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Professor TH. RICHTER, 






VViTH Eighty-eight Woodcuts and One Lithographic Plate. 




KSorAiK la AH of RmtTna, In Rm jmr ISn, If 
on» nf lb« Lrbnitan of Concnn, nt Wuhlnito«. 






The growing interest in blowpipe analysis which is evident in 
ibis conntrj has indnced the translator to present to onr scientifio 
students the following tranelatioa of Plaitner's nneqnalled 
manoal, and it is farther hoped that this hook may be the means 
of bringing into more prominent notice a branch of blowpipe 
analysis which has been too long neglected, tiz. : quantitative 

The present work is a translation of Plaitner's book, in which 
nothing of the slightest importance has been omitted, while its size 
has been reduced as mnch aä /possible by avoiding unnecessary 
repetitions and by using concise language. Several new qualitative 
tests, a quantitative assay for mercury, descriptions of new appa- 
ratus for measuring silver assay buttons, a complete general index, 
and other matters of minor importance, have been added. In the 
formulas of the silicates Si 0* has been substituted for Si 0", and 
upward of one hundred and fifty new minerals have been intro- 
duced. For most of these the translator is indebted to Dana's 
Mineralogy, which has also rendered invaluable service in translat- 
ing the names of the minerals. In order to secure uniformity, 
Dana has been taken as the authority for the names of the 
minenils, bnt in many instances synonyms have been retained for 
convenience of reference. 

If any apology is necessary for the size of Plattner's work it ia 
to be fonnd in the character of the author, who investigated in the 
most thorough manner every subject upon which he entered. Nor 
is tbere any reason why the beginner should not take up the study 

Q, ^^^"^ 

IT translatoe's preface. 

of blowpipe analysis with this thorongh manual in hia hand to 
explain to him the difficulties which will meet him almost at the 
ootaet It is only necessary that he should have some adrice 
regarding the way in which the hook is to be nsed, and this the 
translator has endeavored to give in a short introduction. 

My sincere thanks are due to Professor Richter for the Tery kind 
response which he has made to various inquiries, and for a valuable 
list of alterations which he has furnished as necessary to the com- 
pleteness of the book ; to Professor Eqleston, of the School of 
Mines, Columb-'a College, New York, for many valuable suggestions 
during the preparation of this translation; and to Mr. Caswell 
for able assistance in accomplishing the task. 

To the American scientiGc student this work is now commended, 
in the hope that it may aid his labors and awaken a higher interest 
in the branch of analysis of which it treats. 




Whbn, at the pDbliaber*s request, after the third edition of 
Flattiteb's Blowpipe Analysis was exhausted, I nndertook the 
reTisioD of the present edition, it -was in the belief that now, as 
formerly, many would desire to have at hand a complete manual 
upon BO nsefnl a subject. As far as possible I have confined myself 
to the previous labors of my instructor, whom I can never forget, 
and hare only added such new and approved matter as had been 
made known since the appearance of the third edition, because I 
have had ample opportunity, during several years in which I have 
labored as a teacher, of this brauch of analysis in our Mining 
Academy, to convince myself of the suitable way in which the 
subject is classified and treated in his work. 

May this fourth edition find as friendly a reception as has been 

extended to its predecessors. 

Th. Bichtbb. 

I, Mag. ]B6B. 



TiaoBlator'B Pre&ce. ill 

Prefitce to Oerman Editioa v 

IntTOdoctioD ziil 




I. The blowpipe, &nd its use in cliemistry and mineralogy S 

n. Tlie Itael, blowpipe lamp, gas lamp, gas blowpipe, Bpir it lamp 8 

m. The blast and flames. 10 

1. The oxidizing flame IS 

2. The reducing flame... 14 

rV. Theflupport IS 

a. The direct support (coals, platinum wire, etc., glass tnbes, clay 

crucibles, bone-aah) 15 

b. The indirect support (soda paper, charcoal, and cluy) 25 

V. Instruments, smalt vessels, and other apparatus 26 

VX Blowpipe reagents 45 

^ Reagents fur analyses which are conducted by the dry method alone. 45 

a. General reagents . . 45 

b. Special reagents, only used in certain tests 50 

S. Reagents used in aualyses conducted with the aid of the wet method. 53 

a. General reagents 53 

ft. Reagents of limited use. 64 



I. Oenenl rules 5fl 

jt, Oenenü rules, according to which the twharior of miuerais and other 
substances l^eibre the blowpipe can be determined, and a con- 

dderable proportion of their constituents discovered 69 

A. Teiting withoat reagents. 60 


1. Ezamlnaüoii in the mtttrass, or the closed taba 6C 

2. Examination in the open tube. , 63 

8. Examination on cbarcoal 6S 

4. Examiaation for fasibility and coloration of tbe flame. 69 

h. TestiDg with reagents. 77 

1. Examination with borax. 19 

2. Examination with salt of phosphorus. 83 

8. Examination with soda. 86 

4. Examination with cobalt solution 93 

Tables showing the behavior of the alkalies, earths, and melallic 

oxtdea, alone and with reagents, before the blowpipe 95 

S. General rules for qualitative blowpipe examinations, by which the 
separate constituents of compound substances can bo de- 
tected, with tbe partial aid of the wet process 113 

Solution of substances in water or hydrochloric acid 113 

Decomposition of substances b; fusion with soda and borax, and 

treatment of the fbsed mass with hydrochloric acid 113 

Fusion of substances with nitre or bisulphate of potaasa. 116 

IL Qualitative examination of minerals, ores, and metallurgical products 

before tbe blowpipe for melallic and non-metallic bodies. ... 119 

liumbers indicating the fusibility of the silicates and their behavior 

with hydi'ochloric acid. 119 

A. Examinations fbi alkalies and earths 120 

Fotassa 120 

Soda. 127 

Lithia 132 

Ammonia 136 

Baiyta 137 

Btrontia. 140 

Lime 143 

Magnesia 157 

Alumina 168 

Gludna. 177 

Yttria and Erbia 180 

ffireooia 193 

Thoris. 198 

B. Examinations for metals or their. oxides. 199 

Cerium, Lanthanum, and Didymium 199 

Hanganesc. 206 

Iron 214 

Cobalt 236 

Nickel 243 

SSinc 249 

Cadmium 256 

Lead 257 

Tin. 275 

Bismuth 278 

Uranium 283 

Copper 281 


Merouiy 803 

SiUer 308 

Platiaum, Palladium, Rhodium, Iridium, Ruthenium, and Usmium., 315 

Gold. S\$ 

Titoniam 823 

Tantalum and Niobium (columbium) 334 

AntimoDf 327 

TungBten 333 

Molybdenum ." 338 

Vanadium a(8 

Chromium 840 

Araenic 344 

Tellurium .3.51 

C Examinations for non-metatlic bodies and acids 353 

Water 353 

Nitric Acid 354 

Carbon and Carbonic Acid 355 

Boron and Boracic Acid 360 

miicium and Silicic Acid 863 

Sulphur and Sulphuric Acid. 864 

Selenium 368 

Phosphorus aud Phosphoric Acid 369 

Chlorine 372 

Bromine 874 

Iodine 375 

Fluorine ": 877 

Cyanogen . . 379 

UL Examples ahowing the method of detecting tlie constituents of various 

Compounds with the help of the blowpipe, 380 

A. Oxysalta, Chlorides, Bromides, Iodides, Fluorides, and Cyauldea, . . 381 

B. Silicates and Aluminutes 886 

C Comblnaüons of Metallic Oxides 889 

D. Sulphides, Sclenidcs, and Antenides 390 

S. Combinations of metals containing no arsenic or sulphur, or but 

very little of either 893 



I. Preparation of the substances 897 

IL I>etailed deacriplion of the quantitative s-ssays, 308 

1. The Silver Assay 398 

A. Assay of ores, minerals, etc., in which the silver is especially 
ctmibined wiili noD-metallic bodies, 
a. Substances which contain volatile canstitiicnts, viz. : sulphur 
and arsenic, as well as chlorine, bromine, or Suorine, in 


greater or less proportion, or are entirely free from them, ud 

can be reduced by fusiou on coat with borax and test lead, . 899 

Table show injir the cupellation loss 413 

b. Idinerals contaiuing compounds which cannot be decomposed 

by fusion with borax and test lead alone 414 

& Metallurgical products cunsisling of metallic oxides that are 

readily reduced on coal 41S 

£ Assay of metallic compounds (alloys), 

a. In which silver is a chief constituent 410 

b. In which copper or nickel forms the prevailing constituent, 

and silver only a minor one 417 

e. In which lead or bismuth is the chief coustituent 418 

d. In which tellurium, antimony, or zinc is the chief constituent, 41d 
a. In which tin is the chief, or only an accessory consiituenL. . . . 420 

/. In which mercury is the prevailing constituent 421 

g. In whicii irou or steel is the chief constituent 421 

i The Gold Assay..., 422 

d. Assay of gold ores, auriferous silver ores, and argentiferous and 

auriferous metallurgical products 433 

B. Assay of metallic Compounds, 

a. Consisting only of gold and silver 428 

b. Containing, besides gold and silver, other metals, viz. : Cop- 

per, platinum, iridium, palladium, and rhodium 431 

e. Consisting of gold and mercury 434 

8. The Copper Assay 435 

A. Ores, minerals, and metallurgical products 

a. Containing volatile constituents; sulphur, arsenic, and sele- 
nium 48Q 

ft. Containing copper in au oxidized state, fiee from, or combined 
with, acids and water; or slagged with eartliy matters, or 

combined in any other way 441 

S. Alloys, 

a. Of copper and lead 44a 

b. Of copper with iron, nickel, cobalt, zinc, and bismuth ; either 

singly, or with severul at tlie same time, while lead, anti- 
mony, and arsenic are frequently present 445 

e. Copper and antimony 447 

d. Cupper and tin 447 

4. The Lead Assay 44B 

A, Ore», etc., coniainiug the lead as sulpliide. 450 

First melli"d 4.50 

Second method 403 

B. Ores, etc., containing tlie lead iis cbloridu or oxide, free, or in the 

fonn i)f slag, or coiiiliitied w iili in'iUs 438 

0- Uineruls couluiuing leitii in lUc mciullic stHic combined eitlicr 

witli selenium, or willi mUtT inuiiils. 4-57 

5. The Bismuth Assay 4.J7 

A. Minerals, etc., containing bisnmili in the nidiillic ainto; I'iilicr 

mix^ only with earthy substuuceM, or arsenides of cobalt. 


nlokei, sod iroo ; or elw ehemfawlly combined witb tel- 
lurium. 438 

B. Mlnenlsoonulnlngblsnatti aasolplilile: dUier alone, or dietiil- 

alif DoraUned with mher meUllle «ulplüdM or MvaUdc«.. . 461 

G. Htntrak, etc, couUiinins bttmulb u oxide; fit«, or «oubtoed 
wilb c«rb(iiile. iibosiilinric, or «llidc achl«, etc. u>d pomiblf 
miDglcd with oxi-l'-fi «r ciipprr, nkkfil, mid eob«lt, or Ihdr 
mIis] oroluuMiUiiuiii),' ill« bidtauUicutnUned wlihdiloriau, 48S 
(L The Tin Axtay MA 

A. UliuraJs, «te., conuiniog tin as sul|>bidc, or u oxide mixed with 

Kulpbld« luid arwiiidea 4U 

A Miooralsuid piuducls oontalnlng tin m oxide. 471 

a Albiyt *74 

7. The Cotaii ud Nkket A46ny. i79 

A. Hlnnrnk, etc., cantalnlng cobalt uid nickel In tbe melalllc UMe 

«ombtatd witJt atecaic, ric-((iici)ily mix«d with oüuv im«n. 
Ides, aad •ametimtiä wiih ti Ifliu^ (|uaiitiilia> iJ metallic aal- 
pbiü(9<, iHit fno (tum ciijipcr. 480 

£, Ilinenls, etc. cunUiialnjc cjlialt and nickel, with iwrliaps oilier 
meuU, OCHilblnnl partly -wjtli onriiic ami |witly wilb 
milpbor, or eiiltrely wIlli sulphur, and (.THilaiDiDif a) Ibe 
■ua« Uute a jtrvalcr or lau aüiuixtur« of oUier toeUtllic 
aulptild», orcnrifay maiicn 48i 

<X Ulaarali, etc, coauuiiiii^ DicJcd aad eobait a« oxidea,conit)tued 
wtlb culpliuiic, ancuk, or eükic aclda, or olher metallic 
ozldei. IU1Ü ooi-iwiiitiHlly witb water al UieBme iline 490 

J), WKUircs of nieudtic oxidei consisling Bspcdally of oxid» of 

cobalt or Bkhel, 401 

S. U twinila aad producu con&lsilng of alloj'a, or of anKtnides and 

BDlphidet, IB which there la more cop(>er than oickel 49& 

8. Tbe Uoa dasay 4d» 

9l The Chroatium Aauy. Ml 

JO, The Examination «f Coali , W1 

IL The Uetcary Aaev NO 


L The employin«nl of qnaotitatlTe aaaaya with the blowpipe for the de- 

tefmidailoa of Tarioua subetaucea In quanlltatlro cbcioi'cal aaalj'»ia. 511 
EL ^tocmun Analyaig. 013 

Index to miiienüii mentioned tn Section U SH 

Index (o meiailiirEfcal predncta menttoned in Section H. ,,.,........ SSS 

Oowm! Index S37 

AMMmie WeishuoT the Elemenia i 5U 


PnoBABLT DO better conrso of inetraction in blon7)i[M< atuüysis 
can be soggest^d tliaa that pursued bj Prot Richter, for the instrno- 
tion of hia olaaaes at Freiberg, aod th&t vill therefore be brieil; giren 
hcrc> after a few introductorj' rvmarks, designed to aid the student 
in the use uf this book. 

Tbe fitudeoi should tlrst learo to produce the oxidietng and redno- 
i&g flomeB at pleusure, testing them According to the directions 
giveu on p. 13, «t seq. Wbecerer after this he employs either ß im« 
he tamt coneidor carefully what vill be the result; whether the 
mtutaoces he treutM will be reduced to metal, or only to a lower state 
of oxidisatioa ; whether thej will Tolatilizc and form a ooat« or 
vbethcT tJiey are ßxed; whether they yield diSerent colors with tbe 
flnzc«, in the different flames {as is Hsiiaily the c*»c), etc, etc To 
learn tliis he must prepare himiielf bj studying thoronghlj and 
performing faithfally tbe teat« of the more common simple eub- 
Btanoes as gircn in the tubleä, p. 95, el teg., and by a careful study 
of the fncta stnted under tlie general esaminstiona for the baaes and 
acids, beginuiug with p. 119. 

When thoroughly familiar with the behavior of the simple sub- 
fttauco^ bo should proceed to the annlysts of laixturoe, which may bo 
fioallj made very oomplicätM. By intelligently studying tho prop- 
•rttea of the simple substances as given in tlie tables and under the 
general rt>marks, before n^ferrcd to, and by fjllowing the general ralea 
tor qoalitatiTe analysis, pw 5!*, e4 seq» the student can deduce a aya- 
tem of examination for himself, which he can mry to suit differ- 
ent circnmstanott. Sometiroos special tests are to be made, unco 
thus certain BuhBtoncea, as mercury, manganese, snlphnr, eta. 
ean b« most readily detected ; for eomc substjuccs epccial teats an 
necesaary, while others can be found in the ri<gulnr course of 

All phenomena must be cun-fully noted, and fhe eflcctof each 
opemtion considered. If a coat is formed on coal, the student should 
retnanber what snbstnnces could yield such a coat, and how they 



Duy be aoporatcd from one another. If a powder hu been dissolved 
in borat snd ig then to be rednced, he should ronBider what eub- 
utanc«) will b* reduced tVimi it, and In what condition those which 
rernuin di«i<ulvcd will be füund. As rL^;BnlB the rcdnccd sabetunocs 
be should c>.^nsider whether Ihcj will be volatile or fixed; acd if 
Sx<^, how they may b« sopantU-d Oum ono uitut)ii:'r. lu learning ta 
do this the examplen given Tor practict-, p. o80, et wj., vlll be found 
of very great »crric**, as they exemplify ihe course whicU is U) be 
followed in similar cotes. 

The following FtibtitAnoes are given by Pfof. Richtor to the «tn- 
denu under hi« inetmctioa» to illufitnik*. in order, the different testa. 
1. Ttfting on charcoal, to obnemf the cf>a{f,ßames, etc. 

Ri^U-niun), ureenic. antimony, tliallitun. Icud, bismath, cadmiami 
zinc, tin, mulybdic acid, silver, stiver and lead, mlphate of potam, 
cliloride of lead. 

8. 7't»ting in the matrari», to obferre phmphnreKtncf. decrepitation, 
change of color, erolulton of gase«, etc. 

Flnoritc, ajmtite, sidprite, oerueelt«, pyrolusite, chlorate of potsssa, 
natmlit«, alum, calomel, nitrate of ammoni«, retinile. 

3. Teslt'tig in tka dosed tuie. to ofiscnw ivhe/fier there w any »ulli- 

mnte formtd. 
Zinc l.londo, pyrit«, copper nickel, cbloanihilo, orpimcnt or 
realgar, lei-nulphide of antimony, cinnabar, copper nmalf^rn. 

4. Ttsting in the ojteii lube, to ohserrt the formation of tuidimatott 

gulpkuroKS acid, or otltfr i/asfs. 
Pyrrhotit«, coiner nickel, stibnite, cinnabar. 

6. Tenting in the plalinvm foreepSj as to fusibility, color of th» 

fame, etc. 

HcmatiLo (infusible in 0. F., fusible in B. F.), pyrophyllitc car- 
honnte of sod» (on platinum wire), natrolite, potassa (on wire), 
alominite, Inpidolite, »pochiiueue, potalite, itroDtianite, flnorite, 
calcitc, chrysocotla, borate of ammontu, boracitc, datolite, borax, 
(with sitlphnrio acid], tonrmalinc, barile, witherite, barytocalcitci 
molybdenite, diadochit«, apatite (with sntphnric acid), atacamite, 
oxide »r cnpiior (in S. Ph. beml, and with addition of 8alt)i com», 
nit«, pyrumurpliite, scorodite. 
6> For praclico in roaaiittg, 

Copp<'r pyritce. 

7. Examination with Itorax bead. 

Sesqaioaide of iron, vanadio acid, se»|^moxide of chromium, oxid« 
of copper, oxide of cobalt, onidc of niclcel. 

8. EraiHXHatioH with mti of phosphorua bead. 



Tcroxtdo of bismuth (with tin on coal), sesquioxide o( iron, 
VMOwIic acid, tininal« of amtuoii!« {or ecsqutoxitle of araninm), 
niHlirbiliti Bciil, oxido of copprr (with tin on ooiU), tiiiig^tic »ciü, 
tiuoic acid (tli« last twu being aiao tested iu It. 1*'. with uililition of 
sisfiatazide of iron), üside of maiigaueee («-itJi aildttion of nitre Ui 
the hoc bead). 
9, Ted» for Kuipkur. 

With eoda aod ailica on coal in R. F.; alw with sodft in It. F., 
and tbon with bright eilrer foil. Test far nuimjunexe. With sodu 
QJid nitre OD plmtinaui Juil. 
1(>. Teutt tcith roiaii soluliotu 

Aliunino, magncsia, borate (or phoepbate) of mngueeia, oxide <ff 
ziDC, oxide of Lin. 
1 1. SulMnnre» to Ulttatrafe the rff^lar rvarto of ezaminafion. 

Chlorid« of potassinm, bromide of potassium, btirytocalclUr, 
boracitc, lluutitc, borsr, uliiDitu. wolfram itv, tiLanic iron, ttnitli* 
GoniU; (cadmireroas), aiiniiljf^rgitc, cenis:iitt.<, vruhV'tiilv, pyntniur 
pliit«, oroooile, lib^thunit«, pitrhblctide (uraniniit;), earthy cm>I»)Il, 
CMtsitcritc, cobaltit«, iK-rthieritc, aLabaiidite (tnungitnbiende), aUtn- 
nite, tetrabe<lrit« (mercurial). 

Pr»)f. EgWton lt«8 arnir_^d and published id the AfntricaH 
Chttmht, AjitW, 1873, an rxcoilcnt scheme of cxatniniuion fur the 
metallic osidea, whtoh iiua been U8i>d for Boinc limo with miirked 
gaoces« in the School of Mitiea of Colninbia C<>ll<:'ge. and ie given, by 
his pcrtniesioii, olmogt &» piibligli^j on tbt' iioxt pu^o. 

In n«ing the echeme, attention should be paid to the following 

Si«»— Til« •chta* li to be vkH«'] tlitlillj »<«u«>4i»iir lo clftamfla»««. If tnlpbtile*, 
anvnU**, ■(' i v noAet in«ta*fi(, ihr nilotii'iOM riuM br can-fotl; r<«>tL-d ; tnt If ImC 1 fiUSii 
^ thorn 9^ \: V:h.or ^ ■• «olphiilrr. aovaldi.-«. tte., Ih« M(»l«nr'< ■• Hllitir in nxi't* or a« 
aHaf. U an Mtl4<.thB r<i«*l1tg. %. 1> omiiinl. II an tVicj. Ill« mi>)m(«1 lo thelMt I. a. fltr 
T^miz^tai ihsstlMtHtS, A :< purfunu»! lir f<ula( Ihc alloy on cual wlih buou imhaN. V., 
UwotvUslKl. A, aod >, A. 0, ill anaopi'imilnii. Htium «olpMil" diiilng ilw rnaaUns, 2. A, 
«HI tedBM (o nielaj. and lh«D ■nn ihinvPKh roaiilni; inMobe Ireilvd nkcaUii!». A ncialM 
nm ■niphlde. do., nMt never be Irualrrt on iilailnnm «Ire. bat Ihu lucial ts l\tnA na ooal fil(h 
Ute Bus : IB R. P., ir It l»4e*(ml ui ktI ••B'iy fKiii'^riliidlilr nirral*. ar F«, Co. rIi.. ti> lite Uns ; 
l>0. F., It C«, 271, kad otbar rfdaclblv tnvtolf iirv tubv duxcl. Tli>a<»l> Okii rnii)*tocTt4 <<> 
Ua wliw, BalfliMaa, olt., kiu>I iIubtt bv toaitvd hrfon \p9\itif irllli biiru *(id t<. 1%. 

Tli* «ord heart alwafa trttw* tu iho dui. an<l bniUui lo the ni*U1. Id KKird tn 9. B. 8d taa 
■tWHf* ha (u«nd In fa mi ica at Za hj raditetni tbu otulaa vlth mila ind a lltilo bacas. (Ml lrt> 
nntu« tb« niBM wlU) «alf r. p. «L la cwum all^vy*. *. p. Iironin. ronUlntof bottt 9m and 
Bo. Ow 2a MB iMArtcMad hj ueaiine aihort time tn R. P. and MUng Ihaooai tomad «im 
c»teM aolBtloa, aa UiaZa I* Bon rolaillauidtonMoVllnt. 


PliOF. T. EOI,ES'n>S. 

TiiK RnlMUnrai itwy «mtiiiti Aa— Rb— H— !te— Fe— n»— Co— Co— Xt- 
l'b- Bl- A«— Au-llg-SBn-Cd-aa -Cl-Br— I~€0'-MO*— 
XO*— HO. 

I. Tnai on Ub. In Ibe O. F. tn And vnlmilo milwlnncra rucIi as A« — Hb— ft— 
fte— Pb— Bl— C^, rlr.. p. M «( Mf.,- «iiil «Iwi (ntl in tlie open tulw to finil 
wti«iher As, Hb, A ate prfMOt as sreeoicl«*. «tc, oi in tbr ozidi«*)! ilittc, p. 413 


b. If ttii-rt- are no vuUtilo imU- 
tanCH pmpDi. divid« a part of t)i« 
cubtiUm» lalo lUne porlloat and pro- 
ceed as iu A« 

a. If iben nro robUle anbaianom 
prcsmt. fitnn a Kmtlng and tMI It 
wiiU S- Ol. ftn<l lin on Cl>- ri>r$b, p.W, 
or to dliitlngiiUli Itciwwo Pb uuti 

Kl, p. 280. 

tt rtiiam M«l.riiiWliH «Itbt). rk-iiiUrii bMdi ilMpiHcriw witb btee flan«, no pwtot U 

TMAiü tITMnUli Mb II*ni«: Pb mil HI. 
fl Tanuiioaat,ccOflraIlj «im ntilui twvilct rt*'d<i>C (>■•«» ot ifny bMHwlin 5. Pb.. dlaappcar- 

Ing wiuh Mae aun« : i>t>ii Uie buntcc rllMigi^Mitiia wllh umnliiii Oanip ; Pl> kiid ftb. 
y- Tcthn* MM. T«7*lail]a( lo (, hul jlcTülr.}; ii>i lilDs llHni- i Bl llid Kb* 

Msto a »pvtM t<M (or Bl l.VpiKuilU III., Iru Pb Id piocuM ol Bl, If not Iu «oo null 
^aoatUJi )*(>>)» dnu^rd '7 tb« b(ar fluiuii yliklrd li]r 11» cotl «t bj Ifcs i«luied luctiil llwIiC 
Seoalio Apinxifi tll.a. 

9l It A«— Bb — 9 — 9« arv ]>re»cni, r»u4i a br^i- iiimniiiy ili<irii(i(,'li ly on Cb.. 
p. 77. Divide the sututnui» into tbm: jxii-ttoni. and iwuceotl lu in A. (S«e 
note on p. X7,l 

A. TuKATURMT ov TDK ViiUT PoitTiox. — Uluultro s Vefv unsll <|DAUIlty iti 
bnritx »D plnllntim wire lo (Ik- 0. F- nod (^'(»tti; the color pTodiiccd. Vbtjoiu 
co1i>n will tio ruTini-d bj llie cmahlnatlmi of (be nxidt-s. Sanimie Ute bead and 
ahak« itoir into Ihe porcelniii il\sh ; repeal Ibts oner or hrin, p. 70. 

O. Treal Ibrw beads nu Cli. with a siiuitl pitwe of lead, silTcr, or gold, in A 
airong K. K.. p. 1 IS. 

4, Fc— Mn— Co, >;tc., t#amin iu 
tbelxMl. |>. Il.'i, 

ir Um bead »tar»4» «at «a lb* Cb.. It msti 

V tall«ct»] k« k gloibnlD bf oonlfaia»4 bkn*- 
MahoabMubead oapWIonaialraand^l*- 

tolT« bl II «MM «t (ha frSf IMnt* et ihe bead, 
fiwMlkg Ihe mat t-ir MddtBta. 

^. A*-*"»— Ab-Ah-Sw-PI»— 

Bl arc rcdmx-d and mlUiii il liv lUe 
twul biitlim. p. IIA. llln.Pb.aiHl DI, 
if |irwn-ni, will parti)- TolnliliE«'.) 

Rvoin«« I kr load bntlon lYom iba braA white 
hot, or k} bnabiB^^thabltri.wbwH colli, «nth« 
luivtl bi'iwivn p>p*r, eamltMj pravMvii^all 
■be IVHcaMratiL 

4. If Co Is premal, (he bead will b* 

tr a bnt« aaMwal of W* ta pfeaafit. add a 
IIIUb hOfBX to pTDTT Ilia prcMn« orabwnco 
of ri>f p. OL 

II Mn !• pra*«Pt, lb« brad whan trv>l«<l oa 
^\tkl\aum Kl» U ibr O. P. »Ill bacoin« itarit 
nnlat or black. 

t. If »iilv Fr and Nltl widt no Coaru 
prcarnt, Ihelirad will Iw almiist Ctitorlcas, 
Look here fur Cr, Xt, Ho, IT, W, V, 
Ta bf Ibe vtt «a;. (A nulable onoanl nr XI 
m»j Ih dntwtoil «l(h S. A. aud Ud Id tbe orl- 
glnftl oxld«*. Id aAttnem f>f olbar «ilorls^' laua- 
FsdttdbhKnitd««. |>. SS. Moarll baabown bj 

ibccloailirbMwn.tttblatikBppeaMBMalUi* bo- 
rn b««d la B. P. (Ui pkUnnm irtM, p. XB.) * 



/. Trtnt Till- linitiin e <in Ch. in tlie 0. F. until all tlie-tetiit, fic, is iliiven off; 
Kl, Cu, A|f, An ri-ni:ilDii)g bcliim] ; nr sepurttte the lent) willi boracic acid, 
p. 442. 

g. Trt'fti the r^siiUw; g iin Ch. in Ü. F, witli S. Ph. beiul, ranoviug the buttou 
while Ihi- lieiiil Is iinr. 

h. li' ^i and Cu mv picHenl, iIk^ 
bead will be jjivcn when i-nld, |i. 'iV!i, 
If Kl tmly— yelliiw. If Cu (inly — bliif, 
Prrive Cu by lii-iiliiig tlic S. Pii, bciid 
with tin «in Ch. m the H. F., p. 2!W. 

('. For As und Au maku tlie special 
ii-sl N". 8. 

B. Trbatmrnt op thk Sucond Pohtion. — Drive olf llii: volalik- substHDcea 
in the O. F. on Ch. Tri'Ht wilh lliu R. P., fi\ mis with soiiii. iuni ihtn treat witli 
the It. F.. for Zn, Od, Sn, irn whiti; cn:i[it>g is ri>rme(l. lust ivitli cobalt hi>1u- 
lion, pp. 3.51,330, 276. 

If Zn is (batxl, it \* nnl gencralljF neccviiaiy lo IiHili fur Sn, and vice vcrva, a* Uicj very nlrelj' 
orcnr Eugetlier. (See mite. p. iv.) 

C TitBATMKST or THE Thtrd PoiiTroN.— DissoIvc some of ilie substance in 
S. PI), on pintlnum wire in O. F., oliscjrving wlietlicr SIO" is present <ir not, 
und test for Mn witb iiilrute of ptitassa or smiit, p. 31Ü. 

3. Test fur Ai willi wida on Ch. in ilie R. F., or witli dry soilii ii. n closed 
lube, p 345 et seq. 

4. Disstilve in 8. Ph. on plaliniim wire in llie O. F. (if Hie snhsluiKre is not 
nietulliu nnd does noi conlain nny S), and lest for (»b on Ch. willi lin iu the 
K. F,. p. flt). (To defect n lit'.lc- Sb witli Cu or Sn, see, p. ;i:U.) 

ft. Test for S« on Ch., p. auS. 

O. In Himencc of 8e fiise wirli so<la in llic R. F. and lest for S on silver foil^ 
p. 365. In jiresence of 8e test for S in open lulje, p. 3CÖ. (To ilisiinguish be- 
tween S and %0*, see p. 3G8.t 

T. Test for Il0 with d^-y soda in it cloüed lube, p. Ü04. 

S. Mix sonic of the snhNtnnco with assay lend mid iHirn.v ^liiss and fuse on 
Ch. in Ihc R. F., p. 401. Cupel tlic lead button for .4(1, p. 407. Test wllli 
nitric iieid for Au. p. 8*0. 

9. Test for CI, Br iind I wiih oxide of copiier, pp. 'ATA, :iT4. :IT5, 

10. Test tor CI or Br willi Uii'iiljib.-ile of puiiissu, p. i)~4. 

11. TeMt for HO in h closed rulie, p. ^.')3. 

13. TeAt on plaiiniiin wire, or in pl)itinnni-)Kiinied I'oict ps, for colornliou of 
Ibe flame, p. Tl el scq. 

IS. Test for CO' wiUi liydrocliloric or nitric acid, |>. 360. 

14. Test for XO* wiib bisulphaie of potnasa, p. 854. 

1ft. Test for Te in an open tube, p. 351. 

Section I. 




T. The Bloivpipe and its use in Chemistry and 


The blowpipe has for a long time been used by workers in metal 
for the purpose of eoldering together email pieces of metul, by meiins 
of an easily fnsible metallic alloy, corresponding to the nature of the 
metals in bund. It consists of u conical brass tnbc about two hun- 
dred and forty millim. long, bent at a right angle at the narrower 
end, but not with a sharp corner, so that with it the flame of an oil- 
Inmp can be conveniently directed upon the piece of metal to be sol- 
dered, which is laid upon charcoal. The wide end of tlie blowpipe is 
placed between the lips, the lower end directed toward the flame, and 
a stream of air strong enough to produce the necessary heat is blown 
through it upon the flame. At the present time, however, this instru- 
ment forms one of the indispensable aids which the cliemipt emploj's 
in his laboratory, the mineralogist in testing and determining* min- 
erals, and the miner and smelt<.'r in c.\nmiuing ores and nietallu gical 

Bcrzclixiä* tells us that Anton von Swnb. a Sircclish councillor of niine?, was, 
nccorrliiig lo Bergnion's account, the firsl to employ the blowpipe, in the vcnr 1738, in 
tc^tin^ minerals nn<I on^, bat the extent of his ex peri men ti> is nnknown, ns he pub- 
li?hcil no written «cconnt of them. Cronstedt, a Swedish (iitwtor of mines and the 
foiiinlcr of the chemical system of mineralogy, which appcnrcil in I7r»3, used the blow- 
pipe to dijilin^-iiish minerals, employing for the piiquije ftisibk reajjentB. Von Eiise- 
strOm, who in 1770 published a translation of Cninsledt's system in Kurland, added a 
sef>ftnite section which trcateJ of the manner in wliicli Ctxmstedt employed the blowpijic. 
And which also contains the most general reactions of minerals then known. Here the 
miiitcr rested for a long time, so that the only use to which the blowpipe was put in the 
hand of the chemists and mineralogi,-ta was to lest the fnsibilily of substances und 
iheir »otDbiliiy in borHx-^lH»<'. 

BtTf.inan, however, extended the nse of the blowpipe still Airtlier, employing it to 
ilttcct very small quantities of mineral sulistanecs in analytical examinations, and in 
1770 he published a Lalin treatise on the behavior of minerals i)efore the blowpipe, in ' 
Vionna. Preventcil by ill health from devoting himself constantly to blowpipe experi- 
ments, Bergman wan assisted by Oahn, who used the instrument diligently in his 
rnineralogical studies, obtaining by its aid results as rapid as tliey were conrincing. 
Such was his skill, that he discovered in minerals the presence of substances which hnd 
escaped the most minute search in the wet way ; but notwithstanding his experience, 

■ Sec in his Anitrndiiwi den fMrolin in der Chemie und Mineralogie, p. I. 


Gähn never felt any inclination to pnblisli his ncwly-tbund and improved mctliods. 
Bet7.eliiis, however, becoming neijunintLHl wi'h tiie iHscoveries wliieh Githn bail imide, 
sought to win them for science, and reeoyiiizing the importance and utofulness of tht 
reaction» in the dry way with the lilowpipc, he determined the behavior of moat of th* 
minera)» iind the liodies composed of them, both alone and with variona reagent», before 
the litow[]i]ie, ami in the year 1831 published lits well-known work on " The Boe uf tlie 
Blowpipe in Chemistry and Minenilopy." 

B. dc SauGEurc also employed the blowpipe chiefly in recujpiixing and distinj^nishiiij; 
minerals, but although he introduced many improvements in the use uf the instrument, 
he remuncd far behind Gahn in his results. Among other things he endeavored to 
determine the temperatare necessary for faeing variuti» Rubstanees, by measuring tliu 
«ize of the button which he conid melt with the blowpipe.* Since the appearance ttf 
the Rrst edition of Berzeliua's work the use of the blowpipe has been widely extended 
and experienced valuable additions, partly through Bi'rzclius himself, partly at the 
hands of Le Bailiff, Smithson, Turner, Markort, von KobcU, and others. Harkort first 
nsed the blowpipe for the quantitative silver assay, but Plutincr extended iis u*c to the 
quantitative determination of copper, lead, bismuth, tin, nicket, and cobalc 

The blowpipe, as nsed in its simplest form by workers in metal, 
is subject to a serious inconvenience, since the moistnre which nna- 
voidably collects in the ttibe is finally driven out by the pressnre of 
the air and produces disturbances in the flame. To avoid this, a hol- 
low chamber is connected with the blowpipe which serves to collect 
the moisture. Cronstedt attached a hollow ball somewhat below the 
middle of the tube, Bergman adopted a semicircular shape, while 
Gahn gave a cylindrical form to the part designed for retaining the 
moisture. Various other methods of improving and simplifying the 
instrument are mure specially mentioned by Berzelius, in his work 
above cited. The length of the blowpipe should be adapted to the 
owner's eye, so that the body to be treated may be held where it can 
be moat distinctly seen. A shorter tube ia therefore to be recom- 
mended for a near-sighted person, and a longer one for one who is 
far-sighted. The construction moat used at present, proposed by 
Gahn and approved by Berzelius, is repre;;ented in one half the 
natural size in Fig. 1. The wjiole length from A to H \s two han- 
dred millim. The jet, b, so arranged that it can be removed? is most 
advantageously made of platinum, being eitlier soldered together 
from not too thin a sheet, or turned from a solid piece. It is well to 
have two such jets; one with a smaller hole bored to a width of 0.4 
millim., for qualitative assays only, while the other has a hole 0.5 
millim. wide, and is used for such t|ualitative ussiye as require a 
strong flame, and for ail quantitative asBiiys. Experience has 
Bhown these to be the best dimensions. It' the hole is too email it 
can be bored wider with a fine steel drill or broach, like that used 

* B. de SauBBure; Blowpipe experiments. Journtd de Phyfiqae, vol. ii, p. 1. 


V *«tch makers. It must be bored from the inside toward tlie out- 
w. and tlie projecting rim which ie generally prodnced on the out- 
side IB then removed by using alternately the drill and a small tile, 
until the hole upi>ears perfectly round on look- 
ing through it with a miignifying-gkse. Jets 
with too wide a bore are useful in but few 
cases. When, tlii-oiigh long use, the platinum 
jet is covered with soot and the hole obstructed, 
it can be cleaned by removing it fi-om the tube 
and healing it to a moderate redness on char- 
coal with the help of the blowpipe, or in the 
upper part of the llame of a spirit-lamp. 

For long and conBtnnt usv, a Jit lumed from a picoc of 
platinum is ])refcmhle lo one of »i.1tli.'rcd bIiii;! platinum, 
Binte the «earo of the latter is easily iiijiii-cii in (inie. Tlie 
easy uxidntiun of iliv inL'TaU furliids thu i),'iiitiun of brass tuid 
German sllver jets, wliich must ihcii^fure 1>o clvansed by 
piuHiing a fine fplinter of hum or a neulle t)ii\>U(;li the liule 
from within ontward. 

To avoid tiring the lip muscles by long blow- 
ing, Plattnor has recommended the horn mouth- 
piece, C. Hy pressing this against the sliglitiy 
opened mouth when blowing, a 
person accnstomed to it can 
blow uninterniiitedly for a lon- 
ger time and much more strong- 
ly than witlioiit it, nor is the 
least fatigue felt in the lip nius- 
clee. Particular t';ire must be 
taken that the mouth-piece, tl e, 
is properly curved, so that the 
rim of it may not cause unne- 
cessary pressure on the mouth, 
aii'l (he diameter of the outer fiid should be about 
thirty-five millim. On account of the strong con- 
(Incfiiig power of silver, a blowjupe of this metal 
becomes so hot through long hlowing, that it can 
scarcely be held with the naked tnijjers, and blow- ' | 
pipes are generally madt' of brass or Gerraau silver. 

Mitscherlich has proposed a very convenient blow- 
pipe, of somewhat different construction, for travel- 
ling, which is shown in Fig. i. The cylindrical part, A, serving to 

FiR. 1. 

Fi:-. S. 



ntaiQ tbc moisttirv. is attoclied iv tbe loug lube, which unscrews la 
lb« middle at IJ, while thL- emallcr tub«, a i&, can be slipped into the 
half that u fa8t<>nod to tiie moietur« reEvrvoir, and the oilier half, C, 
the moaili-^iroi; uf wbioU. D, slionld be covetvd wiih silver vchea 
tbe whole ia uf hnss or Gci'maii silver, can l>o put ov«r th\i like u 
ease. Thv cylinder (bus Ivmit^ cau be convc-oii-ntly carried in the 

If the lilowpii* u lo be iu«l Ibr gtau MoMrini;, ibc lul». t\. 3. bent st ii rf|:lii 
■nK(«,cuii bMtra)>ldtc>l, *t Beradlw bM duwribni. Tltli U fixed In Hie upcamj;, a, 

J Us- I , an4 ran 1« inclhivd «1 au^ tc>)uirT4 an;;lc willi tlic locij; loLc. TIk 
l>ici«]ii|« tan in ilii* mH* )e ticM &Jt in ibe mmiib. Hiticr wiihaui n riinurli* 
yucv. or wiih « biuoil bont ni»uih-|iW(v. Fis- 1. «> iImi loib luuidt ftra Dw. 
A »till briivT «rmflg^nn-nl fur tlit« |>iirf<>t>,- U kliown in Fig. 5. Vpau iIh 
bwuil. (, baxetla Kiec*l[ibn! «itb k turikal «lllla wlikb ilie brau !>•»«, i, 
B|, a laLliif; tliiT (ilwr of i\\e niuiaiurc KtentAr, A, fig. I, uf tbe onlinary lihtir* 
pip«, i-Ra U> ni»v«d up uid dairii awl Inmtd al plunm. twin;; lirM fati in 
ilic miuinxl pOMtloii by • iiiiti noi Ken in ihc drawing. TK* fcntilc kivw, 
t. «ti iTir adicr uilr, avrra n lilic (inqioK lur ilicslion bni-c, ii. In which lite 
lilnnpi[ir inbp. r. In p1ai-vd. Ill ibr brau incvo, k. iliorv It liki'Wif« an dihw- 
iug fur llic exit tulw, ", tA wliif h any ilMiral iiK-linntkin cnn Ix i^vpii h« 
lij lumiu^'Jl. T)h.- [uin* o( *d urdinary Vluw]iip« can Ix iiMid flirv anil r. 
rig. 4. Tbe Uinp, I, k ULcwtH Kt ilJKcUy u|iuii b. 

Much trouhk- hue 
been expended in 
coDBtructiiig conti-i- 
vances bv wiiich a 
blowpipv flaint; ouu 
be produced without 
the hflp of the 
huuuii) luii^K. Witb- 
oQt ent<Tinfr into n 
discnEtiiu» of »11 tbe 
pieces of apparattu, 
Lhe olacet ut' nbicii 
are meationed iu 
Berwlin»'» w (i r k 
above cited, one alone will be more nearly considered here, which 
8atislii-x all tbe ri>()uireuieuts tliut chu be exiK'ctfd früin äut-b «u 
arrangemfot: it is the i-aoutcbouo bellowE. On a sotall board, ^ a 
metal Ttnt, f, l''ip. 6, is fixed hT mean« of a joint, so that it can be 
muvod tuwanl uuü bido, xnd on tbi^ tbe metal pieev, c, wlueb eiui be 
Recnred ut pleasure fa; tbe screw, jr< moves up and down. Tbe exit 
tube. I, oautliu« receive aoviticliuatioQ and puntion withiv^onl totJie 
blowpipe lump, a. The bellowä, It, the tube,i:, uod tbe reiäeri'oir, ii, 

ras st-owpiFE axsd its use iv cbeuistbt, etc. 7 

ifiir Ibo mMt p«rt couitruct««! of vulcAoized rubber; v and v' are 
F^bIvüs. By ii>m pressing B with Che hand, or apon tho floor with lh<! 
fiKit, and luitjiig tt ei{)äi)d agnin. the air «11.I4.T« at v and Js expelldd 
tbruitgli tt'niid tlie tub« Je intoüi« reservoir if nnd tbe tobe t. After 
a few expeiüaeuts with tbe poütioD of tba tube i, und u otrouger ot 
weaker pDAsaura of Ihd bellows, facility in oonsUially muintüiung 
tlie diOereut Same« l» ac4uired. 



ÜMaiillf nor« compüCftMd a|ipustMi lu« hcen dfvUed Ibrtbc pnrpoM of iccnring 
tspjiUtf In changing ibc iltrcvticia of die lubc 1', and ffxinx U nurec n«curstcly in öm 
lilan. «nd b winc riuc* ite lohe 1» anachoil lache lump tiKclf. Amine iIicm aj« 
the «iipannis of Oiiui mtul OelrrUnil { Ar^- u. fftfiMim. JM.. 1R69. Ko. 13) : ol O. 
A. MoM«, foUjr ilMcrilad in ih« /Jfr«- u. l/ütlr^m. Xtil.. IMS, No. «I, iui<] 1640, Kn. 
3b; duu uf C. f!. Racccr, Bsji-n. Hüaeam- Zäs., |nb9, Nim. tQ anü 21. «nd of Fr. 
I*fllkelier. Thn tuior ihn« u« iiuitc ramplFtc otid pirutaUj nnirwur the purpiMe u weit 
«« kiifihinit Ibu (^ooM ie dcTüed ; but itlih»ii;h ihtr may l« rr<»tiBRiCBiLed Ibr mrw 
quiDtiMtiie o|Mation» mjuiriae 011)7 a »icAdy, »iron^ Hüne, wkictt laitfl bc Iwpi up 
Ibr KOiM timr. ■« in ilic Koriflcmion oT a number oT »ÜTn^lml hntirinF, raiuiinz ttrvt, 
■ad (imflar ratFiir tniinam oiomiioiu, th«in> ia nothinj: which ein tr advinTagiionfljr 
•nbaitttiiHil tar Ü» tiiaulh «14 Iiiiiid« in cum iw)nirinf,' inoTv cnivriil rrratmrnl 

Tbe caimic Wac bclluwk annrcn all laiuinriiii-tiu luul midun ihmbtlul llic iuiroduc- 
Üaaot rarkna vthrr nxciii liJow|üpe blaiu, aniiinx «hidi an: ihe foUunrlnj;: that of 
n* Luca (£^- u. liiOttfm. Zeit., I8S4, |>. 331), witk üio rnpiovcnieoi intn>4««ed bf 
(.VTiliKt |/Wj1. /.WriW^ , Uar, fh 71»); the ÖUiUw«tuAr«r Braun« (ßn?->*.HaäMn. 
Äii , IKW, No, .*>) ; iSc ÄiwiVyAmir of Schiff (.1«i«rf. rf. f A. «. /^in«. n. ff. toL 33, 
t<. >V>«1; ilie bigwing mackiiw ot SjinrDg«] {Pi^. Ann., rat US, p. 3G4J. 


TL Tiie Fust. 

In caee of neoeseitj* « candle flame maj' be used for niaiiy 4]iiatita- 
Htc blowpipo Auaya, but wliva a stronger fluine is reqiiired, aa in 
ijnatititativi; assays, peculiarly conatriicled Ltmp« tnitsl be used, in 
whicli ni|iL'äciHl üil, ulive oil, n mitlurc of ulcoliul uud tuqH'ntint-, 
or ill iinii tinting gas arc burned. The fluni« al' alcoliol ie pour in 
carbnn und only snilable For a few blowplixr t-spcrinit-ntä. ItapcAvd 
oil miiflLbe refined ns tbeuurofined oil äniok<iS. Olive oil buruB very 
well, but is eomotinics bad bccanw tho blowpipe lUme is snrrounded 
by A brotid yellou' envulope, nnd is Üifu ueeb'ss fur «ssays in which 
(lie coloring of the flame by tlie eubatauoe under exumiunliou is (o 
be olwcrvrd. The form of blowpipe lump now used f>>r niiu-sixx] or 
olive oil i? the eamc as wiw prvip-wd by Berxeliiis. The cistern, Fig. 
7, is of tinned shect-lron, about on« hiiiulred aud sixtveu inillim. 
long and coated with dnrlc Wrpipr. Its«-cti«n i« shown by the front 
riov, B. Tho mckcl, a, ie tnt-lvc inillim. long in the clour, and liv« 
miltioi. wide, and is filed slanting fttiin right to lell, so tliut the 
flame cau be directed downward by the blowpipe when reqiiirvd. 

The Cover, C, am hu 
«irewed tight over 
tJic socket, and Tor 
tilt» jiurpoMi 18 pro- 
Tldml with n browl 
rim on which a 
leather wueher soiik- 
ed ill wax is fuKtenH 
with dirllac. Tht^ 
f»l is poured into a 
special ojieiiing, A, 
which Cull bu Uke- 
wise rlo^Pil with a 
Borcwetl covfi'. Thi* 
Tick is woven in u 
cylindrical fomi and 
is of iMtlon^ like 
Uiose used for Ar* 
gund lump^ It is 
pn-üticd out flat and 
foldi-d K-i.gtiiwiK* so 
as to conie fourfold 
*'*■ ^ into the «ocktt, to 


lb* width uf wliicli it mast oiaotly correeponä, fitting ucitlior tix» 

■r Uio tight, mill its iippor wige 18 cut päinillel with the wwket. 
I I ip iUclf is inuimtcd on a hnios ctaiid iinO lUtvl un tlii-' bi-a-ss 

hxl l>y & Kcrcw, c Ou the «auie ätmid is m brat» ringt 0, abiiot Ufty 
Tnilllm. in diameter, proTldiMl vitti a murabli' «nu, and in it i* a tiet- 
vork (if iron, or hettt-r still, plntiiiiiin viri>, uliich ät'rt'esiui u support 
fur ftm«lt iDircftuiu vessels uueä lu dryiiig auliHtiuiu'« or lieutiiig fluids 
either over the fr« kiinp tlanie or over the spirit-Iiimp. Kitiw:. him- 
i-rer, thii Hrmngcmrnr is Di>t well eiiitcd for h^Ating a timnll plnlinnm 
urucihif; or a Lliin dUh uf ])latiiiitm or porcelain to a rt'd hc^at uvtT n 
I'uuimou ipirit-lanip, there i^ a square hüle in tlie movable jtaxt of thv 
ami, ti, mii> vhich llm arm »f iiu ignititis: ring, E, cau tni iuwrletL 
Oil th« 'L ' '''^ if jdiKi'd u triiiiij^k- of plaliiiiiin wir«». 

For ni I ulüohol und oil of InrpcitlilKi gliu» lampB (u>rve 

tw«t. betDg madv lik« lui oitlinarjr jpirit-UuDip, hut pruvldt-d with a 
[ikvt and wick likr thr niMamp jii«l ilpwrihcd. Oiifloe hit« pro- 
II mixture uf tii't-lTt* [yatin of tiLr<.>iij^ utcoliol aud uiiti pttrt x>t 
turp<!Dtitio; Pliaiii, a mixtiiro of six parts by volume of ulcolitil of 
8A'' and onp part of tnrpwitine, with tiio iwldition of a fe* di-ojw of 
ether to clarify thu cloudy liiniid. Iiuilead of the turpentine heuwuc 
may I« iMii|>loyui : fuur piirt« of nlculiut and out; of heiiKiiic giving! a 
«trongly illuminatiug llHrnc. The intrwluctioii of illiimiuntiiig gii« 
iD niuiiy nhi'iiiie»! labiinitories Itn^ rond^red it* iiiwj \i*ry coun^uii-ut 
for tl«: bhtwpijjc experiment J, and the burm^r proposed by Bunsco ia 
best Aiiited fur Ihia piirfioflL-. Through 
ih* n«k, gt Fig. 8, which is connected 

jfvi pipe by ruhtier iiihn. the 
- - ■ iulo ihe ^ertiral titlw, a. from 

beluv, isötiiiig throDgh a line opening 
mad« by tliru- slits nnvMng at ii octitnU 
poiiiL Inside uf thu LiiU-, (i, the gaa 
mtngkw with air euli^ring through the 
aide opciiiitg)^ H, m tliat if kiiidh^l ut tlie 
upper «nd. it biirtie with u blue Qiun« 
fV?o fmni ioüt. Whil« bv this armnge- 
mi'iit vorliitiH i>x|M'nmenls ou tlie color* 
ing uf tlM* fliunv. tlic fu«ibility of üub- 

<ud with borax and suit of 
; ; : ' 11« heiid« can Iw mudo, it may 
lUao be readily oonT^rted into a n>giil&r 

liiiii|) by Hlip|iirig into n ihv 

•/, t, so fat- as (o cut olT Ihe access of air through «, Thu 



lube, I, U iuoUueU ut the Ujy like thu liuup Mukct, und hue a alit tea 
to «Itiicii milliiii. luiig aitd ubuut 1^ uiüHiil wide. VV'ht-D tliu uir ia 
llliiä cut ull'tlli; gun Ijlinia ut th« ll[lfH.'l' upi-uiug «rilli au illiiiiiiuutiug 
IWue, wliiuli iiuijr tw luudu u» lur^ as hu oi'dinur; luup Sume by 
»gulatuig Ibv avccäs uf Uie gue. 

Flick [E/it f^iftiivitmir 'I'aAaik, weonA «iliiiun. p. 48), hu ilMcriliciI «n amuig» 
munt lurgltiM-Uvwlng wUch c«n Im en|ilojwJ i» > Mm»tr)idl ilrcrrd fona lur btoKfÄp« 

GXAiniiiMiKiBN 1\>. S (iiaiunl tiv). 

-. X. 

Ol" '-" 


lu itiii aiTflngcmcni, wtikli <*iui unlj 
bo tiMd<rliM«llliiiiiitiBiÜi}t giu U fti 
hiad, ilie Uai|i miiI bluw|iipv «rt 
comUiMid. Ovcrtlieoxii luU-.ii.of an 
onlmnrv Uuwpi|ie b cjliiiilriciU ouc, 
AT, c<m)(-ul al on» villi, b »lippril m»i 
Cuiciml lijr a tcn-n, ■. IllMMinalnix 
gM Ai/«a intu lliii mte ibtuuffU IIm 
■ock, 1^, runntrtrdwiili (li^iisa pipe bj 
■ rubber tuW, y, ikiiI niiii^lu wicL tkc 
■Ir Iwnbig IVuni ilip «fH'rritre of ibc 
Muirptpi' Jrl, whlt-h alKxihl bvu snail 
w fitaaSih. 'riiv miii^lMl gun paM 
üirauub e, niid 
whi-n l.iii(lk<r] furm 

ft \<Mt pnlnlad Abiik. A bif «Mpcrimen» w>l' «■mi ijntvrintns ib« 
|inip(]niunt of gna Mid ür rcquinal lo fmdac« »n «fxiilUini; »r 
radueinit Aan«. 

llftiidc« the laiii|) Tor oil, otc, ft)>uvc tU-iM>riln.-<], a 
siui|>le e|<in(-liiii))>. Kij;. 10, is t^mploycd witlt iiilviui- 
lijK« lor exaniintng inauy snlwluiin» Ttir v«il«tile in- 
gmlioiilft. in snutll timtnis^na niid lliin ^ush tulii-«, 
iukI fur riiHJiiK Mir'K-tis ^iil>pl:iiicva with l>iHiil]th»tv ut 
|M*tii0sii i» II fitiiaU ]ilHtiiium e\Mjuu, as wuti us fur ig- 
tiitioiis. ftp. A liirgvr F(Hrit-lamp i«n he rmpliijrt-d at 
hnnic tliiiii mi it jimnit'T« nlient itit- iippanttus miuc bo 
tia cuniiiaielly iirnuigvil as poesible, 


IJl. The lilast and the Flame. 

The blast witli th« blovrpipe is not proilD«C(I by the rt-spimtory 
orgiini), bi'tniiis« thou it cuuM uul bi> lung e'tu[aiii(?d, and au iinlimken 
current of uir could only be kfpt np for u short iÄmc, but it ie pm- 
dticed by tho miiscli*« of thu check«. Thn mouth is filled with air 
wbirb is furccd through the blowpip« by thes« mnsclcs. aud while 
blovrinf;, the ouuot-otiün Ik-IwoiMi the chest uud the cuvilyof tUuiuoutli 
is closed by tbo pal&tc. which aobi at the same time as u riÜTe, so long 



BS tlie nuiutli is auOiciently full of air, and respimtloo is effeotol ouly 
. iiu-otigli Uie uo«c> Wbeti, lioWQver, the tciisiou of the cliock muEclcä 
Uwn!aa>s, »ir ii agsm ndmitud into tiie mnutii through the throat 
Urning the act of expinition, mA the cheelu thus iuflated am-w with- 
tint intermpting the blaat. 

BtüK^nner« i^tiivnllr (ominlt ih« crtwr of nM doviof iW ccmticvtkiit UtwMn iIm 
clMsrt Mil ibuiDMiIi « tlw rislit tiuH:, tiKivbjr ollawiiigg ilMhmgB (oKvrkdirailjr ftrn 
^ |aagitrqritiunrr[wrioJ. Thai Hit «tjlc of Mun-inK nuT tw tnj^rioiiii lu Uur lumlili U 
t to Iw doabwd. IVinnn* iiniK«iiiuxn<il Iq (^ ate of (lie blowrpip» cu lc«rii ti> pro- 
«Ivwc i »loiJ; Rnuu vt ait br lokiag nrt I» (irMtlw ndUutr (ow fut uvt two tlowly, 
bni iu>) ** nAiwl. tuid (n • iliftiincilr ■udlbk Mnv during ihe blait. «imI iu L-unilni|c tli!« 
:.' ■niil ibcy cnii jiruilucc ui iiiiiii((-rTit]>fnl unam of air u( niiironii 
< . lout «rniiilns, liti>->.>M« it mil iixiv^l iintitolinti;, liui « kw <Uv(' 

(.«111« trapravrineiii, anil uftvt a nliilv lucli fiKÜiir ü uiuino) that no 
I ' ml Biiviilioii itrri U- Ustownl upufi Ihv Uut i[i>c)I, luul «nr foaruf nywy 

IB tb* iMKlih i* vnttnljr diiuii«kd. 

It Ii iiii]>üä«iblc- to jttviiorilic Lhu uiuniiur of hoUluig Lhit bl(iwpi|tt 
«rhil« lilniring, and tlie jKisilioo of both foivarnis wliilc tn<>ating an 
»3«ay, üucu tliix dt-jiciiil« upun hiibit; but the blon-pijK: can bo held 
• r^lv anti coiiveiiicnlly by taking the long tube between tJie 
> ; the right hand, but äu thai t)iu iuuür JoiiiU of tho inJex 

and middUt lingers are above and the inner joint« of the otiter twa 
ttogera are bcluw tUu tube, whilo the tliiunb h uxtumtL-d und «upporU 
' Ut« tube ii'ith the ead joint, where the mouth-pit^e n atUuihed. It ia 
soon found tlmt the jioi^ition of Üie forennnä is moiv convenient when 
they only rvat agaiuät Lhü vaga of tlie table Lhiin when thu cIIkjws ure 
(jUwvd U]>ün it. 

Altuff U-iiruing to blow ft strong unbroken current Uii-ougU the 
bloirpii* there is no diflicully in produein;; a gwiJ tlumo by conduct- 
ing rliL' vurrvut through tho flame of u lamp, but iu udditio» to ttiis 
n kuowlifilgf of tbt- flame and ils sejiarate parts is mcewiiry. Ou 
lutikJng at thi- llauic t>f the blowpipe- luinp il will be obticrved, if the 
wkk is not drawn out tio far that it smokea, that it is composed of 
lar vpamte [turtit. If a bunihig tapt'r it phieod beside it the sum« 
may Iwcven inim' ilistincily olxserved in It« flame. 

Pig. II ropreM-iita » ciindlu tliuue. at tlie baev of wliitih is mcu u 
Htialt light-liiue paK. a b, airrouudtng the Ihime at this point, but 
uarn>win;j;u8 it rwcdes IVom tfie wiek mal entirety dianppeNriiig where 
the »idi'Ji iif tile tlimie aweud vcrtieatly. lu the middle uf the Dumc 
ii a diirk oouc, c. surronuded by the illtimiuutiutf fliuue pi-oper. the 
inantle, </, on the outer edge uf which is u Tory lUiu, scatrcely visible 
envei'ijH', or reil, u e 6, whirh trident towiu'il ibu tip uf the llaiui>a7iu 
it ilii- hiitle«!. of iu BL-Ycrul purtit. ün holding a ruthvr tine pbiti* 


plattner's blowpipe analysis. 

nam or iron wire across the flame at f f, it ia seen to swell most 
and to become white hot in the envelope, a e b, while in the darker 
portion, c, it scarcely glows. The cause of this is as follows : the 
heat of the flame radiates back npon the tallow, wai, etc., 
and melts these substances, which are then sncked np 
through the capillary force of the porous wick and 
brought into a temijeratui-e high enough to convert them 
into vapor. While these lieated vapors are ascending the 
air enters from all sides and its oxygen effects the com- 
bustion, but this takes place only on the outer limit of 
the flame, forming the envelope a eb, which consists of 
carbonic acid and steam, and here too the flame is hot- 
test In consf<|uence of this high temperature the vapors 
behind this i-iimIujjo, consisting chiefly of the two kinds 
of carburetted hydrogen, separate into their constituent 
pai-ts, and the separated carbon is made to glow, causing 
the light of the flame and the existence of the part d. 
•^K- "■ As the free carbon approaches the veil, which is rich in 
oxygen, it is burned to carbonic oxide, then to carbonic acid. The 
dark cone iu the flame consists of undecomposed vapors, since the 
heat of the veil decreases below and toward the middle of the flame. 
The air having access to the flame from all sides, at a b, produces a 
very perfect combustion, resulting in the light-blue portiou ; but as 
there is not enough oxygen to convert the carbon into carbonic acid, 
only carbonic oxide is formed, and this causes the blue color. Of 
these four parts three can be as easily distinguished in the flame of 
the oil-lamp as in that of a taper, but the fourth, scarcely ^lumi- 
nating portion, is only to be perceived imperfectly and by careful 
observation. Only two of the parts are generally employed in blow- 
pipe assays; the slightly illnminating envelope for oxidation and the 
illuminating portion for reduction. With the blowpipe, each of 
these parts may be made to work by itself, and we may therefore call 
the slightly illuminating envelope the outer or oxidizing flame, and 
(he illuminating part the inner or reducing flame. Cases occur, 
bowi'ViT, where the slightly luminous flame oxidizes too strongly 
and the luminous flame reduces too strongly, in case a lively flame is 
needed. Under such circumstjinces the blue part of the flame is 
best employed. The manner in which the diflferent parts of the 
flame can be rendered efl'ective with the blowpipe will be particularly 
.lescribed in the following pages. 



ng It. 


On Wowiiip into ike lamp Üütiie fivm .»iic of its oarrow m*1(-8 »o 
that Uit; jft of Ilie liIuwpijK' i'sLi>iid>i aljititl. lo llii- tliini |)arl of tlic 
bruodlli of Uie hocIgcI, and llic> ciinvnt or nir. almoit ttiuohiiig Um 
wiuk. [wsai-a Uirc-ilv thmtigli llir middU-, it lon^ Uliic llumi*. a A, i« 
(>r.tdii<.vil, wiiicli iu rcallj (lie same m a b hi 
Fi}(, II, »I tlio Imjw of the rrec flnme, cxwpt f^-r::^^^** 

ttmt it nppiirf in luiother r»rii). and vontaiiis 
all till.* Iftiraing gases wliidi are lii-vftupt-tl : 
ii livrt- (ormi » «k-iidor (v>n«i <ir|ii]i> Oiere it 
only incloici tlip lower part of llio llunik-. 
Th« hnttc-et |>oiat is in front tif the lip of rbii 
f!amf. where ihe mt)ftt perrcri i>itiiljii»tii>ti of 
ibo (loveloiK-d (juwe uccure. Thiä hotuat porrioii roTWR aii cnrclop« 
about III« whole of Ihv fi>»; Qniiic>, bitl lierv it ja ralltcr conimcted tu 
tt |K>iiit in ft-o»L of the l>lii« IIaiiu-, siirr'iii tilling l\w point of tJi« Utter 
vriUt ti cone vif flume, whicli ulsn t-xtiiiidA to sini'' It-ngt)) fniiu a to c. 
»ml hn» a pAle'blne color. As bt-Joi-e mvutioueU, the hottest point is 
jnU in trtml of tbn tipof Lhv liliieflainü nt r/, hut it rapidly docivosi-H 
ill It'jnpiTMttire towiird r, mid *itill Diuri' rupidlv tow^i-d A. When » 
Vi-rjr higii k*nnKmitiin' is tioL m|iiinxl, the oiiiliitioR is lii-st L-UVcttd 
l»y linitiu^ the niiSHj' as fiir from th(! [«int uf the blue flunitr sa will 
«dmit of pro<lMeitig tlio nutyssiiry teiii|»craturft 

An MSHjitial oooditimi in proditciiig a pure 0. F. is a wick free 
Irotn clmrrol llirt'ads aud Iturdeitud puriiclcj. und cni parolM with 
the Bliuitinff fdge of Ih« eockvt. «incc oUierwiise yellow atxcAks easily 
Dctitir in the hine cone of tlanie, which ai\> rich in carbonifiToua 
' }nrtjol>-is und haw a rediu-iri>; vffixi un the assay. When ma usay ii 
tnstrd on cofti m rrry strong: blaat shonid Dot be nsed, or else a part 
of ttie comI will bii bnrncU to corbomo oiidc gaa, which oounttract« 
llio oiidatiiin. 

KalyhUf w'lA aflimit Ihe ticti mnurioi Ibr jmciicc ia prodiutn^ • |>uro O. F., a* ti 
luinH^liMir)* iHit« « browp ^»f* "ilk bttnx in »a hnpuK Q. F. A modnulc uovunt 
of h isiliuitrtd in borax on n pinilnani «Ire In Ilic O. F.. m ihivc la fuar mllTIm ill»- 
lancnlVTMi ihw junrn^ of flw Une hiue. iin>l jicldi a cli'ar vulluw glus. culurims nlieti 
nwL Oi> trvntins lliw gl»*" iJifwdy wilh llio lip of 111« blue 8nnM fo» a »hort lime, it 
fcrBMBw tiniwDi «nil anur liluwiai; lunK«r i{utW opaqai:, tvcaiute dM (nolvUK uciij it 
llmNtijbt vilh rximinlinnr^eaieSu » lower «awuf uxiilaiioii. ilt., Mnoxidrof mi'li)» 
d«ann. Eim ■ ytUnw cireak in ilie 0. T. proditix* n bruwii culvr in ili« glMC 'I'kv 

* ThroagtiMii iIm Kit of ikia work ilie oxidtiin)[ iome rlU be duiguated faj ilic 
Irttcn 0. V. 

14 PLATTNER's blowpipe AKALT8I8. 

•ooner a bomx bend quite opnqne with binoxide of mol/bdenam c»n be rendered cle«r 
Rgnin, ao much Che purer is ihe O. F. employed, provided it is effective cnongli. To be 
certain that a sullii-iently Birong 0. F. can be prodaced it is only necessary to try to Tuie 
tlicend of n plaiiniim wire, O.l milliin. thick to a globule. One end of the wire is bent 
at a right angle and held in the O. F. with its axis curresponding exactly with the axi» 
of the flame and bo that it does not vibrute. With a pure and strong flame a globale 
will soon be observed ta form suddenly, bdng larger in size th« stronger the flame 

2. THE KEDUOINO t-t.Atwtt!* 

On blowing from the narrow side directly into the middle of 
the flame, so that the blowpipe tip reaches very little or not at all 
^^-j^g^^into it, and the current of air. Fig. 13, passes 
at a somewliat greater distance above the wick 
than in Fig, 12, the whole of the flame assumes 
the same direction as the stream of air, and 
appears as a long luminous cone, a b, the end 
» ^^^F of wliich, a, is surrounded by the same pale 
^•'■"- hlnTsh flame which can be observed with 

some cure in the free flame, but which here extends to c By thus 
blowing into the flame, the gases arising from the wick are burned, 
and tlie carbon, separating in infinite particles, is rendered white hot. 
and then, likewise consumed, producing, in common with the vapor 
of water already formed, the outer flame, which is plainly visible as 
far aa c A small part only of the dark cone is still visible, immedi- 
ately above the wick, and reaching to d, and between a and d. but 
somewhat nearer a, is the most active part of the flame. If this is 
directed, for example, upon a reducible metallic oxide, so as to com- 
pletely surround it and cut off the access of air, the oxide will, owing 
to the tendency of the free carbon in the flame to take up oxygen, 
either be entirely or partly freed from its oxygen, according as the ' 
oxide is easy or difficult to reduce, and the metal hard or easy to 
fnse, or according as the reduction is efi'ected on coal or in a solution 
in glass fluxes on platinum wire. 

A good R P. is harder to produce than a good 0. F., and especial 
care must be taken that the assay be brought only into the niOKt 
active part of the flame, and completely enveloped by it, while the 
flame must be kept thus unchanged for a. long time. 

Binoxide of manganese and the oxides of copper nnd nickel will forve for pmciice. 
Binoxide of manganese dissolved in a Iwrax bciiil on phttiniim wire in the 0. F., pives 
an amethyst red glass, or when nsed in excess n hlnck opaine beiul, and (he sw)ner ihe 
binoxide can be reduced to protoxide, and the In'iiii ihcreliv reiiilLTeil almost colorless, 

• The letters R. F. will be used hereafter to designate the reducing flame. 


m miicli lliL- tuorv pcrJKi ia ibo It. F. ciaplo}^. A similar braut insdo with vxiik vf 
Ripper (ir UH-Ltl. anil llicn tlttkcii all, Mtd irtttlcd oil i-ob] with Üie B. f., will «oun 
t«ovi! whetlter iht.- rtiuiie |iroiliK«4 liu ilw rijjiit cAict ur nut. Both ufthmeosifiln 
an be nrJucitl Co tli« ineullic lUt«, (he cO|>prr tiniiing to • itnMli button, wliii« 111« 
nitkcl «MM» m iln lidc» o^ tb« glitu in a ntniv of (»))ou«n. TIm woncr the glus be- 
MDw* cImt »tul voiorlcM, the pnnr AtH taon powcriUl in Ihc ft. F. 

Tho Mnn fliune, Fig. 19, a b, in coiiteqitoncc of the curbonic oxide 
vhich it contalDS, has tAm a reducing action, bu tliat l>y it diL'iulUe 
oxides, which are «olnble in glats fltixes and eRsi); reducible, chd be 
Uuiigiit. tu u lower stutc ufoxidaliun vvcuoii platiiiutn ninr, biit. it is 
far inferior to the Inminoua portion in ita effects, and more ucciiTut« 
n-salle Are therefore always obtained with tho latter in en^ce reqnir- 
iag jwrfi.'Ct rcdnctioQ. 

JT. T}i& Su.pport, 

In treating wi assay with the blowpiix! Qamc^ it mtiat be siipportetl 
cm ft body whjcb, dnring the heating and fusion of the a9«ay, will 
neillier eomiiinc with it, nor canse wrong results in case the support 
)* eoRiliubliMe. In many cases the auay ia laid direetly cr such ii 
hody. but in many others this occnrs indirectly, and tJie Btipport is 
Ulatfüri! cither a direct or an indirect one. 

a. The Direct Support. 

1. CcoL WcU-bnrnpd cbarcoal ia «peciuUy «»-ited for the support,' 
K it help.<i to inereaa; the hi-at when neoeesary. U is beat made from 
nuUnre light woods, as the pine and alder, and LOt into pni-atletopip- 
edons, cight^y tv one liundn-d mitlim. long, and into c^itai-u prisma, 
icconliug to the assays for which they are inten'^'xl. Outy those 

glides of the ooul which show the edges of the annual rings are ub<v(L 
Oood cbarcooil for b1ovj>ipe asüays cannot, howerer, Iw found eTpry- 
»here. nor is it ulwa)'s possible to produce sufficiently firm c«il by 

rriiarriog perfectly dry wood in vesGels, and it id therefore advauta- 
p^oDB. particularly for i^nantitative u«i»ys,to make conU of the reiiai- 
>itc »liape ont of not too fine coal dust with eonie binding niateriid. 

[■Btarcli-juste, vbioh Plattner has recommended as the bent binding 
BAt«rial, ia pnpiurcd f>om one part by weight of etarch-nieal and six 
put« t>r water. Tbe starch ia stirred to a thin paste in an earthen 

•Teasel witli a little of the weighed or measured water, and the rest of 
lie water is ponrcd, boiling hot, upon the piiste, and the whole 
briskly stirred iritli a beater, until all the meal is converted i.ito. 
paste. To prepare blowpijw cools, this [uste is rubbed in a|wroelaio 
urtar with snccessive addicio is of cbarcunl dost, until the mass in 

16 plattiter's blowpipe AXALYSIS. 

the mortar becomeB too toagh for any further admixture of coal dnst 
Euongh of coal dust ia then kneaded iu with the hands to render the 
whole moss stiff and plastic, and It is tlien worked thoroughly. Fror. 
tliismass varioifs forms of blowpipe coals caubemade, as will be here- 
aiter described. When made they are allowed to dry gradually and 
thoroughly, and are then heated to a low redness in a covered cruci- 
ble, so as to char ttie binding material. Small pieces can be ignit«d 
in a covered porcelai n crucible, over a spirit-lamp with double draught 
or a gas-lamp; when preparing larger pieces, or a sufficient supply 
of the coals, it is best to choose a spacious crucible of clay, or stout 
sheet-iron, which is covered with a close-fitting cover, and heated in 
a small wind furnace with a very weak draught, between glowing 
charcoal, or in some other moderately strong ßre. The charring is 
complete when combnstible gases cease to issue from beneath che 
cover, and when, on raising the cover, the coals in the upper part of 
the crucible are perceived to be at a low red heat ; the crncible is then 
removed from the fire and allowed to cool with the cover on. The 
coals are of the proper firmness and ring like ordinary good charcoal 
when tlirowu on the table. 

The various forms of coal to be prepared, are as follows: for assays 
where no regard is lia<l to the coat, and for refining copper, small coals 
of a flat dish-like shape are made. In producing them, the mould to 
be hereafter described for the clay capsules. Fig. 27, is used, and only a 
special stamp is needed, which is best made of boxwood; the 
moulding part has the form of the segment of a sphere, con- 
structed with a radius of twenty millim.. Fig. 14. After 
strewing the mould, A, Fig. 27, with coal dnst, a strip of paper 
abont fifty millim. long and five millim. wide is laid over it, 
the cavity filled with the prepared mass, and this pressed to- 
gether with the stamp, Fig. 14, which has been dipped in 
rijt- n. eoiil dust. By means of the two projecting ends of the paper 
the dish-shaped coal is lifted from the mould, and then 
set aside to dry in a moderately warm place, after which 
it is ignited as before mentioned. Fig. 15 shows such 
Fig. 15. a coal. 

Small coal crucibles are very well adapted for decomposing com- 
pounds of silicic acid as well as for quantitative assays. The cruci- 
ble mould, Fig. 29, to be hereafter described, is employed in making 
them, and the metallic plug is replaced by a wooden one. Fig. 16, the 
• diameter uf which at n ft is tweuty-aoveu millim. and at c nine millim. 
The iron mould is first pressed full of the mass, which has previously 
been rolled into a ball and dipped in charcoal dust, aud then the 

THE DinBcT scrpomr. 


woudnu ping* Fig. 16, i£ <]ip]w<I in coiil d»st uikI ept uiKin it, so that 
the pBU-t c Cullies I'xactly in the middio uf tue miws, vrhicb la iht-u 
|irra(«fl logircltpr. After removing the plug hy turning it 
^ntlr. tbv aiould U taken upurt in tliu wu,v to be desohbed 
ill nuikiiigoluv cruciliW. and after cuttiug off itf [-.-^ t- 
iiig- udgtf«' «II til« two wpixjsitf eidv», the owil 
is so f«r rcjdy thai it n-(|uirc9 oul_v to be 
dried and igniUx] in a rlo«(Mi Tfnscl. Tliv 
cwil (."nicililii in the niitnml siw is ahown in 
Fig. 17. TliL- dL'|itli of the cavity in bul-Ii n 
' * crucible twvd. only lie six millini., mid wlion *''k "• 
B dcvficr bole is ncccHaury fur luiy (|iiuntitiitlvc assay it can be bored 
■ widened as rectuired. with the holp of tin; C(«il liyn-r I« bu 

.. . hiTt-iift'T. Ill ••Vi.Wr to fiiciiilati' tlit bundling of tbe*^ 

coikls, cbjmqIvs, and oincibk'a, u cybndi-r. Fig. 18, is used a$ » eui>port 
fnr them, which ie «isty to sixiy-fi^e »nlUm. hijrh and twrntr-liT.^ 
roillim. in diamotor. being ifiado of any muss whicli is ensily worked, 
fasible with dilüriilty or nut ac all. »nd ig n ]Kior coudiictor of heiit. 
It is proridud »t each end, A, B, witli cavities oorrespniiding to the 
eise «if tlic coal to In: diipiHirUxl. Pnmice-ätoii« ur porouä hurut fin.** 
clay art suitable materials. To prepai-e a cylinder trma 
flre-clay the dry powdt'red oliiy is well mixed with iin 
equal Ttdunm of coarsely-bfsteu charcoal and Diuii mride 
»lasticwith iratt'r. 'I'lic cylinders formed fnjm thi^eiiher 
^bj hiinil or with tbc aid of a &|K-ciul mould, uiv alioutHl 
to ilry thorungbly aud Lhi>u ignited in a loodely covered 
cnii>))dr among coals. 

Ill i)uuntilatire bluwpijte assays wbi*D rua^itiDg urm in 

clay rapeides, and nhen fusing lead, higinnlh, tin. and 

bntany nickel imdrobalt tumyi in clay crneibke, a hollow pi« »i 

'ooal iä n't|tiirird. whioli i^i ^t^cnn-d in an fupeoiiil (7tt»l-hold"r, and the 

cavity of nhioh mngt be covi-red willi some siiilsble cuni, &!») hob 

b>wcd out. when a fusion is loh? perfornictl. For thegc roale n rnonM 

of hani iv.jod caii be uaod, coualrucled as follows: the nmiu part of 

ihe mould, C, Fig. 19, consiät« of four piefw« which fit ^-ach other 

«aactly and un- held together by a bniss ring, u-hicli can be drawii 

mote or \frtA light by the scruw,?. These four pieci.-s sarmuud a 

I fort)* miUim. high and thirty-five millim. square. .1 

imp?, the rimä of which, a 6 und e d, have a diamotor 

jnut «()nal to the diataace between two of the strong brass pinii 

filrf- I' '"it^" one »iiolhtr veriically in tbc four pieces of the 

■Olli I - wliich stTve to bring tbo stonipa .J and ^exactly iu 


plattner's blowpipe analysis. 

Pig. in. 

the middle of C. The projecting portion, e, of the stamp A is 
eighteen millim. long and haa a diameter of twenty-two millim. nt 

the top ; the part, /, 
J ,j t B ■ attached to 5 at c rf, 

forms n segment of a 
ßphere which lias a 
breadth of twenty- 
two millim. at its 
junction with the 
rim, and ie nine mil- 
lim. thick. Z> is a 
prism fitting exactly 
into C, and serving 
as a bottom in mak- 
ing coals for roast- 
ing and fusions. E 
is a prism seventeen 
millim. high, which 
is laid npon D wiien 
only coal covers are to be made, and hence also serves as a bottom. 
When" coflla are to be made in this monld a piece of paper corre- 
sponding to the size of the mould is laid on the bottom prism, the 
aide eurfacea are rubbed with a little coal dust, the empty apace 
pressed full of the coal mass, and the requisite stamp, the moulding 
part of which has likewise been dipped in coal dust, is pressed firmly 
into it, turning the stamp a little at the same time on its axis and 
then drawing it carefully out. By loosening the ring and removing 
it from the mould the separate pieces can be easily taken away by 
sliding each one downward from the moulded coal, which is then 
ready for drying and charring the binding material. Such coals 
must be dried with care, as they are liable to crack if put immediately 
in a very warm place, ^ia a coal as it is used, when secured in the 
coal-holder, for roasting in clay capsules and fusions in clay cruci- 
bles, and Ö is a coal which serves to cover the cavity in the former 
coal during fusions. Both coals are bored through shortly before 
use, the former on the aide, the latter in the middle of the hollow, 
as will be deacribed in the proper place; the cavity in ^can also be 
made deeper and wider with a coal-borer, aa required. 

Wlien there is a total lack of charcoal suitable for qualitative as- 
says, in which long pieces in the shape of a parallelopipedon are gen- 
erally needed, they can also be made in the above manner, by means 
of tlie mould nhown in Fig. SO. In this case, however, if the coal 





«Insr tm buniiag kxTcji a coneidcnilile atnonat of a«h. it miut Orat 
hi; pnritli-il l)v ilinf^lin^ it in K'pm n!^a iiiid tlicn waehing it w-l' 
wtth ii4t waUT. The ovhI^, ut'uut. ciirlity millim. long, twenty mil . 
Urn. 'Wid*', »nil from U'li tu twenty milüm- 
thick; an^ mudr la llic i^tlliiwia^ wuv: (be 
iu»in piiH. .1, of tlt<- tii'jiilil, uliiuli consists 
of four ptfws, abtd, lield together by a 
btiMS tiant]. /?. und siimnucltng a space 
rjglity luillinL lung, tii'enlv-Mn<> niillim. 
v'tAw und thirty laillim. high, io plucctl 
ii[inii o Ann. rfeti aapport, iind ii piMc of 
wum) flvt luilllm. ittick. corn'spoiiding ia 
length and width to ihc insidr of thr mould, 
in kid 10 it for It l/ultoui. Tliis buttum 'u oovcrnl with a piecr of 
pAper of tile same si», the t'lnpty epace HIM with as mimh of rb« IT11IS6 as ii ne4^<>d lo nm\v n coal of n pn-a ihickiit-ss. und on 
thin UpUasl aiiotlR-r pii-ci! of [ui[M'r. tin* sii-.- of th>' first, and filially 
Üie moulding paH. £, having a evction (u-iMity-ouc millini.8<|uar«, is 
in^i'ti-il iihd lhf> mit&$ prc««t-(l uigi^thn-r. Tliin donf. the screw,/", i^ 
turned i'ii(>tiji;h to loi>M.'n the l>nu<K baud, wlieu the fuiir {upoe«, n he rl^ 
ara drawn vnl «-pumtcly and thi- «xiul. after being freed from th« ad* 
hcrin!: puixTe, 'a ready to lie dni>d nod chibfred. Ky holding iIk' 
mould ill bitthh*ndä und pn>«sing duwn thopi^M^jV with the tUurnli». 
the mnnldvd coal ni»y he rpnioted uiihonl taking the mould Kpari. 
but its intfrtur surfHCL'« must be iri|>ed off every liino lM>fuiv moutditifj 
■ o«w(vMil, Irtit particles of tbp iaa«t mhonld ailhuro in thenii and ti>t? 
' .lion ifl promot-^d hy rnbhinjr I ho sides of .J wirh a Uttif 

L 'i\w binding inatenjiJ of ibpst- coale nuist likvwisf I«? 

olmrri'd when tliey are perfectly dried. Tbeup Inng coal», as well m 
I - ')f charodul. uRlt tx'Iiig iisi-d, an- Xttrni cU-aiii^'d fii>m the 

r . which may b* on tht-m, nod prepared for liiithcr it?e. bv 

tni-uns of a flic or ra$p. 

2. Phiitutm in üv.- slmpt of wire. foil, and Biwwn«.— Thr h«'!;tpl:.t- 
inain wire lur c]iialitHtiv(> ust; \s it.boiit 0,4 millim. rliick.aiid is CJt 
iott» ]iiec«s al>out fony-ßre milliin. loii<r. with n lw>p at one end, Fijr. 
?^ .(. This Borvi'g ajt a AtijiporL for borax ami salt of pliusphunu 
. -i :-, which Clin lb as he «tv convoniently examinud. and arc qnit* 
frtv fp>m Ihp fttlsc pbiy of ooloni that oflcn apprarg i>n ooiil, iliroiigli 
tiie position of the head on the blnck snpport. In examiuiiig 
mä*lallicn)Inyfl, baweTer, and in n>ductioo assays where eneily fngibl« 
melals separate, plalinnm win> cannot l>e u$cd, bnt coal must aluavü 
be used a« a iinpport. Wbva in tisv tlic wire is either lised in a aotr 



Fix. ai. 

;urk or acoured in an espt-cinl huMer, Fi^. 31. B, wliicli ulso »ants 
a* tt case ri>r ^•venil wiresw To prcvftit iiijiirv tn the virve from 
(be ecn-w, bolder^ ure nsvU in wfaicb the wirti ig losert^d into the 
^ middl«:* of two slits crossing each otbcr at right 

^ iinslf»; flic latli-r arc then shut tight hy a band 
I which iä llirii&t urer tbL-iii mid urrun^d to hui'cw up 
ftod tbns bold th« wire. In Fig. i2, the 
upper purt of biicU h bolder, with the hand, 
«, is rcpri'Ä'utt-d iit the imtural «iw. Th« 
hMip is moet readily cleansed from adherinj: 
#n)j«tanc« t>T wiirmin}; it iu n t«ät tube witli 
dilute bydruvhlfiric acid, and then riiiiin^ 
it with disliDt-d wnier. Boetdcs »«vend s\en- 
d<-r wires tbciv ma)' Iw »nother, U.0 mlllitn. 
thick, and likewise bent to ft loop at one ^ **■ 
eiid, Fig. 31, r, whivb is of advanliige in tiling for umtulic and 
tungstic Hcids, etc where the gnbstauce masl he Tuewl wiih alkaline 
carbonates. I« is either held with tlic linger» or fastened In a «miill 

The nseof platinnin Toil in qualitative exmniQations is very liuit«d. 
The (bin rolli.*d foil is cnt into stripe abont sixtj tnilltm. long and 
fifl^-eii millim. widi-, and when in uec the free end isHtbcr held in the 
furccjiK ur Ibrust Into Uiuend ofa luug pieeeof cliurcuul, liclwecn the 
yearly rings. Metallic anhiilaiices in the rognlioc stale, or sncb a« ai 
ciuiily rcdnced and fuwd dtiriug the blast, muiit not be treated an' 
pliiliniim foil, since they combine with it and reader the correspond' 
ing spot njwlosi. Tbc foil is gcaoraliy used to fuse &ut>stancea cuu- 
taining niaugiincse with curbonate ot* swla, which bi-com«s bluish- 
green on cuuling, from the presence of manganute of soda, and thus 
the presence ofmaiigantuiu is indicated. 

A platinum epuon ia uece»5Ary for many assays, and it is, in fact, 
iidvontngt-oQB to have two, one abOTit fift«?«!! 
tnilliro. io diameter, Fig. 33, and a enuUler 
one, Fig. 24. nlwut nine millim. iu diameter. 
On uäng Ibc larger siwon, the handle, which 
mnitt bIb» be of platinum, is inserted into a 
small wodde« holder, or into a piece of cork ; 
ilie smaller epoon is held fast by the haudle 
ni'ith Ibe forceps. The larger spoon is aged 
for ftisiag ccriniD eiibsUncte with bisulphat« 
of potassa, for beating the gold obtninod from 

vib. tt, 

rur. M. 
ft i[nantitAtiTe 

ft fluid iV>r other purposes ; the smaller one, on tb« 



otber hand, acrvcs onh for iho fiuion t»f cortuin sulistaucea vith 
s*lt|K-lrc. ]r il hapix^ns. after a fusion wUli saltpctr«, that the spoon 
tiifes not bccuni« ck-iiii br di^sulviiig iho (»f*^ ninss in wai«r, on tic- 
coant iirmlbürent |»rtie1us of mctallie oxtdt», it in only atroaaasr to 
mrll u little? hiKu1|iIiate uF polnsiut in U over tbe s]iiriMamp, and (lien 

Lo i-lvuriev it nitli vatcr. 

A *hin plntin'im di<Ji, «iMint thirtr mrHlm. In dlMvchtr, »nA im mtllim. iloq», b of 
s iiijndtiK mtnj (nailiiiisiicMii iif flnartnr hv «iiljitienR ni-iil, us well 

u- < r>, till' iintijiiistr* cm which tn tii It w<^hiil i>r fudhcr cxaotinnl. 

A ibi» |>i««u| pUÜRom fon Ü ti»«t tot»Tcr ihriiltti muKOtUM iluriujf ignidon 
whcii rcii«irril- 
3. n/(iuM /«Am ami ntatrasxen. — Vor rw-o^izing in njiiiernK on«, 
1(1 pnxlucls. siil)Ktaitci>s wbici) becotnt; vulatilv »t a high tomjivr- 
iire Itv iir<vi»8 of »ir, tiilies ri!«>nimpnded W Hentelius, luv nsi'd, 
OiHH tme tiniidn'il and iweniy to twolinndrt-d tnillini. long and utiunt 
six niilltm. in diamcttfr, wliinh an; n^n ut )>olIi t^ndä.* Tbc itösüy 
iif jitui'-tl tii-ar one end. wbic-li is IhiMt inclined downward» irliile thu 
other did is wunncd over u ajiirit-liinip, so us U) cnfitio u dniughl 
Lhrtinj,')! liiv tiiU-, iind Lbi-u tbc ;ä)M>t whc-i-c tkc hsoaj lies is to be 
beiitiHl. Mflwn but little heat iti tx-quin-d fur driving off the vulartJlc 
suttKtuncoü. or those which Ix-coiiit« voliLlilo, the ftve flniiii? of iho 
spint-lamp is nsed; buc if Dihrruisc tbe l>IowpiiH> llunif muMl b'.- 
L'TDpluyod. The tnboisincliiu-d more: orU-Muccurdiugto tbt- strength 
of tlie draught desiri-d. Tho volatile anlislaiiofs furinpd during Uk> 
roaütiiig i>itlu-r pas« dlT as ga»«, or iiiv »MViltnu'd npoii ih'> iiil'-rinr 
of Ifa« tabiv and ctiu thus be 
efliilTrecc^iixvd. A^niull Htip- 
|)ly of ih(*v tuhei 19 to b'.' k'-pt, 

»rid «ht-n out- liiis Uvu ein- - n«. «i. 

|)liiy<.'d il U broken off by filings iiocch ftlmve the spot 
ttet'd »nd then cb»ui*cd und krpt for Miiotbrr msuv. 
WI1.-11 it tiniilly tK-comes too abnrU on<rdul is elosrd by 
MiL-lciiig, and it will still et-rr..' Tor u eiiblimation t«3C 
To prevMit tliB aaaay fiwm falling out of the ioclim-d 
tnln- hpfore it. udlien-ä to ihe ghiss, lientphiii? reroni- 
mt-niU U-nding one «iid of tbe tnl« ut an ublu«.- ungk-. 
Fig. 25. Th<j »Mnj \9 thou kid in the angle a, aud 
l\\r U)Im> inclined lu rci{tun*d. 

A nitttnuM is a lube cloä«d t>elow and blown into » 
bnlb, Vtg. 36, A, and ja sixty to &eventy millim. high. 




* Thrac wSl bcrcu/Wr he iaign^uiä u <ym tah». 

23 plattner's blowpipe analysis. 

It is used for ascertuiiiiiig the presence of water or iiny volatile hwly 
in a snbstaDCc, or in case a substance which decrepitates strongly ia 
under treatme,nt and is to be further examined. The matrass is 
heated over a spirit-lamp, and when used for another assay must be 
cleansed with dilute acid or water and tlioronghly di-ied, which ia 
accomplished very simply and rapidly by warming it well over the 
spirit-lamp and sucking ont the water in the form of vapor through 
a slender glass tube that reaches into the bulb of the matrass. Fresh 
air thus enters, and by continued suction removes every trace of 
water in the form of vapor. 

When combustible bodies, like snlphur, arsenic, etc., are to be sub- 
limed from a mineral, ore, or product, a glass tube, Fig. 26, B, five to 
six millim. wide and seventy to eighty millim. long, is used, which is 
melted together at one end, but is not enlarged, so that neither com- 
bustion nor partial oxidation of the combustible bodies can 'take 
j>hice, as would be caused by a slight current of air.* A small 
supply of matrasses and closed tubes should also be kept on hand. 

4. Capsules and crucibles of ßre-clai/-—The capsules are used for 
roasting minerals, ores, and metallurgical products, which are to be 
quantitatively examined for the metal in them, as well as for roasting 
substances consisting of a mixture of earthy parts with metallic arsen- 
ides and sulphides, which are to be e.\amiued only qualitatively for the 
earths or metals, as for example, ores dressed on a large scale. These 
capsules are made in the following way : First a stiff past« is made of 
elutriated fire-clay. Tlien the moulding surfaces of 
the boxwood mould. Fig. 37, A Ji, of which A has a 
width of 20,5 millim., above, and a depth of 7 mil- 
lim., while B is constructed on a radius 0.8 millim. 
smaller, are rubbed with oil and a strip of thin pa- 
per, fifty millim. long and five millim. wide, is laid 
over the cavity of the mould. A halt of the soft 
clay mass, about twelve millim. in diameter, is then 
placed on the middle of the jwiper and pressed firmly 
into the cavity with the fingers, and after plac- 
ing ^ on a firm level support and holding it with 
one hand, tlie convex part, B, is pressed with the 
*■'«■ «■ other hand in a vertical position directly into the 

middle of the clay as far as necessary, being turned a quarter of a revo 
lution on its axis. By this means the superfluous clay is pressed out 
»t the side, and B can be easily drawn out by turning it carefully. 

* Sach tabes will hereafter lie desi^ated u dctd tuba. 



auuh u{ the oiny which biis l*e«)i forood otit ts cut utT lu ia Dcoca- 
iarv. aii'l fli.-ii th« cilgi' of the ca|>3ult \i cxamiucKl, to aee wlit^tiier 
ii lü !^ii|tic]''i)tly itiin till around, or ulic-thcr oaü side is ihicker 
U)«d tlic uUkt. Vig. 28 abuwa n wctioa uf such a capsule, ia tlie 
tunü «ixe, whicli must be only 0.8 raUlim. tliick 
ilntv It it biiracd. If it is too \hick uti une sidi;, 
H muft bts agiiia pressud into it^ mlhor miM>3 uii 
tliv lliick siä^, or C3:n(:tly in the midille if it U too ^ *^ 
tUick ull aruuud. After carcfuUv wkiidniwing tbe oonvcx pivcw, 
B, ajkI cutting away the giiiKPllnoiiij rlay, ou« c«d of the pajwr 
strip ig takvn id one biiiid und che Qtlicr end in tbe uthiT ii»ud, 
■uJ the cajMiule I'auUoiiil}' JifU'd Druut the would. Wbeu, thruu^ii 
Warn, of practice, the «ipsulcs becomo di.>^turhfd in removing tht-ni 
from the mould, tlicv ciui be rcntoinl to &hupo by pt\<äejug them 
M'jmriittfly nitb Che Gugerä ugujuut the codvüx piecti, if, uu all sidcg, 
efore t)i>-r hufe beootna dry in the air. Dnritjg this ufK-raUon 
bic |iui|Kr »trips sepurate of tlicnUcWes, uod lUv btuius an: «et a^ide 
to dry in a «aim pluc«» tUter wJiicb they are pat id a vessel ot 
iImIc««! cbiT, whiuh h Bit uncover«^ in ii (Mtter's baking funiuce, or 
tutiuc ottier tin.*, »here they vua be bruiijjbt to a red heut, n» in 
nn UMTvy tnnfU«-, vbicb has juctt bee» llred up, ur iu a simple coal ßre. 
fTIktv uiAV also be bak<.'d iu u platiiiiHii crucible over a ejiirit-tamp 
'itii A double dniuk;ht, or a. gas-lamp. Tlieae iKuins sliriiik a little 
iu liking, but rcmuin just the »izy rt-i|uir«l 

Tbc wuciblw» are used for quautiiutivc assays. They are formed 
in a htit66 nioald, ooneietioE of » plug »ud a box, tlie latter being 
»iuix»««l *>f two port* licld lirmly br h riu^j. 
^ig. 29 repreävuts tbiti lusU'Uineiit, and Kig. 30 
» prepared clay crucible. A ii tbu plug, with 
four >-iiiiiciil »{Huings at a to U-t out tbe excess 
of etu.y put iuLo the mould. The moiildiiig 
part hm a diameter of nineteen inilUm aliuve^ 
■ iiirt^n millim. lung; B ia tbe box, 
_ of two haircii, litting exactly to- 
gi-i-iier and fiimiing u blunt cone. At A, oa 
th<' ihtii-r tide of eauh half, wbiub is about 0.d 
millim- from tbe plug all around, the coraer« lA[|lfp'{ 
arc Minu'whut blunt, $0 [bat slight cj>viti<.-3 
are formed iti the box at two op^toaite pututi^ 
tad when moulding erncible» ibose become 
illUl with day, ihu« prevciiliug the oruoible from burning when 
tlip plii^is luracd. Via the biitditig ring iulo which the box ii 





slipped, M} that it cati Wt-uMly liflocl out, and the lower larfiice of th»' 
bus auU riiig ore in tlic eame i^lun«. 

To tnoald a cnioilU-, small biiUs nro rormod with tiif finger« Unm 
a BtifTyniRU' of wattT ai)(l I'hitriuti^ ßnM'lHy, t^uch cuutainin^ rather 
muiv tlmii 18 m-eileil for a crurihie, auA liit-y are tlien »llijuaj to dry 
in the o)>e[i air, until tlmy cuti only he i>n-efiO«i hctwccn the ftugiT« 
with difficulty. The muulding durfiuv al' the h»s »nd ]ilu>[, und 
thosi; fiiLVs which are Ixi hi> ti^ioti one another.are tli^n rtiliheti with a 
very Utile uil, und t)ic mould, witli the rin^, in plutrd upon the luivil, 

^mm ■am uhicb ri-stfi iipou &<*ine i-htstiu diipp(>i-l, such aäawtiol- 

Vj^ * jV U-i) cloth MHi-d EfVL'ml tinios. Tiic clay hull is th«n 
^Hi ^r put into the box and ihn plug drivi-ii iu 80 far, iu 
^^^^ a. Tcrtit-'id position, with u woudcn mallet tliat tha 
FtK, >K projecting rim, ?, resta upon the edgt>, tf, (if Lbu hox. 
Th'» pi itfi 18 then liflcd out hy turning it, which aleo romovi;« the 
piipirlliioiiü clay; tlie bni: i« pri>siifil nut of the ring from Im-Iow. mid 
whili- one halfiä held ht'Cwawn the tingrrs ofoni: band and tltP utlier 
with the othor hand, the halvefl are fiepara(*d in enccfwou from 
tho moulded crucibK'. Tliig ie heet doni* by eliding ont) Imlf down a 
litUc lou»!n«il on the other half m» lui to loosen the orncibU>..und then 
the Sm half ia pres^'d gently ii>^ün8t it while the other Imlf is 
in thi^ Kuim- manner »nd cntiivly dctacht-d, when iJie cnicihle can 
be removfd in a por^ct etatc from tlic first hulC Tbccniciblea, 
aftiT hi'inj^ frifd with a sharp kuifi- from the two pmjeating hits of 
clay, arr set aside t« dry, wither at llret in lliefntsh air, or else directly 
in a Warm iilace, and are tlien baked in the Biunc way as the clay 

Vo time «honld br «patwl in making «Uy mpknlci. «incc il i* m moliiimI romtiiion 
ilui ihcy iliniiliL ha quit« thin, and th« elay tmui tint I« wurknl ii|> luo linnl at tttn ntft- 
Ifiou linnl tbe cii|uulc 1« iiuuldcd with diflicultr, iri<»fon il «itn kIJoim IkIIiW froni 
ihri munlj withuul icartiii;. The i-niiütlf urv prujirr for tlir v\ny muM t». huwrvcT. vrrj 
toon Imnipil. M'Iimi iIi» muuUI i> ni?« th« oil ritblwil on llie »nrfiicv« L-eiMmilU' uwk« 
Into il, aiiit ih» nimiliM bu*iii ciiiiiiot ix tnkou tiut wiilifriii ti'ariiij* II. ooi] it '» wdl 
wlii-n atins a ni:w mouM to rnli ii «cvcrnl linira wtili i>il notl Iri Ii nuAk in ihnrongU/. 
A rani» iikrwW I» niMml «riiii 1«h oil tbun ß, «ince odwrwHW tin: tiMn mnj mtSy 
■dbnv to Ii, and hr iHUA oui with IL 

&. Bone-ath. — It is ohmI to mako small cnpeh upon which unrif^r- 

iins and ai^i'ntiferuiia lead uhtuiiied fn^ni bhxvpijio nfiMiys ia cnpt'Dcd. 

TwoRnideÄ«rtMisMl,thc ■■■■^ ■ ' ■'; '--■- " r '■ 

Biint'B iif ipiiHlriipi'flii 'I -fly whit^ 

porlioii*, fnr ; ■> 

in a mortj^r "i ■ ^ S 

yields th* I* '^ 



into a lari^ bolter ^lasa. wbicli is ibea QCflrtf fllletl with pure water, 
and the whole stirred with a glit*s rod and afterward aliowwl to ebuiiJ 
a tnom^nt. ihiring ihie timt* llic ronr»« particles si>lll(>, white tlio 
flner ooes retnaftt for the nimt jiiut suBpetMl«! in the clondy water, 
rhich is then carefiilly decanted ii)t<i »nnther bt-iikcr mid iillowud lo 

(ni:iin qui« until tho tint' ]iurli(?l>"-8 have s(-l(l».'il. wht-n thf miMt nf 
th« WAttfT is jmiired off. As sume line |>aniuk's sctUc with thv cu«r»o 
the elntnstion shmild he rppeated unni tlie water is only slighLlj 
cluudy. Tht- line clutriut«-ü L(itK--iLah ia the» hniii^lit iipvu a Älter. 
s(* that mofll of the vater fli^ws oil', und ia then dnod and hciiti.'^ lo 
[TvdhoM. Koth 6oru rciulil; nl^sorb inoiatnre nnd must. Ix> kept in 
|1a«i-)>li>p]ti>dl>utlU-!L Th«- (.imrte [itmdvr n:nminingfn>iu the iilnlriii- 
timi cm] Ik- nguin pulveriect! i)tidcliitnii.ltHl. The miiuner of mnkiiig 
tlic ciij)<;l£ mil be given iu the deacrijitiou of thccupc-1 moulds, under 

b. Tfie JtuJirtcl Sup/iuH«. 

X. Soda'pnpei: — In the ijiiuntilutiveili^lerniinalionorsereral nictals 
tbtf weighed and jireparLtl iisnay mustbe wrapiKid iu someiliing which 

ithelondfi the first action v>rthi- hhtwpipe flame, si> as I« pn-Tciit the 

irti<»)c* of ore from beiitg liI<)Wii away, liarkort • fitnnd line letter- 
pajirr, soaked hi a solntirm of carbonate of Boda and driixl, to he roni-t 
•uiuhtp. and ihia jufier ntay be u^lhI with »dvauUuje for wrappinj* up 
liiilky rhargp« in tinalitalivr: anitlym'.<> «Iso; l>nt since letter- pa jxr frp- 
qiu'utly cviiiiins foreign 8ub3t4nctfs.«uchaeoxidoor cobalt, tine flltor- 
|Hi[ifr should then bt enhslilnt»! fur iL Thin filrips of l>uth »iurts 
"f i^q^T are dmaii thmiigh a solution ofhalf an ounw of rrystallizi-d 
curlxiuatc uf #oda. IVi-e from siilpliat«, in uu ounce of pure water, 
which iö put in a dhnllow vesacil. öiicli as aporccUin dish. The 8tn|u 
are driMl slowly in th« air, or in ti moderatt-ly warm jilncf, und are 
iiuo cut into pieces thirty-iive milliDi. long and tw«.'iily-llve milliin. 

mit:, und kept for use. When used ihcy aiu made into small cyliii- 
dere, a« vill b«- d."«rib«l hereafter. 

a, .1 miixlun 0/ »ei'fn pfirh cfiarconl iifui one jittrt JSre-vlaff.-^lin 
need to line the small rUy crncililrs in ijnantitulivu 
tin aaä lend uAsurfl, and ia mudv thns : Sevoji purtx uf 
*fcrt fine drycliarcoal jiowder and oiie part of elutri- 
ated fire-clay iin,' wi»iglieil ont, the hil ter is rhnroiighly 
niixi-d witJi water in a »hiillnwdiHh.uud the euU dust 
ie Lhf n {NiHi-L-d in and kuended with the oluy woter 
to a pa4C«s which is atlowcd to dry in n warm place, and aftiTwan) 
niblied to jHiwder aj^in. in whieh statt! it is kept for use. To lint* a 

« Prabiflmml mii dim l»tli,iAfr, FnikiKtjs. 19ST, '«1. 1. p. H. 




slay crucible with thismixture, asmall quantity is made intoa paste 
witli water in a small porcelain dish, and part of it nibbed inside of 
the crucible, so us to lie about three millim. thick at the bottom and 
(hitiuer ou the sides, especially about the edge, as is seen in Fig. 31. 
While part of the water soaks imraediatfly into the baked crucible 
another jwrtion remains in tlie paste, which is still so soft that it may 
be rubbed smoolh on all parts, with the dry plug of the crucible 
mould, Fig. 29, A. The lined crucible is then thoroughly dried over 
the free lamp dume. 

V. Instruments, small Vessels, and other Objects 
used in Blowpipe Analyses* 

1. A iMicnIe balance. — For quaiifitative assays this must be ca- 
llable of indicating with precision an additional 0.1 milligr. when 
loaded with two decigr., and should be so made that it can be easily 
set up and taken apart. Fig. 32 is a perapective view of such a bal- 

Fic Si. 

inco, as constrnolcil by A. Tjiii^jki', lor bLnvtiijio ii^Siiv;;. The beum, 
which is one liuiuhvd iiiid cighly millim. hintr. umvcs on f;irnoii!in 
plates, and all of thf Imiss work i,s j,'iKli'd. The tunmi.- Irum ii to b 

• Illiiwiji[)* iiictiumrnts urt aicuriililj' niuiji' I'v i,;mi. WsLt \ di, »ifii'im' InnHiitc. Hulio- 
kuiL, N. J. 


IB one hiindi'ed millim. loog, und the cords, including the hooks, one 
hundred aud forty millim. The scalc-paus uttached to the cords are 
thirty-three millim. in diameter, aud very slightly concave, and on 
each of them atauds a anmll gilt pan fifteen millim. wide und four 
millim. deep, to receive the objects to be weighed and tlie weights. 
The two larger paus, g, g, each twenty millim. in diameter, ui-e iisfd for 
weighing bulky substances. The balauce is set up on a low box, in- 
side of which it can be packed, together with other instruments, when 
taken apart. On the lid of the box is screwed a stout upright brass 
rod, to which the balance is secured by a screw, and the beam is raised 
by a One silk cord which passes over three pulleys, f, rf, e, the lowest 
one, e, being sepsfrately screwed in. This coiil is attached at one end 
to the support of the beam, and at the otlier end to a knob, which is 
fastened in the box, and can be turned so as to wind up the curd. The 
brush,/, fastened on a movable brass arm, serves to prevent unueces- 
sary swinging of the tongue. When the balance is to be used for de- 
termining the specific gravity of minerals, metallurgical products, etc., 
the necessary pans can be made for it. It is very advantageous to 
protect the balance against dust and currents of air by a glass case. 
Liugke has constructed one for tliis purpose, whicli can be folded up 
and transported on a journey. 

2. Weights. — The fittest weight for blowpipe assays is the gramme 
u^c-d by Harkort One decigmmmc — 100 milligr. serves as the assay 
centner (hundred weiglit), and is the 3(.5 part of the assay centner 
used at the Freiberg Smelting Works, which contains exactly 3.75 gnu. 

The highest weight required for blowpipe assays is a one-hundivd 
milligrm. piece, but sometimes a greater weight is very desirabk', and 
we can always attain our object by having a set of weights, which is 
best made of silver, aud consists of the supurate pieces given below. 
The fractions of a milligramme are made of pith. On each piece the 
weight in milligrammes is given, the figures from 1000 to H)U being 
engraved, while on the other pieces down to one milligramme, which 
are quite thin, they are struck or pressed, and the fractions of a mil- 
ligramme are ouly distinguished by their size. 

The following- is a list of the pieces conip<tsiiijr n set of hlowpijÄ wciijliis for the 
Fttibtrjr balances : — 1 piece of 1 gnn. in weight, 1 piece of 5 dtci^rm., '2 of a ilwijjrni., 
I of 1 ilofi^'rm. = I blowpipe assay centner = 100 iiiilli^'riii., 1 picee of 5 ceiiii|,'f., •> of 
a centigrra., I of 1 centipin., 1 piece of 5 milli{;mi,, 2 of 2 railliirnn,, 1 of 1 iiiilliyim,, 
1 of 0.& miUignn., 2 of 0.3 milligrm., 2 ol 0.1 inilli<;rjii. 

3. Blowpipe assay scale, or I'lniitier's scale. — The silver button ob- 
tained by a blowpipe assay of 100 milligrm. — I assay centner, of an 
pre poor in silver, is eo small that its weight cannot be determined on 


plattker's blowpipe analysis. 

the balance, and Harkort conceived the idea of 
* ■<£- J* measuring auch buttons on a scale constructed foi 

the pm-pose. This idea he executed so well that it 
is possible to determine with sufficient accuracy the 
proportiou of silver in an ore, mineral, etc., even 
whfu it contains less than 0.0033 per cent or 0.96 
ozs. troy in a ton of 2000 lbs. 

This scale is founded on the principle that the 
weights of the vietaUic sphere» are proportional to the 
cubes of their diameters, and that these diameters 
can be accurately compared together by means of two 
fitie convergent lines, between which the spheres are 

Plattner, following Harkort's plan, prepared a 
scale, wliich is figured in the form formerly made by 
Liugke iu Fig. 33, but this form is not adapted for 
universal nse.* The scale is made of ivory and the 
lines, a b, a c, diverge I miliim. at a distance of 156 
millim. To determine the weight of a silver button, 
it is plac'd witli a pair of fine forceps between the 
tfto convergent lines, ab,ac, and then, with the aid 
of It magni lying-glass, moved into a position wliere 
the lines are jnat tangent to its sides, the eye being 
held vertically over it to avoid any parallax. On the 
left hand are the numbers of tlie tninsverse lines, 
and the Hgures on the right give the Loths in a 
centner {110 lbs.), when one assay ctr. of ore was 
used. As now constructed in Freiberg, these scales 
show at once by the right-hand figures the percent- 
age of silver in a« ore ; in case of gold buttons, the 
percentage must be obtaint-d from the tables given 
below, and these tables may alsu be used for learn- 
ing the percuutage of silvt-r when the l)i-ad has been 
niea.'^ured on the okl-fasbiumd seah-s. n-presi-nted 
in Ki;;. 3:!, and the rigiit-liand ligiircs of whicli 
ri;n iVoin ]i~.'> down to U.Odfill. In iisiii'i the table 

F1-. 33 . 

• .AlrliDii;:!! iin luii^-cr niiiiii- lit l.iiiL;ki', \\f uM lin-m i>f Thitl- 
lur'^ -<;iU' i.- ri\'i|uiiiiK iiur mitIi. Tin' nniiUrii finiii h 'iiiillsr 
in nil (.■•.|iiTi-, .M'!'!'! ilint ilir rii;lir-liiiiiil ci'liiinii "f figures 
>liiiiv< till' |ii'li'i>ril;i^i> 111" -I I Ml iliiiitly. ilii' Ml'H»-- iiintiiii;; 'luwii 
friHii :i.i^ 111 O.iMHIitJ, ;;- -ini, in rlii- [iilik- ■in |i. ^'J- 



the position of the button as regards the transverse short lines is 
noted, and the corresponding percentage of silver or gold in tiie ore 
■B read off from the table. 

No. of Ihe 

811 vur. 

No. or the 



Percpmaire of 







3 3:545 






0- 38487 







a ■ 7099a 





3 ■ 51700 


0- 35703 











0.4 1 570 



■ 8 






0-1 3678 





0-1 1404 



1 -65r49 



o- 30455 

1 .53769 





I -4>033 

■ 1 

0.061 16 




1 3 

o.o48i 1 

0. 10473 


I •■9366 

1 1 




1 -09436 





















0.01 309 





. 007 57 


0.61116 1 


- CKJ 1 78 

0.00 388 









. ooo48 

It is scarcely necessary to remark tliat in reckoning the percentage 
of silver only two decimal placfs need be used, itiid when the next 
decimal figure is above five the preceding one ia increased by one ; 
thns, in case of line 23 for 0.-33874 read 0.34. Should the button 
come about midway between two of the transverse lines the percent- 
age is fonnd by simply dividing the snm of the iHTcentages corre- 
sponding to these lines by two. Should it, however, lie nearer one line 
than the other the space between the lines may he divided into thirds 
l)y the eye, and if the button lies in the lower third add one-third to 
the percentage corresponding to the lower line, or if in the upper third 
subtract one-third from the percentage indicated by the upper line. 

The number of troy ounces iu a ton of ore may be readily reckoned 
after obtaining the percentage of silver or gold, either from the scale 
or by weighing, by noting the fact that one per cent, of a ton of 2000 
lbs. is 291.66 ounces, and of a ton of 2240 lbs., 326.65 ounces. 

The nse of the scale has its limits, and it is easy to see from the 

30 PLATTNER's blowpipe ANALTSiS. 

above table that with tbe increase of weight there is a greater differ- 
ence for each tranaverae Jine, so that there must be a point up to 
wliich the dctenniiiution of the weight on the scale is exact, and be- 
yond which it is better to weigh directly on a delicate Italance. The 
limit dopeuds chiefly upon the amount of practice in placing the bnt- 
fon projwrly with the help of a glass. Experience shows that with 
ores containing less than 0.5 per cent, the weight of a single bntton 
can be more correctly determined on the scale than by the balance, 
bnt in a duplicate assay on ores of 0.3 per cent and upward, the bal- 
ance gives more accurate results ; for ores of over one per cent the 
weigiit of a single button can always be more exactly determined by 
weighing than by mca-suring, and when duplicate assays are made the 
difference is still greater. The accuracy of the results obtained by 
measuring gold beads has about the same limits as in the determina- 
tion of silver beads. 

The results obtained during practice in measuring the buttons may 
be coutrolled by determining the weight of several biittons by meas- 
urement, and then actually weighing them all at one time, after thor- 
oughly cleaning them between moist paper and the anvil. 

Tlie ivory scale, described on p. '^S, affords a very simple means of 
measuring buttons, and gives very accurate results in the h.inds of an 
exjierienced operator. By immersing the silver buttons in dilute 
sulphide of ammonium they become blackened, and then their out- 
lines can be more distinctly seen upon the ivory scale. Unless, how- 
ever, tbe operator has become quite expert in its use. by controlling 
his results with weighed buttons, as before recommended, it is liable 
to give inaccurate values, and a. certain jjersonal error is also apt to 
occur in the readings, since one person may obtain too high results 
and another too low ones with the same instruments. 

Influenced by a desire to invent an instrument which should yield 
more certain results than could be obtained by Platlner's scale, Chas, 
C. Rneger has devised tlie apparatus shown in Fig. 34, A and B. 

'J'his ap]"Miratus is described in the Jierfj- vnd IliU/einii. Zriliinri, 
IRGH, No. :ii), UK follows : Fig. 34, A, shows a h'niKoniiil jiroj<'Cti<jn of 
tlie a]iparatus; Fig. 34, YV, a section tliruugh ('/.*. Ujion lln; upjiiT 
surface of the plate, a, is fa-teiied a female screw, i, into wliicli the nu- 
cronieter-i-crew, c, provided with a graduatid circle, oxaclly lil.s ; e is a 
socket, which serves to imlil ami guide the cyliudtT of llie .•^niall slide, 
s. The slide and niici-ometer-scivw tuueh at r. Tiie ociier wvdge- 
ehaped end of the slide rests on the l^lale at a, ami \v.\a a jKTfectly 
plane surface, perpendicular \o (i. A;:aiiist ihis pre^si'S ilie likewise 
plane face of the projectiou attacht-d to tlie lihI of the index k>ver,/,- 

roeoer's apparatus. 


Ä is a epring, wliich presses the short ann of the lever against the 
elide. Aronnd the sides of the plate, a, is a rim, sening to preYent 
the button from rolling off. Upon this rim, at ?', there is a fine line, 

Fig. S4-A. 

Fig. 31 "B. 

with which the point of the index lever coincides when the faces of 
the slide and lever are exactly parallel to each other, i. e.. touch each 
other, if nothing is interposed between them. 

The graduated circle, w, upon tlie micro meter-screw cnn he set in 
any position and secured there by means of tlie screw, n. Tlic periph- 
ery of the circle is divided into hundredtlis. and the index, o, .should 
point at on the circle when the lever coincide« exactly with the line 
r. The latter condition is eecure«" by using a strong magnifying- 

32 plattner's blowpipe analysis. 

glass. When the apparatus liaa been thus arranged the micrometer- 
screw is drawn back, whereupon the spring, f, presses back the slide, 
and the spring, h, the shorter arm of the lever. The point of the 
lever at the game time moves away from i, until finally the longer 
arm rests against the pin w. If tlie screw is still further withdrawn 
the face of the slide recedes more and more from that of the lever, so 
that a button may be placed between the two. The screw is then 
turned in the opposite direction, until tiie point of the lever again 
coincides exactly with i, when the two fuces are once more parallel, 
but separated by an interval corresponding to the distance between 
their points of contact with the button. This distance is i-ead off in 
complete revolutions and hundredths of revolutions of the graduated 
circle; the complete revolutions being indicated by the position of 
the face of the slide with reference to the lines on a, and the hun- 
dredths given upon the circle. The interval between two adjacent 
lines of the scale on a corresponds to two revolutions of the screw. 

It is advisable to measure the button in several different posi- 
tions, so as to obtain an average value. To avoid any error arising 
from possible inequalities of the surface, a fine line is drawn upon the 
surface, a, in the direction of the axis of the screw, and upon this the 
button should always be placed. 

The accuracy of the measurements depends immediately upon the 
proportion between the longer and shorter arms of the lever. If the 
line, 1, and the point of the index lever are fine and sharp enough, and 
the dimensions of the instrument made to correspond with those in 
the figure, there will rarely be a difference of one division on the 
circle, upon repeating the measurement. In Rueger's instrument the 
micrometer-screw makes about five revolutions to the minim.,and 
therefore advances -J- millim. by one revolution, or -yfj millim. for each 
division of the circle ; the resnlts obtained by the inventor seldom 
varied more than y,^ millim. Sneh a result is all that can be de- 
sired, wlien it is considered that the irregular shape of even an 
apparently quite round button may lead to five or six times that 
diPferetice. The apparatus is made by the mechanician KuUe, in 

Another apparatus for measuring buttons has been devised by 
L. Kleritj, and is described in the Berg-und JTütienm. Zeit., 1870, 
N'oa. 1 and 2. It is represented in Fig. 35, A, B, C. 



Flg. 35— A. 




The inslni'jient conHia*s of a brass Bnpport, or plate, a 6, which 
tvsia u{Hjn tuo fL-ct nti the side a, ami tij^uu ooe foot ou tlie siilt* b. 
D|)on tliie \>]niv it lisiril li guide, c, having a Lnipfzoiilal section, ami 
Upon tlüSÄnide movi^s the wedgt./j, which is ]irovitl«l wiUj ücorrt- 
8|ioiuliii;' ;;n)oveaii»l8li(lc8ftlongtiic vernier, tie, Agaiust this wed^ 
pff« iIk- sliiii?*. li, )', wlilch mtn'cin two guides screwedtotliegupjion, 
mid arc plucul ut u right angle with tlie edge,/»/. The didcs end in 
ivro fHcts, or jiius. hctu-ci-n which the bodv to bo tnwiflured is placed. 

Thf elidt>s, ft itiid i,ni-c jireuod against /ff by Ük siiriiig l; but K>- 
twiH-ii t nnd i' is iiitiriit*oil a shtirler arm, /, wliich tiiriis abuut a ver- 
tiail üwot uiid is tirnil}* joined to ihc longer arm. m, below tlie inatrii- 
mc'iil. Th? lalloi- is provid^l at n wirJt an index, somng to act tlie 

ITjKHi proMiugthe wedge. /jr, in ihedirectionof ibeRrrov,Uie&nii, i 
niiiet inoTi- ti.:r.i right tulvft. »iucc A and inn* prccsscd against it (Voc 
lofl to right. 

Tu n.'iiif»ri*e iht- spring, k, a slit is raadc io the plate, in which Uie 
|iiu, 0. llM'd iiilo xim >>lide,A, ainnHiv«,aiid iliispin isgorerued by Che 
iqiring. ;'. working like X:. 

WliL-ii the vt il<e we.lge coincides with on the Tcrnier the tvn 
linM upon the pUl-- and the pPujt'Cliuii «. shuuld also coincide. Tu 
Dinuuro .". mitton the wedge is pushed nhout hnlf wa; out, and the 
■lidf, i, ir^ovcd soinewliat toward the left by niciuis or the pin, q; the 
button is llien pUctHl between th^- jaws, and the two hnea on the iiide 
at M nmdu to loincidi' by nu-an^ »i f g. In thi« iii^triimt-nt. rho A\6Ü 
(Anc? tietwtft'n the two pnmltolii Hssnmtid by the niAt^g at'O and 30 ig 
thr<-<- iiiillitn., and tJie reading for the 3>oailion la Fig.35, J?, would be 
0.841 niillini. 

It 18 very easy Tor tJie mechanician to determine the interval be- 
twcffli and 10 on f g,sa he need only place a win? or any object, 
known to bo oxtictly uuc inillim. thick. Itetween (he jaw^ bring the 
two tines togntluT at n, and prf>li>ng the sero tine of the vrrnirr. 

To uw the in!itnimi>nt fordeterminingthe weight of rilver bnttoni 
Kloritj has pn'imred tables, which »n hero copied in juirt. and in 
which the Wi'ight of tbi* biutim. or ihc pcrceiitJigi- ut* 
iVoni one I'luwpipc asuy-ceutncr i» ■-'\\'\i fur im-, 1 i, 
lo one tnillitn. in diameter. The 
c*loulnt(«l ar»' ; 
' aUive refcrivil 
weight of ah" 

^^^^^^^^^p jLPFABATra. 

H silver if 10474 wc would bavc = £.48'^ </*, or tf the dinmcter or tltr 

H Sphere wad one milUm^ ite w«i^'lii gbuiiM be S.i8'2 tnilljgr. Aconrd- 

H ing to Kleritj Umb eijnnlJon wunUI very rarvly give tbe true »«iglit vl 

H D silvrr haltnn, and lie has dt^termined by Mpurimt^nU tlial Tor ^ y 

H we must subeti(un|L = 6.1^3. The tnt« woiglit of lb« tmttoti will 

H tbeii be found fnim the •'«(iinijon (? -= (i.l-^3 tP := }i. iP. ^^H 

H Thv Auiic biMe uiAv lie U6id fur UtiKj^-r'ä JuHtrutm-ut. onurdoivrmiii- ^^H 

H ing hy mtaButem^ni the diuracter of tlie silver button m luilLiuiätn-s. ^^| 

H Klflritfi apporatnä iB miide by tlio tuecbmiiciua Liii^kc, in Freiborg. ^^| 

■ — [TransL] ^M 

B Tnittf iJiotnng tht peretufug« of ntmrfivm 099 bwajr-omfurr 0/ ^^H 

H orc>, «<C; ^^H 





Ml »lis 

WelithI or 

Ml »In 

WHffhl or ' |M. la Velqtit Df ^^^H 

= ««• 

= lttf*. 


■■ N lf>. ^^^H 

H o-fti 






o<7€ 9.6f*-<^'- ^^1 

^1 O-OI 






lo-T7 ^H 

^1 9-<J 






^1 o>M 

- ooojoi 






3>(iitUi-» ^^H 




1 -019714 


S'llio-it ^^H 





1 -075597 


3.15401 1 ^^M 







3-J76»jil ^^M 



a- 33 



1 ■ «yVm 









1 B4 















1 ■ ifv^A 


3.8^1 i^i ^H 








■ O.ll 







■ a-i4 





t-i'M/>ia& h U-B9 


■ o.iS 





1 -t'f' I^JQ r.-iji) 


^M n-i6 





I .Tt'ioCil (I 91 


H b-i-« 

(,.,.1... A-i i...t 1 



l-S.f l'73 1 0-93 

4-7''T9oT ^^^I 





i-9357«r7 li i/gl 

4.91SC-K ^^M 

^B a* 19 



■ ■■'«Q 

> -"I i.lfi" 


'i.^'jf^in ^^H 

V^ o*90 

tr-oAü^ , 



!• 1(W)|H9 


S-i497n7 ^^H 

^ n-9i 

O-oSfr«.! 1 






I,.,.-;-,, j7 




i.U)8i9: ^^H 


0- i-JB 







0'i-.'>i'> •-■ ''-J9 





^'9^1141 ^H 

■ oaS 

a>o936?3 a-Su 





6-ia3uoo ^^H 

H 4. ^ good .VatfHi/ymft-Obi»f. —This indispoosabl« instramfnt u ^^| 

H ebicfly DB<?d to jud«;;!; more ci'rlaiiily ,— -__^-- -v^ ^^H 

H t)tvr<?»ii]tsiifexp>'ritnenlaoareflctiun!^ A^^>^BC^^^B^^L ^^1 

H und tfi lucoäiire tbe silver and gold ^^HF"^^^^^^^^^^ ^^| 

H tiutttnia oblaiued bj-(niuitit»ttvL>ad- Tin n. ^^H 

H eiiye. A gla«x well suit«d r(.>r this pnri)ose is composed (>f two lentea ^^H 



of equal magnifying power, but so mounted that each glass can be 

used alone, or one brought over the other, so as to use them together. 

Fig. 30 represents such a double glass. 
5. Forceps and Pliers. — Various forceps are required for blowpijw 

assays, viz., , 

a. Forceps with platinum tips, for holding an assay directly in the 

blowpipe flame, when testing ita 
fusibility and other reactions. The 
forceps, which should be about one 
hundred and thirty millim. long, an* 



shown in Fig. 37. 

b. Cutting Pliers, or Nippers, Fig. 38, such as Berzelius employed 

for breaking o£f small assay pieces 
from the minerals to he exam- 
ined, without injuring the speci- 
mens. They resemble nail nip- 
pers, eicept that the cutting edge 
is broad and stout, rather than 

Fig. ss. sharp. 

c. Steel Pliers, Fig. 39, necessary in separating the slag from the 

raw lead obtained in gold and silver 
assays, and for other operations. The 
jaws of these forceps must be some- 
what broad, and the inner surfaces 
should not be cut like a file, but 
should only be rough. 

d. Brass Forceps, Fig. 40, used for 
holding small objeeta, especially in 
qualitative assays. 

e. A similar pair of forceps, also 
of brass, but somewhat smaller, and 

having more pointed ends; they serve for 
handling the weights, and also the gold 
and silver buttons, when measuring them 
upon the scale. 

/. Iron Forceps, Fig. 
41, about one hundred 
and ten millim. long. 
which are used in clean- 
ing the lamp-wick and 
raising or lowering it 
j^ ^ in the socket. 



Fig. 40. 

Fig. 41. 

nrentüirewTs, ttc, treKo ist Br,owPiPB AXkirera. 


He «i. 

ft. A BnwmtT, of good huitl Dt«e1, rectaiigitliu- in seoticin, with a 
[Kilisli'xl Hat iw9 aX one <ud oud a bruod «dge nt the other, m in 

fig. la. 

7. .-In Anpil, <if burd {Kfli^Iu-d Htc^-l, Fij^ 43, ts UKd for coar3>.'lv 
bmikiiii; miiionits aud |)rodueU wliicli aw lo bc piilvoriBed, und hU« 
t<t Hatt''ii rvduccd metallic butlons, lo remove Ihi' slag from Üic lc:id 
111 ;;i>Id oud flilviT «jwiyti. etc. TUe Iwat 
form li a porallclopipedo», about tifty-Hve 
uiillim. long, ibirtv-tvo milüin. wide, aitd 
ibtru-«>u milliiu. tbii'k. Wbt-u bn'ukiii^ 
u|i banlaud brittle giibstauoi-j tir duitt-iiitig 
^null toetiil buttone, tlieee may be pro- 
?i.'ilt<-*l fmni flyinp i'fT by risiriu nn iroii ring, «'f aUml twi'ntv millim. 
ioti'Hor di:iinfli;r, and Leu millim. Iii^li. whiob i^ prüe^ed iigiiitiht iK-* 
aiivil wilh the lingers, while the mibetnnce surniu itil«^] by lite ring b 
struck witJi Ihi- bummer. 

K .1 Slml Murtiir. — Abic'b'a niorljir, Tig. 41. it) Ix-st adupti'd for 
breaking ii]) ujid pnlvcriziiig rvlWctury mrtsllic niiiii'nd«. pi'uduet«. 
aad VNrionA (<itlfKlHiit.ff; which have been nidti-d 
on cuul ticrun: the bluw-pip«. lu Ibc uirottlitr 
Iflale of bard ateel, A H, is ii cylindrical cavity, 

% tax millini. deep, into which the hollon iron 
c^litider, !> K, twcoty-oua millittL high, with hd 
^ri<«r diameter uf twonty-four milliin.. exactly 
ItA, und into this again lit« n ftinit ^>tlid irylinder 
of timn] sLoel. /* forly-BTu millim. hlj^h and «dght- 
I I' "iin. in diiimclor, which i« rnund*-d lit itj! iipprir end. Itntli 

I. -iri.- tiiruL-d Bo a« to fit tmidi ulhor üSai'tly. Tbv »ulMlauix- 

u» I«! pulvMlz«! i* pUie«! vilhin iliö cylinder, b E, the pe«tk<, F, »et 
ID n|Bm it utid stmck a few times with Llie hammer, while both 
try linden an presacd ngnindt the sieul plate with the Oii^erK. 

Tpon reiuttving the two cylitidtrs. one after aaotbor, tlie eutHflanou 

rill \m fouijil rüductMl to u rather tluc ponder vrliicli may he rubbed 
still Qnitr in tJii* agat« murlar. 

!>. An Aijtite ifurtitr, Kij,'. Aft. — By piilviTixing very himl bodirn in 

ich a nioi-tar it rcetivos, in limcöue ecralch«, 
Uitu «liicti some melid itt liable to be rubbod, 

rhen powdering and wH^hliifr metallifiTi^uii 
'llifc^, utid it muMt then Ix.- rleamil »ich lime 

*itli moieteüed bone-asb. '*"' 

lo, A few FiU», Iriangnlsr, flal. balf-i-onml, and nmnd, varying 
\Q B3X and flncncsH. arc uhed fur diffcreut purpose«. A roap En ulitu 


pumrKR's BLowrifE astaltsis. 

of exccllctit service in shaping oüak and cleaoing tbom uft«! 
II. J Knißt and u smnll puir of Sembn, with etronf; catting »dg» 
13. .4 6Vri>/ MaijHfi, in tlie eliiij>i< <>f ft Bqiiaru bar alxiut ttighty-five 
uiiUim. tvng auU fuur miUitu. »^luui-, wedgc-slinpiil ni one eiid. 

IS. Coal baritrs. — In [(iiatititativo assay» holce initöL be )h}r-(I in the 
coal, for wltjcii vnriuu» boivni are requind. Tlir«.-« diffeKut oa<^« are 
used, vi2^ 

IL A bor«T, Tig. 46. to bore holes in the coal fbr the fasiun of ulver, 
gold, cupiwr, nitd olh<sr 'ut(Kiy& It i^ niiihix-. und ihr c^idc^ an- lik-d m 

that it luuks like a duiible chiecl, the 
edges crowing each other at a right 
uugh' and being lerj «lightly convex. 
"« *•■ The hmidth ol' ciuiji chisel is eight 

millim. and ihc boror i^ proridi^d Kith a wooden handle. The borer 
is iilHi^ed at a right angle agaiuHt a ero£»-«>ctii)ii oj' the cuttl and 
turned rapidly on iU axis, with a moderate pre88im\ alteniatcty 
toward the right and h^-, until the n-quiit-il depth if n-uchi-d. AfUir 
ri.;nioviag the liorer the dust is blown ont of the hole, the width uf 
which deiwndii on tlie tiizo or the borer, while its depth ie ivguluted 
by the height of the [upor cylinder in which the ass:iy tu bo fused U 
[Hacked. Thns, in awe of an asNiy chiirgcd fur cc>p|ter, the hole if 
idiallowcr than with Üio charge for au oeaiy of Biker ore rich iu 
ooppt^r, liocanw the latter cuutaing much tc^t kiul. 

it. A conical borer, for boring larger bole.s the longitudinal 
«ectioQ of vhich 1» a seint-cilipäe. Its upper dianietm' ie twuity-two 

millim. and Ha length 

eighti'i'ii niilliiu. The 

ftirtht-T ;imingi?mem of 

it h) shown in Fig. 47. 

"***^ The iMBtrumcnl it niscd 

jiifit AS the preceding Iiorer. hut as goon as the side, it, n-jiehes die 

h-T«! of the peiforaled side of the coul the boring is stopped and the 

coiU dust cleared (Vom the hole. 

e. A long coal boi-er. Fig. 4*^. One end concista of a donUe chisel 
fii millim. brfiwi, miulo like (he Unit borvr for cylindrical bole*. It 

in uwd in Imring through the 
ft-onl eidc of the coals fasleucd in 
the- cotil-hulder to be descrilioil 
below, and for boring through the 
coal corera which are required when fusing <)Uiin tibi tire lead, hi:«- 
muth, tin, nirkel, and cobalt assays iu clay cnicibkrs. The oihci 

njt. «8. 

iysTiii.'HR!ne, Bic., rsEn in blowpipe ax^lyskk. 


«hL «Uoli is uiur DiilliDL w de, is sh:i|it>d Ukii a apululu. with a jJisrji 
al;;i-. und i«. hm^I for luring bulcH iii cool for «laulitAtive aaalj'sis, vlie» 
Uier «re I« be mtLcr di-«.-[». 

U. VNpei Moti/ftt, with the ^/om/ijt and s/aurf.— For cupeliing tlie 
tug«ntifen>us m>iil anriforaua k^d iilitaiitiHl from silver mid gold 
lUM/s «ludl cupclä i>f IxMit-uäb an n-ijuirvd, wbicli iin.- cimvi-uivul); 
made by striking tbom in a nivtullic muuld ood usitig lliem for 
I ■"■'>•, wiiliont removing tliein fpcun tlie mould. Two such 
jm :i.t^v' he lind. Ulli.' fur Ihi'^t, mid one for smaller uioaldn. 

Fig. 4'J, A It, bat this U nut iiidiNpfiinabli:, us 
ChL- largvr uul* i« «nRiciiitiL under all cirotuii- 
älanccä. [It is. indeed. bftt«r to bnro two of 

jf» Ittpjui-r ivte only, oj» thtm, when the refining J^k^^ IJ 

ilR-llotiun bus btwn |>ürfuriuM uu Ui» cupel, it 
can ;Dtitl Ik- u»e<l for ttie scoritication of the rav ^^|^ if 
iM^fihtHi-tfis.-ting'n mvin^of rim^aiid inatcriul. 
Tnuui.1 r^uud /> are tlie «tump«. Tliu moulds 
are of iron and aro aev^ntoeQ mÜlim. in diameter, 
Ibf cuTity buing worked ron-,'b, 9d tliut the cujkI "<- "■ 

«truck ill it uutv uot full oat, M would be vt-ry likely to ba|i}*pn If 
ÜIC niTitr Were smoutli. The «tamps ai« of baixlenvd gto«V su'l l>^<* 
tiif bnllows in tbi; muiilda thi^ir slutpitig fau-s »rv 9i-:^u-Qta of 
f|iti«rK's but of u euincwlial liir<;i;r diuiiit;k'r, and )>uliahed. That tlic 
monUl may b« untre suciipely held whi'n hot, a cixsa la filed on tlie 
uuder «Ide, so Mint one point «f tin* fonx'ps may he put inUi due of 
tiif fiHir «pcnin;?*. wliil« Uic otbor point \% pusiied uier tlie nppt-r 
(art of t lit* mould, wLicli can Üiuii )>u tniiiiift.-rred WuiiV dc-«ir«ij plorc. 

Tbf cui>C'l9 are made l>y pwssiup the nmiild fnll uf bonu-ash, set- 
ting tbe proper Mamp vertically upon it. and uumprc«s- 
iug I be boiii-Hsli willi a few elrokes of tie liainnifr, 
ontil the convex fnce of the sltinip tuuclus thv inner 
edfi.*or the mould uu all sides, whennpim tbe c'u|>«l is 
itbttd. A titund, about iimt-ly niilliiu. Iii^'li, Fig. 50, 

ippnrui Ibe cupri durinj; tb<j cii))elliLtI>in. It is bon-d 
uot dowii to c, and a stout iron wire is in»Tted in it, no 
as to ttaud t|niti> Hvc fk-om Ibo wood down to that 
|(oint. Thii cupid mitnld is then placed on ilia cniM 
a1<ovp. aci tbut the cro^s cut« in the mould du not coiu- 
cide With thv cross piece», but come betwet<u the arma, 
in nvAjfT tbai tbe hot munlil may be removed with tbe 
li-n [he euiielliiiiou i<t dune, 
i-fni-atlydesirablein ipialilaiiveeKaniinntions. ^^ ^ 


plattneb'b blowpipe analysis 

to cupel Bubfitances with lead, and then, if the operator doeB not 
possess the quantitative apparatus, a cupel may be readily made by 
boring a hole about a quarter of an inch in width and depth, in a 
piece of charcoal, and filling it with a stiff paste of bone-ash. This 
is pressed down and made slightly concave, with the pestle of the 
agate mortar, and then thoroughly and slowly dried, B. B., or over 
the spirit-lamp. — Transl.] 

15' A Mixing Capsule of sheet-brass or horn, ix)li3hed on the inside 

and shaped like Fig. 51. It is fifty-eight millini. 

^^^^^^^^SSL 'o^S' twL-iity-two millim. wide in the widest part, 

and five tnillim. deep, and at the lip, where it 

^' ' begins to round off, seven millim. wide and three 

millim. deep. It is usi'd, especially in quantitative assays, to pour 

the mixed charge coiivunieiitly into the soda-paper cylinder. 

16. A Spatula of polished iron, of tlie shape shown in Fig. 52, and 
^ .^ ninety-five millim. long. It is 

- .^.«=^»i.._^ used f?r mixing charges, but more 

Fig- BS. particulariy in roasting ores to be 

quantitatively assayed for metals, and for .various other purposes. 

17. Coal-holder with platinum wire and shield. — In making quan- 
titative assays which must be roasted, or fused in clay crucibles, and 
require a strong heat, the coal used must be protected, at the end 

employed by an envelope of sheet- 
iron, the coal-bold^T. Fig. 53 shows 
two sides of this holder, as pro- 
jtosed by Platfner. Each of the 
four sides is thirty-two milhm. wide 
and thirty-six millim. high. On 
the front pide, }i, is a Rlil,i, ending 
in a round openijig, (7, seven millim. 
in dianii'ter, and on the rear side is 
an iron ecrfw. c, on tlio inner end 
of which i.>? a jilati'. (/, that turns 
on its iixi.-i, while to lln' initi-r end 
I In' wooden haiidlr. f, is attiiched. Tin- f^■v^•^\,r, is below the nii<i<l]e 
of Ihe roiil-holib-r, .-io tliiit when the foal is l>iirni-il uiil. tln' pn-ssnre 
may not ceasi-, nor the coal lall i'mni the boliKr. The mil,/', outside 
of the roal-lioliliT, in which the irmi si-n^iv works, is ari-an.i:i'i] to slide 
ill iind out. 'I'Iiit-' is a siiiali ]<\''v of sii.Ti-iroii. h. I'a.-l.'iird on the 
front (if the real-holder hv a small riMl. >n that it can he turned 
lo rlose the slil, h. »x \<:\\<- it o|ii'n. a> iln' 'hiiinl ]iin>s ^how. In one 
Bide, A, of the hohler tln'ir is also a .'^iiiall slii, /. eijilit niillini, long 

Fift. M. 






AD<1 0.8 tnillim. wide, Tor the insertion of the ^ilntinnm wire, to trt 

described dirt-cily, anrl below the slit Is u smiill Imiss socket, k, in 

whicli the end i>f this win: is iiiücriei]. When uo ure is tu be rwistirtl 

iu a chijr capsule, or uii assay faeed iti ii ohiy crucililn, tin; cupgale or 

cracibk mvAX be 8o placed as to etnnd tvat in the cavity »od not 

toacb tliD coal. This U ucci^mplitihi'd 

by m«au8 i>r a platinum wire eightv- 

tlirre tnillim. long, and 0.<J to 0.7 

inillim. thick, which 18 bont with the 

plien into tbu sluipe shown iu the 

tuuoral size in Fig. 64. Tli« ring. A, 

\a liret furninl, Uicn, at ( the strai^lit 

I«r1 ia bLMit l>s(:k »<.>nR-whiit. and ii|>- 

*mni at an obtHswaiigto, t.tirrt'Äiviiuiiiig 

to the inRlioation or the sidt*« of the. 

cuvitv in the irual. and hislly, the n- 

maiuing pnrt id bent downwanl at a 

right angle, as is seen at U. Tti<.- 

Ivngth of the nppcr horixontnl portion 

miut. before bending the win% bo 

Tnitnstinxl off, i-<pial to tbß dii^tantw 

from the opening in the socket, k, to the sido of the csritr in the 

coal (c^Vf F1g. i&, /*), 8« may he st^«n at n, Fig. 5&, 

which rrpreiuTnLff the c-i>al'hi)ldi-r with %\w coat and the 

iuftiTttti win;. The cwal prism iä introduced into the 

coal-holdvr from holow, so tbitt the upper sid«, on 

whir-h the part ft of thf wiro r"i<ls, mny roach exactly 

til till* iliL, r'. On the win-, op]"jsite ihe opening, a, is 

bnag a imiAll shield of thin platiniiin foil. Fig. .Vl, O 

(natural siti'), which is «iwd om/v im roAA/iM^ and serves 

to pT^v^nl ibe eoul from burning nut loo »lOn at the 

perl most exposed to tha pointed flume. 

18. A »mnU iron/ spoon, eight niillim. wide on the exterior and 

ahapcd like Fig. 5(J, quite smooth und i>ol- ^ ^ 

whi'd ! alAo a »mail brimh fur ok-ntting the 
wub-jmnK. mixing rapuule-s and r>i:u<ting 
capmlr« fri>m aii.v adhertnt tine dusL 

19. A fr/tt fend fievf. — The teat lead 
for blowptp^i fusaya niitrt be as Hue aa 
jiouibte, Mo aa to mix lietter, aud the 
punulainl lead must thert-rmv l>c siilL-d 
ihmngl) a email sieve, tli« bottvut of 

F!|c. u. 

rte. w. 

Fl*. ST. 

rtATrxnri» DLowprps AWAtTais. 

wbicb u {li^ri'iMl Willi bnles through whiuli s modersLutv coatsb 
ritiviili? will iJHM. ThU Bicvo U miuli: jiitjt wide enough to hold Uie 
(ittii ■>!' the cl«T Ci>|MJUIc lUoiiUI l«lure dc^uhbud, aud does tiot, 
lh('rvf«>ro, r'f|iiiri- u «itmal jihico whin trsaii]H>rtji.'il. 

^11. .1 Ifitt ItiHt Himnure.^ll 'u LruubluHL-ioo to weigh out the tt-«t 
h-ail n)i|iiir<n1 liir a quantitative gold or siWer iuaay, sntl Hiiice it 
ii'ia)«'« iiu griitt ditn-n^ticf if u trifte t<>u much ortuolittk- ie UM-d. 
Uurkort etil |<h>vt-«] a im'uijitiv siiniltir ii> Lhut uyed rurgiiiifHiwd^r. It 
roiiintiis of n gb«« iiih«*. Fig. !>8, thiriy-Qve inilhm. long and 
M-Vfii U) ciglii iiiilliiii. «idr, gixtiiiul «moutli ut V>rli cuds, iuto 
whicli a wimn1.-ii rjhiiJiy »'Jtwrtly (its. Oa the cylinder im.* 
wvrnil divisiona whiob have Iweo boTorf determioi-d by weigli- 
iiig nut llvi', tfii. Iiniyn, fiud twenty blowpipe ceiitncrs of tine 
tcNt liiui Hint jMiiiring it iiito th<- tube. 'I'u clmrgf au n^äUT 
njtb l^'ii uth<. 4>r k'nd the vuudt-u cyliader i» drawn out until 
tin- line miirlii.'d Hi is jnst vr«i with th* bottom of the tub«, 
wlu-n Ihr t-mpiy space «Iwvp will hold jost twi ctrH. of test 
loiid, )iu))|iiMiug timt llii' lead »bed is of tho tuuuo degrve of 
lliK'Urw OS tliaL iii>od ju di*U*n»iuiiig iho divisiuns. 
ri|i w ii. A #niull 6>did et/UtiJifr uf trinnU wliioh » li«^ for pre- 
(mriiig tlM>«uiU-)4ip>'r rvliudor^i». '.'.V It i» lwi-iity>lir<.- millim. k>ng 
und A'Tcn millini. ihk-k. as shona in Fig. b9, B. To 
pri'parv the }Hi|M.'r cylindfre tlic nxiodi-u cylindcp ia 
laid on llio \<a\>^T, Fig. .M>, .1, and Ibv Ititc-r n>llt-d 
imniiitl it. Thi' pmjiTitng i-ml of tho pH|>rT m ibeti 
|m>Mvd down on th« wutwl in Kveral puce« vitb tit« 
liitK*ivi>ry9poci»,uidÖiuUlv theclti!>nimd ispnsseil 
v^iii^l tlw table mm to fhiil it lighur. 

t?. ^!mf rw/ fi/liMdritui Mm« i>f kitnt »i«rf. Fig. 50, 

for dry ivapfnts. and ipri-mJ glass boitUs witit wrll- 

;:f\<iiiid »iitp|vrK Fig. (<l. Tk<- bnttW aud txiic« aiv 

»ct i]i a Wtx^dr-n f4a»d ur K'K. in n<«^ Ut^iiiid one 

aQoth«>T. ^otii4>wh«i ki^r touk-s aiw 

Lrpt in a «r^wnit^ «tatid for l«]Did nf 

ap-itts «hidi are noa« bniomtly oa^m 

uitric acid. hf4rMdltwie acnL ric. 

W, Fvt m<«««it«od«d 

II« » 



rpipr- exasit- 
uvostitatr sbc employ • 



y\i- *.% 

liki* Fig. 62 ore most ■aiuibly miul« of two sizes: tlu larger oues 

nlxiut Lhirty tiiilliui. liigU aud furtv-llYc- luilliiu. wide in tlio taiddlo 

iiittl tlu- ivuialler ones twiiitjr-ilve inillim. liigli utiil 

iliirty luilliut. wide. A luvr w]Ucii-glu«#cs uf curiv- 

ii|KmilinK (]iitm«'U-r sen'« tu cawt Uivm vi'«;tiel&. 

Difft-rt'iit «iit^i vl Fig. *!3 aiv likewise tu be ivcutn- 

itit-ndt-d, unJ imiint or iii<liuii-iuk Buiit^Tä mil hv 

used fur Ibu purpuäi-. Tbu amutlfat ^Xi:. l-'ig. \i4, fig. m. 

tii-«nty-Gvu millim. wide aud imi niillitn. iKv)). !>* 

usud lo lie:iL, over Llw 8]))ril>laiu|i. stubxluuc^-e 

wliicti attack pUtiniim. For diÄäulviiig com- 

puunds iu acids, t«at tube», Fig. Uö, ur«, 

wliicii are kopt in a folding fniiiu* of «*<w.d .ti* itii. 

Severs] «mnll bejik>>r^ ai&y kw utlvuiiEiigiHiu^t}' usi'd 

Tor uoiUur purinjws, lu wl-U aa fur liliniiioiu^. A 

fäw smaJl glass fiinnclh, wiiich l-iiii be pliK-<.-d uu Fit- M. 

tliti U-8t tulK-», arc iiiiiif!|i"ii>ulik'; fur lurgi-r fnii- 

ueiB a eituill liltwr Bland, I'Tg. 0(j, U iiÄ'fuI. [U may b«; vi-'ry coii> 

VMiitfnlly ri-pUcud by a. ring nltiieli«! to iiti arm. wbicb Kts in Ihr 

ttrin vf tiic üt-aponttiiig ring, ff, 

Fig- 7, or it may be wpstratvly 

Qtb.-d ttitbc liunpeinad.— Truntil.] 

The UltiiT-pajJur luted muAt k-ovo 

but a «mail tuimunl: of white asli, 

£iuoe thu tguLLiuu of a 

|i:irt of the lilUT is somu- 

tinii'S nimvuidiililu wben 

trifliiig prt^'cijiitau-8 are lo 

in: fnrtlipr etamined. 
A snmtl //ÄA.-Ä piptilc, 

Fig. U(, ubuiit one btindrtd 

aud fifly millim. Itnig and 

bluwu out in the middle 
_ _ into a bulb, tweatf-ÜTe 

niillin). wid<?, \i ulfo iiwfal. Wbcti tbis is lockiag, a tube, t«n 
railtiuL n'idt>, drawn out to a point iit <iiu< und, con Iw wav^X. 

Finidlr. a ümull vatih bottle. Fig, fi8, or u ilrDppiiiij ffianii. Tig. B9, 
i» I Uy blowiii«'uir iiil.ii tb» t-iibr, ;t, Fig. fiS, vbicS oprns 

cfcis- - - ill« cork, a steadj stivam of wii.ter is forct'd out tlironglv 

A. A gbui» fbifik of about forty-fivo millini. diiunoter U ijuitL' birgv 
•■nt'Dglt. (hi iiidiiiiiig the ^iioiit of the. lialf-fllled drojiping gl»«^ 
Fig. bl», ao far tlial llie water ruiiä intu it, a few drojis will fore« 

Pig. ss. 

pij( <» 



til iir way out separately, which is of advantage when anything is to 
he moiett'ned with a drop of wat^r. It ia only neccBsary to direct 
the spout downward and blow througli the glass tube to force the 

water out in a very fine stream. 
24. A charcoal saw, about 
one hundred and fifty millim. 
long, eighteen millim. wide, 
and one millim. thick, with a 
wooden handle. A bow saw 
may be used witli more advan- 
tage in sawing large pieces of 
coal, but in travL-Uing, when 
snch large tools caunot he car- 
ried, aud a stock of suitably 
cut or artificial coals is gener- 
ally on hand, the first saw will 

Ftg. 69. 



i !■ 11 

FIk- BB. 

answer Ilse purpose. 

'J5. Van'iiiin tin reise/.«, in case the apparatus is carried during a 
trip, wlicn it is ni'ces-;ary tii take a stockof oil, alcohol, coals, and clay 
vet!j:cls. Tin flasks, covered with dark lacquer, serve for oil and alco- 
hol, tlic oin.'uings hcinjiclosod like those of the blowpii» lamp. Four- 
siiK'il cases hold the various coals, which must be tightly laid in, as 
the artiltcial coals are easily injured by friction or shocks. Asimilai 
case is ucidwl for tlio safe keeping of the glass tul>es, mat- 
rasses, test tubes, and funnels. Plattner has recommended 
a jMirticnlar case for kei'jiing the clay ea ionics and crucibles. 
It consists of a hollow bniss cylinder, iuto which a frami* 
of the same material can be inserted, eajiable of holding 
twenty-live clay crucibles, aud ten capsules. Fig. TO shows 
the arnnifrement of such a case. Wlun the frame is fall 
of crucibKs or cupsulcs. the e.xtra sjnuv is packed with soft 
pajvr or woi>l. and the lyliTuhr put over it. In onlor that 
ih.' cylituhr may not slide back, small cvis aiv attached at 
r' jiiiil /■, Hliiih run be fastened lojrolhtr by a tine thread. 
'I'be rinj: into wliich the I'imu* upriirht wires are sec has a 
>lii !it c, which is so wide that the points •<>' the lon-eps can 
pass tiiroiiirb conveuieutly wbi-ii a erueiMe or vapsule is 
lifted out of the frame. 

Fiiiallv, it is Urtt'ssary so tojwck the objects en nmii'aied. tiiat when 
'hey ari' to Iw taken uu ■ joamcy the sejisinite ones may be easily 
f.uind. while th* » « h« a compact apii-aniui-e. A 

wooden b* ** '**'' this. lu the 1ow..t 

Vii TIV 


part a epecial arrangement must be made, so that all the lai'gor 
objects, which cannot first be put in a particular cast-, may b* 
securely packed away. Above these objects come the others, which are 
partly in small separate cases, and partly laid side by aide in wooden 
trays, lined with soft leather, and having cavities corresponding ivil li 
the separate objects. The cover of the box should also be litied witli 
an elnstic cushion covered with soft leather. The wooden hoses and 
the glass bottles, Figs. 60, 61, and two glass bottles of cobiilt and 
platinnm solution, all of which stand by themselves in a rack or small 
Ik>x, can also be packed in the same bo.\. If other liquid reagents 
are to be carried, it is best to keep them in a small separate box, as 
some of them give off vapors which are injurious to metallic objects. 

VT. Reagents used in Qualitative and Quantita- 
tive Blowpipe Analyses. 

In blowpipe analyses, as in all ehcniiciil examinations, it is essen- 
tial that the necessary re:igents should be used in the purest post'ible 
condition, and they will, therefore, be not only enumerated here, but 
in cases of particular impurturice, the necessiiry remarks on their 
purification, tlie signs of their purity, and the qbject of their employ- 
ment will be made. 

A. Reagents for blowpipe analyses made without the aid of the 
wet process, 
a. General reagents. 

1. Carbonaie of Koda.* — Both the carbonate and bicarbonate may 
be used if chemically pure, and free from sulphuric acid in particular. 
Preparation, — Commercial bicarbouate of soditis pulverized, put into 
a glaaa funnel loosely stopped with cotton und the surface, after being 
made even, is covered with a circle of lionblc filter-paper, so that the 
edges, which are bent upward, lie tight against the funnel. It is 
then washed by pouring on a small quantity of distilled water at a 
time, until the filtrate, acidulated with nitric acid, is not clouded 
either with nitrate of silver or chloride of barium. It is then very 
thoroughly dried, pulverized, and kept in a wooden box; or it may 
be converted into the simple carbonate by igniting it gently in a 
shallow porcelain dish, or a porcelain crucible, over a spirit-lamp with 
a doable draught It must then, however, be kept in a glass-stop- 
pered bottle. 

* Eki'caftn' the limple word loda will be used in place or carbonale of^oila in ihli 

16 plattner's blowpipe analysis. 

Tests anii ute. — A gmnll qunniity of the pnrified sdt is treated with the R. F. on Char- 
ta), until it has gunk into the eonl. When cold, the spot is cut oat, and the mass laid 
an hri;.'ht silver foil and moistened with enough water to wet the foil also. If (rve frum 
sulphniic ncid, the surface of the silver remains unaltered, but if a trace is present in the 
salt it iä rcdnted with the soda to sulphide of BOiiium, by the treatinent on coal, and 
causes the silver to become yellow, brown, or blnck from the Bolphide of silver formed, 
either very toon, or after a few minutes. 

Soda serves as a test for sulphnric acid, and hIm), in qualitative and quantitative 
analyses, to decompose compounds of eilicie, tungstic. and titanic acids, nnd to promote 
the rediicliun of various metallic oxides. 

'i. J\'eutrttl oxalate of potassa. — Binoxalate of potaesa is dissolveti 
in water, neutralized with potassa, iiltered, and evaporated to dryness, 
being gtirred with a glass rod towani the end of the opemtion, while 
a suHJciently high temperature is employed, but not enough to de- 
compose the salt. The dry mass is pulverized and kept for use in a 
well-closed bottle. 

TksIx and vsf.~TYi'i solntion of the neutral salt must remain nnclonded on adding 
sniphide of ammonium. When completely dry, this salt, at a low red heat, evolves 
C4irbonie oxide, without carbonic acid, and is, therefore, admirably suited to the exam- 
ination for ai-scnic, and is better than soda tor reduction assays on coal. 

3. Cyanide ofpofassivm. — Liebig's method ia to rub eight parts by 
.weight of anhydrous ferrocyanide of potassium, free from sulphate of 

potasäa, with three parts of dry carbonate of pohtssa, and I'usc the 
mixture at a moderate red heat in a covered porcelain enieible until 
the mass is clear and a sample taken out appears quite white. The 
clear mass is carefully decanted from tlie fine separated iron at the 
bottom upon a bright piece of sheet-iron, and the spHdified salt is 
kept in the form of coarse powder in a glass-stoppered bottle. 

Usr. — The salt prepared a» above contains some cyanate of potash, bnt thit docs no 
harm. It is chiefly used as a reducing agent, bdng in this respect always preferable to 
soda, and in many coses to oxalate of potash. 

4. Borax (biborafe of soda).— Commercial refined borax is per- 
fectly suited to blowpijie assays. The pulverized hydrated salt serves 
for qualitative analyses, but for quantitative assays, where all intu- 
mescence must be avoided as far as possible, it is better toemjiloy tin- 
borax in the state of glass. It is fused iu a platinum crncible over a 
Ipirit-lamp with a double draught, or on coal before the blowpipe, in 
the O. F., and the glass broken to coarse powder between paper, or in 
the stcol mortar, is rubbed somewhat finer in the agate mortar and 
kept in a glass stoppered bottle. Impure borax can be purified by 
reervstallization and washing the crystals in a glass funnel with a 
little cold distilled water, after which they are dried and pulverized. 



Tmi« nrd MF. — A sinnJl qtinnilty of ]inre Uma nelrol tn the hMp of > ttlvinuin 
i «In miut noi t'ivc ■ oiloml UnA la ibr O. R or tine K. V., aa<l ilUtolrri! In vultr ll 
»•Tilil i-iir IM) [itT«():iititir will) curlnnalc o^ mkIs, inil aftur «dJinu nitrii^ «d't to in 
•JntH«) llirrc inu<t be nu piri-iiriinir wiih niir.itr gf iNiyui or niimlr of Mirer. 

Bomrii- «riil lii< ihf pnoftnj of mniMiiinü »"iih oxli)c« «t a liffih trfnpcrannm.'dTir- 
Ini; »at «rat nrtiln, nml wiih ihr iiM (if Ihe O. F. ili«|Ki!in» nw>ritl>. «n't tntpHnr. nnil 
bikVtil «i>Bi]niin'l^ b> uxidir«'. B»r9tG*uf lite oxiilo moll, I'liii'li tar* r'^ixllW «ictt 

■It (if wdn ami i.-lvc n clmr elm». Tll* txwiw cimlBm*, bnldci buroir M Kxla, fr«r 
■V" ■ckl. Will U ibctvfkirT' iiwKrmt to <lt<w)lTu late* an>t oi'M«. and to fonn IhwIc a* 
««II •* «dd iIobMc mlM, wblch ni« all to a «vfuin itrfitv« lluiil. Theac «ill» ep-ncr*II_r 
nniiin ikw en roulini;, «ml thn* ilie rulor proiluivtl Iit ihr. ctimbmnilMi wliti ibc ili»- 
w!n4 hndjr i> ihr mi>n< rkarij Iwtidi-hl am in qnnlitnttv« rxaniinaiion*. In qnnniito- 
ri*v ninn^rp it »ivm, fmnir hIom anil [»nlj- in eoounon with twi«, lo ili'Wktre the 
Mill» nni] mMallii- vhhIo nf iliffl<iili rHuclion occurring In llw una anil iiilnimlt, a> 
«vtl u K> •«paniK ritliK» niruIUc ■tvcnid» from one anuihiT. 

IK Salt of yhosphnrNx nr juirr'tc'fmic ttlr* (Plto-tphntD oF aoiJn 
nnd Mnmuniii.) — AcrordJtig M Bi'rzelliiB lh\t salt, which U not 
alwiTs iiliUiini-«] I'm- fniin chloridi.' n( «oJiiim, is hcnt maiV an fol* 
IftWI : One biuidR'^I parts of crystulli?^ phoapiiatv of eodii ui>d aix> 
twt) pnrtE or chlüride of ammoniitm are diHäolved, with the aid of 
bwit. in tliirtj-two pan3 of wftt^r, and ihe boilinp-hot solnn'on 
filtered ftiid ullowi-d iu axil. The dotilile «alt cryaUilliiwr* wliile cou!« 
iitf^. K-iiving ill llif suliitidi) chloride uf üodiiim und sutiii: of thv 
double saU, *hieh, however, ciiniiot be cryetallineil out free fri..Tn 
i-lilnndi* iif Midiiinn hy furthi-r evajiomtin,^ tli^- mother lK[nor, und 
LWiitiit. thfix-fiiiv, h" iiiL-d fur blowitijK; t-xsmmiitioni. After com- 
plftclv deirnnting Ihr motht-r liquor (he crjatiils are dri«l between 
filtcr-pap*T and ili« nit kept for km id wooden boÄ«. When 
lieutPil on coal cir plaliimin «in* it boils, swells n littb», nnd gives up 
in ttuti'i' ttiid ammonia, k'Hring behind acid )ihi>«jilmtf uf »uda. 
«Iiich mt\ta qnirtir and «didifira on ooolint; to a clear ooIorleflH 

TWaoorf ■»».— ir Ih« snit i* not Irvc frvm chluriik of aoiliuin il wm'iima ctTC« a 
fUa* which I* nil char un ajülin|j{. ami wlini n liitk oxi'lo of n'^\wr ia iliMdlvM In ih« 
Mk «hii-h i« fitfnl on plaiiiium «ire, the oatcr (tame U volund Uikv 1» llii* rnw it 
nnit V rtiUraolml tn a liiitc tmttin:* «mirr and ki n^ldo to mr^tUiIliK. When ttrx<i 
Iruni It« HflirT ai») nnimonla lir ftitlon. the lalt arl« {jarriciiliirly thrau^li tii ftve phua- 
|Jiurk' acii. wlikli oxi'tl« A jAwprTnl «oliy-nt Action on mnnr fiilMUiniw* nnikr cxamtn- 
•itoHi Tnkini; op all Ixurt* U tvima »itli iliun luurc or Utu ftimUr doiil'te ■ntn, the 
!tTnp »|mfi 'W i 'r ami rotor of «hirh ntv rhU-Hr |i> lie rrj^nnlctl. Il *rrm al>u lu «'jiaraio 

I In tlie IVt Irrt- tluiiTian. 

III?« «all b nu»ltys'>"* in ila ariwn to Wkimte of aoda, Ihe giasKa «Incli i( 
^bmu wiiti fiKialllt: oxiilcj b-enirnllj Jiffrr m color nnil tnicnHt; tnn ÜMwe obloliitJ 
Tlth luriLi nttil the laiitr OXJiic« lij ^mitnt tn>alinL-m. 



6. ,Vt7« {nitrate of po/(MM).~ComraerciiiI Mttiwtpc i« diesolved 
in n funnll qiinntity i>r hoiling w»(er, nnil tlie boiliiig-liut Milution fil- 
tered aiiil icl iisulf to crvÄialluif, After a small yuantitT nf cryataU 
hae farmed, tlic motlier liqnur te pimrcd olT »nd tho cnrUuls dried 
twtwwn fllUr-papcrand ktpt in wooden box©«. 

Tfiin «cnri» onljr ns an oxidüiiv »ctnt 

7. Jihxttphate of pota»9a.^'X\ii% aalt uan be jirepared llius: One 
part l))- wt'iglit Ol' pure üulpluiric aeid is poured over two pang of 
coarfiely'broken crystitU of pure siilpliatr of putii&»n in u porcelain 
oriicibU', which is thon gradually licatvd over a spirit-liuop nntil the 
whult^ fomis a fluid clear us wiiter. «hen tho crucible it; rt-moved aud 
the dtiid sn)t nllowed to cool. It solidilii'G Yt>rv quickly, Appeirs qait« 
vliilcj and can be obtAiued in one piece hy tnriiing the crucible ot^ 
vlien cidd. The pulverized Bait is preserved for uae ia aglaM-«top- 
pert'd boUlu, 

Oh;— It b UMd tn mitnc for ItUtlum. iKiracic meld, nttrlc acht, SaortM, broralna, 
Chlarlne. »ad ioiline. ami rurdecoiiipOEÜni;; (irxupouuilvof llUuic. UuUIIi-. «ml tuajftlle 
iiL-vU. It cnn Ol» be lunl tu Wfuiniii! fanrvla mid Mrontin (nxn tlw vt>ii.-r «arilia, ud 
vmrion* iiKtallic t>xi<ki> \r3 th« wcl «aj, wIkd tbc blov^po aloao b not ■uffickau Tlic 
Dielbod or«>iiie h Kill be «pCLUII/ ilnciibcd uadtr ihc Kparate *>*a,j%. 

8. VUrifittl horaric acid. — Tliie can be obüiin^'d fivm the chemical 
workü üfiis gooil quality aa it can be pripür«<l,atnJ inoivcliftuply. It 
it kept in the form of powder, ur in timull fragmeiils, in » tightly- 
clnsed bottle. 

Ii «efvca la (|>i«liudt« exaniitiatten ro Atx*ei phot|itii>rii: odil In miiwnU, nml a nsalt -^ 
^uaitiitf of cgppcr iB prcKtic« «f iDDeh lend. In qBaniiiutito uia;» It n iiiit« indis* 
licBtahlft In x^ntinz \mA ttom fxtppa. and fmnt nMi>y> nf tU: nuble niL-tAt), wltkh ftiae 
«Irh difficulty *ni1 cannot be quito frerd frum li on ibo cupel. 

0. yUrait of cobalt in toiuiion. — Pure protoxide of cobalt is dia- 
wlved in tlie neevEsarv qnaotitj of dilnte nilho acid, the Bolntion 
evaporated to dryness At a gentle heat, the dry salt dissolved ia water, 
and the filtered solution kept In a boltle. The solution iliould not 
he conceutrateil, m this would not »nswer the purpose in all eases. 
The protoxide of cobalt must be chemically pnre, containing neither 
protoxide of nickel nor si'^uioxide of iron, and there niD«t bo no 
pot.'issa iidhcriiig to it Thf latter can be removed hjr boiling the 
pruluside «rich distilled waler. 

Uw. — Thenltnuorootudt mvMroi- remgnlilngTarioninnha aii4 mcialli« osidea 
«iih >vhH.-h |>rv«ixid« «fcotxill fontu, on iMiiitf battel tb rvilotM En ikcO.F.iCom- 
puuDil- ilNiiiiKiil^liitlilc by ihdr pocuUar color*. 

A« uiitr nw or two ilmfii nn rvqnin«] for mi M>By ii u roonnipni to tako «it Hie 
Rifafiil« HiiKKitit wilb 4 hhuII Initnimcni, and iku« tnouion tho «ubnunoe (o b« «v 


■Minrd. 'Du« U uiou lioiply dtrciml wilb a platinum «im, sptHjii iluptd U gin 

•nJ, imi ß\i-il 171 a nirk. iir «iili s'tliin i;lit<" lulv, likowiu' th>irniil in k oork vbirh 

il* tW nmrL <<f ihn t>ottl*, FSj;. 71. Tbe lariur b vrrr «wr^niwn, 

«JrinmIm tain u<tt likt: • iriptiK «Ikii ii U diiifiod iiiio llic »•■laikiii 

«ml thi-cnrk |iit?vn] a liiiic itito ihc neck tiTliip houK ihe cuin|>m- 

ihtml Ihe air Ixdni; Mil»« ufllic iwlulion into itio Itibtt. Oa inn- 

toft OBI tbv cork and lliw lUkd IuIm>, and dudln^ lliu widi; Mid uf iha 

burr «itli ihr ßiti,i-r. uii?, two, or arn-rnl ilru|ja may t« allawnl i<' 

nvfw wJibaai luiicliinu ihr xatviaiiCT urtib ihn iiamnr «nd or lli< 


iH m jouniaj tka bailh can W duecd wilb ■ ijlaM-atapptr, «ml 
lk> pi|wite kcfit by ltK4/. . 

10. Tf»I tivttt, fiiu-ly äriiniiliit««!, hikI olao in liitiipMU^ fan- ns i>u>iii> 
Mo rmm uthi-r tuütuls. [«rliciilurly golii imd silver.— Wbtn the graii- 
nlut^d Ifst leud ciin be ahtuint-d from Iciu) nnd silver «orlcs it nwd 
Mtly 1n> Birtvd tliruMgh the small iiievi', Fig. 57. and ili«» part which. 
■pof's through is krpt in n -wocMien box. tf such lead «annot be bnd 
Um; n-<|uialf amount muy bv prt-ptirvd by n-duoing the U-ad Troni »co- 
Ui^ ^f sugar or U>ul vritb sine, in thi> foUttwing vruy: Dissolve snf^r 
vf Irad in a «iiihII quantitj of boiling water, rheii itlace a zinc rod in 
thf filieri'd iNdiitiuii, und oHer About six buiirt, cjircfnlly dctiicb iht- 
Rislullic had fri>m the rod, so aa to expose a fresh surface, rcg^ftaling 
ihc operaiiot] twTx at hours, until oil tbo lead n ueparoted in the 
mvtiillii; M»[?. Thi^ ]i!ni is thi'tt ]niriliod fiMin Ihe adlR-rciit acid 
mlntioii, which contains zinc, hy rc)>rat<.-d nimbing, and dried bo 
tvetu Üllcr-papcr iu a worm place, afler which it is rubbed in a 
{mrrvtain niortur add the fin« port 8«pnnit«<l fVom tht coher«tit mass 
vilb thi' Iviul piovf. 

Tmi Irail fi rJiirRv ii*rd In quantitadve xolil, »ilr*r, wiil wppcr aawra, Tli* voltunt 
tfm «invlii^l amonni n'' wt Inul piuparrd frutn auicnr ol IonI ii lu thr raliuMof aii 
r^unl Mrli^ltl >■•( gnnH\uri.\ anil «ifVn] Imi] nf six to firr. unil « lii'K IIil- türracr lead it 
luW ■•"1 I7 iiiraiiiin:(nnil f-rr >it«T anil golJ Bi4flv* witli llic meainre, Pitf. 54, and 
nnl br •Ti-icli', llirm mnil bv ailJi-d otir nr. fur cvFry Ori- rm. In onlcr to olilnhi ihc 
jrapvr mljtlil. Wliwi Uk (.■rnntiliiti'd IcmI «nout Iw envilj obuiaed th' pironüne 
ndUnl Willi ui^i^nrKl lead aSbfda tli« fMdiMt means of ]in>pnring pnr« and Onclv 
ilblilnl Irat linui. 

11, Tin, — Ordinary tinfoil is nsed, out into lung atrii« twelve 
millim. widf and rollnd np tigbl- 

lln anvts to r«nlcic« Hi« knmt drew ot oxMaiioti in gta«* 4as«a. panionlarlj^ la 
nut of trUins qiumiiiic» of »«cli nutnllli: <»dd<* a« van be Tcditrtd «* pcwoKiJa or »11 1>- 
niifo, myl in thi* «tatr «ivp mun,' toiifI««ive roulu. A linle ef llw tin is «11 off. Uiil 
•fimtir airalmM ihr plaj^ hpivl and i|nic.-kiv fluoiL, far a mnmvnc »nly. in Ih« R. K. 
Afar adiUi« ihc iLii tin bla^t iniul nut U kc^t op b» lone, p»n\j kcmiM) ih« lin will 
„mtnlr rclai-e ii>a»<r nnUl« whlili »linold unij tv Immntit to thi; lowrtl ftaU of oxi- 
un, aiul tliiu renjgntu.'tl by the rolor uf the ^ia*«. ami. |inniy tomuMi ki iniwli tin 




isu,« (w (lbco)v«d, Wfirriiül,^ with S. Ph. rliat tbe (lut IcoomM qoite «psqae, vliera 
upon the tvMclfan diM|i|M-tin pniüvly. 

M. Jren, A3 fine piano wire, and also wire as thick an a modemt^Iy 
coiiwi; knitting-needle 

Till' Rue win «enw fn itie Mat for phoipborfe »M, «hil« Ih« ato«! irin in tuet) in 
lilt- igaaliuiit« i«8t for nntiiiionf mhI in Ihc •^nAnlitalär« latd Mmjr. 

A i-iuall t>1m« »r fhMi dlir« b nMv) in Rnciioni Tor «alpHido o( •odium or tolnU« 
■iil|ihi>in It ii sIh) rviiuirol in maay quaniitniivc gvld «Mays «ad c«) b« boN 
[tilmvd truni ehlnnilc or nivrr, Ih'Ihij ItrnitriKitd Mill roUtd into ft Iliin ütttit tma «lilcli 
ÜLC ilusimt nnmiint tuny bo vm\j cut. 

14. Oold, in ermll bntions, up to i-iglity milligr. in weight, or aa 
Tiril — It nmv hv lind pure by di»so|vin^ ffold coin in nitro-muriutic 
acid, ililutiiig tlip sulutiuii pruporly witli wuttr und Ictiing it stand 
until it \« cloMrund the »mull Hnmiint or chloride of silver has wt> 
t.U-«i, when if. i» (llfcri-d, utid tlit gold pn-ci])! luted with eulphatc of 
iron. Aflor the Itiiely-dividod gi>td has settled, it is collected od a 
Hltcr, well \vaaiied. dmd. uud gvntiv ignited. It is best to ignite the 
ßlt^^r M>|i]Lrn[ely. From this gold, burtons or any desired am oaa tM 
mado by fitsion on coal with a little bonx. 

Oold ttrrft i» BUny njdctlan Mnjr« to «olt«et «ntll qwuidliM «f radnnd aMak, 
«hicli KTo in bo umplf tqiftnttcd, or ncoirnbEal, »r d», m b fteqa<ad7 tin caM, an le 
Ih) iiiuinüutii-vljr dru'rniinni, m., copper niid uickel. 

16. Arsenic in the metallio state.— If it oaonot be purchawd, 
powdered niispickel is Mviili-d In a gla»4i retort provided with a 
n<RL>iver, as long as a snbliraate of metaUic arwnic collects on thn 
»L-ok of the retorL When cold, the retort is broken and the arecuic 
which ha« coll<^ctt-d toward the end and is Tm ^m solphur is kept 
for u«c. 

Itirrrali tha nickel and cotwii mMa;-* 'c*")'"^ t*w aKtaUicoxMe* latoaiMnidta. 
b. Spf^Uit rwgenln usfd only in earttUH txaminationt. 

1. Test pujtfr» at bine and red litraiis and Bnizil-wood pajier cut 
into small strip*.— The paper is color«! in the following way : 

a, Hhie litmu« pafitr.~Otx& part of litmas, of the be«t quality, is 
rubbed to n «Miroi' juiwdiT and nii\' ■ 
titfd up in a bag of fine lioon and :i 
times as mnch 
The Doloringj^' 
into a ponxtti^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

BEAOKsra traitf) n» BiiOwrtPH araltses. 

pluoe fiw from «Just Fine filler-puper in «trip« two inches wide ia 
IkH suited for tliis pnrpone. 

J, Jied lifmuf poper-—A Utmos aolnrion prepftred as aWve is rwj- 

<lonH with tbe least possilile amoant of diluUs sulptinrir tnid, added 

very (^adually while llie liquid is fitrongly stirred, so thai do more 

jkcid is »d'I«l tl'*n '** "xaotlj- nccrssarj*. iie otherwisp the paper 18 no» 

■lenritiTC enough. The paptT is tlieii IJr^■pll^ed us before. 

(L JtraTt'l-iatod paper. — Shavings of IlraKil-wood arc boiled iu u 
glB£i (la«k with water, the liquid decanted from the gharings and 
paper colored with it in th<^ mme way m with the litmuü exlract. 

Urn, — Blue liliaa» fotprt- i* ii*cJ (at mopim»if (m aM*; ni Htmo' fiaptn-i'a 
mdtira mticnl for fire alknÜM. Rntll-wood paper k nsH Mpccüllji In Ok trtt fut 
iMtijrdrie ktU. vMck impar» to ii r ^mltvircotoT. 

S; AnHmonat« of pottwxt, in a ptilvcrised state. — One part uf 
uiUmony ft mixed with six parts of nitre and defliigrHted in n wi\- 
biM clay crucible. Tlie a-suliing' ma^ ia pnlvprised. li\iviat*'d with 
cdM water, and ihou treak-d with water at a hi>iling iieal. whicb dis* 
folves the neutral antimonat« of potas», and an acid salt remains. 
Tha' Ml^itiiin of thi' neulra] salt iu iif>p»niti.Hl from the n'Sidtie )>r 
fllimtion, evnporattd to drvno-ag, and the dry wilt hiated utrongly, 
unnl it i« quite fh;e IVom water and has osaunied u white color. It 
ii iiulvcriwid while warm and prcst-rvcd in n well-cloei-d bottle. 

Il Ü emjiloj«) tn Atv«\ smflll qntiniitk« of CAttxte in eomfiounct bodw«. Whrn 
%ilud with ihcm il «Mil« qx«>^ tn üic nirlinn. jVirmini; rartonxc of potoww. vlik'li 
(fnt np lit cfltbnnic Mill in ilir frnm of zm wlitn diunhttl in wsiFr. «nit ({«oompoMil 
bj sitttc idd wlA« tHW qniM vnrtn. 

3. ^Wniitn nail, or rock salt (cA/ori'de cf *odium); dccrepitutiMl. 
or fn«d and powdered. 

In ue b rery llmlud. trat it U nnployal with adnniajt« w a eo>«r fir dw n«ct«- 
nrt-«lurEM in <)uiiniitnt)T« Iciii]. blnnnih, tin, ntck«!. uid eohall MM,trt, wti«a ih«7 
uv fated in claj cnHritilc«. 

4. Fliif/r npcT. heated tn redneiK and kept in a wooden bos. — It 
ijiti*l be qnitft ftee from t)onicie acid, which, according- to Kernten, in 
not alwaTB Iho case. When mixed, therefore, with hisulphate of 
potMM and ftiwd on plntinnm wire, in rhc bine flame, it must not 
color thv onter flume grven. 

Tt tents, (n connfCiion wltti tJtnlphme of potuw, to dcteci tltbliim ind bonrtr 
•r*4 in eimpoaiMb. 

5. Qunriz (sHicte add). — I*nre silicic acid, peparated from the eil- 
iCAtPS in th<> coargo of ohemical anfilyeie, ma; be nsed. provided it 
liai n perfectly white oolor after ignition. Bock crystal mar also be 


nun], living conrsclv [«owdcred lictwcen pnpcr und theo pulTt-rized 
ju nil ftgiiU' niartar. 

Ftwnt lo n gliiw <rilh ndk it MTvm t» mt labctaiMi'i für aitlpbniii; acid, ind, in 
»ndlnBULin nllli »viu and bunu, tv Kpnniic tin ftviB wpper ; n3*o rvcquonilj', id coa- 
netliim iriili »mU. tu um Cm [itig)i>lwrlc acid. 

6. Oxido of copper. — It 16 moat «imply prepared by disardTing 
puio copper ID nitric acid, evupurstiug to dr;n^-»s aud p;ractiuilly 
heating the drj mass to a strong red lieaC in h thin porceluiu dish. 

It MTVM cImB; to detect ttaaXi ijuittititiM of «hl»rin« in compoundt. 

7. Oxaiate ofniekst — Protoxide of nickel, quit* fiw from oobult 
and iron, ie disfolvßd in liydrcictiloric uciü, the Doliition i-Tupuni^i-d 
to dryiiees on a wuttr-bath. ibt- dry miii^s dissolved iu waU-r, lilu-red, 
»ltd the oxide of nickel precipitated with osutic acid. The pivQi[ii- 
tatfl is drii'd und kept for v.6«. It serves to detect potassa in ciTlain 
cssee. ^ 

8. Chhride of silver, m thi- form of n thick paste. 

ll nrrei lo pftxlun c«n&[n colored flaines wiilch «ppcar mQrv ^iluci nlili it tlian 
•riiti hfdroefalorie acid. 

fl. litarc}^ meal. 

IcKU M « rodudDK «irmi in iititnilutiTe l««d. blsinotli, liti, nickel, Lnd nbnll 
KMfiy«, «heti tlicy ut fiucd «iili «nrlioiutii: of potajui »nd «ida in clity cmcllii«s. 

10. Oraphite. — Commerciiil graphite ig often rery impnre, nstially 
oontnining many e^irthy piLrticI«ii. and cannot tJien be uixA for blow- 
pipe aMaya A incct- mast be goiiRht which is soft, bat not scaly 
«id IsmellftT, for snch graphite bums with dilficnlty. It it pulver- 
ized and it« ptirity tested by btinjiiipa littleof the powdrr Jn a clay 
capwile. Wlit-n it pnre pi«?« cnnnnt be obtained tbe impure graphite 
U pnrified in the following way : After being palrerited as fine a« 
pü5?ible it is mixed with twice it« volume of carbonate of potutan , 
and hcut<d bo redness in n covered chiy crucible. The heated maas' 
ia then poivderod and boiled with water, and anyodmixture of quart» 
Urn« removed with the alkali; by heating the remaining gniphite 
with dilute nitric arid the iron and earths can be dissolved and 
separated by liltrution and thorough wdshiog. The graphite which 
reiutbiiis is thoroughly dried and kvpt for uee. [The graphite ob« 
tiiined by scraping soft lead pencils of the finest qnality answcra^ 
every puriMJSe. — Traiial.] 

Pun, ytTf ftiid7-dlTlileil cnphlle serm «oil u an iddiiton in roMdsg labilaiiou 
cannlnlDgtnlphurorknealcln whicti üie copper U to In quaotiuiiTDljr deivrniJniMl. 



I L .-1 hur/t-»t<tne for tvsting the pri;ciou£ mutals and their allojrs. — 
Ji cotiittsts vf hard black basnlt or flinty jiuqicr ^ronnd smooth. Th« 
aictJiHic stroakri are Ktuovi'tl by smrariiig the etoce with a little oil 
luid nibbing it witb charcoal, alU-r which the »arfac« is wiped off 
mill ii|>)ii'urä cicihii and f|uitc bhick ugain. 
B. R«agenta for blowpipe ujalyses which ore perfonoed with the 
aid of t)ie vet jirocc-sii. 
a. Gi'Upral Reag<?ntK 
1. Üulphnric, cimct-u lmt*-d. 

Il mn** U) intrnsifr ih<i njiciiim» ol Imtwir nnd pliixphDriR *dd» in the outer flMH^ 
wtih •iilntaiitra oiiiilniiiiiiy ltio*v iKiA» ; u> Attxiat]mt<i: many ixtnipriuiulii of fluorinf^ 
anil in ih« exaailnNtlo« (iir amentc. Il ia qm^I In u dlliiio »lAtc to dcin't lime, uoilei 
MTtaln drcumiutacai. aatl aliu lo M]«mie lutryu uid »irontiB ttwxi otlier eartlu. 

^. Sitrieaciä, cheniiciiUy pure. 

Il U «Md to |wnixiitiM) |in>iosl<le or Iron In wIudoR«, W wjMraw itlrerfrom gold, 
•ad Is Af adnnug« in oib<fr «aatt, 

3. llydrochforic ncit!. 

It «rrr» in dctwi loikll qiwniitJM of dmmoiila Ed salu : ilie •minaRb \jän^ tet tnx 
bjr wAm, under thu jniliitnrc nf heni, nml bronchi Into conuct witb s glut rod IllOll^ 
Mi«d «iih ibe flcMl, wlitn a while clotid is produtcd. It oIm wnes la d«ieGt earfaoniQ 
acJd in carapannili luliilili- in h^nlmrhlcinij arJil. Cunhci', In dit^lrc rarioti« canhf 
Mtlt», to decidnpoK miinr •ilii-AM-*. ihr bnv« of which nuinot b« cvn&lnU deuffmla^ 
hf tk« blowup» nJnnr. ami ßiuütr, in ih« i]iin»iiuitivo tin «Miqr, to WfMmi« wious 
wqIkUIc uxid« fium ill« iMtMird tin vrt- 

4. Aivlic acid, 

Tn^ nnd atr. — AmUW of baryta muM ixH OKiM ttny clinidEnai. It is onl; tucd la 
nafniiÜD); tunipvtind mlMtMiOM üw chromic, ruiftitir, «nd plioiphnrir adda. 

&. Qrnlic acid. 

Wlini ditnolTrd il senet to |innjüiiii>? time frum «n aramuaiacAl liquid, and lo icpik 
m« fircnnn.teaqtnuxideurimn.and nm^uiusidDuruRuiium ftuin ytiria nnd th« oxldos 
of «rrinni and Inntbaitnio. Ii can alao b* tutd t« redo«« gold diaiolml in a^iia neik 

6. Cnuttic potassn, in soliitiuri. — It can be carried in the solid 
ftatc during a trip and dissolved in the necefi&ary nmoutit of watiT 
when uwd. Tho commercirtl potngh. Dot «Iway« qtiite fnte from aiii 
mina, muy 1h< |itiritiM by dis^lnng it in iibsoluLe alüoh»!, deninting 
the §olnni>ii from Uie rcBidii?. and concentrating it lu a silrt-r ves^l 
inti] it forme a glowing fluid mae?, which is then poured on cold, 
lean nhM-iron, »nd aft<T et>Ii(lifyine;. prcsorved in a gIafl»-fitopj>ertd 

Diiw))T«il in «ratpr h «emu tn «^nniir nloiniiia and glsdna from thr ■Mf]iiii>xide< 
of l»w», maapn«««^ and rttminiiiin, after thtjr hafe all Wn pRcipita[«d from UKJi 
•olviIoRs )tj mmmtsmik and ihotoiicliij' wubed. 



7. Ammonia. 

Ttttt ajtd MM. — It mut b« fiM from «rbonic «cid, m tli&t a «>lut}on or ebloiU» of 
(ttkiuia DiBtt prodtK« no clpudinmi, by ilie forawtlaii afaabottue ol iimv. Ic it nacd 
ia bli>w|dpr ■nalj'K*, wtiU the kiJ of ihc wcl procn», when iho «rparau: unbt uic to 
be d«ti«iii(l ID compound!, for llie parpoM! of tppirating ii]ittBtn>, glnciu», jtnia, and 
tbe «oquioxido of aktvmiun, trpB, tU-, ftviu linke, nw^^ccUk, nod proloxid* of Muut- 

b^aano In ■alutUii», wbldi In iiiuiif eaacB niuat contain fraa lijrdrucbluiio add (h* 

' dlilorld« i>f •miDODtam, 

8. Carbonate of ammonia. — It is kept in a powdered state ia a 
kglus-Btopptrcd Itottlo. 

IHuulTcd in wnicr ii sr-nr>, in annlrM« which ciuinat Iw ptnfurmnl with cennintv 
brfwte the blowiilj« slnnr, lo jM-|inniie glncinn fhtin alumina, nnd »ct^uioxiil« 91 
Dmiiiiim from H-iiiuioxi-I" of iron, in Ilit' vtft way. It ii ii\*o m^iImI to the wAlcr um<I 
ill «ulitnj; pn.xi|ä<3tcd pluxjiliuic of acumoaiA uid tnagnethi. udiI \s i:iu|iliij-t<il iii 

r lutuiiiiu mutj <|iuuLtiuiii« UMj'>, to tecim the dcconipoatlloa of uruin aeiaUic 

' tulphatu. 

9. Bichloride of platinum. — It is prepar«d bj w&nniug very tliin 
bits of platinum with twice their weißht of hydivctiloric »cid and 
adding nitriu nuid by drops uutU all in diääulvi^d. To remove the 
lV«fl acid Ü1C liquid is carefnlljr «vaporated to dryness, the brown re«- 
idne dis»ikived Id water, filttfivd, and kept in this state. It must not 
hi too dilute. 

It b Cli« bHt rtagunt in iho wet way Tor pouwa, when oocnning la trilUng quanil- 
iIh In ooTDpoandH with wAa or lithin. 

10. Diililktl tt'fl/er.— WlieQ tlie aid of the wet way is required, 
distilled wat«r must ulways be at fiand. Kvaporatod on platiuum 
foil it ranet leave no residue, and must not be rendered cloudy by 
siilta of barium or silver. 

J. Special reagent* of limited uft. 

]. Tartaric acid, in a crystalHwd state. — It is kept in n troodeu 
box, and is u»ed in tlie separation of iron from yttm and ziroonia 
by eulphidr- of ammoninm. 

3, Carbonate of potama. — It is kept in the dry stot« in a glaas- 
stoppered bottle. 

It trplACM lodc In ilic qiinlititii'e (o>t fbr Uuiiallc and nIoUc wAAa. and inujr aim Im 
ut«d lo coniuvllon with mda for qnaniltntiTe auajrs thiit must be Tuaed in cXmj ami- 


3. NetUral sulphate ofpoiaatHh in small crystalline crust«. — It I5 
obtained quito pure from the apothecaries, and kept in a iroodeu 


b b fteqnmtljr emplo.vcd U> detect lUvonla anil to Hptnue xkt (nUei or oerinm, 
luitluMm, »Oll didynlura from otlwf boiU«* b; ibewet wajr, irhcn Um Uo«iii[)« alon« 
b SOI Hifflckni. 

4 ChUtride of ammonium {tai amtnoitiac). — It is obtaiiMct quite 
pure from the apothecaries, but may be rediasoWed in hot «rat^r, 
lllU:reiJ, and »et aside to recrystalliae. After decanting the mother 
liquor the crj-atala ore dried between ftltor-piiper and kept in a 
WOud<.-ii box. 

tl U med oalj in Ibe mm; fu gold wbeQ pUtinnm or iritUvn m lo b« i^anted. 

5. Mcfijfbdate of Qfnm<mia.—\\. may be prepared bj pulveriziog 
molvbdeiiile aa finely lu possible »nd rHoatirtg it in a email and quite 
«hallow dittti (if platinum or Bhi^wt-irun, at a niodi<rate beat, ovrr a 
gaa^lump, or äpirit-lamp witli a double draught, until the powdi^r 
beoomes yellow and is mostly couvcrtcd ioto molybdic acid, which 
turns yollttwinh-wliite on cooling. It ia then digested for Bome ttme, 
tritli ammutiiu, wbit-h vxtracta ibc moljbdiu acid, farming molybdata' 
of ammonia, and this is separated from the residue of nndecompoBed 
tnolybdonite und biuoxid« of molybdenum, evaporated to drym-u, 
and kept for use. The residue may he again roastod and LreatodÜ 
»ith ammonia. 

M«ljMu« «f aoamcnw dtuolr«d h wattr li the moM dclicnu mgcat br pho»- 

R. F^rroc^/tnidi ofpoUtssium. — This may b* kept in the crystal- 
Hztto Htnte and the requiiiile qnsutity ditfioWed in eight or ten parts 
of w«t«-r whtu used. 

ll tcr««* W ddwt a nrf triHia^ omottnt of {ran in •abiunc«* ooncaiiting ehromiau 
Md vaawli«», wlwa Ükj Iwv« been prvrwiuly (WKd wllb Umlplwta of poia»M. 

7. Suiphide of ammaniutn. — Para csuatic ammouiu is diluted with 
an ecinal volume of water, and hydrosulpliuric acid gas conducted 
lut« it until a solution of aiilphal«; of mugncsia mixed with a portioQ' 
of it remains perfectly dear. This test is necessary to iifiocrtata 
whether the lunmonin is quite Bflturntod. The sulphide of ammo* 
ninm thus made in kept in a gtuss-Hti>p[iered bottle, over which ia 
fit^teiied a piece of bladder or thin cuuutchouo. 

It b «Md 10 •cparalQ proloxide of iiibdc^dcm *nd colw)t fVoni moj^ixsla, scaqul- 
oxtile or hm ttma ftai». ud mosnio «dd Ihiiii tanuUc u>d niobfa wtdt, m will t« 
dcaeittwd ia th* T«riMu wee u»];*««. 

8. Sulphai« of protoxide of iron. — To preserre this salt vithoat^ 
the formiition of sulphate of the apsquioiido, the poresb proto«uUf 
phute of iron is dissolved, according to Otto, in boiling water, tbsj 



solatJoD boiled vith metülUc iron, altered while quite hot, and aXeo- 
hoi added, stirring the solution meanwhile. On cooling, a si% per- 
fucl\y rrvc from tseeijiiioxidt^ euparates in small crystals, which ore 
collected on * fitter and vashed with alcohol, the l\imi«l b^iog 
covered over nl^r each fh'sh ponion is poured on. After first free- 
ing the parifit'd salt fntm most of the itdherent fluid betweeo ßlt«p- 
paper, it is wrapi)ed iu the gamt^ kind of paper, dried in a modcnitvly 
warai plaoiL', aad preserved in a hottle. 

DisMlved in mier \t «ttm la manj cue« lo predpHau {.-dld Troui iu wtntion in 
aqua n^n, rinoc it liM k rcdui^in]; action. There ue »ther agonu Tor prntipiMtitif; 
];old, «acli tti cxnlic aci<l, Icrcbloride gr aadiooay, otc., but lulpbal« of in« Uquic 
mfflcicni fl>r blow|>ip<! onaf«. 

9i Sttlphate ofeoppwr. 

Il ii (if Tci'jr liniii«d iisr, Iml is frrqnmillj emplojvd wiih nilritnUgC to tUUcI 
dPurioe in catnpibuiiili. li U krjit iu the «impc or auirw povdiT iii a noodm boot. 

10. Actfate ofkatl, ktpt in the cryetalline slat« in a woudvn box. 

It in iiM'iI in iRtiinu fiir chnmiuin, Tnnndinm, uid phaxphoric «cid, trhra Iht w«t 

11. Infusion of i/alU. — One part of coaraely-powdL'red galls iB 
dige8tt.-d for twenty- four honrs with six parte of alcohol, tb«: liquid 
docouted, and the reeidn« preeecd ont; both solutions arc then 
mixed, altered, and the clear fluid kept in a well-closed bottle. 

It tan-» la ilittinsaMli tutnlio tram niubii: hchI, m wiU k {inn under ük exuinin- 
■tioa tin taniMliiin »nd nioMuni. 

12. Absolute alcohol 

It i* unil with tiithlorido of plnliRuin in tcMinx sQiuie* for pouan, uid it iiIk 
icqinicd in ttitt •xaniinniion (or buftn aud ftirmLSn, both tu lUttin^igili tiuae cuiht 
Uld ti> acpukle thi;m frotil o»a onotlicr. 

13. Chloride of wierciiry (cwnwtiw sublimate). 
It b miy lued in du qnnntitiiliTA chroniDtB usaj. 

Section IL 




General Rules. 

A. G«neral rules, ftccording to -«rhich th« bebavior oi 
minerals and other sabstauces before the blcnrpipe 
can be determined, and a considerable proportion of 
their constituents diaoovered. 

Tbb behavior of a Hubstance before the blowpipe is tetited partly 
-withuDt aai] panly wiib reugent'ä. The teettng wiibcut rtagents is 
I>erf<'rnicJ: — 

1. In n »mal] gloes niatrnM, or a closed tnbe, to learn vhethcr the 
mbstaoce dvcivpitatcs when liuateU, or yivlds volatil« CDusiituents 
wbidi may be cvcogoized, tbiu üvqueoUjr giving Indicatioiu of Um 
compoäiiioii of the aabetaooe» 

3. In an opeu tab«, to d«tect conftitwatt which oxidiie and Tok- 
tiliie ua ignition witli access of air. 

3. On coal, to oVifttTve what altenitions the snbstanoe ondergOM 
in Uic 0. F. uid R F., and whctlttr mi-billic vunatiturote bcoome 
volatite, oxidizing aitd forming a coat ou the cool, l>y which they 
may bu reeogaizcd, etc. 

4. Either io the platinnm forc^p», or, if the substunci! is an easily 
fosiblu gait, in the loop of » platinum wiru, partly to learn the fusi- 
bility of the eabetanc«, and partly to learn wbetbcr it colors the 
outor flame, and how. 

The testing with rvageutg is pt-rformLtl purity on platinum wire 
aail partly ou coal. As regards the amount or size of the 8Hl>stance 
to be te£&^(], it can only b« generally n^markcd thAt for t4itiug in 
aiatnuMS and tube«, too little should not be used, while in testing 
the fkuibUity and color of the Same only Tery small spliut«t« or 
pieoes sboald be taken, and the same is true in tt-sting substance« 
euotainin? metallic oxide« with borax and nit of phosphome. 

It b ailvtiabl« id place llie bki«pi)e-Uiop uo a «bcei of «hite paper on tlw tsMe, 
toih 10 pniMvl th« lallPr sad to l(««p llw >ab>l«ncei whkli inaf fall from being 
Madorod inpan, while ibry can «Im h dwra «Mily fvaad »^gtia. 



a. Examinaüoa of 4b« Bul»t«nc« without ieag«ata. 

When the eubstanoe aeems free from inorgnmc combuBtiblo bodies, 
likt' üiilphur, arscoic, etc^ a eaitahle qunntity of it U put into a 
miilrus». Fig. 2fi, A ; if siioli bodies are preseiit. houever, theu a clost-d 
hilw, I-'ig. Hi, B, is tmplöTrd. wbich mast not be too widu, bo chat the 
^iihgtiinoe in snmmnd^'il with an little nir iiü jHiRsihIe, nnd no oxidiu 
tion of the combiiHtibU' bocH^d may i-iigiiu. lu both cagae tlie assay 
is licftlod iu the flatne of the Epiritrlainp, at t\r»t gentJy, and llieo to 
iv<)nes8 if necc0««i';y, whik ull the phcnuiut-ua uru tiuU-d. Th« moBt 
Ksunl phenomena occ-iirring in üiich a test am illustrated bj esampleji 
in the following page* 

ExnminaÜQn of the tubsianca by itself in a email tnatrats. 

Hurc helung salts und similnr compounds, silicates and ulnminatc«, 
hydratie, and metftUic oxtdcä with their componuds. 

&. The substance nh«n hmted 1« a1t«n>d in Khape or condition; 
decrepitates (t g^ barite, fiuorite^ euUUt, and many other miuerals) t 
phosiihurwiCM {ßuorUv, csjiecially tJie green variety, apatitf^ certain 
calcite», hannotome, c^anite) ; appL*«» to glow iw if on firo ygt/tKsif 
gadolinitt^ oft/iite, samarshile, ffc.) ; or change8 its color, which 
nappesrs in many casM on cooling, vbile nothing soems to Tolalilize 
eioppt, perhaps, a HtLle water {tinctt«, titanic acid, aruantir, whit^h 
turuH yrlluw, malachite^ stderittt oxida of tiue, vbich become« tran- 
«iently yellow). 

ß. The S. doe« not nppear to alter, bat, after longer and more 
intense ignition, nelda volatile eonstitcent«. Thas, many peroxideü 
crolTQ oxygen, which may be cssily recognised by placing a splinter 
of charcoal on the aeeay, wh«n the cool raddenly entert into aoän 
ignition ou being üutticiently healed. ffydraiM, kydroux tiHcatm, 
or BnhstoiKts vhich contain tcaitr mechamcatly combtied, yield 
water, which oollecta in the neck of th? malraes. In case they 
atto ooutain inlphuric acid or Buoriue and an decomposed by heat, 
the walpr has on acid reaction vn litmus or Bnuil-woud paper, after 
«inmg ignition : in tho preaenoe of a d<>composable metallic Snoride, 
ac-id is also formed, which tittneks the gluss at a she 
am the aaaay and renders it dnIL 

}, Tbft & fbiMf withoot yielding water, and IxiiU when strongly 
^b», hrvmitits, and iodaiet. — ^Tbe oxy^ra 



erolvcil rcignitcs u glowing sj>liutcr iatroiluccd itib] the m&trasßi 
or causes a deflofiTation when conl diiRt ia thrown on the melting 
Mit. Nitrate of poias*a and aoda bt-liAVt' siniiluHv- 

t. The S. rtises, yields mtich water, wliicti collect« in the necV, and 
becomr« «nlid ngajn. — !^U^ containing much water of crtf^falliuttiort. 
— AfV<>r drying the nock with pap^-r, a atrip ol' htmiia |»oper is inti-o- 
docvA ttiiU the S. more stniugly heated. Mauy siilu with weak bus««, 
it» »liimina, •esqnioxide of iron, etc., are dw^inpotieil :it a red heat, 
yielding u mure or lew acid reactiuii. iiuil ftumetinu-» clonding thv 
glas6 ubove the asday. The liberated acids tnay also sometimea be 
n>cognix4-d by thoir odor. 

•■ The S. fnHes and yields acid. — AciJ itiiUr, (hoaeith o/tehtek art 
rolatile ivhen in a pure or kydraleii f/uft; — Tin.- t',<ciipiiij; rxi'i-ss of 
•cid reddens litmus paper. Among ttie neutral sulta wit>i vulutile 
acide only, the nitrates and hypo^ulplmtcs aro grncrnlly decompoM-d ; 
thi- rumitr yield yellowish-n-rl nitmnM neid gas. nnd the hitler eolor« 
]i'M iuipbnrtiuä ai^id. lu eerliiin eas*-« melalUo fltiorido» yield muro 
or lesa liydrotluoric acid, especially when the Compound contuita 
Water, und part of the Htiorine w cfimhiiiod with a weak hase hk« 
«liiniinium. Should viulet vapors, with an odor of iodine, appejir, 
they indicate free iodine. 

^. Charriui^ takee place, sotnetitnefi accompanied hy intuincsceiiix- 
and often with a burnt or biluminous odor.— Or^«iV tttitatuncf^. — 
If tlio cold, charred ri?8i<iHe effervesces with aeids, this indicatea a 
oninltinutiun of alkulie« or alkaline earths wtlh the organic actds 
in the guhätance. Certain organic acids caui be at the »ame time 
delected by the odor oTolved while charring; ns tartaric acid, ben- 
zoic aeid, etc. The presence of cyanogen oum|X)iiiid3 i» ehowQ by 
th« odor of hydrocyanic acid efoWed on adding hydrochloric acid. 
Sometiniea on heating nitrog»*nf>Ti« fiuIiHtancts ammonia iä fomiedt 
«bich can be dt:le<:tcd by red UlQiiia pap(.T or a rod dipped in hydro- 
chloric acid. 

■L The tub^tanc« sublime? and condenses in tb« neck. — Most inn- 
Moniaail gntts, wliich either snblirae entirely, or, if combined with 
a non-volatile acid, simply yield uroniunia ; prülochloride of mercury, 
aliicb first fiiBes and then sublime«; subchlöriih of mefcttrtj, which 
snblimfs without Rising, becoming yellowish, but on cooling i» white 
1. i-n ; chloride of lead, which fuaea to a dark, yellow tluid. suhlimei 
|i a-i:illy, and Weooiea opaque and white on cooling; oxide ofanti' 
«"v,v. which first fuBM to a yellow fluid and then sablimee in 
liijtrons iieedleit, utile»« muii» highly o.xidi;ted by the enclosed air; 
«TttHOHt acid, which fiublimes rery eiusilr and condenses in a oryBtal' 



line slAte ; Ifiluroti» ncid, rcwmbling oxid« of «otimony, bnt volntil 
ixiqg with fur more difficulty, und forming no crj-sullinu sublimxto; 
omttc acid, eiiblitning in vhiie drops, and evolving a, penetmting, 
extri'mi-ly diäugKenble odor; [oxide 0/ mereurif yields glubakB of 
metallic mtreury, ooudenaod on tbe glnK — Tninsl.) 

Examination of the substance aloTte in Ik* elated tube. 

la tbii way are tested enlpbides, Eclcnidoe, ajreenidefi, tel!aride^ 
and metallic nomponnds. 

a. Tlio S. id unaltered, or decrepitates, or rkiaes and gives nothing 
volatile, even wben heated with the blowpipe nntil the glass bpgine 
to melt, Somvtimcs the gluas Itcconi'.-» cloudod j«at uWve the assay, 
l>nt this manlts from a little Hiilphtiruits acid ac'ling on the glrns, 

ß. The S. yields a Bnblirniite of salphnr. dark yellow to reddieh- 
hrown vrhWc wann, pnre nulphnr yellow whrn cold. — 3ieiaffic ttit- 
p/iidee containing mucli 8iil]>liiir.n.<) iron pyrite», which yiftds nearly 
one atom of snlpfanr; or oombiuatione of metallic sulphides where 
one of them has more than one atom of sulphur for one atom of the 
metal, u chalcoptfrite^ Sometimes the native prototnlpbidea con* 
tain a sliglit excess of anlphur and yield it as a thin, almost vhite 


y. The S. yields a sublimate of sulphide of arsenic, dark brownish- 
red to almost bluok while hot, and reddish-yellow 10 rt-d when cold. 
— Nativt or arlijiciai sulphide nf arsenic, and combinations or mix- 
tures of meMlie sulphides and artenides, which, on giving up all 
their nrsünic cxntain more salphtir tbiui is required to coDvort them 
into pro tofculp hide». 

S. The &. heated stroogty yields a black snblimat«, condensing just 
above the assay, and beooming oherry-red to brownish-red on cool- 
lug. It U a combiofltion of sulphide and oxide of antimony.. — 
Sulphide of antimony and componndi of metallic st/lptiidet irtM 
much sulphide of antimony. 

t. The S. yields a. black, luatrous, metallio, and crystalline subli- 
mate of nr»?nic, and evolvpg an alliaoeoos odor. — MelalUr nrsenic 
And arsenides containing more than one atom (double atom) of 
arsenic for two of the metal, as emaltHe, ciloanihiic, etc ; also com- 
pound snlphidea and arsenides in which (he liberated arsenic is 
replnrod by the sulphur, which combine« nitfa tlie baws to form 
prutosolphide«, as pyrite. A little sulphide of arsenio sometimes 
sublimes firsL 

jf. The S- girea a dull block sabUmat« of sulphide of mvrcury. 

EXAUiNATioK wimorr rbagexts. 


which bMotne« rrd when nibbed. — Native or artificial eulphido«of 
mercury, ^ finnabtr ; also mereitrifirou4 teimbeäritf- 

T,. The S. Ticlds a Insirous, crystal liup, gray imblitnat« of selenid« 
of mercury. — TVtmannUe sod UhrbtichUt. 

f. The S. jieldfl a film or cont or small drops of IiiBtrooB mercury. 
— Amal^m«. 

K«n-«eliitne mtkiSir mlfJüJe» and nuh m» mnliim ■ Iaw ptoportim of nlphar; 
■mk-TotuIh imauilf mil ihoat coatnlnin;; oalj one miom (ilvaUe aiom) or ka« « 
•rank Ibr iwo kiom of the mrul : funher. ttiinridu and ontimmii d a pM BRfcriiii« 
nmlta, or bom M ill, In the dosad tnb«. 


Thft rabstaDoe tMted in th« clofled tnht mast alto he tevted id the 
npen ube. The assay is lakl near one vnd of the tabe uid tite spot 
hcMti^l with Ok- sjiiril'lanip at firet, an^ llien, if aweasarj, with tho 
bluW[ii)N?, tlic tu\te boing Kumowliat inclined. Gem-rully fni^'mviil« 
atf UKd, but aiibfilnnces which deerejiitate arc tirst piilverizod. The 
furce of the ciirreiit of air cait be regulatod by thu inclinatiaa of 
the tiibc Many budiuü not volatile in the closed liil>e lit;re abwrb 
oxyjp'n from the curn'nt o( nir atid furm volatile acidic or mulullic 
ondca. Some escaiw as g^es, recognizable by tbctr odor ; others 
oondenae as etiblimat«« in the cool jiart of the tubo, at diglnno's 
(ram the assay varying acroi-ding to their volatility. In this roast- 
ing teat too lor^ a piece should not be tukvn, nur thi- iivut allowi-d 
tu wiirk ein>u£ly upon it too soon, otherwiec the greater part of the 
volatile bodies may snblime imchangod. Slumld a fragment ftf^A 
fio djfltinct reaction the snli^Uncc must be powdered. 

Thef« ore aereral bodies which can be recognized with Hie open 
IqIr-. vm-u iu very com]H>imd Biibetanoes. The principal unea are 
the following: 

a. SnlpitHT. — On trenling metallic sulphides, or substaDoes con- 
laiiiin;^ auch sulphides even in trifling qiiaQtity, sulpluirous acid Is 
fuimd which can be recognized by it« odor, or by reddening blue 
litinits papor at the lop of the tube. Snlphidcs which roaet with 
difficnlty, as blende and nudybdenit«, witb enbfitnnoes containing 
tittle eulphar, must be powdered. Wlien the Bubstanc-e contains 
metals that form voUtilt: oxidea peculiar euhliniutt'S are formed, the 
chAmcteriätici of which will be described more nearly bvlow, 

^V|||| loo lutf;* a (V*ci»i>M or h» rapid lUAtitif; «nljAur, fulphfata of «raNile, ot 
mitdii'la urnKfTurr, mar Fublinxj ftvn die c«rre«pon(Ufigiub»UDnei«ai«L Ixrante >b 
vmufli n BPi pnucat Iu »xidii« them. 

if.R's sr.ownPE ahaltstb. 

jtf. Selenium. — Selenitic^ luid subttdiriceg cuiituiuing oven iriSioj 
qoautities of seletiiatn yield n gteeoaa oxiile with the odor of decfl/-'^ 
JDg borse-rwlisl). [f 8el<-iiiiim formg nti msential ingredient it forms 
M subtiitiaU- of Keleninm, steifl-jfmy near the assay iukI i"«! at a greater 
distance ; small, very volatile cryatale of Gelenous acid are eoinetimes 
«ctn «till further from the awfty. 

y. Argsmc — Mctullio arsenic and arsenides wljieb contain eomuch 
arsenic that, after the formation of bnsic arsenates in the tube, there 
rvoiains stili Tnx arsttni«^ yiuid u cryetallinc subliniat« of arspnous 
acid, very volatiU, and therefore at some distance from tlie aaaay. Xfe» 
can bt' drivfti olT by simply ■n-uriniug it in the tube. When there ta 
only enongh to fi>mi biuiic arüt-nat«». lU with siicisacs rich in cobalt 
and iiicki). a ilistiuct eubliniate is not always obtained, even when 
the snlistance js jM>wdcrcd. 

Wlien too iargt a pi'iw« of moullic antMiic ia Uk«n,or ui »r*«nlde conuitüng ' 
muri) arwnic. loo hicli > ticac idav mr^y form a. browntiih-blMk Fiiblimair of *utK)xii 
of nrwnic. or «nn mvnitlir' nrwtiic, nti'l :Iwd llie gurllc odor of th« »uboxiilr 
[»«Nwptihl«. Wtfo »n «luily ii(yrjin|)o*!<i Mlphlde U pneMnt a higli )i««t tend« to ' 
produce • miblininic of rdluw or red •ulpliiJu oC omcnk. 

3. ^rtfmo^jy.— Metallic uoiimony, antimoQides, fiulphide of an- 
timony, and compounds of metallic äitlphide.<i cunlaiiiing sulphide 
of antimony, oxidir.e fintl yiebl white fiitne^, couaisting at first of 
oxide of antimony, bnt changing at & high enongh tempcmtnre 
under the iiiäiit.-iic« of the air for the most part into a oombinalion 
of oxidn of antimony and aatimoaic ncid. Pure oxide of antimony 
is volatile and passes through the whole length of the tiil>e as a] 
whit« vapor, condensing partly on the njipt-r side of the tube uudj 
partly escaping. It can be drivf-ti off by lieatiug it again to redness, 
bnt a pan is very liable to become more oxidized and remain bebiml. 
"Vha combination of aatiinonio acid and oxide of antimony once 
formed is not volatile and oondenaes chiefly on the lower side of the 
tube aa a white powder, yellowish while hot It is mostly formed 
in roasting sulphide of antimony nnd its compounds with some 
metallic antimonideäi containing sepHr&te conetituents which are 
easily oxidizn.ble and evolve considerable heat in otidizing. In 
preeeoce of sulphur, Butphnrons ucid also forms and can be dt:tccti-d 
U tiraa). If the snbslance consist« of oxide of antimony, or con- 
tains fVe« oxide, a portion sublimen (irittlten>d, while part is oxidized 
mm« highly und n-mains bt-hind. When sulphide of lead as well us 
untiiuuuy ii present, ae in bournonite. a eutilimatf of oxide of anti- 
mony niLli antimooatc of lead forms, Ibc latter having a light yellow 



Hilnl, ilw wUie oMt U liluly Vi Ik s|miI(.i1 licnr and itien.' iriiti a mldUb m brvirabli 
•nlplwle, which vundinHM in uimliln4tkiu with tbe oxiilc, ntit p. U, J. 

r, Tfliuritiin svni] tflliirtdes funn U-llurou.'; acid, whicli piii«i<e ss a 
vtiilfr Vii|>i>r liirough tho tiilx?. oixj mioii c>>nili.'i)»'-ii for Llit' imitt part 
iol» u »nblimiiu>, which v*n he Tuüed iatu culurliuut dropa by beatlug 
th^r. purt uf tlic Mibe «iili tti« IjlMwpjpc. aiji] U iliue distiugukbed 
frum thul protlum-il l>y uxidiziii^ äiitirn»[iv. 

Z. Mtrcury^—Ui uompuitntls wiili oDht m^tuU give a Sublimat« 
»r moiutlii! mercury cuaaislitig oT anial) globtileg, vrbich slmost 
jMlliere togelln-r. und cuu l« iiüitcd U) ooe drop by etriking tlio 
tulje «ml turning it eloirly on its axis. Siilpbirfe or merciiry iä by 
ou^rul bboting d«couii>i>aiHi inlü sulpbumu« Mcitl diid mercury, the 
Itttivt rormiDg s metallic luirrur above tbc uasay. By tuo tttrtmg & 
heat part of the fiiilphide «uiitiiiifs iinehauj^ed niid foriiii u black 
«ubiiniate oliMc to the assay, wliich utii be (Icciimixiiied by cart-ruily 
warming it. C'öin|K>auds of cblorüic and mercury aru very volatile 
and sublime nnu1lt'ro<i. 

AfffAi'tfe •/ /<>j(J jklit*. Iicttil«« Rilphuro«« odd. a whftt ■uhliiwu« ot »alfliaic ot 
trad, rbif fly mi Uie tinder «file ol ibe mlio. wliiek wlipn t<run]{ly huaioJ nclu id jtllow 
divi«. «rliil««)»«!! ewM. The iim4; U tnminnil«'! «illi fnnr-l okiila of laul. cuiiE«ii)inc 
•nipluitt, wfctli i» jdlo» wbeii hol aitJ lishirr wi mmiÜhc. Chiaridf >■/ !aul, mil 
(tiU<«n«s «intninin}* It, fonu a iutiHinarF wlikli no regmitnt liniiine mn onU' Iw )nmy 
MiUdlUiCiJ, viilk llie vklariiK liWnti-al (nun tliv rcTiiJuv. Tliii uinti.iJt vt vxiflilvriilc 
■>r toad mm) fiiar« like tcUnraii* acid iv ilroi». wtiKh aiv, hontvrr. i«l1un whuii Iwi anil 
INarlfinf in irhitF on roulinz. SutfAUtr of !iün»iiHt Iwkntvi i|uitL- like lalphiit« of 
ImJ. t/i'^'i'''«" '■iMintithüIf j-jrlil nxido of li(mitii)i.«lii>'li iy>iiilvab>*<|iuiuBcarthoaMity, 
■od l> fiu>l<^c 10 Irrovn or ilarii-jrllow dmpa very difHTtni frvm nJluniu acM. £u/- 
fdiiit* ut nirjjfiät.nuia nwMi «itii diiHi-uItT, jicliliiitc »alphurtni» nt'til. and «hrOi 
powdmd >nil tioti«) «tnHi||;ly Tor «utni; tin»', a triSiti)^ crystalHaa nbHauM nl 
laalvUlk Mad. 



Wlieii the aabstauo« ia «oUd and dooa not decrepitate, a snmll 
(higtuiTil cuii be tuisl. uthertrioe it must be very Anely pnlvcriMd. 
Tbfawxyiit placed on the side of the coiil wbtcb showK the f^gm 
of iJiu auuiial riii^pi uuil ut-ur the i;ud turned (uward the lamp, a 
alight cavity being msde to receive it. A gentlu O. F- is directwi 
upuD iho ajuioy, while the coal ia held horixantnl finä in Ike dirccfion 
»f the hhtcpif>e Jtame The nmno, beiug incliued upon the assay at 
an angl« of ab^nit lireiity degrees, i« coalintied for a »hort lime ooly, 
but until a chiuige vt color, glowing, evelUiig, ra5ioB, or the sepant- 


tior of some volatile mtH^taiioo is noticed, or in genemi any albrration 
of the substance likcl; to aflurd a cUic tu ita chantctor. At tb« 
moment win-« tlio blaai ia.stwpiwd the pivseno»" uf any volatilo acida, 
or or snlphnr, «rsonic, nrwU^niiim, is tested by smelling, 

Siiioi.' u tritliuj^ qiiuiitily iif nrsvuic ie not tlius bo catily d«tocted 
AS &ul)>iiur or Mikniniu, tlie oäsay is also ti-cat^d ivitU tlie It. F. M-hen 
tliL- nrst'iiic odor fr«K|iientIy Ixwomo^ very distinct While liesting the 
U^^ay variuu« other plieiuimenu are to he noticed ; — m any ilt- ßagration 
aflrr the flision. Thich occurs iti case uf nitrates, cbloniles, bromatea, 
and iodiifctj; whether the v.aai is wiatud with Toliitiliited bodies, far 
from the aüsay, or iieur it; what ooW the coat bas when hot and 
oold; whether it cuu be volatilized by sitii|)ly warming it with the 
Banie, or by contact witli the Üarue, and in the latter case whether 
it colons the oiitiT tlumu in diaipjieari ng. 

An eurthy ütihstance, ufier being ignited thoronghly, is laid on 
uioisleued red liiiniis pspei-, tu si-u whetber it has nn alkuUue 
reaction, which is the ca«e with cnmiMmncle of the alkaline eartlis 
with cnrl)oiiic, siilpbiirie, iind nitric twMf, and of tJieir nulicats with 
oblorine. l>roinine, iodine, and fluorine. 

An important means of recognizing rarions substances is nfTorded 
hy tiie coats whicii rlii*y Purm on the coal at greiiter or less dit^ttimvs 
rVom the aseay ; hut the aalieii nniat not be niislaken for u coat, which 
tbey sometimes resemble. This can be gtiai-ded against b; treating 
the ooiil pri-vioiisly with the O. F., to nscertaiu oeafly the quantity 
and ijimiitrof the a.«h. 

The following bodic« yield chanicteristic coat«: 

B. Selenium melts very easily »nd yields brown fume« in the 0. F. 
and K. ¥., while » steel-gray eoac u-ith a fix-ble metallic In^trc forms 
near the iiHHiiy, and a dark-gmy, dull coat at a greater diotancu. 
Thie coat (.'uu be drirea ahutit quite easily with the 0. F.. and if 
treated with the U. P.. dis&ppcairs with a fine aiEua--hIue flam«. Dar- 
ing all these opnition» a strong horse-nidish odor nwnlt» H-om th« 
e«ea|)iag gaaeüus und colurlesa oxide. 

ß. Telltirivm melts very easily, rolatilizcs in fumes, and onats the 
coal in the 0. F. and It. F. with tellurous acid, at no great distanre 
IVom the nsniy. The eont is white, hnt has a red or dark-yellow 
border, and can be drivcti akont with the O. F-, while it dieappvars 
under the It, P. with a green, or ia prr- : i f -i ' i ■ ' ' * 
green, flame, 

y. Arsenic vohitilises with'" 
arsenonn ucril in twth llamf^. 
Ihio, ]>artty fh»n tlie oüal 



tnrc of sulxixidi', and is at (jnite a disttuic« fVom llt<> team;. It ciin Ix 
.mnii-diaUilr Orivpu uflT hy simply wuriuiog it with tb« flam«, and if 
rnpidW truatcil with tlie R F, cxilon rt jmI? light-blue. During 
Toliitilixation arxcaic cvoh'ce a strong aliiuccous odur due to th^; 
formarian uf siibosido. 

i. Anfvnong nwlu wry «a»l\x, ooaUag the coul witli oxide in both 
floniejL The vhiht cnnt, btnish in tlitn InyiTii, u nut «o distant aa 
with arwuii'. It cua ))0 dhvuti iibuut by la'atiii^ it F;riilly with the 
O. F., and OiS3iipear>4 tinder tJie it. F., tiiigiiijf it {«al« gtv>->ui6h. Ii ia 
not «o TolfllJl« fis the Hr»«iiniiit acid roar. Whiw antimony is molted 
and Lraled to ivdni-Mi «ii coal aud the blast dtu|)|H.-d. it rvniiiiii« 
melted And gl'iuiiij; fkir eorne time evolving deii.t«', white funie^ 
which coiideii»! parllv on thr oo»l and flnnlly siirronnd the bntlon 
vith u'hit«, |>cnrly rrvKtals. Thin reäiilis from the oxidation of the 
metal hy th<.- air. r<ir»)iiig oxide of aulimoiiy and evolving io much 
htJAt lliat tbu ftieihlc molal i« kcpt fluid, until rovcircd n'ith crystula 
uf »side. 

(. Thallium iiivlts fery easily, rorttiin-^at some dUtance ft-otn thn 
LR5Say a tnndi'ntte white coal of o\id<', which mn l>e driven off by 
r«tm])l<: Wanning, «lid liiigi-s tbo \K.V. green. The mcltctl butti-n, 
which oIm tiuj;«! the flwne stronjfly gr«n when toncbed by it, 
.rLtimius, an(>r K^Itiug th).- coal uüidi.' at m-sl, fur i^omp limp fluid in 
(coniw^apnce of continuing oxidation, «iid ucc-iÄinnally a brown cnat 
is obnenred vltv nenr tht* metal, which ia perhaps perosidf. 

X. teati mtlts easily, coating the coal with oxkI? in both flames. 
Wion warm, this ii dark Ipraon-yoUow, when cold, siilphnr-ypllow 

id bluitih-wbiic in ibin luy«iv. Tho yellow coat is piiiv oxid« of 
lend, and the blaieh-whit«- one, carbonate When the coal is beatfd 
Vi glowing, the coftt chftngte its pincfe, bocjiise th« oxid« is i^ucv-d 
and (hf motal numpdiatt>ly volatilized and reoxidizvd. The flame U 
Ibirehy cuhitvd iuinv*blue. 

Q. Itutmvfh fuses ven' canly, giving a cmt of oxide, which is dark 

!low wlien hot and lemon-yellow when cold, being yellow. 

) ' in thin hivt^t^ Tho yellow euul ia pure oxidr, and iha 

5«llowl8b<whit« one, which Is at the greatwtt distance, i« oarbonatit 

with - i'b" of hiKmuth. It can lie diiven ulwut on the glowing 

oonl 1 ■ l)ni docs not olor the R. F. during the vtieraiion. 

t. VadtniHrn melts very eaaily and burns in the 0. ¥. with adiirk- 
yeltow flame and brown fum<!!i. coiiting the coal wiiih nxidi; rather 
u«ar tbe asaay. Nearest the a^eay the coat \s tbink. crjetalliue, niid 
i)f u very dark, almost black color^ further off it is ivddish-br>wn, 
an»l tinndly oningp-yellow in thin layers. It can be «»«ily ntlnctd 



KuU driven s\iuiii vith either flanii>. but f^sv» no oolontUuu. Beyond 
the nirthrat limiu of the coat the co«l entnctinir6 shows a niriegatet] 

I. Indium rusffs eiuily, yif1<liiig a oottl wliich is T^r; near tJi« assay. 
iliu-k-yellow wliile wami. Inn vpllowUIi-wliite cm coi>liiig. and ie 
tlrivro off with tUfliüiiIly lir thi' It. V„ to wlticli it irapiirte u fiiif 
riotet ti»^. 

«. Zinr fiigi?» onsily ami hum* in tlio O. F. wilh a Biroiigly liiiiiiii- 
ous. grwnish-whitf flaim? und tliirk whit** fnnn-». which owl the 
coal with oxide. Tlie ooat ie niilu'r near the uemy, yellow whiti* 
wtirm and whit« whc^u cold. It tecomee luQiiaotif under the 0. F., 
hnt is not rornrili^od, hpoiiiso tlie glnwlnj; cuiil cniiuut reduoe it. It 
iti volatiliiwd only n!i>wly gvl*u by ihe R. F. 

X, TVn rnses pithily and in the 0. F. is coYered with oxide, which 
faQ bo mechanic«! ly blown «way: in the K. F. th» mptal l>c«>(u«« 
ItiütrcHis and coatH Ihu otjul with oxide, which is pale yellow while 
warm and luminous under the O- F. On cooling it bevoroes wliiic. 
It is $o cloec to the a86ur that it borders diructly upon it and cannot 
be Tolutiliied by «ither flame, but is slowly i-ednced to metuUic tin in 
the B. F. 

I*, ifoigbdeiium, in the powdered state, is infusible, hut heated 
with the outer flamo ^radually oxidi&es and coattt the coal at a little 
dietatice with molybdic acid, which in muuy pluces. aud particularly 
nearest the n«eay, cotideuees in trnnspareni. crystalHiio bpoI&s, hnt 
beyond in u pulverulent 8tat& While hot the coat iü yellowidli, bat 
while ÜU ixjüliug. On touching only its surface with the yellow 
flame a very flue dark-bluf color of molybdale of molybdenum is 
formed; if. howerer, the heat waa so great as to cause the oiJ to 
glow, the latter when cool baa a dark copper-red, metallic appear- 
ance, fhsm biiioiide of molyhdeniim, which has he*m reduced from 
the molybdic acid and is iiul volatile. la the it. F. metallic niulyb- 
denutn U aaalti'red. 

>. Silvrr filled for flume time with a powerful oxidising flame gives 
a <ilizht coal of oxide. lo Combination with a little 
lend there is tirst a yellow coat of oxide of lend; but afterward, 
when the silver is moro five from lead, n durk-red cout forms outside 
of the first When a little antimony is present there reHuits at first 
» while coat of oxide of antimony, which becomes red on continued 
Ulowtn;;. In ca«o th« silrer contjiios a littlo of both metals, a copi- 
ous crimson ooat in formeil after most of the lead and antimony arc 
volalilixed. This coat is obtained sometimes in teitiii^; rich silver 
ores on ooaL 



Mt^yUAnnc«* ykM omu HmiUr lo thflvo atiuir, and ttc*"I nu» ^ hwl h> Dm» 
hi sMtr Iv »will mütckn kaiI oonfittion. Tlic;* htd; onaiii lulpliiili«, chloriilM. 
brotiiiilm, «nil aHli^Fii, wliicli jiii\i » wMw cimi. SalpAültii <>( pjlatintim himI todittmt, 
htmcf U«a <brn>«4 In tbe It. F. Ih>m ibo »ul[i)i>to, volnllliac aiiil «n oxIJind, siting 
A wtuii! uoat »r nnitral uil|)liutei. wfakli ilo« uoi rumi. honvn-r, uiiill «It of iliu iiil- 
pIuUP ku «unk ilt^■ ih« cokl ud l4*ii rrdoMd. Sul|>hiiU of potuuiim Maj; more 
v^aiilc iku Mtphjilo of lotÜDin, fonuf a ihirkcT c«Bt. Wlicn the coai ii lonch^l bv 
iW flano ii ilinnpficuii «-iih ■ liluish-vii)ki color in chh- oI jiDtiw»* bikI ■ mlili^K-xrllvw 
mkir in ra>r cf •ixla. Stdpkidt if UtliJn» (■«'hnvo ji/nlUrlr aikI rolur« iW llanitt 
|iUTf)lt*li-nMl, oldla llii* iKwIy-iliBtvii'rvj I'lmiiiiu ninl ru'j)>liiiii> tiul|>li>i!<-s pn>W>N *\\tw 
•JlolUr murliuiu. SalfMJra o/ lead iiuii triiinuiii ^ivr iikj iiiuiiv, i>i)i' im^ri' Maialilo allll 
wki:«. uuMiilibit dI sul|ibnic. ntiil imc nntivr (br Ht^uy. itiU'iMiii;; nl'uxiite Of iIil' 
nwlal in hand, «liicb caii bn knoxn by ilk ri>li>r buili wliilc liot aiiit n>til. Thn white 
tmd CMt ili»at>pmn wilb k blac Biiiiir. niid liol li II iiiiU (lit bi^niBlh oou Ic^vc • fpvt of 
jtellnw uxitk nhn« iho coal «m niitit«> lo irlu«, ShI/AuIim ajT »nrioeny. nur, biiiI f^ 
jrilM ualy uvUn. »ithi-r rolfitilc in ciu» uf ■»[iiiiuny, ur fixtA In «Me of diu: aail tin. 

MjiO* cli'iirridva viilaiirMC Nail liuld a whilcLtnl. Vl'nUfUoriitt^ptlatittm.mi/itai, 
«nd liAimm rhe CL«t ii nni funii«! iiniil ibry limr fiitnl biiiI mink inia [In- can I. 
Chlnriilo iiT poliutiiiin gtv<>« ihn tliirkm «nut nnil lliliiiini tlio fMilwi. vhirti U nlw 
^nvt>h>«ihilc Mill iiul punt «liilfk Tlin ettiuriA» afamttumium, nm-m/y, Bnil «nfnuonj. 

TdMiritu nlilwui foMa:;. and \\aitiioi änc.Uiul, hisnaik, anil tin. Drei Auu ami ihrii 
Kivv twiicuali; one of ih« cliluiidv of Ihe iiirtal, wliitv htid inuiv vdImiIIh; tlir uihi'rof 
ihevxidr. and W« volatile. Kontc of iht« clilariik-* eotor ttic It. F. : thai of por«t 
»liini Uaült-nold, of Kidium fvdditli'y>.')lu«, nf licliium puiplisliivl, of lead bliw; \ht 
oltim iliM;i|iear wltlioui culorini; tr Chlitride oftofiptr A\ta fu«-« and colon the flamit 
kxttemte atan-Uiir and on continued UowJMf; pan of ilit iu»aj volatiliiM with wMW 
fnmn, whirli m»cI1 »itoii^jI» «f «liltitiiic, wliili- unoihrr pnn fonn* ibivc roav diflcnni; 
in color ; ihm ntufriO iIid n»aT is d»rk'L'r«r. llir ni;»l i> i]»rk-ycllow lo linivii. an4 tiip 
ftmhtvi b liliiiili-irhiiiv U'hi'n surb n I'luni ü inurlml wiili the flnmi* it fianly change« 
il* poMliuii «iili nil axHfc-UiK- roluniiiuii. .\iii«M); tl«> !ir<xiiiilH and iodide», which 
bclun: quiic IlLc the clilvod?», tho ArvmV'j and ivjidt* «ffpolmtium anil avcA'un dcs*ne 
Mpcial tncnikM \Mtv. The/ fuw. »ink Into the vual, and limn vulaiiliur «iih whim 
AufMH, »-Uch paitljr lurra a OMt rntlivr far fniiu the u»>n}r. Thii diiajipi'nrt undrr ibi'. 
IL P-. coloring it hlaUh-riolei üa case of |Hfta*Huni and ntldUh.jolIow in cm« ol 


a. Tatiiuj the futihUity of Kiihfiance*. 

Mrtxla, merallic Compounds, sniphidce, or other BubetanMS which 
iip}wHr to ouDtaiu itigrviliouti: that wuald sliuvk plntinnm, Btv> hontcd 
nn charnoal with the R. F. or vilbin ihclfhiu floniL'. .'V »mall pirrv 
is ttwtl iur Ihtf UKuv. MkaI of the niotab ran W Wimtd in this wny, 
lint iJiey gcDoi-ftllv oxidize more or less and grmluali)- volatilize ; 
wnotig tlio nohle motal*, gold itnd silver form an onfeptimi. iilthtiaph 
lOvfr '» not uIlMgpther tixed, p. (18. TheuUiiTDoblemL-UiIisi/'/u/t/JKi» 



ß. Setemum. — Sclonides and ^ubelanoes containing even trifling 
qiimutttic« of ecleniiim jicld » gngfoua oxiäe with the odor of decay- 
ing horse-radish. If Beieniuni formii an Msenttal iugn-dient it forms 
H suhlimaie of<.'eI-gRi)" near the aesa^rmid red at a greater 
tUetanoc ; ataull, rcry ruluLilecrvEtulH of adenoua aoid are eotuvtimee 
seen atiU fnrtlier from the assay. 

/. Arsenic. — MfLitlic ar§eftic and nrsenidec which enntain »inmrh 
arsenic that, afti-r the fi>rniatiun »f boaic arsenaivii iii the tubr. there 
remains ätill free urscuic, yield a oryätailinc eubtiniAte of aracnoua 
acid, very volatile, and thorf-fori; at somo diatanco from the iwsay. It 
can bedrivt-ii off by simply warming it iii the tube When therv is 
only enough tu Turin basic arscualea. as with speisaes rich in cobalt 
and Qicko), a diehitict euhlimato iü not. always obtained, even whun 
th« enbsUucc i* [mwdcred. 

Vben MO Hi^ a pwc of meullic antnk i> uIcmi, or «a «n«iiide eonuinin]; nrj 
much t.misk. kk> lii^Ii a heat niii; ciuft.Y fotmn bniwtiülibliKkaubllniaiGof fnh^xid« 
•r arvenii', or trtcn nn-uilllc nivenic, 8nil i)i«n the sarlti' uiior uf Itie tuboxtde hKotnci 
powpTiMe. Wlieti an iMtilj ilecoMpotod salphiile U prewiit ■ high lieat Knda la 
ploduM a tnllimjilc of }tUaw or rnl tulpUido of an«Qk. 

i. ^Inftmo^y.—Metallic antimony, antinionide«, äulphide of an- 
timoDT, and twinipoimdä of metallic sulphides oi^iitaining sulphide 
of antimony, oxidiz« and yield white fiime^, cuuniätiiii,' at ßret of 
oxido of antimony, bnt changing at a high enough temperature 
nnder the inflnence of the air for the most part into a oomhinntinn 
of ojiidc of antimony and autiinunic acid. Piin,* oside of autimony 
is rolatile and parses through the whole length of the tube ae a 
white viipor. eondenaing partly on the npper «de of the tube uiid 
partly tacnping. It c&u be driven off by heatJDg it again to redness, 
but a part is very liable to beconio mure oxidixt-d and remain behind. 
Thii combination of antimonic acid und oside of atittmony once 
formed IB not volatile and condenecs chiefly on tite lower eide of the 
tube as a white powder, yellowish while hot. It is mostly formed 
in roaating solphtde of untimnny and its compounds with some 
metallic antimonide« containing separate constitnents wliicli an 
easily osidiaible and evulve coiiaiderable heat in oxidizing. In 
presence of anlphnr. giilphuroti» acid »leo forma and can he detected 
as usual. If the subslunee consist« of oxide of antimony, or con- 
tains free oxide, u porttun sublimes unaltervd, while part is oxidixed 
m»re highly itnd remains behind. When snipbidc of lead as well iis 
aiitimoiiv is prcscni-, as in buurnunite, a subliumti' of oxidu of unti^ 
iH<mv Willi antimonate of lead forms, ibe latter having a light yeUn 



Jioee of difficult fuaibiUtv are ronniled on the edge, while the eosilj 
fusible «nes melt to a bead. 

^Dbstiuir«« may be dJridod aooonling to tboir fusibility into: 

1. Such u fuM to a beat] ; a, easily; A, with difUctiltt'. 

8. Snch as tuäv only on the ed^ ; a, caxily ; i, with dilBcDltv. 

3. Snob as are iartiaible. 

Von KoWJl Itu ana^ « «mle by «Klch Uw niktUtiij' of inc sutwlaacM) twi}- h» 
rMaf*md wiik ihu of Mttuin nuncrab of ksmro funUlitj*, uul iL«f iHMro «xm:|Iv 

I. fiiiituU, foAitie in (beflaoir cT ■tvnill« hi roAni>i>)i]iiiivn: 
1. ^'oJrolib, Idiitik- in Ute canillu itauM unlv in Owi tfUnt-itv, euMy foMtl litfbf« ib» 
UowpijHi üi >|iiitq (v<ir>v frj^iifTiil« ; 

3. Ahaau'Jitr or iron tiiiimita sanMt, itifuühle in tbnniiullv ßami^. «inite ftiaiUt 
ixfon ibn t<ii>w|B(v m nutrv rrnctnmif- 

4. .ittinvi.Sr. rBMlulJiy hoimUv Icm iIuui ahHündite and jpmwr llwu wrilwdMa, 
ruaibk in rvarif »jiltuim; 

3. CTMndcur, riuibbin Hne*plfnl*n; 

4. Brotitite, »niv rouadnJ on ihv olj^ in very Una »jiltni^N. 

Splfattcn uf ibu above ininiTftl*, vnrfing In fiaract», niajr be kept on band Tur cum- 
{MriKM: ihe ratiuii» imulBilonk af niilbiliiv tat «.■xpm«Ml (it dKimnlt.lliiii: fiaitillhjr 
t.T-3.8 ik-MMca that tfao mtnt-rnl I« iciixvh«! mbn> rnaible limn aIniAiiilit«. 

8<iniii nÜBcml»infuiiblc in ihc Ü. F. cmi U-fumion iho t'J|:<.i in ibc It. F., or cTtn 
I I ihe litav AiBir. TUw.hftiiiiUt Iuhm «orac ur' lis oxy^'^n in ibv B. P. mal 

I li.' un ibc «d^T9 ; au'^'ittift Uvmdik mor« bigliti>' i>\)iiit<'il tnil is luroiibf« 

in i.V IJ. 1'., while i! i-nn hw fii>«l in llie R, T-". ; tlittrile »K-n <),iiiTcd in ilic mniniaf 
ii roRYrrtnl into pn}in-«n(|iii(i-ii<l(- <•( irnti, ■[ l)ic cxpriiM* of iIir cntUiinV x-iil drirtn 
of, and tbp« bvhivr« like maL>''<'<iio: rlimmüt, tilaaie iron, /ntnUiin'U. aiul ib« 
tättattM ^ /ir^lotttU i^ truu H\f' ml iJniikrlf. SulmtniK-ra roiittiiiint; oxhIi» miiM 
ibwrAroalwart be liuiol lU flrti wilIi a [luro 0. F., «itil ibu R. F. unly onnl whrn tJMy 
appc»! infiuSil«, w) ■• iii lunmnin wliL'ihcr any dilTomiu^ ü lu Iw iientrivi^L 

Mnny mhutaJ* «ki-n ■mm^ly Wait^ nliiTio fun» uiidixilur «iihuiil nuiiii;; «om« 
•wril. tike botax; »tbcn pyt" vHulillowcT-liko ramißiatioiii, port of lUrin rii>inic nfttr 
■wrttlax <>(<■ **bik oihMi miiiiiii jniired up wiihoiit hi*ii>f:. Snnir nilorrah hint an4 
bulk >|i, clTaic aUrlitiy siiu* tilled wlili hnbbli'i. wbii-b ejiiitr Ii to «(■[■'«r ofuiiiuc*, 
rvMiwbnillwBtwsit rr«lli inLn^mnl. Thi« iutiiiiKt<!^iii^u n»4 bublilini; (p^vrall* d« 
nut n|i|ii«r uniil ibn nira[n,-niinrR ii aiiffinent tu expel nil tlic waicr. Tbi- i-nulitiuwcr 
IJk.<- rii<,n*<4~i'i»o<« Kvni 111 r.iiilt rtcm a chnnK« in llie miiiiiicrr o( I'lmiUnHtinn •)( ih« 
runitiitHmic, and in tbfir rrUtivi^ potitian, brau^l abuut li}' ibc hmi; wliil« tba 
lDm'r*c,'iiL>n hJ lobldiiii.'. »hii'livcuiir in tin alrvailj f^wij niu*, arc afq^mrvnlly (-ro- 
Jnnil liy ihv «rolatioii uf «iiiie vulillle ii)_-nillrnl in a ciurona i^taic. iilihoiu:b l[ iloM 
fti^scnily BppHu- in irumpuuitdn wbers suiilyttv fnlU ui Indicnie tlia j<n««n(« ut any 
WChbody- Ilvc<Br>|«nicu1«rIyialhe «Ilii^lM of lim« oraa alkali wiili alumina. 



ß, BxamtKclion of the guManee as to tfie cAor it imparls to the 
t.zten»r of th« Uowpi^ ßamc. 

There are many bodka which color the ontcr flame more or lew 
irheii hi-uteii with (he lip of the Mim fliunc, Whrn the color \s 
dtatiitct and sharply (icGii'.-d it series frcqu'-iitly us a charact<ri8tic 
moans of iDimodiiitt'ly mccgüiziixg tJio eoustitutfnu of the subdUinoa 
Tliiü iest may iViH|iK<ntly be combinei] with that Tor the Tudbilily, 
Iwtaii^c it 15 (;eni'nilly mad« with smjill BpliiittT« of hitrd m iiuntK 
held in tht- plaiiiitim fiiit*|>s, or incuse of pt>w<J.-rpd or d*-cn'pitating 
finb«tflnoos, with a oniat pr«par«d with water, n» directed on p. 70. 

The splinter, or crust, lipiiig first te»t*d in thp pintiniim fupivp* 
with n'gani to its fu»il)ilily. if« Miiirp jKiiiit or t'dgo is thin hn<iight 
inti) dii-fc't coiiluct with (lie lip of the blue flame, eo as to sc« 
whether thf exterior pale*l)liiish flame i« colored. With many 
finb£(iinci>e llie luniitinus envelope of the hliie f1nmt> streama 
pttst the a58ay »itliout. ehniige«r color, but with nianyullier »iihBtun- 
vt» tlif onlor Bante is tint eomowhat enlnrged, in conscqReDCfr of a 
triÄinjr «monnt of water or carbonic acid, and fpeqneiitly eolore»! a 
f*«blu r^-ddisli-yellow, hut tliis tinp.' dieappwir? »ftvrward. {giving 
pliice to a vwy diflVrvut one. which \i prudtioed by volatilizing 
uuuBtilm-Dts. Tbpre arc also MiWanci's which produce tlic culor 
immcdiat'Iy, and if the assay fnws with difficulty, or not »t ull. the 
color t'rc<|nently bveoniOH uiury intensL- aftpr eoiUinning 111« hlaat 
loD^r. When the aseay wh« fniaed to a head i» testing its rndliility 
«nd no InnjriT imrtlutscs u, diRtiiict color, a fresh piece ahonid he 
lUMxI. lH.'(.'nU4<.- B ftiwd l>cncl docs not pri^duc<? so ialviifl'-- a colur aa a 
fusing iJoint or edge. 

>fnuy Ktihstaiu'c« pnxince no color, or only an indistinct one. 
allhotigli containing a constitnent which has the qiiuUly of coloring 
the flanif wlieti free ; lu substances conlailiinj pho.ipliorio »cid, boTacic 
acid, or lithio, in small qnuntitr. The ttne1y-powdr-r>:>d eulisiauc? ia 
then treatifd on platinutu wire, with special lliixes, or afWr being 
moistened with flnlphnrin acid. 

Easily f>i^iblc BulMinncea are toetM on platinum wir^ hnt. it ia 
alWHy» well to tiüie only a Hiiiall ijmintily, vbich can tben b« heated 
Btningly, und will produoc a more intense (sdortban a1ar|;<'rnmoant. 
To t!\ till.' (^ultirtiiiK-it on tho wire this is hented and bronchi into 
<.Muta<:t with tlif ?ittj«timc«:-, or first moisticnod with distilled water if 
the subshmco will not adhere to the glowing wire. Hydnms Roltg 
adhere very easily to the hot wire, but autiydroiia one« only with dilll- 



ettlty, if ul all. HotaUand theirconibin&tioiu, suipbideeof tlw merals 
and esj-ilr rednciMe nvideü in the powdered Küite, must he treated on 
chnn'uu). If tht-'y an: mu&siTC a fra^meut Uie Bise of a hrmp-^Roil \a 
need, and if in powder, a (inantity which woald not be largvr wlico 
mt'ltr-d. In «Über case ihc assay is laid in a qaitt; shullow cnTily on 
thr Inng side of 1h<> conl, and tlii^ blue Uudiv is dtr>-cled imtiipdiaU'ly 
upon it, when, if tin- stibstancv puueßsea Die rjualil-y of culoriiig the 
ttamc. the oesay vi)l be sarroundod with a dietiact aud more or lead 
intensely oolorod flamo. If the sahgtimco fonns a (Htat on the coal 
this can likewi^i' he treut«d uitb the blue flam«, but it ia Itelter Üieii 
to emplnjr a more spreading R F., so aato obsene distiiioUy the color 
vhiflb tb« onat produces in (lisapp«aring. 

All t>x|iuriiiirnts on the color of ihe fiamt-, in whiilevcr way con- 
iliiru^l. j«iit.<i><('il iM'ttor »iiber iu a darkeru-d room, or, if in u light 
room, whifn thu ojK-nitor plact-s bitni^lf hiTorc the lamp, »o Ihat th« 
dnylight may not full diri-ctly u]ioii tht.' flame, siucc iu tbU way ouly 
ran the exterior, fwblv colunsl cnvi'luiio uf the bliiG niiiiiü be most 
plainly 8«en. {\ black Iniek-ground is be»l. — Traiiel.) 

Tna ninrh (wiDCnnnat Iv rai-rdinl in ilii~MV (!«|KTiiiM'nli^ tu anüil rti iin|iiin) Rnntr 
ctkBKil I" loili, Nnorvvcn thn laitiulml iiii>i)iinl uf a indn mIi nMiilrrii l\m rxpwri 1111.-11 1 
luelraa, lamoH toia nilors moiro iiitciiFvlir ilmti aiiv oilii-r InhIj. I'hr ••nar man 
UKfHbn bchKMiM ts Utile lu giauiblu «Uli xttv tinmen. mnii if )iu1*i;rnnlnii!ieiiuiiljir 
wilb wmt«t,fttfe niml b« t«bii Ia dauiM IliU fmin Nnrhoruxnraadnhy wnthing. Thd 
pUiioaB nliv *ho«i)i] «It» ^ pun! an<l iiitpait 110 culor 10 llic lUnic nlii-ti iiW hj 
beailns it la ibe puitii of ih« blue flnnic. SIioiilil ii »bo« ■ ndiHsh-vi^ibi« colur. KhEvh 
mtty be rattiisl hj t\i\oiir\i>ttt hhIIoiii from the moint flngtre. thU irill diMi>]M<ir aft«r 
wnlinamK tbc bU?! •ami.' tiinr ; but if a *crv triflin;; iiiinnliiT of •ome pRviondf 
K«k<d «iilmanc» cniiTiitiiinz «od« uill mlhrm to ir. ilit- inltiiMi raldiih-Ti-llnw tUmr a-jtl 
h« pftmanmi Rtkl thr wir« niti(l bf rtiiinHni, lUlbrr hv WArmitiK ii «irli hnl rnrhlorii- 
»cU In • ti-tt niV «nil tbiti wa'hin^ h w'nh wabt*. or bf Uiüii^ a litUo liUuI|iliau> of 

IMUMMim It Mil tiK-U ■lloLllI); lilt» olT. 

The colors imparted to the oii1«r (lam^ by hailing various bodies 
with the bine fiiimi-, are tffihtv, vtolft, rnl, ffn^en, and ttlim. 

I. Yt'lluw. — All MHla »lit» faced in contact with Hip point of the 
blue flame color the out^r flame intense reddish-yellow. A large 
ailniisiuiT of olhrr 8alt& the bHM-» of which color the flame less 
intcn^'ly ilioo sodu, doc« not conceal this reaotion. Small gplintere 
of sUicHlM cuuljiiuiiig soda. sLrotigly bcated or fused in the forcpps, 
Ol? !' 'ime moreorlcssstrongly.arcording to thp proportion of 

Potasea and most of it« s»lts,wiih tli«' exception of 

'- .1.1.. phnnphjite, 08 n<>ll U8 ^alts of rubidium and eac^titim and 

rapoau (« uf indium, Xxn^ th« outer flimie with a bluinh-violcl 


Dolor. Tlie three laltcr c-lt-RK-nls being exocedingljr rHre sod occiu> 
ring in r<.-rjf itiiuutu i|Uiuitiüuä. iLi- must iiii)ii)rUiut. color U that pro* 
iluct.-d In ]ti>Ui£fik Kvi:[k tla- mijiUtusL mixtuit: uf u Boda euII. alt«:-» 
tliie ivactivii, so thut. althongli a fot^ble viuk-t ct>lor cnu W «eea quit« 
disl iiit^Ur ui'ur tlie- uähi|, tiin inu-oso sutU tiäim i« iippareat. M a. grest«j 
diittiiitcT. If tlic autuuiit <)f the «kI« sah ri«-» k» ».■venu per cent., 
thi> pula«>äii ivMctiuu iä cotiruly cuiM't-ait-d. luiU in imch ciu^a tbc 
colored Bamt; is viewed tbrougli blue cobalt g\as6, or u fiulntiim of 
indigii, to rct-rignize Uip potiusa diuiK-, ag vill bo more purtioulurly 
doscriltc-d under puta^&a, p. 124. TIil< pnui^üia reiit-tiaii is litt-wisu 
fOutt-aUtl byliUiiiim, uitlesäprefieuliu Vürväinull quuuiitica. äiliL-utL-« 
cvntaiuing i-oneid^rabl« potnua onlr prmlut.-« tli« violet flame when 
|M*rrf<Ml)' l'fff from soda ttnd lilbiit uud rathvr easily fasiUo oa Cli« 

3. Ited. — Thero are ttirv« bodius wliicli produce a Tvd flume: lüfiia, 
airontia, and fiiiK. 

B, /.itkta and it« sütg pi-odiico a oarminc-ivd fiatoc, tlie chloride 
cukiriu}; niuai iuLciisiily. NotuLle adtiiiKiuru» ul' pitlaiuiu suits do nut 
pruvcnt i.hf rcacEJon. bnt prodiicr at ino^t otJy » viuli^t sliuJt.'; quit« 
einiilt c|iiaiititire of mihi »ill«, howuvin'. ätilticc Ik cliiuigu ii to n jrcl- 
lowisb-W'il ttamc With ii coiwiderjl.k- iniMurc of a soda feilt tbo 
fliun(> liciNiim-s Diily iTilf-)igerv'iidiBh-v<-llitwiiiitl mnniil. I>c<ti8liiigui&li«l 
from a pure suds flame. Tbe inuniis of di-itinctly ivuo;:,niising licbiu 
in Mirli cixfcti an- pivcn under tbo litbia. |i. 133. Many of the litlii» 
uiiiifni)a ebow the piv«-QCc of lilhiii iniirt; or Icti di^liitclly. a« kpi- 
ilolit^, e[rodumeiio, and |K<tii1itt*. Ti-iphylite (pli<>s|ilmle of liUiia, iron, 
and mnnj^ane«!!) fiisod in [xiwdiT on plutiuiitii wir«, prodin.«« in llie 
ontt^r lliiiiie a rt-d «tn-ak of liihia, surroiitidi-d by » ^rf«-ii mri-lope, 
which restllta Irom thf phuspiiuric acid. Tli« n-actiMi ciiniiot be 
ri'iidily ohwrvod in tlte IViret-iia, becauae Iripbylite fuses «-Mily. ViiU 
ulsM «iliciiie.», tiiidt-r litbtii, \\ 13^. 

S. •Strtiiifia. — riiloridL-of 8truiitiiimpruduLvsimmt.-<liaU-lya<;rimxon 
Haiuv. Many etroutia salts, »^ tliu carbonatf, elrimfittniir, luid »nt- 
pltntf, I'vlrntitt, when ht>Rt<'d in thf forci-fie, color the flame at liret 
(«If-yvllwivisli, hnt jifttrwarJ (■nmsoii.pp. Ml, iiud Wi. Inpit-s-ence 
of coiiwderulik liarylji the alroutia llumc tu«y bu culJa*ly toutx-aleJ 
by thf ^rvrn bctryUi flame 

J. Lime. — Chloride of calchim proditcos n red flamo, bea inti>i»eB 
(hau chloride of Strom ium uud utixt'd nith yclluw. FUmrito fnses 
A tint and culora the Bsmp yollowUh, but as the fii!«d mm«ra] is 
olten'd to basic fluoride of L-alrium and becom« K-fw faflible. flie 
Aamu chuugca to uu int^uoe jrollowish-red lime ßoni«. Uoat pure 



uJritcs >nd cnmpact linie-stoiies jic-ld a pale^jellowielt flatni> ut first, 
t>nt 0« the Cftrhonic ae'ul U espellotl a rod Usnic appfttra, wliicli 13, 
iiiiuevüT, Ws iDU'UK« tlmo «illi the two wilts abuvu tiiinied. TIii! 
prraence vt b«i-yia preveuts (iie reticiiou. Grpautn and nijliydrite 
liniduce at first oiilv a ftvM« voUowuh flutm-, htit nflvrwurd a aliglil 
r«l fiiune. Among iIk öilitoit^s wolhstonitt olone pnxluees a Teelile 
ml llmo damo. 

4. ffr*ffi.— Sevt-nil bodies i>rodiio« a gronii flame, viz., iwirfe 0/ 
roj/juT, thaUiuin, ttvracic acid, ttiluruHS acid, baryta, molt/dilic, mod 
fthoaphijric aeiils. 

n. Osiile ttf cf'iijttr, boib alouo and in codi lit iiarion with iu-ids 
nlilrli llitinifit-Ivt.« produce no coloration. g\yt.t, ai) oaicrji]tl-ga>i.'ii 
flomr. vii, earlwiiaH.' and mtrato of o(»p|»tr. Silicatre and oiber 
wtuiwunda cutituiiiiug Oxide of coppiT also generally pnxlneon »cry 
internee gn^'li, as dio{Ufise, chry«ix!o)la, and tlie samt; is obtuitiul wbeu 
itilipfr fcirnis iin tinfKäi-iiiial ingn.'di(!iit, aa in (impmiK and maiiv 
epei*iui*.-tiii of sniithsuiiite. Coiubiiiatioiia »f a>p[K'r ütid iotliiio also 
MUM » Terr ilit«naf giwu Qamv, and metallic c»ppcT iu«ltcd od oo«t 
and nnt untirs'ly protei^ttid from ttie air U oxi(]i»>d niid yiülda iili 
i>mi'mM-^reeu ttatue. 

B. Yhaiiium, — Wtieti melled ou coal and toiiclK-d with tlit? tip of 
thi? Mav flnme tills mi^tiil ia Eiirnmndcd bv a gnui Qumu, p. 07. 
lU Salts ji^C an inloiise groftn flame. 

7. iiorarie acid. — Butb ill* uftlivo and urtillcial acid prodiioe a 
vvllu« i^li-giix'ii flame, but if not quite free from M>da, the groeii 
Home ia mixtil witli more or teas yi'ltuw. Several »f thu niiat-niU 
I boracic acid, as datotif«?, borucito, prcdtitv- a diütinotlj 

\_i_.. „-/ivCTi ilamo, wbiW others must lirsl b« ttnt'ly pulverized 
and itvate^l ou platinnm wire with stilphunc acid. Wonx pmdaces 
a TclliKT llkmf, iiti iWH'uuuL of it» 0oda. but if niell'-d, pnlverined, 
m«ti«ienod ^ith öuipbwrio acid, and hoatisl. an intontvly green flam« 
il pmduoed for a aliort tiino, which changes to yellow agaio u 
Mnu n* lb«? «all ia ilrvunipcMfd or all tltv frcv sulphuric odA gone. 
Atiiitln-r Mnd rerr mipl- mt-uuä of delocliiij; boracic arid id iiiinemls, 
liT it» ^ro-n flam*-, liiis been propv^-d by Turner, and will be spe- 
cially dt^svhbvd niider buntcdc arid, |k 3fil. 

&. TrtlurHUH aeirl fn«-», fume«, and oolors the flame grvva. The 
bJlonius acid d>'|HJsitMl 011 coal during the tivutment of 11 E(>lliiriiim 
^di^pl^ar» trith a grx.-oti color, 01* in presence of suleninm a bluish 
fn color, p. 66, if trealcd with the blue flam». 

e. /tari/tit. — Cliluriilf! of barinm yiehln at. iii>l: a pale«green I1ami>. 
ahieh nfterwanl beH^um>'5 int^nw vcllowisb-grccu. The »rolvr la 


PLATTKER'S blowpipe A.1TALT8I8. 

fiaest when rerj little of tlio mit is «mploTed. Ciirhonale nf Iwtryl 
wiihm'ite. and sulphate of Ijarvia. biiri'e. also colur tht- Üaine y«n«>w. 
ish-greoo, but less intenwlv. The rea^'^tion in not prevenifd hy the 
prcsmcL* of lime lU is shuwa by the miucrtil bartfhcalcUe, ]). ]<11>. 

^. MoigMie aeiii, or biiioxiuu of molybdenuin, givt'B a yflluwiBh- 
greeii fliinie, in which the yellow pix-dominate« more (ban in tb« 
baryttt flniiiL-; mulybdic ucid volatiliKi-s miiLnvrhilc. WHl-u riic aägv 
of a thin acalc of mült/büertite U held io the äume, it at once pro- 
duce II Ttliowieh-gret-ii niolybdic acid fianic, without fkieing. 

1]. Phntphvrie ticiii. — Fuclii» nud Krdmiinn have shown phoM 
phoric acid, pbuuphaii-», und laiiicitilä uuutaiiiing pbodphorio ul-iJ. 
giTe ft bloieh-grecn ftsm«; eoni« of tlK-msolvc«, others only after 
biüng moistn-ncd with sulphuric wid. Tbi« rew-tioii i.« $«> sura, tbiit 
■with proptT can-, tven vi-ry email quantities of jilioephorio acid cuii 
be detevted in Diiiierals, when they are finely iiiilveriied, moistened 
with eutphiiric arid, and trmlcd in the luop of a phitinuni wire 
The same is inie of »iilta wtiioh alouu give no phu^phoric iicid tvao- 
tion. In cuneic<)iioilCL< of »od» or some other intently coloring ingre« 
dit-ni. If thiSG Nilts contain water, it mu»t first be expelled by 
igniliou or futioD on coal, and when 8(>du ib pnscnt, alihoii(;h the 
flumä iü quite dietiiKaty lilniüb-^rcen so long as th» pboephoric aoid is 
libcniled by the sulphuric »cid, yei afterward an intense utixv flitme 
flacci'«ds. Ab the bluisb-giTen flame lualtf but a short tirav, the auay 
niu«l be closely walcht-d iv^ soou an it 'a brought nenr the Ldne Hume. 
Ptfr&nnfVphite. owing t» the osidc of Kad present, givee u blue O.-iidc, 
the tip uf which htm u pergisient green color. 

Aranwni» Kpd nilric Bci<l, «9|itviii1lv irtim conntiincil, TolatUlt*.' «Hih k t-]iii>*i-|,*r«!n 
Kainr, wbicli Uquiie HOiilar to that uf pluiaphuiir »cid, oJtliiniyh fiiclilci ■*> '^•J chlnride 
of uniiKiniaia, nc 

h. /Hue.— A bitifi flame is produced by tftenivm, arttniej had-, 
eMoride and bromide of eopfn^r, and antimony. 

a. SfUnivm fii»«l within the Idue flame on coat roUtilixos with an 
intcnsi' nxure-bluu flume, The coal foruied by it sliuvta the sauui 
reaction, p. Cti, 

ti. Arttnte. — Metallic arsenic ui>d nriwnide^ of tlie melnla which 
produce no üolonitiou theiuHclveN, \ix^ nieoiU/e, gmalttt«, (itc, are 
aurmuiided with a blue fliune when heated on coal. A Tcrr volatile 
tx)at of arjwnouä »cid ie alio formi-d, which, if quickly touebc-d with 
l\w. blue Hanic, likewi^ dlünppourü with » very diHtinel light-bhte 
color, p. 60. AreenatfS of ha««« which thoinsolves do not color the 
flume, viji^ anuabfnjite, prylhritf, pifticite, etc., heated in the fiifccj 
give an iuU-nse light-blue flame, wbicb is also frequcnily prnluc 


erifn wlieu tlie ham alito Cüuties a. colorecl flAine, as with arsennte of 
\\vae, pharmucolite. 

■J. LemL — >lelti-(l on coal melullic lestd is snrron tided liy au azuro- 
bltie tluniL' and yWIdg % con.t of osiil«, which M drivoti uboiit give« on 
uutt^tdut- (laiiie x\m, p. 67. Must K>iiil ealu trvaivd on plutitiuiii 
«Ire, or io the P^rcepSt give an intense azniv-blue flame. 

4, Vhtoridi and ^omiJe of copptr. — ^Tbc native aiiil nriilicial chlo- 
rides ftrongly healed color the flume intent« iueu re-blue, but after- 
Wanl given rroni oxid« of cojipiT. CupriTerou^ ^i]!>ä(aiicf?, as metal* 
tic oiidts Slid eloga, nhea tiia-ly piiivcrixed and moistened with 
liydniuhloric acid, ci>lor tlie llunte metiiv-hliie for a ahurt lime. Bro* 
■ido of copiwr eiimliirly tn-aud givi-* ai Ural a {.'rwiiish-Wno flame, 
bill Bf^Twiirrf the groen oxide of copper flame. 

I. J Mtimonjf mtlied on coal lä aiirroimded by a aciinxly pciwiptible 
greenish -blue Harney if ihe reanlting coat yf oxide is treated with 
llw lilue Aanio it diaiipi^curü, iminning to it a gret'iiiali-blno color, 

b. SsuBinatlom of Sub*t«uc«« nrlth ReagentB. 

!!•■«;:>■ tils are iiift,-d in testing- sulwian«;? which »ilhoiit them yield 
öoc-noir iiidiciHioii« of ih.^ir composition, atd the rciigi-nta bait 
Hitnl for this purpose are borttr, salt nf phonpharxia, HodOj and aolu- 
im of nitrate 0/ cobalt 

Sn'>dtance8 which ihe preceding tests have ehown to be IVoe flrom 
MmbuitibU' bodies, can b« at once treated with the abova reagcats; 
<id{ibitleti and arat-nidesof t)ie molals. and oxides tnised with them, 
met he prepared in moet cases by removing the sulphur and most 
(if iKe arsenic, und by tlioroughly oxidising the mctala. This la 

Roa*ting the Sititstanee on charcoal. 

Thirty to ßfly milligr, more or leaa, as reijaired, of the very finely 
imherisod substauoe i» pressed dovrn with tlie gj^atula or knifo-bladu 
ihloa thin layer, in a quite nhallow cavity scraped on the coal, and 
H treat^Hl at tirat viib a feeble O. f ^ so that the oemy is tonched 
naly l>y (he tip uf the outer flame and heated lo low redness. Host 
of tlic tnlphar then volatilizes as sulphnrous acid, the metals luw 
mitliird. noil. Bind.- sulphurous and has u tendency to change into 
nlphuric acid at the expeusc of ulröady fomiöd or r<jrining metallic 
ntiiiiM, (hi*Be are convert«! partly into 8Ulpbat)>^ and al^^ lu pn>gooc0 
iif inenic, into arsmutcM. As soon as the fnmes of sulphurouH acid 
rail no lon^r be smelted, a feeble K. F. it! employed, which reduces 
Ib^tDlpbates mid arävnates for the oioat {»art, while the arscjiic ia 
murv or less completely volatilized, according to ihn mtx or dtf^ptU-y 


PIJITTXKK'6 blowpipe AX'ALTSrs. 

«Uh which the areenid« yield up their snenic. When t.he nriOTiical 
odor Manes the afiwiy i« once more ignit«:«] with a feeble 0. F., gt-ncT- 
uUy cuuaiiig u slight odor of aulphurous acid, and then tlie nssay, 
which should only ^e haked together, bnt not tinttrfd, and mtich 
lew ftiwd, \f tiirnM wirh the spatnln nnd ihe other aide treat«! 
HlltTiiHti-ly with ihc 0. F. mid It. F. AfU-r roosting this aide the 
coherent innss is powdered in the agate mortar. And since it is not 
frac fi«m di^omiimti-d iiilphnt«« and iirsenatAa, or may eren, if not 
oart>fi)l!y ttiüugli ruitüu-d, !>iin contain a trilling amount »f sulphides 
and liTaunides, it is replaced on the coal and again roasted on both 
eidi-8. Suljrhur te iVi.t|Uciitlr mon: oaey to exptd than arf«ntc. tut 
thert- are nioinllic i^iilpliides which can h« converted for the otosr. 
part only into stilphatt-e, as gLd|)kide of load ; it is aim not very easy 
to convt-rt üiilphidc of rojiper into oxide quite free from »nipbate. by 
nii^tiiig, %ltlioii>,'h cuiitiniit'd lu'stiug vAivn th« sniphate into tolrr- 
ohly pure oxi<le. By niii;ing the raiisled ascay In the morlar with an 
(N)n;il volume of earboimt« of animotiia and again feehly igniting 
the mixture oa coal in the 0. F^ snlphatL- uf amoionin volutilizeit 
and liMvea tlio oxide of copper fn-e from aulpburic acid. Arseni 
ofcen K-miitris obstimitely combin<-(l ng ncid with certain oxid«!), 
espocialty protoxides of iiickfl and cobalt. Antimony volalilixea 
partly at tbe outlet as oxide, while the ri-inulnder ia converted into u 
fixed rombiiiation of nxidc of antimony and antinionic a^'id. Tf tJii^ 
BUbstant» contains mach sulphide of antimony, lead, or any other 
easily ftisible gnlphide. and is Halde to ntnter, as with tftntbcdrile, 
boumonit*", etc., it i« w^Il first to expel the Toiaiile gnlphidest \>y 
ftuiioti uu coal, reco^tiiztng them by tlic coat» formix), and in r 
only the residne, after again pnlrerixing it. To avoid tlie e^ctipc of 
araeniral fnmea. substances containing mnob arsenic may Hret be 
ignited in an open glass tube, when the greater p:irl of it »nblimo 
■sarscnonM ucid and sume of tlie snlpbor voliililizee as enlphurou 
acid, after whidi the as^ay is roAeted on coal. 

A well rnastud «ss«v muBt give no odor of anienie or »ilpbi" 
acid white ghiwing. must hurv a dull appearaiicie. and nii»! «dm 
being easily crushed to a rery fine powder; otherwiM it must be 
pnWirizcd and further roasted. 

Wbrn ircDtiiifi bpIpdiiIm, t«lluridri, or aatimoniAM ciHiUiniiv Kl^ ^ >w 
uid wlikh havo Iwm rtrai:nia:ct m lurh l>.v ilic |>Tmilins 
to roMi ihcm. Iwciiiim in inMt cam« ibn «ItKüi» 
Tu'liig llicm itlotia Mi (ViaI Tar »attic rim«, tfi 
RfucnbiiJ bv (liblon wiih Boxc« la ll 
iiiMmucli ■• IE jli-ldi onljti 
InriävMnuot beotMftiimli 

BXAMTjrATioic wrrn borai. 



This tmt is made either on pUtiniim wire or on ccnl. EarUis and 
metallic oxides aiv gciierally treated first on wire in the Ü. F^ and 
tbou ja llie K. F-oii wire or oa coal ; routed snlphidcs and arsciiidfa 
api>arv.'ritly fivo fri.m iirsoDattt of cobalt sud uiekol are liki-wiso w 
creatJHl; bnt guljstnnt»*« containing much of tho«e argcnntes are 
treated at once on coaL The part which the borax plays as reugcnt 
has be«» pxpIaiuL-d ou p. iK 

The- tPitiiiijf of giihstniK'ca with bomx on plntinnni win? \g por- 
l^nn^ us foHuw» : Thv ho3it«.>d loup is dipjied in borax, and the ad- 
Itcring salt tneltetl to u gines in th*^ 0. F., repeating the operation 
until the K-ad coiT>-apuridg to the size of tlic loop. The bi'ud must 
Ik- quite colorless, both when hot and i-uld; if otberwiae, it must be 
removed by heating it strongly, and then ehaktitg it off into a small 
|H>rcela!n vi>?»cl, by Hirikin^ the hiiiid holding it smarilv n|)on thr 
table. The am^ci-fia of thv uperutiun dopL'iids upon the rapidity of thd 
Buinipulutioa and the lirtunt'ss with which the wire is h«ld in the 

The sabsiaoc« may then 1>o attached to ilic cold, moiateticd boriuc 
Wad, or at once caused to adhei% lo it vhile nu-lt^d. and is in either 
ca«e fosr-d with it in the O. F. It nmet now bo ob«n-ed whftthor 
the Iwdy dissolves with ease or difficulty, with or witliout efrcrves» 
crncf, whether thv bead with iIk- di^sulvi-d sub^iauce is colored 
rfaen held against the daylight, and whetiicr thi» color n-miiina the 
le, or becomes lighter on cooling, as well us whether the bead 
remains clear, or become« opiique when odld. 

^imt- hotliee give a cWut gliisa up to a certain degree of saturation, 

which alao iiiniaina clear when cold, but by gently healing it, eepu- 

ctaHj liy a qnick intermitting blast, the head becomes oputiiie, milk- 

wUil*, or opalescent, und souiftimea colored. This opei-ation is ciiUed 

ßaiain}, and generally prodiiceg a result only with such bodies a« 

yield a glas», which, after jwrreut saturation, is tmnapatv-nt while 

llBid.tiid becomes enamel-like of itac-lf at the moineut of soliditicft- 

' is the aistf with thi; ulkaliii«' earths, yttria, glucina, 

aidrs of cvrium, tuntallc and titanic acids, etc It docs 

U With some other euljeltma*d, viz., ailitto acid, »lumiuo, 

■iiQiignnese, etc. ; while tiie presence of eilicio ftoid 

jlii^benomcnon with bodies which alone give an 

^rax on cooling. This is shown by their 

gluis when fully saturated, «ud the gla» 

Stiperaa tu rated und cold. Whi.'D ii borax 



bead shows the aboTe plicnotncnoti, it is (aid that th« bead "lecoi»*» 
vpogtif bftßimintr" The ojina^ of llie plietioineiion lii-s in the jm- 
pLTlVot fiiMoii jiruil ucfi] by thi; tlanting. nliich cutist-a a purtUI seim- 
nitioD of the hose from the but<ic borate ; whiltü in caw uF a sn[ 
aitiinktrd gluas, the biiw ia partially scpavutod on cooling.* 

VVhi<n Ireiiting a substiince cuntainiiig mticli of n coloring oxiti 
or «pvpral such oxides, but little ähoiild be dissolved at once, iu order 
to »void loo dark a glnf«. the cidor of which could not be recogn i: 
When the g\Mt is too darkly colored, it ig pressed ont while ftoft, 
irtliiii i)r iioi (.-uoiiffh, ptmw of it must tiien be broken olT und the 
residue ftisnl with fivsh borax. 

The color of s bciid ma)' be examined with or without ii mHgni6cr. 
and it must be bom« in mind Ibnt th«' color with xtxu.ij snbstant 
in difTi^n-iit wh(>ti liot ntid cold. 

The sulisliince having been diRwdred in the 0. F., the gla«a is 
Irt'Utixt in the R. F., but niib tiich a blast that no aool shnll be 
depositvd upon it. Wbeu metallic oxides or acids are prv'sent, vfhich_ 
aiv r^dnood from borax only with diflicnlty, or not at all, viz, %t 
((uioxideg of cn'rium, niHngant^tsv, iron, uranium and chromiui 
protoxide uf cobalt, titanic and tnngstic acids, etc., the brad may 
treated at once on the platinum wiro ; but if there are easily redt 
oiblo oxidi-fl pnosent, iis thow of tine, nickel, codminm, lea'i, etc, tli] 
wire wonld be injured, and the bead must therafoi-e be shaken from 
it and rixliKvd on chnrcoal. Thn bead is placet! in n cavity on coal 
Hiid treated nilh a pure R,,!-'. that dipoeit« no hooL After bloving 
OIK or two minnlet, the glaas is piucht^ with the forceps und drawn 
out a liille. so thai its (.-olor can be plainly u-eii. If the dissolved 
oxide was combined with a notable amount of snlphoric ncid, 
mlphid«of H)ditim is liable- to form, which cokmtheglaiss Vi-IIowiifl; 
red, eappcially when slowly cooled, and a false renult may be obtainc 
Dnlf«e Ibis is borne in mind. If the glass contains easily reduciblu 
oxides of rolatile metals, a coat of tlicwr oxides ia formed on tt 
coal. AX with glass containing much oxide of aDtimonj.xiac, tudii 
ctidminm, biemitth, or lead. 

In gome rases ii small hit of pure tin, as large as a pin-head, ig 
pLac*-d bi'sidc tli« btad. and both are fused fur a moment in the It F. 
Tb« tin has a great aftiiiity for oxygen, and absorbs it p'jtrtially fror 

* Ttow nnj oitMi )m*« Auwn ihnt ih* np«c!tr fr«i|imitW iTiults troia the •epara' 
lion uf IliL- «uWlBRM* In ■ cnslRllliii; ruriTi. nnil G. II. Bmrnon \Pftrfni. Amir. ÄaiiL 
ii^Jrf«(»u/.^irq(w*. vol. vi, Mnitl), 1865) ilvacrftiri •«17' fine crrualo, dtitaitird from 
L«rvta nnil «uiJtnaLi. iii bolh Uimx nhtl ull «I' plio>plii>r\)i, aa «dl mt otW iulunat- 
hiS TMulu coBocctM *ltb ttic «ffcrarKm vl flaBbs-^lTntul.) 

: metallic oxides io the gUes. disatilving iiwlf to s coloHefte bead, 
«hile th« oxides are rcdneed to the lowest stage of oxidation, and 
prr-diiop a distinct color, which ft^qtientljr appears ontj after thef 
ire (inite cold. 

Mfhen ciippff or nirkd are to b«* perfectly reduced ttvm a borax 
\k*A coDtaiuio^ few or no other cosily redacih]» oxide«, »me 
Divlallic Ifud msr be with adTantage added to thf bend on ooal; the 
m«tal distribntrd tbruugh ihe betid tUvu unite« Into one button with 
die kadt and the gla&» can ailerward be ftirther tested for noa- 
ndocible oxides ou platiaum wire. 

UaoT metallic arsenides, as niecoIUe, »maliite. nbaU and Uaä 
tpiittts, eta, in which arsmide of nickel or cohalt forms a chief 
ia^mUent, can be immMliately treated with burax on coal witlioab 
routing, rince thev genentllv fnse easily. The method of procecdias 
Till hc! given under nitikt-l and iroo. 

Tbe following table, similar to those arranged by TI. Uo4e, Auts- 
ftkrL ITandbuclt it aaalift. Chemie, vol. i.. p. 793. und SchcfTcr, L&tk- 
nkrhveA, 2d cditiün, p. 44, givt-a a conrcnient surrey of the colors 
ini[iarted to burax by the nii^lallic oxides and aoid!s, in both tba 
uiidiiing and the redacing flame« : — 

TiBLB L Tb« M»UIUc Oxidu and Acid* arrant*«] with r«f(ir«nc« to 
tb« Colors which th*y impart to th* Bstax B»ad 


Ik (UtrlMf Beaih. 

SlHta, AlnmfML. Blomdik or Tin. 
Barfia, ScrDfirU, Lime, Ma{,iiMiit, 

Glnrmn, Yllrwi. ZireonU, Tlioria; 

OxIdisurianikiDUin andSÜTer; 

Tantalic, NiaMc. Ilyponlutiic. und 

TcJIuroni Afiil«. 
Tluuile, Tiingstic, 

OxUs of [ndiurii 

Lckd, Biiinaih, 

h. reüow Btadi. 


W1i«D liiifbljr luuntod opaqoa 
(white) hf flatning. 


. cni) Molrhdic Aciil*; \ 

iura, ^inc, CadmiiiiR, i Wbtn (bcbl/ 

, iDif Amimony. J 



Whcnlilgliljiniunutdi oncooUagoolor^ 
\tu; And opAqne b; (l>injii(. 

Titanic Add, Tvniridc Acid, 

Mol;Mtc Add; OAiriw 

Zinc and roiliniuRi. 

OiddM of Lv«d. Bi-inolh, 1 ,_,,,, , . , , „ 

... ^ Wlien lil^fUj Mturatu; culorlcsa on cooling. 

8«(qaki)iiilci or Cerium, \ Wbnn feeblfsammwd; «ion or iM* »lorieia 

Iron, and Unnium. J on «wtiflg. 

So^akixidc of Cliivmlaiii [fccbl; tataniKd}! wlwa cold, j«Uowlal|.graii. 
TiiMdle Add; vlnn oold. fiemiib-T«Uow. 


A Red lo ISrown Bead». 



SHquIuxiile uf Cerlntn : on «wUng, yellow, enamd-ULfi hf I 

" " Diilymium (roK^otoreil) ; the Mino on cooling. 

'■ " InMi; Ml «ooliiii;, yellow. 

" " Umnivm ; on coolins, jcllovt ; eniimet-jcllow bj* Buniag; \ 

" ■• Chraminm ; on rooling. Te[Io»i>h-|[ncn. 

" " Imti mntaining Mui^iwm; on cooling, ynnowidt-tad. 

Prounlilc or Kicket ( nxUlüi}) -brown to bmwn] ; violiM trh^Io hot. 
äeaqtiioxide of Mnnjtnnn« (vii))c(-n<i1) : vloloi nhtl« hoi. 
l*r«tax{dv of Nlck«l wriuInlnK Cobttli (with liula Cahalt, riolM-brovnt) ; 
violcc w}iil«liol. 

d. VioJet BkuIs (ameihyst-colorad). 


ProKHÜd« or Xn-kcl : «n roolinK, rtdi1!ith-)>raini to bnm. 

6(W|aloxi<la r>f Mang«n«>e ; on cuoltny, nd inclining to rloIeC 

Protoxid« of NiiImI oonuininf; Cobalt ; whctt coM, irclining lo brownltlk 

Wlih niucli Cobnll, viokl vIkmi cold nlio. 
rrotoxide of Cobalt conuiuln; Mang^new; the umeoo i*ooliitf. 

e. Blue Bfads. 

Hot: Pmloxido or Cobalt ; (he tnme on coollni;. 

OoM : Oxid« of (?Aj>p«r (vhcn bighlT MinntMl, g)«eniidi-blue) j gtom ' 

/. Oreen Bead^. 



Oxide of Copp«r ; blu« when Mid (grecnlih btu« if highlj ■atnnktod). 

Scaquioxiilc of Iron contain- 
ing Cobftit or Copper. 

Oxidt of CoppOT coRtAining 
Iron VI NlLkd. 

The gnxn color diangM ob ooolüip. 
ing to lhi> laiitraKon, m wvll u iht 
portion* in which the oxidu lire pi«*ent, 
to liclit-GTeei), blue, or jrcUo*. 

Cold : Setqntoxlde of Cbromium (ycllowUh-grMnJ ; jretlow to red while hot- 


a. Colorless Beads. 

Hot Md 



Wbon highly unmitol 
opaqnc 1^ Banting. 

lot. ^H 


Silic«. AlnmEnn, Itinostdn ot Tin. 
Barj'to, Simntiit, !.imc, Ma^ccan,'! 

(ilncina, Yttrin, Ziroonin, Thori* ; 1 

Oxides of LanLhantim and Cc- \ 

rium ; Tanullc Aciil. J 

Oxide of Indlani, &f«|iiioxide of Han;pinei«. (With the latltf the glaa 

11 linhl« lo auumc a feeble row color on oooliD^.) 
Kiohie. anil H i-poniohic Acid» ; when ftcWj laUmted. 
Oxide« of BilTcr, Soc, Cadminm. Lead,*) .^ , ... ,.» 

Bl.™„tb. Anlimoa^r, Nkkd. T*llu- I Af»r long blowmg. (After. 

«™,Add. J *^nU^^>P*r-) 

Oxide of Coppar ; if bigUT' ntnnad, opaqoa red on oooUn^ . 



b. VeJiow to Brown Bead». 


Tluoic AdlA (ytOuw iDbroani); then bigliljr ntuntcd, cntniel-UtK l<f 

TBOgitK Aiü {<rdIow u darl} ; «lien cold, Imnrnitli. 
Hoiylidic Ai'iiJ (bmwn toupaqac). (Srpnmiriil Unoicid« "f M"IyMTinf 

to Mca in the binde bokd if prtMMl But.) 
Vuiidk Ad<l |bnmni(bj j dmm« great when t«ld. 

t Biu9 Beads. * 

Bm : Protoxide of OoMl ; the mid« when oold. 

i. Orten Beads. 

6«il«*oxlilf) of ln>n (jrcUowith- orbotll^■(;rt<Q| ; «cpKiiillj «li«n o»)d. 
6cw|«iM>xide or ITraniura (jcllowidi-Kncii) : when bvhljr wtsnucd t^ 

eonc« hlvk br finming. 
8ct|akncid« «f Chmminni (%ht to duk oawnld-gMeo, ueording w ih« 

iepnt^ Miuratiun}. 
Cklil Taatdk Add (cbrame cncn) ; bniwniab while hoi. 

«. Oraif and Clovdy Beads; the dt/udim«s freqittntly appearing 
iutintüy during the btati. 


Oxide* of SilrüT. Zinc. Cwiiniom, Lend, 
lUimuth, AniimoRy, Kickd, Tellu- 
nMS Acid. 

MioUc «ad Hfponiohic Add«, «hen highly Minraud 

Wiib 1 ihort blue. {Wlib ft 
loni:er blftnt, CO lories«. | 

/. Red B«9dt. 


Beaqnloxlds of nidrtniiin) (rntr-t-olnml), Oxide of Copper (opujne), 
«hen h^ly enliii»t«d ; rolorU-u while hot. 


Thin it»t inlikowiM made partly ou platinum wire and parUj on 

MftL The BOtioD of the S. Ph. has iK-en alre&dy explained, p. 47. 

The S. Ph. most bo m«]tcd on the wir« only gradnally io smaU poi^ 

ilioDR, einoe it boils riolenlly vhile the water of orystalliution and 

^llie ammonia are passing oflT. aud if a eiilTicient amount for a test 

«ere fnsed at onoe, it vonld seldom all ri-maiD on the wire On co«l 

tiie whole amotiBt may he fused at onco. The poiate to be obeervod 

*in testing Fnbstances with borax hold good for S. Ph. as well. Silicic 

«id being Tery slightly dis*olfpd in S. Ph^ the silicaitea can be wry 

easily recognised by meane of tt; the bases dii°so1rc, while moit of 

j'the ailiea wpantei and floats abont in the fDs«d glass in the fonn of 

' 1 gelatinotii skeleton. Many silicates, however, yield a glass, which, 

hdeed, appean clear wbilo iioc, bnt on cooling is mure or Icaa 



o|)ule!tC(!tiW und ttie gloss must tlion he oxuiulDcd for acparatei] 
BJltca with tlie magiiilier wliik^ Rtill lioL Siliailtrs of buea which 
(m< thtmselvea soluble wiMi diOletilty iu S. Pb., as alumina aud zir- 
coniu, «re dvcumpoced by tho unit with gruit ilitTiculty, or DDt st all, 
luid thin Ucbii-Hy piTCt^ptibl*; niib xircaniu. 

Tbe ciilord produced in the S. Pti. booda are geuemlly difTereat 
fhun tliow pi-oduccd in borax by the eatne 8ab9t*iiieiB8, m may also 
be seeo by oomparing tbe foltowiug summary with that given on 
pp. 81-83. 

TABLB n —The Metntlif^ Oxtd«i uid Adds urangMl with nferBnoa to 
Ui« Colon which th«; inpurt to th« Salt of Phoiphoma Bo&d. 


o. Cahrlm Bead». 

BillcK (TVTjr Bltghtl; aotvblt}. 

Atamiii«. Biiioxkla of Tin (»oluUe «rfili dlOculiyr. 

ß<kn,-tii, Slroiiliu, UoiG, Ma^n«*!'. Cld- 

dnn, Yllrin, 'iinoam, Thori«, Uxidc 

oi I^iiihBiiiim. TvlIrinM» And. 
Tanlalic. Xiobic, 11^ poniobiV, Tiluir, ( When not too highly Mluraled. 

•lul Tiinipitic AciJ* i Oitidtiol Ztnr, 1 (Wlim bighljr Mtvraled, j«l 

Cadniiain, Indiuia, LmJ, Birmtiika | 

and Andmunj'. I 

Hoi and 

Whtn highlv uiuml*d bMon« 
ojioquo (whiio) bj fluvbig. 

loiriah Ui jtXitaw; and mlor- 
loM un ooolf nj;. | 

h. y'tBom Btads, 

Tftnbük, Niobie, tlTponiohic, Tiunfe, and J -~_ 
Tonpidc AcWi; Oxid« of Zinc (VI- C "^*" ^^^' ■uniBled; 
mi.«.. Ix-«l. BUmmh. ...d«.nT. j '"' «■»»^'^ «» "»"■B- 

OxMo of Silver (jellawtih): (^olcHcvni on eootii;. 

■Hoi: J „ ■ .. ,, ~ . i WIkii reeUjr Htnmtcd, coloHa« oa oooI- 
e«qoioiido «f Iwn. Soqw- f , „y^^j „^,^ ^ ,yta hot. 
ox.d« of Cm»«.. j ^^ y^^ ^^ ^^ 

8«9i:;nloicl(I« of L'rnnlutii ; yellow l»bjtrwta when «old. 
VwiAdK Acid (dark y«Uo<r] : ti^hler whca eoM. 
Sot : ^ Protoxide of Nick«! ; raJdtih «hile hot, 

c. Red Bead». 

SMqaloxidM of Oerism and Iron. IT lushlj Mbtraiod, jrello« on cootinc 

" " Di^Toünin (lownxilortd nh«i highly Htramtcd). 

PMloxIdo of Nielcd (md^th) ; jA\oit irhAn pold. 
Setqulosidc of ChrunilBm (nddivh) ; cmeralil-gTOii vh»i cold. 


d. FhM Beads {amethi^ti-eoUfrtd). 


ScaqoIoxUa of HaDgiBOH (hrawniih-iiolM) ; oa eec^Ing, light niHIih 



f. Blu» Beads. 

lot; PmoxJde of Cobalt ; iIh «am« <in niuliaic- 

lUd: Oxidaof Coppn (gmtiUh-bliu) if higbijr laiufaMd); gram wbiln tiot. 

/ &rw» Bead«. 

Onde of Capper ; Ua« when ixild (({mnbti-blue if bichl; uuuruvil). 
Holjbifie Add (yellOKidi-ifncn] ; li|;)tui> nn ruolinft. 



SccqnbxM« of Iron coi3t>inin|c 
Cobalt or Cvppa ; nxtd« of 
Copper cwiiaininK Inn or 


Th« (pmo ralaf chitnsf« on cooUng, ac- 
cordinc lo tlir MiurMlan, aa well ai 
Uie i>ru)H>nicma in »dich ihaoxidi« are 
jiitMrnl, to lig^ht-^mm, bliic, or jol luw, 
S«iq«kixU« of CranLum (>'«UowJsh-gnan) ; redduh «lilk liuu 
" " ClinxnUim (oncnUJ-Krceii) ; jrdlow while ttol. 


o. Cobr Jew Beads. 

Sllka (ief7 altehllr soluMe). 

AJunbia. BitioxUc of Tin [sultiUe with dURcully). 

BM7U. Sirontia, Llm«, Ma^eiia, Ghidna, 1 Wh«n Ughl<r aatBritinl, 
Tiiria, KinMoia. Tboria, Uxide of Laii* v upaiiiw (wUu) by &■»• 
ilot and I thinum. | tag. 

floM: I ScB^uioxiil«« of Ceriam, niilymluio, Mangptoe*«. 

TaQMlicA««!; Osid» of Silv«, Zinc, Cml- 1 
Dioni, iMham. r«d, BiimmJ., and An- ( »^ '""« W*^*"«- <0**"^ 
tJmony ; TrlliinMi. Arid. J *•" 8"y-) 

Frotonde «f Niclul Uionicularlf on chamoal). 

b. yelhm to Red Beada. 

Seojnloxiile of Iran (fcUo« to r«d) ; uti «ooiing. at llnl gntaHtit, ilKn 

Tiunic Arid ( "'■■ ) ; riolct on cooKnc- 
Hfponintiie AcM (Holerlirotni) ; pantmlorlx on mal. 
Hm '. \ TaiiKltc Acid (brownlthj : when ooM, rhn»n«-gn<n. 

Tltaiiir Audtoauiiiiiiic Iron, f (Tulluw); wh(nicv]<l, br«imuh-n.'d(UMHV 
Tunptk ■■ ■• ■■ i' redl- 

Skibfc '■ " ■• [ 

H7 poniobic Acid ** 

,i J- (Drowni>b-Ted); when cold, dBrit-}«Ikrw 

c Vi^t Bea<b {amethysf-cotored). 


Mohic Adil (hlxhlj saitirattd) ; pale dlrty-Uw while hot 
Thanie AfU (even whim luodmwljr utuToiaJ) ; jcltow wMIe Sm. 

'/. Blue JimdA. 

I PretoxUDofCobtlt; alM wUlaboL 
Cold : • TnnitMk Add ; Irawnitli wUIa liob 

I MIoMc Add I itTjr H hi]' latunud) : dlnjr-Una whU« hot. 



e. Orten Beads. 


^««qiituxiilc of UnntQui ; loM Hne wUl« bot. 
Uolj'billc Add; dinf-greca wbllc boL 
ViuHilü; AL'iil : bfuwDiib whUe hol. 
Stwjnioxiil« orChromltiDi; nddiiU wUle hob 

/. Qrai/ and Cloudi/ Beads; the donäinesK frequenily appearing 
iiatincHy during tAe blast. 

aiuct teadllj OD coal and 
wilh liii. Culotlcsi a/tcr 
pTolooKcd Uowiag. 


OxidM of ShtT, Zino, Ckdmium, tndiuni, 1 
Lud. BiMnutb, Antiman;, Xirkd ; Tel- l 
Iiuviu AcM. ] 

ISMqiiioxide of DEdjminiD (roHH»lo[\x)). 
Oxide of Copptt (opMiuc), vbm high)/ MlunUd. ot witti tim on cfaar' 

3. Examination op Suustakcb vitu Cabbokate of Soda. 

Tbe soda is employed, eitlier simply to tnae the siilisrance together 
with itr or to effect the reduction of metalHc oxides priVunt, which 
latter Tosnlt can generally be mere pcrfeetly iiocompltshed with its 
kid tliAD b; the reduoin^ flame nlune. 

a. The fusibilU}/ o/t/te »uMance wUh soda. 

A large number of bodies combine ritli eodn at a high tcmpem- 
titre, Bume yielding fusible, und üDnie yielding infuiiibli! compoundti. 
There are only a few which yield fusible oompounds; they «re 
cbifQy: — 'eilicie, titanic, tungstic, innlybilit-, tanlulir, Tanadie, and 
the acids of uiubini». Fused on charcoal, silicic utid titanic ucids 
unite with oodu, eflbrvescing und yidding a clear bi»w!. When there 
is no excels of soda, tbe silicate remaina clear on cooling, bnt the 
iitunal« bfcomt« cryelallint- and opaque. Tangstiu und the other 
Acids likcviee unite with soda with efft^rreftcence, but the compound 
tiinks into the coal. Baryta and stronlia salts likoivifeä giro faüible 
ciimpouada with »uda, and these also sink iiiiu the ooal, while most 
lime ealt«, although fusing with the soda, are decompoaed, even 
wlü-n their acids arc more powerful than carbonic acid, aud tbe soda 
aalt sinks into the coal, leaving Uie lime behind. 

The powdi.'red siilistanoe to be tested is mixed with the soda in tliv 
li-rt band, and the moialcnod mixtum, eprewl in a shallow cavity on 
wa\, is healed at ürgt geolly to drive off oU tbe water, and then a« 
slruugly us pussible. It ie generally advisable to odd tbu soda in 
small portions, so as to note clearly the changes produced by adding 


constantly increasing amount«, which aro «pread nioUt, upon th« 
ftiaed niasa. Many siticatrj vhicli ikre themaelTes Fusibte with difli- 
cuItT, while their bases arc infusibi*', melt with a little wd» to a clear 
glass; but with more soda lliey form a slug-like or inTusiblti nius« 
When the assay is not Koluble in eoda, bnt is decomposed by it^ it 
may be «evn t» gradually gwcII und alb.'r in apitconincc. while it does 
uot fas« to a bcud with thv ««da in whatever proporttou it ia added. 
When the substance is uuither diswlvi'd uor dcuoinposod by soda, 
the latter sinks into the coal and leaves the assay ntialtered. 

Ad ufiMty suliiUa in doda uud free fruui ouloriug osidt-s, but cou- 
talniog »ulphuric arid or sulphur, yields a glues which on cooling is 
yelln«, or red to yellowish-brown, Trom the formntioQ of snlphido of 
sodliun, acoording as there was little or much sulphur presetiL The 
spread out inaos obtained by fusing snlphates on coal witli aoda geo* 
erally has the same color, aud when the moss, which has pvrtiolly or 
wholly sunk into the coal, is cut out, laid on silver foil, and moist' 
c-ned tlioroiighly with unter, it forms a black or dark-brown spot of 
sulphide of üilviT. This reaction is frequently used iu («ting a 
eabstuncv iur iulpUuriu acid. 

Substances containing manga-ntae, even iu very trilling cjnautily, 
when powdered and fiised with soda on platinum foil in the 0. F^ 
yield tnanganate of sod», which epreads over the foil, and a&snnies a 
bloisb-^reen color on cooling. 

Whoa the examinatiou of tl>e eubstance by itself has caused the 
piMonce of salts of ammonia or vitrairy to be suspected, some of it 
is powdcn-d* mixed with previously -dried soda, und heated in a 
matrasa over the spirit-Ump; the salt« are decomposed, and in the 
fomier c»«o cArltonaU; of ammonia, recognizod by the smell and by 
red litmus paper, is liberated, whil» in the latter case the mercury 
colleota in drops or forms a gray tilni, 

Wtoi Billent» tft TiiMft with ioda, thev vield iilltjs uid t« It, and (iulljr ftiilble 
iSkala are fbrrn**''. •.'■'ni'iiitai; a low prupvrtivn wl ailicji. Upuii «ddini: more luds 
tlu maker hwn are »qiuniu-il, ntiü tbi mau Ijccimii.'s infunibk. When tlm uxytrtai of 
ÜM tfliric >cid u at loaii douliln ihnt of ihn biuo. ilic lulüiiiun of junl tlic rii;hi Mtnuunt 
of lada formt k dour gt*M, «hirh remain« clear on (enting, pruvidnJ the rcculitng 
dmiilt Anw !■ I^aIUc. W^cn, liowovtr, t)K- oxygen of ihc acU a jii»t v<(iial i» dial 
of ihc bsM; ibe lUMj If indeed gcomlly decompotcd by toci» wiili cITcrvcicrnec. bat 
eaasM be ftiwd lo a elMr glaw, SMatiM the rMuItIng double BlUcnw Is too int'iiiilrls. 
Ai befarr rcrnarkird, faMtlii lUkaUv of infunblo baiws yycM witb n Itlil« mkU a cii-ar 
glaM; with moir, on opaque cIom; andwiihitit) mora, are hiroaible, becancu ilieii' boaot 
an «paiattd hj (be lOtla. 


^^^ B. MisBa&LE WEICH rcrsB oslt 


OK Tn£ RDOBd. 

H a. With »oda yield kI fluid bead: 

^^^ Alhiw, NfpfccUu, 


^^^^aortUti^ OnbodM^ 

TiUnilc, J, 

^^H%MnU (bcfrl). Pcultte, 


^T Kodaw, il, SotUBu, fioiii Vctnviui; 

H & FFiVA AV/^ «t(/a afiuid bead, tcith mort a slaggy mats: 

^^^_^uulie, UTpenllMaic. 

ZobJie, J. 

^^^Btpldottk A, "WoUMlot&la, 

V c Fi'cM tciih soda mdy a slag. 

H Cw^hoKw, nnellte, 


K^ Dickie <>alitQ). Um, Pitutc. 


^^^KI>KEutiir, il. FtDabo|[ainni)tt, d. 

^^^yilics, jt, frDtn Kranit^ TjraMon, 

■ J. IKi/A ««ifaypM tri/0 fA«{»aI; 

^H Sintfii 

H «. /\(« or #K/y «cffÄ «jp )Fi7A soda, M art dteompwtd *y a unf- 

H fia'tnt amount o/*oda, leaving an infufUle 

crv«^, trAt/« the $oda saJi 

H ntik* into the coal: 

^H Apaltte (twcUi irp(> Bant« (calcifcron), htt*. ^^^Hj 

H C Tnfusiblb Mekkbala. ^^I 

^ «. oil« Wirt »»da afiftid bead: 


AgftlmuDll«^ HUogwli», 

Ridk ^M 

ntoiiuu», Lcaclie, 

eaammäAKjatt. ^^M 

Fli»«!«/, l^rophylU», A, 

Woldionikpito. ^^H 



i. inVA 7iV/7« toda a btad, mtk more a ulaggy mas* ; ^^H 

CotlC, OaJolinlu, A, 

Tale, ^H 

OttjtuHiu, PtMuuu'ii«, 

TounniifiBG, J (UlhU). ^^H 



r. yic^ wiM «0(/ii on/y a «/ä<r ■' 


.Vidijoilr. A. CtsHterit«, wftb macb loda FlnoMvInc, ^^| 

AOapt^Jie, tuttoUtF dn, 

Gaknita (a dar «eat), ^^H 

AUmlnlM, Ctiloritvidr 

Cpblenit«, ^^H 

Alanit^ Chmmltc, 

GDiUklie, ^^H 

AInncfRi. A, Chrnrae flchn^ 

Iron. »etqiilozUe and iti ^^^| 

Aadalutll*, ChrrtiJberjrX, 

BulphatM, ^^^1 

Brradtt, CruiIiB, 

CalamlM U «inc i mi). DUipoa«, 

<£nu<IIte. ^^H 









lluitfc Iran, 





d. Fuse or ontg swdl up with »oda, hut are decQmpo*«d by n nuf' 
ficUnt ameuat, and the soda tinka into tht coat, leavtny an infvsiile 

Aliiin(kftl1iii[c), dthj-ilniiMl, Ckldce, 
Ar«B"''i'*^) DolwRiite, 

e. Sinks with tUt toda into tba coal: 
StronlUmlMt A. 

Wavellite, A. 

ß. Jieduction of metaUic oxides taith carhonata t^ soda. 

MniiT uxiÜ€ä cau bo reiliicod oii cuul in Uie It V. witliuut nxlu, liiit 
wUen mixed or oorabii)«d witli uoii-rcducibl^ bodi«d it U uot valy 
difficult, but eomclimeft quite inipüssible eo to rc*duce tbeui t]mt Uieir 
pr«8«Dee mtiy b« nt imcc uBCcrtarnal ; by tb» luldition of güda Jiis 
cuti, hovrcvL-i.bc vcrv perfectly uccoiiiplidbtHL There urc aIsq metallio 
u\i(Ics which can be reduced perfectly vith soda, bat not viLhout it. 
Th« easy n?duction utTeck-d by sudu is to be iiecribed as well to ths, 
fonnatioii iti th« It F. »f c)atiidv of dütllum. which a.b9(>rbfl oxygen' 
with gre«t etigcrncas to form cyiuiate of soda, as aho. without duubU 
tu tho fact tliftt at a snfficicatly high tmnpcratutv tlic salt makt ialo 
iJie ooiU, wliile its rarlKiiiic iiciil und part of il« oitygun are converted 
by tlie uharcoal into carbolic oitide, which, in ounin-ction wiüi the 
gaseiiua sotlinm that cscii|icfi,ex«rt6 a reducing action oo tlie metAllio 

Tb« beat way tu [»erform thia wduotinn is to mix the pnlverizej 
usay with moiet^D«d f«d& in ibe It-fi liatid, eproad ihu pafik- on eool, 
luid LrviLt it with a good K. F. for not hm short a tima It is eome- 
tiiiu-a difficult at once to r*-cogni»6 tbe srpariited mt-lal, and tlit-ti Ih« 
whule uf the coal which is [lermeatod witii the aoda at tlie apot where 
the Hiduction was effected, nitiKt be cnt out, tritGrat«d with water in 
tho mortar, and the coal, cle.. wualied away cart-fully until only 
lubtullic particles rcmitia. When eveL .a trLfliui; amouut of a re- 
dacible oxide v«g present, Uiere will b« small, flattened, liuirouft 
niftzillic scale« at the twttom of tlie murtar, or, in caae the metal was 
ditlicuUIy ruMblc, and Dot soft, a metallio powder. This rräidue 

»BDccriOK wrra caubösätk op soda. 91 

•hould be examiiivd with tbe gluas, and under water with the mag* 
I Out, luid il n«ce.iäury, itläo u^tctl oti coaI with Wr&x aud H. Pb-, ia 
Caw a mUturu ot änveml mvtul» wm^ uljlained. 

Id order to transfer tbe flue partictes of metal to the ooal, for the 
IturpuAc of humiliation, thcjaro wiped from the mortar with u bit 
*if filu-r jtajier, whii^h ii then rolled op and buriK-d on Uiö coaL U 
tli«re is & XQiy criHiug qusQlitj' uf motal, tbe borax or salt of phos- 
|ilionia attxaaarf for the exaniitiation iB wrapped in the paper at 
the aaui« tiiua Whi-a ÜK-tv arc iK-vvniI n-ducible oxidi-a present, 
Üwy are g'^nerally obtained as ao alloy. A little borax «liould bu 
added to the soda when treating caotalatea aud shi^e, to rt.-duct< the 
trifling auiutmt of oxide of tin which is often present The com* 
I pounds of lantalio^or silicic acid are more eadiiy disdolved by adding 
l>ormi, whicli aUo prercuts the r(.-duciion of iron that would otbei-- 
ycm alio; with the tin. 

Tin auMlf nductU« u ahon wltli «oUn an, bt^M tbe o»bl« nicub ; niaijUlo- 
amil, Uin^tCD, iiitlinüny, telturiaui, uiiijivr, bimnuth. liu, kxl.xliii-, indium, cuilmiuui. 
bMuI, OotiaJt, ami Iron. Aravnie ainl iiutclullvor aro KtluceJ, but rolaiillu- iuimnli' 
■Mj, aiij «Bii onlj be oNoiiicd in die iiu^ullic sUlo in (he £'"■• ^^ "^ ma(»Hi tS 
tlic sMajr PDBUuMd mrtcoMc of nickel iir luIWt, a qoitc fiuililc bitilon i* Blira7^aDl> 
laiood. «hick il rvnilnvd brittle Iri' ihv cuiinidcrable amount of arMtiiü: in il. Wlwu, 
la aJdiliua liTuxiiltf ufcujiper, there i> an uxidu uf ualiiiiuuj^ or tin jutaDnt, on ea»iljr 
(bdbbb but bffitk^ Muy uf cujipor uul aniiraunv ur tia ü obtaiuoil. 

A'fMiral oi4tlaie c/ potatm, or ct/anide of potansium, may with 
advautus:e be snbtjiilnted for soda when ire:iliiig oxides of difficult 
redocibility, m tbi-y buvc o much greiilcr reducing puwi-r. Even a 
fpi>bl» U. F. suflio«! to reduce oxide« of tin, in>n, cubalt, ote., imme* 
diately witb the«* reagents, whilo soda wuiüd require a loug<oou- 
tiaaed and strong blast. Tbis is dao to the fact that thu oxalate, 
heated to incipient glowing, cvuIvl-s ctirboiiic oxide copiuusly, and 
this has a powcrtbl roducing action, while tho eimuitaneoosly formed 
corbonio add, which hiu bi>eii abl^orbed by the potass» liberated &om 
thf decomi^jfted salt, ia likewisf converted iulo carbonic oxide by the 
ocHoa of the cout at »higher leiiiperuture; the cyanide of potussium, 
on the other bund, takce oxygen directly from tbe motallic oxides at 
a low temperature, and is oonvertt-d into cyauate of |H>uuaa, eu far as 
tliis oxygen sufHoes. The cyanide, however, has the disadvantage 
of t)pn.-adiug out over tho ouo] at once, and thus »cattenug tbo ri.- 
dnced n^etal ; while the oxalate, although also easily fua^, spreads 
less, and tbe metallic particK'S cnu be mure Teadily collected to 
.larger buttons. Both of thpse n'duciny flmes are also |)n;ffniMe in 
laoda vlicn the rednuliou must be performed in a matrasä, as fur de- 



tecting a trifling ainouiit of araeiiir, tbe special directioas Tor whiob' 
vil] bo gjrcii under the cxamiiiatio» for urseoia 


Tbis t*8t can only be employed fop anbatancea which have a newly 
or cjiijt« whit« color nfi^r ignition in the 0. F. If the eiibetunoe ia 
not very dvnsr-, and will absorb the solution, n frugntent of it ia 
inoial^-iiE-d wiih tlie »fltitiuti, and gnwlnally ignite«! quit« strongly 
with the O. V^ being hi.*}d in th» forcejw. friable eubstanucä are 
mixed wtib th« soliitiun and qtread on nual. In testing ooatc, a few 
diiips of tbe solution »re put on the co«t. and it^is then cautioosly 
ignited, bo as not to blow away the thin layer of oxide. Crjslalliim 
tnbt)tanc4-?, and such a» nre too dense to s-baorb the aolution, mnat be 
pulverized, mixed wilh a little water, spread on «aal, »nd dried. The 
cni«t U then moUtened with cobalt »ohition, and gmdnalW heated 
to a fwble glow in thr O. F. If coherent, the crust mnr he removed 
frina the coal and held iu the forcepi. The color ioi|xirtvd to the 
assay miuii always be examiued by daylight and when the aseay is 
quite cool. The color? frequently se^n when the aubstance \s moiat- 
eued wilh thr enhition, or on commencing to heat it, such as bine, 
red, black, proceed, it is true, from decompontion or the aolatioa, 
bnt are bj no meona to bo regarded as indications of finbsiances 

The qnuitity of solution required depi-nda upon ib» concentration ; 
a few expcrimetitä will allow how much ehould bu emjiloyed to »cure 
a dietinct reaction. A very dihit# «olution always yielde the best 
TOsaltB, as a too oooccntrated one is liable to tnm tbe ignited amuiy 
gny or black. 

The following colors ore aeeumed by some eartlie and metallic 
oxidi-3 and ocida on being moistened with cobtilt solution and ig- 

a. Brotenish'fed, baryta; 

A. Fle$h-<»hr, magneda, tnntalic acid; 

e. VM«t, Biroonia (dirty-violet), pboepbate una anenat« of nag- 
neeia (rnae at the eamt* time). 

d. J9/iw^aliimiua, silica; 

B^ Ortett, oxide of «inc (yellow ieb-green), of tin (bluish-groon), 
tiumic acid (>%'llowisb-grcvu), hyponiobic acid (dirty* 
gn-eu), antimonie acid (dirty dark-green). 

/. ffrny, strontia. Urn», glucina (bluisb-gray), niobic acid. 



Only a T-'w of these coIoratJnns are of nee in rccngaizing bodies» 

.Kpeciallv thniw of atuminn^ m/iffn«»i/i, rine, «ntl tin. The bine «f 

■lamina must not b« coiiroundf-tl with the blue prviduccd bv mnnj' 

mlicatos, whicb is due to tilicate of coh-ilt This almost alwujn 

appearn rnscd on carcfnl ciaminatiun, whili* tht blue of ulumina ia 

dull ; tht.' former a]»o only Bpi^para with :i high tom[)cnilun>, and it 

i) therefor« well, if th» aulMtance aftor ignition with the sotutioD 

shows no blue color, not to heat it too much, so aa to rii«* it. On the 

otbrr liond, in to«tin^ fur initgrii-Hiu, tliu igait«d subaUince nuy hare 

imcd only a very feoblö rose-coh^r, and [t can then bo more 

r strongly treutod, t-voii to fusion, if yioägible, eine« the red color will 

not only remain, but also becom«* more distinct if ma^nosiu is present 

The aluoiiiiB and niagnraia reactions are prevent«^ by the prM- 

'«DM of colored metallic oxides, which geuerally produce a gray oi 

black moss, unless present in too small quantity. 

The methods of using the other [[uatituÜTe reagents will be d^ 
icribed uudcr the epeobl exumiiiatious. 







plattner's blowpipe analtsib. 



" £ a- 







S sc D = S BJ '5 JL 

vc3~ o= ii:-3= £ Sä 


t. = Ä g- fc^ „'a 
■ ; 5 B S C .g g 

-■2 ^-2 

■c s « = ~ » » 

3 "- * - « i 

i ö 5 F g^ 








pl&ttngb's blowpipe asaltsib. 

;j3 a- 

i e s 

" « 2 

e^ o •• 






I a 

■= ^f-^* '^ I I I 








S 2 » E * 





■^ s s 

-j= a ^ 
" .5 I, 

— » G ° a 
S g 1 I M 2 








E S = 
" s s 


u . « 

■erf i:: 















PLATTNEe'S blowpipe ANALTSia. 


a ^ 






, ■ - £ -n 'a ,1= -a , S 






^ - - 

ä : 

El, 3 » 
.-Si S 

ji " — 

^ = i 

'^ a = - -J 



-- o — -. 
•~Ci p c^ a 

'-* — "^ . — S3 

a «- - ,-^ i « = 

j; " s 


« " c 

s -a 


£ a E.S 


I 1^-^ 

-p a i 





1 = 1 

■= .2 ä 

s 9 

i-= ^ 


J 1^ ^ . M 

.E * 





■1 1'^ * si I 

^"s s? s 5 


O 3 

u « mj = 

MB -^ri — 



- & i £s— s I * P Sod 

ii. — >*" ". 'S — s- 1? -, F a -, c 

-• oi = C a-a —■5 a.r" — > 

n ■ ^A — ^^ - 

■5 ^ C -^ t- H 




a; 00 jjQ 
■ ^ 











■: 1 









2 = 



■5 S « 1 1 





j^ ** ^ if. •»• 


i.-s t: 


— ■« ^ a, *4 





* ~ ■ 

'J a « D I 

5 loJI^.S 
- Jit ^ a . S £ 

-S-r c it 

b> ^j — i* t^ ^ mU 

9 iJ^ fan 

■^ □ rf 'SEE« 

a-S "&"'*' Kg^' 

= 1 c"iii I'S *■ 

i- ?f -t; ^ B 2 

-3 > ,■ 


3 --^ Ö 

l = ^f"b 

- TJ n " - r 


cu Li.=: >u o 

o^.a-D x; 


Ö e £:£s-f c S E'^ =3 

o a 















« o «=-,5 

S.S S.2Ji 

c SJSts J5 



.2-= S 



■S s = s 

I *> s 


■ S S." ■ 

B IP = £. 
S ».0 O 

a « " « 

o J, a — 
o" — 








' " 

























£ 6 


■2 . g E ¥ 

^^ -H B V T. 

it2 « 

*- f. 

s u i 

_a ^r? ^ 

o o 3 








w.ATnrw« Bwwpmt anaitsi! 

B. General rules for qualitative blowpipe examinatio: 
by D7hich the separate constituents of compound sub- 
stances can be detected vrith the partial aid of the 
ixret process. 



hi« 1 

In til«' eiaiuiiiatioii of ci>in{toiind siibsiftiiccg with the aul of 
blonrpij)«^ tlie wot proccsg ie |'iv<|iHitt,Iy indibpi'imaUlc when »II of 
)Dj,'TO(lii.'nt« are to be dotootM, but ev*n thi'n the bkiwpii« is udviiii 
laprtmsly nseii, iitit only in carrying out various iieeessary opt'ruljtma, 
but aUu us a im-nns of coutrolting the resiilU an<] ftirther fxamiui 
the ienlatcil cim^ticiiL-nt)!. 

Bf-f<jrc proouvdiug to decompose the substmioe W the vct irujr. 
bdiiivior bufuro the blovpipo «bottid be &se«rlsiri(-d, and from tliis 
the nalun» of the compound inferred; whethnr it is a salt of the 
ttikalifH, onrlirt, or Imivj mulula, or u siliciile, «ud whether the com- 
poniids contaiu «a^ily reducible metallic oxides ; further, whether it 
is a (\)mbiiiitlioi) of mctnllic oxick-s, or c*" eiilphiilo^ or ^lonidi^«, or 
of vanmiH metaU with one unulhvr, in whit^h laU«r divi.iion th« 
metallic ttrseiiidea and tellurideß are aleo to be placed. The furth« 
esaminaHon is cssrittiallj fueilitiiU-d by knowing ouder what class 
of oomponnds the nnknows ditb^tiuiei- b<-1ong«. 

When the cuni|K>tind!i are iiiKoliiiile in water, the nioAt nsnal sol- 
vent is hvdroclUurii; noid. mid if solulion doe^ not take jduco at the 
usunl temptrature, Uie glnas Is hcjifed over the spirit-lninp. KffiT- 
Tescencc in.-Uc«!«"-« oiiiior the pri-*'nn> of n cnrbonatj!. uhon the car- 
bonic lurid gus eM.'upi-tt u'ithoiit auy odor ; ur of u iiibtiillic oiide at a 
high stage of nxidation, aiicl then chlorine gas e^CApes tind in racog- 
niwd by if* pun^'cnt uiior. The luttt^r phonumtrntni occiii-e, for 
example, wh<>n the mineral contains ofsiiiiidsidt- or binoxide of mini- 
gunese, which are trunefurmi'd into prol^chloridl^ Th« solution is 
then diluted with illslilK'd watir »ud cxiimiiicd for the various earths 
and itridü, ax will be direcrtcd urnlt-r thi- ec-punitL- exaniinalions. 

The tMtiag of »licatea vrith hydrochloric acid is of especial im- 
portance. Quito a uiiml>or un' wholly decompo»^'d by it, (he liases 
diMolviiig, while the »ilicic arid sepiLniteii either in a gelatinoi^ 
pulverulent (aud then ustiiiUy ratlier völuiuinuu«) state.* 

* To dotermiim whpthor rilimic* urn) othor comhtimiiiio' 
oxid«« ara4wompo*<<(l hy nHtli, ihc tlni 
and Ik ponlvn of tliu iliiid tuici! «lili mw 
■lilc' {irnlpluio b funnnt <!"' ' -' ' 
tliniuD tki« n thi» niUunue i> . - . 



When Iho silicate U initfrol; ileconipcMable, the whole is dilitted 
vitli vvat«r. 1iU«K(l. and tlie iHlrate exnminvii, aä will lie tlirnclvd 
anii-'r (lie e\itniiiimioii of silioitt-ä, for liie viinuiia cartha. Sbould it 
ofit be wholly di!i!iiinpi>SL-d. ftniitlier ütnall portion tnn^t be ili*cont- 
twStMl by fVijion with carbonate of sodaand borai,«äwill be described 

In certain case* it is nwcesairy to fnw a gHlstaiiw with niti* wh«n 
examminjj it for n singk- ingredicnl, nhich is IhiiR nioro liighljr 
o^rtlizerl mid coniliiiied us uii ndd wi tii tlii< potass uf t Lc nitTc, from 
which it can he more n-iulilr «cpanitcd and then recognised. Some- 
time«, uUo, it is nvcegiwry to fuK a enbatonoo «-ith bisuiphato of 
potaaaa, and tti disüolve the fiined mua iu wiiter. in order either t« 
frpe it at once ftx)m certain coiistitnenl^ or to ocjürert the vfhole irit« 
enlpbutcjt. andtliui pnjcx^ed tvjth Ute sepamtioii of the difTen-nt 
ciinetituenU al^er solntton in vrater. 

Dieompotithn of U*e aubft^nr-ejt bjf/miün Kiih »»fin n«rf borax, and 
treatment 0/ the/ mtixs wUfi h^drwhUiric add. 

SoTOnt^-ßTc tu ont- hiindreil milligp. of the very finely powdered 
8ubst4üoe being niinglod with soda nnd boiiix • in tho agate mortar, 
the irhol« is wrap|)ed in u sod a- pa per cylinder, mude of lino lilter 
paper, and fused bofore the blowpipe in a cylindriad hole on char- 
ci>al, or in a chareniil cmcihle. The qnnntity of Uns d'-p^^nde on the 
fnribility uf the fcubrtanoc. Oencrnlly, ouc part br weight ef soda 
uud one of borax etiflicett* but tho borax mast bo increased up tu 
two parts wh<-n the giil>;#lanee contains much magncMa, alnmina, 
gincimi, or sirconin, icliiK' a tüii*idenible nniuunt of barit« rcfjuirea 
an increase of both borax and soda. 

The O. F. may be employed if the eiil«tanec has licen foniid free 
fnm euily n-diieiblo oxidi-M, hut othortvisef ad in Üie case uf certain 
atags, the U. P. nitist be u^ed. ao as to rednce and Beparale these 
l>^idl'fl in the metallic fltato. 

Uimally the qnnnlity of i-eclurible oxidea \a so small that they can- 
not easily be «.-diieed to n «inglw button, and then about sixty to 
eighty milligr. of silver, or. still liettvr, gold, should be iiddod in the 
fcna of a button and the L-hur>;e Lrimted with the Vi V., just as 
direrted fur the chnrRe in the (|uautilative copjwr assay, p. 44'J, 
During thi« o{ieniLiuM the earthy constitnpiit^ and the difflcullly 
nedacible oxides dissolte in the glass which is fomu-d by the borax 

■ Tlw koMric arid ^unaa comhim'il «iilt the «xla, »pkIm» 00 injnrioiu ffftex dnriag 
I NibMHiMfit dccotapMition oi ihu fuMd conponnit \yj the «ret proccM. 



and «utlA, and molt to aa cssily fusible betuL The ariHa of argeaJc 
«nd the easWy reducible oxidi-a «r« reiluL-etl, while. In preepnpc of 
stilphuric ftoiil, tliciv is a jmrlial forrnntinn of Ru1phi<le of milium, 
HD<I jiiiTt of the sulphur combincs with the rednccd metuls. Toe 
reduc«<l nrsetiic is [Hirtly tjikon up by tbcee metals and parily roi»- 
tilizwl, wliik* till' nutt-vuliitilc! ivilticcdraetalä iinitotogeiher and mt-.t 
u-ith the eilvor or gold to an imsily fngible globulu, vhich gws W on« 
side of the glass. The oside« of the metal» thai remain diesoked in 
the glu»j an- preactit ia the lowest slagti of uxidatiun. 

Such ft fujiiim. whotlicp with rhc O. K. or H. K, must be acoom- 
pliihed with IUI nctivG (liimu and »ith prupur pati«iiue, eiuce other* 
vise tio thorough dtcumpuaitiuu of the substance can he ctTectod. 
The fiisi-d gl»6» muFt be «luitc fluid, n« vli-:ir a« poHsiblc, and free 
from bubbles and mctnllic jHtrticIog. If tlio glass continiicB to froth 
or ibov bubbles uricr long bluwiiig, this is a sign that either tlio 
wtiitton of Ih«' iion-re(lncibIe jiortinns, or the rci]ui:tion of the 
n-diiciblu oxidw, U uut cuniijKtvd, und the fueiuu must be coivtinacd 
with a lively ßame. 

An HfwnT «hich has b«'en UxteA in the 0. P. in taken from the coal 
whcu it ha« BoUdiQed, aiid after cleaning it from any adhi-rent coal 
with the kuife aud bnieh. id dnl broken n|) in Ihe steel mortar, or 
büCween paper on the aitvil, and thcu pulverised in the agate mortar. 
It must be entirely redncod to powder, olhernise portion? of the 
gliiiM urc apt to remain undiJAdred in the Etib^-rjucnt tn^-aimenl 
vritb acids, and it mu«t hv pulverized immediately, or cIh« Itie liiecd 
gIa£G v'ill absorb moisture readily from the air, bocomtug tough and 
diflicnlt to palrerize. 

When the ans-xy has be«n fused iu the R. F. and a mt<tallic button 
reduced from it, or when it ts presumed that tlic siWer or gold added 
hua been melted to n globale with the rodnced metals, tho o*my must 
still bL> kept in a quite fluid etiiln by means iif a good K. F., and 
made to Hon- slowly ftt)ni one point of the coal to another, until it ia 
(jcrtitin tluit the ghis« is quite fn-o from globule« of meUil and bub- 
bles, while the juetfti is united to one globule beside it. Afti^r eati*- 
facl^rily nceomplishtng liiia tho blaet is stopped and the a^say 8<-t 
aside until quite cold, when it is removed wirb the forceps, tlie 
metoltio button separated from the glas« iu the steel mortar, or 
between paper on the anvil, and the glues pukcrized after cleansing 
it rr»»m any adherent ooal. When the it. K. has not In-en pure nt 
strong enough, pari of the reducible oxides may remain and exert 
an injurious inOncnce upon the I^rther decompoailion of the fused 


Tbc oxMr-5 which <7iii lie rasily mlnctd bji' the forcj^tng trait- 
mcnU unil thus di|mnU-<I Trum tJiv eurLbs uitl aou-ivdacible oxtdm. 
are; the ac-i^a of arsenic and antinn-my, and th# oxid(.'£ of silver, 
DifrpniT, copper. lti>-mnt)i, tlialliiim, ii'iid, tin, Jtiiic. indiiini, c«d- 
miura, und aickvl. TfUurium, onmiiim, gold, pliiliiiam, iridium, 
rhodiutn, »ltd palladinm only occur in nature iti the niel»llic slale. 
Itnd can tlu-nfore rtiulily be ».■pnrnt>.'d frum the nnu-r«<liicihlo oxidv-^ 
niid i-arlhs tiy the additiuD nf Kilvor or gold. The votuUle melid« 
tilhvr eeotpe entirely iu (Utam during lJu> fiisiun, or only iii iiarl. 
aomonf them coating the coal, while tho«; th»t remain unite vith 
the added mIvit or gold. The manner of oondnctiog Ibi- Cnrthf-r 
examination of the reduw'd metals niaj be inferred froni the 
tvniaflu upon alloys in the detAiled examinatiuiis which follow. 

Thi- T>xidr« of till' liruYv mi'tidawliicli caiinitt W n-iluced by fusion 
in the K. F. with tii'dn nnd l>oriix, are : the oxides of chromiiiiii. nru- 
niain, cobalt (in the absence of arsfliiiu acid, or «liea the cobalt is 
nut present in ton great quantity), inui. miiiigsneci?.- and cerium; 
■ad the f'tlluwinx neide: nmlybdic. litiiKslic. tantaHc, uiobie. uml 
titanic. The Above oxides can, hoverer, be refldity eoparated a^ln 
from the eartlit^ for che mosL part, und recognized bef<m> ihi: blow- 
J<ipe, 118 directt^d in the vnriouK (jualitatire examinations 

AI>«T ßnfly pulverizing the fiisi-d ghuti. it is moiatvui-d with an 
abtiudanoe of water in a poro'Iain dieh, Fig. S2, »nd then ua mnch 
hydrochloric acid is aildc-d m will di^^lvv all »f the powder »nd 
ImT» iocae free acid. The diali is plaivd upon llip evupontling riug. 
Fig. 7,0^-T the lump tlamv, and llie (K>wdcr ^rirriKl with asli'iiderglass 
rod, until the soluble |K>rtiunä hnvc been £cparaU-d from th« insolu- 
ble. The prpgencc of snlphide of sodium, aluay» formed if rhe 
Bobslaniw conlaina «nlphuric aejd or *iili>biir, c»U!*« etolmion »f 
«nipimretted hydrogen; the «ither constJitients. excepting nilicu, aw 
conrcrtiil iulu chlorides aud dissolved by the di hi te acids. Qocasinu- 
ally almost all of the silica also goes into sohiiiuu. Since usually 
nuly Combinations of «lioic «cid are deconiposwi by fusion with sod» 
and tiorax. it rarely hapix^nii'lhut niulybdic, tnugstie, luiLalic. 
niobic, aad titanic aclda are h^re met with. After eSecting Ihe 
«iilntion, the whole is ('va]i«irüt*tl \o dmies«. nnd this lahould bo done 
ift'hiTe the vai^ton may nut escape into th« laboratory, in cuae too 
much free atiid is present. The evuporatiou should be oondncted 
praduully, r-aiMxiially lowapl the end, and carried to dryness, so ne to 
remove the excels of acid and to rcndi^r ounipact tlie tsilicu. which 
wparaieK in a gelatinous state duriug the process. 

When the solution ba« been evaporated to dryneu, 9o that uuly tlif 



slijiKU*«! pcwaihl« cdor of Piwuping acid viiiwpcnn be pen>«ive<l. Die 
niuiw U muut«Di*<l with liydnw-liloric uoiij.uiid nftcr «uiue tinn* is 
coTcreil Willi disl.illrtl wai<-r.* Then tlie dish is srt over the lani|» 
UftHic in onlcr to (iisaclvi- Ihv chlomU*» unU si-paiwtc llifin fnmi tlif 
iiiäolulik- porttoi). ^tiieli in aiibKianivD dfcum posed iu tliU wuv gvn- 
f-raWy consists ofsilif^nlotn-. Tin- silica ran lie very readiljsepnratwl 
tr\>m the BüUitioD by tlltratiiin und washing with vati-r, itftcr which 
il U]iiy, if nect-'sstiry, be tested B. B. with »oda. 

Sf«niioxide of iron is pcdiiced dnring tht- fti«on to protoxide, and 
b not perfMtly restored to the state of 8L>8T|uiojtid» daring the traut- 
ijit'nt with hydrnchloric itoid. und Irast perlVctly when thrre is yory 
much iron prtseiit. This beinpr, howc-rer. t-ascntial to the ccrtain 
(Ivlet-liun of iliy BO])iiruto iugpcdk-iils. Ihu lillnilo from the siUoa, with 
tlie fir« portions of the wash wnter. maat he Iwilenl iu a teat lube, 
willi n fi!w druinä of iiitrif iiL-id. so a» to convert, the pmtoside of iron 
into aeji^iioxide. The nitric acid ncwsairy for the peroxidation of 
the iraa mny be nddid »t once, beroi-c tho evaporalioOf when it is not 
dtuirahlc to ]\a\t: regard to the formation of «nlphnirtti^l hydro^n. 
«-jiich may ensue on Irealing the fnited aeeay with hydroclilaric 

Th« iMtscs contained in the filtrate IVom tho silica are eejmnitrd by 
methods ihat will be given ttuder the detailed qualitative examinu- 
iion« for difteivnt earth* 

Futiian ofeubsiances with nitre or bisulphiUe ofpotasta. 

This fnsion is lometimcs porformed simply in the loop of n plat- 
inum nirc. hilt oft«ner in the pttiÜDum apooD.* Powdered and 
friable suhrtnnces iirc at onco mixed in a finely pnlTcrixwl state with 
ilic iifrt-ssiiry amount of nitrt' m th« ttgate mortar; mctiillio mm- 
jKinnd^ Mud alloy« which cannot be powdeTvd should Iw divided u 
tinply a& poBpihlc hy hammrring or filing. Thtf (juantity of nitre de- 
p^'nd^ up^ii the chiimcter of the guhülance to he oxidized ; ordiuanly 
thn-t io four voluniL'u uro employed, utiles tho sab^tanc« has a rery 
high specific grarity. When but one ingredient ts (mughf for, the 
fusion may >k- iKTfornK-d on phitinutn wire, after mixing th'- whole 
inl" II iBiFte with water. A porlion ie emeared in ihe Iwip »ml fr;«] 
ill the O. F. ntitil it ceases to fi-nm. when a freeh portion is .ii..'»r-.l 
on and Fused, continuing the o]icratiun until the volume of ' 
mass is bo great Ihat it would no long^^r atlhe*" 

■ Tbl- niirr oxiilfieB ihc wattaxd >l 
fffircti on tin.- ipoon iie«d not be feanS. 


Vir« flliotild ))C kept in an incliuf^ position, with the loop tumeti 
doirii wurtl. aa the iiiliv has a tiTidenov to How down tUe wire. 

When i( is ^ii^iiecled timt. th« «iib^laiiCL* ouuluiiiK &n extnont-ly 
sumll anuiuut of lltv body Bought fur, or when it i!> designed to oxid- 
ise ecvcrfll iii^rxdicnts, in order to treat Ihcui Tnrtlier in tlmt etiiU-, 
«■r if ait «llity wbiolt cuiiiiot Im> )H>u,-iK-n>d k iind^^T itvalmt-tit, u t-om*.-- 
what lur)!«>r quantity must Ih> uited, und th4< fiixioii pi.>rforniiHl in thi! 
|)|»tiniiai 8|>oon. The whole mixture slinuld not. however, be [»ured 
iuto the tiHton At onc<-, biit iii first only sni^ll portioiid, i-iucn gueva 
nud vji}Hirti fiUNiiie duriug rhe tuüioii. and mav t-iuily <tiiiiH> lh«> nii>ll- 
ill-; niai» to run over. Ai dm iIil< buituui of tliu KjxNin is heated 
with tlic 0. P., which is thui directi-d iuto the 8)hk>ii, and the whole 
filled until il hi-cunif« <:)iiivl. Tlu- ri^maiiidcr of Ihc mixturv it tlu'U 
addinl it) xitiutur [MrLi«iu)i, titid lu^-d af>vr caL-li iidditiua tiulil it 
atnae« to rroth strongly. The jKwitinn of the spooD efaotild mean- 
while lit- nltered. so that evtrk' purt of tJie niixturt; may he rttiched 
hy llie fliitnc, and the spoon olwsya appear red hot. 

Only thii8o alloys uin he fnmil with nitre i» the gjKwn wliieh 
oxidize* ifodily, and du not coinbint! with the platinnin nt the ((.-ni- 
pi'rature which can be produced by the blowpijv. The fusion of 
aaeh compoutMU with nitre ia properly limited to tht^ dctcctioa of 
very trifling ipiantiLiee of amcnic in metal« from which it ean only 
h« fiüjMinitvd with difSciiUy. und which are very infusible, cy., ukkvX 
simI Oiluilt. 

The fueiou of subütaiicc« with bieulphatc of potMsa it alway« 
fO^ted in the lariter pltitiniiiQ aputjn, iu Ihi* name way aa with niln?, 
and inoei suiiably over the spiril-lani]). Thi^ Hub^taiice must be jwr« 
fi-otly driwl. pn-virnisly ix-duivd to limr )M>wdi-r, and clutriutcd, if 
ilocimipufied with dißiuuUy. If mclied by the blowpipe llame the 
loo älroitg heat is very liable to pah.ially e\pt-l the sniphiiric iicid 
rn>ni HOnu of the .>>ulpliate» furmed by the fiisinn : bnt if the spirit 
Bame ia rmphin'cd. and tiie spuun at first only kept directly over the 
tip of tb« flame, tinlU most of tin- ^cs htivc e^caitc-fl, and ilten held 
deuper in it, the heal act« (-({nally npun the bottom of (be Hpuon all 
nroiMid, the fusing uiax8 is unly broaghc to low rediies«. and the 
reaultiug salts are not. deatriivc»!,* 

Wlun much of the Wsulphul« niiist be nsed, the ep<iOQ fivqaently 
bvoomes tilled before all of the mixture has been charged, »nd then 

* It i* lihMUgVontin thi-K tiuioai tvcummtid ih« flaii>cwillinal>««l4n)DCTliiiil«r, 
tMi'Mae abuui til ilic tn|i or ihc flanc, anA whEcli ma on ibe glu* luDp, luiving 
tctenl oftrtioiit at \it lowvr vud. 



t'lK lluifl roiiss must he imureil out apon the uiril» and the rvmuiiidt-t 
uF tliv mixture fiiäud. Jl is. indeed, always adrieitblo to pour ont 
ttiL' inmas, a«: ii cad Ihi'U Ix* ri>u(lily piilveriico<l in (be iH^\ ninrlnr 
whi?li coId.ttnd Ullis mnro quickly dixAülvi'd in water Tbe quantity 
uf biButiibutc of iwiuasi tlfpcuda upun tic vartouB constituents or tJit 
eubstaucc to be fused ; tb us, for protoxide of iron S.« pnrt« by wtigli t 
of biüiilphnle iiiv' ixi^tiin^d toc-onvort it iiii') gnlphutc; r>ir liii»!, 4.5; 
for ma}jiifitiu. fi; for uluiluiis. 7 8. It in alwava mon? prudi^uL to 
employ rather more of Uie acid salt tban is PXocUy reqnirodi since 
oIuraiDii luid ttit' uxido« of irva un.- liable- U> luac a )>aH of tbcir com- 
bined BUlptiuric ai-'id at a long coiitiaui'd bigli U'nipi'mlure. 

Tlie firm mass resulting from Uie funtrn of a substance with nitre 
iir bisulpbuti? of puloaau, wbcilifr on pUtiiium wirt- »r in the »puon. 
Vfheii not poured out cannot »ell be pulvorized an<l tbns diäSölvt4 
in waier, bccanse iho plntinnm nmy ensily hn injuiv«i in detaching it. 
It \i Uitfrerure necueuar)- lu l»y tbu wire or epuou with tJie Aiai^d niuiie 
in a porcelain disb of siiitabte cnpncity, pour orer it llie »monot of 
wtuor Deoo8«iiTy for solution, ajid »ft tb« v*>8Si;i upon tbo ova|x>mt)ng 
nun '^^^ '-''^ lamp. Ad ibe wat<-r bt^eumi.« hut tbt; mass gvinT^ily 
se\iBXatee from tbe ptatinam und cad be crashed with tbc ivsüe of 
t\w upit>' inortiir. Iii itiost ciign's Ihi- viator may be bi-ated to bulling 
uud tbv bill ttma roudily dissolved; but when a äub^laucc ci.>ntuiDii)g 
liüiniL- acid tiM been fnecd with bi«ulphal« of poioK^A, in order to 
make the rilanic- acitl Aolublc-, tind tlu- fusi'd muss b:iit bien ^ocAored 
With more viuier tban vta exactly required for its solution, tne IiUut 
miiei not bv boilod, or else the titAnic atiid will bo imperfectly dis- 
solved, and Üiul vhicb bad b4H.>n disstdvcd at a lower tcmpemture 
will be tbrowu down again. 

Theeu opvrutiond i» the wet way nJfurd reeidiiea iind precipitate><, 
which after tilrnilion ar«; to he f«^thl^^ exiimined au<l nmst tbi-rcfoK' 
gi>nem11y be driwl. Whoa there is oDough uf tlie mass thu.lilter is 
ai^rewl open M|»on u diinble layer of blotting pii|K-r, the ma^s |<cr;L|i**d 
off with a «palula, trauafcrn-tl to u purculaiii disli, and dried ovit Uiq 
lamp. Wbon there ia bot üttlv of it, the folded ßlter is held ttp to 
lliB light, th« empty pt)rtiori ent iiwiiy with the 8ci)*«org, and tin; 
a*mainder, with the adboniig mus^. dried immediniely in tbe dish 
over the Ump. 1'he dry jift|wr ia then donblod together, hong upon 
B [ihitiniim wire, ignited at one end, and burDi.-d over a cle-nn porce- 
lain dish, which receives the reftidue. mingled wiih u littie oobL 
TliefK- coiily pitrtirlea may bo very eiL^ily burned awiiv in the plati- 
num «]»>uii, bnt this is Dot neccsfary when the Ur^* mass is to be 
fbrtlier iivatcd with fluxes as they tat! tberobj eoosumed. 


Tlie obcmica] opvnitions onlinarily pcrformMl iu making exiuuia- 
lUoiia iu ibe wet nay, euth as jirt'cipilating. äwunting, liltcriiig, 
WMliiDg, elc, need mit l)e furtluT nicntioutKl bt-rr, wnix- urubaWy 
CTC17 ouc wlio cagugcs iu bluwgiip« mialyaU will b&re aoma kuowl- 
odgc of tliem, or tUo requisito lutoi-nutivD «la Im obtained from nny 
manool of oheniicul aiiAl^«i& 

J/. Qualitative examiriaUon of Minerals, Ores, 
and Metallurgical product^ before tlie blow- 
pipe for meiaUic dtid non-itieiaUic elements. 

In tliisdiTJgioD the di>scription of eaoli examiniitioti U prcct^nl^ 
1. By tbc «numoration of all Lhe miiitM-nls and metullurgivnl [ira- 
dnctB io which the 6ubetaiioc «ought fur coiittituteä an efiscntial 

S. In raise of tho silioile^ which are K-ga easily digtiuguishwl fnim 
anf another than Ihc olhor oxidiw-d minerals, their Whavior alone 
bcfori' th« hIowpi|)c, with jrf-gurd Io (heir rt-latire fuaibility, \i iiidi- 
CftF-cd. inimr^iut«1y altt^r the name uf thv luinfrnl, by inestii) of th« 
nuiiibtTS t, II, 111, and ihn \^\.H-x A, Incan»:^ this r««iIitAt<^s tliu otu- 
parisou of tho mint-rul in question with uiiueruU lUreudy dolonniii«}. 
1 d«uotcs that the silicate fus^e readily to a b^ad j 

" it fuses with (liftißiilty to a bead; 
" it can be «luily fuavd on the edgM ; 
" it fuses with difficult; on the edges; 
" it is infusible; 
bubbling, intumasovnco, fWithlng, and rutniGcu- 



H— ni 




S. The behavior, w tkr aa knonu, »f »hIIh ineolublfi in water, 
mliofttes, alnminatc«, and comhinatiöns of metaltic oxides, m u 
povd&red «tatc, with hydrochloric acid, is indicated by tho following 
symbols — 

1 dirnottis that the mineral Ja p>^HVctlj disaotred or deoompoHcd 

by bydrt'cbltiric acid ; 
IQ " Ihnt in case of silicates the BÜica svparate^ in a gelat- 
inous stale ; 
1 — 3 " that the nitncral is decomposed ordisaolrrd with dif> 
a " that it 16 iniporfoctly diwolved or d«omposed; 

3 *' that it ia insolable. or utidecomposable id tlie acid. 

130 plattnbr's blowpipe analysis. 

4. To afford a better survey of the composition of the minerals, 
the chemical formula is annexed to each, and, with few exceptions, 
where first mentioned. 

5. In the case of minerals which are of especial interest to the 
miner and smelter on account of the metal ia them, the percentage 
of the metallic ingredients is given, so that the proportion of metal 
found by the blowpipe in any minei-al under examination may be 
readily compared with that of some known mineral. 

A. Examinations for Alkalies and Earths. 


Its occurrence in tlio mineral kingdom, 

Potassa is never found free, but only in combination with chlorine 
and sulphuric and nitric acids in certain salts, and with silicic acid 
ID several silicates. 

o. With chlorine in — 
Sylvite,— KCl ; • 

CarnaUite,— KCl + 2 Mg CI + 12 fi ; 
Kremersite,— (K, NH') CI + Fe' CI' + 3 fl. 

h. With mlphuric acid in — 
Aphthitalite [glaserite), — K S ; 

Misenite,— K S' ; Dana gives {\ K + J Ü) S, or K S + fi ^ ; 
Alunite 2,— K S + At &' + 2 Xl Ü', usually mixed with some 3i, 

Jja S, Ca S, and lia S ; 
Löwigite,— K 3 + 3 äl S + 9 Ü ; 
Kalinite {potash ahtm),—K. S + Ä1 B' + 24 Ü ; 
Picromerite, — K S + Äg S + 6 Ü ; kainite from Stassfurth is shown 

by Keiehardt to be only picroineri/e, containing chloride of 

magnesium, and sometimes also of sodium, as an impurity.^ 

Cyanochroite,— fi: H + Cu S + 6 Ö ; 
Polyholite,— [(Ks + ilg'ä) + Ö]+ {2 CaB + Ü), excl. a little Na 

CI and Fe; 
Qeibeisenerz, kalihaltiges ijnrosife), 1, — 4 Pe S' + £ S + 9 ft, excl. e 

little Ca Ö and NH' 6)5 ; contains 40.7 Et ; 
Jarosite (containing a little less alkali), — K a' + 5 £V H 4 10 ft ; 
Voltttite,— 3, Xl, ge, fe, &, Ü. 



c. Whlj nitnc acitl ia — 

Kitrc,— K H, almost ulu-nys mingled Tith other salts, «l o, Ca 9 
ti, WiUi silifie acid in TAriong silicates. 

R. Id anhydroa* »ilicatts, or such us yieM but little water in 
the matrass — 

Leaoit« III, 1,— K. Si + Xl Si', ind, more or less Sa; 

Hjalophaiie 3.— ft Si + ÄI Si* ; ft = ß, fta, (Sa, Oii, 5lg) ; 

Ortboclwc 11,3, (iitcl. ordinary /fu^M ft^dspar, aduiiiritt, vaienoian- 
He, arfinturintfeldjtpar in part, amaionstont, müTocli«, Iwectiase, 
difsterliie, jyerthite, ota), a« well an tlie jjUsäy I't^ldsixir friun vari- 
oas lociililios,— K fti' +Ü1 Si*, ü^-queuüj ountiiiuing a little 
ff a, C«j Xlg, Se ; 

Mica (poUuih uiira, mwcoriff), /re« from Uthia ; j^crally wblt^ 
but aläi> bmwn, grveD, Hod other colore; I or tl (nccunling to 
the anioimt of £), 3,-3 ÄI i?i -f K hi\ ab» 1% Si' -f- ß Si, It 
Uäiiitlly coiitiiiiia also a Httlt- &'a, Ou, jt^, jiln, R-, F, and ft. 
The F Derer txeceds 1 per cent. ; the water varies fruia 1 to ü per 
ccdc, gvoerally between 2 aiid 4 per oetit. Ftu:h»Ue conlaiBB 
4 per wnt 0r; 

Lepidolit« {Ulhia miai) I A, 2 ; nf nrly » Äl!^i* + 3 USi -I- (R. F, 
Si F*). Id general reaeml>tea the pivcediiig, but iX, 'Sin, and 
Üd are moru proDiiiitiit. Then.- ie We ä und esgonlially inon- 
F, ttQXn 1.4 to \(S.i per oent. In lepidoliCe j'rum Roxeim iu 
Hnrnviis Ucbruii, Mo., und Zinnwahl, Bohemia, riihidiiim itnd 
ciesiiiiu hnve been found ; in the latter al£o thitUinm. 

Maffitesiti micas ; gvin-nUly darker in eolur, gi-evn, hivwii, or Itlnck, 
but alwi or lighter color. TI and II-III, 3 (1 in sulphuric acid, 
Dana). Hero are includi-il: Phl^opitt, — nearly ß ft' Si + At* 
Si', h = Sfg, R. (Jia. K') ; nnd Aio/iYe,— st-nenilly 3 ft* Si 
+ Xl* Si', ft = lAg, K, l-V The magnesia is eeaeiitial ami 
nV« Its high 08 30 {jlt cent Alumina is less ahnndnnt than iu 
mufcovite. Fluorine ts neitrlr always present, and wutcr gen- 
erally. Th» pota«8» varii'8 from 4 to 13 per cent. Chronuflim- 
laer. a magnesia mica couluining nearly 6 p*-r cent. Cr. Certain 
micas euntuiuiug magnesia and polas«a hav» from 1 to 3.8 per 
cent, tiianic arid. 

Aatitiphyllite I A, 1 (Ü!in:i),-pethiip8 3 ß' Si + B* Si', ft = &. 1^«, 
Mul Ft. : ft = XI. El- ; ulio Ti and ?.t. 

Lepidomchini- I-II, 1,— niosuy ft 5i + ft Si ft = K, Ku, Sig, Cs, 


("e, »lid 5lii. Antiit«, Trum Cape Aim, ia like lejiidomtlane in 

its physintl cliaracleristics ; Mtliia liiu been Fountl in it, bat is 

j)t:i-lia)w diit.- to jisMKiiulvii crYuftbvliitt:, limia. 
Cryopliyllil« I A, 1,-0 ft Si + 4 U öi', ft = I'e, K, U (luiü h trace 

of Sh, fth, Ofi). Dana. 
Daulite {i-niMiU-} H, S.—iUu, &, C») Si" + 'X\ 3i"j 
DiploUe (tatroHte) II A, 3, — cUsscd with anorthite by Daua; vide 

Nei)livlilt' 11, IG. I -(:Sa, it)' Si* + 2 311' Si', eicL (Ja, ilg, f^e, 
Blavliba I A, la, f Ü; 

CVueL.rmiilc' I-II. 3,-3 Jfcl Si' + 3 (fi, Sa, Cu, !Ög) Si, and some Pq; 
WcissitB 11,-3 (Äg, te, i'!a, &., Sa) &i + 2 Ä1 Si', perhiip« /aA/u- 

PearlsUmf {sjJitrulite) II A,— Si, Ä1, l5, Sa, Ca, Mg. Po, Jtu, fl ; 
Tachyljt« 1, I,— 5i, Al, Pe, Slg. Ca. %i, K, (Stii); hgaiotnrian is «^ 

similar mini-ral coiil»iiiing Ti, f[, and Nil'; Datiu. 
SitUn'omulaivtf, — Si, Xl. Ee, Oa, Mg. ^'b. it. 

Jlelilit« I. 10, 1 —3 iV Si» + K' 5i', ft = 0«, % *fa, t; 

lIumlKiLltilite 1-IL 10. f U = AI, K*.-. 

j8, U;/iit<jUi tHii-ttteii: 
Algui-iiv II-lIl .\,-R5i* + 2Äl Si' + 3 fl, prol>iibly alltrod «capff- 

W«; Dana. 
JainouriU; II A, 1 (in AH),— R Si' + 3 Xl Si + 2 Ü ; 
Agftlmiilolit« II-III, 3,— uearly 3 Al Si' + R Si' + 3 fl ; pinilc ia 

Koßil« II,— t^ Si + Ar Si* + 2 fl; ft= X Ca, Sigi triUonüe and 

polyanjile ar« simiW to n>aite. 

Oiiciwiji l-ll A. 3,— nearly {K Mg)' Si" + 3 Xl Si* + 3 Ü ; related 

to aifabtnUoUtt. 
Qismftiiditc- {uagoHtto) I-II A, IG,— [Ca, £l) St + Xl Si + 4 B, 

nearly ; 
Apo])liyllito I A, 1.— 4 Oa' Si'.+ ft. Si" + 16 (l; alwaya contains P 

(0.4G — 1,71 jwr Cent). Xylodthn is very similar. 
CEllocli«rik'.— Si, Xl, Sig. ßa, R, Ji'a. t"», Ü ; Dana. 
Oougylito U-in,— Si, ÄJ, IPe, Slg. K, (Sa, Ca, Slu), fl ; related to 

]ilar;:aruJiti.>, very analogous to damottrtU in cumpuBition. 
Omppite It,-« (flg. Ca, £, Sa) Si + (Si, Pe> ^' 
Bcraclielitc I, ir-{J<&> K) Si -f- Xl Si* <• 



Pinile II, 2; tUc result of alterntioii, and therefore vnrjing much in 
ami position, cuulaJii« geiiürallj Si, X\, Stg, K, uud ä, witli Se^ 
K', C's, fia. It is QU ulk&li-alnmiua £vi'|>eQliii(r. Daua. 

PrliliLe lUlII, 3,~Si, Xl. (£^), (C, {iig, U, to, U^), & ; Uiuia. 

Gignnlulilu l-U A,— (ftg, Mn, R, Äii) Si + Xj Si' + Ü, impure 
pi nil:« ? 

Gieneei-iie, ident«, l-iUinite, it'e^neriie are limilar. 

CKobuzttp {iiaidialiU, phacoUte, kaydmtUe) I A, I,— (Cii, %, ^u) Si 
+ ÄI Si' + Ö H ; 

Lerytijtc {me^otm) I A, IG (Dnntt).— <0a, Jk'a, £) Si -f Ä1 Si* + 4 Ü ; 

GmcliDilt; (kydwiif«) I A, IG,— (^'«. f'a. R) Si + Ä1 Üi* + C fl ; 

PjTurgillilo III, I,— (Mg, Pv, R) Si + i Xl bi' + iJ ; relalwl to 

Phüli|Mi(« I A, 10,— (Oa, fi, Kii) Si + Xl St* + 11*1. 
la additlou to the eilicutes just euumt.Tuti.-il ibcrv un- several othur 

miiicmU ii'bicli conluiu jioUiääu, iu givutcr or K>&s ipiuulitii-i), but for 

tht! nio<st piirt onlj as a subonliuate compouent; thej* are: 







Sliltiito, I 

I*a]iigunlte, V viefslime; 

Anurtliite, ) 

Viliiirüiif, ride mixgacBia; 

Holjfmigiiitt', villi yttria; 

Parisiif, vide corium ; 

PgJloDicliiiie, vide mangaRcse; 

Ob«4Ua n A, 3,— Si, Xl, Be, Hn, t., So, Co, J*tg; Twioui in ih« 

pruportious of iu con^titutiil« ; 
PatnU-c 11 A. :),— fiimiliir in compotitioo to obudian ; sometimes 

coDlaiua 01. Ti, uud Ü. ; 
Lava, vide eoda ; 

Tntciivti^ consisting mainly of füldepar; 
Plionolit« {elinkffviu/) III, contiistiiig of potash and soda felil^purs 

witl) ottuT sitifaLes; 
Purplivrj', a luisturc of potaeli and iwda fuliUpars uod quartz, Qooa- 

«iotuJIy vitli some otber flilioatca ulsoj 

vide soda; 


S^'OUite, chiefly containing, in addition k> Jtorn blend«;, ortliocluse, 

and aiidcdJt« ; 
MctcoriU'i, cuimiätiag of fiiUc&us (utigiu*, boniblvndo, albiU', labra- 

dorite, atiortliite), chromiu». miigiiolite, oxidi's of riii, nick«!, and 

cojiper, lugclhür willi ursctiic, jihoaiilionc luid titiuiio acids, 

Biil)ihidv of iruu, luid oative iivu ; 
Siütc.-Si, ÄI, K, Ji'a, Slg, 1\; V, fl. 

EximinaUoB for PoUxhk. 

Ill ÜM- «ASily rii«iblc putassn mitx, c):ci.>]iting phosjihate and bomte^ 
uiid in tbe cf>m[iuuiidi uf {totuKKiiiin villi chluriin.', bromiuv, rttf, 
Ihi« alkiili t» ill I'ltct- n-nigniü(>d by fii-«ing a. emnll jHinioii on ü loop 
iif platinum wire with lliu tip of tJiv blue flitmc. lit the complete 
ttbit.-nof of n»ln, and witb a clt'uu viiiv, llie outer flume is colored 
more nr Ivs« siruiigly violet, |t- "3. 

So(1h rci)di-rs the Üainc mure or k-M yellow, and litbia red, ^o that 
in their prescnoe tliia simple teat will not show ibu pruecnoc of 
IMtwss ui all, or not with porr^-ct certainty. Sometime» wbcu Ih« 
amutinl of sodii or litbiii is very trifling, the ouU-r flame Ivm f*> dis* 
tinct a riolvt (Mlur Dear the aȊuy, ihat the reut-tioii may tic sjiiislUc- 
tory ; but if the eoda amotiiitä to a few per cent cvuu. tliis eolom- 
tion becomes impcTCfpiiblu. In ibi« ease the method proposed by 
Harkort mnj be adopntl. Some boms, to which ii lilllc b'inteic acid 
has beeu added, is tuvfd to a Iwad ou plaliutmt wire, and in this 
«■nough pnre protosidR of nickel, free from cobalt, ia di^aulved to 
remier ihc glass bmwiii^h when cold. Not too utile of the salt to 
be examined for pittastui in then added to this glium arid fused witb 
it. in O. K., aft<>r which the cold gla«« is examiucd. If it has aii$iimed 
u btiiitib r>;Ior, potuKfa ta uii t-6«i,>utial (»iiHtituent of ilie «all. Tliia 
test, «ppliciiWc only when the »alt contains a rery large amount of 
potHäsu. dfpeuda upon tho fact obeervi'd by Lunipudius, that pro- 
tuxirJe ol nic)c<>l colors the putasita glass bine, and tlie sudu, on llio 
contrary, bniwu.* f 

The simplest meaoa of detecting potae«a with certainty io salt, in 
which, owing to a grcarer or ^pss »moniit of soda, the violet colora- 
tion of the flame cattnot be reeogiiizi-d, t-unsists, according to Cnrl- 
lut^li in viewing the color of Llie fltime thruiigb dr^jt biuc cubitlt 

* Plill^u^itifnl Ufagaiim. Vat., ISU : «bu Biinien in .IwiiiT. dtf Chtmia unrf Phar- 
luv», !)•) V.W. lift. 3. 

I 111 ii-tliiik' *ul|iW>e of potMM b; tliU nmlwl it «ai fDUiiiI lh*l nit unioi) of llill 
»ill witli tbc \'Onk.\. Uail muld !»■ (Ili.-t:i>.-4l iiiilcii» ili« iwo wen! inaiiil uD ill« «ire (n 

EXAMiNATioy roR p<yrASSA. 


flass, or a Btralum uf ludigo aulutloo.* Tbe prewuc« of pota^iM ia 
rtcoj;Qi«-J. uccurding tn tSo tliicknrKS of the inti-rvf-ning mediiitni 
by the violot or ptippy-reU {poncfaii-roihe) color, while a vciT largo 
nntomti of »oilii jirodite«« n liluc color, »ud u smiklli-r ({uuiiUt}' Is not 


Till- fliime of ft Bunsea burner, p. If, Fig. 8, »r tb« h\uo bloir- 
(>i|H; hame may W cinploy«d. In the latt«r cose a small stand, Fig. 
I'i, rpufjf'ni the ulistTttitiuii mon? ooiirenient, 
III Lbf aiiiall tube,/«, fiiüti-nii] in nti iron <ir 
lead focit, the win*, «, i« miidc tu »lidc nt ptc-wi- 
ure. ftnd it eupporta iti n cluniy tbe coljult 
gliisa, ff. A ftjw i'xpüTimi'iit» will d-'tcrminc 
ibc iirtipiT eiliKitrmi for tbs- fflass tiotweeri the 
ev«; lUid the Hani«-, and give pntciice in bulding 
tiic plutJQum wjrv with the iwsiiy in the tip of 
tliv bine tlame, which ie not vii^ihlc- rhroiigh 
til« glusa. Por Ibc iiidigu eultilioti a tiaail 
Hfta nesvl may be formed by mrana of gta« 
fltrij» nud a aiiiUblc crmcQt, and tli^n also nt 
U|>')n a auiid. 

If the a«gaT contning eubstitnci^ which pro- 
duce u luiiiinMiia fliimp. as iii the (tcpitrntion of ^' "■ 
carboii fmm huriiiiig orgiitiic iimLLt-r. tht-Äi- imtst first be remoTcd by 
igniting thi? nasar, sinci.' ulhorwiw the same violet coltr will be per- 
ci'ivrtl thnjugh the glass as thut caused hy prit««^«. Tli« violft and 
tt-d ravB pixiccftiiug from tbe glowing wirv nuist likewise not Iwcoa- 
fonnded with the prut^r potusiia coWration, which ruthrr extends out 
from the afläay toward the tip of tht flume. (Sco Set-. HI. a, of App.) 

View«d through modf mlvly thick cobalt glass, or a thin Btratum 
of indigt) üoliition, the lithia flanin is CBrinJiit-ivd. but Ihrongh rery 
dark or thick glase, or a tliicki-r Etrutum of Eolutiiin, it ccii»-8 to ha 
vieibi«, n hi]« tbe red jxttossa, flotiie ia atill dietincCly seen, and, thero- 
forf, whi'ii pnt»8«a is t« he detected in presence of lithia, a (bicker or 
darker altos ra«»t. be uäed, the t-ffcct of whirh luis l»een prerioHsIy 
tested with pnre salte. 

According to obscrvatiotta by Mere [Journal /. prat-t. Ch. vol, 80, 

K-P>, iliiu tkiratinKRulpIiUc of poutuiniB, vhich Is muiny dKorapoNi] \iy ih« bontck: 
■rid. Naiuiwll;, the oxiile of nickel mutt nni be «dOcd uniil ftfltr tliv fiil|i1ialo of 
potuM atiil ibe Imnix Iinva bct-n «vat«^ lu the R. F., but th« oxld« ihonld be «poiall^ 
|K*l<<d with KiMit.xT tKiniK b(«il to ini'urv ils fivrclum trvm c«)nlt. — [Tna*].] 

* TW solritäin. »liith luuai !■■ liiint'il, rontnmi in IftOO w lOOO p«rta w»trr, 1 pan 
' tndiRO, prerijuilf deuolrcd in ä [urli ftiminif lulphurtc HciiL 



[X 4111), tho Hthi« flamc jb inrisible tbrougb green glass, wlJ]« the 
potag^ und baryU Hnmes appear bluish -green, and that of soda 
tiruiig>--,vi-I low. Jn tili; uiisc juaL mvutJDncd. thi; UiickfT cobalt glaes 
w iü<ligo Bolntiott may ilierefore be replaced by green glass. 

The iMttuea in eilicutce canaot always be dcu-cted with certainty 
by the color«tion of the flame, Ix-viitis« these compoiiiids ni*arly 
ulwnyj cuutaiii mure or lees eodo, wliick prevt-nt« the renclkni ; buL 
eron in silicates containing little soda, the alteration of th« outer 
flanie i» jrenoniHy so slight that it cnnnot be pcrccired at all, or only 
iudiKtiucily. IlarTcort'» teat almi uiu nut be i-mployed, bt^cause ibt* 
amotiiit of pi>ta$s& ia aUnys companitiToly sninll iintl litios ni>t in the 
l(^aet alttT the bortuc-glass, colored brown by the oxido of uiclc«!. 

On the oLlu-r haiiil, muMiixliDg t» Btin»en. I. iL, p. :268, the Cobalt 
gtai» mill indij^u snliiliun may bi- iidvuuuigeuuäly usixl to detiwt 
potaKS» in silicates als», by heating such compminds with g^juiim, 
TriH- from polnssu aud eodu, iu the llaiuv, thus fonniug ailicates of 
lime luid sniplcil'? of the alkali, which is ^olalJlu and culurs the 
flanie. Tlere, t^ia, regard must bi^ had to t-he n-ninrk« Ix^fore made, 
if lithiit 18 preat-nt {Hde alio rc-markti under litbiu). 

When not too tTifliug in its amount, polussa may also be with 
rlainty detected in silicates by the wt-t way. Abont one hundred 
5ninij;r. nf the very fine poa-der are fused, p. 113, with one himdred 
^^ niilligr. each of borax and soda (preTituuly ascerUiiied to be 
7 perfectly fref from potMSu) to a imusparc-ut globule, fr^c from 
biiiibleci. Should the iiRsay contain cansidenible lime nr mag* 
lieaia and appear rery in^ible. tom«wliat more borax is tidded.* 
The ftieed globale is dissoU'ed with dilute hydrochloric acid in 
a porcelain diäh. evaporated to dryneee, dtseulved in a veni- little 
water, dUutud with alcohol (not enough, however, lopn'oipitatc 
any salts), and Altered, or when clear, decanted from the resi- 
due of silica into a small test tube, and the residue then washed 
vHh alcohol of tiO^ If to the clear solution a fi-w druiw of a 
rathe^ concentrated solution of bichloride of pUUnum are 

Iuddcd^ it will be at once soeti whether polassa tus piVM;ut in 
till! siibstunce, and if »o, whether in trifling or conaiili-rabU 
([uaulity. When, for example, tlie volume of tlie doubU- chlo* 
"■■* ride is known, which separate« when one htindr^d milligr. of a 
feldspar, yielding by chemicnl analysis, say foul 

* Tili- atnonnt oT pousn derived ftom Mlprf 
ekanxmt U m excn^dtDglv tri:Mitg tb" 
Ace tnio potiuM, and tlMfcfi^n: «7 



Iiiit^a^sa, are decompoMd its »bovo vitb Boda und borax, an approxU 
niiitf ftKtiinoJc mar l>c made of tUe amount of pulaasa in ulliur »ili- 
ciiU's, from the ijusnüly of the donWo chbrido Furmud. Tliia may 
he done vjtb moflC ceruiDly b; «mplojrtng a test tube about teu 
milliiTi. ill diamc'cr, dmwn out below to a abort lubt- tn» millim. in 
diunu'ter, ia vbich the crygtttilino chloride of potufifiium und plati- 
num CAD eulüv. Fig. 73. 

2. Soda, Sa. 

I(s oecurrenc« in the mineral ikinffdom. 

Sodft occurs quite frei^iK'ntly, but always in combination witb 
olhar elunifnis. being nt-ver found free. 

a. It pcciirs as cJitoriite in 

Ualit« (common soltj— Ka CI, sometimes containing tntces of sal 
amnion iuv. 

b. A$ jtuoriJe in 
Cryolite I.-3 NaF + ArPj 
Chiolitc I.-3 Nfl F + a AI» Vi 
Cli(.dmlli(e,— a Na F + AP F* ; 
Arli*iitite,-(Ca, Na)* P + Al* F*; 
r'«ebiiolit4>,— 3 (Cm Na) P + AT F' + 2 Ö : 
Thomwnolite 1,-2 (fa, Na) F -j- Al' P + 2 h. 

e. With gtilpkuric acid in 
Thenaidite (anhydrous sulphate of soda),— }fa 3, ma«d with a little 

Leconlit*,— (Sa. K, NH'O) S + 2 S; 

Mimbiliitf (Qlauber salt), — Sfa 3 + 10 fl, but frwjuenlty impure; 
G laiiljerile,— Sa b' + Ca » ; 

Löweite,— 2 ( J»a S + Äg S) + 5 % witb traces of X\ and ^ ; 
BlncditP,— (Sa 3 + SfgS) + -l Tl; 

tendozite (»ods alum), — S'a iS + Xl S" + 24 fi ; 
^'OeJbPt'geHeTtjitatroH/iiUffi/fg (jarotitfi), I, — 4 IK^'S + An S + 9 ft ; 

SrantKTgiK 11-111, S.— Sa, Ca, Xl. S, 1\ f! ; bat Dana give* aa 
analyals by Rlometrundf showing uo soda. 
tl. With nitrie add in 

nitre,— I^'a 5>', fsulus. a little Xa CI and (fC, Ca) ^ 
ft With carbonic acid and wa/tT in tin- followiug Kilt«: 
ITatron (carbonate of soda), — 5la C + 10 Ü, occnrring in nature 
only in solution, or mixud with other carbunalt-s nl' eudn. Dana 



Tbcnuonatritc, — ^n + U, ooDbiiiiiiig »lao ^a ti and Na CI, in par- 

Troiiii (urao),— Su* C" + 4 fl ; »omctimea cootaias Jt'a S ; 
Gay-I.tt8»itc, 1.— S« C + C'a C + 6 ÜL 

/. Witli boracic aeid in 
Boras (Uokal),— :^a B' + 10 Ö ; 

Ulexik',— Ä« Ü' + 2 ta B" + 18 Ä, excl. a little K, ?^ and CI ; 
Hjdrwborocalcii«, riile lime. 
g. With Hilicic acid In vunons siltciitre: 

a. ^itAjyt/roM« tilicattt, wbich rii-ld uo water in tlio matm», or 
ouly traces. 
Kcphi'lil*' (eI»olite), vide potiuwa ; 

Otigocliuu' I, "if—'i X\ &\* -4- ^a* Si*, incl. some Öa, $Ig. iintl V^t ; 
AU.ik' (iwiicline) I-II. 3.— Ä1 Si' + tu i5i', iucluding ("fu Sig, Ec; 
Aciiiit.' I, 2p— (JJa, Pe)* Si' + 2 Pe Si', exc). Co. Iff 11. Ti, ft ; ' 
Glftncophano I. 2,— a Xl Si» + S ll 5i ; ft = iCa, Ca, ilg, l^e ; 
Arrvt-dsonite I A, «,—2 (t"«, &'»)' Si' + 3 ge Si', cxcl. t». Xl, fln, fe, 

CI, F, fi ; 
Bjtownito III, — Kvfcpred to anorthite; S"« =2.8 to 7.6 per c«nL 
Aodesit« I-lI,-^i Si- + ft Si; t = liii, ft. Cb, Äg ; 
PweBiiito {Porfennni>pnih) I A, 1,-3 Xl Si' + .t ta Si + Sa 5i*. 

Contains, uoiiurdiiig to Fuclis and SoliMniäiitl, Xa CI. Probably 

altered pkelxrgit«; Dana 
SsQMurite (lime-aocLi zoisitc) 11, 3.-2 Xl Si -^ 8 (Ca, A g> Pc, ^a) 

Dipm I A. 2.-3 £l Si + 4 (Ca, l^a) Si*; prehnitoid is ofqiiitc »ini- 

lar composiHnn, with 11 very little tV, ](In.und ilg; 
Hvpofiulfrile II-JJ] (ttlljUe, probably altered ; Dana). 
lÄliradoritti I-II. 2,— (Ca, Ka) Si -i- X\ »i*, ind. a liltio £, %, and 

Jadcito I, 3,— i5i Xl, *», Cii, Slg. f c ; 
MiiriiiliU- 1 A. 3,-5i Xl. 0». fTa (12.2 per cent.) ; 
M izjwmite I A. 3,— Si, ÄI, Ca, Ma (10.0 per cent) ; 
Tachylyt«;, t'rrf<> potawa ; 
Hum bold tilite (tnoHlttv)* viW« potasea ; 
Indianite (anorthile) I-II, 2,— 5l Si + ((!^ Sa) Si ; Sii = ' 

pt-r cent, 
Wiclitisiu' I-II, 3.-3 (fe, Ca, 
'J'oimaaliae, vidt mHsneaiftj 



Sanilrikite (probatily altered auortUta; Diina),— Si, 'Xi, fin, Pe, Ös, 

Hg. Sa, rt ; 
pHralogil« (probably altered eVebergitej Dana),— Si, Xl,Ca, 3Ja (10^ 

pcrceni.), K; 
Erlnnitp I, 2, — Si, A!, 1^, ttn, Ca, äg, ^a; supposed to be a rock; 

0. Jlydrüut tiUcates. 
Betinulitc III,— fig' Si' + S Sa Si + 7 ll Dearly ; tbia is Thomeoü'e 

reHualilt and n doobtfiil mineral ; rflinalite fi'iini GrcnTiJIe, 

unalviRil by Ilunt, ic, ucoonling to Bunu, prububly a mixture 

of eerpeutiue and dcweylite ; 
Nfttrolit« I, I«.— ÄI Si' + S'a ^i + 2 f I ; gulaclitc is a vurioty of 

Ditxiilttv; likcwiso Ichuulitu und liKricitv; 
Analcit« I. I.— 3tl Si» + Äa Si + 2 ft ; 

Polliicito, (ft' Si) Si' + 1 n, R = Cftceinm mainly, = 34.07 percent. 
Pectolite [. 1,-4 On !5i + K» 3i' + ß ; .xcl. a littlo ÄI and Pc, 
Sacchurite IT, 2, — Massiv« andesite, btit cunNuuiug Vi per cent. tL ; 
Jlcsolite I A, IG,— ;i Si Si' + 2 Ca öi + Sa Si -•' 8 H (general form- 
al«, NanmanD); 
Hentchelit«, \ 
ChabtLsite, \ I'li/« potasfta ; 
Gmetiiiiic, ) 

Harrington it# and antrimolit*,— rcfcrreil to meaolil«. 
Crocldolite I-II, 9.-3 ^ 8i + (^a, >'U) Si* + 3 fi ; f e = ?4 per 

cpnt. ; 
Thomsonito (oomptonitc) I A, IG,— 3 Xl Si + 3 (Ca, IfiTa) 5t 4- 7 A; 

Jl^a s 3.7 to 8 per c«nL FarCelite and mesolite from Hauenstein 

belong bere. 
Fanjasite I A, 1,-2 ^ül Si' + (Ca, Äa)' Si* + 18 fl ; 
Endnopbite I, IG, — Si, Al, ^a (14 pi^r cpnL), It ; Dana; 
Lvdercrite I A. IG (ioipnre gnielinite, wiMi aome tKz silica and 

about 3 per cent. I^Ia ; Dana). Confaina T. 
Fablnnit« II, 3,~Tbis ttpecies is a n^eult of alteration, being p«eu> 

duniorplioiis after iulici*, and tbe composition varies considernbly. 

Anal)"«!8 given by Dana «how from to 1^ per cent. Sa, 
Cataapilite Z, 1,— 5i, Xl (I^). ftg, Ca, Sa (5.25 p«r cent), t. -, 

Pitt-b^ one n, S,— Bumetimcs contains albit« or oligoolaM rocks, 

iBtiier than orihoclase; Dana; 




£pi»lilljil« I A. 1.-;;ü 3i' + (Ca, Ka) Bi* + 5 fi; Parwtübit« ia 

similar, btit has only 3 Q. 
l*TrarKilliw, l . , 
Phaadit«, \ "''"I"*^; 

nnwstiibitc n a, r,-3 Xi Si» + (C», 5r»)' 5i* + is fi ; 

Moniciiite « ,— 8i. Äl, Oa, Jja (2.5 per ccnu), l£ ; 
r«iiijronile I1I,~3 Xl Si + Na Si' + S H ; pregrattite is very eimi- 
lur. coittaitts 1.7 p<r cent K. (It «xfotiatM aomenliat U. B.; 
■y. Silitattt with sulphaies. 
Nositc I, iG,-(fCaV' Si* + 3 AI* Si* + 2 5fa 5, excl. Cl and fi ; 
Ijiipis T'HKuli 1 A, lU. — like uusitr. Lut ixintnina a little sulphide of 
iruD (hiitl sodium) and therdt'or« cvoUes eulpburetlL-d bydmgen 
wh«n trtaiixl with hvdrochloric ncid; . 

lUliTiiitc II, 10,— (5.Vr jsi- + 3 IP Si' f * CaS; 
Ittnerite mid iic-olrtitiiiiti* 1 A. IG. — shown by BAmmelsberg to be 
lirubably alt^-reil hiLAytiite or nosite. lltnerite contuina 10 to 
12 per ci-nt. It ; nosite to 1ft per cent, fl ; Dana. 
6. Silictilt* with carbottnle». 
Caiicriuit« I A. 10 (with e(rcrTeswuoe)r-{8 Xl* Si' + J.V Bi*) +S 

fi : genemlly with 3 to 4 per cent. fi. 
Strogiuiovitc I A, I (with cffcrufict-nc*),— more or less altered ecapo- 

lito (wcmentc), oontainuig C; 
D&vyuc I A. I (with efl't.-rvc3C«aco),— alttrred Dcpbclit^ contuining 

f. (S'l'/i'twftr with mohalea, 
Wöhlerjte, vid« zirconia. 

^. Silicate» with cAtenV/«. 
Sodolitv from Vesuvius, II. IG, ) .^ ,_ (.,, ^ _.„ _., ^ ^. „, 
« « Greenland, 1 A, 10. 1 t^« ' ^i- + 3 Xv S," + % ÄaCl; 

Eudlalyl« I, iQ.—it (JTa, Ca, f e, lEin)* Si' + 2r 5i', witb abont 1 per 
cent. CI J 

Eacolilf'iof Btmilar composition with endialyte, contaiuB also Ta, Ce^ 
mid t^a. 

1). SiUe<tt0 viih ßuoride. 
t«ncophaoite I A,— Si, Ite. (ftn), Ca, Na F; 
Melipliiiuite 1 A. — oompoeition aimilar to that of lencophanitc 

lu »dUition to tb« preceding mincruU thcro are Ecreral otben 
which coDtaia more or less soda; tJie chief of these are: 

Orthoclase, ( ^ ' 



Prtalite, ( » 

Vegnvjanite, ) . , ,. 

X-nUiophvlIite. [ "«^'""«J 

Ipolite, i^rtain varietivs, vide lime ; 
hit, comiKiH-d of sereral silicaleti (zeolitcB^ olivine^ Ubradorite, 

aagite), And magnetite; 
tjiva, priilnbly a mixture of leacite containiDg mnch «xU, aiigilc, 

iui(i mugiiuUte; 

Pbonolite, y rt'ct« poUeea; 
StCTCorite, vUi« ammonift- 

BuminkUoa for Soda. 

So'lfi may 'jg very readilv detBcted in the natural aaltfi »bnve men- 

tiooed, as well ag in auy salt of irbicb it forms a constituent, hy 

beating qait^ a small portion nf the flalt in the loop of a plsliiiitm 

wire, with lb*' tip of the Hue flame. 1'hc outer flume immwilaidy 

l)CWinee «nldrgixl anil n&snni«» a ri'ddi^b -yellow tiiigt', [l 73, even 

v\»D A lar^gc amonnt of pota««a or ttlbia is likewise preKPiit. If the 

It is frw fmm pb«sj»lionc or bomcic nc-id and contiiiii« a wry large 

ouQt of jwiHasa, Lbe flaiufi iä not pun- i'eiMiäb-^fllow close to tlie 

lusay, bat ralher riolet, whtlo at a gtvulK'T diflluoci' the n'tldish-yvllow 

cuW nlune prevail^ and thng it mny be quite well determined 

Tlwlhcr ibea- i« mucb lea» «odii tbtin putaiMU present. In preseiioo 

rf litliia the yellnw flame ib more atrongly mixed with red, in pri>- 

portion a« the aaU is richer in lithia and poorer in sodn, no that with 

ouDiidiirabte lithia and little stxla til« flame is nut reddish-yollow, but 


VltFB a «mall quantity of any Yolalile (alt of soda on platinum 

Vit« ig brought withto the cone of fusion of the ^laa-btirner, p. 9^ 

ng. B, the light proetitling trom it renders a crystal of bicliromat« 

pJlaaa culurU-ss, wlieii held near the flame (Uunsen : Amu A 

w- Pharrn. Bd. CXL Bfl. 3). A better rtftctioo is obtaiued 

Wp rwi öftit is rejilac'wl by a slip of papor, about one 

•xnited with iodido of mercutj, which assamea a 

b a shade of (nie yellow. Potassa, Htbia. and lime 

B nnotion. 



According to Hi>rz the soda fliune uppcurs uruiigi^-jvlluw tlirongh 
green glass, nliilo the potassa Unme is UliiUti-grecn and the lithiA 
flame invisible. 

Ju Bilicuti>s. &s ire)] in the uatiiml silicate's fta in other more or less 
fusible uompuiinil äulistuitc««, the prx'^'uc« uf eoila cnn At^ l»e de- 
lected bv the reddish-jTL'lluvr fliuiie, irlien uniAlI splinters are bcatcd 
in Ihc platiiiam forceps. 

Buuäeu's U,-«!, given above, is of «£p«cial interest in tlie eiaminft- 
tion of silicate«, but cbd only be performed with the aid of thi> gns- 
bnriKr. It is Deoeasarjr to have a number of feldqurs, accurately 
analjxed and arranged according to their increasing projxirtiuRS of 
0oda; tbc£4i are ignited and kept in a piilvcriz«d state. If oue of 
these and tlte specimen to bbexaniine4l, with or without the iidditimi 
of gypsum, are held in the zone of fuaiou »I the same lime, taking 
care that erjual lengths nf vire ehoJI Iw heated, a strip of iodide of 
mercury paper placed before the fiamo will U: mure or I-.*« blaucbed. 
If now the specimen to be ilütermiued is withdrawn frum the flame 
aud (be paper aSHiimes a perceptibly redder shade, the sjii^cimen co&< 
tains muru soda than the silicate usod fur ci>mpariSMn, while if lite 
pujRT becomes whiter, the contrary is the cose. Uy determining in 
this way belweeu what numbers the reaction occurs the nmount of 
soda in tlie mineral tinder einminiiinn can be approsimaioly ascer- 
tained. Vuriuus pivcautiuus mutt be obstcrred in this test, but for 
these the reader is referred to the work cited abore» 

3u LlTHtA, tX 

lis occttmnev in the mifurai kingdom. 

Lithiu is never met with in th« free state, but always i» combinft* 
lion with other Ixtdiee. 

a. In combination willi phoäpherie aeiä, partly with and partly 
witlwmt fluorine, in 

Arablygonite f, i, — Ita composition oorrcspomls for the most pare to 

the formnla : [(Li, N«) F -i- AI* P] 4- [. Li. 5*a)' P* + ÄP P»] ; 
Tripbyllte I, 1,— aooording to Rammolabcrg : (Li, Jig)' P + 2 (l^e, 


b. In silicaUa : 

Spodumene 1 A, 3, -(Li» Sa)* Si' + 4 Xl Si' • 
Pctolite n. 3,-3 (Li. &'a) Si' -i- 4 Si 3i' ; 
Castorito I-IL 3,— probably petalite; 



Orjropliyllitc I A, lr-3 (K\ K, Uy Si* + 4 (ÄlTSie) Si'; conUmi 

traces of U&. ßb. C« ; also sume F ; 
ünokcile 11 A, 2,— Si. Xl, t,i, K. (I. Si P; Dau» ; 

DitnuigiU-,— (Li, fi'tt)'!äi + 3 (Al, T^) äs; 

Tourmaline (lithiii tourmaline, rubellite) vide magn«äa; 

LepicUitil«>, via« potasga ; 

Scttjiulitc (äutne viirictic»), viJe lime. 

BxtuainaUoa for Lithia. 


lithia la verj' readily deU^ctLvl in its salts liv licahrip theiii, cither 
on platinitni wire or in tlie rorcqw, uc^roiiliny to tliL'ir fusibility, with 
thv tip of the blue flam« ; a nnl tinge is alwajra imparted to the 
uuti-r flaiue, owing to the c&rminf-red oolor which lithi» commimi- 
cati'«. Many etroutia and litut* sulu, hüwwcr, Ukt'wisu give u red 
flum(% which ra<:t must bu honii; in niiriil, and the salt in (|no«tiuQ 
Türllifr teBteil, as will l*e directt-d uudtr etroutia uiui liim-.* The 
oamiiiii'-rwl pn«lnwd by a jiuro lithin »all may »jipwir quitt different 
when wth(;r substances are presont, whirh also color tli« ilumi;, e.if., 
Hjda, Should tbu suit he frt-c from suda. but cuntulu phos]>horic 
ai'id. which cvlur« the flame bluish-green, the red uud grucii do not 
unite, lt«t both c»!ors arc sopdratoly viaiblc. Triphylite shows thii 
phenomenon, p. 74. 

A mixture of lilhia und potugau snlu upon » loop of platinum 
wire impart« to the Same a red tiugc. whieh is leu intease and more 
inclhiecl to reddish- violet a« the potiisäa inore«si?a in comparison with 
the Utliia. A mixture of lilhia, ]K>t4U«u, and eoda Bull« in which 
lithia prrdoniiniitcs, caiifps a yeIlriH'!Mli-n.'d flame, while if ]x>ta«8a 
predominates thu Burnt- is rt-ddieli-violet ^uite close to the wuay, hnt 
rcddish-jcllow Iwyond. If tlic sod» prevails and tbo assay is fused 
with the tip of the blue lliime, the reaction of the j>ota»w and lithia 
Is concealed »ml ouly the reddish-yellow color is perceptible, but by 
touching the Stilt witli the outvr ilainc only, and employing a very 
gentli; Idftflt, a difttinet red flame miiy be frequently prwlnc-d fur a 
ahort time. 

• C)iA|<niAn hM aujigMitHt tlM> nu of «hlorido or >i«riuin to <!iiiiin^iiuli th* limo or 
unmria colornilun fnxii iluii of liihla. V the Ital •nbiMnr« t» ta»od on iilattniini wire 
«hli iwlcD 1l* rolumc uf ilw ctiluriilr, in iIil- paini of ilie Mac IIaiiic, iIil- uri;;itin) t>.nl 
votonitiaB will KiMin un4cMTt>i'«I.c<rcvi>o t>« IncrL-«!«!! in inimniiv. if cniih'tl h^v lithia ; 
wbiir If 4\im to «tnNllia «t iimf a brwwiii»Ii-jTllr)w liiijr» wilt tx" imjmrtt^ to ilie Auuc 
■■snln'. The lot mo; be appUi->l tn iht aaluT»! silictiEes. phusplulM, and ulbet »alii^ 


According U> Stein {Ann. c. Ch«m. n. Pharm, von Wi^hler u. 
Lifbig. rol. 52, p. 'i\Z), tiic tithia reaction io rc-ndored indiiiliiict and 
Gometimea quit« r«tiot>al<Hl l>v the tuxlu btvanae Ihe tBm|M!l'tilurt' i» 
too high. He hns fuiiitd tliat by flisiug tb« assay ou jilatiiiuni win.', 
juet 0u Ibut it rumuiiiH ]iurous, und then BOaktiig it in tulluw luid 
heating it in a cuiidl« tlurae, tlie red lldiia Quiue is etill distinctly 
nsibi«, «700 when the amonnt of lithia id \i^ü than j^^ that of the 

1'tie efTect of llio litbia ftonie wlien %iewed ihrotigli cobiill glass or 
iudif.'O Solution huA aln-udy btcii «iMtod. \>. 1S4, aiiü thi« uffurd» a 
oerluiii nieaiid uf duteutiii^ lilliia nht;ji mix«d with suda aud [lotssiiu. 
(.'artntell (1-c) recommends the ubfervation, throngli imligo m^hitionp 
uf the lliinic ]iroduL-vd in iIr- BuiiM-n btiniL-r by all ibi-eu liuR-s 
togeUicr by the oide of a pure potasaa tUiue. According to Buus^n, 
thp distJnütiou suooeodg still bvt(<>r by obgerving th« suKtusive aHer^ 
atiims o/lke color whiub ovcar wtivn tach of ihu ILimi^s. pfoduwd 
side by side, is viewed through a stratum of indigo »iKuion cod- 
fitautly iucroasiiig in thickncej. For tliiä purjKific a prism uf ]ilate 
glHSS iMUtiiining thL< stiliitioii iti held bi'tnrv the eye. I'tire (.■urliDiiat« 
of lltbi», or chloride of lithium, show? a carmine-red flame through 
Ihtt thinnest etnitum, while putawii slill appears sky-bine to vioU-L 
The lilhiu Quiuv gruw« feebler us thu stratum iuvrvu«L'i5 in tUtckiira^ 
nnd disappears luiij; befitre the tblckt-st Ktnilum cumt^s Iwfum tbu tsy«. 
l*ol:i^8a and ^»da have no influence in this cii8<>. Since the two khIis 
just numt'd \pvv a mure intc-uiM color than iiny other liUiia cuni- 
poandß, it is only nwesiiiry to mark that point of tlie priam where 
the color imparted to ilieännip by the«e IhmIIc« becomes in viüible, and 
then thniugh the strata above this mark nnly potai!sa can be per- 
ceivedt but lithiu never. This portion of th« prism tlieu perfectly 
ivplacc« a thick cobalt glass. 

If now a purliou uf a potaasa salt containing lithia is faaed in the 
flume (AtwlH alter* the event but little, uulcs.« present i» i|uite a large 
praportkm), and the Qamv compun-d with ii pun: \ntiAi,t» tlame pro- 

* Aminting (o Cbnpiuiui, lilhU ma^r 1m dclectvd in juvMnco of Mito by fiiBifig the 
tMt •dImuiicc with Hiluride gf batiiiiu, pruvlilnl It caa W docniniiuwd bj tncli « fuaiuu. 
Tb« powl"" I* f"'«' o" [ilatlnnni ■ Iw In O. V. willi W iw lu ifAtam of tli«' clitorlde ; 
at fifvt ilii>n3 Ü n itronp «oAa flamu. which t^mdnoUf illtnlnkhM la hnteniiilv, niid b mic- 
cs^«(l In- the burrta coluninin. U|ivd ilii-a brinsini: llu: fn»cd m»»« dMpcr mt« the 
Kauic a ilb-iinct crinisuii iiilitr \a pnvlaniil, nnlon nnlv trarra i>r liiliU «n imamt. 'ISro 
minalM' oxgiDiutv lu tlie ilxiuu will lufli'« ta |iru(Iiico Cliu ratctiuii, wliirli a nut >llKI«d 
Ijj- ATvniia or line inlu, a* ihcw do nol color tliu flame rud in |iiT««nt« of «lilwiJa of 
tarinui.— (Tniial,! 



iaced opposite to it, the Jlamc oonluining litliia appcnrg re(]d«r Uion 
the pure (lot«««» flame, llironglj thiu etnita; tbruiig)) sumeuhiit 
iJiickrr etmtu tlic HaniL-s arc ff|Uiillv nil, if the atnoinit of litliia is 
v«r; tr)6iiig ia comparisoQ vilh the potassu; if the litliiu pK'Oomi- 
titUvSj iJiu iotpusity of tlie nov ml lithiii flainu «Ic^eruasi'B |)erce|)tibly 
OS the thickneiiii of the stralum i nL-i'<.-:i«e:t, while tlie pure potasea 
Diiiui: is «carcelv Wt^'ukcne^ ni all. 

In eilicutca contsitilug litliia this alkuli may likewi» be detected 
bj the blovpipe flunii>. UnlcfiS Üieni 'is too little lithiu present it ig 
al uiici' tveo^iiiznl by tlit- red (Ittuie pruduc^d by u üuiall sjiliiiLer 
hcati-d in tlie fur^cps In the absence of sodu »ii inlen.-^e puqilish- 
red Aanic ia prodtic(-d «hue the mgay ig funiug ; tbie u tli« cum wilii 
li^piduli E«? and uaÄtoritf. Less iiiltrn(it< and purE!, but atill diatinotly 
pertvpcibl«^ colorations are pruduci-d by pelatile and ep(iduuii*uu, 
wliiii tiot too etruiigly livaU-d. 

Silicaiea containing only a little lithia, a^^ liil)i»-tonrmaUnc. and 
crnaiii «capidites color itie ilanio only Tcry indistinctly, or uui ut all 
tvd. In thtH CEuiu Turner's iiitrlliud may he cmiiltiyvd, vliioli (-oneists 
in making a paste of ttie finely- powdered miut'iid with a mixture of 
ou« part fluor «ptir, one and a bulf bi^ulpliate of pot^iAüa, und a Utile 
vat*yr, and fnning it o» a loop of plminnm wirti within llio blue 
fiame, at the same time L-an.'fu))y observing the color of tlie outer 
Bunif. According to Merlet, two paHsof the mix lone muat be takeu 
for one of the «iliciitv lo make the rtucliou for litliiw ]>erfvclly sure. 
)r tho iiilicuite contiLinii a litlk' liltiia, tbiä colon) ttie llumc n--d, but 
not very iutenaely, tlie red inclining «irougly to the violet of the 
potaasa. If the silicate is freo from litliia, only the violet jtolassa 
flame fUBues; soda renders the reaction itidistiuct. If tbe «ilicmte 
fonluiiis bonwic add. e.g., t*iarmaline, a gnvu llauie is at lirst pro- 
diu'i-d. sbowing tite bnnw:ic add, bni ufti-rward ii more or lesn Jn- 
teniu.- ri'd (Unic is CAuaud by tbt; litbitu 

(The mixture proposed by I*oole serves still better than Turner's 
for dett^icling lithia. — It consist« of two part« ignited gyji»um and 
one part fliior spar. Comniuuicatvd by Profn-SMir Riebter.J 

Iiiibia may also be detected with certainty in silitales iiy lining u 
UQiteen burner and tbo iudi^'O pri^t». The a»iay ]>ou'dei' ie healed 
witb {tytixutn in the zone of fusion, and opixittlt« tii it some curboti' 
ait- lit polasso, wbile both Qames are observed through ihv pi-iHm, 
^bii'b ii {WKicd Ix-fore the eye. If the iwäay eoiilAiiis litbia, ita 
H that point of the priam where the 8i>da fljune di*«ppL-ar», 
in cumjiariiuin *itb tbe corn-flower lihiu p<itui»a Hume, 
ntn increases in tbirkue^ the red Utbiu Same gradnatly 


loses its iDteneity, while tlie blae or tlie potaesa flame possea through 
violet lo I'fitI, which at a certain tliickucM of Ütc GLratum i£ qniU 
similar to the color of tko hthia flame. 

i. Ahuonia, an'. 

Its occurrence in the mineral hingäom. 

AromoniA is alwnjs founi] oombincd with other bodies. 

a, Aa ammonium will) cAiorine in 
Sal ammoniac, — NU' CI; 
Kremeraite, — tndt potnasa. 

h. With sulphuric acid in 
Mascagnite,— Niru3 + fl ; 

Tsclierniigite (ammonia ahim),— NH'OS + Xl 5* + 34 fi j 
Lvvoiit.itc, vide iKxIa. 

c Vi Hh phoisphoric acut in 

StörcoriK,— Üa, NH'O, f' + 9 11 ; 

Struvita,— NH'O, ÄIr', P + 13 Ö ; 

iL ^S'ith boracic acid iu 
Urdenrllile,— NH'OB' +4 0. 

fl. With cnrhnnic acid in 
TcKrhi-mafbcritc— (i NH'O + J fl) C. 

It IB also Tonnd in trifling quantity as an uoeeäentiul oonstitaeiil 
of ««veral othor minonil «tiltatjuic^ including: 
Tachylyte, vidt ]iutas!)a ; 

Ilalilc (rock salt, certain specimens), vide soda: 
Ficrosmiiiu, vidn niagncsia; 
SaMwIite, vid« boraoio aoid. 

Also in difi^rent kimlg of clny, in cert4iin native oxides of iron, 
and other miiicral bodicis vbeo thej contaiu iuciuäcd or{;anio mat- 

Bxamiattion for AmnOBiii. 

In the compounds of ammonia, many of which tan be recognized 
at i>ncu by their volutility in lii« maCraM, p. 61, the unimmiiit may 
bo T«ry eaiUy detacted by mixing a little of the substance with soda 
and j^rudoHlly h<-uting them in a matrass or closed tu lie uver the 
spiTit'lamp. An amnioniacal odor ie evolved, and u bit of niriiatfined 
red litinn» piper inBcrli^l in the twha in cuturcd bltie. Whit« oluuds 
also funii if a glaM rod mui^tcued with hydrochloric acid Is held 
ubuvc the end of the op<-n tube. Aa reguiiU thv ulUcr miiivml sub 


staQoei ID vliicb the ammoQU forms onljr an unessential »nil, fr»- 
qufintly, onlr accidental ingn-dient, the amtnonia mu}' gt-oerully b« 
recognized by t««ting them ahme in tlie malniss, either at uuve by 
ibe udor, or by means of moinlviied red littnus piip^r, since tho ain- 
uonia escapes, vhelher it waa prvaent already ad auuU, ur wua fnriaed 
by bv'iiting a substanott containing organic» nitiugeooas matters. 

5. Babvta^ ßa. 

//> occurrence in (he mineral kingdma. 

Baryta always occurs in combination wflb otb«r bodies. 

With sulphMric acid in 
rite {harglee, heavy »par), 3, — fia B, sornvtimt-s cuii taiiiing Oa S or 

Biirytocelcstitci 3, — lU K and ßr H in varying ppoporuuni : 
Dn-clilc. 2,-Ba ö, Ca S, Oa C, Si, ÄI. Ö. (Ca R + 3 fta g; Dana.) 

b. With carbonic acid in 
Witheritc, 1»— U» C ; 

Barvtocalcit»-, 1,— ba C + Cn t', iilwaya containing ftniiK Slii C. 
Broiitlilt, 1,— contain j tbe Mme couetitucot« a« baryUrnilcitu iindvr 
ODOllier crystalline form, but the constituents are apparruily b vary- 
ing pro[M>rtions. 

fT. With silicia acid in 
Hnrmutome I-II, 1,-Äl Si' + Ba Si* + 6 H; incl. Bome K, Km Ca» 

Brcwetc^rite I A, 1,— JEl Si* -t- (är, ßa) Bi* + fi Ü, witli aunw Oa and 

Edingtonite I-IT, IG,— 1 ÄI f^i' + 3 Ba Si + IS H, iw-arly. 

Baryta also vcciir« in admixture witlt 
Fgilomrlan«, bai^lifcroua, | 
Brannite. > vide manganese. 

Baosmannitf, ) 

Staoe barilo aomctimce forma an ingrvdicnt in orre drpeacdon a 
large flcalv, and is alro addi*d in many smelting proceBses, baryta fi%- 
«jBcntly forms a con«titnent of sbigs, wtncb also occaeionatly contain 
sulphide of barium. 



ZI I a ml nation for B«ryt*, 

Incluflitifi thf bUmpifte eharacUristic» of minerals containhtg baryta, 
the ctiHstitucni» of which can be /or the inost part detected at ttia 
«ante tittw. 


A liariie fuBo« ottlf OQ the edpe; colors tbo flaiiie yellowiBh- 
(frwii ; on coul in tht* It F. U nnlnced to siilphMc. With mdu on 
[lUitinum fuil it tum» (u a clear mus» ; ud chuix-uul it at first gives a 
cl^ar beml vitli eoAik, whicli spreoils out on cuntiDutng ttio blast and 
eiiik« witti i-Iiullitiou iuto tbv coul tu a t)trODgl> hvpntic mass. 'Vina 
out Olli. Uid un Silver tbil, and moistened tburoughly, givea a bliu:lc 
«pot of 8iiliili)(le. of eilrer. 

Whfti llic Imril« contiiitiK ('a i^' iinJ a litllo Li treat«-«! with w<ia in 
|iow(U-r, Mie »iiiplmti; of burjia au<l the aoda tvith tbu dtilpliuric ut-id 
(Vom tbe lime «ink into tli« coa,], lenring tbe lime, which generally 
■«Iherpi to liie ftlffca n\' tho nnniiiil rings, anil can hf r.'fog'iiiK^'iI l>y 
Iwcuruiiig (inile liiiiiinoiiK whvu irviiti'il fur :i while' with Ihe 0. P. 

b. Hfcrtfinn^r^tite i'usi-s witli greni difTlciilty. hut more ousily tlmu 
hiirilf. uiid ftplora the flsnii- yellowish -pvcii. The difloronw id the 
fnfiihility of the two cnn be«t be teetM by pittviTizing c&^h with a 
llttk* iDitcr. furmiu',' two thin crusts fruni thv jjawu-, uci-ordiiig to 
p. TO, imd rhfti testing one of these iifter tbi- other at Iho saroc 
tc.iip-rutiire. With eudu it rvuct« like burit«. 112 etruntiii u1m> gnra 
iuto tht-' eual, The iirMenou uf siruntia ia detoeteil by u. ttpecial test, 
u-bicli will Ik- given h«rv for the sake of connection. 

A little of tb<; niincrol ia pulverized witb Bume puHrii-d gnipbite 
and Wiitor in the ni»rlAr, dropped tipoii coiil, and tri?3itc<l aOi'r uuvftil 
drying for t^rtnt.- timo with the It. F. on both ^ide*. Tlie iv^nleing 
compnuiid of sulphides of biirium and (jtrontinm in deuomposcd in 
a iHii'oeliiiii ve8M.-I with bydrocbloric acid, the süIuItod evnpoi-al<.it 
immediaU'Ir to diynefe, the tiiilt liisHolved in a few dr'pfl of distilled 
vratcr, and lb<'n aiooho] added until a iipirit of about at)" ia obtained. 
Upuu ftetlin^r Um to tbU «ad outiBlaiiily eiirriiig it uith a fsUsi rod, 
the flame of the alcohol is colored red with chloride of strontium. 
Kveu when tiie amomit of Htrontia h trifling the color may be dis- 
tinctly fiLi'u if the Duhition uf the salu in ulcohol ia »beurbed by a 
Imll of cotton nTBp}H>d nbont a loop of platinnm «ire and then mt 
. Dti flpp. Ilore. as iu ths ciisc of tbu blowpi|X' Jlamt-. care miist be 
Ukcu t-) avoid auy impurities ahding I'rum soda &alts, wbich would 



3olur ihc Same iiiU-nse reddiali-yoJIow niid more or len conc<>kt the 
ml Qanif resulting frum «ujr trifliug Ktnouiit of Bti-uoliii. 

c DrKlit« fuece, actjortjiiig to Dnfrenpy, to a white, blebby glu>» 
aud probiiblf behaves m-itli coda quit«? like bnritu cuntainuig lim«. 


0. Witherite fiiaes easilj to a bead, coloring the flame didtinoil; 
yclluwieli-^Tit'ii anri iicqiilring an alkuliuc mictJuu, Wltli soda ftiaes 
Terr ea^ilv and gucH iuto the coul. Dissotres in dilut« bydrocliloric 
acid with effervesceiioe. 

b. BariitocalcU« '\i iilmo«t inftisible, but iwoducea au iul«uwl; 
yellowioli-srifn fliuiu-. ütrotigty heat«! it friis on the snrfaoe, 
licootni's bliiish-grvoQ (Ita Stn), and acqiiirfA un alkalinu rcactiou« 
With sod» the lime separates, while the rest sioks iuto tlie coal. 
Wiib bnra« niul S Ph (with »dditioü of nitre, p. 105), a fwblo bat 
dittitict iuaugsuL>8e rvuottuii is ubtjün»d. 

Jirtmlitf behave« Tery aimiUrlj", with llie exceptiou of tlie mao- 
gftiiefie n.-actioii. 

The ]irea«iKh! of lime iu burvtocitlcit« niid hroralite ctaii be dotectad 
bycauriouslr hringing the powden^ minentlit, moi^iutiod viih bydi-o- 
cblurie ucid and epruid ou a loup of platiiiimi win-, near the tip of 
the blur llumu. During the tirst action of the Hatiiv, diriliiiot 
aireaks o{ the jcllowish-red time ttunic ok stivn, wliicb are, hovrcvor, 
TBry »x>a couwaM by the liaryla. 


In silicflti>s barytn cannot be detected, either by the flatiu*, or by 
jta betiuvjur with »oila ; nor it Liierv.* ituy other me^ns »f deti^rmiuiug 
it with cfft^inty in the dry »»y. The wi-t nay niiiät thercron- be 
Used ill «nmeutiou with tlie dry uicüiod. 

Thi« eilicnte« above named, harmoloma and hrMVsferitf, ean b» 
dwomposec) by lijrdroclilonc acid so that, nlVr Klleriug out the 
silicic acid, all the bn^-s inny be (letc-ctnl. V\)ot\ adding bieiilphaie 
of poiosta, or a ftw drops of 8uli>b(iric .icid, to tfiv foliilion the 
baryta luid utroulJu aru prectpiuit«! as ftulphutfü, utid tlie only i]uea- 
lioQ ie wLi'lher we hiive both uf \\w»v »mM^ or ivhkh ali»iit>. To 
determine this the pn^ipitatv if, thoriinglily imshi-d on ii llltrr witll 
hot water, spread on C\>al. dried with the blowpi|*. und then beattfd 
»iningly nutil it adheres. The eniBt tbns roniiwi is le«icd in tbo 
fbrOf|>i 08 to fusibility and the color it iii]p;krts to the flame. \t it 


tütos to » Wwl, and gives a I'pd flamir, it, ig strontia ; if it rnsM ouly 
witl) (lifGctiltyua Üion]g:ei. and culo» thuflamo vctlun'i8h-grci.-ii. it ia 
baTTta; whilß if it is leas fusililie tluiii in the foriuvr eam mid mora 
fusibld ihftu in tlic Inttor, mid nt Lh(* same time prtKlii«t-e rnllier a 
vt-llow i»li 'grc:!.-]] thun a. n^d flumt-, it is qiiit<; ccrtutii ti> Ik.- u mixture 
of both. In order to niinuve all doubtriilnwafmmtlit; reaction it 1$, 
howCTcr, ii«c«6£ar5 to wash the precipituW so thoroughly that no 
soda can be pn.-«eDt, as this ivonld aller both the fiisibility and Die 
fiamc If the jri-Ilowisb-grci-n llauie bo^ pluiiily shuwn baryla, hut 
there is still a doubt ubelht^i' etmutia may uot bv prcst-ut, t1ie 
alruidy t<.-ätc>d aesity, or u fit-^h pcrtioo ul' tliv pivcipituu-, i* to h« 
treated with grujihito on cnii), exactly a« dir«tit«d for burytooelostite, 
p. 1381 

The omnner in which the otbrr buses arc dtttectud in liarmolomu 
und brvtTdterit«, luid the method of cxuminiiig dressed ows sitd äUg» 
with the help of the wet way, is describvu iu the ujcamiiiäLiuu of siU- 
oates containing lime, nnder lime, p. IM. 

Ac'Ct>nliug to Chapman (CKein. Oot., 'Jl, p. 2it'J), mixinn'S or Ita 3 
and ^r ä lire fitted in a platinum sjioon with thri.-'t! Ui four purl^ uf 
chloride of calcium and the fused inusa boilod with nuler. 'I'u llie 
clear äolucion. diluted with water, a few drupj of Chromate ofp^jtA^^ia 
iu Solution are addotl, and if a cloiidincs» is produced tJiis indicates 
th« presence of baryta, since struntia ia only prucijiilated Irom a 
ooucentrated solatjon. 


In the three naantrauese ores uutacd, braunite, hauaoutHnile, and 
ptilomeUme, the triBing amount of barjtacan sometimes l>e detected 
simply by the feeble, yet distinct, baryta flame produced by » smHll 
Bplinier. cither nlmie, or moistened with hydrorhjoric acid. If this 
gives no satisfactory n-enlt, a not too ^mall amonntof the mineral is 
dieaolred in bydroohlonc acid, diluted with w«t«r, ti I tervd if uc-oes^ury, 
and testod with bisutphutti of putHstsa or Bulphuric u<'id. If u pre- 
cipiLute results, it cau be collected ou u filler and tested, m before 

6. Stbontia, Sr. 

JU oeeurreiice in the mineral kingdonu 

Stroutia occur« only : 

a. With tufphuric aexd in 

Celcstile, 3,— Sr ^, «ometjiues witb a little Ita, Co, I^e, »nd A ; 


Barytooelestite vCd« baryta ; 

Also oi^caAi'inallv in Lriflin^ quuii tity ia burltc, vide tmrytu. 

b. Vt'yih earöonic acid hi 
Strontianit«, 1, — är C^conrAiniiig frequently more or ]«gs Ca C, SId, 

P«, und Ü ; 
Als» iu trilling qniuitity in uragonit«, vide lim«. 

r. With sr'iiVic flcirfin 
ilrowfltorite, vide bitryta. 

BxMBinaUon (or Strontla, 

iHchiding the Hoieju'jte choracttrUtica of mineraU containing sinHtiet 
the mmiHumi)! of whirJt can be for tk» mo$t part dettcteil at the 
tamt lime. 


CelefHi« (which generally decrepitat« when crystallizedj ftisp? to a 
milk-nhiti- bi>iid, ooloriog Iho Rmnc red, p. 74. On roid in K. F. it 
sprcvb out aud is ch&ugwl tu a diOicullly ftmiblc, htpalic muM. foo- 
»iflting chiefly of sulphide. This treated with hydrochloric »cid and 
alcohol, a» dir?cud under baryta, for miucrals contnining atroniiu, 
givi's an intens« rod Home. 

With eodu ru»e8 to a clear mass, which sinks into the coal with 
effervescenre ; any trifling ndinixtares of Ca or 1^ ar^ ie]xirau>d and 
hehiiTc ua dtuU-d un ]>. 138. 'I'hi- mass cut out from thi: coiil gircs n 
eulphnr reaction od silver. 

T))i> method of detecting stronlia in barytocolcstitc and certWD 
barit« haa been given under baryta. 


a. SirontiatiU» swells in the blowpipe flame, putting forth ramifi- 
cations nliich glow with a bright white light and futfu only on the 
Ihinneat vtlses; the llamc is colored red, and moat Btroiigly where the 
assay ia most luminons. After ignition the autay roncts alkaline oa< 
red litmus paper. 

Sirontiiinite disfultcs with cfler^-csccnee in dilntc hydrochloric 
aciJ, and if tlie eohilion is evaponifed to dryness and tiie n-snltiug 
efalorid« of strontium treated with alcohol, or held iu the blowpipe 
Same on platinum win?, it produces a red flam«. Aoeonling to von 
Eo)n*11 a bit of strontinuili.- muietijiied with the acid and simply held 
in the ejindle flame will produce a red colon 

The purity of strontianite can wodily be tested by fusion with 



»odo. Tlir pnrc raitiRral ftises to a clean miiM «dJ gocfl into the 
coal, bnt if iiny Oa, El-, «tc, are preacnt they are separated »nd Ufl 
on the Hurfuoe, an with bitril«. 

^. Aragonit* Bomctiraes containa a littl« stronHa, which can b« 
del<vU-il hx hciiting in thi- Toroeps a fniginenl of the aseay, proviouslj' 
di-vrcpitntccl in u mutrass; it ia iiifusilk-, l>ut colora the flame mono 
iatensclj red than an equally large piece- of caloite. To detect it 
more certainly, a suffipiont nmonnt is dia*oK«d in dilut« bydroohloric 
acid and llic* «trüiiliii prwi pita tod wJili u few dmjwof Btilpburic sit-id. 
The predpitate is collected and treated as directed on p. 130. It 
fuse« to a bead and culoi-a ttiu ilium* nü like sulphate of alrotitiu. 

Strontia ie dclwrtHi in ireH^sterUe as already directed, p. 13'.>. Al- 
though Ktrontiunite 8omctinii.'8 occniT in ore-braring Toins, and it if 
thortrorc presuniablo that strunlia also fn^iiciitlr forma a triniiig 
constituent in dressed ores and tbp slajca produced from th<.-Di. it is 
quite oortatn that the rcry tritiinj amount ooiild st-ldoni be detect«?d 
■with certainty. AVheu it is desired, however, to have reganl to any 
strontia present in a slag or ore which ia lieing examined for batata, 
atteution must be paid to the rcnuirka made under baryta, p^ 139. 

7. LlTtK, Cs. 
It* oceurrmce in the mineral kingdom. 

Litn« is of quite (Wqneot occurrc-ncu und is found : 
a. As ciilttritit in 
Tucbydrite l^(Ctt CI + 2 Mg Vi) + U ft ; 
Ä. Asßttariile in 

Fluorite {ßuor spar), 1-2, — CaF, with sometimes a little CI and V; 
the blue Quorite ftom WOlficndorf, Bavaria, is said to contain 
hypochlorit« of lime; 

Gearksutite,— Ca' F 4- AI* F* + 4 fl j 
PrtMopite,— Ca V, Si P, X\, Mg, Mn, Ä ; 

Yltnxerite 1, — Ca F, Y F, Ce F, in varying ppoportjona, with prob- 
ably % and perhaps alao La and t)i 
c. With nilpfiuHc acid In 
Anhydrite i, — Ca "3, frequently containing a litÜe Si, C, Ee, and ß ; 
Gypsum 1-2.-— C'a S -(- 2 fl, and occasionally inipuritics ; 
Polyhalit«, vide potassa ; 
GlaDberit^, side soda ; 
Dreelit«, vi'ifs baryta. 



*i. Wit.n näric acid in 

Kitrocalo)ti>,— Ou S -^ H. 

c. With pftofphoric acid, and at tiie eame time aa calcium with 
ßuoriiw und chlorin« in 
Apotiu; 1,— phosphate of lime with cliloriilo or fliioriilu of culcium, — 

Cii (P, CI) + 3 Oa' P; the CI varies from traces to 4.1 per cent.; 

the F, from 1.9 to 2 [«■r otnt., is seltloro dirpcHy dt't^TminM; 

muny specimens contain some I^, Si<g, and trifling <|uantitieR of 

Hlkulies ; 
Talc-npiititfl,— con tains, besides the nsiial tiigredieat of njMitite, M^ 

!S, and insoluldo [lurtiuns; 
Fnncolito,— analogona to apntit«, bat some Ca roplocod by te nuil 


Hydrüupatite,— ft hydnons apatite wiUi 5.3 percent, water; 
Fyroclaeite iiid RIaubuputite, mainly fajdroits phoephatn of lime, — 

Ca* 1* + 2 fl ; the former with Riilphate iind earhonaffl of lime, 
mlphute of ttodu, chloride ot euditim, organic Bttl)sUtiRT>i^ ant) 
tTaces of fluorine; the latter nirith sulphate of eoda (13.1 pci 
ccnL) and wutcT (proliabty jU'Uaiio, Dana). 
LMuropatite and Osteolil«, containing neither 01 nor if; Uk 
former, heweter, «ntuins V'siile« pho«j)hate of lime, Si. X', Mgj 
the latter Si, Si, Pe, Sig. K, i-'a, Ö, ft ; 

Bnuhile 1,— (| Oa + 4 H)' ^ + 4 Ü ; 
Hetabniehite 1, — same fannnla but only 3 t[ ; 

Herderit« IT, I,-Xl, Ca, P, P? 

TamtocVite.— (1 Ca' + -J ÄI)* P + 8 Ö. 

/. With «»rfiOMi'c acid iu 
Calcitc 1,— Cu C, with occasionally ^e, On, Co, ft, and ae limestone, 

oflcn mixed »iih Ca Ö, clay, organic matter, etc.; 
Aragonite 1.— Ca C, with trifling amouuts of 9r C, 1^ C (lanion- 

cit-!), or Cu 0, ^, and Ü ; 
G«y-Lne»ite, vide soda ; 

Plonibocalmte 1,— (Ca, f*h) C. a variety of oaldt« ; 
Predazait« 1,-3 Ca + Sig fi; 
Pencatiie 1,— Ca C + Älg ft ; 
Hydrodolomite 1,-3 (C*, Xlg) C + ft ; 
Polomite <pearl epar, pt«; hrown spar, pL; tharandit*.-) 1, — Ca C + 

Sig 0, oee^sioiiuUy with An, fe, or Kt- ; other Tariotie« — 3 Ca 



+ 3 ftg C, or 3 (Ja. C + )*Ig C (^brhoflaii), or Ca + S Ag 

(oonit(>). In brown spar (ankerite, tautcwlin), — £a C 4- (^g, ^o) 

Ö, both cftrboiiaten uceur, with very variable lunouat« of Pe 

and all C; 

Barytocalcitp, vidn harj-ta ; 

Muii^rniioettloitc, ) . , 

_, 7 I, -.J «f"*» manganese ; 

Tjrolile, «I'/d itr»uiiat<r of copper. 

Ca C niRo fornis the rhief ingredient of chalk, limestone, ml<1 mui. 
^. With oxalic acid in 

Wliewellite 1. — Ca S + ti, in siaall crystals on catctte. ■ 

A. With borncic acid in 

Borocalcit (beehilite?) 1, very rwying iii composition; t lie Tuscan 
rariety. — Ca + 4 H; the South American (or Harce, nuw 
TBftrrcd to iilesite by OanaV— Ca I? + 6 ft, also— Oa T*' + 10 
ft (tlio laltt-r I'urmulu after ilcdiicting chloride of ciUciiim and 
gypaum). According to Salr^tat a quite similar miiK-nU from 
Pi-rn gives a vory dilTei-oiit ]H'oporlioii in the conslitnonls. 

Ho«]i[e,-:2 Ca St 4- 2 (Ca, ß' + Ü) + ft' B; Uow. 

Hydroborocalcite I,— (Sa B' + Ca' 'ß') + 10 ft, referred to ulexi 
hy Dana, 

Hvdn)ljoraeite 1,— {Ca* Ti' + ilg* li') + 18 fi ; 

XTlexitc, vide soda. 

IHiodiüitt-. aeeorJiiig to G. Ros^ — Ca and Iß. 
I*, With arsenic acid in 

Haidingcrit« 1,— Ca' le + 4 H ; 

rharmanolite 1,— Ca' Äs + 6 ft; 

Picrophainiacolite 1. — (Oa, Iftg)' Ss + 12 ft, excl. Co; 

Heraeliito I,— Ca' Äs + (Sfg, Mn)* Ss. 

jtu With iH"fffiic acid in 
Schcelite 1 ,— Ca W, with frequently Si, a little F, and sometimes Bö 
and Ün. 

1. With OTt/itnome aciil in 

Romvite 3,— Ca' 'ab +Ca läb, or also Ca Sb, with a little Ud. &« 

m. With hpponiohic arid^ in 
[•yrochltin; frmn Mia«lc.— Slh, witli aomc W 
Ca. t. Ce.fh.» little K, 

[.IV E. 


P^rocUorc froiii Brvvig is stij to be trte fhim Ka F. Iitit contains C 

soil fl ; it h»a uo V. Pyrochlore from Fredriksrtrn in «niilar. 
Microlitß from ChvaU-rlii-Id, Mass., — Kb, Vf. t", t". Cd. Il ; acourding 

to Brush probably a pTrucliluni iu which lAUtalic acid KplacM 

the columbic piiobic) acid; Dunn. 
Morius III. acfordiug tu A. A. Jltya, oolambute of lime. 

n. Witt] titanic aeiä ia 
Pfn.fskitd a,— Oil Ti, wiih a lilLlr fV, S'lii. Sfg. 
0. VV'itb siixcic aria iii a lur^c iiumbi-r or «ilicate«. 

a. Anhifdrvus jn7>oa/ar, yielding uo vraler, or oulj traces, when 
tiented in tbe muCra^s. 

WolIjiBtuiiit« II, Ut, — Ott Si ; fpe«int?ntly some Jig, ]P«, and tl : 
GehUnite II-JII. 10,— ft* Si + K Si ; ft = Oa, Mg ; ß = Ä1, Ee ; 
Lime — alumina gikrnet {gnjäitiiluriu-, cj»uuiU-, cirin»inoii slone, eno- 

cinik-) I, 2,— (Ca')' Si' + iÄl* Si', in which some Oa \i a'Ctax re- 

plnced \iy Slg-, ifla, and fiome Xl by 1^: ; 
Lime-iron ganiel. (colypboiiiu-, infttiiüu-. jiulj-mlL-lphite) 1, 2, — (Cu')' 

fti'+ Si:* Si*; incl. a liulc %. Slu. «iid Ä1 : 
OovsroYite (limi-chrome garnet) III, 3,— (It')' Si* + (Ä1, Cr)' 3L*; 

ft = Cwäg. ffe; 
Vetorianile (iducraae. cjjiriae, egeran) I A. 2,-3 (fi*)' 8i' + 2 Ä' 

Si'; It = ta. STg, Sin ; R = X!,Et-; 
Monticellite <balniclilUs) II. 2,— CV Si + Sfg" Si; incl. tome f'e in 

place of Sig; 
Pyroxene niincraU, of varying fusibility. 

1- Limo— Uagoeaift Pyroxtne, inclndiog; 
Ualaoolit«, ^ 

Wbii«cocoolite, )-I-lI, 2— (Ca, Sig) Si ; incl. Fe and Äln. 

3. LiraL^ 

3. Lime — Mns^e-iia— Iron Pyroxene: 
tireeu» from Dalecurliii, I A. ^,— (Oa, Sig, f e) Si, inc). Mn ; 
Satililr. ) 

Baikoliw, l I, 2,— (Oa, S!g, Pe) Si. 
Fun kite, ) 

4. Lime — Iron — Manganese — Zinc Pyroxene: 
JefferwnJte I, 3,— (^X Mg, Pe, Sin. 2ü) St.' 


-Iron Pyroxene : 
I A. %,—{C^ Pe) Si; incl. Sig «nd Sin. 



fi. Aluniitioiu Lime — Magnesia — Iron l^yroxeoe: 

J^giTitQ I, 3, -ft" Si' + If« Si*; H = Oa, Sa, fe. 
Scapolite. The name of a ^roup including:* 

PwimtliiU',— Xl Äi + Ort Si, 

Wernerit?,— ÄI* .Si' + 3 ß Si ; ft = Ca, Äa (K. Jtg), J- I-H A, 1. 

EkelH-rxiu-i-i Xl' 5i' + 3 ft* Si'; ft = Ca, Sf» (&), 
Mciouitc I A, l,~n(Mirl}- 3 CV Ki + £ XV Bi' ; incl. &, fla, or Li, JE*«; 
Axinito I A, 3 -(ft*)' Si* + 8 tt' Si" + J B' Si' ; ft = Ca, Äg ; K = 

;^l.lüe, fln; 
Diinbiirit« I-ll,— Oa' Si + B'Si'; 

Bttbingtonitc I A, 3,-3 ft' Si' + K; Si* ; ft = Ca, fe, Bq; 
Baraowite II. 10,— ÄI* Si' + 2 (Co. Ug) Si ; 
laopvre I, 2. — Si, Al, Pe, C»i, Vax ; 
J-^pidnte (bitcUliinditc. piisclikinitc, pi«b)citc), fnsiUIity rar)-inf^, I A; 

II A, II, 2,— :J U" Si + a Tl» Si' ; ft = Ca with more or less % 

Pit, rtp, Jin ; n = Ä1 with more or less lEc and fin ; 
Zoifitc (thulitc) I-II A, 3,-3 Ca' Si + a Ä1 Si'; 
Anorthitc U. 1,— Ca&i + £l Si; 
llvalW (lie*Titc) L 10,— &c' Si + 3 Fe' Si + Cft' Si; 
llui-nbliindc. cci-laiii varieties contaiuing lime, viae magnesia; 
]Mut«oriE«a, vidt potussa. 

(3. b'iticaiea with carbonate» : 
Strogaaovit«, 1 ^^^^^^ 
Ciuiuntitte, \ 

y. Hydrmis sdieatfs : 
Gjrrolile I A, 1.— Ca' 5i' + 3 fT; 
Oleen ile I A, IG,— Ca Si' + 2 fl ; 
Sunaltil« III :, 1,-4 Ca Si + fi; 

I'rebuite (coiipholite, edelit«) I A, 2,-2 C» Si + ÄI Si + 11; 
Soolecite I A, IG,-- Xl Si* + Ca Si + 3 fl ; 
DiphaniU' (margariie), 1. — tn'rf*- nliimiua; 

Clionicrite I A. 1—7 (flg. Ca. t^) Si 4- 2 (Sfg, Ca, l^-e) ÄI + 6 fl ; 
Lanmontite I A, IG, — Ca Si -t- Xl Si' + 4 (i ; cajioreianlte is qnitu 

similar, bnc cfjntuina :] fl ; 

* ThtM fonniilnti uc not Kinn ■• cKprcuiitz Üutxactcompodilonof ibe KHpoIlMi 
iitidur all citruniiuincv«, txic onlj ua (tira n gmuml tIcw ot llw TttrieÜM. The; im 
&WB ÜURuinii.— ]'rran«l.| 



FalAgonite I. 10,-3 ft Si + (Xl, ».•)• Si* + 10 fl; U^C*, % 

(5Ja, K) ; 6ome varinies oontaiu Diure Ö ; 
LcouliÄTdiU' I A, IG,— 4 'Ä1 8i' + 3 Ca Si + 14 Ö ; 
CbalUtte, — referred to tli'-meoDiU; bv Dana; 
Chloriwtrolito I-II A, l.-(C8'. Sn')' Si» + 2 (Xl. P.-)' Si' -H 6 Ö ; 
StUbiU I A, 1.— Xl Si' + C« Si' + 6 fit, iiichidiiig » littJe &» and & : 
HeulandiU' J A, 1, — Xl 3i' + Ca Si* -f & l3 ; ctrimtt is similar in 

oomposi Hon ; 
NeuMliU; in,— 2 Xl Si' + Oa Si' + S Ö. 

b. ITj/firout silicates oontainliig alumina as an »cid : 
Xanthoplijllite III. 2,— rerenvd to «rjWtitc by Diuitt ; 
Sejfbertite (clintonite) III, 1, — iu Dana's IopbiiiIm just cit<-d, ft = Ca, 

tig. I'e; Naumann gii.-efl 5 ft Si + ö ß AI. making II iimrMeu- 

'■ IlydTWif tilicattf containing boracic aeid: 
»otolitc I A, iG^Ca Si' 1- C» B + fl, cvr C*' Si + B Si + ft ; 
Botryolite f A, Hi, lilce dntalitt^ bat contaiuiDg tn-i«> aa niuoh U. 

5. SiVrca/w containing tUauic aeid: 
Titanite (ephene. gn-enovitt) II A, 2,— Ca Si' + Cu Ti', or (Ca + Ti) 

5i ; iucl. a little t> and Sin ; ijuari»ite is quit« similar; 
Sohorlomite II, 'i.—'^c Si* +2 Ca* "Fi; ivaarite has nearly the same 

coropositiuii ; 
Keilhanite (yttrotitanite^ I A, 1,-,1 ft (Si ti) + R (Si*, Ti') ; tt = 

Ca,Y; R = X].Pe,(aii.Ge). 
Lime funns an esseutiul cuiistitueiit of fiCTeral otiier nataral aili- 
calM, besides those above named, and tliew htiTc b«ca for the most 
part already mpntiniied, uiidor polasaa, p]i. ISO-l'-f-t. und buda, pp- 
127-131. wliile llie rt>muiDd^r will be givi-n under magiii^ia luid 

CttJcit«, dolomit«, and fiuorite being of very fr«qnent occurrence 
in ore-bearing veins, lim? often forma a coti^iderable ingrcdifnc in 
dresMcl ores, pspwially when stumpt'd drv, and conspqueiilly alno in 
tbe slags nwnlting Trum amelting tJu-e« ores ; the aniunut of lime in 
th« slags is also frequently increased by the addition of calcifcroiu 
llnxes, npfHf^snry for smelting many ores. These? slags occa«ioually 
contain Ca S and Ca F. 



EnmltuUoa for Ucn*. 

[iichulht^ Ibe UoH^pim charnrltrUticx of calci/erous minerah. Itif 
cdHstHueHti of iMieA atn for the mo*t part In digcovtrtd at Ute 
aante tif»«. 


0. Fltwriie ft^nentl; plimphorescvs with a Tiolet or greenish 
light, ftod gcnciuUy deorupitalea in the mutrass. lu tbe furcei» it 
Tnaes to a bead, und after lotig bciitiDg cuku^ ibo flumo intpiieo }'«.-U 
tovUh-red, p. 74- On pliitiniini riiil and charcoal rnscf with noAxt to 
II cli-iir maftj, wKicb it opiuiue on ciMiliiig. vide also p. 88. With gy\>- 
»nvcif larite, or eckst ilc, it Tuaes cusUyou coal to a Hvar bend, upuqu>- 
un cooling. 

DiKsolveH rery t^iuiily iu coueidemble quantitj in borux and S. Ph., 
bat ibe glass becomes opaqii? wlioQ BUpersutaratod. 

Tri'Atod ill the ope» tube with fnEcd S. I'h., it erolrea bjdrofliioric 
acid, vide Uuui-in«. 

h. TUrocorUe, vi<fe yttria. 


0. Anhtfdriie yieldi no water, or only iraoes, in the matraaa, while 
gtfpstim yittkU wiJt^T Jiud l)ecunnra inilk'white. 

li. Ü. both behave a* tollnwa: fiisp with difficulty to un eaunül- 
wbit« batd imd color the Hume rud, but fc-eblcr than c?le«t)t«. On 
uoal in B. F. yi4.-ld «ulphidf (if culciuni, which rvnct« alkulinc on n^l 
litmuH pBper Hnd evohTS n h«'patic odwr. 

In buni.\ oil ]tlulitiiim win- diesulvc to & clear gto^fi, colorless unless 
oxide of iron is |>rt.>scnt, when tlio but glon nppcaiB yellow. A su- 
uersdtnrnU'd head is opiwiiic on cooling. If Itstud with borax on coal 
the sattirateil hvsA hvcamv* yellow, wwiiig leas to ti little iron than to 
the formatinn of sulphide of eodiuni. With eoda un lhiiiI cannot be 
fusid to a clear inusa; distinction from baritv and eeK-^litc. Tliey 
aro iiRkt-d di-coinpoGi<d. but the Mma rt'tauiue ae an infusible mass, 
wbil" the Hulpimtf of »udn and the exci-ss of Koda sitkk into tJic ooal. 

With fluorite Miey fuäc tu n cit'ur head, which id ■.■uatnul-vrhitt* on 
cooling and swclU np and becomes inftteibto ou continuing the blast 

b. PolyhiilUf, containing Co. ?, Üg % and t J>, yield» water and 
fnws on coal tj wi opiiquL* red, bead, which in thf R. F. bi-come« 
white and fumiH a hollow crust, with a salt nnd soiiiL-vrhat hepatic 
taäte. Fuiicd ou platinum wire a trifling amount of &'a CI causes a 

tlUB— SITBATE— I'aaiPU-aE. 


sa<la flane, so that th« pota^ea cau only be sc«n hy using rolwltftaM 
or indigo solutioa, vide |>uIh>^. 

In bonx diiuolvüs vusily niih eflt-rvviiccQCP to a cltukr bend, ifntn«^ 
whut colored with irou, wbicli is ofiMque vliou very aiuch is lulilrd 
In ^ i'b. iJi£s>ik<-8 «.^A^ilj- to a clear, colorlt>&s bead, o;<Aquc on cooUdje:, 
wlitub sliuws no irun L'ulur utilesü II gtx-iit c](>iil is. luided. With »win 
it h ilecnni[>ü8eii. jietdiug no eaitlir m»»a, wliicb in tlie K. F. is ye)- 
lowi«li Troni Na S. With iluurtU: fiisi^fi tg iin (>[xiu|iii^ bvtui. 

Lime nod miign^siu cun onlr Ite acpaniled by llie wet vay, and 
»cb lesU'd by itself with Ibc lilnw|)i|je. TIil> niiiuTä] in diisnAvfil io 
dilot«; liydrxHriilnric acid, a tritliiig amoiiiit of siMjuioxidv of iron 
ptvci|)itAt«d b; ammoutn, and tiifii tbe liuie jjrecipiUled with 
oxnlic iciil and llu< mft^t.-sia vitb eiilt of piiodphontg, 

c Utauutrii', c<mtni»ing b^'sidoa l^a % some jSin S, which in 
ifOugnixed by i\w «oda lUme, vitle suda, dwrcpitat«« in the niatnug 
»itb acone violence and yii'Idn vtrr lilllti wahT ; at incipient rediirs» 
it fuKS to a cli-ur man, yiL'Ulin^ nutbiii;; Vülatilc. On <.'t>ul In-cunitis 
at firet white, thrn Susl'* to a clear bead, opaque on cooling. J» the 
K. F. (be bead hrconie.s infnsiMn nnd beparitr, nnd aftor blowing loagpr 
tht.' Nikff ^x'fl into ibv t'oal and liuvra tlic lime buliind. In buinx 
uud S. I'h. diesulvea iu lai^ riuaiittty with etfiTvesceiic« to a ^\aa9 
whit^b is (i(4u^no «n cooling. Il ie d(.oiin)x>«4.'iI wilb sodu on c<>al to 
a hi'pjlic tniiax. which BinkKiuaiid luaves tlie lime, Witli Üuorite 
fQSPA like gypsnin. 

d. J>nd\lc probably n-oct« Hkv a culrifcrous barito with eotiu. 
The lime can be detecU'd with Ct-rtainty by digesting a little of tha 
powden-d mineral wiih <iilnte liydntcblnric acid, adding WHtfT, filter- 
ing out ibf n-sidiif uf Bulpliate *>{ Imrytii. and prucipiuiliug iIk- lime 
wJtb oxalic acid after making the filtrate anmioniacaU 


Id the matrass yields wutiT, and when itroni;1y bealiHl nitroua 
atdd. On platinum wiro gives a strongly luminons uoae, which 
colon th<? Same Tellowisb-n.'d. DeHagi-ai«« eliglilly on coal, It^iviug 
a whit«, i-artby, alkaline nuu8, which dut:a nut sink into tlic cuul 
wiiii sod» 


AfMitHe avmeiimea pbospboresoes iu the matrass. {Eupi/rchroih 
rrom Crtiwij Point, N. Y., rfifiwg gpwn phosphon^cflnoe.) In tba 
furcsp« fnko with diffictiliy uu tl c cdgi- to a truiiskict-nt glass, not 



coloriDg the flame (linlincll;. Tlie ßne powdvr moistenpil vitfa saU 
plitiiiu acid ]>ri>diicui^ u Lmusi«ut lli)i8li-^n.-cQ ilnini-, |i. 76. Tb« 
pliospborio acid can also tie ytbiTWite dutocii'd, vide jthoepboric acid. 
Jq bornx diunWcA slnwtr tu a clear gliLSA, freqiieiitl}' jrelloir ttmn 
iron wbile hoi, aud wtiicb ciiu bt* mude ojuuiue by llamiu^ witJ] 
u etrtjun AvgrvK vf siirnmtioii; wlic-u linxv ie «diW it Ix-comea 
u|MK|aü of iUelf uti cuoliiig. In 8. Pb. dissolves largely lo a clear 
gla^ iriiicb wlieu nearly »at.iiratt'rt becomee opai]ue and »hows eryg- 
tatlint.- fiuxts ou cuuliii^; tlit-Si- arc K-s» distinct tbuti llio«.- prDÜiiccil 
by phofipbato of li^ad in this shIi. A fiillr sattiratod glass bccomea 
niillc-wliit« without showing tacvis. Willi equal pans of soda swMe 
witb efft-n-MWiicc to au iTirusible miws. more «xln guc8 into thi* coaL 
Any mangiinese present cMi be detected with soda and nitre on 
plntittum foil, tnW^innsi^neso. Clilorine and äaorine, it not in 
arnalt qtiaiititii?«, are round by Lbe test« givt^u elsewhere. 

To aeecrtain further th« pruÄ-nr« oi' lime tlie ptjmlprcd mineral ' 
diMulvcd ill bydrocbloric acid, a few (\To\)i i.>f »nlphiiric are addi: 
tho Acid «oiui-ion dilttlod with thri><> volnmi» of strung alcohol, aud 
shnkeli. Siil|)bate of ]imp itHpurult'H and van «uon lie filtered olT; 
after beiug washed witb ntcnlxil it miiät i^act B. LI. like gy^^äiim. 
After removing the alcohol by evaporation, other ingrcdieiita like 
fliaminn und oxide of iron, can be lecled for. ^T\w abore »^olntioa 
catuioL tirDt be treated will] ammoniiu for tlie lime would go down 
as phnsphate a;;ain.) To tt-Äl tlic aputilc for magnesia also, it. ninst 
be lu^d ID powder with eoda and eilicic acid, ns will be given uuder 
the phosphoric seid, the oiaM Iroatod with water, tbi' carbuuatoa of 
the earths and any rcHidnul silica diHSuIvcd in bydnichlonc arid, the 
sohitiun dilitti:^ with water, and the silicic acid, with atiy imn-ti of 
alumina mid Ee^i)ioxid<> of iron, precipitated with umniouin; after 
which the Iinte is thrown down with oxalic acid and the miigm-eia 
with etili of phosphorus. 

Among the ivmaiaing pbcspliatca of lime, h^jdmnpatilti, pffrociusHe, 
and ji(W(An/>ff/)*'f yield water ; fiuorine and «hlorini? can only be ■ 
tected in hydixmpatite. The remaiuing reaction« are like »jmtiki. 


0- Caleitt. liecrepitates sometimes in the rantrn««, ond when «in- 
tainiug metaJIic oxides changes in color. In the foro-ps is ijifusible. 
beoomefi caustic, feebly luniitiou-t, und Colorw the flame rcil, but fui 
more feebly tliBii strontianit*. When afterward moistcuwl with by- 
drochlorio arid it gives a distinct chamct^netic lime flamo. Aftei 
thorough ignition it haa tin alkalinc reaction. DiswItcs with elfi'i-< 



rcMeiiOR iti the glues (luxes and rciuits like lime; if it oontuinB nut- 
l»]li<; oxides th^Toaii be at tlie iame time ri-cogritzeil.iind then traci-« 
iif iiiafigiiiH-6e mii«t b« »peciHlljp IvhIkiI fur, vide maii-^»üi-«e. Willi 
Bodii ün pliitinum Full fust^ to u cliiu* ranss, while the invtu31ic oxides 
are »cjiimited ; on coal fust-s at tir^t, but aflvrward most of th« 
tociasiuks in. Iwving an infugiblu rveiduci, uUicli is lumiiiuus undi-r 
a strung blut. Sometimt^s a sulphur Kaeliou i» qbtaine<l on silver 
toil. p. S*Hi. 

b. AraffmUe crnmblo« to pieces B. B.; otlierwiac react« like c*l- 
cit«, but wtii'ii vontaiuiiig »trontia givvs a niuK intense rod llami>, 
su(] wUen roiit«iDing lead due« not give a pure red but a blui^ 
fiacDO, wliUe vith suda un ooal in the R. R it Uu|)osit« a »light k-ud 
coat. This ie the ea^o with famorlci/v. 

c Oa^-J.uNtite ricMti wuli>i- in tho nwti'Ass and then ha« an ulkn- 
Kne reactiutL lu the foroi-p« tavtA to uu upiujut buud und give« a 
atroog floda dame. With the fluxes sad eodu reacts like carbutiatv 
of limr- 

d. Piuvibocalcite reacU like plumbiferous ara^unite, lint gives a 
stroiijrer lead coat. 

& rnxlazsito. pettcalUe, hgdrodohmiia, dohatUet and all com- 
punuiU of carbiinutt'B of lime and tnugneaia, rtfout like oarbonat«^ of 
lime without mjigiit«iii, (?xa-]jL that with sodn un pktiuuui fuil ihev 
du not uiflt to a c-K-ur muAii, boaiMw the mugni-siu in »iTpamttHl and 
can tbos W deU.-ct<d. It' the rt-iiclit'n iä nut distinct L<nbugli lliu v.\-l 
Way tnnst be employt^d, t^it// nio^v^io. Acconlliig to Von Zvhniou 
1im<> may b« diätingnislied from dolomit« thna: tlie doubtful min* 
eral ie powdered as finely as p(78si!jl>\ ptuot-tl iii a slight liullou un 
platinnm foil, and heated over Ihc epjrit-lump ».-tciul tuiuutvei, until 
itgtou'ö iliruugb und through. Liuie fomtä alU'i* ignJliuu u slighily 
cohfrent mans, whicli is not entirely brukeii np when ciirehilk 
tbnjWD from Iho foil; it also »huvrs a teodt-ncy tu udhcn.- to the foil 
und can only be stparated by gentle conciieaion. Dolomite powder 
when ignited is not coherent, but fails as a loo«e powder ^mi the 
platinum; with uiany dolomites there is a lively mulion (Iciriug the 
ignition, caused by the rapid evolntion of carbonic ncid, '^ 

Oxalate of limt, wAewelliU, ia convertii-d into cfirbonntc by fvcbl« 
Ignition, and its blowpipe reactions theu resemble those of calcite. 


lior&ealeit, ktfäroborocalcite, and Uydroboratit« yield mach water, 
10(1 fuse in the forceps with slight inliinie^ccDce to a cll^«rgla»s; the 
Urol uud third color the flatnv jmle greenish, the siiXind rvddisU-yel- 


low ; muistfiird with aulplmric acid, ali tlirw produce tbe ycllowiah- 
grccfi buraoic acid Huint?, p. 70. Dissolve largoly in soda and S. Pb. 
to a uieur gliUH ; iilao on ooitl with a liulu suda. 

Lime aud lunguc^ia cmi only be separated in ihc wet way, by dis> 
solviiig thr. powdi:rcd miiiiriul iu livdrocUlonc noid, dilutui; the acid 
wlntion witb wat«r, luid adding auda euouj^h tu comliine all the 
boractc acid uitli ilself, so that no bnnilf) of ningm-siia may be thrown 
down on adding miimouia. TUv solutiou^ wiih fnv hydruchlorio 
Acid, ie tlieo treuted with aminouia in exceed uud the Hm« aud 
inHgDi>sia Encocssivoly ptv-cipilntod with oxitlic acid and ealt of pho«- 

JihofiizUe yields no w»t4T; fusea only on the edges, coloring th« 
flamf> green. The liaic ie dtit^-ctvd oe abuvix 


fl. nniditigerilt^ pharmacolilr, and piernpli/irmaroliff bchnvo simi- 
larly. In the mn^trans yield jutioli water, esputnaHy tlie luLk-r. They 
ulsü become opaqne. and if a fragraent is afterward treared in the 
forocpe it fnst-8 with ititHmf!Oi:U(.v t« a white cniunclt giving a light- 
blue arsenic flame. On ooal in (he R. F. fufiu to a senii-trauäpitreut 
bead, sometimes bluish ft-om cobalt, and evolv« an ai-aeuicnl odtir. 
In borax and S. Ph. Hke lime, but. on coal tlic arseuio add rc-dnces 
and vrulve» ar»:-iiiail finuäij. 

D«comp'»k'd with aada on coal, cvolting arÄ-nical rnnics, while th« 
soda sinks in and Iputm the lime. If the n^idiiu Trom pton>|>lianna- 
coliic 19 dissolved io hydrochloric acid, the ei)Iution suin-nfutiirated 
with iiminunia, and the Imw ptvcipltak-d with osalic acid, tli« uiag* 
nosia can Im* dotecttid with salt of plioüphnras. 

b. -Berivliite is infiwibli- and beeomes gray (giving |m»bftb!y n light- 
bine fliim«;). With the fluxes like the h'.h'Vc niiiiorals hut cdnrfi the 
bora\ K-iid distinctly with miiugaii(.-ae. Tu dttt-tt the inagui-i)iti Ihn 
crust left by soda on coal should bo dieeohed )q bydrochloric acid, 
diliitcHl with water, and tho Htm', niiignfäia, aud niungancse precipt* 
tat«d as described nnder the eilicati-& 


S<^etiit4 fuses on the r^gc to a gcf"'*'--t^r" 
ing the flame. In b«)rax in O. F. ■: 
which ;^oon Ix-cumi-s niilk>whtte. 
colored iu the IL F., cwu : 
iu the 0. F. to a otenrj 

-^ J.-!»!«, not (nlnr^ 
' III N (rlMtr fflnjMB- 



wbicii treuU-d in the R F. bi'COiuce blue from the formatinn uf bin- 
oxide on coolin». Viirietirg o<.>ntiiiniiij^ imn pva n hniwiiiiili jiU»$ io 
the ß. F., wliicli <jiil}' bi-ounii'«! IjIiiu wlieii iri-ulvil njtli tin itii cliar- 
coaL Ttsteü with fused 8. Fb. in the «pen tube gives a liitlc hjtlrg- 
flnoric acid. When n little of tliv luwdeii-d minrnil ie fit^-tl with 
Tour to flvi> port^ of Aod» in tlio pliitiiinni ä[H)Oii itiiil tlu-ii ili^MilvL-d 
io hot water, tongstat« of soOa and sodn disKolve, leaving liuit- iiiiil a 
little »esqiiiojtide of iruu mid nmugaiiesf, wbicli niuy hv tcalwi B. B. 
Tbtf mauticr of eupanitiug the Inugstic acid will be gtvuu nudcr 
tuugsten ; as well us another simple method of UcU-ctillg tuiigaUc 
acid in oombiuaiiuii. 

Aniimonat« of lime, rumnie. — With sod» uq ooiiI tlu< sntimonic 
acid is reduced niid Tolatilizcs, forming u white co»t, while the time 
reiuaius uiid tbu vxce'sa uf Budu binks into ihu cuul. 


a. Pi/rocJihr» fro:« Miuslc vivUU oiil_v tnwvs «f «au-r. Fn th« 
forcf ps infuflible, but bccomcfi jellow, and givpfi a velloir Üame mixed 
with nmcb red (wdo and litbia). Willi borux in t)ic O. F. a oUiir 
glass, reddish-ydlow when bot, ccIorleī whfu cold; Mlnraied to a 
certain degre«, it becomes o))a(|iie and r«ddiab>grav by (laming : with 
more it becomes opcuiuc of iLsklf on cooling, and i$ ycltunish tu nsl- 
Uisli-gray. Dissolvt's easily in S. I'll, in the Ü. F. tu a cL-ar yillow 
glass, which in (be K. F. bt^conifs dark brouiiieli>rtHl, us \f from At- 
riferouB titanic ucid; with tin the glass becomes tioIvL It i» tbi-n> 
fore free from uranium. No matigaDesc reaclinii can bt- obtained. 

6. I'yrcekfore from Fredrikiivärii diftors somowhat from th« ubwre. 
According to Berzeliua it behiivea a^ I'oUows: 

Atone it becomes light browuish'jellow. remains lustrous, uiid 
fnsM with gri'ut difiiculty to a bliu-ki»li-browii abi!i;:y iniw-t, Dis- 
foh« borax in the O. F. to a reddish-yollow clwir glass, which 
con easily be inadi« opaqni> by flnming, luid is tlieii yellow; with iiiiii<e 
tlie bead bt-comea opaque of itself on cooling. Ju the R. F. it 
becomes diirk-reil and can be flamed lu a light grayii>h-blnv eiiiund, 
«omotimoA with Mrotik's of pure blue. 

Id S. Ph. it dissolve« pert'tfCtly. at lir«t. with some effvrvfscuncc to u 
bead, which in ibe O. F. is yellow while hot, bnt on cooling fine 
gmss-srecn (uriiuitiin). In lb-.- H. F. tlii« green b<'couH-!( gnvdunlly 
dirtiiT and alitor ^ tmri rodnciion a dark-red bi-ad, iucliuing to 
riolat, » <ea&\\y obtain.^->l. as from fvriirerotis titanic acid. 

With »odii and xütev ou plutiniiin foil a iiiinigiincMTi^iiction. 

c. }'yroehlore from Brcvig probaLily reacts «jiiile like tlie pii-ceding. 



To dutfct lime tu prrooblorcu little of Uie povder ia fueed will) «z 
to I'igliL jiitrts of Ijisiilj'liatt- uf jwlassa in the i)IatiaHm öpoon, p. 80, 
Üic fused iiiäs» poiii'iKl 01)1, piilTerixcd, and treiucd with u'i)t>:T, wticD 
the biudo «jiiütituviiU are mo^tlr dissulved and ihe lij'poiiiobic acJd 
rt-niHins niixiit with fiart of thi* litaiiic acid and some gvjisiiin. Af^rr 
tiltcnnp and wiuliiti)^ for n joiig time, »o a« to «i-purut? tia- gy [»äuni 
from the lu-'idü named, a fi^w drops of nitric acid are oddod lo itie 
ßttrul«, nlueh is iivAl^A t« boiling, and then tlie dissolved titanic 
ucid »iiHiittt't: a« u wliitc |>ovrdor. AfkT tiltfhiig iliis »if, adding 
»ume liydivciiloric acid aud the» aoimuiiia. and n^iu tilK*riüg out 
llii>}>n?ci|iimti'd i-ui-tliä and mtliillic oxidvs, lliv Iiii)t> uau Iw ttirowa 
down with osalic acid and ttrtitcd U. B. 

In di-tcnniuin^ the utiici* coiiglitiieiita tlm directions must bf fot- 
louod wliich uro givt-n vtnlor vttm, iu the ca£« of tantAlatee, etc, 
that must first be fused witK biiulphate of potassn. 


Ptrfifskile. Aceonling to (J. INisc it lii'liiivc» a« followB: 

111 till.- furci-ps aiidon coal iuluäitle. r>itsäolveä largi-ljr in kiuras to 
a clear givenieh gl»«^ colvrloea whi'u cutd. In ili« fi. F., whi'ii 
slightly »Atiirat4>d and warm, tight vcnMuiiili-g n-i>n, on <'<KtliDg cicur 
a» wuter: niorr- slroit^ly salnrutcd it \i biuuu nti cooling. 

With S. I'll, in O. ¥. fiiuiie na witli l>onis ; in R. F. grajieh -green, 
btit iK'cuiiiing more or 1f4A violt-t^bluv, according to the lunonnt dis- 

To dcti-ct ilic liniti the mint-ral is treated with bisulphale of po- 
tasäa, as dcecnlwd fur pyrocblore. 


The «iiicnies cnnmei^led under ■, j8, y, und d, as well aa Ihu cal- 
cifenjiiH siliniti^-ä bi-fi>r«f mt-nliiinnl under pota«)^ and ündn, whi;a 
vurjing ill tlieir roin|)Ositii>ii, iiiu be distiiigiii^hi-d fntm uiii! tinullier 
by the blon-|ti|)c und with reaj^'Jite; the pa-sciicf of liuiti on» ulao 
JVi'qncatly Iw aKctrtaiiitd (Vom tlu' blowpipi^ ehuractorisllw. Tht? fol- 
lowing indication» an; lo Ijl- ohservod: I. Ttimpfaclion luid bniihliug 
dnring (he ktt for fiiBibility, often eeca in calciff roits ^iliculcä, p. 71. 
J. Thtrir bcliavior with boras and S. I'h. ; siuw most of tbteo dis- 
anWi! eaaily in borax. «bik> with S. Ph. not only is the siliotc auid 
ei'|«anit«l, btit ihf glami aW»gi'nfniIly IjKwnies opak-«<¥iit on cooling, 
p. H3. .'>. Tht-ir U-burior with tHxla; they fn&f lo h bend with not 



too much >o(1a; witb more they sometimes gire a shigg}* mast, vidt 
taSIr. p. &8. 

Til determine the lime with oertitinty in ailicatea oot perfeoUr dc- 
eotnpoecd by Iiydrochlurie acid, they must be fii««d, accorxling to 
p. ll.'), with soda nnd li»mx, und if neccMUiry, xilver ; or, in case of 
slags contoitiiu^ luuti)' nu-iullic i).vid*.-ä, witb gold, ou cuul lo n bi'ad, 
which is puherized und tn^Uil with hydroghtoric acid acid wnter. 
The wlution filtcivd off from the silicu is touted, aSUv oomvoing 
•uy prutoxide of iruu into «-Njuioxidß by a lew drups of uiti-ic luiid, 
first TJth a drop or diliit« snlpharic acid, or a littl« bUiiiphate of 
potusa, for bsryta, and then uuimonia u itddctl in aligiit exi-i-sri to 
im-cipitate any ahiiiiina and at-Sijiiioxide of iryii tiud cUivrHiiim. Tbt* 
method of scparntiiig nhiininn from the other two oitidcä «ill be 
g^ved uudur silic-ulL*» of aluininiL. Whuu ttingHtic ucid i» pixtMinr, ns 
in oertdin tin slags, the «ilica must U.- tented fur it, uucurding- Lu the 
dirvctiriiis given for bilioAt^'j under tiingsti-n. Tin- lime is then found 
In the amnioniucal imhilioii, whinb muy aIsh) CDiituiu riia^iie^tn and 
protoxides of niuugnueäv uid oühall> iti the luUuwing nay: 

Wh«n the tt-eta witli fliixi^H hart- eihown no iniingiuifse or robalt, 
or only very little, th* lime ie at one».' thrown ih^wn with oxalic 
acid, and the osahite nft«r Knttling \» littered nut, unshed, and leitml 
B. B. if dfsiivd. The flllralL-, w wbicb a Utile oxalic acid is «ildi-d 
to make certain that all limr is separated, if. trcai««! nitb .S. Ph., dis- 
lolTcd ID a UtCle varer, which precipitates rougnesin and pruttixidi- uf 
muDganese as plmsphatt-a iu cuuibiuatiun with umramii». 'I'hiti yv^ 
cipit»te IB Washed on a t) with »dd wat^r cont»iniiig a litlU car- 
huDutu uf umuiunia. und ti'.sti.*d U. B. On ctMil it fuM^s to a br-uUt 
enamel-whit« nnless cobalt is present, when it is blue m- viulcU By 
fti&ing this powdered iH'nd wiih toAo, and nitre on pluttitiini foil the 
prciKMice uf any tnangnncSD is speedily nsa-rluim-d. vuU mangnnese. 
'ilie protoxide of manganese becomes more highly oxidised and cmn- 
binM vitlt the alkalies to n fluid inass. which can b« drireu about 
with the Hume, while the magni-sis udhfii-u Hnnly to lhi> foil and 
can be dUtinctly seen. Tlio cold mas« i^ bliiialfgrx.-i.'ii it' mauganoae 
is present, but otlu-rwisf whit«.-. 

If, Hit 13 rarely tlie ca»t-, the testis with the glass flQT<>9 hav« shown 
mnch maiigani'se or cobalt, mid il is dci^ired to di^tt^rmiiiL' tlie pres- 
ence of magncma with certainty afttr m'paniting the lim>-, this niiiitt 
be duue ta fuiluws : To the aminoniucul solution itiiUicicut piiljxiide 
t»f ammoninm ie added to pix'Cipitate the ma(igiiue(K> and cobitlt, 
which nrp liltentl udT and wni<hed «itti wiiltr coiilainiiig n littk* giil- 
pbidc of ammo tu urn. Tbc precipitated sulphides may he nmatf^l on 

.-.ji. Av.-. :":>:r :;■*:(•.-. *:r. S- Pä. :':c o "ris":, »-_! w li. !.:<ii älc mttc 
^■.■,".;>>,ur ";:i# *■:"':■■ Ai'v.r :;-... ■i.'.-T -z '■ '-'■ 'Li*- :-j ;r l::. ti ::i.2 

*:.,■. :■.:■:•- "^.ä. 

:^: : ,r :i>. ■ :. k : . k. . ..• r-i "l " :• • ■-- j;t.-- . .■ ■ ■." -_" '— ■= 

fc..'-. :> 

* : % , - • V . - . 

- ■ ;■ V- ; VI Mi 

■^ ^ \ 



Upon fuBJng a HtÜe of Uie powil«red minenil, sccunliiig to p. 116» 
with cigbt prtrts I'f ttUuIplmtc of potass* in tli<- p(«tiüuni simon, and 
treating the TumiI iitu^ »t. a tuoi^iuniitire of üö^tn 75° (.'. with a eutti* 
cJcDt amount of water, to wUicli' a fvw drops of Itvdi-uolilorio u!itl 
hare been nddt-d to faciljlatc iIk- R>lut)on of the tiii1j>limt> of Üine» 
thi» und the tttiinic ac-id (Itsdnlv^, k-avinff the ciilicu Ivhind. Aft<*r 
filtering the Istteroucnnd wsuliiiig itf a fev drupe of »itriu acidiiiv 
wldrd to t\w fittraic, which U heatrd to boiling, and then, if the go- 
Ititioii ifidilut^viK^agh, tlie liluiiic itcidi>v|>iiriitrguiidcuit bv collected 
on n tflh>r and tested B. ]i. The flltrnte rr»m the tilunic acid \e »at* 
nnatod with antmoiiin to precipilitte w^uioxide of iron, »nd th«'n Ui« 
time can tw thrunu down br oxalic acid. 

ScJiffrlomile. In the forceps fnses wiiii difBcnItir on the edge- ; tli« 
borax beud in yel Ion* in the Ü. 1''., green in the It. k'.; the S. Ph. 
beud, with tin in the R. F^ bi>coRiu& liolet Rumuiclsberg. 

KfiJUamff. In i\\v fore> pt* i» iiirii^iMe and rhuiigf-s litth* «r uol 
at oil ill euliir; will) tliefliixca like (itaiiJte, but elioWH u CoDsideriible 
amount of iron. 

The wet way must bo employed to detect the oongtitiient» that 
cannot be recognized with the tilovpii)e. The niincrul is ftiM^'d »a 
(lin^tiHl for titanlle with bisnlplmtu of polatsa, etc ütid after «-pa- 
rutin; the titanic acid from the ?o)ntion, V, Kl, and Vv are tliroWD 
down. Idling ('». 5fg, and Sin in solution. The latter are prpcipj« 
tated by oxalic acid and S. I'b. ; the separation uf ( from R* attd 
Xl will be given under yttria. 

8. Magnesia, äg. 

Its occurretux in the mineral kingdom. 

Hagnesia forme a m<y« or leaa Msontiat constitnont in many 
minernl BululHiiceaL It occurs as an esaentml coustiltient iu tlie 
following minerals: 

a. As/rcrt mnfljiwirt in 
Periclaeitc I. — Xlg, but contaiuing Pc. 

6. In combination with fwter in 
Brncite (nemalite) 1,— Sig fi. sometime« containing C, Si, Ca, Ün, 

Pyroaurite 1.-^ fl' + G Sig fi + C fl. 

e; In ctimbiuiuion with m^/nlUe oxideg in 
Magneäioferrite 1-2, — äg E*«, containing alto On and iusoluble parte. 

158 plattneb's blowpipe analysis 

d. As magnesiuvi with chlorine in 
Tachydrite, vida lime ; 
Camallite, vide potaasa. 

e. With sulphuric add in 
Kieserite,— Älg S + fl ; 
Epaomite,— Sig S + 7 S j 
Blcedite, vide soda; 
Polyhalite, vide potaasa ; 

Pickeringite (magneai* alum),— Sig 5 + Xl ^* + 22 fl ; 

Boajemanite,— (Slu, Stg) S + Jl S' + 22 fi ; 

Apjohnite (manganese alum, pt), — lifn ä + £l ^' 4- 34 £L 

/. With phosphoric acid in 

Wagnerite 1,— Mg F + Jfg* ^, with a little Si, Ca, and Fe ; 

Lazulite 2,— (Mg, Ca, tv)* T* + il* IP + 2 fl, generally containiug 

some Si as quartz intermixed; the light varieties poorer in iron 
than the dark. 

Bobierritfi 1, — Jig* P, with some fi. 
g. With carbonic acid (and water of hydration) in 

Magnesite 1, — Mg C, sometimes containing Ga, {"e, and 5i ; 
Mesitite 1,-2 Mg Ö + f'e (J; Pistomesite 1,— Mg C + Pe Ö; and 
Brennerite (ferriferous magnesite); 

Sideroplesite 1, — 2 Pe C + Mg 0, a variety of siderite ; 

Pencatite, . ^äelim^; 


Hydromagnesite 1,-3 (Mg + Ä) + Mg fl ; 
Lancasterite (a mistare of brncite and hydromagnesit«. Dana.) 
A. With horacie add in 

Boracite 1,— Mg CI + 2 Mg" E', incl. a little Pe ; stassfurtiie ia 

massive boracite ; 
Szaibelyite,— 3 Mg" B* + 4 fi; 
Bydroboracite, vide lime, 
t. With arsenic add in 

Hcemesite 1, — Mg' Ss + 8 fi; 

Rcesslerite 1, — Mg, fi, Äs (Ce trace). 
Picropharmacolite, ) „ -,., ^^^ 
Berzelute, \ 



i. With silicic acid in the folloiring Silicats» : 

pu Jji^yc^roti« siiicaiM, yielding uo Trater. or only traoea^ iu 

tlie matroea. 
ForiU-rite (bolloiiit«) III, IQ,— fig* Si; 
ChrvBolitfi (olivine, peridot) I ,v. *. .. n- 

III nil 10 > ^^' ' ' '^"•""""fr BometimeH 

HyoloiMderiti; I-II, IG, f ^"' Stn.Äl.'Cr. fü, Cu, 5«; 

fiome oliviue coutailt trooee of F ; the vurict ice ricbL-ut in iron 

nro most fusible ; 
Enstotite (broiwitc) JII, 3,— JCg Si or (Sig, fe) Si, with s Uttle Xl 

and ä ; 
Tal« U-lII, 3,— Slg" Si' -t- a Ü, n p»irt of the ilg being rephiced by 

('e; a littlo Xl and sometimes iii are also present. Sfeatife unO 

TmxxeJaeriU are miwsivc Tarietieg. Talc yields iu woter only 

when rery «trungly igniu-d, uml is tlicrvfortr placed hcru; 
Diaclasite HI, 3,— (Sig. fe. Ca) Si ; 
Knp&i^rite III, — ilgSi; soma Sfg replaced by ^e; «ome Cr also 

Ampbibole, including: 

I. Varieties containing little or »o alumina, 
Tremolit/» (grtimmatit«, mphilite) [-II A, 2; nephrite II A, — (Ca, 

Sig) Ri. vriUi a little l^e, lU n, ÄJ, Ü, and F ; 
Kymalin (artinolitc) I, 2, L //. ti * \ Q- 

Asbestaa from Tareiitaise (actinolito) I, 2, f (<^». «g, tcj Hi; 

Aniholite (asbcstus from Koriik) I-II, 2.— (Mg, Pe) Bl 

3« J/umiwMf/, iucludiiig most groen and black varieties. 
Edenite,— (ilg, Ca,) {Si, Äl") ; 

Hyperrthfn«! 11, 2, — (Sig, I'e) Si ; generally eome Ca, Xl, and fl ; 
AnthophyHitfl 11, 3,— I'e Si + 3 Jig Si; oontniuing a little C'li, Sin.; 
Pyropc (utagnesia-almninagnrnet) I-II, 3.— [(Slg, Ca, I-'c, Sin)')* Si* 

+ Xl* Si*; some varieties contain i^r; 
Bredbergit« (lime-magneiia-irongamet),— (J CV + ^ Mg*)' Si' Se 


lolite {cordierite, dichroite), 11, 2.-2 <Äg, Ca) Si + (Xl, Ee)' Si' , 
Sapphirine III, — i Sig ÄI ■*• Xl Si'; with a little Ca. Pc, and Sin ; 
Tonrmaline. The voi-iclieä of tounnaline contain as acid con^titu- 

ents Si, B, P, and F ; as «rongcr base« K ^a, U, Ca, Jig, Ve, 


and Sfn ; sa weaker bused ÄI, S!e, and Bn. The F, generally 

from 2 to 2.5 per cent, probably replaces some oxygen ; the F is 
so trilling tliat it am be neglected. Among the weaker bases 

äl predominates, and !^ is next; Mn and Li occur only in 
green and red varieties; ^'a predominates among the alkalies. 
The amount of 15 varies from seven to nine per cent, in most of 
then». Enmmelshevg distinguishes five gronps : 

A. Yellow, brown, and black tourmalines, free from lithia. 

1. Magnesia tourmaline I A, 3,— It' Bi + 3 R Si (B being 
included under K) : 

2. Magnesia-inm tourmaline I A, 3, — ft' Si + 4 R Si ; 

3. Iron tourmaline I-II A, 3.—k' Si + G R Si ; 

B. Blue, green, red. and colorless tourmalines, containing 

4. Iron -manganese tourmaliue (blue and green) 11 A and 
II-III. 3,— ft' Si + 8 a Si ; 

5. Manganese tourmaline (red and colorless) II-III A and 
III, 3,— ft" Si + 10 K Si. 

<). I/j/tlroiis siUaitfu. 
Vilhirsite III. l.-J (ilg. l\y Si + n : incl. iSln. Oa. and (£> : 
?(.'rj>entine (mamiolite. picmlite. baltiniorite. williamäite. Iwjwenite) 

II-III- 1--J.— ■:; Mg Si - Sig fl*. incl. Oa, Ee, Ä1. and s.>metiraes 

jIn. Cr. ^i. and bitumun : 
ThormopbylUie ^sorix-ntiue) III A. 2; 
IVwevlire lirvmnite) II-III. 1.— Sig' Si" -4- 6 fi : incl. a little Ca. 5l, 

Oouthite i^niokel-irvmuiie^ III. 1. — (Sis. 2^:1* Si' -^ 5 it : incl. some 

Penn;n::e ^kämmererite. rr.odtx*hn»mel II-III A. 2. — Si. AI. Ee. 

^Crt. M;. f-e, S : 
rv-rvsc'.-.T-te I-II. Ul.— 3 Si-' Si - lAI. Cr Si - 4 S: v.rsiie-j'.ite 

lw::K :•::•, \vT kVn:. Ti^ :? v^rv siniiUr: 
.l;:!^7iji:e H A. l.-^ ilz' Si- .Ä..R*Si* - 5 3: exo:.<:\.. Fr.K; 
l\:''.o'::<', or.iV' r:i,'v. >''r.^ir :o :ii,'"r.i:c. r, I'l-^. \v.' :'r~ :"r ai 

5i[^ ■■■>:.a..i :■: : - Si: 
Av^.ii-£.-NU ?: - i S. a::l i '."-.i Slz. Fl. i- : Äj 
V\:r:Ä!:i.u. ::L.— Sl^ S - i U. ■"i-z s i^if M-. Er. A!, izl XE'; 



UochtcnWr^t« II-TII A,— 3 Hg* Si + 2 Ä Si + 7 Ä ; inoL torn« 

Dolewite II-III, 1,— Si. Xl, ffa, ta, ftg. (Ca), Ü ; 
Ripidolite II-UI, 1 (iu HS), composition similur bo leuchtenbcrgitc; 
Proclilorite II-IU,— I (Sfg. Pe)' äi + 3 ÄI 5i + 9J fi; 
iIonr»dite III.— (Xfg, Pt) Si + J fl ; altered pyroxeno, Dana; 
Neolite.-chkflj 3 Äg Si + Ü, but eunlaining Al, Te, Cti, aail iln ; 
Spftdaitel, lG,-iIg'3i'jfi; 

PicTupbyU HI,— (Sfg, Pe) Si -t- | It. »ud n littl* C«, An. Xl; 
ScUUkr epar (harfite) II-III, 2, nearly ß Si + fl ; Ä = ilg. Ca, 

f*« ; also eorao Gr, Jitii, Ä'l ; 
Sepiolito (meerpoiiaiim) lI-lll. 1.— Slg' Si' +? fi, and gcucnilly a 

trifling amount or Ca, Al, ^\ 
Saponite (piutiiic) I, (in tl^), — varying in compositioo, 3i, %), ^e» 

Mg. (Ca), fl ; 
Thaiilc and soapet«ne, pt. Similar to eaponitej 
Pseudophite (pcnniniw) III, 2; 
BihiiriU) lI-IU, 111,-2 [(ilg, Ga)']* Si' + 3Ü' Si' + 4 Ü ; excL 

Bome &; 
Brandisit« (diitorrito), « variety of BeyWrtlte, vtef« Hme ; 
Pfrallolite II, 3, — ftg Si + J It ; ao altered pjToxene mingled wilh 

lECg ilf and containing aUu Ca, X\, T^v, an. and lälumvii ; 
Demutinc, III, (.^Ig, (•'>■) Si + 2 ti ? with a litlk- Bn, JÜl, Üo» fJa, ^ 

Hydrophite (jenkinRile) H-Ill,— ft* Si' + 4 0, Mct. Mo, Xl, and T; 
Epiclilorite I-II, Ä,— 3 ft' Si' + 3 ft Xl + S ft j 
CoruDdophilite.-S (Äg, J-'e)' Si + Ä1* Si* + 10 fl; 
Oerolile from Frankenstein, SiWsia, III,— 2 Slg Si + 3 fi; a mttteral 

Trom Z^blilz called keroUth, oonLained 2.5 Xl ; 
Xjlotile {Berghoh) I,— IPi- Si t- 3 Mg'Si' + 5 ll ; inol. some Ca and 


Pnueolita(fahInnit.)II-in. j »„rietiea of fahlnnite, t-tf* «>da. 
Eamarkit« " II. ( ' 

y. Siiieale with phosphate. 

SoriUvnlit« I. a,-Si. Xi, f-f. (üe?), Sig, P. Ä. 

6. Siltcnle vitU ßuoridf. 
Chondrudito (bumite) HI, 10,— ^ilg* Si* with n oiygen replaced by 
flnorine, n = ^. ■^. ^. and jV- 
Uagnesia forme an vseeutial conetituont of Hvcral other ulicatoe, 




IC of wbicli hare bem given under che alkalies bdA lime, and tbe 
"ethere will be iiAiiK-d under flhimina. 

r. AfumiN'tte:i. 
Spint'l III, 3,— Slg Sl, witli sometJraeB Si, Ca, Pe, Cr; 
HydroUk'iU) (rölkuvrite) III, 1, disregarding Ibc C— Sfg'Sl + 13 

fl, or Jig* Xl + Id Ä : Dnnw give« Xlll* + 6 flg fi -l- 6 Ü ; 
Ceylonitc (pleonwte, ir.)ii-niu;,'n<'sia Bjiiiiel) TTl, 3, — Sig Xl + t"« fi 

ill varying pruportions ; 
neroynitt" HI. 3,— F"« Ä) (Dana), with ^.9 per cent Sig; 
CbloruMpind II],— iflg {X\, V^) wlüi a tiulu Ca and Cu ; 

Automolite(»l.icgaliiuk-). \ vül« ünc 
Krcittonitc (xinc-iron gahnib.*), ( 

Ah minenil« oontaiiiing iiiiigi)«8io fomctime« ooenr in the gangne 
nf oree, tnnro or Ivsg nisgiii.'sia is also u> )ie funnd iu tticee oroe, 
esprcia]); when stompeü dry, niid ia tlie alags obtained from smelb- 
iiig them. 

Exanlnation for Msgnnl*. 

Including ffie blotaptfis characleri*tie* of magtui»\a tninerals, the 
comtUoenis o/ tchich can, for the tnaat part, he aecertained at the 
Aim« t\m4. 


Periclatite and brucUe {nomalit«), the latter of which jieldti oon- 
eiderable wat«r, reect alkaline afler strong ignition, and behaw with 
Qoses nnd cobalt eulution tike magncria, bat Boinolimi.>s color the 
glass more or len with iron. 

J/ayHATi'o/VrrtViT givt-s a strong iron reaction with fluses,(md it^ 
copper is dot<oted by moistening it with hydrochloric acid and heat- 
ing it in the O. P. ; the magnesia can only bo found in tho wet way 
with S. Ph. afWr precipitating tJie iron witli ammonia. 


fl. Tachtfdrile yields much wut^r and fusa easily. Magnesia can 
only be found in the wet way (b-parating the lime, according to 
p. 155. »nd adding ^ Ph. The elilurino ean bo detected by moanii 
of u tjc-od of S. Ph. containing oxide of copper, riile cliloritie. 

b. CarnailUe yields ranch water and gircs u strong »nda flume. 
Tlie pota««A can, howerer, be easily si-en by neing oohalt giMs or 
indigo Gotutiuii, vide poLae^a. On coal in lhi< K. F. with eodn a man 
13 obtained which rewita for sulphur on siWcr foil With a bead of 



S. Ph. containinj; oxide of copper a cbloriiie rcactioii' The prcKooc 
of the ?Hnouä earths caa only t/e aliuwii br ihn wet way, p. 1!^. 

e. Kieterife und epsomilv yield in iht* niatraes water, which, afUr 
long heating, has aa acid reautinn. On coal low waler and n\\- 
pburic uctd, braomiDi; liimiuüii», iiifiiailil«, and nlkaliiiL-. Ttic Na 
CI in ki«c«rite cansee a n-ddi^h-ytllow flume. Tlicj Wbave with 
■oda and S- Ph. like ningnet<iu, und with sada on coiil swell, hut do 
not fuw ; thL* moäs moislniM) with water evoIvcB a hvpaliu udor. 
With cobalt ectliilioii tlier be(H>nie roee-red. 

d. IfloffHit when licuU-d luses wntt-r rapidly ; at a red heat fuaca 
quietly to a tratitipar^t filubiil«', white on cooling. (Diina.) 

The ariificial salt behiive« similarly, giving a eiKla flame, and wlieD 
itruiigly hratnl on omuI it hoila, äprcuds out mmeirhutt mid U-nws iin 
tufusible mass, yvllow fi-oin sulphide of sodiiiai. while diusI of the 
salphnto of soda i» uhgorbed. The mtas givtra a strong sulpliur re- 
■ctioD on silvpr. 

e. JHekfrini/ite and bosjrmauiÜ! fuse in th« uvatraaa wilh their 
wator of crystallization, frulb, and yield vat«r. The dry mam 
ttrongly heated evolves stilplmrniis iM;id. Both dissolve perfi'ctly iu 
borax and S. Ph., and iMUJcmanite iinj'urta a tnanganeee culor. v^jt»* 
dully to boroi. Tlie inagoMia ciiu ouly he certainly detected by 
difi-nlvin^ a little of the mineral in water, acidifviiig the Eultition 
with hydrochloric acid, pnc-cipitating rti\iniin« with umnionia, «nd 
then sepsratiug the miui^nese from the ammouiacal ambition wnh 
nilphid« of ammonia, after which the magnesia can he tlimwa 
(town by S. Ph., nn directed antk-r lime, p. US. 


Wagnrriie fnses only in thin splinters with great difllenlty. with 
formalion of a few bubble«, to a d«rk green tsh-g^ray phi«». Moists 
ened with Bulphuric acid, it momrniarily imjuirta a pule bluish* 
green tinge of phosphoric acid to the finme, p. 70. Dissolve« 
Mälj in 8oOa and S. Pli. lo a clenr gla'^, slightly yellow from iron. 
Fnmi together with soda with effi»rvesot>nee, but is uul disMulved ; 
on platinum foil a weak niuiiganene rwiciion. Treated in an open 
:' - ■-' v.ith Jtased S, Ph. it yielde hydrofluoric acid, tirfc flnorinoL 
* lb« magnoHin with oertiiinty a small portion of ihe very 
ineral i« fuK>d with about three parts iif a mixture 
>taAsa in equal rftiantiiies in the platinum 
With water in a p-jrcelitin resst-I over the 
and polas^» dissi:ilTe, with any silica 
Icpf mrhonate of »oda, while the magnceia 



iml a little srsqnioxidc of iron remain bebind. Tbeae are wnslied 
(til u tiller mid itij^olvud iiputi it with « litlU- Itydroclilanc aciil and 
tlie solution ouik-citd in a test tube, in which tbc iron it precipi- 
teted with »mnioTiia, mid thc-n any lime prewut is tbrnwu iluirn 
ntth üxkIic acid, nfU-r wliich tlie miigiicsia c:kn be nepurated (Vom 
the ammoniacal .Cülution by S. Pii. und tcalL-d B. B. Tliu piius- 
phoric ucid cun iileo be found in ih« flret flltnite, as nilt be de- 
scribed under pliuspboric ncid. 

LazuUte ill the inatnus yields a little wsu>r and loa» its LIik 
color. B. B. »wells up, cractss, crumbles to pieces, and becoinea 
white, but does not ixae. It colors the flnnie pale hlnieb-gityu, 
fl-om pboephoric acid, and more inteiiduly uIh'D moistened with 
siilphnric acid. Dissolves in bornx to a clmr gtase, colored yellow 
by iron while; hot. lu S. 1*1). bi-comt-ä tiuii«piin-uC on the edges 
and gradnally disäulvca to a clour glass, aliuwing iron while wurm. 
With H)da on coal swell», yielding nn infneiblo mass, and with 
Ootutt isulntion aitaunK-s a üni- blue color. 

The magncBia can be found in these minerals, which also contain 
phosphat« of flinniina, by huing tho minvrsl on coaI with eoda and 
silicic acid in the O. F. imd in-uting the fused bead aa will l)e 
directed nudcr phosphoric acid. On treating the assay with water 
there remuine, besides the ningneein and se^niosidc of iron. Sil- 
icat« of alumina «ud soda; after tiltcriuf; oat aud washing tbi« 
residno it is dissolved on the filter in bydrochlnric acid and then 
the alumina, sesquioxide of iron, aud silica can be preciiäut«-d with 
ammonia, any lime pres^-nt with oxalic acid, and the magnesia with 
& I'h. The precipitflio formed by the ammonia is diasolred, if 
desirable, in liydrucbturic acid, evaporated to dryness, the mass 
dissolved again in water, and the silica Ultered onl, after which tbe_ 
»Inminii and iron aru thrown down tugother hy nmmuoiu aud sep- 
arated with a solution of potass», as wiU b« directed for the cxwni- 
uation of silicates under alumina. 

As these minenila contain trifling amounts of silica which cocild 
not be found at the same lime, the totlowiag melliud may be em- 
ployed: the powdered mineral is Hr^t fused, according to p. 113, 
with soda and liorax on coal, and the maüs treate«! with bydro- 
chlaric acid. eic. The solution tillered off from the silica is Lrenttnl 
with an excr»s of ammonia, and S. Ph. is itddid fur tli 
certainty, so that all the buses mm* '«■ lirn'tpiut-* •- —■ 
with phosphoric acid. The re' 
washed, drieil, fused with B'xIh aiv" 
kad the residut- further exaiaii 



MagnesUe yields Tcrj* little ur uu uatcr. U. B. infusible, bal 
«hrinks SDtiicu'liat and acquires an alkitliae reaction. 

tiydromagnmie ^nd laneaslfhtf ricUl ivnti?r in tlie malrnM and 
'then behave like uiagneailc. With tim fluxes, aodo. und oubulc 
aolotiou, the three minerals behave like carbonate of tnagiie8i& 
Wlicn Borae Xlg is n-pliiCcd bv Tu i>r Jin us in hreuntrUe, mtnitilt, 
piatomeiHU, eide'vplif^Ufi vxv-j tbn lluxt-s »how a ni»ngaiii;«> or in>ii 
rractiOD and the coiialt eohuion (est must IVetineiilk Ik* (pVfn n^ 
W'Ueu. Hion-ovcT, a part of th* maj^iii'diu id rt-plüCfd bvliinv, on in 
UolomiU, anJcerite, praiatatf, ptnc^ilile, hydrmUihimite-, etft, l!ie l»luw- 
plpc reaction for mugiitisia beoomes i]iiit4> nnocrtitin, and tho ««t 
way must tw brought to aid it. A little of the {Hjwder i» dinwlveil 
in hydrochloric acid, which it does easily nilh etfervr-^vncv wliva 
warmMl, the iron uonv<:rti-d intu |K,-r<^hli)rid<: by boiliii)|: Willi u fvir 
drops of nitric acid and then precipiluli.'d with ammonia in excels, 
the lime sepikraxcd vith oxalic acid, and th« magneeia, witli the 
frequently smdl qnuittity of prutoiide uf miiugiiiu-jv. tliruwu down 
tiy S. I'h-, as a precipitate «bicli cuu be tc^ti-d with cobfdt solotiou, 


Boracite is uH«tter«d in the matraw and yields uo water, or onk 
tracea B. B. Hi^'s with iniDmesnence tu a »early white, ci'}-etn)line 
bead, and gives a green, boraeic add llanie^ Dinolves easily In bonur 
to a clear glufu, ytltow with iritn whik- lint hi S. Ph. also dissolves 
eadly, hut the eomt-whal auturattd glass oan be made .ipa<iuc by 
flaming, and when superaaturuted becoino« oiiaque nf it»elf nn ociol- 
■ ing. It combines very eaglly with «oda, yielding «'itb just the 
right amonnt a clear glass, nhicli oa ooütiiig cnretuUizce with facM^t« 
lik« phosphate of lead. With more eodu a clear rIs^b. not crvNtal- 
lizable, and which may 1« regnrdnd as bomi-glu^ oontainin<; inag- 
nesia. The powdered mineral heatwd on coal wiili oxide of cop|>er 
give« a momentary flxnie of chloride of fxipper, fide chlorine, To 
delect Uie magm-fiia and ^-itahliah the absvncf of oijior eHrthy 
bo«eB, a little ia diualvMl in hfdruchloric acid and fnrther treated 
oa for horomicilr, etc., p. 151. 

Sfasx/nrtHe rmcts like boracite, hot yielda a little water. 

Sttu'Mgite yield« water. B. B. epiite often, glowü, und fn»<'9 to a 
pale, hom-iike, browiiisli-gmy mMS, coloring the flame yeUuwith 
rud. (Dana.) 




The behftrior of the silicates uuder k aud 9, utiü Lhe silicateA 
conttiiDing mugapii« cnumoratcd ander pottiäM, todu, atid litbia, 
a.(wr being tcsieil as to riisibililj und tlie presence ht nbseiiu'e of 
vu4cr, ia in geuend iia folluwfs: wUb ljoi».i ilu-y diMulvv mupe ai 
less eanly to » clear glues, which is more or leas jellow if ima iA 
prcWDt With is Pli. tb(.-y dij^olvc, Imviii]? a ekolc-toii of iIk- «iliou; 
tbos« ooDtaintng little vi uu aluniiua iiii>8t eatiily; iIil* jjbuui gau- 
erally opidetces on cooling. 

Thry iil«o bclmre ditKimilurly with rnxia; uiDeL of tlii>m, hovertr. 
fiiee with II little soda to a b^nd aatl give a slag-like maw with 
more; vide also the tables, p. 6Sl 

Cobalt soliitiuQ pruduoes a maguesiu reactiuu ooly with niliratvs 
ooDtuiniuf: futv or no cotoriDg nictuUic uxidi:^ and »Iso not luo 
much alumina, siuce, e. g., a notald« amoant of (Ksqiiioxrde of iron 
entirely cüuol'ilIs the red ctilor aattiimed by magtu-m iriili cobalt 
solution, while if ibu ailiculo cunlaiua much ulumiiiB without c>dor- 
ill); oiidei«, the eoliilion ])nrdnci-s mthfr a blue IIiuti n n-d c*^lur, 
aUhotigh nhi:o Mk- umouM of alamiua U uot ver^- gix-tit thia apiwars 
Dourly viulct, l>om the blue of the uluniiua with tlie roso-red of tlie 

When ttie magutrsla caonut be detected with the bloiiiiipe,silioul(.-ä, 
as well m drc-6«cd orca and eliig«^ luuab h« examined for it by the 
BUitbod spwiaUy described under lime, pL \W. 

siuoATie Willi piiitöi'UAres. 

Sordttvalilt yield« water and fuses qaietly to a block bead in the 
forceps or on coal. (B#rajliii8.) 

DinoWes eoaily in borax to a glass colored yellow with irou 
(green, Daaa). iriih S. Ph. dcconi]K)ai»l, leaviii<r u »iliL-» skok'toii. 

Tbe DiagDcsia ii> found by fiiäiug thv miut-rul with eonio sudu ou 
coal in 0. F. to n lu-nd, which is ptiivt-rized and troat«d with water. 
Silicate and phosphate of auda di&wlvL- und the hasm remain with 
some silica. After dissolring this residue in hydrocidoric acid, and 
separating irou and alnmina with ammonia, tbe mugnesiu is jire* 
cipilated with S. Ph. 


Chondrodite sumutimes yields traces of water ami liirns hhirk 
(C. Crom Vesuvius h unalten-d in tlie matrsj^). but in the open 
tiamc again bvcomt^ä white, doi-j not tu6v, und wlieu free from iron 



ftgaumcs ft milk-white appo«raii<». In ati open tiibo yields a verj 
dütinct fluorine reaction, both »lone »nd witli fused S. Pb^ vide 
fiuoriae. Dissolves slowly in borax to a clear gUss, soraetimes 
colored witli iron, vhich can be made opaque by fliuuing wlicu 
strongly suturated, and tlico appears more or h'H cry^talliae. 
Docuuipoaed by S. Ph., k'uviug a siticu »ktelutou ; th« gla^s opalesc^ 
OD cooling. With a tittle sixla forms n ilifHcultly fnsible gray »lag ; 
with more awt-Usaad becomes infuiülilB. 

"When free from iron gires a pale rose color with cobalt solution ; 
wlira coutaioiug iron a grayish-brown color. In the littler nixt* th« 
magoesiu can only be ilcttrmioed with certainty by the aid ol' the 
«fit way, p. 155. 


a, SpinH atone is »nattered. The red variety from Ceylon t>o- 
comes hiack and opaqne in tlie forcü'pa, but in oooling becomes 
traoHlticent and cbromo>grven, then □early colorless, and finally red 
again. Dis^ohed slowly by boraj, even in powder, lo a clear, Piu'ldy 
yelluvrish-grcen glasn. In powder is diS£olvvd rutbi-r easily by S. Pli. 
to a clciir glasi^ reddi&h while warm, but when cold ftiebly, though 
diMinctly. chrorae-greea. With »oda and nitre on jiktinnm foil 
Bhovs traces of manganese. The fine powder assnincK a blue color 
with coliall solution. 

Th« magncfiia can only be detected with certainty by fn&ing the 
T«ry flud powder with two Tolumoe of soila und three nf borax on 
ooal to a Ijcad, which is palvorised and 'iri-ated with bydroohlorio 
acid, etc. p. 113. 

b. Sydrotnkit« {völkneril«) in tlie closed tube yields ninoli water. 
B. U- infnsible, bnt exfoliates »omewhiitr and gtve<i out tight. A 
weak Tose-red with cobalt sulutiou. With the fliiiea iittnmesoea 
and givee a clear, colorlesa glaas. The Snuruui niiticral reacts for 
iron. (Dana.) 

e. Ce^hniie, hvreynitu Change color when heated, hut at« 
{nJbsibl». Dissolve in borax and S. Ph. to a cteur glass, colored by 
iron. The magnma can only ha fnnnd us with epiiicl. 

d. Clikrotpinfl behnvea like ooytonitc, but ii copjifr reaction is 
ubuiued by meunsof S. Ph. with tin on charcoal. 

Ry fusing the powdered mini-mi on coal in the R. F. with soda 
and bumx bcsidu a eilrcr butlou, until all the oopprr is rodtict-d and 
united with the silver and the bead is quite transpamtit, the magneqis 
CUD be very I'usily found as directed for spiueL 


9. AiinuKA, XL 

Itt occurrSHc« in Ute mintral kingdom, 

Ahim'ma occurs riTy i'Xt«n8ire]y : 

a. A« aluminivm vitli ßuoritut saAjlv«n<ic of aodtum la 
Cryolite aud cbiolitc, vt'de 8wla ; 

Pivaopite,— Si P, AI' F*. Xl. Ca F. Ca, fi ; 
Klncllit#, acfionling W Wollsiston, AI and F. 

b. Id a/rM jr/af« »8 

ConiQilum 3.— Xl. Il is subdividud into: o. Sapphire, incl. ruby 
and the other pun-r, pivcioiis varieties ; 8. Coruiidnm, iocl tid- 
ing the dftrk or dull, oot tnuispuroat varieties; y. Kuicrv, iiicl 
gnaitulAr corundum. Those varieties contain more ur less lie 

B. Combined willt teaUr of hydration in 
Diispore 1-3, — Si ä, frcfitiputly coiitaiaing eomu ^e, <^'a, and Si; 
Gibbute (bfdrai^llit«) 1,— £lä'; thai from t)ie Ural ooutoins a 

little F; 
Beanxit«,— (Xl, Be) Ü'; 
Plnmliogn III mite, ride lend. 

d. \i\^.h sulphuric acid \n 
Pelaohunyit« 1.— Ä1' 3 + 10 fl ; 
Alnmiati, — 'X\ ^* ; 

Alumiiiit<- 1,— X) S+ 9 It, eomctimes with u little^ ('a, and Si; 
AInnogeD. — Xl S* + 18 Ü, uftuully containing trifling qimntilics ol 

Vv, Oa, Ag, 5ln, and sometimes £, Na, and Si; 
Pam!nmim'te,^il* S + IS E; 
Alonite, ) 

Ijöiii^tc, V tnV/« potagaa ; 
Kaliiiite. I 
Kendoxtte, vide »oda; 
Tsohprmigit**, ri'rfc ummonis; 
Pickuriugiti', vide magnesia ; 
Roüjpmanile " ** 

Halotricbit«, 1 ... 
PiMopbanit», f «'fe»""; 
R^-anbergit«", ride Boda 

e. \i\\.\\ phovphoric acidia 

'Xurqiioi«l,-Äl'P + 6n; 

Ate MIN A. 


Fegauite 1,— Xr P + 6 fi, mii«» witb phosphate of tfv (and Cu ?) ; 

Fisdierit« 1 (in sulphuric ucidj,— ^* F + S fl, likewise coiilaltiing 


Evanaite l.-Äi" P + Xl ft' + 15 fl ; 
Amblygoiiite, vi4e lithia ; 
Lazulit«, vid» lime; 

WsTellite 1, — AI* V + 13 fl, eonjctimt-s containing n «tnall amount 
of Ge and F; 

BerIiuite2-3.— SlP + lÖ; 

C«lliunit*,-XlP + 5ß{ 
Barnuidite 1,— (Rj. Xl) P + 4 flj 
Trolleite 2-3,^ÄI P + i Xl Ö' ; 
CirroUte l.-Xr P + 8 tV P + 3 fi ; 
AogeUta Ä-3,-4:]' ^ + 3 Ä ; 

Strii^gjuti, a rari«tj of vuvelUte, contaias a notable ajuouut ol 5i, 
tft, and IPe ; 

VariMite,— "P, X\, Cr, ^Pe, Cii, ilg, fi, and NU'j 



Sphaerit«.— Xl' V + 16 ft. 

/. With tHtilific acid in 
il«-llitp,-Al M' + 15 fl. 
g. Witb xilicioacid iii man^ silicates. 

», AnhydrDv* aiUatles, yicHivv^ in ihe niutrafis no wuti<r, or 
onW n liltlf, whirh i:< not to be regarded as essential. 
Cjanite Itl, 3, — \\ St, sometimm coiitaiuiug fiv, C'a, Stg, l!:ii, itnd 

Andalnirile (chiMtoUte) TTI, 3. — Xl Si, fneqncntly containing K, Ca, 

lüg, lue. fin, and tL; 
Fibrolile (sillinianit«, bamlite. x«io)ite. bachnlsilp, monmlite) irr, 

3^— Xl Si, wilh a liLttc IEg. Sig; in buvhulzitt.' fi; in bumlilu Ca 

and a tn«« of F; 
Staurolite III, 8 ; cDm)>osiliun varying grently. According to Riun- 

DieUbctg tlif' iron is pn^sont almost entin-Iy uh Vü; u general 

formnla may b« ft + att + « Si ; ft = i\', Sfg, (J'ln, 2u) ; K = 

Si, Pt', (fln); eoOK.- fl alMra}"« present, according to lÄcliarlier- 

enite, ) ... 

■Pniic. \ "'^'««'; 

170 plattneh's blowpipe analysis. 

Wichiisit*. ) ., ,. 

Lepolitfi (aoorthite), j 

Euclaae, vide glucina; 

Beryl (emerald), vide glucioa; 

Pumice, ) ., 

Baulite, } '■■'^«P«*^*J 

Feldspar, vide potassa and soda ; 

Tourmaline, vide lime. 

ß. Hydrous silicates. 

Wörthite III, 3; a hydrous, probably altered form of fibrolite, with 
4.6 per cent, water and a little Äg; 

CoUyrite III, 1,— Ä1' Si + 9 fi ; 

Myelin III; accürdiug to Breithaupt 3 Ä1 Si + fl, but accordmg co 
Kersteii 'X\ Si ; 

Dilluite,— Ä1' Si" + 9 ä ; 

Miloschite III, 2,— (Äl, Sr) Si + 3 fi, with a little Ca and Mg ; 

Wolchouskoite (richer in or thau the above), vide cliTOmium ; 

Chloritoid III, 3 (siemoudiue, masonite II),— (Fe Sig)' iSi + itl* Si' 

Samoite III, IG,— Xl' 5i' + 10 Ö ; excl. a little ftg, Ca C ; 

Pholerite III,— Ä1' Si' + 4 Ö ; 

Margarite II-III,— SP 5i + (Ja 5i + K ; incl. some Sig, K, STa, K,* ; 

Hailoysite (glagerite) III, 1,— Al Si' + 3 fi ; 

Schrötterite III, 1, — Ä1" Si* + 30 Ü, contains some l^e, Ca, Ca, and 
S (perhaps as an admixture) ; 

Gilbertite,— Si, Ä!, J'e, Ca, ilg, Ö ; 

AUophane III, IG,— Ä1 Si + 6 fi) or Al Si + 5 Ü, frequently mixed 
with lue, Fe, Ca, % Cii, C; 

Anan-vite II-III,— Si, ÄI, !Pe, Slg, fl; 

Eaoliti III, 'i, consisting essentially of 5i, Si, and II in varying 
proportions, nsually nearly Xl Si' + 2 H, and containing gener- 
ally more or less trifliug amounts of Ca Ü, ilg 0, !Pe il, and 
alkalies, as well aa the residues of decomposed aluminous sili- 

Chrome Ochre from Halle, II-III, 2-5,— al Si' + 2 fl, incl. Se, Gr, 
and a little £ and !5«a; 

Lithomarge, vide potassa ; 

Aspasiolite, — Si, X], Fe, Sig, fi; altered iolite; 

Zeuxite II,— Si, Si, Fe, Ca. fi (perhaps B), Dana; 

Ellagite I-II,— »i, Ä'l, ^e, Ca, fi ; 


A'nb-iV (kaoliuilc?),— 5i, äl, Cu, Sig, i'v, äu, iu rorinlfl« prvpur- 

tioiis, with more ur W-ia tl ; 
Ephcsite (probahly Kintal to raargaril*) III,— Si, Ä], Ca, K-, ^'l^fI; 
P}fu|ihyllit4-* III A. 3, — X\ ^•V -It fl, coiilainitig u little .Slg »iiii C'ni 
Cwplioiite I-II A. 3,— (A. ttii »c)* Si* + 3 fl witb a little F; 
littzou moff?k ID,— JÜ Si' ■(- 3 it. witli a little Cm Sig, and I-'c; 
Ottn-'Ut.; Il-in, y,— 3 ß 3i + il' Si' + 3 Ü i ft = bV 5lu ; 
Phjllite ia nearly related to öttrelite ; 

Ciniulilo III, 3, — XV 5i* f- U Ü, duuctlntL-fi cuutuiuiDK Pc und K : 
rTemtolit« {KiseMMnmark); oeiul>- a U Si' + 5 Ü, £ - Ä1, ife 


SmcGttLu (fallcrs' cartli, pt.) II,— Bi, Xl, 'Uk; (Ug, C»), H ; 
Bole III, 1-^,— St, Xl, Iß«, ii, iu vuriublc ]iru)Kirlioiid, anuietiinM) iiUo 

coulainiog B and Na CI ; perhaps in part halhy^t«; l>aua. 
MoutmuritluDitu 111, 3,— nciLrly äl Si* + 8 Ü; cxol. aome C«, (K, 

Pliutliil« III,— (ÄI, "Pe)' Si' + 6 fl. erol. C»; 

Btrgteif« (Wlc, oropiun),— 3), iäl. 1^-, Oa, Ag, .Vlu, tl, »onu-liim-^ 

»tso P, bumic iLcid, car))otiiuM?onH matter«, and bitiunt-'U ; 
Enphyllite,— Si, Xl, Ca, Jig. Sa, K, fl ; 
SlOAQik 1 A ? 10,~Si, Xl, Ca, 2k(g, (jiCu, £.), Ü ; 
Aphrwidcrite ll-III. 1,-3 f^e, Si + tc Ä1 + '-! fi; wn»'Um« some 

{■«■ replaced by Slg-; 
Uoltliacit« (BiD^tit«) III,— Si, 'Sk\, 1k, On, A. 

7- .iiliealsa with fiu«rid«t. 
Top« (pyrophysalilf. pyeiiile) III. 3,-5 X\ Si + {KV P + Si P); 
aomctiint?« noiitaiiting (nwi^s »f lE^;. 

Besides tbe siticat^r« above f^ivvu thrre are eevemi gimilar rom- 
ponudo in wbinli aliimiim m\i»i be cniieiden-d M an i-s^;ntiiil piirt ; 
tb'.-w liAveb^eu in part alrx-ady mftnti'iin-d muler pi>t:i$!m, wida, litlilii, 
baryta, liuu-, and lua^iii-siu, uhilt* tbe i\-maiiider will W eiiiimenited 
under the ulhi-r enrth.s aud tlie metals, tbu uxideä of wliioli are in 
DumiDon witli atuiiitua cunilfiiied witli ailica. 

h. ComiKtnnds io which aliiinitm occnn lu an aoid: 

Itydroialcitc, ■ cükiaiifnesia; 

Ceylimite 1 plt'ouaale), 
Llii^beryl, vide glncina ; 


rids ziac. 

Gshnite, ) 
Kiyittouile, ( 

tijiiicc niuat of tJic rockä iu wliic-h »ro-bcaring reins occar vontoii 
more or lesa alumina, aad eiiice m extracting the ores it is seldom 
possible perfi-ctiy tu «(r^iimu; tbc ndlierecC rock and tbt> ultiniinu> 
tiFurtiig miiu-riÜH OL-curriug in tht- vciu itDcIf, it fuUuwH tbut alumiuu 
fretim'iitly foiiiis a notable coitsnttit'iit of ores dix-^ed in the dry 
way and i-be i\6gi prodntx-d ig smvlting tbem. 

SxaauaaUon for Alnmiii*. 

Induding the blowpifte cliartuicrUiie» of alttmina-beariny mituraU, 
Ike constUuenis of which can for ihe muni part be ancertmntd ai the 
Min« time 


a. Cryolite Homctimv« dvcrt;|)ittttes iu tlio inutnuu. 

Iu tl)Q opco tnbe, heated «o that the Same eut^rs tbe tube^ muab 
hydrofiuoric iicid is orolwd, irhidi nttnoks the ^\»m, while che con- 
deusc'd wat«r iu tlio tube rwicfs acid with Bra/il-wood piijuT. B. B. 
Aiaes vvry ensüy, yielding {lart of its Uuorine »nd giviug a siTong 
soda llAmik Ou cuul fuacs rcry i-osily to a ckair bi-udi upit(|i)e on 
oooHng. Aft«r blowing longer the bead spreads, the fliioride of 
eodium goes into the coh), and a suffocating odor of hydrulluoricucid 
is [icrceptiblL-, while n cruet at aluiniim rL'muiiiS, wliit:li lutsninvs a 
blue color «itb cobalt solation. 

Di»&>lves largely and citeily in borax and S. Ph. to a c-lcur glass, 
milk-trhit« ou cooling. Fiisei with »oda to a clear gliisjt. which on 
cooling spreads out and beoomea milk-wbite. 

b. ChioliU yields ILO wator, Aims rcry «asily, and behaves uthcrwiae 
)iki> oryulit«. 


Corundum alono ie quite unaltered. In boras disaoWes with diffi- 
cnliy, but perfectly, to u clear glii«*, colorlt^s if no iron i« pn-stut; 
With S. Pb. dissolvt'8 only in ]io>rdt-r, and sluwty. lo a L>lL'iir gloss, 
and is not attacked by scidn. The very finely «powdered iniiicral 
aaaumes a fine blue color with cobalt solution. 

When it is dvEired to c-taminc it for Si, Fe, Ca, etc. It aboitld be 
finely ptilwrizc-d in the atwl uiortnr, to »void any i%i t'iMin (he agate 
mortar, fust-d ou olinreoal wjlb 9od.i and boras, and furthor treated 
with hydrochloric acid, as directed on pu 1 13. According tu U. Uose, 

AL01(i:rA— IITurtATK— ärLPn&TBB. 


on fusion vitb buulphate of poUeai it iviwlily yields a mass soluble 
ill wator. 


a. Dinsimre irk'liis a iiltle «uUt bI t1r3t nti] more when heated h) 
glowiug. It dvcrcpitutcs little, or not ut ull ; Bvrxvlius, liawcv«!', 
«xmniu«! a tli&spor« frum un unknown locality» »bicli decrepitated 
ivilh Tiolt-Dci^^, eriitnbltug iuio Instruu^ rliite suule«. niid only yield- 
ing water lU u nxl liput. 

h, U. il ii itiruäible. With Ih« fiuses like uliimiiia, aud ir notably 
fKiTUfpuouä til« buntv bi-wl is yolluw. finely powdciixl it tweiimeti u 
bltiL> color uriih cobnh solntion. 

b. Oittfmle beluivv^ like diu^jiore; vhen containing pboapboric 
ocid it cokire the flume pule grttn. 

a. Ftlfoban^e, aluminift:, and ahtmian. The two former yield in 
tlio luntnias niucli wott^r, und nl u liigli temprraliire enlphtiroas und 
Bulphoric acid». rfcogniz«ble by the «dor and with litmiig pa[*r. 
With borax and S. Fh. like uliitnin». With soda au iiifuatb]«. 
he|ntic m.i»&, and with cobatt Milutiun » fine blue. Ätwmian be- 
haves siniiUrly, but yields no water. 

b. AUtniU yiflde water und eoiiiC'timee crtimblea to powder, especi- 
ally wlKn cryatalliKtfd. More strongly lieiit«d a Ultle snlpbate of 
iimmoara is sonieiimes snblimed. while sulphurous »nd siilphnric 
ocidn urc erwlvfd and render the glaaa cloudy. In tin? foroepa givea 
% Tiolct Oatne, beoominiar reddish -yellow further from the »«say. If 
the soda nnction is too strong tb« potaasa is eiwily fonnd aoeording 
to p. 124. 

Dissolrrs easily in bonu and S. Ph. to a cleair, colorIc£a glass, but 
»onH>tiine8 leaves a eilira skeleton in the latter. Id int'uHible with 
Soda, but gives on ooid a bepntic raam. With cobalt solution a Uno 

c. Aluiuigen swells up in tltc nialnus, yielding much water, and at 
a higher tt-mporotnrc sulpburuua and eulphuric acids. The dvhy- 
drntL-d «alt is inrti>iibli' K B., but freiinenily giveii a soda or potiiiis:i 
6atnc. With fluxes like alumiiiite. but the bonix b«ad Is fivijueiitly 
Jretluw from iron. GiTes a linti blue with cobalt solution, utile«« con- 
taining too mneh iron. The salt is oiigily soluble in water, und thero- 
fore any other earths present can lie readily found by propei" reagents. 

d. iiaUniU fiisea in il« water of crystal I izati on and froths, yielding 
nuoli iraterj the reeidue heated to rcdmas cvölvci aalphiirons and 


plattser's dlowi'ipr analysis. 

fiiilphnricocida The (lehydratcd nlnm is inftiHble B. B. and girui 
a pola8«a flxmi'; if tlii« is )>rcvi.-nU-tl \>y soda tlie (lutit^aa is found 
aoeordiDg in p. VO. With Iho tluxe« aad cobiilt solutioa like aluno- 

f, Mendoxif« \iahn\vi like kftlinitc, hut only gires A and» flamp. in 
which DO pot&fsn cflu be detected. 

/, Ttehermigitf «t linrt. iipti like the prpceding two in the iimtni^s, 
bnt with a stronger heat somo ^nJ])hAte of nmmonia is »nbUmed, 
With thu f1iixi-8, eic, likfi kiihnitc. Mixed with 8i'di* und pi-utly 
h«at«d ill the matmas, carbonate of ainmotiia h evolved. 

g. Pickeriugite snd hosjtmmnUe hav« been detcTilwd tinder mag- 
neain, p. 163. 


4T. Turtiuoi» in the mntraa» decrepitatos, yield« wme water, and 
turns hhtck. B. B. inAisihle. hut assumes a limwn, {;h;§!'y oj>|K-ar- 
ance and colore the flame grrcn, paitly from phi>flph<iric iirid and 
|wrt]y from « little oxid« of cop]K-r. Dintolrcg cMily in borax and 
S. Ph. to bonds, yellowiali-giwn wh^u hot and pure grvt-n on «loling 
(copper jind ii-on). The S, Ph. glass on aial willi tin hfc-nini« 
opa<|UC and r«l from subuxidc of coppt-r. 

With soda swells at lirst and then ia gradnullydiHolvcd to a semt- 
traii^Ititrcii t gltus, colored with iw»». With more ^nda hceom« 
inftieihie, and with still mon.- in a (rood B. F. sunie cu|)pcr is n-dna-d. 
The phosphoric acid can l>e delected by fnsing the mincntl with äod» 
and silica, dissolring the mae« in water ntid throwingdowii Ihf* pho«- 
phorio acid with acetate of lead, 7'!'^ phnitjilitiric acid. I'Vom the 
residue, insoluble in wat<;r, oclier cimstitucnls can be easily found 
ont, after di^olving it in hydrochloric acid, as dirixtiMl fur liiznlit«, 
p. 1R4 

h. Ffgnnite from Langenstrii'gis occnrg of an einerald-grcen, » 
jrec nisli-gmj, and a green ish- whit«' color. 

The emcrald-gn>ca variety }'iclds wntcr in the nifttra«e and a«enmefl 
an impure rose color. Ignited in a platinum crucible it lusf>9< 33.5 
per ci-'UU water. B. B. turue vioI(5t. cmcks at a hi^h lieat. and ia 
infnsiblc, hut asHnmia a gluetsy appt.'urHncc and giTi-3 a greonisli ßame, 
partly owing to phosphoric acid «ad partly to a little oxidv of cop- 
per. The latter causes a mnmeniAry aziii'e-blue wlioii the astay ia 
prerionsly moiBtcncJ with hydrucblnric acid. niiii»ilre< cauly in 
powder in borax and S. Ph.; tlie hot gloas ia yellow fhim ironi bnt 
oeuly colorless on cwling. With cobalt eolDlion the Dnc powd« 
beoomcfl blun. 

Jll.ri)l NA~l>IIO<iI'nATK8. 


The gTMnish-gray peganit© IiehavM liki* llie pnweiiiiig, but in Uie 
malimea bccumeü reddis^h, in the cnicihle \ümn t^.l p^r cent., itnd in 
Ui« f«rofp0 become« retldUh-wliite. It scrm« also to ooiilain autau- 
wlmt more iron. Th» ph<«phorii?acid in poj^nit« c«n be detected in 
the aamv way wt with ttminni«. 

«. f^Ueiieritri bti!iiiw3 (jiiite like tbi tiro preceding mtncrula 

</. Awblifffonite in ihe matma jricid« eomc iiioisluro, which at a 
high tempemtnix: is add and Attack'» (be gUias. ft. B. fuses very 
eaiilj to n cleur be«d and gives a yellonisb^red flame of litbia and 
aodi. The- pnlrerin-d mineral mnistcni-d on gilatinnm wire witli 
salphunc acid gives a momeulary bluiah-groen Qdnie of pliospbnrio 
acid. Ois^lvi?« Iiirgely and very pmily in borax and S. Ph. t» ii clear, 
colüHeu gins». With fnifed S. Pb. in an ope» tube yields hydro- 
flnoric acid, vüte flnoriiie. 

e. H'attlliic in thf matnw« yields water, the Ian drops of irbich 
hare an acid reiu'liun uu Ilraxil-woud {«{»er. The glass is also 
ottackbd by the liberated hydrofluuric and. Ignited in the covered 
platinum spoon it loeos twcnty-floii'CR to twcnly-«ight per cent or ita 

B. R ewella and frequently is divided inlo Sne acicnlar parlJcIe«, 
whicli radiate from one point and are qnite infiutble, hnt torn wbite, 
if the mim-ml was not already white, and produce a blHisli-green, 
phosphoric iicid llanie. most distinct alVr moiMciiiiij;; witJi gnlplninc 
acid. With the flnxes and cobalt solution like altiniinm but the 
Btrwngly saliirated borax bead «ometimea shows a litilr iron, while n 
manganese i-enction is freqnently obtained with üodu and oilre. le 
perfectly Bolnble in bydrocliloric acid if fro* from silica. 

/. Strie</isan bebaii^'S iu the matrass like wsTellile, but it« gray 
color becomes «omewhat darker. Ignited in the platinnm spoon it 
loses 25.7 piT ceiit. in weicht. B. Ik becomes gniyieh- white, is 
infusible, and givps a bluish-green flame. With the fliixctJ, .'te., like 
wareltite, but shows rather more iron, and with S. Ph. a litllc silica 
aeparatea. I«»ves in hydrochloric acid only n trifling gray n-sidne. 
Treated in the wvt way like tuniuois a Ittllv lime is found in addition 
to alanriina and aeiH]nioxide of iron. 

g. Tan'seUe yields in the matrass considenible water, having ao 
alkaliuu n-uction. and dues nut decri-pitutc, but jiseumes a feeble roee 
color. Powdered and heated in a matrass with eoda, cnrboniite of 
ammonia is evolved. B. B. tjiiite infusible, but turns whitt» and ia 
tmaltered in the IL P. The flame is tinged bluish-green. Pissjlres 
rather easily in borax and S. Ph., even in fragrai-nts, to a clenr, pale 
yellowish^ecn gUsa. Will' cobult aolurion becomes blue. Ftis^'I 



on coal with Bodn, the fiiK-d mosa dt-compoMd by hydroohlwric acid, 
Bud the solution ev&pnruted tu tlryriestt, n moss ig obUiiiifd wliioh 
dissiilves perlV-cll)' in wikt<rr; it cuiiliiiiis I lii-rL-fun; no silica. If 
anntlivr portion is fiiSL-d on n>ul with suda and fiilicn, ua dceoribed 
ubofu for hir(|iioiti, und lurthi-r ireiitod in the tret war, in ttdilitiun 
to alnniiiia trifling quaiililio» o( srniviioxidv of ij-on iiud chmruium 
and of miignpm can W foniid iind the phosplioric acid del«cled wirJi 


3ftUH« yields vultr ia the aiaU'Hse, and wheu liCHt<?(l to irdDeea 
chare and cmite a hnrnt rdor. In the forceps and on coal burns 
vbit« Bud tUuii behaves like piire aluuiiriu witb tli« flitxc», etc. 


The silicates nnd«r t and ß. and the altimina-bcaring silicates 
ennmerati'd under thp alkalies aud ptx-cediug oanbs, after being 
tested for vatcr in the matriis» «nd oa to fii^ibJliiy, differ considtntbly 
in their Whuvior; the following remark», however, apply jfenprally 
to ailicatea rich in alumina. 

They dissolve with difQcalty in borax io a clear glass, more or 1«88 
yoltow M'hcD iruQ is present. 

With S. Ph. they are slowly decomposed and generally only when 
powdered, the luises di^olving and the silica remaining bfhind, 
'niieri alkiiline bu^L's arc prvxc>nt the bond ujulescc« on cooling. With 
ft little »oda they ^nerally fti^e to a head, but with more »idA give A 
slag-like mam, provided the Imsos an* not combined with a high pro- 
portion of 8i1icic acid, ride aleo the tables, p. 88. 

Cobalt solution can only be employed wh«it the «ilicatt.* is infiiüble 
•ud contains little or no coloring m<-tullic oxides and aUu not mnoh 
mo^eeia. An inf^isibl« silicate of Jilumina fn'o from tli(*j ingredi- 
ent« oflen nsstimes a tine blue color when treiitud in One powder with 
cobalt eulutiou. When itiatieilher posäible to det^^rniiiie the sili- 
cate with the blowpipe, nor to detect alumina, the mL-ihod described 
for liroe, p. 155. xa\nt be udopt'-d.nnd also for rocks, dressed ore, and 
■lags, irhicli are to be examined foraluuiina 

ThesiibiTanpe is decomposed by hydrochloric acid at once, or after 
fusion with andii mid lioms, then Ihi: silica aud perhaps a (riflii of 
barj'taaTe s..pnratcd, the protochluride of iron oo»Terte*i into seüqiii* 
chloridv of iron by nitric acid, and oxcvt» of nmmonin gradually 
added to the acid solution, which contains the reniiuning base«. 
Mumina and «.-«'itiioxidv of iron are llms tliruwn down tugellu-r. 



with any climmiiim present, which Hppcars as wsqiiimcHlp. When 
the «uln'tHnce <vntains much niugncnia i>r prntoxldc of maiijpuicw. s 
riry trifliug qunntity of these is also fn-iiitc^utly ptvs^-ut in the 
«Inmina and iron procipittttc, which is filtered out, wii«h<>d wr>ll with 
but wftl<T, and hftilfil whil« «till moist with u «»hnion of rtniistic 
potassa until the Hluiiiitia l» dissolvcd. k-Hviii^ the durk^hruwu 
Be&«iuiaxiiie of iron eichet alone or niixnl with the feMiaioKido <^ 
chriinitnm itiid <-)cc<.-üdin;;Iy tnQiu^ (jiiiiittitie« of nui^o^iti mid pro- 
Inxide of tniiiigiine:j)e. Tlic fLikuliiu' Miliirioii i» dihiti^il with wuter, 
the oxide of irun lilti;red uutr and hvdrudiloric acid «dded to th«- 
fiUmJe until it r^acU slightly »cid, when the ulnniinu iaa«:uiii pn- 
cipitoted with annnonia and muy Ik- colU-eted on a lilur, well washed 
with hut water, und iPi<ti>d with colmtt suluLiuii. Shoidd f>;lii<>iiia,. 
which hfhavvg flimilarty with potiusa and lunmonia, be siiS[>i'(:ltHl, ihv 
altimiiia may be teetrd for it, at will Ik- ilunnÜH-d iindtT gliicina. If 
the teit« wiUi fluxt:e have «huwn chn>tnium. the £i|>(iratcd 9C4- 
4Uioxid« of iron should be eKnmineci for chi-umium, viile chDniiiim. 
The method of detecting thv other liit»c». linir, nrngnrjiia. luid pro» 
toxidr! of niiin^tinc.«e in tlip Hmmmiiiitul liltrate from tin- ahitninar 
aG«^iuu,xidi.- of iron, etu., i» givtu utidi-r lime, p. löö et »eg. 


Thpat {pyrt^pfigmlift and fiyeniff) hi« unaltered in llie malnu& 
In thir opin tube with fiis«! S. Ph. Ihey yield hydroflnonc ucid, tide 
Huurinr. B. B. infiiHildc. but the vi'llow io]>iU! sometimes as^tlracsn 
ft-eble nwe wlor. Disaolv«! slowly in borux lo a clt-ar gUsa. slightly 
yellow if iron is pn-aeiit By S. PIl they are slowly decomposed, the 
silica rnrmin^a skrlcton, while the ticiid opnleatv^ on cooling. 

Finely pwwdercd thi-y Imconiebliie with cobalt solution. 

Aeeonling to Turner t^rtuin topuos fnewl on platinum wir« with 
Bniirite and binulphale of pnia^sa give a bonu-ic auid flimie. 

Tlie bt.-fiavtor of some of the ahovo-nuined alumimUea has been 
alirady stated nnder magnesia; that of the otht-m will be described 
uudcr ghicinu und sine; 

10. Qldciha, fie. 

I/f (ternrrence in the mineral Inngdom. 

Qtncina ia not of freqm-nt occnrronc*, Udng found onW in oom- 
binntioD with silicn nndnlnminn. 



<f. With ^iUcie acid in tlie Tollowiog eiUcat'ra: 
PlHtnncico III, 3,— tit* Si ; 

Enclose U-IU A, 3,— '3 ßc Si -t- 8 3Ü Si -)- a' Si ; the :ä i» ool; 

expoU«d hj fitroitg ignition ; 
Boryl (cmc-rald) II-III, 3,-3 fee Si + Si Si' ; 
Uadulinite (certnin rarietie-gj, nrfeyttria; 
HelvibB I-U A, IG, (with erolution of sulpbii retted hydrogen), — 

3 (f Si +■ Mo S ; It = ße. Ma, Pe; 
Danalitc K, 10,-3 ft' .Si +Zn Ö; ft = He. Fe, Slii, An; 
Lenco))kaait<, vidt eodo. 

6. lu combination wilh trtHmina in 
ChryBober;) III, 3. — fk< Xl, contnining occasionally trifling qnanti- 

ti«6 Of Pe or t-'e, Cu, Cr, On, Pb, Si, and Ti. 

EwmiliuiUon for CHadna, 

Tneludinff ths btowpipt charadcritlic* of tht minerabi abom «nu- 


Phmaciie yields nothing Tolatila in the matrass. B. B. is id- 
fneible. 1b dieeolrcd with cxtremv difiiculty by borax unless in ßne 
powder, wbcD it diaaolves rather easily lo a cluir ttlase. In the 
strongly entiirated glass white fiockp are produced by äamtng. The 
powdei' diMolres in S. Ph. and leaves a silica xkelt-txin. Wilh a liltlo 
Boda u milk-wbitL* bead, with more it gwvlU and TormB an tnrusible 
white alag. Cobalt eolution produosa a dull blue color. 

After fusing thu line powdt-r ivitb mäa and borax on coaI, p. 113, 
and treating thv L-ompound with hydrochloric acid until the silica 
is seporated, tlie ginoina may be rradily ei-parated and further 
tested. The acid lolution is made ahghtly amtnoaiaeal, trhea 
gluoina and any traces of sesquioxide of iron are thrown down. 
Tltey are coll(fCt«d on a fllt«r, wnehed thorongbly, and lifat«d 
vhile still moist with solution of jtotassii, nntil the glucina is 
redlasolvfd, k^aring the oxide of iron. Aocording to Sclialfgotsoh 
particular oare miut be takeu llint the potassa eolutiou does 
not bull, olberwiso some of the glucina may rvmaiu undissolred. 
Aft«r diluting the solution with water, fllteriDg it, and making it 
slightly acid with bydrochloric acid, the gluctua can be again 
tbrovn down by ammonia and may then be testpd for alumina. To 
this end it is tilter<>d ont, tlionmghly wiL«hed, and then «huk^n iu a 
test tnbe with a large quantity of carbonate of amtnonia wlnbioOj 

fllXCI S A— SI Lie ATES. 


irliich diseolvu the gliicina and Icttrcti tlic Klumißii. ThcUtlrr, if 
found, may be oollected, washed, and testtnl with c^oba]t soltitioa. 
The amTnoniaottI »olntioii or ^liictntt ie h«>fltod to (»oiling in h }K>r<,'i!- 
]ain t«8SeI, wh^n the gluciiw goes down u« basic airbonutc, und this 
con be conTprted into pnre glucJua by tgnitio» iu the plAtinitm 
capsnk. For it« l)1owpipe chsritctcristic«, riWo p. 9H. 

Sudan» is nnftllrreil in the matrasit and its vnttr cannot bt> 
detected heTe, bein^ ouly cxpellHl nt a very liigh tenifieniturL'. B. B. 
swelU Dp into canlißower'like points, whitons and t'uEcs with dilli- 
caltj on the edge to a wbit« enamel. DiiaolTe^ slowly in borax to ft 
clear, colorless glass, which eannot be fluniL-d opatjiu*. If a fni^-ineut 
is employed tt flnt swells with Hlight ederveKcenee and then u'liiten&. 
Decomposi-d by S. Ph. with slight efferreeoenoe, leaving a white 
•Uiea okeleton, while the glai» rcDiflios cKttr and colorU-gt», but 
opalesDM 01) cooling. A r(<d notion assay with soda on cnal yii'Idr; 
traces of tin. 

Beryl h nnchanged in the n)Hlra<& B. "B. thin «plintere l>.^eome 
ronnded and form a rcsicnlnr, colorie«! ecoria: tnnspArent vurivti» 
become milk-white. Disfiolves in borai to a clear gla^a, tim- grceu 
when cold if chroniiiini is present. By S. Ph. it is reiT im|XTiVctly 
■decomposed; the aesay reninimi nearly nnaltercd, but dimiuishea 
somewhat, eliowing that »onie silica is di^^lved as well as thf liases. 
The cold glass opnlescea and ia gn-uii if chtiiminm is presenr. It ia 
dUsolTcd by soda to a clear, colorie«» glnw, and acconJingioBei-zeliu« 
the yellow mineral from Broddlraand Finbo yields visible traces of 
tin by the reduction »«Bay. 

The method abore given Tor phcnacite ig also employed In eeiur»- 
ting Iheglnnina (Vom PHcIaBe and hvryh The precipiraie obmiued 
by ainmunia, coiitaiuiiig the alnmin«, gliirjna, and «i-eiiuinsidi-a «f 
iron and chromium, is ta-atcd as before with potassa solaiion, which 
leares tho oxides of iron and chroniiuin. The«? «re crtllerleti nn a 
filter, waälied, and tested. Th« nltimina and gluejiia m'c (ii.'|uiruU-d 
as before. Other more accnrati- itiethoila fur the tinntititative Äjiara- 
tjon of these earths {vide Attefalir. ITauitbuek li. Au/»l. t"h«in.. H. 
Ro«e, vol. ii., p. 60, et t«q.) need not bi? gicen here. 

Ilftvile yields a utile waler in the mairass. ulherwise nnchan^fd. 
B. B. intumcscea Btrungly and fuses with diflicully to a dark-ycllow 
to browQ bead, not free from bobbles. Dissolve« slowly in borax to 
a clear violet glass, nearly eolurless in the R. P. It ie rather easily 
decomposed by S. Ph.. yielding a sitit-n skeleton and a colorless gloss, 
opalescent on cooling. E^wells al firal wttli coda. then fuses to & 
hiack bead, chMtnwt-browD in the R. F. With more »oda epreada 



out, links pnrtly iuto the coal, and yicMe a &ul|iliur n^netion. With 
sodn Hiid nita- ii sLmng mnngsnese lyxctiun. 

To detect llie gluciii» tlu- iiiuly [wwdcivU niiui-nil ie diswlrtil in 
liydi-oclilohc acid (pup^r tnoietoned with aoetatc fi lend «bow« that 
eulpliurcttrd hydrogfii is cv.iIvmI), curefiiHv pvitpomtMl lo dryne«, 
ntiiisii-Di-d nith bydroohluric ucid. diiMulwd iu Ixtiling-bot u-ulcr. aud 
the silica ßltered oat. The ältmU' is farther trritted n« dirrcied fur 
phptincito, I*. 17S. The protoxide of mn^ciiiL can be- i)h>cipitaicd 
ill the aaiinunixral tiltnit«.- fruni the ijluc-iiia iiid tieitquiuxido u( imu, 
either iriili giil[Jiide ot animouinm or a eoliition of H. Ph, and 
te«trd, p. 155. 

Danalite j b. K. fuses roadil)' on the edf;i*ä to a black ciiaiuel- With 
i>od& on clmrconl g'lvv* a. sli};;ht (x>utiii;j of osidc* of ziitc (and a 
Hulpbur n-oction on siWcr foil). Pcrft;cily dfConiiNHüi-d by liydro- 
cbloric aoiJ, with CTolutiou of «ulphurettcd hydnfj^rn and M-paratiuD 
of gelatinous silica. Dana. 

t.mcof)haniti! fuse», ucropdiog to Krdmiinn, to a clear bead, 
iacliniiig to violet, whicb ciiii he Hiitned ojntjiie. Acconliiig (o 
Dana it whitfiid and ahnvr^ piirplr pli(>t<])hi>refccticv in the niairoHs; 
in thp forceps phiK^ption^ces iind Uuca wiih intnmt'dwc-iiüti to a cleai', 
Coloriess glaas, also prodiicpts an intense snda Duaif. DitMoln>6 ouitly 
ill boras to a clear «nieiliyst-n^-d hwL U easily dectmipoRxl l»y S. 
Ph. »nd IcarcH » silira ukfletnn. In the njicn tiiln' with ftt^d i<. Ph. 
bIiots flnorinc. 

The lime and glucina niay Ix^ easily found by the method given 
forphen»cite; the «mmonifical filtrat« from the glucina containit th« 
lime, wbiub is tbrowit down wiUi oxalio uoid. 


Chrysotfiryl is iiualt«Kd in the mHtrass. B. B. iafusible. bnt 
heated in fine powder on coal becomes glassy on the edge«. DiMohea 
slowly in borax and S. Ph. lo a clear gliias; iu & Ph. iliiMolTe^ 
very slowly un\v«6 jiuwdered. With fw'da only rondtwd dull on the 
aurftfce; otherwise not attacked. The [»owJit beconn'S blue with 
cobult solntion. The glncina is separated a« decoribed above Sat 
phenicite, etc. 

II. Yttbiji, ■$*, AST» Erbia, E. 
JT^eir occurrence in the mineral kingdom. 

Yttriu ia but rarely met with and nearly nlnrays in common with 
Oiidc of erbium in varioua oötnhi[iation& 



a, ksjlvori^e of ytlriutn in 
YtUviceriu-, viJp- lime. 

i. W itU phoKphon't: acid ia 

X«notiine 3,— t^* V; that from Georgia ooctains «leven percent. Üe, 
K litdc IPii And 5i arc «0In«timi^s prcMnU 
c. W'itii ianialic acid in 

Yttrotatitulic« 3,— (V, t'e, Ca, Ü)" fa' ; Dana. Some ff, Sii, ilg, 
On, and fl arc frequ(>ntlT prpscoU und yrtrotiiuljilire f^-om 
Ttt«r1>y cuiilaina furlber, ancordiag ru Ili'roiaiiD's aiiaIvsüB 

given bjr Dana, Jtl) (Cb). Ti. Tli, CV, U, Iji, An. There are 
Lno varieti(>&, a blaek anil a ifeUotc. 

HUlmiu- ;— Tji, ff. Su, Y, Ca. Ü, K-, Stn, Ce, t^ fti (Co, S(g). fl. 

c^ With nivfiic acifl* in 
Fergiiei.nile 3.— Nb, Y, Zr. Ci-. Pe, Hu. Ü. ft ; 
Soinarfkitp I.-Kk ^'. t. C, Th, ür. fe, Sii, Cc, »g. Ca, Ö ; 
Tyriio is rimilar to forffusonite and probably a Tariety of it 

e. With »iuble ami tilanie aeida iu 
Kuxc-niu 3,— Si, Ti, Y, Ü (Ce, La), in, 5lg, Co, fi ; Dooa incladcii 

Polyenue 2,— St, ti. It, Y, Ct-, C. P*- (ÄI, Ca, Sfg) ; 

.(Eecliyuite i,—^\>, Ti, Sn, Tli, C- (La, 'b\),-t«, Ca, Y, trace« of F. 

/. With tUnnie nt-M in 
PolymigniK 3,— Ti, Zr, tc, Y, G«, Ca, ISii (traces uffi, Sfg, Si, 5n). 

^. With «iVicH! fffü/ in a few Silicat««, eume of which contain a 
little (M/er. 

Oidoliuil« (few Crom gliictna), nrom Yttt-rby. Finbo, and Hroddbo, 
ni, IG.—S Y* Si + ft» Si, ft = Ce, t-e^Ca» Üg) ; aleo a tittle 


Gadolinite (coutaiuing glncina) from Ytl^rb; and Hlttcrfle. III> 
1,— «pproximiiteiy ft* Si*, Dana (for tlie Hillcröc miriL-iml); ft 
= Y, Cp. fie. Fe (Ca) : alüo TJi nnJ proltaMy ß und Di ; 

Ah ite III. 3,— Si, Y. Th ? Be (Ca), Zr, Pe, Xl, H ; 

MnronmutJte U, IC— Si, Y. %, Cc, ß«, Ia, Ä1 (An, Ca. SU, fi», 
R, fl): 

Bodenitp IT, 10,— 5i, Y, fV, Cr, U Ca, Slg, ilii, K. Ka, äl, fl. 



A. With tUrtnic ncirl niiil eombittation* of silitne acid in 
Seilhauite (rUrotitauitt?), vide liniti. 

I. With carbonic aeid in 
Tcngoritc 1 ; according tu STiuibci;g and Tcnger, caibonatc of jrttrÜL 

In addition to tbe ubore minerals titer« are a f<.-w mom which oon- 
tain trifling qoaotitiu of jrth'ia, vide cerinm. 

BzajnlnatioD for 7tMft uid Brbla, 
Including thehUttopipecharacleristics of the aioife-mentioimd mineral». 

MosMider, who irificoTered oiide of erbium tti jttria, «parBted bjr 
chemicul pixxx'Seos from various mincrala, fuiiiiJ filial the aocurate 
separation of these bases from each other was ;iiicudi;d with iiumoir- 
onii difHciiltiefl and could oiily bi'dcoonipiielicd \-\ noing a voneidombte 
uinonut of mattiriiil. while even Llieti tim hoäeis cuuld nut alu^ya bs 
isolated in a otit-niically pure Btatf, Sinoe blowpipe examinations 
OK only mikdt upon emuU qu;«utitie8 of a dnbstuuix-, wc cAniiot i-x|H-c't 
to make aujitiTiinile scpimilion of tht^sel)u»es until Riorewrtiutt and 
nimple meliiods become Ituunn, «nd generally, tliorefoiv, tho blow- 
pipr fxaminations will be limited to the separation of hnth Iwaes 
together, being oiilv furtlicr tixtetided when tlic etibülanco to be 
eKumiriL>d is rich in yttrio, or a larger amount of it is awed than in 
the ordinary Wowpijie analyses. • 

When not too »molt a ciuantity of yttria has been prepared, free 
from iron, ui-auium, and other ea;<ily eoparuble uictat», the oxides of 
which appear colored alU-r igniliuii, by tbe methods to be hereafter 
given, pnrc yttria may be nhtainetl from it in thv following way: 

1. Tiie eupiinitod yUrin is diefwUvd in hydrochloric acid and dilut« 
ammonia added to the aolatiou in raiall (juiuitities. The precipit&t« 
whioh forms after «ach ndditimi, \t ß1t4'r«d off, waihod. and dried. 
By this moans ))ai*ic italla are nl>tuhu-d, the latter (Htrüons »f which 
are perfectly colorit-ss and contAiu ouly yttria. The preceding ones 
are reddish and contain constantly iucrvaeing qnantitiM of orbi», 
which if) eopocialty found in ihe preeipitiitoa tintt fiirm<>d. 

3. The yttria «I'^mrakd fruin lUi* mint-iiiU may lie diü&ulveÜ Id 
nitric acid and the eolntion treated as alwTe. Wbcn the precipi- 
tates arc ecpuniti-ly trealc-d the tirgt one yields a durk-yellow oxide, 
and the sneoeedlu^ onet; appear jiuler and paler, ontil tbu la^t, which 
is quite white and consist« of pure yttria. 

!). A similar ocpanitiou may he accomptinhed by I renting an acid 
»oliiliou with biiioxalate of polaesa, but certain precautions must 


oe observed, and as the tnethod is complicated and inquires time it 
will not nov be furlhcr described. 


YUroctrite frym Fiobo yields 8omo wutor, wliicli luu a burotodor. 
Tbl.- dark variety biKwmeä wliite iu tlie mairufis. Ou »oaJ it is 
infnuible, but Dpon addition of gypsum fiise« to an o|)>tqiie bt-ad. 
With bums und S. Ph. a yellow Iwatl wliik- Iiut ; llii» cmi bi- fljiiiied 
oi»8')ue at »certain degree of satumtiwii. With a little sodafiisoä to a 
bnd, wiiJi rarrre bt-come« K'ss rneiblf, and wbeti etill more is added 
the HoJft Kinks iuto the cxwl, leaving oti infusible iiia«d t»;liind. 

yUroctrite from Broddbo d«crcpi(ü(vä slightly in the matn»». 
B. B. infuüitle, but beooines milk-uhit«, then brick -red. although 
nut always siiuilarly colored. With ^y{ieum it is inf^isihlc, oicing 
In the tar;^ amount nf fluoride of wriuiu. With the- glass nu.\C8 
almost like «esijuiyxiJcof cvriuiu. Allyltruct'ritv yit-Ids hydrulluoric 
acid when uwttd iu tho ojk'ii tube with fiisi-d S. Ph., vide fluoriiiu. 

Til« yttria io yctmcerite can ooly be d^lcctt'd by llie w*t piMwaa, 

A litile of the very fine powdür is digrstcd wilh sulphurii- acid in a 

platiuQiu diab. eiirri'd itp with a {ilutiuum wiru a»d hmtcd over the 

g[iiril'hnnp uniivr a HiiuiiiLy. iiutil till of Ui» fluui'iiio und tbvu all of 

thf tii|nTflHom sulphuric acid iirü pvpclhil, li'ii.iii)g.«ut]ih:itt.')i lH>hind. 

71ic!>e uni dituulvod iu dilute hydruubluric acid, u-aler id »ddod, and 

Uic diluli'd solution filtered, if any sulphate of Utuc should rom;iia 

oiKiJssoWi-d. Kroiu liie clear solution pn.>toxi<i* «F «■rium and 

oxides of iiinthaninoi, didymiuiii, yttrium, mid erbium are prvoipi* 

Ut«d by uddiug ammonia in flight ej,c<-4», and the prt-ripitaie is 

filLrred miU Pnftn the aminonlaml filtruU* lime is thrown down by 

ocilic acid. The prvpipitnle formi'd by addiii;^ uiuniuuiaib «abhi'd 

'«ith hot wal4^r, nulil tbv wn^b unter U un longer rloiidi-d by oxalic 

■cü. (If it were Decenary to examinf this precipitate for alumina 

OT ijltioina il Would rt-quirc to be hi-al<-d moderately with a solution 

sf ji-'iiv-;!, and if it cotiiuitied äe-rt(ttiu.\ido of iron ihie would be 

vard n'muved by a dilntx^ solution of oxalio acid, ride phosphate 

:ieeordin;r to BiTJri-liue, yttrocerito coiilaius none of 

_Jl_waflhed precipitiite is then traosftiTtd to the larger 

r. ßa, or lo a small Iwakt-r glasn. dis^lved 

Id, and diluted u-ith vuii-r. In this solution 

Used euliibiitf> of p(jlu£«u. So that it n'uchcd 



aboTe ihv siirfHCu ot tlic liquid, and tha vhoU la »'t lu^iilo für iwciilj 
fwu' Ituurs, o|- vise the eoltitioo, if not lo« dilute, if) ircatod with a 
quite- cuuct-utraUtl eolutiou üf siilphat« uf puUeeo, prepaid wiUi the 
aid of li04ii, und ilic wIikK- i;- idt>.iMtd to cool, lo either case the 
re«uU is s liiiuid saturated with siiljtlititt; of polassa, in which ftiria 
(ind jjrotoside of cerium form double suits viih the (lotaau and 
sulphuric Qcid. Tlic- vttrin salt is soluble iii tin- eaturottrd aulaliou 
of guljihutu of putal»^Il, while that of lh<? pMtui.idi> uf cvrium is 
iiUE>lut)le Hud falls lo thu hotloin a« a »liilv jiowdirr. it it tillered 
out* wnsijcd A'iLU u AuLuratMl aaluLJou of BulpUuti; uf potjisa», oDil 
dissolved in boiling-hot waU'r, after wbicli the prvtoiidi^ of ovriiitn 
is thrDUii dtiwii wirh potjL««» Rolucioii by thn aid of lu-jit, lillun-d 
out, washed ihuruiijflil}'. und then ignited in the platituini «poon. 
Diiniig igDilion it oxidises to a«-e<tuiosiiIe and assume», if ]iurv, u 
IcDioii-yt-llow color; l>ut if it couUiiii did>uiitim il u^^nuivs u 
cinuiiiiion-hruwn hue. Oxide of knthnnuin ii> white and therefore 
soy «dinisture uf it. would uot U* jK-rceptibli-, but upon (n-aiing tlie 
iguit(-d uxidu with nllric ucid, UT.tponiting it U) drjnoiu. mid igniting 
the dr)' residue withi access of uir, the oxide of laiithanam may b« 
extraijU'd wirli v<>ry dihik- niiric acid aud pivcipitMt«d witli solutioo 
of potaäsa, vüte Cv!riHm, lanthanum, etc. 

Till- vt tri» rcuiaiuiitg ill th« xolulion in likewise prccipit«t«d bjr 
potass» with the aid of heat, tilten-d out, and ignitod. To t€*t it for 
erbi» it ie dlKsottcd in hjilroctilone or nitric «cid and ainm(niiii 
odd«^ in small portioiu, p. I8S. If the Uki prvtipitat«'« appwr 
yellow after ignition it maj Ite aäennK-d lli»t the \-ttriu contained 
erbtft, since this hiu u dark y«iIow cokir aflor ij^Ditioii, wiiile vttria is 
then pure whita 


XatUime inhiimcscc« eligbtly and Aisie vith difficulty on th« 
edges, coloring the flame distinctly hhiit^h-grccu after being nioist- 
eoed witli eutphuric aoid. It dissolvt's «lonlv in iHirax to a clear 
gU&s. »lighlly yellow from imn wIiiIl- wumi. nud utbi-rv('i^> like 
ytUin. In S. Ph. itdiseolvM very alowiy (distiuction from upatit-,'). 
The glu«^ is oolorlees. AVith sodti it 10 det^omjiun-dwitli I'OTL'n'eiioeuiX! 
to a liglit gniy. infusibk' ^la;;. I'Lo^phide of iron IS oblained by the 
teet with nit'liillic iron »ud li»ranic »rid. )x 3i0. 

To detect tbe yttrin n-ilb certainty the very finely powdered 
mineral is mixed with four to five times il« n-ei^dit of sndaand fiii^d, 
dtber in sepurate portions on philiuum wiiv. or i« ihL- plutinnm 
6{unn, ii::til U no louger efiVrrut-.-e«. The futnl moss is covca-d 



«itb w»U-r in a Bnmil porcclixin xtg^al and heu-tM to bntliiig oror the 
lamp. PhoephaU' uf gudu mtd Ihe excess of ciirbuiiaU) of »oHa 
diMulve, k-aving the ineoluMc ytirin aiid some sescjiiitixiile of irou. 
which is pi'oseut ill the- mitior»! as bu^Jc pboephuto. AfltT tilturuig 
out th*' Pfsidtie aiul waeliiiig it thoroughly, phosplioric arid iiüh* b» 
venf n-adtly dett-cttd bj iwting a Utile of the filtraU-. i-tile pho9- 
]>)ionc acii). 

The peifidnc of yttm and aesqnioxtde of iron tDaj be dUsolted 
while still motüt in hjdroghlorie aciü, diluted, nud tlte ba^M ihmwti 
down HS bj'dralcä bv itichus of ammouia: ibi-y hiv tttiimii<;hl)' 
whvd. tninsfcrn-d to ii test tube, covered vi(h a diliiti^ soltuioTi of 
oxalic acid, und hciitod nciirly to tailing over tlic «pti'it-lamp. Itolli 
bia« art (*0DTeTled into oxaiaU'^ luid the osa1utL> nf M-fiiuio^idc of 
iron being soluble nin be mulilr separated br filtration frmn tjie 
infoluble oxalate of yttria, nliicli apj^'aia uü a ht-uvy, wliilt- jiuwOvr. 
This being also tnsnlnbU' in pure water ie n-:u(lu'(l ihortniglUv, dried, 
and ij;uit4.'d. A special test, p. 184, \b nHteawiry I« determine whecber 
the rttiia ia puit>, or coiilHins erhia, mid for Ibis die f|iiaiuity of 
^ttriu musL not bc too »mall. The scsquiufiidc of in>u iu thu Ül- 
tntp is separated by means of {lolafss, aft«r some nitric acid has been 
added and the whole warnu-d. ll is filtt-red oBt, «Mbed, and t«at«d 
B. H. with borax, if necessarj-. 


YUrolantuUle, yellow and black. Arcurding to TU-rKclius thi>y 
behareae follows: 

Aluiio iu th? matniw they yield wat«r and tb«- dark vnrietios turn 
yellow. Sinrngly ignited tboy bwroine white and tlie gliwM is xtUieVed, 
white Ibe expelled water tiu'itß Brusil-wotHl jiaper yellow at drät and 
then bleaches it. B. 1). inftieiblo. Di&ndvf iu borax to a nearly 
eoIorlt-Äü •^lasH. heciiming oparjuc of iiÄ'lf wiih a large »ddiiion. 
Dissolve in S. I'h., leaving u white skelelou of tunliilie aeid. which 
on eoiitinui-d blowing aläo disttolves. 

Tlie Ua<k Tariety from YtUrbv gives & glass which »seinnes on 
cooling a fivhle ropf color, after ireatmont in K. F« owing to the 
presi-ucv of tungüi^n. 

nie t/elloif variety from Ytterby affords a faint bnt fine green 
iMod, dne to nranion». Ytirotantftliie from Firbo und Kararfwt 
Affurds a stroDg irou color, whii-b ub^eui-c-« the ui-aniiim reuet.iuu. 
^oda decoropows, but does not dissolve tbem. On platinum foil 
they sbuw mungaiieae, and by rvduotiou witli borax and sod -^ yield 



traces of litu Tho tniimrat (torn Piu)>a, however, containa m mnoh 
iron ilint the. till oiiinot be thus detecteJ. 

Uielmile dticrt-jiitutctt iu Ihu nintnuis, crumbteB und jrields vrater. 
Id 0. F. iiirnsible.but l^ecomes brown. Dissolves reudrly in borax to 
B clear glut«, cloudy by flftmiiig. Witli S. Ph. & bluisli-gnH.-ii glass. 
With sudu on charcoal girus meuillic sjuinglcs. Dana statei that 
the borax bead rcmuiua uucbauged ou Qaniius. 

N10BATE8. • 

FtrguaoniU yields a littlv water ia tlie nutra». B. B. on cbar- 
oool becomes lirat dark, theu pklt- yellow, but is iurtuible. DiasulTea 
with difficulty iu borax to a glass it-hicb is t^IIow while liol, and if 
Gatiiratcd, cau bv niudc cloudy and dirty yelluvisli-rvd by flamiug; 
the undiseulvvd portion is whitt;. Di&aoWue slowly iu S. Pb. to a. 
glass, yellow in 0. F., colorlpis in R. P., or inclining to red if well 
Buuimtoil; it tbon is n-odily mudt- cloudy by fUiiiiiu};, or un cuoliog* 
but thi« ia not the caec witb a nicdemte addition of ihe miniTjU. 
Tho iMirtion pemnining uwdissolv«! is wbit*". 

Fu£«d nilU tin tliu S. Pli. glusä iviiiaiiia culorlosa, but tlm uiidia- 
aolvnl, while portion of tbi: oe-say adiiiiit:» a itesh-i-ed sliudt.*. h ü 
dccomposMl by Mdan'itlioi)tbcingdissolri-d,and leavt-e a rcddinh ela^ 
Reducvd with (>iioiigh eoda it iilTonls nomo inutitllic tin. (Iti'ntt-lmi.) 

SttiaarskHty ncconliiig to 0. Mo», beliuv«« us follows: 

Id the matnisa dt-crcpiUitüs sonicwkal., glows, crack« open, and 
blacken«. B. B. fuBea ou th« fdgce to a black glott. With U>rux iu 
0. F. a yL'Uowiah-grefiu to rüddish glass; in E. F- a yt-llow to 
gweuiftb-bhick gluwi, becoming opaqu« and yullowish-lirowu by 
daming. With S. Ph. in 0. R a clc^r, ernerald-gnx-u gisHS, analti-red 
ill R F. Witli flodu on plutiatim foil a muugauese i-eaction. Fused 
with bi^nlpbali; of ]JübUi!Ui foimd a Uuid, red masi, which is yvllov 
when cold. 

Tyrit« decrepilaies strongly, yields water, and becomes yellow. 
With boiux yielda a ßlasa nhich is P-'ddiah -yellow wbik- Imi. und 
O0lork«s when eiil,d. Willi S. Pii. utTords a üilicü ski-letun, iind the 
glass i« given i»h-rel)ow while hot, green on cooling. 

According to \yAna, «amanhilt in powder \i culHuiiMitlv dcooni- 
posed on bulling with sulphuric a«id to give a blue color when the 
acid fluid Is li'cat4-d with metallic zinc or tin \ while fergusonit» 
evaporated with sulphuric auid yields a while reaiJue, whiih trented 
with hydrochloric acid and metallic zinc, gives a hluish-grceu color. 



Svxenite id iufneibU. With borax and S. Ph. disdolr<,>B to gIssaeK, 
fellow irhile hot, but tbe S. Pli. glnes, nut too slightly uitunited, 
becomea yellowish-gifcu ciu couUiig, owing to unuiium. (Scbctrrer.) 
Fused with ciLuatifi potaa^o, the tuasA dieaolvfd in wuicr, the mliitioD 
uuutralizvd with hydrochloric ucid, and the resulting prcoipitnte 
boiled with ooucoutnitcd hydrochloric uoid and tlu foil, u dear 
6uppliii-o-bliic Suit] results which changes to olivc-gmcn mid tinnUy 
bleaches. Xhä miu<::räl \i^ suöiciunlly atlacküd uu äTupunUiuti witJl 
salphnric acid to giva a whitish rusidtio, which affords Uie cburao- 
t«rh(lic blue rtnluction test, wbea trputed with metallic zinc or tin. 

Folgcra«« decrepitates in the matrass and gives trnci-d of wnter. 
Tu the Torcep« glowi and aganme^ a light griiyish-hrown color. Di»- 
soWra in borax tu 0. P. to a ckar yellow glas», which iusumea a 
bniwn cglor in R. P., eajicciiilly in adding tin. With S. Ph. likKwiae 
dissolTca to a cli-ar, yoltow to yullowish-browa «Lw*, piis*iiig into 
gnwnisb ou cooUug. In B. F. the color hecunuti darker. (SohcLTer.) 
Dcciini posed by evaporation with concentrated sulphuric acid, the 
pri)dtit:t treated with hydrochloric ucid and hoilcd with metallic tin 
or zinc gives a deep a£ure-Ua« color, which dwa not fade. (Dana.) 

jKfcAj/nit« yields some water and tract.-« of hydroQuuric acid in 
the matrass. B. Ü. swells and chii-nges frum a bUck to a ni«ty brown 
color. Is rather easily diäaolved by borax in O. F. to a clear glass, 
yellow while hot, 0oK>rU'Ee on cooling. Treated, with tin in K. F. 
this glass bpoomi'S blo»d-roc). It di»^»lvea leas easily in S. Ph.; s 
■mall addition affords a clear, colorle^ glass, which hi rendily made 
cloudy by separation of some white Kubstancv, wlien more of the 
oBBuy is added. With tin in It. F. tbe glass asesutnes an ametJiyst 
totor. Tho mineral i-fforveecfs with snda, hut i« not diüsnlvcd and 
yields uotiiing metallic. (Ikrzcliuü and Ui-rrmun.) It \» suflidcntly 
decomposed by salpburio acid to show thu rednotion t«et with aiuc. 
(Dana.) 'I'he wet proewa must be partly employed in ordif to ilrtect 
with cvrtaiuty the seporate eonstiluents of the furv^uiiig tuuUlut^s, 
niobatea, and titanntes, which may contaiu, in addition to the cur- 
respoudiog acids, tnngstic acid, and its buaos, lime, yttria, zirconia. 
Olid oxides of cerium, lanthaninm, irttn, manganese, uraniutn, atid tin. 

The following mt-lliod is employed ; 

1. A safllcient amount of the very fine powder is fiiBed in the pta* 
Uattmspoou with eightparldby weighlof blsnlphateof potas«a,]>.U<^ 


b several iKii-tions. each jiortiou being Ircntttl until cverytliiag is 
melted to « clear fluid, wlicn tlie nuiss is at once pouKiI out iipoii the 
at««l anvil. Wtx-n all kn« Wn thus fusi-d the tuuss ie crualitd in 
the stt-'t'l tnurtur mid tlieii |Milvi.'riaed as Hue as poBsilile in ibe sgute 
mortar. Tim puwiler is nurniul witli siifHcieul wuu% not being 
bUowimI U> boil, uid thp rollowiiig iii^redicutp tlicn difisolvis: 

while there r^nain as a white rc»)idue: 

Tu, Sb, % Sa. 

If the, mineral contnins Ti, 2r, and Tb, a portion of these ifi also 
likely to rL-main tindi£8olv«(t 

After litlrutiuti tli« ru<i<lni,* ig wiuhed with hot vfttiT, to which a 
few drops of lijdruchlorit acid may well Ik- addwl to «vcua- tlit- in-rfect 
K'paralion of the eulpliulo of tiini' und si.-äi|uii>xide of imu, mid it may 

then b« exan]inedforalitbe^h,Tn,iiud W, uEwtilusa purtiouofthe 
'Fi, 2r, and "Tb, together with the triHing i^uatitity of ^d Roinetimea 

i. Tiie residue i» dried, flnvly ptilrerijutl, mix«! with live vnliinifS 
of oirlwnat« of ]H)tnSKi, m<>iefx:nt^ with water, and uiclk-d in ECjKt- 
mto i^orlioaa on atuut platinum wire, Fi;; 31, p. 30, uiilil all. is 
in quiet fusion, Ibü moiled maäatbeiug &bak<>ii ott* aftir t.-ach fusion. 
It is tlien pnlveriz«! and tnatf-d in a iwro-lain dish with cold water, 
to distfulvi- thu cxcci» uf carbunale of putiisHu, thi^ tiululion ia dniwu 
ufl' with a pipette, and the residue treated with fresb wator. which ia 

heat«d to hoiling. This dissolits Ta, Kb, Vf, Th, and most of the 
Bd iwnibin(>d with piiliiRsu, Icarin); th" gnul^i- [utrt of (be 1'\ »ml all 
of the 2r liehind. The S4>luiion is lilUrcd oil', rbe n-tiidue well 
wuälied. aud the eohition added to the first, in cua^ a poniun of tbe 
uewly formed pol^A^a Kilt^ v>ts solnbte ev«-n in cold w;ilfr, tlu- whole 
avidilicd with hydrochloric acid, evN|)orat«l tu drvDCfts ut a niod- 
enilc beat, and tbe dry mass treated with hot water, wbieb disaolwa 
the chloride of poia^einm and most of the tiidiluride of tin. leanng 

behind 'IV Kb, Th, and W, uilh u trace of Hn. ThuBolutiun. which 
may coi.liiin tin, is treat«d with a little eulphidu of ammouium, 
efaiikc]!, aud a few drop« of dilntc hydruulitühc acid lulded to it, 
tt-ben li yellow pix>cipilste .if iiulphide »f tin will form if tin ia 
preseut. lu order to free Llii* lautulic or uiobic acid tioni Inagstia 
acid iiud hinoxidf of tin it ie nec<'.'^i«Mry to treat t}ie mixtniv dJn^tly 
Upon the tiller with sulphide of itmmonium. Tlit neck of ihc fnnnel 



U closed witli a corlc, the itill moist mixture covered with siilpliidt- 
of ammoiiium, and a valrhgloes plomd ovor the funitol, ulicii \Uv 
whole is sot a«iile in a u arm place. After all of tlie t ungut ic uuid niiü 
oxide uf tin have Ufen dissidved ae eiilpliide» the fiiitm-l ia opeued, 
the ei>lulioii alJowcd to flow off, audilio r>-ni*iuiiig acid tlioronglilv 
washed. If it h not while iL nhould l»> iit one« iMven-d wilb ililiUu 
hydrochloric ac-iJ. whil« on the litter, so as t« diäÄulve any tniws of 
suljihidc of iroii prewnl- 'I'hr wuy in which it is I'nrtlicr t<-sivd »ill 
be given under the cxaminatiou for iiintutum und niohiuQL An; 
thoria present ean be separated hy menus oT oxalic aeid. 

The iliisolvi'd sulphide of nitii;>!ti*n, willi the trace* of «iilphMe of 
tin wliich may bo present, it« tbionii down by hyiirntlilonc or nitric 
acid, flltered out, nud tlie precipitate, rich iu eulphnr, after iieiug 
freed from the exa-saof aiilphur on coul iu O. F. and then Ihoroiiglily 
igniu-d. i» tested with iS. Ph. on platinum wire for inngelir acid, and 
with soda and borat on coal for tic 

The residue which remuius after separating the To, Strand liV, 
and tnay rontjiin 'ri, 2r, and tmcea of an, is tiret t^-ätitl with S. Fit 
on platinnm wire fur titanic ucJd; it is then tealctl wiUi st>da oo 
plutintiin fiiil, uiid if during the fusion ihf flniJ ma«g ie clwir wlirre 
miMl eirungly lieati-d, the residue coiisiste only of titnnic ai-id. but 
if Doi, aincu zircunia doe« not melt to a clear fluid maea with soda, 
it oongiets of titanic acid and »rconia, provided the test with 8. Ph. 
has shown the proet-itco of titanic acid. A portion of the residtiH 
may alM> Ik test<-d for tin by a reduction aftsiy. 

3. To thr eoltiliuu of the anlidialca, ooiiUiniiig free hydrochloric 
•cid, ammonia is added in slight oscess and witii coiiiitnnt Btirring ; 

by Ulis means (aKHiimlng that the solution uontuina a1»o Ti, Zr, and 
Ih) are precipitated, Ti, t, th, Zr, Co, ta, TPo, »"»' Ü, while ('& and 
ICn remain for the most jmrt iu solnlion. After filtering out the 
pivcipitate and washing it well willi hot water, the lime is thrown 
down from llio ammuniacul filtrate with oxalic acid and any man* 
ganeee pTf^ent with ^ Ph. ur Hulphidc of ammonium. 

4. The prceipitate obtained by means of ammonia is wiuhed, dried, 
and dlasolvpd iritb tW- aid uf luMt iii Kulpharic acid, dilated with an 
equal amonnt of niitiT. Water it« mldid to the cleur aolntion luid 
tbe whole hoiief). when any titanic acid present ia thrown down, 
filtered ont. and tested B. R 

5. Tbl- Hllmte freed from titanic acid is nentiulixed with potaaga, 
until it has bi:t a very feebly acid reaction, und ia then BAtnralcd 
Titb u concentrated Solution of neutral sulphate of pvTosfti, frcslily 



pTvpared vith the aid of heaL Tlie whole is t)i«ii alltiw«il to cool, 
dtiring which time a precipitxtc, pHrilv florciilcat and partly pnlTer- 
ulcBt, generally settles, consisting of basic sulphate of zlrcoiiui and 
Bulpbat«s of tbe oxides of c»rium and iBitLhaniitm wilh potusaa. If 
the rainernl contains Ihoria it is also present in tfais precipitate. 
which is cultect«d oti a t]]t«rr and washed with a estarated sohitwo 
«f sulphate of potassa. The Sltrat« oontuiua ikll of Uie "t, Kv, and 
& Another vessel Iwing phioei! below the fiinni-l. the salu on the 
filter are wagh«d with pure, boiling-hot water, which dtfwivcs the 
doable aalts of oerium und lantbiinium, leaving the ba^io snlphate 
of sirconia and the »nlphate of thoria. These rwo can only be wp- 
arstcd convcnientlj' in c»8c a conaideniblu qnimtily is fivnted. and 
then «ralic acid is used, in which the »irconia dissolves, while tboria 
ia insoltible. The oxides of cerium and lanthauliini are thrown 
down fmm their soltitiun bv pota»sa «nd then separated by means of 
dilute nitric acid, riV« cerium and luntlianium. 

6. Tlie solution, which may still contain V, l^e, and tT, is treated 
with a slight excess of poTosea. and all tbre« bases thrown duwn aa 
bydnites. The pivcipitate ia tninart-rrtld to a smtill tiller, well washed 
with bot wuter, aJid then modemti-ly beiUed in n. small porcelain 
vessel with a dilate »oinlion of oralic acid, until the re»dus appears 
pnre whice. Ee »nd C dissolve, whilo the oxahite of ytlrin remains, 
and after liltrutiüu h woäbcd, dried, ignited, and tested itccunling bo 
p. 18». 

After adding some nitric aoid the ^ and Ü in the solotioo ore 
again thrown down with potasaa, the whole warmed, filtered, washed, 
and the precipitate, while still moist, treated with carbonate of 
ammuuia, which dissolves the Ü and leaves the Sv. From tbe 
ammoniacal filtrate the 1^ can be thrown down by boiling the Quid 
for some time, or by gnwlwally adding hydrochloric «cid to feebly 
acid reaction and then adding ammonia. The oxides thus separated 
may tbcn be very easily recognizod B. B. with glass finxes. 


Polffrni<tnitf. — B. B. on coal is nnchanj*od. Dissolwa eaaily in 
borax, the gliiEs showing irtm and, whtn much is added, b-e«Lmii 
opBi^ne and «anally brownish-yellow by flaming. With 
becomes opaque on cooling. With tin Ihe lie»'' 
inclining to yellow. 

In S. Ph. diesolveg with difflct)' 
tbn K. F. and also when 



It is ieoompoati by Boda and assumes a jcrayUtired color, but. can- 
not be fused. On pUtinum foil a mangaaes« reiictton. (Berxvliue.) 

The sf]iarate ingredient« iiro found in tho wet way, as deecribod 
for uuitalat«)), niolmt««, and Utaiiates, p^ 187. 


a. GadoUnite from Tttcrbr. Finbo, and Broddhrx 

Witli regard to tbese giiduliiiitea and tJieir bebavior BcnuHui 
tnuke« the fidloirjog ubecrvationa ; — 

Thev are of two kinda; one («) aa rttrooits as if it vcre a frag- 
ment of black glass; th« olbor (^) eplintery to ila Cracturä und not 
eo larjfclT conchoid»]. It is apparently an intimate mixture of gado- 
unite und orlbit«. 

Var. a. If heated in a matra&j, nearly to Uie melting point of the 
gliia% the anny glowic (jnickly, ».i if on fire ; it niao gwelts snmewhuC, 
IwoonieB light grayish -gn.-« it, and cruck« heix* and Ihurc if lar^e. On 
coal the same ; it is infusible, bht the thin edges bvcome black iu a 
strong Same. 

Vur. /}. Alone it swells up into t!an I i flower-like nuniJlcationa and 
becomes whit*, but seldum glows like variety a. 

Both Tarieties behave eirti'larly with the glass fluxes, dissoWing 
readily in borax and pelding a Wrong iron rciictio». S. Ph. di«olvefc 
tbem with great dißionlty, the glass showing iron, and the fnigment 
becoming roanded, bnt remaining white and opnqiie, »o tiial the 
siliCA is not sepnmtvd (chief distinction from gadolinitc of Kararf- 
vet). With aoda they are dissolved to a r>:!iIdiäh-brovn, half fuced 
slag, but variety 8 fuses lo a globule, when tljcre is not too much 
•oda. No manganese reactioo can bo obtained. 

Acoordiiig to Dumuur and Deäcloiseaux* diCferent raneiiea ol 
gadolinitc from Vtterby show the following behavior B. IJ. Soma 
yield water, glow more or less brightly, swell, and are infusible^ 
excepting one rariety. which yields a black slag. The dark color of 
the mineral is changed, becoming grceniflh-gray to gravi sh-whita 
6. ftrom liroddbo and Finbo is similar; 0. fi-om Fuhhm yields water, 
shows no perceptible glowing. U'com« dark bruwu iu lliu foreeps, 
and is infusible. 

b. Ondtfiiuitf from Karorfvet. In the unatmes yielda a little water; 
OQ octal whitens, and in a strong Same fuses to a dark pearl-gray or 

• Amm. it ChSm. el <U Phji., Tä^. 3&T.— Kcnngott. Utttrtitkt dtr AnAoM WatW 
FoTwdt. i. J. ISaO, 59. 



reddish, opaque g\MS, vitlimit awu-lling. Dissrlvi's n/tudily iu bona 
to a clear glasa, showing little ii-on. If suturtiti-d the i))hm)iil- ^\itaa 
Cfystulliace on cowHng »iid bivomw gray, iiK'liiiing lo rvd ur green, 
hat thp «nuniel-like opHoity, ».(Turded by rktria uloitt-, cmiiiut tiv pn- 

J>iE«olrfl8 in S. Ph., IcKvinjer «• «lie« skcleioo And rorniing « neiu-l; 
(tilorlejui gls^, opak>6UL'ot uii cuoling. Witli bmiIu CngcB with dilU* 
cuItT to a grayistfred slag, nnd on plntiinim fuil givt« a in»nguiii'si> 
reaction (l)ur».-liii»). Aoi.'oniii)^ to I>iiii]uiir iitid nt-M-lnizi^mix it 
glowi briglitlrB. B.,evelUa little, fttseawith diaic»Urt>n tliufd»*^ 
and bi'comofl ,?rny. 

e. Oadolinite from IlitccrOc hus bci*n chemical]; examined bj 
Scbeerer. A eiiflifiently large fragment lipuled to low n-dm-ss iu a 
parliully cIoäimI idnfimini spoon, is ol>BorYcd to glww very «Irooj^Iy, 
tb« light sproudiiig Trou one jxiiiit tliroug-hout the whole. B. U. 
infii^ibli-: vfiili the fliixe^i show* iion niid »ilica. 

Arrnidin^ to Dtimoiir niid DcK^loiEcuux, 1. c, it glow« when hcatfll 
to rodii«sa, cmchs, remuins transpan^n t, and ig infH^ihlc. 

rf. AlvU« \i iurii8ihli\ Witii honix it •p'OJ.'iitF^h-vi.-Ihm glass, color- 
less on cooling. With S. !*li. » yellow gliiK.«, l>eroming green and 
finally volnrlcas on üiMiüng, uud «liowing no tilsniitni niKtion with 

*. MuramnntHe from Bodeii, nwir Marieobprg, is said by K«rndt to 
hehav(- liko hirlrniir fmm ihi' »amc jilaxx. 

/. liaii/iiute b<^lmvfs, uiicordiiig to Kemdt", as follows: — 

In tlK' mntriis« yields & Iittl4> wiiur wirh n burnt odor and assiiium 
A light, bruwiiitih-yfUoir wdor. Htiiilvd in tlit-- jiliilinum fi[>fioii some 
piec«?« glow g[id(Ii-iily, but more f<-vbly ihan gailoliniCo and without 
decrepitating. When more etrongly hciiCed the wnmv emcke ujtcn. 
On con! it swclU, turcE dirty re>ddieh-yellotv, tind fiuully iaäu'ä with 
inlnmi'gt'r'nce lo a durk, Idebby glasiL 

DisAiI TL-8 MBily and largely in boms to a clear glues, allowing iron- 
Is very r«adily di-oompoüeJ by S. Ph., louring a eilictt ek«k-ton in ih« 
glas^s, wliid) iihows iron, but givi'i) nn ticuniiini rcaotiou. With sixlo. 
fUsca with imiinu'sci-ncL' to a dirty yi-Uow slag, and on platinnm foil 
with nitre given a mangancec naiifion. 

To detect yitria and the otlitr iugrt?di»?nt^, not to b« rec« 
(h« blowpipe, the foregoing silicalj.-* nni?t I» examy 
-of the wft procew. If not previously 
plotcly dfcomiioBcd by liydnjcliloric u^ 
may tlurefore be adopted : — 

1, The vtry fine jxmder i« 

pletely decomposed ; the vholu' ij tlirn gently eTaponiled to Arjovu, 
tnoist^-ued vrilh liYilr<>chlono »cid, the iveulting mils iliggotvt-d in hoi 
wntcr, luid tlif seittiiitod eitica filtorvd out, ftftur wliicb it is wtU 
iruhed nnd can he tested B. 3. 

The Ailiitioi) may cont-iin the roltowing hues: 

Ca, Ag, £). 6e. t, C'e, Lu, TßK-, JIn, with trace« of K and I^a. 

J. To »ppanite theae, exo«» of omroonia is gradoally added to 
the arid soltition and Si, hf, "T, Ce, La. and Fc arc thrown dowo, 
leanng On, il^, and Stn diwolwd. The precipitate is coIlect<-d on k 
Sllvr, well «ashed, and the bases in the ammotiinml flUrate nn> eop«- 
nted by means uf oxalic acid and S. Ph., p. 136, «< «e^. 

3. The pnx-ipitfttv f-jniii-d by ammonia generally coDtiÜQB but little 
ainmina and };liicina and is dtBAoIved in a small poroolun disU 
with jvet the ii««««)>ary amonnt of dilute hydrochloric acid, the sola- 
ti»n cnnstHiilly Htirn.-0 and esci-«» uf potasaa addeil, after which the 
whole i& heated, but not to boiling. At first all the hasca nre tiirown. 
down by the pntuiea, hnt Xl and [k< redissoWe, especially when the 
aolotion is heated. After diluting the whole with wat^r, fllt>}r!ng 
and wusfaiug the ])i¥cipitat^ thoroughly with hut wal<>r, iho «lUtha in 
the alkaline filtrate are separatrd aa directed under gluciiia, p. 178. 

4. The muixt precipttat«-, containing V, C«, tjii, and V*: h heated 
with dllatL' oxalic acid, which romores the V*^. The rpwidiie of 
oxalates is filtered oat, «'ashed, dried, and ignited with acoce« of air; 
the fvsiilttng oxides are tlien disüiotTed in dilat« hydrochloric acid 
and Bepaniu-d by means of sulphate of potusss, aa alreudy described 
under yttniCA-rite. p. 183. The scsqoiuxidc of iron in the solution ia 
thrown down by potasaa, afUr som« nitric acid ba8 been added, and 
ia t««l«d B. B. 

For A'tnlhnuitt, which belongs here, see p, 137. 

12. ZiRcoxiA, Zr.* 
//* occurrence in the mineral kingdom. 

Zlrconia is of rare occurrence and is always funod in combmatlou 
vith bases und acids in 

* AKurdl»); to I>. SvMihcri; {Ptw- Aim., ml. as, p. 317 and ml. 6S. p. 3D9f, the 
Mfcoaia idXHinrd fimrn ihr xirrvn of KttTwty ami ih« l^nil tuiiulii« two otiwr oxUbi, 
oat of trbKh hn kn> iiiunni iwiiA. Tht <h&nwMriwtc <)nnliriiu of lint n«w «oin- 


rza T 3Ijjw^ph j.ti 

-Vr:r!>" flirt 

■is*.-:.- ''•::■*, 


VCi:vr-c 1 :.— =ü *r. Siv Ti-'^a. Sfci. Ji. 


jf j^xad 

S>«ft;.i'j III. — ^ aai ^ -fymzisrd *-rä '?*. 1^ ?m, 5 — -1 'S, 

---itr-a»;^!?? "~. — ir 7^' -rrz. t^t- irrifr ~- ieh 1. 

jcaticiir:- ". '-. — 5^ a '"■" — ; ^ t!" - ^ 3.. 

-.L" -:c-.:u-T- ZL i-^^ ^r: tl ■ ^ i. i. 

't^ tr-.— ^ ! : , "_ -^v^^f-r-. — i ■■" jjMi — -— - — -f._ tä^. ..^ 3ii, 

'i HZ- II ^ 

TT»- "'J, 

":« 'i<i«f"Tij ^r'/rr 

1. -. t... 

-;.:: =■ -jzi 

-.Ti. ^ ■■._- Ki I -^ia:* ^^c=naa 

■B"!!: » • 

tl.I. _.- 



wnter jn a porcelain rpggol in diuolva ont the citrbonatti and silicate 
of poUsia, and after I be insuluble uilt. has settled and the 8Up«r- 
natAnt liqaitl liae been n-ninved villi a pipviie. tlKri-sidue ic disM)lvcd 
in boilinjc waur, tbo Bolutiuii juldcd \o tlie ÜKt aolulion, und Ibe 
vbüle tedted Tor the avidii in queatioD, ne will be- direcf'd under 
tanulom and oiobiutii ; or a^ls« IL« euliitions may )m* M'paratflj- U'iIihI. 

The acid «nlution of Die )■&«» is Ireatt^ with a slight exc-u« of 
antinuDiu, «btch prt-cipituu-« ?^r, ^e, and a liitl« Ca. Thfi jtrpvipitate 
ia tillered off, wuelied with cold water, and warmed with dilul« oxalic 
acid, when "Zr and JP^diseoWe and leare the lime saoxalato. Tlic latter 
19 filtered out and some nitric ncid added to the filtrat«, after which 
Sr and V^ are thrown dona by potasso, colk'Ctcd on a flUi-r. wa«hvd 
-with hot watvr, dried, and gently fgnil«d in the ptalinum «pijon- It 
mnfit th^n be tritimiteil in t.)ie mortar and is afterwitrd di^-^tod with 
hrdrochloric acid, which rcmoTes Pe and learefl the zirroiiia almost 
pure white. This cun be novr tested B. B.. while the oxide of iron 
»nay be likewise tested with Iforas, after precipitating it with 
amiuoaia. If the Zrund Pc prccipit&t« formed by p^lami ii^ di^jei^ted 
'With snljdiide nf ammonium thf irnn iüconrertjcd into siitpliido, and 
vbvD tb« liquid is decautt-d from it, after a timir, and thv black 
ivsidue mixed witb an uqui-ous solution of Eiilphnruitd add. the 
cnlphidc of iron is disi-olred. tearing the zircon ia nearly colorlese. 

Of the other btues still dissolved in tbe aumoniacnl solntiou, vis., 
Jita, Ca, Aff, and Mn, the C'a is thrown down with oxalic acid, and 
tbe Mg, and Sin with !^ Ph., as dirc^'ted nndrr lime and magnesia. 
^*bc soda is indicated by testing tli« mineral in the foreej*^. 

SiitUaljfffi jMf\» a little water in the matnws.' B. B. fusett ^isily 
to a grrcni»b-frray bead; according to Danioiir, to a tmnaliic\-nl, 
^Afk green glMs, and gives an intense reddish -yellow äame. With 
lionu is racily dinolvcd to a clear glass whieh ühuwü a little iron and 
<!anDot be Oamed opaque. Is eadly decompowd by S. Ph., the silica 
skeleton swelling so aa to alt«r the miind ehape of the head. 
.According tA Buntelius, this forma a dtetiDCtion between «udialyi« 
o.nd t!ie otherwine aimilarly sctiug gurnets. Willi littW soda a diffi. 
^qtrW fViP'hlp glass ; with more gnes into the coal. On platinnm foil 
*% I nni'tion. With a bi*ud of B. l*h. containing oxide of 

>j - ■"-- r -. v-r flnme, vide chlorine. 

laricacid; the acid mIqUod dilated and 
tbe iron to protochloride. impartji a deep 
<^otion for xirconia) ; Dana. 

lime the fine powder is di»olvcd in 


hydrochlnric ncid, Uinlitlic acid And silicn »rpantting, tvi^mt«^ care- 
fully tiiitil nitirly dry. Jis^olrrd in wntcr, nitric ucid added to form 
ftesqiiicbluride uf iron, and tlis Bolntiun tillered. A »lifjlit pxcx'-as or 
aminoiiift lieiug iidiled lü ilio riltmCe. zirrotiia nod ecsquioxide ul irun 
ui-c )ir('cijiitutc<l, iritli a Utlit; liiiu-. Tj lis precipitate 19 treated as 
dcscrilKHl tiiider «blileritv. 

Th« iitnmoniiiciil soliitiuD is t^tfid fi>r lime vritb oxalic acid nod 
for mungunefe villi sulphide of amtitoniiiin. 

Tlie grIatiuouH eilicu wpurated by hydruchloric arid is not to bv 
regarded uh pure silic», iiiirc it cnntuin», amirding tu Rain 111 ttioWi^ 
(Poffff. yln»i., Tol. fiS, p.l42),4i iiewly-forrncd eilicate of 2r. Cii, and Pi- 
ill definit« jiraportionB. This U obtained 119 a n^idu« irben ttir welt 
ira^hed silica is dn'td, iguilvd, aod boiU-d witb carljoiial» of nuda. 
To detect the nifUillic acids the residue left by tJie hydrochlori«: 
acid is tn-stvd according to iv 191. 

(ErttedUe, Accordiug to ForcHliammcr, bcbavcs as folloirs:— 

]u tbi? mtitrosg riol(U w«Ut. i). ß, infusible. [ii b(jrax and S. Pb. 
diB!iu)vir.<i with ditTicully in tlic O. F. tu a culurieu glasa. With 
S. Hti. atid tin uii cunl a titmiic acid reaction in produced. Ix uol 
dissolved by soda, but with thv Kdaocion assay traces of tin ctiii 1x< 
found. (HerEc'linii.) 

The nirtonia can be dokcti^ by fusing the One (wwder witli 
eight timea its weight of bienlphate of potASSS in Ibe pliiliuum 
epowu, treating the powd.>i\*,l mass with wal«r, liltt-riiig out the 
■iliüii, and then diluting with much water. A few diup» of nitric 
acid are now added and. the titanic acid throwu dovii aa thoroughly 
aa possible by onntiniu-d boiling. After ecttliog this is littered out 
and the acid äolutioti. coiituitiing Zr, da, äg. and ^o. trcalt'U with 
ammonia, which perfectly aepamiee the Ar with tlie Be ; « liMIe Ca 
goeä don» wilh tliem, but nearly all the }flg rvuiainn in soliitioa. 
The further treatment of thew bodies 14 indicated in the directions 
given for the preoeding minerals. 

Zircon, accordiug to Renwliui», beTiavcg as follows : — 

'nie colorlesft, transpureut varii-tr iä iiuallcrL-d; tlie clear, red 
(AtrnrinM) Uiees color, becoming clear as water, or very ^ligfaUj 
yellow. TIk' opaque, brown variety Iweomes white and n-^emhli 
crock'^rt gins?. The dark variety fn>m Fiubo yields some nuii^^m 
liecumes milk-whit«, and then appears as if weathered. AH 
f«ctly iafusible. 

In borax xiroun dissolves with diOiuiij 
which it shows tlie «ame behikQiI 
ftttocked by S. Pli-, the gl 



S. F. Insolnble in soda, Uie edges ml; being slightly attacked and 
the soda going into the coal. On platinam foil most xircona ahow 
traces of muii^QL-se. 

AuerlachUe behavee like zh-con. 

Mniaron. oPcoMiiig to Sclicenr, behave« as follows:— 

In the matniM jrteMj »oiuc watLT. B. B. is infusible. Th« fine 
«pliuten become white and opaqufl in borax and S. Ph., bot ore not 
dieeolvcd. Tb« cxtn-mely tin« powder di^äulvce slowly jq borax, 
»howing a little iron ; it i« also dfcnmpi>i«cl by S. I'b., ttaving the 
silica alone. In Biuall IVugmcnta it is nut aitucko! by soda. 

CatapUiit0j\^\A.»va.ieT\n thcmatroEia. B. B. faäeseasily to 4 white 
enamel. In borax dissolves with difficulty to a clear, colorless ghiM. 

Easily soluble in hyUroolilorie acid without gf latinizing; the 
dilnle acid solotion colors tHrmeric pai»er orange-yellow (xircoo 
n-acttim). Dana. 

TarhyaphoUite yields water containing finorinc. B. B. bceomoa 
while, but does not fuse. 

Halmile (variety of xetjhtrtUe), analysed by Hichatdsoii. becomes 
colorlcMand ojiarjHe B. B. and giwa a slight imn rcwction «itii bomx. 

To dt*ti\'t zitvonia in lircon and the Iwllowing mincrnl», thpir very 
fin*' powder is fused with one und n half volume« of hMla and threu 
ot bonut on cual m th? O. F.. the clear bead pulvL-nied, trcuti-d with 
hydrochloric acid, and very gently eraporated npiÄy to drync«. ao aa 
to separat« the eüica. Itapid ei'aporution at a high temperatnfe 
would caaae muoh zircotiia tu remain uudtssolred in the subge<)uent 
trewtnienl. The nearljdry maji* is treated with h »iiffirient quantity 
of water, and the iilica tiltercd out, uft'.-r wlitoli iiuy protocbbridi- of 
iron must b« traneforraod into seeqnichloride with uiiric acid. The 
sirconta and Be«qaioxide of iron arc then thrown down by ummnnia 
and the vi-ry voluminons precipitate coneentratini. m that it may he 
liitered oDt more easily, by boiling the whole. The little ytlria and 
line in malacon are here to bo disregarded. The separation »f the 
u-!u^,nioKi(le of iron from the nirconia is «ireetcd lu bt-fore in case of 
Kiöilen'te and etuitalytf, pp. 194 and I£1.V The ajnmoniacul tiltrate 
can be further fxitU-d with oxalic acid, salt of phosphorus, and euN 
phidc of ammonium, for other constitueiita. 

Thoria. sutd to be present in lachyaphHltite, would be found in 
the jirecipitate of tetquioxide of iron and zirconia, aud would 
remain behind an digesting this in oxalic acid. 

According to ßichardson, ftoitnU« cunlains only 2.06 per cent, 
sirconia, which could not be detected with eertaiDty in the small 
(|aautity hue treated. 



13. Thoku. Th. 

Jt$ oecurrtnM in ih« mintrul kingdom. 

Thuria is of xarx mi« occurrence ; it has Iwva found : 
a. In u combiniktiou of Uifpmiobic aeid or niobk ttcid, with several 
bwea iu 

Pyrochlore fhim various localities, vide lime; 
hamuntkit«, vide jllriii. 

0. Coinbiued with eilicic add iu 
Thfirite (aiid oran^iU, the ytHowiah \arii-ty) III, 10,— Tli Si + lii 
ll ; fur the bkck thurilo— Th 5i + 2 Ü (Uim»). A large propw- 
tion oi other eilicute« are piva>;iiCi the buses being R, S a, C;*, 
äg. ÄI, Pe, Sill, ^, Pb, and Sn. OrangiU: oontnjiui eoniL'timve a 
little usidc of TttDodiiun. 
e. With phaaphoric acid in 
Moiiiuite, vid» cerium, «tc, pu IS9^ 

IlxaiiiitiAU«a for Thori«. 

Including the bhuyiip« characleHstia of fA« abev« viingraU. 


Thorite behnres, uecünliug to Gom-lttiit, as followi: — 
III the luatnis« yields wnt«r iiOil tnni« brown i»h-nMl. B. 6. ou coul 
infmribK Diesolvi-d lauilr in boiun und tlietfatumt^'dgla.'is is opat^ue 
on cooling, but if otherwise cnunot be mitdc opucjuc by fliiniing. 
Tb« glass ebowg iron. Wieb i^. Th. it l«iv«s » sillm skolelun ; the 
glau Nhnwn iron and npalcscei in cooling. With soda on coal a 
yellkjwi^h-bruwu ^lug; on plattniini fnil iDuuKant-s«, Hy a reduction 
assay nniHitc, mtUlcitbb* giobiii.-a of (in and l«id are obtained. 
Orangitf, aounnling to lierginann, lii'hsrpa thus: — 
In the pUiiniini spoon stiiidl b|>liari*i'3 gvutTally crunibki \a a dark 
brown niiusa mid again aaeunic their oninge Dilor on cuolio;;: the 
largi-r frugmciitu licoome opuqae Honiod id the alcohol fltune in 
thft furtvps fi-ugnieiits dccntpilait slightly and ifurtiuh-s which By 
off glow brightly, without iiftcrward .showing chaiige oPcoKir. Inflia< 
ibli- on Mal, tlif idgi-8 only l>eiog äonu-UnK* slishlly glaüprl, |*i-rhap3 
owing to faft'igii btHÜea. Wi lb «o<ia only the siben is dUsolvcd ; the 
Rmaining RNb^taDceti can bo datoctc-d as yi'llowish |wrtii>lM in the 
oitfK)iii- gliis'«y mass willi the niugniBer. With Ixinis a ytflUiwiih 
beail, <.vlorlcsd whon ooM ; but with t>. Ph. in tlio O. i\ u n-ddiah 



(laas, colorless on oooHng, which become« ydlowiah tu Ibc It. F. and 
is tbcD also oolorlese vlt«ii coM. 

To deU«!, the thoria io these minuiuls tbey are UiseA in fine 
powder, acoordiug lu p. 113, with »oda and borax on oual bc«ide a 
Bilver bntton in the R. F„ nntil any oxides of tin and It-ud arc reduced 
and onitwi with lb.'- silvor mid the fna-d gla^s «iiix-ara i[uiri" clwir. 
This U pulvcriud and treated a^ usual with bvdrucliloriu a«id; the 
drr salt obtained bj evaporation is nioUten«d with hiptlrochloric acid, 
disMilvcd in «atiT, »nd ttic eilim Qlti-rvd out. Aftvr lioiliii^ tbe 
eolution with a few drops of niti-ic acid l^ i)orosidizc the iron, a 
alight exoeag of ammonia is added, wliirh tliron^ down llioriu, 
seaquiuxidcs of irun and uniniiim, and paj't of the protoxldv of 
mauganeee. The amount of alnmiiia prent'nt ie not wortlij of 
noCio«. The woehcd preoipitai«, while moiit, ii dissolved iit dilute 
sulphnric acid and the eolntion eva|M>rat«.<d to a amall voliim«. 
During the erapontlion iit^utral eulphute of Ihuria si^fiamus tu a 
white, I008B masB, from which the acid mlution of tlui othfr Imi»^ ia 
decanted aft^r some time. This «alt is then vushid with boiling 
watyr, dried, and conrort«d into pure thuris bj» iguitiou. 

To st-purate the thoria fitill cüiiuined in tlie viuh-watvr and tbe 
«ointion of the other bnses, the whole is uvapuraU-d to a rBtlie<- small 
volume, itcutnUised with carbuuuto of iodai and thcu a builiug-bot 
»iturB.tod »olutiun of «ulphate of potaesa is added. WhWe couling a 
double unlphaCe of thoria and potaiwa M-p»rat>'ti, which is wa«lied 
with a oold, auLuraCed wjlutiuu of sulptiatu uf {Kituaau, nud then 
di^äolri^ in boiling-hot water oontaauing some sulphunc acid, after 
which lh'4 thoria is precipitated by nmnmniii, dried, aiid i^iitcd. 
The oxidt^H uf inm and aranium nrv svparuiud intto tli« otluiion ns 
directed ander jttrio, p. 190. The lime is fonnd in tbe Hrst ammo* 
Diaoal filtrate by adding ozaiic acid. 

2. Examinations for Metali or their Oxides. 

1. Ce&iuji, Ce; Lakhuxith, la; Didthitiu, Di. 
Ocourrence of licse melah in the minercU Idagäom. 

Cerinm is one of tbe rare metals and occurs in the following 
mtnei^ls, almost ulwars in votmcotion with mur« or leu lanUiaimm 
«nd didyniiiim. 

o. Combined vixii ßuorin« as neutral tluoride in 
Pluocvritt! from Broddlju, — C« F with Ce Y*, inoL some If and ft : 
and as basic fluoride in 



Fluowrinu from Tinbo, — Oe F* + 3 Ca fi ; 
riuuGL'riDO from ItiddurliytUn, — (Ce P -t-3 B) + Oe fi; 
Yttrooerite, vide limo. 
&. Combined müi phwpkorie acid io 

Cryptolite (pliosplioomte), — Ob*!^, with » little Pe; 

Honaiiloid 2,— (CV, La)* V, vitb a little Ts?, Oo, and fi; 

Monazitc i,—{Ce, Im, Di. Tli'*)' P; Diuib. AImu coataina amalli 
(IQantitii-s or Oo, Ag, oud Sq. 

Churehito,— (I Co + t Ca)' 'P + 4 It ; Dunn. 

c. With atritoaie aeUl in 
pBrisitc I,— C« F + :J (Co, t^ Di) C + fi. Daua givcB (Co, La, iK) 

C + '^ (Oa, C«) F, making tbo water accid«DtaL 
KiMbtimitc 1,-3 U C + CV (I", 0)' + ll; 
Laothnaite 1,— (La, Üi) C + 3 £(■ 

d. With viifioiis metallic acid«r as »to6ic, hyponiohic, and fttoMta 
nind«, in 

Pyroclilore, r«/e lime; 

Euxeiiitf, }■ «cfajttria. 

Rutbufordit«. Acccrdin^ to Sbepard Ti, C«. nnd perhapa oxide« of 

unuiium aud yttrium. (Daniu) 

e. With »ilicit ncid in the follnwinu .•tilicatm : 
Cerile in, 10.— (Ce, La, Di)' Si + Ü. with n liltle Ca and Pr; thftt 

ft<om Buatnl!^ is mid to cont&in u little Ta, V, and Ti ; 
Tritomtte III A, IG,— 'äi, &.-. Ce?. L», C'u, and H. with miiuII i|iitt)ti-f 

tica of SIk. XI. t. N». fe, Sin, Cu, Sii, and ff ; 
Allaiiite (cerine) I A, ir,,-3 ft' Si -f R" Si' ; U = Pi*. Cc, La, Oi,^ 

Orlliilc I-ll A, Iti; composition nearly that of alia» itt, but con-^^ 
lattuä waU-r ; Homi-timcs not moro than some ept'iriiiiens of alinn- 
ite,of wliioh Dan» make« it a tarieiy. ErdraannUe it very umibiT. 

Pyrorthite l-Il, 1 ; 5i. Ce. tV. jClii, V. X\. ta. with much aai.r aod 
carhonatxtMiB matter. A» impure orthitv-likv min<:rul. (Dii 

Bodcnilo ) 

Haroinoutite, > vide yttria. 

fladolmile, ) 



/. In tilicatev coataiamg titanic acid: 
Tscheffkinite 1 A, IG.— Si, Ti, Ce, L», Di, Pe, C«, aud «ij un&ll 

(luantitics of äg, 1(1 ti, K, Ita; 
M«>3andnt« I A, 1.— 5i, ti, Ci-, La, Di. An. Ca, i'lg, £, fl. 

^. WitUj^jtwjpAen'cacrdJD 

Cburchite,— (J Ce + i Ca)' P + 4 fl, Dana. 

SxamiiuiUoii for Oarlom, Lanttuuiani, »nd Dldymlonti 

tndudimj Hie hloKrpip» charaeteriaiies of the aiove named tninerata. 

a. Omteral tzamirtation/or cerium, latUhaHutn, and ih'tfytaium. 

The gn»t (lifficnllf of comptetolf separating tlie thri-c ox idve from 
one anoiJjcr rciidcra il eeldom po«eible to i)D<i<^rtake ttiie with tli« 
tiillliig qaantity eiiiplu^ed iii blowpijw aaalyus. Tlie oxide of 
ccriuii) call W ^parated in approximale purity troni ttii' iiiixi-d 
uxitli-ü citituiia-d, lificr Ibt-y haru Ik-cd igiiit^-d, by lii-sL Irvatiiig tticm 
with dilute and then with ouiioentrutHl nilrtc acid, which extracts 
Ifav lanthanum and did^'miam. Up^m evapi^ratiag tliis et^'Intiou, 
igniting tbt: salt, and upiiu treating l)ic uxidi-a with vitt dilnt» 
nitric Hcid, any oxide of curiiuu wtiii-li had been dt»anlvt,il rumaina 
now Dodiiaolred. From tlio eolation of lanthanum and didyininui 
thi' uxidrs are ihroiri) down wiMi ummoniniind dift^dved in «iiljdiuric 
acid. The dry aalt being Ihun dtsswhud lo oulttratiim in water at 
■IS" lo4S' F. und tlieeolutiun warmed to 1U(J°, Eulpliute of lanthanum 
Bcparut«'S, leaving the didymintn salt in Uw aoluiion, Trom which it 
nu) lie prvc'ipitiiled by potaääL The osidt^ä may be obtained Ktilt 
parvr by ix'iH.-u(iug this process. Another melhikl, iiut »o suitable 
for small quantities, consists in scpurating thv oxidvs by means of 
fajdratoof potasM and chlorine. 

Pnre acequioxidv uf ixTiuni is yellow, inclining to red ; the impure 
oxide is brick-n-d. I'ruto-scsquioxide, obtained by igniting the 
oxalate of the protoxide in the air, is whitf-, with a eliade of y<-llow, 
&iid is or«ngi?-n-d whfn heated. Oxide of lantliiinnm it colorkss; 
ignitt'd oxide uf didjinium is wliitl* and ilie [M-i-oxide bruu-ti. 

In many of the ubuve named niin<-rttle, containing besides oxidea 
of cerium, lanthuniioi, and didymintn, Do «-»siderablt- quantity of 
other coloring metalliu oxides, viz., ßuoi-erite, the phnupbfiiF» and 
rarboHa/eM, and ceritf, thf oxitle» uiciiliciiud can be fuimd with 
comparative case. With bomx and & Vh. iu tbc Ü. b\ red or dark 
yellow bcuda are obtained, according aa more or K-bs bos been dia- 
solved, and them los« thuir color on cooling, u» well m iu thu R. t\ 



to auch an extent thut Üie S. Pli. liciul becomes qaite culorless. 
Tbe borax bt-iKl cuu nleo I>e rendered o{Niqiie or euaniel-whil« by 
äamiiig, and ihr mon <tiiiokly llie !e^ »lie» ihere u in tbe mineniL 
In Üiä other minrnils, wbicli fjontuin als» oxitli-d of iron aud 
iimnium. or tituaiu aoid. the ccrinin, etc., caunot altviiyäJK dct«oti-d 
with cn'i'laiui.}* «.'ACcpL by tli«;aid of tiu- wot wa^e. ax ha« Ikwd alrciiüy 
dc«(»'iliiMl for mnny of Ih« above nUnentla nmler yitria. 

b. Behavior of the above tuimal^nincraUi tte/ore the blottyipe. 


JtJuorerUe iu tlic mntrru^ rieUU wat«r ami at tbe melting point ol 
glass the niiitraHi i« atlacki'd ut n distuiice Trom xhn auMiv. Tbe 
water culors Braxil-woijil iiapei* yellow ; the umhiv pit^x- becomes 
whit«. In the o]>en tii)>c. when tbo flAinc- is diivcteJ wtthm the 
tube, tbe iiih-riur iu altac-ki-d; tlic coiidt.'ti!iJ>d n-ai«^r iiiriia Bnucil- 
wood pnixr yullnw, and the aatay piece n^guiucä n dark- y«'lh>w color. 
Oh l-u»1 iofiieibk', but durkt-iiH iu c-ulor. With Imihu and S. I'll, 
reactfl like oxide «I' cerium cotitainiug ok'uIh» of luiilliiuiuni and 
(lidyiniuiii. With wdn it is dieiutfgrated aiid »wvlls, but is uot 
dUoolvt'il ; till' suda gtK\t into tlu' *-aki], Ii'uviii^ » gray iiiawi. 

J'^ltiweriue yii'lds water uiid bi-eoiiieä durker (IV-rzehiis). Ou 
ooal cbaiigoi! cx>lür and when heuted ucai-]; tu rvduvs« apiKurs bluolc, 
but Uli coidtiig lit'CoitK-s dark bruwn, Lhf ti tine ivd, and liiially diu'k 
yellow. Thi« change of c^loi'digtingiiialn-H ii. rroiii (liiLX'iTiiv. U is 
iufueibk. With lluxe« like lluoet-ritc, hut is uot disiiii<.'grati-d by 
sodu, except by a utroug and loiif; i;(tntiiiii«d blasL 

Flmiccrim Tmrn Riddai'liytl^ii yit-ldti in tb« iimtrtifis some mois- 
lurv, vithoiit ultt-rin^ iu upiK-amnct^ (llirrzeliii»). On rtml infii«ibh>, 
but bcccnK-c oimtiue at a j^eutle heat. The- sunc uhuu{;i-s of oulvr 
are prenenled ad iu the foreguiug miui^ml. In tlieo]>cQ lul>eafitroug 
fluoriue rt-actioii. With bunix and S. I'll, iikt; x\w forv'jroing. With 
fiuda '\A not diüinU-gi-uted nor diasolvcd, aud dot-a uot swell. 


ChurehUe. — B. It. in tlie liibo yields acid water, becoming opaqae. 
In 0. F. bcconu>8 n-ddisti, mid diOlcultly ouluble (?). Witli bomx in 

O. F.abi-ud. uiiing^--\fllow and opaline while hot. cotorle«8 or slightly 
ametbystiiie wbcu cold. (Dann.) 

Cri/ptulUe is unnlwrf^d ity modcntt« heating. Soluble iu conoen- 
tmted siilpliiinc acid. Phv*phocerHf, aoonrding to Cbapinan, vitri- 
fiffl piirtiully on the e<lge8, liiigiiig tbe ilume slightly green. Afford« 



the reaction of pboKpharic urid und alao at oeriam ; liub produce« 
vith borax and S. Pli. u f:''^ V"^*' viult^t-llue when cold, owing 
eitlior to didvmiiim, or ii miDiite portiou of oobiUt on* (Dana). 
Oryptolito remain* behind whvn thtt gre«ii und ivddift)) apalitei of 
Arendal are diflsolvvd in acids, and ia simtlnrly found in llie cobalt 
orM of TuQAberg. 

Müiuaite. — K B. iM^umes dark )^i\^, uud when Htrongly heated 
the crystal faces become liislruiis. Moistcinvd «itb eulpitiiHc a^id it 
gives a bluiah-grtx'ii Hume. DiesolvL-« in lH>nix »nil S. I'll, lu » glttM, 
yellow vtien bot and n^-arly ootorlt;93 wb<ju cold ; Ibe sume in both 
flnmcs: »itb borax in Ibu R. F. lbc> «trun^lr 8aiumt)>d|;lnsä becomes 
enanicl-vrliite by flaniinfr- With S. Pb. and tin »n coal a aligbt 
titanium reaolion. ^Yitl) s<>du on coal a liliie liu is obtHitied, and 
on plAtiiuun foil a manganese reaction. Witb boracic ««.it! itiid iron 
phoB]ibide of ii*un is formed. (KcrKten.) 

Monatitoid yield« wul^r. B. R. beconu-8 slrougiy liiniinouSr 
witbuui fusing. With flnxce liko monazitc. (lli-miuun.) 


Parifitt in the tnatrags yields water and carbonic actd, Wcoming 
cinnamon bronn and friable. B. B. phüs]>bijn'«ci-ä, bur. is infusible 
With borax a yellow bead. colorUss on cooling (Bnnscn). With 
fused S. Ph. in the ojK-n tnbc gives the tluurinv rtaetioii. (Unnii.) 

Kitehiimitt yields water and becomes darker in the malnuM. B. B. 
at a moderst« heat becomes dull, opaline, und yctlnw; »t ii higher 
heat glow5. and wiu-ii cold had a high linitiv and )ä brick-riHt. With 
borax in O. F. a glase, yello»ish-reJ whvn hot, feebly ydlowisli ou 
cwoling; in H. F. feebly yelluwjjh while hot and cnlorleaa wlien cold. 
"With S, Ph. bebares quit« similarly, 

lAinthamie from Bethlr-hern, Pcirn^ become« white when heated, 
then brown, and is infuBiblc. With borax n bluish glaiä, growing 
brown on cooling and ßnally Hmethyet-r«d. 


a. CerUe yields ifater and becomes quite opaque in the matmss. 
Od Coal springK uUont nnd U infusible. Diüsolves slowly in borax/ 
giring in O. F.a dee]>. dark yellow glass, becoming Mghti-r un couHug, 
and which mn l)o Hiimed opoijiie. In R. F. the glius Bhowf a fci-ble 
iron color, lly S- I'h. t.h<? oxide of ocrinm ie eslraeii-d with the 
uraal play ofooloi-s; the gluHR appears eolurless when eold und a 
white, «paqne silica skelcron reniainifi l*iidis-7«ilved hy »oila, buL 
I alf fueed to n dark ycllew aUggy mass. (Berzvlm».) 



&. Tritomiic Ticids vntiTHnd gires a feeble fluorine renction in the 
matTiiSSL B. K borne wliitt-, swells wmenhtit, b<-oorn>'« cmcki-d, and 
ooCftsioniiJiT (lecrepilHtcii with ^Julcncc. Di&oolvt-s in Uims in O. F. 
to u nMld)eli-)'i.-llow gliias, culorlrsa on cooling. Tbe änelf pnWemed 
minora] is il(.<oom|H>fcd bj lijdrochloric ocid, with ■.■volution of 
cliloniii? find sepnrutioii oT gclHtjnotii silica. (X. J. BerliiLj 

c. Altaitile {cerint from Btutfiäfi) jk*ic)(l!> in llie tnatru^ Miue iratrr 
without clmoging it« AppcAninov ; tbu water is not tbciiTarv clicm- 
ioally combined, U. It. fused taeUy with intumtrscene« to & binek, 
lustruue, ritrcüus bead. Diesulre« eiL^ily ii> borax to a Muck, ojwqiie 
g}aKa, which bvcotncs blouil'ixHl, however, lu O. F. wiiil« liot, and 
inure or le«e dark >'ell«w after coolicg; iu B. P. it aasuiuee a fiue, 
JK>u-gr*i'ii (»tor. Do.« not b>-«.ime opaque by Satoiiij;. S. Ph. 
dccuniposes it, leaviug a silica tskttletaii. Tlie glass sbovs the iron 
oolor white hot, but in oooliog becomes culorleas 'aud opalrwcnL 

Damanr and Degcloixvaux {Ann. da Chim. ft at Phyt, LIX^ 385) 
have i«sted allanit« from various coiirces. That frum IWmäs yt«)da 
no wtttL-r and fuiw-s quietly to a black, mj^rnctic gta&s Tbat from 
Uitt«ri>« yields some water nod is easily fusible, vrith formatlun of 
bnbbleiS, but withont iii(uini«oenc^, (o a block magnt^tic «iianML 
Varion» sllanitrs from UnwnUnd yield a httle water in tbe matraai, 
swelliug much »t the same time, and foruiiog a binju^t. gmy maM» 
whirh hcatod a short lime B. B. ie convertod into a black magDecic 

A. Oribitg from Finho and Oottliebaguog, as ir«U aa from grsnita 
Dear Stockholm und tiöd^'rkßping, yii-tds wnter in the natrasa and 
b«comta lighter in color at & higher beut. Od omU intomeaoüir 
U.'cuiues yi'lluwish-brown, and Bually fktsu with eballitiuo tu a blade, 
blebhy glass. Diswlvcs readily iu borax to a glau, bii.)od-red in 
0. F. aud yellow when cold. In B. F. grwtt Is easily dt-comimsed 
by S. Ph. with the usual phcaomvaa. With a very little *<)«la fuse*; 
wiib more »vclU to a grayisb^yellow elag. On plaiiuuiu tJiuws 
iiuiDgautf»e. (Tlcnelios.) 

Acronling to Itamour and Dewloiacan x (1* c.) orthite from 
Knariim yioldu vulcr and fuses with diffiooIlT to a black, nujcnetio 
abig ; fiimilnr nmctiona are «liowc by various nrthitea from HitterOe, 
some i>f which assume a gray color io the tnatraas; by the «raiar^ 
lAiif fi»in Mtaak, afi well as urlbil«« frvm Stodcfaulni (oue variety- 
fusee to a grayish, blebby, fi^>bly magnetic enamel) aud AreftdaL 
(>rthit<i from Fahlon beoomp« white R B. and fuses on tho edges to 
n while etiiuucl. 0. ftum Gn-rul^d vtelds s^tne water, inl)uti''aeea 



itronglj, and forma a gny m«Ui vbioh fuaee, in one variety, to t 
gTEvisti-bluck, wry eliglitly JirngDi-tic onftiiiel; in the utlior, to a 
liruwiiibh-grtijr licorii*, ami In R. V. to a black nrngnt-tiu <-ii»Rtc1. 

f> P^rorlhiie (coDtaining one-third its Wt'igbt oT carbou) bcliaveat 
Bcoording to BeracUu«, as fvJlows : — 

In tliL' mutnuu yields very much ura.ler, the lust portions being 
Tcllitwish and Imviug a burnt odor. The residne \a us black as coxl. 
UCDtly l)uat(.-(I f}\^ (»ul and arteru-urd ignitud at one [»Mini, it tAk«*« 
lire and glows of itM-lf. Tlie combustion is more lively with sc-ri'mi 
IVagmfnl«, or witb L'Oiir-^i- {Kiwdvr, uiiil wbi-n blown i)|Hin. It Icavus 
tlic mincnil white, or grayiNb-wliitc, wmotimcit inclining to rnl, and 
ao light ni>d [wruod that it will not sTemuin oii the coal before the 
blowpipe flanio. In (he ft-rovpe it f«R>a with ditRcnlty to a blatk 
bead with a dnil siirfiiw. Willi b«>rux and sudu like uitliitc-. Dit>- 
boItcb with dUScaltr in ä Ph. the puroiis dims remaining on the 
aarfiwe of the Quid bead, bnt sinking into it oo Moltng. It amergea 
again on being rtsbraUKl 

To detect the wpanit« element« in the forvgoing «ilicutt.'-s a pru|H-r 
amount of the fine powder is trcaled with aqua rc^'» in a porrclaiii 
THBelt DTapomtod tu dryncea, di&HilTed in wuUt. uud the eilii.<a 
filt^^ivd ont. Ammonia in uddfd in alight excess to the tiltral<! and 
thmws down R>, Oe, La, S)\, and Ä1; leaving most of the Ci\, tig, 
and iln. By digtatiug the washed precipitate, afu-r tlltra.lion, with 
II flohiiioD of potoeea Si \a separated and mo be obtained from the 
alkaline Sdlutiou ne direclwl for silioaU's »udi-r uhiminn. 'flie 
metallic otiili-« freal from Si &rv treated while «till moist with not 
too coDcentTHtrd a nululion of oxalic acid and vamicd: chisduMolves 
the iroUf and the other oxides settle to tJie 1>ott«m in combination 
frith oiialic ftcit). as a heavy crystalline p<»wdcr. These galu ai-c 
61ten>d ont, washed with cold waU-r, and ignited in the platinum 
capenle. The aeiwrntiuu of the three uxidi's has been dcficribtd on 
p. 201. After atlding a little nitric acid to the filtrate the oxide of 
iron can be throim down vith potassa and tested B. B. with borax. 
The fnrthiT treatment of tbc Imtf, eta, has been given under the 


TacJaffkinii» huhaTc», according to (i. Itoae, lU fellows:— 

In tht> matrass swclla and yields a little water. B. B. glows at 

first, thou intumv«eea «trongiy, become« brown and fiimlly fuses to 

H hkck t)oad. Ma powder diMolveii rather easily in borax to a clear 

glass, slightly colored by iron : a small quantity yields a pgrfectly 



oletftTgtus. In S. Ph. the name, but dixsulrm more «lowly, and vheo 
much is uAiivd ailicii sepaniteB and tho bi-iid opalespfu on euoliug. 
Fusos vitli soda, but eoou &)>rcadä out und sinks into the coal, ßj 
woiihinf; away the op*\ a tew trpaDglra of iron ore obtained. Co 
pUtiuum shova niaDga))t!«<;. 

MbsaHflriff, — This mineral, which occur» with lmtcojAamt<t has 
beCD di-scriU-d hy ErdmuDO. In the rnatruM it vicld« much water 
and turns brywuisli-jvUuw when hfuted to retlnw«. li. B. tiiaoa 
ensilj with intiitnc»crnce to a brown iib-grwn, temi'lnatmaN bead. 
With bfinit dissolrt'« easily to an umcthyat-nod btad, Tt-IIowish and 
tK'nrlj' colorkea in B. F. With S. Ph. givce a eilica skeleton and in 
the K. K \\x(f titnnimn reaction. With soda on platinnm fnil sbowa 
mangniieHe. To d«t«riQia« euch ooDstitueucs uf th»M two sllicat«« 
as cannot he detert<id in the dry way, their line powder is dilated at 
A Tcty gentle heat with hydrochloric acid, nntil it U thorongbly 
deoumpuiied, when it ia diluted, with wat^r and the silica Uttered out. 
Tili» may Iw tested B. B. as to purity, after being washed. Th* 
fUtrut« is heated to l»iling and a liltK- nitric acid aüdt-d i» fnrni 
«sqnichloride of iron, and as some titanic acid is liable to 9ej«ir«t<.', it 
is niterp<l out and a «light exccf« of ammonia »tided to the filtrate 
\a, l)i, Ee, and Ti arc thrown down, Iravtng Ca, Mg. Aln. fc, 
ind 5ia in solution. The precipitutc is littered out, wnehcd with 
cold water, and trentcKl with a dilute ttoliitioQ of oxalic acid, which 
dissolve« out lie and Ti, leaving Ce, La, and l^i behind m oxalate«. 
The former are precipitated by pouiesi and eupamtcd by dissolving 
them in a little dilute sulphuric acid, adding a few drops of nitrie 
add, diluting with much water, and boiling until as much titanic 
acid is priM^ipirated aa poMiible. 

Ttiis aepnration is realty iinueoessary as the presence of titanic 
acid and iron can be detected with certainty in the potaeui precipi- 
tate by nieiins of borax «mi S. Ph., lide titanio aoid. 

The uiidiraolTed oialates are ignited and treated aa before, p. 201, 
and the hnscs in tho ammoniara! sohition \ac also eopamtcd by the 
methods prcrioosly made known. 

2. Maxoaxe«^ Mn. 

IIa oeevrrfne« in the mineral kingdom and in mtiaUnrgieal jirodHei*. 

Mangancflo forme an ewential constilnent of «Tcnil minerals, 
differing considernhly in cheroicnl componilion ; it is fonud in the 
following combinutions : 



a. With arstnieia 

Kiineile, — Mil' As. 

b. Witli ealf/hur iu 
Alubau^te (inangaii1)l«iidR>t — Hn; 
Hflucrilc, — Sin. 

c As osidf, either /reif, or com'iiiicd with teaser 0/ hydration, id 
BitDütnannite {black manganese).— An St», sometime« containing a 

liltU^ fta, Si, ami fl ; or An' ftn (I>iin:i) ; 
Bniunit«, — Sail, fn^jTienily wiLb :i litLk fta. ^\. and ä; Dana gives 

rbo formula Z !([n* JJn + Silu Bi; 
Pyrolnaite (gray manganese),— Sin, with fre^nently a little fta. Si, 

auO II ; 
I'uliuniw (ft very [inre pptilusit« vitb leas water than any other 

manganese ore, which oontnins chiefly Stn; a)eo very little 7i\ 

ami 2V) ; 
Maogatiitv.—än Ä; 

Pailomelane.— (Xln, fta, K) Hn + Ä (Rammelsberg); 
Vnrvocih". — Hn It + SI 11. pcwsihly tmly a mixttiiv of holh ; 
Wad, pruhnbly reeiiltiti;; fn^ni tlie ullerutioii of Dtiii*r mungniieae 

ores. It coQsistfl priucipaily of Sin, Üiln, Rurl Q, but näiially 

contains more or IcM Fe, 'X\, It», Si. ctr, ; 
Qromilite, Tiry similar to wail, ie chiefly 31u + fl, Imt Liit\cd with 

lln + fi, anil containing a litUe Fu aud clay; 
Pjiocbroite,— (An, Slg)fli (Dana). 
d. With other metallic oxidct : 
a. With protoxititi of cobnH in 
Afihulite (earthy oobalt),— fflu, Co (öu), Tt ; som«lim?s mixed with. 

11^, Co' Äs, and »ihcatAX of ahimina. The bliick minenil fi-om 

Kamsdorf nmr Snalfeld u, aocurding to ItnmuieUbcrg, (Co, On) 

Än'+4ä, and contains li».4 per ceuL Co = 15.4 jicr cent. 

18. With oxides of nine and inn in 
Fraukliuite, — (Pe, 2n, An)' (Fe, Stn), occasionally c<>ntaiuiug :k 

little .Si, Xl, and Sfg. 
7. With vTirie nfcopptr in 
Cfednerite,— Ca* Sin*, inel. fia and a little Ca, with S3.7 por cent 

l^smpaditv (cupreous man^ncse), — (Cu, Sfii) &q' 4- 3 It, incl. a 

little Cu, C«. bs, ilg. und K., with about 12 ].ier cent. Cu. 


s. Combined with acids. 

a. With milphuric add in 
Fauserite,— Mg S + 2 Un S + 15 II (Dana); 
Apjohnite {manganese alutn), vide magnesia. 

ß. With phosplioric acid in 
Hnreanlite,— (5ln, t^)' F' + 5 fi ; 
Triplite from Limoges,— {"e' P + An' "P, incl. a little C&; Dana 

gives V. Kobell's formula iia fi' P + B F ; U = i f e + | fin, 
and K = 1 Ca + 3 Mg + 3 Fe, for a triplite from Schlackenwald ; 
Zwieselite,— (Fe, Sin)' V + (Fe, Mn) F, with a little 5i; 

Het*rosite, — 3 (Fe, iln)' P -H 5 fi ; perhaps altered triphjlite ; 
Triphylite, vide iithia. 

7- With carbonic add in 
Rhodochrosite (dialogite),— On C, bnt may generally be cxpresaed 

by the formula (Sn, Fe, Ca, Äg) C ; 
Manganocaloite,— (Ca, iig) C + i (Fe, Ün) C. 

5, With tungsfic acid in 
Megabasite,— (Sin, Fe)' W; 
Hnebnerite, — Sfn W (Dana) ; 
Wolframite, vide iron. 

e. With tantalic and hyponioiic acids m 
Tantalite and coliimbite, vide iron. 

^. With silicic acid in the following silicates: 
Piedmontite I A, 3,-3 Oa* Öi + 2 (Mn, Ä1, 1^)' Si'; 
Partfiohinitc, — 5i, Al, Fe, iln (29 per cent), Oa; 

Sin Si ; the related minerals allagite, photicite, 
corneous manganese {/torn viangan), hydropit. 
Rhodonite, are mixtures of hornstone and silicate of man- 

ganese and partly also of hornstone with rhodo- 
J chrosite ; 

Tephroite I-II, IG,— Mii' Si, excl. Fe, Ca. Sfg. i\ ; 
Knebelite III, IG,— (J Fe 4- J ilii)' Si, with about 35 per cent. läa ; 
Fowlerite {zinvi/vrowi rhwlimile), — (Mn, re. %n, Sig, Oa) Hi; 
Manganese, bliick silicate of, I A {.Uinif/ankii'si-L schwnrzvr ; perhaps 

hydrnns fephriiili').—SU\' Hi + 2 ll ; 
Marceliiif (hvtci'odiiii).—^\\' >i'. iiu'l. ii liltle &V. 

Aceording to fiiiiir liie foilnwin;; eniiihinuti'ins also occur: 

Sin" Hi' -f 3 ll friini Kliipi c-iiii ; fruin tlie same place (2 Sin* 

CXAltlS'ATlOS- rO)£ ll.\$(tA.\-KSH, 


«Dd {3 It' Si + I fl) + I K Si*. PcrhftpB with Uieso should be 
joined witiingiite, ftrtttfyteiU (iritli 8 per oent tig), and nwlocitf. 

Ilelvite, tutif glutrina ; 

SpeBsarlite (ntaugaiifttvalumina garnet) I, S,— 3 Mn* 5i + Xl' Si\ 
iileu ooiihiiiiiiig M>nu- Pe; 

OBTpbolite, üitle altimiiiu; 

Xrooatit«, vidt »no. 

•(. Wilb arsenic arid in 

OhonilrArwnite, I ; etiiwnLtHllv Hn* Xs + 3f H, excl. eome Cii aad 


0. Willi hortuic acid in 

SoMfiik.— (I (Sin. Äg) + i ]"!)' B. or (Xln. Slt:y B + Ö (Bru»!iV 
The numerous olhtr dlicai^s containing luiitig&ui^fre have lieeit 

tdrntdy fmrllr cnumorat^Ml mider Wie iilknh<>Ti bikI oikrtiif, nnd Chfr 

renuindrr vill be nK'ntionetJ iiudt-r Uie foilowiug oikuIh. vtc. 

Unngfinusc also rorm« h frcqiieiiL constititeut uf vuriou» mftalliir- 

jical prxxliicis, wwnning in tbt- molallic etiite in niw jrwii mid ät^-cJ ;. 

with «(ilphur in ihf various mAll-lik<> prixlupts fi-um iho «mrltitig of 

Wrtain iilTer, l«id, and copper owa, and «si)et;i«lly alw ns protoxide 

with eilicio acid iti tli« different eings. 

Bnmlnatloa for Mtng'anaii* 

Imiuding ike blowpipe charaficri»tic8 of the miHerah above mu- 


a. OtHn'ottae/iminationformanganeiie. 

Manganese can be Tety rafiily detected in RulMtiinoes containing, 
bnide« oxide of maugaucee. no other metullic oxiil^^-d wbicli give 
Oolornl ghissee witii horai and S, ]'h., hy simply diuMttviiig them in 
tliow Qnxea on platinum wire in the 0. F. nnd then Itviiting t)ie 
head wi'h Lhi* K. F. Th« liwt beiKU ttp|>pnr ainptliyst-red, bnt on 
cooling ar*! red inclining^ to vii'lft. and lose tlioir cokir itbou trcuted 
for Bomc Lmit- in lln- H. F., «t]>ccially on conl. S. Pii. i« far k-es 
iat«aMlr colored than honix and tliu color disappears mnch mort- 
n-itiiily in tho It F., ride iahh*, p. lOS. Should a einull [iruportiun 
uf otber coloring oxides be prca-nt they alt»r tho amtiliyst color 
obtained in 0. F. elisUtly or nol at all. bnt occufiionally »how their 
own pccnlinr color »fter the niungane^c coloration bits di8»p|K-Art.>d 
ander üic R. F^ t. y.. 6i*»quioxide of iron. iSbuulu llic nntoiint uf 





ee«qtiioxiiIc of iron be Ikrgr, the bead jippeats blood-red id the 0. F. 
und Tallow aßor abort tn?nttneat in the R. F. Wb»D tbe atnontit of 
maiigiinege is con^idcraWe ihe a$my elioatd b* fniirkl? 
pirK-licd togi-tliiT H little afU-r tin- ntlncliuR. orcUcübukcn 
off from tbi! Tire, so tbtit it inaj cuol imnii'diiitely and not givv thi* 
pTOioxid*; of manfffiFK-j« an opportnnity to color Iho Iwftd «j;ain by 
becnnniig mon' lii^lily oxidizttl. If there is not mimgani's«' enough 
to color llii? S. Ph. Wad, Ibe liittcr. afliT a siifficieut qiiaiitily of tbe 
snbstaiice Iiaa been dis-Mihcd in it, ifi lironglit, in conlaot with » little 
'Cryi^tiil of nitrv, vhicb cami!<'3 it to frntli np niid ostnnic on cooling 
jiu Bmethyst, tir fteblf rose (.vilor, aoeurddig to tbe amonttt of mun- 
gaiif&c! preavnL Tin- ämall fra^mi-Dl of n'lW is plticed »ear hf on a 
pom-bitn dish, and the bond after being Ftrongly heated on the wire 
in Iho 0. F 'n qniokly brouglil a|?aiiist il, wIk-u the two salts unit« 
und j)L>ruiui>giiiiuU- ut pt>liu«u ie furni<^ by lUta resulting oxidution. 
Tbe evolutiDi) of gas catiKes tb« glass to tVotb np, and it tnay show 
ibu red color only when cold. On lix-nLlnj; il uguin in tbfi flame tbe 
reucttun produced by the nitr« cnlirely disappears. 

Anmher niHhfid must tw employed to di>teci manganese iu com- 
pounds cuiituiniiiK more than n «nail proponiun of distinctly 
coloring oxides. Tbi.- iH-st reaveut is at-ida. which in nllcoaca ^iresthc 
most chuructvriftic reaction lor nkiu^'iiticäe. fr there is not less tbuii 
0. 1 piTet'nt.of oxidt> of manganese present tbo powdered snb«tanoe ia 
mingled with two or tJiree volumes of soda and fnsed on plntinum 
foil in the 0, F. The oxide oT tnutigancse diasntvca in tlie «nda to 
a traneparcnt, grci-n mass, conainting of mangnnate of soda, which 
EInws nroiind the nndieeolvcd portion and on cooling is dUtiuctly 
binisb-green. If thureislesatlmn Ü. 1 percent, of mangiinit« ihiK green 
color 18 not 80 easily obtained, but by employing two |mri* of sitda 
and one of nitre all of thu oxide of tntinganese is more highly 
oxidixed mid the least truce of it colori tbe wda distanctly blaish- 
gr«i>n.. iitVr the »«say is perfectly oold. 

To obtain a certain manganese reaction (Vom garnets, Fischer 
(icowA. t/ffÄri. ISCl, C53) has rvcoramcnded to die«)lvtf not ttm little 
of the mineral in a borax bend and then to fn&c this with luda on 
platinum foil, when the manganese reaotion is more di^iinei than 
with «xla atone. (Chapman propowd thi» method for limestone, 
etc., aa early ae 18S3.— TmnsL) 

The presence of eeeqnioxide "'' '-i yellow 

Hlknlinc ebromatcit when iDCbl and :. i no way 

poueeal« the grt-ti color -^ *«, »incr when 

>X(de of cbrxmiim iTU of «otla 


and nitre a verv trilling ([nnntrty of ranngaiiMn ni«j be di?tecU>d by 
Uie green «olor of the pcrffCLlj ould, fated mas». This grvt'ti iu, 
howerer. no lon^r bliiiflli, bitt yellowieh-green. 

Hinerals ctniutining aot oxide of manganrso, liigbor than ths 
pnitoxidi', pvolve cbloriiit; who» lieatt<d with hydrochloric ftoid, and 
this can )>e detected by its odor. 

Metallic compounds mtut bo dissolved in nitric acid, i^vaporated 
to dryness, the salts decompowd by ignition, and thf re«nliing oxidr-( 
test«d for mnugaiiee» wilh »uda mid iiiUv, m above. %cume Ar-nium 

IT ihesabstance consisis of, or contain» solphides ««' S"'!'''"«'- 
or arscoidce of th? metal», it mnet bi- miutU-d uii ou«l, p. 77, bcEors 
tfa« abov t««ts for mnnRan^-»' can be a|ip1i<^d. 

When til« EubsLaiicti conlaiiis silica iiiid protoxidouf 
cobalt at the game timt.-> ü. y-, a» ore di'L-ii8ed in tlie targe 
vay, the above treatment ftith eoda yields a blu<; mass, ooueistiug of 
nxide of eobalt dtfisolvsd in iiilieate of sfiibi, by ithirh iht: gn^cn of 
the munganes« i< entirely aoncealed. After separutitig ihf «ilica 
and other injiirtons ingredients, however, by fiiaion with sod» 
and borax und subacquent trtatment in tbo wet war, as directed 
for silicates under lime, p. 1S5, tlie manganese can be found with 

h. Biotepipe dutracifTisiica of Ihe minenilit enumeraled ahovA 


Kaneite bums on coal with a blue flnme and yields a ooat of 
araruona «cid (Kane). The residue iiudoabtedly givea manganese 

ecrpHiPB OP XAyr.AKESF« 

a; AlabandiU is unchanged in the cloeed tube. In the oi)cn tnbe 
Tielda snlphnrona acid and tiirnagrayi^li-greenon thesnrfnce. When 
tborongMy roasted on ooal, wliicli uccnrs very slowly, it n?Hct8 like 
pare oxide of manganese. 

J. /AtiirnVi* yti'ltld giilphur 1» the closed tube and becomes green. 
In tb« open tube yields much sulphurous acid and become« green 
oti theenrfooe. Wlien well roasted reacts like oxide of manganes** 
with llie flaxes. 


Host of the oxideSi vis., hanmiaHnUe, brattnU», manganxtct 
mianf-, rantiate, and vati yield more or less water in the 
V and inch as contain a higher projwrtion of oxygen, eepe- 


M.,\TTNEKV RLOrtTll-* ANALtSla. 

really piiHaMiie, pj/rblKsifr. »nil yroroUHe, vrhi_-n lie»t«d iv ivdncss {pr« 
off ox^gvii, whicli may lie ixf-ujpiizi-d hy iiiuuiiH vi a little fnigmctit 
i>f chiii'cual plucttl ID the matiuss. 

Tlioy (tiFsolTi.* in hornx und S. Plu Mm«- of tbctn with cHbrvc»- 
«■nop, pruduocd by e«tti|iing uxyguu. mid either l>ehavi> like pure 
oxide of muugiiiu't^-, ur al'ier reduclioii ahow iron, i>. '^t)9. 'I'hey 
rrequcutl; conlaiii u small »mouat vf iilkalü-«, )>ur7'ta,or Hmc, which 
may be detect»'*! by igniting them Ihoronghly in the O. F., luying 
them on plHtinnm foil, moisieiiing fhi^ni wiih » f«w drops of wiiifr, 
und alter some tim« IcUJng this wiitrr with ml litmus paper. On 
diaeolviiig snoh ftQ oxide of maiiguneso in liydrocbloric ncid chl^M'Jiie 
Uc-volvod and any «ilio4i piväcnl ronuiii^ behind. The solution may 
then he furlher examined a» directed under iKtrvbi and lime. 
Fyrothroite nelda inttch waU-r in tlie matruss, becomes greon. tbvn 
grcQoieh-gray, and Anally brj^wnigh-blacb. 

Black earthy eohalt from Saalfeld yields watiT, vliich baa a bitrnt 

odor. B. B, in the forc«p« and on <;o»\ is infnsibic, bat if Co' Ss is 
prcE«nt it giTee a ligbt bliip flami>, and on coal evolves a feeble 
odor of arseuic. With bums in O. F. a dart vioU-r gl««*, ^iiiult- 
blne in R. F, In S, [*h. only the robslt color, but \\\c satnnvleil 
bead treaU-d on coal vich tin bcccDifS opaqne-rcd on cooling, vid« 
copjier. Id nut diasulved Ity aoda, but gixüa ^ strung maiigaueae 
reaction irith aoda and nitre. 

The enmc minumi from Scbneeberg yiulde wntcr in the matr»«a. 
With borax and soda like the above ; but with S. Ph. shows only the 
cobalt reaction. 

Many »o-uullcd »tthy oobalta oontuio so little Co und ao much 
Un thai a very large amonnt must be dissolved in the borax bead 
and this trcatod for a long time in a good R. F. in order to prodnc« « 
hine Roliir. 

Fritttktinite alone is iufnsible ; tlie moistened powder treated some 
time on ctml in u strong R. P. yielde a very dietinct zinc coat With 
bürai and S- I'b. ehowg mangnnc-se; bnt the somewhat stmnglv 
Balumtüd borex beiul is rather n:-d, and on coal in the R F. beeomt<a 
boHle-green from protosesfjniojide of iron. With stnlaon'plalinutn 
foil shows manganeei-, and on cual a slight zinc cuat, U-cuming 
BtTonger when aonie borax is added. 

Crt'dnfritf fuses only on tlie edgejj of very thin ecales. With Ixirax 
a dark violet glass; with S, Ph. a grceu gloss, blue when ctdd, and 



becoming copper-red in It. F. DisHolvt» to a green «uliition in 
bjdrot^torio acid, with tvolittion iit clilurioe. (tUiiimclsbcrg.) 

LampaäUe or cupitoun ntangaMi^ yirldfi much vsti>r in the 
matnuwi and then decntjiitatt-'K sunfwhiit. hi K. F. on ocml h<womc« 
birowu, but 18 iofueihle. With thp flHxe» affords rvaclioiia for copper 
mud iiiaogaucae, and with swlu uiiii bonix in R P. on coat j'ielda a 
Hltle huttou vi coppvr. 


Tlie phoir[>hiilc« of mangantrse, inclnding hurfauliie, tripHte, 
Ttpie!ft<iite, hficrwiilt, u.iid triphyHte, jifld nioiv or leas init#r. B. B. 
(Vise. xvTf eusily to a globule und color the flam«. Thosi; IW-u from 
lithiu give- 11 blutfh'^TCou, phogphoric a<.Md fliuno; tlic others produce 
a red culomtJoo at the «unie time. With the flaxes react for miin- 
gaiie«e aud iron. 

Jleyabti»Ue betinreii like wofframUe, p, 231. 

Uvthnfrit«. — In the forceps let« fnsihle than Völfrnmih ; with tho 
Sum gives maii£iiui>»L- :iiid l.titig»licHcid R-ucliutii^. (I>»iiu.) 

Rhftiochrosite and manffanocakit* occiisionallj- yield aome water 
Ulli ofU-n di-cn;piluti; verv violently. Tiiuruiijrlily i};nit«*d on coal 
And moiet^fned with water, they generally have an iilkalint- niiclioti 
OD red liimtie paiper, owing to the prowiic« of lime. Thejr di»«otvo 
tu the Diixea with cITerveM-encü. owiiijjjr to eiscupin^ eai'bouic uctd. and 
rtaci like oxidi? of mungallt^äe conuuniug iron. 

CUondrarftnUe decre[>itates iu the- closed tube, bluokens, and fjivea 
Deutnil nater. Ün charcoal luHeK e^dy to a black bead, not mug- 
netic; iu H. F. giree arsoiiical riimce. With borax a uiuugaueBe 
reiotion. (DaiUL) 

Sufttxite bchnrc-f, according to Hrnsh, b» follows: — 

In the cloKed tnbe durkenij HiighUy and yields wuler, eonLaining 
at least atntce of boracic wM. Fuse« in the rändle flame. B. B. in 
O. F yields a black crj-stiLUiuc mi^fi, and c<dorä the ßanio intetiK-lf 
yellowish -gi%en> Willi the Snxe« iiffordg tlic niuugaiieec' rc^aciioas. 


Fart of the silicates «numerated on p. 306, yield some water ia 
Üie nialjued, which oceasiunally htta a burnt odor. Their Hiäibility 
is indirsted by the annexed figureii. With borax di«*tdve tuHily to a 
cirar tfiai«. »huwin;; manvaai.>jk- and more or les« iron. With i^. Ph 
yield a silica skeleton and a niaugane^e g1»^ g^'ncrally colorleA« in 
th« B F., bnt sometimes npultscent on cooling. 

Sli plattxeb's blottpipb akaltsis. 

Tbej fuse with little soda to a black bead, wttb more yield » 
difficultly fusible slag, and an excess of soda goes iato (be co^ 
When it is necessary to determine any earthy admixtorea the 
method described for silicates under lime, p. 155, is followed. 

c. Examination for manganese in metallurgical products. 

In raw iron and steel manganese can only be found after Bolntion 
in nitric acid, as directed for metallic compounds, p. 210. 

Matt-like products, viz., Jiohstein, lead matt, copper matt, etc., 
are powdered and thoroughly roasted on coal, after which the oxides 
formed are tested witli soda and nitre, according to p. 310. 

The method of detecting manganese in dressed ores and slags bae 
already been described under lime, p. 155. 

3. Iron, Fe. 

Its occurrence in the mineral kingdom and in metallurgical 


Iron is very widely spread throughout nature, occnrring in moat 
mincnils, although sometimes only in traces. It is found under 
»arious conditions in the following minerals: 

a. Afelallic, as 

Naliw iron, — Fe, in grains and scales, frequently coutaining carbon 

(graphite) and more ruivly Ifad and copper ; 
Meteoric inm, — Fe, with more or loss Ni and small quantities of Co, 

Mn, Ch. Cr, Sn, Mg, Si, C, CI. S, and P; 
Iron-platinum (Eisenphitin), vide platinum. 

b. OombiiiiHl with arsenic in 

Leucopyrite. — Fe As, but oontiiining sometimes iii-arly 9 per cent, of 

C^ Combined with arsenic and sulphur in 
Ap«enopyrito {mii'pictel).—F} S* + Fe As, with 33.5 per cent. Fe ; 
Dtntitv (cob'tltiv ar;ieHopgritf),—{Y>!, Co) S* +■ (Fe, Co) As, with 4 

to 9 per Ci'ut, of iron rophiced by cobalt ; 
QUacodot, ride roKilt. 

d. Oombined with sulpkiir in 
Ijprriiotite (magnetic pur if 's). —Vc' E^* with 60.8 Fe (ßammel»- 

be^) ; or 6 Fe S - Fo :?' ^Pana). Most Tarieties contain a 

little JSl 

*FvSwrBnoalvin aieif\>ri>- iron, Mxt Ilm bKD called troSiu br Hudiogcr. 



Pjrit*^— F«, -with 46 -jy i9 per cent. F©; frequeutly oontainiDg a 

little As «lid suiuflimc« thallium ; 
Harcosibi (inolDiling raduUed, cockvcoinh, spear, capillary, hepatic, 

«fc, p!friteii),—Fe; it« liability to become weatbered luu been 

attribut«(I by Bers^lius to an aduiixtuit of cV; oertaiii varieties 
of hepatic pyritc« contain a littU- tbiUlitini ; 

LonoliidiLe, — Fe with 4.4 per c«nt. A»; perhnpfl a mixture of mar- 

ca«ite und ar»no|>yrite ; 
Pacilfi,— Fe 8' + 4 Fe As (Dana) ; 
Kyruäit«,— probably tniu-cojiit«-- Duiitainicg some Cn and Ab. 

Varioos otli«r combinatkins of iron and snlphnr form a more 

or leits casäfltial iu^'n-dii-nt of munr miticmliS which will be 

ennmerated andi-r Cü, Ni. Zn, Sn, Cn, Ag, and Sb. 
«. Vf\i\i phffgpfufrut \n 
BcIirriU-rsitc ; I*, Fe, Ni, and a Uitle Ca 

/. As oxide, «ither/fM, or eomdined with vmttr of hydration, in 
Mngneiite {magnttie iron ore),—^c Pe, with 72.4 Fe, and often a 

little Uu and Si ; 
Oohreous magnetite {liiseitmulm),—(t'6, !([ii} Pe, with 57.1 Fft ami 

13.2 Mn, also a little- Cu aud Si; 
Hematite (rtd iron ore, tpecuiar iron), — Pc, with 70 Fe and some- 

timt'j a littk chromium or titanium; 
TnrgiU?,— Be' U with 66.3 Fe; 
Ltmotiite {6og or«, broion iron ore, ochrt, eltiy-irnnfton«, in part), — 

Fe* fi' with fid.9 Pe; oocaaiODally 5i> ]3ii, Xl, P, und truoea of 
Cu and Co ; 
O&tbit« {lepiJocrocilf^ neeält-irotulOMt, ptfrrhogiderite), — V^ Ü, with 
82.9 Fe; sometlniea mixed with ]3u and Si, more rarely oou- 

tainingCuBDd tl^'Pi 
2aattiüeideriLc {yellow ocPire, bog ore-, in part), — ¥^ IQ* with &7.1 FV, 

and some Bi, äl. Hn, Oa C. aud Mg C ; 
Limuite (ifeihw ochrcy pl.).~Pe Ü*; 
Olay-iroQstonc, a mixtun: uf limouite with clay b part, iacludiog 

pisoUtie ore ( Bohntrz) ; 
Bog ore (portly limmile and partly xantfioiiiderU«), a bydrated bp*- 

quioxtdv of iron with 13n, Htnd and admitturos of pbofphot«, 

Silicat«, and organic ealr« {humie ncid) uf lt> and t-'o; 
Oohre, deposited from springs and cuiiaisling (-aseutialtj of 1^ I)*, 



bat conüiiDing emiiU quantities of other metallic (uddos and 

g. As »xid$ coMt/iueU with oÜi«*- crxidet. 
«. With niagnesia ia* 
Mognosirjftirrit«, vide magaosii. 

ß. With oxid«a of matigoiuse and xitie in 
Fninldiniti'. vidi" msnpinene. 

y. With osid« of cAroHUBni in 
Chromite ic/iromic iron), — (Pe, Cr, Sig) (or, ße, Ä1), occasionally 

alsn njniaining a little an and Si; the amount of Po varies 

from '-to to 3ii per ceut 
A. Ootnbinod with aa'da. 
«. With chhrim in 
Kremcrsit«, rid« potassa. 

ß. With miphurie aeid in 
Melaiiierite ((Mp/Tcr/ia),— f"a H + 7 fl, with 25.8 tc; taurittiU from 

Üri, Sn-itzerlam1. is said to bare the snine composittoD (Dana); 
Pisanite,— (('H. fe) S + 7 ff, with 10.9 I''e; 
Botryogpn,— f*«' S* f 3 £« 5' + 3d tl, but some of the f'e repkicect 

by Ag aad Öa; 
Voltaite, vidt potagaa; 
Rasnitrile,— ])robttbly [(fc. 2u) S -f Cc 3'] + 18 fi, with 20.r JP« 

aud 7.2 Pf (Baoiinelfiberg) ; 
IlHlotrieliite,— Pe S + Xl !? + «4 fl with 7.6 Te, but always mixed 

wiüi moTfi or Il-m eiilpbatc of iron ; Duua gives 22 II ; 
Glockerit«,— {!e' S -«- C I] with 6S.4 I^e, uud 8unii:tiaieit u little 2ii 

and Cu; 
Aputclitc—JPo* i? + 2 Ü with 53.3 ft-; 
Pihrofvmte.— ^■' S* + 47 Ö wiih 344 1^; 
Copiapite,— 3fe' S' + 1Ä fl, excl. a little Ä1, Ca. jSlg. and Si; 
Stypticite,— Ee 3' + 10 fl ; Dana makes it idpiiticiil vit\i ßhro/errite; 
Coqiiimbilo, — Ee S* + 9 fl, with 28 l^.' and Si, gt/piium and epsomitt 

as impiiritii-& 
Carphoaiderit«.-.— |fie' S' + 1» H ; 
JaroBites— (5 Fe S + R S) + 10 ft with 51.4 l^i two other Taricti» 

styled Gelhrisenert contain 4^>H-fKM + 9ß. with •l&T Vd. 

for oDf. and 4 If.-'S + Sa S + 0, mith 50 BV-, for the other; 
PiB80phai)ite.-(Xl, Pc)' S* + 30 fl (j/««n variety), und (Jit. Bto)*S 

+ 16 Ü (geiloMi variety) ; the Pc rariM from 0.T to 40 per crnL 



Haimüiidiu-.— El' S* + 7 Ö (Dana); 
PeCtlfoile.-S, t<-, Pc, (Ü) (Dhus). 
7- Willi photphoric acta in 

Dufreoitc (krauritc),— 2 l!!e' T' + 6 fl, willi Ö2J5 Be. Sohnibel giires 

for a rariety froa» Siigcn ( t'e' T* + 3 l^e' P) + Ü ; 

VWianite,— fi (f"«' P + 8 Ö) + (Ifcj* l** + 8 Ö), with 33 per oent t> 

12,2 V!u ; Daaa give« f"e' iP + 8 ll, with 43 te, for tho unHltcrod 
mineral ; 

Diadochiav— (K.!* P* + 12 1*1) + 2 (Sie S^ + 12 tl), with 3X.9 IPo; 

DeUauxite.— Sc' F + 18 Ö ?. witb 404 Pe; a iw( du/nuite accord- 
ing tti Dana; 

Faetidotriplite,— <Pt^, fin)' P* + 2 fl, excl. a little Si j containa M^ 
S^> ; an altered iriphyUt« (Dana) ; 

Caoox«ititi?,— I^* P 4- 12 n, witli lulmiKtiirc of Si, On, )klg, luid Xl, 
tlie latter apiK'srin;^ tu rvi-lacv t»axv IPu; lluuriue is also jitwäuntj 
the Be raricg beiwveo 3fi nnd 43 per oont; 

Chiiarenite,— [2 (Pe, Ün. Sfg)* P + XP P] + 15 tt, willi a little 5i 
as quart«, and 30.6 Pe ; 

Allnatiditf,— (An, Sa)' P + »c T + II, witli S!5.6 Pe (Diimonr); 
BiijipoAed to W üll^rnl tiijiUtc (Dana) ; 

Calcioferrite.— {3 ft' P* + 4 ß' P) -«^ 48 fl ; ft = Ca, Sig ; Tl = Pc, 

Xt. witb 24.SE!e; 

Triphjlit«, pi</#lithla; 




BurvfluUbc, ■ 

L With carbonic acid \n 

Siderite {ehalybitt, spaUtie trow),— f« C with Ö2 Pe or 48^2 Fe, bot 
geuvrally oontaining more or less iiu, Oa, ^{^. aud aomutimes 
2n, Ao that tbe gt^ii^ral furnmla is {t\ JIn, 2d, Ca, &Ig) C; 

Ankcrite, n'<fo lime. 

t. With oxalic acid iu 

Hnmboldtine,— 2 f e C + 3 tl. with 40.5 5*« ; 
%. Witli boracie acid in 

Lignite,— ICo B" +• 3 & witb 37.8 Bo. 

t>üle mangunew. 


n. Witli arsenic acid iu 

Aracniosidcrite,— (2 Ci»* As + 3 Fe' A« + 12 ll) + Po ft, with 39J 

FbAtniaeoaiderite,— ^6* As + £^* is -t- 18 tl, with 37.8 Ve, aod 

•• «4 

SDinctimos > tittlo F and Cti ; Dnna givec 3 Sie ISs + C!e Ü' + 

Soorodit«,— E* is + 4 K. with 34.6 ^ -. 

BfudantiU-, — I*, Xs, 3, K-, Pb, (Cu). Ü; tlio acid« riiry in their 

rebtive proportioriB from very little to nvarijr 14 per ceot in 

diflTerent S|)t>cinieus; Dana; 

Pitticite,— (Se* Ss' + 15 fl) + (l^j S + 16 Ü) with 35.6 Fej 
Carmiiiitt:,— tV Xa + & E^u Ä», witli 28 Fu; 

Sjrtiipk-fiite,— I'c, I^e, As, fl, with a little Si, 5lu, and S; 
CliDoclasibo, t>iW(TCn[i|K'r. 

). 'With iunffslic acid Iu 
Wolframite, of which there une geverul rarieties: 

Mn W 4- 4 Pv ff, with 10;j Ve, from Khrviifri«le«dorf; Flow« 

Mine, N. C, etc.; 
3 Jiii ff + 2 fe (1^, with d^ I'd from Ziuuwald, Alt«abcrg, 

Freiberg, Soh lacken wiild, Moai-oc, Ou; 
i Ml» ff + Fe W, with 4.r Fc, from Schlackenwaid (fine, brown- 

inh-red iieitlk-s), Si. Fmnoia lÜvcr, M* 
In diRereot varieties a little niobia and tautolic acid bara been 
PerberiU',— (Ft-, Sin)' W'; Fe = 23 to 36 per ceo L; D&na. 
I. NV'ith titanic acid in 

lAeiiaxtanilK (criditomte,ilmeHitc,kilidt^ophane,ica^itH{}ioniif,isenfe, 
basamimtUtH, i/ienaccamie). According to Mosander »nd Ram- 
inel6l>crg, isomorphoue mixluree of Fe. Ti, nud 'P<; iu whiob 
some of tttc ^e ia almost always replaced by Ag,. The ditfereut 
TaiietiPH may, according to Itammplaberg, be brought ander the 
following fonnulfe: 

Crichlonile, kibdclnjihane, titanic iron fVom Rio Ghico, — Fe Ti; 

Titanic intn frrnn Laytun's Farm. — (Fivflg) Ti; 

The remaining varieties consist uf m (Fu, Bin, Äg) Ti -i- u Fe, 
in the following proportions: — 




) : 1, — ^Egenaud, KragerOe, St. Paul's Bay, Cieiuga; 
i : 1, — Ilmeii mts. (ämetiiie); 
V : 1,— ChitcoulÜoher; 
i : 1, — I&iTwiisMt (iaeritt, pL); 
[ : 1 .— Litclifield, C:., Tveaettrand, Si6-Tok ; 
[ ; 2,— IkHicDuiaiis, Eiauituch, UorrqObcrf^ Uddcwaliaj 
L : 3, — Aschaffeaburg ; 
L : 4, — 8iiMruin, BiiinoitHial, Oalc ßoweiy; 
l : 6, — St. Giitbiutl (baiKinomelan) ; 
L : 13,— Knigeröe, TavetAchtliiJ. 
Parathorite,— Pe. TL 

K. With tantatic add üi 

Tautalite, easentiall; f'V Ta, viüi mnre or loea 'An To. TaiitaJite 
almoflt dvaya cuntoine 3n ; tlie French varivUcs sumoUmcfl Zr; 
fiuaUy« W, b& wtll a& a little Ou aud Ou, ocoasioiiolly are]>rt-e«ut. 

Tapiolite,— f«' fa', a little Sn; Dana. 
X. Witb hyponiol/ic acut in 

Cktlntnbite (niobitti). — The purwt varietiea corrcsponil, when not 
more or hsa altcrt-d, tu (t lS!b, m which ll = Pc, M u. Thi-de uro 
che Turißlifg Trum Gn.-i<nland, tbv Uuicn Moiiiil^iiiig, and tba 
Vrat In tnaiiy rarieljea tliei-e is n little ff, Sn, und Cu ; tbut 
trom. tlie Ilmen Mountains also coiituiiKi ü. Dunn gives a» the 

gfoeral foi-uiula (f''e, Uii) (Sib, Ta), but writes Sib = Cb; 

Ädi-lphoIifc,-Nb, JV, Hn, fl (Dana). 

It. Witb m'licic acid iti tbe fullewiiig silicates:— 
SidercwchiAolite I, 10,— fe* 5i -t- 2 Q, with 74.8 Ve and a little XX; 

probably croiul4diiiii (Diuia) ; 
Chamnifiit« {Serihierine) I. lQ,~.9i, Al, Ce, tl, wUh Gi}.5 U> ?4.7 fei 
Tboriiigite I-U. 10,-S Pc' Si + (Si, I«c)' Si + 4 Ü, inoL Slg; 

with 30.7 to 34^ fe luid VU tu 17.6 Pe; 
CrouaUdtite II. IG.— t'u* .Si + Pe Si + 3 Q, but routaiua Bom« "Sin 

and Ag; 
Qifinerite,— f e Si, incL u little X\, Oa, aud K(g ; an iron ampAibokj 
Hieingcrite (de<ftr5ite. scQÜolite) il-lll, 1. — comimsitiou variable. 

Somu varieties frnm Riddurhytluti oorrfepvad to 3 1-V Si -f 2 S^) 

Si + 6 fl, witb 34.4 Fu aud %\A i'e; but aomc Vv replaced by 

Ca and Ag. 
GiUingito flrom Gillinge arubr, Sweden, I, 1 (Dana),— 3 Pe 3i + it 


Ai Si + 9 0, ncAr)}'. Tkrnuliitt Uvm ItmlcnmiiU U inclacleil 

lieiv by Dana ; iU comjjosil-iun is at^arir l^e' 5i' + Ä fe & + 10 

ä, Ijut varies Bomewhai 
Mplnnolitel, 1,— 5i,Äl,Ife, f e, Na, ft ; »e - 23 itermit.; tVsZa 

IRT ot-iil. ; 
Fajalite (iron (JtrgMliie) I> 'i, — l^u' Si, (gelatiuixes villi ncida; 

Ekmaniiite IT, 1,— Si, Po (W to 30 per oeol.), An, Xfg. (Ä1, Pe) 

liana ; 
Jgllyte II-III A, 10,— 5i, Xl, iPe (ICC per cont.), Sig, fl ; 
MeUohlorite 11, IG,— Si, Al. i'e (Ag, Oa, £, Su), ft ; 
SHlpnomelimw I-II, 2,-3 It 3i + B Si' + 4 Ü ; ft = Jp-ß (Sig, C«) j 

R = ee.Xl; 
Xylite II, Ü,-Si, Ke, (".•a, Äfg, C«, A, wiüi 37.8 Pw; probnbly a 

lirdi'uiis iul>i'£Mi)t (Duua) ; 
Clilompal rn, i, — prnbttblr llie gentirftl formiiUi ^ Bi* ■*■ 4} Ü, or 

(fV, |fu) Si* 4- ij Ü : Dana iiicliide« liere; 
Nonirouile 111, i, willi 30 to 37 l^< and n littli? i-\\ Xl, »tid lElg; 
Piiigiiirc II, I, witli 34I.U Fo und C.8 f't, bIau a li'irtc Xl, Slg, An ; auO 
GniDienite, whieli is similur, but has mori! 'X\ uiid Iras iron. 
Chalcoditc I. 1 (acording to Brush, identical with »UipHomeUlm* 

Dmxi), Willi 20.4 1^0 aiid lt>.4 !•'« ; 
AnthoeiJerito II, 1,»-Pe' Si' + 2 it, with 35.7 Bt; 
Almandicc {ivon-niumina^arnet) 1, S, — 3 t'o Si + Ä1' Si', with more 

or less Co, ilg, iln.and 39-6 P'e; precioug ijnrntl From variont 

locatitiea with Üb tu 33 f"«; ^rüio/i and red gar net, likwisc fi-om 

various localities, with :i3.5 to 33.0 fc; 
Mc-liiiit* (Orfiurrfftpt, ^W«w o^A«, pL) 111,3,— {Po, Älj' Si' + 4 13, 

will] 30.8 p«r c«nt. Po; accord. IlHiieiiiiinit, pn>Uil>lv kwilia 

colored with bydratL'd sesquioxide of iron ; 
Uiigliwai-ito {r/ihrojutt) Si, t"« (20.8 per ePuL), ft iiiid a littlo Ca; 
Cnifidolito. rt<h Boda; 
KueUtlilF, vide mang»ncec ; 
Cbloivphvitc f,~fc' di + 6 Q? (Dum), vith 2«.? Fe, inch a little 

Pyrosmaliie 1,1 (in oilric! acid), — nearljf (Pc, Sin)* Si* + 8 fl; wroe 

(•'c rcpliicvd hy Fe UI ; 
Grucn Kiirib (gUittconiU, pU; eelathuHe, pt) I, 3,— Si, fVy {"o, Xl* 

Hg, K,KmC»,fl; 

Jlutcoritcs, t'«y« potassa; 



LiLhomargD (fcrniginone), vit/« Alumina. 

Irun ii lonnd unilür Tan«a$ conditions in the pnxincts obtained 
by suieUiiig ore^i: 

a. Mi'tallic lil 

Jiatc iron und ileel, \n conroiiiiLlion wtLIi more or less C jind & little 

S, P, Si, MiK AI. Ca, Jlg. cic; 
jycHM (A'iVn««M«w), which sometimoii form in tlu- slmft hinmccf 
when BDU'ltiiig iron, t'upper, tiii, iiiid Ivad orvs, owjiip «itder to 
30ine Diietukc in uhurgiii;; vr to utli?r causes, and which imuulljr 
c<.)ii^i!t of II mixture' of iron (ciirbiirct, silioiurct) imil othor 
niclals. but very fn-i|iiviitljr eunUitii uii udmixturü of mt'lnllic 
aulphidi'f und iirsctiidt-s. 
Black cffipfr prodiicvil wii tin; larRi- »cale. coiiUiniiig Cu a« the 
cl»i«r ingTf-dieiit, with more or less I'b, \\, Co, As, Zti, Mo, .Sb, Ag, 
U wldoin frm froiri F^. 

FiiiiillT, n little iniii ik foituil in iiitn-liiieil tin, It-ail, und zinc. 
&. Cutiiliincd with tiroenic iii the vitrioiis epeiiaen prvdiictrd in 
snu'Uin^ Ittad, »i)v<<r, and ci>pp«r ovva voutainiug F«, Ki, «ud Co 
ctinibint^l a'itli As. 'Ihr sjx-isiii'S vnry greatly in mtn )Kiiii tion, hut 
gvncniilly consist «r (Fe, Ni. Cu)' As, mid murv rart-Iy ol" K' A», with 
vcrjr variahlt: proporUone <>f the basic mctaU and mticud, tv cotu- 

I'iuod, Willi nioiv or U'Sg F»-, iv, vXi, Cii, Mi. Zn, and Ag, 

Tb« itpi'iH» pnidiicL-d in sint-Uiiig i-uoalfd aiirilVnfUij inispickel is a 
compound uf Fu* As with Fe. Tlie cobalt s]k-)« {Vom »mult works 
(xinsiets ehiffly <»f {Ni. Co)* A», more rup-dy of (Ni, Co)' Ae, with 
adinixtiin- of Hi; it Bontetimcg also contains Ft" A3 and Ag, more 
rarely Go. 

e. Combined with sulphur in tht? Tarioiis mart-like pntdncts from 
the smelting of g«ld, silver, kitd, and cop[>L'r on'», vit, in Ituhtlnitt 
— Fe* Fe, comhinod witli more or Ii'cs Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Ag. 
and *ouu-tinie8 mixed with (Fe, Ni, C«)' As; 
in Imil mnli, — (&V, ^h, 611)* iV, combined with moruor kas (Jo, Ni, 
Zn, »b, Ag, and also n-cqueatly mixed «ritb (Fc, Ni, Co)' As ; 
in copper vutU. cuiiifisting of Cu, Fe. or Cu, Be. ami Fe in vnrj'ing 
pruportiuHft, or cumhini-d with other mclsllic eulphidce and aräiai- 
Ides, Tin-, i*b, tn, ci'b, Xg. and (Ni, Co)* Ae. 
Tlu' same is trn- of other similar products (Lecbo, ctc.)- 
Herc ln.-lonp aiao tho »enffoidin^, lutfi/ or cfidmin, formi-d in the 
ftinince by eublimatton, viit. ! Rohofenbrurh, consisting cbivfly of Zn, 
hot ofKn combined with more or ]«t8 Fe, Pb, und email «jaanlilieg 
ef otlter sulphides ; 




Oodmia from l«id riirnioM {lilsie/enbrueh), the chief oonGtitnent 
being 1*1», which, howerer, often cofitaini other sulphides, Fe, 

Zu, Üb, and Ag. 
d. As proloxid« with tiUca in the vurioas alaga. 
«. Ai proto-ut^uhxide in liammer'Soulea, forge-scales, etc. 
^. Anprotoxids with eulpb uric acid )u copperas or green TitrfoL 

BxaikinaUoD for Iron, 

Ittdudin^ ffi« ilowpipa charaden'xtics of the minerals and nutaliur- 
gical produein al>ote nnmed. 

a. Examination for iron ingeatred. 

This is very easf, einoe iron In oombiualiou with oxrgfn impart« n 
chuucteristio color to borax and 8. Ph. and ciinnnt he srparaled Trom 
theee fluxes in the metallic state hj the blowpijH; flnme ulonc. It is 
only nwvssnry to consider whether the subetanoos lr<>atcd art' com- 
pounds uf metals, or are metallic arsenides or sulphides, or Hnallv 
metallic oxides. 

If tber are alloys consistingoalj of diflicultlj fnsible meinls, 
thoy aro fused V^ide horay. on coal in O. F., until thu ^taas is 
BufHciently colored with the oxides of the eimily osidizable metals. 
Should lead, till, bismutli, antimony, or «iuc, iie present, howerer» 
and the compound be easily fueiblo, the R. F. is employed, and ia 
directed chiefly upon the glaw, in order not to oxidiu« and di*golTfl 
too much of these metals. In both cases the stlU soft glass is removt^ 
ftxim thf metallic button and trrat^'d in R. P. on another s]>ot, when 
the catfily reducible metals are separated, ItaviQ^ the borax oolorrd 
bottle-green by proto-sesquioxide of iron, provided oxide of cobalt 
doe« not prevent this reaction. If the cnnipitnnt! oontaine<1 tin. or 
the grccR glass is treated for a moment in It. F. with a hit of tin on 
A fresh spot of the coal, all the iron is rcdaced to protoxide and 
appears pure vitriol -green. 

l^^hould it, however, appear blue, protoxide of cobalt ia present, 
which conceals the iron color. In this cose the glass miit<t be again 
softened in the It. F., mostly removed from the coal withont any 
adhering metal, and fused on platinum wire in a pure O. F. In caw 
it should tlien become so dark as to be nearly opaque-, the soft glaas 
is pinched out. some of it broken ofP upon Ihe anvil, and the 
remainder diluted with more borax. It is then again treated in the 
0. F. nntil all the iron i« changed to sesquioxide, when it will color 
the borax yellow to brownish-red, according to the amouat present 


Should there he, hesidra ttio coWIt, only » trac« of tron, the hot glusa 
will be green, hut whi-n cold pnro bhic. 

A lar^r amount of into color« the hot ^Inse dork green sad tbt 
cold glaea line grcvri. sinco Mio äesquiuside, if not in vxccsa. inipurlG 
& yelluv color tu the cold borax gtoss, nnd this with the blue of tht 
cobalt pn>duces gre«n. 

The motale rcmnining after the treatment of the compound with 
borax in the It, K muT sometimes condst almost entirely of coppei 
and nickel, since the Tuktile metals arc rooatlj driven off und voni 
ihv Coal with cixldc», and they may be easily n-otigni^d by further 
trcfttmen! with Iwriix or S. Pli., as will be dirfct<,d undvr the exiim- 
iuations for the respectiTu metala. If quite infusible componnds arc 
to be treated, in which, l>eeidt8 iron and eorie of the above metals, 
nickel ia also present, the «ift-et way is to dissolve a little of the 
substanco iu nttrio acid and continue tlio process as will bedpserib«d 
ander vaiive iron. „„^,„ ,„,pHM« 

Compounds of metallic sulphides and arsenideo may ""' ""•■'"<'" 
be examined for iron in two ways, lu tlic first the a«»iy iä p>a9t\-d 
on coal, p. 7t, nnil then email portions of it arc gradually dissolved 
ID bonu on platinum wire in the 0. F. and the color of the glow 
eiamined. both wlien hot and cold. With many audi frumiKiuiids. 
c<ODtaining only metal« whicii do not color very iiiteiiB-lv wiien 
oxidi2ed, the iron is immediately ohtainod; with many others, 
however, »s when they coiiiuin copper, for inslancn', a green color ia 
obtained, which become« lighter on coohng, and ivsuli« from the 
yellow of the eeeqnioxide of iron and the blue of thooxidc of cnpprr. 
In thi« cni^ the glabs he shaken off, p. 70, and trcatcd^ii cuni 
Id the It. P., until all tlie copper is reduced out mid (ho buttle-grecii 
color of the proto-sesqui oxide of iron is obtained. After pinching 
out this £la<8, a bit of it nmy again be (reat<-d with the 0. F. un 
plntinnm wire and the iron recognized by the yellow color. 

The «-oond method oODSiBt« iu pnlrerizing the «ahslanee, niixinj; 
it with test-lead and bonix and fusing it on coal in Ibc It. F., until 
the glon is colored by the easily oxidizable, non-volatile melnU 
prweut. At first the whole is eovcnxl with the K. F., but as »»on a« 
the boras has united \o one globule, the Qume is dirvcied npoii this 
aloite, allot* iug the air (Vec ace««8 to the fusing metal. After com» 
pleting the fusion the glass is quickly raised with the forceps from 
the Haid lead and, after being treated alone on coal in the II. F. to 
Toduoe any trifling oxide of lead in it, is lesvd on phiiintim wire in 
tho 0. F. Slinnid it appear too dark it \s dihitcd with borax until 
it is lransi}arcuL After sejuarating the lead by means of bnracic 



BCJ<I, nW« ROppor, th(> olher metnls combiiieil «itli it ciin cofiilj be 
rect^oiuHl by tliv ^laas Üuxee. 

Oompoimdä whicli fbse «uilv alaa« on oo&l can be Irr-ikl««! in iha 
K F. with tf^nix, otnittiug the u-rt-lt-aU. Tbu^ Tor oxamplv, a very 
triäiiig Hniuiiiit of irun can 1k> fuimil in many gsilcna«, ci^pcciully iJ' 
the glass is Tiirtiier tr«aU-d with lin. Hhotild th« glass not «)inw a 
Titriol-grccM color, but be blnc% it iB tn-ftli-d aa dt-scribcd jibovr antler 

Oon>K>in>l*«r '""J*- 

«uiMT,**»:. jn coniponnda of oxid« of iron with other mptnlltc 
uxtilfü, nr nitti fiinhs »nd noids, ilit> iron \» likvwist- best {»iind tty 
fuBtiig Ihf tiulj3t»iice will) borax or 8. Pb. To dvlt-rniine wiit-ihi-r 
the iron ie prvsi-nt ad seRjuioxld? vr protoxidv, tbv M^y is oddi-d lo 
a honts Ui-sul vontiuning oxide of cop|>er. In c»^ nf f)t^|ntotidullm 
bt-ad bcmiiufj bhii»b'gri'vii ; with pnituxidt-, rvd Bput« of Btibiixidv of 
copi>pr become dislinctl; visible m it. (Chapman ; l^huuuu's 
•Joumid fdr pnict. ClK-ni, va\. xlvt. p. IID.) 

CotnpmincU of metallic oxides not üit^pf-cU'd of containing nxid«a 
of coppur, nit;k«l> cbruminni, or urauiiini. arc di^eoWcd in Iturat un 
platinum win- witlt the 0. V„ and the culond bead held ngainsr the 
dnylight und nittchfd nntil it lioji aa fur cooled Ihiit iU culor ri-maina 
unchanged. The iM'iid requires «^ fnrthf-r troatmtrnt if it uluiws 
only irun, or ttic colur of iron and coIniU together, us dcEi^ribed 
bi'fore; «honid it, hovever, show som« othir color, as possibly violuC 
with much rrd, it niudt lie trcatrd eomc Umr in the R. F., which 
CDtiws the Tiolct color, resulting from mtitigaiicvc, to disappenr, and, 
bMvca tbo butit<>-gr«i-u iron color. Wiwn much mungnncic is prfsi^nt 
the l>pnd from the 0. P. »i>pp.-ir« qnito dnrk-rcH while hot, nnd rv'd, 
iniiliiiing tu violet un cooling, in which case all tlio ninngiiiicoi- can«! 
not be reduced to protoxide on the wire, but the glass mu^t bo shaken 
off and trcAted on ctMil with tin; Miü mnngiinosL- color tlien digiip*. 
jM'ara and the ritriol-grwn itf protoxide of imu l>ccomi.'.< evidmit,* 
proridtnl no protoxide of cuball ia prfdcot. In case ilie maii^iint.*sa| 
pivdominatvä a little iron may uUo cikAily bo fvund by mvan« ofj 
S. Ph., which 18 not colored very iiitcnücly hy manginiese, and ri'udily] 
bt-coHifs colorli'S* in tliv R. F., while the color of the dis*<ilved oxidaj 
of iron n'inuinn after iivating the glass in the IL K; the t;h>88 tut 
«P)H.-Hr8 n:ddi«b on cooling, p. 103. 

ffhi'u a snIfStuiiC'L' ojiiiJiiiiB jirotoxide of cobalt, in »'■"' 
osidfs of iron and nniu^iatiesi', the glass obiain<^il «i 
platinum win,- in th« 0. K is ttjloivd nwrt' '»r Unfc ■' 
after ft short treatment ill tb-1* " ' rn.air 

lu a com|K)iiDd coniuiniit^ 


with littlp oxide of iron» the Iiittt-r mny Ik- rpjidilv futind by dtssolring 
tlic 8iil>8titnco in hyOrochluric uciU and piVL-i])itiititig thi- sc^quioxida 
of iron bv moan« ol' animouiu from tlic ililutwl «ultiiion, or if tliu 
■ilbstnnoe is not perft-clly stiliible, it is fused with bJHiilpliat« of 
potussi. tin.' niTias tiiseohi-d iu waltT, a few drojJB of liydrotliloric 
flcid added and then a slight excess <4 uniiuoiii«. Tli« piy-cipitattd 
oxiUc of iron, iilthniijih not t\uHe free fnim miiii^/inpSe, is filturedont 
niid tL-sivA Willi bunix ur >S. Pli. uii [jlMliiinm wirv. 

When in addition to oxide of iron the oxides of cupper und nickel 
ore pivseiit, it it better to di^s&Ivc tliv euUtunce on co&l in borax 
u-jtli the 0. F. nml IIk'H ir-ut it with the It. K. ; ii^>|>)H.>r and uioki'l 
htv separated lut metab and ihe iron c<dor alonr rcniuins. It is well 
to add a bit uf lead, wliicii furtbers Ihi? wparalioii of tlie meiol»; 
the glass can «ncrwni'ds be pinched out and ttvatod on phitiimtn 
wire in the O. K, to ntitain tlic pure oiilor of Bpsrjnioxiiie nf irmi. 

Sbuuld ibe preseinw of cubalt n-iidcr the glasa Iiliu-, it nuiat. in? 
fact* be oxidizfü on the wirf, m above dirprtrd. To dinoTer tho 
copper the substance i« disanlvod in S. Ph. and the glass treated with 
tin on ooa), «lieu it bi>nunie6 opiiquf^^ niid n-d. 

When oxide of chroniinm is prvscnt with oxide of iron the color 
of the hut bunu ^Ws showe iron, but uii co^diii!; only chruniiuni. 
Since, however, Iwrox glitse satiinitid with ecfif|uio"(ido of fhiviminm 
aftrr treiitment iu the 0. V. liki-wiw bnii. nhilo stilt hot. a dark-red 
color, Üie pn-soiicc of iron cannot with wrtiiinty be assntned. In 
each OB« the SHijsitance is mistd with three parts of nitre and one of 
Boda, and fn*ed by dopr^os on phitinnm wire, the nsiilting chromata 
of the alkali diwolvi-d in waU-r, and ihe rvsidne. nfter Iwiny washed 
with .WHter, dissolved in borax on platinum wire. The iron color*!« 
th«n obtained, if all the e-L-sfiiiii^xide of chromium has bi-en gep« 
BTttted and «o other coloring metallic oxidt'S an- jireseiit. The Iron 
may alito be re«1iiced with «od» on cool and obtained ns metal after 
ling »war the poitiune not n-Jiiei-d. 

rheti iinmiiim is present with iron, the borax, indeed, ehoaa the 
ifoo color ; this, however, i« not produoed hy thi- iron alone, Imt also by 
the similarly coloring nninium. To obtain llw pitrw iron c»Ior the 
sabetancc, if not comph'tely «iliiMc in aeids. niiitrt lie Hised wilh 
bnnlpiiatc of potassa. the rnu^^ diijwlvetl in wati-r, and then an excess 
of carbonate of ammonia in Solution atldcd. The testjHiutide of 
araniiim, which is at tirst thrown down with the sesqnioxide of iron, 
diseohes »gain, so that the iron maybe sepanilei! by liltnition und 
lestwl wilh horas, after being washed. Hy lulling the amtooniacul 
filtrate the sesqnioxide of uranium is tbro-uD down as a yellow 




powiliT, and nisT likfwise easily lie recogniaed hy ti'S'.ing iL B. B. 
with S. I'll. An t'tisier nKiViüd of precipic»! in;; tlie iininiitm consists 
in slightly ftCi(tiQring the solution witli hrJi-ochlorio acid and then 
ndil iu^ pUt4läSll. 

riiin.liy. wlieii oxides of tnof^etcn or titanium uro present with the 
iron, utily vl-Uuw iron UcuJk utv oblained vrith horax and S. Ph. io 
the 0. F.. becaiis« when cnmbiued with a maximam of oxygen the 
other melnis (tiin^lic and litiinjc ncids) only prcxlu(?e ii feohle 
vHliinr ; in llie K. F., on thu otlter hand, the S. Ph. glass Ujsumes a 
very diffiTCut color, specially on cooling, it ho-comc« darker or lighter 
hrowoish-Md, p. IIOl 

A Blotcpipt characttritlics of Mr minemh contaiHing iron 
tnumemted aoove. 

[Br curc-fiilly pernsing tlie imnicdiatcly precediny pages Üio rvader 
'Will be eiinblcd to undk^raUind the reiu^tjons now io be given, without 
pendt-rifig \i iiecessarj to givu thf ininiit« di'scriptions of the Ui-rinaa 
work. To fucilitul« this, I'vCt-r^nce \\&i bee» niado to thi.' pagfii when 
nrcivssary, iiud nothing of iinpurtuncc bus been omitted. — Tmns.] 

Malice iron und meleoric iron are infusible before Lho blowpipe. 
Thfl glaaoes obtuinüd with borax or S. Ph. on cwal in the R. F. show 
oulyiron.nnd the bottle-green glass re-fused on platinum HirL>aIso 
allows iron uIodl-. AIUt dissolring the iron in nitric acid, dilntlog 
und thc-u precipitating the Bcsquioxide of iron with excess of am- 
moiii;i, nickel, cubalt, niiiiiganesi-, and eoppt-r can be thrown down by 
■ulphideuf Hmtnonitim from ik« ammonia«»! solution, which contaiua 
the ffa-iitor part of thwe metals presrat, and aft«r settling they c«n 
be filccnid out and rucoguised by mi-aos of borax; vid« gcuvral 
cxivmiuation for metallic sulphides, niidvr oobalL 


Lfueopyriie (amfijtieal trim, pt.) yields ta the ckuind tnbe metallic 
arsenic. Carefully heated in the open tube mticli arisrnonü acid is 
fliiblimed, and with moi?tenfil litnmR-pnpor sulphtiroiu acid can bo 
detected. On coal copious itrscuicul fumes are vToked and in the 
R. F. a magnetic globule remain», finaslcd and treated with the 
fliutfs it rcaotfl only for iron. By treating the variety from McIiIimI- 
ming on eoul with borax, after being tirst fneed alone, a« iriU b« 
directed under nickel for »ubstances containing various raotallic 
arsenide«, some nickil nud cobalt are found. 

MitipicKd {areenop^ritc, arstinieai pyritrn) yields at first in tb« 

tXAitJsxrmy fob irok. 


closi^d labe » rvd tniblimah* nf Hiilpliide nf «re^Tiie, but Uter a bliich, 
cryatjiJIine siiblimsle of urgeiiic, having u Qictallic Inütr«: in the 
Ofen tube givM off aracnoni «ml sulphurous jjcidä. Too utj-ung s 
hoat 18 api ta jiruiluce siitilitnntes af snlmxid« of anenic ind metaJlio 
arncnic, p. 62. 

On cuul, at first jipldscnpiouaaxECiiiofVinies and a »ut of srstnoui 
ftcH, then fuses, cspeciullj in llic R. l\ to a globule, whioli react« . 
liki* pjrrhotiti?, q. v. 

In tbe roaitcd rnin«>ral any cobalt present U roadilr di-t^ttid with 
borax. [1, 322. DanaiU bcliuvcd liko arscnopyrito, bnt ivncts strongly 
for Co when roast<d. 


Pyi-rhi'tite strongly heated in the closed tube yi^Ws a little 
sniphnr; in the ojien tulte »iity snlpbunnia acid. Ku$pi) in R. F. on 
coal to a bnlton, covered with an nu^ven bliLck mo«ä on cooling, 
mognctinand ahowing a yetlowisli, cryi^tillinc, nK^tiillir I'mcliin-. It 
is coDTerlcd into n-d oxide by roasting and rciicts with flu.'ccs for 
iron only. Should it contain but Httlo nickol this is boct found by 
tilting tJie roasted assay with gold and bora« in B. F. on coat, 
vidf nickel. 

Pyrile in the closed tube g«ncraliy evolven an odorofsulphurcUed 
hydrogp» and givf^a a sulphur 8nlilii>iiiT<\ If it (viiitntne ara^uic a 
■ablimatr nT Niiiphidt-of arsenic fumi-t latL-r. n'hii'h »jipeiini dark<'r 
or lighter, ncunnJing to the anionnt of arsenic. The wcll-igiiiusl 
Tcsids« ie metaUic and poroas, »nd ri^acts like pyrrh»tilc. On coat 
the anlphnr bumii with a iOuc fliunu nrid the n-sidne reuc-t« like 

Marraeitf behaves like pyrite, but yield« eulpliur ut a lower heat, 
and moieiurc is frcq neatly perceptible. 

Leneh'dit« fn>m the Clmrprinz mine, Freiberg, yields at first a 
rabtimate of sulphnr, in the cltisetl tnbe, then a little sulphidn of 
anenic, which ia n-ddish-ycllow on cooling; in the open tube sul- 
phurous and arsenoxis acida, at a hieb temperature sulphide of arEenic. 

On coaI in the K. F. »iilphiir mid arstnic volulilixt mid an anionic 
fxiat is funm-d; th« assay then fuses qnietly to a magnetic glubul« 
and a fecMe li-od ooat is produced. 

The roaet4?d min«ral dieeoWcd in borax shows iron, cobalt, and 
copper with the fluxe«. By & rednction assay with a gold button, 
which is afterwards treated with 8. I'h., a little cuppiT and oobultcan 
also he found. 



Kf/riviff f/om ilie HriociUfStoIlr», near Anoaberj:. reacts Uko loo- 
eliidit« in the closed tnbe and ihe 0|)en liibr. 

Od coaI the sulpbnr liums nni] the raiiienk] tnse* to a migni-tia 
globule without producing a iionci-nWe ottat of nr$L-nonä acid. Tbe 
roiutttMl |i.iad*T is ivdili»h.hrtiwn niid tr^'aU-d with borax showa iron 
and cup|icr, p. S37. The same tnctaU uro dctwted by means of 
S. Pli. By ft redaction mt!s\\ wil.)i nfn^H nn coal metallic irou with 
an udmixtnro of copper particloa is prodncod. 


The oxides, Ti7.: magnetite, ochreou» mapietitt, »pecvlar ir»n aud 
fumaliic. iM'havc in ^nf-nil like «•sijiiinTrtlu of iron, p, 103. Tritüug 
admiitarea of other metuflic oxiil«^ viz., ul* chntniium, mangun<:it«>, 
ooppcr, etc., maj he either fonnd at the same time by trcntinj; thu 
respective oxides with glui Hnxe^ or by tpcciul assay«, aa direct«il 
iq the correapoading puii£üg(>«. 

The hydrutes of seaqnioxide of iroa, viz., turgiie, limauitet gOtkUe, 
xanthasiderit«, vie, with ela^ironMone, boff ure-, and ocArtt, jii-ld water 
in the matrofl^a and change to evequioxide, tlie red color of whicU 
dejieiids on the purity of llio asany-pioci*. They fasu moi-u ur less 
ea«ily on the edges in the forccp«, pjirticuliirly in the bine flame, 
while such oa contain phosphoric ucid tin;:» the outrr Qnme Itlui^li- 
gK^n, tbia being observed with nii>st certainty aft*r moipteiiiiig lh'-tn 
with sulphnrio acid. AVith boms and ^. Fh. they all rend for iron 
a.nd sometime« for copper and ooba!t~ Clay-ironstone leaves a silica 
skeleton with S. Ph. A mimgAtir»e. reaction Js obtained I'runi ueaHj 
all of tbcm, when fused with S'^dii Hud nitre on plntionm foil 


Magntiifioferrile bcha^'cs liki: hematite (Dona). 

Chrom%ie.—}&. B. in 0. F. is infiieible, in Ä. f. can sometimes bo 
roniidcd on th« edgfs, aud ie then magnetic Dissolves sluwly in 
1>orax and S. Ph. to n cle-ir glass, shuwing iron while bot, bat 
beomning chrome-^rL-cn on cooliriK! tie green is purer when the 
gfloss is treittcd in R. V. with tin on coal. It is not «tiacked by soda» 
nor can a mrui^ne^o reaction be obtuinvd on plntiniim ; but if some 
nitre is added the fused mass «p[H^irB yellow from the forinatiiin of 
shromatcB of the alkalies. By a reduction aetar metallic irun ia 


The sulphnt^i-s of iron, til, umIoiU!«' 
glocJterite, apateiii«^ eopiapil^ 



loss ft'ftt«r in the matras«, whicli with a Ktrnng heat takes up gDiiii; 
of the acid Mcapiiig from tb« neeny aiid llieu h*i nn acid tmiouou uc 
litmus- paper. The salts conlainiiig protoxide of iron at first jic-ld 
only sulphuroaa acid. Ou coal iit 0. V. tliey yield their acid and uiv 
coiivt'i-lcd into ai-squiuxidv. The ottit-r characu-rigtic ingi'^dioiit». as 
cupprr ID ptsanite, tiuc in rocmcrltt.% and LÜb alkuliiNi iii gdbcintnen 
aod jartwitf, ma; be fonud Itr ibc ti-sts deacrtbod ander tbu reapto- 
tiTv anlfetunccA. With eoda tbcy ull giw rhu äiilpbur rL-aotioti. 

JJaiolrichUn fust^ in the iitalruiu in il» uatür of orvNbilliuitioii, 
swells tip aud yields much water. The rccidne heatt-il to n-dQt«> 
yield« fiulpharuiifi acid and tiirnH l>ruwD. 

With tb« fluxes it shuwa iron, and with soda a aulphur rt'uctiuo. 
If it is dissolved in water and ih« protoxide coiiverti*d into ßest|ui- 
osidt of iron by lioiling »itii a little nitric acid, a pn-cipitattf of 
ulatniaa and ei-Miuiuxidu of iron ia uhtaiiit-d ty adding Mtniiiuuia, 
«nd tlio&o may then be et-parati'd by mouna of [^oliieäit, vid» ulumiua. 
p. 177. 

PUnophftmie in tbu niainisH yields vnter, irbicli liu& accuiding cn 
Enlmunn, an acid re»cti>>n. Tin- dry niiurs li«-alvd U) ivdni-j«ii vivlda 
»cid vapors and becomes brownJAh-yelli^w on eoolinj;. With the 
flasej^ shows iron ; with soda on coal, giTee an infuBibto, lie|>atic inius. 
Cobalt Bolnlion only prudncc« a tlisliiict blue when (lit- »mount of 
iron is not too important. If tin; aliiminu L-tiniiul thus \k found it 
may be detected by dJseolnng Iho powdered raia>^rul in hydrocbloriu 
acid aud pi-uocL-ding accordiug to p. 11:^. 

The phoHphates of iron dv/rmUe, vivianife, uiid (üilrauzü«^ yield 
in tlic niuinise waU-r. which huä not tin acid i-t;action. In the lori-v)»i 
they ewell iitid fuse in the blue Bunie to a «t.-t'l-gnty, mptallic globule, 
producing a hlnish-green, phosphoric atnd llauie. 

Willi tile tluxfs lliey show iron, and by a n-ductiuu KsiMy wtÜi 
0ods. or nentnil oxulatc of potuMui, ou eoul mai;iietie irou battoas 
arc obtained. 

Paeudotrtptite bubavps similarly, but shows a mauifsuese reartiou 
with soOn. 

Id ailuauditt the soda conceals tliu phoaphoric aeid flanii-, sm tbut 
the liLtvr roust Ix* shown in some other way, rirft phi»9pboriu hl-iü. 

Aare^nls raleio/erriif, it is only kimwn that it yif-lds water and 
Fu' i-ily to a black, luslruus. ma^ni.^t.i(^ glotiiilf. 

-J' yields much water in the matr**!», iiierea*** in vtdume, 
s from hrowtiifih-n>d to yellow, tntiing its luHtre and 
c. Heaieil to n-dni*s8 it. <>viih>s Hnlpliurou« aei<l. In 
nuide rory much »ud crumbles uhnosL to powder. 



Afrugment tjcniied in th« matniM (tasH in the foifeps wirb inta- 
meac^nce to a ^lobitk- mid culu» tliv Üumc bluisb'^e«ii (vhuspborio 
acid). On cuul il intuiucM«8 verf etrougly »tid then fuaiis Lo a 
gluUiiIe, which glows whik- coolitig. Th« cold glohali;! is BU-eUgmy 
aiid mHgiietie. With bcmIii, iiturl^v all goe« ititu ihu Liml ; thv fu^td 
Diu&t yii'ld» H dtnmg eulphar n-uctiuii, and by wiuilmig, mugnvtic^ 
metallic pArlicles are vbiiuDed. Wilh tbv fluxes, fthwwd iivit. 

Caeoxenit« vi<-)du tvult^r, ihv Inlk-r jKirtioiiti ur wlii^Hi huvt- un acid 
nnotkin ua l^riail-niHid ]Kt|H-r; tht; liburat«d lirdrulliiuriüui-idutuckE 
tbt; glas», and riii;;« uf aihcu nxv si-eii alVr driving the wat«r from 
ttiu ruatra««. B. 13., it Tutite uu tlic t-dgt'S to a t>luck, uioialHc «lag, uud 
givtfs a dtKliiM't ptiu8|ihonc nt^id Dumt:. Üihsulvui t'asilv in ImiuK Jiiid 
tS. l*h., slionitig ii-uii. With »udii it ut X\nt fn^i-a with utri-nL-a4.'riiDi;, 
but afttTWurdb Ihc phoispbato ol' wdii oiiiks into tliv cind, luiviiig a 
hiaok, iiiriisihlt! tuiuu. It dUsoIvtüt iu hvdfuchloriu ai!id und Uavua 
uiily ti vt.TV gUglit niiiunnt of silicii. 

ir thv mini'ml ih tnal^xi ua dirtiiLcd Tor liuuliti-, [x 1G4, Ibc uxidc 
of iroD, ttlutniiui, liuie, aod äiücu m» be found. 

ChildrtmU yield« much uator. ß. lt.. swell» and nimitlt-ii, gitiiig 
a diütinolly hi uiüb- given lliitii» and fonniiig ii tiB.surfd, partly liUck 
and iHtrtly hniwtiUb-rrd mnnt, i-Diiiidcd un llic «dg<^ With tJie 
Bust», flJKiws iron and muigiiiifae (RsnimelBlwrg). 

The carbonate of iron, «iiltrUCy f}t<tthic iron, «omeiimoi iK*civpitate8 
iu (W iiiatrue«, givcä ull' carbonic lurid »nd oxide, bbiL-kvnii luid U cuu- 
vcrtcd into nnignelic oxide. With I be fluxes, likci>(.-M|uioxideuf ^JtiD. 
tiodn ȟinvliiiieft produc<:K a miingunt'Sc n-ucliou. Any lime or mag- 
neeia tb»t may rvplat.'o eomo of iIil- imn (.-jin only Im* fuand in tbe 
w«t way, vide oarlmnati-ii. nndiT niagne^in, \i. lih). 

Humboidiine yields valer nod bhtckeos in the niatrass. On coal 
it blacken«, but in O. ¥. sooa bocom«« n-d. With tJu- fluxc«, sbonr« 

The aTsenitt«! of iron, including anfeniosidrrite, iifuirmacüsideritt, 
and scorodii«, yield neutml ivutiM- iu tlu- matraiui. IL B., in thv blue 
flamc' fiiiw to a gray slag, with a metallic lastiv, aud color (he oater 
Hnmo light Mne. 

Un roal, giru oflTarseiiicul Aini4^ii and fiiw in U. F. lo n gmy, 
m^Ullic, magnrtic «lag, nhich givvs the iron reactions with ^bcllnxirs, 

PHIicile yinhls water iindatabigh tf^mpinitiirv äulphiinniti lU'id. 
Id the Toi-oepa nnd on coal, lik*;«coruditv. Witli iK^Kl»,yifld8 Hr«fii)cat 
fnmi'sand sinks tuoEtly iuLolhcooul, giving aotrongstilpharrfoctioa 
ÜU ailTtir. 

CariHinite fusea on ooal with oroluliou of MrebniRul ntinea tu • 



^raj sbg, hdU at the sumc time a Icud coot la funnvd, or umy 
sortuiil)' b« otrtaini?«! with the additiuu of «o<U. With Ibo fluxM 
the iruci rpactioiu ftre [irodocf.<d. 

tf^pUsiie fruui LoliuuetciQ lic-tttccl t» 100° C UanvhjiDgcd; »bom 
tbu beat It yicMd mhUt (34.6 {wr cent.) uii'l bfcomM bruwa; ut • 
rmI bint u noubte aiuiiunt of anenoa» acid ix ovulvwl, «nU a molat- 
ened slip of litiiiD8-[iu|x^r inirudnn^ iotu llie nwk uf tlit- lautni» js 
lb--bly ni«iiliy>c(L 

li. B^ it is iufofiible io 0. F.; toQcb«! «ilh the tip of tbe blao 

li flania it fiuv4 on th« cdgv« and oolun tbc oatpr Burnt light hiuu. On 

tcaal in D. F. give« k suung urat-uic odor und Lbu-kt-'Hi, but fiiwi only 

'OD tbe nlpM and then ■« ntugiielic. Afit-r i^Dilion iu the ituriruM or 

on ocmU a fra^rmi-ut di«iwilvi-i io the glass Aqk's, (Showing imd, bitt io 

bonu a good O. P. atfurds a suaa-iibat bruwnub-tdbtw gtai«. If 

h«ooDgb isdisanlvt'd on coal u make tbe boras giaas ijoit« opiv|ut, 

■■utNqoeal n-dactioa will prodacc fiuiblo globalM nt m lartaUJo 

rtiide, «bicb inaj be eoUeetnl bj mmu v( a ptid buUoti aud 

' teste«! in O. F. ft«- aicbi vitli S. PIl, widt dicIkL 

With auda on ouait giv« a etrong anookal odor uid the alMurbed 
mas react* feebhr for Eolpbar. With kmU and lutr«, a «light mmo' 
ganase raccton. 

BehdatUiU yield» vater. B. IL, abo«» tbe Corii cnnj)« ar« 
inftuible^ boi yield oo efaaieoal fnaes of •aJpfasraoa acid iiu-J »Jifrd 
a yellow ala^ aod witfa aoda a fcerael «f lai4 ; tb« EVmbaeb fow 
eanly on dtarooal vitli tafawwuw M a ghitni> of bad, mttdei 
wiib a tdaclc iiq«tn abg; tbe HortnuMts faar raiily, aflbnttitg ■ 
gtay ftlaggy glolMde, and sAcr long bkrwiog tbe odur of anrak ( Daua). 


■rriresru: acidu 

fr«//raMi/« loiMitiMM 4»c»fitsiM in ti» »atnw and ofUo jjilji 
traoea of watm la t^ bcwi« a«d «■ ouaJ, {mm% oilb 4iAMiky Io 
a globgU. the «srCiM of «bidi > —■■ » ! «ff i rfw U hJ liaHter. 
Iron-gny crniak. ha i iag a OMtelfir butre. It ie d«e itimiiayMboi 
bmn tilaoic trm. «bsA » tohriMe to tie O. f. 

Dkaattei nU» ^ily a kve» n. O. F. I» a «i^w glM^ n wbk^ 
or maapaai — >i— fiiijiaiiaali^ aaoawtinn U iW omi». 
I uf tbe «Kerm. b tba« «Mk a owttis aMktfiB <^ »affMM 
^■ö4Mlfin«ilbrffMA«r4an; fat flhcft«nMV 


rLAtTKBIt's bUIVriFK AXAI.t»l5. 

Yfith 8. Ph. in 0. F. sliuu« uuly iruii awl iiruiigiiui«Ct bul iu U. 
become« dark re<l and Dpuf(Uo, cvcd with a tDoueratcadditiou of the 
miucnil. By treating the not too bighly eocantU^ glitiiB ou coal 
with tin in the H. F. fur a verjr sburt time, tl becunu» gmrn oi 
cüoliQg, hnt by theu emplojiiig a good K. F. the greeo color diaa[ 
pears, loaviug ii piilü rcddish-reiloir, which rcmnins uiichan»^ 
With soilii im<l nitre it gives a strung tniuigujiL-iie roRcLiuii. Kor tl 
dc-teclioo of the Miiigglic acid, vide tungsu-u. 


Mtfuiccanito {tUnmc iron). Infiisiblv in 0. F^ but cim bo vomi 
what rounded on the (*dgea la B. F. With bonix and 3. Pb, In U. 
like eeä(|iiioside of iron, but tbo S. P]i. bead (mated a while in B. P.' 
uefiUUK-a on cooling a more or less inUjiige brown ish-ivd color ; by tlti 
deplli of the red the rulatlvu amount of titanium cau be estimate 
Ou coal with tin this glass become« violet-ivil, unless tw» little" 
titiiniuiuiä]>n.-«L'tLt. ily fusion with Lisiiliilrntt^-iffpulasta the miiR-ruI^ 
ii decoi»|>osed, eids titaiiinm. With eodauud nitre it fK^iicntly girij 
a feeble manganese reaction. 

I'(iralhori/e bL-lmn-s, according tu Dana, iia folluws: — 
in the iiiü'tmää decrcpilalt's slightly. B. B. gbwä, fu«i-s wit 
difficulty on the edges, and becomeä paler. In borax shows iroi 
while hot, mid is eolorlees on cooling. WiÜi S. Pli. in 0. F. a W-i 
jeltuw while hot, culüdesa on cooUng. In It. V. this bead us»iimee 
iklicato violet color (Ti 0*?); Urutih. 


Tantalite from Tammela, Kimim, and Rnbo. free ftoni tungstl^ 
acid, bi;liares as fullows: — B. Ü. ou coal and iu the forecpe it te 
iufueibk'. DisHulvetj slowly iti borax to u glass eolur<Kl by iruE 
which at a certain f'atiu'atioQ becomes gniyisli-whire by flamingo* 
especially after previuint treatonent in 11. 1<V owing lu (hu Uniitlio 
aciJ. Wlicu fully satm-ated it Incomes cloudy uf itwlf on conlinj 
In S. Ph. dissolves aUo slowly to a Iwud colored with imn, w|iia| 
treated In S. F. becomes pale yellow on cooling, bni uut red 
ahowiitg that no tmigstic acid i~ p!-.-.iit, w:i' .. ' .. 'nUipgl 
beoonK-a green. 

With soda and nitre 
ftBSiiV with F.x!n - - ' - '="1- 

luiilalic acid n^^^^^^^^^^^^^Er 

Liti can U 



desired it maj be by procoecling u directed nndor tan- 

Tautaliie Trom Broddbo, conUtitiiog itingslic ucid, behave« like the 
Above, «x.-ei>t lliul the S. PL bttid ti-catcd in It. F. becomes diirk-i-ed 
on Cooling, und rctnins thU color when treated vitb Un on coat 
Also gives a strong niungauwu reuctiun. 

Tantalite from Kimito, haring a cinQainon*brown powder, K-bavM, 
aooording to Ber&t-liud, ükca tADtulito free from tungstic acid aud 
coDlaining maugunc^e and 8omu tin. 

Taj/iolite. — B. B. like tantalite, but no mangaiicee re^'tiun (Duii&J. 



CalumhUe is iDfueiUr. DifiS«>lvefl eual/ iu b<inix U> u ht.-ad| 
oülortMl by iron, u-bicb cun only be- miuic opiuinc by tlumtiig aftet 
stn>ug saluratioii, luid eii|)ucially when tirst treuteil iii It F. 

With S. Ph. tike taiiiulite fn-e from tuiigtUin ucid. 

Wilb evdik uud iiilrv it shows mjiuganese, aud by reduction on cool 
vitb borax iind Bodu traces or tin ure obtaineü, n-liicb with & Pb. on 
coal fivqueutly react for oopiier. 

Tbo mauner of dotvctiiig liypoutoblo acid ytll be gtvca uudei' 


Must of the silicates ciiuniL-rutcU on p. 319 tt wq., yiiOd more oi' 
less wiitcr in the inatra*). lyrotmaiife uta liigh t^-miH'Mttin? niao 
pvfs off yellow gügqii icbloride of iron, wbidi dissulv»^ iu l)iv luHvr 
imrtioiis of water, «nd ranges an acid reaction on lilnins-pajicr; a 
«uRbcatitig udor it ul»i )M-rci-'[itibltt lit Lbu mutilh uf tliu iniUr.k>s. 

Their relutive fusibility is indicated by iht affixed number«, 
Oeoemlly, if Iho blue Hnuie has beoD i)si.-d. the fused asuay is mug- 
neiia Some of thorn dissolve easily in borux, ollient with iliftk-nliy, 
and anthoxiiUrilfi only >\ry iiniH rfcctlr. eten in powder. The gLisn 
usually shows only iron ; with S. Pb. they behave giniihirly, but 
those which hiiTe pc>rfectly etilubte bnses leave a skeletuD of silica. 

With u littlf i«<da they fuse mostly to a head, hut with more those 
that liaTc H low ratio of eilic» fuse to a elag-liko mass. 

Sfrveral yield a matigaoce« rcnctioo with soda and nitre. To detect 
tbe earthy von Kti tuen is in certain of these silicutes, the method 
described iinder liuie, \i. iüü, \% to be followed. 

• Vidt natc, p 3X1. 



MMstllc atMaliln. 

0. Exam i Kation fpr iron in nietaUuryicat products, teith M« blov/pipt 
ehariKterigiic» of the UUier. 

Haw irna und »Ifei arc usually oolj cxumiaixl Tor nccpssorjr iii- 
grtdiiriits, viz» mauguueeLs p. *^H, ciu'tx>i). biticu, aut^bur. and jihoo- 
plioruä {t'id$ the nepectiro cxuminatioug). 

The tnutbod of testing bear^ btat-'k copper, aud impure ItaJ oud 
Hh, lilt iruii aud uihi-r ucci^ääury iugiydiviiLg, U cvitliiii fruiii whut 
vraa Mid about metallic componnd» coatniiuug iroD, p. 3S*'i. 

The viiri.iiw »peinxt» «re very eimily esaniined. They bi'lmvo as 
fuUuWä:— Iti ill« opL-o tuliv mögt ut' tlieiii yiold aulphuruiu uud 
areeiious uciiU, »Ithough ct-rtuin of them mnnt Ik tirat 
puivcmvU. Ou Coal in U. F. tiicy fiuc to a globale 
und yield np Ibeir uxLi^sd of urst-uic, if tW lutU't esoeuds Üw propor- 
tion (Ni, Co, Fl')* Aa. Volatile melalltc aiilphide* if pn'seut, us Pb, 
^b, fi>mi a cost of oxides of loud »nd antimony, tin? lulbi^r U-ing 
mixed with siilphalc of leud. Should UuTu be so luiicli iron tlmt 
tht> cuut furniä iritli difficiiliy, the iruu mu^t Drst be unk^üy romuT«! 
by trt-aljiii-nt vritli burox. ua eoal«ikud tbc rt-muiiiing button will then 
yk'ld a distinct coot when treat«d ulone. If the spciss cont^tine bis- 
muth, iiD is tlio case w\\h cobalt e)^\u, a biimutb cott is obt^dncd 
{viilc \\ tit>, et xeq). 

yi\wn the fuBL-d htittoD of spcug xi Ireutt-d witli bonts ttn coal, 
iron oxidizeft lirni, thi,-» cobalt und the rfHtdliu^ oxidu» di0«ulveat 
ouoe, H'hik- urseiiic ii'i>hi.tiliitt>ä und U perceived by lliv udur. As itnon 
Kg the button shons a bhf^ht durfocu ihtt bliut is slopfHxl, tliu huttuo 
quitikly lifLt-d out, and » pui'tion of the soft f^saa witbdravti with the 
forcepe, and if fpiito opmiue, tr«iit<*d on pliitiniini wiro in the O. F, 
with borax. It will «b'lw either iruu aknu*, or e<jbiili likevijM-, [i. "itj. 

The bultüii ifl tu Xm trt-ated on coul wilb fn^sh bonix. when, if all 
(he iron «nd vulmlt woru ri.-n)0Vf4l iK-fon-, thu gUuw will thuw uuly 
Diub«'!, hill if some culmit tttill rfirmined the glus-t u ill \k ('i>lor'.'d by 
it ubiü, und if ther» U much cubiLlt will be, indettd. piirf MniiU-tilneL. 
In tbis ciiw still a third, or even a tonrtb tn-ntmcnt nith borax taxi 
be nit.'o&>ary, and theo only thu nickel (Mlor will b« • 1' 

Should tliu äpfiga oonlAtn cit|>]K-r, Uiie iiieUl vn'il ! ^ -v 

by meuQ0 tif borax, being leueuily oxidiied tli i 
vury rciwlily found if the button, IVecd V n- •-■ 
ooutniniug only Xi* As, with mun* ui 
th« 0. F. with S. Pii. Co|.|L 
the gluHG bead \s yellowish 



ailing to the jellutr of the oickel and the blue or tlie oüp|H-r. 
Treated with tin on cnal, tiii« bead beooznes red uid opaque from 
Bubosidc uf copper, when Dold. It la ahuiikmI that nil thu aiitimuny 
liAs beou previously removed by trealmg tho dyem alone vu voal, ao 
that Iho bead simll qui becotiii^ bliick on cuoliug. 

Wbvii tJierc is su much tulpbide of Iciid iu the ipuiaitbut th« oout- 
of oxide of auliuiony cuttuut wull bo dtMiu^iisticd from the etinul- 
uuvously formod £iil|'butv <j( K-ad, it ia •>a\y ii\.-CKsiiaiy t<j trvui. tlie 
püwdt^red «peiss will) diidn in the* It 1-*. The üulplitir is H>.-|iiLnitcd b/ 
tiio soda aud tbc lend then Tonns oolya^'vllov ooat, allowitsg the 
uxidu of antitnnny to form a pure oaoU Wht>a titv-TV is a Kuiiäidi-nible 
amount of saipbido of zinc a eligbt xinc coat is alM formed, but if 
the uinuunt of xiuc ia trifliug it cunuot always Iw ebown witb 

Id trvuLing a ver? imiiuru «potsä, Duatuiaing many aiilphidi»i, a 
little of it may, afWr the presen« of volatile nu'tal has bi-«n ascci'- 
taincd by Uvatnieut on coal, t>e wvW ruuated uiid tbon trailed with 
the fltixea as dracribi-d ua p. OS. 

The varioiiö rnatt-likc pnxliicte, p. 2^1, evnlvu in the ^^"^ 
opeu tubti sulphurous avid and, it* tbey c»ntata aulpludt.- of 
aatimony, dPiwMt nvar tbe usaiy a thtn. tixwl siihlinial<> of oxide 
of anlimtiuy aud aulitnoriic auid. Oii coul iu B. F. they fu««^ to a 
globule, with the exoeptionof itohofeHbruch rich in zinn, and ntaX the 
oool H'itJi oxidi'e of lead, autimouy^and zinc, and Eiilpliat« of lead« 
wh<!D tht^y ctiQtain volutile sulplitdeä of tbt^so metals, and harp uut 
Terj little sulphide of sine. Occasiimslly alw> thp odor of nrfttmio i* 
pcrciptiblv ; itthi-rwi« a »pceial u.*al uiuy bu nuido for it, viVA* ur^nic. 

To d«teot the other iiigredieata, a sutficü'nt ainouotis roast«^ on 
ooal aud tested first with horax and S. PIl, as dinwtcd for tbe com- 
pounds of oxidi'S of inm with uthcr metalliu uiidL-», p, 3*^3 rt teq, 
AtiuitiiT roaät>.-d portiou is treated iu the R. F. with sod», so a« to 
pruduc« metallic iron and copper, and to h^cognizo any small amount 
of Kin« by the coat whtoh is formed in the immediat« ui-ighborbood 
of th« a^siy. 

Slags vary so much that it is not pnoüible to v«tabli«b any geticiml 
blowpipe chanicleriitics for them, but it in very eusy to tiud, by moauu 
of their bebaviur aluii«; uii c»id und with (he ghii>>i lluxt-s, what 
mirtiillio t>3«e8 they contain, und .Vjturd must he bad to thcat' wheu 
clfccling thi-ir dvc-onifMjsition, |>artly in the dry way and (loirtly in 
the wet way, uecording to p. 13d. 

Hammer tnd faryu ufalfn, from wurkiug wrought iron, are imme* 
tliatcly recognised by tbe fact tbat tbey fuse to a bend tu the furui-ps* 



wbeA touched with t)ie blue Ham«, aud roact Qoiy fur iron with the 
fluxes. Sometime« ■ mangiuiase rvB'>l.ioo citn bo tibtaiued with aoda 
and uiLr«^ 

4. CüBALt, üa 

Jtg occurrence in tAe mineral tiugtlom and in metaiiurgieai 


Cobnlt occurs under difipronC conditions in the following mincruii : 
a. Combined with aräfnic m 
SmaUii*. The minerals iiicliidt-d under this tiameoontain arsenide« 
of oobolt, iron, and nickol, in igomorpbous oombinauoui; 
Bammi-Ubt^rg diätingniahos 
a. K* Ab' I The amoant of cobalt varies betweeu 3.3 and 

ft. R Aa ^ 24 per cent.; the nickt-l butwn-o 0? and 25^ \k:V 
c, B* Aa* I cent.; the iron betwve» (i.S aod 18,4 per oeat. 
rf. Co' As' {Shutftrndite, /«snenil pi/fli:-), witli :il jwr oeilU 
Co, a liitle «f which is, howovpr, n-plaoed by iron. 
}VismutfikobaUfrz, oonLuiniu^ 9.ti jkt cent. Co and 3.8 per cent. Hi, 
besidea As, Ff. Cu, Xi, and S, is probably a mixture of (Co, Fe» 
Ni)' Aa* witli biaitmdiiaite^ etc. 
A littlv cobalt is likewise foood in 
Nigcolite 1 . , ... 


h. Onmbinod svith amnie and tulpAur in 
Cobaltite,— Co S* + Co As, with 35.8 Co, which, howerer, la purtly 

replaof d by a few per cent, of F« ; 
Glancodot from Chili,— <Co, Fb) S' + (Co, Fc) As, or more exactly 
(h + Fe As) + 3 (Co + Co As), witU M Co, incL traoea of Ni; 
Danaito,— 5 (P% + Fe Ap) + (Öo + Co As) with 6.3 j^r «nL Co; 

inciiidoU by Dana itndi<r Uie following: 
Oobaltic nrseno]iyri te, vide irun. 
A little cobalt is also fuiind in 
Qersdorfhb', vide iiiuki^l. 

c Combin(^>d with müpfnirin 
Syepoorile, — Co, with 65.3 Co, occurring near Rajpootanah in India; 
LiöDicito (tvhall pyrites) from Sii^n, — K li; lt = Ni, Co, Fo; R 
= %\, &, % ', (Dana gives 3 I^ + fi) i contains 30.5 to Ni 
and 11 t<i «.(! Co; 
Carroll itf.— (5 u + So, with 38.5 Co and u littk* Xi aud K"t 

A little nobaU is also found in 
OrflUHuitv. vid« uickoL 



d. Combined vllb neltnium in 
Tilktrodtt« (möaliic clamthaliU. Don«),— Co Se' + fl I*b Se. wiÜi 
HIJ! Pb ontl 3.1 Co. 
t. As wtV/f Slid comhiiKf*! «-ith other ntflailie oxidta in 
Asbulitc {mrtfiy aibalt). viae miuigaiie««. 

Brown and Keihw firihtf cobaUs. 'J'lie variety ftroni Kamsdorf is a 
mixture tti hyOroiis Mr&eimlrd i>r iron, cobalt, und lime. 
/. Coiubiui-d with ariils: 

a. With ttufjiftNric actti in 
BlebiriUr,— Oh S + " ft ; wlion [niiv eoiilaiiiing 23.5 Oo, bat gpiicr- 
iilly some Ca, Jilg, Oh. The variety fpom Bielwr, near n«nnu, 
U, accordiug lu Wiiikolbli-di, (Ou, ilg) '3 + 7 Ü, with 'iO.8 Oo. 
ß. Wilh arMtnic acid in 

Erythrite,— Ou' Ä» + 8 fl, with 37.9 Oo, a little of wliich is eome- 

tiiiips rcidflced by &'i, Tf, or Cu; 
Enrthy oobnlt bloom {KobaUbcicltla^) is shown by Kersten to be 

tTjthrite mixi-d with arsenoiia ncid and oontiuning 1G.6 to 183 


Jjiivetidnlan,— As, Co, Si, Ou. utid Ö. 
A litlJe cohdit is also found in 

Auiutborgitc, vide ntckul. 
y. Wilh mrbottic at-id \n 

Kumiiigtonilij, Oo, 0, It (Hiintt). 

Ill mfljillni^icjil i>rnilnct« from ore containing coIkiIi us an ess^n- 

tial. or only as an uocidcntal ingnrdicntt this motal is likewiBo jin-seiit. 

In addition to fmalt fmm the smalt works, the following ai» the cbi«f 

products to be nuin<^ : 

Cobidl fpeU», which uettli?« in the pots during tlie preparation of 
smalt. vi<te iron, p. Zi). 

A'iciel ^^i>*«, obtained in emclling nicki.-! ores poor in cobalt, to con- 
centrate the nrücnideji of nickel mid cobalt; it cnneUU chiefly 
of (Ni, Co. I'V)* A*, or R* A», and ocraeionally a »miill amount 
of snlphides of Fe, Cn, Ph. and Sb. 

Lead »peUii, resulting when ores eoritaining silver, cobalt, nickel, 
load, und Cüp])er, are anK-ltt^ with plumbift-rous materialü, luid 
consisting chiefly of (Fe, Ni. Co)* A» with the ba**! in very 
variabK* pruporiionH; more or Iccä of the sntptiides of Fis Pb, 
Cn, Sb, Zn, and Ag, are mixed or combined with it. 

H^nfd s^its, BO fur freed fronn acoessory ingredients by concentra- 
tion and refining, that it approaches the composition (Ni, Co)* 



Rolislrin, Itad vialt, mpper matt, fW« iron, jx ä2l. 
Staff» Prüm smelting ores and products cotitniiilng robaltv and abo 
Crom reäuing niccolifrrons an<j cobitlUfcroua black copper, 

Bxamiaalioa for Oob»)l, 

Jnehtding th* hlowpipt characterittie» of the above ntintraU and 


a. General examination for eobaU. 

Cobalt IB TPry easily (lct<*ctpd, since it oxidizes quite reudilj and 
then imparts s smalt-blue color to the bomx and f^ PIl Vada, viiich 
rt-muiufl the Sam« ia botb 0. F. nnd R. F. Simple nod compound 

stibatances cannot, howpvor, I«- trettted in similar wars. 
^Sjui,' Metnllic nickel, which is inf\iaible, is winvi-rtpd into arseaide 
before teslinjf it for cubnU> b; Ibixiug it iu tliin acalvs, or filings, 
with A little metallic araenic, fiii^ing tbem togetlier in o. cavity ou 
coal with the It- P. and treating the fiucd button a short lime with 
borax directly with the tip of tbu bin» flnme ; it any cobalt is 
present the ginss becomes bln'^, and if ihe nmoiint is not too trifling 
tho clcanecd button will imimrt a blue color to a fresh {lurtion of 

boras nlsa 
*'*^üi.***' The miinntT of finding cobalt in «Uojs lias been 
described nnder iron, p. 222. 

Compounds of cobalt with urst-uic and ulhor mrtallicursenidft« are 
ftisod on coril until tbey oeaao toerolve nrseiiicand tlien borax 
tntii?"i^. ■<> "dded and hised with llic mctalliQ comiwtind, nov con- 
taining less arsenic, until ibit glass is coloR-d. It »ill be 
pure smalt<blce, unless ii*ou is present, wliich oxidises eoontr than 
cobalt, and produces, aX the same time, tlic color of its proto-««- 
quioxide. The clennsed bnlton Irpiitcd with fresh biirax will, 
hoirever, show the pure cohalt bluf. Any nicket ami copper prest-ni 
will be combined with arsenic or snlphnr, and dg not u?(idixc^ until 
all th« cobalt has been wporated b_v repeated fnsioiis with Imrax in 
0. P. When the fresh borax no longer assunios a bluo cnlor, but id 
browa from nickel, the remaining button is treated with S, Ph. in 
0. F. and the glaas bi-comes grwn. both wIk-ii bot and cold, if coi)per 
HS well as nickel is present. On coal with tin it becomes opaque and 
red from suboxide of copper. 

Any biemnth is immediately recognized by the coat formed vbtle 
removing the excess of arsenic by treating the snbstance alone on 
cool. If DO antimony is present the coat ma; be tested with S. Ph. 
and tis, vide bismuth. Metallic arsenides in which ixihalt forma 



a chief ooostittK-iit may be roastctl and t<-5t«ti with the flux« as 
directed for snlphidcsr bn*^ the above method is alwavg Uie Hliortc«t, 

Ru1j>hidM. MinL-limcs onttiiiiing urwiiides, arc first trenn-d aluiie 
on coal in li. F. until tlioy cease to jield nri\thiii!r volatilf. 
The coats thou formed will indicst« nny admisttire of lead »JljSJ^ 
or hietmith. The fased compound U powderod, well 
roaalfd. and h part of it at once (csk'd on uubI with biintx in 0. P. 
If 'no C'>I<»ringf'sidps except cobalt nre pivgcnt the glusa will be hlae 
nnd remain «o wh*H diluted with bomx niid tested on platinum wire 
in O. F. A trifling amunnt uf iron will, Imwevrr, then rr>tid<>r tlip 
glass green wliih* hot. Tl* cop}ier or nickel hi« preiKut their oxides 
will liliewiso difisnlve iind iomctimcfl entirely conceal the cohalt color. 
B; tlvatiiiK Biich u f^lASS on coal, hoiv«rcr. in the R. i\, tnilil it 
appears transparent while fused and few or no buhhlea eBcajje from 
't, the coppor and nickel are i-edneed to mflal, nnd either ihe pnre 
colmtt will appiar, or the cobalt color niiuitk-d with the bottlc-^n^-ew 
of iron. The Reparation of the metals U promoted by addinir n little 
test-lend, p. 81, bnt then (he meinllic compound obtaintsl ehoiild 
W frit'd fiiim the exceiw of Itad by treating it alone on ciml, after 
which it ifi fneed in 0. F. witJi S. Ph. to detect nickel and (i>piht. 
Fur their resctioits, vüü p. 84. Gold may be ii$ed In ptuce of the 
lead, vüie nickel. 

Sfctallic «jlfniiles are fii-sl Ireatwl alone and the» with M-"«'"« 


Inirus oil ixnii in R. F., niitJl the glass is colored by the family 
oxidized, fixed metali!. Should the glai» nut ebow a pure cobalt 
color, it is treated as above dewribed. 

In treating metallic oxide« or their salt«, in wliioh protoxide of 
cobalt forma a chirf, or accessory ingredient, a small 
<inantiiy ia ftiKtl with borax on coal in R. F., niitil all the ^'attT/'** 
non-rodncible oxidea are dissolved, whiK- the others are 
redac«d in metal, and snch a« are volatile hare been volatilized. If 
oxides uf cobalt, iron, und mangam-so are present, the iron dittaolvC'S 
ma pi-otO'Bea<|ui<rside, and the manganese as colorless prutuxide, so 
that the gla«e has a mixed blue and bottle-green color, Tery easily 
iliitingni^hi'd from the grp«n produced hy iron alone in R. P., even 
if little citbiilt iä [ireäcnt 'i'hig gluiä tu 0. F. on platinum winr only 
shows Cobalt luid iron diätinotly when mangancsflis ab«enl; otherwise 
the mjinguneso becomes more highly oxidised and, coloring the glMfl 
inteuiely, conceahi the coholL 

The metuls ^paraled hy treating tlie glass in R F. may form a 
t>attoD, e.<f., when much arsenate of nickel us prccvnl, and they can 
be farther tested with borax and S. Ph. Should the amount of 



Dicket be 8(i Braiill iui lu givi? no wrtiun ivsulr in ilii,-. war, iinnthcr 
metliod must be finploytd, as will he gi)€ciBl!)' dMcrib^d under nickd. 

}. Blowpipe lAarnetM'ixlicit of the minerah mniaininff cobalt indicated. 


3maUite iisiinlly vields in tlie closed tube mctit1]ic araenic. CaiVj- 
fülljr lieuttd in the ojwii tube uii abiiiidunt crv^ialliiif Hulilimate of 
acinous acid is oliUiiaed, and samtrtinice sutiiliimmä m-id. lu 
]iow(U>r it ia converted into l)ii«io aKvealc uf colalu It ftts«4 on 
coal, Willi t'vnliiLion uf arsenit! fumes Id a grayii^h-liliiL'k, niii^nplk', 
metallic biiilori, nliicli is brittle, and with bi>rn.K, \x i'iS. ln-hiLves 
like Aneiiide of cobiJt oontuining a little iron uud nickel. 

Skuitorudite givoa a strong snblimHl:« uf arMnio in tlieclo»c<l tnbe, 
otherwi^K like siiiakil«. 

WimHulhkubalttTi iu the closed ttibe yirlds nietÄllic iirsftüc; in 
Uic u[it-ii tnbf a Bubliniat« uf urscnous nuid, tiiid vith lttmiiS')iapor 
shows stiljihiifius ucid. Ou cval niwttr*, yield« mnch arecnii:, aod 
forme tt bisinntli cfmr. Uy treating (he reniuinitig nms« with bonix, 
p. 238, and the button whidi the« «.■]mrat<'s, »I'tc-r frfcing it from 
aobolt« villi S. Ph., iron, cobalt, copper, und niL'kcl can be di-U-ctcd. 


CobalUte (glance ccMt) yield» in the closed tul« only « rerr iitUe 
arsenoiis acid fonnvd liy i\\e air in the tnlic. In llu* cip«-n ttilw at a 
rL-d-hf.-at it yields arscnons itciil and snlphiirous acid. On coal it 
jrieldfl »iilphur und arsenic and fits^ to n button, irliich rcacU with 
boms like arsenide of cobalt containing ii-on. By tri^ating il fiirlber 
with borax, p. 238, adding gold to incrpasp it« »ohinii-, any nick?) 
present may he detected. 

Qtaucodoi loses iU lustre iu llie closed tuW; othenriso like cubolt- 
it« in the closed and open tubes- 

It fuses quietly on coal in the R. F., yielding enlphnr and nrwoio 
to a button, wl^ich on cooling has a black, rough surface, but u ßne- 
gTaint.'d, 8pi;i*»-Iike fniclniv, and \s «lightly maynt-tic. 

Thia button, tfaK'd with berat according to p. 3US, first shows a 
strong iron reuciion ; with fiväh borax only ]uire snialt-blup, and if 
llnally gold Js luldcd to inirease the volume of the little buttoti 
romaiiiiiig, und tile trcutnu-Til with hfiviw enutioued, the hist Inic^'« 
of the metallic arM>nide9 oxidize and *how a feeble nickel reaction. 

CobiiiUc artonoptfriie {danaile), vide p- '227. 




SyepoorHf^-'XhQ Wowpiiw cliarucioristiM of the natunl miainil 
are not known. Tli« wiJflciiil ;ii?IOB eutphuroug acid in liie upou 
(nlif : Dotliing in tW l-Ihmc]. On ciml it fuACs In a glnlmle, wliicli 
t\fa un«r loii^ trealQunt with lli« It F. titill ehowa a briglil (^iirtuce 
OD cooling, and i8 rrnignctic. Th« roftstod pow<ler ehows pure cobalt 
reurtion.'i «'iüi t1it> flnxea. 

Liniittllc From Si^gru jriclds u sllgliL sulphur sultUniute inttiii* 
rlosod tube : and much sntphiirona acid in the open tube, witli a rcrjc 
little nnonotiB sriiU If astA in powder it h^-conn^B bUok on c-i^ling. 
On cual, xraalt lVa;iin*mta of crjatiil rimu in the R. P% with «onie 
»■Toliiiion of eulpiinr. to a plobiile. wbicli ran be kept flnid rors.'in(! 
timu nitti the «tirfuco irvM I'mm uxitli-. iind furiiiR nu cuut. Wht-ti 
cold it is covered wKli k b1u<.-k, rough oxido ßlni, pmlmbly niiigni>(to 
ii\ide iir inm, And liuDi the whtd« glolmle and fhiginents fiiv fitim 
oxidv follow the mugiipl. 

The roMltil i>owdcr afTords ivactions for col>»)t, iron, and nickel. 
Jyrfdncinj- some of ib<- i-oäisu-d powdor witli iicntpul omilmc of 

>lu«a, a nia^u-ltr. niftitllic ]HiW(lor \i otiLiini'd. (Iliid the. niotaU 

pn conihine<l partly or ent!rY;]T with nracnic, the- rousting would 
'have formell haoic anwnateB, und by reduction globales of tnctutUo 
ar3truidt;8 would be produced.) 

Vafroliite hchares like nicculift'i'oiis linnieile, btit tbc roiuttcd 
miu«rj| also ifacls for copper with ilic (lux(.-8. (Dann.) 


TüktTodUe yieldii in tbc cluR-d tube n »nblimnto of Holcnium. 
On oo«l, CTolvi's the od<ir of »eleninm, ci.iit? the o<nil wilh i»cli?nioni 
and oxide of lead and tin]^ the llniue itxiirc-blut\ Th« assay 
deer»-«!'-; in lolumc, williout ftieing iM-rfpctly, »iid Iti^avt-e finally an 
aiiaItf;nilil«;Ecoriii, which givi-a iron and t'obull r(.-uc'lion8 tvilh hi>rujc. 

coMpur^DS UP tituTo:tit>u op cobalt WITir ACIt>&. 

Bieherita yields ia tFie mntnua water and on continncd lieatlng 
eulphnroiis acid. With th<- fliiTOS it rracta like oxide of cobalt. The 
la^noeiii (-HU only be fonnd by dissolving the salt iii water und th?n 
rpiLrutuig the biLics nccurding to p. 156. 
Brylhrilt yield» in the matrass only water. The red crystals front 
Bhrirfbrfg ^low.uiidna cooling are dark, dirty violet, (At a higher 
givc^ off arüenons ncid mid become» gnij or black. Danu.) 



242 .plattxer's blowpipe ASALTSIS. 

B. B. in the forceps tlio crrstalsfttse and color the flame light blae. 
On coal it evolves arsenical fiimes and fases in R. F. to a blackish- 
grar globule of arsenide of coIkiIIt which with the floxes reacts only 
for cobitlt. 

Earthy cobalt Uocm xields in the matrass water and aisenoos aind. 
On ciml nnd with fluxes, like errthrite. 

LatriuliiJiiH yields only water. The assay be«>mes lamellar and is 
hluish-gniy whe» ot^UI. In the forceps fases eaälj and colon the 
flamo light hhie. T1k> fus(,<d assay crystallizes with large laoes on 
CiHtling. like )flu>s)tharo of lead. The ciyscals ai« g>:nerally black 
and oj»3ii«e,l»«t wmo hate a dark hyac:D:h-red color. Go omI in 
K. K. il fiisii>$ aavl Avms :o be rvdnevd. while a sitvd^ arsenical iA-ar 
is ]MMwiMiMe. Wi;}t ;he äuses. shows c^bal:. ciokeL acd copper, p. t3i. 

f. Kx/fmrntiijim '1^ iVäis^i im ««^^■.;.V«r\ri'ai> r*W«ia. 

Tlie meih.v .-f revvv«Ri;t.i: may bt.itc^iiSrc ^.'=i -in tumiaMSäam 
for iwn 5» jrr-T!<«ü. p. tM. *ec :a «« of pjvci-.'ca. s. HL 

&. XlCEEl. XC 

Xi,-4;^1 .vox-s xfiifT i-4:«z: Ä-iilrvc* i= 'ti-i 5:3: wir » T ^~hif z 
r~. K:aT.'TLTi^ w~.:i ."^i-fc v^aif ii 

rr L ';::"■; Fi. Ai. i:i I:ssfat."jii.T<?i r&JfSih. 
Me*-".'!-': ■.".■•!_. -•'«' "~:2. 

>. i.-orriT-^i ■w.r: t- y y -^- rt 
Xw."'— / -n/ni^ 1 -i^r. — Xv Ai.'rr!! 4-*.J X^. :i*s;;>iiai rr-^trnir 
J. • -'.ti S -^ Tu r"^» Oi- ?:. UTi. ■> ; 

\ ■.■'.V "—•71 .\,';TI^ T" !•■£ 1 ~- ' T :: T;!.- 11. ".t~». r-.Tl J.i.r-1_ 

~ ..■■»■.- ?■—■■■:■■-.■*. 7-- .-a ■■ :■■■-:.: y ">•: .~ ■':■■-: :■ ■:> : cün ■ 
T»^— ' 1.,— r s. 'iT ^- i.iii ; v.l.: : ~- i.~ i>['n.'.~:'~ 
^iiirTr, tj-x ~~ - !.■!■: I'ii.i^j.-- — N -_? t ;~*}'. Li^n^ i "nn-; 

.v-'^jt 1-1- «I!- : >Ä;'t:. :a."r-; ii 
./at *~>^. ~; ~ in ":;■; ; %-a«ijO'r r>- 7jii:i.;.i ^ .i^t :-ir _ viii^'ü 

NICK Kr.. 


e. VTith aattm»nff, nrstnie, iind »ulpkur in 
Cnimannih-,— Ni S'-h\i Sb, with 27.6 Ni, and «omctiniM it little Col 

and Fe ; Aa ia often pn-sent ; 
Corj-nite,— Ni S' + Ni (As, .Sb), with «bout 3» per cent Nl ; 
Geräilorffltoandatnoibiw, iippixiximntply \'i 8*-f Ni As, wir.h 30to35.2 

Ni, Bomclimts partly rojilmvil by Co and Fe; 
Antimon-ArMnmUitxlglant is a variety of ullinaunite with tli«-j 

formaU Ni S'+Ni {Sb. As), contuniDg 2^2 to 39.4 Ni; 
WinmvikkobaHm, with littlo Ni, tiiVe cobalt. 

d. Combined wiib sulphur in 
Millcritc,— ^'i, with 6-1.4 Ni; 
Qrünauit« {hiemuth nicktl), from th« Grftnau mine, uoar Schiite- 

bacb, consists according t> Schnabel of 33.5 S. 10.4 Bi, 22.4 Ni, 

IIJS Co, 11.5 Cii,5.7 Fe, and 4.3 to S.l I'b; 
Penltundit«. — Ki4-2 Fe with 'iX.i Ni, butsi-ldom fhw rrotn diesem* 

iontcd chaloopyrite ; 
Tiinnmite, vitie roWlL 

«.Id the oxidized niaU in 
Bnßseitite, — ?Ji from Johann-0eorgi?n8tadt,«fcnnipanied by bismntli 

and nnnnbcTgitr, iind containing 78.3 Ni; 

f. Cumbiiii.-d Willi iTCit/i»." 

a. \W\Xh atrbonic arid \xi 
Zanitit* {emerald mckrl),—{tl t-\-\ il}+2 .\'i ft, with 4R/, iJi. 

0. With tvlpAurit: acid in 
Moreno«ite inicket w/rw/),— Sli S + 7 fi. 

•jr. With anienic acid in 
Ancoate of nickel (iinhydrotis). from Johann- Geo rf;fDi;taJt. Ac- 

cording to Bergmann, the yellow variety \s tiV Äs, with 58.5 

Ni; tJie green variety Äi' A'*, with Ni ; both contain a 
liUle Co, Ca, and ITi ; 

Annaberglte (nieifi oehre], — ^i' ^s -v 8 ß, with 29 3 Ni, aometlmei 
a little Co. fe, andS; 

G«bnritc— (l^i, Co. iig)' Si + 8 C, ^i = 20 per cent. (Duna); 
lATeodaUn, vid« oobiklt. It contains only a little Ni. 

4. With «t7iW<! acid in 
Bdttifitft ll-in,— ffi Si -f- 4 ft (Winkler), with n little Cu, Co, Ve, 

\ and Xs. According to Dana {x^rhAps the same as 

iekei (itftnttife) HI, l,-(Wg. fli)' Si* + ß If, uontaining 
e f'eand Ca; 



Pitni'lite.- i (äl. Pc) Ri + 3 (Hf . Hi) Si 4- 10 A, villi aearly 3 |>ei 

ocnt. Si; O 

A)ipite,~(fig. Si)' Si' + a n ; 
L'ui%anto.--(4 Ü + I ?ii) Si + I n (Dan»). 

Small <|Uuutitics or uickvl afv »Uo found in 
('hry:tolitt> and »livinp, n'ile nia^ne«ta; 
HetforitfK, i'idg iron ; 
Chrj-flopnwe, riile ijuartz aiiil eÜiCic atM. 

Sereral metallurgical producU contain nickel, wlien obtAinod from 
niccottlenitts ore«. It is usnnllr iN>n«cntratvi] in oombination tritb 
nmi-nic »od arsenides of cobalt and intn, either iii the enlpbid*? oni* 
{Hiiiiiils, fmatta, rrgnlns) «ibloincd I'mnt «titL-Uiiig cortuin silrrr, K-ad, 
und Copper oree, «od then forms onlj an admixiure, viae iron, p 231 ; 
ur it KKttles in coinbiiuttion with iir>^etiic und otbor anfnid«.»». as treW 
«a wilb mt'tuJlic milphidcs. &■■> u »p«t-iul product, riz.. upt-iM, lend 
speiss, i'ide cobalt, p. ili7. It funtier lorois the cbief iiigmiicnt of 
the ?ptis9 obtutacd b; smvltin;: cobaltifcrottd nickirl ore«, to conccn- 
trat« the arseaidi» of cotmlt and nick<:-l in the ores, ae> well m of 
tvtlnid spei»ä and cobalt »poies, p. 237. Occasionatlv uIko it Conm an 
accL-i<j5(>rv ingriMlicnt of black cupper, obtained in the large waVt 
and of certain iU^ 

BxunI Batten for Niek*l, 

[ficlHding (k« blOKpip« eharaeturiMUea of th« rain»raU abov$ 

meni limed. 

a. Otntral txaminalion for nxck*U 

Nickel can be dcbccled with certainty and comparative eft3i>, arm 
vlu'ii ill vary trifling qua^utiliea. For ju reactiona with tbv flnsec, 

PtW»! p. 10«. 

Fusible alloy» contaiuing nickd arc mclt«j for mmt tinw with 
borax on coal in R. F. and the glass tested on platiniun wire 
in 0. K.. viiie p. 222; notiw Iteing also HiVvn of any coat 
fnnnt'd on the coal. ThL> rcmmnin^ metallic button if again tMtcd 
with horat in K. F., bo iisccrtuiu wlielbtr the glass still takca iip any 
oxides of tbc noti-reducibic mctalK. or wbvthiT it remains culorlcsa. 
Ir the Iatt«p ni»e the Imtto» is tivatvd »ith S. Ph. in 0. F-, to dia- 
oorer whether only the uiokel coloration rt^^nhs. or whether copper 
ts likcwiac present, in which case a green, or Tvllowiith-gn-cn iilase is 
fonned, wbicli remaina given on cooling, and with tin on ood. 
K-coniee opuqite and reiL Should antiuiony or bismuth, Iiuwcvcr, be 

eXUIIXATIOS' F<iit NI<.-|£EL. 


^pTtsenU tbe glass bead becomee blick un cooling uud tlia cti)>)H:i 
rvsolion is tltitfi eoiiccak'd. It U tlitMi iiplvh^fv to eiupluy a qvv 
piece, and brf»rc nsing tliw fltisi-!!. to Irejit it. alon? on ooal in R. K, 
until it f«uu!8 to jivH uujrchiiig rolatil«. 

Vfhen Mie alloy is iufiuible and (*on6ii:ts eäpi:ciiillv of iron. tUe 

process indiaited for niilive imn ma.y he followod. p. 226; Init wlieii 

it »eeiu« tu coDsiat ctiii^äv of nii-M aud cuUilt. tliesv nin)- I« oon- 

^Tirteil ioto aru'tiidc^ as desch)}ed on p 'iSS. for tesiiog n»:talUc 

Qtckcl for cobalt * 

CuMiKiuudfi of nickol with arsfuic iind arsenides, or 
entphirleg. irliirli nonx^tinies coalainarM-nidt-». art< Ireutt^l «adT^il-bMU. 
just lik» Ifac oorrväpundiug cobalt comifoundo, p i3S, and 

p tfsy. 

In nmtaliic oxkle:« and their salts, the nickel, if not in too aniull 
qnaottty, can lie funiid bj the niclhtKl given for üit* cor- 
ding cobalt ooDipoundi», p 23Ü. Imt. (» very irißinc ""Üa'^u** 
Faiauunt cuuiiot niiraya Itc thus dtu-ctod with c-t-rtaintr. 
It is tlifu safer to pnjcuud as fullun.«. Su[i[ii>!ie it ii; di-üiivd to tvsl a 
cumbinattou of uxidc« of cohalt-, manganffte. and initi for a trilling 
luiiutiiit of osiilc of nickvl ; a «ufliriiiit quiitiuty ähonld be ili^tsoUtil 
ill bomx on piatiiuim wire in 0- K. the vci7 durk, or quite oi>a<|ne 
bend fetiakeii off, and ivnt ur Ibrae snch beads jiTvpun-d. Thf«o are 
U¥at«d in a cavitj on cuhI, or in a ooal cruciltle. wiUi a puru guld 
buttuu of liflj to «iglity niilligr. wci'ilit, iuaeivin^, «cuve K. F., 
mitil it 13 certain that all of the niokol is reduced from tlie bt-ad and 
collected iu tlie gold button, wbicfa Iihji Xteva brought into cuoiact 
«ritli every portion of thi- fluid glass b_v t-ari' fully turning the ciuil, 
When (lie button has sulidtfi»! it is liflnl from llie g1<iäs and IWud 
Crom auy adherent ghw» l>ctwwn ptiper on tlw anvil. A trilling 
amount of nickel sullii<e8 lu n-ndrr thu buttou mnru or Uvs gniy and 
harder uiidi-r tlio hainmtT tlian pure gold. If ihe lx)rHi:-gla8a waa 
not suptTHiturated with oxide«, hü tbut uonu of the fnlnalt could h« 
i\-dnr<-d. the gold buttou trv-atud for some time in O. F. on coal with 
ij. Ph. will impure t« thi* only tbi^ nickel color ; reddish to brownish- 
red while liot. and yellow to n-ddisb-yellow aftir eontiiig, iir-roi-ding 
to the nuiouut dissolved. If, howvver, cobalt bud hi-en ii-duced. it 
will nxidiz« sooner than the nickel, and either produce a hlittr cobalt 
Lb«ad only, or a heail which will tw d:irk-viii|i-t. when hot iind dirljr 
^grerii ÜU cooling, if »onif: nickel hn\ been oxidized, I» citliet' V4i«e 
llic button, tnvd from glues, ie trMted with frvi>h K I'h. in U. i'\ 
until the hot glass seeni» ndnred, when, if the original borax IkuuU 
had nut been luo higbly t^UIH-^satu rated, the gla^ wilt show unljT tbu 



nickel culoratioii; if tbt- metallic oxides vcre, faowcTer» free frum 
Dicket, the gli^a will be colorless. 

Whon the oxides or salts contutn other ooloriDg oxides which nra 
likewiHP redut-eü in llu* itti-tallic state from ihe bor.« ht^atls, as oxides 
of copper, the gold liattun will cootala both nickil and copper, aud, 
nrccr being ftced ttora any crifliog uniuunt of cob«lt. hy nii-iins of S. 
Ph., will yit'ld with a Trt-sh {lort iuu of Lliat ealt a gl^i; whivb is green 
while hot, even if iht- copiu-r prectominalt^s cuiisidcrubly. und reuutias 
green on couliii^ but trvj^u-d vriUi tia bccomi-fi red (uid u[iiiiquc. If 
the assay was perfectly frw from nickel the hot S. Ph. bead will, 
indeed, be gi^iif but it. lieuonieit blue on cooling.* 

h. Behavuir of the abovt-mtnlwnod »iceiüfvfout mintral* bvfort tha 



MeloQit«, itidg nnder t«l!i)riiim. 

Breiihauptits in the open tube evolrca copion« antimonial ftinies^ 
without fusinft ; the assay is grayieh-giveii on oooliiig. It fuiH-a ou 
(M»l ill R. F., and afu-r iho blnitt i» siopjH'd coiilinno« to emit fiiniL'd 
[for a short time, like nntimony. but withnnt becoming cuveretl with 
oxide of antimony. On renewing the blaät a coat uf oxide of null- 
niony ie formwl, near which a yoUow lend coat may be (Mvidoocd 
by dis»}mitisit.>d galcnu. Slioitld the mißi>ral atone give no uriienio 
odor, thie hecomes pi-rc«ptil>h! on »tiding sodii, and the »oda will alM 
afford a enlphur reacLio» in csjti; the asäav nas not quite frun fn>m 
galena. The ghsu oUtained with homx on (.loiil io R. F. 8h'>W!i only 
iron. Olid a1^ when this gims isaft>TWard rrenled on platinum win; 
in 0. ]^. only an iron coloration is produced, bnt by treating the 
remaining b&tton with fivsh borax to 0. P, th« nickel reaction ia 
obtai n«d. 

Jfiavh'ie, /«« from antimenx/. yields a rery littV arseiions acii^ in 
the closed lube, bnt in the opon tnh« it yii-dds areenoii« acid abnn- 
dantly and eomvtinies aulphiirous acid; the a«»y becomt-s \-oIlowiiili- 
gpeen and crumbU-B t*i powder. On eoal it yield? arstnical f.imea 
and fuses to k bntton, which treated a short time with b.-r«T =h .wi 
cobalt and iron, and these are very distinctly seen wbeu 1 1 
remelled on platinum wiiv in 0. F. A fccAile '■ ' '''■■-""" '-"^- 

* A pild linrioTi mnlainm^ tikkvi on 
tSIOiml or K«l lc«il, cilpdl-J)K Lt I 

n sotnetimca formed aod the reinaiuüig button sboirs Dickd rc- 

The bluwpipe chiiniottiristias of tbe aatiirumial uicfiolUt fVoni 
Alleinout and ßalcn are not known, but the vsrlotia cooaUturata 
mil^bt be Ibuiid as in bn-itbanplik-, while the miticnil prgbablv alt« 
fihuH'd » bubavior HJmibir tu (hut of ulluiiuinit« be]<^w. 

Tombatiif \\p\mtvi liki* niccolite contiuning a little Co and Fe. 

Hammrlsbcryiit nnA cblmnthtt« bcbavf like ii ict'olitv, but yield 
mi-tullic ursout« in tho closed lube ; the re&iduo tlieu corre9|k>nde to 
aiccoliu>. With tbe Quxl-h u tittle cobalt and iron c»ii ^••ncrall}' ulso 
be detoott-d. while n trifling bisniutb ouat U occattiouanj formal. 

üUmattHile {niccoUferous gray anliiaoiijt) vlcbls a trifling M-liile 
aublimal^ in the closed tube, and in tbv o)i>'u tube copious unliniv 
Dial funic« and )iul|>huruii« noid. Uii cual in It. F. rii»«.'» tu a globtilu 
kud vtoIt» (uitimuniol fnai««, which |iartl/ coat tbc cual. Some- 
tin]«6 arsenic rl■pla<^ee part of the antimony and may be dcteclvd by 
its otlur, which is mosl jHTui^pcibla wbuu lbi> astw-y is fitsMl iq 0. F. 
with t««t leiul, ride arK-nic- 

Willi the fluxtrfl, iron, cobalt, aud uickel »re det««tcd as described 
Qudcr niccolite. 

Grrvilorßfe {niehl iflnnCf) tWrcpitaU-3 in the closed tube and 
yields a yelliiwiBh-browu Kublimate of «ulpliidc of ai'^cuic lu the 
opcu tulw arseiious utid sulphumtie acids. On c-o«l yields tiul|>buruu8 
stnd arscnioat fnmi-a and fuses to a filobuli.', which gives with the 
fluxes iron, cuball, und nickel reactions, vhk niecolite. 

Amoibifv rcacU prubobly like the aborc, while ullmiumilCt when 
containing arsenic aa well aa antimony, as iu Antimon- Ar teHHtcktl- 
yUtut, gives the n^octiona of both uUinnnnite and gcnidorffltc. 

Milltrit« yields sulphurous acid iu tbe oiieii tube. Ou coal fiisä« 
ntbcr easily io a globule which spirts strongly and diminishes some« 
what in Totuiiie. but iviuuius tluiU. ICoatted and then trwitvd with 
a good H. F^ it yields a oohcreDt, Buuiewbut nialU'«bU-. uu-tallie. and 
magnetic mmi. WelWroasted milierite gives tbe nickel reaction« 
«itli tbe Btix<;ft, but frequenÜy n lilUe iron and copper can be dc- 

GrQjitiuitg ID the oiwn tube yields sulphurous acid and a slight 
yellowish-wliite cuac, apparently of sulphate of bismuth, which set- 
Üee near the assay. On coal it cTolven suljrbiiruu« acid and fu8«s to 
i grav button, which afterward aCTurds a yullow coat of oxide of^ 
biiiniuth aud a white coat of the. «ulphatc. Tlie residue powdered, 
roasted, und treated with the Ouxch, bIiows uickel chii-tly. with von- 
flidi-niblv iiuautities i>f cobalt, copper, aud iron. Leud cannot be 

24S ?iArr>"za'-? 3-.-t?:?s ASiiT-jß. 

:'uuatl m :!.- iry »ij il'-oc. .a jt-.-^'iat .f TJ.ii a*;c T3Ja.p]rsiÄ 

:us».'* -t> * ^■.•-.-■a.e. !:i~ir a _-;;!. tüü. ■n.-'-.i. ■■■ ±a»;i:aÄi K.:ft«ed 
juij ■■.-?;T'i »'ii :«jra^. si-.-ri .-üed- a,i;jt:i jnii it'jii. Tjä. a iitcie 

,' ■ -■ xi - ■ - ; ■:t .■■ :: : ■: » .: .'■ r. :. ii^:t::js= ai<l u-snmifti 
:. '..-..■ ..: — . .... L... _ -J v-:„ r-=ii 


.- . 7..V 





c. ExamifuUion /or niektl xn nutaUurgieal prodads. 

The method of esnmitiiiig product« fur nickeil Ime bocu givuu 
portly uudor the geoeral examinatiou for iron, p^ 232, and partly 
ander the ilvecxiptiun of prodncu coDlaiuiDg iivu, \h ti4t4. 

6, ZiKC, Zn. 

lU occuiretu» in He vtincral kingdom and in metaüurytcid 


Zinc Dcctirs in nature ander the fullowing coadiLiona: 
a. Mttallic, itA 
Natir« zino. Zu with oom« Fc und Cd. It hos heretofor« bc«u f&tiad 
only ill Aiifitmliiin biuiilt aud gnld sanda. 
h. Cunibui^d with sulphnr \n 
Sphftlerito {cine blende), yellow, green, red, brown, and LUick, vtry 
ran-Iy onlorke«. TU« prinal, wilurk-a* vuriet y is Zn. witb Cfl.O 
Zn. The colored varieties contain mwreork-ss sulpUidc-of iroo; 
tbe black ieb-bniirn variety, from varions localities, is Fe -(- 4 Zn* 
vith &4.5 Zn ; marina/Ue. or black blcudc, it Fc f 3 Zn. with 
fil.5 Za; chri»to}thiie in Fu -f- 2 Zii, with 40.1 Zu. A fri.-<jticut 
couätituent of sphalerite is (M; Hn occasionally occurs, jmr- 
ticnUrly in the hini-k variety, which not inifi'oqiipiilly contuiiig 
tin ; liiially, itphuluritu (the blacki«h-lirott-u ur bruwu variety) 
«eenis. Üirb far, to be the mlnei-at in which indium especially 
Leberöiende, Zn mixed with organic aubstaiioe«. 
Wnrtxite,— Zn. liku sphalerite in oomiiosition. 
ZincfJthlors {^KupfrrUftide), vide on|ii>tr. 

A little 2inc uleo occurs in curtain galenas, vi^., trom Przibratu, 
ootitainiug 'i to 3.d p«r cent. Zn, vid» I«m1 ; in jamesonite, vide lead; 
in slannit«. i*idf tin, and in ti-trahi-dritr, nV/r topptr. 

c> In a »)Uibinution of tul/i/iidf ^>'ilh oxide. 
Voltsite.— !!a + 1 Zn. with 69.3 Zo, but containing a little Fe. 

d. A» nxide in 

Zincite, — Zn, with ft0.i Zn; generally mixed witb mtu« or lesa JQa, 
hmnklinitf-, or niagni'tit«. 

e. As oride coaibiiK-d with otbur metalUe oxides in 
Frankliuite. fide niungnuedtf. 



/. Comhiüvd vith tutphitric add m 
Goalarilc {tiae vitriol).— tu S + 7 Ü. vitli 22.0 Zn, bnt oflcn oon- 

taiiiiiig oxiiles of M.a, Fe, uud Cu, villi eurtliy muttv-r^, u üa- 

ZiocositP, iK-rtui]is 2d S; 
Olockerilu, n't/« irun. 

g. Combined nrith carbonic acid m 
Smithsouiu-, — Zu C, with 5'i Zu, but id most rurietics som« Zn ii 

rtpinced ijj other oxides uud by e*iili», viz., t\ Mn, Od, Cn, Pb, 

Ü«, niid Sig, so tbiit th« tn mny eiok to 10 per ctnt,; maoy 

vanetiv« also contain iatennixed caliunine. 
l]ydntr.\ac\tM {tincbhom), — 2a C + :i 2n ß, willi ^7.1 Zn; 
AuricliiUcite {buratiie).--Zü' C + 3 Ü) + (Cu' C + Ü), with 35A 

Zq auil 33.2 Cu. Buratite oontaiiis a III tlo Ca ; 
IgUsiaäit« (Zincilei9paUt),—tn C + 6 t>b C, with 3.7 Zq and 71JR 

A. Cumbinvd with arxenir. acid in 

Küttigite from Schnt-eburg, — ta' Xs+B Ü, wiib part of the 2q 
njplaoi'd by Oo {6.9 jK-r cent) und ^i {i per ceuL). 

JAmi7f,-2ii' Xs + 2n H (I>ana). 

i', Wilb »iliric acid in 
Willem it« HI, lO.— Äa' Si, with T2.9 ^n, but often contaiiiing a lit- 
tle till, V!«, Ca, and Mg; 
Troostitp Il-in,— willetnite witb purl of the 2» repkoM by Sin, Te^ 

and llg ; 
Ciiliuiiiiie {hifdrout niUeale of «nc) II-UI, UJ, — 2n' Si + 0, witli 
G7.5 2n. bnt aomelimes contiünia^ a HlUu I'b. 
Oxid« of litic atsu fomij a iriOiug ingredient la 
JeffcraonitP, vide lime. 

^ Combined with alumina in 
Gibnitc (autoMolite) UI,— (2n, Slg, Pe) X\, with 10.-1 to $7.9 Zi 

alliod tu It are 
Kwillouil« III,~(Än. t>, Äg, An) + (Xl, Itc), contaicinjSlJ 

_tV. Sfii) + (AI. lie), with 33.4 gn. 

Jlurcricol dm^^^^^^^^^^^^H 



Th« fii^t portions ilüLilleil from caJmift-roiu ores are particnlarlj 
rich in ciulmium. 

A. Combined witb sulphur in varions product« confiisting of 
metallic eulpbidcs, viz., Iiohwtein,\ead and copper malta, cadmia from 
til« JlohiJ/eii ami lead funiaoes, wli«n these prodacta n-sult from 
BiJver, l«a(l oroop[K-r or-« eoiiLaiiiitig bkadu. 

i:. Ad oxidf, which colWu at the commenocmeitc of the xiitc 
distilktioo in the coiidcDsers, loguther willi metallic zinc, as ufll aa 
dariitg tlie fuKhor prugrras uf the opcrutiou; ihc first portious are 
usiuilljr vvrv rich in cadmium; Lhe oxide also is Touud iu Lhu ala^ 
and Due i-akingä produced by smelting rou^ttxl silver ore« contaiuitig 
blende in GhaJt and reverberator; Airnaoes. 

Her« 13 included also the cjidmia (OichtaucktoatntH) oT the iron 
bUet-rumticoB, which aoiuetimea coueiRta of pure metal liurtl oxide 
of sine, but rreqiu-ntly forms only a ooiai>a«c inaas (^ oxitlea of zinc 
uiid irou mixed with earthy {Ktrtictea. Finally th» Roho/ttiblum» 
muEt he meutioned, which oollects as a irhite coat on ih>- bn-ust of 
the Hohofeit and consiater whi-ii on» conUiiuiiig hlcadi.' are emi^lLed, 
cbieflj- of oxide of sine, but is otUa mixed witii aulpbat« aud 
csrbouata of lend and with the acids of antimoajr. 

BxaauaaUMt for Zino, 

Xnduding the hhwpipe eharacterittic« of the mineral* mmitmtd 


a. Otneral txaminaiion/or zinc. 

Th< examiantioQ for zino is v«ry eimplc, as the metal is volatile, 
while its oxide is fixed in the 0. F., aud Is wry ccnain la case the 
ntbstance coutains much zinc, or if containing little eidc is lV«e 
ftoni olht^T mülula or oxides, which are reduced on cuul und form a 
«at. When, however, a Ttiy small amount of zinc is preseut with 
mueh lead, autimony, or bismuth, for example, it cwnnot nlwa^vs be 
oertaiuljr detected hy (lie btuivpipe. 

i^ibf^liinres conliiiiiiiiir much zinr. eilherasGulphidv 
or o:ii*kv are Ir^'att-d aIi>ik-, but Ihosö containing only «iid.»,«M, 
a little may he puwdered aud ftised with sufflcient 
soda on coal in II. F.; generally, howercr, the latter will also afford 
a distinct xinc cout with ii good Jt. P. ulouu When the substance ia 
a combination of metallic i>xides, or contains pöB«iblT »otno earths in 
ailditioQ, a mixture of two parts of »oda willi one to one-aiid-H-balf 
uf burvx is employed. The tine is Ihits volatilixed as metal, but 

pLAttva»'» BLoirprpB ahaltsu. 

ini nit-ilmt«lv oxidize:« a^uia Aiid deport« on tlie coul ii ciMt, irhicli iä 
jellon' vrbik- lint aod white when pt^rrcctly cold. Tliia cout is espc- 
ciallj cliuruclcrJuM by Uie given CKiktr whicb it aesumes when 
moisl^ued with voUiIt soliition, und ignit«d in 0. T., p. 111.* If 
tbi; substance coulttius mticti leudi llic xiuc coat. mIiIiuu^Ii ii<ft du fur 
lVy>m the M««y &e th« k-ad coal, is ueiudlrwudcrc-d impun: by oxid« 
of k-ud. Oh inuiati'niiig tiui>li ii cout with colialt suiiitiuti &iid vuri*- 
rully igiiiung it in 0. F., the oaidc vf kud i» rodiKvd l>y the glowing 
cuiU Kud TuldtitisL-s, louring the osidc of ziiic* which umsuhk« a givva 
color on cooling. Sliocid the zinc cout be eo thin that it is liablo to 
be blon'u awity uficr being lUuifctviKil with cubuli ^olutiun,« dt^^i»ivu 
I'CMuIt muy nut ulnavs be ubtjiincd, and it is then IwUer lu mutsiva 
the ojii\ whcr« Die xinc coui gvoeiully lurine with the solution lic-fuK 
trc-uticg tbu stibttaDC« witb ikc Hume. A &iugk' drop spn-ad otit 
with u filiiAs hhI tu snUicitml for dctrcliiig a little zinc. Since it is 
]iea^68iiry to tivftt the änbätuuec k>r huiuu time witli t)ie bluwjrlpe 
flaute t)iu moietcued spot it ignited »t thir taimo tiinv>, aoy oxide of 
lead ur biitmnth mi:^!-«] with the oxUI» of zinc is n-niuved, nnd th« 
depu«iu>d ziuf i*oitt uppeui'« distinctly gn-eu wbi*u euld. A timilHr 
|)ruwtu nuiy be used in ciiac of m fevblo cont aln>«dy rormrd by 
mo'istt'iiiiig the lutU-r. atid tlieu dia-ctiug the Qutiitt uul upoii ii, but 
directing the It. Y. ugiiiii upon the iis^ay oii the coal, wbei-cby moiv 
zinc is volutitixed. while tbe already luoislvnod coili i« ignited 

It uinet bo bonie in mind, however, that when tlie eabstuioe 
oontuim Httte or no zinc, but niiieb »nliniony, and the ctm\ U motst- 
eued befüiv employing the bluwpipe. u conibiniuion of cobult wiüi 
one of the adds of antimony will be fomird, which likewise Qoa a 
green OjIov und ciuutot b« driven otT with lbi> 0. F., )*. it'i. lu tiiii 
ca^e » liltk' zinc can only be found wiiJi dilUcnky \njfi>tv the 

Willi miiuy compuund^ huwfver, oa in autiniuuial iitmhtdriie, 
it is jKiiiiiibk liret to voiatilii» u«arly all of lK« antiniouv u-ith the 

* Wbtle niicriuientiiii; villi « niluuim nf sosa hIicHiw in itlniW. ilu^ trmnBlaior 
outiiiil itie ruriuiu Uc( tliat uxiil« vt tine nuuiiu^i * vurv ikci'liil pink voiw. wlicn 
Boistcnnl Willi (ufh a loluHun, wUk oxides of tin tuOen na ninlMT « lii«)!« in mIoc 
ihnn w •iiw W the vdlpw linsc of ilir talution. AlilMush nut mi <lfl>cni« *« tke cqImIi 
■olution mt, thi> iKhnnur michi mIII tir ol tome bm. Moixirnni wtiJi tlic titmo 
■olDliitti tiuignmisiumiinut * iDon mUith-funk rolur ; ■lunhu mi in<lisiinc-i yclhtw 
color, will) II »IulJc of Kd; wbilt* tillcni miJ (>l»»]>liat« ul' itiii^ui^ia |;iii- q» iln'iilcd 
ciilur. Tin «uImIiuii^» novd nilf be mvlatriivd «iiU tlic luluiiun, ami nitisi awt W 



0. F. and lo ivniorp thpoxiJvorantimonffl'oai tliocuaJ bydttvctitig 
the flame npoii it. «ft^r wjiioh tlie ziuc may be ilftocttd hy tre«i.iiig 
the ri»i(lue in the It. 1-'. ua above. W'luu lin i« pivauiit »iiiu cutiiiot 
b« rvc<igitix«d liy iKocoAt farmetl on coal, :ts its oxldo J6 tliieii miiiglc-d 
with binoKidu of ti», uUich Mean)«« a bluish-grven culor witb 
cobalt solutjuiif i>. ill. 

fr. Behavior of /Ar aborcHmiied tinciferovn mineruU hefon 
Me tiioicpipt. 

ooMroi'N-r>ä op zikc with bclpbiii. 


Spha}erii« in the cUwd tube wmotimes «iecrppHaU-e with gi-eot 
riolpiJt**, but yield» nothiftg voUtil« «nd gcncnilly rol*iii8 it< color. 
The ijriiiUnl aemiy Iwirig stronfjly lu'at«d in ttie iipca IuIil» pvnlvo 
xiiipliiirou« uckl> and if henu-d for u »iiflicit-nt time- upXK'urs yi?llijwUli 
or bruwnieh-rvd. accorditiK u it coutnius littlo or tnncJi iron. 

TrcMied alone in R. F. on coid it lirat j-ields n feeble, rcddi^li- 
lirown cü»t oT osidL' ul' ciulnniim, iirik-«» too little en^laiiam is 
prMent, but ufterwurd b ditttinct »ini: c<iitt ; it is inriistMc In O. F. 
il nioat« coniplett^ly. but iiitlit-r äl^wly, and Wxva with borax ivudily 
«hows whether much qi- liltl.- \\\'\\ is ppesent. With eodu. on coii] it 
aflbrd« sine und eudmiiim cnatx. 

Ltberhlvude yi^-'lds in the niutruM wuler and u trifling enlpliur 
eublimate; at lirat on odor of Biilphuretted hydrogen is nls» erolvtsl, 
which nHcrward changing to a bnriitodnr. It deerepi lutes violently 
and becume« moiv or lei^g black. Tlw variety ftum Coruwnll 
bfcomoB n«>arly black, but theru are Tari'fties wliich, on the coatniry, 
MSnnn a lighter color, viz., from HodimiUh. ticur Gey^-r, Saxoay. 
The mineral nfter tre»tineQt in tlu- matnms khavoü like ephiilerit«. 

Wttrtiitt B. 1*. behaves like sphalerite; 


Votttite behaves like fpholeril« oontaininji only tra«;« of iron. 


Zindt* {retl'OTt'fte n/ tine) ig inftatible. AVith bomx in 0. F. 
diaeulves cuUy and Hhovü mungunrjic- The strongly aiturutal glaM 
iKatod a short time in R. F. loses llie Diangane»; color and gcncilUly 
shows a ycllov. or bollJe green, iron color. The glius on eoal in 
11 T. affords a zine Cü«t. Treated on (wn.1 alone. Of wUh sod*, it 
aftonlü A strong sine ooul : on platiuutu Jbil a mangnneEe reaclian. 




Oo»lan'te alone in the matnus yielda vator; vjtb cbarcoal dnt^ 

klplioroDB ncid. With the fluxes behares lik« oxide uf »i»c aitd 
ff>metimi'8 «hows reflctione for manganese, iron, »nd copjter. It is 
diTompiKX-il witli «nda on coal, yielding a etroiig Kinc coiit. and 
6ul|)hi^c of eodinm, ntiicb sinks into the coal, 

8mil/i9omle in the matnu« vivHe fu.pbouic aeid and, if lu-arly five 
ttom other metallic oiide», \i yelUiir vhilc hal und v)iiu> on cooling. 
The white mast reacts with the fluxes cither for ziuc alitnc, or alau 
for iron. If coneideraUe protoxide of imti aiid mungant-se are 
present the ignited minonil t>ecoinrs qnire dark, i» magnolic and 
reacts alrongly for iron and msngunf m- a ith thi> fluxes. Cupritvroiia 
Binithsonit« imparls a lasting green tinge to the ilnme, ctcii if very 
little co]>pcr i« present ITift copper ean Iw detected rewlily with 
S. Ph. and tin. The nnignit^'d niincral dineulvm rL>a(lily with 
«flervegc<-ncä in the fluxes Alone, or with soda, on coal in U. F. it 
ia decomposed, and with a snflicicntir strong hlast mair even alTord a 
zinc Hiime. At first oaly a cadmium coat is pero>>ptible, hut after- 
ward zinc alone. 

//yi/roriiu»y< jietds water in the matraas, Ioks tta carhonic acid 
and ilicn bchAVce Hk« oxide of zinc. Alone on cual iu It. F. most 
of It is graduully vohitilii^d, Ibnniug a elrong zinv Cuut and leanng 
gpncrally n trifling looria, which, with borax, ghowa tlie iron 

Attrickalnle (iuratHe) yields water in the matraas, and (he giveo 
(with huratit« bio«) color change« to black. Oieaolvoa with eflcr- 
Yescence in tlie fluxes to a clear glass and ahows copper. 'I'lie glasi 
OQ coal with tin becomes red and opaqne on cooling, white a f««Ua 
ainc cout is oliinini-'d. With soda on coal in ß. P. a strung ziac ooat 
and a re«idti« iu which metallic copper can be detected by wtushing. 
The trifling amonot of Ca in buralitc, which ser-ms to replace aont 
2n, [or more probably rcinlta fVom intermingled calcitc, Dnna,] is 
found liy reducing the Cn and Zn on coal with soda und btimt and a 
gold or silver bntton ; most of the Zn rtnlatilisea and the glass is 
then treated according to p. 155. 

IgktiianU Aucfl in O. F. on platinum foil to a clear yellow glaas. 
With tlic flnre« it dissoWe« with pfffrveswnoe to a yellowish glase, 
oolorle«8 on cooling, which afford« a lead coat in TL F. on coal 
Alone, or with soda, on coal it Es rcdnoed with rfT^nrceccDce to 
metallic lead and forms a lead coat, with a second while coat, on» 
the assay, which assume« a grvon color «nth cobalt solation (sine). 



Jiiftiffite in Ihc matroGS yields much wat«>r. Fuses on conl in 
^. F. to IL gkil)itle, nttich \a R. F. crohes nn »re^iiical odur, coau tli« 
Coal iriih oxiile of nine, mid is bluck wticn cold. In the furcepa 
Siuva cosilT to a l>ead, ffiving a etroLg, Itgltt-bltic tlam«. Diesohct 
3argcly in tlic fliixcB, slianiugcubalt; the slrouglysuturale^ gliuson 
«onl in li. F. afforiU a xioc ooat- With imda, or ueutml oxulutf uf 
3>ulueiiji. oil cual in It. K. much xino ia reduced^ funniiig u tcry 
ctroDj; zinc coat. 

Adamite, according to Dnnu, decn>pitat«ii feebly in the cloDi-d 
'Aiibe, yields a litllu walvr. aud becuiiifS white and [Mdix-liinnna. 
Od cual ii zinc coat aud fi-e bic araenic mlor, niid in the cluacd tube 
"vitfa eoda and charcoal a ring of arsenic. Witb borax in 0. F. a 
jKHrl-yelluw bead, culorlesa on copliiig. 


Tlie hjfdron« fiUcaff, calamine yield« «■«ter and becomes miJk- 

-wliito iu tlio ninlraes. B. B. the silientes of »itio are infusible. 

^Af("oi*ding to Dana, wi7/w»i7« plowa in Ibi- forci'ps ami fiiwa wiih 

^ifficnlly to a white enwrael; the New Jersey rarietJes fnse rr»m 3Ji 

^0 4.) Thoy dissolve in borai to a clear glass, that cannot be oiade 

■«ipiiqnc by flaming; tlie rk-iirS, Pli. plriss lieoonu-a cloudy on cof>Iing; 

«ind ula-n «trungly BiiUimtvd the sliU wurni <^\txs^ show» u little 

«sejiumt^'d 9iti»i. They are not diaaoliTd by soilii alone ou coul, but 

«nvell and afford a »nC coat with difljcnlty. With two parts smln 

«nd ono l>oni<t, howevor, nil of tlie xinc is reducid and YtilntiJixi'd, 

"vbilo the silieu fusi*8 with tlie flux to a gln^s, which with bonix in 

O. F. wmptime« sliowa iron. Any lead pn-scnt will cansoanlighl 

lood coiLt behind the cout of cxid« of zinc. Silica und Ihü earths 

yresent may be foimU by treating the glnss in tlie wet way. With 

■oda and nitre a manganese reaction is occasionally obtained. 


OahnU« (avtomolUe) Is nnchanged in the matrass and forocp«. 
3v«n the tine powder dissolres with extreme difficulty iu borax and 
Su Ph^ wiibont showing iron distinctly. It only fnrmR a dark slag 
vith soda. Itnt dinsolTes readily in a mixture of equal parta of biHiax 
And K>Nh^Til•ld■ng a «itriol-gri-en ginas and a dietinct zinc coal, if the 
R. P. is strong enough. With soda and nitre gives a manganeee 

Krtitiimite buhaTes like gnlmite, but with the glass flnieadigsoWea 
with dilTicolU and ehows a notable amount of irvu. 

266 plawneb's blowpipe analysis. 

Dysluite probably dissolves somewhat more easily and showB 
a stronger iron reaction than kreittouite, but lesa ziuc. 

To dt'tect alumina and miigiiesiu the glass obtained b; treating the 
mineral witb eoda and borax is [lulverized in the steel moi'Uir and 
further treated in the wet way. 

e. Bzamination for zinc in furnace products. 

The method of testing the products above mentioned, both for 
zinc and other constituents, may he deduced partly from the general 
examination for zinc, p. 350, et seq., and partly from the remarks on 
products containing iron and zinc, p. 235. 

7. Cadmium, Cd. 

Its occurrence in the mineral kingdom and in metallurgical 

Cadmium belongs to the rarer metals and occurs: 

a. Combined with sulphur in 

Greenockit«, — Cd, with 77.6 Cd. Sulphide of cadmium occurs as 
an accessory ingredient in certain varieties of sphalerite. 

b. As oxide combined with carbonic acid in 

Smithsoniti", in wliich it forms only a minor, accidental ingredient, 
vide zinc. 
In metallurgical products cadmium occurs particularly in tha 
oxide of zinc and dust {Zinkslaub) which pass over tirst during the 
distillation of zinc from ores. 

Bxamlaatlon for Oadmium, 
Including the blowpipe characteristics of cadmiferous minerals, 
a. General examinafion for cadi/iium. 

Cadmium can only be detected aa oxide by the blowpipe, owing to 
its volatility. The snliataucc is treated for some time with the R. F. 
on coal, when the cadmium is volatilized as metal, but oxidizes aC 
once in contact witli tlie air. Tlie oxide is mustly depLisited on the 
joal and wlien ccild may be recognized by its brow» color, whicli, 
however, is only uningi^-yellow in tliiu layers, p. ö7. Wiieu there is 
very little cadmium and the coat cunnot he easily obtiiincd the 
lH»wdei-ed substance ahuiild be mixed with soda and treated a very 
short time itt II. F.; amore distinct cadmium coat is then obtttiued. 

LUAU. £07 

In bkiwing too long aomc nine ia »leu volBtilized and tls oxidu sotne- 
tim«s rcndci-s tlie cadmium emit leu diäUnot. 

A. BlowpifM ckaraeieriatics of cadmium tniiteralit. 

Grtenockilt feebly heate<I in the closed tnl* assumes » tninsieat 
wrmine-red color. In Wv: oin-n tube it jield# sii]i>luiroua acid. 
Alone iH) coul ft afTurda a distinct coitt or oxide, anil wttli soda a 
Tcrjr ftbnndant r«^ die h -brow» coat, whil« moet of the sodn etiiks into 
the Ooal. utid ctoIvvb ati udur or eiilphurcttcd bydrogco when 

Vot »phttleriU 9.r\A HmthtonUe, viiUzmc 

8. Lead, Pb. 

lU oeeurrence in /ab miiierai kingdom and m meiidlurfficai 

Lead 18 quile widely diiitribated in tmiutv ; it occtii-a: 
«. MtMlie in 

Native l«id.— Ph. 
b. Combtnird with ti^lurlum in 

Alt4ÜU-.~Pb Tf, mixed witli Ag Te and containing 60.3 Pb and 
1.3 \g; 

SjUunite, vide goM. 
e. Combined with gehnium in 

GUiisthidtIn, — Pb, S«, with 7^.3 Pb, Eomctim«! oontuining some Ag, 
or« little Co J 

TilkerodiUs— Co St* + C Pb Se, with 64.2 Pb and 3.1 Co. but not 
tiiiile Trte from Fe ; it is rc-taiiicd nndcr ciau^lhalUe by Duna; 

Zor^w {SdtnbitilcttpfW Kii^ SelenkttpfrrbUi) ; com|'<>mids of Cu' So 
and Cii S« with Pb Se in varying [iniimrtimis ; the Iwid variea 
frnm 48.4 to CJ-l ppr wnt. and the coiiimt from 4 lo 15.7; 

Lobrbachlte,— a mixture of Hg Se and Pb Sc in very Tariiible pro- 
portions with 27«) to 55.8 Pb. 
d. (VimiiiuiHl with »iilphur in 

Oaleuite {gniena), — i'b with 86.6 Pb, but frwinonily containing a lit- 
tle Ag, S'h, Po, and iln : ff/Ww-AMvi/", or compaet galena, flr»- 
qm.>ntly oontaine ^b im<l iiIbo Zn ; 

Stcinmiinnite from Pntibmm, I'b and Sh in proportions a« yet un- 
known {probably only impnro galena, ucfvrding l<i Dana) ; 

Qeocronile,— I'll' Sh; tliL* varieti-'B fn^n Pula and TiiBCiiiiy-4 Pb' 

Sb 4- 3 f'b* As. with «».& Pl>. A little Cu and Fe \s pi-cficnti 


258 plattser's blowpipe analysis. 

Kilbrickenite (geocronite, Dana), — Pb* Sb, with 70.1 Pb, bnt not 

quite free from Fe; 
Meneghinite, — Pb* tib, with 64 Pb, but some Cu seems to be mixed 

with it, anil it is not quite free from Fe ; 
Boukngerite {embrükÜe, plumhostib), — Pb' Ob, with 58.9 Pb and a 

little Fe, Cii, and Zn ; 
Dnfrenoysite,— Pb' As, with 57.1 Pb and a little Ag and Fe; bat 

the combination Pb As also occurs, with 42.6 Pb {sartorite, of 

Dana) ; 
Feather ore (heteromorphUe, referred to Jamesoniie by ßammelsberg), 

— Pb' 8b. with .50.8 Pb; almost always containing some Cn, Fe, 

Jamesonite, — Pb' Sb*. with 43.7 Pb, but part of the Pb always re- 
placed by .3 to 4 per cent Fe, while some Cu, Zn, or Bi is also 

present ; 
Plagiouite,— I'V Sb* with 40.7 Pb: 
Zinkenite, — rb ob, with .35.9 Pb and traces of Cn; 
Zumlererz, pmbably a mixture of jamesonite {feather ore), dnfrenoy- 
site, arsenopyrife and red silver ore, with 43 Pb ; 
Clayite,— (Pb G») (S, As, Sb), with 67.4 Pb and 5.6 Co ; 
Cuprophimbite,— 6ii + tb', with 64.9 Pb and lfl.5 Cu (probably a 

mixture of galenlte and chalcoctte, Dana) ; 
Alisonite,— 3 6h + I^b, with 28.9 Pb and 53.1 Cu, is mentioned 

under covelliU by Dana, who regards it as probably resulting 

from the alteration of galenite; 
Nagyagite, occurring apparently with and without antimony; the 

latter is nearly (Pb, An) (S, Te), containing 50.9 to 54.4 Pb and 

8.3 to 9.1 Au ; the former = (Pb, Au)' (S, Te, Sb)', with 60.5 to 

63.1 Pb and Ö.9 to 6.7 Au ; 
Bournonite,— Öu' Ob + 2 Pb' ob, witli 42.5 Pb and 13 Cu ; 
Kobellite, — itccordingto G. Rose, periiaps 2 I'b' Sb + 3 I'b' IJi, with 

40.1 PI), 25.2 Bi, and a little Cu and Fe ; fiir the pure mineral 

Runimelsberg gives Ph' Bi + Pb' tSb, witli 53 Pli :itu1 20 IJi; 
Aikinite (aciatlar biamti/k) from Bensof, SihiTia.— Cn' Üi + 2 Pb 

ii'i, with 3G Pb, 36.2 Bi, and 11 Cu ; 

Chiviatitc,— 4!u Hi" + 4 Pb' Bi', with 10.7 Pix C-'.-t lii, and 2.5 Cu ; 

Wölcliite {Antimonkupferglanz), vide copper; 

Freieslebeiii te, ) ■ , ■, 
T. - ■.. ^ **«ß silver. 

Brongniardite, ) 

LEAD. t 3i 

9. Combined with chhnne in 
Cotnnnite,— Pb CI, with 74.4 Pb; 
MeQdipite,~Fb CI + 3 f>b, with 85.8 Pb and Bometimes a little Ph, 

Matlockite,— Pb CI + f»b, with 83 Pb ; 
Phosgenite {corneous lead),—?\i 01 + f b C, with 73.8 Pb ; 
Percylite, according to Percy,— (Pb CI + tb) + (Cu CI + Öu) + Ü ; 
Schwartzembergite,— probably Pb (T, CI) + 2 Pb (Dana). 

/. Ab oodde in 
Haaeicot, — Pb, with 93.8 Pb, but often mixed with more or leas Ph 

C, Ca, £!e, and Si ; 
Mininm,— t*b Pb ; 

Plattnerite, — Pb, with 86.6 Pb and occasionally traces of SI 
g. Combined with adds. 

a. With sulphuric acid in 
Anglesite, — Pb S, with 68.3 Pb, bnt always containing some fl and 

occasionally !^ and £tn ; 
iinarite,— Pb H + Cn fi, with 51.7 Pb and 15.7 Cu ; 
<;aledonite,— according to von Kobell,— 3 Pb Ö + 2 Pb C + Cu Ö, 

with 63.5 Pb and 5.8 Cn ; 
Xanarkite,— Pb K + Pb C, with 72.5 Pb ; 
Xeadhillite and eusannite,— Pb S + 3 Pb 0, with 75 Pb ; 
^lAmprophanite, — Ö, Pb, Mn, Slg, Ca (S^a, K), fl, (Dana). 
ß. With phosphoric acid in 

^•yromorphite,— 3 Pb' P + Pb CI, with 76.2 Pb; occasiunally some 
Pis replaced by As, part of the Pb by Oa, esi>ecially in the 
brown \anei\eB polysphwrite and miesite&wH in nussierife, while 
Bome Pb CI is replaced by Ca F, so that the amount of lead is 
diminished ; 

Rnmbogammite, — Pb' P" + 6 Xl fi', according to an analysis by 
Damonr; bnt it is probable from other analyses that plnmbo- 
gnmmite is not of constant composition. 
y. With arsenic acid in 

Mimetite, — 3 Pb' Xs + Pb CI. with 69.5 Pb. Isomorphous mixtures 
of this combination with the corresponding phosphates and 
■nalogons lime compomids also occur. Hedyphane is snob a 

Tlriety containing— 3 (Pb, Üa)* (P, Is) + Pb CI, with 49 Pb. 



QimpytUt coiitainj s littl« chrotnat« of lead uiul niucb |>hofl- 

phone acid. 
Carmiiiitc, rule iron. 

i. With earhonir acid in 
tVruBüU?.— H C with 77.6 Pb; 
ICarthy ctrbnonto of lead {wdigita WtisiUetan), with a little Ca and 


Ptumboealcito, vidt lim« ; 

Tarncivioite, pirfs aragonit^, under lime: 

Igli^insLtc, vidn xinc. 

I. Wieb sftenovn acid in 
Kent<>iiitp, stlmiia o/Uaä,—Ph, So, On, and Se. 

^. With Mrvmü tuid in 
Phcenioochroit«,— l*b* Cr*, irith 70.8 Pb; 
CrocoitP {rtd lead 6r«),— Pb Cr with 63.3 Pb; 
Vanqnelinitc,— Ca' Ci* + 3 Ph' Cr', with 56.t Pb and 8.6 Co. 

l^ With vnnadic neid in 
Dittcloistte, — fb' V, with GJS.7 Pb. but containirrg «otne 2ii, Co. ftn, 

I*"?, CI, and fl; Vatindit ni«_v lieliing bco!, Diiim; 
Dcchenitf, — I'b V, with 50.7 Pb ; aixtmling to Üjhi». «honld jir»* 
bably always be written (Pb, 2ii) V, with, in one annlystc. 31.4 

Vanadiiiit4'froniZiinBpan,~PbCI +8 fb* V, with nbunt 66 Pb and 
a little ^D, Üu, Sic, and Si. Tbe variptics fVom WindJKbkappel 

and Bcreaof contain V and may, therefore, be regarded as iso- 
tnorphoas miittnwa of pyromorphitc with the atinw. 

Eusyncfaite (anoordiog to Rammelsberg — {Pb. 2n)' (P. Ss) -f- 15 
{Phf 2n)* r, with 53.5 Pb) and armox^tie (according to Berg-' 

niann-(h>, An)' Xa + Ä (l^b, 2n>' V, with 47.4 Pb) ar« r^ 
g&rded as variotii-s of dfehtNite by Dana ; 

Chilcite ( VanadinkupffrbUiert),—\*h' (Äü, "P) + 3 (fb, Co)' 7, with 
abont 56.2 Pb and U.? Cn. Prolmbly a mixture. Attwi-ding 

to Dona, if T' and Xs are n-gaWled as belonging to tbe associated 
ancno-pho«E>hat« of lead, the formala is Pb* V + Cu' V. 
i. With raolifhdic acid in 
ffulfenit« iifeihw Itad »re), — fb tto, with 57 Pb, and ocowionally a 
liUleEe.Cr,aiid V. 



b Witb iHngatic acid Id 
uliitc,— I'l* ff, witli 44.9 Pb. but not fr« from Ca,fe, And Äö. 
X. With anlimomc acid in 
Biutiheimite {Bhinifrt) from Nt-rUchiusk,— » Pb'Sb+7 fl, with 
S9 Pb. Tbe Uorrhsuacu vnripiy— 2 f*b* »l> + D ti, wUli &t PK 
Similar varieties from Corawsll coutaiu ei-iU Ivfis Pb; 
WoiiimoliH.',— (Pb, t'e, An, Ca, Sig)' Sb, with «.4 Pb (l>aua). 

Lo«J occur« uuder vuriotu eoiiditiuu« in Dictiülurgicttl ]>rf>ilui;te 
oblAMit^ in the Ircscm^ni of {ilarabifcroiiij ores: 

o. Metalltela 
Various aorta of lead which aiv met in o-miiacTce, but occBsioimlly 

'contAiu troMs of Cn, HI», As. and Ag; 
Lead from Ab»trieh {AhutrithMei, rh'wmeil Imd), often conUiitiog 

much Sb, Ab. some Cu and Kl*, uiul »umclinii'ä aho Ag and S ; 
Safer lead, or raw Jaul, u oompniintl of Pb and A|!, in which, hov- 
«Tcr, fimuU qiiiintitics of t'ti, Sb, At, Xn, Ni, F«, ^ and «om«- 
tiiDt-e « httlL- All an- ctniUinfd ; 
Muck cappf.r. whlciriB exti-acteil from plrimbiferoiui eopptr matts 
and frtqiicnlljr coiitaiiia ecveni niHatB hcaidi» Ca and Pb, vide 
A. Cotobioed with Mtlphur iu Uie various matl-like prodacU ob- 
taiDi^ ill »melting h^ad or>?«, or plumblferouB silver ort-s ; also in lead 
Speise mid iu plumbifcroiu eadmitt, vide thcdt productjs QudiT iron, 

c. In the statft of oxide in 
Xithar)^. — l^b. snmctimca containing a little Cu, A^, ^ and d)«änu- 
inutMl purtiooB of the maes uf the fnm«ef ; when very impuw 

it contains alt» >b and Xs cmnbini'd with Pb; 

^Mrif/t. — iM) intxi-d with rarious ent>at»ncefi, vis.: Pb'Bb. t^* X^ 

Pb K. On. fit, Pc. and Ag; 
^hiry,— Pb misr-d villi the »mc subetanoirB Hf abstrich and aim 

with rb, Fr, and the tmirlh muse; 
^ptiäation hearth penneali-d with lilharge; 

JjKul amohi, or/tttuf*, fnmi h'lid i^mclt ing, w>metiint-t4 conBistiDK chicflj' 

of Pl> 0, miied witJi oihcr pit-mllic uxith-»; rrw|Ui-mh-, boweviT, it 

•OUiiDB ^b, Pb S. Pb 5i, rtc willi diM^-minatr^i piu-tichfi of 


vXv IVou cnj'M'lling and r«>liiiiiig iIr> k-«d; it abo coueuta 



chiefly of {^b C. but ri^tnenti; cootains f^b* "Bh, Ph* %i, ^l> Si, 
and ubca; 
Lead/umea and ßue raking» from ruastiog ailrcr, kwl, aiid ixf)iper 
oree in reverb«mu>rv fiirBuoea; usiuillj a mixiure ^r mOR ur 
leu thurDiighly niulitl ore, various raetiklUo üxitles, ruUtile 
metallic acidü (Xs und äli), kuIu oi miiulliu osidc» (K» D, f'bS^ 

l*b' 5b, Pb' As, Pb Si. etc) wiiii particlca of a«h. If B»lt wiu 
uddcd in ruiiatitig. tbü fumoä hUo couUiu cbluridt-H of ü'uii, k-ud, 
or copper, and if Uie lead ore wuii aelcaiftjruua sniull qnantiüe« 
of eulfiiiiim may also hv pri>wnc. 
d. As cn'ffr, usiiiUly CLiiiibiiicU wiib aiticte aeidy iiL the varioue 
iJaffii pnxlucud iu JtiaelUiig i>tuiabifvr>jua üUbixm. 

E»iaU)«Uoa for L««d, 

^Including the bhwpipa charactgri»tia 0/ Ute mititraU a»d tutiat- 
lurgical products abaet tunuiiontd. 

a. Examiaaiion /or Itad in gtntrtiL 

In alloys, aa th«y occur In nntura aiid nicUillur^icnl iircxlucta, 
lead ia rocoguizi-d by tbo cuttt n-liicb it utt'ords wlicn tbe 
stibstniice i? trcutud uu c-oul iu O. F. Aoy vx^ity vuUtilixublo 
nit-i&ls prvat^ul uillu-r |)ue« off entirely io Aimcs, or oollecl abtu in a 
coat u« oxidvs. 'l'h« oxidc of Ivod coub is durk liiiiirit-yrlluw wbile 
bot und straw-ydluw nbeii quit« cold, p. G7, uud lictiig ulfio acitrur 
Ute lusay thun tlmt furmod by eum« oLlior uxidvs, as tliwe uf ti'llu- 
riam, aotimuiiy. and »nwiiic. ia tliLToforc ruudity diaiin;£;uiKbal>le: it 
mast be remurkcd, bovicvt'r. ibut in pre&eiioo uf uiiiiniuiiy tbi< uxidt: 
of Uiul outtb is darkt^r yellow, like tbe biemutb cuat, probably in 
ounsequence of ihe forinalioii of intitnonatt! of Ic-ad, vide sulphidei^ 
oa tbe following page. 

If zinc: uud k-iwl are pn-«-Dt in an nlloy tbo cimt produced is, 
indeed, luitigk-d with oxidc of zinc, bat the lead nuiy be rücogoiced 
by lb« Ktiiphur-vcllow color of tiie cold coai as wt^ll oe by i\\v azun.>> 
bin« tinge ini|Kiriu(l by il I*> ibu R. F. Whtn tlie b-ud pn-domiinttej 
in an alloy uf Ictwl and bismutb, tbv cuut appear« ratlivr durkcr tUtui 
a puru lead cvat, but not «0 dark as a bi^miilbvuaL By testing with 
S. Ph. tbo pn-fu-nco i.f bVi * ■ rtaimO. t-irfc bismntb, 

provid.-d no ;iiiliiiiniiv is i ■ "■■ '"-• *' lilfk- Icud ituil 

it cat»' " '""'■'■ i^ tre»(«l 

td I •'■"«pptnirs witli 



an axuro-blo« ftftoie, whicli, ia the absence of Bfil«'Dium, indJcataa 

Üuinfwundii uf )«wl and tteleuluin, vitii couaidenibic seknium. 
tarn tn R. F. with hick dilBctiUy tlmu pun: It*»], und itii{uirt 
nil iiitcnsc uzurc-blue color U» the öhdu-, eliicfly due to s>i\v- "" 

uiiitn, wliile they emit a svleiiiiim uilor und vii-Id itt first a slight 
grutidb cLvit uf (tclvuium, folluwed bv u wliite coiit of selenit« of li>ad 
Had a tiiäiag j^Iloiv cout of pure oxide ut lead. 

Ciimbiiuitions of Ivad wiUi atilphur ^ind utluT metullic sulphides 
may bu varionnly «xtimim-d for lead. Ttiu eimpleel way is 
to treat H Ktuutl portiun in IL R on coiil, i-itbcralone or with 
ft sliglit uuvunt of borax to «tpurulf any iron pn-KDt, und tu 
jwojiiiiz*' the load by the ©oat. Unless a Iwrge ainonnt of autimony 
is preBiriit it «ould not I* MinulCaiit^mety dl.•^■e^I?d with ci*rtiuiity, 
because adjoining the yellow oxide of luul coat tlicr« h fornied a 
White coat of »nlphale of lejid, whitih very closely rei-vniWcH oxide 
of antimony, p. 69 It >• 8.ifvr in lliia cneo to iniiij^le tho powdered 
aubstujice with a siillicient ainoiinc of mtthi uiiJ treat it fur u short 
time ill U. F. Sulphide of sodium is formed aud in tht^ abttt-iici-of 
aiilimiiny only a ydlow Wad r;out willi » blui^h-whitc hordirr it 
jifüduwd ; bni if antimoiiT is pr<-8CQt u white coat of oxid<* of 
antimony h ohtaioed beyond the Vi'llow lead cwit. 

Should the amount of antimony be Tery trifling, aa in many 
gtklenjie« Uitfl method dm,'« liut uHurd. u perfectly ii-liabli; tväiilt, 
becuuiK by a prolougoU btaH eomv sulphide of äi^dium is folntilixed 
and also atfords a whit« cosit of «iilphato of eoda, p. G9. A li'jJe 
antimony can, however, be dflrct^rd with aluioltiiL- ccrlutniy wlicii 
pn-ecnt iu galeoaä and olbt-r eulpliidi:3 üoiiäiAting mainly »f suiohide 
ÖC lead, by the following proceda. About llfty milligr. of thi. ]to'J>' 
dared subetanoe aro placed, with n bit of in>» wire as stor.t -m a 
eoarst! knitting needle, iu a cylindrical cavity bora) iu i.he crou 
«ectioii of a good, oosi, or in a charcoal cnicibK', and both arc wvc-n-d 
with a mixture of eoda aod borax, the volume of soda boi'ig twice 
«ud that of borax ouotj the volume of the flulutiimiTfrnpIoV-'d. Tbe 
irbule U then treated in It. F., nuiit all the sulphur is sc[Anitcd, part 
;oomliint'd with tliu iron luiU purl with the »loig. 

\!Sh* ]«ad ia neai-ly all reduced and uititea to a but&>D with th« 

li' 1" but litilo of them is volnlilized. Tbc cold 1ei>d 

-•■(»rated from the slajj und the iron aunounded by 

. and is tn-ali-d with a little soda iu R. V. on another 

niilimMMV Tolatiliicä tlrst, prf>diicing a C'«e of oxide, 

^Vlti'rniinl yield« a lead coat. If Ih« aal'ifraD/ coat 16 


iiiclu-tl with Ihi^ E. F^ bcfoiv a digtinct lead coat bun rurmeil. it 
isitppiuiru with a grecnbh-liluv flame. The coul ot usidc üf lead 
DTI liUo l>i- outirclj' jirertriiteil b; mldjug vilriliiMl boractc «old 1o tb« 
Itntimonial lead, whcu tho acid tak>,s np tb* oxide of li'»d und the 
Volat ill Xing aatimony coaU the &ni\ wiUi nxide of aiitimouy. Tliii 

funny \i «uy, but the fullowing points ahould be car«l\itlT obserred. 
The Sfpitralioii ot Uie «ulphiir fi-ont tlie lewl awl antimony must b« 
conductT'd iit u mtlu-r di-cp cavity, so tliat the aritiiiioiiiiU l«id may 
be [iMtvctt-d frum ihe air und us lUtlv luiliiuuny as [nnifliblo rolatilized. 
Th<' fliiiiit:' I11U8I uot l>e dircfied imnK-dtHtL-ly npun the eeparaling 
nu-tallio liuttuii, which w>inld thirii be to» etivngly licuUtl and miglit 
low antimony by vohitiliwition, but imigl be dirvckd ouly a\ton tb« 
eIb;; uf goduiiiid burax, wbivli i>hi>tild he mudu t» vuvlt Lhc bail^ia. 
W ciLri'fully (-oiidnrttHt quit« a trifling amuiiut of antimoiiy may Ik* 
drh-cU-d by Hit- v^nut rimnttt on coul. 

Wlu'ii the niuouut of anlimotiy Jii a gubstaut-vcoutuitiiiigsnlphkle 
of lead is very liirgc, the irvutuietiL nitb suda ulont*, as well as of tli« 
antimoniiil Ivad n-dnced by iron. yiphU not only iin nnmisiuliable 
imümuuy uout, but Ihu k-ud cuat is iibM;rvi-d t<i have u dai k<-r ycUuw 
color than usaai It appears oraufte-ycllvw »bile hot, and almost 
I cm uu -yellow oi> o<tuliij;r, quite likL* a co:it uf oxid» of tiisniDtb. 
Antiiiionat« of le»d i»pemB to ix" formed, for if tlii« coal i* wmpcd 
off. diMulved in 8. Pit. on platinam wiru in 0. F^ und llir load 

' ibakcu off und in-uted with tin on i-oal. it lUäiiim'S uii fuoliu^ a 

fbldck color and bicouu-d qniie opitqiie, which, iii thu ab>:>.-tic« of 

[bumutl), indicate« antimony. 

Lcail muy also he dt-'(vc(od in metallic Hul|)liidL'a by roiutltig tbttn 
in 6ne )K>wdei', p. 77. and then ti^atiiig them witJt soda in it F. 
Kithi-r glöliHl(-8 of lead rL-sult, or an alloy of l«ud with other metal«, 
in pn.-!ien«> of other family rt>dncible oiide.«. A lead coat lit likewtM 
formed, to which rfgniMl must bv had, exiKtciatly if hut liiitr Vad b 

WhcQ the »nbstanc^ coDtaioa biemnih, as well as lead* it yieldi 
hy rtHlnotton brlMIe lead, which fre(|ncntly cannot be vroncuized u 
lead at all. when the iiuiouiit oT bigmnOi la not quiie iiuMn|>iirian1.; 
tbf ixikt on tlic (»III hIm) haa a darker color. lit thic< mäe the 
roasted BAsay mii^t be fnwd with bi^ulpbalo of potuwa and furtVi 
(rented ad will bu dirtv^ted for aticb eubgtaiio^s under biiiniiiMi. The 
Hilphate of load n'^iilting from the treHtiiient ie rvdticcd with «odn 
un coul und alTui^s nietallio lead and a paw lead coilL 

If tho f'Ki^t^'d at)t;3laiice couiain« iniicb copper the R-duction 
witli eodu aflbrdtj lui alluv» in which the load cannot be niognisci,! 




hj ÜUS color, but after voslnog tbe alloy and keeping it Tusod for 
wm« timtj alone in a strong 0. F. o» coal, mosl of tho l«iu] toIa* 
tiliz«« and afford« u co«U 

T)iQ behavior of chloride of leud luie been given on- p. 99» 
Subatiinc«s coiitAining oxide of l«ud vith othtT intrt^ilhc oxides or 
varllis u^uallv yi^ld u distinct leud cotit when tmitcd iilune on 
ooul in IL F.; iiddition of Hoda, howewr, r«iidei-a it muro 
distinct The sume nrmuric applies to all salts uf lead except tlie 
pboepliate, which Lrt;ati.>d uluou on ct>iU fitse« to a globiilf and 
afforOii no lead coat^ or oolj u «light ooo- 

b. Bhicpipt cfiaracttristfct 0/ the nhovt-Hamal jtlmiihiferona 


Katiite lead buharca B. B. like pnro lead, p. 67. 

AltaiU fit-Ids in the op«ii tub« telluruus fumce, wbicb At» B. B, 
to ck-ur drup«, (ti. Ilose.) 

On cuul it fusee, tinges the flame gi«enish-blae and TolatiliKos, 
learing a small stiver button. 

Clnitxihaliie in the cluscd tube di'cr«pitatc8 occumoually, but 
snfTLT:« nri funhtjr change. In the open lube ri«;UU a Bulenium 
fnblimate, red ul n distance fVum the a«sajr and stvel-gmy neanr to 
It; a distinct seleninni oiloi* h iH>rceptihle. On cx)h1 it fnmfs, dif- 
fuses a strong M'lcniiim udur mid fuses oulv im]K:rleclly in It. F., 
ooating the coal at lirst with a gmy coat of «.■leniiim. liaring u 
feeble metallic Inälns but u]]peHriiig retldieh further IVom the uBfay. 
A dislinet lead coat form!« aftf^rward. It gradimll)- Tubitilizois lenving 
a TiTV trifling «eorio, which aumetinirs alTorda iruii, cobalt* orcop[Mr 
reactions with the tluxes. 

With godtt, or, better still, nontml oKiilate of |)olA«sa, in R. F. on 
coiil, merallic k-tul IB obtained, which somctimCH yields a small »ilver 
buUon oil the cupel. 

Tiikrrodit« behaves like cUustliulitv, but tbe remaining scoria 
RacU very sfrongly for coImiIi. 

Zarifilf. — Sf(t'nhipffrbUi\»!\i%\*:<i like clauj-lhalite, and the reniain- 
iog scoria reacts very etmugly fur copper with borax, while with 
Boda it yields a cop)>er bnttoo. S^tnbUikvpfer fuw< easily, spivada 
over the coal and furnis a gray masa, with a metollio lustre, which 
afbrr thorough roaüliug yields a copper button with borax and loda, 

J^ehrbachite ä\nikb in the matnus yields a luBtraus, Dielullic, crys- 
talline, gray i;ub]iRi:it« of soloiiido of mercury, before which a few 
globules of mercury sometimes cull !cU With much smla it yields 


only iiiiTciiry. In the o]M;n tube yields eome seleniam and a snb- 
limuto or st-lenide of mercury, wbicb fuses to drops. On coal, lik« 

Sehnqtteckniiberkupferbiei (Hg, Cu, Pb, and Se) yields in the 
mittrafs Eek'nide of mercury. On coal affords a lead coat and a 
residue which reacts strongly for copper. 

Lead in combinaiion tcHh sulphur and with other metaUie 

Galfiia and Bleitchweif usually decrepitate strongly in the closed 
tube, while a trifliug white sublimate is not anfreqnently formt^ 
vhioh. bowevt^r. upptars 10 be only fnlphur. In th<-o|)ea tnl« yield sal- 
pburoiis acid and at a higher heat a wbite guhlimate of sulphate of 
lead, iiniy just at>ove tbt; assay. Fusl- with diflicalty on cual, until 
most of tbe sulphur is exjK-lltrd, «hirn metallic lead sepamtes. Tbe 
C(.iul is strongly coated with sulphate and oside of li^ad. In prvseuce 
of antimony the suiphaie coat is nitugU-d wiih oside of aQtimoDr, 
p. 'it>3. In.>n and ziuc in gaWna -^tv fuuud ac^^rJinji to pp. 2'23 aud 
S.''l. More or U-ss silvt-r may W detvOtcU in most gulena by cnpt-l- 
ling the lead rcilnced on coal, vide «(uautitaiivc >ilvcr assav. 

:<:diiiru\)niilt fn.)m Przibrani dtvrcpitatcS ra:hir srron^ily in the 
clojid tulv. On coal fuses, rvolviu^ suipiiurou; aiid uutimouous 
fumes a::d KaviiiL: a li-ati hu:ion. wiiii.;! affords siiv-rr »!i<^n cu[>i.llcd. 

(fciiTi','(j;V. iiii'.riVit/iii't. miiiti;.'.iiiin. U-ulaiii^trit*, j'lint^'/nile, 
tfiil.'ttr erf. j':i'i:i"iiiie, aud ziiii-tHÜe arc c>.>m[.*juQds of Pu with Pb 
i»b in d:trorvnt prv-ivrtiviia: occasionaily part oi tiiw SL» is rtplacrtl 
by As, as in c-ooron ::e- 

T':e ctu-, p.ii ;-riiavior of ihrse m;n-.-ra;s is as foilv-ws : — 

I'.i ti'.t- cIos-.-i.: :iiK' :hry litorvi'itair- c: rv or :rss a:;! arv distin- 
^u:s':v-.l ny:;-:r •v:^\^K.\:y vh,:: thr :■; - is :r-.-^Z'^\ B. B. Those 
i-i :::ii'::::v.-; mos: sul;»!; ; .":e of aEtini^ny. ar^ tiir ni-:*: f :=:• le. and they 
arf -: -i - ■.': s.:' Üma:- ■■:" air.- nh..;:« trrr?:: 7>;: i^ ..:" :.r.::ni'nv, oon- 
"a:: :: J ox; ir ■ :" s:;:.:;:':'v. Is ::.:■ o:-::: r.-r -' y \ .": aminionial 
:V,:-.:s, 'i^r'.y v.,''..-i;:!T aiiii t*:k"ly lis-e-i. T*.:e :' 7n:-.-7 ii,ir.s:s" oi osiJe 
.•:'*■:."■,•, y : v.t '..■«•Ttr r-^r"!y of v\:ir ».th i-vni -L^ ici-i. parti? 
• '' S" " b i'e o: ..*', ;i„ . rart.r v-f Ä!.:',in'. L,a:c o:* \-:^i. • eir i e as^F. 
M" v. j ■'■ : - ",i so i ;s a!" i-- .'.vr-l. 

y'v. .■ ^i. : . - ;■ !."~' :i:'..; ■.;;:■■•;■,': : ::i ö.j's; :.". ■ ij^r':. -t re-m'-ved 
17^ ■* : ■ !.• :■?:?: ■:■: • x:-.:-- -f i.i:.~: ::y »::;. ?\.r.r.a> of IrHd, 
■m'--. - i_-_.i- :':.. issay ■ r .-.a: :s ■:.r-ij • \:-It ■.• \'.^l.\-iz Jark r^II-nr 
iL_ ::: \ -.1 »:;j. s-^'.ni.v.^'^ ■.:' ,.^1- Aet :r.d.ij i»2i-."LL of in>a 



kud c'upfK-T udUBlly n-raaiiie u» a ecoHs aail can \>e Icöleil aflei 

R falling the Pli and SU. 
^itli soda ill It F. tbey ».r» dfuomiiueud »iid yield mtitullic glotinlea 
cuiits of lend und anlifiiony. To deberiniiie whether tlit.' wbiU* cost 
uhla uiily at Sb, or wbuttier it also cviiiain» sniplintip of teat), vidt 
'.Wh Ai-aciiic, if uut iu tou ätiiall «luiutttlj, cuii frctiui-'ijUy be 
di't«<:l«d in the tnl>es and od ooal by tia charactemtio l>ehuT)or. 
[ _ Dufrmoi/itite contaiue the I'b coiikb'ui-d witli Aa aIvuu; iu the 
closed lube yields * ri-d bubtimutu uf suljtbide al ars*!iiiu ; in tbe 
oppD cube a smell of sulphur only, villi a BublimatL' ot tiulpliur in 
till' upper part of the tube and of araenous ucid bülow, (DuiitL) 

On charcoal tae»rs very easily, cvoItcs aulphucous and lu-^ciioui 
Aiini-«, aud flnuUy yields a 1<^ button. 
^^m iSar/ui-iYrtiteariy likednfreuoysil«, b(ild«ore[)itali>8 strongly, (Dann.) 
^y Tbr behavior of Zujideren may bv cattily iairvnini fruoi Ibat of 
' similar compounds. 

CiayHf: — A» rrgui-dB tJie blowpjp« chamcturiilica il is only known 
tlial it TuMTS roidtly. yields reäctioo« far li-ad, arsenic, and antimony, 
and K-avfä ni[b »otlu u lustroiia iiK-tälli<j globiiU- ; no dotibl uFlur 
txcutmeut with boracic ackX, vide copper a£&iy, IU« rvmaiuing uuttua 
woold HlTord copper rawtiong, 

(Mjtroiitainbite. U. It. iii iht- ape» tube ««'«IIh up aud Aüu^a, alTord* 
iiig siilpluiroiia Hcid aiid a trilling »iiblimau- of einl]>buri<* »r k-ud. 
Alono on cotd iu R, F, yields coots of oxide and aulphal^! of lead; 
with soda a button of motal, gomuwbal Imrdcr thuu pure li>aij, nbich 
' afttir t.ri>atni«ut with bontdc add, vitie ooppi-r, leaves u L-upper bnUuii. 
. Tbia cii]M.-lli;d witli leal lead afTonla eome silver also- 
^^mAliaonUe; like cuproplumbitr. 

fHUvj^yaji/«. — Th« antimoDial variety «trongly h«at«d iu the opeu 
* tube fuuii*« and dejxrtita a OMit, which is gray closi- above tin? astay 
and B(^-ma to consist of t«llurate, aulimonate, and perhap» sulphate 
of It-Hd. The cout further Tcmoved couhist» portly of volntile oxide 
of antimony, and partly of tellnrona acid, which can b« fiiiK-d to 
cK-ar drops. 

Alone on ouul it fninea aiid dvposita a wbit«. Totalile coal uf 

iailigl«d oxide of autiniony. tvlhin>u3 ucid and salpluttc of k-ud.aud 

» \»sd voltitiK-, yellow coat, cuiieisliiig bhivlly of iixid«' of t<-ad, witli 

perhapti »»me uh timonntt^ The first coal ditiuppeam under tbe R. F. 

u bluiith-grevu. lite latter witb h blii'.- Hume. When till the 

hlatile ingreilicnu are ex|M-lled a inallüulilc i;old liutton niiiuiu^ 

whicb 08suTnc4 a pni« ^old color wbt-u t;upu]lod with t<^fll b-ad. 

Jf the flame test duea not show telluruus acid distinctly in tlM 


white coat on cotd it is only necessary to treat the powdered mineral] 
with bunicio acid, p. 3i^.t, whca u coat of oxidu of Aiitimuny und 
t«lliiroua acid will he obtuiunl, which will disapjKsr with a bluish- 
gnv» flame iu It. F. The h«-havior of the vani^tj- fret- from antiniou} 
is similar, but 1b<; tellurium rcacüuiia are man- diSlitiCL 

BintrHOHt'le decn^pilat«8 in the closed tube aiid atixinglf bcat«d 
ricUU 11 slight dark-rod euhliniiftL' (>r«"lphidcvith oxide orimlimony. 
luiheopcu tnbeevoWensuliihurousiifdandcopious, white, ail tiinotij 
rümi-if. Th« coHt condecisiiig on the upper aide of cJie tnbo U volatile 
oxide of aatimonr; that on th«* lower pai't ie a non-rolatile com* 
poiiud of anlitiionuteof antimony with considentbl« aotitnouutc of 

Alone on coal fuse« very easily, affording a coat of oxide of 

antimony, quickly Ibllowi-d by t*b, Esb, (*b, S, and I^h, so that nearest 
tho a!«iiy the cent is dark- yellow. Finally only a luad ooat is alTordi-'d. 
Thi' r.-miiiuing glubiik- leutcd with barux or 3. Ph. showB cvppfrand 
eoiiiftinii-8 antimony, p. 2C3. It is n-ndi-Ted somewhat hrtCil>? by 
i!u!]>hur aud antiaiony, and aricr ciipellatiua occasiotitUly uUbi-da a 
little eilvt^r. 

A'oMtil« fiiecd in the cloeud tube B. B. yields « slight sublimuto of 
lulphur. In the open tube yields copious antimoitial ftimes aud 
finl])bumiifl acid ; it is not fused, but is covered with yellow oxide. 
On ctial rii3i.-ä easily, yieldiuj; a white coat of oxide of antimony witii 
Hulphateä of lend and biemnth, and a yellow ooat, which is dark 
]>oinegrana («-yellow on cooling aiid disappears with a feeble bltin 
tiatnc in U. K ämall, suoiewhat mallcikble. metallic buttons remaiu, 
which after being fused together for some ttmeiu 0. F., ehow copper, 
with S. I'h-, vidi coppi-T. 

Freed from most of its sulphide of antimony on coul in 0. F., tlie 
niiuemi shows iron when tiviit«d wiilk borax in It F. and the glua. 
remelted in 0. F. on platinum -wire. The bismuth is found by 
rousting th« miuerul onooal and fitsing the fine powder with tluM 
nr fonr Tohimt-s of biuidphate uf poLosss, vide bismuth. 

Aikini/e in tlio opi-ii tube yi(.-td5 nhite fnmes, partly fnsible to 
clear drv^pfl, white on cooling; nutpbiiruus acid is evolved. 

The rvmaining button is summiided by blttok, fu<t(-d oxide, 
which is ininsiuirent und gri-euisli-yeMow on cooling. 

On coal fii*e>, fume* and deposits a wbitr- coat, the inn r wlge of 
which is yellow. Thv n.-suiling button resombU-s bismuth (Ucr- 
seltus). With the tlaxefl gives oopiwr rvoctionä and after long 
blowing a globule of metallic copi>7r. Dunn. 

Vkivintite. — Like aikinitc 




Colunnita txiK% to a yeltoir llaid ninl piirtinlly siiUimos in Uic 
niKtniüa. On email fnwa very casrily, gpreiwls uiit uud voiafiliwj, form- 
ing H white cuHt of cUloriilt' of U-iul. TlitüdiKUpiviir« with mi uüiire- 
blii^ flame in R. F. miil lesivi-a ii rdlow äpot uf usidv uf k-ad. Witli 
Boda fields Ivud and with oxide of copper sfTwds the chkrine 
^jBftction, vide chlorine. 

MendipiU di'civ[ii tales, hctiimes ytllow, nt)d when strongly heattfd 
\ behaTeg like cotiinnite. On coiil fuera cattily, emits iicid Ta|K>i« »iid 
\iB reduced to metal, »ITurditig hIho a white coat uf citluridu and u 
I j'ellow coat of oxüle of load. A siwcial tt'st shows citloriiie. 
Matioekitf. — \.\Vf} nj^iuUpitc. 

PhtMjenitf iH-have« lilce meiidipitc l>nl pfTerTewcs with nitric acid. 
ScJucartzmnberijUr, accnitUii}; (<> nmia. is tktj fnsihle und luec-s it« 
'Oolor in fiieihg. On coml yields inotaUic globules; ia a matruM 
ftboudant violet mpors of iiidinc. 

oxiom or i.bad. 

Masneot {plumbic lyeJire), mmintt», and plaiinerite b«1iave riuite 
like oxide of lead, p. 104. 


tUe di'crepilfltes in the matrass and iisnally yields a little 
On coal in 0. F. twn-s to u ck-ar bead, opatiuc on cooling, 
nod ill ß. F. i» reduced with eflerrcsoence to a lead button. Ueductnl 
with soda yields leutl. and a strong eulphiir reaetiori is iifTordod b? 
cutting (itit the (Xial und laying it on nii)i«t(>ii(^d xilvvr foil. Trilling 
■dmExturcs of oxide of iron or mangaiiese may be easily detected 
by the li-»\£ vith Immx on eoda and nitre. 

Linarite fields »ome water and loses its blue color in the matrass. 
On cool fnues in 0. F. to a head; in R. F. is roduct'd with elfbrTes- 
cence tu lead, which then affoitls a lead coat. The lead hiitlon 
rtivatrd with boracii^ auid yield« a button of copprr, p. 995. KiHlnced 
with soda it yiclde Clipper and l«ad,-wh>l(> the alkaline mns? tilut 
tinka into the cimiI gives a äulp)iur reaction. 

CttUtionite. — B. B. on coal easily reduced. Partially sokihle with 
»Slenrcscencu In uitrtc acid, leaving a residue of sniphute of lend. 

The cupper and also the snlphuric acid may be dett-cled as ir 
linarite above. 


PLATTKRR's blowpipe AlfALiretS. 

Lanarkitt. — Lik« calcdonito, bnt no eoppi^r. lit O. F. fases tc J 
bead, ttliite on cooling and containing reduced lead. 

J..€adliiliite svtlle a little ou coal in a Tecblc Hume, and atuumcs n 
trau£ieut r«llov color ; in a etrongm' äotne is easilj redooed. (Fuae-i 
at I.&. Diuift.) 

EfTerreECPS frith nitric aoid and leafes a r«jidne of ]*b SI 

Sutannite. — Lik« l«fldhillit«. 

iMmprnpltanife netdtt »at«r. With fioda on charcoal jrieltU nwt 
lio Iciul uud a la-patic maas. (Dauu.) 

Pi/roinorphUe sometimes tlcCRpitat«^« iu the matmsa, and stronj 
h«ated affords n trifling, volniilo imbliiiiiitc of Pb Cl. Jq ihc for 
fbtK« very easily to A glubulf und aflTunU abliic flaine «rith a gnu 
tip (phosphoric acid), csix'ciallv when the blast is gentle. The fas 
portion has a cryatallinc- snrraco. 

On coal at first yieldjs a slight coal of Pb Cl and tli« fiised bntt 
is not reduced, but on c»o1iug glows again and »hows <|uih> hntrol 
fiicet& Tbv Pb Cl c<Nit mcuriwliÜL- increase and a (lalts jtcIIdw it\ii 
of lead coat can be »c«ii aronnd the a^tay. If, howo^'cr, arjcnat« of 
lead is piiFSi'ut, it is roduccd with t'lTeiTcsceiico and «mi>;)jiun 
arseniral fumes to lead, which rsmainii with tht> metallintf pli 
phatc. The powdtrred minenil fnxod with <i\idc of coppnr on 
giresnn aznre-blne chlorid« of copper Oame. 

Sy n.'diictiuti with audn it aflonl& It^ad, which sonidtimes yields a 
trace of silver when cupe1li>d. Fiis«d in the platinum upoon trith 
tliroe to four parts of biÄilphätv of yotaeiOt it rorms a cU-ur maflB^ 
white 00 cooling. (Vatiadat« of lead affords a pomegrnnate-yelloff 
mass, and Chromate of lead a mass, which is violet whib> bot and 
greeniab- white on cooling.) 

Mimctiie fnaea on ooal somewhat less easilr than pyromorpbite, 
bnt i$ then rwlncod, with pfforvcscence and a strong nr^onic odor, 
lead. At first affords only » chluridt* of k'ad i-oat, bnt later araeni 
acid and oxide of lead. The presence of phospliale cnniies 
appcuroucL' of one or more of tli« crystalline liead« o^Jovc luentionc 
Chlorino 13 detected a$ under pyromorphit«. Litne {as in he<tf(phat 
is found by di-oompo^ing the mineral witJi «od». The leixl »'parat 
M metal, part of the soda sinlu into the coal, and imrt forma vif 
Lhc lime an invisible mass. 

/'fimAiyuNirtti'y« decrepitates and yields mncli water in tlic mntraa&~ 
Tested afterwards io the forceps it. RwelU li'^ce n zeolite, and coto^ 
tbo flame uiEure-blue. but fuse« only imperfectly. On coal cannot 
melted, bnt gives a foint white coat of Pb Cl. 

In the flaxes dissolves easily to a «loar glaes; the 9-. Ph. t 


»xtni» wna a en». 

op»!]!!!? witli a t:irgi.> additiuii. Witli lindtt yu'Ids 1t«(l glü)>iil>>fl uti<l 
ivitii cnluUt üohition tnnis blue. Witli boracic acid and iron gives a 
]>iiui«}ilitdr (if inm. i-'iäe phi>a|iiiuricnci(]. 

Ceruffit« decrepitates in llic matrui^g, lodcs ciirbonica«id taid tnrna 
yellow, with a strongiT licat dark-ml, but tht jvllow color n-turns 
on cooliug. 

Aloiie on coal is easily rL-dnctd; iu tlit^ fluxvs it di^sulvcs vitll 
efl>rv._'8<:enco »ud gives tlie iv>actione of oxide of lead. Dilute »itrio 
acid a]eo diuMilTes it wich i>tri'rvcM>eiica 

f'nrthy rnrfxtnale vf luid. Like centasit». Imt Wvea on txidiicLion ' 
a trifling scona. whii-'h reacta for imn wirli Wntx. 

fCfrgltHt'f« decfi^pitrttc« slightly in the clowd tiO». fng-.-8 .it ix'dness 
U> a blufk diiid miuis und givi-a olTa rpjy little aoleniam; »t & higher 
lieat tonw ecWuous acid. On cutd fuaea verv roadi)v lo a black sing, 
CTolvL'« a etroiig ecloniiim CHlnr und iifftirdü lead buttuns, 'J'bi- assay 
is anrrouudcd by a lead cu&t and K-yotid Ibis a «cUuinm cout In 
tbe fiD-oi'ps does iiot culur tl)L' fluino {?}. With tbu flnxes giicfl 
rejictioiis for iron and copper. Kt-rstcn. 

I'fiQ'nufxItTviie {mdanacliToUe) fiisfs ri-adily in 0. F. to u dark 
ntaes, aBsnmin^ a crystalline stntctnre on cooling. In It. K. gites 
off liiui fiiinos Slid is di-cmiipo^ into semiii ios ide iif rhroniinni and 
niftxilic U-ud. With tlit IIiuch gire» rbntmiiini ivactiuns. 

CrQcoiie dccn-pitat«s and Bies into «malt bits, annming (■nui- 
sentty a ditrkor colur. On c<idl fuses, iprcadi out And is suddenly 
r<Kliic>'<l with tlelliignttion to lend, afTording uUn n IhuI cnut, «bile 
grayish-grwn SL*sr|uiüxidc' of chromiuni rvmains with the lead. 

Diesolves cosily in the fluxes in O. F. to yolhiwish glasaes, brcom- 
ing grv«n on cooling. In It K the green is darker. 

i{«ducud with BOda yields lead, and whnii fiiai-d oti platinum foil 
with soda afturds n dark-yellow muss, becoming lighl-yvllotr when 
Oold. Fused in the plulinuni spoon witli thivc to foitr pad« of 
bijnlphate of [«.»tiissa, a quite dark-xiolet mass r.'8i»llB, which i« 
tvililish on Bolidiryingniid n'lioii Cold iägn>enii<b-wliiie. (V'anmlutcof 
loud imparta a yellow color lo tbe isalt) 

VitmfiirlinUe. B. B. on euul swells & little and ihi'U (ums wilh 
&olbiug to a gray« luetrons, metallic globule, showing rtxIucL-d bnt- 
tnoi of mptaX where it \$ in contact witli the coal : a distinct leiul 
Doat it formed. 

Willi the Hnxes girea in 0. F. grwm heads, both hot and cold, bnfc 
** ". they become on cooling tmI, opaqnc red. or nearly bUwk, 
t to tlu- amount dissoh-ed. With tin Iht 

liict. p 8(>. 



DifiHolves u'itti t'OiTvvscena! in sods ou plitliiima wire iu 0. F^ 
gifing a clear gix-eii gl&ss, Tellovr utid oiwtjue ou cooling. This 
fonne a yellow solntion with walcr, in wiiicS cliromic acid can l>e 
(lütectpfl, viile climniiini. 

It i» coniplfU-lj n*tltictd uiili tmä* on coal, and by treating the 
lead liiittoni), after iraahing swht the coal« ctc^ vrttli boracic aci<l, 
oupptT in obluiucd, vide copper. 

Deseluitile iu Lliu raatraää yields some water. B. B. fu«», is par- 
tially rednoed to l«id, aiirronndi>d by a bUck «Ing, and gives a It-ad 
ouat. liViiii boru-t iu K. F. a gn-cn gliusa; in 0. F- un mlding uiin.', 
a TJoJet glass (manganeae). ffilh S>. Pb. in 0. F. a yellow, iu R F. 
acbro[ne-gre4>ii glaes. 

ücchetiite Tuan «aiily to a yellon- g1iu» in tbe foreep«. and also Id 
the matrass, witltonl docrcjitlatiii);. On coal fuaes readily to a 
yeIlowigli-n:n>ca bc4ul, and gives the usual lend ^lubnlcsand cuAt. I» 
KT^ral H-tiays a diütinct urspntcal odor uas «ib^ervt^d, but nut i» utben* 
made with pniv, trau^jmreiil fragments. Pboephoric acid cannot be 
dcl«cti-d. Tilt: gbiss fliii^cfl nffiiTd tmlr vniiiidic ucid reaction«. Soda 
coases a whitt cnumd, ghuning lead gloliuli;». liergniaun. 

Ettat/ncAUt, araoTfuf and runiuH/e ( Vamitlit) aiv eiud to give the 
tame blnwpipe n-actions »s ilic HlHit'e>iianu>i.l vanudati»» of tuul. 

Fa»a(iiiii/i\ frnm ZimH|isii dfrrepitat^-s in the muiniss, and at a 
high beat gires a trifling wliitv stihliuinte. 

On coal in U. F. the iwwdcr fiiM'S easily to a black, «omewbat 
lustrous niusii. which yit-ldii Ipad in R. F. At fimt a «light Pb CI 
oont is fi>rnied nnd latrr uni' of o-iide of K-ad. After driving off* the 
lead the dark-gray rcflidne gircs with S, Ph, in B. F. an t-merild- 
greeu liead. 

Dissolves readily in the glass (luxes, showing vaiiadic acid reao* 
tions, pp. 81 and 84. With eixia in 0. F. on ptatinnni wire fnaes to a 
yellow Diass, cryetulline and lighter iu oolor wbeu cold. On coal a 
lead button separates. Chlorine is delectin] by tbe H. Ph. Iicad con- 
taining oxide of copper. 

Fused ill the platinum spoon with tbn-e to four parts of bisulpbatci 
of potasea, it forms a dear, yellnw. fluid snlt. assuming a red and 
liually a poracgranute ydlon' color üu couliiig, thus differing iit onco 
Ttom crocoite and pyronioqibile. 

Chiieile fused iu tlie cundk-ilame to a bluctf bead. In ^ Ph. girei 
A green g)n^, nixl with Eo<la on coul a cupriK-rous k-ud billion. 

Wttlfrnite decrepitates in the matmss und transiently ussiunes 1 
darker colur. Ou cunl fuses aiiil sinks partlv into the coal, while 



lend acpanitci} und li lead coat i» formed. Br long trmilm^nt with 
B. F. most vt llif Itnd is volaUliz»], atid tiieti by washing the portion 
which has sank into the coal, a mixture of uiullciiblf It^ and an 
■Huy of k-ad and Diolybdciiuiii. 

Di&aölTeü ri'iidil y iti boras in O. P. to a clmr yctlov botul, colorieu 
on cuoling, vliich becomes upnqae iilnck id It. F. Tlii% iT prened 
fill, uppirurs dirty-givcn, with black flocks of biiiuildc of mulybde- 
nitlii, t-eiK-ciallf ou coaI. In ti. I'li. ou wire (li^olvi-e n?iklily to a 
yelloW)äh-gi'L-<-n g\ase, Icmn;; miicb uf its color on cooling, and 
bt'onming durk-gffcn In !{. V. Witli »od» oti coid iillbnlti k-ad. 

AVIicD fiuiil n'ith biidilphfltc or putRosa in the platinum »poon it 
forms a yellowish maes, becoming vUitc on cooling, nnd this di»- 

.iol\i'(l by ti^iiting it in distilled wator, afford* a K>InHon which very 

rquickly betiomes diirk-bUi«' ov iiddint; ii hit. of xiv.c nr tin. 

■STo/iiVf dccrvpitiitCB ill tbv mnrnuia. Ou cusi fuM-i^ with format 

,tion of a lead coat. In a fvlobnlR that rrrätaUiw« in i'm>Irn^ and has » 
lurk mt'luUic gurfuci''. nbib' it ^liow« a («myi^li-tvhitf, ritrcous 
fnuiliin^ Diiuolvi'S «asily in ttiv gias* fluxes tu O. F. txi u. c'ear col> 
nrlt-M bcud. (Tbe borax bi-od in K. F. become« yellowish, and Mino- 
tinira on cooling if gniy and opuiriiic.) The S. Pb. briwi in It. F. atUr 
»hort tr*'rt(mciit tiMumc« a blue color, but sotncfitnw imt ft* pniv ta 
from tnngiütic arid ntone. Too liirgf a i|nnnLity, or too btii^ blowing. 
ren(Ii>r8 the glass gn>vnish »nd tlnully qnit« upiujne. HcdntHHl with- 
soda yli'KI« Icwi. With t^oda inid nitm n iliittiiirt ntanjranrüx- reac- 
tion, l-'nscd like tlio pn-c^-ding niiiicnil with bi?ulplnit<:-<.>r potnsea 
and dissolred, t\w eoluiioii gradually beeuracB griiyi«h-bln(> on adding 
»inc or rin. To detwt tnngsric add ivadilr in the wpt way, aec 
the fxiiniination for Inu^isric lurid. 
HiiuUieimile yields wati>r and becomes darker in the matrass. On 

POnnl \i rpdtiCKl to a mctnllic bntton. which TolRtili7cR grndiially, 

FetMting tliv coal with oxideti of luiid and antimony. 

Monimniilf on coal yii-lda a unillcuble tend-colornd globule, vhidt 
in 0. F. uRbrds antimony and IukI coats (Uanft). 

e, Examinalion f»T lead in mrtaUurgtMl proäuc/s, togfiker toith 
Ihrir UotrjMpti cliftracierixiicx. 

Tho vurions samplet) of commercial load Bometimes soutain more 
or lf«3 C4.-piK.-p, uutimonv. nnd »rseuic. If snch Wd is fnsed «ad 
kept in ruUiry motion, U. B. on coal, urR'ntc can be detected bj the 
odor, and antiniont by the coat deposited beside tbo U-iid cuoL A 



fery Irifl'mf; Hmount of satiinoay dbo be fuund b; using boncic 
ftcid» tide nntimonj.* 

Tu detrct lui; copper present, a bit of the lead in lrcat<:<l wit 
rilrificd boracic iioiil on coal, niitil nearly all of tlio lead \s sluggc 
off, wlicn llic ri-niMiiiiLg nu-tal bution iü fiieed with S. I'll, in <). F^ 
vide copper. 

Silver is found by cupelling the \eaä, vide silver assay. PloniUif- 
erviiB Ifack topptr vams in character, bnt »luays yields a liigiinct 
I«id cottl. OHht ingri'iLicnls are found acC'Ording to tb« dirvcUunS : 
nnd«T the ^neral exuiiiiimlion fur iron in alloys, p. %%%. The 
behavior of ftpeinfM utid ma//g is alfin givrn under iron. 

LUhiirge Iw'haves H. H. like oiidc of lead. If containing arsenate 
or antinionaU; of k-iul iL uflurdä, on rcdut'Lion, an arsenic odor, or aa ' 
antimony coat Copper is found by reducing wmc litharge to 
nictullic Inid and trml.iii<; ihf button with lionicic ucid and aArr- 
wnrd with S. Th., uaing tin if u^'ccssiiry, Wrf* w^per. 

Ahtirich rtom the cnpfllatiun for silver when trratcd alone on 
coal is ivdnrcil to Du-tullic lcad.<-mits a strong arsenic odor and 
yields coate of lead and antimony. Oo))[K-r is found us in litharge.' 
To d<.-tcct iron a largi-f pt<.-c« of aUtrtoh is reduced lK«ide a small 
boi-ax bead on coal, keeping the gloss const^nUy covered with a good. 
R K, and sliaking nff ihe reduced lead upon the anvil from tiin« 
time. By reniclling Uiis glo^s on ptatiiinin wiru in O. F. the iron 
can 1)6 raised to tbc stat« of sesquioxide and rccogoiKd. 

To delect sulpburie arid, not Ion small a ((nantity of the »biflrich 
is powdonHl and reduced with mCM on cocil, the resulting fused miv»a 
out out from the ooal and laid on motstent-d silrt-r foil, vule sul* 
phuric acid. 

Ahtug behaves in general quit« like abstTicb, bnt if mncli of th« 
bearlti m^u is mi.ved with it the nt<-tallic oxides uin only be n-dncfd 
hy adding borax, or soda and borax. 

Cupel MtotM or hearihe-, from the cupellation for silver, us well ns 

* To the pmciirnt xmvlnr the blDir[iip« may tw verv e<pcdnI1y rerooiiDcndcd 
t^misliing an caty Mml rcnain nicnns of »««piililtig Ntih of ilie ahovf-inentloiMtfl 
iniirciliciilii in l<«il. Even rcry triflins qnnnliltw uf nncnic on 1>« IikitkiIIiiIeIj ile- 
vxtin\ \<j ihn utliir, wht-it aIhiiii twu crm, nf tin: 1c«it mre qntrkly Tiim^ In n carlrr nn 
nutl villi tlir liliii? tictnp, anil iM^pt in roian' inuiiun ror > fsv mnmrniK. A ttttkiamf- 
liionv, ir ]>m«it, viKV If itMi^iwd bv llic lilnUh.wliilf rxtax <i\ anjitr of itntiiBUnT, 
whidi fiiniu Iwforc the yclloiv lend cent ap|>c«ni> In »uy cose tliu nw»! «ilnBie ii4anx- 
liiie uf Ixith ilii'*« ia;;mlltniii b ill one« pcrcepilM«, hcuiuM' njion couUbc ilie It-nil 
hwiibn lias not ihp chnract«ri«rip [«td-p'aj, Itutniu mtfoM, covcicd wlih i;lli{«ning 
veUowMt liiliniv«, «liicU \» »liown b; qnle pare lead, bnl pmcnw ■ daU. blMUib 
psf tx\m. 



Ute ßue rakinijs and lead smoke fi-om le«4 smeltinfT, cupelliti;: &ad 
routing prooesec«, nt oncc yield il leiul ooac when trenled aluiic on 
00*1 iu IL F. Tbc mannfror <lvt«ctiug tlie oÜKsr ingrvdifUU tatty 
be inferred from what hȊ preceded. 

.SVfi/r« containing oiidc oP lc«d yield ■ lend cout 0JÜi«r alon« oo 
oosl in R F^ or when fused lo a globule with «oda. Tlie oUiei 
ingredients are found b; the method giren under lime. 

9. Tix, Sil 

ft» occurrtact in the mineral kitiqdom and ■'« metaHurgical 


Tin occurs, in natiire, in the folkuriog minenü«: — 

a. Combined with sulphur in 
Stannite (tin pjrite«),— 6u* SQ4-(i'e, An)' So, witli 27.4 Sn and 
S9.Q Ca. 

B. As oxidä in 
Caasiwrite (tio-«tone), — Un, wiib 78.6 Su, bnt generally containing 

trifling quantitiet! of t^, Hin, und occaninnally i-vpu Tu or STb ; 
&a>tm'f from Cornwall, — Si.. .Sn and a titll« Xl. 1^ »nd Cit, with 
30J5 Su. (Iiiia \>evn regard««! us a psfudumni'iili aIVt rvUUpor, 
Tin is likewise fonnd m an anessoiitial ini^i-tHliviit in gcriM«] 
oth^ minerals, fiü., vtetaoric iron, titnmc iron, lanfalUc, athiiHlnte, 
ftrgusaniie, brwhaatiU^ monazHe, thorite^ olivinty eiivluM, and 
ertJ^dife. Tnioi-8 of tin can aleo be detected in CfPiai» brown and 
black sine blendos, when qnantiHi^s of sever»! griirnnn-^ ar^- tn-atvd 
iu thi- »ct way. 

ThiM mttal is rarely to be »nngbt for among mctallurgicul j>roihic1is 
except in the cBiwcial prodncta of the tin workn. including: — 

a. The varictifs of tin in commerce most of which not nnfi*- 
qoently contain more or lese Fc^ Cu» and Ah, and oceiuionally W, 

h. The acrr^a obtained in emfkiiit; tin ores and refining tin« 
tunnll; containing a notabk amoiinc of Ke iiad -Ae* alao oocwtionallj 
iboving On, Bi, W, and Mo; 

" "' Ita which form on the sole? of tlie »haft rnmncc« wlien 
•■■■■ 1 ores, and consiflt chiefly »f Ve and Sn, bnt not uufrv- 

n)tain some As, Cn, W, Mo, and Bi ; 
per ores oocnr wjüi stannite or cafisiteiibe and cannot be 



pprfectljr st^parntcd in csimrting and rin'««in^ llic ore«, BStuDitircrott' 
oopjwr fn»tt is formed during the »melting ppoces«, while atajiuif^ — 

emis copper is eapeoially sv)Mintt«d diirioj; thu fusioos for concea^ 


E » 4 iii l i* Btlon for Tis. 

fndvding the blowpipe charaeterixtUs of the minerals mentioned 


a. Qtntral txamxtuttion for tin. 

The twharior of metullic tin and the coat of oside on cliarcoaC 
hare be«D giT«Q on p. G'6, If the tin contniu« lead or bUmnili it^ 
i£ scarcely posaibl« to kcCj» u glotiulc of the alloy in fusiou, own in^ 
the bi'St It. F., wiihuut having it covered with n crnst of oxidi-. By 
adding huntx, bowftver, nud treating this wiib the It ¥., an «dmii — 
tare of lead or biemnth mar be recognized br the jclluir cout de- 
posited 00 the ooal. Shonlil it be doabtfiil wb*-Uier Icui or bii<niutli 
ia preaeul, (he coat la caa-fiilly serajwd utV. disaolved in S. I'h. on 
platinum wire, and the bead i.rented on cml with dn. Bismuth i« 
indicated by the gray or black Hp|)i*aniiin: of thv eold Ijeitd, p. tOO. 
The iiivsence of arsenic is a1»o aä<x-i-tuiiied by tliv odor, while In-nting 
tbo alloy with tbe borax, «bich allerwanls oxidized on plultnuDi 
wire will ntno «how a yellow color in preaenoe of iron. Tin js leauid 
for cu[ipLT by ftieing it on conl with u inistniv of otic hundred ]HirU 
by weight of »odii, fifty borax, and tJiirty silica, aa deccribed in the 
Beparntirin of tin from <«)p]M*r niidpr tlic qnnnlitativi; ocfpjHT ii»$ay. 
The remaining button of cupper, containing only a liitW tin. is 
treated with S. Ph. on o^al in 0. R, uniil the gliies ie colonxl. Tlie 
S. Ph. gld«8 mity then bo fnnhcr tested with tin, to aMertato whether 
copper is aettmlly present or not Tungsttni, which nsuiiUy E« 
pn^scnl only in trifling qiuintilies, cannot »Iways be deluded with 
certuintj by the IUisuk, iK-eauau the tin is seldom i^uile fre« from 
iron; butco dieaoU-ing cnongh of th« tin by warntitigit with ai)Utt 
regiu, diluting with H'al«r. decnnting the clear »ihirion »Jti.T tbe 
residue ha» acttled, und digesting the Ititler with fn-^h iKina rvgi^ 
yellow isb-greftn tiin;:$tic acid leuiaiut?, if iho ■ ..'B, 

Tbe ucid Bolnlion, uKnallf •'•Oi'-«' 1'fom in)fei^ -tm^^^i^'- m t^* 
residnc of tungstic acid • i^JM^^^^^^^^^^^^K.^ ]*l>- 

an platinum wire, wt 

Ido beat), p. lOO^ 

''i*iD, vb«B 



thcrn apon e<i»l, sincct th« globul« ouitiiot be kept bright even in the 
R. F., but ciuickly becomes covered with un inoreofinff crust of oiidi'i 
which can only be n^raüve^d with UiQicultj sft^r adding borax. 

MtiUillic )nil|iki<Wi couUiiningtin. but yielding no coat of 
oxidt of tia »cur thtfUMay when tr«iiU'd ulunc oti ovul, miut 
be nwiiUtl mid treated in R. K. with sodu und burux, whfn mr-taUic 
tin 18 obtBined, wlUch iiiajr be u-oud »Ion« uu coal. If other a-du- 
cibk' qicIbIis urc present they »ITord an ulloy, in which the otlirt 
iDftaJe cult b« recogaizod by meaus of the llux^g. 

In motallic oxidtw, or snb£tiiuoi>s m'Ufmllv. which are 
composed of oxid^*. tm may b« best delist«! by » nv 
duclioD acsaj on coul with si>da. or ncutml »xalabc of potuaa; it is, 
bovcwT, tii-vv«sury iu ucrtuiu cm«a» to luld borus, eo uc to «lug vlT tiio 
considerable amounl uf iron pn-wut. 

*■ Blowpipe cAaracieH^ict of Ihs aAow mNtrak. 

Stannitt alone on t^ial in XL P. fuwit t4i a glohnlr. In 0. F. it 
CToIri-« »ilphuiDiiH iKtd and is covtrcd with uxidt.-, wliic-h is nteu 
dep'Aäited on tht- coal near the (u^say and cuu be inimcdititely rx-cog- 
nized by its weil-knowu itro|Rrtic«, p. as. 

Id the open inbe it yir-UU eulptinrous acid aud tanui uxide, whicb 
collecta quite near the ii£8ur und mnnot be volatiliicd uguin. W«U 
ro«aied with nltemal« O. F. and K. F^ it shows iron aiid copper with 

A Ittl)« xinc. which may be fonud in tlieweLway, eniiuot be delect- 
ed R. lt., since the crtat which it formäisconuciiK-d by lliuuxidctirtio. 

Vaxfihrite bctrnvvB like binoxide of tin, p. 109, but with ti diiEK- 
cicnt qiianlity the bomx bead oucasiciUHlly shows a yellowigli color, 
only while hot, owing i« some iron; a fcebli! maiigane«; reaction ii 
freiiOfrnUy nbtuint-d with «hU and nitre. A email qnitntity of tan- 
talic or hyp-niobie acid ciiti be found by the method to be giTen 
under tuuLiJni» and niobium. 

Slonnit is inrufibl« on coal and in tlie forceps. It disMilvai 
tiowly III 11 o.ilorlfssglasH in IhUti^ and S, Ph. giving a eilieu Bkele- 
ton with the latter. With little sodn fnaes to a Bhig-lik« mai^s, ipith 
BMfnv tu B- K. ufford? metallic (in. 

^ EsMmiuati&H for lin in m/inlhtrpca! produet)», indudiuy their 

blotepif». cAarofteriiiticM. 

;ommcrrial tin n ay be dednced from the rcinarlu 



Tliedifierrnt sorts of tin scraps from smeltiDg »ad refialngtia 
bebftTc varionily, bat their const^tneoU mar be qaiclcly dft«ct«d by 
testing Lbem ou coal ami with the äaxes, observing all Üitit wus e«iil 
undvr a. 

Tile deposits on tliu i»Ic of the fiimaci^ treated oti co«! with bonix 
ID B. l\ «omcticnea yield an ntunietakAhle coat of oxide -it tin. Tbo 
uinuner of dt^lc-ctiiig the romaiiiiag iiigredionU may be dodiiood 
from tbe geiierul n-markson metallic cr>m|M]ii tids niidur itYin, p. S'32. 

Should then; Iw so litlk- tin, liovtrver, aa bo yield no diätiiict coat» 
It is only necessary to diesolvu th« piuduct in nitric acid und t4.>Ht tbe 
rcsidii«! of hinuxidi- or tin nith sudu on eoal. 

Tim tUigt fuse in K. F. alone on coal, witliont pi-odiiciiig a notice- 
able cool, liut by a rtduclioii a&^ay with aoda and bonx, mHallio tin 
18 obtitiiicd. The other itigivdii'nta are dt^tecwd aa giv«n nnder 
lime, |>. 105, but som« silver mtist hu aildeJ nheu it is |iii^>06t.-d u> 
reduce at) the oxide of tin. If tbe slog cc itaiufi tongstic acid tlie 
whole of the tuiigstcu ü found in the separaled silica, vid« tin «lugd, 
nader tuugeteiL 

10. BlSHUTH, BL 

Its oecurrwet in tkt minerai kingdom and I'n meiatlurgieal 


Bifimutb bolonga to tbe rarer n>etals ; it ii foDod: 

a. SfetalUr tn 
Native biamutli, — Bi. 

b. Combined with other «rw/o/s in 

Tetradymit« {Mluric bismuth), —X name given to several isonior- 

plioua cum^Kiimds, some of which also coriluiu sulphur and 

selenium. Duna gives the folluving apcdea: 

Tetra<tt/mil4f.—l. Fret from jwi/pA wr,— Bi Te', with 4I.Ö Bi ; 

S. Sutj^urous,~-^i (J Te + J S>', willi 68^ to OiJJBi; 3. Sek- 

niferouf, from Tellcmark, which, acconling to Beneliiis, givra 

B. B. u strong odor of Mk-niam ; 

JotiiUi—W Te' (S, Se)', with 78.4 to 7U.1 Bi, from Bnuil; 

WfhrUie,—'K\ (Te, S)', with 61.1 Bi. IVom Hungaiy; 
Obilmittf, vid« silver. 

c. "With tmlphur and arstnic in 

Alloolftsiip,— S, As, Bi (30.1 per oeaL), Co, Fo (Zn, Ni, An), 

d. Willi tulphur in 

Biamulhiuite {btxtrmth fflaner), — ßt, vith 81.3 Bi, oocasionally anme 
Fe und On ; 



Emplccdte,— 6n Uli, with CS Bi sad IM CO ; 
Wittidioatto,— 6u* Eti. wiüi 42 Ut and 38.4 Ca; 
Ajkinit«. from Bej-wof, 1 
Chiriatit«, > viätUad', 

Kobcllitc, J 

Annivitf, n'tie copper; 
Qranmiito. vUU iitokeL 

e. As sttiphiiU ouinbia««! with «eitf« hi 
Karelin itc,— Hi äi, with 91.'^ Bl 

/I As oziVe in 
Bigmite {hiKmalh ochre), — Bi, -with 39.6 Bi, bat a. w»js cotitalDing u 
liilJe Iße, C, f{, ULd occusioniill; Äs. 

g. Cnmhincd with (xirftonir. acid ia 
Bieiuutile ( tt'tmnutlu^pM) rium 3. Carolina,— 3 (Bi C + It) + tEi 

1^, wiUi 74 Bi and a litt I« 8i, ÄI, Ca. Kfg, mid t«; 
Oiubaiialu of hiutniith {lit»ittutlnt), — Hi, C, nnd IriBiug qiifuitittu« 
of ft;, üiir ^ und H. (PerhM{)« when pure liko liiemutite). 

A. With Miuric add in 
UonluiU>,-Bi Te + 3 XI (Dttiu<). 

1. As gitiiaie wiüi plnysj}htiU in 

Eulytilc I A. IG, pn>hn% Bi" Si*, with Bome P, IP*, An, Fl, and Ö ; 

(*ontiüning CS.ti Bi; 
Hypochlorite IJI, pimbrtWy a prodoct of decompottitioii. — Si, 7i\, Bi 

(13 per cent.), f'e, P, and traces of Ud ; 
Atelcstito, probably ulicote of bisruulh. 

i*. As vanadaU in 
Pncherite. 1, 1. Bi V, wilh Bi 71.87- 

Bismath, whivh is ^-nt^rally extracted tmra cobalt orce by h simple 
liqiiativD pivcco, mIsv forms au occasional accessory ingit^tlitrut in 
oertala metaDnrgicHl prodnctg, viz.: as metal, iu largi-s or sniallur 
prof)ortion, in iMbali speiiu, when tlie L-ubtilt uros cmplovL-d in tliA 
proiliictiou of emalt contain bismnib. Bi»niitb 'a »ho concen- 
tnled in tho^fiM at)d kid malt obtained as intcrnicdiiito prudncta 
in »melting cotiult nres containing Itiämuth and siWvr; it is fre> 
qnt^Dtly present tii "brightened" silver, mid most of it i» iib«orb«d 
by the mass of thd hrarth when Ih« silvi-r m ri-fini-U. I^aally. a little 
biflmnth may occur in tin, prMduc<>d on a large ecalo, iink-na th« 
ro8Sti.ll tin ore has bveu tttvd from it by treatniont with dilute 
«ydnichloric acid, etc, previous to the smelting process. 




tlT«niln«Uon Sot BUnalh. 

Ineiudittff tht biun>j}ipe charucierUtic» of tht abow-tumai 

a. Oenerat examination for biemvlU. 

Bismuth in allojs, oa they oociir in Diitnre und nmong motallor^ 
gicnl ])ri>ditct«, niuv be rcoiigtiiiicO hjr the i-oat nfTortleil bv the sub" 
eianw hIuol' on coal, nnd whicli is Ih'SI ubtaiucd in B. F. It 
is dark onuigo-ypllow nhilf bot, Icmon-yelluw ou cooling, and 
ohangoi t(« pluoi- iitidcr the R. F., without iNilnring the flume, \\ C7. 
When cauily vobtiliüM^le nietaU are |ii-i-äeiil Lhuy jmrtly pasa off, 
pAriK- in fiimM and pitrtly AfTord a coat, odjolDiiig tb« bisiuutb coaU 
A. ff^ lelltiiiiim. aräenic, eli^ 

Uismitthircrous leud, which i& mure or k-ss brittle ucconling to tb« 
proporLioii of bieniath, 18 Irt-utud aloue on ct)»l, nntil » distinct coat 
ia pnidiKhü-d, vhic-b i^ carvlutly aoraped ofT, dissolved in !$, I'h> on 
platiiiiiin wire iu O. V^ und the oolorles« Wud ireutMl with tin on 
uoal ill R. F. ir bismuth vns jm-st^nt the cold Wiu] ia durk-^ra^ 
or ni-arir bliick. Acidit uf mitiinoiiy, however, produce a similar 
reactioD, and the inetallic compound rotiei 6rst be freed tVom 
antimony, if jn-eseot, by tTpuiitig it. for sonn' linic on cimI in Ü. F^ 
and then kt-t-ping it mt-ltcil on a frvsh coul, until a cout i» t'i>rnii>d. 
which will emflice for the S. Ph. Icet. 

To vory inTtisiblo alloys, p^ntuining nickH, for inetnnc«, Boint> pure 
lili'cr muHt Im> abided, and tlio u-holn treated in It. P. 

When tbv bisniuih is comliined wiili sulphur a white cunt of 
Eiilphatc of bismuth forms beyond the yellow coat, bat this 
iiioy l>e prevented by udding Soda. 

The preseuce of much lead Cannes a mixed ooiit of oxides of lead 
and bismuth, v'hich nin hurdly bv disliiigitishvd fnim a pure leail 
oout, und a tiißing anionot of bismuth caii then only be detect^-d by 
ft ffjKTial tvst, -n-hieh may be made in two ware. TIk> «titple^t 
method consists in prodtictng a copious yell^^w coat and testing it aa 
beroro with S. Ph., after flrst aecertaiutng the absetice of autimoa; 
by a special cxaniinution for that metal 

The other method cunuihii; ill rousting the substance thorougbl^r» 
but ciirvfully, on c«d, to pivveiil sintfn'uff, fusing it then with Ihre« 
to fonr YidumrK of biäiilphalc of potai^m in Die platinum »]m<m, and 
trcatinp^ the ma6S with »'atcr in a small poi*ct^laiit di«h orerthß Imup^ 
until everything is detnchfd rr'>m the spoon. Siilphiite of pufii*«! 
aild other soluble Hulphatca arc dissolved, k-aving ucutralaulpliatc of 




Slid buic Biilpliate of bismuUi ; only a trifliu; quaiiLity of the 
bisDiDtli is dissolri-d lu ucutral sulpbAte. Antimon;, \t present, 
ftUo n^maJns Wliiail aa acid. 

Ader deciititiny llic clear golution, th« residue is heated io boiliug 
Willi ptiru HHtvr. u few drop» of Kulphiiric atjjd and aomv uitrjo acid, 
when the sulphate of bj^miith dis^ilvi-s, k-itvii)g a ix;sidite of 8ul> 
pbatc of lead, with odj- osidc of aotimony preaeiit. After ÖUratiou 
the bisnuith is thrown dovni from the warm Sllratc by mcaiiä of 
S. Pb., as » white pft-cii)ilali', which ia uolkcUd on ii (iltfr und UwU-d 
with S. Ph. Thi- bead on platinum wire ia colorless, or only yel- 
lowish, but on coal with tiu iu R. F. hccomc-a durk-jrrny un «Kiling, 
behaving lliiTcfort; like oxide of biBiniuU. It may altso Iv recogliiit-d 
as auch on cout. 

Wlwa siitistanccs ooutuining oxidL- uf bismuth arc trvatul oxiiu«, «w. 
alone, or with eoda, on coal, they yi^ld au uumielukabl« 
bisuiiitli coal. Should thon* b* any di.iibr, tlie oual imiy be *cmi>«l 
off and tested witli S. Ph, provided tbt; subfitunc^s aru free Irom 
oxide uf antimony. (See Section III. b, of tlie Apjiendix.) 

d. Bhwpiy« rharavierii^v-« v/ the miitfrals coNfamtHif Hiiauth 
above weittioneiL 

Naiivv biimttith Ijchavcs like pure btinniith, p. 67. 


Telradiftitilf, free from üulphur, fu^fs euaily and yields in the open 
tnbe white fumoa, wbieh psirtly strvain through the tube and partly 
condense near tho OKgay; when seleuium h prpKrnt u strung beat 
causes u nil Kpoc due to tlie admixture of »rkiiinin, wl!i<-h also 
imparl« a strong odor of evh^uinm lo the escaping ^as. The vThite 
coat fnKS B. it, to clear, eolork«s drops, and is thus rci'ognlzed oa 
tellurous aeid, but liiu reddish lilm vulatiliz««. After ihe volatile 
oouHtitiient« are nuiglly expelled üie nieüillic globule iB siinomided 
by brown fneed oxide of bianiiith, which ia opaque and yi-llow when 
cold. Un ei>al fuses v«ry ^.isily to u tnelallic globule, colors the 
lliuni* biulsh'grw'U, diffiigp«, if seleniferou», a diatincL »cleiiium odor, 
and dvposit^ a nbitu cout. with a dui'k oniiixe-yenow one stdl nearer 
the assay, The former disappears under Hi« It \\ with a blnish- 
;;n*. n flame, the lattt-r bt-oomos lemon-yellow on cooling. The 
remaining button can bd entirely volatilized, furnishtiigan abimdant 
bisniiiih c«'aL 



Till' finlpliumua rarieties also yield sulptiamiu ucid in the tobe. 
Wthrlite behftYCs lik« tirtradTDiile coDtuiiiin^' gnlphar. 
JosSit« does the same, but ufTunis tlio selenium rcKctiutiAdiatiiiotJf. 


AltoelajfUo aSbi-tls «räcuic fuimn uud n l>i8muUi cout on ooul, aad 
fuses to a *laU graj bnttuu (Nuunuiuu). 


BixMtiiftimid {mo» in tJie closed tube, yielding a littl« siilpliur. 
Carefully hi-aled in the oiien tub« it fua-s, yielding »iilphtiroUH' acid 
and a coat of stilphat« of htsniutli, which fu»?8 IL B. bo bruwn dnips« 
ytUowUh aud opnqu«^ ou eovUog. Strongly heated the as«ay boil«, 
mid nxide of biKtnulb is ilopMitcd in tlic anrroundiiig ^1»b«. On 
cvnl it first yields äooie sulphur, tht-u fusu«, sjiiru out gluwinj; drops, 
and deposits coats of oxide and sidphate of bismuth. When all the 
hisuuilh i» i-ctnuved u triiling MxTia ueually n-niiiins whiirh tn- 
i[tic'U(ly uffordd im» i-eactiuna aud üunietiniis «MpptT with thv äuxea. 

Emplecliie bmA vsitlichtmle Miuve Kitnilarly. The residue ou 
cool yiekU a copper button with swln or imuLiul oxalate of potaua. 


KarcHniU yiütds some EuIphuroiiD acid, but no «ulphur, in the 
miitrass; nit;tullic globule« of bisuiiilb 8<>pamte from the filled 
uiaaa. lu lliv ujit'n tube »ulpliuixiuti aeiil uud a bultoit of tuubil, 
sui'ronndcd by easily fusible oxido of bismiiÜL Efermann. 


Bismiie gonemlly yields wat«r, and upon addition of hydrochloria 
add frequently shows a little carbonic acid. Wtlh fluxes and on 
(xwlf Itlte oxidu of hisniuth. )>. 100. 

SALTtj or B13KUTB. 

BStmutite in tlie matrass diKrepitat««, yields water, becomes brown. 
and fRses rea<1ily on the glasa On coal ia quickly reduced to bis- 
mulli. lu S. I'll, a dark yfillow bead, colorless on cooling mid 
»liowing (kki-s of eilicu. Disaulveä in nitrio acid with i-flerYeDOenue, 
Wring a yt'llow, chtyt-y residue. (Ramnielabcrg.) 

CiirbüHaU of bifinuth i^Bismulkii) yield» in tliu niatniss a littl« 



water, decrepi Utes Bad turns gm;. Oo ctwl rednoes vitb efiervi-s- 
aacQ to bifmtitl), wliicb affords a bifuaulli co«t imd can bt> driven 
awiiv, lenring u trifling scoriu- Thia iti It. F. filscB U> a nrngiu-lie 
glol>uU*. Dtid ahowe ctiii-fly irou aud copiwr whli tb« flux«^«. With 
aod» un ooal the powdered mtaerol afforda a salpliur roictiou. It 
dissolves tu hydtxxtbloric acid, with evoluUuu of curbonic acid (o a 
paiv, jTi'UuwisIt fluid. 

Montaniie, »ccordiug U> Dana, yields wtit«r in the closed tub«. 
It. B. give« reactions for bismuth imd tellurium. 

Eulytite is uualtcTvd in the closed tube. (Accoixliag to Dana 
deci-cpitatfld aud afford« a irat'o of wak-r.) lu ths loi-oepH fust-s vory 
readily niüi intnmi-ecpnce, and if pure, tinges the fbmc bluUli-grci<n 
(pho^horic acid). Üii coal swells uud fusvs c-auiity to ti brovrn bc-ul, 
deposits a bi&muih ooat aud sonit'tinics vniits uii nre4-iiit.'aL odor. 
WJtIi a littl« eoda «fll't'i-vcec«» aud yit'lds mt-liUiic biguiudi nud u bead, 
eolored bine by a little onbalt. If this be:id is puwdcivd, trnited 
with aci-tic acid, diliiti*d with vatcr, filtered, nud the ^oluliuu tmitcd 
vith a few dro[>s of eolntion of acelafc of lead, phutipliute of lead 
fomu) and produces u dirtinct cloudlneej;. The 8. Ph. gloss shows 
ailica, and with tin on oonl biunutli. 

Uyp>tchhrUe h iufu^ible in the forccpSr bat assumes a dark-hniwa 
Oulor. With aulpliuric acid the powder yields a distinct ph(j:5phorio 
acid Aanto. j'. 76. On coal in It. F. yields a trifling bismuth coat, 
vithuut ruäiug. Ditisolves slowly in borax, sbowitig iron, mid Llio 
saturated gluss iu B. F. od ooal becomes somewhat cloudy and then 
aeaumea a ycilowitjli-green color, whilo a tdi^lit biainiitli ouat is 
formed. The S. Ph. bead is yellow aod show» silica ; on coal with 
tin bi-cümoB dark gray. 

With soda on coal it fuses with elTorTeacenoe to a globule, and 
prodncc-e a distinct bi«aiul:h coat, while a slight maugaiieac reaclion 
is obtained with soda and nitre. 

c. Mttaüurgieal produei*. 

The remarks under the genend examination for bismuth apply 


JU ocettrretice in the mineral kingdom. 

uranium is fouod in the following minerals : 
a. As oxide in 
Uraiiiuit« {jiitcliblenäe),—t5 ^ but always conluioing rousidcndila 



quaouU« of other aubatanc«, tiz.: Pb. Bi, Cu, Fe, Co, V, Afly 
S, di, Sig, Bi, aud Q ; corc-nU slioald probably ^ lucluiU-d 
Kliwite [pifttHite), mnialy liydratwl eefiqnioitide of nrauinm, wiüi 

f*b, Ca, ilg, |fo, ^e. Si, C, and V; 
Qummitc from Jtrlionu-Ueorgciictudl, o&sentwily hjdnited sc-sqai- 
oxide of uranium, mixed irith some phospbate of lime aod St, 

(md coniAiiiiiig Inic«^ of Xg, V, and F. 
b. Combinixl vjtb ackh. 

a. Willi tulplttiric acid, na n yulluw Ihisic suit lu 
Zippeite IVoiu Jowhimsibrtl, — C' i? + 12 Ü; the cnpreoiiB rarietj, 

-OnS + C'g'+ian; 
Cwconito, sanic lociilily,— 2 C'S + 27 (t; 
Uranviirivl, IVum wuiie lucality, — C' 3 ■*• 18 H. 

As ttulpJuiie of proto-tesqitiozitte in 
Joluiniiite, HOooTtiiiig to Lindiicker,--67.7 C, 6 Cn, 0.2 fe, 20 B^ 

ß.ö Ü ; 
V*)giiauiUs— {t', C)*^ + 3 Ü, one variety coiitaiofng 1.66 <X a«d 

•noUivrconlAining !2.$4 Cu (Danfl) \ 
Urauocb«lcite {urangriin) with 6^ Cn, 10.1 Ca, 97.1 ft, and 3Ö.1 Ü 

Ut^jidite, probably C S + Ca' 3 + 16 fi, thus approacbiug utiuio* 
olmk-iu», Lhiua. 

ß. With phwphorie acid in 

Autunitc ((i«ic-MraifiVf),-(Cii' P + S C" P) + M fl, with a UtLk 

Da; Dana wrik-8 P P + Ca tl + 7 fi; 

Torb^-mit« {eopjwr- Kranit f),- (Ca* P + 2 Ö' P) + 24 Ü ; or Ü' P + 
Cu Ö + 7 fi. Diina. 
7. With crirÄwircfleirfin 
Liebigits,— (2 Cu C + 3S' C) 4- 8ß Ü, ßanimelshei-g ; or (Ca -4- 

C) + aort, J. L. Smith; 
VraH-Kalkcarbo>\at from Junchimstbut, related to the preceding, — 

(Ca C + Ü C) + S f! : 
Voglito. pprbaps ft C + U ; D = Ü, Oa, Co. 

d. WiCi> /ii/fwHiolric acta in 
Samarskite, )-iW« yttria. 

t. With Kiliriracidin 
Uranophiine U-IU, 1,— (^ If t | 1^) Si 4 fl; ß = C(^ Sfg. R ; ß 



~^, %l. Contains l?tni(lt,-mlt«- «nil varioiiB diise in muted 

Trifling qnsnlittVs or nnttiium are aim (tnwH In 
Pyrochlore, frnm Rrcvig tind Kpctlnk^vftpii, i-i/i« limi»; 
FerguEoait«, Tttnitniiialite. euxcDite. tyritc, and polfcnuo, vida 


Bxaninatiob {ar Or*iilaBi, 

Inciuding ill» bhtepipe tAnraeiefivlie* üf the mittemls ahov» 

eu Hmeraltd. 

a. Oetwrai eziunination for nraniHm. 

TVIieu tcstinsr for arniiintn llic chief point to be coneidi-rcd is tho 
behavior of its sMqtiioTido wiili S. I'h., vrith which in 0. F. it jipWa 
a yellow gluM, becoming yelluwisb-grwn on cooliog mid piitw gpwn 
in H. F.. p. III. 

In abii.-nix' tif other oxidca prudiieiiig Himilur colore. S. I'hT violda 
d«ciäiv« rosnlte, bni when ositlos of imn atid possiblv abw titanic 
acid nrc prdsent, in which nn* the S. I'h. bend in K. V. h^'conn-B red 
f)0 euolin^, vid« intn. p. 'l'iT\. ihu iimiiiiiin color ciinuiilr he pt-rrvitwl 
by trKiiiting the f^liiss in O. F., whrn it. iw«umeS On cooling A gi-wn 
cdor, mixed with mach yellow. 

"Whon there is little nraniam and mnch iron the fliixe« slmw 
unlv ihc iron, ant] the Hulistunce mnst thvn be treuti-d wirh hiaul- 
|)hale of potjissit, carlKinttt« of amnionin, etc., vitie in)», p. lÜ'J-^. 

Substnnws containing oxides of copper aiid urauinni yield grwjn 
bonis in O, F. nith )>orat nnd S. Ph., and as snbslanrx-s coulafning 
oxides of iron und cupper, withunt nruniuin, di> \\\v «ime, the fol- 
lowing motlioil may be adopted to delect t-lic prrai^cc of a little 
nniniiim. Tite snbetnnc« is treated with sod«, borax, and n eitver 
button on coal in R. F., until all the cupper iä reduo-d into the 
Bilver, after which the slag, containing; nranium and other non- 
reduoible oxidt-a likv oxide of iron, in a low etatc of oxidulioii, is 
diwolved by warming it with a little aqna regia, treated with excoe« 
of carlwiiAto of amniotiin and the procexa conducted according to 
p. 325. 

b. BloKpip« c]ittr»eic»^i4ic$ of the a^ore-meniiontti ura»ium 

Oraninih from Johann-Ocorgmatadt yields mime wilier at first, 
then iistiallr, if containing many fopei^ eiiljataiicea, a trilling aubli- 
mateofünlphur, next snlphide of arsenic, un<i fiiiiilly metallic iinunio. 


r^cn'fi BLowpire .^haltsis. 

In the open tube evwlvt-s »ulpharons acid, acd »Ting of nnjenoat 
acid oolli'ctg oil tlic tube ; the »«sa; do«s n-.t uUc-r pcrocplibly. B. B, 
is only rotiiiil<>d somewliot on the e<lg«B »iid ueaally tingit thi; flame 
8811 re-blutf (lead), noar ihf assay, and fine grern si a greater di«Umoe 

The thoronghly ignitei mineral hehavea with the g)a» flnxo? like 
seBqukixiJe of uranium, p. Ul. 

It is not (li«io1ved by soda, but if treated in R. F. on coal, which 
often cause« a perceptible udor of uremic, after vriuhtni^ nway the 
oooly particles and protoxide of nraoinm iti the mortar, it yields 
metallic particles of a light copper colur, afiiuin-ntly coDeigting uf 
pliimbifemna cojiper, since a yellow coat in alHo produced on the coal. 
A test with S. Hi. osluhlidlies thii eupiwaitiuiu 

Coracite, gummite, eliiuiU, yield mach water;" otherwise like 

1'h« sulphatt* of tetqvioride of vrmiitim yield water in the mat- 
rass, hecoin« red, tlieu brown ; on coal evülre anlphnrona acid, ami 
react for uranium with the fluxes. 

1''lie ifulpfutte» of the profo-fmijvivxidi behave similarly, but B- B. 
change to a brown or greeoi^h-black mass. The S. Ph. beail with 
tin ox* coal is dark-red in presence of copper. The nitric ncid solu- 
tion treated with water and ammonia iu cscciu yiddo a yellow pre- 
cipilatc, which hehavea like pure sesqnioxide of uruninm with the 
flusea. ir Cu IB present the ammoniacal sulation ia bine. 

With gndii on coiil Uiey all yield a strong cnlphnr reaction. 

^if^NNiVc yields water atid becomes opaquo 6traw-ycllow iu the 
matmes. On coal fuiei wjth some iiitumcGccncc to a black globule» 
with IL or}*gtalliiie snrfiice. With tlie j;;la8s fliises ghowi uranium. 
With si»da a yellow, unfused sla^. (Berrelius.) 

Torbernite IwhaTes like antnnite, but ehows copper with S. Ph. 
and tin, ae wrll as on reduction with fiodu. The copper button is fre- 
quently ubiifned by arsenic, which qui be recognized B. U. by iUodor. 

i^iVfrijri'0 yields water and becomes greenish-gray iu ll>e raat.ra«B. 
At a red-heat blacken^ without fnnng, but becomes orange-red on 

B. B. in forceps and on coal ia iofuaible but remains block. 

With borax in 0. F. a yellow head, green in B. P. Dissolve« with 
HtcIv pffcrrcBCcncc in hydrochloric acid, forming a yellow solntion. 
(J. L. Smith.) 

The relatod Uran-Katkcarhonat loses water and becomes grayiJih- 
black, or by access of air brownisb -black, is infusible, and shows 
urunium with Quxes. 


Tofftiff likewise blackens whi-n hc-utcd, ia iiiriiüiblc ftnd uAon thi 
fiaiutf green. It ykUU cupiwr wlieu ivJuccd witli sodu. 

Vrauophane yields ulkiiliue water iu Uic Dtntruää. bUtcki-ns, nml on 
cooling is niRty bnivn. In the open tube become« almost omiigc- 
ifdloH-. and Bii-ungty lu-aU-d y'vMi trifling vaponi anJ u cuut. pBrÜ; 
ToUlIle und ptirtly fusible to dro))«. Te, n-bile a feeble selcuiimi ixloi 
ia pcrci-ptitilc. Alone thi- niiiicnil I'usva U> n bliick gin» und imimrta 
B sligbt copper coloi-nlioii to tbe lliinte. Od c<w1 alTurd« coats of !^b 
and BL With the tluxe« shows Si and uranium. 

12. OOPPBR, Co. 

npnrly iilwars ooti- 
tuining K>me Ag; 

Bi ocntrrenee m ih« mineral kingdota and in nuiaüurfficai 

Copper occnrs qnite «xtcnsively in natnix*, being foDod : 

tu Mttaltie in 
Native copprr, Cii, nocusiunally argciititfcrous. 

b. Coinbiucd tritli ar»«n\e io 
WhiUieyite.— Cn*' As, with 88.8 Cw, 
Algwloniu-,— Cn" A*i, with S3J On,- 
Domevkit«: {araetiiail coppw), — Cu* A« with 
71.6 Cu, 

Condnrrite, cesenKallT » mixtnro of Cii' As, Gii. Gu, Cii, Xe, JCs, 
conliiins fil.3 Cu and probably Ksnits fi-om the dccoiupogition 
oF araei}i<le, or urseoide and sulphid«, of cop]v>r. 
e. Comiiinod mith s^lemum in 

Citwkwitp,— (Gil. n A«) Se. with 45.7 Cii, 17.2 Tl. 3.7 Ag (Dana); 

Benteliuuitt-.— €ii' S<-, with C15 Co; 

Enoairite, vide »Wvot: 

Zorgiti^ and Sflenqnerkgilberkup/erblei, vide lead; 

iyelenl-upj'er^tiefkfilfifr, — Se, Cu, Ug, and a little Pc, also occnaion- 
nlly containing Pb. 
d. Cotnbiiitd with »ntphuT in 

Cliftloocite {i-y'ppfr ffloHCf),—^a, with 79.8 On, 

Digenite (prubably cbnloocite with covellite, 
Puuft ),— 6ii + 4 6u?, 70,4 Cu, 

CoTcllite {in'Jigt}.eopper),—(:u with «0.4 Co, but not always ftw 
from Fe and Pb ; cantunite has the simc composition ; 

Bomite {ervUnile, j>Hrpk copper),— äi\* ^ (or (Gn, Fe) S + Vv in 

containing occs*- 
sioiiaUy Fu and 



Tarying proportious, Daua) ; aaiially mixed or combined with 
more or lees cbalcocite, Bometimes also with cbalcopjrite; 

Tennantite,— (^11, 1'e)' As, with 47.7 to 61.6 Cn ; 

Xup/m-blende {tiaefdiilert) from Jnngn hohe Birke, Freibei;^ — (Gn, 
Fe, Zn)* As, with 41 Cn and traces of Pb, Sb, and Ag; teDDftn- 
tite in which Ca is replaced by 8.8 per cent. Zn ; 

Bnargite {muiyacanite),—*^\n* As, with 48J3 Cn, bat oootaining % 
little Kß and Zn in place of Cn, and Sb in place of As; 

Bamhardtite,— 6a' Ee, with 48.1 Ca, or 2 On + te + f'e (Dana); 

Homichlin,— 4!a' fe + 3 i'e, with 44.2 Cu ; 

Tetrahedrite {gray copper),— {Ö^a, '^e, in, kg, Ög)* (ab. As). With 
15 to 42 per cent Ca; those with no Ag contain moot Cn, while 
in those richest in surer, (freibergite, WeissguUigen), the Cn 
sinks to 15 per cent. The Hg varies from to 17.2 per cenl. ; 
lead and bismnth are seldom present; 

Binnite,— dn' 1&* ? with 39.2 Cn ; 

Annivite (according to Kenngott probably tetrahedrite, Daua), — 
(6a, ^e, An)' (As, 5'b, ffi), with 39.2 On ; 

Fieldite,-(6n, An, i'e)' (ab, Is), with 36.7 Cu ; 

Aphthonite {afionite), — Cn, Ag, Zn, Fe, 6o, ob, and very little Pb; 
contains 32.9 Cn and 3 Ag; 

Fonrnetite,— 3 (6n, i'b) (Sb, Ä's), with 32 Cn (Kenngott) ; prtK 
nonnced by Fonmet a mixtnre of galenite with copper ore 
(Dana) ; 

Cbalcopyrite {copper pyritea), — 6u JPe with 34.4 Cn; Ga + Fe + Fa, 

Emplectite, 1 .-, . - .^ 

Wittichenite, \ "^b.smnth; 


?Y"-P*^ LH?«sUTer; 


Freibergite {dunkles WeissgüHigerz), 
Stannite, vide tin ; 

Chalcostibite {nnthnonial copper), — Gn Sb, with 24.9 Cn, bnt con- 
taining a little Fe and Pb; 

CiibHnite,— 6u SSe -1- 2 Fe, or (6u f :^e + 3 %, Dana), with 22.9 Cn 

and traces of Pb; 
Ciirroltite, vide cobalt; 
\Völchite(^«/»wio/iiM;»A'/-^/ffHj),— S, Pli, Cu, Sb, As, Fe, witli 29.!> 



Pb and 17.3 Co; alterod bonrnonite, as shown bj Ramraelaberg^ 


CaitilUU'.— Hi (Gu. Zn. Pb, Ag) 8 + Fa S" (Dun») ; 
Bonrnonite, 1 
Aikiiiitc, I 

Aliüonite, I mVfsloiid; 

Clarito, I 

Poljbanit», rule silver. 

A Cumbimd iritb chlorine in 
AtaCAinile^— (Cu CI + 3 Cn) +3 0, but combinations with 6 ft 

and 9 ll also occur ; the Cu varies IVom 53.7 to 89.4 per cent ; 
TallitiÄite,— 4 Cu ft + Cu CI fi + 8 m| (Duna) ; 
Percylit«. inVe lead. 

/ As oxid« in 
Cuprite (incl. thatcotridixtet red copper, and tih ore),— 6ii, with SS.T 

Melaconibe {lettonte), — Cu, with 7S.8 Cn; in Veeuriim lava; also 

massiTe ftotn L. Superior, with oocaMorially u littk» Fv, Ca, luid' 

Kup/erschwHrie tiom Lautvrberg, — Cu 11.5 per cent, fiu, Fe, ]l;. 

XjA.m'paaiXt: \e*tprt4H9 mang<iMte), ) 
g. CombinMl vitli acid». 

«. With sulphuric acid iu 
Conu«11it^,— According to Couuell, coDtatn« On, E, and On OT 

<Ilana) ; 
Brocliaiitit^^,— Ou S + 3 Ca fi, irjtb 6S.1 Cu; Cu B +2i Cu fi 

(Uaiia) ; 
I^ngite.— Cu S + 3 Cn ft + ft, Dana ; 
CTanotricbit«,— Cu. Xl. (!&e), K ft, with 38.2 Cu ; 
Chikk-anthtle (copper t;ilriol,eifanosHe),—Ca 5 + 6 ft, with 25.i C«' 
Cranoclimite, vide potass» ; 
Pigantti», vide iron ; 
iiiuurit«. ride lead ; 
ünaoclialcite, vide uranium. 

ß. With pko»phorio acid in 

PseudomoIacliitL' (phosphocaUifa), — Cu* P + 3 Cn ft, with bO-ft Uu: 

in tlie variety from Rhl part of the V is replaced by Xa ; Dana 
includea Lure : 



Dihydrite,— On* P + 2 On fi, with 65 Co, and 

Ehlite,— (Cii* i*+n) + 2 C« iJ, with 53^ Co ; the Tariecv frum 
Ehl (xiiilains. according to Bergt^muDu, 7 and may be n^Hid«! 

»8 Cn' V + 6 [(Co' P + Ü) + 3 Cu H] (Bammelsberg) ; 

Libctticnitc,— Cu' P + On at, with 93.1 Cu ; BorgcmaQD foaod 2J 

per cent. Xb; Uie Bo-caMed pgeudo-libeifienUe hsa twice u miic}i 

Tagilite>— (Cn' F + 2 tl) + Co fi, with 49.4 Cn ; 

Thrombolitc— Cu' P* + 6 fl ? , with 30 Co ; 
Torbernit*", vide uranium. 

y. With carbonic acid in 
Malachite,— Cu C + Cu fi, witli C7.4 Cn; 
AiEiinte (Mm« mahichiU),—^ Oil + Cn fl, witb 65Ä Oo; 
Aarichalcite, viJ« dna 

Ä. With arsenic acid m 

Clino<:keite,~Ca* Za -f 3 Cu £[, vith 60 Cu, bat a littl« Ss replt 


Olivenitf,— Ch* (X«. P) + C« ft. witb 48.2 Oa; 

Corn wal lite— (Cu* 'Äs + 3 ft) + 2 On ft, with 43.» Cn; 

Erinite,— Cn'is + SCufl, witb 41.9 Cu; 

Eucliroite,— (Ca* As + 6 fl) + Cn Ü, with 37.5 On; 

Chaloophyllite,— (Cu* Xb + n fi) + ö on ft; n Tarying bctwwn IL- 
IO, and 18 ; Cu = 35.5 to 46.3 pr cent; 

Lindack« rite,— according to Lindacker, 2 On* Xs -t- Hi* S+ 7 fi 


CberrTiiitc,— Xs, ^ Ou (3^ to 31.7 per cent), fi (Dana) ; 

Bftyldonite,- (Cu, Pb)* Xe + 3 fl, On = 3S.8, Pb = 30.7 (Dana) ; 

Typolit«,— On* Xs + 9 fi, with Ca C oe impnriry (Dana) ; Cu =35- 

Tricbalcite,— Cu' Xa + 5 fl, with 34 Cu ; a little P replacing Xa ; 

Liroconile,-3 [On* (Xa, P) + 12 fij + 2 [Xl (P, Xs) 4- 12 fij, with 
28.7 Cu ; 

Coniclialoit«,— 2 (Co, C«)' (X^ P) + 3 fi, witb 1.7 per oent V and 
25.3 Cu. 


(. With dtromie acid in 
Vaoqaelinit«, vxdo IciuL 

f^. With vanadic acid in 

Volbortliite,— Co' V + fi. with 48.5 Cu, hut not free from 0«, and 

therefore possibly identiwil with 
KaUmldortha,—[Ca, Oa)' V + II, with nboDt 36 Cu ; 
Chileit«, vid« lead. 

I]. With iungttie ncid in 
Ouproscl oeUte,— Cu ff + 2 Ca W (Dana). 

*. With silicie odd in 
Dioptftse ni, IQ.— Cn Si + ä, with 60 tn «od ocowionally a tittle 

ti, Xl, Oa, ftnd Hlg ; 
Cbr^eocolla, III, 16 (according to DaaadocB not gelatinÜGe), — Ca 

Si + 2 Ä, with 45 Cn- Many TarJeli« contain «ilicftt« and car- 

bonat« of copper mixed. The eo-called Kupferpefhtrt or Hrpa- 

tiiurt contains much limonit« a$ impurity in varying proper 

Svp/erblau III, 10.— C«. Si, and ft. with 36.3 Cu, bolonga here 

and includes Demidoßie-, from Kischne Tagilsk, with 31.5 Si, 

5.7 V, 33.1 Cn, 30.-1 tl and some Xl »ad Ag (NauDUDii) ; 
Allophanr, vide atuminn. 

Copper ia aiau frvqucotJj fennel, in afttlllJon to the rcgnlar ßopper 
prodnctg, u an arc«Rf!or7 ingredient of the Bilrer and Wd prudncta 
of emoltiiig worlu. when Uxc ores treated were cupriferotie. It lhcr&- 
fore occurs : 

a. Jfe/ailir ae 

Be^ttfd copper, vrmtnt mpper, and in comhination witli other metals 
M raiP or black opper ; in liquatiou discs, and rtsidutf ; iu oa* 
priferous Mir», which form nndcr certain circumstances on the 
BOl« of the shaft rumnce« whpn copper ore« or products rich in 
Iron are «raeltcil; (inallj io cupriferou* roKlead. As already 
remarked under iron, p. 321, Pb, Ni, Co, Fc, Zn, AIo, Sh, and 
Afl, may occur with the copper, and occasionally some Ag. 

b. Combined with sulphur in the Tarious tnatu aud ^mst*9, i>«i& 
iron, p. 221 ei seq. 

c Aa oxide in 
Kupferglimmvr {mieaetott» eepper) obtained in roßning antimonial 
raw copper, and ooneistiag of (Cn, Si\)" Sb and (Cu, fii)"Sb; 
also in idv« vitriol and in impnre copperas. 
It abo occurs ua aiiboxtde in combinatiou with oiide of lead aud 



small (|DiiiLtilk-8 of olher osidoa in «crap» and in scale« fh>iE 
the liquakd mass, as wdl as witli »licio noid iu all sort» of »lttg6 
fipotn the ooppLT und li<]iiatioD works. 

Bmulnatlea for OoppMr, 

Inducing the Noicpipe e/iaractirittic» of tkefortgeinff mtneraJ». 

a. Oeneml examiiuUittn for copper. 

Moflt native combinations oT copper with other nieUU contain 
.-^ K-Icniiim; wht-u this i» expt'Ilod iu 0. F. on coal, other rusily 
Tolatiliised metals Iwing sIbo partiully n'oioved, and the r9> 
maJiiiiig huUoii is tn'alt'd with txii-ax in O. ¥., Iho iv^ulting sflius is 
CoIofmI nsu»ll,r uith oxide of copper, p. lüä. Thiücold gliuujtrvatnl 
iu R. F. on u frvaii ooal, bccomeä n-d and quite vjiiiquv on cooling, 
bnt «omelimee, if the fi- F. is kept up too long, the copp«ris ri-dnc«d 
ant) IniTe» the gloss colorlofs. The n'liction ancc^edj; t)ctt«r wh<>n 
the glius is treated a X'lir eecondi) be«ide 6om« tin in R. F. p. 80; 
part of the tin ojiidi^es at the expense of tlio oxide of copp<.T and 
dieaolrca without coloring the glass, white the resulting suboxide of 
cop)i<T niukes the glass kh\ mid o|i»<]Ul'. Thi- lightiu«:) of Ihc tvA 
color di?j>ends upon the freedom of the glw« from other coloring 
Oxides. S. Ph. maj be eniplored in plane of borax. 

WhpQ th<'rc ii only a tmce of copper, as in aiker li«d obtain«! on 
ilie isrgp scale, or in lead reduw.1 from cn[)rvoiiä Hthargv- ur abi^nrh, 
tliis method does not always afford a nxl bead, while in presMirc of 
autimonjr the add glues ia gmy or hlock, and opaque. In «iich ca«^ 
the alloy tniist Brst be fused in O. F. alono on eual, until all the 
antimony is volatilized, then mo«t of the lead mAist he dissolved in 
ritrifji-d iHinicic acid, vitle quantitative copper Oüsay, p, 4A1t, und the 
remaining globule tnrivted aome time with 8. Ph. on coal in O. F., 
«fu^r which the glass bead ie ftis-'d with tin in K. F. A trace of 
Copper will render the cold bead dlütioctljr red and wholly or par- 
tially opaqne. 

JVhcn the alloy contains much nickel, cobalt, i row, and arsenic, 
nioai of the Co and Fe can t>c separated by bnrax on coal in It. F. 
and reoogniited by the color of tite glasa, p. 224, after which lead may 
be a*lded, and thii», with the remainder of the cobalt and iron, di»- 
solved in boracic acid, while the gnatcr part of the ar«:nic will 
volatilize, 'llie remaioiiig cuprtferons nickel bntton, which may 
eontain »nmc arsenic, is treated in 0. F. with S. Ph., which will ho 
dark-gm-u while hot, becoming lighter on cooling, and wbeti r^uite 



cold fine greet), if not ooQiaiDiug too littlu copper. The ßuol grtx-n 
resiiltö Crom the yt-llow of lb« ntckvl und the blue nf the copper. 

Tti dt-tüct a little copper in tin it is tn-ntcd wiili auooeseJTe portious 
of 8. Ph. ou cual iu O. F., uatil ucnrly all the tin ia SRpnratüd und. 
tbe remaining button impurts a bluuh-gn-eti color io the gUaa, wljtn 
H bit of pure tin t$ sdiltxl «od the glues trcvtt-d u abort limv m R. F.; 
oo oooling the bead becurufti red. 

ComiioQDdfl of c<>p{ter with ^ulpliur *nd with melallic JI|''j|'i!]!i 
sulphides are ronetod at u moderate lii^at on coal. p. 77. 
vith theO. F. and ß. F. altrniately, uotil idl thi>mtphor i« reniurcd, 
und III» product is ihi-u trcaiud with soda in R. F., yielding iiiftiillio 
oopjHT, or dissolved id the glass flax«« and ivsVed for I'oppi-r with Liu 
00 coaL 

If other M*ily reducible tnpiallic oridea ar^ pn?st.-«t, thp reduction 
with eoda aironl« an »lioy nf copper and other metals, TH'liich, if nut 
in uric butluu, miiy bo ubluiiR'd by wudbiiijc awuy thv a\a.g and ontl in 
thti mortar, and is tlieu reüued with lead and bunkoic acid on ouul. 
|i. 442, provided it coniains no U-ad. When it is livi-inhh to avoid 
ntiuing, tht* alloy may U> eiinpty tv«tvd fur copper with borax and 

L&Ph. ii3 above di-8cribcd iiiider mt-Uillic (;oin|)uu tids. In vwm unly 

Pfeqciositle of inm is proficnt, tlu- rt-dnclion does not oflord an uUoy» 
Mit tin- <^(>p]H.-r anil iron an- o1>ttiJn(<d iipjirt and cnn !>■■ cU'iirlv dis- 
tinguished aftvr wuKhiiig, by iliv uid of tbe mugnitiiT und ibe 
toagnet Tbe prenejic*; of binoxide of tin, as iu roasted 8tannile, 
canwe a «'bite, brittle uUuv, wbiub, txvatiil fur tome time be«ide an 
S. Ph. bc^ in O. F. on I'ual, n^iidirtj the l>ead red and opaf|nc on 

Should thr roastrd eubstauut.- contain other cidoring oxidea beflidci 
oopiwr, cxtvptiu^ tlioae of lic<nit)tli oud antimony, it vrill aluaya 
yield the copper roAClion as well m the other reactions, if diiwolved 
in Üie BQX.e« in 0. F. and then treated with tin i ii K. P., unlfcü there 
!• tuo litlte cupiiLT. In presence of much bismuth or antimony. 

' bowL-ver, the bead trt-at^-d with tin bi-comca durk-^ray to black on 
eoollnj; and the rwl oopi»er-rolor is (■ntirciy ranwuled. Wlioii thom 

' ia bat little bisjnulh or anlinuiny the bead feeqtieutjy become« only 
hrownisll'gray. If n gray or black Inad is obtained, tbe roaat«^ eub- 

I Miuicc miut bo fuMMl in 11. F. on c-.>til, nith a mixi're of soda, borax. 

I and lest lead. The resulting btitlou it then trealvd nluoi' on cutU. to 
ToUtilize the antimony, and afterwiird wttii lionu-ic acid, until eilher 
a pure copixT button n-muinis ur all is diMoivi-d and tht- cuppt-r hsm 
iuipart«-d a bine, green, or red culor tu ilic bontoic acid; or vlec the 
I'ojrper butioi , utter Ix-ing freed from moitl of the lead mid bismuth 



by mosas of the boracic acid, ia tested with S. Ph. aid tin 110 

Wlien ftsiibstaDoe conaistiDg. fur iuitoDC», cliit^fi; i>f «alphlde of 
iron, ODDtains so little c>op)>er that it yit'lde no reactiuu with Inirax 
orS. Ph. aod tin, s larger (timntity, about one hiindn^ milligr., initist 
be rututcd u Id thequujititaLivo copper a«sav, Lben mixt-d with iiu 
equal amount of soda and half as much borax, nnd, in tbc abflenoe 
of easily n-dufiblc lUfUllic oxidcH, with tliirty to tifty luilÜKr, ttst 
Ivad, ufl^r wltioh the mixmrp is n-duced aa in the quaiuitulivu u8»»y. 
AU the copper is coutained in the resaltiDg butloD, which in wps* 
nUfd 0*0111 Ibi-- alug aud cau tw furthi-r trvuied for cup|H,'r wiüi 
boracic acid, itiid then with 8. Ph. aud tiii. In place of tbc k-ad & 
bit ot pun:- gold may bo employed, which u ahtirvard te0t«l fur 
ooppur with S. Ph. 

The oxides of copper cau be very «wily rwcogniavd by testing with 
thoglaa fluxce, and by n^duction wjtli soda or iivtilral oxalatv of 
potaasa, pu 102. AVh«n other metallic oxidea or acid» are (Um prv^eitt 
as iu various metallurgical produptt:, the r(>murks undi^r iron, 
p. 2:24, are to be borne in niiud. Antimony nmy be n^t^-o^iiixed 
purLly by ita coat on coal und partly by tbc black bead aflurdüd with 
S. Ph. and tin. 

aiikiim tni "^"''^ fillicate« and other saite of copper dissoWt- in O. F. 

«tii«rMii«. ji, ,jj^ glas* duxn togrw« heads, blue on cooling, if fiv« 
fnjm other ooluhiig oxidee. Tbt* greater part of the silic'u rcnuiitu 
unditsolved in S. Ph. Treated with tin ou coal the beads become 
red and opaque on c<K>ling. 

To obtain tnetiillic cupjicr, aulphatvs and ar^'Ralt-e mtut fint be 
thoroughly ruaätcd on coal, »od product, as well as the rcmuin- 
i&g «alts, then nrduced with stkla and borax, when tbc coj^r 
genentUy anitoa to a single hnttoii, wbil« the diRicitltly reduuible 
oxidt'S are dissulred in the bonis. Phoaphat« of copp<?r, bowerer, 
only yield« the whole of its copper when a bit of rery tine iron wir« 
is »ddod to redtici^ the phosphoric ocid. 

Wh>-n a iH>mpäand of sulphates or arwnstefi of copper, Dickel^ 
cobalt, and 8e«quiuxide of iron is rtMuted, the Hulphnr is tolatilixed, 
bnt part of the ar»-inu n-raaina as arsenate of uickel, nud when th« 
roaett.-d e»belaui-el5 reduced with soda and borax, coppor, niclctrl, 
and arsenic unite to a fudble button, whih> the oxidt-s of ca.uilt lutd 
iron di»anlFR in the horax. If the n-duced button ctintaine cop[>er it 
will ut oucl- impart to S. Ph. in 0. F. agrctn color, bfcouiiog «ome- 
what lighter on cooling and due to nickel and copper. The copper 
may funher be tested for with tin 



le suboxid« of cuppvr ut slugs cautiot bevatiil; detectinl by monns 
c^ soda und S. Ph., except In copper reßniiig ei»g$f because il forma 
fnqutntly m vury Iritliug iu^mlicaU tind the main constituent«, 
which are silicatcä of the earths And difiicnitly reducible tnetulUo 
oxidnti, conceal the oo|ipi?r ivucliou. It is tlieivfore ulwitvä nix*«airy 
to reduce the slsga wilti soda on cuhL SLutild no cupjier l>e thus 
obtained, a larger qnuitdtjiODe haudred milligr., muet he treated 
with soda, et<;„ a« directed for the rouslvd sulphide, p. 2!)t Should 
erurvlhiug tw diHSuhi'd iti the borucic ucid a very siuull i^uatitilv of 
cojiper may only produce a red, blue, «r^reen color at the spot where 
the laet of the L-jhI waa diswlred, but if there is uiic per (.vnt. of 
copper ill üie sittg and the boraoio acid is treatc^l with tbeK.F. 
beside the lead, only the latter will tw diMJulvod and the uoppei 
will remain, shewing white nielt^'d it» jit-culiar blniKli-grL-en color. 
if the O. F. io then dinctcd upun the cuppcr it will oxidize and 
oolor th« whole bead red, from suboxide. When the remaining 
bottou does not aeem to be pur« copper it im fused b««ide S. Pb. 
ID 0. F. and the colored bead truHted with tin, M aborc. 

In the forct-ps cuprift'rüuä miiitrulä iuipurt a green tinge tti the 
Btme, which is asurc-blue in prvüouce of chlorine, bat afterward 
bttoomos green. Whoa much lead is also prcnent the flame is blue 
with a green tip^ Should oupper nut be thus simply deieclt^d it 
nay t(e foQod by moisteniug the siibätance lirst with hydrochloric 
idd, vhcn the reaulting chloride of copper affords on ozare-blue, or 
gr»!Utäh, and in certain canea redditih-blue color. Silicates, n. g. 
«]ag>». ninat be finely powdered, nioi»[*!n<-d with hydrocliloric acid In 
a porcrlain dish, dried over The flatnc, the (lowdcr atirrcd U> a thin 
paet« witU watvr und then fused B. \i. on platinum wire, when the 
uuro-blue color mill uppvar, if cupper is prvscnL 

^KfetalUe Oij^per fasea to a bright, blnish-gnn'a globule, which in 
eorered with black oxide on cooling. In 0. F. shows oxide of copper 
jDf with the fiuxc& 

d. Blowpipe charaeterutiao/ tke foregoing cupri/eroug 


Whifne^te, algodouUe, and domeykUe yield no sublimate in the 
cloecd tube. On coul they fuse rendily to a bright globule, «voire 
arsenical Inmcs, nud (hen rCMkClfor copper vilb the Siixeg. 

Condurn'tt ut Unit yields water in the mulraiui, then arsermus 



acid, mid ussumes on tb« surface a silvor-wliite color, iocUniag to 
blai«h. In the open tube yields arocnoug acid. On coal fusM 
«uÜy, cvoItcs ft elrou^ urecniü oUur uud yicldü a ycUowutb, metallic 
mass, wMcb »act« weakly for iron with borax in R. F. «od tbeu 
ibowg copper. 


Bert^ianit« fasea readily to a gray, someTrliat seätile bnttoti aad 
evolree mi odor of gcleiiiiim. In the o\wi\ xn\w a it>d, pulverulent 
Hiibliniale of SelenUim, bordered br n crysUiliiiK-, eii$ily volnlile sab- 
limaii: of srli-uutiä ucid. Uoasted and rcduci-d wiUi swlu it vielda 
copper. (U«rzeliu&,) 

S^eninipferqusckeither siayAvim tlie mat?«« ni#reary and »i.lcöitim, 
and at a ttlrong beat Kulphuruu« »cid i-an bc! detected. On otiul 
volatilizes, affording a strong ooat und odor of aeltruiiim, and leuvesa 
tiifling rtfiidue. By ruduction alfurds truces of copier and iron. 

Croehesite fuees very reuidily to u givi>ni>>i-b!aük, stiuiiiig eitiimd, 
and colorg tlie flame etrongly greeo. (Danii.) 


Chalcocite yields nntbing in the closed tube; iu the open tnbe 
ealpburout ucid. Uu ts>al fuses readily to a globuli-, which ^pirta 
and i>vulve;j äulpburous a«id. The powder reduced nitb neutral 
oxalate of pottwsa yields copjwr aiid sulphide of pulA&äinot. which 
sink» into the coul and is strongly hepntic. 

I/igfnile yield» iruei-s of wulor aiiU u eiilphiir eublimutu in ÜU) 
closed tube. On coal yields some sulphur, otherwise like vhalcooii«. 

CovellUo yields trnceg of waier and niucli »ulphur iu tht^ clcis«d 
tube. Iu the open tube GUlphurous Ucid and, if (^iiiukly heated, 
sulphur. Oa coal burua with a blue Same, then behtives like 

Bornite only becomes dnrker in the closetl tnbe; in the ojien lube 
yields stilphurous acid. Ou cuul fu^-s e»»tly to a liritile, m:i^ietio 
globuk-, with grayitih-rcd fracture. The roasted powder yjt-ldä iron 
and otipper reootioas- 

Teiiinin/itf sometime« decrepitates slightly in the olosi-d tuho und 
yields sulphide of ursi-nic. In the oiM-n lube yields stilphiirous and 
arevnuus iu:id& On coal fuM.-« emsily,*with intuiuesceuou and eralo» 
lion of sMlpliiir tind «rwti*' fumt-s, to a diirk-gniy, miifrnetic globulo. 
The roiiKled }Kiwder retic s for iron and cupjier. and bv ix*ditctiot 
yields copper butuau and uietallic iiun. No cout is {K-nx-ptible on 
-th« cooL 



KupferbUfwitj fPüin Jongc höbe IJirke and Al(c Moi*dgnibe, near 

I Fivttifrg, dL-c-ivpitiLtea very strougly in the ciainl tube »ad yields a 

little fiutpiiiir and, at a higher heat, «ulpbide »r at^cuia On voal 

like Icnnantitc, but is distin^uitiUcd by affording a coit of ars-eniioa 

acid and, vith H. F., an nbuudimt zino eont. IfoAstvd in ]><>wdor it 

n.-»ct8 Tur copp«r and irou. aud by a rvductiou u«iuiy uDurds a stniiig 

zinc coat, while copper and iron retnaio alter t))e coaly nutlitrs arc 

wa«hi-d aivuy. Upon Hcpunitiiig Ihc iroit wilb tlic* magnet and 

cupfllic}; tbü copper witli U>ad, a lilllc äilver is obtaiuiHl. 

■ Ennrgiie decrepitates with eome Tioleno» in tliA doted tubo luid 

Hrtilalda a sulpliur sublimiitr at a gcntlct hciit ; mnre strongly lu-ated it 

HHltSCS to u biiltt.>n, and sulphide of iirseiiic is givuu otT. in Ihu i>)k-d 

^ tube the powder yields eulphnrons and arecDOiis a*'ids, tlie liilter 

« mingled with üxido of antimony. On oonl the powdi-r fims rcudily 
to a globule and aflunU alight coats of areenouä ucid und ujiidt-x o? 
autiniouy luid zinc. 

On pnlvcriiing; and roastinff this globule, diftsolving it in borax aad 
reiluciiig out the copper, u little iron may bo dut«cutl by the greenish 
color of the borax glass in R. F. and llir yellow color aMiiniftd by it 
wbtu l'ut«d «gaiu in 0. F. on platinum win-. 
' Bamftardtite und homicltlin yield n sulphar iablimato in the 
closed lube; otlu'rwi»; liki- boniit«. 

Triruhfftrile Bnmftimes dccr(iiil"at#« in the clowd tnbe, fuse«, and 
[ strongly heut«!! R B. yields a darlt-i'ird snblimate of enlphide with 
' oxide of antitnony. or sulphide of arsenic, or a mixture of both, 

according aa Sb, Am, or both together are prcHenL A low red-hent 

euffices to prodnce a dark-gray to black snblimate of Kg, if present 
In the open tnb« ftisos iinil yit-lds copious niitimonons fumej; and 
sulphurous acid, fn-igtu-ntlr also arsctiuiis noid ; the residue ik black 

and inhieible. If ug is present a mirnr of meronry Ibrms before 
I aoy considerable antimonous fumes appear; by too rapid heating 

black a% is 8nblim<it. 
, On eoal fuees readily to a globule nod yieldn a copious antimony 
coni, whil« with a good R. F. a second tuvitX is formed, yellowish while 
bot; u'hile an cooling, and showing zinc with eolmU sulutiou. p^ 353. 
Id prooetioc of lead this cuciuot always be dcutitt-d. Arsenic ia 
noogoized by the odor, nnlcea in too email quantity, when some 
soda muNt be mingled with tho powdered mineral and the whole 
tre»t«l in R. F. Thu Biilphur U thus kept biujk and tliearsonic alone 
Tolatilized. The globule remaining after tr<;»ting the mineral alone 
on coal is pulverised "ooetcd and tested with glod» 6uxt-s and with 


PLATTXKKä lll.Offril'K AX^LTSn. 

■oda, wli«D tt fields n-actiou« for iron aod cop^ier. Bedaction «iüi 
Büda iini.1 bonix wimotimes sffurds nicooliferous oopper. 

Tti iletcoi ft Tery üttle morcur; it ma; be noccifary to li«at Ute fine 
puwdvr, mixed with three Tolumt^s of dry aoda, or iientnU osalnti* of 
poiasea, in h iiinira8&. Silrer is foaud by an assay with tret Iwd, vüU 
qniLntitAiivi- sIIvlt uAsiiy. 

JiiH»Ut yields iu the closed tabe sal^ihide of ar««>mo, in the open 
tul>o fiiilpbtiri)ii8 and arsDuotiä acids. Ou coal yjoidd au trMiiio ooat 
and odor, and lutun with spirting tu a black globule, sDrrouuded hj 
a zinc ouuL With th« äuxea gives copjicr reactiuae. 

AnniviU hchuvi-s likeplambifiTvus iiL-trabcdrite; bismuth oau only 
be found hy lht> wet way. 

Fieittite, prubably like cnargite with untbiioDy predominating. 

Afiouiie like argentiferous tt'tniht^ritu. 

FoHmflU« like plumbiferoos telraliedrit«. 

C'fiaiatpi/rite d»i:rv\nla\us iu iho cluaKl tub?, yiütdg milphnr and 
bwom«« dark or larniübeil ; in the op«?u tube evolree sulphuroua 
acid copionDly. Vuevs ua ciwl, tipirliti^ and throwing olT sparks, to 
a black, ruiigd. ma^'u>.'lic globule, with a dark-gniy fracture WvU 
roaattxl givt-« irDu and coppur reactioug; by rt-ducUuu with soda 
yields iron and copper. 

VhalaMltbiie decrepltntce la the cloecd tubt-, fiiSL-s, and at a high 
htrat ytt:ldä u lillle äulplüdia of antimony. Jn ikv opt^u tubi' evulvir« 
sulpburuuä acid atid copious antimonial fiiinog. Ou cual fusoa 
readily, with evulutiou uf antimonial ftiuies, to a globule, wliioti 
tested with borax ahows iron. The rtmainiag globule yields copper 
with soda. 

Vvbtmite yivlds traces of sulphur in the olosed tul)« ; in the open 
tube eiilphiiriiue acid. Fusps readily on coal, with «volution of 
sulphurous fiinieü, to a nia;;7]i-tic glubuk-. IjeaA, if prc^-ni, pro- 
tlncce a fi-fblc ct'ut. ItuusU-d iu |>owdE-r it yields inm and cupper 
mictions with the fluxes, and mctaUic iron aud copper by a reduo- 
tion aseay. 

Wl^ehiie yields some water in the matrass and fusi-« with cvulutioa 
of sulphur aud sulphide of aracuic, to a nirddisb- brown scoria. Ou 
ooal Uimi with i-bullitioD and deposits autimoiiyand load coals, wbil« 
a icod-gniy mi'talliu button reniaina, which aft«r rousting yields with 
Boda u ouppif tintloiu 


AtacamiU\n tht! c-lowd tube tHclds water rutbcr abundantly and 
gives a gray sublimate, booming gi-ayish-whit« ou cooling. FaSM' 



oo Cool, affording an azuro-bltie ütuna witb a greea tip, and give« two 
ocmii, one brownish und one gmyUb-wblte. It is n-ducetl tv a ouppei 
button, surrounded bj some slug. Under It- F. tlie cotiU ctiange 
their pufliLioii, and slion tbo uzuK-bInc flume of cbloridu of uippcr. 

Pereylite decrepitat«a in Ibe ulo»»l tube und n-ben gently Kentvd 
iisstuueg ft Lnnaonl gre«& oulor; liule wattir U ubtuiueU. und tlie 
mineral (inallj fuwa to a brown fluid. B. 13. Id the forceps in O. F. 
givM a green flam« with a durk-bluc tip ; uu ooal in U. F. nlon«, ot 
with eoda, affords copper ood kaU buttons. 

TaUingite uud coantllitt would undoubtedly »bow the chloriilo of 
co|^er flume [TruusL] 

OXIDES or corpKa 

Cvpritt io th« forcejia ftiaea and colore th« Etame omerald-green ; 
moidtciied with h.\dn>c)ilori« «cid yields on axure-bluo fluuio. Ou 
coal Muvkt'ns, fuHng und id reduced to ouppi-r, which is coated with u 
lliiu film of bWk oxide ou cooling. 

Moiacitttiltt like oxide nr cop|K>r, p. 102. 

KupferuhwHrie «omviimvs ytdds muolt vak-r iu t1i9 matnist. 
Altineon coul is reduced tu a cupper button, Tri'^iut^nlly surruuiiQed 
by slag. With the fluxes aiTorde reftctions for c(^per, iron, and 


The »ulphat9s of eo}ip«r behave a» follows s— 

BrochantUt yi«^lds wat«^r and aometinu-s blackens in the niarra««. 
If then powdered, mixed iriih cbarcoal duat uml alrongly hnitcd in 
tho closed tabe, it evolves sulphiuoua aoid. On coot is rtxlnced witli 
eflerrescence to a eopix-r button. 

Lanijitr.~\i. B. on coid yields water, acid fumes and metatlio 
copper. Heated it htrcumes bright green, lo»iug one equivalent of 
watvr, then Tsriotis tints of olive-groon, and lastly black. It has, 
Qnally, a strong ncid reaction (Uann). 

CkakaMihiie swells in the uiatrus, yields water and whitens. 
When mixed with ctj^l dust und hnited in the closed tube iL evolved 
salphurotii acid copiously. 

On cwl colors tlie lliirnt* green, fust-s aitd is roiluod with offer- 
vescenoe Io a copper button, coined with sulphide of «tpper. When 
welt roasted tracts for copper and aumetinies iron with tho lluxe«. 
With loda yields copper. 

The blowpipe characteristics of eyanotrinhitr, pitanile and ci/ano' 
ekroHf are not known, but may be n-adtly inferred from Üieir con« 



Amoug the pJiMphatt-f, jHtndomaiachUt, dihydrite, dUtVe, and 
libdhenih IkIihto at follows: 

In tbe miUruss they yield water, bluckco, und somotimes docrcpi- 
tat« if quickly lu-ftti?d. After igtiitioa in tb& mati-asa a fragment 
h«ated in tin? forceps fiipee wilhoot coluring the flam« perrcptiblr ; 
Lhc fuei<d glubulf is bluok siid hii« a cry^talliiiu Hnrfuoc. Urudually 
beat«4 on eoa] (in powdei if tbey decrepitate) they blacken and fn«e 
to a bottxin, vii-b n core of metallic co|itti>r. With thi> glitg« Qiixes 
they n!»ot liku uside »f »»jijjlt. A »uQicieiil quantity uf wda 
catiaea their mloction to metul iu a strong flniue, but with a little 
soda tht-y ewcll up und fuec to a globule. This pheiiotDL'ni>n is 
repi'Rted on eat^h rri>«h mUlitioii of s^^la, until finnily il «vollen uiiu>s 
resiilL«, which only tiuns in a (ftxung dame, Hprt>adii out, sinks mostly 
into the coal, and teaves metallic co))|Hfr. Arsenic acid may be 
detected in «omc of them by fusion with fodii. 

BerKolius hsj prnpo«e<I a test U,x plioxphoncikcid in thcw minenili^ 
fouudod upou tlio ptcuUiir Ix'liaviur uf physphat« of cop|H'r wilb 
melAllio lead. When to the phosphate fused on coal an efjnal 
volume of had ie addi-d und the whi^lc meltod together for some time 
inaguud Sami*. Ilie oupi^'r 6i;ptirutt.>s us nietal. ui-onnd wbit'li in a 
fldid muss of pboepb&t« of lead, wbiah is crysUilline nrhfn cokl. If 
the metallic button is ft-))iiral.ed from Ibia new iMni|H)iiiid and llio 
hitter treated aloiie in R. K^ u perfectly round bead llnally result«, 
which on cooling crystallizes with large facet« nnd iiauiiUy hm a red 
color (Cu). This behavior «howe that phosphoric acid has a greater 
uQinity for oxide of lead thsn for o\ide of copper. 

TagilUe, prubably like tlie prL-cediug. 

Thrombotite yields much water and blackens in the mat mas. In 
the forceps fiieee oiuily, coloriug the lUme at Qrät axuK-blue, proba- 
bly from chloride of copjwr, but afterwiinl emt'nild-grwn. On cimI 
fuses Misily to a black globule, which ßuully spreads out and sUoirs 
metallic copper Imttonfl. With glass fluxes given only copjicr rc«o- 
tioiis; irith borncic acid and iron affords phosphide of irotL 

The farbonnh« of copper iMsliaTe as fulluvrs : 

MtilfifJti/t and aaurit« yield water and blacken in the matraas. 
Fii^e to n button on coal and are n-duced to mrtJillic c<ippcr. With 
the fluxfs bebuve like oxide of copiwr, and disaidve with etfärr««- 
cence in hydroclilüric arid. 

The nrseiinti'f hphnve as follows: 

Clinadn/tite. from Cornwall, yields B little water in tae matm« 
and bebavee like oliveuitv. 

Oiittnil« yicdds some water in the malraes. In the fonvp« fuses 

COPPER — OXIDES wrnr kmm. 

to ft globtile tmi colore tbc flame bliii)>h-grccii. On cooling it has I 
crvätulliue nppeurnnce. Ou cu«l it Tuacs. with dfBugratiutt and uvo> 
Intion or sreunicnl ^uml^8T to a somewhat lirildp, brown-nU'lallic 
globule, with ■ white fhictiire. which trvnu-d with l^wl yields the 
tibu»)>horic uciil tvuutiuu liuscribctl on ]>. 300. The (h-taohud liuttou 
of l«ad and copper Ictiv^s puiv copper wb«n treat««! with horocic aoid» 
p. 442. 

Cornit'alHlt ylold» water in the matras«. On coal pvoIvcs nrmnE- 
rat Amies, aiid fueea to u globul« of copper eiirruiindcd l>y u brittle 

Erinif« fivqneutly d«>crepitut« very etroDgly «ud yield» much 
wsu>r iu th« mutrasti. On cu»l in powder i8 reduci-d, with pvolutioii 
vf urst-nira) fnmef^ lo a brillle ghihnle with ii gnivish fructnre, wliich 
in O, V. uflord» pmv cop)»cr. In preeenco of phosphoric acid n tri- 
fling crystalline slug remains with th<> copper. 

Evekrotle rit-ld« coniiderablc wak-r and iiseomes a darker groen 
in the matrass; otherwi»«- tiku olivenite. 

CluilcüphyUite dccn'piluti-« n-ry strongly iu the niutruäs, yii-lda 
mich vatvr and brenks into tiiio, olive-color^'d acalea. On coal like 

T^FoHtt ilttTt'pilalHii. yicldii ci>niiidi>rahlu wutf^r and hlark<-nH in 
the matnM«; the uiwuy HfU-rwunl fiisva to » sU-i-I-gniy hi-nd in the 
forceps. On coal evolves arscniral fumes and fuses to a gray scoria. 
ill which (Xip|)er globuk'e art' formed hy R. K After reducing out 
all the copper with honix and soda and Üien dissolving the »lag io 
hydrochloric acid, cotifeideroblu lime may be detected liy adding 
oxalic acid to the solution, after it is made ammoniacal. The litae 
is pr«**nt 08 carboiinte, tie \» tthown by the i-tfervegcence of the 
mineral with warm nitric acid. 

Trichalcite behaves liki? coruwallite. 

Liroonite yield« much water and bt-crimes dark olivL'^-greon in the 
tnatTftie. In the forceps fnaps and colors thp rtanie hi «ish-green. On 
coal ftiaea, with furmuliun uf hubbies «iid evoluiio« of arseiiioal rumi-s, 
to a darV brown slog, wbich contains copper globules and with borax 
and soda aflbrds un arei-nical copper button. In the «lag alnmiua, 

partly combined with "P, can be delected. 

Vonirhaleiie dccn-pilate^ strongly, yields water and blackens in tlic 
natrass. On coal d<dagriitfH evolvi-n a HÜgbt arst-nie (hIdh, and forme 
'a red »lag) which haf an alkuline reaction uu litnius-pajier. In Ur 
f«roi>p8 ftiseB, coloring the flame at first strongly gr^en, but afterward 
• nlv green at the extremity, while near the assay it hau o feebl», 
liglil-l)lne c«lor. With horai in 0. F. a yellowiah -green bead, bine 



On roiiliDg. With H. I'll, and lead on rmtl ia R. F. affbrde a glass, 
(lark-jrclli>w whili' hot und rhr6in«-|^f«n on oooling (vansdio seid). 
With tudtt on c<uiil tn It. F. ffhrvesDcs, erolvei araenical fumes Eod 
Aiflrit to II ;:li>l>ii)n ; oil Inngfr bloving nJTonln a copper button and a 
whiti'. rarib; miuiA. Limo ud pboephoric acid mar be detected bj 
t])(> wft way. 

Vanaiiatfi nf ropptr, Pclhorihifr. and fTalhivtimrlhit yield w»t«r 
■uit bluckfii in tbr matrass. On coaI vichl a black slag containing 
oopiwr buttoua, sod if »dttced with Mda afford copper. With the 
l1iixi.<R give Popper rMOtious. Tho Tanndic acid i< fonnd aocordiog 

to p. as'x 

Chfpnteketiii» blaokeaa in tlie cloxd tube, and giTM off VKter. 
B. B. tttm <>D the edgra to a black glase, and colors the flame an 
intcow gn><'n. On charcoal blackma, fntes with a lit^Je intatn«s- 
nnce, forming tliialty a slag containing minate panictifS of frrftallif 
cs)ft|wr. With Quic-s gives copper and tungstic acid ivactiotu {Dana). 

Thtt »i\\<Mt», ttifj^tt^t and MrysNvflx jield «rater and blackes io 
tbc matruM. In the ftmxpe an> inAtnbW, bot color the ttaae 
inlviMflT grx<«a. With th« flaxes TJeld copper reaotioas, and with 
& Ph. a silim skvlcUMk. On coal ther btackeo in 0. F, bcoomend is 
R. F, and with »»da iu ft F. yield oopptr battoUb 

TIm Mthod of fiMiittInt attinnfieal pndocti 
W iUWnd fkw llw gMwal nmfa ea pp. m a^ 

ibr OQpptF 1 

li. VsacrmT, Eg. 
ia At mimmt 

Xati'w» ■ M i ;a rt>— H^ 

I Ml— 1| H^. *i<k 7U ^t 

jLH f sc i> »-A^Hg^w^lX4Hei 

II W^iil - ■ » 
ISwisi^fc »M At rifv B«t 
TU^f. EsA 





^M^leiiidc of merctiiy also oceara in 
tiplirbMctiite, vi'fie Wnd, in 
Stlenkupferqiteeksilher, vidi ooppcr, and in 

Onofrit« from iNin Onofre, Jle.Tico,— Hy Se + 4 Hg S, with 82^ Hg. 
8(>li-Tiite of eiibnxirlo of m^rcnr; aim occiire iti tliis lix^tilj. 

c CombiRctl with sulphur in 
Cionaliar, — Ue witti 8(!.'2 Hg. Iiiit not aluavs quit» fne from foretgn 

eiil>«tancies, tiji. : 6ii, fi!e, Stii. und earllii' niatl(T8; 
Hepatic cinnabar, a mixture of ciunaliar, ooal, and carLhy matters } 
Mflreiirial tetrabedrite, vide copper. 

d. CombiQ«] with ehloriu» in 
Calomt-l (horn quicktnlveT),—U%* CI, with 85 Hg. 

«. Combint-d with iodiu« (?) in 
Coccinit^ from Mcsioo. 

f. Witli aniimotiic acid aJxA nuiphHT in 

Ammiolite. — Sb, On. flg (19.9 to 23.6 per cent), S, ft, and quarts ; 
Boppnaed to lie a mixture' (I)iina). 
Mercary also forms an ingredient of certain amalgamation jtro- 
dnct« and rpsiduct, including: goM and »iiver amalgam ; uiiwni^boid 
amnlgamation rtxtdut*, wliicb frMjiKTitly cnnbim finely-divided 
smulgam and subchhride of mercurti. When tli« orcecontÄin Icjul 
or copper the r«sidaes may often contain a little lead and copptr 

SxamlBAUon for Hetcury, 

Including the btotcpip« chaToctentHcs, of tht foregoing minerali. 

a. Oenerat exam inati<m for mtrctirtf. 

Ooinponnds of mercury with gold and aUver, including ntt/i'tw 

id arlijtcial amalgams, and also Tuiditt» not yet purified from 

[l-rer. copper, oad lead amalgam by viubiag. arc heated over iba 

rfr^t-lamp in a matrass form^ by blowing a bulb on the end of 

gliuim tube, Fig. 74. Oi?n(>rn1lT a bit of 

iii.]j^fujn 09 large as a millrt-sit'd will HuRloe, 

it in case of the reaiduL'S from smulgamatiua 

|0 Ivnlb Rhould hf! ai K-ast half filled. Any 

niücluuticully oombiued will be expelled 

'*' actJou of tlie heat and aliould be 

■•itii blotting popt-r. On heating yjg. n, 

mercury »parates in vapor, which oondciUM on the 
>be tube at a to Bmall metallic globules, that cunnot be 



mistaken for »ny other metnl. The metiila and wslduc in lb* 
rass may tlien be farther testeti fnr gold, silver, etc 

8«itnut9 of mercury inaj 1« rtvogiiixed l>.v the fnstroos, crystalline, 
grnv riiblitnut«? rormixl Jii the neck of tbo matras& If inix«il wit 
much »m\u (he mftwiirr ücpiirat^^s in globnlci, Icivitig the Bcleiiit 
ooDibiiied with sodium. 

Comhhied with sniphnr, a:« in cinnabar, merciiry afTorda a bit 
eubliiitutft wliich HsauiQcs a rL-d ctilur by friction. Powdi-r^l ci 
luibar ht^attid with t]ir«« volutnce of sodn, preriously drii-d hj 
Itringiiig it to iuei[)ioi]t ivdutes in the |ilaliuuin gpaon, ytfld» a 
snblimute of mi'tallii: mercury and a littJe cinnabar, wliile the sulphur 
ivmuiiift Cfjm1>im-d vrilh eudium. If nciittui oxdatu of potassa« or, 
better still, a mixture of tiie oxalate wiib cyauide of jiotuaaiuia 
emplüyedr müt^Ulic mercury aloou ie obtaint^l. 

Artiticial cinnabar, or vt-rmiiion. if adulterated with mintnr 
learus in tlie malrsÄS a residue of itul|ihide of k-ud, which can 
KCOgniIt^■d on coal. The same i-cniärke apply to an admixture 
enlphide of antimony. 

Wlieii sulphide of mercury u combiaed witli other salpbid««, : 
in certain varieties of |4:-Lraliednle, eren vben very little is present 
the ti.*al iti the matraes affords l>y tbc first action of the beat, u bb 
enblimate of this sulphide, because it \i so volatile that it cau readit 
he scpivnned fl-om the other «ulphideg by an derated lemjwratu 
Upon mixing thi- powdered «ubstauce witb iiL-ulrnl uxalatt- of ]Mitii 
and cynjtide of pntiiasinm, and heating it to rednesa in a niiriiji 
necked nmirns«, nietallic miTciiry separates and conden^M'ft un 
neck til 11 gray ctMit, which may bi- united to a globule by gentl 
lapping on the g^uss, unless too little mercury' is sublimed. 8buul 
there be 8n little mercury ihut no tilm nuti be di-tcctud with certainty, 
the a98ny may be repeated and the end of an iron wirt- wrapped 
about with a bit of pure gold leaf held neou* lb« Qiixture wliile 
henliiig it.. The gold will become entirely white, or at Uast V( 
prref]itibly so, if the aligblejil trai;e of mercury is proH-nU 
chiofirti. of Combiued with chlorine, luercnry affords a wbü 
mwciiijr. suiiiiiiiftu; in the mntniB», or if mixed with dry »jda 
nentnil oxalate of putassa. mtlallic mtTcury volatilizes on heatini 
leaving a chloride of the alkali. To detect email (juau titles of 
chlorides of mercnry in «nb*liinot--3 it is only ntsH-gsary to hn-at th< 
with soiJa or oxiilat« of potiiiw», observing the directions given 
deieeting a trifling amunnt of sulphide- of mtrctiry. 

hiliiie uf mrrcnry { Hg \) fuucs very easily in the matniaa 
AfTwrds a cryitttliine. tcUow enhhmate, red on cooling SuhioäiHn 


merairy Hg* I ftiriee and aohlimej aonltcred, when quicklj beat 
if elowlv bi-atcd, iL ie decomposed ittU> tuorctirf luid tlic iodido. 
ttio matntas with suduor neutnil oxulate of potassa both comjtour 
n<'Kl mercury. 

The oxy-salta of mcrcur; nre aUo best decomposed by sn\ 
^jtion in the matraM with perfectly dry soda, or acntnil 
0ZBlaii> of poloasa, which cniises the ecixinitiou of ra«Uil)ic msrcur 

b. BUnopipe ciaracterUlics of th« mercuTtftroug minerals above 


XtUive mtreurj/ suhlim^s in th» mutra« and condenses lo small 
globules, which on be readily caoeed to nuile; if too atrongly 
lieated it boils and Rpirts. Any silror proti-tit will remain behind 
mml Clin the» be cujH'lled with lead, riite silvür. 

Atiiulffatit and urejtitrit« gratliinUr h<^>al^d to redness in the Ri:it* 
T4UUi. iiflord niercurv and leuvc «pungy silver, whicli may be fused to> 
« battoQ on coal, or if impure may be ctipelkd. 


Ticmannit» decrepitates in the closed titlw, swells and Aiscs, vola- 
tilizing completely whfQ pure and forming a black sublimiiie, brown« 
iah-rvd at the side farthcet frofii the aesiy. The residue front impure 
frujtQi^"!' reacts for iron and silica with fluxc& The addition (^ 
oon«ideniblc sodn cunso-s mercury to separate. 

In thp opeu tube it nfTurds a selenium odor and a black sublimate, 
followed by a reddieh-brown one and then a whit« eublimate of 
•eleniie of mercury. somi?t.ime)! fusible to drops like tolliiroiw acid. 
On coal it vulaliliz(.>a with an azure-blue flamv and uUbrds a lustrous 
ineliillic coat, surronnded by a dark-brown coal. (Kerl) 

Oun/iUe {fkletiMhurftlqitetk-tilhtiTy accordinfr to H. ItAso. voliitil- 
izrs ultcliang«^, yielding a black sublimate of mixe^ eulphid«- nml 
•elcnide of morcnry. With eoda it afford» mercury and on coal 
ilifftiAeA II seli-nium odor. 

Orw/rit, » yellow, eurtliy miiicml, volatilixes with a selenium odor 
sud aCT'fds a flublimute of morcury and some yellow compound 

»ULfHIDE OF llBI»;i'RY. 

Cintutbttr yields in the matnws a dark snblimate, which giv«« a 
ral stn:uk. If there is any residue it occueionaDy reads for iron, 
copper, and Inid. 





In tJie open ttilte itulTords eulphurotis acid tuid mcrcary, but Ef 
qnicUy hcuU<4 part of it sublimes uncliaDged. 

On coal volaulize« oompU't«ly if piire- 

Sepatie cinnaiar nfforäi iu the iiiatnua a wry dark sublimat« of 
ciDQttbHr, evolves a distinct sulphiiretled liydrogeu odor aud U-Jires a 
black coaly tatm, which on ignition id the op<iu ttibo, or on platinum 
foil, gniduiill}' disappeure, leaving only a trace of eiirthy mattt^r. 

Cah'Hfl yiflda tlie rciiclions of mercury and cliiorine, as giveu Oü 
p. 304. Ou uoal votalilizc« and fomis u vhito coat, and with S. Pb. 
and oxide of copper showa clilorine, vidi chloriDC. 

loäiäe of mfrevrtf (iirtificial) yields violet iodine vapors when 
heat«d with bisulphate of potasüa in tlie matrass. See also und» 
tbe general examiuation for meroory. 

0, Mtialturgical prudiicts. 

The ess«ntiai points regarding tho csaminaHon for mercury in 
these products are given under the general examiBiition. 

14. SiLVBB, Ag. 

Its occurretu» in (he mintral kingdom and in laetallurffieal 

Silver occurs Jn nature : — 
n. Metaiiie and atom in 
Nutirc SilTcr, — Ag, sometimes viih a liiÜe 8b, As, H^ Oo, Fe, Cn, 
and Au. 
b. Combined nith othvr mctalt: 
B. With gold in 
Native gold, vide gold. 

ß. With bimtttlh in 
Obilenite, when pure ppolwbly Ag" Bi, with S5.6 Ag and 14.4 Bi 
The accompiiijing Cu and As probably rosult from the domey- 
kite which occurs with it. 
y. With mercury in 
Amalgum and nrqiierite, vide mercury. 

&. With antimony tn 

Oyecrusite {antimonioi titver), of varying oomposiHon ; ftvm Wol- 

facb^Ag" Sb, with 84 Ag, and Ag* Sb, with 77 Ag, (this also 

from Andi-eaaberg); acoording to Domcyko'e analyses Ag* Sb, 

with 62.6 Ag, and Ag" Sb, with 9VZ Ag, also ex(«t. 

Arsenic silver (AraeMilher) from Andreas berg, containing, according 



to Ilninmc]s)>cr£, aboul p<r cent. Ag. is perbape a mixture of 
4^ BTScnopyriu-, 70.1 arsbniaii iroa and 34.3 dyixrafiite. 
«. With ietlurium in 

Heeate. — Ag Te, vith 63.7 Ag, and ocrjuioaally Au aud traces of 

Petzite,— Aa Te + 4 Ag T^ vilb 4^0 Ag and 30.7 Aa; 

Svlvartit«?, 1 .. ,. 

Müllmte. ["^g°M5 

Altaih-, vide lead ; contains n littl« silver. 
c Combined with »elemum and other ieleni^e» fn 

NonrauiiDit«, apjwrenll)' occurring only in iEomorplions combination 
with claontbaiite ; one oompouiid = Pb Bo + 13 Ag Be, Um 
other = Ag Se + 4 to 5 PbS«; pur« Ag Secootaining 73.15 Ag; 

Eucairite, — Ag Se -f Cu ^-j with 43 Ag und 2^»^ Cn. 
rf. With gidphnr and other »uiphides in 

Argvntit« (n7iwr glance), acaatbit« and daleminziU',— Ag, with 

«^*K' - « / 

Stophanit* {brittU siivtror6),—Kff Sb, with 68.5 Agand/coaHionallj 

alittle Fe„Cit, and As; 

Poljbaaite,— (6n. X«) ' (^, Ä"s). ft-ith 64 to 72 Ag and 10 to 3 Cn. 
ooca-iinnall; a little Kc and Zn ; 

jBlpaitcr-3 Äg + tm. with 71.7 Ag and 14 Cu ; 

Bittingerite, probably a compound of sulphide of eilvcr and anti- 
mony (Dana); 

BoliTJanite, according to T. Bichter, aiilimoni«! sulphide of silver, 
vilb 8.5 per cent, fig (Dana); 

StTlotypitc,— 3 (Go, Ag, Fc) S + Sb S* (Dana); 

Proaetitc (ruhy siiver. pt, Hght red «tfwr wv»),— Ag* Xs, with C5.4 
Ag; occaaionalk a Utile ^b replaces eome As; 

Xanthoconite,— Ag* A« + 3 Xg* Ai with 64 Ag;» 

Pmirgvrit« (M(*y fUver, pt, dark red tiilt<er ort), — Xg' Sb. with 59.9 

PtTostiliinite (/rff-Ä^wrfc),— Ag, Sb, S; perhi^M lik« xanlhoconite; 
Stromcyerite,— 6n + Xg, with B3 Ag and 31.8 Cii, aomotimea a little 

Fe; it apparently occurs mixed with cholcocit« in eome locali- 

ti«, eo that the Ag may sink to a few per cent. 
Miargyrite,— Xg §b with 36.9 Ag and a little Cu and Fo; 
Stembergile,— Ag* ^- + 2 lf"e' Pe, with 34.1 Ag, or Ag S + 3 Fe S 

-I- Fe 8*. Dana ; 
Brongniarditc,— Ag» b'b + i'V Sb, with ^7 Ag; 




Freiealobenite,— It* Sb, op 3 K' 5'b + fi' Sb; A= ^ aod ^o, with 

34.4 A^; in the Froi>i«rg Ttriety 1.2 per opnt Co uid a venr 

little Fe; 
tichlea WeissgiUigen fivm the JTimmelsfllrst «id Alte nofniiing 

mines, Freiberg, ooneisting of (i'e, tn, i% kg)* Sb, with 3ti E'^fl 

Ö.7 A^nnd ttnoee of Cu; meQtioued undt-r poiytdite m Duna'^^ 

Minerulogv ; 
SchaplMichite ( Wiamvthsiltwrert) contoiniag, according to Klaprotli, 

1C.3 S. 33 Pb, 27 Bi, IS Ag, and a little F« and Cii, is stated by 

Siuidbergt^r to be a mixture of biamutliiiiite, argentite, aud 

galenA (Dana) ; 
Tetrahcdrite (so-called duvkten WtrifngiUigtrz, with 18 to 31.8 Ag] 

vide coppor ; 
Ailoaite, viiia copper. 

SilT(>T combined with tulphnr also ocean in trifling qnaiitify in^_ 
niniiy lead and copper ores, as galena, several of the plnmbiferool^P 
minerals «numfnted on p. 257. and the copper oive on p. 287^^ 
Pyrit«, arBi'nopyi'ite, and sinc-bleiide tint tiofrequently coutaio 
little sulphide of sUrcr. 

t. Combined with chlorim and hromiae in 
Cerargyrite {horn iilver), — Ag CI, with I^A Ag ; soinetimea mixed 

with Fe and earthy matlera; 
EmboUte, — Ag 01 and Ag Br in tarying proportions: 

3 Ag CI + Ag Br. with 69.8 Ag {micnbnmit»). 




2 Ag 01 + Ag Br " ^2 

8 Ag 01 + 2 Ag Br " 6Ö.9 

4 Ag Cl-t- 5 Ag Br " 64.3 

Ag CI -f 3 Ag Br '• 61.0 " 

f. With bromine in 
Bromyrite,— Ag Br, with 57.4 kg. 

g. With wrfin« in 
lodyrit«, — Ag r, with 45.9 Ag. 

Silver oocara iu metallargical products oa foUovs: 
a. Melallie in 
R«fined nlT«r, freqnently with traces of Pb, and sometime« An 

Brighteoeil silver, containing a littlo Pb, Cn, 

As, and Xi ; 
ObuuiU niver from the " ^xlKuttin« 
oetsj it freqnently c^'i' 
title« of other me* 





Rtlort sUver, oft«» conlaiiiiiig more or less Cu. traces or Au, Ni, Co^ 

uid, before rofiniag. also Fe, Zn, Sb, Pb. As, and Ilg; 
Amalgam, nanallf coDluining the ingredients of the foregoing 

prodact ; 
Raiv, or silver ltad,v\raoiit always conlainiag trifling qiiautitiee of 
other m«tals, vitU lead. 

A tittle Ag alto occora in black copper, ntw cupper, and refined 
cop[ier, viilc iron ; as well m in man; s]>ecinifU8 of lend, vhU leiul. 

h. C'oiiibiued with »ulphur it oocitr« iu trifling <iimi>iily in llie 
varione matls and spma-tiku prodttct* from imclting •ilv<>r, lpiid,nnd 
rupper ure«, luid in ci-rUiin furuuo.' deposit«, vide iron. 

c. As oxide in vrry ämiill <|iianlit ies in the prodQct« of ciipcllatioo, 
vii!„ litharge, abt*tg, abslrkh, and c%ip*i bottom» or hmrth, n'tf« kad. 
Here should also be mcnliuucd the ttut masn, or twttom of the silvi^ 
refining h<.-urt)i. 

Slwfs containing eilrer often owe its presence cliivSy to Suam 
diescmiufttcd panicles of argen tifcroue matt, althongli some slug« 
cnutuin silicate of siWer. 


BxinlsttlOD for SUvari 

Including the bhwptpt charaeterittU» of the aboM-nataeit miaeralt 

ami pr«ducti. 

a. Omeral examinatioa for siW«r, 

Componnds of silver with metals, volatile at a high hfut, as 
aniintonff, Uad, and bi-fmufh, rield a coat on coal. After nearly the 
whole of tlieae nn^laU have been volatilimnl by long Wowing. 
the coat becumi'S reddish to earmine*red frum oside of ^iUvr, 
if there is not too little of that metal pn.-wnt, mid the remaining 
InttbOA «hows u moro or Icaa pure »ilrer color. This reddouing of 
the coat is highly chitraott^rifilto and may always be rognrdod a« indi- 
cating silver. In ctimbiimtion with mnch lewl or Siimintb, «Iver 
ia found by cujiotlatioit, with addition uf t4>it It^vd. if thut. ia made 
nec<-8«ary by the pres«noe of other oxidizable metals, ridt t(Ut)utttu- 
ttvo silver asfiay. 

When HÜTer containing arttinie is treated alone, on coal, the arsenic 
volatiliiea and may be recognised by its odor. 

Srlrnium»Tefl Mmilnrly. Tethrium, if present in con^idi-rablc 
(jnancity, partly volalilizevt and coat« tho coal, but |wri of ti ri-mnins 
penist^ntly with the silver and can only be removed by Iri-ating the 
L-ouponnd. pulverized as much as possible in tJic R. P., witJi rodn. 



or neatral oxulate of potsssii. Mercvry combined witb silrer can 
Ih; fi-niuvvd bj igiiiliou on cuul, ur in tlie mutruäs; uu cool tb« 
tUrer ruses to a bnttou. In tlie mulrutui it tUrnis a jK>roiiä n^idu^. 

If the silver is combined wiih mucti gold sod ttie »llojr is fam^ in 
0. F. Mith S. Ph. (in coal, the iiilvvr oxidixvs and is gniduull^ dis- 
•olved, itstidcriu}; tlic jflufia vpuJi-acun t vrlieu cold. Bv ät-purntiiig 
tliia glaes from the gold bnttou and treating it «Ion« on coal in R. F-, 
tile oxid« is n>udi]y n>i]ii«ed und unit^ to u button of silver, \t. 108. 

Wiitu iiuu-vulutilt^' mi'Uhls, inuiv tniait^' oxidixi-d ttiun aiher, are 
present, viz., copptr, nickel, nnd tobalt, in not loo etnull quaatitj, 
thov may rondily be di.nect<:-d bj tceling with borax or S. Ph. ou oonl, 
nod rn-i()Ut'tilly so far ät^i>anil«l as to Itnvo the silver with a |iuiw 
surface. WhfQ pre^iit iii lar;ge qiiantitii'S they can ODly }>e rnLir4>l]r 
separated by L-u[K>lliiig thv ailTcr with tust lead. Should thctu utcUiU 
b« prefl^nt in bo small proportions that no distinct reacüoua ure 
obtaiiK'd wiih the gltiHä Üuxi-ä. ii NiifliL'ii^ht quantity uf the silier is 
trvated tirst ou «»al alone in 0. F. and iiotiw taken of any axil ihut 
*iuuy hv formed. After this tbu button ia diKSoIvcü in nitric uctid id 
a l*ät tube, dilated with water, a few drops of hydrochloric acid 
added, und the wliolo well shaken, eo that tin- cblnrido uf siltvr may 
wttle. When the Quid is clear a dn>p or two of hydrochloric acid ia 
Rddfd, to aM«rl«iu whether it will prudncc any ftirtlicr cloudiucw. 
If it doc« ibc whole miiet a^ain be well shaken ; if not, the aolutioD 
may h« Ültcrcd at onct>, tbo tiltniu> heated to boiling in a [xiroclain 
Tcssel und a oulution of potHK«i gradually added to fevbly alkaline 
renction. By this means the otln-r ineluls, preacnt as oxides, are 
thrown down, and after Cilration may be n;adily detMtod by meaua 
of the glass fluxrjL 

Thir chloridti uf ^lv«r can be redaoed ou coal with euda. 

Uiiu-nib und int-iallur^Hcal prvniiicta couHlsliiig of, or iioniaining 
»ulphidfs vf metuU, and wliicb ar« to br directly vJLaaiintrd 
for silrer, may be must adTuntageouely treati-d aei>ording to 
the method givni under the (jtiunülative eurer assay, and (he «ilvur 
lead cupelkt]. If rieh in idlver, bnt little of the ouhstancu need be 
treated, while, if pi>ur. as much »huuld be uaed »a for Ihe rpiaDtJtif 
live a^taiy. The i|itantity of te«t lead and bumx glut;« depi^uila 
partly uiion the c^uantity of the üahsuince taken and piirtLy a|Kni it« 
character; »betbcr it containä dillicnltly fusibli- ingredient», wbicli 
are to bu slagged off, or contains c»pper, nickel, etc. lle«t of tlie 
above-montioned minerals contAJniiig eulphidos gliow the presence 
of eilv«r by the reddi^li coat formed on coal, p. :i09. 


8U.TBR — ViTtB bZlZSlVX — WITU et'LKHL'B. 


A. ßlotepijm ^aracteriiitici «/ Me argeniifonM mitusraU 
eutimeraJcd adoee, 

Nativ« aüvifr fuMs on c<mI to a bright glubnli^, whicli bns a eilver- 
■rfaite color on cooling. The pri'wnce of &D()nioDjr causcü « Ti-vbl« 
white coat of antimvamie ncid, wliivL snL-rwunl U-comt.-« rvd, |i. &i. 
Araenic, if present, is dett-cM by Die oilor duri«g fusioii. With 
borax to R. F. on coul it eonietiinr^ sffurcU u. glass that rpacts for 
cobalt and inrn. 

Chilenit» would probably fiiso fasily, OTolve a aligbt arwnioal 
odor, attd coat th« coal with oxid« of biätnutli. Bt cui»ellatioii 
would nfl'ord asilrer button, and itjtin the bonc-asb dark grotii with 
oxide »f copper. 

Dtficrasile fii^es very readily to a button on roa), affords a cojiiouB 
Coat of oxide «f antinioiiy, whicli afterward n:-ddcii£, and finally a 
nthprpiire «ilver bntton remaina. 

ffessite tusvs in the opi-n tube, withont affordiog very eopioua 
romes. On coat fit»(-s readily to a globale and yields pari of iU 
tollnritini, coating tbn coal, p. 66; but the grcutcr {wrtion rrniuina 
with the silver. When ootd the surface is ctivercd with Jiistj-ous 
metallic globuleR. 

Fiif^O in a fine state with »oda, or UPQtral oxalate of polassa in 
R Vn Ihu tvlluriuni is M'paralcd, leaving thd silver in little globulesi 
which If cleEftAsed from the cval and eUg by washing, and titeu dia- 
BoUed in nitric acid generally louvex a little gold t)ehind. 

Pettite. — tt« blowpipt* eharatiterislics aru not knouo; probably it 
bebaree very much like the above. 


yaumaHHite fus«8 and yields a trifling eublimat« in 111« closed 
cube. On coal in 0. F. Taees cinietty, but in K. F. intnmef^es, and 
in eoIidilVing glow« again. With <oda and borax atfords a Inm-oos 
silver button (G. Roae). 

Euaiiritt. — lu opvn tube like berxeliarllte, p. 29G. On coal fusea 
with a etiung udur of sclt-niuin, und uffoixls a gray, euß, but not 
malleable, metallic bntton. CupelU-d with t<-et It^ad, leaves a tilver 
button, and with th« floxcs n-aote strongly for copper (Borseliue). 


Arf/eutiU und aca/ithife rȣe on coal in O. F., with intatnescence 
uid ovolntion of solphuroas aoid, aJTurding ut length a silvvv biillrm. 


If impure, n «tag uleo rcaults, wbicb reacU lunally for iron and 
feuiiH-times for copper. With eoda a silver button ii very easily 

SiephaniU decropitste« in the claaetl tabf, then flises, itnd sfU>i 
coiiio lime yields s aligkt auliIimuU' of eulpbide of antiniuDy. In 
the »pt-n tube fuses and erolree antirnonotio fnmfa sod snlplitiroas 
aci<L Oil coal l\iec-8 very caaily, Yitii spii-tiug.' coats the cuul with 
oxide of atiliinuny, and is ouiivorttKl iiitu Hulphidt- uf eilvt^r, contuiu- 
iiig but litle anritnony. On long blowing the coat rodens and a 
silvLT butluu rcraaina, stjmetiiiicä vrilh a scuriu tbu^ nacUi tor copper 
and iron. 

FolifbasUe fuees witli esirnordinnry oam in the ctowd tube, but 
yivldd no Sublimate. In the «pen tube fnsi-.H luid yi<*lds Kulpbiirous 
nnd butimonuua fumt;s. UQd«*r the magiiilVing glass, if Ah was 
present, the sublimate is seen to consist of antiinnnons acid oiixed 
vitb crystalline arsi-nouit acid. Ou cuul in O. F. futsee vrry it-udily 
nilb spirting to a ^lobulo, nbtcb evulveü sulpliuruns twid and (xwia 
til« coal with oxide of uiitimony uud, in presence of ar^euic, arsen- 
oiu acid. 

f^iig blowing occasionally produces a yellowish -whit« liuo coat 
near the assay, and finally a ai(.'tn]li(:, mirrur-Iilcif buttuu ia ulituined. 
Tb« cold button has a block snrfoco, and tlie white coat is Mmowbat 
ivddeaed by oxidu uf silver. With & Pli. tite button behaves likti 
Cliprifürons silver. 

FrouaiiiB fuses very readily in tlip closed tub« and at incipiont 
Tedneas affords a slight sublimate of siüpbid« of arwtnic. Th« 
residue has a dark, Vad-gray, scaly frartnre and feebly mrtallii-lnsli«. 
In the open tub« atford« sulphurous and aräcnüiiü u'-tdtt, willt som« 
»ntiiiKiiioRS fumes, if Sb replaces some As. Fuses on ooul with 
ovolntion of snlphnron« and urgenous fiimvs mid coats tbo conl with 
arscnons noid (und, in prest^nce of »I), with oxide of anlinioiiy); 
but lutiT th« fii^i'd globnk' bflbavc« like sulphide of silrvr. This 
fused fur «imp time in O.K., orwdarfd with soda, iilTords pnre siKcr. 

Xaiitfi<KOnifc \3x the closed tub« iisauutcii u tninsii-nt, durk-nd 
color. More strongly beat«d fnst>ä uml then bohavM like pmnstit«. 
In the open tube and on coal like pronstit« itvv Troui antimony. 

Pyrar^f/rite taecH very R-adily in tin.- closed tube, tHimcti mes flying 
into small pieces at first, and at a cAittnned red heat affortls a «lib- 
Hnialv of aniur|)lton8 ternnlpliidc of antimony. Fuoeg in the open 
lube and erolvet sulphurous acid aud antimouial fumi'i;. On coat 
fusL-ft Very readily wuh spirting to a globule, vivid« sulphide of auti* 
niouy. coaU tlit» cuul with oxid« of autimony» and i$ CoiivcrU-d iut4 


mtpbid« of 8itr«r, wliEch obKtinxteljr relaina some antimony. By 
loog lreutia«nt in 0. P., or reduction wiüi eodu, Uiia uiTonle imi« 
silver. Any As replaciug bb oiiu be reoogaised by the iKtur when tlio 
jx»wt]cn-d miDcml, mixed with «>da or ucatnil oxalate of potaAsa, ü 
fuiM.*«! un mal iu R. F. 

Pyroslilpnite ; in the op^n tube and on ooal likepvrargyrit*. 
Sirvmri/FrUr- Tuses very eoailj in the closed tube and only rarely 
yields A Utile sulphur. In Iho open tube fu«CA to a globuU* and 
evolvee aalpburoua acid, bnt no auMimate when pure. Fuses very 
T'oudily to n glubnie on ooa) and in 0. P. evolvuH only fiiilplmruua 
^jOitV if putv. The fused globule ha« a metallic InHtrc, is half mal- 
le«Able, uiid liaä u gray fracture. With the fluxcs itMutts strongly fur 
«9^Jip?r and sAm<;tinies feebly for iron. Cupelled with tost lead it 
JuiiTi'- a silver biitrun mid a dark-grecD, oopptT stain on tlic cupel. 
mJalpaitt, like the preceding. 

^largyril« dein-pitatce in tlio clostt] tube-i fuwe very easily and 
fgi -vf£ a gim of (-ulphide of antimony. In the open lube evolve« 
0u lj>hnroRä ncid and abniulnnt antimouuus fiime5. Oa cimiI fuses 
Tvr^y readily and quitüy, with emisAion uf sulphurous and autimo* 
noias fumes, to a gruy globule, which äually in O. F. changes to » 
^«^Sht silver button, while the antimony coat re<ldon8. Treiited 
wi t li is. pii. jiiid tin, the butl^m shows a feeUl*?, but diatiiict reweiion 



'Sttfrubertfile yieldg in the oik-d lube only snlphnrouH nc-id ; ou 

****^1 fuses with evolution of piilphnrous acid to a glybule, wlut-li ia 

*^**"*''ort-d with metaUio silver and ie magnetio. Boa3t4>tl in j^wder 

**^> cxMil and iTeatMl in II. F. with borax, give« a silvwr butlou. and 

* k>l«ck, upaijue glass, which rfacts for iron. 

■^'VinetJrbfmt« in the open tube yields enlphurous iicid and antimo- 

■»"us fumes, the uon-volatile portions of which likewiae contain anti- 

Wiouat« of U-\u\. On coal fiist-s easily, forming at a oorlain distance 

* o«>nt of oxide of antimony mixed with »ulpbate of lead, and nearer 

^"^ aasay a dark-yellow coat of oxide with antimonato of lead. The 

*!»«at tliially becomes very nil and »silver button is left, which may 

V- \iui-ilii>(] ijy treatment with bitnicic aoid on cual, 

LirJitf» WeisfffUtiiffrt ftxim Freiberg. Fuses in the ojieu lube, 

«wi Wliatrs like rroieslebenite. On coal fusea very eosilyi eprrada 

»tronj;ly with oxides of antimony and lead, »od 

-white, nietallit: bnttons. The IiwI coat oonceals 

bonu in TtF. the nielallic button» 

.»bowing copiJcr with S. Ph., while the 

from iron. 


PLATTHSR'S blowpipe AVAE.T8I& 

HekapbaekU«. — Fiih>8 roadilj on ooitl, giving lead ajul bismutb 
coat«, evolving Buliihurouii auiil and Waving u silrer buttou, «hieb 
retaiiia a liulo Icaii, btanuitli, and oopper. 


Clüoride of tilver {verargyri(e), on coal in 0. F. fuses very fiwily 
(Irec)at:ut)y irith pbuHiUon) toaglobale, which ispearI-gmy,lmiwo- 
Ub, or blftck, according to the purity of the miot'raL In Ti. F. 
grmlHally reduced to uiotal; inimwiialuly witb soda. With oirdi* i;f 
ooppf r «11 cu;tl gives the chlorine ivaction. Foei'd with bisiilplmtv 
of [Niiiussa 111 II umtruee, it uniu« benvutli Uic fluid eeXt txi a iKiid, 
which is wliite nhvn cold. If the salt is dissolved by warmiug it 
vilh uatc-r, und Ibf ivuiaiuiug bead or chloride of Kilvi?r ni>ll drii.'d, 
betu'crn filler pjiper and exposed to the ennlight, it 8oon ofi-iuiiii's a 
gray or violet culur. 

Tbe ooDipotinds of «Uror nitb t^Utrin« and bromine {imboiilf) fii« 
very easily on ooal, Bpreiul out und are graduully n-daci'd tu uiflalUa 
^Ircr, evolving asuflbcating odor. Sudagrtatly acceK-mteg ilic ivduo 
tioa. If tbe alkaline mu«« is then bntki-u mib IVom tlic c<>ul, di«- 
Bolvcd ia u-utcr. waporuted to dn*uc««, und tbe dry salt fu^tl iu a 
matrass with biaulpliut« of potostw, the ouoijioutidi rich in bn>niine 
emit nHldi»Ii-yvlluw bromine viipors. 

With oxide of copjxT on coal they tiuge the flame greenish at 
first, but ufturwurd intense blue. 

FiumI with bieulpbaie of potaan in tJte matrass, tbey nntt» 
beneath th<> flnid «alt to dark thI drops, which ar^ light l>-nion-yi*lluv 
whi-n euld. Trt-ati-d liko the chloride meiiliont-d just iiUive, und 
txposed to the suulight, the corapoQuds in which diloride of «\\tet 
prevaiU u^sumo agn-eiii»lt-gTuy color, wbik' tl-o«<' cvntainJag morv 
hivtntdw i<|i)i* liirty ((i>-»-ii. 

ftrtimiitf ii/jiiltvr {inomgrite) on charwtal erail« )>iinp>nt hrumin'- 
rapora and yields a button of Bilver. The artiQciul bromide fuKi 
easily, und with u\idf of e<j|iper in R. F. colors the Ibime gn.*i*nigh 
at llT«t, but afterward intense green ish*blue. 

In the niuinuut fuiies Very i-etulily and baa u t^nitv dark rod color 
«rhile fluid, becoming lighter on aolid.ifying, so that when cold it hat 
B dw)< vvllow ooloraod is nearly traugparent. Fused wiib bi«ulphntä 
of (Kiuutaa it cTulres very trifling bromine v^piirs, and the fluid «alt 
Borroundiiig the bromide of silver uaeumc« a yellow color. Treated 
like the chloride of silver abore, it gradually a&sumegia tJte ttuilight 
a durV u^iuragtig-gn'on color. 



Iodide of silver {iodyrUe), fnaes in the cIuHt'd toU- uitd iMuumua a 
d«ep orange color, bat resumes its ytrlluw color i>d couliit^;. II. B. on 
C4>al gives fum<.'s of iocliuti aud a glolulc of luetallic eilwr (Dium). 

The artißuiat iodld« fiuif^s on cual witli extTw>nlinaiy eoM, Kjireada 
oat, evolves n ptingeut iodiue odur, tingle tlie flume rinlilisli, hd(1 
Tory soon leaves metallic eilrcr globules. Witb oxid« of copp^T in 
R. F. Dulura Üie flutnu green. 

In Üie matn«8 alouf ncU like iodyrlta. FqbmI with bisalpbate of 
potiusa it. unites tu u dark red drop, below the Bait, und evolves 
iodiu« rapors. Tn-flt«d Xxka thf cfalorld« aud brotnidi- above, iU 
jellow color remaius unubangud. 

c ExamitMtio» of metailur^icai productM. 

The method of examining tbc producta above euuincratcd for 
ailrer may hv di^duued from tha retnarks ander the examination for 

I IS. 

IS. Platinum, Pt; Palladich, Pd; RnoDiüM. Rh; Ibidium, Ir; 


TMr oceurrmc9 in ifu mineral kingdom. 

Th«7 are found 

0. MflalUe in the following minenUa: 
Platinum, Pt, almost ulwavs combined with Fe, Cn, Rh, Ir, Pd, aad 

Ok, so that Uiu amount of Pt i« somutimou as low iia TO per 

cent.; th« amount of fe i^ eape«iallj important, a3 it varies 

from 5.3 to almost 13 por emit. 
Platiiiiridium, containing 27.8 to 70.8 Ir, 19.(i to S5.4 Pt, besid«.-« Rh, 

Pd, Fe, 8odCu: 
Palladinm, Pd, combined iritli email quantitice of Pt and Ir; 

altopuUadium in [uitliidinm, under tlie hexagonal system, the 

metal Wing dimurphoiitt (Düim). 
Patladium-euld, ) ., ,, 
Rhodmrn-gtld. 1 *"^'«"'^: 
Iridosmine./iyA/ (osmiridiam), — Ir, Os, with. 40.7 Ir, 49.3 Os, and a 

litUeRli, Rn, and Fe; 
XridocDiine, dark-, — Ir Os', with about 3fi Ir.and It Oa', with about 

30 Ir; probably enntnining üleo Rn. Newjansbit« and sitset' 

shilf lire vnrieti«-» of iridosminK 
Two of the above-meutioucd mutaU arc also Xoaod aa 



6. Oxiili» in 

Irite, ptr-ijublj- (Ir, Oi, Pe, ) + Tr, Sa, Cr), with 55. 8 Ir, lU Ol, 104 
Fe, lU Cr. 

e. Combined with sulphw in 
Laurittf, iwrha|M— 12 Uu' S' -t- Os S' (Da«a). 

According to Peileakofe: (Dingkr'a Journal, Vol. Oi»^., p. 136, 
e^ 9eq.i alsu Polj-U-cbn. tcutntlblatt, 1847, p. 1085), platinuta i< 
very widely distribated, and ull the siWer in commerce is BÜd ti> 
cuutain it. 

Blowpipe vJiaracleristies of the above-vuitiiorud minerala. 

PUiiinum nuA jilatiniritlium nrc, B. R. iuFusible combinutious of 
difffrcnt metals, which cannot be eo decomposed, hy ftirtber tr«it' 
mont B. B,, that the presonco of each metal mny be proTCd by & 
dtfßiiite reactioiu 

WTicn tested willi burux or S. Ph. Ihoy do not fuse, and aiv not 
»xidi7.f!d or diaHiiWe«!; in Lhia (ipcmtioii, irihcmincrul hns b<%n Glnl 
off in a fine powder, more or less colored beads:, it u trnc,aro obtAined, 
but Lbio color comefi frum Ibe admixture of oxidizaUe metals, rii.^ 
iron Jinil crtpper, whicli may be fonnd in this mniiner. 

If the same ccimpotinilä iire fnsc-d nn coal with borax and (est lead, 
nnd a cnp:liaUou of thv button oommeuced, ttiü latter operation laat« 
only eo loug iis ilif infnBibk melal« pi-rmiL TIk'P« «"sulta IfniUly an 
infuKiMc combination, in which there ijt ntill muL-h lead uid whicli 
IliLTvfurc ]K>BBOHaca u luBtrutis surfiioe und ie eujucwhat brittle. If a 
medium-siKi'd gold button ia added and the capelUtion performed 
Willi » stronger heut, a bright m«tallic hnttoij nm he soinelin«^ 
obtained, perfectly free from load, imd wf a yellowiub-white or even 
ptattnnm-gray cnW. [f it . cannot be capelled fine upon the cupel it 
rnnut K- treated od coal witJi TitriSod boraf^io acid, ae folbw«; a 
shallow cavity is bured in the cross sfCtiou of a good cont. »r in a 
oharooal cjipsnU-, tIic button containing lead laid in it, civered with 
a littlo vitriSid bonicic acid, und the whole trcat(.-d with the point of 
the blue öanie. When the button is fused the cool is inclined,»» 
that llii' former come« ont from under the molt«d glass. Imt gUII 
rumuioR in contact willi it. thuB affording ii large iinrfaoe for oxida- 
lioti. 'Plie jioiut of Lhe flame is now directed for a long lime unin- 
ten-uptcdly «p>n the Ihiid gliwe. the metal being freely exposed to 
the nir ; in thin way alt the It^oil in oxiflixt-'i and dissolved in the 
boracic acid and the surface of the button becomes bright. 

The rejjiilting alloy of gold, platinum, rhodium, iridini», [nilla* 
dinni. and osminm (the iron and copper having bocu removed), it 



hammi'rcd thin, ignited oq cciul anil diäSDh'i^l in aqua regift, which 
K-aves the tim-lv divided. bl«uk, niL-tiillic iridtiim behind. The 
solntion is {tonivd into a ituit-ulaln dJtili, tn-ulvd uitli aa m\u:h chloride 
at anitiioiiium uh i« iipcesrnry tu ultrr all tlie jilatiniim into plutin- 
ctiloride *>f HinnKitiiitni. iind tin* whul« ran-fiilly cxafonitwi la dry- 
nm ut u gt^iiile liL-iit, ill iTvWr to prevent any )iurliu1 decompositioa 
*>f the aulu which haw bwn formed. Th« dry ealt« are brought 
iipiin a (\Ui-r und ira.«hint witli alcohol of GO" tu 70^ until nu jelluw 
colur is iinpark-d lu fn'sli Hhtiho). Bv this opirutiou Ihe gold, iritli 
nthcr solubl« ndl«. in diKi>i>lTeit out. mid Hficr water has büi-n addH 
to the lolutioB and the alcohol driven ofT by heating, can be pr>>- 
fipiiat«da9 nit>tal Tntni the vrariu »olutioi) by aulphaU'of iron. The 
rpsiiinsry dmililf salt is bright vt-IIow and is alkTsd u> epongy plat- 
inum by huiting lo rcdnpt« in h ]ilutinitra epoun. In euch emiiU 
iisaays tiu notice can be taken of the minute quantities of Rb, Pd. 
and Oä, which art* prL<s(>iiL in Ihv native phitinnm. 

The metallic precipitate of gold can be fusi-d on coal, with the 
addition of n littJe borax or S. Ph., to a buttou, which \a generally 
(jnite piu*. If, however, it does »«t appear perfectly pnre. it i» fnscd 
un coal in R. F. n-it)i suine bums mid threi> parts of pure silver, the 
alloy treated ftrsl with nitric acid, and then the renidnnrr gold, after 
uiinlijiig. with biäulphatc »f puhisü». tut will be described in detail 
: under the (inautitativc ^'uld a»*ay, fi>r gold containing rhodium. In 
this way all the metalä llial might be prf»^nt am entirely w-paraied 
fnim the gold, and if this, whvn well boiled with water, is melted on 
dmI Io a button, it will ap[<far pcrft-otly pure. 

If native platinnm is di^olvod in nt^ua regia, the blood<red toltl- 
Mon evaporated almost Io drynetL«, the iwid lluid diluted with water 
and a few drop« of a solnttun of pota^Hi added, a yellow precipitate 
h formed, which consists chiefly nf pintinchloriilu of potOBsiain. 

PfUMiniH.-'riw U-haviur D. B. of this native metal is not 

Palladtiim wliicli has bee» reduced fVom the oxide, bat boa not 
vet been liammen^l, l}cbavcs. iiccurding t« berzcliu^, as fotlowe: 

Carefully bcnted on pbtiuum fuit to low Fedne&j, it acquires upon 
the atirfaoe a blu« color, which, however, disappears at full redneit!). 
Oil coal niono, It is inOieible and unchangeable. AVitfa snlpbnr in 
II. K-, it fuws. but in O. K. the sulphur burns off, leaving the palla- 
dium i>ebiiid. When fused with bieulphate of potaisa in a snffi- 
Di«tit]r large matrass, it is dianolTed .with the evolution of salphnrout 
*cid. The salt appeiirB yellow when cool. 

jTideimine, tiglit-ivhred. is infusible K. B. Fnäcd in a tnatru« 



with nitrp, rtpora of osmic seid ore crolrcd, wlijch can be ver} 
diBfidPtly recognized by their unpleasant odor. 

Iridosmine, (Uirlc-colored, is infusible B. B., hot gires «a odor of 
ofimiam ; it is, ovcunling Ui G. ßnfc, sleo dUtingoiehed (rotn tlie 
Ibrmer by the fact that it loses it« lustre in the blovrpipe fliunc, 
Wcomos dark colored, and yiwlds. «tlmi in ilie (lame of a «jiirit-lainp, 
the reaction of osmiom, viz. : tbiit the flame h rendered Inmiuoui, 
■s if ftom the burning of oli-fiant gas. 

Fused vith nitre, it yields more fumes of osrnio aoid than the 

Irite is infusible B. B., and hIeo insoluble in all acids. 

Faaed vith nitre in a matraae, oaoiic aoid \i eToWe^ 

16. QoLD, An. 

II» ocvurrena in tht mineral kingdom and in metalivrgical 

Gold a almost always found iu Datnrc in the metallic stale, but 
Ifl Dcvcr purv, being combined in every case tritb other m«taU in the 
following mineraU : 
a. With rilmr in 
Native gold, a combination of Au and Ag in indcdai tc and varying pro- 
portions, so that it contains from 0.1C to aloiu^t 4U [h-t crnU 
Ag; traons of Cu and Fe are also eomelimo8 found in tl. Pliny's 
titetrum was gold conlaiiiing one-f^fth silver, according (u Dans. 
h. In oonibiiiaHon with mercuTy in 
Gold amalgam,— Au U.^, with 39.5 Aa, and (An, Ag)' Hg*. with 
36.0 Au and 6 Ag. 
e. Tn oombinstiou ini3i patlaaium in 
Falladinni-Oold, pitrpexiht from Porpei in Brasil, with 86 An, 41 
Ag, 9.8 Pd. 

d. In oombinution with rfiodium In 

Btiodinni'Gold from Mexico, which contaias 34 to 43 per cent Rh. 

e. In combination with tellurivm in 

8yh-anitc {graphic teUurium), according to the analysis of Pet», kg 
Te + 2 An IV, with Ö0.6 Te, 26,5 An, and 13.8 Ag, iuclnding 
very small qnantiüea of Pb, Sb, and Ga; 

Tellurium, vide tellnrinm. 

/. Id combination with Mlurium, when a part of the tellarium II 
replaced by anlimoay in 


illlerit* (jy/mBfVö),— <Aii, Ag. PI») (Te, Sb)*,willi 24.8 to 29.Ö An, 
i.", tu 14.C Ag ami 3.5 to ]9,S I'll. 

g. Id ooml'iustiou vith tMurium and metaUie stilpliidM id 
INsgyn^itp, virf« l(«d, p^ 'i^^. 

' A. Jo a inint>rtü, the coDBtitiit>nU of whioh have not yet been quail« 
'titAÜvetf determined. 

PhiflUiujUiHt, fruii) UviiUoli-Piliwii in Uungnry; it couUiiis Sl>. Pb, 
'LV, Au and S, with tract's of Se »iid Ag. (Ic U 8]ipiu*eiitlj 
related to naffyagiif. D«Qa) 

i. As nn iiorideni«! ingredient of certain iroi» and oopper pyrita, anil hUtuics. 

I Among the metallnrgioiü prodnots, in vhioh gold forms a-pririci- 
[pid oonstitnentT only the goldumnlgninrii-sultin<r from tb« luiialgama- 
;tionof gold oiFS necda to he i-speciall; mentioned. Gold in aliio 
'found BS a secondary conatitueufc in many of the mvtullnr>,'rcal 
jprodncta fY^tii the smelting of attriferoue eilrer or«s, which hav« 
[Blrpuuly been mentioned iindiT silver, vit, fine gUvcr, brightenfd 
[tilvtr, rata lead, Itolmltin, lead matt, as well aa In tlic iipei»» From 
:tbe smelting of aoriferous mispickel. 

ExBBil&xUoD for Gold, 

Tneifiding the hhicpipe characterittica of the minerals Montfinff 


a. Gtntral examination for goli. 

en combinations of Rold with other metitle arc fuacd in 0. F, 

on coul. tliey give, provided thp metals combined with the gold are 

VolatiU at high tcmiH-mtnre, a coating, e. ff., t«lliiriiim, nntiinouy, 
' mercnry. and lend. The mercurj' may also tw si<panit«d in a mutnua 
I or clowed tube, a» ha^ b«H.>n do^cribed nnder sllrer amalgam, p. 303, 
land the lead m»y be remoTed by cupellatinn. These metalis (wing 
I eeparattd, llic gold, if free from non-Toliitile motals, is left quit« pure 

and may be reoognizcd by it« gold-yollow color. If, however. It con- 
i loins aiieh meiaia, e. g., copper, silver, platinnm, pa]ia<liiim. rhodium, 

rtr^ tliey mnst W 6i.-panilfd br particular methods, ivhtch will be 

pn-ecnlly di-scribed. 

I If lliif gold contains, for example, copper and «ilrer, which can ha 
I Tcry easily s»c4'rl:iined by an examination with S. Ph. in 0. F. on 

ooal, the alloy must Scst bo cupelled with ihe oeceaaary aoionnt of 
j test lead, vide qnantitativc gold assay. By this m^ans the copper is 

entir«ly ronitvcd and an alloy of silver and gold only rvnuiiiiu. 



When the button is yoUow it shows Ümt thv lunonnt of silver !l 
incotisiilrniM^^ ; it U tlieit onlj' tvstnl on Ctml willi S. Ph. in O. F^ 
by wliicb u bead is obtained ttiut aeäiimes aii itpiil-like upjM-arauce 
wh*?n cool, t'ifiV oride of silrcr, p, 108. If tli« button, howcrur, hu 
ruthcr tht< color of surer, the nmount, of gold mny lie smaller tliao 
that of tb« äitrcr. In this ease the button is put iutu » porcelain 
dish, 11 little nitric iicicl addud udiI warmi-d. If llie button contain* 
about ono-4]a»rter of it« weight or It^-is of gold, it tarn» block ut lirat 
and is ^nulnully deoom] teased, the silver being dissolred und the gold 
remainiii;^; Iwhiml. black or brown, tu u pondur, or coherrnt miksa 
If the bii(ti.<n contains more ttmn one-qaart«r ita weight of ^Id« 
it ia al&u eoloD'd black at flrst, bnt no eolution of sikor lakes plaoe. 
Vr'b^ii tlie pn)[Mirtion of the gold to the silver is about M]ual. the 
bnttoQ ie iiiiL'liuii^i^l Ijv Ü\e iicid. In both of the latter cases il must 
be fused on coal with borax and at least twic« its weight of surer, 
flreii> IVom ;^ld, and then again treiLted with nitric acid, when a {wr- 
fect se{utrution will «^nsiie. If it is desired to unite the gold to a 
button it mii9t be well w&?hpil and boiled with disülk-d waicr and 
then either fuvud un coal nitli burax, or cui>el)eä witli a little teat 
lead, m n-ill be dveoribed in detail in i\\& gold lusay. It must then 
have a pnre gold-yellow color and n bright siirfac«. — 

A gold button obtained in this way will nfren etill contain imcea 
of Blvcr; if deeired perfectly free from silver, regard must be paid« 
during the parting, to Ilio dirt-etioiie which will be girt« under the 
quautitatire assay of alloy« fiirgold. When the gold eontainn metal« 
which by thetneelTiB are infiisihte B. B., such aa plutiiiuuii iridium, 
palladium, and rhodium, the alloy is fusible D. B. with tnoru dtffi« 
Clilty than pure gold; they can alBu he recogttizpd by the fact that^ 
whi^a such an alloy is 4li»mlved in atjiia regia, any iridium remains 
behind and the eolutiou poeseeaes u darker color than that from pare 
gold. The sepamtion of tlie aboTe-mentioned itielaU from the gold 
will bi.' ä|)ccially de^cribr-vl under thequanlituüve gold assay. 

In order to find u small amount of gold in pyrite. artenopyrite and 
chulcQpyrite, ae alM in the various meUillitrgical products oonsistiug 
of metallic fulpliiden and arjieiiide?, the method must be foUow«df 
which will be e«{>i-i;iiilly dL-acribi'd uuder the quantitative assay for 
gold in ihc above ores and products. 

b. Blowpipe eharacteritUu of minerah eontaimng gold. 

Native gold fuses on coal to a glubule, «'hich lias a bright !>tirf^ic< 
whan oold. The cohir of the globule ap])ears purer guld-yellov 
tlie less silver then- is pn-äi-iic. 

COLD— irmi TeLttntitrif. 


Willi S. PI), on coal in O. F. a boat! is obtained, which npalesoa« 
when cool, owing to the oxtdu of eiWi^r disanlv«^. 

G»ld amalgam heated in a matnus Tifldü moUllic mtrcury and 
lean» behind a sp'ingy nio^ which tnultvd on coal with bonx, 
Uiiitn) lo a gold button, containing a «mall amonnt of «ker, and 
ha»inK thcTt-fon? a \\a\v gold-ydluw color. 

Pailadium'gold and /Ik'xiiutn-yofH.— Of the behavior of these two 
minerals B. B. it is only known that Lhey ftiso ou cijal nud fonn a 
Biallrahlc alloy. For tbv Ireotment of such alloys, vide general 
examination for gold. 


Htflranitt. — Acconling to IVrielius. it gives in an o|ien tnl«? white- 
fniacS, which, nmir the assay, an; gray Train the anhlimi-d li-)Kirium. 
When the flame ia directed itiuin the sublimute the latti>r mvItJi to 
clear, lruiiti[»ir?nt drojtg; it snielU acid, but witbuut the least tinou 
of a horsc-radinh odor. 

On coal it fiiAfS to a dark gray metallic globule, and ooaU Ibe coal 
will) wliitc fiun«"!, which diMp|)cHr with a bbiish-go'Of) flame whm 
toudiMl by tbe It. F. Altvr coiitinuvd tivatmvnt, a ligltt yellow 
iiii-tallic: button remains, which ^'low'' jii?i k'fore it solidifies. The 
I>erf< briglil biilton when coul i» mulk-jblc. 

MäUeril9 {si/lmnilf) liehaTi-a In Ih« iijivn titlio like the [ireoeding 

On ccol it faiirs easily to a globule and coats'lhe coal with the tel- 
lorinm rtimcs, which, tonchi'd by the R. F., are driven off, in)|Mtrling 
a bluish-green tinge to the dame; Iht-n, after further tri'aLmeiit, a 
yellow coating of oxide of lead ii formed, and Anally there reroaini 
a metallic bnlUtn. which has tbv colur of iilvor, but which cannot be 
disdulved in nitric acid. When fused with twice its «uigbt of 
obemically pure silver, and again treated with oilric acid, all the 
silTor is diti4ulv(-d and a considerable umuunt of gold rumidnä. 

PhnUiH(jtatn. — In a clowd tube, at a gentle heat, the mini.'ral is not 
ollcrcd ; with a stronger boat it fuses and given a trilling white aub* 
limati-, which, liowvver, cauuot \>e again volatilin^ 

In the opi-n tnbe with a gentle heat, it fuse« only imperfectly, but 
cvolvce sulphuruuB acid and a white smoke, which coats the gtoM 
tolerably »ear the a&d»y. hau the appoaranoe of a cumbinntJOD of 
oxide of amimony and antimonic acid, and incrcaKS with a iitronger 
heat, by which the mineral is fueed lu a globule. Tht^ riienl aaeuy in 
eurrouuded by a lnvwn glas^ which, on the cdgea, ia transhieent and 
f>f a vellow color. 




Alone un co»l it fasc-e vcrv vMily, epread« out snd ToULUizce, Isar- 
ing a few very smuU ecattervd gold btittons, »nd ftRurds a scuroel^ 
perceptible odor of eeWniiim. A wliite cout. is «Iso fi.irmeil, which 
disnppcars, when totichid with tlir flame, with a gr<?einHli-l)lne (iogCi 
lenving behind j-."llow spots. The wliite coat accordingly ct>n8isM 
prinripHliy or a mixtare of oxide of »Dlimony lUid Biüphal« of lead. 

Treated with borax on i:oal in O. P., a wliite Hi)tim<iny cunt is 
fonnt-d, wliicfa haa, however, a dark yellow l»jrdi-r, thus proving that 
Bomtr lellurtiim is prescut. The remaiuing: metallic button possene« 
the Inütre und color of jiiiru gold. The burax bead appears uolorloaa 
auJ \s pt^rfi't^lly iranepareat 

a Examinaiion for ffoU in metalltirpital products. 

All that ia to be noltced in the exatnioation for gold in metallur- 
gical products can be fonnd under tb&gcnertd examination for gold. 

17. TiTASirM, Ti. 

lis occurrrace I'n tiie mintral kingdom and in metallurgical 

Titanium is fotind in nature only !n tbe oxidized state. 

a. As acid, alone, in 

Octahedrit*!, brookite {arkitHstt«), and rntilc, — Ti, with CO.l Ti; 

tJiese miuorals often contato email quantitics of T^-, Htx, niid 

sometimes 8n. 
SlmmnrtitH« is a modification rich in iron. 

b. As acid in combinatiou with earths and metallic oceidw m the 
following minorals: 

PentffVitp, tilanite, und scliolomitc, vide lime ; 
IVlyuiigDite, polycrose, »scbynite, enxenitei and Jttrotitanite, vidi 

yttria ; 
(Entedite, Wrfc zirnoni«; 
Tschi'ffkinite und mosandrite, tnde c«?riuin ; 
Mtiiacranitu, ride iron. 
Titanium nlüo forma a small and uneiwentinl ingredi«nt of a few 
other minerale, wbidi liare alrvudy been mentioned. 

Titanium occura in metallurgical product«; 

a. In oiiinbinatioii with cyanogen and aitrogea. partly crystallise^ 
in certain Itlaat-fumace »\agit, m small copper-red cubes, which, ac- 
cording to Wühler, are composed of Ti C N + 3 Ti' N, with 78 Ti, 
184 ^, und 3.1 C. or 1G.2 cyauidc of titauium^ and 83.6 nitride of 



tiluhim, and partly fn more or l^s adhoretit, irregularly- eliapnl 
bodies in the bears, wliich form «hco blowing out irun blust-funia- 

b. Aooordiag to Kersten, certnin l>Iii*t-rUnwoc slag» also owe their 
tine blae color to a email anonnt vf o:cide of titanioni. 

EsamloaUoB for TlUnium, 
Inducing the Now/tifte eJtaritdtrisHt^ of the minfrola Monyttig liprt. 
a. Otmeral fxaminaiioH fnr tUftnium. 

Minerals conatsting prinripiilly of lilanio anid van he very rasilj 
reciigniKed from tlieir behitrior wIili lhi> fltixce and «uda, vide ijtani*; 
acit), p. 110, When, honevi^r, tlie titanic acid \« cnmbtnrd with 
baaeft, nr in g(>n«nil, with enrtbs or motitlli? cxitli^ii, it it not iiln-ujrs 
possible to n^cn^nizv it imimiliulcly by tnoarifi itf tli(> flnxos, Itoüiin«« 
certain of the haeic ooaatiriients liidf the rraciiun of tilaniiim. 
When, bcstdt« tjtatiio acid, only tbv oxides of iron ar« prvsent in 
modi'mt« qnnntitiirs, the prespnoe of the former oan h^ proved by iu 
beharior with S. Pb. in K. K„ if it is known that, tiingslen is not 
prpw'nt ; tlie Iwail becomes dark on cooling and morpor Iwg brown- 
ieh-nnl. If the amount of titiknimn is Ur^e a violet color c«a be 
obtaint.-d io 8. I'h., when treated in H. F. ou e^al with tin. 

Aeenrding to Kiley ((^tmrl. Jour», of tkti Chr*n. Sor,, XII., 13; 
also Erdm, .hurn. Vol. LX.\IX- p. 04). it is better to iisf m piece of 
meUllic xinc instead of tin, when the amount of litaninm in theeiib- 
atanrc lit vcr}- timnll and when the riolet «olor does not make ita 
aptiearunee distinctly. 

In complex »ibctsnces, which give no decisiv« reaction for tita- 
ninm with the fliixes, u amall nmuiint of the «inie may \k dt-tctteil 
in the following way: the finely pnlveriaed 8U*'*tance i* l^iaed in a 
platinum ftpoon nt a moderate red bent with six to eight times it4 
weight of histilphatc of potnsui, the mixture being melted iu small 
portions at a time. The ma^s is then diäsolviMlin jnatKulItrietil water 
in a ]y>rcekin dish over the ktiip aud the in»olul>le part« allowed 
Io settle. The solution, if eoneentrnted, may bt* heated tu boiling. 

The clear eriliition is then poured into »larger disli, mixed wilb a 
few drops of nitric acid, diluted with at least six timvH as much 
water, and then boiU-d. If the gntwtanc« contained titanium tli« 
latter is dissolvnl by thä fusion with btaulphalc of potussuand treat" 
ment with wüler, but ig precipitnti'd from the acid sulution by cor- 
tinned boiling tu white titanic acid. If the »ulution ia not uciij 


with nitric Acid l>ef<)re Iraüing, a yellow, rcmiginoaa titanic ncid ia 
obtHJned, wheik the eiilutiincc ctmlaina ii-ou. The prcct|)ttjiU.-d 
titanic ftcid is coIIotWiI upon a email filter, washed witb water con- 
taining nitric acid, und tfflted with S. I'h., either on pbtinnm wire or 
couL ir tho amount of tiluiiic acid ra e>o small that in It. F. it does 
not iniiart to th« S. Ph. the violet color of &eaquio:(ide of tilanini», 
it is onlv nt'oo^iary to add ft little <ie«qnioxidQof iron, when tho a^^ay 
i» tiptiii a wiiv, or a. unmll piece of iron wire when on coal, and la 
{xi$^ the glass for a short time with th« S. F.; it then appears yel- 
lowiith whilo hot and trowniah-rvd whfn «ml, p. 110. 

ir compotindü containing zircuniu with titanic acid are fa.Qed with 
bieulpbate of potasaa aod the mass treatttd with wuivr, a part of ilie 
titanic acid is apt to remain nndiisolred with the zirconia; of tbtn 
extendcil mt-Dtioii has btxu miidc under yttria, p. 188. 

b. Siowpip« efiaraelerisiies of niimral» eontjtining titanium. 

Octahtdrite. brookitf {arkatmle), and rutHe are infhsible B. B. In 
the flaxes and with soda they hehave like titanic acid, vide p. lift. 
,It atvd only he remarked thut they diswhe in S. Ph. with more 
[diflictilty than the puru artiliciul titanic acid, and also that the colon 
laved by titanic acid iu borai and & Ph. bar« gouieüiiit-e a dif- 
ferent apptaraiiar, owing to ti small admixture of oilier metallic 
oxidcit, na iron, and that with aodu aad nitre a reaction of maagw- 
leee is often obtained. 

e. Behavior of titanium occurrinff in metaUurff teal product». 

The titanium which, comhinod partly with cyanogen and partly 
witb nitrogen, is found cryetalliied in bUst-farnacü slags, or only u 
an admixtitra i» hears, isdisaolved in borax wiih difficulty, hut with 
moderate ea»e in S. Ph. Even fVotn the pureiit portions do riolet 

boolor 'm obtained by dieaulvitig it in 3. Ph. and treating in R. F. 

^The Cold gloas always h&& a more or lesa iat«nBe browuiah-red color, 
owing to the pn^sencc of iron. Even on treating tho glass with tin 
no violet color is pixtduced. 

IB. Tastai-ux— Ta, amu Xiobium (Colovbiuii)— Kb. 

These metals occur only as acids combined with bases, and arc 
found in the following minerals:— 
Tanlalitc. columbitc, vids iron ; 
Pyroohlore, w'tfs lime ; 



Tttmtontalit«, hiMmite, fergiiaonite, satnarskit«, tyriu^ sscliyntt^ 
»uxeiiit», iKjlycra»^ vide yttria; 
Wühlcrite, eucolite, vid« siroouU; 
Wollrumile, vide iron ; 
Cifiaiteritu (wrtain varietiei), fidf tin. 

BxamliiAtloii for Tantalam and NloUnm ■ 

Tlic most «rtuio mtthtKl of recogiiiaiug tli«*) metaU to Tery oom- 
plicated combinations ia the eamo aathni nlreiwly givon under jrttria, 
p. 1R8. A »nffipient «tnonnt of tlif very fliiely |>ow(|prefl niiiii>ral ii 
fused wkb bisulplmte uf potaasa, and the tuMsd uius diHSuhctl ia 
irnt4-r, after being pnlreriz^d. If the minimi contains one of the 
abop» ftcids, with parbajis tnng^tic ociO al«o, tlie^c ar« h^punit'-il tr 
lb« trvacuieiit vith watvr, wliil« unr litaiiic acid pr«6«ut dissntvas 
togi'ther with the bases. The rf^idti« uih-t be oithor fii3>?d with 
corlionate of poUssai p. 189, or if frve fnmi tiUtiic acid unil »innitiiti, 
treated at once with snlphid« of ammoiiintn, to aepiirnte the tuiig- 
atio acid and oiide of tin. AUlt fiUratiuu ond ihoruiigh wwihiiig 
the reeidiie is treuted on the fllt^T «iih dilate hydrocliUiric acid, tu 
remtiTe traces of iron, and is iheu examined for tsntvlic or niobic 

The examination may be made «ithor viiU tba glaas flaxra and 
cobuli soluliitn, or with hydrochloric and snlphuric acids, and the 
addition of tnrtallic tin or zinc. {U»mia(.-LHbi.'rg (Poffff. cxxxvi^ 
177, H *tq.), gives iJie following distinctive reactions of tantalio and 
niobic ucidH. 

If liydruchloric acid and zina are sddtnl to a «ultilioa of a Lanta- 
late of an alkali no colorutiun rrnuite. unless a large amuunL of acid 
is added, whi-n there eiieiieä a fethle bluish Coloration. If »iolniteof 
all alkali is similarly lr<-ttt«<l with liydrochloric or «ulpliuric iicitlund 
ihen with zinc the ««paniling niobic acid mpidlr usäumeg a tinu bin« 
Culur^ which jjnidtmlly bK^umes paler, and ihen hrown ; ih« fluid ia 
tbfn aUi> bixiwi), and yields a brown prvHpilatv with aiuniouia. 

B. B. tanialic acid yiohU colorlrM glasses B. B. niobic ac-id, 
obiaim^d hy decumpusitton uf the chloride, yields with S. l*b. iu 
0. F. a ccduHvss glass; which iu K. F. is riolet or blue (with larger 

* It hu Wn dcAniMlf Miilnl ikw the mdnl tlianinm, whidi ran KolwII iliaiwhl 
1m had dbctrrcrvil id cort«iii Bifn«»!« (m. -. ««innnkiir, cuxriiiiv, vir.), d«« nut vxut^ 
■nd It It dioRfan lien uiailtcd. alilMui-h rcuinol in thu Grrtiun niiiiai]. M rr^uitt 
■1h> nenit iatrntigsliuiH of lb« «.-itU of ixiiatiini and nioliinni. mw ibo end or ihi« 



quHtititiee). Niobic aciJ Mpurut«il by ftuioo with biealphato ol 
jvota^u yielil» a l>rwwu g]aHfi under the anme cir(.-ums!ancL'a TfuuhI 

'I'tii' <-xanniiaLi<ii) for the respüctive neids iiiuy aUi> be made afti 
fueiu^ the sulifiUiiici- in fine jiowdvr witli carlHinate uf |x>t 
Titanic acid han no injurious efiVct. becauw the redultmg Utauau; ' 
poUkseii is buL gliglirly anliiltk- in wiiier. 

Thv riinmn is jierToiined «itiier witli «f^imnite portions upon a ittoi 
platitiiiu) wire. or moK couvouieotly in u tuiiall plutiuutn crucible ' 
tbe «ime shape as llie olaj crucible. Fig. 28, p. ti. wbioh ifi «l 
n«qnarc<X)«l und hciiu-d lU stroiiglr m possible, m i« d<-«crib<-d rini 
the quantitative assay fiir leiul. Five or six vnlumus of vurbmiatc 
potiu^it are employet], witli ibe addiUou of one Tohiuie of nil 
wlit'Tl Mir bn»-8 arc- at a luw tttugv of oxidation. The fn»cd mass )*~ 
treitlvd witli hot wat^r, the eohtlion (which is almost alwavs oolot 
more or lem grwu hj mat\gaavm) fi)u-r«d off, and trvatv«! wit 
livdmelilorir arirl, THp pn-cipiiate of tii« metaliic acid, wtiii'li 
gciK-iaily uf u ruddiöli tiugc owing lo the preamc«; of »oun; rimii^ 
new, is filt<'r»l out. treated with sulphide of ammonium if tui 
Btic and mukMic nciüe ar« present, und the examiitatiou th« 
conilnctod aü abovf. 

Tantatic acid mav be furHuT n.-cn{rnij5L'(l by the followiug n-actic 
The doubtful acid which remains aft*-r the fusion with bisulphj 
of polflMsa, is mixed with tire vuliimcK of carbunaU* of {wla^sa and 
fii^, either in the platinum crucible, as above, ar on plutinui 
wins to M clear niaas, and this is «ÜHSolved in hot wat<.-r, afI'ordinff| 
clear solution, from which the respective metallic acids are thron 
down by hydrochloric arid. Up<>it aildiiig tinctnro of gitli« to tS 
«oltitinn the whit« jtrvcipiUlle axsiimv» a light yellow col«r if 
sisting of isutatic acid, while in preeenoe of uiobio acid it beoom^ 
orange-ytlluw yr orttiig-^-ri»d. 

If oni! of the ci>mpuuuJt) here )nr^luded »intains siliciu auid, thi>_ 
examuialion is cnndnclt-d us above described (p. 194 and ld5). 
the flcootnposiliun of wöhk-ritc and cndialyt«, which can be dec 
pored by hydrochloric acid. 

Should the compound not be iluconiposed by hydrocliluric acid, : 
must he fuaed witli WMla und borax, p. 113. the fii»ed mass evs]: 
rat«^ to dryne«» with hydrochloric acid, and the» tnait<-'d with wat« 
The rvsidue of acide is then to be washed with acidnhited wut<-r on" 
a mt<T, dried and tue&i with fiv» volumes of cärliouate of pute 
Bfl before; the beads are pulverized and further treated, as sboi 
The rfactioiis for the acids in «jaestion are in no way iiyured by it 
preecnce oT the silicic Bojd, . 



[KoTB. — In the Jbregning pugcs, a» well u in tbo tabk-a (p. 95, 
it /tif}., tlie uld foniiuUis for tlia uoide of tantalum aud iiiobititii have 
be«it rvtuiiied; tli« rvcent iuvotitigatious of Marignao mid Blom- 
•Inind, huwever, indicate ttiat tliere are only two ucidx, lanlalic 
arid ntid iiinblc actd. and Mutt U. Hosi^'b liyponiubio »fid U idcuti- 
cal villi uiobic ucid. The lormidas for tlie acids ai-e Üb O* mid 
TaO*: Miirij^noc gives th« «(inivalent of niobium as 94 (II = 1), 
ind tbe «univalent uf tantaiuin is given as IS^ Transl.] 

10. Aktiuonv, Sb. 

Jls otxurreuce i» M« mineral kintjdinu and in molaUurgical 

This metal ia found in nauire — 

& Id tbe meiallie stai«, alone, la 
Native antimfiiiv, — Sb, iisiiallv containing A^ Ft, and Aa. 

It. Ill conibinutioQ witli other »tatalH, iu 
JBrpilliauptite, vide nick«! ; 

_Ällcii)oiitite {nr»miml aniintony), — Sb As*, wifh 3-1^ Sb; a rariety 
frum tbv I'alnibuum miju-, lu-ar Mumiibvrg, giws tim formula 
Sb .\ä", wirb 8 Sb; it ia au luitimuvia) aracuio. 
-Dvccrasito, vide silver. 

c In combinatloD wicb »uiphur, nlone atid also with other mUaUie 
■^u}pkidea. ia 


^Stibuite. {^nty aniimoNtf,) — Sb, with 71.4 Sb ; 
-JBerlbierilc, whirh vurieesoracwliat in ita cnrnposilion; the variety 
from Ao^luT in the Ucpt. de In Cnn», that from Araiiy-Idk« und 
that from Bräuusdovf, have the formnla h .'^b with 5G.8 8b;« 
tbat (yom Cha«?l)(-e,in Auv^rgn^, oorrct^ponds to the fnrmiila 
(■V ^i)' wirb fti-aSb; 
^Jllniannitci, cide iilclcel ; 
^^onmimitu, siokenite, plagionite, jatnesonit«, meneghlnitc, fentlier 
ore, boil lan«'> rite, geocrouit«, kilbrickenitc, Btcinnxannite, ko- 
bt-llib!, and (.•layitt^, vide lend ; 
^Ohalcosttbitv, tetnihedrit^. aftonit« and wOlcliit«. vide copper; 
^3t«plmntt<-. ]iolyha«ite-, pyrarg^yritc. pyrostilimit«-, miargyrite, (Vele8- 
Ivbenite, broiigiiian.lile, freibvrgitv, i*i"c/c silver. 
d. Iu a oonibinaiiun of sulphide and oxide of anfiraony, in 
"fcermesite (rrd mitimani/). — 'i Sb + 5b. with 75 Sb. 

— ^ _^ ^^_ 

• The T«nrlv froni DrJnUtJorf ctinTitlitf 2.5 jkt eeiil- ninnpintw »nd cx>rrc*(jondi 
totW futvulA (Pc, Mnj Sb; nm //«luw Ibund fur the uinii.- thcfunuuLa Ft;* !M)'. 



I. In tb« oxidixed statt in 
VoloQiiuite uad eeoarmbotite, — 5b» with 88.3 Sb; 

OerraQtite, — Sb Sb with 79.0 Sb; etibtconit« {antimony ochrtfpt.) 

Sb 0' + fl, witii 74.5 Sb; a variety from Congtautine, Sb + 4 Ü, 
with 61.3 Sb. 
Fartzit«, from Mono Co., CaU appear« to be hjdroua oxide of anli- 
moDV, with viu-ioas m«Ullio oxides, aooording to Blak«. Areat« 

obtaiQi-d 47.6 Hb. SUitfeldtiie, from Ntnudti. apjii-arn to be very 
nniilar. Stetefeldt found, ae a meiLii from two analysed, 43.77 
Sb 0', 23.r Ag, 12.7 Cn, and also S, Fe and It. (Dana.) 
Volgurite {anlitnany ncJire, pU), — Sb 0* -(- 5 Ü (Daua). 
/. Iq combination wiih earth* and ntttallic oxides ia 
RomeitCj vii/e lime, nud in 
Biadhi-iiniu-, vuie lead. 

In tuctalliirgical products ariUmonv onlv forms aa esst-atial ingre- 
dient in the sulphide of an timotijr, Sb esiracted by liquation ; as a 
Beoondurr coastitiient it is found in ecreral prodacte from lend and 
silver cmeUiug. when the euiL'lU-d or amalgamated ores were stiblf- 
rrous silver or lead ores, or were not free from an admixture of 
gtibnite. Here arc to be specially mentioned : 
Itaw lead und lead reduced from abstrieb, t'lV« lead; 
Roiorl-silTer. vids silver; 

Baw matt, lead matt, copper matt, farnaoe crnst, via« imn, in which 
prudacts tbt* antimony is present u ah; »bio abiiig and 
abstrich, vitl« lead, wlilcb products coniarn tbu aoLiniODjr aa 

aatjmonic acid ^ combined with oxide of lead. 
Besides these prodacts, tben; are seveiul others, which somt^Umes 
oontaia small (juantitie« of antimony, as oert^iin kinds of black 
copper and speiss, and the lithar^ that is obtained from the cupel* 
lation of l«ad containing antimony. 

XlvaminAtiOB for ABtiBiony, 

Including the bUnepipt okaradariatics of the mineral« btlonging 


a, Ottitral examination /or ant imony. 

Tba Mftmioation for antimony is very simple, and is oRcn limited 
to ft test of the Babstanoe on coJl or iu an open tube. 
Alloys ai-e generally tested on coal and the auiimony reoogn:zvd 



b; thr ooat, which it deposits, vide bebsTior of antimon/ oq coa], 
p. 07 

if th« autiraon; is combined with metals which aleo gire a coating 
on coal, a coating of oxide of antimotiy is funuMl, iL is true, Unit la 
visible when tl)C ämoant of antimony is not too »mall, but tlie 
nGiiulty lese volatile coaiiug, tiiut ia at the same time furtncd tiy lliu 
ntlicr metals, appears sometimes changed in color, as Is the caso with 
lead that contains antimony, p. 2G-J. If, howovcr, such a oüiiil>iita- 
tioD is txvatvd with a liitii- vilnfii-d bontcic acid, so that the (aied 
glass is covered with the blue flame, the meuillic bnttoo remuiuiug 
CD the side of the glass, the lead is dissolved by thu bontcic avid as 
nxide and a coating of pure Diidu ul' aiitiinuciy is liirnied, if too 
much ht-at is not applied. Th« iticthud is the aatue for bismuth. 

If the antimony ie combined in email amount« with rnntals. euch 
as copper, from which it can only ba separoted with diföcnlty, uo 
ooating is formi^d by a slow volatilisniiou ; xuch an alluy is trpui«d 
OD coal in 0. F, with S. l*h., until a pan of th« antimtmy has been 
oxidized and token np by the gloss, which in thtru tsepuratt-d fivm the 
metallic buttou und treated in R. F. on another pari of tiio <»iil with 
tin. tt istheii ci)>si.'rv{<d whvthvr, ajMn cooling, it iigäumL-gmi u|ku|Uc, 
dark-^ray or black color from which the presence of antimony may, 
in most cases, be dutinctly rtcojrniiii-d, p. 99. Since, howervr, n 
portion of Ibv metals cumbiiied with the antimony, if they are uxi* 
dixubks are aUo oxidiu-d aud tjik^'n np by the glitsi«, it mtisi be con- 
eidcrad what colur« these oxides impurt to tliu glusd wbfU treated 
with tin. EsjK-eial regard nuiat be ]md tu this point when bismuth 
iapresenti for its oxide hchavcs in & Ph. utmost lUv same as the 
oxides of antimony, pp. 99 and 100. If therefore butli metals are 
present together, eombiiu'd with a third nt«-[al, the eiaminaiiini in 
S. Ph. is lioi decisive ; in this case a larger assay pifce mupt be used 
and the point decided by uxaniiuing lb« coatings very carefully, or 
the wot way mnst tie resorted t«^ lu th« luttcr case the alluy is dia- 
Bolwpd in ai^ua regia, tb« solution mixed with ammonia in txcegs, 
und the meUU precipitate as sulphides by sulphide of nmmuniiim, 
in which aome sulphur has been previously dissvlved. The prcoipi- 
tated Eulphido of antimony is then redi^soWed by hi'ating, the solu- 
tion diluted with witltr. tilt^red, und tlie »nlpliide of antimuny pre- 
cipitate by dilute hydruchluriu acid and oollect«d on a ßlter. When 
dij it ie either teste on coal or in au open tntw. 

In the examination for ooppov, p. 292, it was obsei-ved that when a 
head or S. Ph. amtaining uxidu of copp<.-r is crejtted for a short time 
on eoal with tin, it becomee opa^iue and red, bat afttrward quickly 



d»rk-gray lotikckifit coittainnl even a rnnatl quantity of antimony 
As. tlu-ii, a \wad »f tliiä kind tx'coini-s hmI whcti cool only ;irt«r a long- 
cDiitiuuc-d iriHitmi'Qt in tlit^ R. R. a etiiull »moaDt of aiittmonr, oren 
iu copjior. CHn U> e&si\y delected by bd exatninatiun willi S. Ph. 

Metallic feuliibid-*« are eiaiuiutfä fwr an tiniouy partly ou cool, partly 
iu uii upi>n tdbtv 

Acoordiiig m tb« sabshtnce u riet or poor in sulpbide of MOtimony, 
thi'rv HIV foriiiMl in tiiv Lubt?. bi-fiidL-a äiitpliiirou« acid, monj nr Icm 
antimoiii.ll fiiriii>5. whtcli ure d(>]N)!>iU'(l in llif ronii of [lOwUi-r u{ioii 
tbu ^)a^. |)aii.iy ni uxidv of iinlituuny, and partly 08 a curalnnulioa 
of oxide of Hiitimuny nnd aiitimnnic acid. Tbe former iä fnrtbest 
ftotn tlie JisKay and cnn b<- drirt'ii TroiR place !■> place liy houLio^; ft 
p».rt uf it, liuwt.-v(r, i« apt. to t*« uxidizu], at the expeusi» of Ih» air 
tlial UttVis tlirnngb fli« tnlte, to a comliination witb anlitnonic ucidt 
vliich, lik« tbHt d<>poeil«d npon the under eide of the ghi&i avar the 
aesjiv. can ii<-ttlR>r be vulatilixvd our fuäpd. WIimh th<i iimuiitit of 
aiitinioiiy is inronsiclenible, the combination of liie two oxidvg ia 
almoet exclusively funui-O. 

ir the sulisUtice contains sniphide of Inid, aa wdl a^ swlpbide of 
aiilimuDV, (iiiek fiiino« niv eirolv«-«!. bin only the «itiall<.-xi part of the 
ftamv i« (li']HMiited m volatile oxide of antimony. It is changed for 
tfao most ])urt to a cumbinution of oxide of »niiniony and antiiuonio 
acid, nliicli is mix<-d with eulphate of k-ad. nud near the assay niUi 
aniiiiionate of lead, and vliich can not be volalilixotl. 

If the euhKtaiica couiains arsenic it is oUsened tlial when the 
Miuy id only heated a alt<<ri time, a mixture of pnlveralenl oxide of 
aulimuny and cryjlaliint- ar<>:-])oitj acid is depo«it«d upou the gliid&.^ 
Jf a mixtrirc of snlpbide of areciiic and enlphide of antimony, in 
which tha quantity of the lutter is small, ia to be examined, it is pat 
into a cloard tube aud tlie snlpbide of arsenic sablimi-d by u >;i'utle 
heat, the greater part of \hv sulphide of antimony r^maiuiii^ Wuind 
•ltd haiiirg a hiark odor. The loirer part of the tube \$ thtn cat ofl^ 
and the «i4il[)hide of autimimy taken out and tested iu an o|m-ii lobe, 
A» a jM-rfiH'tly dwisive result is obtnined in tbiB wiiy. tbii« te^t is 
recuaimi-udi-d for the usuminatioD of the mixtnrv of the enlphide« 
of arsenic aud antimony, vhich, in qaatitatireanalym of Oompoand 
Bnhstanoeg in the vet way, is R<parHti-d by bydn^ulphnne acid, o> 
pnrcipitati-d liy ucids fnmi a sKilutiuD of «idphide cm anmaBiam. It 
muj4. however, be previously dried Lhorou^bly. 

Tlut cxamiaatioii of metallic enlphide« for antimooy can alio talcA . 
place on i\wd. lircan^* the cnnting nf oxide uf antimony eaii be aaril^ 
ilbtiug niched fn>m otlien that at« nmilar. 



If llie substance contains arseuic this is first fulaLilJKec] b; a vivak 
lUnic, proTidril it ig present in not ton small an itmoiitiL and not 
•>oinbin«(l with nickel or cobalt ; tiio coal, far dieiaat from tlic atsay, 
is corerod wiib a wbito coatiu^, tvKicti is gruyieh in the tliinii^r parts, 
p. 6T. If no art>cnic is prt:9pnt a ihiii coat of antlniifuy is otU'n 
deposited. Wliun no uiuro uröt-uical fumes «re observed, thu cniit of 
RTSC0OU8 acid Is driven off by a gentle flame, «itbout igniting the 
oaal, in order to obtain o clean surfsee npon which Iho antiniuiiy 
cwat. formvd by u furtber beating ut tbt- assay, cau be ircuyniKi-d by 
ita behaviiTr when touched with llie ß. V^ |i. 67. If, howt-vi-r, the 
snbslancc oontaina loiul or bismuth, a wbit« coat is formed, which 
c«n»iiitd uf a mixture »f oxide of autiuiuny and sulphate uf lt«d or 
bismuth ; near the assay n T4>IIow roat of oxide of load or bisnmib is 
also furmed. which, huwcvcr, contains autiraiiny. The method for 
detecting with certainty the pi'esence« of antimony in snob eiibatan- 
oet has bi'eu specidlly described in the generul i-xjuuiuntiuu fur k'ltd, 
p. 262,, rf srq. The mctliod described there n-fers principally t^ 
BuWtances cunttiiuing lead: it cua, howerert be employed also for 
BDbelHneos that contain bismuth. 

When tlie gnbfltjuiue cont^dns zinc tlieiv is aUo deposited on the 
coal, near the iuu»y, u coat of uxide of eIhc, wliieb, howcTcr, can be 
easily distin^uiähed from »u antimony coal by not being volatilised 
in Uiu outer flume, whilv the oxide of antimony CAa be drirea from 
pbicc to place, or niniott entirely vululilized. 

Sobstuiicps which contain antinioni- as oxide are best tested on cuiil, 
eitlier by themselrca, or »till lietter in tiie B. F^ with the luldition 
of coda; the nntimony is reduced, volatilized, and again oxidized, 
forming u coat ou the coad. When oxide of lead is to >n» tesl^il, a 
part of which is combiaed with antimonicacid. abstrich for example, 
the hlnst niHSt not bo too coutinuoiie, or else there will Im to*i nineh 
lead driven off, by which the antimony cout is rcndcK^l indijfiinct. 

If the antimony is mixed or combined with metallio oxidüs, such 
as those of tin or copjicr. which when redueod ivtain the antimony, 
they »TK tn-iited on (xial in 11. V. with soda and borax ; by this nienns 
email, easily fiuible, raetallic globules ore separated, which, when Iho 
nniounL of »ntimuny is inoonHiderable, gtvu very little or no oxidu of 
untiniour on eiuil.even when treated in the R F. for a long time. The 
mtrtnllic globul'-s anr »ci>ariiled hy trituriiting und wusliiiig the fii:k'd 
maes in a mortar with water, then fused on coal in B. F. with thre« 
to fiv«! limes their roliimeof test It^nd and a little vitritied hontcic 
acid. If the glass oiily is exposed to the It F., the antimony is 
\i>tatili»tl and eouts tbe coal didtinetly with its oxide. 



b. Blowjiipe eharaeterislic* of /A« minerais thai eantaim 


Ikhttves B. B. on coal lik« pure uiiCimoiiy, [x 87; it givca forth 
Bometimes, however, a dislinct odor of arsenic, iind wlit-n v.ilntil- 
itetl in K. F. with bona, gives a raoreor les« distinct rwißtiun uf iron. 
A fimall siWrr button is uauiklly obtained when it is fused wiUi 
tcet lead, the metallic globule tri-ut«tl in'O. F. until all the antiuioDjr 
i« drivcD off, ttUd th« l«ad then tinall; cupolk'd. 


Fuse« Ter; caail;, roUtilim» with a etron; odor of arsenic, and coats 
the oool with «r«Guou3 acid and oxide of antimony. 


S/ihnili fuwj very eiiaily when modcrattly h<-au-d Jn a fiU'sed tube, 
and äDiiictimes yiuM« a etnall sublimut« uf aulpliur; moiv elruug[y 
h«nt«d with tlic hlowjiiix* Üame, a Sublimat« U formed, wliicli when 
qnitc cool aptK-ars cherry-red to brownish-rRd, p. C2. 

IIcatt-*d in an uin-n tulre it fu«» very eiujily und evolve« »iilphuroua 
dcid and dense antimony fnmes, th« great part of which is d*'pnsil#d 
ou the gloM near the assay as & combination of Dxidi> of antiencmy 
and anttmouia acid ; a p<irtion, as uiidc of antimony, ßimls thnrngh 
the tube and escapoa, or Ls partly deposited npon tlie glass. WheD 
too «trongly heated, the coat is apt to be lingud with red. 

On coal, futeseosily, uprcads out, partly sinks into the ooul, and Ea 
partly ToUUIis^d; the portion in the coal eni>-r>;es a^nin, on con- 
tinued blowing, in the form of satall« bright gl<L>lmk'i!, which an; then 
Tolatilized. During the operation sulphnroas acid ia die^ngiiged 
and a coat of oxide of antimony furmed, p. 67. 

/furdiierUfl heated in a clnsei] tube, decivpiiatcs samvttmca, fnscB« 
yields a small siiblimatf of Gulphur, aud by stroagL-r huit a black 
sublimate of sulphide of antimony, which becomes cberrj'-rwd when 

In the open tube behaves like »tibnite. 

Fusi-e easily on cuul, und k-uves, when the antimony ia driven off, 
a bhiek, slag-like, magnetic mtu«, which givps the rcActions for iron, 
and, in the varit-ty at leiist from Kriliiiuidorf, a mangani'se reitctlctn 
with soda und nitre. 




S'ermtiHe in & closed tube fuses ver^ ensily, givM nt flrst a little 
oxide of uutimony, mid thon a iiliglit. rdluiriali-red gnblimutc. With 
Stronger hrst it boils anil jieliltt u diiUiinate of siilphid« of ftotimoiij. 
lu tlic open tube flod on ooal beliuvps lik« stibnilc. 


Vaitnlinit» and SenanntmtUe in the matrnss fuse and partly 

On coal, fnse very eaeily and cont theco«! with oxid« of rtntimoiiy. 
in li. F. ft pan ii rvdticc-d to m<^iallic antimony, which, however, ia 
volatilised by continued blowing. Whvn the It. F. is dirvcted »pun 
the assay, lli« outer flann-' is c-olorcJ pale grweiiigh-blue. 

CervoiiiUe ia gradually rediiwd ulun iivated on co»l in B. P.; 
th« redncM untimoay ia volatilized, covering the coul with oxide 
■ud learing behind uiir udtniilurtr^ iif fureign subglunc««, which ure 
not votittile. With sodu it it« ipuckly rednceil, so that small globnU-g 
of uititnony are separaUtd, which diHappear, howoTcr, on farther 

Certain antimony ochrea yieM wat«r in the matrass. 

a. ExamitutUon for antimony in metaHurgieal products. 

The mptbod of detecting the presence of antimony in ^e abov»- 
inentionrd metutlnrgiciit products is giren jiartly in the exuminatioD 
for iron, p. 234, partly under lead, pp. %1Z aud 274. and bIbo under 
■ilrer, p. 30 J. 


lU oecnmne« in th« mineral kingdom and in trutalltttyical 


Tongst«n occnrs in nature only aa anacid^ia the following minenJs 

a. Ahn« in 
Tangstite.—ff, with 79J W. 

b. In cumbinatioti with boats ia 
Soheelitot vide Umv; 

Stolzite, vide tend ; 

Wolftiamite, vids iron ; also in amall qnantittea, (n 



Snmanikito anil yltroUntnliw, pfde yttrla; 
Tautalitt' anJ cohmiliite, rW« imii. 

In metal tu rwical prrKlticte tungsten is sometimes funnd in «mall 
qnaDtitiim in »teeU in cvrtoin kiiiOe of iin ; mon: frequently and in 
larger araonnta in the furnace deposits, p. 275, in scraps (Vom the 
refining of tin ; principally, bowerer, in cvrtain tin sla^ as acid. 

Bzamlnatlon for TaDptan. 

TSing$titt acts before the blowpipe, nccortiing to von Kobell, 
follows : 

On conl, in R. F., became« black. 

In S. Pb. in 0. F. it disÄ^Ivce to a oolorifss or yellowish gI»«Jr] 
wliith in It. F. IwcomcH fine bine when cold; it behnve-i oth'-^rTrisol 
like pure tnngstic acid, p. 110. 

In the other aboTe-nK^ntioned minerals, the presence of tnngsiiol 
ocitl, if not iu too eninll i|imnlittes, can b^ easily ivfYigin»-!! by tlid' 
exuminution with S. Ph.; Ihe bead in R F. become; blue when cold, 
or, in thi» presence of iron, more or less red. Sine», howover. enb- 
atauces that ctnitjiiii the oxides of titaiiinm and iron behave in tfao 
Batne way aa thuse iu which tungsten and iron are prpwnt, it is 
advisiible, in certain caeee, to make a special oxunoiaatiuo for 

Upon the decomposition of corapL^i snhRtancea, snch an com- 
pounds of tniitatic, niohJc, and titanic »cida, by fiisiun with btsul- 
phat« of potafisa and a fnrtlier treatment, partly in the dry. nnil 
pnrlly in the wot way, p. 188, tht- tnngslen iB Fcimrsited us niilpliide 
Ii ia then only necessary to ignite this on coal in O. F., thpreity chan^' 
ingit to oxide, and to test it on a plntinum wire with S. Ph. Ifrnongb 
hoe been diesolred the gloae Appears, when treated in 0. F., yclton-iab 
while hot, bnt beoomea colorieas when cold ; after tr(-alin» it a ehort 
time in R. F., it become« blue when cold, and bliiish-green by a 
longer treatment in the same, p. 110. 

If tl is required to prove the presence of tungstic acid iu sub- 
stances in which it is nncertain, from their behavior with S. Pli., 
whether they ooutain tungstic or titanic acid, they must b^ tivnt«! 
in the following way ; the finely pulverized sahgtance is mixed with 
Five times its volume of soda, Uie mixtnrc made into a sm-t of p»ate 
with a little water, and portions of this melted in 0- F. on pUtiitum 
wire. Whenever tlie latter becomes fnll th« fluid masa is shaken off 
mto a porcelain diah. The fused m:ui» ia now ptiU'erized and boitecl 
Jlitli water in a deep porcclma tUsh, in order to decomfm».', by the 



reilnciiig action uf the reoidne, iinj mtuigiinate of snU» (lint might 
hnve ljr«n foimetl and (li««o|T«tl. Tli« solution U tli^n off 
ijitu ttnotlirr dish, as raoiinsihhiu bcoomi- ciriir by Mi<^ settling of 
th^ insoluble «arlli« und ni<^taltic oxidt>3, in which lattvr oln«i lilAuio 
acid lielung«. TIil> clear gulutiun, wliicli conlniiis ttiDgstatc of Buda, 
is mtJtpd wilh a f^w droiw of nitric acid, until it gives an acid reac- 
tion, tbe tnngstic «cid si'pamliuii as u wliiti- powdur. wltiuh becumi-a 
dunwund lomon-y«Uow, when the whole is healvd nearly to boiling. 
In tbifl opprotion especial cnre must be tnkpn not to have the solu- 
tion of iuiigstate of sod», which also contjiins tarhonale of anOa. loo 
cnnccntratE^, becanse the tnnggtic acid, wliicb has boon B^parnted 
by nitric aoid, do4-8 uot tnni Teltow iu rtrj c<}ric«ntrat«d eoluiions. 
The acid cau tben be fuptlier esauiiui-d with S. Ph. 

It mnst also be )iotire<l here thai if gnl^Citnces containing at the 
same time much t«atalic or niobic acids arc tc&lcd in this way for 
tnngstki acid, the aolution oontaiu« ttx^^e acida ala« in comhinaiioQ 
with godo, and lliat, by the addition of nitric acid, a wbit«.' invcipi- 
tat« is furaied, which, whr-n the solution is boated, doe« not turn 
distinctly yellow, anil eoiovtimes nut at ull so. To tvcuj^iisc the 
tnngfitic acid in this case, the prccipilAtc must be dig^-ated with 
8nl)i)iidß of ammonium aud th«! tiuigät-en dissolved out ae sulphide, 
which is further treated as dt-scribed abore. 

When icbet'lilc (ttingstute of lime) ia änely jiowdrrcd and digestif 
in a test tnbe with Itydi-oohloriu acid, tbe tnngätio .icid eejjanitvs aea 
yellow powder; if u i^mnU piec« of metallic tin is now tuldetl, tJio 
whole ia colored blue by the (brnution of (ungstate of tungsten, 
XV' ff. When further heated, the color beiximei gradiniUy darker. 
Thia test can also be used directly in the exaininalioD of wolframite. 
A portion of the finely-pulrcrized mineral is digc«tvd willi bydro- 
oblorie acid, until a moderately concentrated solution is obtained; 
tbiit, vhen clear, is poured otT from the in.>gidue, a pieue of tin is 
added and heat applied, when the sotntion generally assumes, in a 
short tiiQCi H blue color. 

If sails of tungsten occur in combination with silicates, as is th« 
cue in certain tin ulags, tbe tongstic aoid remains mii:ed with the 
silica, when tlie alwve compounds nrc deoouipoitcd {vide lime. ]>. ISA) 
into their aeparat« constituents. Ite presence, if the amount is not 
too »mall, cun be proved by fusing the mixture in O. F.. M described 
al)ovt> for tantulie ueid containing tungsten, with a bead of 8. Fli. 
that contains iron, and treating Ibo glass for a while in K. F.,Db90rT< 
ing whelhcr the bead a^etimes, when cold, a dark yellow tu n-d color. 
The fiilicii, which reniaiua almost entirely undisdohed, doeä uot affvct 



this rfactiau. If. Iiowever, the ainounL of tungslic acid iu jiropor- 
tion to thct silica ia very (jriaII, no rL-liu1)lv nt^iih is uliUiim-d b; tliis 
t««t. If, in tlif examiiiution of a tiu sk^, which always ooniainB 
ItroLoiiüo üf in>ii, with 8. Fh„ no rciUly disliiict n-ocliou for luug^iic 
acid hits b«cn ubäervcd, the ailicu wliicli baa bee» separati'd by the 
il^uumposittoa of ihe slag, can be treattrd on the filter «ritb eulpliide 
of ammoninm, &i described »ndop yttria, p. 188, in the separation 
of tiiQgstic acid from taiil;ilic and niohic acids The sulpliid* of 
tnngati^n in solution U pi^cipiiated by dilute hydrochloric acid tad 
tested as described aboTe, p. 334. 

Th* prescnÄe of tiingstic flcid in tin slags may also be fK-queniJy 
reoognizf»! by the dwp indigo-bluc solution, which is formed wht>n 
the pulvenxfd slug is warmed in a te^t tube with hydrochloric acid. 
This is due to the fart thut the tin slags contain, bi-etdvs oxide of 
tin, flnelV'divided m«lallic tin, which, in diasolving, acts as a reduc- 
ing agt^nl nyMii the iiing«iic acid in the solution of the bases, 
forms tnng^tate of tungsten, which colors the Solution blue* 

The cxuniinatiou of metallic tin for titugelvn has already been 
described, p. 27G, in the general exajnitiAtioa for tin. 


It4 oecuntnce in th$ mitteral kingdom and to metallurgical 

Molybdenum occurs in nutnrc: 

a. Id combination with sulphur Sn 
Molybdenite, — ilo, with 59 per cent Mo. 

b. As acid by itJicIf. in 
Molybdite {molybdic (Khrt), — Ko, vith G5.7 Mo, containing miiu- 

times traci's or iron and uranium. 

c. In combination with ozide of lead in 
Wulfcniti*. vide lead. 

Molybdenum ia also found in small qtiantitiea in a fev pr 
from cupper and tin smelling, vix.: 

a. ifetaUic in certain kinds of raw copper, refined copper, and tin, 
also in certtkin bears, which anr sometintcs dejioeited upon the solo 
of the fftmacu when smelling, in elmft furnaces, eeppcr and tin Ol 
that contain molybdenum. Fimitly, it is also fttund 

• If litl nlnira, wlitrh hvf* lnj»"' 

wuliinit. Irli.tii^ in ill« Mmt * 
tiai;*, lo M|>iiratv nivduu 


6. As oscifU in the rarious sornps und Bings vhich are produced ia 
Bmclttng mokbdift-rutts cupji^r and tin ores, us well as in reSniug 
raw or black copper, »nd in the pitrißcation of tin. 

Examination f»r Molyl>d*niuB. 

Inducing th« Hornpipe eharacifrinHes of ihi mintrala belonging 


MolybiUniie in a oloaed tnbt> remains iinallered. In the open tabe 
yields oiilj siilplturong acid. 

Wbun Ik tiiiii Kcuk of the minrml \t hcateil in ih« furuepe with the 
point of the blae llvme, iiu t'tiäioii tak<^ä [>lac«, but a yellowtäli-f^nH^Q 
P..Mreak is aH<ii iii tiiu niiddk' uf the uutcr Üam<>. \u 7t>. 

On ooftl in 0- F. the mintral diflpn^jgrii u hhicH of sulptnirnua 
aoid and costB the eoal. uhun tht usäuv ia held us Tur »a iKicoibti- fi-om 
the Buuc, with crystalliu« molyUdic acid, which appetua yvllowiah 
when hot luid booomes whitä apon cooling ; tiemr the »«wy tht> chnrac- 
tvristiu Cupper-red Qtm of binuxide of inulybdeiium with i\s nivtnllic 
Inatre, p. 60, is observed. The aeany diminishes in rolanie, but civ«5 
not fase. 

llcntcd in B platinum spoon with nitre, it d«flnj;mteiii with a flash 
»nd dtsäulves in Ike fiued Bult, leaving, huwwer, jetluw flakes. wliicU 
xemiiin nndisMilTpd when thu maus ib»tfd wiili wati-r, and which 
IbcluiT« ill tbv liuxcfl likt' scequioxide of iruu. lu thv ulkuUuc eolu- 
ftion, the molybdic iicid which le funniHl can be eually det«ct«d, aA 
described rnrthir on. 

MoiyMU» beliave» on coal by it*-ir lik« molybdic ucid, p. 105. 
TTreotcd with soda, it aiiika into the conl, li>aving sonic iron behind. 

In enbsluQcoa whiuh do not coiilniii too liltlc miilybdenum, this 
XdoIaI cjLß be fonnd in tlie following way:— the »ubslance tu he 
'tested li Ihiely pulverised »nd ftt^t-d, if it contivins the molybdennm 
«usalphide, with tliree limes itä \olunu- of nitre, but if it ooiilAine 
the tneUl lU ncid, with n mixture of nitre and soda, i» iIr' philiniini 
«poon, until all the inolybdi-num \i cunibiued ne ucid with the 
nlkaliuv bwii-9 pn>5pnt. The fiifird miiSs<i is dissolved in wutor in a 
amall porcvhiin di«b over the lamp, the clear solution puur^d off (rum 
I 'II« inloa [wrcehiin ctipHule and mi\yd with a few drop« of 

t^-- Tic acid, until it gives a feeble acid ivaclion. It i« then 

I a AHuill piece of bright cupper foil uddf-d ; in a abort 

skly ool-nwl, commencing fmm the spot where the foil 

-blue, !iv Ibe sepnrHled tnolyhdiite of molylidcnuin. 



TiingstJc acid, treated in \hii vny, assames onlv gnulunlly a feeblo 
blue colur. 

According to von KaIkH, mnl^bdJo acid can aleo be recognized m 
itü Combi nntiona bv hvutiii}; Ibü finely pulverix4^ sab^laooe in a por- 
culain dish «illi cuueeiitrahMl eulphiirio acid, and tli*-n adding 
alcohol. The fluid wheD ixild acquires, fspeciallj upon I lie sides of 
thi' di«b, u fine uziin^blue color. 

In order to find a small amonnt of molyVdcnnm In the above- 
DR'iiliuncd metaUHT^mil product», it is Dep«^ary lo bar» rucuurse to 
the wet WBj. A moderab; qBantityof tbu products consisting of 
cotnbinntione of metals is dis^tlri-d iit aqua n-giii (pivducM contiiia» 
ing tin preftrftbl; in nitric acid), diluu-d with water, li)l<-rc<l. the 
snltttioD mixed with ammooia in excess, iialphide of umnioniura 
added, and llie gliist! covered and put in a warm placv, lo allow the 
pn-cipit^il'ed ünlphidt-e to settle. The »ulpliide of molylMleiinni, 
wh'Cli romainB in solution, ia pivcipitated, after filtration, by rerjr 
dilute niu-ic acid, washed with wutvr, to which a li(tli> sulphide of 
ammonium has been added, and tested when diy B. B. It bobaree 
in general, when piirt, likt nloI)■bdenit^^ 

ikrapa and slags, which oontatti the metala present as oxide«, are 
pulverized and fim-d with bi»Diphate of potaMa, the melted moas 
dissolved in water, filten^, and the molybdic acid Kparated Swta tbs 
metallic oxides by ammonia and eulpbide of ammoninm, as described 


ItM oecurrtnc« I'n tht mineral kingdom. 

Vanadium belongs to the rare metals ; it lias been found, ap to 
the preseot time, only ta add combined with base« jo the following 
minerals : 

Volbortbite. 1 ^^ ^ 

Vanadate tf lime and copper (Kalkronwrthit), \ "^' 

Furthemture, it forms an uneeaential ingredient in: 
Cottichalcile, vid$ copper, and in 
Hydrophile, tride magnesia. 

vidi lead} 



It liu aleo bc«n funnd in rcry smnll quantities in certain ckjs and 
iron ores, in nranintto, in cupriferoBS <1atft (Kopffwchii'fi-r) und in 

[According to Tesclipniftclier, raondic acid probablj occurs alone 
on coppn-, at the ClifT mine. Lake SujK-nor, aa is men'.ioned b7 
Dana, oadur Vanadie ocfire. Traual.] 

ZhcamlDaUon for VaoailiiiaL 

ir tlLe- amonnt of vanadinm in any enbstancc is not ton small, it 
can be recognized by testing with borax or S. Ph., pt>)vitlai tue 
reaction is not snpprcssfid hr mher coloring metallic oxitit* Th« 
fjajcesappwir jellow after Ixwitment in 0. F^ hut change Ihi'ir cnlor 
in R. P.. appearing broirnish while hot. and emenild-grct-u upon 
cooling, vide vauadtc acid, p. 111. 

If gnligtanoe« nonttiiniiig rnnadin arid, hut free Irom nmitiinationg 
of BÜiduaro finely piilvt^rized and J>i»-d in u platinum tpuon with 
tvice their tolume of nnda and the same amoont of nitrtr, and Lh« 
melted mae« then tn-at-vd with water,, the vimatUlc. nitrile, »n<l 
eicesa of nitral« of {lotassa atid carlioantif of goda addod urc die- 
BoWod, th« oilier kaseS n-miuning bvhiad, pruvidt^d lliey have not 
also comlnncd as acids with a pnrl of the alkalii'S. When. Ihcrofore, 
the snhBtanoe contains at lh<- »ame timv chmmic-, pliot)))h»ri(-. Hr»>nio, 
or Kalphuric acids, the^e are nl?o brought int^ sohuiou. combined 
«ith putasaa and suda. The solution of thi> alkiilitie mllit. al^<?r it 
has become clear, i« decanted off from the n-sidiip iiitu a jmrri-lain 
dieh, mturatcd with avclii: ut-id and a «mall <|imiititv of crvi'tullist^'d 
or pulverized actlat« of lead added, which disswlvea without pro- 
dociog cloudiness. If the solution is free from those ncid» which 
decompow this lult and fnrm. a prccipilate. If. howevi-r. vuiuulic 
acid is present, neutral vaitndale of lead \» formed, whicii, wliirii 
itrongly heatdd, falls to the bottom and osanmi-i n palo yellow color. 
Thp behavior of ihii- suit in borax and S, ph. H*lMl)liBhes the prps- 
enoe of ranadinm. If the golutiou coutnins chromic acid aUo. the 
precipitate becomes proportlonahly dnrker yellow, hut paler in the 
pre*ence of phoephortc, arsenic, or snlphnrie acid; in (he Inttet 
case it ie neoeesnry, before the precipitate can be teetKl with burav or 
& Ph., to collect it on a fllt^-r and treat it on coal in B. P., nntil all 
the arsenic and the greater part of the lead arc volatilized. Wlien 
chromic acid is present in the precipitiite the tiead of S. Ph.. treated 
in a pnre O. F., doea not appt-ar yellow, but- yellowish -green. 

According to von Kubell, the combinations of vatiadic acid with 



Inul, p. 260, cau be reot^iiized by Lhe following reaotian. The Boln- 
twn of the same ni conwntraWil hyrlroclilnric acid (by »hieb a (treat 
dciU »1* clilurido uf k-ud is scpurutixl), whi*n cunccnirutcd. alter an 
admiTitnre of alcoliol, and decautvd from tb« chloride of lead, 
tiwiimo« no aanre-bliie colur, iipou the addition of wutor. Climniate 
•if lead treated in tbia way atüo yields a gri'CQ solntion, which, liow* 
ever, remaiua green. 

If a sabetaQce contains, together with Taaadium, * small amount 
of iron, the latter may be best detected by fusing the substance with 
thic« to fuur [i^rtri by weight of biüulptial)!- uf potaxM, diMolvbig the 
mass in vat^-r, and testing the clear sohition with a solution of kv~ 
rocj-anide of potassium. Whm th» Solution is ft«« from iron, « 
groon, flocfiulout prt'L-lpitate of femicyanide of ranadiuai (Vanadin- 
eisea cyaadr) is formed : if it contains iron, however, this is jm-^cnt 
u K»q»ioxidc and imparts to tb« solution the dark blue color uf 
Prnesian bine. 

Silicatefv stich as slags, are decompo^d by a fnsioii on ooal vith 
■odaaad buiux, p. 113; the matti is then pulverised, aud treated in a 
platinain spoon with aii equal Tolnme of nitre, and then farth»^ 
treated tm has been described above. 

33. ChbomiI/'m, Cr. 

Ita occvrrence in Iht mineral kxHgdw*. 

It occur«; 

a. Xfelatlic, in rery small qnantitiea in 
MeU'oric iron, vitle irou. 

b. Afl oxid« in 
Chromite, viiU iron j 
Chromic ochre, 
■Wolchonakoite 111, 2 : according to Kcrslcn,— {5r, 5c, Si)* Si' + IS 

tl with 18 per cluI. Cr and small amounta of IVIg. ün, and t'h ; 
according to Bcrtbior and the later itiTcatigutiuns of JlimoBT, 
however, it cuutains 31 to 'M per ci-nt. Cr. and apptuus to be a 
mixture of Or aud hydrous silicate» of ^g, Fe, aud Or; 

Onvarorit«, »id4 Um« ; 

Fachgite^ vid« potaua ; 

Pyrope Crom Bohemia^ 

i n<?4alnmina; 

Küntmcrehtc (rlioducbrome), 



vide magncria; 


Emerald, vidt glucini. 

Also in very small amnnntj io tfae lUIoviag alomioatei: 
Spinel, rubj, via« mugovtm; 
Chrjsoboryl, greoo, vi4» glncioa. 

c. As chromic acid in 
Wuqueliiiitr, \ 
Crocaite, v vide lead. 

PlwEDicocbroitc, ; 

Ztxamlnatlaa for Otuomlnin, 

Induding the btoiepipe characierisiics of the minerala bthnging 


a. Geiterai examimUion for eürotnium. 

Minerals in which tlio i«ef?qtiir>xide or cliromium or rhroaiic 
k.,(l forms on csäcatial ingiv-dicnt, nflbrd in most cases a <Iita'tiiict 
re^tion »f cbromiam, when llicy lu*» leHttid in the O. F. with horax 
or Ä. Pli. ; the beads appearing ji'lluwi«li-gn'*ii whi*n perfw-'tly oool, 
i*ri&9e8qinoxide of chromium, p. 101. ]n R. F. the green colar, if 
the sabetauce U free fmm oxides of lead or copper, hecoineji fiuer, 
Mid eren. with a lur^ Rmoiint of chromiuin, a pure i-mi-niM-grc«n. 
If, however, these metallic uxidee are prvsi^Dt, the hi-adü iK-cnme, 
when cool. opAqne red or grav, the green color of the chruDiium 
being hidden. 

A small amount of irou in inin«ni1s contuinicig chrominm ig eiiaily 
dotectL-d, ill tlie same way as in minerals cunlaining vauadium. hy 
ftising with bisalphstf^ of putassa, dissolving in water, and testiug 
the solution with fcrrocyaiiidi; of putaädiiim, p. 34(k 

The minerals which arc t-olored bluod-ried hy Busquioxtde of 
cbrtimiuni. viz.: pyrope and the spinel from Ceylon, hati^ this 
pecnliariiT, that, by simple heating in the forccp«, Ihry bpcome 
black ami opaque; un couliii};, buwtrver, yellowish, or chrumt-gn-t.-», 
tbeu almojt colorless, and finally juet as rod as befor» hi'ating. 
Thuse BJlkate« which an\ colored wd by chmminm and ii-oii lo- 
getlier, bi!a>nii- also opaque by h»uiu;c< hut nSMunm immudiately, 
while cuoUd^, their original n-d color aiid transparciicr. 

MirnTats which coataiu little sesi|niosidc of chrominm, but othei 
o>tloriug nxidt.« of metals in larger qtiuntittett, and which give nc 
ntlttfitctory rftictioa of climmium in borax or S. Fb., can be ex- 
amined for eh ominm, the silicates and spinel t-xoepttd, in the M' 
loBf ing way ; 



A Email quantity of the mineral is palTchzcd aa fioely as poseibl«, 
mixetl with iwiw its tolume of soda uid th« siuiio uinüiiul of nitre, 
taui the niixture huuiH with u Htruug 0. l'^ in ihe lutip ufupliitiuum 
wir^or in a platinum ^poon, niiiil it is tliuught ihut all thf chi-o- 
mium ha* \n-i-a clmti'j<--4 to cJirumic acid. In this way cliromutf« of 
(he alkalies are formed, which are disHolTMl in water id a porouluii 
dish, with the aid of hvai. If tuaagaxma ie pri'iKtit iu th» niiiierul. 
manganaU<8 of the alkalies are fornied during the t'lisiuu ; ihvte 
impart, in tb« l>eginiiing, a gr^en color to the solitCton, but ore 
dvcompoääd hj tbu rväJduu nf uxidea when heated to boiling* Thid 
Bolotlon is theo, witliuut sejmratiiig it tVum the residue, »Iruo^ly 
acidillti] with acetic acid and boiled. If the siihstauce coatiiinecl 
lend, the alkaline solutiou miidt ha d(.-oauted from the residue buforu 
the ao*'iie acid is added. 

When the acid solution h perfi-cily clear it u careftilly [umred «fl' 
from the reäiduc intu u porti'luiu di^h, u ainall ur^Mal ul' act-tatv of 
]ead added, and the whole stirred with a glaee rod. A» tbc acvrute 
of h^iul dissolvi.'«, the True chromic M'id coniifiites with th«<- uf 
lead, fiirmiii^ a lemon-yeUuw powder, wliich i^uiekly falU to the 
bottom, and, afWr filtrotioDi gives with borax or & Fli. iu 0. F. n 
)>ead that »[tiKars Tiiie greeu wIk-u cool Iu this mauuer rery »iiiaII 
(joaiitities of cliroiiiiiini can h<- d^lt'CI^^d. If tbc euh^tance coiitaiud 
sulphuric acid, the Chromate of lead is mixed with the Bulphate and 
the fellow color of the furaier R-iiiJert-<lpro|K»riiuiiuhly paler, ac'cunl- 
iug to the amount of the latter pn.-sent. With {iht^plioric acid the 
behavior is the Aame. These udmixiur^g, h<.>wevor, do not affect cito 
KuctioQ of the chromium, wheu therrsultiug pi-eci]iituu> la usuid 
vith borax or S. Pb. 

Silicati-a which eoutaiu only Utile chniraium, but much iruii or 
other Oüloring oxides of metals, and which only give with the tluxtr^ 
ll)« colore of iroa or the otlicr oxides, can tut be examined for 
cbromiom exactly according to the metliuJ j tiat described. iuailie»lt-d 
are not decomposed by nitre. It ts iherefur« necK0d;UT to chouäo 
another method, bj which tli« other conslitnenl« can be found at 
the sime time. The pulrerized mineral a (utaä on etui iu 0. F. 
vith one to cue aud-iwhulf times ib^ rotume of doda, and um-lmlf bo 

* When ibc miuiKitium of die «Iknlirs an- prueiii ip itHch Inrxe anuaiiis that ilw 
skMh Mfinoc ndnni thtta, ii ii only nrcennn lo imiiC' '« k mntnua it «BMll^wea of 
ynn «Mrrih- ; fiulvcrisr-, wbra ruiil, ih« prMo-i««i|uimvU of tnn ibiu taraMMl, «dd tl . 
io tlKMMj. «Ml licki ikc «liolato builiug: by tlii» nKaM ill ilic ■langanic adil Ei 
redocnl and Mparatcil froai tbc wluikMi. 


U)ree>rourtlifl pArt^ of bomx, to a clear bead; Urn is palvt>rUe<l auil 
evupuratwi to liryness witli liydrocliloric ocitl. 

The chloride« tbas förmt-d *re diJisolvod ia wat*r, tbcaÜic» tUU-red 
off, iho proUicli lurid« uf irou in tb» bolutiou cliuiiged U> «esquiclilo- 
ridL* bjp builiug with a Tew di-o)» of nitric acid, and tbv )>aAv^ vi»., 
fiea<|uioxide of cbrumiuta, iruo, iiIumiiiH, etc, jirccipitut«! by ata- 
mooia Irom the itcid ablution. The precipitute is coU<:i;U-d on « 
filter, VAsbed, iiud fuecd with «odu. and uitru, as above Bj Ibis 
means Chromates of t)ie alkalies are formed, which cau ba decom- 
{weed bjr ucvtic ucid mid acetate of k-ud, nn doauribt^d ahovt-. 

äpiacl is luivd on coal iu O. F. vith two iwrts by vulonie of smU, 
and three porta borax, to n bead, the latter pnlTrrixed, tnixcd with an 
eqtisl umuunt of uitre. ajid fiued iu a platiuiiiu eput^u. The masi i» 
now dist>o]v«d in wai^r, »iid the solution acidified with acetic acid, 
and tested vith acct«te of lend to a«cert«in whether the ?pint-l in 
question ountains chromiutn or uoL If a ptt^ipitata U i'ormtfd it 
most be tested with borax. 

b^ Iflitepipe eharadtrUtka 9/ tk» mineraU belonging here. 

Boru-iius bos exuuiinod B. B. variouii ehrom« cc/irta, from the 
Department« of Saon« and Loire iQ Fraaw, from £lfdiiJ<.-ii nod 

The »arietj from France loses it« color when hftatcd, and Iwcoraeg 
almost white, doL-ä n'lt fiiec, but «buvrs a slaf^-likv sitrfucr, wbirli, 
under the magnifier, appears to be made up of vitrifiod and imfuäed 

The »eM]moxide of chromium is di&solrcd iu borax and givtys the 
gloss a fine gre^n color. The pieci* becunn-s white und dia6\>Ive« 
with difficulty. In & Pb. it is aUo idohible with dilBcnlty, und the 
same quantity gives a fainter color than in bomx. 

It is dissoWed in eoda with diOicuity, and n-quiivs a large amount 
of thu tlux. The glas», even whtn fused, u aal traiiaiuirenl, and 
^ppeani, when cool, like a dirty, ^ntyiijh-sremi «namel. 

The chrorne ochre l>om ICIldaleu behaves like thi.- uiiove, as does also 
the clay conraiiiiiig chromium, from MurtJinWrg, except rhat the 
latter, with a «troiig dame, fuses completely to a black slag. 

Wolchonskoii« from Peru tM'havesi, «coording to Berseliiu, as 
folluvg : 

Id a inatruss yields water aud changes ita green color to browu* 
jsh one. 

Id the forceps, shows upon the edges tmoes of m-Hing, but does 
not fUH>, cracks ujmu ibe fturfavv, and become! browu. 



Borax and 8. Pb. dissolve it imperfeotly, giving iho chromiam 
colors. The insoluble portion is bluck. 

With SDiltt on cuul it, fuscg with eQt.-rv«fioeiioe to a globule, which 
vh«n cool appears grwQ and ^ella«* in spot«. Oo platiuutn foil 
gives cliromuto of eod«, which is fluid, nod nn uDdissulvod, diu'k-red 

RhodoL-hrome iti a matniss gives water »nd baconu-s grayisli-whit^ 
In ttic forceps fuses only on the extrome cdg«s to a yellow eaamel. 

In boras it disHoIves entirely, but leavfis iu S. Ph. a «ilica ekeli-ton, 
coloring the bi-iids cliroun?-gre*n. 

With soda riisrti to lui ni»uine, vellow mass. 

OuvanvU« {ekrwit gartut), ft-om Uiscrsk in Siberia, giv« wat«r 
in a matnus, according to BerzelitiB. am) beoomea opa(|Uri aud dirt; 
yellow ; turns green again, however, when cool. 

Tn the forceps its iiifitsibli-, but appnra darker and bruwuish on th« 
edges, where the heat wa$ the strongest 

In borax it ie dissolved vt-r}' slowly indeod, giving a chnxne* 
green glass. In S. Pli. alwu very nlowly dissolved. Tho ghuM «Hows 
Ihu usual colors of chromitim ; IruDepurent kH nhi-u hut, thvn 
opaqne, aod when perfectly cool, clear emtrald-groeo. 

W'ith goila on coal forms a grconi^h -yellow slug. Oq pUliunm 
foil the Quid soda is colored yellow by the chrominm. 

34. AasEtric, As. 

lis oceurrence in &9 mintraf kitigdom and in nutallKiyiail 

Arseaic is not Tcry rare; it is found under rariotu oomlitions, 

a. Afetailic aud alone in 

Native arsenici— As, sometimes containing a little Fe, Co, Ni, Sb, 

and Ag; 
Arsenical bismuth {Arsengianx), consisting, anoording to Kernten, 
of 97 As aud 3 Bi, wjtli sometimes S, Fe, and Co. 
In combination with ollivr mctulii, ris.: manganese, iron, oobolti 
nickel, oopiwr, and antimony {q. r.). 

b. Conibiuvd with »Hlphnr in 
Eealgar,— Xs, with 70.1 A«; 
Orpimont,— As, with 61 Aa ; 

Dimorpliili', iiecordiitt! to ScHcclii, perhüiw As' S* (Dana). 
Ill combiaanon with sulplnir and other metiUlic anlphidcs, inclnd- 



ingseTenl of the mircrala «numentod under iron, oob&lt, niclc^ 
copper, Bilver, anJ autimony. 

A Ab arsenmtt add in 
Araeuoltt«, — As, with 7d.8 As; elaudtiit« has the utne composition 
aod is dimorphous with urM-nnlitc (Dana). 

d. As anei»c acid in comhi nation with biwes, viz.: lime, oxide of 
iron, protoxide« of cobalt und nickel, aod oxides uf lead and ciip|)ei- 

Since many arscnical ores and minerals u<B irorhcd on the Urge 
scale, «ithvr alone, or with other ores, for the metals thoy contain, 
and Ktnce ar«enic can only bo 0epairat«d with groat difficulty from 
certain mctaln by roasting, it in conM(iucn<;(> not only formi) a cliief 
oonttitnent of the actual ar^-iiic»l product«, vis.: wrUillit: arwnict 
realgm-jOrpiment, and while areeniclixxl it also a froqut-nt iiigrcdient 
of certain other products, which are to he f\irtlicr treiit«d. 

The latter eiubruc« i-Äjjecially the product» ala-ady nu-ntioueil 
ttndcr in»n, oohiilt, nickel, lead, lin, copiH-r, silvtT, and gold, viz. : 

Rohtlrin, Uad and copper viattt, cadmia, a&xug, ahttrich, and tted-, 
ubait and nielul tpeigtes. 

Bxstnlnatlon for AtmbJc, 

Including the blowpipe characUrittio of the mxAeraii hthnging 


A very simpte test generally suffices to indicate with certainty 
small <iuaii titles of araunic, cvt-u iu c<inipound subelaiiCi'e,]iruvidiMl it 
is not combined with nickel or cobalt, or as acid with thtiir oxides, In 
vliich C-U80 a s])ectal nietbod if! nL>ccs$ary. 

In addition ia its vnlatility when heated on cnul, urscnic has the 
peculiarity of difTiifeitig u striking, garlic od'^r, and coating thu coal 
with arsenoue acid, p. 6G; it may also be eiiblinud unaltered in the 
closed tube, oollecting in a crystalline form on the glaiui, Miruiigh 
which it shows a metallic Innere, p. 6^. The acids of argenic ciiti be 
very easily redaced to metal and recognized as nuch, a« will Itc eccn 
from the method« described below; arsenous acid is also volatile, 

yatlv$ argenie sublimes in the closed tnbe, sometime« leartiig a 
llxed metallic maüs, which with fluxes on coal orten shows iron, 
cobalt, or nidcel. Another portion of thia mass fused ou cual with 
enough lest lead und borax in R. F. and then cupelled on houe-usli> 
frequently h-av*-s a eihvT biiltoi». 

Od cool behave« like pui-c ursenic, p. t!6, but frequently leaves a 


filigbt rudtdue of arsMiia combined with Fe, Co, Ki> and ofHcn con- 
taining & Uttle Ag. 

Arsmical bigmuiJi from tb« Palmbautn mine, near Maricnbei^l 
SiLxonj', yields it ßrst in tlie closed tube sulphide of ars^niv. tfapQ 
mtlaliic lu-a-aic, luid 1l4Ivc.-s a ti-iSiug» dwk-;;ray residue, sbowiug 
with the lluxffl iron, cobalt, aad bismutli. 

Geiitl; hoiit«d ill tho o)ki) iiibe ovoh'e« salpliuroiia and arürnai 
lu-id», more etronglv livatt^d yit^lde ßr»t a litilt; suliiliidtf uf uraeiiiGl 
aad tben nieullic araeoia Kindled It. B. on coal it ooqUqiivs to 
bum of iUi-lf. giving olT gray ur«i.-uicul fuincs and bcoomisg «uv 
louadud ff'ilb vr}'t>uillinu ar««iioua auid. 


Some of these yield a fiublimate uf metallic araenic in the dotod 
tube; othcrfi do not, vide arM'Didi>g ander iron, cobalt, iiickol, und 
copper Oocasiooally a litüu arfi<j»uuä »cid iä funui-d by tliu iiicloe«^-d 
air. In the i)]>cn tube tbej- all yield arscuouä acid, mingled vrith 
oxide of uiiliiiioiiy in uii^ij tlie cumponod« L-ontaiu untimipuv. Tbo 
powdttr will yii!ld a sublimut^^ vheit a fragment ol' tbe euljetaiice iail« 
to do fw. 

Mual of the nit-talliv arst-nido« Ln-iilul «in cual id R F. \ifld |uirt 
of tJieir areenic, wliich voluiilizv-ä und IViniiä a ouat orareemtus at-id. 
If tlicru ig a conddemble proportioa of arficnir present tltti u^y 
cvulvtfS copiuus, gruyitili-u-hite Himcs, urbic-li pnidnce the gsrlio udur 
of the Euboxidc, and tbiib at oucu sbow the pre^-ucu of ar^vniu ; but 
if the umuiiut \& tritliiig tbe fumc£ are not alwaye pi-n^eived, and tlio 
odor Bt^ldoni during the biust Iq tbU cti«c tbc glowing a««ay should 
be hold under lb« ause, i\\ urdvr tiiut the oduruf tb« «iinll i|uatil.ilii^ 
of escaping iirsmic may be perceived. When bni little ai'^eiiie is 
oombtued with metals from irhieh it ie w.-|>urutcd with difliculty, as 
cobalt and nickel] the oompoand may bo fnsed in O. F.with test Icud 
on coal, and tlip presenct-of volutiliziiigiirsi-uieaücortjnnod by thetHlur. 

Should iioiii- uf the preceding methoflH »ufTice to detect a litll« 
areeiiic combined with a melftl. or in a metallic comiHJiiud, tbc fol- 
lowing pMtcess will *.Tve to detect it. Brittle m<tale uiid meluUio 
oompoundä which uari he pulverized are reiluced to ponder, or if 
malleable they are redncwl by tiling, and about flfly to e«reuty>ät« 
milligr. are tbi-n mingled in the agat« mortar with ßve to six 
volume« uf iiicre and ignited in the platinnm «p<M>D, according lo 
p. in, with tbe aid of the blowpijw dame, until uu mot« metullio 
particle« are viäibiv. Tho nietaU oxidize and arwnic acid is formett 
which combines with tlie pi?tii«sa, while nitjvu« acid ia liberulrd. 


in tha spoou ii now digested vnth wat^r orer the lump- 
le hi a porcelain dish, until urerything is removed frutn the 
spoon, nfUr wliich two ecpurnte melh^xis miiy be employed. 

By tbe first the olt*ar suluttou ig ijuurod off fruiu the oxides inlo a 
little poroeUio restel, p. 43, acidified with liydrochlorJc ucid, thirtjr 
to fifty milligr. of sulpliute o? magni-eiu diedulvcd in iL wiüi the aid 
of tieuti ail eiceei of animoniB added, aud th« -whole h«Ated to boil- 
ing. Arguuute of ujutuunia und mttguesiu sepAniti>« and settle« 
quickly when the T«it9ul is removed from the flame. The quite ulvur 
Quid ie dfcauled IVuiu Üii pr<.'cipilattr, Mhioh '\a washed by bulling it 
with dtrongly ammoniacal vaUt, again allowed to settk, and fi^-ed 
by ducHOtation from the flnid, aftt>r which it is immediiit^dv dried Ja 
the rcüsel. The dry aalt in mixed iu the tnurtar with three volumes 
of neutral oxalate of potsieäa, or, acrordiiig lo Frrsenius aitd von 
Babü, with six Tolumes of a mixcurü of cYaoide of iKitaMnm aod 
fiuda lu equal jiart^ and theo treated uti coal, or iu a matras» with a 
narrow neck. Id the former case it is ftiSfd in the U. F. and tlie 
vulaiilisL-d ansi-nio delected by ihe odor; in the hittur ciuu it ii; at 
ünt modemt'üly varmc-d over the Bpirit-lauip in the matraäs to «J(|wl 
ou; tnioc'S of niuieturv, which are culk-ounl by au ineerted roll of 
blotting-paper, after which the niixtiire is heated to fusion. Tli« 
arK'iiic acid is n:duced and forms a sublimat*' of mi^tallic arscuic in 
the ^-ck of the matnus at a. Fig. 75. Should the 
atnouut of ai-«ea)c he too tiniall lo produce a did- 
tiuct mirror, it is only nect-sftiry to cut off ih« 
neck ju6t above the subliniatu witli a Sie and then 
to hold the portion of the uiatruAS ou which thr 
sahliniate is eitiiutod in tho flame. If the euhli- 
muU) coiitu&ts of anmoic it will volatilize and yield et^, j^ 

tbe arunic odor. 

The second method conaista in decanting tho Mthition of amouate, 
Ditnt», and uitrat« of potuit«a from the residue into a te^t tube, 
adding a few drop» of sulphide of ammonium and agitating Ibi* 
whole, after which the resulting sulphide of ars«aic it precipitated 
with dilute hydrot^iiloric acid. The fluid is boiled to facihtau? the 
sepantion of the precipitate, which is liitt^red out, thoroughly dn<,-d| 
and triturated iu tbe mortar with four U> five part» of dry, neutral 
oxalate of potUAsa and some charcoal dust, or with u ailxiureof 
cyanide of ptitaMiMui uud eoda, and then heated tt» redness i» a not 
too narroM- glafs tube, closed at one «od, or better still, in a uarrow- 
necked matrass, Fig. 1^, 

i)ul))hide of potassium and metallic arsenic are produced and the 



Utt«r forms » eoblimst«, whicli müy lie r«oo^iixi>d by iU Inetrv and 
crygtallin« chanicter, or if only in trifling qiuDtity mav be ToUtiU 
ised «nd detvcbrd aa above. 

It is y«ry essentia) in Bticb rettaction oesays that the mixture to 
be trratod «hall be »s (Vpe fnjm watpr iti possible, and therefore both 
the snbetuQce und the rcduciuf Hgeiu abutiM be thoroughly dried. 

According to Vogel, tlie mitiutest fjtiiintities of arwnir, which by 
the ueuid mfltbod on coal prodnce no gariic odor, caa be dctwtetl by 
mixing the arst-nie&l «ibstance with ohnrcoal dust and a very dilute 
solution of shellac and forming from this pa^le little rolls, which 
are treated like cracking couU. The glowing coul cmitd the same 
garlic odor. 

erLfßXDB or absekic. 

Realgar und oryivieni treated in the uiutnus faec, boil u-nd are 
mblimed; the former yields a sublimate red when cold; the latter 
a dai-k yellow, and both snblimntea are tranii]iAreat. (*ently hi'itttHl 
in tliD upcn tube they burn atid yield sulphurous luid srseuous ucida. 
Too stJvngly heated a part of the assay is liable to »iiblime 
DDCbangcd. On cool they burn vjtb a whitish -yellow flame and 
grayish-white fume». 

Mutaltic »rgenic may be obtained from eulpbide of arwok in two 
ways: According to llerxelins, the sulphide OLrefully hcatetl i» the 
open tube is decomposetl into anwnons and anlphnrous acid*, the 
fonner collyctiug as a erytflallinL- Mubliuiiile. The lube should be held, 
inclined and heated a little above the assay, so that the a^rewling 
fniQuA may pa&s lliis hotl«et spot und be perfectly burned. Tbt* I iibo 
18 then drawn out jnat above the snblimate with the aid of the apirit- 
lump, and the ursenoua acid then driven into the dnmn-uut portion 
and there rcdacL-d by un inserted tplinler of charcoal, as will btt 
described in ^^lAil on a following page. 

Another very simple method consists in mixing tb« sulphide of 
arsenic, or the sulphur to be te«ted Ibr arsenic, in the martur witli^^J 
four volumes of neutral oxalate of pola^sa and a little cbaicoal^^| 
powder, or with six rolumt-H of the mixture of cyanide of |)oliiasiuin 
and soda, and gredualty heiitingthe mixture to fusion in the ghwi 
tube or matnuu^ us before d«ecri)>i<d fur mlphide of onvniVf p. S47. 

When the amount of arsenic Appears very trifling in RompHrisoD 
with the Kulphur, it U us A^ell to remove the exucäd »f Lbe lutlrr by 
subliming it at a gentle heat in » iiiatrasa, and then to brvak np 
lite mntrtuig and trcut th« pnlverized residue by reduction in u nur- 
row-necked mtilruu- 


The natural s ill [ilm-arsea idea yield iu tlie clojvd tahp, Hcconling 
to their Tarjiug comjKiBitioD, partly a little sulphide of iirsentc witb 
mnch metAlltc arwDic, pnrlly sulphide of arscoic ulon«, vrliilo part 
yield HO sublimuta whatever. In the ope» tube they all yield anwn- 
ons nnd gulpliiii'ous »cids. The inetidlurgical pruducts cuiiluiuiiig 
Compound eidphidcS and araciiidva in not too «mall quiintity eliow 
tb« «ame behavior. 

On CO«) ID R. F. tbcy f^ucutly emit a distinct arspoicalodor, but 
aometimpi a Rmull qn^ntity of arjienic cannot always he thus per- 
fseived, siace it either volatilieea in coinbiLation witli arsenic, or in 
the prcscDce of cobalt or uickol is not rolatilizod iit all. audi &ul>- 
staDcea, including chiefly many metallurgical pntdiicld, viz. : Rob- 
stein, lead tnatt, oulmia, etc^ may bv puwdcn.Hl, mixed with thr«>^ to 
four purt« of neutral oxalat« of potaeea, or cyanida of potasaitim. 
Mid fused on coal in R F. Sulphur is thus aepiirated as lulphido of 
pocaniuni, and the arseutc, if uuL ouiiibJutd with cubaU or nicket, 
rolatiltxe« with its peculiar odor. 

When this methud yit-Id« no ailisfacton' result a certain one ma; 
be obtained by the prucess for metallio componads coutainiag little 
orwnic, p. 346, el $eq. 


In tlie matraaa sublimes very readily, and the ciystalline Subli- 
mat« cftcn ahow« distinct oetaliedro under the niagnilier. Accord- 
ing to Berzelias very U'iBiug quantities of arsenoug acid may be 
reduced to metal by using a glass tube drawn out to the diameter of 
B coarse knitting-needle and sealed at the narrow end. The antuu- 
008 acid, vbich may amount to less than ouc inilligr.. is placed in the 
dravn-out part at a, Fig. 76, ^ 

and over it is inserted a splin- Ä^"- '"^^^^"^^■P^^^^^^^ 
ter of charcoal itachiug frum ■"^'■^■'■■'■^^^^■^'^^^^V 
tf to 4. The narrow part, cb, te '^«- ""■ 

tlien heated in the epirit-tamp, until the charcoal glows, when tiie 
end containing the acid is likewise dmwo into the flume. The vapor 
of arsenons acid passing over the glowing cual id reduced and u 
metaihc coat of «reeuic forms in the colder part at rf. Should tht> 
amount of arsenous acid be very trilling indeed, only a black film of 
*r»euic will be produced between c and d, hut by gnulually linnging 
tbo Qamu nearer and nean-r to this it may be driven («.Tgether to a 


ring, And if the tnbe ig cut off* at « and the porlion d hi*)d in the 
flamo the ajwnic will be Tolatiliwd and nfford itscliaractL-rititio odor 

Heated alnne on coni nrsenoMs acid TolatiÜMS without dllTnfing 
•n; odor, bnt when mixed with nioisl oxalutc of potOMu und tr<.*atMl 
In R. F. it is ivdu<wd tu melfllHc arsenic, which Tolatilixea aud nfTonl« 
the anenic odor. 

Oxide or antimony (antimonous ncid), dcstinrd for ntrdicinAl and 
phar)iiiu:<-utiatl ))iiq)o3i-s, miiiit be l«äted fur argf-iioua ucid. »nd if 
□ot niuci) k-)it> tbuu a tbuiuaiidlli part \% juv^cut it will atTip] a dis- 
tinct antenion) odor, when tho oxide of antimnay is trt>at«d on ooo] 
in R. K. witli neutral oxalati- of jiotutMa ur ci^aiiide of paUuNium. 
8hoidd this test give no decisive rec>ult, a n-diictioii assay niiiet be 
made in the matrass, with oxalate of ]>otne«a, or a mixtnre of cyanide 
of potnssinm and soda. Oxide of antimony containing )e«s thane 
thouMndih part of ardenous acid, nheti lit-atitl to mlniss in ii nor- 
row-necköl matrass with three ndnmcB of the ueutral nxalnte and 
ono of charcoal dost, will afford» very distinct metaJUc mirror, 
which on further treatment in the spirit flame ig volatilized with 
an uamistakable arsenic odor. 


Strongly ignited in the matrass it is converted into orsonon« ncid, 
which Biiblimee, and oxygen which «ecapea. On coal it is rcdnced 
to metal, which Talatili»-s immediately and difl^ise« a Btrong arsenic 


These oomponnds may be tested for arsenic in varions wsya. A 
&w artenatee can be recognised by the crystalline araeuoiis acid 
vhtoh they yield in [be matntg«, vide ardonaU's of iron, coIkiIi, and 
nicltcl. The gsester namher are, howerer, recogniacd hy tlin light- 
bine color which they import to the- flume when tcsti-d in the forcep«, 
proTided the boaes themBelrca do not color the Qumu iiiti:ns<-)y» 
p. 76. When the presenco of arsoiiic or arsonouu acids ennnot be 
detected by testing the saltd atone, proper r«ageati mast be eni' 

A very simple method of recognizing arseuatea oonslBts in mixing 
the powder with soda, or better still, with ncatral oxalate of pota««, 
or cyanide of potAesiiim, and treating it in R. V. on coal, when the 
odor will show whether metallic arsenic n libemlvd or not Thii 



tost 18 not, tiowerer, enffictently decisiT« in all cas», npciiilly when 
the uckIs nf iirseiiic are combined in trifling qnantitj with ineullic 
oxides, wliicli are eaeily nilticeil imil Uieu furni fiiüiblu cutnpuatiüi 
with thv ftTsonic, Troin which tb« latter can. only he aepanit<-ü with 
diflicnltr. Unless mach nracnic woro present it might hu|iiK>it lliut 
Don« or it would tJien be- liberated. lu euch ciuea the pruce« 
described fot detecting em»U qoantiti«« or »raeoio io mclnllic 
Compounds, p. 346, ii followc-d, bnt in jAatx of the nitre a mixture of 
«4|uul parte of nitre and soda is asvd for tlie fiiHinu. 

Arseuabtfs and arsenitee of bases which are n-duued with dilllciiltj, 
or when csailjfedncible have no great: nfllnilj fur Aneiiii-, c»ii be 
tested bjT mixing the line powder with thre« to fonr vulumi-« of 
ncntnil oxalate of potassa, or a mixture of cyanide of potasüiiitn 
and Mjda, and fusing it in a matr&ta. B^gard mnst be had to all 
that baa been eoid on p. 34T. Qnite distinct mirrors are ulilainetl 
from talis of ibc eartha, or osido of silrer; BomewbAt less distinct 
nirrora from salts of iron or copper. 

25. TsLLURitnc, Te. 
/2« McwrrMc« in the mineral kingdom, 

Tellarium nauully occars in the mäallic stat«: 

a. Aloiu in 

KatiTe t^llariam, Te, which is seldom free from other metaU, as 
gold and iron. 

b. Combined with other nutofs.' 
telonit*,— Ni'Tt'*; 

Altaitesnd nagyagit«, pi'(2älead; 
LTeiradymite. vide biamuth ; 
[easite and petzite, vide silvttr 
Sylvanite {mixUfHtt), via« gold. 

'Tcllnriie {teRurotu acirf),— Te, » «aid to accompany natiT« tellurinm 

HoDtonit^ viiU bismnth. 

BiunlaftUoo for TaUoriora. 

Natfvn leUttriwn in the open tube foM-e, bams with a blniBh- 
(tro*n flame, and emit» fnmc«. The ftimes collect within the lul« 
to a yra_vi6h-wbit* enblimate, whicb when strongly heated is con- 
verted entirely into t«lluron8 acid and fnaes to clear, tran*|mn:ii( 
drops. On cixil it behaves ai stated on p. &6, bnt the Tolatibzing 


PLimrEB's BlOWriPE JlüALYtUa. 

tollniium goncnilly Umiti's a «light rraidae, which trwtetl vit.h borax 
and a little tetit lead iu R. P. impurts an iron oqIof Lu Lbc glttso^ and 
the iL'ad yii'lda lif ciipfUutioii a sDiall guld biutoii. 

Cunipouud sabstBDcva may be tctu-d Fur tvltarium both in ^he 
open Inbe and on coal- Tb« behavior of the abovp-tiumi.'d com* 
pouudi of tellurium with other ok'UiU iu tbv oi>va tiibi* is given in 
the correspoDding places, but It may he generallv reniarkvd that iu 
roasting u mineral containing tclluritim iu the uiicn tube, tliir latter 
ToUtiliKea more or leas Cü)hpl«;tt>lj, iä vhanged to tellurona «cid and 
forms wliit« FnitK«, which cunden»,- mthor near the aaeuv. On heat- 
ing the tube whi-re tbr coat i» thickest with the blowpipe flanie, tlit: 
ooid fudes to clear, colorless drops, uioat diatiDctly perceived witlv 
the magnifier. It should »ot bo hoatt-d too strongly or too lon^i 
however, as tellnrous aoid doi'S not nithstund the bent under ucoe 
of air. Should much lead be pit:9(;til a gray aubUmate rurmti n< 
the u«ay and a white one fiii-tbcr from it. The latter Tnsea tu colov 
loss drops with a moderat«' boat and therefore consiits of tellaruis 
acid, while the gray «uhlimatv does nut futie to drops, but is Mlten-^ 
to a half-fiisfd, grayieh film «n the glues. According lo Berxelius, » 
is tellnrute uf lead. 

Wbtn bismuth is present it romnius bthind, and the tflluriu 
sublimes aa t«llurous »cid. On continued healing the remaiuim 
metal oxidizes on the gnrface, and ie surrounded by ftisiug. hrow- ^^' 
oxide of bismuth. 

In many cusea the examiaation for tellurinm may also bu advam:^ -* 
tngooiisly conducted in the closed tube. It is well known that t^ ' ' 
lurium in combination with potassium or sodium forms «purj^'B-*' 
Boliition in boiling-hot wat*r, aud tliua its preacncc cat» lie dctfcr«.— «-Ä. 
According to Berzclins, it is therefore only necessary U> tritumtc t*^»« 
fiuiistana- with soda find eomc charcoal, fuEc the mixture in tV"*^ 
closed tube, and aftt^r it is cold tu drop a little Ixiiling water into L-S-X^ 
tube. After a time this assiimos & mure or less intense purple coIkl"*» 
fi'om the diBBolved t^lluhde uf eodium. 

Tiiifl test ia applicable not only to eiibetances Containing mt>tsLI-i<3 
tellurium, but also tu the acida vt lellnrium, which ai* ihus retln ood . 

According to von Kobell, the natural tvHuniim compounds rrh» 
gently heat«d in a matrasa with mucli couoi*nlrutcd «ul|ihnric ats 
impart to it a purpli- ur hyacinth-red color, which din 
adding wal«r, while a ijlackish-gray preoinii«— *- 
minerid containing tfllnrininl' 
white, leltumtis ucid coal, wr 
appears nudt-r the R. F. 



eelenium a bluish-gn-on, tinge, p. 66. Should the Iiorae- 
radish uilor be aliio perceired this in it certain indication of Belenium. 
]f the miuenil cntiUins lead or Msmulh uud is tn^lvii atone uii 
coal- for only a few tnomcntis iin pure tcllurous acid cont is ohlained» 
but a mixture of this iritlt oxide of lend or bismnth is li&bie to be 
sited. Thill dUIicultv con bu rvinedit^d by mixing the powdored 
ty with an eqnal roliini« of Titrifl^ boracic acid and treating it 
~m R K The oxide of k-ad or bismuth is diesolvL-d in th« boracic 
acid, notwithstanding the n^ilucinj; &atne, and ;ield? no coat, wbile 
the tellnrium alon« Tolatilizes and coals th« con]. When much 
■eluiinm is also present u portion of it t» deposited on tlie coiil, and 
tbec Ibe tellarous acid coat is hsä distinct. In auch cusl-s the 
minpral mnet olso be t«gt<.'d ic the open tnbe. 

Melmtite in the open tnbe gives a Kublimnte fusible to coloriow 
drops, and leaves a gny ninss; on coal burnä niih ubluiäh ilatne, 
giriug a wiiite, volatile coating and a greenish -gray residue; in R.P,, 
with soda a gniy powder of mngrutic, niotallic nickel (Dana). 

C- Examlnatiou for Non-Metallic Elements and Acids. 


Water,— ä. 

Ocfiiirrene« of water in the mineral kinffttom. 

It form) an »aential constituent of most natural salt«, many sili* 
cate«, and the ntitnral liydmti-s. but also occurs only as an accidental 
ingredient of many niiucrolä, aa sliown by their reH[x>ctive chemical 
composition, already given in vuriuuü plaoea. 

ExaminmtloD for Walnr. 

Tbia is perfomied very simply in aonatrass, p^ 31, Fig. 36, A^ 
«hieb lia3 been trred from moist air by wnrming and drying it. 
p. SI, after which it ie gradually heat*^ in the gpiril flame. ]f the 
subetonoe contains mifcbnnicaJIy combined water, or is u «alt which 
contains chemically combined freier and is ilsrlf soluble in water, 
the combined water will, in the former cnec be entirely vupurl^tcd by 
th« fint action of the Ix'at:, «nd in Ch« latter c-as« partly. The vapor 
condeneeä in Ibe narmw, cold part of tbb neck to drops, which are 
plainly riaihle. A sitlMtAnce which is not Holuhtc in water seldom 
yields its chemically combined water ut firsU but when Ihc inatruäs 
is heated to redneiis the water escaped and condensed as before. To 




obtain B. distinct wuler reaction from gilicatc« contAinitig little water, 
lliey must be powderotl, and. if iiecessanr, bvaud witli Lbs blowpipe 
Home pheaomena «liicrh tnity occur while testing for water btre been 
e^cinllf DOti(>ed on pp^ 60 aud 61. 


Aciii,— jr. 

Tbis ncid oocnrs with potasni in nitrf, vUle pciUuiEa; with anda in 
ioda nUre, vide soda; nnd with lime in ni/rocalci/tf vide lime. 

ElstuninaUoiii for Nitric Acid, 
Including the hhtepip« characteriaiica of nitraiss in genvrat. 

NitniteH, part of wliioh fuse in tbe matrass irli(>n heated, an 
thvn-hj deoompo»r(l more or less reiidiW. Wheii thf acid is com- 
btni-d with strong faa«i'«. oxygtrn itlonc is at first libciutvd, bat in eo 
srnaW qauntitiee that it cuuoot be rtcogoi»»! by means of a glowing 
Eplinlcr; uilrites remun. which are ]M-rrcctly diCoiniKiH.'d only by a 
Terj strong beut Nitnile of ummoniä fiiscH very «isily and is 
docomposed. witb ebiillilion, into water, and protoxtdv of oitru^u; 
if heat«d too qnickly or strongly, or in a matrasa with a norroir 
neok, an explosion is liiible to occar. Salts witl) weaker bases evolve 
at a moderate beat oxygen aud tdtrouB acid, tb« bitl«r being r«cug> 
niaed by its yellow color and its odor. 

When uitraios of the fixed nlkolics, or alkaline cnnb«, an so* 
strongly heated on ooal, tbat the coal iu contuct with them gb>w% 
they deflagrate inolently and are converted into carbonate«. Otbi?r 
nitintes doflagratc lc«6 vividly and It-avc their hoses as i-arths, mrud- 
lie oxid(-5, or, in caw tbe latter mv easily ivdnced, as meittls. which 
if volütile \viss off partly or entiroly in fnmee, and ooat tlii!> cuul. 

A »mall amount of a nittate preseni iu anutber ult or substanoe 
Can be n-iidily detected, by beattng it with rather more tlian it« 
Tolomc of bisniphate of [toL^a^a in ih» cloecd tube or nutrase. The 
tube is then Oiled with ga«eou6 nitioiis acid, the yellow color wf 
which may be mu^i. clearly seen by looking down thron^h tbe t nbr. 
Shotdd there be so little nitmtc prcwnl tlut this color cannot he 
plainly «vn, the minutest qnnntities may, aoeording to Stwn {Pvltit. 
Citntr'aUil^ 1859, No. 23, p. 1624), be detected by beating the assay 
with lilharge, which at first absorbs the nitric acid, bnt yields it up 
at a higher temperature. 

A slip of filter paper which has be«n immerwd in • soIntioD ^ 



protoflutphate of iron, IWv fh>nt lefiquiaxide and aciitulated wjiJi 
some sulphuric aciil. U iDeerti-d into tbe iitpck of Üie Lube, aud, if 
iiitroiH acid la present, will a«etime » yellowieh to hroirn color. In 
tbiflway tho nitric aoid in a mixture of I part o( nitn> u-ith KHii) 
parts of snlpliat« of sodn. coataiiiing only Q.0O0S ititrio acid, can he 
distinctly shown. TIip paper <)nicklT luse» its odor if too strongly 
heated, and tht-rcforc the tube or mutru&s should be rather loii^.* 
Nitre, xoda nitre, and nitroeakUe ana immediataW recogiiiisfd as 
oitrates by the above U-its, and their liases may he dintingiiisiied by 
the color tlicy impurt to the flumt.-. 

a. Oakboh, 0, AHD Carbonic Acid, 0. 

Oecurmice of carbon anii cnrbonir aci'i in the mineral kingdom atul 
i» metalinri/iwl prtMlvcta. 

Carbon ooca^g in natare 

a. AloM in 
Piamoiid, 0; 

Aiitlinicile, C, which leaves on combiution, howerer, more or lew 

udi, coniiisting of Si, X\. nnd S^ ; 
Native coV«: Some rarieu'es afford bitumen. — ^Dana. 
Orapbil«', C, usuully cuiiiaiiiing Fe, Si, 6a, Xl, and 1^ : nonixtimt^B 

also Cr ; 
Black-b&nd from WfSlphalia and England ctmsiet« cf^cntially of 

pQ C, with a litUe (Ca, iSLg) C, Cn &', Si. X\, ]^-, and il, witli U 

to 3S oonl ; 
tyrorthite, vide cerium ; 
Slate, ride poloesa. s 

b, Combini'd with hydrogen in 

Idrialite,^C* U', with 04.8 C and 5.3 H, mixed with oinnahar and 

earthy substaiioea in inßamnKt&le cinnabar (Qutti^Htierbrandtn) 

from [dria; 
Kocnlite.— C* H, with 993 C and 7.7 H ; 
FIcbtdit«, twon^tJQ, hartilc, broochiio, compouuds convaponding 

mon? or l-w closely to CMV, wifb 88. i and 11.8 tij 
Petruletim (raphtlm, mineral oil). Prom various localities. — C H or 

C H', with 85.7 to 87.8 C and Vi.i to 1+.3 U ; 

* If die SlIuTB* ratitt^Bs peroxide of Icftd nnri tlicre aic aietiildc chloriilM pment, 
hf^Tochlorit add or chlortn« are erolred bv ihc hrai «nd Ihcw aJwi ralar ibe paper 
The i^MMiM of till) ptroxiJe li dcMleil bj hMiing the lilhar-c vriilt MÜt anil biiml- 
fiharc ot potaua, when f litiriiie ü liticratinl Mid cMi be nroipiiitnl bj it* o>lor or bf 

itt McBchinK dfea on iadigo pap«r. 


plattxek's Br.ovrpiPB analtsi«. 

Ozocerite, paruffin, liatchcttite, nrfl-gil, probatil; C H; 
Sobecrcritc, perhaps C H', with 75 and 35 H ; 
Elaleritc, essr-ntially CK'. 

Diinii mumeratcs further, under simple hydrocarbons :~-CbrUiiia- 
tittf. piltolium, iirpethite. hiitc)i«ttite, ziotri&ikite, and DSphthaliD. 
. R Conibim-d with h^^iroge» and or^ffen in 
ABphaltitm, — C, H, 0, in varying proportions; 
Retiuil« {Erdharz), which name is pro)x>rly wseA to desigiinte th< 

mineral rosins of brown cool ; hor« may be included krantxiUii] 

— C" H* ; walohowite,— C* H* ; pyrnretin, of gimilar oar 

position; piauxit«; anthracoxeud; 
Middlctonile,— C" II" 0, with 86.3 C, 7.91 H. 5.70 ; 
Sdewtinite— C" H' 0, with 80 0. Ö.» H. 10.7 0; 
Dopplerite,~C" H' O', with 51.6 C, 5.3 H, 43 0; 
Amber {tuccinite), — C, 11, 0; amiwr con«igt» of soccinic acid, an 

ethereal oil, two reaiiie, soluble in alcobol and trtber. mid itit 

in8o)ablo eubetauiH-, the gttccinile proper, which forms the chi«f 

constituent ; Recording t« Sohrötter the wbolo mass mav be 

Bituminona coal, — C, H, O, in rariable proportions, with carbon 

predominatiog (74 to 96 pcTüent); oiygvn =3 to 20 per omL; 

hydrogen = 0.5 to 5,5 jier cent., and Terr litlle nitrojjen : flirthiT 

impurities (1 to 30 per c«nt.) arising from earths, invlallic uxid<*s 

and sulphides ei^pecially imn pyrites; 
Brown ood and ligiiit«; composition nmilor to the preceding, bat 

more oxygen and nitrogen ; 
DysodiU', aceurditig to Ehrenberg a polishing slate composed ot iuHi* 

serial shells and permeated with miiieml rceiii. 
Dan|i further eunmcratcs, undor oxygenattd hgärocari«nt : — Oeo- 
cvrite, gi-umyricilp, eopalite, ambriti-, l)iUthTUIite, xylorelinil«, leuco- 
petrite, euoamiie, rochleilerite, schlanitc, guyac^uiUit«, stanekite, 
tastnanite, and hircite. 

"Under arid oxyigenated AyrfroMriOB.?:— Bnlyrcllit«, geoocrellite, 
bniecltuurellite, suefim'llit«, Mitiellite, and melanellile. 
d. Combined with oxygtn as carbonic acid. 

Carbonic acid is found in nature, both as a IVce gae, and rombined 
with h&i«e in many minerals, which hare already been enumerated. 

Small qnantitieR of carbon are likewise dissomiuah-d throagbont 
aeveral minerals, either free, or combined with hydrogen, oxygen, 
or nitrogen. In melallnrgiral pn>dnct8 carbon forms an essontial 
oonsiitnf-nt of raw iron and »/«/, while other prodnct*, «iwtiaUj 
iron benrs, ft^uently contain a little carbon, vid« iron. 



BxBmination far Oarbon aad Ovbonio Acid, 

Induding the bUnopipc ckaracttritiics of IJt« tnineraU belonging 


Diamond.— Tht expmtnenta or PeUboldt iuilicate tbat bo extraor* 
dioariJr high tompcmtuix- ie rc-qtiircd for tlic ci>in1)iutinii cpf ilt&- 
mond, but thut diamond dust, pnal'uef-d b_v rubbing two diamonds 
together, may be bnmed od platinnm foil ot«t tli« s]iirJt-lam|). and 
it is said W g\ov na bri^Iilly ns ccnil du»t iitidc-r Bimiliir traitment 
A email diamond plnced on the foil ie »aid lo be likewise cutirel; 
oonsflin«d hj dirocting the blovpi|W llanrie down upou it, wbil« 
toward th« pnd it glova brigbtlj. A very high t«inper.-tturi? is neniüi- 
aary only in burning liirger diamonds The product of combualion 
18 carbonic Mid gas. 

JniAraeite usually yields in the miitnua moisture, but 110 cmpy* 
renmatic oil; it is not conibastible in the cuudle-flam«. Ui-utvd in 
till.' platinnni Gponn with the 0. P. it bnmt) wrv tstowly, witliuut 
ttaroe, and leave« nn ash. containing more or less iron. 

Graphite sometimes ytolde considerable water. Hentcd ov«; the 
(ipirit-iiimp in Ihe pliitinum spoon it \s nnaltercd ; in thf forceps in 
O. K it gradually dL-crfosi-» in volume. Tb« »trfiik pnidtn-t-d by it 
on fire-clay and igtiitcd in the O. F., nntil all the carlion is gone, 
rretiucntly bpcomc* rn\ fitun oxiib> of iron. The piiwdcr ht>utcd to 
redoes« with nit« iu the platinum »poDii doflagriies, and aHer wash- 
ing away ihe salt, now obieäy altered to carbonate of pota^sa, earthy, 
nnd metallic admixture« remain, which may Ije further l««ted ea for 
silicuteä, p. 153. 

BiacH band from Westplialia yields wat*r, and a feebly bilnniinoiis 
odor in the matrass. B. B. on coal, burn» redd ieb -brown. Acids 
Ubenit« carbonic acid; when boiled with aqua regia it finally leaves 
only coal and a trace of silica. 

Inßammnhh cinnabar {QufclctOb^rbranderi) from Idria. contain- 
iog idriaiil«, fuses in ihc iiintniei« and eiolves mcmirial and snljibnr- 
ous Tapors and heavy carbtiri'ttcd hydrogen, leanng a oondy, powns 
nvidue. li. B. on ft clay ca{unlf it takL-s fire and buniK, evolving 
smuke aud sulphnrous acid, and L'avlng a bro\rni»h*red ash. 

Kmnliie fuses at 114" U. and is decompottcd with ebullition at 
SOO^ It leaves a coaly residue. 

Oior&rile fuses in the candle-flame 10 a clear, oily fluid, which 
SolidiflcB OD cooling. At a higher heat it bnmü with a flamo uud 
vidiirilixcs, sometimes leaving a »light oo«ly residue. 


.S':!i/^rfrilt, uccoidiiig to Stfonn-yr. fiiSti at 13* C to a cuWrl^*" 
äkiid, vliich o» oooliag forms a radinted ntata. Abova 100° it toI** 
tili»» and oondLMidt^« in uctcular crystal«. It burns cutnpWtflv wi'^^ 
a ^nivwlmt f>o>>ty tiaiii« and alight odor. 

AfjfhallHin fasi« v,*ry «wily in Hit« matrnaa, evolnng an ftnpTrei 
nutic oil, a litilt- aiiiaii)ui&<!al wnlt-r, and combudtiljlu Ka$M, ar» 
kaving a coaly rr^idiit*, «liich yifld» lij utnibostioii on u olay oupsa. 
an nah, couaifitioj^; cbicaj ot dilicu, alumiua, and 8C»<iDi(ij:ide »r inj: 
It burn« with a brighi fljimts sad tnucli ntioke. 

Rftiuitf. fnim H»ll« {wmi in the mulnut), blackens, und rleld) 
brown, thick oil and iirid w&tcr. It bums with a tright (luiiie- «dm 
ninch emoku. 

Amber fnaea «itb mm« diffionUy itt the mnlro««, yields irktir- 
eni{>jrreumat.ic uil, SDCcinic acid, and gaads, and leawa umtHir rv^ 
{ Iternateincfdophunittm). 

It burns will] a bright Rame and a peculiar Bfcrwable «>dor. 

Bituminou» eottl heated in the niutruBB ts lurnsihle, closc-bnniii^ 
coal; M »intern tugftlwr, open-burning coal; or bwonifs wift &». 
nn-clla up, I'ukitiv cital. It evolvrü tu all cases ompj-reumuttc prc- 
diicts and combaitibl« gfuos, ofUn iuclading stilphnivtlrd hjdix>g-v 
TIk^ residup is (*oke, having a more or l«tM nu-tJkllic lustiv. whio - 
UkVv% firv with difficulty iu tim air and bobaves tike iiuchnicite. 

Ilelii in the rnndle-flame, or heated B*B. outbe clay ca|siile, 5 
burng with a luminous, suioky Biuik% and whrn nil the cuul is i-oi» 
dumed Icavpii an ash, oousiätiiig of silicu, alumina, limv (gyi^uru^ 
and seaqnioxidc of iron. 

BfoWH ccal is iufbsiblf iu the niAtrnsa, but some variHie« ai 
somewhat softened ; on fuKlicr hftitinj; thry ovolvc comhustihl- 
gusee, a<:id water, cmpyriMi matte oiU, und a |>ociiliar, di^jtyrtL-abl 
odor. There it a hirg« residue, which t**t«i in the opi-ii air bohnv«' 
like coal, and often li>avefi a considerable sah. 

It bTirna in thv candle-flame, or on th« olar capsale^ with a amok] 
flittno nnd disiigrßeahle odnr. 

Accoixling to von Kobell liilumtitota coaU and n^pkalivm boil«^- 
with jKHassa lyi', im;>art to it only ii fwble, yellovrish color, or nuu^v 
nt alt. If their powder is boiled with utlier in a ninira«^ or cUuei^ 
tube, which is placed in hot water, aaphnltura colors it irinc, o^ 
bruwnish^red, bnt the coalu only pale yellowi^i, ur nut at all — 

Asphultum is alttu much more fuäiblc thiui the moat fnnble bitumia — 
ons coale, and melts in drops iu tbr- r-: 

Th^ brovm eoalsare rt-iidily distingn. ir<' Kriiwii r«iKir irh)ct~> 

tbejT impart tu boiling |ivbH0%il»' ^ ta> 



■ttecandle-flftme, or before the blowpip?, are immcdiateiy «tiu- 
giii«hi?d when removed frum the &»me, but th« browu coilIs ctwUnne 
to gluw Tur mime time. 

VifMdile, from Gleimbach neturGifSsen, burns with a Same and a 
' diaogTMUbl« odor. Id ütc inau««« it yi^ld« wnter and a ycUnw, 
emi);r»aiiutM liquid. B. B. it scaIus oI^ aud aflvt t\w urgauio por- 
tions are deetro^ leave« a red residue, which strunglj hc»i>>d fuse« 
to a reddiafa-browu alug, that äcrutcbt.-« glaa luid la not utUtukvd bj 
acid», but j-ldlde silica with poUs«a. With bumx and S. Pb. it shows 
iron and silica. 

in minerals and oLber Bubatauoce» exccpUug tnouls «ad their com- 
binatiMUs, which coataio CArbou, or compouoda of carbou and liydi*»- 
g«D with a tritiing adraixtiire of oxj-^en or nitrogen, the carbon cau 
be det«clvd by igiiitiou with »iitiniouKte of (Hitasea, p. 51. The linf 
powdor ie mixed in the agaU* niorUr with two to three volunirs of 
the antimonat«, if <x>nsi8tiQj; chicUy of «turthy matt«n^ and with aix 
, to eight volame« if coutaiuiug metallic sul|ihides, and then lifuled 
to rcdnesB in a matriws over the spirit-lamp. The carbon is (Jiiilijwd 
at the expense uf llie uutimuiiic ucid, furiiiiii); carbuiiie aeid, »liicti 
Combines with the liberated potiissa^ while if a tiotitble amount uf 
carbon or enlpliur is present, a little oiide of nntiniouy vuliiliHzee 
and partly ci>nden8<» in tli« neck. Whi>Q C-he »ubülanue ckiiiiiiiitg of 
melatlic giilphidt'tt, giilphuU- uf putiiH^a and a lillli: äulphide uf |)iitua- 
num ar« furua-d. When cold the mutra^e id lillcd Uiarly to thv aick 
villi water, which is grftdiiully h<^ikt«d to lioiling. Thii (wlioiiutc 
and eul]fhate uf putu^wi diuaulvu, with part of the iiiideL'<iin]i<iäed 
antitnonatc of potaöäii, while moet of the latter rt-muinö wiih the 
earths and metallic oxide«. 

To the quitü warm »ulution a few dropä of nitric acid are added, 
vliich cauHes effervescence, more or U-m liv<?ly accv)n.liijg ii> the 
amoanL of carbon prescuL Nob a bubble will be seen tu at-ccnd if 
tlie subalaace contained no carbon, bat eevera! will l»e perceived if a 
trifling amnunt of rarboa was prosont it must be observed, how- 
, ever, that tliti solutioa should be warm enough to allow the curhonic 
^4oid to escape. 

C«rbonate4 vary as to their behavior in tbo matrass. When com- 
i^ned wiUi eurtb» or mftatlic oxides the carbonic acid frequentlj 
ipes below a reddieat, while nuny of tlie oxides becume more 
;lily uxidizeil, like prot«>xido of iron. Carbonato of inagnetiia ie 
«Ijr decomposed at a rvd-h^'iit; carbonat*' of lime ouly im- 
' at it cau be eutirt-ly dee« -iii posed by moi^itenidg the iiitde- 
kwith water and u^uiu strongly ^guiling iu ('arlwu- 



ates or the fixed alkalies, etntuti» aod barytu, aluue are aat altered ; 
carbonate of smmonia sablimos ancbangcd. 

All the non-volatile carboDuteii are decomposed on coal; the oiN 
boiiate« of the alkalies and bunia fuse, sink into the ooaI, erolv« 
carbonic oxide, and react rerr etronglj alkalinu on moiiitcDcd litmtu 
paper. Carbonates of the alkalies fuae with silica en platinnm win, 
or on caal; with pfiV'rve^c^noe to a dear, culoHeas glas*: they alao 
yield their eurhuDiu ucid with cfTcrTCBCeucc «hea ftued with bomi 
or S. rb„ as do also the other carbonate«. 

The simplest methnd of dotivling ciirlwnic acid with certainty id 
au}' sub^inDuu cou^isM iu puuriuj^ u little diluu* nitric acid tijiua it 
in a glass veseel and observing whether any cfTorredcencc ensues ; in 
cose sulphides are certainly ubseiit, diliil« bydrwchlorio acid may bo 
iLHxl. Tht) gla«s should be slightly heat«d if tio. gas is othurviao 
evolved. It ia not well lo use euncriiCratvd acids, sincu many car* 
bouaU-e are ooly Boluhic in dilute neide, r, g. witberitc. 

Bsaminatloa iar Ourbou in UatkUiurgical Pxodneta. 

In rata iron, aieel, and dears, the curbun, wlietht-r chcmicully com" 
hincd, or only disseminated as graphite, is moet simply Toatid by 
digeeting a fiiuull fragniont in a [turoeluiD dish, with abuiit ^ix tim«a 
its weight of fused chloride of tiilver and some wattr acidnlaled with 
a few drupä of bydrochlorlc acid, leaving the wbolc covorud vilh a 
watch-gUa«, until all the iron is <Ii»^lvi.>'l. The iron is cutm-rt«:«! 
into protocbloride, tbe carbon rminii»« behind, und n c«>m'üii< Hiding 
amount of silver is reduci-<L The carbon geufrally conUbie eaithj 
matters and may» if desired, be tested with antimonste of irrtiwm, 

Metallurgical products coniietiug chieSy of mvt«)liv stilphidefl 
may also be tented for dieäcminuted coal with antimonatc of potaasa. 

4. BoROir, B, AXÜ Bodacic Acid, R 
Occurrence oflwracie acid in tlu mineral ktttffäom. 

It occurs combined with 

a. tt'ater in 
Sftssolite,— B + 3 Ö. 

b. With Äoda in 
Borax, villa soda. 

17. Willi ammonia in 
Larderellite, etde ammonia. 



d. Wicli eatihit anil metaUic oxidtt in 
BnraciU-, viVe magnesia; 

I'ide lime ; 

^8u««itxiti>, vi<U manganese. 

e. Id tUicatet, espeoialty in 
Tourauilüic, vide niague«ia. 

vide lime ; 

BxaminBtlon fbr BoTKcIa Add, 
Intiuding the blowpipe characten'siica of the mineraJt ooHtaiutng iL 

SastoUtt yields in the maträsä water antl a little ammoniii. 

Ou plnlinuiu wir« or conl fiist^N, with iutinneücenoe, to a clear 
glut», micl tinges tlie llurau Kllii»ifili-gr<»n. If gyiisum is prctscot 
^tiie glu8 becomfg cloudv uii ouuUiig. 

S<mia iu th« nutrass jieltls much water and puffs Qp, becuniiitg 
black io Üie Iiotteet part«, EVom chnrring of th« ndbert-iit urgauic 
mtttt«ni; a htirnt odor is alao porct'pLiblc. 

B. B. fuses vitti iuluiueficonce t« u clear, colorleae bead, and yields 
ttt fiodft flame. Thit ivactioa of bornric acid is only obuincd by tlie 
ipecial teit, suon to be de^crib«»]. 

Lardetvllit« yieldi in the mutriiss «-»ter and »mmoniB, and « 
iligl)t> wbilv sublimate; at a tiiglier beat It fuws. Od pUtiaum 
wir« sbovs pure boracio acid rc'iictious. 

All th« brjrat4>8 iatumpdce more or less when heated, and thm 
to ft bead. The base«, if volatile, are retiiored, e. g^ Hmmouil 
Ind oxid« of mercurvt and loave pure borncio acid. Whon the boeea 
do not color the flume, the aalt affords the yellowith-grei-u buracio 
acid flame. When uo such Hame is prr>ducrd, or when the Hubatance 
cotilitiaing the bunioic acid docä nut also color IJie flamit Knx-u. the 
acid mar frequeoLly be detected by ugitig sulphuric acid, )>. 7ö. 

Turner has proposed h te«t for lionicic acid in salt« and mineniU 

tw follows: — The fine powder is mixed to a pa«te with a little wuter 

Bud one part of a fills, confliAting of four und cno-half purls hieul- 

phat« of p(tliuisa nnd one part finely-jwwdered fiuurs[iur, jK'iieotly frt-e 

from boraole acid, p. 51. IL is then fuüpd on platinum wire witliiD 


the blue flume, uuil as bouii us the water is expelled^ flnoboncic add 
is fornu'd, which is volutiiized and imparts a yellowieh-greeu tinge 
to the flume. This coioration is very transient, however, aod molt 
he looked for with great attention, if little boracic acid is pieseni 
According to Merlet, three to four parts of the flax are requisite to 
obtain a sure result. 


The occurrence of sUicic acid in the mineral kingdom and tu 
metallurgical products. 

Silicic acid oocnrs very frequently in nature, partly free, partly 
combined with water, and partly with various bases, with which it 
forms natnral silicates. 

a. In the free state it constitutes quartz, of which several varietiea 
are distinguished: 

Rock cryatft!, smoky quartz. Si; 

Anietliyst, Si, with a very little S'a, Ca, Sf g, ]Pe, etc ; 

Ovdiuary quartz. Si, witli very little E'e, Sn, Jtl, Ca, etc. 

Among tlie varietiea, distinguislii-d by color, lustre, or structure, 
are: — Itose quiirtz, milky quartz, siderite or sapphire-quartz (of 
indigo or Berlin-blue color), pruse (let-k -green), cat's eye (greenish- 
white to green isli -gray und olive-green, also red and brown), aventu- 
rine (yellow, red or hrown, with numerous minute scales of mica, 
or sniui! fissures in difforent directions), fibrous quartz, in parallel 
fibres, aggregated into fluttened groups. 

l\'rrugiuons quartz, I^i, mixed with rtd or yellow oxide of iron ; 
Hornstiine. Si, willi u little Ou, äl, and ^e; 
Lydiuu stuue {/oHchafoiie), Si, with Oa, Ä1, Pe, und C; 
Juj^per, Si. with a little Ä1 and EV; 

Chiilceduuy, carnelian, onyx, sardonyx, heliotrope, plasma, Mocha- 
Btoue, Si, with very small quantities of K, !5»a, Sig, äl, and £e; 
Chrysoprase, Si, combined with u little Ou. Al, J^e, and IS'i; 
Flint, Si. wiih trilling amounts of Oa, Ä1, l^*, Ü, and organic mat- 
ters ; 
Agate, composed of several varieties of quartz intermixed, viz. : — 
unu-tbysl. chulcedony, and jasper. 

b. Combined witli water silicic acid forms 

Opal, essentially amorphous silicic acid with 0.1 to 13 per cent 



waUT, aud frv^ueulljr contuiniag » vcrjr little &, Ä)^ Oa, JEg, 
ÄI. 1^. 
It iocludce 
PiveU-na v\tA\, rire-opnl, coiumoo opul, hydi-opliau«, somiopul, bjalite, 
lui'iiilitts cttcbuloug, jU8|>-ojMÜ {Eüi«H-Opal) iui<l fiorit« (siliüeoai 
or pearl niotpr). 
Finally «re to bo h«re IccluJod: 
Float-stüDv imd ulamocalcit«, containing alumitia aud lime, TritoU 
slkte, tripolito, nnd inru«orial earth. 
c III cuinbiiiuiitm wifh various luut-s KJIicic acid forms a greac 
numlH-r of nulural siiieaieif, wliich have beeu already cuuiUiTiited. 
It is also a cbief constituent of maur oive, divssi'd od the large scale, 
and of most atags, wliile uiiiiute cjUHndtit-a uf siliuiam alao Dccur in 
raw iVim, tteel, and oerttuu Ifttrgf p^ i'il. 

BxamiDaUon for SUlcto AcM, 

InchuUng the general blowpipe cAaracteri^tics 0/ tht ahovt-named 
mimrala ana ttutaUurgical products. 

Th* miDpruls fniimprate«! under qvartt, a, yield in tlie mutniss no 
water, or onlv truoua. B. B. llu^y nn; quito inruBible Tht^ puwdar 
diRwIrea sluurly in borax to a cl«ur, difficultly fiisiblo gitiasr wbich 
wliilc hut is friqucntly colorful by tlic metallic cxid*'« pro-sent. Tliey 
UK üPHi-oely attiu-kLi] 1)y 9. Pb. ; with lioda tlicy fui«e with eiferres- 
cenc« tu a clwir fjlass. 

The mini^rsle i.-numi'rst«'d nndor (t/hi/* A, yivld more or lese irater 
iu the niutrudd und lose Ihvtr Inätre. la the forceps they are infusi- 
ble, and if tiitickly hi'ated decrepitate. With the Duxes they beliave 
like the preci'dtng. 

Thu «Uimifjif both natural and artificial, can be reoognised by 
mean« of S. Ph. and soda. They arc nearly all decomposed by S, 
Ph, the liHse» combining with the fn.« phusphorio acid and tearing 
the ailtca nndiaaolvtd. The teat is performed on platinum wire by 
first fiif<ing \^\v S. Ph. to a be»d and then attaching to thiit. while 
soft, a Tew very ßne splintera of the fiilicitto and treuting it for a saX- 
ficient time iu 0. F. If the HÜiente cim he thns decMmipuscd the bases 
diaaoWe, Ii-^viiig a RÜica skeleton, »hioh äoata in Iho hot, cU-ar bead. 
ir the futeca yit.-lil with S. Pli. ut a oerlain «ituratioii, either by fluni- 
iog, or on cooling, a milk-white or opule^evnt bt-ud, c. g~, llm^ mag- 
nesia, giacina. or yttria, the bead will \k more or lesa cloudy on 
oooliug, luid ibf prcH-nce of Bi-()ai'at(-d silica must be ust-erlained 



wfailo it is hot. Should the silicnt« not be docoraposed thus, it most 
be Lpdttfil in iiDudfi, n-hi'ii, if decumpuüable, it willlesTe a geliitinoui 
residue of silica, äilicatcs of which tbe Inses are chicfij tirconia, 
cannvt Iw pt.Tfccl.l_v ilcconitHised. i-rcti in finr puvdori and their nlics 
in best found r» di-acnbt-d utidfi- ximouiii, pL 197. 

Wbeo a substance coiituinfl but little of a Silicat«, or oolv eom« 
diswrniRutt-d qtuirU. the silicii will be dit^olred aad the H. Pb. bead 
shovra do eigtie of scpnrattd i>ili«io aoid, but it uiar be delected iu th« 
wet wuy, by proct-i^diiig us liiiven-d for silicÄlea uiidor lime, mag- 
iiesiiu and alnmimi. The nVwa vcht-n thne itepürat^d can be Muitjr 
recogiiined by mcunö of S. Ph. or «xlu. 

With sods on coal aud ou platinum wire the eilicatcs dissolve 
with ptfervwcenco, some porfcctly, some only partially. For special 
(Icitcriptionir vide p. 97 €t »eg. 

When a compound of osidizcd scibstsuces, which are not n^ducible 
by soda, contains a «uQiRi<:-nt amount of a ailtcatC', a sliglic üfTtirv«»- 
ceuoe may be obiwn-ed when tveting it with sodu, from which tlie 
proMDce of silicic acid may he inferred, provided the stibetanoe is 
five from other adds ilmt witlistttud the Src. It is, huvvvcr, always 
wifer to employ the wet way. 

Tlic siliciiiiQ ill raw iron, »teai, and bears, may ho found by diasolv- 
ing the pnidiici in nitric acid, or decomposing it with chloride of 
silvi-r, ]). 3(10. wbi'D silica^ carbon, uta, rcmHi» liehind. The residue 
i« cullect«d on a filter, inciiK-rutcd in the plutiniim eiKwu, uud th« 
rvmiLining silica Ici^iitt with notiA on coilI. 

6. Sdlphl'b, 8, AXD Stri-PHUBio Acid, 5^ 

TAeir octurreiice in the mineral ki/ig<Utn ana in meiaüurgical 


Sulphur occur« in ntUure: 

a. Ak native Sulphur, S, frequently rendered impure by quarts» 
time. inn). &>&], w»ter, etc. 

b. Combined with many metaU. 

Snlphnric acid occur« in combination with a1kali<^8, earths, and 

uteliillic osid<«. 
Ul the minerals cootnining tnlphur or snlpburic acid have been 
men tinned. 
Among metatlnrj^io:iI product« i«u1])hiir forms a chief iogn^liptit 
of the maUs (Steine and Ijcche), which have already lieen enumer- 
ated ander (he rvspectire m«ta)<, und is oocoaonally an occcgsory 



ingredicat in oeitaio raw metals and compoaodi of in«UU, wfateb 
are to he iiubmiu«il to Turther treuaient, af in nw iroo; all» ia 
certain «lags. 

Suliiliiiric kcU] constittttes m ohief iogredi«nt »r artifioia] lulphatea 
(rilrioltf), aud oocon iu gnut^T or 1««« quantity, oombiiiod witJi 
eartluaiiU metallic oxidi-», in area raaat«ii on the large N»te, wfaicli 
to* lo be mat««! for their metal«, or the prodoctiun of alnoa, or lal- 
phate of irun, urc, or copper. 

SxuaiBatioB for Solpbni- aad Solpltatl« AfU, 

IneJuHing M< pfufraJ Nimpipt ekaraeterittie* of mljAaU» amd 


Satire tmipkur buea very cadly in Um natnm and nüilbDca vith 
a brovniab n4or, bat beoo»ei jdlo« again on oooUo^; bfripi 
ingn-dii-nU, if nttn-volatüe, rcnuHO bditnd. Ignited on taaX it bonu 
vith a bloisb-Oaa«, eralriajf lolpbarMu aeid, «bidi i» reeognixM 
by its (^raeteriuic pongcat odor. 

In its ounbinatJao vitb Betala mlpluir can be detected ia ranvot 

a. In cntn «mm by fcirting tbe MbMa« atroggly in tbn ckMwl 
tnbe, p. Sj: Soom wdphtda « u a tal a t ^ a kigb m|n«tton of nl- 
phnr npU a nibB— te aT the IbOot, c jv ^«r B^ '■> ^ f f tka 
•lUpbnr i* wbinei «ilfa «adadk iitih a* ouravip or »amU, It 
MbJiiaef ia PBaabiMtiaa «ilh the aeUL asd tiie ibliwtp aay ha 
rKognisad by in cnIm; iMb alyUda cT Mwaie. yp. •> aU Mfl^ 
and »uaafew. pfL CS nd 90fc Vb#« tW «aJphsr i» eoaMMd vidi 
aotiiDOoy a «nag favC |ndMM iW «alÜHaU af Sb «ilfc ft^ 
alreadT^ffwari— id. fL tt. 

A. Bj nwti»g i« tW «POT tafc^,^ O, ^ Mf. AMham ^ • Vi^ 

etMd bh» liiM 
UKKiDt *n artaB 
fr^tavet«, «dl da 




add rtU 

ixaitskb'ä blowpipe ASALtaiS. 

% ff,, nw k-H(l, lilack coj^icr, etc^ a fragment tbe sbte of n n 
Sbwil or tmall pi-|)p«r-corn U nacd ; in case of motaU tb&t fhse «itb 
diOiciitiy. US ruw iron, ihe necessary aniouut iiiust he obutini^d by 
äliiig. Wliilt* tlu- puu'tUM'ed 8ul>«Uince is fun-d wiili ihe soda and 
bürmx ia ß. F., »r thv ^loss tn-uled by tho didv uf thi: metAl fur sume 
time« siilpbide of »odium form«, whivli imniediately yields u stUplit 
reaction wbi-u ilii' fuM-d mass is n-moved fh>m the euiil, |)iilu>i*izi>< 
placed Oll a briglit sheet uf silvi-r »nd moistj-ned with wati>r. 8nl> 
phnretU.'d i»yJrop;ii i« uvolved, which colon Um ailvt-r quite bbick. 
with sulphide of eurer, if a notable Btnoiiut of enlphur i$ present ; 
but if k-iM is ]>r('$«iit, only dttrk-bron-Q or yellow. The resulting 
ctain niuy be raulily removed by rubbing it with tnoietvned cbarcoul 
or fiae bone ush. The borax acts adrantageously by preTenting the 
eulpbide of sodium from siokuig into tbo coal and by forming vritb 
it a ma«g which is rriulily nnioved. 

Bine« avieiiium forms selenidu of »odium, which has a similar 
effect on ailTer, the FubalÄiice must always be previonsly tvatcd alone 
on ODul, to aacercain. whether a selenium odor ia pefceptible. äbonld 
sek'iiium and sulphur occur together, Uie teat for sulphnr must Iw 
ppi-formpd ill the open tube and the formation of eulphiirong 
ascerlnJncd W the odor, or with moistened Utmtis paper. 

The sttlpha!tf behave vurioiiäly in the matrMS and 
coal. The sulptiate» of alkalie», alkaline tarlAx, and 
na> not at all decotnpoved in tho matras«. An imperfect decom] 
tiun eusuPS witii thu sail« of Qtlicr utrong hiksos, via.: proforirlr-s 
iron ami mnnganetf tiU.iL oxide of sine : the heat requisite for thvi 
complete decom pcwiliou cannot bo ppodiicetL ThosaltÄof non-al 
line earth» and Ihe wwlrr mttalUc bage« are more or less reodit 
decuuipust-d. When tUe salt suffi-T» partial decompuflition anlphtirot: 
acid is urolvcd and may he r<,'Cogiii£eiI a« tlsnaL 

On eoal, cüpeciaily in R 1-*., tlif> sulphate« of the flxed alkali«» i 
ttlhaline eiiTlh* are converted into sulphides, with an alkaliue 
lion, and the formrr, after sinking into the coal, are partially vola- 
tilized and form a white coat, p. 69. If moietetied witJi water, or, 
better still, dilute hydrochlorio acid, these aulphidea evolve snlphn« 
n-tti'd hydrogen. The remaiuiiig «ulphuU-s »""volTe sulphnrons acid 
and IcuvL' pnrtly earlhit nr mctallir u^irlr-H, {lartly regntinu metals, or 
meta.1a containing eulphiir, provided the reduced metal la not Tola- 
tile; if it is, a coat of oxide is deposited. 

Tlie mlphiUtt are all dccompowd fn the matrass, leaviag 
either pure oxid«, or a raixlute '■'' ' 'O anlphates with 
nlphldce, BO that after ignitioo the anlir tllcaliec \ 


«CLPnrB Axo suLPiitriito acid. 


Udu cftrtlis evolve aolpbiirctUil hjdrogen. if moistened »itli dilnta 
hydrwhloric noid. On cohI they bebavo liko tho aulphat««. 

Tlion.» «re two wajrs of dok^cting Bul|tliui'ic av aulplitiruuR ucidü in 
■uipliulcs or sulphites and in otlier ealU cixitniiiing enuill quuuLiliM 
»r tbeee ucJde. 

0. Whvü. t]ie bases of the ea\t6 prtMliic« no cvloration in Uie glaaa 
fluxes, salpbiiric acid can Im di>i«oi4?d by furiuiiig with swi» nod 
•liica oil Coal in It !■'. a bead, wliicb it [K-i-fpcily cWar and colorless, 
uid then fu&tug tbiä bead witb a little of llie suit in B. L-'. und 
obsorviDg ibc color or the cold glass. Tbi^eulphuric acid is Kdm-oLt, 
forming Kulpliidt' of sudiiitii. wliiiHi prnditct?« a yellow to d^rk-nid 
Color, acoonliug to the uiuoiint of giil]ilinric acid prettenL i^hoiild 
Uie bases be tnctullic oxides wbicb color the fliixra, the salt must 
ljr*t be deoompoiwd hy mijcinp it with onw or iwioo ids amount of 
soda, igniting tho mixttire \a O. F. on pUlifltim foil or wire, diseolv- 
ing tho resolling snlphtite of soda in a few dropi^ of watvr. evapora- 
ling the cktir ^uhition tu dn'nt-E« on platiiiuni tViil, or in a porcelain 
diHh, and l««ting the «lit »s above with silicate of »odu. 

b. Th« t4-«t for snlpliitric acid niuy be pcrformod by nii-viag the 
«alt to ba tested with soda, or, if tbiü is not (piitc fi-ee from Euiphsto 
of soda, witJ) neutral oxalate of putuosa. fusing it in R. F. on cnal, 
removing the fiiswl ma?s from the coal, into which part of it will 
Imeo gnak, lUKl moigtvniiig it on silver foil, p.)i8. The fiiseJ maea 
may a)*u be covervd with dilute hydrochloric ticid in a matnus, 
and the piY-*Mice of sniphiireltcii liydrogeu tested by iuecrt- 
iug a etrip of filler paper moistened with solution of acc-tato of 
leed into the month of the miiti'HKS. if sulphuretted hydrogen ia 
evolved it will form sulphide of lead, and color the papiir Ijlack or 

Dana ha» pri-poscd the following tost for sulphur {Chem. Gaz^ 
IS51, p. -I'tl)). The enlxilanue ia fused with soda in K. ¥., iho aasajr 
moielenMl with a drop of water in a WHlch>g1ass and a bit of uitro* 
pmstide of floilinm, lui large us a pinheud, added. If sulphur in any 
fonn WM present u purple color will be produced, to which Playfiiir 
Urst called ait^otion. It U well to add eomcslarch to liie soda when 
QHing this ip^t for orgnnio i<ubst:inccH, vis.: horn, hair, nailo, etc. A 
iiii of hair four inches loug. wound upon plulinum wire and dipped 
iu the niixture of etavcb and soda, is said to yi«1d tui uutnistaknbl« 
fiilpbur n^-actiun. 

Molylidate of ammouia is, according to Schlossberg^r {Chem. 
CetUralbi. VI. 160), an exoeedingty sensiiire reagent for sulphur. A 
dilnte liuhition of it snpcr&iiuratcd with hydrocliloric icid^iä colored 

fine Wiie by tptt email quaatiti« of sulpharetted hydrogen or sul- 
pliidt's 4)liuu)lvt>d ill vfat<?r. 

In »rder to ileWrmiiie whether the sulphur in a nunpnü U pnracnt 
ii' ;i -:ji|iliidi- or sulpluit«', to» Kubull rvL-ümmenJa lliut the i)w*ilerf(l 
-iJ'-huice sliuuld hv fuäeü "ritli potiiäM in the piulinum S]H)oii boforv 
tbfl i>lowpipi<i Tiic gpooa vrith its contents is then pUo-il, with a 
atrip »f nhi-vt küvit, in a snuill pom;)»!» v«Mel and ctiTcr»iI with 
vati^r. The moiss diasulvca, and afUT some time the silrcr tII) 
either bocome bhick, or femain bright. In the rormcr caw the sab- 
stnnoo contains a eulphlde, «. ff.. hfllrlt«, etc ; in the latt«r e&M a 
Biilphatf, protidcd the pifsonee of aiilphnr has Ixvn already asocr- 
iiiini-d h\ tilt« it-si with mkIh oii ami. Naturally the substuiic« mtiät 
h« perfectly irtt from uny ingredient which oonld havu a redncing 


It* oecHrrtntt in th« mineral linfffio'O. 

Solenium occurs only in combinution vith metals: in clauBtbaUt>-. 
tilkorodite, zorgite, und lebrbacbiLo. vide Ivad; beraelfanite, vide co]!- 
per; tiemannite, vuie mercury; nauniannile, crookesite, and eacsi- 
rite, fi'fifl flilrcr. It somt'linif» fi»rm« an ujifsafutiiU ingn-dit-nt uf 
t«1Iuritim minerals, and certain giüenae, pyrites, and phoviphate« of 

BxsmliMUon for StlMtlaOb 

The test for sp1«uium is bo almpte that orea a traoe of it con bo 
detected in any siihstanoe. 

For the behuviur uf tiemannite, vüU p 305. 

Conipouude which are not volatile in tlie closed tube are tcatod aa 
followa for sele-niiim : A fragment is ignited on coal in O. F. »nd 
immediatt'ly held nuder Ihu nost^. when any selenium present will 
yield the p'-rnliiir honje-mdish odor of the gHweoiis oxide, p. 66. If 
the eubötuiKv coutnins much aeleniom, brown ftimee, oonsieting only 
of lint'ly-dnid.'d »cienitini. will Iw evident, before the aasay Ix-gins to 
glow; Bfl«Twurd ii Btet-l-g^ray, metjillic coat forms, which Hometimea 
has a red border. 

Selenium may alto he sc-parnted ßrotn itscombinationa by lieatiug 
the eubstuuce in the open tube, \i. €3, incliuiug it so that the other 
oontiitnaita may l>c »ixidijHnI ; the »i-Icnitim then g<>|»»ratw and con- 
deuMB io the tube with a red color. If theiv is mnch selenium th«, 
rather «U-el-gray near the aae»/. Oceaatonal'j 


■Im 6ma)l mitt«]d or etrli'iiuHs seid ivre ilcpoäit«^ bcyoud the red sal>- 
limste, bill tli«y vtiliitili»? »t u f^ciirlc lu-itl. If sulphur is Vik<-vr'\gQ 
prewot it escape« its sulpliuruiKi uciil iixid h ihua n-cujrniscd. When 
ü Irifliii^ amuunt of selenium »ccare with telluritmi, ns in Mradym- ; 
I'/f, and tlieuÄsiiy U eomlnctod in Ihropcn tube, toUuroas »cid iii Är«t 
(Tülli'Cts on the gtius, uml aftcr L'uiiiinm.-d lieuliiig with the blonpipe 
this apiii-arc to lie mingled in uiie spot with a ivd subslauce, which 
cuDsisl« of evl«niubi. 

i>'flenaten mid geUnUes are reduced in the G. F. on coal to aelcnidcs« 
which i-Diil a df8tim-t horso-radich odor. With addition of soda the 
nxlaction is more rBi)id. 


TK<tr oecurrence I'n M« mineral kingdom and in vteiaUnr^icat 


Phosphoric acid id always found in nature in outnbißatioti with 
liases, and ocean ax an essential constitnent in rarions minerals, 
which have lict'n cniimtrutcd iiudtr lilhia. lime, magnt-ehi, iiUimina, 
ytlriu, manganese, iron, lead, uraniiini, atiil copji^r. 

The elags produced iii emeUing silvttr, k-ud, or copper ores oon- 
laiiiing phosphatt*, alwnji« hold some photphoric acid, which may ho 
«imbinud with Tarious lia;ii-ä; iron n-liuing-ciudcni also rr«<jnenlly 
contain cumhinatiuns of phosphoric acid, aa tb« raw iron is not 
always fn-« fb^m phosphide of iron. 

BxaminaUsn for FhoiphoruB and Phoiphorio Aold, 

Iwduding the general blctn'pipe characteri*tie9 of photphatei. 

The cxnminatinii for pluifphoniH occnrs chiefly in cane of raw 
iron. A fm^nicnt of the iron wctghtng about 100 milligr. is dia- 
eo[t«d by warming it «'ilh nitric acid, which uonvcrts the phosphon» 
intii phosphoric acid and leaves the gnifthite beliind. After evapo- 
niting todryncsü iu a porcelain ditili. the dry muKS ia strongly heated, 
Bnlil it evolves no uioi-e acid vapors, and is then tested fur phos- 
phoric acid, fide n to d, below. 

Pkw^tiaten are mil decomposed by ignition in the matra«, bat 
Mini« are fuBible. In the foreep». or on platinum wire, 
iuo«t of them cun be fused, eapeciatiy the acid enlts, and 
tUey oolor the fliime pale bhiieh-greeii, pruvidfd the bases produce no 
oolonition. On ond most phosphates can alfui he fa.<;ed withnat 
dioonipositifui, since the c<imbiut-i:l phosphoric acid is eilber not 




redncfd at all, or onlj- tcpt imi^crrcctlr. Tbo most evident ciamplt 
)f rhis M Di-iitrnl pliosphate of lend, wliit-h fuses vory eaaily to a bead 
on coal, bat »carcvlv witR-rs unyd«o>oinpDBilioii in I lie R. F.; thehpail 
ia crrslulUiii-. riele \k 'i'd el m>g. Vpcm fVinon with soda an pluli- 
num wire, or in the pl&IJnam e(K)vi>, the ph»si>hftt» ji«]d phospbate 
of sndii and tlie haeträ htv lilK-rati^ 
Tile t/est i'lir pliospliorin «cid miiy be i-arioMKly made: — 

a. By IIk' imk- liliiisli-^vii colur im]Hin*.-d to the flame, p. 76. 

b. Whfo Ihf BubEUit]cv conlains more (hau four to 6tc per cent, it 
ma.y be K'stt'd, iicronliiig t^ l^rxi-iiiia, by diK^olving «ome of it in 
irtlrilit'd buntcie iioid, prL>f(.>nibly on coal in 0. F., inserting into the 
flii'd glass a bit of fine iroti wirci lutlier longer than the diameter of 
Ahe bciid. und thL>n cmpli^ying u Gtrotis H. F. The iron oxidi»-i) at 
'the eitppn»*> of the phosphoric wcid, prodnrinj; borate Of iron and 
tphoBiihide of iron, the latlttr Aising by a strong heat; Tfa« glw« at 
flrut rnvcm the wire, but r^-juwnnn's its Bpheripul shapn when the 
j>hosphidi' fiiAe«, ii»d while the ^lubnlc is coüling a glowing may 
gene-rally be tibserved in the portion attached to the coal, arieing 
rr«m tl»e crj^lailizntion of the phosphide of iron. When »initf? cold 
the glass is can-fully liruketi betweeu pu]>cr and the spherical, mt^tul- 
liu bnttnn of phospludt- nf iron subjected lo fnrtJicr e:iuiniDatit>ii. 

It fihonid he tnaj^ctio and brittle, and ite froclnre ehouM show an 
irau i«lor. The hriltU'uosd of llie phosphide depends upon the 
itmoiint nf phosphoric acid that was present. If the sohütance oon- 
miiitd liltlf phosphoric acid the button may even be flomowbat mal- 
leable and withstand rather strong blows of the hammer before 
breiiking. Whi'n v^ry liltli^ or no phogphoric acid waa present, the 
wire witl full froni the broken glasd bend, in it« original shape, being 
only burnt on the ends which projected from the head. 

Should the substance ti-?t<;d fur plK-sphonc acid contain other eon- 
8litii(>nr>) which ran he rt'duced liy thß iron and raelled to a button 
with the exoests of iron, e. ij^ sulphuric and araeoio ocidg. or metallic 
nxides 7ie<lacllile by iron, their radicnla will Iw obtained in combina- 
tion with the iron, and a preliminary te«t for euch bodies nitiat be 

e. Bunsvn hii8 proposed a U'St for trifling qaantities of phosphoric 
acid, which consists in mixing the substance with two to three timc^ 
lis much soda and trunsferriiig: the thoroughly dried mixture to the 
drawii-ont portion of a tnbe, somewhat larg--r than that represcntt^l 
in Fig. 7fi. After again healing the mistnre so u to cemore alt 
nioistnre, a long bit of sodinm is insiTled into it and the mixtiir« 
fnw-d with the blowpii«. When cold, the portion of the tnbe cod- 

pnosPHOBCS AXt) i'uo&paoair acid. 


tainiuj; tho fiitcil miuis ü 'brokmi oflT, kid in a porcplain dish »vi 
tnoteti^Dvd witli a fuw dropa nf wiitor; if phrtüphoric (wi(J wiib profl- 
«■nt tlie T('1l<knoH II mIut of ])li<.i£pluirt.*iu<(l h^drugt^n, rL'H-uibliojj 
(lcca)'iD^ Reh, will hv «Tolvecl. 

(/. The wet way ua,v be employ«! lo di-t*ct phosphoric »ciU in iU 
cnnibinationa, and cannot 1>« diB]>i>i)«(>d with wli^n a eubsuinoe oon- 
taiuB mi little pho«phoric acid ns to prodnce no it«ctioa by the flame 
test, and ia aot five fniiu stilpharic or anM-nic iicidt. Stibstaooct 
oonsistiDg cbi«lly of ciLTths or nictultio oxides are Iratted by trita- 
rotitifr forty to llfty milligr. in tin« poa-d«;r irjtii five parts by volnmc 
of a piwionely prepared mixture uf tour pnrtit liy wi^tght of aoda 
with one of «lieu {as prupused by ücrzvliiis for ihf <(uuiitit«tivc wp» 
iinition of phosphoric »rid from ftltiniina), in the agat« mortar, 
tninsfvrring it to a eoda-papi-r rylindor, pL 4% and fasins it in 0. F. 
on cual to a clear b«ad. Tbt> bead is pulverised in tlie steel mortar, 
or betwwn paper, and boiled in a fmialt poro-lain dLah with a suffi- 
cirnt quantity of wut^r. Phosphat« of soda and the txccmot khU 
diaaolvo. while in prexeaoe of ulumina, »ilioate of alumina and 
nidti. with nth er (>artJi9 or metatlio oxides, remain b<<bind. If the 
•iibataiiCL' cunfainud littk- or no uliiminB and uu sexinioxidc of iron» 
a notable aoiiruoL uf «iltcic acid iadic^olved, hut thi« ioi-e not affect 
the d«tenninatton of the phosphoric acid in the liquid. When the 
»ilntion is complete the di«h is tvinovitl from th« dame, and aitor 
the undissolrrd piiris have «vttli-d the liqnid is t-ithcr liltn-n-d or cjire- 
fiilly d(.-CHuteil. with the aid uf a ghiss phI. fiMni the residue into 
another small dish. If thera ie reason to «nppo^c that ranch silicnte 
of Rrxln hn!> hei>n diiuolv^d, it in well to boil the dpeanted liquid with 
additiou uf carbunale of animouia, wlieu the silica separal<>8 In a 
gelatinons state. After fitt«'ring this ont. the solnMon is tjupereat- 
amtt'd with acetic acid and stiiTi-^l with Home act-tnte of lead, when, 
if the pboephoric acid amonula tu sevL-ral (»er cent., a wUit*.' precipi- 
tate of phosphate of lead is at once fnrnied. which is collected on a 
HltrT. dried and fneul in a shallovr cavity ou coal. If it hae been 
well nadhed a wliit« <.>r ye)l'>wieili globuW, with a crystalline surface, 
is obtained, which brhave^ like pho-phntc of lend, p. 270, tt uq. It 
may furthnr Iw testx-d witli iKtracic acid aud iron. 

When the precipitate fonned by noi-tate uf lead is so trifling that 
it cannot be removed without parti«lly destroying the filter, whieh 
ia to lie avoided, as it would ihü« Iw rendered impure by the silica 
of which the filter a<b is chiefly cumposetl, a drop of dilute sul- 
phuric acid must be addt^^.eo as lo pri«lnce a mixture of »iilphatu 
and phosphate (>rioad, in mcb quantity that it may be readily trans- 



Terpwl finjiu the filtiT to tlic conl. Whon thia is fnned B. B. Ute i 
jthiil«:' ii) r<-4hirc<l piirtlr to »titpliule of tfnd. u-hich «i»n ToUttlii 
mid {uirLlv tu iii<.-iallie li'uil. whicli gniduallv volutilii'A-'i atiil lesrer' 
HiiiiUl glnbalf^tt of phosplmtc of Ic-ud, tliac can be recDgiiixctl with ibv 
aid of Liu' ttm^nitiLT, bv reason of its cbBi'iick-riatiR (|ualities. 

Wht-ti tlte aiiioiiiil i>r |ibo)jpbonc acid is HiippoHL'd tobe very small, 
a lar^rer quantity of the siibstanot*, alwiit 100 milligr., «bonid be fVisedi 
with Ryu- time« its volume «r tbc mi-ituri- of aoda and »ilica, in iwo 
or three portions, ami tbe fuded bc-ada Ihen treated as beibiv. Tbie 
\i c«|K-ciiilly ncci'g^ary with many imn orer». Anj arsenic acid pres- j 
t>iit is redntied und volatilized, nhtle any sulphuric acid forms snt- 
pfaide of sodium, which goea into «ointion aud yields sitlphido of 
load, eiucG it is not doL-oinposcd by the acetic acid. The sulphide of 
l«id does no hurm. buwoT«r, as it is volatilised on the coal and le&vos 
the phosphate of lead alone. 

9. Chlorinb, CI. 

Jte Ofcurrenee in iht mintral kingdom. 

Chlorine is always fouud in nature conibiDed with other elements. 
Tbe minerals oontAinitig it as an eeseDlJal conatitaent hare been 
eaucncnitvd undiT |HitiiS«a, sodiv, ammonia, lime, iron, lead, copper, 
mercnry, and silver. 

BiAiniiuiU«!! for Chlorin«, 

Including the gtnemi btotepipt characteristic* efcMoridw and 


Most of the cAbrriiies are ftisibk- in the matrass. ThoM ft«*; ftr>ni 
water an- more or lesi^ volatile : tbe chlorides of the alkalies, alkaline 
iNirth», m«D(t»n«»«> eopper, utid eome others, are not decomposed; 
chlorides of gold aiui pbiriniim are ri^lnccd. 

On platinum wire and coal the chlorides, oren those which witb- 
Btand the heat in the matraf«, are mon- or less readily decomposed 
into oxides and hydrochloric acid by the vapor of water in the blow- 
pipe Hume, or are reiluced, eHpeciully on coal. Many are al90 either 
entirely or only panially voltitiliwd, and form a coal;, p. 69. 

The chlorafex fuse rcry easily in tlic matraa^ and vhen 
the base is nn alkali, atkatioe earth, or other strong baae, 
rield oxygen at u n-ol-bcat, which causes a glowing splinu^r to burn 
when intn>duced into the month of Ih« matfass ; nfter itrong igoi- 
tiun, contiiuted lor a siifTlcient time, pure chlorides remain. Suit« of^ 
Weaker bmscs evolve oxygen and chlorint-, and IcaT« bwio chloridsfcl 




On coal the chloratoe dctoniite more vioIenU; tbau the ujtrutes and 
U«v(> ntüitml (^hlnridfä. if the bases art; powerful; the feebkr basei 
remain «8 lnntiic chloride«. 

Acconliug to Bcrzcliue, ehloriu« niny bo ilutoctcd iu its cuuipoiintlti 
hj disfiolviug oxide of copjier iu S. Ph. ou platinum wire vith th« 
t). v., nittti the fr|ft88 ie opuqtie, und ihcD caimitg the siib^laiico nndrr 
exaniiiuitioii to adhere to the soft, bead, uhicli i» then trmtml with 
llie tip ot' ttie blue Same. If etilorine is present the bead will be 
(stirruundtd with aii iut«uae lutiro-blu« fluniv of chloride of copper, 
uhich vnldtilizeK m long wiohiorin» ivmuitiR. A fresh uddition of 
liitf eiibstiiijce will n.-prodiiew this n-actioii. Broioiae, pL 7T, is tlie 
nnlirotht.T body occnrring in miacmlii which producer a Ntnilnr flame. 
By tins Etmple test chloriue c&ii 6e detected with c«rlaiti(j in ««rths. 
uxidi^», aiiil oiilu. 

Whtin the substuuces contain little chlorine, or in cue ot com- 
{■(innde which idjurc the pUliiium wbi-u hi-atcd, a littltt of th*.- 
}K>wiJt'r ie mixed with one-third its roliimu of oxide of oop))cr, tritu- 
niti-d in the ii^te morrtir wttli ii little watt-r, and ii ffW dropg of tho 
mixture spread upou coul with Iht^ |ie4tl(;. The mass is drtt-d B. B., 
withunt lientiag it Iu ii-vlin-e«, ttnd then the blue flame is directed 
imnu-diaU'ly iipoa it, when th« aziirf-bluc Hume of chloride of cop- 
per upiH-nrs U9 b<-rore. The flume is at ärst mther greenidh-bluc, but 
8U0D iM-comvJ uxiire-hliH'. Whi<u Uto com]»)uud cuutuiti» uo chlorine 
there will be no perceptible colunition. Chloridi-s like chloride of 
Kilrer, which cuDtiut be |>owdered, uitiat be Ixiiitvn m tliiu ui pvseibU 
between papei-, cut up with ibe scissors, and treated on cool with 
water and oxide of copper as above. 

Another niethud proposed by Bcrselius for detecting oblorine iu 
chlorides suliible in water, conaists in placing some protoäulphat« of 
iron, or »nlptute ui eopper, im u bright ebiH-t of gilver, muiäWuing it 
with u (ov drops of wiiter, und laying the obluridv n|H>n it, when the 
fiilrcr will, after a time, assume a black color, rt-^t-mbliuf^ bixiniMrd 
ware. According to Uexlet, the same test may be applied to iosolu- 
bic chloride», nf^er first fusing them on platinum wire with a little 
MMla, so ail to form soluble clilunde of sodium. Tbe absence of 
bromine, which produces similar reuctious, must prerioualy be asccr 



10. Bbohixk, Dr. 
Its tmatrrtnce in th$ mimntl kingdom. 

Itroiuioe bus ihm far \k*'i\ found in minerals on); cambined »itli 
tUvcr, ID bromyrilf uutl rmhuUICt ntle ttivcr, 

U «Iso ocoars iu exceedingly minule qnantiti«! as bromidt »/ 
tedium or magntsium, iu ct'rtaiii salt springs. 

Suni&itioD for BroainB, 

IndudiHQ ih« ^aeral blonrpipe- ckarachristicf of th» bromida and 


Bromid«» nnd brontatts bohure like the oorreBpoiiding chloriile« 
Rud c!ilürati>8 in the mutms«. On cuul th« bromait» detonat« «itit 
^omo violence- nod leave ntrutrai, or, in ciuic of wcnkrr bas?s, luunc 
bromide». Bromides of potoasium nod sodium give a vhite coat ou 
coiil, p. 69. 

Mnny bmmidfS »n; either volalilized or decompoee«] on pliitiauni 
wire, or on coiil, and diffii^e an oßerisive odor, eimitar to clilorinir. 
According to Uorteliits, tliey afford with S. Ph. and oxide of cop)>er. 
or with sulptiatc «if cop{H>r on «i]vcr, thu enmc reaouons m tba 
chlorides; the Aunie ha« not ii pun* azure-btue color, howerer, but 
iiiclinea to green, c«p«ciallj' on the edges, p. 77. When all th« 
broiniiio is gone the grceo flume of the oxide of copper alon« 

To distingnish hromide» from chlorides with rerfainty, Berzelias 
hoA pr'iposml lu fii8v tlii-m in the matnM with tiiiinl)>tiute of potoass, 
wheu bromine and sulpborous acid are liberated and the matrass is 
tilled with roddi^h-y^llow vaporn of bromine, wliioh c«u b« rveo;;- 
*)ized by the »imilariLy of their »dur to that of rblurine, notwith- 
standing the ett[phurx>ii8 acid. Bromide of stiver forms an exceiHion, 
*i it yielda very tittlö broiuiuc, but ii. may bo diitingniehed frooa 
chloride of silver by the a^ixiniguti-green color whioli it assume« 
when QXpoH-d to the sunlightt after fusioii vith the bieolphate of 
iwbtssa, p. 314. 

When very little broiuioe is present the matnws ahuuld be held 
veitieiilly, after the fiieion, so that by looking down thrungh it a 
thicker ntnitum of the vupon mur l>e observed lliaii could be seen 
by looking Bidewaya through the wide part 'Chlorine, if present, 
is uleo libonit«d in th« gaseous state, but its yellow color will soaroely 
lie pt'roeptible, if little is evolved. When iodine is aUn present the 

BUftMINE— lOI'INE. 875 

rcMtion become«, iudo«<I, uac«rtaiD, on »ccount of tbe Tiolet iodiae 

Tu doU-ct broiuiue io brine, e. g^ the motbvMy« from wliu«), 
BttUrd hua prupuacil Ut |»i6S a oiirreat or chloriue through tli« lye, 
hikI theo aM sume ether to it and a^'itut« tbo wbolc thoronghJv. On 
uUuwiiig it to n-M llie nüwr ücpiiratvs utid is oulüred bvncinlh-red hj 
x\w. diN$idTfiI bnmiliiev This ether ou being aliak«a up witli a solu- 
tiou of caustic jiulMS» lo&ug its color, und tbi-bnimiDeoombini-swith 
th<> potusea, bo that aTu-r ovuponLtiug to dryness tbe «alt can be 
t»itt^<d for bromine t>y ini-uis of bi«ul|dwt« of potaeSB. Heiiie bu 
eniployi::«] otiloriui.- wuu-r in ptiiüe of the gas, to sepambu bromine 
from its oombiaatioai in nlituj wawra» vie* 

IL lOOIKS, 1. 

It» occurrtnce in Um mineral kingdotu. 

Iodine occurs in tbe rare minerals todgrUe, vide silver, and. 
achioarttcmberijitc, vide lead. 

It utao ocoitrs with lodium and mikgiiceium iu miacral waton, 
espct'iallj such ug ooataju chluri(i<-> of eodiuiu. 

BsatnliuUoa for lodln*, 

Including the gtnera! bUncpij}e characteriHia of the iodide« and 


Uost iodides can be fused, but not readily voIutiliEcd, in the mnt- 
nuw. Iu {tregeuce of water, or ati iodat« of a weak base, vapors of 
indinc occaaioaally rcsnlr. 

Tbo iWo^M uv ruKJly docoiuposcd. In the matraas the Bulta of 
the alkalies and alkaline earths evolre oxygen and leave slightly 
alkalinn indidcE. Tli« othpf iodat4>« at the same time ctoWo »iolet 
iudino vupora uud leuTe ba&ic iodides, or only oxidt-s. On coal the 
iodatee deflagritte Pbglitly atid lenrti filln-r iodide^ or, in caee of 
weaker bnsei, rn^idneü (rw- from iodim*. Mtiny iodidea behavi^ like 
the oormpunding brumides, pi 374, when tmted on platinum wire 
or coal. 

According to Borzelius, iodides tested with ahead of S. Ph. con- 
taining oxide of capper, pr<>dnce an intense green Udme, p. li. 

■ " CbemiMhe UnMniKli. iL Soolen, Snlae, Gndir-n. SUdi^AbflUl« loa «amnll 
Balinrn d. 1*rr>Tlni Swhscii." Brrlin. )U9. (Printcil fraiii Ktmien't irai/ c 
/Artm'« .ln*it!. IU. XIX.) ». »U. 

ptATnricirs blowpipe ikalysis. 

Wbvii iütlideji um fiiaed in th<> matraaa wiih bidulpbftLe of puta^a^ 
the iodiuc u pmiJj sublimod and panly i\lh Uk matrass with violet 
rapon, while «ul^hiu'oui acid ie «iiauUiuicoiuly vvolv^-d. The t«<t 
is 80 (lelicuto thut smull qimniities uf bdiiie may be* düU>uied in ealUd 
etc., bal iudide of silver is ouly purlially dt-cuiupu^; viulct vapon 
lire, indefd. liberated, but mofit »f tho iudid« of ßilwr cullocta 
butR-utli Uk- fused »cid öalt to a drop, which n-Uius ita roUow culor 
in the uuiiligbt, y. Uld. 

To det«ot a Utile in<lini> in saline waters, which hav« been nearly 
freed from chluride vT eoditim by cTupumtiun. u sululioo of starcli iu 
boiliiig vat«r is aeuaUy cnipluved, with chlunu« water, by which an 
ioBohiblf coni|kound, having a <tfry ftne blur color, ii formed. HeiiK 
has) AiibslitiUi-d nitric »cid fur cblon'ne water with better eucc«u,aDd 
protx-eds thus : The soliil-ioit of stai-ch in hul water is stirred into thej 
neutral wlutiou to be t««u-(l for iodiuc, u ftw drop« of uitrio acid ar 
addixl, and tii<> wboli* upiiu stirred. A very irilliiig quantity of 
iodiue pruduce« an intense blue color. 

St^ii [Pol. CvnlraibL, 1858, p. Hi)) hiM proixiHcd thu fnllowiogj 
in«thod for detecting very eimiU quuutilies of iodiae in nitric acid 
and in Chili aultptri.'. A £uitabU> quautity uf the acid under exam- 
iniitioii IK put into u test tube and n tin rod imm'r'rwd in it, tlDtllj 
n-d vapiird are- distinctly Tisiblo, iiftir winch th<' tin \a withdrawni 
littl« bisulphide of carhi>n added, and the whole, after tboroagh 
shaking, allowed to stund a few moinonu. Thij slmlom of bisnl- 
pliide luiaally collecting abnvc the acid only has ii red color, unlcsi' 
iVre ia too small au umtiuuc of iodine. Witli traccfl of iodine tbo 
stratum may have only a dark yellow color, but thus turns to a red. 
when tho biitulphide vn dmwn off und a )iortiun of it evaporated by' 
blowing upon it in a puroelutn dish. 

A method of detecting iodine by the dry way has been proposed 
by Pasquale la Cava (Uenelins Jabn-^ber. 1816. S. %1\). which is 
said to be much more e^nuin und «L-iisilive Ibsn tbo wel prooc 
with starch. The maw suNpccted of containing iodine is mixed witi»' 
a little air-sluked lime and the mixture dried. Aocorditig to Ber- 
xeliiis a mixtnrc- of carbotiat« of lime and quicklime, free Irom 
wulpr, wonld lie more oonTPHi^-nt. The reBiilt of the tert depends 
upon tbe complete absence of wat«r. After very Intimaitly mixiag 
the mas« with a little protochloride of mercury, it is transferred to 
the closed tnbc, which ie then drawn out to a fine tnl>c a little abore^< 
the mass. Upuu hvatiug tho maäs to redness iudide of murcuryanh» 
limes into the narrow part, where it may easily be recognixed by its 
color, generally yollow at first, but afterward red. Lime dcoom- 

VLDOaiKB. 377 

poMB tkv iirotoclilorido but uot tbc iodide of morcury, which Gob- 

r>j)riiig waters conUiniog chlorides of calcium and mugnesiutn 
afford bjr evaponition a flnid rcridnr, und some iilkuline cnrbouate 
jDQSt first be added to U)«m, iu sufficient (luautity Ut evjianite the 
us, so Lhat a])errecily dry riysidae may be ubUuiiud. 

11 Pluokins, F. 

//« (Kcumnct in tAe mintral hingäwn and in faetallurgital 

Flnorioe alwura occur« iu cumbinatiuii witli other bodicR. It 
forma aa csseutial conatitueiit of the following miDcruls: Cl7o1ite 
und cliiolitc. oid« «oda; »mbtygonit% vide lithiu; fluorito and ytlro- 
ceriie, riV/e limy; wagneritw and cliuridrodiw, vide uiivgiiesta ; tujma 
(pycnit«), vide »himiaa; tiiiod-ritc andparigiu*, videcvx'wau. Itlike- 
wiec occurs »8 an uncsKcutiol ingR-diciit in m^yltaI othi-r minerals, 
»12.: certain micas, vide potaesa; cerluiu ajiatit*«, [lyrochlore sad 
holmite (st-jrberiirt»), vide lime ; hornblende, vide Diiigm-sia; cur- 
|)bollti>, vide alumina; zwivacltU- (tripliu-), riW« inaagsm-«.-. In 
Diuuv emelting proocse« slags are produced which uuntaia more or 
!<■?« flnoride of calcinm, aririug from fiiionto abundantly diseein- 
inated in the ore«, oi- piirp-iadv added, und which has not beeo 
fuUrvl}' decoropocwd hy üi« eilica pivseut. 

BsAmiiiaUoii for Plnorin« ov BydroQuovio Add. 

When Quoriue ooctirs in Iritling quantity with w«ak busea and a 
littlf wat^r in minerals, it is only nccvemry to heat a small qnanti^ 
i>r the juhstunt-e in the ctoeed gliise tulic, in which a atrip of moist- 
ened Bmzil-woiid pij^cr is iuserled. Tbv gAfii>ou8 Ouoride uf aili- 
ciam, expelled by i\w heat, is decomposed by the vapor of water, and 
a ring uf silica i« dcpüiüti,-d urar the aseuy, whilv llie«-Dctipiug hydro- 
flooric acid colore the paper etraw -yellow. This reaction is pro- 
dnc<rd when only throe-fourth per cent, of fluorine is present, as in 

Whep no reaction for hydrofluoric acid is obtained, cither on the 
glase or tho pjipr, in Ihe olwwd tnbe, B4>rzeli(iB'a test with S. Ph. 
mast be euipluyfd. The Qneiy powdered aiibetHnc« is mixed with 
Sk Ph., previonidy fnsed on coal and also {Mwdcred, and the mixture 
lu-aled in tlie open tube, so that the flume may be oarried inaido of 
th" tube by the current of air. Under the eolvent action of the 



S. Ph. nptin miutTMls fre« from silKru, hydrofluoric loid is Tormed, 
wliicli {iH^i-s iliroiigli lliL- titbe uud can ho rt^cogniz««! both by ill 
peculiiir, pungent odur and bv its cjr<.-ct ou ihr glass, which it attuekf , 
luiil reudvnt dull» eepi-cially wht;re uiy uiutaturu bad coUL-otetl. The ' 
i^»cii]Mng air Till utfio turn Brazil-Tood pajier yellow. lu prc^ncflj 
ur silicii, e. ij. in oaiiTe eiliouU-ü and bIoj^ llaoride of «ilifinm b ' 
foriiu-d, wliiL'h us deoumpoai-d l>y ihe watvr that 8e|»irat«a from the 
jirodnci« of combustion of the llamf^. The eeparate silica di&siiivra 
ill the wat^r, which condenses on the ghis« mid is i^radiially erapo* 
rat*d by the hoi guauüii« |ipt«du«;ut, lyaving diEtinctly pcrctpiibW 
silica liehind. When the tube is washixl out aud dried witli blotting 
pi4>or, Ükc gltiKS itwir occuäuiiully ahowe didl sputa, wbero it was 
»ttacked by hydrofluoric ticid, A strip of moialtued Urasl-woöl , 
|Mip<>r inticned in the tiil>e befon> the b«mj is b<>guD is colored yellow. 

The hi>ut must b« suOicif^Dt to fus« Ihi» mixture, and it mtty eaaily 
happen that a >m thin gb^ä talte will eoft'^ and contract, so a« to 
iutt.Tni]ii lliL' ojK-nktion bcforu any ro^nlt is attained. Tu remedy^ 
tili« Smithsuu fusteos sunit- pluLitiutii foil iu thu vud uf tbe tube 

with wire m aa to farm a semi-cir* 

Ci^H^B^iwJnB^BiSSl i-uliu* tubv ui in i'ig. 77; wburc, 
'^*^- however, the phtlinnm ta simply 

insiTU'd inlo the tub« withont the wiro. The aesuy \i i)laiCi;d uu the 
platiiiiiT». itud the bliwi so direciud that tlkc products may be driven 
into ihf \u\k. Thifl aS<>r<!s un advaiilu^e, inamuuob us the Msuy i^« 
fh«i'd nitlicinl ciniing into coiiUk-t. wiib th« gloee. 

Aecordiiig tu Miu'let. silicates vontaiiiing not too liltle flnorine 
mi»y be i^st<-d by fiisiiig the fine poadiT with t-qual parts of mclt«^ 
bi^itlpiiulii of putuasi (uccoril iiig to Jterz^line, with fonr time« its 
weight), in tint e-loat-d tube, either with the spirit- lamp or th« blow- 
pi]te, uniil «iilphdric acid begins to eKCup6. The snbstuDoe should 
he hciit*.-d li'uui ubovi' downward, iitherwiae the whole mass may be:) 
driun out. The empty portion of th« tube is thus mure or h 
Ibicldy coated with silicic acid, which m-pumtM from the giucou 
Suoride of siliciiira. The tube is then cut off just above Clio 
iDaais waalied out with water and dried wit.h btottioK pu|Kr. In 
pretence of otncb flnorine the gksa is <)uil« dull throu^'hout, but 
wlii-n tlierc was a triSing »mouiit it only sbowg dnll spota here and 
llii-n-. Tills le«[ isr however, iurvrior to that in the opea tnbe with 
& Ph., far deU-cting very ti-ifling ijuantities of fluorine. 



18. Ctaxooiv, Cj. Composition sCN. 
As (WPKrr««« IK mttallHrffical product». 

Wh^ii iron ores are 8iiit>lted iu blast funiaoc« with cbarcoal th« 
:urbuiiut« of poia»u iu Lliu coul is liable tu form cyanide of potas- 
sium; while the carbonate is reduced to potnaaiam, vitb formatiOD 
i>r cnrboDic oxide, eynnogeti is n)ipiin.-utly pnidnced (Vom the coal 
in cuiiiuct with tlic putuKiuni und from tlie tutrugeo of die bliuL, 
imd this crtnibining vitb ilie pi>l««äiiint either ascapes in a gaeeous 
«tAte fVum rhe tUrü4tt, or, whou tb» fUrauce le vorkcd vitb a closed 
breudt, through tliu opciiiitigu, abuvi! and below wbicb it condenses 
afi a white or gmy salt. When tlie gaaes IVom the tbroat. are collected 
I'oraiiy puriHiiHs. tlu- Eiimt- mtt ORCiieionully cullttst« in (be ooniltiits, 
but is more or lens impure fnim coal and ore dnat. In contact with 
moist utr ibie tv\l is liubk- Iu [iiirtiul d«-euiiipogitioD^ and geniTaUy 
consiats uf mixed cyimide uf potiissium, K Oy, cyimatc of jx)tu8sa, 
£ Cy. «nd rarbuaatc of potassa, 1K C ; in presence of carbonate of 
potaae« it also n^nully contains u con'e^i'otiiiiitg iimmonia suit, as 
well tu more or Ivxh <ii^c-iniuHtvd carbide »i iron ;iDd ceul. 

Cyanogen aXio ooeurs combiDed with titaiiium and nitride of titan- 
iutn iu Mmall crysluU uud umuTpbous ni^iitsirs. iu the cadmia of 
certain iron blast rnrnuoes, vide titaniam, p. '^Zi. 

Bsamlnatlon for Oymaagva^ 

Inehtdinn the gmtral Itlowpip» eharaetvrittiea of cyanidta. 

Cjfanidr», exn-ptiug those of the alkalies aod alkaline earths, 
beated to low redness in the dosed tube or matrass, are dvcompostrd, 
bi-ouming cburrLd. and evolving cyanogen, uminonia, water, and ul(^ 
rogen. Ag Cy i« decorapoiwil i|ito raitalliü sil ver, op carbide of BtlTcr 
and oyanogim; Hg Cy s(>p»rat(>ii iutu cyanogen tuid meronry, vbtcb 
sublimes and a black powder is left behind, paracyHnogen — Cy N. 
Tbc auhvdroits cyanide« of ttiv alkatic« and alkaline earthe auffcr 
no change at a nd-hc-at, and cyanide of potassium may even be 
bttriight lo a tiiüdenite <vliit<:-hvat. 

On coal and in itie platinum epoon all the cyanide« are deoom- 
postd. but those of Mie alkalies slowly, and the liberated oyaoog&D i« 

The wet way i» best suited for detecting cyanogen in the salt 
abovv tvfL-rri'd to. us iH-tug formed in smeltingiron ore with charcoal. 
A litilf ut it ii disfioltvd iu water aud dtcantud after the residue of 


conly maXivra nnd pftriicles or iron has aettled. Tbe soliitioa is tben 
ac-iditii>d wicJi liydrocliloric acid, wlim » little prussic acid » i-volred, 
und rflerve^c-L-nce cnsut^s if i^rbaiiutc of potaau w&s presctiL To 
the aoid Bolulion a few drops of & soliition of l>ri>lo-Sc#qai oxide of 
iron {magiiptlt«?, or «iäertte ignited in liie inatrae«) in hydrochloric 
add are added and afterward »oliuion of pntasga in drops, whcii the 
|ires«uoe of cyimufjoD will immi'diaU-ly afford PrusBtaii ItliiP. Tlis 
teat may also be made by t<«tiiig: a part of the dissolved ealt for car- 
bonic ucid with hTdroohlorio lurid alone, and adding to tbe other 
jiortiiiii a ft'W dru]]» uf ihu Solution of proto-a*'*<iuiotide of iron, 
when a grayish-grwn precipitate is prodnoed. Uy then adding a 
Blight exc<-S8 of potawi solution, shaking it up and addinf; hydro- 
cblorin acid to strongly atid ri'aL-ti<in. the Prussian blue is obtsi»«l 
oti agitaLi»g it anew. The latter method ii to be preferred wbeo 
little crauogt-u u pnjdeut, m none of it ia tli^Q lost by tbe funuatioti 
of prussto ooid. 

III. Examples showing the method of detecting 
the cotistituenis of various compounds with 
the help of t)ie bloivpipe. 

Tiiu tsumination of n doubtftil oonipoiind with the aid of th« 
blowpipe Ditiat be conducted according to certun rules, which hare 
bii-n ultviuly described in detail on p< 5U, tt gey. 

The very varying ebc-mical compoaifioa of the BUbstoncea which 
may be preattnted for examination, however, renders it do easy taak 
fur the beginner always tn decide at once upoo the right and quickest 
way, wtieu he hiis no poini to start (tum. 

Oeucrally tUe exu-niaJ appearance of «ubstAiioea will show whether 
tbey ounEiet of xalis or simitat- comliinaliotui,c/ »Itca/e», ahiminalti, 
iHtlaUte oxidfi', xulyUiiUt, neUHute*. artemtlrii, or of alloy». 

AfUT li-4i.niiug tbepbn tube pnrsued in liie eiiiniiuution of a 
subaiiiuce belonging to any of the above claiae«, it will not be dilS- 
cnlt to detect the eupiirute oonslituents. Id the folluwing examples, 
ut Iraat, the mo«t fret^ueul cuuibiuiitioiu hiivv Iki-ü oouNidered as 
much ae possible, and they nill tiiercfore serve lo sliow how eucl> an 
examinntion is to ho iustitutcd anU conducted, after first dccidiug, 
frum iheej^ternal apiH-anuioe of the substance, to which of tbe nbDvs 
classes it U'loiigs. 



A.. Oxysaltfl, Chlorides, Bromldeg, Iodides, Fluorides, 

and Cyanides. 

The QxygalU (acid, neutral, and basic) have as tlie biue un alkali, 
uu cartli, or a mefallic oxide, or they may contain more tliau oue 
liMooracid. Id like muirnvr cliluriuc. bruininv. iodiiiL*, Quorint-, and 
CJVDOgrQ miiy be combiiiifd witii one or several mebils. 

The method of einmiiiing these compounds with the aid of the 
Iflowpip« ia ill gL-iu-ral iia foIIuVTs: 

1. A SRiull ]K>rti«it IB grailually hcat<d to redness in th« matnusi 
and »11 rraiilting phonomenn are nutod, p. CO^ tt Mf. 

i. If appatvnlly eaxity ruMibte. the tmbiitance is tested on platinnm 
wire, to see wliclher it colors the Hamc ; if fusible with difllcully, it 
ii held ill tho pltitiinim foi-ccps. Shonid no docisivo reaction be 
obtained the «uhtitatice mtiRt be frued from water by ignition, 
pQwdtrred, and nioistened with sulphnric acid, p. 72. et t9q. 

3. A emaU portion in trratcd H. M, on charcoal, being previously 
powdered if it has decrepiUited in the matrass. At first the 0. F. is 
employe«! ; jT no piirticular ohatigo takes plae« the R. F. la then 
used, and any n-siiltiiig phenomena nott-d, p. ß5, ei tfq. 

Simpk' ^iltd may ri-i.-<{itiMitly itc ut once recognised by thesu tvata^ 
and both the bases and acids detected. Salts with several bases or 
ucidii, as well n^i combiantioug of chloride^ brnniides, iodide«, flnor- 
ideg, and evunides, must be farther tested, while many Siilts of earths 
add metallic oxide« mu«t be aUo examined with borax, S. Ph., sodA, 
and cobalt solution. 


Saipkait t^ingatta— The CTjKtalllifit tail heated to tow rcdncu In the m&nnM d» 
erepiiaiu, hut ü inftuiblc »nil yivlila noihlng rolatile. (The bbulphat« DiMa, «ad at a 
liit;li >iMt tvoitr* fumet of iiil|>hitHi? acid.) 

A liulc wT iht {mwJcr fiunl un |>Uimura '"in mIdd ih« fl&mc vialct, p. 73. Aoodur 
|Kmion oT rhd powder imilnl ß. B, on «ml with i])o 0. P., fnvea, dÜ-rrcKcn, bii<1 
(Links pniiTvIv inia llii- mal, «likli i>n continui'd lil<)n-iii|[ u vuiilcril «hilr, at if hr a 
(■■Iphnlv irf iirj alkni), uT 1>r anmc t-olitiilucd chloriil«, bromide, ot iodide, j>. 69. TU» 
roal ili-Ap|>v«ri under ih« It- F. w!iti ft vii>lc[ fliunc. The bate of tlic »nit \t thcnfun 
tnu-i )irulKilil> [niiuui, U[ioii ntülhicniug ilic >|io[ where iho »oil hut suak luio Uia 
coal wirh wnUr nn hvpatic udur it (rrolveil. while if ihli «pal is cm out anil tuid on 
IIKibiunoJ ><l*ur Toil the ail^tt turn) Hik\. lii «ilhcr COM B «iit|'Iiii[« » tvcvgniicd, 
«htcli lin» Imti fbiniril by ilic ndnrtiui) uf [be ta,\l mt i-onl, and wr hon-, ihrrclbni, 

Vor*. — It tMM bwn elniidy rcinArked, p. ?3, thai enoiuin and rubidium ult« «olor 
th« llaaw III a HiniinirT Ttrj «linlUi to jiotaMa inlt«, m that tlic; might ivii(11l>' he coa- 
fanadnl «ilb cncti other. Tbe gKU revmblaRK of the rr«iilis olirflintd iritli Indlfco 


Mlnrion «nd «obnit b1«m, t>' IS4< ivn^^t" tbc^ tftf alfo unrvlinblc, nnd In dnulidh 
nuM iW aaly n>nnn* nf during;»)« liinjc hrtwcvn ttw inlu u tbn pxiuBlBMio* «riih Uc 
t|)enra««>iw, — To iliM«niiinp whnilirr ■ wilt of u »IkAli is frw hwm Ivr^ ortirantiB, 
«hieb tittk witb lliu alknti inio llio <unl, »iil onnut ihenfim be ikMctixl by >h« lifliplB 
UUU nbove itncrlM. > imull puriion is iHiwItnl in wnter. ■ni) luijr roiiln« na en nnl 
fbr Tvtthvt exuninatiuii. (I» mie "f luljiliaini (hii may nimiit ol tnlfthMaat Inuts 
or «unnlU.) Should llic täA b« ont which (brm* «alutilo «üluoilh bkrrt« and •imnlU 
•1m, a tcr drop« of lulphuiic acid, ot a Mtution of •olphat« ot paiawa arc luliicd k> 
itw clear aolution, whm a oloodiiMH «ill >»■ inndnrnl i( «ithor of the above «ante ia 
enc. Should ihb ha m, ft larpir qnnntiiv of ihi lali miisi be dlnolvcd in waiv, 
Iplinnc acid «dde*! tp ihc koliifinn, anti l)i« pndpitalc, aAcr MldinK, fillcrcil vmt, 

»hcd. and tnwtl. ncmnlinr u> p. 13? or l«l. 

\itntir i^fMatta (aail/iiiTr, niirv). — li flnw« nuilr in ihe rnatrau In a tiimr flaid. .. 
luid whm more itrongly beaWil baili and yicldn »xfRni, but in «oeh «niall (fuantitf "^ 
thai llcanoQl Im rMognJio} b^ a (lowinKfjiUnicr of woo4. ThJ# ladkam Kti alkaline^ 
haw. On jiktinum wire (rrndually rilmtniibn In (olume, uwine to decanipptiliini_ i 
jrinldi no odor, but «oton the flatni> Tloh^i, thut Indicating /hMwh a* the b««e (nV* oi 

On foal drflivratra tcit nnilly and leuva a white tali, whick oa coBliaoH blow— 
ln(> «Ink« Into llwcoal, hBtjrieldinriiliiTa coating, nor a rT«nii>nnn«ilTTr fbtl. Tai 
in curin«v!ii>n «iih iho hchaviar in iW mntniM unil on plutinaia «irr, tliit> glioHS 
ibc mill i-oii uuly be mtrie atid, anil lbi> la uinblülicd \jj a «{xxtol trat irith tünlphu^ 
ur poumi. pu 3M. 

lodidtoffMoatttm—^vtitA 10 rrdno« In ihp matrnM dMt«^tai«i a liirJ», t! 
fiifc» IQ a «Icar Hntd, but yiclilt neither oxTjrcn nor water. The b*» \* t1irit4bn! 
alkali. Foxea noiljr on pintiniim wirr, rolnrin^ the flnin« itioltTt, und TolullbM 
whir« AiTni«, uith ■ ]wnetrnrini; nnnll, n^-niMinf rlilnrine. The baM U tiieirfuiv V 
pctoKta (P'llr {uJTpÄn'e nute). Fusm on n^at willioiit ilpHaj^tin};, aink* into jl. but is 
UrailnaDr mUitÜCMl liy coniinued blowini;, and riirini a wliiut mat, wtiKh iiiiiIct R 
i> in |Mn dri<m ta Niioihrr *]iiii, nnd part of it mlaiilixn rntirrlj. ih« flam« km*9 
cokimi vvklnl ; al ihp Httnc limn a chlorin^lika odor i* porwplihlc, Th!« brhanira, i 
rwinccljoii vrtih ihr vuluiilitr mitl ihot-liloriiie-likc udorrrulved üurinn >liotBnnaaii 
on pliitiiium wire. IndlMitF* a nnntiiniitiiin of potnutum >riib bromiaa or iodii 
p. 3'4. Ta (liiiinRuLili b«iwcpn ihi'i« b lltili* of thr conipotind It powdntd and 
in the blup flninc with n hcnd of S. Ph. «miaininfc ox'^^'y of copprr. on plarifloia tti: 
p. .ITS. when ihr oiit<T flame It rolnnsl finr errrn, friim ibr iWülr ofcoftptr formed, ^^' 
tmnll ponl'in hcmnl in ibo maioK« viih hi«iilphiiti<of putatia. p. 376. will «vol*» 
vapiin of iwlinr. 

Sal/iffile v/Moih {flwAft tall, mintHUK, Üiaiantitt\.—Tht hnlroda salt In tlw mi 
raju ri*!d» neulml untrr, mill ili- rr>idi]c U infiutlilu. Fnw« on plallnuBi wto •' 
colur« the flnmr inii-niM> ivdiÜHh'Vrllow ; hew« rhe hiwr w appamnilf awfn. [Tl 
apcckl tPti for pow«*fi, p. I24,f( «-;., the fowibl* prwenpc rfthltatkaH ni»y »«•« 
tainpd.) Th«« Wjifcuri'rori'cf Ii dcicritd a» in tolphtlc of potatM. iv MI 

Ctuf/utaUtif Mk/ir {nalren. tiwia. Iiifrmimalrilr. urtt«t, — In. A* 
ttnttr. The dehrdmtcd »all i« iiifii'ible at low rrdoc**- fawA 
color* itw flanifi tntenw mldislhTtlluw ; ihq bni« b t 
^t i< («tablHhnI bj iriakinit i(*ctnl tcsU 
F«nc« on pnjil irilhoni dHlA[p~i!ir»B, 
the anil, »ben eui out fruin 
lion, if Ilia Mil «Al nut quit« 

Sino! ihe rurcguiii|f fcclui' 



«Ilk liimni paper, lijdivcliloric acid, or filica. If pliic«<l on rti lilniii* pnpcr and 
vinlsitn«]. ii nartt alkalinn ; it ihow« nt/iMiK aeiJ by rflcrrmdn^ rrtron^lv wiih 
4UuT« lirdrorhloric arid ; «iih *Uien on <«hI il rntn «iüi DlTerrcafimr« in r r.lnir twod. 
wlkifh nßtr ttr«lnwnt in II. i'. httcmo» jntllowUli on «ooUng, «inlcwi the «all wan <|nib 
frvc frvm »iilphnit »f »oiiii. p, 367. 

BUonii ^ toe/n (loiwj-j.. — Vhld« nitich ecutral vattr and )niSi up Iii the namuK 
Tl» aatnnil mit hlaekent In coRwqiioiiiw «r ilie charring; of «rilbeTCBt organic matu*. 
0> |i|<irinitni «irv anJ ro«! piifT- up >>:nin)tl; at tint, and tlim fiiwa to a dear, color- 
Im* Imil. [irwlucine an ini«!)«« tnilüinh-TcISmr flame — wAa. 

The ilcliydraloU lali. t«atn1 niih «alpbarie add uii platinum <rint, nflbnl« ft lüstinct 
fiorwü aad Maine, p. 7^ 

CUvndi 4/ a<H/;um Irnmmi« m/t, rectaa'O.— Inihcmalrawctecr«plu(t«qi>ll«Btmlf[]y 
■nnernnri, And n:tnnlit ylrldt »oidc nciiirnl «rater. Fiim* mKÜly on plailnum writ«, 
ifirinji an inicntc rwidiihy«!!»» flame («orfn). aiMl ic grailunlly volalfliieil, «iTlioiit 
(liiWunj; an* ivwntknlilc udor. On cu»l fuM» und tink« in, tmt aftir raniiniKd tilow- 
Ing pnNluciot n wltite iimi, p. S9. The cMnpoviid wliicli hi» »nnk into the mnl jicld* 
no tiilpliur (eariian ; it m-nui to be chloride of lodiuiD. When listinc on uml aall 
trhleh it noi frc« nttm anlphato of mnipicMa (tptemite), or cnlpbalc of linu {yfp»im), 
ihe earthy h*.f rctnoin behind, while ih» chlorUc of «odium fink* in ; the tn»«s cat 
oat of ihcoalfllMiprodnccsaKulphurmcibnoii (ilTcrfuil, nhick in maro dliiinctin 
pioponkni 10 <b« Rmnnni of qwomite, ^|nnm. or rtra mimhilii«, vhich if pmenL 

Whrni, hi ««•• ol impnre «alt, «hirh might ho lakrn for (ulphnie of Md« f>om II* 
bdinvloron mal, rlie Ixrhnvlur on platinuoi win ts abo ooiitUoml, tlncn la rtaaon 10 
Ml It dhivily ft» chluiine. With « K. Ph. bead aatrimEMl wiib oxide of coprpct, h 
«rill cirp an int«iu* Maro-Uo« flame, tliowinj; ddorint. p. .17.'!. (On aeeotmt of iho 
■imilar rvavlin« of brOmlM ■ fnaton <allh bt^iilphalc of polnun mu*l be n)iuJ>^, nlili:!) 
dill K^ve ilbrinei «rldciKC lliai chlorine )• presrnt.) 

l^tilpiam 1^ amvumia (aManioNi'M). — DwrepitaEa «tigbilytti ih« nairaM. then fuae» 
mul 11 4(Compote<l, rvojrinif immMHa, which m&y be rrcocniartl br (be o<l«T mi<1 wilb 
red lltinaH popvr, nnd alao Home vrnler. The munindvr dianppeara, Ivnniajt ■ aiibli- 
maicof tulpbiic of acnmoiiia, scnenllj minffted with aonie uilplute. 

Wken fiuNi with aoda on inat Ihc mIi b deeonifLacil. an utuffiniiiaeal oilor il 
eToJred, and the kkU irliich tink» into the cool aifonl* a »irone «W^ht rtftctioD <■■ 
dnr Ul. 

CUeri^of nmmmitim (W nmndni'iM).— In ilu mutra« inUimM, «rithoni Airing; 
loaring Tid rwidu If port. A burnt (wtor may tometimM bo ttoticMl at the nwinih of 
iht tnatnu«. If another |«nion ia tr*nK>l irlih »o<la in iha moiraM eorlmM« t/ an* 
■Mai'« it c«ru1ve(I, p. laa. U|H>n l>:stii!c »unie of ihe rotacile «mpoiitidt la^lh n S Ph. 
bead oontainins oxide uf copper. nüti% nui too liiilo of ibe aubaMw«, an aitire-hlne 
tUetiA of topper flame !■ obtained- 

CvfaMow «;' bari/la («irAcriVir),— Samctfiaca yirlil« Iran» of ynutr in the mairaM 
but i> oib(Tn-1t« unrhdn^Et. Aeronlinp nt ]>. 139. fiiMsMtily toaboad In tho lbirDa|i(^ 
Mlodng the flame yelloniRh-grwn— ^yf<i, p, 75. On coal fiiWM to n globoJi^ <rhlab| 
boncrvr, »«un «titvai)» ent anil ainka intv the cual, allhoogh not Ki dnp a« n nit of 
an alkali. If «111 out ihn mnai (hen reacu nlknlinc uti licniwi paper. It li apparefiUj 
wbeiuua of baryta, and ihii fael is eiiabliMlied by iti compkle aolubllli;. «rlih eflc^ 
vwoeao«, in dilot« b)'dn>chk(rie acid. Any trifling amooTii of iseialhc oxidea preieni 
ni«; bo ilttMttil by tuiinc with the ct<u> flaxcH. In borax and S, Vh. it diMolvci 
rradDr with «ffimuconoe, behailnft like bntyta, p. 96, and Bontetimr* «honing a 
linla inm. 

StJfJuli «^ Cofte (ionri; Anry tfmr), p. ISB. 



<W/Aaff of Unnditt {rt/aiilt]. p. 141. 

Cart^naU oj trtmtia (a.xmliaititt), p. 141. 

ft'ilniN nfumitia.—lf ti«c inxn muer «f rr.VMivUwaikin tbc »It docrcpIlMU in dn 
nuunu Hnd jiel«]» oiily m link' mi.xli;>iiicall]r i.'ombiiinl «rsUT. Upon wmtltiiMd bat- 
lag ifao in«intB b flllrd with ^'ellow tttamoi mitica ariä. wblrti may b« rtcfoi^ijed 
b; tlivir Mlor ; IIh) Mit fu*V!, niihuni Ixwiu'iij; ■:t<ar, and buil*. ('rbc Kreouah color 
lre<|urutlT aMtitiiu-il by ibr iuiih* in i-uniail with \\k iflnui u oiilv due to ttic ntuiK»- 
hme coiitaiiixl in rlw jiliui, u-liirh U attackcil br tha hmed Mit) 

On plnlitiniii win: liik<-> ornn at a tivblo heut, butit^ yield* u|> tu «iln« add, and 
ImTM «a ttifittitilr, wlittc, (anhf moM, which b aLntwIy Inminutu aad eolon lb* 
llaiMF LiiIi'iiK rat. Dctla^raict illgbtly on cuni, bsrlii}; n kliiu:. rantiy nillM, wlilcllfa 
Inintnutiii vrlicii tirun-^ly lu-jitcil.aitd iin «lollng bat an alkaline rmciian on lliBHU pope* 

Thii bchavivr »iiÜL'nlci Ontilia nml »itrit. ariil »« tb« K>ii*tilucnt> oi ibt mIu 

Flmridt «f takivu (ßnar tpar). — The iaemlienU oi ihi« cuni|t(nind majr be A» 
linctlj' («nifiiiiinl fium the blouiiipv rliareetcriaiict on p. 148, rt mtj. r bui (be Ibllmring 
vx|ilNnalar/ roniark* (Jiciulil be made; t'owilcrrd HuoT *^t, atono «b CimI, (unr* to a 
t'lubulc, fliicti brtxiDii-j luM ftjsbia anil ucqulivi an alkaline nMcifam after iuagcT 
irMiitirnt. h%t)v^ the brhavkir In the waira*« and llam|M tDil on cuni Inillratea iba 
jiivwnce of liiiK- or >tTurit!]i, a tui on coal with kkU <t niCMiatr, by wUeh thaw two 
«anhi vau b« f«iidU)r diitiiiffutdicd, p. 86. Kiiio« aW, (tdoi th« wbol« bcbartor, it 
mar be iircsiiin»! iliat the Buhsiance I* lliiar «piv, a special test for dnorioc »boHld W 
hM» with fuKNl h. Ph.. itconlins lo p. 377, ei mrf. 

Snfjtioh t>f U-Mr {gjipnm and mUytfhtc), |i. |4H. 

PimpfuiK^ oflimt »[ih eW«n'(fe andjWrniJk ^ ealeiim {t^tiu\ Tlie behavior of 
thbminenil IxiMrrilKiloii p. U9: hut the föilowlns remark* may bamiMic: 

I. Sine« the mineral ^mdnM« only an indittioct dolorattan of ihe Bom«, a BtUa of 
iho flnv (lawilrr fiiiitt W ra«)i>i*Tit^J villi •ii)pliiiric ncid and fu>«il in the blue flaraa on 
plAiinnm «lev, |>. 76, when iJintiiitmr. nfid wili im ihown. 

I, At ihe NlnLTuI tnlTer* Hide ohfing« when treats alone, li mu« be icaied wltllj 
hi>nix, 8. I'll., and dhU, and ihcn the Mnliv ountlitiient will bo »bowa to OOBxiit 
(hkfti ut /iBIr. 

When ii U irtnvtnlirnni that ihn natiinil phoaph&tei maslly coBiaia a larger 
ur amaller nnitinnt of Fhloridcs orHuoritlrii, thgre U feaMn lo make (podal teaca ftar^ 
murine, ]>■ 3*2, and fluurine, t>. 377. The wci wav, p. |50, <<*a/., ntuat I« enplofjvd 
to deteei nnv tMriluk' ainuiiui i>r niacn^a preaent. 

Qutianntr ■^timt (itifrite und iBVijamla], p. 150. 

T^tfilatt Bf litw {tr)Hi4il»), p. IM. 

SidfAaU <^ magnttia {rfmamiu). p. IGU. 

CmtmM» of magtumm {magnttirti, p. 163. 

Burnt" a/ aiaytntiii [liomfite}, p- ISA. 

PAc^fAiiir ff iiiamonia and «mgiumii, obtained whem^licateaeontainiRg BUgaarf« an 
oximlncd ill llie wri wnv, p. IJ3, rt «nf. Tine dry Mit yield« water in the tnatn**. uid 
evolrea aatHimiVi tic^liirD it nttiiini a nsl heal ; but it doM not fai«. On plaiinaia win ft 
ruac« and. if Tivefrvin^jd«, ififc* a pAle bluivb-^Ken SoKt« of ;>*v^WrM «cm/ ,■ wboa i 
nui oibenriw pervepiililr ihi* color may lie pn>dnced for a »hort liine U ihe folt b flnc ' 
nulMmed <Hih »iilpfanrii- acid. On cna) (tisei irith difflenlty, yieltlin;; It« water oBd 
nnwnnaia. and iMving an enam«! -white bead, if free from cobalt and maofpuiCM. 
klutflciKti with Tobelt solution end fn«e<1 in O. V^ the be*4 appon rioici by ilsT* 
llxfat, lint ml by candleliiiht, 

Uinw ih« fuiiliility and the viol«! (ulor with cobalt *o!utian arc oharacteriaik iMt) 
for /litMj'liiie o/~ miß^Mt'i. it Tvlluwa (hot (lie «alt ta hyt/ntm pkat/ihok ^ uwawaaa a 

Ü. A Ual viib ndiinnd niinun pUlinum roil, wUI «Ijoi* «licthei mnn^MUO 


HJhifci/jNfawTI "in/ «/aUvMHi (^iiaI if^iH). — TIlC trlüwplpe rhinKI«rinicS oP 

It tum li.-i.-ii ikw.-rib«il n* Ur tn iin.-u«iir}', uii p. 1 73, tiiit il i()t iv be und u u 

Ic llw hdluwiiiic tvniiirkt tliuulil b* oimIt : 

M III« wtll at Rioit tutrt in tlic awtniu. in It« «rAl^r of c-ry«tit11lsnt!i>n, sikI tlit^n 

itKUl will BulptmruKt M;i<ii 11 lolluwt llutl il I* Htxifiilt, iiiid ciihi-r an nod 

It, Of nne In wlitcli tlie Imm I« iwi »tniog «iiiiiitjU to ivtMiu Hie «ciU at ft liigh 


cvt Mi»rcoT«T, iha ilFli]tlrni(4 püIi trcuicJ on |>Uiliiun) tnn prnJncct a vtolrt 

ill Infukililc, >n<t ulirn ii^nlU'il in « |iiini II. I'., arirt Iwin;: ninii>U'a(il wirli tntMii 

R, nMiinm ■ lilii« ■■> criditit tliut tliftr «rr itvo lisws jiivmiii, «ii. : 

, anil «/■■uitu, wliii-h tultcr, ii> iiUuljiiiAlivu «illi »ul[)lioric m-iil, tmIiI* JU •rid 

icroacly igitliol. A u»i «iili Miilaln II. f. »noirt], p. Mi, »ill perfectly oub- 

e |irae>lce uf ■«I)4hik larnf. 

jiitUfof (tniwuiVj aitdaftutimi {ammonia alum), p. 114. 

iipliat* i/' alvmiHi (««•«V*l(), p. IT^. 

nridll ^ »adiam uuti iWimiiii'aM (rTyn/in).-~Aciif tiling |u p. I Tit, ilii« rntiiiioiind 

rt«cdonfllbr*i>i/4i.(J«ui>iu, nnil A^AwiJiMti« nrj't/, Funliirr trttni wtih tiilt>liiine 

n {JatiBMHi nifit, il uiily jirliU ill« tt.vl<]iF<)i-jri1nv Miiia flnm«, iJirwiiti; ''"■* 

rbftrack- nuriihuapliuriu adili an- prciait. li ilInMilta tMnftctlj ntiil vriiliovl 
mnoein b/diuchlurii* udil. bciii^ ili^rclure tmt frutn »Ilea anil L-aihunri- aci<l. 
nlao »dl)i«r nitrteurMilphiiHc.- ueirlt, chi<lri^(^, br«mini', »f ioiline.cnti ht ptMcnt, 
r the) wuuld liavc bren m.-OK">K<l "■■ "**'■ '< "'".' ^ aii.iiiinc<l llutl the *od» 
mifia an «iBiliincd «a lodliiin anil ■luniiniiiin with Hiioriac, and iMs ii ntftl»- 
itr ■ apccitl test, ocoanlin;; lo p. a:?, liiasiuaili a* a Vviy urong liulrufliiurie 
ictHR i* otifainctL 

raid lie Hirmliiouf to invc lien rxnnifiln at «alts at nitlalllc ox!d«, sine« liuAt 
f kliaHur I« ilrKCithpil In dvtail in iIik rv*t<ocUv« jAmao UDiI«r lUc tnrioa 

|iono«f llie Mluviii;; iiuiy Iw wk<elnl tor [•nuAicb 
nw* */■ tWi-niifl, gllnvm. ami imiiM (jUraocrtM), p. 16). 
laftittoi' gliiiit (j-HicTiiHMiiif). |i. I8S, 
%ait ^ fnalntidtof imm, hiyii*» {vopiMtiv\, p. SIS. 
-vfplafiltalrnivinilfibntt ^ trmt {lOaitaMia), \t. 9Sh 

KUWMifritni/aii/fiAorf iff' iftm \jiittkiU), p- X30> 
nuutf« of iiaa tiiihrifry p. 230. 
mA*J^ «/" iVna KM»/ Hai»^«« {inl/ramitt\, p. iS\. 
r nf mm airl fiVrui/iiv {rVloHic I'lon). p> 39S. 
»l/tafr <>i^ inM 11«/ auuyiuarf« jnuMfiK). p. S33. 
i>«iu6nrf ■/ iron muJ «MajiBMat {n^uml'itt), p. 33S. 
Irwaa unemile »f cotnll {rrylkflt\, p. Ml. 

nrmalr t^ »irlrt |iMUiil>rrv«((). p' MA. 

rijtTTS-KIl'S Bl/IWrtrB A7!ALT8ia. 

fffihvn* nJfJi^U t^t^pprr (rMraalMe, npptr ririel), p. ff9k 

Hgdnti pkafJntt W rOffer, jt. 300. 

ItyAvm taiUiuar «f mpi^r {miiacUitt m a*»nu), p, SOOt 

B. SllicateB and Aluminatea. 

The eiaminHion of xiliMte» is pcrfomicJ : 

I. In n BmAll nmtrHRst; by observing the remarkB on p. 353. the 
At/iiniNU silicnu« ninv IIul^ be dislin^iti sited from tlie nnki/droitt. 
i. Ill tho plutiuuni forofp«; uttcntioii must b«-r« be paid to the 
«iMf rrnl ion ii nn pp. flS to 71. and i\\p reiruirks on the ftisibilitr of 
llu' iilieutir«. p. in. Home »iliculee color llie flame, owing to lithia 
or liiinKio »ciil ; Uic sodu colomtion is only to \m regard«! u impor* 
toot whcii it )8 distinct »ml lasting. 3. Witii reagenta, borax, S. Ph.,^ ^ ""' 
Nxla. in ciTiain caws culmll goliilion, tki well asamisturv of btiiDl — -M-j* 
pbatu of putasM and fiuor Bpar. The bebuvior with S. Ph., pp. ""^^ 
and 3<1^. i» cliaracteriatic : iikewiec with «oda. p. 86, et seq. Cobal 
iolutiiin yields dccigiTe pi'siilt» only in a few cases, more MpMiiJl .^^j. 
nu>iitiuni?d iiniliir maguesio, p. Ißß. and alaminii,p. I7<>. nijnilphal^-^ 
lit |MHa8»a and änor spar are used in examining fur lithia. p. 133, »n*-^ . 
bonuiic Hcid. p. 361, when thtte cannot be seen at all, or only indi^^ 
tirictly, hy «implo hpating in the forcep«, Wli*-!! the biWM cunnot ~ l, 
^cI^tIchI wjLti the bltiwjiipe alone the wot way maat be brongbt ^ 
nssUt, eitbi-r by deoomp<.<«iiig the compound at ouoe witli byd '•^^ 
rhlnrjc licit), p. 1 ID, if poseibb-, or aller firet fosing it with soda i^.:dj 
borax ou cial, p. 113, ft te^. 

The «Ititninatts do not occur rery nbnndnntly tn natui«, and 1 1^. 
nn- trstc^l like the silicates; their blowpip)' chartctentticf are m^ 
gjy-ww in the proper places. utid*>r magnesia, «Jucina. and vIna 'Tb» 
ran in ^ncral be distingniebcd from the •ili'iAt«« by th<>ir complete 
•ninbililr iu S. Ph.^ und by the fact that tber do net affnd a pdf 
fvctty fusible compOQiid with any proportion of rvJ«. 



SKam^Stm (irdfc<wrfW)^Ihalrf to glowing la ifea mtowt b anil«) W 
pp an dww jiMi « ItltW w«t<r. In iW (birrp*. Tax* on th« ^A^^ lo • -^mt l-»q*piu<N 
(k», Md nkm d» tmr *t Sim ^dlinrUt. mttamxie hMj n4. ft'd> \frv <li 
■it«w<as{ty nil Uigslt roariearbMd, «hkhtaaaoitettaaiedopaaft. V wn iw 
9n» fitim hvm the bfxl I« rrllowfah «faUe hn. 

h 9. rtudiwDl*«*, «riib fena*iii>n «f a *iXniil>l>A>. to«cIau-|{laMw wtU i*«t«t 
Mnml an rcolinit if mtMvt; uikibioL WItk cqoal paru «f twk Aav wiihHftn»! 
imrr to • Uetibv (laM, «Icidi «nik and bacnaMs iaadOk M additiea «f mom. itfij 



Ucöiitnml with nib«ll •olntkiii and urDDsIr licaird in O. F., onljr (how« b Uno color 
3n the fiitnl Nlgta. 

Th« kbov« rMctkin* cho« lh*l wolluunit« b » »QiraM, «ino« ih« «tilde adil ll 
MMKnini by in Ivluifior boih with S. Fh. Mttd wlili nod*. The mineni t'i'Ct a fnlile 
nd lin^ to ihe flxmn, U M«itjr dinoltvd in borax, perfecilf dccuininwil b; S. Th.. i)m 
8. Ph. htti •pÜMtm OH roolin; when •tn>n;;Iy MiuntiMl; th« nito4>nJ further TutM ta 
» riair eIam «rirli * Rtd« «oil», with tvhali Kiliitiun do» n«t indicnte alumiiift ur nui;- 
nnl«, *liice a bloc culut la only tbiblc niter finicm : the )ui*>- miixi ilunfoni W /irn>. 
[CoiBpu«alu>(>. IH.} Inonht W ntü^rtai» iliic «iili iirnaifiu ihn «rot wnr rauti be 
«nplor«!, p. 111. Sine* thU mineral i« |«rf«l!y <!ccinn|K««l lij- hjdfOfliloric add, it 
bctonea u> tbc aiiraica which two be himv «|in:i)U}' txnmtncd by iho wet nnjr nkma 
ihan Iictoi« ihc Uovjijpe. 

SificMi i^'p^itfa oKil ahmima {ntfuitiaM, adudmia]. — Aim« In the mainus ii ob- 
allend and tivldt no water, unlvaa aJreadv w«athend. In the foto'pa Iomb t>t\\j on tbt 
vd^M Id ■ ami- Iran tiMTDiit, bltbby gla». wad ütva s fnara or kaa intcnae yellow duniv 
awlDit m « liitt« tada. 

Diiwtvc« En borax taj alowl/, wiihont -cflcri-Meiiitc, to a cImt gina«, «ometimu 
jcllowiib while hoi. fxiin a (rifling nrnQoni of iniD. Dv S. I'h. b decoiii|»«<^d p<T- 
fbvitjr unljr wbrn powdend. and Inrn a ufida abrioWt. Th« glaxi o|Milc*cn on coolla; 
(cT. p. irej, tVlih «oda dkaohraa «hnrlj with «ffrrvsiMiwe, li> a. difllealrly niftMf^ 
clear glaM, ararvrlv fir« froin buUilr*. If finely jtowilotd ortliOcUM ■• Matvd with 
cohalt aolutlon only ilic fuwd porilon* aaium« ■ Uoe colur. 

Tbeae bluwplp« citaracterlith« ahvw thai (he «nlMtct^ire ii a •fIl4?tto, in «lilfh the 
i*llii.-k arid MMMi to b«i«inMiird with alimina (Waotc Milnhlewiih itiffli^uUv in barax), 
lutd with tada («htxwn Ity ilii? yellow flame), or pcrhnpt wiih poiAMn hIm, ihc pouiiva 
FMCiion b«inf amrcaleil by the wula. Tn .leii<le ibi« Inticr i>nliit u «pectal tt^t mint be 
ntail«>. )>. 133. Thr flnciy piiwdrmi mini-ral li miant whh jmrr gypsatn, ]i. 196, 
ntfititcnod, AiKd va jilntmuni «in, and thv tlniau uWrvi-d tl>ruü|:h «ilNilt i;Iiim ; if k 
dinlnct «biet colur ta peTtrjiiIUc pMuia t» pmcni {vide nutc, ]>. .181). The wet way 
iBtMt be btoofflM ta aid in th>- cxfiinStintiun for «mIilt eanliy hoaM, hMidc* alitmlna, 
and aaeven ihc finely powder«) mineral li not d<eompn«Ml by hydrochloric iield.a xnt 
4cien( (|a.ini ly 4^ it mitri be fuicd to a cicnr bend with toda and Utrax o» n>aT, p. llSj 
■nd riv-n trratrd Ju-rnnlinE lo p. IM.dMf. A '>«ry iriftins nmciimi uf lime may then 
oceaiionnlly li<> bttd. 8onir «C fbe mnta wliirh hiu bi-vit rraimnited with hydrueblorie 
arid inny alwi Ui «Tii|>ti)ycd tii thfrvt yulnf'* t>y the wet "«y, p- 139. 

■S'lYrnNr ^ givr.'ma atid dWniiaii {&cry/, naeniAf). — Pur the hlowpip« chamctcmiio of 
ihliftillentr^ arid thv tnethoil of detecting It* eonatliiiritia^ vi4t p. IT9. «I wf. 

Sili^» ^ yitrU.fff. {ifaiifitifitf].—VoT \u bbwfslp« elinrat1«Tlf llrs and lb« BHÜt»d 
•r <k-tntioir all <A it> conMitucnl«, vide pp. 191 to 199. 

SUifitlr n/Ttirrtiaim '.rfoma, Afitfi'iFfJtl, riilr p. 19(1, tt tiff. 

Stiiratr ^jtralOTiib offfriimi {rrrilr), pp. 303 nnil BOfl, 

A'lFiVitf« wnf iorafr of line, twi-pit<nn. <i/<>pwhu, iiAif urt^niiaiita öftrem and wum j atit i t 
liuiniA-l. — ndda tnthlni; aiid Is unalii-red Iti t.\» luatrHSf, In dio foreap fum» my 
«■dij «Itb lattttDMe«noe. eororinc the flame feebly grMn If held In the flp of the Mne 
Rkme, mid when <vU the fticed mineral (' dark tmen. Afteir perfect fltilon In O. F. It 
beeaioB black. Ksnix dissolve« axiiiitc tvndtlj In 0. F., yielding a dark rrd ula*«, 
wfth ■ rfald «hndc, AFiit «hart ndncHon the clan Is yclluw, and if mlnecd on coal 
with tin it licTonieii ^trinl-irnvn (''"vi). 

With S. Ph, in fl. T. lenvta a tiliat iMhou and iliuidvc« to a yellow glaaa, eolor- 
Im nn eooKng ; ibl* (iIan apiln fitted and ilien bitiaebi into <onlik-l with a tmall 
CTjital of nlirr, troiha upand aasutoMa lioleicolor. Wlihauda on caatvfhTTMcM and 



tut» Kl ■ b)«i-k. almiui mciiiDk innimiH g''***' **"' c* plBtinani lutl rcacn Hruad) 
br iMinjriiawr, 

Ttic ßurii-oins helinvlor ii>di«nl<« n roinbinMtiun »rMlMtmi tbclxwea vonti'ltng of 
■u usülc uf iron (Waiue rhu i;Iai>», »po-UUy ll«t of lionx. appor jdlow «ftci 
■Iwri TulucriuTi) ; o( au uxiile ul Buiiiiniiii'w.' (iliuwn b; lbr> color of the baniK haul in 
U. F., lu aboie d««ribal. unat l>y itic «iulct i-olur vt tlic S. l'U. [|Imi «-lth ihc nlir«, m 
w«ll ttf bjr tlic grcvn man vluincU wiik wdu on ptnunnn bU| ; luribcr, o^ r«rtli* 
(hemiiw a ronipitraiiVTljr Inrzc ciiiniitiiy U n<i)iiiivij K> pfvIiKV »n mtrnto rokir «iili 
ibo g'KH Inxot). Tli« mnhj l>n»r« mn. Itowcr^. only he incrici b/ fiuin); the 
ainrr»] wiih >o<U ntiJ Ivrax on t«>U, ami dccMniiotins iIk' ftixed dum In 1^ «(i-t wnjr, 
ppw tu mid ira. lit lIiU ra'twiB a>iiiUt U fooml to («nitin, Usido Iron nud man- 
KKIMm; alumijia. 'iittf. and a lilile maynetia. "I'tic {rvcn cator iin|iancd lo lix BaBo, 
wb&e ttutiii;; the fuiibihty of the tolntml, in<lleatea ioraete orttL Bj makiag ihm 
«pedal lot will) bi«ul)»haie or pota*M and Huor «par. p. 361, It* prastrnee i* uorvixMl- 
fjcwlf runlilUtinl. 

tjiaif »tnqjfom At FuOftty amMug uwU. — In the ftiTrapt fuiM mtlwr Miil^ t» a 
globitlc, i'i>loriii|; ilic Ümid* fclulfh, ami MNi(tiinc*'gnciiidt- If ilia flno powi lu r ü 
RwliU'iicd Willi livdrot-liluHc nciJ and tmci on |iliutnuni wiiv vhliln ibo Itluc floow 
ihei« [«jtilu. if cupper » pnewnit. Uie ature-blua iAiae oi vUmidt ßf ttfptr. Frag» 
menu «f ilnp, nhun n«t tou larti«, Tiik ratliet «asil/ aloae on coal to a i;lot-ulc, and If 
ill» i« kvpt fHKil foi a tinK in «oniaci oiOi ibc OoiDe ()uil« a ibick coat tt taidt vfÖMt 
h dc|>ottic[|. wliicli. huwcvcr, if tonchctl niih tlic Hnnic, itiona the pmmcc of cndt vf 
ftad b<r ill- bliw iliig<e imparted to the dame. 

Wirli tuntK i'l O. F, •liM>lrt« reailily 1« a ck-ar bead, dark jvllow Trom ptw^aiMHls 
a^ inw, niui btnininc lichiiY un raolitij:. In S. I'h. iliwcilvo, ulili lunaatiuin tiT a 
mika «i^fAm, tt^adnrglau. aUu jpi-lluw Inim itmn. With wda on «oal f^vnvaam 
and liiH-' lo a Iilnik Uwl, « hk-h nllcr l«nf;*r trcMtaicnt itt R. K. HefHxIt* an abanduU 
jcllawi'b cxMit of osidca of r.luc and liad. Il' iiiolsbMiLiI apoD »lirir bll the ftucl maM 
lliea rtaitH -itHin);!« Kir mlfAar. n'dt ttelovr. U* ■ rednciloa aaMj with nwh «nda 
in«*alli>! piiTtii-let ntv obtained, «lilih ciibvr Mnilil of part lead, or. In oaaeeofper la 
pnwcnt, licbavcwiih loi-ncic nviil ULv mn bIIov of lead and ««pper. With aoda and 
-Ritir «fi pinii a foil a diiiinci maa-tancM nacikin ii ptodBced. 

Till- fnrvcomg hrhnvioi- nlntw» that ihf land i1*^ cuBH»ta chirdy of a anicrai* td 
|ir«t«xi>le i>f ituii, 1x1111.-1 it iiii{^ a lilit( oxide of Wd, ainc, (Mip|iot,] and man^nca^ 
OlhLT («ariliy) Imtca prrai-nt ran oa]j W deiecicd «ilk llio aU of the wd pnoceaa. 
For ihit puriww atuul tOO loilligr. ul the linclj powdered alas an tuaei wiih aoda 
and bonix I17 itw «Itte oF ■ pXd tiotton, w«!jihinj; abC4it W mllllnr., )n It. K« accord- 
inf Id I». US, and ili« r»iiliia|* lipad U Einher ircalcd a* directed for ■ilieaica andn 
lime, p. lU, Ry lliü mcnm aiumima. nith »me /'W nad jMjtnvia, «ill aim li« fiMlB& 

U)inn liMKE ilir iT'ld iHiihm ft«ed frnni tUg on ra>al alone, a pare bMd coat la o^ 
laiiinl, ami if the rf'Rij'iininii; bullun i* iImii Inuiinl a *hOTt llnw on roal with S, Ph. in 
O. F., ami th«tchw* ralitccd amomcm whha Hid« ila.aAer ranoriaic the cold tnittim, 
Il will licronu hrowniah-rcil and o|jai|nt Iioon M&ond« ^ tepptr. If tbt ilaK «aa qm 
Hiiitn fix-c (Yofc coppi-r. 

Tliplrad «luif ihen.-kr«ran*i)(«of: tSkn,tnlonde^irtm,^Miaa,liKm, \ miijpi Ilia J 
and n liiile azi'dr *f Uuit and tmc, aMiajrwA- n/ nfftr, prentidt of mmagmim, au) 
■a//tliMr (i-ombiiiMl wlih variuiu in|[nuli«nia). A «piaal ir« Ibr ai/tvr will alio sbow a 
tnwc <if tlinl metftl. 

Tiie •troiifi (ulpliur rtacilon obtained erca fruin quite pur« ftacveait of tito iIbk 
fnditatt» the pratncc of kitltiliide »f •.alchtm <and oocafintmllj aulptiiJc of bariuia). 
When bjdiuchlurk acid ia punrud ovia- aonic uf th« Eine poird«r in a toM ([ia*a attd th# 



»hok (iim4 «ilh a f;l*M n>d, «pplyinj^ Imtf if opmum^, an wIm of Mlphuretwd 
hvdroctn h at om* evolved. l<lwuM ilib boI li« tlüiinct moiqrh a ivip of p«|Ma 
mubuoMl «litli toliiiltni of nmia» o( trad U l&iit over Itic nouih of tl» giant, or btU 
wtililii it.l«w« wliMheric i« nmikml bru»n or black b/ ulphlde of lead. 

Atwmiimtf of mcftmmt (^iWl, pi I (T. 

Almmamtt a/* gimtimt (tArfatwrfl^. p, l«Oi 

■i U m h imM« of tiae, magMtia, «nd iro* l^niu, aMtamtiUt), p. SM. 

0. Combinations o£ Motallio Oxides. 

The melullic «side« uL'ciirriug in Uiiliirv unj viüiae pure oxide« or 
bydrnteg. Some rorm disLinct mincraU by tWmselve«, sonie whea 
oonibined with otlu-n. Stielt aa can be li«at«<l to redueu iu the 
iiiaiiiiiM «idioftt yielding w«t«r ar? oxi(l<-3, «nJ ench aa yield water 
lire i'icliur liifdmtat, or oxidi-g «iiiinining hv(lruU>8. 

The RiebilUc oxide« which occur us mcUiUurgicul pnxlacta, 
aUhoiiph (Vrqni'ntly oinlniniiig 5Dl])lniric acid, or sclde of »rsenic 
luid antimony, with wliicH a part of th& oxide is combiiird, dotct 
contaip water clK-mically combinw). 

I'hti oxides are ienleii ut first lüuiie : a, in tJie tnatraas ; b, iii the 
forcfpt; r, on c<ial. U no dwnsive redult is Uinsobtaiocid tbooxam- 
toation is cojitinued «nth boRU, S. Ph., and eodiL 

/WwM* «^ mmgimtm (pfrtluwiW), p. SI L 

fimriili q< MunvwwM Willi Muk vf ntofr anil mCcr (MrtJy arfafT. Maeb], p. fIL 

Pfntriti» of tiuan)t*ut*r mill axUk n/ eopptr mwA pntosiiU f^ awwyaaa w (wywww 
■OMioAMf. [amfiadiW\, p. 31.1. 

O.n^p/iVonfnHwnrVi'lir. AnMltIc). <tn<J AjKtntliM/aei^'M'iA of irOR (AmimiU), p. 1S& 

l*iT»anäf «f irwi umi nhroNH'M* and /<«# with »la^iiaiJt at <Arvnnan and o/uaww 
(cAtmiiU), p. BS. 

IliitKrkk of liH (nuallimtk), p. ftT7 . 

Pratt trmfuinridF of Hrnn»« t/ulcUltiiJ«}, p, HK. 

fiMondr </ «f >p^ trmfwitt), p. nn. 

A» Ali «snfliiit« of a iiKialliiripml prodiMt GOMl<ifnf> «f mMalllc «tUM (he toWeiw- 
iag imilan fnim iIk r«|»'llBiii>n of mvriiilfcroiu lead inaj be lukc« : 

A^UHok/tnm lAn f-'nilrni nmrtl-i. — Ilcainl Iu inrijiieiit mltir« fn the mairaM It in 
■Malti-iv<1. yiuta Ti>rv Kndtl^v on fuflI, tprviiil« oat. aail H f*it«Mvl viiK rffi-rvrvna« 
tw an rB*ilr ii»i>1p Mivtallk: Uiilon, wliMi if kept in fution nl a r<«l linii in D. F. 
(Biita a ftimait ••l«r of nrarair, nMM dw coal wiih oaJt «f /immmg. atietMiu^ miA 
«^rir •/ fmrf alfo, and llnall/ brharo« Ilk» pun Imd. 

Dlnoln^ rcA^ttv in liATNX.on plitlinum win In O. F., lo « «li-jir, gntrn rIiui, rraiwit- 
Ini; irtvcn oa coulinit. If the k'***- "'l"i'l< coninin» «hivtif borate vf lend, wiifa nn«»- 
itc and aminM«nlr< of «nda, is tliakni IViini ihr wir« and iminl on mal In It. F., It 
(pfnUK iiai, and Mix« lonj; a nambFr uf erolmtnt iif lend arc mliwrU, wlijrli rvolva t 
ttmne o4or uf antnic add ft<i ilir mnl with imiiln of l<^ and •ndmony. 

iUker wiilfaw thne to odc builun, h^r tmplojing a spreading R. F, RtiKiYinii ibr 



Imiuod from ibc ^'Im«. «nU diroctinic tb« R. F. upon ttw l»ii«r, imtil it ii «(«in (a » t4 
to a b««il, i( «ill npiwitt {«loricH, Iwlh hot ««<! cold. 

I In 8l Ph. DO pktitiuu »Ire in O. F. U alw (UmoIto u> a «Imf, sftva cla«*, 
nüDiüaiiic KfTcn Bficff roolini;. Upon alukloi; uff lUi* giiM* vaA UMdng It « wfaiM 
ill II. ¥. on^Ml, it Lpixh» t[TMn wbUc bon. km oncoolhtf; becMMaofMqneMid gf*«>- 
itti-)vllow. U t^nbcT tn^tui »iih lio it lKct4iKa UMckubipv]' (rem redoccd 
■uiiimon/. whin call] ; bill if kr|>i in fiiH»n uixlrr ihu R. P. li>nt: tnonKh Id expel ibc 
untinoi)}'. ibo iHulting i;Uu on coolin); h 0|uiquo rn>i. tram sutaridf of nrpptr. 

Wiib M>dB it ia rcduMd rarr ijuuklv lo > K">y, Mxurwhal briiilu, iiirlallic butt««. 
Toe fuml KitU cut out fruia llw coal tm^Mcnlly iirtujun» a itDufak ifiJpiiir nmeüom 
cm niaUuüMid Mia full, ihuwinu ibui the iib»iik-li MMuctimi'« toafint tmlpSatr »f kad. 
AlUr tifdlin); ihu r«<JticM lead tiutton ■jixic on tool In O. F., snlli all of ihn nrwnir 
»nd anliiiK/ny luc vnltililitcd. nnd thcii ruain;; it willi vitriHin] borack acii), cn>]tl«;iag 
the l>tuc Itniiic. ihc Krraii-r pun of tlw lood i> diuolvcd ai oxiil«, and » button 
n'lunin». vhichfuMd «itii 8. I'h. io O, V. p^e« agmo gUut, bnouiing lod wUb ((k. 
(For the ilHAil* riih |t«4)trral »xamiualiuii Türvoppnr, p. 99%) 

Tbi» biowpipr iKhnviAT »hum tlial tlie abiirich ii «a oxide ot ttad nrntahtine m 
liitJe oxitlc uf copper, and combiiieü in )iiiri with ancitlc, uiiiniORi^ and atduhuric 

D. Ketallio Sulphides, Selenides, and ArMnldes. 

Til« plau followed in exainining sacli componud« U m foltov«: 
1. Heating in the closeil MiW, for the ivssoiih girca un p. fiO. i. In 
the open tube, p. 63. 3. Üii coal, obsL-rviug Lbe directions and 
n-niuiliA on p. 65, et teq. Should it be uecessar; to treat tbe eub< 
KtuQoe ftirtliiT nitb gliu^ Suxt-s, it m\M\^ iu muoy cases, b« first Creed 
from Kulphur aod araenio, as fur as potuible. 


AntonifpAtd!« vllh nmfttlmlpkU» ^ imt [pftrMtU), p. 237. 

ßiaalfAiiU of iron ipj/riU), p. 99T. 

HÜnl/ibidenhhanrnitk^toltailitalKJlile). p. StO. 

SiitfAidetfaiie with tjpiidrt of imn aniloulMiinw (iiiKUtwIt.tfael: and Aram], (». X5X 

Tbc manicuiM* cviitaitwd in oertaia biMidca naf I« dictecieil bf lotitig iW 

rvosioJ uMy wiili »od« ami nitre ea plaltnua fvii. 

<S«{piAllfr qj' ^rf (jKlJriMlj, p, iU. 

ißüiäfibidt of tofifur and läfAtd* of tiiä wiUi t»»dpkU» «f ußlimmi§ (Ivanwutto)^ 

p. i^9. 
f^itulpkaie oftopfxr, imtntiJfAide a/ vm, and n/pAide ^ imc, tritfa fiiWjnUJa ^cat 

(«ranniw. rin pyrila]. p. 9TT- 
Ttrivtfi^id* t>/ tiitmiah <kt»inittiiimti), p- 9S3, 

tfrtuIfJtidf a/ oofiptr wiib uiic-iliinl »a^vMfihiiU *f iron (bvmit), p. Sl(> 
IHtnipiat» i^eapptT, pmiMitlphitk tf iron, tW/MiMb f/* n'ac. and talplü4» tf wurany 

wih trm^pltidm ^f aKimeng and onwitir fietrataintr, aierwiWl. p. S07. 
Oimlpiidet/ orpptr, and Ktj'uaJfJki'it «f iron [c^akopfritt, t^pptr fyrilei), p. SM. 
SulpItitk^iMmiijlänabari, p. V)i. 



Sulphidf nftiliwr {arymiit*. tntvfr jiattar}, f. 311. 

SulpAiJi tfmifr >nH dinJfAiilr o/tofiytr cixnliuicd wilh UrtnliAiJ« «f OMfimMy u4 ■ 

Uuk Ur»<dfhiU iffitrmmic |^jAiwi'm|. p. alt. 
tülIpMr a/'üetr mhI »atJfJiiiU »fitmimie (pmufA«), ^ 319. 
Stl^iJt of tiioi* ulhl ItMtipit^ af «tliMM^ (jtyrargjrä*^ lla^pAaMtik, WargyribJ, p^ 

SIS and 313. 
TtnulpUdi ^'mtlMmjF {i<tbaillr). p. 333. 
Pnlomiiiliidf »f tum «illi Wri<J;>iM/e 4f«ii('«inijf ((vrlAvnf«|,^ 339. 

fit^»lem tmm iAi> FrnZrrf ircnt«. — Vitlili nuthin;; vi>Uiilo wU'u «jptitcil in U>f «loaed 
(nbe- The powiliT ictitlnl io ihe uprti lufac cralmW/MlwiMa aadt icrojniierd lif ihe 
Mndl «nd wilh liimi» |ia)mr. Oii Lbn knrvr lUa Of ibo lubt <(uite near Üi« uvy • 
ibin «tiile I»)»! iu)n>Plirn«ii li>rni>, "lui^h u iMt ««lutlc, ftiid mcnbUa «nlJcnaitBla ol 
•ixiik of «Atlnwuy, iir ftilidiAH: üf Imil 

On omI kkinc In It. F. (ihm kmüIt m a gbihiii«, and <tn continnal ndnctlon Ibra» 
two diRcnni coaii. Oiw, «Piirli 1« formod Am ami u ■ yrutcr M*unet ftmn ito 
••MV, u while, itihi nwv h« ilritm ftiMut wilh ih« O. ¥., iin|Minii)|; ■ Ua« linjt« Io ihe 
lUnw »bell UMiclKtl In ii, and Icaiini: a vvllow ^put ; ii ai'cuia chuvbre lu bc iiilphaie 
of lead. Tko ccNti wbicli b (iinniMt laicr b lii-tii ti'lluw while liut aiiil vdluwUh-whiit 
Ml cooling. If the onur «hIk« of ii i* hi-Atfd with (tie K. ¥. il ia 4rivtn la aaoiket 
fiat», linginc ibc Aunc nziir«-Uac and Itavinc n ycltow »pol «f an'de t/lttij. Tbt 
KitMCf part of iJw ml rcarlilnff ii|i to lire nmj ni«M*H dearly of vittt ofätt, nnd 
if tDcmiMtd with robali tolaiion wlmn quin «old, aad omiiioimI/ igniml ia O. F., It 
aMuiitc« on ouoliiig a y4>ll«wiBh itntiit i-ul(it. 

Bj fmUng m uiflldnit quuiliy td llw puwjur with mhU an coal In R. F., a freble 
odoT <tl uu-hie iiuy MiinviliiMa be obudiwj. IT a portion at iho powili-r it mnMlf 
maMcd, p. i7, an<l Wttrd wiiK tli«Nax«s, H will tirlinv« •■ rollnwi.-— 

In borax <ia pUtinuni wir« In U. V. yield» a clear ydlow glut», »bowing only üvn> 
Thb imunl In It. F. lur a »hon ilrnc with tin. Ururart un «lollni; opaque ii;il Iron 
«itpp/r; al1«r tonger ivduciion the cop|<«r li rriluivil oni, and t)ip mid glaM is ihm 
vl«r anil has a pUK vilru)l*gr«ra c»!i»r, owing to llw con>i>)eiralili< aaiciiint of iron 

In S. Pli. in O. F. on pAaiinnm win; yiditi n k'km raloml «imnitly jvlhiw by iivn, 
(and ui«iFtifn«a|tn«nutb-j-dlow, owitii; lo th« proonoe of nuirvcopjicr); itndy-dividMl 
tHiea nay IH^wonily I« Kcn in ihc jrlf.», bHn); Kpara)»! from flncly-dricciKinaicJ «laff , 
Nhli-h I* Anind rtpivially in ibr upper lajrr« vt ilir liaktuin ahct lapjine- (^n coal 
with tilt In K. F. ilii* ela» ixxxinif* grayifhblwk 'wi fotillns. owine in aan'nony,* hui 
on tvpaaliiiR tlir mhu'liiin fat a Iimiefr lim» it h»<y>in»ii rrd frtun inkoxido of «opiwr, 

Vpon mixliie tlup mlJac vt the ruaiirJ IMntin wlili >oda. borwc, an<] a Httk gnu- 
«lai«l ttai Inul, mxl fusing- it on cual In II. F., ilis tvdui-Ml mt^iala oainliino w(ih tbe 
Iml bntton. Thit f> «rpantinl Imm ihe «!>;• ami tPMted with boracic oi-lil od coal, 
■Htll >io>i of the IcAcl U H.'|iBr»t«^, after which it ii fnteJ b«M(l« S. I*ti on oual in 
O. F.. and tfam yield* a irbua Imid Khich ii K>"ii>iBb wbila hot, b«i biroitiPa bin« tm 
«oolins (nxido of cupper), and intainl wiili tin btomm rod whm cold (»olwxicloof 
coppor). A ■ptvinl auaiy fur «ihtr, eid* quantitative away for »ilver in iulplitdca, will 
■lieir n llltl« of ilut nieial. 

The ttalauin ibcrirfur« contbtiof tut^nr.inn.ttod, cv/tptr, n'nc, (irtJi'monjr, iint-itc). 
and mYmt. 

h. SHmitln.—tmJ iriih »^•iwa {finiuthallt») , p. SU. 
Mncarjr witli teitnimH {tirmi»iii>ile\, p. 309. 

O. Arttniän.— Iram wiih ormir (fncojuyn'lt). p. ISA 
C«iaA with aitmk {maHiit}, p. 3tO. 


JfidM willi nnr^K. — 1 . KarfMitk «/»fdltl { c afp er miM, mintUlt), p. M4. S. Ärm^ 

wir^unM fuHixAAn^ito), p. 34'. 
.1i«*Mfni nfinm. mirixl, ralialt. ne., with I'J/iAirfw «/eopftr^ irmd, amiimpmf, ale. (ümJ 

lu ibo cluM'<l luliF wnLulica Unck, Imt titid* nuüiinu toUiIlc. In powilcr la llto 
opvn liilip j'WIili « ilUiiiii-l nibDoMM uf crviiiüliiii; lutnBm aäd, «hidi i* voUlila; 

ivcaii'ianllj-nlMi, brar llw limtv, ttiM« W a wL>tr, DOO'Vulatilelilni, apiomnil* AMMB- 
liinüii»» of niillniünk wäA »Ilit oxkle of •nllraon;', whik al i1m ii|>|k( intl ul' iku mbl 
mdfJumtMt urnf OR be deter led b; tbe odor and wIlli IhiBiu r*lKr. 

Alottf (HI mmI fttuw in ft. V. |a«l«BM ilwtv U tiu miicli inn prauat) lo ft gMnli 
iHiJ «Ttfl*«* nrxiiivnl luiiirai i><i cuiiilniml tilo<nii2. innrvwr, ibc uattmoo i* u|i'PNi4 
vllb ■ I'nial, ahii:h titmum iIücIut nnil ibick^r, nml «ttcf MMnr liiw rmIce» tka |^t 
ul« ItllU^lUo; « kti^lil Innf iu«( u alw frngamllr t>rrTr|>dlilR. llpjii fcl Jhnf «■BhJtWI 
t<TSx anii tmliuit tlic wbuicwiih ihe [wint af ihr blavflamca mcullie Iratto« «nMf^ei, 
«hlrli I'lnlrf «ifiiuitf fUMa. while the borax kUm Wconci tflM fluid, ilÜBculil* taufala, 
■nil <|Bii« IdMk, owing in rhc thuKinp oT oumi oI ihe Itwi. A llltla at ilib Mock ^mm 
»lib K-nuc tn lUatinum wtra in (I. Y, draw« nnl; irmt. Upon th« hmni; the buno». 
rn«^ lii>in hhjM vf (bo UMuiilB a( mm, wiane i>n umI in R. P., i>r>cnkiil ramM ua ^^1 
■Kain nutinl, \mt the coal ia •lislitlj' OMxA will) «ndc y irnrf (■ml aaoMUiM -^^ _ 

Br ututiag lb« IhiUiMI rnftbw with barks,*t dcwribed in 4etal! utidrr tb* eiaoMU-.^^ 
ikMi fvr btw In »priMo, p. »4. h it foaml tfafti «ftrr lb» Dm irauaMW iha hnui i<tj ^"^ 
ihuw« Inoi. t>nt nfltT ihc Mnind ami ibM rabift. and (todly hinha toitnn wjfb liawi^ ^ 
«how* nnlr hrIW. TIw ivnclnlK]; nmiilV of ikkH rmml whb 8 1%. In O F. ^^ 
Imiwv*>t, rl«j<l> » b'<**' "hieb ii crtvn both kM Mt>t wld, arMl ibcrtbirw nMiUtin» wii-fci» -^ ,7 

nod i>i|-]rt. Allrr mnuiitn;{ ttw iMtlon nf «nMuile «kd faiinc iW (!■*• ■ inwiif ^m 

jwilh (in, li bvnii*» i>|iarq«c ml im WHil l a g w Aaii j! a/' iapfi . NiiiuU Ihwamoiiaf ^^ -^^ 

rr Ik- ku irttbai; (■> <Wmh in lbt> waj the ar^uiJ« «f Bkftid ü fund wttll a haue^,.^ 

Fpdd. «tiKlBttS ao lo W mll%r., uhI ibrni tl'%c:«>t wkb & ft. In O. F^ ■■tU ■ fiwj. J**" 

ismiuo »r ibv udl Ü Bu litoccT cultwra jtikm. tei cram ; Uh icaciiDo igr »fifEr — » ^ ^ ^^ 

tbra b^ 4i>Ün<llv pfuluetd with tia. ^ 

In tliM *(«iM iw>v he btind ibmAn: RiaewcMlpbnr, ina.aicW.aafaalt.i 
Imd, (uuhBonj,) mS, by a hkcW mm;. «Uttt. 

E. Compounds of metals containing no axBenic or —^^ .■ 
pbur, or but Terr Uttla of either 

Tbe pbu fwUovnl in eiumininf aIIoti it ia geo«ral Ibc mrtn- ^ 
For subsbuioes itf the fuivguing claiia, ttie rtMating twiujf, oalnr^^iji^ 
omittied. In maof' om>9 itiw ur uther of the teiu tbere munfrfi-wi j^ "i' 
emu be omillo], »lieu the pnAiona twbsiiur nf du cofastncioa ^ 
gbo«B VtMl no Kdnll «unld be atttuia^; nu the otb^r hand. ^ t ^ 
•emetim«« iH««i»irv tn nuke a spev'tal tan fi>r tDoe eoostit'^kfiii 
vUi<>-b would Dot li> r.t'ogtiisnl dariag the gvuoml «xomiaatioa. 


C^ff^mUtrndtdnA mm ^J^M wlb^./nVt j)-— Oa tMl^ 
^» jiK — a MM Bear ite M«<r. yfltn* «bfc h« mmk «Uw oa cmB«^ Th« «^ 
:«ith<«U(Ml«ciM a«l %«tt4 (■ O. r. Mwaw a. jdbw^ffM a«r 



an cool in ~— «IK'. Afitr Mng ftiwd ohMw mi coal ilw l»itiuii b ibiti inatrd «fch 
bofsx In U. F., luoK «nuatih \a omiiÜm «mI «ImkiIvc «II ilie iih-IbIr, iJip »xkIm «f 
«hick cannoi be ivdiitcd fruia Uk«x wiUi ihu R. f. «lune ^ ibc biiiion >> iliim rcnovtd 
InMn IIiiT tslatm miiil die lattuc t«iid in R. V.. ulilil aU ul iIm niiiirililc uk1<1m nfV 
railiKn] mil Ii wilt uiiw );cii«rally «pp(«r )ilue, and prcMirrc ilii« «ulor wlkim lioiol oa 
|ilK<i(iuii) «itv in O. >'., «hawing oalr avioA. 

Fiucii «iili S. Fh. uo gmI ill U. P., Uie ballon freed froa cobalt attiria n dark* 
cnvn slan, awl If a |K>nion nf ilii« h fuMd with oKira S. fh. od plaiiiniia irin ia 
l>. 1^. U wlJl Kir« * *)■» S'**') "*■)■ nttuüniog firwa on raollni,'. Thi* b*fid »h«)wa 
UF «aii tnaKJ with tin «n nial in It. I', btn u i^M ofM^M ml vn cvolinji. from »ubox- 
Uoof uapficr. aud iIir k"^" ^- I'''- c'>^ Üunibni tliowcd ni;>;>iT auil nii-JW. The 
itiUiih-wliitr, mollmlile liuitoa. k-li atitr irvaiint-iii with S. Ill , may runlicr yielil a 
ir»oe of nfiwr i( cu|kIIuI wiih Ml hiui ill llio button U CumiI witli «huiil llirvv 
■ imca iut )rci;,'tii »r L-oId, bvwJc bonx on cual in Ü. K-.and b.c[>i in fn«Ion for»omr 
iinie,itii;);laM will uiilr «how ihr v«lk>w color ilnu lu oxiilonf iiii-k«l, bccaaic cofiiNV 
mnUnfri iriih ni«lt>l oxidliM «ilh ^-m tUMculty in jincMtiira i>( nmrtt gold.) 

T)ie cvMpmiliun »f p-nnaii^ilror i» tiifKlbro ; «yftr, wilb pcrba|« • into» «f 
■a/nr. nioU «iilt a little tobab. and cmc 

/fun' Iruif i^om tik yrriiifiy Wetkt. — I'l'Ite «luuc nacllon« iiill be aBtmlMl Ivr an; 
nw kud (Vatn one« limll&r to tliiMo smdl«! at Vrtlbttfi- Allojr* whirh (cniunlj roa- 
nhi n« Udvur/i and liulc or iw oititrr vuloiile mutalt. need not be tciinl in tlin cl»>«(l 
MbG : (ba tm i« ibrirlbtv nor maili- wfili mw lowl. In the oprn tnbc ii fiit«« and b 
«ovefT<i with oxide, bnt riirliU ixitliinK «nlaiil«. Fum very rauljr on »mI. cmlti a 
rallKT sironi; wlar of aitrttk,, and mitta the «xml at firrt with eenJe (^ oMimmifi, nticr 
won) njfiiuiiBlT wtiti uxIJe of lead. A feeble, yallon'Ul cnu b hIm luioeiiinn 
de|>uiiiRl iioiK the nuny. «hlf^b bminius ntniuic white on eoolfiis, and thenlLin indi- 
Calo tint. [>n luh-itiK n l>it nt the loxd witll buntx oti coal ia It. >'., «o thai lli« luruk 
i;liiM i» p«oiTCt<.-d by the tlamc fruni ntccw of nii. u clear, colaric** kInh bobtiilneil, 
which ciTiicrally r-ninia« ■■nlortc« wbeu rv-melird im iilaiinnin wire in 4». P. If, how- 
"vt-r. till* tMd It not (|iiiipfrr« Inm iron thcabi» will br leehljr ««tknr while hoi. 

II jtii»i!»>r hit if fmnl on voa\ IwmiI' Imruftr «i'i-1 wiili Ihi* bin« flanw, Ihi- (*m\ w nl 
lint ciMiiil ntih aiiliniony, and a iliililioi arsenic uilur nil be pnrdTcd. On cunlinii- 
jii; the in-ntnictii until uiily ii tmull bnilun ti^innlrii, atiil fluting ihl» wiih S. 
rm\ in 1). ¥., a giecn y,\>ai reiulti. Wlikh irmitd with tin un coftl b^Munei ojiaqu« red 
»II aniYinii—ro^ptr. Uy cnpcllin; the boHon rtvultin; IWm lb« ln»tincni wiili 
S. I'h. on iDinc-uh with a liul<* tmi Imd. n miidl »ilver biiuun I» ubioitinl. 

If a [bird bii of the \i*A U fönt*, un nul in 0. F. wiib nuiiiral osatat« of |iotana 
and hom'x. and IIioAi>«il niau, wliieh ha« Mink pATtiiilljr into llic enal, U laid on ^lir*r 
lUl und [Quiaii'iicd with wiaicr. It will la «vrialn ciuc* cauM a black ■■r Wwn <|nt of 
tulpliiilfr u( kilvvr. >)iu«ln',j lliat Milpliitlt- of Itad I» MULUlaici pn-«'nt' 

The mw kwl toiiilitt tlioivtuK of l/orl, wbvr, a little cifp^r, artrnU, and oMiimy, 
and occmiunnlty imvei «f i'r>jn, n'nr, nnd ««//ular. 

tSiKkroppfT, Trry impiirr. The lilinK* heninl t« redncmln the open t»Tc irilb the 
blowpijw tUtMi nvtvod a liilli' taiiAwoia ock/. iveutfiiiud liy meant of tnalat littnill 
pa|M( iaMVtH inio tlw tiihr. At t*ime diiionce fraia the ouay an exc<»din|;<y liilling 
wliilo eual wnd aim rlT]ir>'<ii'.-d, nbidi liiul lb > appearance uf VKidc of •uilitnuny. 

Aluiie on cual f^«d wiih dHÜL-ulty. evuUins no oilor, anil inline only n dlntifict/aatf 
tout. When fused wiili tMi l«ad lie'lile bcinrie aräd, m *% to hmtv thr iti'ialli« but- 
ton frv« on OD« side, ilivrv wim llketki-« no oAor, but while the Iniul trti: oxtiliiinit 
and itiuDliHis in the hnriu-tc ocid a whilv ro it runutd, which bcini; tcrti)Htl off and 
diwolnd in S- Ph- on plattnuin wira, aud the r«aultlog bead ittatod on coal with tin. 



w» n-c<ii,-aLial M ar«t ^ imiimtmf, linct i>ic k-ad becauM quit« dnrk gi*] on cool- 
ill);. Till- liuiUM) mniiaüif lUter ituunteiii «ilk bonK'k acid wu fouitd to 1« Aw 
Trviii Wil wti»n Intcil alone o« uhlI, *•■! wa> jmt uiil Idltlic. 

KummI wiih bonix an «mI in R. F. th« binch coitfNir gavo a niMlt-btiw el***i cbo* 
tngaird« «/ caioit, «nd iliia^lu« rv^nelitd mi ^Iminuin wlni iti Ü- F> «|ipau<ed gran 
whLi-> hi>t, bat blue A~aln ixi i.-itoliii^— o3(wi( ntid a, lliile I'wi. 

Thv metallii- battvii rcinniniiiE rr<>m (lio Iminwnt wllb boracic BciJaaAcr » liltla 
reridoo uf uoUilt liwl h^vn wiKiniial wiili Iwnix. wtu fowd mi cual in 0. F< wiih 
8. Pli, Kirinir n i)iiiU' dnrk firvi-n t[ laut, bulb hut and cobl. Tmied with tin litis 
gliw» bn'Biuv v)iiiijuc nij, mid ihv grtsn culor llictcfüru indicalud Myi/vr kdiI HMbiJ. 
Tbc buituii vti ixiiiiiintii); iinillfc«jtr<.-ii wiw likcwiac ttill fj»t and very biitilc, anil ibi* 
bciiiii'itMs iiidiuiuil ihe piwence of aravnic. ulilcli tveianl to bdoiig cfaiiA* wiili ilw 
nlckrl, lr<rau>e it «uuld be w|iunt<Nl oclilier with buraiNc arid «ur «"itli !<. Hh. A 
BpMtal VaK for ai-wniv, ^ 347, ilitiwtil tbo nctukl pnaciice of anal «Nlirelf nniiDporV 
ant amount »t tlwi tud v. 

riiJR bUt-fc co|i|(pr tbunfore couiMod of topp», tmi, niebt, tebalt, irm. umtimomjf, 
arttm'r, nJ/Juir, Hiul, at fvuiwl by a «ptvial auny, •oiM tiftrv. 

Stvtr uHtalyitm raMaimnj/ ^oU, vv'J irnpun* Alone iu tUc c1ut«d tube aiTonkd a 
ftuUlnialo of niLtilli^- dnijii, «rliich were «olIcL'tcd lu n Ktobuk of mmury by [cnilj 
iap|tiiie npon ilio itiln-, »lul 1:0111(1 ihiMi bo cimIjt «Jiakfn out. 

Thi.- pOTuii* n.-*it]ii« wiL> ßitl (iiHnl aluiic OR nml, iiAbnliRg a irilliiiK ydlovr coat of 

otiJr oflnnl. «Iiilc tin- aurltttl ül>i.-r tiution wos L-occrcd with a cnui. Some borAX 
wiu ihi-nriirv wlikd and lliu wbole TumsI in K- I'., wlicn an appanmilj |iai« •i/ocr 
biitiun «iib •! hii^hi lurlttci: (.-mfn^, and tho bonut gtnsi «ru gnaiUh on iMioUni;. 
Thi« claii ircattil on lUioilicr pan of th« coal vritb tiu ■wuawd Uh pw vitiia)-sn*i 
color or pmaiide of inn, 

V^n iMiiiijt (h<! i^mitintni; ttivtr buttvn with S. I'h- iIh plan ABMnM<d a t^nra 
tolor ililne«licn cold), nnJ, nivlitd *itli tin, bKumo opMqui.- red on cooliiii;- --<*J7wr, 
In unlcT to Tc&nt: ihr ulmr itrrtcttlr it wat cnprlW uiih mt k»d and then iU**vlvt4 
in niiHc »rid. wIkd Mveral black flak» tvniaiurd, wliich on bring wsdwd with di»- 
tlll«d watrr ivnd rupcllril «iili a l)lll*l«»t l«*d, rurinnl a pura$o<(f liulton. 

Till: nnialcum ihi'tclorc cuiiaUieil chMljr of iiViwr and iwiiry, but oowaliMd trifllas 
adinislur» at fuJd, toit/rr, Itait, and iron. 

Ttturidt of liiitaulk VtiaäijmiU). p. 281. 

rWhcn'ilr ^ Nftv lAoMte), p. 41 1. 

Antimomjf of mietr (d/fenmtr). p. 31 1. 

PliUiiam wiih olitr vMlaU inmiv« pUtiituml, p. 911. 

tMJ »ilb iäver (Butin yM}, p. Wk 

. Section III. 


/. Preparation of the suhstan^es to he quantita- 
tively examined for certain constituents. 

Is (jtiiiiiiiliilive HMkn with t}iK l)]r>W(iii)f, jusl a« hy \\w wei jm'o- 
was. ttir siibetunre to be nxamitied must iindiTgo rr-rlniii prplinii- 
uaiy »pcnttoiis, whioli arv limited cliJvflr to diTinj;. nud. iu caM of 
mixinl litiUatiinocj, at-I«ntinfr the he»t piMsililc Avoni;;^ »ample. Fri- 
bIiIi' aub«lancr8 ooDtaiiiiug DU-c-liEtiieiilly combine«.! water eboulcl Ik- 
dried nt a tAmporatare of lOO" (!., »ml tia-ii pulverized i» tin nj^tc 
mortar If thf liiibsluiicv ie brittle, lint imt friiible, it is bivkcn ita 
fine aa ponibl« bvtivv<?n [itiper on tin ntivil ; if mallesblo, it is Wnton 
bclnrteu paper into a thin «hi-«! and tlii-n cut iip with tlie «cissors. 

Orus drrMvd »n a large scak-. even when the^' Imve not been 
t!Bpfciallj' dried, usually u]i|)cur dry while still ooutuining seTt-nil per 
cvul. of niechiinicallj- cimliiiied wat'.T; the aame ores aleo ahwrb 
muistnrc ngain when kept in damp places in iini'Iwnl vpsscIb ufler 
bvltig dried. A (jnaniiiy of thirse. mure than 8ufflci«iit Tor two 
MMysI mn«! be drii-d in a pnrcetnin dish over a lamp, at abonl 
100* C aod the dry ore pulverig.-*! in an agate mort«r. Care mnst 
be taken toavokl too high a temperature when drying ores cunluin- 
ing compound« of eulpliur or ursetiic, since otheririse, roasting. 
witJi inrlial decompniiitioii of the ore and ultemtiun of wrigbt, may 

Minerals and mctalhirgioil j»n>ducl8, nbieli aro almost always 
received for analysis in a dj-y Ktat(^ »re broken up between i«a[wr 
on an anvil, or in a eh-el mortar, and when friuble, pnlverised in an 
ugat« mortar, ll ie Eufeflt to prvpare from the eubstancc to be 
assayed eight or ten timea Ibo amotint of powder needi-d for oiiu 
away, except in nue« of pniv crystali. or fragments of minerals itr 
metulliirgical product«, eiiicc. when too small a qnuntity ia nsed, 
then isk no ocrlsinty that a pra|>er avemgc hoa been uttaiticd, a« 
regard« the proportion of metui [trosent. 

For cxBinplc, whn loo tmaU a qunniJi; o/ a rich (lf7-«tiim|ii»I nItct w«, «hivb mwf 
b*a aiimirv ot na) »tlTtr or« anil nbuanm raniainine no lilrer, ii tnlieti. i<iie nu^ 
b<t«e UQ iMitf rivh pontons, or too nun^ poor ponioiu, ^Htk will give n vtry ililfcrcnt 



prepoftk» of tncul tram llut coniAlncil h) itw wlwl«. Pion an on pnpttttA on lli« 
large ««Ic, th cwftro . ■ qiiMtii ly of u )tmn tliIny£nuBiBai<bcMilil thnvi bcukca from 
nrfooa puu •( iIm Itnp, mix«il If poMiUe la n bm nonar uid mad« «oaicirlMt 
KiMr, mud from tliii ihe {wnivit PMpiircd for tlw blvwpip« wmj'*, (Vota d^kt lo ixn bloK. 
)ii|M «ninen, ukni. drM acandiuft U the prending dinciiou, mA rubbed i|Uic dno 
la ■ mcirur. 

//. Detailed descHpticn of the ffuantUative assays 
with tlie blowpipe. 


Tbe blowpipe asMj for ailver, fint proposed by Hnrkort^ Mid 
ileecribed bj liJm in a work Uiat a])pciLn*<l iu Freiberg, m Üio year 
1627, U one of the moct importatit ass^yt llmt can l« miid« with 
Ulis iDStmment It ie pirKäiblc not unly tu iletect ia a eliort titni: 
the silver in m\j ore, mineral, or product, bot aleo to determine its 
amount quantitatively wltb nil needful accumcj. Regard tniisL, 
however, be paid to the other subitancea besides silver, with which 
we hare lo do, nod we mnat clnssify the niincrul and metallic ln>die£, 
together with the artiScial product«, in order to duiertnine the silver 
in them, nnd each of these clasaee most bo usayed by a snitablo 

Tlicy are classified into:— 

A. OnSf minerai/t, and producU in tehicA the eilvtr ia tspMaUy 

combined with ntm-melollie bodieii, uud Ih^ei; fnrtber int^: 

a. Thoso containing voUtile couBtitat'Dts. viz., sulphnr aii«! 

arsenic, a« well »a chlonne, bromine, and iodine, in gmit^-r 
or K-es proportion, or euch u are wholly IVee from, tbcm 
•nd can bo decomposed by fliaioo on coal with bonu and 
test lead. 

b. Those containing compounds whicli cannot be decomposed 

by fusion with borax and teat lend alone. 
A Those ooDsistiog of metallic oxide that an readily redoc«! 
on coal. 

B. STttallic compounds (aUtttfn); these are: 

a. Tho«4c in which silver is the chief constituent, or in whidi 

gold occnrs with the silver. 
i. Id which copper or nickel forms tbe prevailing contititnetit, 

while silver is only a minor one. 
c In which lend or biemotJ) is the chief constituent 
d. In which t«llnriiim, antimony, or sine is the chief conftitv 




t. Tn which tin is thi* obicf» or else only an aooesBorj ooDatita- 

/. la which moicnrj is the prevailing cnnstitneat. 
y. Id which Iron or bu-pI Is the ckiuf coneiituenL 

4.. Atuy for Silver in Otm, Mfnanla, and HvUUiugfcaJ prodooU la 
which th« lilTsr i* opecially caniblti»() with noa-meUlUc bodtaa. 

I. Subiftnucfg wÄicA i-onfaiH vfililile conftilufuh, vis^ auljiAur and 
anenic^ as tctU as cftlorine, bromine., and iodintt in greater or Icti 
prttp^rtion, or are miirely fret from i/iem, and can 6» rfdnced iy 
fusion on asal teith borax and tnt lead. 

Iteiv Iwlonjf, among orvA dressed on a larf^ scale, such as contuin 
more or less pgrttet, cAalcßpyriU, mitpicltl, »tibnile, and blende, *i 
well utile inini.>ntla above mentioned; further, »11 theso-calh'd Dürr- 
erif, cnnsiKting chiefly or earthy iugretlii'ntjs and containing onW n 
Hiiall portion of actual silver orea ; all the orea enumerated on page» 
306-308, in whicli ilietilvor occur* in combination nilh eoliMiium or 
mlphnr and other eelenidea or Buljihidi-'B. ha well «s with chlorine, 
bromine, anil iodine ; further, all the copper ores ennmentteil on pitge>8 
^67-288, in wliicli the copper is combined with ark-ninm or sidpliiir; 
the lead ores namtxl on pages 2&7''%&8, in which the Ivud is pn-t<,-Di> 
as KJrnidc or sulphide of lead; further, roasted iirgt-ntiremtis leu<l 
sod copper orcK, all eilver ores and metallurgicHt products roast^nl 
with salt, for the purpose of umulgmmation or extnicliun, and the 
rceidnrafVom umulgHDiutton or extraction; tinally, among metnllar 
gical prodncis, Jto/mtnn, loud and copper malts, cadraio, flu« dust, 
lead and cohult epeisM-s, hearths fVom cnpclling and refining silver, 
all sorts of argentUerous slugs, and alao tho silver scraps of the gold 
and silver smiths. 

1. WstoniNQ Ann CiTAKorNG rm Assat. 

Ores conBiHttng of a mixture of rich eilvcr ores and eartliy parts, 
vhich usnall; jiehl iii analysis varying nmonnts of silver, are best 
weighed out in two or three iwrtions of 1 centner =100 milligr. 
(vide p. 'Z7] each ; on the contrary, poor silver on^s and crytftalHzcd 
minerals, as well as products which differ very little or not at all in 
richneas, are generally weighed out only once. 

The weighed portion is transferred lo n mixing capsule, into which 
the sculc-pan is cleaned with a brash, and borax-glass and fest lead 
are then added. The qiiantitj of boras-gloss is regulated by the 
ftasibility and amount of the substances to b« oonvorted into slag. 



The Bmall gpoon, Fig. fit;, himped nill and amtaioing sboiit one dfcigr. 
orniipcir.ut'borax-gluiis la sufficient fur all aMu,vufdiaicult ru»iun, but 
if during the I'ueioii the natay aeems too rernirtui^v, a smalt {urtjoa 
of this Bus CAQ be «ddod. Ix-iw U Dvi-dvd witU wry fuatljlo orvs, orj 
ia gcuerul, e'Jcli as have no t>arili}- admistiirv, but euiiuil i>tily of 
metallic eiilpliid^fs wliicl) combine i^iwliiy witb the lend luitl arv kia 
uxldiznblu than iL Fur theiK; a äpiMiu but eliglitly hca|iod, cuDtuin- 
iiig from one-half to tliKe-quurUTfi ctr., is ^mU: aiilKctcut. With 
assays coRlainiug a coiisidcmblc ]iru)Hirtioa of cnrtliy lugntlieiit«, ur 
much iroQ, cubiill, or liii, Lhespuuii must aUays be hfa|tt-d I'ulL 

The qtiautitr of teat lead is reguhilL-d by the iirewiice of other 
metala iu tliu ubM}' eulMtauce. 
. If it iua siibstuncf conUkiomg not mure tliau secuii {ler ci'uL of 
i*»j^ier or It-n jter ci-ut. of Dicki*!, five otrs. of lead are iiM'd fur on« 
ctr. of ussay powder, being niraenn-d in thi; ti-Et lead tueaeurc, Fig. 
;>8 ; if III« öubsliiiiw coutains more ihuu sevi-u per ceut. of copper or 
ii-n ]KT et'iiu of nickel, the uuiouul of lead uiiist be prop« rt ion »llj 
increased. The presence of cobalt it k-sa U> Ik reganled. ua ibi« 
(iietal ia i-usily äUggi-d off with burux. Ä& nv cannot always know 
bfrorehund bow Urge Ati amount of tbi-ec mctaU it present, it ie 
tH'tler to II8V U>u much lead than too lillle, eine« with too little ia 
til« separation of the copper from the siIvlt is not tborviigh, wbil 
(be cupellatiou of kiKl rich in nickel itt almost impossible. 

The following mincnilB and products, conuiuing jtarOy coppcrj 
and partly uiekel, mui^t therefore he charged with the indicntai^ 
amouiils of test lead: — 

1 ctr. ClufeoclK, wauiiinc abmtt H */i Copper, wiih IS cu. %ul lead. 



Cav«ll)te * 




















Capper >Ult 


if ■■ 


I.«m1 *pciM 



CuWll «pel« Willi 

10— to - Nickel. Co- 
balt, «tvl Cujiprr " 10 ' 

40— M *■ Nicid ud 
CoUli " 10 

When the snhsUutoefl have been most Iborunghly mingled In th* 



mixing spoon, «fitb the aid of the irory spoon handlt, the charge ii 
potirt'd inUi u toda-pnpcr cylinder, uiude a* direct«! on p. -li. For 
this ^-iirpoM the crtiuder ia hi-Iil Ijctwwii ihv thumb and index 
fingiT or tlip left hand and Mio mining apoon with the »ime fingers of 
llie riglit lianil, wliilo the cloM'd eitti of the nyliiiiior rv^U on the 
middle fiiigtfr of lUu Idft hand. The lip uf th« caiteu)« is tlwD 
insertril into the paper crlinder, which i« slightly inclined to on« 
ftidc, lis fur ae «t-'cind »ecc^ftury fvr ^fvly jioiiriu^ iu the chiirg«, the 
ptt)>vr ht-iug pivaaed u^iinsL the lip with the linger und thuinli, so 
thut llieciL|igiili- cunnut full on removing the right liand. The ehargu 
i» then aiiisi-d to alidt- gntdiiully into the cylinder by geuLly tiippiug 
on the outride of llic cup^ule will) ihebruüä rorct^p», Hi:d uny adlK-nn;; 
dust is bmslicd into the papoi*. While the lower i-nd of tlie cylinder 
still nimains rrating upon the middle fingt^r of the left hand Lhe 
apper empty end is preäst'd out flitt and tlieii rolk-il up from rhe lop 
downward ; the cylinder thug far closed \i ptucod with the lower cod 
Uli the «xtremity of the left thumb, und the enda of the purt that wiu 
rolUtl togt-llier ure Ik'iiI tipwnrd iiud Luivm-d each other, making th« 
whole |H-r4cctty tight. Whilt; wrj|iptiig up the charge care nuiHL hu 
taken that tlie lower end of tlie cylinder dot^ not opon or the pnper 
tear iu any pari, ihne occasioning mechanical losä 



3. The Frsios op toe Assay. 

The fneion of a silrer assay is performed on ooat with the blow- 
pipe dame. In the rro*» section of a good piece of charcoal, near 
one corner, a deep cylindrical hole in bored with the «nuiin- bon-r, 
Fig. W, th« diameter of whicli is about one-third more than that of 
the pitiier cylinder ; or n coal crucible, I'ig. 
17, io uäed, as ehowii In Fig. 78, a. The 
lattt'r must aUo be bored unt as deep aa 
ncorasnry, and the hoh- widened from ubuvo 
with the knife, so that (he flnme can he 
dirt'Cted between llic assay »nd the iiisi<! 
uf the crucil'leduwu to the Ijolloni.and tli^ 
usay thus readily melted. The cylinder is 
set in the euvity with the end last t!l(isud 
■bo\e, and is preiwifd down linnly. The assay is now inclined 
toward the Hume, and a pure, but at (irab not too violeut, n-dticing 
flame diivcted upon it, so that it almost covers the npper juirt of 
the paper cylinder. 

The soda-paper Is indeed charred in a few moments, but the iube| 


Fig. 78. 


ftre not distarbcO until tltr borax-gIsHS nae ihlrpwlv fiisod togeÜi<T thci 
Separate particles of orr, so that tiivj cannot t>o i)lown away. Wben 
the aghee vf the puppr burn nwaj-, t'Xpuaiug u pnrt of llie cliai^« uj« a 
fliiiil slag, misi'il with mrlteil globnW of lead, the whulo assaiy i« 
DuvcivU with a ätn-ug, but pun:, n-duciup' Bumc, wbidi liue an iu- 
oliD&tioii uf 30° to S&°, as shoHTU iii Fig. 78. 

Diiriiig th? lime that this t1n,me is ti^-d, i-orlions of the cul|>liiir, 
ariti-iitc. uiitiinoiiy, zinc, rtc„ Miliiiili»-, but thi- gn-Hti*r purt of Llieiii. 
MB well as aeveml of the Dietjils si ill cuinhinul nith Hiilpbur iLZul 
arw'iiio. join irith tho lead ond m«-lt nith it to n button. Thv t-art bf 
iiigivdii'iiLs, oti the oili«>r liiiiid, and Ihe iiit^ljilliooxides of diflivtilt 
rednctioti, nith a small purl of llit- iion* vol» tile uud (iiinlr (>\idiac»bi« 
ini-tu,l8, which bvoomc in piirt oxidised l>y the first nrtion of the ltca^ 
fage with ibe boras to h slag. WitJi compoiinda of silver and t-'lil">- 
TJue, bropiiae, or iodino, which luv di'Ciimi">so«l by the Innd, täj»«!« 
of chloride, bromide, and iodide of Inid iiix.- seen to pas« off 

Although it generally ecems, after ii short time, as if the slafC ^^ 
quite free from lend gtohiiles, thi? must not be ppgarded lu MtSsfa^ 
Utj", sinw beiii-ulh the wull-fiiäed slug there are ollen immelteil J"^'f' 
tions of the cliarge, which can only l« affected by the IdoWT'l* 
Hume when thie h direclcd Mwrvn Hit- sing and txuil iipiinst ^1"' 
bottom of the- crucible, while' the churcoal, or the day cyliudcr w"* 
the crucible, is turned during the blast and held Juclined lovaH 
another side, until llie asway ba» cbnugeil it« pOHition and Itir/i*' 
mrr. In this turning over, which ehould lake place eyen Willi ^^* 
moat fnsiblo assaya, the bodom of the pajwr cylinder, iKiog all •'"' 
remaiiia of it-, rises from below, and comes in a ebarred stale ifl '''' 
top,'nr to one side. To destroy the noltes of the paper tho auay itt"***- 
then he eo held toward the flame that only that part of the "'*? 
whei* there is no paper is covered by it, when the air iustw"*'? 
rnxliee in nnd the aghe« arc consumed. When tho position uf ^^"^ 
»hige, which baj* been coreri-d with the reducing flame «Ä, FijC- "^^ 
hiis V»een fther*'d several limes with regard M the had hotlon t/, *** 
the slag finally appear« rjuite fluid and fn-c from lead globoli-«» ** " 
alsui certainly free from silver. The R. F. la dmiiged to a rr.ntli-r«' 
O. F., which is directed against the lead only, «nd at a ■"rr»**'*'* 
gn*«ter dislance. The ohove-niimcd vnlutile tm-luK wii'' 

pbur, arc now driven from the lead, Tib ;'- -■■'■' ♦ •*' 

t)]e melal!^ us iron, tin, and iN>ba]t» wi. 
and copper, are oxidiaed and 
(inly the silver, with 
'remains with the 

or nickel it is diffioalt to dpeiroj thii combinatioD, wltich iloes not 
pomliine n-a/lily witli Ihc lead, but rpinains on top of it, iitnl must be 
lieiiltd a long time with the 0. F. to oxidiisf and »lag oir nil ttu- 
nickf I and arwnio. Sin«, howerer, Ihin comixtimd readily yields it« 
cilviT to Ihu k-nd, no low of «ilTer noed be fturetl, even if I lie iiiwnid« 
uf nickfl is by no meuiiK vnliruly dfKyjtnpoBed. und in many aun-s it 
mAT even be mochnnically ^parsled from the k>»d witli adViiiitage 
arier tlic o^say hiu t-oidi-d. 

Wli(>D tht; volatile parts of tfae assay are nearly gone, a jiart of the 

Iwid is oxidizL^d, nod witli it u truce of thn silver, wiiieh is, liowevi-r, 

Ti-ry trifling. Both nxidcit arc tukcn up by Uic ala^, bat us this in 

alwnyä in contact villi the coal, a portioct of the diosoln-d oxid« of 

Imd, cxceodin^ly p<"tr iii sihvr, is rcdiiovd at the points of contactj 

nccaiiioning it hiihbliiig in the slug. The »}nf^ bus now lo^t irs «pheri* 

cal simpe and liiu spread out, and the rednced globules of lead, lirtt 

8p|K^ring on its borders; arc gradtiiilly ctirrii-d toward the itrgt>n>- 

tifurot» lead button by tke motion of Üie aliig, and nnite witli it. 

Wlii'D the vulatili^ mutters are quite gone, the leud biilluu lu-gins to 

oxidise more rapidly and aKftnracü n rotary motion, while the bnb- 

bltn^ in the slug is livelier. On obAvrviiij; thi.-8e ei^na the coal in 

inclinnl a little, »> that the lead button may pa tootle Hide in c*t^ 

it is qiiitG surrounded by slag, the blust is stopped, and tlio assay 

allowed to cool upon the inclini>d Coiil. Whi'n llivre are few or no 

«utiälitnent« that reiiv^>^ **^ ^' volutilizi-d by uii oxidiKiii^ hIasL a 

ehort tr»»tment only with the O. F, is needed, after the fusion of th« 

silver paTticles with the lead and the ronrer$i»n into slag of the 

«.■ui'lhy iMidiuus and the metallic oxides ofdinicuU reduction. 

The. fusion may he rt-gardi^d oe eompleU'd if, after the tt^mj is cold, 
tlio iirgentiferons lend or xilnfr-ltad, bus a white enlor; if, liowevAr, 
it apfieare bliiek, this ili>[wnd», in cuw of a substance free fnim n>p- 
p(rr, npoD nimr snlpbiir or antimony remaining in it; wiili a inli* 
stance Containing copper, on Ihi: other hund, eilhir uj«in the copper 
alone, or upuu this and both of the others at the same time. Snl- 
phur and antimony cnn be removed in both caws by tivaliug Üie 
attuj itguin with the O. F., bot the copper aui only be «eparated 
together vilh the lead during the ciipellation. lu aa«ayiiig any snb- 
«tanoc for silver, therefore, a white lead cannot be expected If more 
than a trifling amonni of iMpjier is prevent, and we can only assume 
Diat the sniphur is all remoivd when the kud ha« been in ruther 
«trong rotary motion for at least one minute. The complete removal 
of volatile bodies from the lead hy nn osidiüiog foeion is necefsary 
tor two reasooa ; first, becauac the impure lead is generally britUu, 


»nd some of it nur msHt be lost ia breaking off the slu;; mid, 
aocoiidly, becnnse it is liable to «putter on the copel, ofpecwlly wlieo 
oontaiuinj: aulphuE 

TVIien the asBAj is colli, tl>^ alag and Ii^ikI »re liftei] out or tlir 
crucible wilb a IcniTe, luid nn iiii anvil, and tbe slug ecpnraU-d a> 
much us powuble witli a r«w Ktrukea of the liamtner, »Her wincb Üie 
lead is held with tlie Torce]« aiul lienUn iiilu ii cubi*. Should a small 
button of arütnidc of oickcl adhcrv Ut the Kad from a» assay rich in 
nickel, aa mentioned above, an alf'tnpt niiij<t b« made to »epamte it 
here, that it maj not impede thi> cnjicllaiiou. 

Among thp ore«, minerals, and products to Iv fased acconling U> 
the preccding^ method, the most inTiisiblü an; pvrilf», mieiiickfi, ci-r- 
tain nickel and cobalt ore», and snch JivJinleins as consist chiefly of 
aulphid« of iron; tlie oth«r snbstuncvs in Uiit clius fttse, Tor tlir 
moat part, very cusil)', even when miicd vith refractory rarthy 

No rislit remit «DnIJ be obtained if, u bFuinncn TrviiunitlT äa, tW attmpc wwir '— 
tatiAn in pprform ihp (a*\<m of s tilvcr umt wiiti the (1. F,,iiiirFa<«n<iJmit>lpminiwni -^ 
of Icail «uuM be oxiiliaci) nl ilic rcrr btKlnitlnc. itic «xide would iliHoltii In ilic bmsx, ..^ 
«III) btiay m)u(wd by ihc coai. woitld rurui treüi i^lobulcs nf Irmd, nhlth wtxild •ksina 
M portion or ibc tilvcr still (vmaJuItig In ttio alng, On ■itoropiin^.nnaT n few wammtM/-. .^^. 
Iv colli^t III««« t«psrat(il ülbbutM hy iftryinp; the [XHtiiAn uf ih« ctiltf bnlton i» It 

rise, whkh would lidTe »iiToait oat to n tnval «xtciit oicr ilin ciml, nor one* nnniil rofi' 

aianilj ftmnin ihrir place, whith could not bniJUiinxuUlinlfruniihnwcontahiinK "ii^ 
The «pmultniE of the alkg alio rvmlcn ih« nunplctc fuuDn tA the chug« at ihn fcutlii 
uftho cnidtilf iJiincuIi orquiti: iiiipo«fiUc, and nn aat»j In whtdi ihb miful« ha» I 
ronimitlcif should be raetinlcd u ukIcm. [Tbe uinKiM can; man ^ taken to blow i 
tvtluving Baine odI;. during the Ant part «t lh« taüaxi : iheti the h«d cannot osiillie_^ 
the borax and dUMlvnil liodio) «111 rauia a iplurical form aiul ik» adhcra U tha coa)^_ . 
theaSM.v the proper liinCEOaiiljr be mndc to nun over «1)4 cxpoN dte lower | 
of Die pfl[K-r luiil lUarKe. and tlieu. wjuti nil b In proper Aiilon. itic oxiiluina (laioe b 
to be uwd Ml an to ilriie olF the (ulptiiir. etc. WbU« ibe flam« mmt be redneiiic < 
first, it iuB»t »till bo Urfit cnoueh lo k«rp the wh»Ia mus at a pivpcr tcnpcralaiv, anc 
it luiut lif liumo (n mind üiiii ihr hwi pradnco) t» hcaHv at ramtlnl to (tiscm i 
■Ittalllj' of tlie flame. Transl.j Thif limu fW)iiiTc<I for the «Iwrp fti>ion ilrprndii np 
ibe «May to ht tr«kt«il. If It ranlam« a luf^v atneunt of vi>liiti)e ■ulnuuii-i-«. or ■ncfa i 
DiiW Iw *lajDp!iI ofr,d::ht lo im niinntt« an ntcvwarf ; if but lililv.aUHit Rw tulnalc» __ 
Wlwn «cvrrftl uMjn arv to be made ttw second can be ftaKd whil» ibo ftiM U cuoUi^ ^ 

thm til* third ■■ tAbnt up, ind to on, until nil the a«ay« wcti^inl mii ham be*n ftunB 

Tlw»«&7* iniiiil b« arrans«d «ccordinQ to their attnber, lo avoid conhlflon. When lh.-« 
KTcntI nunyi Iiavp brm fuicd the Am onca will t« cold ud «an tbcn be (rrcd fiocr 
(InR in tlicir pioiier order. When but one uuuif ii to be nundc, the cupel lor It c^ ba 
fbrtaed, a« will be dcanfbed tiadar eapallaikin, while the diverted b eooLitig, 





It is well known that the cupölliuion of Üic gilTer.!««! ia un oxid-. 
ttion oociirriiij; at a rc«l-heat with lUTcess of air, hy which (lie lenil 
«fitli olh*r oiidiiuiWe meUils ia aepiinited from the BÜvcr, which 
axidiscs vilh difficnlty. In the blowpipe usmv this oi^idiKing or 
cnpelliiip process is divided into two ptTiodß, vi»., the ITaupllrtibon, 
tin? chii'f t!ii|»fll»liou, or, as we will styU it, tlie hc^rifirtUion, and the 
FeinlrtihtH, or refining cnpellution, which we will cuU the fitte- 
eupellatioti, Thi« diviaiun is neotssury bccunw it is not possible to 
wjtarute a large quantity of k>:id from thv sUvvr in uno jx-riuc], so 

thttt the lutu>r may remain in the form of il pun* round bulUtn, ai 

in thi- mnfUc ussuy. 

We will, therefore, now describe the Srst period, or 


This is tlie «asiest o{>enitioii in the whole silver anay. A citpol 
I of siflnl hone-iish, p. 34, in struck in the cup»! mould, Fig. 4!), a. 
pluocd au the ttUtnd, Fig. 50, und the bonc-iuh heated with the 0. 
iF. iu all piirtj as etronglr a$ {vossible, eo m to remove nny remain- 
ing hygi^.^^eopic mniHtiin*. If ihts lH-H(iug is omitted, the gleam 
«Mraping during Iht- fusion is liuble to (-uiise the le-ail to sputter and 
Xna tost. AftiT heating the cupiil, the Icud is pltu-t-d in ilio middle 
«r it with the forci^ps, and brought into fusion with a rather strong 
O. F., so that the oxtdaliun of tlie rDlutinp Icud begins. During 
this oiH-nttion the cupel is iiictinoct sli^hily buck ward from the lamp, 
and the resnil is eflccted most rapidly by allowing the point of Uie 
blue flame to act directly on the lend. When the loud contains much 
copper or niekel the period of ftuion, before the oiidiitiou bL'gius, 
is Bomewhat prulungi-d, since the copper miikes the lead less fusiblr, 
while thv uicki-I s^-purates us the k-ad begins to oxidiiu-, cuvcriug 
the whole «irfaee with an infuiiblo coat, and caiieiiig a diÖioult 
enpfllatiou, ot-, with too liltli? Inid. eutirely prtnenting' the ä|H-raliun. 
[n I he Utter case, a pit'ce of pure k-ad of from two to ftmr ctr., ac- 
cording to the thickni-s« of I he cruet, must be added U> the silver- 
lend in the cu(m.'1, and then only it> ihe cnpelbition |>u3sible. 

LlVraouB not u(-cn»Iunted to iisiug Hw blowpipe; oumetimes expt^ 
rirncc iDcoQvt'nii-ne« in not immediately causing a large batlon of 
Mlver-l'-ad to oxidise, or else it frttu-* during the pmeesa, becoming 
sovered with a cimt of oxidized lead which they cannot eiuily drive 


iwii}', [ti tJiis CUSP aaoinowhal strvnger blast mtiet be QM.i],Ajid 
kbv Iciid loucli«^! directly wiih the jKiint of tlie lilnc flume, aii<l »rtvr 
[thif liiis itcl«U uiiiiitcrrujiU-tllr on aiw point of the lead buttMU, tl»c 
kiul will soon bc'gui ui oxidize again. 

HVIu'D Ilii* l«ul lia< been broiigbt U> thi' pniixT 

tfm|>fral:lire. for ciiiirlbtttou, tlit: tip uf thu UuU- 

pipe i« thriiül farthiT into th«* lluniv, so aa to 

produce a fliiv bine point, «, Fig. 7i>. »liioh is 

iliroctpd 111 an angle of iibont 30' npttn tbu ox- 

U^^V idixing knd, so that this is ki^pt at s moilvrulr 
FL-d Iiciii, but i» unlv toiicbctl by the oiiti r 
njc m tluhif, uud on uo account by the blue iLtine. 

Tint Bnrptuindinjfiiir thus liag fVee uocesfi, *bilethe l«id |rtndcop|«T) 
■liBorb n ponion of the nxygvn from it and bt'tiimi* oxtdi»-d. Tbv 
oxide formi-d flow» from the u|)r<T »nrfuce of the lead to ilif Iwint.-r _ - 
I'xiitliling pri^niulic colum caust:d bjr tlic intcifvrvnci* of light, uttt 
•»lidtfic« on the cupel behind ttio button to a tinn nuiM (■ullu 
lilbiirge. Pig. 70, r, which hiu n nrddish yt'lluw fVaciureaflcr cuoUug, 
if five from other oiides. When Ihc load cvntsiiis Tt-rr much iilvei 
Ha- priematic colors are It'as dietincC, and thus a large pruiwrtion of 
iilrcr is oltt'adr indicated; if it ooutaiiiä cupper, the u>1or of l^ 
iH>tid lilhurpi* is nt'urlv hluck. 

The cMi)cllation must proceed at »Mther loo high nor iito htyar- 
» 1cni{Knitnre. If it la too bot thu load begins tg rupurl»;, ontl 
Liamp «ilvtT may ewily be mechanically carriwl off, in}x-cially if lb« 
Mead is rich in silver; nion-uwr. the lillnirgt dui'S not eool upon tho 
oapel. hut sinks into it, by which Hpiin a [xirt of tlie sÜTcr is lost. 
«incc thr surface of the h'ud t« covered with loo liltli- fiiscd uxide nt 
l«4d, »lid th« tiilvi^r has u chance li> become oxidized. If the uupel- 
latiun is cam«! on too "cold," and lb« temiN-ratun- is not high 
eniiu);h to continue the »xidntton of thu li^d, the latter iMH^ontr« 
Covered with too much litharge, the molion of ita surfitco c^.■0Al•^ aiul 
it freesff. 

This mifitiike is loss itgnrioas than having too high a tMupt^naan', 
Binoe the ftvzcn asMy can be iiu mediately madu tu oxidize agutn by 
a aimewhat stronger flame, without loas orulver; but thia must not 
occur (il'lcn in tb<> same auüy. 

When thi' scorification proceed» at the proper hcnt, vhicfa cannoi 
be so clearly dncrilied as jwrwived by practici*, the litbar ■ 
''aronttd niid chiefly behind the h-ad, and eulidilies. AfU-r .. - 
}t it has ollect^, aod the lead in iL« midet has too little sarUcc 
cxpdsml. the cup«l is gndually brought into anotber poottioQ with- 



int tQli^rrupting the op«rtLtioD, so tlmt tlw lead, by rauou of i(g 

woiglil, tatty muvB Uj tlic side uf the liihurg«; und es|>uw a grt-aitcr 

surfacv for i)XiduUou. Tlie Iciul liuving tiuullf duoruurd eo niuoli 

tliAt, in au MSAy not very rich in silver, it is only the biso of a 

niiiäiard-$<tod. Flg. 79, ä. aud iu cuw uf u. rich asüay, ubout two or 

thrir^ tiui(.-d oö Urgv. ihc cupel is rcniuved front tiie Suiiie lijr di-ffrvva, 

e«) thüt ihe lead bnttoa luuy wry gnulaully solidify iu the Utliur^e. 

1'hv buttoD will iudved ulwiiyn be suini'wbat ruiäed by the ooiitrAC- 

tiiiii u( Uio couliu^ bttiiir^i;, but if too hibttily druwii swuy frutu ihu 

fljuuli, tbv still »'}ft buttoD will be Leo riolctitly drivi^a uut by Uie 

sulidititMitiuii of tliu liiiiai^c, und a spatleriug of Uiu Icrud, wilb loaa 

«f öiiwer, may vmly occur. 

Notkwtnuit her» be Takm «fa phiMiomi-naig «hifh tonuiioiM appnmr* ai tlivcluwuf 
tin «.-vriScation of n Inui botlvn vorr rieb in nilrrr. W livn kikIi Intil ttM Ik«» m> bir 
oxklUnl (km ii cuni^Kia uf abuui «in or ktc» |iaru of »Üitt to »m: pure uf liaj, >ui| 
mttirwc*! lotxK)) üuvlji Iu iliv Iiilur^e lietlircn ^nuluallir illiiiloUhiii;- tiloirpl)« Asum, n 
g;r>>viKli-v(liiir, eotUr Moble niu*^ Isfori'iil nut iHim tliir MitiiUltin^ kM<l. «rlik-li 1« nluiiiv 
•very rlvti in Mlvor. Il iii>pL-ni> li> U: it lub-wxiiir uf Inul mixcit wiili iriijullk- tilvvr, «riil 
Es |)CvU4blv Iu br n-^nnk-il ns ii plici 301 iu null ulllcil tullic »|in>iiliit|{ at tjlvtr, wbicli Mill 
be ■nu'iiiHiniHl umlL-r ihu äne-i-utKlliiiiun. If unnulii'nl. ilif uivnii^r |un uf ilii> mns> 
Ckll* uff *« Kjioniiiu^ iliv Ii'mI Iruiu ibt- tilbkc^, i-tiiiuiii>]( a not altii{^llii-r auiiii|HM- 
WDI lU9< I'f BÜtur. This evil ci>n \k riiiuvOW tiv irt'titlit); tltv ailiTi liuituii i-uiiiniiiiiq' 
IvhJ imtiwili/iivli' on lb« cii|>i-] nlili ihe It. P..ur rnxlii)^ witli li u iniitll )>iitv of list 
K-od, i*1ii-n ibv whole unlm iiii» a bcitcuii. which cr^iU iviili m (lean «itrfu«. If, thc-rv- 
flbrv, ilvb oKa «r pmdut-tt arn to U' a«iaj%%l, ii i> •Iwhv> wi>lt eiilicr k> tMniinuo ifae 
«eurÜicaiiun only m> far ihm ibi? tuail itlU titna* mui« ihaji ihu «txih iiart of ihn nilvitr, 
«IT, ■« iltiA <3iiiii«( «Iwnyt be kiiuwii Ucfuivhand. nui tu iiuji ili« [itutcM umil ihu kitnr 
Ü tK'ju'l; fni: Iruni lead, m dlbci of wliicb caki ih« )i1ti'nonii:nim will nol iip|inir. 

AtteT tho B(»dOcatir>n, the ]u!id button, wbicb 'n jit, or iurrotiiided 
tir, tbe litbargc>, is titken out togt-tbiT with it, and whfn cool U fnvd 
Jfnjni hII udhcriiig liibiirgt-, wbicb is very easily done by luyiiig the 
'Whole on HI) anvil und pffs^iiig off the fnigilv litburgc livm arouud 
»hi' lintlon Willi the hrnad fac« of the hammer, without touchiug 
ftli« bulluu; any rctnuiuiDg lilburge muy thru b& rvmuved by a fuw 
stnikci of the liamtuor. 


Tbift rM^iiin-H more eare und practice than The pr.ic(>dingo()«riition. 
^'be bout-Ufli reinuiiiiiig from tlie scuriticuiiou which is not [icr* 
oxide of K-iid is bnikiii up with llie email iroM ttpatnlu, 
'T U'iib euoujjh elutriated Iwne-ash to tiU rhc Cupel titould, 
Vr placing on it tbe proper 8laQi|), ic i& struck with a few 
Ihi' b»niuifr iiitoa Mipc-l for the tiiit-riip<-1|}|[i(>ii. This is 
fra, nud if any crock« furm, or por-