. 

" , Indiana, Oct. 15th, 1904. 

Editor of Plant World : 

' ' I note in the September Copy of your Plant World what one of 
your subscribers .say regarding you magazine and I said to myself that I 
would quite your magazine, because it contained nothing of interest to 
me. I have taken all the Botanical Literature published in the U. S., 
but for myself I think the Plant World is about the thinnest excuse for 
a magazine of any of them published. 

" My interest lies only in Taxomic [sic] but I find nothing in your 
magazine on any of these that are of any interest to me. Further than 
that I also aim to get all of my magazines bound and I do not find any- 
thing in your magazine that I feel like is worth a permanent record. The 
Botanists Gazett is not on my line 3^et the articles that appear in it are 
valuable. The type of a magazine I like is that of Rhodora and the 
Tetorreya and Torey' s Bulletin. It seems to me that a great deal of 



THE PLANT WORLD 257 

matter in you magazine whould go to some agricultural paper of horti- 
culture or Gardiiier' s Magazine. The lessons you have in botany I think 
have no place in the magazine any one interested in the subject can 
afford to buy a text-book which will give the information better and the 
illustrations for a dollar or two. 

* ' I note that of all the magazines published none maintain a column of 
exchanges. Now in all the ethical magazines there is a page or so set apart 
for exchanges. In this subscribers can get valuable information. I write 
this with a friendly feeling and the criticism I offer is the one that I feel 
and I am in a retail business and I always appreciate my customers and 
if they will make their wants known I always tried to supply them with 
their demand and I thought it might be the same in your business, if 
you knew the subscribers as a whole wanted something else you would 
change the style of the magazine. I have no objections to the letters of 
Guam. I think these are alright, while not interesting to me they have 
scientific value nevertheless. Yours truly, 



" , Long Island, N. Y., Oct. 15, 1904. 

Editor of Plant World : 

" I thought I had not time to read the Plant World, so had decided 
to discontinue it, but I find the articles on Guam are so instructive that 
I can't forego the pleasure. Instead of too much Guam I say more 
Guam. I am very sorry that there is a prospect of their discontinuance. 

" Knclose check for subscription. Yours truly. 



We believe the following ' ' prophecy ' ' from the Missouri Agricul- 
tural College Farmer is food for thought, and inspiration to public opinion, 
and should be incentive to action. The benefits of such education by no 
means will stop with the farmer : " Is it too much to say that before many 
years agriculture will know the same sudden popularity that mechanics 
knew only a short time ago ? Not very long ago the mechanic arts 
were learned by apprenticeship. If a man was a mechanic his sons were 
likely to be mechanics. Now there are schools of engineering and ' tech- 
nical institutes' all over the nation. Boys from every walk in life are 
ambitious to be electrical or civil or steam or chemical engineers and the 
mechanical industries have grown as nothing ever grew before. Certainly 
plants and animals are infinitely more complex in their make-up than are 
machines ; and surely the proper understanding of them will require at 
least as high an order of scholarship and perhaps more time and study 
than the understanding of machinery. Why, then, will not education 
some day be as much of a requirement for farming as it is now for 
engineering ? " 



258 THE PI.ANT WORI^D 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. I^loyd, 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

A STEADY improvement in the teaching of botany is noticeable in the 
efforts made to use the methods of experimentation. The recognition of 
the importance of plant physiology as part of the high-school course and 
the adoption of nature study in the elementary schools are largely respon- 
sible for this ; and the educational arguments advanced by those who 
champion the use of manual training in all its phases are in general 
applicable to the use of experiment in elementary science. 

There can be little doubt that the training received by a student of 
botany who is compelled to work out simple experiments is much supe- 
rior to that obtained from simple observation. The qualities of originality 
and self-reliance are strengthened ; a justifiable pride of accomplishment 
and a deep interest in one's own creation are felt ; and the determination 
and power to progress are enlarged. 

Many teachers however are discouraged from trying the method, 
sometimes because of their own inherent inability to do mechanical opera- 
tions, or because of lack of experience, and often on account of the total 
lack of materials and apparatus. If, however, the teacher will assume 
that many of his pupils can beat him in inventing the means for experi- 
ment, and, too, will reflect that the real essence of an experiment lies 
in the fact that it is a means of learni?ig, he will not allow his own lack 
of gumption or of knowledge to stand in the way of his progress as a 
leader of his pupils. Those who have not yet ventured to try the method 
of experiment will find in the brief account given below, by Miss Jean 
Broadhurst, evidence that with nothing to start with it is yet possible 
to do really good work. It must be remembered that the end is by no 
means an indication of the amount of educational good which a pupil 
gets from such work. 



PLANT PHYSIOLOGY IN THE HIGH SCHOOL. 

The accompanying photographs show some of the experiments set up 
by a high school (ninth year) class in elementary botany. Plant physi- 
ology was a new feature in the botany course, and it was not thought 
wise to give it too much time the first year. The actual time taken was 
three weeks. The aims were to make the pupils do as much original 
thinking as possible, and as much of the work as convenient under the 
room-to-room recitation plan ; all of which is gain over and above the 
results achieved by the usual methods of conducting plant experiment 
work. 



THE PI.ANT WORI^D 259 

A list of fifteen questions, some of which are given below, was written 
upon an unused board : 

1. What part of a stem grows? 

2. What part of a root grows ? 

3. What determines the direction of stems? 

4. What determines the direction of roots? 

5. How does colored light affect the growth of plants ? 

6. Do plants grow more during the night or the day ? 

7. Do soils affect the growth of plants? 

8. What becomes of the water that plants take in ? 

9. Do leaves make food ; if so, what kind ? 
10. Do plants breathe as animals do ? 

These questions were assigned to fifteen small groups in each division 
of the ninth-year class. The members of each group discussed its ques- 
tion and two days later handed in a statement of the best plan thought of 
to solve the problem assigned. The results were mainly good and yet, 
of necessity, involved original work ; for few parents were able to help 
the children, no books on plant physiology were available, and no old 
note-books of previous classes covered this ground. Points of detail, 
such as air-tight joints, were omitted, but many answers were wholly or 
partly workable. 

These papers were criticised and the best of each group returned. Then 
a list of reference books, with references given for each problem, was 
placed upon the black-board. Three days were allowed for consultation, 
and a revised plan of procedure asked of each pupil. The results were 
not given, as they were yet to be determined ; for instance, no pupil 
could then say " the root turns away from the light, therefore the root is 
influenced by light " ; yet each dealing with that question could, before 
setting up the experiment, truly say, " if the root turns from the light," 
or "if the root turns toward the light it will prove," etc. 

Here, again, the best paper of each group was corrected and returned ; 
this paper was kept and followed in setting up the experiment or experi- 
ments mentioned in it. Then each group made out a list of materials 
needed for its problem. The next two lessons were written reviews, 
so planned that the various groups in turn could be given time to select 
the designated materials from the general assortment of glass, iron, 
rubber, and wooden objects generally hoarded as a matter of principle 
by science teachers. Some pupils had previously been asked to bring 
various kinds of soil, tin and pasteboard boxes, and seeds. Several young 
vigorous plants from the greenhouses near by had been placed with the 
plants then flowering in the windows. 

In no case was a group able to find all the materials designated in its 



260 THE PLANT WORI.D 

plan. lyaboratory supports, bell-jars, thistle tubes, etc. , mean more money 
than most schools can afford for individual work. Every one was forced 
to ask, " What can I use instead ? " or " What else will do the work ? " 
Glass cans served as bell-jars, window sashes and distilled-water crates 
as supports. Just what this substitution alone meant to the pupils one 
could not guess beforehand ; it is necessary to see a class of city-bred, 
every-thing-ready-to-use boys and girls take twice the time demanded by 
farm children for the same kind of work to appreciate it. 

Later it was found that there was another distinct gain in this home- 
made apparatus ; it was more quickly and clearly understood by the 
pupils who had not set it up. They looked past it to ask, " Why is it 
used ? " or " What does it do ? " It was not in itself so attractive or so 
complicated as to hold the attention or confuse them. 

So far no time outside the regular class hours had been asked of the 
pupils. No text-book work was assigned for the following Monday and 
Tuesday, and each group was expected to find time at noon-time or before 
and after school to have all experiments set up by Tuesday night. The 
rest of that week and the next week the class reported at roll-call the 
experiments which were ready. Part of the period was taken by the 
pupils to state the question given their group, to explain the method and 
apparatus by which they proposed answering the question and to show 
the results obtained and interpret them. The rest of the period was used 
for practical or general questions (such as those given by Andrews in his 
Botany All the Year Round ") based upon questions already completed. 

Some of the experiments had to be repeated once or twice ; this, 
however, prevented having everything ready on the same day, besides 
giving the pupils the extra training. All such work was done outside 
the regular period. 

Each pupil was required to hand in a note-book containing the list of 

problems solved, a brief description of the method used, and the actual 

results obtained. These books showed good final results. Besides, each 

pupil had now received training which would enable him to solve any one 

of the problems again should he forget the answer. The pupils — both 

boys and girls — were also more interested in this than in any other part 

of the term's work in botany. 

Jean Broadhurst. 

New Jersey State Normal and Model Schools. 



The Plant World. 



Vol. VII, Plate XV. 





The Plant World. 



Vol. VII, Plate XVI. 




6 



<: 



v5 



The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America 

Vol. VII NOVEMBER, 1904 No. 11 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XXIV.* 

By William E. Safford. 

Monday, May 28. — We have suffered a violent storm, which has 
stripped off all the coconuts and breadfruit, and most of the cacao. The 
coffee has also been injured and many trees are now leafless or have their 
foliage blasted as though by fire. The wind began to blow very hard last 
Saturday night. Yesterday it had increased in force, and Susana went 
out and cut off all the banana leaves to save the plants in my garden. 
She says the fruit will ripen without the leaves. Reports have come in 
from all the districts of the island, stating that many houses have been 
blown down or unroofed, chickens have died from exposure, the young 
corn has been blasted and the rice fields of Merizo are ruined. At Inarahan 
the three bridges have been swept away by freshets and the tribunal, 
school-house, and rectory unroofed. The U. S. S. Brutus, at anchor in 
the harbor, was swept from her moorings and carried up on the edge of 
the reef. Fortunately she was not seriously injured, and no lives were 
lost. 

Among the structures blown down in Agafia was the frame-work of a 
house which a man recently arrived from Hawaii was erecting. This 
morning I met his wife, a native of Honolulu. She seemed very much 
discouraged. The couple have three little children. The man is a native 
of this island who went to Honoluhi several years ago on a whaler and 



* Continued from the October issue. Begun in September, 190a. 



262 THE PLANT WORLD 

settled there. The woman said she had looked forward to coming to 
Guam ever since it had become a possession of the United States. Her 
husband had told her so much about it that she thought it must be a 
paradise. She met with a warm welcome at the hands of his relations ; 
but she said, " I am afraid we will have to go back to Honolulu. My 
husband has a good ranch in the northern part of this island, but there 
is no water there. I sometimes go to the ranch with him, but we can 
take with us only enough water to drink, and I can not bathe my little 
ones. In Honolulu we had two or three water-cocks in the house, and 
I could fill the bath-tub whenever I wished. Here we are cautioned 
against drinking the water in the wells on account of the prevailing fever, 
and yet there are no public water- works. When it rains we can fill our 
water-jars, but when the supply gives out we have to depend upon the 
well or the river ; and the river water can not be good, for I have seen the 
men bathing their buffaloes in it, and the women are always washing 
their clothes there. Now one of my little ones is sick, and the doctor 
says I must feed the child on milk, but I have no cow. In Honolulu 
the milk cart passes the door several times a day; but here many of the 
people who have cows don't milk them, and those who do promise their 
milk beforehand. Now our house is blown down, and my husband 
hasn't been able to earn a cent since our arrival. Everything is expen- 
sive, and it is hard to get beef or even chickens, and I don't know what 
we shall do. I wish we were back in Honolulu ! " 

I have received a number of letters from people wishing to settle on 
this island, among others a dentist, who saw in one of my published letters 
that we had no dentist on the island. I can not encourage his coming ; 
for, though the town has a population of more than six thousand, few of 
the people would be willing or able to pay for having their teeth attended 
to, and the prices of food staples, such as rice, flour, and tinned meats 
and vegetables, are high. 

I now have for a guest Mr. Alvin Scale, who came here from Honolulu, 
bringing a letter of introduction to me from Professor William T. Brigham, 
Director of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology 
and Natural History. Mr. Scale arrived here on an Army transport last 
Wednesday. He is collecting material for the Bishop Museum, devoting 
special attention to birds and fishes. I have shown him how to press 
and dry plants, and will have my boys assist him as much as possible. 
I have agreed to let him have a number of tanks filled with alcohol, 
brought here on the Yosemite, for his fishes. He is an excellent shot and 
is a zealous collector. To-day I gave him a list of the birds thus far known 
to occur on this island. This list was compiled principally from those of 
Quoy and Gaimard, zoologists of the Freycinet Expedition ; Oustalet, 
who described a collection made by M. Alfred Marche in 1887-89, in the 



THE PLANT WORLD 263 

Archives of the Paris Museum of Natural History;* and Ernst Hartert 
and Walter Rothschild of the Tring Museum, who worked up the material 
collected by two Japanese sent here in 1894 by Mr. Alan Owston of 
Yokohama.! I had already given this list, with a few descriptive notes, 
to General Wheeler when he visited Guam. It was published in his official 
report, t and is substantially as follows : 

Asio accipitrinus. — Short-eared Owl. 

Vernacular name, Mongvio, or Momo. — I have not yet seen this bird, but 
it is well known to the natives, who say that it is abundant on the island 
of Tinian, and describe it as having big eyes, a face like a cat. They say 
that it eats lizards. Padre Aniceto del Carmen, who lived for many 
years in Guam, gives it the Spanish name Lechiiza, and the native name 
Mongo. 

Halcyon cinnamominus. — Guam Kingfisher. 

Vernacular name, Sihig, or Siheg. — A pretty bird with terrestrial 
habits. Colors cinnamon, or rust-red, and blue. Female with rust-red 
head and blue upper parts like male, but lower surface from breast 
to tail white instead of rust-red. Does not catch fish, but like the 
Samoan Tiotala, to which it is allied, it lives on lizards and insects. It 
sometimes kills young birds and picks out the eyes of young chickens. 
Its loud, harsh note is often heard in the middle of the night. 

Collocalia fuciphaga. — Edible-nest Swift. 

Vernacular name, Yayaguag, or Ytiy^gnag. — Abundant. Closely 
allied to the Samoan Pe'ape'a. In Guam the nests made by this bird are 
made of leaves matted together with some mucilaginous substance. Thej^ 
are very different from the typical nests eaten by the Chinese. 

Rhipidura uraniae. — Fan-tailed Fly-catcher. 

Vernacular name, Chickirtka, or Chichirita. — A pretty little bird with 
brown and black plumage. It is quite familiar, following one along the 
road and spreading its white margined tail like a fan, as though wishing 
to attract notice. Allied to the Samoan Se'ii. 

Myiagra freycineti. — Freycinet's Fly-catcher. 

Vernacular name, Chiguangzian, or Chugiiangtiaii. — A little bird 
frequenting shady woods, allied to the Samoan Tolai. It catches insects 
on the wing, snapping its bill audibly. It can erect its metallic head- 
feathers into a crest. The breast of the young and of the female is 
tinged with rufous. 

Myzomela rubratra. — Red-and-black Honey-eater . 

Vernaculur name, Egigi. — A beautiful little bird, glossy red, with 
black wings, and a slender curved beak. It frequents flowers, especially 
those of the scarlet hibiscus, the coconut, and the banana, feeding on 
honey. It is quite fearless and very pugnacious, the males frequently 

* Oustalet, E., " Lesmammif&res et les oiseaux des iles Mariannes," Nouvelles Archives du Musdutn 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 3me Ser., vii et viii. 1895-1896. 

t Hartert, Ernst. " Birds of the Marianne Islands." Novitates Zoologicse, V. 1898. 

tReport on the Island of Guam. War Department, Adjutant-General's OfiSce. June, 1900 ; p. 12. 



264 THE PlyANT WORI^D 

fighting on the wing. The colors of the female and young are much 
duller than those of the adult male. 

Zosterops conspicillata. — White-fronted Zosterops. 

Vernacular name, Nossak. — Pretty little olive-green birds, yellow 
below ; usually seen in flocks. They feed upon insects, frequently cling- 
ing to the lower side of branches while searching for them. While flying 
they utter a sparrow-like note. 

Acrocephalus luscinia. — Reed- warbler. 

Vernacular name, Gd-karriso. — A modest-colored shy bird frequent- 
ing reedy swamps. It has an exquisite song. Indeed it may be called 
the only song-bird of the island. Its native name signifies " reed-lover," 
or ' ' reed-frequenter. ' ' 

Aplonis kittlitzi. — Marianne Starling. 

Vernacular name, Sali, or Sale. — A bird resembling the black thrush 
of Europe, and called Tordo by the Spaniards. The adults are black 
with yellow eyes. The young have brown eyes and breast feathers of a 
yellowish-white with dark centers. This species is allied to the Samoan 
Miti-uli (^Aplonis brevirostris) . It builds its nest usually in the top of a 
dead coconut tree. Its eggs are pale green spotted with brown. It is 
very active, noisy, and quarrelsome. 

Corvus kubaryi. — Kubary's Crow. 

Vernacular name, Aga. — A true crow, with glossy black plumage, 
solitary in its habits, frequenting the woods, and seldom seen near vil- 
lages. It is fond of talisai almonds ( Termhialia catappa), and does much 
damage to the maize crops of the natives. 

Ptilopus roseicapillus. — Rosy-capped Fruit-pigeon, 

Vernacular name, Totot, or Tottot. — A beautiful bird of a parrot-green 
color above, yellow below with purple on the breast and an orange 
crissum. Its head is capped with a rose-purple crown. It feeds on 
various fruits, including those of the ilang-ilang tree iCananga odorata), 
beach plnm iXimenia americana^ , lemoncito {_Triphasia trifoliata), and 
a species of Cestrum called tintan-China, or " Chinese ink-berry " by the 
natives. Closely allied to the manu-tangi of Samoa {.Ptilopus fasciaUis) , 
which it resembles in its plumage and sobbing note, and like that species 
a favorite pet of the natives in former times. Plumage of both sexes alike. 

Turtur dussumieri. — Philippine Turtle Dove. 

Vernacular name, Paluman halom-tano . — An introduced species com- 
mon in the fields, and much hunted by the natives for food. It is a true 
turtle dove in form and color. Its native name signifies " wild, or inland 
pigeon." Also called Paluman machaleg. 

Phlegoenas xanthonura. — White-headed Pigeon. 

Vernacular names : male, Apaka, or Paluman apaka ; female, Paluman 
ku7iao. — The sexes are so different in size and color that the natives regard 
them as distinct species which live together. The males are the larger 
and have the head throat and breast white and the rest of the upper parts 
olive bronze, with a purple luster on the wing coverts, lower parts brown, 
and the tail dark gray with a subtermial black band. The female is of a 
uniform reddish brown without any white at all in its plumage ; tail red- 



THE PLANT WORLD 265 

dish with subapical black band. These pigeons have a mournful note. 
They nest in trees and are fond of fruits of various kinds, especially of 
ink-berries and lemoncitos. One pair of them frequent an ilang-ilang 
tree in the palace garden and feed upon its fruit. They have a nest in a 
ceiba tree in the midst of the city. 

Excalfactoria sinensis. Chinese Pigmy Quail. 

Vernacular name, Bingbing, or Bengbeng. — A beautifully marked 
little bird, introduced upon this island from the Philippines, and now 
very abundant. Their eggs are remarkably large for so small a bird and 
are of a brown color. The native name has been given it in consequence 
of the loud whirring noise it makes in flying. 

Megapodius laperousi. Laperouse's Megapod. 

Vernacular name, Sassengat. — The occurrence of this bird in the Mar- 
iannes is interesting. It is closely allied to the Australia mound-builders. 
I do not believe it occurs in Guam itself, but it is common on several of 
the northern islands of this group, especially on Tinian. The natives 
attract it to them by knocking stones together. The Spaniards call it 
Polio del monte. This species is also found in the Pelew Islands. It 
is thought by some authorities that the megapods were introduced into 
the Pacific Islands through the agency of man.* 

Hypotaenidia owstoni. Marianne Rail. 

Vernacular name, Koko. — A bird closely resembling the Philippine 
rail, and the Samoan Ve'a. It is of an olive-brown color above and barred 
with black and white on the lower part of the body and the breast. Its 
compressed body and long toes enable it to run swiftly through the high grass 
of the marshes which it frequents. It may be heard frequently uttering 
its sharp note from among the reeds of the cienaga near Agaiia, though 
it is seldom seen. The natives catch it by laying snares in its paths. 
The native name has evidently been given it in imitation of its staccato 
note. It is good to eat. 

Gallinula chloropus. Gallinule. Moor-hen. 

Vernacular name, Puldtal, or Piildtat. — This is also a marsh-frequent- 
ing bird and is very good to eat. It is easily distinguished by a scarlet 
shield extending from the beak over the forehead. It is of a dark-bluish 
slate color with olive-brown mantle, wing coverts and tail coverts. Its 
legs are lemon-yellow with a scarlet garter above the knee. It has a few 
white stripes on the flanks, and the lower tail coverts are pure white. 
Like the Koko the Pulatal, though frequenting the neighborhood of vil- 
lages, is very shy. It takes wing with difficulty and when pursued 
usually runs for the nearest marsh ; but when once on the wing it is 
capable of sustained flight. It is most active at night. This species is 
widely spread over the world. It is like the Manu-a-lii of the Samoans. 

Poliolimnas cinereus. Gray Rail. 

Vernacular name, Kokd dikiki. — Smaller than the Marianne Rail. 
The name applied to it by the Japanese collectors, '' kalan galle," is 
evidently a native descriptive term, signifying "like a cock." It is 
caught by snares laid in its paths in the high grass and reeds. It is of a 

•Rutland, " History of the Pacific," in Trans. New Zeal. Inst. 29: 29. 1896. 



266 THE PLANT WORLD 

general olive-brown color with a gray breast, white belly and buff under 
tail coverts. It eats insects and tender shoots of grasses. 

Demiegretta sacra. Reef Heron. 

Vernacular name. — Ckuc/mkd, or C/iichukd. — This widely spread bird 
is not rare on the island. It frequents the sandy beaches. The general 
color of the adult is a dark slate. It is very shy and hard to approach. 

Ardetta sinensis.* Least Bittern. 

Vernacular name, Kdkkak, or Kakkag. — An ugly, skinny bird, of a red- 
dish-brown color, common near streams and in damp places inland as 
well as on the strand ; often seen flying over the plaza of the city of 
Agana. Native name is an imitation of its note. 

Numenius variegatus. Striped Curlew. 

Vernacular name, Kaldlan. — A shore bird with a long bill which 
curves downwards. Common during the times of migration. Often seen 
on newly cultivated fields and on the plaza. Rump of the adult bird 
white — closel}'^ allied to the Little Whaup, Numeneus phaeopiis, of Great 
Britain. 

Numenius cyanopus. Australian Curlew. 

Vernacular name, Kaldlan. — Larger than the preceding. Color of 
the rump uniform with that of the back. General color brown, much 
streaked and blotched. Common on newly cultivated fields. It is also 
common on the beach at low tide, but is very wary and hard to approach. It 
has a whistling note very much like that of the common Whaup of Great 
Britain. 

Limosa lapponica baueri. Pacific Godwit. 

Vernacular name, Kaldlan. — This bird occurs also in Samoa. I have 
not yet seen it in Guam, but the natives tell me that there is a kind of 
dulili with a straight beak, which at certain times of the year runs along 
the beach at low tide and eats crustaceans. It is a migratory bird breed- 
ing in Alaska and Northwestern Asia, and migrating south in winter. 

Gallinago megala. Snipe. 

Vernacular name, Dulili or Kaldlan dikiki. — Lieutenant Carpenter 
killed several of these birds last winter. The natives seemed to be unde- 
cided about the name, some calling them by the same name as the plovers, 
others declaring them to be small curlews. 

Charadrius fulvus. Pacific Golden Plover. 

Vernacular name, Dulili. — This is the commonest of the shore birds 
in Guam. It is often seen inland on cultivated fields. Specimens were 
shot by Lieutenant Carpenter in September. 

Squatarola squatarola. Bull-head. Black-bellied Plover. 

Vernacular name, Dulili. — Specimens were shot in the winter by 
Lieutenant Carpenter. Highly esteemed for food. Differs from true 
plovers in having a small hind toe. 

Arenaria interpres. Turnstone. 

Vernacular name, Dulili. — Also a common shore bird in Samoa. 

•Mr. Scale found this to be a new species, which he named ArdeUa bryani. 



THK PLANT WORLD 267 

Easily recognized by its bright orange-yellow legs. Several specimens 
were shot by Lieutenant Carpenter in the winter. 

Anas oustaleti. Marianne Wild Duck. 

Vernacular name, Ngadnga, or Ngadnga palau. — A duck frequenting 
the fresh -water swamps of the island. It is peculiar to the island, and 
resembles Anas superciliaris of Samoa and A. wyvilliana of Hawaii. It 
is very highly esteemed for food. Several were shot for the ofiBcers' 
mess by Lieutenant Carpenter. 

Gygis alba kittlitzi. White Tern. 

Vernacular name, C/iiingi, or Chiinge. — A beautiful snow-white tern 
which lays its &%^ on the bare limb of a tree. It is very common in 
Guam. The same species occurs in Samoa, where I have seen large 
flocks among the trees on the shores of Pangopango Bay. 

Anous stolidus. Noddy. 

Vernacular name, Fdhan. — Not uncommon about the cliffs of Orote 
peninsula. It is a brownish-black bird about 16 inches long, somewhat 
like a tern ; tail fanshaped, not forked. Often flies about ships at night 
and sometimes alights on the deck ; widely spread all over the world. 

Anous leucocapillus. White-capped Noddy. 

Vernacular name, Fdhan. — This bird also occurs in Samoa. It has 
a whitish, or hoary head, with dusky cheeks and black lores. It is 
smaller than the preceding and is of a sooty-brown color, the upper 
parts nearly black. 

Sula sula. Booby. Brown Gannet. 

Vernacular name, Luaii. — Common off "Orote peninsula. Pursues 
flying fishes, often darting and plunging for them from a great height. 
Often alights on decks of ships, where it sits stolidly, allowing itself to 
be taken. It is a large, brown, stupid bird; length about two feet and 
a half. In flying it alternately flaps its wings and then sails, after the 
manner of pelicans. 

Sula piscatrix. Red-footed Booby. White Gannet. 

I have seen this species at sea near the Island of Guam, but I have 
not been able to find a vernacular name for it here. It is similar to the 
common booby in form but is of a general white color, with red feet. 
When alighting on the deck of a ship it appears stupid, but when on the 
wing it is most graceful. Its presence is always indicative of shoals of 
fish swimming near the surface. It pursues them with great swiftness 
and darts upon them like a bolt, closing its wings just before plunging 
into the water. It is usually seen in flocks and flies in the same manner 
as the preceding species. 

Fregata aquila. Frigate Bird. Man-of-war Bird. 

Vernacular name, Payahya. — Not rare, but seldom seen near the shore 
of this island. Often seen hundreds of miles from shore. It frequently 
hovers over a ship as though attracted by curiosity. Body and wings 
very long and .slender, tail long and forked. They delight to soar at 
great heights, their flight recalling that of an eagle. They never dive, 
but pick up their food from the surface of the water with a backward 
motion of their hooked beak. I have the skull of a specimen shot by a 



268 THK PLANT WORLD 

native last November, in Tumhun Bay. Male brownish-black with 
greenish or purplish luster ; female with white on neck and breast. 

Phaethon lepturus. — Yellow-billed Tropic-bird. Boatswain. 

I have seen this bird at sea near Guam, but have not yet seen it on 
the island. They often fly in pairs hundreds of miles from land, and at 
night they hover over the ship as though attracted by the lights, some- 
times darting at the mast-head pennant. At such times their presence 
is made known by their sharp note, which resembles the creaking of a 
pulley. They are very graceful on the wing. General color of their 
plumage white, sometimes tinged with pink or salmon on the under parts 
and on their long filamentous middle tail feathers. They have black 
markings on the sides and wing coverts. 

In addition to the birds mentioned in the preceding list the following 
have been recorded from Guam : Lams vega, a gull (probably acciden- 
tal) ; Hydrochelidon leiicoptera, White-winged Black Tern (probably a 
rare visitor) ; Dioviedea nigripes, an albatross (probably accidental) ; 
Pufinus toiebrosus, the Shady Shear-water (one specimen in the Paris 
museum); Fidigula fidigida, a duck (on migration,) one specimen in 
the Paris museum) ; Fulica atra, Black Coot (probably accidental, one 
.specimen, Tring Museum) ; Tringa acuminata. Sharp-tailed Sand-piper ; 
Calidris arenaria, Sanderling ; Totanus hypoleiicus and Totamis glareola. 
Tell-tale Sand-pipers (on migrations) ; Heteractitis incanus, Wandering 
Tatler (on migrations). Two hawks have been recorded, but I think by 

mistake- 

[to be continued.] 



The St. Louis Exhibit of the Bureau 

of Plant Industry. 

[Those of our readers who were unable to atteurl the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion will be interested in the following account of the botanical, horticultural and other 
exhibits of the Bureau of Plant Industry, UuitedStatesDepartmentof Agriculture. — Ed.] 

Pathological laboratory. — The portion of the exhibit of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry devoted to pathology and physiology consists, first, of a 
small working laboratory in charge of Dr. Hermann von Schrenk and 
his assistants, Perley Spauldiug and Caroline Rumbold. This laboratory, 
in which diseased plants are shown in their fresh condition from day to 
day, has a complete equipment of culture materials, sterilizers, culture 
apparatus, microscopes, etc. On the walls surrounding this laboratory 
are exhibited charts, photographs, and colored illustrations of various 
plant and fruit diseases and the methods of their treatment. 

Diseases of cultivated crops. — One case is devoted to the principal 
maladies of cultivated crops, showing preserved specimens of various 



THE PLANT WORLD 269 

diseases. A complete series of the various stages of growth of the 
bitter-rot fungus is shown ; also various forms of the smut diseases of 
grasses, the leaf-spot on the sugar beet, and the black-knot of plum. 

On a separate rack next to this case are about forty different forms of 
leaf diseases of agricultural crops. In each instance a brief description 
of the particular disease accompanies the specimen, and recommendations 
as to how such disease may best be combated are given in most instances. 
Growing cultures of various fungi are shown. 

Timber diseases. — The case devoted to timber diseases contains a 
varied collection of diseased woods, showing the manner in which various 
timber-destroying fungi bring about the decay of living trees. Several 
large punks or fruiting organs of these fungi are shown growing on living 
trunks. 

Sugar beets. — A third case is devoted to an exhibit of sugar beets 
prepared by Dr. C. O. Townsend. The various stages in the develop- 
ment of the sugat beet, from the seed to the mature beet, are shown ; 
also the various steps in the preparation of the products and by-products 
of the sugar beet. 

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria. — A fourth case, prepared by Dr. George T. 
Moore, illustrates the relation of bacteria to the fixation of atmospheric 
nitrogen. In the lower part of the case, on one side, is shown the 
method of isolating the bacteria from nodules on leguminous plants and 
making poured plates ; transferring the organisms to nitrogen-free silica 
jelly and to nitrogen-free liquid media ; saturating sterilized cotton with 
this culture ; drying and packing the cotton ; together with packages of 
nutrient salts for making up the fresh culture liquid, and wrapped pack- 
ages ready to mail to applicants, thus illustrating the preparation and 
distribution of these organisms in general farming by the Department of 
Agriculture. 

On the opposite side of the case are illustrated the process of prepar- 
ing the culture, the inoculation and drying of the seed, and all steps 
necessary previous to sowing or storing the seed. Herbarium specimens 
of some of the various leguminous crops are exhibited, with special com- 
parison of inoculated and uninoculated plants, to demonstrate the benefit of 
nodule-forming bacteria. Some photographs are also included in this 
exhibit. 

Mushrooms. — The mushroom case, prepared by Dr. B. M. Duggar, is 
illustrative of the work in mushroom growing, and has been designed 
with the view of giving a general exposition of the mushroom industry 
and of the scientific work which is being done rationally to stimulate this 
industry. 

On the lowest shelf are shown the two types of mushroom beds (the 
flat bed and the ridge bed) in common use for the cultivation of Agaricus 
campestris. The habit of the mushroom is shown by means of plaster 
casts, each of these being a reproduction of a mushroom or a cluster of 
mushrooms grown in the experimental beds at Columbia, Mo. 

Three shelves are devoted to commercial spawns, edible commercial 
mushroom products — which, at present, are largely foreign — and views 
of the mushroom industry in France and in America. Among the spawns 
are to be found the English, the French, and the new American article. 

The products include nearly all species and grades of preserved mush- 



270 THE PLANT WORLD 

rooms which are to be found on the market, the most highly prized being 
the morels and the truffles. 

Three remaining shelves indicate some phases of the scientific work. 
In the large test tubes are new cultures of the spawn of many species 
of mushrooms, and these are supplemented by photographs showing the 
methods of making cultures. 

There are also shown preserved specimens and photographs of interest- 
ing edible mushrooms, which may be found in pastures, in lawns, and on 
decaying trees. 

Plant breeding. — A sixth case, containing an exhibit prepared by Dr. 
H. J. Webber, shows some of the work that has been accomplished in the 
improvement of plants by breeding. Various improved types of cotton 
are exhibited by means of photographs and specimens illustrating the 
processes used in producing hybrids and new fixed types, and in the selec- 
tion and improvement of imported types, such as Egyptian cottons. 

Here is also illustrated the advance that has been made in the produc- 
tion of hardy oranges by crossing the hardy Trifoliate orange with the 
tender and edible sweet orange, and in the production of improved and 
earlier varieties of the "kid glove," or Tangerine, orange, as well as 
other new and improved types. 

FIBER-PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

The principal plant fibers used in the textile industries of this coun- 
try — in twines, cordage, rope, thread, yarn, and woven goods — are shown 
in the forms in which they are found in commerce as they pass from the 
producer to the manufacturer. 

Living plants, with bales of fibers. — The exhibit is outlined by com- 
mercial bales of hemp, flax, cotton, jute, manila, and sisal as these are 
found on the market, and in most instances these bales are accompanied 
by growing plants showing the source of the fiber. Since cotton, hemp, 
and flax are the only fiber plants cultivated commercially in this country, 
most of the others had to be imported — manila from the Philippines, sisal 
from Yucatan, jute from India, and the various istle or Tampico fiber 
plants from Mexico. 

Hard and soft fibers. — In the center of the fiber group are two glass 
cases, one containing samples of hard fibres — manila, sisal, New Zealand, 
Mauritius, and istle, used chiefly for binder twine, rope, and cordage, 
and the other containing samples of typical cottons, such as American 
Upland, Sea Island, Egyptian, and Indian, and the soft fibers or bast 
fibers — hemp, flax, jute, and ramie — used more largely in woven goods 
and for small twines. 

Ropes and twines. — Samples of manila and sisal rope and binder 
twines, and also flax, hemp and jute twines, accompany the specimens 
of raw fiber, but no attempt has been made to exhibit many forms of 
articles or to show the different stages in the processes of manufacture. 

SEED LABORATORY. 

Seed-testing apparatus. — The apparatus used in making tests of seeds 
for mechanical purity and for germination, including special cleaning 
devices, forceps, and lenses for purity testing, and including also the 
Improved Standard Germinating Chamber, is exhibited. 

Weed seeds. — Under magnifiers and in bulk are shown the weed seeds 



THE PLANT WORLD 271 

most commonly found mixed with the seeds of grass and clover offered 
for sale. Accompanying these are live plants of each kind of weed so 
introduced. 

Impurities. — In open bowls and under magnifiers are shown samples 
of different grades of the more common grass and clover seeds. These 
are so arranged that seeds of the same kind but of different qualities may 
be easily compared. In tubes in frames on a nearby screen are exhibited 
the results of purity and germination tests of the same seed samples shown 
under the magnifiers. Here can be seen in connection with each sample 
the actual quantity present of dirt, chaff, weed seeds, and adulterants, 
as compared with the quantity of seed that will grow. The price at 
which these seeds were sold to the public is stated in each case, as well 
as the actual cost of the pure seed that will germinate and grow. 

Cheap adulterants. — Several of the samples illustrate the use of the 
seed of Canada bluegrass, meadow fescue, and yellow trefoil as cheap 
adulterants. In most cases the adulterants so closely resemble the seeds 
with which they are mixed, that they can not be distinguished except by 
careful examination with the aid of a magnifying glass. 

DRUG AND MEDICINAL PI.ANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

The exhibit of Drug and Medicinal Plant Investigations consists of 
crude drugs, shown in some cases in bags in large quantities and in other 
cases in small .samples in glass jars. 

Native crude drugs. — Twelve specimens exhibited in quantity repre- 
sent drugs either at present grown in this country or considered well 
adapted for growth in the United States or its dependencies. A growing 
plant in a tub accompanies each of these bags and shows the living plant 
concerned. In the cases of cinchona, eucalyptus, and cascara sagrada, 
where mature trees furnish the products exhibited, young trees are shown 
in the tubs. 

Native commercial drugs. — In a case at the end of the exhibit are 
shown about a hundred kinds of commercial drugs, all of which have 
been produced in the United States and nearly all from wild plants, though 
in a few instances samples from cultivated as well as from wild stock are 
shown . 

POISONOUS PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

The poisonous plant exhibit consists of two parts : 

Plants poisonous to man and to live stock. — First, water-color illus- 
trations of over fifty plants poisonous to mankind and to stock, in two 
groups, one representing those chiefly poisonous to man, and the other 
those poisonous to stock. In some cases, especially in the former class, 
plants which are sought and for which poisonous plants are sometimes 
mistaken are also exhibited, the grouping bringing together, for com- 
pari.son, the species confused. Nearly all the water colors are the work 
of the late Mr. Walpole, of the Department of Agriculture, who 
painted the various subjects from the living plants. 

Methods used in counteracting the effects of poisons. — The second part 
of the exhibit is shown in a case, on one side of which will be found 
apparatus made use of in connection with poisonous plant investigations, 



272 THE PLANT WORLD 

materials used as antidotes, and instruments employed in administering 
antidotes to live stock which have eaten poisonous plants. Instruments 
used in autopsies and in the laboratory are also included. 

Active principles of plant poisons. — On the other side of the case, 
dried material of a number of species and small quantities of active prin- 
ciples isolated from American poisonous plants are shown. 

Potted plants. — Potted specimens of some of the most important 
poisonous plants are exhibited. 

GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

The exhibit of the Office of Grass and Forage Plant Investigations is 
composed chiefly of the following groups of material : 

Models of haying machinery. — Models of hay balers, stackers, rakes, 
and other types of machinery used in haying operations ; photographs of 
machinery ; samples of smaller articles, such as baling ties and soft- 
ground horseshoes. 

Baled hay. — Samples of ordinary hay of a few standard varieties ; 
double compressed bales used for export ; a wireless bale ; and several 
bales illustrating the miscellaneous hays of the country. 

Mower parts. — The pitman attachments of several makes of mowing 
machines, showing the connection with the crank wheel and sickle — one 
of the most important parts of a mower. 

Model of sand dune. — A miniature sand dune, illustrating methods 
used to control drifting sand, such as plantations of beach grass, cover- 
ing with sand hedges, and the foundation of a barrier dune. 

Seeds of forage plants. — Seeds of about forty of the leading forage 
crops are displayed in half-gallon glass vials, while many distinct varieties of 
cowpeas, soy beans, sorghums, and millets are shown in smaller vials. 

Silo construction. — The central pavilion in this exhibit is a cylinder 
13 feet in diameter and 12 feet high. The interior is reached through 
four doorways, in the sides or jambs of which are built cross sections 
showing actual silo construction. Four types of silos are thus illustrated ; 
namely, a stave silo, two kinds of round wood silo (one merely sheathed, 
while the other is lathed and covered with cement plaster), and a round 
brick silo. 

Dried grasses and forage plants. — Upon the walls of the central pavilion 
or silo are placed sheaves and dried specimens of native and cultivated 
grasses, alfalfa, and other forage plants from all parts of the United States. 

POMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

1. Commercial apples of the Mississippi Valley. — A collection of models 
of the leading commercial varieties of apples grown in the Mississippi 
Valley and Upper Lake regions occupies two case fronts. This collection 
consists exclusively of such varieties as have demonstrated their adapta- 
bility to commercial culture in various sections of the region extending 
from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. It comprises varieties ripening through- 
out the season from early June in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, 
until late October in the more northern States. 

2. New or little-known apples of the Mississippi Valley. — A collection 
of new or little-known varieties of apples that are considered worthy of 



THE PLANT WORLD 273 

testing in the Mississippi Valley and Upper Lake regions either for com- 
mercial or amateur planting occupies one case front. It consists chiefly 
of varieties that have been introduced by nurserymen since the World's 
Columbian Exposition in 1893, although it includes also certain older 
sorts that have not heretofore been known outside the localities of their 
origin. 

3. General collection of fruits grown in the United States. — A general 
collection of the fruits grown in the various portions of the United States 
occupies fifteen case fronts. This comprises the more important varieties 
of apples, crab apples, pears, quinces, peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, 
cherries, cranberries, strawberries, oranges, lemons, pomelos, limes, cit- 
rons, kakis, loquats, avocados, mangoes, sapodillos, persimmons, and 
miscellaneous tropical and subtropical fruits. Small maps in these cases 
indicate the general regions within which each species is grown. 

4. Standard grades of apples. — The standard commercial grades of 
winter apples, as adopted by the International Apple Shippers' Associa- 
tion, are illustrated by models of certain leading commercial varieties dis- 
played in sections of apple barrels of standard size in one exhibition case. 
Both " No. 1 " and " No. 2 " grades of several varieties are shown, the 
smallest specimens in each package representing the minimum size of fruit 
of that variety which is permitted in that grade. 

5. Summer apples, pears, and peaches packed for export. — The methods 
of packing and forwarding experimental export shipments of the perish- 
able summer fruits by the Department of Agriculture are illustrated by 
two exhibition cases of summer apples, pears, and peaches packed in the 
kinds of packages that have been found best adapted to their particular 
requirements. These shipments are made by the Department in cooper- 
ation with fruit growers in different parts of the country for the purpose 
of determining the best methods of packing these fruits for shipment to 
foreign countries. Many radical changes in the methods of packing 
practiced with these fruits in our domestic markets have been found 
necessary to insure their delivery in sound and wholesome condition in 
European markets. Certain varieties of delicate texture that were until 
recently considered impossible of successful trans- Atlantic shipment have 
been found exceedingly profitable to export when properly handled. 

Details regarding the shipments, packages, and methods of packing 
recommended are shown on the display labels in the cases with these 
exhibits. 

6. Studies in fruit storage. — The influence of the cultural and climatic 
conditions that affect the growth of the tree and fruit and of the methods 
of harvesting and storing to which the fruit is subjected upon its ultimate 
keeping quality in cold storage is illustrated by four exhibition cases of 
fac-simile models displayed in sections of commercial packages. 

7. Standard varieties of pecans. — A collection of samples of the ten 
varieties of pecans that have been disseminated by budding and grafting 
for a sufficient time to entitle them to recognition as standard varieties 
occupies one exhibition table. Several samples of most of the varieties 
in this collection are shown, thus illustrating the modification of the nuts 
of varieties of this species by differing environmental conditions. 

8. Promising new varieties of pecans. — The remaining exhibition table 
contains a collection of promising new varieties of pecans that have been 



274 THE PLANT WORLD 

recently introduced by commercial nurserymen. In many instances the 
specimens shown are from the original trees of the respective varieties. 
The climatic and cultural range of these new varieties is not yet deter- 
mined. 

9. Water-color paintings of fruits. — A representative collection of water- 
color paintings of fruits is displayed upon the partition at the rear of the 
collections of pecans. These paintings are accurate delineations of the 
varieties they represent, and illustrate the effectiveness of this important 
method of recording varietal characters. They are specimens from the 
collection of fruit illustrations in the Office of thePoraologist, from which 
are taken such original paintings for reproduction as plates as are used 
in the Yearbook and other publications of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

The paintings in this collection are by Miss D. G. Passmore and Miss 
Bertha Heiges, artists. 

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 

Foreign plants. — The exhibit of the Office of Seed and Plant Intro- 
duction and Distribution consists of specimens, photographs, and models 
of some of the foreign plant cultures which have either been successfully 
introduced into America by the Department of Agriculture and have 
added materially to the agricultural wealth of the country, or are now being 
studied by the experts in this Office with a view to the growing of these 
crops in the various portions of the United States where they are most 
likely to be financially successful. These specimens, photographs, and 
models represent only a very small percentage of the thousands of seeds 
and plants which have been introduced since the establishment of the 
Office in 1897. They are such, from the preliminary examination which 
has been made of them, as are deemed worthy of a prominent place in 
the estimation of American agriculturists. 

Agricultural explorations. — Many of the articles exhibited have been 
secured in foreign countries by the agricultural explorers of the Office ; 
some of the most important have been presented by the Hon. Barbour 
Lathrop, of Chicago, while others have been obtained through corres- 
pondents in various parts of the world. The wide range of fruits, vege- 
tables, and grains exhibited illustrates the possible benefit to the country 
of this branch of the work of the Department, which has been systemati- 
cally carried on for less than seven years. 

Promising introductions. — The exhibits include the famous Kiushu 
rices of Japan, which liav^e been so remarkably successful in the newly 
irrigated regions of Louisiana and Texas ; macaroni wheats gathered by 
agricultural explorers in Russia, on the northern coast of Africa, and in 
Italy, which have shown their remarkable ability to thrive in the arid 
belt of farming country of western Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas ; 
fodder crops from Egypt and Algiers, including the remarkable Egyptian 
clover called Berseem, which is without doubt the best annual winter 
fodder plant for irrigated regions having a mild winter climate ; timber 
bamboos from Japan, which are among the most profitable plant cultures 
of that country ; the Japanese paper plant, from which the most delicate 
paper in the world is made and which it is hoped can be grown econom- 
ically enough to lead to the creation of a new plant industry in the Gulf 



THE PLANT WORIvD 275 

States ; the famous wrapper tobacco from Sumatra, of which there is a 
large export from that country to America ; the date palm from the Sahara 
and the banks of the Tigris, whose successful cultivation in Arizona and 
California has been practically assured by the experiments already made ; 
the pistache nut from the Levant, a delicious table nut as common in Greece 
as are salted peanuts in this country ; the mango from the oriental tropics, 
a fruit which will some day be as common on American tables as the grape 
fruit, and which can be successfully grown in southern Florida and in 
Porto Rico ; the famous Smyrna fig. the successful introduction of which 
was due in part to the work of the Department of Agriculture and which 
has led to the establishment of a profitable industry in California ; a new 
Japanese salad plant called Udo, which may some day rival our well- 
known salads in importance ; the hard-shelled almond from Spain, the 
kernels of which bring the highest prices paid by confectioners and whose 
delicate flavors are not equaled by any of the almonds hitherto cultivated 
in California ; a superlative variety of horse-radish from Moravia, called 
Maliner Kren, which is considered by Viennese gourmets the finest fla- 
vored variety in the world ; a brewing barley from Austro-Hungary called 
Hanna, which is recognized throughout southern Europe as the best 
brewing barley on the Continent ; and the long-staple silky cotton from 
Egypt, of which our manufacturers import every year many thousand 
dollars' worth from the Nile Valley, and which has been crossed success- 
fully with the short-staple Upland cotton of our Southern States. 

CEREAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Introduced grains. — The exhibit of introduced grains consists of a 
number of specimens in different stages, both before and after threshing 
and when manufactured into meal and flower, showing the most important 
varieties that have so far been obtained by the Department of Agriculture 
in foreign countries and brought to the United States for growing by our 
farmers. Several varieties of durum (macaroni) wheat, Japanese rice, 
Swedish Select oat, emmer, and three important varieties of Russian prose 
(broom-corn millet) are given special prominence, while several kinds of 
oats, barley, and buckwheat are less conspicuously shown. 

Durum wheat. — Because of its relative importance a large part of the 
space assigned to cereals is devoted to Durum wheat and special attention 
is directed to a number of important products which can be made from 
that grain, thus emphasizing its commercial value. Bromide pictures 
illustrate many interesting features in the grain industry and show the 
various cereals in cultivation. 

Swedish Select and Sixty Day oats. — Two other specially valuable 
grains introduced into this country by the Department of Agriculture are 
the Swedish Select and Sixty Day oats, the former being particularly 
adapted to the northernmost districts of the United States and the Sixty 
Day oat to the middle latitudes. 

[to be concluded.] 



276 THE PLANT WORLD 



Briefer Articles. 



RIVER BOTANIZING. 

Some of our most beautiful wild flowers are best seen by a canoe-sail 
up a small inland river. Such creeks and rivers, unknown to any but 
local fame, abound in Rhode Island. At Providence alone, besides the 
navigable Seekonk (above Pawtucket, known as the Blackstone), we have 
the Pawtuxet, the Woonasquatucket, the Pokasset, the Mooshassuck, 
and the Ten Mile. The latter is bewitchingly lovely and is a favorite 
resort of canoeists. On it is the fine cascade at Hunt's Mills in East 
Providence. This little river has its source near Attleboro, Mass., and 
finally debouches into the Seekonk, opposite Providence, at Philipsdale. 
If one enters it below Hunt's Mills he must " carry " around the obstruc- 
tion at that point. 

The other day, with one of my academic colleagues, botanical but 
not a professed botanist, I took a canoe at Central Pond, well above the 
fall, and was paddled by him and a comrade up the stream about a mile 
and a half. The course was very tortuous and meandering, with many 
surprises in its intricate tarns. In fact, I, who was unfamiliar with the 
river, was often quite at a loss to guess our advance. 

A thick fringe of alders, button-ball now ruddy in fruit, various 
silvery willows, cornels, viburnums, and other shrubbery fringed the 
shores. Again, in places, the forest trees came down to the very banks, 
the swamp white oak, iron-woods, birches, beeches, maples and chest- 
nuts. We turned into one little cove that was positively aglow with car- 
dinal flowers, their gorgeous scarlet equally brilliant in the mirror of the 
water. About these hummed multitudinous small Hymenoptera and 
Diptera. 

The copses were tangled with masses of wiry dodder in full bloom, 
while here and there a wreath of clematis was flung over a bush. We 
passed tall platoons of joe-pye weed (^Eupatormm purpureum) , lesser 
squads of thorough-wort (^E. per/oliatuni), and videttes of turtle-head 
{.Chelone glabra). The turks-cap lily was still in bloom — brilliant cande- 
labra afar in the meadows. An occasional branch of red maple, fully 
colored, heralded the coming of September. In the water itself we 
passed through vales of sweet-flag and sedge, among which grew the 
ever-picturesque pickerel-weed {,Pontaderia cordata^. Big yellow buttons 
of spatter-dock were not uncommon, and there were Potamogetons and 
other aquatic plants galore. 



THE PIvANT WORIvD 277 

On this perfect day, when over the blue sky the white clouds sailed — 

" Like ships upon the sea," 

I thought why should any one be cooped up in the hot city ? Why, 
when he escapes therefrom, must he feel it ever necessary to seek distant 
scenes and at great expense ? Here, within fifteen minutes of his home, 
he can leave noise, dust, heat, all the municipal abominations, to find 
" the bliss of solitude." 

We met not a single person in our voyage. Our vasculum was filled 
to the brim. The only sounds were the splash of a sunning turtle (whose 
voice was not heard in the land!) or the plunge of a surprised musk-rat. 
I said to my guide, the professor, " I have, for the time, knocked off 
twenty years from my age! " So, humming old songs, telling old stories, 
full of the sweet air, and blessed with juvenile appetite, we reached 
home. To botanist and wood-lover alike, we commend our inland rivers. 

Prof. W. Whitman Bailey. 



THE WHITE PRICKLY POPPY IN NORTHWESTERN OHIO. 

September 13th the writer was called to the beautiful home of Mr. 
W. H. Doll, one of the leading druggists in St. Marys, Ohio, where the 
lady of the house, who is very much interested in flowers and plants in 
general, directed his attention to a plant growing in her flower beds that 
.she pronounced an unknown one to her, but correctly supposed to belong 
to the Poppy family. I at once recognized it as Argemone alba, the 
White Prickly Poppj', but was not a little astonished to find this plant, a 
decidedly western and southern species whose range is given by Britton 
& Brown's Flora as South Dakota to Texas, Arizona and Mexico, east to 
Florida, in northwestern Ohio as a seemingly well established, although 
local, plant that was growing, as Mrs. Doll told me, for about two or 
three years as a beautiful but nevertheless unwelcome weed in her garden. 
She accounted for its appearance on her grounds by the fact that a hitherto 
untouched somewhat dry and very hard spot along a stone wall, had 
recently been dug up, and suggested that the seeds of the plant might 
have lain dormant below this hard layer. But as she has been living 
about thirty years already on this property without having noticed a plant 
like this before, it would be an extraordinary case of longevity and preser- 
vation of the germinating faculty of such a tiny and not at all hard-shelled 
seed. I rather think that by the digging up of this spot a suitable place 
was afforded for the germination of some stray seeds of Argemone alba, but 
do not imdertake to explain the sudden appearance of the seeds here, 
never having learned of any previous occurrence of this species in Ohio. 
It seems to be one of those often observed but never sufficiently explained 
instances of over-leaping of wide spaces by wandering plants which sud- 



278 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

denly spring up in localities far from their proper native haunts, — or does 

any one of the readers of The Plant World know of some intermediate 

stations of the plant in question, nearer to Anglaize County, Ohio, than 

South Dakota, Texas or Florida? I should be very thankful for any 

information and particulars concerning such occurrences. 

A. Wetzstein. 
St. Marvs, Ohio. 



The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



No INDEPENDENT nominations having been filed for members of the 
Board of Managers, we reprint herewith the list of vacancies to be filled 
and the ofiicial nominations thereto. 

Terms of the following Managers expire with the current year : 

Prof. W. J. Be.\l, Michigan Agricultural College. 

Mr. Joseph Crawford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Walter Deane, Cambrifige, Mass. 

Mr. Charles L. Pollard, Springfield, Mass. 

Dr. William Trelease, Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Prof. C. F. Wheeler, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture. 

Official list of nominees : 

Prof. W. J. Beal, Michigan Agricultural College. 

Mr. Joseph Crawford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Walter Deane, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Charles L. Pollard, Springfield, Mass. 

Dr. William Treleask, Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Prof. C. F. Wheeler, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture. 

Prof. W. A. Kellerman, Ohio State University. 

Prof. F. E. Lloyd, Teachers College, New York. 

Mr. Charles F. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Alice Lounsbekry, New York City. 

Prof. Clara E. Cummings, Wellesley College. 

Mr. Stewardson Bkown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. N. L. Britton, New York Botanical Garden. 

Dr. D. T. MacDougal, New York Botanical Garden. 

Miss Juliet C. Pattkn, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. F. V. CoviLLE, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture. 

Prof. E. A. Apgar, Orange, N. J. 

Mr. J. Horace MacFarland, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Prof. J. W. HarshberGER, University of Pennsylvania. 

All members of the Society in good standing are requested to send in 
their votes for six names on this list to the Secretary, Mrs. N. ly. Britton, 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York, not later than 
December 20, 1904. 



THE PLANT WORLD 279 



Editorial Announcement. 



We desire to announce to our readers that a controlling interest in 
The Plant World has been purchased by Professor Francis E. Lloyd, 
of the Teacher's College, Columbia University, New York City, who has 
conducted our Teachers' Department so successfully during the past 
year, and on January 1, 1905, the magazine will pass under his editorial 
charge. While Professor Lloyd has not completed final arrangement of 
all details, it is probable that the permanent oflBce of The Plant World 
will be located in New York City. Further announcements will be made 
in the December issue. The present subscription price ($1.50) will re- 
main unchanged. 

Mr. Charles Louis Pollard, who has been closely identified with this 
publication from its inception, originally as an associate editor, and since 
June, 1900, as the chief owner and responsible editor, has been invited to 
remain as an associate under the new management, and will contribute 
occasional articles. The back numbers, from Vol. 1 to 7 inclusive, will 
remain in his hands for sale as heretofore. 

It should be a source of satisfaction to our readers that the future of 
the magazine is assured under such favorable auspices. Professor Lloyd's 
wide reputation as a teacher, and the skill which he has displayed during 
the past year in making his department a feature of living interest to all 
engaged in educational work, insures success for the magazine in the 
schools ; while its location in New York City, near so large a centre of 
literary activity as Columbia University, will gain for it an added prestige. 
We shall defer our actual valedictory until the concluding issue of the 
volume in December, at which time we shall also publish a brief sketch 
of the history of this magazine. 



280 THE PIvANT WORLD 

Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. I^loyd. 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York Ciiv. 



BOTANY AS A FACTOR IN EDUCATION. 

Professor John M. Coulter, of. the University of Chicago, has 
recently published his views in regard to ' ' Botany as a Factor in Educa- 
tion."* The discussion involves two points, (l) the special function of 
botany in secondary education ; and (2) the general function of botany 
as a representative scientific stud}'. 

In speaking of the first point, Professor Coulter expresses the belief 
that botany has been made secure in secondary education, although its 
full importance is not recognized by all those in whose hands the making 
of school programs lies. It is pointed out that the subject has suffered 
from the widely spread misconception that it is concerned chiefly with 
aesthetic matters and that it is not a matter for serious study and thought. 

Certainly botany has suffered from this cause; so much so, that from 
time to time a good many botanists, concerned with the fate of their 
subject in the schools, have found therein the justification for vigorous and 
sometimes almost violent expressions of criticism of those who, with the 
best of intentions, have been in part responsible for the state of things 
so roundly condemned. Among the bad results there is to be noticed 
that, inasmuch as botany has been supposed to be " peculiarlj' adapted to 
females, ' ' the impression has become strong that it is peculiarly unadapted 
to the opposite sex. I believe, however, that we have been gradually 
changing our point of view, so that we now incline to attribute virility 
of intellect to girls as well as to boys. It would be distinctly unsafe for a 
teacher nowadays not to take this view, for he would bring himself into 
disfavor with the girls and his subject into disrepute with both. 

Nevertheless, I believe also that Professor Coulter's optimism, cheer- 
ing though it may be, is not whollj"- safe, because it does not accord with 
the observed facts, in some cases at least. Within the last few days my 
attention has been drawn to the fact that the biological studies have been 
wholly removed from the curriculum of a certain high school which 
enjoys the reputation of being one of the best in this country. The reason 
given is that the interest and attention of the pupils, particularly the boys, 
are not captured and sustained by "bugology," as these pupils super- 
ciliously call zoology. The botany does not even share the honor of a 
place in their nomenclature of disdain. I must not forget to point out 
that the official concerned does not himself sympathize with the pupils, 



• The School Review, 12 : 609-617, October. 1904. 



THE PLANT WORLD 281 

but is forced to regretfully withdraw these studies for the present. In all 
advances temporary retreats are unavoidable, and, in the long run, the 
optimism of the Chicago professor will be rewarded. But, — and here is 
the issue to be faced, — the fight is not yet won. To win, we must con- 
stantly re-examine with all candor the conditions in the schools, and 
direct attention to better them. 

The chiefest condition for teaching botany well in everj' sense is to 
be found in the good teacher, and our schools must meet this fact by pro- 
viding a salary for such a teacher in botany equal to that of teachers in 
other branches. Nor can the circumstance that laboratory studies make 
demands on the time and strength of a teacher in other ways than in 
instruction alone be disregarded, as is largely now the case. When 
these two conditions are rightly understood, if botany is taught at all, it 
will be much better taught than at present. Such understanding may 
however not be had unless it is clearly seen that botany has a real and 
peculiar value second to no other subject in importance. Study of this 
point and constant reiteration and clarification are necessary, not only by 
those who are concerned with botany as such, but much more by the 
teachers who, from their daily contact with pupils in secondary schools, 
are in a position to use inductive methods. This has been done up to 
the present time only in a cursory way, and botany will be assured of 
its position only when this shall have been done carefully and with a 
large degree of completeness. 

The general grounds upon which the acceptance of botany rests are 
stated by Professor Coulter to be in brief as follows : 

1. Plants enter very largely into humaii experieyice. Much common 
experience can not be interpreted without some knowledge of plants. 
Their ' ' enormous importance to human welfare ' ' is incontrovertibly 
significant. 

2. Plants reveal the fundamental laws of life. Plants and animals may 
be used to illustrate the same biological principle. Plants have advan- 
tages of availability, of being easier and more pleasant to handle, of 
being simpler illustrations of biological phenomena and illustrate a 
peculiar physiological feature of overwhelming importance to human life, 
the process of food manufacture. 

3. Plants are favorable for biological experiment. Since any sort of 
adequate knowledge is impossible without the study of living organisms 
under experiment, it is evident that plants offer important advantages in 
this direction. 

4. Plants aloTie can give what are known in biology as mass phenomena. 
The arrangement of plants into associations, and the inter-relations and 
adjustments of these are possible of observation by elementary pupils. 



282 THE PLANT WORLD 

In concluding, it is pointed out that, while the important principles 
above mentioned may be common to all successful teaching, the details 
of approach and method will rightly always vary with the teacher, since 
independence of thought and judgment necessarily characterize good 
teachers. The value of text-books lies in their embodiment of different 
methods and suggestions. For the above reasons, colleges may deter- 
mine in a general way only the amount and kind of botanical study to be 
required for entrance requirements, the details of subjects and methods 
being left to the individual teacher. 

In discussing the general function of botany as a representative 
scientific study, Professor Coulter points out that the peculiar training 
given by scientific study is necessary to every properly educated person. 
Space will, however, not permit more than this bare statement. The 
paper in full should be read by all earnest students of education. 



The series of lectures delivered by Professor Hugo de Vries at the 
University of California on ' ' The Theory of the Origin of Species and 
Varieties by Means of Mutation ' ' are to be published under the editorship 
of Dr. D. T. MacDougal by the Open Court Publishing Co. of Chicago. 
It is fortunate that the gist of De Vries's great work, "Die Mutations- 
theorie," will thus be made available to American students in this form, 
and great usefulness may be predicted for the book. 

An inflammatory and ulcerous condition of the mucous membrane 
of the mouth in cattle, a disease of non-infectious character and not 
serious in nature, and not to be confused with the ' ' foot and mouth 
disease," is caused, it appears, by fungi parasitic on forage plants. No 
one known species has yet been determined to be the sole cause ; indeed 
it is not improbable that several kinds of rusts and moulds possess the 
power to cause the irritation which sets up the diseased condition.* 

A DISEASE of the Calla Lily called the soft rot is caused by a 
motile bacterial organism, consisting of a short rod provided with two to 
eight flagella, known as Bacillus aroideae. The disease commences as 
a softening of the upper portion of the short underground stem (corm) 
near the surface of the ground, and the whole corm may be completely 
rotted in a few days. The leaf and flower stalks may also be attacked 
and become softened and unable to support the weight of the leaf or 
flower, t 

The largest tree in the world is reported again ; this time from 
the vicinity of Mt. Etna. It is a chestnut, said to be 212 feet in circumfer- 
ence 60 feet from the ground." — Forestry and Irrigation, October, 1904. 

• " Mycotic Stomatitis of Cattle." U. S. Dept. Agri., Bur. An. Indust., Circulars:. 

t "A Soft Rot of the Calla Lily," by C. O. Townsend. U. S. Dept. Agri., Bur. PI. Indust., Bull. 60. 



THE PLANT WORLD 283 

It is pleasing to note that Professor E. O. Wooton, of the New Mexico 
College of Agriculture, is alive to the possibilities of using the native 
plants of the region for ornamental planting. Any one who has visited 
towns in the arid portions of the United States has noticed the attempts 
to grow plants ill adapted to desert conditions at a heavy cost for water. 
" Native and Ornamental Plants of New Mexico "* ought to prove dis- 
tinctly educative in respect to this matter. 

Teachers in rural schools especially could make good use of a bulletint 
treating of " Weeds Used in Medicine." Illustrations and descriptions 
are given of a number of common weeds which are sources of drugs now 
imported from abroad. Directions for collection and curing are also given. 
It is quite possible for these plants, which are regarded as merely a pest, 
to be made a by-product of farming, and thus a source of income, with a 
slight additional expenditure of effort. The children might well learn 
to collect and cure these weeds and get in this way some ' ' practical 
education." 

An excellently illustrated account of the tropical forest is to be 
had in Bulletin 48, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
entitled "The Forests of the Havv-aiian Islands," by W. L. Hall. 
Bulletin 46 contains a full description of the culture and manipulation 
of the Basket Willow by W. F. Hubbard, together with a chapter on the 
injurious insects by F. H. Chittenden. 

Living materials for plant study may be obtained from the Plant Study 
Company, Cambridge, Mass. 



Book Reviews. 



The Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools. By F. E. 

Lloyd, A. M., and Maurice A. Bigelow, Ph. D., Professors in Teachers 

College, Columbia University. Pp. i-ix and 485. New York : 

Longmans, Green «& Co., 1904. 

That the teacher of any subject needs a special preparation for teach- 
ing, in addition to a knowledge of subject-matter, is a truth that even yet 
fails of general recognition. The prospective teacher of botany, for 
example, is advised to prepare for his life work by merely studying more 
botany. If success in the class-room comes at all it is only by the " cut- 
and-try " method, and rule of thumb, instead of well established prin- 
ciples serving to guide the instructor. Thus teaching becomes a trade and 
not a profession. 

Those who believe that there are matters of more vital concern to the 
secondar}' school teacher than enlarging the boundaries of our present 
knowledge, and who realize that the teacher, as a teacher, needs, not so 
much to know more things to teach, but how to organize and present 
what is already known will welcome the recent volume by Lloyd and 
Bigelow on '"The Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools." 

The second part of the book, by Professor Bigelow, deals with the 
teaching of Zoology and Human Physiology, and does not concern us 
here. The first 236 pages by Professor Lloyd discuss The Teaching 

»Bulletin 51, Agri. Exp. Station, Mcsala Park, N. Mex. 
t Fanners' Bulletin 18S, U. S. Dept. of Agri. 



284 THE PIvANT WORLD 

of Botany and of Nature Study. The following are the titles of the ten 
chapters : The value of science, and particularly of biology in education ; 
nature study ; the value of botany in secondary education ; the various 
types of botanical courses ; use of the method of thought in teaching 
botany ; general botanical principles to be emphasized in teaching ; 
detailed discussion of the course in botany for the high school ; the labor- 
atory, its equipment, materials for study and for demonstration ; botan- 
ical literature for the use of teachers and students. 

It will be noted at a glance that some of these chapters serve to give 
the teacher a point of view and enable him to see his work in proper 
perspective. Others contain ideas and information directly applicable in 
the class-room. 

This work, with Ganong's " The Teaching Botanist," are the only 
attempts, so far. to treat the subject from the educational standpoint. 
While somewhat similar in scope the difference between the two volumes 
is sufficient to make them both desirable for the teacher. 

The publishers should receive credit for the attractive appearance of 
the volume, uniform with the five other published numbers of the Ameri- 
can Teachers Series. 

The book is the outgrowth of practical class work and nearly every 
page shows evidence that the author is speaking from a wide experience. 

We look in vain for the di.scussion of some topics with which every 
thoughtful teacher is concerned, e. g., the place of botany in the high 
school course (briefly touched by Bigelow, p. 331, et seg.); correlation 
of laboratory and field exercises with class work and lectures ; different 
courses " for life " and for college entrance (though the author's views 
may doubtless be correctly inferred from chapter 4). 

One questions the advisability of introducing "Symbiosis in roots" 
(p. 173) before any study of fungi has been made, and of endeavoring to 
homologize the clinging organs of climbing plants (p. 178) before anj^ 
study of .stems and leaves ; also of introducing transpiration (p. 178) before 
.studying leaves. It would seem difficult to avoid giving the idea that 
respiration is a function of leaves only if the suggestion on p. 182 is 
adopted. ' ' Microscopic propositions ' ' (p. 134) is doubtless a typograph- 
ical error. The meaning of the asterisk in Chapter X is not explained. 

These features, however, are the more easily mentioned because they 
are so few. It is refreshing to have the author emphasize the fact that 
the end of botany study in the high school is something more than a 
knowledge of plants (Ch. Ill), to urge the introduction of historical 
allusions (p. 96), and to advocate so forcibly and sensibly a straight- 
forward presentation of the essential facts of sexual reproduction. 

Chapter VII is an excellent analysis of the fundamental principles 
with which every introductory course should serve to acquaint the pupil. 
The chapter on nature study is sane and timely, and will be wholesome 
reading, not onl}' for mo.st teachers, but for the authors of some nature 
study books as well. 

The bibliographies are well chosen, and concise summaries of each 
chapter, together with marginal analysis of the contents of each page, add 
much to the value of the book as a text. Everj' progressive teacher of 
botany will read it and be profited by it, and it should be in every school 
library. C. Stuart Gager. 

State Normal College, Albauy, N. Y. 



The Plant World. 



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The Plant World 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF POPULAR BOTANY 



Official Organ of 
The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

OF America 



Vol. VII DECEMBER, 1904 No. 12 

Extracts from the Note-Book of a Nat- 
uralist on the Island of Guam.— XXV. * 

By William K. Safford. 

Thursday, June 14. — This has been a great day. The whole town 
turned out for a grand fishing fiesta on the reef. Last night a number 
of the natives prepared several bags of macerated pulp of Puting fruit 
(^Barringtonia speciosa) , and this morning these were lowered into a large 
basin, or hole, in the coral reef opposite this city. The bags had 
been perforated in a number of places, and as soon as their contents 
began to diffuse fishes by the hundreds came floating to the surface, some 
dead and some feebly swimming belly up. The natives beat them 
with paddles and clubs, scooped them up with nets and even dove for 
them and caught them in their hands. A number of Caroline Islanders 
from the colony a little to the eastward of Agana were armed with two- 
pronged spears. Some of the younger ones looked like bronze statues 
in their abbreviated costume. Mr. Scale, of the Hawaiian Museum, 
took advantage of this opportunity to add to his collection of fishes. 

Susana accompanied us to the beach. We told her that Mr. Scale 
wanted a specimen of every kind of fish caught, no matter how ugly or how 
insignificant. As a rule Susana behaves with dignity; but to-day 
she tucked up her petticoat as high as her knees and waded out on the 
reef, a veritable pirate, swooping down upon one basket after another 
and helping herself at will. Everybody seemed glad to contribute to the 

* Concluded from the November issue. Begun in September, 1902. 



286 THE PLANT WORLD 

collection. It was soon understood what we wanted, and the natives 
handed out the rarest and most curious forms in their baskets. Seale 
offered to pay for them all, but many refused, saying that the fish they 
had given were worth little for food. Many pleasant repartees were 
exchanged by Susana and her victims, and there were peals of laughter 
wherever she went. They called her " chelu-ho " (sister) and seemed 
proud to be robbed. 

Returning to my house, we sorted out the various species into little 
piles. We were accompanied by two of the fishermen, so that they might 
give us the vernacular names and tell us how the different kinds are 
usually caught, whether by net or hook or by trawling. Susana knew 
nearly all the names, and she told us which were best for food. I took 
notes on the colors while the fish were still fresh, as most of them begin 
to fade immediately after they are put into alcohol. Nothing more 
striking could be imagined than the brightly colored and strangely formed 
fishes in our collection — snake-like sea eels (Ophicthus, Muraena, and 
Echidna) ; voracious lizard-fishes (Synodus) ; gar-like hound-fishes 
(Tylosurus), with their jaws prolonged into a sharp beak; half-beaks 
(Hemiramphus), with the lower jaw projecting like an awl and the upper 
one having the appearance of being broken off ; long-snouted trumpet- 
fishes (Fistularia) ; flounders {Platophrys pavo) ; porcupine-fish {Diodon 
hystrix), bristling with spines ; mullets of several kinds (Mugil), highly 
esteemed as food-fishes ; pike-like Sphyraenas ; squirrel-fishes (Holocen- 
trus) of the brightest and most beautiful colors — scarlet, rose, and 
silver, and yellow and blue ; surmullets (Upeneus and Pseudupeneus) 
of various shades of yellow, marked with bluish lines from the eye to 
the snout; parrot-fishes (Scarus), with large scales, parrot-like beaks, and 
intense colors, some of them a deep greenish blue, others looking as 
though painted opaque blue and pink ; variegated Chaetodons, called 
"sea butterflies" by the natives; black-and-yellow banded banner-fish 
{Zanclus canescens); trunkfishes (Ostracions), with horns and armor; 
a gaily striped surgeon fish ( Teuthis lijieahis) called hiyug, with longi- 
tudinal stripes of yellow-black-blue-black-yellow ; leopard-spotted group- 
ers {Epinephelus hexagonahis) , like the cabrillas of the Peruvian coast ; 
cardinal-fishes iApogon fasciatvs) striped from head to tail with bands 
of black and flesh color ; hideous-looking warty toad-fishes ( ' ' nufa ' ' ) 
armed with poisonous spines, much dreaded by the natives ; and a 
black fish called tataga {Monoceras viarginatiis) , with a spur on its 
forehead and two sharp processes on the peduncle of its tail. 

The natives do not now devote themselves to fishing so extensively 
as formerly, yet many of them have cast nets with which they catch 
small fish swimming in schools near the beach, and a few have traps and 
seines. To-day the large pool in which the poison was sunk was sur- 



THK PI.ANT WORI.D 287 

rounded by seines. Among the fish we caught there were very few 
pelagic species. We got no bonitos nor flying-fishes. The custom of trawl- 
ing for these is nearly obsolete. In the olden times one of the 
favorite sports of the natives was to go out under sail in their won- 
derful "flying praos " trawling for bonitos. Wives accompanied their 
husbands and vied with them in managing the sails and in swimming 
and diving. The custom of using the fruits of Barringtonia as a 
fish intoxicant is widely spread throughout the islands of the Pacific. 
It was forbidden by the Spanish government on account of the whole- 
sale destruction of many fish too small for food. The fishing of to-day 
was the first of the kind for several years.* 

Thursday, June 28. — It is a beautiful morning. The sky is deep 
blue, the clouds soft and white, and the hills back of the town are of a rich 
yellow-green in the morning sunlight. There is just enough breeze to 
stir the feathery crests of the coconut palms. A pair of scarlet-and-black 
honey-suckers are quarreling among the blossoms of my coconut tree. 
Two wild ducks have just flown across the plaza in the direction of the 
swamp east of the town. From time to time I hear the rattle of a king- 
fisher. The nights are very pleasant, much cooler here in June than in 
Washington or Boston. This morning my bath was positively cold. 
When I opened my door I found a little hump-backed woman waiting 
outside with a glass dish of flowers, a present from my friend Dona 
Regina Sigiienza — a beautiful combination of pink crape myrtle and 
fragrant olive-green henna {.Lawso?iia i7termis^, the true " camphire " 
of Solomon, which is cultivated here in the gardens of the natives. On 
a little lacquered stand brought to me from Japan by the trading schooner 
stands a vase of Gynopogon, with the aromatic scent of its ally, the 
beloved " maile " of the Hawaiians. Susana has set the table. I have 
heavy silver spoons and forks made by the village silversmith out of Peru- 
vian coin. In the center of the round narra-wood table is a single pink 
amaryllis (Zephyranthes) growing in a pale green jar. I found a num- 
ber of them growing in the plaza, and transplanted them when it was 
levelled off for a parade-ground. They bloom once a month, coming up 
from the ground and opening like a large crocus. My house is always 
filled with flowers. Susana keeps me supplied with jasmines and ilang- 
ilang blossoms, and occasionally I have a cluster of " mil-leguas " (thou- 
sand leagues), which has a pungent fragrance like the alcoholic extract 
of some delicious aromatic substance. The greenish-yellow flowers grow 
in clusters. The plant is a species of Pergularia, well named mil- 
leguas, for I know the instant I leave my ofl&ce when I have a fresh 
bunch of it at home ; the odor is wafted clear across the plaza. 

* For a list of fishes collected by Mr. Scale, see Report of the Director of the Bishop Museum for 
1900. See also the list of Guam fishes by the author in his forthcoming work on the Useful Plants of 
Guam. Contr. Nat. Herb., Vol, IX, p. 88, 1905. 



288 THE PIvANT WORLD 

On the ledge of the terrace connecting my house and kitchen are 
Japanese pots filled with ornamental palms, crotons, and other plants. 
The lovely yellow-flowered Bignonia I brought with me from Honolulu 
is forming a curtain over a bamboo trellis. My beautiful rosy creeper 
(^Ayitigonon leptopiis) is ready to bloom. The natives of Guam call 
it " cadena de amor " (love's chain) because the blossoms look like 
strings of coral hearts. Hanging by the door is a cage containing four 
beautiful fruit-doves which I feed on lemoncito berries and other fruits. 
A pair of pigeons has invaded the house. They come walking up to me 
and one of them flies onto my foot. Susana throws them some unhulled 
rice. This attracts my Japanese game chickens and up they come, driv- 
ing the pigeons from the terrace. Susana is much interested in the 
courtship of a beautiful white pigeon which wishes to mate with a glossy 
black one. This morning she told me that she thought the affair was 
settled. The " novios " (bride and groom), she says, are picking up 
trash about the yard and are carrying it to their little rancho in the 
bodega. 

Breakfast is now ready — soft-boiled eggs and excellent bread made 
with fermenting coconut toddy as yeast, rice and milk, excellent coffee, 
from berries grown on this island, browned by Susana and ground by 
her on the stone metate with the stone roller which she uses in making 
tortillas (a Mexican intrusion), with some delicious custard-apples 
iAnona squamosa) from the tree just outside my west window. These 
custard-apples, usually called sugar-apples, or sweet-sop, to distinguish 
them from the sour-sop iAiw?ia muricata) are immune from the attacks 
of insects until they are perfectly ripe. Then they burst open, and are 
soon -infested by ants attracted by the sweet custard-like pulp surround- 
ing the seeds. 

Before breakfast is over Don Luis de Torres, the justice of the peace 
of Agafia, comes in to consult me about several matters, one of them a 
case of indebtedness on the part of a woman who has recently been in a 
condition of peonage and who owes her former master a considerable 
sum ot money, which she was to repay him by earning wages at the rate 
of $2.00 silver per month. The other case was involving the ownership 
of a few coconut trees. We soon came to an agreement about both matters. 
Don Luis is the great-grandson of the Sargento Mayor Luis de Torres 
celebrated by Chamisso and Gaudichaud. He is an intelligent man and 
tries hard to carry on the duties of his office with justice. 

The bell now strikes eight and as the flag is hoisted before the palace 
the band plays the Star-spangled Banner. Everybody in the plaza rises 
and faces the flag, saluting it as it reaches the mast-head. A number 
of pretty pieces follow : Schubert's Am Meer, selections from Lohen- 
grin, and Weber's "Invitation to the Dance." Many nationalities 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 289 

are represented in the band : Germans, Italians, Knglishmen, and 
even Greeks. One of the bandsmen was recently married to a native 
seiiorita. Another, Guido Saccomani, is very much in love, and 
thinks of marrying and settling on the island. He is a well-educated 
young man, a Venetian by birth, the son of an officer in the Italian navy. 
After serving in the Abyssinian war in 1896 he came to America, where 
his father had friends ; but he could find no work and enlisted in the 
navy, hoping to go to the Philippines. He showed me a diary which he 
kept while in Abyssinia. Another bandsman, Herman Schaker, a good- 
natured German, who plays alto in the brass band and the viola in the 
string band, has started a little garden of his own. He brought seeds 
with him from America and has planted some potatoes. The latter have 
sprouted, but they do not seem to thrive. He came to me in distress 
because he could not get his cabbage to grow. He is a kindly soul. He 
often speaks most affectionately of the dear little children of his ' ' Wasch- 
weib." He is very fat and short. The governor calls him Bismarck.* 
Several of these bandsmen, who can not speak English, attend my night- 
school, where I teach by the " natural method," pointing to objects and 
pronouncing their names in English, explaining the adjectives by objects 
of various colors, sizes, and shapes, and the verbs by causing the pupils 
to walk, sit, touch, speak, catch, etc., so that in the course of instruction 
I only make use of the English language. 

The band has now stopped playing and I go across the plaza to my 
office on the ground floor of the palace. One of the citizens of the island 
came this morning, stating that he owns a large tract of land which is lying 
idle, as he can get no one to work on it. He does not wish to pay taxes 
on it and will turn the greater part of it over to the government. It will 
thus be available to the young men who wish to establish ranches for 
themselves. 

Home to dinner at twelve. Good chicken broth with rice, beef with 
tomatoes (from tins), chicken, and for dessert pine-apple so sweet that it 
needs no sugar. Susana brings in a new-blown pink rose (one of my 
cuttings) growing in a tall dark-blue pot. It makes a pretty center-piece 
for the table, but it is not nearly so fragrant as the tall roses growing in 
my yard which Dona Regina sent me three months ago from her garden. 
They are like ' ' American Beauties ' ' but are smaller and have the 
fragrance of our old "Hundred-leaves." There is not a rose-aphis on 
the island. As I start for the kitchen Susana intercepts me, saying that 
she is preparing a surprise. I cannot imagine what it will be. After 
dinner Scale and I take a short nap, and at two I go back to my office. 
The rest of the afternoon I spend auditing the treasury accounts, which 

* This worthy man became ill from drinking coconut toddy. He was sent to the hospital at Yoko- 
hama, where he died. 



290 THE PLANT WORLD 

I shall try to have ready by July 1st if possible. I am interrupted by my 
old friend Don Jose Herrero, who comes to make a complaint. A marine 
has been robbing his hens-nests. The eggs of an entire setting were broken 
one by one to see if they were good. Another nestful was eaten raw. 
Don Jose's daughter, Dona Maria, discovered the man and made an out- 
cry. He ran down the hill through the bushes like a deer, but she recog- 
nized him. I reported the matter to the Colonel of Marines. The man 
is sent to confinement for being absent from the post without leave, the 
egg case to be investigated later. Don Jose goes home in tears, saying 
he " only wanted to have the poor man warned not to do it again." 

Home at four o'clock, where I discover Susana's secret ; she has made 
some real American ginger-bread and baked it in the dome-shaped oven 
in my garden. Scale and I have it hot with our chocolate. I declare it 
to be fine and Susana is as pleased as a child. She now goes out and 
cuts off two bunches of ripening bananas, which she hangs in the kitchen. 
From my front windows I can see the marines drilling in the plaza, 
now converted into a parade-ground. The band is playing some very 
sweet music, the old-fashioned ' ' Poet and Pea.sant ' ' overture. The other 
night the marines gave a ball, and in the intervals between the dances 
there was some fine music by a string quartette. The natives were de- 
lighted, especially Don Jose Herrero, who is himself a fiddler. 

I now go for a ride on my wheel to see how the grading of the road 
between iVgaiia and the port is progressing. On my way I stop at the 
house of Doiia Regina, to thank her for the flowers. Her house is of 
solid masonry with a superstructure of wood and a tiled roof. The 
floors are of polished ifil wood (/ntsia bijuga), like coarse mahogany in 
texture and of the color of black walnut. There is little furniture. 
The walls are adorned with bright-colored chromos (two of them exactly 
alike) and a large frame containing representations of the flags of all 
nations. On a little table are some brightly-colored crab-shells and some 
cowries. The house is filled with fragrance from a shallow dish filled 
with a mass of ro§es, henna, jasmines, and mil-leguas, from Doiia 
Regina 's garden. After a pleasant chat with her I go back home laden 
with a large boquet. 

Awaiting me at my house I find one of the village gobernadorcillos 
with some official papers. He has brought me a dozen eggs for a 
present. As I make it a rule to receive no presents (except flowers) 
I tell Susana to make a return gift of some chewing-tobacco, a supply 
of which I keep on hand. Susana takes the eggs to the kitchen, and 
I catch a glimpse of her looking through them as she holds them up 
to the light to test them. After the gobernadorcillo's departure she 
comes in, exclaiming: " Hesu, seiior, three of those eggs are bad; why 
on earth did that man bring you bad eggs ; he ought to be ashamed of 



THE PLANT WORLD 291 

himself !" " I'm sure, Susana, that he could not have known they were 
bad." " Well, he ought to have known it ; and what a big piece of tobacco 
I gave him ! ' ' 

For supper soft-boiled eggs, fresh fish sent in by Don Gregorio, 
Susana' s brother, broiled venison, coffee, and for desert some boiled custard 
powdered over the top with cinnamon. Then to Don Pedro Duarte'sto 
see how he has succeeded in his survey of an island in the harbor which 
the government is about to buy from Don Antonio Martinez. Don Pedro 
was Secretary of Government at the time of the seizure of the island by 
the Charleston. He was taken to Manila, but was allowed to return to 
his family on this island. His wife is the daughter of Henry Mille- 
champ, one of the principal citizens of the island, and of Doiia Emilia 
Anderson. Millechamp is the son of Richard Millechamp, an English- 
man who settled in the Bonin Islands in 1832. An interesting account 
of the colony established by him and his associates is given by James 
Martin Callahan in his "American Relations in the Pacific and Far 
East " (Johns Hopkins Press, 1901). Doiia Emilia is a granddaughter 
of a Scottish mariner who came here in 1819 as a quartermaster 
on the Urayiie with the Freycinet expedition. Dumont d'Urville, who 
visited Guam in 1828 on the Astrolabe, was visited by Anderson, 
who had been appointed captain of the port. He is described as a 
fine-looking man, well-behaved, and speaking French pretty well. 
He gave d'Urville information regarding the hydrography of the region. 

Dofia Emilia is one of the most entertaining ladies I have met. She 
always has a number of interesting and witty anecdotes to tell of people 
who have visited the island. When some of the oflficers commented on 
Don Pedro's remaining on the island, he picked up one of his little ones 
and said, " How could I take them away and where could I take them ?" 
This is his home, and he will follow the destiny of the island. His 
hands were much cut to-day from crawling over the sharp rocks of the 
island he surveyed. He was accompanied by his wife and children, who 
gathered clams and shell-fish while he was surveying. He brought back 
some specimens of the island caper i^Capparis mariana^ and of a tree 
called Chopang i^Ochrocarpus sp.), evidently belonging to the Clusiaceae, 
with finely parallel-veined leaves similar to those of the Palo Maria 
(^Calophyllum inophylluvi) . He also brought some odd-looking fish, 
including mangrove-hoppers (Periophthalmus) and "torillos," tiny fish 
with horns like a bull {Ostracion cormUiis L.). Home with the plants, 
and Scale turns out of bed to put them in press. The caper flowers 
are very handsome, large, white with brushes of stamens. Both the 
unopened buds and the unripe fruit are made into pickles. Susana has gone 
home after having taken formal leave as usual. Scarcely has she gone 
when a boy comes to the door with a haunch of venison from Don Eulogio 



292 THE PLANT WORLD 

de la Cruz, a Philippine merchant living on this island. The orderly- 
smells it, declares that it will not spoil before to-morrow and hangs it up 
in the kitchen. Meat is kept from day to day by cooking and recooking it. 

I now finish a letter (from which the above extracts are taken), and 
open a sliding shutter to let in the evening breeze. The air is fragrant 
with the odor of the night-blooming jasmine {.Cestriini yioduryiuni) , two 
large bushes of which grow at the door of the old church, whose tile-capped 
belfry I can see outlined against the sky. The southern cross is bending 
low to the westward, which reminds me that it is nearly midnight. 

Saturday, June 30. — William Coe, a half-caste Samoan who came to 
Guam after the American occupation and bought land, has offered his farm 
for sale. His wife, a Caroline Islander, died recently, and Coe has 
decided to leave the island. To-day I received a note from him offering 
to sell me his propert}'-. It reads as follows : 

Farm situated in Tutiihan with its appurtenaiices thereunto, $500 
Mexican. — 255 coconuts, bearing ; 745 coconuts recently planted, not 
bearing ; 10 breadfruit trees, 4dugdug (seeded breadfruit) trees ; 70 pine- 
apples ; 6 " mummy apples ' ' (papayas) large size ; 150 banana plants (not 
including sprouts); 321 coffee plants 2 years old; 5 orange trees; 3 
soursop trees ; 3 custard-apple trees ; 1 large mango tree ; 1 dwelling 
house; and 32 big and small chickens. The land contains about 24 
acres." 

As I have all the land I wish I shall not buy the farm, but I think it 
would be a good investment for any of the marines or bandsmen who 
wish to settle on this island. 

Sunday, July 1. — I have been under the weather for a few days, threat- 
ened with dysentery. Received a number of visits from natives who heard 
that I was ill, among them Henry Millechamp and his wife Dofia Emilia. 
Dona Emilia said that it was not her custom to call upon gentlemen , but that 
I had been so attentive during a recent illness of hers that she wished to 
return my visits and show some appreciation . She brought me a jar of sour- 
sop dulce. Dofia Regina Sigiienza sent me some delicious pickled caper 
pods. Dofia Emilia did not look well, but she was very bright and 
cheery. She is much disturbed on account of a recent order of the 
Governor in which he prohibits religious instruction in the schools 
and orders all crucifixes and sacred pictures to be removed from the 
school-rooms. She is a devout Catholic, and can not understand why 
the Colonel has prayer-meetings and tells the people that Father Palomo 
is teaching them false doctrines. 

Monday, [uly 2. — I handed in to-day the treasury accounts of this 
island for the fiscal half-year ending June 30. We now have in the 
treasury $10,426.89 Mexican silver ; but I find that if it were not for the 
large sale of postage stamps ($3, 567.00) and import duties ($6,545.72) our 



THE PLANT WORLD 293 

treasury would be almost empty, notwithstanding our income from other 
sources, such as land taxes, trade licenses, registration fees, receipts from 
slaughter-houses, cock-fights, and fines. Other sources of revenue have 
been taxes in lieu of work on the roads, fish-pen licenses, passports, 
gun-licenses, dog-taxes, and port-dues of vessels. Our principal expense 
has been the pay of the native military company who act as our police (more 
than $3,000), and the employees of the treasury and government offices. 
We are greatly in need of American school-teachers but we have literally 
no funds with which to pay them. The pay of some of the government 
employees is very low. I have felt much concerned especially about the 
salary of Don Jose de Torres, one of the most faithful and efficient, yet I 
can not raise the salaries and have our island government in debt. My 
aim is to have it self-supporting. 

The other day I was calling at the house of Jose and I saw a bright- 
faced, neatly dressed little fellow, who came forward and saluted me, say- 
ing, " Seiior, don't you remember me?" I recognized in him the 
son of a poor man of the San Ramon district who died recently. 
The little fellow said, " Don Jose has adopted me for his little boy and 
is going to teach me to read and write." There are few countries in 
which a man situated like Jose, with a wife and mother and sisters to 
support, would take upon him the additional responsibility of adopting a 
child. Indeed I have never seen greater kindness among neighbors than 
in Guam. Though there is no wealth neither is there poverty on the 
island. 

Saturday, July 7 . — Commander Seaton Schroeder, U. S. Navy, arrived 
this day as the relief of Governor Leary, who applied several months ago 
for his detachment. Accompanying Commander Schroeder came Ensign 
A. W. Pressey, who is to act as chief of staff in my place. It is with no 
little regret that I will leave this lovely island and these good people. 
There has been much sickness among the men and officers and the 
Department has decided to detach all hands. The Governor expects to 
go in the next transport. I shall wait for the Solace. In the mean time 
I shall continue with my work and initiate Pressey into the duties of his 
new office, or rather offices, for he will be Registrar of Lands, Auditor 
of the Treasury, and Judge of the First Instance and of the Criminal 
Court, as well as Chief of Staff of the Governor. 

Tuesday, July 10. — My friend Dona Emilia Anderson died yesterday. 
I have just returned from her funeral. She was the brightest and most 
entertaining lady on the island, and her death will be much felt in Agana. 
I called on her last Sunday, hearing that she had had another attack of ill- 
ness. Her house was filled with relatives and friends. I did not expect to 
be allowed to see her ; but she said she would like to see me, and after wait- 
ing for a little while in the sitting-room I was ushered into the adjoining 



294 THE PLANT WORLD 

room where she lay. She was propped up with pillows, dressed in a prettily- 
embroidered gown, with her gray hair neatly arranged. The embroid- 
ered counterpane was snowy white. In spite of her weakness Dona 
Emilia received me with a bright smile, asked me about the new Gov- 
ernor, and wondered if he would let the church-bells ring again for early 
mass. She said a number of bright and witty things and soon had us all 
laughing. Then she turned wearily to one side and we said good-by 
and left her. This morning I received an invitation to her funeral, 
beautifully written in the formal style of the Spaniards and edged with 
black. We followed her on foot to the cemetery, a distance of two miles. 
Wednesday , July 11. — To-day I assisted at a conference between Com- 
mander Schroeder and Don Antonio Martinez, the owner of Apapa, or 
Cabras Island, which the Government wishes to buy for a naval station. 
As Don Antonio's right to the island was questioned, I showed a copy of 
the letter of the Spanish Governor reporting the grant of the island to 
the man from whom Don Antonio had acquired the title. I was much struck 
with Commander Schroeder' s courtesy toward Don Antonio. He and 
Governor Leary had been carrying on a conversation in English for some 
time, when he turned and said, " But perhaps our guest does not under- 
stand English." " Que dice? " asked Don Antonio. I explained, and 
Don Antonio seemed very much pleased. At the end of the conference, 
when Don Antonio was taking leave. Commander Schroeder said: "I 
am expecting my wife and daughters to come to Guam later. I hope the 
ladies of your family will call upon them." Don Antonio went away 
delighted. In a few hours the whole city of Agana was talking of the 
graciousness of the new Governor ; and I heard on every side that the 
best governors the island had had during the old regime were those who 
brought their wives with them. 

Friday^ July 20. — Captain Eeary was this day relieved by Commander 
Schroeder, who assumed command of this station and took the reins of 
government of this island. Yesterday I was visited by a number of 
Caroline Islanders, who expressed a wish to call upon the new Governor 
and offer him gifts. I told them that on no account must they bring him 
gifts, but that they might bring him some flowers. This morning, 
however, while we were sitting in the Governor's parlor, the orderly 
announced that a lot of savages were coming toward the palace. We 
looked out of the window and saw a strange procession crossing the plaza. 
The Carolinos were dressed in gala attire, the women with bouquets and 
skeins of beads in the enlarged holes in their ears, and the men with bright- 
colored breech-cloths, a few of them wearing white shirts and hats. They 
came into the palace and the new Governor received them most graciously. 
In spite of my cautions several of them had brought presents of eggs and 
chickens. These the Governor accepted and turned over to his Japanese 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 295 

steward. A speech was made by one of the old women, who appeared to be 
a leader among them. Among other things, she begged that they might 
not be forced to wear the clothes of civilization. This was translated, 
and the Governor made a suitable reply, saying that the Carolinos would 
always meet with kindness at his hands as long as they obeyed the laws 
of the island and were honest and upright in their behavior.* They 
then took their departure, highly pleased. 

Saturday, July 21. — Last night the citizens of Agaiia gave the new 
Governor a grand ball. While I was preparing to go Susana came in 
from the kitchen and asked if I needed anything more before her depar- 
ture for the night. I asked her if she were not going to the ball, and 
she replied, " Why, Seiior ! what would an old woman like me be doing 
at a ball ? " I told her not to be foolish, but to go home and dress. She 
then asked me whether she should go with me or her brother. I told 
her to go with her brother, of course ; that at the ball she would be the 
sister of Don Gregorio, the Gobernadorcillo of Agaiia, not Susana, the 
cook of Mr. Safford. When I reached the school-house where the ball 
was held I did not see Susana and I asked for her. She was hidden 
away in a corner of the refreshment-room. I went up to her and said : 
"Susana, what does this mean ! come right along and be presented to 
the new Governor." So I made her take my arm and we entered the 
ball-room, where the two governors stood receiving. When Captain 
lyeary saw us coming he exclaimed, " Why, there comes Aunt Susana ! " 
but I marched her straight up to the reception stand and said as formally 
as possible : "Governor, let me present Doiia Susana Perez, the sister 
of the Gobernadorcillo of Agaiia ; whereupon she made a very pretty 
curtsey." After this Susana held quite a reception. All the young 
officers, who had drunk her good chocolate, surrounded her and greeted 
her politely, after which she took a seat with some of her friends, 
to watch the dancing. Governor Schroeder asked me who was re- 
garded the principal lady of the island. I told him Doiia Juliana, 
the wife of Don Juan de Torres, our Island Treasurer. He opened the ball 
with her, and I danced opposite him in the lancers, with Doiia Ana Pan- 
gelinan. Susana wore a brightly colored gingham dress which I had 
given her for a Christmas gift, but many of the ladies were handsomely 
dressed in European style. I could not help thinking how much poor 
Doiia Emilia would have enjoyed it all. Her son-in-law, Don Pedro 
Duarte, came to help dispense the good things, but he wore a badge 
of mourning on his arm and did not dance. There were excellent wines, 
including an abundance of champagne, and the table was filled with good 

*It was practically impossible to make these people assume the dress of civilized people. The 
entire colony was afterwards sent away from the island to Saipan, one of the German islands of the 
Marianne group, where there was already a colony of Carolinos. 



296 THE PIvANT WORLD 

things. Altogether the city did itself proud, and the new Governor could 
not fail to be well pleased by the cordial reception given him. 

Mo7iday, July 30. — Busy packing and disposing of my property. The 
transport which was to take Governor Leary to Manila did not stop at 
this island. We saw her pass and were disappointed in not getting our 
mail. My successor, Pressey, is getting along finely. He speaks Spanish 
very well and has taken hold of things as though he meant business. Gov- 
ernor Schroeder reappointed me to all the offices I held under Governor 
Leary, but to-day I was regularly relieved by Pressey. Governor 
Schroeder has decided to send us to Manila in the Yosemite. I had ex- 
pected to go on the Solace, but her movements are now very uncertain on 
account of the war in China. 

Susana is a jewel. We have stopped cooking and I shall be the guest 
of friends until the ship sails. Mr. Seale, the naturalist from Honolulu, 
has finished packing. He is well pleased with the results of his work. 
I am sorry he was not able to visit the other islands of the Marianne 
group. He has not secured an owl nor a megapod, both interesting 
birds occurring on the northern islands, nor has he specimens of the pel- 
agic fishes of this region. I have given him all my tanks of alcohol and 
he has promised to send duplicates of all species to the National Museum 
at Washington. I have given Governor Schroeder a number of standard 
works for his library and some of my most beautiful plants, together 
with some ornamental stands of Chinese faience for the palace. The 
terrace of the palace is now bright with variegated crotons. Other use- 
ful plants I have been distributing among the natives. 

Many friends have been volunteering to help me pack, and five have 
offered me vehicles for transporting my effects to the place of embarking. 
While we were packing yesterday some of my pigeons and chickens came 
walking into the room. Susana exclaimed: "Ah, Senor, I forgot to 
feed them. One of the pigeons flew onto the table. Its mate is down 
in the bodega sitting. Susana exclaimed : " Sefior, hadn't I better kill 
two of the pigeons so that you may make use of them before you go ? " 
But I would not hear of such a thing and I presented her with them all. 
Susana then exclaimed that no harm should come to them ; that she would 
keep them until I returned and give them back to me, for she knew I 
must come back some day. Then she said that when she should go to 
church she would see the line of palms I had planted leading to the door 
and she would tell the people that I had planted them. She went 
into the side room and I heard the good soul crying. I went out and 
opened the cage of the fruit doves, and off they flew to the woods. 

Ttiesday, July 31. — To-day I gave away most of my household fur- 
niture, glasses, and dishes. My bicycle I gave to one of the sons of Don 
Juan de Torres. I have also sold one of my hill-top ranches (behind 



THE PI.ANT WORI.D 297 

San Ramon) and given the rest away. To Susana I deeded a plantation 
of coconut trees and a small piece of land on the edge of the Cienaga, 
where I have been planting some fruit trees ; to Vicente, the son of 
Don Lorenzo Franquez, who has been working at my house without 
wages, for the sake of learning English, I gave a small tract of land ; and 
to Jose de Torres, who adopted the little orphan, I gave a tract of land 
along the edge of the mesa, from which there is a fine view of the island 
and the ocean. I went to the hilltop this morning to enjoy the beautiful 
prospect for the last time. Then I walked along the river — it never 
looked lovelier with the overhanging coconut palms along the banks and 
the screwpines and tamarind trees. 

When I reached home I found several of the leading citizens of Agana 
waiting. One of them made an address in which he said that they 
wished me to feel that my work on behalf of the natives of this island 
had been appreciated, and that they felt thankful above all things for 
the titles to their land which I had secured to them and their children. 
He then presented me with a simple but massive silver cup, evidently 
made by the village silversmith, bearing the inscription, '' Al probo y 
bienqnista Mr. W. E. Safford, ' ' followed by the names of the donors and 
" Guam, 31 de Jtilio de 1900.'" 

My kitchen is filled with good things which my neighbors have 
brought me for my journey. It is a custom on this island for friends to 
contribute food to any one leaving the island. Among the provi- 
sions are a dozen water-melons, which I send to the Yosemite to be put 
into cold storage. They will be an agreeable addition to the mess sup- 
plies on our passage to Manila. Carts have come to the door to take my 
effects to the port. Susana calls my boy Francisco to help load them, 
but he is not to be found. Then she scolds and says he is a worthless 
rascal to abandon the house just when the senor needs him most. In the 
midst of her tirade in comes Francisco out of breath. He has been 
across the hills to his home near Sinahaiia to fetch me a parting gift. 
He wants them all to see that he too has something to give the senor, and 
he gravely presents me with two white hens. 

Wednesday, Augzist 1. — Just as I was leaving I was handed two enve- 
lopes and several packages, neatly wrapped up, to be opened when I 
reached the ship. Mr. Stimpson, the representative of the American 
Commercial Company on this island, brought me down to the landing 
behind his fine team of horses, and Henry Millechamp, the pilot, sent 
a cart for the rest of my baggage. I am now on board the Yosetnite. On 
opening the envelopes I find them to contain farewell greetings from the 
citizens of Agana and of the village of Agat, and in one of the largest 
bundles I find a handsome, fine mat, evidently of Philippine origin, 
of pandanus with an ornamental design of gold interwoven in the border. 



298 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 

Accompanying it is a note from the sons of Don Juan de Torres : 

" Sir : Your disciples, Joseph and John, with much pleasure send 
you this present, which has not value ; but is a manifestation of their 
recognition of favors which they have received from their teacher." 

In the addresses of farewell from the leading citizens of Agana they 
express their regret at my departure, and say that they hope I may some 
day come back to them as their governor. They finish their address 
with the following words : "in sending you this farewell greeting we 
wish you with all our soul a happy voyage and a prompt arrival at your 
lares, where more sacred affections await you ; we also, send you the 
expression of affection of this people, who heaps upon you its benediction 
and respects." The communication from Agat, addressed to " Don W. 
Saffa," contains the same kind expressions of regret, and ends with the 
paragraph : "in taking leave of you by means of this letter, we wish 
you a happy voyage, and we pray God that at your arrival in America 
you may find your family well. In the name of the inhabitants of this 
village we respectfully kiss your hand." 

I do not print the signatures here but I have carefully kept the 
original documents, and every name upon them is dear to me. As the 
ship weighed anchor and sailed away I felt real grief, as though leaving 
people of my own blood. I shall always look back upon the year spent 
on this lovely island as one of the happiest in my life. 

[the end.] 



The St. Louis Exhibit of the Bureau 

of Plant Industry.* 

OUTDOOR EXHIBIT OF THE BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

The outdoor exhibit of the Bureau of Plant Industry occupies about 
7^ acres of land on the sloping hillside facing the Palace of Agriculture. 
This area is nearly square. In the center of it is laid out a large map of 
the United States, more than 550 feet in length. State boundaries are 
indicated by paths, from which visitors may study the exhibit. In each 
State are planted the leading field crops it produces, on areas proportional 
to the areas these crops actually occupy in the State. This gives, in effect, 
a bird's-eye view of the chief crop productions of the entire country. 

The land lying outside the boundaries of the map of the United States 
is occupied by exhibits illustrating the special lines of investigation of the 
different offices composing the Bureau. 

* Concluded from November, 1904. 



THK PI.ANT WORI.D 299 

PLANT DISEASES. 

This exhibit is designed to show some of the more important diseases 
of the principal orchard and truck crops and the methods of their treat- 
ment. Plats of young fruit trees, vegetables, and other crops, one-half 
of which have been treated by spraying for the prevention of diseases, 
demonstrate the beneficial effects of such treatment. 

NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA. 

Certain plats are devoted to the growth of leguminous crops, with 
a view to showing the effect of inoculating such crops with bacteria, in 
order to enable them to secure atmospheric nitrogen. In a small struc- 
ture erected on one of the plats are grown various legumes and other 
plants in pots containing known quantities of nutrient salts to demon- 
strate the importance in crop production of an adequate nitrogen supply, 
and also to show the relation between bacteria securing nitrogen from 
the air and the use of nitrogenous fertilizers. 

PLANT-BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS. 

The exhibit of the Plant-Breeding Laboratory consists of a demon- 
stration by means of cotton and corn plants of some of the results obtained 
by the practice of plant-breeding methods. 

CEREAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

The cereal exhibit is a living representation of the different groups of 
cultivated grains arranged in logical order, showing the actual charac- 
teristics and manner of growth of a number of the principal varieties of 
each group. Within each group there is also, so far as possible, a 
secondary arrangement of varieties according to the country in which 
they are most commonly grown. Under cereals are included all agricul- 
tural plants of which chiefly the seeds are used as food either for man or 
for animals. The different grains actually shown are corn, wheat, oats, 
rye, barley, buckwheat, rice, kafir corn, milo maize, and proso or broom- 
corn millet. 

In four of the plats there is a special experiment showing the effects 
of the treatment of oats and wheat for the prevention of smut. 

SEED INVESTIGATIONS. 

The large plats in this exhibit are sown with different grades of com- 
mercial grass and clover seeds to show the difference in crop return when 
high-grade seeds and when low-grade seeds are used. The small plats 
contain weed plants whose seeds are most frequently found among com- 
mercial seeds. 

FIBER-PLANT INVESTIGATIONS 

In the space assigned to fiber-plant investigations are growing all of 
the plants used in the production of fibers now found in commercial 
quantities on the market in this country. There are specimens of abaca 
from the Philippines, henequen from Yucatan, palma istle and lechu- 
guilla from Mexico, fiber plants from New Zealand and Mauritius ; also 
flax, hemp, jute, and ramie, and the typical kinds of cotton grown in 
this country, in Egypt, and in India. 



300 THE PIvANT WORI^D 

DRUG AND MEDICINAL PI,ANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

About forty-five representative drug plants are arranged in a natural 
sequence, beginning with, the lowest orders and running through the flow- 
ering plants to the highest types. The order is that of Engler and Prantl. 
Not only the common and botanical names but also the physiological 
properties are indicated on the labels. 

Among the specimens shown are some of the common weeds which 
have a medicinal value, as burdock, couch grass, and yellow dock. 
Other kinds are cultivated in Europe and imported in large quantities 
into the United States, as digitalis and belladonna. Some are wild native 
plants which are collected in various parts of the United States, as golden 
seal and cascara sagrada. 

POISONOUS PLANT INVESTIGATIONS. 

This exhibit includes plants known to have a poisonous action on live 
stock and on human beings, the labels indicating the noxious characters 
of the plant. Common poisonous weeds, some ornamental plants, and 
the principal stock-poisoning plants of the cattle ranges are represented. 
Among the number may be found one of the most feared loco weeds of 
the western stock ranges ; a kind of larkspur which causes great losses of 
cattle and sheep ; the cocklebur, said to be the cause of death in the case 
of cattle and hogs ; the laurel of the eastern mountains, known to be fatal 
to stock, and the cherry, the wilted foliage of which causes death. 

SCHOOL GARDENS. 

The school -garden exhibit, which is located in the northeast corner 
of the grounds occupied by the Bureau of Plant Industry, has for its 
object the carrying on of children's gardens, which it is hoped will help 
forward the movement looking toward the teaching of agriculture in 
schools. 

Thirty model gardens are cared for by some of the children from the 
schools of St. Louis, under the direction of an experienced teacher, and 
daily exhibitions throughout the Exposition will be given. 

Teachers interested in nature study can learn practical methods here 
which they can introduce into their own schools, thus helping to make 
primary education more practical and helpful. 

Observation plats comprising the principal agricultural crops are 
planted on the grounds. Wild plants, showing their appropriateness for 
ornamenting school grounds, are used for decorative purposes. 

GRASS GARDEN. 

The grass garden is located at the southeast corner of the exhibit, ex- 
tending from Maine around Florida on the central map. Adjacent to the 
New England States on the map is shown a sand dune upon which have 
been set out several plants which are characteristic of areas of drifting 
sand. South of this, along the eastern border of the exhibit, are shown 
a number of coarse fodder plants, such as kafir corn, sorghum, milo maize, 
etc. Lying between this row of coarse fodders and the map are a number 
of our native wild grasses, those chosen for exhibition being among the 
more valuable of these grasses. Opposite the angle between Florida and 
Georgia is a circle in which the lawn grasses are exhibited. Below this 



THE PI.ANT WORIvD 301 

are found the standard grasses and legumes of America and of Europe. 
In the extreme southeast corner of the exhibit are some ornamental grasses. 
To the west of Florida is shown a large number of miscellaneous grasses 
and forage plants, all of which are of more or less importance to American 
agriculture. In the portion of the exhibit devoted to standard grasses, 
particular attention is called to the several varieties of timothy exhibited. 
These were originated by Dr. A. D. Hopkins, formerly of the West Vir- 
ginia Agricultural Experiment Station, now of the Department of Agri- 
culture, and show what possibilities exist in the way of securing new 
varieties of the standard crops. 

CROP ROTATION. 

At the request of the Bureau of Forestry of the Department of Agri- 
culture, a system of crop rotation was devised in conjunction with its 
outdoor exhibit adjoining that of the Bureau of Plant Industry. As the 
forestry exhibit is intended to illustrate the use of trees as windbreaks 
upon a prairie farm, a system of crop rotation has been worked out for a 
general stock and grain farm in the prairie sections of the Middle West. 
On account of the fact that alfalfa is one of the crops adapted to that 
section and is also a crop that remains productive for many years, the 
rotation has been planned with a view to leaving one of the fields in 
alfalfa for as long a time as may be desired, devoting the remaining five 
fields to the following rotation: Wheat, meadow, pasture, corn, oats. 
The alfalfa may be transferred from one field to another, following the 
oats. The transfer should, therefore, be made during the year the oat 
crop occupies the field to which it is desired to transfer the alfalfa. 

Some advantages of the particular rotation outlined are : The meadow 
grasses may either be sown with the wheat or put down in the summer 
after the wheat crop is removed ; the meadow may be used for pasture 
the second year and affords a good place for manure for the corn crop 
following. In such a system most of the manure would naturally be put 
upon the grass land before plowing for corn. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Editor The Plant World : Naturally more or less matter in every 
periodical is valueless to each individual subscriber. There should be in 
each issue something for the boxes, the "bald headed row," and the 
"gallery gods." It strikes me that The Plant World is filling the 
bill in this way as well as any botanical publication. Even if it contained 
no other than the famous Guam articles, it has furnished instruction and 
delight to readers of almost every class. 

Truly the editor should listen to the " howls " of the subscribers, but 
he should not cut out the politics and tactics of the Wild Flower Preser- 
vation Society, for instance, just because a few subscribers find them 
dreary. * * * 

The greatest fault of The Plant World is that it comes but once a 
month and contains only twenty-five pages. Eet us have collection 
experiences, peculiar habits, and semi-technical explanations of interest- 
ing facts and it will grow gloriously. O. W. Barrett. 
Mayagiiez, Porto Rico. 



302 THE PIvANT WORIvD 

The Story of a Magazine. 

By Charles lyouis Pollard. 

The closing years of the nineteenth century witnessed a remarkable 
awakening of public interest in outdoor life. The copious literature 
which sprang into being in response to this demand was eagerly pur- 
chased, and the desire to know more about plant life, in particular, led 
to very significant changes in the policy of primary and secondary schools 
toward nature study. A remarkable circumstance attending this wave 
of interest was that practically all the writers on the subject were ama- 
teurs, some of them with an extremely limited knowledge of plants. 
Professional botanists had not previously considered it worth their while 
to attempt to educate the public, and to this fact must be ascribed much 
of the ignorance and prejudice against botany as a serious study. The 
demand for popular articles on technical subjects increased to such an 
extent, however, that many botanists took up the literary vein, and the 
magazines teemed with contributions relating to plants. 

Among those who did much to popularize the science was Dr. F. H. 
Knowlton, of the National Museum. His experience with various peri- 
odicals led him to believe that a special magazine should be created to 
serve as a medium for just the contributions that were being publi.shed in 
so many different media. For some time this idea gathered strength, and 
the project was encouraged on all sides. A partnership was formed be- 
tween Dr. Knowlton and Mr. Willard N. Clute, of Binghamton, who 
undertook the publication and business management of the new periodical, 
which was christened "The Plant World," and made its first appear- 
ance in September, 1897, under the editorship of Dr. Knowlton, assisted 
by Dr. A. W. Evans, Mr. Walter Hough, Professor Clara E. Cummings, 
Mrs. N. L. Britton and the writer. The following extracts from the 
editorial of that issue will serve to explain the proposed scope of the 
magazine, and also fixes definitely the source of the suggestion from 
which it sprang : 

" In presenting a new journal for the consideration of the public it is 
necessary to explain some of the reasons for its being, to outline its scope 
and policy, and to state what, it is confidently hoped, it may accomplish. 
That there has been a great awakening in recent years of popular interest 
in plants and plant-life, can not be denied. * * * With this increase 
of attention it is but natural that many additions should have been made 
to our knowledge of plant-life, but much of this information is still locked 
up in the more or less technical language of science. The chosen field of 
this journal will be to divest this language of its technicality, and to pre- 
sent the facts in readable form, but without the sacrifice of scientific ac- 
curacy. * * * The journal will not be * * * for the advance- 



THE PLANT WORI.D 303 

ment of any particular school of botany, but will be as broad in its scope 
as the broadest conception of the vegetable kingdom. * * * 

" The plan for a journal of this character was formulated by the editor 
in 1895, and an outline presented before the Botanical Club of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science at the Buffalo meeting. 
It was not deemed expedient for the Club to adopt an official organ, and 
maturer judgment has approved the wisdom of this course, both from the 
standpoint of the Club and of the journal, therefore, as indicated above, 
the journal will be thoroughly independent." 

The PIvAnt World passed through its first two volumes under the 
above management. Dr. Knowlton then desired to bring the business 
department more closely under his supervision, and the partnership 
with Mr. Clute was dissolved by mutual consent, leaving the latter free 
to devote his attention to the Fern Bulletin, which had expanded in size 
and circulation. A new partnership was formed between Dr. Knowlton, 
Dr. Theodore Gill, of Washington, and the writer, under the name of The 
Plant World Company. The first issue of Volume III was published in 
January, 1900, in order to conform to the calendar year. The size was 
increased by four pages, and by the addition of a monthly eight-page 
supplement devoted to a synoptical account of the families of flowering 
plants. In June, 1900, Dr. Gill withdrew from the Company, which 
then passed into the control of the writer. Dr. Knowlton remained as 
editor-in-chief with the writer as associate. At the beginning of the 
fourth volume, in January, 1901, the property, subscription list and good 
will of The Asa Gray Bulletin was acquired by arrangement with 
the owners of that periodical, which was thereupon merged in The 
Plant World. Upon the untimely death of Mr. Thomas A. Williams, 
editor of the Bulletin, Mr, C. Iv. Shear was admitted to the editorial 
board of The Plant World, which continued under this management 
through the fourth, fifth, and sixth volumes. This period was marked 
by a remarkable growth of the circulation, influence and scope of the 
magazine, which in May, 1902, after the organization of the Wild Flower 
Preservation Society of America, became the ofl&cial organ of the latter. 
In January, 1904, Dr. Knowlton being forced by ill health and pressure 
of other duties to retire from the active editorial management, the board 
was again reorganized under the leadership of the writer, and increased by 
the addition of Professor Francis E. Ivloyd and Professor E. I^. Morris. 
The outstanding indebtedness was cancelled, and the magazine has 
passed through a fairly successful year in spite of the necessary increase 
in the subscription price. 

And now another chapter in the story of the magazine is about to 
open. Professor Lloyd acquires by purchase absolute control of The 
Plant World's future, and will combine both the editorial and business 
management. He will be assisted by a board of associates of whom the 



;%^^ 



luJ L 



304 THE PIvANT WORIvD 

writer is the only connection with the old management. That the maga- 
zine rests securely upon successful prospects there is no need to doubt, 
for its new editor is assured of the hearty cooperation of a large body of 
American botanists and teachers. Let us hope that its financial condi- 
tion may be such as to justify a notable increase in size and adoption of 
the policy of paying for contributions. In the mean time we feel confident 
that it enters upon its eighth volume with the best wishes of all its 
readers. 



A WELL-KNOWN weekly reports a new process, recently discovered in 
England, for preserving timber by the use of sugar. The timber is placed 
in vats and covered with a solution of beet sugar. As the solution boils, 
the air is driven from the wood, the fibres taking up the solution. The 
wood so treated is then dried in a hot oven, the extent of drying depend- 
ing on the variety. The treatment is reported to result in the toughening 
of the timber, making it heavier and more durable as well. An important 
application of this solution is to green and unseasoned timbers, to make 
them immediately available without fear of warping and shrinking. The 
solution of sugar permeates the wood so thoroughly that the wood loses 
its porous character, and consequently takes a finer finish, and seems to 
be stronger under some conditions. " Resistance to dry-rot is another 
claim made for this process." It is possible that the addition of certain 
poisons to the solution will assure the prevention of depredations by 
termites and other wood-tunnelling insects, so commonly destructive to 
timber in sub-tropical and tropical countries. 

The Rev. Mr. Cook, late of England, has left his present Minnesota 
home for an extended trip to the sources of the Para River in southwestern 
Brazil. He formerly went from England to the interior of Brazil as a 
missionary. With his duties he also took great interest in the natural 
history, making large collections in some groups of plants and animals. 
He has remained in this country during the last year or two. Now he 
has sailed to resume his labors, but with the avowed intention of observ- 
ing closely the anthropology of the natives and of collecting extensively 
the plants of the region. 



THE PLANT WORLD 305 



Briefer Articles. 



MILLSPAUGH'S BLACKBERRY. 

I SHOULD like to correspond concerning the Southern Mountain Black- 
berry, Rvbus Millspaughi Britton, with persons who are acquainted with 
it or interested in the matter, and get specimens showing accurately the 
leaves on the new canes as well as those on the old ones, the flowers, 
forms of inflorescence and the fruit. Having read the literature on the 
subject, Dr. L. H. Bailey's account in " Evolution of our Native Fruits" 
and Dr. N. L. Britton's original description, Bull. Torr. Club, 18 : 366, 
and examined the material in the Herbarium of the New York Botanical 
Garden, and having recently received an interesting account of it from 
Dr. C. F. Millspaugh, I think it should be treated as a species quite dis- 
tinct from our northern Rjibus Canadeiisis L. with which I am well ac- 
quainted, but I wish to be more certain as to it. 

I am informed that it is known as the ' ' Bear Blackberry ' ' and ' ' Oc- 
tober Blackberry " and grows only on the higher Alleghanies from West 
Virginia south. It appears to differ widely from our mountain black- 
berry, being a much taller plant, really unarmed, with smaller flowers, 
more upward pedicels and longer leaves. The fruit seems to be long 
and slender, while ours is short-oblong or globose. 

W. H. Blanchard. 

Westminster, Vt. 



The Wild Flower Preservation Society 

of America. 



The annual meeting of the Society was held during Convocation 
Week, in Philadelphia, on December 30, in Biological Hall at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. The Vice-President, Mr. Joseph Crawford, 
presided, and addresses on the announced topic, "The Destructive 
Effects of Fire," were made by Mrs. Britton and by Professor P. H. 
Rolfs, Dr. H. C. Cowles, and Mr. Charles L- Pollard. 



306 THEirPI^ANT WORI.D 

Following is the result of the election for members of the Board of 

Managers : 

Terms expire 1905 (to fill vacancies). 
Mr. Charles L. Pollard, Prof. Francis E. Lloyd, 

Springfield, Mass. Teachers College, N. Y. 

Terms expire 1907. 
Mr. Frederick V. Coville, Dr. William Trelease, 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Prof. W. A. Kellerman, Prof C. F. Wheeler, 

Ohio State University. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

During the present year, the policy of the Secretary has been to 
co-operate with all persons and associations interested in any way in the 
preservation of native plants, either by the dissemination of literature 
or information, so as to make the object of the Society widely known, 
and to secure the a.ssistance of various organizations. With this end in 
view we have exchanged publications with the Society for the Protection 
of Native Plants, and used many of their leaflets, duplicates of which 
we have had from time to time. We have found them extremely useful 
and reconimeiid that similar leaflets or reprints of some of theirs be made 
for distributio7i next year . 

Through the interest and activity of Dr. and Mrs. C. F. Millspaugh 
much interest has been aroused for the preservation of the wild flowers 
in the vicinity of Chicago. Dr. Millspaugh has had a number of colored 
lantern slides made, and lectures prepared, some of which have been 
delivered, and through the Woman's Auxiliary of the American Out- 
door Art Association, of which Mrs. Millspaugh is president, several of 
the women's clubs have had meetings devoted to the preservation of 
the wild flowers and of forests. 

Miss Mary P. Anderson, Supervisor of Nature Study in the Univer- 
sity School for Girls in Chicago, won the first of the Stokes prizes with her 
essay on " The Protectio7i of Our Native Plants.'' This essay was twice 
reprinted and hundreds of copies were distributed to the students of 
Chicago and to various other schools and colleges. Miss Anderson has 
subsequently become connected with Mt. Holyoke, and we hope that her 
sphere of influence will widen through the work of the students of that 
institution. 

Miss Broadhurst, of the Trenton New Jersey State Normal School, 
received the second of the Stokes Prizes and her ' ' Plea to Teachers for 
the Protection of Our Native Plants'" is brief and pertinent and we hope 
has reached many conscientious teachers and a large circle of students 
who hope to become teachers. We can not emphasize too greatly the 
help that teachers can give to this effort ; if we can only get them 
interested, success is certain. 



THK PLANT WORLD 307 

Mr. Copp's essay received the third prize, and he dealt largely with 
the problem that confronts the teachers in large cities in their effort to 
secure material to illustrate their lessons in nature-study. His essay 
was reprinted in full in several of the local papers and widely quoted. 

Owing to the intimate relations which exist between the protection 
of the forests and that of the wild flowers, it has seemed desirable that 
we should keep in touch with the various State Forestry Associations, 
and if possible co-operate with them in securing Forest Reserves, partic- 
ularly in the White Mountains and the Southern Alleghenies. Several 
times we have been asked to supply a lecturer on Forestry questions, 
and have had our attention called to numerous instances of carelessness 
by which forest fires have originated. For this reason, if we can add 
our efforts to secure more enlightened public sentiment, especially to 
realize the destructive changes that occur as the effect of fire, we shall 
be furthering the objects of this association. 

We have also had a number of questions about the planting of trees 
in towns and cities referred to us, and have been supplied by the Cornell 
Agricultural Experiment Station with duplicate copies of their Bulletin 
number 205 on Shade Trees, by Dr. W. A. Murrill, in which he advo- 
cates the planting of native trees such as oaks, poplars, and sycamores 
in place of the almost too popular elms, and Norway and white maples, 
as they are longer-lived and better adapted to artificial conditions. 

There have been no reports received from the local chapters, but we 
believe that they are doing good work, and that their efforts can be 
assisted by the preparation of local circulars, adapted to special conditions, 
which can be supplied to them for distribution. It will also be useful to 
have prepared some muslin posters, for distribution to all owners of 
private property who are willing to assist in the protection of native 
plants. 

The membership of the Society is now 371, and the Treasurer's 
report shows a satisfactory balance. 

Elizabeth G. Britton, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

C. E. Waters in account with the Whd Fi,ower Preservation Society. 

Total receipts for the year $699 49 

Total disbursements for the year . . . . 91 18 

Balance on hand, Dec. 31, 1904 . . . $608 3i 

L/ife membership fund 401 00 

Available balance I207 31 



308 



THE PI.ANT WORLD 



RECEIPTS. 
From former Treasurer 

Dec. dues 25 oo 

Jan. " 20 00 

Feb. " 17 50 

March " 16 50 

April " 9 10 

May " 21 50 

June " 10 50 

July " 6 00 

Aug. " 8 50 

Sept. " 2 50 

Oct. " 10 50 

Nov. " 10 00 

Dec. " 12 00 

Fellowships 76 00 



DISBURSEMENTS. 

I453 89 Postage and Expressage 

Mrs. Brittou .... $4 00 

C. L. Pollard .... 7 35 

C. E. Waters .... 45° 

H. L. McQueen ... 5 00 



I245 60 



rinting 




H. L. McQueen . . 


15 50 


J. S. Bridges . . . 


I 75 


C. L. Pollard . . . 


4 50 



Total 



$699 49 



Miss Willey (stenog.) . 

Cards and punch for 
Treasurer 

Plant World 
Jan. to March .... 11 87 
April ........ 3 75 

May 8 00 

June I 96 

July to Sept 3 00 

Oct. and Nov 10 50 

Total 

By balance .... 

Total .... 



|20 85 



2 1 50 

7 25 

2 50 



39 08 

fgi 18 
608 31 

I699 49 



At thk meeting of the Board of Managers held in Philadelphia on 
December 28, the following officers were elected: President, Professor 
Charles E. Bessey; Vice-President, Mr. Joseph Crawford ; Secretary, 
Mrs. N. ly. Britton ; Treasurer, Dr. C. E. Waters. The Executive Com- 
mittee of last year, consisting of Messrs. Pollard and Waters and Mrs. 
Britton, was reappointed. A number of plans were considered for the 
coming year, and the Society will, as heretofore, carry on its work in 
cooperation with the New York Botanical Garden through the Stokes 
fund. A course of lectures will be given in the spring in various New 
England cities by Mr. Morris. The Board appropriated a special sum 
for the purchase of lantern slides to illustrate these annual lectures, and 
the Secretary will be glad to hear from persons having suitable slides for 
sale, those which are colored being preferred. An amount for printing 
and postage sufficient to mail leaflets to members has also been set aside. 
Einen posters are to be printed by the Garden for general circulation 
among owners of estates, conveying warning against plant destruction 
and forest fires. 



THE PIvANT WORLD 309 

Editorial. 



With the present issue, completing its seventh volume, The Plant 
World also finishes another chapter in its life history. The guiding 
spirits of its editorial page give way to others, and the magazine acquires, 
as it were, a new individuality which can not fail to waken new interest 
among its friends and subscribers, many of whom have read the journal 
regularly from its inception. 

Professor L^loyd brings to his new task the ripened experience not only 
of an educator, but of a professional botanist. As stated in the prelim- 
inary announcement last month he will be editor-in-chief, and will have 
the editorial cooperation of the following board : Professor Charles E. 
Bessey, of the University of Nebraska; Dr. H. M. Richards, of Barnard 
College ; Dr. Burton E. Ivivingston, University of Chicago ; Dr. D. S. 
Johnson, Johns Hopkins ; Dr. Tracy E. Hazen, Columbia University ; 
Professor C. Stuart Gager, New York State Normal College ; Professor 
W. F. Ganong, Smith College ; and Mr. Charles Louis Pollard, Spring- 
field, Mass. After mature consideration. Professor Lloyd has decided to 
reduce the subscription price again to one dollar, with a special price of 
seventy-five cents to members of the Wild Flower Preservation Society. 
This will be welcome news to many readers who have felt the increased 
price of the last year as a hardship. For the present the magazine will 
remain at its present size, but will be enlarged as circumstances warrant. 
It will remain the oflBcial organ of the Wild Flower Preservation Society, 
but the latter will not attempt to maintain a regular monthly page as 
heretofore, publishing articles and reports only from time to time as 
needed. 

As we close the editorial desk and vacate the chair in favor of our 
successor, we can offer the latter no more encouraging wish than that he 
may have the continued support of the many good friends on our sub- 
scription list, which we trust may grow apace. The task of the past four 
years has been a pleasant one, and it is only natural that we should relin- 
quish it with the keenest regret. A happy and prosperous New Year to 
the new Plant World ! 



The attention of all readers is directed to the important business 
announcement on the first advertising page of this issue. We trust the 
unusual size of the magazine this month will in a measure compensate 
for the delay in its publication. ^' 



310 THE PI.ANT WORI.D 



Our Teachers' Department. 

Edited by Professor Francis E. Lloyd. 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 



POPULAR BOTANY. 

In Country Life in America for November, 1904, Mr. John F. Johnson 
describes certain well-known movements experienced by Rhododendron 
leaves when subjected to various degrees of low temperature. Thus, at 
45 degrees, the leaves are in normal position ; at 17 degrees, the leaf- 
stalks are bent downwards considerably and the leaf -blades are somewhat 
curled longitudinally; when the thermometer reaches zero, both bending 
and curling are still more pronounced. When a twig with curled leaves 
is brought into warmed air (45 degrees), the latter uncurls in eight min- 
utes " with a springing motion." 

The author goes on to say that : ' ' Nature has a purpose for all these 
metamorphoses. Less transpiration and consequently less loss of heat is 
the result of this curling. This power in living plants of conforming 
to external circumstances is termed ' irritability.' Somewhat analogous 
to the above is the closing up and ' sleeping ' of clover leaves at night. 
Tulip leaves also exhibit this power of closing and expanding under dif- 
ferent temperatures. When placed in a heated room, during sunshine or 
mild weather, outdoors, the petals expand, but will contract and close 
together when subjected to reduced temperature." 

I venture to call in question some of these statements, because they bear 
evidence of the tendency often noticed of confusing popular botany and 
botany which is not true to the facts. 

Perhaps we may not quarrel with a writer for personifying nature, 
though in the opinion of many students this is not commendable. It is 
certainly less so to attribute to nature thus personified the ability to form 
a purpose. The underlying assumption in the first sentence under quo- 
tation appears, further, to be that all ' ' metamorphoses ' ' of organisms are 
purposeful, using the word in the meaning of useful. Now, this assump- 
tion is in point of fact something to be proved or disproved. To be sure, 
many students and writers — terms by no means synonymous — have 
gradually come to believe that every organ and every character, of 
whatever sort, has a definite use, or has had, or will have, and if any 
inquiry is made it is naturally to find out this use, whereas the first 
proper aim is to see if it has a use or not. The very spirit of science is 
done violence to in this way. 

The critic may be uninformed as to this point, but he does not believe 



THE PLANT WORLD 311 

that the curling of Rhododendron leaves at low temperatures has been 
shown to have any protective result or otherwise useful to the plant. So 
far as we can see, it is merely the physical result of a physical cause — a 
phenomenon which, by the way, occurs in other plants. The word 
" metamorphosis," also, may not be applied to the simple curling of a 
leaf — this is a mere matter of definition. That the curling of a leaf at a 
temperature low enough to freeze it reduces the transpiration beyond 
that which takes place, say, at freezing point, is also a gratuitous assump- 
tion, and is therefore a matter subject to proof or disproof — and it would 
appear probable that no effect at all would be found. 

The writer goes on to call this behavior the result of irritability and 
regards it as " somewhat ( ! ) analogous ' ' to the movements of clover 
leaves and tulip petals under far different conditions. This comparison 
can scarcely be justified. The one in question is probably a purely 
physical manifestation, quite unrelated to the response of protoplasm to 
a stimulus. In one of the examples used for comparison, namely, the 
clover leaf, certain changes in the environment call forth specific reactions 
in the protoplasm, of which the leaf movement is the result. Thus, 
though the temperature be kept constant, if sufiiciently high, changes in 
the amount of light will call forth the response. Freeze a clover leaf and 
the result would be quite absent. The analogy therefore is less instruc- 
tive than misleading, and it would seem better to avoid its use. As to 
the tulip petal, the frozen condition likewise does not enter into the 
problem. 

How much harm may be done by such irresponsibility on the part of a 
writer may be very hard to say. If we grant that it does none, may we 
not justly say that it does no good. The serious aim of every writer on 
scientific subjects, no matter if the treatment is intended to be popular, 
should be to instruct while he pleases. There have been notable examples 
of men who have done this, enough that we may gain assurance from 
them that popular scientific writing, without making a contradiction in 
terms, is still possible. To this end alone we offer this frank criticism. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE EGG IN VAUCHERIA. 

Vaucheria has made for itself a lasting place as an important type for 
study in the laboratory. Any new knowledge on such much-used and 
well-known plants is the more welcome. We are glad, therefore, to point 
out that new light has been thrown on the process of the egg-develop- 
ment in this plant by B. M. Davis, of the University of Chicago.* 

Vaucheria is a filamentous alga, the nuclei of which are free in a 
continuous protoplasm, internal cell-walls occurr ing only when swarm- 

*" Oogenesis in Vaucheria," Bol. GazeUe, 38: 81-98; August, 1904. 



312 THE PI.ANT WORLD 

spores or sex-organs are formed. The nuclei are numerous and small, 
and are moreover very diflBcult of observation. They are therefore usually 
not seen in the laboratory by students. 

The female sex-organ (oogonium) appears as a short branch, which 
soon becomes globular, ultimately taking the well-known characteristic 
form. This is filled with protoplasm, chloroplasts, nuclei and vacuoles. 
The latter enlarge and run together so that the protoplasm ultimately 
there is a layer on the periphery connected with a mass at the centre by 
more or less radially placed strands. Before the final form is taken, the 
protoplasm of the egg is separated from the main filament by a transverse 
wall. It has heretofore been supposed that before the partition is estab- 
lished, all the nuclei but one wander back into the body of the plant, 
and this is the account which is generally given in the text-books. Davis 
has shown, however, that this is not the case, but that the septum shuts 
in a considerable number of nuclei, a// but one of which dege^ierate, one 
only remaining as the egg-nucleus. This takes up a position in the 
central mass of protoplasm and enlarges. 



Mycological Biilletiyi No. 20, for August, 1904, contains some sugges- 
tions for the field study of mushrooms. It is pointed out that the use of 
water-color sketches is important and much to be desired when possible. 
It may be added that, as a hobby for any one with an artistic turn and 
some feeling for color, but with perhaps limited technique, the study of 
fungi by this means is not only very enjoyable but is excellent training 
in the use of color. The writer has spent many both profitable and 
pleasurable hours in this way. Only those who have taken occasion to 
examine rather closely a goodly number of the translucent forms espe- 
cially can form an adequate notion of the great beauty and extreme 
delicacy of color, aside from that of form, displayed by them. The young 
naturalist may receive most valuable training in this way. We perhaps 
overlook too often the value of cultivating the senses, and the appreciation 
of esthetic in students. To lack this when it might have been developed 
is deplorable. A well-rounded botanist should certainly have it. 

In addition to the Mycological Btdletin 20, Nos. 21 and 22 have also 
appeared, and all contain very good illustrations of eight sorts of fungi 
and a slime-mould. 

We would remind our readers that by sending the trifling fee of ten 
cents to Professor W. A. Kellerman, Columbus, Ohio, one may become a 
member of the Mycological Club and receive these helpful bulletins which 
appear monthly. 



THE PLANT WORLD 313 

Methods Used for Controlling and Reclaiming Sand Dunes ' ' * and 
" Reclamation of Cape Cod Sand Dunes "t are the titles of two especially- 
interesting papers on an aspect of applied ecology which is illustrative of 
the application of the knowledge of the natural history of plants to matters 
of economic importance — the reclamation of land otherwise useless and 
the prevention of loss of useful land by sand movement. The illustra- 
tions are well chosen to convey knowledge on this subject. For example, 
in Mr. Westgate's paper the interaction of two plants, the beach-grass 
and the bayberr3^ is strikingly shown. Thus, the bayberry alone grows 
badly, and is unable to hold the sand, so that the roots become in part 
exposed. By planting beach-grass, sufficient protection is afforded so 
that the bay-berry is enabled to thrive and to produce abundant foliage. 
In Mr. Hitchcock's paper the plates illustrate the methods used in 
various parts of Europe in reclaiming and in fixing dunes. In ele- 
mentary classes to which ecology is taught, such articles as these are 
profitable scientificall}^ and equally so in indicating the practical appli- 
cation of botany. 

"The Method of Botanical Instruction " + is the title of a book by 
Dr. Felix Kienitz-Gerloff, Professor in the School of Agriculture at Weil- 
burg, Germany, which presents in much detail the educational situation 
in that country as regards botany (pp. 1-29) and sets forth the aims and 
methods of botanical teaching (pp. 29-99) as understood by the author. 
In a third part (pp. 103-276) various elementary courses — preparatory, 
morphological-systematic, physiological-anatomical, cryptogamic, and 
sexual-physiological are gone into extensively. Here the question-answer 
scheme of illustrating class procedure is used to some extent. The use 
of the book to American teachers lies chiefly in enabling them to get a 
view of the condition of botanical teaching in Germany at its best. A 
digest of its more important features will be published later. 

A PAMPHLET containing ' ' A Key to the Genera of the Forest Trees 
of Indiana based chiefly upon Leaf Characters ' ' has been published by 
Stanley Coulter and H. B. Dormer. The many teachers and students 
who so often wish to cultivate the ability to identify the trees when 
divested of their summer attire will find the little work of much help. 
It has been used by the authors in large classes, and has proved its worth, 
which is, of course, not restricted merely to the political limits of the 
State appearing in the title. It may be had by addressing the author at 
Lafayette, Ind. 

*By A. S, Hitchcock. U. S. Dept. Agri., Bur. PI. Industry, Bulletin 57. 
tBy J. M. Westgate. Ihid, Bulletin 65. 

f'Methodik des Botanischen Unterrichts," von Dr. Felix Kienitr-Gerloff, Professor a. d. Land- 
wirtschaftsshule zu Weilburg a. d. Labu. VII, 290. 8vo. Berlin : O. Salle, 1904. 



314 THE PLANT WORLD 



( ( 



Under the title Inoculating the Ground, ' ' Mr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, 
in The Century magazine for October this year gives an appreciative 
account of the excellent work of Dr. George V. Moore, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, in elaborating an efficient method of cultivating the 
organisms of leguminous root tubercles, and of soil inoculation. The 
subject is plainly presented and the paper is well illustrated. Its accessi- 
bility should make it a reliable piece of reference reading for students. 
A good portrait of Dr. Moore is also published. 

A SERIES of articles by B. M. Davis under the title "Studies on the 
Plant Cell " are appearing in The Aynericaii Naturalist. Numbers I, II, 
and III appeared in the May, June, and July-August, 1904, issues respec- 
tively. 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 

The first number of The Nature- Study Review — the new educational 
journal dealing with nature-study, "elementary science," and agricul- 
ture; edited by L. H. Bailey, H. W. Fairbanks, C. F. Hodge, J. F. 
Woodhull, and M. A. Bigelow — is now in press for publication before 
January. The leading article is a symposium on " What is nature-study, 
and its relation to natural science," by H. W. Fairbanks, C. F. Hodge, 
T. H. Macbride, F. L. Stevens, and M. A. Bigelow. Other articles are : 
"Physical nature-study," by J. F. Woodhull ; " Nature-study and ele- 
mentary agriculture in Canada " ; " Some recent criticisms of nature- 
study " ; " Agriculture in Southern schools, " by C. W. Burkett ; ' ' School- 
gardens," by H. D. Hemenway ; "Ant-nests for the schoolroom; and 
"Book reviews and notes on recent literature." In the second number 
a series of short papers will deal with ' ' aims and values of nature-study 
for elementary schools." After this a series of articles will discuss the 
relations of the various phases of nature-study — biological, physical, 
geographical, agricultural — to each other and to related subjects in the 
elementary-school curriculum. The following papers are expected to 
introduce the subjects for discussion : Professor Dodge, of Teachers 
College, Columbia University, and Dr. Fairbanks, of the Editorial Com- 
mittee, on "Geography and its relation to nature-study"; Professor 
W. S. Hall, of Northwestern University, and M. A. Bigelowon "Physi- 
ology and its relation to nature-study" ; Principal Baldwin, of Hyannis 
(Mass.) State Normal, on " Nature-study and manual training" ; Dr. 
Carrington, StateSuperintendentof Schools of Missouri, on "Agriculture 
and nature-study," and other papers on this subject by Professors Bailey, 
Burkett, Hays, Stevens, and Mrs. Comstock ; and Dr. Katherine Dopp, 
of Chicago, on " Nature-study and primitive-life studies." Many papers 
on problems outside of the above series and a large number of short 
papers and notes on the practical side of nature-study teaching are in 
preparation. 












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