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669. +S 


From the collection of the 


b t 

I ^ 


San Francisco, Californ 






Here, an ingenious 
Oxygen Pump 
housed in 

The Gem of Plastics 

vies with the fascinating colors and 
natural beauty of a tropical pool 
encases the medium that breathes the 
essence of life to the aquarium's fleet- 
of-fin occupants . . . keeps the wafer of 
their habitat clean, freshly filtered and 

Simple, highly successful techniques and 
cost-favorable factors for casting this 
and various other types of custom hous- 
ings present advantages that are equally 
as product-wise as the resultant un 
matchable rich color effects and 
regardless of whether the projected 
production is large or small, they do 
much to commend and extend the use 
of Catalin in al! fields. 

This is the opportune time for manufac- 
turers and their product designers to 
become fully Catalin informed. Inquiries 



Cad Kaiini liquid Resini Molding Compoundi 

his Air Pump manufactured by tho Man-Sow Corp 
it exclusively distributed by the Aquarium Stock 
Co , Now York 

i pK*no!ic taUty roior handUt, compltt* with threaded 
metal inrt, rpr*nt typical compr*ion molded parti Mod* 
by MicK.gon Molded rMattic.. Incorporated in a 200-ton H-F-M 
pru equipped with 50 cavity mold, production avrag* 400 
hondlvi pr Sewr Actual curing lime it 1-1/2 minutei lnrh 
or* manually petitioned in di* eavitie*. 


Coinwession ^IddiM 

P P 


Mount Gilead, Ohio. U. S. A. 

H-P-M "All-Hydraulic" plaitio comprolittn 
melding pretiei operate with full automatic 
cycle. Only manual effort required it to load 
and unload molds. Each press is completely 
self-contained, requiring only electric power 
and cooling water for operation. Hydraulic 
pressure is generated by the reliable H-P-M 
HYDRO-POWER radial pump. A single multi- 
flex timer controls all press actions including 
rapid advance, automatic slow-down, slow 
close, pressure dwell and rapid return. 
Breathing or de-gassing control can be used 
at (he option of the operator. Slow close 
speed is adjustable, a feature which is 
especially beneficial for insert work. 

Each press is furnished complete with die 
bolsters, and knockouts. Press head is 
designed to accomodate transfer ram 
(optional extra). 

There is an H-P-M compression press for 
every production molding requirement. 
Regardless of size, each H-P-M press is of the 
same basic design, and employs the same 
type of hydraulic power unit. Investigate 
these standardized production units. Write 
today for H-P-M Bulletin 4403. 

The Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. 

A 100 ion H.P.V, compreuion moldi 
with 24" 18'plaKnt 



JANUARY, 1946 

in this issue 

Breathe Easier Jack D. Stratum 29 

Producing Better Printing Inks Philip Pollack 34 

And Now It's Luggage Barbara Baer 40 

Reconversion in the Molding Plant J. H. Du Bois 42 

Know the Cold Molded Plastics B. F. Hantz 46 

Plastics In Armor Margarita Dobert 55 

The Resorcinol Resins Prove Their Worth, Part 2 R. L. Shipley 58 

What Paper for Laminates? Robert W . Barber 66 

Inserts Their Design, Selection and Use 72 

A Consumer Speaks Up ! Wynn Stephanson 90 

There Will he More Materials in 1946 92 

Program of SPE Annual Meeting 98 

Heat-Sealing Thermoplastics 126 


Plastics in Perspective 26 

Plastics at Work . .64 

Literature Review . . . 
Problems in Plastics 


On the Drafting Board 71 Industry Highlights 109 

Capital Report '. 84 

Association Activities 100 

What's New in Plastics?. . . .103 


People Ill 

Engineering News Letter 113 

Plastics Overseas 116 


Editorial Offices, 185 N. Wabath Ave.. Chicago I, 


General Manager 

Art Director 


Circulation Director 

Atl't. to Publisher 


Advertising Director 


Production Director 





Field Editor 
Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


West Coast Editor 


Washington Editor 


Technical Editor 


Consulting Technical Editor 


Staff Photographer 


Staff Photographer 


Art Editor 


Eastern Advertising Manager 

Midwest Advertising Manager 

Western Advertising Manager 


Empire State Blag., Wl 7-0400 

815 S. Hill St., TUcker 9213 

International Bldg., EXEevtive 2502 

21 King Street, East 


Acrylic mockup of Douglas 
C-54 hydraulic system, in- 
stalled at Western Techni- 
cal Training Command 
school at Douglas Aircraft 
Co., Santa Monica plant. 
Photograph by Lew Nichols. 

Other Ziff-Davis Publications: Flying, Industrial Aviation, Popular Photography, Radio News, Radio-Electronic Engineering, Radio and Appliances 

PLASTICS 1* published monthlj by Zlff-Darls Publishing Company. 185 North Wabuh Are.. Chicago X. 111. SUBSCRIPTION RATES; In U. 8.. Mexico. South anil Central 
America, am! U. 8. Possessions. 12 Issues 85.00; 24 limes 18.00; In Canada, 12 luuee. $5.50; 24 Issues. (9.00' In British Empire. 12 issuw. 18.00. All other foreign countries. 
12 Issues. 46.00. Subscribers should allow two weeks for change of address. Address all subscription letters to the Director of Circulation, PLASTICS. 185 North Wsbash 
Ave.. Chicago 1. HL Entered as second class matter June IS. 1946. U the post office at Chicago, Illinois, under the Act of March 3. 1879. Contributors should retain copy 
of contributions. All submitted material must contain return postage. Contributions will be handled with reasonable care, but this magazine assume* no responsibility for 
tbelr safety. Accepted material is (object to adaptations and revisions to meet editorial requirements. Payment covers all authors', contributors' and contestants' rinhts. title 
and Interest in and to the material accepted and will be made at our current rates upon acceptance. All photos and drawings are considered part of material purchased. 



Shoe parts made from GfiDfl . . . 
suggest many other interesting applications 

New material adds permanent beauty 
lengthens shoe life 

THOSE strips of shoe trim material in the picture 
look ordinary enough but actually they're revo- 
lutionary. For GEON polyvinyl materials have made 
possible completely new techniques in shoe styling 
and manufacture. The GEONS are thermoplastic raw 
materials that can be extruded (as these strips were), 
pressure or injection molded, cast or calendered into 
sheet or film, or used as coatings for fabric and paper. 

As a shoe material GEON can be used for trim, 
soles, heels, welts and ribs, toe caps and liners. These 
and other products made from GEON can be bril- 
liantly or delicately colored. They can be 
given a smooth or embossed surface, a 
dull or mirror finish. They won't crack or 
check because they are so highly resistant 


to aging. They are easy to clean because dirt and water 
even corrosive acids can't penetrate the surface. 

All these and many more unusual properties can be 
considered in connection with a wide variety of prod- 
ucts other than shoes: scuffproof, good-looking, prac- 
tically indestructible luggage and brief cases; uphol- 
stery material that can be left outdoors because it re- 
sists the aging effects of weather; water and mildew- 
proof fabric coatings for rainwear, shower curtains, 
tents; film, sheet, or coatings of GEON for packages 
that will resist wear, aging, chemicals, foods, tobacco, 
oils and greases, moisture, heat and cold. 

There are applications for GEON in every phase of 
American life. For more complete infor- 
mation write Dept. U-l, B. F. Goodrich 
Chemical Company, 324 Rose Building, 
Cleveland 15, Ohio. 

B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company 






Waterbury's technical skill . . . the same skill that pro- 
duced intricate plastic parts for this secret weapon which 
affected the course of the war ... is available to manu- 
facturers who use plastic parts and assemblies in 
their products. 

Highly intricate mold making and precision plastic mold- 
ing by transfer, injection, and compression is a 
specialty with Waterbury Companies. Let our complete 
engineering and design staff work with you on the 
production of your plastic parts. 


Formerly Waterbury Button Co., Est. 1812 

These small but highly intricate 
plastic pieces are vital parti 
of the now famous VT fuse. 



ass production of fine wood as- 
semblies is simpler, quicker and 
less expensive with veneers and plywood 
molded and bonded with PENACOLITE G-1215. Just one 
example of this modern adhesive's wonder working is 
in the production of the richly styled and finished radio 
cabinet illustrated here. 

Note the six operations eliminated from the assembly. 
Note the curved shape of the casing which, when molded 
with PENACOLITE G-1215, will never warp or delami- 
nate. And note, too, the surface a paper-thin veneer 
which permanently endows the entire cabinet with the 
quality of any fine wood you may select. 

For advice and assistance in applying. PENACOLITE 
G-1215 to your production and to your product, consult 




Distributed in Canada by CANADIAN INDUSTRIES. LIMITED. Montreal, Canada 

Which way is the wind blowing 
for your product? 

(Can you name the parts that make up 
this windmill? See chart below.) 

The answer lies in the windmill, itself. It was 
specially built to drive home an important 
point for you. It shows you at once the ultra- 
modern forms that industry demands today. 

It's no wonder that many a man in industry 
is up in the air over products that belong with 
the old-style windmill days but not with a 
windmill like ours. It's made of nine different 
plastics products manufactured at Continental 
Can Company's Cambridge, Ohio, plant. Its 
central part is a billing machine housing; its 
sails, 4 terminal blocks; its top, a coil housing. 

Plastics are perfect for developing some prod- 
ucts, not so perfect for others. Continental's de- 
signers and engineers will be glad to tell you 
honestly whether plastics answer your problem. 
If not, they'll help to prescribe a better medium. 

Our mill shows just a few of the plastic prod- 
ucts made by Continental. Long designing ex- 
perience and dependable engineering "know- 
how" like ours are well supported with increased 
resources and facilities. With such an all-round 
organization, we can end your worries over 
bringing old-fashioned products up to date. 

(A} Brush cop for motor compression; (B) Terminal block 
compression; (C) Aircraft toilet paper holder injection; (D) 
Bushing compression; (E| Billing machine housing compres- 
sion; (F) Coil form compression; (G) Gunner's handles 
compression; (H) Coil housing compression; 
(I) Funnel compression. 

Other Continental Product! s Metal Containers * Fibre 
Drums Paper Containers Paper Cups Plastic Products 
Crown Caps and Cork Products Machinery and Equipment 


Tune in: "REPORT TO THE NATION" every week over coaa-to-coast CBS network 


HEADQUARTERS: Cambridge, Ohio 

Sales Representatives In ill 
Principal Cities 








The uniform heating and complete plasticity of plastics preforms achieved 
by M egatherni result in substantial advantages to the entire molding process. 

Pressures are drastically reduced . . . from 25% to 30% . . . smaller presses 
may be used . . . there is less down-time . . . there are no flow marks. 

This adds up to longer lasting molds and dies . . . better looking and better 
quality product ... an increase in production . . . more customer satisfaction. 

The illustrated switch case produced by American Insulator Corporation of 

New Freedom, Pa. shows the product superiority achieved by Megatherm 

preheating. This intricate part made from rag-filled Melmac weighs 7 pounds 

. . . measures 15'/ 2 " x 9" x 3Vi". 

It has 20 metal inserts . . . was 

molded to exact dimensions and 

flawless finish under 300 ton 

pressure. The cover weighing 

3 pounds was molded of Durez 

No. 791 under 200 ton pressure. 

Extend the life of your molds 
...improve the quality of your 
product. . . increase your produc- 
tion with Megatherm. Write 
for details now. 

3 KW Megalherm Unit in the plant of the 
American Insulator Corp., New Freedom, Pa. 

Federal Telephone and Radio Corporation 

Rj. U.S. P.t. Off. 




>< %!?r!LL". I" 1 ::' ?*_ / raBraunua 

Jj^^^ir Jm*HVMtiT- . ,.* j'i'fc'JJ / /"DUJW^W 




J r.u, 







RAYCOLITE enables you to turn to a new leaf in figuring large or compara- 
tively simple items of the phenol-formaldehyde type. Where this macer- 
ated resin-impregnated molding compound is suitable, it DOES effect savings 
too important to be ignored. We gladly offer our assistance in "research-fit- 
ting" this or our other products to your needs EXACTLY. 


"Research-Fitted" to 

YOUR needs 

Ample Working Sample Upon Request 


'Devefoft&tA. twd, 

of R.I. 



45 Tremont St., Central Falls, R.I. 




coated * 


These are but a few of the items for 
which our plastic coated fabrics and 
papers will be used after the war. 

There are many other applications, 
of course, some of which are already 
familiar to our research staff many 
more have not yet come to our at- 

Check your post war plans. Do plas- 
tic coated fabrics and papers show 
up anywhere in the picture? 

An early contact with a reliable 
source of supply will give you the 
advantage of an early start with 
many of the experimental hurdles 
behind you. 

We have the plant facilities and the 
experience to help you build a "qual- 
ity line" right from the start. Our 
craftsmen were among the first to 
master the new and difficult tech- 
nique of applying the new vinyl res- 
ins to fabrics and papers. We are one 

of the largest suppliers of these fab- 
rics to our armed forces. 

You name it chances are we can 
coat it. Your inquiry will be held in 
strict confidence and accorded every 
possible consideration. 



The Western Shade Cloth Company, 22nd & Jefferson Streets, Chicago 16 







to say 

Molding page, but this month 
we're going to let the pictures 
do the talking. The unusual 
looking moldings shown here 
may look like big compression 
moldings, but they're not; 
they're big injection mold- 
ings, and the tape line in the 
top picture indicates just hoiu 
big they are. 

They are the simulated 
parts of a 2o-mm. gun breech, 
used for instruction of Navy 
gunners, and are made for 
Noel J. Poux of Tenite II by the Erie Resistor Corporation of Erie, 
Pa., on a i6-ounce Lester. The largest part is made of two 22- 
ounce moldings, produced by using an auxiliary feeder and a 
double shot to fill the big mold cavity. 

..*:..*. - 

Investigate These 

Lesters are now built with (l) 
a new vertical injection cylinder, 
with solid plunger and internally- 
heated torpedo, which plasticizes 
more material at higher speed 
without burning; (2) a one-piece, 
cast steel, box-type frame, exclu- 
sive with Lester, which provides 
up to 600 tons locking pressure and 
eliminates the wear and weaving 
which are characteristic of ordi- 
nary frames; (3) greater mold 
opening and exact control of open- 
ing, which permits use of larger molds and speeds cycling; (4) 
larger diameter die height adjusting screw, eliminating possibility 
of mold deflection (adjustment by single hand crank) ; (5) auto- 
matic hydraulic ejection, standard on large machines; (6) flow con- 
trol system permits separate control of injection speed and pressure; 
(7) new Lester safety gate is interlocked hydraulically, electrically 
and mechanically. 

While not designed in the manner of commercial injection molded 
parts, these pieces should give you an idea of the increased scope of 
injection molding as done by Erie Resistor on a Lester. Also shown 
are two 4-ounce Lesters and the i6-ounce machine, "for the big, 
heavy, tough molding jobs." Lack of space cuts short our sales 
talk this time, but if you want to know more, write today for details 
of the entire Lester line. 




0le "76i*y-i ad "7o#t0vt*u~ 

National Distributors: 

LESTER-PHOENIX, INC., 2711 Church Ave., Cleveland 13, Ohio 

Plastic products whose manufacture requires several 
operations eon be turned out faster and more eco- 
nomically when all production phases are centered 
at one source. Here at Emeloid in one of America's 
most completely equipped plastic plants we offer 
that kind oi service ... a diversity of skills and variety 
of facilities which include more than 18 different types 
of operations, We invite you to consult us when you 
need "combined operations" in plastics. 



Co., In 





This illustrated bro- 
chure, "Progress in 
Plastics' ' , commemo- 
rating the 25th anni- 
versary of the found- 
ing of Emeloid, tells 
the dramatic story 
of Emeloid ' growth 
and how its diversi- 
fied services can per- 
form for you. Send 
for your free copy 
. . . today! 





the Rope Fibre Plastic 

In production, it is 
estimated that this 
aluminum mold and 
the large autoclave 
in the rear can pro- 
duce these hulls in 
two hours each, plus 
twenty minutes for 

There's real economy in the use 
of CO-RO-LITE economy achieved 
through pre-forming, which eliminates 
lay-up and through the speed of curing. A single piece of CO-RO- 
LITE is readily pre-formed and molded into compound curves, deep 
draws, angles, channels, and large shells. 

CO-RO-LITE, the rope fibre plastic, is a ready-to-mold thermo- 
setting plastic compound. It is equally effective with fluid pressure, 
high pressure, flash, or transfer molds. Long, 
tough, interlocking rope fibres reenforce all sec- 
tions of the molded unit, imparting great im- 
pact, flexural, compressive, and tensile strength 
in a range of densities comparable to wood. 

CO-RO-LITE: Rope fibres imgregnated 
with thermo-responsive resin: Product 
and process patented Patents No. 
2,249,888 and No. 2,372,433 other 
patents pending. 

The latest handbook on CO-RO- 
LITE, the rope fibre plastic, is 
filled with the facts on which you 
must base your choice of plastic 
compounds. ASK FOR A FREE 


500-92 GENESEE ST., AUBURN, "The Cordage City", N. Y. 

Canadian Licensee, Canadian Bridge Engineering Company, Ltd., Box 157, Walkerville, Ontario, Canada 





If your new product calls for a plastic 
part injection molded to precise speci- 
fications Universal Plastics may be 
your best bet. 

Our design engineers are at your service 
to help you plan new products and prod- 
uct improvements. 

Call or write. 

GeneraJ Offices: 270 MADISON AVENUE 
NEW YORK 16, N. Y. 
Phone: MUrray Hill 5-3950 






\Ve Like to Blow our Own Horn, 
Modesty is Not our \Veakness, 
Our Age, Experience, what we've Done, 
But we Don t Sit on our Laurels. 

Profits are Plowed Back constantly, 
Into Modern Equipment . . . the Best, 
\Ve Ourselves can Devise and Build, 
Or Buy . . . Electronics, Duplex Presses. 

ur cJi aure 

Plastic Molding is Engineering de Luxe, 
Pioneering in New Fields, New Methods, 
Staying a Few Steps Ahead of the Pack. 
Plastics are Busting out All Over. 

We are Specialists in Custom Molding, 

Our Few Stock Molds are Accidents. 

We will Never Compete \Vith 

Our Customers . . come Hell or High \Vater. 

Our "Ready Reference for Plastics" is yours if it will help you buy or design plastic moldings. 




When the Question Is 








Amphenol Engine 

definitely specialists 

in selecting and adapting thermoplastic 
materials for insulation and other uses in com- 
munications, electronic equipment and electrical 
appliances. Their recognized ability to plan 
custom-designed plastic components is paral- 
leled by Amphenol's large productive capacity 
to fabricate parts in endless variety in Poly- 
styrene, Acrylic and Transparent Vinyls 
engineered to close tolerances and produced to 
high quality standards. It will pay you to tell us 
your problems and invite the confidential co- 
operation of Amphenol engineers. 


In Canada ' Amphenol Limited Toronto 

U.H.F. Cables and Connectors Conduit Fittings Connectors (A-N, U.H.F., British) CaMe Assemblies Radio Parts Plastics for Industry 

is as important in plastics 
your designs on consumer purse strings! 

There's no better time to get "down to 
cases" than in the planning stage. Final 
product acceptance is often pre-deter- 
rnined by first-hand "on -the -line" 
knowledge of user habits, customs and 
living . . . what the product will do for 
the consumer to urge its purchase. 
MACK MOLDING experience along 
these lines is keyed to tie production, 

marketing and saleability of plastic mold- 
ings from low-cost premium items to 
expensive components in luxury assem- 
blies ... in small quantities or tremen- 
dous volume. This collaboration is avail- 
able to you, without cost or obligation. 
Address inquiries to Mack Molding 
Company, Inc., 130 Main St., Wayne, 
New Jersey. 


Your product will travel in fait company in this highly torrtpef i'ive 
market. Design it to meet a need the greater the need, the belter 
the 10 lei potential. 


Want repeat tales or consumer goodwill? Better make your product 
right the first time. Test it, try it, use it at many limes at you 
would if you were buying it for yourself. 


looks con kill o sole ... so pick o material with glamor as well as 
Intrinsic value. Plastic moldings need not be battleship grey to with- 
stand corrosion, acids or heat. 


The joker everytimel If you have the idea or plans, we can tell you 
the score as far as plastic moldings are concerned. That's our job 
one we have done for almost thirty years. 






TAKE TIME TO SEE THEM . . . take time to see these new timepieces so 
modern and beautiful in their Plaskon Molded Color cases! 

Dealer's shelves once more are being stocked with clocks for every need, thanks 
in a big way to quick conversion made possible by Plaskon plastic materials. Plaskon 
can be molded into almost any desired shape or design, in large quantities, at very 
economical prices. It is a high-utility material for a great range of applications, and 
possesses the added advantage of rich, striking colors for product enhancement. 

Molded Plaskon has a gleaming, satiny surface, friendly to the touch and attractive 
to the eye. It will not rust, tarnish or corrode; it is not affected by oils, fats or greases; 
and is completely impervious to the effects of alcohol, acetone, and other common 
organic solvents. Because it is odorless, tasteless and inert, it has no effect upon 
any other material which it contacts. 

Investigate the many manufacturing and sales advantages which Plaskon plastics 
offer you, for developing present markets and entering new ones. We can give 
you helpful assistance in suggesting designs, qualified Plaskon molders, and 
technical advice. Write today. 

.ASKON DIVISION, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, 2106 Sylvan Ave., Toledo 6, Ohio. In Canada: Canadian Industries, Ltd., Montreal 

There's nothing like this 

offers ALL these Advantages: 

Designed by plastics engineers for the 
plastics industry! 

Wide range of shapes and sizes. 
High speed production. 

Greater uniformity of weight and density 
... cutting down molding rejects. 

Compact, modern design. 

Easy to clean . . . color changes can be made 
with minimum of cleaning time. 

Quick adjustment of density while operating. 

Quick adjustment of fill while machine is in 

Can use multiple dies. 

Punches and dies can be quickly changed... 
machine complete with variable speed drive 
and clutch. 

Less material leakage assures greater 

All lubricated parts enclosed and below die 
surface, thus eliminating preform spoilage 
due to oil contamination. 

Interchangeable parts. Precision made. 

Write for latest bulletins. 
Defiance Machine Works, Inc. Defiance, Ohio; 




&t fo 





Here's a new Dow plastic that gives you the rare opportunity to put your plastic plans to 
work RIGHT NOW ! Most plastics ate still short. But this new Dow development its 
durability and effectiveness proved in \far is now freely available for the many peacetime 
jobs that call for its unique qualities. It may be just the thing you need. Suggested applica- 
tions include tools, electrical insulation, home appliances, sporting goods. Field experience 
and Dow research point unmistakably to a world of opportunities for new and profitable 
civilian applications. Full data is waiting for you. Push your plastic program NOW 
ask Dow about Styraloy at once! 



For better insulation, tool handles, and products as varied as 
scuff plates, floor mats and fittings or gaskets, Styraloy is the 
answer to tough service demands. 


High dielectric strength, low power loss; flexible and shock 
resistant from 90 to 212 F.; light weight; negligible water 
absorption; resists heat, many chemicals, permanent indenta- 
tion and abrasion; easily machined. 


New York Boston Philadelphia Washington Cleveland Detroit Chicago St. Louis 
Houston San Francisco Los Angelei Seattle 





for Your 

At No Extra Cost to Advertisers 

The Second Annual pltiSllCS Directory will pldSllCS is the only magazine to give its 

be published as the March 1946 issue of 
pldStlCS magazine. This enlarged and expanded 
edition of pldStlCS highly successful 1945 
directory will serve as a vital all-year refer- 
ence source for the entire plastics industry. 

paid subscribers and advertisers this com- 
plete compilation of valuable plastics infor- 
mation in a special issue of hundreds of 
pages AT NO EXTRA COST! The Annual 
Directory Issue is a must for your budget. 


Reservations close February 1 



185 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago 1, 111. 
New York Washington Los Angeles Toronto 

Flying Plastics Popular Photography Radio New* Radio Electronic Engineering Industrial Aviation Radio & Appliance* 



E?TEN to the reviving markets . . . challenging manu- 
facturers to speed more products, of better quality 
and greater utility, at lower prices! MOSINEE, the 
"proved-in-service" material that can be engineered to 
meet many requirements, may be the answer to today's 
market challenges in your field. 

The "Paperologists" of The Mills of Mosinee have helped 
many product engineers and manufacturers put winning 
advantages into their products . . . such as controlled 
maximum-minimum pH uniform specified density 
high tensile strength definite dielectric strength 
moisture repellency and other technical characteristics 
to meet various market demands. 


Equipped with broad experience, extensive laboratory facilities, and 
outstanding paper-engineering leadership, Mosinee "Paperologists" are 
qualified and ready to cooperate with your organization . . . whenever 
you say. A conference will not obligate you. 

Please address 

your letter 
Attention Deft. E" 





P/io tographof T-square placed across the closure fitted in thvdrumclear- 
ly shotcs the flush fitting of the flange which oilmen complete drainage. 




of the major oil companies 
recently made exhaustive tests 
to determine the efficiency of 
drum closures from the stand- 
point of drainage. 

'Tri-Sure and other types of 
closures were tested in 55 gallon 
drums under identical conditions. 
After draining the contents (Lube 
Oil) from the drums only 3.38 fluid 
ounces remained in those fitted 
with Tri-Sure Closures, the ave- 
rage contents remaining in all 
other drums I inn 11.72 fluid ozs. 

Benefit to users of Tri-Sure fitted 
drums 8.34 fluid ounces the 
equivalent of more than 600 gallons 
in every 10,000 drum shipment. 

In addition, drums sealed with Tri- 
Sure Closures assure protection 
from leakage, seepage, tampering, 

-uli-i ii ii i inii .iml hreuthiiig. 







0URITE PLASTICS INCORPORATED 5000 Summerdaie Ave. Philadelphia 24, Pa. 


READERS of the New Yorker magazine have been 
regaled pretty often of late by quips and cartoons 
about plastics. One of the latest shows a booth labelled 
"SOYZIC, The Soybean Plastic," and the attendant tells 
a visitor: "It's the perfect plastics at last. It can be 
bored, punched, stamped, sawed, and in an emergency 
eaten with a light sauce." Naturally all this is in fun, 
and in this particular case the fact that soybeans ac- 
tually are a food makes the joke sound. Sometimes, 
however, the reference to plastics is merely frivolous, 
as if the very word itself were funny, just as "Hobo- 
ken" once was good for a laugh on the vaudeville stage. 
The effect of ridicule is subtle. People who don't know 
much about plastics and that includes almost every- 
body, not excepting those learned humorists of the New 
Yorker are apt to feel condescending about materials 
their favorite funny magazine pokes fun at. They 
might hesitate before buying a plastics commodity. 

We would therefore like to give the editors of New 
Yorker a short short-course in plastics. Plastics are 
nothing more than a new class of materials, like metals. 
Unlike metals, however, they are not found in nature, 
but are synthesized. Each type of plastics has its own 
properties and limitations. Maybe the editors of the 
New Yorker are in the same position as the man who 
had talked prose all his life and didn't know it. When 
they finger their shell-rim spectacles, they are touching 
one kind of plastics cellulose nitrate, and the barrels 
of their fountain pens are probably made of the same 
material. When they reach for the phone, it's phenolic 
plastics they pick up. Their staplers, inkwells, memo 
pads, filing folders, desk blotters and other accessories 
are all apt to be made in part of one plastics or another. 
Most important of all, when they lean an elbow on their 
favorite bar, the chances are that, if it is a modern bar, 
it has a melamine laminate surface, to protect it against 
careless cigarettes and involuntarily spilled alcohol. 

We do not remember any jokes in the New Yorker 
about metals. We can't place any cartoons about copper 
or pleasantries about polonium. If the metals aren't a 
source of humor, neither are the plastics. 
* * * 

THERE is a report circulating that some manufac- 
turers are attempting to disguise, the fact that their 
products are made of plastics. They are hanging fancy 
names on their items, suggesting that they are novelties 
or even perhaps new materials. They prefer, obviously, 
not to identify them as plastics. 

Maybe this attitude is based on the premise that con- 
sumers have been prejudiced by some poorly-made 
plastics articles, and so rebel against all plastics. Even 
if that assumption is wholly true and we must rec- 
ognize that it is partially true disguise is certainly not 
the way to meet the issue. Carried to the extreme, such 

a policy would mean the crippling of the industry, 
which can only grow by self-assertion, not self-re- 
nunciation. Self-assertion doesn't mean bragging of 
and shouting the virtues of plastics it means taking a 
positive stand on their proven merits. 

Aluminum came out of the laboratory into the mar- 
ket not by sheltering itself meekly behind the reputa- 
tion of established metals. It proclaimed itself as a 
unique metal for certain purposes and it stood on 
its own feet. Plastics must do the same in the com- 
petition among materials. It must assert itself, not as 
a universal material, but as unique for certain (and 
varied) purposes. To pretend to be some material it 
is not, or conceal itself, is to invite industrial suicide. 
* * * 

PROGRESSIVE factions of the industry are taking the 
contrary tack. They not only champion the prac- 
tice of labelling plastics products as such, but they also 
want to bring information to the point where the con- 
sumer would realize that there are many different 
kinds of plastics. 

This movement of informative labelling has received 
official approval in a recent pamphlet on the subject 
published by the Society of the Plastics Industry. While 
the pamphlet is far from a complete treatment of the 
subject, it is positive, and in time, and with more ex- 
perience in consumer reaction, it can be amplified or 
modified. The difficulties inherent in this whole prob- 
blem are evident by examining one example of the 
information recommended by the SPI committee as a 
basis for drawing up an informative label. This is 
what the pamphlet suggests under Acetates: 

This is a plastic (trade name). Tough, non-shat- 
terable, light in weight, warm to touch, non-rusting, 
non-corrodible, color solid throughout, tasteless and 
color- fast. Wash only in warm, not boiling, water, 
with mild soap. Use no abrasives. Avoid flame or 
high heat. 

What are the possible objections to this form of 
label? In the first place, it doesn't satisfy those who 
think that plastics should be identified by their chem- 
ical names, somewhat simplified to make them more 
palatable to the public. Thus, "acetate" would be used 
rather than the full "cellulose acetate." Opponents of 
this viewpoint could point out that, if the above type 
of label were generally adopted, a woman could buy 
eight cellulose acetate products, the material for which 
was purchased from the eight different suppliers; the 
only difference in the label would be in the trade name. 
This would not clarify her notions about plastics. 

Actually, the above information is basic for the 
butyrates and for ethyl cellulose as well, so that this 
hypothetical customer could buy 13 articles each tagged 
(Continued on page 88) 




Stress ? 

We reduce it for better plastic parts 

CUTTING 'WAY DOWN on internal stress gives your 
plastic application greater strength and stability 
under stress, as well as better dimensional stability 
under severe temperature change in many cases, 
simplifies retention of tolerances when cooling. It 
produces a far better molded piece. 

Like this. With the standard mold- 
ing practices of a few years ago, 
molding this vacuum cleaner housing 
called for a 150 ton press. We pro- 
duce it now in a 75 ton press, and 

Let us show you how Heatronic 
molding can help you. We've been 
custom molders since the birth of the 
industry developers of Heatronics 
since we pioneered its use in plastic 
molding. We're large enough and 
perfectly equipped to handle any job 
not so large that our top men lose 
sight of the jobs you give us. Try us 
and see. 

Complete molding facilities from 
design to finished product are at 
your service here. Just ask for a Kurz- 
Kasch engineer. 

get a better cure and a finer finish, 
too. That's Heatronics (radio fre- 
quency pre-heating) for you and 
only a couple of its many benefits, 
at that. 


For Over 28 Years Planners and Molders in Plastics 

Kurz-Kasch, Inc., 1413 South Broadway, Daylon 1, Ohio. Branch Safes Offices: New York 

Chicago Detroit Los Angeles Dallas St. Louis Toronto, Canada. Export Offices: 

89 Broad Street, New York City 




Like This Noah's 







TOOL*// HA CMOS ^t) AUTOSl5-J> >UNi'^ 


19" long by 9" high is a product of 
Amatoy Corporation, Chicago, III. All 
parts except the animals molded by 
Amos. Photo by Eastman Kodak Co. 

From plastic toys to precision parts Amos does custom mold- 
ing jobs that go into many different fields. And Amos cus- 
tomers get their jobs done exactly right the way they 
want them from engineering to molding and finishing. 

For example the all-plastic Noah's Ark you see above is a 
recent Amos job for a customer in the toy field. Other jobs 
going through the new Amos plant include a wide variety 
of plastic parts and products. 



With this new plant one of the most modern in the industry 
Amos facilities for plastic molding have been greatly expanded. 
You'll get your job done right by Amos. Just send us your draw- 
ings or write us what you have in mind to be molded in plastics. 


Division of Amos-Thompson Corporation 




Such freedom of motion is allowed 
by the lightweight compact "Plas- 
tics Lung" that the patient can 
even sit up for his nourishment 

Ligh ter weigh t, less b ulkin ess, more 
comfort and ease of movement dis- 
tinguish methyl methacrylate 
respirator from iron counterpart 

AS A revolutionary development in the alleviation of 
human suffering, a new, lightweight, wearable ''plas- 
tics lung" now is being manufactured to give sustained life 
and more comfort to victims of diseases affecting the res- 
piratory function. Built to compete with the heavy, cum- 
bersome, stationary "iron lung," the "plastics lung" is 
formed of methyl methacrylate, with the weight of the en- 
casement worn by the average-sized adult patient actually 
only five pounds. 

Most "iron lungs" are huge contraptions, which surround 
the patient's body, legs, and arms. Measuring approxi- 
mately 7' in length by 30" in width, their size frequently 
has prohibited their being speedily transported, at time of 
an emergency, by physicians and first-aid men. In weight, 
these instruments range from 400 to 600 Ib. 

The new acrylic respirator is designed to enclose only 
the thorax of the patient. Arms, legs, and head are free 
of the breathing chamber. Dimensions are so greatly re- 
duced that the "plastics lung" may be carried by hand like 
a pair of suit cases. It is easily transported by a physician 
or carried in an ambulance. 

Weight of the mechanical unit, air hose, and three vari- 
sized methyl methacrylate respiratory chambers adds up to 




The "Plastics Lung" consists of electrical plug-in, mechanical unit, air hose, "Plexiglas" jacket with fittings attached 

but 60 Ib. The power unit weighs 32 Ib. The total for 
three breathing jackets is 15 Ib, with the balance in weight 
represented by metal fittings, oxygen mask, air hose, and 
associated equipment. 

However, there are numerous other advantages, all di- 
rectly attributable to the use of plastics. Transparency of 
the methyl methacrylate enables physician or nurse to make 
optical observations of reactions manifested by the pa- 
tient's chest movements, and imparts confidence to the pa- 
tient by eliminating the understandable fear experienced 
when introduced to the ponderous metal respirator. 

Warmer than metal, the acrylic sheets help substantially 
in maintaining room temperature within the jacket. Un- 
heated air may be pumped, for there is no metallic chill to 
be overcome. The practice of quilting the interior of an 
alloy breathing chamber also is obviated. 

Lightness of the plastics structure, together with its 
waist-length design, enables the patient, if his condition 
permits, to sit up in bed. In some cases, he may occupy a 
chair or stand on his own feet, while the treatment is ad- 
ministered. The one mechanical requirement is that he 
must confine his movements to the radius of the air hose, or, 
in exceptionally mobile cases, to the length of the hose and 
the electrical plug-in which supplies energy for the respira- 
tory mechanism. 

Free use of arms, legs, and head lets the patient assume 
comfortable, normal postures in or out of bed. And he 
may take nourishment or medicaments while in the breath- 
ing encasement. 

Molded to Fit 

The methyl methacrylate jacket, in a sense, is a gar- 
ment, agreeable and warm to the touch, and light in weight. 
It is molded to fit the human form. Through its clear 
walls, the patient may observe the rise and fall of his own 
chest as the artificial respiration proceeds. 

To those who have been enclosed for years in metal res- 
pirators and who temporarily have lost much of their ca- 
pability for arm and leg movement, this new plastics de- 
vice will provide a welcome emancipation. 

Comparative cost is another consideration. "Iron lungs" 
sell at from $1300 to $1600 or more. The plastics unit will 

A wax sheet is applied to frontal section of plaster 
pattern for use in making phenolic press dies. Below, 
phenol formaldehyde press dies for shaping acrylic 
jacket for "lung." Adults' to childrens' sizes shown 



Edges of heated "Plexiglas" sheet are held down as 
punch die descends. Pressure of 50 psi shapes sheet 

Selvages of the formed methyl methacrylate sheet are 
trimmed with a handsaw to remove plyer indentations, 
and then run down on a three-knife jointer to correct 
uneven saw cuts and provide air-seal at joining point 

be offered for $895, although its manufacturers say this 
may be lessened. Thus many small communities may be 
expected to equip their hospitals, fire stations, or other 
first aid centers with one of these life-saving pieces of ap- 

For the one price, according to present sales plans, will 
be furnished the three thorax encasements, the electrical 
unit and air hose which supply aerated impulses for artifi- 
cial respiration, and a nasal inhalator to administer oxy- 
gen. The latter appliance is so reduced dimensionally that 
lips and eyes of the patient are exposed. 

The three methyl methacrylate jackets are designed for 
persons of varying chest dimensions. The smaller, weighing 
four pounds, is for children; the medium size, five pounds, 
for average-sized adults ; and the largest, six pounds, for 
over-sized adults. 

Designed to relieve patients of breathing effort, the elec- 
trically motivated control unit alternately compresses air 
and creates a vacuum. Air thus is forced into, and with- 
drawn from, the breathing chamber to establish artificial 
respiration. Speed of the positive and negative pulsations, 
as prescribed by a physician, is controlled by valves within 
the unit. 

While electrically powered for hospital or home use, the 
mechanical unit may be driven from a crank turned by 
hand. This provision was made for drownings, other out- 
of-doors emergencies, and cases aboard trains, ambulances, 
and automobiles. 

Fabrication of the "plastics lung" is a reconversion de- 
velopment. An aluminum waist-length breathing cham- 
ber previously had been manufactured in limited quantity. 
Cast in sand, the aluminum jackets respectively weighed 
five, eight and l2 l / 2 Ib, considerably more than the acrylic 
jackets weigh. 

Plastics Lends Advantages 

Patents covering the aluminum device were acquired by 
California Aircraft Engineering Co., Los Angeles. The 
president of this company, Harry J. Coffman, understood 
application of Rohm & Haas Plexiglas from experience 
gathered in fabrication of bomber noses. Further, it was 
recognized that methyl methacrylate would lend many ad- 
vantages to the respirator assembly, now about to be mar- 
keted to the United States and Europe under the trade- 
name Blanchard Mechanical Physiotherapist. 

In taking this material into consideration, it was pointed 

out that the sheet may be formed and machined easily, that 

. it possesses strength, and that it has high optical quality. In 

addition, it is stable in prolonged service and is odorless. 

Production of the methyl methacrylate breathing cham- 
ber, assigned to the Nu-World Products Co., Huntington 

"Plexiglas" lung jacket, with front and back sections 
in position, gets polishing to remove dust particles 

Beach, Calif., a concern termed since end of the war for 
fabrication of plastics items, involved several problems. 

The jacket was to consist of two acrylic sheets, one to 
cover the chest, the other to enclose the back, of the pa- 
tient. These sections required an air-seal closure where 
they joined, and it also was necessary to effect air-seals, 
through use of rubber sheeting, at the waist-line and at the 
holes for neck and arms. To maintain optical properties, 
the shaping process had to be performed without scratch- 
ing the material, and it further was desirable,, as well as 
economical, to produce a one-piece pressed sheet for each 
section of the jacket, and that these sheets possess flanges 
for fastening the rubber closures at the arms and neck open- 

Stretch forming on a steel die briefly was considered. 
But although such precautions as covering the metal die 
with flock rubber cloth or some other protective fabric could 
be taken, surface abrasions upon the acrylic surfaces might 

The process also would require flanges to be formed sep- 
arately and cemented into position, a process entailing ex- 
tra work hours and leaving cement lines to obstruct optical 
studies of the patient and mar the appearance of the fin- 
ished product. 

For these reasons, Cecil T. Weaver, Nu-World's vice 
president and shop superintendent, formerly in experimental 
work at Rohm & Haas' South Gate, Calif., plant, made it 
a one-piece press job by going into production with phenol- 
formaldehyde press dies. 

Plexiglas sheets used in the process are 3/16" thick. Sur- 
face dimensions of the unpressed sheet for the child's 
thorax encasement are 18 by 20", for the medium adult's 
21 by 25", and for the oversized adult's 25 by 27". 

Acrylic Properties Preserved 

Extreme care to preserve the plastics sheet's optical prop- 
erties is exercised throughout. Protective paper coverings 
are stripped from the sheets only when ready for heat treat- 
ing. Canvas, upon which the sheets repose in the oven, fre- 
quently is cleaned of any microscopic foreign fragments, 
which might cause an infinitesimal surface abrasion. 

For the heat treatment, a "home constructed" drawer- 
type oven is utilized. The sheets are given 20 min in a 
thermostatically controlled temperature of 275 F before 
being pulled for shaping. 

Both sections of the unheated phenolic press die are 
spread with a specially prepared lubricant, based on ;i 
formula developed by Weaver. This oil serves as a part- 
ing agent, and guards against any chance blistering of the. 

In transferring the heated sheet from oven to press, 
plyers are used on the four corners, contacting only the 
selvages, which later will be removed. A pressure of 50 
psi then is exerted by the press for six minutes. 

Oil adhering to the molded sheet after the 'forming proc- 
ess is removed in a four-phase cleansing operation per- 
formed in a wash tank. First step is a kerosene bath to cut 
and remove the greater part of the lubricant. Triton X-3QO, 
the sodium salt of an alkylated aryl poly-ether sulphate, a 
solution containing 20% solids dissolved in water and iso- 
propyl alcohol, a Rohm & Haas product, next is applied 
as a detergent. It eliminates the remaining film of kero- 
sene and oil. A water rinse follows, after which the 
pressed sheet is blotted dry with absorbent paper. 

Selvages, marked with plyer scars, are trimmed by a 
band saw, after which the sawed edges are run down on 
a Delta three-knife jointer. The jointer not only corrects 
uneven saw-cuts, but provides the essential air-seal where 
contact takes place between edges of the two jacket sec- 

From this point, usual shop practice prevails. Screw 

The "Plastics Lung" offers more comfort, allows freedom 
of movement. Medium size jacket shown weighs 5 Ibs. 

holes are drilled for suit-case type clamps, which will hold 
the chest and back sections in contact. Bolt holes are 
bored for attachment of the rubber air-seal waist-band. 
For this work, an ordinary hand drill is employed. 

Ethylene dichloride, furnished by Los Angeles Chemical 
Co., is used to cement in place several acrylic reinforce- 
ments, which lend strength to the screw threads, and to 
affix acrylic knobs, which will serve as tie-offs for the rub- 
ber air closures. Screws and bolts, used in the assembly, 
are of the design applied to acrylic bomber noses of certain 
airplanes, and were bought from military surplus. 
(Continued on page 129) 




Starter pedals molded of Tenite equip Harley- 
Davidson motorcycles. The plastic pedal is 
tough and durable and successfully withstands 
the kicks of heavy heels. Replacing steel-tube 
starters, the Tenite pedal has a colorful, per- 
manent finish which requires no protective 
coatings against corrosion. The extremely light 
weight of Tenite is also an advantage. Since 
speed of the motorcycle depends to a large ex- 
tent on its lightness on the road, the weight 
of all accessories must be kept at a minimum. 

Grips, lamps, chain guards, and horns for 
motorcycles and bicycles were popular pieces 
of prewar equipment molded of Tenite. Once 
again, the use of Tenite for such products as 
these is unrestricted. Get an early start by 
writing for further information on Tenite to 


(Subsidiary of Eastman Kodak Company) 

Starter pedals molded by Sobenite, Inc., for Hurley-Davidson Motor Company. 

y pigment and varnish are mixed to make printing inks 


nting directly on glass containers otters excellent eye appeal 

THE tremendous changes created by plastics materials 
in many industries make a familiar story. What is not 
so well known is the revolutionary transformation produced 
by synthetic resins and new processes in the manufacture 
of inks, not only for printing letters on paper but also for 
imprinting patterns and designs on fabrics, plastics surfaces, 
and other materials. In this development, resins of every 
type have made their contribution. 

The composition of ink played a decisive role in the de- 
velopment of printing. The ancient Chinese, who were 
the first to make printing materials, obtained their inks from 
natural substances like plant-roots, colored earths, and soot. 
It was not until the 15th century that Dutch and German 
painters discovered that linseed oil, when well boiled, pro- 
duced a varnish of excellent body with binding and drying 
qualities. This varnish was mixed with lamp black to form 
the first printing ink. 

Printers used this ink for centuries with no substantial 
change in composition. Up until the first World War, in 
fact, the only improvements were in color and drying quali- 
ties. Drying speed was accelerated by the use of metallic 
driers (the salts of lead, cobalt, and manganese). For news- 
paper ink, less expensive mineral oil took the place of linseed 
oil, as the ink dried by rapid absorption of the oil into the 
porous paper stock, instead of by oxidation. 

It was not until the years following the end of the first 
World War that a fundamental change occurred in the art 
of ink making, and this was due largely to the development 
of plastics. The unchallenged tradition of linseed oil as 
the chief ingredient a tradition that had been accepted un- 
questionably for 500 years was broken at last with the dis- 
covery that oils could be effectively replaced by natural or 
man-made products specially formulated for the particular 

p Poltacl, 

How synthetic resins, solvents 
have changed art of ink making, 
leading to new inks that print 
better, dry faster, last longer 

34 JANUARY 1946 

THKBMEX Tndr Mark Keg. U. S. 1 

Get this new book on 
High Frequency Dielectric Heat 

TUST what is this electronic tech- 
J nique of heating non-conducting 

Here's the answer in one conven- 
ient "package" of information. 
This new book gives you the funda- 
mental principles of High Frequency 
Dielectric Heating, the nature of its 
usefulness in various key industries, 
plus a specific account of Girdler's 
THERMEX* units the First Indus- 
trial High Frequency Dielectric 
Heating Equipment. 

Based upon the experience of the 



organization that has been concerned 
with the industrial application of 
High Frequency Dielectric Heating 
since the beginning, the book is prac- 
tical and down-to-earth rather than 
visionary. Mail coupon for a copy. 

The Girdler Corporation, THERMEX 
Division, Louisville 1, Kentucky; 
150 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y.; 
228 North LaSalle Street, Chicago 1, 
Illinois; 1836 Euclid Avenue, Cleve- 
land 15, Ohio. 


Please deliver a copy of the THERMEX High Frequency Heating book to: 
Name.. ..Title... 

Firm Name. 

Address . 



i J 

Printed "Ethocel" greeting cards come in wide color range 

printing process required. Synthetic resins in combination 
with newly developed organic solvents created vehicles and 
binders for inks that resulted in superior printing and dry- 
ing qualities. 

The chief contribution of the new process was in step- 
ping up drying speed, an important factor in modern print- 
ing. Linseed oil dries by absorbing oxygen from the air, 
so that the print dries by itself in the traditional method. 
Unfortunately, however, the rate of drying is not constant 
but varies considerably, depending on weather conditions 
and paper peculiarities. This may cause a protracted dry- 
ing period, a serious handicap in present-day speed print- 
ing, especially when the paper is printed on both sides. 

The importance of this factor can be appreciated when 
it is considered that printed paper must be protected in its 
wet stage from possible smudging and "offsetting" (which 
means the unintentional transfer of wet ink from one page 
to the adjacent one). In order to avoid the smudging, the 
paper must be stored away for drying. As the drying pe- 
riod varies unpredictably, in many cases, the printer cannot 
guarantee delivery at a specified time. This factor limited 
printing speed, held back production and boosted costs. 

For several years, ink makers had been wrestling with 
this problem by experimenting with "heat-set" inks. These 
dry, not by oxidation, but by evaporation of the volatile 
solvents through the application of heat. The principle 

was first applied in gravure printing, in which printing is 
done from revolving copper cylinders or etched plates. The 
ink vehicle used was a combination of synthetic resins and 
nitrocellulose dissolved in very low boiling solvents having 
a fast evaporation rate, such as ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl 
ketone. Quick evaporation of these solvents results in 
speed-drying, and no waiting period is needed as when lin- 
seed oil is used. 

The new method has made "gravure" the leader in fast 
printing of high quality. One Sunday edition alone uses 
as much as 105,000 Ib of gravure inks. Heat-set inks have 
proved successful in the magazine field, also, where press 
speed is imperative for mass production. The hitherto un- 
precedented speed of 1000 ft of "web" stock a minute can 
be achieved in consequence. Thanks to plastics in ink, con- 
siderable time-saving is effected also in the manufacture of 
packages and bags, as the printed containers, quickly dried, 
can be conveyed immediately from press to fabricating ma- 

Quick drying is only one of the many qualifications of a 
modern printing ink, which is essentially a special lacquer 
composed of base, solvents, and pigments. As examples of 
numerous other desired properties, solvents must be such as 
will not be a definite fire hazard or explosion risk, and pig- 
ments must be bleachable where paper is to be re-pulped 
and re-run. 

The invasion of plastics into the ink-making industry in 
the last 25 years has fostered the growth of chemical re- 
search laboratories. In these, hundreds of resins are reg- 
ularly tested for possible application in the various fields of 
printing. The earliest chemicals used in this connection 
were glycerine and rosin. For certain varnish formulations 
the phenolics were found to be superior. The alkyd resins 
and oils, it was discovered, produce inks that dry fast and 
hard. For printing on surfaces other than paper, the urea- 
formaldehyde resins proved unusually effective. 

In general, all plastics materials used in the paint industry 
are employed in ink manufacture. However, only the high- 
est grades are selected, as ink requirements are much more 
severe. Chemically pure pigments are used exclusively and 
they are not diluted, whereas the cost of paint is lowered, 
for example, by reducing the concentration with inert white 
to 30 or 60%. This is too coarse for ink as it would re- 
sult in a scratching of the printing plates and a lessening 
of affinity of the vehicle for the printed surface. 

According to one authority, the alkyd resins are used con- 
siderably, as they create tough films. The modified phe- 
nolics are also extensively employed. Selection of the 
proper resin is based largely on the cost factor, which be- 

Instrument measures rate 
of flow of printing inks 

When desired pigments are not on the 
market, laboratory workers make them 

"Ferris wheel" apparatus is used to test 
evaporation rate of printing ink solvents 

comes crucial in the manufacture of the ''bread and butter" 
inks used in ordinary printing. The acrylates and vinyl 
resins are used in the more expensive processes. Where 
printing stability and drying and not toughness of the film 
are the chief requirements, a saving may be effected by the 
use of a cheaper resin. 

For printing on packaged food and bread wrappers, the 
steam-setting process is employed. This requires a water- 
miscible resin and solvent, like rosin-modified maleic acid 
and glycols. This method creates an ink that is odorless 
and tasteless, prime requisites for packaging. 

The faster drying resulting from the use of synthetic 
resins has led to the replacement of slip-sheet printing by 
web-printing in a continuous process, and production time 
has been slashed in consequence.' But synthetic resin inks 
have other advantages : they are rub-proof ; have cleaner, 
more concentrated color ; and have better press stability. 
They also give more "mileage ;" whereas, formerly, 500 Ib 
may have been needed for a day's run, only 400 Ib are now 
required because, being more stable, the ink does not dry up 
on the rollers. 

The best printed surfaces have not only glossy finish but 
hardness and resistance to scratching and smearing. Plas- 
tics enable inks to achieve these properties. The exact 
formulation is a specific problem in each case, the require- 
ments of the ink differing widely in typographic, litho- 
graphic, and gravure printing. There is, for example, little 
similarity between the quick-drying ink used in web-fed ro- 
tary presses and the ink needed for a sheet-fed press, al- 
though synthetic resins are used in both processes. For 
printing on surfaces subject to rough handling (cartons, 
containers, books, magazine covers, etc.), inks that are 
scratch-proof and rub-proof are needed. It is the tough- 
ness that resins in general impart that make them particu- 
larly valuable in this connection as ink ingredients. 

In the development of inks for printing colored designs 
and patterns on fabrics, synthetic resins have also played a 
stellar role. For this purpose, the fixing agent traditionally 
employed was blood albumen. The drawback of this method 
of fabric printing was that the design was not fast in wash- 
ing because the pigments did not bond permanently with the 
fibers. About 15 yr ago, a method of lacquer printing 
became popular. Pigments were dispersed in nitrocellulose 
or ethyl cellulose solution and were applied to the fabric 
by the conventional type of printing machine. Designs were 
more fast by this method, but the fabric became stiff in the 
printed parts. 

It was not until 1938 that Aridye Corp. used synthetic 
resins in a new process that lifted fabric printing to un- 

This four-color Claybourn press constitutes a proving 
ground where process inks for wet printing are tested 

precedented levels of efficiency. Urea formaldehyde and 
alkyd resins were utilized as bonding agents for pigmented 
emulsions of the water-in-oil type. The result was brilliant 
pigment prints which could withstand repeated laundering 
and dry cleaning and the pigments were fast to light. With 
this process it is possible to achieve exact reproductions of 
engravings, a quality which makes it superior to soluble 
dye methods. 

Various modifications of the process have since been in- 
troduced. In all of them, synthetic resins like urea for- 
maldehyde and the alkyds are employed for bonding the 
fibers. Other resins used are melamine formaldehyde, the 
phenolics, the vinyls, and cumarone resins. The hydroxy- 
cellulose ethers are used for dyeing with pigment colors and, 
to a lesser extent, in printing. 

In the so-called "discharge style" of pigment printing on 
textiles, ethyl cellulose is employed as a bonding agent for 
the pigments. The fabric is first dyed in a solid shade, and 
the pattern is created on a printing machine by the use of a 
discharge agent like hydrosulfite which destroys the color 
applied by dyeing. At times coloring material is added as 

One advantage of ethyl cellulose is that it provides a 
stable emulsion. It is used either alone or in combination 
with rubber or other synthetic resins. The employment of 
emulsions in the printing and dyeing of textiles is, compara- 
tively speaking, an innovation. Traditionally, textiles have 
been dyed almost exclusively through aqueous solutions of 
dyes and the printing done through pastes and the incor- 
poration of soluble dyes in the paste. In the most success- 
ful methods, which have made use of plastics, the results 
have been the production of prints that are water-repellent 
to an extent unknown before, fast to light, laundry-proof, 
and resistant to washing solutions, as well as to dry clean- 
ing. All these effects are achieved without injury to the 

The new inks made their entrance, also, in the field of 
printing on plastics surfaces. For this purpose, rotograv- 
ure, lithography, letterpress, aniline, and silk screen proc- 
esses are all available. In each process, a different type of 
ink is used, and it is the problem of the plastics fabricator 
to select the method and inks best fitted for the particular 
purpose. Letterpress inks, for example, may contain either 
alkyd resins, the phenolics, the ureas, the vinyls, etc., in 
which organic and inorganic pigments are ground, the exact 
formulation depending on the binding or drying require- 
ments and other factors. In aniline printing, an important 
requirement is that the ink dry almost instantly because the 
printed materials are either re-wound or processed immedi- 

Red ink pouring from mill runs through from three 
to twenty times, depending on properties desired 

Newly-developed synthetic resin inks make possible 
the printing of "labels" directly on glass bottles 

New method of printing "labels" by-passes costly 
manufacturing step by eliminating need for paper 

After being printed by the Anagraphic process, bottles 
are placed in oven for heat to set synthetic ink labels 

ately. Both aniline and rotogravure printing methods are 
used in printing on cellulose acetate and cellophane surfaces. 
On the other hand, plastics lipstick containers and vanity 
cases present attractive decorations which are imprinted by 
the silk screen method. Inks used in this process must ad- 
here firmly to the surface and not rub or crack off. Silk 
screen inks are divided into oil, water color, and the syn- 
thetic types. For plastics surfaces, the synthetic kind has 
been found to be superior in performance. 

Varnishes used for these inks are oleoresinous or binding 
ingredients, including nitrocellulose, ethyl cellulose, the al- 
kyds, and resins like phenol formaldehyde, the vinyls, the 
acrylics, polystyrene, etc. These are dissolved in solvents 
such as alcohols or esters, either individually or in combi- 
nation, depending on the drying time required and the type 
of plastics surface to be "imprinted. Maximum milling of 
the pigmented ink is necessary in order to eliminate any 
coarse particles that would tend to clog the pores of the silk 
screen, as the imprint is made by squeezing ink through the 
pores of this screen by means of a rubber squeegee drawn 
across the surface. 

At present, the chief demand in printing on plastics is for 
silk screen inks with quick-drying properties. The problem 
is to formulate ink that will not dry quickly at room tem- 
perature or form hardened film on the silk screen. The 
inks may be either liquid or viscous and dried by heat-ap- 
plication, depending on the kind of plastics surface. Some 
thermoplastics may not be able to withstand the high tem- 
perature baking needed for accelerated drying. Further- 
more, the hazards to which the plastics products are exposed 
are an important consideration in the selection of the ink. 
Many fabricated plastics, for example, are used in the manu- 
facture of motorized equipment and electrical appliances. 
The ink required for printing in these cases must, therefore, 
be resistant to gasoline, oils, alcohols, acids, etc. 

So far, the application of ink films to plastics surfaces is 
in its laboratory stage of development. Research with syn- 
thetic resins of various kinds is proceeding steadily. Inter- 
national Printing Ink has solved many specific problems in 
this field for plastics fabricators, but, as pointed out by 
John J. Micik of its research staff, the collaboration of the 
plastics and ink industries is necessary to effectively investi- 
gate and solve the many problems involved. 

The inks now used on thermoplastic sheetings are for the 
most part modifications of the oil base inks that have been 
used for years in printing on paper. The new types are 
making definite headway, however. Typical are the ethyl 
cellulose inks employed for printing on ethyl cellulose, 
which has a high capacity for absorbing high boiling sol- 
vents. On account of their high boiling base, the inks dry 
very rapidly on this plastics but are extremely stable on the 
press at room temperature. 

An interesting new process is that of printing "labels" 
directly on to glass bottles. Anigraphic Process, Inc., is 
one of the very few companies doing this work. Printing in 
this fashion cuts down production costs and, consequently, 
is cheaper than printing a paper label which in turn has to be 
pasted to the bottle. With the Anagraphic method, ink 
flows directly on to the glass bottle and appears to the eye 
like a paper label. One machine developed for use with this 
method can print fifty bottles a minute. 

What is the prospective market for synthetic resins for 
printing ink of all kinds? One indication is the estimation 
of $50,000,000 worth of ink sold in the United States annu- 
ally. Products of ink manufacturers rose in value from 
$14,000,000 in 1914 to $47,000,000 in 1937. It was estimated 
that, for newspaper printing alone, the value of ink produc- 
tion in 1939 was $7,000,000 to $9,000,000. 

It should be borne in mind, in this connection, that de- 
mand for synthetic resins in ink manufacture is in its in- 
(Continued on page 123) 




Celanese Corporation of America 


FOHTICEL is a cellulosic thermoplastic. 
Chemically it is cellulose piopionate. 
Physically it possesses what is perhaps 
the best balance of desirable character- 
istics obtainable from commercial ther- 
moplastics. Its outstanding properties 
are toughness, low humidity expansion 
and brilliant surface finish. 


Forticel has the color beauty and touch 
appeal of the cellulosics. It is odorless 
and non- toxic ideal for personal con- 
tact items particularly those which are 
subject to extensive wear. 


Forticel's excellent molding properties 
will be important to the designer and 
manufacturer as well as the molder. 
i Practically invisible weld lines and 
' great weld strength will simplify prod- 
uct design. The injection molding cycle 
generally shorter than other cellulos- 


TOUGHNESS Exceeds that of any other commercial ester 

SURFACE Brilliant mold finish, requires no polishing 

COLOR Unlimited range 

ODOR None 


EXPANSION .0.4 percent 

LIGHTNESS Specific gravity 1.17 to 1.2 

MOLOABILITY. . . .Molding cycle is generally shorter than other cellu- 
losics . . . Uncritical molding temperature range 

ics and the wide molding temperature 
range will mean faster and more eco- 
nomical production. Forticel is compati- 
ble with cellulose acetate butyrafe, but 
is not miscible with other cellulosics. 

The addition of Forticel greatly en- 
larges the field of usefulness of the 
Celanese family of thermoplastics. By 
January first Forlicel will be available 
for tests on selected applications. In- 


creased quantities will be produced as 
rapidly as new plant facilities can be 
put into operation. Celanese Plastics 
Corporation, a division of Celanese 
Corporation of America, 180 Madison 
Avenue, New York 16, N. Y. 

Reg. U. S. Pot. 0. 
t Trademark 



These plastics-coated fab- 
ric bags are sturdy, smart, 
attractive, medium-priced 

And JVbnr It's 

Bu Barbara Be 


THE leather industry, having seen its once sacred do- 
main invaded in many fields by the newcomer, vinyl 
plastics sheeting, is now watching the young competitor 
step briskly into what seemed to have been its final strong- 
hold the luggage field. For, although vinyl sheeting has 
already been widely used in shoes and handbags and has 
made considerable inroads into applications ranging from 
binocular coverings to upholstery, it is only in recent months 
that a major luggage house has offered a complete line of 
"plastics luggage." The firm is the Boyle Leather Goods 
Company, Inc., which has been in the leather luggage busi- 
ness for almost a century. 

Released to stores early this spring, the Boylastic Lug- 
gage line has been increased gradually until it now com- 
prises seven styles for women and nine styles for men. 
Simulating some grades of leather so exactly that experi- 
enced luggage buyers are said to have difficulty in distin- 
guishing between the two materials, the new bags combine 

durability and light weight at what is considered to be low 

After laboratory research had resulted in both a vinyl 
compound with suitable properties and proper thickness, 
and a compatible backing cloth of correct thickness, the 
company was faced with the problem of obtaining a leather- 
like grain. Technicians concluded that a simulated grain, 
which in effect is a pre-scratching of the surface, would 
serve the purpose better than a plastics patent leather ef- 
fect. A clue was provided when Boyle, because of trans- 
portation difficulties, was compelled to replace the rare West 
Indian satinwood used in their line of brushes. At that 
time officials discovered that the wood finish might be simu- 
lated photographically on the brush backs by a photoelectric 
process. Similarly, the graining could be photographed on 
the plastics sheeting while it is still in a semi-elastic state. 

Extensive testing before the luggage was placed on the 
{Continued on page 124) 




Strong, lightweight National Vulcanized 
Fibre serves efficiently in aircraft structural 
parts, as in this internal brace for self-seal- 
ing fuel cells. 



your answer to 
rofitable products 

nal Vulcanized 
i/of structura 

Fibre adds Ito the 

parts in aircraft 

gives your prod- 

this-' strong, durable materia 

uots and equipment longer performance . . . at 
greater economy. 

The unusual strength of National VulcaAized 
Fibre, combined with its i other remarkable 
properties, makes it a "natural" for countless 
applications in every industry. Resilient and 
light in weight (about half that of aluminum), 
it has outstanding tensile and impact strength' 
excellent machinability add forming qualities 
... is hiffh in dielectric strength ... is extremely 

resistant to wear and abrasion . .Xand is one of 
the strongest materials per unit weight known. 
This\versatile material offers you tw> end of 
profitable possibilities Mn your products and 
plant equipment. Write ror complete imWma- 
tion now. Let one of our trained technif 
engineers Vhow you how National Vulcani2 
Fibre can iserve you advantageously in your x 
plant equipment and in your products. 






Reconversion in the 
Molding 1 Plant 

Efficient peace-time operations demand careful re-study of plant 
lay-out, equipment, materials, methods, personnel, and markets 

. J4. 

Executive Engineer, Shaw Insulator Company 

ALTHOUGH a molding plant does not have to be com- 
pletely overhauled to make it ready for peace-time 
production, it nevertheless has genuine problems. Anyone 
who thinks it is merely a question of substituting a peace- 
time item for a military product is going to be swiftly and 
sadly disillusioned. 

For the molder, reconversion means re-study : re-study of 

Auxiliary ram converts old-style compression press for 
use with pressure type transfer mold, resulting in more 
efficient operation. High frequency heater is also new 


his equipment ; re-study of his personnel ; re-study of the 
materials available; even re-study of the jobs he once mas- 
tered, for refinements in technique have a way of being lost 
when they are not constantly used. Above all, the molder 
has to re-study his organization as a whole to meet the com- 
petition created when war production ceased. 

In the last few years most molders have operated without 
sales engineers, and their product engineering was virtually 
non-existent because war jobs were essentially long running 
jobs. Peace-time requirements will require greatly ex- 
panded organizations because of the greater number of jobs 
needed to maintain the same dollar volume. Profitable op- 
eration and satisfied customers result only from the careful 
planning and complete engineering of every job. This 
necessitates the development of an adequate and experienced 
engineering staff qualified to do the necessary product de- 
sign, tool engineering, plant engineering and production 
control. Smoothly running organizations do not happen 
they require careful planning and training. The few fully 
qualified engineers left in the organization must spend a 
large portion of their time in the training of others to do 
the individual jobs. 

Training Is Essential 

Of equal importance is the establishment of a training 
program for the future since the industry is short of skilled 
personnel. A business that expects to expand must plan a 
training program to develop the engineers needed for sales 
and engineering work. A good plastics engineer requires 
experience in the tool room, molding shop, tool design and 
product engineering sections; a planned training program 
will see that the young engineers get the proper experience 
in each, so that they will be qualified for the responsible 
positions as the organization expands. 

Of equal importance is the training of supervisors and 
foremen. You cannot make a good foreman simply by pin- 
ning a foreman's badge on a willing worker. He also must 
be trained to meet the engineering and the personnel prob- 
lems. The best of plastics engineering will fail if the human 
engineering is neglected. 

In starting reconversion, it is essential to review all of 
the peace-time production equipment. Worn and broken 
tools should be replaced or repaired before production starts 
again. In many cases, new war-time developments or im- 
proved designs may indicate the desirability of completely 
new production equipment to achieve lowest costs and pro- 
duction continuity. New materials must be evaluated ; per- 
haps one of them may be better and cost less for a partic- 
ular job than the materials previously used. Unless the 
molder makes this study and offers his best at all times, some 
competitor may come in with the new idea and take the 
account away. The recently developed materials offer un- 
limited prospects for new products and users. Each new 
material should be broken down into potential products so 






A ... WE CAN DO IT. 







101 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK 17, N. Y. MU5-O758 



Hydraulic cylinder added to press for pulling the 
cores eliminates the time-consuming and tedious proc- 
ess (left) where the operator must remove safety 
locks, unlock wedges, move them, and lower the cav- 
ities, then re-do operations in reverse for loading 

that the logical customer group may be reached for the 
market development. 

New customers must be found to utilize the war-time 
expanded capacity, and this involves many studies. Certain 
proprietary products that are produced largely of plastics 
may be undertaken as a basic manufacturing project. The 
manufacturer may elect to concentrate his energy on im- 
proved manufacturing techniques and maintain a satis- 
factory income on a decreased volume of business. 

Markets Must Be Reviewed 

New and improved processes, machinery, or materials 
may lead to the revival of old projects and the opening of 
markets once considered unpromising for plastics. Back 
in 1927 a serious study was made of the shoe heel busi- 
ness as a potential market for molded plastics. Every known 
material and method were tried. The thermosetting mate- 
rials and molding' methods were just not suitable and, as a 
result, the shoe heel project was tagged as impossible and 
all further work abandoned. A customer who was unaware 
of these past failures, however, came in about ten years 
later with a new approach, and a re-study of the application 
was made. During the intervening period, the thermo- 
plastic materials had come in, along with injection molding 
and the problem then was very simple. 

All of which goes to prove that we must maintain files of 
desirable markets and review these files frequently in the 
light of current developments. We become prejudiced far 
too easily by previous experience, and the "fool who did not 
know it could not be done goes ahead and does it." 

The mechanical problems are the most easily handled of 
all if the engineering staff is adequate. Old presses must 
be rebuilt for faster operation. All of the planning should 
be directed toward the mechanical devices and helps that 
will enable the press operator to turn out more goods with 
less physical effort, so that he can earn additional compen- 
sation by extra production. Preheating devices, automatic 
timing, semi-automatic molds, uniformity of valving, insert 

loaders, convenient press arrangement: these are a few of 
the engineering helps that will increase production capacity. 
It may often be necessary to re-study plant lay-out for the 
best possible utilization of space and the least handling of 
raw materials and finished products. In some cases, rather 
expensive rearrangement of plant machinery and equipment 
may prove to be economically sound in the long run. Though 
American industry has a well-deserved reputation for effi- 
cient line production, it is not entirely free from the waste- 
fulness of "picking things up and putting them down" too 
often. This situation is very likely to exist when companies 
experienced a mushroom growth during the war, and in- 
stalled another production unit in any odd and unused 
corner to get it into operation as quickly as possible. After 
all, that was more important during those critical times 
than securing optimum efficiency from the use of the ma- 

Regaining "Lost Art" 

Some problems will arise in reconversion because of "lost 
art." Many of the little details of the manufacturing cycle 
will not appear on the specifications for jobs that ran 
smoothly before the war, so that there will be trouble. The 
operators oftentimes develop little tricks that make tin- 
difference between good and bad production. In many cases 
uniformly good production is the result of continuous im- 
provement over a long period of time. Once a job is put 
away, this valuable experience is likely to be at least partly 
forgotten. Anticipating such shortcomings, the nmldcr 
must re-study the fundamentals to make sure that the 
jobs are started after full consideration of all the hazards 
and variations in technique. Old operators should be reas- 
signed to these old jobs when possible since they will help 
to recall the things that contribute to quality production. It 
is equally important to do more than turn the old job over 
to the old moider; a totally new study should be made by 
the methods engineer to make sure that the best possible 
technique is used. END 




We offer two new dual-purpose presses, 50- 
ton and 150-ton capacities, highly efficient, 
readily converted for either transfer or straight 
compression molding ... at costs which com- 
pare favorably with those of conventional com- 
pression presses without transfer cylinders. 

This type of press is an adaptation of the 
Stokes "Standard" Semi-Automatic Press, the 
transfer cylinder being mounted on the head 
and developing adequate injection pressure 
controlled by an adjustable valve located at 
the side of the cylinder. Pressure may be read- 
ily changed to suit the particular job on hand, 
which is very important when the amount of 
preheat in the material, size of sprues and 
speed of injection are critical. 

Power units have greater capacity than regu- 
lar Stokes "Standard" Compression Presses, 
to provide the high mold closing speeds and 
high transfer ram speeds necessary to work 
most efficiently with induction or electrically- 
heated preforms in transfer molding. 

For compression molding the transfer cyl- 
inder is readily cut out simply by closing a 
valve. The press is then ready for use in the 
conventional manner, with the automatic cycle 
control and slow-close control more impor- 
tant than ever because the mold closing speed 
is higher. 

This press will be shown at 
the S. P. E. Exhibit, Detroit, 
starting Jan. 1. 


6O4O Tabor Road Philadelphia 2O, Pa. 





Know the 

This miscellany plugs, sockets, 
switch bases, conduit outlet cov- 
ers (below) and heater connector 
plug, single and double flush re- 
ceptacles, switch base (left) is 
typical of products manufac- 
tured by the cold molding method 

Good heat and electrical resistance plus economical 
production head merits of items made by old, well-established process 

By B. 3. JJantz 

Chief Engineer, American Insulator Corp. 

COLD molding, which has figured importantly in the 
development of the plastics industry since it was in- 
troduced by Emile Hemming in 1908, still maintains a 
significant role today because of the economical advan- 
tages it enjoys over most other molding procedures and 
because of the heat and electrical resistance of some types 
of cold molded materials. The economical advantages in- 
clude the high production possible from a single-cavity 
mold (which reduces the cost of tooling), the rapidity with 
which a large quantity of a given article can be molded, 
and the availability of practically unlimited supplies of raw 

Because cold molding fills an unobtrusive niche in the 
plastics industry and for that reason the opportunities it 
offers may not always be taken advantage of, a review of 
the development of the process, materials and formulations, 

molding techniques, baking procedures, mold design, and 
finishing of parts is appropriate. 

Before the development of cold molding, porcelain was 
the principal molded insulating material, being practically 
the only fire, heat, and waterproof material known. Shellac 
and rubber were also being developed, but they had their 

Cold molded materials were developed and placed on the 
market in the period 1900-1908. Rapid strides were made 
in production, and serious inroads were made on the use 
of pojrcelain. That porcelain then cost only about half as 
much as cold molded material did not prevent these inroads. 
Other conquests soon followed, and cold molding became 

Cold molding differs from the customary molding meth- 
ods in that the parts are not completed when they come 
from the mold but must be baked in an oven. There they 
take their final form as the result of the oxidation and 
polymerization of the oils and binder in the compound. 
{Continued on page 50) 





Letters and figures on this plastic dial 
(for electric refrigerator temperature con- 
trol) were included in the mold. This 
resulted in a substantial saving over the 
cost of machining them into the piece, 
after molding. 

Such a method might seem to be simple 
and obvious, but it required much special 
skill. The correct plastic compound with 
the proper shrinkage had to be chosen. 
Then, the molds had to be designed so 
that the pieces could be removed without 
defacing the markings. 

This special "know-how" is what we 
at General Industries offer you in our 
molded plastics division. Of course, we 
have all the machinery needed for large 

or small jobs in compression, transfer or 
injection molding. But in addition, we 
have that ingenuity, skill in mold making 
and willingness and ability to think 
through on a job before it is 
undertaken. In plastics mold- 
ing, there is no substitute 
for experience. 



Molded Plastics Division Elyria, Ohio 

Milwaukee: Phone Daly 6811 
Philadelphia: Phone Camden 2215 

Chicago: Phone Central 8431 
Detroit: Phone Madison 2146 





A licensed molder near your own plant 
can offer you the advantages of Transfer 
molding when you specify plastics "packag- 
ing" of small motors and other electrical 
apparatus, to obtain good appearance in 
addition to first class insulation. 

The fractional horsepower motor arma- 
ture shown at right was totally enclosed 
with phenolic compound by the Transfer 
molding process and is a good example of 
how this process can produce a nicely finished 
product with full protection to the electrical 

The precise ruggedness required by war- 
time applications proved the superiority of 
Transfer molding, in which the compound is 
fully plasticized in a chamber connected with 
the closed mold then flows into the mold 
without disturbing or distorting delicate in- 
serts or windings. The "eye appeal" demands 
of peacetime competitive markets are now 
being similarly served. 

To learn in detail the many advantages of 
Transfer molding, write for the literature 
listed below. To put these advantages to 
work, call in your nearest licensed Transfer 
molder. A list of such molders will be sent 
on request. 





Reprints of technical papers by Shaw engineers are 
available upon request, as are the following bulletins: 

Two bulletins on "Why Transfer Molding Is Econom- 
ical". Bulletins on "Why Transfer Molding Gives Fine 
Inserts", "Why Transfer Molding Improves Appear- 
ance", "Why Transfer Molding Permits Better Holes", 
"Why Transfer Molding Permits Variable Walls", "Why 
Transfer Molding Gives Uniform Strength", "Why Trans- 
fer Molding Gives Longer Runs", and "Why Transfer 
Molding Produces Better Irons". 

Whatever your plastics problem, you can get the 
help you need from either Shaw or the Plax Corpora- 
tion, 133 Walnut Street, Hartford 5, Conn. For the 
literature listed above, and for a list of licensed 
Transfer molders . . . write Shaw. 





Plax polystyrene rod is now available in a 
new form: with a highly polished surface 
lustre. Thus designers may now readily work 
with crystal-clear rods of this unique material. 

In this form, Plax polystyrene rod requires 
very little fabricating and it is easily polished 
after fabrication. A cutting-down wheel, usi ng 
a compound held by a non-petroleum grease, 
will remove any surface imperfections caused 
by machining and the final high lustre is 
restored by a soft cotton buff, free of com- 

The availability of crystal-clear polystyrene 
rod will suggest many new uses for this ver- 
satile material, which is light, hard, inex- 
pensive, and easily fabricated. A few of the 
applications which immediately come to mind 
are push bars and racks, display and decora- 
tive fixtures, edge lighting effects, novelties, 

Plax polished polystyrene rod is available 
in standard 4' lengths in all diameters up to 
2". Special lengths and colors are available 
on minimum order. Samples are available for 
testing purposes. 


Bulletins on how to machine, polish and cen 
polystyrene; on what to tell machinists about polysty- 
rene; and on how to use coolants with polystyrene are 
available on your request. 

While Plax has been the leader in development of 
uses for polystyrene, we also offer several other plastic 
materials in unique forms and shapes. 

In fact, between the resources of Plax and the Shaw 
Insulator Company, Irvington 11, N. J., you can obtain 
help and counsel in the use of most plastic materials ' 
and processes. For the literature mentioned above . . . 
write Plax. 






The mold powder is being removed irom a mixing machine 
after the binder and filler have been thoroughly mixed 

Increasing complexity of parts demands complicated molds, 
which in turn call for careful and accurate mold making 

Careful grinding and handling of molding powder are two 
of many factors leading to production of good finished parts 

(Continued from page 46) 

Because of these differences, cold molding must be con- 
sidered as an entirely separate class of molding. 

Cold molding materials are divided into three groups, 
depending upon their binders: (1) organic binder bitu- 
minous asphalt; (2) organic binder synthetic resin 
phenolic; and (3) inorganic binder cement. 

The organic type of cold molding material will withstand 
a higher operating temperature than most other molding 
powders. It is also more resistant to an electric arc, mak- 
ing it very suitable for electric switches and fuse plugs. 

Certain classes of inorganic cold molded materials actu- 
ally improve with age. They will stand an operating tem- 
perature of 1000 F. Arc chutes are an excellent example. 

Cold Molded Compound Organic Binder 

Class No. 1 (organic binder bituminous) is composed 
of a binder and a filler. The binder is a varnish-like ma- 
terial formulated from various percentages of oils, asphalts, 
and stearine pitch. These materials are blended and cooked 
in a vat, somewhat like making a varnish. This varnish is 
then cut with a thinner or solvent to the right viscosity, 
which differs with the various manufacturers. The binder 
is added to the filler and mixed with it in a kneading ma- 
chine ( Werner-Pfleiderer type mixer). 

The filler is usually short or long fibre asbestos, or floats, 
depending upon the type of material required. Theasbes- 
tos is usually purchased in Canada, as the Canadian fibre 
seems to give the best results. The Canadian Crysotile 
fibres are very flexible and have high tensile strength, prop- 
erties which give them their great commercial importance. 
Sometimes, instead of asbestos, the filler is slate dust, mica, 
or clay. 

The mixing of the binder and filler is continued until the 
desired properties are obtained. The powder is then spread 
out thinly on special trays and allowed to season for sev- 
eral days to make it ready for use in the molding dies. 

A molding compound of Class No. 1 type might be: 
binder composed of stearine pitch 40 parts, asphalt 60 
parts (asphalt, gilsonite), castor oil 10 parts (linseed oil, 
drying oil, China wood oil), benzol 25 to 100 parts; filler 
composed of asbestos 1100 parts, sulphur 66 parts, and 
iron oxide 2.2 parts. 

Metal inserts can be molded into all cold molded com- 
pounds, and since the cost is not increased much, the de- 
sign of parts with inserts has become customary. The in- 
serts should be strong enough to withstand the molding 
pressure, and so located that they are easily withdrawn 
from the mold. 

Synthetic Binder 

In Class No. 2 (organic binder synthetic resins pheno- 
lic) the phenol formaldehyde resin is treated with a solvent 
to achieve the proper consistency before it is introduced 
into the mixer with the asbestos. The mixing procedure 
and treatment of the powder is about the same as for Class 
No. 1. 

Molded parts made from this powder have greater me- 
chanical strength and a better surface than those from 
Class No. 1. They are usually light brown or tan and can 
be identified by the phenolic odor given off when subjected 
to excessive heat. Because the binder is made from a phe- 
nolic resin, the molded parts are more expensive than those 
in Class No. 1, with asphalt binder. 

Both organic and synthetic compounds are used to mold 
wiring device parts, radiator valve handles, switch bases 




Most cold molding presses operate with two persons one 
weighing the material, the other manipulating the press 

A truck loaded with cold molded bases is being pushed 
into the oven for the next step in manufacture baking 

Inspection of molded parts is an important obligation of 
the molder often sadly neglected or completely omitted 

and covers, jeep gear-shift balls, and closures for cans for 
blasting powder used in peace times to blow in oil wells, 
in war times to demolish barbed-wire entanglements. Cold 
molded parts are used in the home, the factory, and the 
office. Numerous parts are also used in lighting, power, 
and heating equipment. 

Inorganic Binder 

Class No. 3 (inorganic binder cement) 'belongs to the 
refractory group and differs considerably from Classes 
No. 1 and No. 2. It is composed mostly of calcium hydrate, 
fine silica, and asbestos fibre. The lime and silica combine 
after molding by treatment under steam pressure to a 
silica-lime cement, the asbestos furnishing the mechanical 
strengthening structure. The silica-lime cements are bet- 
ter for plastics than the Portland cement mixtures, but 
they do not have the ability to stand as high temperatures. 

The material is usually white or grayish in color. The 
moisture absorption value can be reduced by impregnating 
with a suitable compound such as sodium silicate (water 
glass). After molding, the parts are usually dried in an 
oven on rust-proof trays for six hours to remove moisture, 
treated under steam pressure for 48 hr, and then dried 

A mixture for this material might be : asbestos, 40% ; 
calcium hydrate (lime), 24%; silica, 30%; and water, 6%. 

This compound is mixed in a regular dough mixer of 
Werner-Pfleiderer type for some minutes, and then placed 
on trays to be seasoned for some hours in the atmosphere. 

This material does not mold nearly as readily as those in 
Class No.- 1 or No. 2 because of the nature of the raw 
materials. The powder does not flow easily, and. in addi- 
tion, care must be exercised to avoid breaking the parts 

while removing them from the mold. Thus, while the 
molding procedure is the same as for Classes No. 1 and 
No. 2, production is somewhat slower. 

Metal inserts can be molded into parts made from this 
material, but they should be rust-proofed or made from 

This material differs from the majority of molding pow- 
ders in that a molded part does not shrink after molding, 
or the shrinkage value is so small that it can be entirely 

Molding Technique 

The parts are usually produced on hydraulic rather than 
mechanical presses because it is necessary to have suffi- 
cient pressure in unlimited amounts available at all times. 
Hydraulic presses are supplied with oil or water at pres- 
sures of 2000-4000 psi. The cold molding presses range in 
capacity from 5 to 200 tons, which is sufficient to produce 
most parts required by the trade. The smaller presses, of 
course, operate faster than the larger ones because they 
use a smaller quantity of hydraulic fluid in their operation. 
Presses are usually supplied with oil or water under pres- 
sure from a central accumulator. 

The molding cycle is very rapid. An experienced oper- 
ator can produce 500 to 700 pieces per hour from a single- 
cavity mold. This production can be increased if a larger 
number of cavities are used in the mold. Of course, if it 
is necessary to mold metal inserts into the part, the pro- 
duction is reduced somewhat, depending entirely upon the 
number of inserts handled and the difficulty involved in in- 
serting them in the mold. 

Care must be exercised in handling the parts after they 




Various kinds of knobs, heater connector plugs, weatherproof sockets, etc. can be cheaply molded in great numbers 

are removed from the mold because they are still soft and 

The size of the press is determined by the projected area 
of the piece. It is customary to apply a pressure of 2000 
to 6000 psi. Experience has proved that 30% more or less 
pressure than normal does not affect the mechanical prop- 
erties of the parts. 

Baking Process 

After the parts are pressed to shape, they are packed on 
metal trays with perforated bottoms. These allow a free 
circulation of air, essential for most efficient baking. They 
remain on the trays at room temperature for 24 to 72 hr. 
During this period, volatile plasticizers evaporate. If the 
volatiles are not allowed to evaporate, blisters form dur- 
ing the baking process. The trays are then put on trucks 
which hold from 20 to 40 trays, and the trucks are pushed 
into the oven. Pieces must be packed on the trays in cer- 
tain ways to prevent excessive warpage or shrinkage. 
Sometimes clamps, weights, or shrink blocks arc required 
to hold parts to size and shape during baking. These ovens 
are heated electrically with a recirculating forced draft 
system so that the variation in temperature does not ex- 
ceed 10 F. The success of baking depends upon uniform 
heat and rapid circulation of the air in the oven. Much 
oil and volatile matter is driven off during the initial stages 

of baking, and if great care is not exercised, it will take 

The baking period varies from 8 hr to 48 hr, depending 
upon the size and design of the piece. A typical baking 
cycle is : 

18 Hour Bake 

1 hr 160 C 
2 hr 180 C 

2 hr 200 

1 hr 80 
1 hr 100 

1 hr 110 

2 hr 120 
2 hr 130 


2 hr 210' 
2 hr 220 C 


2 hr 150 C 

Mold Design 

The molds required for the untold number of designs 
and shapes of articles form, without a doubt, one of the 
most important links in the entire chain of manufacturing 
processes. Because of the increased use of all plastics, the 
designs of parts are becoming more complicated. This, in 
turn, requires a greater skill in designing the necessary 
molds to produce them satisfactorily and economically. 

It is essential that the buyer and molder cooperate as 
closely as possible. Only by close work and understanding 
of each other's problems can an efficient molding be pro- 
duced in the desired quantities and at a low cost. The mold 
(Continued on page 131) 








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tacked by 51 years of experience. 

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ince 1894. G-E Research works con- 
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o. 1 Plastics Avenue complete 
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orking together, create plastics 
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-Everything in Plastics 

sound and good-looking. Our own 
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craftsmen average precision mold 
experience, 12 years. 
All types of plastics. Facilities for 
compression, injection, transfer and 
cold molding . . . for both high and 
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fabricating. And G-E Quality Con- 
trol a byword in industry means 
as many as 160 inspections and 
analyses for a single plastic part. 

This lipstick rates a second look from any woman. It's out of 
this world ... of plastics. 

Created by No. 1 Plastics Avenue, exclusively for a leading 
cosmetics house, it is the result of General Electric's complete 
plastics service. That means everything in plastic packaging . . . 
design ... expert mold-making ... and even engineering for con- 
venient use. 

And this plastic package is just one example of the hundreds 
of ways in which General Electric designers and engineers have 
used plastics to solve the problems of American manufacturers. 
G-E industrial designers are experts in all forms of plastics . . . 
and their skill and experience are available to you. 

Why not ask G.E. about plastics applications for your product? 
It may be that plastics can improve your product . . . make it less 
costly to produce . . . more inviting to the eye. Our experts will 
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Our enlarged and improved facilities . . . engineering and designing experi- 
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At GRIGOLEIT you'll find the newest in either plastic or plastic-and-metal 
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^_ ^ 



^ _ _ _ _ _ 

II !:<% I I I C 


ightweight, non-cumbersome nylon armor (left) and "Doron" aid in furnishing protection against shell fragments. 



CONTRARY to widespread opinion body armor did 
not disappear with the invention of gunpowder. Its 
ise bobbed up intermittently throughout the years: John 
Paul Jones wore a corselet in his fight with the Serapis, 
:he Japanese made body armor standard army equipment 
is late as 1870, and it was used to some extent in the Civil 
War and in the Franco-Prussian War. Experiments were 
nade with armor in World War I, and probably only the 
:lose of the war prevented it from becoming important in 
irmy dress. In World War II body armor returned, stimu- 
ated originally by the need for protection of airmen against 

Plastics materials in the form of nylon and as laminating 
esins played stellar roles in the development of body 
irmor. Other materials used either alone or in combina- 
:ion with one another or with plastics included steel, alu- 
ninum. and glass fabric. Programs started by different 

Nylon and glass-resin laminates 
helped to reduce war casualties 
caused by small shell fragments 

branches of the Army and Navy arrived at different kinds 
of armor. None of these diverse types can, without be- 
coming too heavy for practical wear, guard against big 
fragments or direct hits of high explosive projectiles, but 
they do ward off the average small shell fragment, which 
is said to have caused approximately three-fourths of all 

One of the leading projects on the development of armor 
was carried on by the Quartermaster Corps, in co-opera- 




A quick pull on tie string instantly releases vest armor 

Flak vest contains equivalent of 432 pairs of nylon stockings 

15-ply "Doron" and the .45 caliber bullet it stopped 

tion with the Naval Research Laboratories; another was 
sponsored by the Bureau of Aeronautics, also in co-opera- 
tion with the Naval Research Laboratories; and a third 
was the work of Army Ordnance. The usual course of pro- 
cedure was to call in plastics manufacturers for aid when- 
ever it was needed. 

The Quartermaster Corps became interested in the pos- 
sibilities of plastics from a ballistics standpoint when steel 
became critical. The aim was at first to find a different 
material for civilian defense helmets. A joint Army-Navy 
Armor Technical Committee, headed by General Georges 
Doriot, was formed to co-ordinate any development work 
growing out of the original investigation. 

In the spring of 1943, a combination of glass cloth and 
ethyl cellulose was found effective in stopping 45's. As a 
result, the program was extended, and many kinds of cloths 
and resins in many combinations were tried. Finally the 
present combination, called Doron after General Doriot, 
consisting of a special unidirectional weave glass cloth and 
thermosetting resin, was discovered. Thermosetting res- 
ins proved better than ethyl cellulose and other thermo- 
plastics because of their heat and flame resistance. The 
kinds used were: Laminae 4122R (American Cyanamid), 
SXRS 75 (Bakelite), Thalid 526 (Monsanto), and Sclec- 
tron 5003 (Pittsburgh Plate Glass). 

These resin.; were used interchangeably in combination 
with glass cloth. After being laid up, the resin-glass cloth 
laminates were cured for about 30 min under fairly low 
pressure (several hundred psi) at approximately 250 F. 
The process varied according to the equipment and the 
resin used. The sheets, usually made in 36" by 36" squares 
and varying thicknesses, were sawed or die cut to desired 
shape and sizes. The material was machined with the 
customary tools used for other glass cloth laminates. 

Lt. Comdr. A. P. Webster of the Bureau of Medicine 
and Surgery calculated that 1/16" plates of Doron made up 
of 8 layers of glass cloth would stop a .45 caliber, 230 
grain bullet fired from a service automatic pistol at a 
velocity of 800 fps. Similar calculations suggested that 
a plate 0.08" thick would stop the same bullet fired from 
A Reising sub-machine gun at 1150 fps. Shell fragments 
have a velocity of about 1 500 fps when they strike, although 
their speed is twice that when they are fired. 

Tests proved that Comdr. Webster's calculations were 
approximately right and that, weight for weight, Doron 
was superior to metal in guarding against hits. On the 
basis of these tests l /k", 15-ply Doron was recommended. 
This thickness weighs 1.25 Ib per sq ft. To determine 
whether an inner padding was necessary between the 
armor and the body, experiments were made with the 
human body as the test object. 

The volunteer human target was shot at 21 times. These 
experiments showed that when Doron was backed with 
one-inch sponge rubber or a heavy layer of kapok, the im- 
pact of the bullet resulted in no discomfort; when the back- 
ing was reduced to a single thickness of duck, severe 
bruises resulted, but no fracture. It was therefore de- 
cided to use Doron without backing, since maximum pro- 
tection had to be combined with a minimum of weight. 

Doron is ideally suited for armoring shipboard personnel 
and amphibious troops because of its low density and hence 
its low weight in water. The armor, weighing four pounds 
and covering approximately three square feet, is placed in 
sheath-like pockets sewn to the inside of the standard issue 
Marine Corps utility jacket and to the outside of the stand- 
ard Navy kapok life jacket. The armor weighs only about 
two pounds in water and thus reduces only very slightly 
the efficiency of the life jacket. No straps or harness of 
any kind is necessary, and the garment may be put on or 
removed as simply as the standard issue jacket. The 
(Continued on page 129) 




Ovol head metal stud 

Flush head metal stud 


Cut-away view of complete 
Dzus spiral cam 
fastener assembly 



trsu> oMtufaMe in 

Dzus spiral cam fasteners are now being used extensively for 
fastening plastic materials. Engineers and designers can select 
the proper holding tension for every application. This avoids the 
possible crushing or breaking of plastic materials. 

These quarter-turn, self-locking fasteners are available in 
various sizes, head styles, and materials. They can be used 
profitably on any hinged or removable part. 

Our engineers have solved many fastening problems in the 
plastic field and are ready to assist you in solving your problem. 
Write for a copy of our catalog. It contains full descriptions, 
specifications, and illustrated applications. 

The word Dzug is the registered trade mark of the Dzua Fastener Co., Inc. 







Resorcinol joints in Navy patrol boats 
make them strong, salt-water resistant 

The Resorcinol Resins 
Prove Their Worth 

Part 2. Directions on mixing, use, and storage; figures on output 
for first half of 1344; cost comparisons; and future possihlities 

i^lckard oL. 

Plastics Branch, War Production Board 

THE mixing operation for preparing the glue just prior 
to bonding is relatively simple and requires no partic- 
ular knowledge or experience different from that required 
for other resin glues. Just before bonding, catalyst and 
resin are mixed in the proportion of about 100 parts of resin 
to 20 parts catalyst by weight. Thorough mixing takes 
about five minutes. Because the reaction between the resin 
and hardener is exothermic (i.e., evolves heat), it is well to 
use some means of cooling to prolong the pot life of the 
glue. The useful life of the glue decreases rapidly witli 
small increases in temperature, so that one of the most im- 
portant qualities of this resin short curing time is a dis- 
advantage at this point. However, the disadvantage can 
be overcome by careful preparation, cooling, and use. 

Efficient Handling 

During the recent shortage of these resins, considerable 
effort was made by consumers to develop methods for effi- 
cient mixing, use, and storage. Small batches require fre- 
quent preparation, which is time-consuming and costly, 
whereas larger batches usually set up before being com- 
pletely put to use. As the glue sets, it becomes more and 
more viscous and difficult to spread. However, when thick- 
ening occurs, fresh glue can be added to a mix which has 
not exceeded one-half of its working life. The following 

figures give the approximate pot life of the typical resorci- 
nol res'in glue on the market today : 

Temperature Pot Life 

F 4i/ 2 hr 

F 3y 2 hr 




Like other glues, resorcinol glue spreads differ with the 
type of wood and the application to which it is put. Spreads 

i 1 t 






















" 11 




Minimum pressure time in heated chamber shows resor- 
cinol (lower curve) superior to resorcinol-modilied phenolic 



JANUARY 194fi 

. . . 






JANUARY is more than the first month of the 
new year ... it is the cornerstone of a new 
era. This is the first year since long hefore our 
entry into the war that the world starts off a New 
Year at peace. 

To forward-thinking manufacturers it presents 
a challenge to do things. It unfolds a vast pan- 
orama of unlimited opportunity to profit through 

. Plastics and metal-plastics are destined to play 
an increasingly important part in the production 
of hetter things for hetter living for all of us. 

We here at Lance are ready to talk over any 
prohlem you may have where our plastics and 
metal-plastics experience may be of help to you. 

We're at your service! 






*.v ^ 
sr* >v "Gs 

Spirally made wooden tubes glued with resorcinol are used on Navy float cables to help explode magnetic mines 

using only 30 Ib of glue mix per thousand feet can be used, 
whereas spreads using as much as 70 Ib per thousand are 
necessary for some applications. Thicker spreads can be 
used with resorcinol glues than with most others because of 
their non-crazing characteristics. This makes them espe- 
cially valuable in joint work and lamination of heavy pieces. 
Although resorcinol resins can set at room temperature, 
slightly higher temperatures can be used to accelerate the 
cure if production schedules demand it. All manufacturers 
appear to agree that 70 F is the lowest temperature limit, 
but schedules have been worked out showing time-temper- 
ature relationships to as high as 200. Such high tempera- 
tures, however, would be justified only by reason of some 
particular problem, inasmuch as there are obtainable on the 
market resorcinol-modified phenolic resins which can be 
used at slightly elevated temperatures at a cost which is 
much less than that of resorcinol resins. 

The table below gives a comparison of the relative pres- 
sure periods at various temperatures for a straight resorci- 
nol resin and a resorcinol-modified phenolic resin. 

Pressure Periods at Various Temperatures 

Temperature Resorcinol Resin Resorcinol-Phenolic Resin 












Since the annual production of other adhesives runs into 

Variety of end joints ia used in building ship timbers Low temperature setting resorcinols speed boat production 







Wide experience by all known 
processes in the application of 
printing, engraving, silk screen- 
ing, die cutting and cementing 
of all thermoplastics. 


Specialists in deep drawing radio 
dial windows, embossing, swag- 
ing and bending in Acetate, 
Vinylite and Acrylics. 


Precision threading, screw mo- 
chine, milling, drilling, turning 
of Polystyrene, Acrylics, Pheno- 
lics. Nylon, Tenite,- sheets, tubes 
and rods; through spindle capac- 
ity up to 2V4" rod. 


Our engineers can assist you in 
problems of designand assembly 
of your plastic units. 


93 Mercer Street 
New York 12, N. Y. 




Good adhesives play part in obtaining extreme curvatures 

millions of pounds each, resorcinol resins at their present 
rate of production would appear to be rather insignificant. 
As has been mentioned, however, these materials have just 
broken into the field, and it is not at all impossible that con- 
siderably larger production may be expected in the near 

Not counting resorcinol-modified types of resins of low 
percentage resorcinol content and considering only, the 
standard product, production and use of this material was 
practically nil in 1944. Not until 1945 was it used to any 
great extent, and then the demand was an overnight one 
brought about by military requests. 

Cost and Future 

The future of resorcinol resins and adhesives appears to 
be assured. There is no doubt that they present' the quali- 
ties required by wood-working adhesives, such as moisture 
resistance, tensile strength, and heat and ageing character- 

istics. In addition to these properties the ability to set at 
room temperature and at an exceedingly rapid rate at 
higher temperatures is also extremely desirable. Minor dis- 
turbances such as the short pot life undoubtedly will be over- 
come by the ingenuity of the industry. Probably the great- 
est deterrent to their complete acceptance is their high cost. 
If predictions come true, however, this disadvantage will 
soon be overcome, since it is expected that a price which will 
meet the other adhesives now on the market will be attained. 
The bases for this assumption are that, first, with the grad- 
ual increase in production its price will fall; and, second, 
the effective concentration of resorcinol in the finished ad- 
hesive will be so reduced through improvements in com- 
pounding that the cost will come within the reach of all su- 
perior end-products. In fact, before this paper is printed, 
the price of resorcinol resin adhesives may have taken a con- 
siderable plunge. 

The current price of phenol is \Q l / 2 cents per pound and 


1944 Jan Feb Mar Apr Mot/ June My 

resorcinol about 64 cents per pound. Thus, if resorcinol 
resins are to compete with the phenolic resins purely on 
the basis of price, resorcinol costs must drop substantially. 
The following table of comparative costs suggests the large 
reduction which will be necessary if resorcinol resin glues 
are ever to be an important factor in the adhesive industry: 

Resorcinol resin glue 55f 

Resorcinol-modifk'd phenolic 34? 

Phenolic resin glue 23? 

Urea formaldehyde 17^? 

Casein glue 12? to 20$ 

Animal glue 12? to 21? 

Cost of Mixture 

Actually, a fairer comparison is to be had by indicating 
the cost of the glue mixture per pound, including the sol- 
vents and fillers incorporated into the mix by the user. On 
this basis the relative costs would be as follows : 

Resorcinol resin glue 490 per pound 

Resorcinol-modified phenolic 23? per pound 

Phenolic resin glue 15? per pound 

Urea resin glue 6? per pound 

Casein glue 6? per pound 

Animal glue (hide) 6? per pound 


Balsa float body reveals quite intricate laminations 

This is the second and final installment of the article, the first having 
appeared in the December, 1945, issue. Pictures of the laminating jigs and 
the balsa float body are official U. S. Navy photographs. 




Knife Guide 
Stripper Body 
Molded for 
New York, N. Y 

Model Examples of 
Carefully Controlled Molding 

Except for slight coring, the bodies oi 
both oi these model makers' tools are 
solid, chunky blocks oi injection- 
molded, hard-surfaced, highly rigid 

From the design angle, the plastic re- 
production oi the pieces presented no 
particular problem but, irom the ma- 
terial angle, and due to the thickness 
equation, the approach called ior the 
tops in technique . . . "li you knew Poly, 
like we know Poly"-you'd appreciate 
the difficulties. 

It was a case oi "control everything" 
temperature . . . pressure . . . injection 
speed . . . cooling action, etc. and con- 
trol them we did-to so perfect a degree 
that these heavy parts don't show even 
the slightest indication oi "sink" marks! 

The result a well pleased triangle . . . 
the customer . . . the customer's market 
. . . and Consolidated technicians. Con- 
solidated welcomes the opportunity to 
work with those who are now projecting 
peacetime products. Inquiries invited 
irom all whose plans are now in the 
thinking-out stage. 



Block Planer Body 
Molded for x-atto 

CO., New York, N. Y. 













"Built-in moisture control" is 
featured in this flexible, com- 
pact tobacco pouch fabricated 
ol vinyl chloride-acetate by 
the Clarvan Corp. The low mots- 
lure vapor transmission rate of 
the material, plus the small 
"Humi-Pad" blotter within the 
pouch, combine to keep contents 
fresh and moist at all times 

Combination of the decoiative and 
utilitarian possibilities of p I a s - 
ore advantageously exemplified 
in dressing table accessories such 
a this acrylic "vanity set"; the 
unique three-way mirror may be held 
in the hand, used with handle placed 
around neck to leave both hands free, 
or set on table to reflect from angle 


Underside grooving catches and reflects lights in 
this sparkling star-shaped package of clear white 
polystyrene, holding a "Star* Sapphire phonograph 
needle fastened to a cushion ol sapphire blue 

A brigh! touch for "blue Mondays" is indicated 

:hese gaily-colored clothespins, which are 

composed of two phenol formaldehyde parts, cast 

in a phenolic mold, and joined by a metal spring 

Holes cut through the cross-shaped section in 
the raised platform-like center part of these 
acrylic buttons make it possible for them to 
be sewn flat to garments. Duplex Plastic Prod- 
ucts Co. makes them in clear and in red colors 

Fashioned to fit tiny fingers, miniature furniture of 
featherweight "Lumarith" in various shades, pro- 
vides dainty yet sturdy toys of absorbing interest, 
while smoothly finished edges, color-fast qualities, 
and easy cleanability supply the practical aspect 

What Paper for Laminates? 

By KoLrt W. >arLr 

Ass't Plant Manager, Panelyte Div., St. Regis Paper Co. 

Fiber direction, paper thickness, density, and other 
characteristics determine properties of end products 

SO IMPORTANT is the choice of paper for laminate 
reinforcement that the success or failure of the prod- 
uct in a' given use may hinge upon whether the proper type 
was selected. Since this is true, it is well for the fabricator 
to know how, and to what extent varying the thickness, 
fiber orientation, other characteristics of paper structure, 
grade and type of pulp, etc., will affect the properties of the 
finished laminate. 

A paper-plastics laminate combines the properties of the 
two components in much the same way that steel and con- 
crete in reinforced concrete support each other. The resin, 
high in compressive strength but low in tensile, occupies 
the free space between the fibers of the base material and 
thus bonds the fibers in adjacent layers to consolidate tin- 

individual plies into a solid unit. In so doing, the resin 
imparts to the laminate its high compressive strength and 
seals and protects the fibers of the base material, which, 
in turn, contribute the major portion of the composite ten- 
sile strength. 

To obtain the maximum theoretical tensile strength of 
the cellulose fibers, all should lay in the direction of the 
loading and be free of curl or twist, so that all are uniformly 
loaded. This condition, obviously, cannot be even approxi- 
mated in a sheet of paper. An approach is made toward 
this end, however, by making the sheet quite thin and as 
directional as possible. By following this procedure, the 
fibers tend to lie flatter, with most of them in a parallel 
plane. A balanced strength in two directions can IK- at- 
tained by laying alternate sheets 90 to each other. 

The effect of the construction of the paper on the strength 
of the laminate can be seen by an examination of Table I, 
which makes direct comparison between two papers with 
the same furnish. Laminate 1 is made of a thin directional 
paper, Laminate 2 of a thicker sheet somewhat less direc- 
tional. The two factors which cause this difference in 
strength cannot be isolated that is, the directional prop- 
erties of the sheet on the one hand and its thickness on 
the other. There is good reason to believe, however, that 
both affect the tensile properties. 

Ground wood and other non-chemically treated pulps 
are too weak and are generally unsatisfactory as reinforc- 
ing agents in laminates. 

The types of papers in common use are: sulphite (par- 
ticularly Mitscherlich sulphite), sulphate Kraft, Alpha, and 
rag stocks. The tensile strength figures in Table II show 
that these types decrease in strength in the order named, 

Double lid for home freeze unit 
or ice-cream cabinet, made from 
paper-based "Panelyte," has the 
needed insulating value, stabil- 
ity of form, toughness, strength 




vour product can be improved 

with a Kimpreg* Surface 

A revolutionary new alloy-like material 
is achieved by fusing to plywood's sur- 
face a cured plastic skin of KIMPREG. This 
resultant material is not a plywood in the 
ordinary sense, not a conventional plas- 
tic laminate. It is a brand new, better 
structural medium with countless appli- 
cations in many products including, very 
probably, those YOU plan for post-war 

With KIMPREG, plywood is converted 
into an improved substance which can be 
machined, formed and fastened like ordi- 
nary wood yet has a plastic's smooth, 

tough surface and beautiful, permanent, 
paintless finish. 

KIMPREG adds the following advantages 
to plywood: 1) increases durability and 
flexural strength; 2) provides resistance to 
moisture and vapor; 3) armor-plates 
against extreme abrasion; 4) diminishes 
grain-raising effects; 5) makes the material 
scuffproof, splinterproof, snag-resistant; 
6) affords a stainproof, washable, "wipe 
clean" surface; 7) creates resistance to 
chemical action, decay, temperature-ex- 
tremes, fire, vermin, and mold. Moreover, 
it is warm to the touch, does not have 
. the chill "feel" of metal surfaces. 

Used for airborne "pre-fab" huts, glass- 
smooth tables for packing parachutes, 
water -proof ammunition boxes and 
scores of other uses, KIMPREG has distin- 
guished itself on the vigorous proving- 
ground of wartime. Soon it will be offered 
in a variety of appealing hues. 

Now is the time to investigate the pos- 
sibilities of KiMPREG-surfaced materials for 
your peacetime requirements. 

Write us for further information and 
names of those plywood manufacturers 
who are currently using KIMPREG plastic 
surfacing material. 


Send Coupon for FREE KIMPREG Book to: Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Neenah, Wisconsin 



^ o P n 1 1 ^ DAT ncc ^ 




I Kimberly 

,_ , */ 



( V \ 

\ T 






Inside ol refrigerator door. Breaker strip made of paper- 
based laminates offer effective barriers to heat and cold 

although there is little difference between the rag and the 
Alpha stocks. Not all papers used in this study were de- 
signed to obtain the maximum strength for the particular 
type of pulp in question. It is, therefore, not possible to 
isolate the effect of the structure of the paper from that 
of the particular pulp used in its manufacture. Neverthe- 
less, the fairly definite conclusion can be drawn that the 
type of pulp used is much less a cause of strength differ- 
ences than the mechanical structure of the paper itself. 

The tensile modulus bears an almost direct relationship 
to the tensile strength. The compressive strength also is 
higher with the less refined pulps the thin Mitscherlich 
sheet being the highest. In compression, however, the dif- 
ferences are much smaller, as expected, because compres- 
sive strength is largely supplied by the resin. The flexural 
strength follows the same trend as the tensile and com- 
pressive strengths, and, also as expected, the differences 
in values for the various types are less than for tensile and 
greater than for compressive strength. 

The variations exhibited in the impact strength figures, 
particularly the pronounced differences between the flat and 
edge values, are of interest. Paper laminates are some- 
what low in impact strength when their position in the 
general group of reinforced plastics is considered. The abil- 
ity to absorb the energy of an impact is greater in a structure 
that is not too homogeneous, and is further increased by a 
composition consisting of plies which are predominantly 
fibrous and which are bound together with resin. This 
explanation accounts for the large differences between the 
flat and edge impact strengths and also for the marked dif- 
ferences between the values for paper and cloth. 

The bonding strength is appreciably higher when thicker 
paper is used, and markedly increased by the use of the 
softer, more absorbent, papers. The difference is partly 

a function of the greater amount of fiber interlock obtained 
when the softer papers are laminated, but also is undoubt- 
edly affected by the lay of the fibers. The thicker sheets 
have a greater proportion of fibers outside the plane of 
the laminae and therefore contribute to some degree to the 
tensile strength in the direction of the thickness of the 
sheet. Aside from these considerations, the thickness of 
the sheet might be expected to have some bearing in itself, 
although experiments have not shown that laminates using 
papers of 20-30 mils thickness (test figures not shown 
herein) are much better bonded than laminates using 10 
mil paper. 

The shear strength is apparently not greatly affected by 
either the type of pulp used or the physical structure of 
the paper. 

Resistance to Moisture 

The water absorption is lower when a more highly re- 
fined furnish is used, and is also somewhat better with a 
softer sheet. Obtaining good water resistance is purely a 
matter of protecting and sealing off the cellulose fibers, 
as the phenolic resin is practically unaffected by water. It 
follows that the more highly refined the fibers are and the 
more open the sheet, the more accessible are the fibers to 
the protecting resin. This fact largely accounts for the 
extended use of highly refined pulps in electrical applica- 
tions, as the maintenance of electrical qualities under vary- 
ing humidity is of equal importance to the initial electrical 
properties themselves. 

In comparing the properties of the fabric-base laminate 
used in the test (see Table II) with those of the paper-base 
laminates, the former is seen to excel only in impact and 
bonding strength. The other strength characteristics are 
lower for fabric base than for the paper materials, which 
are not considered as high strength laminates. 

Certain limitations exist which must be considered in 
applying paper laminates. The tendency to creep or cold 
flow at high loadings, although considerably less with lami- 
nates than with other plastics, appears at lower stresses for 
paper laminates than for some metals. Also, the operating 
conditions, particularly temperature and humidity, to which 
the paper laminate will be exposed, must be considered, 
since high temperatures will result in a slight deteriora- 
tion, and high humidities, despite the excellent moisture 
resistance, do result in slight dimensional changes. 

Paper laminates are put to many and varied uses. Radio 
coils are wound on paper laminates. Terminal strips, 
switch mountings, socket bases, insulating brackets, and 
many other radio parts are made of paper base laminates. 
In most refrigerators, the breaker strips in the door frame 
are of paper laminates, as is the whole inside of the door 
itself, the insulating parts of the switches, and several parts 
of the compressor. Many automobile ignition systems are 
(Continued on page 86} 

Table I. Effect of Construction of Paper 
on Strength of Laminate 

Paper characteristics Laminate 1 Laminate 2 

Furnish Sulphate Sulphate 

Basis wgt (24" by 36" by 480) Ib 34 93.0 

Thickness (mils) 3.5 11.0 

Density (Ib/mil) 9.7 8.4 

Oil penetration (sec) 3.5 6.0 

Gurley densometer (sec/100 cc) 7.5 7.5 

Type of Resin Phenolic Phenolic 

Physical Properties 

Tensile strength (psi) 23,500 21,000 

Modulus of elasticity 2.2 X 1 6 2 X 1 

Flexural strength (psi) 30,000 28,500 





are complete: 

Step by step throughout an 
entire job, responsibility re- 
mains at ONE SOURCE. 
MPM facilities include 
industrial design, mold and 
die making, compression 
and transfer molding. 



What are you buying when you engage the services of a plastics 
molder? The obvious answer is production capable mechanical 
performance. And that's right. The first basis for judgment is 
quality production. But there are many reputable molding firms 
qualified to meet this first test. That sometimes makes further 
judgment difficult. 

In Minneapolis Plastic Molders' organization, every job repre- 
sents an obligation to provide service that goes beyond technical 
skill. Such service has many elements. Originality, creative engi- 
neering ability and appreciation of the buyer's sales problems are 
examples. This MPM service has grown from broad, practical 
experience. It is coupled with complete facilities and proved tech- 
nical ability. 

Judgment on the basis of service can be vital with the urgent 
competition ahead. You profit through such advantages as lowered 
costs and product improvements. MPM is prepared to demonstrate 
how this service has worked to the advantage of others. Write 
for information. 









can you use this PlcxiglttS movie ? 

1 hese scenes are from the sound 
film produced by Rohm & Haas on 
the maintenance and repair of 
PLEXIGLAS. \ It's an interesting and 
educational semi-technical film 
that has been widely shown 
at Army Air Force bases as an aid to 
ground instruction. * Now that the 
war is over, this 16-millimeter 
film is available for civilian uses. 
Members of the plastics industry 
and educational institutions may 
borrow a print with no 
obligation by writing to Rohm & 
Haas Company, Washington Square, 
Philadelphia 5, Pa. Please give 
your first and second choice of 
dates and the approximate 
length of time you 
expect to use it. 




PLEXIGLAS ii o Ircufc-mort, Reg. V. S. Pal. Of. 


II ISIll\(.K)\ 

IK/. /'//// 

Plis'.ics . Snlt!eli: Insecticides - . . Fungicides . . Enzymes . . . Clicni:3ls let Ih! leather, TtiMe lid Industiies 


'*"' fa""'* a 

*"X? r <'" 

>*., :> 

'/$* -. 



r /- 





Drawings by Julian Krupa. plastl'CS Art Staff 

A Presentation of the Potential Applications of 

Plastics as Visualized by Industrial Designers 

{paSHCS welcomes designers' contributions to this department) 

An all-plastics Glamor Kit to delight the feminine 
heart is designed by Julian Krupa. "Kimpreg" or 
"Formica" in a choice of lovely colors make an 
attractive, durable, scuff-resistant case. The in- 
side is fitted with a wide selection of beauty 
aids. These fit in grooves, so that top is flush. 
Fluorescent lights behind mirror are connected by 
a cord which automatically springs back into case 
when not in use. Ornamenlal handle is of acrylic 

Lionel C. Algoren adds top and ferrules of methyl 
methacrylate to a gracefully formed panel of 
resin-bonded plywood, in the design of a lovely, 
modern cocktail table. The alcohol-proof synthet- 
ic lacquer finish of the plywood makes it a practi- 
cal as well as a decorative piece of furniture 

Use of inserts involves many problems, such as wall thicknesses needed, variations in expansion, relief of stresses 


Their Design, 
Selection and Use 

A compilation of instruction and data of help to designers and molders 

Through- type: 
Blind-hole, partial 

Protruding type: 

Eyelet type: 
Rivet type 

Usual type: 

Retaining pin: 
Floating of insert: 

Crushing of insert: 

Flow of material into 

Sealing diameter: 


Insert is exposed on both sides of material 

Hoi* is drilled through Insert 

Hole is not drilled entirely through 

Thread is counterbored from front for ter- 
minal or other assembly fit 

Part of insert protrudes from molded 

Part that protrudes from material is used for 
spinning over in assembly 

Part that protrudes from material is riveted 
in assembly 

Inserts common to plastics Industry 

Part of insert molded inside plastics and 
held fast by shrinkage of plastics 

Pin on which Insert is placed and located 
prior to molding 

When pressure is applied on mold and mate- 
rial softens, it flows upward. If insert Is 
loose on retaining pin, some material flows 
under insert or into anchorage points and 
carries or flows insert off retaining pin 

When protruding Insert Is molded In conven- 
tional mold without any protection, It will be 
crushed or collapsed by material which 
flows into hole provided for protruded 
part In upper part of mold 

If threaded open-hole insert Is being molded, 
retaining pin does not prevent material 
from flowing Into Insert unless retaining pin 
is threaded, which would Increase cost of 

Diameter of insert which is free of knurl and 
is allowed to enter mold to prevent flow 
of material 

THE importance of inserts in good design is just as im- 
portant as the overall design, for should weaknesses 
develop in the insert, the finished part itself would un- 
doubtedly fail to meet the demands for which it was pro- 

Therefore, it is vital that the molder be thoroughly 
familiar with the many steps involved in insert design. More 
vital is his knowledge of the problems he will encounter, 
and his ability to cope with them adequately. 

Prepared by SP/ 

As noted in p/asHcs previously (see "Insert Design," 
June, 1945) this experience and knowledge should be pos- 
sessed by the product designer as well as the molder. Only 
in this manner, it is pointed out, can maximum strength of 
product be coupled with minimum cost of molding. There- 
fore, the excellent compilation just completed on insert de- 
sign for the second chapter of SPI's Handbook* takes on 
great significance, and it is presented here in abridged form 
for the basic information it conveys to those who are con- 
cerned with the design, selection and application of inserts. 

Although the conventional screw-machine type round in- 
sert is common, numerous designs are used, as illustrated in 
Fig. 1. 

A full copy of the original text, with complete drawings, may be ob- 
tained from SPI. 






Fig. 1. Numerous designs of inserts are used besides the conventional screw-machine type round insert. Shown 
are the following types: (A) blind hole, (B) open hole, (C) blind hole counterbored, (D) blind hole protrud- 
ing, (E) eyelet protruding, (F) eyelet both ends protruding, (G) protruding rivet, (H) double protruding 
with threads, (I) protruding eyelet with internal threads, (J) drawn pin, (K) drawn shell, and (L) drawn eyelet 

Dimensions and tolerances for the usual type of male 
and female inserts are shown in Fig. 2 and Table I. 1 
These inserts are practicable for machining as a single op- 
eration on an automatic screw machine and hence are eco- 
nomical. The dimensions for tapped inserts apply only to 
non-ferrous metals where the depth of usable tapping is not 
more than \ l /2 times the tap diameter. On A-2 (minor di- 
ameter) and C (length of tapped inserts) the maximum 
"Standard" tolerance should be specified whenever possible. 
For closer tolerances, however, "Precision" can be speci- 
fied. To maintain the "Precision" tolerance, reaming and 
other operations are necessary at additional cost. If 
steel inserts are desired, Fig. 2 and Table 1 cannot be used 
in design without modifications, resulting in higher cost 
than if brass or, in special cases, aluminum is used. 


Inserts must be anchored sufficiently to prevent turning 
under torque and pulling out under tension. Since there is 
no chemical or natural adherence between plastics and 
metal inserts, anchorage must be obtained by mechanical 
means which keep internal stresses in the molded part at 
a minimum. The slight anchorage obtained by the shrink- 
age of plastics around the insert is never sufficient. 

Recommended means of securing anchorage and minimiz- 
ing possible cracking around the insert is, in almost all in- 
stances, to use round stock diamond knurled. Knurling is 
best accomplished in screw machines with "end" tools. The 
i stock sizes given in Table 1 are ample to allow end knurling 
and to leave sufficient stock for a proper "sealing" diameter 
* free of knurling at the open end of the insert. If grooving 
" is used with a diamond knurl, one wide groove should be 
used in the center of the insert rather than two grooves, 
one on each end. The center groove allows the material to 

1 Compiled in co-operation with the National Screw Machine Products 

shrink or creep toward the center, resulting in minimum 
strain and least danger of cracking. 

It is mechanically incorrect except in specific applications 
to use hexagonal stock because it provides torsional anchor- 
age only. Whether round or hexagonal stock is used, sharp 
corners which set up internal stresses leading to crack- 
ing must be avoided. Right and wrong designs are illus- 
trated in Fig. 3. 


DON'T Use inserts If they can be avoided 

Mold through-type insert unless mold Is designed for ft 
Use open-hole insert If It can be avoided 
Leave sharp corners on inserts. Chamfer where possible 
Try to mold inserts without proper anchorage 
Flatten insert If it Is loose on retaining pin 

" Put material into insert to hotd it on retaining pin; Instead, 
re-ta p 

" Use dirty inserts 

" Use drawn-type eyelets unless necessary 

Allow too thin a wall of plastics on back of Insert (A thin wall 
will bulge up and appear like blister caused by undercure) 

" Allow too thin a wall of plastics around Insert, because plastics 
will crack 

" Design part or insert until correct plastic has been selected 
for application 

Carry knurl out to edge of insert 
" Try to mold long inserts by supporting one end only 

" Mold large insert either thermosetting or thermoplastic mate- 
rials without heating It before molding 

" Make retaining pin too large or hole for male insert too tight; 
this will result In inserts pulling out of material 

" Use standard nuts and screws 




Fig. 2. Dimensions and tolerances are shown for usual type 
of male and female inserts. Legend: (A) tap size "Ameri- 
can National" Class 2; (A-l) major diameter; (A-2) minor 
diameter "regular" tolerance + 0.0025", "precision" toler- 
ance 0.0005"; (B) depth of minor diameter; (B-l) number 
of unusable thread from bottom (cut thread); (C) length "reg- 
ular" tolerance 0.010", "precision" tolerance 0.001"; 
(C-l) length of body male insert 0.010"; (D) thread chamfer 
45 0.005"; (E) body chamfer 45 0.010"; (F) knurl; (G) 
sealing diameter length, min. 1/32"; (H) length of usable 
thread, 1V4 X diameter; (H-l) length of usable thread, H-l 
+ B-l = B; (I) amount to add to H to get C (H + I = C); (J) 
sealing diameter 0.002"; (K) minimum bar stock diameter 

The molder must consider the thicknesses of the walls of 
the insert itself and of the wall of material around the in- 
sert. The walls of an insert must be thick enough not to 
be collapsed by shrinkage of the plastics and by molding 
pressure. Otherwise, the diameter may be decreased out 
of the range of specified tolerances. Table 2 shows the 
minimum recommended diameters of bar stock for various 
sizes of inserts. 

The thickness of the wall around inserts depends upon : 

(1) whether the material is thermoplastic or thermosetting, 

(2) type of material within each group, (3) shrinkage of 
material, (4) modulus of elasticity, (5) coefficient of ex- 
pansion of the material, (6) coefficient of expansion of the 
metal, (7) temperature range over which the molded part 
will function, (8) moisture sensitivity, (9) loss of flexibility 
caused by ageing, (10) ability of the material to cold flow 
after curing so that it can stretch slightly without cracking, 
and (11) the design of the insert. Table 2 shows recom- 
mended minimum wall thicknesses for various plastics when 
used with plain round inserts. 

Torque and Tension Testing 

Tests for torque and tension testing should be simple and 
inexpensive, as shown in Fig. 4. In the torque test, a 
line can be scribed on the surface of the insert and plastics 
so that the slightest possible turn can be detected. To elimi- 
nate friction, screws specially hardened and ground are 
essential. They should be well lubricated before the test 
is made. A standard graduated torque wrench is recom- 
mended. Test results are indicated in inch-pounds torque. 

Problems in molding common types of inserts will be 




Fig. 3. Correct, incorrect designs. Correct design 
avoids sharp corners, which set up internal stresses 

taken up in the following paragraphs, the head of each sec- 
tion indicating the nature of the problem. 
FLOATING : Floating of inserts can be controlled or pre- 
vented by several methods, among them (1) tapering the 
retaining pins slightly, starting the taper at the fillet and 
carrying it up to 1/3 of the length of the pin. In most 
cases, 0.003" taper is enough, provided that the maximum 
tolerances of the minor diameter are maintained. If too 
much taper is allowed for drive fit, the insert may pull out 
of the material. On male inserts a taper hole can be pro- 
vided for a drive fit if close accuracy of inserts is main- 
tained (0.0005 to 0.001"). If the insert is long enough, 
a small side hole can be drilled in the pin and music wire 
inserted to provide spring action. This spring action pre- 
vents the insert from floating in practically all methods of 
molding. The same method can be used for holding in- 
serts in the top half of the mold. When an even more pre- 
cise location of the insert is desirable, removable threaded 
pins are provided in the mold, to which inserts are screwed. 
However, this procedure increases the cost of production. 

Other satisfactory methods are (2) using a straight 
knurl on the retaining pin to provide sufficient holding sur- 
face, (3) using a square retaining pin, (4) using an ex- 
tended shoulder on the insert shown in Fig. 2 as J 
(sealing) which is allowed to enter the mold proper (not 
a permissible method, however, when inserts must be flush 
with the surface of the material), and (5) using sprin; 
tension pins in which the retaining pin is slotted and musl 
wire inserted into the slot (the slightest flow of material 
into the slot, however, prevents the spring from function- 
ing properly). 

Split pins are practical on blind-hole inserts. 
CRUSHING OF INSERTS : Maintenance of close tolerances onj 
insert length practically eliminates difficulties with crush- 
ing in transfer molding. In compression molding when the 
insert must show on both sides and is molded vertically or 
in line with the press motion, crushing of inserts can be 
prevented by the use of preforms with holes to allow 
preform to slip over the insert. Sliding pins are providi 
in the force plug, operated by spring, air, or hydrauli 
action. These pins are in a down position when the moli 
is being closed, and they contact the surface of the inse: 
before the flow of material takes place. Since the pins ar 
under constant pressure, no material can enter the inseri 
This method can be applied to blind or open hole insert 
and either top or bottom pins. Considerable pressure c 
be applied on the inserts. Actual tests on a brass inse 
y 2 " long, 6 by 32 thread, with 1/16" wall, show that the i 
sert withstands 6 cycles of 500 Ib total pressure with a r 
duction of -0.0005" in length. When the inserts are not 
the through type but are close to the rear surface of t! 
molded part, pre-heating of material and insert is reco: 
PROTRUDING INSERTS: Whether the protruding section i 










Elrtruders of SARAN. CEULULOSt ACETATE. BUTYRATE. POLYSTYRENE. STlfRALLOY and VINYLS. AH* IniectloR and CompreMloi. Molding 








Fig. 4. Tests should be simple and inexpensive, like ten- 
sion (left) and torsion. Hardened screws eliminate friction 

used for assembly or for bearing points, good anchorage is 
essential. In special cases, especially on large inserts where 
the molded part is subjected to considerable torque, it is 
advisable, to obtain a tight connection, to allow a hexagonal 
section of the insert to protrude above the molded surface 
for a wrench grip. Thus, strain is applied on the insert 
rather than on the plastics. Where a limited wall of material 
must be used, the anchorage section of the insert should 
be turned and coarse diamond-knurled. 
SERTS: In transfer molding, insert length should be main- 
tained from 0.001" to 0.002" oversize. When the mold is 
closed, the insert is pinched in the mold and material can- 
not enter. In compression molding, however, pressure type 

pins should be used to prevent material from entering the 
hole. Without pressure pins, it is advisable, especially on 
larger inserts, to tap the inserts undersize before molding 
and retap to proper size after molding. Extreme care 
should be taken in retapping not to strip threads, especially 
if considerable material has flowed in. On small inserts it 
is most economical to mold the insert with a drilled hole 
and to tap after molding. 

blind-hole inserts, not so much a problem as with the open- 
hole types, is in most cases caused by loose retaining pins, 
which allow the insert to float with the flow of material ; 
uneven machining on the face of the insert ; or knurling 
on the entire outside diameter of the insert, leaving ex- 
tended burrs on the face which do not permit the insert 
to rest flat on the surface of the mold or the surface of the 
retaining pin. In all cases, it is good practice to provide 
a slight recess in the mold, accommodating the outside 
diameter of the insert. When the J diameter (Fig. 2) 
of the retaining pin is the same as that of the insert and 
sharp corners can be retained in the hole, 0.005" depth is 
sufficient to prevent the plastics from flowing in. This 
method allows the surface of the insert to protrude above 
the surface of the molded part, which is desirable, espe- 
cially when electrical contacts are made. 

Cold-Forged Inserts 

No specific formulas exist for controlling the individual 
relationships of the diameters and widths of collars to the 
shank or for controlling the kind and variety of shapes, 
like ribbed, finned, pinchneck, hexagon, and so on, which 
may be combined with other symmetrical or unsymmetric 
shapes in one piece. For each problem, therefore, the de- 

Table 1. Non-Ferrous Inserts Which Have a Usable Thread Length 
Not More Than 1 '/ 2 Times the Tap Diameter 

Tope Size 


Number of Length Thread 
Usable Minus Chamfer 
Threads Length (45, .005") 




from of Usable and 





Bottom Thread Body 

Class 2 

Stock Sealing 



(Cut 1 Yi Times Chamfer 

Coarse Fine 

(.002") Drill 





. Hi . . %. . . .No. 50. . 

. . 0.0700 



30 Hz ifj4 ... Fine 

2-64. . 

....Hi % No. 49... 

. .0.0730 

. . 0.0860 


...3.0 Hz % 


. ...Hi Hi No. 45... 

. .0.0820 

. . 0.0990 

0.0946. . . 

...3.0 % J2-. 1 .-. 


% % No. 45. . . 

. . 0.0820 . 



3.0 .Hz ..J2 


. . . .% % No. 43. . . 

.. .0.0890. . . 

. .0.1120 


...2^ % & 

4-48. . 

. . . .% % No. 42. . . 



0.1076. . . 



....% Hi, No. 37... 

. . .0.1040. . . 

. .0.1250 


. . .2}% % '/ii Me 



....M Hi No. 37... 


. .0.1250 

0.1204. . . 

2J4 % !^2 


....% ..% No. 33... 




2^2 % '-^2 

6-40. . 

....12 % No. 32... 


. .0.1380 

0.1332. . . 



. ...Hi % No. 29... 


. .0.1640 


...2M % % 


....Hi % No. 28... 

. . .0.1405. . . 

. .0.1640 

0.1590. . . 

.2^ % }^2 


....Hi Y*. No. 23... 


. .0.1900 


2 1^ % !^i 


He \i No. 20. . . 

. ..0.1610. . . 



...2y>. :::::%:..:::.%: 


. . . .% He No. 16. .. 


. 0.2160 

0.2094. . . 

. . .2^ % Hi 

1 2-2!f 

....% Hi No. 13... 

.. .0.1850. . . 



. . .2J^ "^4 Hi 


% li No. 6... 

. . . 0.2040 . . 


0.2428 . 

. . . 2.0 '% % Coarse 

^~ 28 " 




...2.0 H6 % 

.... iHj iHi G 


. .0.3125 

0.3043. . . 

. . .2.0 % Hi 


... IHJ l Hz I 




...2.0 % % 

N-16 g 

. . . . Hs iHj o 

.. .0.3160. . . 

. .0.3750 

0.3660. . . 

...2.0 % Hi 

. . . . % 'Hj Q 


. .0.3750 


...2.0 % ?<4 


. . . . % 17^ (j 

. . .0.3680. . . 



. . .2.0 Hz % 


. . . . % l^j J5^ ... 




...2.0 H Hi 


. . . . l^jj IHJ 3T^. 

. . .0.4218. . . 

. .0.5000 


...2.0 s /Te He 


'He '% J % 


. .0.5000 

0.4928. . . 

...2.0 % He 


.... % "6.... 

. .0.48 . 



...2.0 Hi He 

Hi-18 . 

. . . . j(^ 21^ '% .... 

. . .0.5156. . . 

. .0.5625 


...2.0 Hz He 

^-11 i .- ig .. 

.... lHj 28^ >% ... 

. . .0.5469. . . 

. .0.6250 

0.6132. . . 

...2.0 % He 

'Hi 'Hi 'Hi.... 


. .0.6250 


. . .2.0 Hi Me 




We don't want to be too technical, 
but modern industry has proved 
plastics to be a real short cut to many com- 
plicated production problems. 

The Plastic Division of The Standard 
Products Co. is one of the largest molders 
of plastics in the United States. Standard's 
large molding plant is equipped with the 
most modern molding machines. Three of 
the massive presses have an injection capac- 
ity of 36 ounces of material per press cycle. 

Backed by years of experience, Standard 

Products Plastic Division has acquired a 
wealth of knowledge in the art of molding 

Standard engineers, chemists and co- 
workers will produce your molding job 
quickly and efficiently at moderate cost. 
No matter how complicated the molding 
job may be, Standard can do it better. 

If you have a difficult molding problem, 
let us have the necessary data and our 
engineers will submit designs and proposals. 
Inquiries solicited. 


505 Boulevard Bldg. 

General Offices and Research Laboratory 
Woodward Ave. at E. Grand Blvd. 


Detroit 2, Mich. 


Fig. 5. Drawn-type pin with open end. Two segments are 
sheared and folded during molding for partial anchorage 


Fig. 6. Danger of cracking is less when intricate in- 
serts are of aluminum, which "gives" as plastics shrinks 

Fig. 7. U-shaped inserts are troublesome, and in the 
long run it is advisable to use two separate inserts 

signer of the molded piece and the manufacturer of the 
insert must cooperate to reach a solution. 

In general, the quantity needed to insure economical 
production by cold-heading is about the same as required 
by other production processes. As second operations are 

required, such as turning, drilling, tapping, and others, 
larger quantities are needed. 

Almost any material can be cold worked, but cold work- 
ing grades of the following are preferred in the order 
named: (1) aluminum and aluminum alloys, (2) brass, (3) 
copper and copper alloys, (4) carbon steels, (5) alloy 
steels, (6) stainless steels, and (7) silver and other pre- 
cious metals. 

In general, the following tolerances can be considered 
as commercial without finishing operation, although in some 
cases special care must be exercised to meet them : length 
0.010" (maximum) ; fillets sharp or round, as specified; 
diameter 0.002" (minimum) ; and squareness, shoulders, 
or collars with shank 1 (maximum). Tolerances for 
any element, such as length or diameter, vary with the 
material and with the sizes and proportions of piece, since 
they in turn determine the equipment or method of head- 
ing to be used. 

Closer tolerances can be met by adding finishing opera- 
tions. For example, aircraft studs, bolts, and specials are 
made in production today commonly to tolerances as close 
as 0.0005". 

Special Inserts 

Special inserts are a problem for the design engineer, the 
manufacturer of the insert, and the molder working in 
close cooperation. Some of the important phases of de- 
signing special inserts are covered, however, in the suc- 
ceeding paragraphs. Typical applications are commuta- 
tors and wire connections on telephone handsets and radio 
n-sisiors. A radio condenser is a good example of a built- 
up laminated insert. 

A general problem for all special inserts is that of anchor- 
age, which depends upon the design of the insert, the thick- 
ness of the material molded around the insert, the type and 
nature of the material being molded, and the design of the 
molded piece. This and other problems will be discussed 
under the various types of special inserts. 
THIN TUBULAR INSERTS: Anchorage is extremely difficult. 
Where a tubular insert is molded part way up a molded 
part, an inverted bead will act as satisfactory anchorage, 
either for inside or outside inserts. Perforations around 
the circumference, where permissible, can also be used. 
When molding an outside tubular insert, it is often neces- 
sary to coat the inside of the insert with Neoprene or a 
vinyl to insure better bonding. 
FLAT PLATE-TYPE INSERTS: These can be anchored by 

Insert Diameters (in.) 

Table 1. Material Wall Thickness (in inches) 
% >/4 % % 3 /4 



General purpose 

Medium impact 

High impact 

High heat resistant general 

purpose type 

High heat resistant impact type. 

Low loss 

Special for large inserts, flexible 


Cellulose acetate 

Cellulose acetate butyrate 

Ethyl cellulose 

Urea formaldehyde 

Melamine formaldehyde 

Mineral-filled ignition material . . 

Cellulose-filled electrical grade . . 

Vinylidene chloride 

Methyl methacrylate 



Nylon, Type FM-1 

Vinyl chloride-acetate 



I 13 

sx; *x. 



%> 'M 








,<^ v 

Send tor the new Wolertown Book o( Plastics. 
Authoritative advice on choice of materials, 
lypes of molding, , charts, etc. Write Dept. X, The 
WatertownMonufacturingCo., Watertown, Conn. 

In molding this highly finished, streamlined handle 
for this swivel action iron from *Neillite, radio high 
frequency preheating byMegatherm is employed. 
Neillite for the handle provides superior ther- 
mal qualities, high dielectric strength and polished 
beauty in design. Consult Watertown engineers 
on your problems of insulation, dielectric strength 
and utility combined with beauty in plastics mold- 
ings. The Watertown Manufacturing Company, 
Watertown, Connecticut. Branch office- Cleveland. 
Sales office in New York, Chicago, Detroit, 
Milwaukee and Hawaii. 

*Neillite Watertown's own phenolic molding powder. 





Fig. 8. Sleeve-type ejector method for locating inserts 

countersunk holes wherever permissible. All edges should 
be beveled, or certain sections not required for functioning 
of the part can be partially cut out and bent over to provide 
anchorage. For thick metal inserts, bosses can be ex- 
truded and slightly flared to act as satisfactory anchorage. 
Anchorage may also be obtained by spot-welding lugs to the 
underside of the insert. 

DRAWN SHELL-TYPE INSERTS: Especially where minimum 
wall thickness is specified, anchorage is a great problem 
because of danger of cracking. To provide the best pos- 
sible anchorage, the insert should be flared in slightly so 
that the plastics can anchor the insert and creep while 

DRAWN PIN-TYPE INSERTS: Often an insert of this type 
is molded into the plastics and then countersunk. Although 
a slight head is provided as an undercut for anchorage, it is 
insufficient to hold the insert properly. Wherever possible, 
piercing pins should be provided so that the insert can be 
pierced during molding and the necessary countersink 
molded into the plastics. During the piercing operation, 
the insert should be flared out. Fig. 5 shows a drawn-type 
pin with an open end. Partial anchorage is obtained by 
shearing and folding two segments during molding. Float- 
ing pressure-type piercing pins are recommended to mini- 
mize flow of plastics into the insert. 

on large molded parts where it is not necessary to have 
75% of thread, or where insert space is limited-. Because 
the shell is usually thin, approximately 50% of the thread 
depth is obtained. The four flared lugs provide a satisfac- 
tory anchorage. It is impossible to provide sealing points 
on an insert of this type and, hence, flow of material into 
the thread must be expected. Tapping after molding is 
recommended for most satisfactory results. 
INTRICATE INSERTS: An intricate insert is shown in Fig. 6. 
Aluminum inserts minimize danger of cracking because of 
aluminum's coefficient of expansion and its ability to give 
or spring slightly as the plastics shrinks. 
LARGE SURFACE INSERTS: These cause non-uniform shrink- 
age of plastics and considerable warpage. Regardless of 
type or method of shrinkage or cooling fixtures, one surface 

Fig. 9. How to locate an insert in a step-molded part 

will be convex and another concave after the piece cools 
and ages. Machining is .required for a flat surface. Best 
results are obtained when the part is aged before machining 
or, if possible, is baked in an oven for at least 72 hr at suit- 
able temperatures. 
PLASTICS: Where a minimum thickness of plastics is al- 
lowed around a large insert and the part calls for thermc 
setting material, a special non-cracking type will generallj 
have to be used. Sharp corners or other features which 
might create local stresses must be avoided. 
IRREGULAR-SHAPED INSERTS: These inserts cause the great- 
est difficulty. Fig. 7 shows a U-shaped insert, approxima- 
tely \ l /t" long, on which two rib projections are required 
above the plastics. Though it is economical from the stand- 
point of forming the insert and loading it into the mold to 
make it from one piece, doing so will lead to cracking of the 
plastics. Thus, it would be more economical in the long 
run to make two separate inserts. A wire can be fastened 
between the two inserts for electrical contact ; or, for 
more solid connection, the insert can be made solid with 
cut-out slots. If so, provision must be made in one half of 
the mold to prevent the slots from being filled with plastics. 
When these slots are open, there will be a slight give in 
the insert when the plastics shrinks, thus reducing or eli- 
minating the possibility of cracking. 

When a long bar-type insert is used, an anchorage should 
be provided in the middle of the bar by grooves or slots. 
The center anchorage will allow the plastics to creep along 
the surface of the insert while it is shrinking toward the 
center. If the part is cylindrical, circular rings will give 
satisfactory anchorage and at the same time allow the plas- 
tics to creep uniformly around the periphery of the insert. 

Non-Metallic Inserts 

Inserts of various materials may be used, such as wood, 
glass, porcelain, rubber, etc. Wood inserts are used as 
a core, especially for thermoplastic materials and mainly 
in compression molding. Their use in such applications 
as door-knobs and automobile gearshift knobs saves con- 
siderable material and shortens the molding cycle. 

Glass inserts are molded into thermoplastics by injec- 
tion, into thermosetting materials by transfer. Greatest dif- 
ficulties are caused by the non-uniformity of contours and 
dimensions. Being brittle, glass does not lend itself to the 
application of full clamping pressures during molding with- 
out the possibilities of breakage. Cushioning by springs 
or rubber should be provided to compensate for the normal 
irregularities. In some cases, paper is glued to glass to 
cushion it and also to prevent scratching during handling. 

Locating the insert in the mold is difficult. Fig. 8 illus- 
trates a sleeve-type ejector method. The inside sleeve 
diameter is of the same size as the glass insert. The insert 
is located by being placed inside the ejector sleeve when it 
is protruding in ejected position. Fig. 9 illustrates a step- 
molded part. One step must have the same diameter as the 
outside diameter of the insert. A sleeve-type ejector is 
used on this step. The insert is located by the inside of the 
sleeve. It is recommended that all but a small outer sur- 
face of the pressure plugs be recessed as shown in Figs. 8 
and 9. This will allow a small steel surface contact with 
the insert and minimize the possibilities of breakage. 

Porcelain in tubular form is used as an arc-protecting 
material. In some cases, a porcelain tube is placed over 
a wire insert and allowed to protrude from the plastics. In 
case of arcing, the arc is on the porcelain instead of the 

Hard rubber and melamine inserts are used to prevent 
tracking, especially when revolving contacts are used. 

In many applications plastics parts must withstand high 
internal pressures. In molding inserts into such parts, it 




~D has acquired the 


help you app/v 


Save yourself time and worry . . . avoid the risk 
of using the wrong NON-metallic ... by consul- 
ting with C-D technicians while your product or 
production plans are in the blue print stage. 

Since 1895 C-D has been manufacturing NON-metallics. 
C-D's accumulation of KNOW HOW on where best to use 
NON-metallics, includes the problems of two World Wars. This 
knowledge and experience, gained in helping solve War and Peace 
problems of product performance and production efficiency, 
are available to help you solve your "What Material?" 

The part illustrated herewith is a DIAMOND 
Vulcanized FIBRE clutch brake part. It was designed 
to meet the mechanical and thermal problems 
involved in braking the transmission of a 10 ton 
Diesel Locomotive. The resilience, toughness and 
abrasion resistance of Vulcanized Fibre were 
fully utilized to successfully meet the design and 
performance requirements of this unit. 

Avail yourself of the benefits of C-D experience 
and knowledge when they will do you the 
most good . . . while your products are on 
the drawing board . . . before you actually go 
into production. 

Wire, phone or write the nearest C-D office, 
and a C-D technician will get on the job. 


RDC 46 

The Plastics 

DILECTO ThermosettingLaminates. 

CELORON A Molded Phenolic. 

DILECTENE A Pure Resin Plastic 
Especially Suited to U-H-F Insu- 

HAVEG Plastic Chemical Equip- 
ment, Pipe, Valves and Fittings. 

The NON-Metallics 

VULCOID Resin Impregnated Vul- 
canized Fibre. 

MICABOND Built-Up Mica 
Electrical Insulation. 

Standard and Special Forms 

Available in Standard Sheets, 
Rods and Tubes; and Parts 
Fabricated, Formed or 
Molded to Specifications. 

Descriptive Literature 

Bulletin GF gives Compre- 
hensive Data on all C-D 
Products. Individual Cata- 
logs are also Available. 






Established 1895 .. Manufacturers of Laminated Plastics since 1911 NEWARK 33 -DEI AWARE 




is usually impossible to have the insert remain airtight 
within the plastics, even under minimum pressures. To 
retain a tight joint, a flexible wall of other material is 
required between plastics and insert. Under expansion 
and contraction, a very thin coating will compensate for any 
difference in coefficient of expansion between metal and 
plastics. A few successful methods of coating are recom- 
mended. The insert should be knurled as for normal anchor- 
age and at least two grooves provided approximately 1/32" 
wide and 0.020" deep. The head or the anchorage part is 
then dipped in a rubbery synthetic and oven-dried. It is 
possible also, especially on round inserts, to provide a 
groove in the anchorage head large enough for a Neoprene 
washer. Under normal molding conditions, the washer 
will provide satisfactory results. On some applications, a 
retaining groove is molded or machined between the in- 
sert and the plastics. The groove is filled with Glyptal and 
allowed to dry at room temperature, or is oven-baked. 

Preparation of Inserts Before Molding 

Inserts should be carefully washed to remove metal chips 
from the threads and fine metal dust from the knurls. These 
impurities are often rolled on to the surface by knurling. 
Though not easily washed off, they are loosened by plastics 
flow and often work to the surface and impair the appear- 
ance of the molded part. The most serious result, how- 
ever, is in electrical applications where a small particle or 
slight metal dust will cause a total breakdown electrically. 
Grease and oil are also detrimental to the appearance of 
molded parts. 

Cleaning processes are divided into three types: (1) 
mechanical, including hand polishing, tumbling, shot- or 
sand-blasting, solvent de-greasing, and alkali washing; (2) 
chemical, such as removal of iron rust and silver tarnish 
by an acid bath; and (3) use of electrolytic cleaners. Oil 
and machining chips can best be removed by a well-stirred 
alkali bath followed by a rinse with hot water, except 
where the nature of the metal, such as aluminum, rules out 
the alkali in favor of de-greasing with solvent. In many 
cases, a reasonable amount of tarnish can do no harm but 
where the function or the appearance of the piece demands 
chemically clean inserts, an acid dip is necessary. For 
brass and bronze a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids or 
nitric alone is commonly used. Silver tarnish can be re- 
moved with nitric acid or a diluted solution of one of the 
cyanides. Oakite No. 32 has been found an efficient re- 
mover of iron rust. 

Sealing Points Minimize Flash 

Most of the flash difficulty can be avoided in the design 
of the part and the insert by providing sealing points so 
that the flow of plastics is cut off or at least minimized. 
However, even with the best design, there will be some 
material on the inserts, especially when the mold wears or 
close tolerance on the inserts is not maintained. When the 
inserts are plated and polished, there is only a minimum 
possibility. Methods recommended for eliminating even 
this possibility include lubricating the insert prior to mold- 
ing with wax, soap, grease, or oil. Flash should be cut 
close to the molded part and peeled off. Usually a mild solu- 
tion of caustic soda will loosen it so that it can be easily 
removed. This method, however, requires extreme caution 
because too long a time or too strong a solution will harm 
the surface of the part and may even loosen the insert in 
its anchorage. 

Through-type inserts can be knocked out by a foot press 
and fixture. When they are anchored part way in the ma- 
terial, a strong sohition of caustic soda will loosen them in 
thermosetting material so that they can be picked out. For 
thermoplastics, suitable solvents or heat may be used. 

Considerable stresses are set up in molded parts of ir- 
regular design, such as parts with thin and thick sections, 
and especially parts with metal inserts. The best method 
to relieve stresses is to allow the part to cool slowly. The 
ideal condition would be to carry the parts on a conveyor 
through an oven which has various stages of temperature, 
starting at 50 below the molding temperature, then gradu- 
ally decreasing until the part is cooled to room temperature. 
This method, however, requires special equipment. 

The next best method requires two ovens, one at ap- 
proximately 225 F and one at 150 F. The molded part 
remains in the oven until its temperature is reduced to oven 
temperature. The final step is room temperature. In case 
of thermoplastic materials, molding stresses are relieved 
by a baking process at suitable recommended temperatures. 

Method of Pressing in Inserts After Molding 

It is often economical to press in inserts after molding. 
Best results are obtained when done at the press. In most 
cases a fixture is designed and mounted in a small arbor 
press or punch press. If there are several inserts in the part, 
they can be pressed in in one operation. Best anchorage is 
obtained when the inserts are pressed in immediately after 
the part is ejected from the mold. 

When designing a mold for pressing in inserts, the shrink- 
age of material, the size of the insert, and the allowance 
for anchorage must be considered. On small inserts it is 
safe to allow from 0.001" to 0.002" above the shrinkage 
of material. On large inserts, however, as little as 50% 
of the shrinkage is used for anchorage, especially when 
there is a small wall of material. For example, if an insert 
4" in diameter is to be molded with a l /i," wall of plastics, 
the plastics will crack. On the basis of 0.008" shrinkage 
per inch, the material will shrink 0.032". If the same in- 
sert is pressed in after molding and only 0.016" is allowed 
for anchorage, there will be no danger of cracking. 

Both diamond and straight knurl give satisfactory results 
in pressing in inserts. In certain special applications, a 
coating of adhesive may be applied on the insert to help 
anchorage and assist in obtaining an airtight joint. END 


last call for listing in 


If you have not already returned the completed ques- 
tionnaire giving us the information we need to list your 
company fully and accurately in our p/ostics Annual 
Directory, do so immediately. Only in this way can 
you be assured of a correct and adequate presenta- 
tion for your company. 

Our Second Annual Directory issue, to be published in 
March 1946, will contain complete coverage of all com- 
panies in the United States and Canada who are con- 
nected with the plastics industry; it will list their work 
or services performed, stock products, materials, machinery 
and equipment, executive personnel; and offer instructive 
graphs, charts, tables, etc. 

If you have not received a questionnaire, write for one 
at once, to: 

Research Editor 


785 N. Wabash Aye., Chicago 1. III. 




Be sure of getting your cop// 

The BIG 1946 plastics Directory 


The Vital ALL-YEAR Reference 
for the Plastics Industry 

The March 1946 issue of phslics containing the SECOND 
ANNUAL DIRECTORY, is a must for everyone interested in 
plastics. It will be even greater than the 1945 issue re- 
vised, enlarged, comprehensive, complete. A big special 
issue, with hundreds of pages and hundreds of advertisers, 
it will contain a vast amount of necessary and practical in- 
formation about plastics, plastics products, and plastics firms 
. . . and it will have a genuine all-year reference value- 

Every subscriber to plastics will receive the big March 
Directory Issue without extra cost but it is guaranteed only 
to subscribers of record as of February 28. Mail the sub- 
scription form below to plastics right now make sure of 
receiving your March Directory Issue. Many features, in- 

Tables and graphs of plastics properties 

Directories of plastics materials, chemicals, ma- 

Plastics components; war plastics now available 

List of plastics trade names 

A glossary of plastics terminology 

Products available from stock molds 

A comprehensive directory of companies and 
\ individuals engaged in all phases of the plastics 



Subscribe now to 

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(Including the March 
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issue (March 1946) will be sent to 
all subscribers AT NO EXTRA COST. 
Guaranteed only to subscribers of 
record as of February 28. 



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Washington Correspondent 

IN THE plastics industry the impression is well defined that 
materials will flow more readily and easily after the new tax 
schedules become effective. It is said, in the Capital, that a 
better supply of molding powders is bound to be available to 
enable fabricators to get really under way. There also will un- 
doubtedly be more firm orders from the industries which use the 
products of fabricators, such as parts that go into washing ma- 
chines, radios, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, electric irons, and 
the numerous other articles of which plastics parts are important 
components. A survey made by OCR shortly before it was dis- 
solved revealed some demands which should be very interesting 
to the plastics industry. Conducted by the expert canvassers of 
the Bureau of the Census, who are probably the most highly 
skilled house-to-house "quizzers" in the world, having gone 
through a long and detailed training before they are considered 
qualified for the work, their "samplings" are so well planned and 
organized that the results reveal, within a fraction, what the 
whole nation wants and thinks about specific subjects. 

This last OCR survey showed that the greatest over-all de- 
mand in cities, towns, and on farms, is for (1) radios; (2) vac- 
uum cleaners; (3) mechanical refrigerators; (4) washing ma- 
chines; and (5) electric irons. 

Requirements by Locale 

There is also an enormous demand for sewing machines. It 
was found the West and the South wants, in the order enu- 
merated, mechanical refrigerators, washing machines, electric 
irons, radios, sewing machines, and vacuum cleaners. In the 
North Central States washing machines headed the list, with 
refrigerators third; The West, meaning the eleven States on 
the Pacific side of the Rockies, is eager to buy anything that is 
offered. The South demands twice as many vacuum cleaners as 
it has ever purchased; and it wants large numbers of mechani- 
cal refrigerators. The greatest immediate demand for radios 
in all sections is in the lowest income groups. Farmers want 
refrigerators more than anything else. It is reported the greatest 
over-all market for anything and everything that may be offered 
is among the families with income ranging from $40 to $60 a 
week, these families constituting well over one-fourth of the 
buying group of the nation. While the things themselves have 
no immediate relation to plastics, there should be a valuable 
hint of possibilities in the report that the articles most widely 
in demand everywhere are, in the order named, clothespins, 
alarm clocks, window screening, galvanized washtubs, appliance 
cords, scissors, shears, silverplated ware, outside garbage and 
ash cans, chests of drawers, wood or metal bedsteads, and gal- 
vanized wash boilers. 

It was found that many people feared high postwar prices, and 
almost as many appeared to be reluctant to buy immediately be- 
cause they had the idea that materials, in the first wave of 
output, would be poor, and workmanship indifferent, this appre- 
hension applying, in some degree, to plastics. Observers in Wash- 
ington believe that the paramount job of producers and dis- 
tributors is to sell the idea that the first new postwar products 
are of good quality and are well made. Experts at distribution 
in the Department of Commerce feel that the original output 
might have hard sledding unless the salesmanship and advertising 
used in connection with it are handled with consummate skill. 

OPA't Aims 

OPA's object is to check inflation, and permit prices and prof- 
its to encourage quick reconversion by: (1) focussing on domi- 

nant products and giving more freedom to items unimportant 
in cost of living or in key industrial cost-price relationships ; 
(2) taking over-normal profit margins and using their excess 
to prevent price increases despite necessary cost increases; (3) 
cause wholesalers and retailers to absorb price increases which 
may be allowed manufacturers; (4) give reconversion pro- 
ducers the incentive in price relief when they make key items ; 
and (5) give help to any manufacturer who is running into the 
red. Those who can qualify as manufacturers of "reconversion 
products" stand highest on OPA list for price relief. The list 
of products includes building materials and items used in equip- 
ping buildings ; durable goods, including portable air condition- 
ers, bicycles, carpet sweepers, clocks, small electrical appliances, 
office machines, store machines, playground and gymnasium 
equipment, radios, phonographs, and radio-phonograph combina- 
tions; mechanical refrigerators, sewing machines, household and 
health scales, thermostats, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, 
ironers and driers. 

The Supply Picture 

Commerce Department reports that benzol demand appears to 
be absorbing the supply; toluol, no longer a military need, be- 
came so plentiful the price was reduced, and the supply derived 
from petroleum has been reduced ; there is now a Government 
stockpile of 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 gal, which might upset the 
domestic market, for which reason it has been urged it should 
be sold abroad. 

Between 80% and 85% of the facilities now available to pro- 
duce phenol are reported sufficient to supply civilian needs; the 
present stock of phthalic anhydride is considerably in excess of 
commercial needs; acetone is more ample, and is offered at 64 
to 7# a Ib in tank cars. It is expected that formaldehyde pro- 
duction for the year will be slightly more than last year. Casein 
production was the lowest in 25 yr, and supplies have been in- 
adequate. Argentine shippers are asking 22^<f per Ib delivered 
in the U. S. 

Phthalate plasticizers are reported relatively free, but produc- 
tion apparently waits upon developments. Phosphate plas- 
ticizers have been made easier in supply by release of military 
stocks. Cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate are re- 
ported as greater in supply. Alkyd resins appear satisfactory 
in prospect to the Department of Commerce, as do phenolic 
resins. Polystyrene and polydichlorostyrene appear to the Com- 
merce experts as potential competitors with the acetates. Sili- 
cones, one of the recent war-born plastics materials, is regarded 
by the Government people as a tremendous peacetime potential. 

Surplus Plastics 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation Surplus Office lists a 
quantity of plastics for disposal, including electric fittings, glass, 
cellulose, condensation plastics, cellulose plastics, synthetic plas- 
tics materials, polymerization plastics, protein plastics, and 
plastics construction and maintenance products. Roughly, the 
materials and articles cost the Government about $1,000,000. 
They may be seen, or complete information about them may be 
obtained, in the RFC offices at Atlanta, Birmingham, Boston, 
Charlotte, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Helena, Hous- 
ton, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Little Rock, Los Angeles, Min- 
neapolis, Nashville, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, 
Omaha, Philadelphia, Portland, Richmond, St. Louis, Salt Lake 
City, San Antonio, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, Washing- 
ton, D. C, and Fairbanks, Alaska. END 








Hawley's Production records . . . Haw- 
ley's incredible advances . . . Hawley's 
amazing developments in RESIN 
FIBRE PRODUCTS promise even 
better and wider range of applications 
to Peacetime Production. War's exact- 
ling needs have demanded almost the 
"impossible" which these remarkable 
materials have surmounted. You will 
hnd these results of important advan- 
tage in the competitive production of 
Peace-time requirements. 

Whether your problem lies in House- 
lold Appliances Aircraft parts 
Communication Equipment Cas- 
ngs Refrigerator Components * 

Citchen Accessories Radio Cabinets " 

p Furniture Sections, or any of the 
Kindred Fields, you will find HAW- 
PRODUCTS a versatile answer to 
/our needs. Why not get that answer 
low? . . . from HAWLEY. .... | T ' S 


I N 







What Paper for Laminates? 

(Continued from page 68) 

insulated with paper laminates. Rayon yarn is wound and 
dried on spools made of laminated paper tubing. Alumi- 
num aircraft parts are formed over jigs made of paper 
laminates. The Armed Forces use paper laminates in many 
ways : in Ordnance, Chemical Warfare, and Quartermas- 
ter supplies, radio, radar, and aircraft. There is scarcely 
an industry or activity that does not today use paper lami- 
nates in some form or other, and the scope of the applica- 
tions is steadily expanding. Lessons learned from war-time 
experimentation and development in hundreds of research 
laboratories are sure to lead to improved paper products and 
their rapid adaptation to urgent civilian wants. 

Typical Applications 

A few typical applications will be examined more closely. 
An excellent illustration is a refrigerator breaker strip. 
An insulating barrier is required between the warm outside 
shell and the cold inside of the refrigerator to prevent 
sweating and to maintain thermal efficiency. Thus, the 
primary function of the breaker strip is heat insulation. 
The breaker strip may or may not serve as a structural 
part of the assembly. In any case, however, it must be 
sufficiently rugged to stand the normal abuse which occurs, 
particularly on the bottom sill. It must resist moisture and 
be dimensionally stable when subjected to varying humidi- 
ties. Lastly, it must present a good appearance and have 
good wearing qualities so that the finish does not deterio- 
rate with use. Paper base laminates answer the above re- 
quirements admirably. They have the required heat in- 
sulating properties combined with the needed structural 
strength. They are resistant to moisture, dimensionally 
stable, and have a hard, long-wearing surface. 

Structural Use 

Aircraft flooring may be considered as an excellent ex- 
ample of the use of the material as a structural application. 
Strength, light weight, and durability are the prime con- 
siderations here. The loading on a floor is primarily flex- 
ural or beam loading, and in such a structure the highest 
stresses are at the outer surfaces. This situation can best 

be met by the use of a sandwich material or similar struc- 
ture. In this case, the selection is a sheet consisting of a , 
plywood core and paper laminate surfaces. As the load is 
borne largely by the surface, the strongest type of paper 
reinforcement is chosen. This will be composed of a thin 
directional paper made from a not too highly refined pulp, 
probably a sulphate or Mitscherlich sheet. Moisture ab- 
sorption and dimensional stability are not of too great im- 
portance here, as even a poor grade of paper laminate is 
better in this respect than the plywood core material ; there- 
fore, such a sheet will be satisfactory in this respect. Fi- 
nally, it must be considered that relatively low molding 
pressures must be used so that the plywood is not crushed 
in the pressing operation. Therefore, a relatively hard] 
paper is used so that the degree of compression required is 
relatively low and can be accomplished without damage to 
the plywood core. The result is a composite material which 
can truly be said to be engineered to the application for 
which it is intended. 

Fuselage Doors 

A final example is the use of paper laminates in the 
fuselage doors of one of our medium bombers. There are i 
two of these doors per ship, and their prime function is to 
seal off the mid-section, where the bombs are, from the 
forward and tail ends. The door consists of two sections, 
a flat sheet and a molded part, the latter resmbling a shal- 
low elliptical pan with a narrow flange and three raised 
areas in the center where the flat sheet is cemented to 
the molded part. 

This construction, fully using the high-strength low-J 
weight ratio of paper base laminates, results in a struc- 
turally sound door of light weight and extreme rigidity. 
During the bomb run, while the bomb-bay doors are open, 
these fuselage doors take the full impact of the incoming 
air, which creates a partial vacuum behind the front doo 
and a positive pressure against the rear door. Besides th 
stresses created by these loads, the doors must resist th 
climatic conditions encountered in flight, including hig 

Table II. Differences in Properties of Variously-Reinforced Laminates 

Mitscherlich Sulphate Alpha Rag 

Sulphite Kraft 


Paper Characteristic 

Basis wgt. (lb/24* by 36' by 480), 5% H 2 O 30.0 93.0 79.0 48.5 

Thickness (mils) 3.0 1 1 .0 1 0.0 7.0 

Density (Ib/mil) 10.0 8.4 7.9 6.9 

Oil penetration (sec) 2.0 6.0 3.0 1.8 

Gurley Denscuneter (sec/100 cc) 15.0 7.5 4.0 7.5 

Type Resin Phenolic . 

Resin Contentful ..40... 

.Phenolic Phenolic Phenolic 

.40... ..40... ..40 

Physical Properties 

Tensile strength (psi) 

Modulus of elasticity 

Compression flat (psi) 

Compression edge (psi) 

Flexural strength flat (psi) 

Izod impact (ft Ib/in. notch) 



Bonding strength (Ib) 

Shear (psi) 




Water absorption (%) 



.2.4 X 10. 



.2.0 X 10*. 




.1.6 X 10*. 


.1.25 X 10. 




8 oz. 



. Phenolic 

..0.9 X 10 
, . 40,000 
. . 20,000 
, . 1 9,500 




. 8,000.... 
. 8,500.... 








. 9,000.... 


.1.40. . 




. 8,000.... 
. 8,000.... 







. 7,500 

. 7,500 




. 1 2,000 
. 9,500 
. 9,000 




application is as 
important as good 


kNUARY 1946 






Here are instruments that supply the right an- 
swer quickly and accurately. 

They're of varied plastics produced by us for 
manufacturers of air conditioning equipment, 
heaters, wire rope, electronic apparatus, com- 
passes, radios and many more which are equally 
diversified. Engineers, salesmen and customers 
all appreciate their worth. 

Felsenthal's Design and Engineering Depart- 
ment is at your service to help solve any plastic 
problem you may have not only for calcula- 
tors but for a multitude of other important pur- 
poses. Our new catalog shows hundreds of 
products in plastics ask for No. 3-A. 




humidities and low temperatures. Also, the vibrational 
dampening characteristics of paper base laminates are 
greatly superior to the metal previously used for this part, 
thus eliminating the danger of failure from this source. 
Paper laminates have for some time been standardized 
throughout the industry, particularly insofar as elec- 
trical applications are concerned. Standards are pub- 
lished by NEMA and ASTM, and are covered as well by 
various Government specifications. Yet, despite the fact 
that they may be counted among the older plastics, the 
paper laminates have not reached a dead end. New devel- 
opments are taking place in both their composition and 
the process of making them ; they are also finding in- 
creased application. Resin research is active, and manu- 
facturers are constantly bringing forth new types of resins 
and improving the older types. Simultaneously, much work 
is being done to develop new techniques, particularly in 
the manufacture of special shapes or molded laminated 
forms. It should be the function of the paper maker not 
only to work toward the development of papers for the 
quality improvement of laminates, but also to work with 
the laminator to develop papers suitable for particular 
molding problems. 

Advantages Offered 

Paper-based laminates offer such advantages as low cost, 
ease of fabrication, machinability, high strength in rela- 
tion to weight, good insulating properties (both thermal 
and electrical), and durability. It must be remembered, 
however, that the exact characteristics and properties of 
the finished laminate can be varied considerably by the 
type of paper chosen as the laminate base. END 

Plastics in Perspective 

(Continued from page 26) 

with the same information, except for the trade name. 
A possible compromise worth bearing in mind for the 
future is the use of a label of the type: Acetate 
Lumarith giving the general chemical type and the 
trade name. This would be practical if the consumer 
can assimilate chemical names, and if the product was 
made from the material of one manufacturer. 

Too Much Information Not Desirable 

Second objection to the recommended label is that 
too much information is given. This is not serious, 
since one can eliminate what one pleases. We suggest 
that the description "light in weight" and "warm to 
touch" are unnecessary since these would be obvious 
when one handled the object. Also, we believe that 
"color-fast" is sufficient color information, and that 
"color solid throughout" is redundant even though it 
means more than "color-fast." 

Third possible objection relates to the negative in- 
structions, such as "use no abrasives" and "avoid 
flame." While some people feel that negatives dis- 
courage sales, we heartily agree with the committee's 
recommendations. We have found that, in other com- 
modities, we as consumers are glad to be told how to 
use them and what to avoid. 

We think the SPI pamphlet is good, and we said so 
last month. It does not presume to lay down rigid 
procedures, but only to act as a guide. The question of 
trade name versus chemical name or the combination 
suggested will have to resolve itself in time. END 




To Plastic 

On Temperature Control 




Before deciding on temperature regulating 
devices for your products, be sure to investigate 
Fenwal Thermoswitches. They operate on an un- 
usual principle, and offer many advantages not 
found in other types of switches. The Fenwal 
I Engineering Data Book contains detailed draw- 
! ings of construction of various models and typical 

Compact construction permits installation in tight 


Make and break unaffected by external vibration. 

Readily adjustable for wide range of temperature 


Minutely accurate. 

Adaptable for all types of media. 


A 44-page treatise on Thermal Control including in- 57 Pleasant Street, Ashland, Massachusetts 

stallacion drawings, photographs, blueprints and descriptive 
suggestions for future planning with basic principles in- 
volved in temperature regulation and control . . . Just write 
for your free copy on your business letterhead. 












Granting Shakespeare correct about the rose, still a 

simple, well-established name has inestimable value 

A Consumer Speaks Up! 

u [AJu 


Customers or potential customers in the dark about plastics 
plead for simple terms, educational publicity, full labelling 

THIS is an appeal to the plastics industry from an Amer- 
ican housewife. I want to he able to buy plastics mer- 
chandise as intelligently and with as much discrimination as 
I do metal, wood, or leather poods. 

As an American I know what I want. When I go shop- 
ping for gloves, I know whether I need something heavy and 
durable or dressy and therefore fragile. So I buy pigskin or 
kid accordingly. When I buy a dress, I know whether I 
need the warmth of wool or the coolness of linen, the crisp- 
ness of taffeta, or the softness of jersey. I know the char- 
acteristics of the merchandise I buy, and I know what to ask 
for in order to get it. 

Yet when I shop for an item made of plastics, I am 
tongue-tied. If I want a shower curtain or a raincoat or a 

handbag, all I can ask for is "something in plastics you 

know what I mean washable." I am as helpless as 

though I had to find an aluminum saucepan by asking for 
one that is "light-weight and shiny and silvery color." 

The American housewife never thinks of tweed and satin, 
flannel and organdy as "cloth" she buys each by name. 
Yet, confronted with articles of phenolics and ureas, vinyls 
and acrylics, she lumps them all together as "plastics" and 
credits them with more or less identical characteristics. 

A group of business and professional women, all of above 
average intelligence, were recently asked two questions 
about plastics: "What do you like best about plastics prod- 

ucts and what do you most dislike?" "Which plastics items 
are you eager to buy when they become available, and which 
do you intend to avoid ?" 

Their preferences were strong, but their lack of specifi 
knowledge was amazing. Only one woman objected to th 
questions, "But you can't lump plastics together like a singli 
material they vary too much !" Not one made any attemp 
to distinguish between the various kinds, except by their 
application or appearance. None would speak of "leathe 
gloves" or "wooden furniture;" every woman would knov 
at a glance whether a dress were made of cotton, rayon of 
wool. Yet to describe a tea-tray as "made out of some kind ; 
of plastics" is actually as absurd as to describe a dress as 
"made out of fabric of some kind." 

Only one woman mentioned a trade name of a plastics: 
"My Liicitc cigarette case is the loveliest thing I own." The | 
women knew by observation that some plastics arc transpar- i 
ent and some opaque, some solid and some flexible but at 
that point their knowledge ended. 

It is the fault of the plastics industry that the public re- 1 
mains so uneducated on the subject. Ignorance will pre- , 
vail until the industry settles on short, easily-remeniberej 
names for the various kinds of plastics in place of the] 
tongue-twisting chemical names familiar only to the trade. 
The sooner polystyrene, methyl methacrylate, and vinyli- 
(Continitcd on page 118) 






THE LABORATORY GROUP fresh from the press 
will tell you why the Royle #1/2 and the Royle 
#1 are the extruding machines you will want to 
know more about when you plan for the busy 
years ahead. In an entirely evolutionary manner 
features have been built into these extruding 
machines which will secure successful results with 
the ever lengthening list of extrudable com- 

Whether your plans involve research or light 
product extruding THE LABORATORY GROUP 

bulletin gives you the basic data you will require 
. : . If you plan a program of research you will 
find that these extruding machines have the char- 
acteristics for heavier product extruding. ... If 
you plan a program of light product extruding 
you will find it more profitable to use an extruding 
machine specifically designed for such work. 

Send for your copy of THE LABORATORY 
GROUP and let it suggest to you how these ex- 
truding machines Royle # J /2 ana< Royle #1 
can meet your specific requirements. 




I 880 

fames Day (Machinery) Ltd. 

London, England 

REgent 2430 

Home Office 

B. H. Davis ). W. Vanftiper 
SHerwood 2-8262 

Akron, Ohio 
|. C. Clincicltcr 
UNivcrsity 3726 





There Will be More 

Materials in 1946 

PMMA survey reveals that extensive expansion programs of plastics 
producers promise to overcome shortages now hampering industry 

PLANT and equipment expansions now under way in 
the materials manufacturing industry will be adequate 
to meet all reasonable demands for plastics molding powder 
and resins in 1946, according to a survey just completed 
by the Plastics Materials Manufacturers Association, and 
announced by F. H. Carman, its general manager. Other 
factors effecting quicker deliveries of materials to the end 
user, are building materials, building labor, and special 
equipment, but one of the most disturbing factors, the 
survey determined, is the extremely critical labor supply 
in the materials manufacturing industry. 

However, the survey reassures all engineers, and others 
contemplating the use of plastics in their products, that 
there is no need to delay in drawing up their plans or 
proceeding on the assumption that 1946 and 1947 deliveries 
of molding materials and resins will be adequate and on 

The survey is based on authentic reports and is carefully 
compiled to present an unbiased picture of existing and 
future conditions among PMMA members. It points out 
that one of the most important phases of the supply pic- 
ture of interest to the entire plastics industry is the ex- 
pansion program now being undertaken by many materials 
manufacturers. Generally, it can be said that manufacturers 
of most of the newer types of plastics, who did not make 
large expansions during the war years, are now planning 
additional facilities for their respective materials. Many 
of these expansions have already been announced to the 
industry, and others are still pending. 

A conservative estimate of the plans of the association 
members alone is that new facilities for production of 
plastics materials will entail expenditures amounting to 
102 million dollars during 1946 and the early part of 1947. 
A major portion of these new facilities will be for the 
production of molding materials. This, in itself, is the 
best example of the optimism of the material manufactur- 
ers for continued growth of the plastics industry. 

Completion dates of new facilities vary considerably. 
Whether or not any given expansion program can be car- 
ried out on schedule depends upon building material sup- 
ply, building labor, and the ability of the equipment manu- 
facturers to turn out special types of equipment required in 
a reasonable time. Barring unforeseen delays, many of 
the expansion programs will become effective in the spring 
of 1946 and thereafter through the middle of 1947. In the 
detailed discussion of the availability of the various ma- 
terials, increased supplies from new facilities are mentioned 
by dates whenever practical. 

One of the most disturbing factors in the present sup- 
ply situation is the availability of labor. Generally, the 
supply is extremely critical in areas in the east and New 
England. In other areas, there is sufficient labor to operate 
plants at or near capacity. Where labor is tight, the manu- 
facturers are operating longer work weeks and using all 
possible means to maintain full production schedules. How- 
ever, the urge to work overtime, especially on Sundays, is 
no longer a production aid. This complicated situation may 

well account for the fact that some molders are not obtain- 
ing what they consider is their rightful share of any given 
producer's production at this time. 

Manufacturers of phenolic molding materials are be- 
ing severely hampered by shortage of wood flour. It ha? 
been extremely difficult for the last two or three months 
to obtain good quality material in sufficient quantities. Con- 
tinued strikes in the lumber industry on the West Coast 
and the insufficient conversion capacity in this country may 
eventually choke off the supply. It is hoped improved 
labor situation and possible resumption of wood flour im- 
ports from Scandinavia will relieve this shortage. 

A strike in the steel industry would eventually slow down 
coking ovens, thus curtailing tar acids supplies. These 
labor difficulties, together with shortage of labor in the 
material manufacturers plants and in many of the molders 
and fabricators plants, are and may continue to materially 
restrict the amount of plastics that are actually consumed. 

Other material shortages are insufficient supplies of 
cellulose acetate flake, for which ample expansion of facili- 
ties is now going forward ; critical supply of cotton waste, 
which could restrict production of impact materials should 
the demand become heavy ; and possible uncertain supplie 
of coloring pigments for styrene molding materials whe 
the large expansion of this plastics becomes effective. 

Reports to the association indicate the following for vari- 
ous types of plastics materials : 

Phenolic Molding Materials 

Most producers are severely curtailed by shortage 
labor and wood flour, and are currently unable to run 
capacity. It is estimated that producers are now operat 
ing at about 70 percent of capacity. Unless there is a ma 
terial change in wood flour availability, production wil 
fall off still more in the immediate future. 

Assuming that wood flour and labor become availabli 
in the early part of 1946, it is estimated that new facilitie 
will allow about a 16 percent increased material supply 
based upon present capacity of manufacturers. Expansio 
of facilities now pending, and in some cases already starte 
will permit approximately a 42 percent increase over preser 
capacities during the early part of 1947. 

Urea and Melamine Molding Materials 

Manufacturers now in production are operating sub 
stantially in excess of 90 percent of total capacity, and th 
amount now available to molders is approximately 25 
cent in excess of that during 1944. Shortage of labor is til 
only item restricting operations. It is anticipated that ne 
facilities and additional labor, together with another pro 
ducer resuming production of urea molding materials, wil 
effect a 25 percent increase over the present rate of pr 
duction starting this April. Announcements of expansion 
in molding powder production to become effective durir 
the latter part of 1946 or early 1947 will permit productic 
at a rate 80 percent higher than the current levels. 

The shortage of these materials has been fairly acut 






Midland has developed special skill iu perfect- 
ing extra deep and intricate hobbed cavities. 

Illustrated to the left is a Midland hob that is 
only 1 5/16" in diameter, yet it was pushed 
5 1/2 " into a steel die block to form a perfect 
hobbed cavity. This hob can be used again and 
again to duplicate the original hobbed cavity 
at a small fraction of the cost of machining 
and hand finishing. 

Whether you are a custom molder, a manu- 
facturer operating a molding department, or 
a purchaser of molded parts, there is some 
phase of our facilities and knowledge that 
should be of interest or help to you. 




Here is a very practical 
heat treating treatise that 
will help you get the best 
performance from Hob- 
bed Cavities by Midland. 

This book gives complete 
information about Midland 
organization, experience 
and facilities. 



Plastic Molds * Die Cast Molds * Engraved Dies * Steel Stamps Hobbings * Pantograph Engraving 




Ingenious New 

Technical Methods 

To Help You with Your Reconversion 

New Precision Built Roto Center 
Eliminates Chatter ... Speeds Production! 

Now you can replace dead cen- 
ters on lathe and grinder tail- 
stocks, with this new Keene live 
Roto Center to increase produc- 
tion to eliminate all radial play 
and possibility of chatter! Low in 
cost, the Roto Center is a high 
capacity unit, featuring many in- 
novations to speed and improve 
quality of work! 

Matched roller bearings preloaded, 
are packed with high grade anti- 
friction grease at assembly. No 
attention is required for long 
periods. After assembly, runout is 
kept to absolute minimum guar- 
anteed less than .0002. Rear of 
center is tapped to receive standard 
hydraulic fitting. Chips, dust and 
cutting oil cannot reach bearings! 

More and more peacetime "helps 
on the job" are returning to in- 
dustry. One of these days, famous, 
flavorful Wrigley's SpearmintGum 
will also be back to help you "on 
the job" but only when we can 
assure Wrigley's Spearmint man- 
ufacture in quantity and quality for 
all. Today, we ask you to remem- 
ber the famous Wrigley's Spear- 
mint wrapper. Tomorrow, you 
may again enjoy Wrigley's Spear- 
mint Gum quality and flavor while 
you are at work. 

You can get complete information from 

Keene Electrical Machinery Co., 
549 W. Washington Blvd., Chicago 6,111. 

The kola Cantor 

Remember this wrapper 


partly because of increased molding facilities made avail- 
able during the war period and the fact that large expan- 
sions by the material manufacturers were not possible dur- 
ing the same period. Substantial increases in manufac- 
turing facilities are included in the tremendous expansion 
program already mentioned for the entire industry. Esti- 
mates from PMMA members indicate that consumers may 
anticipate approximately a 33 percent increase in produc- 
tion during the first quarter of 1946. Expansions now 
under way and pending will continue to bring in additional 
capacity during the year; and by the second quarter of 
1947, it is anticipated that thermoplastics availability will 
be increased by about 150 percent of the present level. The 
supply situation for the specific grades follows : 

Cellulose Ester Molding Materials The industry is now 
operating substantially at capacity, although additional 
acetate flake in a few instances would permit even larger 
tonnages. Additional facilities may make it possible to 
increase the present rate by approximately 6 to 10 percent 
in the first quarter of 1946. 

New Facilities Provide Higher Capacity 

Among PMMA members, new facilities for the manu- 
facture of flake as well as molding materials, already an- 
nounced and pending, to be brought in during the latter 
part of 1946 and through July, 1947, will ultimately pro- 
vide manufacturing capacity 53 percent in excess of present 

Polystyrene Molding Powder Producers are operating 
substantially at capacity of the present equipment, and there 
has been considerable increase over the average produc- 
tion of 1944. 

New facilities now under construction should provide 
additional material during the early part of 1946, amount- 
ing to an increase of 135 percent over current supplies. 

Long-range expansion of facilities, already announced 
or pending, may permit production in the magnitude of a 
600 percent increase, based on present operation. This ap- 
pears to be the largest expansion program for any given 
plastics material now under consideration. 

Acrylic Molding Powder Producers report operations at 
capacity with demand considerably in excess of supply. It 
is anticipated that substantial increases during the first 
quarter of 1946 may increase the present supply by ap- 
proximately 20 percent. Expansions requiring a year or 
more are now under way, and producers feel that the new 
capacities will be sufficient to take care of all demands. 

I'llhvl Cellulose Molding Material Producers have al- 
ready brought in substantial expansions which are now be- 
coming effective with increased material. Availability in 
the early part of 1946 may be further increased by about 13 
percent, and by the first quarter of 1947 by approximately 
36 percent of the present supply. 

I'olythcne and Nylon Molding Material^-T\\e present 
capacity is sufficient to meet demands. However, anti- 
cipating future requirements manufacturers will have 
greatly enlarged capacities available during the first quar- 
ter of 1947. 

Pofyviny/ Chloride and Copo/ymer Resins 

Shortage of labor is holding production of the com- 
pounding plants at approximately 70 percent of capacity. 
Because bf the time required to expand facilities, consum- 
ers can anticipate increases only as labor becomes more 
plentiful. It is believed that this labor problem will gradu- 
ally improve from now on. Over a long term, it is antici- 
pated that compounding capacity for vinyl resins will be 
increased by about 100 percent. It is therefore evident 
producers are preparing to take care of customers' total 

There appear to be substantial quantities of polyvinyl 




since we stopped fooling around with 


And I mean fooling around because 
that's what he told the boys in the 
plant. He said no two shipments of 
stock resin we got ever performed 
alike, or why were we always having 
downtime while trying to "adjust" res- 
ins to the job. He turned the whole 
thing over to Interlake. They made a 
specification resin for us and that 
fixed everything. 

INTERLAKE develops each specification 
resin to order with properties pre- 
cisely adjusted to one specific application 
tests it on the job then so stabilizes 
production of that resin that the perform- 
ance of every shipment delivered is identi- 
cal with the first. 

Thus users of Interlake Resins com- 
pletely relieved of the task of fitting the 
resin to the job are assured of depend- 
able, uniform performance. 


Our experienced research men are glad to 
work with you on any resin problem, or 
to discuss the possible advantage of using 


resins in any operation or process. Write Interlake will supply a specification resin 

Interlake Chemical Corporation, Plastics for applications involving the coating, im- 

Division, 1935 Union Commerce Building, pregnating, or bonding of WOOD PAPER 







The Lamp that Lit 

the World . . . 

When Thomas Edison subdivided the electric current 
to make carbonized cotton thread glow in a vacuum, the 
incandescent bulb was born. That was in 1879, when the 
Auburn Button Works was already three years old. 

Since then, the use of molded plastics parts has per- 
mitted new advances in electrical science. Today, 
Auburn's 70 years' experience in molding these plastics 
parts is still working for the electrical industry, as it is 
for all types of American industry. 

For small parts molded automatically at low coat, 

write: Woodruff Company, Division of Auburn 

Button Works, Inc., Auburn, New York 


All Types of Molding Complete Mold Shop 
Extruded Tubes and Shapes 






chloride, vinyl chloride-acetate, other vinyl chloride co- 
polymers, polyvinyl butyral and polyvinyl acetate available 
in resin form. For certain types, there was a tenfold ex- 
pansion during the emergency. The ending of the war, de- 
lays in reconversion of customers' operations, need for new 
processing facilities, and labor difficulties in customers' 
plants, particularly in the automotive and consumers goods 
fields, have somewhat "lessened the demand for these resins. 

Po/yviny/ Butyral Sheet 

Present demand is abnormally low due to strikes. There 
appears to be sufficient capacity to meet normal demands. 

Viny/idene Chloride Resins and Plastics 

Substantial increases in capacity over 1944 have already 
been effected, and it is anticipated that this plastics will be 
available in quantities approximately double the 1944 rate 
during the early part of 1946. In the early part of 1947, 
the volume of production will be about 450 percent of the 
1944 rate. 

Cellulose Nitrate Sheet, Rod, Tube 

Producers report capacity operations, with shortage of 
labor causing difficulty in some cases. Demand is some- 
what in excess of present supply. Flake production is now 
50 percent over that of 1944, and a slight increase in capac- 
ity is anticipated early in 1947. 

Ceffufose Acetate Sheet, Rod, Tube 

Producers are running at capacity, but in some cases 
shortage of flake is restricting operations. There is no 
forecast for increased production of film during the first 
quarter of 1946. However, customers can anticipate in- 
creased availability of continuous sheeting during the lat- 
ter part of 1946 and through July, 1947, amounting to 
roughly 66 percent increase over the present rate. 

Adhcsives. Laminating and Specialty Materials 

There has been a marked drop in the demand for urea 
and melamine resins for adhesives, and production facili- 
ties appear ^o be ample to meet present demands. In some 
cases, the spray dried urea resins are running at capacity, 
and there will be additional availability come into opera- 
tion during the first quarter of 1946. 

There is no problem with respect to laminating materials 
availability at the present time, except in those instances 
where labor shortages materially restrict the amount of 

Cast phenolics for certain end uses, such as radio cabi- 
nets, are being produced at capacity. The demand so exceeds 
the supply that orders are two and three months in arrears 
A moderate expansion in cast resin facilities can be antici- 

Customers' requirements for the various phenolic liquid 
resins for such special purposes as laminating, abrasives, 
cork insulations and glass wool, are being filled without to 
much difficulty at the present time. 

Methyl Methacrylate Cast Sheet 

The supply of cast sheet exceeds the demand, and all 
customers' requirements are being filled with reasonable 


With but few exceptions, the demands for plastics ma- 
terials greatly exceed the supply at this time. There has 
been considerable discussion as to the amount of inflation in 
orders now -in the hands of the manufacturers. It is evi- 
dent that some measure of relief will become effective dur- 
ing the first quarter of 1946 and will continue thereafter 
(Continued on page 123) 




Joyous V-J Day news was strange talk to be coming over "inter- 
com" phones aboard Uncle Sam's battle-wagons! Vital cogs in 
ship-wide communication systems during combat, these instruments 
are not just ordinary telephones. They are sound-powered, operate 
independent of the ship's electrical wiring, and are intricate in con- 
struction. They must work right, in battle. And they did. 

Now their wartime mission is accomplished and so is ours, in 
supplying many of the molds for their production. 

Working with Stokes Rubber Co., Tren- 
ton, N. J. a leading producer of plastics, 
with 58 years of experience E S C tech- 
nicians engineered and built, to rigid 
Navy specifications and precision stand- 
ards, the extremely complicated molds 
for these phones. Stokes says: "Your cre- 
ative help was invaluable your molds 
precision -perfect your service beyond 
our expectations." 

IF YOU'RE IN the market for plastic molds, here are 
three reasons why you'll find E S C an experienced, 
capable and dependable firm to do business with: 

1. Even before the war, our staff of experts were na- 
tionally known authorities on plastic molds and mold- 
ing. Added to this is the experience gained during 
wartime in designing and making highly intricate types 
of molds, such as those for the vital, sound-powered 
Navy phone above. 

2. Among ESC customers are many of the most prom- 
inent molders in the country, for whom we have 
designed, engineered and produced a wide variety 
of precision-built plastic molds. References will be 
furnished on request. 

3. ESC facilities have been expanded to meet peace- 
time demands. New equipment of the most modern 
design has been added. You are assured of prompt 
delivery on any type of mold you may require. 

We're prepared to work with you from the design 
stage right on through to the finished product. Your 
inquiry is invited. Why not write, wire or phone today? 


3476 Gibson, Detroit 1, Mich. Telephone: TEmple 1-4361 




Compression Injection Transfer 




Pro g ram of SPE Annual Meeting 

Rackham Memorial Building, Detroit, January 7-9 

PLANS have been completed for the Plastics Exhibit of the 
Society of Plastics Engineers the first major post- 
war plastics show to be held in Detroit's Convention Hall 
from Monday, January 7, through Friday, January 11, 1946. 
The Plastics Exhibit was postponed from the planned date 
in 1945 in order to avoid any interference with heavy war- 
time transportation demands. The SPE show will be the 
largest ever held, according to Fred Conley, Publicity Com- 
mittee Chairman for the Exhibit. "The floor plans show a 
greater area of exhibit space than ever before allocated to 
this type of industrial show," he said. "For the first time," 
Mr. Conley continued, "the SPE Plastics Exhibit, as it will 
be known in industry, will be a forthright effort on the part 
of exhibitors to sell their products." 

The Society of Plastics Engineers Annual Meeting, also 
scheduled in conjunction with the Exhibit, will be held in 
the East Wing of the Horace H. Rackham Educational 

Memorial, 100 Farnsworth Avenue, on January 7, 8, and 9. 
Technical sessions sponsored by the Professional Activity 
Groups of the Society will convene daily. Featuring the 
three-day technical program will be a series of educational 
courses consisting of lectures for both morning and after- 
noon sessions. Subjects will include materials, molding; 
techniques, product design, laminates, tool design, coatings, 
and consumer specifications. A detailed program listing 
the speakers and their subjects is given below. 

New national officers will be installed and reports pre- 
sented at the annual business meeting on January 8. The 
annual banquet will be held on the same date, for which 
Russell Barnes, feature writer for the Detroit News, will 
be the speaker. 

Other associations and industrial groups will also convene 
in Detroit during the week of the plastics exhibit, including 
the Society of Automotive Engineers. END 

Monday, January 7, 1946 

9:00 A.M. Registration 

IO:OOA. M. Business Meeting Steering 
Council, National Group Chairmen 


1 :30 P. M. Greetings by National Chairman 
"Outline Scope of Activities" 
J. A. Mickey, Ford Motor Co. 

Technical Sessions 


Chairman B. E. Cash, Celanese Corp. 
of America 

Dr. S. D. Douglas, Carbide & Carbon 
Chem. Corp.: "New Plastic Develop- 
ments During the War in the U.S.A." 

Alexander Nixon, Fisher Body Division, 
General Motors: "Plastic Materials in 
Automotive Construction" 

Dr. H. A. Winlcelman, Dryden Rubber 
Co.: "Plastics in the Rubber Industry" 


Chairman J. C. Kazimier, Amos Molded 

W. Goggin, Dow Chemical Co.: "Ger- 
man Plastic Fabrication Methods" 

A. P. Mazzucchelli, Bakelite Corp.: "High 

Frequency Heating" 
W. S. Prendergast, Carter Products 

Corp.: "Special Extrusion Molding" 


Tuesday, January 8, 1946 

9:00 A.M. Registration 
9:30 A.M. Technical Sessions 


Chairman Harry Kline, Reichhold 
Chemicals Corp. 

Simon Williams and E. V. Painter, Na- 
tional Cotton Council: "Cotton in Re- 
lation to Laminates" 

C. F. Marschner, Forest Products Lab.: 
"Semi-Structural Fabrications" 

G. Slayter, Owens-Corning Fiberglas 
Corp.: "Engineering Properties of Fi- 
berglas Reinforced Plastics" 


1:30 P. M. 

Dr. Harry F. Lewis, Institute of Paper 

Chemistry: Subject to be announced 
Dr. Gordon Kline, National Bureau of 

Standards: "Developments in Plastics 

in Germany During the War" 
L. C. Chesley, American Cyanomid Co.: 

"Decorative Laminates" 
T. Walter Noble, Fabricon Products, Inc.: 

"Low Pressure Molding Materials and 

Dr. E. R. Perry, Westinghouse Electric 

Corporation: "Resin and Raw Material 

Requirements from a Laminator's 

R. J. Metzler, Hercules Powder Co.: 

"Thermoplastic Laminates" 
6:30 P.M. Annual SPE Banquet (Wardell 

Sheraton Hotel) 
Speaker: Russell Barnes, Feature Wrirer, 

Detroit News 

Wednesday, January 9, 1946 

9:00 A.M. Registration 
9:30 A.M. Technical Sessions 

Chairman R. G. Dailey, Standard Prod- 
ucts Co. 
B. F. Hantz, American Insulator Co.: 

"Compression and Transfer Molds" 
W. W. Broughton, National Lead Co.: 

"Kirksite Plastic Molding Tools" 
Clinton Rector, Catalin Corp.: "Tooling 
Aspects of Cast Plastics" 


Chairman J. R. Turnbull, Monsanto 
Chemical Co. 

P. F. Corbin, Textileather Corp.: "Plas- 
tics as Coatings" 

David S. Plumb, Monsanto Chemical Co.: 

"Polyvinyl Butyral Coatings" 

Chairman R. Chollar, National Cash 
Register Co. 

G. F. Clark, Owens-Illinois Glass Co.: 
"Consumer Specifications and Their 

N. Rakas, Chrysler Corp.: "Industrial As- 
pects of Consumer Specifications" 

F. A. Martin, The Hoover Co.: "Stability 

of Phenol Formaldehyde Plastics" 

Chairman J. A. Hill, Barnes & Reinecke 

Dr. Heindrich Bulchdorf, Barnes & Rein- 
ecke: "Products of the Future" 

William L. Hess, Midwest Plastic Prod. 
Co.: "Product Design from a Molder's 

John Sasso, Managing Editor, Product 
Engineering: "What Design Engineers 
Expect of the P.A.C." 






A series of plastics and special com- 
pounds with characteristics applicable 
to a wide variety of uses depending 
upon your requirements. 


These general properties are available 
eit,her in standard or special formula- 
tions subject to design and method of 

Castable Cold 
Heat Resistant 

Cold Resistant 
Oil Resistant 
Water Resistant 
Abrasion Resistant 
Dimensionally Stable 

Simple to use 

Ease of Fabrication 

Fidelity of Reproduction 

Variable Density 


Small or large simple or intricate castings. 

Castable in the following molds: Plaster, Rubber, Gelatin, Wax, Sample parts or 

models as required. 
Formrite is applicable in all manufacturing industries. We can show you how Formrite 

can fit in to your manufacturing requirements. 
As a binding or bonding material with various fillers. 


Laboratories are available for the development of your experimental or production 
problems utilizing our diversified experience in design, sculpture, art work, prepara- 
tion and reproduction of original models, plaster work, tooling techniques, mold 
making, substitution of materials, product and process development . . . For Industrial, 
Scientific and Commercial items . . . Problems on unusual and difficult jobs are our 

Formrite is available for immediate delivery in powder and liquid form. 




* An Art Plastic Company product 




to push your LAGGING development and 
engineering program through today . . . 
spare you lost production PROFITS tardy 
engineering costs you. 

Our specially trained crews of reconver- 
sion engineers are geared for speed. Work 
in our shop, or under your supervision in 
your own drafting rooms for a week, or 
month or longer until you get caught up. 
Right now more than 30 B & R crews, num- 
bering 1 to 33 men, are helping anxious 
manufacturers get into production FASTER. 

German Plastics Discussed at SPI Meeting 

Two talks on German plastics were given at the dinner meet- 
ing of the New York chapter of the Society of the Plastics In- 
dustry held at the Hotel Roosevelt, New York, December 4. 

John M. DeBell, one of the members of the plastics team 
assigned to making a survey of the progress made by the Ger- 
man industry since that country was "blacked out," spoke on the 
subject of German advance in plastics materials and products, 
while Capt. George Nalle, a liaison officer for the team, con- 
centrated on the German injection molding industry. He em- 
phasized the fact that most of the German injection molding 
machines were of very small capacity, and that only two ma- 
chines of about 16-oz. capacity were to be found in the entire 
German industry. 

ASTE Exposition Scheduled 

Announcement was made by the board of directors of the 
American Society of Tool Engineers, at its semi-annual meeting 
in Detroit, that the organization plans its Exposition for April 
8 to 12, inclusive, at Cleveland. Arrangements have been made 
for the use of the entire Cleveland Public Auditorium, which 
will encompass 250,000 sq ft of space. 

This is to be the fifth such exhibit of production equipment 
and processes held by the Society, and is being designed with 
major attention to its educational and informational value for 
all engaged in the field of production. Not only machines and 
tools, but all possible types of materials handling equipment, 
materials for fabrication, control devices of hydraulic, electrical, 
and electronic design, and a variety of other devices are to be 
included in the exhibit, according to present plans. 

Comprehensive and detailed plans for the event are nearing 
completion, it is announced, and the Society has decided on the 
name of "New Era" Exposition, feeling that this show really 
ushers in a new era of postwar industrial progress. 

A series of technical sessions has been scheduled for the an- 
nual ASTE meeting, which is to be held concurrently with the 
Exposition, and G. V. Briner, the organization's president, has 
expressed the opinion that the exhibition, and the accompanying 
sessions, have a very definite mission in their bearing on the 
plans of industry for peacetime pursuits and civilian produc- 
tion requirements. 

Packaging Institute Meeting 

At the seventh annual meeting of the Packaging Institute, 
held on November 26 and 27 at the Hotel Commodore, New 
York, a number of talks were delivered, among them being 
several of particular interest to the plastics industry. These in- 
cluded : An address titled "Plastics Packaging," by Major E. L. 
Hobson, Plastics & Packaging, Office of Quartermaster General, 
Washington, D. C. ; "Adhesives" formed the subject of a talk by 
F. P. Bartlett, Jr. sales engineer in charge of specialties, Union 
Paste Co., Hyde Park, Mass. ; W. H. Graebner, of the Marathon 
Corp., Menasha, Wis., spoke on "Coated Papers and Implications 
Thereof;" and an address by Capt. W. H. Aiken, office of 
Quartermaster General, Washington, D. C., dealt with the topic 
of "Transparent Films." 

Officers re-elected for another annual term were Walton D. 
Lynch, president ; W. O. Brewer, manager pharmaceutical sales, 
Calco Chemical Div. of American Cyanamid Co., and George 
A. Mohlman, president of Package Machinery Co., were both 
re-elected vice presidents. Major Albin Dearing, Eccleston, Md., 
was named executive head of the Institute. 

Plans for an international packaging exposition scheduled to 
be held in New York City in connection with "National Pack- 
aging Week," were also inaugurated at the annual meeting. 





Chemaco Cellulose Acetate and Polystyrene are high 
fashion news for accessories. Their ease of mold- 
ability, range of colors and brilliant crystal, sturdy, 
long-wearing Dualities and beautiful textures 
make them a natural choice of materials for 
mass production of smart feminine accessories. 
Streamlined cigarette cases, handsome fmrse 
':': frames, smart compacts, jewelry cases and 

'.A dainty dressing table fittings are molded from 

B Chemaco plastics. 

Chemaco also makes Ethyl Cellulose and 
Vinyl Compounds. Chemaco engineers 
will helf) you in choosing the 
W . \ j 1 correct {Mastic for your needs. 


Send for the new Chemaco 
Catalogue. Write Dept. G. 

IA subsidiary of Manufaefureri Chemical Corporation) 

Berkeley Heights, N. J. 

Branch Office-Cleveland. O. 






Are you planning a molded plastic part for your product? If you are, 
please bear this fact in mind . . . the most important matter you have to 
consider is your choice of custom molder. 

Because ... he will be wholly responsible for a vital part of your 
product . . . for solving engineering problems . . . designing and 
building the molds . . . running the job . . . finishing each piece . . . 
and feeding it into your production lines as your schedule demands. 
The very success of your product may hinge upon his engineering 
and production ability. 

Therefore, before you make your decision you'll find it well worth 
while to get the answers to these questions: 

1. Has he a long record of successful and dependable serv- 
ice in the field? 

2. Does he provide a complete service, assuming undivided 
responsibility for designing, mold-making, molding and 

3. Are these services within his own organization coordi- 
nated under a single engineering and operating group? 

4. Can he provide the method best suited to your job, 
whether it be compression or injection molding? 

3. Has he the correct size and type of press to handle your 

job most efficiently and economically? 
6. Does he have a reputation for doing even the toughest 

jobs well? 

If he can answer all of these questions in the affirmative, you're safe. 
Give him the job. 

If you'd like our answers to those six 
questions, you'll find them in this new 
book, and it's brim full of valuable 
information . . . facts and figures im- 
portant to any buyer of molded plas- 
tics . . . fully illustrated with photo- 
graphs, charts, and drawings. Write 
for your free copy today . . . on your 
firm letterhead, please. 




1031 N. Kolmar Ave. 6> "\ Chicago 51, Illinois 

Branch offices in principal industrial centers 





Flaw Detector 

Brush Development Co. 
Cleveland, O. 

A new device called the Hy- 
personic Analyzer, based on the 
use of sound waves of a fre- 
quency inaudible to the human 
ear, promises, on the basis of 
performance to date, to set new 
standards of production speed 
and efficiency in detecting flaws 
in plastics sheets, extruded plas- 
tics, and plastics laminates, as 
well as in aluminum, phosphor 
bronze, berylium copper, brass, 
and other metals and alloys. 

Although the Hypersonic Analyzer can detect any change in 
density of a wide variety of materials and thus has many pos- 
sible uses, immediately it is thought to offer greater possibilities 
to the metals and plastics fields than to any others. In the 
rolling of sheet steel, for example, the Analyzer will accurately 
detect and identify the location of such defects as "pipes," "cat's 
eyes," "blisters," and "laminations." 

The new machine consists essentially of three parts: (1) a 
Piezoelectric crystal transmitter, (2) a Piezoelectric crystal re- 
ceiver, and (3) a signalling or marking device. The crystal 
transmitter sends supersonic waves through the material being 
examined. These waves are picked up by the crystal receiver, 


and a constant result is registered until defects or a definite 
change in density is encountered. The actual detection and 
identification of a flaw may be indicated on a meter, by a signal 
light or bell, or by a relay hook-up for making desired physical 

The Hypersonic method detects flaws associated with two 
physical properties of the material : a change in density and a 
change in the modulus of elasticity. Because the new device is 
sensitive to changes in the modulus of elasticity, it can be used 
to examine for such flaws as thin slits or cracks in the material. 
In defects of this type, the change in total mass is negligible, 
but at the separation junction the effective modulus is obviously 
small since the material is already separated. 

This method of detecting separations is believed by Brush 
engineers to be ideal for testing plastics laminates, such as glass 
cloth-resin and organic fabric-resin combinations, for poor bond- 
ing between the reinforcement and the resin. Experiments with 


a laminate composed of two Lucite sheets bonded by a glue 
show that the sonic method can search out very minute separa- 
tions not in the slightest indicated in an X-ray picture of the 
laminate (446) 

Tap Screws 

Continental Screw Co. 
New Bedford, Mass. 

Described as com- 
bining the actual cut- 
ting action of a tap 
with the economy of a 
screw, this Holtite 
Tap Screw is provided 
with two balanced cut- 
ting edges and a chip 
reservoir by means of 
a patented slot in end 
of the screw, which 
corresponds to the 
flutes of a tap. In ac- 
tion, the curled chips 
cut from material are 
pushed ahead of the 
screw in the same 
manner as chips are 
pushed ahead of a 
spiral pointed tap. The 
full slot is said to permit easy chip clearance, eliminating bind- 
ing and reducing driving torque and effort. 

Not intended to replace the sheet metal screw in normal ap- 
plications, according to its makers, the Holtite Tap Screw, it 
is said, can be used in various applications where certain factors 
may have made it impossible to use sheet metal screws. It is 
described as being ideal for use in plastics, cutting deep, smooth, 
' clean threads without chipping material around edge of hole, or 
bulging the hole perimeter upwards in the case of laminated 
plastics (447) 

Steam Platen Press 

R. D. Wood Co. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Designed for laminating, curing and polishing plastics sheets 
to uniform thickness and surface finish, this 10-opening 2700-ton 
steam platen press, with elevator, incorporates, as part of both 
press and elevator, quick loading and unloading mechanism 
which permits moving material in and out of press without 
sliding over or in any way contacting the polished platen sur- 
faces, thus eliminating scratching or scoring of the highly fin- 
ished platens. 

The press, available for operation on a 2-pressure accumulator 

To simplify for our readers the task of obtaining de- 
tailed information regarding the new products, proc- 
esses and trade literature described herein, plastics 
offers the prepaid postcard Inserted here. 

In rapidly-moving times such as these, keeping up 
with every latest development in one's field is a "must. ' 
Facilitation of reconversion, speeded production, and 
the competitive drive toward lower manufacturing 
costs require that all avenues leading to a solution of 
these problems be explored thoroughly. 

Each item in this section is keyed with a number, 
which should be entered on the postcard, to expedite 
identifying the exact product, process or publication 
about which information is desired. 




system, using 300 psi accumulator pressure for rapidly closing 
the press and 4400 psi for the pressing and holding stroke, with 
elevator operated from the 300 psi line, can also be furnished 
as a completely self-contained unit and in capacities up to 7500 
tons, with steam or electric heated platens as required. . . . (448) 

High Pressure Booster Pump 

Martin Wells 

Los Angeles, Calif. Described as provid- 

i n g dependable and 
continuous service 
with high pressure oil- 
operated machines, 
such as presses for 
plastics, rubber, draw- 
ing, bending, etc., this 
high pressure booster 
pump, announced as 
now available, is said 
to solve the problem 
of too much "down- 
time" for repairs. 

Continuous trouble- 
free performance at 
pressures up to 5000 
psi, with complete re- 
liability, is claimed for 
this item, with fre- 
quent repairs elimi- 
nated by its simplicity, strength and precision fit. 

Other features include little space requirements for installa- 
tion, and compact construction. The pump is available in sizes 
up to 24 qts (449) 

High-Speed Lathe 

H. K. LeBlond Machine Tool Co. 
Cincinnati, O. 

Specially designed for use where exceptionally high speed and 
short cycle machining are required, the Le Blond 13" Motor 
Head Rapid Production Lathe picks up full speed in 2 sec, stops 
in 2 l / 2 sec, according to its description. 

Among other features listed by its makers for this item are: 
New type motor head in which a multi-speed armature is 
mounted on the spindle ; rigid construction of head, enabling 
operator to bring speed up to 3600 rpm and stop the spindle 
5 times per min ; full control of machine maintained by oper- 
ator at all times, from push-button control station mounted at 
top of machine. 

The 5 hp, 4-speed motor, which operates at 1800 rpm for its 
rated output, gives 3 l / 3 , 2y 2 , and 1% hp for 1200, 900, and 600 
rpm, respectively (450) 

Roller Coating Service 

The Japan Co. 
Cleveland, O. 

A new roller-coating process by means of which many plas- 
tics, metal and wood products can be finished before stamping, 
forming or other fabricating ; combining a specially-designed 
coating machine with carefully-engineered infra red baking 
equipment, according to description, this method is said to pro- 
duce roller-coated sheets completely baked in 3 min or less. 

The process was developed especially for the use of vinyl base 
materials, although various types of finishes are employed in 
addition to plastics coatings, all types being applied with great 
uniformity of thickness, it is claimed, tolerances as close as .001" 
being held to customers' specifications, and uniform color shades, 
including delicate pastels, being easily maintained (451) 

You Hold a Winning Hand 


Your Plastic Molder 

The K & J trade mark on the plastic part of a 
product is a sure sign of its unfailing quality. This 
plastic part has been designed and molded to 
meet the particular conditions for which it was 
intended. Within these bounds it will give com- 
plete and lasting satisfaction. 

It will pay you to confer with us, and determine 
just what conditions YOUR piece will encounter. 



Sal.i R.prr,nlativ.i: NEW YORK S. C. Ullmain, 56 W. 42nd St. PHILADELPHIA Towl* * Son Co., 1 8 W. Ch.llon Aye. Bldg. 

NEW ENGLAND Wm. T. Wyler, 177 Slat* St., Bridgeport, Conn. 





Literature Review 

Information for Industrial Designers 

The B. F. Goodrich Co. 
Akron, O. 

Newly-published 12-page booklet, designated as a "Guide 
Book for Industrial Designers," suggesting applications for vari- 
ous products of the company. 

The opening pages are devoted to Koroseal, outlining in de- 
tail this material's physical and chemical properties and listing 
a number of its industrial and commercial uses. 

Other of the company's products which are of interest to de- 
velopers of equipment used by industry are outlined, and their 
outstanding features and uses listed. 

Compactly arranged and illustrated, the booklet is planned to 
supply comprehensive information quickly and clearly. . . . (452) 

Convenient Reference Folder 

Mclnerney Plastics Co. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

4-page letterhead and chart identifying the physical, chemical 
and electrical properties of plastics material available through 
the company, contained in a sturdy and easily identifiable file- 
size folder titled "Plastics Products." 

Folder and letterhead enclosure are photographically illus- 
trated and text matter concisely arranged for ready refer- 
ence (453) 

Power Tool Catalog 

Boice-Crane Co. 
Toledo, O. 

A 48-page catalog (No. 45) in which are listed, illustrated, 
and described the line of power tools made by the company for 
use on plastics, metals, or wood. 

Diagrammatic drawings, specifications, and performance data 
are included (454) 

Resin Colloid Developments 

American Resinous Chemicals Corp. 
Peabody, Mass. 

Prepared especially to present the developments of the past 
few years in uses of resin colloids, this booklet provides, in 
compact form, discussion of the theory of emulsions, dispersions, 
and solutions ; brief descriptions of several applications ; infor- 
mation on shipping and handling of emulsions and dispersions, 
and specific information regarding the various available resin 

There are also descriptive tables of products, giving their 
respective properties, characteristics, and a compilation of known 
industrial uses and of reference from trade and patent literature, 
as well as of the company's own practical experience (455) 

Custom Molding Service 

Watertown Mfg. Co. 
Watertown, Conn. 

Catalog titled, "The Watertown Book of Plastics," telling the 
story of the company's equipment and facilities for complete 
custom service in plastics molding, from designing through fin- 
ishing, includimg testing of finished parts for perfection. 

Materials, molding methods, buffing, finishing, assembly, en- 
gineering, etc., are discussed ; the company's new laboratory is 
described, and there are several pages on stock molds, as well 
as on custom molds. Photographic illustration is well dis- 
tributed throughout this 44-page catalog, and technical data and 
charts complete the contents (456) 

Thermoplastic Compounds 

Resin Industries 
Santa Barbara, Calif. 

An informative booklet on the company's line of Resmite 
tapes, tubing, and tying cords, listing characteristics and features 


For over forty years we have been leaders in the design 
and manufacture of component parts for leading 
Refrigerator, Stove, Furniture, Appliance and Cabinet 
industries. We specialize in custom molding by the 
injection, compression or transfer method in any ther- 
mosetting or thermoplastic material. A complete ser- 
vice from one source to serve your needs at no 
extra cost. 


Highly experienc- 
ed research engi- 
neers to deter- 
mine the material best suited 
for your needs as to strength, 
utility and beauty. 

Here is where the 
correct tools, pre- 
cision dies and 
molds are developed to pro- 
duce the best job, efficiently 
and economically. 


complete depart- 
ment equipped 
with the latest 
and most modern presses and 
molding equipment for 
Injection, Compression or 
Transfer molding. 

DESIGN A thor- 
ough study is made 
as to the utility, 
shape and color of 
the plastic part that will best 
harmonize with the style and 
design of your product. 

department, manned 
by expert crafts- 
makes the necessary 

tools and molds to produce 

the finished product. 



Each individual 
piece is carefully 
inspected for uniformity, col- 
or and finish. All parts are 
carefully wrapped and packed 
for utmost protection. 

// you are planning the use of plastic parts in your 
products, it will be advantageous for you to investi- 
gate our complete service. Write or phone us about 
your needs. 



Plastics Division 





An Ideal, Economical and Accurate 
Production Tool for the 


F. O. B., 

Nw York 





A Practical Press, Easy to Operate, that will 
Save Time and Labor in Forming, Blanking and 
any other work where pressure is required. 
Ideal for Die-Cutting Lucite. 
Constructed to do the work of a Power Press. 

Specifications for Knuckle-Action Foot Press 

Slse of bed 12"xI8" 

Six* of opening between upright* 12 V4" 

Size of hole In press head 2" 

Maximum stroke V 

Maximum shut height |" 

Minimum shut height 4" 

Adjustment screw 2" 

Weight ol press 344 Ibs. 

Manufactured by 


MS Broadway. New York 12. N. Y.. TeL GRamercy 7-lfSO 

of each. Fabricated from thermoplastic synthetic resin com- 
pounds, in which the company specializes, these products are 
produced in a wide variety of sizes, shapes and colors suited to 
the requirements of specific applications. 

Properties, dimensions, and specifications of these products 
are included in the booklet (457) 

"Plasticizers & Chemicals" 

Ohio-Apex, Inc. 
Nitro, W. Va. 

30-page booklet devoted to specifications, properties, charac- 
teristics, and other information about the chemicals and plasti- 
cizers produced by the company. 

There is a section of helpful tables and charts, and recom- 
mended proportions for various formulas. A complete index 
facilitates quick reference (458) 

Fine Pitch Gear Finisher Bulletin 

Michigan Tool Co. 
Detroit, Mich. 

A 4-page bulletin (No. 861-4B-45) describing the company's 
latest model 861-4B fine pitch rotary gear finisher, designed 
specifically for the rapid finishing of small gears to extremely 
close tolerances by the crossed-axis principle of gear shaving. 

Gears of 16 to 64 pitch and even higher, ranging from %" to 
4" in diam, and up to 1" in face width, can all be finished on 
this machine, according to description. 

Particularly suited to producing fine pitch gears used in in- 
struments, control mechanisms, and other high precision devices, 
the item is described in detail in the new bulletin, which includes 
complete machine specifications, together with other essential 
data (459) 

Plastics Fabrication 

Sillcocks-Miller Co. 
So. Orange, N. J. 

Concisely-designed brochure presenting outline of the com- 
pany's facilities for fabrication of plastics materials for com- 
mercial, technical and industrial requirements. Items produced 
by the company are pictured, and brief description of the serv- 
ices which it is prepared to offer are listed (460) 

Dynamometer Booklet 

W. C. Dillon & Co.. Inc. 
Chicago, 111. 

An informative booklet providing data concerning the Dillon 
Dynamometer, its uses, possibilities of application, details of con- 
struction, etc. 

Photographic illustrations throughout the booklet show typi- 
cal applications of the Dynamometer, and the various models are 
pictured, shown in use in various applications. Capacities and 
prices are listed, and the capabilities of the apparatus described 

Bulletin on Custom Molding 

Imperial Molded Products Corp. 
Chicago. 111. 

Information on facilities, from engineering to finishing, of- 
fered by the company in the field of custom molding. Photo- 
graphic views of several departments, of typical specimens of 
items custom molded, and a number of those which can be 
supplied from stock molds, by the organization, serve to illus- 
trate the folder ; brief text descriptions of phases of the services 
available, and a table of characteristics of compression molded 
plastics, are included in this bulletin, No. K-200 (462) 

Vibration Test Equipment 

L. A. B. Corp. 
Summit, N. J. 

Literature on vibration testing by means of the company's 
equipment especially designed for use in laboratory and produc- 
tion for determining vibration resistance of various products. 

By shaking out faults, without protracted field tests, vibration 
testing is described as a means of expediting new design; all 
products being "subject to destructive vibration forces either 
during shipment or in service" (463) 




and rapid strides have been made in adapting 
America's industrial might to peacetime requirements 
. . . new processes, new production equipment. Soon these 
great achievements will be revealed ... in the largest in- 
dustrial exposition of its kind. This first postwar ASTE 
exposition will open the door to New Era engineering and 
manufacturing, with every person among the more than 
100,000 in attendance having a vital interest in what's new. 
This is industry's show for industry! 

Here will be shown the many new designs and engineering 
projects on which America's new peacetime industry must 
be built! Manufacturers and industrial engineers will ex- 
hibit their latest developments. 

The country's leading tool engineers will be there, to 
attend the Annual Convention of the American Society of 
Tool Engineers. It is the major postwar opportunity for manu- 
facturers to exhibit their products to all industrial America. 

lirnnn I? Public Auditorium 
Mil MlL Cleveland, Ohio 


Leading Manufac- 
turers and Industrial 

To Exhibit New Era 
Production Equip- 
ment and Processes 

For full information write to 






our feet 
are on the ground 

> Everybody wants plastics 
for their products these 
days though in some cases 
it may be neither practical 
nor profitable. 

As reputable plastics molders 
of proven, time-tested 
standing, we pride ourselves 
on 3 things: 

1. Our ability to guide and 
counsel you on all plastics 
molding matters. 

2. Our insistence upon being 
honest and above board 

in thinking first of your 
product relative to plastic 

3. Our ability through skilled 
technicians, experienced 
engineers, style designers, 
and other highly specialized 
equipment and personnel 

to give you the best job 

Send in your blue prints or sample 
product NOW fur an early ana 
accurate appraisal. 







Problems and questions may be submitted to 
this department for answering by the techni- 
cal editors or specialists in the industry. 

I am a manufacturer of clothes closet appliances. For one 
part of my equipment I have used maple poles, two common sizes 
being Y 2 " by 6' and %" by 6'. These poles have to be drilled on 
6" centers and have clips riveted to them. When rigidly held at 
the ends, they must withstand considerable side thrust and the 
clips must not dig into them under reasonable pressure. 

I understand that a process has been discovered whereby soft 
wood such as spruce or pine could be impregnated with a plastics 
so as to make it as hard as maple. I should appreciate the names 
of companies who can inform me about this process. 

P.S.M., Oakland, Calif. 
We suggest you present your problem to the company which 

originated the process you refer to E. I. du Pont de 

Nemours & Co., Plastics Div., 626 Schuyler Ave., Arlington, 


* * * 

Will you please refer me to published material on mold design. 

W.A.P., Milwaukee, Wis. 

A good source of information on mold design is the "Hand- 
book of Plastics" by Simonds and Ellis, published by D. Van 
Nostrand Co., Inc., 250 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

* * * 

I am in search of a manufacturer or dealer who handles plas- 
tics playing cards. Any information you can give me will be 
greatly appreciated. R.G., Memphis, Tenn. 

Kern Plastics Playing Cards, Inc., 330 W. 42nd St., New 

York, N. Y., are manufacturers of plastics playing cards. 

* * * 

We have not been able to preheat molding tablets uniformly in 
our electronic oven. In some cases, even a single tablet is heated 
unevenly. Molded articles made of such a tablet and removed 
from the mold before they are completely cured, often contain 
specks of material which were apparently cured before the 
tablet was ever inserted in the mold. Your comments will be 
appreciated. I.S.A.C., Monterrey, Mexico 

We are sorry that tve are unable to give you a definite 
solution to your problem, without knowing more about the 
materials you are using and the type of oven you have. Your 
molding material may not be uniform in composition, thus 
causing uneven heating, and we advise that you write to your 
materials supplier about your difficulty. If the powder checks 
satisfactorily, then perhaps the fault lies with the electronic 


* * * 

What plastics would make a suitable binder for sawdust which 
can be used as a basis for making molded toys which can be sat- 
isfactorily sawed or cut? Also, what kind of sawdust should be 
used in connection with the applicable plastics binder ? 

H.L.B., Madison, Ind. 

We believe that any fine sawdust will answer your purpose. 
For a binder, the easicst-to-handle plastics and the cheapest 
would be a water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde plastics. 

* * * 

Where can we obtain plastics cigar and cigarette holders? 

E.D., Toronto, Ont. 

Plastics cigar and cigarette holders are manufactured by H. 
Jamison Co., 71 E. Sunrise Highway, Freeport, L. I., N. Y. 





Two new plasticizing resins for use in metal, wood, fabric 
and paper coatings and with plastics and wax compositions have 
recently been announced by The Dow Chemical Co., Midland, 

The first of a new series of styrene resins to be produced by 
the company's laboratories, these products have been designated 
as 276-V2 and 276-V9, respectively. 

Described as water-white, non-yellowing viscous liquids which 
are chemically inert, are soluble in all common organic solvents 
except the lower alcohols, and compatible with a wide variety 
of film-formers and plasticizers, the workability of these new 
resins with waxes, and their resistance to alkali, were stressed 
as factors greatly expanding their range of use. 

mington, Del., is planned by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 
It is to be modern in every detail, and will replace the Nemours 
Bldg. Annex, which is being razed to make way for the new 
project. Construction is scheduled to start next Spring. 

Resin Industries, Santa Barbara, Calif., has announced the 
appointment of Northwest Plastics Industries, 4th & Cherry 
Bldg., Seattle, as its authorized representative in the states of 
Washington, Idaho, and Montana. 

An extensive program for peacetime expansion has been 
launched by Athol Mfg. Co., Athol, Mass., with the creation of 
a new sales promotion department under the managership of 
Thomas P. Milligan, vice-president in charge of bookbinding 

The new department, it is announced, will concentrate on 
product development and promotion of the company's Terson 
vinyl resin coated fabrics for end uses requiring strong resistance 
to abrasion, cracking, and extreme weather conditions. It will 
also co-ordinate all of the new lines currently being introduced 
by the company, with special attention to market applications 
that will utilize the added qualities which have resulted from 
wartime research. 

Involving large plastics resin manufacturing units and other 
buildings adjacent to the company's Plaskon research labora- 
tory in Toledo, O., a huge construction program is planned for 
the Plaskon Division of Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co., accord- 
ing to recent announcement by John D. Biggers, president. 

The buildings are to include multi-storied manufacturing facil- 
ities for resin and molding powder and experimental and pilot 
plant facilities. 

The company hopes for completion of the pilot plant by early 
Spring and the resin manufacturing plant by late July, with the 
balance of the project's completion dependent upon availability 
of material. . Plans also include doubling the size of the present 
research laboratory. 

An 18-story office building, which will add approximately 
240,000 sq ft of usable floor space to the Nemours Bldg., Wil- 

New research assignments which have materialized since 
the end of the war with Japan have made necessary the leasing 
of 1000 additional sq ft of space by Bjorksten Laboratories, 
Chicago, which specializes in work on plastics, rubber fillers, 
organic synthetic compounds for special purposes, etc. The 

.;-;;,;,,;:... . . ;,:;:,;;.; : , 

for 22 YEARS 

or RECLAIMED for You. 1 

A complete converting service! 
It will pay you to investigate our 
facilities for reworking your scrap. 


A Dependable Source of Supply (or re-worked Cellulose Acetate 
and Cellulose Butyrate molding powders 


North Seventh St. & Monroe Ave., KENILWORTH, N. I. 

Chicago Office: 622 W. Monroe St. 


There it 'only one platlic 
Do not accept lubililatet 

Now available in many 

beautijul colon and 

for every purpose. 


Brings New Colorful Beauty and Durable Protection to 

Plastic is now prepared in 
liquid paint form for use in 
home, office, store and factory. 
This has come about through 
the formulation of synthetic 
resins with specially processed 

oils combined with the finest 
paint pigments. A Cello-Plastic 
product is available for almost 
any type of finish or surface. 
Does not chip or crack! 


Cello-Plastic (transparent) is a non-tin/plastic 
finish for all types of floors. Outwears wax 
200 to 1. This amazing new treatment gives floors a "cellophane-like" Plastic 
finish. Eliminates pores that absorb dirt, thus making floors easy to clean. 
Ideal for all surfaces including wood, concrete, linoleum, asphalt, tile, rubber, 
composition, etc. Eliminates waxing and polishing. Unexcelled for marine use. 

EV T C D I f\ p This modern finish is a severely tested product 
* I B Iv I \J l\. that surpasses old fashioned type house paints. 
Pigmented with Titanium Dioxide, the whitest and best covering pigment, 
combined with kettle processed linseed oils and plastic resins, it makes a rich, 
colorful, lasting coating. Makes homes and buildings outstanding. For use on 
wood, stucco, brick or shingle. 

Iavi T C D I rt D Brings newglamour into homes protects floors 
I E K t \J IV woodwork, furniture, etc., with its long-lasting, 
"cellophane-like" Plastic finish. Easy to apply flows smoothly leaves no 
brush marks self leveling. 

Product liability underwritten by one of America's 
largest insurance companies. 



added space provides expanded facilities for complex or "long 
range" research work for clients. 

A newly equipped and modern fabricating plant at Trenton, 
N. J., has been opened by the Panelyte Division of St. Regis 
Paper Co. Adding more than 60,000 sq ft of production space 
to Panelyte's facilities, the new plant, according to Roy G. Fer- 
guson, president of the company, will utilize new machinery and 
machine tools in the handling of fabricating operations. 

An Auxiliary Service Department has been established by 
Special Machine Tool Engineering Works, New York City, 
which specializes in close tolerance machined parts. The new 
department is designed to help facilitate the solution of various 
manufacturing and production problems in peace-time industry. 

The business, good will and assets of the induction heating 
division of Van Norman Co., machine tool manufacturers, 
Springfield, Mass., have been acquired by Lepel High Frequency 
Laboratories, Inc., New York City, according to recent an- 

Manufacture of all induction heating has been discontinued 
by the Van Norman Co., all maintenance, sales, and service of 
Van Norman units being henceforth to be handled by the Lepel 

A Canadian branch of Creative Printmakers Group has re- 
cently been opened at 2424 Yonge St., Toronto, Ont., under the 
general managership of Fred H. Edginton, with Eric Hardman 
as sales manager. Specialized work will be handled in decorat- 
ing of packages and containers of plastics, glass, wood and 
metals, and the company advises that the same type of decorating 
facilities as those at the home plant, in New York City, are 
available at the Canadian branch. 

Recently appointed sales representatives for F. J. Stokes 
Machine Co., Philadelphia, are Harold G. Roman, Portland, 
Conn., as New England representative ; and Williams & Wilson, 
Ltd., with offices in Montreal, Toronto and Windsor, who will 
represent the company throughout Canada, east of Manitoba. 

New York City sales offices have been established by Ten- 
nessee Eastman Corp. at 10 E. 40th St. Sales of the company's 
Tenite, and of its cellulose esters, in the New York area will 
be in charge of William L. Searles; F. L. Bume will handle the 
recently-introduced line of Eastman acetate dyestuffs, and sales 
of other Tennessee Eastman chemicals in that district are also 
to be made from the new offices, it is announced. 

A. M. Tenney Associates, Inc., located at the same address, 
continue to act as sales representatives for the company's ace- 
tate rayon and staple fibre. 

Additional enlargement of its recently expanded facilities at 
Plainfield, Conn., is being planned by Plastic Film Corp., for 
the production of moisture-vapor barriers for industrial and con- 
sumer goods packaging; plain and novelty cast films for wear- 
ing apparel, upholstery, draperies, and a variety of consumer 

With an extensive engineering background in the fields of 
plastics, wood, metal, and rubber, Frederick G. Schranz has an- 
nounced establishment of his own offices at 90 W. Broadway, 
N. Y., where he will serve as consulting engineer and manu- 
facturers' representative. 

A hydraulic and special machinery division has been es- 
tablished by Williams Sellers & Co., Philadelphia, to be under 
the direction of John C. Graf as sales manager and John B. 
Cutler in the capacity of chief engineer. The new division, it 
is announced, will handle a comprehensive range of hydraulic 
presses and special equipment for use in the fields of plastics, 
rubber, and ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 

A change of company name and location has been an- 
nounced by Bentley-Dunham Engineering Co., Rockford, 111., 
which will henceforward operate under the name of Production- 
eering Associates, at 526 West State St. 




J. G. Short, Jr., has been appointed manager of the At- 
lantic District of the chemical department of General Electric 
Co., headquartering in Philadelphia; N. A. Freuden has be- 
come sales manager of molded products of the company's Plas- 
tics Divisions, and will have his headquarters in Pittsfield. 
Both appointments became effective January 1. 

* * * 

Leonard F. Smith, formerly director of advertising and 
sales promotion for Tubize Rayon Corp., has been appointed to 
a newly created position with Plastic Film Corp., where he will 
supervise the market development, merchandising and promo- 
tion of the company's growing line of new peace-time products. 

* * * 

Recent appointments on the staff of Hercules Powder Co. 

include those of Robert L. Skov to sales manager in the West 

Coast district; Floyd L. Boddicker, manager of cellulose 

products operations at the Hopewell, Va., plant, succeeding 

Clark B. Kingery, who has been named assistant director of 

personnel for the company ; Charles H. Gant, manager of the 

| Parlin, N. J., plant, where he succeeds Edward G. Crum, who 

| has become assistant general manager of the cellulose products 

i department in Wilmington. 

C. B. Kingery 

C. H. Gant 

R. F. Wolf 

Ralph F. Wolf has joined the staff of Standard Chemical 
Co., Akron, O., it was recently announced by C. J. Harwick, 
president of the company. Prior to this appointment, Mr. Wolf 
was chief chemist of Poison Rubber Co. 

* * * 

Dr. Earl W. Flosdorf has resigned from the post of as- 
sistant professor of bacteriology in the Medical School of the 
University of Pennsylvania, to become director of research and 
development for F. J. Stokes Machine Co., Philadelphia. 

* * * 

James A. Windram has been appointed manager of the St. 
Louis district of the industrial products division of B. F. Good- 
rich Co., succeeding George Livermore, who is retiring from 
the company. 

* * * 

S. Askin, industrial relations director of Heyden Chemical 
Corp., New York City, has been appointed assistant secretary of 
the corporation. 

* * * 

Foster W. Berry, until recently chief of the wood and plas- 
tics unit of the Inspection Div., Army Air Forces, is now a 
member of the staff of Engineering Associates, St. Charles, 111., 
where he will work on research and industrial development on 
wood, pulp, and plastics. 

* * * 

Aircraft Screw Products, Inc., Long Island City, N.Y., has 
appointed Donald McClain, of Manchester, Conn., as its engi- 
neering representative in the New England area. 

* * * 

Robert L. Richards has been made manager of the nylon 
division of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., succeeding Charles 
A. Gary, who has been appointed assistant general manager of 



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There's no guesswork in JOMAC . . . there is a scien- 
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"Pencil-Pick-up Test"! 

You'll see the difference! 




the company's rayon department. Arlington Kunsman, who 
has been director of production of the rayon division, succeeds 
Mr. Richards as assistant manager of the cellophane division. 

John A. Burckel, special assistant to the general manager of 
the plastics department, retired from the company November 1. 
. * * * 

George W. Flanagan, who has been in charge of Geon latex 
development, has been made manager of the B.F. Goodrich 
Chemical Co. development laboratory, Cleveland, where he will 
direct the activities of a technical staff engaged in materials and 

G. W. Flanagan 

W. Brinkerhoff 

R. P. Kenney 

process development work on the company's resins, plastics and 

Robert P. Kenney, formerly manager of international serv- 
ice for the company, has been made manager of international 
sales. Before joining the organization, he was chief of the vinyl 

resins unit of WPB. 

* * * 

The newly-created Engineering Division of The Davison 
Chemical Corp., Baltimore, will be headed by E. B. Dunkak, 
as manager, with J. C. Albright head of the consulting engi- 
neering section; R. S. Van Note, head of the equipment sec- 

tion; and Kenneth H. Van Valkenburg, head of the process 
engineering section. 

* * * 

Election of George H. French as a director of The Davison 
Chemical Corp., Baltimore, for a term of 4 yrs, has been an- 
nounced by the company. 

* * * 

Harry W. Gleichert has been promoted from assistant direc- 
tor to director of sales for the Columbia Chemical Division of 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., and will have his headquarters 
in Pittsburgh. 

* * * 

John C. Leppart has been named assistant to the operating 
vice-president of Southern Alkali Corp., Corpus Christi, Tex., 
which company is owned jointly by Pittsburgh Plate Glass and 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Corp. 

* * 

Albert J. Capalbo has joined the staff of Plasticote Co., 
Paterson, N.J., in the capacity of chief chemist in charge of 
production, where he will work on further development of the 
company's recently-announced line of synthetic resin finishes, 
and the engineering and construction of additional coating equip- 
ment especially designed for their application to fabrics. 

* * * 

Following his resignation from the presidency of Setter Bros., 
Inc., and from the office of chief of the plywood and veneer 
branch of WPB, Clifford P. Setter was recently named vice- 
president and chief administrative officer of United States Ply- 
wood Corp. 

Also announced by the company is the appointment of James 
Callanan as director of purchases. 

* * * 

V. A. Dockendorff, industrial designer, Chicago, has an- 
nounced that he is now affiliated with Belmont Radio Corp. in 
the capacity of cabinet and appearance designer, having previ- 
ously been associated with the Galvin Mfg. Co. 

VOU'RE Gome in THE 


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Market Research Engineer 

Cactus Provides Pfasfics 


When rubber became scarce and we learned that normal sup- 
jplies would not be available for several years, the problem ap- 
peared quite complex to many, but not to the chemical and plas- 
tics engineers. They indicated that they knew of effective sub- 
stitutes, and they did, as the records now reveal . . . with plas- 
tics again a major contributor. Two types of approach were 
used in development ; one involved the use of new natural re- 
sources to provide substitutes, and the other employed com- 
binations of reclaimed rubbers with plastics. 

In the new-resources category appeared an intriguing process 
utilizing the cactus plant. Discovered by P. B. Roberts of 
Tyler, Tex., the method provided a cohesive resilient solid ex- 
tracted from the viscous liquid of the cactus plant. The juice 
from the plant was named xerotcx while the resultant solid was 
i identified as xeroplastic. 

The cactus plant solid has many interesting properties. It is 
spongy, elastic and tenacious, and, in addition, it can be vulcan- 
lized. That is, it may be partially vulcanized by first melting 
(and then allowing to cool. By the addition of suitable vulcan- 
| izing agents it can be further vulcanized. The solid is also 
I non-inflammable and fire-resistant. It is not soluble in petro- 
: leum ether or carbon tetrachloride, nor in any of the usual 



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Where your plastic dial requirements demand pre- 
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can help you in four ways: 

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Specialists in High Quality, Precision-Made Plastics Fabri- 
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*I In such applications as upholstery, drapery 
fabrics, transportation seating, luggage cover- 
ing ... SARAN BY NATIONAL is demonstrat- 
ing its extraordinary properties. For this 
tough filament resists dirt, grease, acids . . . 
can be wiped clean to restore its colorful lus- 
tre. And it will wear indefinitely! 

<ff SARAN BY NATIONAL is extruded and 
spooled in the size and color required for 
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our facilities are available for the study of 
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hydrocarbon solvents which are employed to dissolve latex re- 
covered from the rubber tree. In view of the tenacity of the 
material, it is possible to apply it to fabrics, metals, and to 
other plastics. 

The solid can be readily formed, or poured into molds. This 
operation does not impair its rubber-like qualities. Molding can 
be performed by pressure and other methods. 

In extracting the juice, the leaves, branches and roots of the 
plant are fed through closely aligned rollers or grinders. Greater 
recovery is possible if the leaves and the body of the plant are 
mangled and crushed, and the resultant mass, including the 
fibers and liquid, placed into a vat to which water has been 
added. Separation is possible by pressing the mass over a fine 

Dry Glue as Coagulant 

After the liquid has been cleaned and recovered, it can be 
coagulated into a jelly-like mass. Casein, fish and vegetable 
glues are good coagulants. Several other interesting materials 
have also been used as coagulants ; brown sugar, molasses, and 
even dried blood. 

'Usually about 3% to 75% of a glue in dry form has been 
used as the coagulant. After the plant juice and the coagulant 
have been mixed, the resultant mass is allowed to set for sev- 
eral hours at temperatures preferably above freezing. A solid 
will result. As stated previously, this solid can be heated for 

. The unusual molecular structure of the cactus plant juice 
provides the resilient and elastic properties. It seems as if in 
the molecular character of the juice there are lubricated mole- 
cules, one molecule apparently sliding over another. 

Any of the cactus plants may be used, although tests indi- 
cated that there were four particular types which offered best 
results. They are: Opuntia, Echinocactus, Cereus and Echino- 

Suifophosphine Halide Treatment 

In a reclaimed rubber method use to provide a flexible thermo- 
plastic, an organic sulfophosphine halide has been used to treat 
the rubber. Developed by Thomas W. Bartram of Nitro, West 
Va., the process provided a vulcanizable plastics material with 
high resiliency. Not only can crude India rubber or ground 
scrap rubber be used, but the chlor butadiene polymers (Neo- 
prenc), styrene, and polymerized cashew nut oil can also be 

Reaction with Sulfur 

The sulfophosphine halides can be prepared by reacting the 
organic phosphine halide with sulfur. 

In preparing one mass of this new rubbery thermoplastics 
about 100 parts of ground truck peels were heated with dry 
toluene to swell and soften the rubber. Then about 50 parts of 
crude tolyl sulfodichlor phosphine were dissolved in toluene and 
added to the previous mixture and stirred. This stirring was 
maintained for 20 hours at a temperature of 55 to 60 C. The 
toluene was then removed by distillation, and a thorough steam- 
ing, with live steam, was used to clean the mass. This step 
was followed by a washing with water, and the washed product 
was dried to a constant weight in an oven under vacuum. This 
process provided about 116 parts by weight of a hard resin. 

Improved Safety Glass 

Complete control and the resultant elimination of "blow-ins" 
in laminated safety glass has been the object of many experi- 
ments and developments. A recent method devised by Joseph 
D. Ryan of Toledo, O., appears to have solved the problem by 
an effective sealing of laminated sheets, providing a substantial 
unitary structure. These blow-ins, which contain trapped air, 
have often voided the general utility of safety glass. 

Heretofore, when using cellulose acetate for the plastics 
layer, or polyvinyl acetal resins, the blow-in problem has been 
serious. With cellulose acetate, it has been customary to seal 
the edges of the laminated sheets by forming a channel around 
the edges of the sheet and then filling this channel with a seal- 
ing compound. While the problem is not too grave here, be- 
cause of the flexibility of the sealing process, it is nevertheless 
an annoying procedure. The synthetic resin plastics problem is 
more complex. Here no edge seal is used and thus even rela- 




tively minute blow-ins on the exposed edges of the laminated 
sheets cause rejects. Grinding has been used to eliminate the 
blow-ins where they are very close to the edge, but this has 
been a costly procedure. 

These problems have been overcome by coating the edges of 
the sandwich plates, either partially or in their entirety after 
prepressing, with an improved type of sealing material that con- 
sists of a lacquer, which forms a relatively thin coating upon 
the edge of the glass sheets. The sealing material can be washed 
away after the sheet has been removed from the autoclave. 
Where the autoclave fluid hardens the sealing material, a scrap- 
ing tool can be used to remove the seal. 

One sealing lacquer developed utilized cellulose acetate buty- 
rate, acetone, cellosolve acetate, dibutyl phthalate and ethyl ace- 
tate. (Cellosolve is the monoacetic acid ester of monoethyl 
ether of ethylene glycol.) 

According to Mr. Ryan, there are many causes of blow-ins. 
They may arise due to poor gage of the plastics; they may 
result when the glass itself shows a rapid change in thickness 
from one closely adjacent point to another on the edges. In- 
ternal strains in the plastics, which tend to right themselves at 
high temperatures, used in the final compositing operation, are 
another cause of blow-ins. The strains prompt plastics shrink- 
age. The resilient character of the plastics is another cause of 

The sealing material developed by Mr. Ryan does not inter- 
fere with the final overall structure of the lamination. The 
process is being used by the Libby-Owens-Ford Glass Co. 

Peace-Time Uses of Plastics 

While we have heard of the unusual developments that our 
postwar products will include, specific engineering data have 
not been too plentiful. These restrictions, we have been told, 
have been prompted by the usual trade secrecy problems. With 
actual production now under way, however, analyses of many 
of these projects will be possible. One such postwar develop- 

ment that can now be discussed involves a plastics ice tray grid. 
This grid, using vinyl plastics, permits the automatic release 
of ice cubes by employing the principle of heat conduction con- 

In this method, conceived by Theodore W. Rundell of Abing- 
ton, Penna., the ice tray itself is composed of a metal hav- 
ing a relatively high-heat conductive capacity. The plastics 
grid which fits into this ice tray has a lower heat-conductive 
capacity. Thus in the freezing process the water freezes first 
along the walls of the metal tray and continues to freeze in a 
direction away from these walls, because of the relative differ- 
ence in heat conduction of the metal tray and the plastics grid. 
The expansion forces arising from the freezing water are di- 
rected toward the plastics grid, resulting in displacement. This 
displacement breaks the bond between the ice cubes and the 
tray. It is thus possible to lift the ice cubes from the tray very 

Philco has received the rights to this development and will 
probably feature it in some of the company's refrigerator 

Tests for Plastics Shoe Materials 

In recent testing of plastics materials for shoe soles, the Bu- 
reau of Standards studied thickness, density, tensile strength, 
elongation at break, stitch tear, change and thickness on immer- 
sion in water, loss in weight on heating, flex fatigue life at 
32 F, and abrasion resistance. It was found that the more sat- 
isfactory grades of vinyl plastics shoe material met the require- 
ments of: Tensile strength (min) 1SOO lb/in 2 ; stitch-tear 
strength dry and wet (min) 30 Ib irrespective of thickness of 
material; flex-fatigue life at 32 F (min) 1,000,000 cycles; bend 
test at F, aged and unaged (min) 10 bends over a YI in-diam 
mandrel ; abrasion resistance, leather machine (min) 6000 revo- 
lutions per millimeter ; abrasion resistance, Taber machine 
(max) 75 mg per 1000 revolutions. None of the material which 
met the above requirements contained fibrous fillers. END 

Plastics granulating machines 
for every capacity requirement 

Four Cumberland machines, built specifically for plastics, give a 
wide range of capacities. The #0 model is frequently used one 
per injection molding machine, so that the molding operator dis- 
poses of the sprues and runners as made. The #1/2 machine, illus- 
trated here, has capacity for granulating the scrap from two or 
three molding machines. Larger sizes are the #M/2 anc ' t ne '8"i 
which afford more capacity and grind material of large cross section. 

Cumberland machines have the following features: 

Ruggedness of construction. 
Compact, efficient cutting chamber. 
Ease of dismantling and cleaning. 

Request Complete Data 


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Britain's Chemical Industries 

Far-sighted British scientists and business men, planning the 
large-scale long-term replenishment of this country's depleted 
cupboards, shelves and money chests, are moving with speed 
and decision the pivot of Britain's economic structure from the 
heavy iron, steel and coal industries to the light inorganic and 
organic chemical industries. 

These moves are designed to rebuild Britain on a permanent 
prosperity footing and swell the volume of her trade with many 
millions worth of hitherto untapped business from abroad 
through the exploitation of test-tube discoveries made in war- 
time British chemical laboratories. 

Especially in the plastics field of applied chemistry (now 
rapidly becoming one of Britain's most valuable capital assets) 
this imaginative approach to the industrial problems of the 
modern age is providing a tremendous fillip to the British plas- 
tics industry's output of goods for home consumption and over- 
seas trade, multiplying its productive capacity to such an extent 
that it already now constitutes perhaps the largest single plas- 
tics fabricating unit in the whole of the eastern hemisphere. 

Looking Ahead 

Taking shape in practical form is a scheme, initiated by the 
British Plastics Federation, aimed at coordinating the merchan- 
dising of plastics commodities at home and overseas. 

This scheme calls for the setting up of a Plastics Trade Cen- 
ter in London, comprising an exhibition hall housing a perma- 
nent, side-by-side display of old and new plastics materials, ma- 
chinery and finished products, and including information, pro- 
motion, inspection and other offices, staffed by teams of experts 
for collecting, collating and disseminating vital information an 
data, stimulating worth-while business lines in foreign markets 
and maintaining contacts with prospective buyers abroad, safe 
guarding quality standards, streamlining sales and publicity, etc 

Attached to the Plastics Center also will be a special researc 
organization for investigating, among other things, the prac- 
ticability of placing the almost exclusively coal-based British 
plastics industry (at present handicapped by the exorbitance of 
current coal prices over here) on an alternative basis to raise its 
competitiveness in world markets. 

New Plastics Products 

The crop of new plastics products now trickling into Britain's 
civilian market evidences the foresight as much as the ingenuity 
with which the British plastics industry is now endeavoring 
find new outlets for its expanded manufacturing potential. 

Among these new products are two types of weatherproof 
plastics aerial masts for use with vehicular radio-electronic 

The first type, intended for application in mobile communica- 
tion units and aircraft, is a portable telescopic mast consisting 
of four tubular lengths of laminated phenol formaldehyde fabric 
base extending to a total length of 27' 6", which it is possible to 
erect by the use of boom and tackle in a few minutes in an 
emergency; the second type is SO' long, and specially built lot 
radio position checking. 

Marketed by the British Micanite & Insulators Co., of Lon- 
don, the two radio masts combine lightness with structural 
strength and, it is claimed, neither shake nor whip in storms, 
hurricanes or blizzards. 

Another product throwing an interesting sidelight on the 
many unusual applications of plastics in Britain at present is a 




plastics bee-feeder molded from urea formaldehyde powders. 

Manufactured by the Universal Plastics Co., a London com- 
pany, this all-plastics device consists of a circular basin with 
detachable lid, containing at the center a molded funnel with 
3/16" cutaway steps to facilitate bee-feeding. 

Simple in design and construction, and weather-resistant, the 
plastics bee-feeder is produceable in large quantities economically 
and admirably suited to replace existing equivalents made of 
wood or metal. 

Railway Equipment 

Long-distance train passengers in England were recently asked 

by leading British railway companies to help in designing the 

'5,000 new railway cars which will have to be built in the near 

uture to cover current rolling stock depreciations and shortages. 

From answers, given to circularized questionnaires enumer- 
ating desirable innovations for inclusion in new passenger 
coaches, emerged the information that 78% of the traveling 
public favor compartments having plastics panelled walls, ceil- 
ings and doors ; 62% desire plastics-upholstered arm-chairs, and 
57%, detachable tables with plastics-covered tops. 

The British National Physical Laboratory Ship Division Re- 
search Center is investigating the possibility of constructing 
coasters, colliers, tugs and similar small craft by the surface 
welding of sectionalized plastics prefabricates. 

These investigations were started at the request of Clyde, 
Tyne and Mersey shipbuilders, working to full capacity on the 
replacement of the 6000 merchant ships lost by Britain during 
the war, unable to execute mounting contracts for specialized 
vessels of small tonnage. 

Improved Products 

According to British Nylon Spinners Ltd., a company re- 
cently formed jointly by British Courtaulds and Imperial Chem- 
ical Industries, British women will shortly be able to buy vir- 
tually indestructible, run-proof, shrink-proof and wrinkle-proof 

Est. 1934 

Precision Fabricators 


All Plastic Materials 

Specializing in Radio, Electronics, 
Radar and All Electrical Fields 

Custom Fabricating 
For All Industrial Purposes 


31 West 21st St. 
New York 10, N. Y. 


Quotations on request 








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Ask for Bulletin Valuable Engineering 
Ttitmg Chartt, fr99. Wir or write 

W. C. DILLON & CO., 







hosiery woven from a strengthened type of nylon thread evolved 
by British plastics chemists during the war. 

At the same time, a Leicester (England) leather- ware firm 
announces the development of a new vinyl plastics material, 
suitable for making shoes, gloves, handbags, belts, etc. The 
material, it is said, neither cracks nor flakes, and is practically 
indistinguishable from ordinary leather, but will last much 

Fashion-Design Applications 

British fashion designers, faced with material rationing and 
textile shortages of all sorts, are increasingly resorting to the 
use of plastics for making women's apparel and accessories. 

In fact, in some of London's more exclusive shops there are 
now appearing smart-looking gowns made from plasticized, 
resin-coated yarns, combining individuality and eye appeal with 
wearability and utility. And Arthur Banks, one of Britain's 
leading dress designers, recently introduced a number of models 
in which hemless, differently-colored plastics frills attached to 
dark or black bands of plastics-dipped textile fabrics add a gay 
touch to otherwise sedate textile dresses. 

Millinery designer Hugh Beresford is currently establishing 
over here a new fashion in women's headgear, with uncrush- 
able and rainproof plastics hats of the pom-pom pillbox and 
buttoned-cuff type. 

These commodities are in great vogue among British women 
on account of their gay novelty, attractive design variations and 
infinite color patterns. 

Plastics Air Strip 

A floating airdrome, on which heavily laden passenger-cargo 
planes will be able to land, refuel and take off again in mid- 
ocean, has been devised by British marine and aviation engineers. 1 

Built from wood, steel and canvas topped by closely jointed 
hexagonal plastics strips covered with a special bitumen com- ] 
pound, this floating airfield gives indication of the pattern of 
tomorrow's oceanic air services. END 

A Consumer Speaks Up! 

(Continued from page 90) 

dene chloride are rechristened, the sooner it will be possible 
to teach the public the characteristics of each. 

To many of the women "plastics" have been an unwel 
come war-time substitute for familiar metals. The over-; 
scarcity of consumer goods has allowed unscrupulous manu 
facturers to make, from plastics scrap, merchandise whi 
has failed to give even the minimum service expected o: 
"ersatz" goods. Every plastics failure has built ill-will fo 
the whole industry. When a product made from any 01 
the older materials wood, leather, glass or steel fails ii 
use, only the manufacturer is blamed, but when a urea tum- 
bler shatters or a paper-thin cellulose nitrate soap con 
tainer warps out of shape, the customer is likely to con 
elude that "plastics are just no good." 

On the other hand, even the women who put their f; 
in plastics as ideal in every way have sometimes been sadl 
disillusioned. Spectacle frames, for example, bought with 
great care to complement the color of eyes or skin, faded 
soon to nondescript tints. None of the women, however, 
knew the composition of the frames, or how to select a more 
satisfactory product in the future. 

Experience Varies Opinions 

The vote on some plastics items divided strictly accordi; 
to the personal experience of the wearer. Plastics soles, 
for example, were condemned as hot, clattering and with 
bad wearing qualities, and were praised as lighter, longer- 
wearing, and waterproof. None of the wearers had any 
idea of the brand or type of plastics used in the shoes, nor 
how to find or avoid the same material in the future. 

Do you remember back to the days after the first World 
War when the new "artificial silk" fabric was struggling for 




acceptance under a myriad of names ? The American shop- 
per saw it only as a cheap and unsatisfactory substitute for 
a luxury material. When, in 1924, the industry drew itself 
together and coined the name "rayon" for its product, the 
new material established itself in its own right as a com- 
paratively inexpensive fabric with many fine qualities of 
its own. 

The plastics industry is now in the same state of anonym- 
ity, as far as the public is concerned, as the rayon industry 
was 25 years ago. A few brand names are familiar to us 
through national advertising. But not every one of the 
hundreds of different brands on the market can hope to be- 
come widely known solely by its trade name. 

Imagine the situation if no such names as "peaches" and 
f'pears" existed. Then Del Monte could label their canned 
peaches Dela and their canned pears Delo; another can- 
tier might use the names Kerite and Kerola; and another 
Beran and Belon. How often would the housewife come 
iome from the store with the kind of fruit she wanted ? 

Until simple generic names are adopted for each family 
af plastics, and used by every manufacturer in combination 
with his own brand name, the public will remain as com- 
)letely confused as though every canner coined his own 
descriptive name for the fruit he canned. 

The one plastics which stands apart from this confusion 
s nylon, which, although it was coined as a trade name, has 
>een given to the plastics industry by du Pont. Nylon is 
he only plastics that the average woman knows familiarly 
>y name. How much of its popularity is due to its simple, 
pistinctive name? How many women would have kept 
ilive their enthusiasm for pre-war nylon hose if they had 
>een compelled to remember and ask for "hose made from 
'Olyhexamethylene adipamide ?" 

mportance of Generic Terms, Lobe/ling 

Coining and using satisfactory generic names and teach- 
ng them to the public is the first half of the battle. The 
>econd, and equally important part, is adequate labelling, 
t seems strange, at this point in American industrial his- 
ory, that it is necessary to emphasize the power of adver- 
ising. Surely every manufacturer knows that women have 
learned to place a certain amount of faith in any nationally 
advertised product. They prefer to buy an item bearing a 
familiar trademark. When I have to select between two 
similar brushes, one labelled "made from du Pont nylon" 
knd the other unlabelled, can there be any doubt as to my 
choice ? 

Yet for some reason these brand names are seldom found 
>n the merchandise when it reaches the stores. Apparently 
he manufacturer mistakenly believes that the customer is 
lot interested in the material which has been used in his ar- 
icle. One of the women who were being questioned about 
)lastics gave a specific instance of such lack of labelling. 

"When I shopped for a coat recently, I bought one bear- 
Ing some such label as "Made from Forstmann woolen, 
uined with Celanese taffeta." I knew that such a coat will 
be satisfactory in every way, for the brands are old friends. 
[Then I turned to raincoats and found myself confronted 
vith racks full of unlabelled 'plastics' garments. Some 
vere coated fabric, some were transparent film, but all of 
inknown wearing quality. My old raincoat had gone out 
)f style, but it had given me several years of excellent serv- 
ce. It was soft and pliable, summer and winter, and it re- 
nained waterproof, odorless, and unstained. In contrast, 
ny sister's raincoat, bought at the same time, had stiffened 
ind cracked within a single year. I hoped to get another 
Joat like my old one, and avoid the kind my sister bought, 
^ut all I knew was that both were 'plastics' variety and 
brand unknown. The sales clerk could not help me. From 
:he collection of raincoats offered, I finally selected one by 
fuesswork, hoping that I had made a lucky choice." 

Another woman spoke almost with affection for her old 

Lere's another 
example of how 
Curtis Air Cylin- 
ders speed up pro- 
duction, make 
material handling 
easier, and save 
manpower for 
other jobs. Curtis 
Air Cylinders in 
this large foundry 
quickly, easily, 
and accurately 
handle heavy 

Curtis Air Cylin- 
ders and Air 
Powered Hoists 
are engineered to 
meet your individ- 
ual requirements 
designed to 
handle practically any lifting, pulling, or pushing 
operations they are saving time, labor, and cutting 
costs in hundreds of industries today. 

They provide exceptionally accurate control of loads, 
cannot be injured by overloading, and because of 
their simple, rugged construction, with only one 
moving part, they'll stand up under the heaviest 
kind of continuous service. 

It will pay you to send for Bulletin A-4-B, which 
gives full information. 


of Curlit Manufacturing Company 

1914 Kienlen Avenue, St. Louis 20, Missouri 

Established 1854 



of Curtis Manufacturing Company 
1914 Kienlen Avenue, St. Louis 20, Missouri 
Please send me Form A-4-B. 




ANUARY 1946 



When You Need 


for Plastics Production 

consult with us. Our facilities include 




Nearly three decades of experience 

serving representative companies in 

varied industries are your assurance of 

work done to precise specifications. 

Write, on your letterhead for bulletin Pi, 
which outlines our servicei. 







1 2' x 6" x 2* Deep 1 0" Dia. x 3" Deep 

The plastic molding industry grows in leaps and 
bounds. We had to improve Hobalite at that pace. March, 
1939, closed a long period of research and checking under 
actual hobbing conditions, proving we had improved hobability, 
reduced porosity, and improved reaction to heat treatment. 

The hobbed cavities in Hobalite have that perfect finish 
which gives high lustre to the molded part. Properly case- 
hardened and heat treated it withstands a pressure of 82 
Tons Per Square Inch. 

A complete slock of all standard sizes carried 
in our Chicago Warehouse for immediate 



Branch Offices and Worehovttt: 

1316 So. Dockland, Colum.'t Mich. 14643 Meye'i Road, Detroit 17, Mich. 

420 W. South St.. IndlanooolU 4. Ind. 3/31 W. Highland Blvd., Mllwauh** 8, 

Wl>. 1617 No.ih /In St., St. louli 6, Ma. 

shower curtain. "I've had it five years and I've never once 
had to take it down to wash it or have it cleaned. But " 
the same comment occurs again and again "I don't know ] 
what kind of plastics it is." The best this highly observant 
woman could say was, "It's a thick, rubbery soft material, 
not quite transparent. I don't think it will ever wear out, 
but if it does I want to get another just like it, if I can find 
one." Five years of enthusiasm for this product have been 
lost because the original curtain was unbranded ! How 
many other women would have bought, or tried to buy. the 
same thing, if the owner had known its name? 

The American home-maker is wise. She has been \\ill 
educated in her profession. Advertising, women's maga- 
zines, newspapers, the radio programs, have taught her to | 
shop carefully, to know the qualities desired in a certain ar- 
ticle, and to insist on getting them. The manufacturer who 
assumes otherwise underestimates her intelligence. She 
knows that no material is perfect, that each has its limita- 
tions as well as its virtues, and she takes both into account 
in her selection. She knows that rayon loses its strength 
when wet and must be washed carefully and ironed with a 
warm iron. She knows that wool shrinks, that linen creases, i 
and that cotton fades. Knowing the weakest qualities of' 
each, she knows how to select the best for her purpose and 
how to treat it in order to obtain the best service from it. ; 

Good Publicity Educates 

The elaborate publicity campaign which preceded the in-1 
troduction of nylon hose not only built up a tremendous de- ; 
mand but subtly warned the public about one of its charac- j 
teristics. Most women had been buying an approximate size:] 
of hose, knowing that the silk would accommodate itself to] 
the actual shape of the foot and leg. Nylon hose, being pre- ' 
formed to fit, must be selected in exactly the right size fort 
satisfactory wear. Thanks to adequate advertising and 
labelling, most women knew this and were guide'd accord- 1 
ingly in their purchases. 

Perhaps the plastics manufacturers assume that if they 
ignore the drawbacks of a material the public will neve 
know of it. Do they realize that many older women 
brought up in the days when cellulose nitrate was the onlj 
familiar plastics, assume that all plastics are highly inflan 
mable ? One woman in the group questioned condemned all 
plastics as dangerous for this reason, "I had a friend wli 
was badly burned when her comb caught fire. I've neve 
wanted any plastics around since." A quick demonstration 
in an ashtray, using a comb from my purse, convinced he 
that it was made of a different, far less flammable plastic 
But how many other women cling to the same belief? 

As a shopper starved for consumer goods, I have a Ion 
list of wants, and not too much sales resistance. In the field 
of plastics, as in every other field, I want to buy sensibly 
That means I will choose, if possible, a familiar brand, 
want to know the kind of material I am getting, its charac 
teristics, and, more especially, its weakest points. Will 
fade? Will it chip? Will it crack in the cold or soften 
the sun? Must I protect it from heat or perspiration or al- 
coholic liquors? Can I wash it safely in hot water with 
soap ? Unless I know the answer to such questions I am 
buying in the dark if I buy at all ! 

We consumers need the cooperation of manufacturers and 
retailers in three ways: in simplified terminology, so w 
may recognize and remember the various kinds of plastics; 
in educational advertising and publicity, so we may learn 
the characteristics of each kind ; and in accurate and com- 
plete labelling, so we may buy wisely and care for our pur- 
chases intelligently. i M> 

EDITOR'S NOTE: The Informative Labelling Guide recently issued by the 
Society of the Plastics Industry for use by manufacturers of consumer 
goods made entirely or substantially of plastics is an important step toward 
supplying some of the deficiencies in plastics education pointed out in tbll 




Breathe Easier 

(Continued from page 32) 

An oblong hole for insertion of the air hose is cut in the 
chest plate by a router. This form of aperture matches an 
eccentric connection, which, upon being turned, exercises 
pressure on a sponge rubber gasket at the end of the hose. 

In the remote instance of an untrue press job, the ther- 
moplastic sheet may be reheated and reshaped. Obviously 
if the sheet is to be pressed a second time, the imperfection 
must be noted before the selvage is trimmed. 

Thus, through use of phenolic molds, which were fabri- 
cated by the Rezolin Co., Beverly Hills, the operation be- 
came a simple punch and die job. 

Fabrication of plaster patterns for the phenolic dies was 
expedited by using, as basic structures, the aluminum jack- 
ets previously manufactured for the waist-length breathing 
chamber. Mock-ups for the patterns became necessary, for 
the product was redesigned in several points to afford in- 
creased comfort for the wearers. Alterations included 
lowering the neck, raising the shoulder, and providing 
greater breathing space within the Plexiglas jacket. These 
changes were effected in the mock-ups by pressing plaster 
upon the aluminum surfaces where greater space was re- 
quired, and in cutting away portions of the aluminum. 

Tolerances for the 3/16" Plexiglas sheet were achieved 
by pressing and shaping wax sheets upon patterns for the 
phenolic dies. 

Aside from shop advantages rendered by phenolic dies, 
the speed and economy with which they were produced 
stood as factors, which influenced their being chosen. Pro- 
duction of patterns and phenolic molds for the small, me- 
dium, and large acrylic jackets, as reported by the Rezolin 




It's easy to use FAMCO Arbor Presses yet no power is re- 
quired. An arm can deliver up to 15 Tons pressure. Famco 
"Cost-Cutting" Machines are also easy to install and are space 
savers. They're portable no power outlets needed and are 
just the thing for doing thousands of assembly and dismantling 
jobs. Two of the 32 ruggedly constructed bench and floor type 
models available are illustrated above. These come in plain 
lever, simple ratchet, or combination compound and simple 
ratchet types. See a Famco dealer or write today for catalog. 

Famco Foot Presses for light forming 
and stamping are available in 10 models 
(for bench or floor mounting). Low in cost; 
low upkeep. 

Famco Foot Powered Squaring She< 
will cut up to 18 gauge mild steel with 
ease, accuracy and speed. Ruggedly con 
structed and available in five sizes. 


v machines 


We Specialize 



The time is coming when you 
may require specialized experience 
on vinyl resin, pyroxylin or other 
plastic coatings. 

Because the future of your fabric 
will depend on the ability of the 
fabric coaters you choose, it's well 
to remember this: products from 
our plants are being sold in Grade 
A outlets . . . are being featured by 
distributors noted for the highest 
quality standards. 

Why not consult us on your post- 
war plans? 

We are equipped to produce: waterproof 
baby pants, crib covers, bibs, sanitary 
goods and coated fabrics for hospital use, 
shower curtains, raincoats, upholstery fab- 
rics, drapery goods, food covers, utility 
aprons, shampoo capes, garment covers, 
bathing caps and industrial products. 


183 Essex St. Boston 11, Mass. 





of 5TIFH1ES5 

This illustrated brochure gives 
full details on the instrument 
and how it is used. Write for 
free copy. 

Thin Metallic Sheet, 
Wire, Plastic Sheet, 
Paper and Paper Board 
and Other Flexible 

The Taker V-5 Stiffness Gauge 
brings to laboratories and test- 
ing departments an accurate, 
scientific practical method for 
measuring both the initial and 
normal stiffness of a wide va- 
riety of thin, flexible materials. 
It also permits the evaluation 
of their elastic or spring-like 
properties. The instrument is 
precision built, simple to oper- 
ate. Light weight and portable. 
Motor driven 115 volts. 






Electric MARKER 

This brand 
new, stream- 
lined marker is 
in i- n ts that 
make perma- 
nent marking on all materials easier and faster 
than before lighter weight and better balanced. 
Marking stroke adjustable to suit various materials 
and conditions. More rugged, sturdy construction, 
built to last. Permanently marks all metals, tools, 
parts, diea, etc. 

Manufacture of Most Complete Line of 
Markers and Etcheri 


Indualrial Produrts Division 



5136 Park Ave. Sycamore, III. 

Sale* officer in all principal cilie*. 
In Canada: Irving Smith Ltd., Montreal. Quebec 

Co., respectively was accomplished in 45, 50 and 60 hr, a 
total of 155. 

The same company estimated that patterns and produc- 
tion of metal press dies would entail expenditures of $700, 
$300 and $1000, respectively, in all $2500. The economy 
inherent in phenolic molds is represented by the actual pro- 
duction costs, which respectively were $300, $375, and 
$475, a total of $1150, which meant saving $1350 or 55%. 

Fabrication of the respirator in methyl methacrylate es- 
tablishes a still further economy, as shown in the compari- 
son of costs between "iron" and "plastics lungs." While the 
metallic creation involves a full length respiratory chamber 
and the acrylic jackets are but waist length, it should be 
borne in mind that three encasements are provided with the 
plastics therapeutic device as against one in metal. 

As yet, less than 100 "plastics lungs" have been fabri- 
cated, but a sales program for 1500 complete units, of which 
one-third will be for export, is planned for the ensuing year. 
Of the 100 completed units, many have been dedicated to 
research and experimentation in studies of their application 
to various pathologies. 

While the aluminum device has been applied only in such 
emergencies as drownings, asphyxiations, and other acci- 
dents, research with the plastics unit is proceeding in such 
fields as cardiac edema, gangrene in extremities, cynosis, 
lung congestion with tracheotomy, combat shock, various 
fatigues, paralysis, coronary thrombosis, diabetes, anemia, 
Buerger's and Parkinson's diseases, neuritis, alcoholic coma, 
asthma, pneumonia, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and many 
other ailments of mankind. 

Practice, however, is said to show that the therapeutic 
device maintains body temperature in bedfast cases, hastens 
post-operative recovery by eliminating the exertion of 
drawing and expelling the breath, and serves in those emer- 
gencies to which its aluminum prototype has been applied. 

Upon being placed in the respirator, patients are re- 
ported to express relief as the mechanized ebb and flow of 
room temperature air banishes the sense of breathing effort. 
Strain upon the heart is eased, with complete body rest en- 
suing. As the machinery performs its work, the patient 
may be respirated at a normal, slow, or rapid rate of speed, 
but always without personal exertion. 

Naturally, the arterial supply and venous return is fa- 
cilitated by the action of the effortlessly moving human 
chest. High aeration of the blood stream therefore is 
achieved, and mechanical aid is rendered to break up cir- 
culatory stasis. 

Instructions for cleaning and disinfecting the methyl 
methacrylate jackets after they have gone into service 
stress the need of maintaining visibility. As a means of 
avoiding surface scratches, nurses are advised to use 
sponges when applying detergents. The fabricator points 
out that heats approaching 200 F may be employed before 
danger of warping may be anticipated. 

Plastics has played an important part in production of 
syringes, catheters, instrument handles, X-ray apparatus, 
laboratory paraphernalia, and other surgical equipment. 
Acrylic has demonstrated its ability to transmit light around 
curves in making medical examinations. The performance 
of methyl methacrylate as the material for a respiratory 
chamber seems destined to inaugurate a still greater trend 
for plastics in therapeutic devices, particularly where trans- 
parency is an important requirement. 

Chronic patients, who for years have been confined in 
metal breathing appliances without normal use of arms or 
legs and who have been deprived of standing erectly or sit- 
ting up in bed, may be expected to welcome the innova- 
tion of the "plastics lung." For one such invalid, whose 
nine-year incarceration in metal has developed a physical 
abnormality, an individually designed neck opening, in- 
volving special tooling, is being prepared. END 




More Materials in 1946 

{Continued from page 96) 

with substantial increases in availability of plastics ma- 
terials effective late in the year. Major consuming indus- 
tries of the former volume plastics materials, such as the 
cellulosics, acrylics, phenolics, ureas, and the vinyl resins 
can anticipate increased supplies as indicated above. A 
much greater percentage increase and a substantial tonnage 
increase in polyethylene, polystyrene, the new cellulosics, 
nylon, and certain other new plastics now make it possible 
to include these in future engineering plans. 

Industries such as automotive, radio, aircraft, trans- 
portation, housing, mining, farming, motion pictures, and 
consumers goods including washing machines, electric 
irons, vacuum cleaners, oil burners, refrigerators, etc. 
have depended upon plastics. Material manufacturers are 
confident that the expansions now under way are adequate 
to take care of them. Therefore, they can continue to plan 
on materials being available and to design and plan future 
production to use plastics. END 

Producing Better Printing Inks 

(Continued jrom page 38) 


fancy. Many ink makers continue to use linseed and other 
natural drying oils. Though this method will continue in- 
definitely in some fields of printing, the superior qualities 
of the new inks are bound to assert themselves more and 
more as time goes by and competition places a premium on 
finer properties and production speed. This is especially 
true where new requirements arise in the development of 
new materials and products. An apt example is the pack- 
aging industry. When cellophane began to replace paper 
for wrapping, new inks had to be formulated that could 
meet a new set of requirements, like resistance to immer- 
sion in melted wax and to the alkalinity of soaps, as well as 
to rubbing and scratching. Inks for food and cigarette 
packages have to be odorless and non-toxic. These condi- 
tions could be met in many cases only by the use of new 
formulations which included synthetic resins. 

As to the future of printing ink, the words of Dr. Albert 
E. Gessler, director of research for Interchemical Corp., 
are as valid today as when he wrote them in 1939 : "It is dif- 
ficult to tell what the future will bring. However, a number 
of developments seem to be so close at hand that research 
men believe that the next 20 years will bring still more 
remarkable inks." END 

Photographs through courtesy of International Printing Ink, Dow Chem- 
ical Co., Anigraphic Process Co. 

YES! There is 

in our MODEL H LINE of 


Designed for 








Manufactured by 







Builder* of 


Engineers and National Distributors 

morion A. Baurnan & Associates 

Feeding ink to machine used to print labels on bottles 




Precision Accuracy is a must at sea ... in 
the air ... in modern, high speed pro- 
duction. Users of plastic parts in manu- 
facturing operations have learned to de- 
pend upon Kirk precision-molded plastics. 
Kirk product-improvement and product- 
development service is widely used, too. 
If you have a problem involving a 
custom-made part of molded plastics, 
let's talk it over. 

Waterproof match boxes, pocket combs 
and a variety of other sales and 
profit making items carried in stock. 

Molded Plastics by KIRK 




jected molded pieces or obsolete molding powders 
cellulose acetate, cellulose aceto-butyrate, polystyrene, 
methyl methacrylate, or po/y vinyl resin. 

or other mixturesmetal or anything else and rework 
and plasticiie the material into frst class, ready-to-use 
reprocessed molding powder. 

BUY FROM US when reconditioned molding powder Is 
needed for your process. You'll find our product a trust- 
worthy and reliable element. Contact us at our modern 
plant. Inquiries will receive prompt attention. 



Call or Write 

Department P 

44 Hewei St.. Brooklyn 11. N. Y. 
Evergreen 7-3887 
Cable: Chemprotf 

And Now It's Luggage 

(Continued from page 40) 


market showed that at 60 F no cracking, crazing, or brit- 
tleness occurred and that the material withstood a temper- 
ature of 260 F without softening. U. S. Testing Labora- 
tories found that it possessed excellent resistance to abra- 
sion. Tests to determine the effects of vermin, acid, and 
grease proved the vinyl sheeting resistant to these common 
causes of failure. 

Less scientific, but also interesting, was the experience of 
a pilot of a world airline who, in the course of 15 months of 
global flights, exposed the Boylastic luggage to many types 
of climatic conditions, and found that it stood up very well. 
In other tests, men's and women's bags were shipped 15,000 
miles by express. When the surface dirt and grease had 
been removed by simply rubbing with a damp cloth, the 
bags showed no signs of peeling, chipping, cracking, mil- 
dewing, or tackiness. 

Staple Colors for Mass Production 

When it came to choosing a color, a committee of lug- 
gage buyers chose two neutral brown shades of chestnut 
and oak from a wide selection, since these are the staple 
colors. Red, blue, and green were not chosen, because 
Boyle wished to concentrate on a two-color line, which could 
be mass produced at low cost, rather than on a line which, 
while offering a variety of colors and styles, would be ex- 

Boyle buys a light muslin or cheesecloth for the backing 
in widths ranging from 38 to 54". The plastics material, 
according to the luggage company, possesses all the neces- 
sary bag requirements in itself, but the cloth backing facili- 
tates cementing the plastics sheeting to the frame of the bag. 
The fabric-backed Boylastic costs less than leather because 
of economies effected in production, as well as because the 
basic plastics material is less expensive than the quality of 
leather which would be needed for luggage of the same 

Calendering the backing to the plastics sheeting is car- 
ried out at 350 F with no pressure needed other than that 
of the calender. When ready for cutting, the fabric-backed 
sheeting is piled up in stacks of 50 to 100 layers on long 
tables. (The vinyl material used will not stick to itself, 
so no interlayer of cellophane or any other sheeting is used.) 
Then several thousand pieces are cut at one time. Follow- 
ing cutting, the fabric-backed plastics is glued to the frames 
with special resin-based adhesives. 

Advantages in Plastics Manufacture 

Boyle uses two types of frames: duraluminum for the 
soft-sided bags, laminated wood veneers for the other types, 
each requiring special adhesives. After the fabric-backed 
plastics has been glued to the frame, the next steps, involv- 
ing stitching, turning, and additional cementing, are essen- 
tially the same as in conventional bag making. But the ad- 
vantages in manufacture which the plastics makes possible 
are: (1) the width of the roll is optional, since it can be 
made as wide as needed, provided the machinery is avail- 
able, cutting losses thus being eliminated ; and (2) uniform- 
ity in thickness and in color reduces wastage of the material. 

Boyle's leather models in styles exactly similar to the 
plastics models afford a convenient basis for price compari- 
sons. A smooth cowhide leather bag, for example, costing 
$31.50 retails at $55.50. Its plastics counterpart costs $13.50 
and retails for $24.50. 

Some interesting styles in the plastics line are the 
by \SYi" "Sleeper Plane Bag," for light travel, which is 




sold for $20.70, including tax ; the zippered soft-sided 
"Country Club Bag," which retails at $28.25 ; a generously 
proportioned man's weekend bag case (26" by 18" by 9") 
which retails at $35.50; and the large pieces, such as a wom- 
an's 29" all-purpose wardrobe case, the 26" man's tray ward- 
robe case, and the 29" three-suiter. 

The Boylastic bags are scheduled for national advertis- 
ing and, in addition, will appear in full color in the editorial 
pages of Esquire, Mademoiselle, and Bride's Magazine. 
Dealers and retail executives are informed now about pro- 
motion plans through the medium of Boyle's "Bulletin for 
Buyers." Show cards and spot-sale displays are "Introduc- 
ing Boylastic" now, and interesting window displays are in 
preparation for a large number of the stores who are fea- 
turing this line. 

Plastics Luggage Sells Well 

Owing to difficulty in procuring plastics materials, the 
company has, up to this writing, shipped only 2500 bags. 
These have been distributed to leading stores, whose buyers 
report, along with re-orders, that the bags have sold out 

Plastics luggage appears, then, to be commercially prac- 
tical. It does not, of course, hope or intend, for the present, 
at least, to compete with expensive leather insofar as variety 
of color, texture, and grain are concerned. The trend seems, 
rather, to be toward extremely sturdy luggage of pleasing 
design in the medium price group. 

Other luggage manufacturers are giving thought to the 
use of plastics, if not actively engaged in development work. 
Wheary, Inc., for example, reports experimentation with 
plastics and plans for putting new plastics luggage on the 
market at the completion of its reconversion to peace-time 
production. END 

Comprehensive *k Authoritative & Practical 


The need for thorough, reliable plastics instruc- 
tion is being fulfilled by Plastics Industries Tech- 
nical Institute through its Resident Training, 
Study Forums and Home Study Courses. These 
courses were prepared by recognized plastics au- 
thorities and are based on industry requirements. 
They encompass the various phases of plastics 
materials, designing, molding, fabricating, plant 
management and merchandising. Persons in the 
plastics industry, and others to whom a knowl- 
edge of plastics is essential, are invited to inves- 
tigate these training programs. 


Write Dept. PL6-1 



122 E. 42nd St. 221 N. LaSalle St. 1601 S. Western Ave. 




Special Order Tools 

Carbide-tipped taper shank engraving cut- 
ters up to y% dia. Also special carbide- 
tipped milling cutters, end mills, countersinks, 
counterbores, forming tools, etc. Send us 
your specifications for quotation. 


71 -13 64th St., 

Glendale, L. I., N. Y. 


mfyr T 

W-:'J^.y =;>- ... O i G N s of 

the times . . . 
now indicate a mad dash 
toward production of peace time products. 

Where the use of Plastics is considered in 
your program, you will want to be sure it 
fits and has sales appeal . . . what's more 
important that it will work. 

For Planned Plastics make a note now . . . 

Thlt Mod.rn Plant built by and 
dof*d f Quality molding of 
flottiet Noico con help you. 

Wr pit Today, 


i V I 1 ' Q N Of 


New "Sara Sealer" is miniature production line in itself 

ALTHOUGH immediate uses for the heat sealing ma- 
chine recently developed by the Sav-Way Industrie 
in cooperation with the Dow Chemical Company are ex- 
pected to continue in the packaging of industrial parts and 
instruments, the future, it is predicted, will see its extended 
application to the packaging of foodstuffs, household items, 
and articles for export shipment. 

The demand for and development of the new process, de- 
scribed and illustrated in detail in this article, is another 
indication of the increasing importance of plastics in pack- 
aging. The need for improved methods of heat sealing 
thermoplastic films arose in conjunction with a larger prob- 
lem which manufacturing and packaging companies faced' 
during the war that of packaging supplies and equipment 
for shipment overseas so that they would arrive in perfect 
condition. Making the job all the more difficult was the] 
fact that these war materials had to be protected against 
possible immersion in salt water, attack by mildew and 
other fungi, and exposure to temperatures ranging fron 
extreme hot to extreme cold. 

Many solutions were found for protective packaging, 
one of the most satisfactory was the use of plastics film, 
particularly vinylidene chloride. Plastics films were im- 1 
portant during the war and they now promise to prove 



U,v, * ,, 

( ^ 

^U(J \ 1 L 

t OO X 

/S oo c =i n 

I> OO >\ 


t C ^ 




Fig. 1. Entering at left, film is sealed continuously 




JVew device controls pressure, 
temperature, timing, does away 
with objectionable shrinkage 

even more useful because their many excellent characteris- 
tics make them ideal as packaging materials. Among their 
collective merits are transparency, high bursting strength 
and resistance to drop impact, low moisture transmission, 
resistance to chemicals, colorability, flexibility over a wide 
temperature range, and non-flammability. 

But the highly-oriented plastics films used for packaging 
shrink and become deformed when sealed by ordinary meth- 
ods. Thus, to achieve a water-proof, smooth, and undis- 
torted weld, the edges of the films to be sealed should be 
gripped and held in place throughout the complete sealing 

The Sav-Way Saro^Sealer, developed to handle highly- 
oriented film with characteristics of high deformation when 
heated, also operates equally well on all types of plastics 
film and foil materials. 

The new machine, simple in principle, is a combination 
of the roller and jaw types of heat-sealing machines. The 
film to be sealed is supported between two thin metal con- 
veyor belts. Fig. 1 shows how this is done mechanically. 
These metal belts carry the film through consecutive heat- 
ing and cooling zones before being released. Heat is ap- 
plied by two opposed heating bars that conduct heat through 
the metal belts. The cooling zone consists of two opposed 
cooling bars that immediately follow the heaters. 

The film is held by the metal conveyor belts while it is 
being melted together, and the molten section is thoroughly 
cooled before being released. This process eliminates the 
objectionable shrinking and sticking experienced when 
many other sealing processes are used on thermoplastic 
films or heat-sealable foils. 

The three variables most important to heat sealing tem- 
perature control, pressure adjustment and timing have all 
been considered and satisfactorily provided for in this 

Probably the most important feature of the Sara-Sealer 
is a sensitive temperature proportioning controller which 
holds heater bars within 1 F, controllable at any tem- 



Fig. 2. Heater bar face concentrates heat at weld center 

Fig. 3. Of edge or fin type, slip sheet, and lap welds, 
lap type regardless of materials is strongest by far 


_:_: in* 1 

Certain plastics withstand heat 
better than others. Some are particu- 
larly adapted for jobs thai must with- 
stand wear. Others are best for ma- 
chining and threading. The secret 
of success in plastics is in knowing 
V the right plastic to use for the job at 
\ hand. Ask us to help you see what 
\ plastics son do in your business. 

X Just send photo, sample or specifi- 

>. cations, and we'll tell you quickly if 
\ it can be made in moulded plastics. 




ANUARY 1946 




Anything pertaining to Smokers Articles 
or General Merchandising and Novelties 

* * * 

We Contact Jobbers and Chain Store and 
Department Stores from Coast to Coast! 

(W* ITUI Carry Our Oim Account* if ,V/-..orv) 

* * * 





Plastics can be the next .treat industry . . . expanding M 
wiftly and largely an the automotive, radio and aviation 
Dumnenaea. Already, it is an important industry and a grow- 
ine one. With I. C. 8. training, you can take advantage of 
the many opportunities in Plastics today. At the same time, 
you prepare for the vast possibilities of tomorrow. Write for 
the free booklet containing full information] Do it right now! 


Send me full Information on the following subject: 

Nome. , Affe, 

Home Address 

City state 

Presfnt Working 

Position //our* A.M. to P.M. 


Specialists in Hydraulic Equipment 

HYDRAULIC PRFEQ- """ ton Watson Stlllman, riCbaata. double actliw downward nun. 
platen 24"x24" ; 2 Automatic and self-contained Hydraulic Crimping and 
Assembling Units. 2 20"x20" 10" rams. 78 tout: 1 24"i24" 6" ram. 75 
ton; 3 12"xl2" 7V4 dla. ram. 50 Ion; 2 15"xl5" 8" dla. ram, 75 tons; 
1 20"x40", 2 " dla. rams. 100 ton; 2 J0"xl8" with pushbaeks, 200 
tons; 1 20"xl6". 200 ton. with pushbacks; 1 24"x24" 250 ton. with push- 
backs; 1 52"x26" 14" ram. 400 tons. PUMPS; 1 National Triplex 3 
OPM 4000; 1 HPM Triplex, 1V4 OPM 2500*: 1 1 plunger 6 GPM 
2250*; 1 West Triplex TA OPM. 3000*; 1 Watson Stillman 4 plunger boi 
type. 2 OPM 4400* ; 1 Hele Shaw JLP 12. 44 OPM 1200* with new con- 
trol: 2 Vlckerl 27 GPM 1000*. ACCUMULATORS; 1 Watson Stlllman 
hydro-pneumatic type, 1.86 GPS 5500* pressure with by-pass valve; 1 
Buckeye high and low pressure tank type; 2 5'x6' dla. tanki. 3H OPS 

285 Hudson Street, New York City 

X Kits. 


Fast Drying, easily applied, no pressure required. 

For mounting plastic items on display cards, 

and plastic assembly. 
Available immediately in one and five gallon cans. 


product design, product analysis, creative engi- 
neering, all materials. 

8572 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Hollywood 46, California Bradsaw 21483 


Type Bell 
of Weld Speed 

(ft min 

Tensile Strength 




Saran, Type 

M, 225 gauge. 

. .Edge or Fin. 
. .Edge or Fin. 
..Slip Sheet.. 
..Slip Sheet. . 
..Slip Sheet. . 
. .Edge or Fin. 


. .8.5.. 
. .7.7. . 
. .1.62. 
. .2.81. 
. .4.06. 

. .7.9.. 
. .7.0.. 
. .5.55. 
. 1 3.70 . 
. .1.48. 
. .3.86. 

. .6.5 
. .6.0 
. . 5.06 
. . 6.75 
. 1 3.06 
. .1.19 
. .3.69 

Pliofilm, avge. thick. 0.0040. 
Metal Foil 

Polythene, 1 
" 3 

mil thickness. . . 

. .Edge or Fin. 
. . Edge or Fin. 

mil .. . 

. . Edge or Fin. 

perature up to 500 F. This is an electronic control in- 
strument using iron-constantan thermocouples, installed 
near the heater bar faces. A single pale, double-throw 
thermocouple switch permits checking of the temperature 
of either heater bar individually. A rheostat is coupled in 
series with heater bars to balance out any difference in 
temperature that may exist. 

Pressure adjustment control is another important feature 
of this machine. The heater bars are so mounted as to be 
self-aligning, allowing the specially designed shoes to be 
precision aligned at all times. Means is provided to adjust 
pressure between the shoes by increasing tension on the 

Timing in the Sara-Sealer may be accomplished by in- 
creasing or decreasing the speed of the metal belt conveyor. 
This speed may vary from 10 to 38 fpm, depending on the 
type of film used and the weld desired. 

Because of the unique and practical design of the heater 
bar faces, an excellent heat seal may be obtained on any 
thermoplastic film or heat-sealable foil by use of the Sara- 
Sealer. Fig. 2 shows the design of the heater bar face of 
the sealer. This design allows greater heat concentration 
in the center channel of the weld, and the resultant seal is 
therefore welded more thoroughly through the middle sec- 
tion than at the outer edges.. In this way the weld line 
straightens, distributing stress lines at equal points on the 
same plane and tending to increase greatly the efficiency 
of the weld. This same situation is true with all types of 
packaging materials tested, as well as with the highly ori- 
ented materials such as Saran. 

In testing the heat-sealing qualities of this machine, thre 
types of welds were checked : the edge or fin type, the slip 
sheet type, and the lap type (See Fig. 3). Regardless 
materials used, lap type seals give approximately twice tfc 
strength of the edge or fin types. 

Welds made by the Sara-Sealer have recorded tensili 
strength as high as 27 psi. On Saran, Pliofilm, Korosea 
and Polythene, fracture of the materials takes place next i 
the weld, and only on a scattering of readings was there a 
parting of the material at the weld. Metal foils usually 
pull coating and foil away from the paper backing. 

In designing this heat-sealing unit, care was taken to 
make it easily adaptable to a number of different produc- 
tion line methods. Thus, the sealing head of the machine 
may be tilted in a 90 arc, enabling the operator more easily 
to seal many different sizes of light packages. This is 
especially important where packages of varying sizes and 
shapes are to be heat-sealed. 

The same unit head may also be mounted on a monorail 
to simplify the packaging of large containers. A conveyor 
type of sealer, using a belt which has been synchronized 
with the speed of the sealing head, is available where heavier 
items are to be packaged. END 




Plastics in Armor 

(Continued, from page 56) 

Jureau of Ships had about 300,000 jackets on order at 
var's end and had already received delivery on enough for 
xtensive use in island combat in the Pacific. 

At the close of the war Westinghouse Electric, U. S. 
tubber, Firestone, and Formica Insulation were producing 
~)oron. Many other laminators had developed the process- 
ng techniques but had not entered production. 

Concurrent with the work on glass cloth-resin laminates 
he Naval Research Laboratories evolved nylon flack armor, 
"his project was sponsored by the Bureau of Aeronautics, 
nd the development work was done in collaboration with 
he du Pont Company. The object had been in the begin- 
ing to find a lighter replacement for bullet-proof glass, 
'irst, solid sheets of acetate, methyl methacrylate, and 
thyl cellulose were tried, then laminates of oriented nylon 
1m. Laminates of high strength fabrics were experi- 
nented with also. Though many of the structures were 
ot transparent and so were ruled out as possible sources 
f substitute materials for bullet-proof glass, they had good 
allistic properties. These various experimental steps led 
o the development of the nylon body armor. 

This consists of many plies of heavy nylon fabric stitched 
ogether at about four-inch intervals. Several weaves were 
ied and subjected to tests. Finally a nylon fabric, desig- 
ated as NFD 202.1, woven in a two-by-two inch basket 
eave was chosen, made from a 210/34 yarn of 7 gm per 
enier strength. Lately a newer, stronger fabric has been 
lade in a four-by-four inch basket weave from 8 gm per 
enier yarn. 

Enough nylon goes into a flexible flak vest to make 432 
airs of stockings. It is made of 32 layers of nylon and 

eighs about 18 Ib. The vest has three pieces: front, back, 
nd apron (attachable to the front). Front and back are 

ipped together. The vest is tied on, but can be released 
n a split second by a pull on the tie string. The nylon 
rmor gives just as much protection as the metal armor 
nd is lighter. 

Another protection for crew members in planes is flak 
urtains. These curtains are 24" by 48" and are made of 
5 layers of nylon, weighing only 10 Ib. (Metal ones offer- 
ng approximately the same protection weigh twice as 
luch.) Enough nylon for 240 pairs of stockings goes into 
curtains. Nylon armor does not protect against bullets 
rom rifle, pistol or machine guns, but stops fragments of 
igh explosive projectiles. 

Both Doron and nylon armor were extensively tested 
t the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgreen, Virginia. The 
nost important test was the 20 mm High Explosive For- 
ward Spray Fragment Test, in which a sheet of the ma- 
erial was set up in a panel three feet behind a thin steel 
iieet. The fired projectile detonated when striking the 
pteel sheet and the fragments flew on the test panel. An- 
bther experiment, the so-called Hot-Cold Cycling Test, de- 
ermined resistance to changes of temperature. 

Army Ordnance developed all helmets and body armor 
!ased by the Army during the war. More than 22,000,000 
steel helmets were procured by the Ordnance Department. 
Fhese helmets fitted over a laminated plastics liner. 

Eighth Air Force flyers were protected almost from the 
itart against flak fragments. In the last war heavy steel 
wits had been worn, and at the beginning of World War II 
the Eighth Air Force used a modified form of this suit. It 
Ivas soon improved, and mass production began. There 
vere developed two standard vests for airmen, made up of 
)verlapping Hadfield manganese steel backed by nylon. 
Dne, designed for bombardiers, gunners, and bomber navi- 


Available in 15 basic colon from which ISO com- 
pletely true shades may be obtained. This method 
can be used by the fabricator or molder before or 

after processing. Inexpert! 
of color throughout. Heat soli 
rinse and that's all no expen 
high priced chemicals to I 
We are the sole manuf 

nple uniformity 
on; Simply dip 
ve equipment or 

of this prod- 

Phone FEderal 1109 



Canadian Rep: Colors & Finishes Co., 47 Richmond St., Toronto 1, Ontario 
New York Rep: Plastics Dye & Supply Co., Ocean Gate, New Jersey 

Among the other excellent product* from the Great American Color 
Company's laboratories is their Plastic Annealing Compound. It's a 
clear Annealing agent perfected to do more than hold plastics together; 
it really makes two pieces into one! 

Write to Box P7 for Further Information 




Union have manufactured complete mechanically 
engraved precision dials of Plexiglas, steel, alumi- 
num and brass, luminous or fluorescent treated. 

Their 15 years of manufacturing experience is your , 
guide to unfailing accuracy. 

Discuss your dial problem with Union address 
Union Tool, 191-C Pine Street, Providence, R. I. 



fANUARY 1946 








4*2 Broodwor, N. T. C. AlgoKpia 4-4254 


New & Used Hydraulic Equipment. Consultant, Engineering 
and Repair Service. Send us your inquiries. 


45 Crosby St.. N. Y. C. 12 Tel. Canal 6-0421 

Molding room superintendent. Must have full 
knowledge and experience all phases injection 
molding, molding materials, injection presses and production equip- 
ment. Should be familiar with mold designs and construction. Po- 
sition offers attractive salary and future. When applying, state age, 
experience, references, education and salary desired. 

Box 59. % PLASTICS, 185 N. Wabash Aye., Chicago I, III. 


Send for Ctlaleg N*. 43 


1410 Railroad AT*. ROCKFORD, ILL. 



112 East 19th St., New York 3, N. Y. 






BUY all the Bonds You Can 
KEEP all the Bonds You Buy 


Well connected In the market, would Ilk* to make contacts with 
U. S. manufacturers of plastic-made articles to be sold In the Mexi- 
can Republic. Address your communications to: 

P.O. Box 8812, Mexico D.F. 

Th. Mol 

1 The Mold Treatment for Plastics and Rubber ' 

"In all our years in the rubber business we never have seen the equal 10 

MOLDEZE" . . . says Chf. Ennr. famous rubber firm. 

Majority of Leading Firms now use MOLDEZI 
Send /or 1 long-lasting pint . . . $5 delivered 


gators, is very heavy, weighing \7 l /i lb. The other weighs i 
only 7j4 lb and is designed for pilots and co-pilots. It pro- 
tects only the front of the body, the back being protected 
by armor plate seats. 

Army Ordnance tried to find a lighter material for body 
armor and after a series of tests decided on a combination 
of nylon and aluminum. The value of armor has always 
been tested heretofore by obtaining the ballistic limit with 
a .45 caliber bullet. The material which stopped a bullet 
at the highest velocity was considered the best. But as 
pointed out earlier, most battlefield casualties are caused 
by shell fragments and not by bullets. In the course of 
extensive war-time development of armor for airmen, a 
new method of test was developed known as the 20 
Triangular Fragmentation Test. This test permits 
evaluation of the relative merit of armor and armor m; 
terials by determining the casualty producing power 
tained after the shell fragment has penetrated the armo 

Tests were made at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds will 
an arrangement of three boxes. Each box contained 36 
sheets of .020" aluminum, at one-inch intervals. Hadfield 
steel of known characteristics covered the front of one box 
while two types of armor plate to be tested covered the 
other two. A 20 mm high explosive shell was statically 
detonated in the middle, and fragments were thrown against 
the test plates and standard control plate. Fragments which 
penetrate up to six sheets of aluirunum cause no casualties; 
above that number they wound or kill. 

By the close of the war, aluminum-nylon had supplanted 
steel in all standard types of metal body armor. Aluniiuum- 
nylon armor for airmen was made in two models of vests 
and three models of aprons. Three-by-five inch aluminu 
alloy plates were laid in overlapping fashion and backed 1 
nylon pads. The nylon pads either arrest the penetratis 
splinters completely or greatly reduce their momentun 
This type of armor offers greater protection at more ilia 
20% less weight than the steel armor. 

An alumnium-nylon armor vest for ground troops wa 
standardized and many thousands were produced just prio 
to the close of the war. It is constructed of alumimin 
plates backed by nylon pads similarly to the airmen's arnii 
and weighs 12 lb. A small apron weighing \y 2 lb and mad 
entirely of nylon is attached to the vest. A jerk on tv 
shoulder straps releases both pieces in an instant. They < 
be easily folded and carried in a pack. 

The suit was meant first for infantry jobs which do no 
call for great physical exertion, such as those of tank me 
drivers of bull-dozers, snipers, etc. The war ended befor 
the infantry suit was used in combat. 

None of our enemies used plastics body armor. Of our 
allies the British had what they called a plastics armor, but 
it actually was made of steel covered with pitch. END 


Comdr. E. L. Corey, human target, stakes "Doron" against .45 


Cold Molded Plastics 

(Continued from page 52) 

designer should know the production required so that he 
can decide on the type of mold, quality of steel, and the 
number of cavities per mold. Generally, all cold molded 
molds are of positive design and semi-automatic in opera- 
tion because they are fastened in the presses. 

The molds are operated at room temperature, about 70 
F, and are not designed for heating or cooling as is the 
case in hot molding. Basically, the molds are composed 
of a top piston, a bottom piston, and a cavity, all made of 
hardened tool steel. The top and bottom pistons are usually 
mounted on cast iron plates. The cavity is inserted in a 
cast iron housing. The bottom piston is designed to serve 
as an ejector to remove the piece from the mold. Guide 
pins are used to keep the working parts of the die in align- 
ment. Many times it is necessary to add a set of cast iron 
parallels between the bottom plate and housing to provide 
clearance for the operations of the ejector pad. Pieces 
with side or cross holes require removable pins, and under- 
cuts are formed by the use of splits. 

It is impossible to discuss in detail all the many problems 
that are met in the manufacturing of various designs in 
molding. Each individual piece is a separate problem and 
must be considered accordingly. There are, of course, cer- 
(tain general principles which an experienced designer will 
know, but even then every new design creates problems 
that can be solved only by actual experience. 

The problem of designing the mold is not only a difficult 
one, but the actual building of it is an art in itself. The 
men who make the molds represent a very high class of 
tool makers. It takes years of actual experience in this 
class of work to develop the right technique and knowledge 
to build a good mold. The work must be very accurate, and 
it often requires an unlimited amount of patience to ma- 
chine some of the complicated mold parts. 

An important factor for consideration is the provision 
I for wear and shrinkage on each dimension so that the 
i molded pieces will measure according to the drawing, and 
! so that the mold will produce a substantial number of sat- 
; isfactory parts. This requires considerable experience, and 
| only actual practice can be used as a reliable guide. 

A poorly made mold is not only troublesome, but very 
expensive. Good molded parts require good molds. It is 
I best to have the mold and molded parts produced by one 
company, thus eliminating divided responsibility. 

The development of hobbing in recent years has helped 
the molding industry considerably in reproducing mold 
] cavities quickly and cheaply. Hobbing is to steel what the 
molding process is to plastics. It is the molding or form- 
ing of low carbon steel by means of an extremely hard mas- 
ter hob. The hob is usually made from a very fine grade 
of alloy steel and must be highly polished, since any imper- 
fections will appear in the hobbed cavity. The pressures 
used are enormous, ranging from 200,000 to 400,000 psi. 
Moldings faithfully show the design and construction of 
the mold. Generally, the surface finish and parting lines 
or seams are objectionable. They detract from the appear- 
ance of the piece, or present sharp edges which must be 
removed. It is the custom, however, to produce as nearly 
as possible a finished part so that machining operations are 
not required. 

Finishing operations can be divided into several proc- 
esses. First is the removal of burrs or fins either where 
the mold parts, or around holes and slots molded in the 
pieces. This is usually accomplished by tumbling the parts 
in a barrel, with or without sawdust, brushing off the burrs 








We Solicit Your Inquiries 


P. O. BOX 1779 

1855 I 

Saturating Papers 

W.G.P. furnishes Sulphate or Cotton 
base saturating papers for the impreg- 
nation of thermoplastic and thermo- 
setting types of resins in fluid form. 
We can also furnish light weight 
cotton paper to be used as a surfac- 
ing or print sheet. Manufacturers of 
leather substitutes in the luggage and 
shoe trades should investigate the un- 
usual saturating qualities of our cotton 
sheet for the saturation of the various 
types of synthetic latex and resin 

Sample sheets and rolls available 

in various thicknesses. 







Advertising Agency 


Aaron Machinery Co 

Accurate Spring Manufacturing ..Russell T. Gray 

American Die & Tool Corp 

American Flange & Mfg. Co. Inc. Preiwald & Coleman Advertising 

American Phenolic Corporation ..Evans Associates, Inc 

American Society of Tool Engineers St. Claire Advertising Agency 

Amos Molded Plastics Sidener and Van Riper, Inc 

Arrow Plastics Company The Powerad Co 

Auburn Button Works Incorporated Charles L. Rumrill & Co 

Austin Tool ft Mfg. Co 

Bamberger, A 

Barnes & Reinecke 

Battalen, L H 

Boonton Molding Company 
Bortman Plastics Company 
Brilhart, Arnold, Ltd 


Murray, Advertising ......... 

..... Behel ft Waldie ft Briggs ........ 

..... Gunn-Mears Advertising Agency 

..... A. J. Slomanson, Associates, Inc. 

.... Lawrence F. Dutton 

..... Henri Le Mothe Agency 







4th Cover 

Catalin Corporation 

Calanese Plastics Corporation .... 

Cello-Plastic Chemical Co 

Celoid Mfg. Co., Inc 

Chemaco Corporation 

Chicago Molded Products 


Columbian Rope Company 

Consolidated Molded Products 


Continental Can Co., Inc 

Continental-Diamond Fibre 


Continental Plastics Corporation. 

C-Thru Ruler Company 

Cumberland Engineering Co. . . . 
Curtis Manufacturing Company . 

Defiance Machine Works, Inc. 
Detroit Mold Engineering 


Dillon, W. C., ft Co., Inc 

Dow Chemical Company, The . . 
Durite Plastics Incorporated .... 
Dzus Fastener Co., Inc 

Walter J. Gallagher, Advertising 2nd Cover 

Ivey ft Ellington, Inc. 39 

H. M. Dittman Advertising 110 


.. 101 

R. T. O'Connell Company 

Almon Brooks Wilder, Inc 

Barlow Advertising Agency, Inc. 

Walter J. Gallagher, Advertising .... 
Batten, Barton, Durstine ft Osborn, Inc. 

.Harry P. Bridge Co 

.Jim Duffy Company 

. Post Johnson ft Livingston, Inc. . . 

. Richard Thorndike 

Oakleigh R. French ft Associates 

Beeson-Faller-Reichert, Inc 

Charles M. Gray ft Associates . . . 

Merrill Symonds Advertising 

. MacManus, John ft Adams, Inc 

.Lawrence I. Everting 

. PIdtt-Forbes. Inc 

Eagle Signal Corporation 
Eastern Tool Designers 
Ekstrom, Carlson & Co. . 

. Bawden Bros., Inc. 

Emeloid Co., Inc., The 

Engineering Specialties 
Corporation Maxon 

- Cummings, Brand 

ft McPherson, 


United Advertising Agency 


Famco Machine Co. 

Federal Telephone and Radio 


Felsenthal, G., ft Sons 

Fenwal Incorporated 

Western Advertising Agency . . . 

Marschalk ft Pratt Co. 
Lieber Advertising Co. 
.Cory Snow, Inc 

General Electric Company . Benton ft Bowles Inc 

General -Industries Company, The Fuller ft Smith ft Ross, Inc ..... 

Gering Products Inc. ......... M. C. Diedrich 

Girdler Corporation, The 
Goodrich, B. F., Chemical 

Great American Color Company 

. . 
Roche, Williams ft Cleary, Inc. 

The Griswold-Eshleman Company 

Greenhut Insulation Co 
Grigoleit Company, The 

Schacter, Fein ft Lent 

. Mace Advertising Agency, Inc. 














Hawley Products Company I. A. Feinsteln 

Huntington Stamping ft Plastic Co., Inc 

Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Co. The Jay H. Maish Company 

Ideal Commutator Dresser Co. 
Industrial Conversions, Inc. 
Interlake Chemical Corporation 
International Correspondence 
Schools N. W. Ayer S Son, Inc. 

VanAuken ft Ragland 

Stanley Pflaum Associates 

... 85 



. 122 

43, 99 
... 75 

. 128 

Idvert/ser Advertising Agency 

ohnson City Foundiy & Machine 

Works L. F. McCarthy and Company . . . 

ones, C. Walker, Co Gray & Rogers, Advertising 

arlstad, Andrew C t - 





. ... I2J 
.. Ill 

Karlstad, Andrew C 130 

Kimberly-Clark Corporation Foote, Cone ft Belding 47 

Kingsley Gold Stamping Machine 

Co Continental Advertising Service 12 

Kirk, F. J., Molding Company .. .Cory Snow, Inc 124 

Krieger Color ft Chemical 

Company Warren P. Fehlman Advertising Co. ..IIS 

Kuhn ft Jacob Molding ft Tool Co. Eldridge-Northrop, Inc 104 

Kun-Kasch, Inc Kircher, Helton ft Collett 

Lance Manufacturing Company 

Lester-Phoenix, Inc Ralph Maitland I 

Mack Molding Company, Inc. 
~o., The . . 

..George Homer Martin 18 

Magnetic Plastics Co., the Gregory Advertising, Inc 

Martindell Molding Company ... Eldridge-Northrop, Inc 112 

Midland Die & Engraving Co Behel ft Waldie ft Briggs 

Minneapolis Plastic Molders, Inc. Addison Lewis ft Associates 

Mosinee Paper Mills Company ... Klau-Van Pietersom-Dunlap Associates 23 

National Lock Company L. W. Ramsey Company 105 

National Organ Supply Co National Service 

National Plastic Products Co The Joseph A. Wilner Co 114 

National Vulcanized Fibre Co. ...John Gilbert Craig Advertising 

Noma Electric Corporation 

.Lee Murray, Advertising 

. Meldrum ft Fewsmith Advertising, Inc. 

Pennsylvania Coal Products 


Plaskon Division, Libbey-Owens- 

Ford Glass Company 

Plastic Finishing Corporation . . 

Plasticos Mexicanos S A 

Plastics Industries Technical 

Institute Beaumont & Hohman Incorporated 

Plax Corporation Charles Brunelle 

Printloid, Inc Reiss Advertising 

Protective Coatings, Inc Associated Business Counselors . . . 

Radio Receptor Company, Inc John A. Finnerman 

Rayon Processing Co. of R. I., Inc. Richard Thorndike 

Rohm ft Haas Company Newell-Emmett Co 

Royle, John ft Sons 

Shaw Insulator Company 

Siegel, M. B. Associates 

Sillcocks-Miller Company, The 

Sossner Steel Stamps 

Standard Products Co 

Stevenson, H. N.. Jr 

Stokes, F. J., Machine Co 

Strieker Brunhuber Co 

. . Charles Brunelle 

Craig E. Dennison Advertising 

..Fred H. Ebersold, Inc 

. ..Erlich ft Neuwirth 

Brooke, Smith, French, Dorrance, Inc. 

Taber Instrument Corp 

Tennessee Eastman Corporation 
Texon Industrial Corp 

. . . McLain Organization, Inc. ... 

Aldridge-Preston Advertising 

. . Melvin F. Hall Advertising 

. . Fashion Advertising Co.. Inc. 

Union Tool Co 

Universal Hydraulic Machinery 


Universal Plastics Corporation 

Velepec, Fred M., Co 

Walker Goulard Plehn Co 

Waterbury Companies, Inc 

Watertown Manufacturing Co. 
Western Shade Cloth Company, 


Worcester Moulded Plastics Co. 
Wrigley, Jr., William Company 

Yardley Plastics Co 

Ziv Steel ft Wire Co 

..George T. Metcalf Co 

..Gunn-Mears Advertising Agency 12 

Cayton. Inc 

..Schacter, Fein ft Lent II 

The House of J. Hayden Twiss 

Manternach, Inc 

R. T. O'Connell Company 

. . Hardy Advertising 

..C. Jerry Spaulding, Inc 3rd! 

. . Ruthrauff ft Ryan, Inc. .. 

. Byer ft Bowman Advertising Agency . 
..Vernon S. Weiler, Advertising .... 


1859 E. 63rd STREET -:- CLEVELAND 3, OHIO 
EXpress 1000 


Quotations Within 48 Hours 

WANTED 4 to 8 oz. vertical Injection molding 
presses, any make but must be excellent condition. 
Reply to 


55 W. 13 St. New York City 


ATTENTION Injection Moulder. Capable Sales Organization with 
years successful merchandising experience will discuss production a 
distribution with Moulder having facilities for large volume productlo 
of various Items. We sell chain, department, variety stores, jobbe- 
also Industrials coast to coast. Will make Investment for expansion 
finance sales or work on commission basis. N. Y. C. offloe-showro 
Box 61, % PLASTICS, 185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 1, Illinois. 

To ' TOOT " foreman for established progressive 
and e , pan ai n g Injection molding plant to super- 
vise construction new molds and maintenance of production mold- 
Ing equipment and molds. Opening offers permanent position and 
future for proper man. When applying state age, education, expe- 
rience, references, salary expected. 

Box 58. % PLASTICS, 185 N. Wibaih Ave., Chicago I. III. 









Steps in Cold Molding 

with a high-speed revolving wire brush, or drilling the 
burrs at the holes. An improved surface finish can then be 
accomplished by sanding and polishing the parts. 

The sanding operation is done with either a revolving 
felt wheel covered with a fine surface of carborundum 
powder, or a sanding belt. The piece is held against the 
wheel or belt and the surface is ground to a smooth finish. 

The polishing operation is accomplished on a soft linen 
wheel about 10" in diameter, revolving at a speed of about 
1750 rpm. The surface of the wheel is coated with a light 
film of a polishing compound such as wax, or a special 
preparation made by the manufacturer. 

Molded parts can be easily ground flat on mating sur- 
faces, but drilling, tapping, and machining operations are 
very difficult because the material quickly dulls the cutting 
edges of the tools. These are usually made from glass, 
diamonds, or metallic carbides such as carboloy. Ordinary 
steel tools, even if chromium plated or covered with stellite, 
are soon rendered useless, and their life is extremely short. 

As in molding, so in finishing, each design has its own 
problems, and a satisfactory answer is found only by the 
long experience gained in the manufacture of similar ar- 
ticles. Costly fixtures may sometimes help, but such ex- 
penses must be kept at a minimum because on short runs 
they would greatly increase the cost of the molded parts. 

One of the most important obligations of any molder, 
often sadly neglected or completely omitted, is inspection 
of the final product. The problem of inspection is a two- 
fold responsibility divided between molder and customer. 

It is the customer's duty to furnish complete informa- 
tion enabling the manufacturer to set up an inspection pro- 
cedure to guide him in his manufacturing operations. This 
information should include important dimensions, with tol- 
erances specified, surface finish, and physical and electri- 
cal properties, as well as the manner in which the piece is 
going to be used. If the customer has developed a special 
test for the molded parts, the manufacturer should dupli- 
cate it in his plant, and keep a record of his results. 

The molder should establish an inspection procedure 
based on the information given by the customer, and ex- 
amine all parts accordingly before they are shipped. In- 
spection can be done by properly trained personnel. END 

Properties of Typical Compounds of Cold Molded Material 

Property or Constituent 

Aico No. 1 and No. 6 

Aico No. 5 

Binder Asphalt and phenolic Cement 

Filler Asbestos Asbestos 

Color Black or brown Gray white 

Finish Good Poor 

Specific gravity 2.0 2.3 

Tensile strength (psi) 1,500 2,000 500 600 

Compressive strength (psi) 6,000 1 5,000 1 6,000 

Flexural strength (psi) 3,700 9,300 1,400 4,700 

Transverse strength (psi) 3,700 4,000 5,000 8,000 

Impact strength (ft Ib per in. 

of notch 1/2 " by i/i* notched 

bar Izod test) 0.4 0.4 

Dielectric strength (vpm) 50 100 140 40 80 

Water a bsorption ( % per 24 hr) . . 0.6 7.5 0.5 26 

Heat resistance (F) 500 600 1 ,000 

Aico In fable Is a trade name of the American Insulator Corporation 



2 Busch-Sulzer Hydraulic Compression 
Presses, Western Electric Type. Capacity 
200 tons. Platens 24" x 24". Fifty ton hy- 
draulic pumps furnished with machines. 
Ready for use. 

Equipment located in Chicago 
and can be inspected there. 
For further information contact 




Pioneers and Developers 
of Plastic Drawing and 
Computing Devices to 
speed up ruling and 
computing tasks. 

Consult us about your 

Free Catalogue on request. 
We invite your inquiries. 


H A R T F O R 







Thermatron compact mobile electronic heaters range from 500 
watts to 30 kilowatts. Built by Radio Receptor Company, Inc., 
a leader in the field of electronic heating equipment, Thermatron 
Heatmaster, Heatmaster Jr. and Weldmaster are designed to 
meet every pre-heating requirement in the plastic industry. 

Through the use of electronic heating, production increases up 
to 50 per cent have been obtained in a wide number of fields 
of manufacturing, including plastics, rubber, plywood, drugs, 
chemicals, textiles, ceramics, paper, food and wood. Every 
Thermatron unit is completely guaranteed by Radio Receptor 
Company, Inc., with nation-wide service. 

If you have an unusual heating problem that cannot be met 
by the Thermatron standard line, our engineers are prepared to 
provide the equipment that will meet your specific requirements. 


Uniform heal, simplified control, low 
operating cost, adjustable oven, 
automatic operation, safety lor un- 
skilled workers, consistent results, 
low maintenance. 


Since 1922 in Radio and Electronic* 

251 WEST llh STREET & 

NEW YORK 11, N. Y. 

Write lor your copy of "Electronic 
Heating With the Thermatron." 
our new booklet, on how to make 
use of this new powerful elec- 
tronic force to lower cost, to speed 
production, to develop new prod- 
uctsa comprehensive, practical 
guide to the application of elec- 
tronic dielectric heating. 





Eye appeal may well rank first when 
consumer acceptance of your product is at 
stake. Injection moulded plastics have 
long proved capable of producing practically 
every feature to win customer approval 
sparkle, artistry, craftsmanship, practicalness 

and long life but success in your quest for 
such standards lies in your first approach. 
Such questions as which material, which process 
and even if plastics is suitable to meet your 
requirements, must be expertly considered 
from every angle. Only then can you 
proceed with confidence. These questions 
are exactly what our trained technicians, 
expert die designers and die makers and moulders 
are ready and willing to answer, intelligently 
and without bias, whenever plastics applications 
enter your discussions. Our experience in 
handling hundreds of similar problems 
getting the inquirer started right has always 
proved of inestimable value. Because we mould 
for customers only, we give your inquiries 
whole hearted attention, just as if your 
problem were one of our own. 



17 East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 
Export Office: 90 Broad St., New York 4. N. Y. 

is more than just a slogan / 

ARNOLD BRILHART Ltd. is sincerely interested in helping 
you with your problems in plastics. 

From choice of materials to method of manufacture we will 
give you our unbiased opinions with no obligations. 

Our reputation for quality in Compression Transfer 
Injection Molding Precision Machining and Tool and Die 
making assures the proper answer to your particular problems. 


Phone: GREAT NECK 4054 

N. Y. 


; C 


Dittribvlfd by 
Empire State Bldg. 


The Gem of Plastics 

These, ladies and gentlemen, are your new Cambridge Lighters* encased by the exqui 
and incomparable beauty of Catalin, the gem of plastics. To the eye, they are Catalin 
its finest . . . each case is distinctive, as richly hued as a jewel. To the hand, they are Cati 
at its best . . . highly polished, warm to the fingers, luxurious to the grasp. To the ma! 
they are Catalin at its fittest . . . cast to specification, dimensionally stable, readily fabricaf 
non-inflammable and (equally important), inert to the chemical action of lighter 

lln- selection of Catalin for the leading or supporting role in any product design | 
assures sales appeal. Should you like to discuss Catalin's potentials, as they apply 
your own particular product, our staff welcomes your inquiry. 


This link strainer, molded by Vlchek Tool Company with a 
9-ounce H-P-M injection machine, !s a typical thermoplastic 
molding. Total weight of ihot 4% oxt.; average thickness 
.075"; production per hour 70; material cellulose acetate. 



H-P-M "All-Hydraulic" plastics injection 
molding machines are designed to meet 
the challenge of competitive peacetime 
production. Improved appearance, higher 
mold clamping pressures, faster plas- 
ticization, greater accessibility, faster 
speeds, simplified electrical circuit, im- 
proved material feed and other out- 
standing features make H-P-M injection 
molding machines the production stand- 
ard for both custom and captive molding 

The H-P-M straight-line hydraulic 
mold clamp provides positive sealing of 
mold halves, accurate mold alignment, 
rapid die change-over, minimum platen 
deflection, overload protection, auto- 
matic slow-down prior to mold contact 
and other worthwhile features. The 
H-P-M material heating chamber. 

equipped with electric band heaters, 
guarantees ample plasticizing capacity 
with accurate two zone heat control. The 
H-P-M gravity type material feed is both 
simple and positive. 

H-P-M is the only builder of a com- 
pletely integrated injection machine. All 
pumps, valves and controls are designed 

A 16 ounce capacity H-P-M injection molding ma- 
chine equipped with 350-ion straight-line hydraulic 
mold clamp. 

and built by H-P-M. Undivided respon- 
sibility to the user is guaranteed. There 
is a size for every production need. Write 
today, stating your requirements. 

The Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. 

Mount Gifead, Ohio, U.S.A. 

(ranch Oflflut in New York. Fhilotfelphio, Cleveland. 

Detroit & Chicago. 
Kepreienrolivet '" principal cltiit 


ee-fttfduw&c INJECTION 





in this issue 

New Vistas for Hats Louise Sanders 23 

Casting Phenolics in Phenolic Molds Jack D. Stratton 26 

Know Your Butyrates Spencer E. Palmer 32 

Old Titles in New Jackets M. L. Stephen 38 

Where Are the Materials? William Schack 40 

Engineering for Spring Tension Fasteners 48 

Molding Acrylics 52 

Machining Polystyrene Mel Meyers 56 

Protecting Electronic Equipment from Fungi Philip Pollack 60 

Plastics in Boats Moulder Hudgins 6 1 

New Motifs in Lampshades 68 

Acrylics Go to Court Phil Buskirk 72 

Selling the Hohbyist Margarita Dobert 74 

Pot Design for Transfer Molds T. N. Willcox 92 

SPE Convention and Exhihit 102 


Plastics in Perspective 20 Literature Review 80 

Plastics at Work 46 Problems in Plastics 83 

On the Drafting Board 67 Industry Highlights 84 

Engineering News Letter '70 People 86 

What's New in Plastics? 79 Association Activities .88 



Editorial Offices, 185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago I, 



General Manager 

Art Director 


Circulation Director 

Ass't. to Publisher 

Advertising Director 

Production Director 





Field Editor 
Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


West Coast Editor 


Washington Editor 


Technical Editor 


Consulting Technical Editor 


Staff Photographer 


Staff Photographer 


Art Editor 


Eastern Advertising Manager 

Midwest Advertising Manager 

Western Advertising Manager 


Empire State Bldg., Wl 7-0400 

S15 S. Hill St., TUeker 9213 

International Bldg., EXBcuthie 2102 

21 King Street, East 


Removing and finishing 
gates on lipstick contain- 
ers by Nash automatic 
flash lathe at the plant of 
the Chicago Molded Prod- 
ucts Corporation. Photo- 
graph by Arthur E. Haug. 

Other Ziff-Davis Publications: Flying, Popular Photography, Radio News, Radio-Electronic Engineering 

PLASTICS U published monthly tar Zlff-Daiis Publishing Company. 186 North Wabasb Are.. Chlcao 1, III. SUBSCRIPTION RATES4 In U. 8., Mexico. South and Central 
America, and U. S. Possessions. 12 Issues $5.00: 24 IWUM M.0t; In Canada, 12 Ulraes. $5.50; 24 lsuw>. $0.00; In British Empire, 12 Issues. $6.00. AD other foreign countliM, 
12 issues. $6.00. Subscribers should allow two weeks for change of address. Address all subscription letters to the Director of Circulation, PLASTICS, 188 North Wahash 
An.. Chicago 1, 111. Entered as second class matter June IB, 1*4*. at the post office at Chloaco. Illinois, under the Act of March S, 187!). Contributors should retain copy 
of contributions. All submitted material must contain return postage. Contributions will be handled with reasonable care, not this magazine assumes no responsibility for 
their safety. Accepted material Is subject to adaptations and revisions to meet editorial requirements. Payment covers all authors', contributors' and contestants* rights, title 
and Interest In and to the material accepted and will be made at our current rates upon acceptance. All photos and drawings are considered part of material purchased. 




for converting a 
convertible's upholstery 

A few applications of 
GEON suggested by car upholstery 

Textile coatings for rainwear, awnings, indus- 
trial clothing. Calendered embossed sheet for 
luggage, briefcases, furniture. Calendered or 
molded sheet for flooring, shoe soles, shower 
mats. Paper coatings or film for packaging 
and wall coverings. 

Duran, manufactured by The Masland Duraleather Co. 

Modern, weather -resistant seating suggests uses for 
GEON raw materials in every industry 

Convertibles of the future as well as standard passenger 
models, planes, trains, and buses will feature new mate- 
! rials for seating, interior trim, and tops; materials made 
ifrom or treated with GEON polyvinyl resins. Performance- 
jproved in conclusive tests, these new materials have many 
definite advantages over anything previously used. And 
ithe properties that make GEON superior for this pur- 
pose suggest uses in every industry and every home. 

For example, upholstery material prop- 
erly made from GEON will resist the effects 
|of weather, aging, sunlight, rain, and flex- 
; ing indefinitely. It won't crack or get gum- 
my even after prolonged exposure. It's easy 
to clean with soap and water. It resists 


foods and chemicals of all kinds even strong acids have 
no effect. It's mildew-proof fungi simply can't pene- 
trate the surface. It will wear indefinitely won't even 
show signs of severe usage and scuffing. It can be brightly 
or delicately colored for beautiful appearance. 

These and other properties may be had in any number 
of combinations designed to meet specific service condi- 
tions. And GEON can be processed in many different 
ways injection or compression molded, calendered or 
cast into sheet or film, calendered or spread into thin or 
heavy coatings for textiles and papers of all kinds. All this 
means that the established and potential 
applications for GEON in every field are liter- 
ally limitless. For more information about 
GEON raw materials please write Dept. 
U-2, B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company, 
Rose Building, Cleveland 15, Ohio. 

B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company 





When this three-way switch was put 
into production, both conventional 
molding methods and Completely Auto- 
matic Molding were investigated. 

Analysis of all cost figures led to the 
selection of Completely Automatic Molding on many counts 
lower mold cost, more quickly into production, minimum labor 
and finishing costs. 

With Stokes Completely Automatic Presses, cycles are reduced 
through split-second timing. Flash losses are reduced 8% to 10% 
and more. Mold costs are low because few cavities do the work 
of many. Production design changes can be made quickly and 
economically. Molded parts are uniform, of highest quality, 
always accurate. 

Investigate Completely Automatic Molding. 

V. J. STOKES MACHINE COMPANY 6O4O Tabor Road, Philadelphia 2O, Pa. 






Here at Emeloid you'll find a complete plastic 
service which offers more than 18 diversified 
skills and facilities encompassing practically 
every phase of plastic production. So call on 
us if you have a product whose manufacture 
requires several different operations. The 
chances are it can be made better, faster and 
more economically here at Emeloid one of 
America's most completely equipped plastic 


This illustrated brochure. "Prog- 
ress in Plastics." commemorating 
the 25th anniversary of the found- 
ing oi Emeloid. tells the dramatic 
story of Emeloid's growth and 
how its diversified service* can 
perform lor you. Send for your 
tree copy , , , today! 

Any "Bugs" in your Product? 

If there are, you don't have to send out 
"feelers" to see if we'll help you out. Ex- 
terminating the "bugs" in new products is 
a job that Continental's Plastics Division 
is often called on always glad to do. 

Bank on it our staff of engineers, de- 
signers, researchers, is well -equipped to 
untie your knottiest problem. Long years 
of experience in working out new products 
for some of America's best-known manu- 
facturers has given them the necessary 
plastic "know-how." 

The insect alongside shows several ex- 
amples of Continental's plastic magic. His 
body is made of flashlight lenses . . . the 
feet are fishing lures . . . the wings are acid 
baffles . . . the claws are coffee maker 
handles . . . the head is a distributor and 
coil part. 

But the list is endless. Set all the plastic 

items we make on paper and they'd fill 

this page. Best thing about it, each new 

day brings a new use. Perhaps plastics 

and Continental's plastic engineers 

can help you, improve or develop your 

product. Why not drop us a line? 

every week over coast-to-coast CBS Network 

tainers Fibre Drums Paper Cups Crown 
Caps and Cork Products Machinery and 






HEADQUARTERS: Cambridge, Ohio 

Sales Representatives In all 
Principal Cities 




Letters and figures on this plastic dial 
(for electric refrigerator temperature con- 
trol) were included in the mold. This 
resulted in a substantial saving over the 
cost of machining them into the piece, 
after molding. 

Such a method might seem to be simple 
and obvious, but it required much special 
skill. The correct plastic compound with 
the proper shrinkage had to be chosen. 
Then, the molds had to be designed so 
that the pieces could be removed without 
defacing the markings. 

This special "know-how" is what we 
at General Industries offer you in our 
molded plastics division. Of course, we 
have all the machinery needed for large 

or small jobs in compression, transfer or 
injection molding. But in addition, we 
have that ingenuity, skill in mold making 
and willingness and ability to think 
through on a job before it is 
undertaken. In plastics mold- 
ing, there is no substitute 
for experience. 



E N E R A L 




Molded Plastics Division Elyria, Ohio 

Chicago: Phone Central 8431 Milwaukee: Phone Daly 6118 

Detroit: Phone Madison 2146 

Philadelphia: Phone Camdm 2215 



Every step in the development and production of your plastic product is 

guided by Industrial's twenty-five years of experience in compression 
molding. Our designers' and engineers' knowledge of materials and processes can 

solve problems in design, fit, finish, density, color and type of material. Our die 
makers are skilled technicians in creating precision single or multiple 

cavity molds. Our molders produce high volume within extremely close 
tolerances. In the finishing stage each product receives rigid inspection and 

analysis assuring you of uniform quality. At each step of plastic production 
Industrial offers an important service. Call on their technical staff of 
experts today with your problem. 

South Bend Representative: 

Krueger Sales & Engineering Co., P. O. Box 419, South Bend, Ind. 


2O35 W. Charleston St. Chicago 47, Illinois 




Trade Mark 




r/W in plastic molding, 
can be the antidote for latent sales symptoms! 


flowing production it a direct result of MACK MOLDING 
close design and engineering collaboration. 

To key supply with demand at the right time, is the 
bane of sales minded individuals. Too often in re- 
cent years, the key didn't fit ... and sales passed 
unfilled. Helping you avoid these lost sales oppor- 
tunities and the resultant loss of customer confi- 
dence and future follow-up orders is as much a 
part of MACK MOLDING service as the actual 
production itself. 

That's why "on time" delivery is a pre-requisite at 
MACK MOLDING. If your specifications require 
dated deliveries, production facilities are immedi- 
ately scheduled to meet these requirements. 

MACK MOLDING is not infallible nor is it 
claimed that "the impossible merely takes a little 
longer." If the job is within our scope and many 
of them are the deadline will be met. 

If you are interested in production that's keyed to 
sales plans, address Mack Molding Company, Inc., 
1 30 Main Street, Wayne, New Jersey. 


print specifications call for close tolerances, you get no 
"second-bests" from MACK MOLDING. 

LOOKS COUNT, TOO! Even if unrelated to 
product performance, glamour can be a healthy sales asset. 
MACK MOLDING can recommend "civvies" in good taste. 





Fully illustrated brochure, containing 
eight pages of comprehensive informa- 
tion on molded plastics applications in 
all phases of industry. 




Plunged into the sudden and vital demands of 
war to guide life and property a development 
sf plastics for communications and electronics by 
Amphenol scientists made technical history. Originality of approach, employment of new 
materials, ingenuity in production have made that name Amphenol internationally recognized. 
Now, all its engineering experience and skill in design and production in Polystyrene, Acrylic 
and Transparent Vinyls, etc., to meet close tolerances and rigid specifications are again 
available. Consult Amphenol first. 

AMERICAN PHENOLIC CORPORATION Chicago 50, Illinois In Canada Amphenol Limited Toronto 
tf.H.F. Cubits and Connector! Conduit Fittings Antennas Connectors (A-N, U.H.F., British) Cable Assemblies Radio Parlt 


l<Jf| f^AM |^k^ ^VA *^J|A^- 

Extremely resistant to heat, the 
PHENOLITE blades in this rotary air 
compressor "stand up" successfully and 
long even at discharge temperatures 
of 300 to 320 deg. F. Cross-section and 
inset shows blade construction. 

Durable Light-Weight 


improves product performance and efficiency 

For rotary air compressor blades or 
wherever a heat-resistant material is required 
Phenolite laminated plastic "stands up" 
on every count . . . gives improved product 
performance, efficiently and economically. 
This outstanding property, plus its rare 
combination of qualities, makes Phenolite a 
"natural" for countless industrial applica- 
tions. Light in weight (about one-half that 
of aluminum), it is exceptionally resilient 
and high in impact strength ... is resistant 
to abrasion . . . possesses excellent machina- 
bility . . . resists moisture and changing 

humidities . . . and is not affected by solvents 
and oils. 

In Phenolite, you may find the answer to 
your problems in products or plant equip- 
ment. Find out some of the many ways this 
versatile material may serve you profitably. 
Write for full information and the assistance 
of one of our trained ej*fntrs. 


Offices in Principal Cities 







If you must a'hunting go, 
To get a spot of molding, 

If you're looking high and low, 
For safety and things modern, 

You'll make no error in your quest, 
By dropping out to Boonton, 

For here are plastics at their best, 

And men, machines, and methods. 

For five and twenty years a team, 
All trained to keep you happy. 

Our aim to hold you on the beam, 
Thru plastics' foggy weather. 

But, if you're not a'hunting now, 
And want to keep well posted, 

Just drop a line, a book tells how, 

Our "Ready Reference for Plastics." 





ass production of fine wood as- 
semblies is simpler, quicker and 
less expensive with veneers and plywood 
molded and bonded with PENACOLITE G-1215. Just one 
example of this modern adhesive's wonder working is 
in the production of the richly styled and finished radio 
cabinet illustrated here. 

Note the six operations eliminated from the assembly. 
Note the curved shape of the casing which, when molded 
with PENACOLITE G-1215, will never warp or delami- 
nate. And note, too, the surface a paper-thin veneer 
which permanently endows the entire cabinet with the 
quality of any fine wood you may select. 

For advice and assistance in applying PENACOLITE 
G-1215 to your production and to your product, consult 




Distributed in Canada by CANADIAN INDUSTRIES. LIMITED. Montreal, Canada 

Rugged, Dependable Equipment Pays Off 

NY equipment must provide de- 
pendable service to be profitable. 
Vhen you invest in the advantages of 
ligh frequency heating, get a high fre- 
[uency heating unit of proved depend- 
ibility. Get a THERMEX Red Head.* 

THERMEX Red Heads are backed by 
r ears of successful performance. The 
PHERMEX organization developed the 
irst practicable high frequency dielec- 
ric heating equipment for industrial 
ise, and has been specializing in in- 
lustrial dielectric equipment ever 

since. This experience is your assur- 
ance of proved engineering design, 
sound construction. 

If you are converting or expanding 
present plastics production facilities 
or if you are building a new plant- 
it will pay you to find out about 
THERMEX. For further information 
mail the coupon or contact Girdler 
branch offices at 150 Broadway, New 
York 7, N. Y.; 228 North LaSalle 
Street, Chicago 1, 111.; 1836 Euclid 
Avenue, Cleveland 15, Ohio. 

Trade Mark Reg. V. S. Pal. Of. 

THERMEX Red Heads constitute the most com- 
plete line of high frequency heating units for the 
plastics industry. Every model is portable, self- 
contained, simple to use. 



Please send complete information about THERMEX Red Heads. 

Name Title 

Firm Name 








VIMLITE is a wire-reinforced glazing 
plasiic lough, flexible and translucent. 
It allows maximum privacy without 
blocking light sources. Easy to install, 
it can be used in complete floor-fo-ceil- 
ing wall sections or in standard parti- 
tion openings. Vimlite is approximately 
the weight of fly screen, and requires 
only the lightest type of framing. 

Produced in rolls (25, 50 and 100 feet 
long), Vimlite can be cut to size with 
shears or snips and tacked in place 
under molding strips. It is dimension- 
ally stable, and when installed it won't 
sag or pull its frame out of shape. 

Vimlite is an excellent insulator. It 
is ideal material for enclosing special 
air-conditioned areas, and maintaining 


for office, factory, stockroom, partitions 

This highly practical, low cost method for partitioning 
industrial space offers these advantages: 


temperature differentials between of- 
fice and factory. In these cases, false 
ceilings of Vimlite can be installed 
without interfering with light sources. 
Vimlife is now available at building 
supply and hardware stores. Write for 
folder containing sample of this very 
useful industrial material. Celanese 
Plastics Corporation, a division of 
Celanese Corporation of America, 180 
Madison Avenue, New York 16, N. Y. 

Use Vimlite lor shatterproof skylights, 
spraying rooms, safely guards for ma- 
chinery, draft screens, portable build- 
ings, rooftop sun rooms where em- 
ployees can gel the benefits of sun- 
shine including ultra-violet rays. 


Vimlite Plasiic Glazing is hailproof 
and non-shattering. Use it on cold 
frames and starling beds. Protects 
seedlings against sudden cold snaps 
. . . Transmils ultra-violet light. 



B. U. S. Pnt. Of, 


Illustration of San Duro infants 
set shown by courtesy of Eclipse 
.Moulded Products, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Meyercord Decals offer decorative interest 
for plain plastic surfaces . . . add eye-catching 
designs that increase sales action . . . with 
permanence that assures lasting beauty. They're 
easily and quickly applied at production line 
speeds. Hundreds of stock designs are available 
or exclusive designs can be created on request 
in any colors or size. Meyercord Decals are 
durable, washable and stand constant use. 

They're economical to use. Hundreds of popular 
plastic items from lipstick cases to house ware, 
all decorated with Meyercord Decals, are enter- 
ing the market today. Don't let your product 
suffer from "decorated" competition. Meyer- 
cord offers free technical and designing counsel 
on any plastic-ware problem. Ask about this 
service. No obligation. Address inquiry to 
Dept. 84-2. 


World's Largest Deca/comania Manufacturers 





WHEN at the close of the war plastics materials 
were not immediately forthcoming in satisfactory 
quantities, everyone ascribed the reason to the pains 
of reconversion. But instead of improving in the suc- 
ceeding few months as expected, the situation worsened, 
and the why's and what's the matter's swelled into a 
thundering chorus. Buyers, hopeful of marked relief, 
found materials continuing tight, and began looking for 
a "villain." There is no one "villain," of course, the 
reasons for shortages being almost as numerous and 
diverse as the shortages themselves. A matter of far 
more consequence to the buyer, anyway, is when he can 
find ample materials supplies to fill all demands. In 
this respect, two articles and a talk are of interest. 

The Plastics Materials Manufacturers Association 
report, published in last month's plastics, gives a gen- 
erally optimistic view of the availability of materials 
in 1946, although cautioning that completion dates of 
new facilities "depend upon building material supply, 
building labor, and the ability of the equipment manu- 
facturers to turn out special types of equipment re- 
quired in a reasonable time." "Barring unforeseen 
delays," the report continues, "many of the expansion 
programs will become effective in the spring of 1946 
and thereafter through the middle of 1947." Among 
the causes cited for previous and current shortages are 
insufficient labor and a lack of processing equipment. 

Jn this issue, the article "Where Are the Materials?" 
supplements the report in the January issue. It goes 
further in that it presents direct statements by various 
leading materials suppliers concerning extent of short- 
ages, reasons for shortages, and plans for increasing 
the availability of materials. Like the PMMA report, 
it predicts increasing supplies throughout 1946 and 
into 1947. 

In a talk on December 20 before the Chicago group 
of the Society of the Plastics Industry, William Cruse, 
SPI secretary, in touching on the subject of materials, 
struck the same general tone of cautious optimism. 

Out of these various studies and observations, one 
crystal clear fact emerges : The materials suppliers are 
bending every effort to increase production, and scarci- 
ties will vanish one by one during the current year. 
* * * 

CALCULATED to standardize procedures in the 
determination of volatile contents and flow of 
laminating materials, two test methods recently released 
to the plastics industry by the Laminating Activities 
Committee of the Society of Plastics Engineers repre- 
sent an important step toward further standardization 
of procedures in plastics testing. 

Drawn up tentatively last April, the tests were sub- 
sequently submitted to producers of laminates and im- 
pregnated fibrous materials and to users of such prod- 
ucts. An accompanying questionnaire sounded out th< 
industry on the desirability of standardization and asked 
for data on current test procedures. 

When the returns were in, the Committee revised the 
test procedures to line up as closely as possible witt 
what appeared from the questionnaires to be genera: 
usage in the industry. The result seems to be two ef- 
fective, yet simple tests. 

The wide co-operation leading to the formulation oi 
these two tests, known as SPE 100 M for determi- 
nation of volatile content, and SPE 101 M for de- 
termination of flow properties, augurs well for futun 
co-operative efforts of the laminating industry. Witt 
this auspicious beginning, the way has been opened fol 
the development of further tests. 

A RECENT issue of a national news magazine r^ 
ferred to the claim of a "top automotive execJ 
live" that a 1947 possibility is a rear-engine passenga 
automobile having, among other revolutionary changes 
a "glass or fiber plastics body with an impact strengq 
several times that of steel." To those of us who sal 
the Fiberglas cloth-reinforced automobile fender ad 
hood at the SPE Exhibit in Detroit early in January 
the prediction of the automobile makes a lot of sense 

But the general claim of an impact strength seve 
times that of steel is so unqualified that it must be <|iifs 
tioned. For instance, is it meant that a reinforced pins 
tics piece has several times the impact strength of at 
equally-dimensioned piece of steel? Or does it mel 
that it has several times the impact strength of a pieci 
of steel of equal weight? What is considered the failinj 
point of steel in the comparison the point at which i 
is deformed or the point at which it gives way '"in 
pletely? We warrant that the engineers working will 
the new reinforced plastics would carefully stale al 
qualifications and all test conditions in drawing streni;tl 
comparisons with the metals. 

We are willing to go along with the statement tha 
the new material has a higher strength-weight rati< 
than steel, based on what we know of Doron, a rein 
forced plastics body armor developed in World War I 
(see plastics, January, 1946), but we think that th 
unqualified statement "several times the impact strengi 
of steel" represents the kind of overstatement and Inosi 
statement which we in the plastics industry should rig 
orously avoid. KNI 




A Better Finish 

/e Mold it Right Into Your Plastic Parts 

lot of plastics' sales-pulling power 
5 in its appeal to hand and eye. 1m- 
?ve the finish and you step up these 

rhat's just what molding with 
:atronics (radiofrequency pre-heat- 
;) does improves the finish of al- 
ist any plastic part. It enhances 
pearance, brings out natural high- 
hts of styling, improves develop- 
nt of gloss, and cuts down rejects 
ised by blistering. It gets these 
ults to such an extent that, while 
:re are no qualitative tests applica- 
:, your own hands and eyes tell you 
hey're there"! 

Heatronics are responsible for many 
other improvements, too things like 
more uniform density, less internal 
stress, better control of inserts. And 
others. Enough to merit consideration 
for almost any job today. 

Plastic Pre-form in Heaironics Applicator for 
Radiofrequency Pre-heating. 

At Kurz-Kasch, our extremely exten- 
sive molding and heatronic equip- 
ment are both at your service. Better 
yet, so is our experience with each. In 
molding, that experience goes back to 
the birth of the industry in heatron- 
ics, to the first use of it in plastics* 
It's valuable. 

May we show you? Just ask for a 
Kurz-Kasch engineer. 


For Over 28 Years Planners and Molders in Plastics 

Kurz-Kasch, Inc., 1413 South Broadway, Dayton 1, Ohio. Branch Sales Offices: New York Chicago Detroit 
los Angeles Dallas S. Louis Toronto, Canada. Export Offices: 89 Broad Street, New York City 

:BRUARY 1946 





T00l // MOOS 


One of the most modern plants 
in the industry, with greatly ex- 
panded facilities for doing your 
plastic molding jobs exactly right. 
From engineering to mold mak- 
ing, to production and finishing, 
Amos facilities are modern and 

Long-experienced men plan your 
job right. Molds and fixtures are 
built right in the Amos tool room. 
Amos does complete assembly 
if job requires. 

Send us your drawings or write us 
what you have in mind to be 
molded in plastics. 


Division of Amos-Thompson Corporation 







Product Designer 

PLASTICS are a "natural" in the 
field of fashions by virtue of their 
eye and touch appeal. As long ago as 1937, 
when I introduced plastics into the mil- 
linery and accessory fields, they found a 
ready acceptance. Even at that early date, 
every one of my customers bought at least 
one plastics hat, along with those made of 
traditional materials, for a season's outfit. 
Remember, plastics were then new and 
revolutionary materials. That they should 
be welcomed so unquestioningly, that they 
should find a place beside the traditional 
materials, the "best families," so to speak, 
made me ask myself, "What aside from 
their obvious attractiveness makes them 
click?" The answer was, and must be, 
for all designing and manufacturing 
"the correct choice of the raw material." 
There have been many grievous mis- 
applications of plastics in, for example, 

A new glitter in after-dark frippery is 
introduced by John Frederics in the new 
sparkling "Plexiglas" hat shown in the 
pictures on this page. Veil may be com- 
pletely changed to vary effect, hat may 
be turned, other variations may be made 

New Vistas for 

Eye and touch appeal join 
tight weight, washability, 
softness, freshness, and 
clarity to make plastics 
ideal for fashion field 



In Sketch No. 1 above, the small 
feather-cut motifs made of cel- 
lulose acetate sheets are said 
to be first application of this 
plastics to fashions. At right, 
Sketch No. 2 pictures a visor- 
brimmed "beach hat" of colorful 
cellulose acetate sheet material 
formed over one-piece hat block 

There are, of course, traditional requirements in proper- 
ties of raw materials in every industry. In fashions, the 
special requirements are softness, pliability, drapability, and ' 
the capacity for easy manipulation. Here the very special 
taboo is weight, for no matter how novel or striking the 
item may be, if it's heavy its chances for success are slim.' 
Weight, bulkiness, and rigidity in apparel and accessory! 
fields meet with resistance from the modern shopper, and in 
many fashion items a revision in styling and materials 
should be made in the light of these considerations. There; 
is the hand-bag, for example, made of heavy coated fabric 
or topped by a heavy frame and further burdened by its 
contents an over-sized compact more suitable for a bou- 
doir, weighty cigarette case, lipstick container, comb, and 
countless other feminine necessities that clutter the average 
handbag. Added to all this are incidental ornamentations 
of dress, such as buckles, closures, costume jewelry and 
belts, and, crowning these, a top-heavy bit of millinery all 
in all, a formidable load for milady to carry without an 
extra dosage of vitamins. 

Because plastics are so widely diversified in appearance 
and performance and possess so many varied characteristics, 
it should not be too difficult to find one which will properly 
fulfill fashion requirements. But it will be the responsibility 

the novelty and houseware fields, and unless proper consid- 
eration is given to the choice of the plastics, fashions will 
not be exempted. Already there are people particularly 
eager to apply plastics to the many branches of the fashion 
industry. They come equipped with only a smattering of 
plastics know-how and seize upon the first raw material 
that comes to hand without regard to its ultimate suitability 
or proper function. Consequently, another brand new crop 
of misfits may flood the market. 

Few materials lend themselves as readily to creative work 
as do plastics both alone and in combination with other 
materials. In fashions, particularly, there is a constant de- 
mand for inspirational materials because of seasonal and 
whimsical changes in style. Because plastics fit in so well 
with style requirements, however, it is likely that they will 
remain permanently in the fashion field as invaluable ad- 
juncts to other materials. 




: the designer and fabricator to choose properly from this 
>undance of excellent materials. As I said before, rigidity 
id weight are a menace, and fabrics should be selected 
hich will yield to the designer's fingers with easy grace, 
n occasion the more rigid types can be used if clever meth- 
1s of fabrication are employed. 

My sketches show hats designed for the types of plastics 
xepted by discriminating hat buyers as the easiest to use 
i millinery and accessories. Foremost among these types 
e the extruded plastics, for example, extruded Tenite II 
:ellulose acetate butyrate) in the form of a fine monofil 
Dt more than 0.0025" in diameter. This is as pliable and 
isy to use as a strand of silk. Its great advantage over 
:her extrusions for millinery use is its extremely light 
eight. Bright, smooth-textured, and resilient, this plas- 
cs lends itself to many different methods of fabrication. 
: is supplied in crystal clear as well as a wide range of 
:wel-toned colors. Another attractive feature is its prop- 
ty of keeping fresh and crisp looking indefinitely. It does 
ot soil easily, but when it does become a bit cloudy or 
Imy after a length of time, it can be restored to its pristine 
eshness simply by swishing the plastics part in soap suds, 
nsing it in clear water, and then drying. 

The war years put an end to development along these 

lines, but now the time is here again to exploit some of the 
wonderful possibilities of plastics in fashions. 

Sketch No. 1 shows a small velvet or felt hat trimmed 
with small feather-cut motifs made of cellulose acetate sheet 
the first use of this material in plastics fashions. 

This chic visor-brimmed "beach hat" (Sketch No. 2) is 
made of cellulose acetate sheet material in all the luscious 
summer shades and formed over a one-piece hat block. 
The deep half brim which shades the eyes from the sun, 
continues into the raised crown, which doubles back at a 
smart height to fit snugly down over the back of the head. 
Both the lower back part of the crown and the lower front 
section are provided with slots through which the soft rib- 
bon or fabric headsize band pulls softly and comfortably 
over the hair and keeps the hat firmly on the head. It ter- 
minates on top of the brim into a trim, jaunty bow. These 
headsize bands are adjustable, and can be changed to match 
beach togs or spectator sports wear. 

In Sketch No. 3, the large hat, never out of style, and a 
Palm Beach and mid-summer perennial, has in this instance 
a hat body either machine- or hand-made of extruded Tenite 
II in an all-over conventional patterned lace. This body is 
manipulated in quite the same way as any other millinery 
(Continued on page 97) 

Sketch No. 3, a Palm Beach and mid-summer peren- 
nial, is made of extruded "Tenite II" fashioned 
into a conventional pattern lace. Below (Sketch 
No. 4) the large capeline may be fabricated or, 
preferably, molded into the classic shape illus- 
trated. Scarf at right is composed of fine lace- 
like extrusions patterned with delicacy and charm 

Mock-up (lower right) of im- 
proved design of phenolic ra- 
dio case, made after study 
and tests of initial p r o t o - 
type (not shown), was formed 
by phenolic mold sections at 
top. At lower left is shown 
the solid wood male pattern 
used to make first prototype 

Casting 1 Phenolic* in 


INDUSTRY has at long last been able to eliminate the 
high cost and excessive time entailed in making molds, 
jigs, various other tools, and experimental models of new 
products. Answer to the problem is phenol-formaldehyde 
coupled with a number of new casting developments which, 
together with technical "know how," already has cut costs, 
increased fabrication speeds, and eliminated most of the 
post-cast machining. Plus these advantages, a precision 
product is delivered. 

' In the short period since their development, phenolic 
molds have proved practical and economical for casting 

runs ranging from two to 2000 items, designed either for : 
consumer use or as prototypes. 

Exemplifying the economy of phenolic casting, u tabula- 
tion of seven jobs recently performed by the Rezolin Cora-l 
pany, Beverly Hills, Calif., showed that estimated c< 
dies fabricated in metal would have totalled $20,100. Molds] 
made of phenol-formaldehyde for the same work totalled , 
only $1155, effecting a saving of 94*4%. 

Expediting production was another advantage. Eight 
hours on the average was required for fabrication of each 
phenolic mold in those cases where the designer furnished 

An assortment of phenolic articles made in phenolic molds 

Showing (left to right) improvements in prototype design 



Tenite radio case molded by Worcester Moulded Plastics Co. for Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp. 

Following a well-established tradition, lightweight Tenite encases 
the first of the postwar pocket radios. Tenite has been used on virtually 
every make of radio for cases such as this one, for grilles, dials, and 
knobs, where features of beauty and durability are important. 

Tenite is practically unbreakable. It is available in any color, is 
permanently lustrous and warm to the touch. Molded at the fastest 
speeds possible with plastics, Tenite parts are mass-produced in a 
minimum of time and at relatively low cost. 

To obtain further information about the many uses of Tenite 
plastic, write to TENNESSEE EASTMAN CORPORATION (Subsidiary of 
the Eastman Kodak Company), KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE. 





Casting a press mold with which to shape acrylic sheets 

Mixing phenolic resin, stabilizing ingredients, catalyst 

a properly constructed prototype pattern. Obviously, ad- 
ditional time was required for constructing plaster patterns 
from drawings. 

Dies fabricated in phenol- formaldehyde also have dem- 
onstrated their dimensional stability and long-wear quality 
in press-forming laminated plywood and various plastics 
sheets, as well as in stretch-forming aluminum sheets in the 
aircraft industry. 

Furthermore, the utilization of phenol-formaldehyde for 
casting in dies of the same material is enabling manufac- 
turing industries to supply themselves with large quantities 
of low-cost prototypes for tests in factories and for visual 
showings in the mercantile field. 

Both the production of phenolic molds and the casting 
of phenolic prototypes, as practiced by Rezolin, involve 
procedures around which some professional secrecy is un- 
derstandably maintained. Otherwise, the work has been 
reduced to an interesting technical simplicity. 

In fabricating a phenolic mold, frequently produced in 
circular or oval extejior shape, curved sheet metal the 
ends brought together by a clamp usually is applied as the 
vertical retaining wall of the form. Window glass, braced 
into position, sometimes is utilized for the same purpose in 
pouring dies for press work. 

Special Coating 

A phenolic bed, grooved for retention of the pattern, then 
is installed upon a sheet of window glass beneath the re- 
taining walls, and the pattern is inserted in the groove. 
Next comes a strategic part of the operation. All exposed 
surfaces of the pattern and bed are coated with a special 
lubricant developed by Rezolin to prevent adherence of the 
resin during its cure. Apertures around the bed and in 
walls of the mold arc filled with glazier's putty to avoid 

When this make-ready is completed, phenolic resin is 
compounded in a Hobart mixing machine with essential 
accompanying ingredients, a step to insure dimensional 

stability of the die. Mixing time varies from 15 min with 
approximately 12 Ib of material, to 30 min with loads up 
to 75 Ib. 

In pouring the mold, care is taken to furnish ample op- 
portunity for air bubbles to escape. Two to three hours 
then is given for the first section of the mold to cure at 
room temperature. 

When the section has hardened thoroughly, it is in- 
verted, and used as the bed for the ensuing operation 
pouring of the upper mold segment. Retaining walls are 
extended to the necessary height. The face of the com- 
pleted mold section and the pattern are treated to a second 
coating of adhesion-preventing lubricant, and the resin is 
then poured. 

After two to three hours of cure, the form is broken 
away and the cavities are inspected. However, approxi- 
mately two more hours is allowed before the mold is used in 

While many pattern materials are used, phenolic-formal- 
dehyde and brass have established the best tolerances. Stee 
and plaster are slightly less dependable. Aluminum an 
wood invite discrepancies. 

Phenolic tools, such as jigs for drill, saw, and router op 
erations in heavy industry, and nest blocks for presses, have 
been fabricated for many applications in mass production 
These tools, invariably produced more economically and 
rapidly in plastics than in metal, are doing precision wor 
after months of strenuous service. Time estimated for fab- 
ricating one drill jig in metal was 250 hr, while its actua 
casting in phenol-formaldehyde took only 146 hr. 

Press forms for plastics and plywood sheets are cast 
analogous to the phenolic molds. Heated wax sheets, fol- 
lowing immersion in water, are affixed by hand pressure 
and shaped to male plaster patterns to provide the skin- 
thickness needed for tolerance. All wax surfaces are air- 
dried to avoid formation of blisters during the casting. As 
a precaution to avoid disturbing the wax, the resin for the 
press form invariably is poured at room temperature. 




Out of this huge mold comes a record player cabinet* that measures 16% x 14% x 6% 
inches. Even without its separately molded cover, this cabinet weighs 5.2 pounds. 

Observe how this massive block of tool steel has been machined with micrometric precision. 
Notice how the mirror finish of the mold is reflected in the high polish of the molded piece, 
so attractive to the eye and to the touch. 

It takes a good deal of equipment and skill to make a mold of this size. On the molding 
press, considerable production "know-how" is required to produce molded parts that are 
free from internal weakness or surface flaws. Here at MOLDED PRODUCTS we have the 
equipment . . . together with the necessary skill and experience. Submit your plastics 
problem or product to: MOLDED PRODUCTS CORPORATION, 4533 W. Harrison St., 
Chicago 24, Illinois. 

for Admiral Corporation 








Large stretch-form dies for aluminum sheets involve use 
of a wooden core to reduce the weight of the tool and to 
conserve plastics materials. 

Fabrication time of such a die, 13 ft long with a coat of 
\Yz in. of phenol-formaldehyde upon the wood, was 110 hr, 
including construction of the plaster pattern, setting of the 
plaster, application of the resin, breakaway of the mold, 
and the clean-up. Engineers estimated production of a 
similarly proportioned die in metal would require 200 hr. 

Estimated wages for the job in steel were $700. In ad- 
dition, the producer would have collected for the metal and 
would have added his own profit. By comparison, the phe- 
nol-formaldehyde and wood stretch-form die cost $600. 

Scratching Eliminated 

But economy of fabrication was not the only factor favor- 
ing the plastics die. The tool, now used in Douglas Air- 
craft's Santa Monica plant, has eliminated the danger of 
scratching aluminum sheets, always a hazard with a metal 
stretch-form device, despite the usual precaution of greas- 
ing the steel surface. Production is expedited considerably, 
for greasing and de-greasing operations are needless. In 
addition, the tool possesses endurance, and presents a hard, 
smooth surface, which may be depended upon for unlimited 

Phenolic duplicating patterns to be applied in cutting 
steel molds for mass compression or injection production 
likewise have proved their superiority. Cast in phenol- 
formaldehyde, these patterns present a resistance to the 
tracing finger of the cutting tool, which eliminates scratches 
or fractures, frequently experienced with wood or plaster 
shapes. The plastics duplicating shape also possesses a 
well-defined detail easily followed by the tool's guide finger, 
another assurance of close tolerances. 

Great strides likewise have been made in sand casting 
with phenolic patterns. The glossy surface of the plas- 
tics shape offers little chance for sand to cling to it when 
the pattern is withdrawn from the impression. 

With economical, speedily fabricated phenolic molds now 

available, manufacturers are ordering prototypes in larger 
numbers and are applying them for expanded testing pur- 
poses and for a growing number of visual demonstrations. 

Here is an instance : The technical staff of a radio manu- 
facturer developed an innovation in cabinets. A solid 
wooden block, tooled and hand carved externally, served 
as the pattern, and a uniform thickness was specified for the 
cabinet material. 

The wooden block was used in casting the female phe- 
nolic mold. A solid male block was cast in the same plas- 
tics and trimmed down to afford the tolerance necessary for 
the specified thickness. All of this work was performed in 
8 hr at a cost of $300, as compared with much greater time 
and an estimated $3000 for the same operation in metal. 

Fifty prototypes in a rich brown blended into the natu- 
ral phenol-formaldehyde tan were delivered at $3 each, a 
total of $150. Thus, production of the mold and the cabi- 
nets for testing purposes cost $450. 

Sound engineers at once began experiments to ascer- 
tain the acoustical properties. Technicians studied physi- 
cal aspects to determine stress points and the suitability 
of the cabinet to the usual radio hook-up. Designers ap- 
plied several widely-varying color schemes to many of the 

The sales force demonstrated the colorfully painted but 
otherwise identical cabinet prototypes to the trade to de- 
termine saleability based on eye appeal. While the cabi- 
nets were displayed in the stores, considerable consumer 
reaction also was observed. 

As a result of the investigation, several changes were 
ordered. The cabinet was redesigned and given greater 
elevation and a more shapely dome. A mock-up was built 
from a prototype by the radio engineers, and another 50 
prototypes were cast, to be subjected to further trials. 

For the second prototype, cost of mold production was 
$220, a saving of $80 as compared with the original job. 
This economy was effected because, the mock-up being a 

Resin is cold-poured into toy-plane mold heated to 200 F Then upper mold segment is put on and filling completed 


hollow shell, trimming the male mold for tolerances was 

Whether the radio firm will adopt or redesign the sec- 
ond model hinges upon information now being assembled. 
Possibly another prototype will be produced, but the point 
is that the use of phenolic molds has provided the radio 
manufacturer with a relatively low-cost opportunity to 
continue his research for as long as he desires. 

Once the model is determined, mass production is sched- 
uled on so extensive a scale that undoubtedly metal will 
be used as the die material. However, the metal die will 
be made from a duplicating pattern fabricated in a resin of 
such hard thermosetting characteristics that the error fac- 
tor in tooling will become insignificant. 

Some weeks ago a potentiometer coil frame for military 
purposes was designed by a precision instrument engineer. 
The pattern measured 4J^ in. in its greatest diameter, had 
five grooves for fittings, and 19 rectangular and circular 
holes, ranging from 1/16 to % in., all to be cast around a 
brass insert. 

The building of a special bed to eliminate tolerances in 
the numerous surfaces, grooves, and pinholes, and the in- 
sertion of metal pins in the mold to effect the necessary 19 
perforations took 4 hr, making a total of 12 hr for construc- 
tion of the phenolic mold. 

Mold Economies 

Despite this precision operation, the job of mold building 
was done for $80, as against an estimated cost of $1850 for 
the same dies in metal. Forty prototypes, billed at $1 each, 
were cast in phenol-formaldehyde for study by the design 

Tests prompted the design engineers to insert several 
concentric metal rings, which presented a neat geometri- 
cal problem. They rearranged the 19 pinholes and added 
several grooves for attachments. 

Experience with the part had been gained by Rezolin 
when the original prototype mold was produced. The spe- 

cially built bed could be used again. This time the die was 
finished and ready for production in 8 hr, and the cost of 
the operation was cut to $65. 

Production of an eight-part assembly, the prototype for 
a gun handle on a Lockheed P-80, involved high precision. 
Estimated cost for steel dies was $4200, but the phenol- 
formaldehyde molds were produced for $360. Three hun- 
dred assemblies were cast, the price for each $4.60. 

Jobs handled by this firm include the casting of proto- 
types for model planes, small aircraft parts, battery boxes, 
tool and instrument handles, electrical fittings, housings, 
knobs, gears, distributor adapters, air hose control handles, 
camera cases, ornamented perfumery flasks, and countless 
plastics and metal objects. 

Solving Molding Problems 

Vapor-tight valves, undercuts and threaded contacts pre- 
sent no great engineering problems. Undercuts are ac- 
complished by split molds as in metal die casting. Threaded 
contacts are made with a fidelity equal to that of compres- 
sion molding, through use of phenolic inserts. Leak-proof 
liquid containers, with screw tops, frequently are cast in 
the plastics molds. 

Considerable casting in phenolic molds is done in veined 
or solid color. One recent solid color job was a line of 
clothes pins, pigmented in yellow, green, blue, pink, maroon, 
and black. 

The pins, consisting of two plastics parts held face-to-face 
by a metal spring, were cast in a multiple cavity mold, 
eight parts, four pins, at a time. Cost of the mold was $60, 
against an estimated $4700 for a steel die, similarly de- 

Addition of dimensional stabilizing ingredients to the 
phenolic resin used in making the molds has permitted 
2000 casting operations in one mold before deterioration 
became apparent. Sometimes for mass production of com- 
mercial items, mechanical parts, and small tools, it has been 
(Continued on page 90) 

Cured cast of plane is ejected by pin in pouring vent With flash removed, plane awaits finishing operations 


Know Your 


Spencer C-. f-^a 

Sales Manager, Cellulose Products D!v., 
Tennessee Eastman Corp. 

Form retention, beauty, 
strength, and toughness 
explain use of cellulose 
acetate hutyrate for many 
molded, extruded articles 

50,000 bugles will be molded for the civilian market 

Extruded fishing rod holders are light, rigid, colorful 

ONE of the most popular thermoplastics molding ma- 
terials today is cellulose acetate butyrate, marketed 
under the trade name Tenite II. The development of this 
material resulted from experiments made by Tennessee 
Eastman Corporation with cellulose acetate in search of a 
molding composition which would impart superior dimen- 
sional stability and impact strength to the beauty and 
toughness of the earlier plastics. With the advent of Tenite 
II, in 1938, the already extensive use of the cellulosics was 
broadened still further. 

The butyrate possesses hornlike toughness and excep- 
tional impact strength and resiliency, with lightness of 
weight, good dimensional stability, low moisture absorp- 
tion, high luster, high dielectric strength, and low heat 
conductivity. It is made in as many as 17,000 colors, rang- 
ing from transparent through translucent to opaque, and in- 
cluding metallic, pearlcsccnt, variegated, and fluorescent 
effects all colors being an integral part of the material so 
that they cannot chip or peel. These characteristics, plus 
the fact that Tenite II is made in a number of different 
formulas and flows, which permits the stressing of a par- 
ticular property according to the intended use, adapt it to 
an almost limitless variety of molded and extruded articles. 

Among the widely divergent uses are fishnet floats, dur- 
able and weather-resistant, which are being used in increas- 
ing quantities by U. S. salmon fishers. These floats are 
preferred because they retain their buoyancy, withstand 
rough treatment, and never have to be refinished. Their 
color remains as permanent identification of the various 




leads the way 

Q cosmetic containers 

' products demand more brilliance in packaging 
i cosmetics. Yet in this highly competitive field 
ron, a Dow plastic, stands out. 

ends glamour at the point of sale. Its hard and 
nished surface stops roving eyes in any array of 
iucts. Styron imparts new magnetism to goods. 
1 it draws more buyers because of its possibilities 
later use as a decorative container. In this field, 
ron's qualities add up to greater sales. 

Styron easily passes these tough tests and others, 
For this Dow. leader in plastics has myriad applica- 
tions from costume jewelry to batteries, refriger- 
ators and automobiles. It provides stepped-up sales 
appeal, but wide serviceability, too. 

Sty ron's properties* suggest broad usefulness in 
many products. For improved products at low cost, 
more and more manufacturers are realizing that 
Styron is the name you can depend on in plastics. 

n plastics is measured only in end products. It calls tor comt 
lanuiacturers, designers, fabricators, raw material producers. Dow i? n-ails ti 
I- purl. Save time and money call on Dow and get the most out of plastics. 

SENT AND POTENTIAL USES Lighting fixtures and displays; insulators; hydrome- 
; battery cases; funnels; bottles: closures; food handling equipment; pharma- 
tical. rciMiietic, and jewelry containers; jewelry; advertising items; refrigerator 
?: pen-, pencils; chemical apparatus; lenses; decorative objects and trim. 

JPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES Beautiful, clear, translucent; "pipes" light through 

around corncis. etc.; resistant to acids and many alkalies; stable at low 
prratiirr-; excellent electrical properties; broad color range; low specific 

ilv. providing more moldings per pound; low water absorption. 

DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY, MIDLAND, MICH'GAN New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Cleveland, Delroil, Chico 3 o, St. Loull, Houiton, Son Franciico. Lot Angelel, SsoIHe 



Need for lough, shatterproof housing for electric drill is adequately met by lightweight "Tenite II" 

fishermen's nets and makes for easy visibility in the water. 

Extruded butyrate tubes are u?ed to siphon water from 
irrigation ditches into the fields of Western farmlands. 
Extremely light in weight, they are easy to carry and 
install, require little maintenance. Possible obstructions 
are readily located through the transparent material. Made 
of a special formula ot cellulose acetate butyrate which 
incorporates an ultraviolet-ray inhibitor, the tubes rrsist 
the effects of blistering heat and sun and perform efficiently 
under continuous exposure. 

Radiotelephone handsets of Tenite II have recently been 
applied to fill an important need in the railroad business. 
By making possible two-way communication between loco- 
motive and caboose, between train and wayside office, and 
between trains, they greatly increase the safety and efficient 
handling of railroad traffic. The material was chosen be- 
cause of its high impact strength and its ability to withstand 
the rigorous use which these phones must undergo. 

Tubular sleeves are molded of Tenite II to be driven onto 
the handles of standard pliers as insulation against electrical 
shock. Tough and resilient, the sleeves are forced on by 
hammer blows without cracking or splitting them. In place, 
they conform tightly to the shape of the plier handle. Dia- 
mond knurling on the surface provides a non-slipping grip 
for leather gloves or bare hands in cold weather, and the 
plastics is always pleasantly warm to the touch. Bright 
red coloring makes it easy to find the pliers if they are 
dropped in grass, dirt, or snow. 

Bayonet scabbards made of extruded plastics molded over 
(Continued on page 37) 



Triangular scales retain form when made of "Tenite II" 





Red . . . the angry color of destructive fire. 1 

Red . . . eye-arresting color of the 
nation's watch-dog against fire the A. D. T. 
Aero Automatic Fire Detecting and 
Alarm System! 

The cover of this control box is Plaskon 
Molded Color . . a brilliant, permanent 
vermilion that shouts "Here I am!" when 
fire must be fought. 

One important feature of Plaskon plastics 
is the wide range of never-fading colors 
available. Rich, handsome colors that 
can be used efficiently for both their 
practical and beautifying value. In gay, 
brilliant hues or restrained tones, ranging 
from jet black to neutral white, Plaskon 
can be molded economically to harmo- 
nize with the character of a wide 

range of products. 

Molded Plaskon is strong and non-shattering 
It has a smooth warm surface, is unaffected 
by oils, fats or common organic solvents; 
and is highly resistant to arcing or tracking 
under high voltages and high frequencies. 

We can give you helpful assistance in 
suggesting designs, qualified Plaskon 
molders, and technical advice so that you 
can efficiently adapt Plaskon Molded Color 
to your manufacturing and sales programs. 


2106 Sylvan Ave., Toledo 6, Ohio 
In Canada: Canadian Industries, Ltd., Montreal 






Photograph of T-square placed across the closure fitted in the drum clear- 
ly shows the flush fitting of the flange which allows complete drainage. 

NE of the major oil companies 
recently made exhaustive tests 
to determine the efficiency of 
drum closures from the stand- 
point of drainage. 

Tri-Sure and other types of 
closures were tested in 55 gallon 
drums under identical conditions. 
After draining the contents (Lube 
Oil) from the drums only 3.38 fluid 
ounces remained in those fitted 
with Tri-Sure Closures, the ave- 
rage contents remaining in all 
other drums being 11.72 fluid ozs. 

Benefit to users of Tri-Sure fitted 
drums 8.34 fluid ounces the 
equivalent of more than 600 gallons 
in every 10,000 drum shipment. 

In addition, drums sealed with Tri- 
Sure Closures assure protection 
from leakage, seepage, tampering, 
substitution and breathing. 



(Continued from page 34) 

fabric were employed by U. S. troops. Tenite II, the only 
molding material used for this purpose, was a natural 
choice because of its durability under rough usage. 

Architects' and engineers' triangular and flat scales 
molded of the same material are found to retain accurate 
measurements better than the conventional boxwood strik- 
ing proof of its dimensional stability. 

Butyrate is made from cellulose derived from cotton lin- 
ters or wood pulp. The cellulose acetate butyrate ester 
used as the base of the plastics results from combining cellu-. 
lose with acetic and butyric acids and anhydrides, the 
amount of each ingredient depending on the formula. To 
produce the molding composition, plasticizers, pigments, 
and dyes are added. 

In the accompanying table are presented average figures 
of the physical properties of cellulose acetate and cellulose 

Comparative Physical Properties 4 





: low temperature (C +5) 150 142 

Specific gravity, max. at 25 C 1.33 1.21 

'ensile strength, min. (psi) 

25 C 4,240 3,270 

71 C 1 ,967 1,650 

leaf distortion, min., 264 psi fiber stress (C) 55 49 

mpact strength, Izod, min. per in. of molded notch (ft-lbl 

25 C 1.4 1.7 

40 C 0.4 0.6 

Voter absorption, max., 24 hr immersion (%) 

weight gain + soluble matter loss 4.1 2.1 

soluble matter loss 0.7 0.5 

Veight loss on heating, max., 72 hr, 82 C (%) 4.9 2.6 

lielectric strength, min., short-time test (vpm) 250 250 

^Comparison of average critical or important (max. or min. limits) values for molded 
tst specimens by requirements listed under ASTM D 706-44T. 

acetate butyrate, the compositions most frequently com- 
pared, though chemically quite different. 

From the table, it will be noted that of the factors con- 
trolling dimensional stability under varying conditions of 
temperature and humidity weight gained on immersion in 
water, soluble-matter loss, and weight loss on heating a 
comparison favors cellulose acetate butyrate. The latter is 
also shown to have an impact strength 20% better than cel- 
lulose acetate at room temperature and 50% better at 
40 F. 

Less Plasticizer Used 

Superiority in these two aspects is occasioned by the use 
of a smaller percentage of plasticizer in cellulose acetate 
butyrate molding compositions. In addition, the plasticizers 
used with cellulose acetate butyrate are more compatible 
than those ordinarily used with cellulose acetate. Thus, 
cellulose acetate butyrate contains less soluble matter, has 
greater retentivity of plasticizer, and, therefore, more uni- 
formity of texture, greater impact strength, and better di- 
mensional stability. 

Dimensional stability, low cost per unit of bulk, rapid and 
uniform flow under heat, lustrous surfaces produced in 
molds or dies (thereby eliminating costly finishing opera- 
tions), and the fact that no process in the manufacture of 
the. plastics or the products made from it requires waiting 
for aging or curing all make for quick, economical con- 
version of Tenite II into molded or extruded articles. 
Molded and extruded parts may be held to very close tol- 
erances, assuring perfect fit upon assembly. The tough 
plastics easily withstands machining operations such as riv- 
eting, sawing, drilling, and crimping, and may be joined by 
solvent cement in a bond as permanent as the material itself. 

The ease and speed of injection molding the material have 
helped make possible the production of large and intricately- 
shaped articles. Illustrations of such injection molded ar- 
ticles are telephone handsets, portable-radio housings, 
(Continued on page 94) 

Strong, light radiotelephone handset for railroad use Siphoning eliminates digging down and re-building bank 


ANEW avenue of production for both rigid sheetinf 
manufacturers and plastics container fabricators ha: 
been opened by Grosset & Dunlap, one of the largest bool 
publishers, who are using a slipcase of transparent cellu- 
lose acetate sheeting for a series of beautiful books for chil- 
dren. The new plastics slipcase is a brilliant improvement 
on the familiar papcrboard case which one has becorm 
accustomed to seeing on books of quality manufacture 
While a few attempts at plastics slipcasing were mad( 
1 efore the war, on one or two technical books, the Gros- 
set & Dunlap project marks the first instance of its use or 
books for the public and the first time it has been appliec 
to the mass production of books. 

The potentialities of this departure in book publishing 
can be gauged from the reaction of Margaret Byrnes, heac 
of the book department of R. H. Macy & Co., in New York 
It must be remembered that the Macy book department 
like the store itself, has long been in the nature of both at 
institution and a merchandising bellwether. "Aside froit 
the fact," Miss Byrnes said on the day when the acetate- 
slipcased books were first put on sale, "that these are some 
of the most beautiful editions of children's classics that I'v( 
ever seen, I'm particularly interested, as a bookseller, it 

Printing title on case widens scope (or cover design 

Old Titles in New Jackets 

m jc. 

Acetate slipcases, first adopted 
tor set of children's classics, 
promise to supersede paperboard 
cases on all quality-made books 

the acetate slipcases on the deluxe editions. This use d 
acetate, over the full-color bindings, lends itself to sonx 
wonderful store displays and, in addition, furnishes good 
tough protection to the books that are on the counters. Oui 
customers are as enthusiastic about these books as we are 
and the proof is that the editions are selling like th( 
proverbial hot cakes." 

From the standpoint of the bookbuying public, the new 

cellulose acetate slipcase offers several attractions. Asid< 

from protecting the book against dust, it is also beautifu 

in itself and pleasant to handle, and it allows the brilliani 

(Continued on page 107) 

Illustrated Junior Library, with its novel case, gets featured display in children's book section of Macy's 


PUT "*7%0i&tee" TO WORK FOR YOU \ 


MOSINEE, as a product material, con- 
tinues to meet many product-engineer- 
ing and production requirements, where 
improved quality and greater utility 
must be linked with lower costs, to win 
new markets or expand present fields. 
To "make the most of paper", engi- 
neered as part of your product ... or 
your packaging.. 'Mt pays to put Mosinee 
"paperologists" to work. With broad 
experience, extensive laboratory facil- 
ities and efficient production methods 

at their command, they can establish 
controls that assure definite dielectric 
strength, uniform density, specified 
maximum-minimum pH, moisture re- 
pellency, high tensile strength, and 
other technical characteristics which 
help make products winners! 
A conference between the "paperolo- 
gists" of The Mills of Mosinee and your 
management, product engineers, pro- 
duction and sales executives, should 
prove constructive. MOSINEE is ready. 

Pltase addrcst 

your letter 
"Attention Deft. E" 




Where are the Materials? 

Manufacturers present their views about materials shortages, 
causes of the situation, and prospects for increased supply 

Processing kettles in a Catalin plant are continuously working at capacity to meet materials demand 



plaitlct Field Editor 

THERE are a number of problems agitating the users 
of plastics in this transition period from war to peace, 
but no one question is put more frequently than this: 
"Where are the materials?" Inquiries keep coming into 
our own office for every type of plastics one man wanted 
50,000 Ib of urea formaldehyde a month for six months, 
beginning at once ! and the materials manufacturers are 
deluged with letters, personal and telephone calls, and tele- 
grams, requesting plastics in quantities which cannot be 
supplied. Not only are new end users puzzled by the short- 
ages even those who were well-established before the war 
cannot understand why their requirements cannot be met. 

Everybody knows that the plastics industry expanded 
tremendously, .during the war, and assumed that once mili- 
tary demand had stopped or at least had been gready cur- 
tailed, the market would be flooded with plastics materials. 
People say, "We read all about the huge production of sty- 
rene for the manufacture of synthetic rubber. Now that 
production of that elastomer has slackened, why can't we 
get all the polystyrene we want?" They know that other 

plastics ethyl cellulose, for example also came into their 
own for war-time applications, and they cannot imagine 
why they are not now available in indefinite supply. The 
situation is so tense that they tend to think of it in dra- 
matic terms: some of them think of the materials people 
as the villains of the play. The notion is of course absurd, 
for the materials suppliers are in the business of selling, and 
they would be only too glad to ship everyone as much as he 
wants, if they gwere able to. 

Nevertheless, to try to clarify the situation, we have put 
the burden of the complaints up to the materials producers 
and asked them for their answers to the question every- 
body is asking. In a very few cases we were not able to 
elicit any information. We do not think this was due to any 
ill will or lack of desire to cooperate on the part of these 
particular manufacturers. We rather think their reticence 
was due to embarrassment at finding themselves in the posi- 
tion they are, and to their decision not to make premature 
promises of an improvement in their position. From the 
replies we did receive, however, one can form a definite pic- 
ture of the condition of the industry as a whole. 

It is natural to suppose that a considerable amount of 
plastics materials might have been tied up in war-lime 
formulations which were not suitable for civilian uses. But 
on this score the manufacturers are unanimous that is not 






personalized service that focuses complete attention on erery cJfiJKr . . . these, linked 'to 
the astounding range of versatility that has produced miracles in plastics . . . make 'Michigan 
Molded a name synonymous with plastic-excellence. Small hut mighty is .Michigan .Molded; 
the very modesty of its size and over a quarter century of experience are contributing 
factors in those intimate details producing real satisfaction . . . real and lasting results! 
We're busy now, but never too busy to consider your plastic needs . . . Sales and Engineering 
Offices are located in: Buffalo Chicago Cleveland Dayton Detroit Kansas City 
Minneapolis Moliiie Philadelphia St. Louis. General Offices and Plants: Dexter, Michigan. 


Materials output has not kept pace with new-press supply 

the case to any significant degree. According to the Dow 
Chemical Company, "with few exceptions, our military ma- 
terials will simply switch over to civilian applications." 
Similarly, the Plastics Division of the Monsanto Chemical 
Company declares that "some war-born formulations will 
continue to be produced for civilian use." More specifically, 
the Chemaco Corporation states : "It is our firm belief that 
the cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose formulated for mili- 
tary end uses will find a wide adaptability in civilian appli- 
cations." The Hercules Powder Company concurs in this, 
affirming that "the end use applications for cellulose acetate 
were greatly expanded during the war through improve- 
ment in the properties of the flake, formulations, and com- 
pounds. The types of acetate necessary for war, having 
been greatly improved, could all be used in the expanded 
markets for peace-time applications, so the demand has 
continued to be increasingly higher." 

So far as thermoplastics generally are concerned, special 
formulations were made up on very short order, in as little 
as 24 hr, according to one authority, so that there was no 
possibility of a surplus being left over which could not fit 
peace-time outlets. 

With this factor ruled out as a possible cause of present 
shortages, we turn now to the actual causes on which the 
materials manufacturers are quite agreed. First and fore- 
most, production facilities are inadequate in many cases. 
Thus, Hercules, which makes the uncompounded cellulose 
plastics, had, even during the war, scheduled a 250% in- 
crease in its production facilities of ethyl cellulose, but has 
realized only a fifth of this expansion to date. While the 
annual demand for cellulose acetate is estimated at 250,- 
000,000 Ib, current capacity is reliably put at just about 
half that figure. In the case of the ureas, a special situa- 
tion existed at the Bakelite Corporation, in that the corn- 

Growth of laminating adds to demand for more materials 

pany had converted its production facilities for this mate 
rial to the manufacture of the phenolic-lead compound use 
in the making of the frangible bullet, and it will take tim 
to change back to full urea production. 

The strain on existing production facilities arises fror 
the fact that the market for plastics materials has beei 
widely extended. As the uses of plastics have increased 
more and more processors have entered the industry, am 
this in turn has been made possible by an increase in mold 
ing and fabricating capacity. One injection machine manu 
facturer is, in fact, reported to be planning an output o 
some 350 to 500 machines in the next nine months. A 
Chemaco points out, "This increase in the production o: 
machines to consume plastics materials has not beei 
matched by an increase in the production of the materia 
manufacturers." In fact, other sources estimate that thi 
number of orders for such machines placed with all manu 
facturers for delivery in the next 18 months, is equal to th< 
entire number of machines now in operation. 

In discussing the materials situation, Tennessee East 
man reports a record demand for Tenite I and II far ex 
ceeding the supply and that, as a temporary measure, matfr 
rials have had to be allotted on a monthly basis, and thei 
adds : "The situation may be attributed to the long-felt neec 
for civilian goods and the greatly expanded production fa- 
cilities of the molding industry which was brought aboul 
by the war." 

To add to the difficulty, even present capacity is not be- 
ing fully utilized in several important companies. Ameri- 
can Cyanamid, for example, reports a serious labor short- 
age to account for it. Women are quitting the plants it 
which they worked during the war, usually to rejoin theii 
husbands returning from overseas; while men are looking 
around for better jobs, and many of those who have beer 
let out of high-paying war jobs are not enthusiastic aboul 
a new job which has a lower starting wage. Marblette 
Corporation is also not operating at capacity because of I 
lack of experienced labor, and estipiates that it will require 
several months to get into full swing. Shortage of laboi 
had its effect on nitrate production several months befor< 
the war ended, according to Hercules, and this condition 
still exists, at a time when the demand "continues to be the 
highest in years." Bakelite's flow of thermosetting com- 
pounds is retarded for the same reason, though it is said 
to be maintaining its volume of vinyl production. 

Still another difficulty is that there is sometimes a short- 
age of materials processing equipment even where there is 
ample raw material supply. Reference was made before to 
the abundance of styrene and the shortage of polystyrene. 
The trouble here is that you can't make plastics out of sty- 
rene before you polymerize it, and there is a lack of equip- 
ment to do this essential job. 

These, then, are the basic factors in the situation. The 
all-important question remains as to when and how rap- 
idly it will improve. The answers we have obtained are 
reassuring in varying degree. They are given here real- 
istically and without trying to make the picture more rosy 
than it is, on the ground that the users of plastics can 
make practical plans for adapting themselves to the reali- 
ties whereas, otherwise, they would only flounder in a pret- 
tified dream. The Dow Company reports that it is ex- 
panding its production considerably, especially of Saran and 
polystyrene, estimating that it will take some months for 
production to catch up with demand, with eight to ten 
months set as the period in which the problem can be 
largely met. It was Dow's policy to concentrate on its waf 
efforts and "to do its post-war planning post-war." The 
bottleneck, so far as this company is concerned, is plant 
construction, for which materials are only now becoming 

We have mentioned the plan of Hercules with respect to 



DURITE PLASTICS INCORPORATED 5000 Summerdaie Ave. . PhHosfeiphfa 24, Pa. 

expanding its facilities for the production of ethyl cellulose. 
This firm is reportedly operating at capacity, but is also 
expanding its plant for cellulose acetate production "as 
fast as possible," with more nitrates available by now. Cata- 
lin Corporation, trying to supply a big backlog of orders as 
well as new business with "overcapacity" production, also 
reports being engaged on a "modest enlarging" of plant, 
including the installation of more curing ovens. Durite 
Plastics, producers of phenolic and furfural molding com- 
pounds, likewise reports an increase in production under 
way. Tennessee Eastman is enlarging its manufacturing 
plant, but believes that "the effect of its increased produc- 
tion will not afford relief until the forepart of 1946." Rohm 
& Haas reports standard Plcxiglas sheets available for im- 
mediate delivery, space open for prompt production of spe- 
cial thicknesses and colors, but that molding powders are 
temporarily short, with additional capacity ready early in 

Taking a long-time view of the situation, Monsanto looks 
to a substantial increase in plastics production facilities dur- 
ing the next five years, and points out that "because of 
increased molding and fabricating capacity, broadened 
markets and, in some cases, lower prices, it is difficult to 
prophesy when supplies will be abundant." 

Meanwhile, in this trying in-between period, there is 
going to be a struggle between the new and old users of 
plastics for the available supply. Manufacturers are not 
laying down a hard and fast policy for the division of the 
"spoils," but it is safe to say that they will give substantial 
customers of the past a good break, without neglecting the 
potential new market. Those who have a likely new com- 
modity will find the suppliers regarding them with a 
friendly eye, and those newcomers who show a capacity for 

Plans <or raising output often include new construction 
like this Libbey-Owens-Ford Plaskon Research Laboratory 

doing a volume business in the future, even with conven- 
tional products, will not find themselves crowded out by 
even the best of the old-line customers. One big company 
did say that, in general, it would favor the makers of well- 
tried products as against those who were making what 
seemed temporary use of a certain plastics because another 
and more appropriate one was not available. For example, 
at the present time there is a very large demand for ureas 
for white poker chips because the preferred phenolics are 
not to be had. Such customers, this manufacturer feels, 
would swamp the market with white poker chips and then 
have no use for ureas for an indefinite period. That is not 
the kind of trade the supplier wants. 

It is not likely that any user of plastics will be cut off 
from materials altogether, but there is every likelihood that 
most users will not be entirely satisfied at least for a few 
months to come. KM) 


Available processing equipment is frequently not fully utilized because of serious labor shortages 


mabter if 

... We Are Not Mo/ders 
. . . We Don't Extrude 


We welcome your inquiries regarding any type of pre- 
cision fabrication . . . display fixtures . . . furniture . . . the 
fabrication of cast phenolics . . . radio cabinets . . . 
jewelry . . . any type of production that comes 
within the scope of modern plastics. Our policy is: No 
job is too large or too small . . . quality materials 
and workmanship an integral part of every assignment. 






Maintenance of flexibility at low temperatures is an aid to 
quick and easy release of ice cubes from these individual 
cube containers made of white, satin-smooth Dow "Ethocel" 

Urea formaldehyde, black for the barrel and red 
lor top, with black polystyrene push button at 
bottom, form this "Lektrolite" Homeless lighter 


Utilitarian items such as electric alarm docks blend with modem 
decorative schemes, as in this G-E model of ivory-toned urea formal- 
dehyde, with hour and minute hands of brown, and gilt second hand 

A miniature palette-shaped display fixture of clear acrylic 
supplies an ideal background for showing merchandise items 
such as handkerchiefs, hosiery, or other dainty accessories 

Ingeniously simple in design, a "safe-light" 
for use in photographic dark rooms employs 
translucent red plastics in the two-part, 
quickly-adjusted covering for light bulb 



"Dzus" cushion-type spiral cam iastener 
gives correct tension, thus preventing 
breakage of plastics. Application on 
plastics film winding case differs from 
fastener at left only in possessing a 
knob-type instead of a screw-type head 

Engineering for 
Spring-Tension Fasteners 

THE resilient cushion, or spring tension, steel fastener, 
used to a large extent in such industries as aviation, 
refrigeration, and radio, has been modified over a period 
of years to meet specifications in the plastics industry. It 
can now be successfully used to hold two or more plastics 
parts firmly together without scratching them. Some typi- 
cal applications, with many more in process of development, 
are for fastening parts with integrally molded plastics studs, 
holding plastics knobs to shafts with "D" shaped ends, as- 
sembling plastics fish lures, and fastening plastics trim 

The basic purposes of the spring-tension fastener, made 
of light spring steel properly heat treated, are to effect a 
more secure connection in holding two or more plastics 
parts together and at the same time reduce weight and 
space without damage to the materials. 

One of the first full lines of spring-tension fasteners for 
plastics parts was developed by Tinnerman Products, Inc., 
Cleveland, about ten years ago. Since that time the line 
has expanded considerably with new shapes and sizes to 
meet new conditions. In recent years other manufacturers 
have also come into the field. Among them are the Boots 
Aircraft Nut Corp., the Simmons Fastener Corporation, the 
B. F. Goodrich Co., and the Dzus Fastener Co. 

The Tinnerman Company produces a line for all types of 
materials as well as for plastics, including Speed Nuts and 
Speed Clips specially designed for integrally molded plas- 
tics studs; Speed Clips for holding electric wiring; Com- 
pression Spring Clips for holding plastics knobs to various 
types of shafts; special clips for split hubs; and twin Speed 
Nuts for assembling plastics fish lures, flash lights, pilot 

JVew and improved devices widen 
field of use for plastics both 
alone and with other materials 

Boots Self-Locking Cage Nut (1) IB clinched firmly by 
tool (2) into plywood (3) so that it will not turn in hole 










These are but a few of the items for 
which our plastic coated fabrics and 
papers will be used after the war. 

There are many other applications, 
of course, some of which are already 
familiar to our research staff many 
more have not yet come to our at- 

Check your post war plans. Do plas- 
tic coated fabrics and papers show 
up anywhere in the picture? 

An early contact with a reliable 
source of supply will give you the 
advantage of an early start with 
many of the experimental hurdles 
behind you. 

We have the plant facilities and the 
experience to help you build a "qual- 
ity line" right from the start. Our 
craftsmen were among the first to 
master the new and difficult tech- 
nique of applying the new vinyl res- 
ins to fabrics and papers. We are one 

of the largest suppliers of these fab- 
rics to our armed forces. 

You name it chances are we can 
coat it. Your inquiry will be held in 
strict confidence and accorded every 
possible consideration. 



The Western Shade Cloth Company, 22nd & Jefferson Streets, Chicago 16 




n. is in s 


Tirmerman compression spring clips may be used on split 
or "D" shaped hubs, with threaded or "D" shaped shafts 

Nameplate studs, held by tension, in turn exert tension 
on tubular clips making them lock firmly into plastics 

lights on cooking ranges, temperature controls on refrig- 
erators, nameplates, escutcheons, radio bezels, plastics trim 
strips, and scores of other parts. 

One of the most satisfactory time and money savers in 
all types of plastics assemblies is the "push-on" Speed Nut. 
This spring steel nut can be pushed instantly over the integ- 
rally formed plastics stud as it emerges through the part 
to be connected and bites so firmly into the plastics that 
there can be no loosening from vibration. For high speed 
applications, special tools are used, but in the majority of 
applications they are merely pushed on with thumb and in- 
dex finger. Once applied over a plastics stud, tube, rib or 
other form, they grip with a secure lock held under constant 
spring tension. 

These fasteners embody some unusual features. One is 
a wide bearing surface which spreads the load over a greater 
area. This makes the nut widely applicable to all types of 
plastics materials regardless of their hardness or thickness. 
Another important patented feature is the self-energizing 
spring lock. In this lock the compression of the arch in the 
prongs as well as the base of the nut makes it self-energiz- 
ing; that is, when direct pressure is used to separate the as- 
sembly, the prongs bite deeper and the nut holds more se- 

The Goodrich Rivnuts for plastics assemblies are stand- 
ardized on the 100 countersunk flathead .063". They are 
made in aluminum, brass, and steel. A hole in the material 
to be riveted is formed with the drill slightly deeper than 
the length of the Rivnut. The hole is then countersunk 
100. Then the Rivnut is set in place with the splines in a 
position to engage the plastics or surrounding material. 

The Dzus fastener was developed primarily as a cowl 
fastener for airplanes but is now finding other uses. It is 
quickly applied, and is self-locking, although not light in 

weight. For those applications in which the fastener is not 
required to take as little room as possible, the Dzus fastener 
has many useful applications in spite of its moving parts 
and protrusions. 

The Boots Cage Nut used for plastics and plywood as- 
semblies incorporates a wing type self-locking principle and 
is used primarily in blind installations. The basket mount 
of this nut is collapsed with a clinching tool, which clinches 
the plastics in a claw-like grip, so that it will withstand the 
torque applied when a bolt is inserted. 

The Simmons fastener employs the spiral principle with 
a cam fastener that develops a spring-tension grip by means 
of a round, wire-like arm that locks with a 90 turn. 
(Continued on page 95) 

The Simmons "Spring-Lock" fastener is inserted, then is 
turned 90 to lock round, wire-like arm in tension grip 

In Simmons "Quick-Lock" type, stud is depressed against 
spring action, quarter-turned to lock under cam surfaces 






Plastics now are giving a new lease of life to all kinds of 
lamps and fixtures . . . bringing them up to date. 

Modern plastic reflectors and shades were designed at No. 1 
Plastics Avenue ... in standard interchangeable sizes . . . plain 
and decorated . . . and engineered to give a pleasing diffusion 
of light. These plastic lighting aids are compression-molded 
from a translucent urea material that won't shatter . . . that 
averages less than a quarter of the weight of glass. Such light 
weight and safety mean a lot in maintenance getting all the 
light you pay for by frequent fixture 

This contribution to lighting is just 
one of many examples of the work ot 
G.E.'s complete plastics service now 
available to all industry to solve prob- 
lems of plastics applications to any 
kind of product. 

Why not bring your plastics problem 
no matter how large or small to 


G.E.? And get a balanced and unbiased answer from the world's 
largest manufacturer of plastics parts. Write to Plastics Divi- 
sions, General Electric Co., 1 Plastics Avenue, Pittsfield, Mass. 

G-E Complete Service Everything in Plastics 

Backed by 5 1 years of experience. We've been designing and manu- 
facturing plastics products ever since 1894. G-E Research works continu- 
ally to develop new materials, new processes, new applications. 

No. 1 Plastics Avenue complete plastics service engineering, design 
and mold-making. Our own industrial de- 
signers and engineers, working together, cre- 
ate plastics parts that are both scientifically 
sound and good-looking. Our own toolrooms 
are manned by skilled craftsmen average 
precision mold experience, 12 years. 

All types of plastics. Facilities for com- 
pression, injection, transfer and cold molding 
. . . for both high and low pressure laminat- 
ing ... for fabricating. And G-E Quality 
Control a byword in industry means as 
many as 160 inspections and analyses for a 
single plastic part. 





Rohm & Haas molds bars and discs as test specimens in its own experimental shop 


AS THE plastics industry continues to build up its sup- 
ply of knowledge on plastics and on means to convert 
them into finished goods, fabrication techniques are de- 
veloped to supplement molding for particular articles, and 
vice versa. Such is the case with the acrylics where, in the 
manufacture of large quantities of identical parts, com- 
pression and injection molding often offers many advan- 
tages over fabrication. Within certain limitations of size 
and shape, molding is faster, usually cheaper, and often 
permits closer dimensional control than fabrication. 

Intelligent molding serves to simplify or eliminate finish- 
ing and assembly operations. Though these savings may 
occasionally not be enough to offset the cost of the mold, 
usually they more than justify it, plus any higher mate- 
rials cost that may be involved. 

A section in a new Plexiglas Design Manual published 
by Rohm & Haas summarizes experience to date with 
the molding of methyl methacrylate and is designed to fur- 
ther efficient and satisfactory results in the molding of this 
material. A series of do's and don't's presents the moldcr 
or would-be molder of acrylics with a concise set of instruc- 
tions. These follow much as they appear in the Manual: 

Keep cross-section as uniform as possible. Favor 

Molding offers advantages over 
fabrication where numerous small 
identical parts are to be made 

rounded rather than sharp corners: This recommenda- 
tion applies to major dimensions and contours. If a part 
is to be subjected to flexural stress, a filleted corner is far 
less liable to crack than a sharp one. The material will 
flow better in a mold with rounded corners, thereby reduc- 
ing the danger of sticking. Finally, it is usually cheaper 
to make a mold with rounded corners than with sharp cor- 
ners. Sharp edges are desirable, however, for markings in 
dials and nameplates, to facilitate wiping-in pigment. 

Mold in mounting rims or lugs to save assembly parts 
and time: Mounting rims or lugs should be as substantial 
as possible, particularly if the molding is to be subjected 
to impact or flexure. They should be at least half the thick- 
ness of the molding, and as long and numerous as possible 



FKimUARY 1946 




fo-F the million: 

> great arHsf creates living 


with colorful, enduring plastics. Columbia precision-dear sun glasses - 
one of many such achievements by Columbia master -craftsmen- 
reflect this unique ability to create masterpieces in plastic 
for the millions . . . by the million. 

I it 1 

!NC. CARLSTADT, N. j. New York Office; fcmpire Stole Bonding - Room 7013 




3 fine/v _j P-*GS a<? * L visinn ftQ r^ 

i _i. ^ uA>!_ , ^HJs JfiV+L . ^* O/ A ,j 

oejnj? n : 1?' a nc 

he Bay V duc ed 


Dfr /f 2 ^ *CTRlc * 1 1- J ^ fine 

A4._i *^ U I ^^ -^ 


-or, preferably, continuous. A convenient modification is 
i make the mounting lug a cut-out step in a chamfered 
Ige. Lugs should be filleted into body of molding to avoid 
larp corners. A mounting hole may be placed in the lug, 
ovicled that sufficient material is allowed all around it. 
his rim around the hole should be at least as thick as 
ie lug itself. 

Mold in screw threads to save assembly time: Al- 
lough molded-in threads increase mold cost, they save as- 
onbly time. They should be coarse and heavy with rounded 
)exes to reduce danger of cracking. Threads should not 
; started at the surface of the molding; at least 1/32" 
iculd be allowed to eliminate a feather edge. Molded 
ireads are not practicable except for hole diameters of 
\" or more. If the saving in assembly does not justify 
ie increased mold cost and other costs, such as that of 




ipping, threads may be tapped in a molded part. If so, 
countersink should be molded in as a guide to the tapping 
ie. If the part is to be frequently disassembled, it is prob- 
bly preferable to use molded inserts in the part. 
Do not place mounting holes near the edge of mold- 
ig: For greatest strength, mounting holes should not be 
:ss than the thickness of the molded piece and preferably 

Extrusion is fast, economical lor uniform cross sections 

a greater distance away from the edge to allow for flow 
of material around the pin in the mold. If possible, the 
hole should pass entirely through the part so that core pins 




2X fMAX) 

i .unless X is 
'/it,' or less 


can be supported in both sides of the mold. A good design 
rule is that the depth of the hole should not be more than 
twice the diameter of the hole. Small holes ( 1/16" or less) 
should not be deeper than the diameter of the hole. 

Use molded "rivets" for mounting to metal: Short 
projecting lugs may be incorporated in the molded part 

Lamp enclosures illustrate possibilities in molded acrylics 

which can later be sealed over by heat and pressure. This 
process can be fast and almost automatic. The method 
cannot be used, of course, if the assembly is to be taken 
apart. With longer lugs, Speed Nuts may be used directly 
on the molded lug. 

(Continued on page 98) 

'EBRUARY 1946 




A review of machining methods 

In sawing polystyrene the saw directly above and at 
the point of operation should be flooded with coolant 

Drill operates through hole in coolant-supplying hose. In 
insert, rough hole, gummed drill result from dry drilling 

UNTIL now polystyrene has been used chiefly in purely 
utilitarian goods mainly in the electrical and chemi- 
cal fields in which only a few of its properties have been 
taken advantage of. For example, its low power factor has 
made it ideal for high-frequency coil forms, its high dielec- 
tric strength has made it a good insulator, and its high re- 
sistance to non-oxidizing acids and alkalies has proved its 
value in battery cases and in chemical apparatus. These 
and other qualities have made polystyrene an outstanding 
war plastics. However, it has many other characteristics 
that are yet to find wide application, but they undoubtedly 
will as soon as the material is fully available for civilian 
production. It will then find its deserved place in consumer 
goods, as well as in industrial applications. 

Partly because of the hitherto war-restricted application 
of polystyrene, but more because it is not as easy to machine 
as a number of other plastics, many manufacturers have not 
yet worked with it. But since it is a material to reckon 
with, it is worth while reviewing the methods which pioneer 
fabricators have developed. 

There are two characteristics of polystyrene which make 
it more difficult to machine than some other plastics. One 
is its low softening point, about 180 F. The other is its 
consistency. The combination of both factors tends to 
cause the material to gum. Gumming is especially likely to 
take place at about 200 F at the point of, or in the area of, 
operation. In addition, overheating of the material, even 

if no gumming takes place, may produce crazing and crack- 
ing that will not show up at the moment of operation, but 
will make its appearance days later. 

Because of these factors, the machining of polystyrene 
has an element of unpredictability which makes setting 
down hard and fast rules difficult. For example, some fab- 
ricators use coolant liberally at the point or in the area of 
operation ; others use it only in special operations. It there- 
fore seems to be necessary at present to adjust machining 
procedures to the particular type of job in hand. 

Carbo/oy vs. Steel Tools 

C. F. Galchouse, vice president of Arnold Hrilhart, Ltd. 
notes that coolant or lubricant may be avoided in perhaps a> 
many as 80% of machining operations if certain funda- 
mental precautions are observed. One is the use of earl'" 
loy tools for tool bits for lathe turning and also for milling 
cutters and the tipping of counter-bores and drills. In fact 
carboloy tools are used by this firm for practically all plas- 
tics machining operations, for which it has found tool grade 
88B best. For all polystyrene operations, the tool should IK 
extremely sharp, and fine, uniform feed must lie adhered tn 

While a considerable proportion of fabricators utili/i 
carbide tools, the general tendency still is toward high-sped 
steel. Where high-speed steel tools are used for the ma- 
chining of polystyrene, the picture changes considerably 
with respect to both operating speeds and coolant require- 
ments. Two precautions, however, remain the same as fr> 
carbide tools : the tool must be very sharp, and the feed imK 
be fine, unforced, and uniform. 

Most of the machining procedures and data that follow 
are based on operations with high-speed steel tools and an 





devised by pioneer fabricators 

irovided largely through the cooperation of K. Steen Jen- 
en, production manager, of Dura Plastics, Inc. 

In using high-speed steel tools on polystyrene, Mr. Jen- 
en finds the solution to the problems of gumming and of 
icat-produced crazing in the liberal use of coolant, in tool 
iharpness, in attention to operating speeds, and in careful 
eed. Coolant is used, in most cases, in a formula of 10 
arts of water to one part of 40% sodium silicate. It might 
>e noted that not all water-soluble oils may be applied to 
lolystyrene, since many oils dissolve it. Two other good 
rater-soluble coolants are Vergo Oil 38-P and Solvac 
00-M special. 

:/rcu/or Sow 

While a hollow-ground saw is preferable, it is not neces- 
ary if all other precautions are observed. The blade thick- 
ess may be as small as .040" for sections up to .090", in- 
reasing up to 3/32" for heavier work. A 1/16" blade is a 
:ood compromise for general work. The diameter of the 
aw may be from 4" to 10". The advantage of the smaller 
ilade is that it has a lower perimetric speed at any given 
pindle speed and, therefore, will have less tendency to heat 

Here's what is likely to happen when sawing polysty- 
rene without a coolant. Note ridges of gum. Saw clogs 

Contrast between two pieces effectively demonstrates the 
value of liberal application of coolant over dry sawing 

itself and the work. The number of teeth per inch will, to 
some extent, be governed by the diameter of the saw, but 
more by the thickness of the work. A good compromise for 
the 4" blade is from 8 to 10 teeth per inch. For blades of 
larger diameter and for thicker work sections, the number 
of teeth may go up to 15 per inch. 

The only time coolant may be dispensed with in circular 
saw operations with the normal type of blade is when small 
cuts are being taken cuts of not over 2", as when sawing 
off a corner. Even then, the feed must be unforced. Ex- 
cept for these small cuts, the saw directly above and at the 
point of operation should be flooded with coolant. While 
an operating speed of from 1800 to 2000 rpm appears to be 
prevalent in the circular sawing of polystyrene, Mr. Jensen 
has found that he can reach 3450 without damaging the ma- 
terial or the tool, if an uninterrupted rill of coolant is fed 
to the saw. 

If a circular saw operation on polystyrene is performed 
without the application of coolant, the heat-produced gum 
on both sides of the cut makes its appearance on both the 
upper and nether surfaces of the work. In the course of 
taking the cut, the gum on the under surface causes the 
work to climb as it emerges from the operation, with a r^e- 
sultant chatter and vibration which generates new heat in 
addition to the heat of the saw. 

A helpful trick in circular sawing is to have the clearance 
between blade and saw table as small as possible to prevent 
the material from pulling into the gap. 
Band Saw 

As with the circular saw, cuts made with a band saw re- 
sult in gumming unless coolant is supplied to the opera- 
tion, with an occasional exception. 

Mr. Jensen of Dura has found that the extent of lubrica- 
tion needed in band saw operations can be reduced and the 
cutting efficiency increased by using a skip-tooth band, 4 
to 6 teeth per inch, instead of the usual metal-cutting band 
on polystyrene sections from %" up. At %" this type of 
band can be used without coolant. For cuts in sections of 
smaller thickness than %", a metal-cutting band saw is 
used. Since the band for cutting thin sections must be 
without set in order to avoid chipping at the cut, ample 
coolant should be used. Band saw operating speed for poly- 
tyrene should be from 465 to 550 fpm. The band slot 
should be wide when thick sections are being worked, so 
that the waste can clear, and for sections 4" and over, it is 
often advisable to remove the slot-disc altogether. 
Jig Saw 

As far as possible, the jig saw should be avoided in po- 
lystyrene operations. Aside from any other consideration, 
its chief drawback is its inability to handle the liberal quan- 
tities of coolant needed. Since the blade has a reciprocal 

The facing of a large diameter polystyrene part may be 
a "dry" operation. Note long, straight, continuous ribbon 

As result of dry sanding polystyrene piece gummed badly, 
but the acrylic piece displayed a smooth frosted surface 

action, the coolant tends to splash up toward the operator 
on the upstroke of the blade. In cutting holes, it is gen- 
erally preferable to rout them out instead of jig-sawing 
them. When the holes are to be sharp cornered, they may 
be jig-filed without coolant, provided the feed is light. 
Where there is compelling reason for using the jig-saw, 
standard blades may be used at a speed of about 875 cycles 
per minute, that is, 1750 strokes both up and down. 

James Bailey, director of research for the Plax Corpora- 
tion, finds that shape distortion is too great to make slicing 
of polystyrene feasible. However, he notes that the oper- 
ation can be accomplished if both the work and the tool, as 
well as all metal parts in contact with the material, are kept 
at a temperature of 220-230 F. Even then, some slight 
shape distortion will occur. 

Flat sheets up to 1/16" thick, Mr. Bailey states, can be 
blanked if the punch and die come together all around at 
the same time (flat punch). A slight craze around the edge 
extending radially to about half the thickness of the mate- 
rial is usually produced in this operation. Sheets up to J4" 
thick may be blanked if steam-bath heated at 212 F for 15 
min before blanking. 


Drilling is another operation in which, for polystyrene, 
coolant must be liberally applied. As it will in drilling any 
plastics, coolant will provide a cleaner hole; but what is 
more important in connection with polystyrene, the appli- 
cation of coolant will keep the drill from becoming badly 

For drilling polystyrene, the drill should be high-speed 
steel, with a lip angle of about 70 and a clearance of from 
10 to 15. A slow helix is best for most work. Cleaner 
holes are more easily achieved with polished flutes, al- 
though these are not absolutely necessary. A fairly sharp 
web is also helpful. In fact, Mr. Jensen has found that 
on deep holes and on holes of W diameter it is desirable 
to sharpen the web down practically to a point. This grind- 
ing job should, however, be done by a practiced hand if 
rake, clearance, and other angles are not to be thrown off. 

A spindle speed of 600 rpm may be considered rather 
slow; nevertheless, it is a good compromise speed for drill- 

ing polystyrene. Changes from this standard speed can b 
avoided by accommodating the feed rate to the depth ani 
diameter of the hole. High speeds are especially inadvis 
able if the device for feeding down the coolant is one ii 
which the drill operates through a hole in the coolant-feed 
ing hose. With this type of set-up, high drill speeds wil 
cause the liquid to travel up the drill helix instead of down 
pulling it away from the point of operations and scatterinj 
it at the top of the drill. 


Mr. Bailey points out that operating speeds in the turn 
ing of polystyrene will be governed by a number of factor; 
other than the type of tool and character of cut, especially 
by vibration. Long slender pieces should be run at a spee< 
at which there will be no vibration. The speed in this cas< 
can be determined only by test. For light cuts, at .002" t< 
.005" feed and .010" deep, speeds up to 1300 fpm are prao 
ticable if the piece is rigidly held. Coolant, either liquid 01 
air-blast, is required. For inside turning or boring, com' 
parable speeds may be used, if the diameter is large. Bu' 
where the feeding of coolant to small-hole operations is i 
problem, surface speeds will have to be decreased. In al 
turning operations, the surface heat should never be raise* 
above 190 F, which means that tools must be kept sharj 
and cool. If this requirement is not met, subsequent crazing 
of the surface is likely to occur. 

Mr. Jensen of Dura has his turning tools ground to pro- 
duce a straight, that is, a non-twisting, ribbon cut. Thi 
tool has a slight negative rake about 2, a clearance angl< 
of from 10 to 15, and a side rake of about 10. He find! 
especially useful a new copper-cushioned turning tool 01 
the nether surface of which a 1/32" shim of copper has beet 
brazed. The cutting edge should be set at 1 or 2 abov< 
the center of the work, since setting at center sometimes 
gives the work a tendency to climb. Coolant is essential it 
almost all turning operations, but Mr. Jensen has found one 
interesting exception the turning, and more especially the 
facing, of work of large diameter. 

Threading and Tapping 

Although fine threads can be cut in polystyrene if propel 
precautions are observed, they are generally inadvisable be- 
cause the thermal expansivity of the material creates the 
danger of so tight a fit when the part is in use that it is dif- 
ficult to disengage. For threads made in a tapping machine 
or, for that matter, by drawing the rod through the lathe 
headstock, as well as for taps made in the tapping machine 
standard taps and dies of high-speed steel may be used. Foi 
external threads of the American coarse series on rod di- 
ameters up to %" the spindle speed should be 28 rpm. Foi 
rod diameters from J4" up, it is generally preferable to use 
a threading tool on a lathe set-up. In this case spindle 
speeds may go up to about 685 rpm, depending on the length 
of the thread and the skill of the operator. The more adept 
the operator at retracting the tool at the end of the cut, thai 
is, before the cut overreaches its terminus, the more rapidly 
the spindle may be permitted to operate. 

In tapping with standard taps, a 3-flute tap is preferable 
because it allows more clearance for chips than the 4-flut< 
tool. Spindle speed should be 110 rpm. Large diameters 
may be made with a boring bar operating at speeds up to 
685 rpm, under the same considerations as those obtaining 
for use of the threading tool. 

For internal and external threading of large diameters, 
the thread milling machine or a lathe grinding attachment 
set up for thread milling can be provided with a high-speed- 
steel cutter with a cutting edge shaped to produce the de- 
sired thread. There are two operating speeds involved in 
this type of operation, that of the cutter and that of die 
(Continued on page 104) 






Complete facilities available for the creation and reproduction of models 
made to your specifications and tolerances. 

Industrial Models Art Work and Sculpture 

Scientific Reproductions Advertising Displays 

Medical Reproductions Commercial Models 

Simple or Intricate Miniature to Heroic 

Special and individual attention given to unusual Pilot Plant small produc- 
tion run type of work for sample and demonstration pieces required in a 
hurry, using 

a. A variety of materials metal, wood, plaster, rubber, plastics, 
composition clay, or others as required. 

b. A variety of production techniques including machining, 
casting, spraying, plating, modeling as required. 


A complete tooling program from layout to production for the metal, wood, 
plastic and other industries, including 

a. Preparation of metal templates from Blue Print. 

b. Conventional steel tool and die work. 

c. Latest unusual tooling techniques. 



Form Block Rubber Press Pad 

Stretch Press Dies 

Draw Dies Male and Female 

Tube Bending Forms 

Mandrels for Plywood 

Dies for forming Plastic Sheets 


Dies for Vulcanized Rubber 
Rubber Dip Forms 
Injection Dies for Molding Plastics 
Thermosetting Molds Cast and 

Dies for Cold Molding Plastics 


Drill Sigs 
Routing Fixtures 
Saw Cutting Fixtures 
Lathe Fixtures 
Milling Fixtures 
Keller Machine Models 
Blank and Pierce Dies 
Imbedded Cutting Knives 


Assembly Fixtures 
Checking Fixtures 


Tool deliveries can be made in a matter of days or weeks, depending 
upon the job, by using fast tooling techniques where applicable. 



101 PARK AVE., N.Y. 17, N.Y. 

Mu 5-0478 Mu 5-0758 




Fungi starting a "field holiday" on unprotected insulation of a combat ship's main battery switch wires 

Protecting Electronic 
Equipment front Fungi 

Plastics resistant to fungus attack made a vital contribution 
to the war-fime battle against this devastating tropical enemy 

THE problem of resistance of plastics to fungi of vari- 
ous kinds came sharply to the fore as a result of war 
requirements in Europe, Africa, and the Far East. The dep- 
redations of these parasitic growths on radar and elec- 
tronic equipment in general caused electrical breakdowns 
and threatened the parts with rot and decay. Until recently, 
coils and parts were immersed in molten wax but this of- 
fered little protection. At high temperatures, like those 
prevailing in tropical regions, the wax would melt and run 
out, giving the fungi a field holiday. 

A Pest "Blitz" 

How thoroughly these pests do their work was revealed 
recently in an interview with Howard Nechamkin, research 
scientist of Brooklyn, N. Y., who has pioneered in the for- 
mulation of new plastics as protection for electronic equip- 
ment. Experience showed they attack almost everything 
oils, waxes, many plastics, and wood cellulosic materials. So 
powerful and fast-moving are these fungi that they will 
invade and completely over-run instruments and cabinets 
in a period of 24 hr. In the tropics, a man taking his shoes 
off may find his feet covered with the green mold in a few 

Parasitic growths are amazingly destructive and swift-acting 






S P I 

<Jiwitet y<?u t$ attend 
The National Plastics Exposition 

SPI earnestly invites you to visit the first National 
Plastics Exposition, a brilliant pageant of the modern 
plastics that are playing an increasingly significant 
role in product development in virtually every 
American industry. 

The National Plastics Exposition will tell the whole 
story of all the plastics, what they can do for you, 
how they can do it. Everything in plastics will be 
paraded at the exposition by the industry's foremost 
materials manufacturers, machinery builders, fabri- 
cators, molders, extruders, laminators, service organi- 
zations for you to inspect, test, compare. 

For new approaches to your product problems, for 
fresh ideas, for authoritative information about the 
developments that can mean greater volume and 
profits for you visit' this most significant and excit- 
ing industrial exposition ever held! 


APRIL 22 to 27, 1946 

Sponsored by the Society of the Plastics Industry 


The merits of fungus-resistant plastics "tropicalization" are illustrated by treated equipment (left) and untreated (right) 

hours. In Borneo, according to Nechamkin, it is hard to 
keep the mold off the body as it grows quickly in the ears 
and under the finger-nails. 

Fungi damage the equipment in two ways : by causing 
short circuiting, arcing and sparking, thus disabling or se- 
riously interfering with efficient functioning ; or by attack- 
ing it directly, discoloring the surfaces, pitting and cover- 
ing them with cottony fluff or etching them with spider-web 

Research pointed to plastics as a solution to the problem 
of protection. However, special kinds had to be developed 
to meet requirements of combat service, in addition to fun- 
gus resistance. Again, some plastics are resistant in them- 
selves but lose this property when compounded with certain 
fillers or plasticizers. Some are highly resistant only when 
free from dust; they succumb to the pests when covered 
with a film, owing to the action of metabolic byproducts 
of the fungus as it feeds on the dust. 

In general, the degree of resistance against fungi by a 
plastics is directly proportional to its degree of water-re- 
sistance. Thus cellulose acetate butyrate, having slightly 
greater water resistance than cellulose acetate, for exam- 
ple, has relatively greater fungus resistance. From this 
viewpoint, polystyrene, having a moisture absorption of 
zero, is ideal, as it is practically immune to fungus attacks. 
This is true even when it is covered with a film of dust 
However, it has a comparatively low softening point and, 
as electronic equipment is often exposed to higher temper- 
atures in the tropics, its usefulness in this regard is lim- 
ited. Unfilled vinyl resins have been found satisfactory 
from the viewpoint of fungus resistance also, phenol for- 
maldehyde, when no filler is used, and melamine formalde- 

Nechamkin emphasized the fact that laminations and 
fillers of linen, cotton, wood, or wood flour are subject to 
attacks by the molds in spite of the high resistance of the 
plastics with which they are used. If fillers must be used, 
he added, chopped up asbestos fibers, mica dust, or glass 
should be utilized, as these materials are not vulnerable. 

How do fungi operate in their attacks on materials? 
There are two methods or "mechanisms of deterioration," 
to use Ncchamkin's phrase and the plastics safeguard 
must be proof against both. The fungus may live directly 
off the surface of the equipment, as a fly is nourished in a 
bowl of soup. Coming in contact with hospitable material 
like cellulose derivative substances, it sends out tiny roots 
into the bed of "nutriment." By means of enzymes which 
it secretes, it actually feeds on bits of the hard surface, 
which it ingests and absorbs. Rayons and ccllulosic plas- 
tics in particular are subject to this kind of attack. 

Very recently, high acetyl cellulose was developed to 
withstand these depredations. While satisfactory in this and 
(Continued on page 96) 

Attacks on wire connection box above and switch box 
below may cause short circuiting, arcing, or sparking 



The right material for the rig/if appli- 
cation in the right place at the right 
time this is the essence of MACOID 
extrusion successes. 

In addition to the creative foresight 
that has enabled MACOID engineers 
to originate modern dry plastics ex- 
trusion and to pioneer countless ap- 
plications of our process to the prob- 

lems and products of all industries 
especially automotive, aviation, furni- 
ture, refrigeration and agriculture 
MACOID has the ability to say "NO" 
to improper applications and to insist 
on adequate testing to determine the 
proper material for the job. 

If you, like many of America's leading 
industrialists, would like to work with 
a company who is not afraid to say 
"NO", try MACOID. 

We also do injection molding. 



Hudgins & Ratsey 

Deck tent and bumper covers typify marine uses for "Koroseal" coated cloth 

Plastics in Boats 

Vinyls protect cloth from water, chemicals, 
fire, mildew, rot; give permanency of form 

ONE day in June of this year, a PBY airplane circled 
around the United States Naval Air Station at Lake- 
hurst, New Jersey, and headed out for sea. Suddenly, ob- 
servers saw an 18 foot life-boat bail out under a parachute. 
This was the first production model of Navy air-borne life- 
boats furnished by Ratsey & Lapthorne, a company which 
began manufacturing sails in England in 1790. And the 
sails, covers and canvas ^ "sea anchors" of the boat .were 
coated with Koroseal, a plasticized polyvinyl chloride ma- 

This plastics coating has a long range of home and in- 
dustrial uses, because of its resistance to water, chemicals 
and fire, and its dimensional stability. During the war 
it was drafted into the Navy and marine industry, for which 
its properties are peculiarly adaptable. This comparatively 
new application was largely initiated by our company, which 
was the first to use it as a coating for sails. We also ap- 
ply it to boat covers, parachute packs, sail covers and all 

fabrics and canvas on board ship. Most of our work ha 
been concentrated on air-borne rescue boats, some of the 
35 foot dinghies, for the United States Army Air Cor 
Marine application has been largely experimental and lir 
ited by the high priority of the plasfics, but the excelle 
results already achieved point to expanding post-war uses 
in this field in commercial shipping and in yachting. 

A Better Product 

The need for plastics coating is based on the limitations 
of ordinary canvas duck under marine conditions. This 
material mildews and rots quite easily, burns freely as a rule, 
discolors badly due to ageing and cannot be easily cleaned. 
All these deficiencies are largely overcome by a vinyl resin > 
coating, which is mildew-proof, rot-proof, water-pro, if. 
highly fire-resistant and not affected by alkalies, acids, snaps 
or common household cleansing fluids. In addition, the 
coating is estimated to increase the tensile strength of the 





& -? 

RW x / 


cofo/og, MO page! 
discrib/ng metal 
ports and metal 

Cinch ingenuity in || ss^^ly operations is the 
ultimate in our "plannedT^w^rrion." Particular design, 
our own special equipment combine together to pro- 
duce more satisfactory parts at lower costs. For years 
we nave specialized in putting things together. It is 
our business. We have the "KNOW HOW". The ter- 
minal panel illustrated is one our earliest metal plastic 
assemblies. Out of this development grew an organi- 
zation trained to produce for you. 



2335 W. Van Buren Street, Chicago 12, Illinois 

Subsidiary of United-Carr Fastener Corp., Cambridge 42, Mass. 

No. 10 in a Series of Advertisements "MEET MElal Plastic Engineering" 



Goyly decorative curtains and seat covers, coated with 
"Koroseal," wear long, resist moisture, mildew, and rot 

Coated pants, coats, hats, and face masks keep wearers 
warm and dry, retain flexibility even in cold weather 

the ; 

fabric by 50%, which means greater sailing efficiency and 
greater economy, making possible as it does the use of 
lighter fabrics. 

For commercial shipping, the plastics coating has a wide 
variety of applications. All boats become soaking wet in 
bad weather. When a storm breaks after a long dry spell, 
water leaks down boat-runs and companionways into galleys 
and cabins. The plastics coating is needed to protect uphol- 
stery from wetness, but it is also needed for the covering 
of boxes and binnacles. Again, the famed oilskins of the 
whalers offer little protection against dampness. Where 
they get stuck to the body, water seeps through the pores 
by capillary action. The plasticized polyvinyl chloride resin 
coating is non-porous and waterproof. It makes "foul 
weather clothing," as the Navy calls it, flexible in any 
weather, keeping the men warm and dry. Neither does it 
crack in cold weather nor get soft and tacky in warm. 
Coated garments are lighter than rubber garments and will 
not oxidize, peel or crack. 

/advantages Arc Many 

Similarly, upholstery in the cabins, if coated with 
plastics, will not wash out or become hard or brittle. Dra- 
peries will not get soft or sticky even if folded or rolled up 
while wet, nor will they yellow appreciably with age. The 
coating means economy as the years pass, for it results in 
longer wear to interior decoration fabrics. It is valuable 
for heavy weather cloths such as tarpaulins, hatch covers, 
boat covers, life preserver covers, windbreaks surrounding 
the rails, awnings and deck covers. It is needed also for 
utility interior fabrics like mattress and spring covers . In 
short, whatever fabric is used on deck, below deck or above 
deck is a fit subject for treatment by Koroseal, Saran, Chem- 
aco Vinyl, and similar coatings to resist mildew, fire and 
other hazards of the marine industry. 

Another application is on life preserver covers for kapok 
pillows in the life-preserver jackets that are worn over the 
outer clothing on board ship. The edges of the covers are 
heat-sealed instead of stitched together, so that the seams 
are water-tight. 

Yachting and sailboat racing are soon expected to return 
to their pre-war level of popularity, and for this purpose, 
also, the plastics coating offers important advantages. It 
should be widely used for sails, sail covers, deck covers, 
hatch covers, winter covers, etc., as well as for heavy 
weather clothing and duffle bags. In addition to being 
waterproof, it is mothproof and windproof. Yachtsmen 
are particularly interested in the fact that it can be easily 
cleansed with soap and water and that it is resistant to sun- 
light and oxidation. In addition, the coating should be 
much in demand for cockpit cushions, berths, bunks and 
wherever upholstery is used. 

Racing Sails 

The only question regarding its application is in the mat- 
ter of racing sails. While it is excellent for working sails, 
some yachting authorities believe that it makes the canvas 
too elastic so that fullness or bellying takes place in the mid- 
dle of the sail instead of in the forward third, which is the 
desirable position for a racing sail. However, this claim 
was disputed by one racing enthusiast who recently won 
three races with Koroseal-coated sails on his boat. He ob- 
served that the waterproof quality of the plastics offered a 
decided advantage when the boat tacked and the sail dipped 
into the water. 

Another yachtsman interviewed pointed out that the coat- < 
ing presents a smooth, non-porous surface to the wind, 
making the sail superior to ordinary uncoated canvas, which 
is porous. They all agreed that the fire-resistant factor is 
not the most important feature in this connection, as racing 
(Continued on page 106) 




Drawings by Julian Krupa. pldStlCS Art Staff 

Sliding doors provide ease of access while 
preventing loss of cold air, in this deep 
freeze and refrigerator combination designed 
by Andrew C. Karlstad, Sherman Oaks (Los 
Angeles). The design is planned for exten- 
sive use of low-pressure laminates in the 
interest of reducing weight, vibration, and 
noise. Molded plastics form handles and trim. 

A Presentation of the Potential Applications of 
Plastics as Visualized by Industrial Designers 

( lSSliCS welcomes designers' contributions to this department) 

Smoothly flowing lines and economy of space 
requirements characterize this design for a 
plastics telephone instrument, by George Roos, 
Chicago. Contrasting shades of either clear or 
opaque plastics form the "push-buttons" in call- 
ing device, and supply a decorative interest. 

electric vaporizer designed by Brooks Stevens, of 
Milwaukee, Wis. Raymond Laboratories, Inc., used 
a phenolic molding compound to form this completely 
automatic unit for the Spartan Co., Minneapolis. 

New Motifs in Lampshades 

The beauty of natural flowers is preserved and held 
permanently between two sheets of cellulose acetate 

Wheat and flowers mcke shade pattern at left, with crys- 
tal lamp base. Other lamp features pansies, acrylic base 

THE delicate beauty of natural flowers is literall; 
pressed into service in a line of lamp shades design 
by Rose Simon, Baltimore, which combines them wi 
sturdy, washable Lumarith cellulose acetate. The flowe: 
chemically treated to prevent embrittlement, are presi 
between two sheets' of the plastics. Miss Simon also u: 
the wheat plant in the same way for the excellent decora 
tive patterns which can be achieved with it. That thi 
treatment is effective is evidenced by the fact that early 
models made by Miss Simon four years ago are still in 
good condition. 

The colors of flowers show up strikingly in the glow of 
a lighted lamp, and there is no limit to the color range. 
Against a background of off-white acetate, anything from 
pale yellow primrose to the red and purple bracts of Bou- 
gainvilleas stands out. There is also the possibility of 
achieving subtle harmonies by using tinted sheets of Lit- 
marith, when tinted material is available. Miss Simon also 
combines several kinds of plants in one shade, as illustrated. 

Since shades can be made to order, they can be fitted to 
any size lamp, from the popular small boudoir model 
larger table lamps. The shades range in price from $4.9, 
for a 4" model to $25 for a 17" model. 


Ethical and ACCURATE engineering procedure is 
the history of ACCURATE in its many years in 
the service of Compression and Transfer Molding, 
dating back to the early days of Plastics . . . To- 
day this experience and background accounts for 
the reasons why so many manufacturers use AC- 
CURATE facilities to solve their Compression and 
Transfer Mold problems. There is NO OBLIGA- 
TION for this service . . . Write ACCURATE to- 


l oVAVL ** " 



// youi new product calls for a plastic 
part injection molded to precise speci- 
fications Universal Plastics may be 
your best bet. 

Our design engineers are at your service 
to help you plan new products and prod- 
uct improvements. 

Call or write. 

Genera; OHices. 270 MADISON AVENUE 

NEW YORK 16. N. Y. 

Phone: MUrray Hill 5-3950 







Maritvt Research Engineer 

Plastics Standardization 

With plastics now firmly entrenched as a major factor in our 
national economy, it has become more necessary than ever to 
minimize and in most instances delete all guesswork approaches 
to plastics development and production. Efforts in this direction 
were initiated prior to the war with standardization test and 
development programs . . . programs that provided an evalua- 
tion of product uniformity. 

During the war the program was substantially expanded and 
today the plastics industry has an excellent standardization for- 
mat to follow. 1 It is, for instance, possible to check for product 
uniformity of phenolic laminated sheets with six tests. These 
are : Thread count and ply thickness ; acetone extractable mat- 
ter; water absorption; dielectric strength parallel with lamina- 
tions after immersion in water ; density ; and hot Rockwell 

The thread count and ply thickness test, generally used for 
fabric-base grades of material, indicates the variations in count 
or weight of the fabric base used or any radical changes in the 
resin content of the material. The acetone extractable matter 
test reveals the change in cure of the material, change in type of 
resin used, or the presence of any acetone extractable agents. 
In the water absorption test, we learn of the changes in resin 
content, type of resin or raw materials used, or the degree of 

'ASTM Standards on Electrical Insulating Materials, ASTM Committee 
D-9; 1945. 

impregnation sufficient to cause changes in water absorption. 
The dielectric strength test reveals the presence of conducting 
materials, overcure, or high moisture content in treated materials 
before pressing. The density test is quite interesting in that it 
discloses the changes in the type of resin used, resin content, 
character of the sheet filler material used, as well as any addi- 
tional pigments that might have been included. The .est also 
reveals if there is any insufficient molding pressure, although this 
condition is usually rare in sheet materials. The hot Rockwell 
hardness test indicates any undercuring of ma*rial or the 
presence of plasticisers. 

In the thread count test, a textile thread counter or a 4-to 
6-power microscope with a Y^" or 1" square opening in the base 
is generally used. To test a specimen for Rockwell hardness, 
material 1" square and %" thick is suggested. In heating thi 
material, the specimens are placed one layer deep in a consl 
temperature oven at 135 2C. Heating periods vary fn 
15 to 30 min depending upon the thickness of the material. 

Conditioning Procedure 

A tentative method for the conditioning of plastics for test 
ing purposes has also been evolved. Two procedures have been 
suggested by the standards' authority. In the first procedure 
l /4" test specimens are conditioned in a standard laboratory 
atmosphere for a minimum of 40 hours. If the test specimens 
are larger, a minimum of 88 hrs is recommended. This procedure 
is suggested for thermoplastics. 

The second procedure, recommended for thermosetting mate- 
rials, provides for a conditioning of the test specimens for a 
48-hr period in a circulation air oven at a temperature of 50 
3 C or 122 5.4 F. After this heating period it a 
necessary to remove the specimen from the oven and cool to a 
standard room temperature in a desiccator, over anhydrous 
calcium chloride, for about 16 hrs. Incidentally, the standard 
room temperature usually is in a range of 20 to 30 C or 68 
to 86 F. 

The deformation of plastics under load is quite an impor 







Capacity and supervision that is a guar- 
antee of quality. ... A reputation for 
integrity in every phase of Thermoplastic 








L'tor. Accordingly, several methods of test have been sug- 
ste<l. The methods recommended cover rigid and non-rigid 
aterials. According to ASTM deformation is the dimensional 
liangc due almost entirely to flow, and the dimensional change 
ue to a combination of flow and shrinkage caused by a loss of 
later or other volatile matter. 

Methyl methacrylate and polystyrene are typical of the mate- 
lals that deform almost entirely by flow. Materials that deform 
v a combination of flow and shrinkage include phenolic lami- 
ftted fiber, vulcanized fiber, cellulose acetate and cellulose ace- 
Ite butyrate. 

lest Methods 

! The rigid plastics test method involves, basically, a parallel 
late or constant force system. That is, a test specimen is con- 
itioncd and then placed between the parallel plates of a constant 
prce device, the thickness being observed over a required period 
4. a known temperature. The test machine usually exerts a con- 
stant force of 250, 500 and 1000 Ib 1% between parallel anvils, 
a the non-rigid plastics test, involving materials approximately 
i" in thickness, the test method is essentially the same as that 
pr the rigid materials, except that the pressure is 100 psi. The 
jeriod of test for deformation is 3 hrs. 

To test the flexural characteristics of rigid plastics a cali- 
rated test device which can be operated at a constant rate of 
rosslu-ad movement is recommended. The stiffness of this ma- 
liine must be such that the total elastic deformation does 
jot exceed 1% of the total deflection of the test specimen, 
hi writing a report on this property the ASTM committee rec- 
jmmends that the following data be included : Direction of cut- 
ing and loading specimens ; conditioning procedure ; depth and 
Lidth of specimen; span length; span-depth ratio; modulus of 
jupture ; modulus of elasticity in bending, in Ibs per sq in. 

The Rockwell hardness test has also been standardized by 
sing the flat anvil method and conducting all tests at a tempera- 
fire of 25 2 C. 

Another physical test which is quite important in plastics is 
pat involving impact resistance. Such test is intended to deter- 
niiK' the relative susceptibility to fracture by shock, of plastics, 
Is indicated by the energy expended by a standard pendulum 
\]K- impact machine in breaking a specimen in one blow. 

Two types of impact machines can be used. One is the canti- 
ever beam or Izod method where the specimen is held as a 
antilever beam, usually vertical, and then broken by a blow 
lelivered at a fixed distance from the edge of the specimen 
lamp. A notched specimen is required. This notch is intended 
:o produce a standard degree of stress concentration. The other 
[nethod is a beam or Charpy test where the specimen is sup- 
ported as a simple beam, usually horizontal, and broken by a 
plow delivered midway between the supports. Here the speci- 
men can be plain or notched. 

! Probably one of the most interesting tests of plastics is that 
involving tensile properties. There are nine factors involved in 
fhis test : Tensile stress ; extension ; strain or unit extension ; ten- 
jsile strength ; percentage elongation ; mean rate of stressing ; 
Imean rate of straining ; elastic modulus or Young's modulus ; and 
the offset yield stress. These terms have been defined and stand- 
lardized by the ASTM. 

Tensile strength, for instance, has been defined as the maxi- 
mum tensile load per unit area of original cross-section, within 
the gage boundaries, required to break a test specimen. It is 
expressed in Ib per sq in. The true ultimate or tensile strength 
is the tensile load per unit of minimum cross-sectional area, 
measured at the moment of rupture, required to break a test 
specimen. This is also expressed in Ib per sq in. Extension is 
defined as the change in length produced in a longitudinal sec- 
tion of a test specimen, measured between fixed gage points, by 
a tensile load. This is expressed in inches. Strain or unit ex- 
tension is the change in length per unit of original length. This 
is expressed as a dimensionalless ratio. The elastic modulus has 
been defined as the ratio within the elastic limit of stress to cor- 
responding strain. This is expressed in Ib per sq in. 

A standard method of test for water absorption has also been 
, prepared. This method is intended to apply to all types of plas- 
tics including cast, hot-molded and cold-molded resinous prod- 
ucts, and both homogeneous and laminated plastics in rod and 
tube form, and in sheets .005" or greater in thickness. The test 
serves as a guide to reveal the proportion of water absorbed by 
the material. END 

Felsenthal plastic name plates give precision 
sharpness of detail and easy readability. They 
won't warp, shrink or curl. They are not affected 
by moisture, acids or similar liquids will not 
corrode or support fungus. 

Send us your specifications. If our Design 
and Engineering Department is needed, it is 
at your service. Not only for name plates but 
for a multitude of other important purposes. 
Our new catalog shows hundreds of products 
in plastics ask for No. 3-A. 









Speed Nuts are Speedier 

when used with HOLTITE 
"Thread-Forming" Screws 

By cutting perfect mating threads in any material as they are 
turned in drilled or molded holes, these hardened speed fasten- 
ings eliminate the time, cost and hazards of tapping operations. 
Setting up tighter they resist the loosening effects of vibration 
and insure strong, enduring fastening of parts in your assembly. 

Our Engineering Staff will gladly study fastening problems 
that confront you, and make recommendations for the most 
efficient solution. Frequently, a Special fastening designed for 
the specific application, eliminates the part to be fastened by 
including it in its design. Thus, an extra part is eliminated and 
a stronger fastening results. 

Furnithtd with HOLTlTE-Phillipi Recalled Htodt and Stalled Heads 

Acrylics Go I 

to Court 

Judge followed disputed points by reierring to models 

ADD another role to the already impressive list of ap- 
plications for the versatile acrylics: expert witm^. 
During the week of September 17 three working-model s of 
clear acrylic went to the San Francisco Federal District 
Court on behalf of the defendant. They were a bisj help 
to counsel for the defendant in presenting the issues. 

Attorneys say that in every patent case the major prob- 
lem is in a few minutes to explain the operation of the de- 
vice in suit to a judge who has probably never heard of it. In 
this case the device was an automatic pressure cooker used 
in processing canned foods. All the action occurs inside 
steel drum. Without the use of a transparent plastics i 
would have been impossible to demonstrate visually wha 
was happening. The plaintiff, Food Machinery Corp., al- 
leged that Pacific Can Co. was infringing on its patent 
while the defense claimed that the patent in suit was invali 
because the patented device had been shown in another pal 
ent 10 years earlier. 

To back up their claim Pacific Can and its attorneys 
tracted with Ferdinand T. Kebely of K-Plastix to fabrica 
three models one for each device involved. He choi 
acrylics for all the parts except the axles, which are mad< 
of Phenolite. One model showed the device of the patent 
in suit, which in this case was identical with an earlii 
prior art patent. Another showed an 1899 prior art devic 
The third model illustrated the device of the defendant. 

Fine parallel red lines on the outside of each drum per- 
mitted easy observation of the forward progress of a sample 
can through each device. Colored inserts in the tracks 
showed how this is accomplished. Briefly, each device con- 
sists of a drum, a reel with longitudinal pockets rotating 
therein, and a T cross-section can-guide track mounted in 
the drum around the reel. The object is to propel the cans 
through the drum as the cooking takes place. Each can is 
placed in a pocket ; then as the reel rotates the pocket, the 
track pushes the can endwise. 

The models allowed defendant's counsel to demons! rate 
visually every disputed point. Judge Michael Roche said be 
had never seen such models used before, and patent lawyers 
not involved in the case came to see them in operation. 

A verdict, other than the informal one that plastics bad 
their place in court, has not yet been handed down. END 





. . . with a complete service 

NATIONAL LOCK COMPANY'S modern facilities manned by designers, 
engineers and craftsmen highly experienced in the latest manufacturing processes in the 
production of Molded Plastics are available and ready to serve your requirements. 

We offer a complete service from original design to finished product. Custom molding 
by the injection, compression or transfer method of any component part of your product 
in any thermosetting or thermoplastic material, with or without metals, built to your spec- 
ifications. For over forty years we have been leaders in the design and manufacture of 
these products for leading Refrigerator, Furniture, Appliance and Cabinet industries. 

Write us about your needs. Consultation and recommendation furnished at no obligation. 




This window display featuring the acrylics presents a 
stimulating scene to the person in search of a hobby 


tl5u /r/ 





A WOUNDED GI was flat on his back in the hospital 
for months. He began to whittle away at a piece of 
Plexiglas which had been part of a shot-up bomber his bud- 
dies had broken up. He tried all sorts of shapes and uses 
until he hit upon the idea of making a new kind of picture 
frame. Instead of making the frame completely surround 
the picture, he cut out two little figures which held the pic- 
ture between them. Now out of the hospital with a dis- 
ability, he has developed his hobby into a profitable business. 
A naval lieutenant was attracted by a round piece of 
Catalin cast phenolic. He fashioned it into a lampbase and 
gave it to his wife as a birthday present. The neighbors 
came and admired it, and soon the officer found himself 
turning out lamps in his spare time and selling them at 
$20.00 apiece. The chances of his going back to teaching 
school in Texas after his discharge are pretty slim, now that 
he has found so much satisfaction in working out his ideas 
with his own hands. Furthermore, he has an offer from 
the makers of home workshop equipment to write a manual 
telling how to work with plastics in the home workshop. 

Making Knife Handles 

A beauty shop operator in Orland, California, experi- 
mented with plastics to make handles for the hunting knives 
which her husband collects as a hobby. She combined beau- 
tifully colored plastics with steel and aluminum to produce 
beautiful knives with striking handles. Now she looks for- 
ward to the day when she can give up "twisting hair" and 
really have fun and perhaps earn a few dollars besides 


Stock awaiting transformation into "hobby ideas" 




naking handles for hunting knives and carving sets and also 
naking other beautiful articles in plastics. 

The store where these people get supplies, inspiration, 
nstruction, and also an outlet for their products is in 
jeorgetown, the oldest part of Washington, D. C. Samuel 
Costolefsky, the originator and manager of the Hobby 
Trafts Plastics Corporation, served in World War I. He 
aw many veterans come home with new skills and ideas. 
>ome of them wanted to continue, for their own amusement, 
:rafts they had learned in hospital wards; others saw op- 
jortunities for future jobs in the skills they had acquired. 
Costolefsky, or "Kosto" as he is known to many veterans 
nd civilians, set out to provide both a source of supply and 
in outlet for their products. The present U-Make-It shop 
was organized with this dual purpose in mind and could 
veil be prophetic of a movement which may spread all over 
he country. 

The people who patronize this shop come from all walks 
hf life. For example, there is the office girl who wants to 
make herself a pair of earrings from the colorful plastics 
Displayed in the windows ; the Wave who started handicraft 
projects in her barrack; the veteran who learned about 
mastics through occupational therapy; and the Congressman 
kvho relaxes from affairs of state by working with plastics 
In his basement workshop at night. 

The questions they ask the competent proprietor are end- 
less: "What is the difference between plastics and Luma- 
rithf" "Do you melt the stuff and pour it like plaster of 
[Paris?" "What do you think of this idea for a gadget 
jwhich, if it works, will sell a million the first year? Can 
I make it at home and how much will you charge me for a 
model ?" "How about a coffee table made of two-inch 
\Plexiglas with legs of limed oak; it should be stunning, 
don't you think?" "Where can I get a course in plastics?" 
I" At what temperature can you bend Lucitcf" "Can this 
stuff be used back of sink or kitchen stove?" "Can I mold 
'drinking cups that the children won't break?" "What are 
the proper cements and solvents and how do you polish it 
and what do you use for getting the scratch marks out of 

War-Time Idea 

The idea of the U-Make-It shop was born in wartime, 
'when plastics for civilian use was scarce. In December, 
1 1944, an ad in a magazine offered five tons of plastics for 
sale. Kostolefsky answered it but did not hear anything 
j until February, when he was advised that New York was 
the point of sale. He went there and found that a manu- 
facturer of ornaments for ladies' bags was selling out five 
tons of plastics consisting entirely of buckles round 
buckles, flat buckles, square buckles, hexagon buckles, pen- 
tagon buckles, octagon buckles, but buckles all of them. Kos- 
tolefsky was determined to get plastics and, since the 
buckles were made of plastics, he bought them. 

After a store had been rented and the buckles supple- 
mented with plastics of a few other shapes, "Kosto" set to 
work trying to fill the demand for plastics by people who 
wanted to make at home the things which, because of war- 
time shortages, they could not buy: ash trays, cigarette 
boxes, tables, dinner ware, trays, and gifts of all sorts. Con- 
sequently, he developed the Kosto-Plasti-Kit, which con- 
tains pieces of Catalin cast phenolic, Lucite and Plexiglas, 
and polystyrene, together with dyes, cement, and instruc- 
tions how to use them. Soon flat sheets became picture 
frames, straight rods changed into towel racks, and buckles 
became toy lampposts. All the tools people needed for 
example, fret saws and files were usually already in their 

Lamps Make a Hit 

Plastics lamps made with these kits were such a hit that 
special U-Make-It Lamp Kits were made up. Some of the 

"Kosto" shows hobbyist-made articles to interested customer 

lamps were made with solid columns; for other types the 
plastics were cut up into blocks and put together in com- 
plementary or contrasting colors. Matched with flat sheets 
of Catalin, Plexiglas, or wood as bases, they turned into 
handsome modern table lamps. 

Besides lamps there are many other uses, some of them 
quite novel, to which plastics are put by the clientele 
"Kosto" has built up. The Arlington County School be- 
gan to use plastics in its workshop, first as a substitute, now 
as an important material in its own right. Another cus- 
tomer a young one bought a piece of Tenite II tubing 
and soon came back for more. He was using it as a pea- 
shooter and had to equip the members of his gang. Some- 
body thought of transferring a picture on to a piece of 
acrylic and then cutting it out, thus making an attractive 
letter opener. A doctor makes his own acrylic darts for 
hunting. This is in line with experiments the Navy under- 
took during the war in developing a dart gun for jungle 
warfare. The dart gun, which shoots a plastics dart, pre- 

Returned veteran takes up in earnest what began as a hobby 










From Radar to Razors, from Signal Corps Telephonic 
Equipment to Cigarette Cases, V. H. Cook versatility has 
been proved invaluable . . and it's yours for the asking! 

Combined to make New England's most complete 
small shop, is an extensive plastic mold service, including 
experimental and development work as well as precision 

Larry Cook cordially invites you to submit your plastic 
mold problem, whether it's one of design, development 
or manufacture of any mold, injection, compression, 
transfer or extruding. No obligation for suggestions, of 
course. Why not write today? 




suniably under air pressure and without a sound, was de- 
signed for hunting- and defense against wild animals in jun- 
gle warfare, since the detonation of a bullet would give the 
hunter away. 

"Kosto," an ex-service man, employs ex-service men and 
others who do development work in various government 
plants. One of these is Ray Meier, a well-known model 
maker and craftsman employed at the Washington Navy 
Yard, who is now associated with the U-Make-It shop as 
chief of experimental and development work. He sorts the 
many ideas which come into this "Crackpots' Paradise" and 
either makes them work or convinces the inventor that his 
ideas are wrong. And that is no small job, because the 
man who wants "lamented plastics" and the one who wants 
"transplanted plastics" and the one who knows all about 
"Ezins" and the woman who wants to preserve her grand- 
mother's old lace in plastics and the one who wants "win- 
dows" for a doll house and the physician who has invented 
a new and revolutionary atomizer all these and many more 
are hard to convince and form a large and growing con- 
sumer class for plastics. 

Workshop in Basement 

Not only curiousity-seekers and hobbyists, but manufac- 
turers who want to experiment with new products and need 
models, and workshop owners who like to try out new ma- 
terials frequent the shop. Their need for information and 
their desire to see how plastics can be worked led to the in- 
stallation of a workshop in the shop's basement, complete 
with bench saw, jig saw, lathe, band saw, grinders, and 
buffers. Evening demonstrations are held and anyone who 
can work with tools may pay a small fee and do his own 
work there. Boys in the neighborhood, first attracted by 
the machinery, tools, and plastics displayed in the windows, 
now come in and swap some of their time doing odd jobs 
in the shop for the right to work with the machines in the 
basement on their own ideas. 

The latest demand is to cast liquid plastics at home. Mel- 
vin K. Young, formerly of the Glenn L. Martin Co., of Bal- 
timore and now plastics methods engineer with the U. S. 
Navy Department, has developed a phenolic casting resin 
which, under the name of MEL-Kast, will be marketed by 
the U-Make-It-Shop. This resin will be inexpensive and 
can be cast in any kind of open container with a minimun 
of technical knowledge. Kits containing the newly devel- 
oped resin, which is based on Mr. Young's experience in 
war production work, will contain all the materials and in- 
struction for casting at home. Demonstrations of the ma- 
terial and process will be given in the U-Make-It-Shop. 

The eagerness with which many amateurs now greet plas- 
tics augurs well for the future sale of plastics handicraft 

Don't miss the following stimulating, informative articles 
in the March (Annual Directory) issue of p/astics 




all crammed with facts and well illustrated with photo- 
graphs showing manufacturing processes and end-use ap- 
plications. Only by reading about what is happening else- 
where can you keep informed on the fast-developing 
plastics industry. 






B * 

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Co Enter my subscription to PLASTICS 

3 YEARS . . . $1 0.00 e 2 YEARS . . . $8.00 1 YEAR . . . $5.00 


Remittance Enclosed Q Bill MefLater 

Please indicate if above Is Q Home Address [J Business Address 

Zone No. State 

Product Manufactured 

Canadian Subscriptions 50c per year extra 




It's the new 600 ampere I-T-E 
Circuit Breaker ... 22" long and 
9" wide . . . the housing for which was compression 
molded by CMPC for I-T-E Circuit Breaker Com- 
pany. Rather large for a molded plastic part, but 
for CMPC it's just another good job well done. 

A phenol formaldehyde material was used for 
both parts . . . housing and cover . . . because of its 
low coefficient of expansion, resistance to mechan- 
ical shock, freedom from warping, and excellent 
insulation properties. 

The housing is so constructed 
that the individual circuit phases 
or poles are encased in separate 
compartments, the individual 




poles operating from a common mechanism. This, 
of course, called for extreme accuracy in die mak- 
ing, and close control in molding. 

As usual, the massive molds for this housing 
were designed by CMPC engineers and fabricated 
in the CMPC tool room. Molding large plastic parts 
is nothing new at CMPC. We have the experience 
and facilities to handle most any type of plastic 
molding job, large or small, and a nation-wide rep- 
utation for quality and service. All of which is just 
another good reason for discuss- 
ing your plastics molding prob- 
lems with a CMPC Development 
Engineer. Why not talk to him 
now? There's no obligation! 

1O31 N. Kolmar Ave. C* /> Chicago 51, Illinois 

Branch offices in principal industrial centers 







Hectronic Interval Timer 

electronic Controls, Inc. 
rework, N. J. 
IJAnnounced as being 
jitable for all appli- 
Htions requiring high- 
I accurate circuit tim- 
g, this item has time 
flnge from 1 to 120 
c in increments of 1 

I There are two dials 
pr time selection, one 
Ulibrated in single sec 
id the other in 10- 
tc steps ; dials control 
Up switches, precision 
rontrol being assured 
V snap - positioning 
Hep-switches, with ex- 

i-t values of resistance inserted in the circuit at each position, 
a:cording to description. 

Double receptacle permits timing two circuits simultaneously; 
Ipntacts are normally wired SPDT with double break and are 
bted at 25 amp 32VDC, 25 amp 125 VAC, and 10 amp 230 VAC; 
Entacts can be wired DPDT at correspondingly lower rating. 
[Cabinet size 8" by 8" by 8", 2050 thyratron tube used. High 
Iccuracy resistors are said to assure precise timing which is 
[dependent of length of time that tripping push button is de- 

Compact and easily operated, the unit is recommended by its 
nakers for various uses, including those in induction furnaces, 
hdustrial ovens, plastics molding, tumbling barrels, X-ray ex- 
osures, etc (464) 

Marking Equipment 

'he Acromark Co. 
ilizabeth, N. J. 

Hand-operated bench 
parking machine No. 
t24A which is announced 
Its possessing a number 
pf advantages and de- 
kign improvements over 
Former model, No. 924. 
Construction has been 
simplified so that there 
are fewer moving parts, 
and adjustments have 
been provided to com- 
pensate for wear of the 
marking head. 
| Quick die -changing 
facility is provided, and 
both interchangeable 
and solid logotype dies 

may be used individually or in combinations, according to de- 
scription; improved adjustment for depth of imprint, new style 
nesting and locating jigs allowing a greater variety of work to 
be marked, and high mechanical advantage permitting the ma- 
chine to be used with minimum of fatigue for operators, are 
listed among the improved factors of this product (465) 

Rapid Cold-Dip Dye 

Cardinal Chemical Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

New line of liquid dye solutions in comprehensive color range, 
said to have very rapid dyeing rates at room temperature, for 
various plastics. Light tints to deep shades, having good light 

fastness and uniformity are claimed to be obtainable by immers- 
ing the plastics from instant dip to 3 or 4 min, and faster dyeing 
rates to be obtained by adding a small amount of the company's 
Cardco Concentrate. 

These dye solutions are intermixable, permitting a wide va- 
riety of shades and tints (466) 

Die Sinking Method 

Turchan Follower Machine Co. 
Detroit, Mich. 

Recently-devised method of sinking dies by means of a vertical 
mill, when the dies are longer than the mill's ordinary feed travel. 

The model to be 
duplicated and stock in 
which die is to be sunk 
are set up between 
parallels on the table, 
and when one-half of 
the die has been sunk, 
the parallels facilitate 
easy shifting of model 
and stock for sinking 
of the second half. 

The accompanying 
illustration shows a 
vertical mill equipped 
with a Turchan hy- 
draulic duplicating at- 
tachment, being used 
to sink a die for a 
plastics instrument 
panel which is more 
than 4 ft long (467) 

Heat Dissipating Unit 

Eastern Engineering Co. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Various uses, including those in high pressure mercury lamps, 
X-ray tubes, and induction heating units, are announced for 
these items which are now being manufactured for commercial 
heat dissipating applications. 

Available in several different materials, they can be built to 
dissipate up to 5000 w (468) 

Aging Bath 

Precision Scientilic Co. 
Chicago, 111. 

Developed for use in estimating the comparative ability of 
rubber arid other elastomeric compositions to withstand the effect 
of immersion in oils and liquids, this aging bath has especially 
useful qualities for research and development work, as a means 

To simplify for our readers the task of obtaining de- 
tailed information regarding the new products, proc- 
esses and trade literature described herein, plastics 
offers the prepaid postcard inserted here. 

In rapidly-moving times such as these, keeping up 
with every latest development in one's field is a "must. ' 
Facilitation of reconversion, speeded production, and 
the competitive drive toward lower manufacturing 
costs require that all avenues leading to a solution of 
these problems be explored thoroughly. 

Each item in this section is keyed with a number, 
which should be entered on the postcard, to expedite 
identifying the exact product, process or publication 
about which information is desired. 




of securing comparative data on which to judge service quality, 
for aging rubber or elastomers in air in test tubes, etc. 

It has a capacity of 24 test tubes, 38 mm diam by 200 or 300 
mm long, the test tubes being supported in an adjustable, stain- 
less steel rack which rests directly in the bath. Temperature 
range of bath is 35 to 200 C, with an accuracy of plus or minus 
1 C, according to description, and overall dimensions, including 
rack, are : Height, 49" ; width, 24" ; depth, 24" (469) 


Injection Molding Machine 

Hy-Speed Press Co., Inc. 
Chicago, 111. 

Automatic in cycle and fed by an automatic feeder, this unit 
casts up to 2 Ib of material, is entirely electrically heated and 
controlled, and will cast to an area of 60 sq in. Standard pump 
equipment is used with solenoid control and time clock. 

Weighing 5 tons, this Hy-Speed injection molding machine 
requires floor space of 36" by 60". The cabinet is so designed as 
to make all compartments accessible for adjustments and clean- 
ing, and the machine is equipped with lights to enable the opera- 
tor to observe the mold after each cast (470) 

New Line of Preheaters 

Airtronics Mfg. Co. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Recently-announced series of Air- 
tronics preheaters, incorporating ideas 
and improvements which the company 
reports were gathered from a number 
of molders consulted in a "require- 
ments survey" conducted by its engi- 
neers to establish basic design for the 
new line. 

Simplified and standardized operat- 
ing controls for all models ; removable, 
hinged inspection door at front of pre- 
heater for convenient servicing; and 
electrodes to accommodate wider va- 
riety of loads, are among the advan- 
tages listed for these machines, as well 
as established features of dual load se- 
lection, and automatic excitation regu- 
Models from 1.5 to 10 kw are included in the new series. (471) 

Improved Fingerguard 

Industrial Gloves Co. 
Danville, 111. 

Affording practical protection of thumb and finger in buffing, 
polishing, grinding, punch press and assembly work, inspection, 
sanding, etc., a new and improved version of its Steel-Grip 
Finger Guard has been introduced by this company. 

The new product, called Superguwd, provides added protection 
to the wearer by means of the leather wearing surface extending 
two-thirds of the way around the finger, being backed by com- 
fortably-fitting, elastic webbing; seams are well up on sides of 
finger, out of working zone, assuring longer service. The item 
is available in three sizes and materials (472) 

Indicating Micrometer 

Federal Products Corp. 
Providence, R. I. 

Just introduced, this micrometer, 200P-1, incorporates a dial 
indicator, and can also be used as a dial indicator comparator 
without the necessity of setting to a master, the micrometer 
feature furnishing its own precision setting. Use of this item as 
a comparator is said to make it highly advantageous for short 
runs and equally valuable as a direct reading instrument where 
frequent changes occur in dimensions and tolerances. 

Lightness of weight, ease of handling and of reading, are 
among the advantages listed for this instrument by its makers. 
Indicating dial is integral with the frame and is provided with 
tolerance hands which can be easily set with wrench furnished 
with the gage. Micrometer scale and the indicating dial are 
graduated in .0001" and measuring capacity is 01" (473) 

Literature Revi 


Properties and Applications of "Geon" 

B. F. Goodrich Chemical Co. 
Cleveland, O. 

Describing the company's four Geon resins, two polymers and 
two copolymers of vinyl chloride, discussing the many variations 
possible, listing properties, and outlining methods for processin 
this new 16-page booklet is concisely arranged to provide 
reader with information on these products. 

Discussion of Geon plastics, together with tables on electrical 
and chemical properties, methods of compounding and effects of 
various compounding practices, comprise an outstanding section 
of the booklet, and there is also a section devoted to Geon la- 
texes, stable colloidal dispersion of a special type of vinyl chlo- 
ride resin in water, and information on the newly developed 
plastics latex (474) 

Bulletin on Tensile Testing 

W. C. Dillon & Co. 
Chicago, 111. 

Recently-issued bulletin providing details on testing tensile, 
compression, transverse and shear, for a wide range of materials 
and all shapes of specimens. 

The bulletin's 8 pages are well illustrated, and, supplementing 
the information which it contains, free specimen charts compile* 
by the company's engineers are also available on request . . . (475) 

Molding Materials Booklet 

Chemaco Corp. 
Berkeley Heights, N. J. 

A well-planned and informative booklet presenting details 
the plastics molding materials offered by the company, which is 
a subsidiary of Manufacturers Chemical Corp. 

There is a section devoted to each of four Chemato products, 
namely, cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, polystyrene, and vinyl 
compounds ; suggested applications and typical uses for each are 
listed, and their general properties separately set forth, with a 
table of comparative general properties of Chemaco plastics als 

Molding methods are discussed, briefly, and miscellan 
helpful data is embodied in the contents of this 20-page 
let . (476) 

Hydraulic Units 

John S. Barnes Corp. 
Rockford, 111. 

Bulletin 302-U, giving complete descriptions and specificationi 
of the company's new, completely self-contained L-Type hydraulic 
units. The text matter is amplified by diagrammatic drawings 
of the units, and photographic illustration supplies views of a rep- 
resentative Barnes L-Type unit (47 

Product Research Data 

Evans Chemetics, Inc. 
New York, N. Y. 

Information on the research facilities of this organizati f 

manufacturing chemists, supplying data on its diversified expe- 
rience and the services which it is prepared to offer clients, in 
the creation and manufacture of their products. 

Handily compiled in file folder form, this literature, liilul 
"Twentieth Century Alchemists," outlines the history of the 
Evans research and development laboratories, and supplies de- 
tails and photographic illustration of a number of its faiilili' -. 


Injection Molding Data 

Arrow Plastics Co. 
Passiac, N. J. 

New brochure on "Design Hints," prepared by the company :i- 
an aid to designers, pointing certain property considerations and 
various "points to remember" when working with the media of 
injection molded plastics. Not intended to present complete de- 




lils or coverage of the subject, the booklet is presented as offer- 
ig "some hints and cautions that have proven invaluable in the 
ast." . . (479) 

reference to the information desired, and there is a unique in- 
dexing feature at both front and back of the catalog (482) 

Jhemical Materials 

[ercules Powder Co. 
iVilmington, Del. 

No. 15 in a series, this issue of "Hercules Chemist" deals with 
farious chemicals supplied by the company for use in numerous 
ndustrial and consumer products. Recent chemical developments 
rom the Hercules laboratories are listed, and briefly described, 
[nd tables, graphs and photographic illustrations accompany the 
bet matter contained in this 26-page booklet (480) 

industrial Finishing Manual 

WcAleer Mfg. Co. 
ilochester, Mich. 

Offering helpful suggestions for present-day finishing of all 
types of plastics, metals, and non-metals, a new, illustrated, 24- 
[age industrial finishing reference manual on polishing, buffing, 
[nd de-burring has been issued by the industrial finishing divi- 
lion of this company. ' 

Summarizing and interpreting applications, the booklet tells 
L-hen and where various compositions should be used, and lists 
numerous finishing materials, including old "stand-bys" of pre- 
war days as well as new compositions developed for post-war 
finishing requirements (481) 

Marking Equipment 

kcme Marking Equipment Co. 
Detroit, Mich. 

An attractive catalog, describing more than 150 different prod- 
ucts in the marking field, including the company's branded line 
: bf Ram's Head equipment. Hobs, molds, branders, stamping 
pies, etc., are described and pictured in this file-size, fully-illus- 
trated catalog which consist of 32 pages and cover. 
I A carefully-planned classified arrangement provides for quick 

Plastics Defined and Described 

Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. 
New York, N. Y. 

A timely booklet prepared under the direction of the SPI's 
Committee on Plastics Education, which briefly outlines the his- 
tory and development of the industry, its composition, and re- 
lated details. Plastics as such are defined, and their principal 
classes, characteristics and uses, the basic methods used in form- 
ing them, and their possibilities and potentialities are discussed. 
Titled "Plastics, The Story of an Industry," its purpose is to 
supply authentic information and data and to correct misappre- 
hensions concerning plastics. 

Employment opportunities and educational facilities for those 
interested in entering the field are also discussed, and the booklet 
is carefully indexed and adequately illustrated (483) 

For Plaster of Paris Induration 

Durite Plastics 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

An 8-page bulletin, No. 24, on the subject of Durite resins 
for indurating plaster of Paris, and covering the use of both 
resorcinol and aminoplast resins for this purpose. 

The mixing procedure is described, and there are tables show- 
ing various formulas and how they increase physical strength 
and chemical resistance of the plaster cast. 

The bulletin is comprehensively prepared and contains much 
interesting data on the subject with which it deals (484) 

Air and Hydraulic Cylinders 

Miller Motor Co. 
Chicago, 111. 

Bulletins A-103 and H-104 provide details concerning the 
unique mounting features and steel construction which are quali- 
ties of this new line of air and hydraulic cylinders. All-steel 
heads, caps and separate interchangeable steel mountings ; flex- 

AreYou In a Snarl About PLASTICS? 


If you are confused and in doubt 
as to the right material to use 
or the right method of molding 
to follow, why not take it up 
with Martindell? Here is an or- 
ganization whose head has been 

in constant contact with the de- 
velopment of plastics since the 
beginning of the industry. No 
matter what your problem may 
be, we can give you sound ad- 
vice and practical assistance. 

North Olden at Sixth 

NEW YORK OFFICE 1182 Broadway 






ibility of use ; adequate ports insuring rapid, economical opera- 
tion; identical basic dimensions and mounting dimensions for 
both cushioned and non-cushioned models, and various other 
qualifications are offered by their makers as advantages of these 
products (485) 

and descriptions of many important items of the H-P-M line 
and some of their applications (488) 

About Molding and Fabricating 

G. Felsenthal & Sons 
Chicago, 111. 

Directed to buyers and engineers, this is a booklet which con- 
tains interesting information on the products that the company 
has been making, and is well illustrated with photographs and 
diagrams of the items discussed in each separate section of the 

There is a chart giving characteristics of some of the most 
popularly known thermoplastics, as well as other helpful data. 

Bearing the title, "From Blueprint to Product in Plastics," the 
booklet in file-folder form and size, offers ready reference. (486) 

Plastics Knobs, Bashings, Parts 

Waterbury Companies, Inc. 
Waterbury, Conn. 

Well-arranged catalog giving illustrations, dimensions, and 
other pertinent data on the plastics knobs, bushings, and electri- 
cal parts produced by the company's Plastics Division. 

A special section of the catalog is devoted to each separate 
classification, and illustrations and diagrams are arranged for 
quick reference (487) 

For Pressure Processing 

Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. 
Mt. Gilead, O. 

Well-illustrated, 84-page catalog entitled "H-P-M All-Hy- 
draulic Presses for Modern Pressure Processing," recently is- 
sued by the company to describe a number of the various types 
of hydraulic presses to which its production is devoted. 

Interesting data on the development of this industrial ma- 
chinery is a feature of the catalog, and there are photographs 

"Anniversary Booklet" 

Emeloid Co., Inc. 
Arlington, N. J. 

Titled "Twenty-Five Years of Progress in Plastics," this 
booklet relates briefly the story of the company's development 
since its beginning a quarter-century ago, and outlines the vari- 
ous services which it now offers, including injection molding, 
laminating, printing, stamping, cutting, machining, buffinjj, em- 
bossing, etc. 

A number of articles fabricated and molded by the compan 
are illustrated and details concerning its facilities are listi 

Mold Release Booklet 

Dow Corning Corp. 
Midland, Mich. 

Describing the use of DC Mold Release Fluid and DC 7 Con 
pound, two Silicone products which are used to secure release i 
rubber or plastics materials fabricated by injection or comp 
sion molding, pressure laminating, and casting. 

The properties of these products are set forth in the booklet, 
which provides details as to each use of the preparations . . (490) 

Laminated Plastics Development 

Continental Diamond Fibre Co. 
Newark, Del. 

Bulletin PFD-33 describing the company's "Post Forming" 
Dilecto laminated phenolic plastics sheets, wnich can be readily 
formed to a variety of shapes in simple, inexpensive cold molds. 
The procedure is explained, and characteristics and properties 
the material listed. 

Photographic illustrations, tables and graphs supplement the 
text and specifications, and sizes in which the material is avail- 
able, are indicated (491) 









Literature available on request 

CIBA PRODI CTS CORP., 77 River St., Ilohoken, N. J. 





in plastics 

Problems and questions may be submitted to 
this department for answering by the techni- 
cal editors or s p e c i a I i s t s in the industry. 

Please furnish me the names of manufacturers of clear plastics 
tubing for use in siphon bottles. J.J.N., San Francisco, Calif. 

The following companies should be able to supply the desired 
product: Acadia Products Company, 4115 W. Ogden Avenue, 
Chicago, III., and the Hodgman Rubber Company, 173 W. 
Madison Street, Chicago, III. Further information and names 
of other manufacturers may be obtained- from Tennessee East- 
man, Kingsport, Tenn., and the Dow Chemical Company, Mid- 
land, Mich., whose "Tenite If and "Saran" respectively are 
used in the manufacture of transparent tubing. For a detailed 
discussion of these two materials as tubing, see the article 
"Indestructible Piping" in the August, 1945, plastics. 
* * * 

We should like to have information on the possible develop- 
ment of plastics bottles for a product such as beer. 

H.J., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Although, so far as we know, there has been no development 
of plastics beer bottles, transparent plastics tubing (see above 
questwn and answer) has been used successfully in beer dis- 
pensing apparatus. Besides the two materials mentioned, 
polystyrene should be suitable for beer bottles because of its 
excellent chemical resistance. A major deterrent to the de- 
velopment, at present at any rate, appears to be the cost of 
plastics as compared with that of glass. 

Please recommend a good material for the following use: 
squares or discs about seven millimeters in diameter, thickness 
one and one half millimeters plus or minus three-hundredth 
millimeters, which must stand a process temperature of 300 F, 
which will not swell in cold weather, and which is reasonably 
hard. The pieces can be cut or stamped from sheets or molded, 
as edge finish is immaterial. 

We believe the best material for your purpose is laminated 
sheet stock. A suggested product is a "Fiberglas" based 
melamine-formaldehyde laminate. It will stand over 300 F, 
possesses excellent dimensional stability, and has a Rockwell 
hardness of M90 to MHO. Perhaps also a cellulose or 
chopped fiber-filled melamine or phenolic molding powder 
molded into squares or discs would have the requisite prop- 
erties. If so, it would be less expensive than the laminated 

We are conducting experiments on the preservation of insects 
in plastics blocks. We have in mind spraying the insect first 
with a plastics solution forming a protective coating, then sus- 
pending the coated insect in a liquid monomer which may be 
polymerized at a low temperature. Do you have any suggestions 
to offer? A.F., New York, N. Y. 

We suggest that you write the B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Company, 324 Rose Building, Cleveland 15, Ohio, concerning 
the suitability for your use of its new casting resin "Kriston," 
the description of which in the December plastics indicates 
that it may be just what you are looking for. Certain types 
of insects have been preserved in "Plexiglas" blocks, but we 
are not at liberty to tell you more about the process at present. 

to push your LAGGING development and 
engineering program through today . . . 
spare you lost production PROFITS fardy 
engineering costs you. 

Our specially trained crews of reconver- 
sion engineers are geared for speed. Work 
in our shop, or under your supervision in 
your own drafting rooms for a week, or 
month or longer until you get caught up. 
Right now more than 30 B & R crews, num- 
bering 1 to 33 men, are helping anxious 
manufacturers get into production FASTER. 


3 *"" 



fioi M 

' ^i-* 









A new plant at Belvidere, N. J., has been acquired by Cela- 
nese Corp. of America. Comprising 800 acres and several 
buildings, including a main building of 100,000 sq ft, the new 
plant is to be used for the production of chemicals, plastics, and 
related products. According to present plans, the new Celanese 
plastics, Forticel, is among those which are to be produced at 
the Belvidere location. 

Products manufactured at the new plant, it is announced, will 
be marketed through the company's wholly-owned subsidiary, 
Celanese Plastics Corp. 

It is further announced that operations at the company's plas- 
tics plant at Newark, N. J., will continue, and that an expansion 
of facilities amounting to 25% over the next two years is in 

A nylon base laminate which is fungus-resistant and com- 
bines in marked degree the high electrical insulating properties 
of paper base laminates and the mechanical properties of fabric 
base laminates has been developed jointly by Mecoboard, Inc., 
and Continental -Diamond Fibre Co. The new product, hitherto 
restricted to high priority military equipment, where it has been 
widely used for electrical insulating parts in radar and other 
high fidelity communications equipment, is now available for 
general civilian use, in sheets, rods and tubes. 

Nylon base laminates are made with both melamine and phe- 
nolic resins. 

Extension of the area of the Washington sales office of The 
Dow Chemical Co. to include Virginia, North and South Caro- 
lina, Georgia and Florida has been announced by Leland I. 
Doan, vice president and director of sales, as having become 
effective on January 1. The Washington staff of the company 
is being augmented to handle the additional activity for this 
southeastern territory which was formerly covered by Dow's 
New York office. 

A new-type synthetic resin designed to improve the appear- 
ance and durability of plaster casts, has been developed by Duo- 
rite Plastic Industries, Culver City, Calif. 

Called Plastiglase, this new product is described as an air- 
setting material produced by combining various thermoplastic 
and thermosetting resins in the presence of any one of several 
solvents. Although normally transparent, it can be colored with 
various common pigments. Complete or partial impregnation 
of a plaster casting with this material may be achieved by means 
of immersion in the resin, or a, surface 'coating, providing a 
glossy, enamel-like finish, can be applied by means of spray, 
brush, or dipping. 

Plaster casts impregnated with Plastiglase are said to be 
strengthened to a point of high breakage-resistance, and to with- 
stand deterioration when immersed in solutions of water and 
acid for days. It has also been used to strengthen such materials 
as wood, Firtex, and cardboard. 

Formation of a partnership with Philip D. Wilkinson has 
been announced by Frederick S. Bacon, chemical research con- 
sultant, Watertown, Mass. The new firm, which will operate 
under the name of Frederick S. Bacon Laboratories, is to con- 
tinue the chemical research and consultation business established 
in 1939 at the present location, 192 Pleasant St. 

A recently announced merger, effective January 1, is that of 
Globe Tool & Molded Products Co. and The Imperial Die Cast- 
ing Co., which will operate as Globe Imperial Corp. It is fur- 
ther announced that there is to be no change in management 
or personnel. 

pany is interested. The department is intended to provide re- 
search service for Hanna customers, and to supplement the work 
of existing coal research organizations, and will be concerned 
with the development and advancement of the use of coal-de- 
rived hydrocarbons by the plastics, chemical, and other indus- 

The recent appointment of Barwood Co., Philadelphia, as 
sales representative for the Size Control Co.'s line of precision 
reversible plug gages and the Walsh Press & Die Co.'s line of 
punch presses from 6 to 80 tons, has been announced. Both 
companies are divisions of American Machine & Gage Co., 

Also announced is the establishment of a factory branch of 
Size Control Co. at Greenwich, Conn., under the management 
of Theodore Breunich. 

Construction on an addition to the company's Toledo, 0., 
plant is scheduled to start this spring, according to announce- 
ment by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

This new production unit of the electro chemicals department 
has been planned for the purpose of providing midwest users 
of Du Pont formaldehyde with a source of supply closer than 
the company's Perth Amboy, N. J. plant. , 

Now in production by the Daystrom Corp., Olean, N. Y., an 
associate of the American Type Founders, are plastics panels for 
use in various architectural applications, including furniture, 
restaurant fixtures, etc. 

Many thin sheets of plastics-impregnated material, fused to- 
gether under extreme heat and pressure, are used in the manu- 
facture of the panels, which are said to be chip-proof, stain-proof, ', 
and heat resistant, with a smooth and non-porous surface which 
is easily cleanable with a damp cloth. 

According to M. L. Brown, vice president of the Daystrom 
Co., production of such sheets was a small part of the company's 
program before the war, but a more durable sheet, made possible 
through newly-developed techniques, and new equipment acquired 
by the company, warrant its branching out in a separate division. 

A new cold room for the testing of various compounds and 
products of plastics, rubber and other materials has been installed 
by B. F. Goodrich Co. at its plant in Akron. Temperatures in J 
this room can be varied from +50 to 90 F. 

The room has five working units, each 6 ft sq, with each unit 
working separately, and each large enough to permit tests of i 
equipment under temperatures found in the colder parts of the 
United States and Canada, as well as those encountered in high 
altitude flying. 

Designed to fill the need for a one-coat material with t .>\i 
resistance to food acids and fats, and to provide stability under 
high and repeated baking temperatures, a new flexible coating, 
called Rolox Vinyl White Coating Enamel, has been developed 
by Roxalin Flexible Finishes, Inc., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Mentioned as an outstanding characteristic of this new product 
is its 52% solids, and qualities listed include excellent adhesion 
even when it is applied directly to unsized black plate, electro- 
lytic or hot dip tin ; resistance to sterilization and food process- 
ing; stabilization in the process of manufacture and will not 
disintegrate in contact with metals at elevated temperature ; | 
completely odorless and tasteless, and extremely flexible. 

A new department has been established by The M. A. Han- 
na Co., Cleveland, for the purpose of conducting technological 
research in coal and other industrial lines in which the corn- 

Formation of the St. Regis Sales Corp. as a wholly-owned 
subsidiary of the St. Regis Paper Co. to handle sales of all 
products manufactured by all divisions of the company and its 
United States subsidiaries, including Taggart Corp. and Watab 
Paper Co., has been announced by Roy K. Ferguson, president 
of St. Regis Paper Co. as well as of the new sales subsidiary. 




personnel and operating method of the parent company remains 
nchanged, according to Mr. Ferguson, who stated that the step 
lad been taken as a means of enabling the company to increase 
Is sales service to customers. 

Extensive plans for expansion in plastics production facilities 

[if the Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich., were recently out- 
ned by Dr. Willard H. Dow, president of the company. A 
jonsiderable amount of new construction is already in progress, 

|(nd the balance of the projected expansion is schduled for con- 
inuing extension of facilities of the period of the next five years. 

[I Dr. Dow expressed the opinion that the first concern of the 
iidustry should be volume production to meet demand, at the 
time time widening the scope of plastics materials as cost econ- 

llmies are realized, and helping to maintain employment in this 

Ijountry at a high level. 

already found many new uses, among which are those of lead 
markers on wires and cables, as insulation covering for bus bars, 
selsyn motors and wire cleats, and on air conditioning and re- 
frigeration equipment. 

An article dealing in detail with the subject of plastics caps 
and closures appeared under the title "Durable Industrial 
Closures," in plastics, July 1945. 

In a news item in "Industry Highlights," November 1945 
plastics, mention was made that the new laminating plant of 
General Electric Co., which is located at Coshocton, O., would 
cover 25,000 sq ft. This was a typographical error, 285,000 
sq ft being the correct figure. 

l| Adoption of the name of Toy pit for its retail consumer line 

If self-sealing transparent, colored, and decorative tapes has been 
nnounced by International Plastic Corp., Morristown, N.J. The 
nnouncement adds that the company's line of tapes for indus- 

fial and commercial applications will continue to be sold under 

me name of Filmonise. 

Hercules Powder Co. reports that the year 1945 was 
marked by a peak production at almost all of its plants, and the 
launching of a comprehensive expansion covering all operating 
departments. Demand for the company's products, it is added, 
continued at high levels after the end of the war, necessitating 
capacity production. 

Construction of new plants and facilities provided in Hercules' 
expansion program which, it is expected, will be completed 
within three years, will enable the company to maintain employ- 
ment at the levels reached in its own business at the war's end. 

; A new type of plastics compound, described as having many 
Itossibilities of use, has been announced by the Plastics Division 
||f General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 

1 This new material, developed to seal the ends of metal tubing 
[jo keep the interior free of dust and moisture while being shipped, 
[jtored, or handled, forms caps and sleeves which can be pro- 
duced to specified diameters and thicknesses, and shipped dry. 
[they are expanded, previous to use, by soaking in G-E Dilator 
Kohttion No. 12501, and expansion can be as great as 50% of 
[peir normal size; placed in position and allowed to dry, they 

brink to less than their normal size, forming a tight fit and are 
laid to be completely water-resistant and air-resistant. 
[I Available in a number of colors, these caps and sleeves have 

Ground was broken on January 3 for a new research center 
to be erected on a 260-acre tract midway between Akron and 
Cleveland, by B. F. Goodrich Co. The day also marked the 
75th anniversary of the company's founding, which was observed 
with appropriate ceremonies. 

Plans for the research center at present call for five separate 
buildings of most modern construction, and at the outset of 
operations the staff will consist of between 220 and 250 people, 
according to Dr. Howard E. Fritz, the company's director of 
research, who emphasized the fact that plans allow for almost 
unlimited additions and expansions, either by enlargement of 
the buildings already scheduled or by adding of more structures. 

We Ale Qiaduaiel 


We learned the hard way. Whether it's compression molding, injection 
molding or transfer molding, we have the machines, the skilled workmen 
and the experience to meet the requirements of your job. We can help 
you in the selection of the right plastic material, and tell you in advance 
whether your design is practical for the molding process. We'll be 
glad to submit an estimate write us, or call our Sales Representatives. 




Sales Representatives: NEW YORK S. C. Ullman, 55 W. 42nd St. PHILADELPHIA Towle & Son Co., 18 W. Chelton Ave. Bldg. 

NEW ENGLAND Wm. T. Wylcr, 177 State St., Bridgeport, Conn. 







THE Ideal TIMER for 

Adjustable over an extremely wide timing 
range for variety of molding jobs. 

Large dial easy-to-set with split second ac- 

Heavy duty contacts handle most valve sole- 
noids without contactors. 

Dependable performance demonstrated by 
thousands in use on molding presses. 

Write for bulletin No. 285 describing the new 
HA series Microflex. 



The retirement of George S. Thacker from the position of 
general manager of traffic for Continental Can Co. has been 
announced by Sherlock McKewen, secretary-treasurer of 

* * * 

Richard W. Girvin has become retail sales manager of 
cellulosic department of International Plastic Corp., Me 
town, N. J. 

* * * 

Two new executives have been added to the staff of Carbid 
Die & Mold Co., Pittsburgh. They are William C. Uecker, 
treasurer and sales manager; and Ernest G. Merlin, secretary 
and sales representative ; both new appointees have had extensiv 

experience in the field. 

* * * 

Stephen D. Hiltebrant has been made sales manager of 
the molded plastics division of General Industries Co., Elyria, 0. 
He was formerly associated for 8J4 ys with the Detroit office 
of Bakelite Corp. as technical representative, and during 1945 
was president of the Detroit section of SPE. 

W. C. Uecker 

E. G. Merlin 

S. D. Hiltebrant 

Appointment of W. F. Greiner as manager of the Decor; 
tive Micarta department of the United States Plywood Cor 
ration was recently announced. 

* * * 

T. J. Holmes has been named sales manager for the Ne 
England district of the chemical department of General Electr 
Co., and will be temporarily located at Lynn, Mass., with 
manent headquarters to be established later in Boston. 

* * * 

Appointment of M. T. Callahan, formerly with the plastic 
division, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., as assistant manag 
of Columbia Protektosite Co., Inc., has been announced by th 
latter company. 

* * * 

G. V. Woody has been named manager of the basic industrie 
department of Allis-Chalmers, Milwaukee, succeeding R. 
Newhouse, who has retired after having been associated 
the company since 1905; Mr. Newhouse, who is noted as 
engineer, inventor and designer of some of the world's large 
cement and mining machinery, is being retained by Allis-Chalm- 
ers as a consulting engineer. 

J. L. Singleton has recently been appointed manager for the 
60 district offices of the company's general machinery division's 

sales department. 

* * * 

Wayne Brinkerhoff has been named advertising manager of 
B. F. Goodrich Chemical Co., Cleveland. He was formerly man- 
ager of technical data service for the company. 

* * * 

Julius Loeb, chairman of the board of Universal Plastic! 
Corp., and retired vice president and treasurer of AmerioB 
Metal Co., Ltd., died at his home in New York City in January. 

* * * 

Dimitri G. Soussloff has been made a partner and technical 
director of Neo Plastics Products Corp., N. Y., custom molder, 
and manufacturer of handbags, compacts, and novelties of plas- 




ics. He was formerly associated with Celanese Plastics Corp., 
rhere he was engineer in charge of engineering development 
nd research. 

* * * 

N. P. Malin, who was, previously, export manager of Mar- 
hall Dill, San Francisco, has been named manager of the Far 
Eastern sales department of Heyden Chemical Corp. 

* * * 

Robert G. Allen has recently been appointed general sales 
Lianager of The Baldwin Locomotive Works ; prior to this ap- 
pointment he held the office of general manager of the company's 
FiBaldwin Southwark Division. 

* * * 

Mayfair Molded Products Co., Chicago, has announced the 
kppointment of Luther J. Evans as president of the company. 
He was formerly Chicago sales representative of the plastics 

division of Continental Can Co. 

* * * 

I Returning from the Army to their former positions as sales- 
hien for Ciba Co., Inc., are Maj. Clement O. Stevenson and 
S/Sgt. Robert L. Horney, both of whom are connected with 
(the southern branch office of the company, Charlotte, N. C. ; 
bnd Lt. Chester M. Kopatch, of the New England branch 

office, Boston. 

* * * 

j E. R. Nary has been appointed assistant to Walter Evans, 
[vice president, Westinghouse Electric Corp., and in his new 
capacity is to have broad responsibilities for the company's in- 
dustrial electronics and X-ray divisions at Baltimore, and the 
home radio division at Sunbury, Pa. 

* * * 

John V. Muddle has recently been appointed New England 
[representative of Precision Paper Tube Co., Chicago, and will 
have his offices in Ashland, Mass. 

* * * 

Product designer Peter Muller-Munk, Pittsburgh, has an- 
nounced that Capt. Raymond A. Smith has joined the Muller- 
Munk organization as chief designer. 

* * * 

Edward A. Reineck has joined the technical sales staff of the 
chemicals department of The Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, where 
he will assist in the development of new applications for Fur- 
fural and its derivatives in the resins and plastics industry. 

* * * 

Election of Allan Brown as vice president in charge of ad- 
vertising and public relations, and George C. Miller as vice 
president and general sales manager of the thermoplastic depart- 
ment, has been announced by J. W. McLaughlin, president of 
the Bakelite Corp. 

E. A. Reineck 
Bachrack Photo 

A. Brown 

J. Loebenstein 

F. G. Harlow has been named Washington and Government 
representative of Radio Receptor Co., Inc., New- York City, and 
Julian Loebenstein has been made sales manager of the com- 
pany's new selenium rectifier division. 
* * * 

Victor F. Mutch has announced his resignation as president 
of the Cordo Chemical Corp., Norwalk, Conn., effective Decem- 
ber 31, 1945, stating that it is his intention to continue in the 
plastics business, specializing in the manufacture of plastics- 
based coatings. 

* * 

Jules E. Timer, for more than 10 yrs with the Sherman 
Paper Products Corp., Newton Upper Falls, Mass., has been 
made director of trade relations of International Plastic Corp. 

our feet 
are on the ground 

i Everybody wants plastics 
for their products these 
days though in some cases 
it may be neither practical 
nor profitable. 

As reputable plastics molders 
of proven, time-tested 
standing, we pride ourselves 
on 3 things: 

1. Our ability to guide and 
counsel you on all plastics 
molding matters. 

2. Our insistence upon being 
honest and aboveboard 

in thinking first of your 
product relative to plastic 

3. Our ability through skilled 
technicians, experienced 
engineers, style designers, 
and other highly specialized 
equipment and personnel 

to give you the best job 

Send in your blue prints or sample 
product NOW for an early and 
accurate appraisal. 








Practical vet inexpensive, thii drill 
jig is simple and easily operated, 
insuring increased production and 
lower tooling cost. It is De-Sla-Co 
Clamp No. 2O7-U. 

There's an exact type and size of De-Sta-Co Clamp 
for holding any plastic part securely in fixture 
during production or assembly. 

Positive pressure is gently and uniformly applied 
automatically maintained instantly released. 

Simplify the building of jigs and fixtures. Aid 
in securing maximum accuracy in drilling, grind- 
ing, sawing, gluing, milling, and other operations 
where precision is vital. 

Neu> De-Sta-Co Catalan No. 45 describe* 
ami illustrates De-Sta-Co Clamps suggests 
time saving applications Send for copy. 

a c 

PMMA Elects Officers 

W. Stuart Landes, vice president of Celanese Corp. of Amer 
ica, and John R. Hoover, vice president of B. F. Goodrich Chi 
ical Co., were re-elected president and vice president, respectivel; 
of the Plastics Materials Manufacturers Association, Inc., 
its annual meeting in New York on January 10. Frank 
Carman was re-elected general manager, and John E. Walker, 
secretary-treasurer, with headquarters in Washington, where 
they both reside. 

A seven-man board of directors was also named hy the as; 
ciation, including, in addition to Mr. Landes and Mr. Hoover, 

W. S. Landes 

I. R. Hoover 

two directors held over from the 1945 board, namely, James 
Rodgers, Jr., vice-president of Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co., an 
Dr. D. S. Frederick, vice president of Rohm & Haas Co. N re- 
members of the board are Harry Krehbiel, president of Catalin 
Corp.; M. G. Milliken, vice president of Hercules Powder Co.; 
and Felix N. Williams, vice president of Monsanto Chem- 
ical Co. 

Arnold E. Pitcher, general manager of the plastics depart- 
ment, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., and past president of 
PMMA, will serve in an advisory capacity to the board 
directors, in accordance with the by-laws. 

The resins and adhesives division of PMMA, at a meeting 
held previously, elected Louis Klein, vice president of the Resin- 
ous Products & Chemical Co., as its chairman. 


Two-Day Meeting for Pacific Coast SPf 

The Spring meeting of the Pacific Coast section of the S<n i< u 
of the Plastics Industry is scheduled for Los Angeles, March 26 
and 27. An expansive program has been planned by leaders of 
that Section for the two-day session, which will be featured by 
a series of technical panels dealing with topics of considerable 
interest to the industry. 

Packaging Exposition in April 

A four-day show is planned for the Packaging Exposition 
1946, which is scheduled to open on April 2 at the Public Audi- 
torium, Atlantic City, N. J. Sponsored by the American Man- 
agement Association this fifteenth annual show has been de- 
signed to surpass its fourteen yearly predecessors in many re- 
spects, including size and comprehensiveness of cope, according 
to advance announcements. The AMA Packaging Conference 
is to run concurrently with the exposition, in another section of 
the building. 

New and improved methods, materials, etc., in the field i 
packaging, packing and shipping, for various industries, and 
much else of interest is promised for those attending tin ex- 

Informal Discussion at Newark SPE Meeting 

At a dinner meeting of the Newark chapter of the Society of 
Plastics Engineers, held in December at the Newark Athletic 
Club, an innovation was introduced in that the featured speaker,! 




[ward Keusch, of Boonton Molding Co., did not deliver a set 
tech on "positive and transfer molds," which was the topic 
signed him, but invited audience participation at any point in 
talk. The result was something of an informal symposium, 
which the audience was well pleased, and the chapter ac- 
tdingly plans to continue this type of feature, as well as the 
Btomary formal talks. 

5TE Appoints Hew Executive Secretary 

Recently announced by the board of directors of the American 
ciety of Tool Engineers was the appointment of Harry E. 
as the organization's executive secretary. 

fro/f Rubber & Plastics Group 

JMeeting at the Detroit-Leland Hotel, on December 14, mem- 
of the Detroit Rubber & Plastics Group held a Christmas 
and dinner meeting. Speaker of the evening was Dr. 
febster N. Jones, director of the college of Engineering, Car- 

e Institute of Technology, whose talk was on the subject of 

gineering Tomorrow." 
I Officers for 1946 were elected by the Group, as follows: J. R. 
hroyer, R. T. Vanderbilt Co., chairman ; Paul Wilson, Ford 
fotor Co., and Gordon Saunders, Dodge Main Plant, 1st and 

vice-chairmen, respectively ; E. J. Kvet, Baldwin Rubber 
o., secretary-treasurer; C. W. Selheimer, Wayne University, 
isistant secretary-treasurer. 

idfcftons of Development in Plastics 

| Its last meeting for the year 1945 was held by the Plastics 
ub of the U. S. on Dec. 11 at the Hotel Pennsylvania, N. Y. 
| William T. Cruse, executive vice president of the SPI, was 
aker of the evening, and delivered an interesting talk on war- 
ne achievements in plastics, and the current materials supply 
uation ; he also made some forecasts concerning the future of 
plastics industry. Among these were his predictions that, in 
main, the same basic types of plastics will continue in use, 
Ithough the number of their applications will probably double 

in the next five or ten years ; that there will be an increased use 
of polyethylene and of blow-molding; that molding of thermo- 
setting compounds will be increased in conjunction with the 
development of high-frequency heating, and that automatic fab- 
ricating machinery will be developed to a much greater extent. 

Plans for ASTM Meetings 

The forty-ninth annual meeting of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, according to recent confirmation by the or- 
ganization's executive committee, is to be held in Buffalo, June 
24 to 28, and the seventh exhibit of testing apparatus and related 
equipment is to be held in conjunction with the meeting. 

The 1946 Spring meeting of the Society has been scheduled for 
Pittsburgh, during the week of February 25 to March 1. This 
has also been designated as ASTM Committee Week. 

"Production for Profit" Show 

Sponsored by the Chicago Technical Societies Council, and 
to be held in conjunction with that organization's fourth annual 
conference, a production show, featuring "production for profit," 
is planned for March 20, 21 and 22 at the Stevens Hotel. Broad 
scope and emphasis are to be placed on new efficiencies in factory 
production, and new materials, new tools, new instruments are 
to be on display, it is announced, stressing the change from 
wartime to peacetime production. 


Publication of photographs depicting the use of Compar as a 
protective material, in connection with the article, "How To 
Guard Against Dermatitis," by Dr. Louis Schwartz (plastics, 
November 1945) was not intended to indicate or to convey the 
impression that the product is endorsed by Dr. Schwartz, whose 
article dealt with the subject matter and does not constitute his 
endorsement of any particular or specified product or products. 

Plastics granulating machines 
for every capacity requirement 

Four Cumberland machines, built specifically for plastics, give 
a wide range of capacities. The No. model is frequently used 
one per injection molding machine, so that the molding opera- 
tor disposes of the sprues and runners as made. The No. l /2 
machine, illustrated here, has capacity for granulating the 
scrap from two or three molding machines. Larger sizes are 
the No. l*/2 and the 18", which afford more capacity and grind 
material of large cross section. 

Cumberland machines have the fol- 
lowing features: 

Ruggedness of construction. Com- 
pact, efficient cutting chamber. Ease 
of dismantling and cleaning. 


for fully 

No. 200 


Depf. B Box 216, Providence R. I. 




Casting Phenolics 

{Continued from page 31) 

iii" r i m i m i N UNI i IIMN*; 

economical to fabricate duplicate phenolic molds to avoid 
the higher costs of steel dies. However, such mass pro- 
duction was not undertaken on an extensive scale. 

The casting of prototypes and parts in phenolic molds is 
simple. Phenolic resin, catalyzed to accelerate the cure, 
is poured at room temperature. Molds are maintained at 
200 F. 

With half of the casts, all of the resin is hand-poured 
through a gate of l /$ to l /2 in. diameter. In casts with 
widely extended mold cavities, the lower section of the die 
is filled while the upper segment is displaced. The upper 
section then is placed in position, and the filling is com- 
pleted through the pouring gate. 

In casting miniatures of a Lockheed P-80 seven inches 
between its wingtips, the latter pouring method was em- 
ployed. When the mold was filled, a rubber pad was placed 
upon the pouring gate. The mold was moved to a centri- 
fuge in an oven at 200 F. Pressure of 250 Ib. was exerted 
by compressed air to maintain stability between the two 
mold sections, and the centrifuge was spun for 10 sec to 
flow the resin away from the pouring gate and into the re- 
mote parts of the form. 

A static period of 30 sec followed to permit air bubbles 
to escape through the pouring gate, from which the rub- 
ber pad had been removed. After this brief interval of in- 
ertia, the pad was replaced, air pressure again was exerted, 
and the spinning was resumed for one minute, by which 
time the cure had taken place. 

Break-away of the mold was effected by hand. The hard- 

ened cast was ejected from the die by a knock-out pin 
serted through the pouring gate. The die then was air- 
blown, wiped free of moisture, and reheated to the projj 
temperature for the next operation. 

Little post-casting treatment is needed for phenol-i 
maldehyde prototypes, parts, or miniatures formed in 
nolic molds. Excess is broken away by hand. Rough edges 
left by flash or "fins" are smoothed on a buffer or with 
sandpaper. Stems caused by excess in the pouring gate are 
sawed off. All surfaces formed by direct contact with the 
mold are notable for their precision and high gloss. 

The mold for the plane miniature was built for $70, 
Price of a steel die was estimated at $1500. Eight hundi 
miniatures, ordered for distribution as Lockheed souvei 
were delivered at 60< each, the buffing and sandpapei 
to be performed by the buyer. 

So rudimentary are the operations in phenolic casting 
that once the mold is constructed, the technical require- 
ments may be grasped quickly by unskilled workers. Ig 
12 min from start of the pouring until removal of the cast, 
one green hand produced the jet plane model. After three 
days of practice, it took him only 4 min. Obviously, the 
quick setting of phenol-formaldehyde, accelerated by the 
catalyst under heat treatment, is an important factor. 

Sometimes in filling multiple cavity molds, the injectioi 
method is used. As many as 22 small items, such as knobs, 
police whistles, or handles, have been cast by this process 
in a single operation. 

Phenol-formaldehyde, plus other ingredients, is utilized 
by Rezolin in molds and castings because of its long-wear 
and dimensional stability. Various fillers increase the sta- 
bility, insure against shrinkage, and provide a molded part 
true to scale. A catalyst, which performs under heat treat- 

15 different types and sizes each 
equipped with proved safety features 

Every operation of Kux Hydraulic Die Casting Machines it 
automatically controlled by electrical timing devices. 
These easily adjusted timers can be put into action at 
any time during the casting cycle they are an important 
reason why Kux Die Casting Machines have a 
world-wide reputation for being the safest machines built. 

Kux Produces the Most Complete Line of 
High Pressure Die Casting Moc/iinei 
Available, tor Zinc or Aluminum Castings. 








it, helps minimize the setting time. Machining virtu- 

, is eliminated. 

.But the great factor is low cost, as attested to by the fact 
ft 94}4% was sliced from the overhead in fabricating 
fen phenolic molds and that, in a series of cases, $1155 in 

;nolics did what was estimated to cost $20,100 in metal. 

Tasting of phenolic molds opens the way for many small 
J: important operations, which their cost in metal dies 
luld render prohibitive. Likewise, phenolics are making 

)d in larger operations, such as fabrication of jigs, net 

cks, and stretch-form dies. 

.New problems pop up daily in this intriguing business. 
fee demand for unusual casting performances seems limit- 
Is. Each problem calls for a specialized approach, backed 
I engineering skill, an understanding of the capabilities 
J plastics rightly applied, and the confidence that plastics, 
|ien properly handled, will do the unusual job. END 

Cost Comparison: Phenolic and Steel Molds* 

i or Fart 

Estimated Cost 
in Steel 

Actual Cost 
in Phenolics 

I jckheed P-80 jet propulsion 
plane miniature 

itentiometer coil frame 

original prototype 

[developed prototype 

r Idio cabinet 

original prototype 

'developed prototype 

ckheed P-80 gun handle prototype, 

8-part assembly 

othes pins, Cavity Mold, 8 half- 
parts cast in one operation 


. 1,850.. 




.. 3,000. 
.. 3,000. 

.. 4,200. 
.. 4,700. 






* All figures furnished by Rezolin. 








We Solicit Your Inquiries 


P. O. BOX 1779 


HOBALITE offers the greatest 
assurance of a perfect plastics 

Actual use has proven this 
special metal unequalled for 
withstanding the crucial strain 
of intricate nobbing. When prop- 
erly case hardened and treated 
it withstands the extreme pres- 
sure of 82 tons per square inch. 

HOBALITE is your safeguard 
for producing finer molded plas- 
tics with hobbed cavity molds. 
You can be sure your product is 
right . . . when you mold with 

Complete stock of standard sizes available for 
immediate delivery from our Chicago warehouse 




Pot Design for 
Transfer Molds 

n wdL 


Plastics Division, General Electric Co. 

Efficient design and use of the 
plasticizing chamber is required 
to obtain full advantages from 
the process of transfer molding 

BECAUSE transfer molding imparts to the molding of 
thermosetting plastics merits more or less comparable 
to those of the injection molding of thermoplastics, it has 
become a well-established method for plasticizing molding 
materials and forcing them through a small orifice into the 
mold cavity. One of the important considerations in this 
method of molding is efficient design and use of the pot or 
plasticizing chamber, a judicious balance of the following 
items being required to give an economically short transfer 
time : type of compound, pressure on compound, type of 
pot, pot dimensions, clamping tonnage at parting line of 
mold, weight of plastics compound, preheat temperature, pot 
temperature, and orifice position and size. 

Floating pot in discharge position and rectangular plunger 


Cylindrical pot plunger with dove-tail to pick up cull and 
piston ring groove to prevent flashback of compound 

Choice of compound is the first factor in pot design. Ex 
perience shows that different plastics compounds requir , 
different transfer pressures. Typical ranges for phenoli , 
resin compounds are : wood-flour filled, 6,000-8,000 psi 
cotton-flock filled, 6,000-10,000 psi; and rag-filled, 8,000 
12,000 psi. 

Three types of transfer pots are in general use. The mos 
common is the closed bottom pot supported in a floatinj j 
shoe. Transfer pressure is supplied by the same force tha 
clamps the mold cavities. The other two designs use sepa j 
rate transfer power, and the pots, supported in a stationar j 
retainer, may be closed or open bottom. 

Considering, first, the floating pot, it is advisable to asj 
sume that full hydraulic pressure is transferred from th i 
pot into the cavities. In order not to jack open the cavitie , 
by hydraulic action, the area of the bottom of the pot shoul 
be 10 to 25% larger than the parting line area of the cavi 
ties. All elements for a preliminary pot design are noi 
present : the molded part determines parting line area ; th > 
parting line area gives pot area ; and selection of compoun 
gives tons per square inch transfer pressure, which, mult 
plied by pot area, gives the size press required to mold th - 

Engineers who follow this rule of thumb desigVi will bj 
embarrassed on occasion to find transfer time so long thj 
extremely high tonnages are necessary to transfer corr] 
pound ahead of pre-curing. This condition is particular!! 
. true for parts of relatively thick cross-section and deep n 
cesses. A certain minimum rate of heat transfer from tl- 
pot walls is required to suitably plasticize and permit fl-.--^ 
of a given charge of compound. For normal mold tempei 
ature and slight preheat, good design practice uses a min ' 
mum of about 6 sq in of pot heating area per ounce of con- 
pressed phenolic-resin cellulose-filled compound. As pn 
heat is raised, the heating area can be reduced, until, wit 




all dielectric preheat, transfer time is independent of heat- 
ig area. 

Stationary pots can be made small in diameter without 
anger of flashing the cavities. Waste compound in the 
ull is measurably reduced. Mold operation is speeded be- 
ause of more rapid engagement of the transfer plunger 
nto the pot. Offsetting features are more complex press 
lumbing, reduced compound loading space, and higher 
ress investment. The open bottom pot offers a further 
aving in compound by eliminating the sprue used in a 
losed bottom pot. Its drawback is the extra clamping 
ressure required to overcome the subtractive effort of the 
ransfer plunger. 

determining Dimensions 

Dimensions for stationary pots must take into account 
eating area, weight of charge, type of compound, ease of 
oading, temperature of preheat, and available tons from 
he transfer cylinder. As described for the floating type 
>ot, good design requires about 6 sq in of heating area per 
unce of compressed charge. A relatively small diameter 
vith deep loading space is to be avoided. When the com- 
pressed height exceeds the minimum width of the pot by 
i ratio of 3, internal friction and pre-curing phenomena 
apidly raise the required transfer pressure. Dielectric pre- 
leat can increase the usable ratio well over 3. Even so, 
lifficulty can be expected when loading sizeable charges 
nto small-mouth pots. Suitable transfer time for all types 
)f transfer pots usually ranges between 5 and 45 sec. Some 
?ery soft or highly preheated materials will transfer in less 
han 5 sec, but these may show evidence of trapped gas and 
jurned marks. Successful transfer times well over 45 sec 
have been observed with slow curing compounds or when 
molds are run at reduced temperatures. 

Checking Transfer Time 

To check transfer time on any given design of pot, the 
following formula has been successfully used on phenolic 
resin compounds. It is reasonably accurate for limited 
ranges of variables. 

1 0,000 

400-T P 

2 - 5 







T = transfer time (min) 

K = compound constant 1 .0 

Tp = preheat temperature (F) 80 200 

Sq. in. = pot heating area (sq. in.) 4 200 

Ao = orifice area (sq. in) 0.010 0.200 

TM = pot temperature (F) 310 360 

Pc = transfer pressure (psi) 6,000 1 2,000 

Oz - weight of compound in pot (oz) 1 16 

Pot heating area includes all surfaces transferring heat 
into the compressed charge of compound. Orifice area is 
measured at the minimum restriction in the passage from 
pot to cavity. The above equation does not necessarily hold 
when the compressed height of compound is greater than 
the minimum width of the pot. 

Choice of round, rectangular, trapezoidal, or other shape 
of pot is controlled by the location of sprue holes for short- 
est entry into mold cavity and, also, by the additional cost 
of odd shapes over a simple round pot. Some benefit is 
gained in transfer time by- using shapes other than round 
because of additional side wall heating area. Pots should 
be designed so that shrinkage of the cured cull will not pre- 

Ingenious New 

Technical Methods 

To Help You with Your Reconversion 

New Comparator Gage Saves Time 
Gives 6 Inspections in One! 

Even the most inexperienced 

operator can obtain accurate 
inspection of externally 
threaded parts, with the Limi- 
trol Comparator Gage in 
many instances, increasing the 
rate of inspection as much as 
400%! The Limitrol, proved 
in hundreds of war plants, 
permits 6 visual checks in one: 
pitch diameter, lead, taper, 
out-of-roundness, angle, and 
straightness. Its use reduces 
inspection and production 
costs, cuts scrap waste whi le i n- 
creasing speeds of operation. 
If a part passes the Limitrol, 
it will assemble accurately. 

Graduated dials are furnished 
as standard equipment. These 
dials are graduated in incre- 
ments which approximate 
.0005 inch when the magnifi- 
cation is 250 to 1, and serve 
as a guide in determining just 
how far over or under the 
limits the part might be. 

Another "help on the job" 

is chewing gum. Chewing 
seems to make work go easier, 
time go faster. Good chewing 
gum is available, but there's 
still a shortage. That's why 
we at Wrigley wish we could 
make Wrigley's Spearmint 
now, to helpincreasethe avail- 
able supply. You may be sure 
we will, just as soon as sugar 
restrictions are lifted. Mean- 
brand, because it's the chew- 
ing that really does you good. 

Hand Model used For 
"in process" gaging 

You can get complete information 
from N. A. Woodsworth Co., 
Sales Division, 1300 E. Nine 
Mile Road, Detroit 20, Mich. 






jected molded pieces or obsolete molding powders 
cellulose acetate, cellulose aceto-butyrate, polystyrene, 
methyl methacrylate, or polyvlnyl resin. 

or other mixtures metal or anything else and rework 
and plastic'ne the material into first class, ready-to-use 
reprocessed molding powder. 

BUY FROM US when reconditioned molding powder is 
needed for your process. You'll find our product a trust- 
worthy and reliable element. Contact us at our modern 
plant. Inquiries will receive prompt attention. 



Call or Write 

Department P 

44 Hcwes St.. Brooklyn 11. N. Y. 
Evergreen 7-3887 
Cable: Chemprod 

it's knowing how to use plastics that spells 
the difference. Thai's why your woik at 
Magnetic Plastics is custom moulded 
from the plastics that best withstand 
the wear theii job demands. 

Ask us to help you see what plastics 
can do In youi business. Just send 
photo, sample ot specifications, and 
we'll tell you quickly il it can be 
made in moulded plastics. 



vent its easy removal. An example of a poor design from 
this standpoint is a ring-shaped pot. 

Suitable clearance between pot and plunger is nominally 
0.0005" per side. To prevent binding, it is good practice to 
use the same temperatures on pot and plunger. 

An excellent method exists for preventing flashback of 
compound between plunger and cavity wall. One or two 
shallow grooves should be cut around the circumference 
of the plunger just above the pressure face. These grooves 
fill with compound when the mold is first used. The result- 
ing piston ring prevents further leakage of compound. 

Removal of the cull is no problem with the "open" botto 
pot. The pot plunger is simply made long enough to pu 
out the cull when the mold opens. The cull is best 
moved from the closed bottom pot by providing a taper 
dovetail recess in the face of the plunger into which th 
compound molds and is cured. The cull with the molde 
dovetail is mechanically removed from the face of the 
plunger after the plunger is withdrawn at the end of the 
molding cycle. 

The future of transfer molding seems closely tied to di- 
electric preheating. Pot design will be simplified because 
heat transfer from the pot walls will no longer be the con- 
trolling factor in transfer time. Sufficient pressure quickly 
applied to a well-preheated compound gives transfer times 
limited only by the closing speed of the press. END 

Know Your Butyrates 

(Continued from page 37) 

shower clogs, the Army bugle, and a judging model of 
perfect Guernsey cow. 

The compression method permits the molding of pieces toe 
large for injection or pieces having sections so thick as to re- 
sult in excessive shrinkage if made by injection. Examples 
are Greyhound Bus window shades and Army foot tubs. 

Tenite II lends itself successfully to continuous extrusion, 
without the use of solvents, into a variety of shapes r 
ranging in size from monofilament threads to two-inch ba 
tubing in square, hexagonal, round, or any other desir 
form, with smooth or fluted surface, and webbed, cellul; 
or slotted cross-section ; decorative strips of widely varyi 
profiles; and transparent sheeting to be formed into o 
tainers, toys, protective coverings, and the like by a num' 
of methods. 

The use of butyrate molded over metal cores or ins 
has become widespread the object being to couple 
beauty, toughness, and pleasant "feel" of the plastics wii 
the rigidity of the metal. Outstanding examples of this are 
automobile and truck steering wheels. The coefficient of 
expansion of most plastics materials, including cellulose 
ester plastics, is approximately ten times that of metal, 
which means that when the temperature drops from 70 ] 
above zero to 40 F below zero, the difference in contraction 
in the 52-inch circumference of the steering-wheel insert is 
almost l /t" more than that of the plastics. The resilience 
and toughness of Tenite II, however, compensate for this 
contraction without the wheel's breaking. 

This plastics is also made in the form of melt-coating 
compositions for the impregnating and coating of paper and 
fabric. Coatings are applied by roll or other methods from 
a hot mixture which hardens at room temperature and re- 
sults in a waterproof, flexible, and brilliant-surfaced finish. 
The composition effects a high degree of translucence o' 
paper, improves its wet strength, and enables sheets of paper 
or fabric to be laminated together. 

The same composition dissolved in castor oil, with a small 
amount of rust-preventive oil added, becomes a coating foi 




Combination desk tray and removable segment of card file 
are molded of "Tenite II." When file has been completely 
filled, segment may be transferred to a large file wheel 

irrodible metal tools and parts in shipment or storage. 
|rticles dipped into the hot liquid mixture are given a 
gating which solidifies at once into a continuous, tough, 
lansparerrt film, easily cut and stripped when desired. No 
Jditional wrappimg is necessary. The use of butyrate strip 
Ratings makes possible complete visual inspection and iden- 
ification of the coated object 

i Gel lacquers made from butyrate granules dissolved in 
iiitable solvents form hard, tough coatings on cores of 
ietal, wood, and certain plastics for applications such as 
>ds, towel bars, and handles of kitchen utensils and tools, 
el lacquering provides an inexpensive means of covering 
rticles more quickly, and with a coat much thicker, than 
in be accomplished by the use of ordinary lacquers. The 
:sult is a lustrous, colorful surface, chip-proof and pleas- 
nt to the touch. Coatings may be applied in different 
licknesses by dipping in gel lacquers of varying viscosities 
Ir by repeated dipping. Mechanical adherence is obtained 
ly the shrinkage of the gel lacquer around the dipped object 
uring drying. Upon cooling and partial loss of solvent, the 
\ot, viscous coating sets rapidly to non-fluid gel. Upon 
omplete evaporation of the solvent, ultimate hardness is 
tbtained. END 

Photographs courtesy Tennessee Eastman. Fishing rod containers are 
.xtruded by Extruded Plastics, Inc., and manufactured by Horrocks- 


Spring Tension Fasteners 

(Continued from page SO) 

The Simmons Quick Lock device fastens and unfastens 
With a quarter-turn. It is designed with a self-ejecting stud 
and is made for three types of studs: namely, flush head, 
bval head, and wing head. This fastener eliminates side 
play and holds end play to a maximum of .008". It has a 
jhollow one-piece housing which is integral with locking 
'lugs. Inside is a long-travel helical spring which ejects the 
fastener when unlocked. The outer housing contains the 
ispring and the inner housing. In fastening two plastics 
Isheets together, the stud enters the collar and is depressed 
ragainst the spring action. Then it is turned until it rides 
'under the cam surfaces. This fastener is extensively used 
Jin aircraft assemblies, on engine cowlings, access panels, 
'; frame assemblies, etc. Another Simmons one-piece fas- 
tener locks by means of a spiral curved wire running 
through the stud and bracing against the assembled mate- 
rial. It also locks and unlocks with a 90 turn. 
In all of these fasteners the spring-tension, or resilient 

Tack this memo to your 
engineer's planning board 

"QAYCOLITE" macerated resin-impregnated fab- 
L ric is a phenolic molding compound of great 
possibilities for economy. Its application is limited 
to certain types of items, but where it is applicable 
the savings are extremely important. 

Ample Wording Sample Furnished 





Pure cotton flock of sur- 
passing cleanliness and 

Macerated cotton fabric 
for extra strength. 

Evenly cut lengths of tire 
cord lor plastics of utmost 



45 Tremont Street, Central Falls, Rhode Island 






IOur customers (list on request) include many 
of America's most prominent molders. 

2 In our organization are nationally-known 
authorities on plastic molds and molding. 

3 Expanded facilities insure prompt delivery. 
Your inquiry will receive immediate attention. 

Engineering Specialties 

3476 Gibson, Detroit 1, Mich. 





cushion, principle has been employed in some form or other. 
This was an obvious necessity because of the nature of plas- 
tics materials, whether compression or injection molded. 
The advantages attained by the use of these new fasteners 
have been the elimination of vibration loosening-, a marked 
reduction in weight, a saving in assembly time, and the de- 
velopment of a more secure assembly which can be installed 
in smaller space and tight corners. 

Plastics themselves are being increasingly developed as 
fasteners. For example, cap screws and nuts manufactured 
from black Tenite by the S. S. White Plastics Division, 
New York City, are used to attach electrical instruments to 
panel boards, often made of plastics also. Because of their 
high dielectric strength, these screws provide insulation and 
thus are preferred to metal ones for the purpose. 

The screws are one inch long, with a Y^" threaded sh; 
J4"-20 thread, and a hexagonal socket head. In the inj 
tion molding of the parts, Tenite is held to close tolerai 
to assure proper fit between nut and screw. 

Another fastening device for plastics that has been 
veloped within the past year is the plastics expansion rr 
(See July, 1944, and Sept., 1945, plastics). Working with 
acrylics, ethyl cellulose, and cellulose acetate-butyrate, en- 
gineers at the El Segundo plant of the Douglas Aircraft 
Company designed a rivet which can be installed with th 
aid of compressed air. The rivet is center-bored to within 
a short distance of the bottom, and compressed air is di- 
rected into this pocket while driving. Prior to driving 
the rivet is heated to soften the plastics. When compressed 
air is blown into the pocket, the bottom end of the rivel 
expands or "balloons." As the expanded section hardens 
on cooling, the rivet clinches firmly into place. 

Although the expansion rivet was designed primaril) 
for attaching fabric to the metal frames of airplanes, a 
number of new uses have been suggested. For example 
the parts of an all-plastics drawer pull can he securely fas- 
tened together with it; radio chassis can be assembled will- 
it, and it can be used in the building trade for much of the 
interior wall decorations, such as the fastening of panel; 
for decorative use. Another suggested application is it 
riveting plastics conduits and distributions boxes to tl 

Protecting Electronic Equipment 

{Continued from page 62) 

other respects, it can be used at present only as a wo 1 
fabric and is not adaptable for terminal strips or si 
bases, which are particularly vulnerable parts. 

The other mechanism of deterioration involves a film 
dust, oil, grease or similar stratum on which the fungu: 
can take root and feed. In this case, the film takes thi 
place of the surface of the equipment itself as a source o: 
nutriment, owing to the carbohydrates it has picked up it 
minute quantities. As the fungus germinates, feeds, ;mc 
functions, it gives off waste-products which are corrosive 
It is these products that attack the surface through the film 
etching and, in time, rotting it away. Even glass may bi 
etched by hair-lines in this way. 

There are two broad classifications of fungi according 
to their modus operandi. The first type, like asperr/illti. 
niger, is a surface grower only. It does not eat away a 
the surface of the materials but merely covers it with a filn 
or mass of cottony fluff. This causes electrical breakdown: 
owing to "bridge gaps" and other disturbances. The othe: 
type damages the surface directly by eating it away. AJ' 
example is chactomium globosum. These rotting or^an 
isms chiefly attack cellulosic materials. If unchecked, the; 
will not only interfere with the functioning of the equipmcn 
but will in time destroy it completely. 



FEBRUARY 1941 < 

The day of molten wax as a protection for radar and 
li-ctronic equipment is practically over, added Nechamkin. 
i'lastics has won its spurs in the battle against the deadly 
'ungus. The exact type which should be selected depends 
)n many factors, among them the particular requirements 
)f the instruments, the unit cost of manufacture, and work- 
ng or operating conditions. 

For coil impregnation, the plastics must meet several im- 
(ortant requirements in addition to high fungus resistance. 
\mong them are a high melting point, high resistance to 
fire (though this may not be mandatory), high moisture 
resistance, low cold flow, high resistance to vibration and 
to chemicals (especially ozone, oxides of nitrogen, and the 
industrial fumes to which the equipment might be exposed), 
and good dielectric properties. The plastics should not get 
>rittle at the -60C that prevails in the stratosphere. 

The economic factor may still operate in favor of wax 
coatings for less expensive, personal pieces of electronic 
equipment like the walkie-talkies, for example. For in- 
dustrial and navigation purposes, like ice-berg detectors 
at sea, plastics protection is a "must." Nechamkin and 
lis associates are developing new and better plastics for 
:his purpose, but the materials and processes may not be 
divulged at the present time. 

Important developments in radar and television, stimu- 
lated by war needs, have assured a boom market for elec- 
tronic devices in the coming decade. This is expected to 
mean a tremendous demand for plastics protective coat- 
ings of parts and equipment. In the field of television alone, 
the use of plastics for component parts of transmitters and 
receivers is expected to rise phenomenally. In all electronic 
equipment, especially the more elaborate kind, chassis, ter- 
minal strips, lugs and resistors will all he protected with 
fungus-resisting plastics. In many cases, the entire equip- 
ment will be housed in plastics cabinets. END 

New Vistas for Hats 

(Continued from page 25) 

body except that it requires no special sizing. The crown 
of draped fabric provides the necessary contrast and ties in 
with the fabric of the costume. Many different effects for 
hat bodies can be achieved by using the extruded materials 
in varying thicknesses and employing new weaves and pat- 

In using the less pliable types of plastics, care must be 
taken to attain a certain effect of softness by clever meth- 
ods of fabrication. 

In Sketch No. 4, a large capeline is made of cellulose 
acetate formed or, better still, molded into a classic shape 
which is likely to remain in fashion for some time. The ef- 
fect of softness, so vital in millinery, is achieved by the 
ingenious placing of apertures, or slots, through which to 
pull soft, drapy materials or ribbons. Varying the distribu- 
tion of these slots makes possible many different effects. A 
novel idea is to allow the individual to change the draping 
and color to match the costume. 

The comparatively light weight of this material and its 
attractive color range, which can be governed by the textile 
color card to tie in with the season's demands, make it a 
candidate for volume business. 

In this scarf for head or shoulder (Sketch No. 5) the 
extrusions of Tcnitc II are fashioned into a finely-patterned 
all-over lace which is reminiscent of the delicacy and old- 
world charm of the lace in a Rembrandt painting. For for- 
mal and dinner wear this scarf will add a glamorous note 
to any costume. It will not crush easily and will retain its 
freshness indefinitely. 

Sketch No. 6 shows a not strictly formal wedding or con- 

Cuf Plastics Fabricating Costs 

with WALKER -TURNER Machine Tools 

Plastics fabricating plants have re- 
duced costs in many ways with 
Walker-Turner Machine Tools. Their 
wide range of cutting speeds, rugged 
I construction, dual voltage motors 
I (220 and 440) and all-round depend- 
ability make them ideal production, 
equipment for 
small or large 
shops. Write for 
name of Walker- 
Turner Distribu- 
tor in your area. 

14" and 16" band 
saws. Widely 
used in cutting 
all types of plas- 

Radial drill drills to center of 62" 
' circle. Head tilts to 45 either side. 

15" Bench Model Drill. 
Has 4^" Spindle travel. 
Sturdy, versatile. Also 
made in 20" size (with or 
without power feed). 









This tough filament is bringing new 
beauty, new durability, to a variety of 
textile applications. Fabrics woven of 
SARAN BY NATIONAL resist wear defy 
dirt stay clean and fresh always. What- 
ever your product, you'll do well to in- 
vestigate SARAN now. 

SARAN BY NATIONAL is extruded and spooled 
in the size and color required for every purpose 
and supplied to mills, braiders and other fabri- 
cators. We do no fabricating. 









*gemlite MOLDING AS 

for RADIO and 




Gossamer light veil, including the tiny petals and 
lace edging, are made of cellulose acetate buty rate 

firmation veil an application of cellulose acetate butyrate 
extrusion in a styling similar to my award-winning de- 
sign (in 1941) for an elaborate bridal veil. The fine, glis- 
tening strands of this extrusion are crocheted by hand into 
tiny petals which form the blossom trimming on the sheer 
tulle veil. The lace edging on the veil also is made of 
butyrate. The bright, sparkling gleam of the crystal clear 
film creates the effect of an_ ethereal aura over the wearer's 
head which is quite ravishing. The veil is made up 
jewel-tones and should prove a useful accessory for eveniri 

These suggestions have barely scratched the surface 
plastics applications in the fashion field, and they deal wit! 
only two plastics materials out of the many available. How- 
ever, I hope they will serve to stimulate the plastics mate- 
rials manufacturers, as well as the fashion designers them- 
selves. END 

ED. NOTE: The author, a product designer with an important moldin 
company, has an interesting background in the field of fashion, which date 
back to Paris where she had her own studio. Her work in plastics fo 
fashions is well-known in this country, and her experimentation with 
materials has been vast and varied. 

Molding Acrylics 

(Continued from page 55) 

Use metal inserts to speed mounting and improve 
usefulness of the part: In insert design, sufficient plastics 
material must be allowed to give the insert solid anchorage 
to permit flow of the material around the insert and to ac 
commodate differences in expansion and contraction 
tween metal and plastics. (See "Inserts: Their Desig 




Selection, and Use," flattie*. January, 1946.) Particu- 
larly in compression molding, but also in injection molding, 
the insert should be short and sturdy enough so that it will 
not be broken, bent, or dislodged by the flow of material. 
The proportion of depth to diameter should not be more 




than 2:1. Inserts should either project above the surface 
of the plastics or at least be flush with rt. A narrow lip of 
plastics between an insert and a bolt, for example, is sub- 
jected to high stresses if the bolt is tightened. Because of 
the transparency of Plexiglas, the design of the exterior 
of the insert should be considered for appearance's sake. _ 

If ribs are used to reinforce flat area, break opposite 
surface with fluting or other decorative device : During 
cooling, molded sections contract and shrink roughly in 
proportion to the volume of material at any given point. 
If the volume varies, as in the case of a rib reinforcing a 





flat area, excessive contraction of material will show up 
not on the domed surface of the rib, but on the flat (pre- 
sumably exterior) surface. Such "sink-marks" can often 
be eliminated by exact control of the molding cycle; but 
such critical control is not always possible or economical. 
It is therefore preferable to break the surface opposite the 
rib by a fluting or other decorative device on which sink- 
marks will not appear. 

Give special surface treatment to parts which will be 
subjected to scratching in service : Rope effects, fluting, 




Trt sell your business for cash to 
' ** a reputable and experienced 
operating concern with substantial 
capital may be the best thing for 
both the company and you. 

IA/P are principals (not brokers) 
*" with a record of successful 
operating experience. Present com- 
pany personnel retained wherever 

ALL discussions and negotiations 
strictly confidential 

Box 1241 

1474 B'way, N. Y. 

We Specialize 



The time is coming when you 
may require specialized experience 
on vinyl resin, pyroxylin or other 
plastic coatings. 

Because the future of your fabric 
will depend on the ability of the 
fabric coaters you choose, it's well 
to remember this: products from 
our plants are being sold in Grade 
A outlets . . . are being featured by 
distributors noted tor the highest 
quality standards. 

Why not consult us on your post- 
war plans? 

We are equipped to produce: waterproof 
baby pants, crib covers, bibs, sanitary 
goods and coated fabrics for hospital use, 
shower curtains, raincoats, upholstery fab- 
rics, drapery goods, food covers, utility 
aprons, shampoo capes, garment covers, 
bathing caps and industrial products. 


183 Essex St. Boston 11, Mass. 






Available in IS basic colors from which ISO com- 
pletely true shades may be obtained. This method 
can be used by the fabricator or motder before or 
after processing. Inexpensive simple uniformity 
of color throughout. Heat solution; Simply dip 
rinse and that's all no expensive equipment or 

high priced chemicals to buy. 

We are the sole manufacturers of this prod- 

Phone FEderal 1109 




Canadian Kepi Colors & Finishes Co., 47 Richmond St., Toronto 1, Ontario 
New York Rep; Plastics Dye & Supply Co., Oceon Gate, New Jersey 

Among the other excellent products from the Grtjf American Color 
Company's laboratories is their Plastic Annealing Compound. It's a 
c/ear Annealing agent perfected to do more than hold plastics together; 
if really makes two pieces into one/ 

Write to Box P7 tor Further Information 








for its unique beauty. 

Specialists in Thermo-Plastic Injection Molding. 
Send your specifications for our estimates. No 
contract too large for our facilities and "know 







reeding, and other surface treatments not only add to tin 
sparkle of acrylic moldings by breaking the surface into ; 
number of facets to catch and reflect light but also reduc 
the visibility of any slight surface scratches the moldin 
may receive from rough handling. 

Obtaining maximum glitter in moldings : Refrigerate 
door handles, radio dials and bases, door knobs, trays, and 
automotive and electrical appliances are applications vvher 
the sparkle of the plastics can be accentuated by cutting 
molding facets into the back surface. (See "How to Mak 
the Most of Acrylics", plastics, June, 1945.) 

Three-dimensional moldings: The crystal clarity of 
Plexiglas is used indirectly in three-dimensional moldings 
as where the front surface is smooth ; a seal, trademark, or 
other marking is molded into the back in different depths 
and appropriate colors are wiped into these markings and 
background color is applied. This' type of molding offe 
obvious possibilities for nameplates, jewelry, compacts, con 
tainers, and other decorative parts. Precautions to be oh 

Properties of Molded "Plexiglas' 



Optical Data 

Light transmission (%} 90-9 

Ha (%) 3-1 < 

Refractive index (N/D) 1.48-1. 

Dispersion (N F -N C ) 0.0 

Effect of sunlight Very slig 

Effect of age Very slig 

Optical density 0.03 

Transmissible wave lengths (A) 3600-10,00 

Permanence (% transmission loss in 200 sunshine hours) 

Mechanical Data 

Specific gravity (25 C) 1.18-1.11 

Tensile strength (psi) 4,000-6,00 

Elongation at break (' , ) 1- 

Flexural strength (psi) 10,000-15,000 

Compressive strength (psi) 1 0,000-1 5,000 


Mohs 2- 

Rockwell (M) 

Brinell (500 kg, 1 mm ball) 1 8-20 

Impact resistance, ASTM Charpy, unnotched bar (ft Ib) 2- 

Modulus of elasticity ( 1 5 psi) 3- 

Coeff icient of expansion ( 1 5 /C) 8-' 

Water absorption (% max. weight gain 24 hr) 0.< 

Electrical and Thermal Data 
Dielectric constant 

60 cycles 3.4-3.6 

1 ,000 cycles 3.2-3.4 

1 ,000,000 cycles 2.5 

Dielectric strength (vpm, 60 cycles) 

Short time test 500 

One-minute step-wise test 400 

Power factor (',',. ASTM Method D-150-36T) 

60 cycles (Bridge method) 5-6 

1,000 cycles (Bridge method) 6-7 

1 ,000,000 cycles (substitution method) 2-3 

Volume resistivity (ohms/cm 8 ) Over 1 18 

Thermal conductivity (10- 4 cal/sec/sq cm/C/cm) 4-6 

Resistance to heat (F cont.) 1 20-140 

Specific heat (col/"C/am) 0.35 

*Since "Plexiglal" Is a thermoplastic, it properties will be found to vary with tem- 
perature. Voluei given apply for 25-30 C (77-86 f). 




Chemical Data 


Per cent Weigh! Gain 
(192 hr at 25 C (77 F))* 

' - 
- 7 
- 9 

Sulphuric acid (30%) 

Sulphuric acid (3%) 

Hydrochloric acid (10%) 

sodium hydroxide (10%) 

Sodium hydroxide (1%) 

Jitric acid (10%) 

Kcetic acid (5%) ........................... -, ................ - 

Dleic acid (100%.) ........................ ............... - 

Sodium carbonate (2' , ) ...................................... ' 

Sodium chloride (10',) ....................................... - 9 

Ammonium hydroxide ( 1 0' , } .................................. 0." 

Hydrogen peroxide (3%) ..................................... ' - 

Distilled water ( 1 00%) ....................................... - 9 

Gasoline .................................................. - 2 

Ethyl alcohol (95%) .................................... Dissolved 

Ethyl alcohol (50%) .................................... Dissolved 

Acetone, ethyl acetate, ethylene dichloride, 

carbon tetrachloride, toluene ......... .................. Dissolved 

*AII concentration] given in % by weight in distilled water. A change in weight of 1 % 
T Icjs is considered negligible. 

served in tills type of molding are : ( 1 ) The depth of letters, 
seals, etc., should not be over one-half of total thickness 
of molding to permit proper flow of material; and (2) 
Paints and pigments which do not harm the plastics should 
be used (In general, the four-hour enamels are satisfactory, 
but the solvent base lacquers are not). 

A wide range of colors is possible because of the clarity 
of the plastics. The light tints are very delicate, and excel- 
lently suited to hair brusTies, cosmetic containers, compacts, 
and ladies' accessories. The darker shades have rich depth 
for use wherever stronger colors are more appropriate. In- 
teresting multi-tone effects are possible, particularly with 
tints, by designing parts of varying thicknesses. Thicker 
sections arc deeper in color than thin sections. Molding 
powders are available for injection and compression mold- 
ing and for extrusion in reds, ambers, yellows, greens, 
aquamarines, blues, violets, white, opaque, brown opaque, 
and black opaque. 

Continuous extrusion is a fast and economical method of 
production often possible where the design of the cross 
section or profile is uniform, the product assuming approxi- 
mately the same cross section as the die. It is sometimes 
difficult to extrude thin fins in combination with thick sec- 
tions, and there are some limitations on the included area 
of the profile. It is advisable that these questions be dis- 
cussed with an experienced extrusion molder before a de- 
sign is frozen. END 


~ ~~ 

If prism angle is less than 42.2, vertical light on Sur- 
face I (A) passes through Surface II. Pattern on horizon- 
tal plane touching prism apex is distorted by refraction, 
but visible. For 42.2-45.9 (B) light on I reflects from 
II and III back out I. Pattern is not visible. For 45.9- 
74 (C) light reflects from II, is refracted through III. 
The visible pattern is reversed, being a reflected image. 
Where only top is visible, B outglitters C. Otherwise, C 
glitters more since it reflects light from both sides al- 
so. Most side light ordinarily comes from II or III of B 


Foster-working Armour Abrasives Mean 
More Production 

Today's growing demand for plastic products 
demands volume production. To get it you need 
the fastest tools and the best abrasives possible. 

For better, faster finishing ... in removing flash 
and parting lines, in smoothing rough spots and 
mold defects in any operation . . . there are 
specialized ARMOUR ABRASIVES designed to 
do a better job at less cost. All are available in 
sheets, rolls, discs and in special forms for 
special jobs. 

It will pay you to call on Armour's experi- 
enced technicians. They will gladly help you 
choose the abrasives and methods which do 
your jobs best. 



1 355 West 31 tt Street, Chicago 9, Illinois 




Precision Accuracy is a at sea ... in 
the air ... in modern, high speed pro- 
duction. Users of plastic parts in manu- 
facturing operations have learned to de- 
pend upon Kirk precision-molded plastics. 
Kirk product-improvement and product- 
development service is widely used, too. 
If you have a problem involving a 
custom-made part of molded plastics, 
let's talk it over. 

Waterproof match boxes, pocket combs 
and a variety of other sales and 
profit making items carried in stock. 

Molded Plastics by KIRK 





SPE Convention 
and Exhibit 

Typical scene at Exhibit shows inquirer, booth attendant 

BOUT 500 members and an additional 250 non-mem- 
bers attended the second annual meeting of the Society 
of Plastics Engineers held at the Rackham Memorial Build- 
ing, Detroit, on January 7, 8, and 9. Twenty-five papers 
were presented at the meeting, grouped around the sub- 
jects : Materials, Molding Techniques, Laminates, Too! 
Design, Coatings, Consumer Specifications, and Produc 
Design. Most of them were in the nature of outline-review! 
of their particular topic, a very few being reports o: 
original research or investigation. Abstracts of some o; 
the papers will be presented here, and of others in 
March issue. 

At the banquet held on January 8, the Ford Ramblers i 
tertained, and the featured speaker was Jack Carlyle of i 
Detroit News, who gave a vivid eye witness account of 
campaign in the Philippines. The serious lecture sessio 
closed with a funny talk on plastics "Products of 
Future" by an alleged Herr Professor Dr. Heinrich Bull 
dorf, who pointed up the virtues of some weird contraptio 
cooked up by Barnes & Reinecke on a designers' spree. 

Officers of the Society for the year 1946 were also elec 
at this time. They are: George W. Clark, Presid 
(Owens-Illinois Glass) ; Harry McGowan, Vice Presid 
(Bakelite Corp., Detroit); J. O. Reinecke, Treasu 
(Barnes & Reinecke) ; and Thomas E. Orr, Secret; 
(Plastic Engineering, Inc.). 

Opening on the same day as the meeting;, a Plas 
Exhibit was held under the auspices of the Society at 
vention Hall for five days. With an admission charge o ' 
$1, it attracted an estimated 15,000 visitors. Some 6 
materials suppliers, machinery manufacturers, molder; 
fabricators, and publishers participated. Most of them dis 
played familiar products, but there was also a consideraU 
sprinkling of new products and novelties. Some of tliest 
of outstanding commercial interest, will be reported in de I 
tail in forthcoming issues of plastics. 

Several may be mentioned briefly here. At the B. I . 
Goodrich Company booth, an auto top based on polyviru 
chloride was shown. This material is produced by til', 
Masland Duraleather Co. under the trade name Duran. A ' 
the Plax Corp. booth Poly flex sheeting was demonstrate '. 
Made of oriented polystyrene, the thin sheet, under hea 
shrinks in size, but retains its shape; and if it is punchei i 



the hole or design also retains its form. So far Polyflex 
das been used to produce buckles and buttons which, de- 
signedly, do not have a machine precision look about them. 

At the General Electric Company booth, tough slabs of 
jsilicone-glass fiber laminates were on display, reportedly 
ifor the first time. 

Styraloy pipe was coated with dry ice (solid carbon 
dioxide) at the Dow Chemical Company booth to demon- 
strate the retention of flexibility of this new material al- 
low temperatures. 

A "double feature" was presented at the Hydraulic Press 
Manufacturing Company display. Here its latest model 
of injection press 3SO-H-16 was put on view, and the co- 
feature was what may be called the first "commercial" 
demonstration on this machine of the molding of Forticel 
(cellulose propionate), the new plastics recently announced 
by the Celanese Corporation of America and now in pilot 
plant production. A four-cavity die turned out in 50 seconds 
or less two completely finished glossy maroon containers 
weighing 16 oz, aside from sprues and runners. 

Among other items attracting crowds were the demonstra- 
tion of the Sav-Way heat-sealing "Sara-Sealer" and also 
its "Pace-maker," a 2 oz vertical injection press; the dis- 
play of German Plastics at the SPI booth ; the Defiance 
Machine Works preforming press ; and the Fiberglas lami- 
nate auto fender and hood. 

Abstracts of the papers follow : 

Dr. S. D. Douglas, "New Plastic Developments Dur- 
j ing the War in the U.S.A." : This paper was in the main 
a discussion of improvements and modifications in certain 
vinyl resins during the past four years. Progress in gen- 
eral was said to include improved plasticizers, better manu- 
facturing techniques, improved dispersions (organosols, 
plastisols, and hydrosols were discussed), improvement in 
quality and increase in the uses of polyethylene and poly- 
styrene (especially a higher softening temperature for the 
j latter), development of polytetrafluorethylene (a new pro- 
duct and potentially very important, with properties similar 
to those of polyethylene; made by the polymerization of 
tetrafluorethylene), development of vinylidene chloride- 
vinyl chloride copolymers, and, last but highly important, 
the development of the allyl resins, especially for laminat- 

Alexander Nixon, "Plastic Materials in Automotive 
Construction" : A survey of plastics in the automobile and 
facts on the setting up of tests to simulate actual use con- 
ditions in attempting to evaluate various plastics for par- 
ticular uses in the automobile. The total weight of plastics 
in the 1942 Pontiac, exclusive of the vinylite sheeting used 
for the laminated glass, was 3.13 Ib distributed as follows: 
phenolics, 1.22 Ib ; acetates and acetate butyrate, 1.28 Ib; 
methacrylates, 0.60 Ib ; urea formaldehyde, 0.03 Ib. Vinylite 

Seated at Annual Banquet, William B. Hoey, retiring presi- 
dent, is flanked on his right by George W. Clark, newly- 
elected president, and by P. F. Robb, master of ceremonies 

Quality, not quantity, is the tradition at Sillcocks- 

Of course, we cannot make all of the plastic dials 
industry requires, so we concentrate on producing 
only the best. 

That's why design engineers who need plastic dials 
fabricated to close tolerances have come to depend 
on Sillcocks-Miller craftsmanship through the years. 

Our understanding of the problems, our ability to 
produce accurately and our thorough knowledge 
of all types of plastics enable us to supply your 
needs quickly and with a minimum of effort on 
your part. 

That's why we can say "It costs you less to pay a 
little more for Sillcocks-Miller quality." 

Write for illustrated 
brochure today. 


1 West Parker Avenue, Maptewood, N. J. 
Mailing Address: South Orange, N. J. 




noioincs 01 HERI 

This 1946 Emerson 
Radio strikes a new 
note in decorative 
appeal, with its plas- 
ric grille compression 

by Waterbury Com- 
panies. Intricate 
molding is no problem 




Keep t>kis Zested and Proven 
War-tinte Veteran 
OH the Job 

In many plants TARBONIS 
practically eliminated der- 
matitis due to urea and 
phenol formaldehyde res- 
ins and powders, in addi- 
tion to many other plastics compounds, during the 
war period. Let it aid your peace-time production. 
Effective in clearing up a high percentage of stubborn 
skin conditions encountered in industry . . . not merely 
a protective. Easy to apply nothing to remove. 
Pleasant, odorless, greaseless, stainless. 


4300 Euclid Ave. Depl. P Cleveland 3, Ohio 

For generous sample and literature, fill in, attai li to 
your letterhead, and mail. 



By. Department 

sheeting accounted for from 2 to 3^ Ib depending upon the 
body style. 

Dr. H. A. Winkelman, "Plastics in the Rubber In- 
dustry" : This talk went into detail on combinations of plas- 
tics and rubber, and indicated an extent of interrelation not 
commonly known. Among the plastics so used are polyvinyl 
chloride, polyvinyl vinylidene chloride, polyvinyl alcohol, 
polyvinyl butyral, styrene polymers, polyethylene, nylon! 
etc. Characteristics contributed by one plastics or another 
to rubber-plastics combinations include resistance to sun- 
light, ozone, water, oils and- solvents, acids, alkalis, a: 
salts; non-flammability ; good electrical properties; col 
ability : non-toxicity ; absence of odor, etc. 

W. Goggin, "German Plastic Fabrication Methods 
Plastics production in Germany and the United States w 
compared for 1943 to show the comparative extent of t 
German plastics industry. Conclusions from a first-ha 
inspection of plastics in Germany were that fabricating 
velopment was spotty, both good and bad; injection molding 
was poor; foam development was good; coating was poor; 
and extrusion was rather good. 

W. S. Prendergast, "Special Extrusion Molding": 
This paper discussed a new process of injection molding 
with an extruder. Sections were shown weighing 3}/ Ib 
molded by the new method, which used two molds alter- 
nately on the front of a conventional screw-extruder. As 
much as 100 Ib an hour have been injection molded through 
a 2 l /2" machine. Advantages include large moldings, cheap 
molds, perhaps a more uniform plasticizing action, no 
tendency toward laminar structure, and the tendency 01 
materials to strain relieve themselves. On large sectio: 
the extrusion mokler can probably produce more chea 
a larger quantity of shots at a lower cost than the majority 
of injection molders, who are necessarily tied to a fairly 
small machine and therefore a fairly low production rate. 

Dr. Simon Williams, "Cotton in Relation to Lami- 
nates": This was a discussion of preliminary studies ,-\\ 
the properties of cotton fibers, yarns, and fabrics which 
influence their use in laminates. Influences of fiber lengths, 
twist in yarn, fabric structures, sizing and the effects 
de-sizing, etc. were discussed in many of their ramifi 
tions. The principal object in the research was to incre; 
some of the mechanical properties of cotton-reinfon 
laminates, especially the tensile strength. 
(To be continued) 

Photographs courtesy of Chemical and Engineering News 

Machining Polystyrene 

(Continued from page 58) 

work. Taking a 1" cutter as a standard, spindle speeds 
high as 20,000 rpm may be attained if coolant is applied lifc 
erally, but generally 15,000 rpm or lower is satisfactor 
The rotational speed of the work should vary between 1C 
and 600 rpm, depending on its character, thickness of mate- 
rial, and the skill of the operator. Solid material can usu- 
ally take the 600 rpm speed ; hollow material should be ro- 
tated more slowly. The rotational speed of the work should 
be further cut for safety purposes in internal threading op- 

In all threading and tapping operations, regardless of ihc 
machine, method, or tpol used, coolant should be applied 


In milling, as in most other machining operations on po- 
lystyrene, there should be liberal use of coolant. The cutter ;; 
is high-speed steel, with the clearance angle varying from- 
about 12 on a %" cutter to about 4 on a 3" cutter. The op- 
erating speed may be regulated to about 400 fpm, varying 




roni that speed on the basis of the width of the cutter. Feed 
ate should be reduced, as usual, with increasing width of 
Hitter and depth of cut. With a J4" cutter, only about ^5" 
:ut should be taken in a single pass, while with a two-and- 
i-half-inch cutter, the cut should not be over 1/16". 

i/ioper and Router 

Shaping and routing are numbered among the operations 
n which coolant is not required for work on polystyrene, 
ut, in both cases, feed should be controlled and unforced. 
This is especially true if a multiple-toothed cutter is in oper- 
tion on the shaper. There should be ample clearance on cut- 
ers for this machine. A clearance angle of from 40 to 47 
s usual. The operating speed is normally about 7200 rpm 
nd, with careful feed, this speed may be maintained for 
lost tool diameters and for most types of cut. Router op- 
rations may be performed at a spindle speed as high as 
8,000 rpm, under the same considerations obtaining for the 
haper. There is one exception to the fact that coolant may 
e dispensed with in router operations, and that is in the 
ase of very small tool diameters. The clearance in very 
mall tools may be too slight for rapid disposal of chips, in 
hich case coolant may prove necessary. A couple of test 
uts can decide this question. 


The low softening temperature of polystyrene and its 
:endency to gum under rather low frictional heat puts dry 
sanding out of the question. However, polystyrene will take 
wet sanding. Even then, the jointer is preferable and will 
provide a cleaner finish for straight surfaces. Where the 
sander must be used for curved and other compound sur- 
faces, the work should be fed lightly to a medium grit. 
Pulley speed is determined by the character of the work, 
by the size of the area in contact with the belt, and by other 
considerations. It will ordinarily be determined by test. 
Generally, pulley speed should lie between about 900 rpm 
and a maximum of about 1500 rpm. 


Polystyrene, like most other plastics, should take a two- 
phase polishing one with polishing compound and the final 
one without. The buffs for both polishing operations are 
usually about 10" in diameter and are made of cotton flan- 
nel. The width should be from 2" to 4", but may be 
smaller where it is necessary to reach complexities in the 
surface to be polished. The distribution of leaves and 
spacers differs between the two buffs. The buff for the 


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Plastic Dyes 


"S" Standard Chemical Dye. 
"A" For Cellulose Acetate 

and Tenite. 
"W" Dye used In Hot Water. 

BLACK dye applied in IS 
min. producing per- 
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"FLUER-0-PLAS K" Produces 
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materials used under 
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For EVERY Type 
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For prices and additional In* 
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and other PLASTICS 



Eosy-fo-use Dyp-Dyes ore available in 16 basic colors. 
These light-fast, uniform colors may be intermixed to pro- 
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dyeing rate and long life offers definite cost savings. 
For complete information and samples, write or wire: 



Fast Drying, easily applied, no pressure required. 

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Th* Mold Treatment for Plattlci and Rubber > 

"In all our >ears in the rubber business we never have seen the equal to 

MOLDE/E" . . . Jan Chf. Enur. famous rubber firm. 

Majority of leading Flrmi now ut* MOLDIZI 
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first polish should have a ratio of one leaf to one spacer, 
while that for the final polish should have two spacers to 
one leaf. The first buff should receive periodic applications 
of red rouge and tallow in the course of the work. Most 
old hands at this job prefer separate sticks of rouge and 
tallow, rather than one combination stick, because the indi- 
vidual sticks afford better control of the proportions of com- 
pound applied to the buff. In fact, no more than a touch 
of tallow is needed in polishing polystyrene. The buff for 
the final finish should be dry. Both buffs, operated at about 
2000 rpm, may be mounted on the same spindle. 

Since all plants carry oils of one kind or another on the 
premises, especially lubricating oils for machines, it is well 
to remember that polystyrene will dissolve in many of these 
types of oils, as well as in gasoline and kerosene. Conse- 
quently oil-filmed hands and oil-stained rags should be kept 
away from polystyrene stock and work. END 

Plastics in Boats 

(Continued from page 66) 

sails can be made fireproof even without the plastics treat- 

The coating may be either transparent, translucent 01 
opaquely colored. The transparent kind is advantageous 
for printed fabrics to permit the pattern to show through. 
Every color of the spectrum is available, so that beauty oi 
color and texture is joined to utility. Chairs may be uphol- 
stered in Koroseal itself. The surface is satin-smooth, re- . 
sistant against wrinkles and waterproof so that one car 
sit down on it in a wet bathing suit with perfect assuranci [ 
that the upholstery will not be damaged. Deck chair cush ; 
ions and cabin window-draperies can be coated in color: . 
that harmonize with the general decor. 

The cost of the coating hinges on whether the fabric * 
coated on one or both sides, whether it is thoroughly im 
pregnated, and how thick the surface coating is. In an; j 
event, the treatment means long range economy as the coat ! 
ing does not deteriorate with age or rot the way untreatet 
fabrics do under sea conditions. 

Fire Protection 

An important feature of the coating is its fire-resis 
qualities, for fire offers a particularly dangerous hazar 
sea. Diesel engine boats throw up particles of red- 
molten oil which sometimes drop on inflammable deck a? 
ings and set them on fire. Crews are trained to be on 
alert with extinguishers to spray the awning tops, 
yachting and ship yards, also, the danger is ever-pr 
These hazards are avoided by coating awnings, tarp 
and winter covers with plastics. One type of fireproof 
holstery used on combat ships consists of strong, fine coti 
high twist cotton-base fabric coated with vinyl chlor 
resins. Suspended for 12 sec. in a Bunsen flame, it bur 
for less than two seconds after removal from the 
Navy bedding bags employ a plastics-coated sateen fa 
as a covering for mattresses or for the storage of mis 
laneous garments. The coating has been found to oil 
excellent protection against sparks and incendiary fr 
ments, which readily ignite uncoated bedding and loose | 

Our company looks forward to an expanding peace-til 
future in the marine industry for vinyl and other plas 
coatings. Their efficiency, dependability, durability, 
other qualities proved in the stress of combat make th 
peculiarly adaptable for canvas and fabrics of all kinds < 
posed to the same winds that blew and waves that ro' 
in war time. 




Old Titles in New Jackets 

(Continued from page 38) 

ored cover designs which distinguish these books to show 
ough to full advantage. Unlike the cardboard case, the 
ee of acetate is scuffproof, so that no raggedness develops 
flier frequent handling. Durability is great. And a 
{fchtly damp cloth, which cannot be repeatedly applied to 
waperboard case without ultimately warping and peeling 
ijwill wipe the acetate case clean. 

Aside from the great saleability of the book, the acetate 
sbcase presents equally distinct advantages to the book- 
lier. First, the book gets excellent protection while it is 
[(display, and yet it remains fully visible to the customer 
all times. The acetate case considerably diminishes the 
bear of the shop-worn book. The fact that the book is 
Bused in a quality case has its psychological effect on the 
CBtomer, who will be impelled to handle such a book with 
pater care. One of the elements that makes the acetate- 
spcased book a "natural" for attention-attracting display 
ifthe fact that the lights reflected off the acetate tend to 
kw the eye in that direction ; in other words, it makes for 
ecial brilliance in the display. 

[The new slipcase was neither an afterthought nor a side 
i ue. Harry N. Abrams, art editor of Grosset & Dunlap, 
ciceived the book and slipcase together as a design unit, 
lie outcome of this conception was his removal of the title 
1 >m its traditional place on the front cover and its trans- 
jsition to the slipcase. This left the cover free for 
'impeded pictorial design, eliminating the necessity of 
i her superimposing the title on the cover design or 
:nning the design around the title. 

The cover design in four colors for some of the books 

the series and in five for others is applied overall to 

je entire binding. There are some ten or a dozen color 

lates in each of the volumes in the group. The printing 

in two colors, black and sepia black for the body type 

id sepia for the illustrations and, in several cases, for the 

apter headings and page numbers, especially where these 


mold designers and other plastics specialists wanted to assume 
'h-salarled key Instruction positions. Send picture and qualification to 
astlcs Tech, 5200 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland 3, Ohio. 

tJECTION Molding Chicago Molder will have open time on 8-9 ounce 
idilnes beginning March, 1946. Prefer Jobs already tooled, but can start 
oling on new jobs Immediately. Here's your chance to get quick dellv- 
ies now and also In the future. Box 62, % PLASTICS, 185 N. Wabash 
re., Chicago 1, Illinois. 

(ANTED Extruded Plastics Supervisor ; Graduate mechanical or chemical 
fgineer familiar with all thermo-plastlcs. To assume complete super- 
felon of present extrusion molding plant in Chicago. Practical experience 
I the technique of extruded plastics preferred. Excellent future assured 
liallfled applicant. Replies kept in strictest confidence. Salary open. 
bx 63, % PLASTICS, 185 North Wabash, Chicago, 111. 

fTTENTION Injection Moulder. Capable Sales Organization with 22 
Bars successful merchandising experience will discuss production and 
.stribution with Moulder having facilities for large volume production 
I various Kens. We sell chain, department, variety stores. Jobbers, also 
idustrials coast to coast. Will make investment for expansion or finance 
lies or work on commission basis. N. Y. C. office-showroom. Box 61, 
3 PLASTICS, 185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 1, Illinois. 

OREMAN Tool and Die Dept. Small plastics molding plant Central New 
ork State. Supervise production and maintenance of plastic molds, tools, 
:c. Permanent position, progressive firm. Write complete details as to 
sperience, background, qualifications. Box 65, % PLASTICS, 185 North 
/abash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

CASTER Mechanic wanted : Plastics and Rubber molding concern vicinity 
renton, N. J. Established 50 years, has opening for master mechanic 
!'lth experience In rubber and/r plastics. In charge of force of 40 to 50 
ion in various service departments : machine shop, electrical, boiler plant, 
tc., and responsible far maintenance of plant and equipment. Expanding 
usiness offers excellent future. Write fully, giving age, experience and 
ilary expected. Reply Box 64, % PLASTICS, 185 N. Wabash Ave., Chl- 
ago, Illinois. 


It's your custom molder's responsibility. He must make 
the part right ... or the product is wrong! When you 
specify Northern you gain the advantage of more than 
37 years of experience in producing plastics for all type 
assemblies. You are assured of precision and uniformity 
for your plastic part, which means quicker, cleaner as- 
sembly ... a better all-over job. 


38 Years of Plastic Molding Experience 




This illustrated brochure gives 
full details on the instrument 
and how it is used. Write for 
free copy. 

Thin Metallic Sheet, 
Wire, Plastic Sheet, 
Paper and Paper Board 
and Other Flexible 

The Taber V-5 Stiffness Gauge 
brings to laboratories and test- 
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scientific practical method for 
measuring both the initial and 
normal stiffness of a wide va- 
riety of thin, flexible materials. 
It also permits the evaluation 
of their elastic or spring-like 
properties. The instrument a 
precision built, simple to oper- 
ate. Light weight and portable. 
Motor driven 115 volts. 








Advertising Agency 

Aaron Machinery Co 

Accurate Molding Corporation Rothschild Advertising 

Allmetal Screw Products Co Firestone Advertising Service Inc. 

American Flange & Mfg. Co., Inc. Freiwald & Coleman Advertising 

American Phenolic Corporation. .. Evans Associates, Inc 

Amos Molded Plastics Sidener & Van Riper, Inc 

Armour and Company Foots, Cone & Belding 

Arrow Plastics Company The Powerad Company... 

Austin Tool & Mfg. Co 



... 68 

... 109 

... 36 

... 13 

... 22 

... 101 

... 11 

. 106 

Advertising Agency 

Bamberger, A 

Barnes * Reinecke 

Bartalen. L. H 

Bend-A-Lite Plastics Division 

Boice-Crane Company 

Boonton Molding Company 

Bortman Plastics Company... 
Brilhart, Arnold, Ltd 

Cardinal Chemical Co 

Catalin Corporation 

Celanese Plastics Corporation 
Chicago Molded Products 


Ciba Products Corp 

Cinch Manufacturing Corporation . 
Columbia Protektosite Co., Inc. . 

Consolidated Products Co 

Continental Can Co 

Continental Plastics Corporation. 

Continental Screw Co., Inc 

Cook, Lawrence H., Inc 

Cumberland Engineering Co. ... 

Detroit Macoid Corporation 

Detroit Stamping Co 

Dickten S Masch Mfg. Co 

Dow Chemical Company, The 

Durite Plastics Incorporated 

Eagle Signal Corporation 

Eastern Tool Designers 

Ekstrom, Carlson I Co 

Electric Auto-Lite Company, The. 

Emeloid Co., Inc., The 

Engineering Specialties Corp. . . . 

G. Felsenthal ft Sons . 

.Lee Murray, Advertising 94 

Behel & Waldie & Briggs 83 

.Gunn-Mars Advertising Agency 106 

. Duane Wanamaker 45 

. Wendt Advertising Agency 109 

.A. J. Slomanson, Associates, Inc 15 

.Lawrence F. Dutton 99 

.Henri Le Mothe Agency 4th Cover 

. Feldman, Letter, Inc 106 

Walter J. Gallagher, Advertising 

2nd Cover 

Ivey & Ellington, Inc 18 

Almon Brooks Wilder, Inc 78 

.Cory Snow, Inc 82 

. D. T. Campbell, Inc 65 

.United Advertising Agency 53 

. Diener & Dorskind, Inc 99 

. Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn, Inc. 8 

.Jim Duffy Company 87 

Rossi & Hirshson 72 

George T. Metcalf Co 74 

. Richard Thorndike ... .69 

-Walter J. Gallagher .................. 

. Charles Schwein Company... 

MacManus, John & Adams, Inc 
Lawrence I . Everling 

Bawden Bros., Inc 



Cummings, Brand & McPherson ..... '. . 108 

. Ruthrauff Ryan, Inc ............... 54 

United Advertising Agency ........... 7 

Maxon, Inc ........................... H 

Lieber Advertising Co 

Gemloid Commerce Advertising Agency. . . 

Gemloid Corp., The 

General Electric Company Benton 4 Bowles, inc. . 

General Industries Company, The.. Fuller ft Smith S Ross. Inc 

Gering Products, Inc M. C. Dledrich 

Girdler Corporation, The Roch*, Williams * Cleary, Inc. . 

Goodrich, B. F., Chemical Co. .The Griswold-Eshleman Company 

Great American Color Company 

Grotelite Co., Inc.. The S. C. Baer Company 

Huntington Stamping S Plastic 

Co.. Inc 

Hydraulic Press Manu'acturing Co The Jay H. Maish Company 










Industrial Conversions, Inc 

Industrial Molded Products Co. ..Wesley E. Sharer & Associates 

Karlstad, Andrew C '. 

Kinqsley Gold Stamping Machine 

Co Continental Advertising Service 

Kirk, F. J., Molding Company ... Cory Snow,. Inc 

Krieger Color & Chemical Co. .Warren P. Fehlman Advertising Co. 

Kuhn S Jacob Molding & Tool Co. Eldridge-Northrop, Inc 

Kurz-Kasch, Inc Kircher, Helton & Collett 

Kux Machine Co Kuttner & Kuttner 




Lester-Phoenix, Inc Ralph Maitland 1 10 

Mack Molding Company, Inc. 
Magnetic Plastics Co., The . . 
Martindell Molding Company.. 

Meyercord Co., The 

Michigan Molded Plastics 

Molded Products Corporation.. 
Mosinee Paper Mills Company. 

..George Homer Martin t 

..Gregory Advertising, Inc t 

..Eldridge-Northrop tl 

. .C. C. Fogarty Company I 

Wallace-Lindeman, Inc 4 

. Cruttenden & Eger 2 

. Klau-Van Pietersom-Dunlap Associates 39 

National Lock Company L. W. Ramsey Company 73 

National Plastic Products Co , The .The Joseph A. Wilner Co I 

National Vulcanized Fibre Co John Gilbert Craig Advertising I 

Northern Industrial Chemical Co. The Callaway Associates 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co. ..Lee Murray, Advertising 16 

Plaskon Division, Libbey-Owens- 

Ford Glass Company Meldrum & Fewsmith Advertising, Inc. 3! 

Protective Coatings, Inc Associated Business Counselors 106 

Radio Recaptor Company, Inc. ...John A. Finnerman 

Rayon Processing Co. of R. I., 
Inc Richard Thorndike 


Siegel, M. B., Associates Craig E. Dennison Advertising IDS 

Sillcocks-Miller Company. The Fred H Ebersold, Inc 103 

Society of the Plastics Industry . James R. Flanagan, Advertising Agency il 

Stevenson, H. N., Jr 10* 

Stokes, F. J., Machine Co McLain Organization, Inc I 

Taber Instrument Corp ........... Melvin F. Hall Advertising 

Tarbonis Co., The ................. L. G. Maison & Co 

Tennessee Eastman Corporation. .. Fashion Advertising Co., Inc 
Texon Industrial Corp 


Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co.Gunn-Mears Advertising Agency.. 
Universal Plastics Corporation. ... Cayton, Inc 

Walker-Turner, Inc Thoma & Gill 

Waterbury Companies, Inc. ...... Manternach, Inc. . 

Western Shade Cloth Company, 

The Hardy Advertising 

Worchester Moulded Plastics Co.C. Jerry Spaulding, 

TT uri.riv>ivi muuiuau riaut. w*i will ^pouiwm^, ,11 

Wrigley, William Jr., Company. .. Ruthrauff S Ryan, Inc. 


. 97 



. 3rd Cover 

Ziv Steel & Wire Co. 

Vernon S. Weiler, Advertising.. 

Specialists in Hydraulic Equipment 


Z automatic & self-contained 
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cap. PUMPS: 1 National Triplex 3 OI'M 4000 It: 1IIPM Triplex, FS 
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Hele Shaw .7LP 12. 44 OI'M 1200* with newoontrol ; 3 Vlrkers 27 OPM 
1000*: 1 4 plunger 6 OPM 22.10*; Accumulators: 2 Watson Stlllinan 
hydr. -pneumatic type, 1.86 OPS 5500* pressure with By-pass ralve; 16.33 
OPH 3000* pressure; welKhted type 5^ OI'H 2000* pressure- KXTIU'DKKS 

285 Hudson Street, New York City 



377 First Ave., New York 10. N. Y. 


Stni for Caalot N. 43 


1410 RUr.a4 AT*. HOCKFOIO. ILL. 


New & Used Hydraulic Equipment. Consultant. Engineering 
and Repair Service. Send us your inquiries. 


45 Crosby St., N. Y. C. 12 Tel. Canal 6-0421 

Wanted Foreman of Extrusion Department 

Complete knowledge of extrusion methods and die de- 
sign for rigid and non-rigid materials. Location: New 
York City. Excellent opportunity for right man. Write 
fully, giving experience, age and salary expected. 

Box 244. Suite 617. 1457 Broadway, N. Y. C. 




ire set in the wide margins. All in all, these books consti- 
:ute a thoughtfully designed and beautifully executed job. 

One of the most significant things about this departure in 

wok publishing is the fact that books of deluxe execution 

ind deluxe slipcasing are being issued at popular prices. 

!<>u Grosset & Dunlap accomplish this can be understood 

'roni a glance at the interrelation of production elements 

nvolvcd. The acetate-slipcased book is one unit in a new 

jroup of children's classics issued as the Illustrated Junior 

.ibrary. Five titles were presented in December, and ten 

(titles will be put out for 1946. For each of the titles, there 

ire three editions: a $1 edition with paper jacket, $1.50 

edition with paperboard slipcase, and a "deluxe edition" 

at $2.50. The deluxe edition is the one with the acetate 

lipcasc. The cost of the artwork is shared by all three 

editions. Besides that, the same plates are used for the 

$1.50 and $2.50 editions. The production economies effected 

by those two factors alone are obvious. If it were not for 

this, it is doubtful whether it would have been possible to 

produce a book of limited-editions quality at a popular price. 

The importance that Grosset & Dunlap obviously attached 
to the acetate slipcase in contributing quality to the deluxe 
editions can be readily seen from the firm's willingness to 
allocate a comparatively high ratio of cost to it. There is 
a difference of only one dollar in retail price between the 
paperboard-cased and acetate-cased editions. Yet the ace- 
tate slipcase represents 28% of the total cost of production 
of the $2.50 book, while the paperboard case represents only 
7% of the production cost of the $1.50 volume. While there 
is a price ratio of only 5 to 3 between the two editions, 
there is the wide cost ratio of 4 to 1 between the respective 
slipcases. A. A. Drucker, production manager of the firm, 
stated that, when cellulose acetate sheeting is more readily 
available, the gauge used for the slipcases will be reduced 
from the present .015" to .010", making possible a drop in 
cost percentage from the present 28 to 20, without appre- 
ciably affecting the rigidity or the general quality of the 
case. Even at that, the cost percentage of the acetate slip- 
case remains substantial and it evidences the determination 
of the company to utilize the potentialities of plastics in 
quality publishing. 

Fabricating Process 

The new slipcase is fabricated for Grosset & Dunlap by 
the Miro Container Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y. Lumarith 
cellulose acetate sheeting is cut to size and the book title is 
applied by silk-screen process to the flat piece. The pieces 
are then blanked, creased, formed, and cemented. Consid- 
erable care is exercised in keeping the work clean in various 
stages of its fabrication. All dust particles must be removed 
from the surface of the sheet before ink is applied in the 
silk-screen job. Dust is again a factor to be reckoned with 
immediately after the cementing job, for since the cement 
is applied under heat and pressure, a dust-attracting static 
develops on the acetate surface. The finished slipcase is 
therefore carefully inspected and cleaned before shipment. 

There seems little reason to doubt that the plastics slip- 
case is a book-publishing development that will see wide- 
spread adoption. Whether plastics slip-casing will become 
general for books in the popular-priced class will depend, 
of course, on how far its production cost can ultimately be 
brought down, but it seems likely that it will become stand- 
ard for at least the higher quality books. It is equally to 
be anticipated that we shall see interesting developments in 
decorative design toward which the Grosset & Dunlap slip- 
cased books have pointed the way. One can easily visualize 
a design which will even more closely integrate the slipcase 
with the binding. An example of this would be a decorative 
or pictorial pattern for the book cover and another for the 
slipcase, each an individual design but so related that both 
in combination form a unit design for the cased book. END 

Boice-Crane Power Tools have 
been designed for ready adapta- 
bility to a wide range of projects. 
Thus, fewer machines are needed 
to meet all your requirements. 

Sturdily built and safety-engi- 
neered, Boice-Crane tools are 
available for scores of machining 
and finishing operations. There 
are band saws and jig saws for 
straight and contour cutting, and 
equipment for drilling, routing, 
tapping, shaping, surface and end 
grinding (removing flash), sur- 
facing, polishing, etc. 

The Ideal 

Power Tools 

for the 




Write for free 48-page Catalog. 


911 Central Ave. 

Drill Presses 
Belt Sanders 
Spindle Sanders 

Toledo 6, Ohio 

Jig Saws 
Band Saws 
Saw Jointers 


Spindle Shapers 

Thickness Planers 


Allmetal Screw Products Company 

33 Greene Street. New York 53 Crosby Street. New York 





Above A section of the Commonwealth Plastic Company 

factory, showing 10 of the 15 Lesters in operation. This is 

one of the highest production injection molding plants in 


Below These two pictures illustrate the change 
from military to civilian work. The chief molding 
problems in making coat hangers and soap con- 
tainers are to fill large-area cavities and to at- 
tain the required surface luster. In making the 
timing adaptor for explosives in an 8-cavity mold. 
it was necessary to maintain 4 different dimen- 
sions core size, outside diameter, thread size and 
slot size within the tolerance of .003". More 
than 9,000,000 adaptors were made by Lester 
machines without a single complaint from Govern- 
ment agencies. Even though these parts are 
made of polystyrene, which flashes easily and 
contains no lubricant, no flashing occurred and 
no polishing was necessary. This is due largely 
to proper plasticization in the Lester heating 
cylinder, and to the 
heavy beam-type aHoy 
steel frame and double- 
toggle positive mold lock- 
ing mechanism, which 
assure flash-free mold- 
ings at all times. 

THE Commonwealth Plastic Company 
of Leominster, Massachusetts operates 
37 injection molding machines, 15 of 
which are Lesters. 

A custom molder of this size has many 
more problems than a small molder, be- 
cause of the endless variety of work which 
must be produced. 

Philip J. Cormier, molding superintend- 
ent for Commonwealth, has had ample 
opportunity to observe Lester injection 
molding machines in service, and is able 
to report authoritatively upon their per- 
formance. He says 

"We are accustomed to running large 
moldings with heavy sections on our Les- 
ters because we know that Lesters can handle them. We find these 
machines equally valuable however, in producing large quanti- 
ties of small parts which must have strength, density, wearabil- 
ity, fine finish and close tolerances. The timing adaptor molding 
(see illustration) is a good example. 

"A big factor in our production is the frequent number of mold 
changes and color changes which we must make. It is not un- 
common for us to use 80 to 100 molds per day, with as many af 
200 color changes. We really appreciate the simple, easy, single 
mold adjustment of the Lester, as well as the facility with which 
the heating and injection cylinder swings out for inspection 
changes and cleaning." 

The Lesten at Commonwealth operate 24 hours a day, 6 days 
a week with little maintenance cost. If you would like to know 
the facts behind the Lester performance, write us today for FREE 
engineering data. 



Investigate These 

Lesterg are now built with (i) a ne 
vertical injection cylinder, with solid 
plunger and internally-heated torpedo 
which plasticizes more material 
higher speed without burning; (2) 
one-piece, cast steel, box-type frame, ex- 
clusive with Lester, which provides up 
to 600 tons locking pressure and elimi- 
nates the wear and weaving which ar 
characteristic of ordinary frames; (3) 
greater mold opening and exact control 
of opening, which permits use of larger 
molds and speeds cycling; (4) larger 
diameter die height adjusting screw, 

eliminating possibility of mold deflection (adjustment by single 
hand crank) ; (5) automatic hydraulic ejection, standard on large 
machines; (6) flow control system permits separate control of 
injection speed and pressure; (7) new Lester safety gate is inter- 
locked hydraulically, electrically and mechanically. 



National Distributors: 

LESTER-PHOENIX, INC., 2711 Church Ave . Cleveland 13. Ohio 



Too frequently this has happened when important characteristics in a finished 
plastics product are lacking. Color design and material, for instance, must 
play the leading role in your planning, with precision, volume production, utility 
and low unit cost to which Injection Moulding lends itself so well in strong 
support. To meet these ends, consult, first of all, an experienced organization like this 
one. We mould for customers only, and therefore approach every problem of 
plastics application as if it were our own. When we dress up your plastics 
products, they're always ready to go places to 
YOUR customers. 



IT East 42nd St., New York 17, N. Y. 
Export Office: 90 Broad St., New York 4, N. Y. 

Before deciding on the type of plastic and 
method of manufacturing for your product, be 
sure you have made the proper selection. 
For a free and impartial analysis of your problem 

. . . contact . 

Phone: GREAT NECK 4051 



MARCH 1946 



In the short space of a quarter century, Radio, born of 
wireless, has become a vast and vital American influence. 
Radio's youth was marked with outstanding develop- 
ments, constant improvements. Its war years warrant a 
"well done" from all who can now rejoice over Victory! 
The new peace era, just begun, heralds for Radio, oppor- 
tunities far beyond the power of prophecy. 

In our supporting role, we, of Catalin, salute the Radio 
industry and picture with pride the distinguished and 
exquisitely colorful housing designed of Catalin for Trie 
New Post-war Emerson Radio. 




Plastics Industry . . . ** 





H-P-M injection mochines mold with rapid automatic cycle. The straight-line 
hydraulic mold clomp permits quick die change-over. H-P-M variable delivery 
radial pumps, valves and controls are easily accessible. Electrical circuit has been 
greatly simplified. Faster speeds with greater plaslicizing capacity guarantees high 
production output. There i> a standard siz- for every molding requirement. Writ* 
today for bulletins. 




for all Types 
of P/asf/c Material 

H-P-M compression presses are designed for operation of semi-automatic 
molds equipped with knockouts. Each press Is completely self-contained, being 
powered by the reliable H-P-M variable delivery radial pump. High speed operation 
with automatic slow-down and adjustable slow close permit maximum production 
of quality parts. Press head is designed to accommodate transfer ram (optional extra), 
investigate these standardized production units. Write today for bulletin 4403. 

H-P-M fuer 


Thermo-Setting Resins 


Equipped with upward acting hydraulic mold clamp and downward acting transfer ram, 
H-P-M electronic molding presses are designed especially for use with your high frequency material 
heating equipment. Each press It a self-contained unit, equipped with H-P-M oil hydraulic pumps, 
valves and controls. Universally designed, they are also ideally suited for conventional compres- 
sion molding. Write today, stating your particular requirements. 


MARCH, 1946 


in this issue 

Plastics in Perspective ^0 

The Buyer Says. .- Kathleen Green Skelton 53 

What the Laminates Offer J. D. Nelson and L. V. Larsen 62 

The Molder Has His Problems Kenneth W. Macksey 66 

Machines for Better Production 75 

On the Drafting Board 83 

second annual directory 

Table of Contents 85 

Index to Materials Suppliers, Machinery Manufacturers, Molders, 

Fabricators, Laminators, and Other Processors 86 

Comparative Guide to Plastics' Properties 141 

Tables of Properties 158 

Plastics Products 212 

Directory of Names and Addresses 221 



Editorial Offices. 185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago I. 



Central Manager 


Art Director 

Circulation Dir*ctor 

Ass't. to Publisher 

Advertising Director 

Production Director 





Field Editor 
Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 


Associate Editur 


Associate Editor 


West Coast Editor 


Washington Editor 


Consulting Technical Editor 


Staff Photoyrapliei 


Staff Photoyrttfln-i 


Art Editor 


Eastern Advertising Manager 

Midwest Advertising Manager 

Western Advertising Manager 


Empire Stale Bldg., Wl 7-0400 

*15 5. Hill St., TUcker 9213 

International Bldg., EXEcutnie 2f02 

21 King Street, East 


Audit Bureau of 



Illustrating a stage of 
inter re-action between 
melamine resin and para- 
toluene sulfonamide plas 
ticizer. Links have been 
variegated to indicate 
co-valency of the atomi 

Other Ziff-Davis Publications: Flying, Popular Photography, Radio News, Radio-Electronic Engineering. 

PI.A8TIC8 L> published monthly by Zlff-Davls PublUhlng Com 
America, and U. M. PMMMkni, 12 issues $.1.00; 24 Issues $8.0 

ompany. 185 North Wabash An., Chicago 1. Ill SUBSCRIPTION BATKS: In U. S.. Mexico, South anil 

e, . . , sue .. sses .00: In Canada, 12 Issues, $5. 50: 24 Issue* $11 lib- In Miltisb Umpire. 12 Issues. $6.00. All other lorvitn countries 

12 Imuei. $8.00. Subscribers should allow two weeks for change of address. Address all mhwrlptlnn letters to the Director of Circulation. PLASTICS, 185 North WaDU 
Ave.. Chlcairo 1. 111. Entered as second class matter June 19, 1046. at the post office at Chicane. Illinois, under the Act of March 8. 1879. Contributors should raw 
of contributions. All submitted material must contain return postage. Omtillnitloris will be handled with reasonable care, but this maRa/.ine assumes no responsibility to 
their safety. Accepted material Is subject to adaptations and revision to meet editorial requirements. Payment rovers all authors', contributors' and contentants' rlihta, tn 
and Interest In and to the material accepted and will be made at our current rates upon acceptance. All photos and drawings are considered imrt of material purchase* 


MARCH 1946 

We'll hang our story on a clothesline 

Desirable properties 

^uggest uses for GEON raw materials 

in every industry 

THAT clothesline in the picture is some- 
thing new. It consists of a flexible rope or 
metal core, covered with one of the GEON 
polyvinyl materials. It has certain definite 
advantages over conventional clotheslines 
i all of which can be translated into improved 
I finished products in literally every industry 
; and in the home. 

For example, the clothesline is practically 
I age-proofresists the effects of sun, rain, light, 

heat, cold. It won't crack or get gummy even 

after prolonged exposure to weather. It's easily 
i cleaned with a damp cloth no dirt or grime 

can penetrate it. It's mildew-proof fungi can't 
j enter the surface. It will wear indefinitely 

pull it around hooks thousands of times no 
i snagging, no breaking of the tough coating. 

It's smooth, flexible, easy to handle. It's 

brightly colored for high visibility and 

attractive appearance. 

Consider those properties plus others such 
as excellent electrical properties and resistance 
to acids, oils, and chemicals in light of the 
fact that GEON can be extruded, pressure or 
injection molded, used as coatings for fabric 
or paper, calendered or cast into sheet or film. 
The number of established and potential applica- 
tions in every field is literally limitless. For more 
information about GEON polyvinyl raw mate- 
rials or for help with specific applications, 
please write Dept. U-3, B. F. Goodrich Chem- 
ical Company, Rose Building,*Cleveland 15, O. 

Here ore a few applications 

for GEON suggested by 

the clothesline 

Textile coatings for rainwear, 
awnings, industrial aprons. 

Calendered, embossed sheet for 
upholstery and luggage. 

Calendered or molded sheet for 
flooring, shoe soles, shower 

Paper coatings or film for pack- 
aging, wall covering. 

Extruded wire and cable insula- 


B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company 


MARCH 1946 


Product plans 

driving you "bats"? 

Are you quietly going out of your 
mind trying to improve your present 
product or develop a new one? The 
bats above may suggest your answer. 
They're made entirely of plastic parts. 
The face is a plastic distributor part. 
The feet are coffee pot handles of 
plastic. And so on. And plastics as 

fabricated by the Plastics Division 
of Continental Can Company have 
solved many a product problem. 

If it's humanly possible to plan 
your product with plastics, you can 
depend on Continental's staff of skilled 
engineers and research men. You can 

Tune in "CoirnHENTAL ClLEBRITT CLI'B." eorry w'i <MT dfcJMo-wxiJ/ CBS Network 


HEADQUARTERS: Cambridge. Ohio 

Sales Representatives In all 
Principal Cities 



depend, too, on the qualit) <>l thr 
plastics themselves. The best of equip- 
ment plus the best of "know how" 
combine to give you the best of service. 

Plastics are no cure-all. But they do 
possess certain qualities of beauty, 
durability, lightness, and economy 
that give a product much -needed eye- 
and buy-appeal. Drop us a line and 
let us know your needs. We'd be glad 
to tell you if plastics are the answer 
to your special problem. 

Other Continental Products: \l.i. ill ..,,!. n ... i 
r'ilirr Drums Paper Containers Paper 
Cups Crown Caps and Cork Products Mach- 
inery and I .|iii|miriii. 

MARCH 1946 



A new heavy-duty lift mechanism for straddle trucks, used 
for handling lumber and other heavy products, needed a clutch 
cone. This part, used on a rotary control, had to be rugged . . . 
economical . . . long-wearing. It had to withstand great friction 
and high torque. 

"King Cotton" helped to solve this problem at No. 1 Plastics 
Avenue for the Dallas Machine and Locomotive Works, Inc., 
Dallas, Oregon. Specially treated chopped canvas gives needed 
sinew to the laminated carcass. Then the clutch cone is com- 
pression-moldedall in one piece of 
a phenolic tough enough to meet all 
operating conditions. 

In this, as in many other applica- 
tions, a plastic was selected as the best 
material for a tough job. 

If you have a hunch that plastics 
may do a better job for you, bring your 
problem to General Electric. And get 
the benefit of the long and varied ex- 


perience of the world's largest manufacturer of plastics parts. 
Write to Plastics Divisions, General Electric Company, 1 Plas- 
tics Avenue, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. 

G-E Complete Service Everything in Plastics 

Backed by 51 years of experience. We've been designing and 
manufacturing plastics products ever since 1894. G-E Research works 
continually to develop new materials, new processes, new applications. 

No. I Plastics Avenue complete plastics service engineering, design 
and mold-making. Our own industrial de- 
signers and engineers, working together, cre- 
ate plastics parts that are both scientifically 
sound and good-looking. Our own toolrooms 
are manned by skilled craftsmen average 
precision mold experience, 12 years. 

All types of plastics. Facilities for compres- 
sion, injection, transfer and cold molding 
. . . for both high and low pressure laminat- 
ing . . . for fabricating. And G-E Quality 
Control a byword in industry means as 
many as 160 inspections and analyses for a 
single plastic part. 


MARCH 1946 


\ *&&&* 

Distributed in Canada by CANADIAN INDUSTRIES LIMITED. Montreal. Canada 

The contribution that plastics has made to the instrument manufac- 
turing field just prior to and during the war is scientific history. Instrument makers, 
long faced with the factor of safety plus durability, have found that the specification 
of plastics by Amphenol for dials, liquid columns, gauges and instrument faces, 
panels, etc. assures satisfaction. Parts made of Amphenol Plastics were essen- 
tial components for thousands of combat and control instru- 
ments. Now, the same high skill, experience and produc- 
tion facilities that originated and produced them are 
available to plan, engineer and manufacture any 
variety of custom styled plastics. Let Amphenol 
experience serve you. 


Chicago 50, Illinois 

In Canada Amphenol Limited Toronto 

U.H.F. Cables and Connectors Conduit Fittings Connectors (A-N, U.H.F., British) 
Cable Assemblies Radio Parts Antennas Plastics for Industry 

iRCH 1946 




DUR5TE PLASTICS SNCORPORATED 5000 Summerdale Ave. Philadelphia 24, Pa. 

lere in one of America's most 
completely equipped plastic plants 
are diversified skills and facilities that 
enable Emeloid to handle almost any 
plastic assignment, large or small. 
Why not take advantage of stream- 
lined, economical service NOW ! 

'CO., INC, 

289-293 Laurel Ave., Arlington, N.J. 


MARCH 1946 




Thousands of different compression-molded parts can be 
made faster, cheaper and better with Completely Automatic 

SAVES MATERIAL. Each charge is accurately metered. There 
is little flash loss. In many cases material savings are up 
8% to 10%. 

GREATER ACCURACY. Human errors are eliminated. Parts pro- 
duced are identical and of the highest quality. 

SIMPLIFIED OPERATION. One person can operate a battery of 
presses, simply filling hoppers with material and removing fin- 
ished parts periodically. 

SPLIT-SECOND TIMING. Operations are performed simultane- 
ously, saving every possible second. Cycles have been reduced 
as much as 50% in some cases. 

MOLD COST IS LOW, because fewer cavities are needed. Parts 
are molded as required. Design changes can be made quickly, 
without inventory loss. 

Let Stokes engineers show how the advantages of Automatic 
Molding can be applied to your molding problems. 

Automatic Cycle Controller and Su- 
per-Sensitive Trap that checks every 
piece made. Only 2 HP motor re- 

CHINE the machine that eitah- 
lished Automatic Molding as sound 
economical practice. Hundreds are in 
service making thousands of different / 
molded parts. Complete, self-con- 
tained unit, electrically powered and 




Ideal for molding closures or similar 
threaded parts in large quantities. 
\ Fully automatic, self-contained. 50 
and 1 50-ton models. 


Automatic except for loading and 
unloading, these presses are pre- 
ferred equipment in many plants for 
many operations. Improved Automatic 
Time-Cycle Control, "Slow-Close" 
Device and many other features. 50 
to 300-ton capacities. 


Highly efficient, dual-purpose presses readily wsed 
either for transfer or compression molding. Alt 
features of the Stokes Semi-Automatic Press in- 
cluded. 50 and ISO-ton models. 


Available for every requirement. Single- 
Punch Presses for general-purpose preform- 
ing; Rotary Presses for high-speed produc- 
tion; Toggle-Type Presses (illustrated) for 
heavy-duty preforming. 

F. J. STOKES MACHINE COMPANY 6040 Tabor Road, Phila.20 f Pa. 


^HE result of recent tests of closures by an 
independent oil company showed that 
Tri-Sure Closure fitted drums drained an 
average of 8.34 ounces more than the others. 
Figured on the scale of a 10,000 55-gallon 
drum shipment, the consumer will recover 
650 gallons or over which otherwise would 
have remained in the drums. 

The flush fitting of Tri-Sure flanges assures 
complete drainage and you receive all you 
pay for. 

Mark your orders, "Drums to be fitted with 
Tri-Sure Closures." 

The T Hquare Text shows the flush fitting of the 
Tri-Sure Flange which guarantees full drainage. 







S P I 

<Jnvitt$ you to attend 
The National Plastics Exposition 

SPI earnestly invites you to visit the first National 
Plastics Exposition, a brilliant pageant of the modern 
plastics that are playing an increasingly significant 
role in product development in virtually every 
American industry. 

The National Plastics Exposition will tell the whole 
story of all the plastics, what they can do for you, 
how they can do it. Everything in plastics will be 
paraded at the exposition by the industry's foremost 
materials manufacturers, machinery builders, fabri- 
cators, molders, extruders, laminators, service organi- 
zations for you to inspect, test, compare. 

For new approaches to your product problems, for 
fresh ideas, for authoritative information about the 
developments that can mean greater volume and 
profits for you visit this most significant and excit- 
ing industrial exposition ever held! 



APRIL 22 to 27, 1946 

Sponsored by the Society of the Plastics Industry 

MARCH 1946 

to/ oW fob the 4 


tlie vision oj today is the reality oj Hie future, so the 
(nans on your drawing board (trc oj value only as they can be 
translated into actual molded (twees by tnc SKill and practical 
ingenuity oj tlie master tnolder. 

((jL/ttli a wealth oj experience born oj (jerttotifd contact until 
every (>ltase oj tlie nioldinfj business, with new materials and im- 
proved icclinif/ues, fins organisation IN al your service to discuss 
and develop those parts so essential lo (he realisation oj your 
Julurc amis. 


* * I OLDEN and 6th Street TRENTON, NEW JERSEY 



MARCH 1946 

Creates New Facilities for 

Rising today in the heart of the vast Gulf Coast 
petroleum region is General Chemical Com- 
pany's newest facility for the production of 
Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid. 

With Baton ROUge WorkS, American Indus- 
try has at its command another strategic 
source of supply for this vital raw material 
. . . General Chemical's other Anhydrous HF 
plants are already serving requirements of 
East, West Coast and Mid-Continent indus- 
trial centers. 

AS 3 pioneer producer of this new chemical 
tool, General Chemical has conducted inten- 
sive research on the product's applications as 
well as physical and chemical properties. The 
data which have been developed are now 
being released to Industry in the publication 

outlined below. Undoubtedly it wiH prove 
invaluable to those exploring the potentiali- 
ties of Anhydrous HF for their processes. 


General Chemical Technical Service Bulletin 
No. 30A "Anhydrous and Aqueous Hydro- 
fluoric Acid." Twenty-four pages containing 
new and exclusive data, curves, charts, exten- 
sive bibliography, etc. Available from General 
Chemical Company, Fluorine Division, 40 
Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y., or from the 
nearest General Chemical Sales and Technical 
Service Office. Please use your business letter- 
head when writing for your copy. 


40 Rector Street, New York 6, N. Y. 

So/es and Technical Service Offices: Atlanta e Baltimore Boston e Bridgeport (Conn.) 
Buffalo e Charlotte |N. C.) e Chicago Cleveland Denver e Detroit e Houston 
Kansas City lot Angeles e Minneapolis New York e Philadelphia Pittsburgh 
Providence (R. I.) San Francisco e Seattle e St. Louis Utica IN. Y.) e Wenatchee 

Yakima (Wash.) 

In Wisconsin: General Chemical Wisconsin Corporation, Milwaukee, Wis. 

In Canada: The Nichols Chemical Company, Limited 

Montreal e Toronto e Vancouver 

MARCH 1946 



In plastics, 
when properly executed, has a sales "follow-up"! 



Fully illustrated brochure, contain- 
ing eight pages of comprehensive 
information on molded plastics 
applications in industry. 

No less important than design in plastic molding, 
is engineering a factor measured by capability 
earned the hard way. 

MACK MOLDING engineering embraces all the 
essentials for product efficiency and dependability 
design, material, cost, ultimate function, service- 
life expectancy, etc. 

Naturally it is not to be inferred that any "Tom,.i 
Dick or Harry" product will if given the nod by 
MACK MOLDING -- sell all comers. Rather, 
if you are definite in practicability and appeal, 
MACK MOLDING will clear the path of sales 
hazards through product inferiority or inefficiency 
from a molding standpoint. 

If you are in need of intelligent cooperative plastic 
molding, address inquiries to Mack Molding Com- 
pany, Inc., 120 Main Street, Wayne, New Jersey. 

TASTE AND AROMA? Resistance lo chemi- 
cals, acids, corrosives, alkalis, etc., have an important say tn 
the engineering of MACK MOLDING items. 

SHOOTING STAR" electronics is the "jel job' 
of industry, and it gets special consideration by MAC) 
MOLDING engineers. Electrical and mechanical characters 
tics are followed to the letter. 

IN APPAREL, engineering too, can assure enthusi 
astic acceptance. Good wearing qualities, style and color 
incepted in the laboratory can often set the mode. 







MARCH 1946 

everence. ' 



oly Wattr Fount 

ristol-Ytrk Associates 

Vrite on your letterhead for the new 
njection Molded and Extruded 
Elastics catalogue. Or, for detailed 
"formation about -C2S^^g^^)@* 
>ipe, tubing and fittings, write for 
irculars containing data and illustrations. 

Trademark Reg. 

In molding this holy water fount, we humbly endeavored to 

express in it a feeling of simple beauty dignity reverence. This 

embodiment of moods in plastic materials is further evidence of our 

"imagmeenng"* ability. . . an ability we feel sure can satisfy your most 

exacting demands in injection molding artistry and extrusion craftsmanship. 

We apply equally painstaking care and skill to all types of molding 

assignments from the simple to the highly complex and in the desired 

mood, whatever it might be. Let us mold your product in the right mood 

for its most profitable use. We invite your inquiries without obligation. 

^Imagination plus engineering skill 
Visit out Booth at the National Plastics Show, Grand Central Palace, New York, April 22 to 27 


Molders of Tenite, Lumarith, Pfastacele, Fibestos, lucife, Crystallite, Polystyrene, Styron, 
lustron, loalin, Vinylite, Geon, Ku)80fe8 = S ) (^^OS*, Saran and other Thermoplastic Materials 






\-ome to dura with your plastic fab- 
ricating problems. To help you meet 
the challenge and the opportunities of 
1946, dura offers you experienced 
personnel, modern production equip- 
ment, and know-how in fabricating, 

forming and drawing plastics. You can 
depend on dura for uniform precision 
quality to your specifications and de- 
liveries on time, dura invites you to 
join the forward-looking firms that 
depend on "dura." 

dura plastics. 

inc. 1 WEST 34 STREET, NEW YORK 1. N. Y. 




These are but a few of the items for 
which our plastic coated fabrics and 
jpapers will be used after the war. 

There are many other applications, 
;of course, some of which are already 
familiar to our research staff many 
more have not yet come to our at- 

Check your post war plans. Do plas- 
jtic coated fabrics and papers show 
up anywhere in the picture? 

An early contact with a reliable 
source of supply will give you the 
advantage of an early start with 
many of the experimental hurdles 
behind you. 

We have the plant facilities and the 
experience to help you build a "qual- 
ity line" right from the start. Our 
craftsmen were among the first to 
master the new and difficult tech- 
nique of applying the new vinyl res- 
ins to fabrics and papers. We are one 

of the largest suppliers of these fab- 
rics to our armed forces. 

You name it chances are we can 
coat it. Your inquiry will be held in 
strict confidence and accorded every 
possible consideration. 



The Western Shade Cloth Company, 22nd & Jefferson Streets, Chicago 16 



MARCH 1946 



you are designing for lighter weight... 

you want a material that will not dent . . . 

frequent design changes are a problem... 

production volume does not justify die costs . . . 

Plastics reinforced with FIBERGLAS may be your answer 

The combination of Fibcrglas and certain contact or 
low-pressure resins has resulted in a new and different 
material for industry. It has many significant proper- 
ties and qualities which excel those of any material 
previously available for commercial use. 

Here arc the advantages of reinforcing formed 
plastics parts with Fiberglas. 

Eos* of forming Great strength with light weight 

High impact strength Fast, low-cost tooling 

Dimensional stability Corollary savings 

Large or small complicated parts can be laid up and 
formed in one operation, resulting in a dimensionally 
stable monolithic or monocoque structure, having 
great strength with light weight. In the production 
of custom bodies, for example, the necessity for costly 

dies and machining is avoided and extremely important 
time and cost savings are possible. 

These outstanding advantages may have an im- 
portant bearing on the product you are making now 
or on those you now have "on the board". Get com- 
plete facts about the use of Fiberglas in reinforcing 
plastics. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, 18S1 
Nicholas Building, Toledo 1, Ohio. 

In Canada, Fiberglas Canada Ltd., Oihawa, Ontario. 

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation does not manufacture 
resins or fabricate laminates, but will be glad to supply 
experimental samples of Fiberglas and data on techniques 
in its use with plastics. 


T. M. Reg. U. S. Pat. 0. 




MARCH 1946 


Perfect duplication is essential to avoid 
bottlenecks and losses in production lines. 
General Industries produces molded plastic 
parts for mass assembly, combining careful 
workmanship and "know-how" to give main- 
tained accuracy, appearance, utility and 
performance of each piece. 

If your new or future products call for 
plastic parts, our modern facilities for trans- 
fer, injection and compression molding can 
handle large parts or small, in any quantity. 

From blueprint to finished product, experi- 
enced engineers speed production; ingenious 
mold-makers, realizing that "almost alike" 
won't do, stress the importance of accurately 
placed inserts, close tolerances and finish 
to meet the most critical specifications. Our 
skillful operators turn out identical pieces 
that are alike from every angle molding 
salability and satisfaction into your products. 

For perfect duplication of molded plastic 
parts, depend upon General Industries. 



MARCH 1946 

Molded P/oil/'ci Division 




Since 1919 our one unvarying 
aim has been to supply the maxi- 
mum of service at minimum 
cost. Twenty -six years of steady 
growth has proved the correct- 
ness of this aim. 






KUHH & jncoB moiDino & TOOL co. 






MARCH 1946 



IN Thermex Red Heads, Girdler 
offers more than one exclusive 

A a complete line from which to 
meet your particular needs. The 
range of capacities offered in fully 
developed, tried and proved Ther- 
mex units exceeds anything else in 
the field. 

B simplicity of installation. From the small model, only 25 inches 
high, to the biggest unit in the line, every Thermex Red Head is portable. 
Every one is compact for its capacity and will fit easily into present plant 

C simplicity of operation. All Thermex units are self-contained, auto- 
matic, with the built-in drawer heating compartment. High frequency 
energy automatically turns on when drawer is closed, automatically 
turns off when time cycle has been completed. 

Mail the coupon or write to one of these Girdler Corporation branch 
offices 1 50 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y.; 228 N. La Salle St., Chicago 
1, 111.; 1836 Euclid Ave., Cleveland 15, Ohio. 

**><* Mark Rtg. U. S. Pat (Iff. 

MARCH 1946 

The First Industrial High Frequency Dielectric Heating Equipment 


MODEL X875 400 watt rated output. Will raise Y, 
pound of average material 1 70 in one minute. 
Height 25', Width 15', Depth 30'/'. 

MODEL 18X0-1000 watt rated output. Will raise 
pound of average material 170 in one minute. 
Height 46V, Width 13", Depth 24%'. 

MODEL 28X0 1500 watt rated output. Will raise 
l'/3 pound of average material 170 in one min- 
ute. Height 46V, Width 28'/ 2 ', Depth 30v,'. 

MODEL 88X05 K.W. rated output. Will raise 4 
pounds of average material 1 70 in one minute. 
Height 79', Width 27%'. Depth 52'. 

MODEL 18SX 8 K.W. rated output. Will raise 7 
pounds of average material 170 in one minute. 
Height 79', Width 30V4', Depth 55'. 

Please send full information about the complete line of 
Thermex Red Heads. 


Firm Name & Address . 





Whether you're planning to manufacture home 
appliances or radios . . . furniture or toys . . . 
timepieces or hardware . . . plumbing supplies 
or some other product . . . whatever it is, there's 
a place in the picture for GLOBE PLASTICS 
because they're ideal for many purposes. 
Here at Globe a skilled organization with 
complete tool, die and mold making equipment 
is geared up to handle your plastic requirements 
promptly. Write for quotation on any products 
requiring either injection or compression molding. 




MARCH 1946 






Defiance Plastic Preforming Machines are designed to produce tablets at high speed, with 
great accuracy, in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Weights of preforms as well as pre 
sure applied can be rapidly changed without stopping the machines. Material leakage i 
reduced to a minimum, thus assuring cleanliness in operation. Model 20 is for large 
and wide range of shapes and sizes; withstands 100-ton preforming load. Model 10 is primar 
for cylindrical shapes, either solid or perforated; withstands 25-ton preforming load. 

SPECIFICATIONS No. 20 and No. 45 

I Model No. 20 I Model No. 45 

No. 152 

Pressure applied to punch at 60 strokes per minute (see note below) 



Size of Die 

4" x 7" x 2 A" 

5" x 10" x 4" 



8 l/ 2 >r 

Max mum Rectangular area in which preform can be located 
Max mum Rectangular area in which cores can be located 

2 y t " x 5 X" 
1 ij" x 5 j^" 

3 y 2 " x 8" 
2 ?4" x 7" 


Size of Die 

8 J" dia. 


2 ? 4 '" x 7" 



si %" 


72 K" 

110 Vz" 

80 K" 


37" wide 
Net 5300 Ibs 

58" wide 
Net 14000 Ibs. 

Gross 5700 Ibs. 
Exp. 6400 Ibs. 
30 to 60 

Gr. 14600 Ibs. 
Exp. 15500 Ibs. 
20 to 60 

5 H.P. 

20 H.P. 


There's nothing like the new Defiance Transfer Presses! Designed by plastics engineers for 
the plastics industry . . . these new presses offer higher accuracy in production . . . lower die 
designing and construction costs . . . reduction of waste material . . . lower maintenance 
costs . . . and greater cleanliness. In the Defiance No. 152 Transfer Press a transfer pot and 
punch are furnished with the press ... thus eliminating the necessity of designing these units 
with the die. Other pots and punches are available and easily changed. Ruggedly built with 
extra strength in vital parts. Overall die support reduces die distortion to minimum. Many 
other new advantages. 


No. 152 

No. 152 

3000 Ibs./sq.. in. 

12 in 

21 in 

Die clamping pressure 
(at 3000 Ibs /sq in ) 

170 tons 

Max. daylight between floating 

5 in 

6 in 

42 tons 

(at 3000 Ibs /sq in ) 

3 7 tons 

Stroke of main ram, maximum. . . . 

15 in. 

Transfer ram return pressure 
(at 3000 Ibs /sq in ) 

18 in. 

26 in. 

(at 3000 Ibs./sq. in.) 

1 1.6 tons 

Head adjustment (2" increments) 

8 in. 



Max. Transfer 

Max. Projected 


Capacity of Pot 

Pot Dia. 


Die Area 

Preform Dia. 

Material (oj 0.6 


Lbs./sq. in. 

Sq. in. 


oz./cu. in. 

3 Vt 




19 oz. 





26 oz. 





34 oz. 





43 oz. 


Line pressure 3000 Ibs./sq. in. 

Write for new bulletins. 


Backed by 95 Years of Precision /Manufacture 




Curing rubber and tobacco 

Deactivating enzymes 

Defrosting frozen foods 


Drying paper and textiles 


Destroying grain 

Fabricating thermoplastic 

Impregnating wood 

Manufacturing drugs and 

Manufacturing plywood 
Pasteurizing milk and beer 

Preheating plastics and 

Polymerizing resin 

Sealing or Bonding 

Thermo Plastic products 

Seasoning lumber 

for your copy of "Electronic Healing With i 
Thermatron." our new booklet, describing how to 
make use of this new powerful electronic force to 
tower costs, to speed production, to develop new 
products a comprehensive, practical guide to the 
application of electronic dielectric heating. 




ie amazing results obtained with Thermalronic heat- 
ing are revolutionizing production methods in a wide 
number of diversified industries for the simple reason 
that it does the job better, faster and at lower cost. 


Radio Receptor Co.. Inc. pioneer in the Held, has developed three 
power packed model* the Healmaster. Heatmaster. Jr. and Weld- 
mailer, to meet the exacting demand* of industry bom laboratory re- 
earch to the processing oi all type* ol Thermoplastic product*, includ- 
ing shower curtain*, tobacco pouches, rain coats, and many other*. 

Check these eleven advantages ol Thermatron: electrode* designed 
your specific requirements . . . heating unit* at working level 
. . automatic control tor unskilled operator* . . . mobile, compact 
units . . . complete overload protection . . . automatic cooling . . 
safety switches protect unskilled operator* ... all parts accessible 
tor inspection and maintenance . . . adjustable Mil-levelling upper 
electrode . . . visible, fluorescent lighted work chamber . . . guotran 
teed components. 


COMPANY, l> . 

Since 1922 in Radio and Electronic* 
251 WEST 19th STREET NEW YORK 11, N. Y. 

V ,-.<!)( our booth number 259 of the S. P. 1. plastics show. Grand Ce 
Palace. April 22 to 27. 

MARCH 1946 






the Rope Fibre Plastic 

In production, il is 
estimated that this 
aluminum mold and 
the large autoclave 
in the rear can pro- 
duce these hulls in 
two hours each, plus 
twenty minutes for 

There's real economy in the use 
10 of CO-RO-LITE economy achieved 
through pre-forming, which eliminates 
lay-up and through the speed of curing. A single piece of CO-RO- 
LITE is readily pre-formed and molded into compound curves, deep 
draws, angles, channels, and large shells. 

CO-RO-LITE, the rope fibre plastic, is a ready-to-mold thermo- 
setting plastic compound. It is equally effective with fluid pressure, 
high pressure, flash, or transfer molds. Long, 
tough, interlocking rope fibres reenforce all sec- 
tions of the molded unit, imparting great im- 
pact, flexural, compressive, and tensile strength 
in a range of densities comparable to wood. 

CO-RO-LITE: Rope fibres impreg- 
nated with thermo-responsive resin: 
- Product and process patented - 
Patents No. 2,249,888 and No. 
2,372,433 - other patents pending. 



500-92 GENESEE ST., AUBURN, "The Cordage City", N. Y. 

Canadian Licensee, Canadian Bridge Engineering Company, Ltd., Box 157, Wolkerville, Ontario, Canada 

MARCH 1946 


Possess the qualities that attract and endure! They 
parallel, in thought, the underlying principle of the 
Sphinx . . . excellence of craftsmanship, unhurried 
to perfection. STERLING Combs, by their exquisite 
modern design, new beauty and smooth brilliance, 
pay tribute, too, to their Queen American 
womanhood. We might even go so far as to 
hazard the thought, that, at the peak of their 
glory, Egypt's Queens would have cherished 
the chance to exchange their priceless jewels 
and expensive serrated bone combs for one 
as lovely and hair-perfect as today's 
popularly priced STERLING. This might 
also have applied to the barter-conscious 
Pharoahs, for STERLING Combs are 
also designed for men! 


Manufacturers of Sterling, Snini & filrdir Combs 



':;: i 

i \ 


for beauty and distinctiveness . . . 

leading designers specify "Trim by 

Yes, Grigoleit is the molder selected by many 
nationally-prominent manufacturers of styled prod- 
ucts. For beauty ... for design . . for sales appeal 
. . . for quality . . . for service, Grigoleit has been a 
dependable source for 19 years. 

For reasonably early availability, we offer an ex- 
tensive "standard" line of handles, knobs and 
other parts for stoves, furniture and household 

appliances; also a large "stock" line of closures 
for foods, drugs and cosmetics. 

We also maintain a complete custom-molding serv- 
ice in thermo-plastic and thermo-setting plastics. 
Operating our own metal and tool shops, we are 
able to insure perfect blending of plastics and metal. 

Write for 1946 Catalog 





MARCH 1946 


Molders of skill and experience 
for over thirty years 


All Thermoplostic and Thermosettmg 
Materials Molded 




Manufacturers of Vulcanized Fibre, Phenol Fibre, Taylor Insulation, Taylor Silent Gears 


CHICAGO 6, ILL., 11 S. Desplaines St. 
CLEVELAND, OHIO, 121.3 W. 3rd Street 
DETROIT 2, MICH., 6432 Cass Avenue 
MILWAUKEE, WIS., 312 E. Wisconsin Ave. 
NEW YORK CITY 6, N. Y., 90 West St 

PITTSBURGH, PA., First Avenue & Ferry St. 
ROCHESTER 4, NEW YORK, 82 St. Paul St. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 554 Bryant Avenue 


SEATTLE, WASH., 1016 First Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO., 2127 Pine Street 

ST. PAUL 4, MINN., 2429 University Ave. 


TORONTO, ONT., Cambridge Street Etobicoke 


TAYLOR Fibre is an exceptionally high-grade vulcanized fibre, 
produced with particular attention to the specific requirements of 
fibre users for convenience and economy in fabrication, and for 
great mechanical strength and high insulating qualities. 
The superior properties of this vulcanized fibre are due to the mod- 
ern methods of manufacture which are employed in a new, up-to- 
the-minute plant where specially designed machinery, highly refined 
raw materials, sparkling clear artesian well water and corrosion- 
resisting equipment and piping throughout, produce the "cleanest" 
sheet of fibre that can be procured. 

Taylor Vulcanized Fibre is offered in all standard colors and in 
thicknesses from .005 inch to 2 inches. 

Taylor Fibre sheets over J^" and up to 2 inches in thickness are 
supplied in a special waterproof grade which has general qualities 
of both vulcanized fibre and phenol fibre. Prices of this fibre are 
the same as the regular vulcanized fibre list. 


Taylor Insulation, made by the same improved methods and equip- 
ment as Taylor Vulcanized Fibre, possesses the same superior me- 
chanical and dielectric properties. Taylor insulation is supplied in 
all practical thicknesses and in either sheets (S6"X 90") or con- 
tinuous rolls (56" wide). A new standard for armature insulation 
and other electrical work where a thin, extremely flexible yet strong 
insulation of high efficiency is required. 


Taylor Phenol Fibre is a phenolic resin impregnated paper 
fabric formed with heat under hydraulic pressure into sheets 
high dielectric strength, great physical strength, low moisture 
absorption, unaffected by heat or cold (excepting extremely high 
temperatures) and resistant to oil and most chemicals. 
Because this material is readily machined, it is adaptable to modern 
high speed production methods. It answers the specifications of a 
majority of insulating problems with .properties which in man; 
cases exceed N.E.M.A. standards. Made in all standard thicki 
from .005 to 9" and standard colors. 


Taylor silent gear blank stock is a highly resilient, wear-resistin 
phenol fabric of great strength and durability. It quiets nois 
metal-to-mctal contacts in the gear trains of many types 
machines. Taylor silent gears absorb shocks, save wear, reduc 
the hazard of breakdowns and costly production delays, save! 
tenance expense, improve the quiet operation and lengthen the lifi 
of not only the gear trains but the machine themselves. Taylo 
Silent Gear material, made from a woven fabric impregnated wit; 
phenolic resin and formed under high pressure into an extreme" 
dense substance, withstands contact with chemicals, dust, dirt, gr: 
grease, oil and rodents. 
It may be accurately and easily machined and being less affected 1 
heat and cold than even metal itself, it remains accurate on the jo 



MARCH 1946 

e Determination of Correct Answers 

Cell and Cover 

of "Moisture Meter" 

Compression Molded for 

C. J. Tagliabue Mfg. Co. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 





RCH 1946 

This cell and cover are functional parts to a piece 
of equipment that records the amount of moisture 
present in selected specimens such as soap, flour, 
dehydrated foods, etc. 

Were you to look at these two compression 
molded parts with a molder's eyes, you would 
see, as we see, a beauty that is more than skin 
deep; in fact, the cell section is exceedingly 
deep . . . S'A" and extremely narrow ... 1". 
The inside cavity surface is smooth, flawlessly 
squared. Side and bottom wall thicknesses are 
uniform, rigid, dimensionally true (no warp!). 
The carefully designed cover sets tightly in place 
... a perfect straight-to-the-line fitl 

The rugged mold construction called for the 
molder's best . . . and we gave it plenty! If you 
could study the parts and catch the gleam of their 
brilliant, molded-in finish, you'd certainly share 
our molder's love for them. 

In detailing this particular achievement, we, of 
Consolidated, have in mind that the completeness 
of our facilities may be helpful to others with simi- 
lar problems. The opportunity to serve you is 
cordially solicited. Inquiries invited! 


MOLDED PRODUCTS C?<rt/uvta&w* 




complete plastic production 

all under one roof 

Printloid is a four-in-one out- 
fit that brings you complete 
plastic fabrication in one 
plant. Experts handle your 
job from the initial design 
through final assembly. 

Results? No shopping 
around, no wasted time. In- 
stead, better design, uniform 
control and lower costs with 
Printloid engineering super- 
vision at every step of the job. 


Radio Dial windows are a Print- 
loid specialty, and we have made 
millions for the country's largest 
radio manufacturers. Printloid 
has worked for 
every industry, 
producing fin 
ished products 
as well as sub- 


Printloid is ex- 
perienced in pre- 
cision work to 
.001" in all ma- 
chining and finishing operations. 
Typical of our complete facilities 
is 2V4 inch through spindle lathe 
capacity for machining. 


Limitless possibilities of print- 
ing, from line cuts to four color 
process printing, are yours at 
Printloid. Die Cutting facili- 

ties range from 
steel rule dies 
to hydraulic 
presses for 
heavy plastic 


Printloid ex- 
perts work to 
your specifica- 
tions or execute your original de- 
signs. Displays have been created 
for leading national advertisers. 
Our engineers invite you to con- 
sult them on your problems. 


Dept. P, 93 Mercer Street, New York 1 2, New York 

The new Printloid catalog tells the 
story of complete plastic production un- 
der one roof. Includes a useful Plastics 
Glossary. Write for your copy. 





MARCH 1946. ( 




iwtant f 
A ' ^^*- 

o museum pieces.*. 


We don't claim to be magicians. 
Nor to set the world on fire, 

We're just darn good custom molders 
Witk sound experience for your hire. 

We've been born and bred on plastics, 
Produced millions of varied parts. 
For Home, and war, and industry. 

We're skilled in all the molding arts. 

We've tne machines that do the trick, 
The men who have the skill 

And we have the bag of combinations 
To fill most any custom bill. 

We're producing better and faster 
Than we ever did before. 

And we're ready, willing, and able 

To tackle the problem you lay at our door, 

Our "Ready Reference for Plastics" is yours if it will help you buy or design plastic moldings. 


BOONTON NEW JERSEY Tel. Boonton 8-2020 


Chanin Bldg., 122 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N. Y., MUrray Hill 6-854 

A new Beauty Combination 


and mood 

Here are two natural team-mates that win every time! 

Designers, fabricators and molders find that PLEXI- 
GLAS and wood are going places together because they 
complement each other so perfectly. The result: extra 
beauty, extra eye-appeal, extra sales-appeal! 

Production of your own designs can be facilitated 
through the use of this interesting combination. PLEXI- 
GLAS is easy to handle . . . makes items of the highest 
quality simple to produce in volume. 

We'll be glad to give you technical assistance. Just 
call or write our nearest office!: Philadelphia, Detroit, 
Los Angeles, Chicago, Cleveland, New York. Canadian 
Distributor: Hobbs Glass, Ltd., London, Ontario. 

This tag identifies Plexiglas merchan- 
dise. . . tells the public at a glance that 
the product is made with the famed 
quality plastic they can depend on. 

A The natural way in which PLEXIGLAS and wood go 
together is evident in this attractive magazine rack. 

B Symmetrical curved- ends of PLEXIGLAS join with 
polished sides of wood to make an unusual and 
eye-appealing wastebasket. 

In this serving tray, the combination of PLEXIGLAS 
and wood becomes a unique combination of 
beauty and utility. 

These items were designed 6v Sundburq & Frrnr of Detroit, 
Michigan . . . produced by Plastic Mfg. Co., Dallas, Texa*. 


PLEXIGLAS is a trade-mark. Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 



rs of Chsmicals intludine Plastics . . . S.nthetic Insecticides . . . Funeicides . . . Eniymcs . Chem.cals tor the Leather, lutile and other Industries 




Whatever the material, sim- 
ply submit a sample of your 
plastic and we'll recom- 
mend the proper finish. 70 
years' experience and our 
fine research facilities are 
at your service. Contact any 
of our offices. 

Plastics look their best, and sell fastest, when 
they have the added surface beauty of a very fine 
finish like CODUR. 

CODUR is a line of high-gloss, synthetic baking 
enamels especially designed for a one-spray coat 
application on molded (phenol formaldehyde) 
plastics. They have excellent color retention and 
bake to a very hard mar-resistant surface. CODUR 
is available in most colors in plain enamels and 
many metallic colors. M & W also offers air-drying 
or baking finishes for other plastics: acetates, buty- 
rates, methacrylates and others. 


'8T 6 



1658 Carroll Aye., Chicago 12 6 Jersey St., Boston 15 1228 W. Pico Blvd., Los Angeles 1 




MARCH 1946 



gineered inspection and volume production go hand in hand 
th planned perfection." Each of our operations has its own 
dividual type of inspection. Starting with incoming material, on 
gouge control of fabricated metal and molded parts, next 
emical, physical and metallurgical tests of processes, then the 
lal individual examination of completed assemblies. Therefore, 
sofar as is humanly possible, a part made by Cinch is made to your 
lecifications no matter how exacting the requirements or the appli- 
ition. Our inspection service guarantees customers' satisfaction. 

>. 11 in a Series of Advertisements "MEET MEtol Plastic Engineering" 

ARCH 1946 


catalog, MO pages des- 
cribing metal parts and 
metal plastic assemblies. 


2335 W. Van Buren Street, Chicago 12, Illinois 

Subsidiary of United-Carr Fastener Corp., Cambridge 42, Mas*. 





is the service that makes the difference! 






it's not always an easy job to select the molder best qualified 
to handle your work. Reputable molding firms appear much 
alike. You assume they are all physically equipped and have the 
mechanical knowledge to do the work for which they are fitted. 
This is the service you pay for. 

But the service you don't pay for that begins where mech- 
anical ability stops can be vital. Such service has many elements. 
Originality, creative engineering ability, and comprehension of 
the buyer's sales problems are examples. At Minneapolis Plastic 
Molders, this service has been developed to the point where it 
goes beyond capable mechanical performance. It has grown 
from broad, practical experience. 

You can profit from this service through such advantages as 
lowered costs and product improvements. MPM is prepared to 
demonstrate how this service has worked to the advantage of 
others. Write for information. 





MARCH 194( 

Photo courtesy 

Porker Stamp Works, Inc., 

Hartford, Connecticut 

A Milwaukee 2D Rotary Head Milling Machine 
milled this Walkie-Talkie part mold in 5 simple 
steps in a total time of 90 hours a typical speed, 
economy, and accuracy performance. Here is the se- 
quence of operations: 

1 Strap both mold halves together in an upright position on 
machine table and mill "Ear" and "Mouth" sections complete. 

2 Mill elongated sections for core guide. 

3 Position mold blocks on machine table as illustrated, lay 
out and mill handle grip section complete 

4 Mill core guide and recesses to form small pass at the 
"Mouth" end of molded part. 

S Mount core holding plate in vise and mill 3 recesses. 
Total machining time 90 hours. 

Check these advantages of the Milwaukee 2D Rotary Head 
Milling Machine and how you can benefit from them in your 
own shop: 

DIRECT . . . mills mold cavities in a single setup without the 
aid of templets or models, transmitting blueprint dimensions 
and outlines directly to the workpiece. 

ACCURATE . . . chances for error are eliminated because there 
is no change in setup. Exact control of all combinations of 
cutting movements possible only with this machine 
transmits mathematical precision to the work. 

FAST . . . initial job preparation and setup time is reduced to 
the minimum. Accurate performance of the machine saves 
operator's time and rapid production of intricate molds and 
dies is the result. 

Write for Bulletin No 1002C and complete information. 


Kearney & Trecker 


Milwaukee 14, Wisconsin 
Subsidiary of Kearney & Trecker Corporation 

Fll Fl OP F>L "' e cotton flock of surpassing 

cleanliness and uniformity. 

Jg. -J 

Macerated cotton fabric for ex- 
tra strength. 

Evenly cut lengths of tire cord 
for plastics of utmost strength. 

We join with you and your compound manufacturer in studying to provide fillers 
EXACTLY RIGHT for each type of item you mold. Just as these items vary 
requirements of impact, tensile and flexural strength, so each type of Kay< 
filler is varied to suit your specific needs. As pioneers in cotton fillers, we km 
this is necessary for maximum results and because we do it, our users enj< 
those results. 



of R.I. 


Investigate this macerated resin-impregnated fabric, a phenolic 
compound of great economy in numerous applications. 



45 Tremont St., Central Falls, R. I. 

MARCH 1946 

'2 in 1" Operation 

AIRTRONICS Dual Preheaters make possible the heating 
of two entirely different loads, alternately, or in any se- 
quence, without control readjustments of any kind be- 
tween heats. This feature frequently doubles preheating ca- 
pacity by permitting virtually continuous operation one 
charge being preheated while the preceding charge is 
molded. The ability of AIRTRONICS Dual Preheaters to 
do this double job, without intermediate control readjust- 
ments, results primarily from the coordination of Dual 
Set-up Controls, Automatic Load Accommodation, and 
Automatic Power Regulation. These unique AIRTRONICS 
design features are described on this page. 

AIRTRONICS "2 in 1" operation exemplifies the ad- 
vanced engineering and close attention to practical mold- 
ing requirements that have made AIRTRONICS Preheaters 
the choice of discriminating molders from coast to coast. 
The AIRTRONICS Dual Preheater series includes standard- 
ized models from 2 to 10 kw. Contact the nearest 
AIRTRONICS sales and service office for complete details. 

ODual Set-up Controls Dual Set- 
up Controls permit independent ad- 
justment of power output and heating time 
for two loads. 

Automatic Load Accommoda- 
tion Self-positioning output elec- 
trodes automatically accommodate loads vary- 
ing widely in shape and size. And regardless 
of load swelling or other dimensional changes, 
the upper electrode remains in contact with 
the load throughout the heating interval, pre- 
venting arcing between load and electrodes. 
At the end of the heating interval, upper elec- 
trode rises away from load permitting fast, 
easy removal of the heater material. 

Automatic Power Regulation 

A unique electro-mechanical regulator 
involving only one moving part and completely 
free of tubes and relays, quickly raises preheater 
power to the preset level and maintains it at 
that level, regardless of changes in the elec- 
trical characteristics of the load. 


MARCH 1946 

New York, 31-28 Queens Blvd., Long Island City, Zone 1 
Chicago, 407 S. Dearborn, Zone 5 
Los Angeles, 4536 Cutter St., Zone 26 




Completely equipped classrooms, 
laboratory and shop to prepare 
any qualified student, man or 
woman, who wants to take ad- 
vantage of the many opportuni- 
ties in this vital new plastics 

-!7i*M>, Schedule 

Thirty hours per week of class- 
room and laboratory work, for 
four terms of four months each. 
Part-time and evening courses are 
also offered. 

E ARE PROUD to announce this 
expansion program that will give many 
more young people the opportunity for 
full engineering-grade training in plas- 
tics. Comprehensive courses in raw 
materials, processing, equipment and 
design are taught by experienced plas- 
tics engineers and industrialists. Exper* 
training in plant and personnel man- 
agement, salesmanship and public rela- 
tions is also provided. The graduating 
student is fully qualified for responsi- 
ble positions in any field that manufac- 
tures or uses plastics. 

For Complete Information Write for Bulletin 

i r i i m L 

nshtute ot Plastic 

d JMJ, 








Avoid costly errors 


recommendations based on long experience. 


Industrial and Commercial custom molding of all thermoplastics. 

Extra savings through newest precision automatic equipment. 

Dependable service delivery when promised. 

MARCH 1946 





Through years of experience, the 
St andard Products Co. has acquired a 
.l.h of knowledge in the art of 
mol ding plastics. Standard offers com- 
plete molding service. 

Standard's molding equipment is 
capable of producing items of phenolic 

ceHulose-acetate.butyrate, polystyrene, 
ethocel and other plastic and 
plastic materia.s.Thesefaci.itiesassure 

; perfection in the molding job. 

The Standard Products Co., with * 

^.resources, can do yourjob quickly 

and effectively a, moderate cost. Ut us 

have the necessary data and our engi- 

neers will submit designs and proposal. 


505 Boulevard Bldq. 

Administrative and Sales Offices 
Woodward Ave. at E. Grand Blvd. 

Detroit 2, Mich. 

MARCH 1946 

This famous FREE book holds the Key 

to Business Success! 

Millions of copies have been 
distributed. More than 4OO,OOO 
ambitious men have taken the 
executive training described. 

There's nothing mysterious about 
business success. Executives are made, 
not born. Just as the officers of our army 
and navy are trained in military funda- 
mentals, so business men must be trained 
in the basic fundamentals that apply to 
all business. 

Mikes you an EXECUTIVE specialist 
The Alexander Hamilton Institute's 
Modern Business Course and Service is 
designed for men who recognize the 
obvious necessity of understanding all 
FOUR important departments of busi- 
ness and industry. It is practical, inten- 
sive and scientific. 

This training makes a man an executive 
specialist, able to supervise the activities 
of other specialists, technicians and sub- 

You learn from business leaders 
Subscribers to the Institute's training 
profit by the knowledge and experience 
of famous business leaders. Among the 
many prominent men who have contrib- 
uted are: Thomas J. Watson, President, 
International Business Machines Corp.; 

Frederick W. Pickard, Vice President 
and Director, E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
& Co.; Clifton Slusser, Vice President, 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 

Send for "Forging Ahead in Business" FREE! 
a 64-page booklet which represents the 
experience of 31 years in training men 
for business success. Today's timely edi- 
tion, written in the light of recent, world- 
wide developments, can be of immense 
value to you. 

Don't send for this book out of mere 
curiosity. Continued paper shortages 

"How con I move quickly into an execu- 
tive position?" 

"What must a lop-rank executive know?'' 

"How can I get into the higher-salary 
brackets now?" 

"What will happen to me in the post-war 

"Why do some men succeed, while 
others fail?" 

compel us to restrict it to men of serious 
purpose. If your interest is genuine, you 
may have a. free copy of "Forging Ahead 
in Business" simply by filling in and re- 
turning the coupon below. 



Opportunities in business and 
industry are more abundant than 
ever before in our history. Indus- 
try really needs men who under- 
stand the basic principles behind 
today's spectacular production 
record men who understand 
how to carry it on in peacetime. 
Don't waste a minute! 


Alexander Hamilton Institute 
Dept. 393, 71 W. 23rd Street 
New York 10, N. Y. 

In Canada: 54 Wellington Street, 

Please mail me, without cost, 

West, Toronto I, Ont. 
a copv of the 64-page 

MARCH 1946 




THIS is the Second Annual Directory of plastics. 
The organization of the material obtained from 
thousands of questionnaires follows the general pattern 
established a year ago. The current Directory, however, 
contains, as an important new feature, a set of bar 
charts making accessible at a glance the comparative 
properties of the leading plastics for which data were 
available. Such data as comparative specific gravity, 
water absorption, or impact strength and so on 
through twenty-one charts are here made available in 
a matter of seconds. 

This innovation in the bringing together of a great 
mass of scattered information in simple and highly 
usable form is expected to prove indispensable in the 
quick and efficient selection of materials for predeter- 
mined applications, and in avoiding the choice of the 
wrong material to perform a given job. 

For the past six months, the plastics industry has 
been specifically occupied with and plagued by the 
problems of reconversion. In spite of this preoccupa- 
tion, it has taken of its time to answer our question- 
naires. Without this whole-hearted co-operation the 
collection and compilation of the material presented 
herein would not have been possible. 

The year between the two Directory issues has been 
crammed with history-making events. History may 
place last March in the twilight of an era, this March 
at the beginning of a new. Tremendous new forces, 
mental as well as physical, are abroad in the world. It 
is a stimulating time in which to live. We believe that, 
with the trend of things and despite obstacles and dis- 
couragements, the year ahead will be the greatest ever 

in the plastics industry. 

* * * 

STARK tragedy stalks the country day after day as 
headlines report death by fire in blazing infernos 
of what just a few minutes before was somebody's 
home. Often that somebody lies dead in the smoldering 
embers, frequently burned beyond recognition. Almost 
inevitably the news reports, "the flames spread rapidly 
through the structure." 

All too frequently children are burned to death. A 
soldier father in far away Japan lost all his children in 
a fire that destroyed his rural Michigan home. Parents 
lost their grown or nearly-grown daughters in a similar 
disaster near Chicago. Thirteen persons died in a fire 
that swept through an old people's home in Cleveland. 

Such catastrophes are nationwide. Besides the ap- 
palling suffering and the incalculable loss in lives, mil- 
lions of dollars worth of valuable property go up in 
smoke and flame each year. 

What has this to do with plastics ? Well, plastics could 
point the way to the development of non-flammable 
or at least slow burning housing materials at a pric 
competitive with that of existing products. The secret 
of such materials may lie in the low-pressure laminates. 
To develop them and put them within the reach of the 
masses presents a real challenge and a real problem, 

the solution to which would be a blessing to mankind. 

* * * 

SPEAKING of laminates, the Low Pressure Indus- 
tries Division of the SPI put on a successful con- 
vention and exhibit at Chicago early in February. At- 
tendance numbered 238 registrants, a turn-out which 
a few years ago would have been a good attendance al 
a general SPI convention. Enthusiasm was rampa 
but nowhere did one fail to find realization of the ol 
stacles ahead : the development of continuous produ< 
tion techniques and reductions in cost. 

At present it seems generally agreed that too much 
hand labor is required in the making of laminated 
objects. To solve this problem calls for toil and sweat 
in the industrial laboratories, free expenditure of money 
on experimentation, and a courageous application ofi 
new ideas. Success in the development of mass pro- 
duction techniques could well mean a tonnage consump- 
tion of plastics which would make present consumption 
look trivial. 

The laminating industry has come a long way in the 
war years ; it has a much longer and more difficult way 
in the peace years. To our mind, however, past accom- 
plishment presages future success. 

* * * 

WHILE on the subject of conventions and shows, 
pleasure should be expressed at the reception 
accorded the Detroit exhibit sponsored by SPE. Be- 
tween 10,000 and 15,000 people paid a dollar each to see 
the exhibit, and personal observation indicated that they 
got their money's worth. The interest of the public in 

plastics is quite gratifying. 

* * * 

AMONG the designs for tomorrow displayed by 
Egmont Arens, designer, before the Low Pres- 
sure Industries Division on February 2 was that of a 
house which, like the sunflower, turns with the sun, the 
object being to obtain maximum light and heat. In- 
cluded among other designs looking toward the future* 
were boats, toys, automobiles, and trains. 

In introducing his designs, Mr. Arens spoke of the 
need of and defended the man who "sticks his neck; 
out and then tries to catch up with it." We think he 
has something there. END; 



MARCH 1946 

Tfie Beffer the Plastic Part! 

ALL RIGHT "better" is a loose word 
and we admit it. But Heatronic mold- 
ing (utilizing radiofrequency pre- 
heating) gives you a cure with so 
many improvements that we couldn't 
cram 'em in six headlines. They're 
worth studying, though, so here they 
are 13 direct results of Heatronic 

Increased structural strength, 
dimensional stability, chemical re- 
sistance, dielectric strength, volume 
resistivity, density uniformity. 

Decreased shrinkage, warpage, 
finish defects, porosity, internal 
stress, dimensional variation and 
mold, pin, and insert breakage. 

Plastic Pre-form in Heatronics Applicator 

So, how about Heatronic treatment 
for your job? Where do you go for 
answers ? 

Why not come to the plastic 
molder who introduced Heatronics 
to plastic molding who has accumu- 
lated an outstanding backlog of ex- 
perience in its use who's built up a 
whole battery of units to provide it? 
We'll be glad to help. 

Kurz-Kasch service covers every 
aspect of plastic molding from design 
to finishing the whole works, 
under one roof. Why not ask for a 
Kurz-Kasch engineer? 


For Over 28 Years 

Planners and Molders in Plastics. 

MARCH 1946 

Kurz-Kasch, Inc., 1413 S. Broadway, Dayton 1, Ohio. Branch Safes Offices: New York Chicago Detroit Los 
Angeles Dallas St. Louis Toronto, Canada. Export Offices: 89 Broad Street, New York, New York 




w *" m ".*""*'.'*<*^ 





TOOL*// RADIOS l) UtOI*> nANttS 

Your job starts in the Amos engineering departmer 
. . . where a staff of broadly-experienced plastic engineers 
plan every production step the most practical way. The 
design the mold . . . build any needed fixtures . . . and se 
the job through . . . from materials to molding to finishing 

Many jobs require special assembly equipment anc 
technique. One of these conveyor assembly lines in the 
Amos finishing room is shown above. It is typical of th 
modern and efficient facilities for the production of fine 
plastic parts and products in the new Amos plant. 

Send us your drawings or write us about the part or 
product you want molded in plastics. 


pson Corporation 





MARCH 1946 

Plastics have 

what it takes in salahility, beauty, colorahility, light weight 
and other advantages to attract, sell and satisfy the consumer 

THIS survey was made during- the fren- 
zied seller's market of December, 1945, 
when demand outran supply in all merchan- 
dise, and the chief complaint of harassed 
buyers was that plastics were all too scarce. 
But although immediate worries centered 
around depleted inventories, the buying spree 
and the short supply were not expected to 
last indefinitely, and buyers were glad to talk 
of the long-range problems of their plastics 

How have consumer plastics stood up dur- 
ing the war, and how will they be affected by 
the much-heralded "return to metal"? Is 
there consumer prejudice against plastics? 
Based, it is said, on their experience with 
defective compacts and measuring spoons, 
the largest department store in Toronto dis- 
played a suggestive placard, "All holiday 
purchases can be returned after Christmas 
except plastics." How representative is this 
attitude ? 

With these questions in mind, buyers were 
asked, not their opinion of plastics, but of 
individual articles sold on their counters. 
The criterion was purely a merchandising 
one : did the article sell well ; was the price 
right ; was it well-constructed ; could you sell 
more if the price were lower? Specific criti- 
cisms, whether adverse or favorable, are of- 
fered here in the belief that they will be 
helpful to the industry. 

Misapplications in the gadgets fields have 
been noisily bruited in the last year or two 
when plastics were requisitioned for war 
materiel, and after all the stern talks the 
industry has been giving itself, it was re- 
freshing to find that buyers looked with en- 
thusiasm on their plastics merchandise. Com- 
pared with other war goods, plastics had 

Colorful and glamorous 
plastics also attracted 
crowds of humanity, such 
as this, which flocked to 
counters last December to 
set new purchasing records 

Methyl methacrylate combines with glass to make a best selling highball tray. Guard rail and handles are turned 
in W "Plexiglas" sheet, and a plate glass base with sand-blasted floral design fits into a groove in the guard rail 

stood up well, and some of the misapplications of material 
which caused apprehension in the industry the thermo- 
plastic tea strainer, for instance appear to have excited 
little antipathy in the public mind. Dissident voices were 
heard, to be sure, in the discussion of novelties and of com- 
pacts and lipsticks, for reasons which will be reviewed, but 
of the many buyers interviewed, only two or three felt that 
molders had dumped cheap merchandise on a get rich-quick 
policy during the war. 

Though money was no object in the buying rush of the 
Christmas holidays, price was the most frequently men- 
tioned objection to plastics. With but few exceptions such 
as jewelry, it was the chief objection to most of the mer- 
chandise surveyed ; and without any exceptions syndicate 
buyers said that they could sell more plastics if the price 
were lower. Buyers in lower-priced stores expected to 
replace some plastics with metal only because they were 
not competitive in price. In more expensive stores, price 
was less of an object, of course, and in such stores com- 
plaints were on the score of quality and the fact that expen- 
sive merchandise had been sold them and duplicated in the 
chain stores at lower prices. 

Strangely enough, another general ground of complaint 
was color, the quality in which plastics excel. Buyers com- 
plained that they could not get the colors they wanted, and 

This discussion Is based on interviews with 61 buyers of plas- 
tics merchandise In kitchen, bath and wardrobe accessories, 
novelties, toys and toilet articles the articles which an average 
housewife most frequently buys. Despite the advances of plastics 
in the industrial world, consumer goods still absorb a large 
volume of material. By one material supplier It was estimated 
that 50% of all thermoplastics went into these applications 
before the war, and one has only to look at the enormous volume 
of the ten-cent syndicates to appreciate the importance of the 
gadget" trad*. 

were often forced to take an assortment. Axiomatic as it 
should be, the extent to which color is responsible for th 
sale of plastics appears not to have been fully realized, nor 
the fact that certain goods carry rather rigid color conven- 
tions. Such color conventions are changed only by adver- 
tising campaigns and not by casual sales of off-colors by 
molders. Revlon's notable color promotions stand out 
anything but casual, and one Middle West department store 
is said to have spent $100,000 to promote its version of this 
spring's 'penny copper.' 

Even before the war, molders, fabricators and buyers in 
turn were forced to take an assortment of colors, and on 
molder had had thirteen shades of ivory on hand at one tin 
It was frequently suggested that material suppliers should 
cut down their large color assortments, standardizing an 
stressing a few popular shades. Specialization on a fev 
basic colors might also result in price reductions, and specia 
colors could-be supplied to the quality trade at higher pric 

Although they were not numerous, difficulties also oc- 
curred through use of dimensionally unstable or water ab 
sorbent materials in applications subjected to heat 
moisture. The majority of buyers did not know the mate 
rial of which their merchandise was made, but distinctio 
were beginning to be drawn between the stability of differ- 
ent plastics. In some cases salesmen had given them a 
telescope account of the chemistry of plastics, resulting in 
a somewhat garbled picture; but other buyers were will- 
informed about plastics materials. 

Faulty design was another cause of failure. Flimsy wall 
sections, use of the wrong adhesives, poor finishing (gate 
and weld marks, for instance), and poor polishing were 
common complaints. This, too, was attributable to the 
war and to the speed with which new products were de- 
signed and executed. 

Throughout the war plastics scrap supplied the counters 
of the ten-cent stores with a luxury of color and charming 
design. Delicate shell-like flowers (cellulose acetate) in 



MARCH 1946 

Woven "Saran" monofilaments make a waterproof, velvety 
smooth, easily cleaned, highly rot-resistant clothesline 

ranslucent pastels made pins, brooches, earrings; polysty- 
ene jewels gleamed in the proudest ears ; transparent me- 
hyl methacrylate made shining monograms and brooches, 
,vhile plastic pearls enhanced the traditional color scope of 
the oyster. The brilliant contribution of plastics toward 
riaintaining feminine gayety and morale during the dark 
lays of 1943 has, indeed, never been estimated. 

Two years ago, syndicate buyers estimated that plastics 
supplied 80% of their jewelry, but this year, in the renas- 
:ence of metal, plastics jewelry had all but disappeared, and 
only plastics pearls continued in quantity. Will plastics 
jewelry decline permanently in use now that metal has 
appeared ? 

Syndicate buyers said an emphatic no. Although the 
ipublic is starved for metal at the moment, plastics will 
always be sold, particularly for spring and summer, because 
lof their color and translucence. Such criticism as there 
(was, was directed toward color; reds and whites, two im- 
portant jewelry colors, had been poor the last year or two, 
: and some firms had pushed color assortments. 

Plastics had developed many new and beautiful effects in 
Jewelry. Universally admired by buyers was the silver and 
gold-plated cellulose acetate jewelry. "Metallized plastic," 
as it is called, is capable of more complicated shapes and 
of more depth and undercuts in the mold than metal. It is 
also very much lighter to wear an important feature in a 
large brooch or belt buckle. Gold and silver-plated plastics 
jewelry was in good demand this year in department stores 
as well as ten-cent stores, where it ranged from 59< for a 
small brooch to $1 for a large one set with plastics stones. 

Buyers felt, too, that great credit should be given to such 
manufacturers as the Standard Plastics Co., Colt's Patent 
Firearms Mfg. Co., and the Maurice A. Lichten Co., who 
pioneered in the development of methyl methacrylate and 
polystyrene stones. These stones replaced Czecho-Slovakian 
cut glass stones so successfully that few could distinguish 
them, and at a competitive price. When the imported stones 
do reappear, transportation and inflation costs may make 

Metal screening is molded into the "Styron" rim to form 
a handsome, well-designed strainer at chain store prices 

them considerably more expensive than plastics stones. 

Though department stores showed little plastics jewelry, 
the maxim "Anything sells that's new" remained true even 
among this year's metal-starved customers, and Macy's 
showed a whole counter of milky white, translucent moon- 
stone brooches in the form of bows, etc. selling at $1.83 
and $3.67. 

Methyl Mcthocrylate Novelties 

Cigarette boxes and cases, trays, mirrors, frames, lamps 
and miscellaneous items appear in many departments of a 
large store, being variously classified as Notions, Toilet 
Goods, Stationery and even Housewares. 

Scrap from bomber noses popularized many of these nov- 
elties during the war, and there was a good supply of them 
this Christmas in moderate-priced and expensive stores. Be- 
cause of their prohibitive price, syndicates carried few 
items. Price, indeed, was a general complaint, and from 
Fifth Avenue to Woolworth's certain slow-moving articles 
were being marked down ; on Fifth Avenue it was $25 van- 
ity cases and dresser sets, while in Woolworth's it was a 
$2 cigarette box that was being closed out for $1. 

Price, however, was not the only reason for the slow sale 
of certain novelties. Innovation is an important factor in 
this merchandise, and older styles quickly become a drug on 
the market, even when not duplicated in cheaper lines. In 
specialty shops particularly, novelty and uniqueness are the 
first criteria and such unusual items as a $7 shoehorn (sheet 
fabricated) were found, and $42 liqueur set, consisting of a 
case about 18" by 5" containing eight ordinary quality 
liqueur glasses. 

Adhesives, too, were a common failure in the novelty field, 
the new vinyl type adhesives not having been available until 
recently, and many buyers were convinced that there was 
"no such thing as a foolproof adhesive in plastics." 

Poor design, too, deviled the novelty market. Many nov- 
elties had been designed with too small gluing surfaces or 
with poor hinges and inadequate pins in the hinges. 

All of these failures price, design and adhesives were 

MARCH 1946 



Cowboys, Indians, lassoes and tomahawks return to shelves 
long populated by khaki-clad Gl's and instruments of war 

New compact, molded by Allied Plastics from methyl meth- 
acrylate, comes in twelve designs, one for each Zodiac sign 

i se 


> ha 

embraced in such slow-moving items as lamps, which ofte 
occasioned comment on "the poor engineering of plastics. 
Even the cheapest of them, the small pin-up lamp retailin 
for $6 and up, had not sold well. Larger lamp bases c 
methyl methacrylate had been found "tippy," and it wa 
said that the material was too lightweight for lamps. (Sue 
bases should, of course, have been loaded.) 

Other novelties, however, had been good sellers. Shed 
fabricated frames retailing in ten-cent stores for 290 t 
$2.50, though at present slow-moving, had been extremel 
popular during the war. New molded frames and east 
frames were being introduced, and were expected to se , 
well. Molded frames in polystyrene and cellulose acet; 
had an advantage in cheaper price ; ten-cent store buye 
felt that $1 should be about top price for their frame,-, 
the $2.50 sheet frames (a double frame about 8" high) 
always been slow. 

For the same reason methyl methacrylate mirrors wine 
had sold as high as $3 and even $5 in a Fifth Avenue ter 
cent store had been cleared. As the girls behind the cour 
ter put it, "People go to a department store to spend $5. 
In department stores mirrors were sold both separate! 
and in three-piece dresser sets, from $6 (for a molded set' 
to $30, and they were said to be good seasonal items. 

Trays of all types were among the best-selling noveltie 
cosmetic trays retailing from $2 to $15, while serving traji 
15" or 16" long ranged from $7 to $30. In the constructio 
of these trays a combination of glass and methyl methacn 
late had been found ideal in reducing cost and enhancin- 
their beauty. Though occasional trays were entirely cot 
structed of methyl methacrylate, the majority of them use 
plate glass for the base and methyl methacrylate sheet fcl 
non-breakable handles and guard rail. 

Cigarette boxes at $4 to $10 sold well as gifts, but pric 
was a general complaint. More expensive boxes, such 
the grand piano music box, sold up to $20, but such expei' 
sive novelties readily attracted copies, and the grand plan 
was being duplicated without music box and with less deta 
in the cutting of the legs for $8. Card boxes at $6 to $2' 
powder boxes at $5 to $12, and coaster sets at $3 to 10 wei 
only fair sellers. 


In kitchenware military allocation of plastics forced t! 
use of less stable materials in articles previously made ( 
urea, cast phenolics or melamine. Yet, though there wei 
a few lines which buyers wished to replace with metal, prici 
was often a more serious ground of complaint than dimei 
sional stability. Such plastics strainers, measuring spoon' 
iced-tea spoons, salad sets, cheese graters, etc. as kept withi; 
the 150 and 250 range usually sold well regardless of occi< 
sional warping, because of their color and the fact that fe> 
150 items in any material are foolproof. 

Funnels, colanders and knives for fruit, etc. were mor 
doubtful utensils functionally, and were not expected to 
continued. A six-inch thermoplastic fruit knife sold for 5( 
in Macy's basement. Sink strainers had sold well, dopi 
some warping, and buyers felt they would continue to se 
;'/ the price were competitive. Present prices ranged fro 
200 to 390 in ten-cent stores to 750 in department store 
Fur chain stores, buyers felt that strainers should ke< 
within the 250 price range of metal; a sturdy wel!-nia( 
metal strainer with rubber feet was already on the mark 
at 250 and buyers expected the advent of a 150 one. 

Prices varied considerably on other articles on the "g 
gets" table now maintained in most department stores, ar 
price. was frequently no indication of quality, even in 
where plastics have long excelled, such as caps and closure 
Complaints were often made about glass salt cellars, f< 
example, because of their plastics caps; yet well -ni;i< 
cellars priced at two for 50 had good caps with thick wi 


MARCH 194 



Street cars and buses can now boast hand 
rails, seat grab rails, and stanchions of 
welded steel tubing coated with Tenite. Steel 
for strength Tenite for warmth, color, 
cleanliness, freedom from chipping and 
cracking, light weight and lower cost! 

The Tenite is continuously extruded di- 
rectly over the steel. 

Tenite's low heat conductivity makes it 
warm to the touch a sales advantage that 
may help sell your product, too. 

Tenite's endless range of colors brings 
rider appeal to transit vehicles, in soft shades 
of red, yellow, green, blue, brown, and gray. 
Tenite can be provided in transparent, trans- 
lucent, or variegated form, and in colors to 
suit your needs. 

Chip-proof, crack -resistant Tenite keeps 
its beauty even under abuse in transit 
vehicles; keeps its elasticity from zero tem- 
peratures to 190 F. Perspiration, salt air, 
and grease, do not affect it; and its high- 
gloss surface quickly wipes clean. 

Weight saved by this new construction is 
20%. And the cost is substantially lower 
than that of former equipment! Samples of 
the new construction will be shown at the 
SPI convention in April. 

For molding, extruding, coating Tenite 
is the industry's No. 1 thermoplastic. For- 
mulas to fit your needs. For advice on the use 
of Tenite in your product, please describe 
your problem in a letter to: TENNESSEE 
Eastman Kodak Co. ),Kingsport, Tennessee. 

Tenite-coated band rail (the "RUB-BUB stanchion"), manufactured by Samuel Moore 
& Company, Kent, Ohio, from tubing coated by Carter Products Corp. of Cleveland. 



Plastics, metal in com- 
bination introduce the 
new Cloud Silk match- 
ing lipstick and com- 
pact. The lipstick com- 
bines a gold brass base 
with a pagoda-like phe- 
nolic cap. The compact, 
of black painted metal, 
has a red phenolic cap 

German metallized plastics 
toy searchlight, only about 
2%" long and a little less 
than W wide, is notable 
for the exquisite pre 
of the molding job and th 
fidelity to detail showr 
Now in an SPI exhibit, 
little toy was brought 
America by Copt. G. S. Na 

sections and three threads, while cellars priced at 5< each 
and at 25< a pair had caps with thin wall sections and one- 
thread screws. 

Pre-war cast phenolic-handled knives and forks were 
remembered by buyers everywhere, and were hailed as they 
began to trickle back onto the counters at prices from 20< 
up (in ten-cent stores). From Rye Beach to Harlem they 
had sold well, gracing the best dinner tables of the land, 
and had long since graduated into the ranks of staple mer- 
chandise. Acetate-handled knives and forks were just mak- 
ing their appearance, and were selling well. Preferred colors 
in both were red and ivory. 

Pre-war baby and picnic dishes (urea and melamine) 
were being welcomed back. Charming Hemcoware baby 
bowls and cups had reappeared as well as some by the 
Watertown Mfg. Co. in pink and blue. Such baby dishes 
sold in various sizes from 25* to 59* in chain stores. Water- 
town had introduced its melamine picnic dishes in new 
Mexican colors, gay and brilliant. Both baby and picnic 
dishes were said to be always "good merchandise and good 

Preferred colors in kitchenware (excepting, of course, 
baby dishes) were opaque red, white and ivory, and green. 

Transparent colors had proved unsuccessful. 

Like kitchenware, bath accessories had suffered from th 
material scarcities of the war, and there were complaints < 
splitting and warping and of the difficulty of cleaning the 

Tumblers were still scarce, buyers reported, but they 
appeared in various materials cellulose acetate, cellulose 
acetate butyrate, polystyrene, urea, melamine. Hand-painted 
tumblers were a feature this year, selling from 25* to 50*. 
Some beautifully finished and well-designed tumblers in 
urea and melamine appeared from the Bryant Electric Co. 
and the Northern Industrial Company. 

In tumblers also price was no indication of quality, and 
flimsy tumblers with mere blobs for floral designs sold at 
the same price as well-made ones. A buyer in one large 
ten-cent store where poorly finished tumblers in transparent 
colors were on sale, said, "Our bathroom tumblers are a 
disgrace to the plastics industry." 

Transparent colors did not sell in bath goods (except in 
more expensive towel racks and fixtures), and most-wanted 
opaque colors were white, green, red, and mixtures of black 
and white. 

Space docs not permit a discussion of wardrobe acces- 



MARCH 1946 


Perhaps you are considering the use of plastics for a 
housing ... or some other molded part . . , that calls 
or exceptional size. Take a good look at this *cab- 
et , . . the first ever produced to house a combination 
adio and phonograph. Its sleek, clean lines, its rugged 
strength and economical cost contribute mightily to 
the ready-selling appeal of the completed product. 

Here is another "first" for Molded Products. The equip- 
ment . . . experience . . . skill . . . and "know-how" 
needed to cope with such unusual assignments are 
available to you. Submit your plastics problem or prod- 
Harrison St., Chicago 24, Illinois. 

Molded for Admiral Corporation 




IARCH 1946 




series boxes, hatstands, coathangers, shoe racks, tie racks, 
etc., which, though popular, were too expensive to be fast 
selling. Acetate film boxes ranging in price from $1.69 for 
a trinket box to $19 for a blanket box, were beginning to 
be duplicated in cheaper lines, as were coathangers and such 
gadgets as tie racks, which had sold in specialty shops for 
as much as $12. 

Volumes might be written about the non-functional and 
purely imaginative design of the early plastics coathangers. 
Fortunately, the newer models at 69# to $1 are much more 
functional than their early counterparts at $2. Consider- 
able price cutting has occurred, and both the ten-cent syndi- 
cates canvassed had coathangers within the 25< range. 
Materials used were cellulose acetate, polystyrene and 
methyl methacrylate, and transparent colors were de ri- 


Toys are a large volume field in which plastics compete 
most successfully in whatever material. Buyers had only 
praise for their plastics toys and regret for their scarcity. 
All stores at Christmas featured doll dishes and furniture, 
trucks, jeeps, ships, planes and telephones until they ran 
out of them. Doll dishes, ranging in price from $1 to $5, 
which were previously the largest seasonal dollar volume 
item, had been superseded this year by the new $2 telephone, 
a best seller in ten-cent and department stores alike. Though 
the telephone was the largest dollar volume item, revolvers, 
planes, ships, jeeps, trucks, etc. ran into a larger volume of 
material. A new best seller on the Christmas market was 
Banner Plastic Co.'s oil truck. 

Buyers pointed out that plastics jeeps, trucks, etc. had 
finer detail and more precision in the molding than similar 
metal counterparts, and the new oil truck was exhibited as 
an example of an exceptionally smooth job. At the same 
time, syndicate buyers expected to replace certain toys with 

metal unless the price came down. A new metal truck 
25 < was said to be better value than its plastics compli 
ment at 35tf. Some price cutting had already occurred 
revolvers and other toys, leading buyers to think that initial 
costs and mold costs had been far too high. 

Good colors had been difficult to obtain. Red, blue and 
green remained the first three choices in children'- 
while pink and blue were still the convention for infants' 


Much has been written and many gloomy prophecies 
made of late on the score of plastics lipsticks and the eager- 
ness with which cosmetic manufacturers hail returning 
metal. The passing of the all-plastics case is freely pre- 
dicted. Why this should be a cause of distress to the indus- 
try is rather obscure; yet since it is a matter of foreboding 
to some, we are happy to report that the all-plastics lip- 
stick case elicited far less complaint from the consumer than 
from the manufacturer. 

Whether the all-plastics lipstick case will eventually "re- 
turn," we leave it to wiser seers with handier crystals to 
determine, but a fact which seems to have been overlooked 
is that it has not, as yet, made its exit the present 
scarcity of the metal lipstick being, indeed, its most stylish 

Before the war when both plastics and metal were plenti- 
ful, the trend was toward a combination of the two; and 
many of the manufacturers who are reportedly turning t 
metal are actually only returning to pre-war models of plas- 
tics and metal in combination. Pictured are some prc \\ar 
best sellers in metal and plastics which are again in produc- 
tion and soon to be featured. Other cases illustrated are: 
( iiiurielli's luxurious all-plastics case molded of cellulose 
acetate with a metal lining, a new lipstick in brass and 
(Continued on page 305) 

Metal and plastics again 
join to form the attrac- 
tive, smooth-working lip- 
stick containers shown 
center. Shaving brush ha 
a molded, shining, many 
faceted acrylic handle, 
piece of Chinese jade 
spired design of the sma 
case for powder foundatio 

A few of the many small plastic items made in great quantities by Owens-Illinois. 

Specialists in making small plastics in a big way 

Every year we make several hundred 
million plastic closures. 

The automatic machines that make these 
molded closures are ideal for the produc- 
tion of a great variety of small thermo- 

setting plastic parts and items efficiently, 
economically and at high speeds. 

* * * 

It will pay you to investigate our pro- 
duction facilities for similar units. 

MARCH 1946 



Branches in all Principal Cities 



What the Laminates Offer 

I let&on ana oL. V. cJLarSen 

Divisions, General Electric Company 

WE ARE assuming, in this article, that the reader is 
a comparatively recent end-user of plastics and that, 
theoretically, he has a product he wants to have manu- 
factured and is considering which of the plastics materials 
and processes is best suited to turn it out. Most newcomers 
have heard a good deal about molding because that is, 
inevitably, the process which comes to mind when one 
thinks of plastics. The end-user has also heard much of 
the mach inability of the various plastics, which naturally 
suggests fabricated products. The chances are that he 
knows least about a third great division of the plastics 
family the laminates despite the fact that they had 
achieved a kind of classic status even before molding came 
into its own. This article is therefore an attempt to point 
out what kind of products call for a consideration of the 
laminates as a possible choice of material, and what service 
the laminator can offer a potential customer. 

When choosing ft 
material for thi 
product you expee 
to Start making, 
he wise i 

give a though 
to the laminatt 

The characteristics of laminated forms can be 
varied by choice of type and make-up of filler 

Before these basic questions are answered, let us c( 
sider briefly what the laminates are. In a broad sense, a 
material made up of layers bonded by a synthetic resin HI 
be called a laminate. Thus, an overlay of a sheet of eel 
lose acetate on a document, or of paper on plywood, woi 
come under the definition. In such cases, the separ; 
layers can be seen. In a narrower sense, however, the la 
inates are a class of materials made of stacks of res ; 
impregnated paper, cloth or other filler subjected to In 
and pressure so that the components lose their idcnti 
emerging from the hydraulic press as a hard, comp; 
homogeneous material. It is largely with these high pr 
sure laminates that this article will deal, though the li 
pressure laminates will also be referred to. 

The first resin used for laminating was phenol formalc 
hyde, which still remains of major importance, whetl 
used alone or modified with phenol furfural, aniline f< 
maldehyde, etc. Melamine formaldehyde has made stri< 
in the laminate field, and the silicones are also coming alo 
as binders. Fillers include paper and cloth of various grad 
sisal and other fibers, Fiberglas, asbestos and (recentl 

One of the chief reasons why the high pressure lamina 
are less widely known than molded products by the gene 
public is that they are not the glamor girls of the indusi 
but the lads in overalls. In plainer words, they found th 
employment in utility products for industry rather than 





V>* * f 

S \on,^ oV Jv-vW" 



o V< 











^ IJ l/xmJact&uiM c)im&, #99 



products for the consumer. But with the advent of decora- 
tive laminates for table-tops, cabinets and the like, that is 
no longer true. But the strictly utilitarian applications are 
still the outstanding features of the laminates, and we dis- 
cuss them first for that reason. 

The first condition which should make an end-user think 
of laminates as the material for his product is when it has 
a large, essentially flat area. There are very sharp limita- 
tions on molding such an area since the whole piece is per- 
pendicular to the line of application of pressure; and it is 
expensive. However, laminates "dished" in shallow curves 
(as in a serving tray) can be had as large as 20" by 30". 
Such large forms have been made for the inner doors of 
refrigerators, dished to a depth of 1" and 3/32" thick, and 
they have all the strength and rigidity of a small piece. 

Another important application of the material in large 
areas is in switchboard panels, especially where they are 
subject to constant vibration. Here the high flexural 
strength of the laminates stands them in good stead. 

A second general condition favoring the laminates is that 
in which high mechanical strength in relation to weight is 
called for. In this property the fabric-base type excels, so . 
that it is used extensively for pulleys and gears. Laminated 
gears are not only noiseless, but also have great strength 
an impact strength, for example, of 6 ft Ib per inch of notch. 
Other items which have proved their value are clutch cones 

Laminates make good calibrated instruments, nameplates, 
signs, decorative table and bar tops and wall paneling 

Strong, lightweight molded-lami- 
nated casters, durable and shock 
resistant, give unmatched service 

md disc;-, tubes (on which coils are wound), bearings for 
steel mills and ships as well as for scooters and wagons for 
.he small fry of the family, large caster wheels for hand 
rucks, refrigerator door strips and graphited self-lubricat- 
ng bearings for meters, instruments and business machines. 
Laminates are used not only for their strength but also 
Because they are odorless and act as moisture barriers. 
Water cooler fan blades 5' to 6' long have been made of 
laminates to replace metal blades. Their greater cost is 
offset by their superior resistance to erosion from the con- 
tinuous water spray to which they are exposed, by their 
better absorption of vibration and by their smoother opera- 
tion. If the blade bends or breaks, it causes much less 
damage to the equipment than a metal blade would. 

Mention was made above of switch panels and coil forms. 
That brings up the third general field of application of lami- 
nates as electrical insulation which is not affected by mois- 
ture and temperature changes. A variety of paper-base lami- 
nates have been standardized to meet the varying require- 
ments of electrical applications. Many of these, such as 
terminal boards, spacers and washers, have to be punched, 
and the paper-base group lends itself easily to this opera- 
tion. To look for high insulation value is not enough. Other 
properties may also be needed for a specific application. 
True, a contact arm in a motor must be well insulated, but 
it must also take a beating from constant vibration, and the 
laminate used for the purpose has the strength to stand up 
under it. 

Many Forms Available 

As a highly developed industry, laminates are available in 
numerous stock forms not only as sheets, rods and tubes, 
but ;ilso as channels, angles and other simple geometrical 
shapes which can be obtained by sawing the rods and tubes 
at various angles. Where many small parts of these shapes 
are required, as for spacers, cams, contact arms, levers and 
trips, it is economical to saw them from stock forms. Lami- 
nated tubes are made by winding impregnated sheets of the 
filler around a cylindrical mandrel and heating the wound 
sheets under pressure, much as a product made of a mold- 
ing powder is molded around an insert, except that in the 
case of the laminate the mandrel is withdrawn. This same 
process can be adapted to special shapes by using a man- 
drel of appropriate form. 

The spinning bucket which was developed for the rayon 
industry is a case in point. A wire-reinforced cotton 
fabric, impregnated with phenolic resin, is wound on a 
tapered mandrel to form the body of the bucket. The bottom 
and hub. made of chopped pieces of the impregnated cloth, 
are preformed and partially cured, then molded together 
with the body. Developed for its special purpose, this part 
achieves a tensile strength of 12,000-14,000 psi and a flex- 
ural strength of 18,000-22,000 psi. 

What may be called another form of molding laminates 
which was put to greatly increased use during the war is 
the process known as post-forming, from the fact that the 
laminate, even though it has been cured to its presumably 
final shape as a thermosetting material, still has enough 
"give" to be manipulated into relatively simple forms at 
high temperatures. Among the parts made by this process 
are fairings, cowlings, inner walls (of aircraft), ammuni- 
tion boxes, angles and chutes. Indicated uses in normal 
times are for covers, boxes and the like where strength 
and electrical insulation are desirable, or where a close fit 
can be assured by a dished form. 

Generally speaking, post-forming may be used for the 
type of parts turned out by metal stamping, where simple 
angles or curves are called for. Consequently compara- 
tively simple dies are needed. It is possible to post-form a 
cup shape in which the depth bears the ratio of 0.75 to the 

horizontal radius. As an extreme case, the laminated sheet 
can be bent or curved to a radius equal to its thickness, but 
the larger the radius the easier the operation is performed. 
Sheets 4' by 8' are available for post-forming. 

Another process the development of which was accel- 
erated in the war years is low pressure laminating or mold- 
ing, which includes a pressure range from zero up to 150 
Ib or so. It makes possible the forming of very large 
sheets into forms which are difficult and impracticable, if 
not impossible, to obtain by high pressure methods. Much 
has been reported in the press of the use of the process in 
building boat hulls for military purposes and, more recently, 
for pleasure craft. The low pressure technique has also 
been successfully applied to pre-fabricated house parts, 
structural arches, furniture drawers and guards for ma- 
chinery. In radar housings, low pressure laminating made 
possible a form of parabolic contour. 

In the immediate future, its application is foreseen to 
such large objects as radio cabinets and cupboards, informal 
kinds of chairs and tables. For an excellent summary of 
the actual technique, the reader is referred to an article by 
W. Burdette Wilkins in the July, 1945, issue of plastics. 

This brings us back to the decorative type of high pres- 
sure laminates, which have found their greatest use so far 
as tabletops and bar tops in hotels and restaurants. Orig- 
inally this type of laminate used phenolic resins entirely. 
The introduction of the urea resins made a wider range of 
fast colors possible, and a combination of urea and mela- 
mine resins has been found to give better service in the sur- 
face layers at least, where they contribute to the material's 
high abrasion resistance, heat resistance (a pot of boiling 
water can be set on it without damaging it), light-fastness, 
and resistance to the action of fruit juices and other house- 
hold chemicals. 

A great deal of variety is possible with this type of 
laminate, for the decorative layer proper can be diversified 
in color and pattern and material. Wood veneer inlays and 
metal foil can be worked into it; opaque and translucent 
areas can be patterned, and further diversified by color. So 
great is the range of possibilities that a laminate can be 
found or created which is not only attractive in itself but 

(Continued on page 311 ) 

Gears, reinforced by unwoven cotton fibers, run silently 
and smoothly; stand up well under hard and long wear 


RCH 1946 



Each product a molder is asked to make demands special study of individual problems 

The Molder Has His Problems 

A fr^nk discussion of the merits, limitations, uses, and misuses of 
plastics wherein the molder appears as the common denominator 

Making a variety oi products multiplies design problems 

President, Mack Molding Co. 

THERE are a certain number of basic things that 
reputable molder will tell a prospective custome 
that is, if the molder wants to be honest with the custon 
and the customer is intelligent enough to want the molder 
to be honest with him. And honesty pays in this case be- 
cause a sound plastics business, either in the processing or 
product end, cannot be built up by hoodwinking the cus- 
tomer or deluding oneself. 

Some of the things to be said are negative about the 
bad side of plastics because that is often necessary in 
order to bring out their good points. That is why I am going 
to point out quite a few negatives in this article. 

Let me start with a favorite bugaboo of mine: the idea 
that plastics can take the place of any material and have 
every property you can name for example, complete ab- 
sence of warpage. Some plastics have closer tolerance in 
this regard than others, but no plastics that I know of is 
100% free of this tendency. Some years ago, my company 
was approached by a manufacturer of commercial sewing 


....THE NEW 



A compact, precision temperature control unit. 

Fast reaction time of the Midget Thermoswitch produces instant temperature 

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Short-heat transfer path eliminates effect of heat gradients. 

Maximum load rating 200 watts 110 volts A.C. 

Vibration-proof firm construction minimizes effects of vibration. 

Positive action minimum internal transfer lag. 

Built-in anticipation no loss in control with increase in electrical load. 

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is available with several types of mounting facilities for easy installation in various 

*Designed for applications where space requirements are limited; midget- 
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T H E R 



May we assist you with your thermal control problem? 





The correct design and material save considerable grief 

machines who wanted plastics to replace the metal plates, on 
his machines. Could this be done? For answer, we furnished 
him with samples. Satisfied, he ordered the replacement. \Ye 
machined the molds and shipped about 1,000 phenolic plates 
to his factory. 

After six months or so, the manufacturer received letters 
of complaint from his customers who pointed out that the 
plates warped and were out of plane with the metal casting 
of the machine. Investigation showed that the phenolics 
used do warp after six months but only from 5/1000" to 
10/1000" for a 12" by 12" plate. This is negligible for most 
applications. Unfortunately, it was intolerable for the sew- 
ing machine and had to be discarded. The manufacturer re- 
turned to the metal plates, having learned an expensive les- 
son the hard way. 

Plastics have other limitations that the molder and his 
customers must guard against. Lack of needed strength and 
ruggedness is an example. The impact strength of certain 
plastics has been proved in so many applications that the 

Closure threads work smoothly when carefully designed 

statement is sometimes made indiscriminately that they are 
just as strong as metal. When this claim is taken literally 
it leads both manufacturer and consumer to grief. Whic 
brings me to the story of domes for lights on battleships 
The Navy people thought it would be a good idea to re- 
place metal domes with plastics. My company thought i 
too. We molded domes from fabric-filled phenolic mater 
having high shock-resistance. The domes were fine until tin 
big guns went off and then they cracked from the reper- 
cussion. We could have remedied the situation by increas- 
ing the wall-thickness, but this would have violated specifi- 
cations which called for minimum weight and volume. The 
Navy had to go back to metal. 

Engineering Product to Application 

What happened in both these cases constitutes an impor- 
tant moral. If the molded product is to perform satisfac- 
torily, it must meet the peculiar conditions to which it is 
subjected not some of them, but all of them under serv- 
ice conditions. This has been said a hundred times, but it is 
still too often disregarded. The manufacturer coming to the 
molder with an idea, design or project would save consider- 
able time, money and heartache if he would write out a 
complete, exhaustive list of every condition, factor and pos- 
sible contingency, no matter how remote, to which the 
product would be exposed. Unexpected changes in tempera- 
ture or pressure; cost or manufacturing time factors ; gases, 
chemicals or other plastics substances with which it is likely 
to come in contact yes, even explosions in the vicinity: 
any one of these circumstances may prevent successful 

I mentioned the significance of contact with other sub- 
stances. Take cellulose acetate as an illustration. This plas- 
tics is both esthetic and utilitarian and has shown splendid 
qualities in operation. But place a block of transparent ace- 
tate in contact with certain types of varnish or lacquers at 
high room temperature and it is liable to become cloudy 
and discolor, owing to absorption of the varnish. This may 
happen even when the varnish is dry. The moral is that 
care must be exercised, not only in the use of acetate 
fixtures in paint shops, etc., but in possible contact of the 
plastics with varnish in the home. 

In industrial processing, this factor is particularly im- 
portant. In the old type of hollow gear shift ball, the 
acetate shell invariably suffered discoloration. Investiga- 
tion showed this was due to the type of rubber compound 
used as a core. The plastics absorbed this material, leading 
to the discoloration. 

Problems of the molder arise from the properties of 
the plastics chosen ; the design of the product : the ne- 
cessity of using two or more plastics and their possible 
interaction ; molding technique, etc. For example, we 
sometimes use two kinds of cellulose acetate in a product 
Plasticizer mixed with one kind to make it harder, may 
seep into the other plastics. As a result, the former will 
show abnormal shrinkage while the latter may under;,'" 
dimensional changes. It is important to guard against this 
interaction by suitable measures, if grief i> to be avoided. 

Choosing the Correct Material 

Then there is the problem of the plastics material. Our 
company once received an order to mold phenolic handles 
for kitchen knives. We used ordinary wood flour phenolics, 
generally satisfactory for such applications. But one little 
factor was overlooked: the effect of constant washing and 
scouring of the handles in the kitchen sink. This resulted 
in warping and cracking of the plastics material annuid 
the knife shank. It was not phenolics as a class that were : 
at fault, but the particular type used. This was pn>\rd 
by the good results that followed substitution by another 
(Continued on page 308) 



MARCH 1946 

Detachable part 

New Grommet 

Stud Assembly 

Cut-away view el complete Diui assembly 

Shown above are the component 
parts and steps in the assembly 
of the Dzus spiral cam fastener, 
using the newly designed grommeL 




A newly developed Dzus grommet 
slashes installation procedure 
about 50%. This speeds up the as- 
sembly of Dzus fasteners for mass 
production operations. 

This is the way it works. Dzus 
fastener studs are placed in the 
holes drilled or punched in the ma- 
terial to be fastened. The grommet 
is then slipped over the end of the 
fastener stud and flattened with a 
single tool. All types of Dzus 
fasteners may be installed in 
this manner. 

If you have a fastening problem 
on a hinged or removable part, 
let a Dzus engineer help you. There 
is a Dzus fastener to meet every 

'The word Dzus is the registered trod* 
mark of the Dzui Fastener Co., InC 




MARCH 1946 



ester (monomer) as supplied is a pure chemical 
compound, water-clear and of syrupy liquid con- 
sistency. It has a high molecular weight with cor- 
responding low vapor pressure and high boiling 
point. The specific gravity varies from 1.26 at 10 
C. to 1.178 at 130 C. The viscosity changes from 
50,000 Centipoises at 22 C. to 12 at 126 C. The 
refractive index is 1.5483 at 28 C. It is soluble in 
ketones, esters, ethers, alcohols, and aromatic 
hydrocarbons. Per cent shrinkage on polymeriza- 
tion (from monomer at room temperatures to 
polymer at room temperature) is 3.25 to 4. It is 
stable indefinitely when stored at C. 

types of catalysts have been tested, but interest has 
centered on the organic peroxides. Of these, benzoyl 
peroxide has proven easiest to handle and most 

MOLDS: Preliminary studies indicate that both 
ferrous and non-ferrous metals may be used for 

mold construction. Molds of glass serve excep- 
tionally well but, of course, are subject to inherent 
hazards. Neither glass nor metals appear to require 
mold lubrication. Densely cast Plaster of Paris, 
with surface properly prepared, can be used. 

FINISHING: KRISTON polymer is best cut by 
sawing, preferably with a band saw. Very thin sec- 
tions (0.05 inches) are cut rapidly and without 
chipping by using the back edge of a fast-moving 
metal-cutting blade. Thick sections may be cut 
with the sawing edge of metal-cutting blade but 
slight chipping results. Where speed is more im- 
portant than the final finish, the wood-cutting blade 
may be used. Saw marks or deep scratches may be 
removed by sanding with progressively finer sand 
or emery papers. Polishing is done with jeweler's 
rouge suspended in a light oil and spread on a 
soft felt wheel. 

COLORS: While KRISTON polymer in the natural 
state is crystal clear, it may be produced in trans- 
parent, translucent, or opaque colors. Specific 
recommendations are available as required. 


l : or studies of properties, KKISIO.N monomer without coloring or extending agents was 
poljmeri/:d under controlled conditions to a uniform hardness of 40 as measured by the 
Hanoi Impnssor. \Vhere a range of \alues is shown for a property, the data indicate maxima 
and minima uhidi may he obtained In varying the degree of polymerization. 




Specific gravity 


D 792-44T 


Flammability, in./min 


D 635-41 T 


Coefficient of linear expansion 


D 696-42T 


Dielectric strength, v.p.m 


D 149-40T 

(step-by-step .017" thickness) 


Dielectric constant and loss factor at 120 C. 


D 15O-42T 







Dielectric constant 




Loss Factor 





Volume resistivity, x 10'ohm cms .... 


D 257-38 


9 x 10- 3 

a. Over the range 10' C. to ; 1 10' C. Too high to measure 

b. At 120 C. 6.8 

c. At 130 C. 6.2 

7. Refractive index, 2O/ D A.S.T.M. D 542-42 1.57 

8. Chemical resistance A.S.T.M. D 543-43 

Maximum weight change after 7-day immersion in 16 different materials ranged from 0.11% in 10% 

sodium hydroxide to -|- 0.32% in 95% ethyl alcohol. 

There was no aVmensiona/ change. (Thickness was measured.) 

There was no change in general characteristics. 

Data presentee/ herein are bated upon tests believed to be 
reliable. However, no guarantees ore expressed or implied. 

For a booklet containing more detailed technical data please write B, F. Good- 
rich Chemical Company, Department PC, Rose Building, Cleveland 1 5, Ohio. 

B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company 




MARCH 1946 

A new group of thermosetting allyl ester monomers 

having exceptional electrical/ chemical, and optical properties, 

unusually high heat and flame resistance 

The Kriston castings shown 
in this photograph were not 
intended to suggest specific 
end products, but rather to 
illustrate the variety off arms 
in which Kriston can be fab- 
ricated and to demonstrate 
its optical properties, color, 
and jewel-like finish. In the 
picture are rods, color 
plaques, balls, cast sheets 
(cigarette box), a lens, a 
rose cast in an ornamental 
paper weight, and two sam- 
ples of fabric laminations. 
All these samples were pre- 
pared in the laboratory, and 
those few pieces requiring 
final finishing were ma- 
chined and polished on 
standard equipment. 

Suggested Applications: In the optical field, Kris- 
ton's excellent clarity and high refractive index 
(higher than most optical glass) suggest uses as 
fine ground and polished lenses, prisms, reflectors, 
and refractors. Where less precision is required it 
should be possible to cast such pieces as optical 
contact lenses, camera lenses, decorative pieces for 
the home, window display stands, or any other ap- 
plication where the required beauty, transparency, 
or translucency of the end product can be obtained 
by simple casting with a minimum of finishing. 

Kriston's resistance to fats, oils, and greases as 
well as most chemicals should suggest a wide 
variety of applications in the food and chemical 

In the fields of fashion and decoration Kriston 
should find uses ranging from lamp bases, picture 
frames, and lighting fixtures to clips and other 
costume jewelry. 

Without doubt countless other applications will 
be suggested and found practical for Kriston. 

Kriston's unusual electrical properties and stabil- 
ity suggest applications such as control panels and 
knobs, rigid insulating sheets or separators, cast 
parts for switches, fuse boxes, amplifiers, and other ^ R Goodrich Chemical Company 
similar equipment. HOSE BUILDING, CLEVELAND is, OHIO 

See next page for more detailed information 


Look to Celanese plastics for important help 
in obtaining consumer approval of your prod- 
uct. They promote sales because they make 
friends. Clear through colors, surface lustre 
and pleasant "touch" are behind the personal 
appeal of these modern thermoplastics. 

Productionwise Celanese plastics offer these 

advantages . . . molding by the fastest in- 
jection and extrusion processes . . . molded 
surfaces that require little or no polishing . . . 
formulations to meet specific product applica- 
tions . . . variety of forms including molding 
materials, sheets, rods, tubes and films. 

Certainly your plans for improved products 

LUMARITH*X (special and high acetyl cellulose 

acetate thermoplastic) Molding Materials 

LUMARITH K (ethyl cellulose thermoplastics) Mold- 
ing Materials, Sheets, Films, Foils 

'Keg. U.S. Pat. Off. 

FORTICELj (cellulose propionate thermoplastic) Mold 
ing Materials, Sheets, Rods, Tubes, Films 


(wire or plastic-mesh reinforced 

acetate coated plastic glazing) in rolls 

ve these ^f 
tiling points 
your products 

Vill call for the best plastic available. There's 
Inspiration for sound design and ideas for in- 
creased sales in Celanese plastics. Consult the 
Celanese technical service staff for practical 
find impartial advice. Celanese Plastics Corpo- 
ration, a division of Celanese Corporation of 
America, 1 80 Madison Ave., New York 1 6, N. Y. 

illMARITH CA (cellulose acetate thermoplastic) Mo!d- 
ng Materials, Sheets, Rods, Tubes, Films, Foils 

CELLULOID* (cellulose nitrate thermoplastic) Sheets, 
Rods, Tubes, Films, Foils 


for the millions... 

Apparent to the knowing eye is the craftsmanship 
that identifies the work of the master painter. Columbia 
working in the modern medium of colorful plastics- likewise 
evidences that touch of genius which marks the true artist. 

Columbia plastic combs, miracles of beauty and utility, 
are but one of many masterpieces produced by Columbia 
for the millions ... by the million. 



New York uMnci Empire Stale Building Room 7013 

tor Better 

n, review of some of the recent 

ievelopments in apparatus and 

equipment designed especially 

(or the improvement of plastics 

processing, fabricating, testing 

THE year 1945 saw American production reach an all- 
time peak. In the plastics field, particularly in the first 
6-8 months of the year, new products and applications for 
military and other war-time uses were designed and created 
with the speed engendered by necessity. With energies 
:oncentrated on such production, industrial designers and 
manufacturers nevertheless managed to look ahead to post- 
war demands, although it was not then possible to proceed 
along some of the lines which they envisioned, because of 
he importance of war requirements. 

Machinery designers and manufacturers gave all possible 
bought to the improvements of existing machinery for 
plastics and as quickly as they could, brought out new and 
time-saving items and units. 

Among new or radically improved machines for use 
within the plastics industry, a number of those developed 
luring 1945 are listed and described below : 

Coating Machines 

A series of new type plastics coating machines have been 
designed by Youngstown Miller Co., Sandusky, Ohio. 
Th^se machines may be used to melt ethyl" cellulose and 
other compounds for strip coatings as well as low tempera- 
ture plastics for permanent coatings. Twenty-two different 
models with a wide range of dipping compartment sizes 
and melting capacity are available. 

Plast-O-Dip Model 3 (Aeroil Burner Co., West New 
York, N. J. ) is a double-boiler type of hot dip tank designed 
:o meet the needs of firms having small parts, tools, etc., 
.vhich they want to protect by plastics protective coverings. 
Rigid control of temperature, built-in dial thermometer, and 
extra-heavy insulation are chief features of this tank. 
The Haas Laminator (Transparent Protection Co., New- 

Top-notch machinery like this radial drill means greater 
efficiency, increased economy, higher quality of product 

ark, N. J.) will soon be available to permit individual com- 
panies to laminate on their own premises. This portable 
machine automatically applies transparent cellulose acetate 
by heat and pressure to any paper stock from tissue thin 
material to cardboard. It uses either the pressure sealing 
or heat sealing type of film, and can cover one or both sides 
of the paper stock at a time. The heating element is 
thermostatically controlled. The machine is available in 
two sizes one which will take material up to 24" wide and 
the other 12". Speed ranges from 5 ft to 15 fpm. 

A new treating and drying apparatus has been designed 
and built by J. O. Ross Engineering Corp., New York, for 
handling laminated glass cloth using synthetic resins. This 
system provides features for controlling air circulation in 
temperatures necessary properly to produce glass cloth 
laminates and similar products. Uniformity in drying is 
accomplished by means of tempered high velocity air in 
sufficient volume to assure proper distribution of lifted 

Machine Toofs 

BUFFERS: The Standard Electrical Tool Co., Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has developed a new line of buffing and polishing 
machines, suitable for the finishing of plastics items. These 
machines vary from one to 15 hp and from a weight of 255 
Ib to 2425 Ib. A "speedial" control permits almost instan- 
taneous speed changes from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Other 
features include push button starters and taper arbors. 

GRINDERS : Two all-purpose disc grinders, for heavy and 
regular duty, are available through Kindt-Collins Co., 
Cleveland, O. These grinders are designed for any type 
of metal, wood or plastics material. Disc speed is 800 rpm, 
giving a 6260 fpm rim speed. Principal features include a 

MARCH 1946 



Frequent and significant improvement in molding 
presses of all types is the rule rather than the exception 

30" disc ; hydraulic controls for raising, lowering or tilting 
the table; an accurate position stop, which can stop the 
table in any position from 45 down to 15 up; a ventilated 
table with efficient dust guards; and a design which per- 
mits removing or replacing paper or cloth discs without re- 
moving the steel disc. 

A versatile 24" disc grinder has also been developed by 
the Kindt-Collins Co., and will soon be available for dis- 
tribution. This machine is adaptable to all kinds of grind- 
ing on plastics, metal and wood. Special features include 
a heavy ribbed table, which tilts 45 down and 25 up; 
and a grinding disc on which both faces can be used. 

A Hydraulic Feed Universal Tool and Cutter Grinder 
has been developed by Gallmeyer & Livingston Co., Grand 
Rapids, Mich., with special emphasis for use in the plastics 
industry. Two models of these grinders are available with 
table speeds ranging from 4" to 5(X a minute. The ma- 
chine is equipped with a greased-for-life precision cart- 
ridge-type ball-bearing spindle and a four-speed motor 
drive headstock and provides for work speeds of 80, 160, 
260, and 525 rpm. 

LATHES : A light-duty speed lathe designed for economi- 
cal general finishing operations on small plastics and metal 
parts has been developed by the Schauer Machine Co., 
Cincinnati. The motor is single speed, 3450 rpm, J4 hp for 
220-440v, 60-cycle, 3-phase, and the motor is designed to 
use type 3C collet with maximum capacity for YI" round 
stock; it can also be equipped with 3", three-jaw light-duty 

Specially designed for use where exceptionally high 
speed and short cycle machining are required, the Le Blond 
13" Motor Head Rapid Production Lathe (R. K. LeBlond 
Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati) picks up full speed in two 
seconds, stops in 2j^ sec, according to its description. 
Among other features listed are : new type motor head ; 
rigid construction, enabling operator to bring speed up to 
3600 rpm and stop the spindle five times per minute; and 
full control of machine maintained by operator at all times, 
from push-button control station mounted at top of ma- 

MILLING MACHINES: Two new models of the W. H. 
Nichols double-spindle melting machines, capable of me- 
dium duty work on plastics or metals have been announced, 
with these features: spindles of heavy alloy mounted in 
permanent ball bearings; spindle nose hardened and ground ; 
work table of special wear-resistant alloy, operated either 

by screw or rack and pinion, and fitted with graduate 
stops; all slides pressure-gun lubricated: and quickly re 
movable coolant tank in base. 

Ovens and Heating Devices 

A standard box-type oven for high-speed evaporat 
and drying of alcohol, napthas, methyl-ethyl-ketone, 
other highly volatile solvents is offered by Industrial Ov 
Engineering Co., Cleveland. These oven may also be easil; 
converted for other types of drying, finishing, heat treat 
ing or heat processing where materials can be handled i: 
trays, jigs or baskets. Door sizes range from 3' by 3' : 
5' by 6' and temperature range is 150 to 900 F, \vitl 
tolerance of 2. Although direct gas fired, this 
has been proved safe in the evaporation of large volumes 
inflammable and explosive materials and has insurance < 
pany approval. 

A new type of oven for preheating thermosetting pla 
has been announced by Maico Co., Minneapolis. In 
oven, the plastics material is tumbled during the heatin; 
process, bringing it to a much higher temperature tha- 
would otherwise be possible. The oven is thermostaticall 
controlled with electric heaters, and the preheated materij 
is emptied directly into the molds. 

An easily portable, compactly designed megathurm, des i 
ignated as MD-1A, with nominal output of 1 k\v, for high 
frequency heating of a wide range of dielectric material! 
has recently been developed by Industrial Electronics Divi 
sion of Federal Telephone & Radio Corp., manufacture . 
associate of International Telephone & Telegraph Co. Thi ; 
machine is described as ideally suited for preheating o | 
plastics preforms. Uniform through-heating of preform 
is said to be accomplished with great saving of time, an || 
production of molded parts considerably increased by i 
this unit. 

A thermatron dielectric heater, the Radio Receptor 
Heatmaster, is applicable for plastics, dehydration, sterili: 
tion and other purposes. Generating more power than 
other unit of its size, it is stated, the Thermatron He 
master is described as a compact model, particularly 
signed for heavy-duty preheating in the plastics mold 
industry wherever floor space is at a premium. This he 
is said to be capable of heating a 3.3 Ib preform in 1 
or a 5 Ib preform in 90 sec and to possess capacity mal 
it suitable for rugged general purpose production, as 
as research requirements involving substantial power. 

A shelf-loading oven with a self-contained heating sys ] 
tern has been developed by Gehnrich Oven Div., W. 
Rockwell Co., N. Y., to meet baking or drying operatic 
where quick removal of volatiles produced by heating 
work is required. This oven is made with four doors 
easy access to any section, and is said to offer safe, unifo 
baking, drying or curing. Temperatures range from 100 
1000 F. 

Announced as a new type of mill applicable to the 
integrative treatment of all types of fluid mixtures, 
Asbury Fluid Impactor (Asbury Corp., Doylestown, 
is said to make possible higher temperature homogenizatio 
featuring a specially designed rotor to produce impact upo 
a liquid through centrifugal force. The rotor, of stninles 
steel, has a speed of 3600 rpm to 15,000 rpm, variable t( 
meet individual conditions; motor is one to 7% hp on ac Ov 
dc; the machine is 22*4" high, occupies floor space 17j^ 
by 36", and has a net weight of 400 Ib. Other features ir 
elude: concise action of discharge outlet; novej design :m 
arrangement for temperature control; balanced unit ensil ( 
replaceable; circulating oil pumps with sight gravity feti/: 
and air seal incorporated into unit. 

Designed to fill a number of uses in the industrial am 
research laboratory as well as in industry, a "constant ten: 
perature and plastics melting tank" is soon to be introduce: 



MARCH 194i 






SPECIFICITY, precise adjustment to one specific 
application, is the distinguishing characteristic 
of Interlake Resins. 

THEY are made not to do several jobs but to do one job 
icell and to keep on doing it uniformly! 

They are called specification resins because Interlake, in each 
case, functionally engineers one resin to the specific require- 
ments and conditions of your application tests it on your job, 
in your plant then stabilizes its production for continuous 
uniformity in performance. 

That is why important industrial users come to Interlake 
when contemplating new resin applications or when a pres- 
ently used resin is not fully meeting the functional and pro- 
duction requirements of a particular job. 

The largest, the smallest and the most intricate 
pieces ever molded have been molded of Makalot 
Thermosetting Compounds. 

WHATEVER properties have been required of molded 
materials and, in not a few instances, properties 
desired but never previously thought possible have been ob- 
tained by molders using Makalot Compounds. 

Interlake has low loss Makalot Compounds for high fre- 
quency applications, non-cracking for molding around inserts, 
non-shrinking, heat resistant, general purpose, super-impact, 
X-ray or sweat resistant, or with brilliant surface lustre and 
every one of these compounds has been proved in successful 
use by some of the country's foremost molders. 

There is a Makalot Compound for every molding job. 

I'll o it M<: >| ...CALL Off 





MARCH 1946 


Interlakc will supply a Speci- 
fication Resin or a Makalot 
Compound exactly suited to 
your application. Write Inter- 
lake Chemical Corporation, 
Plastics Division, 1935 Union 
Commerce Building, Cleve- 
land 14, Ohio. 


The phenomenal development of injection molding in the 
U. S. owes a great deal to the machinery manufacturers 

to the market, according to announcement from its makers, 
Laboratory Specialties, Inc., Wabash, Ind. It is an 11 gal. 
welded steel tank surrounded by Transite insulating ma- 
terial and provided with immersion type heating elements 
of 2000 w. capacity, an electric stirrer, cooling coils, and 
temperature controls, and maintains temperature to any 
specified degree, between the temperature of the cooling 
liquid and 400 F. 

The Mighty Midget (K. H. Huppert Co., Chicago) is 
described by its makers as representing a "revolutionary 
departure from accepted laboratory and small unit produc- 
tion furnace standards." Only 8>4" by 10J4" by 8 l / 2 " 
in outside dimensions, the Midget is designed to maintain 
any desired temperature from 200 F to 1750 F. All-steel 
construction, multi-insulation, special high temperature al- 
loy elements, indicator light, and indicating pyrometer are 
among the features listed for this item. 

Large capacity, compactness and ready portability are 
among the many advantages offered by the new model 88X0 
Red Head Thermex (Girdler Corp., Louisville) high fre- 
quency dielectric heating unit. This machine has an output 
of 5 kw delivered at approximately 20 megacycles and will 
raise the temperature of 4 Ib of average purpose material 
170 F in one minute. Control is completely automatic 
and it is claimed that, because this unit rapidly and uni- 
formly preheats preforms, it shortens molding cycles by as 
much as 300%, enhances product quality and prolongs the 
life of both the press and the mold. 

X875 Thermex (The Girdler Corp., Louisville) was de- 
signed especially as a production unit for the plastics mold- 
ing industry. Weighing only 250 Ib and 15" by 23" by 29" 
in size, it has an output of 400 watts. 


A press which operates as a conventional injection, com- 
pression or transfer molding machine or as a combination 
of all three has been announced by the Improved Paper 
Machinery Corp., Nashua, N. H. The versatility of this 
machine is obtained through the use of a vertical clamping 
unit in combination with a horizontal injection unit. Con- 
tained in the vertical unit -is a compression ram which op- 
erates up through, but independently of, the stationary die 
platen. With this combination, results are obtained, it is 
said, that are far beyond the scope of conventional ma- 
chines. Advantages include : faster, improved techniques 
for molding large castings of heavy cross-sections ; savings 
in finishing costs; improved quality of molding; closer tol- 

erances; elimination of shrinkage and voids on heavy sec 
tions; injection molding of large projected areas; am . 
flexibility of molding design. 

A series of semi-automatic compression and tr:r 
molding presses ranging from 50 to 1200 tons \vc 
veloped during 1945 by Watson-Stillman, Roselle, X. I 
These presses are equipped with T-slotted platens, top anr 
bottom mechanical ejectors, double-acting ram, electrica 
automatic single cycle control incorporating timer for set- 
ting pressure dwell period, and with built-in power unit 
The presses are powered by motors ranging from 3 to 25 
hp and exerting operating pressure of from 2200 to 2? 1 

Important improvements, based on more than seven year- 
experience, are reported by the F. ]. Stokes Co., I'liila 
delphia, as being incorporated in its latest No. 200 D com- 
pletely automatic molding machine. Among these improve- 
ments is a new type checking device, sensitive to the frac- 
tion of a gram, which weighs the finished moldings an>: 
operates a safety cut-off to stop the machine in the 
that all molded pieces do not eject into and pass through 
the trap. Should a piece stick in the mold or a molding 
be of insufficient weight, it is explained, the machine \vi : 
stop and signal for attention, thus practically eliminating 
possible damage to the mold or to the machine from double 
filling or other failure in operation and helping to a<sim- 
high quality moldings. 

A newly designed combination compression and tra 
molding press has been announced by French Oil Mill Ma- 
chinery Co., Piqua, O. Among its many features are: hy 
draulic pumping equipment built into the bed of the ma- 
chine; quickly changeable timing intervals and el: 
from one type of molding to another; and a fully automatic 
cycle controller. 

Defiance Machine Works, Inc., Defiance, O.. has 
signed a new transfer molding press which is said to pe 
highly accurate production, with reasonable cost, reduction 
of waste material, and few rejections of finished products. 
Maximum working pressure of 300 psi exerts a mold clamp- 
ing pressure of 170 tons through main ram, dia. 12"; a 
42-ton transfer pressure (at 3000 psi) is exerted through 
the transfer cylinder, diameter 6". Maximum mold width 
18", length 26"; minimum working space between platens 
15", which can be increased in 2" increments up to 
platen stroke 15"; minimum mold height with upper platen 
in highest adjustment 13j^"; in lowest adjustment 

A series of completely automatic self-contained npwa 
acting electronic compression molding presses recently 
veloped by Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Co., M 
Gilead, Ohio, is available in sizes ranging from 50 to 31 
tons. Among the advantages listed for these presse 
the unique design in which the hydraulic power unit ii 
mounted integral with the press, thus saving floor space: 
automatic lubrication ; permanent metal packings ; a mini- 
mum of piping; and independent pressure control. 

Quick, accurate, low-cost extrusion of thermoplastics in 
any design are possible through the Pelco B-103, according 
to its manufacturer, Midwest Production Machine Co., 
Columbus, O. This laboratory-type extruding machine i 
all electric and completely self contained, presenting no in- 
stallation problems, since it can be operated on any suitable 
work table or bench and connects to standard electrical 
current outlets. Heat range is up to 600 F, thenimM.-in- 
cally controlled. The machine has a variable speed drive, 
weighs 200 Ib, and its base size is 21" by 25". 

Five new injection molding presses have recently been 
announced by Reed-Prentice, Worcester, Mass. The 
models 10D (6 and 8 oz), 10A (4 oz), 10E (12 oz), 10F 
(16 oz) and 10H (22 oz). Among the many t'eatu 
these machines are: a new double shear link mechanisM 
which increases rigidity and reduces maintenance ; a one- 
piece welded steel base; hydraulic piping and valves; new 

)laten | 



MARCH 1946 

Originators Creators 


Hopewell, Virginia, U. S. A. 

MARCH 1946 


type guards, easily removed for maintenance; electric tim- 
ing clocks, mounted in dust tight boxes ; transparent plastics 
windows for safety doors; and plug-in connections. 

A 1 to 2-oz injection molding machine has been designed 
by Sav-Way Industries, Detroit, for experimental, educa- 
tional and production use. Some of the features of this 
Pacemaker machine are : capacity of 20 tons ; mold casting 
area of 4 sq in; stroke Ilj4"; lower platen 10" by 10"; cur- 
rent 220 v, 3-phase; heating elements 1000 w; line pressure 
to 2000 psi ; large capacity hopper with convenient man- 
ual quantity control ; and independent switches for heating 
elements and hydraulic system. 

Designed to offer a low-cost, economical injection mold- 
ing machine for testing small plastics molds and single 
cavities, thus eliminating the "tying up" of large produc- 
tion machines for this purpose, the Midget M older (Van 
Dorn Iron Works, Cleveland, Ohio) can also be used to 
good advantage in smaller plants. Hand operated, this ma- 
chine will shoot up to 54 oz of thermoplastic material, and 
its design permits adjustment of the plunger stroke and easy 
installation of different lengths of heaters for experimental 
purposes. Features include : a clear platen area 8" by 8" ; 
built-in heater controls; and a toggle mechanism for quick 
opening and closing and rigid clamping of the mold. 

Hydraulic Press Manufacturing Co., Mt. Gilead. Ohio, 
has designed a new injection molding press, model 350-H- 
16. This machine has a hopper capacity of 100 Ib, a plas- 
ticizing capacity of 100 Ib per hour, and exerts an injec- 
tion pressure of up to 20,000 psi. Its overall size is 185" 
by 50" and it is 91" in height. A hydraulic mold clamp 
provides positive sealing of mold, rapid die change-over 
and automatic slow-down. A newly designel plastics heat- 
ing chamber, equipped with electric band heater, makes for 
ample plasticizing capacity, with accurate zone heat con- 
trol. Each pump valve and control in the machine has been 
designed especially for heavy duty molding service. 

A newly designed injection molding press has been an- 
nounced by Hy-Speed Press Co., Chicago. This unit molds 
up to 2 Ib of material, is automatic in cycle and is fed by 
an automatic feeder. It will cast to an area of 60 sq in and 
has up to 400 tons holding pressure and 8 times greater in 
the injection ram. Special units can be designed to take 
care of larger areas and up to 4 Ib in volume. Floor space 
required is 36" by 60" and the weight is 5 tons. The cab- 
inet is so designed as to make all compartments easily 
accessible for adjustments and cleaning, and the machine is 

Included in the newest developments are improved presses 
and ovens for the fast-growing laminating industry 

equipped with lights to enable the operator to see whe 
the mold remains clean after each cycle. 

A 50-ton self-contained platen press for the molding t 
plastics products was announced recently by R. D. Wtx I 
Co., Philadelphia. It may be operated at any required pre , 
sure from 200 psi to 1000 psi, with corresponding tonnaj 
variations of 10 to 50 tons through adjustment of pre i 
sure control hand wheel. Pressure is supplied by a duple 
rotary piston pump driven by a 3 hp 1200 rpm motor, puru 
having a low pressure capacity of 34 gpm at 150 psi ar 
high pressure capacity of 3.68 gpm at 1000 psi. Rai j 
diameter is 11 ^2"; bolster sizes 20" by 6". The press, 8 : 
in height, occupies floor space of 4' 10" by 3' 
weighs 7500 Ib. 

The same company has announced a new steam pla 
press designed for laminating, curing and polishing pla 
sheets to uniform thickness and surface finish. This 
opening 2700-ton press has a quick loading and unlo 
mechanism, which permits moving material in and out 
press without in any way contacting the polished pla 
surface, thus eliminating scratching or scoring of the hig 
finished platens. The press may be furnished as a coir I 
pletely self-contained unit and in capacities up to 7500 tort 
with steam or electric heated platens as required. 

A punch press which works equally well on plastics, meta j 
cloth, wood and rubber materials has been produced b 
the Maxant Button & Supply Co., Chicago. Among its fea 
tures are an open face construction which permits quic ) 
change of dies, a quickly adjustable ram for distance o 
stroke, and ready adjustability of strokes per minute. It ha I 
a throat height of 10", depth 4"; distance of bed to slid I 
7J4"; bed area 9" by 8"; stroke 2^". 

A line of positive self-contained hydraulic presses adapt 
able to all sizes and types of shops, has recently been an 
nounced by Munton Mfg. Co., Franklin Park, 111. Thes | 
presses are available with self-contained motor drive fo 
production work, and in capacities ranging from 4j4 to 2 
tons. Among their features are : ruggedness of construe 
tion, with heavy reinforcement where needed; gap-typi j 
design to facilitate work clearance, and finely engineered 
rams, which are interchangeable on the various presses 
permitting variety of speeds at high or low pressures. 

A fully automatic, high speed forming press, described a - 
being capable of drawing plastics containers at great sav 
ings in time and labor is being produced by F. L. Smithi 
Co., N. Y., under license from Celanese. The press is par 
ticularly good at forming Celluloid and Lumarith plastic 
parts, but will perform equally well on all thermoplastii 

Although originally designed for laminated plastics 
the Francis steam plate press (Chas. E. Francis Co., Hi; 
ington, Ind.) is suitable for a wide variety of plastics 
It is said to be particularly useful in the manufacture 
plastics playing cards or similar items. It has a mo 
driven pump unit, automatic pressure and temperature 
trols, and is equipped with 11 steam plates. 

The Preco Hydraulic Laminating Mid Laboratory Pr 
(Preco, Inc., Los Angeles) is designed for almost all sti 
scale pressure tests or operations. Standing only 27} 
high and weighing 200 Ib this press can be used to mold " 
plastics, wood, paper, powdered metallurgy, synthetic rub- < 
her ; to laminate plastics, resin impregnated wood, paper 
and fiber glass ; for compression tests, glueing tests, extru- 
sion tests; for separating liquids and solids, embossing, 
coating electrical elements and many other uses. The pres- 
sure gauec is accurately calibrated in platen pressure fronj; 
to 40,000 Ib. 

A special spring construction in the Terkclsen Electro- 
Draulic Press (Terkelsen Machine Co., Boston) permits' 
pressure to be changed from a few hundred pounds to 5(^ 
(Continued on page 303) 



MARCH 1948< 


MOSINEE is one of the "proved-in- 
service" materials emphasizing great 
technological strides in product en- 
gineering. MOSINEE is "marching 
home again" with a creditable "serv- 
ice record" in fields of duty that 
formerly were unexplored. 

The "paperologists" of The Mills of 
Mosinee are fortified by broad expe- 
rience, plus the finest of laboratory 
and production facilities. Coopera- 
tion of Mosinee engineers with manu- 
facturers in many lines has resulted 
in improving product -quality, ex- 
panding product-utility, lowering 
production costs . . . thus helping to 
open new opportunities, new markets. 

A conference with Mosinee "paper- 
ologists" might disclose similar op- 
portunities for you. Mosinee is ready. 




Please address 

your letter 
"Attention Deft. E" 

(MARCH 1946 


OR P. 






MARCH 1946 

i ' . -5 .5 

i -** fl) -*- 

O * .S ', 

SOON . . . A New and B/gge 



fo Serve CMPC's Customers! 

CM PC now takes another great step forward. This time it's a new, expanded Thermo- 
plastics Division, housed in its own modern building for maximum efficiency, and staffed 
throughout by CMPC's seasoned personnel. Steps already completed, or under way, 

The purchase of a modern building 2OO feet long. Immediately adjoining our main plant on 
the north. 

The construction of a new section to join the two plants. 

The Installation of new, up-to-the-minute Infection molding machines ranging up to twenty- 
two ounces . . . enabling us to triple our former production of Injection molded parts. 

These new facilities will be in full operation this summer. But they are only the 
beginning . . . the first step in a million dollar expansion program to make 
CMPC's outstanding facilities for compression and injection molding available 
to more industrial users of plastics than ever before. So if you are planning to 
use molded plastics in the future, we invite you to take advantage of these 
expanded facilities, backed by CM PC engineering skill. Just call in a CM PC 
Development Engineer. There's no obligation. 




1O31 N. Kolmar Ave. 6* .\ Chicago 51, Illinois 





MARCH 1946 



Adhesives 86 

Calendering 86 

Casting Resins 86 

Chemicals 86 

Coaters 98 

Exporters 1 OO 

Fabricators 1OO 

Heat Sealing 1 02 

Impregnating 1 02 

Laminating, Impregnating, Coating Materials 1 02 

Laminators 1 02 

Machinery, Equipment 1 04 

Molders 1 24 

Plastics Materials 1 32 

Plywood Facing 132 

Plywood Molding 1 32 

Plywood, Resin Bonded 1 32 

Scrap Dealers .132 

Special Services 1 32 

Tooling Materials 1 4O 

Comparative Guide to Physical Properties 







Tables of Properties 







Buyers Guide to Plastics Products 212 

Directory of Names and Addresses 221 

plastics Annual Directory 

On this and following pages, plastics publishes its Annual Directory. This first part of the directory 
is an index to the manufacturers who supply the plastics parts and products, and the materials, equip- 
ment and supplies used in their manufacture. Also additional classifications are listed here, which to- 
gether with the others combine to form the entire plastics industry and its associated industries. The 
names and addresses of all the firms listed here will be found beginning on page 221. 

Every effort has been made to insure accuracy of listings, based on data supplied by manufacturers. 


Adhesive Products Corp. (N.Y.) 
Alkydol Laboratories. Inc. (111.) 
American Cyanamid Co. (N.Y.) 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

Corp. (New York) 
American Products Mfg. Co. (La.) 
American Resinous Chemicals Corp. 

Bakelite Corporation (N.Y.) 
Beutex Corp. (N.J.) 
Bury, Robert & Co.. Ltd. 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

Cardinal Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Casein Company of America ( X. 1 !". 1 
Chemical Plastics, Inc. (Minn.; 
Chicago Show Printing Co. (III.) 
Chrysler Corp. (Mich.) 
Cofax Corp., The (N.Y.) 
Cordo Chemical Corp. (Conn.) 
Darling & Company (111.) 
Dewey & Almy Chemical Co. (Mass.) 
Dominion Rubber Co., Ltd. 

(Quebec, Canada) 
Durez Plastics & Chemicals, Inc. 

(New York) 

Durite Plastics, Inc. (Pa.) 
Findley, F. G. Co. (Wis.) 
Furane Plastics & Chemicals Co. 


General Cement Mfg. Co. (III.) 
General Mills, Inc. (Minn.) 
Goodrich, B. F. Co. (Ohio) 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. (Ohio) 
Great American Color Co. (Calif.) 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 
Hrrihert, Herbert I. (N.Y.) 
Hull Iron & Steel Foundries, Ltd. 

(Quebec, Canada) 
Interlake Chemical Corp. (Ohio) 
Interlake Fibre Board Ltd. 

(Quebec, Canada) 

Laucks, Laboratories, Inc. (Wash.) 
Lifetime Plastic Inc. (Colo.) 
Lithgow, James Co. (Calif.) 
Marblette Corp., (N.Y.) 
Marl>on Corp. (Ind. ) 
Maskite Adhesive Co. (Calif.) 
Meredith, Simmons & Co., Ltd. 

(Ontario. Canada) 
Miracle Adhesives Corp. (N.J.) 
Mystik Adhesive Products (111.) 
National Adhesives (\.Y.) 
Naugatuck Chemical Div. (N.Y.) 
Paisley Products, Inc. (111.) 
Pennsylvania Coal Products Com- 
pany (Pennsylvania) 
Pennsylvania Industrial Chemical 

Corp. (Pennsylvania) 
Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co. (Pa.) 
Perkins Glue Co. of Canada Ltd. 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Pierce & Stevens. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Plaskon Div., Libbey-Owens-Ford 

Glass Co. (Ohio) 
Plastex Adhesive Products, Inc 

(New York) 

Plastic Dye & Color Co. (Md.) 
Plastite Adhesive Cement Co. (Ill ) 
Rt-ichhold Chemicals, Inc. (Mich ) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co. 


Schwartz Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Shawinigan Products Corp. (N.Y.) 
Sylvan Plastics, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Synthetic Resins Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Synvar Corporation (Del.) 
Testworth Laboratories, Inc. (111.) 
Texon Industrial Corp. (N.Y.) 
Union Bay State Co. (Mats.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 

(New York) 

United States Plywood Corp. (N.Y ) 
Varcum Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 


Bprtman Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Fireitone Industrial Products Co. 


Goodrich, B. F. Co. (Ohio) 
Rcspro, Inc. (R.I.) 


Adhere, Incorporated (Calif.) 
Art Plastic Company (N.Y.) 
Baker Oil Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Bischoff, Ernst Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Duorite Plastic Industries (Calif.) 
Durez Plastics & Chemicals, Inc. 

(New York) 

Marblette Corporation (N.Y.) 
Poly Resins (Calif.) 
Pyroxylin Products, Inc. (111.) 
Rezolin Company, The (Calif.) 
Tennessee Eastman Corp. (Tenn.) 



Aldehyde ammonia 
Niacet Chemicals Division (N.Y.) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
du Pont. E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemical Dept. (Del.) 
Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Witco Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Potassium hydroxide 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 

Sodium hydroxide 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 

Advance Solvents & Chemical Corp. 

( Illinois) 

Fisher Scientific Co. (Pa.) 
Interlake Chemical Corp. (Ohio) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Pennsylvania Coal Prod. Co. (Pa.) 
Synvar Corporation (Del.) 

BASIC (for producing 


Cities Service Oil Co. (Okla.) 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Niacet Chemicals Div. (X.Y.) 

Acetic Acid 

Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Shawinigan Products Corp. (N.Y.) 

Acetic anhydride 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Ciba Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y. i 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Maxim Chemical Co.. Inc. (N'.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp 

(New York) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrocheraicals Dept. (Del.) 
Lotte Chemical Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. 

Everett Div. (Mass.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 


City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 

Adlpic acid 

City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Ammonia Dept. (Del.) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 


Alkanol pyridine 
Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (111.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Allyl alcohol 
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 

Aluminum stearate 
Bendix Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 

Aluminum sulfate 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Azeloic acid 
Emery Industries, Inc. (Ohio) 


Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J). 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Heyden Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
National Aniline Division 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
N.Y. Quinine & Chemical Works, 

Inc. (New York) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
American Cyanamid Company 

Calco Chemical Division (N.J.) 
Arnold, Hoffman & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Barrett Division, The 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Koppers Company (Pa.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (III.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Neville Company, The (Pa.) 
N.Y. Quinine & Chem. Works (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Incorporated (N.J.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Benzole acid 

Heyden Chemical Corp. (III.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 
St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 


Barrett Division, The (N.Y.) 
Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Dow Chemical Company, The (Mich.) 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Hall, C. P. Company. The (Ohio) 

Butyl acetate 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
U.S. Industrial Chemicals (N.Y.) 

Butyric acid 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
( '.-u hiclr and ('arliou ( 'In i 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Butyric anhydride 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Calcium acetate 

<Mti-ia] ( 'h<'Miiral Company <\.Y.) 

Calcium carbide 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Pacific Carbide & Alloys Co. (Calif.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Shawinigan Products Corp. (N.Y.) 



Carbon dioxide 

Mathieson Alkali Works, Inc. (N.'i 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

Everett Div. (Mass.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 
St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 

Carbon monoxide 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Casein Company of America (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Castor oil 
(see Ricinoleic acid ) 

Pennsylvania Coal Prod. Co. (Pa.) I 

Caustic soda 

Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co. (Pa.) 
Stauffer Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 


Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Procter & Gamble Co., The (Ohio) 
Southern Chem. Cotton Co. (Tenn.) 

Cellulose acetate 
Hercules Powder Co., Inc. (Del.) 

Cellulose acetate flake 
Flock Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Mecum, Clarke W. (N.Y.) 

Cellulose acetate (high acetyl) 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 
Cellulose nitrate 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 
Cellulose triacetate 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 
\1atliicson Alkali Works, Inc. (N.Y 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
Niagara Alkali Company (N.Y.) 
Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co. (Pa.) 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Pa.) 
Solvay Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Stauffer Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. ' 
(New York) 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 

Cotton flock 

(see Chemicals -Fillers) 

Cotton linters 
(see Cellulose) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
Citv Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Neville Company, The (Pa.) 

Coumarone- 1 ndene 

Neville Co., The (Pa.) 

American Cyanamid Co., Calco 
< 'lirmira] Division (N.J.) 

Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corporation (N.Y.) 

Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 

Koppers Company, The (Pa.)' 

Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 

Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 
Louis Div. (Mo.) 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 
Cresylic acid 

Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corporation (N.Y.) 

Kopprrs Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Oronite Chemical Company (Calif.) 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 

MARCH 1946 




We extrude them in flat or paneled strips or in novelty 
designs, in all widths up to 4". Extruded tubes up to 1" 
diameter. Seven colors as well as clear. 

Ask for samples. See for yourself the superior finish 
we impart to these Ions-wearing, economical materials 
that have such a wide variety of uses. 





MARCH 1946 



DMJIUJ uvilli 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Niacet Chemicals Division (N.Y.) 

Crotonic acid 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Shawinigan Products Corp. (N.Y.) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Koppers Company, Inc. (Pa.) 


City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Organic Chemical Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co. The (Ohio) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (fa.) 

Ethyl cellulose 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 

Ethyl chloride 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Company, The (Mich.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Electrochemical Dept. (Del.) 
Merck & Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 
Ethyl sulphate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 
(New York) 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 

(New York) 

Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 
(New York) 

Ethylene chlorhydrin 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 

Ethylene glycol 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

Dow Chemical Co. The (Mich.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Ammonia Dept. (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 
(New York) 

Ethylene oxide 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical 

Corp. (New York) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (III.) 
Cities Service Oil Co. (Okla.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc.. Electrochemical? Dept. (Del.) 
Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Kay Fries Chemicals. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Fumaric acid 
Pfizer, Chas. & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Furfuryl alcohol 
Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Procter & Gamble Co.. The (Ohio) 


Armour and Company (111.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Darling & Company (111.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Grasselli Chemicals Depart- 
ment (Del.) 

Emery Industries, Inc. (Ohio) 
Harshaw Chemical Company, The 


Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N. J.) 
N. Y. Quinine & Chemical Works 

(New York) 

Philipp Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Procter & Gamble Co. The (Ohio) 
Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. (Mich ) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Hydrochloric acid 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Ciba Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Grasselli Chemicals Depart- 
ment (Del.) 


General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Mo.) 
Niagara Alkali Company (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Rohm & Haas Company (Pa.) 
Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 
Stauffer Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Hydrofluoric acid 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Quaker Oats Company (111.) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Isobutyric acid 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Ammonia Dept. (Del.) 

Lauroyl chloride 
Emulsol Corporation, The (111.) 

Linoleic acid 

Armour and Company (111.) 
Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hummel Chemical Co., The (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Maleic acid 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

National Aniline Division, Allied 
Chemical & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 

Maleic anhydride 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 
Louis Div. (Mo.) 


American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 
(New York) 

Methyl alcohol 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Ammonia Dept. (Del.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
N. Y. Quinine & Chemical Works 

(New York) 

Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 
Methylene chloride 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 

Methylene disallcylic acid 
Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 

Methyl methacrylate monomer 
American Resinous Chemicals Corp. 

Edwal Laboratories, Inc., The (111.) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Velsicol Corp. (111.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (New York) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Koppers Company, Inc. (Pa.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Mo.) 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 
Velsicol Corp. (111.) 

Nitric acid 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

American Cyanamid Company, Calco 

Chemical Division (N.J.) 
Baker, T. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
National Anilene Division Allied 
Chemical & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 


General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 

Linde Air Products Co., The (N.Y.) 

Oleyl chloride 
Emulsol Corporation, The (111.) 

Oxalic acid 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Linde Air Products Co., The (N.Y.) 

Para ethylphenol 
Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 

du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 


Niacet Chemicals Division (N.Y.) 
Oronite Chemical Co. (Calif.) 

Pelargonic acid 
Emery Industries, Inc. (Ohio) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Heyden Chemical Corp. (111.) 

Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 
Koppers Company, Inc. (Pa.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Mo.) 

Oronite Chemical Company (Calif.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 
Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 

Phthalic anhydride 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Mo.) 
Oronite Chemical Co. (Calif.) 

Phthalyl chloride 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 
Louis Div. (Mo.) 

Polyvinyl formal 
Shawinigan Products Co. (N.Y.) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 

Rennet casein 
National Casein Sales (111.) 

Pennsylvania Coal Prod. Co. (Pa.) 

Ricinoleic acid 

Amecco Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Baker Castor Oil Co.. The (N.Y.) 
Beacon Company, The (Mass.) 
Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 

(New York) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 

Salicylic acid 
Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 

Sebacic acid 

Amecco Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co. 

Silicon tetrachloride 
Stauffer Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Sodium bi-sulfate 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Sodium cyanide 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Philipp Brothers, Inc. '(N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Sodium hydroxide 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Niagara Alkali Company (N.Y.) 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Pa.) 
Solvay Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 
(New York) 

Stearoyl chloride 
Emulsol Corporation, The (III.) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (New York) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Missouri) 
Newport Industries, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Sulfunc acid 

General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Stauffer Chemical Co. 


I wllhllllvMkt| VMlJIWJ UVIIIl 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co 

(New York) 

Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 
Louis Div. (Missouri) 

Titanium tetrachloride 
Stauffer Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corporation (N.Y.) 

Edwal Laboratories, Inc., The (111 > 

Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 


American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 
1 (New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.T.) 
City Chemical Company (N.Y!) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Vinyl acetate 

Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y ) 

Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 

Wood chips 
Connor Lumber & Land Co. (Wis.) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chem- 
ical & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Koppers Co., Inc., Tar & Chemical 

Div. (Pennsylvania) 
Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 

American Resinous Chemicals Corp. 

Connecticut Hard Rubber Company 


Darling & Company (111.) 
Emulsol Corporation, The (111.) 
Heyden Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Koppers Co., Inc., Tar & Chemical 

Div. (Pennsylvania) 
Procter & Gamble Co., The (Ohio) 


Colasta Company, Inc., The (N.Y.) 

Alkydol Laboratories, Inc. (111.) 

Alkylurea derivative 
Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Aluminum stearate 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (X.Y.) 

Aniline formaldehyde 
Ciba Products Corporation (N.J.) 

Allied Asphalt & Mineral Corp. 

(New York) 
Barrett Division, The 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical. Corporation (N.Y.) 
Hall, C. P. Company, The (Ohio) 
Hercules Power Company (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Barber Asphalt Corporation (N.J.) 

Barium stearate 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Black Iron oxide 
Oppenheimer, Alan D., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Calcium stearate 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Castor oil 

Arnold, Hoffman & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Baker Castor Oil Co.. The (N.Y.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Maxim Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Coal tar pitch 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Barrett Division, The 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Koppers Company, Inc. (PaO 
Los Angeles Chemical Co. (Calif.) 
Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Ind.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 

Corn & soy products 
Staley, A. E. Mfg. Co. (111.) 

Barrett Division, The (N.Y.) 

Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation 

Ami-? ii'.'in ( 'v:m;tmifl tV Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 

MARCH 1946 

Agricultural Equipme 

Religious Articles 

Fishing Tackle 



X-Ray Equipment 

Kitchen Utensil Parts 







_ fcf the 

thousands of plastic products 
which are being produced 
by Michigan Molded. If you 

want it made of plastic, 
bring it to Michigan Molded. 
Complete engineering 
and production facilities 
for all types of plastics. 

an Blind Parts 



Measuring Cups and 

Surgical Instrument 

Flashlight Cases and 

Electrical Applianc 

Razor Handles and 

Automotive Hardw 
and Parts 

Fire Extinguishing 



Television and 
Telephone Parts 


Filing Cabinet 




MARCH 1946 



Ester gum 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y). 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. (Mich.) 

Furyl alcohol 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 

Allied Asphalt & Mineral Corporation 

(New Jersey) 

Barber Asphalt Corporation (N.J. ) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Kraft Chemical Company (III.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Glycerol esters 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Emulsol Corporation. The (111.) 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Stresen-Reuter, Fred'k A., Inc. (111.) 

Glycerol phthalate 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Stresen-Reuter, Fred'k A., Inc. (111.) 

Hardwood pitch 
Allied Asphalt & Mineral Corp. (N.J.) 

Barrett Division, The 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Neville Company, The (Pa.) 

Carbola Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Maleic anhydride 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 
Barrett Division, The 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (III.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

Everett Div. (Mass.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
National Aniline Div. 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 


Concord Mica Corporation (N.H.) 
Mineralite Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 


Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J). 
N.Y. Quinine & Chem. Works (N.Y.) 
Xiacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 
Phenol formaldehyde 
Alkydol Laboratories, Inc. (III.) 
Colasta Company, Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (III.) 
Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 

Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 


City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 


Burnet Company. The (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y). 
Harshaw Chemical Company (Ohio) 
Kraft Chemical Company (III.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Allied Asphalt & Mineral Corp. 

(New Jersey) 

Chemical Plastics, Inc. (Minn.) 
Dispersions Process, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Dow Corning Corporation (Mich.) 
Furane Plastics & Chemicals Co. 


Garfield Manufacturing Co. (N.J.) 
Interlake Chemical Corp. (Ohio) 
Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Paisley Products, Inc. (111.) 
Polyplastex (N.Y:) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 


Acetyl benzoyl peroxide 
Lucidol Corporation (N.Y.) 
Aluminum chloride 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 
Barrett Division 

Allied Chem. & Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
Colonial Chemical Co. (N.J.) 


du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Ammonia Dept. (Del.) 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (NJ.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Missouri) 
Solvay Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Benzol peroxide 
Lucidol Corporation (N.Y.) 
Boron trlfluorlde 
Harshaw Chemical Company (Ohio) 

Carbon black 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Binney & Smith Co. (N.Y.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Hall, C. P. Company (Ohio) 
Harshaw Chemical Company (Ohio) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Philipp Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Chromic acid 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (NJ.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.j.) 
N.Y. Quinine & Chemical Works 

(New York) 

Cupric oxide 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Harshaw Chemical Company, The 


Cuprous chloride 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (NJ.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (NJ.) 
Ferric chloride 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co (N.J.) 
Ciba Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Dow Chemical Company, The (Mich.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (NJ.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Missouri) 
Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 

Hydrogen peroxide 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Baker. J. T. Chemical Co. (NJ.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont. E. I. de Xemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 


Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (NJ.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Company, The (Mich.) 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (NJ.) 
Iron powder 
Plastic Metals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Lauroyl peroxide 
Lucidol Corporation (N.Y.) 


American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Bendix Chemical Corporation (Pa.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co.. The (Ohio) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Lead acetate 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

American Firstoline Co. (N.Y.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Bendix Chemical Corp. (Pa.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Grasseli Chem. Dept. (Del.) 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 


City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Grasseli Chem. Dept. (Del.) 
General Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Hall, C. P. Company, The (Ohio) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Phillips 4 Jacobs (Pa.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Prod. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Mangenese acetate 
Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 

Mercury sulfate 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.j.) 
N.Y. Quinine & Chem. Works (X.Y.) 
Pfizer, Chas. & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 


City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (X.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Nitric acid 
American Cyanamid Company 

Calco Chemical Division (NJ.) 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Atlas Powder Company (Del.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Bendix Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Grasselli Chem. Dept. (Del.) 
Griffin Chemical Company (Calif.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Lotte Chemical Company, Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

Everett Div. (Mass.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
N.Y. Quinine & Chem. Works (N.Y.) 
Philipp Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Rohm & Haas Company (Pa.) 
Stauffer Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Perbenzoic acid 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (XJ.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Dow Chemical Company, The (Mich.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Company, Inc. (N.J). 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Union Bay State Chem. Co. (Mass.) 

Phosphoric acid 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y). 
Darling & Company (111.) 
du Pont. E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc.. Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Crasselli Chem. Dept. (Del.) 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (III.) 
Lotte Chemical Company, Inc. (NJ.) 
Mallinckn>.|t Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Maxim Chemical Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
N.Y. Quinine & Chem. Works (N.Y.) 
Philinn Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Victor Chemical Works (III.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.)_ 

Phosphorus oxychloride 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 

Phosphorus trichloride 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 


Baker. J. T. Chemical Co. (Pa.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont. E. T. dc Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (Del.) 
Fairmount Chemical Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 
Merck & Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillip & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Potassium hydroxide 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New \ork) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.T.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.I 
Colonial Chemical Company (N.J.) 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Dow Chemical Co.. The (Mich.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Niagara Alkali Comnany (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Solvay Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 

(New York) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York i 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Arnold, Hoffman & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N J.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 


du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co.. 

Inc., Electrochemicals Hep; 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & " 

Inc., Grasselli Chem. Dcpt. ( 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (C 
N. Y. Quinine & Chemical ' 

(New York) 

Philipp Brothers, Inc. (X.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Sodium hydroxide 
American Cyanamid & Chem: 

( .New York) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (XJ.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. i 
City Chemical Corporation (N 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Dow Cnemical Co., The (Mich.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Pa.) 

Sodium peroxide 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. (DelJ 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (H 
Merck & Co., Inc. (X.J.) 

Sodium stearate 
American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) '] 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) J 
Harshaw Chemical CD., The (Ohio) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (MoB 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (ra.) 

Stannic chloride 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (lllj 

Sulfuric acid 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 

(New York) 

Chemical Manufacturing Co. i 
City Chemical Corporation (X.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Missouri) 
Philipp Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 
U. S. Rubber ( onipany t,.\.\.) 

Tertiary butyl hydroperoxide 
I'nion Bay State Company (V 

Tertiary butyl perbenzoate 
Union Bay State Company (Mass.) 

Toluene sulfonic acid 
City Chemical Corporation (X.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company 

St. Louis Div. (Missouri I 


City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.)(| 
Rohm & Haas Company (I 'a.) 

Vanadium pentoxlde 
City Chemical Corporation (X.Y.) 
Fairmont Chemical Co.. Inc. (X.J.) 

Zinc chloride 
American Cyanamid & Chemi 

(New York) 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
Chemical MaimtacturinK Co. 
City Chemical Corporation (X.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. <it- Xemours & Co., 

Inc., Electrochemicals Dept. 
du Pont, K. I. dc Xemnurs \- Co., 

Inc., Grasselli Chem. Dept. (Dm 
Hummel Chemical Co.. Inc. (X.Y.) 
Philipp Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Rohm & Haas Company (Pa.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Advance Solvents & Chemical Corp. 


Fisher Scientific Co. (Pa.) 
Hooker Electrochemical (X.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 


Dispersions Process, Inc. (N 
Goodrich, B. F. Chemical 

Procter & Gamble Co., The << 
Select run ic I) is i HTM (IMS, ! tic. ' 


Activated Silica 
Wilson Carbon Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Alumina hydrate 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 
(New York) 

Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 


Burnct Company, The (N.Y.) 
Carey, Philip Mfp. Co., The (Ofcfl 
Kraft Chemical Company (III.) 

Asbestos fibre 
Powhatan Mining Co. (Md.) 
Vermont Asbestos Mines (N.Y.) 

Barium hydroxide 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 

Black iron oxide 
Oppenheimer, Alan D.. Inc. (N.Y.) 

Blanc fixe 

Westva.-.i Chi.., m. Pi. ,.ln. l, 
Calcium carbonate 
hiaiiioml Alkali Company (Pa.) 
/( ,nil. ,ni pii. 9i) 

MARCH 1946 

awt m {jytfa&Ueb 

Iras ass saD3ss@ @!as>sia'5ra8s. 

assasai). Dra 



Write for names of Licensees 



The new Lester is designed to make injection molding a faster, 
simpler, more economical process. Whether you are a commercial 
molder or a manufacturer operating your own molding department, 
you will profit from the new and exclusive features which have 
been engineered into this superb machine. Leading molders of the 
United States have been testing these new Lester designs for months, 
and have pronounced them distinctly superior to those of previously 
built equipment. Why not get full information on the new Lester 
so that you, too, may know its advantages? 


Distributed by LESTER-PHOENIX, INC. 



Chopped Fabric 
lock Manufacturing Co (N.Y.) 

'agner, Charles A. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Cocoanut shells 
irotta, Bernard Co. (N'.Y.) 
Cocoanut shell flour 
irotta, Bernard Co. (N.Y.) 

Cord, tire 
tipper Products Company (Pa.) 

Cotton flock 
amberger, A. (N.Y.) 
eeker, Moore & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
urnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
anvas Specialty Co. (Conn.) 
laremqnt Waste Mfg. Co. (N.H.) 
nmposition Materials Co., Inc. 
(New York) 

lock Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
all Line Corporation (N.Y.) 
ercules Powder Company (Del.) 
^.raft Chemical Company (111.) 
lecum, Clarke W. (N.Y.) 
"ippenheimer, Alan D., Inc. (N.Y.) 
ayon Processing Co. of R.I. (R.I.) 

Diatomaceous earth 
merican Cyanamid & Chemical Co. 
(New York) 

urnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
In inical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
ity Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
licalite Company, The (Calif.) 
larshaw Chemical Co., The (Ohio) 
ohns-Manville Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Vitco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Diatomaceous silica 
)icalite Company, The (N.Y.) 


lipper Products Company (Pa.) 
.xi'tcr Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
lecum, Clarke W. (N.Y.) 
Glass (Fiberglas) 
wens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (O/) 

Ground nut shells 
Composition Materials Co., Inc. 

(New York) 
)wens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (O.) 

Hard clay 
tandard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Hardwood Pitch 
:iiffs Dow Chemical Co. (Mich.) 

Iron Powder 

lastic Metals Div. of National 
Radiator Co. (Pa.) 

Leather flock 

Composition Materials Co., Inc. 
(New York) 

Macerated fabric 
'Upper Products Company (Pa.) 
M.-i-Min. Clarke W. (N.Y.) 
(ayon Processing Co. of R. I. (R.I.) 

Magnesium silicate (Talc) 
Loomis, W. H. Talc Corp. (N.Y.) 

Metallic decorative 
Rayon Processing Co. of R. I. (R.I.) 

Metallic soaps 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (O.) 


Jurnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
"oncord Mica Corporation (N.H.) 
iraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Mineralite Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Nickel Powder 

Plastics Metals Div. of National 
Radiator Co. (Pa.) 

Nut shells 
Sirotta, Bernard Co. (N.Y.) 

Nut shell flour 
Sirotta, Bernard Co. (N.Y.) 

Organic fibre 

Composition Materials Co., Inc 
(New York) 

(see Laminating Materials, p. 102) 

Potato starch 

Paisley Products, Inc. (111.) 
Powdered charcoal 
Cliffs Dow Chemical Co. (Mich.) 

Rayon flock 

Claremont Waste Mfg. Co. (N.H.) 
Rayon Processing Co. of R. I. (R.I.) 


Montreal Sawdust & Woodflour 
(Quebec, Canada) 

Sllene (Calcium silicate) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 


Plastics Metal Div. of National 
Radiator Co. (Pennsylvania) 

Sisal shredded 
Oppenheimer, Alan D., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Soft clay 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Stearine pitch 

Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 
(New York) 

MARCH 1946 



Carbola Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Loomis, W. H. Talc Corp. (N.Y.) , 
Wagner, Charles A. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Talc and limestone 
Carbola Chemical Co., Inc. _ (N.Y.) 

Tapioca-potato dextrine 
Paisley Products, Inc. (111.) 

Hall Line Corporation (N.Y.) 

Walnut shell flour 
Agicide Laboratories, Inc. (Wis.) 

Wood flour 

Becker, Moore & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Composition Materials Co., Inc. 

(New York) 
Connor Lumber & Land Co., The 


Kraft Chemical Company (111.) 
Lignum Chemical Works, The (N.Y.) 
Montreal Sawdust & Woodflour 

(Quebec, Canada) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Wagner, Charles A. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Wood Flour, Inc. (N.H.) 

Wool flock 

Claremont Waste Mfg. Co. (N.H.) 
Hall, C. P. Company (Ohio) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. .(Pa.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Landers-Segal Color Co. (N.Y.) 
Marathon Corp. (Wis.) 


Acrawax C. 

Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Aluminum stearate 
Mctasap Chemical Co., Inc. (N.J.I 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Barium stearate 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Blandol white mineral oil 
Sonneborn, L. Sons, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Butyl stearate 

Hoffman, Arnold & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 

Calcium stearate 
Metasap Chemical Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Metallic soaps 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (O.) 

Metallic stearates 
Warwick Chemical Co. (R.I.) 

Mineralite Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 

Oleic Acid 
Darling & Co. (111.) 

Sonneborn, L. Sons, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Stearic Acid 
Darling & Co. (111.) 

Stearine Pitch 

Allied Asphalt & Mineral Corpora- 
tion (New Jersey) 

Advance Solvents & Cehmical Corp. 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals 

(New York) 

Concord Mica Corporation (N.H.) 
Dow Corning Corporation (Mich.) 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Hall. C. P. Company (Ohio) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Metasap Chemical Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. 

Louis Div. (Missouri) 
Polyplastex (N.Y.) 
Protective Coatings, Inc. (Mich.) 
Procter & Gamble Co., The (Ohio) 
Warwick Chemical Companv (R.I.) 


Wilson Carbon Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Black iron oxide 
Oppenheimer, Alan D., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Cadmium Lithopones 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (O.) 

Cadmium Sulfides 
Harshaw Chemical Co., The (O.) 

Carbon Black 
Binney & Smith Co. (N.Y.) 
Carbon Dispersions, Inc. (N.J.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Uhlich, Paul & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
United Carbon Co., Inc. (Va.) 

Color Pigments 
Ansbacher Siegle Corp. (N.Y.) 
Uhlich, Paul & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Oxides of Iron 
Binney & Smith Co. (N.Y.) 

Red iron oxide 
Wagner, Charles A. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Wagner. Charles A. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 



Acromark Company, The (N.J.) 
American Cyanamid Company, Calco 

Chemical Division (N.J.) 
Ansbacher Siegle Corp. (N.Y.) 
Binney & Smith Co. (N.Y.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Cardinal Chemical Company (N.Y.) 
Ciba Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Concord Mica Corporation (N.H.) 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Fine Colors Company, Inc. (N.J.) 
General Dyestuff Corp. (N.YJ 
Great American Color Co. (Calif.) 
Harshaw Chemical Company (Ohio) 
Krieger Color & Chem. Co. (Calif.) 
Landers-Segal Color Co. (N.Y.) 
Mearl Corporation, The (N.Y.) 
National Aniline Division (N.Y.) 
New Jersey Zinc Sales Co., The 

(New York) 
Plastex Adhesive Products, Inc. 

(New York) 

Plastic Color Products (N.J.) 
Plastic Dye & Color Co. (Md.) 
Plastic Products Co. (Ohio) 
Schwartz Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Uhlich, Paul & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Wilmington Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Wilson Carbon Company (N.Y.) 
Zinsser & Company, Inc. (N.Y.) 


American Cyanamid Co., Calco 

Chemical Div. (N.J.) 
American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.) 
American Luminous Pro. Co. (Calif.) 
American Resinous Chemicals Corp. 

Bach, Leo (N.Y.) 
General Luminescent Corp. (111.) 
Ivano, Incorporated (Mass.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Mearl Corporation, The (N.Y.) 
New Jersey Zinc Company (N.Y.) 
Rhode Island Lab., Inc. (R.I.) 
Warwick Chemical Co. (R.I.) 


Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 


Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc., Electrochemical s Dept. (Del.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company, 

St. Louis Div. (Mo.) 
N. Y. Quinine & Chemical Works 

(New York) 
Sherwin-Williams Co., Inc. (Ohio) 

Acetyl triethyl citrate 
Pfizer, Chas. & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Alkylaryl Phosphate 
Celanese Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Evans Chemetics, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Aluminum stearate 
Metasap Chemical Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Amyl esters 

Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Pfizer. Chas. & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Amyl phthalate 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
U. S. Industrial Chem., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Barium stearate 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Merck & Co, Inc. (N.J.) 
American-British Chemical Supplies, 

Inc. (New York) 
Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Benzyl alcohol 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Butoxy ethyl stearate 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 

Butyl benzyl sebacate 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Butyl "cellosolve" phthalate 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 

Butyl "cellosolve" esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Butyl "cellosolve" stearate 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Butyl esters 
Kessler Chemical Co, Inc. (Pa.) 

Butyl laurate 

Hoffman, Arnold & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Butyl myristate 
Hoffman, Arnold & Co.. Inc. (R.I.) 



Butyl oleate 

Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Hoffman, Arnold & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
National Oil Products Co. (N.J.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Butyl palmitate 

Hoffman, Arnold & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Butyl phthalate 

American Cyanamid & Chem. (N.Y.) 
Barrett Division, The (N.Y.) 
Carbide and Carbon Chem. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Company (111.) . 
Sherwin-Williams Co., The (Ohio) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 

Butyl phthalyl Butyl glycolate 
Monsanto Chemical Company (Mo.) 
St. Louis Div. 

Butyl roleate 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Butyl sebacate 
Amecco Chemical. Inc. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 
Resinous Products & Chemicals Co. 

Butyl stearate 

Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Hoffman, Arnold & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 
National Oil Products Co. (N.J.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Calcium stearate 
Beacon Company, The (Mass.) 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chem. Works (Mo.) 
Metasap Chemical Co., Inc. (N J.) 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 

Capryl alcohol 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Carbitol esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 


Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 
(New Jersey) 

"Cellosolve" esters 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
"Cellosolve" monoricinoleate 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.J.) 

Chlorinated diphenyl 
Monsanto Chemical Company (Mo.) 
St. Louis Div. 

Chlorinated naphthalene 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Chlorinated paraffin 
Amecco Chemicals. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 

Chlorpropane (liquid) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co., (N.Y.) 

Chlorpropane (wax) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co.. (N.Y.) 

Cresol derivative 
Koppers Company, Inc. (Pa.) 

Cresylic acid 

Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Koppers Company, Inc. (Pa.) 
Philipp Brothers, Inc. (N.Y.) 


Barrett Division, The (N.Y.) 
Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc. (Del.) Ammonia Department 
Hooker Electrochemical Co., (N.Y.) 
Rohm & Haas Company (Pa.) 

Cyclohexyl esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Cyclohexyl levulinate 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Cyclohexyl stearate 
Barrett Division, The (N.Y.), 
Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 
Beacon Company, The (Mass.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Glyco Products Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Diamyl naphthalene 
Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Diamyl phthalate 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 
Diabenzyl sebacate 
Resinous Products & Chem. Co. (Pa.) 

Diallyl phthalate 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 

Dibenzl sebacate 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Dibutoxy ethyl phthalate 
Covel Mfg. Co. (Michigan) 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 

Dibutoxy ethyl sebacate 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 


Dibutyl "cellosolve" sebacate 
Hoffman, Arnold & Co., Inc. (R.I.) 

Dibutyl phthalate 
American-British Chemical Supplies, 

Inc. (New York) 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 
Barrett Division, The (N.Y.) 

Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 
Burnet Company, The (N.Y.) 
Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 
Kay Fries Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 

St. Louis Div. 
Neville Co., The (Pa.) 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

(New York) 

Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 
Sherwin-Williams Co.. The (Ohio) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (NJ.) 
Dibutyl sebacate 
Commercial Solvents Corporation 

(New York) 

Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co. 

Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Dibutyl tartrate 
Kessler Chemical Company, Inc. 

Dicapryl phthalate 
Hardesty Chemical Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co. 

Di-carbitol phthalate 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (NJ.) 

Diethoxy ethyl phthalate 
Stoney-Mueller. Inc. (NJ.) 
Diethyl adipate 
Eastman Kodak Co. (N.Y.) 
Diethyl phthalate 
American-British Chemical Supplies. 

Inc. (New York) 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 
Kay Fries Chemicals. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 

St. Louis Div. 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

(New York) 

Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (NJ.) 
Diethyl succinate 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Diethylene glycol 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Diethylene glycol dilactate 
Glyco Products Company. Inc. 
(New York) 

Diethylene glycol esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Diethylene glycol mono laurate 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Dimethoxy ethyl phthalate 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (NJ.) 

Dimethyl glycol phthalate 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 

Dimethyl phthalate 
American-British Chemical Supplies, 

Inc. (New York) 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

(New York) 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals 

(New York) 

Hercules Powder Co. (Del.) 
Kay Fries Chemicals. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 

St. Louis Div. 
Pennsylvania Alcohol 4 Chemical 

(New York) 

Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (NJ.) 
Dioctyl phthalate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals 

(New York) 

Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. (Mich.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (NJ.) 
Dioctyl tebacate 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Di-(ortho xenyl) mono-phenyl 


Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 
Di-phenyl mon-(orthoxenyl 


Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 
St. Louis Div. 

Di polymer oil 
Standard Chemical Company 

Dipropylene glycol etteri 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 



Esters of fatty acids 
Emery Industries, Inc. (Ohio) 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Ethyl esters 

Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Ethyl phthalyl ethyl glycolate 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 
St. Louis Div. 

Ethylene glycol esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 


Alkydol Laboratories. Inc. (111.) 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (NJ.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Furfural alcohol 
Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 


Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Gloria white mineral oil 
Sonneborn, L. Sons, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Procter & Gamble Co., The (Ohio) 

Glycerol esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Glycerol ricinoleate 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Stresen-Reuter, Fred'k A., Inc. (111.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Hydroxy stearic acid 
Evans Chemetics. Inc. (N.Y.) 

Isobutyl esters 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Isopropyl esters 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Isopropyl laurate 
Emulsol Corporation, The (111.) 

Isopropyl palmitate 
Emulsol Corporation, The (111.) 
Kaydal white mineral oil 
Sonneborn, L. Sons, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Lactic acid 
Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (NJ.) 

Levulinic acid 

Staley, A. E. Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Magnesium stearate 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 

Malelc acid 
Evans Chemetics Inc. (N.Y.) 

Hercules Powder Co.. Inc. (Del.) 

Metallic soaps 

Harshaw Chemical Co.. The (O.) 
Methoxy ethyl acetyl ricinoleate 
Ohio-Apex. Inc. (W.Va.) 
Stoney-Mueller. Inc. (N.J.) 

Methoxy ethyl oleate 
Stoney-Mueller. Inc. (N.J.) 

Methyl acetyl ricinoleate 
Baker Castor Oil Co.. The (N.Y.) 

Methyl benzoyl benzoate 
American Cyanamid & Chem. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 

Methyl "cellosolve" esters 
Eastman Kodak Company (N.Y.) 
Glyco Products Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Ohio-Apex. Inc. (W.Va.) 

Methyl cyclohexanol 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Methyl d!chlor stearate 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Methyl esters 

Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Methyl pentachlor stearate 
Hooker Electro-hemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Methvl "cellosolve" phthalate 
Stoney Mueller. Inc. (NJ.) 

Methyl "cellosolve" stearate 
Hoffman. Arnold & Co.. Inc. (R.T.) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Methyl oleate 
Standard Chemiral Co. (Ohio) 

Methyl phthalyl ethyl glycolate 
Monsanto Chemical Company (Mo.) 
St. Louis Div. 

Methyl stearate 
National Oil Products Co. (N.J.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Octyl esters 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Oleic acid 

Amecco Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Armour and Company (111.) 
Baker Castor Oil Co., The (N.Y.) 
Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 
(New York) 

[UrffcM., HLASTICIZEKSj Cont, 

City Chemical Corporation (N.Y.) 
Darling & Company (111.) 
Emery Industries, Inc. (Ohio) 
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (NJ.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Woburn Chemical Corp. (NJ.) 
o and p toluene ethyl sulfonamide 
Monsanto Chemical Company (Mo.) 
St. Louis D|v. 

o and p toluene sulfonamide 
Monsanto Chemical Company (Mo.) 
St. Louis Div. 

Pentachlor phenyl benzoate 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Pentaerythritol esters 
Hercules Powder Company (Del.) 

Phthalic anhydride 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

Corp. (N.Y.) 

Baker, J. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Barrett Division. Allied Chemical & 

Dye Corp. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrorlt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co.. Inc. (NJ.) 
Monsanto Chemical Company (Mo.) 

St. Louis Div. 
National Aniline Division (N.Y.) 

Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 
Reichhold Chemicals. Inc. (Mich.) 

Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 


Standard -Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Polyamyl naphthalene 
Sharpies Chemicals. Inc. (Pa.) 
Polyethylene glycol esters 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Polyvinyl acetate 

du Pont. E. I. de Nemours & Co., 
Inc. (Del.). Electrochemicals Dept. 
Shawinigan Products Co. (N.Y) 

Propylene glycol 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Propylene glycol esters 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 

Sorbitol e'ters 
Glyco Products Co. (N.Y.) 

Stearic acid 

Amecco Chemi-als. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Armour and Co. (III.) 
Baker Castor Oil Co.. The (N.Y.) 
Century Stearic Acid Candle Works 

(New York) 

City Chemiral Corn. (N.Y.) 
Darling & Co. (III.) 
Emery Industries. Inc. (Ohio) 
Hummel Chemical Co., The (N.Y.) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Witco Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Woburn Chemical Co. (N.J.) 

Succinic acid 
Merck & Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 
National Aniline Division (N.Y.), 
Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 

Succinic anhydride 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
National Aniline Division (N.Y.), 
Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 

Sucrose octa acetate 
Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 

Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol 
Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Tetrahydrofurfuryl oleate 
Glyco Products Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Glyco Products Co., In<- "N.Y.) 


Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Hercules Powder Co. (Del). 
Kay Fries Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kessler Chemical Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Tributoxy ethyl phosphate 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 
Tributyl Citrate 
Pfizer, Chas. & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Tricresyl phosphate 
Celanese Plastics Corp. (N.Y.) 
Chemical Mfg. Co. (N.Y.j 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 

St. Louis Div. 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

(New York) 

Stoney-Mueller Inc. (N.J.) 
Triethanolamine laurate (ester) 
Emulsol Corporation, The (111.) 

Triethyl citrate 
Pfizer, Chas. & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 



Triglycol dioctoate 
Carbide & Carbon Chemical Corn 

(New York) 

Trioctyl phosphate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corn 

(New York) 
Westvaco Chlorine Prod. Corp. 

(New York) 
Tri- (para tertbutylphenyl 

Dow Chemical Co., The (Mich.) 

Triphenyl phosphate 
Kay Fries Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co. (Mo.) 

St. Louis Div. 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 
rrixylyl phosphate 
Celanese Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) J 

Undecyl esters 
Kessler Chemical Co., Inc. (Pa.) 1 

Zinc stearate 

American Firstoline Corp. (N.Y.)H 
Beacon Co., The (Mass.) 
Bendix Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Metasap Chemical Co., Inc. (NJ.) 
Plymouth Organic Labs., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Advance Solvents & Chemical (N.Y.) 
Amecco Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Baker Castor Oil Co. (N.Y.) 
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals (N.Y.) 
Century Stearic Acid Candle Work* 

(New York) 

Connecticut Hard Rubber Co. (Conn.) 
Emery Industries, Inc. (Ohio) 
Emulsol Corp., The (111.) 
Hall, C. P. Co., The (Ohio) 
Halowax Products Div. (N.Y.) 

Union Carbide and Carbon Corp. 
Harsyd Chemicals Inc. (Mich.) 
Hooker Electrochemical (N.Y.) 
Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Kessler Chemicals Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Naugatuk Chemical Div. (Conn.) 
Neville Co.. The (Pa.) 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Pa.) 
Procter & Gamble Co., The (Ohio) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co. 


Schwartz Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 
Standard Alcohol Co. (N.Y.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Wilmington Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Woburn Chemical Co. (N.J.) 

CALS (for laboratories, 
pilot plants) 

Edwal Laboratories. Inc.. The (III.) 
Fine Organics. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (Mo.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 


Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 

Acetic Acid 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 


Burnet Co., The (N.Y.) 
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

Chemical Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Shell Chemical Division (Cal.) 
Standard Alcohol Co. (N.Y.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Stoney-Muller. Inc. (NJ.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals (N.Y.) I 

Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 


City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

Corp. (New York) 
Stoney-Mueller Inc. (N.J.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Amy) acetate 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

(New York) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Amyl, butyl, ethyl propionates 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 
(New York) 

Aromatic petrol 
Velsicol Corp. (III.) 


Barrett Division, The, Allied Chemi- 
cal & Dye Corp. (New York)_ 
Koppers Co., Inc., Tar & Chemical 
Div. (Pennsylvania) 

(Cont. on fff. 98 > 

MARCH 1946 

from warehouse stocks of 
small or large production 


Available in a complete line of standard wall and heavy wall thicknesse 
from 3/16" O.D. up to and including 2 O.D. 

Available in standard Hexagonal, Round and Knurled in large range of 
sizes. Carried in stock in H-3 flow as this is most suitable for machining. 

Suitable for use with rigid and flexible wall-covering materials. Wall- 
board shapes and Table Edgings and Nosings are carried in stock for 
immediate delivery. 

Polystyrene rod available for delivery from warehouse stocks in sizes 
from 1/4" O.D. up to and including 4" O.D. 

Polystyrene sheets for immediate delivery from warehouse stocks in 
sheets 24" x 24" 1/16", 1/8", 3/16", 1/4" thick, and 20" x 20" 
3/8", 1/2", 3/4", 1" thick. 

Carried in stock for immediate delivery in sizes from 3/16" O.D. up to 
and including 2" O.D. 

We carry complete stocks of SARAN pipe in sizes from 1/2" to 4" O.D. 
and SARAN tubing from 1/8" to 3/4". Also complete stocks of fittings. 

* DEC. U. 5. PAT. OFF. 


532-540 WEST 22nd ST. 

NEW YORK 11, N. Y. 

WATKINS 9-7042 

Special shapes and 
sizes of tubing in a wide 
range of co/ors can be made 
to order in production quan- 
tifies. Write for comp/efe 
stock fists and prices. 


Modern iron handle designs call for com- 
plex side cores and undercut sections and are 
therefore produced at minimum costs and 
with maximum production rates by Transfer 

Because the mold is closed when the 
already plastic compound enters, the fin is 
reduced to a minimum and the parting line 
becomes a line without dimension. In fact, 
alert designers peak the parting line, mak- 
ing a design feature of this molding effect 
and thus eliminating buffing and polishing. 

Actually, several of the advantages of 
Transfer molding are called into play by pro- 
duction of iron handles: lower costs, faster 
and longer production runs, more beauty, 
easier complexity, uniform strength. 

Your nearby licensed Transfer molder can 
help you take advantage of this process, or 
you can learn more by writing for the litera- 
ture mentioned below. 





A list of nearby licensees who can offer you the 
advantages of the patented Transfer molding process. 

Two bulletins on "Why Transfer Molding is Econom- 
ical". Bulletins on "Why Transfer Molding Gives Fine 
Inserts", "Why Transfer Molding Improves Appear- 
ance", "Why Transfer Molding Permits Better Holes", 
"Why Transfer Molding Permits Variable Walls", 
"Why Transfer Molding Gives Uniform Strength", and 
"Why Transfer Molding Gives Longer Runs". 

Unbiased counsel in plastics applications is available 
from Shaw and Plax Corporation, Hartford 5, Conn. 
Between them, these companies use nearly all plastic 
processes. For names of nearby licensed Transfer 
molders and for literature listed above . . . write Shaw. 



MARCH 19' 

LCflDinG 50URC6 


Also Vinyls, Cerex, Styraloy, and Plexene in various forms. Extrusion 
blown containers and shapes available in many of these materials. 

Exclusive Plax developments have included the 
tough and flexible Polyflex* Sheet and Polyflex 
Fiber forms of polystyrene. Continuous research 
work, and a ready understanding of all application 
problems, make "PLAX FOR PLASTICS" more 
than a slogan. It should prompt you to ask today 
for scientific help. Write Plax Corporation, 133 
Walnut St., Hartford 5, Conn. 

'Trade Mark Reg. U. 5. Pat. Office 

ARCH 1946 




Benzyl alcohol 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Hall, C. P. Co., The (Ohio) 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 

Butyl acetate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals (N.Y.) 

Butyl alcohol 

Stoney-Mueller Inc. (N.J.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 
(New York) 

Butyl "carbitol" 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Butyl "cellosolve" 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Butyl phthalate 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 
(New York) 

Butyric acid 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Capryl alcohol 

Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co. 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Carbon bisulphide 
American Cyanamid & Chemical Corp. 

Baker, T. T. Chemical Co. (N.J.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Prod. Corp. 
(New York) 

Carbon tetrachloride 
Diamond Alkali Company (Pa.) 
Dow Chemical Company (Mich.) 
Hall, C. P. Company. The (Ohio) 
Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co., (Pa.) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 
(New York) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Chlorinated solvent 
Amecco Chemicals, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Chlorpropane (liquid) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 


Barrett Division, The Allied Chemical 
& Dye Corp. (New York) 


Barrett Division, The, Allied Chemi- 
cal & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 


Barrett Division, The, Allied Chemi- 
cal 4 Dye Corp. (New York) 

Denatured alcohol 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

Corp. (New York) 
Stoney-Mueller. Inc. (N.J.) 


Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 
Shell Chemical Division (Cal.) 

Diacetone alcohol 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Diethylene glycol 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Standard Alcohol Co. (N.Y.) 

Diitobutyl Itetone 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Enamel wire naphtha 
Barrett Division, The (N.Y.) 
Allied Chemical & Dye Corp. 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Ethyl acetate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 

Corp. (New York) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.Y.) 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 
(New York) 



Ethyl alcohol 

U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc 
(New York) 

Ethyl ether 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Ethyl lactate 
American Cyanamid & Chemical 

Corp. (New York) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 

Ethyl phthalate 
U. S. Industrial Chemicals, Inc. 
(New York) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Ethylene dibromide 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 
(New York-) 

Ethylene dichlorlde 
Chemical Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Hall. C. P. Co., The (Ohio) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp. 
(New York) 

Ethylene glycol 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Furfural alcohol 
Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Fusel oil 

Pennsylvania Alconol & Chemical 
(New York) 

Glacial acetic acid 
Niacet Chemicals Division (N.Y.) 

Merck & Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 

Hall, C. P. Co., The (Ohio) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Hall, C. P. Co., The (Ohio) 

Standard Alcohol Co. (N.Y.) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 


Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Isoprophyl acetate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 

Isopropyl alcohol 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 
Shell Chemical Division (Calif.) 
Stoney-Mueller, Inc. (N.J.) 
Standard Alcohol Co. (N.Y.) 

Isopropyl chloride 
Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Isopropyl ether 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Mesityl oxide 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 

Colonial Chemical Company (N.J.) 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 
du Pont, E. I. de Nemours & Co., 

Inc. Electrochemical Dept. (Del.) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Stoney-Mueller. Inc. (N.J.) 
Methyl acetate 

Niacet Chemicals Div. (N.Y.) 
Stoney-Mueller. Inc. (N.J.) 

Methyl acetone 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Phillips & Jacobs (Pa.) 

Methyl alcohol 
Chemical Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 

Methyl "cellosolve" 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Methyl ethyl Icetone 
City Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 
Shell Chemical Division (Calif.) 
Standard Alcohol Co. (N.Y.) 
Standard Chemical Co. (Ohio) 
Methyl hexyl Icetone 
Hardesty Chemical Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Co., 
The (Pennsylvania) 

Methyl Isobutyl carbinol 
Shell Chemical Division (Calif.) 

Methyl Isobutyl Icetone 
Shell Chemical Division (Calif.) 


Methylene chloride 
Chemical Manufacturing (N.Y.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Nitro paraffins 
Commercial Solvents Corp. (N.Y.) 

Normal butyl acetate 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 
Corp. (New York) 

Normal butyl alcohol 
Pennsylvania Alcohol & Chemical 
Corp. (New York) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Sharpies Chemicals, Inc. (Pa.) 

Westvaco Chlorine Products Corp, 

(New York) 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Polyethylene glycol 
Hall, C. P. Company, The (Ohio) 

Quaker Oats Co., The (111.) 

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol 
Quaker Oats Company (111.) 


Barrett Division, The, Allied Chemi- 
cal & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Koppers Co., Inc. Tar & Chemical 

Div. (Pennsylvania) 
Neville Company, The (Pa.) 

Hooker Electrochemical Co. (N.Y.) 

Chemical Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 

Triqlycol dichlorlde 
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 
(New York) 

Triglycol dihexoate 
Carbide and Carbon Chemical Com- 
pany (New York) 


Barrett Division, The, Allied Chemi- 
cal & Dye Corporation (New York) 
Konpers Co., Inc.. Tar & Chemical 

Div. (Pennsylvania) 
Merck & Co., Inc. (N.J.) 


Barrett Division, The, Allied Chemi- 
cal & Dye Corp. (New York) 
Neville Company, The (Pa.) 

American Resinous Chemicals Corp. 

( Massachusetts ) 
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corp. 

(New York) 
Connecticut Hard Rubber Company, 

The (Connecticut) 
Crescent Engineering & Research 

Co. (California) 

Hall, C. P. Company, The (Ohio) 
Herman, J. B. (Mass.) 
Hooker Electrochemical (N.Y.) 
Kraft Chemical Co. (111.) 
Neville Co., The (Pa.) 
Ohio-Apex, Inc. (W.Va.) 
Penetone Company, The (N.J.) 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Pa.) 
Schwartz Chemical Co. (N.Y.) 



Adhesive Products Corp. (N.Y.) 
Atliol Manufacturing Co. (Mass.) 
Atlantic Mercantile Company (N.Y.) 
Atlas Moulded Products Corp. (N.Y.) 
Austin, O. Co., The (N.Y.) 
Bancroft, Joseph & Sons Co. (Del.) 
Barber-Webb Company, The (Calif.) 
Barringham Rubber Co., Ltd., (Out., 


Bortman Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Burton Rodgers, Inc. (Ohio) 
Canadian General Rubber Co., Ltd. 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Capac Manufacturing Co. (Mich.) 
Carpenter, L. E. & Co. (N.J.) 
Cincinnati Industries. Inc. (Ohio) 
Cleaveland Lab. & Mfg. Company, 

Inc. (New Jersey) 
Clover Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Coated Textile Mills. Inc. (R.I.) 
Cofax Corporation, The (N.Y.) 
Colasta Company, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Columbus Coated Fabrics Corp. (O.) 
Cotan Corporation (N.J.) 
Conn. Hard Rubber Co., The (Conn.) 
Chrysler Corp. (Mich.^ 
Dawson Company (Ohio) 
Detroit Gasket & Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Electro-Technical Products, Inc. 

(New Jersey) 
Endurette Corporation of America 

Essential Fabrics Corp. (N.Y.) 


Fabricon Products, Inc. (Mich ) 
Federal Leather Co., The (N.J.) 
Flexfirm Products (Calif.) 
General Laminating. Inc. (N.J.) 
General Plastics Mfg. Co. (Wash.) 
Goodrich, B. F. Company, The (Ohio' 
Greggory, Inc. (111.) 
Hartford Textile Company (N.Y.) 
Heath Company (Mich.) 
Heribert, Herbert J. (N.Y.) 
Hopp Press, Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 


King Plastics Corp. (Colo.) 
Landers Corporation, The (Ohio) 
Libbey, W. S. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Lifetime Plastic, Inc. (Colo.) 
Marco Chemicals, Inc. (N.J.) 
Microloid Co. (Pa.) 
Miner Rubber Co. Ltd. (Que., 
Montrose Paper Mills (111.) 
Mor-Gan Laminating & Foliating I 

(New York) 
National Research & Mfg. Co. 

Nu-Lite Plastics (N.J.) 

Pantasote Company, The (N.J.) 
Permatex Fabrics Corp. (Conn.) 
Plasticote Co. (N.J.) 


fUlMVKWC VjU. V.H.J./ 

Plastite Adhesive Cement Co. v 
Plastic Film Corporation (N.Y.) 
Plastic Supply Company 

(Ont, Can.) 

Portal Printing & Plastic Co. (Calif. 
Rand Rubber Company (X.Y.) 
Respro, Inc. (R.I.) 
Ryerson, Joseph T. & Son, Inc. (Ill 
Schneider, Eugene S., Plastics 


Shellmar Products Co. (Ohio) 
Sport Products, Inc. (Ohio) 
Standard Coated Products (N.Y.) 
Standard Insulation Co. (N.J.) 
Stanley Mfg. Co., Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Taylor Fibre Company (Pa.) 
Textileather Corporation (Ohio) 
Western Plastics, Ltd. (B.C., Can.) 
Western Products, Inc. (Ohio) 
Western Shade Cloth Co., The (I1L 
Whiteford Plastics Co., Inc. (N'.Y.) 
Wills & Roberts Plastics Mfg. Corp 

Zapon Division (Conn.) 

Atlas Powder Co. 
Zapon-Keratol Div. (Conn.) 

Atlas Powder Co. 


Compression Molding Company i 

St. Louis (Missouri) 
Creative Printmakers. Inc. (N.I 
Heribert, Herbert J. (N.Y.) 
Polyplastex (N.Y.) 


Barbe n r-Webb'Co., The' (Calif.) 
Cohan Epner Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Chrysler Corp. (Mich.) 
Denman Kust Proofing Co. (Ca 
Fabricon Products, Inc. (Mich.) 
General Plastics Mfg. Co. (Wa: 
Glover Coating Co. (Mass.) 
Industrial Design Associates of 

Hollywood (California) 
Lithgow, James Company (Calif.) 
Merkert and Sons (N.Y.) 
Mill-O-PIast (N.Y.) 
National Research & Mfg. Co. 


Parisian Novelty Company (111.) 
Plastic Coating Co. (Calif.) 
Plastic Film Corporation (N.Y.B 
Plastics Service Company (Calif.) 
Plastiques Laboratories, The (111, 
Soc-co Plastic Coating Co. (Calw 
Uncas Manufacturing Co. (K.I.) 
Wendt-Sonis Company (Mo.) 
Western Products, Inc. (Ohio) 
Whiteford Plastics Co., Inc. (N.I 
Wilcox-Gay Corp. (Mich.) 


American Products Mfg. Co. (La.) 
Arvey Corporation (111.) 
Austin, O. Co., The (N.Y.) 
Bancroft, Joseph & Sons Co. (Del.) 
Bortman Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Burton Rodgers, Inc. (Ohio) J 
Canadian General Rubber Co., IA 

(Ontario. Canada) 
Capac Manufacturing Co. (Mich.) 
Carpenter, L. E. & Co. (N.J.) | 
Cellulose Products Co. (Calif.) 
Cincinnati Industries. Inc. (Ohio) 
Cleaveland Lab. & Mfg. CompufW 

Inc. (New Jersey) 
Clover Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Coated Textile Mills., Inc. (R.I.) 
Colasta Company, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Columbus Coated Fabrics Corp. (0 
Cotan Corporation (N.J.) 
Dawson Company (Ohio) 
Detroit Gasket & Mfg. Co. (Mich. 
Electro-Technical Prod., Inc. (N.JJfl 
Emelpid Co., Inc., The (N.J.) 
Fabricon Products, Inc. (Mich.) I 

MARCH 194 

Post^ormed Phencflite chassis for Jfigb. volt- 
tircuit breaker. All holes am cut-outs 
punched in the flat blankX/bregrourwf) 
before post -forming in channrf shape. Use of 
Phenolite chassis in place of /ietal eliminates 
insulation of each separatVpart of assembly. 



shapes profitable production 
and new products 

There are opportunities for you in Post-Formed Phenolite 
the laminated plastic that simplifies production and offers 
countless new applications for profitable-selling products! 

Economical to produce, Post-Formed Phenolite parts are 
made in a matter of minutes. Practically any shape or form may 
be obtained simply by heating the sheet material a few seconds, 
then forming in low-cost wooden molds with standard press 
equipment. No sanding or "flash" removal is necessary. 
Fabrication may be done before or after forming. 

Phenolite is extremely light in weight (about / 2 that of 
aluminum); yet it has remarkable mechanical and impact 
strength. It possesses good machinability ... is an excellent 
electrical insulator . . . resists heat and moisture ... is resistant 
to abrasion . . . and is not affected by solvents and oils. 

Find out some of the many ways in which this versatile 
material can be used. Write for full information and the 
assistance of one of our trained engineers. 







Federal Leather Co.. The (N.J.) 
Flexfinn Products (Calif.) 
General Laminating. Inc. (X.J.) 
General Plastics Mfg. Co. (Wash.) 
Goodrich, B. F. Company, The 


Greggory. Inc. (111.) 
Hawley Products Company (111.) 
Heath Company (Mich.) 
Hopp Press, Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Hotchner, C. R. & Co. (N.Y.) 
Industrial Design Associates of 

Hollywood (California) 
Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 


King Plastics Corp. (Colo.) 
Libbey, W. S. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Lifetime Plastic, Inc. (Colo.) 
Marco Chemicals, Inc. (N.J.) 
Marvellum Company, The (Mass.) 
Microloid Co. (Pa.) 
Montrose Paper Mills (111.) 
Mor-Gan Laminating & Foliating Co. 

(New York) 

Pantasote Company, The (N.J.) 
Parisian Novelty Company (III.) 
Permatex Fabrics Corporation, The 


Plastic Film Corporation (N.Y.) 
Plastic Papers Co. (111.) 
Plastic Supply Company 

(Ont., Can.) 
Plasticote Co. (N.J.) 
Plastiques Laboratories, The (111.) 
Presco Plastics (Wis.) 
Respro, Inc. (R.I.) 
Riegel Paper Corp. (N.Y.) 
Schneider, Eugene S., Pasties 

Scientific Engr. & Plastic Research 

Co. (New York) 
Shellmar Products Co. (Ohio) 
Standard Coated Products (N.Y.) 
Standard Insulation Co. (N.J.) 
Stanley Mfg. Co., Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Taylor Fibre Company (Pa.) 
Texloid Products Co. (Mass.) 
Western Products. Inc. (Ohio) 
Western Shade Cloth Co., The (111.) 
Wilcox-Gay Corp. (Mich.) 
Zapon Division (Conn.) 

Atlas Powder Co. 
Zapon-Keratol Div. (Conn.) 

Atlas Powder Co. 


Austin, O. Co., The (N.Y.) 
Barber-Webb Co., The (Calif.) 
Canadian General Electric Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Denman Rust Proofing Co. (Calif.) 
Industrial Design Associates of 

Hollywood (California) 
National Research & Mfg. Co. 

Plastic Coating Co. (Calif.) 
Phillips Electrical Works Limited 

(Ont., Can.) 

Plastics Service Company (Calif.) 
Tensolite Corporation (N.Y.) 
Wendt-Sonis Company (Mo.) 
Whiteford Plastics Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 


Tensolite Corporation (N.Y.) 


Acap Company (N.Y.) 
Barnett, Inc., Plastics (Ga.) 
Crest Fabrics (N.Y.) 
Eagle Export. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Federal Equipment Co. (Ont., Can.) 
Harving Paper Company (N.Y.) 
International Exchange Corp. (Calif.) 
Kestin. M. J. Company (N.Y.) 
Larson, A. P. Company, The (N.Y.) 
Liberty Mercantile Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Omni Products Corporation (N.Y.) 
Plastics Promotions (N.Y.) 
Remco International Co. (N.Y.) 
United Sales Service (Calif ) 
Weeks, O. J. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 


A. A. Plastics Assoc. (N.Y.) 
A. & L. Manufacturing Company 

Abbott Engineering & Insulating Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Aceteloid Novelty Co. (N.Y.) 
Ace Plastic Novelty Co. (N.Y.) 
Acme Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Acraglas Company (Calif.) 
Acrylite Products, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Airplastics Co. (Calif.) 
Airply Forming Co. (Calif.) 
Algerley Laboratories (Pa.) 
All Plastic Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Allanson Armature Mfg. Co. Ltd., 

The (Ontario, Canada) 
Almac Plastics, Inc. (N.Y.) 
American Denture Corp. (Ore.) 
Amity Plastics Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Angelus Plastic Industries (Calif.) 
Anthony & Anthony (N.Y.) 
Angus-Campbell, Inc. (Calif.) 


Anzac Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Arclay Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Arco Metalcraft, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Arco Plastic Prod. Co. (N.Y.) 
Arnold Plastic Co. (Ohio) 
Art Industries (111.) 
Art Pearl Works (N.J.) 
Art Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Art Plastic Co. (N.Y.) 
Art Plastics Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Art Textile Decorating Co. (N.Y.) 
Artcraft Plastics Corp. (N.Y.) 
Artistic Plastics (N.Y.) 
Associated Plastics (N.Y.) 
Associated Plastics, Ltd. (Calif.) 
Atlas Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Auto City Plastic Co. (Mich.) 
Baff Mfg. Co., The (N.J.) 
Bakoring, Inc. (Texas) 
Ballard Plastics Corp. (Wash.) 
Bangor Plastics, Inc. (Mich.) 
Barron, J. E. & Associates (Ohio) 
Bastian Bros. Co. (N.Y.) 
Baxman. Charles G. W. (Mich.) 
Beatty, Brook Plastics (Mo.) 
Beaman Molded Products Co. (Ore.) 
Belmont Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Bend-A-Lite Plastics Division (III.) 
Bentek Company (N.Y.) 
Bodde, B. M. (Calif.) 
Bookout & Hutchins (Calif.) 
Borkland Laboratories (Ind.) 
Boyd, A. B. Co. (Calif.) 
Brandenburg, Melford F. (N.Y.) 
Brigham, R. B. Co. (Ohio) 
Brilhart, Arnold Ltd. (N.Y.) 
Brogan. Byard F. (Pa.) 
Bronson. F. E. Company, The (N.J.) 
Bronzart Metals Co. (N.Y.) 
Brooklyn Plastic Co. (N.Y.) 
Bryce Plastic Industries (Calif.) 
Buchsbaum, S. & Co. (III.) 
Buckley. C. E. Co. (Mass.) 
Burndy Engineering Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Burton-Rodgers, Inc. (Ohio) 
Cadillac Plastic Company (Mich.) 
California Craftsmen (Calif.) 
California Giftware (Calif.) 
California Plastic Novelties (Calif.) 
California Plastics Products Corp. 


Calplasti Corporation (Calif.) 
Cambridge Paper Box Co. (Mass.) 
Camfield Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Campbell. J. Hugh Co. (Texas) 
Carlite Company (Calif.) 
Carroll, J. .B. Co. (III.) 
Cass Plasticrafters (Mich.) 
Cellulose Products Company (Calif.) 
Celoid Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Celomat Corporation (N.Y.) 
Central Aircraft & Engraving Co. 


C, nttal Plastics. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Champion Display Material Co. 


Chicago Fabricated Products (111.) 
Chicopee Manufacturing Corp. 

(New York) 

Cinch Manufacturing Corp. (111.) 
Clark, Geo. V. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Clark. Victor Marion Co. (N.Y.) 
Clarolyte Co. (N.Y.) 
Classic Studio (N.Y.) 
Clover Box & Manufacturing Co., 

Inc. (N.Y.) 
Cluthe. Geo. Mfg. Co. Limited 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Coast Metal Plastics Manufacturing 

Co. (California) 
Cnbb & Zimmer (Mich.) 
Cofax Corporation, The (N.Y.) 
Colt's Patent Fire Arms Mfg. Co. 


Colonial Kolonite Co. (111.) 
Columbia Plastics, Inc. (Calif.) 
Columbia Plastics Mfg. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Colwabord Limited (Ont., Can.) 
Compression Molding Company of 

St. Louis 

Comstock. J. (Calif.) 
Cooner, Sam (Pa.) 
Corbin Engineering & Sales Co. 

Coronet Novelty & Plastics Co., Inc. 

(New York) 

Cournand, E. L. & Company (N.Y.) 
Craft Service (N.Y.) 
Crafts, Inc. (R.I.) 
Crafts Industry (Ont.. Can.) 
Creative Plastics Corp. (N.Y.) 
Croasdale & de Angelis (Pa.) 
Crofut, Willard Co. (Calif.) 
Crowe Name Plate & Mfg. Co. (III.) 
Cruver Manufacturing Co. (111.) 
Crystal Fixture Company (111.) 
Crystalline Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Crystal-Tex Company (Calif.) 
Cunningham Mfg. Co. Inc. (Ind.) 
Curran & Barry Company (N.Y.) 
Custom Manufacturing Co. (Calif.) 
Custom Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Customcraft Plastic Co. (N.Y.) 
Czecho Peasant Art Co. (N.Y.) 
D L & M Plastic Industries 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Darco Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Dawson Company (Ohio) 
Davis, Joseph Plastics Co. (N.J.) 

Decora Plastic Studios (Mich.) 
Defense Products Co. (Calif.) 
Del Riccio Plastics Corp. (Calif.) 
Detroit Gasket & Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Dilley Manufacturing Company, The 


Display House, The (Penn.) 
Dorian Studios (Calif.) 
Du Art Plastics Co. (Pa.) 
Du Bois Plastic Products (N.Y.) 
Dugan & Krukemeier Mfg. Co. 


Dulev Plastics Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Duplate Canada Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Dura Plastics, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Duranol Products, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Eastern Plastics, Inc. (Pa.) 
Edwards, T. J. Inc. (Mass.) 
Eclipse Moulded Products Co. (Wis.) 
Electrical Insulation Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Electric Storage Battery Co. (Pa.) 
Electronic Mechanics. Inc. (N.J.) 
Electronic Plastics Co. (N.J.) 
Elkloid Company, The (R.I.) 
Emeloid Co., Inc., The (N.J.) 
Empire Plastics Company Limited 

(Quebec, Canada) 
Enbee Transparent Specialty Co. 

(New York) 

Enka Plastic Company (Calif.) 
Erisman, A. C. (Pa.) 
Evans Products Co. (Calif.) 
Everbest Plastic Corporation (N.Y.) 
Expert Celluloid Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Fabricated Parts Co. (N.J.) 
Fabri-Form Co., The (Ohio) 
Farrington Mfg. Co. (Mass.) 
Fawn Creations & Company (Md.) 
Feature Products Corporation (Que., 


Felsenthal, G. & Sons (111.) 
Fine Arts Of California (Calif.) 
Fishel-Vierling Company (Ohio) 
Fisher, Adam (Penn.) 
Fixmobil Co. (N.Y.) 
Folsom Engraving Company (Mass.) 
Forest Industries Research Co. 


Fowler, E. H. Co. (Calif.) 
Franklin Fibre-Lamitex Corp. (Del.) 
Franklin Industrial Engineering 

Galbas, Ferd F. (N.Y.) 
Galvanic Art Studios (N.Y.) 
Gem Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Gemloid Corporation (N.Y.) 
Genii Corporation, The (Ohio) 
Gibbs Manufacturing (Calif.) 
Gibralter Supply & Service Co. (Pa.) 
General Plastic Products (Mich.) 
General Plastic & Rubber Co. (Ky.) 
General Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Glade Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Glass, Harry H. & Bro. (N.Y.) 
Gordon, J. M. (N.Y.) 
Goro Manufacturing Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Gottlieb, M. M. Associates, Inc. 


Granby Mfg. Co. (Que., Can.) 
Great Lakes Plastics (111.) 
Greggory, Inc. (111.) 
Gregori of Hollywood (Calif.) 
Greenhut Insulation Co. (N.Y.) 
Grosfeld House, Inc. (N.Y.) 
H. B. Plastic Fabricating (N.Y.) 
HR Engineering Company (Ind.) 
Hammermill Paper Co. (Pa.) 
Harson Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Heath Company (Mich.) 
Hecht Fixture Co. (111.) 
Herman, J. B. Co. (Mass.) 
Hermant, Percy Limited (Ont., Can.) 
Herschel Engineering & Supply Co. 

Hexco Products, Inc. (III.) 
Hobbl (ilass Limited (Out., Can.) 
MolTuiami Mfg. Co.. ( X.Y.) 
Holdcnlinc Co. (Ohio) 
Hollywood Charms (Calif.) 
Hollywood Lighting Fixture Co., Inc. 


Home Plastic Co. (111.) 
Hollywood Plastic Arts (Calif.) 
Hopp Press, Inc., The (N.Y.) 
House of Plastics. The (Calif.) 
House of Plastics (Ohio) 
Hub Stamping & Engraving Co. 

Hughes-Autograf Brush Co., Inc. 

(New York) 

ffunton Plastics Co. (N.J.) 
Hydroproducts Corporation (N.Y.) 
Imperial Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Industrial Arts, Inc. (111.) 
Industrial Fabricators, Inc. (Ohio) 
Industrial Plastics Corp. (N.J.) 
Ingwersen Manufacturing Co., Inc. 

Inland Manufacturing Div., General 

Motors Corp. (Ohio) 
Insulating Fabricators of New Eng- 
land, Inc. (Mass.) 
International Plastics (Calif.) 
International Plastic Products 


Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 


Irwin Engineering & Mfg. Co. i 


J. M. Plastic Containers (Calif.) M 
Johnson Fare Box Co. (111.) 
Johnston Industrial Plastics Ltd 

(Ont., Can.) 

Joseff-Hollywood (Calif.) 
Jo-Vel Plastic Co. (N.J.) 
Joyce, Walter M. Co. (Ohio) 
Judson, W. Haddon Mfg. Co. (Pa) 
K. C. Plastics Co. (Mo.) 
K & S Plastic Designs Co. (N.Y.YM 
K-Plastix (Calif.) 
Kehoe Display Fixture Co. (Calif.) 
Kenneth, Donald Co., The (Calif ) 
Keolyn Plastics (III.) 
Kerr, R. W. Co. (Nebr.) 
Keystone Plastics Company (Pa.) i 
King, J. M. Manufacturing Co. (Pa) 
King Plastics Corp. (Colo.) 
King Plastics Corp. (N.Y.) 
Kingsbacher-Murphy Co. (Calif.) 
Kingman, E. B. Co. (N.Y.) 
Kippy Kit Co. (Ohio) 
Kirby Company (Ohio) 
Kirk Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Klise Manufacturing Company 


Kozell Bros. Inc. (Pa.) 
Krasny Plastic Products (N'.Y.) 
La Mode Plastic Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) I 
Lami Cast Plastics (Mo.) 
Lamicoid Fabricators, Inc. (111.) 
Lamotex Corp. (N.Y.) 
Landers, Bert A., Inc. (Calif.) 
Landers Corporation, The (Ohio) 
Lapin Products. Inc. (X.J.) 
Lawrence and Hunter (Calif.) 
Lee-Bert, Inc. (Mich.) 
Lee, Oscar (111.) 
Lee Plastics (Pa.) 
Leed Insulator Co. (Calif.) 
LeRoy Novelty Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Levien, Ned G. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Lichten, Maurice A. Company (N.J.K 
Lindy, M. L. Company (N.J.) 
Lone Star Plastics Company (Texas) 
Long Island Engraving Co. (N.Y.) J 
Lucigem Plastic Corp. (X.Y.) 
Lustra-Cite Industries (N.Y.) 
Lumirol Company (N.Y.) 
I.urite Corp. (N.J.) 
Majestic Plastic & Specialty Co. 


Majestic Plastic Company. Inc. (Fla.) 
Majot Automatic Machine Co., Inc. 

Manne-Knowlton Insulation Co. 

(New York) 
Mansion House Furniture Co. 


Marcraft Plastics (Minn.) 
Mark Novelty Corp (N.Y.) 
Marks Custom Plastic Co. (Calif.) I 
Mai shall, William L. Ltd. (X.Y. i 
Mastercraft Plastics Co., Inc. (N.Y 
Mattel Creations (Calif.) 
Matzner, S. Co. (N.Y.) 
Mayfair Plastics Div., George UlaaH 

Co. (N.J.) 

McCoy, Jones & Co.. Inc. (111.) 
McDowell Plastic Company (111.) 
McGough, R. A. (Pa.) 
Mclnerney Plastics Co. (Mn-li.i 
McQuay Aircraft Corp. (Calif.) 
Mctaltex, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Merri-Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Metropolitan Plastic Pro<li 

(New York) 

Mica.nold Radio Corp. (N.Y.) 
Mieatta Fabricators, Inc. (111.) 
Miller Dial & Name Plat' ( 


Miracle Patent Co. (Calif.) 
Miracle Plastic Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Miro Container Co., Inc. <\^ .) 
Mitchell. F. L. Co. (Calif.) 
Mitchell Button Co. Limited. The 

(Ont.. Can.) 

Milieu's Display Letters (Calif. I 
Miya Flower* Xovelty Co. (X.V.I 
Modern Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Modern Plastics ( Fla. ) 

Modern Solid-Art Co. (Md.) 
Moglen Plastic Products (N.Y.) 
Monogram Mfg. Co. (Calif, i 
\lnrnll. ( ieorye Corp. (Mich.) 
Morrison's (Calif.) 
Mt. Vernon-Woodberry Mills, Inc. 

( Maryland 1 

Millti-Pfex Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Muss,,-, II. M ,\ ( o.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Mycalex Corporation of America 


National Bronze Studios (Calif.) 
National Fahric.itcd Products Mil.) 
National Fabricating Co. (N.Y.) 
National Filire Co. (Ont.. Can.) 
National Plastic Company (Calif.) 
National Plastic Products Co. (Mich.) 
National Transparent Plastics Co. 


National Vulcanized Fibre Co. i Del. i 
"Neo Designs Co. (N.Y.) 
New England Novelty Co. (Mass.) 
N, PI., , Calif. I 

Newport, J. Herbert Jr. (Pa.) 
Nichols Products Co. (N.J.) 
Nonpareil Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 

MARCH 1946 








E K-D Manufacturing Company of Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania formerly used a metal anvil on 
their popular fruit dicer widely used in hotels, 
restaurants and institutions. Looking for means of 
improving their product and reducing costs sug- 
gested the possibility of a plastic anvil. The rough 
metal anvil required milling of slots, machining the 
undercut, cleaning and polishing, plus the fact that 
porosity was not a satisfactory factor. 

They brought their problem to us here at LANCE 
and together we went to work. The result is the 
two-cavity mold pictured above, with two views of 
the plastic anvil now part of the K-D fruit dicer. 

This cam-operated mold allows the undercut to be 
molded in the initial operation. Machining, clean- 
ing and polishing are eliminated and porosity is 
absent. The result is a 50% saving for the K-D 
folks . . . another example of how plastics can be 
applied to do things better and more economically. 

We'll welcome the opportunity to discuss any plastic 
or metal-plastic job with you, and you can be 
assured we'll be the first to tell you if plastics don't 
appear to be indicated as a solution to your problem. 
Call on us! 





Novel-Craft Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Novelart Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Nussbaun, F. J. & Co. (N.Y.) 
Nutone, Inc. (Calif.) 
Nu-World Products Co. (Calif.) 
Obrig Laboratories, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Oppenheimer, Walter L. & Son (Pa.) 
Orna Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Ornamental Plastics Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Ortho Plastic Novelties (N.Y.) 
Pacific Mills (N.Y.) 
Pacific Plastic Prod. Co. (Calif.) 
Para Mfg. Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Paramount Rubber Co. (Mich.) 
Paragon Plastics Co. (Mich.) 
Paragon Plastic Corporation (N.Y.)" 
Parkeat Plastics (N.Y.) 
Parisian Novelty Company (111.) 
Peerless Moulded, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Peerless Products (111.) 
Penn Fibre & Specialty Co. (Pa.) 
Penn-Plastics Corporation (Pa.) 
Pennsylvania Plastics Corp. (Pa.) 
Penzel, Mueller & Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Perfection Plastic Products (N.J.) 
Perlman, A. Plastics. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Photo Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Photoplating Company (Minn.) 
Pikes Peak Plastics (Colo.) 
Pioneer Plastics Co. (N.Y.) 
Plascraft Co. (Calif.) 
Plasteel (Calif.) 

Plastelite Engineering Co. (Texas) 
Plastic Accessories, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Plastic Center Company (Calif.) 
Plastic Center Company, Inc. 

Plastic Creations of Hollywood 


Plastic Fabricators Company (Calif.) 
Plastic Film Corporation (N.Y.) 
Plastic Engineering Co. (R.I.) 
Plastic Fabricators. Inc. (Mass ) 
Plastic Finishing Corp. (111.) 
Plastic & Metal Products Co. (Pa.) 
Plastic Mold Engring. Co. (Mich.) 
Plastic Novelties Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Plastic Novelties, Inc. (N.Y ) 
Plastic Playthings, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Plastic Products Co. (Ohio) 
Plastic Projects (N.Y.) 
Plastic Star Co. (Calif.) 
Plastic Turning Co., Inc. (Mass.) 
Plastic-Ware, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Plastic Wood Crafts (Ohio) 
Plastichrome (Calif.) 
Plasticles Mfg. ft Sales Co. (Mich.) 
Plasticraft (Calif.) 
Plasticraft Mfg. Co. (N.J.) 
Plasticrest Products (111.) 
Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Plastics. Inc. (Minn.) 
Plastics Service Company (Calif.) 
Plastifab, Incorporated (111.) 
Plastiform Mfg. Co.. Inc. (Calif.) 
Plasti-GIo Manufacturing Company 


Plasti-Mode Novelty Co. (NY) 
Plastik, Inc. (Mass.) 
Plastolite Company. The (Pa.) 
Plax Corporation (Conn.) 
Ply-Tex Mfg. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Popular Plastic Prod. Corp. (N.Y ) 
Portal Printing & Plastic Co. (Calif ) 
Practical Plastics, Inc. (Fla.) 
Precision Fabricators. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Precision Plastic Prod. Co., Inc. 


Precision Specialties (Calif.) 
Precision Plastics (Calif.) 
Precision Plastics Co. (Pa.) 
Precision Products Co. (Wis.) 
Premier Engineering Supplies, Ltd. 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Preyer, Ruth (N.Y.) 
Printloid. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Printon Corporation (N.Y.) 
I. ft C. Plastic Products (R.I.) 
RPM Company, The (Colo.) 
Ranger-Tennere, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Regal Plastic Company (Mo.) 
Resin Industries (Calif.) 
Resin-Wood Products Co. (Calif ) 
Richardson Company (111.) 
Risch, H. Celluloid Products (N.Y.) 
Ritter Company, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Robinson Industrial-Crafts, Ltd. 

(Ont., Can.) 
Rogers Corp. (Conn.) 
Rosenberg Brothers (N.Y.) 
Ross Plastic Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Rothco Products (Pa.) 
Rummel Fibre Co. (N.J.) 
Russell Specialty Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Sandra Laboratories (Calif.) 
San Francisco Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Scheuer Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Schillo Manufacturing Co. (111.) 
Schneider, Eugene S. < Calif. ) 
Schwab 4 Frank, Inc. (Mich.) 
Schwanda. B. & Sons (N.Y.) 
Schwarz Brothers (Calif.) 
Scripto Mfg. Co. (Ga.) 
Seeberger, Fred B. (Pa.) 
Sewell Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Shepherd, J. H. Son & Co. (Ohio) 
Sherr Manufacturing Co. (Calif.) 


Shoreham Mfg. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Sillcocks-Miller Company, The (N.J.) 
Silverloid Co. (R.I.) 
Slater, N. G. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Sloane, John R. (Mass.) 
Smith, Donovan & Associates (Pa.) 
Smoot-Holman Co. (Calif.) 
Snedaker, Frank C. & Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Solar Plastic Products Co. (N.Y.) 
Somerville Limited (Ont., Can.) 
Southern Plastics Company (S.C.) 
Spartan Industrial Corp. (N.Y.) 
Speed-Cutting, Incorporated (Calif.) 
Speed Machine Products Co. (N.J.) 
Sperber Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Stack Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Standard Coated Products (N.Y.) 
Standard Rubber Co. (N.Y.) 
Starlight Jewelry & Novelty Co. 

Stars & Stripes Plastics Mfg. Co. 

(New York) 

Steiner Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Sterling Plastic Prod. Co. (Ohio) 
Sto-Cant Engineering Co. (Calif.) 
Straus & Stingo, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (N.Y.) 
Supreme Plastics Co. (111.) 
Superior Plastics Corp. (N.Y.) 
Supreme Plastic Mfg. Company 

Sward, 'H. A. Co. (N.Y.) 
Swedlow Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
T & L Plastic Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Tauber Plastics, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Taylor Fibre Company (Pa.) 
Tech-Craft Plastics. Inc. (Wash.) 
Technical Plastics Co. (Ohio) 
Technical Plastics Laboratories 


Technicraft Supply Co. (Mass.) 
Thor-Sal Plastic Products (Calif.) 
Thornton, Geo. Q. Displays (N.Y.) 
Tilton & Cook Co. (Mass.) 
Tingstol Company (111.) 
Titan Plastic Products Co. (Calif.) 
Toye Photo-Plastics (Calif.) 
Transparent Container Co. (N.Y.) 
Transparent Specialties Corp. (Ohio) 
Transplastics Fabricating Company 


Tupper Lake Plastics Co. (N.Y.) 
Turner Plastic Products Co. (Mo.) 
Twentieth Century Plastic Mfg. Co. 


Ucinite Co., The (Mass.) 
IMylite Corporation. The (Mich.) 
Ultra Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Uncas Manufacturing Company 


U. S. Industrial Plastics Co. (N.Y.) 
U.S. Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
U. S. Rubber Co., Footwear Div. 

Universal Button Fastening & Button 

Co. of Canada, Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Universal Products (Calif.) 
Universal Products. Inc. (111.) 
Utleys (N.Y.) 
Valley Manufacturing Company 

Van Arnam Manufacturing Co. 


Vargish and Company (N.Y.) 
Veri-Nu Products Co. (Calif.) 
Vernon-Henshoff Co. (Pa.) 
Victory Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Vierling's Plastic House (Ohio) 
Vine Ite Plastics Company (Colo.) 
Vogue Manufacturing Co. (Calif.) 
Voges Manufacturing Company 

Walker Engraving Co. (Calif.) 
Walter, John & Sons. Ltd. 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Warren. S. D. Co. (Mass.) 
Welker Mfg. Co.. Inc. (Conn.) 
Wesco Products (Calif.) 
West Coast Industries (Calif.) 
West Coast Plastics Products Co. 


Western Plastics Ltd. (B.C.. Can) 
White Products Company (N.Y.) 
White. Thos. J. Plastics Co. (Mo.) 
Whitehead & Hoag Co. (N.J.) 
Wills & Roberts Plastics Mfg. Corp. 

Wilmington Fibre Specialty Co. 


Wolverine Plastic Studio (Mich.) 
Wright Rubber Products Div., 

Taylor Manufacturing Co. (Wis.) 
Woodall Industries. Inc. (Mich.) 
World Plastic Manufacturing 

Companv (N.Y.I 
Wynn Mfg. Co. (Pa.) 
Ybarr.-i. Al (Calif.) 
Yeager. Joseph E. (Pa.) 
York Plastic Industries (Out., Can.) 
Zinglass Prod. Co. of America (N.Y.) 
Zippy Corporation (Wash.) 


Ackerman-Gould Co. (N. Y.) 
Barber-Webb Company. The (Calif.) 
Boyd, A. B. Co. (Calif.) 
Buchsbaum. S. & Co. (III.) 
Croasdale & deAngelis (Pa.) 
Dawson Company (Ohio) 

Die-Plast Co. Ltd. (Que., Can.) 
Eastern Plastics, Inc. (Pa.) 
Gemloid Corporation (N. Y.) 
General Plastics Mfg. Co. (Wash.) 
Gits Molding Corp. (111.) 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. (Ohio) 
Greggory, Inc. (111.) 
Hubbard Oven Co. (111.) 
International Plastic Products 


Lifetime Plastic Inc. (Colo.) 
Microloid Co. (Pa.) 
Mitchell, F. L. Co. (Calif.) 
Plastic Film Corporation (N. Y.) 
Plastic Laminating Co. (Calif.) 
Plasticraft Products Co. (N. Y.) 
Plastics Service Company (Calif.) 
Plastiques Laboratories, The (III.) 
Plastomatic Corporation (Pa.) 
Shellmar Products Co. (Ohio) 
Tech-Craft Plastics, Inc. (Wash.) 
Western Plastics Ltd. (B. C., Can.) 
Western Products, Inc. (Ohio) 
Zapon Division (Conn.) Atlas 

Powder Co. 


American Brakeblok Division 

American Brake Shoe Co. (Mich.) 
Atlas Plastic Industries (Md.) 
Bangor Plastics, Inc. (Mich.) 
Bortman Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Cambridge Paper Box Co. (Mass.) 
Capac Manufacturing Co. (Mich.) 
Chemical Plastics, Inc. (Minn.) 
Chrysler Corp. (Mich.) 
Cincinnati Industries. Inc. (Ohio) 
Darco Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Deutsch, Maurice (N.Y.) 
Die-Plast Co.. Ltd. (Que.. Can.) 
Eldorado Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
Fabricon Products, Inc. (Mich.) 
Farley & Loetscher Mfg. Co. (Iowa) 
Fibreweld Processes Limited (B.C., 


Flexfirm Products (Calif.) 
Furane Plastics and Chemicals Com- 
pany (Calif.) 

General Plastics Mfg. Co. (Wash.) 
Genii Corporation, The (Ohio) 
Greggory, Inc. (111.) 
Gustin-Bacon Mfg. Co. (Mo.) 
Harbor Plywood Corp. (Wash.) 
Heath Company (Mich.) 
Howard Manufacturing Corp. (Iowa) 
Industrial Design Associates of 

Hollywood (Calif.) 
K-Plastix (Calif.) 
Keller Products (N.H.) 
Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Co. 


King Plastics Corp. (Colo.) 
Lifetime Plastic. Inc. (Colo.) 
Lithgow. James Company (Calif.) 
Mill-O Plast (N.Y.) 
Pantasote Company. The (N.J.) 
Plastite Adhesive Cement Co. (111.) 
Plastic Supply Company (Ont.. Can.) 
Plasticines Laboratories, The (111.) 
Polyplastex (N.Y.) 
Radio Corp. of America (N.Y.) 
Radolite Mfg. Co. (Miss.) 
Riegel Paper Corp. (N.Y.) 
Rogers Corporation (Conn.) 
Schneider, Eugene S.. Plastics 

Scientific Engr. & Plastic Research 

Co. (New York) 
Shellmar Products Co. (Ohio) 
Struthers Wells Corporation (Pa.) 
Taylor Fibre Company (Pa.) 
Texloid Products Co. (Mass.) 
Western Plastics, Ltd. (B.C.. Can.) 
Western Products. Inc. (Ohio) 
Wills & Roberts Plastics Mfg. Corp. 


Wilmington Fibre Specialty Co. 






Asbestos Fibre Spinning Corp. (Pa.) 
Asbestos Textile Co.. Inc. (111.) 
Carey, Philip Mfg., Co. (Ohio) 
Gatke Corp. (111.) 

Johns-Mansville Sales Corp. (N.Y.) 
Pecora Paint Co. (Pa.) 
Powhatan Mining Co. (Md.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (Pa.) 
Thermoid Rubber Div. (N.J.) 
United States Rubber Co. (N.Y.) 
Victor Mfg. & Gasket Co. (111.) 
Vermont Asbestos Mines (N.Y.) 
York Plastic Industries fOnt., Can.) 


Callaway Mills, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Chicopee.Mfg. Corp. (N.J.) 
Curran & Barry Co. (N.Y.) 


Deering, Milliken & Co. (N.Y.) 
Exeter Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Lane, J. H. & Company, Inc. (N.Y.) I 
Mt. Vernon-Woodberry Mills., Inc. 


Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (0.) : 
Pacific Mills (N.Y.) 
Plastic Supply Co. (Que., Can.) 


Hammermill Paper Co. (Pa.) 
Hermanson, Wm. A. & Co. (Mass.) 
Hummel-Ross Fibre Corp. (Va.) 
Hurlbut Paper Company (Mass.) 
Krafelt Corporation (Del.) 
Montrose Paper Mills (111.) 
Mosinee Paper Mills Co. (111.) 
Munising Paper Co., The (111.) 
Plastic Supply Co. (Que., Can.) 
Riegel Paper Corp. (N.Y.) 
Walker-Goulard-Plehn Co. (N.Y.) , 
Warren S. D. Co. (Mass.) 


American Cyanamid Company (N.Y.) 
Bakelite Corporation (N.Y.) 
Baker Oil Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Catalin Corporation (N.Y.) 
Chemical Plastics, Inc. (Minn.) 
Chrysler Corp. (Mich.) 
Dow Chemical Company (Mich.) 
Dow Corning Corporation (Mich.) 
Durez Plastics & Chemicals, Inc. 

(New York) 

Durite Plastics, Inc. (Pa.) 
Furane Plastics & Chemicals 

Company (California) 
Interlake Chemical Corp. (Ohio) 
Marblette Corporation (N.Y.) 
Marco Chemicals, Inc. (N.J.) 
Monsanto Chemical Co., Plastics Div. 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co. 


Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Pa.) 
Plaskon Div., Libbey-Owens-Ford 

Glass Co. (Ohio) 
Poly Resins (Calif.) 
Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. (Mich.) 
Resinous Products & Chemical Com- 
pany (Pennsylvania) 
Shawinigan Products Corp. (N.Y.) 
Sylvan Plastics, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Synvar Corporation (Del.) 
Union Bay State Company (Mass.) 
Valentine Sugars (La.) 
Varcum Chemical Corp. (N.Y.) 


Aircraft Plastics (Calif.) 
Airply Forming Co. (Calif.) 
Allansrm Armature Mfg. Co., Ltd., 

The (Ontario. Canada) 
Allied Aviation Corporation (Md.) 
American Brakeblok Division 

American Brake Shoe Co. (MlC- 
Andover Kent Aviation Corporatio 

Artcraft Plastics, Inc. (Minn.) 
Atlas Plastic Industries (Md.) 
Baker McMillan Co. (Ohio) 
Ballard Plastics Corp. (Wash.) 
Bangor Plastics, Inc. (Mich.) 
Bastian Bros. Co. (N.Y.) 
Beacon Box Co. (Calif.) 
Berst-Foster-Dixfield Co. (N.Y.) 
Buchsbaum, S. & Co. (111.) 
C-W Plywood Company (111.) 
Camfield Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Canadian Westinghouse Co., Ltd. 

(Ontario, Canada) 
C.-ipac Manufacturing Co. (Mich.) 
Carroll, J. B. Co. (111.) 
(Vlastic Corp (N.J.) 
Chemical Plastics, Inc. (Minn.) 
Chrysler Corp. (Mich.) 
Cockshutt Moulded Aircraft Limlti 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Commonwealth Products Co. (Pa.) 
Compression Molding Co. of St. 

Consolidated Water Power & Paper 

Continental Can Co. (Ohio) 
Continental-Diamond Fibre Co. (Del.) 
Crescent Panel Co. (Ky.) 
Cruver Manufacturing Co. (111.) 
Damascus Furniture Corp. (Va.) 
Dawson Company (Ohio) 
Daystrom Corporation (N.Y.) 
Durashicld Plastic Prod. (Calif.) 
Electronic Plastics Co. (N.J.) 
Emeloid Co. Inc., The (N.J.) 
Kabricon Products. Inc. (Mich.) 
Formica Insulation Co., The (Ohio) 
Franklin Fibre-Lamitex Corp. (Del.) 
General Electric Co, Plastics Div. 


General F.lcctric Corp. (Lynn, Mass.) 
General Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
General Textile Mills. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Goodyear Aircraft Corp. (Ohio) 
Harbor Plywood Corp. (Wash.) 
Hart/ell Industries (Ohio) 
Haskelite Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Hereshoff Mfg. Co. (R.I). 
Hood Rubber Co. (Mas.) 























Manufacturers of Plastic and Metal Products 



ARCH 1946 



Hopp Press, Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Industrial Plastics (N.Y.) 
Inland Manufacturing Division (O.) 
International Molded Plastics, Inc. 


Kingsbacher-Murphy Co. (Calif.) 
Leister-Kauffman (Miss.) 
Lifetime Plastic, Inc. (Colo.) 
McQuay Aircraft (Calif.) 
Marathon Chemical Co. (Wis.) 
Marine Air Research (Conn.) 
Masonite Corp. (111.) 
Mattin, N. W. Bros. (Va.) 
Mica Insulator Company (N.Y.) 
Microloid Co. (Pa.) 
Mine Safety Appliances Company 

National Transparent Plastics Co. 


Modern Plastics Corp. (Mich.) 
Mor-Gan Laminating & Foliating Co. 

(New York) 

National Plastic Products Co. (Md.) 
National Research & Mfg. Co. (Calif.) 
National Vulcanized Fibre Co. (Del.) 
Olson Printing & Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (O.) 
Panelyte Div., St. Regis Paper Co. 

(New York) 

Paramount Rubber Co. (Mich.) 
Parisian Novelty Company (III.) 
Parkwood Corporation (Mass.) 
Passer Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Farley & Loetscher Mfg. Co. (Iowa) 
Plastic Laminating Co. (Calif.) 
Plastic Supply Company (Ont., Can.) 
Plastics Service Company (Calif.) 
Permochart Company, The (Pa.) 
Plasteel (Calif.) 
Plastic Industries (N.Y.) 
Plasticles Mfg. & Sales Co. (Mich.) 
Plastics Mfg. & Supply Co. (Calif.) 
Pjuswood, Inc. (Wis.) 
Pioneer Plastic Co. (Calif.) 
Pioneer Plastics Corp. (Md.) 
Portal Printing & Plastic Co. (Calif ) 
Protecto Photo Co. (N.Y.) 
Pyraglass, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Rand Rubber Company (N.Y.) 
Ranger-Tennere, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Richardson Co., The (111.) 
Ricgel Paper Corp. (N.Y.) 
Rogers Corp. (Conn.) 
San Francisco Plastics Co. (Calif.) 
Slater, N. G., Corp. (N.Y.) 
Southern Industries (N.C.) 
Spaulding Fibre Co. (N.Y.) 
Stanley Mfg. Co. Limited (Ont., 


Stalite, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Synthane Corp. (Pa.) 
Taylor Fibre Co. (Pa). 
Tensolite Corporation (N.Y.) 
Texloid Products Co. (Mass ) 
Tray-Ware, Inc. (Ohio) 
United States Rubber Co. (Ind.) 
Universal Molded Products (Pa.) 
Universal Molded Products Co. (Va.) 
Victory Plastics Co. (Mass.) 
Vidal Research Corp. (N.J.) 
Westinghouse Electric Corp (Pa.) 
White. Thos. J. Plastics Co. (Mo) 
Wills & Roberts Plastics Mfg. Corp. 

Willson Magazine Camera Company 

Willson Plastics (Pa.) 
Wilmington Fibre Specialty Co. 


Womlall Industries. Inc. (Mich.) 
Wright Rubber Products Div. (Wis.) 


I* Indicates manufactures labora- 
tory equipment; "indicates manu- 
factures both laboratory and 
production equipment.] 


Accessory parts for molds 
Ace Tool & Mfg. Co. (N.J.) 
Acme-Danneman Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Ajax-Doret Metal Products Limited 

(Ontario, Canada) 

Chicago Tool & Engineering Co (III ) 
Parker Stamp Works. Inc. (Conn.) 
Woshyna Plastic^Mold Co. (Mich.) 


Ace Tool & Mfg. Co. (N.J.) 
Big ? Boiler Works Co., The (Ohio) 
Devme, J. P. Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Diecraft (Md.) 

Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
First Machinery Corp. (N.Y.) 
International Engineering, Inc. (O.) 
Leominster Tool Co., Inc. (Mass.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N J ) 
Nooter, John Boiler Work Co. (Mo.) 
Patterson Foundry & Machine Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Struthers Wells Corp. (Pa.) 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 


Air cylinders 

Curtis Pneumatic Machinery (Mo.) 
Air hammer (to empty mold) 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Buckeye Tools Corp. (Ohio) 

Air hoists 

Curtis Pneumatic Alachinery (Mo.) 
Automatic time cycle control 


ATC CO., Inc. (Pa.) 
O'Neil-Irwin Mfg. Co. (Minn.) 

Blanking cutters 
Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Ajax-Doret Metal Products Limited 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Diecraft (Md.) 

Holm's Mfg. Company (Wis.) 
Leominster Tool Co., Inc. (Mass.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
American Blower Corp. (Mich.) 
Breuer Electric Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Buffalo Forge Company (N.Y.) 
Champion Blower & Forge Co. (Pa.) 
First Machinery Corp. (N.Y.) 
Leiman Bros., Ins. (N.J.) 

O'Neil-Irwin Mfg. Co. (Minn.) 

Cake mixers 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Carving spindle 
(to remove flash and sprue) 
Ekstrom Carlson & Co. (111.) 
Ferriot Brothers, Inc. (Ohio) 
Invincible Tool Co. (Pa.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
Severance Tool Industries. Inc. 
(Michigan ) 

Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Nooter, John, Boiler Work Co. (Mo.) 

Compressed air equipment 
Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Albert, L. &Son (N.J.) 
Aro Equipment Corporation (Ohio) 
Buckeye Tools Corp. (Ohio) 
Curtis Pneumatic Machinery (Mo.) 
Curtis Refrigerator Machine Div. 


DeVilbiss Co., The (Ohio) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Ferriot Brothers, Inc. (Ohio) 
Hy-Speed Press Co. Inc. (111.) 
Mead Specialties Co. (111.) 
Miller Motor Co. (III.) 
Nash Engineering Co. (Connecticut) 
U.S. Air Compressor Co. (Ohio) 
Cooling, shrinking fixtures 
Ace Tool & Mfg. Co. (N.J.) 
Dicing Machinery 
Taylor, Stiles & Co. (New Jersey) 

Die-Making Machines 
Oliver Instrument Co. (Michigan) 

Drill Grinders 
Oliver Instrument Co. (Michigan) 

Electric industrial trucks 
Automatic Transportation Co. (111.) 

Elevating tables 
Albert. L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baldwin Southwark Div. (Pa.) 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
Economy Engineering Co. (III.) 
Elmes Engr. Wks. of Amer. Steel 

Foundarifs (Illinois) 
Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
French Oil Well Machinery Co. (O.) 
Hamilton Tool Co., The (O.) 
Industrial Equipment Co., (N.J.) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
Loomis. Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
Lyon-Raymond Corp. (N.Y.) 

Extrusion System 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co. (O.) 

Filters, air, gas & liquid 
Dollingcr Corp. (N.Y.) 
Holm's Mfg. Co. (Wisconsin) 
Univertical Machine Co. (Michigan) 

Generators for Pre-Heating 
RCS Victor Co., Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 

American Blower Corp. (Mich.) 

Mixing bowls 

Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Nooter, John Boiler Work Co. (Mo.) 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Mold Cleaning 
Severance Tool Industries, Inc. 

Stow Manufacturing Co. (New York) 

Mold Lettering 
Pannier Bros. Stamp Co. (Pa.) 

- I i 

Motorized hand trucks 
Automatic Transportation Co. (111.) 

Preform Loader 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn.) 

Preheating ovens 
Blodgett, G. S. Co., Inc. (Vt.) 
Brosites Machine Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Despatch Oven Co. (Minn.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
Federal Telephone and Radio Corp. 

(New Jersey) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co., The 

Infra-Red Engineers & Designers 


Kirk & Blum Mfg. Co., The (Ohio) 
Knapp, James H. Co. (Calif.) 
Koch, George Sons, Inc. (Ind.) 
Leominster Tool Co., Inc. (Mass.) 
Rockwell. W. S. Company (Conn.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 
Young Bros. Co. (Michigan) 

Radio frequency heating 
RCA Victor Co.. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 

Rag clip cutter 
Taylor, Stiles & Co. (New Jersey) 


Detecto Scales Inc. (N.Y.) 
Exact Weight Scale Co., The (Ohio) 

O'Neil-Irwin Mfg. Co. (Minnesota) 

Industrial Products Suppliers (N.Y.) 

Steel plates 

Acme-Danneman Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Nooter, John Boiler Work Co. (Mo.) 
Steel Housings for Molding Presses 
Falstrom Co. (New Jersey) 
Time delay relays 
Ajax-Doret Metal Products Limited 

(Ontario, Canada) 
American Gas Furnace Co. (N.J.) 
Armstrong Bros. Engineering Co. 

Ltd. (Ontario, Canada) 
Arrowsmith Tool & Dies Co. (Calif ) 
Cramer, R. W. Co. Inc. (Conn.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 



Acromark Company, The (N.J ) 

Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 

Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Champion Blower & Forge Co. (Pa.) 
Famco Machine Company (Wis.) 
Farquhar, A. B. Company (Pa.) 
Greenerd Arbor Press Co. (N.H ) 
Hannifin Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Keckley, O. C. Co. (111.) 
Munton Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Strickcr-Brunhuher Co. (New York) 
V & O Press Co.. Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Walsh Press & Die Co. (Illinois) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 

Mead Specialties Co. (111.) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Cleveland Punch & Shear Works Co. 


Colonial Broach Co. (Mich.) 
Denison Engineering Co. (Ohio) 
Royersford Foundry & Machine Co., 

Inc. (Pennsylvania) 
Walsh Press & Die Co. (Illinois) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baldwin Southwark Division (Pa.) 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
BinUbon Steel Foundry & Machine 

Company (Pennsylvania) 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
Denison Engineering Co. (Ohio) 
Kirst M.irlminv Corn. (New York) 
French Oil V/ell Machinery Co. (O.) 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 


Altx-rt, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn ) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 

Cold molding 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baldwin Southwark Division (Pa.) 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
Dunning & Boschert Press Co. 

(New York) 

Farquhar, A. B. Company (Pa.) 
Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
Francis, Chas. E. Co. (Ind.) 
French Oil Well Machinery Co. (O.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (III.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 


imnvmncni, i-hcists) uont. 

Industrial Equipment Co. (N J ) 
Kux Machine Co. (111.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp (X y \ 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn.) I 
Stcreotex Machinery Co. (Conn.) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Watson, Stillman Co. (New Jersel 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery 
(New York) 


Adamson United Co. (111.) 

Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 

Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Baldwin Soutlnvark Division (Pa.) 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
Bawden Machine Co., Ltd., The 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Birdsboro Steel Foundry & Maclii 

Company (Pennsylvania) 
Boiling, Stewart & Co. (Ohio) 
Dorr Patterson Engr. Co. ( Michi 
Dunning & Boschert Press Co. 

(New York) 
Elmes Engr. Wks. of Amer. Steel 

Foundries (Illinois) 
Erie Engine & Mfg. Co. (Pa.) 
Farquhar, A. B. Company (Pa.) 
Parrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
French Oil Well Machinery Co. (O.jj 
Gorski Bros. (Pa.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111. ) 
Hannifin Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 
Hy-Speed Press Co. Inc. (111.) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
Industrial Equipment Co., (N.J.) 
Ingersoll Plastics Co. (N.J.) 
Johnson City Foundry (Tenn.) 
Kux Machine Co. (111.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp. (X.Y.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
McKinnon Iron Works Co. (Ohi./i 
Pomona Machine Works (California) 
Preco, Inc. (California) 
Reimuller Bros. Company (Illinois) 
Rodgers Hydraulic, Inc. (Minnesota 
Royal Moulding Co. (Rhode Island) 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn.) 
Stereotex Machinery Co. (Conn.) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery 

(New York) 

Williams, White & Co. (Illinois) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 

Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baldwin Southwark Division (Pa. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
Cavagnaro, John J., (N.J.) 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
French Oil Well Machinery Co. (0. 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
Preco, Inc. (California) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery 

(New York) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 

Taber Instrument Corp. (New York 


Ackcrman-Gould Co. (N.Y. ) 
Acromark Company, The (N.J.) 
Albert, L. &Son (N.J.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
Denison Engineering Co. (Ohio) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp. (N.Y.J 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
National Rubber Machinery Co. (O.) 
Preco, Inc. (California) 
Royersford Foundry & Machine Co., 

Inc. (Pennsylvania) 
Simplex Gold Stamping Press Co. 

(New York) 

Standard Machinery Co. (Conn.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

Vulcan Metalcraft Ltd. (Ont.. ' 
Waldron, John Corp. (New Jersey) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 
Williams, White & Co. (Illinois) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.T.) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (Ohio) ^ 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
Midwest Production Machine Co. 


Preco, Inc. (California) 
Royle, John & Sons (New Jersey) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 
(New York) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Bawd Machine Co.. Ltd., The 

I f lnl:n in. ( ';ni;itla ) 

Doerfler, L. Mfg. Co.. Inc. (N.J.) 

MARCH 1946 





If, in your product there's a compact 
little power plant commonly called a 
spring you depend on that spring to 
deliver mechanical power as planned. 
Its function may be active or passive, 
but it must perform when called upon. 
If it doesn't, the product is blamed, not 
the spring. 

Insure your product's good reputa- 
tion with springs from Accurate . . . 
where everything possible is done to 


t fails / 

give you springs you ca^i depend 
upon. Our experienced spring engin- 
eers will help you be jiure you have 
planned the right spjjing for the job . . . 
our skilled craftsman and modern ma- 
chinery assure you of fine workman- 
ship . . . and, Careful testing through 
critical stages of manufacture will give 
you springs that you can rely on to 
functioi/well and long. Call us. We'd 
like fao work with you. 

for springs 
that won't 

let your 
product down 


ACCURATE SPRING MANUFACTURING CO., 3828 W. Lake Street, Chicago 24/lllinois 


Dunning & Boschert Press Co. 

(New York) 
Elmes Engr. Wks. of Amer. Steel 

Foundries (Illinois) 
Farquhar, A. B. Company (Pa.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (New York) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 
Williams, White & Co. (Illinois) 

Hydraulic pressure boosters 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
Francis, Charles E. Co. (Ind.) 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Hy-Speed Press Co. Inc. (111.) 
Progressive Welder Co. (Michigan) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 

Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Bawden Machine Co.. Ltd., The 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Brosites Machine Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
De Mattia Machine & Tool Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Hisgen Machine Tool Wks. (Cal.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (Ohio) 
Hy-Speed Press Co., Inc. (III.) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
"Jandor Manufacturing Co. (III.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
Lester Engineering Co. (O.) 
Lester-Phoenix, Inc. (O.) 
"Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (New Jersey) 
McNeil Molding Machine Co., Inc. 


Modern Die & Mold Co. (Ill ) 
Munton Mfg. Co. (111.) 

(New York) 
"Van Dorn Iron Works Co., (Ohio) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 


Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O ) 
Hy-Speed Press Co. Inc. (111.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp. (N.Y'.) 
Lester-Phoenix, Inc. (O.) 


Adamson United Co. (Ill ) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baldwin Southwark Division (Pa.) 
Birdsboro Steel Foundry 4 Machine 

Company (Pennsylvania) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Cedar-West Tool Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Farrel-Birmingham Co.. Inc. (Conn.) 
Francis, Chas. E. Co. (Ind.) 
French Oil Mill Machinery Co. (O.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (III.) ' 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 
Johnson City Foundry (Tennj 

-- ...,~, u . ^ w , incw jersey 
Merritt Engineering and Sales Co 

Inc. (New York) 
Preco, Inc. (California) 
Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (New York) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

I New York) 

Waldron. John Corp. (New Jersey) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 
Williams, White 4 Co. (Illinois) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 


Bawden Machine Co. (Ont_ Can ) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Cincinnati Shaper Co., The (O.) 
Cleveland Punch 4 Shear Works Co 

Dunning 4 Boschert Press Co. 

(New York) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
Kux Machine Co. (III.) 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn ) 
V 4 O Press Co., Inc. (New York) 

V 4 O Press Co., Inc. (New York) 

Pneumatic Preheating 
Stereotex Machinery Co. (Conn.) 


Standard Tool Co. (Massachusetts) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 
(New York) 

Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Denison Engineering Co. (Ohio) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 


Kux Machine Co., (111.) 

Preco, Inc. Calif.) 

Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 

Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

Vulcan Metalcraft Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 


Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
"Aircraft Tools, Inc. (California) 
Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Bawden Machine Co. (Ont., Can.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Bourke 4 Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Cedar-West Tool Co.. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Cleveland Punch 4 Shear Works Co. 


Henry & Wright Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
"Holm's Manufacturing Co. (Wis.) 
Niagara Machine 4 Tool Works 

(New York) 
Royersford Foundry 4 Machine Co., 

Inc. (Pennsylvania) 
Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (New York) 
V 4 O Press Co., Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Walsh Press & Die Co. (Illinois) 

Roll leaf & hot stamping 
Ackerman-Gould Co. (N.Y.) 
Acromark Company, The (N.J.) 
Atlas Roll Leaf Corp. (N.Y.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Coughlin Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Denison Engineering Co. (Ohio) 
Kingsley Stamping Machine Co. 


Markem Machine Co. (N.H.) 
Peerless Roll Leaf Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Massachusetts) 
Vulcan Metalcraft Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 


Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 
French Oil Well Machinery Co. (O.) 

Tablet preforming 
Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Colton, Arthur Company (Mich.) 
Defiance Machine Works, Inc. (Ohio) 
Denison Engineering Co. (Ohio) 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 
Kux Machine Co. (111.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Preco. Inc. (Calif.) 
Royal Moulding Co. (Rhode Island) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 


Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Cleveland Punch 4 Shear Works Co. 

Dunning 4 Boschert Press Co. 

(New York) 

Hannifin Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
Kux Machine Co. (III.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Royal Moulding Co. (Rhode Island) 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn.) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

V 4 O Press Co., Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Walsh Press 4 Die Co. (Illinois) 


Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Bliss, E. W. Company (N.Y.) 
Defiance Machine Works, Inc. (Ohio) 
Dunning 4 Boschert Press Co. 

(New York) 
Elmes Engr. Wks. of Amer. Steel 

Foundries (111.) 
Gorski Bros. (Pa.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp. 

(New Hampshire) 
Industrial Equipment Co. (N.J.) 
Johnson City Foundry (Tenn.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
McNeil Molding Machine Co., Inc. 


Baldwin Southwark Division (Pa.) 
Birdsboro Steel Foundry 4 Machine 

Company (Pennsylvania) 
French Oil Well Machinery Co. (O.) 
Rodgers Hydraulic, Inc. (Minnesota) 
Standard Machinery Co. (Conn.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Massachusetts) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 
Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 


Adamson United Co. (III.) 
Albert. L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Dunning 4 Boschert Press Co. 
(New York) 


Elmes Engr. Wks. of Amer. Steel 

Foundries (Illinois) 
Farrell-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
Francis, Chas. E. Co. (Ind.) 
French Oil Mill Machinery Co. (O.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111.) 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. (O.) 
Lake Erie Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
Merrit Engineering & Sales Co., Inc. 

(New York) 

Rodgers Hydraulic, Inc. (Minnesota) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

Watson Stillman Co. (New Jersey) 
Williams, White 4 Co. (Illinois) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 


Automatic slicing 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 

Ball milling 

Abbe Engineering Co. (N.Y.) 
Abbe, Paul O. Inc. (N.J.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Biggs Boiler Works Co., The (Ohio) 
International Engineering, Inc. (O.) 
Patterson Foundry 4 Machine (O.) 
Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Proctor 4 Schwartz, Inc. (Pa.) 

Chemical processing 
American Products Mfg. Co. (La.) 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
Patterson Foundry 4 Machine Co., 

The (Ohio) 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 


Abbe Engineering Co. (N.Y.) 
Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Devine, J. P. Mfg. Co., Inc. (111.) 
Gruendler Crusher 4 Pulverizer Co. 


First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Improved Paper Machinery Corp., 

(New Hampshire) 
Mitts 4 Merrill (Mich.) 
Sprout, Waldron 4 Co. (Pa.) 
Union Steam Pump Co. (Michigan) 
Pulverizing Machinery Co. (N.J.) 


Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 

Crescent Machine Co., The (Ohio) 

Peerless Machine Company (Wis.) 

Abbe, Paul O. Inc. (N.J.) 

Albert, L. 4 Son (N.I.) 

Ball 4 Jewell (N.Y.) 

First Machinery Corp. (New York) 

Patterson Foundry 4 Machine Co., 
The (Ohio) 

Pulverizing Machinery Co. (N.J.) 

Raymond pulverizer, Div. Combus- 
tion Engineering Co., Inc. (111.) 

Sprout, Waldron 4 Co. (Pa.) 


Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Laboratory Specialties, Inc. (Ind.) 


Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 

Baker Perkins Inc. (Mich.) 

Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 

Coe Mfg. Co. (Ohio) 

Despatch Oven Co. (Minn.) 

Innis. Speiden 4 Co. (N.Y.) 

Johnson City Foundry (Tenn.) 

Koch, George, Sons, Inc. (Ind.) 

Lydon Brothers (N.J.) 

Patterson Foundry & Machine Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Swenson Evaporator Co. (111.) 


Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 


First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 


Abbe Engineering Co. (N.Y.) 
American Pulverizer Co. (Mo.) 
Ball 4 Jewell (N.Y.) 
Cumberland Engineering Co. (R.I.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Gruendler Crusher 4 Pulverizer Co. 


Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (New Jersey) 
Mitts 4 Merrill (Mich.) 
National Rubber Machinery Co. (O.) 
Patterson Foundry 4 Machine Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Pulverizing Machinery Co. (N.J.) 
Sprout, Waldron & Co. (Pa.) 


Granule Blending 
First Macninery Corp. (New YorH 
Patterson Foundry & Machine Coj 

The (Ohio) 

Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) J 
Sprout, Waldron & Co. (Pa.) 

Heat exchanger 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

High-speed hammer mill 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Gruendler Crusher & Pulverizer Co. 


Mitts & Merrill (Mich.) 
Pulverizing Machinery Co. (N.J.)j 
Raymond Pulverizer. Div. Cora 

tion Engineering Co., Inc. (Ill 

Kettles, Synthesizing 

Patterson Foundry & Machine 
The (Ohio) 


Abbe, Paul O. Inc. (N.J.) 
Adamson United Co. (111.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baker Perkins, Inc. (Mich.) 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
Day, J. H. Co. (Ohio) 
Farrell-Birmingham Co.. Inc. (Conn.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (Xcw Jersey> 
Patterson Foundry & Machine (O.) 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa. > 
Struthers Wells Corp. (Pa.) 


Abbe, Paul O. Inc. (NJ.) 
Adamson United Co. (111.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baker Perkins Inc. (Mich.) 

Chemical Machinery Div. 
Biggs Boiler Works Co.. The (Ohio) 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
Day, J. H. Co. (Ohio) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (ConiuB 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) ^ 
Gruendler Crusher & Pulverizer 


Johnson City Foundry (Tenn.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (New Jersey 
Patterson Foundry & Machine 

The (Ohio) 

Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Read Machinery Co.. Inc. (Pa.) 
Sprout, Waldron & Co. (Pa.) 

Plants for resin manufacture 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 


First Machinery Corp. (New York) 

International Engineering, Inc. (O.J 

Raymond Pulverizer, Div. Combur 

tion Engineering Co., Inc. (111.! 

Reaction equipment 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Ribbon blender 
Abbe, Paul O. Inc. (N.J.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Gruendler Crusher & Pulverizer i" 


International Engineering, Inc. (O. 
Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 

Roll mill 
Adamson United Co. (111.) 

Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Bawden Machine Co., Ltd., 


(Ontario, Canada) 
Day, J. H. Co., The (Ohio) 
Erie Engine & Mfg. Co. (Pa.) 
Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111.) 
Gruendler Crusher & Pulverizer Co 


Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (New Jersey) 
National Rubber Machinery Co. (O.) 
Sprout, Waldron & Co. (Pa.) 
Stewart Boiling & Co., Inc. (Ohio) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 


Abbe Engineering Co. (N.Y.) 
Albert, L. & Sun (N.I.) 
Day, J. H. Co., The (Ohio) 
First Machinery Co. (New York) 
Gruendler Crusher & Pulverizer Co. 

Patterson Foundry & Machine Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Sprout, Waldron & Co. (Pa.) 

Solvent recovery 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
American Products Mfg. Co. (La.) 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 

Ivli-e Menu linn Works (Del.) 


Indicate! laboratory equipment; ** Indicates both laboratory and production equipment. 


MARCH 1946 




Opening many new uses for plastics, Eclipse now offers you facilities for success- 
fully producing parts larger than any presently manufactured. 

TODAY this service is available at Eclipse! It will free you from size limitations 
on many profitable parts, increasing tremendously your application of INJECTION, 
and COMPRESSION moulded parts on your new products. 


Typical also of Eclipse' swift progress in plastics is a FABRICATING DEPART- 
MENT fully equipped to completely handle many of your assembly production tasks 
involving plastic parts. 

Eclipse' record of "firsts" in plastics is your constant assurance of a profitable 
solution to your plastic moulding problems for today's and tomorrow's needs. 
Write, or send blueprint for quotation and suggestions. 


Division of General American Transportation Corporation 



LRCH 1946 




Vacuum mixer 
Abbe, Paul O. Inc. (X.J.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baker Perkins Inc. (Mich.) 

Chemical Machinery Div. 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pa.) 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
International Engineering, Inc (O ) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (X.J.) 
Patterson Foundry & Machine Co , 

The (Ohio) 

Read Machinery Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Youngstown Miller Co. (New Jersey) 


Air compressor 
Albert, L. & Son (X.J.) 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. (Wis.) 
Curtis Refrigerator Machine Div. 


DeVilbiss Co., The (Ohio) 
Miller-Simons, Inc. (Illinois) 
Nash Engineering Co. (Conn.) 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (Illinois) 


Adamson United Co. (Ill ) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
Grant Research Laboratory (111 ) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (N.J.) 
National Rubber Machinery Co. (O ) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 
(New York) 

Centrifugal lacquer coater 
Barrett, Leon J. Co. (Mass.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 

American Name Plate & Mfg. Co. 

Hanson-Van Winkle-Munning Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Munning & Munning. Inc. (N.J.) 
Wickman, A. C., Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 


Bird & Son. Inc. (Massachusetts) 
Francis, Chas. E. Co. (Ind.) 
Industrial Oven Engr. Co. (Ohio) 
Plastic Lining Corporation (Illinois) 

Precision Scientific Co. (Illinois) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

Waldron, John Corp. (New Jersey) 
Convection paint, lacquer drying 


Blodgett, G. S. Co., Inc. (Vt.) 
Industrial Oven Engr. Co. (Ohio) 
Koch, George, Sons, Inc. (Ind.) 
Lydon Brothers (N.J.) 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (Illinois) 
Rockwell, W. S. Company (Conn.) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (NY) 
Trent, Harold E. (Pennsylvania) 
Young & Bertke Co. (Ohio) 
Young Brothers Co. (Michigan) 

Dip tank 

Aeroii Products Company (N.J ) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co , 

The (Ohio) 

Young & Bertke Co. (Ohio) 
Young Brothers Co. (Michigan) 
Youngstown Miller Co. (New Jersey) 

American Name Plate & Mfg. Co. 

Federal Telephone and Radio Corp. 

(New Jersey) 
Munning & Munning, Inc. (N.J.) 

Glue spreader (padder) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Infra-red drying oven 
Despatch Oven Co. (Minn.) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co 

The (Ohio) 

Infra-Red Engrs. & Designers (O.) 
No. American Elec. Lamp Co. (Mo.) 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (Illinois) 
Rockwell, W. S. Company (Conn.) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Young & Bertke Co. (Ohio) 
Young Brothers Co. (Michigan) 


Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Waldron, John Corp. (New Jersey) 


Hanson-Van Winkle-Munning Co. 
(New Jersey) 


Albert. L. & Son (N.J.) 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. (Wis.) 
Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 
(New York) 


Roll coating 

Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Conn.) 
Francis, Chas. E. Co. (Ind.) 
Industrial Oven Engr. Co. (Ohio) 
Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc. (N.J.) 
Waldron, John Corp. (Xew Jersey) 


Aeroil Products Company (N.J.) 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, The (Pa.) 
Binks Mfg. Co. (Illinois) 
DeVilbiss Co., The (Ohio) 
Eclipse Air Brush Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
Hockaday Aircraft Corp. (Calif.) 
Milburn, Alexander Co. (Md.) 
Miller-Simons, Inc. (Illinois) 
Minnesota Mining & Mfg. (Minn.) 
Xooter, John Boiler Works Co. (Mo.) 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (Illinois) 
Spray Engineering Co. (Mass.) 

Tank, rubber lined 
Buffalo Tank Corp. (New Jersey) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (N.J.) 



Adamson United Co. (111.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Baldwin Southward Division (Pa.) 
Biggs Boiler Works Co., The (Ohio) 
Devine, J. P. Mfg. Co., Inc. (111.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
First Machinery Corp. (New York) 
International Engineering, Inc. (O.) 
Loomis, Evarts G. Co. (New Jersey) 
Midvale Company, The (Pa.) 
Patterson Foundry & Machine Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Precision Scientific Co. (Illinois) 
Struthers Wells Corp. (Pa.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 

Bag Mold 
Biggs Boiler Works Co., The (Ohio) 

Dip tank 

Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Biggs Boiler Works Co., The (Ohio) 
Buffalo Tank Corp. (New Jersey) 
Detrex Corp. (Michigan) 
Devine, J. P. Mfg. Co., Inc. (111.) 
International Engineering, Inc. (O.) 

Dryer, convection 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Blodgett. G. S. Co. Inc. (Va.) 
Brosites Machine Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Despatch Oven Co. (Minn.) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Koch, George, Sons Inc. (Ind.) 
Lydon Brothers (N.J.) 
Rockwell, W. S. Company (Conn.) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Trent, Harold E. (Pennsylvania) 
Young Brothers Co. (Michigan) 

Dryer, radiant 
Despatch Oven Co. (Minn.) 
Fostoria Pressed Steel Corp. (O.) 
No. American Elec. Lamp Co. (Mo.) 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (Illinois) 
Rockwell, W. S. Company (Conn.) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Techtmann Industries. Inc. (Wis.) 
Young Brothers Co. (Michigan) 

Glue Heater 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Devine, J. P. Mfg. Co., Inc. (111.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
Francis, Chas. E. Co. (Ind.) 
New Advance Machinery Co. (Ohio) 

Impregnating Systems 
Barrett, Leon J. Co. (Massachusetts) 
Blaw-Knox Company (Pennsylvania) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co., 

The (Ohio) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 


Adamson United Co. (111.) 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (N.J.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co. 

(New York) 
Wood, R. D. Co. (Pennsylvania) 

Squeeze roll 
Albert, L. 4 Son (N.J.) 
Industrial Oven Engineering Co., 

The (Ohio) 
Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 


Industrial Oven Engineering Co., 

The (Ohio) 

Ross, J. O. Engineering Corp. (N.Y.) 
Waldron, John Corp. (N.J.) 

Vacuum filter 
Dollinger Corp. (N.Y.) 

Vacuum Gages 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 

Vacuum pump accessories 
Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. (Wis.) 
Devine, J. P. Manufacturing Co., Inc. 


First Machinery Corp. (N.Y.) 
Kinney Mfg. Co. (Mass.) 
Laboratory Specialties, Inc. (Ind.) 
Laramert and Mann Co. (111.) 
Leiman Bros., Inc. (N.J.) 
Merritt Engineering & Sales Co., Inc. 

(New York) 

Nash Engineering Co. (Conn.) 
Pennsylvania Pump & Compressor 

Co. (Pa.) 

Porter, H. K. Co., Inc. (Pa.) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Union Steam Pump Co. (Mich.) 
Worthington Pump & Machinery 

Corp. (N.J.) 

Vacuum tank 
Buffalo Tank Corp. (N.J.) 
Edge Moor Iron Works (Del.) 
Lammert and Mann Co. (111.) 
Stokes, F. J. Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Struthers Wells Corp. (Pa.) 


Aero Complications, Inc. (N.Y.) 
Airtronics Manufacturing Company 


Ajax Electrothermic Corp. (N.J.) 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. (Wis.) 
Amaron Manufacturing Corporation 


Barker & Williamson (Pa.) 
Belmont Radio Corp. (111.) 
Branston Electric Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
Budd Induction Heating, Inc. (Mich.) 
Bunnell, J. H. & Co. (N.Y.) 
Burdick Corporation, The (Wis.) 
Cyclonics Mfg. Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
De Forest, Lee Labs. (Calif.) 
Ecco High Frequency Electric Corp. 

(New Jersey) 

Federal Electric Co., Inc. (III.) 
Federal Telephone and Radio Corp. 

(New Jersey) 
Girdler Corp., The (Ky.) 

Thermex Division 
H & A Manufacturing Co., Inc. 

(New York) 
Illinois Tool Works, Electronics Div. 


Induction Heating Corp. (N.Y.) 
"Industrial Machinery Co. (N.J.) 
Intra-Therm Corporation (Iowa) 
Johnson, E. F. Co. (Minn.) 
Kurman Electric Co. (N.Y.) 
LaRose, W. T. Co. (N.Y.) 
Lepel High Frequency Laboratories, 

Inc. (X.Y.I 

Northwest Syndicate, Inc. (Wash.) 
Ohio Crankshaft Co., The (Ohio) 
Operadio Mfg. Co. (111). 
Precision Scientific Co. (III.) 
Radio Frequency Labs., Inc. (N.J.) 
Radio Receptor Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Ripley Company, The (Conn.) 
"S" Corrugated Quenched Gap Co. 


Sherron Metallic Corp. (N.Y.) 
Sylvania Electronics Products, Inc. 


United Cinephone Corp. (Conn.) 
United Electronics Co. (N.J.) 
Westinghouse Electric Corp. (Pa.) 
Wiegand, Edwin L. Co. (Pa.) 


Abrasive discs 
Gardner Machine Co. (Wis.) 
Abrasive materials 
American Rotary Tools Company, 

Inc. (New York) 
Bourke & Mabce (Ont., Can.) 
Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel 

Co., Inc. (Connecticut) 
Burns, E. Reed Mfg. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Clover Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Divine Brothers Co. (N.Y.) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Eagle Grinding Wheel Co. (III.) 
Formax Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Griffiths, K. F. & Co. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Hanson-Van Winkle-Munning Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Innis, Speiden & Co. (N.Y.) 
Lea Manufacturing Co., The (Conn.) 
Manderscheid Company, The (III.) 
McAleer Manufacturing Co. (Mich.) 

ll.) ' 



Mead Specialties Co. (111.) 
Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co. j 


Neal & Brinker Co. (N.Y.) 
Norton Company (Mass.) 
Precise Product Co. (Wis.) 
Severance Tool Industries, i 


United Laboratories Co. (N.J. 
Wagner, Charles A. Co., Inc. ( 

Attachments for lathes 
Enco Manufacturing Co. (111.) 1 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Carboloy Company, Inc. (Mich.) 
Colonial Bushings, Inc. (Mich.) 1 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (X.J.) 1 

Belts, belting 
American Rotary Tools Company, 

Inc. (New York) 
Hewitt Rubber Corp. (X.Y.) 
Production Machine Co. i M 
Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc. (X.J.) 

Buffing, polishing compounds 
Aero Tool & Die Works (111.) 
American Rotary Tools Co. (X.Y.) 
Belke Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Burns. K. Reed Mfg. Cor,). (X.Y. 
Canadian Hanson & Van \\ inkle Co. 

Limited (Ontario, Canada) 
Divine Brothers Co. (N.Y.) 
Formax Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Great American Color Co. (Ca 
Griffiths, K. F. & Co. Inc. (X.Y.) 
Hanson-Van Winkle-Munning Co.1 

(New Jersey) 

Innis, Speiden & Co. (N.Y.) 
Lea Manufacturing Co., The (Conn. 
Manderscheid Company. The i 111 
McAleer Manufacturing ' 
Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co. i 


Frederic B. Stevens, Inc. (Mich.) 
United Laboratories Co. (X.J.) 
Universal Tumbling Compound* | 


Aircraft Screw Products Com^ 

Inc. (New York) 
Carboloy Company, Inc. (Mich.) 
Colonial Bushings, Inc. (Mich.) 
Industrial Research Laboratorie 

Ltd. (Calif.) 

Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. ( 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., 

Carbide & cast alloys 
Jessop Steel Co. (Pa.) 

Chemicals (for electroplating) 
Special Chemicals Co. (X.Y.) 

American Rotary Tools Company, 

Inc. (N.Y.) 

Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Errington Mechanical Lab. (-V 
Logansport Machine Co., Inc. ft 
Westcott Chuck Company (N.Y. 
Woodworth, N. A. Co. (Mich.) 

Adjustable Clamp Co. (111.) 
Detroit Stamping Co. (Mich.) 
Grand Specialties Co. (111.) 
Knu-Vise, Inc. (Mich ) 
Lcominster Tool Co., Inc. i Ma- 
Mead Specialties Co. (111.) 
Mechanics Engineering Co. (Ml 
Tinnerman Products.. Inc. (( 

Amaron Manufacturing Corporatifl 


McAleer Manufacturing Co. (Mia 
Merix Anti-Fog (111.) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Eclipse-Pioneer Division (N.J.) 

Bendix Aviation Corporation 
Farrel-Birmingham Co., Inc. (Cone* 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co. J 


Lovejoy Flexible Coupling Co. (I 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (111.) 

Fastening devicet 
Accurate Threaded Fasteners (III.) 
Adjustable Clamp Co. (I"-) 
American Screw Co. (R-L) 
Boots Aircraft Nut Corp. (Conn.) I 
Central Screw Company (111.) 
Cherry Rivet Company (Calif.) 
Continental Screw Co. (Mass . > 
Dzus Fastener Company, Inc. (N.lOj 
Grand Specialties Co. (III.) 
Hassall, John Inc. (N.Y.) 
Illinois Tool Works, Electronics 

Div. (Illinois) 
Industrial Screw Co.. (111.) 
Lamson & Sessions Co., The (O.) 
Manufacturers Screw Products (111. 
Mechanics Engineering Co. (Mich.) 
Milford Rivet & Machine Co. (Ohio) 


* Indicates laboratory equipment; Indicates both laboratory and production equipment. 


MARCH 1946- 

u. 1. Biggs autoclave with quick-opening door equipped 
th special heating manifolds and circulating fan tor con- 
>1 of temperature gradients throughout the unit. . . . Fig. 2. 
tecial autoclave with quick-opening door tor bag molding 
plastic bonded fabrics, metals, or molded plywood. Fur- 
nished in all sizes and for pressures up to 400 psi. 

'""OR over 50 years "Biggs Built" equipment has served the 
- chemical and allied processing industries. Today Biggs auto- 
:laves, mixing kettles, and special welded steel and alloy pres- 
lure vessels are available in a variety of types and sizes for the 
sfficient processing of plastics and resins. 

jjiggs autoclaves with quick-opening doors are in use for the 
aressure molding of thermoplastics and laminated phenolics. 
They can be furnished in single-shell construction with heating 
;oils, baffles, and fans for controlling temperature gradients, or 
>f jacketed construction, and in a wide range of sizes and 
forking pressures. 

lodern plant facilities guided by mature experiences are your 
assurance that Biggs is a reliable and dependable source of 
supply for many and varied types of special processing equip- 
ment. Our manufacturing facilities are at your disposal. 

Fig. 3. Nickel-clad jacketed mixing kettle for the 
phenolic resin and chemical industries. . . . Fig. 4. 
Steam-jacketed laboratory reactor. Outside shell 
of carbon steel; inside shell 18-8 stainless steel. 
Special agitator . . . Fig. 5. Stainless steel welded 
kettle and condenser. Kettle is complete with re- 
movable cover and special agitators. 




Write now for a copy of our 

profusely illustrated Bulletin 

No. 45 

MARCH 1946 




National Screw & Mfg. Co. (Ohio) 
New England Screw Co. (N.H.) 
Parker-Kalon Corporation (N.Y.) 
Pheoll Mfg. Co. (ill.) 
Scovill Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Shakeproof, Inc. (111.) 
Simmons Fastener Corp. (N.Y.) 
Tinnerman Products. Inc. (Ohio) 

Felt wheels 
Griffiths, K. F. & Co. Inc. (N.Y.) 

Penn Fibre & Specialty Co. (Pa.) 

Gold, Silver roll leaf 
Peerless Roll Leaf Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Simplex Gold Stamping Press Co. 
(New York) 

Hose, tubings, fittings 
American Brass Co. (Conn.) 

American Metal Hose Branch 
Chicago Metal Hose Corp. (111.) 
DeVilbiss Co., The (Ohio) 
Eclipse-Pioneer Division (N.J.) 

Bendix Aviation Corporation 
Hewitt Rubber Corp. (N.Y.) 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Keystone Brass Works, Inc. (Pa.) 
Paasche Airbrush Co. (111.) 
Pennsylvania Flexible Metallic 

Tubing Co. (Pa.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (N.J.) 
Resistoflex Corp. (N.J.) 
Seamlex Company, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Aircraft Screw Products Company, 

Inc. (New York) 
Industrial Screw Co. (111.) 
Jessop Steel Co. (Pa.) 
Lamspn & Sessions Co., The (O.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
Manufacturers Screw Products (II!.) 
Milford Rivet & Machine Co. (Ohio) 
National Screw & Mfg. Co. (Ohio) 
Phonograph Needle Mfg. Co., Inc. 


Scovill Mfg. Company (Conn.) 
Steinen, Win. Mfg. Co. (N.J.) 
Thwing-Albert Instrument Co. (III.) 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 

Jigs, fixtures 
Ace Tool & Mfg. Co. (N.J.) 
Acromark Company, The (N.J.) 
Adjustable Clamp Co. (111.) 
Adroit Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
Ajax-Doret Metal ProducU 

Limited (Ont.) 
Art Plastic Co. (N.Y.) 
Bawden Machine Co., Ltd., The 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Berham, Philip A. & Associates 

Columbia Engineering Co., Inc. 

Ekstrom Carlson & Co. (III.) 
Errington Mechanical Lab. (N.Y ) 
Freitag, R. H. Mfg. Co., The (O.) 
Hamilton Tool Co., The (O.) 
Keystone Machine Corp. (N.J ) 
Kunst, John, Co. (N.Y.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
Mead Specialties Co. (III.) 
Mechanics Engineering Co. (Mich.) 
Modem Tool & Die Co., Inc. (Mass ) 
Monarch Governor Co. (Mich.) 
Pond Engineering Co. (Mass.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass ) 
Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (N.Y.) 
U. S. Industrial Plastics Co. (N.Y.) 
Thwing-Albert Instrument Co. (111.) 
Univertical Machine Co. (Mich.) 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Woodworth, N. A. Co. (Mich.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 

Joints, flexible 
Albert, L. it Sons (N.J.) 
American Brass Co. (Conn.) 

American Metal Hose Branch 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Chicago Metal Hose Corp. (III.) 
Aluminum Co. of America (Pa.) 
Bead Chain Mfg. Co.. The (Conn.) 
Central Screw Company (111.) 
Flexo Supply Company (Mo.) 
Loomis. Evarti G. Co. (N J ) 
Pennsylvania Flexible Metallic Tub- 
ing Co. (Pennsylvania) 

Joints, Swivel 
Chiksan Company (Calif.) 
Joints, universal 
Albert, L. & Sons (N.J.) 
Gear Grinding Machine Co. (Mich.) 

Low Pressure Molding Bags 
Resistoflex Corp. (N.J.) 
Tyer Rubber Company (Mass.) 

Marking inks 
Melind, Louis Co. (111.) 

Marking pencils 
Blaisdell Pencil Co. (-Pa.) 


[MAbmncni, aurrLicsj bum, 

Metal, plastics findings 
Stekert, Martin M. (N.Y.) 
Metal Powders 
Magna Mfg. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 

Paint color filler 
Lincoln Products Co. (Ind.) 
Paint Sticks for Marking, Stamping 
Markal Company (111.) 

Refractory Materials 
Norton Company (Mass.) 
Frederic B. Stevens, Inc. (Mich.) 

Roll leaf for marking 
Atlas Roll Leaf Corp. (N.Y.) 

Shipping Drums 
Carpenter Container Corp. (N.Y.) 
New England Box Co., The (Mass.) 

Steel (for molds, dies, hobs) 
Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. (Pa.) 
Atlas Steels Limited (Ont., Can.) 
Baron Steel Co. (O.) 
Carpenter Steel Company, The (Pa.) 
Disston, Henry & Sons, Inc. (Pa.) 
Holliday, W. J. & Co. (Ind.) 
Jessop Steel Co. (Pa.) 
Jorgensen, Earle M.. Co. (Calif.) 
Latrobe Electric Steel Co. (Pa.) 
Vanadium-Alloys Steel Co. (Pa.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 
Ziv Steel & Wire Co. (111.) 

Vibration absorbers 
Chicago Metal Hose Corp. (111.) 
Eclipse-Pioneer Division (N.J.) 

Bendix Aviation Corporation 
Pennsylvania Flexible Metallic Tub- 
ing Co. (Pa.) 

Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (N.J.) 
Seamlex Company, Inc. (N.Y.) 

Grand Specialties Co. (111.) 


Continental Screw Co. (Mass.) 
Industrial Screw Co. (111.) 
Industrial Products Suppliers (N.Y.) 
Lamson & Sessions Co.. The (O.) 
Manufacturers Screw Products (III.) 
Penn Fibre & Specialty Co. (Pa.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (N.J.) 
Shakeproof, Inc. (111.) 


Abrasive, coated 
Armour & Company (111.) 
Armour Sandpaper Works (111.) 
Carborundum Company, The (N.Y.) 
Clover Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Divine Brothers Co. (N.Y.) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Formax Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Mead Specialties Co. (111.) 
Norton Company (Mass.) 

Abrasive roll, point 
Armour Sandpaper Works (111.) 
Burns, E. Reed Mfg. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Clover Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Eagle Grinding Wheel Co. (111.) 
Field Abrasive Specialty Mfg. Co. 


Formax Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Norton Company (Mass.) 
Severance Tool Industries, Inc. 


Abrasive wheel 
Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Beyil Company (Calif.) 
Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co., 

Inc. (Connecticut) 

Carborundum Company, The (N.Y.) 
Clover Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Continental Machines. Inc. (Minn.) 
Covel-Hanchctt Co. (Mich.) 
Crescent Machine Co. (Ohio) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Eagle Grinding Wheel Co. (111.) 
Formax Mfg. Co. (Mich.) 
Hockaday Aircraft Corp. (Calif.) 
Holm's Manufacturing Co. (Wis.) 
Merit Products Inc. (Cal.) 
Munning & Munning, Inc. (N.J.) 
Neal & Brinker (N.Y.) 
Norton Company (Mass.) 
Precise Product Company (Wis.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc. (N.J.) 
Safety Grinding Wheel & Machine 

Co. (Ohio) 
Severance Tool Industries, Inc. 


Acid Etching 
Preis, H. P., Engraving Machine Co. 

(New Jersey) 

Ashing wheel 

Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Arclay Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Betilite Co. Inc. (N.J.) 
Burns, E. Reed Mfg. Corp. (N.Y.) 
Divine Brothers Co. (N.Y.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 

runminuj bum. 

Colonial Broach Co. (Mich.) 

Balancing Tools 
Anderson Bros. Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Divine Brothers Co. (N.Y.) 
Ideal Commutator Dresser Co. (111.) 

Beaded Eye 
Taber Instrument Corp. (N.Y.) 


Able Machine and Tool Works 
(New York) 


Ansonia Clock Company, Inc., The 
Betilite Co. Inc. (N.J.) 
Cincinnati Shaper Co., The (O.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Laboratory Specialties, Inc. (Ind.) 
National Bronze Studios (Calif.) 
O'Neil-Irwin Mfg. Co. (Minn.) 
Pedrick Tool & Machine Co. (Pa.) 
Taber Instrument Corp. (N.Y.) 


Beech Manufacturing Company (Pa.) 
Hammond Machinery Builders, Inc. 


Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
National Bronze Studios (Calif.) 
Precise Product Company (Wis.) 
Stanley Electric Tools (Conn.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 


Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
Beech Manufacturing Company (Pa.) 
Black & Decker Mfg. Co., The (Md.) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Cedar-West Tool Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Ex-Cell-O Corp. (Mich.) 
Holm's Manufacturing Co. (Wis.) 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Invincible Tool Co. (Pa.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Kearney & Trecket Corp. (Wis.) 
Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co. 

Oliver Machinery Co. (Mich.) 
Pratt & Whitney (Conn.) 
Rickert-Shafer Co. (Pa.) 
Rivet Lathe & Grinder, Inc. (Mass.) 
Root, B. M. Company (Pa.) 
Van Dora Electric Tool Co. (Md.) 
Wetmore Reamer Co. (Wis.) 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 

O'Neil-Irwin Mfg. Co. (Minn.) 

American Broach & Machine Co. 


Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. (O.) 
Colonial Broach Co. (Mich.) 
Ex-Cell-O Corp. (Mich.) 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Oilgear Company, The (Wis.) 


Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
American Buff Company (111.) 
Arclay Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Baldor Electric Company (Mo.) 
Betilite Co. Inc. (N.J.) 
Black & Decker Mfg. Co., The (Md.) 
Buckeye Tools Corp. (Ohio) 
Canadian Hanson & Van Winkle Co. 

Limited (Ontario, Canada) 
Cincinnati Electrical Tool Co. (Ohio) 
Codman, F. L. & J. C. Co. (Mass.) 
Detroit Surfacing Machine Co. 


Divine Brothers Co. (N.Y.) 
Gray Motor and Tool Co., Inc. 

(New York) 
Hammond Machinery Builders, Inc. 

Hanson-Van Winkle-Munning Co. 

(New Jersey) 
Haskins, R. G. Co. (111.) 
Hisey-Wolf Machine Co. (Ohio) 
Holm's Mfg. Company (Wis.) 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Jackson Buff Corporation (N.Y.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Lea Manufacturing Co., The (Conn.) 
Leominster Tool Co.. Inc. (Mass.) 
McAleer Manufacturing Co. (Mich.) 
Munning & Munning, Inc. (N.J.) 
National Bronze Studios (Calif.) 
Packer Machine Co. (Conn.) 
Precise Product Company (Wis.) 
Production Machine Co. (Mass.) 
Standard Electrical Tool Co. (Ohio) 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 
Stow Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.) 
United Laboratories Co. (N.J.) 
Van Dorn Electric Tool Co. (Md.) 


Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
Arclay Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Aro Equipment Corporation, The 

Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 

runmiNtiJ Conl. 

Boice-Crane Company (Ohio! 
Divine Brothers Co. (N Y ) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Hammond Machinery Builders, Int 


Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co 


Invincible Tool Co. (Pa.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Lea Manufacturing Co., The (C 
Mead Specialties Co. (111.) 
Oliver Machinery Co. (Mich.) 
Precise Product Company (Wis.) 
Schauer Machine Company (Ohi 
Severance Tool Industries, Inc. 


Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 
Stow Manufacturing Co. (N.Y.] 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., 

Able Machine and Tool Work 

(New York) 

Chip-breaking grinder 
Albert, L. & Sons (N.J.) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Hammond Machinery Builders, 


Holm's Mfg. Company (Wis.) 
Mitts & Merrill (Mich.) 
Stow Manufacturing Co. 


Able Machine and Tool Work. 

(New York) 


Albert, L. & Son (N.J.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
American Emery Wheel Works 

(Rhode Island) 

Arclay Plastics Products (Calif. 
Beech Manufacturing Company ( 
Boice-Crane Company (Ohio) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Carboloy Company, Inc. (Mich.) 
Cincinnati Electrical Tool Co. (Ohio) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Eagle Grinding Wheel Co. (111.) 
Electric Heater Co. The (Conn. 
Holm's Manufacturing Co. (Wis. 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Neal & Brinker Co. (N.Y.) 
Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. (Conn. 
Peerless Machine Co. (Wis.) 
Pond Engineering Co. (Mass.) 
Raybestos-Manhattan. Inc. (N.J. 
Rivet Lathe & Grinder, Inc. (Ma 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 
Walker-Turner Company, Inc. (N.J. 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., ( 


Able Machine and Tool Works 

(New York) 

Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
Ansonia Clock Company, Inc. (N. 
Beech Manufacturing Company (" 
Betilite Co. Inc. (N.J.) 
Boice-Crane Company (Ohio) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Carboloy Company, Inc. (Mich.) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Eagle Grinding Wheel Co. (111.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
Ex-Cell-O Corp. (Mich.) 
Ferriot Brothers, Inc. (Ohio) 
Ford, M. A. Mfg. Co. Inc. (la.) 
Genesee Tool Co. (Mich.) 
Grobet File Co. of America (N.Y.] 
Holm's Mfg. Company (Wis.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
McCrosky Tool Corporation (Pa.) 
Michigan Tool Co. (Mich.) 
Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co. 


National Bronze Studios (Calif.) 
Onsrud Machine Works, Inc. (111.) 
Peck. Stow & Wilcox Co. (Conn.) I 
Precise Product Co. (Wis.) 
Spadone Machine Co. (N.Y.) 
Tungsten Carbide Tool Co. (Mich.) 
Vulcan Metalcraft Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 
Walker-Turner Company, Inc. (N.J.) 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) I 

Frisch, Arthur Co. (N.Y.) 
Hulbert Engineering Corp. (Wis.) ' 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 9 
"ordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
ickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont, Can.) 1 

Baldwin Southwark Division (Pa.) 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
Birdsboro Steel Foundry & Machine 


Bourke & Mabee (Ont, Can.) 
DoAll Co., (The (Minn.) 
Henry & Wright Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Ideal Commutator Dresser Co. (111.) 
I .uma Electric Equipment Co. (O.) 
Reimuller Bros. Co. (111.) 
Verson Allsteel Press Co. (111.) 

Die cutting 

Accurate Steel-Rule Die Manufac- 
turers (N.Y.) 

MARCH 1946 






Illustrated are but a few of the many 
applications of HAWLEY versatile plastic 
materials . . . Practical solutions to the 
complex problems of difficult contours . . 
pliability of formulations . . . uniform, 
or variable thickness, with precision to 
close tolerances. MOULDED FIBRE 
materials of wide adaptation to a variety 
of technics that lend themselves success- 
fully to the manifold performances and 
production requirements... HAWLEY plas- 
tic materials have countless applications 
in many products your product perhaps. 

If you want to improve your old prod- 
uct, or produce a new one, we'll be glad 
to discuss your problems... .and show you 





Die marking 
Acroraark Company, The (X.J.) 
Adams Company, S. G. (Mo.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
Defiance Machine & Tool Co., Inc. 


Ideal Commutator Dresser Co. (111.) 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Gottscho, Adolph Inc. (N.Y.) 
Leominster Tool Co., Inc. (Mass.) 
Parker Stamp Works, Inc., (Conn.) 
Pannier Bros. Stamp Co. (Pa.) 
New Method Steel Stamps, Inc. 

Wright, Greg G. & Sons (N.Y.) 

Die Shoe 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 

Able Machine and Tool Works 

Acme Marking Equipment Co. 



Aaron Machinery Co. (N.Y.) 
Ace Drill Corp. (Mich.) 
Aero Tool & Die Works (111.) 
Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
Ansonia Clock Company, Inc., The 
Arclaj Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Aro Equipment Corp.. The (Ohio) 
Avery Drilling Machine Co., (Ky.) 
Barber, F. F. -Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Betilite Co. Inc. (N.J.) 
Black & Decker Mfg. Co., The (Md.) 
Boice-Crane Company (Ohio) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Buckeye Tools Corp. (Ohio) 
Buffalo Forge Company (N.Y.) 
Canedy Otto Mfg. Co. (III.) 
Cincinnati Electrical Tool Co. (Ohio) 
Cleveland Twist Drill Co. (Ohio) 
Commander Manufacturing Co. (111.) 
Dunmore Company, The (Wis ) 
Electric Heater Co. The (Conn.) 
Frew Machine Co., The (Pa.) 
Greenfield Tap it Die Corp. (Mass.) 
Grobet File Co. of America (N.Y.) 
Hockaday Aircraft Corp. (Calif.) 
Holm's Manufacturing Co. (Wis ) 
Hydraulic Machinery Inc. (Mich.) 
Independent Pneumatic Tool Co 


Invincible Tool (Co. (Penna.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Karelsen, E. Inc. (N.Y.) 
Kelt Tool Co., The (Ohio) 
Mall Tool Company (111.) 
Misener Mfg. Co., Inc. (N.Y.) 
Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co. 


National Bronze Studios (Calif ) 
Neal & Brinker Co. (N.Y.) 
Precise Product Co. (Wis ) 
Slcilsaw, Inc. (III.) 
Standard Tool Co. (Mass.) 
Stow Manufacturing Co. (X.Y ) 
United States Electrical Tool Co 


Van Dorn Electric Tool Co. (Md.) 
Walker-Turner Company. Inc. (N.I.) 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 

Drill press 

Aero Tool 4 Die Works (111.) 
Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Allite Mfg. Company (Calif.) 
Arclay Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Atlas Press Company (Mich.) 
Avery Drilling Machine Co., (Ky ) 
Barber, F. F. Machinery Company 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Betilite Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Boice-Crane Company (Ohio) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Buffalo Forge Company (N.Y.) 
Canedy Otto Mfg. Co. (111.) 
Champion Blower & Forge Co. (Pa.) 
Electric Heater Co., The (Conn.) 
Frisch, Arthur Co. (N.Y.) 
Gray Motor A Tool Co., Inc. (N.Y ) 
Haskins. R. G. Co. (III.) 
Henry & Wright Mfg. Co. (Conn.) 
Hockaday Aircraft Corp. (Calif.) 
Holm's Mfg. Company (Wis.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Laboratory Specialties, Inc. (Ind.) 
Leominster Tool Co., Inc. (Mass.) 
National Bronze Studios (Calif.) 
Neal & Brinker Co. (N.Y.) 
Pond Engineering Co. (Mass.) 
Power King Tool Corp. (Ind.) 
Royersford Foundry & Machine Co., 

Inc. (Pennsylvania) 
Walker-Turner Company. Inc. (N.J.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 

Drill press attachments 
Invincible Tool Co. (Pa.) 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Co., The 


Gorton, George Machine Co. (Wis.) 
Spiegel Sales Co. (Mich.) 
Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (N.Y.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 



Edging or trimming 
Ajax-Doret Metal Products Limited 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Apollo Metal \\orks (111.) 
Aro Equipment Corp., The (Ohio) 
Beech Manufacturing Co. (Pa.) 
Boice-Crane Company (Ohio) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Onsrud -Machine Works, Inc. (111.) 
Severance Tool Industries, Inc. 


V & O Press Co., Inc., The (N.Y.) 
Wickman, A. C. Ltd. (Ont., Can.) 

Elect, ical etching 
DoAll Co., The (Minn.) 
Ideal Commutator Dresser Co. (111.) 
Luma Electric Equipment Co. (O. ) 
Preis, H. P., Engraving Machine Co. 
(New Jersey) 


Ackerman-Gould Co. (N.Y.) 
Acme Marking Equipment Co. 


Acromark Company, The (N.J.) 
Adams Company, S. G. (Mo.) 
Baldwin Southwark Div. (Pa.) 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, The 
Cavagnaro, John J. (N.J.) 
Coughlin Mfg. Co. (N.Y.) 
French Oil Well Machinery (Ohio) 
Frisch, Arthur Co. (N.Y.) 
Gottscho, Adolph Inc. (N.Y.) 
Griffin, Campbell, Hayes, Walsh, Inc. 

(New York) 

Lansky Die Cutting Co. (N.Y.) 
Markem Machine Co. (N.H.) 
Moss, Samuel H. Inc. (N.Y.) 
New Method Steel Stamps, Inc. 


Pannier Bros. Stamp Co. (Pa.) 
Peerless Roll Leaf Co., Inc. (N.J.) 
Simplex Gold Stamping Press Co. 

(New York) 

Sossner Steel Stamps (N.Y.) 
Universal Hydraulic Machinery Co, 

(New York) 

Waldron, John Corp. (N.J.) 
Wright, Greg G. & Sons (N.Y.) 


Ackerman-Gpuid Co. (N.Y.) 
Acme Marking Equipment Co. 


Acromark Company, The (N.J.) 
Adams Company, S. G. (Mo.) 
Auto Engraver Co. (N.Y.) 
Calibrated Instruments (N.Y.) 
Gorton, George Machine Co. (Wis.) 
Jordan Industries (Ont., Can.) 
Moss, Samuel H. Inc. (N.Y.) 
New Method Steel Stamps, Inc. 


Pannier Bros. Stamp Co. (Pa.) 
Parker Stamp Works. Inc. (Conn.) 
Precise Product Co. (Wis.) 
Preis, H. P., Engraving Machine Co. 

(New Jersey) 
Severance Tool Industries, Inc. 


Stricker-Brunhuber Co. (N.Y.) 
Thwing-Albert Instrument Co. (III.) 
Woshyna Plastic Mold Co. (Mich.) 
Wright, Greg G. & Sons (N.Y.) 


Aircraft Tools, Inc. (Calif.) 
Ajax-Doret Metal Products Limited 

(Ontario, Canada) 
Arclay Plastics Products (Calif.) 
Atkins and Company, E. C. (Ind.) 
Boice-Crane Company (Ohio) 
Bourke & Mabee (Ont., Can.) 
Cedar-West Tool Co., Inc. (N.Y