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Full text of "Plate Glass"

CA&MEG1* I 

Of 





PLATE 
GLASS 





r* 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



; GLASS MERE - PENNS Y L VA N I A - USA 




PL u K r.n^H, as nKUit . hy rilt . \i; CJ h,. ni p., rt 
Glass Company, ; s a pmdiicr n the hijh^r '^ua.-*v 
because ir is made t:f the iine>r :r.i*e- ; :il-, w ; ;h rht 
hcst jKissible equipment, b> h : tjhl\ ^kiL^i w,!rtr:itf% 
and with that conscientious care which pr.ijln,,^ h- 
exceptional product. Xo yhivs factory *:r Anit^ci, 
or in the world, can match tht j c^rn;\^ft- ^evtr:^.;] 
machinery with which our plan* : * i..nr.^ri\l, ;sn, : 
kw indeed can equal rhe ortjanize.! ja-e ur.J ^k:.l 
which is here put into the mimi&cruri-v pr-ct-s. 
A big:, bright, model factory, w : th carefufpp v : -i-.n 
for the health and well-being of its rh*?u^rd Work- 
ers, is only a part of" our reyjur^ts; a per^isrent 
purpose to produce the best that can po^ibly be 
made in the most efficient and practical manner i* 
another part even more important. 

SAID EMERSON,"! you write a better book or preach 
a better sermon or build a better mouse-trap than 
your neighbor, though you y ttur house in the 

wilderness the world will make a beaten path to 
your door." 

A broad, hard-beaten pathway to Glassmcre, 

Pennsylvania, on the of 

the Allegheny 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COM PA? 



N Y 



^ anagemcnt 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



HE ^Allegheny T^late Qlass Qompany 
takes pleasure in presenting this 
book to its friends, hoping it will 
serve a useful purpose as a permanent 
record of past development and of 
present attainments in the exacting 
business of making good plate. 

In its pages will be evidenced the 
fact that here one of the world's 
oldest industries keeps pace with 
progress and faith with quality. 



GLASSMERE < PENNSYLVANIA - USA 




C. D. KELLER 

Sales Manager 



D. K. ALBRIGHT 
General Manager 



Officers 

A. E. RRAUN .... President 
GEORGE H. CLAPP . . Vice President 
MALCOLM McGiFFiN . Secretary-Treasurer 

GEORGE C. MOORE, Assistant & ecretary -Treasurer 
W. G. RENSHAW .... Auditor 



'DireElors 

GEORGE H. CLAPP WM. C. KING 

O. C. CAMP MALCOLM McGiFFiN 

A. E. BRAUN 



GLASSMERE ' PENN SYLVAN I A - USA 




JERHAPS the most ancient record 
of the making of glass is found on 
Egyptian tombs of the fourth and fifth 
dynasty, 4000 B.C., carved figures 



representing glass blowers at work. Up to the 
Roman era Alexandria was the glass making 
center of the world, though Tyre and Sidon, 
in Phoenicia, greatly developed the art. 

As A civilization decayed, trade secrets shifted 
with the changing cultural centers and we 
find the industry prospering successively in 
Rome, Byzantium, and through the Middle 
Ages, in Venice, where the decorative and 
artistic qualities of glass were greatly en- 
hanced by closely guarded coloring methods. 
IN the year 1503, authority was given by 
"The Council of Ten" to Andrea and 
Dominice Dansola del Galle to establish in 
Murano Island, one of the islands of Venice, 
a factory for the manufacture of crystalline 
mirrors and the workmen employed at this 
factory were forbidden to work at any other 
place under penalty of death. 

IN 1664, the great Colbert charged Bonzi, 
Bishop of Bezier, French Ambassador to 
Venice, to recruit workmen for a factory for 
the purpose of making mirrors in France. 
This factory was installed in Paris, Faubourg 
St. Antione, in 1665. 



IN 1688, Abraham Thevart also obtained per- 
mission to make mirrors. A second factory 
was established in Paris, and in 1693 Louis 
Lucas de Nehou invented the casting of 
plate glass on a flat bed. In the same year 
the factory was moved to the St. Gobain 
Castle, the only source of cast plate for a 
century. 

ROUGH plate was first made in America in 
1852, at Williamsburg, L. I., by Cuthbert 
Dixon, an Englishman. At Cheshire and 
Lenox Furnace, Mass., window glass fac- 
tories were converted to the production 
of plate. The Lenox factory was visited 
in 1869, by James B. Ford of Pittsburgh,, 
who learned what he could from the 
foreign workmen there, and who built 
factories at New Albany, Ind.; Louis- 
ville, Ky.; Jeffersonville, Ind.; Creighton, 
Pa., and Tarentum, Pa. 

THE industry soon took on a phenom- 
enal development, augmented by later 
substitution of natural gas for fuel. In 
1917, nine of the fifteen plate plants in 
the United States were in Pennsylvania. 
Now, plate glass history finds its final ex- 
pression in the most modern and efficient 
plant of the Allegheny Plate Glass Com- 
pany, at Glassmere, Pennsylvania. 




CARNEGIE INSTITUTE 
OF TECHNOLOGY LIBRA 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




SCRUPULOUS supervision, supplemented by all 
the precaution that mechanical ingenuity can 
offer, characterizes the selection and handling of the 
raw materials, and their preparation for the furnace. 
Typical of this vigilance, the ingredients pass over 
magnetized pulleys before entering the bins, remov- 
ing any stray nails or metal which may have acci- 
dent! y entered. Regular analyses by qualified 
chemists serve as a further check. 

PROPORTIONS by weight are mechanically measured 
at the bin outlets, insuring absolute uniformity. Then 
the operator runs the car a short distance and dumps 
the contents on a conveyor which feeds the mixer 
shown at the upper level, left. There the batch is 
mixed and discharged by gravity into traveling cars 
suspended beneath. These run to the furnace room 
and are met by the charging crane. 




GLASSMERE ' PENNSYLVANIA ' USA 




WHEREVER the use of mechanical processes is conducive 
to greater efficiency and the safe-guarding of quality, 
we have neither hesitated 1 nor spared expense. Long con- 
tinued experimenting has firmly demonstrated, however 5 
.that hand built pots of clay are the best containers for the 
fusion of glass metal. 

THE CLAY is of the highest quality obtainable, and is shown 
being tamped. Tamping one batch takes sixty days, because 
* slow and repeated working of the clay is necessary to exclude 
all air pockets, and to obtain the proper moisture content and 
consistency. Kneading layer upon layer with their bare 
feet, the workmen transform raw, crumbly clay into a malle- 
able mass, suited for the molder's hand. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




HAND-MADE pots of clay are a relic of 
ages long gone. But for glass making 
purposes, the clay pot is not equalled by any 
substitute, and so we find this ancient method 
fulfilling a useful part in modern industry. 
It takes fifteen days to complete one pot. The 
building must be gradual and careful, layer 



knit to layer. There must be no air holes, fault 
lines, nor incipient cracks. The intense heat 
to which they are to be subjected would soon 
change a slight defect into a serious leak, ren- 
dering the pot worthless and the contents 
wasted. But the workmen are highly skilled, 
and faults seldom develop. 




GLASSMERE - PENNSYLVANIA' USA 




THE pots are then permitted to dry, which 
takes from sixty to one hundred and 
twenty days, depending on the season of the 
year and other conditions. During the first 
stage of drying, the pots are covered with bur- 
lap to prevent undue evaporation. This period 
passed, they are stored, awaiting use. 
IN A similar manner the tuiles, or furnace 
doors, are constructed. As in the case of the 
pots, clay has been found to be best suited for 
this purpose. 

IN THIS, as in everything else, we are careful 
about small things on a large scale. 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




MERE is shown one of the melting furnaces (with its 
tuilesorclay doors), making a heat. At the right is the 
charging crane, which has received one of the conveying cars 
containing the mixed ingredients for glass metal. In the 
furnace are the empty pots to be rilled by an electrically con- 
trolled arm, or dipper, on the crane. The crane moves from 
door to door as required, the arm entering the furnace 
through the small opening in the tuile. 
THE charging operation is greatly facilitated by this method, 
which does away with most of the labor and all of the dis- 
comfort for the workmen. The furnace temperature is 26ooF. 
EMPTIED cars travel by return tracks to the mixer, and 
the process continues, uninterrupted. 



GLASSMERE ' PENN S YLVA N I A ' USA 




3UR new melting furnaces are planned, 
one of which is shown nearing comple- 
tion. Added to the six now in operation, these 
will give a total capacity of over forty-eight 
thousand square feet of rough glass a day, or 
about the area represented by a city square. 
EACH furnace contains sixteen pots, and each 
pot of glass metal pours over three hundred 
square feet of rough plate one-half inch, 



standard rough thickness. This is reduced by 
subsequent grinding and polishing to one- 
fourth inch, standard finish thickness. 

THUS we see that, though the area shrinking 
from breakage is small, due to high quality 
and careful methods, yet fifty percent of the 
raw product is consumed in obtaining that 
perfection of surface characteristic of the best 
plate glass. 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




^HE pot must be heat treated, preparatory 
JJL to placing it in the furnace. This serves a 
double purpose. The first is that the heat 
anneals the clay, giving it its final hardness. 
The second, that its temperature is gradually 
raised, so the introduction to the melting 
furnace heat will not be too severe. 

THIS pre-heating is accomplished in the heat- 
ing arches, and should take at least two days. 
The increase in temperature is gradual and 
carefully controlled, the final heat being 
i2ooF. The pot is then carried directly to 
the melting furnace, wheeled tongs grasping 
the pot just below its ridge. Deposited in the 
furnace, it is ready to receive the charge. 
The pot remains in full furnace heat for six- 



teen hours, with an additional five hours of 
preparation of the metal before teeming, or 
pouring. 

THE illustration shows the operator draw- 
ing the pot of molten glass metal with a 
"goose neck" crane, which conveys it to the 
casting department. 

THE factory design is such that there is 
practically no lost motion, straight line routes 
being the rule. This scientific layout, com- 
bined with complete electrification of trans- 
portation makes our factory the most efficient 
of its kind in existence. In addition } the 
drudgery of old-time methods is eliminated, 
conserving the health and energy of our 
employees. 



GLASSMERE ' PENN SYLVAN I A - USA 




THE pot is deposited on a small cable truck by the "goose 
neck" crane. Here the metal is skimmed, the pot thor- 
oughly cleaned and made ready for reception by the teeming 
crane in the left background. 

ONE of the things about which we are very particular, and 
which is a potent factor in producing plate of the highest 
quality, is absolute cleanliness throughout the plant. We are 
always ready to stand inspection, and this policy is reflected 
in the clarity of our glass and its freedom from dirt defects. 

THE teeming crane lifts the cleaned pot from the small truck, 
and conveys the metal to the casting table on which it is 
poured and rolled. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




FTER rolling, the roller lifts up off the table and the 
ate is automatically pushed or stowed into the first 
annealing oven, behind the roller. All of these steps are 
controlled by the operator at the right. He handles seven 
controls, performing nine distinct operations. The electrical 
installation is authoritatively said to be one of the finest in 
the country. The plate temperature is about 1 800 F. when 
poured, and i6ooF. when it leaves the table. A cast is made 
every eight minutes. 

FROM the casting and rolling table the plate is stowed into 
No. i of the five annealing lehrs. These ovens graduate 
downward in temperature, the plates being transferred by 
motor propelled stowing arms every eight minutes. 

THE reducing temperatures range from n6oF. to 900 F. 
at No. 5. From No. 5 the plate is stowed to the "elevator" 
station. Here the plate is started on a straight away journey 
of 365 feet through the long lehr, moving a plate width every 
eight minutes. 






GLASSMERE - PENNSYLVANIA - USA 



















THE plate reaches the exit of the long 
lehr, and its temperature has been 
lowered to 200 F. at which the plate can be 
handled. The long lehr is supplied at the feed 
end by hot air from the annealing lehrs, and 
this air is drawn off at the cool end by a suc- 
tion turbine. 

THE plates are moved through the long lehr 
on rods which have an upward and forward 
movement above stationary rods, and a 
downward and backward movement beneath 
them. This movement carries the end plate 
on to an electric transfer car which conveys 
the plate to a cutting table. Cranes then store 
the rough plate against racks. 

THE control of quality in every process is 
exemplified in the gas pressure and heat 
control room. The plate must be cooled 
quickly enough in the lehrs, so that it is 



properly reduced at the exit. Yet this cooling 
must not be too rapid, else the plate will chill 
and crack. 

BY means of duplicating pyrometer sets, the 
temperature at any point is noted, and can 
be instantly regulated by the battery of gas 
valves below. 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 





A FTER the rough plate is cut and temporarily stored in 
AjLthe rough racks, the next step is the grinding and polish- 
ing. This is accomplished on circular decks, or tables, to 
which the plate is conveyed by the crane system. 
ALONG each of the two long sides of this room are the grind- 
ing and polishing machines; seven grinders on the left, seven 
polishers opposite. These machines are served by two electric 
car lines, leaving a wide strip of cross-tracked floor space for 
loading and stripping the decks. This floor plan removes the 
possibility of congestion. The free-moving cranes can lay or 
strip decks at any point in the room. 



GLASSMERE ' PENN SYLVAN I A - USA 




VHE plates have been laid and matched, the surface of the 
JJL deck is completely covered with glass. The joints and 
edges are imbedded in plaster, holding the group of plate 
firmly and evenly on the flat surfaced deck. It requires 
skillful selection of plate sizes to lay a deck with the min- 
imum waste of space. 

THEN a force of workmen mount the covered deck, and 
tramp back and v forth over its entire surface. Their purpose is 
to squeeze out all excess plaster water, and to make the plate 
lie absolutely horizontal. The plaster sets, and the glass is 
ready for the first grinding. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




HE deck has been pulled by a power cable on the cross 
1L tracks to a transfer car which will transport it to one of 
the seven grinding machines available. 
THE table will then be run off the car on to tracks at the left, 
leading directly in to the machine. The speed and ease with 
which these cumbersome decks are handled is striking, 
though in line with the general plan of efficiency and labor- 
saving, so evident in every step. 

HERETOFORE, the decks were made of structural steel, but 
experiments have shown that cast iron gives a firmer polish- 
ing bed, and the former are being replaced as rapidly as 
possible. 



GLASSMERE ' PENNS YLVAN I A < USA 




MERE is shown the under surface of one of two newly 
completed grinding runners, which work on revolving 
decks. The small blocks are the iron shoes, between which the 
abrasives run. One of these runners weighs 8 poo pounds, 
making a total of 16,000 pounds grinding pressure on one 
deck of glass. 

THE illustration shown above is not a grinding machine, of 
course, but merely the runners on their way to installation. 
The high safety factor and surplus power of our crane system 
enable us to handle easily this great bulk and weight. In the 
foreground is one of the circular grinding decks or tables on 
which the rough plate passes through the surfacing operation. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




deck has been rolled underneath the grinders, the 
JJL tracks are lowered, and the table rests on a "spider" at 
the top of a vertical power shaft. The "spider" and shaft 
whirl the deck at a speed of 22 rpm. and each grinder has its 
individual motor, developing 400 hp. 

THE grinding runners rest entirely on the deck, and receive 
their motion from the friction of the latter's revolution. This 
operation takes about one hour to complete. Seven distinct 
grades of abrasive are used, from coarse sand to fine emery, 
drawn by the operator from overhead containers. 



GLASSMERE 

The economy and, cleanliness of electric power is 
unquestioned. For when the wheels stop, the power 
bill stops. Yet we have added another economy in 
the form of a rotary converter, which does away 
with current consuming starting resistances, and 
turns back the excess current into the line. Months 
of planning and experiment were taken in installin, 
this unique feature. 



PENNSYLVANIA < USA 




^HE central power regulating station controls the starting 3 
1L speed, and stopping of all of the grinder and polishing 
motors. The attendant of each machine flashes his require- 
ments by electric light signals on the control board, and the 
central operator runs the motors accordingly. 

THE operating booth is centrally located, above the general 
level of the machines, and is glassed in for all round observa- 
tion. Meters register the power consumption, and any weak- 
ness or undue strain is instantly noted. 

THIS clean-cut efficiency makes for operating economy, cel- 
erity, simplification, safety. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




THE grinding of one side of the plate being completed, the 
table is rolled back on the electric car, and discharged on 
the jointing yard tracks. Here the glass is cleaned, and fresh 
plaster put in place of the original. 

THIS precaution is to eliminate all abrasive which may have 
been left on the table, and is preparatory to polishing the 
freshly ground surface. If this were not carefully done, it is 
probable that the surface would be destroyed in the polishing. 
THE table is then conveyed to the polishers by means of an 
electric car, similar to the one previously referred to, and 
installed in like manner. 



GLASSMERE ' PENNSYLVANIA ' USA 




THE polishing machine gives the final gloss to the finely 
ground surface. It consists of a large number of revolving 
felt blocks, resting on the surface of the turning deck. Liquid 
rouge of our own manufacture is fed to the table at the center 
and gives the desired finish in one hour and twenty minutes. 
THE grinding and polishing machines are of the most modern 
design, with massive foundations and substantial construc- 
tion, reducing vibration, surpassing all others in the quality 
and speed of their work. The felt blocks revolve with great 
rapidity, impelled by the friction of the moving glass. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




TFNSPECTORS examine the surface thoroughly after every 
JJL polishing operation. If their examination proves the 
finish to be satisfactory, the deck goes to the stripping yard. 

THERE the plates and deck are cleaned, and the glass turned 
over for grinding the other surface. Then the whole process is 
repeated, special care being taken in laying the deck* This 
care is necessary to insure the second surface being exactly 
parallel to the first. The reverse side is then ground, cleaned, 
rejointed, polished and tested. 

AFTER the final polishing passes muster, the deck is stripped 
and cleaned, and the individual plates conveyed by crane 
to the wash racks, where they are washed and dried. 



GLASSMERE ' PENNSYLVANIA - USA 




DRIED, the plates sail away in the clutch of the crane, 
to the inspector's set-up stand, in front of a black back- 
ground. The inspector notes defects, and marks the plate 
for cutting, grade and destination. 

ONCE again comes the crane, lifting the plate to tables where 
the cutting is performed with rough diamond tools. If any 
imperfections are passed over by the inspector, they are 
caught at the cutting table and eliminated. 

ALL of the cutting tables can be tilted hydraulically from 
the horizontal to the vertical and back. This places the 
plate on edge after cutting; the crane then grips it and takes 
it to the traveling racks, against which the workmen are 
placing the finished plate. 

FROM here it is a short run to the wareroom where another 
crane system sorts and stores the plate, and facilitates selec- 
tion, packing and loading the freight cars. 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




IN the wareroom, the plates are stored 
according to grade, size and ultimate use. 
Here is window plate destined for a mammoth 
department store. Untold thousands will gaze 
through it at the wares within. 

AT the left is a long rack for store and cabinet 
shelving. Then ther* are plate mirrors to be 
made, gracing fine residences, shops, or per- 
haps some beauty's boudoir. That piece wi 
cover the desk of some important executive, 
while this pile will be the display countess in 
a new museum. Another sheet will possibly 
cover ship's compasses, braving torrid tem- 
peratures and frozen seas. 



GLASSMERE - PENNS YLVAN I A ' USA 




further evidence of the quality of our 
-product, a large percentage of our out- 
put is used for automobile windshields and 
similar equipment. The requirements of this 
market are very exacting, due to the vibra- 
tion and other severe service conditions to 
which such glass is subjected. 

THE automobile plate is dimensioned at the 
cutting tables in accordance with trade stand- 
ards, and stored in a special section of the 
spacious wareroom. The plate standing in the 
aisle in the small illustration on opposite 
page is an order for shipment. 

AT the far end of the wareroom, located 
according to the straight line plan, are 
the packing room, weighing, and loading 
platforms. Perhaps no better example can 
be found than here of how electrification ex- 




pedites our production. Packing plate glass 
for shipment was formerly a slow, laborious 
job, requiring the services of sixteen men. 
Now all the work of wrapping, padding, and 
boxing is performed by only three men in 
much less time, with the aid of an electric 
crane. 

THE crane then swings the crated glass 
aboard the freight car, where a crew of 
carpenters makes all ship-shape. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




BE as careful as we may, glass will always break from 
some cause or other. Then there are the odds and ends 
from the cutting tables. All this glass, from whatever source, 
is gathered at a central point near the wareroom and shipped 
across the inner court in an overhead monorail car, to a 
washer and crusher. 

HERE the salvaged glass is cleaned and crushed, and finds its 
way back into the melting furnace. This system effects a con- 
siderable saving over a short period of time, and entirely 
justifies the first cost of the installation. 




^lAaeu 



GLASSMERE 



PENNSYLVANIA' USA 




JUST as our methods t of production are the best so far 
developed, so are the accommodations for the care of our 
workmen. In our welfare house, shown herewith, are a mod- 
ern hospital equipment, white-clad nurses, skilled surgeons 
ready at any instant in case of accident. 

LABOR saving machinery and our insistence upon the safety- 
first principle have kept our accident list small. 

UP to the present, no injury has been received in our plant 
that could not be successfully treated in our welfare house. 




ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 




The immaculate boulevard and 
inner court, fresh and bright with 
well kept green sward and formal 
flower beds, typify and visualize 
our manufacturing ideals of order, 
cleanliness and quality. 



GLASSMERE ' PENN SYLVAN I A ' USA 




THE bird's eye view presents the plant as a whole, and 
gives a better idea of the natural advantages of the 
site than words could convey. On the one side is the 
Allegheny River, on the other the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
serving us with many spurs. Raw materials enter the stor- 
age bins atone end of the "U" which encloses the court and 
the finished product leaves from the end of the other leg. 
The many advantages of this system are evident. 



ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



SUCH IS THE 
STORY OF ALLEGHENY PLATE GLASS 

A QUALITY PRODUCT 
MANUFACTURED IN A SPECIALLY 

DESIGNED PLANT 

- WITH THE GREATEST SKILL 
AND EFFICIENCY HUMAN INGENUITY 
CAN DEVISE 



Date Dee 






i Q 7! 



woe 




Carnegie Institute of Technology 
Library 

Pittsburgh, Pa.