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Sir RICHARD C. JEBB, Litt. D., 





First Edition 1883. 

Second Edition 1887. Third Edition {stereotyped) 1893. 

Reprinted igo^, 19 14 



T N preparing a second edition of this volume, I have profited 
■*■ by several criticisms with which the work has been favoured, 
and by various other contributions to the study of Sophocles 
which have come into my hands since 1883. The modification 
of detail which is chiefly noticeable in the present edition is the 
substitution of English for Latin as the language of the critical 
notes on the text. Without having altered the opinion which I 
formerly expressed, that Latin possesses unequalled merits for 
this purpose, I had been led to feel that a combination of Latin 
critical notes with an English commentary on the same page 
suffered from a certain want of unity and harmony. There seemed 
to be also a practical objection, viz., that some readers were 
harassed by the change of mental attitude involved in turning 
from a Latin to an English note on the same passage. The 
intrinsic superiority of Latin as a vehicle of textual criticism 
could hardly be deemed to outweigh these disadvantages ; and 
it is by this consideration that my choice has now been decided. 
The Autotype Facsimile of the Laurentian MS. of Sophocles, 
published in 1885 by the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic 
Studies, is by far the most important boon ever conferred on 
students of the text. A possessor of this perfectly executed and 
durable photograph commands an aid of indefinitely greater value 
than the most minute and most exact collation ; so far, indeed, as 
the purposes of textual criticism are concerned, he has the 



manuscript itself before him. I have used the facsimile in care- 
fully verifying the report of the Laurentian readings given in my 
first edition, and on a few points have been enabled to supple- 
ment it, or to render it more precise. In this connection I may 
briefly advert to another point of detail which distinguishes the 
present re-issue. Some of my friendly critics in Germany have 
observed that those MSS. which are later than the Laurentian, 
and which are all more or less signally inferior to it, were 
reported in my first edition with a superfluous fulness, which 
somewhat encumbered the critical apparatus, and also tended to 
obscure the leading facts. The view which, for a long period 
of time, has been steadily gaining ground in Germany is that, 
whether the Laurentian MS. is or is not actually the sole source 
of all the other MSS. of Sophocles now extant, at least the cases 
are very rare in which any correction of the Laurentian by 
another MS. is of a higher order than could have been furnished 
by a grammarian's conjecture. The difficulties in the way of sup- 
posing the Laurentian to be, in fact, the unique source still seem 
to me very considerable. But the experience gradually gained 
in the progress of this work has impressed me, more and more, 
with the truth of the other proposition just noticed, — viz., that 
. the positive worth of the corrections supplied by the other MSS. 
is no greater than it easily might have been if the Laurentian 
were their common parent Forty years have passed since 
Cobet first maintained that the Laurentian is the MS. from 
which all the rest have been immediately or indirectly tran- 
scribed ; and, though I cannot share the confidence with which 
that view has since been defended by such scholars as Dindorf 
and Moriz SeyrTert, I can now comprehend it, at least, better 
than formerly. Be our view of the genealogical facts what it 


may, it cannot be questioned that, in critical notes on the text 
of Sophocles, the paramount significance of the Laurentian MS. 
must be brought into clear and bold relief. Dindorf effects this 
by referring to the later MSS. under the generic name of ' apo- 
grapha/ Mekler, in the 6th Teubner edition of Dindorfs text 
(1885) uses the letter 'r' to denote ' lectio e recentiorum 
librorum consensu aut uno alterove ducta.' This symbol, *r' 
has been adopted by me in the critical notes of this edition 
to denote 'one or more of the MSS. other than the Laurentian'; 
but it is used only in those cases where a more specific 
statement was unnecessary. By thus combining the use of a 
general symbol with occasional recourse to more particular 
statement, I have sought to exhibit the relative importance of 
the documents in a just perspective, without any undue sacrifice 
of precision. 

The commentary, as it is now set forth, will furnish suffi- 
cient evidence of the desire which I have felt to profit by any 
criticism which has convinced my own judgment, and to express 
gratitude for such criticism in the most practical form. Among 
my foreign reviewers, mention is due to Professor Wecklein, 
and to Dr Kaibel, the editor of the Epigrammata Graeca. 
To the latter I am indebted for calling my attention to 
epigraphic evidence of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. in regard 
to the Attic orthography of certain words. The Grammatik der 
Attischen Inschriften, by Professor Meisterhans (1885), is an 
excellent hand-book of reference on this subject 1 . Among 
English critics, I owe grateful acknowledgments to the authors 

1 In v. 68 I should have given yvpurKov, not eiipicKov, had I then known the 
evidence collected by Meisterhans from Attic inscriptions of the 5th and 4th centuries 
B.C. for the temporal augment in the historical tenses of verbs beginning with cw. 
Following that evidence, I have given qfyn;*' in 546 and T]i>pi)<rdcu in 1050. 

viii PREFACE. 

of unsigned reviews in several journals, as well as to some 
eminent scholars whom I am permitted to thank by name, — 
Professor Butcher, — whose examination of this work, in the 
Fortnightly Review, has been to me an exceptionally valuable 
source alike of instruction and of stimulus, — Professor Tyrrell, 
Mr A. Sidgwick, and Mr R. Whitelaw. The criticisms of Mr 
Whitelaw occupy a large space in the Transactions of the 
Cambridge Philological Society for 1886. Although I have not 
always been able to agree with his views, I have been indebted 
to them for amendments on some points, and have never differed 
from them without careful consideration ; nor has anything 
given me more pleasure in connection with this book than the 
very kind and generous manner in which he has referred to it. 

I must once again express my best thanks to the Managers 
and staff of the Cambridge University Press. 

The College, Glasgow, 
November, 1887. 


Introduction page xi — li 

§ i. General characteristics of the play and of the fable. S 
§ 2. References in the Homeric Poems. § 3. Other epic versions. 
§ 4. Pindar. § 5. The logographers. § 6. The dramatists. — y 

^§7. Sophocles. Original features of his plot. §8. Imagined 
antecedents. § 9. Analysis. 7 " § 10. Aristotle's criticisms/ The 
element of improbability. § 11. The characters. y § 12. Oedipus. 
§ 13. Iocasta. § 14. Teiresias. Creon. § 15. Supposed allusions 
to contemporary events. Alleged defeat of the play. §16. The 
actor Polus. Significance of a story concerning him. 

§ 17. Other plays on the subject. § 18. The Oedipus of 
Seneca. § 19. His relation to Sophocles. § 20. The Oedipe of 
Corneille. § 21. The Oedipus of Drydem § 22. The Oedipe of 
Voltaire. § 23. His criticisms. § 24. Essential difference between 
Sophocles and the moderns. § 25. Their references to prophetic 
instinct in Oedipus and Iocasta. § 26. The improbable element S 
— how managed by the moderns. 

§ 27. Recent revivals of Greek plays. § 28. The Oedipus 
Tyrannus — a crucial experiment. § 29. The result at Harvard. 
§ 30. Oedipe Roi at the Theatre Frangais. — Conclusion. 

Manuscripts, Editions, etc lii — lxii 

Metrical Analysis lxiii — xcv 

Ancient Arguments to the Play ; Dramatis Personae ; 

Structure . 3 — 9 

Text 10 — 200 

Appendix 201 — 234 

Indices 235 — 251 


§ I. The Oedipus Tyrannus is in one sense the masterpiece 
of Attic Tragedy. No other shows an equal degree of art in 
the development of the plot ; and this excellence depends on the 
powerful and subtle drawing of the characters. Modern drama, 
where minor parts can be multiplied and scene changed at 
will, can more easily divorce the two kinds of merit. Some 
of Voltaire's plays, for instance, not first-rate in other ways, are 
models of ingenious construction. The conditions of the Greek 
stage left less room for such a result. In the Oedipus Tyrannus 
the highest constructive skill is seen to be intimately and 
necessarily allied with the vivid delineation of a few persons. 

Here it is peculiarly interesting to recover^ so far as we 
can, the form in which the story of Oedipus came to Sopho- 
cles ; to remark what he has altered or added ; and to see how 
the same subject has been handled by other dramatists. 

The essence of the myth is the son slaying his unknown 
father, and thereby fulfilling a decree of fate. The subsequent 
marriage, if not an original part of the story, seems to have 
been an early addition. The central ideas are, (i) the irresis- 
tible power of destiny, and (2) the sacredness of the primary 
natural ties, as measured by the horror of an unconscious sin 
against it. The direct and simple form in which these ideas 
are embodied gives the legend an impress of high antiquity. 
This might be illustrated by a comparison with the story of 
Sohrab and Rustum as told in Mr Matthew Arnold's beautiful 
poem. The slaying of the unknown son by the father is there 
surrounded with a pathos and a chivalrous tenderness which 
have no counterpart in the grim simplicity of the Oedipus myth, 
as it appears in its earliest known shape. 


Homeric § 2. The Iliad, which knows the war of Polyneices and his 

Poems. allies against Thebes (4. 378), once glances at the tale of 

Oedipus — where Mecisteus, father of Euryalus, is said to have 

visited Thebes in order to attend tne funeral games which were 

celebrated after the death of Oedipus (23. 679 f.) : — 

05 irore Srj/3aaB > tf\6e BeSovTroro? OlSiiroSao 

€5 T(i<f)OV, 

— * who came to Thebes of yore, when Oedipus had fallen, to his 

The word Se8ot>7roTo? plainly refers to a violent death in 
fight, or at the hand of an assassin ; it would not be in accord 
with the tone of epic language to understand it as a figurative 
phrase for a sudden fall from greatness. But more than this the 
Iliad does not tell. The poet of the 23rd book imagines 
Oedipus as having died by violence, and received burial at 
Thebes, in the generation before the Trojan war. 

The Nekyia in the Odyssey gives the earliest sketch of an 
integral story (11. 271 ff.) : — 

M.rjT6pa t OlSiiroSao l8ov, koKt)v ^TTLicdarr)V t 
rj fieya epyov epegev dlBpelrja-t vooio 
^lia/JLevrj <p vler 6 5' ov iraTep i%€vapii;a<; 
tyrjfxev acfrap S' avdirvaTa 6eol Oecrav dvQpdniroiGiv, 
a\V 6 fjiev iv ®r//3r) iroXvrjpaTO) aXyea irda^wv 
KaB/ielcov ijvaaae 6ewv okoas Bid ftovXd?' 
rj 8' 'ijBr] els 'AtSao 7rv\dprao /cparepoh, 
dyfra/jiipr) ftpo^ov aiirvv d(f vyj/rjXolo fxekdOpov, 
w a%€l a^ofjbevT]' ru> K dXyea icdXknr biridaoa 
TroWd fid\\ oaaa re fjLrjrpos 'Eptwe? i/creXeovcTiv. 

'And I saw the mother of Oedipodes, fair Epicaste, who wrought a 
dread deed with unwitting mind, in that she wedded her son ; but he 
had slain his father ere he wedded her; and presently the gods made 
these things known among men. Yet he still ruled over the Cadmeans 
in lovely Thebes, suffering anguish by the dire counsels of the gods ; 
but she went to the house of Hades, the strong warder, when she had 
fastened a noose on high from the roof-beam, possessed by her pain ; 
and to him she bequeathed sorrows full many, even all that a mother's 
Avengers bring to pass.' 


With regard to this outline in the Odyssey, it is to be noted 
that it ignores (a) the deliverance of Thebes from the Sphinx — 
though this may be implied in the marriage with Epicaste : 
{b) the self-blinding of Oedipus : (c) the expulsion of Oedipus 
from Thebes — herein agreeing with the indication in the Iliad. 
It further seems to exclude the notion of Epicaste having borne 
children to Oedipus, since the discovery followed 'presently' 
on the union,— unless, indeed, by acjxip the poet merely meant 
' suddenly.' 

§ 3. Lost poems of Hesiod may have touched on the story Other epic 
of Oedipus ; but in his extant work there is only a passing v€ 
reference to the war at Thebes (between Polyneices and 
Eteocles), in which heroes fell, 'fighting for the flocks of 
Oedipus.' Hesiod knows the Sphinx as the daughter of 
Echidna and as the pest of Thebes 1 . 

But the story of Oedipus was fully treated in some of those 
lost epics which dealt with the Theban cycle of myths. One of 
these was the ' Oedipodeial OlSLiroBeia (eV^). According to this, 
the four children of Oedipus were not borne by Iocasta, but by 
a second wife, Euryganeia. Pausanias, who follows this account, 
does not know the author of the poem 2 . It will be observed 
that this epic agrees with the Odyssey in not making Iocasta 
bear issue to Oedipus. It is by Attic writers, so far as we know, 
that she was first described as doing so. Poets or logographers 
who desired to preserve the favour of Dorians had a reason for 
avoiding that version. There were houses which traced their 
line from the children of Oedipus, — as Theron, tyrant of Acragas, 
claimed descent from Thersandros, son of Polyneices 3 . To 
represent these children as the offspring of an incestuous 

1 Hes. Op. 162: war slew the heroes, Toi/% [i£v e0' eirTairijXcj} Qrj^r)...fiapvajj^i>ovi 
wf/Xuv ^vck' Oldtwodao. The Sphinx : Theog. 326, rj 5' (Echidna) &pa <£?*' 6\oty T&e, 
Kad/xeloiaiv 6\e6pov. The hill near Thebes on which the Sphinx sat was called $liceiov 
6pos. References in lost Hesiodic poems: schol. on //. 23. 680. 

2 He speaks merely of 6 to, £71-77 iroir]<ras a Ol5nr66eta 6vo/xa£ov<xt (9. 5. n). But the 
inscription known as the 'marraor Borgianum' refers it to Cinaethon, a Lacedae- 
monian poet who treated epically the Dorian family legends, and who is said to have 
flourished about 775 B.C. Pausanias, however, who quotes Cinaethon on several 
points of genealogy, certainly did not regard the Oedipodeia as his work. 

» Pind. 01. 2. 35. 


union would have been to declare the stream polluted at its 

We learn from Proclus that in the epic called the Cyprian 
Lays (Kv7rpia), which included the preparations for the Trojan 
war, Nestor related 'the story of Oedipus' (to, irepl OlBiirovv) 
in the course of a digression (eV irapeicftaaei) which comprised 
also the madness of Heracles, as well as the story of Theseus 
and Ariadne. This was probably one of the sources used by 
the Attic dramatists. Another source, doubtless more fertile in 
detail, was the epic entitled the Thebaid (©77 fiats), and now 
usually designated as the 'Cyclic Thebaid/ to distinguish it from 
a later epic of the same name by Antimachus of Colophon, the 
contemporary of Euripides. Only about 20 verses remain from 
it 1 . The chief fragment relates to the curse pronounced by 
Oedipus on his sons. They had broken his strict command by 
setting on his table the wine-cups {eKiroofiara) used by Lai'us; 
and he invoked a curse upon them : — 

al^fra Be iratcrlv koZvt, fier afx^oTepotatv eirapa<i 

apyaXeas r/pdro* Oeov 8' ov "kavQav 'Eipivvv 

ok ov ol irarpdaV evrjeir) <f>tX6rr)TO^ 

Sao-aaiiT, aficporepoio-t, 8' eot, 7rdXe/io? re lidyai re. 

'And straightway, while his two sons were by, he uttered dire 
curses, — and the Avenging goddess failed not to hear them, — that they 
should divide their heritage in no kindly spirit, but that war and strife 
should be ever between them.' 

This Thebaid — tracing the operation of a curse through the 
whole history of the house — must have had an important share 
in moulding the conception of the Aeschylean trilogy. 

Pindar. § 4. Pindar touches on the story of Oedipus in Ol. 2. 42 ff. 

Destiny has often brought evil fortune after good, — 
cf ovirep e/creive Aaov ixopifio? via? 
crvvavTOfjievos, ev Be Uvdwvi ^prjaOev 
ira\ai<j)aTov reXeaaev' 
IBotaa 8' 6%eV 'Rpwv? 
eirefoe ol avv aXkaXofyovla yevos dprjiov — 

1 See the Didot ed. of the Cyclic fragments, p. 587. 


* — from the day when his doomed son met Laius and killed him, and 
accomplished the word given aforetime at Pytho. But the swift Erinys 
beheld it, and slew his warlike sons, each by the other's sword.' 

Here the Fury is represented as destroying the sons in direct 
retribution for the parricide, not in answer to the imprecation of 
Oedipus. A fragment of Pindar alludes to the riddle of the 
Sphinx, and he uses 'the wisdom of Oedipus' to denote counsel 
wrapped in dark sayings, — since the skill which solves riddling 
speech can weave it 1 . 

§ 5. The logographers could not omit the story of Oedipus Thelogo- 
in a systematic treatment of the Theban myths. Hellanicus of grap e 
Mitylene (circ. 450 B.C.) is mentioned by the Scholiast on the 
Phoenissae (61) as agreeing with Euripides in regard to the self- 
blinding of Oedipus 2 . The contemporary Pherecydes of Leros 
(usually called ' Athenian ' since Athens was his home) treated 
the legends of Thebes in the fifth of ten books forming a com- 
prehensive survey of Greek tradition 8 . According to him, Iocasta 
bore two sons to Oedipus, who were slain by the Minyae : but, 
as in the Oedipodeia, his second wife Euryganeia bore Eteocles 
and Polyneices, Antigone and Ismene. This seems to be the 
earliest known version which ascribes issue to the marriage of 
Iocasta with Oedipus. 

§ 6. However incomplete this sketch may be relatively to The dra- 
the materials which existed in the early part of the fifth century matlsts - 
B.C., it may at least serve to suggest the general conditions under 
which Tragedy entered on the treatment of the subject. The 
story of Oedipus, defined in its main features by a tradition older 
than the Odyssey, had been elaborated in the epics of later poets 
and the prose of chroniclers. There were versions differing in 
detail, and allowing scope for selection. While the great outlines 

1 Pind. fr. 62 alvvyixa irapdtvov \ &; dypiav yviduv. Pyth. 4. 263 rav Ol5iir65a 
Go<plav. Pindar's elder contemporary Corinna had sung of Oedipus as delivering 
Thebes not only from the Sphinx but also from rty Tev/xTjaalav d\c67re/ca — a fox from 
the Boeotian village of Teumessus : but we hear no more of this less formidable 
pest. (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. p. 949.) 

2 Miiller, Frag. Histor. I. 85. 
8 Miiller, ib. 1. 48. 


were constant, minor circumstances might be adapted to the 
dramatist's chosen view. 

Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides agree in a trait which 
does not belong to any extant version before theirs. Iocasta, not 
Euryganeia, is the mother of Eteocles and Polyneices, Antigone 
and Ismene. They agree also in connecting the doom of the 
two brothers with a curse pronounced by Oedipus. Neither 
the scanty fragments 1 which alone represent the Oedipus of 
Euripides, nor the hints in the Phoenissae, enable us to de- 
termine the distinctive features of his treatment. With regard 
to Aeschylus, though our knowledge is very meagre, it suffices 
at least to show the broad difference between his plan and that 
of Sophocles. 
Aeschylus. Aeschylus treated the story of Oedipus as he treated the story 
of Agamemnon. Oedipus became the foremost figure of a 
trilogy which traced the action of an inherited curse in the house 
of Labdacus, even as the Oresteia traced the action of such a 
curse in the house of Pelops. That trilogy consisted of the 
Lai'us, the Oedipus, and the extant Seven against Thebes; the 
satyric drama being the Sphinx. From the Lams only a few 

1 Nauck Eur. Fragm. 544 — 561, to which Unger adds Soph. fr. incert. 663, 
Meineke adespota 107, 309, others adesp. 6. Almost all the verses are commonplaces. 
From fr. 546, 547 I should conjecture that the Creon of Eur. defended himself 
against a charge of treason in a passage parallel with Soph. 0. T. 583 — 615. One 
fragment of two lines is curious (545) : rjfieis 5e HoXtfiov 7rcu5' ipdcravret ire'dcp \ i£ojx- 
fx.arovfji.ev kcli di6X\v/xev ndpas. Quoting these, the Schol. on Eur. Ph. 61 says: 4v 8e 
t$ Oldlirodi 61 Aatov defjairovTes ird^Xwaau avrdv. This would seem to mean that, 
after the discovery, the old retainers of Laius blinded Oedipus — for the Schol. is 
commenting on the verse which says that he was blinded by himself. But the tragic 
force of the incident depends wholly on its being the king's own frantic act. I incline 
to suspect some error on the Scholiast's part, which a knowledge of the context might 
possibly have disclosed. 

From the prologue of the Phoenissae it appears that Eur. imagined Oedipus to have 
been found on Cithaeron by the liriro^oiKoKoi. of Polybus, and taken by them to the 
latter's wife. The Iocasta of Eur. herself relates in that play how, when the sons of 
Oed. grew up, they held him a prisoner in the palace at Thebes — that the disgrace 
might be hidden from men's eyes. It was then that he pronounced a curse upon 
them. When they have fallen, fighting for the throne, Iocasta kills herself over their 
bodies, and Creon then expels Oedipus from Thebes. The mutilated virddeais to 
the Phoenissae does not warrant us in supposing that the Oertomaus and Chrysippus 
of Eur.,— the latter containing the curse of Pelops on Laius— formed a trilogy with 
his Oedipus. 


words remain ; from the Oedipus, three verses ; but some general 
idea of the Oedipus may be gathered from a passage in the 
Seven against Thebes (772 — 791). Oedipus had been pictured 
by Aeschylus, as he is pictured by Sophocles, at the height of 
fame and power. He who had delivered Thebes from 'the 
devouring pest ' (rav dpira^dvhpav /cr/pa) was admired by all 
Thebans as the first of men. ' But when, hapless one, he came 
to knowledge of his ill-starred marriage, impatient of his pain, 
with frenzied heart he wrought a twofold ill': he blinded 
himself, and called down on his sons this curse, that one day 
they should divide their heritage with the sword. ' And now I 
tremble lest the swift Erinnys bring it to pass/ 

Hence we see that the Oedipus of Aeschylus included the 
imprecation of Oedipus upon his sons. This was essential to 
the poet's main purpose, which was to exhibit the continuous 
action of the Erinnys in the house. Similarly the La'ius doubtless 
included the curse called down on Lai'us by Pelops, when bereft 
by him of his son Chrysippus. The true climax of the Aeschylean 
Oedipus would thus have consisted, not in the discovery alone, 
but in the discovery followed by the curse. And we may safely 
infer that the process of discovery indicated in the Seven against 
Thebes by the words eVel S' dprtypcov | iyev6To...ydficov (778) was 
not comparable with that in the play of Sophocles. It was 
probably much more abrupt, and due to some of those more 
mechanical devices which were ordinarily employed to bring 
about a ' recognition ' on the stage. The Oedipus of Aeschylus, 
however brilliant, was only a link in a chain which derived its 
essential unity from ' the mindful ErinnysA. 

§ 7. The Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles was not part of a Sophocles 
trilogy, but a work complete in itself. The proper climax of such 
a work was the discovery, considered in its immediate effects, not 
in its ulterior consequences. Here the constructive art of the //v 
dramatist would be successful in proportion as the discovery was 
naturally prepared, approached by a process of rising interest, 
and attended in the moment of fulfilment with the most 
astounding reversal of a previous situation. In regard to the Original 
structure of the plot, this is what Sophocles has achieved. Before ^fpiof ° f 

3 J.S. I. b 


giving an analysis of his plot, we must notice two features of it 
which are due to his own invention. 

(i) According to previous accounts, the infant Oedipus, 
when exposed on Mount Cithaeron, had been found by herds- 
men, and reared either in Southern Boeotia, or at Sicyon, a place 
associated with the worship of the Eumenides. Sophocles 
makes the Theban herd of Lai'us give the babe to the herd 
of Polybus, king of Corinth, who rears it as his own. Thus are 
prepared the two convergent threads of evidence which meet in 
the final discovery. And thus, too, the belief of Oedipus con- 
cerning his own parentage becomes to him a source, first of 
anxiety, then of dread, then of hope — in contrast, at successive 
moments, with that reality which the spectators know. 

(2) The only verses remaining from the Oedipus of Aeschylus 
show that in that drama Oedipus encountered and slew Laius at 
a meeting of three roads near Potniae, a place in Boeotia, on the 
road leading from Thebes to Plataea. At the ruins of this place 
Pausanias saw 'a grove of Demeter and Persephone' 1 . It ap- 
pears to have been sacred also to those other and more terrible 
goddesses who shared with these the epithet of iroTvim, — the 
Eumenides (iroTvidhes Oeal, Eur. Or. 318). For the purpose of 
Aeschylus, no choice of a scene could have been more fitting. 
The father and son, doomed by the curse in their house, are 
brought together at a spot sacred to the Erinnyes : — 

eirfj/jLev rr]<; ohov rpo^rfkarov 
cxi<TTf}<; Ke\ev6ov rploSov, evda crv/jL&oXa? 
Tpiwv KeXevdcov HorvidScov 1J/JLel/3o//,€V 2 , 

* We were coming in our journey to the spot from which three high- 
roads part, where we must pass by the junction of triple ways at Potniae.' 

But for Sophocles this local fitness did not exist. For him, 
the supernatural agency which dominates the drama is not that 
of the Furies, but of Apollo. He transfers the scene of the 
encounter from the ' three roads ' at Potniae to the ' three roads ' 
near Daulia 8 in Phocis. The 4 branching ways ' of Potniae can no 

1 &\<ros A^/aj/t/jos teal Kdprjs, 9. 8. 1. 

a Aesch. fr. 173 (Nauck). 

3 Z>a«/*'jwasthe Homeric form of the name, Daulia the post-homeric (Strabo 9. 423). 


longer be traced. But in the Phocian pass a visitor can still feel 
how the aspect of nature is in unison with the deed of which 
Sophocles has made it the theatre 1 . This change of locality has 
something more than the significance of a detail. It symbolises 
the removal of the action from the control of the dark Avenging 
Powers to a region within the influence of that Delphian god who 
is able to disclose and to punish impurity, but who will also give 
final rest to the wanderer, final absolution to the weary mourner 
of unconscious sin. - - , A/ c& /0 s / p/ ^ 

§ 8. The events which had preceded the action of the Oedipus Supposed 
Tyrannus are not set forth, after the fashion of Euripides, in a ents of ^ e 
formal prologue. They have to be gathered from incidental hints P lot - 
in the play itself. It is an indispensable aid to the full compre- 
hension of the drama that we should first connect these hints into 
a brief narrative of its antecedents as imagined by Sophocles. 

Lams, king of Thebes, being childless, asked the oracle of 
Apollo at Delphi whether it was fated that a son should be born 
to him. The answer was, ' I will give thee a son, but it is doomed 
that thou leave the sunlight by the hands of thy child : for thus 
hath spoken Zeus, son of Cronus, moved by the dread curse of 
Pelops, whose own son (Chrysippus) thou didst snatch from him ; 
and he prayed all this for thee.' When a son was indeed born 
to Lai'us of Iocasta his wife, three days after the birth he caused 
it to be exposed in the wilds of Mount Cithaeron. An iron pin 
was driven through the feet of the babe, fastening them together 
— that, if perchance it should live to be found by a stranger, he 
might have the less mind to rear a child so maimed ; from which 
maiming the child was afterwards called Oedipus 2 . 

The man chosen to expose the babe received it from the 
hands of the mother, Iocasta herself, with the charge to destroy 
it. This man was a slave born in the house of Lai'us, and so be- 
longing to the class of slaves whom their masters usually treated 
with most confidence. He was employed in tending the flocks 

1 See the note on verse 733. 

2 The incident of the pierced feet was evidently invented to explain the name 
Oidlirovs ('Swellfoot,' as Shelley renders it). In v. 397 6 /xrjdh eid&s Oidiirovs suggests 
& play on oUa. 



of La'ius on Mount Cithaeron, where they were pastured during 
the half-year from March to September. 

In the glens of Cithaeron he had consorted with another 
herdsman, servant to Polybus, king of Corinth. Seized with 
pity for the babe, the Theban gave it to this herdsman of Polybus, 
who took it to Corinth. Polybus and his wife Merope were 
childless. They reared the child as their own ; the Corinthians 
regarded him as heir to the throne ; and he grew to a man's estate 
without doubting that he was the true son of the Corinthian 
king and queen. 

But one day it chanced that at a feast a man heated with 
wine threw out a word which sank into the young prince's mind ; 
he questioned the king and queen, whose resentment of the 
taunt comforted him ; yet he felt that a whisper was creeping 
abroad ; and he resolved to ask the truth from Apollo himself at 
Delphi. Apollo gave him no answer to the question touching 
his parentage, but told him these things — that he was doomed to 
slay his father, and to defile his mother's bed. 

He turned away from Delphi with the resolve never again to 
see his home in Corinth ; and took the road which leads east- 
ward through Phocis to Boeotia. 

At that moment La'ius was on his way from Thebes to 
Delphi, where he wished to consult the oracle. He was not 
escorted by the usual armed following of a king, but only by 
four attendants. The party of five met Oedipus at a narrow 
place near the * Branching Roads' in Phocis ; a quarrel occurred; 
and Oedipus slew Lams, with three of his four attendants. The 
fourth escaped, and fled to Thebes with the tale that a band of 
robbers had fallen upon their company. This sole survivor was 
the very man who, long years before, had been charged by La'ius 
and Iocasta to expose their infant son on Cithaeron. 

The Thebans vainly endeavoured to find some clue to the 
murderer of La'ius. But, soon after his death, their attention was 
distracted by a new trouble. The goddess Hera — hostile to 
Thebes as the city of her rival Semele — sent the Sphinx to 
afflict it, — a monster with the face of a maiden and the body of a 
winged lion ; who sat on a hill near Thebes (the QUetov opos), 
and chanted a riddle. 'What is the creature which is two-footed,. 


three-footed, and four-footed ; and weakest when it has most 
feet?' Every failure to find the answer cost the Thebans a life. 
Hope was deserting them ; even the seer Teiresias had no help 
to give; when the wandering stranger, Oedipus, arrived. He 
solved the enigma by the word man : the Sphinx hurled herself 
from a rock ; and the grateful Thebans gave the vacant throne 
to their deliverer as a free gift. At the same time he married 
Iocasta, the widow of La'ius, and sister of Creon son of Menoeceus. 

The sole survivor from the slaughter of Laius and his com- 
pany was at Thebes when the young stranger Oedipus ascended 
the throne. The man presently sought an audience of the queen 
Iocasta, knelt to her, and, touching her hand in earnest supplica- 
tion, entreated that he might be sent to his old occupation of 
tending flocks in far-off pastures. It seemed a small thing for so 
old and faithful a servant to ask ; and it was readily granted. 

An interval of about sixteen years may be assumed between 
these events and the moment at which the Oedipus Tyrannies 
opens. Iocasta has borne four children to Oedipus : Eteocles, 
Polyneices, Antigone, Ismene. Touches in the closing scene of 
the play forbid us to suppose that the poet imagines the daugh- 
ters as much above the age of thirteen and twelve respectively. 
Oedipus has become thoroughly established as the great king, 
the first of men, to whose wisdom Thebans turn in every trouble. 

And now a great calamity has visited them. A blight is' 
upon the fruits of the earth ; cattle are perishing in the pastures; 
the increase of the womb is denied ; and a fiery pestilence is 
ravaging the town. While the fumes of incense are rising to 
the gods from every altar, and cries of anguish fill the air, a body 
of suppliants — aged priests, youths, and children — present them- 
selves before the wise king. He, if any mortal, can help them. 
It is here that the action opens. 

§ 9. The drama falls into six main divisions or chapters. Analysis of 
The following analysis exhibits in outline the mechanism of the the plot * 
plot, which deserves study. 

I. Prologue: 1 — 150. Oedipus appears as the great prince 
whom the Thebans rank second only to the gods. He pledges 


himself to relieve his afflicted people by seeking the murderer of 

Parodos: 151 — 215. The Chorus bewail the pestilence and 
invoke the gods. 

II. First Episode: 216 — 462. Oedipus publicly invokes a 
solemn curse upon the unknown murderer of Laius. At Creon's 
suggestion he sends for the seer Teiresias, who refuses to speak, 
but finally, stung by taunts, denounces Oedipus himself as the 

slayen ] (a t^i 

First Stasimon: 463 — 512. The Chorus forebode_ that jthe 
unknown murderer is doomed ; they refuse to believe the 
unproved charge brought by the seer. 

III. Second Episode: 513 — 862. Creon protests against the 
suspicion that he has suborned Teiresias to accuse Oedipus. 
Oedipus is unconvinced. Iocasta stops the quarrel, and Creon 
departs. Oedipus then tells her that he has been charged with 
the murder of Laius. She replies that he need feel no dis- 
quietude. Laius, according to an oracle, was to have been slain 
by his own son ; but the babe was exposed on the hills ; and 
Laius was actually slain by robbers, at the meeting of three roads. 

This mention of three roads (v. 716) strikes the first note of 
alarm in the mind of Oedipus. 

He questions her as to (1) the place, (2) the time, (3) the per- 
son and the company of La'fus. All confirm his fear that he 
has unwittingly done the deed. 

He tells her his whole story — the taunt at Corinth — the visit 
to Delphi — the encounter in Phocis. But he has still one hope. 
The attendant of Lai'us who escaped spoke of robbers, not of one 

Let this survivor — now a herdsman — be summoned and 

1 Second Stasimon: 863 — 910. The Chorus utter a prayer 
against arrogance — such as the king's towards Creon ; and 
impiety — suchTas they find in Iocasta's mistrust of oracles. 

IV. Third Episode: 911 — 1085. A messenger from Corinth 
announces that Polybus is dead, and that Oedipus is now king 


designate. Iocasta and Oedipus exult in the refutation of the 
oracle which had destined Oedipus to slay his sire. 

But Oedipus still dreads the other predicted horror — union 
with his mother. 

The messenger, on learning this, discloses that Polybus and 
Merope were not the parents of Oedipus. The messenger 
himself, when a herdsman in the service of Polybus, had found 
the infant Oedipus on Cithaeron, and had brought him to 
Corinth. Yet no — not found him; had received him from ano ther 
herdsman (v. 1040). 

Who was this other herdsman ? The Corinthian replies : — 
He was said to be one of the people of Lams. 

Iocasta implores Oedipus to search no further. He answers 
that he cares not how lowly his birth may prove to be — he will 
search to the end. With a cry of despair, Iocasta rushes away. 

Third Stasimon: 1086 — 1109. The Chorus joyously fore- 
tell that Oedipus will prove to be a native of the land — perchance 
of seed divine. 

V. Fourth Episode: 11 10 — 1185. The Theban herdsman 
is brought in 1 . 

' There/ says the Corinthian, ' is the man who gave me the 
child.' Bit by bit, the whole truth is wrung from the Theban. 
' The babe was the son of Lafus ; the wife of La'fus gave him to 
me.' Oedipus knows all, and with a shriek of misery he rushes 

Fourth Stasimon: 11 86 — 1222. The Choru&Jbfiwail the 
great kingVfall. 

VI. Exodos: 1223 — 1530. A messenger from the house 
announces that Iocasta has hanged herself, and that Oedipus 
has put out his eyes. Presently Oedipus is led forth. With 
passionate lamentation he beseeches the Chorus of Theban 
Elders to banish or slay him. 

1 The original object of sending ior him had been to ask, — 'Was it the deed of 
several men, or of one?' — a last refuge. But he is not interrogated on that point. 
Voltaire criticised this as inconsistent. It is better than consistent ; it is natural. A 
more urgent question has thrust the other out of sight. 


Creon comes to lead him into the house. Oedipus obtains 
from him a promise of care for his young daughters ; they are 
presently brought to their father, who takes what he intends to 
be a last farewell. For he craves to be sent out of the land ; 
but Creon replies that Apollo must pronounce. 

As Creon leads Oedipus within, the Chorus speak the 
closing words : No mortal must be called happy on this side 

The With reference to the general structure of the plot, the first 

discovery. P°int to observe is the skill with which Sophocles has managed 
those two threads of proof which he created by his invention of 
the second herdsman. 
We have : — 

(i) The thread of evidence from the reported statement 
of the Theban herdsman as to the place of the murder, in con- 
nection with Iocasta's statement as to the time, the person of 
La'fus, and the retinue. This tends to show that Oedipus has 
slain Lai'us — being presumably in no wise his kinsman. The 
proof of Oedipus having slain Lai'us is so far completed at 
754 (alal, rah' rj^rj hiafyavrj) as to leave no longer any moral 
doubt on the mind of Oedipus himself. 

(2) The thread of evidence from the Corinthian, showing, 
in the first instance, that Oedipus is not the son of Polybus and 
Merope, and so relieving him from the fear of parricide and 
incest. Hence the confident tone of Oedipus (1076 ff.), which so 
powerfully contrasts with the despair of Iocasta : she has known 
the worst from v. 1044. 

(3) The convergence of these two threads, when the Theban 
herdsman is confronted with the Corinthian. This immediately 
follows the moment of relief just noticed. It now appears that 
the slayer of Lai'us has also committed parricide and incest. 

Aristotle's § 10. The frequent references of Aristotle to the Oedipus 

criticisms, j-yrannus indicate its value for him as a typical masterpiece, 

though the points for which he commends it concern general 

analysis of form, not the essence of its distinctive excellence. 

The points are these : — 


1. The 'recognition' (dvayi>wpicrc<;) is contrived in the best 
way ; i.e., it is coincident with a reversal of fortunes (irepi^ 

2. This reversal is peculiarly impressive, because the 
Corinthian messenger had come to bring tidings of the honour 
in store for Oedipus. 

3. Oedipus is the most effective kind of subject for such a 
reversal, because he had been {a) great and glorious, (b) not 
preeminently virtuous or just, (V) and, again, one whose reverses 
are not due to crime, but only to unconscious error. 

4. The story is told in such a manner as to excite pity and 
terror by hearing without seeing (as in regard to the exposure of 
the child, the killing of Lai*us, the death of Iocasta). 

5. If there is any improbability in the story, this is not in 
the plot itself (ev rots irpaypiaaiv), but in the supposed antece- 
dents (e£&> t^? Tpa<yqy$ia<$). 

In this last comment, Aristotle indicates a trait which improba- 
is certainly open to criticism — the ignorance of Oedipus as ^J J^. 
to the story of Lai'us. He knows, indeed, the name of his cedents, 
predecessor — though Creon does not think it unnecessary to 
remind him of the name (103). He also knows that La'ius had 
met a violent death : but he does not know whether this had 
befallen at Thebes, or in its neighbourhood, or abroad (109 — 113). 
Nor does he know that Lai'us was reported to have been slain by 
robbers, and that only one of his followers had escaped (116 — 
123): and he asks if no search had been made at the time 
(128, 566). Iocasta, who has now been his wife for many years, 
tells him, as if for the first time, the story of the oracle given to 
Lai'us, and he tells her the story of his own early fortunes — 
though here we need not press the fact that he even names to 
her his Corinthian parents: that may be regarded as merely 
a formal preface to a connected narrative. It may be conceded 
that the matters of which Oedipus is supposed ignorant were 
themes of which Iocasta, and all the persons about the new king, 
might well have been reluctant to speak. Still it is evident that 
the measure of past reticence imagined, both on their part and 
on his, exceeds the limit of verisimilitude. The true defence of 
this improbability consists in frankly recognising it. Exquisite 


as was the dramatic art exercised within the scope of the action 
(eV toIs 7r p ay fiaat,), this art was still so far naive as to feel no 
offence at some degree of freedom in the treatment of that 
which did not come within the framework, — of that which, in 
Aristotle's phrase, lay ' outside the piece,' efo> t% rpcvywhia^. It 
is as if a sculptor neglected to remove some roughness of sup- 
port or environment which, he felt, would not come into account 
against the effect of a highly finished group. 

The char- § I t. A drama is itself the only adequate commentary on 

its persons. It makes them live for us, or it does not. If we 
submit them to ethical analysis, this may be interesting to us, 
and instructive to those who have not seen or read the piece. 
But, for a spectator or reader of the play, the men and women 
must be those whom he finds there. When we personally know 
a character in real life, another's estimate of it is seldom more 
than a key to his point of view — rarely a mental light which we 
feel that we can appropriate. And it may be permitted to 
say in passing that this is a reason why the reviving taste for 
good drama — a result for which, in this country, so much is due 
to Mr Irving — seems likely to aid in correcting a literary fault 
of the day which is frequently acknowledged — the tendency to 
adopt ready-made critical estimates of books which the adopter, 
at least, has not read. No one who sees a play can help forming 
some impression of his own about the characters. If he reports 
it honestly, that is criticism ; not necessarily good, but not 
sham. To any one who reads this play of Sophocles with 
even moderate attention and sympathy, how living is Oedipus ! 
Common experience proves so much ; but almost every reader 
will probably feel that by no attempt at analysis or description 
could he enable another to see precisely his Oedipus: no, though 
the effort should bring out ' a point or two as yet unseized by 
the Germans.' The case is somewhat different, however, when 
a particular reading of certain characters in a play is the ground 
for the attribution to it of a tendency; then it is useful to 
inquire whether this reading is right — whether, that is, these 
persons of the drama do indeed speak and act in the tone 
ascribed to them. 


And certainly one of the most interesting questions in the Is 
Oedipus Tyrannus concerns the intellectual position of Oedipus re ° p p r0 ving S 
and Iocasta towards that divine power of which the hand is laid unbelief? 
so heavily upon both. Sophocles had found in human nature 
itself the sanction of ' the unwritten laws/ and the seal of faith 
in a beneficence immortal and eternal ; but his personal attitude 
towards the ' sceptical ' currents of thought in his age was never, 
so far as we can judge, that of admonitory protest or dogmatic 
reproof. It was his temperament to look around him for 
elements of conciliation, to evoke gentle and mediating influ- 
ences, rather than to make war on the forces which he regarded 
as sinister : — it might be said of him, as of a person in one of 
his own plays, ovtoi (rvvk , )(6eiv aKKa avfi^iKelv €(f>v. But is 
there any reason to think that the Oedipus Tyrannus marks 
a moment when this mind — 'which saw life steadily, and saw 
it whole' — was partly shaken in its self-centred calm by the 
consciousness of a spiritual anarchy around it which seemed 
fraught with ultimate danger to the cohesion of society, and 
that a note of solemn warning, addressed to Athens and to 
Greece, is meant to be heard throughout the drama? Our 
answer must depend upon the sense in which we conceive 
that he places Oedipus or Iocasta at issue with religion. 

§ 12. As regards Oedipus, it might be said that, in this par- Oedipus, 
ticular aspect, he is a modern character, and more especially, 
perhaps, a character of the nineteenth century. The instinct of 
r everence f or thej gods was originally fundamental in his nature : 
it appears in the first act of his manhood — the journey to 
Delphi. Nor did he for a moment mistrust the gods because the 
doom assigned to him was bitter. Then he achieved a great in- 
tellectual success, reached the most brilliant prosperity, and was 
ranked by his fellow-men as second to the gods alone. He is 
not spoiled by his good fortune. We find him, at the opening 
of the play, neither arrogant nor irrjej/erent; full, rather, of 
tenderness for his people, full of reverence for the word of 
Apollo. Suddenly, however, the prophet of Apollo denounces 
him. Instantly his appeal is to the intellect. If it comes to 
that, what claim haVany other human mind to interpose between 


his mind and Heaven ? Is he not Oedipus, who silenced the 
Sphinx ? Yes, but presently, gradually, his own mind begins to 
argue on the other side. No one is so acute as he, and of course 
he must be the first to see any facts which tell against himself. 
And now, when he is face to face with the gods, and no prophet 
stands between, the instinct of reverence inborn in his noble 
nature finds voice in the prayer, ' Forbid, forbid, ye pure and 
awful gods, that I should see that day!' After varying hopes 
and fears, his own mind is convinced of the worst. Reason, 
which had been the arbiter of faith, now becomes the inexorable 
judg£_oLsin, the most instant and most rigorous claimant for 
his absolute abasement before the gods. 

Iocasia. J § 13. Plainly, it would be a misreading to construe the fate 
of Oedipus as a dramatic nemesis of impiety ; but the case of 
Iocasta is at first sight less clear. She, at least, is one who 
openly avows scorn for oracles, and urges her lord to share it. 
It may often be noticed — where the dramatist has known how 
to draw from life — that the true key-note of a dominant mood 
is struck by a short utterance on which no special emphasis is 
thrown, just as, in life itself, the sayings most truly significant 
of character are not always long or marked. For Iocasta, such 
a key-note is given in the passage where she is telling Oedipus 
that a response from the Delphian temple had warned Laius 
that he was destined to be slain by the child whom she bore to 
him. 'An oracle came to Lams once — / will not say from 
Phoebus himself, but from his ministers' (v. 712). Iocasta 
thoroughly believes in the power of the gods to effect their 
will (724), — to punish or to save (921). But she does not be- 
lieve that any mortal — be he priest or prophet — is permitted by 
them to read the future. Had not the Delphian priests doomed 
her to sacrifice her first-born child, — and this, without saving 
the life of her husband, Laius ? The iron which years ago had 
entered into the soul of the wife and mother has wrought in 
her a result similar to that which pride of intellect has produced 
in Oedipus. Like Oedipus, she still believes in the wise omni- 
potence of the gods ; like him also, she is no longer prepared to 
accept any mortal interpreter of their decrees. Thus are the 


two foremost persons of this tragedy separated from the offices 
of human intercession, and directly confronted in spirit — one by 
his self-reliance, the other by her remembered anguish — with 
the inscrutable powers which control their fate. It is as a study 
of the human heart, true for every age, not as a protest against 
tendencies of the poet's own, that the Oedipus Tyrannus illustrates 
the relation of faith to reason. 

§ 14. The central figure of the drama is brought into clearer Teiresias. 
relie£by the characters of Teiresias and Creon. Teiresias exists reon * 
only for the god whom he serves. Through him Apollo speaks. 
As opposed to Oedipus, he is the divine knowledge of Apollo, 
opposed to human ignorance and blindness. While 'the servant 
of Loxias' thus stands above the king of Thebes, Creon stands 
below him, on the humbler but safer ground of ordinary 
humanity. Creon is shrewd, cautious, practical, not sentimental 
or demonstrative, yet of a fervid self-respect, and with a strong 
and manly kindliness which comes out in the hour of need 1 . It 
might be said that the Creon of the Oedipus Tyrannus embodies 
a good type of Scottish character, as the Creon of the Antigone 
— an earlier sketch — is rather of the Prussian >type, as it is 
popularly idealised by some of its neighbours. Teiresias is the 
gauge of human insight matched against divine ; Creon, of 
fortune's heights and depths, compared with the less brilliant 
but more stable lot of commoner men. 'Crave not to be master 
in all things; for the mastery which thou didst win hath not 
followed thee through life' — are his words to Oedipus at the 
end ; and his own position at the moment exemplifies the 
sense in which ' the god ever gives the mastery to the middle 
state' 2 . 

§ 15. There is no external evidence for the time at which Supposed 
the Oedipus Tyrannus was first acted. Internal evidence warrants H corT- 063 


1 Lest it should be thought that in the note on p. 77 the harsher aspect 

of Creon's character is unduly prominent, I may observe that this note relates 
to w. 512—862, and deals with Creon only as he appears there. The scene which 
begins at v. 1422— and more especially vv. 1476 f. — must of course be taken into 
account when we offer, as here, a more general estimate of the character. 

2 iravrl n&ip rb Kpdros debs uwaaev, Aesch. Eum. 528. 


the belief that it was composed after the Antigone, and before 
the Oedipus Coloneus. The probable limits thus indicated might 
be roughly given as about 439 — 412 B.C. More than this we 
cannot say. Modern ingenuity has recognised Pericles in 
Oedipus, — the stain of Alcmaeonid lineage in his guilt as the 
slayer of Lai'us, — the * Dorian war, and a pestilence therewith ' 
in the afflictions of Thebes. This allegorical hypothesis need 
not detain us. But it may be well briefly to remark the differ- 
ence, for drama, between association of ideas and direct allusion. 
If Sophocles had set himself to describe the plague at Athens as 
he had known it, it might have been held that, in an artistic 
sense, his fault was graver than that of Phrynichus, when, by 
representing the capture of Miletus, he ' reminded the Athenians 
of their own misfortunes.' If, however, writing at a time sub- 
sequent to the pestilence which he had survived, he wished to 
give an ideal picture of a plague-stricken town, it would have 
been natural and fitting that he should borrow some touches 
from his own experience. But the sketch in the play is far too 
slight to warrant us in saying that he even did this ; perhaps 
the reference to the victims of pestilence tainting the air (0avar- 
(upopa v. 180) is the only trait that might suggest it. Thucydides 
(II. 50), in describing the plague of 430 B.C., notices the number 
of the unburied dead. The remarks just made apply equally to 
the supposed allusion in vv. 883 ff. to the mutilation of the 
Hermae (see the note on 886). 
Alleged A tradition, dating at least from the 2nd century B.C. 1 , 

theplav a ffi rme d that, when Sophocles produced the Oedipus Tyr annus, 
he was defeated for the first prize by Philocles, — a poet of 
whose work we know nothing. Philocles was a nephew of 
Aeschylus, and, as Aristeides observes 2 , achieved an honour which 

1 The words in the prose inrbOeeis (given on p. 4) are simply, 7)TTq6hTa. virb 
3>i\oK\4ovs, (5s (pycri AiicaLapxos. The Dicaearchus who wrote i/irodiaeis twv Evpiirl5ov 
Kai 2,o<poK\tovs /xijOwv has been generally identified with Dicaearchus of Messana, the 
Peripatetic, a pupil of Aristotle and a friend of Theophrastus. We might place 
his 'floruit,' then, somewhere about 310 B.C.; there are indications that he survived 
296 B.C. If, on the other hand, the inrodiaets were ascribed to the grammarian 
Dicaearchus of Lacedaemon, a pupil of Aristarchus, this would bring us to about 
140 B.C. 

2 11. 256. 


had been denied to his uncle. The surprise which has been 
expressed by some modern writers appears unnecessary ; the 
composition of Philocles was probably good, and it has never 
been held that the judges of such prizes were infallible. 

§ 1 6. The name of an actor, once famous in the chief part of The actor 
this play, is of interest also on more general grounds. Polus, a 
native of Aegina, is said to have been the pupil of another tragic 
actor, Archias of Thurii 1 . He flourished, then, in the middle or 
latter part of the 4th century B.C. — only some 50 or 60 years 
after the death of Sophocles. Physically well-gifted, and of ver- 
satile grace, he was equally successful as Oedipus the King, and 
in the very different but not less difficult part of Oedipus at Co- 
lonus 2 . Like the poet whose masterpieces he interpreted, he 
enjoyed a vigorous old age ; and it is recorded that, at seventy, 
he acted 'eight tragedies in four days' 3 . In the Electra of 
Sophocles, an urn, supposed to contain the ashes of Orestes, is 
placed in the hands of his sister, who makes a lament over it. 
Polus once acted Electra not long after the death of his son. 
An urn, containing the youth's ashes, was brought from the 
tomb ; the actor received it, and, on the scene, suffered a natural 
grief to have vehement course 4 . 

1 Plut. Dem. 28 tovtov 8k [Archias] Qovpiov 6vra rc£ yhei X6yos £x et Tpayydias 
viroh-plveadal irore, kclI t6v AlytvrjTrjv UujXop, tov iirep^aXdvTa tj} t£x v V 
irduras, ineivov yeviadai p:adrjTT]u i<TTopov<ru>. — Schaefer (Dem. u. s. Zeit, I. 219 f.) 
and A. Miiller (Gr. Bilhnenallcrthumer^ p. 186, n. 3) distinguish this Polus from 
an elder, whom they place in the time of Socrates. They seem mistaken. In Plut. 
Tepl <f>tXlas, fr. 16 (p. 833 ed. Wyttenbach), Socrates is quoted, and then Polus is 
mentioned; but not as contemporary with Socrates. As to Lucian calling Polus 
o ZowieiJs, see below, note 4. 

t 2 Stobaeus Floril. p. 522 (xcvil. 28), in an extract from the irporpeirTiKal 
6p.iXlai of Arrian : rj oi>x bpq,s 8ti ovk eixfxavoTepov ovdk tj8lov 6 ITwXos tov rOpcwvov 
OldliroSa inreicplveTo tj tov ewl KoXuvy akifiTTjv koX tttwxov ; (ovdt yjdiov is Gaisford's 
emendation of otiStv 81' wv.) 

3 Plut. Mor. 785 C HwXov 5£ tov Tpayqdbv 'EpaToaOivijs /cat $iX6xopos laTopovaw 
£j38op.yKOVTa trr] yeyevrjpifrov oktCj Tpayydias iv TiTTapaLv 77/^/ocus diayuviffaadai puicpov 
ip.irpoo'Qev ttjs TeXevrys. 

4 Aulus Gellius 7. 5 Histrio in terra Graecia fuit fama celebri qui gestus et 
vocis claritudine ceteris antestabat.... Polus lugubri habitu Electrae indutus ossa 
atque urnam a sepulcro tulit filii, et quasi Orestis amplexus opplevit omnia non 
simulacris neque imitamentis sed luctu atque lamentis veris et spirantibus. 

Lucian Iupp. Tragoed. § 3 oi>x 6/jw...^0' orip IIcDXos 17 'Apio-TodrjpLos avrl Aibs 
ijpuv avairiiprjvas. Id. Menippus § 16 (on the contrast between the life of actors 


Signific- Little as such an incident may accord with modern feeling or 

th° e t° f taste, it is at least of very clear significance in relation to the 
tone of the Attic stage as it existed for a generation whose 
grandfathers were contemporary with Sophocles. Whether the 
story was true or not, it must have been conceived as possible. 
And, this being so, nothing could better show the error of sup- 
posing that the old Greek acting of tragedy was statuesque in 
a cold or rigid sense, — in a sense excluding declamation and 
movement suitable to the passions which the words expressed. 
Play of feature, indeed, was excluded by the use of masks ; but 
this very fact would have increased the need for appropriate 
gesture. The simple grouping — as recent revivals have helped 
us to feel — must have constantly had a plastic beauty rarely 
seen on our more crowded stage * ; but it is inconceivable, and 
the story just noticed affords some direct ground for denying, 
that this result was obtained at any sacrifice of life and truth in 
the portrayal of emotion. Demosthenes tells us that some of 
the inferior tragedians of his time were called 'ranters' 2 . It 
might be said, of course, that this indicates a popular preference 
for an undemonstrative style. But it might with more force be 
replied that ' ranting' is not a fault which a coldly 'statuesque' 
tradition would have generated. 

on and off the stage) jjdr) 5£ -rripas £x 0VT °s T °v dpdfiaros, aTrodvad/xevos Zkolgtos ai/ruv 
tt)v xP v< T° ira<7T0V 6K€lvrjv iadiJTa Kdl rd irpoauiireiov dirodt/xevos nal Ka.Taf3d$ dirb 
t&v &iifia.T<2v irhT)$ Kal raireivds irepUpx^Tai, ovk£t' 'Ayap.ip.vuv 6 'Arpius ouo£ 
Kpiiov 6 Mevowtws, d\Xd IIuXos Xa/u/cX^oi/s Xovviei/s 6vop.a£6p.€vo$ % 
Zdrvpos Qeoydrovos Mapadwvtos. ['Polus, son of Charicles, of Sumum,' is not 
inconsistent with t6v AlyivrjTTjv in Plut. Dem. 28, for the great actor may have 
been a native of Aegina who was afterwards enrolled in the Attic deme of Sunium.] 
Id. De mercede conduct. § 5 rots rpayiKols vTTOKpiTais...ot iirl p.kv T17S ffKTjvfji 'Aya-}v ZtcaaTCS air&v rj Kpiwv r\ a&rds 'Hpa/cX^s el<ri.v, ££w 5i IlajXos 17 'ApicrroSiftiios, 
dirodiptvoL rd irpoawireia, ylyvovrai. 

The Aristodemus coupled by Lucian with Polus is the actor mentioned by 
Aeschines and Demosthenes ; the latter specially notices that he and Theodorus had 
both often acted the Antigone of Sophocles (or. 19. § 246) : Satyrus is the comic actor 
mentioned by the same orators (Aeschin. 2. § 156, Dem. or. 19. § 193). Thus we 
see how, in later Greek literature, Polus had become one of a small group of names 
typical of the best histrionic art of the classical age. 

1 On the sense in which a 'plastic' character is common to Greek Sculpture, 
Tragedy, and Oratory, cp. my Attic Orators^ vol. I. pp. xcviii — ciii. 

2 Dem. or. 18. § 262 paa 6 d)<r as abrov rots f3apv<TT6voi$ iiriKa\ovp:4vois indvois 
{/iroKpi-cus, 2ifxi\<p Kal Zuxparei, irpiTayuviaTcis. 


§ 17. The story of Oedipus was one of a few subjects which Other 
the Greek dramatists never tired of handling. Some eight orf^ yson 
nine tragedies, entitled Oedipus, are known by the names of subject. 
their authors, and by nothing else 1 . Plato, the poet of the Old 
Comedy, wrote a Laius, which was perhaps a parody of the 
Aeschylean play; and the Middle Comedy was indebted to 
Eubulus for an Oedipus from which a few verses are left — a 
travesty of the curse pronounced upon the unknown criminal 2 . 
Julius Caesar, like the younger Pitt, was a precocious dramatist, 
and Oedipus was his theme 3 . The self-blinded Oedipus was a 
part which Nero loved to act 4 , and the last public recitation 
which he ever gave, we are told, was in this character. The 
Greek verse at which he stopped is on record : whose it was, we 
know not 5 . Of all the Greek versions, not one remains by which 
to gauge the excellence of Sophocles. But the literatures of 
other languages make some amends. 

Nothing can better illustrate the distinctive qualities of the 
Sophoclean Oedipus than to compare it with the treatment of 
the same theme by Seneca, Corneille, Dryden and Voltaire. So 
far as the last three are concerned, the comparison has a larger 

' An OISIttovs by the Carcinus whom Aristophanes ridicules is quoted by Arist. 
Rhet. 5. 16. 11. Xenocles is said to have been victorious, with a series of plays 
including an Oldiirovs, against Euripides, one of whose pieces on that occasion was 
the Troades, probably in 415 B.C. An Oldiirovs is also ascribed to Achaeus (Nauck p. 584), Theodectes (p. 623), and, more doubtfully, to Diogenes of Sinope 
(p. 627); also by Suidas to Philocles, and to each of two poets named Nicomachus 
(one of Athens, the other of the Troad). 

2 Meineke Com. Frag. pp. 231 (Plato), Eubulus (451). Of the latter's five 
verses, the last three are — o<rm 5' kir\ deiirvov 17 (f>L\ov nv* rj l-frov \ KdXiaas ^treira. 
<rvpLJ3o\di$ £wpdi-a.To, \ (pvycis ytvoiro /Ji.7]dtv oticodep XajSwv. It seems quite possible, 
as has been suggested, that Eubulus was parodying verses from the Oedipus of 

3 Sueton. Jul. Caes. 56 Feruntur et a puero et ab adulescentulo quaedam scripta, 
ut laudes Herculis, tragoedia Oedipus. 

4 Sueton. Nero 21 Tragoedias quoque cantavit personatus. Inter cetera cantavit 
Canacen parturientem, Orestem matricidam, Oedipodem excaecatum, Herculem 

6 ib. 46 Observatum etiam fuerat novissimam fabulam cantasse eum [Neronem] 
publice Oedipum exsulem, atque in hoc desisse versu, oUrpQ* davziv /*' foojye 
a^yyafios irar-rip. Dio Cassius {63. 28) also quotes the verse as one on which Nero's 
mind dwelt : rb ftros ttceivo awex&s ivevdei. 

J. S. I. 8 <; 


value. The differences between the spirit of the best Greek 
Tragedy and that of modern drama are not easily expressed in 
formulas, but can be made clearer by a particular example. 
Perhaps the literature of drama hardly affords any example so 
apposite for this purpose as the story of Oedipus. 
The § 1 8. Seneca has followed, and sometimes paraphrased, 

ofSeneca. Sophocles with sufficient fidelity to heighten the contrast be- 
tween the original and the rhetorical transcript. For the com- 
parative student of drama, however, the Roman piece is by no 
means devoid of instruction or of interest. Seneca's plot diverges 
from that of Sophocles in three main points, (i) Teiresias does 
not intuitively know the murderer of Lams. When his aid is 
invoked by Oedipus, he has recourse to the arts of divination. 
Manto, the daughter of the blind seer, reports the signs to 
him, and he declares that neither voice of birds nor inspection of 
victims can reveal the name. Lai'us himself must be called up 
from the shades. In a grove near Thebes, Teiresias performs 
the awful rites which evoke the dead ; the ghastly shape of 
LaYus rises — 

Stetit per artus sanguine effuso horridus — 

and denounces his son. This scene is related to Oedipus by 
Creon in a long and highly-wrought speech (530 — 658). Here, 
as in the earlier scene with Manto (303 — 402), copious use is 
made of detail from Roman augural lore, as well as of the 
Nekyia in the eleventh book of the Odyssey — suggesting a 
contrast with the lightness of touch which marks that passage of 
the Sophoclean Antigone (998 — ion) where Teiresias describes 
the failure of his appeal to augury. There, the technical signs 
are briefly but vividly indicated ; in Seneca, the erudition is 
heavy and obtrusive. 

(ii) After the discovery of the parricide and the incest, and 
when Oedipus has now blinded himself, Iocasta meets and thus 
accosts him : — 

Quid te vocem? 
Natumne? dubitas? natus es, natum pudet, 
Invite, loquere, nate : quo avertis caput 
Vacuosque vultus? 


Oed. Quis frui et tenebris vetat? 

Quis reddit oculos? matris, heu, matris sonus. 
Perdidimus operam. Congredi fas amplius 
Haud est. Nefandos dividat vastum mare... 

Iocasta presently kills herself on the stage. Here, at least, 
Seneca has the advantage of Euripides, whose Iocasta speaks 
the prologue of the Phoenissae, and coldly recites the horrors of 
her past life, — adding that Oedipus has been imprisoned by his 
sons, 'in order that his fate might be forgotten — for it needs 
much art to hide it' 1 . The Iocasta of Sophocles rushes from the 
scene, not to re-appear, at the moment when she finds Oedipus 
resolved to unbare that truth of which she herself is already cer- 
tain, and leaves the terrible cry thrilling in our ears — 

lov, lov, Svarrjve' tovto yap a e^o) 
fjiovov Trpoaenreiv, aWo & ovirod' tarepov. 

In the truth and power of this touch, Sophocles is alone. 
Neither Seneca, nor any later dramatist, has managed this 
situation so as to express with a similar union of delicacy and 
strength the desperate anguish of a woman whom fate has 
condemned to unconscious crime. 

(iii) Seneca had no ' Oedipus at Colonus ' in view. He was 
free to disregard that part of the legend according to which 
Oedipus was expelled from Thebes by Eteocles and Polyneices, 
and can therefore close his play by making Oedipus go forth 
into voluntary exile : — 

Mortifera mecum vitia terrarum extraho. 
Violenta fata et horridus morbi tremor 
Maciesque et atra pestis et tabidus dolor 
Mecum ite, mecum : ducibus his uti libet. 

§ 19. The closeness with which Seneca has studied Sophocles Seneca's 
can be judged from several passages 2 . It is instructive to notice Sophocles, 
that, while Seneca has invented rhetorical ornament (as in the 

1 Eur. Phoen. 64 &»' d/xvnfiuv r<>xf\ \ ytvoiro, itoWup deo/xfrrj aocpurfxarup. 

2 Such are, the scene in which Oedipus upbraids Creon (Sen. 678 — 708, cp. Soph. 
532 — 630); the questioning of Iocasta by Oedipus (Sen. 773 — 783, cp. Soph. 740 — 
755) ; the scene with the messenger from Corinth, and the final discovery (Sen. 783 — 
881. Cp. Soph. 955—1185). 



opening dialogue, I — 105, and the Nekyia, 530— 568), he has not 
known how to vary the natural development of the action. He has 
compressed the incidents of Sophocles into the smallest compass; 
and hence, notwithstanding the rhetorical episodes, the whole 
play consists only of 1060 lines, and would not have occupied 
more than an hour and a half in representation. Seneca is 
thus a negative witness to the mastery shown by the artist who 
could construct such a drama as the Oedipus Tyrannus with 
such materials. The modern dramatists, as we shall see, teach 
the same lesson in a more positive form. Walter Scott's estimate 
of Seneca's Oedipus needs modification, but is just in the main. 
' Though devoid of fancy and of genius,' he says, it ' displays the 
masculine eloquence and high moral sentiment of its author; 
and if it does not interest us in the scene of fiction, it often 
compels us to turn our thoughts inward, and to study our own 
hearts.' Seneca's fault, however, so far as the plot is concerned, 
seems less that he fails to interest, than that, by introducing the 
necromantic machinery, and by obliterating the finer moral traits 
of his Greek original, he has rendered the interest rather ' sensa- 
tional* than properly dramatic 1 . 

The § 20. The Oedipe of Corneille was produced at Paris in 1657. 

CorneiUe After an interval which followed the unfavourable reception of his 
Pertharite in 1653, it was with the Oedipe that Corneille returned 
to the theatre, at the instance of his patron, Nicolas Fouquet, to 
whom it is dedicated. It is immaterial for our purpose that this 
play is far from exhibiting Corneille at his best ; nor need we 
here inquire what precise rank is to be assigned to it among his 
less successful works. For the student of Sophocles, it has the 
permanent interest of showing how the subject of the Oedipus 
Tyrannus was adapted to the modern stage by a typical artist of 
the French classical school. The severely simple theme of Sopho- 
cles, with its natural elements of pity and terror, is found too 
meagre by the modern dramatist. He cannot trust to that 

1 A small trait may be noticed as amusingly characteristic of the Roman poet of 
the Empire. The Lai'us of Sophocles goes to Delphi /3cu6s — with only four at- 
tendants (752). Seneca makes Laius set out with the proper retinue of a king;— but 
most of them lose their way. Plures fefellit error ancipitis viae: Paucos jidelis 
curribus iunxit labor. 


alone ; he feels that he needs some further source of variety and 
relief. To supply this, he interweaves an underplot of secondary 
persons — ' the happy episode of the loves of Theseus and Dirce.' 
Theseus is the king of Athens; Dirce is a daughter of the 
deceased Lams. 

The drama opens with a love-scene, in which Theseus is 
urging Dirce not to banish him from her presence at 
Thebes : — 

N'e'coutez plus, madame, une pitie' cruelle, 
Qui d'un fidele amant vous feroit un rebelle... 

To the end, the fortunes of this pair divide our attention 
with those of Oedipus and Iocasta. Corneille does not bring 
Teiresias on the scene ; but Nerine, ' lady of honour to Iocasta/ 
relates how the seer has called forth the shade of LaYus. The 
ghost does not (as with Seneca) denounce Oedipus, but declares 
that the woes of Thebes shall cease only 'when the blood of 
Laius shall have done its duty.' The discovery is brought about 
nearly as in.. Sophocles, though the management of the process is 
inferior in a marked degree. The herdsman of Lams — whom 
Corneille, like Dryden and Voltaire, names JPhorbas, after 
Seneca's example — kills himself on the stage ; Iocasta, snatching 
the poniard from him, plunges it in her own breast. Oedipus 
blinds himself. No sooner have the gory drops flowed from his 
eyes, than the pest which is ravaging Thebes ceases : the mes- 
sage of the spirit is fulfilled : — * the blood of Lai'us has done its 
duty/ Theseus and Dirce, we understand, are made happy. 

The chief character, as drawn by Corneille, shows how an 
artificial stoicism can destroy tragic pathos. The Oedipus of 
Corneille is an idealised French king of the seventeenth century 
— one of those monarchs concerning whom Dirce says, 

Le peuple est trop heureux quand il meurt pour ses rois ; 

he learns the worst with a lofty serenity ; and his first thought is 
to administer a stately rebuke to the persons whose misdirected 
forethought had saved him from perishing in infancy : — 

Voyez oh m'a plonge' votre fausse prudence. 

Dirce admires his impassive fortitude : — 

xxxviii INTROD UCT10N. 

La surprenante horreur de cet accablement 
Ne coute a sa grande ame aucun ^garement. 

Contrast with this the life-like and terrible power of the 

delineation in Sophocles, from the moment when the cry 

of despair bursts from the lips of Oedipus (1182), to the 

The § 21. Twenty-two years after Corneille, Dryden essayed the 

Dryden. same theme. His view was that his French predecessor had 
failed through not rendering the character of Oedipus more 
noble and attractive. On the other hand, he follows Corneille 
in the essential point of introducing an underplot. Dryden's 
Eurydice answers to Corneille's Dirce, being, like her, the 
daughter of Lai'us. Corneille's Theseus is replaced by Adrastus, 
king of Argos, — a personage less likely, in Dryden's opinion, to 
eclipse Oedipus. When the play opens, Oedipus is absent from 
Thebes, and engaged in war with Argos. Meanwhile plots are 
being laid against his throne by Creon — a hunch-backed villain 
who makes love to Eurydice, and is rejected by her much as 
Shakspeare's Richard, Duke of Gloster — who has obviously 
suggested some traits — is repulsed by the Lady Ann. Pre- 
sently Oedipus returns, bringing the captive Adrastus, whom 
he chivalrously sets free to woo Eurydice. From this point, the 
piece follows the general lines of Sophocles, so far as the dis- 
covery is concerned. Oedipus is denounced, however, not by 
Teiresias, but, as in Seneca, by the ghost, — which Dryden, unlike 
Seneca, brings on the stage. 

It is singular that Dryden should have committed the same 
mistake which he perceived so clearly in Corneille. Eurydice 
and Adrastus are less tiresome than Dirce and Theseus, but 
their effect is the same. The underplot spoils the main plot. 
The tragic climax is the death of Eurydice, who is stabbed by 
Creon. Creon and Adrastus next kill each other ; then Iocasta 
slays herself and her children ; and finally Oedipus throws him- 
self from an upper window of the palace. ' Sophocles,' says 
Dryden, * is admirable everywhere ; and therefore we have fol- 
lowed him as close as we possibly could.' In a limited verbal 
sense, this is true. There are several scenes, or parts of scenes, in 


which Dryden has almost transcribed Sophocles 1 . But the dif- 
ference of general result is complete. The Oedipus of Sophocles 
does perfectly that which Tragedy, according to Aristotle, ought 
to do. It effects, by pity and terror, the ' purgation ' of such 
feelings ; that is, it separates them from the alloy of mean acci- 
dent, and exercises them, in their pure essence, on great objects 
— here, on the primary instincts of natural affection. In relation 
to pity and terror, Tragedy should be as the purgatorial fire, — 

exemit labem, purumque reliquit 
Aetherium sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem. 

Now, Dryden's play first divides our sympathy between 
the fate of Eurydice and that of Oedipus; next, it involves it 
with feelings of a different order, — loathing for the villainy of 
Creon, and disgust at the wholesale butchery of the end. In- 
stead of ' purging ' pity and terror, it stupefies them ; and the 
contrast is the more instructive because the textual debt of 
Dryden to Sophocles has been so large.. 

It is right to add that, while the best parts of the play — the 
first and third acts — are wholly Dryden's, in the rest he was 
assisted by an inferior hand 2 . And, among the places where 
Dryden's genius flashes through, it is interesting to remark one 
in which he has invented a really Greek touch, — not in the 
manner of Sophocles, certainly, yet such as might occur in 
Euripides. Oedipus is pronouncing the curse on the unknown 
murderer •. — 

But for the murderer's self, unfound by man, 
Find him, ye powers celestial and infernal ! 
And the same fate, or worse than Laius met, 
Let be his lot: his children be accurst; 
His wife and kindred, all of his, be cursed ! 
Both Priests. Confirm it, heaven ! 

1 As in the scene with the suppliants (Act I. Sc. i.); that between Oedipus and 
Iocasta (Act in. Sc. i.); and that between Oedipus and Aegeon (the messenger from 
Corinth, Act iv. Sc. i.). 

2 'What Sophocles could undertake alone, Our poets found a work for more than 
one' (Epilogue). Lee must be held accountable for the worst rant of Acts IV. and 
v. ; but we are not concerned here with the details of execution, either in its merits or 
in its defects. 


Enter Jocasta, attended by Women. 

Joe. At your devotions? Heaven succeed your wishes; 
And bring the effect of these your pious prayers 
On you, and me, and all. 
Pr. Avert this omen, heaven ! 
Oedip. O fatal sound ! unfortunate Jocasta ! 

What hast thou said? an ill hour hast thou chosen 
For these foreboding words ! why, we were cursing I 
Joe. Then may that curse fall only where you laid it. 
Oedip. Speak no more ! 

For all thou say'st is ominous : we were cursing ; 
And that dire imprecation hast thou fasten'd 
On Thebes, and thee, and me, and all of us. 

§ 22. More than either Dryden or Corneille, Voltaire has 
treated this subject in the spirit of the antique. His Oedipe was 
composed when he was only nineteen. It was produced in 1718 
(when he was twenty-four), and played forty-six times consecu- 
tively — a proof, for those days, of marked success. In 1729, the 
piece having kept its place on the stage meanwhile, a new 
edition was published. It is not merely a remarkable work for 
so young a man; its intrinsic merit, notwithstanding obvious 
defects, is, I venture to think, much greater than has usually 
been recognised. The distinctive ' note ' of the modern versions 
— the underplot — is there, no doubt ; but, unlike Corneille and 
Dryden, Voltaire has not allowed it to overshadow the main 

The hero Philoctetes revisits Thebes, after a long absence, 
to find Oedipus reigning in the seat of Laius. The Thebans 
are vexed by pestilence, and are fain to find a victim for the 
angry god ; Philoctetes was known to have been the foe of 
the late king, and is now accused of his murder. Iocasta had 
been betrothed to Philoctetes in youth, and loves him still. She 
urges him to fly, but he resolves to remain and confront the false 
charge. At this moment, the seer Teiresias denounces Oedipus 
as the criminal. Philoctetes generously protests his belief in the 
king's innocence ; and from this point (the end of the third Act) 
appears no more. 


Thenceforth, the plot is mainly that of Sophocles. The first 
scene of the fourth Act, in which Iocasta and Oedipus inform 
each other of the past, is modelled on Oed. Tyr. 698 — 862, with 
some characteristic differences. Thus, in Sophocles, the first 
doubt of Oedipus as to his parentage springs from a taunt 
uttered at a feast (779). Here is Voltaire's substitute for that 
incident (the scene, of course, being Corinth) : — 

Un jour, ce jour affreux, present a ma pense'e, 
Jette encor la terreur dans mon ame glacee; 
Pour la premiere fois, par un don solennel, 
Mes mains, jeunes encore, enrichissaient l'autel: 
Du temple tout-a-coup les combles s'entr'ouvrirent ; 
De traits affreux de sang les marbres se couvrirent; 
De l'autel, e'branle' par de longs tremblemens, 
Une invisible main repoussait mes presens; 
Et les vents, au milieu de la foudre e'clatante, 
Porterent jusqu'a moi cette voix effrayante : 

" Ne viens plus des lieux saints souiller la purete* ; 

"Du nombre des vivans les dieux t'ont rejete; 

" lis ne recoivent point tes offrandes impies ; 

" Va porter tes pre'sens aux autels des Furies'; 

"Conjure leurs serpens prets a te dechirer; 

"Va, ce sont Ik les dieux que tu dois implorer." 

This is powerful in its way. But where Voltaire has introduced 
a prodigy — the supernatural voice heard amid lightnings — 
Sophocles was content to draw from common life, and to mark 
how a random word could sink into the mind with an effect 
as terrible as that of any portent. Voltaire has managed the 
final situation on Corneille's plan, but with infinitely better 
effect. The High Priest announces that Oedipus has blinded 
himself, thereby appeasing the gods; and the play closes with 
the death of Iocasta : 


O mon fils ! helas ! dirai-je mon e'poux ? 
O des noms les plus chers assemblage efifroyable ! 
II est done mort? 


Le Grand Pretre. 
II vit, et le sort qui l'accable 
Des morts et des vivans semble le separer 1 ; 
II s'est prive' du jour avant que d'expirer. 
Je l'ai vu dans ses yeux enfoncer cette e'pe'e, 
Qui du sang de son pere avait e'te' trempe'e; 
II a rempli son sort, et ce moment fatal 
Du salut des Thebains est le premier signal. 
Tel est l'ordre du ciel, dont la fureur se lasse; 
Corame il veut, aux mortels ll fait justice ou grace; 
Ses traits sont epuises sur ce malheureux fils: 
Vivez, il vous pardonne. 

Et moi je me punis. {Elk se frappe.) 
Par un pouvoir affreux re'serve'e a l'inceste, 
La mort est le seul bien, le seul dieu qui me reste. 
Laius, recois mon sang, je te suis chez les morts: 
J'ai vecu vertueuse, et je meurs sans remords. 

Le Choeur. 
O malheureuse reine ! 6 destin que j'abhorre I 

Ne plaignez que mon fils, puisqu'il respire encore. 
Pretres, et vous The'bains qui futes mes sujets, 
Honorez mon bucher, et songez a jamais 
Qu'au milieu des horreurs du destin qui m'opprime 
J'ai fait rougir les dieux qui m'ont forcee au crime. 

Voltaire's § 23. Voltaire was conscious of the objections to his own 

episode of Philoctetes; no one, indeed, could have criticised it 
with more wit or force. ' Philoctetes seems to have visited 
Thebes only for the purpose of being accused ' : not a word is 
said of him after the third Act, and the catastrophe is absolutely 

1 Voltaire borrowed this verse from Corneille, — 'parce qu'ayant precisement la 
meme chose a dire, m'e'tait impossible de rexprimer mieux'; and Corneille was 
himself translating Seneca's l nec vivis mix/us, nee sepultis? Voltaire was perhaps 
unconscious that the ground which he assigns here was exactly that on which the 
repetition of passages in the Greek orators was defended — viz. that rb KdkQs etireiv 
a7ra£ repiylyvercu, Sis 5£ o{ik hStx €Ta <- (Theon, Trpoyvfivdafiara 1 : see my Attic 
Orators, vol. I. p. lxxii). 


independent of him. In a letter to the Jesuit Por6e, with whom 
he had read the classics, Voltaire apologises for Philoctetes by 
saying that the Parisian actors would not hear of an Oedipus 
with no love in it ; 'I spoiled my piece/ he says, ' to please 

But it is certain, from what he says more than once else- 
where, that he regarded some underplot as a necessity. His 
remarks on this point are worth noting, because they touch an 
essential difference between the old Greek view of drama and 
that which has prevailed on our stage. 'The subject (Oedipus) 
did not, in itself, furnish me with matter for the first three Acts ; 
indeed, it scarcely gave me enough for the last two. Those who 
know the theatre — that is, who are as much alive to the difficulties 
as to the defects of composition — will agree with what I say.' 
' In strictness, the play of Oedipus ought to end with the first 
Act' Oedipus is one of those ancient subjects 'which afford 
only one scene each, or two at most — not an entire tragedy.' 
In short, to demand a modern drama on the simple story of 
Oedipus was like setting one to make bricks without straw. 
Corneille found himself constrained to add the episode of 
Theseus and Dirce; Dryden introduced Adrastus and Eurydice 1 . 

1 'AH we could gather out of Corneille,' says Dryden, 'was that an episode must 
be, but not his way.' Dryden seems to have felt, however, that it was demanded 
rather by convention than by artistic necessity. The following passage is interest- 
ing as an indication that his instinct was better than his practice: — 'The Athenian 
theatre (whether more perfect than ours, is not now disputed), had a perfection 
differing from ours. You see there in every act a single scene, (or two at most), 
which manage the business of the play; and after that succeeds the chorus, which 
commonly takes up more time in singing, than thare has been employed in speaking. 
The principal person appears almost constantly through the play; but the inferior 
parts seldom above once in the whole tragedy. . The conduct of our stage is much 
more difficult, where we are obliged never to lose any considerable character, which 
we have once presented.' [Voltaire's Philoctetes broke this rule.] ' Custom likewise 
has obtained, that we must form an underplot of second persons, which must be 
depending on the first ; and their bye-walks must be like those in a labyrinth, which 
all of them lead into the great parterre ; or like so many several lodging chambers, 
which have their outlets into the same gallery. Perhaps, after all, if we could think 
so, the ancient method, as it is the easiest, is also the most natural and the best. For 
variety, as it is managed, is too often subject to breed distraction; and while we 
would please too many ways, for want of art in the conduct, we please in none.' 
{Preface to Oedipus.) 


Essential § 24. Now, why could Sophocles dispense with any such ad- 

baweeiT dition, and yet produce a drama incomparably more powerful ? 
Sophocles The masterly art of Sophocles in the structure and development 
modems, of the plot has already been examined, and is properly the first 
attribute of his work which claims attention. But this is not the 
only, or the principal, source to which the Oedipus Tyra?inus 
owes its greatness ; the deeper cause is, that Sophocles, in the 
spirit of Greek Tragedy, has known how to make the story of 
Oedipus an ideal study of character and passion. Corneille, 
Dryden, Voltaire — each in his own way — were thinking, ' How 
am I to keep the audience amused? Will they not find this 
horrible story of Oedipus rather too painful and monotonous ? 
Will they not desire something lighter and pleasanter — some 
love-making, for instance, or some intrigue ? ' ' What an insipid 
part would Iocasta have played/ exclaims Voltaire, ' had she not 
retained at least the memory of a lawful attachment, and trembled 
for the existence of a man whom she had once loved!' There is 
the secret frankly told. 

Sophocles, on the other hand, concentrates the attention of the 
audience on the destiny of Oedipus and Iocasta. The spectators 
are enchained by the feelings which this destiny moves at each 
step in its course. They are made to see into the depths of two 
human souls. It is no more possible for them to crave minor 
distractions than it would be for our eyes or thoughts to wander, 
if we were watching, without the power of arresting, a man who 
was moving blindfold towards a precipice. The interest by 
which Sophocles holds us is continuous and intense ; but it is 
not monotonous, because alternations of fear lead up to the 
worst ; the exciting causes of pity and terror are not unworthy 
or merely repulsive, for the spectacle offered is that of a noble 
and innocent nature, a victim to unknown and terrible forces 
which must be counted among the permanent conditions of life, 
since the best of mankind can never be sure of escaping them. 
When the worst has befallen, then Sophocles knows how to 
relieve the strain ; but it is a relief of another order from that 
which Corneille affords by the prospect of Theseus being made 
happy with Dirce. It is drawn from the natural sources of the 
tragedy itself; the blind king hears the voices of his children. 


§ 25. A comparison may fitly close with a glance at two References 
points in which the modern dramas illustrate Sophocles, and poetic™ 
which have more than the meaning of details. Dryden has instinct. 
represented Oedipus and Iocasta as haunted, from the first, by 
a mysterious instinct of their true relationship. Thus she says 
to him : — 

When you chid, methought 

A mother's love start 1 up in your defence, 

And bade me not be angry. Be not you; 

For I love Laius still, as wives should love, 

But you more tenderly, as part of me 2 . 

Voltaire has the same thought (Act II. Sc. ii.), where Iocasta 
is speaking of her marriage with Oedipus 1 

je sentis dans mon ame e'tonnde 
Des transports inconnus que je ne concus pas : 
Avec horreur enfin je me vis dans ses bras. 

There is a similar touch in Corneille. Oedipus is watching 
Dirce — whom he believes to be his step-daughter, but who is in 
fact his sister — with her lover Theseus (Act III. Sc. iv.) : 

Je ne sais quelle horreur me trouble a leur aspect; 
Ma raison la repousse, et ne m'en peut defendre. 

Such blind warnings of nature are indeed fitted to make the 
spectator shudder ; but they increase the difficulty of explaining 
why the truth was not divined sooner ; and they also tend to 
lessen the shock of the discovery. In other words, they may be 
poetical, — they may be even, in the abstract, tragic, — but they 
are not, for this situation, dramatic ; and it is due to the art of 
Sophocles to observe that he has nowhere admitted any hint of 
this kind. 

§ 26. Next, it should be noticed that no one of the later The im - 
dramatists has been able to avoid leaving a certain element of im- j^emort— 
probability in the story. We saw above that Aristotle alludes to how ma ~ 
the presence of such an element, not in the plot itself, but in the by g the 

1 =' started,' as again in this scene: 'Nature herself start back when thou wert 

a Act 1. Sc. i. : cp. what Oedipus says in Act 11. Sc. i. 


supposed antecedents. It consists in the presumed ignorance of 
Oedipus and Iocasta regarding facts with which they ought to 
have been familiar. Sophocles tacitly accepts this condition, 
and, by doing so, minimizes its prominence ; so much so, that it 
may be doubted whether many readers or spectators of the 
Oedipus Tyrannus would think of it, if their attention had not 
been drawn to it previously. Seneca has not attempted to im- 
prove on that example. But the moderns have sought various 
ways of evading a critical censure which they foresaw ; and it is 
instructive to consider the result. The Oedipus of Corneille 
knows that La'ms was said to have been killed by robbers ; he 
also knows the place and the date. Further, he distinctly re- 
members that, at the same place and at the same date, he himself 
had slain three wayfarers. Strange to say, however, it never 
occurs to him that these wayfarers could possibly have been 
La'fus and his attendants. He mildly suggests to Iocasta that 
they may have been the robbers (Act I. Sc. i.); though, as appears 
from the circumstances which he himself afterwards relates 
(Act IV. Sc. iv.), he had not the slightest ground for such a sup- 
position. This device cannot be deemed an improvement on 
Sophocles. Dryden's expedient is simpler : — 

Tell me, Thebans, 
How Laius fell; for a confused report 
Pass'd through my ears, when first I took the crown ; 
But full of hurry, like a morning dream, 
It vanished in the business of the day. 

That only serves to show us that the dramatist has an uneasy 
conscience. Voltaire's method is subtler. Oedipus thus excuses 
himself for having to question Iocasta concerning the death 
of Laius : — 

Madame, jusqu'ici, respectant vos douleurs, 
Je n'ai point rappele le sujet de vos pleurs; 
Et de vos seuls perils chaque jour alarme'e 
Mon ame a d'autres soins semblait etre fermee. 

But, as the author admits, the king ought not to have been 
so long deterred, by the fear of displeasing his wife, from inform- 
ing himself as to the death of his predecessor : ' this is to have 


too much discretion and too little curiosity.' Sophocles, accord- 
ing to Voltaire, ought to have suggested some explanation of 
the circumstance that Oedipus, on hearing how Lams perished, 
does not at once recollect his own adventure in the narrow pass. 
The French poet seeks to explain it by hinting at a miraculous 
suspension of memory in Oedipus : — 

Et je ne concois pas par quel enchantement 
J'oubliais jusqu'ici ce grand e'v^nement; 
La main des dieux sur moi si long-temps suspendue 
Semble oter le bandeau qu'ils mettaient sur ma vue. 

But this touch, though bold and not unhappy, must be classed 
with the transparent artifices of the stage. The true answer to 
the criticisms on this score which Voltaire directs against Sopho- 
cles, Corneille, and himself is contained in a remark of his own, 
that a certain amount of improbability is inherent in the story 
of Oedipus 1 . If that improbability is excluded at one point, 
it will appear at another. This being so, it is not difficult to 
choose between the frank treatment of the material by Sophocles, 
and the ingenious but ineffectual compromises of later art. 

§ 27. The recent revivals of Greek plays have v had their great Revivals 
reward in proving how powerfully the best Greek Tragedy can p i ays . 
appeal to modern audiences. Those who are furthest from being 
surprised by the result will be among the first to allow that the 
demonstration was needed. The tendency of modern study had 
been too much to fix attention on external contrasts between the 
old Greek theatre and our own. Nor was an adequate corrective 
•of this tendency supplied by the manner in which the plays have 
usually been studied ; a manner more favourable to a minute 
appreciation of the text than to apprehension of the play as 
a work of art. The form had been understood better than the 
spirit. A vague feeling might sometimes be perceived that the 
effectiveness of the old Greek dramas, as such, had depended 
essentially on the manners and beliefs of the people for whom 

1 In the fifth letter to M. de Genonville:— 'II est vrai qu'il y a des sujets de 
tragedie oil Ton est tellement gene par la bizarrerie des evenemens, qu'il est pres- 
-qu'im possible de reduire l'exposition de sa piece a ce point de sagesse et de vrai- 
r semblance. Je crois, pour mon bonheur, que le sujet d'CEdipe est de ce genre.' 


they were written, and that a successful Sophocles presupposed 
a Periclean Athens. Some wonderment appeared to greet the 
discovery that a masterpiece of Aeschylus, when acted, could 
move the men and women of to-day. Now that this truth has 
been so profoundly impressed on the most cultivated audiences 
which England or America could furnish, — in Germany and 
France it had been less unfamiliar, — it is not too much to say 
that a new life has been breathed into the modern study of the 
Greek drama. 

The § 28. Recent representations of the Oedipus Tyrannus have 

Oedipus a p ecu ii ar significance, which claims notice here. The incestuous 

Tyrannus r ° 

—a crucial relationship — the entrance of Oedipus with bleeding eyes — these 
mint? are incidents than which none could be imagined more fitted to 
revolt a modern audience. Neither Corneille nor Voltaire had 
the courage to bring the self-blinded king on the stage; his deed 
is related by others. Voltaire, indeed, suggested 1 that the spec- 
tacle might be rendered supportable by a skilful disposition of 
lights, — Oedipus, with his gore-stained face, being kept in the 
dim back-ground, and his passion being expressed by action 
rather than declamation, while the scene should resound with the 
cries of Iocasta and the laments of the Thebans. Dryden dared 
what the others declined ; but his play was soon pronounced 
impossible for the theatre. Scott quotes a contemporary witness 
to the effect that, when Dryden's Oedipus was revived about the 
year 1790, 'the audience were unable to support it to an end ; 
the boxes being all emptied before the third act was concluded/ 

The result § 29. In May, 1 88 1, after seven months of preparation, the 
Harvard. Oedipus Tyrannus was acted in the original Greek by members 
of Harvard University. Archaeology, scholarship, and art had 
conspired to make the presentation perfect in every detail ; and 
the admirable record of the performance which has been published 
has a permanent value for every student of Sophocles 2 . Refer- 

1 In one of his notes on Corneille's Preface to the Oedipe (Oeuvres de Corneille, 
vol. VII. p. 262, ed. 1817). 

2 An Account of the Harvard Greek Play. By Henry Norman. Boston: 
James R. Osgood and Co., 1882. The account is illustrated by 15 photographs of 
characters and groups, and is dedicated by the Author (who acted the part of Creon) 
to Professor J. W. White. See Appendix, p. 201. 


ences to it will be found in the following commentary. But it is 
the impression which the whole work made on the spectators of 
which we would speak here. Nothing of the original was altered 
or omitted ; and at the last Oedipus was brought on the scene, 
'his pale face marred with bloody stains.' The performances 
were seen by about six thousand persons,— the Harvard theatre 
holding about a thousand at a time. As an English version was 
provided for those who needed it, it cannot be said that the lan- 
guage veiled what might else have offended. From first to last, 
these great audiences, thoroughly representative of the most 
cultivated and critical judgment, were held spell-bound. 'The 
ethical situation was so overwhelming, that they listened with 
bated breath, and separated in silence.' ' The play is over. 
There is a moment's silence, and then the theatre rings with 
applause. It seems inappropriate, however, and ceases almost 
as suddenly as it began. The play has left such a solemn 
impression that the usual customs seem unfitting, and the 
audience disperses quietly 1 .' There is the nineteenth century's 
practical interpretation of Aristotle. This is Tragedy, 'effect- 
ing, by means of pity and terror, the purgation of such feelings.' 

§ 30. A few months later in the same year (1881), the Oedipe Roi 
Oedipus Tyrannus was revived in a fairly close French transla- Theatre 
tion at the Theatre Frangais. When the version of Jules Frai^is. 
Lacroix was played there in 1858, the part of Oedipus was 
filled by GeofTroy ; but on this occasion an artist was available 
whose powers were even more congenial. Probably no actor 
of modern times has excelled M. Mounet-Sully in the union 
of all the qualities required for a living impersonation of the 
Sophoclean Oedipus in the entire series of moods and range 
of passions which the part comprises ; as the great king, at 
once mighty and tender ; the earnest and zealous champion of 
the State in the search for hidden guilt ; the proud man startled 
by a charge which he indignantly repels, and embittered by the 
supposed treason of a friend ; tortured by slowly increasing 
fears, alternating with moments of reassurance ; stung to frenzy 
by the proof of his unspeakable wretchedness ; subdued to a 

1 Account of the Harvard Greek Play, pp. 36, 103. 
J.S. I. - d 


calmer despair ; finally softened by the meeting with his young 
daughters. The scene between Oedipus and Iocasta (vv. 700 
— 862) should be especially noticed as one in which the 
genius of Sophocles received the fullest justice from that of 
M. Mounet-Sully. In the words of a critic who has finely 
described the performance 1 : — 

'Every trait of the tragedian's countenance is now a witness to the 
inward dread, always increasing upon him, as he relates his own adven- 
ture, and questions her for more minute details of the death of Laius. 
His voice sometimes sinks to a trembling gasp of apprehension, as the 
identity of the two events becomes more and more evident. He seems 
to be battling with fate.' 

With a modern audience, the moment at which the self- 
blinded Oedipus comes forth is that which tests the power of the 
ancient dramatist ; if, at that sight, repugnance overpowers 
compassion, the spell has been imperfect ; if all other feelings 
are absorbed in the profound pathos of the situation, then 
Sophocles has triumphed. We have seen the issue of the ordeal 
in the case of the representation at Harvard. On the Paris 
stage, the traditions of the French classical drama (represented 
on this point by Corneille and Voltaire) were apt to make the 
test peculiarly severe. It is the more significant that the moment 
is thus described in the excellent account which we have cited 
above : — 

' Oedipus enters, and in the aspect of the man, his whole history is 
told. It is not the adjunct of the bleeding eyes which now most deeply 
stirs the spectators. It is the intensity of woe which is revealed in every 
movement of the altered features and of the tottering figure whose 
bearing had been so majestic, and the tone of the voice, — hoarse, yet 
articulate. The inward struggle is recognised in its necessary outward 
signs. The strain on the audience might now become too great but for 
the relief of tenderness which almost immediately succeeds in the part- 
ing of Oedipus from his children. Often as pathetic farewells of a 
similar kind have been presented on the stage, seldom has any made an 
appeal so forcible.' 

1 Saturday Review, Nov. 19, 1SS1. 


In the presence of such testimonies, it can no longer be Conclu- 
deemed that the Tragedy of ancient Greece has lost its virtue S1< 
for the modern world. And, speaking merely as a student of 
Sophocles, I can bear witness that the representation of the 
Ajax at Cambridge (1882) was to me a new revelation of 
meaning and power. Of that performance, remarkable in so 
many aspects, I hope to say something in a later part of this 
edition. Here it must suffice to record a conviction that such 
revivals, apart from their literary and artistic interest, have also 
an educational value of the very highest order. 



mss. used. § i. The manuscripts of the Oedipus Tyrannns which have been 
chiefly used in this edition are the following 1 . 

In the Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana, Florence. 

L, cod. xxxn. 9, commonly known as the Laurentian MS., first half 
of nth century. 

In the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 

A, cod. 2712, 13th century. 

B, cod. 2787, ascribed to the 15th cent. (Catal. 11. 553). 
E, cod. 2884, ascribed to the 13th cent. (? ib. 11. 565). 
T, cod. 27 1 1, 15th cent. 

In the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice. 

V, cod. 468, late 13th century or early 14th. 
V 2 , cod. 616, probably of the 14th cent. 
V 3 , cod. 467, 14th cent. 
V 4 , cod. 472, 14th cent. 

In the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Cod. Laud. Misc. 99 (now Auct. F. 3. 25), late 14th century. 
Cod. Laud. 54, early 15th cent. 
Cod. Barocc. 66, 15th cent. 

In the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Cod. R. 3. 31, mainly of the late 14th century, in parts perhaps of 
the early 15 th. 

These mss. I have myself collated. 

The following are known to me in some cases by slighter personal 

1 There is no doubt that L belongs to the first half of the nth century, and none 
(I believe) that A is of the 13th. These are the two most important dates. In the 
case of several minor mss., the tendency has probably been to regard them as some- 
what older than they really are. The dates indicated above for such mss. are given 
on the best authority that I could find, but I do not pretend to vouch for their preci- 
sion. This is, in fact, of comparatively small moment, so long as we know the 
general limits of age. Excluding L and A, we may say broadly that almost all other 
known mss. of Sophocles belong to the period 1300 — 1600 A.D. 


inspection, but more largely from previous collations, especially from 
those of Prof. L. Campbell (2nd ed., 1879): — Pal. =Palat. 40, Heidel- 
berg: Vat. a = cod. 40 in the Vatican, 13th cent, (ascribed by some to 
the 1 2th): Vat. b, cod. Urbin. 141, ib., 14th cent. : Vat. c, cod. Urbin. 
140, /#., 14th cent. : M, cod. G. 43 sup., in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, 
Milan, 13th or early 14th cent. : M 2 , cod. L. 39 sup., ib., early 14th 
cent. : L 2 , cod. 31. 10 (14th cent.) in the Bibliot. Med.-Lor., Florence; 
T, cod. Abbat. 152, late 13th, ib.: A, cod. Abbat. 41, 14th cent., ib.\ 
Rice. cod. 34, in the Biblioteca Riccardiana, Florence, sometimes 
ascribed to the 14th cent, but really of the 16th (see P. N. Papa- 
georgius, 'cod. Laurent, von Soph.,' etc., p. 406, Leipzig, Teubner, 1883). 

In making a first selection of mss. to be collated, I was guided 
chiefly by what I already knew of their character and of their relations 
to each other, as these might be inferred from the previous reports; 
and this list was afterwards modified by such light as I gradually 
gained from my own experience. L stands first and alone. A is 
perhaps next — though at a long interval — in general value. The 
selection of 14th and 15th century mss. could have been enlarged; 
but, so far as I can judge, the list which has been given is fairly 
representative. In the present state of our knowledge, even after 
all that has been done in recent years, it would, I think, be generally 
allowed that the greatest reserve must still be exercised in regard 
to any theory of the connections existing, whether by descent or 
by contamination, between our mss. of Sophocles. We have not here 
to do with well-marked families, in the sense in which this can 
be said of the manuscript authorities for some other ancient texts ; the 
data are often exceedingly complex, and such that the facts could be 
equally well explained by any one of two, or sometimes more, different 
suppositions. This is a subject with which I hope to deal more fully on 
a future occasion; even a slight treatment of it would carry me far 
beyond the limits which must be kept here. Meanwhile, it may be 
useful to give a few notes regarding some of the mss. mentioned above, 
and to add some general remarks. 

§ 2. L, no. xxxii. 9 in the Laurentian Library at Florence, is a vellum The Lau- 
ms., written in the first half of the eleventh century. It forms a volume rentianMS - 
measuring 12 J by 8 \ inches, and containing 264 leaves (=528 pages), 
of which Sophocles fills 118 leaves (=236 pp.). It contains the seven 
plays of Sophocles, the seven plays of Aeschylus (with a few defects), 
and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius. Marginal and interlinear 
scholia accompany the texts. 

Since the first edition of this volume appeared, an autotype fac- 



The first 

The first 

simile of the text of Sophocles in L has been published by the 
London Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1885). In 
an Introduction issued with the facsimile, the palaeographical character 
of the MS. has been described by Mr E. M. Thompson, Keeper of 
Manuscripts and Egerton Librarian in the British Museum. The MS. 
was produced in a regular workshop or scriptorium at Byzantium. 
The scribe wrote a clear and flexible hand ; the characters are minus- 
cule, in that more cursive style which distinguishes other classical mss. 
of the same period from the biblical and liturgical. As the form of 
the ruling shows, the scribe prepared the ms. to receive scholia ; but 
his own work was confined to writing the text. The scholia were 
copied into the ms. by another person, under whose supervision the 
scribe appears to have worked. This person is usually designated as 
the ' diorthotes,' because he was the first corrector; or as 'S,' because 
he wrote the scholia. In some cases he himself corrected the errors 
of the first hand ; in some others, where the first hand has corrected 
itself, this was probably done under his guidance; and he usually 
reserved to himself the part of supplying in the margin any verse 
which the first hand had omitted. In writing the scholia, the corrector 
used a mixture of minuscule and uncial ('half-uncial'): but, in correct- 
ing or supplementing the text, he often used a more minuscule style, as 
if for the sake of greater uniformity with the first hand. Hence there 
is sometimes a doubt between the two hands, though, as a rule, they 
are easily distinguished. 

In the 1 2th and 13th centuries, at least three different hands added 
some notes. Hands of the 14th, 15th, or 16th century have been 
recognised in some other notes, both marginal and superscript. These 
later hands can usually be distinguished from that of the first corrector 
(the ' diorthotes,' or S), but very often cannot be certainly distinguished 
from each other. The attempt to do so is of the less moment since 
the additions which they made are seldom of any value. For much 
else that is of palaeographical interest in regard to L, readers may be 
referred to Mr Thompson's Introduction : the facts noticed here are 
those which primarily concern a student of Sophocles. 

§ 3. L is not only the oldest, but also immeasurably the best, ms. 
value of L. f Sophocles which we possess. In 1847 Cobet expressed the opinion 
that L is the source from which all our other mss. are ultimately 
derived. This view has been supported by Dindorf in the preface to 
his 3rd edition (Oxon. i860), and by Moriz Seyffert in the preface 
to his Philoctetes (1867). The contrary view — that some of our mss. 
come from a source independent of L — has also found able supporters, 

Later cor- 
rectors of 



among whom have been Anton Seyffert (Quaestiones criticae de Codicibus 
recte aestimandis, Halle, 1863) ; Prof. N. Wecklein (Ars Sophoclis emen- 
dandi, pp. 2 ff., 1869), and Prof. L. Campbell {Sophocles, vol. 1. pp. 
xxiv ff., 1879). I learn, however, that Prof. Wecklein has since 
become disposed to retract his opinion. In the second part of the 
Introduction to the Facsimile of L (pp. 15 ff.), I have shortly stated 
some of the objections to regarding L as the unique source. Two of 
them are furnished by this play : viz. (i) verse 800, omitted in the text 
of L, and inserted in the margin by a hand certainly later than several 
of the mss. which have the verse in the text : (ii) the words -ttovclv 
rj rots 6eoh written at v. 896 in the text of L, — these being corrupted 
from a gloss, Travrjyvpi^iv tois foots, which exists in full in the Trinity 
ms., and elsewhere 1 . The chief argument for L being the unique 
source is briefly this, that, though other mss. sometimes correct L on 
small points, no one of them supplies any correction which was clearly 
beyond the reach of a fairly intelligent scribe or grammarian. The 
question is one which does not seem to admit of demonstrative proof 
either way : we must be content with the probabilities, which will be 
differently estimated by different minds. Apart, however, from this 
obscure question, all scholars can agree in recognising the paramount 
importance of L as the basis of our text. The sense of L's incom- 
parable value is one which steadily grows upon the student as he 
proceeds with the labour of textual criticism. Wecklein's words are 
not too strong, when properly understood : ' A critic will hardly go 
wrong if he treats every letter, every stroke in L as worthy of particular 
attention, while he regards the readings of other mss. rather in the light 
of conjectures,' — that is, where these mss. diverge from L otherwise 
than by correcting its trivial errors. Instances in which they correct L 
may be seen in this play at vv. 43, 182, 221, 296, 332, 347, 657, 730, 
967, 1260, 1387, 1474, etc. But, notwithstanding all such small cor- 
rections, it remains true that, with L safe, the loss of our other mss. 
would have been a comparatively light misfortune. As instances in 
which a true reading has been preserved in a citation of Sophocles by 
an ancient author, but neither in L nor in any other MS., we may notice 
vv. 466, 528, 1 1 70. 

§ 4. Of the other Florentine mss., L 2 cod. xxxi. 10 (14th cent.) con- OtherMss. 
tains all the seven plays, while Y (cod. Abbat. 152), of the late 13th 
cent., has only At., El., O. T., Phil. ; and A (cod. Abbat. 41), of the 
14th cent, only At., El., O. T. 

1 A valuable discussion of this point is given by Prof. Campbell, vol. 1. pp. xxv — 


A, no. 2712 in the National Library of Paris, is a parchment of the 
13th century 1 . It is a volume of 324 pages, each about 11 J inches by 
9 in size, and contains (1) Eur. Hec, Or., Phoen., Androm., Med., 
Hipp. : (2) p. 117 — 214, the seven plays of Soph. : (3) Ar. Plut., Nub., 
Ran., Eg., Av., Acharn., Eccl. (imperfect). The text of each page is in 
three columns ; the writing goes continuously from left to right along 
all three, so that, e.g., vv. 1, 2, 3 of a play are respectively the first lines 
of columns 1, 2, 3, and v. 4 is the second line of col. 1. The contrac- 
tions are naturally very numerous, since the average breadth of each 
column {i.e. of each verse) is only about 2 inches ; but they are regular, 
and the ms. is not difficult to read. 

B, no. 2787, in the same Library, written on thick paper, contains 
(1) Aesch. P. V., Theb., Pers. : (2) Soph. O. T., Track., Phil., O. C. 
Codex E, no. 2884, written on paper, contains (1) the same three plays 
of Aesch., (2) Soph. AL, EL, O. T, (3) Theocr. Idyll 1— 14. Both 
these mss. have short interlinear notes and scholia. In E the writing 
is not good, and the rather frequent omissions show the scribe to have 
been somewhat careless. Though the Catalogue assigns E to the 13th 
cent, the highest date due to it seems to be the middle or late 14th. 
T, no. 27 1 1, on thick paper, a MS. of the 15th cent, exhibits the seven 
plays of Sophocles in the recension of Demetrius Triclinius, the gram- 
marian of the 14th cent. The single-column pages, measuring about 
\\\ by 7 \, contain copious marginal scholia, which are mainly Tri- 
clinian. The general features of the Triclinian recension are well- 
known. He occasionally gives, or suggests, improved readings, but 
his ignorance of classical metre was equalled by his rashness, and 
especially in the lyrics he has often made havoc. 

Of the Venetian mss., V, no. 468, a paper folio of the late 13th or 
early 14th cent, contains (1) Oppian ; (2) Aesch. P. V., Theb., Pers. f 
Agam. (imperfect): (3) Soph., the 7 plays (but Track, only to 18, O. C. 
only from 1338). V 2 , no. 616, a parchment in small folio, probably of 
the 14th cent, contains (1) Soph., the 7 plays: (2) Aesch., 5 plays (Cko. 
and Suppl wanting). V 3 , no. 467, a paper 8vo. of the 14th cent, has 
the 7 plays of Sophocles. V 4 , no. 472, a paper 8vo. of the 14th cent, 
has (1) Ar. Plut., Nub., Ran.; (2) Soph. At'., El, Ant. (imperfect), O. T, 
with marginal scholia. 

Of the Bodleian mss., Laud. Misc. 99 (Auct F. 3. 25), late 14th 
cent., contains Soph. O. T, El, Ai.: Laud. 54 (early 15th cent.) the 
same three: Barocc. 66, 15th cent., the same three, with Eur. Pkoen. 

1 It contains the entry, 'Codex optimae notae. Codex Memmianus. Anno D. 
1731 Feb. 16 Die.' In 1740 it had not yet been collated (Catal. ir. 542). 


The MS. of Trin. Coll. Camb. (late 14th— early 15th) has EL, Ai., 
O. T. 

§ 5. In relation to a text, the report of manuscript readings may be Scope of 
valuable in either, or both, of two senses, the palaeographical and the the cntlcal 
critical. For example, in O. T. 15 L reads Trpoo-tjifxeOa, and in 17 tion. 
o-t€voi/t€5. These facts have a palaeographical interest, as indicating 
the kind of mistakes that may be expected in mss. of this age and class. 
But they are of no critical interest, since neither irpoa-yfxeOa nor o-tcvov- 
t€s is a possible variant : they in no way affect the certainty that we 
must read Trpoo-ijfjLeOa and o-fleWres. In a discussion on the character- 
istics and tendencies of a particular ms., such facts have a proper (and 
it may happen to be, an important) place, as illustrating how, for 
instance, 1 may have been wrongly added, or 6 wrongly altered, else- 
where. The editor of a text has to consider how far he will report facts 
of which the direct interest is palaeographical only. 

The general rule which I have followed is to report only those read- 
ings of mss. which have a direct critical interest, that is, which affect a 
question of reading or of orthography; except in the instances, not 
numerous in this play, where a manuscript error, as such, appeared 
specially significant. Had I endeavoured to exhibit all, or even a con- 
siderable part, of the mere mis-spellings, errors of accentuation, and the 
like, which I have found in the mss. which I have collated, the critical 
notes must have grown to an enormous bulk, without any correspond- 
ing benefit, unless to the palaeographical student of the particular codex 
and its kindred. On the other hand, I have devoted much time, care, 
and thought to the endeavour not to omit in my critical notes any point 
where the evidence of the mss. known to me seemed to have a direct 
bearing on the text. 

§ 6. The use of conjecture is a question on which an editor must be The use of 
prepared to meet with large differences of opinion, and must be content con J ecture * 
if the credit is conceded to him of having steadily acted to the best of 
his judgment. All students of Sophocles would probably agree at least 
in this, that his text is one in which conjectural emendation should 
be admitted only with the utmost caution. His style is not seldom 
analogous to that of Vergil in this respect, that, when his instinct felt a 
phrase to be truly and finely expressive, he left the logical analysis of it 
to the discretion of grammarians then unborn. I might instance vvv 
■n-dcTL ^aipo) (O. T. 596). Such a style may easily provoke the heavy 
hand of prosaic correction ; and, if it requires sympathy to interpret and 
defend it, it also requires, when it has once been marred, a very tender 
and very temperate touch in any attempt to restore it. Then in the lyric 


parts of his plays Sophocles is characterised by tones of feeling and 
passion which change with the most rapid sensibility — by boldness and 
sometimes confusion of metaphor — and by occasional indistinctness of 
imagery, as if the figurative notion was suddenly crossed in his mind by 
the literal. 
Our text— § 7- Now consider by what manner of process the seven extant plays 
how trans- f this most bold and subtle artist have come down to us through about 
23 centuries. Already within some 70 years after the death of Sophocles, 
the Athenian actors had tampered in such wise with the texts of the 
three great dramatists that the orator Lycurgus caused a standard copy 
to be deposited in the public archives of Athens, and a regulation to be 
made that an authorised person should follow in a written text the 
performances given on the stage, with a view to controlling unwarranted 
change 1 . Our oldest manuscript dates from 1400 to 1500 years after 
the time of Lycurgus. The most ancient sources which existed for the 
writers of our mss. were already, it cannot be doubted, seriously 
corrupted. And with regard to these writers themselves, it must not be 
forgotten what their ordinary qualifications were. They were usually 
men who spoke and wrote the Greek of their age (say from the nth to 
the 1 6th century) as it was commonly spoken and written by men of 
fair education. On the other hand, as we can see, they were usually 
very far from being good scholars in old classical Greek ; of classical 
metres they knew almost nothing ; and in respect of literary taste or 
poetical feeling they were, as a rule, no less poorly equipped. In the 
texts of the dramatists they were constantly meeting with things which 
they did not understand, and in such cases they either simply transmitted 
a fault of the archetype, or tried to make sense by some expedient of 
Its general their own. On the whole, the text of Sophocles has fared better in the 
condition. Mgs t j ian t j lat f e i t h er Aeschylus or Euripides. This needs no 
explanation in the case of Aeschylus. The style of Euripides, ap- 
parently so near to common life, and here analogous to that of Lysias, 
is, like the orator's, full of hidden snares and pitfalls for a transcriber : 
Acu? \xh> yap tSeti/, as the old epigram says of it, el Si ns avrrjv J cwr- 
ftaivoL, x a ^ €7ro v T P r )X VT ^P r I ctkoXottos. Where, however, our mss. of 
Sophocles do fail, the corruption is often serious and universal. His 
manuscript text resembles a country with generally good roads, but an 
occasional deficiency of bridges. 

Is there reason to hope that, in such places, more light will yet be 
obtained from the manuscripts or scholia now known to exist? It 

1 [Plut.] Vit. Lycurg. § 11. 


appears hardly doubtful that this question must be answered in the 
negative. The utmost which it seems prudent to expect is a slightly 
increased certitude of minor detail where the text is already, in the 
main, uncorrupted. I need scarcely add that the contingency of a new 
ms. being discovered does not here come into account. 

§ 8. Such, then, are the general conditions under which an editor of Textual 
Sophocles is required to consider the treatment of conjectural emendation. ^ ^ 
It would seem as if a conservative tendency were sometimes held to be have no 
desirable in the editor of a text. When a text has been edited, we ias * 
might properly speak of the result as 'conservative' or the contrary. 
But an editor has no more right to set out with a conservative tendency 
than with a tendency of the opposite kind. His task is simply to give, 
as nearly as he can ascertain it, what the author wrote. Each particular 
point affecting the text must be considered on its own merits. Instances 
have not been wanting in which, as I venture to think, editors of Sopho- 
cles have inclined too much to the side of unnecessary or even disastrous 
alteration. On the other hand, it is also a serious fault to place our 
manuscripts above the genius of the ancient language and of the author, 
and to defend the indefensible by 'construing,' as the phrase is, 'through 
thick and thin.' Who, then, shall be the judge of the golden mean? 
The general sense, it must be replied, of competent and sympathetic 
readers. This is the only tribunal to which in such a case an editor 
can go, and in the hands of this court he must be content to leave the 

§ 9. The following table exhibits the places where the reading Conjee- 
adopted in my text is found in no ms., but is due to conjecture. The foj^ e ° 
reading placed first is one in which L agrees with some other ms. or critics, 
mss., except where it is differently specified. After each conjecture is f^t^t "* 
placed the name of the critic who (to the best of my knowledge) first 
proposed it : where the priority is unknown to me, two or more names 
are given. 

198 TcAet] TcAetv Hermann. 200 A long syllable wanting. <t«£v> 
Hermann. 214 — ^c? wanting. < (rvfxpLaxov > Wolff. 248 ajxoipov] 
afxopov Porson. 351 7rpoo-ei7ras] irpouTras Brunck. 360 Xeyeiv] Aeycov 
Hartung. 376 /*€... ye (tov\ <T€...y kfxov Brunck. 478 7T€rpas <os 
ravpos (7T€Tpatos 6 ravpos first hand of L)] irirpaq laoTavpos J. F. 
Martin and E. L. Lushington. 537 iv ipoX] lv p.01 Reisig. 538 yi/w- 
piVoijui] yvoipLol/jLL Elmsley. 539 kovk] rj ovk A. Spen gel. 657 <r* inserted 
by Hermann after A.oyo>. 666 kou TctS'] rd 8* Kennedy (t<x$ Herm.). 
672 cXccivov] ZXeivov Porson. 693 ei o-e voo-<£t£o/xai] et (T €voo-<f>i£6fiav 
Hermann, Hartung, Badham. 696 el Swaio yevov (SuVa first hand in L)] 


av ytioio Blaydes. 741 t'ivo. 8'] twos Nauck. 763 o 8e y (o y L)] or 
Hermann. 790 irpoxxpdvq] 7rpov(pr)vev Hermann. 815 rk rovSe y 
arSpos vvv Zctt dOXnoTcpos (others n's rouSe y dvSpos io~Tiv a^Atarrcpos)] 
Tts ToOSe vvv Ictt avSpos dOXuorepos ; I had supposed this obvious 
remedy to be my own, but find that P. N. Papageorgius (Beitrage p. 26, 
1883) ascribes it to Dindorf in the Poet. Seen.: this then must be some 
former edit., for it is not in that of 1869 (the 5th), and in the Oxford 
ed. of i860 Dind. ejected the verse altogether: see my crit. note on 
the place. 817 <L...tlvo] 6v...tlvl Wunder. 825 fx-qr (firjo-r first hand 
in L)] /u.778' Dindorf. 876 dxporaTav €icrava/3acr'] aKporara yeicr' dvafidv 
Wolff. 877 d-jroTo/xov] diroTfxoTaTav Schnelle. 891 I^erat (c^ctcu, sic, 
L)] Bi^irai Blaydes. 893 Ov/xwl (others c?i>/x<3 or $v^ov)\ Ocoiv Hermann. 
906 — vy— v^ or v^— v^c? wanting. 7raAcu'c/>aTa Linwood. 943 f. i) rtOvrjKe 
IIo'A.v/?os ; el Be fir) \ Xeym y ey<o TaXrjOh] Triclinius conjectured r) TeOvrjKe 
ttov Hokvpos, yipov; \ el jxrj Acycu TaXrjOes, which Erfurdt improved by 
substituting HoXvfios, w yepov for ttov UoXvfios yepw. 987 p-eyas] //.eyas 
y Poison. 993 77 ov 6efj.iTOv\ r) ov^t Oefjurov Brunck. 1002 cywy' ov 
(<Lyu>y ovxi A)] eyw ov^t Porson. 1025 tckcov] tv^mv Bothe, Foertsch. 
1062 ovk dv ck rpiry]<f\ ovb* idv TotVr;s Hermann. 1099 ™v] t&v Nauck. 
1 100 irpovireXacrBeZs] iraxpos ireXacrBelo^ Lachmann. noi rj ere ye 
Ovydr-qp^ rj ere y evvdreipd ti<; Arndt. 1 1 09 'EAiKWi/taStov] 'EXtKtovt'Swv 
Porson. H37 ifJLfJLrjvovs (eK/xrjvovs cod. Trin.)] eK/xrjvovq Porson. 1193 
to aov toi] tov crov tol Joachim Camerarius. 11 96 ovSevaj ovSev 
Hermann. 1205 tis ev ttovols, tls a/rcus aypicus] ti? area? aypicus, tis 
eV 7roVots Hermann. 12 16 A long syllable wanting. «S> Erfurdt. 
12 18 dov'po/ACu] Svpofxai Seidler. 1244 eiripprj^aa'] €7rippa£acr' Dobree. 
1245 KCtAei] KaXel Erfurdt. 1264 7tA.€ktcus eeopcus e/X7reTrXeyfj.evrjv (L 
€/x7re7rXr)y fi.€vr}v) ' 6 8e | 07T(05 8* (A omits 8'). ?rA.€KTcucriv atwpatcriv t/iTrc- 
TrXcyfievrjv 6 8c | oVoos 8' also Occurs.] 7rX€KTatcrti/ atwpcucrii/ epnreTrXeyfie- 
vrjv. I o 8' (os Campbell. 1279 at/xaros (others cu/xaTo's t*)] at/xarovs 
Heath. 13 10 8ia7r€TaTcu] 8ta7ra)TaTat Musgrave, Seidler. 13 15 aSa/xacr- 
rov\ dSd/xarou Hermann, ib. A syllable - wanting. <6v> Hermann. 
1 34 1 tov oXedptov fxeyav (others ftiya)] tov fiey oXeOpiov Erfurdt. 1348 
11178' dvayvujvat ttot dv (or 7rore)] p.rj$e y dv yvwvai rroTe Hermann. 1 350 
i/o/xa8os] vo/xa'8' Elmsley. 1360 a0A.ios] d#€os Erfurdt. 1365 l<£v] In 
Hermann. 1401 p\€ixvr)(rff otl\ fxifivrjo-Oe tl Elmsley. 1494 f. tois 
cftols I yovevcriv] rats cttat? yovauriv Kennedy. 1505 M v<f>€ TraptS^s] fir} 
<rc/>6 TT€pu8r)<; Dawes. 1 5 13 aVt] id Dindorf. 15 17 et//,i] ctitt Brunck. 
1521 vi)v...vvi/J WV...WV Brunck. 1526 ocrrts...Kat Tv'^ats c7rt/3A.€7ra>v] 
ov Tis...Tais rvxais c7r€/3A€7T€v Hartung, partly after Martin and 


§ 10. The following emendations, adopted in the text, are due to Con- 
the present editor. The grounds on which they rest are in each case J b e ^ t t ^ s 
stated in the commentary: — editor. 

227 xnrc&Xwv | avVos] vire&Xuv avrov. 
624 orav] (os av. 
640 8pa<rai . . . Svolv] Svolv...Spaiv. 

1 09 1 OiStVov] OlSlTTOVV. 

1 2 1 8 (09 7repiaAAa ta^ewv (w. II. TrepiaXa, a^cW)] wcnrtp IdXtfxov x^v. 

1405 ravroi/] ravrov. 

One conjectural supplement is also the editor's : 

493 </?acravt£u)»/>. 

In a few other places, where I believe the text to be corrupt, I have 
remedies to suggest. But these are cases in which the degree of proba- 
bility for each mind must depend more on an uAoyos ato-tf^o-i?. Here, 
then, the principles of editing which I have sought to observe would 
not permit me to place the conjectures in the text. In the commentary 
they are submitted to the consideration of scholars, with a statement of 
their grounds in each case. 1090 ovk tact rdv avptov] rdv liriovaav ccrtt. 
IIOI 77 ere ye Ovydrrjp | Ao^tov 1 ;] rj <re y €<pv<re Trarrjp \ Aortas 1 ; 1315 
8v<rovpi(TTOv ±*j Svcrovpi(TT lov. 135° VOjOtaS*] /xova8'. 

§ n. In my text, a conjecture is denoted by an asterisk, % Te\e7v for Notation. 
reXct in v. 198: except in those cases where a slight correction, which at 
the same time appears certain, has been so generally adopted as to have 
become part of the received text ; as a/xopov for dp.oipov in 248. In 
such cases, however, no less than in others, the fact that the reading is 
due to conjecture is stated in the critical note. A 'word conjecturally 
inserted to fill a lacuna is enclosed in brackets, as <rav> in v. 200. 

The marks f t signify that the word or words between them are be- 
lieved by the editor to be unsound, but that no conjecture seemed to him 
to possess a probability so strong as to warrant its insertion in the text. 

§ 12. Editions. — The following is an alphabetical list of the Editions, 
principal editions o£ Sophocles, with their dates. Separate editions of 
this play are marked with an asterisk. — Aldus (Venice, 1502: the ed. 
princcps\— -Bergk (1858).— Blaydes (1859).— Bothe (1806).— Brunck 
(1786).— Burton (Soph. O. T, O. C. t Ant., with Eur. Phoen., and Aesch. 
Theb.: 2nd ed., with additions by T. Burgess, 1779). — Camerarius, 
Joachim (153 4). — L. Campbell (2nd ed., 1879). — Canter (1 579).— Dindorf 
(3rd Oxford ed., i860: 6th Leipsic ed., revised by S. Mekler, 1885). — 
Elmsley (1825). — Erfurdt and G. Hermann (1809-1825 : new ed., 1830 

1 See Appendix on verse 11 90. 


-1866. Hermann's first recension of the Oed. Tyr., in the above edition, 
appeared in 181 1 ; the second, in 1823 ; the third, in 1833). — Hartung 
(185 1). — *Herwerden (185 1). — T. Johnson (1745). — Junta (Florence, 
2nd ed., 1547). — ^Kennedy (1882). — ^Kennedy, with notes by T. H. 
Steel (1885).— Linwood (4th ed., 1877).— J. F. Martin (1822).— Matthiae 
(1825). — Musgrave(i8oo).— Neue (183 1).— *Fr.Ritter( 1870).— Schaefer 
(1810: new ed., 1873). — M. Schmidt (187 1). — Schneider (2nd ed., 
1844). — Schneidewin, revised by Nauck (new ed., 1886). — H. Stephanus 
(H. Estienne, 1568). — Tournier (2nd ed., 1877). — Turnebus (Paris, 
I55 2_ 3 )._Vauvilliers (1781).— Wecklein (1876).— *White, J. H. (new 
ed., 1879). — *Wolff-Bellermann (2nd ed., 1876). — Wunder (new English 
ed., 1855). 
Subsidia. § 1 3. Subsidia. — The scope of the following list is limited to in- 

dicating some of the principal writings consulted for this edition. — 
Arndt (Quaestiones criticae, 6°r., 1844: Kritische u. exegetische B enter- 
kungen, 6°<r., 1854: Beitrage z. Kritik des Soph. Textes, &>c, 1862). — 
Badham (Miscellanea, 1855). — Butcher (in Fortnightly Review, June, 
1884).— Cobet (Far. Lectiones, 2nd ed., 1873). — Dobree (Adversaria, 
1 831). — Doederlein (Minutiae Sophocleae, 1842-47). — Ellendt (Lexicon 
Sophocleum, 1872). — Emperius, Ad. (Analecta critica, 1842). — Gleditsch, 
Hugo (Die Sophokleischen Strophen metrisch erklart, 1867-8). — Heath 
(Notae sive Lectiones, &>c, 1762). — Heimsoeth (Kritische Studien, 1865 : 
Commentatio critica on textual emendation, continued in several parts, 
1 866-1874). — Kvicala, Joh. (Beitrage z. Kritik, &>c. des Soph., part iv., 
1869). — Otto, Clem. (Quaestiones Soph. Criticae, 1868-1876). — Papa- 
georgius, P. N. (Beitrage z. Erkldrung, &*c. des Sophokles, 1883).— 
Porson (Adversaria, 181 2). — Purgold, L. (Obss. Crit. in Soph., &>c, 
1802). — Reiske (Animadversiones ad Sophoclem, 1743?). — Schmidt, F. W. 
(Kritische Studien, 1886 : also several earlier tracts). — Seyffert, M. 
(Kritische Bemerkungen zu Soph. Oed. Tyr., 1863). — Wecklein (Ars 
Sophoclis emendandi, 1869). — Whitelaw, R. (Notes on the Oed. Rex, in 
Transactions of the Cambridge Philological Society, vol. in., part 1., 
1886. The same part of the vol. contains Grammatical Annotations 
upon the Oed. Rex, by J. P. Postgate : and Note on Oed. Rex, 43 sqq., 
by C. A. M. Fennell). — Occasional reference has also been made 
to many other scholars who have discussed particular points or 
passages of this play. A useful clue to many of these is given by 
H. Genthe's Index Commentt. Sophoclearum from 1836 to 1874 (the 
date of issue), in which §§ 541 — 616 (pp. 66 — 73) relate to the Oedipus 


In my text, I have exhibited the lyric parts with the received 
division of verses, for convenience of reference to other editions, and 
have facilitated the metrical comparison of strophe with antistrophe by 
prefixing a small numeral to each verse. 

Here, in proceeding to analyse the metres systematically, I must 
occasionally depart from that received division of verses — namely, 
wherever it differs from that which (in my belief) has been proved to be 
scientifically correct. These cases are not very numerous, however, and 
will in no instance cause difficulty. 

The researches of Dr J. H. Heinrich Schmidt into the Rhythmic 
and Metric of the classical languages have thrown a new light on the 
lyric parts of Greek Tragedy 1 . A thorough analysis of their structure 
shows how inventive and how delicate was the instinct of poetical and 
musical fitness which presided over every part of it. For the criticism 
of lyric texts, the gain is hardly less important. Conjectural emend- 
ation can now in many cases be controlled by more sensitive tests 
than were formerly in use. To take one example from this play, we 
shall see further on how in v. 12 14 the SiKa£ei tov of the mss. is cor- 
roborated, as against Hermann's plausible conjecture SiKa^ci t\ The 
work of Dr Schmidt might be thus described in general terms. Setting 
out from the results of Rossbach and Westphal, he has verified, cor- 

1 Dr Schmidt's work, 'Die Kunstformen der Griechischen Poesie und ihre Be- 
deutung,' comprises four volumes, viz. (1) 'Die Eurhythmie in den Chorgesangen der 
Griechen,' &c. Leipzig, F. C. Vogel, 1868. (2) 'Die antike Compositionslehre,' &c. 
ib. 1869. (3) • Die Monodien und Wechselgesange der attischen Tragodie,' &c. ib. 
1871. (4) 'Griechische Metrik,' ib. 1872. 




rected, and developed these by an exhaustive study of the Greek 
metrical texts themselves. The essential strength of his position con- 
sists in this, that his principles are in the smallest possible measure 
hypothetical. They are based primarily on internal evidence afforded 
by Pindar, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes. To 
Dr J. W. White, Assistant Professor of Greek at Harvard University, 
is due the credit of having introduced Dr Schmidt's system to English 
readers 1 . 

With regard to the lyric parts of this play, were I to give merely 
a skeleton scheme of them, the application of it to the Greek text 
might prove a little difficult for those who are not already acquainted 
with the results indicated above. For the sake, therefore, of greater 
clearness, I give the Greek text itself, with the scheme applied to it. 
Such notes as appeared requisite are added. 

A few explanatory remarks must be premised. 

A syllable of speech, like a note of music, has three conditions of 
utterance: (i) length of tone, (2) strength of tone, (3) height of 'tone. 

(1) Length of tone — according as the voice dwells a longer or 
shorter time on the syllable — is the affair of Quantity. A 'short' 
syllable, as distinguished from a 'long,' is one which is pronounced 
in a shorter time. (2) Strength of tone — according to the stronger or 
weaker ' beat,' ictus, which the voice gives to the syllable — is the affair 
of Rhythm. 'Rhythm' is measured movement. The unity of a 
rhythmical sentence depends on the fact that one syllable in it has a 
stronger ictus than any other. (3) Height of tone — according as the 
voice has a higher or lower pitch — is the affair of Accent. 

In modern poetry, Accent is the basis of Rhythm. In old Greek 
poetry, Quantity is the basis of Rhythm, and Accent has no influence 
which we can perceive. The facts which we have now to notice fall, 
then, under two heads: I. Quantity, as expressed in Metre: and II. 

1 By his excellent translation, made conjointly with Prof. Dr Riemenschneider, 
and revised by Dr Schmidt, of the 'Leitfaden in der Rhythmik und Metrik der 
Classischen Sprachen' (Leipzig, 1869) — an epitome, for schools, of the principles 
established in the ' Kunstformen.' The 'Introduction to the Rhythmic and Metric of 
the Classical Languages' was published at Boston, by Ginn and Heath, 1878; and in 
Prof. White's edition of this play (id. 1879) tne lyrics are constituted in conformity 
with it. Here, I have felt it necessary to assume that few of my English readers 
would be familiar with Dr Schmidt's results, and have therefore deemed it expedient 
to give fuller explanations than would otherwise have been necessary. 


I. Metre. § i. In Greek verse, the short syllable, denoted by v, Metre, 
is the unit of measure, and is called 'a time' (Lat. mora): a long 
syllable, -, has twice the value of a short; so that -^ is a foot of 
' three times.' The short syllable has the musical value of a quaver J* 
or §- note (i.e. eight of which make 22). The long syllable has there- 
fore the value of J or a J note. 

§ 2. As in music l # signifies that the J note has been made one- 
half as long again (V. e. \ + J = f ), so in Greek verse the long syllable 
could be prolonged by a pause, and made equal to three short syllables. 
When it has this value, instead of - we write ■— . 

§ 3. In a metrical foot, there is always one syllable on which the 
chief strength of tone, or ictus, falls. This syllable is called the arsis 
of the foot. The rest of the foot is called the thesis^. When a long 
syllal le forms the arsis of a measure, it can have the value of even 
more than three short syllables. When it becomes equivalent to four 
(= sj> a \ note), it is written thus, LJ When to five (= J. J, f note), 

thus, lu . 

§ 4. When the long syllable (written ' — ) is made equal to three 
short, it can be used, alone, as a metrical substitute for a whole foot of 
three short 'times,' viz. for - ^ (trochee), ^- (iambus), or ^^^ (tribrach). 
So, when (written ■— ') it has the value of four short, it can represent a 
whole foot in £ (J) measure, viz. - ^ ^ (dactyl), w ^ - (anapaest), or 
— (spondee). And so uj can replace any § measure, as -^-, -^^^, 
^^^- (paeons), ^ — , — ^ (bacchii). This representation of a whole 
foot by one prolonged syllable is called syncope, and the foot itself is ' a 
syncopated trochee/ &c. 

§ 5. When two short syllables are used, by 'resolution,' for a long 
one (^ ^ for J) this is denoted by ^. Conversely the sign uu 
means that one long syllable is used, by 'contraction,' for two short 

§6. An 'irrational syllable' (avXXa(3rj a\oyo<s) is one which has a 
metrical value to which its actual time-value does not properly entitle it. 

1 This is the reverse of the old Greek usage, in which dtais meant ' putting down 
the foot' (and so the syllable which has the ictus), fyxris, the 'lifting' of it. Roman 
and modern writers applied arsis to 'the raising of the voice? thesis, to the lowering of 
it. Dr Schmidt has reverted to the Greek use, which is intrinsically preferable, 
since the modern use of the term 'arsis' tends to confuse ictus with accent. But 
the modern use has become so general that, in practice, it appears more convenient to 
retain it ; and I have done so. 

J. S. I 


The most frequent case is when a long stands for a short in the thesis of 

a foot, which is then 'an irrational foot.' The irrational syllable is 

marked >. Thus in the trochaic verse (O. T. 1524), <o iraTp | as 

> > 

Or}fi\r]s, the syllable Orj is irrational, and as Orjft is an irrational 

trochee. The converse use of an irrational short syllable instead of a 

long is much rarer, occurring chiefly where - W v is replaced by an 

apparent www (written ww>), or — by an apparent — w (written 

--). In a metrical scheme J means that a long syllable is admitted as 

an irrational substitute for a short one. 

§ 7. When a dactyl takes the place of a trochee, it is called a 
cyclic dactyl, and written -ww. The true dactyl (-ww) = i fj: the 
cyclic = J.H J: £*. the long syllable loses J of its value, and the first 
short loses J, so that we have -^ + tV+|- = I- So the cyclic anapaest, 
vw-, can replace an iambus. 

§ 8. A measure can be introduced by a syllable external to it, and 
having no ictus. This syllable is called the anacrusis (aVaVpovo-is, 
* upward beat'). It can never be longer than the thesis of the measure, 
and is seldom less. Thus, before -w, the anacrusis would properly 
be w (for which an irrational syllable > can stand). Before — ww, it 
would be ww or — . The anacrusis is divided from the verse by three 
vertical dots • . 

§ 9. It will be seen that in the Parodos, 2nd strophe, 1st period, 
3rd verse, the Greek letter w is printed over the syllables oroAos which 
form the anacrusis. This means that they have not the full value 
of ww or two £ notes (J^) , but only of two T V notes (-5)* 

§ 10. Pauses. The final measure of a series, especially of a verse, 
might always be incomplete. Then a pause represented the thesis of 
the unfinished foot. Thus the verse vvv 8' €7ri|/<iKAo/A€V|d ww is in- 
complete. The lacking syllables ww are represented by a pause. The 
signs for the pause, according to its length, are as follows: — 

A pause equal to w is denoted by a , musically « for r* 

it J) "^ 5) 5> A J >1 [*• » ^'. 

>> >j >> »« A » >> -*- ?> £j? 

Rhythm. II. Rhythm. §11. Metre having supplied feet determined by 

quantity, Rhythm combines these into groups or 'sentences' determined 
by ictus. Thus in verse 151, <3 Aios a8ve7r€s <£an, || rfo noT€ t<xs 


TroXvxpvvov, there are two rhythmical sentences. The first owes its 
rhythmical unity to the chief ictus on <3, the second to the chief ictus 
on -us. Such a rhythmical kwXov or sentence almost always consists of 
feet equal to each other. The end of a sentence is denoted by the sign ||. 

§ 12. Rhythmical sentences are again combined in the higher unity 
of the rhythmical period. Here the test of unity is no longer the 
presence of a chief ictus on one syllable, but the accurate correspond- 
ence with each other of the sentences which the period comprises. The 
period is seen to be such by the fact that it is neither less nor more than 
an artistic and symmetrical whole. 

§ 13. In the choric type of lyrics, which Tragedy uses, we find, as 
in other Greek lyric types, the rhythmical sentence and period. Their 
correspondence is subordinate to that of strophe and antistrophe. 
Each strophe contains usually (though not necessarily) more than one 
rhythmical period. Each period of the strophe has its rhythmical 
counterpart in a period of the antistrophe. And, within each period, 
the rhythmical ' sentences' (/cwAa) accurately correspond with each other. 

§ 14. In the choric dance which accompanied the choric song, the 
antistrophe brought the dancer back to the position from which, at the 
beginning of the strophe, he set out. Hence the necessity for strict 
metrical correspondence, i.e. for equal duration in time. When any 
part of a choric song is non-antistrophic, this means that, while that part 
was being sung, the dancers stood still. A non-antistrophic element 
could be admitted in any one of three forms : viz. (1) as a verse 
prefixed to the first strophe — a 'proode' ox prelude, to irpouhiKov, vj 
TTpowSo?, denoted by irp. : (2) as a verse inserted between strophe and 
antistrophe — a 'mesode' or interlude, to /xco-wSikoV, rj /xeo-wSo's : (3) as a 
verse following the last antistrophe — an 'epode' or postlude, to c7t<i>6Wj/, 
rj €7r<i)SoV. 

During the pause at the end of a verse in a choric ode of Tragedy, 
the dance and song momentarily ceased ; but instrumental music pro- 
bably filled the brief interval. Such pauses correspond no less exactly 
than the other rhythmical divisions. 

We will now see how these principles are exemplified in the lyrics 
of the Oedipus Tyrannus. Under each line of a strophe I give in 
smaller type the corresponding line of the antistrophe, since the 
comparison is often instructive, especially with regard to irrational 

1 Distinguish the masc. b iirydds, a retrain, esp. the epodic distichon as used by 
Archilochus and Horace. 

e 2 


I. Parodos, vv. 151— 215. 
First Strophe. 

(I., II., denote the First and Second Rhythmical Periods. The 
sign || marks the end of a Rhythmical Sentence ; J marks that of a 

I. 1. w 810s I a$v€7r I €9 <f>ari || tis 7tot€ I ra<s irokv | xP V(rov II 
-irpuTa ae \ k€k\o/x€i> \ os dvyar \\ ep 8ios \ a/ifipoT ad \ ava || 
L..^ l_^ L_ w _ 

2. 7rv • 0a)i/os I ayAa | ao~ t/3 \ aa /\ || 
ycu - aox \ ov t a.8 \ eX0e | av \\ 

3. drjfias j €KT€Ta/A | at <£o/?ep \\ av <f>p€va | SufiarL | 7raAAa)v 
aprejuu I a kv/cXo | or 070/) || as Bpovov | ev/cXea | 0a<r<rei 

4. 1 • 17a I SaAic I irat | av "/\~ 1 
kcu j 0otj3ov 6K I afioXov \ 1 | w 

II. I. a/x<£i <roi I a£o/xcv | 05 ti /xoi | 77 vcov || rj irepi | tcAAo/acv | ats top | ats 7raA.1v || 
rptaaoi. a | \e£tp.op | 01 irpo<pav \ r)T€ /jloi || etirore \ /cat irporep | a<r ar | as virep \\ 

2. €$avv(r I cis XP €OS I a7re / xot I *" XP V(re II as T€ * 1/0 i / 1 €X7rt8os | a/x/2poT€ | <£a/xa]} 
opvvfiev I as 7roXei | rjvvjar | e/c ro7rt || av </>Xo7a | irTj/JLaTos \ eXdere | /cat vvv^ 

I. ^iVj/ Period: 4 verses. Metre, dactylic. Verse 1. The 
comma after — in the 3rd foot denotes caesura. Verse 2. The 
dots I after irv show that it is the anacrusis: see § 8. The sign 
I — means that the long syllable here has the time-value of - ^ or a 
I note, so that 0o>vos = a dactyl, -^: see § 2. This verse forms a. 
rhythmical sentence of 3 dactyls, a dactylic tripody. It is known as a 
1 Doric sentence,' because characteristic of Doric melodies « Pind. OL 
8. 27 Klova I haifxovl. \ av ~A~ || ' ib. 40 els 8* ccro/o | overt, fio | aVais ||. 
The sign "a" marks a pause equal to wo: see § 10. Verse 3. w shows 
_ LJ 

that as represents, by contraction, ^^. Verse 4. ?rai has the time- 
value of a whole dactyl - w, or |- measure : this is therefore a case of 
syncope, see § 4. When syncope occurs thus in the penultimate measure 



of a rhythmical sentence or of a verse, it imparts to it a melancholy 
cadence : and such is called a ' 'falling' sentence or verse. 

Now count the sentences marked off by ||. In v. 1, we have 2 
sentences of 3 feet each j 3, 3. In v. 2 one sentence of 4 feet ; 4. 
In v. 3, the same as in v. 1. In v. 4, the same as in v. 2. The series 
thus is 3 3. 4. 3 3. 4. This determines the form of the entire Rhythmical 
Period, which is expressed thus : — 

Here the curve on the left means that one whole 
group (verses 1, 2) corresponds with the other whole 
group (verses 3, 4). The curves on the right mean 
that the 1st sentence of the 1st group corresponds to 
the 1st of the 2nd, the 2nd of the 1st to the 2nd of 
the 2nd, the 3rd of the 1st to the 3rd of the 2nd. 
The vertical dots mean that the figure or figures be- 
tween any two of them relate to a single verse. 

This is called the palinodic period : meaning that 
a group of rhythmical sentences recurs once, in the 
same order. 


II. Second Period: 2 verses. Metre, still dactylic. Verse 1. The 

last foot, cu? 7raA.1v, is a true dactyl (not a 'cyclic,' see § 7); it is not 

contracted into ; and it closes a rhythmical sentence. Now, when 

this happens, it is a rule that the immediately preceding foot should be 
also an uncontracted dactyl. Why do not at? o>p, as ax, break this rule ? 
Because, in singing, two -§- notes, H, instead of one \ note, |, were 

given to the syllable o>p, and likewise to ax. This is expressed by 

writing <op, and not merely wp. 

In v. 1 we have two rhythmical sentences of 4 feet each : 4, 4. In 
v. 2, the same. The series, then, is 44. 44., and the form of the 
Rhythmical Period is again palinodic: — 


Second Strophe. 

> w w w www — w — 

I. I. co j 7T07TOL av | apiO/xa I yap tf>€p | co A || 

cov \ 7ToXi$ av | apid/ios | oXXv | rat 

> W W W ^^ w — w — 

2. in] \ /xara vocx | ci 8c | fiot, irpo | ■n-as A || 
vt] \ Xe a 5e | yeveflXa | 7rpos ?re5 | co 

co — w w — w w ' — — 

3. aroAos • ov8 tvi | c£povTi8os | cyx | os A ]] 

davar I acpopa | /cecrai av | oticr | cos 

II. I. co Tts a I Xe^crat | ovt€ yap | CKyova || 
cp5 akox I ot 7roXt I cut cjti I fiarepes 

> _ w w — WW WW — — 

2. k\vt • as xOovos I av^cTcu | ovtc tok | oicrir || 

a/CT I av Traoa | (Hu/juop \ aWodev | aXXai 

> L_^ _ ^ _ wv , _ w „ L_l_ 

3. 1 • 1/ 1 I uv Ka/xar | cov av«x || overt yvv | ai* | es A II 
Xiryp ; cov 7rov I cov ikt | 7706s ct || 1 crrevax j over | iv 

- « — w I — -, WW - ww - ww - - 

4. aAA j ov8 av I aXA. | 0) 7rpocTi8 || 01s amp | evirrepov | opviv || 

irai • av 5e | Xact7r | et crrovo || ecrcra re | yypvs o/x | ai/Xos 

5. /cpeicrcrov a | ^aijxaKir | ov 7rvpos | op/xevov \\ 

tap virep \ co xP vff€ ! a Bvyar \ ep 5cos 
L_ ^ L_ „ LJ _ 

6. cxkt I av 7rpos | ccrircp | ov | Oeov A ]| 

eu • co 7ra I irefi\pov | aXx | av 

I. ^/>j/ Period: 3 verses. The metrical basis of the rhythm is the 
choree (or 'trochee,' -w), for which the cyclic dactyl (-^w, see § 7) and 
tribrach (w w w) can be substituted. The rhythm itself is logaoedic\ When 

1 The name Xo7aoi5t/c6s, 'prose- verse,' meant simply that, owing to the apparently 
lawless interchange of measures (^--w, www, — >, for ~^>) in this rhythm, the old 
metrists looked upon it as something intermediate between prose and verse. It should 
be borne in mind that the essential difference between choreic and logaoedic rhythm 
is that of ictus, as stated above. The admission of the cyclic dactyl is also a specially 
logaoedic trait, yet not exclusively such, for it is found occasionally in pure choreics 
also. The question, 'Is this rhythm choreic or logaoedic?' can often be answered 
only by appeal to the whole poetical and musical character of the lyric composition, — 


chorees are arranged in ordinary choreic rhythm, the ictus of arsis is to 
that of thesis as 3 to 1 ( j_J\: when in logaoedic, as 3 to 2 / j_:V The 
latter has a lighter and livelier effect. Verse 1. The anacrusis w is 
marked >, since it is an 'irrational' syllable (§ 6), — a long serving for a 
short. The anacrusis can here be no more than ^, since it can never 
be longer than the thesis (§ 8), which is here v/, since ^w represents 
— v^. Verse 3. o> written over o-toAos means that the two short syllables 
here have only the time-value of v^, or S3, not of w^ or H: see § 9. 
ovSm and <f>povTihos are cyclic dactyls (-^ ^ = - ^), not true ones (- ^ J)> 
see § 7. The second syllable of eyxos is marked long, because the last 
syllable of a verse {syllaba anceps, <rv\\af3r} aSia<£opos) always can 
be so, and here o<s is the first of a choree, — ^, which the pause A 

Verses 1, 2, 3 contain each one rhythmical sentence of 4 feet; the 
series is therefore .4.4. 4 . , and the form of the period is : — 

When two rhythmical sentences of equal length correspond to 
each other, they form a ' stichic ' period (ori'xos, a line or verse); 
when, as here, more than two, they form a repeated stichic 

II. Second Period: 6 verses. Metre, dactylic. Verse 2. The 

anacrusis kXvt is marked — since it is a really short syllable serving 

1 irrationally' (§ 6) as a long : for, the measure being - ^ ^, the anacrusis 

should properly be ^ v or — (as olkt in the antistr. actually is). Verse 3. 

1 — 1 

aiK = -w (§ 4). This syncope (§ 4) in the penult, measure makes a 

' falling ' verse : see on Str. 1. Per. 1. v. 4. ~R = a pause equal to v^ 

(§ 10). 

the logaoedic ictus being always more vivacious than the choreic. See, on this subject, 
Griech. Metrik § 19. 3. Students will remember that ' logaoedic verse' is a generic term. 

Three kinds of it have special names : (1) the logaoedic dipodia, as Ka/xirvXov \ ap/xa\\, 

— \S S^ \J y^ 

is an ' Adibv lov jxh-pov: (2) the tripodia, fivpaorov \ ov kvk\ | w/*a ||, a Qepeiepdreiov : 

(3) the tetrapodia, which is very common, vvv yap e/* | oc fie\ | ei x°P I ewrcu II, is the 
'glyconic,' TXvKdveiov. (2) and (3) can vary the place of the cyclic dactyl, and can 
be catalectic. The logaoedic (5) pentapodia and (6) hexapodia, both of which occur 
in tragedy, are not commonly designated by special names. 



Verse i contains i rhythmical sentence of 4 feet : v. 2, the same : 
V. 3, two sentences each of 3 feet : v. 4, the same : vv. 5, 6, the same 
as 1, 2. Series : ., and the form of period is : — 

The curves on the left show the corre- 
spondence of whole rhythmical groups; 
those on the right, that of rhythmical sen- 

If the second group of . 3 3 . had followed 
the second of .4.4., this would have been 
a simple palinodic period, like the 1st of 
Strophe 1. But as the groups are repeated 
in reversed order, it is called a palinodic 
antithetic period. 

Third Strophe. 

\j \j ^/ 

I. I. ap \ ea re \ rov \ fxaXcpov | os || wv a | yaXKOS \ ao-7rtS | a>v A 

\vk - €i av I a£ | ra re <xa \ XP V(r II otrrpotp | wv air \ ayKvX \ av 

2. <j>Xey • €1 fl€ I 7T€pi/3o | CLTOS \ OlVTL | a£ I (J)V A 

/SeX • ea 6e\ | ol/x av | a5a/xar | ev8ar \ eurd \ at 

\s — 

3. 7raA. • i(t<tvt I ov hpap. | rj/xa | vojtkt | at Trarp | as A 
ap • 077a I Trpoarad | evra \ rat re | irvp<f>op | 01/s 

V^ \J \^ 

4. €7r • ovpov I etr j «s /ncy | av Ij OaXafMov \ ap.<pL | rptr | as A ]J 
apr | e/u5os | at7\ | as £1/? | ats || Xvki 00 | t\ Si | a<r<r | « 

II. I. €LT - €<S 70V (XTT \ 0%€VOV \ OpfX | OV \\ OpYjKL j OV kXvS \ (OV | a A 

top • -xfivaofiiTp \ av re ki | kXtjck | w || raaS ctt | wvu/x. | ov j 7a? 

2. tcX • €iv yap I an I vv| a<j!> | r) |j tovt €7r | rj/xap | cp^€T | at A 
oiv \ (dira I (3aKX<>v \ evt | ov || /xaivad \ <av ofi \ o<tto\ \ ov 

3. tov j o) I rav I nvpepop j cl>v || ao-Tpair I av Kpar \ t] V€fx \ <ov A 
irc\ • a<r0 | tjv | at 0Xe7 | opt [| a7\a wtti | ou/t/tax | ov 


> — \J \J \^l w — v^ — v_/ ' — 

4. (o • t,iv irar \ cp vtto | ctcd <f>6i(r \ ov K€p | avv | w A] 
irevK l a tti \ tqv airo \ tl/xov \ eu de \ 01s | deov 

I. First Period: 4 verses. The choree - ^ is again the fundamental 
measure, as in Str. 11. Per. 1., but the choreic rhythm here expresses 
greater excitement. Verse 1. The place of the syncope (' — , § 4) at rov 
and 05, each following a tribrach, makes a 'rising' rhythmical sentence, 

in contrast with the ' falling 1 sentence (see Str. 1. Per. 1. v. 4), such as 


verse 4. This helps to mark the strong agitation. Verse 4. c-rr means 
that the proper anacrusis, ^, can be represented by an ' irrational' 
syllable (as apr in the antistr.). 

Verse 1 has 2 sentences of 4 feet each: 2, 1 of 6 : 3, the same: 
4, the same as 1. Series : . Form of period : — 

A palinodic antithetic period, like the 

II. Second Period: 4 verses. Metre, still choreic. Note the weighty 
effect given by syncope (•— ) in the 'falling' sentences of v. 1, and in 
v. 3. In v. 1, eir is marked > (' irrational'), because the following dactyl 
is only cyclic (equal to - ^>), and the thesis being ^, the anacrusis cannot 
be more : cp. v. 4. 

Verses 1, 2, 3, having each 2 sentences of 4 feet each. Verse 4 
forms 1 sentence of 6 feet, to which nothing corresponds : i.e. it is an 
epode (§ 14), during the singing of which the dancers stood still. (This 
was dramatically suitable, since Oedipus came on the scene as the last 
period began, and his address immediately follows its conclusion.) 
Series : — 4 4.44.44. 6 = i-n-wSiKoy. Form of period : — 


The period is generically palinodic, since a group 
recurs, with the sentences in the same order. But 
the group recurs more than once. This is therefore 
called a repeated palinodic period, with 'epode' or 

II. First Stasimon, vv. 463 — 512, 

First Strophe. 

— \j 

I. I. T19 : ovtiv I a I deo-Trieir | eta || ScA<£is | €i7T€ | verp | a A 
e • Xa/ii/'e | yap \ rov vupo | evros || apri | ws <f>av \ ei<r | a 

— > — > 

2. apprjT I apprjr | a>v rcXe | cravTa || <poivi | awri | x € P°" I LV A U 
0ayua | irapvaoa \ ov top a | drj\ov . || avdpa | Tra^r ix* 7 i €V I cw» 


II. I. top • a viv a ' I eAXaS | aw/ A J] 
<f>oir \ a yap vw \ ay pi. \ av 

> — \J v^ 

2. 17T7T • <ov aOevap | avrcp | ov A [1 

i/X • a? apa t | avrpa | /cat 

w — v v^ *— — 

3. <£uy • a 7ro8a | va>p. | av A ] 
Trerp ; as too I raup | o$ 

a> — ^ ^ — v-» v — > — 

III. I. €V07rX • os yap C7r | avTOV €7r I evOpuxTK I « A 
/ieXc • 0$ jueXe | w irodi | X 1 7/ )€U I wv 


iti ~ VV V — v^ v^ — ^CD^ ~" 

3. wvpt • xat VT€po7r | ats o 8t I os yei/eT | as A |j 
ra jue<r • ofupaXa | yas airo | vo<r<f>it | we 

> — \y \s — > — vy ^/Ov^ *-— 

3. 8eiv • at 8 a/x€7r | ovrat | Kyjpis j avaifrXaK | i|T { ot A ] 
^tapr • eta ra.8 aet | fwira | irepiicor \ ar | at 

I. //>j/ Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, logaoedic, based on the choree, 
-^: see Parodos Str. 2. Period 1. Each verse has 2 sentences of 4 
feet each. Series : .44.44. Form of period : — 

A palinodic period, like the 1st of Parod. Str. 1. 

II. Second Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, the same, but in shorter, 
more rapid sentences. Each verse has 1 sentence of 3 feet. Series : 
• 3 • 3 • 3- Form of period : — 

3 ) 

3 ^ A repeated stichic period : see Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1. 

III. Third Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, the same : remark the 
weighty hexapody of v. 3, expressing how the hand of the avenging god 
will be heavy on the criminal. In v. 2, o> written over yevtr (see § 9) 
means that the time-value of the two syllables was here P^ : i.e. os yever 

was not a true cyclic dactyl, = | # h j, but » J Eg. In the antistr., the 
corresponding voa-cfut, is - > for - w. 

Verses 1 and 2 have each 1 sentence of 4 feet : v. 3 has 1 of 6 feet, 
an €7ro>8tKoV, during which the dance ceased. Series : . 4 . 4 . 6 . = «r. 
Form of period : — 


• j A stichic period (see Parod. Str. n. Per. i.), with postlude. 

6 = £7T. 

Second Strophe. 

— \^ \j — — \j \j — — \j ^j — — v^vy — 

I. I. oWa fiev ovv | oWa rapacrcr \\ u <ro<j>o<i 01 | (avoOeras \\ 
aXX o /iej' ow | fei»5 or a7ro\X || uv i-vveroi \ Kai ra (3poru)V 

2. OVTC. SoKOVVT | OVT a7TOcf>a(TK || OVT OTl A.e£ | 0> 8 OLTTOpU) ]] 

eiSores cw5/) | wv S ore fiavr || is 7r\eoi' ij \ yu (peperai 

\S v^ — [ — <w» v^ — w w — — w w •— ' 

II. I. 7TCTO/X j ai8 €X7rt(T(,l/ | OVT Cvdahop \\ (i)V OVT 07TICT | CO ~/\~ j 

/c/910-is • owe €<rr«' aX | t/^tjs «ro0i || a 5 av cro<pi | av 

V^ >*/ 

2. Tt yap • 7; XafSBaKiS | ais /\ 
7rapa • fieixf/eiev av \ i\p 

3. ry TO) TToXvfi j OV VCIKO? €K | €IT OITTC 7Ta0 || OlOeV TTOTiy | 0)yOVT€ Ta j VVV 7TO) A || 

aXX ovttot ey \ uyyav irpiv 18 \ oi/j. opdov eir || os [iep.<pofiev \ uv av Kara j (pairjv 

4. efJiaO • ov 7rpo<s or \ ov &r) fiaarav \\ l£(dv fiaaav | <o A || 
<pavep • a 7a/) ctt | aura; Trrepo || €<r<r rjXde Kop | a 

5. €7ri • rav €7rt I 8a/xov A || 
Trore • «ai <ro<f>os \ uxpdr) 

v^\^ — — wv-/ — — v-»v-» ' — ',«-'%-' ' — ' \y ^ — — ^ o ' — I 

6. cfxiTLV • €t/x ot8t7ro8 | a Aa/?oa/aS | at? ctti || Kovpos a | 8^Awv Oavar \<av A H 
fiaoav \ (p 6 a8vwo\ \ tj to? air e/t las^/sevosll ov7ror o0X | wet /ca/ct | av 

I. First Period: 2 verses. Metre, choriambic (-w-). This 
measure suits passionate despair or indignation : here it expresses the 
feeling with which the Chorus hear the charge against their king. 
Choriambics do not admit of anacrusis. 

Each verse has 2 sentences of 2 feet each. Series : . 2 2 . 2 2. Form 
of period : — 



A palinodic period. 

II. Second Period: 6 verses. Metre, ionic ( — w), an animated, 
but less excited, measure than the preceding choriambic. Note that 
one verse (3) has no anacrusis. Such an ionic verse is most nearly akin 
to a choriambic, in which anacrusis is never allowed. Here we see the 
consummate skill of Sophocles in harmonising the character of the two 
periods. Verse i. ^= — (§4) : ~K= a pause equal to ^ ^ (§ 10) : the 
whole is thus — ^ v^. 

Verse 1 has 2 sentences of 2 feet each : v. 2, 1 of 2 feet : v. 3, 2 
of 3 feet: v. 4, same as 1; v. 5, same as 2; v. 6, same as 3. Series : 
. Form of period : — 

A palinodic period. 


III. First Kommos, vv. 649 — 697 1 . 

I. ttiB \ ov 6e\ I 7)(T I as (f>pov | 779 || a? rav j a£ | Aicro-o/x | ai A ]J 
yvv • at tl I ^teXX | eis Kop. | if" || etv 5op | aw | tov8 eo~ \ u 
[Here follows an iambic dimeter.] 

II. tov • ovt€ I 7rptv | v^TTt | ov || vvv t cv | opx || a) fxey | av /car j aiSco- I at A 
5o/c • 7]<ri$ | 071/ | (o$\oy \ <av \\ njXde | dairrW « 5e | kcu to \ fj.rj pBlk \ ov 
[Here follows an iambic trimeter.] 

III. I. tov • tvayr) (ptk | ov firj j| 7tot ev ai tl \ a A || 

aX J is ep.oiy aX | is 70s || irpowovovpev | as 

2. o~vv • acjiavet koy | wo-a || i/xov /?aX | civ A J 
<f>atv | erai ej>0 e | Xrj^ev || auroi/ /-tei* | civ 

[Here follow two iambic trimeters.] 
> 1 1 

IV. I. ov • tov I navT | <uv 0c | cov 6e | ov Trpopi | 01/ A || 
a£ j et7r j op /aej/ | cvx a | ti^ V-ov \ ov 


\j \s \j vu v «.v vy 

2. aXt I ov €7rct I a#eo9 | a<£i\o9 | oti 7rv/x | a tov A || 
10 61 I 5e 7rapa | (ppovifiov \ awopov \ etn <ppov | ifia 

\J V^ ^ \S — 

3. o\ ] OLfXaV <f>pOV I 7JO-IV €1 I TOLvS C^O) || 

7re • (pavdai p. av | ei a €voo~<f> | t{op.av 

1 The received constitution of this Kop,pAs — which, for convenience of reference to 
other editions, I have indicated in my text of the play — is as follows: (1) 1st strophe, 
649 — 659, (2) ind strophe, 660 — 668; (3) 1st antistr., 678 — 688, (4) ind antistr., 
689 — 697. The division exhibited above is, however, in stricter accord with scientific 
method. Here, Periods I. II. III. correspond to the 1st strophe and 1st antistrophe 
of the traditional arrangement : Period IV. corresponds to the 2nd strophe and 2nd 
antistrophe. Thus the whole Kop,p.6s, so far as it is lyric, might be conceived as forming 
a single strophe and antistrophe. These terms, however, are not applicable to the 
KopL/Aol, nor to the fiovydiat (lyrics sung by individual actors, p.i\-q dirb o-kijvtjs), in the 
same accurate sense as to the odes sung by the Chorus, since here there was no 
regular dance accompanying the song. Consequently there was no need for the same 
rigour in the division of the composition. The principles which governed the 
structure of the Kofipuji and p:ov(pSiat have been fully explained by Dr Schmidt in vol. 
III. of his Kunstformen, ' Die Monodien und Wechselgesange der Attischen Tragodie.' 


4. aXk \ a fxot &v<r I fxopoi ya | <f>6tvovaa || 
o<xt • e/xa** 7av | <p~Cha.v ev \ irovoi<ra> 

5* T P V X i €t I *A U X I a,/ Ta ^ I €t KOiK I ots * aK I a II 

a\ ■ v I ova \ av kcit \ opdov \ ovpur | as 

6. 7rpoa- • a\p I et I rots 7raA | at ra | irpos | o-<£a>j/ A J 
ra • vvp I 6V I Trofiwos \ av yev \ 01 o 

I. J3r,rf Period: 1 verse, choreic. Two sentences of 4 feet each, 
forming : — 

4 \ 

) A stichic period. 

4 ' 

II. Second Period: 1 verse, choreic. The rhythmical sentence of 2 
feet yw t €v op* || has nothing corresponding with it, but stands between 
2 sentences of 4 feet each : i.e. it is a /aco-wSos or interlude. The form 
of the period is thus : — 

A stichic period. 

III. Third Period : 2 verses. Rhythm, dochmiac. When an inter- 
change of measures occurs in Greek verse, it is nearly always between 

measures of equal length: as when the ionic, ^^, in f- time, is 

interchanged with the dichoree, - ^ - v,, in ■§ time. The peculiarity of 
the dochmius {ttovs So'x/uos, ' oblique ' foot) is that it is an interchange 

of measures not equal to each other, — viz. the bacchius ^ or ^ 

(with anacrusis), and shortened choree, - A . The fundamental form is 

w : w I - a l| . The varieties are due to resolution of long syllables, 

or to the use of ' irrational ' instead of short syllables. Seidler reckoned 
32 forms ; but, as Schmidt has shown, only 19 actually occur, and some 
of these very rarely. With resolution, the commonest form is that seen 
here, ^ j ^^ — ^ \ — A ||. Each verse contains two dochmiac sentences: 
i.e. we have 





A palinodic period. 

IV. Fourth Period: 6 verses. In 1, 2, 5, 6, the metre is choreic 
(- ^). In 3, 4, the metrical basis is the paeon, here in its primary form, 
the 'amphimacer' or 'cretic,' -v-, combined with another measure 
of the same time-value (f), the bacchius (^ — or — w»)\ 

Verse i has i sentence of 6 feet ; v. 2, the same ; v. 3, 1 of 3 feet ; 
v. 4, the same ; vv. 5, 6 the same as 1, 2. Series : . 6 . 6 . 3 . 3 . 6 . 6 . : ie. 

Here we have no repetition of whole groups, 
but only of single sentences. The period is not 
therefore palinodic. And the single sentences 
correspond in an inverted order. This is called 
simply an antithetic period. 

1 In v. 4, if Dindorf s conjecture <p9ivhs for <f>divov<ra is received, we should write 

aWa jjuh \ dvo-fiopy \ 7a <pdivas || 
o<tt efiav I 7a*' <f)i\av | ev irovois. 

The ear will show anyone that this is rhythmically better than what I obtain 
with the MS. (pdivovva and irbvoi<nv, and the conjecture <j>divas is entitled to all the 
additional weight which this consideration affords. On other grounds — those of 
language and of diplomatic evidence — no less distinct a preference seems due to 


IV. Second Stasimon, vv. 863 — 910. 

First Strophe. 

> \J L_ _ y, yy ? y, > yy > 

I. ci • fxoi £vv j ei I 7) cf>ep I ovti || fjLOLpa | rav eu || ot€7ttov | ay vet I 

i/j3/> • is <pvr \ ev I et rvp | awov || v/3/hs | ei iroW || wv vir \ epTrX-rjcrd | 

av Aoy j tov A U 
77 /xar I av 

> -. y^ _> - y, _ y, L_ _ 

II. I. epy I (ov re | 7rai/TO)V | a>v vo/jl \ ol irpo | /cetvT | at A || 
a ; >u.77 7rt ) Kcupa p.r]de \ <rvfi<pep \ ovt \ a 

y^, w vu — \_/ vy — 

2. ri/f • t7roSes I ovpavi | av A || 
aKp I orara | Yeto - ai>a | /3a<r 

V^» — \J V^ > — \J — y^ I— — 

3. 8t j aiOepa | t€kvo)0 | erres | a>v o | Aufwr | os A '] 
a • TroTfiorar \ av wp \ ovcev | ets av | C17/C j av 

III. I. 7ra • ttjp/jlovos \ ovSe j vtv 0va | ra cpvcns | avep [ cav A || 
€P0 • ov iroSi I xpr)<ri \ pua XPV I Tcu T0 K a ^ I w * ^ e X I WI ' 

vy — \_/ — v>> — ^ v./ ' — s^ w ' — I— — 

2. e • tikt€|/ I ovSe I /07 7tot€ j XaO || a KaTa | koi//. | aa | 77 A || 
7roX • ei 7raX | aia/xa j p.rj wore | Xu<r || at 0eoi' | air | ov | /*ai 

O) > — \^ V^ — yy I — ' — — 

g. /xeyas ; ev rovr | ots #eog | ovSe | yi/p | ao-/< j et A H 
^eoi' • ov \rj% | w irore j irpoarar \ av \ tax I wy 

I. jRVtf Period: 1 verse. Rhythm, logaoedic. 
Two sentences, of 4 feet each, are separated by a mesode or inter- 
lude, consisting of the sentence of 2 feet /xotpa | rav ev : i.e. 

4 \ 

2 J A stichic mesodic period 


J.S.I. 8 / 


II. Second Period : 3 verses. Rhythm the same 1 . 

Verse 1 has 1 sentence of 6 feet: v. 2 is a mesode of 3 feet: v. 3, 
the same as 1 : i.e. 

A stichic mesodic period. 

III. Third Period : 3 verses. Rhythm the same. For the mark 
over /xcyas and 6eov in 3, see § 9, and Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1. v. 3. 
Verses 1, 3 have each 1 sentence of 6 feet : v. 2, 2 of 4 each : i.e. 

An antithetic period (See First Kommos, Per. iv.) 

1 The conjectural reading otipavlg. | aWipi, adopted by Prof. White and by Dr 
Schmidt, would give in v. 3 

> <m>V^ ^ ' — v^ — ^/ ' — 

aid - epi TeKV I old I evres \ u)i> \ \v/ \ os A II 
In the antistrophe, Prof. White reads simply ducpbrarov daapafiao- | airdrofiov 
wpov<rep els av&yKav, which similarly would give 

v./ ^ vy 

air - 0T0/J.OV \ wp j ovaev | ets av | ayn \ av A II 

Now, there is no apparent reason for doubting the genuineness of the reading on 
which the mss. agree, ovpavlav \ 5i' aldepa: while in the antistr. the most probable 
reading seems to be aKporara yew' avafta<r' | airoTiAOTarav k.t.X. (See crit. n.' and 
comment, on 876 f.) 

Second Strophe. 

I. I. €tSe | TtS V7T€p I OTTTd | ^CpCTlV || 

0VK6T | I T0V a | QlKTOV \ Cl/Ml 

— v^ — v^ — v^ — 

2. 77 Aoy I 00 7rop I ever I at A II 
yas €7r I ofi(pa\ \ ov oeft \ wv 

3. St/c j as a</>o/? | tjtos | ov | Se A || 

ovd \ es tov a/3 | atcrt | va \ ov 

— \j — v^« — \j 

4. Baifxov J o>v cS J 17 o~c{3 | cov A || 

oi/5e I rap | \vjxtti \ av 

5. kclk • a viv eAj oito | p:otp | a A || 

ei • fir) rade | x et P° I Scikt | a 

— \y — v^> — <^/ — 

6. SvcnroTfA j ov ^ap | tv ^AtS | a? A | 

iracriv | ap/j,ocr | et /3por | ots 

> — v^ — > — v-» — vy '— — — 

II. 1. ei • yu-77 to I KcpSos I KepBav | et StK | at | cos A || 

aXX • w *par | vvuv \ eiirep \ opd a/c | ov | ets 

> — v^ — > — v^ — 

2. Kat • tcov a I o"€7ttcov I ep£eT I at A II 
feu • iravr av \ acrawv | fxrjXad | ot 

>■ — v./ — > \30 — V/ I— — 

3. rj • Ttov a I Olktwv I 0t£eT I at /otar | a£ | tov A ]] 
(7e j ra^ re | crav a | davarov \ cuev | apx | w 

\j UZ? v^ *— * — vy — w — ^ — 

III. I. Tts • en 7tot I ev I toictS av | ryp 0e | cov ySeA | rj A 
<60ii' I ovra I 7ap I Xai' | ov iraX | cu0ar | a 

— ^ — > — \j 

2. ev£eT I at ij/vx I as a/>t I vvetv 
6ea<t>a.T I eifcup | oucrtv | rjdrj 

— > — 

3. et yap | at Tot | atSe | 7rpa£ets | Tt/>tt | at A || 

KOvSafjt, I ov Tifi I ats a | iroXXuv \ e/x<pav \ rjs 


V^ - N^ \-/ V^ 

4. rt ■ Set p:e \°P \ €V€tv ]J 
epp • et 5e ra | t^eta 




I. First Period: 6 verses. Rhythm, logaoedic. 
Each verse contains i sentence of 4 feet : and the six verses fall into 
3 groups : /.<?. 

A repeated palinodic period. 

II. Second Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, the same. In v. 3 w over 
$i£ means that in the antistrophe Oavar represents, by resolution, a long 
syllable, see § 5. 

Verses 1 and 3 have each one sentence of 6 feet : v. 2 is a mesode 
of 4 feet : i.e. 

4 j A stichic mesodic period. 
6 ' 

III. Third Period: 4 verses. Rhythm, the same. In v. 4, the 
last syllable of x°P* v * LV ls marked short, because, being the last of a 
verse, it can be either long or short; and here it is the second of a 
choree, - ^ . 

Verses 1 and 3 have each 1 sentence of 6 feet : v. 2 is a mesode of 
4 feet : v. 4 is an epode of 2 feet. Thus, in this period, the dancers 
stood still during the alternate verses, 2 and 4. The form is : — 

A stichic mesodic period, with postlude. 

2 = €7T. 


V. Third Stasimon (properly a Hyporcheme 1 ), vv. 1086— nog. 

I. I. ciwep cy I oj I /xavTis \ ct/xt || Kat kolt \ a yvwjx \ av i8p | t<? A 

TIS <T€ T€KV \ OV \ TLS <T € \ TLKT€ || TWV fiaKp \ Oil 0)V \ U1V d/3 | a 

2. ov tov o I Xv/xtrov a | Trapinv | o> kl& | ato | uv A |j 

Travos op | eacripar a 7ra | rpos ire\ \ aad \ eia 

— \J — > — \s ' — ^ — > vy — 

3. OVK €0" I €t TO.V \ dVpi \ OV || 7TavCTeX | 7/VOV | fXYJOV CT6 | y€ A ]] 

*77 (Tcy I ewar | eipa | ris || Xo£i | oi> ry | 7a/) 7rXaK | es 

— v v^ — > — \J — 

II. I. kch irarpi | a> rav \ oiSnr \ ovv A || 
aypovofj. I 01 ira<r | at 0tX | at 

— v^> — > — \s — \y 

2. Kat rpo<f> I ov Kat | fiarep | av£«tv || 
eid J KuXXav J as av \ avcrwv 

Kat )(op I cueo-0 
et0 J /3a/cx« 

at 7rpos I r)fJLU)v || ws €7ri | r)pa <j>€p K \ ovra || rots €fx \ 
os 0e J os vai \\ (av eir a/co [ wv ope | cav evp || ^a 

ots Tvp I aw 
5e|ar | €K 

I ots A || 


4. i I rj 1 e I <£oi/?€ I 0-01 I $€ A 
vvp.<p • af eXiK | avid | <w | ats 

- ^ \— L- - 

5. ravr ap | ear | « | ^ A ]] 
TrXetffTa | av/j. | 7raif | et 

1 vir6pxvP a > <a dance-song,' merely denotes a melody of livelier movement than 
the ordinary o-T&ffifia of the tragic Chorus, and is here expressive of delight. Thus 
Athenaeus says (630 e) ij 5' inropxw aT <- K T) (opxW 1 *) T V ku/xikt} o!k€iovtcu, 17x15 KaXetrai 
/c6p5a£* iraiyvubb'eis 5' elalv dfi(f>6repcu : 'the hyporchematic dance is akin to the comic 
dance called "cordax," and both are sportive.' Fragments of viropx^/J-ara, which 
were used from an early age in the worship of Apollo, have been left by several 
lyric poets, — among whom are Pratinas (who is said to have first adapted them to 
the Dionysiac cult), — Bacchylides, and Pindar. 


I. First Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, logaoedic. If in the first 
sentence of v. 3 we adopt for the antistrophe Arndt's conjecture, rj o-e y 
evvdT€ipd tis (which is somewhat far from the mss.), then verses 1 and 3 
have each 2 sentences of 4 feet, and vers^ 2 has 1 of 6 feet ; i.e. 

A palinodic period, with mesode. 

If, on the other hand, we should hold that rj <ri ye us Ovydr-qp represents 
the true metre (being corrupted from rj <re y e<pvae 7raTr)p) and that ovk 
ear] rdv avptov should be amended to rdv e7rtovcrav I077, the rhythmical 
correspondence of sentences would be different. The rhythmical divi- 
sion of verses 2 and 3 would then be : — 

2. OV TOV O I A.V/A7TOI/ d | 7T€ip j 0)V || (O KL$ | Clip | 0)V | TO.V A 

irav os op \ €<r<n[3aT \ a \ ira \\ rpos ire\ \ aad \ eia \ rj 

O) — v^ \s I — ^ — > v^ — 

3. e-rrt • ovaav €cr I ct I 7ravcr€X | 7]V0V | /u.77 OV CT€ | ye A 
o-e 76 | 0u<re ira \ rrjp \ \o£i | as T<p \ yap ttXclk \ es 

and v. 3 would be an epode, the form being : — 

/ 4 A palinodic period, with postlude. 


II. Second Period: 5 verses. Rhythm, the same. Verses 1, 2, 4, 5 
have each one sentence of 4 feet : v. 3 has 3 sentences, the first and 
third of 4 feet each, the second of 3 (the words <o? «u rjpa <f>epovTa). 
Series : .4.4.434.4.4.,/.*. 


Here, single sentences correspond in an in- 
verted order, while the middle sentence of v. 3 
has nothing corresponding to it, but forms a 
mesode or interlude. This is therefore a mesodic 
period. We need not add 'antithetic/ because, 
where more than two single sentences (and not 
groups) are arranged about a mesode, their 
arrangement is normally inverted. 

VI. Fourth Stasimon, vv. 1186— 1222. 

First Strophe 
(forming a single period). 

— — \j \j — \j — 

1. 1 I co ycve I at fSpor | cov A || 
o<j I tis Kad U7r I ep /3oX I av 

— > — wv^ — ^ I — > — v/vy ' — 

2. to? v/a I as tcra | /cat to | ju.17 || 8ev £cocr | as zvap | i#/x | co A || 
To£ei/<r I as e/cpar | rjcre \ tov || ttolvt ev | Satwovos | oX/3 | ou 

I — \j \_t — ^y — 

3. tis I yap tis av | 770 xAc | ov A || 

io I £ei» /cara | fxev <f>0ia | as 

— > — V^ «s^ — v> — 

4. Tas ev I Satjuovt | as cpcp | ct A || 
rap yap}/ \ wvvxa \ irapdev \ ov 

- > - v> ^ - ^ - 

5. 1/ TOO" I OUTOV OCT | OV SoK | €IV A || 

Xpi7ff/ta>5 I ov davar \ wv5 efi \ a 

6. /cat So£ I avT oltto I kA.iv | at A j| 

Xwoa I irvpyos av \ €ffT | a 

> I — -^ v^ - v^ — 

7. tov • crov I tol irapa I Becyfi €\ | w^ A H 

e£ : oi» I /cat jSatrtX | evs /ca\ | ct 



8. rov \ crov | Sat/xova | rov crov | o> || rA.a/xov | oi8i7ro8 | a /3oot | <x>v A 
e/A : os | A'cu ra /xry | tar e | Tifx || atf^s | rats /xeyaX \ auriv \ ?v 
L_ -^ w L_ 

9. ou I 8cv fxaKop I i£ | a> A || 

#?; I fiaiaiv av \ cure \ wv 

Rhythm, logaoedic. Verse 1 contains 1 sentence of 4 feet : v. 2, 2 
of 4 feet each : v. 3, 1 of 4 feet; to which answer respectively vv. 7, 8, 
9. Verses 4, 5, 6 also contain each 1 sentence of 4 feet, v. 4 answering 
to v. 6, and v. 5 forming a mesode. The series .4.44.4., 4.4.4., 
4.44.4. thus forms the period : — 

Since the whole group, consisting of 
vv. 1, 2, 3, recurs once, the period is 
palinodic ; since the sentences formed 
by vv. 4 and 6 are grouped about the 
interlude formed by v. 5, it is also 

Second Strophe. 

I. I. TO. \ VVV 8 CLK I OV I €LV TIS | 0.6\i | (i>T€f) | OS A 

e0 • evpe <r \ a \ kovB \ vavd op | (av xp° v | os 

v L_ L- m=^ _ w _ w _ 

2. Tt? • ar I ats I aypt | ais ti? | «/ ttov | 01s A 

5t/c • af I ei \ top aya/j. \ ov yap. \ ov ira\ \ at 


3. £vv • oikos I akXay \ a (it \ ov A J 
T6KP • ovvra \ kcli t€kv \ ovjuev | ov 
I— L_ _ w _^ _ w _ 

II. I. t I to I kAcivov j oitW I ov Kap I a A II 

t I 07 I Xat I €L0V I w tckv I OP 

— w — v^ — 

2. to fxey I a? At/x | rjv A || 
eitfe <r I eide \ ae 

— v^ — v./ — 

3. olvtos I ry/oKCo- | ei/ A || 
fXT]TroT I etSo^u I ap 

-^ - ^ d^v^ -^ - ^ 

4. 7rai8t I /cat to | rpi OaXa/x | r;7roX | to 7rctr J civ A ]] 

5i>/>o I fiai yap \ wrrep 1 \ a\efi | ov %e | aw 

— v^ \y — ^/ — ^ I — ^ vy — v^ — vy — 

III. I. irtos wore [ 7r<os 7ro0 | at 7ra,Tp | co || cu a - aA.o/< I cs <f> € P I €lv Ta ^ I a * A II 
ck arofxar \ wv to 8 opdov \ enr \\ eiv aveirv \ evaa r \ e/c o~ed \ ev 

-^v, L_ _ v _ ^ l_ _ 
2. triy cSvv I a | Orjcrav \ c<» too- \ ov \ Se A ]j 
Kat kcitc | /coi/x, | T/cra | rovfxov \ ofifi \ a 

I. First Period: 3 verses. Rhythm, choreic. Verses 1 and 2 have 
each 1 sentence of 6 feet : v. 3 forms an epode or postlude of 4 
feet : i.e. 

6 / A stichic period, with postlude. 

II. Second Period: 4 verses. Rhythm, the same. In v. 4 rpi 
OaXafx, is an apparent tribrach, representing a cyclic dactyl, -^ v^, and 
having the time-value of J™^ h (see § 7). This denoted by writing J ^ v^, 

because the ' irrational ' character, though in strictness shared by the 
first and second short syllables, is more evident in the first. 

Verses 1, 4 have each 1 sentence of 6 feet, vv. 2, 3 each 1 of 
3 : i.e. 


An antithetic period : see First Kommos, Per. iv. 

III. Third Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, the same. Verse 1 has 
2 sentences, each of 4 feet : v. 2 has 1 of 6 feet, and forms an epode or 
postlude : i.e. 

4 ) 

6 = €7T. 

A stichic period, with postlude: see Parod. 
Str. 11. Per. l, Stas. 1. Str. 1. Per. in. 

VII. Second Kommos 1 , vv. 1297 — 1368. 

(After the anapaests of the Chorus, 1297 — 1306, and of Oedipus, 
1307 — 131 1, followed by one iambic trimeter of the Chorus, 1312, the 
strophic system of lyrics begins at 13. 13.) 

First Strophe 

(forming a single period). 

v, LJ w 


I. 1 • (1) (TKOT 

| 011 A || 

t | <a <pi\ 


v-/ \J ^ 

2. V€<f> • OS CfJLOV OL1TO I T/0C7TOV €7T || LTr\ofl€VOV a \ <f><lTOV A || 

<rv I fxev e/ios eiri \ vo\os er \\ 1 fxovifios er | t yap 

1 At v. 1336, and in the corresponding 1356, an iambic dimeter is given to the 
Chorus (Period III., v. 3). With this exception, the Chorus speaks only iambic 
trimeters, which follow a lyric strophe or antistrophe assigned to Oedipus. Since, 
then, the lyrics belong all but exclusively to Oedipus, the passage might be regarded 
as his fwixpSLa, interrupted by occasional utterances, in the tone of dialogue, by the 
Chorus. If, however, regard is had to the character and matter of the whole com- 
position, it will be felt that it may be properly designated as a KOfifids, the essence of 
which was the alternate lament. On a similar ground, I should certainly consider it 
as beginning at 1297, though the properly lyric form is assumed only at 1313. 



\j \j \j — \y — 5 V - / — — ^ — 

3. a • Sa/xarov re | /cat Svcr || ovptarov | ov A ]] 
i;7r - ofxeveis /*e \ top rv<p\ || op k?7 5eu J aw 

[Here follow four iambic trimeters.] 

Rhythm, dochmiac : see First Kommos, Period in. It will be 
seen that every dochmiac metre here is a variation of the ground- 
form ^ \ — ^ I — A || > by substitution either of ^^ for -, or of > (an 
irrational syllable, apparently long) for w, as in v. 3, KrjSzvwv. Verse 1 
is a dochmiac used as a prelude (-n-poioBiKov), <o being prolonged to the 
time-value of — . Vv. 2, 3 have each 2 dochmiac sentences : i.e. 

Doch. = 7rp. 

A palinodic period, with prelude. 

Second Strophe. 

I. I. a • 7roAAa)v raS | rjv a \\ tto\\<dv cpi\ | 01 A || 
o\ • oid o<XTis I t\v os || aypias ired | as 

2. o • KO.KO. KO.KO. reA. | wv €fi || a ra8 e/xa 7ra0 | e a A U 
yo/A • a5 eiwrodi | ao* e || Xucr a7ro re | <povov 

\s — vy — \^ — \«y — ^y, — v^ ' «— — 

II. € - 7rato-€ 8 J avro | x.eip vlv \ ovtls || aAA ey J a> | rAa/x, | a>v A 

e/y> • vto I /caveo* | were /i | ovSe? || es x a P I l " I ^po.ff<r \ <av 

yj \s \j — v^ -*- 

III. I. tl ■ yap €8ei fx op \ av A \\ 
tot • c 7a/? ay 0a»/ | a>j> 
2. ot • a> y op I (uvti I /xrjSev \ r)v 18 \ etv yXv/c | v A || 
ovk \ 7)v <pi\ J ohtiv I ov5 efi J 01 too- I ov5 ax | os 


w — ^ — > — ^ — 

3. tjv • ravO 07r I tocr7rep | Kat cu | <f)rj<s A || 
0e\ • ovtl I K-a/tot I tout av \ rjv 

^ yy I W < j W W — W — 

4. Tt ; Sr/T c/x I 01 I fiXtiTTOV I 77 || (rrepKrov | 77 7rooo" | t) yop | ov A 
ovk • ow 7ra | t/jos 7 | av 00^ | evs \\ rj\dov ov8e \ vvp.<pi | os 

W — W ^— ' — W — W 

5. €T • €(tt a/c I ov I eiv I a8ov | a <£i\ | ot A ]J 
/3poT • otj e | k\?70 | i/h | w« | <pvv air | 

ww w «*/ vy 

IV. I. a7r I aycT ck to7t | lov ot \\ 1 ra^icrr a | /xe A || 
j/i/j> 5 • adeos fiev | ei/A ay || oaiuv Se | 7rais 

W w w — w —5 > w w — w — 

2. a7r • aycT co <£iA | ot tov || /xey oXtOpi | or A || 

ofj. \ oyevrjs 8 a<p \ up avr || oo~ ecpvv ra\ \ as 

^ w w — w www ww — w — 

3. tov • KaTaparo j tcitov ct || t Se kcu 0c | 015 A || 

a I Se ri Trpeafiv \ repov ct || 1 kcikov /ca/c | ov 

> ww — w — 

4. «X^P i ototov fipoT I <ov A U 
Toirr • eXax \ ovs 

[Here follow two iambic trimeters.] 

I. First Period: 2 verses. Rhythm, dochmiac. In verse 1 (anti- 
strophe), we have aypYas : observe that if we read aW dypUs the 
dochmiac would have one ^ too much, and see my note on v. 1350. In 
v. 2, the ms. reading vo/^aSos is impossible, as the metre shows. <f>ovdv, 
by resolution for -, as in the strophe, since the last syllable of a verse 
can be either long or short : see on Parod. Str. 11. Per. 1. v. 1, and cp. 
Xopevetv, Stas. 11. Str. 11. Per. in. v. 4. Metre would admit cka/34 /*' or 
!A.a/3cv, but not, of course, ZXvae p or SWev. 

Each verse has two dochmiac sentences, i.e. 



A palinodic period. 



II. Second Period: i verse. Rhythm, choreic. Two sentences, 
each of 4 feet : i.e. 

) A stichic period. 

III. Third Period: 5 verses. Rhythm, choreic, except in verse 1, 
which is a dochmiac, serving as prelude (irpoiohKov). 

Verse 2 has 1 sentence of 6 feet : v. 3, 1 of 4 feet: v. 4, 2 of 4 feet 
each: v. 5, 1 of 6 feet. The first of the 2 sentences in v. 4 forms a 
mesode; which can either (as here) begin a verse, or close it, or stand 
within it, or form a separate verse. Series : . form : — 

A mesodic period, with prelude. See Stas. in. 
Per. in. 

IV. Fourth Period: 4 verses. Rhythm, dochmiac. Verses 1, 2, 3 
have each two dochmiac sentences : v. 4 has one, which forms an 
epode : i.e. 

A repeated palinodic period, with post- 

Doch. = eV. 



In the lyric parts of Tragedy, the poet was a composer, setting 
words to music. Words, music, and dance were together the expression 
of the successive feelings which the course of the drama excited in the 
Chorus, or typical spectator. It is obvious, then, that the choice of 
lyric rhythms necessarily had an ethical meaning, relative to the mood 
which in each case sought utterance. It is everywhere characteristic of 
Sophocles that he has been finely sensitive to this relation. So much, 
at least, moderns can see, however far they may be from adequately 
appreciating the more exquisite secrets of his skill. Without attempt- 
ing minute detail, we may glance here at some of the chief traits in 
which this skill is exemplified by the lyrics of the Oedipus Tyrannus. 

I. Parodos. First Strophe. The Theban Elders are reverentially 
awaiting the message from Delphi, and solemnly entreating the gods for 
deliverance from their woes. With this mood the dactylic rhythm is in 
unison. The Greek dactylic measure was slow and solemn, the fitting 
utterance of lofty and earnest warning — as when oracles spoke — or, as 
here, of exalted faith in Heaven. 

Second Strophe. Period I. The chorees, in logaoedic rhythm, express 
the lively sense of personal suffering (dVapi0/xa yap <£epco | x^'/xara). 
Per. ii. Dactyls, somewhat less stately than those of the opening, 
again express trust in the gods who will banish the pest. 

Third Strophe. Choreic rhythms of the strongest and most excited 
kind embody the fervid prayer that the Destroyer may be quelled by 
the Powers of light and health. 

II. First Stasimon. The doom has gone forth against the unknown 
criminal ; and the prophet has said that this criminal is Oedipus. First 
Strophe. While the rhythm is logaoedic throughout, the fuller measures 
of Period I. are suited to the terrible decree of Delphi ; those of Per. n. 
to the flight of the outlaw; those of ill. to the rapid pursuit, and, 
finally, to the crushing might, of the Avenger. 

Second Strophe. Period i. The choriambic rhythm — the most pas- 
sionate of all, adapted to vehement indignation or despair — interprets 
the intensity of emotion with which the Theban nobles have heard the 
charge against their glorious king. Period n. Passing to their reasons 
for discrediting that charge, the Chorus pass at the same time from the 
choriambic rhythm to the kindred but less tumultuous ionic, which is 
here (as we have seen) most skilfully linked on to the former. 


III. The First Kommos, in its 3rd and 4th Periods, shows how 
doch??iiac measures, and paeonic combined with choreic, can suit varying 
tones of piteous entreaty or anxious agitation ; an effect which, as 
regards dochmiacs, the Second Kommos (VII) also exhibits in a still 
more impressive manner. 

IV. In the Second Stasimon, logaoedics are the vehicle of personal 
reflection and devotion ; the lively measures of the Hyporcheme which 
holds the place of Third Stasimon (V) speak for themselves. 

VI. In the Fourth Stasimon we have a highly-wrought example of 
lyric art comparable with the First Stasimon, and with the Parodos. The 
utter ruin of Oedipus has just been disclosed. First Strophe. It was 
a general rule that, when a verse was opened with a syncope, anacrusis 
must precede. By the disregard of this rule here, an extraordinary 
weight and solemnity are imparted to the first accent of the lament : 

( w - v, - 

1 I (o yeve | at fipor | wv A ||. (See the musical rendering of this, Appen- 
dix, § 10, p. 205.) So, again, in the profoundly sorrowful conclusion 

drawn from the instance of Oedipus, ovS | «v fxaKap | i£<o A ||. And, since 
his unhappy fate is here contemplated in its entirety, the whole strophe 
forms a single rhythmical period. 

The Second Strophe — reflecting on particular aspects of the king's 
destiny — is appropriately broken up into three short periods ; and the 
choreic rhythm is here so managed as to present a telling contrast with 
the logaoedic rhythm of the first strophe. The weightiest verses are 
those which form the conclusion. 

I have but briefly indicated relations of which the reader's own ear 
and feeling will give him a far more vivid apprehension. There are no 
metrical texts in which it is more essential than in those of ancient 
Greece never to consider the measures from a merely mechanical point 
of view, but always to remember what the poet is saying. No one who 
cultivates this simple habit can fail to attain a quicker perception of the 
delicate sympathies which everywhere exist between the matter and the 
form of Greek lyrics. 

20<t>0K A E0Y5 


j. s. i." 





Trpos twv (X7rdvT0)v XoiBopovp,evo<s £evos, 

rjXBev TrvOeadat TLv9ik<jjv OecnrLGrpdruiV 

£r)TUJV eavrov /cat yevovs cpvTOcnropov. 

evpwv Be rXrjpaav ev orcvais a^a^iTois » c 

aKwv €.TT€(f>ve Aollov yevvrjTopa. 

"2,<f>Lyy6s Be Betvrjs 6avd<TtpiOV Avcras p,e'A.o9 

■ycr^wc fxrjrpos dyvoovp.evr)<s Xe)(os. 

Xoi/xos 8c ®rj/3a<s ctAc Kat voVos /xa/cpa. 

Kpcwv Se 7re/xc/)^cts AeX<pLKrjv 7rpos ecrriaVf IO 

07rcos -nvBryrai tov kclkov rravo-Trjpiov, 

yjKovcre <f>a)vr}<; pcavTLKrjq Oeov 7rapa, 

tov Aaieiov eK.BiKy]6y)vai fyovov. 

oOev p.adwv eavrov OiSiVovs TaAas 

cWcras re \epa\v e£avdXu)o~ev Kopas, 15 

avr^ 8c fMJTrjp dy^ovats BidtXero. 

APIZT0<S>AN0T2 TnOOESIS] 'Apurrotfxivovs iirlypaniuLa els rbv ripavvov 

oldiirovv A. The word iirLypafifxa, which could denote the 'title' of a book, is not a 
correct substitute for inrbdeais. 3 deo-7ri<T/ui.&Twi>] vbuwv di\ei A, which indicates 

that £\du)v was a v. 1. for ijXdev in this verse. 1 1 Trid-qrai. MSS., vivid for tcI/Boito, 

which Brunck unnecessarily conjectured. 15 Siaacus MSS., dtffffds Elmsley. 

-rbpiraun diaaas Brunck. 16 airr] be] avT-fj re Elmsley. But the composer may 

have imitated the irregular sequence re — 5£ which sometimes occurs (as EL 1099, 
Ai. 836). 

4 I04>0KAE0YZ 

AP£2TOI>AN0rZ TPAMMATIKOT] The first of the three prose inrod^aets to 
the Antigone is also ascribed in the MSS. to Aristophanes of Byzantium (flor. 200 B.C.). 
His name is likewise given in the MSS. to the metrical virodto-eis prefixed to all the 
extant comedies of his namesake except the Thesmophoriazusae. All these ascrip- 
tions are now generally held to be false. There is no reason to think that the 
fashion of metrical arguments existed in the Alexandrian age: and the language 
in every case points more or less clearly to a lower date. The verses above 
form no exception to the rule, though they are much more correct than the comic 
virodtaeis. See Nauck's fragments of the Byzantine Aristophanes, p. 256: Dindorf 
agrees with him, Schol. Soph. vol. 11. p. xxii. 



O TYPANN02 OIAIIIOY2 hei OiaKpio-ci Oaripov eViye'ypaTTTtu. ' 
Xapicvrcos 8e TYPANNON aVavrcs airbv €7riypa'c/>ovo-iv, ok e^e^ovTa irdo-r)<; 
1-179 2;oc/>okA.€ovs 7roi?;o-eco5, KcuVcp rjrrrjOevra vVo <I>iAokA€OV5, cos <f>r)o~i 
AiKtu'apxos. eto-t 8e /cat 01 IIPOTEPON, ov TYPANNON, avrov iiriypdcfr- 
5 ovrcs, 81a tovs XP° V0VS ™ v 8i8ao"KaAitov Kal Bid rd 7rpdyp.ara' dXyrrfv 
yap kcu n-qpov Oi8iVo8a rov lin KoAcovcp els rd<s 'AOrfvas d<fn.KV€io~6au 
IBlov 8e Tt 7T€7r6v0acrLV oi [xeO* "Ofjirjpov 7roLrjral tovs irpo tcoV TpuKKtov 
(SacnXeLS TYPANNOY^ Trpoo-ayopcv'ovTes, 6\f/e 7tot€ TOv8e rov ovo/xaros 
cts tovs "EAA^vas 8ia8o0evTos, Kara tovs 'ApxiAo'xov xpovovs, KaOdtrep 
10 T7T7rtas o ao<jno-rt]<s <j>r)CTLV. Ofxrjpos yovv rov Trdvrwv TrapavofiiSrarov 
*Ei)(£TOv /3ao~tXea <f)r]o~l Kal ov rvpavvov 

Eis "Ex^toj' /3aai\7)a, ^poruu drfKrjfjLova. 

7rpoo~ayopev6f}vai 8e c/>ao"t rov rvpavvov aVd tcov Tvpprjvwv )(a\e7rov<s yap 
Tivas Trcpi X.rjartiav tovtovs yevecrOai. on 8e vccorepov to tov rvpavvov 
.15 ovofxa SrjXov. ovre yap v Ofxrjpo<s ovrc c Ho"toSos ovre aAAos ovSeis tcov 
7ra\ata>v rvpavvov ev rots Troir\\xao~iv 6vofxdt,€i. 6 8£ 'Apio-rorcXrjs Iv Kv/t- 
attuv 7roAiT€ia tovs Tvpavvovs </»ycrt to -nporzpov aicrv/xvjfras irpoaayop- 
ev€o~&ai. ev<f>r)p.6r€pov yap e/ceivo rovvo/xa. 

2 iiriypd<pov<nv] So Dindorf with L: vulg. £ir£ypa<f>ov. 4 IIPOTEPON, ot> 

TTPANNON, atfrcV] L, Dind. : vulg. IIPOTEPON avrov, ov TTPANNON. 

2 Hpavvov ...iiriypd<pov<riv] The distinguishing title was suggested by v. 514 of the 
play, rbv Ttjpavvov OlSiirovv, v. 925 ra rov Tvpawov...Otdiirov. Sophocles doubtless 
called it simply Oldlirovs. 9 Kara toi>s 'Apx^X 00 Xpt> vovs ] circ ' 670 B.C. It is about 
679 B.C. that Orthagoras is said to have founded his dynasty at Sicyon, and 'the despots- 
of Sikyon are the earliest of whom we have any distinct mention,' Grote in. 43. 


i2"Exeroi'] Od. 18. 85. 15 otire yap v O/xr)pos] For the writer of this U7r60e<m, then 

(unless he made an oversight), 'Homer' was not the author of the 'Homeric hymn' 
to Ares, 8. 5, avTifiioicri rtipapve, diKcuoTdrwv dyk (puruiv. The earliest occurrences 
of the word rtipavvos which can be approximately dated are (r) Alcaeus fr. 37 
Bergk, circ. 606 B.C., refering to Pittacus; see below on 17: (2) Pind. Pyth. 3. 85, 
where it is convertible with (3a<ri\eijs, ib. 70 (Hiero of Syracuse), date perh. 474 B.C. 
(see Fennell's introd.): and (3) Aesch. P. V. 736 6 twv dewv rvpawos (Zeus), date 
circ. 472 — 469 B.C. On the question as to the origin of rOpavvos, scholars will read 
with interest the opinion of the author of Greek and Latin Etymology. Mr Peile has 
kindly communicated tome the following note: — "There seems no reason to doubt 
the usual connection of rijpavvos with *Jtur, a by-form of ^/tar. It does not occur, 
I think, in Greek, but it is used in Vedic, — as is also the common epithet tur-a, 
'strong, 5 applied chiefly to Indra, but also to other gods. Rarer cognates are turvan, 
= 'victory,' and turvani= ' victorious, ' also of Indra. The primary meaning of the 
root was 'to bore' — then 'to get to the end' of a thing — then 'to get the better of it. 
There is another family of words, like in form, with the general sense of ' haste ' ; 
e.g. lurvanya, a verb-stem in Vedic='to be eager,' and turanyu an adjective. 
These, I think, are distinct in origin. In form they come nearer to rvpapvos. But I 
think that they are late Vedic forms, and therefore cannot be pressed into the service. 
The form in Greek is difficult to explain in either case. If there were an Indo-Eur. 
turvan (whence the Sanskrit word), the Greek might have formed a secondary 
turan-yo: but one would expect this to have taken the form rvpaivo. Taking into 
account the entire absence of all cognates in Greek, I think that it is probably a 
borrowed word, and that from being an adjective (?= 'mighty'), it became with the 
Greeks a title." 16 iv Kv/uutLwv TroXireia] Cp. schol. in Eur. Med. 19 (Dind. vol. 

IV. p. 8) alcrvfivg.' yyeirai kclI apx et " ^c'ws 5^ (prjcriv 'A/HOToreATjs viro Kvfialuv alcvfiP^TTjv 
rbv apxovTCL \iyecrdai. ' alav/xurjraL 5£ Kptrol ivvia ir&vTes aviffTav" 1 [Od. 8. 258] 
tovs apxovTas tQv dywv^p {sc. 6 iroLTjrijs X^yei). 17. The al<rv/j.ur)T€la resembled 
the tv pawls in being absolute, but differed from it in being elective; hence it is called 
by Arist. aiperrj rvpavvls, Pol. 3. 14. Alluding to the choice of Pittacus as al<rv[xvfyrr]% 
by the Mityleneans, Alcaeus said itrraaavTo Tupavvov, ib.'. but this was ad invidiam. 



'O Tvpavvos OiSiVovs Trpos dvTi&iao~To\r}v rov iv t<3 KoXcovw em- 
yiypaTTTai. to K€<pdXatov Se tov Spa/xaros yvwcrts twv 1S1W Ka/cwv OiSiVooos, 
irr}pa)(Ti<s T€ tuv o<£0aAp,c3i>, kcu Bl a\y\6vr]<i OdvaTOS IoK(io~Tr)5. 

'Haec in fine fabulae habet L, om. A, qui de sequentibus nihil habet praeter 
aenigma Sphingis,' Dind. Schol. II. 13. 


Aa'te Aaj3BaKt8rj, 7ratoW yevo? 6\(3iov aiTas. 

8(0<T(i) TOL <f)i\0V vl6v ClTap 7T€Trp(J}fJi€V0V €OTlV 

waiSos eou ;(€ip€<r(ri \iireiv <pdo<;. ws yap Zveva* 


Zeus Kpovi'S^s, IIcXottos o-rvycpats apaicri iriOrfaas, 
ov <f>i\ov T7p7ra<ras vto'v o 8' r)v£a.TO croi Ta8c 7ravra. 

XPHSMOS ..eHBAIOi.] So L: vulg. XPV°H0S Models Aafy. 2 5w<ra>...eVTi»'] 

Another reading was relets ^e> ^Xov uidf drip roSe <roi fxopos cVtcu* cp. Valckenaer, 
Eur. Phoen. p. xvi. 3 Trcufids eou] Valck. /.r. cites this reading from the cod. 

Augustanus, and it is probably right, eov here meaning 'thine,' in which sense Zeno- 
dotus rightly wished to substitute it for iijos in //. 1. 393, 15. 138, 24. 422, 550. The 
pron. ios ( = trf6s) properly meant merely 'own,' and (like the pron. stem sva, 'self') 
was applicable to the 1st and 2nd persons, sing, or plur., no less than to the 3rd. 
Vulg. aov iraidos. 

TO AINirMA TH2 2<*>IIT02. 

"ECTTL SoTOVl/ 67TI y^S KCU T€Tpa7T0V, OV fJLLCL <f)Uivtf, 
KCU TpiTTOV dX.\d(T(T€L 8k ffiVrjV fXOVOV OCT(T cVi yaiav 

kp-rrfja. kwzitcu dvd r alOepa kcu Kara irovrov. 
aXA' oirorav TrAcurroicriv cpcioo/xevov ttoo-I /ftuVr/, 
ev6a raxos yvloicriv dtpavporaTOV 7T€Aei avrov. 

3 <f>vr)v] (ptio-iv Athen. 456 B, (Hoty L, A. 3 Kiveirai] yiv-rjTai L. 4 epeifio- 

fievov a specious but unsound reading. The contrast is not between haste and slow- 
ness, but between the number of the feet, and the weakness of the support which they 

Athenaeus 456 B introduces his quotation of the riddle thus: Kal to tt?s 201776s 
fie cuvtyfia 'AcrK\i)ina5r)s 4v rots Tpay^dovntvois toioxjtov elvcu (pyaiv. Asclepiades 
of Tragilus in Thrace, a pupil of Isocrates, wrote (circ. 340 B.C.) a work called 
Tpayydoijfieva ('Subjects of Tragedy') in six books, dealing with the legendary 
material used by the tragic poets, and their methods of treatment. The Atnyfia, 
in this form, is thus carried back to at least the earlier part of the fourth century B.C. 


"KXvOl kcu ovk lOiXovcra, KaKomepe M.ov<ra Oavovrw, 

<f>u)vr}<; ■qfX€T€pr)<i crov reAos dfX7r\a.Kir]S. 
dv6pu)7rov KaTcAc^as, os rjvUa yalav €0ep7T€t, 

irp&Tov t<pv T€Tpa7T0VS V^7T10S €K Xayovoiv 
5 yqpaXlos Sc iriXoiv Tptrarov iroSa ySaKTpov cpci'Sa, 

av^eVa </>opTi£<ov, yyjpa'C KafxirTOficvos. 

5 ipddei Gale: £x« or iirdyei MSS. 

The Atiais is not in the MSS. of Sophocles, but is given by the schol. on Eur. 
Phoen. 50 {aXviyp? ifws wcus Oidiirous 2<piyybs fiaduv)...TT]v 84 \tiaiv rod alvly parol 
oVtu rivts <f>a<riv 'K\O0i' k.t.X. Valckenaer, Schol. Phoen. p. 28, gives it as above 
from a collation of three MSS. 






XOPOS yepovTOiv ©77/Wwv. 


©EPAIION Aafow. 

The iK-irai in the opening scene (i — 150) are a body of K<o<£a Trpoo-wira 
like the citizens whom Eteocles addresses in Aesch. Th. 1 — 38, or the 
Areiopagites in Eum. 566 ff. They would probably come within the 
meaning of the term Trapaxoptjyrjfxa, which denoted anything furnished by 
the choregus in supplement to the ordinary requirements of a drama. 
Some, however, deny this, holding that it was an ordinary duty of the 
choregus to provide all ' mute persons,' however numerous (A. Muller, 
Gr. Buhnenalterth.) p. 179). The distribution of the parts among the 
three actors would be as follows : — 


OEDIPUS, irpuyrayaiVKTnjs. 

Priest of Zeus, 

Messenger from the house (e^ayycXo?), 

Servant of Laius, 

Creon, n 

TEIRESIAS, J. TpiTayiavurrqs. 

Messenger from Corinth (ayycAos), J 


Structure of the Play. 

irpoXo-yos, verses i — 150. 

irdpoSos, 151 — 215. 

£imo-68iov irpwTov, 2l6 — 462. 
<rrd(Tijiov irpaiTov, 463 — 5 I 2. 

£im<r<58iov 8€VT€pov, 513 — 862, with KOjj.fJi.6s, 649 — 697. 
<rrd<rip.ov SruTcpov, 863 — 910. 

tTT£t<ro8iov Tpfrrov, 911 — 1 085. 
ardo-ijAOv rpfrrov, 1086 — 1109. 

€ir€i<ro8iov T^TapTov, 1 1 10 — 1 1 85. 
oTdo-ip.ov TcrapTov, 1186 — 1222. 









11. ^oSos, 1223— 1530. 

In reference to a Greek tragedy, we cannot properly speak of 'Acts'; 
but the 7rapo8o? and the arda-Lfxa mark the conclusion of chapters in the 
action. The Oedipus Tyrannus falls into six such chapters. 

The parts named above are thus defined by Aristotle {Poet. 12) : — 

1. irpoXoyos = fxipos oXov rpaywSta? to 7rpo x°P°v irapoSov, ' all that 
part of a tragedy which precedes the parodos' (or * entrance' of the 
Chorus into the orchestra). 

2. irdpo8o$ = 7; irpitiTT) Ac^is oXov x°P°Z} <tne f* rst utterance of the 
whole Chorus.' 

3. £rmcr68iov = [X€pos okov Tpayu>8uxs to ficra^v oAcoi/ x°P LK< ^ v ftcAwi', 
'all that part of a tragedy which comes between whole choric songs.' 

4. orrderiiiov = yueAos x°P°v T( > ^vcu dva-Tratcrrov /ecu Tpo^atov, ' a song 
of the Chorus without anapaests or trochaics.' o-Tao-ifiov is 'stationary': 
<na.aip.ov /A€\os, a song by the Chorus at its station — after it has taken up 
its place in the orchestra — as distinguished from the TrdpoSos or entrance- 
song. [I do not now think that the notion of 'unbroken' — by anapaests 
or dialogue — can be included in the term.] 

Aristotle's definition needs a few words of explanation. (1) The 
anapaestic was especially a marching measure. Hence the 7raoo8os of 


the older type often began with anapaests (e.g. Aesch. Again. 40 — 103, 
Eum. 307 — 320), though, in the extant plays of Soph., this is so with 
the Ajax alone (134 — 171). But a <Tr6.aip.ov never begins with anapaests. 
Further, the antistrophic arrangement of a o-rd.o-ip.ov is never interrupted 
by anapaests. Yet, after an antistrophic ardo-cp.ov, the choral utterance 
may e?id with anapaests : thus the third o-cdo-ip.ov of the Antigone is 
antistrophic from 781 to 800, after which come immediately the choral 
anapaests 801 — 805 : and we should naturally speak of 781 — 805 as 
the third stasimon, though, according to Arist., it strictly consists only 
of 781 — 800. (2) By Tpoxaiov Arist. plainly means the trochaic tetra- 
meter: i.e. a arda-ifiov must not be interrupted by dialogue (such as 
that which the Chorus holds in trochaic tetrameters with Aegisthus and 
Clytaemnestra, Aesch. Ag. ad fin.). Measures into which trochaic 
rhythms enter are, of course, frequent in o-rao-i/xa.. 

5. ££o8os = fiepo<; 6\ov TpaywSias p.eO' o ovk €crn ^opov fxtkos, 'all that 
part of a tragedy after which there is no song of the Chorus.' 

Verses 649 — 697 of the second lireio-o'oiov form a short ko^os. The 
Chorus are pleading with Oedipus, lyric measures being mingled with 
iambic trimeters. Arist. (Poet. 12) defines the ko^os as Op-fjvos kolvo<s 
Xopov ml a7ro vicqvrjs, i.e. a lamentation in which the Chorus (in the 
orchestra) took part with the actor on the stage. An example of the 
Ko/Afxos on a larger scale is Soph. El. 121 — 250. 




f2 TEKNA, KoiSfiov rov irakai via rpo(f)7] f 
TiVas ttoO* iSpas racrSe [iol Ood^re 
LKTTjpLOLS /cXaSotcrti/ i^earefifxevoi ; 

7T0A.tS 8' OfXOV jxkv OvfllCLfJidTCOV y€fl€L, 

ofxov Se iraidvoiv T€ /cat crTevayixdrajv 
dya) Sikollcov firj Trap dyyikcDV, T€Kva t 
dXXcov aKoveiv avros cSS* iXijXvda, 
6 Tracn kXzlvos OISlttovs KaXovfievos. 
dXK , co yepaii, <j>pd£, eirel Trpiiroiv e<j)vs 
irpo TOJvSe (jxovelv, rivi Tpona) KaOicrrare, 


L = cod. Laur. 32. 9 (first half of eleventh century). r = one or more of the 
later mss.: see Introd. on the text. This symbol is used where a more particular 

Scene : — Before the palace of Oedipus 
at Thebes. In front of the large central 
doors (/WiXeios dtipa) there is an altar; 
a smaller altar stands also near each of 
the two side-doors: see verse 16. Sup- 
pliants — old men, youths, and young 
children — are seated on the steps of the 
altars. They are dressed in white tunics 
and cloaks, — their hair bound with white 
fillets. On the altars they have laid down 
olive-branches wreathed with fillets of 
wool. The Priest of Zeus, a venerable 
man, is alone standing, facing the central 
doors of the palace. These are now thrown 
open: follcnved by two attendants (irplxriro- 
\oi), who place themselves on either side 
of the doors, Oedipus enters, in the robes 
of a king: for a moment he gazes silently 
on the groups at the altars, and then 
speaks. See Appendix, Note 1, § 1. 

1 — 77 Oedipus asks why they are 
suppliants. The Priest of Zeus, speak- 
ing for the rest, prays him to save them, 
with the gods' help, from the blight and 
the plague. Oedipus answers that he 
has already sent Creon to consult Apollo 
at Delphi, and will do whatever the god 
shall bid. 

1 vc'a, last-born (not 'young,' for rUva. 
includes the old men, v. 17), added for 
contrast with rod troWai. Oedipus, — who 
believes himself a Corinthian (774), — 

marks his respect for the ancient glories 
of the Theban house to whose throne he 
has been called: see esp. 258 f. # So the 
Thebans are arpards Kadfioyevfii Aesch. 
Theb. 303, Ka8p.oyevrjs "ytvva Eur. phoen. 
808, or Ka.8p.eioi. TpotJ>i] — dflLyxara 
(abstract for concrete) ; Eur. Cycl. 1 89 
dpvQu Tpo<pal=apves tiered pap.p.ivai. Cad- 
mus, as guardian genius of Thebes, is 
still Tpofefo of all who are reared in the 
8<apa Ka.8p.etov (v. 29). Campbell under- 
stands, 'my last-born care derived from 
ancient Cadmus,' — as though the rpoQefo 
were Oedipus. But could Kddfiov rpo<f>ii 
mean '[my] nurslings [derived from] Cad- 
mus'? It is by the word riKva that 
Oedipus expresses his own fatherly care. 

2 ^8pas. The word £5/>a = 4 posture,' 
here, as usu., sitting: when kneeling is 
meant, some qualification is added, as 
Eur. Ph. 293 70vi;7reTers ZSpas irpoa- 
irirvh) a\ 'I supplicate thee on my 
knees.' The suppliants are sitting on 
the steps (§6.6 pa) of the altars, on which 
they have laid the k\6.8oi: see 142: cp. 
1 5 irpoarj/xeda, 20 danei : Aesch. Eum. 40 
(Orestes a suppliant in the Delphian 
temple) £ir* 6p.<t>a\$ (on the omphalos) 
ZSpav £x°" ra irpocTpbtraiov ...iXalas 9' 
iij/LyivvrfTov k\6.8ov. dod£erc prob. = 0dcr- 
cere, 'sit,' £5/>as being cognate ace. In 
Eur. 0oafa {606s) always = • to hasten' 


1 1 


My children, latest-born to Cadmus who was of old, why 
are ye set before me thus with wreathed branches of suppliants, 
while the city reeks with incense, rings with prayers for health 
and cries of woe ? I deemed it unmeet, my children, to hear 
these things at the mouth of others, and have come hither myself, 
I, Oedipus renowned of all. 

Tell me, then, thou venerable man — since it is thy natural 
part to speak for these — in what mood are ye placed here, 

statement is unnecessary, 
known to the editor. 

MSS.,' after a reading, means that it is in all the mss. 

(transitive or intrans.). But Empedocles 
and Aesch. clearly use doafu as = ddcrcru, 
the sound and form perh. suggesting the 
epic dadcraco, douxos. See Appendix. 

3 iKTT]piois KXdSowriv. The suppliant 
carried a branch of olive or laurel (ke- 
TrjpLa), round which were twined festoons 
of wool (crr^rj, ffTififiara, — which words 
can stand for the iKerrjpla itself, infra 
913, 77. 1. 14): Plut. Thes. 18 r> be [rj 
lK€Trjpia] /cXdSos Airb 7-975 iepds eXatas, iplip 
\evK(p Karea-Tefji.iJ.4fos. He laid his branch 
on the altar (Eur. Her. 124 fiwpJbv Kara- 
ffrixf/avres), and left it there, if unsuc- 
cessful in his petition (Eur. Suppl. 259); 
if successful, he took it away (ib. 359, 
infra 143). ikt. k\. l$c<rrc|qiivoi = krr;- 
piovs KXddovs i^ecrrefifi^vovs e'x 0VTe s'- Xen. 
Anab. 4. 3. 28 bnjyKvXw/j.e'i'ovs robs 
aKOVTio~Tas Kal e'lrifiefiXriiAe'vovs rods 
ro^oras, ' the javelin -throwers with javelins 
grasped by the thong (£7*15X77), and the 
archers with arrows fitted to the string.' 
So 18 i^e<rrefjL/x4vov absol., = provided 
with ffTe"<f>7) (i.e. with iKerrjpiai: see last 
note). Triclinius supposes that the sup- 
pliants, besides carrying boughs, wore 
garlands (iffreipavufxevoi), and the priests 
may have done so : but i^e<xrep./x. does not 
refer to this. 

4 l,*ov \t.kv.. 6\iov 8«. The verbal con- 
trast is merely between the fumes of in- 
cense burnt on the altars as a propitiatory 
offering (II. 8. 48 rtyLevos j3b)/i6s re dv/jeis), 
and the sounds — whether of invocations 
to the Healer, or of despair. 

7 dXXwv. Redundant, but serving to 
contrast a-yyi\(av and a&rbs, as if one 

said, 'from messengers, — at second hand.' 
Blaydes cp. Xen. Cyr. r. 6. 2 forws fxi] 
dt' dXXuv eppvqviuv rds r<2v dewv crvp.- 
fiovXias (rvvelrji, dXX' airbs...yiyp&crKois. 
e58€ = SeO/)o, as in vv. 144, 298, and often 
in Soph. : even with ^X^ireip, bpdv, as in 
Track. 402 £X<?0' w5e=/3X&re devpo. 

8 6 ira<ri KXeivos...KaXov|Ji€vos. ira<ri 
with K\eiv6$ (cp. 40 Kpdriarop), not 
with KaXoifiepos : '-called Oedipus famous 
in the sight of all,' not 'called famous 
Oed. by all.' Cp. Tacriyvoxrros, iraai- 
drjXos, iracTLfxiXovcra, Tra<rl<f>iXos. The tone 
is Homeric {Od. 9. 19 et/x' 'OdvcreOs... 
Kal fiev k\4os ovpavbv f/cet, imitated by 
Verg. Aen. 1. 378 mm pius Aeneas... fama 
super aethera notus) : Oedipus is a type, 
for the frank heroic age, of Arist.'s fieya- 
X6\pvxos — 6 fiey&XoJv airbv d!-i£ji>, a£tos 
<av (Eth. N. 4. 3). 

9 &pvs, which is more than eX, refers, 
not to appearance (0ut)), but to the na- 
tural claim (<ptj<ris) of age and office com- 

10 irp<5 TuvSe, 'in front of,' and so 
' on behalf of,'^ 'for' these. Ellendt : 
' Non est dvrl r<2vbe, nee vwep r<2v8e, sed 
/xaXXov s. fJLaXtffTa rwvbe, prae ceteris 
dignus propter auctoritatem et aetatem.' 
Rather dvrl ruvSe='as their deputy': 
virep T(2v8e = l SLS their champion': irpb 
T<2v5e='a.s their spokesman.' So O. C. 
811 ip<2 yap Kal trpo rwvbe. rivi rpdirco 
with Ka6€<TTaT6 only: belcravres rj arip- 
i-avre5 = eire ebeio-aTe" n, etre tcrre" pi-are (not 
irbrepov beiaavres; rj o~re'pi-avTes ;), 'in what 
mood are ye set here, whether it be one 
of fear or of desire ?' 



heicravres rj (rreptjavTes ; ok 6£\ovro<$ av 
ifjiov TTpocrapKeiv irav SucrctXyryro? yap av 
elrjv roiavSe pL*q ov KaroiKTipoiv ehpav. 


d\X\ a) Kparvvoiv Olh'nrovs ya>pa<z e/xi^s, 

opa<z fiev 77/xcts rjkiKOL 7Tpocrrj[Jie0a • 15 

/3ct)flol(TL T0l<Z (Tols, OL fJL€V OV$€7T(i) fXaKpOLV 

Trricrdai crOevovres, 61 Se crvv yrjpa fiapels, 

leprjs, eyd) jjlzv Zyjvos, olSe t rjdecov . 

XeKTOL' to §' akko <j)v\ov efecrre/xjueVoi' 

11 GTtp^avTts L 1st hand, changed by a later hand into o-TtJ-avres: marginal 
gloss, tJSt; ireirovdoTes. The reading ar^avres, found in r, was intended to mean, 
'having endured,' and may have been suggested by the glosses iraddvres, vTop.elvavres, 
explaining o~T4p^aPTes. 13 /mtj oil KaroiKTelpwv L : /utj KarotKTeLpuv r. 18 iepeh 

MSS. : lepyjs Brunck : lepevs Bentley : lepevs iyioye Nauck. — ol 84 t' i)W4wv L : the r' 

11 o-T^p|avr«s, 'having formed a de- 
sire': the aor. part., as At. 212 iirel 
ce... | orepSccs aWx ei 'is constant to the 
love which he hath formed for thee.' El. 
noo koX rt fiovX-qdeh irdpei; At. 1052 
airrbv £\Tri<ravT€s...dyeiP. Cp. O. C. 
1093 leal rbv dypevrav 'A?r6XXw | kolI ku- 
ffiyvrjTav... I crtpyu 5t7rXas dpwyds | p.o- 
Xtiv, 'I desire' : where, in such an invo- 
cation (l<j)...Zev,...7r6pois, k.t.X.), aripyw 
surely cannot mean, ' I am content.' Oed. 
asks : ' Does this supplication mean that 
some new dread has seized you {delo-avres) ? 
Or thatj<f have set your hearts (ffTip^avres) 
on some particular boon which I can 
grant?' — Others render or^apres '■hav- 
ing acquiesced.'' This admits of two views, 
(i) ' Are ye afraid of suffering? Or have ye 
already learned to bear suffering? ' To this 
point the glosses vtrop.eivavre%, iraddures. 
But this seems unmeaning. He knows 
that the suffering has come, and he does 
not suppose that they are resigned to it 
(cp. v. 58). (ii) Prof. Kennedy connects 
7} ffTtp£avTes us 6£\ovtos dv | ifwv irpoa- 
apiceiv ttoLv; i.e. are ye come in vague 
terror, or in contentment, as believing 
that I would be willing to help you? 
This is ingenious and attractive. But 
(a) it appears hardly consonant with the 
kingly courtesy of this opening speech for 
Oedipus to assume that their belief in his 
good-will would reconcile them to their 
present miseries, (b) We seem to re- 
quire some direct and express intimation 

of the king's willingness to help, such 
as the words ws 64Xovtos...tS.v give only 
when referred to <ppd£e. {c) The rhythm 
seems to favour the question at arkp- 
t-avres. — o-r^avres, explained as '■hav- 
ing endured,' may be rejected, because 
(1) the sense is against it — see on (i) 
above: (2) GTkyeiv in classical Greek = ' to 
be proof against,' not 'to suffer': (3) 
o-tO-u), &-re£a are unknown to Attic, 
which has only the pres. and the imperf. 
c*S 6&.OVTOS av (to be connected with 
<f>pd^e) implies the apodosis of a conditional 
sentence. Grammatically, this might be 
either (a) el 5wa.lp.Tjv, BtXoipu. dv, or (b) el 
rjdvvdp^rtv, ijdeXov dv: here, the sense 
fixes it to (a). «s, thus added to the 
gen. absol., expresses the supposition on 
which the agent acts. Xen. Mem. 2. 6. 
32 ws ov TpoaolaovTos (tp-ou) rds x&P a *i'" 
SidaaKe: 'as (you may be sure) I will not 
lay hands on you, teach me.' 

13 KaToiKTtpwv. olKTipu, not oUrelpw, 
is the spelling attested by Attic inscrip- 
tions of circ. 550 — 350 B.C. : see Meister- 
hans, Grammatik der Attischen Inschrif- 
ten, p. 89. uij ov KaroiieKpcov. An infini- 
tive or participle, which for any-, iason 
would regularly take p.rj, usually takes / 
oil if the principal verb of the sentence is 
negative. Here, 5v<rdXyr]Tos = ovK eiidX- 
7777-oj: Dem. Fals. Legat. § 123 (irdXets) 
XaXeiral Xa^etv...^ oil XP&V Ka ^ iroXiop- 
Kia (sc. Xap.pdvovTi), where xaXe7rcu = otf 
pqidiat: 'cities not easy to take, unless 


with what dread or what desire ? Be sure that I would gladly 
give all aid ; hard of heart were I, did I not pity such sup- 
pliants as these. 

Priest of Zeus. 

Nay, Oedipus, ruler of my land, thou seest of what years we 
are who beset thy altars, — some, nestlings still too tender for far 
flights, — some, bowed with age, priests, as I of Zeus, — and these, 
the chosen youth ; while the rest of the folk sit with wreathed 

does not seem to have ever been tt, but may have been made from re. ol 5' -fjidiuv r. 
— Dobree conj. ol 54 7' or o'ide 5' : Elmsley, ol 5' 2r': Wecklein ol 5' il-ijs dewv ('ceteri 
ex ordine lecti deorum sacerdotes'). Dindorf edits ol 5' iir' ydeuv (which Dubner 
believes to have been written by the ist hand in L): and this had been conjectured by 
Wunder, who afterwards edited ol 5' lyde'wv, relying on a corrupt reading, ol 54 t' 

by a protracted siege.' The participial 
clause, fii) oit KaroiKTlpuv, is equivalent 
to a protasis, el jj.t) kcltouctLpol/ju. Prof. 
Kennedy holds that the protasis is el fxij 
diXoifu understood, and that fir) ov /ca- 
roiKTlpwv is epexegetic of it : — ' Yes (yap) 
I should be unfeeling, if I did not wish 
(to help you) : that is, if I refused to pity 
such a supplication as this.' But the 
double negative iirq ov could not be ex- 
plained by a negative in the protasis 
(el fir) dtXoifu) : it implies a negative in 
the apodosis (5v<rdXyr)Tos av et-qv). Since, 
then, the resolution into ovk etidXyqros dv 
et-qv is necessary, nothing seems to be 
gained by supposing a suppressed protasis, 
el (XT) dikoifju. 

16 p«i>|JL0i<ri rots <rois. The altars of 
the TrpoaTOLT'fipiot. deol in front of the 
palace, including that of Apollo Afaeios 
(gig), pxucp&v irr&r0<u. So Andromache 
to hei child — veoaabs uo~el irripvyas eo~- 
ttLtvuv ifids Eur. Tro. 746. The proper 
Attic form for the aor. of Wrouat was 
tirrbpvqv, which alone was used in prose 
and Comedy. Though forms from iir- 
rdfirjv sometimes occur in Tragedy, as 
in the Homeric poems, Elms, had no 
cause to wish for -nrdoBai here. 

17 a~vv •yiipq. {Bap6is=jSape?s us yq"pa 
avv6vres. O.C. 1663 avv vdaois | d\yet- 

18 eyca piv. The answering clause, ol 
54 dXXwj/ 6eQv, must be supplied mental- 
ly : cp. //. 5. 893 r-qv fxev iy& airovSy 
5dfxvqa'' 47r4eo~o~i (sc. rds 54 cJXXas paSlus). 
It is slightly different when fi4v, used 
alone, emphasizes the personal pronoun, 
as in iyCo fx4v oix ol5a Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 12. 
otSc t . The conjecture ol 5" €ir ('chosen 
to represent the youth') involves a ques- 
tionable use of iirl : cp. Ant. 787 n. rfii- 

wv, unmarried youths: //. 18. 593 ijtdeoi 
/cat irapdivoi'. Eur. Phoen. 944 At/xovos... 
ydfioi I a<payds d^^elpyova■ , ' ov ydp ianv 
rjdeos: Plut. Thes. 15 ydeovs eirrd Kal-rrap- 

10 e£€o-T€ppivov : see on 3. 20 d-yo- 
pai<ri, local dative, like oUelv oiipav$ 
Pind. Netn. 10. 58. Thebes was divided 
from N. to S. into two parts by the 
torrent called Strophia. The W. part, 
between the Strophia and the Dirce, was 
the upper town or Cadmeia : the E. part, 
between the Strophia and the Ismenus, 
was T) Kdrw irdXis*. The name Ka5fxela 
was given especially to the S. eminence 
of the upper town, the acropolis. (1) 
One of the dyopal meant here was on a 
hill to the north of the acropolis, and was 
the dyopd KaS/xelas. See Paus. 9. 12. 3. 
(2) The other was in the lower town. 
Xen. Hellen. 5. 2. 29 refers to this — t\ 
f3ovXrj iKdOrjTO 4v ry 4v dyopq. o-roq., did to 
rets yvpcuicas 4v t% Kadfiela deo-fiocpopidfav : 
unless Kadfiela has the narrower sense of 
'acropolis.' Cp. Arist. Pol. 4 (7). 12. 2 
on the Thessalian custom of having two 
dyopal — one, 4Xevd4pa, from which every- 
thing (Sdvavaov was excluded, irpos t€ 
IIa\\d8os...vaots. Not 'both at the two 
temples,' &c. as if this explained dyopaio~i, 
but 'and,' &c. : for the dyopal would have 
their own altars of the dyopatoi deol, as 
of Artemis (161). One of the diirXol vaol 
may be that of IlaXXds "Oyica, near the 
'Oyicala irtiX-q on the W. side of Thebes 
(irvXas I "Qytcas 'Addvas Aesch. Theb. 487, 
" Oy Ka IlaXXcij ib. 501), whose statue and 
altar iv viraldpip Paus. mentions (9. 12. 2). 
The other temple may be that of Athene 
Kadfiela or of Athena 'lafirjvla — both 
mentioned by the schol., but not by Paus. 
Athena Zwo-r-qpla, too, had statues at 



dyopcucn OaKei, irpos re IlaXXaSos 8177X019 
vaols, in 'lafjLrjvov re ^avreia o~7roS&>. 
770X19 yap, cocnrep /cauro? eicropa*;, ayav 
rjSrj craXeuei KavaKovfyicr ai Kapa 
fivOaiv £t ou^ ota re (fyowiov ~crakpv, 
(f)0ivovaa fxev koXv^lv iyKapnoLS ydovos, 
<f)0LVOv(ra 8* aye'Xcus fiovvofJLOLS tokolcti re 
ayoVois yvvaiKMV iv 8' d irvp$6po% deos 
crK-qxpas iXavvei, Xoi/xd? e^^tcrros, 7rdXt^, 
l»^>' ou /ce^ovrat Sa)/i,a KaS/xeto^* jiteXas 8' 
^18779 crTevayfjLo'is koll yoois 7rXovTt{erat. 




IrjBioiv in Suidas s. v. XcktSs. 21 ixavTelq. L, made from fiavrelaa: the upper part 

Thebes (Paus. 9. 17. 3). The schol. 
mentions also 'AXaXKOfievia, but her shrine 
was at the village of Alalcomenae near 
Haliartus (Paus. 9. 23. 5). It was 
enough for Soph, that his Athenian 
hearers would think of the Erechtheum 
and the Parthenon — the shrines of the 
Polias and the Parthenos — above them 
on the acropolis. 

21 €ir"I(rjj.. ji. <nro8w. 'The oracular 
ashes of Ismenus ' = the altar in the temple 
of Apollo 'I<TfjLr)vios, where divination by 
burnt offerings {rj 5t' ipLirvpcov fiavrela) was 
practised. So the schol., quoting Philo- 
chorus (in his irepl fiavTCKijs, circ. 290 B.C.). 
<riro8«: the embers dying down when 
the ixavTuov has now been taken from the 
burnt offering: cp. Ant. 1007. Soph, 
may have thought of 'A^AMo^ 27r65ios, 
whose altar (iic Ti<ppas twv iepeluv) Paus. 
saw to the left of the Electrae gates at 
Thebes: 9. 11. 7. 'Ltjitivov, because 
the temple was by the river Ismenus: 
Paus. 9. 10. 2 ftrri 5e X60os iv del-iq. tQ>v 
ttvX&v (on the right of the 'HX^/crpcu irtiXai 
on the S. of Thebes, within the walls) 
Upbs 'ATrbXXwvos' KaXetrcu 8i o re \6<pos 
icai 6 debs 'lafirjvios, irapappiovros tov ttotcl- 
fiov Tatirrj tov 'Ifffiyvou. Ismenus (which 
name Curtius, Etym. 617, connects with 
rt Is, to wish, as = ' desired ') was described 
in the Theban myths as the son of 
Asopus and Metope, or of Amphion and 
Niobe. The son of Apollo by Melia (the 
fountain of the Ismenus) was called Is- 
menius. Cp. Her. 8. 134 (the envoy of 
Mardonius in the winter of 480 — 79) t$ 
'lo-fjirjplif} 'AiroXXuvt ixp^ffaro' tart 8i 
KaT&vep iv 'OXv/xirlrj ipoiai X( yr l°" J " r lpi-d& m 
ffdai: Pind. Olymp. 8. init. OtiXv/xiria. | 

...tva, fidvTies dvdpes | ifiirvpois reKficupo- 
fievoi irapcuretpuvTai Ai6s. In Pind. 
Pyth. 1 r. 4 the Theban heroines are 
asked to come irdp MeXlav (because she 
shared Apollo's temple) 'to the holy 
treasure-house of golden tripods, which 
Loxias hath honoured exceedingly, and 
hath named it Ismenian, a truthful seat 
of oracles' (mss. fiavTeicov, not fiavrluiv, 
Fennell): for the tripod dedicated by the 
8a<ppa<popos, or priest of Ismenian Apollo, 
see Paus. 9. 10. 4. Her. saw offerings 
dedicated by Croesus to Amphiaraus iv 
r<p vyip tov 'I(rfi7]viov 'AttoXXojvos (1. 52), 
and notices inscriptions there (5. 59). The 
'lafxrjviov, the temple at Abae in Phocis, 
and that on the hill Ht&ov to the E. of 
Lake Copais, were, after Delphi, the chief 
shrines of Apollo in N. Greece. 

24 PyO»v, 'from the depths,' i.e. out 
of the trough of the waves which rise 
around. Cp. Ant. 337 irepifipvxLoio'iv \ 
irepwv i»7r' oWixaviv, tender swelling waves 
which threaten to engulf him. Arat. 426 
viro^pvxo- vavrtWovTcu. <j>oiv£ov here 
merely poet, for davaai/xov, as Tr. 770 
(poivias I ixQpa-s ix^vrjs lbs: O.C. 1689 
<p6vios 'A£5as. But in At. 351 <poivla £dXr] 
= the madness which drove Ajax to 
bloodshed. %x ov\ ofa, tc : for position of 
JIti, cp. Track. 161 w? tr* ovk wv, Phil. 
121 7 £r' ovdiv dfu. With olos re the 
verb is often omitted, as 1415, 0. C. 
1 1 36, Tr. 742, Ar. Eq. 343. 

26 f. <f>6(vov<ra \iiv.. fyQivovcra. M, 
rhetorical iteration (iiravcupopd) ; cp. 259, 
370, O. C. 5, 610, etc. The anger of 
heaven is shown ( 1 ) by a blight (<pdivov<ra) 
on the fruits of the ground, on flocks and 
on child-birth: (2) by a pestilence (Xoifws) 



branches in the market-places, and before the two shrines of 
Pallas, and where Ismenus gives answer by fire. 
' For the city, as thou thyself seest, is now too sorely vexed, 
and can no more lift her head from beneath the angry waves 
of death ; a blight is on her in the fruitful blossoms of the land, 
in the herds among the pastures, in the barren pangs of women ; 
and withal the flaming god, the malign plague, hath swooped on 
us, and ravages the town; by whom the house of Cadmus is 
made waste, but dark Hades rich in groans and tears. 

of the <r can be traced, p.avreta or p.avreia r. 

29 Kadfieiov L. ka.8fj.dwv r. Cp. 

which ravages the town. Cp. 171 ff. 
For the threefold blight, Her. 6. 139 
diroKreivaai Si tolcl IleXaayoXcn robs cr<pe- 
ripovs waiSds re Kai yvvawas otire 777 
Kapvbv %<pepe otire yvvaiKis re /cat irotp.vaL 
bfJLolcos ctiktov teal irpo tov: Aeschin. In 
Ctes. § 1 1 1 pvqre yr\v Kapirobs <f>£peiv fxrjre 
yvvcuicas riKva tIktciv yovevo'iv ioiKora, 
dXXa ripara, jn/jre ftoaiajfxaTa Kara (pOaiv 
yovas iroieiadai. Schneid. and Blaydes 
cp. Philostratus Vit. Apoll. 3. 20, p. 51. 
21 77 777 ov l-vvex&pei avrois 'icracdai ' ti)v 
re yap arropdv r)v is avrrjv irroiovvTo, irplv 
is KcLXvua r'^eiv, tydeipe, totjs re twv yv- 
pcukQv tokovs dreXeis iiroiei, Kai rds <xy£- 
Xas ir ovq pus tftovKev. — Ka\v£iv €"VKap- 
irois. The datives mark the points or 
parts in which the land (pdiveu koXv£ 
i-yxapiros is the shell or case which en- 
closes immature fruit, — whether the 
blossom of fruit-trees, or the ear of 
wheat or barley: Theophr. Hist. Plant. 
8. 2. 4 (of tcpidr) and irvpos) irplv av irpoaij- 
£r)9els (6 ardxvs) iv rrj kclXvkl yivrjrai. 

26 (vy&cu Povvopoi (paroxyt.) = dyiXai 
(3ou)v vep.op.evuv : but 0*7-77 (3ovvo/j,os, pro- 
paroxyt., a shore on which oxen are 
pastured, El. 181. Cp. El. 861 x a ^- a P- 
yocs iv ap-lXXais = aniXXais dpyQv x^XoJy: 
Pind. Pyth. 5. 28 dpt<r8dpp.aTov...yipas = 
yipas dpiarou dp/maros. The epithet 
marks that the blight on the flocks is 
closely connected with that on the 
pastures: cp. Dionys. Hal. 1. 23 (de- 
scribing a similar blight) otire iroa Kryve- 
aiv i<pvero diapK-rjs. tokowti, the labours 
of child-bed: Eur. Med. 1031 creppds 
iveynova iv tokois aXyrjbovas : Iph. T. 
1466 yvvaiices iv tokois \f/vxoppayeis. 
Dionys. Hal. 1. 23 ddeX<pd 5e tovtois (i.e. 
to the blight on fruits and crops) iylvero 
irepi re irpofidruv Kai yvvaiKuv yovds' f) 
yap O-rjfJLpXovTO ra fu/Spua, fj Kara rods 
t6kovs 8ie<pdelpero forty a /cat rds <pepotiaas 

27 d-yovots, abortive, or resulting in a 
stillbirth, iv 8', adv., 'and among our 
other woes,' 'and withal': so 181, Tr. 
206, At. 675. Not in 'tmesis' with ant)- 
^as, though Soph, has such tmesis else- 
where, Ant. 420 iv 3' ifxeo-Tibdr), id. 1274 
iv 5' foeiaev. For the simple o-iofyas, 
cp. Aesch. Ag. 308 elr' fo-Krj^ev, 'then it 
swooped.' So Pers. 715 Xoifxov tls rjXde 
o-KrjTrrds. 6 irupcpo'pos teds, the bringer of 
the plague which spreads and rages like 
fire (176 Kpetcaov afxaifxaKiTov irvpos, 191 
(pXiyec p.e) : but also with reference to 
fever,irvperbs. Hippocrates 4. 140 OKdaoiai 
de tQv dvdpuircov irvp ( = irvperbs) ifAiriirrr): 
II. 22. 31 Kai re ipipei (Seirius) TcXXdv 
Tvperbv doXo'iai (3poroio-t. (the only place 
where irvperbs occurs in 77. or Od.). In 
O.C. 55 iv 8' 6 Tvp<f>6pos debs \ Tirav 
H.pop.T)deis refers to the representation of 
Prometheus with the narthex, or a torch, 
in his right hand (Eur. Phoen. 1121 Sefrq. 
8& Xafxirdda \ Ttrav Uponr/debs (-(pepev u>s). 
Cp. Aesch. Theb. 432 &v8pa irvp<f>bpov, \ 
4>Xiyet. 8k \afirrds, k.t.X. Here also the 
Destroyer is imagined as armed with a 
deadly brand, — against which the Cho- 
rus presently invoke the holy fires of 
Artemis (206) and the 'blithe torch' of 
Dionysus (214). For Beos said of Xoi/ibs, 
cp. Simonid. Amorg. fr. 7. 101 oi/8' aX\j/a 
Xt/xbv oLkIijs dirdffeTai, | ix^pbv ctwoikij- 
rrjpa, Svafxevia 6e6v. Soph. fr. 837 a'XX' 
77 <ppbvrjais ayadrj debs fxiyas. 

29 pAas 8': elision at end of v. is 
peculiar in Trag. to Soph., who is said 
to have adopted it from a poet Callias 
(Athen. 10 p. 453 e) : hence it was called 
elSos So06/cXetoi'. Examples: 5' 785, 791, 
1224; O.C. 17; Ant. 103 1 ; El. 1017: 
t below, 1184: ravr' 332. [In O.C. 1164 
fAoXbvr' should prob. befibvov.] In Comedy: 
5' Ar. Av. 1716, Eccl. 351: p! Ran. 298. 

30 -irXovrCj^Tai with allusion to IIX01J- 
tuv, as Hades was called by an euphem- 


> * \ 

Oeolcrt fxev vvv ovk laov/xevov cr eya> 
ovo oioe 7ratO€5 eQofiecrtf e<pecrTtot, 
dvSpajv 8e irpcorov ev re avp<j)opous y8iou 
KpLvovres ev re Baifiovav o-waXXaycus • 
05 y' efe'Xucras, acrru KaS/xeioi' fioXcjv, 
cr/cX^pas aoiSou Saafjiov ov 7rapei-vofxev 
kcu rauC7 v<p 17^01^ ovoet' efetow? wXeov 
ovh 3 efcStSa^^etg, aXXa Trpo<jdrjKrj Oeov 
Xeyet vopii^eL 0* rjplv opOcocrai fiiov 


LKeTevofxev ere irdvTes oi'Se TTpoaTpOTTOi 
oXktjv tlv evpelv rjfxiv, elre rov decov 
(jynjfirjv (XKovcras elr an dv$pos otcrOd nov 
cJ? Tolcriv ifJL7reipoicri kolI ras £vfX(j)opd<; 



v. 35. 31 oiiK laovfievov. The k in L has been made from x or x^ 35 os 7' 

MSS. : os r' Elmsley, for correspondence with vvv r' in v. 40. — Ka.bp.elov L: Ka.bp.elwv r. 

ism (viroKopiariKcos, schol. Ar. /V«/. 727), 
dri ^k t^s K&Twdev avierai 6 7t\ovto$ (crops 
and metals), as Platosays, Crat. 403 a. Cp. 
Soph. fr. 251 (Nauck 2 ) (from the satyric 
drama Inachus) ILKou'twos (="Aibov) tj'S' 
iweiaodos: Lucian Timon 21 (UXovtos 
speaks), 6 UXoijtuv (Hades) dirooT^XXei 
p.e Trap avrovs are TrXovrobbTrjs Kal p.eyaXb- 
biopos kolI aiirbs wv brjXot yovv Kal rip 
dvdfjuiTi. Schneid. cp. Statius TAeb. 2. 48 
pallentes devius umbras Trames agit ni- 
grique Iovis vacua atria ditat Mortibus. 

31 jit-v wv as in Tr. 441.— ovk iorov- 
juvov <r, governed by Kplvovres in 34. 
But he begins as if instead of ^bp.eo-6 i 
i<pi<TTioi, Ueredonev were to follow: hence 
laoiixevov instead of foov. It is needless 
to take laov'p.evov (1) as accus. absol., or 
(2) as governed by ^fo/te<r0' £<p4<TTioi in 
the sense of iKereiop-ev, — like <f>6opas... 
\[/i?l<t>ov$ ZdevTo Aesch. Ag. 814, or ytvos... 
viiiHTov ahov Suppl. 533. Musgrave conj. 
laoii/xevoi as= 'deeming equal,' but the 
midd. would mean 'making ourselves 
equal,' like avrur ovuivov Thuc. 3. II* 
Plato has lo~otip.evov as passive in Phaedr. 
238 E, and laovffdat as passive in Farm. 
156 B: cp. 58 r laov/xai. 

34 8ai|M>vo)v <rvva\Xa*yais = ' conjunc- 
tures' caused by gods (subjective gen.), 
special visitations, as opposed to the or- 
dinary chances of life (avfxtpopcus (Hon). 

Such avvaXXayal were the visit of the 
Sphinx (130) and of the irvp<p6pos debs 
(27). Cp. 060 vbaov avvaXXayrj, a visita- 
tion in the form of disease (defining gen.). 
Here, the sense might indeed be, 'deal- 
ings (of men) with gods, , = orav avdpwToi 
avvaXXaaauvrat. 5a.ip.oaiv: but the abso- 
lute use of avvaXXayf) for 'a conjuncture 
of events' in 0. C. 410 (n.) favours the 
other view. In Tr. 845 bXedpLaiat auvaX- 
Xa>cus='at the fatal meeting' of Deia- 
neira with Nessus. But in Ant. 157 dewv 
ffWTvxl-o.1 = fortunes sent by gods. The 
common prose sense of cvvaXXayfi is 
•reconciliation,' which Soph, has in At. 


35 os 7. The 7c of the mss. suits 
the immediately preceding verses better 
than the conjectural t*j, since the judg- 
ment {kp'ivovt(s) rests solely on what Oed. 
has done, not partly on what he is ex- 
pected to do. Owing to the length of 
the first clause (35 — 39) t could easily 
be added to vvv in 40 as if another re 
had preceded. ^Xvo-as...8ao-ndv. The 
notion is not, 'paid it in full,' but 'loosed 
it,' — the thought of the tribute suggesting 
that of the riddle which Oed. solved. 
Till he came, the baopjos was as a 
knotted cord in which Thebes was 
bound. Cp. Track. 653 " Aprjs . . .^Avc' | 
iwiirovov ap.e'pav, 'has burst the bondage 



It is not as deeming thee ranked with gods that I and these 
children are suppliants at thy hearth, but as deeming thee first 
of men, both in life's common chances, and when mortals have 
to do with more than man : seeing that thou earnest to the town 
of Cadmus, and didst quit us of the tax that we rendered to the 
hard songstress ; and this, though thou knewest nothing from us 
that could avail thee, nor hadst been schooled ; no, by a god's 
aid, 'tis said and believed, didst thou uplift our life. 

And now, Oedipus, king glorious in all eyes, we beseech thee, 
all we suppliants, to find for us some succour, whether by the 
whisper of a god thou knowest it, or haply as in the power of 
man ; for I see that, when men have been proved in deeds past, 

40 vvv 5' Blaydes. 43 tov L, with irov written over it by a late hand. irov r. 

of the troublous day.' Eur. Phoen. 695 
irodwv <xG)v /ju>xQ° v eKXtiei wapwv, ' his pre- 
sence dispenses with (solves the need for) 
the toil of thy feet.' This is better than 
(i) 'freed the city from the songstress, in 
respect of the tribute,' or (2) 'freed the 
city from the tribute (dao-fibv by attrac- 
tion for 8a<xfiov) t to the songstress. ' 

36 o-K\T)pds, 'hard,' stubborn, relent- 
less. Eur. Andr. 261 CKkripbv dpdaos. 
In 391 kij a? expresses a similar idea. 

37 KaXravQ', 'and thattoo': Ant. $22 
(iwoifjaas to i-pyov) kcll ravr -1 in' dp- 
yvp$ ye tt\v ij/vxw irpodofc : El. 614. 
ovS&v irXeov, nothing more than anyone 
else knew; nothing that could help thee. 
Plat. Crat. 387 A ifKiov n ijfjuv ferai, 
we shall gain something. Sympos. 217 C 
ovdev yap jxoi irXiov rjv, it did not help 
me. igeiSws — €K8i8ax0ete : not having 
heard (incidentally) — much less having 
been thoroughly schooled. 

38 Trpoor0TJKT] 0tov, 'by the aid of a 
god.' [Dem.] In Aristog. 1. § 24 ij ev- 
ra£ia ry twv vb/uw irpoad^Ky tuv alaxp&v 
itepieiTTi, 'discipline, with the support of 
the laws, prevails against villainy. ' Dionys. 
Hal. v. 67 irpo<jQi]K-t]% jxolpav iireixov ovtoi 
tois iv (p&\ayyi Terayfie'vois, ' these served 
as supports to the main body of the troops.' 
TpoaTtdeadaL tivi, to take his side : Thuc. 
6. 80 tois d5iKOvpi.e'voi$...irpoo'dep.e'i>ov$: so 
Soph. O.C. 1332 oh av <Ti> irpocrdr). (The 
noun trpoad^Kfj does not occur as = ' man- 
date,'' though Her. 3. 62 has t6 toi irpocri- 
drjKa irprjyfia..) The word is appropriate, 
since the achievement of Oed. is viewed as 
essentially a triumph of human wit : a di- 
vine agency prompted him, but remained 
in the background. 

J.S. I. 3 

40 vvv t': it is unnecessary to read 
vvv 8': see on 35. irdo-iv, ethical dat- 
masc. (cp. 8), ' in the eyes of all men.' Tr^ 
1071 iroXXoiaiv oltiTpbv. 

42 d're oTcrda a\td}v, duoiaas (prjp.7jv 
deCov tov (by having heard a voice from, 
some god), Art otada dXmv air' dvdpSs 
irov. We might take aw* dv8pbs with 
d\Krjv, but it is perh. simpler to take it 
with oto'da : cp. 398 air' otuvQv (xadwv, 
Thuc. I. 125 iireidr), d<p' airdvruv ijKovaav 
tt)u yvdjixrjv : though icapd (or irpbs) twos 
is more frequent. , 

43 <j>T]'|J.T)V, any message (as in a dream, 
<Hu?7 bveipov, Her. 1. 43), any rumour, 
or speech casually heard, which might be 
taken as a hint from the god. Od. 20. 
98 ZeO iraTep... \ (p-fifiyv tL$ [ioi <f>dadw... 
(Odysseus prays), ' Let some one, I pray, 
show me a word of omen.' Then a 
woman, grinding corn within, is heard 
speaking of the suitors, 'may they now 
sup their last': x°*P* v 5£ KXerjdbvt 8hs 
'Odvao-ets, 'rejoiced in the sign of the 
voice.' 6fi<pr) was esp. the voice of an 
oracle; KXyddbv comprised inarticulate 
sounds (kX. dvo-KpiTovs, Aesch. P. V. 486). 

44 f. »s Toi<riv...povX€V(xdTcov. I take 
these two verses with the whole context 
from v. 35, and not merely as a comment 
on the immediately preceding words etr' 
air' dvdpbs dtadd irov. Oedipus has had 
practical experience (i/jureipla) of great 
troubles ; when the Sphinx came, his 
wisdom stood the trial. Men who have 
become thus tixireipoi are apt to be also- . 
(ical) prudent in regard to the future. 
Past facts enlighten the counsels which 
they offer on things still uncertain; and 
we observe that the issues of their coun- 


£gjo*o,9 opco fxdXtcrTa rcov ftovXevfjLaTcov. 45 

iff, co fipoTcov apicTT, dvopOcocrov irokiv 

10* y evXafitfOrjO* * oj? ere vvv pkv rjSe yrj 

o-corrjpa kXtj^l 7-779 ndpos npoOvfiia^' 

clpXys Se T179 0-179 fjirjSafjLOJS fjiefJLVcojJLe0a {fci l*^ 

(TTOLVTeS T €9 OpObv Kdl 7T€CTO^r€9 V<TT€pOV, 50 

dXX' acTcfxiktia ttjv8 dvopOcocrov tt6\iv. 

5pvL0L yap kolI TTjv tot alcrio) Tvyy]v 

7rap€cr)(es 7)[jllv, kcu tolvvv tcro9 yevov. 

ok etnep ap^as TrjcrSe 7779, coonrep KpaTtis, 

£vv dvhpdcriv kolWiov rj Kevfjs Kparelv 55 

a>9 ovhev icjTiv ovt€ 7rvpyo<; ovt€ vavs 

eprjfjios dvhpcov fir) tjvvoiKovvTcov ecrco. 

48 irdpos L. The 1st hand wrote 7rdXcu, and then poa over Xcu. The corrector de- 
leted Xcu, and wrote poa- in the text. 49 fxe/xvuifieda MSS. : fie/mp^fieda Eustathius. 

sels are not usually futile or dead, but 
effectual. Well may we believe, then, 
that he who saved us from the Sphinx 
can tell us how to escape from the 
plague. Note these points, (r) The 
words IjiircCpouri and (JovXevfidTcov serve 
to suggest the antithesis between past 
and future. (2) rets |vp.<{>opds t<5v j3ov- 
XcvfidTttv = literally, the occurrences con- 
nected with (resulting from) the counsels. 
The phrase, 'issues of counsels,' concisely 
expresses this. The objection which has 
been made to th : s version, that £v/j.<popd is 
not reXeuT??, rests on a grammatical fallacy, 
viz., that, in £vfjL<popa povXetifxaros, the 
genitive must be of the same kind as in 
TtXevTT) povXerjfiaTos. tijxv is not reXev- 
ttJ, yet in O.C. 1506 it stands with a 
gen. of connection, just as %v/x<popd does 
here : (0e<ii>) rixw tis icrdXijv rijo-5' <tBt)Kt 
T7js 680O (a good fortune connected with 
this coming). Cp. Thuc. 1. 140 <?pcV- 
Xctoi ydp rds i-v/j.<popds rQv irpayfxd- 
ruv oi/x yo~o~OP d/xadws x w PV (TaL V Kai - r ds 
diavolas rod dvdpdnrov : the issues of hu- 
man affairs can be as incomprehensible 
in their course as the thoughts of man 
(where, again, the 'occurrences connect- 
ed with human affairs' would be more 
literal): ib. wpos rds i-viu.<f>opbs /ecu rds 
yvufxas Tpeirofxiuovs, altering their views 
according to the events. 3. 87 rijs tjvfi- 
<f>opas t£ dirofidvTi, by the issue which 
has resulted. (3) £co<ras is not 'success- 
ful,' but 'operative,' — effectual for the 

purpose of the f3ovXev/j.ara: as v. 482 
£<2vtol is said of the oracles which re- 
main operative against the guilty, and 
Ant. 457 f?7 ravra of laws which are 
ever in force. Conversely • X6701 Qvr\- 
aKovTes p.dT7)v (Aesch. Cko. 845) are 
threats which come to nothing. The 
scholium in L gives the sense correctly: 
— iv ro?s crvverois rds <tvvtvx' l o-s Kal 
rds dTrofidcreis ruv ^ovXev/jLarup 
opw fwcras Kal ovk dnoXXvtxiuas. See 

47 cuXap-rjOnTi, have a care for thy 
repute — as the next clause explains. Oed. 
is supposed to be above personal risk; 
it is only the degree of his future glory 
(55) which is in question ; a fine touch, 
in view of the destined sequel. 

48 ttjs irdpos Trpo0vp,Cas, causal gen it. : 
Plat. Crito 43 B iroXXaKis [itv 5-ij <re... 
eudaifAouicra rod rpoirov. 

40 |i€fJiv<o|X€0a. This subjunctive oc- 
curs also in Od. 14. 168 irive Kal dX\a 
irape^ /xefiviVLieda, Plat. Politicus 285 C 
tftvkanrrafu* . . . Kal . . . fiefivdj/xeda, Phileb. 
31 A /J.€ dr] Kal ravra irepl diKpolu. 
Eustathius (1303. 46, 1332. 18) cites the 
word here as p.€|ivwp.€0a (optative). We 
find, indeed, fie/xvcpo Xen. A nab. 1. 7. 5 
(v. 1. fxefjwrjo), /AepLveyro II. 23. 361, fie- 
/mv<^to Xen. Cyr. 1. 6. 3, but these are 
rare exceptions. On the other hand, fie- 
fivy/nrju 11. 24. 745, fxefMvrjro Ar. Plut. 
991, Plat. Rep. 518 a. If Soph, had 
meant the optative he would have written 


the issues of their counsels, too, most often have effect. 

On, best of mortals, again uplift our State ! ■ On, guard thy 
fame, — since now this land calls thee saviour for thy former 
zeal ; and never be it our memory of thy reign that we were first 
restored and afterward cast down : nay, lift up this State in such 
wise that it fall no more ! 

With good omen didst thou give us that past happiness; 
now also show thyself the same. For if thou art to rule this 
land, even as thou art now its lord, 'tis better to be lord of men 
than of a waste : since neither walled town nor ship is anything, 
if it is void and no men dwell with thee therein. 

SO <ttcvt€s r'] The ist hand in L omitted t\ which was added by the corrector. 

fie/xu^fxeda : cp. Philoct. 119 av...K€KXrjo. 
See Curtius Greek Verb II. 226 (Eng. tr. 
p. 423). The personal appeal, too, here 
requires the subjunct., not optat.: cp. 0. 
C. 174 ixt) brjT d5iK7)dw, Track. 802 p.r)5' 
at/rod 6avw. 

50 <rT(£vT€S t k.t.X. For partic. with cp. Xen. Cyr. 3. 1. 31\TO 
yap dirwv : Pind. Nem. 1 1 . 1 5 p.e- 
fivdadb} TrepiaTtWwv ^A.77: for re... /cat, 
Ant. 1 112 avros r' Zdrjoa Kal irapuv ckX6- 
co/, as I bound, so will I loose. 

51 do-<|>a\€£<j, 'in steadfastness': a 
dative of manner, equivalent to dcr0a\ws 
in the proleptic sense of wore da^aXy) 
tlvai, Cp. O.C. 1318 Karao-Ka<prj \ . . 
fajuaeiv, n. Thuc 3. 56 ol p.r) ra, typ.- 
<popa Trpbs ttjv e<po8ov avrois do~<paXeia 
irpdeaovTes, those who securely made terms 
on their own account which were not for 
the common good in view of the inva- 
sion. 2. 82 dff^aXela 5e rd lirifiovKeti- 
aaadai (where do-<pdXeia is a false read- 
ing), to form designs in security, opp. 
to to i/AirX^KTUs <J£v, fickle impetuosity. 
The primary notion of dacpaX-^s ('not 
slipping') is brought out by ir«r6vTe$ 
.and dvopdu&op. 

52 opvi9i...aicr£u>, like secunda alite 
oxfausta avi for bono omine. A bird of 
omen was properly otuvos: Od. 15. 531 
oti tol dvev Oeou \irraro 5e£ios 6pvi$' | 
eyv uv yap p.iv taavTa iduiv oluvbv iovra: 
Xen. Cyr. 3. 3. 22 olwvoh xpy <J( *l ievo s 
alalois. But cp. Eur. /. A. 607 tpvida 
p.kv tov8] ataiov Troiotip.eda : Her. 730 5p- 
vidos otivena : Ar. Av. 720 fy'hp.'t] 7' vpitp 
6pvis 4(ttI, irrappAv t' 6pvi6a /caXetre, | 
^v/jl^oXov bpviv, (puvrjv 6pviv, depdirovT 1 
opviv, 6vov 6pva>. For dat., Schneid. cp. 
Hippdnax fr. 63 (Bergk) 8e£i(p ... iXdwv 
^w5icp (heron). In Bergk Poet. Lyr. p. 

1049 fr. incerti 27 de^ir) gIttt) (woodpecker) 
is a conject. for 5e£o7 o~Ittt}. ko.1 is better 
taken as = ' also ' than as 'both' (answer- 
ing to Kal ravvv in 53). 

54 ap|6is...KpaT€is...KpaT«iv. Kpareiv 
tlvos, merely to hold in one's power ; 
apxeiv implies a constitutional rule. Cp. 
Plat. Rep. 338 D ovkovv tovto tcparei kv 
eKdarg TroXei, rb apxov ; Her. 2. 1 d\- 
Xovs re irapaXafiubv t<2v tJpx^ xal 8i] Kal 
"EXX^vuv tQv eTreKpdree, i.e. the Asiatics 
who were his lawful subjects, and the 
Greeks over whom he could exert force. 
But here the poet intends no stress on a 
verbal contrast : it is as if he had written, 
etvep ap£eis, Coairep apxcis. Cp. Track. 
457 Kel fikv dtSoiKas, oil KaXds rapfieis : 
below 973 irpotiXeyov... \ rjtidas. 

55 £uv dv8pd<riv, not ' with the help 
of men,' but 'with men in the land,' = &v- 
8pas ixoio-ys yijs. Cp. 207 i-i/v ats = ds 
t-XOi/cra. El. 191 deiKet avv trroXci* Ai. 
30 avv veoppdvTip £i<f>a. Ant. 116 tyv 0' 
'nriroKopLois Koptideaoi. 

56 ws ovhiv Icttiv k.t.X. Thuc. 7. 77 
avdpes yap ttoXk, Kal ov reixv o£5e i>ijes 
dvdpwv K€val. Dio Cass. 56. 6 &vdpwiroi 
yap irov iroXis 4(TtIv, o{ik oUlai, k.t.X. 
Her. 8. 61 (Themistocles, taunted by 
Adeimantus after the Persian occupation 
of Athens in 480 B.C. with being diroXts, 
retorted) etouToTcrt . . . ws etrj Kal ttoXis Kal 
yrj /j.4£<j)v rjirep KeLvouri, eVr' av dirjuoaiai 
vrjis <T(j>i eWi TreTrXT}piop.4vai. — irvp-yos 
= the city wall with its towers: the sing, 
as below, 1378 : Ant. 953 ov irOpyos, oi>x 
clXIktvitoi I ...vdes : Eur. Hec. 1209 irtpi% 
5e irupyos etx' £tl tttoXlv. 

57 Lit., 'void of men, when they do 
not dwell with thee in the city': dv8pwv 
depends on £pT)pos, of which p/q £vvoi- 
kovvtwv ifra is epexegetic. Rhythm and 



OI. to 7rat8e5 oiKrpoi, yvcora kovk ayvcoTa jjlol 
7rpoa7]^0e6 i iixeipovres' ev yap oTS' on 
vocreLTe irdvTes, kolI vocrovvTes, a><; iyaj 60 


to «,€*> yap v/aoj^ aXyos eh ev epverat 

fjiovov kolu avrov, Kovoev ahhov 7j o epnq 

\jsv)(r) tto\lv re /cctfce kcli a ofxov cnevei. 

war ov*% virva> y evSovrd [a efeyeipere, 65 

dXX' tcrre ttoXXoL fxev fxe SaKpvcravra S77, 

7roXXa5 S' dSous ekdovra cfypovriSos 7rXdVoi?. 

rjv S' ev <tkott(x)V rjvpicrKov lacriv /jlovtjv, 

tclvttjv eirpa^a- 7rat8a yap Mevoucecos 

KpeovT, ifJiavTOV yafifipov, es rd UvOikcl 70 

€7re/xi//a <£>oifiov Scjfxa6\ a>s ttvOoiO* 6 tl 

Spcov rj tl (fxovSv TijvSe pvcraifirjv tto\lv. 

ardvres y' Triclinius. 

67 irXduouT L, but altered from irXdvata: above is written, 

Sophoclean usage make this better than 
to take dvdpQv fil) £vvock. 2. as a gen. 
absol. Cp. At. 464 yvfxvov (pavivra twv 
dpicreluv drep : Phil. 31 Kevrp oUtjo-lv riV- 
dpwiruv 8Lxa : Lucret. 5. 84 1 muta sine 
ore etiam, sine voltu caeca. 

58 "yvwTd kovk d-yvwra. The empha- 
sis of this formula sometimes appears to 
deprecate an opposite impression in the 
mind of the hearer : 'known, and not (as 
you perhaps think) unknown.' 77. 3. 59 
eirel fie /car' aloav ivelKeaas oid' virep 
aicrav, duly, and not, — as you perhaps 
expect me to say, — unduly. Her. 3. 25 
ifi/xav^sre iwv Kai ov tppevrjprjs — being mad, 
— for it must be granted that no man in 
his right mind would have acted thus. 
O. C. 397 Baiov Kovxl fivpiov xpovov, soon, 
and not after such delay as thy impatience 
might fear. 

60 vo<rovvT€S...vo<r€i. We expected 
Kai vocovvres ov voaeire, ws iyd. But at 
the words us eyu the speaker's conscious- 
ness of his own exceeding pain turns him 
abruptly to the strongest form of expres- 
sion that he can find — ovk ianv vllQv oaris 
voaei, there is not one of you whose pain is 
as mine. In Plat. Phileb. 19 b (quoted 
by Schneid.) the source of the anaco- 
louthon is the same: fii} yap dvvdfievoi 
touto Kara navrds ivbs Kal 6/xolov Kai rav- 
tov 8pav Kai rod ivavrlov, us 6 irape\6<xv 
\6yos ififyvaev, ovSels els oiidev ov- 

devbs av tjliuv ovdiirore yivotro a£ioy, — 
instead of the tamer oik av yevoifieda. 

62 els ^va...fi6voj/ Ka0* avrov. /ca0' 
airov, 'by himself ((9.67. 966), is strictly 
only an emphatic repetition of /xovov : but 
the whole phrase efs k"va /xovov Kad' airov 
is virtually equivalent to els l-va tKaarov 
Kad' avrov, each several one apart from 
the rest. 

64 ird*\iv t€ Kd\th Kal <r . The king's 
soul grieves for the whole State, — for 
himself, charged with the care of it, — and 
for each several man (<r<*). As the first 
contrast is between public and private 
care, kol/j.^ stands between iroXiv and ae". 
For the elision of ai, though accented, 
cp. 329 rdfi', us av etnu) fxi] t& cr': 404 Kal 
rd <r': El. 1499 rd yovv a: Phil. 339 
otfxoi fikv dpKecv col ye Kai rd a': Eur. 
Hipp. 323 2a fi aLiaprelv ov yap is <x* 

65 The modal dat. virv<j>, more forci- 
ble than a cogn. ace. tiirvov, nearly = 
'soundly.' Cp. Ant. 427 76010-11' ii-y- 
fiuZev: Trach. 176 4>6j3u>, <pl\ai, rapBov- 
cav: [Eur.] fr. 1132 (Nauck 2 ) 40 opyy 
XoXudels (where Nauck, rashly, I think, 
conjectures tpyei). Verg. A en. 1. 680 
sopitum somno. eCdeiv, Kadetideiv (Xen^ 
An. 1. 3. 11) oft. = 'to be at ease' (cp. 
6»0' ovk dv Bplfyvra f5ots, of Agam. , //. 4. 
223) : the addition of tiirvu raises and in- 
vigorates a trite metaphor. 



Oe. Oh my piteous children, known, well known to me are 
the desires wherewith ye have come: well wot I that ye suffer 
all ; yet, sufferers as ye are, there is not one of you whose suffer- 
ing is as mine. Your pain comes on each one of you for himself 
alone, and for no other ; but my soul mourns at once for the 
city, and for myself, and for thee. 

So that ye rouse me not, truly, as one sunk in sleep: no, be sure 
that I have wept full many tears, gone many ways in wander- 
ings of thought. And the sole remedy which, well pondering, 
I could find, this I have put into act. I have sent the son of Me- 
noeceus, Creon, mine own wife's brother, to the Pythian house of 
Phoebus, to learn by what deed or word I might deliver this town. 

AptI tov irXdpais drjXvKws. irXdpcus r, but with exceptions : thus T has irXdpois (with 

67 irXavois has excellent manuscript 
authority here ; and Soph, uses irXdpov 
0. C. 1 1 14, irXdpois Phil. 758, but irXdprj 
nowhere. Aesch. has irXdpij only: Eur. 
TXdvos only, unless the fragment of the 
Rhadamanthus be genuine (659 Nauck 2 , 
v. 8, oVtcj jSt'oTos dvdp&iriov irXdvrj). Ari- 
stoph. has ttX&vos once ( Vesp. 872), irXdvr) 
never. Plato uses both irXdvq and irXdpos, 
the former oftenest : Isocrates has irXdvos, 
not irXdvrj. 

68 TvupicrKov, 'could find' (impf.). 
Attic inscriptions of the 5th or early 4th 
cent. B.C. support the temporal augment 
in the historical tenses of evpia-KCo (Meis- 
terhans, Gram. Att. Inschr., p. 78). 
Our best MS. of Soph. (L), however, pre- 
serves no trace of it, except in Ant. 406 
(see cr. n. there). Curtius ( Verb. I. 139, 
Eng. tr. 93) thinks that, while the omis- 
sion of the syllabic augment was an ar- 
chaic and poetical license, that of the 
temporal was 'a sacrifice to convenience 
of articulation, and was more or less 
common to all periods ' : so that duafyp 
could exist in Attic by the side of fjnafrp, 
evpicicov by the side of rjiipiaicov. 

69 TavTTjv &rrpa|a, a terse equivalent 
for Ta&ry Zpyw expyo~dni)P. 

71 f. 6 tl 8pwv...Ti <j>wva>v. Cp. Plat. 
Rep. 414 D ox)k otda birota r6Xp,rj fj 
irolo is Xbyois xpup-epos &P&- These are 
exceptions to the rule that, where an in- 
terrogative pronoun (as tLs) and a relative 
(as 5<ras) are both used in an indirect 
question, the former stands first : cp. Plat. 
Crito 48 A oi)K dpa...4>povTL<XTiov, rl kpov- 
olv ol iroXXol T]fids, dXX' 6 ti o iiratwp, 
k.t.X. : Gorg. 448 E oidels ipwrq. irola rts 
e?7? i] Vopyiov rex^y, dXXb rts, nai opTiva 

8<;0i KaXelv top Topyiap : ib. 500 A ^k\^£- 
aadai iro?a dyadd Kal birota Kcucd : Phileb. 
17 B (i!<TfM€p) irbaa t4 earc Kal biro? a. — 
8pwv TJ <f>o>vwv : there is no definite contrast 
between doing and bidding others to do: 
rather 'deed' and 'word' represent the 
two chief forms of agency, the phrase 
being equivalent to 'in what possible 
way.' Cp. Aesch. P. V. 659 deoirpbirovs 
iaXXep, ojs fxddoi ri XP*1 \ SpuvT J rj X4- 
yovra balfioaip irpdacreip <plXa. — pvtraC- 
p.t]v (L's reading) % is right : pvaoifxyp is 
grammatically possible, but less fitting. 
The direct deliberative form is rl 8pwp 
p6<ru)/*ai ; the indirect, irvpddpofiai 8 
ri (or ri) bp<2p pticrtofxai, iirvdbfiyp 
tl (or tI) 8pQv pvo-ai/xrjp. This indirect 
deliberative occurs, not only with verbs 
of 'doubting' (Xen. H. 7. 4. 39 ^irbpei 
6 tl xpMwro Tcp irpdyfiaTi), but also with 
verbs of 'asking' : Thuc. 1. 25 top debviiry- 
povTO, ei irapa5oi€P...T7)p irbXtp (oblique of 
irapa.5wfji.ep ttjp irbXip). Kennedy wrongly 
says thai over alfiyp here could be only the 
oblique of ippvad/xyp (as if, in Thuc. l.c ., 
irapadoiep could be only the oblique of 
iraptdoaap) ; and that, for the sense, it 
would require op. This would also be 
right, but in a different constr., viz., as 
oblique of tL 8pQv pvcrat/xyp dp; Cp. Tr. 
991 ov yao t-x® ""ws dp I 0T^p£cu/u, and 
Ant. 270 ff. n. In El. 33 ws fiddotp.', Stw 
Tpbircp iraTfil \ SUat dpolfirjv, the opt. is 
that of rjpbfirjp, being oblique for, 
rather than of dpoufiai. — pv<roi|vr|v would 
be oblique of tL 8pQv pfoo/xai ; pvcolfiifv 
(oblique for pOaofiai) would imply that he 
was confident of a successful result, and 
doubtful only concerning the means; it 
is therefore less suitable. 





kolC \l rj^ap yjSr) ^vfifieTpovfievov -^povco 
\vtt€l ti irpdaaei' tov yap etKOTos^rrepa 
airecm Trkeico tov KadrjKOVTOS ^povov. 


p,f) Bpcov av eirjv irdvO* ocr av 817X01 Oeos. 
IE. aXX' els kolXov <jv t eTnas, ol8e r dpTLcos 

Kpeovra TrpoorcrTei)(ovTa arj^aivovcri jjlol. 
OI. cZva£ "AiroWov, el yap ev tv^tj ye toF 

(TcjTrjpL fiaCr) kafX7rp6s cocnrep o/x/xan. 
IE. aXX' eiKacrai fxev } r}8vs. ov yap av Kapa 

TroXvcrTe^rjs cSS' eXpire irayKapirov 8d(f)vrjs. 
01. ra^' elcrofxeaOa* ^vfifieTpos yap cos Kkveiv. 

aVaf, ifJLov KTjSevfia, iral MevoiKecos, 

tIv rjpXv TjKeis tov Oeov c^yjfirjv <f>epcov ; 

ecr8\rjv \eyco yap Kal to, Svcrcfrop', el tv^oi 
/car' opOov e£e\06vTa, irdvT av evTvyelv. 

ais written above), a marginal schol. quoting tovs (pvyadiKovs ir\dvovs. 74 iripai L. 
Porson conj. irepq., proposing to omit v. 75: see note. 79 irpovTelxovra MSS., 

meaning, however, doubtless, the compound with wpbs, not with -rrpd : cp. on 0. C. 
986. -n-poacTTelxovTa Erfurdt. 87 t& btiadpo' is Heimsoeth's conj. suggested by the 


73 Kai |i ij|Jiap...xpova>. Lit., 'and 
already the day, compared with the lapse 
of time [since his departure], makes me 
anxious what he doth': i.e. when I think 
what day this is, and how many days ago 
he started, I feel anxious. tj'Stj, showing 
that to-day is meant, sufficiently defines 
rjfiap. XP° V 4* i s not f° r T V Xpb"V> Me time 
since he left, — though this is implied, — 
but is abstract, — time in its course. The 
absence of the art. is against our taking 
■Xp6v(j> as 'the time which I had allowed 
for his journey.' £vp,|i6Tpov|j.€vov : cp. 
Her. 4. 158 (TVfxfxeTprjad/xevoi ttjv uiprju ttjs 
7)ix4pTjs, vvurbs irapTJyov, 'having calculated 
the time, they led them past the place by 
night' : lit., 'having compared the season 
of the day (with the distance to be tra- 
versed).' Eur. Or. 12 14 Kal 5tj iriXas viv 
dw/M&Twv eTvcu 8okCj' I tov yap xpovov rb 
Htjkos aiiro awrpkxu 'for the length of 
time (since her departure) just tallies 
(with the time required for the journey).' 

74 Xvirci tC Trpacrcrci : At. 794 wore /*' 
udiveiv tL (^fis. tov •yap cIkotos ir^pa. 
rd eU6s is a reasonable estimate of the time 

required for the journey. Thuc. 2. 73 
riixipas . . Jv ah eUbs rjv\vai. (avrovs), 
the number of days which might reason- 
ably be allowed for their journey (from 
Plataea to Athens and back). Porson 
conjectured tov yap cIk6tos irepq., as='for 
he overstays the due limit' — thinking 
v. 75, aireaTi...xpbvov, to be a spurious 
interpolation. The same idea had oc- 
curred to Bentley. But (1) Trepdv with 
the genitive in this sense is strange (in 
674 dv/xov irepav is different), and would 
not be readily understood as referring to 
time; (2) it is Sophoclean to explain and 
define tov eUbros ire" pa by irXeiu tov Kadi)- 
kovtos xpovov. 

78 els koAov, to fit purpose, 'oppor- 
tunely': Plat. Symp. 174 E els Ka\bv 
T\Keis. Ai. 1 168 Kal /xty is avrbv Kaipbv 
... I irdpeiaitf. Cp. Ar. Ach. 686 els t&- 
Xos = rax^ws, Av. 805 els €VT€ r \etav = ev- 
tcXus. oK&e: some of those suppliants 
who are nearer to the stage entrance on 
the spectators' left — the conventional one 
for an arrival from the country — have 
made si^ns to the Priest. Creon enters, 



And already, when the lapse of days is reckoned, it troubles 
me what he doth ; for he tarries strangely, beyond the fitting 
space. But when he comes, then shall I be no true man if I do 
not all that the god shows. 

Pr. Nay, in season hast thou spoken ; at this moment these 
sign to me that Creon draws near. 

Oe. O king Apollo, may he come to us in the brightness of 
saving fortune, even as his face is bright ! 

PR. Nay, to all seeming, he brings comfort ; else would he 
not be coming crowned thus thickly with berry-laden bay. 

Oe. We shall know soon : he is at range to hear. — Prince, 
my kinsman, son of Menoeceus, what news hast thou brought us 
from the god ? 


Good news : I tell thee that even troubles hard to bear, — if 
haply they find the right issue, — will end in perfect peace. 

schol., Xtyu yap iravra or evrvxeiv tt)v it6\ii>, el icai rd dv<r (f>r]/xa r^xoi [av~\ tear bpdbv 
i^eXdbvra. But the schol. uses that word only to illustrate his own comment on 
eadXrjv : dirb yap tCov ev<prjfjuai> api-aadai 0A«, and clearly read bi<x<pop\ which is in the 
lemma of another schol. 88 e^eXdbvTa MSS. e^iovra Suidas and Zonaras s.v. 

wearing a wreath of bay leaves bright 
with berries, in token of a favourable 
answer. See Appendix, Note 1, § 2. 

80 f. ev TwxT| . . .0 p.p.a.Ti : may his radiant 
look prove the herald of good news. 
Xapirpos with iv ti>xv k.t.X., — being ap- 
plicable at once to brilliant fortune and 
(in the sense of (paidpbs) to a beaming 
countenance, kv tvxti, nearly = fiera 
tijxvs, 'invested with,' 'attended by': 
cp. 1 ri2 iv re yap /xaKpy \ yr)pa £wa5ei : 
Ai. 488 adhovTos iv TXovrcp. rv\t] (rwrqp 
(Aesch. Ag. 664), like xetp irpanrup (ib. 
111), 6i\KTcap ireiddi (Aesch. Suppl. 1040), 
KapavLcrripts 8Uai (Eum. 186). 

82 elKacrcu (lev, i]8vs (sc. /3cuVet)- Cp. 
EL 4 10 £k odp.arbs tov WKre'pov, boxelv 
ifxoi. 0. C. 15 r dvcraLoov \ /xaKpaitov t\ 
exei/cdo-ai. i^Svs, not 'joyous,' but 
'pleasant to us,' 'bringing good news': 
as 510 7/5tf7ro\is, pleasant to the city: El. 
929 T]bb% ovbe MTpl dvcrxepys, a guest 
welcome, not grievous, to her. In Track. 
869 where arjbrjs xat <rvuw<p} is said 
of one who approaches with bad news, 
(£775-175 is not 'unwelcome,' but rather 
'sullen,' 'gloomy.' 

83 •n-o\vo-T€<^s...8d4>viis. The use 
of the gen. after words denoting fulness 
is extended to the notions of encompas- 
sing or overshadowing: e.g. ir€pi<7T€<pT]\ 

...avdeuv drjKrjv (El. 895), GTtyrjv...ri$ [v. 
I. 77] Karrjpecpels do/uoc (Eur. Hipp. 468). 
But the dat. would also stand : cp. Od. 
9. i83<rWos . . .5dd>i>r]<Ti Karrjpecpe's : Hes. Op. 
513 \dxvrj dep/xa Karacr/ciov. ira"yKdpirov, 
covered with berries: cp. 0. C. 676. 
Plin. 15. 30 maximis baccis atque e viridi 
rubentibus (of the Delphic laurel). The 
wreath announces good news, Tr. 179: 
so in Eur. Hipp. 806 Theseus, returning 
from the oracle at Delphi to find Phaedra 
dead, cries ri drjra tomS' dviare/xfiai 
mpa I TrXeKToicn <p6XXois, 8varvxv s Qeupbs 
wv; So Fabius Pictor returned from 
Delphi to Rome coronatus lanrea corona 
(Liv. 23. 11). 

84 |ufjL|xeTpos "yap <os kXvciv. He is 
at a just distance for hearing: |i//x/xerpos 
= commensurate (in respect of his dis- 
tance) witk the range of our voices (im- 
plied in KXveip). 

85 KTJSevp.a, 'kinsman' (by marriage), 
= K-qdecTris, heve = yap.ftp6$ (70). Ant. 
756 ywauebs wv douXev/xa pJt] KumXXe p.e. 
Eur. Or. 928 ravbov olKovprjp.aTa = Tdi 
fvbov oUovpoiJcras. 

87 f. Xe'-yw -y^P .cu-rvxetv. Creon, 
unwilling to speak plainly before the 
Chorus, hints to Oedipus that he brings 
a clue to the means by which the anger 
of heaven may be appeased. i^fXQovra, 



OI. i<TTLv Se rrolov tovttos ; ovre yap dpacrvs 

ovt ovv Trpo&eiaas elfxl tco ye vvv koycp. 90 

KP. et Tcovhe xPT)£ eL< > TrXr^cna^ovTOiv Kkveiv, 

eroipios elirelv, eire kcu crreiyeiv ecro). 
OI. e? iravTas auSct. rcovhe yap ir\eov (frepa) 

to irevOos rj /cat 7179 c/xtJ? ^^X 1 ? 5 'zrept. 
KP. XeyoLfji dv oV rJKovcra rov Oeov irdpa. 95 

avoiyev r}fxas <I>ot/3o9 ifufravcos aVaf 

HiaafjLa ^copa<;, ms TeOpajJLfievov ydovl 

ev Trj8\ ekavveiv, /x^S' avrjKearov rpe^eiv. 
OI. 7rot6) KaOapficp ; rts d TyooVos T175 £v[JL<])opa<; ; 
KP. dvhprjkaTovvras, r) tfrovco (f)6vov irakiv IOO 

Xuo^ras, a5? rdS' atxta -^etfid^ov tt6\iv. 
01. noCov yap dvSpos rrjvhe fxrjvvei rvx r j v \ 
KP. tjp tJxui/, cova£, Actios 7ro#' r)yep*(siv 

yrjs TrjcrSe, Trplv ere ttjvc^ direvSvveiv tto\iv. 

dv<r<f>opa, probably by a mere error. 09 rpoTros] iropos conj. F. W. Schmidt. 

IOI x ei f J -°-£ 0V L, with et. written over ov. The et may be from the 1st hand, as 

of the event, 'having issued'; cp. ion 
fir] pot 4>ot/3os i&Xdrj aa^rjs; so 1182 Qf)- 
kol. The word is chosen by Creon with 
veiled reference to the duty of banishing 
the defiling presence (98 iXatveiv). irriv- 
ra predicative with efirvxeiv, 'will all of 
them ( = altogether) be well.' Xeyw «v- 
rvy/iy dv = \7yu on evrvxolrj av. 

89 f. tovitos, the actual oracle (toGttos 
rb Beorcpbirov, Tr. 822) : \6yu> (90), Creon's 
own saying {Xiyw, 87). irpoSeCo-as, a- 
larmed beforehand. Cp. Her. 7. 50 Kpka- 
gov oh irdvra dapa^ovrarj/XKrvTuv beivuv 
irdax eiv fiaXXov 7) irdv xPVf* *- irpodeifial- 
vovra firjdafia firjUv iradeiv. No other 
part of irpobeldw occurs: irporapfieiv, irpo- 
<t>ofi€io-dai = 'to fear beforehand,' but 
virepbtboiKd aov, I fear for thee, Ant. 82. 
In compos, with a verb of caring for, 
however, irpb sometimes = inrty, e.g. irpo- 
Kf)5o/xat Ant. 741. 

91 f. ir\ii<ria£6vTa>v here = irXrjalov 
6vT<av\ usu. the verb = either (1) to ap- 
proach, or (2) to consort with (dat.), as 
below, 1 1 36. c?T€ — Kal <rTiC\tiv &ro> 
(xPVt eLS )i (%toi/jl6s elfu tovto bpdv). So 
Eur. Ion 11 20 (quoted by Elms., etc.) 
veirvapAvai ydp, el daveiv rjp.a$ xpt&v, 
I r}8iov dv ddvot/xev, eW bpdv <pdos: i.e. 
elre bpdv (pdos (xPv)> {v^ l0V °- v bp^fiev 

avrb). &...&Te, as Aesch. Eum. 468 <rb 
8\ et diKalus elre fir}, Kplvov 8Lkt)p. 

93 f. 4s irdvTas. Her. 8. 26 oHt€ 
7)ve<TX£T0 atyuiv etiri re is vdvras rdde : 
Thuc. 1. 72 & rb irKrjdos elireiv (before the 
assembly). irXiov adverbial, as in At. 
1 101, etc. : schol. irepl toijtuv irXtov 
dywvifoficu rj irepl rrjs i/xavrou ifsvxys> 
— TwvSe, object, gen. with to irfrdos 
(not with irepl) : cp. El. 1097 rq. Z-qvbs 
evaefiela. — r\ kch, 'than even.' This must 
not be confounded with the occasional 
use of r) Kal in negative sentences con- 
taining a comparison: e.g. At. 1103 ovk 
tad' 8irov <rol rbvde Koo-firjaai irXiov \ dpxv* 
tKeiro deafibs rj Kal r^5e ak\ El. 1145 
otire ydp irore \ fxryrpos cti y' r)o~da /xaXhov 
r) Kdfxov <t>l\o$: Antiphon de caed. Her. 
§ 23 ££rjTeiTo oubfr ti fxaXXov virb t<2v 
dWiav r) Kal i/ir' i/iov (where Kal is re- 
dundant, = 'on my part'). 

95 Xfyoijx av, a deferential form, 
having regard to the permission just 
given. Cp. Phil. 674 xvpois av euro: 
El. 637 kXijols dv rjbrj. 

97 »s marks that the partic TcOpaa- 
fie'vov expresses the view held by the 
subject of the leading verb (avciyyev): i.e., 
4 as having been harboured ' = ' which {he 
says) has been harboured.' Cp. Xen. 



Oe. But what is the oracle ? So far, thy words make me 
neither bold nor yet afraid. 

Cr. If thou wouldest hear while these are nigh, I am ready 
to speak ; or else to go within. 

Oe. Speak before all : the sorrow which I bear is for these 
more than for mine own life. 

Cr. With thy leave, I will tell what I heard from the god. 
Phoebus our lord bids us plainly to drive out a defiling thing, 
which (he saith) hath been harboured in this land, and not to 
harbour it, so that it cannot be healed. 

Oe. By what rite shall we cleanse us? What is the 
manner of the misfortune ? 

CR. By banishing a man, or by bloodshed in quittance of 
bloodshed, since it is that blood which brings the tempest on our 

Oe. And who is the man whose fate he thus reveals ! 

Cr. Laius, king, was lord of our land before thou wast pilot 
of this State. 

Diibner thinks : but there is room for doubting whether it was not due to the dtopdu- 
T17S or first corrector (S). A, and other of the later MSS., have xei^af'oi' : and x«M<ifc^ 

An. 1. 2. 1 (-Aeye dappetv ws KaTa<TTT]<ro- 
ixfriav toijtwv eh rb teov. he said, 'Take 
courage, in the assurance that' &c. 

98 IXavvciv for i%e\a6i>€ip was regular 
in this context: Thuc. 1. 126 rb &yos 
iXaijveip ttjs deov (i.e. to banish the Alc- 
maeonidae): and so 1. 127, 128, 135, 
2. 13. — p.T|S" dvrJK€<rrov Tp«(j)€tv. The 
fiiaafia is avrjKearov in the sense that it 
cannot be healed by anything else than 
the death or banishment of the blood- 
guilty. But it can still be healed if that 
expiation is made. Thus avqKearov is a 
proleptic predicate: cp. Plat. Rep. 565c 
tovtov rptcpeiv re kou ati^uv fityav : 0. C. 
527 m See Antiphon Tetr. Y. 7. § 7 
dvrl tov iradbvTos (in the cause of the 
dead) £Trio~icf]TrTOfA€v vpuu ry tovtov (pdvy 
rb p\i\vifxa. t&v d\iTiqpl(av d/cecrayu,^- 
povs iraaav tt\v tt6\lv tcadapav tov fit- 
dcr/iaros KaTaa-rrjo-ai, 'to heal with this 
man's blood the deed which angers the 
avenging spirits, and so to purge the 
whole city of the defilement.' 

99 iro£tp...£up.<|>opds. By what puri- 
fying rite (does he command us eXavvetv 
to fdaafia)? What is the manner of our 
misfortune (i.e. our defilement)? Eur. 
Phoen. 390 rls 6 Tpbiros avrov; tL <pv- 
yd<rit> Tb dvo-x e P*s> 'what is the manner 
thereof? (sc. tov kclkov, exile). £vp.<po- 
pds, euphemistic for guilt, as Plat. Legg. 

934 B \oj(p7)crai iroWa /.lepr) ttjs TOiavTrjs 
^vfxcpopas, to be healed in great measure 
of such a malady (viz., of evil-doing) : 
id. 854 D 4v ry irpoa&TTip koX reus x e P <T ^ 
ypa<pels tt\v ^v/j.<popdv, 'with his misfortune 
[the crime of sacrilege] branded on his 
face and hands.' Her. 1. 35 o-vfupopf} 
€xbMvos = £vayf}$, under a ban. Prof. 
Kennedy understands : 'what is the mode 
of compliance (with the oracle)?' He 
compares O.C. 641 r^Se yap i-vpoi<rofiai 
('for with that choice I will comply'). 
But elsewhere, at least, av/x<popd does not 
occur in a sense parallel with av[X(f>4- 
peaffai, ' to agree with. ' 

IOO f. dv8p-r|\aTo{)vTas. As if, in- 
stead of iroiip Kadapixy, the question had 
been ri itoiovvtixs ; — ws t68' atpa \€i- 
|xd£ov 1r6X.1v, since it is this blood [r65e, 
viz. that implied in <f>6pov] which brings 
the storm on Thebes, x^A^f "* acc - 
absol. «s presents the fact as the ground 
of belief on which the Thebans are com- 
manded to act : ' Do thus, assured that it 
is this blood,' etc. Cp. O.C. 380: Xen. 
Hellen. 2. 4. 1 61 hk TpcdKovra, ws £%bp 
ijdr} aureus TVpavvelv doeQs, irpoettrov, k.t.X. 
Cp. Eur. Suppl. 268 7r6\(s 5e npbs t6\ip \ 
iiTT7)^€ xei/ut<r0etcra, 'city with city seeks 
shelter, when vexed by storms.' 

104s dircvOiWv, to steer in a right 
course. The infin. is of the imperf., = irpd- 




01. cfoiS' olkovcov ov yap elcreiSov ye 7ro). 105 

KP. tovtov Oolvovtos vvv eVicrreXXei cra^w? 

tovs auroeVra? X eL P L T^toptw tlvols. \ 

OI. ol 8* etcri 7rou y^? ; 7rov to8' evpe0rj a €Toll 

1^09 7raXata5 SuoTe'/cjuaproi/ curia? ; 
KP. eV rrjS' €(f>a(TK€ yfj. to Se t^rovp^evov 110 

dXcoroV, €K(f)€vyet Se rdpekovpevov. 
01. TTOTepa 8* eV 01/C019 17 V dypols d Acu'05 

17 y??9 €77* dXX^s rwSe crvpTTiTrTei (f)6va) ; 
KP. deajpos, o5s ecfxxo-Kev, iKSrjficov irakiv 

npos oXkov ovKeff lk€0\ a5? dwecrTdXrf. 1 1 5 

OI. ou8' dyyeXds ri? ouSe (rvpirpaKTcop 6Sov 

/careiS', drov ns eKpaOojv ixpyjcrar dv ; 
KP. Ovrjo-Kovai yap, 7tXt}^ €ts ns, 05 fyofico (j)vyo)v 

a>^ eioe trk'qv €i/ ovoev ei^ eio&j? (ppacrcu. 
01. rd 7roto^ ; eV yap 7rdXX' di/ e^evpoi [xaOelv, 120 

dp^rjv f^pa^elav el \dftoipev eXm'So?. 

found in a few later MSS., seems to have been merely a conjecture. 107 TtJ/ao- L, 

without accent. The scribe placed a dot over c, to indicate that it should be deleted; 
but this dot was afterwards almost erased, whether by his own hand or by another. 
rivaa or nvda r. The reading nvd seems to occur in no MS., but only in the Milan 

repov 7) a-mjirdwes, before you were steer- 
ing (began to steer). Oedipus took the 
State out of angry waters into smooth : 
cp. 696 ifiau ydv Q'CXav \ iv irbvovi dXvov- 
cav kcit' opdbv oOpuras: fr. 151 irXtficTpots 
direvdvvovoiv ovpiav rpbinv, 'with the helm 
(T\i]KTpa, the blades of the rrr]8dXia) they 
steer their bark before the breeze.' 

105 ou -yap ct<r€i86v y£ irw. As Oed. 
knows that La'ius is dead, the tone of un- 
concern given by this colloquial use of 
ovirw (instead of otiwore) is a skilful touch. 
Cp. El. 402 XP. ab 5' ovyl ireiaet...; EA. 
ou brjTO.' fi^iroj vov roaovb" 1 etyv Kevf): Eur. 
Hcc. 1278 pji}iru} fiaveir} Tvvdapls Toaovde 
ir ah: II. 12. 270 aXX' otiiru) irdvres bp.0101 \ 
aVpes iv irdXip.^: cp. our (ironical) 'I 
have_y<?/ to learn.' 

107 tovs avroe'vTas.Tivas. tows im- 
plies that the death had human authors; 
rivas, that they are unknown. So in 
0. C. 290 orav 5' 6 Kijpios I irap-Q ns, 
'the master — whoever he be.' Tip.o>p«iv, 
'punish.' The act., no less than the 
midd., is thus used even in prose: Lysias 
In Agor. § 42 TL/uLOjpeiv virkp avrov ws <povta 
6vTa, to punish (Agoratus), on his own 

account, as his murderer. \tip\ tiuo>- 
p«iv, here, either 'to slay' or 'to expel by 
force,' as distinguished from merely fining 
or disfranchising: in 140 roiavrr] x €L Pl 
ri/xupeiv is explained by ktuvlov in 139. 

108 f. irou t68* ...airCas; r65e t'xj/o? 
an-i'as = ix"OS T^crSe atrias, cp. rovpibp <ppe- 
v&v bvecpov El. 1390. atrias, 'crime': 
At. 28 rrjvb' ovv eKeivcp 7ras ns airiav 
vt/xei. For Svcrr^KuapTov, hard to track, 
cp. Aesch. Euvi. 244 (the Furies hunting 
Orestes) eleV rbb' icrrl rdvbpbs iK<f>av$s 
r^Kfiap. The poet hints a reason for 
what might else have seemed strange — 
the previous inaction of Oedipus. Cp. 219. 

HO e'(j>acrK€, sc. 6 debs (evped^aeadai 
rb Ixvos). t6 8* Jtjtovucvov: 8i has a 
sententious force, = 'now.' The yvup.r}, 
though uttered in an oracular tone, is not 
part of the god's message. Cp. Eur. fr. 435 
aurbs tl vvv bp<2v elra bal,uovas ndXet' | T(p 
yap ttovovvti /cat debs avWajx^dvei.. 

113 <rvuirfrjrm. The vivid historic 
present suits the alertness of a mind 
roused to close inquiry: so below, 118, 
716, 1025: Tr. 748: El. 679.— Cp. At. 
429 KaKo.s roioiabe av/ATreTTTUKOTa. 



Oe. I know it well — by hearsay, for I saw him never. 

Cr. He was slain ; and the god now bids us plainly to 
wreak vengeance on his murderers — whosoever they be. 

Oe. And where are they upon the earth ? Where shall the 
dim track of this old crime be found ? 

CR. In this land, — said the god. What is sought for can be 
caught ; only that which is not watched escapes. 

Oe. And was it in the house, or in the field, or on strange 
soil that Lai'us met this bloody end ? 

Cr. 'Twas on a visit to Delphi, as he said, that he had left 
our land ; and he came home no more, after he had once set forth. 

Oe. And was there none to tell ? Was there no comrade 
of his journey who saw the deed, from whom tidings might have 
been gained, and used ? 

Cr. All perished, save one who fled in fear, and could tell 
for certain but one thing of all that he saw. 

Oe. And what was that? One thing might show the clue 
to many, could we get but a small beginning for hope. 

ed. of Suidas (ed. Demetrius Chalcondylas, 1498 A.D.), the other editions of Suidas 
giving rivas (s. v. iTriartWei). 117 The 1st hand in L wrote oirov, which has 

been altered to 6'rou, perhaps by the first corrector. [I had doubted this; but in the 

114 Getopos : Lai'us was going to 
Delphi in order to ask Apollo whether 
the child (Oedipus), formerly exposed 
by the god's command, had indeed 
perished: Eur. Phoen. 36 rbv eKredfrra 
iraiSa /xaarevuv fiadeiv \ d u.t]k£t etij. «s 
&pao-K6v, as Laius told the Thebans at 
the time when he was leaving Thebes. 
€k8t||ju3v, not going abroad, but being 
[ = having gone J abroad : cp. Plat. Legg. 
864 E olneiTU rbv evtavrbv eKdrjfiQv. cos 
= iiret : Xen. Cyr. 1. 3. 2 u>s 8k acpi/cero 
Tdx<-<7TCL...ri<Tir&fcTo. Cic. Brut. 5 ut illos 
libros edidisti, nihil a te postea accepimus. 

116 ov8' a-yy^os.- c\pT]<raT 'av; The 
sentence begins as if dVyeXis tis were to 
be followed by ??X0e: but the second 
alternative, crvfiirpaKTiop 6S0O, suggests 
KCLTelde [had seen, though he did not 
speak\\ and this, by a kind of zeugma, 
stands as verb to dyyeXos also. Cp. Her. 
4. 106 iadrjra 8k <popk overt, rrj SkvOikt) 
6f.toiT)u, yXQcraav 8k iSirjv. ov8* ayyeXos : 
//. 12. 73 ovk4t' HeiT o'Cu) ovd' tiyyeXov 
dirovkecrdai. otov, gen. masc. : from 
whom having gained knowledge one 
might have used it. 

117 €Kp,a8»v = a protasis, ei i^adev, 
i\pwo.T av, sc. toijtois a i^fiadev. Plat. 
Gorg. 465 E eav txkv oiV Kal £yk troy diro- 
xpivofikvov fir] ^x w Tt X/ )7 7°' w A ta< j if» when 

you answer, I also do not know what use 
to make [of your answer, sc. roi/rots d dv 
droKpivr]), — where shortly before we have 
ov8k xp77<r0cu rrj axoKpioei r\v crot. cnreKpi- 
vd/J.r}v ouSkv otbs r' rjcrda. 

118f. 0VTJ<rKou<rt. The 1 subscript in 
the pres. stem of this verb is attested by 
Attic inscriptions (Meisterhans, Gram. p. 
86). The practice of the Laurentian 
MS. fluctuates. It gives the t subscript 
here, in 623, 1457; O.C. 611; Ant. 547, 
761 ; El. 1022. It omits the 1 subscript 
in El. 63, 113, 540, i486; Tr. 707, 708; 
Ph. 1085. Cp. Etym. M. 482, 29, 0v&- 
fficw, fiifxvrjo'KW. ALSv/aos \circ. 30 B.C.] 
X«pis rod I... i) (jAvtoi TrapdSocris $xei rb I. — 
<p6(3u> <pvycov, 'having fled in fear': <£o/3y, 
modal dative; cp. Thuc. 4. 88 8id re rb 
kirayuyd e'nreiv rbv BpaaiSav Kal irepl rod 
Kapirov 06/3y tyvwtrav : 5. 70 kvrovws Kal 
dpyrj xup°v vT * s - — el8»s, w >th sure know- 
ledge (and not merely from confused 
recollection, dcraepr] i S6i-a): so 1151 X^yei 
yap el8<hs ovSkv dXX' dXXws Trover. El. 
41 owm av elSws T}pXv dyydXrjS cra<prj. 
Iocasta says (849), in reference to this 
same point in the man's testimony, kovk 
tenor aurcp tovto 7' £k(3o\€iv irdXiv. 

120 to ttoiov; Cp. 291: El. 670 
Trpdy/xa iropcrvvtov fxkya. | KA. rb iroiov, 
to £&>' ; etV^. Ar. Pax 696 evSaifxovei. 



KP. XrjcTTas €(f)acTKe crvvTvyovTas ov /xta 

fHOfxr} KTOLveiv viv, dkXd crvv ir\rjOei -^epcov, 
7TW9 ovv 6 \r)o~TT]<;, el tl [jltj ^vv dpyvpco 
IrrpdcrcreT ivdevb", €9 toS' aV toX/xt^s e/3r) ; 
hoKovvTa ravr tjv Aatov 8* dXwXoros 
ouSeis dpcoyos kv /ca/cois eyiyvero. 


ovrco 7T€crovcrrj<; eipye tovt efetSeVat ; 

KP. Tj 7TOLKLk(p86s X(jny^ TO 77^05 7TOCrl CTK07T€LV 

fjLedevTds ijfjids Ta(j)avrj--7rpocn]yeTO. 

aAA ef VTrap^y)^ avuis avr eyco <pava). 

iTraJzia iS yap <3>ch/3o9, afuos 8e cru 

Trpo tov OavovTos ttjvo^ eOe&O* iiricrTpo^rjV' 

coot' ij^LKcos oxpecrOe /catte crvpLpia^ov, 

yfj rrjSe TLfxcopovvTa re? 0eS 0* a/xa. 

U7reyo yap ov^l tcov awcoTepco (f)t\cov 








autotype facsimile of L the original it is clear.] otov r. 134 irpb tov L. The rst 

hand had written irpb arov, separating the <r (as he often does) from the syllable to 
which it belonged, and forming or in one character; the corrector erased the <r. 

iraxxx el SI davfiaarop. 'EPM. rb rl; c^cv- 
poi p.a0€iv. One thing would find out 
how to learn many things, i.e. would 
prove a clue to them. The infin. fiaddv 
as after a verb of teaching or devising: 
Her. 1. 196 aXXo 84 ti i^evp^Kaai veooal 
yeviadai. Plat. Rep. 519E tv oXy rrj 
iroXei tovto fxr)X av ^ Tai iyyeviadai. 

122 f. ^<j>a<rK€ sc. b (pvy&v (118). ov 
p.uj pwjifj = ov% Zvbs fidbfir], in the strength 
not of one man. Cp. Her. 1. 174 iroWrj 
X«/>2 ipyafrpAvuv rdv Kvidlcav. Ant. 14 
diirXxi x^ = by the hands of twain. So 
perh. x € pl SiSv/u-a Pind. Pyth. 2. 9. — crvv 
irX-qGei: cp. on 55. 

124 f. ft ti |uj k.t.X., if some intrigue, 
aided by (£vv) money, had not been 
working from Thebes, ti is subject to 
eirpd<rcr€TO : distinguish the adverbial rt 
( = ' perchance') which is often joined to 
el pJ\ in diffident expressions, as 969 et ti 
Plt] rci/iy irodip I Kar4(p9iT\ 'unless pei- 
chance" 1 \ so 0. C. 1450, Tr. 586 etc. 
Schneid. cp. Thuc. 1. 121 Kal ti out$ Kal 
iirpdaffeTO is -ras 7rdXeis Tavras wpodocrias 
ire" pi : and 5. 83 vvrjpxc de" ti avToh Kal ix 
tov "ApyovsavTodev Trpaaao/xevov. — lirpdcr- 
arero...'4^ir\: the imperf. refers here to a 
continued act in past time, the aor. to an 

act done at a definite past moment. Cp. 
402 i8oK€Ls — ^yi/ws : 432 iKOfxrjv — iKaXeis. 

126 SoKouvTa. . .ifv expresses the vivid 
presence of the 56£a more strongly than 
TavTa idonei would have done (cp. 274 
t&5' toT dpio~Koi>6'): Her. 1. 146 raOra 5e 
t\v yivofieva kv MtXiJry. 

128 i|nro8wv sc. 6v, with Kaxov, not 
with ctp-yc, 'what trouble (being) in your 
path?' Cp. 445 Trapu)v...e/XTrod(jt}p\6x^is. 
Tvpavv£8os. Soph, conceives the Theban 
throne as having been vacant from the 
death of Lai'us — who left no heir — till the 
election of Oed. The abstract TvpawlSos 
suits the train of thought on which Oed. 
has already entered, — viz.' that the crime 
was the work of a Theban faction ( 1 24) 
who wished to destroy, not the king 
merely, but the kingship. Cp. Aesch. 
Cho. 973 tdeade x&P * T ^l v SiwXijv Tvpav- 
vida (Clytaemnestra and Aegisthus). 

130 itoikiXcuSos, singing iroudXa, sub- 
tleties, alvlyixaTa: cp. Plat. Symp. 182 A 
6 irepl Tbv l-purra vofios kv fiev reus dXXcuj 
iroXeat Por}o~ai Radios' airXus yhp o>- 
piffTai' b 8e ivdade Kal h Aaicedalfiovi 
ttoikLXos. Her. 7. in irpbp.avTis 8e i] 
Xptovcra, Kardirep ev AeX^otci, Kal ovdev 
TroiKiXibrepop, 'the chief prophetess is she 



Cr. He said that robbers met and fell on them, not in one 
man's might, but with full many hands. 

Oe. How, then, unless there was some trafficking in bribes 
from here, should the robber have dared thus far ? 

CR. Such things were surmised ; but, Laifus once slain, amid 
our troubles no avenger arose. 

Oe. But, when royalty had fallen thus, what trouble in your 
path can have hindered a full search ? 

Cr. The riddling Sphinx had made us let dark things go, 
and was inviting us to think of what lay at our doors. 

Oe. Nay, I will start afresh, and once more make dark things 
plain. Right worthily hath Phoebus, and worthily hast thou, be- 
stowed this care on the cause of the dead ; and so, asismeet, 
ye shall find me too leagued with you in seeking vengeance for 
this land, and for the god besides. On behalf of no far-off friend, 

Among the later mss., A and a few more have irpb (sometimes with the gloss virep): 
others have irpbs. — tt^vS' £0e<r0' tiriCTpoty-qv'] A variant recorded in the margin of L, 
T-fjvbe deairtfci ypcupfy, is instructive, as indicating the lengths to which arbitrary 

who gives the oracles, as at Delphi, and 
in no wise of darker speech.' 

131 The constr. is irpoo-Tvy€TO tjfxds, 
peOc'vTas toL d<j>avT], a-tcoimv to irpos iro<rC. 
irpoorj-yeTO, was drawing us (by her dread 
song), said with a certain irony, since 
tt poo dy €<x 8 ai with infin. usually implies 
a gentle constraint (though, as a milit. 
term, dvdyKr) irpoo7)ydyoi>TO, reduced by 
force, Her. 6. 25): cp. Eur. Ion 659X/NW 
8e Kcupbv \ap.fidvuv xpoad^o/xai, \ bdjAapT' 
idv <re CKijirrpa ret/*' e"x HV X^ ov ^' T o irpos 
irocrl (cp. ifiTToduv 128), the instant, 
pressing trouble, opp. to ret depavrj, ob- 
scure questions (as to the death of Lai'us) 
of no present or practical interest. Pind. 
Isthm. 7. 12 deifia pAv irapoixbfievov\ 
naprepdv firavGe /jt^pifivav to be irpbs 
ir odds dpetov del CKOirelv \ XPVt 1 * 1 t^"* 

Ant. I327 T&V TTOfflv KOLKd. 

1 32 !£ virapx'HSj i-e- taking up anew the 
search into the death of Lai'us. Arist. de 
Anim. 1. I ird\iv 5' wvirep i£ virapxys 
iiravio}p.ev: so irdKiv ovv olov e£ virapxys 
Rhet. I. 1. 14: [Dem.] or. 40 § 16 irdXiv 
e£ virapxys Xayxdvoval not biicas. The 
phrase iu tt} Tys eiriaTy/xys virapxy occurs 
in the paraphrase by Themistius of Arist. 
irepl cpvouiys ct/cpocWews 8. 3 (Berlin ed. 
vol. 1. 247 b 29): elsewhere the word 
occurs only in 4£ virapxys. Cp. El. 725 
i>TToaTpo<prjs = vTocrTpa<p4vTes : Her. 5. 116 
c'/c vtrjs: Thuc. 3. 92 iK Kcuvrjs. avQis, as 

he had done in the case of the Sphinx's 
riddle: avrd = Ta d<pavy. 

133 cira|Ca>s (which would usually 
have a genitive) implies the standard — 
worthily of his own godhead, or of the 
occasion — and is slightly stronger than 
d£io>s- Cp. Eur. Hec. 168 dirwXio-aT\ 
(iA^o-ar': Or. 181 8ioixbp.ed\ o^P-tO' : 
Ale. 400 virdnovaov, dtcovaov. 

134 irpo, on behalf ' oj \ cp. irpb Twvbe ro, 
O.C. 811 : Xen. Cyr. 8. 8. 4 el Tts...8ia- 
Kivdwetiaeie irpb fiaaCXe'ws: 1. 6. 42 ct£ic6- 
covai o~k irpb eavTwv fiovXeveadai. Campb. 
reads irpbs tov davbvTos, which here could 
mean only ( at the instance of the dead.' 
irpbs never = 'on behalf of,' 'for the sake 
of,' but sometimes l on the side of: e.g. 
Her. 1. 124 diroo~TdvTes air' iiceU'OV Kal 
yepd/xepoi irpbs do, 'ranged themselves on 
your side': 1. 75 iXirtaas irpbs ecovrov Tbv 
Xp~n< elvai, that the oracle was on his 
side: below, 1434, irpbs (rov...<ppdvw, I 
will speak on your side, — in your in- 
terest: Trach. 479 /ecu to irpbs nelvov 
\tyeiu, to state his side of the case also. 
— iiricrrpocfnjv, a turning round (0. C. 
1045), hence, attention, regard: iiricTpo- 
<pyv Tldeadai (like o-irov5fy, irpbvoiav tL6., 
At. 13, s > 36) = iiri<rTpe'(pe<rdal (tivos), Phil. 
599, Dem. In Aristocr. § 136 ovk 
iireo-TpdcpT} 'heeded not' = ovbev e<ppbi>Tioe 

#• §i35- f 

137 virfcp ^dp oi)(\ k.t.X., i.e. not 




aXX' avros avrov rovr aVocrKeSco /aucto9. 
ocrrt9 yap r)v iKeivov 6 Kravoiv rd^ av 
Kcifx av TOiavrr) \eipi rifxcopeiv Oekoi. 140 

Ktiva) irpocrapKCJv ovv ifxavrov oo<j)e\(o. - l * 
aXX' g$5 ra^tcrra, 7rat8€9, i5/A€i9 /xe*> fidOpojv 
laracrOe, rovoS* dpavres iKrrjpas /cXaSov?, 
C1XX09 Se KaS/xov Xaoi> cSS' ddpOL^eroj, 
cos 7rou> e/xou SpdcrovTOS' rj ydp evrv^els 1 45 

cn)i> to) #ec? cj)avovfJL€0\ rj 7re7rra)/core9. 
IE. w 7rcuSe9, larcofxeaOa. rcovSe yap X^P LV 
/cat 0€u/3 eprjfiev cov 00 egayyekKerai. 
<£>oi/3os 8' d 7re/x\//a9 racrSe fxavreias a/xa 



o-rp. a'. cS A169 aSveTre? <£aVi, T19 7rore ra9 rrokv^pvcrov 
2 IIv0g5i>os dyXaas e/3a9 

conjecture was sometimes carried. Cp. on 1529. 

138 avrov L: avrov r. 

merely in the cause of La'ius, whose widow 
he has married. The arrangement of the 
words is designed to help a second mean- 
ing of which the speaker is unconscious : 
'in the cause of a friend who is not far 
off' (his own father). The reference to 
La'ius is confirmed by Kelv<$ irpccapK&p 
in 141. 

138 atiTov = ifxavrov. The reflexive 
avrov, etc., is a pron. of the 1st pers. in 
O.C. 966, El. 285, At. 1 1 32: of the 
2nd pers., in O.C. 853, 930, 1356, Tr. 
451. d-iroo-KeSw, dispel, as a taint in 
the air: cp. Od. 8. 149 CKkhaaov 5' diro 
Krjdea dvfiov: Plat. Phaed. 77 D p.rj...6 
avetws avT7)i> (rr]P faxw) iKpaipovaap £k 
rod cibfiaros dca<pvo~qi Kal biao'Kebdppvatv. 

139 f. €K6ivov 6 ktcxvcov. iKeivov has 
emphasis : cp. 820. — Toiavrg, referring to 
ktclvuv, implies <f>opla: on rifiupeip see 
107. The spectator thinks of the time 
when Oed. shall be blinded by his own 
hand. — For the double av cp. 339, 862, 

142 iraiScs- The king here, as the 
priest in 147, addresses all the suppliants. 
dXXos (144) is one of the king's attend- 
ants.— pdOpcuv I Vo-racrQe k.t.X. Cp. Ant. 
417 x#oj'6s...dei/)as: Phil. 630 pews &yop- 
Ta. Prose would require a compound 

verb: Xen. Synip. 4. 31 viravlaravrai.... 
da.KO)p. dpavTts. Aesch. Suppl. 481 /c\<£- 
hovs ye rovrovs aty' 4p dyKakais Xafi&p \ 
/3w/xoiij eV aWovs daifiopojp iyx w P' l<av \ 04s. 

145 Trdv...8pdcrovTos, to do every- 
thing = to leave nothing untried: for «$ 
cp. 97. Plat. Apol. 39 A i&p rts roXpjq. 
ttoLp iroieip Kal \4yeiv. Xen. Ilellen. 7. 4. 
2 1 irdvra £ttoIh 6ttu)S, el, dirayd- 
yoi. €uTvx€is...'ir€TrTWKOT€s: 'fortunate,' 
if they succeed in their search for the 
murderer, who, as they now know, is in 
their land (no): 'ruined,' if they fail, 
since they will then rest under the dpi\- 
Keo-rop yXacp-a (98). The unconscious 
speaker, in his last word, strikes the 
key-note of the destined TT€pnr4reia. 

147 ff. w iraiScs: see on 142. — Kal 
devp' tfi-niiep, we e'en came here : i.e. this 
was the motive of our coming in the first 
instance. Phil. 380 iweidr) Kal \4yeis 
OpacrvarofMuip: Lys. In Eratosth. § 29 
7rapd to'v irore Kal Xrj\f/ea0e 8Lkt)p; l£- 
ayy&\€Tai, proclaims on his own part 
(midd.), of himself: i.e. promises un- 
asked, ullro pollicetur. Cp. Ai. 1376 
dyye , \\ofxai...elpai <pi\os, 'I offer friend- 
ship.' Eur. has thus used i£ayy. even 
where metre permitted the more usual 
ewayyiWop-ai.: Heracl. 531 Kd£ayy4\- 



no, but in mine own cause, shall I dispel this taint. For who- 
ever was the slayer of LaYus might wish to take vengeance on me 
also with a hand as fierce. Therefore, in doing right to Lai'us, 
I serve myself. 

Come, haste ye, my children, rise from the altar-steps, and 
lift these suppliant boughs ; and let some other summon hither 
the folk of Cadmus, warned that I mean to leave nought un- 
tried ; for our health (with the god's help) shall be made certain 
— or our ruin. 

PR. My children, let us rise ; we came at first to seek what 
this man promises of himself. And may Phoebus, who sent 
these oracles, come to us therewith, our saviour and deliverer 
from the pest. 


O sweetly-speaking message of Zeus, in what spirit rst 
hast thou come from golden Pytho unto glorious stro P ne ; 

139 tueivov has been made from iKehocr in L. The false reading eKeiPos occurs in 
some of the later mss. 

Xo/xai I QvrjUKeiv, I offer to die. — a|xa: 
i.e. may the god, who has summoned us 
to put away our pollution, at the same time 
come among us as a healing presence. 

151 — 215 The Chorus consists of 
Theban elders — men of noble birth, 'the 
foremost in honour of the land' (1223) 
— who represent the Ka.dfj.ov \a6s just 
summoned by Oedipus (144). Oedipus 
having now retired into the palace, and 
the suppliants having left the stage, the 
Chorus make their entrance (ir&podos) 
into the hitherto vacant dpxvo'Tpa. For 
the metres see the Analysis which follows 
the Introduction. 

1st strophe {\^\ — 158). Is the god's 
message indeed a harbinger of health? 
Or has Apollo some further pain in store 
for us? 

I st ant i strophe (159 — 166). May 
Athene, Artemis, and Apollo succour us ! 

ind strophe (167 — 178). The fruits of 
the earth and the womb perish. 

ind antistrophe (179 — 189). The un- 
buried dead taint the air: wives and 
mothers are wailing at the altars. 

yd strophe (190 — 202). May Ares, the 
god of death, be driven hence: may thy 
lightnings, O Zeus, destroy him. 

yd antistrophe (203—215). May the 
Lycean Apollo, and Artemis, and Diony- 
sus fight for us against the evil god. 

151 <|>dTi, of a god's utterance or oracle 

(1440), a poet, equivalent for <f>y)ix-q: cp. 
310 an' oiuvQv (poiTiv. Aids, because 
Zeus speaks by the mouth of his son; 
Aesch. Rum. 19 Aids irpcxprjTijs 5' earl 
Aortas irarpbs. a8\>€ir£$, merely a general 
propitiatory epitnet : the Chorus have not 
yet heard whether the response is com- 
forting or not. It is presently told to 
them by Oed. (242). Cp. EL 480 adv- 
irvl< JI )v...dvup6.Tuv, dreams breathing com- 
fort (from the gods), tis 7roTe...?Pas; 
What art thou that hast come? i.e. in 
what spirit hast thou come? bringing us 
health or despair? 

152 Ilv0covos, from Pytho (Delphi): 
for the gen. see on 142 fiadpw \ IcrTaa-de. 
tcis iroXvx.pviarov, 'rich in gold,' with 
allusion to the costly avad^fxara dedicated 
at Delphi, and esp. to the treasury of the 
temple, in which gold and silver could be 
deposited, as in a bank, until required for 
use. Iliad 9. 404 oW 5o~a...\aivos ouSos 
apropos £pt6$ itpyei \ $olj3ov 'AiroWwvos, 
Ilvdot £pI TreTp7]4(rcrr]. Thuc. 1. 121 vav- 
tlk6v re airb r^s virapxo6<T7]S re ovcrias 
££apTV<r6fJ.eda, ical airb rCov iv AeXtpolt Kai 
'OXv/JLiria x/^/mrwi'. Athen. 233 F rip 
fth o5j> ip AeX0ots 'AttoWwpi top irpbrepop 
£p rrj AaKedatfiopi xP v<rov Ka -i &py v P ov 
[irpbrepop = before the time of Lysander] 
lo~TopovcriP apaTc07)pat.. Eur. Andr. 1093 
deov I xpvaou y£p.0PTa yOaXa (recesses), 
d-qaavpovs (3poT<3v. Ion 54 Ae\<poL 



3 (dijj3a<; ; e/creraftat, (f)o/3epdv <f>peva heifxari ttoXKoiv, 

r4 Irjie AaXie Ilcua^, 
5 dfi(j)l aol a£o/A€^o9 ti /xoi 77 viov ur 

617 TrepLTeWojJLevaLS copais Trakiv £i;avv<jei<z X/ 3605 - 
7 enre fJLOL, (I) xpvaea<; t4kvov 'EXttiSo?, djx/3poTe <I>a/xcu 

avr. a'. npcord ere KeKAo/xevos, Ovyarep Aios, afxfipoT 'AOdva, 
2 yataoxo^ t' dSeAcfredv 1 60 

S^ApTefALV, a KU/cXoe^r dyopds Opovov evKkea ddacrei, 

159 k€k\6/j.(vos L, with w written over os by a late hand. A few of the later MSS. 

cr0' £0€vto (the young Ion) xP va0( P^' 
Xa/ca toO 0eou, | rap-Lau re 7rdj>ra;i/. Pind. 
Pyth. 6. 8 ^ Tro\vxpiJ<r<P 'AwoXXbivLa... 
vdrq. (i.e. iv Hvdoi). 

153 The bold use of €KT€Ta|iai is in- 
terpreted by <J>oP«pdv 4>p€va Seifxa-ri ird\- 
X(dv, which is to be taken in close con- 
nection with it. tKTelveodai is not found 
elsewhere of mental tension (though 
Dionys. De Comp. Verb. c. 15 ad fin. has 
77 rrjs diavoLas H/travis kclI rbrou deLfiaros 
dirpocrddKrjTov. Cp. Xen. Cyr. I. 3. n 
£ws Trapareivaifii tovtov, uxxirep ovtos 
ipt TrapaTeiVet a7rd coO kuXijuv, — 'rack,' 
'torture' him. But irapaTeLveadat, when 
used figuratively, usually meant ' to be 
worn out,' 'fatigued to death': e.g. Plato 
Lysis 204 C irapaTadijcreTai virb gov dtcovwv 
dapd Xiyovros, enecabitur, he will be tired 
to death of hearing it. So Xen. Mem. 3. 
13. 6 Traparirapai p.anpdv bobv iropev- 
6ds. Triclinius explains here, 'I am 
prostrated by dread' (tKirtTrXrrypcu, Trap' 
8<rov ol eKTrXaytvTes tuTacnv cr<hp.aTos nal 
&KLvr]<riav Tdo~x ovo ~ Lv: cp. Eur. Med. 585 
iv yap iKrevet a' tiros) : so Ph. 858 hurt- 
rarat vbxios (of a sleeper). But the con- 
text favours the other view. — irriXXwv, 
transitive, governing <pp£va, making my 
heart to shake ; not intransitive, for ttciX- 
Xbnevos, with fyptva. as accus. of the part 
affected. An intransitive use of xdXXw 
in this figurative sense is not warranted 
by such instances as Ar. Lys. 1304 Kod<f>a 
irdXXw, 'lightly leaping in the dance': 
Eur. El. 435 ZiraXXe 8eX<pl$ ( = i<TKipTa), 
'the dolphin leaped' : ib. 477 Xiriroi t-rraX- 
Xo? 'quivered' (in death). Cp. Aesch. 
P. V. 881 Kpadta <p6p(p <j>piva XcuWfei: 
so, when the speaker is identified with 
the troubled spirit within him, we can 
say <pp4va xdXXu, — where (ppfra has a less 
distinctly physical sense than in Aesch. 

I.e., yet has physical associations which 
help to make the phrase less harsh. 

154 AdXie. The Delphian Apollo is 
also Delian — having passed, according to 
the Ionic legend, from his native Delos, 
through Attica, to Delphi (Aesch. Eum. 
9). A Boeotian legend claimed Tegyra 
as the birthplace of Apollo: Plut. Pelop. 
16 evTOLvda p.vdoXoyovo~i rbv debv yeptadai, 
Kal rb p£v 7r\7](xiov opos ArjXos KaXeircu. 
We can scarcely say, however, with 
Schneidewin that AdXie here 'bewrays 
the Athenian,' when we remember that 
the Theban Pindar hails the Delphian 
Apollo as Ai5/ae nal AdXov dvdaauv Gfoifie 
(Pyth. 1. 39). — tific (again in 1096), in- 
voked with the cry Itf: cp. Tr. 221 l<b lb 
Haidv. Soph, has the form iraiuv, 
iraiiqwv as='a healer' (not with ref. to 
Apollo), Phil. 168, 832. 

155 d£o}L€vos (rt. dy, whence dyios) im- 
plies a religious fear : cp. Od. 9. 478 ax^rXC r 
iird geluovs oi>x ctfco atp M cUkuj \ £a0£p.e- 
pcu. ri fj.01 . . .xp€°s : 'what thing thou 
wilt accomplish for me': i.e., what expia- 
tion thou wilt prescribe, as the price of 
deliverance from the plague. Will the 
expiation be of a new kind (v4ov)? Or 
will some ancient mode of atonement be 
called into use once more (TrdXt^)? ird- 
Xiv recalls Aesch. Ag. 154 nlfipei ybp 
<p?j3epd iraXivopTOs \ olKOv6p,os doXLa 
p.vdp.ojv p.ijvis t€kv6toivos. vtov, adjective 
with XP^ 0S : waXiv, adverb with ii-apuo-eis. 
rl p.01 vtov XP^ 0S &Za.vti<TW, r) ri XP^°* 
irdXiv i^aviaeis ; The doubling of ij harshly 
co-ordinates vtov and irdXiv, as if one said 
tIvcls rj fxaxop.tvovs rj dpaxel ivlKrjcrav j 
XP«'os here=xp^Ma, 'matter' (implying 
importance) : cp. Aesch. Suppl. 374 (of a 
king) xp£°s I ir ° LV tTTucpatveis: Eur. H. F. 
530 ri naivbv rjXde ToTade bibp.acnv XP^ 0S 'i 
Others take it as=' obligation' (cp. O. C- 



Thebes ? I am on the rack, terror shakes my soul, O thou 
Delian healer to whom wild cries rise, in holy f ear of thee, what 
thing thou wilt work for me, perchance unknown before, per- 
chance renewed with the revolving years : tell me, thou immortal 
Voice, born of Golden Hope ! 

First call I on thee, daughter of Zeus, divine Athena, ist anti- 
and on thy sister, guardian of our land, Artemis, who stro P h e- 
sits on her throne of fame, above the circle of our Agora, 

have kckXo^vcp or /ce/cXoya^w. — K^Xo/xai, w Blaydes. — apppor'] avrop.' Wecklein. 

235), but against this is If-avvtms, which 
could not mean either to 'impose' or to 
1 exact ' it. Whitelaw renders, * what re- 
quirement thou wilt enact (by oracular 
voice),' finding this use of dvtiu in 0. C. 
454, Ant. 1 178; but there (as below, 720) 
it has its normal sense, 'fulfil.' 

156 irepiTcWop. wpcus, an epic phrase 
which Ar. Av. 697 also has. Od. 14. 293 
dX\' ore 5^ p,rjv£s re ical rj/xtpai i^ere- 
Xevvro I d\f/ TrepireXXopAvov Hreos, /cat kiri]- 
\v80v copat. 

157 xP vo "€' a S k.t.X. The answer (not 
yet known to them) sent by Apollo is 
personified as $d\ia, a divine Voice, — 
'the daughter of golden hope,' because — 
whether favourable or not — it is the issue 
of that hope with which they had awaited 
the god's response. 

159 k€k\6u€vos is followed in 164 by 
irpo<j>r''vtjT^ p.01 instead of etixofxai irpo- 
<pav? at. Cp. Plat. Legg. 686 D diro- 
j3XS\f>a$ ydp irpbs tovtov rbv <tto\ov 08 
iripi Sia.Xeybp.eda 25oi-4 p.01 irdynaXos . . . 
elvai. Antiphon Tetr. B. /3. § 10 diro- 
Xvbp.evo$ d£ vtt6 re 7-77$ dXrjddas twv 
icpaxti&T<dv inrb re rod vbp.ov nad* ov 8ub- 
Kerai, ov8£ tQv iiriTT]8evp.dT(i)v dveica 81- 
Kaioi roioiinav KanQv d^iovadal io-p.ev. 
Xen. Cyr. 8. 8. 10 rjv 8& clvtois vbp.1p.0v 
...vofiifovTes. The repetition of &p.- 
fipor' has provoked some weak and need- 
less conjectures : see on 517. 

160 -ycudoxov, holding or guarding 
our land; so Aesch. Suppl. 816 yatdoxe 
irayKparks Zeu. In 0. C. 1072 it is the 
Homeric epithet of Poseidon, 'girdling 
the earth,' rbv irbvnov ycudoxov. Cp. 
HaXXas iroXiouxo* Ar. Eq. 581 (woXidoxos 
Pind. 01. 5. 10), TToXiff<rovxot deol Aesch. 
Theb. 69. 

161 kvkXocvt 1 avopds 8p6vov=/a>- 
K\okavr\s dyopds dpbvov: cp. Ant. 793 
ve?Kos dvdptdv i-v'vaip.ov, Track. 993 w 

J. S. I. 3 

Krjvala Kprjirls fiup,G)v. ' Round throne of 
the marketplace' means simply (I now 
think) 'throne consisting of the round 
marketplace.' The sitting statue of 
Artemis is in the middle of the agora; 
hence the agora itself is poetically called 
her throne. The word k6kXos in con- 
nection with the Athenian agora, of 
which it perhaps denoted a special part ; 
schol. Ar. Eq. 137 6 8h kv"kXos ' K.6r\vr\o-lv 
ia-ri Kaddirep jad/ceXXos, £k tt)s KaraaKevrjs 
(form) tt)v irpoo-rjyopiav Xafiibv. Zvda 8t] 
irtwpdo-K€Tai x w P^ xpeiov rd aXXa wvta, /cat 
^atp^rws 8£ oi Ixd^es. Cp. Eur. Or. 919 
bXiydtus do-TV icdyopas xpalw kijkXov, ' the 
circle of the agora,' tie. 'its bounds': cp. 
Thuc. 3. 74 ras oUias ras iv kvkX(j) ttjs 
dyopds, 'all round' the agora. In II. 18. 
504, cited by Casaubon on Theophr. 
Char. 2.4, iepy £vl k6kXcp refers merely to 
the yipovres in council. This is better 
than (1) 'her round seat in the agora' — 
KvkXbevra meaning that the pedestal of the 
statue was circular; (2) 'her throne in 
the agora, round which k6kXioi x°P°l 
range themselves.' This last is im- 

€vkX6x, alluding to Artemis E&cXetct, 
the virgin goddess of Fair Fame, wor- 
shipped esp. by Locrians and Boeotians : 
Plut. Arist. 20 f}<i) ydp adrjj /cat dyaX/xa 
irapd iraaav dyopdv tSpvrai, koX irpodtiouatv 
at re ya/xov'/j.evai ical ol yapLovvres : also at 
Corinth, Xen. Hdlen. 4. 4. 2. Pausanias 
saw a temple of 'Aprepas Etf/cXeta, with 
a statue by Scopas, near the UpotHSes 
irtiXai on the N.E. side of Thebes. Near 
it were statues of Apollo Boedromios and 
Hermes Agoraios. The latter suggests that 
the Agora of the Lower Town (which 
was deserted when Pausanias visited 
Thebes) may have been near. In men- 
tioning the dyopd, Soph, may have been 
further influenced by the fact that Artemis 



4 kolI <&o'if3ov €Kaf36kov, id) 

5 roLcraol dXe^LfjLopoL 7rpo(f>dvr}Te fioi, 

6 €i wore Kal Trporepas ara? virep 6pvvp.4vaq 7roXei 1 65 

7 T^uo-ar' iKTonCav (f)\6ya 7rrjpaTo<$, ikdere kolI vvv. 

<rrp. /?'. <2 ttottol, dvdpuOfia yap <f>4pa) 

2 TrrjixaTa' vocrei Be p.01 Trpoiras cttoXos, ouS' eVi typovTihos 


3 a> rt? dXeferai. oure yap enyova 171 

4 /cXuras ")(0ovd<; avferat, oure tokolctlv 

5 l-qicov Kafidrcov dve)(ovcri' 1 74 

6 dXXoy 8' av dW<p 7r/oocrt8ots aVep evirrepov opvtv 

7 Kpeicrcrov a/xat/xa/cerov 7rvpos oppevov 

8 aKTav 777909 ecnrepov Oeov ' 

avr. /?. ft)I/ 7T0Xl9 dvdplOpLOS oWvTOLl* 

2 vrjkea Se yevedXa 717009 neSco 0avaTa<f)6pa Keirai 

8 eV 8' a\o)(OL irokiai r eVl p,arepe<; 
4 aKTav napd ficopiov aWoOev aXXai 1 82 

162 /<Wcb L: Za> r, and Heath. 180 The ist hand in L seems to have 

written 6avara<p,6p(a (sic), which a later hand altered to 6avara<f>6pa (or davaT&<f>opa, 

was worshipped as 'Ayopala : thus in the 
altis at Olympia there was an 'Apre/ddos 
'Ayopalas /3w^6s near that of Zeds 'A70- 
pcuos (Paus. 5.^15. 4). 

165 dras vircp, 'on account of ruin* 
(i.e. 'to avert it') : cp. Ant. 932 /cXaiJ- 
jta0' vrdp&i j3padvT7]Tos Girep. So Aesch. 
7/fo£. ill fScre irapdtpuv Ufoiov \b%09 
bovKocivas Girep, 'to avert slavery.' Cp. 
187. dpvvfUvas iroXa: the dat. (poet.) 
as after verbs of attacking, e.g. iirUvai, 
iTTiTlOeadat. Musgrave's conj. virepopvv- 
pUvas 7r6\ei (the compound nowhere oc- 
curs) has been adopted by some editors. 

166 ijvv<ra,T eKToirCav, made inToirlap, 
= ^upiaare, a rare use of dviot like iroiear, 
Kadiardvai, dirodeiKvivai : for the ordi- 
nary use, cp. 720 iicetvop r}vv<rev \ <f>ov4a 
yevtedai, effected that he should become. 
In Ant. 1 1 78 ToGirot w$ dp' bpdbv ijvvoat, 
the sense is not ' made right, ' but ' brought 
duly to pass. ' IX06TC ko.1 vvv, an echo of 
irpo<f)6.vTjTi p.ot, trporipas having sug- 
gested Kal vvv: as in 338 dXX' 4pi£ xf/tyeis 
repeats dpyijv ipd/xif/a) rty kyA\v. 

167 <5 irdirow is merely a cry like 
va-waX'. Trach. 853 ntyvrax vdaos, w irdiroi, 

otov, K.T.\. 

170 o-rdXos, like crparbs (Pind. Pyth. 
1. 46, etc.),=Xa6s. — lvi = &»eoTt, is avail- 
able. — 4>povt£8os ^Y\os, not, a weapon 
consisting in a device, but a weapon 
discovered by human wit, tyX * V Tl * 
dX^erai being a bold equivalent for fiy- 
Xo-vr) dXe^TjT-rjpla. 

171 This future has the support of the 
best MSS. in Xen. An. 7. 7. 3 ovk iirirpi- 
\pofiev . . .&s wo\ep.lovs aXe^ofieda: and of 
grammarians, Bekk. Anecd. p. 415: the 
aorist a\££ai, aKti-aadai also occurs. 
These forms are prob. not from the stem 
dXe£ (whence present dX^£w, cp. oifa, 
65d£w) but from a stem d\K with un- 
consciously developed e, making dXe/c (cp. 
aX-aX/cov) : see Curtius, Verb, II. 258, 
Eng. tr. 445. Homer has the fut. a\e£rj- 
ffu, and Her. d\e^<roficu. — Cp. 539. 

173 tokoutiv, by births. Women are 
released from travail, not by the birth 
of living children, but either by death 
before delivery, or by still births. See on 
26, and cp. Hes. Op. 244 06M yvvdiices 
tIktovo-w. If T6Koi<rtv= i in child-bed' 
(and so the schol., h rots t6kois), the 



and on Phoebus the far-darter : O shine forth on me, my three- 
fold help against death ! If ever aforetime, in arrest of ruin 
hurrying on the city, ye drove a fiery pest beyond our borders, 
come now also ! 

Woe is me, countless are the sorrows that I bear ; a plague is 2nd 
on all our host, and thought can find no weapon for defence. stro P he - 
The fruits of the glorious earth grow not; by no birth of children 
do women surmount the pangs in which they shriek ; and life on 
life mayest thou see sped, like bird on nimble wing, aye, swifter 
than resistless fire, to the shore of the western god. 

By such deaths, past numbering, the city perishes : unpitied, 2nd anti- 
her children lie on the ground, spreading pestilence, with none to stro P ne - 
mourn : and meanwhile young wives, and grey-haired mothers with 
them, uplift a wail at the steps of the altars, some here, some there, 

for there are traces of an accent over the a). Some of the later MSS. (including A) 
have the dative, others the nomin. 182 d/crow] ai/8av Hartung, dxdv Nauck. — 
irapa^ibfXLOP L, with most of the later MSS. (including A); some others have iraph. 

meaning would be simply, 'women die 
in child-bed,' — not necessarily 'before 
child-birth'; but the point here is the 
blight on the fruits of earth and womb, — 
not merely the mortality among women. 

175 aXXov 8\..dXXa>, 'one after an- 
other.' The dative here seems to depend 
mainly on the notion of adding implied 
by the iteration itself ; though it is pro- 
bable that the neighbourhood of irpos in 
irpoaidois may have been felt as softening 
the boldness. That vpoaopdv could be 
used as='to see in addition* is incon- 
ceivable ; nor could such use be justified 
by that of tvopav tivi a.s = bpav £v tivi. 
And no one, I think, would be disposed 
to plead lyric license for &\\<p irpbs foots 
on the strength of anThv irpbs iavipov 
deov in 177. Clearly there was a ten- 
dency (at least in poetry) to use the dative 
thus, though the verb of the context 
generally either (a) helps the sense of 
'adding,' or (b) leaves an alternative. 
Under (a) I should put El. 235 rUreiv 
&tclv drcus : Eur. Helen. 195 b&icpva 8d- 
Kpval ixqi fepwv. Under (b), Eur. Or. 1257 
wri/mra TnfifLcuriv i^evpy: Phoen. 1496 
<p6v(p <f>6vos I Oldnrbba 86fiov wXeae : where 
the datives tnight be instrumental. On 
the whole, I forbear to recommend SXkov 
5' dv dXXp irpoo~L5ots, though easy and 
tempting; cp. Thuc. 2. 4 dXXoi 5e aXK-g 
riji irbXeus o-iropddrjv aVciXXwro. 

177 opjxevov. abr. part. (//. IX. 571 
5o0pa...6pfj.€va irp6<ro<a), 'sped,' *hurried,' 

since the life is quickly gone. Kp€i<r<rov 
...irupos, because the irvpcpbpos Xoi/xbt 
drives all before it. 

178 clktciv irpos for irpbs olktolv, since 
the attributive gen. £<rir£pov deov is equiv. 
to an adj. agreeing with d/crav : cp. O. C. 
84 Zdpas I irpurruv i<p x vfiCiv, ib. 1 26 aXaos 
is...Kopav 1 El. 14 roaovd' is fiftys: so 
Aesch ; P. V. 653, Theb. 185: Eur. Or, 
94. Icnrepov 06ov : as the Homeric 
Erebos is in the region of sunset and 
gloom (Od. 12. 81), and Hades is ivvv- 
X^v avaij O. C. 1559. 

179 wv...dvdpi0fj.os. <5y, masc, re- 
ferring to dXXov . . .dXXy, — ' to such (deaths) 
knowing no limit' : cp. dvdpidp.os dpfywv 
El. 232, fir/pur I avripidfws Ai. 602. An 
adj. formed with a privative, whether 
from noun or from verb, constantly takes 
a gen. in poetry: see on 190 (d%aX/cos), 
885 (d<p6p V Tos). 

180 Y€V€0Xa (iro\e<as), 'her sons': cp. 
1424 to. dvijTuv yivedXa, the sons of men. 
vnXe'a, unpitied ; dvohcTcas, without oZ/ctos, 
lament, made for them: they receive 
neither Tcupr) nor Opijpos. Cp. Thuc. 2. 
50 iroXXuiv drd(puv yirfvop.e'vttiv (in the 
plague, 430 B.C.). 

181 ev 8', cp. on 27. eirl, adv. : Her. 
7. 65 to£<x Si KaXd/Juva etxov,...4irl 64, 
albripov {v. I. -os) fy. But iin—ivean, 

//. 1.515- 

182 dicrdv irapd f3<£|uov, *at the steps 
of the altars': Aesch. Cho. 722 dia^i 
X«/waro$, the edge of the mound: Eur. 




5 \vypcov irovoiv LKTrjpes iTncrTevd^ovcriv. 

6 iraidv Se kd{JL7T€L crrovoecrcrd re yrjpvs ofxavKos 

7 cov v-irep, a> xpvcrea Ovyarep Aios, 

8 €VQ)7ra 'wefxxfjob akKav ' 


<rrp. y'. "Aped T€ tov fjiakepov, 05 vvv dyakKQ% dcnriScji/ 
2 cf)\€y€L^jL€ TTepifioaTos dvridtfAV, 191 

8 TTakicro'VTOv Spdfjar)ixa vcotictoll 7raryoas 

4 Zjrovpov €lt e? jxiyav 

5 udXajjiov *A[X(f)LTpiTa<z 1 95 

6 etr* es to*' diro^evov opfxov 

7 <&prjKiov kXvScovol' 

8 # TeAeu> y^p, € ^ T( - ^f ^i?? 

fi&puov. — aXXcu MSS. : AXXav Dindorf. 185 £tti<ttov&xov<ti L: iiri<Trevdxov<ri r. 

191 Trepi/36ctTos] irepi(35arov Dindorf, placing a comma after it, and reading avrid^oi 
with Hermann. 194 iirovpov, the true reading, was written by the 1st hand in L, 

but altered by a later hand into airovpov, over which is the gloss p.a.Kpdv (the prep., 

Here. F. 984 dp.<pl f3<ap.Lav \ iirrrjfc Kp7]iri8\ 
at the base of the altar. dXXoQev dXXai 
(with iirurrevaxovo-i), because the sounds 
are heard from various quarters. 

185 iKrfjpes with XvypdSv ttovcpv, en- 
treating on account of (for release from) 
their woes, causal gen. : cp. dXyeiv rtixys* 
Aesch. Ag. 571. 

186 Xd|X7reu: 473 HXa,u\f/e ... (papa: 
Aesch. Theb. 104 ktu-kov dtdopKa. 
Xos, i.e. heard at the same time, though 
not <rtf/*0a»'os with it. 

188 f. (5v virep: see on 165. — cvcSira 
dXicdv : cp. dyavr/ oalvova* \ iXirls, Aesch. 
Ag. 101 (where Weil irpoQaveia), IXapdv 
tptyyos Ar. Ran. 455. 

190 "Apia. T€ k.t.X. The ace. and 
infin. "Ap«i...vttT£<rai depend on 5o's or 
the like, suggested by the preceding 
words. Cp. //. 7. 179 ZeO irdrep, f) Atavra 
Xaxelv rj TvSios vlov (grant that). Aesch. 
Theb. 253 deoi iroXirat, p.i\ /ac SovXetas 
rvxelv. paXcpdv, raging : cp. p.aXepov irv- 
06s II. 9. 242: p.a\ep(2v...\e6pTU)v Aesch. 
Ag. 141. Ares is for Soph, not merely the 
ivar-god, but generally fiporoXoiyos, the 
Destroyer: cp. At. 706. Here he is iden- 
tified with the fiery plague. d\aXKOs 
da-ir£8a>v (cp. El. 36 Aaxevov dairtduv : 
Eur. Phoen. 324 d7re7rXo5 <pa.p£w): Ares 
cojnes not, indeed, as the god of war 
(6 x a ^ K0 Pba-s "A/»7s, O. C. 1046), yet 
shrieks of the dying surround him with 
a cry (£09) as of battle. 

191 <irtpi(3da.Tos could not mean 'cry- 
ing loudly': the prose use ('famous' 
or 'notorious,' Thuc. 6. 31) confirms the 
pass, sense here. dvrid£ci>y, attacking: 
Her. 4. 80 rjvrlao-dv puv (ace.) oi QpifjiKes. 
Aesch. has the word once only, as = 'to 
meet' (not in a hostile sense), Ag. 1557 
irarip' dvTidaaaa: Eur. always as='to 
entreat'; and so Soph. El. 1009. Din- 
dorf reads <pX4yei /*e irepij36arou (the 
accus. on his own conject.), dvridfa (sug- 
gested by Herm.), 'I pray that' etc. 
But the received text gives a more vivid 

192 vcoTicrcu, to turn the back in flight 
(Eur. Andr. 1141 xpbs <pvyr]j> iv(trri<rav), 
a poet, word used by Aesch. with ace. 
-irovrov, to skim {Ag. 286), by Eur. Ph. 
651 (Dionysus) Kiaaos 6v...iv(6ri<rev as 
= ' to cover the back of.' 8pdur)p,a, cog- 
nate ace. : irdrpas, gen. after verb of 
parting from : see on fiddpuv, 142. 

194 giroupov = £irovpi£op.evoi' (ironical). 
Lidd. and Scott s. v. refer to Clemens 
Alexandr. Paed. 130 rip rrjs dXydeLas 
Trvet>p,aTi Zirovpos dpdels, 'lifted on a pros- 
pering gale by the spirit of Truth.' So 
Track. 815 ovpos 6<pdaXp.wv ifxuiv | airrj 
yivoir'' Airwdev ipTrotbay icaXcos : ib. 467 
dXXd ravra yukv \ pelro) kclt 1 ot>pov. Active 
in Track. 954 ftroupoj karium* atipa (schol. 
dVe/ios otipcos iirl rrjs oULas), 'wafting.' 
The v.l. dirovpov would go with irdrpas, 
* away from the borders of my country' — 



entreating for their weary woes. The prayer to the Healer 
rings clear, and, blent therewith, the voice of lamentation : for 
these things, golden daughter of Zeus, send us the bright face 
of comfort. 

And grant that the fierce god of death, who now with no 3rd 
brazen shields, yet amid cries as of battle, wraps me in the stro P n e» 
flame of his onset, may turn his back in speedy flight 
from our land, borne by a fair wind to the great deep of 
Amphitrite, or to those waters in which none find haven, 
even to the Thracian wave ; for if night leave aught undone, 

meaning that vdrpas airovpov= l far from our country'). The schol. knew both read- 
ings. The wrong one, dirovpov, prevailed in the later MSS. 106 opfiop] opfiurp 
Doderlein. 198 rtXet mss. (riXri in Bodl. Barocc. 66, 15th cent., is doubtless a 

from Ionic odpos = opos, like 8/j.ovpos (Her. 
1. 57), irpoaovpos {Phil. 691), tyvovpos 
(Aesch. Ag. 495), Trj\ovp6s. Pollux 6. 
198 gives 2i~opos, ii-bpios, but we nowhere 
find an Ionic airovpos: while for Attic 
writers d(popos (from opos) would have 
been awkward, since a<j>opos 'sterile' was 
in use. 

pivav I OdXapov 'AjjwpiTpfrras, the At- 
lantic. ddXa/xos ' Aia<j>lt pirns alone would 
be merely 'the sea' {Od. 3. 91 & we\d7et 
fierd Ktifiaaiv 'AfKpiTptTTjs), but \Uyav helps 
to localise it, since the Atlantic (17 ?|w 
GT-rfXtuv ddXaaaa i] 'ArXayris KaXeofxivrj, 
Her. 1. 202)wasesp. rj ixeydXrj ddXaaaa. 
Thus Polyb. 3. 37 calls the Mediterranean 
ri]v Kad' ijfJLas, — the Atlantic, ttjv ££o> koX 
fxeydXrjv irpoaayopevofj.frrjv. In Plat. 
Phaedo 109 B the limits of the known 
habitable world are described by the 
phrase, Toiis pty.pi rdv 'HpcucXelw o-tt/Xwv 
dirb <bdai5os (which flows into the Euxine 
on the E.), Eur. Hipp. 3 oaoi re tt6vtov 
(the Euxine) Tepjxbvwv r 'ArXafTiKQv 
I vaiovcriv et<rw: Here. F. 234 war' 'At- 
XavTiicQv ire" pa | <p~ebyeiv 6'pav ay. 

196 dir6|€vov. Aesch. has the word 
as =' estranged from' (717s, Ag. 1282), 
cp. diroi-evouadai. Here it means 'away 
from strangers,' in the sense of 'keeping 
them at a distance.' Such compounds 
are usu. passive in sense : cp. dirbdenrvos 
(Hesych., = ri5ei7rj'os), dirbdeos, dirofuo-dos, 
diroaiTOS, diroTi.p.os (215), diroxfrfparos. — 
diro^evos opfios, the Euxine: an oxy- 
moron, = 6p/Mos dvopfios, as in Phil. 217 
vabs ai-evov 6pjx,ov. Strabo 7. 298 dirXovv 
yap elvai rbre r)]v ddXarrav ralJTijv ical 
KaXeladai "A^evov 8id to Svffx^lfiepov 
Kal t^v dypiOTrjra rwv irepiotKotiv- 

r<av £6vQv Kal fidXiara t&v 'LkvOlkuv, 
ZevodvroijvTwv, k.t.X. The epithet 
QpyKiov here suggests the savage folk 
to whom Ares is dyx.i-T'ToXis on the W. 
coast of the Euxine {Ant. 969). Ovid 
Trist. 4. 4. 55 Frigida vie cohibent Euxini 
litora Ponli: Dictus ab antiquis Axenus 

198 tcXciv Y&p . . . £p\€rai. Reading re- 
Xeiv, as Herm. suggested, instead of rAet, 
I construe thus : — el n viit- d^tf, rump eirip- 
Xerai reXeiv tovto, ' If night omit anything 
(in the work of destruction), day comes 
after it to accomplish this.' t^Xciv is 
the infin. expressing purpose, as often 
after a verb of going or sending, where 
the fut. participle might have been used : 
cp. Her. 7. 208 e'irejAir€...KaTd<TKOirov 
Iwiria, Idiffdai [ = 6\f/6/j.evoi>] oKoaot ri 
elai, k.t.X. : Thuc. 6. 50 Una 8e t&v veuv 
irpoihrefix/zav is rbv ixiyav Xip.£va irXevcral 
re Kal KaTa<rKe , \f/a<Tdai...Kal Ktipv^ai. 
Here the frres. inf. is right, because the 
act is not single but repeated. Observe 
how strongly tcXciv is supported by the 
position of the word ('To accomplish, — 
if night omit aught,— day follows '). No 
version of t&.«i explains this. The 
most tolerable is: — ' In fulness — if night 
omit aught — day attacks (^/>x eTCW ) tn k ' : 
but I do not think that such a rendering 
can stand. See Appendix. — €i...d<pfj. Cp. 
874 el iirepTrXrjady (lyric) : 0. C. 1443 
el <TTepr}du> (dialogue) : Ant. 7 10 Ket ns 
% (do.). In using el with subjunct., the 
Attic poets were influenced by the epic 
usage, on which see Monro, Homeric Gram- 
mar § 292. The instances in classical 
prose are usu. doubtful, but in Thuc. 
6. 2 1 el ZvffTwriv has good authority. 



9 tovt en r^xap cp^erat* 

10 TOV, (i) < TOLV > 7TVp(j)6pCt)V 200 

11 dcrTpcnrav Kparrj vdfuov, 

12 <3 Zev Trdrep, vno era; <j>0L(rov Kepavvai. 

dvr. y. Avk€l dvat;, rd re era ^pvo~oo~Tpocf)a)p dir dyKvXdv 

2 fieXea dekoip? av dSafiar JvharelcrOai 205 

3 dpcoyd Trpoa-raOivra, rds re 7rvp<f>6pov<; 

4 'ApTefuSos cuyXas, £vv cus 

5 Avkl opea oidcrcrei' 

6 top wpvaopLiTpav re klkXtJctko), 

7 tclcto iircovvfjiov yds, 2IO 

8 olvcoira Ba/c^oz/ eviov, 

9 M0LLvd8(0V OjXOCTToXoP 

10 7reXacrdrjvcu (frXeyovr 

mere slip). See note. 200 rhv Ca irvp<f>bp<av mss. A long syllable is wanting 

(=v. 213 TreXourdTJvai QXtyovr'). Hermann inserts tolv after w: Wolff oftv after rbv. 
Lachmann proposed rbv, w Zev (omitting ZeO in v. 202). In L a late hand has written 
over « in vvpcpopwv, and A has ei written over 77 in Kparrj. These are traces of the reading 

100 kr ...?px«tcu: for the adverbial 
<f;rf separated from tpxerai, cp. (9. C. 1777 
/mjS' ^7r2 irXe/w | dprjvov tyeiperc. This is 
'tmesis' in the larger sense: tmesis proper 
is when the prep, is essential to the sense 
of the verb: //. 8. 108 oCs ttot' dir' Alveiav 
i\6fir)v = ovs cupeiKoiAijv Alvelav : cp. Monro 
H. G. § 176. 

200 tov=8j>, sc. "Apea (190). Cp. 
1379 n. 

2 03 AvK€ic, Apollo, properly the god 
of light (Xvk), whose image, like that of 
Artemis, was sometimes placed before 
houses (El. 637 Qoifte irpo<TTaTi)pie t Aesch. 
Theb. 449 TrpoaraTTjpias | 'Aprifudos), so 
that the face should catch the first rays 
of the morning sun (dai/j.oves...dvTr)Xi.oi 
Agam. 519): then, through Atiiceios being 
explained as Xvkoktovos (Soph. El. 7), 
Apollo the Destroyer of foes: Aesch. 
Theb. 145 AvKtC dVa£, Avkcios yevov \ 
(TTpa.T$ batcp. Cp. below, 919. 

204 a-yKvXdv. dyKvXr), a cord brought 
round on itself, a noose or loop, here = the 
vtvpa of the bent bow. dyicvXiau, the 
reading of L and A, was taken by Eu- 
stath. 33. x of the bow (ayicvXa ro£a). 

205 IvoaTcurOai, pass., to be distri- 
buted, i.e. showered abroad on the hostile 
forces. The order of words, and the 
omission of at, are against making ivdar. 

midd., though elsewhere the pass, occurs 
only in d48a<rfiat: Appian, however, has 
yrjs diadaTov/i^vrji 1. 1. It is possible that 
Soph, may have had in mind //. 18. 263 
Iv irebLip, 80i irep TpQes teal 'Amatol | iv 
frfay dfKporepoi fie'vos "Aprjos bariovrai, 
'share the rage of war,' give and take 
blows. Others understand, ' I would fain 
celebrate? a sense of ivbaretadcu derived 
from that of distributing words (Xoyovs 
dvetduTTrjpas frSaToij/Aevos, Eur. Here. F. 
218). The bad sense occurs in Track. 
791 rb bvairdpevvov Xttcrpov frbaroifievos: 
the good, only in Aesch. fr. 340 6 5' iv- 
daretrai raj ids evircubLas, * celebrates his 
happy race of children.' 

206 irpoaraQevTa from irpoto-TTjfxt, not 
vpoardvo}. Cp. Ai. 803 irpoaTijT' dvay- 
Kcdas rtxn*' &- 637 Qoifie irpo<rTaTt)pi€. 
O.T. 881 debv ov Xt^w TrpoardTav tax^v. 
For 1st aor. pass, part., cp. Karao-Tadets 
Lys. or. 24. 9, ffveradels Plato Legg. 685 C. 
Theconject.irpotrTaX^i'Ta (as= 'launch- 
ed') is improbable (1) because it would 
mean rather 'having set out on a journey '; 
cp. O. C. 20 : (2) on account of the meta- 
phor in dpcoyd. irpocradhra from vpoff- 
relv<a (a verb which does not occur) would 
scarcely mean 'directed against the ene- 
my,' but rather 'strained against the bow- 
string.' •rpo<TTax9*'vTa, found in one 



day follows to accomplish this. O thou who wieldest the 
powers of the fire-fraught lightning, O Zeus our father, slay him 
beneath thy thunder-bolt. 

Lycean King, fain were I that thy shafts also, from thy bent 3'd anti 
bow's string of woven gold, should go abroad in their might, our strop e 
champions in the face of the foe ; yea, and the flashing fires 
of Artemis wherewith she glances through the Lycian hills. 
And I call him whose locks are bound with gold, who is named 
with the name of this land, ruddy Bacchus to whom Bacchants 
cry, the comrade of the Maenads, to draw near with the blaze 

(found in E) c5 irvp<popov \ dcrTpandv Kpdrei vtfxiav. 205 dddp-affr' MSS. :* 
Erfurdt. 206 irpoaraOivTa L, with gloss irpoivT&fieva. Dindorf's conjecture, Trpca- 
TaxOfrra, stands in at least one late MS. (B, 15th cent.), but the rest agree with L. 

MS., would make dparyd prosaic, while 
Trpoaradivra — if not strictly suitable— is 
at least poetical : the difference is like 
that between speaking of ' auxiliary forces ' 
and of 'champions.' 

207 'ApT€p.i8os afyXas, the torches 
with which Artemis was represented, — 
holding one in each hand (Ar. Ran. 1362 
diirfpovs di'^xovcra Xa/x7rd5as, Track. 214 
"Aprepnv datplirvpov), — in her character 
of AuXjjktj, <reXa<r0opos, <puxr<p6pos, dvQi\- 
Xios, — names marking her connection 
with Selene; cp. Aesch. fr. 164 dorepw- 
irbv 6fifia Ayr (pas Koprjs. 

20S AtiKi Spea SiaVcm as £\<upr]- 
/SoXos, dyporipa, huntress: Od. 6. 102 
ofy 5' "Apre/Jus etcri /car' otipeos /ox^cupa, I 
...TepTTOfi^vrj Kcnrpoiai ical co/cefys £Xd(f>oi- 
ow I ry8£ 0' dfia vip.(^ai. AvKia: the 
Lycian hills are named here in order to 
associate Artemis more closely with her 
brother under his like-sounding name of 
Aiz/ceios. At Troezen there was even a 
temple of "Aprepus AvKeia: Paus. says 
(2. 31. 4) that he could not learn why 
she was so called (is 5£ tt)v iirtKXrjatv 
ovdfr etxov irvdiadai irapa t&v i^rjyTjTciv), 
and suggests that this may have been her 
title among the Amazons — a guess which 
touches the true point, viz. that the Av- 
Keia was a feminine counterpart of the 

209 tov xpv<rop.LTpav. plrpa, a snood : 
Eur. Bacch. 831 AI. Ko/xrjv p£v iirl <T<p 
Kparl ravabv £kt€vu>. IIEN0ET2. rb 
hevrepov 8e o~xnP-a- T °v Kbapuov tL p.01 ; AI. 
iriirXoi irodripeis' iirl icdpa 5' &rau fiirpa. 

210 Tcio-8' €ir<ovvp.ov yds. As he is 
Bd/cxos, so is Thebes called Banx€la(TracA. 
510), while he, on the other hand, was 
Ka8p.das v6p.(pas dyaXp.a (1115). The 

mutual relation of the names is intended 
here by iTnvvvfxov. The word usually 
means called after (twos). But dpx^v 
iirtivvfios, Tjpcoes eir&vvfxot. were those who 
gave names to the year, the tribes: and 
so Soph. At. 574 (aaKos) iwtovvpwv, the 
shield which gave its name to Eurysaces. 
Cp. Eur. Ion 1555 where Athena says, 
iir&vvp.os 8k o-rjs d<piKo/j.r)v xtfovos, giving 
my name to thy land. 

211 oiva>ira...eviov, 'ruddy' — Ho whom 
Bacchants cry evoV Note how in this 
passionate ode all bright colours (xpv' 
c&ts, evQira, xp V(X00 " r P^ ( t >U3V i oXyXas, XP V " 
aopirpav, olv&ira, dyXaGin), and glad 
sounds (i-f}i€ Ilatdv, etiiov), are contrasted 
with the baleful fires of pestilence and 
the shrieks of the dying. 

212 McuvdScov 6p.o<rToXov = <rreXXo'- 
p.evov dp\a rats Maivdaiv, setting forth, 
roaming with the Maenads : Apoll. Rhod. 
2. 802 ofioaroXos t-weadai. The 
nymphs attendant on Dionysus, who 
nursed the infant god in Nysa, and after' 
wards escorted him in his wanderings, 
are called MaivdSes, QvidSes, Bd/cxcu. H» 
6. 132 fiaipofj.e'voio Aiwvvaoio Tidrjuas \ <reve 
/car' rryadeov Nvayiov' al 5' dp.a irao~ai | 
dtiadXa (i.e. thyrsi and torches) x aua ^ 
Karix^vav. Aesch. fr. 397 trdrep Qioive, 
M.aivdS<av frevicrijpie, who bringest the 
Maenads under thy spell. //. 22. 460 
fieydpoio Siiaavro, patvddi tarj, \ iraXXo- 
fxivr) Kpadirjv. Catullus 63. 23 capita 
Maenades vi iaciunt hederigerae: as Pind. 
fr. 224 pupabxzvi <rvv kX6ih$. Lucian may 
have had our passage in mind, when he 
mentions the fdrpa and the Maenads 
together: Dial. D. 18 dijXvs ovr(a,...pUTpa 
fiev dva8edept.£vos rty Kopvrjv, ra iroXXd 8k 
fw.ivop.iv ais reus yvvaii-l avvJcv. 



11 dyXacom < 0-vp.p.aypv > 

12 irevKq. Vi top amori^ov 4p OeoZ<z Oeop. 215 

OI. ai/reis* a o atreis, ra/x eav C/eA^s £7717 

kKvcdv heytcrOai rfj pocrco ff V7rrjpeTeip y 

akKrjv \d/3oL<s op KavaKovcfucnv kolkcdv' 

dyd) £eVo? ii€P rov Xoyov rovS' i£epco, 
A gei'os oe tov TrpayuePTOs* ov yap av p,ai<pap 2 

l)(y€VOV avros, /jlt) ovk Z)(Q)v tl o-vfxfioXov. 

pvp 8', vaTepos yap dcrros €19 acrrous TeXaJ, 

v/ni> 7rpo(f)(ov(t) 7raa m L KaS/xetots raSe* 

ootis 7ro^ vfjLCov Aaiop top AafiSaKov 

KCLTOiSep dpSpos 4k tlpos SiwXero, 225 

214 d7Xaw7ri iretoq. MSS. The metrical defect (cp. v. 201) is supplied by Wolff 

2 20 

214 dv\cu3iri. A cretic has been lost. 
G. Wolffs o-vjjLjxaxov is simple and ap- 
propriate. Arndt's conjecture, datq. ('de- 
stroying, consuming,' prob. from rt. 8af, 
to kindle, Curt. Etym. § 458), is sup- 
ported by the possibility of a corruption 
AAIAI having been rejected as a gloss 
on 7retf/cp. Cp. //. 9. 347 ^tjiop wvp, 
Aesch. 754^. 222 irvpl 8atcp. But in con- 
nection with the 'blithe torch' of Dio- 
nysus such an epithet is unsuitable. 

215 t6v diroTijiov. See on dvo^vov 
196. Ares is 'without honour' among 
the gentler gods: cp. //. 5. 31 (Apollo 
speaks),* Apes, "Apes pporoXoiyt, fuaupove, 
reix'tf'urA^Ta: and id. 890 where Zeus 
says to Ares, e'x&a'Tos t4 /xot eWt de&v, 
k.t.X. So the Erinyes are aruyt) deuv 
(Eum. 644) ; and the house of Hades is 
hateful even to the gods (//. 20. 65). 
— Gcov, one syll., by synizesis: cp. 15 19. 

216 — 462 First iireiaodiov. Oedipus 
re-enters from the palace. He solemnly 
denounces a curse on the unknown mur- 
derer of La'ius. The prophet Teiresias 
declares that the murderer is Oedipus. 

216 alTets: Oedipus had entered in 
time to hear the closing strains of that 
prayer for aid against the pestilence which 
the Chorus had been addressing to the 
gods. & 8' ata-eis. The place of \d(3ois 
is against taking dXicijv KdvaKov<j>i<riv 
kclkwv as in apposition with &: rather 
the construction changes, and d is left 
as an accus. of general reference. 

217 kXtjwv not strictly = irei0apx<^v, 
'obediently' (in which sense /cXi/eir takes 
gen., t<2v 4v rlXct, At. 1352), but simply, 

' on hearing them ' : 8e'x€cr0ai, as Phil. 
132 1 kovt€ ainfiovkov 84x €t ' r ^-V"' em " 
phatic by place : ' you pray (to the gods) : 
hear me and (with their help) you shall 
have your wish.' tq voo-oj vm\piTtlv, = 
depatreveiv rr)v voaov, to do that which 
the disease requires (for its cure), like 
birrjpeTolrjv Tip vapovn dai/xovt El. 1 306. 
In Eur. fr. 84, 7 oi)5' aC ichtodoa /cd£u- 
rrrjpeTetp rixcus \ oloi re,. Nauck now 
gives with Athenaeus 413 C Kal i-vvTjper- 
fieiv. Ace. to the commoner use of the 
word, the phrase would mean to humour 
the disease, i.e. obey morbid impulses: 
cp. Lysias In Eratosth. § 23 t# iavrov 
irapavofxiq. TpodO/xui ii-virripeTwv, eager- 
ly indulging the excess of his own law- 

218 dXKTjv, as well as dvaicov<J>io-iv, 
with Ka«wv: Hes. Op. 199 ko.kov 5' oiiK 
((Tfferai ctX/aJ : Eur. Med. 1322 ipvfio. iro- 
\efilas x e P° i: below 1200 davaruv.. irtip- 

219— 223 dY<i^'vos^v...Td86. Oe- 
dipus has just learned from Creon that 
Lai'us was believed to have been mur- 
dered by robbers on his way to Delphi, 
but that, owing to the troubles caused 
by the Sphinx, no effective search had 
been made at the time (114 — 13 1). He 
has at once resolved to take up the mat- 
ter — both because Apollo enjoins it; and 
as a duty to the Theban throne (255). 
But the murder occurred before he had 
come to Thebes. He must therefore ap- 
peal for some clue — <rvfjiPo\ov — to those 
who were at Thebes when the rumour 
was fresh. 



of his blithe torch, our ally against the god unhonoured among 

Oe. Thou prayest: and in answer to thy prayer, — if thou 
wilt give a loyal welcome to my words and minister to thine 
own disease, — thou mayest hope to find succour and relief from 
woes. These words will I speak publicly, as one who has been 
a stranger to this report, a stranger to the deed ; for I should not 
be far on the track, if I were tracing it alone, without a clue. 
But as it is, — since it was only after the time of the deed 
that I was numbered a Theban among Thebans, — to you, the 
Cadmeans all, I do thus proclaim. 

Whosoever of you knows by whom La'rus son of Labdacus 

was slain, 

with ffv/ufxaxov. 221 airb L: airrbs r (including A). 

219 |e'vos, 'a stranger' to the affair, is 
tinged with the notion, 'unconnected 
with Thebes': and this is brought out by 
do-Tos in 222. For other explanations of 
the passage, see Appendix. 

220 tov irpax^vros, the murder. 
Not, ' what was done at the time by way of 
search': for (a) rb irpaxQiv, as opp. to 6 
\6yos, must mean the Zpyov to which the 
\6yos is related: (b) Oed. has lately ex- 
pressed his surprise that nothing effective 
was done (128), and could not, therefore, 
refer with such emphasis to rb vpaxdiv in 
this sense. 

220 f. ov -yap av paicpdv I'xvtuov. In 
his Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the 
Greek Verb (1889), § 511, Prof. Goodwin 
deals with this passage. His view agrees 
with that given in my second ed. , so far 
as concerns two points, viz.: (1) that the 
chief protasis is not contained in /*fy <Ak 
^X b}v ' an d (2) that fit] ovk fyav is still neces- 
sarily conditional. But his analysis of the 
whole is simpler ; it is as follows. 

The chief protasis is contained in the 
word avTos, 'unaided,' which is equiva- 
lent to, el [ibvos tx vevov y if I were at " 
tempting to trace it alone. [I had said 
that avrbs 'implies the protasis'; but had 
taken the protasis itself to be, el fit) ii-ei- 
irov, supplied from i£epCo : if I had not 
thus spoken, — appealing to you for help.] 
Then, p,^ ovk 'iyjav is equivalent to el fxij 
elxov. Now, the difficulty here seemed 
to be that el pvt) etxov would imply, ' but 
I have a clue': whereas, in fact, he has 
none. [I met this by suggesting that 
ixri ovk #x w,/ expresses the fact (of his 
having no clue), not simply as a fact, but 
as a condition, — ' in a case where I had no 

clue'; being equivalent, not to el /xt} dxov, 
but rather to 8re /ii) etxov.] Goodwin's 
answer is that the conditional sentence, 
written in full, would stand thus, — (1) and 
(2) denoting respectively the chief prota- 
. sis, and the subordinate protasis: (1) 6/ 
fi6vos txvevov, ovk av fxaKpav tx vevov i (2) 
el p.rj elxov n <njnfiohov. Now (1) is an 
unreal supposition (he is not tracking 
alone) ; and that makes the whole suppo- 
sition unreal, el pvrj elxov is here a part 
of that unreal supposition ; and therefore 
it can have that form, although, as a fact, 
he has no clue. (Suppose it to be said of 
a man too old for work : ' If he were young, 
he would not be doing well, if he did not 
work'' : el vios r\v, ovk av ed ivoiei, el firj 
iirdvei. The chief protasis, el vios t\v, being 
unreal, makes all the rest unreal. The 
fact is, ov novel: and el ix-q iirdvei does not 
imply, irovel. Compressed, this would be, 
ovk av ed iirolec vios &v, [irj ov tovQv.) 

avTos, unaided: cp. II. 13. 729 dXX' 
otiirus dfia Trtivra dvvi^aeai avrbs iXiadai. 

222 vvv 8', 'but as it is': i.e., 'since 
it would be vain to attempt the search 
alone — since I came to Thebes only after 
the event..' vorcpos, sc. rod irpaxOivros : 
for the adj. instead of an adv., cp. Ai. 
217 viJKTepo$...&ire\a)Pr}dT): II. 1. 424 x^*- 
$bs ZfiT) : Xen. An. 1. 4. 12 rots icpoTipous 
( = irp6Tepov) fierdb KiJpou avafiaai. cl$ 
do-TOvs tcXw, inter cives censeor: a 
metaphor from being rated (for taxation) 
in a certain class : Her. 6. 108 eh Boiu- 
rovs reXieiv : Eur. Bacch. 822 is yvvaiKas 
i£ dvdpbs TeXcD. doros els do-rovs, like 
Ai. 267 koivos iv Koivotcrt: ib. 467 £u//.7re- 
cr&v pd>vos fiovois: Ph. 135 iv i-iva £6w: 
ib> 633 to~os uv foots Aviip. 

4 2 


tovtov KeXevo) iravja crqixalveiv e/xot* 

/cet ixkv <£oy8etrat, tovttlkKt)^ * V7re£ e\elv 

* avrov KaO* avrov* Treiaerai yap akko fiev 

aarepyes ovhev, yfjs 8' aireio'iv dftkafiTJs' 

el 8* av Tts dkkov oiSeu i£ dWrjs -^0ovo<; 2 30 

tov avroyeipa, /lct) o-LCoiraTO)' to ydp ^ ju 

/cepSos reXa) 'ya> ^77 X^P l<s rrpocrKeio'er air 

el 8' av cricornjaecrde, /cat tis 77 (j>ikov 

Setcras dircjcrei tovttos 17 ^avrou roSe, 

a* 7w8e Spdcro), ravra x/)?) Kkveiv ifiov. 235 

7w aVSp' aVavSai rouro^, ocrrts ecrrt, y^s 

rrjoS\ 179 eyci Kpdrrj re /cat dpovovs vefACo, 

fjarJT eahe^eaOai jjnjre rrpoa^oiveiv Tiva } 

fi7]T ev Oecov ev^alci fnjre Ovfiaaiv 

koivov 7ro€tcr0at, fjnjre yepvifios vep^eiv 240 

227 f. i>ire£ek&v | ai5rds MSS. I read fare£eXe«' (already proposed by K. Halm and 
Blaydes) avrov. 229 d(T0aXi$s L, with yp. d/JXa/S^s in margin. Most of the later 

MSS. (including A) have d/JXa/Jrjs, which is the reading of the Aldine, Brunck, Her- 
mann, Elmsley, Linwood, Wunder, Blaydes, Kennedy: while among the editors who 
prefer dcr^aX^s are Schneidewin, Nauck, Dindorf (with the admission, 'hie tamen aptius 

227 f. Kel \t.kv <j>op6irai TOvrnKXtju' 
vire^Xtov | avTos Ka0' airov is the read- 
ing of all the mss. : for the vTre£e\dwv of 
the first hand in one Milan MS. of the 
early 14th cent. (Ambros. L 39 sup., 
Campbell's M' 2 ) is a mere slip. I read 
vire^Xeiv | avrov Ka0' avTOv, the change 
of avrov into avros having necessarily 
followed that of vrrcfjcXciv into vire^Xciv 
due to an interpretation which took the 
latter with ^oPctrai. Cp. Thuc. 4. 83 
(Arrhibaeus, the enemy of Perdiccas, 
makes overtures to Brasidas, and the 
Chalcidians exhort Brasidas to listen): 
ididacrKov avrov fii] vire£e\eiv ry Hep- 
BiicKa rd 8etvd, 'they impressed upon 
him that he must not remove the dangers 
from the path of Perdiccas'' — by repulsing 
the rival power of Arrhibaeus. U7re£e- 
\eiv to. 8etvd = to take them away (iic) 
from under {viro) the feet, — from the path 
immediately before him : r<£ HepdlicKa 
being a dat. commodi. Similarly Her. 7. 
8 TovTU}v...inr€^apaip7ipAv(av, 'when these 
have been taken out of the way.' So 
here : k«1 \ikv <f>o(3€irai, and if he is afraid 
(as knowing himself to be the culprit), 
then I bid him (kcXcvw continued from 
226) vn-e£«X.€tv r6 brlK\r\[UJL to take the 
peril of the charge out of his path, avrov 

Ka0* avTofl (arnxalvovra) by speaking 
against himself. If the culprit is de- 
nounced by another person, he will be 
liable to the extreme penalty. If he 
denounces himself, he will merely be 
banished. By denouncing himself, he 
forestalls the danger of being denounced 
by another. For other explanations, see 

229 d|3Xaf3i]s, the reading of A and 
most MSS., 'without damage,' dfij/uos, is 
far more suitable than do-(pa\^s to this 
context: and Soph, has the word as a 
cretic in El. 650 fwcav d/3Xa/3et /ftp. 
Although in L da^aXijs appears as the 
older reading, so common a word was 
very likely to be intruded ; while it would 
be difficult to explain how the compara- 
tively rare d/JXa/3??s could have supplanted 
it. A metrical doubt may have first 
brought dff<pa\7is in. Dindorf, reading 
da<pa\^s, recognises the superior fitness of 
d/3Xa/3i7S here, and thinks that it may be 
the true reading, even though its ap- 
pearance in the margin of L was due to 

230 aXXov...l£aXXT)s \Qovos, 'another 
[i.e. other than one of yourselves, the 
Thebans] from a strange land ' : an alien, 
whether resident at Thebes, or not: cp. 



I bid him to declare all to me. And if he is afraid, I tell 
him to remove the danger of the charge from his path by 
denouncing himself; for he shall suffer nothing else unlovely, 
but only leave the land, unhurt. Or if any one knows an alien, 
from another land, as the assassin, let him not keep silence ; for 
I will pay his guerdon, and my thanks shall rest with him besides. 
But if ye keep silence — if any one, through fear, shall seek 
to screen friend or self from my behest — hear ye what I then 
shall do. I charge you that no one of this land, whereof 
I hold the empire and the throne, give shelter or speak word 
unto that murderer, whosoever he be, — make him partner 
of his prayer or sacrifice, or serve him with the lustral rite; 

videtur d£Xa£iJs')> Wecklein, Wolff, Tournier, Campbell, White. 230 e£ aWrjs 

X0ovds] For £i-, Vauvilliers conj. rj '£ : Seyffert, ££ dp.r)s: but see note. 230 fir/re 

0^/j.aaip] /j.7)8Z 6ij/Aa<TiJ> Elmsley. 240 x£p Vi $ 0< * was written by the ist hand in 

L (and occurs in at least one later MS., L 2 , cod. Laur. 31. 10), but was changed by 

451 ovt6s £<ttiv £vdade, \ ££vo$ \6y(p p£r- 
olkos. The cases contemplated in the 
proclamation (223 — 235) are (1) aT-heban 
denouncing another Theban, (2) aTheban 
denouncing himself, (3) a Theban de- 
nouncing an alien. 

231 to K^pSos, the (expected) gain, rb. 
pd}vvrpa. Track. 191 oVws | irpos aov rt 
KepSdvni/u Kal KT<pp.T)v x^-P^' 

232 irpo<rKe(o"€Tai, will be stored up 
besides (cp. Eur. Ale. 1039 akyos &\yet... 
rrpocTKelfxevov, added). X^P IS neirat is 
perf. pass, of x° L P lv ridepai or KaTaTide/xai 
(tivL or 7rapa rivl), — a metaphor from de- 
posits of money: -rd xP'hi xaTa --- Ke ' l<T ^ <a 
Tap' oh riaiv av vpuv dotty [Plat.] Epist. 

34 6c - m . , , 

233 f. <f>t\ov, avTov, with diraxm only 
(//. 15. 503 airuxrao-Ocu icaKa wqlav). — Scl- 
eras <{>i\ov as = deiaas virep <plXov (like ktj- 
bopai, (ppovrifav) would be too harsh, and 
rhythm is against it. tovjtos...t68€, this 
command to give up the guilty. 

236 — 240 airavow (air-, because the 
first clauses are negative), I command, 
(p.-h) riva YHS ttjo-Sc that no one belong- 
ing to this land, |ii]T &r8e'x€o-0ai pjt€ 
irpo<r<j>»v€tv shall either entertain or 
accost, tov avSpa tovtov, ootis ktrrL. 
For the gen. -ytjs, cp. Plat. Prof. 316 B 
'iTnroKpdTTjs ode £o~tI pkv twv £wixvpl<>>v, 
'A7roXXo5c6/)oi; uios, oIk t as p.eydXt]S Kal 
eidalpovos. Since p.i]T€...pv»yr€ in 338 
connect lo-Sc'xeo-Bai and <irpo<r<j)WV6iv, we 
require either (a) separate verbs for €v- 
\auri and Ovjjwwriv, or (6) as Elms, pro- 
posed, p,t)d& instead of fi-qre before 0vp.a- 
<riv. Cp. 0. C. 1297, where in a similar, 

though simpler, sentence I receive Her- 
mann's oib' for oHt\ Here, however, I 
hesitate to alter, because the very fact 
that pvfp-e has already been thrice used 
might so easily have prompted its use 
(instead of fii)8£) before Bip-aatv. As the 
MS. text stands, we must suppose a pJfre 
suppressed before €v)(aiart, the constr. 
being uijre koivov iroicurBai [M re ] «v... 
€i»x a w rt H ,T i T€ Wpxtoriv. Cp. Aesch. Ag. 
532 Ildpis yap ovre awTeX^j ir6Xts: Cho. 
3 94 8exeo~dai 5' otire o-vXXtieiv rivd. 

240 koivov \izx& = KOiv<i)vbv, cp. At. 
267 tj Kowbs £v K0iP0i<ri XvirecaBai i-vvuv. 
Plat. Legg. 868 E (the slayer) £w&mos 
avrois pL-qdiiroTe yiyv£ad(a pL-qbi Kowuvbs 
lepQv. x. € 'p vi P°S (partitive gen.) is more 
suitable than x<^w£as to the idea of ex- 
clusion from all fellowship in ordinary 
worship: xty" *■&<** v£p.etv would rather 
suggest a special Kadapais of the homi- 
cide. When sacrifice was offered by the 
members of a household (icoivuvbv ehax 
Xepvifiuv ...KTyaiov /Swyuov irfXas Aesch. 
Ag> 1037) or °f a c l an (X^P vlr / / <ppa-T£pu>p 
Etim. 656), a brand taken from the altar 
was dipped in water, and with the water 
thus consecrated (x£pvi^) the company 
and the altar were sprinkled: then holy 
silence was enjoined (eixpTjpla 2<rr<a) : and 
the rite began by the strewing of barley 
meal (ovXoxtrai) on altar and victim. 
(Athenaeus 409: Eur. H. F. 922 ff.) 
Ace. to Dem. Adv. Lept. § 158 a law of 
Draco prescribed x^pi>i£os [so the best 
MSS. : v. I. xe/wf/S&w] eipyeadat rbv dvdpo- 
fybvovy ovovbuv, Kpar-fipwv, iepQv, dyopas. 
This was a sentence of excommunication 



codeiv 8' drr oikcov wdvTas, cos yndcryLaro^ 
rods' rnxiv ovtos, cos to UvOlkov Oeov 

fl(LVT€LOV €^€(j)rjV€P dpTicos ifJLoi, 

iyco jxev ovv to tocrSe tco re Saifiovi 

tco t dvhpl tco OavovTi arvfxjiayos irikco 9 245 

KaTev^ofiat Se tov SeSpa/coV, etre tis 

efs cui^ Kekrjdev eire Tr\eiovcov /*era, 


iTrev^ofiai 8', olkolctlv el £vv{cttios 

iv toIs e/xois yevoiT ifxov o-weiSoVos, — 250 

iraOeiv direp toutS' dprtcos yjpaadixrjv. 

vjxlv Se raura 7rdW hricrKr^TTTCo TeXelv 

vwep r ifxavTov tov deov re TrjcrSe re 

yyjs g5S' aKapncos Kadicos icf)Oapix€VY]S. 

ouS* et ya/> r^ to it pay pa fxr) OerfkaTOv, 255 

aKaOapTOV u/xas €i/cos 77^ ovtcos iav, 

aVSpos y dpicTTOV fiaarikicos r oA&Aotos, 

a\X' i^epevvdv vvv 8', €7rei /cv/)a> t' eyci 

eXa;i> pJkv dpyas as iiteivos et^e 7r/>u', 

an early hand to xh vt P aff i which is in almost all the later MSS. 248 icaicbv kukw 

viv K&fioLpov itcTplxpai fiiov L 1st hand: the k before dfioipov was afterwards erased. 
One of the later MSS. (B) has icdfxoipov, and all seem to have dfioipov. dpuopov Porson. 
257 j3aai\eu)s t'J The 1st hand in L had joined the <tt in one character (cp. on v. 

(1) from the life of the family and the 
clan, (2) from the worship common to all 
Hellenes, who, as opposed to fidpfiapoi, are 
(Ar. Lys. 1 129) ot puds iK x^pvi^os | Pwjjlovs 
Trepippalvovres, <ao"jrep £vyyeveis, | 'OXy/t- 
7ria<nv, iv Ilt/Xats, JIvddi. The mere pre- 
sence of the guilty could render sacrifice 
inauspicious: Antiph. De Caed. Her. § 82 
Upoh TapaardvTes iroWol 5^ Karatpaveis 

lytvOVTO OVX SffiOt 6VT€S KO.I 8iaK0}\v0VT€S 

ri iepd fxi] yiyveadat (bene succedere) to. 

241 «0€tv SI, sc. ai55c3, understood from 
the negative diravSui : cp. Her. 7. 104 oiiK 
iuv <pevyeiv...dWd iiriKpartew. 

246 — 251 These six verses are placed 
by some editors between 27a and 273. 
See Appendix. 

246 KaT€vx<>|MH. Suidas /caretix**' 
at' to Karapdadat. ovr<a TLXdrw. xcd 
2o0o/c\^s, Karevxoficu Si rbv SedpaKora 
rdde. Phot. Lex. p. 148. 7 Karetrxeadat 
twv ^A-xaiOv avrl tov Kara t<2v 'Axatwy 
e{jX €<Tdat - ovtws 2,o<poK\rjs. H -re the ref. 

is to Plato Rep. 393 E tov dt (the Homeric 
Chryses, priest of Apollo)... Kare^xeadat 
tQiv 'Axatcov irpos deov. But Photius pre- 
fixes the words, Kare&xeo-dac t6 KaTapaa- 
6ai. oVtws HXdrtav. It is clear, then, 
that in Photius otfrus So^o/cX^s and ourws 
JlXdruv have changed places. The ' Soph, 
fr. 894, ' quoted by Lidd. and Scott under 
Kareuxofxai as = imj>recari, thus vanishes 
(Nauck Fragm. Trag? p. 357). Cp. Aesch. 
Theb. 632 iroXfi \ otas dpdrat /cat /careiJ- 
Xerat ruxas. But where, as here, ko,tcv- is used without gen. (or dat.), it is 
rather to pray solemnly: often, however, 
in a context which implies imprecation: 
e.g. Plat. Legg. 935 A Kareuxeo-dat dXXiJ- 
Xots iirapufJAvovs: Rep. 304 A /careiJx ero 
Tiaat tovs 'Axatovs rd a daicpva. cItc tis : 
whether the unknown man (tis) who has 
escaped discovery is tis, alone in the 
crime, or one of several, tis, because 
the person is indefinite: cp. 107. 

248 viv apopov: Porson (praef. Hec. 
p. ix.) defends the redundant viv by 



but that all ban him their homes, knowing that this is our de- 
filing thing, as the oracle of the Pythian god hath newly shown 
me. I then am on this wise the ally of the god and of the slain. 
And I pray solemnly that the slayer, whoso he be, whether his 
hidden guilt is lonely or hath partners, evilly, as he is evil, may 
wear out his unblest life. And for myself I pray that if, with 
my privity, he should become an inmate of my house, I may 
suffer the same things which even now I called down upon 
others. And on you I lay it to make all these words good, for 
my sake, and for the sake of the god, and for our land's, thus 
blasted with barrenness by angry heaven. 

For even if the matter had not been urged on us by a god, it 
was not meet that ye should leave the guilt thus unpurged, 
when one so noble, and he your king, had perished ; rather were 
ye bound to search it out. And now, since 'tis I who hold the 

powers which once he held, 

134). An early hand (perhaps that of the first corrector) afterwards erased the t\ and 
then wrote it separately from the o~. Some later MSS. omit the r\ 258 Kvpwr' MSS.: 
Kvpu 7' T. F. Benedict [Observation's in Soph., Lips., 1820: cp. Blaydes ad loc). 

Track. 287 a&rov 5' iKeivov, eftr' dv 
ayvd dijfiara | pit-r) rrarpipip Zrjvl rrjs ctXw- 
aews, I <pp6vei viv ws iji-ovra. The form 
dfiopos occurs in Eur. Med. 1395 (where 
afioipos is a v. I.); dfifiopos in Hec. 421, 
Soph. Phil. 182. kcucov kcikws: Phil. 
1369 £a KaKws avroits dir6X\v<rdai Kanous. 
Ar. Plut. 65 dirb <r' <5XcD naicbv /ca/cws. 

249 en-€uxo|xcu, imprecate on myself: 
Plato Critias 120 B ravra iirev^dfievos 
&CCNTTOS avT&v avnp /cat rip d<p' avrov 
yivei. oftcoio-iv...£w&rrios: not tautolo- 
gical, since £w4o~tios is more than evoiKos, 
implying admission to the family worship 
at the iarla and to the o-irov5al at meals. 
Plat. Legg. 868 E lepQv fir] KOivuveirta 
fi7)8e...i-vv4o~Tios a&Tois firfdirrore 717- 
vicdu) fir)5e Koivuvbs iepdv. Plat. Euthy- 
phro 4 B koX el fiev iv 8Lkt) [i-KTewev], edv, 
if he slew the man justly, forbear; el de 
fir), iwei-iivai (prosecute the slayer), idv~ 
vep 6 Krelvas avviaribs (rot. Kal 6/j.o- 
rp d 7r e f j 77. (<xov yap rb fdaap.a yiyv erai, 
idv i-vvfjs T(p rotojJr^J i-vveid&s koX 
fir) dtpoaiois ceavrbv re Kal iKeivov rr} Uk-q 

251 toio-8', the slayer or slayers (247): 
see on 246. 

254 dicdpinos KciOews : El. 1181 <J5 
ffQfi' drlfius Kadiws i<pdapfiivov : below 
661 dQeos, a<j>t\os, forsaken by gods and 

256 eUos i|v. The imperfect indie, of 

a verb denoting obligation (£5et, XPV V > 
wpoo-rJKeis, elicbs rjv), when joined without 
dv to an infinitive, often implies a condi- 
tional sentence with imperfect indie, in 
protasis and apodOsis : e.g. o%k eUbs r)v 
iav = oiK dv eldre (el rd diovra iiroieire), 
you would not (now) be neglecting it (if 
you did your duty): Xen. Mem. 2. 7. 10 
el fiev Toivvv alaxpov n H/xeWov ipydaeadai 
[if I were now intending — as I am not], 
ddvarov dvr avrov ir poaiperiov t)v,= 
Trporjpotifirjv dv (el ret diovra iiroiovv). 
Thuc. 6. 78 Kal fidXiara elKbs rjv vfids... 
irpoopao'dai, = irpoei>)paTe dv el rd eUora 
iiroieire. So i(3ov\6fir]v, rj^iovv, without 
&v, of that which one wishes were true, 
but which is not so. — oiircos, in this 
(careless) manner: cp. O. C. 1278 us fir} 
fi' drifiov... I oOtojs dfirj fie : Ant. 315, Ph. 

257 fkunX&s t : re is to be retained 
after fiao-iXicas, because (1) there is a 
climax, which is destroyed if fJao-iX4<as 
stands merely in apposition with dvdpos 
dplo-Tov : (2) dvdpos dplarov represents the 
claim of birth and personal merit, as /3a<H- 
\4ias represents the special claim of a king 
on his people. Cp. Phil. 1302 dvdpa iro\i- 
fitov I ixQpov re. 

258 KvpcS r ky<a=iyib re KvpQ, an- 
swered by koivuv re, k.t.X. For re so 
placed cp. El. 249 ^ppoir* dv aid us | dirav- 
tuv r eiiaefieia dvaruv. 

4 6 



k\o)V he XeKTpa /cat yvvav^ ofxocnropov, . 260 

KOIVCOV T€ TTGLlScDV KOIV OLV, €t /C€tV<W ycVo? \ ^Jjjb**^ 

yu,-)) 'SucrTu^cre^, 771/ aV €/C7r€<£i>/cora, J 

*all> 8' €9 TO KtlVOV KpOLT tvTjXaO' Tj TV)(7j' 

avff <j)v iya> raS\ coonrepel tovjxov irarpos, 

VTrepjxa)(ovyLai t kolttl ttolvt ac^tfo/iat 265 

Qyjtcov tov avTO^eipa tov <j)6vov \a/3eiv 

tw Aa/3Sa/c€t<w 7ratSt HoXvhcjpov re /cat 

tov irpocrOe KdSfiov tov 7ra\at r 'Ayrjvopos. 

/cat Taura rots firj Spcoo'iv cu^ojitat Oeoi/s 

Ixtjt apoTov aurot? yrjs aVteVat Tivd 270 

IjltJt ovv yvvaiKOiv 7ratSas, aXXa T(o ttot/xo) 

tw ^u^ (ffOepeiaOaL /cart rouS' €)(0iovl ' 

260 *x«r 5£] £;\w ^ L 1 st hand ; an early hand added r. 

2 60 6|i6<nropov = hfioius cireipofie'vrjv, 
i.e. ijv koX ixelvos Zeireipe : but in 460 va- 
rpos I 6fx6<niopos — o/xolus (tV avrrjv) cireL- 
pwv. btxoyevqs in 1361 is not similar. 

261 koivujv TraiSwv KOivd ^v av ckttc- 
4>uKora, common things of ( = ties con- 
sisting in) kindred children would have 
been generated : = koiv&v iralduv koivt) (ptiois 
iyivero av, a brood, common to Laius 
and Oedipus, of children akin to each 
other (as having the same mother, Io- 
casta) would have issued : ' children born 
of one mother would have made ties be- 
tween him and me.' For av doubled 
cp. 139, 339. KOW&V = d8eX<pwv, bixaifxwv 
(Ant. 1 (2 koivov avTa8e\<poi>'I<rfji.7it>7)s ndpa). 
The language of this passage is carefully 
framed so as to bear a second meaning, 
of which the speaker is unconscious, but 
which the spectators can feel: Iocasta 
has actually borne children to her own 
son Oedipus: thus in kolvuv iralSuv 
Koiva...£Kir€<f>vK6Ta, the obvious sense of 
xowd, ''common to Laius and Oedipus? 
has behind it a second sense, in which it 
hints at a brood who are brothers and 
sisters of their own sire: see below 1403^ 
This subtle emphasis — so ghastly, £we- 
rolaiv — of the iteration in koivuv kow& 
must not be obliterated by amending 
koIv' av into Kvpur (Nauck) or airtpfiar 
(Blaydes). Similarly, «t KtCvta -ycvos | ui] 
'8v<rnjxTj<T€v, is susceptible of the sense — 
'if his son (Oed. himself) had not been 
ill-fated.' Kelvy yevos i8v<rT6xV ff€ (his 
hope of issue was disappointed) is here a 
bold phrase for iceivos idvarijxvv* T a vepl 

yivos'. for Oed. is not now supposed to 
know the story of the exposed babe (see 
717 f.). Cp. Eur. Andr. 418 ira<rt 5' 
dvdpwirois dp' r\v \ rpvxh t^kv*' Sans 8' avr 1 
aireipos wv ^£y«, | riacov fikv dXyel, 8va- 
tvx^v 8' evdaifiovel : ib. 711 rj CTetpos 
ovaa fioffxos ovk aW£crat j TliCTovras aX- 
Xovs, oi/K ix ™' o-vtt] rinva' |'aW el to 
Kelvrjs dvarvx*? Tralduiv irtpt., k.t.\. : 
Suppl. 66 eircKvla opp. to dwrvxia- 

263 vvv 8', 'but as it is,' with aor. 
equivalent to a perf y as O. C. 84, 371. 
Cp. below 948 Kai vvv o8e | irpos rrp 
rvxys 6Xu)\f. So with historic pres., Lys. 
In Erat. § 36 el fikv olv iv Tip dtKaaTrjpltp 
iicpLvovTO, paoius dv 4a(p^ovTO'...vvv 5' els 
tt}v povXrjv elcdyovffiv.—ivr{kaTo: i.e. he 
was cut off by a timeless fate, leaving no 
issue, cp. 1300 : Ant. 1345 iirl Kpari /tot | 
voT/jLos...elo-^\aTo: so the Erinyes say, 
fid\a yap ovv aXo/ne'va | avticadev fiapv- 
irearj \ KaTa<pip<a irodos axfidv Aesch. 
Eum. 369, Ag. 1 175 Saifxuv inrepfiapTis 
i/xiriTvuv : Pers. 515 <3 dvawovrp-e dalfwv, 
clj dyav j8a/)i>s | irodolv evfiWov iravri 
lUpoiKy ytvei. The classical constr. with 
eVd\Xo/iat, as with evdpipaicb) and e/iir^Sdw, 
is usually the dat., though els with accus. 
occurs in later Greek ; a point urged by 
Deventer in his objections to this verse, 
which is, however, clearly sound. 

264 dv8* »v, properly wherefore {O.C. 
1295) : here, therefore. The protasis eirel 
Kvp<2 (258) required, an apodosis intro- 
duced by avrl toOtuv : but the parenthesis 
vvv 5' is to Kelvov k.t.X. (263) has led to 
»v being irregularly substituted for tov- 



who possess his bed and the wife who bare seed to him ; and 
since, had his hope of issue not been frustrate, children born of 
one mother would have made ties betwixt him and me — but, 
as it was, fate swooped upon his head ; by reason of these things 
will I uphold this cause, even as the cause of mine own sire, 
and will leave nought untried in seeking to find him whose 
hand shed that blood, for the honour of the son of Labdacus 
and of Polydorus and elder Cadmus and Agenor who was of old. 
And for those who obey me not, I pray that the gods send 
them neither harvest of the earth nor fruit of the womb, but that 
they be wasted by their lot that now is, or by one yet more dire. 

201 Koivtav re] Kal v$v rd M. Schmidt. 

270 yrjv L : yrjs Vauvilliers. 

twv. Cp. 1466: Antiphon De Caed. 
Herod. % 11 8kov ce 8iop.6aaadat k.t.X.... d 
aii irapeXddov, where the length of the 
protasis has similarly caused a to be 
substituted for ravra. Distinguish from 
this the use of avd' uv, by ordinary attrac- 
tion, for dvH Totirwv a or on, = because, 
Ant. 1068. — rdf>', cogn. ace to vircp- as Ai. 1346 ai) ravr' 'OSvaaev 
ro05' inrep/ji,ax& efioi; Cp. //. 5. 185 ov% 
8 y y avevde deov rdde fialverai. Brunck, 
Nauck and Blaydes adopt Mudge's conj. 
tov8\ But the MSS. agree in the harder 
and more elegant reading. 

265 only here : in Ant. 
194, Ai. 1346 Soph, uses virepp.axetv. 
But we need not therefore, with Elms, 
and Blaydes, read birkp The 
derivative form virepp,ax£u, to be a 
champion, implies iire'pp.axos, as avp.-£u is from aip.pxi.xos, irpopaxtu from 
irpofia-xos: is a simple com- 
pound, like crvp-pAxofuu (Plat., Xen.), 
Trpop.dxofxa.1. {Iliad, Diod., Plut.). — tcairl 
irdvT' ddn^ouai with £t}t<3v, will leave 
nothing untried in seeking: a poetical 
variation of eVi irav iXdelv (Xen. A nab. 
3. 1. 18 dp' ovk dV iirl irav ZXdoi. ..c«5s 
<f>o{5ov irapdaxoi), as in Eur. Hipp. 284 els 
vavT 1 d<p1yixai, 'I have tried all means.' 
In prose dcpiKv eta 6 at eh rt usu. = to be 
brought to a situation, as Her. 8. no is 
iraaav fidaavov dirucveop.e'voun, though put 
to any torment ; Plat. Euthyd. 292 E els 
iroXX'qv ye diroplav dtpUeade. 

267 tw Aap8aK€(<«) iraiSl, a dat. fol- 
lowing {rjT&p k.t.X. as^rip.wpov'p.evos. For 
Aap8aKt£o> — IIoXvSwpov re cp. Eur. Med. 
404 rots "ZiavQelois rois r' 'Ida-oj'os ydp.ois : 
for the adj., Od. 3. igo QiXoKT-fpr-riv Uoidv- 
tiov [ = IioiauTos'] dyXabv vlov ; Her. 7. 105 
tols MaaKapeioiai iKyovoiai: Ph. 1131 : 

Tr. 12 19. Her. (5. 59) saw in the temple of 
the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes an inscrip- 
tion which he assigns to the age of La'ius: 
raura tjXikLtjv dv eh\ /card Adl'ov rbv Aa/3- 
ddKOV rod HoXvSupov tov KdSp.ov. Cadmus, 
in the myth, is the son of Agenor king of 
Phoenicia, whence Carthage is ' Agenor's 
city' (Verg. Aen. 1. 338): Polydorus, son 
of Cadmus and Harmonia, was king of 

269 f. construe: Kal cv'xofiai tois 
ravra ai] Spcacnv {for them, Ph. 1019 Kal 
aoi woXXaKLS rod' 7}i>i;dp.r)v~\ Ocovs dvie'vai 
avTois fJ.T]T dpoTov rtva "vtjs, fXTfT* ovV 
■yvvauKaiv irai8as. The ace. 0«ovs as 
subject to dvie'vai is better than a dat. 
6eocs with cvxpuai would be: Xen. Anab. 
6. 1. 26 eu'xoMCU Sovval px>i tovs 6eoi/s 
oXtlov twos vpiiv dyadov yevtodai: Ar. 
Thesm. 350 rats 5' AXXaiaiv tovs 
deovs I evxeode irdaais iroXXd Sovvat 
Kay add. 

271 utjt' ovv: 'no, nor.' Aesch. Ag. 
474 p.-tjT efyv VToXnr6p0T]s, \ pjfr' ovv avrbs 
aXotis, k.t.X. Soph. Phil. 345 efr' aXr/des 
efr' dp' odv p.dTt]v\ cp. above v. 90. But 
oSv with the Jirst clause, below, 1049: 
El. 199, 560: see on 25. 

272 <J>0ep€io-0ai, a fat. found also in 
Eur. Andr. 708 {(pdepet 2 sing.) : Thuc. 7. 
48 (pdepetadai: Ionic < Her. 9. 
42, 8. 108 ((pdap'/jaopat in Hippocr., Arist., 
Plut.). The schol. says, (pdapijvai 8ei 
ypdfaiv, ov pdepetadai., distinguishing 
etixop-ai with fut. infin., 'I vow' (to do), 
from eUxopai with pres. or aor. infin. , • I 
pray.' But verbs of wishing or praying 
sometimes take a fut. infin. instead of 
pres. or aor. : Thuc. 6. 57 £^oi/XovTo...irpo- 
Tip.cop-qaeadai : 6. 6 £<pUp.evoi}s 
irdarjs &pi-etv: 1. 27 ide-^dnjaav . . .%vp.irpo- 
irep.\{/eiv: 7. 56 Sievoovvro KXrjaeiv. See 

4 8 


vfxlv 8e toTs aWoLcri KaS/xetois, ocrois 
raS' icTT dpicKovff, rj re crvfi^a^os Alktj 
Xol 7raVr€S ev £vveiev elcraei Oeoi. 275 

XO. (oairep p? dpalov eXaySes, cSS', aVaf, ipco. 


Set^at. to 8e tflTrjpa tov 7re/xi//cu>ro9 77^ 
Qoifiov toS* elrreiv, octtxs etpyacrrai 7rore. 

01. Slkoll eXefas* aXX' aVay/cacrai Oeovs 280 

a*> /177 ueAcocTLV ovo av €15 ovvair avrjp. 

XO. ra Sevrep 9 4k tcovS* av \eyoijx dfxol So/cei. 

OI. ei /ecu rpi/r ecrrt, /at; 7rapr)<; to firj ov (frpdcrcu. 

XO. dvoLKT avaKTi ravO* opcovr €7uaTcutcu 

/laXioTa Qoifico Teipeaiav, Trap" ov T19 dv 285 

o-K07ro)v raS', <Sva£, iKfxddoi cra^eo-rara. 

01. aXX* ov/c ei> dpyols ovSe tovt i.Trpa^dp.r)v, 
enepxpa yap KpeovTos elwovTos 8177X01)5 
7TOfjL7rovs' irakai Se /ult) irapdiv Savpdt^Tai. 

273 rots r' aXXotci Jernstedt: to?s dXXotai Kadfieiois 6' F. W. Schmidt. 

Goodwin, Moods and Tenses §113 (new 

273 f. tois dXXowri. The loyal, as 
opp. to 61 /J.T) ravra opujures ('269). — &tt* 
dp^o-Kovr', cp. 126. rj re <rvi(jt|Jiaxos Aikt], 
Justice who ever helps the righteous 
cause ; Blaydes needlessly writes r\ ALkt} 
re av/xuaxos. O. C. 1012 iXdeiv dputyoiis 
avfx/jAxovs re (rds dtds). 

275 f. €v: cf. Track. 229 dXX' ed /uep 
?7j/.e0', e5 5e TrpoiKpuivoOfj-eOa. — woirep (1.* 
dpcuov k.t.X. As you have brought me 
into your power under a curse [if I speak 
not the truth], so (cuSc, i.e. evopicos) I will 
speak. Aeschin. In Ctes. § . 90 plav 
iXtrlda \oittt)v KareiSe aurnjplas, Zvopnov 
Xafielv rbv 'AOrjvaLuv 8T)/M)v...(}oT)d'f)ffeu', 
to bind them by an oath that they would 
help. Xa^elv here has nearly the same 
force as in XajSelv aixi^dXurrov etc.: Lys. 
or. 4 § 5 virox^piov Xaj3oju rb ffCifia, having 
got his person into my power. — dpcuov = 
7-77 dpq. ivoxov, cp. 8pKios...\£yw Ant. 305. 
The paraphrase of Eustath. 1809. 14 w<r- 
7rep fxe elXes did ttjs apas is substantially 
right. The use of KaraXa^eiv is not really 
similar (Her. 9. 106 wL<m re KaraXa- 
p6vTe$ kclI bpiclourt, Thuc. 4. 85 SpKOis... 
KaraXafiuv to. riXr}), since the Kara in 
comp. gives the sense of overtaking, and 
so of binding. Nor can we compare 0. 

C. 284 uxrvrep £X<x/3es rbv Ik£tt)v ix^y~ 
yvov, where the sense is, 'As thou hast 
received the (self- surrendered) suppliant 
under thy pledge.' 

277 -yap after 2kto,vov merely prefaces 
the statement : Plat. Trot. 320 C 5o/cet 
Tolvuv...fi06ov vpuv Xtyeiv. rjv yap irore 


278 S€i£cu, ' point to.' Note the em- 
phatic place of the word: the speaker 
knows not that he is face to face with 
the slayer, to £rjrr|p-a, ace. of general 
reference. The simpler form would have 
been, rju rod irt/xif/avTos rb ^rrj/xa xcd 
Xvaai : but, instead of a verb which 
could govern Iftrrjfxa, t68* elireiv is 
substituted, because it conveniently in- 
troduces the clause 00-ris ctpvao-rai, ex- 
plaining what the ^fp-rjfia itself was. to" 
tiyrn.p.a is then left much as d alreis is left 
in 216 when the insertion of dX/c^v k.t.X. 
has modified the construction. 

281 dv p.r} OeXcoo-tv k.t.X. Cp. Phil. 
1368 kA/j.' dvaytcdfeis rode, dv as 580, 
749: O. C 13, Ant. 1057, Phil. 1276, 
Ai. 1085. ou8* dv ets: Ant. 884 ovb'' dV 
ets iratioaiT 7 &v: O. C. 1656 oi8' dv eh \ 
dvrrrCJv <ppd<j€ie. In this emphatic form 
even a prep, could be inserted (Xen. 
Hellen. 5. 4. 1 oid' b<p' eVo's, Cyr. 4. 1. 
14 /A7/5e irpbs fdav), and in prose otidl 



But for all you, the loyal folk of Cadmus to whom these things 
seem good, may Justice, our ally, and all the gods be with you 
graciously for ever. 

Ch. As thou hast put me on my oath, on my oath, O king, 
I will speak. I am not the slayer, nor can I point to him who 
slew. As for the question, it was for Phoebus, who sent it, to 
tell us this thing — who can have wrought the deed. 

Oe. Justly said ; but no man on the earth can force the 
gods to what they will not. 

Ch. I would fain say what seems to me next best after this. 

Oe. If there is yet a third course, spare not to show it. 

Ch. I know that our lord Teiresias is the seer most like to 
our lord Phoebus; from whom, O king, a searcher of these things 
might learn them most clearly. 

Oe. Not even this have I left out of my cares. On the hint 
of Creon, I have twice sent a man to bring him ; and this long 
while I marvel why he is not here. 

281 dv Brunck; the MSS. have dv (as L), or &\ 

eh stood without elision: in Ar. Ran. 
927 etc., where the MSS. have ovbi tv 
(Dind. writes ovdeiv), ovb' of & is a 
possible v. I. 

282 ck t»v8€= / u era rade: Dem. or. 
18 § 3!3 ^byov in \6yov Xiycov. — For 
8€vx€pa, second-to/, cp. the proverb Sev- 
repos 7rXo0s: Plat. Legg. 943 C rr}v twv 
dpicreiuv Kpiaiv...Kcd ri-jv tuv Sevripwv K<xl 
Tplrwv. — dv X.eyoi|w: see on 95. 

283 to pi] ov, not rb fir}, because the 
sentence is negative: below, 1232: Ant. 
544 fir) fi 1 drifidcrrjs rb fir} ov \ daveiv. But 
even in such a negative sentence the 
simple rb fir) occurs : below, 1 388 : Ant. 


284 avaKT : Od. n. 151 Teipe<rLao 
&va.KTQ$. — ravTa opeSvra, not = Tavrd (f>po- 
vovvra or yiyvibaKovra, 'taking the same 
views,' but seeing in the same manner, 
i.e. with equal clearness: opwvTa absol., 
as O. C. 74 6V dv Xiyoifii, rrdvO' bpQvra 
Xi^ofiai: to/utci adverbial = Ka,Tcii raiird: 
the dat. dvaicn, as O.C 1358 iv irbvip\ 
Tavrdp (3e(3r)KU}S...e,uoL Her. 4. 119 tow-to 
dv vfiiv iirprjaoofiev. 

287 ovk Iv dp-yots tovto KariXiTrov 
would have meant, 'I did not leave this 
among things neglected.' Soph, fuses 
the negative form with the positive, and 
instead of KariXnrov writes €irpa£d|AT]v : 
'I saw to this (midd.) in such a manner 
that it also should not be among things 
neglected.' rrpd^ceadai. (midd.) else- 

J. S. I. 3 

where usu. = 'to exact' (Thuc. 4. 65 etc.) : 
here = 8iairpd<T(T€<Tdai, effect for oneself. 
Cp. Ai. 45 e£eirpd£a.To (effected his pur- 
pose). G. Wolff, sharing Kvicala's ob- 
jections to the phrase iv dpyoh irpdcraeff- 
Bai, places a point after tovt 1 ( 'but neither 
is this among things neglected: — I did 
it '). The extreme harshness of the asyn- 
deton condemns this; and the suggested 
'iirpa^a fir)v is no remedy. For kv cp. 
ovk iv iXcuppv iwoLeijfirjv (Her. 1. 118), 
iv evxepet \ Zdov (ravTa) Phil. 875, ravr' 
odv iv alaxPV di/ievos Eur. Hec. 806. 
dpvois, not things undone, but things at 
which the work is sluggish or tardy; 
O. C. 1605 kovk r)v gr' ovSev dpybv <av 
i<plero: Eur. Phoen. J76 £v 8' iarlv r/fiiv 
dpybv, et ti dicr<paTOV \ oiwvbfiavris Teipe- 
crlas e"x €l <Ppd(rcu, i.e. 'in one thing our 
zeal has lagged, — the quest whether ' etc. : 
Theognis however (583 Bergk 3rd ed.) 
has rd fiiv irpofttfiriKev dfir)x<xvbv ion ye- 
viadai I dpyd, = dwotrrra, infecta. 

288 8iir\ovs I iropvirovs : he had sent 
two successive messages — one messenger 
with each. 7ro>7r6s = one who is sent to 
escort (irifiireiv) or fetch a person ( O. C. 
70). The words could mean (as Ellendt 
takes them) 'two sets of messengers': 
but the other view is simpler, and con- 
sists equally well with oUe in 297. 

289 pj irapeov 0avp.dt €t<h = davfidfa 
el fir} rrdpeo-Ti ; but with ov, = davfidfy on 
ov rrdpea-TL : differing nearly as ' I wonder 



XO. /cat pft\v tol y aXXa gwqja /cat irakai em). 290 

OI. tol iroia ravra ; irdvTa yap ctkottco \6yov. 
XO. daveiv eke^Orj irpos tlvcov ohonropoiv. 
OI. rjKovcra Kayco' rov 8* Ihovr ovSet? opa. 
XO. aXX' el tl fxev St) Set^ards y' e^et /xe'pos, 

ras era? olkovcdv ov fievel rotacrS' apas. 295 

OI. (p firj '(TTl SpCOVTL Toipfio<$, OvS* 67709 </>o/3et. 

XO. aXX' ov^ekey^aiv avTOV ecriv* ot'Se yap 

rov Beiov 77871 ixavriv cSS' dyovcriv, <£ 

rdkrjOes ijJLTreajvKev dvdpcorroiv fiovo). 
01. cu irdvja vo)p,cov Teipecria, StSa/cra re 300 

^ dppiqrd t, ovpdvid re /cat ■^0ovoorTt/3rj, 

irokiv fxep, el /cat /at) /3Xe7T€ts, (frpovels 8' ojita)? 

2 90 tiIt' L: t<£ 7' r (including A, where the 1st hand had begun to write rt\ 5'). 

293 top 5' 186vt' mss. top 5£ 8pQ>vT > is an anonymous conjecture cited by Burton. 

294 The ist hand in L wrote SelfiaTo<rr\ (there is no trace of an accent on o,) joining 
<tt in one character; the corrector afterwards wrote t' separately, as in 134, 257. 
(The facsimile shows that this r' was not made from 7'. ) belparbs r' was the reading of 
almost all the later MSS. : indeed, it does not appear certain that any one of them has 

why'' and 'I wonder that.'' Xen. Anab. 
4. 4. 15 (he spoke of) t& pi] 6vra u>s ovk 
6vra: i.e. ef tl prj tjv, HXeyev otl ovk t]v. 

290 ret 7 d\\a...£iri): the rumours 
which were current — apart from the 
knowledge which the seer may have to 
give us. Not 'the other rumours.' Cp. 
Plat. Phaed. no E koA \W01s kclI yy ko.1 
rots &X\ois £(i>OLS re Kal (pvrois. KaxJ>d : 
the rumour has died down; it no longer 
gives a clear sound. Cp. fr. 604 Xrjdrjv 
re tt]v o.travT' a7re<TTepr)fdi>r)p, | Kuxprjv, 
dvavdov. At. 911 6 Tr&vTa Ktocpos, 6 ttolvt' 
aidpis, reft of all sense and wit. 

291 tcl iroia, cp. 120. 

292 6Soi7rdpci>v : the survivor had 
spoken of XrjaTal, 122. The word now 
used comes nearer to the truth (cp. 801 
bdoLirop&v) ; but, as the next v. shows, 
Oed. does not regard this rumour as a 
different one from that which Creon had 

293 t6v 8' ISoVt : the surviving eye- 
witness: cp. 119 tcv eloe, tt\t]p $v k.t.X. 
Oed. has not yet learned that this wit- 
ness could be produced: cp. vv. 754 ff. 
ISJvTct is better than the conj. dpuvra 

(1) as expressing, not merely that the 
culprit is unknown, but that no eye- 
witness of the deed is now at hand: 

(2) because, with bpq., it has a certain 
ironical point, — expressing the king's in- 

credulity, as to anything being made of 
this clue. Cp. 105, 108. 

294 The subject to i\u is the mur- 
derer, who is foremost in the thoughts of 
the Chorus, — not the eye-witness (6 Id&v, 
293). The reversion from plural (bdoLirb- 
pwv, 292) to singular is unconscious, just as 
in 124 we have 6 Xflorijs, after Xtjitt&s in 
122. — SeCfumSs 7*. deifia, prop, 'an object 
of fear,' is used by Her. and the poets 
as = oVos: Her. 6. 74 KXeop.£i>€a...deip.a 
£\a/3e H,7rapTir)T4(i)i/ : Aesch. Suppl. 566 
xXcopcp deipari \ iraXXovT' : Eur. 
Suppl. 599 u>s poi v<p' rjirari 8elp.a x^oepbv 
Tapdcrtrei: id. El. 767 £k delpLaros, from 
fear. Cp. above, 153. The yt gives 
emphasis: the dpal of Oed. were enough 
to scare the boldest. Hartung conjec- 
tures 5eip,ar(dv #x el P-tpos. The plur. 
8elp,ara means either (a) objects of fear, 
or (b) much more rarely, /ears, with re- 
ference to some particular objects already 
specified: as in El. 636 dei/xariov a vvp 
?xw, 'the terrors which I now suffer,' 
alluding to the dreams. Here we seem 
to need the sing., 'fear.' 

295 ff. tcLs <rds...dpds, thy curses: 
Toido-Sc, being such as they are. — oufje- 
\£y£t»v. The present oi&hiyx** would 
mean, 'there is one who convicts him' - 
i.e. the supposed criminal, whom threats 
scare not, is already detected; for the 



Ch. Indeed (his skill apart) the rumours are but faint and old. 

Oe. What rumours are they ? I look to every story. 

Ch. Certain wayfarers were said to have killed him. 

Oe. I, too, have heard it, but none sees him who saw it. 

Ch. Nay, if he knows what fear is, he will not stay when he 
hears thy curses, so dire as they are. 

Oe. When a man shrinks not from a deed, neither is he 
scared by a word. 

Ch. But there is one to convict him. For here they bring at 
last the godlike prophet, in whom alone of men doth live the truth. 

Enter TE1RESIAS, led by a Boy. 
Oe. Teiresias, whose soul grasps all things, the lore that 
may be told and the unspeakable, the secrets of heaven and the 
low things of earth, — thou feelest, though thou canst not see, 

7'. — deifxarwu Zx eL Hartung. 297 The 1st hand in L wrote ov^eXXiyxup : the 

first X has been erased, and -&v written above, either by the 1st hand itself (as 
Diibner thinks), or by the first corrector. The later mss. are divided between 
obi-eXe'yi-wp and ovi-eXtyxuv : A supports the former, which, on the whole, has the ad- 

prophet has come. Cp. Isocr. or. 8. 
§139 wot' ovk airop-ficrofiev ped' up kw- 
\{i<Top.ep robs i^afiaprdvovras, dXXa ttoX- 
Xoi)s ^op.ep tovs erot'/xws Kal Trpodrjfiws 
cvvayuvifofitvovs tj/j.'lv: where, how- 
ever, the present part. ffvpaycopi^o/n^povs 
is relative to the future ^ofiev. To this 
it may be objected: (1) the present parti- 
ciple with lo-riv would not be suitable 
unless the conviction were in act of 
taking place: (2) the fut. partic. not 
only suits the context better— 'one to 
convict him j [supposing he is here] — but 
also agrees with the regular idiom: e.g. 
Phil. 1242 tU Icttcu p.' ovtikcoXijctuv rdde', 
El. 1197 oi)5' ovirap-q^wv ovS 1 6 KiSkuuwp 
Trdpa; (cp. Ant. 261 :) Aesch. P. V. 27 
6 \ia<\>i]<ywv ydp 06 irttpme" irui: Xen. 
An. 2. 4. 5 6 rjyrjaofievos ovbels Zcrrcu. 

298 to: this pron. ends a v. 0. C. 14, 
Tr. 819, El. 873. 

299 fynr£<{>vK€v, a dm n e gift of pro- 
phecy: Her. 9. 94 (of the seer Evenius) 
Kal fiera ravra avr'iKa ZfupvTOv /xavTiKrjv 
«Ixe. — dvOpw-rrttv povw, above all other 
men: cp. O- C. 261 p.bpas... | <rwi;eiv o'ias 
re k.t.X., Athens, above all other cities, 
can save: Isocr. or. 14 § 57 bfeLXere bh 
/xbpoi t&v ^WkX^pup tovtqv top ipavov, 
unice (though others owe it also). 

300 to irdvTa vo)[xwv : pwp.d(a (pep) 
means (1) to distribute, (2) to dispose, 
and so to wield, ply, (3) figuratively, 
fo ponder, ammo versare: hi <f>p€<rl K^poY 
4vd>p,as Od. r8. 216: ev <h<rl vu/xQv Kal 

(ppecrlv irvpbs dixa \ XPVVTVptovs 5pvc9as 
d-J/evde? r^x v V Aesch. Theb. 25 (of Tei- 
resias) : (4) then, absolutely, to observe: 
Her. 4. 128 vu}/j.uvTes...<TiTa apaipeop.e'vovs, 
observing the moment when they were 
cutting forage. Similarly here, — with 
the idea of mental grasp unaided by eye- 
sight. Plato (Cral. 411 D) fancifully con- 
nects yvd>/j.7] with vufxrjais, — t6 yap 
Kal rb CKoirelv radrbp. — 8i8a.KTa T€ — dp- 
pryrd re, cp. the colloquial pyrbv &pprjrbv 
t' 2ttos (O.C. 1001 dicenda tacenda); &p- 
p7]Ta = dirbppr}Ta: Her. 6. 135 apprp-a Ipd 

301 ovpdvid T€ Kal xGovoo-tiPtj : 
not in apposition with dpprjra and 6V 
daKrd respectively, but both referring to 
each, lore that may or that may not be 
told, whether of the sky or of the earth. 
Dindorf cp. Nicephorus Gregoras Hist. 
Byz. 695 D (LKTurra yep^crdai irdura rd r* 
ovpdvia rd re xdopoari^rj Kal vdpaia ykvr\\ 
where, however, x9° V0<rn Pv has its literal 
sense, — 'walking the earth : here it is 
poet, for iiriyeia, 'the lowly things of 
earth.' Cp. Horn. hymn. 29. 2 ddavd- 
tup re 0e<j}p x /-"^ ipx°t J -^ vlav T ' dpdpih- 

302 piv is not balanced by cppovets 8* 
(as if we had oi fiXtireis flip), but by the 
thought of the expected healer (310). 
The 8fc after <ppoveis introduces the 
apodosis after a concessive protasis, as 
Her. 8. 22 d dt v/xip i<rri tovto p.7] 
dvparbp Troirjcrai, bp-ees 8& (then) <£tl Kal 




ota vocrco crvvecTTiv 779 ae TrpocrTaTiqv 

crcoTrjpd t, uvatj, povvov i£evpicn<ofJL€v. 

<£>ot/3os yap, el kolI fir) /cXuets rcov dyye\o)v, 305 

7re/xi//acrtJ> rjplv avTeTrefixpev, eKkvaiv 

jAovrjv dv ekOelv TovSe tov vocrr/fxaros, 

el tovs KTavovras Adiov fiaOovTes ev 

KT€LVOLLfJL€V, Tj yr)<$ <f)Vyd8a<; iK7r€fXXpaijJi€0a. 

crv vvv (j)6ovi](Tas fxrJT an olcovcov fydriv 310 

fjirJT el tiv aWrjv fiavTucfjs e^et? 080V, 

pvcrai creavrov Kal noXiv, pvcrai S' ifie, 

pvcrai Se nav /xtacr/ia tov TedvrpcoTos. 

ev croi yap ecrfiev avopa o cocpekeiv a<p cjv 

eyoi T€ /cat hvvaiTO /caAAtcrTos 7roVa>i>. 315 

(j>ev <f>ev, (frpovelv a5s Seivov evOa firj Te\r) 
\vr) (fypovovvTL. TavTa yap Kakcos eyo) 

vantage in authority, and is also recommended by Greek usage : see comm. 305 el 
Kal pi) MSS. : et tl /xr] L. Stephani : el /xt] Kal F. V. Fritzsch. 307 Toude] T-qvbe 

Blaydes. 308 e8] rj Meineke. 310 ci vvv] The 1st hand in L seems to 

have written <rv vvv, which a later hand changed to o~i> 5' odv. (I formerly thought 

vvv £k tov \ito-ov rj/uuv ^eade. Xen. Cyr. supposing it to be a hyperbaton for el fify 

5. 5. 21 d\\' el fxrj8e toOto.../3oi/\« diro- kXvcls Kal tu>v dyyiXuv. This is impossi- 

KpLvacdai, oi> bl rovrevvdev Xiye: ble. Prof. Campbell compares Thuc. 5. 

303 tjs sc. vbaov. •jrpo<rTaTT|v v6o~ov, a 45 Kal rjv is rbv drjfxov ravra Xiyioviv, as 
protector from a plague : strictly, one who if put for rjv Kal is rbv bij/xov : but there 
stands in front of, shields, the city's dis- the passage runs thus; (Spartan envoys 
tempered state. Cp. Ai. 803 irpbarriT' had been pleading with effect before the 
dvayKalas T&xys, shelter my hard fate. In Athenian BouXtJ:) — rbv 'A\Kij3id8r)v i<po- 
\Vdx.Andr. ivoxdpov' 1 dpcrivwv voaov \ rati- /Sow /xi] Kal, rjv is rbv brjfxov ravTa Xiyca- 
ttjv vo<rov/xev, dXXd wpoCaTTj/xev /caXuJs, civ, i tt ay ay lovt at rb trXijdos Kal dirtaa- 
'we suffer this distemper more cruelly 6rj ij 'Apyeluv <rvfjLfiax<-a : where the Kai 
than men, but ever rule it well,' the idea before rjv goes with iirayayuvTai. Some 
is that of administering (not protecting), adopt the conj. et ri fi-fi, 'unless per- 
as in Trpoto-Tao-dai ttjs 7?\i/a'a?, to regulate chance" 1 \ for tl so used, see below 969, 
one's own early years, Isocr. or. 15 § 290. O. C. 1450, Tr. 586, 712: but no change 
Cp. 882. is required. — For the pres. /cXtfets, cp. 

304 (Jtovvov : this Ionic form (like Ph. 261. 

Kovpos, dovpl, £e?vos, yotivara) is used in 308 |xa6dvr€s ev. eS='with care,' 'a- 

dialogue by Soph. : A esch. has not povvos, right': cp. Ai. 18 iwiyvus ev: id. 528 

though in P. V. 804 tov re fwvvQira idv to Tax^v ev To\p.q. reXeiv. Meineke's- 

crpaTov. In [Eur.] Rhes. 31 /xovapxoi is conj. r), adopted by Nauck, is weak, and 

now restored for fiotivapxot. against the rhythm. 

305 «i Kal ai] kXvcls, 'if indeed...,' 310 f. air* olcovtov <|>dTiv: for dird, 
implying that he probably has heard it. see 43: <j>dTiv, 151. — clXXt|V 686v, as di- 
Ai. 1 127 Seivov 7' eT7ras, d Kal £fjs vination by fire (see on 21), to which 
Qavwv. On el Kal and koI el see Ap- Teiresias resorts (Ant. 1005) when the 
pendix. Others would render, 'if you voice of birds fails him. 

have not heard from the messengers also,' 312 ff. pv<rai treavrov k.t.X. p^veadai 



what a plague doth haunt our State, — from which, great prophet, 
we find in thee our protector and only saviour. Now, Phoebus — 
if indeed thou knowest it not from the messengers — sent answer 
to our question that the only riddance from this pest which 
could come was if we should learn aright the slayers of Lafus, 
and slay them, or send them into exile from our land. Do 
thou, then, grudge neither voice of birds nor any other way 
of seer-lore that thou hast, but rescue thyself and the State, 
rescue me, rescue all that is defiled by the dead. For we are 
in thy hand ; and man's noblest task is to help others by his 
best means and powers. 


Alas, how dreadful to have wisdom where it profits not the 

wise ! Aye, I knew this well, 

that the ist hand had written <rv oZv, omitting 5'.) av 5' odv r. 315 e^ot L: 

#X*' r. — irbvoa L, with tav written above ocr by the first corrector (S). Several of 
the later MSS. (including A) have irbvwv, though icbvos continued to be current as a 
variant. 317 Xutji. L: Xvei or Xvtj r. 

ti is to draw a thing to oneself, and so to 
protect it. pvcrat fnao-fia here = literally, 
'take the defilement under thy care" 1 ', i.e. 
'make it thy care to remove the defile- 
ment.' Cp. irpiffTyT' avayicalas rijxys {Ai. 
803), shelter my hard fate, (instead of, 
'shelter me from it.') — irav |iCa<r|xa, the 
whole defilement, as affecting not only 
human life but also the herds and flocks 
and the fruits of the earth : cp. 253. — tov 
t€0vtik<Jtos, gen. of the source from which 
the [xiacrfw. springs, — more pathetic than 
tov <pbvov, as reminding the hearer that 
vengeance is due for innocent blood. 
Both irav and the usual sense of |i,£ao-p.a 
forbid us to understand, 'avenge the un- 
cleanness [i.e. the unpunished murder] of 
the dead man.' For pvaai 8e Blaydes 
conj. \G<tov 5e, comparing Eur. Or. 598 
fxiao-fia Xvcrac. But the triple pvarcu is 
essential to the force. 

314 4v <ro\= penes te: O. C. 248 iv 
Vfuv <!)$ de$ I Kelfieda. rXdiioves : Eur. Ale. 
278 eV <roi 5' iffjjikv Kal ftp kclI p.^. — avSpa, 
accus. before, not after, cifysXeiv, as in Ant. 
710 dXX' dvdpa, net tis y cro06s, rb p.avdd- 
veiv I irbXX' alaxpbv ovdtv. In both places 
avdpa has a certain stress — 'for mortal 
man.' But in Ai. i^^dvdpa 8' ov dUaiov, 
el ddvoi, I j3\&ttt€ip rbv iadXbv, avdpa. is 
the object, agreeing with tov £<rdXbv. 

d<f> <5v ?x ot T€ Kai Svvcuto, by means 
of all his resources and faculties. The 

optat. is thus used in universal state- 
ments, and therefore especially in yvQfxai. : 
cp. 979: Ant. 666 dXX' tv irbXis 0T^<reie, 
Tov5e XPV K\6etv: Xen. Cyr. 1. 6. 19 
dXXa tov fiev avTbv Xiyeiv, a p.T] vcKpuis 
eidelr}, (peideadat Set. So here we supply 
tori (not ov etrj) with k&XXio~tos. The 
diiference between d<£' uv dv txv ('niay 
have'), and ^%oi ('might have'), is that 
the latter form treats the ' having ' as an 
abstract hypothesis (et ti e^oi). 

317 Xvtj: for subjunct. without &v, 
cf. 0. C. 395 6s vkos tt^o-jj: Ai. 1074 ^da 
fxi] KadeaTTjKTj 5e"o$: Tr. 1008 ti ko.1 
pXio-Q. The subjunct., Zvda fir) Xvri,= 'in a 
case where it may not profit': the indie, 
£V0a p.^ Xi5ei, = 'in a case where it does 
not profit.' The use of pvfj, whether with 
subjunct. or with indie, generalises the 
statement. Cp. 0. C. 839 fii) 'irlTao-cr' a 
pvi) KpaTeisl ib. 1442\ 7r«0' d fit) 8ei. 
But L has Xtirji, and some other MSS. have 
Xvrj : and it is much more likely that this 
should have become Xtfei than vice versa. 
tcXtj Xvtj = Xv<nTeXrj, only here: cp. Eur. 
Ale. 627 (prifil toiovtovs yd/xovs \ Xtieiv 
Ppotois. — Tavra "yap (I have to bewail 
this now), for, though I once knew it, 
I had forgotten it. Teiresias, twice sum- 
moned (288), had come reluctantly. 
Only now, in the presence of Oedipus, 
does he realise the full horror of the se- 
cret which he holds. 



etSws SicoXecr* ov ydp av hevp iKop.iqv, 
OI. tl 8* ecTTiv, to? aOvjjios eicreX^Xv^as. 
TE. a<^)€5 /a' €5 offcovs* pacrra yap to <tov re en) 320 

Kayoii 8lolo-(o Tovfxov, rjv ifxol ttiOi). 
OI. ovt ipvofi et7ra? oirre Trpoarfyiki) nokeL 

ttJS', 17 cr' Zdpexpe, 717^8' airocrTepcov fyariv. 
TE. dpa> yap ouSe crol to cr6> (fxDvrjfx 9 lov 

7r/)6s Kaipov o5? ow ft^S' eyai tovtov TrdOa). 325 

OI. p,i) 7T/30S #€(3i> (j>povcov y aTrocTTpacfrrjs, eVet 

iravTes ae irpoo-Kwovixev otS* LKrrjpioi. 
TE. 7ToVt€S yap ou typoveiT. iyco S' ou /177 7tot€ 

rap,', OJ? di> €t7Tft) /xt} ra cr', €K(f)TJp(o /ca/ca. 
OI. rt </»79; fweiScis ou c^pacrei?, dXX' eWoeis 330 

rjpds irpohovvai /cat Karafydeipai ttoXlv ; 
TE. ey<y our' epavroV ovre cr dXyvva). tl TavT 

dXXws eXey^ets ; ov yap di> ttvOolo jjlov. 

322 *Wo /*' L, with an erasure between o and fx\ The ist hand had written 'duvofiov 
(found in some later mss.); the correction may be due either to the ist hand itself, or 
to the 8iopd<j)TT)s (S). L has Trpo<r<pi\i), with es written above, by S (I think), rather 
than by the ist hand. Many later MSS. (including A) combine feo/i' with irpoacpiXes, 
though the latter error was prob. generated by twop-ov. 325 p.-qb'' tyti] fir) \4y<ar 

318 8iw\€<r =let slip out of my me- 
mory; cp. ffipfcadcu to remember, El. 
993, 1257, Tr. 682: Plat. Theaet. 153 B 
ktcltclI re fiadri/xara Kal a^^erai: Rep. 
455 B a i/iadey oipfrTai. So Terent. 
Phormio 2. 3. 39 peril hercle: nomen 
perdidi, 'have forgotten.' — Some explain, 
' suppressed the thought.' 

319 t£ 8' &ttiv; El. 920 <pev tt)s 
avol as... XPTS. rl 5' Zariv; and so often 
in Soph, (as 1144, Tr. 339, El. 921): 5^ 
marking that the attention is turned to a 
new point, as in rl 5'; quid vero? (941), 
or to a new person : Isaeus or. 8 § 24 <rt> 
Be ti's et; 

321 f. 8io£<ro>, bear to the end: Eur. 
Hipp. 1 143 d&Kpvai 8ioL<ru) \ wdrfiov &ttot- 
fwi>, live out joyless days : Thuc. I. 11 el 
Zvvex&s rbv ir6\ep.ov 8U<pepou. dicupe'peu' 
could not mean 'to bear apart* (from 
each other), though that is implied. — 
ttiOxi, i.e. obey me by letting me go home. 

322 out gvvofi k.t.X. : not in con- 
formity with usage, which entitled the 
State to benefit by the wisdom of its 
fidvTts. The king's first remonstrances 
are gentle. 

323 diroo-Tepuiv, 'withholding': Arist. 
Rhet. 2. 6. 3 awoarepija at irapaKara6"f}K7}v, 
deposltum non reddere. — <j>dnv, of a divine 
message, 151. 

324 6pw -yap k.t.\. : (/do not speak), 
for I see that neither dost thou speak op- 
portunely: (I am silent) therefore, lest I 
too should speak unseasonably. 

325 irpos KCup6v = Kcupiws, as At. 38, 
Ph. 1279, Tr. 59.— »S ovv k.t.X.: '(I do 

not speak), then, in order that neither 
(ut]84) may I share your mishap (of 
speaking amiss).' If he speaks not, nei- 
ther will he speak wrongly. Cp. Thuc. 
2. 63 €li<b$...fJLr) (peuyeiv rods irSvovs, rj 
p.r]5e rds TLfias di&neiv. I now prefer 
this view to taking p/nS' kyta as irregular 
for /mi] Kal iyd) ('lest I too...'), — resolving 
fiijde' into /nf) not, 5^ on the other hand; 
though the place of iyd> suggests this. 
Kvitfala's |m^ \£ya>v is ingenious and at- 
tractive; it may, indeed, be right; but 
seems hardly necessary. 

326 ut) irpos 6€oiv k.t.X. The attri- 
bution of these two verses to the Chorus 
in some MSS. is probably due to the plur. 
in 327 having misled those who did not 



but let it slip out of mind ; else would I never have come 

Oe. What now ? How sad thou hast come in ! 

Te. Let me go home ; most easily wilt thou bear thine own 
burden to the end, and I mine, if thou wilt consent. 

Oe. Thy words are strange, nor kindly to this State which 
nurtured thee, when thou withholdest this response. 

Te. Nay, I see that thou, on thy part, openest not thy lips 
in season : therefore I speak not, that neither may I have thy 

Oe. Ifor the love of the gods, turn not away, if thou hast 
knowledge: all we suppliants implore thee on our knees. 

Te. Aye, for ye are all without knowledge ; but never will 
I reveal my griefs — that I say not thine. 

Oe. How sayest thou ? Thou knowest the secret, and wilt 
not tell it, but art minded to betray us and to destroy the State ? 

TE. I will pain neither myself nor thee. Why vainly ask 
these things ? Thou wilt not learn them from me. 

Kvicala. 326 f. L rightly assigns these two verses to Oedipus. Several later 

MSS. give them to the Chorus, probably because v. 327 was thought less suitable to 
the person of the king. But there is no fitting place for the interposition of the 
Chorus before v. 404. 332 tyib t' L (with o&re written over ifiavrov) : iyw otire r. 

see that the king speaks for all Thebes. 
— (J>povwv 7 , if thou hast understanding 
(of this matter) : cp. 569 £$' oh yap /jlt) 
<ppovQ aiyav 0tXu3: not, 'if thou art sane.' 
But in 328 ov (ppov€tre = i a.rQ without un- 
derstanding,' 'are senseless.' 

328 f. kyta 8' ov p.rj iroT€ €K<|>tJvo) t& «ud 
(«s dv \vr\ dire* tSl <rd) KaKa : I will never 
reveal my (not to call them thy) griefs. t& 
4ud KaKa, = those secrets touching Oedipus 
which lie heavy on the prophet's soul : rd 
<rd KaKa, those same secrets in their im- 
port for Oedipus. We might render ws 
av etirio fiTj ra a' either (i) as above, or 
(ii) 'in order that I may not utter thy 
griefs.' But (i) is preferable for these 
reasons: — (1) The subjunct. etiru) with 
/jlt) was familiar in such phrases. Plat. 
Rep. 487 D tovs fiev TrXeiarovs ical iravv 
aWoKdrovs yiyvop.e'vovs, tva fir) irafiiro- 
v ri pu$ etTU/xeu, ' becoming very strange 
persons, — not to use a more unqualified 
epithet': Rep. 507 D oid' dXXcus noWais, 
tva fiT) etirta Sri o£5e/tt£, toioijtov irpo<x- 
Bel oidevds, i.e. few, — not to say none : 
Hippias minor 372 D tolovtos el/xi ofos 
irep dpi, tva fj.7)8ev i/xavrbv p.el$ov 
etiru), — to say nothing more of myself. 
The substitution of «s dv for the com- 

moner tva in no way alters the meaning. 
For ws dv jir, cp. Ar. Av. 1508 tovtI... 
to aiuddeiov vwipexe \ ftwdev, w$ av 1x7) /t' 
'Cbwo-Lv oi deoi For »s dv cl'iro) jii] instead 
of ws dv ixr] eiTrw, cp. 255, Phil. 66 el 5' 
epyaaei | fXT) ravra. 0. C. 1365 e^ 5' 
e^tcpvaa rdade /xtj y fxavr(p Tpo<po6s. Her. 
7. 214 eldeiTj yap av koI i&v fii] MTjXieiis... 
T7]v drpaTTov. (2) The emphatic position 
of rap.' suits this version. (3) €K<f>TJva> is 
more forcible than ctiro). If the meaning 
were, 'I will not reveal my griefs, in 
order that I may not mention (efrra;) thy 
griefs,' the clauses would be ill-balancrd. 
See Appendix, n. on vv. 328 f. 

330 £vv€i8ws, because iKcp-qvu implied 
that he knew. Cp. 704 atfrds £wei5ws, 17 
IxadCov aXXou irdpa ; i.e. of his own know- 
ledge, or on hearsay? Not, 'being an 
accomplice' (as Ant. 266 i-weide'vat j t6 
Trpay fia fiovXeticravTi) : Oed. can still con- 
trol his rising anger. 

332 iyta out, synizesis. The rugged 
verse is perh. designed to express agi- 
tation. Cp. 1002 £yu ovxl ■ O. C. 939 
iyu) oih^ dvavdpov, 998 iyd) oi/54, 1436 
TeXe?r', iirel 06 /tot: Ant. 458 eyu ovk 
g/xeWov: Ph. 1390 iyu o&k 'Arpeidas. — 
Tavr , 29 n. 

,«°* 4 




(fyucTLv (TV y opydvetas, ifjepels irore, 
aXh! cSS' areyKTos KarekevrrjTos fyavel ; 
opyrjv ifxefjufjco ttjv ifjajp, rr)V crrjv §' 6fxov 
valovcrav ov /caretSe?, aAA* e/xe i//eyeis. 

01. rt9 yap Toiavr av ovk av opyitpiT errr) 
k\vcov, a vvv crv rrjvcV an/xa^eis ttoKlv ; 

TE. rj^ei yap aura, Kav iyco criyfj crTeyco. 

Ol. ovacov^ a y* -^fet kcu ere )^pr) \4yeiv ifxoi. 

TE. ov/c av iripa <^oacrcu/xi. 777)09 rdS\ el OeXeis, 
Ovfjiov 8l opyrjs rjTLS dypicoraTr). 

01. KaX pjr)v iraprjcro) y ovSev, cos opyrjs e^a), 
direp ^vvltjia. tcrOi yap Sokcov ifjiol 
/cat £vfjLcf)VTevcraL rovpyov, elpyacrO ai 0\ ocrov 




336 KairapaLTrjTos Sehrwald. 337 op/xty L 1st hand. 7 has been written over 

/* by an early hand (prob. S), which has also sought to make //. into 7 in the text. 

334 ir^Tpou I <j>u<riv: Eur. Med. 1279 
u> rd\aiv\ a>s dp' r)<r^a irirpos rj alda'pos. 
For the periphrasis cp. Plat. Phaedr. 251 
B 77 toO Trrepov <pij<rt.s, =t6 irrepov, irecpvubs 
uxrrrep irtyvxe, being constituted as it is: 
Timae. 45 B tt\v twv (3\e<pdpa)v <pvo~tv. 74 
D ttjv tQ>v vevpwv (f)(><nv : 84 C r) rod fiveXov 
0uVis: Legg. 145 D tt\v {/Saros (pfoiv. 
And so often in Arist., £.£\ 7) rod irvev"- 
/ttaTos 0&ris Meteor. 2. 8 : 77 rw^ vevpcov 
<pvais Hist. Anim. 3.5. 

335 ttot^, tandem aliquando: Phil. 
816 /i^0es ttot^: #. 1041 Tlcraad' dXXd r<j> 

XpoVy 7T0T^. 

336 dTtXcvTqros, not brought to an 
end: //. 4. 175 dreXevTrfTip ^7ri ^/ryy. 
Plut. ^/<?r. 114 F t6 7A/) 5t^ &Te\eijTr]Toi> 
vofil^eiv to Trtvdos dvolas iarlv i<xx^ T V^- 
Here, a man 'with whom one cannot 
make an end,'— who cannot be brought 
to the desired issue. In freely render- 
ing, 'Wilt thou never make an end?' we 
remember, of course, that the adj. 
could not literally mean 'not finishing.' 
Possibly it is borrowed from the col- 
loquial vocabulary of the day : the tone is 
like that of the Latin odiosus. 

337 i\Lt\i.y\f<a, aor. referring to the 
moment just past : so oft. iirrjveaa, £vvr)ica, 
T}<rdrji>: twTrjija (0. C. 1466): typifa (Ai. 
693): ide^dfirjv [El. 668): dir^Trrvcra 
(Eur. Hec. 1276). 6p.ov | vafovcrav, 
while (or though) it dwells close to 

thee, — possesses and sways thee. So 
O. C. 1 134 KrjXls kolkS)i> %6voikos: El. 784 
/3\d(3rj | %vvolkq$\ Ai. 639 o~vvTp6<pois \ 
dpyah. But (as Eustathius saw, 755. 14) 
the words have a second meaning: 'thou 
seest not that thine own [ttjv <rr)v, thy 
kinswoman, thy mother] is dwelling with 
thee [as thy wife].' The ambiguity of 
ti^v <rr)v, the choice of the phrase 6\iov 
vcuovo-av, and the choice of Ko/mSes, 
leave no doubt of this. Cp. 261. 

338 aXV i\ii \|/£y«is: the thought of 
dpyrjv i/j.£/x\j/u) ttjv 4fir)v returns upon itself, 
as if from a sense that the contrast be- 
tween ifx£n\}/u) and /careiSes would be 
imperfectly felt without such an iteration. 
This is peculiarly Sophoclean ; cp. above 
166 (£X0ere nal vvv): Schneidewin cp. 
also Ai. nil ou... 7-775 <tt}$ ovvck... \ dXX' 
owex' opKuv... I <rou 5' obStv. and similar- 
ly Ant. 465 ff., Trach. 431 ff., El. 361 ff. 

339 The emphasis on ToiaxiTa as well 
as on ovk warrants the repeated av : cp. 
139: Ant. 69 f. : Eur. Andr. 934 ovk av 
2v y ifiois Sofiois \ (3\£ttovo-' av avyds tGl/jl 
tKapwovT* av \£xV- 

340 a...aTind£€i$ irdXiv : d cogn. 
accus. : Ai. 1 107 ra o-^/jlv' Zirr) | KoXaf 
iicelvovs: Ant. 550 ri ravr dvias /u.'; 
dTifidt€is, by rejecting the request that he 
would speak : Ant. 544. 

341 TJ|ct -yAp avTa. The subject to 
TJ£€i is designedly left indeterminate: 



Oe. What, basest of the base, — for thou wouldest anger a 
very stone, — wilt thou never speak out ? Can nothing touch 
thee ? Wilt thou never make an end ? 

Te. Thou blamest my temper, but seest not that to which 
thou thyself art wedded : no, thou findest fault with me. 

Oe. And who would not be angry to hear the words with 
which thou now dost slight this city? 

Te. The future will come of itself, though I shroud it in 

Oe. Then, seeing that it must come, thou on thy part 
shouldst tell me thereof. 

Te. I will speak no further ; rage, then, if thou wilt, with 
the fiercest wrath thy heart doth know. 

Oe. Aye, verily, I will not spare — so wroth I am — to speak 
all my thought. Know that thou seemest to me e'en to have 
helped in plotting the deed, and to have done it, short of 

bpyyv r. — tt]v arjv 5' L, and so almost all the later mss. But one at least (V 4 ) has rrjv 
col 8\ which Dindorf adopts. 347 elpyaadcu 5' L ist hand, but the 5' has been 

'(the things of which I wot) will come 
of themselves.' The seer is communing 
with his own thought, which dwells 
darkly on the kcuc& of v. 329. airrd = 
a-UTb^ara : II. 17. 252 dpyaXtov be" fioi 
tan biaaKoiridadai eKaarov... \ dWd rts 
atfrds trcj. Cp. the phrase avrb det'£ei, 
res ipsa arguet, the result will show : Soph. 
fr. 355 raxb 5' avrb deii-et roHipyov. 

342 ovkovv & y tj£h. Elmsley, 
Nauck and Hartung read oik odv...€fxoi; 
but the positive \pr\ is stronger without 
the query. 'Then, seeing that they will 
come, thou on thy part (Kal <re) shouldest 
tell them to me.' The stress of Kal falls 
primarily on v\, but serves at the same 
time to contrast Xfyav with tjfjei. In a 
y tj|€i the causal force of the relative is 
brought out by -ye: quippe quae ventura 

343 f. ouk av irepa <|>pdo-ai|u. The 
courteous formula (95, 282), just because 
it is such, here expresses fixed resolve. — 
tj'tis d-ypittTaTT] : //. 17. 61 ore ris re 
\4t>)v...j3ovi> dpirdarj 77m apiary: Plat. 
Apol. 23 A iroWal a7re'x0eicu.../cal olcu 
Xa\e7rwTarcu : Dem. or. 2 § r8 el fiev 
yap ris dvi)p eariv iv a&rofc otos f-fxireipos 
iroXe'/mov Kal dydbvcov [sc. iari], toIjtovs, 

345 Kal \lt\v with yt, 'aye verily' : cp. 
El» 554> where r\v £<prjs /xol is answered 
(556) by Kal [ity £<plr)fji.\ (For a slightly 
different Kal /xr/v . . .ye, see O. C. 396.) — 
ws 6pyf\<$ <t\<a = e'x u}1 ' tpyys ws ex«, being 

so wroth as I am. Thuc. 1. 22 ws e/care'- 
pav tis ebvolas rj fiv^fiys £x ot : Eur. Helen. 
313 7tws 5' evfievelas Toial^ iv 56/aois ^X eis > 
irapT]<ra>...ov8ev (tovtw) airep ^uvCtjjx.', 
I will leave unsaid nothing (of those 
things) which I comprehend, i.e. I will 
reveal my whole insight into the plot. 
£vvtr]p.i suits the intellectual pride of 
Oedipus: he does not say 'think' or 
'suspect': cp. 628. For yap after ftrQi 

C P' 2 77- 

347 Kal £u|icpvT«o(rai...€lp'Ya(r9ai 6'. 

Kat...T€ could no more stand for '■and 1 
...'doth 1 than el... que could. KaC here 
{adeo) implies, 'no mere sympathiser, but 
actually the plotter? Cp. O.C. 1394 /cat 
{e'en) wain rots aavrov 6' d/xa. 
£v|MJ>VT€v<rai : Pind. Isth. 5 (6). 12 avv re" 
oi balfiow (pvretjei 8bi-aV. Ai. 953 IlaXXas 
(pvretiei irrjpia: El. 198 8eivav 8eivu)s 
irpo<pureijo~ai'T€s | /xopcpdv (of crime). Her- 
mann preferred 5' to t' after elpydaOai, as 
meaning, 'but hast done it (only) by an- 
other's hands ' {i.e. 'though thou hast not 
executed it thyself) : this, however, be- 
sides being forced, destroys the climax. — 
otrov (et^e? elpydadai) p.i] Katvcov, so far 
as you could be the author of the deed 
without slaying: Thuc. 4. 16 <pvXdaaeiv 
8e Kal ri}v vr\o~ov ' 'Adrjvalovs firjbev yacov, 
Sea pj\ diroJ3ali>ovTas : I. in rrjs 717s 
iKpdrovv 8ad fir) irpo'ibvTes tto\i> £k tQv 
&ir\(av\ Tr. 12 14 I 6aov 7' av {sc. dpif-qp 
toOto) avrb? fii} irorLxf/aiwv xe/>oii>. 



jn) X € /°°^ KaivoiV el 8* ervyyaves fiXeTrcov, 
kolI rovpyov dv crov tovt ecfyrjv eivai fxovov. 

TE. a\r)0e<; ; ivviiro) ere tgj Kt)pvyp.aTi 350 

(Snep 7Tpoei7ra<; ififieveiv, /cd<^' TjjjLepas 
7775 iw irpocravhav jxrjre roucrSe /atjV e/xe, 
cos 6Vri ^175 7-770*8' dvocrico fXidcrTopL. 

OI. oi/rw? aVcuScos ecfe/aVrjcras ToSe 

to prjfjia ; koll ttov tovto (fyev^eo-dou So/cei? ; 355 

TE. 7T€<j)€vya' rdXrjQes yap ivxyov rpe^oj. 

OI. 77/309 tou SiSax#eis ; ou ya/3 £k ye rrjs re^yr)^. 

TE. 77/305 crou* cru yap /x' aKovTa TTpovrpexfjo) \4yeiv. 

OI. 77010 z; \6yov ; Xey olvOls, cos fidWov fiddcj. 

TE. ov^i ^vvrfKaq irpocrdev ; rj \ireipa *\4ya)v ; 360 

OI. oi^x wore y eiTrelv yvcoaTov ' dAA' avdi<5 (fipderop. 

re-touched, to make d\ elpydadat 0' r. 349 ehai was omitted by the 1st hand 

in L, but has been written in very pale and faint ink above the line, between tyrjv and 
fxbvov, by a hand of perh. the 12th cent. The later mss. have thai. Kirchhoff conj. 
tovt £<pr]P airav p.6vov. 360 L has 77 'icireipat X&yeiv, with written under the 

accent on Xey, and a mark of abbreviation, /\ over eiv. Dubner thinks that the 1st 
hand wrote Xty, denoting ecu by the mark aforesaid, and indicating by a reading 
Xoywu, to which a marginal gloss by a later hand refers, el irdpav Xoyuv Kivels: then 

349 iced roupYov... tovto, the doing 
of this thing also, aiiTTjv tt\v irpa^iv, as 
dist. from the plotting and the direction 
of the act. 

350 aXr|0€s; k.t.\. The same word 
marks the climax of Creon's anger in 
Ant. 758: cp. Ar. Av. 393 ereou ; ete. €W€- 
irci) o-e...tfip.ev€iv, I command that thou 
abide: so Phil. 101 Xtyu acXafSelv. 

351 (uircp irpo€iiras (.sr. t/xpAveiv), by 
which thou didst proclaim that (all) 
should abide: this is better than taking 
wir€p as by attraction for oirep, since irpo- 
eiirou could take an ace. of the thing pro' 
claimed (e.g. ^eviav, iroXefiov, y 
but not of the edict itself (as icqpvypua.). 

353 »s 6vTi...ptdcrTopt, an anaco- 
louthon for ws 6vTa.../xidcrTopa, as if iv- 
venw aoi had preceded. «p.€ just before 
made this necessary. In Eur. Med. 57 
most MSS. give oiad' t/xep6s /*' virrjkde yy 
Te Kovpavip I Xe'£cu pLoXovay devpo 8e- 
o-toivtjs ruxcts, where Poison, reading 
/xoXouaav, admits that the dat. stands in 
Philemon's parody (Athenaeus 288 d), 
wj i/xepds p? virijXde 777 re Kovpav$ \ X4£ai 
fioX6vTi tov~\J/ov ws £o~Kc6a<ra. Elms, 
cp. Eur. /. A. 491 ftKXws t£ p.* fXeos tt)s 

TaXanrwpov Kdprjs | daijXde ffvyytpetav iv- 
voovixtvy. Conversely Thuc. 6. 85 § 2 
(rots iK€L^vfM/Maxoi.s followed by XLovs, etc., 
in appos.). 

354 4£€Kivr)cras. iicKiveiv is used of 
starting game, El. 567 i^eKlvrjaev to- 
doiv I ..JXa<f>ov: of rousing one from 
rest, Tr. 1242, and fig. of exciting pain 
which had been lulled, ib. 979. Here 
the notion is that of a startling utterance. 
Cp. the use of kivuv in the sense of 
mooting subjects which should not have 
been touched : Eur. El. 302 iirel 5t kivcis 
piOdov, i.e. since thou hast broached this 
theme: cp. O. C. 1526a 5' £i-ayto~Ta p,7)8$ 
KivetTai X6y<p. In Eur. Med. 131 7 rl 
Ta<r8e Kiveis /cdva/ioxXetfets tr 6X a j ; Porson, 
with the author of the Christus Patiens, 
reads Xoyovs, thinking that Ar. Nub. 

1399 c3 KaivQv €TTU)l> I KLVTfTb. Koi flOxXeVTOL 

alluded to that place. So dKbryra (tiry) 
= &Tr6ppr)Ta 0. C. 624, Ant. 1060 6p<rei$ 
p.e t6.kIv7\to. 5td (PpevQv (ppacrai. \ klvcl, 

355 Kal irov k.t.X. And on what 
ground dost thou think to escape (punish- 
ment for) this thing? For irov cp. 390: 
At. I IOO irov <ri> o-rpar^yets rodde; Dis- 



slaying with thy hands. Hadst thou eye-sight, I would have 
said that the doing, also, of this thing was thine alone. 

Te. In sooth ? — I charge thee that thou abide by the decree 
of thine own mouth, and from this day speak neither to these nor 
to me : thou art the accursed defiler of this land. 

Oe. So brazen with thy blustering taunt ? And wherein 
dost thou trust to escape thy due ? 

Te. I have escaped : in my truth is my strength. 

Oe. Who taught thee this ? It was. not, at least, thine art. 

Te. Thou : for thou didst spur me into speech against my 

Oe. What speech ? Speak again that I may learn it better. 

Te. Didst thou not take my sense before ? Or art thou 
tempting me in^talk ? 

Oe. No, I took it not so that I can call it known : — speak 

another hand wrote eiu in full. Campbell holds that the ist hand wrote X£yoi. All 
the later mss. have X^ew; and I believe, with Dttbner, that this was what the ist 
hand in L meant to give. The superscript o, however, is not (I think) from the first 
hand, but from a later one, prob. the same that wrote the marg. gloss. The eiv may 
be from the first corrector (S). — Hartung reads rj ireipg. \tywv ; Campbell, 17 'Kireipq. 
Xoyy; Wecklein and Bellermann, tj &Kireipq. Xoycav; Blaydes proposes ovxl ^vvrjKas; 
irpbs tL fxov ^ Kireipq. \tyuv; Mekler, rj irirpq 'Xeyov, F. W. Schmidt, rj iripq Xiyu; 

tinguish Ka( (1) prefixed to interrogative 
particles, when it expresses an objection : 
Aesch. Ag. 280 koX ris rod' O-Lkolt' civ 
ayytXwv rdxos; Dem. or. 19 § 257 (with 
Shilleto's note), and Kai ir&s; passim: 
(2) suffixed, where, granting a fact, it 
asks for further information : Again. 
278 iroiov xpovov 8e Kai TreiropdrjTai 7rd- 
Xts ; (assuming it to be taken, when was 
it taken?) Eur. Ale. 834 irov Kai a<pe 
daiTTei; tovto <j>Evyeiv here = ra&rov ttjv 
8iK7)v iic<pe]jyeiv: Eur. Med. 795 iraiduv 
(povov I <t>eijyov<ja, fleeing from (the penal- 
ties of) the murder : Cic. Pro Cluent. 59 
§163 calumniam ( = crimen calumniae) 
non effugiet. But in Lys. In Erat. § 34 
tovto...ov 0ei>yw = 'I do not avoid this 
point. ' 

356 f. Urxvov expresses the living 
strength of the divine instinct within 
him: cp. ££ovra 482. — rplcpco: see on 
ipLiri(pvK€P 299. — t€'xvt]S, slightly con- 
temptuous; cp. 388, 562, 709. 

358 irpoi>Tp&|/<i> : the midd., as 1446: 
but the act., Ant. 270, El. 1193. 

360 tj 'K-rmpa \iy<av; or (while you 
do understand my meaning already) are 
you merely trying by your talk (kiyotv) 

to provoke a still fuller statement of it? 
Her. 3. 135 deiffas firj ev iicrreipcpTO Aa- 
petos, was making trial of him : Ar. Eq. 
1234 Kai <rov to<touto irp&rov eKireipdao- 
/xai, 'thus far make trial of thee' (test 
thee by one question). The notion of 
iK in the compound is that of drawing 
forth something from the person tested. 
\£y<ov here implies idle talk, cp. 1151 
\4yei yap eldCbs ovtev. Phil. 55 ttjv $1- 
Xokttjtov <re Set | \pvxw oiru)% \6yoiatv iK- 
K\4\(/€t$ \4yojp: where, as here, the 
partic. denotes the process. If we read 
X^7eiz>, we must supply afore: 'tempt- 
ing me so that I should speak': a weak 
sense. \6ycp could only mean, 'by 
thy talk': whereas it would naturally 
mean 'in word' (only, and not tpyy). 
Musgrave conj. \ox<av (laying a snare 
for me) ; Arndt p.' eXeiv ; (to catch me) : 
Madvig it irdpas X£ye«; But, with Xe"- 
y<av, all is, I think, sound. 

361 ov\ wore y k.t.X. ov (^vvrjKa) 
ovto) 7' d/cpijSctfS wore elirelv: cp. 1131. 
•yvworov: 'known.' So the MSS.: but 
yvurra 58, yvwrby 396. In fr. 262 iK 
Kapra (3ai<av yvtorbs av yivoir' drtjp, yvu- 
tos= 'well-known,' yvu)pip.o$: but Soph. 



TE. fovea ere <$>7)ix\ rdVS/oos ov ^rjrels Kvpelv. 
OI. a'XX' ov tl -yaipoyv St? ye TrrjfJiovas epels. 

TE. €1770) TL S^Ta /cdXX', IV Opy'l^Tf Tt\4oV\ 

OI. ocroi> ye XPTl£ €L<; ' °^ ^dri^v elpr]o~ei at. 365 

TE. XeXrjOevat ere ^rjpl crvv T0Z9 </>i\rar(HS 

aio-yjLcrO* d/xtXoiW, ovS* opdv Iv el kolkov. 
01. 77 /cat yeyr)0a>s tolvt del \e^eiv So/cets ; 
TE. et7rep Tt y' eVrt T179 dkrjdeias crOevoq. 
01. aAA. ecn*t, ttKtjv crot* crot oe tout ov/c ecrr , e7ret 370 

rv(f)\6s rd t Cora tov re ^oiJr ra r ofxfJLar el. 
TE. cru S' d#Xto9 ye raur' oVet8t£a^, d crot 

ovoeis os ou^t tcovo oveioiei ra^a. 
01. /xtcts rpefyei irpbs vvktos, uorre \lt\t e/xe 

/LtT/r' dXXo*>, ocrrts c6w9 opa, /3Xdi//at ttot dv. 2>75 

TE. ou ydy3 ere fio'ipa 7rpds y' e^tot/ 7recret^, eVet 

lkolvos 'AttoWcov, (p rdS' e/c7rpdfat /xe'Xet. 
OJ. Kpeoiro? 77 crou Taura rd^evprjfxaTa ; 
TE. Kpecov Se crot 7n7/x' ouSeV, dXX' aurds en) croL 
OI. <5 7rXo{Jre /cat Tvpavvl /cat re^vrj Tennis 380 

V7rep(j)epovaa tco Trokv£rj\a) /3t&), 

374 /utas] £ia£as G. Wolff. 376 /*€ /xoipa irpos ye cod L (and so the later mss., 

used ypweros in the same sense in the 
Hermione (Antiatticista 87. 25). It has 
been held that, where a sigmatic form 
of the verbal (as ypucros) existed along 
with the non-sigmatic (as ypuTos), Attic 
usage distinguished yvuxxros as = ' what 
can be known' from ypwros as='what is 
known.' But there is no ground for as- 
suming that such a distinction was ob- 
served. See Appendix, n. on v. 361. 

362 o5 tryms k.t.X. (pyftl ce (povla 
Kvpeiv (ovtcl) tov dpdpb* oO (rbv <f>opia) 


363 d\X* oii ti \aip<av: cp. Ph. 1299 
(n.). TrTjjiovds: i.e. such charges are 
downright calamities, infamies. There 
is something of a colloquial tone in 
the phrase: cp. Ai. 68 fii]84 evjupopap 
84\ov I top &p5pa: El. 301 6 ttopt' &poX- 
kis ovtos, i) irdaa (iXdfir]. Cp. 336 dre- 

364 ctirw, delib. subjunct. : Eur. Ion 
758 etn-uffiev, 7} ciyufj^v, 17 tL 5pa<rop.ep', 

366 <rvv tois <}>tXTdTots K.T.\. = <ri>p 
Ty <pi\Ta.Tri (Iocasta) : since o/uXovpt' im- 
plies wedlock, and not merely the com- 

panionship denoted by ^vpJjp in 457 : for 
the allusive plural, cp. Tr. 335 otio-Tipas 
(meaning Iole): El. 652 <pL\oiffi (Ae- 

367 tv et kcikov: cp. 413, 1 442. 
Tr. 375 tov ttot' elfil irpayfidTOS', 

368 r\ K<xl: 'dost thou indeed?' 
Aesch. Eum. 402 17 mi roiaiJraj ry5' 
iirippotfc'is <pvyat; 

370 irX^v <roC* <rol 8^ k.t.X. Note 
in these two vv. (1) the rhetorical itera- 
tion (iirapa<f>opd) of the pers. pron., as 
in 0. C. 250 irpos o - ' 8 tl aoi <f>LXop 4k otdep : 
ib. 787 ovk £<tti <roL raOr\ dXXd o~oi ravr' 
for': Phil. 1054 7r\V eis ai' vol 84: 
Isocr. or. 15 § 41 kipSvpcijujp ret fxev v<p* 
vfiup ra 84 fied' vfiwp rd 84 5i' vfxds rd 5' 
vwep v/j.(3p. (2) the ninefold t (irap'fixv<m) 
in 371; cp. 42^5: O.C. 1547: Ai. 528 
4dp rb tolx64p eu roXfiq. reXeip. Similarly 
it, El. 210, Ai. 1 1 12: <r, Eur. Med. 476 
icruad <r'* ws tcaurip 'EXX^pcjp 6<xoi, k.t.X. : 
Ennius Ann. 1. 151 O Tite tute Tati tibi 
tanta tyranne tulisii: Cic. Pro Cluent. 
35 § 96 non fuit igitur illud iudicium 
iudicii simile, iudices. 



Te. I say that thou art the slayer of the man whose slayer 
thou seekest. 

Oe. Now thou shalt rue that thou hast twice said words 
so dire. 

Te. Wouldst thou have me say more, that thou mayest be 
more wroth ? 

Oe. What thou wilt ; it will be said in vain. 

Te. I say that thou hast been living in unguessed shame 
with thy nearest kin, and seest not to what woe thou hast come. 

Oe. Dost thou indeed think that thou shalt always speak 
thus without smarting ? 

TE. Yes, if there is any strength in truth. 

Oe. Nay, there is, — for all save thee ; for thee that strength 
is not, since thou art maimed in ear, and in wit, and in eye. 

Te. Aye, and thou art a poor wretch to utter taunts which 
every man here will soon hurl at thee. 

OE. Night, endless night hath thee in her keeping, so that 
thou canst never hurt me, or any man who sees the sun. 

Te. No, thy doom is not to fall by me : Apollo is enough, 
whose care it is to work that out. 

Oe. Are these Creon's devices, or thine ? 

Te. Nay, Creon is no plague to thee ; thou art thine own. 

Oe. O wealth, and empire, and skill surpassing skill in 

life's keen rivalries, 

except that A has oe... ye oov): oe /xotpa -n-pos y y ejxov Brunck. 

379 Kptav 84 

372 dOXios, of wretched folly. Cp. 
the use of &voX{3os, Ai. 1156, Anl. 1025 
(joined with &(3ov\os), tieAeos (At. 621), 
KaKodal/xwv, k.t.X. 

373 o08els (e"oTiv) 6s ovxi = 7ras rts: 
[Plat.] Ale. 1. 103 B oiSels 6s oi>x virep- 
jS\7)dds...ire'<pevye. Ai. 725 tfpaooov... 
otfm tad' 5s ov. More properly ov8els 
8oti$ ov, declined (by attraction) in both 
parts, as Plat. Phaedo 117 D ov8ha. ovTLva 
ov Kar^Kkaae t&v irapbvroov. 

374 pads Tpe<f>ei irpos vvktos, thou 
art cherished by (thy life is passed in) 
one unbroken night: the pass, form of 
fxia vti% oe rptyei. Cp. fr. 5^4 (N. 2 ), 
Teptrp&s yap del iravras avola Tptcpei, 
folly ever gives a joyous life: fr. 532. 4 
(36oKei be tovs fxev /xoipa Svoafiepias, | rows 
5' BXfios Tjfiuiv: Eur. Hipp. 367 w irbvoi 
rptcpovTes [3poTovs, cares that make up the 
life of men. p.ias might be simply fxdvys, 
but, in its emphatic place here, rather = 
'unbroken,' unvaried by day: cp. Ar. 
Rhet. 3. 9. I (Xei-iv) elpofxevr/v ko.1 t<$ ovv- 

deafly fxiav, forming one continuous 
chain. The ingenious conj . fxalas (nurse) 
seems to me far less forcible. 

376 (oiiK iyd) <xe (IXaij/u)), ov *ydp poipa 
oe ireaelv k.t.X. 

377 6Kirpd|ai, 'to accomplish' (not 
to 'exact'); tolSc has a mysterious vague- 
ness (cp. 341), but includes rb ireaelv oe, 
as in 1 1 58 t65' refers to bXiodai. 

379 KpeW h\=- l Nay t Creon,' — in- 
troducing an objection, as Tr. 729 toi- 
avra 8' dv Xe£eiev k.t.X.: O.C. 395 ytpovTa. 
5' dpdovv (pXavpov: and ib. 1443. 

381 t» iro\v£iiXa> (3uj>, locative 
dative, defining the sphere of vircp- 
<f>epovcra, like 'eri y.iya.% ovpavy | Zetfs 
El. 174. iro\v£ij\<{> = full of emulation 
(tfXos) . Others understand, ' in the much- 
admired life' (of princes). This is the 
sense of TroXtifyXov (irboiv) in Tr. 185. But 
(1) pi({> seems to denote life generally, 
rather than a particular station: (2) the 
phrase, following irXovre ko.1 Tvpavvt, 
would be a weak addition. t(\vt] t4\- 



0(70$ Trap vplv 6 (j)06vo<; fyv\d(rcreT ai, 

el rrjcrSe y dp^rjs ovve^y rjv ifxol 770X15 

Sojp-qTov, ovk atTTjTov, elcre\eipLcrev } 

TavTrjs Kpecov 6 Trurros, ovt; dp^r}? <^o$,- 385 

\dOpa jx V7re\6(x)v eK^akeiv IfxeipeTaL, 

v(j)€i<; fidyov TOioVSe fjafj^avoppd^ov, 

SoKlop ajyvprrjv, octtls ev rol% Kephecriv 

fxovov SeSop/ce, ttjv Teyyr)v S' e<f)v rv(f)\6<;. 

inel <$>ip e'cne, irov crv fiavrus el cracfirjs ; 390 

7rws ov X> °" V po-if/woo? evuao r)v kvojv, 

rjvSas tl rotcrS' dcrrolcriv eKkvTrjpiov ; 

KOLiToi to y olviyp! ov)(i tovttlovtos rjv 

dvhpos hienrelv, dWd p,avTeia<$ eSer 

rjv ovt dif olojvcqv crv 7Tpov(j)dvr)<; k\oiv 395 

ovt eK Oecov tov yvcorov dXX eyco /aoXcui/, 

6 [xrjhev el$G)<; 01$l7tov<z, eiravcrd viv, 

yvoj/jLY) Kvprjcras ovS* dir olcovcov fxadcov 

MSS. : Kpiwv ye Brunck. 

396 tov L, tov 1. 

vtjs I vir6p4>€povo-a refers to the view that 
the art of ruling is the highest of arts : 
cp. Phil. 138 rtyya. yap t£x vol $ tripas 
Tpotix^i I Ka l yvd>fxa, nap' 6Vy to deiov | 
Aids CKrJTTTpov apdccreTai: for skill and 
wit (yvdbjirj), surpassing those of other 
men, belong to him by whom is swayed 
the godlike sceptre which Zeus gives. 
Xen. Mem. 4. 2. 11 /xeylo-Ttjs i<pieo~ai 
t£x.v7)s' £gti yap tu>v fiaaihe'uv avTrj, Kal 
/caXeirai j3a<XL\tK^. But there is also an 
allusion to the skill shown in solving the 
riddle, by which Oed. surpassed the 
p.avTLKr] t&x. v V of Teiresias (cp. 357). 

382 irap' v|iiv. . .4>v\aor<r€Tai, is guard- 
ed, stored, in your keeping: i.e. how 
much envy do ye tend to excite against 
those who receive your gifts. <pv\d«r- 
<r€Tcu, stronger than rp^0erai, represents 
envy as the inseparable attendant on 
success: cp. 0. C. 12 13 GKaioavvav <pv- 
Xdatru-v, stubborn in folly: Eur. Ion 735 
d£i' a£iu}v yevvqTbpujv \ i)d-q 0i/\do"creis. 

384 8wpT]T<Jv, ouk aiTTjTov, feminine. 
The adjectives might be neuter: 'a thing 
given, not asked.' But this use of the 
neuter adj., when the subject is regarded 
in its most general aspect, is far most 
common in simple predications, as //. 2. 
204 ovk dyadbv TroXvuoipavLrf: Eur. Hipp. 

109 repirvbv iic Kvvaylas \ Tpdirefa irX^prjs. 
And yvurbv in 396 — which must agree 
with rjv — favours the view that here also 
the adjectives are fem. Cp. //. 2. 742 
KXvrbs 'lTnrobdfieia: Thuc. 2. 41 yrjv 
iafiaTbv: 7. 87 dapial oi>n dvetcTol: Plat. 
Rep. 573 B /j.avias...iiraKTod: [Plat.] 
Eryxias 398 D aperi) bidaKrbs : 0. C. 
1460 irTepwTbs fioovTi]: Tr. 446 €€p:ir- 
t6s el/uu (Deianeira). 

385 TavxTjs, redundant, for emphasis: 
Xen. Cyr. 8. 7. 9 rb 5t irpofiovXev'eiv 
Kal Tb T)yelo~dai, e'0' 8tl a" Kaipbs 5oktj 
ehai, tovto irpoo-TaTTW. 

387 v<f>els, having secretly sent as his 
agent, 'having suborned.' [Plat.] Axio- 
chus 368 E irpotb'povs tymdiTOVs vfivres, 
'having privily brought in suborned presi- 
dents.' The word pd-yos expresses con- 
tempt for the rights of divination practised 
by Teiresias: d"yupTi]s taunts him as a 
mercenary impostor. So Plut. Mor. 
165 F joins dytipTas Kal ybrjTas, Zosimus 
I. n fidyois tc Kal dyvpTais. The pas- 
sage shows how Asiatic superstitions had 
already spread among the vulgar, and 
were scorned by the educated, in Greece. 
The Persian fidyos (as conceived by the 
Greeks) was one who claimed to com- 
mand the aid of beneficent deities (5at- 



how great is the envy that cleaves to you, if for the sake, yea, 
of this power which the city hath put into my hands, a gift 
unsought, Creon the trusty, Creon mine old friend, hath crept 
on me by stealth, yearning to thrust me out of it, and hath 
suborned such a scheming juggler as this, a tricky quack, who 
hath eyes only for his gains, but in his art is blind ! 

Come, now, tell me, where hast thou proved thyself a 
seer ? Why, when the Watcher was here who wove dark 
song, didst thou say nothing that could free this folk ? Yet 
the riddle, at least, was not for the first comer to read ; there 
was need of a seer's skill ; and none such thou wast found 
to have, either by help of birds, or as known from any god : 
no, I came, I, Oedipus the ignorant, and made her mute, 
when I had seized the answer by my wit, untaught of birds. 

proves ayadoepyoL), while the 7617s was 
properly one who could call up the dead 
(Suid. 1. 490: cp. Plut. De Defect. Orac. 
c. 10). So Eur. Or. 1496 (Helen has 
been spirited away), 77 (pap.uaKoicriv (by 
charms), 7? pay iav \ t£x vixlo ~ lv ) V 8e(av kXo- 

388 dyvprt\v (ayelpw), a priest, esp. 
of Cybele (p-rjTpayvpTrjs, or, when she 
had the lunar attributes, p-rjv ay vpTrjs), 
who sought money from house to house 
{iwl t&s tQv irXovatcav 66 pas Ibvres, Plat. 
Rep. 364 b), or in public places, for pre- 
dictions or expiatory rites: Maximus Ty- 
rius 19. 3 tQv &v tois kOkXocs ayeipbv- 
t(i)v..., ol dvoiv dftoXolv rep irpocrTvxbvTt 
airodeo~irL£ovaiv. — kv tois K€p8€<riv, in the 
case of gains: cp. Ai. 1315 h ip.ol 8pa<xi>s; 
rather than, 'on opportunities for gain' 
( = orai> 77 Kepdaiveiv) as Ellendt takes it. 
Cicero's videbat in litteris (Tusc. 5. 38. 
112, quoted by Schneid.) seems not 
strictly similar, meaning rather 'in the 
region of letters' (like in tenebris). 

390 eir€l = 'for' (if this is not true): 
El. 351 ov TavTa...5ei\lai> £x ei \ I ^el 
Slda^ov, k.t.X.; so 0. C. 969. — irov; 
where? i.e. in what sense? Eur. Ion 
528 irov 5e" poi iraTTyp <t6; — ct craepqs = n£- 
<f>tjvas a>j>: cp. 355. 

391 kvcov, esp. because the Sphinx 
was the watchful agent of Hera's wrath : 
cp. 36. Ar. Ran. 1287 has a line from 
the 2<£i'7£ of Aesch., 1i<ptyya 8vo~ap.e- 
pidv [vulg. dvaafiepiav'] Trpvraviv Kvva 
irtnTrei, 'the watcher who presides over 
evil days' (for Thebes). — pat|/o>S6s, chant- 
ing her riddle (in hexameter verse), as 
the public reciters chanted epic poems. 
The word is used with irony : the baneful 

lay of the Sphinx was not such as the 
servant of Apollo chants. Cp. 130. 

393 f. to y al'vryp.' is nominative: 
the riddle did not belong to (was not for) 
the first comer, that he should solve it. 
0. C. 751 ov yap,b)v I £p.Treipos, dXXd tov- 
iribvTos apiraaai. Thuc. 6. 22 ttoXXt) yap 
odo~a [77 crr/mria] ov irdaris tcrrai trbXeus 
U7ro5e£acr0cu. 6 €ttuov, any one who 
comes up; cp. Plat. Rep. 372 d ojs vvv 
6 Tvxbv Kal ovdtv irpoo"f]K(x>v epX eTCU en-' 
airb. — Sieiimv, 'to declare,' 'to solve': 
cp. 854. did implies the drawing of 
clear distinctions; cp. 0. C. 295 SteiSeVcu, 
diiudicare, n. 

395 f. tJv oiV dir olwvcov ^cov ovt €K 
0e«v tov yvwtov (^x wi/ ) irpoucptivrjs : and 
thou wast not publicly seen to have this 
art, either from (dir*) birds, or as known 
through the agency of (4k) any god. 
Trpovcpdvns. when brought to a public 
test. For diro cp. 43 : ck with 0€<Sv tov, 
of the primary or remoter agent (Xen. 
Hellen. 3. 1.6 ck ffaaiXtws iobdrj), mean- 
ing by o.(p-rjpLt} (43) or other sign. -yvoDrov: 
cp. on 384. — poXwv : he was a mere 
stranger who chanced to arrive then. 

397 6 p/q8^v €l8«s = ocrrts pvqdkv y8rj t 
'I, a man who knew nothing,' the generic 
pvi], here with concessive force, — 'though 
I knew nothing, I silenced her' (qui 
nihil scirem, vici tamen). So in Dem. or. 
19 § 31 the generic pA\ has a causal force : 
7/ ftovXt) 84, 77 p.$} KU)\vdeio'a aKOvcrai. TaXrjdrj 
irap 1 £p.ov, oOt iTrypeae tovtovs, k.t.X. 
(' the senate, a body which had not been 
prevented, ' etc.). See Whitelaw in Trans. 
Camb. Phil. Soc, 1886, p. 17. Cp. 
875, 1019. 

6 4 


6V Sr) crv Tretpas iKfiakelv, Sokcov upovois 
TrapacTTaTrjcreiv rots Kpeovreiois 7re\as. 400 

KkaiOiV 8o/C€t9 fJLOL KOLL (TV ^OJ (TVvOeiS Ta8€ 

ayrjkaTrjcreiv ' el 8e /lit) 'So/cets yipoiv 
elvcu, 7ra0a>v eyvws dv ota irep <j)pov€L<;. 
tfDfLJ* XO. rjplv jjl€V eiKatpvcri /cat rd tovS* ewq 
•liio^l opyrj XeAev^at /cat ra or', OtStVou, So/cet. 405 

Oct o ou TotouTaw, aAA o7TW9 ra rou ueov 
fiavreV dpicrra kvcropev, rdSe (TKoirelv. 
v TE. €t /cat TVpavveis, e^icroyriov to yovv 

lct aVrtXefar TovSe^ydp Kayat KpaTco. 

ou yap tl crol £<5 SouXos, aXXct Aofta* 410 

coctt' ou KpeWros irpocrTdTov yeypdxjJOfJLOU. 

Xeyaj 8', iTTeiSr/ /cat rv(f)\6v p? w^et'Sto-as* 

en) /cat Se'Sop/cas /cou ySXeVets 11/ €t /ca/cou, 

ouo e^C7a *>at€ts, ovo otojp ot/cet? /xera. 

a/o' otcr^* a<£' (5i> et^/cat XekrjOas i^Opos gjv 415 

rots o-olcnv avTov vipOe /caVl yrjs dva), 

405 OlSlwov. L and the other MSS. support this form of the voc. here, and in O. C* 
557, 1346; but Oldiirovs (voc.) in twelve other places. Elmsley and Reisig, whom 

400 irlXas, adv., so Aesch. Theb. 669 
irapaaraTHv ire'Xas. 

401 KXaCwv: cp. 368, 1152: Ant. 754 
kXolLwv cppevuaeis.— o <rvv6cls, Creon, as 
whose agent (387) Teir. is regarded: so 
in Thuc. 8. 68 6 ttjv yvLofirjv elwdv is 
contrasted with 6 rb irpdy/xa i-vvdels. 

402 hyrfkoLTeiv = rd A70S tXativeiv (see 
on 98), in this case o\vdprj\aT€iv (100), to 
expel the judo-rap. Her. 5. 72 KXeo/xeVqs 
...oVy^Xar&i eirraKbaia iirlcrna (house- 
holds) 'A.dT)val(j}v. The smooth breathing 
is supported by Hesychius, by the gram- 
marians in Bekker's Anecd. I. 328. 32, 
and by most MSS. of Soph. ; while the 
aspirate is given by L here, by Eusta- 
thius (1704, 5), and by Suidas, who quotes 
this verse. Curtius distinguishes (1) £7-, 
#7-05, guilt, object of awe, whence iva- 
717s: Skt. dg-as, vexation, offence: Etym. 
§ 116: (2) root 07, afro-fiat reverence, 
cry-io-s holy, ay-vb-s pure : Skt. jag (jdg- 
d-mi), reverence, consecrate: Etym. § 118. 
In Aesch. Cho. 154 and Soph. Ant. 775 
he would with Herm. write 01705 as = f con- 
secrated offering.' In both places, how- 
ever, &yos {=piacalum) satisfies the sense 

(see n> on Ant. 775); and for 070? there 
is no other evidence. But this, at least, 
seems clear : the compound synonym for 
rd &yos £\avveiv (Thuc. 1. 126) should be 
written o\yyjka.Teiv. 

'86k€is is the scornful phrase of an 
angry man; I know little concerning 
thee, but from thine aspect I should 
judge thee to be old : cp. 562 where Oed. 
asks, rbr* odv 6 /juxv.tls oftros y\v iv t# 
t£x v V> Not (1) ' seemed, ' as opposed to 
really being; nor (2) 'wast felt by me' 
to be old : a sense which the word surely 
could not yield. 

403 ira8civ, by bodily pain, and not 
merely fiadwv, by reproof: cp. 641. — ota 
irep 4>poveis : see on 624 olbv fori rb <pdo- 

vdv ' - y^*V 

405 opYfj, modal dat., cp. 0. C. 659 

dv/xij). — Kal tcI <r K.r.X.y the elision as in 

329: see on 64. 

407 t68€ emphatically resumes oirws. 
Xuo-op.€v, this we must consider.: cp. 385 
raiJTrjs: so Tr. 458 rb jj.t} irvdicdai, rov- 
rb i£ 6.\yTjvet.ev dv. Ph. 913. 

408 el Kal /r.r.X. P'or el Kal see on 
305. — e^iorom'ov k.t.X. = fet 0- taovv rb yovv- 



And it is I whom thou art trying to oust, thinking to stand 
close to Creon's throne. Methinks thou and the plotter of 
these things will rue your zeal to purge the land. Nay, didst 
thou not seem to be an old man, thou shouldst have learned 
to thy cost how bold thou art. 

Ch. To our thinking, both this man's words and thine, 
Oedipus, have been said in anger. Not for such words is our 
need, but to seek how we shall best discharge the mandates of 
the god. 

Te. King though thou art, the right of reply, at least, 
must be deemed the same for both; of that I too am lord. 
Not to thee do I live servant, but to Loxias ; and so I 
shall not stand enrolled under Creon for my patron. And 
I tell thee — since thou hast taunted me even with blindness 
— that thou hast sight, yet seest not in what misery thou art, 
nor where thou dwellest, nor with whom. Dost thou know 
of what stock thou art? And thou hast been an unwitting 
foe to thine own kin, in the shades, and on the earth above ; 

Dindorf follows, hold Oiblirovs to be alone correct. Here, at least, euphony recom- 
mends Olbiirov. It is more probable that both forms were admissible. 413 8i8opKa<r 

taa drriX^ai, one must equalize the rig ht 
at least of like~reply ; i. e. you must make 
me so lar your equal as to grant me the 
right of replying at the same length. 
The phrase is a pleonastic fusion of (1) 
i^Lcruriov rb avriK^ai with (2) o-vyxvpy- 
riov rb iaa ai>Ti\e£ai. 

410 f. Ao££a: see note to 853. — wot' 
oi> Kpe'ovTos k.t.X. 'You charge me 
with being the tool of Creon's treason. 
I have a right to plead my own cause 
when I am thus accused. I am not like 
a resident alien, who can plead before 
a civic tribunal only by the mouth of that 
patron under whom he has been regis- 
tered.' Every ix4tolkos at Athens was 
required iirtypdcpecrdai irpo<TTdm\v, i. e. to 
have the name of a citizen, as patron, 
inscribed over his own. In default, he 
was liable to an dirpocTaatov ypcuprj. Ar. 
Pax 684. clvto) irovrjpbv it poo-Tdrrjv iire- 
ypdif/cLTo: Ach. 1095 irrey pd<pov ttjv Yop- 
ybva, •4o\x l%)k the Gorgon for your pa- 
tron : Lysias or. 31 § 9 iv 'sparry /xeroi- 
kiov KarariOels (paying the alien's tax) 
iirl irpoardrov ipKei. — 'Y€"ypd\|/opai, will 
stand enrolled: cp. Ar. Eq. 1370 oi>8ei$ 
Kara. <nrov8b%+t4Teyypa(pr}<TeTCU, \ d\X wa- 
irep 7)v to TrpQrov eyyeypdxp erai : 
Theocr. 18. ^lypd^fxara 8 iv <p\oi(ji ye- 

J. S. I. 8 

ypdxf/erat, remain written. — For the gen. 
Kpc'ovTOS cp. Ar. Eq. 714 rbv drj/xov <re- 
avrov vevbfjuicas. 

412 Xt'-yw 8', a solemn exordium, be- 
speaking attention: cp. 449. — tv<j>X6v p.* 
wvctSiaras. As <l)veL8i<ra$ could not stand 
for d7T€/cdXeo-aj, 'called me reproachfully,' 
Tvtf>\bv must stand for &s rv<p\bv ovra. 
For the ellipse of 6vra, cp. El. 899 ws 5' 
iv yaK^vrj iravr'' idepKbfiijv rbirov : for that 
of u»s, O. C. 142 pri) p.\ kereiJw, irpoalbiqT'' 

413 <rv Kai ScSopicas. 'Thou both 
hast sight and dost not see,' i.e. thou hast 
sight, and at the same time dost not see. 
The conject. of Reiske and Brunck, <rtf, 
Kal SedopKibs {though having sight), oi) 
pXi-jreis, spoils the direct contrast with 

414 2v9a vaCeis might mean, 'in what 
a situation thou art ' : but, as distinguished 
from the preceding and following clauses, 
is best taken literally: 'where thou 
dwellest,' — viz., in thy murdered father's 

415 dp' oto-0a k.t.X. Thy parents 
are unknown to thee. Yea, and (Kal) 
thou knowest not how thou hast sinned 
against them, — the dead and the living. 





ika wot iK yrjs Trjcroe heivoirovs dpd, 

fiXeTrovra vvv pev op6\ eVei/rct Se ctkotov. 

fior)<; Se 7-775 0-175 770105 ovk eoTcu \iprjv t 420 

77-0105 Kidoupcov ov^t crvfJLcjxopos ra^a, 

orav KaTai(rdr) tov vp.ivo.10v, ov 80/X015 

\ dvoppov elo-eirXeva'as, evirkoias rvyoiv ; 
oKkiav Se nkrjdos ovk iiraiaOdvei kolkojv, 
a cr i£icr(6o-€i croi re /cat T015 0-015 T€kvol<;. 425 

777905 raura /ecu Kpeovra kcu rovpov aropa 
7773077-77 Aa/a£e* aov yap ovk eanv fiporcov 
KaKLov ocrTt5 iKTpi/SijartTaC wore. 

OI. 77 tolvtcl StJt aVe/crd 777905 toutov /cXveii' ; 

ov/c et5 oXeOpov ; ou^t Occrcrov ; ov ird\iv 430 

^axffoppo<; olkcov tcovS' dirocrrpafals dneu ; 

TE. ouo LKoprjv eyory av, et o-u prj /caAei5. 

OI. ou ya/> tl a yjSr) p,copa <j)0)V7jcrovr , eVel 
O o~)(okrj a dv olkovs tovs ipovs icrTeikdpiqv. 

Kal L. dedopK&s kov r. 420 Xi/ii/i/] /aux^J Wecklein. 434 <rxo^27 <f MSS.: 

417 dfupiirXi',1 : as in Tr. 930 d/*#t- 
7^7771 (paaydv^ — a. sword which smites 
with both edges, so here d/i0tir\ijf 
dpd is properly a curse which smites on 
both sides, — on the mother's and on the 
father's part. The pursuing 'Apd must 
be conceived as bearing a whip with 
double lash (5t7r\^ fid<TTi£, Ai. 242). Cp. 
dfKpiirvpos, carrying two torches (Tr. 
214). The genitives p/nrpos, " traT P°^ 
might be causal, with dfufriirXr)!-, 'smiting 
twice— /or mother and for sire,' but are 
better taken with dpd, which here= 
'Epivtis: cp. Aesch. Theb. 70 'Apd r', 
'JV"/us irarposj) fieyaadev/js. 

418 Scivottovs, with dread, untiring 
chase : so the Fury, who chases guilt ' as 
a hound tracks a wounded fawn' (Aesch. 
Bum. 246), is %aX«:67rous (El. 491), rav6- 
vovs (Ai. 837), Kafi\f/Lirovs ('fleet,' Aesch. 
Theb. 791). 

419 pAe'irovra k.t.X., i.e. rbre (tk6tov 
ftXtirovTa, el Kal vvv 6p6d /3\^7retj. The 
Greek love of direct antithesis often co- 
ordinates clauses where we must subordi- 
nate one to the other: cp. below, 673: 
Isocr. or. 6 § 54 ttiDs ovk alffxp^,...rij¥ 
[iev "Etvpuirriv koX tt)v 'Aaiav fiear^v ireiroLT)- 
Kevau TpoxaLujv,...vV€p 8e ttjs varpldos... 

fMrjde filav fj.dxv v <f>o.[vea6ai ne/xaxypfrovt} 
pXeimv <tk6tov, like iv <tk6t({)...\ 
(1273), Eur. Bacch. 510 vkotiov elaopq. 

420 Po-qs 8i k.t.X. Of thy cry what 
haven shall there not be (i.e. to what 
place shall it not be borne), — what part 
of Cithaeron shall not be resonant with 
it (aijfupuvos &TTcu sc. airy), re-echo it? 
If we took avfupwvos ferai (and not to-rat, 
alone) with Xi/iV as well as with Ki0cu- 
pdov, the figurative force of Xi/x-fjv would 
be weakened. We must not understand : 
What haven of the sea or what mountain 
(as if Cithaeron stood for 6pos) shall not 
resound? Xl|it]v, poet, in the sense of 
ifirodox^, for that in which anything is 
received : Aesch. Pers. 250 <3 TlepoU ala 
Kal pUyas TcXotirov Xi/xrjv (imitated by Eur. 
Or. 1077) : the augural seat of Teiresias 
is Travrbs oluivov Xi/xty, Ant. 1000 : the 
place of the dead is "Atdov Xtfify, &• 1284: 
cp. below, 1208. 

421 f. ttoios KiGaipwv, vigorous for 
iroiov /xepos KidaipQvos. — tov vpevaiov ov 
clWirXcvo-as, the marriage into which thou 
didst sail: 86fiois, in the house, local .dat. 
(381): the marriage (v/i^vatos, here = 70- 
fios) was the haven into which he sailed, 



and the double lash of thy mother's and thy father's curse 
shall one day drive thee from this land in dreadful haste, with 
darkness then on the eyes that now see true. 

And what place shall not be harbour to thy shriek, what of 
all Cithaeron shall not ring with it soon, when thou hast learnt 
the meaning- of the nuptials in which, within that house, thou 
didst find a fatal haven, after a voyage so fair ? And a throng 
of other ills thou guessest not, which shall make thee level with 
thy true self and with thine own brood. 

Therefore heap thy scorns on Creon and on my message: for 
no one among men shall ever be crushed more miserably than thou. 

Oe. Are these taunts to be indeed borne from him? — Hence, 
ruin take thee ! Hence, this instant ! Back ! — away ! — a vaunt 
thee from these doors ! 

Te. I had never come, not I, hadst thou not called me. 

Oe. I knew not that thou wast about to speak folly, or it 
had been long ere I had sent for thee to my house. 

axo^v 7' Suidas, and so Porson, inserting <r' after ip.ovs. 

— a haven which seemed secure, but 
which, in reality, was for him a opp.os 
avop/xos. — evirXoCas rv\<av t because Oed. 
seemed to have found 6'A/3os, and also be- 
cause the gale of fortune had borne him 
swiftly on: cp. ovd' bpwv o#0' laropQv, 
1484. — The ipivaios was the song sung 
while the bride and bridegroom were 
escorted to their home, //. 18. 492 vip.~ 
<pas 5' £k Oakdpuav datdwp virb Xap.irop.e- 
vauv I ifyLvtov dj>d dVru, 7roXi>s 8' vp.ivaios 
dpupei, as distinguished from the e^ri- 
daK&iAiov afterwards sung before the 
bridal chamber : Ant. 81$ oiid' vfievatcov j 
ZyKkripov, out' iTrivtip.<petbs | 7rc6 p.i TtS 
vp.vos tip.vijo~€v. 

424 d'XXwv 8fc k.t.X. Verses 422 — 425 
correspond with the actual process of the 
drama. The words Karalffdy rbv vpAvaiov 
refer to the first discovery made by Oed., 
— that his wife was the widow of one 
whom he had himself slain : cp. 821. 
The dXXwv irXtjBos KaKaiv denotes the 
further discovery that this wife was his 
mother, with all the horrors involved 


425 a <r tgurwo-ci, which shall make 
thee level with thy (true) self, — by show- 
ing thee to be the son of La'ius, not of 
Polybus ;— and level with thine own 
children, i.e. like them, the child of 
Iocasta, and thus at once d8e\<pbs koX 
ttolttjp (458). For d cr Markland conject. 
ba\ which shall be made equal for thee 

and for thy children : and so Porson in- 
terpreted, conjecturing dW from Agathon 
fr. 5 dyivtjTa iroieiv dW' dV y ireirpayntva. 
Nauck ingeniously conj. d a' i^iauxret 0$ 
roue? Kal aots riKvots. But the vulgate is 
sound: for the iraprjxv^^ cp. 371. 

420 ff. rovfiov o-TO|i.a: i.e., it is 
Apollo who speaks by my mouth, which 
is not, as thou deemest, the birbfiXyTov 
CTbixa (0. C. 794) of Creon. — irpoirTj- 
Xc£kl^€ : ace. to Arist. Top. 6. 6 irpoirrj- 
"\aKLajubs was defined as vfipis perd xXeua- 
clas, insult expressed by scoffing: so in 
Eth. 5. 2. 13 KaKrjyopia,Trpoirr]\aKia/j.js = 
libellous language, gross abuse: and in 
Ar. Thesm. 386 ir poirrjXaKi^o pip as is ex- 
plained by iroXXd Kal icavroV atcovoijcras 
nana. Dem. or. i\ § 72 has drjdeis... 
rod irpoTrrjXaidfto-dai as= 'unused to gross 
contumely' (generally, but with imme- 
diate ref. to a blow). — iKxpiPtjo-CTai, 
rooted out. Eur. Hipp. 683 ZeiJj ae yev- 
vi\T<j)p I irpbppi£ov iKTptyeiev. 

430 ovk els oXeGpov; cp. 1146: Ar. 
Plut. 394 oi)K is Kb/jaicas; Tr. 1183 od 
ddfftxov olaeis ; Cratinus Nbp.01 fr. 6 
(Meinekep. 27) ovk direpp-^aeis <ri> ddrrov; 
Aesch. Theb. 252 oi> tc is cpdbpop ovywer' 
dv aaxfoei T d5e ; — irdXiv dxj/oppos. like El. 
53 d\poppov rji-op.ev irdXu>: the gen. oI'kwv 
Ta)v8' with diroarptujttte. 

432 iKop.T]v...cKdXeis: cp. 125, 402. 

434 o-)(oXfj a-' dv. The simple axoXrj 
is stronger than <rx°^V 7 e would be: 




TE. 7//X€t9 TOLOL&' €(f)Vfl€V, 0i9 [X€V (Tol SoK€L, ^7>5 

ficopoL, yovevai S', ol (T efivcrav, €p(f>pove^. 
OI. 7toiol(tl ; jxelvov. ris Se /x* iK(f)v€L fipoTcov ; 
TE. 178' rjixepa <j>vcr€i ere kou hia^Oepei. 
OI. W9 7ra^r' dyaz> ai^i/cra Koicra^rj Xeyeis. 


Ol. touxvt oveCSiC 019 e/x' evpyjo-eis piyav. 

TE. aurry ye pivroi a iq tv^t) SwuXcctci/. 

OI. aXX' ec 7roXu> tt^S' efecraKr, ou /x,oi /xeXet. 

TE. aneLfJU to'ivvv /cat <rv, 7rai, Kopi^i pe. 

OI. KOfJLL^€T0) $7)0* • G$S TTaptoV (TV y €/JL7rO$(i)V 445 

o^Xets, (TvOe'iq r av ovk av dkyvvois TrXeov. 
IJb. €L7r(ov aireip, (ov ovveK rjkuov, ov to crov 

Seicra? 7rp6o-(x)irov ov yap eaff ottov p oXe??. 
Xeyai Se cror tov avSpa tovtov» ov irakai 

438 775' i]/jJpa <pti<rei ae] 7778' rjp-ipq. ir&jffei <7<f>e Nauclc. 430 dyavr' L 1st hand: 

the r' has been erased. 445 at 7' itxirodtov] L has 01)7' in an erasure. The 1st 

Ant. 390 <rxo\y irod' iji-eiv (where <rxo\r} 
7' 6.v is an inferior z\ /.), Plat. A?/^. 233 B 
<tx°^V tot\.. rjdeXev &v, Prot. 330 E <rxo\rj 
fiivr' av aXko n 8<riov etrj and often. — 
oikovs: O. C. 643 56/jlovs areLx^v i/xofc. 

&rT€l\d(JLT]V = fJ.€T€<XT€l\afJ.7]V, fieT€1T€fJ.- 

\J/dp.T)v. Distinguish arOCKea dai, to sum- 
mon to oneself, from artXkeiv said (1) of 
the messenger, below 860 iri/xrpov nva 
areXovpra: (2) of him who sends word 
by a messenger, Phil. 60 o'L <r' iv Xtreus 
arelXavres e| oticov /xoXeiv: having urged 
thee with prayers to come: Ant. 164 iVas 
...irofiToiaiv... I £<7Tei\' Uiadqi, sent you 
word to come. 

435 f. roioiS' refers back to the taunt 
implied in pupa <pwt)aovT\ and is then 
made explicit by \i.upoi...'4\i.<$>povts : cp. 
/%//. 1271 toioCtos T7a0a (referring to 
what precedes — thou wast such as thou 
now art) toZs \6yoiai x& T€ f l0V I T d r ^l' 
e/c\e7TT«, wl<tt6s, ar-qpbs \ddpa. In 
fr. 700 (quoted by Nauck), /ca2 tov fooi* 
toiovtov ii-eirlffTancu, \ aocpots nev alviK- 
TJjpa,... I CKCLiois Se <pav\ov, we have not 
the preceding words, but doubtless toiov- 
tov referred to them. — us plv <rol 8oK€i. 
<rol must be accented; else the contrast 
would be, not partly between <rol and 
■yovcvcri, but solely between 8okci and 
some other verbal notion. <rol does 

not, however, cohere so closely with 80- 
K6i as to form a virtual cretic. It is need- 
less, then, to read (as Elms, proposed) ws 
fiev aoi or cis <rol /xev. Cp. O. C. 1543 
uo-irep 0-0a> iraTpi : Eur. Heracl. 641 
awTr]p v$v fiX&Pys. As neither a<pd) nor 
v$v adheres to the following rather than 
to the preceding word, it seems unneces- 
sary to read with Porson ws irplv <r<p<j) or 
v(fv awT-fip. Here we have us \&v <rol in- 
stead of us ffol p.ev, because, besides the 
contrast of persons, there is also a con- 
trast between semblance (us Sokci) and 
fact. — yovevo-i, 'for* them, i.e. in their 
judgment: Ant. 904 kclLtoi a' iyu Wl/mrjaa, 
tois (ppovovaiv, ed. At. Av. 445 irao-i 


437 €K(j>vei (v). The pres. is not histo- 
ric (for iZtyvae), but denotes a permanent 
character: 'is my sire.' Eur. Ion 1560 
7J5e tIktci <r\ is thy mother: so perh. 
Heracl. 208 troa-^p 5' iic Trjade yevvarat 
a^dev. Xen. Cyr. 8. 2. 27 6 5£ p.i] vuc&v 
(he who was not victorious) tois fiev 
vlkwo-iv i<f>66vei: and so fetiyev = <pvyas 
elvai passim. Shilleto thus takes ol i-ira- 
ydpevoi in Thuc. 2. 2, oi irpo5i56vT€$ ib. 
5, oi SiapdWovTes 3. 4; which, however, 
I should rather take simply as imperfect 
participles, = ot kicifyovTo, wpotididoaav, dii- 
paWov. He well compares Verg. Aen. 



Te. Such am I, — as thou thinkest, a fool ; but for the 
parents who begat thee, sane. 

Oe. What parents ? Stay... and who of men is my sire? 

Te. This day shall show thy birth and shall bring thy ruin. 

Oe. What riddles, what dark words thou always speakest ! 

Te. Nay, art not thou most skilled to unravel dark speech ? 

Oe. Make that my reproach in which thou shalt find me 

Te. Yet 'twas just that fortune that undid thee. 

Oe. Nay, if I delivered this town, I care not. 

Te. Then I will go : so do thou, boy, take me hence, 

Oe. Aye, let him take thee: while here, thou art a hin- 
drance, thou, a trouble: when thou hast vanished, thou wilt 
not vex me more. 

Te. I will go when I have done mine errand, fear- 
less of thy frown : for thou canst never destroy me. And 
I tell thee — the man of whom thou hast this long while 

hand seems to have written to.vt' 1 : an early corrector (S ?) wrote 70. ai ye in the 
margin, and altered the word in the text. One later MS. (Vat. a) has <nV ; another 
(B) rd 7'. 446 dXyrjvaia L: dXyOvois Elmsley. 

9. 266 quern dot Sidonia Dido (is the 
giver) : in Persius 4. 2 sorbitio tollit quern 
dira cicutae, I find rather a harsh historic 

440 f. ovkovv /c.t.X. Well {o$v — if I 
do speak riddles), art not thou most 
skilled to read them? — TOiavr 6vel%\£jk 
(jjioi), make those things my reproach, in 
which [ots, dat. of circumstance] thou 
wilt find me great : i.e. mock my skill in 
reading riddles if thou wilt; but thou 
wilt find (on looking deeper) that it has 
brought me true honour. — roiavTa...ots, 
as O. C. 1353 (n.), Ant. 691, etc. 

442 f. avrrj ye (livroi. It was just 
(ye) that fortune, however (pivroi), that 
ruined thee, ye emphasises the preceding 
word: so 778, 1292 : Phil. 93 irefupdels ye 
fxevroi (since I have been sen/), 1052 
piKav ye fi4vroi: Ant. 233 tAos ye pAvroi, 
id. 495 fitffQ ye p.tvToi. — rv\t\ implies 
some abatement of the king's boast, 7 v ib ft 77 
Kvpr)<ra$, 398. — €^<r«tr', istpers.,not 3rd. 

445 ko)u£It<i> 8t)0\ drjra in assent, 
as Aesch. Suppl. 206 Zei>s de yevvfyrwp 
tSoi. AAN. tdoiro dijra. — IpiroScov with 
irapwv, — present where thy presence irks: 
cp. 1 28. <rv 76 here gives a scornful force : 
the use of 07/ ye in 1101 (n.) is different. 
The reading rd 7' ifiirod&p (found in B) 
is explained by Brunck and Erfurdt (with 
Thomas Magister) 'thou hinderest the 

business before us,' comparing Eur. 
Phoen. 706 d 5' kincofthv fidXiara ('most 
urgent') ravd' ^ku (ppdawv. 

446 dX-yvvois suits the continuing 
action better than dXytivais. The aor. 
occurs Tr. 458 (d\7^eiej') and Eur. /. A. 
326 {dXyvvat) : but ais and at, as optative 
endings, are not elsewhere found in 

448 irpotrwirov, 'thy face,' — thy angry 
presence : the blind man speaks as though 
he saw the 'vultus instantis tyranni.' 
Not, ' thy person ' (i.e. thy royal quality) : 
irpbawirov is not classical in this sense, 
for which cp. the Hellenistic 7r/>o<rw7r 0X1771-- 
reiv, 'to be a respecter of persons,' and 
the spurious Phocylidea 10 (Bergk Poet. 
Lyr. p. 361) /ii'Jj pl^v s irevlrip dSkws* p.^j 
Kptve irpdacairop. —ovk &r0' ottov, there is 
no case in which...: cp. 355, 390. 

449 \4y<a 84 <roi, cp. 412. — tov d'vSpa 
TovTOV...ovTos 4otiv k.t.X. The ante- 
cedent, attracted into the case of the 
relative, is often thus prefixed to the 
relative clause, to mark with greater 
emphasis the subject of a coming state- 
ment: Tr. 283 rdffde 5' aairep ei<ro- 
p£s I ...xwpoO(Ti: //. 10. 416 (pvXaKdi 5' 
ds efpecu, TJfpws, | oCtis KeKpinfrri {tierou. 
(yrparbv : Horn. hymn. Cer. 66 Ko6prt\v t^v 
ereKov... \ rrjs ddivty Sir* Aicovcra: Ar. 
Plut. 200 rr]v dOva/uv Tjv u/tets (pare | txew 



£777619 aireikcov KavaK7)pv(rcra)v (f)6vov 450 

rov Adteiov, ovtos icniv ivOdSe, 

feVo? \6yo> /xerot/cos, etra 8' eyye^?)? 

(^ainfjo-erai (Bty/Satos, ouS' rjcrOrjcrerai 

rfj £vp.(j)opa' tv())\o<s yap e/c SeSop/coros 

/cat 7ttw^05 aVrt nXovcTLOV £evr)v eiri 455 

aKYjirrpoi 7rpo8eLKvvs yalav ifjaropevcreTaL. 

<j)av7]cr€TaL 8e naurl rot? avrov ^vvcov 

aoeAcpo? airros /cat 7raTr)p, /cag 779 e<pu 

ywat/cos vtos /cat Trocrts, /cat rov irarpos 

Ofxocnropos re /cat (f>ovev<s. /cat ravr tcai^ 460 

ctcroj \oyt£ov /cai^ \d/3r)s ixfjevcrfievov, 

(frdcrKew e/x' 77877 fxavTtKrj fjarjSev <f>pov€LV. 

a-Tp. a. XO. rts ovtiv a OecnritTreioL AeXc^ts et7re rrerpa 

461 Xd/Sr;<r i\f/ev<Tfiivov L: Xd/377s /*' iif/evajxtvov r, which Brunck and Hermann 
preferred. Blaydes suggests that, with Xo,/3tjs /x', £/*' t^St? might be changed to t6t > 
fjb-q. Wilamowitz conj. Xd/Srjs ixf/eva^pa. 463 el7re L. The letters « 

(written q) are in an erasure, which would have been unnecessary if the word first 

fie, to.6t7)$ S€<nr6T7js yep-^ffofiai. Plaut. 
Trinum. 985 Ilium quern ementitu , s, is 
ego sum ipse Charmides. 

450 avaKijpvo-arwv <|>ovov, proclaiming 
(a search into) the murder: cp. Xen. 
Mem. 2. 10. 2 owr/m rofrrov dvo-K-qpir- 
Twv: Andoc. or. 1 § 40 fjords re 17577 
-Qprjlx4vovs...Kal fi^vvrpa KeKTjpvy/j.e'va 
iKarbv fivds. 

451 f. tov Aatciov: cp. 267. — ^vos 
(Utoikos, a foreign sojourner: ^vos, be- 
cause Oed. was reputed a Corinthian. 
In poetry [jAtolkos is simply one who comes 
to dwell with others: it has not the full 
technical sense which belonged to it at 
Athens, a resident alien : hence the 
addition of ^vos was necessary. Cp. 
0. C. 934 fiiroiKos TTJade 777s : Ant. 868 
irpbs ovs (to the dead) <z5' iydi /jlc'toikos 
fpxoficu. — tlra 8fc opp. to vvv /*&, im- 
plied in evGdSe. — lyycvijs, 'native,' as 
yevPTjrds is opp. to iroirjrds (adoptivus). 

454 tq £vp.<J>opa : the (seemingly 
happy) event: cp. El. 1230 k&jtI <rvp.<po- 
paial fioi I yeyrjdbs fpTret oaupvov. — Ik 
SeSopKOTOs : Xen. Cyr. 3. 1 . 1 7 # &<ppovot 
<ru<pp<ai> yeyiviiTOU. 

455 £ |4vTjv fcrri, sc. yrpf. O. C. 184 
t-ehos ivl ^vi)%: Ph. 135 iv l-4va £ivov. 
— vouav with irpoSeixvvs only: pointing 

to, i.e. feeling, \f/rj\a<piov, the ground 
before him: so of a boxer, x e P a ^ v P 0m 
deacvfo, sparring, Theocr. 22. 102. Cp. 
Lucian Hercules 1 to t6%ov ivrerafievov 
77 dpurrepd. irpodelKWffi, i.e. holds in 
front of him: id. Hermotimus 68 da\\$ 
TpodetxQ&Ti dKoXovdeiu, ucnrep rd 717)6- 
/Sara. Seneca Oed. 656 repet incertus 
viae, I Baculo senili triste praetentans iter. 
The order of words is against taking £faflV 
with ^aiav (when we should write eTri), 
and supplying 7-77? 686v with irpoSeucvfo. 

457 f. £vv«v : the idea of daily 
converse under the same roof heightens 
the horror. Cp. Andoc. or. 1 § 49 
oh...ixP& ical ols ffvprjtrda, your friends 
and associates. — d8e\<f>6s av-ros. If dScX- 
<j>os stood alone, then aw-rds would be 
right : himself the brother of his own 
children: but with d8e\<j>6s kuI iranjp 
we should read awos at once sire and 
brother of his own children. Cp. Phil. 
1 r9 <ro<p6s r' 8j> abrds K&yadbs /ceicXfj' a/xa: 
Eur. Ale. 143 Kal irws dv avrbs ko.tQ6.voi 
re Kal fiXe'iroi ; 

460 ofioo-iropos : here act., =H}v atrip 
ffirelpw. but passive above, 260. Ace. 
to the general rule, verbal derivatives 
with a short penult, are paroxytone when 
active in meaning (see on fiovpo/xots, v. 



been in quest, uttering threats, and proclaiming a search into the 
murder of Laius — that man is here, — in seeming, an alien so- 
journer, but anon he shall be found a native Theban, and shall 
not be glad of his fortune. A blind man, he who now hath 
sight, a beggar, who now is rich, he shall make his way to a 
strange land, feeling the ground before him with his staff. And 
he shall be found at once brother and father of the children 
with whom he consorts ; son and husband of the woman who 
bore him ; heir to his father's bed, shedder of his father's blood. 
So go thou in and think on that; and if thou find that I have 
been at fault, say thenceforth that I have no wit in prophecy. 


Who is he of whom the divine voice from the Delphian rock hath 1st 


written had been etde: it seems to have been ij8e. In one of the later mss. (r) the 
1st hand wrote etde, which has been corrected to et-rre. The Scholiast knew both 
readings: but it is hardly doubtful that etde was a conjecture or a corruption. 

26). But those compounded with a 
preposition (or with a privativum) are 
excepted : hence 5id/3oXoj, not 8ia^6\cs. 
So 6fi6airopos here, no less than in 260. 
On the other hand irpwroairbpos = * sowing 
first,' irp(3rr6<Tiropos = i first sown.' 

461 Xdpns €x|/., without p.e : cp. Ph. 
768 (dXX' kdv etc.), 801 {e'p.irpriGOv). 

462 <f>do-K€iv, inf. for imperat., 'say,* 
i.e. 'deem,' as in Ph. 1411, El. 9. Cp. 
Her. 3. 35 fy de a/xapra), <}>dvai U4paas 
re X^etv d\rj94a ical fie pvr) <xw<p'pove'eiv. — 
(iavTiKTj : in respect to seer-craft : fordat., 
cp. Eur. /. A. 338 Tip SoKeiv fiev ovyl 
XPTlfav, rip de |8oj)Xe<r0cu dtXtav. 

463 — 512 First arda-ifiov. Teiresias 
has just denounced Oedipus. Why do 
not the Chorus at once express their 
horror? This ode is the first since v. 
215, and therefore, in accordance with 
the conception of the Chorus as per- 
sonified reflection, it must comment on 
all that has been most stirring in the 
interval. Hence it has two leading 
themes: (1) ' Who can be the murderer?': 
1 st strophe and antistrophe, referring to 
vv. 216 — 315. (2) 'I will not believe 
that it is Oedipus' : 2nd strophe and an- 
tistrophe, referring to vv. 316 — 462. 

1st strophe (463 — 472). Who is the 
murderer at whom the Delphic oracle 
hints? He should fly: Apollo and the 
Fates are upon him. 

1st antistrophe (473 — 48-2). The word 
has gone forth to search for him. Doubt- 

less he is hiding in waste places, but he 
cannot flee his doom. 

2nd strophe (483 — 497). Teiresias 
troubles me with his charge against 
Oedipus : but I know nothing that con- 
firms it. 

2nd antistrophe (498 — 5 12). Only gods 
are infallible; a mortal, though a seer, 
may be wrong. Oedipus has given proof 
of worth. Without proof, I will not 
believe him guilty. 

463 Bea-irieima, giving divine oracles 
(twr)), fem. as if from deairieirifis (not 
found) : cp. dprtkireia, ydviireia. Since 
6e-<nr-t-s already involves the stem aew 
(Curt. E. § 632), the termination, from feir 
(id. 620), is pleonastic. — AeXcjus irtxpa. 
The town and temple of Delphi stood in 
a recess like an amphitheatre, on a high 
platform of rock which slopes out from 
the south face of the cliff: Strabo 9. 418 
ol Ae\<pol, TrerpQSes x^P^op, dearpoei- 
5^s, Kard Kopv(f>T]v (i.e. at the upper part 
of the rocky platform, nearest the cliff) 

iX 0V T ^ HO-VTHOV KCtX TT]V Tr6\n>, (TTa8L(i)V 

tKKaldeKa kijkXov irXypovaav: i.e. the 
whole sweep of the curve extends nearly 
two miles. Horn. hymn. Apoll. 1. 283 
iiirepdev \ ir^rprj iirucpe'fj.a.Ta.i (the rocky 
platform overhangs the Crisaean plain) 
koIXi] 5' {>iro8e'8pofie {Srjcraa (the valley of 
the Pleistus). — etirc TcX^oravxa (for etire 
Te\4<rcu) is somewhat rare, but is not 'a 
solecism ' (as Kennedy calls it) : cp. 0. C. 
1580 X^as OloLirow <JXwX6ra : [Eur.] 




2 apprjT dpprJTcoi/ TekecravTa <j)OLviou(rL yz.p<jiv\ 465 

3 ajpa viv deXXd&cov 

4 Ittttcov crOevapcjTepov 

5 (f>vya noSa voy^dv. 

6 e^o7rXo9 yap €7r' OLVTOV i7r€V0pa>(TK€L 

7 7rupl /cat (TTepo7rcu<; 6 A109 yeveras* 470 

8 oeivai o afx eirovTai 

9 Krjpes ava7TkdK7)TOi. 

avT. a', ekafjixpe yap tov vi<f)6evTO<; dpTLcos (fyavelcra 

2 cf)dp,a Uapva&oVy top aSrjkov dvhpa irdvr l^yeveiv. 475 

3 (j)0 ird yap vtt aypiav 

4 v\av dvd r avrpa /cat 

5 7T€T/)as # icrorav/)os, 

466 deXXoirddwv MSS. ; dcXXdSwj/ Hesychius. 472 K%>e<r has been made from 

X«peo" in L. — dyaTXaK^Toi L, with /x, written above the second a. The false reading 
avafxTX&KrjToi is found in most (but not all) later MSS. In T there is a Triclinian 
note, dvairXdnTfTOi yap ypd<pziv (on metrical ground s) . . . eupTjrcu yap /ccti tv tivi twv 
iraKaioT&Tuv f3ij3Xlu)v. 478 L now has irtrpa a ua ravpoa, with an erasure 

Rhes. 755 ai)5$ i-vfxfi&xovs 6XwX6ras : Plat. 
Gorg. 481 C irdrepdv ac <pwp.ev vvvl airov- 
bd^ovra rj TraLfovra; 

465 dppTjT' appr\roiv: Blaydes cp. 
0. C. 1237 irpbiravra \ nana KaicQif, Phil. 
65 ^crxar' iaxdruv, Aesch. Pers. 681 w 
mora ttkxtQv rjXiice's t' 17/3175 ifirjs, | Il^pcrai 
yipovTts. Cp. also 1 301 fxelfova tlov fia- 
k'hjtwv. (But 7i/. 849 SciXaia beiXalcop 
[/cupeis], cited by Blaydes, and by Jelf 
§ 139, is not in point.) 

466 deXXdSwv: 0. C. 1081 aeXXala 
TaxtppwTos TreXei&s: fr. 621 deXXddes 
<pui>al. Not, '■daughters of the storm,' as 
if alluding to the mares impregnated by 
Boreas, 77. 20. 221. For the form, cp. 
Ovardbas Xirds Ant. 1019. 

467 fcmrcov, instead of tiriruv irobbs: 
Her. 2. 134 Trvpafxlda 8£ koX ovtos &t- 
eXlireTO iroXXbv iXda<ro) tov Tarpbs: 
Xen. Cyr. 3. 3. 41 x < V a *' *X €7 "« o£5e> 
■^ttov tvrifiov rdv irpwroaTarCov. 

4 70 <TT€poirais. The oracular Apollo 
is Atd$ rrpocfyfynji. As punisher of the 
crime which the oracle denounced, he is 
here armed with his father's lightnings, 
not merely with his own arrows (205). — 
■Y€v£ras, one concerned with yivos, either 
passively, = 'son,' as here (cp. yriyevirq. 
Eur. Phoen. 128), or actively, = ' father.' 
Eur. has both senses. Cp. ya/xfipbt, son- 

in-law, brother-in-law, or father-in-law: 
and so Krjdeo-T-fjs or irevdepbs could have 
any one of these three senses. 

472 Krjpes: avenging spirits, identified 
with the Furies in Aesch. Theb. 1055 
Krjpes 'Epii't/es, at r' OlStirbba | yivos 
(iXeVare. Hesiod Theog. 217 (Nt>£) koX 
Molpas Kal Ki)pas iyelvaro vqXeowol- 
vovs... I at t' avbp&v re 6eG>v re irapai- 
jSao-i'as £<ptTrov<rat \ ovbeiroTe Xrjyovai deal 
beivoio x^ 0l0 > I """P^ 7' d7r6 r<p bdbuxri 
Kaicty 6iriv, 8<rns dfxdpTr]. The Moipat 
decree, the K?)pes execute. In Tr. 133 
Krjpes = calamities. — dvairXaKTjTOi, not 
erring or failing in pursuit : cp. Tr. 1 20 
dXXd tis de&v \ alh avaixirXdicriTov 
"Ai5a fftpe 86fiu>v ip^Kei, some god suf- 
fers not Heracles to fail, but keeps him 
from death. Metre requires here the 
form without p.. dp-irXanew is prob. a 
cognate of 7rXdfw (from stem 7rXa7 for 
vXaKy Curtius Etym. § 367), strength- 
ened with an inserted p.\ cp. aftporos, 

473 e'XapxJfc: see on 186. — tov vi<p6€v- 
tos: the message flashed forth like a 
beacon from that snow-crowned range 
which the Thebans see to the west. I 
have elsewhere noted some features of 
the view from the Dryoscephalae pass 
over Mount Cithaeron : — 'At a turn of 



spoken, as having wrought with red hands horrors that no 
tongue can tell ? 

It is time that he ply in flight a foot stronger than the feet 
of storm-swift steeds : for the son of Zeus is springing on him, 
all armed with fiery lightnings, and with him come the dread, 
unerring Fates. 

Yea, newly given from snowy Parnassus, the message hath ist anti- 
flashed forth to make all search for the unknown man. Into the stro P he « 
wild wood's covert, among caves and rocks he is roaming, fierce 

as a bull, 

between a and <r, and traces of correction at <b<r r. The ist hand had written 
irerpaloff 6 ravpoa: the correction is old, perh. by the first corrector (S). Most of the 
later MSS. have wirpas <bs ravpos: one or two, irerpatos cos ravpos. — J. F. Martin, and 
(later, but independently) E. L. Lushington, conjectured irtrpas labravpos: M. 
Schmidt, irtrpas taa ravpois'. Dorville, irirpas are ravpos: Campbell, Ttrpaunv hav- 

the road the whole plain of Boeotia bursts 
upon the sight, stretched out far below 
us. There to the north-west soars up 
Helicon, and beyond it, Parnassus; and 
though this is the middle of May, their 
higher cliffs are still crowned with dazzling 
snow. Just opposite, nearly due north, is 
Thebes, on a low eminence with a range 
of hills behind it, and the waters of Lake 
Copais to the north-west, gleaming in 
the afternoon sun.' {Modern Greece, p. 

476 Join tov aS-nXov avSpa. and take 
ir&vraas neut. plur., 'by all means.' The 
adverbial travra is very freq. in Soph., 
esp. with adj., as Ai. 911 6 travra Kcotpbs, 
6 iravr d'idpis : but also occurs with verb, 
as Tr. 338 rovruv ?%w yap travT > 4tti- 
o-T-fifiyv 4yd>. Here, the emphasis on 
irdvTa. would partly warrant us in taking 
it as ace. sing, masc, subject to Ixvetieiv. 
But, though the masc. nominative xas 
sometimes = was tis, it may be doubted 
whether Soph, would have thus used the 
ambiguous iravr a alone for the ace. sing, 
masc. Ellendt compares 226, but there 
Tcavra is ace. plur. neut. 

478 tr^Tpas lororavpos is J. F. Martin's 
and E. L. Lushington's brilliant emenda- 
tion of -rrerpatos 6 ravpos, the reading of 
the first hand in L. It is at once closer 
to the letters, and more poetical, than 
irirpas are ravpos (Dorville, — where the 
use of are is un- Attic), irirpas l<ra raijpois 
(M. Schmidt), or vtrpas u>s ravpos, which 
last looks like a prosaic correction. I 
suppose the corruption to have arisen 
thus. A transcriber who had before him 

IIETPA2120TATP02 took the first 
for the art., and then amended IIETPA- 
212 into the familiar word IIETPAI02. 
With a minuscule MS. this would have been 
still easier, since in werpaaco-oravpoa the 
first <r might have been taken for (not a 
rare mistake), and then a simple transpo- 
sition of 4 and the supposed would have 
given irerpaioo: It is true that such 
compounds with too- usu. mean, not 
merely 'like,' but 'as good as' or 'no 
better than': e.g. Iffodalfiw, la60eos, 
to-6veicvs, io~6i>etpos, labirais, ladirpea^vs. 
Here, however, lororavpos can well mean 
'wild ' or 'fierce of heart' as a bull. And 
we know that in the lost Kptovaa Soph, 
used laoddvaros in a way which seemed 
too bold to Pollux (6. 174 ov iravv aven- 
rbv), — probably in the sense of 'dread as 
death' (cp. Ai. 215 davaripyap foovir&dos 
iKTreiaei). The bull is the type of a 
savage wanderer who avoids his fellows. 
Soph, in a lost play spoke of a bull ' that 
shuns the herd,' Bekk. Anted. 459. 31 drt- 
pLayk\i\s' 6 airoararys ttjs ay£\rjs 
ravpos' ovru 2o0o/cX^s. Verg. Geo. 3. 
225 (taurus) Victus obit, longeque ignotis 
exulat oris. Theocr. 14. 43 alvbs Qt\v 
\<kyeral ns, Zfia ical ravpos dv' HXav a 
proverb iirl t&v fir/ dvaarp^bvrwv 
(schol.). The image also suggests the 
fierce despair of the wretched outlaw: 
Aesch. Cho. 275 airo-Xfirrjfx6.roi<Ti. frfiiais 
ravpotifAevov, 'stung to fury by the 
wrongs that keep me from my heritage ': 
Eur. Med. 92 6/i/xa ravpovp.£vi}V'. Ar. 
Ran. 804 l-fi\e\pe yovv ravprjdbv eyicfyas 
kcltoj: Plat. Phaed. 117 B ravpt\hbv 



6 fieXeos ueXea) noSl yyiptvoiv, 

7 tol uecroiidxika ya$ dirovocT&iLbiV -!>U**,W 

8 /za^reicr ra 8' 

> \ 



9 tpvTa TTtplTTOTaTai. 

a-rp /?'. Seu^a /x€i> ow, Seivd rapdcrcrei croc^os olaivoOiras, 483 

2 oirreSo/coiW our airotydaKovO'* o tl \e£a) 8' duopS. 485 

3 ireTOfxai S' ikTrioriv, ovt ivOdS* opcov ovr oVictcj. 

4 Tt yap 17 Aa/3Sa/aSai9 [oure rcww 77ft) 

5 77 to) IIoAv/3ou veiKos e/cetr', oure irdpoiOiv ttot tycoy 

6 ifxadoVy 77/305 flf 01 ' St) <fiacravit ) a)v> fiacrdvco 

-»7 e7u Tai> iTrlhSjiov fydriv elfM Ot8i7ro8a, Aa/3Sa/a8cug 495 
8 iiTLKovpos dSyjXcov Qavdriav. 

\oy. 483 Seti'a /*& ouj>] Setva /te vi/p Bergk: 5e«/d /*e yoDv Nauck. 403 There 
is a defect in the text as given by L and the other mss., the antistrophic verse (508) 
being <pavepd ydp iir avr<p irrepbeaa yXde icbpa. (See Metrical Analysis.) The 
alternatives are, (1) to supply ~~ — after t/xadov, or after 8tov 5-Jj: (2) to supply 

virofi\t\J/as icpbs top HvOpujirov. With 
regard to the reading Trerpatos 6 ravpos, 
see Appendix. 

479 xrjpevwv, solitary, as one who is 
dcppiprup, ddi/uaroi, avtanos {II. 9. 63) : 
he knows the doom which cuts him off 
from all human fellowship (236 f.). Aesch. 
Eum. 656 iroia 5e X^P Vi ^ (ppo-ripcav irpocr- 

480 t<1 p.e<r6p.<f>a\a -yds pavT€ia = Td 

dirb pAaov d/xcpaXov yds: El. 1386 5o}/jl6.tojv 
VTroareyoi = vtcb artyy dwn&TW. Eur. 
Phoen. 1 35 1 Xeu/coir^x«s ktOttovs xepolj*. 
The d/j.<f>a\6s in the Delphian temple 
(Aesch. Eum. 40), a large white stone in 
the form of a half globe, was held to 
mark the spot at which the eagles from 
east and west had met: hence Pindar 
calls Delphi itself pkyav 6(x<pa\bv evpvi<6\~ 
■wov I ...x9ovbs{Nem. 7. 33): Liv. 38. 48 
Delphos, umbilicumorbis terrarum. — diro- 
vo<r<p££&>v, trying to put away (from him- 
self) : the midd. (cp. 691) would be more 
usual, but poetry admits the active: 894 
\f/vxo.s dfx6veiv : Eur. Or. 294 dvaKdXvirre 
...Kdpa: Pind. Pyth. 4. 106 KOfrtfav = 
KOfiitofievoi (seeking to recover) : O. C. 6 
<f>ipovTa—(t>epi>ix€vov. In Phil. 979 dtrovo- 
<r<pl£eiv rivd T«>os = to rob one of a thing: 
but here we cannot render ' frustrating. ' 

482 Xfttvra, 'living,' i.e. operative, 
effectual ; see on 45 £w<ras. — ireptiroraTai : 
the doom pronounced by Apollo hovers 
around the murderer as the olarpos around 
some tormented animal : he cannot shake 

off its pursuit. The haunting thoughts of 
guilt are objectively imaged as terrible 
words ever sounding in the wanderer's 

483 f. The Chorus have described 
the unknown murderer as they imagine 
him — a fugitive in remote places. They 
now touch on the charge laid against 
Oedipus, — but only to say that it lacks 
all evidence. Savd piv oSv. ovv marks 
the turning to a new topic, with some- 
thing of concessive force : ' it is true that 
the murderer is said to be here' : pfcv is 
answered by Si after Xc£a>. For fth ovv 
with this distributed force, cp. O. C. 664, 
Ant. 65 : for the composite fikv ovv 
( = 'nay rather'), below, 705. — Scivd is 
adverbial: for (1) rapd<r<ra could not 
mean Kivet, stirs up, raises, dread ques- 
tions: (2) SoKouvro, dirotpdoTKovra are 
ace. sing, masc, referring to /xe under- 
stood. The schol., otire iriara o&re Airt- 
ara, has favoured the attempt to take the 
participles as ace. neut. plur., diro<j>d- 
o"Kovra being explained as 'negative' in 
the sense of 'admitting of negation,' dirb- 
(f>aai.v Kal dirio-Tlav bexbfieva (Triclinius). 
This is fruitless torture of language. 
Nor will the conj. dirapkaKovr* (Blaydes) 
serve : for, even if the Chorus found the 
charge credible, they would not find it 
pleasing. Sokovvtci is not 'believing,' 
but ' approving? Cp. Ant. 1102 Kal 
ravr' iiraiveis Kal doKeh irapeiKadeiv; 'and 
you recommend this course, and approve 



wretched and forlorn on his joyless path, still seeking to put 
from him the doom spoken at Earth's central shrine : but that 
doom ever lives, ever flits around him. 

Dreadly, in sooth, dreadly doth the wise augur move me, who 2nd 
approve not, nor am able to deny. How to speak, I know not ; stro P he » 
I am fluttered with forebodings; neither in the present have I 
clear vision, nor of the future. Never in past days, nor in these, 
have I heard how the house of Labdacus or the son of Polybus 
had, either against other, any grief that I could bring as proof 
in assailing the public fame of Oedipus, and seeking to avenge 
the line of Labdacus for the undiscovered murder. 

_~s__ a ft er paadvcp. It may be noticed that in L the words irpba otov 5^ stand in a 
line by themselves, the large space left after them suggesting the loss of something 
there. See comment. — One later MS. (Bodl. Laud. 54) has irap' otov, with the gloss 
irap' o5, rjyovv rod vdicovs. 

of yielding?' The pregnant force of 80- 
koOvto. is here brought out by the direct 
contrast with diro<|>do-KovTa. In gauging 
the rarer uses of particular words by an 
artist in language so subtle and so bold as 
Soph, we must never neglect the context. 

485 f. \e'£co. probably deliberative aor. 
subj.: though it might be fut. indie, (cp. 
1419, and n. on O. C. 310). — ev8d8e, the 
actual situation, implies the known facts 
of the past, 6irC<r<a refers to the seer's 
hint of the future (v. 453 (pav/jo-erai k.t.X.) : 
cp. Od. 11. 482 creio 8', 'AxiXXev, | otiris 
&vr)p irpoirdpoide fiaKapraros, ofr' dp' 
6 ir i a <tu) (nor will be hereafter). 

487 f. TJ Aap8aK£8cus r\ t» IIoXil- 
Pov. A quarrel might have originated 
with either house. This is what the dis- 
junctive statement marks: since frm-ro, 
'had been made,' implies 'had been pro- 
voked.' But we see the same Greek ten- 
dency as in the use of re koL where koU 
alone would be more natural: Aesch. P. 
V. 927 to r' &pxew Kal t6 SovXeueiv 8Lxa-i 
cp. Hor. Ep. 1. 2. 12 Inter Hectora Pria- 
miden animosum atque inter Achillen. 

493 irpos otov. In the antistr., 509, 
the words *ydp eir ai5™ are undoubtedly 
sound: here then we need to supply 
~~ — or-**"-'-. I incline to believe 
that the loss has been that of a participle 
going with j8a<rdf y. Had this been |3a- ' 
o-avi£»v, the iteration would help to ac- 
count for the loss. Reading irpos otov 
8tj |3ao-avt£a>v (3ao-dvu>, I should take irpds 
with pao-dveo: 'testing on the touchstone 
whereof — 'using which (veiicos) as a 
test.' [Receiving my fSaaavl^iav, Kennedy 
(ed. 1885) replaces the word (ia<rdv(? by 

ir id av <3s.] To Brunck's paadvy xPV<rd- 
fie v os (Plat. Legg. 946 C fiaadvois xpu>- 
fievot) the objections are (1) the aorist 
part, where we need the pres., (2) the 
tame and prosaic phrase. Wolff writes, 
irpos 8tov 8-fi, fiaadvep <itLo-tiu ix <j3V> '• 
Wecklein and Mekler (in his recension 
of Dindorf s ed., Teubner, 1885) indicate a 
lacuna, -«•"«■'— , after fiaadvip. Two other 
courses of emendation are possible: (i) 
To supply after fyadov something to ex- 
press the informant,' as twos do-Twv or, 
irpo(p4povTos, when irpbs otov would mean 
'at whose suggestion.' This remedy 
seems to me improbable, (ii) To supply 
aiv and an adj. for pcurdvq), as avv 
dXijdet /9., or |3. avv <j>avepq.. As the 
mutilated verse stands in the mss., it can- 
not, I think, be translated without some 
violence to Greek idiom. The most toler- 
able version would be this: — 'setting out 
from which (irpbs 8tov neut., referring to 
pet/cos), I can with good warrant (/3a- 
advy) assail the public fame of Oed.' 
Then fiaadvy would be an instrumental 
dative equivalent to fidaavov kx<uv: and 
trpbs otov would be like 1236 rpbs tLvos 
troT* afrlas; Ant. 51 7rp6s avro<pu)pbiv 
dfnrXaicrifxdTw. irpbs denoting the source 
back to which the act can be traced. 

495 eirl <j>aTiv ct|H, a phrase from war: 
it is unnecessary to suppose tmesis : Her. 
1. 157 arparbv iir' iuvrbv Ibvra : Eur. /. A. 
349 raura pAv ae w/xSt' iirijXdov, tva ae 4 
irpwd' rjvpov Kdnbv, censured thee : Andr. 
688 TaOr' ed (ppovQv <r' iirijXdov, ovk dpyrjs 

497 The gen. OavaTcov after £iKkov- 
pos is not objective, 'against' (as Xen. 



dvr. p. ctXX' 6 fiev ovv Zeus o r 'AnoWcov ^vuerol /cat ra 

2 elSoTes* dv&pcov 8' ort /idVrts tt\4ov rj 'ya> <^eperat, 500 

3 KpuoTLS ovk €(ttlv (1X77 #779* ao(f)ia S' aV cro<f)iav 

4 7ra/>a/x€ti//etei> aVr^p. 

6 aXX' ov7ror' eycoy' aV, irpw iSoifi opdov eVos, fxefi^ofxevcov 
av KaTa<f>airjv. 

6 (fravepa yap iir avrS Trrepoecrcr rf\0e Kopa 

7 7rore, /cat croc^os axfrQr) fiaadva) 0* aSuTroXts* tw aV e/xa? 

8 (fypevos ovttot 6(f)krjcr€i kolkiolv. 512 

KP. dvSpes 7roXtrat, Seti/ €7717 7T€7rucr/xe^09 
KaTTjjopeiv fxov rov rvpavvov OlStnovv 
irdpeifx drXrjTcov. el yap iv rats ^vfxtyopa'is 5 1 5 

rats *w vo/jLiCei 7rpos y* e/xou TreiTovOivai 

6O8 <pavtpd yap £ir' cuiT(f] Hermann, thinking v. 493 (fyadov k.t.X.) to be com- 
plete as it stands in the mss., omitted the words yap iir a&T$ in his first ed. 
(though he afterwards replaced them) ; and Dindorf did likewise. Triclinius 
omitted ^7r' avry, merely on the ground that he thought them unsuitable, but 

Mem. 4. 3. 7 TrOp...iiriKovpov...\f/^xovs), 
but causal, ' on account of ; being soften- 
ed by the approximation of iiriicovpos to 
the sense of Tipuapds: Eur. El. 135 2\6oi$ 
r2v5e irdvwv knol rq. fx.€\£a Ximjp, \ ...irarpl 
0' ai/xdrow \ ixdlcrruv iirinovpos ( = ' aven- 
ger'). The allusive plur. davdrav is like 
ai/j.&T<av there, and deo-irorQv davdroiai 
Aesch. Ch. 52 : cp. above 366, rots 

498 It is true (ovv, cp. 483) that gods 
indeed (y^v) have perfect knowledge. 
But there is no way of deciding in a strict 
sense (dX-nG-qs) that any mortal who essays 
to read the future attains to more than I 
do— i.e. to more than conjecture: though 
I admit that one man may excel another 
in the art of interpreting omens accord- 
ing to the general rules of augural lore 
(<ro<j>i(j: cp. <ro<pbs oluvode'ras 484). The 
disquieted speaker clings to the negative 
argument : 'Teiresias is more likely to be 
right than a common man : still it is not 
certain that he is right.' 

500 irXt'ov <J>^peTat, achieves a better 

result,— deserves to be ranked above me : 

Her. 1. 31 doxiuv irdyxv devrepeia yQv 

iot<re<T0cu, 'thinking that he was sure of 

the second place at least.' 

504 irapapetyeuv : Eur. I. A. 145 \jJ\ 
tL$ ae \ddfj | rpoxa-Xoiaw 6x01s irapajxei- 
yf/aixevrj | ...dirfpnr). 

6O6 irplv tSoi|b. After an optative 

of wish or hypothesis in the principal 
clause, irplv regularly takes optat. : Ph. 
961 oXoto fi-fiiru) irplv fiddoifi' el /cat ird\iv\ 
yvibixrjv /i€Tof<r«s. So after oVws, Bans, 
tva, etc. : Aesch. Bum. 297 £X0oi... | Birus 
yivoiro: Eur. Helen. 435 ris av...pi,6\ot\ 
Sans diayyelXeie... ; — 6p06v: the notion is 
not 'upright,' established, but 'straight,' 
—justified by proof, as by the application 
of a rule: cp. Ar. Av. 1004 dpdip pLerp-qata 
Kavbvi irpoaridels : so below, 853, Ant. 
1 1 78 Totiiros ws dp' dpdbv -rjvvaas. Hartung 
(whom Wolff follows) places the comma 
ofter opOov, not after £iros: 'until I see 
(it) established, I will not approve the 
word of censurers': but the ace. (tos 
could not be governed by Karacpal-qv in 
this sense. 

6 07 KaTcupaCnv: Arist. Metaphys. 3. 
6 afttvarov d/ia Kara<pdvax Kal diro<pdvat 
d\r)dQi. Defin. Plat. 413 C dXiJ^eta 2£ts 
iv Kara<pd(TH khI diro<pd(rei. 

SOB far avTw, against him : cp. 0. C. 
1472. — 7TT€p6ecr(ra...Kopa: the Sphinx 
having the face of a maiden, and the 
winged body of a lion: Eur. Phoen. 
1042 d TTepovaffa irapdivos. See Ap- 
pendix, n. on v. 508. 

510 J3a.a-dvo> with dSuiroXis only, 
which, as a dat. of manner, it qualifies 
with nearly adverbial force : commending 
himself to the city under a practical test, 
— i.e. ipy(p Kal oi Xdyy. Pind. Pyth. 10. 



Nay, Zeus indeed and Apollo are keen of thought, and know 2nd ami- 
the things of earth ; but that mortal seer wins knowledge above stro P he - 
mine, of this there can be no sure test; though man may surpass 
man in lore. Yet, until I see the word made good, never will I 
assent when men blame Oedipus. Before all eyes, the winged 
maiden came against him of old, and he was seen to be wise; he 
bore the test, in welcome service to our State ; never, therefore, 
by the verdict of my heart shall he be adjudged guilty of crime. 


Fellow-citizens, having learned that Oedipus the king lays 
dire charges against me, I am here, indignant. If, in the 
present troubles, he thinks that he has suffered from me, 

retained ydp. 510 t)5uto\is mss.: a8ijiro\is Erfurdt and Dindorf. 516 irp6<r 
r' ifjiov L, with traces of erasure at r' and 4. The 1st hand had written irpdarepLov (or 
possibly irpbayefiov), joining <r, as so often, to the following letter: the corrector 
erased the r (or 7), and wrote r' separately (cp. 134, 257, 294). — 7rp6s 7' ifiov r, and 
Suidas {s.v. fid^iv). — tt/hSs tl /xov Hartung. This was an old conjecture: ti is written 

67 ireip&vri 8k Kal xpwbs kv ^aadvip trpi- 
irei I koU v6os 6pd6s: 'an upright mind, 
like gold, is shown by the touchstone, 
when one assays it' : as base metal rpifiip 
re Kal irpo<r(3o\ais \ /ie\afxirayi]s irAei | 
8uccuu)dds Aesch. Ag. 391. — dSviroXis, in 
the sense of dv8dv<av ry tt6Xci (cp. Pind. 
Nem. 8. 38 aaroh aSuv) : boldly formed 
on the analogy of compounds in which 
the adj. represents a verb governing the 
accus., as (pt\6Tro\is=<pi\Qu rty ir6\iv, 
dpdbirokis (epithet of a good dynasty) = 
6p6Qu tt]v ttoXlv (Pind. Olymp. 2. 7). In 
Ant. 370 v\f/iiro\is is analogous, though 
not exactly similar, if it means ixf/rjXds kv 
iroXei, and not i\pr{kr}v ir6\iv %x uv (like 
dacaidiroXis = ducalas 7r6Xets £x ov<Ta i °f 
Aegina, Pind. Pyth. 8. 22). 
•■"511 t<3, 'therefore,' as //. 1. 418 etc.; 
joined with vti, II. 7. 352 etc. : Plat. 
Theaet. 179 D ry rot, w <pLXe Qeddupe, 
paXXov oKeiTTiov $j apxys. — dir*, on the 
part of: Tr. 471 icair' 4p.ou Kntjcrei x&P lv ' 
The hiatus after r<£ is an epic trait, 
occasionally allowed in tragic lyrics, as in 
the case of interjections (cp. Ph. 832 n.). 
Here the stress on t<£, and the caesura, 
both excuse it. Cp. At. 194 dXX' &va df 
£8pdv<av : El. 148 d Ttw: ib. 157 ota 
Xpvaddepus fwet Kal 'Ifadvaff&a (cp. //. 9. 
145). Neither rrpbs (Elmsley) nor xap' 
(Wolff) is desirable. 

513 — 862 4tt€i<t68iov Sevrepov, with 
KOfifios (649 — 697). Oedipus upbraids 
Creon with having suborned Teiresias. 

The quarrel is allayed by Iocasta. As 
she and Oedipus converse, he is led to 
fear that he may unwittingly have slain 
Laius. It is resolved to send for the 
surviving eye-witness of the deed. 

Oedipus had directly charged Creon 
with plotting to usurp the throne (385). 
Creon's defence serves to bring out the 
character of Oedipus by a new contrast. 
Creon is a man of somewhat rigid nature, 
and essentially matter-of-fact. In his 
reasonable indignation, he bases his ar- 
gument on a calculation of interest (583), 
insisting on the substance in contrast with 
the show of power, as in the Antigone his 
vindication of the written law ignores the 
unwritten. His blunt anger at a positive 
wrong is softened by no power of imagin- 
ing the mental condition in which it was 
done. He cannot allow for the tumult 
which the seer's terrible charge excited 
in the mind of Oedipus, any more than 
for the conflict of duties in the mind of 

515 dr\r\r<ov. The verb drkrjT^u, 
found only here, implies an active sense 
of &t\7jtos, impatiens : as fie/j.irT6s, pass. 
in O. C. 1036, is active in Tr. 446. So 
from the act. sense of the verbal adj. 
come dXcwr^w, dvaiadrjrioj, dvaiaxvyrecjy 

616 irpos 7' €(M>v : Tr. 738 rl 5' ioriv, 
u ttcu, irpds 7' e/xov oTiryoifytevtw ; The 
conj. irpds rl fiov was prompted by the 
absence of n with <fxpov: but cp. Aesch. 



Xoyo mtlv €lt epyotcnv els fiXd/Srjv <f>4pov, 


<f>epowi, TijvSe /3d£tv. ov yap els dirXovv 

Tj (flfJLLCL fJLOl TOV X6y0V TOVTOV (f)€p€l } 5 20 

dkX* is fxeyuo-TOVy el kolkos fiev ev iroXei, 

KOLKOS Be 7TPQ9 (TOV KCU <j)lX(0V /C€/cX^(T0jU,at-. 

X0. aAA' fj\6e jxev St) tovto Tovveihos Ta^' dv 

opyfj fiiaaSev udXXov rj yvcop^y ajpevcov. 
KP. Tov7ros 8' ifiavur) tolls ifxals ypcofxats on 525 

7r€ia0el<$ 6 fxavris tovs Xoyovs xpevSels Xeyoi ; 
XO. tjvSolto fiev raS', oTSa 8* ov yvojfjLrj tlvl. 
KP. ef d/x/xaroii/ 8' opOcov re /caf opdrjs <j>pevos 

/caDyyopetro TovTTLKXrjfia tovto jjlov ; 
XO. ovk oTo* a yap Spcocr ol KpaTovvres ovv opoj. 530 

airros o 00 17077 ocojjLaTcov ego) irepa. 
OL ouro? <rv, 770)5 8evp' 77X^65 ; 77 TocroVS' ej(€t5 

ToXfxyjs irpocroiTTOV cSare TO,? €/XCtS CTTeyOLS 

above the line in L, and in several of the later mss. It may have been a result, rather 
than cause, of the false reading irpbs r. 517 tpyourl ti /3\d/3rip (pepov Kennedy. 
625 toO icptxr 3' L. Of the later MSS. some (as B) have tov irpbs 5': others (as A) 
irpbs tovV (not tov 5') : others (as Y and L 2 ) roforos or tovttos. — rotiiros is read by most 

Ag. 261 ev 5' efre (v. I. ef tl) nedvbv efre 
fir] irtirvafjAvij : Plat. 60/^. 237 C x a ^- eirov 
ijpov: Meno 97 E tGjp £i<dpov iroLr/p.dT(i)p 
XeXvpJpop fih iKTijadat ov ToXXrjs twos 
&£ibp iari Tipvrjs. 

517 For the single cfrre, cp. Tr. 236: 
Plat. Legg. 907 D £dp rts dae^jj X&yois e?r' 
£/ryots : Pind. /^M. 4. 78 £eiPOs oXt' up 
dcrrbs. — (j^pov: 519 <pkpovTi\ 520 #fyet: 
such repetitions are not rare in the best 
Greek and Latin writers. Cp. 158, 159 
(duPpor'), 1276, 1278 (bfwv), Lucr. 2. 54 — 
59 tenebris — tenebris — tenebris — tenebras. 
See on O. C. 554, Ant. 76. 

618 (3iov tov (xaKp. : ^4/. 473 rou 
ficLKpov xPVfr lv fttov: 0. C. 12 14 al 
fiaicpal I atitpcu, where the art. refers to 
the normal span of human life. For ptos 
fiaKpcuwv cp. Tr. 791 hvaicdpevvQv \4k- 

510 €ls dirXovv. The charge does not 
hurt him in a single aspect only, — i.e. 
merely in his relation to his family and 
friends (Ibiq). It touches him also in 
relation to the State {kou> rj) , since treachery 
to his kinsman would be treason to his 
king. Hence it 'tends to the largest 
result' (<j>e'p€i Is pt'-yio-TOv), bearing on the 

sum of his relations as man and citizen. 
The thought is, 97 £rmla ovx dirXr) £<ttiv 
d\\d iro\vei5f)s (cp. Plat. Phaedr. 270 D 
dirXovp rj iroXveiS^s ianv) : but the proper 
antithesis to d7r\^ is merged in the com- 
prehensive ntyiffTov. 

523 dXXd. ..piv 8t): cp. Tr. 627. — 
ijX96...TdV dv, 'might perhaps have 
come.' rjXdev dv is a potential indicative, 
denoting for past time what tXdoi &v 
denotes for future time. That is, as 
iXdot av can mean, 'it might come,' so 
rjXdev dp can mean, 'it might have come.' 
ijXflej' dp does not necessarily imply that 
the suggested possibility is contrary to 
fact; i.e. y it does not necessarily imply, 
dXX' ovk r)X6€v. Cp. Dem. or. 37 § 57 
irws dV 6 /IT} irapu)v..,4y<») tL <re r)5licri<ra; 
*how was I likely to do you any wrong?' 

[This was the view taken in my first 
edition. Goodwin, in the new ed. of his 
Moods and Tenses (1889), has illustrated 
the 'potential' indicative with dv (§ 244), 
and has also shown at length that iJXtfej' 
dv does not necessarily imply the un- 
reality of the supposition (§ 412). This 
answers the objection which led me, in a 
second edition, to suggest that Tax' dp 



by word or deed, aught that tends to harm, in truth I crave not 
my full term of years, when I must bear such blame as this. 
The wrong of this rumour touches me not in one point alone, 
but has the largest scope, if I am to be called a traitor in the 
city, a traitor too by thee and by my friends. 

Ch. Nay, but this taunt came under stress, perchance, of 
anger, rather than from the purpose of the heart. 

Cr. And the saying was uttered, that my counsels won the 
seer to utter his falsehoods ? 

Ch. Such things were said — I know not with what meaning. 

Cr. And was this charge laid against me with steady eyes 
and steady mind ? 

Ch. I know not; I see not what my masters do : but here 
comes our lord forth from the house. 


^Sirrah, how earnest thou here ? Hast thou a front so 
bold that thou hast come to my house, 

of the recent edd. : see comment. 52 8 4£ dfifj-drup dpOwv 5e L (the 84 having been 
made from re by a later hand). Most of the later mss. have either this, or (as A) 4% 
dfifidruv 6p6Qp re. The reading which seems preferable, 41; dfip-drup 5' dpd&v re, is 

was here no more than T&xa, and that 
the usage arose from an ellipse (i?\0e, 
rdxa 5' a? 4\doi). In 0. C. 964 f. also I 
should now take fjp...T&x' &> as =* per- 
chance it may have been .'] 

525 I formerly kept rod trpbs 8\ with 
L. But the anastrophe of irpds seems to 
be confined to instances in which it is 
immediately followed by an attributive 
genitive, equiv. to an epithet: see on 178. 
For vpbs tov 5' we could indeed cite 
Aesch. Eunt. 593 irpbs rod 5' 4ireLadT)s nai 
tIpos f3ov\e&fJui<rtv ; But I now prefer tov- 
iros 8', because (1) Creon seems to ask 
the Chorus for a confirmation of the al- 
most incredible report that Oed. had 
brought such a charge : he would naturally 
be less concerned to know whether any 
one had uttered it before Oed. (2) Verse 
527 favours Toiiiros. — Cp. 848 dXX' ws 
<j>av4v ye rotiiros. 

527 T]v8aTO : these things were said 
(by Oedipus) ; but I do not know how 
much the words meant; i.e. whether he 
spoke at random, or from information 
which had convinced his judgment. 

528 The reading 4§ oppaTcov 8' opGwv 
T6 gives a fuller emphasis than !{■ op.p.<£- 
to>v dp6wv 8^ : when 8' had been omitted, 
t« was naturally changed to 8& The 

place of t« (as to which both verse and 
prose allowed some latitude) is warranted, 
since dfi/xdruv-opdCop opposed to dpdijs- 
<ppei>6s forms a single notion, efj = ' with ' : 
El. 455 4ij virepripas xe/>6s: Tr. 875 41; 
dKLvrp-ov irodds. 6p,(jidT<i>v op8<3v : cp. 
1385 : At. 447 net fir] t65' 6pt,/j.a /cat <f>p4ves 
didcrrpoipoi I yvu>fjL7)$ diry^av rrjs 4/j.tjs : Eur. 
H. F. 931 (when the frenzy comes on 
Heracles) 6 5' oticed' avrbs ijp, | d\\' 4v 
arpcHpaicriv 6 fx. fid tup 4(pdapfiepos, k.t.X. 
In Hor. Carm. 1.3. 18 Bentley gave rcctis 
oculis for siccis. 

530 ovk 0I8'. Creon has asked : 'Did 
any trace of madness show itself in the 
bearing or in the speech of Oedipus?' 
The Chorus reply: 'Our part is only to 
hear, not to criticise.' These nobles-of 
Thebes (1223) have no eyes for indiscre^ 
tion in their sovereign master. 

532 f. Join oStos <rw: cp. 1121 :' 
Eur. Hec. 1280 oCtoj aO, fxaipei. ical /auw 
ipq.s tvx&v *> where ovtos, ad fiabet. is im- 
possible. — ToXp/ns, gen. of quality (or 
material); cp. Ant. 114 x^yos irr4pvyi.: 
EL 19 dcrrpwp eti<pp6pr). — too-ovSc to\- 
p.T)S-irpd<ra>irov, like roi/ibp (ppep&p-bpfipop 
(EL 1390), veiKos-dudpiop' i-ijpaifiop (Ant. 





lkov, (fyovevs cov rovSe rdvSpos ifjLcfravcos 
XtjctttJs r ivapyqs rrjs i^rjs rvpavvihos ; 
cj>ip tine npos dtcov, SeiAtai> rj fxcopiav 
ihcov tlv ev fioi tolvt ifiovXevcrco iroeiv ; 
rj rovpyov cos ov yvopioipLi crov ro§€ 
Bokcp irpocripTrov *rj ovk dke^oijxrjv lipid tov ; 
ap ov)(l fJLeopov icTTt Tovy^etprjixd crov, 
avev re ttXtjOovs koX cf>'ikcov rvpavviha 
Orjpdv, o ir\rj0ei yjpr)p.ctcriv 6* aXtcr/cercu ; 
olcrO* cos ttcxi)ctov ; dvri rcov elprjfJLevcov 
Itr dvTaKOVcrov, Kara Kplv avTos fiaOcov. 
Xeyeuv crv Seu'dg, iiavOdveiv S* iyco kolkos 
crov* SvcTfJLevfj yap kcu fiapvv or' rjvprjK ifjuoi. 





given by Suidas and a few later MSS. (I\ A, Trin.). 537 iv 4/j.ol mss. : & fioi. 
Reisig. 638 yvupiaoi/ju mss.: yvwpioi/u Elmsley. 539 rj ovk A. Spengel:' 

kovk MSS. 541 irXrjdovs mss. The conjecture irXotrrov, first made by an anony- 

535 ttjs Ip/rjs closely follows tovSc 
TctvSpds, as 0. C. 1329: so Ai. 865 fivdr)- 
aofiai immediately follows Afas dpoet. If 
a Greek speaker rhetorically refers to 
himself in the third person, he usu. reverts 
as soon as possible to the first. 

537 ?v jiot. The MSS. have cv ipol, 
making a verse like Tr. 4, iy& | 5£ rbv 
■i/x\6v, kcu rrplv ds"Ai8ov pcoXeTv. But such 
a verse is rare, and unpleasing. When a 
tribrach holds the second place in a tragic 
senarius, we usually find that (a) the tri- 
brach is a single word, as Ph. 1314 r)odr\v\ 
irar^pa | rbv dp.bu evXoyovvrd <re : or (6) 
there is a caesura between the first and 
the second foot, as O. C. 26 dXX' o<t\tis 6 
t6tt\os: Ph. 1232 Trap' o07rep fkafiov : Eur. 
Tro. 496 Tpvxvp\& lrf P^ I Tpvxvpoy dixivqv 
XP^a : Eur. Phoen. 5 1 1 4Xd6vr\a ovv 6irX\ois 
r6v5e kcu iropdovvra yr)v, — if there we 
should not read eXdovr' £v oirXots. On 
such a point as €p.ol versus ptoi the au- 
thority of our mss. is not weighty. And 
the enclitic p.01 suffices : for in this verse 
the stress is on the verbal notion (t8u>v), — 
Creon's supposed insight: the reference 
to Oedipus is drawn out in the next two 
verses by the verbs in the 1st person, yvw- 
ptotfii — dXe^ot/zTjv. — L8wv...4v: prose would 
say ividwv, either with or without iv 
(Thuc. 1. 95: oirep kclI 4v rip TLavaavlq. 
ivetbov : 3. 30 6...roh iroXe/xlois ivopdv) : 
cp. Her. 1. 37 otire rivb. deiXirju irapidwv 

fioi {remarked in me) otire ddvpii-qv. 

iroeiv ; Attic inscrr. of c . 450 — 300 B.C. 
omit the t before e or 77 (not before or w) r 
as L usu. does, when the 1st syll. is short: 
Ph. 120 n. 

5 38 rj Tovpyov k.t.X. Supply vop.lo-as 
or the like from t8»v : ' thinking that 
either I would not see,... or would not 
ward it off': an example of what Greek 
rhetoric called x^^f 105 (from the form of 
X), since the first clause corresponds 
with pitapla, and the second with 8ei\la. 
— -yvwpicKfju. ' Futures in -i<rw are not 
common in the good Attic period : but 
we have no trustworthy collections on 
this point': Curtius, Verb II. 312, Eng. 
tr. 481. On the other hand, as he says, 
more than 20 futures in -iw can be quoted 
from Attic literature. And though some 
ancient grammarians call the form 
1 Attic,' it is not exclusively so : instances 
occur both in Homer (as //. ro. 331 dyXa- 
i'eio~dcu, cp. Monro, Horn. Gram. § 63) 
and in Herodotus (as 8. 68 arpepuelv, be- 
sides about ten other examples in Her.). 
Thus the evidence for "yvajptoi^i outweighs 
the preference of our mss. for yvupiaoc/xi. 

539 rj ovk. The kovk of the mss. can- 
not be defended here — where stress is 
laid on the dilemma of deiXLa or /xupla — 
by instances of rj... re carelessly put for 
r) — 77 in cases where there is no such 
sharp distinction of alternatives: as //. 2. 



who art the proved assassin of its master, — the palpable robber 
of my crown ? Come, tell me, in the name of the gods, was it 
cowardice or folly that thou sawest in me, that thou didst plot 
to do this thing ? Didst thou think that I would not note this 
deed of thine creeping on me by stealth, or, aware, would not 
ward it off? Now is not thine attempt foolish, — to seek, with- 
out followers or friends, a throne, — a prize which followers and 
wealth must win ? 

Cr. Mark me now, — in answer to thy words, hear a fair 
reply, and then judge for thyself on knowledge. 

Oe. Thou art apt in speech, but I have a poor wit for thy 
lessons, since I have found thee my malignant foe. 

Cr. Now first hear how I will explain this very thing — 

mous German translator of the play in 1803, has been adopted by Nauck and others. 
546 77fy)77fc'] etiprjK' L. See comment. Cp. 1051. 

289 rj rralSes veapol xVP a ^ T€ yvvaiices : 
Aesch. Eum. 524 r\ irbXis fiporbs 0' 
bfiolws. — d\€£oC|M]v : see on 171. 

541 irXtj0ovs refers to the rank and 
file of the aspirant's following, — his popu- 
lar partisans or the troops in his pay ; <j>£- 
Xwv, to his powerful connections, — the 
men whose wealth and influence support 
him. Thus (542) xptipao'iv is substituted 
for <f>t\wv. Soph, is thinking of the his- 
torical Greek rOpawos, who commonly 
began his career as a demagogue, or else 
'arose out of the bosom of the oligarchies' 
(Grote, vol. 3 p. 25). 

542 8, a thing which, marking the 
general category in which the tv pawls is 
to be placed : cp. Xen. Mem. 3. 9. 8 006- 
vov 8e ffKoir&v 6 tl et-q. So the neut. adj. 
is used, Eur. Hipp. 109 reptrvbv... | rpd- 
Tefa TrX-fiprjs: Eur. Hel. 1687 yvwpvqs, 
TroWals iv yvvaiQv ovk lw. 

543 oto-0' ws ttotjo-ov; In more than 
twelve places of the tragic or comic poets 
we have this or a like form where a per- 
son is eagerly bespeaking attention to a 
command or request. Instead of otad' ws 
del (re iroirjaai', or otad' us are neXetiu ttoit}- 
<rcu; the anxious haste of the speaker 
substitutes an abrupt imperative : otad' ws 
■jrolyo-ov; That the imperative was here 
felt as equivalent to '■you are to do? ap- 
pears clearly from the substitutes which 
sometimes replace it. Thus we find (1) 
fut. indie; Eur. Cycl. 131 otad' odv 6 
dpdcreis ; Med. 600 olad' ws fiere^ei ical 
<ro<pu)Te'pa <pavei\ where the conjectures 
Spdaov (Canter) and /*4tcv£cu (Elmsley) 

J. S. I. 3 

are arbitrary: so with the 1st pers., I. T. 
759 ctW oTcrO' Spdo~u; (2) a periphrasis: 
Eur. Suppl. 932 dXX' otad' 8pdv <re /3otf- 
Xo/xai rofowv ire" pi; Only a sense that 
the imperat. had this force could explain 
the still bolder form of the phrase with 
3rd pers.: Eur. /. T. 1203 olaOd vvv a, 
p.01 yevia6u = d Seiyevtadat fwi : At. Ach. 
1064 olcrd' us iroielru^us Seiiroieiv avT-fjv, 
where iroteire is a conjecture. There is 
no reason, in logic or in grammar, against 
this 'subordinate imperative,' which the 
flexible Greek idiom allowed. Few 
would now be satisfied with the old 
theory that otad' ws ttoItjctov stood, by 
transposition, for irolrjcrov, olad* ws; 

545 f. For KdKos with inf., cp. Thuc. 
6. 38 § 2 yfxeis 8e KaKol...irpo<pv\d£aa0ai. 

crov, emphatic by place and pause : cp. 
El. 1505 XPW 5' eidvs etvai T^vSe rots ira- 
aiv 81kt)v J oorts ire" pa irpdaaeiv ye twv v6- 
fiuv 64\ei, j KTelveiv rb y&p iravovpyov 
ovk dv t}v irokd. — TjvpTjK* : as to the aug- 
ment, cp. 68 n. 

547 f. tovt avro k.t.X. Oedipus flings 
back Creon's phrases, as the Antigone of 
Aeschylus bitterly echoes those of the 
KTJpvi- (av8w — ai8w — rpax^s — rpdxw\ 
Theb. 1042 f.). An accent of rising 
passion is similarly given to the dialogue 
between Menelaus and Teucer (Ai. 1142 
17517 tot' el8ov avSp' iyw — 1150 iyw 8k y' 
dvSp' 6irwira). Aristophanes parodies this 
style, Ach. 1097 AAMAX02. irai, irai, 
<f>ip' ti-w Sevpo rbv ytiXiov i/xol. AIKAIO- 
IIOAIS. irai, irai, fop' ££o> Sevpo tV 
kI<stt\v ifiol. — «s lp», how I will state this 


OI. tovt avTo ptj [lot, </>pa£ , o7ra>5 ovk el /ca/cds. 
KP. el tol vopl^eis KTrjfia ttjv avOahiav 

elvai tl rov vov yapis, ovk opdcos fypovels. 550 

OI. el rot vopitjEi*; dvSpa avyyevr) kclkcos 

hpcov o\>x v(f>e^euv tt)v Slktjv, ovk ev (frpoveis. 
KP. £vp(f)r}pi aoL tolvt evhiK eiprjcrOai. to he 

TrddrjfjL ottoIov <j)7)<; TTadeiv StSacr/ce pe. 
OI. eireiOes, rj ovk eireiOes, gjs XP € ^V P * 7 ™ 555 

tov crep.vop.avT iv aVSpa 7rep\pao-0aL tlvol ; 
KP. Kal vvv ed auro? elpi rw fiovkevpaTi. 
OI. 7rocroi/ n*'' 77877 SrjO* 6 Aai'09 XP^ V0V 
KP. Se'Spa/ce 7roio^ epyov ; ov yap ivvocj. 
OI. acjxivTos eppei davao-ipoj x €L P c *f JLaTL ; 560 

KP. pLOLKpol ttclKolloi t dv peTprjdelev ypovoi. 
OI. tot* ou*> o pdvTLS ovto<; r)v ev Trj Tex^V > 
KP. crowds y d/xo tw9 /ca<f ictotj Tipbcopevos. 
OI. epLvrjcraT ovv epov tl to tot' «> XP^ V( P * 
KP. ovkovv epov y eo-T(OTO<z ovSapiov irekas. 5^5 

OI. dAA.' ov/c epevvav tov Oolvovtos eor^ere ; 
KP. 7rapeo'x l X€v > 7tgjs S' ou^t; kov/c r/Kovcrapev. 
OI. 7ra)9 o5i> rd^' ovtos 6 crowds ovk rjvSa ToiSe ; 
KP. ovk oT8' # e^>' ens yap pur) cfypovco auydv <£{,\w. 

655 xpe/77 Dawes. L has x/> 6 '' V> but the accentuation is due to the first corrector, 
and the* over rj has been re-touched by a later hand. The 1st hand may have in- 
tended XP (l V or xpefy- though the space between ei and rj is rather unduly wide. 
Xpet' r) is in almost all the later mss. (xp«" 77" T; XP 6 ^' Bodl. Barocc. 66, with a 

very matter (my supposed hostility to 556 While such words as dpiffrd/xavrLs, 

you): i.e. in what a light I will place bpQbp.avTi.% are seriously used in a good 

it, by showing that I had no motive sense, <r€ftv6p.avTis refers ironically to a 

for it. solemn manner: cp. ae/xvoXoyeiv, aefivo- 

549 f. KTvjfia: cp. Ant. 1050 Scry irpocrwirelv, aefivoTravovpyos, aepLVOirapd- 

Kp&TLffTOV KT-nixdruiv evfiovhla. — av9a8iav, ctros, etc. 

poet, for avddbeiav (Aesch. P. V. 79, 657 avros: 'I am the same man in 

etc.). — tov vov x^pfe 1 for avddbeia is regard to my opinion' (dat. of respect): 

not necessarily devoid of intelligence: as not, 'am identical with my former 

Heracles says (Eur. H. F. 1243) avdades opinion' (when the dat. would be like 

b debs' irpbs be rods deovs iyd. $>ol{3cp in 285). Thuc. can dispense with 

555 rj ovk: Aesch. Theb. 100 d/coiW rj a dative, 2. 61 Kal tyio p.h b airbs eljxi 

ovk d/coi/er' aairlbwv kt6tov ; Od. 4. 682 r) Kal oiiK ££io~Tafiai : though he adds it in 3. 

elirtpLevai 8fiu>yixiv 'Qdvaarjos deloio. Such 38 iyw p.ev ovv b avrbs elfu r% yvthp-rj. 

•synizesis' points to the rapidity and ease 559 Se'SpaKc. Creon has heard only 

of ancient Greek pronunciation: see J. what Oedipus said of him: he does 

H. H. Schmidt, Rhythmik und Metrik not yet know what Teiresias said of 

§ 3 (P- 9 °f E n g- tr « by I* ro k J* W. Oedipus (cp. 574). Hence he is startled 

White). at the mention of Laius. — ov -yap £vvoa> : 


Oe. Explain me not one thing — that thou art not false. 

Cr. If thou deemest that stubbornness without sense is a 
good gift, thou art not wise. 

Oe. If thou deemest that thou canst wrong a kinsman 
and escape the penalty, thou art not sane. 

Cr. Justly said, I grant thee : but tell me what is the 
wrong that thou sayest thou hast suffered from me. 

Oe. Didst thou advise, or didst thou not, that I should 
send for that reverend seer ? 

CR. And now I am still of the same mind. 

Oe. How long is it, then, since Lai'us — 

Cr. Since Lams... ? I take not thy drift... 

Oe. — was swept from men's sight by a deadly violence ? 

Cr. The count of years would run far into the past. 

Oe. Was this seer, then, of the craft in those days ? 

Cr. Yea, skilled as now, and in equal honour. 

Oe. Made he, then, any mention of me at that time ? 

Cr. Never, certainly, when I was within hearing. 

Oe. But held ye not a search touching the murder ? 

Cr. Due search we held, of course — and learned nothing. 

Oe. And how was it that this sage did not tell his story 
then ? 

Cr. I know not; where I lack light, 'tis my wont to be silent. 

superscript). Cp. v. 791. 561 dvafieTpyjdeiev A, a reading>which no other MS. 

seems to have. Cp. 1348, where dv yvQvcu has been changed to avayvQvat in all 
the mss. 566 davbvros] ktclv6vto$ Meineke: dtvbvros M. Schmidt. 567 kovk 
T)Kotio~ap.ev~\ ko^k ixvojo-aiuev Mekler : Kovdev ■fjvofj.ev Nauck. 

i.e. 'I do not understand what Lai'us has yevd/xevoi: Thuc. 3. 28 ol kv tois irpdy- 

to do with this matter.' /ulchti: Isocr. or. 2 § 18 ol kv reus 6\tyap- 

560 x€ip(ojxaTi, deed of a (violent) X' ats Ka * rc " s drj/xoKpaTiais (meaning, the 
hand: Aesch. Theb. 1022 Tvix^6xoa-x ei P^- administrators thereof): Plat. Phaed. 
jiara = service of the hands in raising a 59 A us kv 0tXo<rc0i# yfiuv Ivtuv. Legg. 
mound. In the one other place where 762 a tCov kv reus yeupylats: Protag. 
Aesch. has the word, it means 'prey' 317 C (Protagoras of himself as a o-o<pi<r- 
(Ag. 1326 dovXrjs davovo~r)S ev/xapovs %«- rifc) iroWa ye try) -rjSr} el/j.1 kv rfj rkx^V- 
joc&jucu-os) : Soph, uses it only here (though 565 ov8aji.ou with 4<ttwtos ircXas, 
he has dvax^p^M-o: Ant. 126): Eur. 'when I was standing anywhere near'; 
never. but equivalent in force to, 'on any oc- 

561 fiaicpol k.t.X.: long and ancient casion when I was standing near': cp. 
times would be measured ; i.e. the reckon- At. 1281 8v oida/xov <f>i]s ovbe o-v/j.^i}vai 
ing of years from the present time would wodl. 

go far back into the past; jiaxpol de- 567 irapecrxonev, we held it, as in duty 

noting the course, and iraXatoC the point bound: wapkx^iv, as distinct from 

to which it is retraced. Some sixteen e"x elv i expressing that it was something 

years may be supposed to have elapsed to be expected on their part. Cp. 0. C. 

since the death of Lai'us. 1498 8iKatav x&P LV Tapaaxw ira-duv. 

562 ev Tfj tc'xvx) : slightly con- For irapkax ^ a ^ ter ^xo/J-ev cp. 133 
temptuous. 4v of a pursuit or calling: &ra££ws...d£/ws: 575 fiadeiv...: 576 kK- 
Her. 2. 82 tQv 'EXXtjvcov ol kv iroi.7]o~ei fidvdav'. 


84 I04>0KAE0YI 

01. rocroVSe y olcrOa kglL Xeyot? av ev <f>pova)v. 570 

KP. iroiov toS* ; el yap olSd y, ovk dpvrjcro fiau. 

OI. oOovveK, el fir) crol £vvrjkde, tols e/xas 
ovk av 7T0T eXrre Aatov Sua^Oopds. 

KP. €i fxev Xeyeu ra8', avros otcrO** eya> he o~ov 

fiaOelv St/cataj ravO* direp Kafjiov crv vvv. 575 

OI. eKfJidvOav '• ov yap Srj (ftovevs akcocro pat,. 

KP. ri Srjr ; dSeXcfjrjv rrjv e/Jirjv yrjfjias e^eis ; 

OI. apwrjcris ovk eveo~Tiv cbv dvio-Tope2<z. 

KP. ap^ets 8' eKeivrj ravrd yr)s } lo~ov vefiajv ; 

OI. av 27 Oekovcra iravr ifiov KOfjii^erai. 5 80 

KP. ovkovv crfycov iya) Svolv TpCros ; 

OI. evravda yap Srj /cat Ka/cos cj)aLvet <£iXog. 

KP. outf, el 81801179 y ws eyai cravrS \6yov. 
crKexjjai Se touto wpcorov, ei tlv av So/cets 
apyeiv ekeadai tjvv (frofioLcri fiaXkov rj 585 

arpeo~TOv evoovr , ec ra y avv eqei Kparrj. 
eyco [xev ovv ovt avros ifxeipcov ecj>vv 
rvpavvos elvai fxdWov 7} rvpavva SpaV, 
ovt aAAos octtls cro)(f)povelv hrio~i arai. 
vvv p.ev yap e/c crov iravr dvev <f>6/3ov (frepco, 590 

570 roabvSe y] rb abv 84 L ist hand: the corrector changed abv to abv, as if to 
indicate the reading roabvSe. roabvSe is in a few of the later mss. (as B, with gl. 
ToaovTov): to <rbv 54 in A and others. — rb abv 84 7' is read by Brunck, and others: 
roabvSe 7' by Porson (Eur. Med. 461), Elmsley, and others. The reading rbaov 84 y\ 
already known to Triclinius, and also suggested by Reisig, is preferred by Wunder 

570 TotrovSg y. If we read to <rov rds rpi-qpeLs 4s Xbyov, 'the triremes laid 

8« y, the coarse and blunt rb abv would their heads together': ib. 467 ISLa 8' 4icet 

destroy the edge of the sarcasm. Nor rots AaKe'Satp.ovlois i-vyylyverai. — Tdseuds: 

would rb abv consist so well with the the conject. Td<r8' cp.dLs mars the passage: 

calm tone of Creon's inquiry in 571. 'he would never have described this slay- 

too-ovSc does not need 84 after it, since ing of L. as mine.' — ouk dv etire rds «uds 

ottrOa is a mocking echo of oUa. Cp. Aatov 8ia<j>0opds = ovk av elirev on 4yu 

Eur. /. T. 554 OP. iravaal vvv il]8r], /irjS' A&i'ov 8i4<pd€ipa, but with a certain bitter 

4pu)T7)<rris ir4pa. 1$. ToabvSe y\ el £rj rod force added; — 'we should never have 

raXanrdpov Against the conject. heard a word of this slaying of Laius by 

rbaov 84 7' it is to be noted that Soph. me.' Soph, has purposely chosen a turn 

has rbaos only in Ai. 185 (lyric, rba- of phrase which the audience can re- 

aov), 277 (Sis rba'), and Tr. 53 <ppaacu cognise as suiting the fact that Oed. had 

to abv. slain Laius. For 8ia<f>0opds instead of a 

572 The simple answer would have clause with 8ia<f>delpeiv, cp. Thuc. 1. 137 

been: — 'that you prompted him to make yp&xpas ttjv 4k l/aXa/xivos irpo&yyeXaiv ttjs 

his present charge' : but this becomes: — dvax^p^aecos ical ttjv twv ye<pvpcov...ov 

'that, if you had not prompted him, he SidXvaiv. 

would never have made it.' £vvtJX.0«: 574 f. To write <rou instead of o-ov- 

Ar. Eq. 1300 (paalv dXAiJXcus avveXddv is not indeed necessary; but we thus ob- 


Oe. Thus much, at least, thou knowest, and couldst de- 
clare with light enough. 

Cr. What is that ? If I know it, I will not deny. 

Oe. That, if he had not conferred with thee, he would 
never have named my slaying of Laius. 

Cr. If so he speaks, thou best knowest ; but I claim to 
learn from thee as much as thou hast now from me. 

Oe. Learn thy fill : I shall never be found guilty of the 

Cr. Say, then — thou hast married my sister ? 

Oe. The question allows not of denial. 

Cr. And thou rulest the land as she doth, with like sway ? 

Oe. She obtains from me all her desire. 

CR. And rank not I as a third peer of you twain ? 

Oe. Aye, 'tis just therein that thou art seen a false friend. 

Cr. Not so, if thou wouldst reason with thine own 
heart as I with mine. And first weigh this, — whether thou 
thinkest that any one would choose to rule amid terrors 
rather than in unruffled peace, — granting that he is to have 
the same powers. Now I, for one, have no yearning in 
my nature to be a king rather than to do kingly deeds, 
no, nor hath any man who knows how to keep a sober 
mind. For now I win all boons from thee without fear; 

and others. 572 ras MSS. : t<£<t5' Doderlein. 575 raffi mss.: ratftf' Brunck. 

579 Wecklein writes rijs tl/j.t}$ instead of yijs tcov : Heimsoeth conjectures rod 
Kp&rovs for rabrb. 777s: F. W. Schmidt, &pXV* & iKeivy raOr' £%eis taov vt/xuv. 
583 4y<b] 2x w is Heimsoeth's conjecture, who might point to v. 1061, where eyu) is 

tain a better balance to kci(jlov. — [ia0eiv lucky number, as O. C. 8, At. 1174, 

TO.V0', to question in like manner and Aesch. Eutnen. 759 (rpirov \ Swr^pos): 

measure. t<xv0' (mss.) might refer to the Menander Sent. 231 daka<r<Ta ical irvp koI 

events since the death of Laius, but has 71;^ rpirov Kaubv. 

less point. For the gen. Ijxov, cp. 1163 {rov). 

576 ov "ydp 8rj rejects an alternative: 582 IvTavda yap: (yes indeed :) for 
here, without ye, as Ant. 46 : more often otherwise your guilt would be less glaring ; 
with it, as O. C. 1 10 (n.). it is just this fact that deprives it of excuse. 

577 YIP 015 ^X 6ts: simply, I think, 583 8i8oCt]S Xo-yov : Her. 3. 25 \6yov 
=yey&/j.r)Kas, though the special use of <?wi/r<£ doiis ori...? ( ue\Xe /c.t.X. 'on re- 
£x«*' [Od. 4. 569 ^x ets "E>\frriv Kal <r<piv fleeting that,' etc. : [Dem.] or. 45 § 7 (the 
yafiPpos Ai6s i<ro~i.) might warrant the speech prob. belongs to the time of 
version, ' hast married, and hast to wife.' Dem.) \6yov 5' ifiavry didoi/s evpia-Kcj 

579 yf(<$ with d'pxeis: tcrov v(\uav ex- K.r.X. Distinguish the pltir. in Plato's 
plains Tavrd, — 'with equal sway' (cp. itoikLXtj ttoikLXovs \f/vxy...8idovs Xbyovs, 
201 Kpdrt} vipiwv, and 237): 717s tffov applying speeches {Phaedr. 277 c). 
vkp.wiv would mean, 'assigning an equal 587 owt avrds would have been 
share of land.' The special sense of vi- naturally followed by otfr' d\\y irapai- 
fiuv is sufficiently indicated by the con- voifi' &v, but the form of the sentence 
text; cp. Pind. P. 3. 70 is 2vpai<6<r<rai<n changes to otir' aXXos {ifieipei). 

v4p.€i /3a<riXei5s (rules at S.). 590 Ik <rov : tic is here a correct sub- 

580 f. •g Oc'Xovo-a: cp. 126, 274, 747. stitute for wapd, since the king is the 
— TpCros : marking the completion of the ultimate source of benefits : Xen. Hellen. 



et o auros rjpxov, 7roAAa kolv aKwv eopcov. 

7ra)s 8 rjr ifiol tv pawls rjhioiv £X eiv 

dp)(fjs dkvirov /cat Sv vacrreias i(j)v ; 

oviTOi toctovtov rj7rarr)fJLevos KVpCO 

coctt aXXa XPT)& IV V T< * avif K ^P^ €L Kakd. 595 

vvv ttolctl ^at/)a>, vvv fie 7ra9 acnrd^erai, 

yuV 01 creOev xPV^ 0l,Te<; eKKakovai /xe* 

to ya/o rvyew olvtoictl irav evravff £vl. 

7ra5s 8177' eyw kcii^ aV XafioLp? a</>ei9 raSe ; 

ou/c av yivono vovs /ca/co? /axXak <f>pova)v. 600 

dXX' our' ipa(TTr)<s TrjaSe rrjs yvoofJLrjS £(j)vv 

ovt av per dXkov Spcovros av Tkairjv irori. 

/cat ro)^o eAey^o^ tovto [lev llvvcuo uov 

irevdov rd xP r ) cr @£ l ' T \ €L cra^xw? rjyyeikd <tol* 

right, and the MSS. give ^x w - 597 £KKa\ov<TL L, with a gloss irpoKa\ov<riv written 
above. There is no trace of a variant in the later mss., for in E Ka\ov<ri is a mere 
blunder, and the irapa written in the margin of L and A was meant to explain iic, not 
to suggest a v. I. irapa.Ka\ov<xi. That iKKa\ov<ri was rightly understood, appears from 
such glosses as fie<x[I.TT]v] iroiov<n (B), eh fZoifideiav fieaovura (E). — aUdWovji Musgrave. 
698 r6 yap tvx&v atfrotcr awav ivTavd' tvi L. The accent on ai/roicr has been either 
made or re-touched by the first corrector (S); Diibner and Campbell think that the 

3. I. 6 ineivip 5' atiTT) rj X^P a 8wpov 4k 
/3a(riA&«>$ ibbdrj. — $(po> = <p£, as 1190, 
O. C. 6 etc. 

591 kolv aKttv : he would do much of 
his own good pleasure, but much also 
(ko.1) against it, under pressure of public 

594 f. oviru, ironical: see on 105. — 
to! onuv K^pSci KaXd : honours which bring 
substantial advantage (real power and 
personal comfort), as opp. to honours in 
which outward splendour is joined to 
heavier care. El. 61 8okQ p.Lv, ov8iu p'rjp.a 
cvv K^pSei Kooibv : i.e. the sound matters 
not, if there is K^pSos, solid good. 

596 irdo-i \aipa, 'all men wish me 
joy': lit. 'I rejoice with the consent of 
all men ' : all are content that I should 
rejoice. Cp. 0. C. 1446 av&ijiai ykp 
iraaiv i<rre dvarvx^v, all deem you unde- 
serving of misfortune : Ar. Av. 445 iraat. 
vinav rots Kpirais | ko.1 tois dearais ttcLcl. 
The phrase has been suggested by x a ^ 
fiot, but refers to the meaning rather than 
to the form of the greeting : i.e. irao-i 
\atpw is not to be regarded as if it meant 
literally, 'I have the word x°"P € sa ^ to 
me by all.' This is one of the boldly 

subtle phrases in which the art of Soph, 
recalls that of Vergil. Others under- 
stand: (1) 'I rejoice in all,' — instead of 
suspecting some, as the rvpavvos does, who 

<pdovtei...T<H<TL 6.pL(TT0L(JL...X0ilpei 8e TOlfft 

KaKiffTOLdi T&v 6.0T&V Her. 3. 80: (2) 4 I 
rejoice in relation to all ' — i.e. am on 
good terms with all : (3) ' I rejoice in the 
sight of all ' : i.e. enjoy a happiness which 
is the greater because men see it: (4) 'I 
rejoice in all things.' This last is im- 
possible. Of the others, (1) is best, but 
not in accord with the supposed position 
of Oedipus 6 iraei k\civ6s. 

597 IkkoAovo-i. Those who have a 
boon to ask of Oed. come to the palace 
(or to Creon's own house, see on 637) 
and send in a message, praying Creon to 
speak with them. Seneca's Creon says 
(Oed. 687) Solutus onere regio, regni bonis 
jFruor, domusque civium coetu viget. In 
Greek tragedy the king or some great 
person is often thus called forth. Cp. 
Aesch. Cho. 663: Orestes summons an 
oIk£ttjs by knocking at the ipicda irOXrj, 
and, describing himself as a messenger, 
says — ii-eXdtru) Tts dufidru)]/ reXeacpdpos | 
yvvr] Tdirapxos, — when Clytaemnestra her- 



but, were I ruler myself, I- should be doing much e'en against 
mine own pleasure. 

How, then, could royalty be sweeter for me to have than 
painless rule and influence ? Not yet am I so misguided as to 
desire other honours than those which profit. Now, all wish 
me joy ; now, every man has a greeting for me ; now, those who 
have a suit to thee crave speech with me, since therein is all 
their hope of success. Then why should I resign these things, 
and take those ? No mind will become false, while it is wise. 
Nay, I am no lover of such policy, and, if another put it into 
deed, never could I bear to act with him. 

And, in proof of this, first, go to Pytho, and ask if I brought 

thee true word of the oracle ; 

1st hand wrote avrovcr. This is possible, but seems hardly certain. They also find 
traces of r, written by an early hand after airav, but now erased. Of the later MSS., 
a few have airav, the majority (as A) airavr', but two (V and L 2 ) the probably true 
reading, irav. — irdvr' is read by Bothe and Burges. — Wecklein brackets the verse as 
spurious. 602 dp&vTos] 5pQv rda' Bellermann; 5pu>v r65' Forster. 604 irevdov 
L, the letters irev in an erasure; the 1st hand perh. wrote iiridov, as Diibner thinks. 
irevdov prevails in the later MSS., but T has irtidov, and Pal. irvdov. Nauck prefers 

self appears. So in Eur. Bacch. 170 
Teiresias says — ri's iv iriXaiai Kddpov 
iKKaXei 86/j.uv; 'where is there a servant 
at the doors to call forth Cadmus from 
the house?' — trco rts, ela&yyeXXe Teipeaias 
8ti I fyreT viv: then Cadmus comes forth. 
The active eKKaXe?v is properly said (as 
there) of him who takes in the message, 
the middle iKKaXeladai of him who sends 
it in (Her. 8. 19): but in Ph. 1264 iwa- 
XelaOe (n.) is an exception. The Lat. evo- 
care=€KKa\e1a-dai in Cic. De Orat. 2. 86. 
Musgrave's aUdXXovo-i is not a word 
which a man could complacently use to de- 
scribe the treatment of himself by others. 
ali<a\o$. KoXai; Hesych. (for d/c-taXos, 
from the same rt., with the notion of sooth- 
ing or stilling, as aicdadai, 77/cct, clk^wv, 
aKaaica, d/cctcnccuos) : Ar. Eq. 47 viroireawv 
tov deairorijv | j}KaX\\ edunrev', £KoXaicev\ 
'fawned, wheedled, flattered ' : in tragedy 
only once, Eur. Andr. 630 (plX-qpC edel-oj, 
vpoddnv afodXXwi' Kijva. 

598 To...*ru)(eiv sc. wv xpv£° v0 ~ iv ' The 
reading airavr', whether taken as accus. 
after tu\€iv ('to gain all things'), or as 
accus. of respect ('to succeed in all') not 
only mars the rhythm but enfeebles the 
sense. When avroio-i was corrupted into 
avrots, irav was changed into airav, as it 
is in L. 4vTav8a = ^ rip iiocaXetv fie, in 
gaining my ear: cp. 0. C. 585 evravda 
yap jioi Kelva avyKOfd^erai., in this boon I 

find those comprised. 

599 ir«s 8tjt. Cp. Her. 5. 106 
(Histiaeus to Dareius) fiaoCXev, koIov i<p- 
diyt-ao frros ; 4pe fiovXevoai vprjyp.a iic tov 
vol ti rj fieya rj cfwcpbv fyieXXe Xvirijpbv 
ava<rx i l a ' €lt ' > T * <*' &" tiridifffievos iroitoifu 
ravra ; rev de £v8er)$ i&v, r<p irdpa fikv 
iravra oaairep ooi, rrdvruv 8e irpbs crto 
(3ovXevfj.aTb>v iiraKotieip dfieujucu; 

600 ovk dv y«voito k.t.X. Creon has 
been arguing that he has no motive for 
treason. He now states a general maxim, 
' No mind would ever turn to treason, 
while it was sound.' As a logical in- 
ference, this holds good only of those 
who are in Creon's fortunate case. If, 
on the other hand, KaXws <j>pov«v means 
'alive to its own highest good,' and not 
merely to such self-interest as that of 
which Creon has spoken, then the state- 
ment has no strict connection with what 
precedes : it becomes a new argument of 
a different order, which might be illus- 
trated from Plato's /ca/cos £kuv ovdels. It 
would be forcing the words to render: 
'A base mind could not approve itself 
wise,' i.e. 'such treason as you ascribe to 
me would be silly.' 

603 €\€7\ov, accus. in apposition 
with the sentence: Eur. H. F. 57 rj dv<x- 
irpa£ia \ 77s pLt)iro9\ ootis icai pt-taws etivovs 
£p.ol, I Ti/x ot » <plXuv iXeyxov a^evbiara- 


88 I04>0KAE0YI 

tovt akk\ lav fie tco TepacrKOTTco kdfirjs 605 

KOLvfj tl fiovkevaavTa, yJ\ fx 077X77 Krdvrjs 
xjjrjfjxp, 8177X7? Se, rfj r ifjurj Kal crfj, kaficov. 
ypcofjirj §' 01877X0) fxrj /xe ^(wpt? airicu. 
ov yap h'tKaiov ovt€ tovs /ca/cou? fxdrrjv 


<f)ikov yap iadkov iK@akeiv ictov keyco 
/cat top Trap aura) fiioTov, ov wkeLCTTov <f)ikei. 
dXX' iv xpovco yvcocrei rdS' dor<£aX&J9, eVei 
Xpovos SiKauov avSpa SeLKwcnv p,6vo$, 
^,aO^* KaK o V Se Kav iv rj^lpa yvoirjs pna^ 615 

XO. /caX&k ekefjev evkafiovfjievco Trecreiv, 

aval;' fypoveiv yap 01 ra^ei9 ovk acr^aXet?. 

OI. orav ra^u? rts ovTnfiovkevcov kdOpa 

X^py* t<*<X vp ^£L K dp<€ fiovkevecv irdkiv. 

el 8' TjO'vxdt.oiv irpoorfxevco, rd rovhe /xeV 620 

Trenpay\k£v ecrrai, rdua 8' rj^apTr)p.4va. 

KP. ri S^ra xPv£ €L< > \ V ^ 7V^ *& $ a kelv ; 

OI. TjKicrTa' OvrjCTKeiv, ov <f>vyeiv ere fiovkofjiai, 
'"cos dv TTpohei^rjs olov ian to <f>0ov€Lv. 

KP. a>5 ovv virei^cov ouSe TriorTevcrcov Xe'yeis ; 625 

01. * * * * 

KP. ov yap <f>povovvTa <r ev fikeira). OI. to yovv ifiov. 
KP. dkk' i£ ivov Set Kafiov. OI. dXX* e</>t>9 Ka/co?. 

TrufloD, as Dindorf did in Poet. Seen. ed. 5 (1869). 6O8 Bellermann 

conject. yvtibfirjs 84 8rj\ov. 623 dwfjKnceiv L. See comment, on 118. 

605 tovt* aXXo = tovto 84. Soph, has own 6u/j.6s as his trusty ally (Bergk fr. 

tovto p.4v irregularly followed by tovt' 66), — Qvp.4, Qbp? dfirixdvoitri Kif/Seaiv kvkw- 

avdis (Ant. 165), by cTra (Ph. 1345), by fiei>e, | iv&Sev, Svapxv&v 8' d\4fcv irpocfia- 

84 (At. 670, 0. C. 440). — t<J> TCpa<TK6ir(p. \ut> ivavriov \ <TT4ppov. — tpiXet se. tis, sup- 

This title (given to Apollo, Aesch. Eum. plied from avrcp : Hes. Op. 12 r^v fi4v 

62) has sometimes a shade of scorn, as k&> iiraiv^aeie vo^aas \ i) 5' iTrifiui/jLTjT^. 

when it is applied by the mocking 614 f. xP° vo $ : C P- Pind. fr. 132 

Pentheus to Teiresias (Eur. Bacch. 248), duSpQv Sucalwv ^j>6vo$ trarrfyo apiaros : 

and by Clytaemnestra to Cassandra Olymp. 11. 53 8 r' l£e\£y%w fi6vo$ \ dXd- 

( Aesch. Ag. 1440). deiav iHjTv/xov \ xpt> v0 *- — KaKdv 8^ : the 

6O8 x w P^s, 'apart': i.e. solely on the sterling worth of the upright man is not 

strength of your own guess (yv&fxr) &8r)- fully appreciated until it has been long 

Xos), without any evidence that I falsified tried : but a knave is likely (by some 

the oracle or plotted with the seer. slip) to afford an early glimpse of his real 

612 tov irap' avT$ Plotov k.t.X. : the character. The Greek love of antithesis 

life is hospes comesque corporis, dearest has prompted this addition, which is 

guest and closest companion : cp. Plat. relevant to Creon's point only as imply- 

Gorg. 479 B fit) byiei \fsvxv (rvvoiKe'iv: ing, 'if I had been a traitor, you would 

and the address of Archilochus to his probably have seen some symptom of it 



then next, if thou find that I have planned aught in concert 
with the soothsayer, take and slay me, by the sentence not of 
one mouth, but of twain — by mine own, no less than thine. 
But make me not guilty in a corner, on unproved surmise. It 
is not right to adjudge bad men good at random, or good men 
bad. I count it a like thing for a man to cast off a true friend 
as to cast away the life in his own bosom, which most he loves. 
Nay, thou wilt learn these things with sureness in time, for time 
alone shows a just man ; but thou couldst discern a knave even 
in one day. 

Ch. Well hath he spoken, O king, for one who giveth heed 
not to fall : the quick in counsel are not sure. 

Oe. When the stealthy plotter is moving on me in quick 
sort, I, too, must be quick with my counterplot. If I await him 
in repose, his ends will have been gained, and mirte missed. 

Cr. What wouldst thou, then ? Cast me out of the land ? 

Oe. Not so : I desire thy death — not thy banishment — 
that thou mayest show forth what manner of thing is envy. 

Cr. Thou speakest as resolved not to yield or to believe ? 

[Oe. No ; for thou persuadest me not that thou art worthy of belief.] 

Cr. No, for I find thee not sane. Oe. Sane, at least, in 
mine own interest. 

Cr. Nay, thou shouldst be so in mine also. Oe. Nay, 
thou art false. 

624 f. ws dv is my conjecture for 6rav. The mss. give v. 624 to Creon, and v. 625 

ere now.' Cp. Pind. Pyth. 2. 90 (speak- 
ing of the Qdovepol) : a-rddfias 56 tivos 
£\k6/j.€Voi I irepuraas iviira^av ?X/cos 68 w a- 
pbv £$ irpbcde Kapdiq., \ irplv oaa (frpovrldt. 
p.r}TlovTai rv%eiv. Ant. 493 <pi\el 5' & 
dv/xbs irpdaOev yprjadcu uXowevs | tQv p.r]5ep 
dpdios iv (ri<6T(p Texvcofxhojv . 

617 The infin. <j>povciv is like an 
accus. of respect {e.g. j^ovMjv) construed 
with both adjectives: 'in counsel, the 
quick are not sure.' Cp. Thuc. 1. 'joiiri- 
vo7)<rcu (5£ets. 

618 Ta\vs tis X^PTI' advances in 
quick fashion; nearly = rax^s 7rws. At. 
1266 <pev, toO davSvros ws Taxied tis 
jS/jorois I xdpu diappei, in what quick sort 
does it vanish. 

622 — 626 rt Sr\ra XPTlt €l S;-..T6 70VV 
€|J.6v. (1) Verse 624, orav irpodeifys k.t.X., 
which the MSS. give to Creon, belongs to 
Oedipus: and for orav we should (I 
think) read «s dv. The argument that 
the stichomuthia should not be broken 
shows inattention to the.practice of Soph. 
He not seldom breaks a stichomuthia, 

when a weighty utterance (as here, the 
king's threat) claims the emphasis of two 
verses. See {e.g.) 356 — 369, broken by 
366 f. (the seer's denunciation) : Ant. 
40 — 48, broken by 45 f. (Antigone's re- 
solve): 0. C 579 — 606, broken by 583 f. 
(where Theseus marks the singularity in 
the proposal of Oed.). (2) Verse 625 wj 
oi>x iirei^up k.t.\., which the MSS. give to 
Oedipus, belongs to Creon. (3) Between 
625 and 626 a verse spoken by Oedipus 
has dropped out, to such effect as ob 
ydp p.e irddeis olivetc' oinc AmffTOS el. 
The fact of the next verse, our 626, also 
beginning with ou -ydp may have led to 
the loss by causing the copyist's eye to 
wander. The echoed ov ^ap would suit 
angry dialogue : cp. 547, 548 KP. tovt' 

ai/TO VVV pMV 7T/)<2t' &KOVGOV d)S ipQ. 01. 

tovt' air 6 pvfi p.ot <ppdf. (See also on 
Ph. 1252.) The traditional interpretations 
fail to justify (1) oUv £<tti t6 <pdoveiv, as 
said by Creon: (2) TrurTev'o'uv, as said by 
Oed. See Appendix. 





KP. el Se fjvviri<z firjSev ; OI. apKTeov y ofia)<;. 
KP. ovtol kolko)*; y apyovros. OI. cj 770X15 770A.19. 

KP. KafXOL 7r6\€(i)<; IJL€T€(TTIV, OV)(l (TOl (JLOVCp. 

XO. 7ravaaaO\ avaKTes' Kaipiav S' vplv 6pa> 

TrjpS* €K SojJLCov (neiypvcrav 'io/cacrTT^, fieO* rjs 
to vvv irapeo-Tos vzIkos ev OecrOai ^pecjv. 


tl ttjv afiovkov, (O TaXai7TO)pOl, (TTOLCTIV 

ykcocrcrrjs eTnjpacrO* ; ovS* erraKT^vuecrOe, yfjs 
TSta kivovv re? /ca/ca ; 


ovto) vocrovcrr)^, 

ovk el crv r olkovs crv re, Kpeov, Kara (TTeyas, 
Kol /it) ro fjLrjSev akyos els pey oicrere ; 
Sei^a fj? OiStVof? d crd? 

KP. ofxaLjJLe 


votz^ ot/catot 'Opav arroKpivas kolkoiv, 
rj yrjs drrajcrai naTpiSos, rj Krelvai \afia>v. 

SiKouol *8pc 



to Oedipus. After v. 625 a verse seems to be lost. 629 dpxovToo- L, made 

from dpxovT€<r either by the first hand or by the first corrector (S). — dpxovras 
Musgrave. 631 Kaipiav] Kvpiav L, the u in an erasure of two letters, of 

which the second was t: in the margin, yp. Kaipiav. Most of the later MSS. have 
Kaipiav. 634 ttjv] Doderlein conj. rfyd'. 635 The 1st hand in L wrote 

eirripa<x0\ but an early corrector changed this to iw/ipar', as most of the later MSS. 

628 dpKT€0V = 5ei apx* iV , one must 
rule: cp. Ant. 677 afivvrf £o~tI rots 
Koa/xovfitvois. Isocr. or. 14 § 10 ob tCjv 
dWuv aureus apKrtov (they ought not to 
rule over others) dXXci TroXb fiaWov 'Opxo- 
fieviois (pbpov oI<tt£ov. In Plat. Tim. 48 B 
apKTiov = 5& Apxecrdai, one must begin; 
in At. 853 apKTtov to trpay/xa = must be 
begun. Some understand — 'one must be 
rtdedj and oOtoi /ccikws 7' dpxovros, 'No, 
not by one who rules ill ' : but (a) though 
apKrta 7r6Xi5 might mean, ' the city is to be 
ruled,' an absolute passive use of dpKrkov 
is certainly not warranted by such an 
isolated example as ob KaTairK^KTkov 
iffriv ('we must not be unnerved') in 
Dein. In Dem. § 108: (b) &pxopiai tivos, 
' I am ruled by one ' (instead of 4k or 
biro), could only plead the analogy of 
aKobu tiv6$, and lacks evidence. 

629 dpxovros, when one rules. apK- 
riov being abstract, 'it is right to rule,' 
there is no harshness in the gen. absol. 
with rivbs understood (cp. 612), which is 
equivalent to idv ris ApxV- C P- Dem. or. 
6 § 20 Xtyovros &v tivos Trio'Tevo'ai oUade; 
'think you that, if any one had said it, 

they would have believed ?' = oteade, et Tit 
ZXeye, iriOTtvoai dv (avTobs); — <5 iroXis 
iroXis: here, an appeal: in Attic comedy, 
an exclamation like lempora, mores: 
Blaydes cp. Eupolis ap. Athen. 424 B w 
7r6Xis, "ko\i% I cos ebruxys et fiaWov $ 
KaXus (ppoveh : and so Ar. Ach. 27. 

630 iroXctos. Most of the MSS. have 
fxtreaTt r^o-5' ovxi- Had they fiireffri. 
7-770-5' ob (which appears only in a few in- 
ferior MSS.) we should hardly be war- 
ranted in ejecting T?}tr5': but, having the 
choice, we may safely prefer fi£r«rnv 
ov\l to jjAreari TrjaS 1 ob. 'I have some 
right in Thebes, as well as you.' Creon 
speaks not as a brother of Iocasta, but as a 
Theban citizen who denies that ' the city 
belongs to one man' (Ant. 737). Plat. 
Legg. 768 B dei 8e 5tj Kal rwv ISiJv SikQv koi- 
vweiv Kara dbvafiiv airavras' 6 yap dKoivd)- 
vrp-os wv ii-ovo-ias rod cvvdiKdfav TjyeTrai to 
irapdirav ttjs 7r6Xews ob /mc'toxos elvai. 

637 ovk cl. ..Kal \kr\...ol<r(Tt; cp. At. 
75 n. — oI'kous (the king's palace), ace. 
after tl (cp. 533) ; Kara with o-r^yas only, 
referring to the house of Creon, who is 
not supposed to be an inmate of the 





But if thou understandest nought ? 

Oe. Yet must I 

CR. Not if thou rule ill. Oe. Hear him, O Thebes ! 

Cr. Thebes is for me also — not for thee alone. 

Ch. Cease, princes ; and in good time for you I see Iocasta 
coming yonder from the house, with whose help ye should com- 
pose your present feud. 


Misguided men, why have ye raised such foolish strife of 
tongues ? Are ye not ashamed, while the land is thus sick, to 
stir up troubles of your own ? Come, go thou into the house, 
— and thou, Creon, to thy home, — and forbear to make much 
of a petty grief. 

CR. Kinswoman, Oedipus thy lord claims to do dread 
things unto me, even one or other of two ills, — to thrust me 
from the land of my fathers, or to slay me amain. 

read, though one or two (as V, V 4 ) have £irfipa<rd\ 637 L has an erasure between 

atj r' and o'Ikovv. The 1st hand seems to have intended at r' 4<r oUova. — Kptwv L, and 
nearly all the later mss. In 1459 L again has Kpiiou as voc, but in Ant. 211 Kpiov 
by correction from Kpiw. but E has Kpiov, and so Elmsley. 640 dpaeat, 

diKaioi Svoiv diroxplvas naKolv MSS. — Svoiv . . Spdv is my conjecture: see comment. 

palace: see 515, 533. 

638 t6 |iT]8ev dXyos: the generic use 
of yd] ('a grief such as to be naught,' — 
quod nihili sit), here giving a causal 
force ('seeing that it is naught'): cp. 397, 
1019; EL 1166 te^ai... I tt]v fiySev is 
t6 firjSiv : els pi"ya <j>epetv, make into a 
great matter: cp. {Phil. 259) vdaos \ del 
ridrjke ndirl /xeitov £pxercu. 

640 Svoiv... airoxptvas kcucoiv. The 
traditional reading, Spaaai... Svoiv, is, the 
only extant example of 8voiv scanned as 
one syllable, though in the tragic poets 
alone the word occurs more than 50 
times. Synizesis of v is rare in extant 
Greek poetry: Pind. Pyth. 4. 225 yevlmv: 
Anthol. 11. 413 (epigram by Ammianus, 
1 st century A.D.) iokl/ulov, TjSvda/iiov, ir-fiya- 
vop, ao-rr&payos. Eur. /. T. 970 oVcu 8' 
'EpivviDv oi>K 4ird(xdy]<Tav vbpup, and id. 1456 
otarpois 'J&pivvuv, where most editors 
write 'Epivvv, as id. 299'Epiv0s(acc.plur.). 
Hes. Scut. 3 'RXeKTpvwos. It might be 
rash to say that Soph, could not have 
used 8voiv as a monosyllable; for he has 
used the ordinary synizesis in a peculiarly 
bold way, Ai. 11 29 nij vvv dri/xa deovs 
deols <re<xu)/jLhos : but at least it moves the 
strongest suspicion. 

diroKpivas, on the other hand, seems 
genuine. d-rvoKpiveiv is properly secemere, 
to set apart: e.g. yrjP (Plat. Rep. 303 d) : 
or to select: id. Legg. 946 A irX-qdu t&v 
\pT}(f>u)v diroKplvavTas, having selected (the 
men) according to the number of votes 
for each. Here, 'having set apart (for 
me) one of two ills' is a phrase suitable 
to the arbitrary rigour of doom which 
left a choice only between death and 

For Svoiv Elms, proposed tolv8' > or 
roiv84 7' : Herm., tows' k"v : A. Spengel, 
8elv\ I should rather believe that 8pav 
was altered into Spaa a. l by a grammarian 
who looked to dir^o-cu, Kreivai, and 
perh. also sought a simpler order. But 
for pres. infin. combined with aor. infin. 
cp. 623 dvri<rKei.t>...<pvyeiv: Ant. 204 
yu??re KTeplfeiv fnf}Te tcwKvcrai. See 
also 0. C. 732 ijKU) yap otix &s 8pdv ri 
PovKrjdds, where in prose we should have 
expected 5pa<rcu. The quantity of diro- 
Kptvas is supported by Aesch. P. V. 24 
dironptyei : diroTpo-rr^ and its cognates in 
Aesch. and Eur. : 4iriicp}j7rTeiv Eur. Suppl. 
296: tirlKpdvwv I. T. 51. Blaydes conj. 
5oi>s Svoiv Kplvai Kaicoiv (i.e. 'giving me 
my choice of two ills' ; cp. O. Co^oroi/row 
...dida/mi col | Kplvavri xPW& ai ) '• Dindorf, 


<rr/>. a 

9 2 




£v/jL<j)r)(ii' SpcovTa yap viv, a> ywat, /ca/ca>? 

€i\r)(f)a Tovfjiov o"w/xa o~vv Te^yrj KaKrj. 

jxrj vvv ovai/JLrjv, aXX apalos, ei o~e tl 

SehpcLK, oXoifjirjv, cop iiraiTia /xe hpav. 645 

a> TTpos decov 7TL(TT€vcrov, OlSCwovs, raSe, 

/xaXtcrTa jjl€v tovo* opKov atSecr^et? 0eci)v, 

eireira /ca/i,e rovoSe & ot Trapeicrl croi. 

XO. 1 7n0ov OeXrjcras (fypovtfcras r', dva^ t Xuxcro/xac. 649 
OI. 2 tl croi OeXeis StJt elKaOco ; 

XO. 3 tov ovre irpiv V7J7TIOV vvv t iv opK(p p,£yav fcaraiSecrcu. //kM 
OI. 4 otcrO* ovv a ^prj^eis ; XO. oTSa. OI. <£/oa£e 877 ri ^775. 

XO. 5 tov ivayrj <J)lXov puqiroT iv curia 

6 crvv dcfxtvel Xoycp cr clti\lov fiaXelv. 

01. 7 ev vvv i7Ti(TT0), Tav8* otov L^rjTrjs, ifxol 
8 QrjTaiv oXeOpov rj <j)vyr)v e/c TrjcrSe yrjs. 




The word <rvvLt/r]<rts, written over Svoiv in T, seems to show a consciousness 
of the singularity. 648 Trdpetat aoi made in L from Trdpeic 1 taoi. Cp. El. 1201. 

656 f. L has rd>> ivayrji <pLXov /-uyTror' ^v aMcu | <riiv aQavei \6yop dri/iov tKfiaXeiv. 
Over Xbyov an early hand has written yu, indicating Xbyip, which is found in most of 
the later mss. (including A); a few others (as V) have Xbywv. Hermann inserted 
c' after Xbyip. The false reading ixfiaXeiv is in almost all the later mss. ; but T agrees 

Qdrepov dvoip kclkoZv (where I should 
at least prefer xaicbv) : ' but since, with 
either of these supposed readings, the 
construction would have been perfectly 
clear, it is hard to see how diroKpCvas — a 
far-sought word — could have crept in as 
an explanatory gloss. That, however, 
is Whitelaw's view, who suggests that 
the original may have been something 
like <pav\ov aXpe<riv 7' ifiol. Wolff would 
compress vv. 640 f. into one, thus : Spatrcu 
diKaiol, 6elv\ airoKTeivai XafS&v. 

642 SpwvTa KaKws toujiov <ra>u,a would 
properly describe bodily outrage: here it 
is a heated way of saying that Creon's 
supposed plot touched the person of the 
king (who was to be dethroned), and not 
merely the vb/xoi TrbXeias. 

644 dpaXos = <Z<nr€p adrbs iirapuffiai. 

647 opKov 0€<3v (object, gen.), an oath 
by the gods (since one said dfivtvai deods) : 
Od. 2. 377 OeCjv fiiyav 6pKOV dirth/xw: 10. 
299 naK&piav pukyav SpKov 6fib<r<rcu: Eur. 
Hipp. 657 op/cots de&v. But in O. C. 
1767 Aibs "OpKos is personified. 

649 — 697 The Ko/xfxbs (see p. 9) has 

a composite strophic arrangement: (1) 
\st strophe, 649 — 659, (2) 2nd strophe, 
660 — 668; answering respectively to (3) 
\st antistr., 678 — 688, (4) 2nd antistr., 
689 — 697. 

649 OcXtjo-as, having consented (via-- 
reijeiv). 0. C. 757 Kptyov (hide thy 
woes), BeX-fioat curru nal db/uovs fioXeiv. 
Isae. or. 8 § n ravra iroiijcrat fit] deX^aas. 
Plut. Mor. 149 F owbenrveiv fify QeX-fjaav- 
ros. — <{>povT]<ras, having come to a sound 
mind. Isocr. or. 8 § 141 KaXbv i<rnv iv 
• rais Tuiv AXXuv ASudcus Kal fiaplais irpibrovs 
e$ <ppovfj <r auras TrpoffTTJvai rrjs t&v'EX- 
Xfywv iXevdepias. 

651 eUdOa): the aor. subj. is certainly 
most suitable here: Phil. 761 /3oiJXei Xa- 
fiufiai; El. 80 OiXeis | fxelvuixev; In 
such phrases the pres. subj. (implying a 
continued or repeated act) is naturally 
much rarer: /SoiJXei iiruncoTQ/jLev Xen. 
Mem. 3. 5. 1. As regards the form of 
elic&doj, Curtius ( Verb II. 345, Eng. tr. 505), 
discussing presents in -dio and past tenses 
in -dov from vowel stems, warns us a- 
gainst 'looking for anything particularly 



Oe. Yea ; for I have caught him, lady, working evil, by ill 
arts, against my person. 

Cr. Now may I see no good, but perish accursed, if I have 
done aught to thee of that wherewith thou chargest me ! 

10. O, for the gods' love, believe it, Oedipus — first, for the 
awful sake of this oath unto the gods, — then for my sake and 
for theirs who stand before thee ? 


Ch. Consent, reflect, hearken, O my king, I pray thee ! ist 

Oe. What grace, then, wouldest thou have me grant thee ? s rop 

Ch. Respect him who aforetime was not foolish, and who 
now is strong in his oath. 

Oe. Now dost thou know what thou cravest ? 

Ch. Yea. 

Oe. Declare, then, what thou meanest. 

Ch. That thou shouldest never use an unproved rumour to 
cast a dishonouring charge on the friend who has bound himself 
with a curse. 

OE. Then be very sure that, when thou seekest this, for me 
thou art seeking destruction, or exile from this land. 

Ch. No, by him who stands in the front of all the heavenly host, 2nd 


with Suidas {s.v. ivayfjs) in (3aXelv. — For ivayrj Musgrave conjectured dvayrj'. for avv, 
Seidler crv y\ reading X67&W (which Musgrave, too, preferred). 659 <pvyeiv, written 
by the ist hand in L, has been changed to (pvyrjv by an early corrector. 66O dew 
debv. In L debv is partially effaced, and in most of the latet mss. it is omitted; 
thus in A it has been completely erased, a space of four letters being left between 

aoristic in the 0' of these verbs. In 
Greek usage, he holds, 'a decidedly 
aoristic force' for such forms as ax^^v 
and eUadelv 'never established itself: 
and he justly cites El. 1014 as a place 
where eUadelv is in no way aoristic. He 
would therefore keep the traditional 
accent, and write ax^etv, eludQeiv, with 
Buttmann. Now, while believing with 
Curtius that these forms were prob. in 
origin presents, I also think that in the 
usage of the classical age they were often 
aorists: as e.g. crxe0e?j' in Aesch. Theb. 
429 distinctly is. 

652 ovt6 irpiv...vvv tc: cp. O. C. 
1397 f. — ue-yav, 'great,' i.e. strong, worthy 
of reverence, lv op»ca>, by means of, in 
virtue of, his oath: Eur. Tro. 669 %vv&- 
<rei ykvei irXo&rcp re Kdvdpela p.4yav : for 
iv y cp. Phil. 185 Zv t' 6Mvous bp.ov | Xip.<p 

T' 0lKTp6s. 

656 'That thou shouldest never lay 
under an accusation (ev aii-ia (BaXeiv), so 
as to dishonour him (citijaov), with the 

help of an unproved story (<rvv a<f>av€i 
\o'"y<o), the friend who is liable to a curse 
(Iva-yTJ)': i.e. who has just said (644) 
dpdios dXolfiau k.t.X. Aeschin. In Ctes. 
§110 ytypaiTTai yhp oCrws e~v tj} dpq.' el 
Tts rate, (prjal, Trapafialvoi,...ivay^jS, <p~-q- 
alv, t-<TT(i) rod AirdWwvos, 'let him 
rest under the ban of Apollo': as Creon 
would rest under the ban of the gods by 
whom he had sworn. Her. 6. 56 4v rep 
aye'C iv^x^dai, to be liable to the curse. 
cv ali-fa. PaXeiv : [Plat.] Epist. 7. 341 A 
ws fiT]54iroT€ fioLkeZv h ahlq. rbv deiKvOvra 
dXX' atirbv avrbv, 'so that he may never 
blame his teacher, but only himself,' 
equiv. to i/j.(3a\eiv airly.: cp. the prose 
phrases e/tjSaXXei^ els (rvfupop&s, ypa<f>as t 
e'xQp&Vt K.r.X. Eur. Tro. 305 els £/*' alrlav 
/SdX?;. Seidler^s ati 7' d<pavec \6yuv, which 
Wolff adopts, is specious. 

66O ov tov = ov p.d rbv, as not seldom ; 
usu. followed by a second negative (as if 
here we had oi>K ix w Tdvbe (ppSvrjaiv) : 
1088, Ant. 758, etc. — irpouov, standing 




2 "AXiov - iirel a0eos a<£iXo9 o t l ttvixcltov 

3 oXoLfJLOLV, <f)p6v7)(TLV £6 TCwS' e)(W. 

4 dXXa /xoi hvdfxopo) yd (frdwovaa 665 

5 TpV)(€L xpv)(dv, TOL 8' €t /caKoi9 /ca/ca 

6 npocrdxpeL rot? irakai ra 77/309 cr^>a>£\ 

01. d 8' ow trw, /c€t ^/Di7 /xe 7rai>TeXa>g Oaveiv, 669 

17 y*?9 cltlilov Trjcr$ y dTrcoadrjvai fita. 670 

to yap ow, ou rd rouS', irroLKTipa) crro/xa 
ekeivov 0UT09 o, evu av y, crrvyi) (reran. 

KP. crrvyvos fief eiKOiv 817X09 €i, fiapvs 8', dra*> 
Ovjjlov Trepdarjs. at Se rotavrat <£ucrei9 
avTals Si/caia>9 eio-h> aXyicrrai cfyepeuv. 675 

01. ov/cow // eacret9 /caKT09 el; KP. 7ro/oeucro/xat, 
o-ou /x€i^ rv)((x)v dyvcoros, iv Se to tcrS' to-09. 

XO. 1 yvvai, ri /xeXXet9 ko\liQe.iv hofxav rd^S* €0"w ; 678 

flewy and irpbp.op. A few, however, (as V,) keep debp and omit flew?. T keeps both. 
665 <f>0kov<ra] <f>dipbs Dindorf: cp. v. 694. 666 rd 5' Kennedy: ical rdcf mss.: 

tc£5' Hermann, omitting ical, which the metre (cp. v. 695) condemns. 668 irpocr- 

foremost in the heavenly ranks, most 
conspicuous to the eyes of men : the god 
1 who sees all things and hears all things ' 
(II. 3. 277 8s ttowt' 4<popq.s K<xl irayr' iira- 
Koveis) : invoked Track. 102 as <3 /cpart- 

(7T€tiu)V KCLT* OfXfia. 

663 o ti irv|i.aT<Jv (ten), (tovto) 
oXoi[iav : schol. <pQa.pdr\p oirep 2<rx aT0U > 
ijyovv dirdbXetap tJtis iaxdrt\. 

666 f. rd 8' — <r<J>uJ v : and, on the 
other hand, if the ills arising from you 
two are to be added to the former ills. 
Prof. Kennedy gives tci 8', rightly, I 
think : for ya. <f>6(vov<ra refers to the 
blight and plague (25): t<£8' would ob- 
scure the contrast between those troubles 
and the new trouble of the quarrel. — irpo<r- 
ax|/«t intrans., as perh. only here and in 
fr. 348 KaL p.01 rplrov pLwrovTi... J dyxov 
irpoa-r}\peu, 'he came near to me. Eur. 
Hipp. 188 rb pjtv ianp dirXovp' rq> 5& 
ovvdirret. I \6wri re (ppev&v x e P^ v r€ 7r< ^' 
pos, 'is joined.' It is possible, but harsh, 
to make irpoaarf/ei act. with 777 as subject. 
Since in 695 dXiovaap /car' 6p66p ovpiaas 
is clearly sound, Herm. rightly struck out 
Kal before rd 8' here. See on 696. 

669 6 8' ovv: then let him go: At. 
114 av 5' ovp... I XP& x ei pl> 

672 IXcivov: tertiary predicate: 'I 

compassionate thy words, piteous as they 
are.' Where a possessive pron. with art. 
has preceded the subst., Soph, sometimes 
thus subjoins an adj., which really has 
the predicative force to which its position 
entitles it, though for us it would be 
more natural to translate it as a mere 
attributive: Ant. 881 rbp 5' ip.bp wbr/xop 
ddaKpvTOP I ov5els...<rTepdfet: Phil. 1456 
rovpLOP iriyxQi) \ KpaV ipdopivxop : El. 
1 143 ttjs ifxrjs irdXai Tpo(pijs I dpuxpeXriTov. 
In 1 199 (where see note) rbp yap.\f/. irapd. 
Xptiop-ydbp is not a similar case. Prof. 
Kennedy, placing a comma after iiroU- 
relpw, but none after to08\ construes: rb 
<rbp <TT6p.a iXetpbp (^<rn), ovk ivoiKTelpu) 
rb Tovde. — <mryi]<r€T<H, pass. Other ex- 
amples in Soph, are 1500 dpeidieiode : 
O. C. 581 SrjXdxreTai, 1186 X^erat : Ant. 
210 Tip.-f)<T€Tai, 637 d£ti6o-6Tcu: El. 971 
KaXei: Phil. 48 0i/Xd£ercu: among many 
found in prose as well as in verse are ddt- 
K"fj(TOp:ai, dXu<,, fr)/, 
TipLTrjaofiai, uxpeX-ijcofiai. The middle 
forms of the aorist were alone peculiar to 
that voice; the so-called 'future middle,' 
like the rest, was either middle or pas- 

673 f. <TTv\vos...7r€pd<r , gs: ' thou art 
seen to be sullen when thou yieldest, 





no, by the Sun ! Unblest, unfriended, may I die by the utter- 
most doom, if I have that thought ! But my unhappy soul 
is worn by the withering- of the land, and again by the thought 
that our old sorrows should be crowned by sorrows springing 
from you twain. 

Oe. Then let him go, though I am surely doomed to death, 
or to be thrust dishonoured from the land. Thy lips, not his, 
move my compassion by their plaint ; but he, where'er he be, 
shall be hated. 

CR. Sullen in yielding art thou seen, even as vehement in 
the excesses of thy wrath ; but such natures are justly sorest 
for themselves to bear. 

Oe. Then wilt thou not leave me in peace, and get thee gone? 

CR. I will go my way ; I have found thee undiscerning, 
but in the sight of these I am just. [Exit. 

Ch. Lady, why dost thou delay to take yon man into the ist anti- 
house ? str °P he - 

dxf/et.] Nauck conj. irpoad^ei^. — ra irpo<r<f)Q)iv L, i.e. ra irpbs c<p$v, which is the 
only reading known to the later MSS. Nauck gives ra Trpba-cpara (reading el btiva, 
yevov in 696). 672 iXeeivbv MSS. : 4\etvbu Porson. 670 56/m.ou L: bbpuav r. 

but fierce when thou hast gone far in 
wrath': i.e., as thou art fierce in passion, 
so art thou sullen in yielding. Greek 
idiom co-ordinates the clauses, though 
the emphasis is on arvyvbs fiev etuwv, 
which the other merely enforces by con- 
trast: see on 419. — papvs, bearing heavily 
on the object of anger, and so, 'vehe- 
ment,' 'fierce': Ai. 1017 btiaopyos, A» 
ytipa /3api5s, id. 656 /itjvlp fiapelav'. Phil. 
1045 ]3api5s re nai fiapeiav 6 if&os <pdnp 
tt]vS > eltre : Ant. 761 povs 5' £<rri ttjXikov- 
tos d\yqcras fiaptis. — ircpdcrns absol.,= 
Trpbao) e'Xdrjs: 0. G. 154 irepqs, (you go 
too far), id. 885 ice" pap \ TepGxx' otbe br). — 
flvpov, partitive gen. : cp. II. 2. 785 
<5ieirpr)<r<Tov irebLoio: Her. 3. 105 irpokap.- 
P&veiv...rf)$ bbov: sometimes helped by a 
prep, or adverbial phrase, as Xen. Apol. 
30 irpofiriaeodai irbppoo /xoxOypi-as : % Epist. 
Tim. 1. 16 iiri irXeiov yap irpoKbxf/ovaiv 
dcefielas. — Others render: 'resentful [or 
' remorseful '] even when thou hast passed 
cut of wrath ' : but {a) 7repd<rrj5 with a 
simple gen. could not bear this sense : 
(d) the antithesis pointed by piv and 8£ is 
thus destroyed. 

677 (VYVftTos, active, as in 681, n 33 : 
but passive, 'unknown,' Ph. 1008, Ant. 
1001. Ellendt is not quite accurate in 
saying that Soph, was the first who used 

dyptJbs in an active sense, for it is clearly 
active in Pind. Pyth. 9. 58 (478 B.C.) otire 
irayicdpiTUP tpvrQp pt)ttoipop oUr' dyvCora 
drjpuip {xOovbs al<xau), u a portion of land 
not failing in tribute of plants bearing all 
manner of fruit, nor a stranger to beasts 
of chase.' The passive use was, however, 
probably older than the active : compare 
Od. 5. 79 dyv£)Tes...dWrj\oL<rL (pass.) with 
Thuc. 3. 53 dyp&res dWfiXojp (act.). — tv 
8£ toio-8* I'o-os : 4v of the tribunal or com- 
pany by whom one is judged : Ant. 459 
ip deoiai rr)p bUrjp | bibaeip: Eur. Htpp. 
988 ol yap kv <ro<poL$ \ <j>auXoi Trap #x^V 
HovcriKibrepoi Xeyeip : and so, more boldly, 
0. C 1 213 (TKaioaivav (pvXdaGUP ip e/iol 
(meiudice) KaTdbrjXos ftrrai. — l'<ros, aequus, 
just: Plat. Legg. 975 c top fiiXXopra 
8iKa<TT7)p taov iaeadai. [Dem.] or. 7 § 35 
(by a contemporary of Dem. ) tVy /ecu koivQ 
5iKa<rTT)ply . So Ph. 685 ioos wv taois 
dv-fip. The Scholiast explains, vapa be 
tovtois TTJs bjuoias bb^rjs r)v /cat Trpdrrjv efyop 
vepl ipii, i.e. '0/ the same repute as before.* 
To me such a version of taos appears 
most strange. 

678 Creon leaves the scene. The 
Chorus wish Iocasta to withdraw Oedipus 
also, that he may be soothed in the house : 
but she wishes first to learn how the dispute 

9 6 



IO. 2 /xaOovo-d y tjtls rj TV)(r). 68o 

XO. 3 Soktjctls dyva)<z Xoycov rj\6e, SaVret Se /cat to fJLr/ V5t/coi>. 
IO. 4 a^oiv an avToiv, XO. vai^i. IO. koXtistjv Xoyos; 

68 5 


5 ctAts efjLOLy, aAts, yas TTpoTrovovp.4va^, 

6 (f)aLV€Tcu, ev6* ekrj^ev, avrov fiiveiv. 
Ol. 7 opct9 tV tJ/ccls, dyaObs &v yvcofxrjv dwjp, 

^ 8 rovfiov 7ra^t€i9 /cat Karafx^Xyvcov /ceap ; 

okt. ^. XO. 1 cova£, etirov fiev ov)( dVaf jjlovov, 

2 tcr#t Se 7rapa(j)p6vLfJLOif, diropov 4ttI <£/)oVt/xa 

3 7T€(f)dp0aL //,' dv, et cr' *i.vocr<f>i£fiiAav t 

4 os r' Cjitav yaV <f>L\av eV itovoictiv 
6 aA.voucrai' /car' opOov ouptcrag, 

6 tolvvv t eu7rojLt7ros aV *yevoio. 



684 \670s L: 6 \670s r. 688 Hartung conjectures irapirjs ko.1 Karap-^Xive^, 

placing a note of interrogation (;) after tjkcis. So Wecklein (writing irapieis with 
Cobet). All MSS. give the participles. In L and A there is a marg. gloss 4kMuv 
on irapLeis. 603 et at voafafrfiai MSS. ef a' hoa(pi^bp.av Hermann, Hartung 

(-771'), Badham. 694 8s r' mss. : 6s 7' Turnebus, and so Wecklein. — wdvois 

MSS. irbvouriv Bergk, which obviates the metrical necessity of altering <f>dlt>ov<ra to 

680 |ia0ov<rd y': sc. ko/jliQ: cp. Tr. 

681 ooKt]<ris...Xovo)v, a suspicion rest- 
ing on mere assertions (those made by 
Oedipus), and not supported by facts (gp- 
ya) : hence dyvws, unknowing, guided by 
no real knowledge. Thuc. 1. 4 06 \byuv oj rd5e p.a\\ov rj ipyw tarlv 
&\f)deia : 3. 43 ttjs oi) (3e(3aiov 8oKr)<re<i)S. — 
Sdirrei 8fc : Oedipus was incensed against 
Creon, without proof; on the other hand 
(Z\) Creon also (ical) was incensed by the 
unjust accusation. — Sd-irrci might be 
historic pres., but need not be so taken : 
Creon is still pained. Aesch. P. V. 437 
cvvvolq. 5e ddirTo/uLai Ktap. The version, 
'and even injustice wounds,' would make 
the words a reflection; — 'An accusation 
galls, even when unfounded ' : but this is 

683 f. djj.4>oiv air' avTOiv sc. r)\Qe to 
yeticos; Thus far, Iocasta only knew 
that Oedipus charged Creon with treason. 
The words of the Chorus now hint that 
Oedipus himself was partly to blame. 
' So then,' Iocasta asks, 'provocation had 
been given on both sides V — Aifyos, the 
story (of the alleged treason): for the 
words of Oed. (642 Sp2vra /ca/cws, Te~x vr l 
kolKt)) had been vague. 

685 irpoirovovpivas, 'already troubled/ 
not, 'troubled exceedingly.' irpoiropav 
always = to suffer before, or for: Lucian 
Iupp. Trag. § 40 'Afi-qva. "Apr/v KarayuvU 
ferai, are koI irpoTreirovrjKbTa ol/xai 4k 
rod rpcuJ/icn-o?, already disabled. 

687 The evasive answer of the Chorus 
has nettled Oedipus by implying that the 
blame was divided, and that both parties 
ought to be glad to forget it. He could 
never forget it (672). — op£s W tjk«is con- 
veys indignant reproach : a grave charge 
has been laid against your king ; instead 
of meeting it with denial, you are led, by 
your sympathy with Creon, to imply that 
it cannot be directly met, and must be 
hushed up. Ant. 735 bpq.% r&b' u>$ etprjKas 
ws ifpUf v4os : El. 628 6/>£s ; rrpbs bpyr)v 

688 irapieis with rovpov neap, seek- 
ing to relax, enervate, my resentment: a 
sense which the close connection with 
Ka.Tafj.p\vva)v interprets, though the more 
ordinary meaning for irapieis, had it 
stood alone here, would be ' neglecting,' 
' slighting ' [irbdos rrapeiTO, El. 545) : cp. 
Ar. Eq. 436 rod rrobbs iraplei, slack away 
(some of) the sheet: Eur. Cycl. 591 tiirtxp- 
rrapeip.4 vos : Or. 210 t<£ Mav wapei/xevu}, 
(neut.) by too great languor. Schneidewin 



Io. I will do so, when I have learned what hath chanced. 

Ch. Blind suspicion, bred of talk, arose; and, on the other 
part, injustice wounds. 

Io. It was on both sides ? 

CH. Aye. 

Io. And what was the story ? 

Ch. Enough, methinks, enough — when our land is already 
vexed — that the matter should rest where it ceased. 

Oe. Seest thou to what thou hast come, for all thy honest 
purpose, in seeking to slack and blunt my zeal ? 

Ch. King, I have said it not once alone — be sure that I 2nd anti- 
should have been shown a madman, bankrupt in sane counsel, stro P he ' 
if I put thee away — thee, who gavest a true course to my 
beloved country when distraught by troubles — thee, who now 
also art like to prove our prospering guide. 

cpdivas in 665. Blaydes suggests ttovols t6t\ 695 dXvovaav] oaXetiovoav Dobree. 

696 ret vvv 5' L ist hand: but 5' has been changed to r' by an early corrector, 
perh. the first. A has r', but 5' prevailed in the later mss. — el Svvaio yevov L. The 
i st hand wrote el Suvai yevov. The o was added to Svvat (as Diibner thinks) by the 
first corrector, S. Over the letters ai something has been erased, — two accents, 

understands, 'neglecting my interest, and 
blunting (your) feeling' : but Tovp,dv must 
surely agree with K&ip. 

692 lirl tppdvipa : [Dem.] or. 25 § 31 
eiri ixkv KaXbv rj xP r J°" r0V V T V* irbXeus 
(L^iov ■jrpdyp.a o&8ev o5t6s £o~ti xP^ca/*os. 

693 irecfxxvGai dv, oblique of irecpaafxi- 
vos dv rjv : for the tense cp. Isocr. or. 5 
§ 56 Xoiwbv dv rjv...el fii) eireiroii)TO. 
Whitelaw, taking ireQavdai /j.' dv as oblique 
of irecpacrpdvos dv etrjv, defends the et ae 
voa< of the MSS. by Plat. Phaedr. 
228 A el ey<h QaiSpov ay vow, nal ifxavrov 
iiriXtXrjcr fiai, and Apol. 25 B iroXXr] dv tis 
evdaifjbovLa ety irepl toi)s ve"ov$, el ets jxkv 
fxbvos avrovs 8ia<p0elpei, k.t.X. But the 
playful or ironical tone which el with the 
pres. indie gives to those passages seems 
hardly in place here. The change of one 
letter restores the required ivo<r4>k£6|i.av. 

694 8s T6 is not for os, though in El. 
151 dV' = T/, and Tr. 824 6t , = 6: rather 
re goes with ovpuras: cp. El. 249 'ippoi 
t' dv ot'Scbs I an&vTwv t' evatfieia dvarCov. 

695 dXvovo-av, of one maddened by 
suffering, Ph. 1194 dXijovra x €l P e pl<i? 
Xvira. The conj. <raXei$oi/cra!' is tame. 

696 av -y^voio. The MSS. have el Bu- 
yout) yevov : for 86vcuo, the rst hand of L 
had written 86vcu, i.e. 86va. Now el 
Suva -yevov is satisfactory in itself, since 

J. S. I. 3 

8uvq for Stivacrat has good authority in 
Attic, as Eur. Hec. 253 8pqs 8' oi>8ev ijfxas 
et>, kclkCos 5' oaov 8iva. But then we 
must correct the strophe, 667, — as by 
writing there tA irpbs 0<p$v rots ir&Xai 
irpoad\perov, which I should prefer to 
Nauck's ingenious irpocdxf/ei rots irdXcu rd 
irp6o-<paTa. Verse 667, however, seems 
right as it stands: it gives a better 
rhythm for the closing cadence than we 
should obtain by adding a syllable. And 
if so, el Svvcuo (or 8vva) yevov here must 
be reduced to — **. ( 1 ) If with Hermann 
we simply omit yevov, the elliptical el 
Svvcuo — understanding 'io-Qu or yevov — is 
intolerably harsh; to me it does not seem 
even Greek. (2) el ■ye'voio, 'mayest thou 
become!' is read by Bergk and Dindorf; 
cp. 863 ef [jloi i-vveli). (3) To this I much 
prefer av -ye'voio, which Blaydes adopts; 
but I do so for a reason which he does 
not give. I suspect that el Svvaio was a 
marginal gloss intended to define the 
sense of &v -ye'voio, and that dv ye'voio was 
corrupted to yevov when el Svvaio had 
crept into the text. (4) Prof. Kennedy 
conjectures et to y ev croi: 'now also| 
with thy best skill thou ably waftest.' 
Since the metre of 667 is not certainly 
sound, no treatment of our verse can be 

9 8 


IO. 7rpo9 Oecov 8l8ol£ov Kcifx, aVa£j>rov nore 
ixrjviv rocrrjvZe irpdyyuaTo^r (mjcras ^(€t5. 

01. ipa>' (re yap tgjvS is tt\4ov> yvvai, cre/^ar 7°° 

KpeovTos, old fioi /3efioyk&KO)<; e^et. 

IO. Xey\ el aa<j)0)s to veiKOs iyKakcov ipels. 

OI. fovea fxe (jyrjcrl Aaiov Kadeardvat. 

IO. avros £vv€l8c6s, rj jjlolOcjv dWov ndpa ; 

OI. yidvTiv fxev ovv KaKovpyov €to-7re/xi//as, eVei 7° 5 

to y els kavTOv irav iXevdepoi crro/xa. 

IO. crv vvv dfals ceavTov 5>v Xeyeis iripi\ 

ifjiov Va/coucroi>, /cat //,(£#' oyveK Ictti croi 
w*+f*' *r— fiporeiov ovSev p,avriKrjs ^Xpv Te^inqs. 

</)ava) Se crot cr^/Aeta 7wSe crvvTOfxa. 710 

Xpyjcr/xos ydp y\0e Aaia> 7tot', ou/c e^a) 
&oi/3ov y air avTOv y tcov 8' V7n)p€TCov dno, 
(os avrov rj£oi fxolpa npos TraiSos OaveLv, 

according to Dubner; Campbell suggests <ri). — el bvvato yevov (el btivai 6 yevov Bodl. 
Barocc. 66) is also the reading of the later MSS. See comment. 702 ipets] 

Kvpets Eggert. — iyicdhetv £x ets M. Seyffert. 709 tx ov ] Tvxbv Hartung ; \a\bv 

697 f. kol|jl' : these men know it: 
allow me also to know it. — otov. . .irpaY- 
pa/ros, causal gen.; Ant. 1177 irarpi 
fnjvlcras <t>6vov. — crnjo-as ^X €ts ' nast set 
up, i.e. conceived as an abiding senti- 
ment, referring to 672 and 689. Cp. 
Eur. /. A. 785 i\vU... \otav...\ <ttt)- 
caaai rdS 1 is dXXiJXas | fivOeiaovci 

700 f. twv8' 4s trkiov = ir\iov r) Totiaoe, 
not ifKiov r) 6l8e. The Chorus having 
hinted that Oedipus was partly to blame, 
he deigned no reply to their protests of 
loyalty (689 f.). But he respects Iocasta's 
judgment more, and will answer her. — 
KptovTos, sc. <rTr)<ras £x w r *?" Mvlv: 
causal gen. answering to 6tov irpdyfiaros. 
— f3tPou\tuKtos : in this periphrasis, the 
perf. part, is rarer than the aor. part.: 
Ph. 600 n. 

702 My : speak, if you can make a 
clear statement (et crcupws tpeis) in im- 
puting the blame of the feud: i.e. if you 
are prepared to explain the vague ola 
(701) by defining the provocation. — !*yKa- 
\€iv v€ikos {ran) = to charge one with 
(beginning) a quarrel: as Phil. 328 x°^ ov 
(tu>6s) tear* airr&v £yKa\u>v, charging them 
with having provoked you ranger at a deed. 

704 £ avTos £vv€iSa>s: i.e. does he 

speak as from his own knowledge (of 
your guilt)? — [Lev ovv, 'nay.' El. 1503. 
Ar. Eq. 13 NI. \kye ai. AH. <ri> p£v olv 
Xiye. Distinguish /te> ofo in 483, where 
each word has a separate force. 

706 to y els lavrov, in what concerns 
himself: Eur. /. T. 691 rb p.kv yhp els ifi 
ov kcuc&s ix €l ' — ^^v ^-€\j0€pot, sets wholly 
free (from the discredit of having brought 
such a charge): Ant. 445 2f« fiapelas 
alrlas i\eWepov : Plat. Legg. 756 D i\e6- 
depov d<f>eicrdou rr)% ^rj/xlas. 

7 07 cupels crcavTov, an appropriate 
phrase, since &<pie'vai was the regular 
term when the natural avenger of a slain 
man voluntarily released the slayer from 
the penalties: Dem. or. 38 § 59 oV 6 
vaduv avrbs &<prj rod <f>bvov rbv bpdaavra : 
Antiph. or. 2 §2 oil rbv aXriov dtpivres rbv 
dvalriov Oi(I)Kop.ev. 

708 pd0' k.t.X. : learn that thou canst 
find no mortal creature sharing in the art 
of divination. — 0-01 ethic dat.: IotIv 
'4ypv = £x €l (Eur. Suppl. 427 rl Totircav 
iarlv 06 kol\Q)s ix ov >) : T ^X VT 1 S » partitive 
gen. The gods have prescience (498); 
but they impart it to no man, — not even 
to such ministers as the Delphian priests. 
Iocasta reveres the gods (647) : it is to 
them, and first to Apollo, that she turns 



10. In the name of the gods, tell me also, O king, on what 
account thou hast conceived this steadfast wrath. 

Oe. That will I ; for I honour thee, lady, above yonder 
men : — the cause is Creon, and the plots that he hath laid 
against me. 

10. Speak on — if thou canst tell clearly how the feud 

Oe. He says that I stand guilty of the blood of LaYus. 

Io. As on his own knowledge? Or on hearsay from 
another ? 

Oe. Nay, he hath made a rascal seer his mouth-piece; as 
for himself, he keeps his lips wholly pure. 

Io. Then absolve thyself of the things whereof thou speak- 
est ; hearken to me, and learn for thy comfort that nought 
of mortal birth is a sharer in the science of the seer. I will 
give thee pithy proof of that. 

An oracle came to La'fus once — I will not say from Phoebus 
himself, but from his ministers — that the doom should overtake 

him to die by the hand of his child, 

Heimsoeth. 713 ij^ot L ist hand, changed by an early hand to ^et. Most of 

the later mss. have $•«, but one or two (V, L 2 ) ij£oi. — Canter conject. ££et: K. Halm, 

in trouble (911). But the shock which 
had befallen her own life, — when at the 
bidding of Delphi her first-born was 
sacrificed without saving her husband 
Laius — has left a deep and bitter con- 
viction that no mortal, be he priest or 
seer, shares the divine foreknowledge. 
In the Greek view the fidvris might be 
(1) first, the god himself, speaking 
through a divinely frenzied being in 
whom the human reason was temporarily 
superseded (hence the popular derivation 
of fiavrcKT} from fiavia) : Plat. Tim. 71 
E ixavTUtty d<f>po<T^vQ debs dvOpuirtvy 86- 
duicep' oibels ydp epvovs £<pdirTerai /xav- 
tlktjs frdtov Kal dXrjdovs: this was much 
the same as the Egyptian belief, Her. 2. 
83 fxavriKT] 8e airoici c35e diaKeerai. av- 
OpJoTTUV /xeu oidevl irpoaice'eTcu i) re^vrj, 
t&v be 6e(av fiere^eripoKn. (2) Secondly, 
the puivTis might be a man who reads 
signs from birds, fire, etc., by rule of 
mystic science : it was against this rt^vq 
that scepticism most readily turned : Eur. 
El. 399 Aoi-lov ydp e'/x.Tedoi | XPV*" 
fxoi, PporQv 8e fiayrtK^v x a ^P €l9 
Xtyw. Iocasta means: *I will not say 
that the message came through the lips 
of a truly god-possessed interpreter; but 
at any rate it came from the priests ; it 

was an effort of human jxavriK-fi* So in 
946, 953 deQiv fiaureij/xara are oracles 
which professed to come from the gods. 
Others render: — 'Nothing in mortal 
affairs is connected with the mantic art' : 
i.e. is affected by it, comes within its ken. 
Then corlv '4\ov will not stand for £xercu 
(which it could not do), but for £xet, as 
meaning 'is of,' 'belongs to.' Her. has 
^X €Cy as = ewM "with expressions equivalent 
to an adverb^ as 1. 91 dyuva yviwinbv did 
Tcdat\s dywvlrfs %x 0VTa -< ' consisting in 
every sort of contest,' as he might have 
said iroXvTpbircos e , x 0VTa: so 3* I2 & ire pi 
7roXXQv e'x 0VTa TrpvypLd-Tcav ( = iroX- 
Xax&s) : 6. 42 xara x^P 7 l v ( = ^/A7r^5ws) 
^Xovtcs: 7. 220 £v iwefft ei-afie'Tpoi<rt 
%X ovra - But such instances are wholly 
different from the supposed use of 2x €tp 
alone as = elvai with a partitive genitive. 

711 ovk €p<S k.t.X. The exculpation 
of Apollo himself here is obviously not 
inconsistent with 720, which does uot 
ascribe the prediction to him. And in 
853 {ov ye Aortas | bieiire) the name of 
the god merely stands for that of his 
Delphian priesthood. 

713 tj£oi is better than the conject. 
££01 ('constrain'), as expressing the sud- 
denness with which the doom should 




ocrrts yevouT e/xov re kolkzivov napa. 
/cat tov fief, axnrep y r] charts, feVot irore 7*5 

v Xrjo'Tal (f>ov€vova iv rpt7r\ats a/xaf trots* " ' .. 

7rat8os 8e /SXacrras ou Ziiayov r\p.£pai 
rpets, /cat I'U' apOpa /c€ti>os iv^ev^as irohoiv 
eppixfjev aWcov ^epcrlv ets afiarov opos. 
KavravO* 'AnoWcov ovr 4k€lvov rjvvaev *J20 

(povea yevecrOai irarpos, ovre Aaiov, 
to SeLvov ov<f)o/3€LTo, npos 7ratSos Oaveiv. 
rotaOra <f)fj[JLaL (xavTiKal Sicopicrav, 
&v ivTpdirov crv fi7)8ev (dv yap av Oeos 

^peiav ipevva paSicos avros <j>av€i. 7 2 5 

OI. otov fi aKovaavT d/mojs ^X^t, yiWt, 
*pv)(r)<; TrXdvrjfia KavaKiwqaris (fypevcov. 

IO. 7rotas lAepLfJLisrjs Tovff vttoo~t panels Xeyets ; 

OI. ISof a/coucrat crou roS', oJs o Actios 

KaTaar(f)ay€L7j wpos T/H7rXats a/xaftrots. 73° 

IO. TyuSaro yap ravr, ovSe nco \r)£avr €)(€i>. 


IO. 3>a>/cts ftei> rj yrj /cXo^erat, astern) 8' oSos 
es rauro AeX^ajj* /caVo AauXtas ayeu 

ifrt. 710 efs dfiarov opos mss.: a/3aro»> els 6pos Musgrave. 722 davetv MSS. In 
L yp. vadeiv has been written above by a late hand : A has the same gloss. 728 viro- 

overtake him. El. 489 T}£ei...'Epipfo. 
The simple ace. avrov, since fj£oi = Kara- 
Xtfif/oiTo: cp. Her. 9. 26 <t>a/j.ev ijnias 
iKvieadat Tjye/xoreijew, instead of is ijne'as 
(2. 29). 

714 ooris -y^voiT* is oblique for 5<rrts 
av yevrjreu (whoever may be born), not 
for Saris kyivero (who has been born) : 
Lai'us received the oracle before the birth 
of the child. 

715 ££v<n: not Thebans, much less of 
his own blood. 

r 16 See on 733. 

'17 SU<r\pv. 'Three days had not 
separated the child's birth from us': 
three days had not passed since its birth. 
Plut. Tib. Gracch. § 18 KeXevaavros iicel- 
vov diaax^ T0 tXtjOos, to keep the crowd 
off. — pXao-Tcis cannot be ace. of respect 
('as to the birth'), because 8U<rxov could 
not mean 'had elapsed': when biixew is 
intrans. it means (a) to be distant, Thuc. 

8. 79 diix €l °* € SXlyov ratirg i) 2d/xos ttjs 
r}irelpov: or (b) to extend, Her. 4. 42 
5iu)pvxa....d<-£x ov<Tat ' ^ s *b* 'Apdfiiov 

718 tool = ot€ (parataxis instead of 
hypotaxis): Thuc. 1. 50 t*$rj 5^ rjv 6^k... 
Kai ol Koplvdioi O-airLvys irptifivav iicpotj- 
ovto. — ap0pa iro8otv=rd <r<f>vp&: ev^eu- 
|as, fastened together by driving a pin 
through them, so as to maim the child 
and thus lessen the chance of its being 
reared if it survived exposure: Eur. Ph. 
22 (Iocasta speaks) frireipev v\plv iralSa, 
Kal (Tirelpas fiptfos, \ yvobs T&/nr\&KT)!J.a 
rod deov re ttjv (pdrtv, \ XeipLuv' is "Upas 
kclI Kidcup&vos Xiiras \ 5l5<ao~i fSovKoXoiaiv 
iicdeTuai (3pi<f>os, \ a<pvpCbv aid-qpci icivTpa, 
diairetpas fiiffov (better fiiawv), | oOev vw 
'EWds £}vbp.a.%ev OlUirow. Seneca Oed. 
812 Forata ferro gesseras vestigia, Tumor e 
nactus nomen ac vitio pedum. 

719 els tfpaTOV opos: the tribrach con- 



who should spring from him and me. 

Now La'fus, — as, at least, the rumour saith, — was murdered 
one day by foreign robbers at a place where three highways 
meet. And the child's birth was not three days past, when 
La'fus pinned its ankles together, and had it thrown, by others' 
hands, on a trackless mountain. 

So, in that case, Apollo brought it not to pass that the babe 
should become the slayer of his sire, or that Lai'us should die — 
the dread thing which he feared — by his child's hand. Thus 
did the messages of seer-craft map out the future. Regard 
them, thou, not at all. Whatsoever needful things the god 
seeks, he himself will easily bring to light. 

Oe. What restlessness of soul, lady, what tumult of the 
mind hath just come upon me since I heard thee speak ! 

Io. What anxiety hath startled thee, that thou sayest this ? 

Oe. Methought I heard this from thee, — that La'fus was 
slain where three highways meet. 

Io. Yea, that was the story ; nor hath it ceased yet. 

Oe. And where is the place where this befell ? 

Io. The land is called Phocis ; and branching roads lead to 
the same spot from Delphi and from Daujia. 

trrpcKpelo- L : tiiro arpacpeis r, which Dindorf and others prefer. im<TTpa<p'd$ Blaydes. 
730 dnrXaia L: TpnrXais r. 

tained in one word gives a ruggedness 
which is certainly intentional here, as in 
1496 rbv irartpa irariip, Ai. 459 iredla 
rdde. A tribrach in the 5th place, always 
rare, usually occurs either when the pen- 
ultimate word of the verse is a paeon 
primus (-""*-"■'), as El. 326 ivrdcpia 
Xepoiv, or when the last word is a paeon 
quartus (-" ww — ) t as Phil. 1302 &v5pa iro- 
\4/juov. Verse 967 below is exceptional. 
720 KdvravO': cp. 582. 

722 It is more likely that, as our MSS. 
suggest, iraBciv should have been a com- 
mentator's conjecture than that Gaveiv 
should have been a copyist's error (from 
v. 713). No objection can be drawn 
from the occurrence of irpds iraidbs 0a- 
ieiv so soon after 713 : see on 519. 

723 ToiavTa...8iwpurav, i.e. made 
predictions at once so definite and so 

false: (jnjpai, a solemn word used scorn- 
fully : cp. 86. The sense of diibpurav in * 
1083 is slightly different : here we might 
compare Dem. or. 20 § 158 6 Apdicwv... 
Kadapbv dtuipiaev elvai, 'has laid down 
that the man is pure.' 

725 <3v xP" a v cpevv<j: a bold phrase 

blended, as it were, from <3v dv yjidav 
iXV an( i « &" XpM L l xa ifivra) ipevvq,: cp. 
Phil. $ij rivos... I x6Xoj>...<:7/caX<2j', in- 
stead of rlvos x^Xop £x(vv or tL iyicak&v. 

726 — 754 The mention of ' three 
roads'' (716) has startled Oedipus. He 
now asks concerning (1) the place, (2) the 
time, (3) the person. The agreement of 
(1) with (2) dismays him; that of both 
with (3) flashes conviction to his mind. 

727 irXdvrjua denotes the fearful 
'wandering' of his thought back to other 
days and scenes; as £5o£' (729) is the 
word of one who has been in a troubled 

728 iroCas (wp. viroorp., having turned 
round on account of (= startled by) what 
care, — like a man whom a sound at his 
back causes to turn in alarm : — far more 
expressive than ^7rt<rrpa0e£s, which would 
merely denote attention. For the gen., 
cp. Ai. 1 1 16 rod 5t aov \f/6<pov | otic dp 


731 XifgavT : the breath of rumour is 
as a breeze which has not yet fallen: cp. 
Ai- 258 v6tos ws XiJy«, and O. C. 517. 

733 <rx><rn] 8' 686$. In going from 




OI. /cat rts y^povos To^c^S , icrTiv ov£e\r)\v6c6<; ; 735 

IO. (T^cSoi/ rt TrpooSev rj crv rrjoS i^cop )(6ovos 

dpxyv ifawov tovt iK7jpv)(0rj noXet. 
OI. d> Zev, tL fjiov Spacrai fieftovXevcrai wept ; 
IO. tl S' ecrrt croi tout', OISlttovs, evOvyaov ; 

OI. IXTJ7T0) fl ipCOTOL' TOV Be AoLLOV <f)V(TlV 74O 

riv el)(€ (fypd^e, *tivo<; aKjirfv yjfirjs e^coi/. 
IO. fieyas, woajwi^ apn \evK<xv6e<z /capa, 

fjLop(f)f)s ok Trjs 0-175 ou/c a7recrrarei 7roAv. 
01. oLfioL raXas* eoi/c' i^xavrov eis apd? 

Selects irpofiaWoiv dpricos ovk eiSeVca. 745 

IO. 7T&>s <£^s ; d/c^a) tol npos cr olttogkottovct, 
OI. heivcos d0VfJLQ) firj fiXiiraiv 6 ixdvris #. 

Setfeis Se [AaXkov, rjv eV efeiV^s en. 
10. /ecu yutT^i/ o/c^oj jLteV, a*/ S° epy /xaSovcr ipco. 


740 <f>foiv I rfc 1 el^e <f>pafe Wva 5' ctKyxV ^fys tycoy. L. The only variation in the 
later mss. is Zcrxje for eZx e (A). I adopt a former conjecture of Nauck's, t'lvos for xtm 
$'. Wecklein changes rj^rjs £xfaw to tyuv ifa: Meineke changes T/firjs to t<5t' 77X0* : 
Wolff gives, rlv > elxe, 0pdf' £r'* ^" 5' Slk/itju rjfiTjs £x w "> Others seek a substitute 
either (i) for £x w,/ > as Brunck r6re, Kennedy £n: or (2) for etye, as Dindorf rj\de, 
Hartung trvxe, Schneidewin and Blaydes etpirt. 742 [iiya<r L. A few later 

mss. (A, Pal., and V as corrected) have fii\as t which Wecklein adopts. — x" ^^" 

Thebes to Delphi, the traveller passes by 
these 'Branching Roads,' — still known 
as the rpioSoi, but better as the <rrev6: 
from Daulia it is a leisurely ride of about 
an hour and a half along the side of Par- 
nassus. The following is from my notes 
taken on the spot: — 'A bare isolated hil- 
lock of grey stone stands at the point 
where our path from Daulia meets the 
road to Delphi, and a third road that 
stretches to the south. There, in front, 
we are looking up the road down which 
Oedipus came [from Delphi]; we are 
moving in the steps of the man whom he 
met and slew; the road runs up a wild 
and frowning pass between Parnassus 
on the right hand and on the left the 
spurs of the Helicon range, which here 
approach it. Away to the south a wild 
and lonely valley opens, running up 
among the waste places of Helicon, a 
vista of naked cliffs or slopes clothed with 
scanty herbage, 'a scene of inexpressible 
grandeur and desolation' (Modem Greece 
p. 79). At this ffx iffT ^ 086s Pausanias 

saw rh, rod Action /xp^/Mara koX ohirov 
tov iirofiiuov : the legend was that Dama- 
sistratus king of Thebes had found the 
bodies and buried them (10. 5 § 4). The 
spot has a modern monument which 
appeals with scarcely less force to the 
imagination of a visitor, — the tomb of a 
redoubtable brigand who was killed in 
the neighbourhood many years ago. 

734 Tavro, but in 325 tolvtov: cp. 
Tr. 325 n. diro with both genitives : cp. 
761, 1205. 

735 toutS*. For the dat. cp. Her. 2. 

145 AtOV{l<X(f) p.iv V\)V...KO.Tb. k%a.Kb<Tl* 

irea kou x^Xia im&\io~t& fori, is ifii- 'Hpct- 
k\£X 8i...Karh dvaKbaia grew Havl 8i 
/card tc\ (5/cra/c6<rta fidXia-ra is ifii. Then 
from persons the idiom is transferred to 
things: Thuc. 3. 29 TjpApax /xdXtcrra r)<rav 
ry MvTiX'rjvq. iaXuicvlq. iirrd. 

736 <r)(€Sov Tt irp6<r0€v. The interval 
supposed between the death of Laius and 
the accession of Oedipus must be long 
enough to contain the process by which 
the Sphinx had gradually brought Thebes 



Oe. And what is the time that hath passed since these 
things were ? 

Io. The news was published to the town shortly before thou 
wast first seen in power over this land. 

Oe. O Zeus, what hast thou decreed to do unto me ? 

Io. And wherefore, Oedipus, doth this thing weigh upon 
thy soul ? 

Oe. Ask me not yet ; but say what was the stature of 
Lai'us, and how ripe his manhood. 

Io. He was tall, — the silver just lightly strewn among his 
hair ; and his form was not greatly unlike to thine. 

Oe. Unhappy that I am ! Methinks I have been laying 
myself even now under a dread curse, and knew it not. 

Io. How sayest thou? I tremble when I look on thee, 
my king. 

Oe. Dread misgivings have I that the seer can see. But 
thou wilt show better if thou wilt tell me one thing more. 

Io. Indeed — though I tremble — I will answer all thou ask- 
est, when I hear it. 

L, not altered from x vo &fr v ' nor is the latter (so far as I know) in any MS. — Xev- 
Kdvdts L, which is the usual reading in the later MSS. ; only one or two have 
\evKavdeis (V) or Xtvuavdtv (A). Hartung reads x v °6frv...XevKav0€ls Kdpa. 743 In 
L aireardret has been made from diroardTei by an early hand. 749 a 5' av L, 

and so nearly all the later mss. (but av 3' Dresd. a, av 5' Bodl. Laud. 54). On 
such a point as a 5' av versus av 5', the authority of our mss, is not decisive. In 
O. C. 13 dv 5' seems clearly preferable to a 5' av (L there has av, omitting 5') ; and 

to despair: but Soph, probably had no 
very definite conception of it: see on 758. 

738 c5 Zcv. A slow, halting verse, 
expressing the weight on his soul: the 
neglect of caesura has this purpose. 

739 iv0t>fuov : Thuc. 7. 50 i] (reX^vri 
iKkdTrei...Kal ol , A6r]vaioL...4iri(rx^ 4k4' 
Xevov roi/s or parity otis, ivdtifiiov 7roio«/- 

740 I do not believe that Soph., or 
any Greek, could have written cpvcriv | 
riv dyje, <J>pct£€. riva 8' aK|i-ijv TJPns 
^\o)v, which Herm. was inclined to defend 
as if rlva (f>{i<nv etxe^rh rjv (ptiaiv. Now 
t£vos would easily pass into rCva 8' with a 
scribe who did not follow the construc- 
tion; and to restore rhos seems by far 
the most probable as well as the simplest 
remedy. No exception can be taken to 
the phrase rlvos aicy-ty ^tys as= 'the ripe- 
ness of what period of vigorous life.' 

742 yyodlcov XtvKavO^S Kapa = £x w " 
Xvoafav Xevxcus K&pa: Ar. Nub. 978 

Xvovs Coa-wep fi^\oi<riv iirr/vOet (the down on 
his chin was as the bloom on apples): 
here the verb marks the light strewing of 
silver in dark hair. Cp. El. 43 iivdur- 
fxivov. As Aesch. has fieXavdts yfros, 
'swarthy' {Suppl. 154), so in Anthol. 
12. 165 (Jacobs II. 502) \c weaves = 'of 
fair complexion' as opp. to fieXlxpovs. 

744 rdXds, as being for r&Xavs: Ar. 
Av. 1494 otfj.ot raXas, 6 Zei)s Sirtos /«J [S 
oxperai. In Anthol. 9. 378 (Jac. II. 132) 
Kal KOI/id /xerafids, c3 rd\as, aXXaxodi, 
rdXav is an easy remedy: but not so in 
Theocr. 2. 4 d0' w rdXas oiftiirod' i)<ei t 
where irtXas has been conjectured. — I'oiica 
...ovk d§£va.i = 2oiK€v 6tl ovk rjdrj : cp. 
236 f. 

749 Kal (*qv, 'indeed' I fear (as you 
do): Ant. 221, El. 556. — <£v8' is certainly 
preferable to a 5' av in a poet whose ver- 
sification is not characterised by any love 
of unnecessary didXvais. Even in prose we 
find 6s av 54 instead of 0$ 5£ dV, Her. 7. 8. 



01. irorepov ixcopeu /3aios, rj 7ro\\ovq e^a>i/ 750 

dvSpas XoxtVa?, oV dvr)p dp^rjyiTrjs ; 

IO. 7T€VT yO"0LV OL ^VfX1TaVT€S, £v S' OLVTolcriV TjV 

Krjpvtj' dirqvy) S* rjye Kaiiov fxCa. 

OI. aiai, raS' 17877 SKuftavij. tls rjv irork 

6 rovcrhe Xefas tov<$ \6yovs vjjl7v } yvvai\ 755 

IO. oi/ceus ris, ocnrep lk€t €Kcro)Oeis fiovos. 

OI. r) kclv 80/xotcrt rvyydvei tolvvv Trapa>v\ 

IO. ov S^r'* a<£' ov yap KeiOev r)\0e /cat Kparrj 
o~4 t eXS* eyovra Ad'iov r dXwXdra, 
i^LKeTevae Trjs c/atJs x €l P^ 6 i yMV 760 

dypovs o~(f)€ TTefxxpaL /caVi TroijxvioiV vofids, 
(os TrXeicTTOV elrj rouS' diroTTTOs dcrrecos. 
/caVe/xi//' iyco viv agios yap oV dvr)p 
80OX09 (frepeiv tjv rrjoSe /cat //,ei£co ydp iv ' 

OI. 7rak oV /xoXot S^' 77/xu/ ei> ra^i ndkiv ; 765 

IO. Trdpecmv ctXXd 77/365 ti tout' icfyiecrai ; 

OI. Se'Soi/c' e/xavrbV, (3 ywai, /xr) ttoXX* dyai/ 
elprfixiv y /xot, Si' a i/w eicriSeu/ 0ekco. 

here, too, it gives a more Sophoclean rhythm. 756 o<T7rep L, as re-touched by 
the first corrector (S) : the 1st hand seems to have written uo-irep. 763 6V Her- 

750 paids identifies the chief with his 
retinue, — the adjective, when so used, 
suggesting a collective force like that of 
a stream, full or thin: so iroXi/s pet, iroXbs 
trvei of vehement speech, etc. ; Eur. Or. 
1200 v v iroXto Traprj, if he come in his 
might: crvxvbv woXlxviov, a populous 
town (Plat. Rep. 370 d). 

751 Xoxfras: cp. Aesch. Cho. 766 
XO. ttws oiv Kekefoi viv fioXeiv iaraXfii' 
vov ; I ...17 l-irv XoxLtclis e?re Kal /xovojti^t}', 
TP. dyew KeXei&ei 5opv<p6povs dirdovas (said 
of Aegisthus). 

753 K-fjpvg, as the meet attendant of a 
king on the peaceful and sacred missioa 
of a dewpos (114). The herald's presence 
would add solemnity to the sacrifice and 
libation at Delphi: Athen. 660 A tSpwv 
( = Z6vov) 8e ol K-^pvKcs &xpt iroXXov, /3ou- 
0VTOVPTe$...Kal ffKevd^oures Kal fuo~TvXXov- 
res, tri 8e olvoxoovvres. dirr\vr\ ify* u£a = 
/xla rjv &tt7)v7}, i) rjye: Pind. Nem. 9. 41 
IvQ' 'Ape" as irbpov dvdpunroi KaX£oi<ri = lh>da 
wdpos iarlv 8u 'A. xaXovcriv. The dtnjvTj, 
properly a mule-car (Pind. Pyth. 4. 94) 
but here drawn by colts (802), and in the 

Odyssey synonymous with a/ial-a (6. 37, 
57), was a four-wheeled carriage used for 
travelling, as dist. from the two-wheeled 
war-chariot (app-a) : its Homeric epithet 
itrf/TJXr) indicates that it stood higher on its 
wheels than the dpp.a : it could be fitted 
with a frame or basket for luggage (vvep- 
reply Od. 6. 70, velpivs II. 24. 190). 

756: cp. 118. oIkcvs = oIk^ttjs, as in 
the Odyssey and in a v6pu>s S6\wvos in 
Lysias or. 10 § 19, who explains it by 
depairwv. The Iliad has the word only 
twice, both times in plur., of 'inmates' 
(slave or free: 5. 413: 6. 366). 

757 if Kal marks keen interest: EL 
314 r) tcav 4y<b dapaovaa p.dXXov 4s Xdyovs | 


768 The poet has neglected clearness 
on a minor point. The olKetis — sole sur- 
vivor of the four attendants — had fled 
back to Thebes with the news that Laius 
had been slain by robbers (118 — 123). 
This news came before the trouble with 
the Sphinx began: 126 — 131. And the 
play supposes an interval of at least 
several days between the death of Laius 



Oe. Went he in small force, or with many armed followers, 
like a chieftain ? 

10. Five they were in all, — a herald one of them ; and there 
was one carriage, which bore Laius. 

Oe. Alas ! 'Tis now clear indeed. — Who was he who gave 
you these tidings, lady ? 

10. A servant — the sole survivor who came home. 

Oe. Is he haply at hand in the house now ? 

Io. No, truly ; so soon as he came thence, and found thee 
reigning in the stead of Lams, he supplicated me, with hand 
laid on mine, that I would send him to the fields, to the pastures 
of the flocks, that he might be far from the sight of this town. 
And I sent him ; he was worthy, for a slave, to win e'en a larger 
boon than that. 

Oe. Would, then, that he could return to us without delay ! 

Io. It is easy : but wherefore dost thou enjoin this ? 

Oe. I fear, lady, that mine own lips have been unguarded ; 
and therefore am I fain to behold him. 

mann: (Us 7' Campbell (who cites <bs from K, = Flor. Abb. 66). oy* L: 6 de" 7', 68', 
6 5', or c55% r. 768 6V a] oV Turner. 

and the election of Oedipus: see on 736. 
Hence tceWev rfkde Kal...el8e cannot mean 
that the oUetis, on reaching Thebes, found 
Oedipus already reigning. Nor can we 
suggest that he may have fled from the 
scene of the slaughter before he was 
sure that Lai'us had been killed: that is 
excluded by 123 and 737. Therefore 
we must understand: — 'when he had 
come thence, and [afterwards] found that 
not only was Lai'us dead, but you were his 
successor.' (For the parataxis <r& re... 
Ad'Cbv re see on 673.) I incline to sus- 
pect, however, that Sophocles was here 
thinking of the man as coming back to 
find Oedipus already on the throne, and 
had overlooked the inconsistency. The 
conjecture Aatov re bw/xara for Ad'Cbv r* 
bXaXbra (Wolff) would remove the diffi- 
culty, but seems very improbable. 

760 x €l pos 8i-y»v, marking that the 
licereia was formal ; as when the suppliant 
clasped the knees (airT€<rdat yovdrwv). 
Eur. Hec. 850 nixas ctdev, | 'E«:d/S?7, 5t' 
oIktov X € ip6 & iKeaiav 2x&>. 

761 (rypous might be ace. of motion 
to (O. C. 1769 Gi^as 5' rjfias | ...iri/i\pov)\ 
but it is better here governed by eni : for 
the position of the prep. cp. 734, 1205, 
El. 780 ofrre vvicrbs oCr' ££ 7]/u.4pas.— vop,ds : 
on Cithaeron, or near it, 1 127. The man 
had formerly served as a shepherd (1039), 

and had then been taken into personal 
attendance on Laius (olicefo). 

762 tov8' diroirros derrews, 'far from 
the sight of this town ' : that is, far from 
the power of seeing it: whereas in El. 
I487 KTaviov irpbdes | ...dirowTOv i]/x<2v = 
'far from our eyes': the gen. as after 
words of ' distance from.' See Appendix. 

763 oV : the 7' of L (clumsily amend- 
ed to 6 5^ 7' in other mss.) prob. came 
from of, rather than from us or cSs 7'. 
Phil. 583 oV dvijp tt4vt]s, l for a poor man ': 
Eur. Or. 32 ndyo) fiereaxov, ota. 8t) yvv-q, 
(pbvov, ' so far as a woman might.' u>s, 
however, is commoner in this limiting 
sense (1118); ota more often^like' 
(751). Here ota qualifies d£ios, imply- 
ing that in strictness the faithful service 
of a slave could not be said to create 

764 <f>€p€iv: cp. 590. 

766 irdpcorriv: 'it is easily done.' 
Eur. Bacch. 843 IIB. iXduv y is oIkovs dv 
boK-g PovXe&croficu. | AI. i^caTi' irdvTri rb 
7' iftbv efrrpeires irdpa. Not, 'he is here' 
(nor, 'he is as good as here,' as the schol. 
explains) : in 769 t^erat = ' he will come 
from the pastures. y 

768 8t d. The sense is : * I fear that 
I have spoken too many words; and on 
account of those words I wish to see him': 
cp. 744, 324. Not : ' I fear that my 



IO. aXX' Itjer ai fxev* ctfta Se nov fxadelv 

Kayco rd y iv crol 8vcrcf>6pco<z e^oisT, aVaf. 770 

01. kov fir) o-reprjOrjs y\ is toctovtov iXirtScov 
i/jiov ySe^wros. tco yap av /cat ttet£o*>t 
Xe'fat/jt* av rj croi, Sta tv)(7)s TotacrS' wuz/ ; 
e/xot iraT-qp fiev UoXvftos rjv KopivOios, 
^rjTrjp Se Mepoirr) Acopis. tfyofirji/ S' dvrjp 775 

acncov tteytcrros tcov e/cet, irpw~ fiot Tvyiq 
TOidS i7T€(TTr), OavfidcraL fiev afta, 
o~7rot>S^9 ye fxevTou rrjs ifxrjs ovk d£ua. 
aV^p yap eV Set7n>ots /a' virepirhqadels pidrj 
/caXet 7ra/o' oi^w, 7rXao-ro9 o5s eiT^ irarpL 780 

/cayai /3apvv6els ttjv fjuev ovcrav rffxepav 
fioXus Kareoypv, Oardpa 8* taw/ nreXas 
fjLrjrpos narpos T rjXey)(ov ol Se 8vcrcj)6pcos 
rovveuSos rjyov tco fkedivri tov Xoyov. 
Kay co ra fxev kzlvolv iTep7r6fir)v 9 ofjucos 8* 785 

€kpl^€ fJL del tovO 9 ' vcfrelpTre yap ttoXv. 
XdOpa Se firjTpos /cat iraTpos iro pevo fiat 
HvOcoSe, /cat p? 6 <&o?/3os cov fiev LKOfJLrjv 

779 /xidrji. L 1st hand, changed by an early hand to nid-qs. The latter prevails in 

words have given me only too much 
cause to desire his presence.' A comma 
after /jloi is here conducive to clearness. 

770 kclvco and irov express the wife's 
sense that he should speak to her as to 
a second self. — iv <rol = within thee, in 
thy mind (not 'in thy case') : cp. 4v with 
the reflexive pronouns, Plat. Theaet. 192 D 
iv ifAdvry /x.e/AV7]/x4i>os : Crat. 384 A vpo<r- 
roiovfxevds ri avrbs iv iavry dtavoetcrdcu. 

771 4s toctoutov €Xir£8«v: Isocr. or. 
8 § 31 els tovto yap rives avolas iXyXij- 
Qaaiv : Ar. Nub. 832 <ri> 8' is roaovrov 
rZv /xaviuiv iXifjXvdas. The plural of iXvls 
is rare as = anxious forebodings: but cp. 

772 \uC%ovi : strictly, 'more important': 
cp. Dem. or. 19 § 248}s irdXews 
rfjp ^iXlvvov i-evlav Kal (piXlav iroXXip p.el- 
$ova i)yf)(raTo airry Kal XvavreXearipav 
(alluding to Ant. 182 Kal p.el{ov' oaris 
avrl -rqs avrov varpas | <plXov vop.ifa) : 
Ant. 637 oj)5eis...7d/AOJ | fielfwv <f>ipe<r- 
6 at <rov KaXuis rry° v / J ^ vov > no marriage can 
be a greater prize than your good guid- 

ance. The Kal with \egai|i* av: — could 
I speak? Lysias or. 12 § 29 irapd, rov 
ttotc Kal X^\f/ead€ 5Lkt]v ; from whom will 
you ever exact satisfaction ? 

773 Lav, present, not future, part. : 
Ant. 742 81a 81kt]s l<bv war pi. Xen. An. 
3. 2. 8 5ta tpiXlas livai. 

775 The epithet 'Dorian' carries ho- 
nour : Merope was of the ancient stock, 
claiming descent from Dorussonof Hellen, 
who settled in the region between Oeta 
and Parnassus. The Scholiast's comment, 
UeXoirowTjaiaKifi, forgets that the Theban 
story is laid in times before the Dorian 

776 irpCv ttOt...£ir6rrTi. (1) trplv with 
infin. = our 'before,' whether the sentence 
is affirmative or negative : ij\0e vplv kXtj- 
drjvat, oi>K -qXde vplv KXijdrjvai. (2) vplv 
with a finite mood (indie, subj., or opt.) 
= our ' until ' in negative sentences. Thus 
oi)K rjXde irplv iKX^drf differs from oik 
*7\0e vplv KXrjdrjvai by implying that at 
last he was called, and then came. Here, 
the form of the sentence is affirmative 



Io. Nay, he shall come. But I too, methinks, have a claim 
to learn what lies heavy on thy heart, my king. 

Oe. Yea, and it shall not be kept from thee, now that my 
forebodings have advanced so far. Who, indeed, is more to me 
than thou, to whom I should speak in passing through such a 
fortune as this ? 

My father was Polybus of Corinth, — my mother, the Dorian 
Merope ; and I was held the first of all the folk in that town, 
until a chance befell me, worthy, indeed, of wonder, though not 
worthy of mine own heat concerning it. At a banquet, a man 
full of wine cast it at me in his cups that I was not the true 
son of my sire. And I, vexed, restrained myself for that day 
as best I might ; but on the next I went to my mother and 
father, and questioned them ; and they were wroth for the taunt 
with him who had let that word fly. So on their part I had 
comfort ; yet was this thing ever rankling in my heart ; for it 
still crept abroad with strong rumour. And, unknown to mother 
or father, I went to Delphi; and Phoebus sent me forth 

the later MSS. (but fitdrj V). 

(-f)y6fX7}v), and £ws would therefore be more 
strictly correct. But the thought is nega- 
tive (' nothing happened to disturb me ') ; 
hence rrplv. So Thuc. 3. 29 robs . . .' Adrj- 
valovs \av6dpov<rt ( = ov% opQvrai biro t&v 
'A. ) irplv By rrj AiJXy £<rx ov - Cp. White- 
law in Trans. Cam. Phil. Soc 1886, p. 26. 
— €ir€<rTi] : a verb often used of enemies 
suddenly coming upon one : Isocr. or. 
9 § 58 fUKpov betp fkadev abrbv iirl to 
fiaaLXeiop i-mcrrd* : Her. 4. 203 iirl ry 
Kvpyvaluv ir6\i eiricrrrjaau. 

779 {nrepirXTjo-Qeis neGrj, lit., intoxi- 
cated by drinking (caus. dat.): fiidrj al- 
ways =' drinking' (not 'strong wine'): 
cp. Her. 5. 20 KaXCos £x<H>Tas.../i#??7S 
('having had enough of drinking'). For 
the dat. cp. Aesch. Pers. 132 Xiicrpa... 
irlfiirXaTat. batcpvaaaip. 

780 imp' ol'vw: Plut. Mor. 143 C robs 
rfi Xbpa xpup-tvovs irap* olvov. Thuc 6. 28 
fiera iraibtds koI otvov. — irXacrrds a>s etnv 
instead of icXavrbv, as if preceded by 
dveidlfa fxoi instead of KctXei p.€. Some- 
what similarly 6wiJ.a{<o = X£y<a y as Plat. 
Prot. 311 E aoQiarty . . . ivopA^ovai . . . rbv 
avbpa chat. irXcurros, ' feigned (in 
speech),' 'falsely called a son,' ira/rpC, 
'for my father,' i.e. to deceive him. Eur. 
Ale. 639 fia<TT(p yvvauebs ffijs vir€(3XT?)di]v 
Xddpa, whence biro^oXi/xaXos ■= vbdos. 

782 Karto-yov, sc. tfMvrfc. In clas- 

sical Attic this use occurs only here : in 
later Greek it recurs, as Plut. Artaxerxes 
§ 15 dwev o$p /jltj Karaax^v. bfiels p.h 
k.t.X. Cp. *x e > 0"x&, <brfo-x« ('stop'), 
in Plat., Dem., etc 

784 T<j> jjl€0€vti: the reproach was like 
a random missile : Menander fr. 88 01V 
iic x € P 0S P-^dipra Kaprepbv Xldov \ pq.ov 
Karcurx^v, ovr' airb yXuaarjs Xbyov. The 
dat., because 8v<rcJ>op»s tovvciSos rj'yov = 
ibpylfavTo ft'ejca rod dvdbovs. 

785 Sjuos 8' : cp. 791, and n. on 29. 

786 v<p€ipir€ •ydp iroXv: so b<{>£pireiv of 
malicious rumour, Aesch. Ag. 450 <pdo- 
vepbp 5' for' 0X705 1-piret, \ irpobiicois 'Arpel- 
dais. Libanius 784 A (quoted by Mus- 
grave) ttoXi>s toiovtos b<pe?pire X670S (per- 
haps suggested by this passage). Pind. 
Isthm. 3. 58 tovto yap aQavarov (fxavdev 
?/)7r«, I ef tis e8 etiry n. Cp. Ant. 700 
rotdS' ipe/xvl) <riy* iiripx^Tat <pdns. For 
iroXv cp. 0. C. 517 to iroXiJ toi koX p.t\- 
bafia Xrjyov, that strong rumour which 
is in no wise failing: id. 305 iroXb...TO 
o~bv Spo/xa f Stifcet iravras. This version 
also agrees best with 775, which implies 
that the incident had altered his popular 
repute. We might render : ' it was ever 
recurring to my mind with force': but 
this (a) is a repetition: (d) is less suited 
to 7roXtf, which implies diffusion. 

788 <5v iKO|rnv aTijiov = an/xop toijtup 





GLTifJLov e^eTrepxpev, aXXa S' d#\ta 

/cat Sewa /cat hvcrnqva * irpov^vev Xeycov, 790 

C09 firjTpl pev XP e ^V P* ^X^V vaL y yc^os S' 
<xt\7)TOp avdpdiTTOKji SrjXcocroip' opav, 
<f)ovev<; S' eaoiprjv rov (frvrevcravTos Trarpos. 
Kayo) 7raKovcra<; ravra riqv Kopivdiav 
I aaTpoLS to Xot7r6> eKp.eTpovp.evos x@° va 795 

e<f)evyov, evda prjiror oxpOLprjv kclkcov 
Xpyo-pcov oveiSrj rcov epcov re\ovpeva. 
crTeCx<*)v S* iKvovpai rovcrSe tovs ycopovs ev of? 
crv rov rvpavvov tovtov oWvcrdai XeyeLS. 
/cat crot, yvvai, Takrjdes e£epco. rpnrXrjs 800 

or' 77 KekevOov r^crS' oSoLiropcov weXas, 
evravOa poi Krjpv£ re Karri rrcoXiKrjs 
avy)p arnfjviqs ip/3e/3to<z, olov av ^779, 

789 AXXa 0' d0Xia L : the ist hand had written ad\l<a. &XXa o" ad\iar. Herwerden 
would read dX\a 5' ddXiy. 790 irpovcpdvr) mss. : irpovQrjvev Hermann. (The 

gloss Trpo£5ei£e in E may be a reminiscence of such a reading. It may be remarked, 
too, that irpoi><f>dvr}p is cited by Campbell from M 2 , = Ambros. L. 39.) 791 XP € ? 

r]L L, the 1 after 77 almost erased. Cp. on 555. 797 reXoipeva. In L there has 

been an erasure ?' and after a, and there are traces of an accent above the second e. 

a IkSpltjv, not graced in respect of those 
things (responses) for which I had come : 
Eur. Andr. 1014 otl/jlop bpydvav xfy a TeK ~ 
roavvas, not rewarded for its skill. For & 
Ik6/jlt}v (cogn. accus. denoting the errand, 
like dyyeMav) cp. 1005 rovr* 
d<piKbpvrfv : 0. C. 1291 a 5' rjXdop...d£Xw 
Xe"£cu : Ar. PL 966 3 n juaXwr' kX-fp\vQa% : 
Plat. Prot. 310E dXX' avrd ravra nal vvp 
i]K(a irapd <ri (where the ace. is cogn. to 
ijKOj, not object to the following 5taXe%- 

7 90 irpou<J>T]V€v, suggested by Herm., 
has been adopted by several recent edi- 
tors. Cp. Herod. 1. 210 r<p 5e 6 dalpuav 
-irfjotyaive, and so 3. 65, 7.37: Plut. Bern. 
§ 1 9 eV oh ij re Hvdia deiva irpoij<paive fiav- 
reifmrd ical 6 xpyev-bs V^ero: Camill. § 4 
(a man who pretended to ixavriK'fj) Xbyta 
irpovcpaivev dirbpprjra: Dem. or. 21 § 54 
rolt 4<p' iicdarrjs puivrelas irpocpaivopAvois 
deois, the gods announced (as claiming 
sacrifice) on each reference to the oracle. 
Yet the fact that irpo<palveiv was thus a 
vox sollennis for oracular utterance would 
not suffice to warrant the adoption of 
irpoC<j>t]V6v, if the irpowpdvq of the MSS. 
seemed defensible. irpov<pdvr} X£ya>v 

would mean, 'came into view, telling' : cp. 
above, 395, and EL 1285 vvv 5' ex w <re' 
irpov(pdvr)S 8e | (piXrdrav ?X fa "' irp6<T0\f/iv. 
It might apply to the sudden appearance of 
a beacon (cp. 6 tppvicros dyyeXXcw irptwei, 
Aesch. Ag. 30) : but, in reference to 
the god speaking through the oracle, it 
could only mean, by a strained metaphor, 
1 * flashed on me with the message,' i.e. 
announced it with startling suddenness 
and clearness. The difficulty of conceiv- 
ing Sophocles to have written thus is to 
me so great that the special appropriate- 
ness of Trpov<J>i)vev turns the scale. 

791 f. -vivos 8* : see on 29. — opdv with 
oltXtjtov, which, thus defined, is in con- 
trast with StjXojo-oiu.' : he was to show 
men what they could not bear to look 

794 ff. en-aKoucras (708), 'having 
given ear' — with the attention of silent 
horror. — ti\v KopivOCav : ' Henceforth 
measuring from afar (lKp.CTpovp.6Vos) by 
the stars the region of Corinth, I went 
my way into exile, to some place where 
I should not see fulfilled the dishonours 
of [= foretold by] my evil oracles.' &<r- 
Tpois €Kp.€Tpovp,€vos: i.e. visiting it no 



disappointed of that knowledge for which I came, but in his 
response set forth other things, full of sorrow and terror and 
woe ; even that I was fated to defile my mother's bed ; and 
that I should show unto men a brood which they could not 
endure to behold ; and that I should be the slayer of the sire 
who begat me. 

And I, when I had listened to this, turned to flight from the 
land of Corinth, thenceforth wottirig^of its region by the stars 
alone, to some spot where I should never see fulfilment of the 
infamies foretold in mine evil doom. And on my way I came 
to the regions in which thou sayest that this prince perished. 
Now, lady, I will tell thee the truth. When in my journey I 
was near to those three roads, there met me a herald, and a 
man seated in a carriage drawn by colts, as thou hast described ; 

The 1st hand had written reXov/xivwv, which the first corrector (S) altered. — Some 
later mss. (B, V, V 3 , V 4 ) add 7' to xpycf^"- 800 This verse does not stand 

in the text of L, but has been added in the margin by a later hand. With regard to 
the age of the hand, Mr E. M. Thompson observes : — ' This writing is of the style 
which appears in the latter part of the thirteenth century, and continues with little 

more, but only thinking of it as a dis- 
tant land that lies beneath the stars in 
this or that quarter of the heavens. 
Schneidewin cp. Aelian Hist. Anim. 
(Trepi few ISiorrjTOs) 7. 48 rjK€ 8' odv 
('AvSpoKXijs) 4s tt)v Al^tjv ical rds /xev 
x6X«s direXifnrave ko.1 tovto 8tj t8 Xe- 
ydfxevov darpois arrets 4a i\ fiaiv ero, 
irpoyet 8£ 4s ttjv ifrffirfv'. 'proceeded to 
leave the cities, and, as the saying is, 
knew their places only by the stars, and 
went on into the desert. ' Wunder quotes 
Medea's words in Valer. Flacc. 7. 478 
quando hie aberis, die, quaeso, profundi 
Quod caeli spectabo latus? tyevyov might 
share with eKpcrp. the government of rfjv 
Kop. x06va, but is best taken absolutely. 
Sense, not grammar, forbids the version : — 
'I went into exile from the Corinthian 
land (ttjv KopivOtav), thenceforth mea- 
suring my way on earth (\0ova) by the 
stars' Phrases like vTa<XTpov.../j.7Jxap 
opifaf/xu yd/mov 8tia4>povos \ <pvyq. (Aesch. 
Suppl. 395), dcrrpois TeKfialpeadcu 686v (Lu- 
cian Icaromenippus § 1), are borrowed 
from voyages in which the sailor has no 
guides but the stars. Such phrases could 
be used figuratively only of a journey 
through deserts: as Hesych. explains the 
proverb darpois 0-rjp.eiovadai' fiaicpdv koX 
4p-f}ix7)v bobv (Zadlfav 7) 8t fxeraQopa 
diro t&v ir\e6vTb)v. 

796 '4vQa. = eK€i<r€ Zvda, as in Ph. 1466. 

<pe6y<a gvda fi^j 6\f/of*cu = ' I fly to such a 
place that I shall not see'; the relative 
clause expresses purpose, and pvfj gives a 
generic force: cp. 141 2: Ai. 659: El. 380, 
436: Trach. 800. -Here, the secondary 
tense &f>evvov permits oxj/oCp/nv. Remark, 
however, that in such relative clauses (of 
purpose or result) the fut. indie is usually 
retained, even where the optat. is admis- 
sible. A rare exception is Plat. Rep. 
416 C (pair] &v Tis...8e?v...ob<riav toiojutt]v 
airrots irape<xKevdcr8ac, tjtis p.^Te...irarjcroL 
k.t.X. : where irafoot (if sound) is pro- 
bably due to fair] &v (see on O.C. 778) 
rather than to 8eiv as =otl I5et. 

800 kcu <roi...TpiirXTJs. The hand 
which added this verse in the margin of 
L seems to be 'as early as the beginning 
of the fourteenth century' (Mr E. M. 
Thompson, Introd. to Facsimile of Laur. 
MS.). The verse is in A (13th cent.) and 
all our other mss. To eject the verse, 
as Dindorf and Nauck have done, is 
utterly unwarrantable. It has a fine 
dramatic force. Oedipus is now at the 
critical point: he will hide nothing of 
the truth from her who is nearest to 
him. It is part of his character that 
his earnest desire to know the truth never 
flinches : cp. 1 1 70. 

802 KT]pvg T«, not KTJpvg t« : see 
Chandler, Accentuation § 97 j . 

803 din]VT]S: see on 753. — otov ad- 



£vvr)VTta£ov Ka$j 6Sov fx 6 & TjyepiOiv 
avro9 ff 6 7rpecr/3u5 77/309 $iav rj\avv4rr)v. 805 

t Kayo) tov iKToenovra, tov rpoynXdrnv, 

7rata> 01 opyrjs' koli jjl o 7rpecrpv<z cos opa, 
S)(ov, 7rapacrT€i)(ovTa rrjpijcras, fiecrov 

KOLpOL 8177X01$ KeVTpOMri fJLOV Ka0LK€TO, 

ov pLTjv tcrrjv y ereicre^, aXXd crvvToyuo)^ 810 

(TKYJITTpCp TV7T€tS €K Trjcrhe ^€t/>OS t»7TTl,09 

fxeo-qs dmjvrjs evOvs iKKvALvSerai* 

kt€lp(o Se rov9 £vfXTTavTa<s, ei Se rep £eVa> 

touto) TTpocrrjKei Acuta tl crvyyevis, 

T19 rovSe *in/j> loV dvSpos dOXi^repoq ; 815 

T19 i^OpoSaificov fidkXop dp yivoir dvrjp ; 

*ov fir) tjeuoiv i^ecm fiyS* dcrTcov *tivi 

S0/A019 hi^ecrOaiy firjSe irpocr^xaveiv riva, 

variation for some fifty years or more. The line may therefore, without much 
hesitation, be placed as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century.' (Intro- 
duction to the Facsimile of the Laur. ms. of Sophocles, p. 11.) All the later mss. 
have this verse in the text. 8O8 6xov mss.: 6xov Schaefer: 6xovs Doderlein. 

814 Aatcp MSS.: Aatov Bothe. Blaydes suggests, el 84 n i-tvy | to6t<p irpoffjicei 
Aal(f re avyyev4s: Heimsoeth, el 5e t<£ j-evq> | to6t<p irpocrrjv iced Aatcp ri avyyevh. 

815 rls tovS4 y' dvdpbff vvv for' ddXidrrepoa L. The vvv is almost erased, and over 
it a late hand has written a\\w<r, probably meant for &\\o<r. The later MSS. either 

verbial neut. =cus, referring to Iocasta's 
whole description; not ace. masc, re- 
ferring to the person of Laius as described 
by her. 

804- 812 The KTJpvg is, I think, 
identical with the ifycp.ttv, and distinct 
from the Tpoxi]\dTT]s. I understand the 
scene thus. Oedipus was coming down 
the steep narrow road when he met the 
herald '(to be known for such by his stave, 
K-npijKeiop) walking in front of the carriage 
(r\yt)Htiv). The herald rudely bade him 
stand aside; and Laius, from the car- 
riage, gave a like command. (With the 
imperfect ijXavvfrnv, 'were for driving,' 
irpos Pfav need not mean more than a 
threat or gesture.) The driver (Tpoxiv 
Xd.Tt]s), who was walking at his horses' 
heads up the hill, then did his lord's 
bidding by actually jostling the wayfarer 
(cKTpfirovra). Oedipus, who had forborne 
to strike the sacred herald, now struck the 
driver; in another moment, while passing 
the carriage, he was himself struck on 
the head by Laius. He dashed Laius 
from the carriage; the herald, turning 

back, came to the rescue; and Oedipus 
slew Laius, herald, driver, and one of two 
servants who had been walking by or 
behind the carriage; the other servant 
(unperceived by Oedipus) escaped to 
Thebes with the news. 

808 oxov : 'from the chariot — having 
watched for the moment when I was 
passing — he came dozvn on me, full on my 
head (pi<rov Kapa ace. of part affected), 
with the double goad.' The gen. 6'xov 
marks the point from which the action 
sets out, and is essentially like ras iroXv- 
Xptcrou I TLvduvos..J^as v. 151: cp. Od. 
21. 142 tipvvffde... I dpi-dfievoi tov x^P 0V 
odev re" irep olvoxoevet, from the place. In 
prose we should have had dir' &xov. As 
the verb here involves motion, we cannot 
compare such a gen. as Z£ ev... roixov tov 
irtpov {II. 9. 219), where, if any prep, 
were supplied, it would be irpds. — rrjpTJ- 
<ras: [Dem.] or. 53 § 17 (contemporary 
with Dem.) Typr/eas pie dv<.6vra 4k Hei- 
paius 6\pe...dpird£€t. 

809 KaOiKtTo governs p.ov, which 
\Uo-ov Kapa defines: Plut. Anton. § 12 



and he who was in front, and the old man himself, were for 
thrusting me rudely from the path. Then, in anger, I struck 
him who pushed me aside — the driver ; and the old man, seeing 
it, watched the moment when I was passing, and, from the 
carriage, brought his goad with two teeth down full upon my 
head. Yet was he paid with interest; by one swift blow from 
the staff in this hand he was rolled right out of the carriage, on 
his back ; and I slew every man of them. 

But if this stranger had any tie of kinship with Lai'us, who 
is now more wretched than the man before thee ? What mortal 
could prove more hated of heaven ? Whom no stranger, no 
citizen, is allowed to receive in his house ; whom it is unlawful 

that any one accost ; 

agree with L, or give rls rovdt 7' dv8p6s kanv dOXiwrepos (as A). Kennedy adopts 
the latter, and so Campbell (with rdvdpbs for 7' dvdpbs). But vvv seems forcible 
here. Dindorf proposed vvv £>' (which Wecklein receives) ; he afterwards wrote tIs 
rovd' anoveiv dvdpbs ddXubrepos : but now rejects the verse. Bellermann writes vvv dv 
(to go with ye'voiT'). I would merely transpose dvdpbs and omit 7', which might easily 
have been intruded, for metre's sake, when the proper order of words had been de- 
ranged. 817 $...Tiva L. Schaefer wrote 8v..riva (so that el-eari should be abso- 

<rfci5r€<rt \aalois...KadiKvo i 6p.evoi t&v h- 
TvyxavbvToiv : Lucian Symp. § 16 rdxa 
5' av tivos KadUero t# f3a.KT7]pla: Icaro- 
tnenippus § 24 <r<p68pa i]fiQv 6 trtpvai. 
Xei/icbj' KadUero. This verb takes accus. 
only as = to reach, lit. or fig. (as 77. 14. 
104 fidXa iribs fxe Kadineo dv/xov). — SiirXois 
K€VTpoi<ri: a stick armed at the end with 
two points, used in driving. Cp. II. 23. 
387 (horses)... dvev icevrpoio dtovres. The 
Tpoxy^drrjs had left it in the carriage when 
he got out to walk up the hill. 

8 IO ov \>.r\v ftrnv 7 : not merely an 
even penalty (cp. ttjv bfiolav diro8i86vai, 
par pari referre): Thuc. 1. 35 ovx bfxoia 
i} dXkoTpluxris, the renunciation of such 
an alliance is more serious. — CTeicrev. 
reicruf, Heiffa, ireicrdrjv (not rlaw, etc.) 
were the Attic spellings of the poet's age : 
see the epigraphic evidence in Meister- 
hans, Gramm. p. 88.— <rvvr6f««>s, in a 
way which made short work: cp. Thuc. 
7. 42 TjireLyero iirtde'ffdai ry xelpa kclL ol 
j-vvT0fj.<i)TdTT)v i)y eiTO SunroXe'p.rjo'iv, the 
quickest way of deciding the war : Her. 
5. 17 fori 8e otivTOfios Kdpra (sc. 656s), 
there is a short cut. The conject. avv- 
rbvus {Tr. 923 (Twrbvip x e i°0 would 
efface the grim irony. 

812 fxco-qs implies that a moment be- 
fore he had seemed firmly seated : ■ right 
out of the carriage.' Eur. Cycl. 7 Irtav 
iiMo-r\v dev&v, striking/^// on the shield : 

/. T. 1385 v-rjbs 5' £k pita-os eQdtyfrro | 
j8o^ tis, from within the ship itself: El. 
965 dpKvv els fiiarjv, right into the net. 

814 el (rvyyeves ti tw Actio) if any tie 
with Lai'us irpocrqKet tovtoj to £€voj be- 
longs to this stranger, cvyyevqs can take 
either dat. (akin to) or gen. (kin of) : and 
here several editors give Aatov. But the 
dat. Actio), making it verbally possible 
to identify the £fros with Laius, suits the 
complex suggestiveness with which the 
language of this drama is often contrived : 
cp. t&v in 1 167. Again, T<j> %4v<a tovto> 
might apply to Oedipus himself (452). 
Had we ti without cruyyevc's, Aatov (part, 
gen. ) would then be necessary. The con- 
structions of wpocr^Keiv are (1) Trpoa-^KU) 
nvl, I am related to: (2) irpocnfjKei fioL tivos, 
I have a right in, or tie with : (3) irpoarjKei 
fioi ti, it belongs to me. Here it is (3). 

817 6v...Tivt. The ms. «...Tiva must 
be rendered, with Hermann : ' to whom it 
is not allowed that any one should receive 
(him) ' : but the words would naturally 
mean: 'to whom it is not allowed to re- 
ceive any one.' In 376, where (re.. .7' 
ifiov is certain, all our mss. have fie... ye 
ffov: much more might the cases have 
been shifted here. 

818 f. |it]8e...Tiva, sc. ggcori, abso- 
lutely: nor is it lawful that anyone 
should speak to him. — wOciv 8': the posi- 
tive Set must be evolved from the negative 


(Dueiv o an olkcov. /cat rao ovtls aA.A.09 iqv 
rj 'ycy V ifxavrS TacrS' dpas 6 npocrTL0eCs. 820 

Xe^T; Se tov Oolvovtos iv yepoiv ijxcuv 
■vpaiVG), St' covnep a>\eT. a/)' e<£ui> /ca/cos ; 
ap' ou^t Tra? avayvos ; €t /ll€ ^ot) <j>vyelv, 
/cat uot <f)vy6vTi fxyjcTTL tovs ifjiovs tSeti>, 
* fjLTjS' ififiaTeveLv 7raT/3tSog, rj ya/x,ot5 jxe Set 825 

fjLrjrpos £,vyf)vaL /cat TTOLTepa KOLTaKTavelv 
Klu^f 1 — HoXvfiov, os i^e^vcre Ka^edpexjje fie. 
/ dp ovk an tofiov Tavra haifiovos rig ai/ 

Kpivoiv en avopi T(po av opuoirj Koyov ; 
fir) S^ra, /x,t) StJt', <S #€cSi' dyvov cre'/Sag, 830 

iSoifll TOLVTTjV TJlxipOLV, aXX' C/C /3pOT(OV 

fiaLTjv d<f)avTO$ npoaOev rj rota^S' tSetv 

/c^XtS' e/xawS (rvfi(j)opas d<j>iyfjL€vr)v. 
w - XO. 77/10/ tt€i>, awag, raur OKvrjp • ews o av ovv 

7T/30? tou napovros iKfAaOys, e% eXnCSa. 835 

OI. /cat ti7)z/ toctovtov y earl fioi Trjs iknCSos, 

toi^ dvSpa rov fioTrjpa npoafieivai fiovov. 
IO. ne<f)acrfievov Se rtg 7ro^ 77 npodvfiia ; 
OI. eyw StSafa) cr'* 77^ yap evpeOrj Xeycov 

crot rat5r, eyaiy' aV eKne^evyoirjv ndOos. 840 

IO. nolov Se fxov nepicrcrov rJKovcras \6yov ; 

lute): Dindorf, di» ..riFt. Nauck proposes ef /*r/ i-ivwv. . rivi \ .. irpoc-tpcoveiv ijxt (instead 
of rtva). 824 /uL-rjffTi.. The ist hand in L wrote /«J<m, which an early hand changed 
to /a^t€. The latter is in most of the later MSS. (with yp. lutj '<rrt in some, as T). 
825 fit)?? t/j.paT€ij€iv] L has fiyr', made by an early hand from nyar, as Campbell 
thinks, and as seems most probable ; or, as Diibner thinks, from fx-q /*'. Dindorf 's 

o&k t£e<TTt: cp. El. 71 ical pvf) fi' drifiov (El. 614). Here, the transition from dpa 

T?7<r5' airo<TTel\T)Te yrjs | d\X' frpxtirXovrov to dp' ov)<l is from bitter irony to despair- 

(sc. KaTaaT-ffffaTe). See above, 241. — ical ing earnest. ' 

rdS'. And these things — these curses — 827 IloXvfW. Wunder and others 

none but I laid on myself. And as the think this verse spurious. But it is, in 

thought proceeds, the speaker repeats fact, of essential moment to the develop- 

TaSc in a more precise and emphatic ment of the plot. Oedipus fears that he 

form : cp. Plat. Rep. 606 B U&vo icepdaL- has slain Laius, but does not yet dream 

veiv ijyeiTcu, tt]i> rjSovrjv. that Laius was his father. This verse 

821 iv \epoiv, not, 'in their embrace,' accentuates the point at which his belief 
but, 'by their agency': //. 22. 426 ws now stands, and so prepares us for the 
6<f>e\€v davteiv iv x e P<^ v £fiy<riv. next stage of discovery. A few MSS. give 

822 f. dp'— dp' ovxl- Where apa is &££dpe\j/e K&£4<pv<re: but the Homeric 
equivalent in sense to dp* oi, this is be- irpdrepop torepov (Od. 12. 134 0/>tycwa 
cause it means, 'are you satisfied that it reicouad re) seems out of place here just 
is so?' i.e. 'is it not abundantly clear?* because it throws a less natural emphasis 



whom all must repel from their homes ! And this — this curse 
— was laid on me by no mouth but mine own ! And I pollute 
the bed of the slain man with the hands by which he perished. 
Say, am I vile ? Oh, am I not utterly unclean ? — seeing that 
I must be banished, and in banishment see not mine own 
people, nor set foot in mine own land, or else be joined in 
wedlock to my mother, and slay my sire, even Polybus, who 
begat and reared me. 

Then would not he speak aright of Oedipus, who judged these 
things sent by some cruel power above man ? Forbid, forbid, 
ye pure and awful gods, that I should see that day ! No, may 
I be swept from among men, ere I behold myself visited with 
the brand of such a doom ! 

Ch. To us, indeed, these things, O king, are fraught with 
fear ; yet have hope, until at least thou hast gained full know- 
ledge from him who saw the deed. 

Oe. Hope, in truth, rests with me thus far alone ; I can 
await the man summoned from the pastures. 

Io. And when he has appeared — what wouldst thou have 
of him ? 

Oe. I will tell thee. If his story be found to tally with 
thine, I, at least, shall stand clear of disaster. 

Io. And what of special note didst thou hear from me? 

/u>?5' is clearly right. The alternatives would be to read fiijan rovs ipoiis ideiv, \ fifor' 
eixfiaTefciv, which does not seem Sophoclean, or fi^', supplying ^ean (as Elmsley 
suggested), which is much worse. 827 Wunder, Dindorf, and Nauck reject this 

verse. — c^cpvae Kd^0pe\f/e L : i^edpexf/e Ka^ecpvae r. 840 irddos MSS. : #70? has been 

On €^<pV<T€. 

829 eir dvSpl twSc with opQoCt] X6"yov, 

speak truly in my case. Isaeus or. 8 
§ 1 iirl rots toiovtols, w (Lvdpes, dvdyKT] 
earl xaXe7rcDs <p£peiv, in such cases. //. 
19. 181 av 5' ZireiTa diKaiirepos Kai iir' 
&XX(p I Arcrecu, in another's case. 

832 f. roidvSc, not roidade : cp. 533. 
— KT)\i8a: cp. &yos 1426: O. C. 1133 
ktjXIs kclkQi/. For o*v|i<j>opas, see on 99. 

834 8' ovv. So where the desponding 
<pti\a£ hopes for the best, Aesch. Ag. $$, 
yhoiro 5' ovv K.T.\. 

835 tov irapovros, imperf. part., = 
ixelvov 8s iraprjv. Dem. or. 19 § 129 oi 
av/xir peer fie Oovres ical wapdvres Kara- 
p.apTvpr](rovaiv, i. e. ol o-vveTrpeo-fievov kclI 

830 Tijs IXiriSos- The art. is due to 
the mention of tXirlda just before, but its 
force is not precisely, 'the hope of which 
you speak. ' Rather iX-rrida is ' some hope, ' 
-7-775 iXiridos is ' hope ' in the abstract : 

J. S. I. 8 

cp. Dem. or. 19 § 88 r)XLi<a ird<rit> dvdpw- 
ttois dyadd Ik tt}s dpif/vys yiyverai, i.e. 
'from peace,' not 'the peace.' 

838 TT€<f)acrfxevov, sc. airov : gen. absol. 
El. 1344 Tskovfikvuv eiiroi/j.' &v, when (our 
plans) are being accomplished. 

8 IO ird0os, a calamity, — viz. that of 
being proved blood-guilty. The conjec- 
ture d'-yos is specious. But udOos shows 
a finer touch; it is the euphemism of a 
shrinking mind (like the phrase ijv n 
wddco for 6dv<a). For perf. with av cp. 
6 93- 

841 ir€pi(r<r6v, more than ordinary, 
worthy of special note: Her. 2. 32 tous 
dXXa re fj.r)€pi(To-d, i.e. among 
other remarkable enterprises : Eur. Suppl. 
790 t6 p.h yap ovk tjXtti^ov av ireirovdhaL 
I irddos irepiaaov, el ydpuav dwe^vyrjv, I 
had not deemed it a more than common 
woe. Iocasta is unconscious of any point 
peculiar to her version, on which a hope 
could depend : she had reported the story 




01. Xrjards e(£acrfC€g amov avSpas evveireiv 
cu9 viv KaraKTeiveiav. el fiev ovv en 
Xefet tov avrov apiOyiov, ovk eyco > ktolvov 
ov ydp yevovf av els ye toi<z 7roXXoi9 Zeros' 845 

el 8' dvSp* ev olo^covov avSrjcrei, cra^oJ? 
tovt eo-rlv rjSrj rovpyov eU e/xe penov. 

10. aXX* eus fyavev ye tovttos wS' eVurracro, 

kovk eartv avrco tovto y eKfiakelv irakiv 

7roXts yap tjkovct, ovk iya> fxovrj, raSe. 850 

el 8' ovv tl KOLKTpeTTOLTO tov irpocrdev \6yov, 

ovtol 7tot, (ova£, tov ye Aa'tov cf)6vov 

travel SiKaicos 6p06v, ov ye Aoftas 

8i€t7T€ yjpfjvai 7rat8o9 ef ifxov Oaveiv. 

/catroi vlv ov Kelvos y 6 Svo-ttjvos irore 855 

f-^ KareKTav, a XX' avros irapoidev <j*kero. 
(octt ov)(L fxavTeias y av ovre rrjo eyco 
• pkeyaifx av ovveK ovre ttjo av varepov. 

\QqJ>\ conjectured by Arndt, Blaydes, and M. Schmidt. 843 L has KaraKrelvaiev, but 



the letters ai are in an erasure, having been made by an early corrector. Wolff thinks 
that the 1st hand wrote KaraKreLvoiev. As the last c is certainly from the ist hand, the 
1st hand must have written either that or KaraKretveiev, which is in at least one later MS. 
(Pal.), others having KaraKrelvaiev (as A), or KaraKTeiveiav. Most of the recent edd. 

of the slaughter in the fewest words, 7 1 5 

844 f. tov avrov api0p.ov, *'. e. ir\elovs 
and not ha: or, in the phrase of gram- 
marians, t6v it\t]6vvtik6v and not rbv 
iviKbv apidfibv. — faros : ' one cannot be 
made to tally with (cannot be identified 
with) those many': tois iroWois, refer- 
ring to the. plur. X fjords (842). 

846 ol6£<ovov, journeying alone. The 
peculiarity of the idiom is that the second 
part of the compound is equivalent to a 
separate epithet for the noun : i. e. oi6- 
£ci>vo$, 'with solitary girdle,' signifies, 
•alone, and girt up.' 0. C. J 17 r&v 
iKarofiirbbuv "Nrjpyduiv, not, 'with a 
hundred feet each,' but, countless, and 
dancing: ib. 17 ttvkv birrepoi arjbbves, 
not, thickly-feathered, but, many and 
winged: ib. 1055 diarbXovs ade\<pa$, not, 
separately-journeying sisters, but, two 
sisters, journeying: Ai. 390 8i<r<Tapx&s 
^aa-iXrjs, not, diversely-reigning kings, but, 
two reigning kings : Eur. Ale. 905 Kbpos 
fxovbirais, not, a youth with one child, 
but, a youth, his only child : Phoen. 683 

8i6vv/j.oi deal, not, goddesses with con- 
trasted names, but, several goddesses, each 
of whom is invoked. So I understand 
Eur. Or. 1004 fxovbirwXov 'Aw, 'Eos 
who drives her steeds alone' (when moon 
and stars have disappeared from the sky). 

847 els €jx€ p£irov: as if he were stand- 
ing beneath the scale in which the evi- 
dence against him lies; that scale proves 
the heavier of the two, and thus descends 
towards him. 

848 €irCo-Tao"o <f>avev touitos (S8e, know 
that the tale was thus set forth : eirfo-TCuro 
«S <|>av€v Toviros <38e, know that you may 
take the story to have been thus set forth : 
where ws merely points to the mental 
attitude which the subject of €Vfo-Tcuro 
is to assume. Phil. 567 ws ravr' iirlaru 
bpib/xev', oi /uAXofrr' eVt, know that you 
may assume these things to be a-doing, 
not delayed: and ib. 253, 415: below 
956. So with the gen. abs. : Ai. 281 
ws c35' ixbvrwv tCjvS' iirlaraadal ae XPV* 
these things being so, you must view thern 
in that belief. 

849 IxpoAciv, repudiate: Plat. Criio 



OE. Thou wast saying that he spoke of Laius as slain by 
robbers. If, then, he still speaks, as before, of several, I was 
not the slayer : a solitary man could not be held the samp with 
that band. But if he names one lonely wayfarer, then beyond 
doubt this guilt leans to me. 

10. Nay, be assured that thus, at least, the tale was first 
told ; he cannot revoke that, for the city heard it, not I alone. 
But even if he should diverge somewhat from his former story, 
never, king, can he show that the murder of La'fus, at least, is 
truly square to prophecy ; of whom Loxias plainly said that he 
must die by the hand of my child. Howbeit that poor innocent 
never slew him, but perished first itself. So henceforth, for what 
touches divination, I would not look to my right hand or my left. 

give KaraKTelveiat/. It is perhaps safest to do so, in the absence of better evidence for -aiev 
(or -oiev) than we have in this passage. Yet cp. the inscription in Kaibel's Epigram- 
mata (24. 2), ixOpolcnfiaaiev Zrjvl rpdvatov %dos (date, circ. 400 — 350 B.C.); to which 
Meisterhans (Gramm. der Attischen Inschriften, p. 75) refers in proof that 'the poets 
of the 4th cent. B.C. could use, without metrical necessity, the un- Attic forms of the 
aorist optative.' 851 L : kolI tp^toito r. 852 tov ye L : Tovde r : 


46 B tovs 8e \6yovs ovs h ry i-fxirpocrdev 
ZXeyov oi> di/va/icu vvv iK(3a\e?i>. 

851 d KctKTp&roiTo, if he should turn 
aside: see on 772 /cai...A^£cu / u,' av. 

852 tov "Y 6 Aatov <j>6vov. Iocasta 
argues : ' Even if he should admit that 
the ^eed was done by one man (a circum- 
stance which would confirm our fears that 
the deed was yours), at any rate the death 
of Laius cannot be shown to have hap- 
pened as the oracle foretold ; for Laius was 
to have been killed by my son, who died 
in infancy. The oracular art having failed 
in this instance, I refuse to heed Tei- 
resias when he says that you will yet be 
found guilty of slaying your father 
Polybus.' Iocasta, bent on cheering 
Oedipus, merely alludes to the possi- 
bility of his being indeed the slayer of 
Laius (851), and turns to the comforting 
aspect of the case — viz., the undoubted 
failure of the oracle, on any supposition. 
This fine and subtle passage is (to my 
apprehension) utterly defaced by the con- 
jecture <rov ye Aatov <f>6vov (Bothe), ' it 
cannot be shown that your slaying of 
Laius fulfils the oracle.' Herm. reads 
rovbe, 'this slaying' (of which you think 
yourself guilty) : but the ye is needed. 

853 Sikcucos 6p66v, in a just sense 
correct, i.e. properly fulfilled: for opdov 
see 506. — Aofjtas: a surname of the ora- 
cular Apollo, popularly connected with 
Ao£6s, 'oblique' (akin to \4x-P l °s> obliquus, 

luxus, 'sprained'), as = the giver of in- 
direct, ambiguous responses (\o£ct /cai 
£ira./x<poTepL£ovTa, Lucian Dial. Deor. 
16): Cornutus 32 Xo^Qp 5e ko.1 Tepi- 
o~Ke\G>v 6vt<j)v tQv xPWP&v ovs SiSwcrt 
Ao££as Civb/xaaTai, and so Lycophron 14. 
1 467 : to this Pacuvius alludes, Flexa non 
falsa autumare dictio Delphis solet. The 
association of Apollo with Helios sug- 
gested to the Stoics that the idea con- 
necting Xo£6s with Ao£tas might be that 
of the ecliptic: to which it might be re- 
plied that the name Aortas was older 
than the knowledge of the fact. It is 
not etymologically possible to refer Aortas 
to Xvk, lux. But phonetic correspon- 
dence would justify the connection, sug- 
gested by Dr Fennell, with d-\e£ (Skt. 
rak-sh). Ao£las and his sister Ao£w (Cal- 
lim. Del. 292) would then be other forms 
of Phoebus and Artemis aXet-rrnfipioi, 
a\ei-Lp.opoi. (above, 164), 'defenders.' Io- 
casta's utte- ance here is not really incon- 
sistent wi'n her reservation in 712: see 
note there. 

854 Sieiire : expressly said: cp. 5ta- 
5eiKWfju, to show clearly (Her.) , Sia5??X6w, 
dLapprjdrjv, 'in express terms': so above, 
394 atv iyixa...b' 'to declare' (solve) 
a riddle. 

857 f. owe tqSc — ovt€ t(j8€ = o#t' iirl 
T&8e oCt' iirl ddrepa, neither to this side 
nor to that : Phil. 204 7} tov ttJS' rj Trjde 
t6twv. II. 12. 237 (Hector to Polyda- 





OI. /caXw? pop-l^eis. ctXX* o/xoi? toi> epyaTTjP 

7refJi\jJOP TLvd (TTeXovvTCL, firjSe tovt dcfifjs. 860 

IO. TT€fJL\jj(x) Ta^yvaa • aXX' icofxev es So/xovs* 

ovSei^ yap dp Trpd^ai^x dv cop ov crol fyikov. 

XO. el fioi ^vpeirj cfrepovri m V^*\^ 

2 fjiolpa rap evcreiTTOP dyptiap \6ycop 

3 ipycop re iraPTQiP, Zp vop.01 tt poKewT ai 865 

4 vi//t7ro8e9, ovpapiap 

5 Si' aWepa TtKPcoOePTts, cop "OXvfnros 

mas) : rtfr?; 5' otaj'oro't TavvwTfp&yeaai 
KeXeijeis \ TreiOeaOai ' twv oflri /ieraT/3^7ro/x' 
otfr' dXeyffa;, I efr' ^7r 2 5e££' IWi 7rpds t}cD 
t' fyXtdv re, \ dr" 1 iir* dp tare pa toL ye 
irorl {6<pov rjtpdevTd. — jiavT€ias y'...ov- 
V€Ka, so far as it is concerned: 0. C. 22 
Xpbvov fiev ovv€k\ n. 

859 f. ko,Xu>s vop.££€is : ne assents, al- 
most mechanically — but his thoughts are 
intent on sending for the herdsman. — 
otcXovvto,, ' to summon ' : er&XXeiv = ' to 
cause to set out ' (by a mandate), hence 
' to summon ' : 0. C. 297 cuoirbs 8e viv \ 
6s K&fxe 5eGp' frre/JLTrev o?xerai orreXcDj/. — jjltj- 
Bk tovt cufnjs, 'and do not neglect this.' 
With a point after a-TeXovvra we could 
render: 'neglect not roen this': but Oed. 
does not feel, nor feign, indifference. 

862 "yap, since l'a>p.€v k.t.X. implies 
consultation. The doubled &v gives em- 
phasis: cp. 139. — <Sv ov o-ol <|>CXoV = TOU- 
twv a irpd^ai oi> col <p"iXov kari. Phil. 
1227 iirpa^as tpyov iroiov uv oii a 01 irpi- 

863 — OlO Second ffrdaifiov. The 
second iireiaSdiov (512 — 862) has been 
marked by the overbearing harshness of 
Oedipus towards Creon; by the rise of a 
dreadful suspicion that Oedipus is aVay- 
vos — blood-guilty for Lai'us; and by the 
avowed contempt of Iocasta, not, indeed, 
for Apollo himself, but for the navTin-q of 
his ministers. These traits furnish the 
two interwoven themes of the second 
stasimon: (1) the prayer for purity in 
word as in deed : (2) the deprecation of 
that pride which goes before a fall ; 
— whether it be the insolence of the tv- 
pawos, or such intellectual arrogance as 
Iocasta's speech bewrays (X&yip, v. 884). 
The tone of warning reproof towards 
Oedipus, while only allusive, is yet in 
contrast with the firm though anxious 
sympathy of the former ode, and serves 

to attune the feeling of the spectators for 
the approach of the catastrophe. 

1st strophe (863—872). May I ever be 
pure in word and deed, loyal to the un- 
written and eternal laws. 

1st antistrophe (873—882). A tyrant's 
selfish insolence hurls him to ruin. But 
may the gods prosper all emulous effort 
for the good of the State. 

2nd strophe (883 — 896). Irreverence 
in wovd or deed shall not escape : the 
wrath of the gods shall find it out. 

2nd antistrophe (897—910). Surely 
the oracles concerning La'ius will yet be 
justified : O Zeus, suffer not Apollo's 
worship to fail. 

863 €t fj.01 |uvetT] |ioipa <j>€povi 1 is 
equivalent to ei0e SiareXoiycu <p£pwv, the 
part, implying that the speaker is already 
mindful of ayvda, and prays that he may 
continue to be so : whereas d p.01 £vpdr) 
ixoipa <ptpuv would have been equivalent 
to eWe fioi ytvoiTo (pipeiv, an aspiration 
towards ayvda as not yet attained. 
Though |ioipa is not expressly personified 
(cp. Find. Pyth. 3. 84 rlv hk p.oip evdai- 
pLovlas frrerat), the conception of it is so 
far personal that £vvc£t| ('be with') is 
tinged with the associations of £vvei5drj 
('be witness to'), and thus softens any 
boldness in the use of the participle; a 
use which, in principle, is identical with 
the use after such verbs as diareXC), rvy- 
Xdvu, Xavdcwin). <j>€povTi ( = <pepofj.tvu>, 
see on 59o)...oVyv«£av, winning purity, 
regarded as a precious Krij/xa (Ant. 150) : 
cp. 1 190 irXiov ras didcunovlas <ptpei: El. 
968 ei>o-^eiav...ot(T€i (will win the praise 
of piety) : Eur. Or. 158 iiirvov...<j>€po- 
p.4vip xapcu'. — Others take ipipom as = 
'bearing about with me' (or 'within me'). 
Cp. Ant. 1090 t6u voiv r dp.dvu) tG*v <ppt- 
vuv % vvv <p£pei (where \t = Tpi(f>eiv in 
1089): Tr. 108 etipwaaTov 8el/j.a <f>ipov<Tai' 


Oe. Thou judgest well. But nevertheless send some one 
to fetch the peasant, and neglect not this matter. 

10. I will send without delay. But let us come into the 
house : nothing will I do save at thy good pleasure. 

Ch. May destiny still find me winning the praise of rever- 1st 
ent purity in all words and deeds sanctioned by those laws of stro P he - 
range sublime, called into life throughout the high clear heaven, 

whose father is Olympus 

(where Casaubon rpi<povaav, as Blaydes 
rpkcpovTi here). This may be right : but 
the use here, at least, would be bold; and 
I still incline to the former view. 

864 €v<r€irrov, active, 'reverent,' only 
here : so 890 twv datirriav, also act., 'irre- 
verent deeds,' as in Eur. Helen. 542 IIpw- 
Te'ws aaiiTTov iraibbs, impious, unholy: 
see on 515. 

865 wv vop.01 irpoKCivrai vvJ/ltt., 'for 
which (enjoining which) laws have been 
set forth, moving on high,' — having their 
sphere and range in the world of eternal 
truths: vxj/lirodes being equiv. to v\j/7]\ol 
Kai v\(/ov irarovvres : see on otbfavov 846, 
and contrast x^ ovoa " rL ^V 3 OI « The meta- 
phor in vop.01 was less trite for a Greek 
of the age of Sophocles than for us : cp. 
Plat. Legg. 793 A to tcaXotipieva virb 
t&v ttoXXlov &ypacj>a vbfxifjia — otire 
vb/Jiovs 8ei irpoaayopetieiv aira oflre dp- 
pyra iav. — irpoKCivTai (Thuc. 3. 45 h olv 
rats irbXeai iroXXuv davdrov fr/ula irpbicei- 
tcu) strengthens the metaphor: Xen. 
Mem. 4. 4. 21 Slicqv y& tol didbaciv 61 
irapafiaivovTes tovs vt6 tuv dewv /cei- 
fitvovs vbfxovs, tjv ovbevl rpbnq Svvarbv 
dvOp&irip 5ia<pvyeiv, uairep rods ifir 1 dv- 
dpdiirwv Keaxiuovs vbfMovs Hvioi dia- 
(pe&yovm rb SLktjv didbvai : where Socrates 
speaks of the tiypacpoi vbp.01 which are iv 
irdari x^P a Kara ravrd vop.i^b/j.evoi, — as to 
revere the gods and honour parents. Arist. 
Rhet. 1. 13. 2: 'I consider law (vbfiov) 
as particular (tdtov) or universal {koi- 
vbv), the particular law being that which 
each community defines in respect to 
itself, — a law partly written, partly un- 
written [as consisting in local custom]; 
the universal law being that of nature 
(rbv /cara <pvaiv). For there is a cer- 
tain natural and universal right and wrong 
which all men divine (fiavreijovTai), even if 
they have no intercourse or covenant with 
each other; as the Antigone of Sophocles 
is found saying that, notwithstanding the 
interdict, it is right to bury Polyneices' 

{Ant. 454, where she appeals to the &- 
ypaTTTa Kd<r<pa\i] dewi> vbfxtfjia). Cp. 
Cope's Introd. to Arist. Rhet. p. 239. 

866 oiipaviav 81 alGe'pa T€Kva>9evT€S, 
called into a life that permeates the hea- 
venly ether (the highest heaven) : the 
metaphor of t€Kv«06vt€S being qualified 
by its meaning in this particular applica- 
tion to vop.01, viz. that they are revealed 
as operative; which allows the poet to 
indicate the sphere throughout which they 
operate by 8i' alGe'pa, instead of the ver- 
bally appropriate iv aldipi : much as if 
he had said 5i' aldipa ivepyol dvafiavivres. 
So, again, when he calls Olympus, not 
Zeus, their itottip, the metaphor is half- 
fused with the direct notion of 'source.' 
Cp. Arist. Rhet. 1. 13. 2 quoted on 865, 
which continues (illustrating rb <f>v<ret 
diKcuou): kclI ws 'Ep-TredoKXTjs A^yei irepl 
tov /XT] urelveiv rb <-/j.\f/vxov tovto yap ov 
rial fxkv 5Lkcuov rial 8 ov SUaiov, 'AW A 
rb [lev irdvTiav vbpnp.ov did r' edpv- 
/xiSovTos I atdepos rjveicicx)* rirarai 
did t' dvXiTov av yrjs (so Scaliger 
rightly amended avyrjs : Emped. 438) : 
where the special reference of Empedo- 
cles is to a principle of life common to 
gods, men, and irrational animals (Trvedfia 
rb 81a Travrbs tov Kba/xov 8i7)Kov faxv* T P° m 
irov, Sextus Emp. Adv. Math. 9. 127 : cp. 
Cope ad loc). — alScpa : //. 16. 364 ws 5' 
or* dir' OvXij/xttov vi(pos ?px €rat ovpavbv 
efow I aldipos in dlrjs : where, Olympus 
being the mountain, the ovpavbs is above 
the aid-ftp, since i£ aldipos could not = ^£ 
aid pas, after clear weather: and so //. 2. 
458 &' aldipos ovpavbv Xicei: II. 19. 351 
ovpavov iKKartiraXTo 5i' aldipos: cp. Ant. 
420. Here ovpavfav al8«pa = the highest 

867 "OXvp/iros: not the mountain, as 
in the Iliad, but, as in the Odyssey (6. 
42), the bright supernal abode of the 
gods: and so = the sky itself: O. C. 1654 
yrjv re irpouKvvovvQ' 1 6/xov \ ical tov Oeuv 



6 TraTrjp fiovos, ovSe viv 

7 Ovard covert? dvepcov u ai 

8 eriKrev, ovSe fxtj ttot€ kaOa KaTaKoifida-r)' 8 70 

9 /xeyas ev tovtols 6eo<s, ovBe yrjpdcrKei. 

dvT. a. vfiplS <f)VT€V€l TVpdVVOV 873 

2 vfipis, el 7rok\cQV v7rep7rXr}cr0fj fxarav, 

3 a fir/ 'm/caipa fjLTjhe o-vncfyepovTa, 875 

4 aKporara * yelcr dvafiaar • 
\ 5 ^aTroTfiOTarav aj£ovo~ev els dvdyKav, 

evO* ov 7roSl -^prjaiiKp 

7 -^prJTaL. to kolXojs S' 6^0^ 

8 7ro\et 7ra\atcr/xa fjaqnoTe Xvaat Oeov alrovfiai. 8 80 

9 #€0l> OV Xrj^Ct) 7T0T€ TTpOdTaTaV L(T)(0)V. 

abv ye Bothe. 870 ov84 pJ]v irore \ddpai (the p almost erased) KaraKoi/J.dar]i L. 

Most of the later MSS. (as A) have \dda, and KaraKoifido-et : some have ^ut^, others /«$ 
(as E). Elmsley has been followed by a majority of edd. in giving ix-qtrore... Kara/cot- 

870 £tikt6v, 'was their parent,' some- 
times used instead of fretce where the 
stress is not so much on the fact of the 
birth as on the parentage, 1099, O. C. 982, 
fr. 501: Pind. P. 9. 15 8v irore = 1Xats... 
trtifrev. (It would be prosaic to render, 
'brought forth successively,' — developed.) 

ovSl |XT| itot€ KaTa.Koi[idcrrj. I formerly 
gave ovSe fxdu irore KaraKoijxdcrei, — regard- 
ing L's /xrju as more significant than its Ka- 
TaKoi/xdo-rji. But I now think that the pro- 
babilities are stronger for ix-qv having come 
from ix-fj. In point of fitness, the readings 
are here equal, otf pvfi expresses conviction : 
Tlat. PAaedo 105 D ovkowtj^vx^ rb 4vavriov 
V avri) 4iri<p4pei. del ov firj irore 8i£qrai, ws 
4k rQ>v irpbadev w/J.6\byr)rai ; 

871 \Uyas kv tovtois 0«6s : the divine 
virtue inherent in them is strong and un- 
failing, debs without art., as 880: O. C. 
1694 rb <j>4pov 4k deov. For this use of 
the word, to express an indwelling power, 
cp. Eur. fr. inc. 1007 6 vovs yap rj'uv 
icrriv iv iKdaru: debs. 

873 vPpis. The tone of Oedipus to- 
wards Creon (esp. 618—672) suggests the 
strain of warning rebuke. Aeschylus, 
with more elaborate imagery, makes 
C/Jpis the daughter of Svaae^ia and the 
parent of a v4a 0/3pis which in turn begets 
nbpos and dpdeos {Ag. 764). — Tvpavvov, 

here not 'a prince,' — nor even, in the 
normal Greek sense, an unconstitutionally 
absolute ruler (bad or good), — but, in our 
sense, 'a tyrant': cp. Plat. Pol. 301 c 
8rav ixijre Kara vb/xovs fi-^re /card §drj 
irpdrrrj ris els (Lpxuv, ir poairoirjrai 84 
&o~irep b 4ino~T*f)iU))v <bs &pa irapd rd ye- 
ypap.fie'va rb ye fi4\rio~Tov iroirjriov, y 84 
ris 4ir idvjxla Kal (Lyvoia rotirov rod 
fiifx^fiaros r)yov/j,4vri, p.<2v oi) rbre rbv 
roiovrov inacrov rtipavvov k\i)t4ov; Rep. 
573 B dp' oZv ...Kal rb irdXai 8id rb roiovrov 
rtipavvos b'Epios \4yerai ; 

874 f. €t...t»TrfpirXT]<rexJ: Plat. Rep. 
573 C rvpavvtKbs 8e...dvrjp d/cpijSws 717- 
vercu, 8rav fj tptiaet rj 4irirr)8e6fiaffiv r} dp.- 
<por4pois fiedvffriKbs re Kal 4p(ariKbs 
Kal /xeXayxoXiKbs y4vqrai. For el 
with subj., see on 198. — a y.r\ : the generic 
/nfj {suck wealth as is not meet) : cp. 397 n. 

876 The reading of all the MSS., aK- 
poTaTav €l<ravaf3dV, is accounted for by 
"Wolffs emendation, which I have now 
received, aKporara 7610-' avapdV . The 
change of 7 into v was very easy for cur- 
sive minuscule ; while on the other hand 
the presence of dvdyKav in the next verse 
is not enough to explain the change of 
an original dKpbrarov into the unmetrical 
dKpordrav. — -y€i<ra, the coping of a wall : 
cp. Eur. Phoen. 1180 (of Capaneus) ijSri 



alone ; their parent was no race of mortal men, no, nor shall 
oblivion "^ver lay them to sleep ; the god is mighty in them, 
and he grows not old. 

Insolence breeds the tyrant ; Insolence, once vainly surfeited 1st ami- 
on wealth that is not meet nor good for it, when it hath scaled stro P he - 
the topmost ramparts, is hurled to a dire doom, wherein no 
service of the feet can serve. But I pray that the god never 
quell such rivalry as benefits the State ; the god will I ever hold 
for our protector. 

fx^a-rj. 876 f. aKpordrav elo-avapdo-' dirbrop.ov \ wpovaev eh dvdyKav L. All MSS. 

have aKpordrav. Instead of dirbrop.ov, A has ti.iroTp.ov, with written above. — aKpbrara 

5' virepfiaivovra yelca revx^v | /3dA\« 
Kepavvip Zetfs viv (as Ant. 131, of the same, 
(3aX(3L8wv | eir' &Kpuv rfSrj \ vIktjv op/xQvT' 
dXaXd£ai). So here the tf/3pts is hurled 
down, Capaneus-like, at the crowning 
moment of wicked triumph. In Eur. 
Suppl. 728 there is a similar image of in- 
solent ambition hurled down, as from the 
topmost round of a scaling-ladder : vfipio-- 
tt]v Xabv, os Trpdcrcruv KaXtos | els tinpa 
^Tjvat K\i/J.dK(av ivfjXara \ {rjrwv d7ri6\e<r' 

877 With the MS. diroTOjiov wpov- 
<T€v €ls avd/yKav, there is a defect of ~~ 
or -. Reading aKpbrarov in 876, Arndt 
supplies atwos before dirbrop.ov, as I for- 
merly supplied ti.Kpov in the same place : 
E. L. Lushington thought of 6'pos to follow 
dirbropix>v : Campbell reads iijupovo-ev. But 
none of these remedies, nor any other of 
a like kind, is satisfactory, or very pro- 
bable. I now agree with Wecklein in 
preferring Schnelle's diro-rnoTdTav for 
dirbropLov. This is metrically exact ( = 867 
6Y aide" pa tckv-), and removes the neces- 
sity for any conjectural supplement. (The 
superlative of diroT/aos occurs Od. 2. 219.) 
— wpovcrtv, gnomic aor. (cp. O.C. 1215/caT- 
tdevTo). — dvdyKav, a constraining doom 
from the gods: Eur. Ph. 1000 els avdyK-qv 
■daip.6v(x)v acpiy/mhoi. Cp. Plat. Legg. 7 16 A 
6 8k tls ei-apdels virb p.eya\avxlo.s 4xP^M a- 
aiv iiratp!>iJ.evos fj np.ais rj Kal a&pLaros 
eiip.op<pla, ap.a vebrrjrt. Kal dvoia (pXtyerat. 
tt)v \pvxw A* c ^' v(5peus...n.erd 8e XP 0V0V °v 
iro\i>v virocrxuv Tip.<x)piav rrj 8Lkt} iavrbv re 
Kal oIkov Kal irbXiv &p8r)v dvdo~rarov e'Trolrjo'e. 

878 xpT]<r£|ia)...5(p'rJTai: where it does 
not use the foot to any purpose: i.e. the 
leap is to headlong destruction ; it is not 
one in which the feet can anywhere find a 

safe landing-place. For the paronomasia 
cp. Pind. P. 2. 78 Kepdoi 8e rl p.d\a tovto 
KepdaXtov reXkdei; 'but for the creature 
named of gain,' (the fox) ' what so gainful 
is there here?' 

879 to koAws 8' '4\ov: but I ask that 
the god never do away with, abolish, 
that struggle which is advantageous for 
the city, — i.e. the contest in which citizen 
vies with citizen who shall most serve the 
State. The words imply a recognition 
of the wpodvpla which Oed. had so long 
shown in the service of Thebes : cp. 48, 

93> *47- 

880 ird\ai<Tfxa: cp. Isocr. Ep. 7 § 7 
rots koXws ras irbXeis ras avrCov diotKovcriv 
d/J.iWrjTe'ov Kal ireipartov SieveyKetv av- 
ti2v. Plut. Mor. 820 C uicrwep ovk dpyv- 
plrrjv oi)8k Suplrrjv dywva iroXirelas 
dywvi^op.e'vois (the emulous service of 
the State), dAAd lepbv ws aXrjdiSs Kal cre- 
(fravlr-qv (like the contests in the great 

882 f. irpocrrdTav : defender, cham- 
pion: not in the semi-technical sense of 
'patron,' as in 411. — vir^poirra, adverbial 
neut. of viripoirros [not virepbTra, epic 
nom. for virepbirrr}s, like IrrTbra} : cp. 
0. C. 1695 otiroi Kard/xepLirr' gpTjTov, ye 
have fared not amiss. II. 17. 75 ddx^Ta 
8lJ}k(ov I twirovs: Eur. Suppl. 770 tiKpavr' 
bStipei: Ph. i"]^gti.ireiixi...airapdhevT dXu- 
pLe"va: Ion 255 dvepeuv-qra 8v<rdvixel (hast 
griefs which I may not explore). — x € P°"^ v » 
in contrast with Xoyco, merely = ^pyois, 
not ' deeds of violence' : cp. Eur. Ph. 31a 
7tws... I Kal X e P°~i Kal Xbyoiai... | 7repi- 
Xopevovva re'p\j/i.v...\d{S<j}, find joy in deed 
and word of circling dance, i.e. in linking 
of the hands and in song: cp. 864. 



a-rp. p'. el Se ti<? vnipoiTTa yep (J>lv V ^oya) nopeveTou, .883 

2 Ai/cas d<f)6/3r)Tos, ovBe 885 

3 SoufjLovojv iSrj aeftcov, 

4 /ca/ca 1/11/ ekoiTO fiolpa, 

5 SvcnroTfAOV ^dpiv ^XtSa?, 

6 et /xt) to KepSos Kephavei St/cataj? 

7 /cat tmv doreiTTcov ep^erai, 890 

8 rj tcov dOiKToyv # Oi^erai fiara^ajv. 

9 Tt? en 77-07' iv toutS' az/77/) iM 6eojv /3eXr) 
10 ^euferac i/zu^a? ajxvveiv ; 

7eur' dfa/3acr' Wolff; diroT/jLordrav (for d7r6ro/ioj/) Schnelle. See comment. 890 fy- 
£erat L. The scribe had begun to write x as the third letter, but corrected it to £. 
The later mss. have the same word, with variations of breathing. 891 ^erai mss. 

In L the breathing has been added (or retouched) by the first corrector, 0t'£ercu 
Blaydes. (The mode of writing ££ercu in L, where the first e is large, suggests the ease 

885 ACkcis d<t>6(3T]Tos, not fearing Jus- 
tice : cp. 969 dxfsavaros gyxovs, not touch- 
ing a spear. The act. sense is preferable 
only because class. Greek says (pofirjdeU 
tt)v 51kt)u, not <pofir)6els vwb rrjs dlnTjs: the 

form of the adj. would warrant a pass, 
sense: cp. Tr. 685 6,ktTpos...&6lktou. 
With A0o/3os (Ai. 366) &<pofiriTos cp. drap- 
fify (Tr. 23) drdp^rjTos (Ai. 197). 

886 £8t], images of gods, whether sit- 
ting or standing; but always with the 
added notion that they are placed in a 
temple or holy place as objects of wor- 
ship. Timaeus p. 93 'ioos' rb dyaXp.a 
Kal 6 rdwos iv <£> Zdpvrcu : where t6tto$ 
prob. denotes the small shrine in which 
an image might stand. Dionys. Hal. 1. 
47 uses 25r] to render penates. Liddell 
and Scott s.v. cite the following as places 
in which 25os 'may be a temple" 1 \ but in 
all of them it must mean image. Isocr. 
or. 15 § 2 $ei5Lav rbv rb ttjs 'Adrjvds 
IS oj ipyaad/xevov, i.e. the chryselephan- 
tine Athena Parthenos; cp. Plut. Per. 
13 6 5e <J>et5i'as dpydfero fikv rrjs deov rb 
Xpvaovv 25os' Xen. Hellen. 1. 4. 12 
n\wr?7/>ta r^ytv ij wbXis, rod e*5oi/s /caret - 
K€Ka\vfxp.hov rrjs 'Afl^as : i.e. the dpxo-tov 
Ppiras of Athena Polias in the Erech- 
theum was veiled in sign of mourning 
(the death of Aglauros being commemo- 
rated at the festival of the Plunteria). 
Paus. 8. 46. 2 <t>ali>eTcu 5e o&k api-as b Ati- 
yovaros dvad^p-ara Kal gdrj dewv dird- 
yeadai irapd tusv KparrjdtvTuv (i.e. carry 
off to Italy); where dva.drjfia.Ta are dedi- 

cated objects generally, 25r} images wor- 
shipped in temples. Is Sophocles glancing 
here at the mutilators of the Hermae in 
415 B.C., and especially at Alcibiades? 
We can hardly say more than this: — (1) 
There is no positive probability as to the 
date of the play which can be set against 
such a view. (2) The language suits it, — 
nay, might well suggest it; nor does it 
matter that the'Epp-ac, though dvad^fxara 
( Andoc. De Myst. § 34), were not properly 
edr). (3) It cannot be assumed that the 
dramatic art of Sophocles would exclude 
such a reference. Direct contemporary 
allusion is, indeed, uncongenial to it. 
But a light touch like this — especially in 
a choral ode — might fitly strike a chord 
of contemporary feeling in unison with 
the emotion stirred by the drama itself. 
I do not see how to affirm or to deny 
that such a suggestion was meant here. 
(Cp. O. C. 15370.) 

888 8vcnrdT|iov, miserably perverse : 
Ant. 1025 oi/Ktr' &t'... | &J3ov\os o&r' 

890 t»v do-iirrtiiv : see on 864. — 2p£«- 
tcu, ke^p himself from : 0. C. 836 elpyov, 
'stand back': Her. 7. 197 (is Kara rb 
&\aos iyevero, airbs re l-pyero aiirov Kal 
rjj (XTparirj irdffy Traprryye<.Xe. Plat. Legg. 
838 A cis eS re Kal dKpi(3ios etpyovrai r??s 
Tiav KaXQv i-vvov<rias. As to the form, Her. 
has gpyu or eV/ryw : in Attic the MSS. give 
Aesch. Eum. 566 Karepyadov: Soph. At. 
593 £vvtpi;eT£ : Thuc. 5. 1 1 irepiipljavTes 
(so the best mss., and Classen) : Plat. 



But if any man walks haughtily in deed or word, with no 2nd 
fear of Justice, no reverence for the images of gods, may an evil stro P he - 
doom seize him for his ill-starred pride, if he will not win his 
vantage fairly, nor keep him from unholy deeds, but must lay 
profaning hands on sanctities. 

Where such things are, what mortal shall boast any more 
that he can ward the arrows of the gods from his life? 

with which 81% might have become ££.)— nariifav L, fiardfai/ r. 892 f. tI<t £tL 

(sic) wot' 4v roTad' dv^p \ Qv{iG>i (3t\i>) ipi-ercu (sic) \ \pv%o.<T dptiveiv L. The later MSS. 
have in some cases 8vfi<2 or 8v/j.ov: a few have iv toijtois (as E), or airoh (B), for 
iv Toiad*. — For dufiuji, Hermann restored 8eQv : for £/)£ercu, Musgrave e^erat. 

Gorg. 461 D KadipZys (so Stallb. and 
Herm., with MSS.) : Rep. 461 B %ovip%<xv- 
tos: Pol. 285 B fy>£as. So far as the 
MSS. warrant a conclusion, Attic seems 
to have admitted ep- instead of dp- in the 
forms with £. The smooth breathing is 
right here, even if we admit a normal 
distinction between elpyu 'to shut out' 
and efyryw 'to shut in.' 

891 BCgenu. This conjecture of Blaydes 
seems to me certain. The form occurs 
Eur. Hippol. 1086 kKoXwv tis aiiT&v dp' 
ifiov ye dii-erai: Her. 652 el 8e r&vde 
irpoo-8Li-ei x*pt- Hesych. has Oli-eadcu. 
L has ii-erai with no breathing. Soph, 
could not conceivably have used such a 
phrase as ?x e<r ^ ai ™ v ddiKruv, to cling to 
things which should not even be touched. 
He himself shows the proper use of 
e'X€0~6 a <' i n fr. 327 tov 7 e Kepdalveiv o/mcvs 
I dirpli- ^x ovTai f ' st i^ tne y cling tooth 
and nail to gain': fr. 26 rd fiev \ SUcai' 
iiraivei tov Be Kepbalvew ^x ov - Some 
explain ?|erai as * abstain ':' CW. 4. 422 
ax^dai re /3h/s \vo~al re ytpovra: Her. 6. 
85 $<rxp»TO rijs dyuyrjs. To this there 
are two objections, both insuperable: 
(1) the disjunctive ij, — with which the 
sense ought to be, 'unless he gain &c... 
or else abstain' : (2) fiar^cav, which could 
not be added to ft-erai as if this were 
iraiaerai. — [xaTq^wv, acting with rash 
folly : Her. 2. 162 dire^aTd'iae, behaved 
in an unseemly manner: Aesch. Ag. 995 
o-irKdyxvo. 5' otfn /iarpfei, my heart does 
not vainly forebode. The reason for 
writing (xaT<j.fav, not fiard^uiv, is that the 
form paTdtpa is well attested (Her., Jo- 
sephus, Hesych., Herodian) : while there 
is no similar evidence for fiardfa, though 
the latter form might have existed, being 
related to a stem /xara (f^drrj) as duca^-a 
to diKa (81ktj). 

892 t£s £ri iroT ...dpvveiv; Amid 

such things (if such deeds prevail), who 
shall any longer vaunt that he wards off 
from his life the shafts of the gods? The 
pres. djxvvciv, not fut. dp.vve'iv, because 
the shafts are imagined as already as- 
sailing him. cv toio-8' : 13 19: Ant. 38 
el rdd' iv tovtois. 

893 8«ov P&t]. The MSS. have 8v- 
fiQi, du/xov or 8v[x,G) : in A over dvfiQi 
(3£\rj is written ttjv 8elav dU-rju. This 
points to the true sense, though it does 
not necessarily presuppose the true read- 
ing. The phrase Gvp-ou $4\i\, 'arrows of 
anger,' could mean, 'taunts hurled by an 
angry man ' ; but, alone, could not mean, 
'the arrows of the* divine wrath.' The 
readings of the MSS. might have arisen 
either through the v of 8e&v being written, 
as it often is, in a form resembling fi, 
and w having then been transposed (so 
that 8v/j.& would have arisen before 8v- 
fxQi) ; or from a gloss 8v/j.ov on xpvxds. 
For P&.T) cp. Plat. Legg. 873 E ttXtjv oaa 
Kepavvbs rj ti vapd 8eov toiovtov /S^Xos 

894 €v£€T<u. This conject. of Mus- 
grave (which Blaydes adopts) involves 
only the change of one letter from 2p£e- 
tcu : and nothing would have been more 
likely than a change of e^t-erai into £/)£ercu 
if the scribe's eye or thought had wandered 
to ZpZeTai in 890, especially since the lat-" 
ter is not obviously unsuited to the general 
sense. But fy>|€T<H here is impossible. 
For (1) we cannot render: 'will keep off 
the shafts from himself, so as to ward 
them from his life': this would be in- 
tolerable. Nor (2), with Elmsley: 'who 
will abstain from warding off the shafts 
of the soul (the stings of conscience, 
rf/vxds Pe"kr]) from his mind (6v[xov)V i.e. 
who will not become reckless? This 
most assuredly is not Greek. €v£enu, 
on the other hand, gives just the right 



11 et yap at rotcttSe npa^ets Tt/xiat, 

12 tl Set /xe yopeveiv ; 


dvT. ft'. OVK€TL TOV dOlKTOV €LfJLL yCt? eV OjJL(f)a\6v CTeficOV, 

2 OuS' 65 ToV 'AfioUOrL VO.QV, 

3 ovSe rai^ 'OXv/JLTriav, 900 
- 4 €t pjr) raSe )(€Lp6SeLKTa 

5 iracriv dpfiocrei /3/ootoi9. 

6 aXX', a> Kparvvtov, €1776/0 op#' d/covets, 

7 Zev, irdvr dvdcrcrcov, p,r) XdOou 

8 ere rctj> re crew' dOdvaTov alkv dpydv. 905 

9 (f)6'ivovTa yap Actio v < 7raXat<^ara > 

10 6e<T(j>aT i^aupovcTLv 77S77, 

11 /couSa/xou TLfiais 'AnoWcov ifi(f)av7]S' 

12 ey>pei Se Tct #€ta. 910 

806 After xopeueiy, L has in the same verse woveiv rj toio- deottr. These words are 
found in at least four other mss., — Pal., M (as corrected), M 2 , M 5 : being a corruption 
of a gloss, iraviryvplfciv tols deots, found in the Trin. and other MSS. (Campbell, I. 
xxvii). Dr E. M. Thompson points out that this corruption, hardly possible in 
uncial writing, would have been comparatively easy in minuscule, and regards it as 
indicating that the archetype of L was a minuscule MS. (Introd. to Facsimile, p. 8.) 
899 'A/3cu<ri] Erfurdt wrote "A/fata-i, on the authority of Arcadius (104. 11). Eusta- 
thius knew both modes of writing it (on //. I. 536, p. 279. 1). 903 bpdbv L, 6p9' r. 

sense: ' If justice and religion are tram- 
pled under foot, can any man dare to 
boast that he will escape the divine 

896 xop«V€iv. The words irovelv r] tols 
deois added in a few MSS. (including L) 
have plainly arisen from a contracted 
writing of irav-qyvplfriv tols deots which 
occurs in a few others. This gloss cor- 
rectly represents the general notion of 
Xopetieiv, as referring to the x°P°L con " 
nected with the cult of Dionysus, Apollo 
and other gods. The x°P 0S was an ele- 
ment so essential and characteristic that, 
in a Greek mouth, the question rl Set fie 
Xopevew ; would import, 'why maintain 
the solemn rites of public worship?' Cp. 
Polybius 4. 20 (speaking of the youth of 
Arcadia) fiera 5e* ravra tovs <bi\o&vov 
/ecu Tt/xode'ov vbfiovs fiavQavovTes (learning 
the music of those masters) iroWrj 0tXo- 
Ti/jiiq. x°P € v° V0 ~ L KCLT> iviavrbu tols Ato- 
vvatanois avkrjTais kv tols de&rpois, ol nkv 
tralbes tovs waidLKovs dycavas, ol dt vea- 
i>io~Kot tovs tQv dvbpwv 'Keyofie'vovs. Eur. 

Bacch. 181 8e'i...Ai6i>vo'oj'...6crov Kad' r)/ias 
bwarbv ati£ecrdai fiiyav' \ Trot 8e i xopetietv, 
irot Kadiffrdvcu iroSa, \ Kal Kpara aetaai 
iroktbv ; ii-rjyov ad fioi \ ye'pcov ytpovTi, 
Teipeala. The Theban elders need not, 
then, be regarded as momentarily for- 
getting their dramatic part. Cp. 1095 

897 a8iKT0V: cp. the story of the 
Persian attack on Delphi in 480 B.C. 
being repulsed by the god, who would 
not suffer his priests to remove the trea- 
sures, (pas aiiTbs Uavbs etvai twc icovrov 
TrpoKaTTjadai, Her. 8. 36. — o|ic}>a\6v : see 
on 480. 

899 tov 'Apawri vadV. The site of 
Abae, not far n. of the modern village 
of Exarcho, was on a hill in the north- 
west of Phocis, between Lake Copais 
and Elateia, and near the frontier of the 
Opuntian Locrians. Her. 8. 33 tvda t)v 
lepbv 'ATrdWwvos irXovaiov, drjaavpotal re 
Kal &padr)/xaai ToWotaL KarecTKevacrfie'vov 
fy 8e ko.1 Tbre Kal vvv iarl xPV< J " T "fiP L0V a ^ m 
t66l 4 Kal tovto Tb lepbv <rv\r)c7avTes IvtirpT)- 



Nay, if such deeds are in honour, wherefore should we join in 
the sacred dance ? 

No more will I go reverently to earth's central and inviolate 2nd ant *- 
shrine, no more to Abae's temple or Olympia, if these oracles strop e * 
fit not the issue, so that all men shall point at them with the 
finger. Nay, king, — if thou art rightly called, — Zeus all-ruling, 
may it not escape thee and thine ever-deathless power! 

The old prophecies concerning La'ius are fading; already 
men are setting them at nought, and nowhere is Apollo glorified 
with honours ; the worship of the gods is perishing. 

904 tt&vt'' dvda<ruv~\ iravra XeiWwv B. Arnold. — Xddoi L: \d0rj r: Xddrj Brunck. 
906 4>dlvovTa yap Xatov •'• Qtafyar' L : the three dots meaning that iraXaid (written in 
the margin by a later hand) was to be inserted there. (Most of the later MSS. have 
Qdhovra yap Xatov iraXaid 0&r0a-r' : a few place iraXaid before Xatov or after 0&r0ara.) 
— iraXalcpaTa is the conjecture of Arndt, and of Linwood (who prefixes tcl to Aatov, 
reading wv roidad' for 4v to?<t8' in 892). Schneidewin supplied Tlvdbxpw™ before 

cav (the Persians in 480 B.C.). Hadrian 
built a small temple beside the ancient 
iepdv, Paus. 10. 35. 3. 

OOO t&v 'OXvjxirCav, called by Pindar 
?>£o-troiv > d\a0ctas (01. 8. 2), because divi- 
nation by burnt offerings (fiavriKTi 6Y i/x- 
vvpuv) was there practised on the altar 
of Zeus by the Iamidae, hereditary fidv- 
rets (Her. 9. 33) : Pind. 01. 6. 70 Zrjvbs 
eV aicpoT&Tcp ^Ufx^...xpv (rT VP'- 0,/ Qtvdai 
K^Xevcrev (Apollo)" | £i- od iroXtiKXeirov nad' 
"EXXavas yivos 'la/xtddv. 

901 el p/q TctSe appocrei, if these things 
(the prophecy that La'ius should be slain 
by his son, and its fulfilment) do not come 
right (fit each other), x« l po8eiKTa ircuriv 
Ppotois, so as to be signal examples for 
all men. Cp. Ant. 1318 ra5' ovk iir* 
dXXov PpoTuJv I i/xas dp/xdcei tot' ££ ai- 
rlas, can never be adjusted to another, — 
be rightly charged on him. Prof. Camp- 
bell cites Plat. Soph. 262 C irplv av ns 
Tots 6v6/ rd prj/xara Kepdarj. rbre 5' 
yp/xotrt re, k.t.X., where I should suppose 
ijpfjLOcre to be transitive: ijpfiocrt ns rots 
dvofxatXL rd p-^fxara : if so, it is not paral- 
lel. x €l P°^- on ty here. 

903 (lkovcis, audis, alluding chiefly 
to the title Zei>s /SacriAetfs, Xen. Anab. 3. 
1. 12; under which, after the victory at 
Leuctra in 371 B.C., he was honoured 
with a special festival at Lebadeia in 
Boeotia, Diod. 15. 53. 

904 The subject to Xd0oi is not defi- 
nitely rdSe (902), but rather a motion to 
be inferred from the whole preceding 

sentence, — 'the vindication of thy word.' 
Elms. cp. Eur. Med. 332 ZeO, fxr] Xddot, 
ae Tuivd' 8s aXnos naicwv. 

906 After <p0£vovTCt -yap Aatov we 
require a metrical equivalent for dewy 
/3£Xr] in 893. The iraXaid in the marg. 
of L and in the text of other mss. favours 
iraXaupaTa, proposed by Linwood and 
Arndt, which suits <p0£vovra: cp. 561. 
Schneidewin conj. Ilvd6xpv< J " ra Aatov. 
Aatov, object, gen.: cp. Thuc. 1. 140 
rb tQiv Meyaptwv TJ/JiQurfia (about them). 

908 e£aipovcriv, are putting out of ac- 
count. This bold use comes, I think, not 
from the sense of destroying (Xen. Hellen. 
2.2. 19 fif] o-nhbecdai 'Adyvalois dXX' ii-ai- 
peiv), but from that of setting aside,, ex- 
cluding from consideration: Plat. Soph. 
249 B to&tq r(p Xdycfi ravrbv tovto 4 k t&v 
fvTtov iijatpTfiaofiev, 'by this reasoning we 
shall strike this same thing out of the 
list of things which exist.' Cp. Theaet. 
162 D deovs...ov$ 4y& %k re rod X4yeu> Kal 
rod ypd(peiv irepl avrwv, cos eltrlv rj ws ovk 
elalv, i£aip<d. The absence of a gen. 
like X6yov for 4£cupov<nv is softened by 
<p0£vovra, which suggests 'fading from 
men's thoughts.' 

909 Tipats...lp.<j>avijs, manifest in 
honours (modal dat.) : i.e. his divinity 
is not asserted by the rendering of such 
worship as is due to him. Aesch. P. V. 
171 (of Zeus) ffKTJTTTpov Tifxds r' diroav- 

910 tci 8€ia, ' religion,' both faith and 
observance: cp. 0. C. 1537. 



IO. yupas a^ct/cT€5, Sofa fxot TrapecrTdOr) 

vaovs LKecrdai Saifiovcov, raS' iv ytpolv 

aT€(j)rj Xa/3ovo"rj KaVi#v/xia/xara. 

vxpov yap alpei 0vp,6v OISlttovs dyav 

\vTTaiari iravToiaMTiv ov& ottoT dvrjp 915 

evvovs rd Kaiva rot? Trakai TeK^xaipeTai, 

a\\' €(ttl tov \4yovTO$, tjv <£o/3ou9 ^4yrj. 

6V ovv Trapaivovcr ovhev e? nXeov ttoloj, 

Trpos cr, co Avk€l AttoWov, ay^tcrTO? yap el, 

Ik4ti<; dcfnynai rotcrSe crvv Karevyixacnv, 920 

07TO)5 XuO~(J> TIV 7)fJLLV €Vayrj TTOpTj^' 

a>9 vvv OKVovpev TrdvTes iKTreTr\r)yyi4vov 
Keivov /3Xe7T0VT€S cJs Kv/3epv7]T7]v vecos. 


dp 9 dv Trap vjjlcov, (5 £4voi, fxaOoifji ottov 

rd tov Tvpdvvov Scofxar icrrlv OlSittov ; 925 

[xdXicrTa S* avTov eiTrar ', et KaricrO' ottov. 

Aatov. — For Aatov, Mekler writes AaKiov, Nauck Ao^iov. ©17 L now has fjv <t>6,3ov<T 
Xtyt) (not Xtyrji). r\v is in erasure, having been corrected (doubtless from et) either by 
the 1st hand itself, or by the first corrector: 77 is written in the form H. There is an 
erasure above r\v (possibly of rjv itself, which had been noted as a variant on el). The 
H of Xiyr) is above the line, 01 having been erased below it. Most of the later MSS. have 

Oil — 1085 iir€i<r68iov rptrov. A 
messenger from Corinth, bringing the 
news that Polybus is dead, discloses that 
Oedipus was not that king's son, but a 
Theban foundling, whom the messenger 
had received from a servant of Lai'us. 
Iocasta, failing to arrest the inquiries of 
Oedipus, rushes from the scene with a 

Oil — 023 Iocasta comes forth, bear- 
ing a branch {iKerrjpla), wreathed with 
festoons of wool (artyr)), which, as a 
suppliant, she is about to lay on the altar 
of the household god, Apollo Aikeioy, in 
front of the palace. The state of Oedi- 
pus frightens her. His mind has been 
growing more and more excited. It is 
not that she herself has much fear for the 
future. What alarms her is to see 'the 
pilot of the ship' (923) thus unnerved. 
Though she can believe no longer in 
human /jlclvtikt), she has never ceased to 
revere the gods (708) ; and to them she 

turns for help in her need. 

012 vaovs 8ai|i<Jv<i»v can only mean 
the public temples of Thebes, as the two 
temples of Pallas and the 'Itrfi^viov (20). 
The thought had come to Iocasta that 
she should supplicate the gods; and in 
effect she does so by hastening to the 
altar which she can most quickly reach 


013 <TT&f>T): see on 3. — eiri0u|iid|xara, 

offerings of incense : cp. 4. In El. 634, 
where Clytaemnestra comes forth to the 
altar of Apollo irpoaTarifipios, an attendant 
carries dti/mra irdyKapva, offerings of 
fruits of the earth. — Xaffowrg. \a^ov<rap 
would have excluded a possible ambi- 
guity, by showing that the 56£ct had come 
before and not after the wreaths were 
taken up : and for this reason the accus. 
often stands in such a sentence: Xen. 
An. 3. 1. 1 1-dol-ev aiirols irpo<pv\aKas 
Karaar^aavras ovynahelv roifs arpa- 



Io. Princes of the land, the thought has come to me to 
visit the shrines of the gods, with this wreathed branch in my 
hands, and these gifts of incense. For Oedipus excites his soul 
overmuch with all manner of alarms, nor, like a man of sense, 
judges the new things by the old, but is at the will of the 
speaker, if he speak terrors. 

Since, then, by counsel I can do no good, to thee, Lycean 
Apollo, for thou art nearest, I have come, a suppliant with these 
symbols of prayer, that thou mayest find us some riddance from 
uncleanness. For now we are all afraid, seeing him affrighted, 
even as they who see fear in the helmsman of their ship. 


Might I learn from you, strangers, where is the house of the 
king Oedipus ? Or, better still, tell me where he himself is — if 
ye know. 

rjv...\iyq (Xtyoi Y). 920 KOLTetiyfiaaiv MSS. : Kardpyfiao-iv Wunder. 926 k&- 

tout-0' L, with most of the later mss. : K&Ticd' A. L's reading may, as Dindorf remarks, 
have prompted the statement of a grammarian in Bachmann's Anecdota (vol. 2, 
p. 358. 20), who says that Sophocles used rb olade dvrb tov oldare Kara avyKox^v. 

916 rd Kcuvd, the prophecies of Tei- 
resias, tois irdXcu, by the miscarriage of 
the oracle from Delphi: 710 f. 

917 tov XfyovTos: Plat. Gorg. 508 D 
elfil 8e iirl t$ ^ovXofiiv^, uo-irep oi drifioi 
tov tdiXovros, &vre tOtttciv jBovXrjTai, K.T.X. 
— as outlaws are at the mercy of the first 
comer: 0. C. 752 tovwl6vtos dpirdaai. 
■fjv <{>6f3ovs X£yg has better MS. authority 
than el Xtyoi, and is also simpler: the 
latter would be an opt. like Ai. 520 dv8pi 
toi xP e &> v { = X l ^l) I f-v-fffxifv irpocreivai, 
repirvbv et rl irov irddot. : cp. ib. 1 344 : 
Ant. 666. But the statement of abstract 
possibility is unsuitable here. el...X4yy 
has still less to commend it. 

918 ore, seeing that, = e'7ret5r?: Ant. 
170: El. 38: Dem. or. 1 § 1 ore toIvvv 
oOtws #x ei: so birbre Thuc. 2. 60. 

919 AvK€t' "AiroXXov: see on Atf/cete 

920 KaT€VYH ,atrtv > tne prayers sym- 
bolised by the UeT-qpia and offerings of 
incense. The word could not mean ' vo- 
tive offerings.' Wunder'sconject. Ka-rdp- 
"yjJLaariv, though ingenious, is neither need- 
ful nor really apposite. That word is 
used of (a) offerings oi first-fruits, pre- 
sented along with the elpeaubprj or harvest- 
wreath, Plut. Thes. 22 : {b) the ovXoxvrai 
or barley sprinkled on the altar and victim 

at the beginning of a sacrifice : Eur. /. T. 
244 x^P vl ^ s Te Ka l Kardpyixara. 

921 \v<riv...€va"yij, a solution without 
defilement: i.e. some end to our anxieties, 
other than such an end as would be put 
to them by the fulfilment of the oracles 
dooming Oedipus to incur a fearful &yos. 
For evayijs Xvats as = one which will 
leave us eiayeis, cp. Pind. Olytnp. I. 26 
Kadapov Xtpyros, the vessel of cleansing. 

923 (as KvPcpvijTnv V€t£s, not ws (6i>tcl) 
Kvfiepv. v., because he is our pilot, but ws 
{dKvoifiev av) (HXe'irovres Kvfiepv. v. iKxe- 
irXrryiie'vov : Aesch. Theb. 2 Bans <pvXdo~<rei 
irpayos iv Trplj/JLvrj irbXecos | ota/ca vwn&v, 
pXicpapa firj KOifj.wv Owvip. 

924 When the messenger arrives, Io- 
casta's prayer seems to have been im- 
mediately answered by a Xvats evayr)s 
(921), as regards part at least of the 
threatened doom, though at the cost of 
the oracle's credit. 

926 paXurra denotes what stands 
first among one's wishes: cp. 1466: 
Track. 799 /j.dXi<rra fiip fie 62s I ivraOO' 
ottov fxe fir) tis 6xf/erai fipoT&v \ eld' 1 oXktov 
ferrets, k.t.X. : Phil. 617 otoiro fiev fid' 
Xtad' iKofotov Xafi&v, \ el fir] 0Aoi 5', 
d/covTa: Ant. 327 dXX > evpedeir) fiev fid- 
Xkxt'' idv biroi j Xrj<p6y re Kai fir} k.t.X. 



XO. cTTeyou p,kv atSe, kolvtos evhov, a> £ev€' 

yvirrjSeu/^rrjp 778c tcov Keiuov t4kvq}v. 
AT. dkX 6k/3 la re /cat £itv d\/3tot9 aet 

yivovf , eKtivov y ovaa 7ravTekr)<; Soifiap. 930 

IO. aura*? oe /cat cru y , <y £ei/ • a£t09 yap et 

7175 €U€7T€ta9 ovveK. aAAct <t>pd£ otov 

Xprj^Qiv a<£tfat ^w Tt crrjfjLTJvaL deXcov. 
AT. dyaOd So/>tot9 re /cat irocrei tw o~a>, ywat. 
IO. rot 7rota Tavra; napd twos 8* a<£ty/xeVo9 ; 935 

Ar. e/c 7-^9 KopwOov. to 8* £77-09 ov^epaj ra^a, 

97 80 to jiteV, 7ra>9 8' ou/c aV ; acr^a\Xot9 8' to-fc>9. 
IO. rt 8' ecrrt ; iroiav hvvapav cSS' ej(€t hiirXfjv ; 
AT. Tvpavvov avTov ov7TL)(c6pLOL yOovos 

Trjs 'Io-O/jllcls orTtjcrovcTLV, o$9 TjuSaV e/cet. 940 

IO. Tt 8'; o^x o Trpecrfivs HoXvfios iyKpaTrjs eri ; 

AT. OX) SrJT t €7T€t 7/t^ ddvOLTOS Iv TCt<^Ot9 ^(€t. 

IO. 7ra>9 €t7ra9 ; rj T€0vr)K€ TLoXv/3o<;, < <L yipov ; > 
AT. el fxr) Xeyco TaXrjdes, afta) Oavew. 

03O 7^oit'J ytvoC Wecklein. 033 x' worf seems to have been written by the rst 
hand in L, and then altered to x' w rt. x^s Tt (V, Pal.) and koL tL (T) were known as 
variants. 035 The 1st hand in L wrote irapd, which an early hand changed to 

irpbs, the common reading of the late MSS. (but irapd L a and Pal.). — The 5' after rlvoir 
in L was added by an early hand. 043 f. wwo elirav rj Tidv-^Ke 7r6Xi//3o<r; \ el 5t 

028 yuvr} 8£ Here, and in 930, 950, 
the language is so chosen as to empha- 
sise the conjugal relation of Iocasta with 

030 iravTcXifs, because the wife's es- 
tate is crowned and perfected by the birth 
of children (928). The choice of the 
word has been influenced by the associa- 
tions of rtXos, tA«os with marriage. 
Aesch. Enm. 835 60t} irpb iraldwv /cai 
yap,7)\lov t4\ovs (the marriage rite) : ib. 
214 "Hpas reXeias /cai Aids iruxTup-ara : 
schol. on Ar. 7'hesm. 973 £tlp.G)vto iv 
toIs 7a/iois ws Tpvr&vus ovres Tuiv ydpiwv' 
tAos 5e 6 y&pios: Pindar Nem. 10. 18 
TeXei'ci prrn)p=", who (Ar. Th. 976) 
icX^5a$ ydp.ov (pvXdrrei. In Aesch. Ag. 
972 dvrjp Te'\eios = olKo8e<nr6TT]s: as 5bp.o$ 
TjpureXijs {II. 2. 700) refers to a house left 
without its lord: cp. Lucian Dial. Mort. 
§ 19 i]p.iTe\i) p.ev t6v 8bp.0P KaraXtinJjy, 
XVP av St T V V vebyap.ov ywaiKa. 

031 cuItws {Tr. 1040 c55' avrws a»$ jw' 
wXece) can be nothing but adverb from 

airbs (with Aeolic accent), = 'in that very 
way': hence, according to the context, 
(a) simply 'likewise,' or {b) in a depre- 
ciatory sense, 'only thus,' — i.e. 'ineffi- 
ciently,' 'vainly.' The custom of the 
grammarians, to write avrcas except when 
the sense is 'vainly,' seems to have come 
from associating the word with ovtos, or 
possibly even with avrbs. For Soph., as 
for Aesch. and Eur., our mss. on the whole 
favour ai/'rws: but their authority cannot 
be presumed to represent a tradition 
older than, or independent of, the gram- 
marians. It is, indeed, possible that 
avrcos was an instance of old aspiration on 
false analogy, — as the Attic rj/ieis (Aeolic 
& for dcr/x^j) was wrongly aspirated 
on the analogy of ufieh (see Peile, Greek 
and Latin Etymology p. 302, who agrees 
on this with Curtius). In the absence 
of evidence, however, that aflrws was a 
like instance, it appears most reasonable 
to write aCrus. 

032 evcireCas, gracious words, = ev(f>rj- 



Ch. This is his dwelling, and he himself, stranger, is within; 
and this lady is the mother of his children. 

Me. Then may she be ever happy in a happy home, since 
she is his heaven-blest queen. 

Io. Happiness to thee also, stranger! 'tis the due of thy 
fair greeting. — But say what thou hast come to seek or to 

Me. Good tidings, lady, for thy house and for thy hus- 

Io. What are they ? And from whom hast thou come ? 

Me. From Corinth : and at the message which I will speak 
anon thou wilt rejoice — doubtless; yet haply grieve. 

Io. And what is it ? How hath it thus a double potency ? 

Me. The people will make him king of the Isthmian land, 
as 'twas said there. 

Io. How then ? Is the aged Polybus no more in power ? 

Me. No, verily : for death holds him in the tomb. 

Io. How sayest thou ? Is Polybus dead, old man ? 

Me. If I speak not the truth, I am content to die. 

fii] I Xiyu 7' £ycb TaXrjdko; d£i<2 davelv L. The words el de fit) are in a line by them- 
selves. After ir6\vpo<r, and before el, are marks like =. Triclinius conjecturally 
added ytpwv after UdXvpos, and some late MSS. have ytpov, but none (it seems) wytpov, 
Bothe's reading. Nauck proposed (1856) ircos etiras; rj T^dvrjKev Oi'Shrou irar-qp ; | ridv-qKe 
II6\i;j3os' el 5e pA\, d|iw daveiv. The correction of the first verse is specious; not so 

fxlas, in this sense only here : elsewhere = 
elegance of diction: Isocrates ttjv ei£- 
ireiav iKiravrbs di&Ket, kclI rod yXa(j>vp&s 
Xfyetv aTOxd^erai. fidXXov 7} rod d0eXws 
(Dionys. Isocr. 538). 

935 irapd tCvos. The change of irapd 
into irpds by an early hand in L is remark- 
able. I formerly received irpbs, support- 
ing the phrase by Od. 8. 28 £eivos 6'5', o&tc 
old' 6'crrts, dXd)p:evos i'/cer' i/xdu 5o5 | ye 
icpbs Tjolcav t) iaireptcjv dvdp&irwv. There, 
however, irpis is more natural, as vir- 
tually denoting the geographical regions 
(cp. Od. ai. 347 irpbs "HXiSos, 'on the 
side of Elis '). And irpbs dewv wpp.r}- 
fiivoi (El. 70) would be parallel only if 
here we had iaraXp.e'vos. Questioning, 
then, whether afaKvefodcu irpbs tivos is 
defensible, I now read irapd, with most 

036 to 8' &iros, 'at the word,' accus. 
of the object which the feeling concerns : 
Eur. El. 831 rl XPVP' advfxeh; 

037 do-xd\Xois, from root ae\, prop. 

'not to hold oneself,' 'to be impatient,' 
the opposite of the notion expressed by 
oXo-X-f) (Curt. Etym. § 170): the word 
occurs in Her., Xen., Dem.; and in Od. 
2. 193 replaces the epic do-xaXdcw. Cp. 
Aesch. Ag. 1049 7re '^ ot ' aV, el Treldoi', 
direiOolTjs 5' ftrws. 

041 eyKpanjs = £» Kpdrei: cp. tvapxos 
~£v dpxv, in office, Appian Bell. Civ. 
1. 14. 

043 A defective verse, *jt«s ctiras; *rj 
t^0vt]K€ II6\vf3os; has been patched up 
in our best MSS. by a clumsy expansion 
of the next verse (see crit. note). The 
•yc'pttv supplied by Triclinius (whence 
some late mss. have "y^pov) was plainly a 
mere guess. Nauck's conj. i| r{Qvt\Kev 
OlSiirov iraTTJp; is recommended (1) by 
the high probability of a gloss IIoXvPos 
on those words : (2) by the greater force 
which this form gives to the repetition of 
the question asked in 941: (3) by the 
dramatic effect for the spectators. 


10. co npoawoX , ov^l SecmoTrj raS' cos ra^os 945 

fxoXovcra Xebecs ; co Oecov fiavrevfiaTa, 

/" Iv icrre- tovtov OISl7tovs irdXai Tpeacov 
tov avop ecpevye fiy ktolvoi' koli vvv ooe 
npos 7-779 TV)(r)<; oXcoXev ovSe tovcV viro. 

01. oj (J)l\.toltov yvvaiKos 'IoAcaoTT?? Koipa, 950 

Tt // i^€TT€fJL\jjQ} BeVpO TCOvSe ScOfXaTCOV J 
-n^y*^" lO. a/COV€ TavhpOS TOvSt, KCLl CTKOTTeL kXvCOV 

r ra cre'/x^' tV ij/cet T op fleov fxavTev/xaTa. 

OI. ovtos 8e Tt? 77-07-' ecrn /cat ri ftot Xeyet ; 

10. e/c 7-779 KopivOov, narepa tov crov dyyeXcov 955 

COS OVK€T OVTCX Tl6Xv/3oV, CtW oXcoXoTCl. 

01. ri ^5, feV; awros /xot o~u (rrjfxdvTcop yevov. 
AT. et tovto irpcoTOv Set fi dirayyelXai oracfacds, 

ev l<jO* iicelvov OavdcrifAOv ftefirjKOTa. 
01. TTOrepa SoAotcrtiA 77 vocrov gvvaXXayrj ; 960 

Ar. o-fjuKpa 7raXaid crcofjuaT evvd^eu pomj. 


%m>»A AT. /cat ra> fiaKpco ye crvix/jieTpovfjievos yjpovcp. 
dy*Xf-- * OI. </>eu <^€u, rt §777-' dp, co yvvai, ctkottoZto tls 

T7)V Uv06fJLClVTLV icTTiaV, rj TOVS dvCO 965 

KXdtpvTas opveus, cov vcj)7jyr)Tcop iyco 

that of 944. Mekler rejects both vv. 950 Two of the later MSS. (M, A) 

have ijUa-Tris for 'Iok&gttjs, — either a mere error, or a conjecture. 957 The 

1st hand in L wrote arj/xrjvaa: a corrector has changed this to ffijfjLdvrup. 

946 <5 0€cov jxavT€Vfj.aTa. Iocasta's say to me?': nor 'what, pray, does he 
scorn is pointed, not at the gods them- say?'). 

selves, but at the pavTeis who profess to 956 «s: see on 848. 

speak in their name. The gods are wise, 957 a"t\^.6.vru>p is, I think, unquestion- 

but they grant no irpdpota to men (978). ably right. A is among the MSS. which 

Cp. 712. have it, and in several it is explained by 

947 W 4<ttc: Vva — ort ivravda, 'to the gloss firfwrris. That the word was 
think that ye have come to this!': cp. not unfamiliar to poetical language in the 
1311. — tovtov tov av8pa...Tp^na>vfrj>€vy€, sense ('indicator,' 'informant') which it 
he feared and avoided this man, |iT| ktcCvoi has here, may be inferred from Anthol. 
(aurdv). 6. 62 (Jacobs 1. 205) KVKXoreprj nbkifiov, 

949 irpos ttjs tvx"HS, i.e. in the course aeXLdwv arj/xaPTopa irXevpijs, the pencil 

of nature, and not by the special death which makes notes in the margin of pages : 

which the oracle had foretold. Cp 977. Nonnus 37. 551 arjixavTopi (puvjj. On the 

951 €^€ut'p.\|/w, the midd. as in e/c/ca- other hand, crr)|Jii]vas "ycvoti could mean 

Aet<r0cu (see on 597), fieTair^fiireffdai, etc., nothing but 'place yourself in the position 

the act. being properly used of the sum- of having told me,' and could only be ex- 

moner or escort: see on CTeXovvra (860). plained as a way of saying, ' tell me at 

954 rC p.01 X£y€i; ' what does he tell once.' But such a use of yeviadai. with 

(of interest) for me?' (not 'what does he aor. partic. would be unexampled. The 



Io. O handmaid, away with all speed, and tell this to thy 
master ! O ye oracles of the gods, where stand ye now ! This 
is the man whom Oedipus long feared and shunned, lest he 
should slay him ; and now this man hath died in the course of 
destiny, not by his hand. [Enter Oedipus. 

Oe. Iocasta, dearest wife, why hast thou summoned me 
forth from these doors ? 

Io. Hear this man, and judge, as thou listenest, to what the 
awful oracles of the gods have come. 

Oe. And he — who may he be, and what news hath he for me? 

Io. He is from Corinth, to tell that thy father Polybus 
lives no longer, but hath perished. 

Oe. How, stranger? Let me have it from thine own mouth. 

Me. If I must first make these tidings plain, know indeed 
that he is dead and gone. 

Oe. By treachery, or by visit of disease ? 

Me. A light thing in the scale brings the aged to their rest. 

Oe. Ah, he died, it seems, of sickness ? 

Me. Yea, and of the long years that he had told. 

Oe. Alas, alas ! Why, indeed, my wife, should one look to 
the hearth of the Pythian seer, or to the birds that scream above 

our heads, on whose showing I 

The first corrector (S) had written in the margin, yp. a-rjpdvTcop. The later MSS. also 
have (TTifxdvTup (but <rt)p.i\va.s T). 959 e3 tad' mss.: (rdfi tqd' Porson: k6.tlo(P 

Hartung : ££«r0' Meineke. 966 8pvi$ mss. The Attic form 6pveis (L. Dindorf, Thes. 

only proper use of it is made clear by such 
passages as these : Ai. 588 prj irpodoi/s 
ijpas yfrrj, do not make yourself guilty of 
having betrayed us: Phil. 772 p.7) cavrbv 
0' ap.a I Kap.L..KTehas ytvy, do not make 
yourself guilty of having slain both your- 
self and me. 

959€fl£(r0\ Dionys. Hal. 1. 41 thus 
quotes a verse from the II poprjdebs Av6- 
pevos of Aesch. (Nauck fr. 193. 2) ivd' ofl 
p.dxys ev oWa ical 6ovp6s irep m, where 
Strabo p. 183 gives <rdcp' olda: and so 
Pors. here would write ad<p' fodi. But the 
immediately preceding o-cujxSs is decisive 
against this. Soph, had epic precedent, 
//. 1. 385 ev etdus dydpeve, etc. Cp. 1071, 
lov lov. — 8a.vdo-41.ov PePrjKOTa: Ai. 516 
p.oipo.... I Kadukev "Aidov davaalpwvs oi/cij- 
ropas: Phil. 424 davu)V...<ppov5os. 

960 gvva\Xa/ytf: see on 34. 

961 o-|UKpd poirq, I eve momentum: 
the life is conceived as resting in one 
scale of a nicely poised balance : diminish 
the weight in the other scale ever so little, 
and the inclination {poir-qj, though due to a 

J. S. I. 3 

slight cause (atwcpd), brings the life to the 
ground (€vvd£ei). Plat. Rep. 556 e (So-irep 
<r<2p,a voawdes puKpds ootttjs Z&dev Seirai 
TpoaXafiicr dai irpbs rb Kdpweiv,...ovru) 5?/ 
Kal i) /card tcu5t<x iKeluip biaKeipAvrj ir6Xis 
d7rd crpiKpds irpo<pd<reu)s...PO<rei. 

963 Yes, he died of infirmities (v6<rots 
§<p8tTo), and of the long years (to |xa.Kpu> 
Xpova>, causal dat.), in accordance with 
their term (o*vp,|i€Tpovp.€vos, sc. avrois, lit. 
'commensurably with them'): the part, 
being nearly equiv. to avpph-pws, and ex- 
pressing that, if his years are reckoned, 
his death cannot appear premature. Cp. 
1 1 13, and Ant. 387 iroiq. ijvppLerpos irpoS- 
$h]v t&xV'i 'seasonably for what hap?' 

964 f. o-koxoito, midd. as Tr. 296. — 
r^v II. lorCav = rty ILvdoi pLavruity iffrlav, 
as Apollo himself is ILvdbpavTis, i.e. 6 
Ilvdoi pAvris, Aesch. Cho. 1030: cp. II u- 
06KpavTos ) llv86xpv< XTO ^i TIvBovikos. lorCav, 
as O. C. 4T3 Ae\<fHicrjs d(f> ecrrfas: Eur. 
Ion 461 4>Oij8iJtoj...7as | p.e<r6p.<f>d\os iarla. 

966 K\d|ovras, the word used by Tei- 
resias of the birds when their voice (#007- 




KTtvelv ZpeWov Trarepa tov ipov ; 6 8e 6 

KtvOei Kara) St) yrjs- eya) 8' oS' ivdd&e 

ai/zavoros eyxovs- eu tl pr) T(opq> tt66o) 

KarefyOiff • ovto) 8* av Oavcov etr) *f ipov. 970 

ra 8* ovv TTapovra (rv\Xa/3(ov OecnrLcrpaTa 

Kelrai Trap "AlStj 11 6\vj3o 5 a(;C ovSevos. 

10. ovkovv iy(6 croL ravra rrpovkeyov 7raXat ; 

OI. rjvSas' iyco Se ra) <j>6/3(o Traprjy oprjv. 

IO. /LL77 1/1/1/ cr avTcov prjSev es Ovpov fiaXrjs. 975 

OI. KaX 770)9 to prjrpos Xitcrpov ovk okv€lv pe Sei; 

10. tl 8' a** <J)o^o2t avdpaTTos, 3 tol tt)s rv)(r)s 
.Kparei, irpovoia 8* icrrlv ovSevos cra^rjs ; 

5. 2224) is supported by the Ravenna MS. in Ar. Av. 717, 1250, 1610: and in Eur. 
Hipp. 1059 by M (cod. Ven. Marc. 471) and the 1st hand in V. 067 Kraveiv L, 

and almost all the later mss. : it may, indeed, be an accident that one, at least, of them 
(V 2 ) has KTeveiv, which Elmsley required. 068 After icarw, the 1st hand in L had 

omitted 5^, but added it above the line. No suspicion of 8r) is warranted by the fact 
that one or two of the later mss. (Trim, V) omit it. Dindorf, who once conjectured 

70s) had ceased to be clear to him, Ant. 
1 00 1 Kcucy I KXdfojTcts oforpip ko.1 pe(3ap- 
Papwfiivy. — <3v v^TiynTcJv sc. 6vtwv, quibus 
indicibus: 1260 ws v<frrjy7)Tou twos: O. C. 
1588 v<pr)yr)TTJpos otidevbs cpiXojy. In these 
instances the absence of the part, is soft- 
ened by the noun which suggests the 
verb ; but not so in 0. C. 83 w$ ifiov fx6vr)S 

067 kt€V€iv. icraveiv, which the MSS. 
give, cannot be pronounced positively 
wrong ; but it can hardly be doubted that 
Soph, here wrote KTeveiv. If ktclvclp is 
right, it is the only aor. infin. after juAXw 
in Soph., who has the fut. infin. 9 times 
(£■'• 359' 379- 538: At. 925, 1027, 1287: 
Ant. 458: Phil. 483, 1084): and the 
pres. infin. 9 times (El. 305, i486: At. 
443: 0. 7:678,1385: 0. C. 1773: Tr. 
79, 756: Phil. 409). Aeschylus certainly 
has the aor. in P. V. 625 yafroi fie Kpty-gs 
toO0' Strep /aAXw iraduv. Excluding the 
Laconic ldi)v in Ar. Lys. 117, there are 
but two instances in Comedy, Av. 366 rl 
fiiWer 1 — diroXiaai, and Ach. 1159 [i£\- 
Xoi/ros XojSew. Cp. W. G. Rutherford, 
New Phrynichus pp. 420 — 425, and 
Goodwin, Greek Moods and Tenses § 23. 
2. The concurrence of tribrachs in the 
4th and 5th places gives a semi-lyric 
character which suits the speaker's agi- 

068 KCvOei, is hidden. Ai. 635 "Ai5p 
Ketidwv. In Tr. 989 0-1777 Kebdeiv may be 
regarded as transitive with a suppressed 
ace, 'to shroud (thy thought) in silence.' 
Elsewhere icetidta is always trans., and 
only the perf. icticevda intransitive. — 8rj 
here nearly = r}5r) : cp. Ant. 170 6V ovv 
&kovTO... I tyCj Kpa.Tr) 8^...^x w « 

060 & j/avoros = 06 xf/atjaas: cp. d<p6- 
firjTos 885 (n.): Her.8. 124 a/c/>iros, without 
deciding : id. 9. 98 awio-ros, mistrustful ; 
O. C. 1031 iriarSs, trusting (n.) : Phil. 687 
dfj.<plir\r]KTa p6dta, billows beating around: 
Tr. 446 fxefiTrrdSi blaming : Eur. Hec . 1 1 1 7 
07ro7rros, suspecting. Cp. note on drXrjTwv 
515. — «t ti |xr), an abrupt afterthought : — 
unless perchance: see on 124. — t«(j.<3 
ir60a>: cp. 797: Od. II. 202 cbs...ir6dos, 
longing for thee. 

070 €it]'£: cp. 1075: Phil. 467 ir\uv 
fir] '£ dirdTTTov. £%, as dist. from vw6, is 
strictly in place here, as denoting the 
ultimate, not the proximate, agency. 

071 rd 8' ovv irapovTa: but the ora- 
cles as they stand, at any rate (8* ovv, 
669, 834), Polybus has carried off with 
him, proving them worthless (d£i' ou- 
Stvos, tertiary predicate), and is hidden 
with Hades. — Td irapovra, with empha- 
sis: even supposing that they have been 
fulfilled in some indirect and figurative 
sense, they certainly have not been ful- 



was doomed to slay my sire ? But he is dead, and hid already 
beneath the earth ; and here am I, who have not put hand to 
spear. — Unless, perchance, he was killed by longing for me : 
thus, indeed, I should be the cause of his death. But the oracles 
as they stand, at least, Polybus hath swept with him to his rest 
in Hades : they are worth nought. 

10. Nay, did I not so foretell to thee long since ? 

Oe. Thou didst : but I was misled by my fear. 

10. Now no more lay aught of those things to heart. 

OE. But surely I must needs fear my mother's bed ? 

10. Nay, what should mortal fear, for whom the decrees of 
Fortune are supreme, and who hath clear foresight of nothing ? 

K&T<adev, has replaced k&tw dr). Nauck proposes tcetdei kcltu yijs. OlUirovs (instead 
of iyw) 5\ Cobet and Blaydes, Kara) k4k€v0€ yijs. 970 of/rw 5'] oiiru 7' Wecklein. 
976 teal 7rw<r to jlpa X^xocr ouk dicveiv fie 8ei L. The first corrector has written Xinrpov 
over \4x oo ~- A an d others have \e~KTpov in the text. Dindorf would place \4%os after 
bnveiv (or after Set). Bergk reads X^xos <er , > ovk oKveiv fie 8ei, and so Wecklein. 
I prefer to read \4icTpov, with Blaydes, Wolff, Campbell, Kennedy, and others. 

filled to the letter. The oracle spoke of 
bloodshed (<povefo, 794), and is not satis- 
fied by KartydiTO ££ efiov in the sense just 
explained. — <roX\a|3ttv is a contemptuous 
phrase from the language of common life : 
its use is seen in Aristophanes Plut. 1079 
vvv 5' diridi x a h U}v o~v\\af3£bv ttjv fie'i- 
paica, now be off — with our blessing and 
the girl: Av. 1469 airlufiev rj/iets <rv%- 
XapdvTes rd irrepd, let us pack up our 
feathers and be off: Soph, has it twice 
in utterances of angry scorn, 0. C. 1383 
ai> 5' £jOjo' dirbirTVcrbs re Kair&TUp ifiov | 
kcucQv k&kio-tc, T&o~de ffvWafi&v dpds, 
begone... and take these curses with thee: 
Phil. 577 &c7rX« ceavrbv (ruXXajScbv 4 k 
T7ja8e yrjs, ' hence in thy ship — pack from 
this land ! ' 

974 T]v8tts instead of irpovXeyes: see 
on 54. 

975 vw, enforcing the argument in- 
troduced by oHkovv (973), is clearly better 
than the weak vvv. — es 8v|i,6v P<£Xtjs : Her. 

7. 51 ^s Ovfibv /SctXeu ical rb iraXaibv twos: 

8. 68 /cat r68e 4s dvfibv j3aXev, ws k.t.X.'. 
I. 84 lb&v...T(av Tiva \v8wv KaTafH&VTa... 
i(ppda-6r) /ecu & dvfibv ejSdXero. The active 
in the Bios 'Ofirjpov § 30 is Bv/xbv ££aXe 
rb pT]84v. In El. 1347 ovS4 7' & dvfibv 
<p4p<a is not really similar. 

977 <p, 'for whom,' in relation to 
whom : not, ' in whose opinion.' — rd ttjs 
rvxtjs is here somewhat more than a 
mere periphrasis for 77 Tvyij, since the 
plur. suggests successive incidents, tvx 1 ! 

does not here involve denial of a divine 
order in the government of the world, 
but only of man's power to comprehend 
or foresee its course. Cp. Thuc. 5. 104 
TTHTTetiofiev r% fiev tijxV ^ k t °v ^^ov fir] 
4Xaao-&aeadai. Lysias or. 24 § 22 ov 
fibvov fieraXafie'iv ij t^xV f^oi iduKev 4v tj} 
irarpiSi, the only privilege which Fortune 
{i.e. my destiny) has permitted me to 
enjoy in my country. 

978 irpovoia. Bentley on Phalaris 
(xvil, Dyce ii. 115) quotes Favorinus in 
Laertius Plat. § 24 as saying that Plato 
irpChos 4v <piXocro<pia...wvbfiaoe.. .deov irpb- 
voiav. Bentley takes this to mean that 
Plato was the first to use irpbvoia of divine 
providence (not merely of human fore- 
thought), and cites it in proof that Pha- 
laris Ep. 3 ( = 40 Lennep) 2ws av 77 S101- 
Kovaa irpovoia ttjv avrrjv dpfioviav tov icba- 
fiov <pv\d.TT7j is later than Plato. Lennep, 
in his edition of Phalaris (p. 158), puts 
the case more exactly. The Stoics, not 
Plato, first used irpovoia, without further 
qualification, of a divine providence. 
When Plato says ttjv tov 6eov...irp6uoiav 
(Tim. 30 c), irpovolas OeQv (44 c), the 
phrase is no more than Herodotus had 
used before him, 3. 108 tov deiou 1) irpo- 
voLij. The meaning of Favorinus was 
that Plato first established in philosophy 
the conception of a divine providence, 
though popular language had known such 
a phrase before. Note that in O. C. 
1 180 irpovoia tov 0eov=' reverence for 




i ! 

eiKjj KpOLTMTTOV tflV, OTTO)? 8tWlT0 Tt?. 

aV 8' €t? TOL fJLTJTpOS flT] <j)ofioV VVfJL(j>€VfXCLTa* 980 

ttoXXoi yap 7)877 Kav oveipa&w fipoTcov 

fxrjTpl {jwevvao-Orjcrav. aXXa ravd* oto) 

nap* ovSev icTi, pacrra rov /3lov (f)ip€L. 

/caXa>9 diravra tolvt dv i^eCprjro (rot, 

el /xTj *Kvpei ^tocr rj reKovcra' vvv 8', inel 985 

£77, ttolct avayKT), Kel /caXak Xeyeis, OKveiv. 

KaX ixtjv fJLeyas y o<£#aX//,o9 ol irarpos toluol. 

/xeyas, ^vviiqyi* aXXa rrjs ^cocrrjs <f)6/3o<;. 

7rota? Se /cat yvvaucos eKfyofieLcrO* vnep ; 
OL Mepoirrjs, yepoue, ILoXvftos 77s a>/cet ftera. 990 

Ar. tl 8' ear iKeuvrjs vplv e? (f>6ftov <f)€pov ; 
OL deijXaTOV fjbdvTevjia heivov, & £eve. „ 

77 pr)Tov ; 77 ov^i uefxiTov akkov eioevai ; 

/uLctXtcrra y'* €i7re yap ^u,e Aortas 7rore 

yprjvai fJLLyfjvai [xrjTpl Trjixavrov, rd re 995 

Trarpoiov affta X^P* 71 TC "' S euai9 eXeu'. 

<Si> ovv€)£ 77 KopuvOos ef e/tou TraXat 

987 /A^yas 7'] 7' was restored by Porson (Eur. Phoen. 1638) : 'Ita postulat metrum... 
idemque coniecit nescio quis in editione Londinensi a. 1746, sed neglexit Brunckius.' 
The loss of y* in the MSS. may have arisen from fxtyas having been written short, fiey L 
(as it is in A), when 7', following it, might easily have been mistaken for a dittographia 






the god': in Eur. Phoen. 637 a man acts 
delq. irpovolq.= 'with inspired foresight': 
in Xen. Mem. 1. 4. 6 TrpovoT}Tiicu>s = not, 
'providentially,' but simply, 'with fore- 

079 cIktj : cp. Plat. Gorg. 503 E ovk 
v elKTJ ipei, dXX' diropXiirup irpds r^ (with 
some definite object in view). — KpdTwrrov 
...oirws 8vvaiTo. Cp. Ant. 666 dXX' 6v 
ttoXls (TTTjcreie rovde xp*) fXtfeiv: where %P^? 
icX6ew = fiucaLcas dv kXvoi. So here, though 
i<rrl (not rju) must be supplied with Kpd- 
thttov, the whole phrase = €Iktj kpoltkxtov 
&v tis far). Xen. Cyr.1.6. 19 rod... avrbv 
Xeyeiv a fx^ <ra(f>m e^c/17 <peL5eadcu 8ei = 
dpdQs dv <pd8oiTo. 

980 <f>o(3ov. (frofieiadcu efs rt = to have 
fears regarding it: Tr. 121 1 el (pofiei irpbs 
tovto: O. C. 1 119 /A7j da&fxafr irpbs rb Xt- 

981 Kav oveCpao-iv, in dreams also 
(as well as in this oracle) ; and, as such 
dreams have proved vain, so may this 
oracle. Soph, was prob. thinking of the 

story in Her. 6. 107 that Hippias had 
such a dream on the eve of the battle of 
Marathon, and interpreted it as an omen 
of his restoration to Athens. Cp. the 
story of a like dream coming to Julius 
Caesar on the night before he crossed 
the Rubicon (Plut. Caes. 32, Suet. 7). 

983 imp* ou8cv: Ant. 34 rb irpay/ui.' 
Ayeiv I oi>x ^ 5 7rct f ) ' oibe'v. 

984 e^piyro: the 0-- glances at her 
blunt expression of disbelief, not her frank 
reference to a horrible subject. 

987 6({>0aXp.os : the idea is that of a 
bright, sudden comfort: so Tr. 203 De- 
ianeira calls on her household to rejoice, 
c!>s AeXxTOV ofxfx ifiol | (p^/jajs dvaax^" 
TTjabe vvv Kapirotjfx^da (the unexpected 
news that Heracles has returned). More 
often this image denotes the 'darling' of 
a family (Aesch. Cho. 934 6<pdaXfib$ oticcov), 
or a dynasty that is 'the light' of a land 
(ZixeXlas 5' taw \ 6(pdaX/x6s, Pind. 01. 
2. 9 : 6 B&ttov iraXaibs 6Xf3os...ir6pyo$ 
d(TT€o$, ojxfia re (paevvbrarov \ Zevoi<n y 



'Tis best to live at random, as one may. But fear not thou 
touching wedlock with thy mother. Many men ere now have 
so fared in dreams also : but he to whom these things are as 
nought bears his life most easily. 

Oe. All these bold words of thine would have been well, 
were not my mother living ; but as it is, since she lives, I must 
needs fear — though thou sayest well. 

Io. Howbeit thy father's death is a great sign to cheer us. 

Oe. Great, I know ; but my fear is of her who lives. 

Me. And who is the woman about whom ye fear ? 

Oe. Merope, old man, the consort of Polybus. 

Me. And what is it in her that moves your fear ? 

Oe. A heaven-sent oracle of dread import, stranger. 

Me. Lawful, or unlawful, for another to know ? 

OE. Lawful, surely. Loxias once said that I was doomed 
to espouse mine own mother, and to shed with mine own hands 
my father's blood. Wherefore my home in Corinth was long kept 

by a copyist inattentive to metre. 903 rj ov depurbv MSS. Brunck conjectured rj 

ovyl de/jurbv : Johnson, f) ov defuarbv : see comment. One of the later mss. (Bodl. 
Laud. 54) has tf Mots for aXXov, but prob. by a mere error. Blaydes conjectured rj ovk 

Pyth. 5. 51). Not merely (though this 
notion comes in) 'a great help to seeing' 
that oracles are idle (5r)Xto<ns us t& p.av- 
retjfiaTa kcucus #x €t > schol.). A certain 
hardness of feeling appears in the phrase : 
Iocasta was softened by fear for Oedipus 
and the State : she is now elated. 
989 Kal with eK<pop*€i<r0€ ; 772, 851. 

991 €K€Cvijs, what is there belonging 
to her, in her (attributive gen.): Eur. /. 
A. 28 ovk Ayafiai ravr' dvdpbs aptffriws. — 
4s <|>6pov cpe'pov, tending to fear: cp. 519. 

992 8€i]X.aTOv, sent upon us by the 
gods: cp. 255. 

993 The MSS. having ov Oep-iTov, the 
question is between ov\i 8€|ut6v and 06 
de/AMrrbp. The former is much more 
probable, since defurbs is the usual form, 
found in Attic prose, in Eur. (as Or. 97 
o-ol 5' o&xl Oefiirht), and in Soph. 0. C. 
1758 dXX' ov de/uTbv Keicre fwXeiv. On the 
other hand depuarbs is a rare poet, form, 
found once in Pindar (who has also 6e- 
purbs), and twice in the lyrics of Aesch. 
Had we dXXu, the subject of 0€|jlit6v would 
be p.dvrcv|ia: tne accus - aXXov shows 
8€|ut6v to be impersonal, as in Eur. Or. 
97, Pind. Pyth. 9. 42 06 defxirbv \f/et>8ei 

996 to iraTpipov atjJLtt 4X*tv is strictly 
*to achieve (the shedding of) my father's 

blood.' Classical Greek had no such 
phrase as alfia xety or iicxeiv in the sense 
of 'to slay.' alpeiv is to make a prey of, 
meaning 'to slay,' or 'to take,' accord- 
ing to the context (Tr. 353 EOpvrbv 0' 
%\oi I tt]v 6* v\f/iirvpyov OlxaMav). Cp. 
fr. 731 dvbpbs alfia cvyyevks \ Krdvas, 
which is even bolder than this, but simi- 
lar, since here we might have had simply 
rbv irartpa i\eiv, ' to slay my father ' : 
Eur. Or. 284 etpyacTai 5' ip,ol \ pvrjrpQov 
atfia, I have wrought the murder of a 

997 The simplest view of r] KopivOos 
e£ !|iov dira>K€iTO is, as Whitelaw says, 
that it means literally, 'Corinth was 
lived-away-from by me,' — being the pas- 
sive of I7W air^Kovv ttjs Koplvdov. It 
is thus merely one of those instances in 
which a passive verb takes as subject 
that which would stand in gen. or dot. 
as object to the active verb: cp. the 
passive KarayeXui/xai, Kara<, ica- 
Ta\f/rj<pl£o/icu, tTrifHovXetiofiai, etc. [I for- 
merly took it to be passive of iyw airy- 
kovv tt]v Kbpwdov, 'I inhabited C. only 
at a distance,' — a paradoxical phrase like 
h o-Kbru bpajf (1273).] airoiicciv is a com- 
paratively rare word. Eur. has it twice 
(H. F. 557: I. A. 680: in both with 
gen., *to dwell far from') : Thuc. once 



flCLKpaV d7Ta)K€lT* €VTV)(COS fJL€V, (xXX* OfJLOJS 
T(X TQ)V TeKOVTOiV OfJLfJLaff TjhlCTTOV jSkeireiV. 

AT. rj yap raS' okvcov KeWev fjcrO' aVoVToXis ; IOOO 

01. 7rarpos re -^prj^oiv /xt) <f>ovev<; etVcu, yepov. 
AT. rt 0177' eya) ovyi to t>Se toi; <j>6j3ov cr, ai>a£, 

ineLTrep evvovs rjXOov, e^eXvcrapj^v ; 
01. /cat ju/r)i> ydpiv y dv d^iav Xdftous ifiov. 
AT. Kot p.rjv fidKicrTa tovt d(f>LK6fir)V t 07TCU9 1005 

<TOV TTpOS 86fJLOVS iXOoVTOS €V 7rpd£aifJLL Tl. 

01. dU' ovttot eXpi rots <j)VTevoracrCv y 6fxov. 

AT. to 7rat, /caXaJ? €i 877X05 ovk elSas tl Spa?. 

OI. 7T&)5, <3 yepcue; irpos 0ecov Si'Sao-/ce jne. 

AR ci rw^Se <f>evyei<; ovveK els olkovs p,oXeiv. IOIO 

01. rapficov ye fjaj [jlol <E>oi/?os e^eXOrj cra^rj^. ^ 

Ar. 77 fjirj fjLiaafjLa tcov <f>vTevcrdvTO)v Xa/fys ; 

OI. tovt avTOy irpeo-fiv, tovto fi elcrael (fro/Be?. 

AV. ap olcrOa SrjTa 777009 81*779 ov&ev Tpeficov ; 

01. 7rak 8' ov\ji, 7rai9 y el T&vhe yevvrjTtov e<f)vv ; IO15 

Ar. oOovveK tjv <roi Hokvfios ovSev ev yevei. 

OI. 770)9 €i7ra5; ov yap IIoXvy8o9 e^ecfrvcre /xe; 

AT. ov fxaXXov ov8ev tovSf. raVSpo9, aXX* taov, 

aXXowt Qefiirbv elStoai, which had also occurred to the present ed. lOOl rarp6s 

re mss. Hermann proposed, but afterwards recalled, irarpds ye, a conjecture adopted 
by Elmsley and Blaydes. 1002 £y<b for tyury' Porson. The ist hand in L wrote 

iy(ay f oirx)u but the x* has been partly erased. The later mss. have either tycoy' oixl 

with fiaKphv (3. 55) and Xen. once (Oecon. 
4. 6), — both absol., as = '/0 dwell afar'': 
as prob. Theocr. 15. 7 (reading w y&V 
diroi/ceis with Meineke) : Plato once thus 
{Legg. 753 A), and twice as = to emigrate 
(4k T6prvvos, Legg. 708 A, & Qovplovs, 
Euthyd. 271 c): in which sense Isocr. 
also has it twice (or. 4 § 122, or. 6 § 84) t 
Pindar once (with accus. of motion to 
a place), Pyth. 4. 258 KaWlarav dircp- 
Kijaav, they went and settled at Callista. 

998 f. €vtvx»S, because of his high 
fortunes at Thebes. — t<5v tckovtcov = tQv 
yoviojp: Eur. Hipp. 108 1 rods reKovras 
8ata dpav, and oft. : cp. H. F. 975 /3o£ 
8e H-fjTT)p, <3 TiKiiv [ = <3 7rarep], tL 5pq.s ; 

1000 diroirToXis, exile, as O. C. 

1001 TraTpos re. So the mss., rightly. 
It is the fear of Oed. regarding his 
mother by which the messenger's atten- 

tion has been fixed. In explaining this, 
Oed. has indeed mentioned the other 
fear as to his father; but in v. 1000, 77 
yhp r&d' 6kvwv, the messenger means: 
'So this, then, was the fear about her 
which kept you away?' — alluding to his 
own question in 991. As the speaker's 
tone seems to make light of the cause, 
Oed. answers, f and that further dread 
about my father which I mentioned.' 
varpds ye is unsuitable, since it would 
imply that this was his sole fear. 

1002 4-yw ov\l: synizesis: see on 333 
iyta oOt\ 

1003 €fje\ucra[j.T)v : the aor. implies, 
'why have I not done it already?' i.e. 
'why do I not do it at once?' Aesch. 
P. V. 747 rl 6tjt' ifioL Ifiv k4 P 5os, dXX' 

06k to T&X€t I ^p/)*^' ifJMVTTIV TTJffS' &ir6 

ar6<t>\ov irirpas; 

1004 Kat |ujv, properly 'however'; 


by me afar; with happy event, indeed, — yet still 'tis sweet to 
see the face of parents. 

Me. Was it indeed for fear of this that thou wast an exile 
from that city ? 

Oe. And because I wished not, old man, to be the slayer of 
my sire. 

Me. Then why have I not freed thee, king, from this fear 
seeing that I came with friendly purpose ? 

Oe. Indeed thou shouldst have guerdon due from me. 

Me. Indeed 'twas chiefly for this that I came — that, on thy 
return home, I might reap some good. 

Oe. Nay, I will never go near my parents. 

Me. Ah my son, 'tis plain enough that thou knowest not 
what thou doest. 

Oe. How, old man ? For the gods' love, tell me. 

Me. If for these reasons thou shrinkest from going home. 

Oe. Aye, I dread lest Phoebus prove himself true for me, 

Me. Thou dreadest to be stained with guilt through thy 
parents ? 

Oe. Even so, old man — this it is that ever affrights me. 

Me. Dost thou know, then, that thy fears are wholly vain ? 

Oe. How so, if I was born of those parents ? 

Me. Because Polybus was nothing to thee in blood. 

Oe. What sayest thou ? Was Polybus not my sire ? 

Me. No more than he who speaks to thee, but just so much. 

(as A), or tfyory' ov> which Brunck retained. If that, however, had been genuine, ov 
could hardly have been corrupted into ot>xL, whereas the opposite corruption would 
easily have caused the change of iyio into £7(07'. lOll rap/Sw L: rap§Qv r and 

here, like our ' well indeed ' (if you would gwaWdl-as. — I^XGfl; cp. 1182 i^KOt 

do so). The echoing Kat p}v of 1005 aaQrj, come true. 

expresses eager assent. Cp. Ant. 221. 1013 Cp. 7>. 408 toCt' atir' txpylpv, 

1005 tovt ci<|>ik6(xt]v: see on 788. tovt6 aov fxadeiv. 

1008 kcxXws, pulchre, belle, tho- 1014 irpos Ste^s, as justice would 

roughly, a colloquialism, perh. meant prompt, 'justly.' irpds prop. = * from the 

here to be a trait of homely speech : cp. quarter of,' then * on the side of : Thuc. 

Alciphron Ep. 1. 36 ir€iv^<r<a rb nakov 3. 59 ov irpbs rijs v/j.ere'pas dbi-rjs . . .rdde, 

('I shall be fine and hungry'): Aelian not in the interest of your reputation: 

Ep. 2 iir^Korj/e rb otcAoj irdvv xPV<f T ^ Plat. Gorg. 459 C idv tl ij/xiv irpbs \byov 

('in good style'). y, 'if it is in the interest of our dis- 

lOll With Erfurdt I think that Tap- cussion.' Rep. 470 C ov5ev...dirb rpbirov 

P«3v is right ; not that TapP<3 could not \£ym' opa 8tj /cai d rbde irpbs rpbirov 

stand, but Greek idiom distinctly favours X£yu, 'correctly.' Theophr. Char. 30 

the participle. Ant. 403 KP. rj nal £wfys ( = 26 in my 1st ed. p. 156) irpbs rpbirov 

nal Xiyeis bpdws a 0ijs ; $T. ravrifv 7' iruiKety, to sell on reasonable terms. 
I8<bv dairrovoav. ib. 517 AN....d5eX0ds 1016 lv ylvci: [Dem.] or. 47 § 70 otf/c 

v\cro. KP. Topduv ye rr}vbe yijv. Plat. §ara> 4v y4vei. <rpt ij dvOpunros, compared 

Symp. 164 E elirov oiiv oti...^koi/jli. — Ka- with § 72 ifxoi 6e oflre yivei vpoo-iJKev. 
XQs (v. /. Ka\<2s 7'), £0?7, ttolQv. Cp. 1 130 


OI. kclI ttcos 6 <f)vaas ef icrov tco paqhevi) 

Al . aAA. ou cr eyeivaT ovt e/cewos ovt eyco. 1020 

OI. aXX' aWl tou St) 7raiSa /a* covojxd^eTO ; 

Ar. SwpoV 7TOt', icr#i, tgji> e/*a)j> ^etpaiv Xaficop. 

OI. /ca#' cSS' oV' dXA.179 x 61 / 3 ^ 5 ecrreptjev fieya ; 

Ar. 7; yap 7T/oii> avroV i^iireicr aVai8ia. 

OI. or) 8' ifX7ro\.ijcra<5 fj ^tv^cov jjl ovtco Si8&>9 ; 1 02 5 

Ar. evp(t)v vairaiai^ Iv Kt^atpaJi/09 Trn^ais. 

OI. wSot7rd/oet5 Se 7T/90S ti roucrSe rows rdzrous ; 

Ar. evravff d/)eioi9 7TOLfjLviois iirecrTdTovv. 

OI. 7T0i/JLr)v yap rjcrda /caVi OrjTeia 7r\dvrjs ; 

AR crov 8', c5 reKvov, arcoTijp ye tS tot iv ^pov(o t 1030 

OI. rt 8' akyos IcryovT * dyKakaicri Xa/z/3dVeis ; 

AT. 7roSa>^ aV dpOpa fxapTvprjcreLev ra era. 


AR Xvcj cr eyovTa Stardpou? iroholv a/c/xag. u>r ^ > a*}" ?jX 
01. 8ei^6V y' oVeiSos enrapydvajv dvetXofjirjv. ' T 035 

Erfardt. 1025 rvx&v Bothe : re/cuw' mss. (Hermann, however, cites that cor- 

rection as made by C. Foertsch, Obss. crit. in Lysiae orationes, p. 12 sq.) — rj kix&v y£ 
ttov 5L5u)$ Keimsoeth. 1028 iirecrT&Tovv. In L the second e has been made from 

t. Wecklein conj. iiriaTarwv (Ars Soph, emend, p. 12). 1030 aov 7' L. o~ov 5' 

Elmsley, with one later MS. (I 1 ). Hermann once proposed <tov t\ but reverted to 
cod y\ See comment. 1031 tI 5' &Xyoo~ t(rx ovT ' kv Kaipolcr Xa/x^dpeta L. tax 01 ' 1 '' 

has been corrected from taxw, and the 1st hand has also written lax° VT ' in the left 

1019 t» pvnScvf, dat. of 6 fiydeis, one bus was no more your father than I am' ; 

who is such as to be of account (in respect Oed. is anxiously listening to every word, 

of consanguinity with me), — the generic He could not ask, a moment later, ' Had 

use of yuij (cp. 397, 638J. you bought me, or were you my father?' 

1023 &rT€p£ev, came to love me (in- 1026 The fitnessof the phrase vairafous 

gressive aor.): cp. 11 n. — dir dX\t]S irrvxats becomes vivid to anyone who 

X«-pos sc. \a.pd)v. traverses Cithaeron by the road ascending 

1025 €|iiro\TJ<ras...TJ tvx»v: i.e. 'Did from Eleusis and winding upwards to the 
you buy me, or did you light upon me pass of Dryoscephalae, whence it descends 
in the neighbourhood of Corinth?' Oed. into the plain of Thebes, 
is not prepared for the Corinthian's reply 1029 eirl Qr\rt(.<^, like iirl hht6$ Her. 
that he had found the babe on Cithaeron. 5. 65 etc. drjrela, labour for wages, 
«fjiiro\Ti<ras: cp. the story of Eumaeus opp. to dovXela: Isocr. or. 14 § 48 tto\- 
(Od. 15. 403 — 483) who, when a babe, Xoi>s /xei>...5ov\eiJot>Tas, aWovs 5' iirl drj- 
was carried off by Phoenician merchants relav Ibvras. irXdvtjs, roving in search of 
from the wealthy house of his father in any employment that he can find (not 
the isle Syria, and sold to Laertes in merely changing summer for winter pas- 
Ithaca: the Phoenician nurse says to the tures, 1137). The word falls lightly from 
merchants, t6v kcv ayoipt,' £tI vrjos, 6 5' him who is so soon to be 6 irXa^^njs 0181- 
vfup jxvplov £)vov I a\0oi, Siry irep&o~r)re irovs (O. C. 3). 

*car' dXkodpoovs dvdpwirovs. tvx.«v is 1030 <rov 8*. With the <rov y' of 

answered by ti>p&v (1026) as in 973 most MSS. : 'Yes, and thy preserver' (the 

irpovXeyov by rjCdas. Cp. 1039. The first ye belonging to the sentence, the 

TCKwvofthe mss. is absurd after vv. 1016 second to aw-Hip). Cp. Her. 1. 187 ixtj 

— 1020. The man has just said, 'Poly- fievrot ye /xi} <nravLo-as ye aXKm drolty: 


Oe. And how can my sire be level with him who is as 
nought to me ? 

Me. Nay, he begat thee not, any more than I. 

Oe. Nay, wherefore, then, called he me his son ? 

Me. Know that he had received thee as a gift from my 
hands of yore. 

Oe. And yet he learned to love me so dearly, who came 
from another's hand? 

Me. Yea, his former childlessness won him thereto. 

Oe. And thou — hadst thou bought me or found me by 
chance, when thou gavest me to him ? 

Me. Found thee in Cithaeron's winding glens. 

Oe. And wherefore wast thou roaming in those regions ? 

Me. I was there in charge of mountain flocks. 

Oe. What, thou wast a shepherd — a vagrant hireling ? 

Me. But thy preserver, my son, in that hour. 

Oe. And what pain was mine when thou didst take me in 
thine arms ? 

Me. The ankles of thy feet might witness. 

Oe. Ah me, why dost thou speak of that old trouble ? 

Me. I freed thee when thou hadst thine ankles pinned 

Oe. Aye, 'twas a dread brand of shame that I took from 
my cradle. 

margin. The later MSS. have iv icaipoTs fie Xa/i^dveis (Pal.), or iv kukols fie Xafiftdveis 
(as A), or iv naKois Xafifidvets (as M). — For iv Kcupois Theodor Kock conjectures 
dyndXais fie: Verrall, lax ov rdyKaXia-fia: Wunder, iv icaX<$ fie (Weil iv Ka\q> <ri>): 
Blaydes, 17 kclkov fie : W. W. Walker, iv x € P°? v P* '• Dindorf, iv vdircus fie : Nauck, iv 
aK&<pai<rt ('in cunis'): Wecklein, iv diovri: F. W. Schmidt, ri 5'; icrxdrots 6vt' iv 
kclkois fie Xafifiaveis; — I had thought of iynvp&v, 'when you lighted on me' (a verb 

where the second ye belongs to cvavi- fie, in one later MS., Pal.) seems most 

<rets. There is no certain example of a unlikely to have been a corruption of iv 

double ye in Soph, which is really similar. /ca/cots. Among the conjectures, try/caXcus 

With <rov 8': ' But thy preserver^ ': the ye fie (Kock), or, better, dyicdXauxi, is perh. 

still belonging to auT-rjp, and 8i opposing most probable ; being slightly nearer the 

this thought to that of v. 1029. For 84 letters than Verrall's ingenious tax ov T dy- 

ye ^cp. Aesch. Ag. 938 AT. (fr^firj ye fiivroi K&Xtafia. (For the dat. dyKaXcus without 

8r)fi6dpovs fiiya adivei. KA. 6 5' d(p66vij- iv, cp. Eur. /. T. 289, etc.) Such con- 

t6s 7' oiiK ivlpijkos iriXei. 'True, but....' jectures as iv diovn (Wecklein), iv KaX$ 

The gentle reproof conveyed by 8e -y€ is (Wunder), presuppose that iv icaipois was 

not unfitting in the old man's mouth: a gloss: but it is more probable that it 

and a double -yc, though admissible, is was a corruption. 

awkward here. 1036 Seivdv 76 in comment, as Ph. 

1031 ti 8' aXyos k.t.X. And in what 1225, El. 341, Ai. 1127. — o-irap-ydvttV, 

sense wast thou my <r&rnjp? The iv ko- 'from my swaddling clothes': i.e. 'from 

kois of the later mss. is intolerably weak : the earliest days of infancy' (cp. Ovid 

' what pain was I suffering when you Heroid. 9. 22 Et tener in cunis iam love 

found me in trouble?' The £v Kcupour dignus eras). The babe was exposed a 

of L (found also, with the addition of few days after birth (717). El. 1139 



Ar. coot covofxdaOrjs e/c rv)(r)s tclvttjs 05 €t. 

01. CO 7Tp05 0€COV, 7T/0O9 /LtT^rpO?, 77 TTOLTpOS \ <f>pd(T0V. 

Ar. ovk oio'* 6 Sous Se tclvt ifjiov Xcoov cf>povel. 

OI. rj yap Trap* aWov //,' lXa/3es ovo* clvtos Tvywv ; 

AT. ovk, aXXa iroip.r)v aXXos e/c8t8a)a*i /xoi. 1040 

OI. Ti? ouro? ; -37 KOLTOLO-Oa SrjXcocraL \6yco ; 

AR ran/ Aalov oWjttov tis 

01. 77 tov rvpdvvov TrjcrSe yrjs irakai nore ; 

AR /xaXioTcc rovrov rdvSpos ovtos r)v fiorrip. 

OI. rj /cacrr en 4a)i> ouros, coctt ^lOeiv ejxe ; 1045 

Ar. v/x€ts y dpicTT elSeiT dv ovTTiywpioi. 

OI. ecTTiv tis vllcov rcov irapeorrcorcov 7reXas 
ocrrtg /carotSc rot' fioTrjp ov ivviirei, 
ctr ov^ €7T aypcov etre Kavuao €lctlocov; 
crr)fjLrjva9\ cos 6 Koupos rjvprjcrOaL rdSe. IO50 

XO. otfiai fiev ovhiv dkkov rj tov ef aypcov, 
ov KaLidreves irpoo-dev aicriheiv drap 
770 az> Tab ov^ tjklot av lo/caoTTi Aeyot. 

OI. yurax, I'oet? eKeivov ovtlv apricot 

Liokelv 4cj)L€LL€cr0a ; rovS' ovtos \eyei; io 55 

used in El. 863 ; cp. 1025, 1039 tvxwv). 1050 7jip7j<r6ai] e&prjadcu L. See comment, 
on 68. X055 fioXeiv £<pUneada' t6v 6' ovtos X£yei ; L. Most of the later MSS. have rbv 6\ 

oijT€...irvpbs | &vei\6fj.r)v . . . ad\iov fidpot. 
Some understand, 'I was furnished with 
cruelly dishonouring tokens of my birth,' 
8eivu>s iiroveLdurra oirapyava, alluding to 
a custom of tying round the necks of 
children, when they were exposed, little 
tokens or ornaments, which might after- 
wards serve as means of recognition (cre- 
pundia, monumenta) : see esp. Plautus 
Rudens 4. 4. 11 1 — 126, Epidicus 5. 1. 34 : 
and Rich s. v. Crepundia, where a wood- 
cut shows a statue of a child with a string 
of crepundia hung over the right shoulder. 
Plut. Thes. 4 calls such tokens yvupLcfiaTa. 
In Ar. Ach. 431 the o-irdpyava of Tele- 
phus have been explained as the tokens 
by which (in the play of Eur.) he was re- 
cognised ; in his case, these were paKtb/xara 
(431). But here we must surely take 
<rtrapydvav with av«iX6|iT]v. 

1036 wa-T6 assents and continues: 
'(yes,) and so...'— 6s ft, i.e. Oidiirovs: 
see on 718. 

1037 irpos |u)Tpcs, -rj irarpos; sc. 

6vei5os &vei\bfXT)v (1035): 'was it at the 
hands of mother or father (rather than at 
those of strangers) that I received such 
a brand?' The agitated speaker follows 
the train of his own thoughts, scarcely 
heeding the interposed remark. He is 
not thinking so much of his parents' pos- 
sible cruelty, as of a fresh clue to their 
identity. Not: 'was I so named by 
mother or father?' The name — even if it 
could be conceived as given before the 
exposure— is not the sting; and on the 
other hand it would be forced to take 
* named' as meaning 'doomed to bear the 

1044 pOTTJp: cp. 837, 761. 

1046 fihtlr =el8el7jre, only here, it 
seems: but cp. €lT€ = dr}Te Od. 31. 195 
(doubtful in Ant. 215). eldeifiev and et- 
fiev occur in Plato (Rep. 581 E, Theaet. 
147 a) as well as in verse. In Dem. or. 
14 § 27 Karadeire is not certain {kclto.- 
0oit€ Baiter and Sauppe) : in or. 18 § 324 
he has ivdelrjre. Speaking generally, we 


Me. Such, that from that fortune thou wast called by the 
name which still is thine. 

Oe. Oh, for the gods' love— was the deed my mother's or 
father's ? Speak ! 

Me. I know not ; he who gave thee to me wots better of 
that than I. 

Oe. What, thou hadst me from another ? Thou didst not 
light on me thyself? 

Me. No : another shepherd gave thee up to me. 

Oe. Who was he ? Art thou in case to tell clearly ? 

Me. I think he was called one of the household of La'ms. 

Oe. The king who ruled this country long ago ? 

Me. The same : 'twas in his service that the man was a 

Oe. Is he still alive, that I might see him ? 

Me. Nay, ye folk of the country should know best. 

Oe. Is there any of you here present that knows the herd 
of whom he speaks — that hath seen him in the pastures or the 
town ? Answer ! The hour hath come that these things should 
be finally revealed. 

Ch. Methinks he speaks of no other than the peasant whom 
thou wast already fain to see ; but our lady Iocasta might best 
tell that. 

Oe. Lady, wottest thou of him whom we lately summoned ? 
Is it of him that this man speaks ? 

which was taken as — ttv 0' (thus in B there is a gl. ovnva, and in Bodl. Laud. 54 8v). 

may say that the contracted termination 5i5d<rKa\os, to be the established teacher. 
-eiev for -eirjaav is common to poetry and 1051 Supply hvtireiv {avrbv), not 
prose; while the corresponding contrac- hviirei. The form otpai, though often 
tions, -ecfiev for -elyfiev and -are for -ei'^re, parenthetic (as Tr. 536), is not less corn- 
are rare except in poetry. mon with infin. (Plat. Gorg. 474 a otov 

1049 ovv with the first dre, as El. iyi) dew elvai), and Soph, often so 
199, 560: it stands with the second has it, as El. 1446. 

above, 90, 271, Ph. 345. — £ir dypav: 1053 av...dv : see on 862. 

Od. 22. 47 iroXkd. fj£v iv fieydpouriv . . .iro\- 1054 voeis = 'you wot of,' the man — 

\b 5' in' dypov: (cp. 0. C. 184 iirl ^vys, i.e. you understand to whom I refer. We 

El. 1 136 /cd7ri 777s AM?/?:) the usual Attic need not, then, write el tcewov for eneivov 

phrase was iv dyp$ or /car' dypots. with A. Spengel, or voeis; iiceivov with 

1050 6 Kcupos: for the art., cp. [Plat.] Blaydes, who in 1055, reading t6v5\ has 
Axiochus 364 B vvv 6 iccupbs frheli-ao-dai a comma at i(pi4fua8a. Cp. 859. 

ttji> del 0pv\ov/xiu7)v irpbs <rov <ro<piav. — 1055 tov8* is certainly right: tov 0' 

TjvpT]or8ai : Bellermann (objecting to the arose, when the right punctuation had 

tense) reads eipiadai, citing At. 1023 been lost, from a desire to connect X£yet 

(where, as usual, the aor. midd. = 'to with ecptejxecrOa. Dindorf, however, would 

gain'): but the perf. is right, and for- keep t6v 6': *know ye him whom we 

cible, here; it means, 'to be discovered summoned and him of whom this man 

once for all.' For the form, cp. 546 n. speaks?' i.e. 'Can you say whether the 

Isocr. or. 15 § 295 tuv bwapivw \tyew 7} persons are identical or distinct?' But 

iraiSefatv ij ir6\ts rjfiCiv SoKeT yeyevrjadai the language will not bear this. 


10. tL S' ovriv ciTre ; firjhev ivTpairfis. tol Se 

prjdevra fiovXov firjSe fxefivrjadai /jbdrrfp. 
OI. ovk dp yevouo tovS*, ottcos iya> Xafiayp 

cr^/xeta rotavr ov <j>ap(o tovjiop yepos. 
IO. fir) npos decop, etrrep tl tov cravrov fiiov 1060 

KijSei, fxarevcrfls tovO*' aXis pocrova iyco. 
OI. uapcreu' o~v fxep yap ovo ^eap TpiTrjs eyco 

p.r)Tp6s <f)av(o Tp&ovXos iK<j)avel KaKrj. 


OI. ovk- aV TTidoiyi'qv fxrj ov raS' €Kp,a6eiv cra^&is. 1065 
IO. /cat /i/))i> (frpopovcrd y ev ra XqiaTa crot Xeyco. 
v OI. rd Xtoora tolpvp Tama fi dXyvpeu 7raXcu. 

tff JO. CU hvO-TTOTp?, tl0€ fJLrJ7T0T€ ypocrjs os el. 

y£\\ 01. afei tis £\6a>v Sevpo top fioTrjpd jjlol ; 
V J~^ TavTT\v 8* care ttXovctlq) ya' l P eLV yiyet. 1070 

V^ IO. lov lov, 8vo"T7)ve* TOVTo yap a e^a* 

fjiovov irpoaenreivy aWo S' oviroff vcTepoP} 
XO. ti 7T0T€ fiefirjKev, OtSi7rov9, V7T* dypCas 
a^aaa Xvtttjs rj yvvrj ; SeSot^' 07ra>s 

But a few, at least, have rbvV (M, M 2 1st hand, A). 1061 vo<rov<r' ?x w MSS - : 
voaova' £yd) schol. (on 1056). 1062 ddpvet Brunck : ddppec L. — ov8 y av £k Tpirris 

^yw MSS. In L av has its accent from the 1st hand, but its breathing from another, 
liermann restored ovb' iav Tplrrjs eyw (in which Tournier suggests dirb for 4yu>) : but 

1056 ri 8* ovtiv' ctirc; Aesch. P. V. of aXis iarl rb voaeiv £/*£: cp. 1368: Ai. 

765 dioprov rj fiporeiov [70/7.0*' yaixeX]', el 76 tvdov apKeirta jxivuv: ib. 635 Kpelaawv 

prrrov, (ppaaov. ITP. rl 5' bvTw 1 ; Ar. Av. yap "AiSa Ke69(ov (n.) : Her. I. 37 afielvw 

997 ci> 5' el rts avbpGiv ; M. 5crts efyt' ^706; iarlravTa ovtw iroLeiixevai Dem. or. 4 § 34 

M^twj'. Plat. Euthyphr. 1 B nVa 7/>a- oficoi ntvuv, peXrluv : Isae. or. 2 § 7 iicavdj 

0i7»' <re yiypavrai ; 20. yvTiva ; ovk yap avrbs (<f>r} arvx&v elvat : Athen. 435 D 

0.76^^. XP^/ irbciv, 'AvrliraTpos yap 'iKavSs iffTt 

1058 Since ovk farty Situs, ovk av vr)<puv. 

yivoiTO dirws mean ' there is, there could 1062 For the genitive TpCrrjs irryrpos 

be found, no way in which,' tovG' is without 4k, cp. El. 341 odaav irarpos, 

abnormal; yet it is not incorrect: 'this 366 koKov \ rijs /xrjrpds. rpirr\s n-TjTp6s 

thing could not be attained, namely, a TpCSovXos, thrice a slave, sprung from the 

mode in which,' etc. Cp. the mixed third (servile) mother: i.e. from a mother, 

constr. in Ai. 378 ov yap yevoir' av rcu/0' herself a slave, whose mother and grand- 

Sttws ovx <S5' tx €LV (instead of ?£«). mother had also been slaves. No com- 

1060 Since the answer at 1042, Io- mentator, so far as I know, has quoted 
casta has known the worst. But she is the passage which best illustrates this : 
still fain to spare Oedipus the misery of Theopompus fr. 277 (ed. Miiller 1. 325) 
that knowledge. Meanwhile he thinks UvdoviKTjv...rj BaKxiSos p.b> t\v bov\t\ rrjs 
that she is afraid lest he should prove avXrjrpLdos, ine'ivr) 5e Zipcfonjs rrjs Qpq.7- 
to be too humbly born. The tragic power rqs,...wrr€ yheo~9ai ju.77 twvov rpidovXor 
here is masterly. d\\d Kal rpliropvov avri\v. [Dem.] or. 

1061 dXus (et'/xij yo<rovcr' evw instead 58 § 17 et yap 6<pel\orros aury rod irdir- 


Io. Why ask of whom he spoke? Regard it not... waste 
not a thought on what he said... 'twere idle. 

Oe. It must not be that, with such clues in my grasp, I 
should fail to bring my birth to light. 

10. For the gods' sake, if thou hast any care for thine own 
life, forbear this search ! My anguish is enough. 

Oe. Be of good courage ; though I be found the son of 
servile mother, — aye, a slave by three descents, — thou wilt not 
be proved base-born. 

Io. Yet hear me, I implore thee : do not thus. 

Oe. I must not hear of not discovering the whole truth. 

Io. Yet I wish thee well — I counsel thee for the best. 

Oe. These best counsels, then, vex my patience. 

Io. Ill-fated one! Mayst thou never come to know who 
thou art ! 

Oe. Go, some one, fetch me the herdsman hither, — and 
leave yon woman to glory in her princely stock. 

IO. Alas, alas, miserable ! — that word alone can I say unto 
thee, and no other word henceforth for ever. 

[She rushes into the palace. 

Ch. Why hath the lady gone, Oedipus, in a transport of 

wild grief? I misdoubt, 

afterwards preferred oi8' ai> el *k Tplrrjs 4yd>, which (with the omission of V) Campbell 
reads. Dindorf, oiJS' idv iy& V tpLttjs. 1064 /x-J; Spa L ist hand ; a late hand has. 
changed it to Spdv by writing v above the line, also adding an i subscript. 1070 x a ^- 
peiv] xXi8av Nauck, from schol. rpvtpav, hafiptiveodai'. which words, however, manifestly 

7tou vd\cu...8ib. tovt' ol-f}<T€T(u Seiv diro- 1068 8s = Sorts : O. C. 1171 £|oi5' 

fe&yeiv 8ti trovripbs £k rpiyovlas iariv d/cotfwp tuv8' 8s iad' 6 irpo<TT&T7)s (n.). 
..., 'if, his grandfather having formerly 1072 Iocasta rushes from the scene — 

been a debtor,. ..he shall fancy himself to appear no more. Cp. the sudden exit 

entitled to acquittal because he is a rascal of Haemon {Ant. 766), of Eurydice (ib. 

of the third generation? Eustathius Od. 1245), and of Deianeira (Tr. 813). In 

1542. 50 quotes from Hipponax 'Acptw each of the two latter cases, the exit 

tovtov rbv iirrdSovXov (Bergk fr. 75), i.e. silently follows a speech by another person, 

'seven times a slave.' For the force of and the Chorus comments on the de- 

rpi-, cp. also rpiyiyas, Tplirparos (thrice- parting one's silence. Iocasta, like Hae- 

sold, — of a slave), rpiire'Swv (a slave who mon, has spoken passionate words im- 

has been thrice in fetters). Note how mediately before going : and here criwmqs 

the reference to the female line of servile (1075) is more strictly 'reticence' than 

descent is contrived to heighten the con- * silence.' 
trust with the real situation. 1074 Se'SoiKa has here the construc- 

10S3KaKti = 5v<r7ei'^s, like SeiXos, opp. tion proper to a verb of taking thought 

to dyados, eadXds : Od. 4. 63 a\\' dvSpQv (or the like), as irpofiydovfiai 8ir<as /*i) 

yfros i<rre Siorpe^uv fiacik'fiujv \ aiarjir- yev^aerai, — implying a desire to avert, 

Toix (av ' ^ 7re * °0 K€ KaK °l Toioi<x8e t4kouv. if possible, the thing feared. Plat. Eu- 

1067 to, Xu>o-Ta...Tavra: cp. Ant. thyphr. 4 E o«) (pofiei 8iKa£6p.evos ry irarpl, 

96 to 8eivbv tovto (i.e. of which you oVws pJ^ av ai> dvbaiov icpayp.a Tvyxdvys. 

speak). vpdTT<av\ 




fif) '/c rrj<; cncDTrijs ttjctK dvapprjtjei /ca/cct. io 75 

oiTola -^py^eu prjypvToy tov^jlov 8' eyco, 

Kei crfxiKpov torn, o-nepjM ISelv fiovkrfo-ofxou.. f 

avrrj 8' tcrwg, (frpovei yap cos yvvrj /xeya, 

ttjv hvcryiveiav ttjv ifjirjv ala^vverai. 

iya> 8' ijxavTOV 7ratSa 7779 Tv^r/? p€jjl(ov 1080 

7779 eu St-Soucr^?, ov/c dTifJiaa07]aofJLai. 

7179 ya/> 7re(f)VKa [irjTpos* ol Se cruyye^ets 

fxyjves /xe fXLKpou /cat fieyav Sicopiarav. 

rotdcrSe 8' €K(f)vs ovk dv i^eXOoip? ert 

7ror' dX\o5, cScrre fti) ^KfxaOelv tovjjlov yevos. 1 08 5 

suit x a lp eiv here - 1075 dvapp^rj L. Most of the later mss. agree with L, but 

dvapfrffci is in V, Bodl. Laud. 54, E (from -77), Trin. (avap-fi&i). 1084 The 1st 

hand in L wrote roi6<r5' itc^vs coo - oik d? O-iXdoipf in. A later hand wrote Se over 
to(6ct5 (*.<?. roidaSe 5'), and indicated by dots over w<r that it was to be deleted. The 

1076 The subject to dvappTjf-ei is 
KttKa, not j yvvij: for (i) i) ywrj avapp-q- 
£ei Kcucd would mean, 'the woman will 
burst forth into reproaches,' cp. Ar. Eq. 
626 6 5' dp' ivSov ZkaaifipovT* avappyyvvs 
tirr]: Pind. fr. 172 ,utj 71730s airavTas dvap- 
prj^ai rbv dxpeiov \6yov : (2) the image is 
that of a storm bursting forth from a 
great stillness, and requires that the mys- 
terious Kaxd should be the subject : cp. 
Ai. 775 iKp^ei n&xv- Arist. Meteor. 2. 8 
iKpifjijas. . .b\vep.os. 

1076 f. XPtit" scornfully personifies 
the Ka/cd. — 0ov\t]<rojMU, 'I shall wish': 
i.e. my wish will remain unaltered until 
it has been satisfied. Cp. 1446 irpoa- 
rptyopuii: Ai. 681 dxpeXeiv /SouXiJcro^cat, 
it shall henceforth be my aim: Eur. 
Med. 259 tchtovtov odv <rov rvyxwctv jSou- 
\r)<ropuu, I shall wish (shall be content) 
to receive from you only thus much 
(cp. Ai. 825 alrrjaopiui 8e" <r' oil ptaicpbv 
ytpas Xa%etJ'). O. C. 1289 ical tovt' d<f>' 
vp.G)v ...fiovK'qvop.a.i \ ...Kvpeiv ipol'. Pind. 
Olymp. 7. 20 ide\^<r<a...diopdu>acu \6yov, 
I shall have good will to tell the tale 
aright. That these futures are normal, 
and do not arise from any confusion of 
present wish with future act, may be 
seen clearly from Plat. Phaedo 91 A koX 
iyu pioi 5o/cu> h r<£ irapovri togovtov y<bvov 
tKilviov Sioiaeiv 06 yap oirus rots ira- 
povaiv a iyu) Xtyw S6i-ei dXrjdij Tpodv/xr)- 
Qi\'. and ib. 191 C. 

1078 ws yvv^, for a woman: though, 

as it is, her 'proud spirit' only reaches 
the point of being sensitive as to a lowly 
origin. She is proud of her lineage; 
Oedipus, of what he is. Whitelaw well 
compares Tennyson : ' Her pride is yet 
no mate for mine, Too proud to care 
from whence I came.' Cp. Eur. Heracl. 
978 Trpbs ravra ttjp dpaaeiav Sorts av d^Xrj \ 
Kal t^p <ppovov<rav pt,et£oi> rj yvvaiica 
XPV I X^et : Hipp. 640 pj) yap h 7' ipuns 
56/tois I etrj (ppovovaa irkeiov 7} yvvaiica XPV' 
<os is restrictive; cp. 11 18: Thuc. 4. 84 
tjv 5Z odde aStmros, ws Aaice5aipU»>ios, el- 
ireiv (not a bad speaker, for a Lacedae- 
monian) : imitated by Dionys. 10. 31 (of 
L. Icilius) ws 'Pwjiicuos, elintv ovk aSti- 
varos. See on 763. 

1081 Whatever may have been his 
human parentage, Oed. is the 'son of 
Fortune (said in a very different tone 
from ' Fortunae Jilius' in Hor. Sat. 2. 6. 
49) : Fortune brings forth the months with 
their varying events ; these months, then, 
are his brothers, who ere now have known 
him depressed as well as exalted. He has 
faith in this Mother, and will not shrink 
from the path on which she seems to 
beckon him ; he will not be false to his 
sonship. We might recall Schiller's epi- 
gram on the Wolfians ; whatever may be 
the human paternity of the Iliad, ' hat es 
doch Eine Mutter nur, Und die Ziige der 
Mutter, Deine unsterblichen Ziige, Natur.' 
— tt]s €v 8i8ov(tt)S, the beneficent: here 
absol., usu. with dat., as a<p$v 5' ev Sidolrj 



a storm of sorrow will break forth from this silence. 

Oe. Break forth what will ! Be my race never so lowly, I 
must crave to learn it. Yon woman, perchance — for she is 
proud with more than a woman's pride — thinks shame of my 
base source. But I, who hold myself son of Fortune that gives 
good, will not be dishonoured. She is the mother from whom I 
spring; and the months, my kinsmen, have marked me some- 
times lowly, sometimes great. Such being my lineage, never 
more can I prove false to it, or spare to search out the secret of 
my birth. 

origin of the corruption plainly was that, 8' having dropped out after roidade, some one 
unskilled in metre thought to complete the verse with ws (as = 'be sure that,' cp. Ai. 
39). — Blaydes conj. Toi6<r5e 87? 0i5$. — Dindorf, who once conjectured ovk Siv 4££\6oiv -rrork 
j dWoios, now rejects both verses (1084 f.). 1085 7ror' #XXos] arifios Nauck. — wore 

Zei/s, 0. C. 1435. Not gen. abs., ' while 
she prospers me,' since the poet. Ttjs for 
clvttjs could stand only at the beginning 
of a sentence or clause, as 1082. 

1082 <rvYY6V€is, as being also sons of 
TtfxT the word further expresses that 
their lapse is the measure of his life : cp. 
963 : &\k$ i-iifupvTos alibv (Ag. 107), years 
with which bodily strength keeps pace. 
Pind. Nem. 5. 40 irdrfios axryyevris, the 
destiny born with one. 

1083 Sicopurav: not: ' have determined 
that I should be sometimes lowly, some- 
times great'; to do this was the part of 
controlling Ttfx??- Rather : ' have distin- 
guished me as lowly or great ' : i.e., his life 
has had chapters of adversity alternating 
with chapters of prosperity; and the 
months have marked these off (cp. 723). 
The metaphor of the months as sympa- 
thetic brothers is partly merged in the 
view of them as divisions of time : see on 
866, 1300. 

1084 ' Having sprung of such parent- 
age (€K<}>us, whereas <pvs would be merely 
'having been born such') I will never after- 
wards prove (e£€'\6oi|n, evadam, cp. ion) 
another man' (dXXos, i.e. false to my own 
nature). The text is sound. The license 
of iroT* at the beginning of 1085 is to be 
explained on essentially the same prin- 
ciple as fjiiXas 8' | , etc. (29, cp. 785, 791) 
at the end of a verse; viz. that, where the 
movement of the thought is rapid, one 
verse can be treated as virtually continuous 
with the next: hence, too, Ai. 986 oi>x. 
tio-op r&xos I 8rjr' abrbv d£eis devpo: Ph. 
66 el 8' ipy&aei \ /ii} ravra. So here Soph. 
has allowed himself to retain in | irore in 
their natural connexion instead of writing 

£ri I aXXos iror. The genuineness of ttot 
is confirmed by the numerous instances 
in which Soph, has combined it with Ztl, 
as above, 892, below, 1412: Ai. 98, 687 : 
Tr. 830, 922. 

IO86— 1109 This short ode holds 
the place of the third arda-i/xov. But it 
has the character of a 'dance-song' or 
birbpxnuO', a melody of livelier move- 
ment, expressing joyous excitement. The 
process of discovery now approaches its 
final phase. The substitution of ahypor- 
cheme for a regular stasimon has here a 
twofold dramatic convenience. It short- 
ens the interval of suspense ; and it pre- 
pares a more forcible contrast. For the 
sake of thus heightening the contrast, 
Soph, has made a slight sacrifice of pro- 
bability. The sudden exit of Iocasta has 
just affected the Chorus with a dark pre- 
sentiment of evil (1075). We are now 
required to suppose that the spirited 
words of Oedipus (1076 — 1085) have 
completely effaced this impression, leav- 
ing only delight in the prospect that he 
will prove to be a native of the land. 
A hyporcheme is substituted for a stasi- 
mon with similar effect in the Ajax, where 
the short and joyous invocation of Pan im- 
mediately precedes the catastrophe (693 — 
717): and in the A ntip., 1115 — 1154. The 
stasimon in the Trachiniae 633 — 662 may 
also be compared, in so far as its glad anti- 
cipations usher in the beginning of the end. 

Strophe(ioS6 — 1097). Our joyous songs 
will soon be celebrating Cithaeron as na- 
tive to Oedipus. 

Antistrophe (1098 — 1109). Is he a son 
of some god, — of Pan or Apollo, of 
Hermes or Dionysus? 




XO. einep iyco fidvTLS elfu /cat /card yvcofxav tSpts, 

2 ov tov "OXvfxirov djreipcov, 

3 eS KiOaupcov, ovk ecrei rdv avpiov 1090 

4 Travaekrjvov, pr) ov ere ye /cat irarpicoTav *X)i$lttovv 

5 /cat Tpo<f>6v /cat ixarep a.v%z.iv£=r^ 

6 /cat yopevecrOai irpos tffxcov, <u$ cVt 77/oa (frepovTa rot? 

e/xot9 rvpavvois. 

7 trjte <Potpe, crot oe rai>T apecrr €177. 

avT. rt9 ere, t4kvov, rts o"' ert/crc *raV fiaKpaLcovcov dpa 1098 

2 llanos opecrcrifiaTCL # 7ra- 


M^ V/«i0eFi'] coo-re /A77 ov fiadeiv Blaydes. 1090 oiJ/f ftrei Tdv atfpiov MSS. : ot^/c 

£<rei rav a5pt Nauck : ovk ftret rdv 1701 Wecklein: o^/c^rt Tdv irtpav Dindorf. See 
comment., and cp. iioi. 1O01 Olbtirov MSS. I write Oldiirovv. 1097 <roi 5^ 
MSS. : col 6° ovV Kennedy. 1099 tuv mss. : rd^ Heimsoeth. — apa L : dJ/xx Heath. 


1086 udvris: as El. tfi el w 'y<b 

irapd<ppuv p.avris tfyw koX yv< | \eiiro- 
fiAva ao<pas: cp. O. C. 1080, Ant. 1160, 
Ai. 1419: and fiavreOopuu = ' to presage. ' 

1087 KaT<x with an accus. of respect 
is somewhat rare (Tr. 102 KpaTio-Tevwv 
kclt' ib. 379 tj n&pra \ap.irpa not 
/car' 8/x/ta ical <pi<nv) y except in such 
phrases as /cotA ir&pra, kclt otibe'v, /card 
tovto. Cp. Metrical Analysis. 

1088 ou = ofJ /id: see on 660. — 
aircCpwv = Aireipos : Hesych. 1. 433 a7ret- 
povas' aireiparovs. Xo<Pok\tj$ Qv^ctt}. 
Ellendt thinks that atreiparovs here meant 
atrepavTovs ('limitless'): but elsewhere 
dVeiparos always = 'untried ' or 'inex- 
perienced.' Conversely Soph, used airei- 
pos in the commoner sense of direlpwv, 
'vast,' fr. 481 x iT< ^ v direipos ivSvr^pioi 
kukCov. ire pa- (>), to go through, ire?pa 
{irepia), a going-through (peri/us> peri- 
culum), are closely akin to ir4pa, beyond, 
irtpas, ireipap a limit (Curt. Etym. §§ 356, 
357) : in poetical usage, then, their deriva- 
tives might easily pass into each other's 

1090 rdv atfpiov irav<r&T)vov, * the 
full-moon of to-morrow,' ace. of i] atipiov 
irava^Xrjvos (there is no adj. avptos), as 
Eur. Ale. 784 ttjv afipiov fie"\\ov<rap, ace. 
of 77 atipiov putWovaa, Hipp. 11 17 rbv 
atipuv -\pbvov. At Athens the great 
Dionysia were immediately followed by 
Trie Ilgj^ia, a festival held at iJulLmoon 
in the middle of the month EJap h ebplion 
(at the beginning of April) : cp. A. 
Mommsen Heortol. p. 389, and C. F. 

Hermann Ant. II. § 59. Wolff remarks 
that, if this play was produced on the 
last day of the Dionysia, the poet would 
have known that arrangement long be- 
forehand, and may have intended an 
allusion to the Ildvbia which his Athenian 
hearers would quickly seize. This would 
explain why precisely 'to-morrow's full- 
moon' is named. — Nauck reads avpw (as 
= rax^ws, 'the coming' full -moon): 
Wecklein, ijpi (dat. of rjp), * the vernal 
full-moon' — that, namely, in Elaphe- 
bolion. — iravo-«'Xt]vov (sc. wpav) : Her. 7. 
47 4p ry airy iravaekijvip. For the accus., 
cp. on 1 1 38 xtwuva. The meaning is: 
'At the next full-moon we will hold a 
joyous iravvvxi-s, visiting the temples with 
X°pol (Ant. 153), in honour of the dis- 
covery that Oedipus is of Theban birth ; 
and thou, Cithaeron, shalt be a theme of 
our song.' Cp. Eur. Ion 1078, where, in 
sympathy with the nocturnal worship of 
the gods, darepioTrbs | dvexbpevaev aldrfp, | 
XopeOei 8e 2e\dva. The rites of the The- 
ban Dionysus were viKrwp ra 7roXXd(Eur. 
Bacch. 486). 

1091 irarpwoTav, since Cithaeron 
partly belongs to Boeotia ; so Plutarch 
of Chaeroneia calls the Theban Dionysus 
his iraTpidrrrjv Qebv, Mor. 671 C. — I read 
Ol8£irovv instead of OlSfrrov. With the 
genitive, the subject to av£eiv must be 
either (1) ij/xds understood, which is im- 
possibly harsh; or (2) Tav...irav<re'\r)vov. 
Such a phrase as 4) ■n-avae'Xrjvos a0£ei <re y 
i.e., 'sees thee honoured,' is possible; cp. 
438 ^5' ijne'pa <p&crei <re ical 8ia<p0epeT: but. 



Ch. If I am a seer or wise of heart, O Cithaeron, thou Strophe, 
shalt not fail — by yon heaven, thou shalt not! — to know at to- 
morrow's full moon that Oedipus honours thee as native to him, 
as his nurse, and his mother, and that thou art celebrated in 
our dance and song, because thou art well-pleasing to our prince. 
O Phoebus to whom we cry, may these things find favour in thy 

Who was it, my son, who of the race whose years are many Anti- 
that bore thee in wedlock with Pan, the mountain-roaming stro P ne - 

Blaydes conject. Kopdv. IIOO Travba dpeaai^dra ^^po<J^^e\aa6fi(J , MSS. (L has irpoa- 
ireXaadewa, without elision.) To supply the want of a syllable after dpeaai^dra, Her- 
mann inserted -m, Heath irov : Wunder and others wrote dpeffatfidrao : Dindorf con- 
jectured Ntf/*0a dpeaaiparq. irov Jlart irXadeiaa.. Lachmann restored irarpbs treKa<Tdel<r\ 

it is somewhat forced ; and the order of 
the words is against it. The addition of 
one letter, giving OlSforovv, at once 
yields a clear construction and a pointed 
sense. 'Thou shalt not fail to know 
that Oedipus honours thee both as native 
to him, and as his nurse and mother {i.e., 
not merely as belonging to his Theban 
fatherland, but as the very spot which 
sheltered his infancy); and that thou art 
celebrated in choral song by us (irpos 
TJuwv), seeing that thou art well-pleasing 
to him.* p/rj ov with at'jjciv, because ovk 
dirdpwv &rei = a verb of hindrance or denial 
with a negative, auf-civ, not merely by 
praises, but by the fact of his birth in the 
neighbourhood : as Pindar says of a victor 
in the games, Olymp. 5. 4 rdv adv irbXiv 
aii&v, Pyth. 8. 38 a$%wv irdrpav. The 
ace. cjw'povTa, instead of <p£pu>v, may be 
explained by supposing that ci ye is 
carried on as subject to x°P^ €<T ^ ail : C P« 
Tr. 706 n. Another defence of the ace. 
would be to take koX x°P' vphs 7}[iG)v as a 
parenthesis (cp. Ant. 1279 n.) : so Tyrrell 
in Class. Rev. II. 141. 

1092 Tpo<j>6v, as having sheltered him 
when exposed: tL /a' i8£x ov > I39 1 ' 
[iaT^p*, as the place from which his life 
rose anew, though it had been destined 
to be his rd<pos, 1452. 

1094 x o P € ^ €0 "^ ai J t0 b e celebrated 
with choral song: Ant. 1153 irdvvv- 
Xot I x°P e ^ 0V<Jt r ^ v Tap.Lav "Iixkxov. (Not 
'danced over,' like deidero Ttfxevos, Pind. 
01. 11. 76.) 

1095 iirl ■fjpa <}>4povTa: see Merry's 
note on Od. 3. 164 avns £ir' 'ATpeidy 
'Ayafitfivovi rjpa (ptpovTes. -rjpa was 
probably ace. sing, from a nom. rjp, from 

J. S. I. 3 

root dp (to fit), as= 'pleasant service. 
After the phrase rjpa <ptpeiv had arisen, 
iirl was joined adverbially with <p£peiv, 
iirl rjpa cpipeiv being equivalent to rjpa 
£TTi(p£pei.v. Aristarchus, who according to 
Herodian first wrote iirlypa, must have 
supposed an impossible tmesis of a com- 
pound adj. in the passage of the Od. just 
quoted, also in 16. 375, 18. 56. — toi$ 
Ijjlois Tvp., i.e. to Oedipus: for the plur., 
see on davdruv, 497. 

1096 lij'ie, esp. as>the Healer: see on 


1097 <rol 8e: El. 150 Ni6£a, ce 5' 
Zywye ve/xio 6e6v. — ap«TT : i.e. consistent 
with those oracles which still await a 
\vais ei>ayr)s (921). 

1098 &tikt€: see on 870. 

1099 raiv jxaKpaiwvwv : here not god- 
desses (Aesch. Th. 524 dapoploiai deoi- 
aiv), but the Nymphs, who, though not 
immortal, live beyond the human span ; 
Horn. Hymn. 4. 260 cu p' otfre dvqToh otfr' 
dQavdroiaiv Zttovtcli ' \ drjpbv p£v {<Joov<ri icai porov eldap idovatv. They consort with 
Pan, os r' dud iriat] \ devdprjevr' &/j.v5is 
(poirq. xoporjdeat ~Nvp.<pais, Hymn. 19. 2. 

1100 In ITavos op€(r<riPctTa irpoa-irc- 
XcurGeur, the reading of the MSS., we 
note (1) the loss after 6p«xaifiaTa of one 
syllable, answering to the last of direipwv 
in 1087: (2) the somewhat weak com- 
pound irpo<nr€ka<rdeio' : (3) the gen., 
where, for this sense, the dat. is more 
usual, as Aesch. P. V. 896 pride ifKadd-qv 
yafxerrj. L has Kolrrj written over opev- 
aifiara. I had thought of Xlicrpois 
•jreXao-Bewr. But the gen. is quite ad- 
missible: and on other grounds Lach- 
mann's iraTpos ir€\ao-8ewr is far better, 




3 rpos TrekaaOeicr ; rj ere y *evvdreipd rt<? 

4 Aoftov ; tgj ydp 7rXa/ce? dypovopoi irdcrai <£iAar 

5 eW d KvWaVa? dvdcrcrcov, 1 1 04 

6 eW d Ba/c^eto9 #eds vckiuiv in aKpcov opecov evprjpa 

SetjoLT €K TOV 

7 NvfJL<f>dv 'EXikojviScov, at? 7rXetcrra (rvpTrai^ei. 

OI. et ^pr? rt /ca/xe /lit) avvaWd^avrd ttco, 1 1 IO 

7T/oecr/3et9, (TTa6 pder 6 ai, tov /SoTrjp' opdv Sokg), 
ovirep Trakai t^rovpev. ev re yap paKpw 
yrjpa fiWSet rwSe raVSpi avpperpos, 
dXKcos re tous dyovTdS ajcrwep ot/cera? 

HOI 17 ere* 76 dvydrrjp Xoi-Lov L. Most of the later MSS. insert ris before Ovydrrjp, 
while a few agree with L. Arndt conjectures rj at 7' evvdreipi rts. Hartung, 17 o^ 7' 
ofipeios Kopa. 1107 etiprj/jLa] a' eupri/na Dindorf: dypev/xa M. Schmidt: y£wqp.aox 

Xoxcv/xa Wecklein : dApy/ma Gleditsch: <re dp^/x/ma Wolff. 1109 iXiKuvidSuv L, 

with almost all the later mss. (A has eXinuviddwv by correction from iXu<u)i>l8o$. ) — 

since irarpbs, written irpoa, would explain 
the whole corruption. 

HOI If in 1090 we keep ovk &m 
Tdv avpiov, it is best to read here with 
Arndt, rj <r^ y €vva.T€ipd tis. On the 
view that in 1090 rdv imoucrau eVei was a 
probable emendation (see Appendix on 
that verse), I proposed to read here, 77 at 
7' Z<pv<re iraTTjp | Ao^as ; If the ae of 
(<pv<re had once been lost (through a 
confusion with the preceding <r£), TE- 
<i»TIIATHP might easily have become 
TEexrATHP: the rts (which is not in 
L) would have been inserted for metre's 
sake, and the change of Ao£t'as to Ao&ov 
would have followed. (It cannot be ob- 
jected that a mention of the mother is 
required here, since, as the context shows, 
the foremost thought is, 'what god was 
thy sire?') It would be a very forced 
way of taking rj at yk rts dvydrrjp to make 
dvydrrjp depend on fiaKpaiuvwv, and Aoj-iou 
on weXaadeia' (i.e. , 'some daughter of the 
Nymphs wedded to Pan, or haply to 
Loxias'). Nor does it seem easy to take 
dvydrrjp with rdv ncucpaiuvuv in both 
clauses ('some daughter of the Nymphs, 
wedded to Pan, or perhaps to Loxias'). 
On the whole, I now prefer Arndt's cor- 
rection.— For <r^ 7« in the second alter- 
native, cp. Ph. 1 1 16 iroTfwi ae daifibvuv 
rd8\ I oi8e ak ye 86Xos k<rx ev ' Her. 7. 
10 (ad fin.) 8ia<popev/j.evov rj kov iv yrj rjj 
1 Adrjvalwv r) <t4 ye iv rrj Aa KeScu/xoviuv. 

1103 irXciK€S dvpovonoi = ttX. dypov 
veixofxivov, highlands affording open pas- 
turage: so dypov. auXcuy, Ant. 785. 
Apollo as a pastoral god had the title of 
Iso/Aios (Theocr. 25. 21), which was esp. 
connected with the legend of his serving 
as shepherd to Laomedon on Ida (//. 31. 
448) and to Admetus in Thessaly (//. 2. 
J66: Eur. Ale. 572 pLrjXovbfxas). Macro- 
bius r. 17. 43 (Apollinis) aedes ut ovium 
pastoris sunt apnd Camirenses [in Rhodes] 
imLirjXiov, apud Naxios iroifivlov, 
it em que deus dpvoicb/xrjs colitur, et apud 
Lesbios ixnraios [cp. above, 1026], et 
mult a sunt cognomina per diversas civi- 
tatcs ad dei pastoris officium tendentia. 
Callim. Hymn. Apoll. 47 oiide" Kev alyes \ 
Setioivro {SpeQiuv iiri/xrjXLSes, rjcriv 'AtoX- 
Xuv I fSocncofxe'vris 6<pda\fxbv iirfjyayev. 

1104 6 KvXXdvas dvd<r<rwv, Hermes: 
Horn. Hymn. 3. 1 'Ep^tTji/ ll/xi/ei, MoDaa, 
Albs Kai MatdSos vlbu, | Kv\\r)vr)s /xeSe'- 
ovtcl koX 'ApKadirjs iroXvprjXov : Verg. Aen. 
8. 138 quern Candida Maia \ Cyllenes 
gelido conception vertice fudit. The peak 
of Cyllene (now Ziria), about 7300 ft. 
high, in N. E. Arcadia, is visible from 
the Boeotian plain near Leuctra, where 
Cithaeron is on the south and Helicon to 
the west, with a glimpse of Parnassus 
behind it: see my Modem Greece, p. 77. 

1105 6 BaKxctos Btbs, not 'the god 
BdKxos' (though in 0. C. 1494 ^he mss. 
give HoaeibauvlLp 6e$ = Ho<rei8u)j>i), but 



father ? Or was it a bride of Loxias that bore thee ? For 
dear to him are all the upland pastures. Or perchance 'twas 
Cyllene's lord, or the Bacchants' god, dweller on the hill-tops, 
that received thee, a new-born joy, from one of the Nymphs 
of Helicon, with whom he most doth sport. 

Oe. Elders, if 'tis for me to guess, who have never met with 
him, I think I see the herdsman of whom we have long been in 
quest; for in his venerable age he tallies with yon stranger's years, 
and withal I know those who bring him, methinks, as servants 

'E\ucui>i8uv Porson. eXiKonrLdup Wilamowitz. 1111 irpia^ei L. A letter (evi- 

dently a) has been erased after t. A very late hand has written vv over ei. The other 
MSS. have irpia^ei (A), irptaftv (received by Blaydes and Campbell), or irptafivv (Elmsley 
and Hartnng). Dindorf cp. Aesch. Pers. 840 (where the chorus is addressed), v/xds 
8i, 7r/)&r/3ets, xa/joer'. 1114 dXXws re] Nauck gives 8/xwds re, and further conjec- 

'the god of the Bd/cxo',' the god of Bac- 
chic frenzy; Horn. Hymn. 19. 46 6 Bd/c- 
X&-OS Aidvvcros : O.C. 678 6 Ba/cxtwras... 
Aibvvaos. Some would always write Bd/c- 
X«os (like 'OfXTjpeios, Alapreios, etc.): on 
the other hand, Ba/cxetos is said to have 
been Attic (cp. Kadfxeios): see Chandler, 
Greek Accentuation, § 381, 2nd ed. 

1107 cvpiijia expresses the sudden 
delight of the god when he receives the 
babe from the mother, — as Hermes re- 
ceives his new-born son Pan from the N 1^017 
4vTrX6Kafios,I/bm. Hyi7in. 19. 40 top 5' cui/>' 
'Ep/ueLT]s ipioOvios is x^P a 6v K€V I Se^d/xevos' 
Xo-lpev 5e p6(p irepuhcia dalp-wp. The word 
commonly = a lucky 'find,' like tyfiaiop, 
or a happy thought. In Eur. Ion 1349 it 
is not ' a foundling J but the box contain- 
ing (TTr&pyava found by Ion. 

1109 <rv\i.irailei : Anacreon fr. 2 (Bergk 
V' 775) t0 Dionysus: wpai;, $ dafxaXrjs 
(subduing) "Epus \ kclI N6/jL<pai Kvapv- 
?ri5es | irop<f>vp4i] r' 'A<f>po5iT7) | cvp.Ta.l- 
£ovgip' ivKXTpicpeai 5' | vrprfXwp Kopvcpas 
dpiup. 'EXiKtoviScav is Porson's correc- 
tion of 'E\t,KWPid5up (mss.), ad Eur. Or. 
614. Since ats answers to 8i in 1097, 
Nauck conjectured 'EXikQpos alai. But 
this is unnecessary, as the metrical place 
allows this syllable to be either short or 
long: so in El. 486 al<xx^Tais answers 
to 502 pvkt6s e8. 

lllO — 1185 eireiaddtrOP rirapTOP. 
The herdsman of La'ius is confronted with 
the messenger from Corinth. It is dis- 
covered that Oedipus is the son of Laius. 

lllO — 1116 The ot'/cei/s, who alone 
escaped from the slaughter of Laius and 
Jiis following, had at his own request been 

sent away from Thebes to do the work 
of a herdsman (761). Oedipus had sum- 
moned him in order to see whether he 
would speak of Xyarai, or of one XtjottJj 
(842). But meanwhile a further question 
has arisen. Is he identical with that 
herdsman of La'ius (1040) who had given 
up the infant Oedipus to the Corinthian 
shepherd? He is now seen approaching. 
With his coming, the two threads of dis- 
covery are brought together. 

lllO Kapi, as well as you, who per- 
haps know better (n 15). — p-i] <rvvaX- 
Xd£avTa ir«, though I have never come 
into intercourse with him, have never 
met him : see on 34, and cp. 1 130. 

1112 kv...yr\pa: iv describes the con- 
dition in which he is, as Ph. 185 $v r 
ddtivais dfiov | Xtp.d} t' oUrpos: Ai. 1017 
eV Yopq. fiapfc. 

1113 £vva8ei with twSe rdvSpl: crvp.- 
fUTpos merely strengthens and defines it : 
he agrees with this man in the tale of his 

1114 ctWws T€, and moreover: cp. 
Her. 8. 142 dXXws re toi/tow airaPTUP 
airlovs yepiadac dovXoavprjs toi<ti "EXXr}<ri 
'AOrjpalovs ovda/j-iJos apacrxerdp ('and be- 
sides, ' introducing an additional argument) . 
Soph, has dXXus re k<xI= 'especially,' El. 
1324. 'I know them as servants' would 
be typuna Bptcls ofoeVcis. The worircp 
can be explained only by an ellipse : diairep 
dp ypoLyp o&ceVas ifiavrov (cp. 923). Here 
it merely serves to mark his first impres- 
sion as they come in sight: 'I know those 
who bring him as {methinks) servants of 
mine own.' 




eyvo)K ifiavTov • rfj 8* imcrTrjiJLr] crv fiov Ill 5 

7Tpov)(OL<; rd^ av ttov, tov fiorfjp i$a>v irdpos. 
XO. iyvcoKa yap, crd<$> IcrOr Aatov yap rjv 

etirep Tt9 dAA.09 77tcr705 (os vofievs avr)p. 
OI. ere Trpcor ipcorco, top KopivOiov £evov, 

tj rovSe c/>pa£ei9 ; Ar. tovtov, ovirep elcropas. 1 1 20 
01. ovtos o~v> irpicrfiv, hevpo (xol (f>a>v€L fiXeircov 

ocr dv cr ipcoTco. Aatov ttot rjcrda crv ; 


Tj, SouXoS OVK (DVTjTOS, CtXX' OLKOL Tpa<f)€LS. 

01. epyov fJLepifJLvcov ttoIov tj /Slot Tiva ; 

®E. TTOLfxvais rd TrXelaTa tov fiiov avvenropj^v. 1 1 25 

01. yatpois fxakiara rrpos tlq-l £vvav\os &v ; 

©E. rjv [xev Kidaupav, rjv he TTp6cr)(0)pos tottos. 

OI. top avhpa tovS' ovv oXo~6a TrjSe irov fiadcov ; 

©E. tl xPVI JLa §p£vTa ; ttoIov dvSpa /ecu \eye19 ; 

OI. toW os TrdpecrTLV rj £vvak\d£as tl 7rco ; 1130 

tures 6vras for ua-irep. See comment. 1130 17 L 1st hand, corrected to 77 by a later 
hand. — %vpa\\d£ao- L, the first X made from v, as if the scribe had begun to write 
Zwavrrjaas. The later Mss, are divided between the alternative readings, fj £waXAd£as 
(as E, Bodl. Laud. 54, Vat. a, c), and 77 £wi$XAa£as (as A, T, V, A). The change of 

1117 ^ap, in assent ('you are right, 
for,' etc.), 731 : Ph. 756: Ant. 639, etc. — 
Aatov -yap ijv...vou€v$: a comma at i^v 
is admissible (cp. 1122), but would not 
strictly represent the construction here, 
in which the idea — Aatov rjv tnarbs po/ietis, 
etirep tis a\Xos — has been modified by 
the restrictive as before ponevs. — «$ only 
means that the sense in which a vo/xevs 
can show irlaris is narrowly limited by 
the sphere of his work. See on 763: cp. 

1119 tov Kop£v9. ^vov. with ere, in- 
stead of a vocative, gives a peremptory 
tone: Ant. 441 o~e 877, ce ttjv vetioveav els 
iribop /edpet, | <fri]S 77 Karapvei k.t.X., where 
the equivalent of ipanto here is under- 
stood. Cp. At. 71 O&TOS, Ok Tbv TttS K.T.X. 

So in the nomin. Xen. Cyr. 4. 5. 22 ait 
8\ £077, b tu>p 'TpKOLviwv &pxwv, virbfietpov. 
Blaydes thinks that t<£ Kopivdltp ^pep in 
Ar. Th. 404 comes hence. Surely rather 
from the Sthenoboea of Eur. ap. Athen. 
427 E ireabv be" pip \i\i\Qev ovbkv eK X € Pfo» 
I dXX' evdvs abba, ry Koptv8l(p £&(?. 

1121 Cp. Tr. 402 oCros, /SX^' wSe. 

1123 f\, the old Attic form of the 1st 
pers., from £a (//. 4. 321, Her. 2. 19): 
so the best MSS. in Plat. Phaed. 61 B, etc. 
That Soph, used 77 here and in the Niobe 
(fr. 409) 77 7<zp 0^X77 '71I) rSivbe rod irpo- 
(peprtpov, is stated by the schol. on //. 
5. 533 and on Od. 8. 186. L has t|v 
here and always, except in 0. C. 973, 
1366, where it gives rf. In Eur. Tro. 
474 77 fiep rOpavvos icels rvpapp" 1 iyrjfidfxijp 
is Elmsley's corr. of rj/xev rvpappoi k.t.X. 
On the other hand Eur., at least, has rjp 
in several places where 77 is impossible: 
Hipp. 1012 /idTaios ap' 77V, ovdafiov fi£p 
odv (ppepu>p; H. F. 1416 ws is rb \rjp.a 
iraPTbs t\p -qaawp avijp: Ale. 655 Tralj 3' 
rjv iyui aot rQpde didboxos 56/jlwp : Ion 280 
fipkipos peoypbp firjrpbs rjp ip ayifakais. — 
oKxot Tpa<^€(s, and so more in the con- 
fidence of the master : cp. schol. Ar. Eg. 
1 (on Ha<p\dyopa rbp peupijrov), ire<f>v- 
Kap.ep yap Kai tup oIkctwp fiaXXop iria- 
rexieip rots oXkoi yepprjdeiffi nai Tpa<peloiv 
77 ocs dp KTrjau/jieda Trpidfiepoi. Such vernae 



of mine own. But perchance thou mayest have the advantage 
of me in knowledge, if thou hast seen the herdsman before. 

Ch. Aye, I know him, be sure; he was in the service of 
Lai'us — trusty as any man, in his shepherd's place. 

[ The herdsman is brought in. 

Oe. I ask thee first, Corinthian stranger, is this he whom 
thou meanest? Me. This man whom thou beholdest. 

Oe. Ho thou, old man — I would have thee look this way, 
and answer all that I ask thee. — Thou wast once in the service 
of Lai'us ? 


I was— a slave not bought, but reared in his house. 

Oe. Employed in what labour, or what way of life? 

He. For the best part of my life I tended flocks. 

Oe. And what the regions that thou didst chiefly haunt ? 

He. Sometimes it was Cithaeron, sometimes the neigh- 
bouring ground. 

Oe. Then wottest thou of having noted yon man in these 
parts — 

He. Doing what ?...What man dost thou mean ?... 

Oe. This man here — or of having ever met him before ? 

7} into -)] probably induced the change of the aor. participle into the aor. indie. — irui] 
In L the w has been made from or a after erasure of at least two other letters. The 
word was never irw<x or irov : Diibner suggests Trover, Campbell irori. The last letter 
seems to have been <r, and the word may perhaps have been irdpo<r. — 7rw<7 r: irov 

were called olicoyei>eis (Plat. Men. 82 B : 
Dio Chrys. 15. 25 tovs irapa creplai yev- 
vqdivras ovs oiKoyeveis KaXovori), oiKorpa- 
(pels (Pollux 3. 78), ivdoyevels (oft. in 
inscriptions, as C. I. G. 1. 828), or oik6- 
rpifies [Dem.] or. 13 § 24, Hesych. 2. 

1124 |X€pi|Jivwv. In classical Greek 
/jLeptfiudv is usu. 'to give one's thought 
to a question' (as of philosophy, Xen. 
Mem. 4. 7. 6 rbv ravra p.epip.vQ>vTa) ; here 
merely = 'to be occupied with': cp. Cyr. 
8. 7. 12 rb TToWa fiepifivav : and so in the 
N. T., 1 Cor. 7. 33 ixepijxvq. rd rod nba- 


1126 £vvav\os, prop, 'dwelling with* 
(fiaviq. Ztivavkos Ai. 611): here, after irpos, 
merely : ' having thy haunts ' : an instance 
of that redundant government which 
Soph, often admits : below 1205 h tt6- 
vols I tyvoiKOS: Ai. 464 yvp.vbv...rQ)v dpie- 
reloiv &rep: Ph. 31 K€vt)v otKr}aiv avdpdi- 
iruj> 5tx a: A lit. 919 Zpripios irpbs <pi\(av'. 
445 ££ w |8a/)e£as alrlas iXeOdepou. 

1127 T)v n^v, as if replying to x^P ot 
rives rjo'au irpbs oh £w. rjcrda; 

1128 ola-Qa with paOuv, are you aware 
of having observed this man here? Cp. 
1 142 oZo-0a...5oi5s; We could not render, 
'do you know this man, through having 
observed him?' eibtvcu, implying intui- 
tive apprehension, is said of" knowing 
facts and propositions: in regard to per- 
sons, it is not used in the mere sense of 
'being acquainted with one' (yvwpify), 
but only in that of * knowing one's cha- 
racter,' as Eur. Med. 39 kyqba. rfybe. 
So scire, wis sen, savoir, Ital. sapere. On 
the other hand, yiyvdio-KUJ, implying a 
process of examination, applies to all 
mediate knowledge, through the senses, 
of external objects: so noscere, kennen, 
comiattre, Ital. conoscere. Cp. Cope in 
Journ. of Philology I. 79. 

1129 Kal X£y€is: see on 772. 

11 30 The constr. is oto-0a |xa0cov...T) 
£vva\\a£as; Oed. takes no more notice 
of the herdsman's nervous interruption 



<£)E. ovx wotc y elireiv ev jdyei \x.vr)\xr\<$ vtto. 
AT. Kovhev ye Oavixa, Secnror • aW eyai ctcu^gjs 

ay^wr' dvayivrjcroi viv. ev yap oIS' on 

/caToi§ez> 77/^09 toj> KiOaipcovos tottov 

6 [lev hiTrXolcTL iroifiviois, eyd) 8' eVi I I 

eTrXrjcria^ov rcohe Ta^S/oi T/3ei9 okovs 

i£ T)pO<5 €19 OipKTOVpOV £k[A7]VOVS ^pOVOVS' 

yeip.(ova 8' 7^817 rdfxd r eU enavX* eyd) 
rjXavvov ovtos t els tol Aa'Cov orraOfjid. 
Xeyco tl tovtojv, 77 ov Xeyo) Treirpayixevov ; II 40 

©E. Xeyeis dXrjOr), Kaiirep Ik fxaKpov XP° V0 }& 

Blaydes. 1131 tiiro] diro Reiske. 1135 f. Heimsoeth conject. v4fiuv 8nr\ot<ri 

iroifivioLS, eyu 5' hi, | iirXrjaLafc. 1137 emx-qvovcr L, with almost all the later 

MSS. : but the Trin. MS. has eK/x^fovs, whence Porson restored eKfirjvovs. 1138 x«- 

than is necessary for the purpose of stern- 
ly keeping him to the point, if <rw»j\- 
Xa£as... ; 'have you ever met him?' mars 
the force of the passage. The testimony 
of L to <rvvaX\d|as has the more weight 
since this is the less obvious reading. Cp. 
verse 1037, which continues after an in- 
terruption the construction of verse 1035. 

1131 ovx wore "y' flirctv: cp. 361. — 
pvij)i.T]S viro, at the prompting of memory, 
— virb having a like force as in compound 
verbs meaning to 'suggest,' etc.: Plut. 
Mor. 813 E Xoyta-fJioiis ovs 6 UepiKXrjs au- 
rbv vT€fxinvi)aK€v, recalled to his mind : 
so virofioXevs (ib.), 'a prompter.' The 
phrase is more poetical and elegant than 
(ivtJjit|s diro, the conjecture of Reiske. 
Blaydes, reading cLtto, compares airb ttjs 
y\d}<x<xr)s (O. C. 036). 

1132 f. KovSe'v 7«: cp. Ph. 38 n. 
dyvour =ov yvyvdocKovra, not recognising 
me: 677 n. 

1134 Soph, has the epic ti|aos in two 
other places of dialogue, Tr. 531 (an- 
swered by tt}/j.os) and 155; also once in 
lyrics At. 935; Eur. once in lyrics {Hec. 
Q15); Aesch. and Comedy, never. — tov 
KiGaipcavos tottov. The sentence be- 
gins as if it were meant to proceed thus : 
rbv K. rbirov 6 /xh biirXols ttoi/jlvIois eve- 
fiev, iyw 5' hi (hep.ov), irXrjo-i&fav o.vt£ : 
but, the verb frefxe having been post- 
poned, the participle irX-qoidfav is irregu- 
larly combined with the notion of heuov 
and turned into a finite verb, iTrkryrloXpv : 
thus leaving rbv K. rbirov without any 

proper government. (In the above ex- 
planation, the act. voice of vfaw has 
been used, since this was specially said 
of shepherds: cp. Xen. Cyr. 3. 2. 20 
tirei 6prj dyadd £x ere > ^Aotr' dv edv p£fieiv 
TavTa tovs 'ApfievLovs; The midd. would 
also be correct, as = 'to range over.') For 
the irregular but very common change of 
participle into finite verb cp. El. 190 
oiKovofido...tod€ \xh deixei crdv (rroXq. | /ce- 
vcus b' a/Mpio-Tafxcu rpair^ais (instead of 
dfupio-TafMivT)) : so Ant. 8 to (tifxvos vfivrj- 
<rev instead of iifivtp vfivrjdeiaav) : Tr. 676 
rjcpdvicTTai, bidfiopov irpbs ovbevbs \ tujv <Lv- 
5ov, dX\' ibearbv e£ avrov <f>dlvei. Thuc. 
4. 100 irpoaefiaXov t(£ reix^art, a% 
re rpbirip TreipdaavTes nal firjxavijv irpo<rti~ 
yayov. Though we can have Struct ire- 
Xdfa (Eur. Andr. 1167), 'is carried to- 
wards the house,' the dat. rtoSe T(iv8pl 
after «rX.T]<r£atov here is proof in itself 
that the verb does not govern toitov : 
further the sense required is not 'ap- 
proached,' but 'occupied.' Brunck, ta- 
king rtpSe rdvbpl as= ifioi, was for chang- 
ing eirX-rjala^ou to eTrXrjo-iafe : which only 
adds the new complication of an irregular 
ixtv and U. The text is probably sound. 
Heimsoeth's conjecture, v«p.wv for 6 y£v, 
with €ir\T]<r{a£€, is attractive, but the pa- 
renthetic lyw b' hi is then very awkward. 
Nauck proposes h Ktdaipwos vd-trus \ 
(this with Blaydes) pofiebs 5nrXoi<ri ttol/j,vI~ 
01s kTnara.T(av \ irXTjaiafe: but this is to 
re-write, not to correct. 

1137 ۤ ^pos els dpKxovpov : from 



He. Not so that I could speak at once from memory. 

Me. And no wonder, master. But I will bring clear recol- 
lection to his ignorance. I am sure that he well wots of the 
time when we abode in the region of Cithaeron, — he with two 
flocks, I, his comrade, with one, — three full half-years, from 
spring to Arcturus ; and then for the winter I used to drive my 
flock to mine own fold, and he took his to the fold of Lai'us. 
Did aught of this happen as I tell, or did it not ? 

He. Thou speakest the truth — though 'tis long ago. 

uQva L: x^ 1 ^ 1 "- r - As the accus. was changed into the easier dat., so the dat. in 
turn became the gen. in some copies (V has x €l f JL< ^ t/0S i ^vith yp. x^-P^vi). In A there 
is an erasure over the vi of xet/xum, but no trace (I think) of a. 

y Mai 

March to September — .In March the 
herd of Polybus drove his flock up to 
Cithaeron from Corinth, and met the 
herd of La'ius, who had brought up his 
flock from the plain of Thebes. For six 
months they used to consort in the upland 
glens of Cithaeron ; then, in September, 
when Arcturus began to be visible a 
little before dawn, they parted, taking 
their flocks for the winter into home- 
steads near Corinth and Thebes. — ripK- 
Tovpov, (the star a of the constellation 
Bootes,) first so called in Hes. Op. 566 
where (610) his appearance as a morning 
star is the signal for the vintage. Hippo- 
crates, Epidem. 1. 2. 4, has irepl apuTodpov 
as = 'a little before the autumnal equi- 
nox': and Thuc. 2. 78 uses irepl apKToti- 
pov iiriroXds to denote the same season. 
See Appendix. 

€K|iijvovs. Plato (Legg. 916 B) evrbs 
iKfAfyov, sc. xp&ov : the statement in Lidd. 
and Scott's Lexicon (6th ed.) that it is 
feminine was due to a misunderstanding 
of the words tt\t)v ttjs lepas (sc. voaov) just 
afterwards. Aristotle also has this form. 
Cp. $Kir\e0po$ (Eur.), Zkttovs, ZiarXevpos. 
The form £i;/xt5i[xvov in Ar. Pax 631 is an 
Atticism : cp. 2%irow Plat. Comicus fr. 
36, where Meineke quotes Philemon (a 
grammarian who wrote on the Attic dia- 
lect) : 'Arrt/cws [xtv t£wow kclI ^kXivov \4- 
yerat, uairep ko.1 irapa 2o0OK\et ei-Trr}xv<TTL : 
adding Steph. Byz. 345 "Efywoj, trbXis 
2iKe\Las, ypa<pri]v 'A.ttikt)v ix ovffa - Be- 
sides hp.7jvos, Aristotle uses the form 
et-dfxrjvos (which occurs in a perhaps in- 
terpolated place of Xen., Hellen. 2. 3. 9); 
as he has also i^dirovs. The Attic dialect 
similarly preferred Trevrtirovs to irevrd- 
irovs, diiTiaTrovs to d/CTawovs, but always 

said 7reira7rAoi)s, e£a7r\o0?, dxTairXovs. 

1138 The fact that L has x€i|i<3va 
without notice of a variant, while some 
other mss. notice it as a variant on their 
X«i}J.<3vi, is in favour of the accus., the 
harder reading. It may be rendered 'for 
the winter,' since it involves the notion 
of the time during which the flock was to 
remain in the %-rravXa. It is, however, 
one of those temporal accusatives which 
are almost adverbial, the idea of duration 
being merged in that of season, so that 
they can even be used concurrently with 
a temporal genitive: Her. 3. 117 rbv 
[xev yap xf'Mwi'a tfet <r<pt 6 debs. ..rod 
d£ Oipeos o-ireipoi>T€$ ... xP^kovto T V 
i}8ari. 2. 95 T7]s p.kv i)pJpT)s ixQvs &- 
ypevei, tt]v 8k vbura rdSe atrip XP& TCU ' 
2. 2 tt]v Ciprjv iway ivteiv ccpi alyaS, 'at 
the due season.' 7. 151 rbv aiirbv tovtov 
Xpbvov ir£fA\f/avTas. . .dyytXovs. Cp. above, 
1090 rav aiipLov irapakXrjvov. The ten- 
dency to such a use of the accus. may 
have been an old trait of the popular 
language (cp. dwplav t}kovt€$ Ar. Ach. 
23, Kaipbv 4<f>rjK€i$ Soph. Ai. 34). Modern 
Greek regularly uses the accus. for the 
old temporal dat.: e.g. ttjv Tpirrjp i)p,£pav 
for ry rpiTrj r}p.£pa. Classical prose would 
here use the genit. : Thuc. 1. 30 xew&vos 
rjdr) avex&pycrav. The division of the year 
implied is into Zap, dtpos (including bir&- 
pa), and x^M^" (including <pdiv6wupov). 

1 140 ir€irpa - yp,€vov, predicate : = iri- 
irpaKTai tl toOtuv a Xtyu ; 

1141 Ik, properly 'at the interval of; 
cp. Xen. An. 1. 10. n iK wXtovos rj rb 
irpbadev £<f>evyov, at a greater distance : so 
eK rb^ov ptipMTos, at the interval of a bow- 
shot, id. 3. 3. 15. 


Ar. <f)4p el-rre vvv, tot olcrOa 77cu8a /xot two, 
801J9, W5 ifiavTO) Opefifxa OpexjjaLjjLrjv iyaj ; 

©E. tl 8' ecrTL ; 77/069 tl tovto tovttos tcrropet? ; 

Ar. oS' Icttiv, Z Tav, Keivos 09 tot' ^ i>e'o9. 1 145 

©E. ou/c €t? 6\e6pov ; ou cnwirijo-as icret ; 

OI. a, /at) /coXa£e, Trpecrfiv, roVS', eVel tol era 
Seii-cu KoXacrTov fidWov 77 tol touS* £7777. 

©E. rt 8', <3 e/>e'/oierTe Secr7707w, dfxapTdva) ; 

OI. ov/c ivviirctyv tov 770,18' ov ovtos lo~Topu. 1150 

©E. Xe'yei yap etSaJS ouSeV, ciXX' dXXa)9 irovei. 

OI. en) 77/309 x^P LV f 4 ^" °^ K tp e ^, k\clCcov 8' epets. 

©E. /at) S^rct, 77/369 Oeajv, tov yepovTa fx cu/a'cn?. 

01. ov)( <^? ra^09 T19 touS' (X7roo~Tpi\\}ei x*P a< * > 

©E. Sucm7*>09, aWl rou ; rt 7rpocr\prjt i (xiv fxaOeiv ; 1155 

OI. toj^ 770,18' e&ojKas tg5S' 6V ovtos lo~Topel ; 

©E. eScoK' 6\4cr6ai 8' G)<f)e\ov tjj& 77/ne/oa. 

OI. dXX' et9 ro8' 77^19 /at) \eya)v ye tovvSlkov. 

©E. 77oXXa> ye fidWov, tjv (f^pdero), SioWvfJLCu. 

OI. ctz^/o 08', 6J9 eoLKev, e'9 r/oi/3a,9 e'Xa. 1 1 60 

©E. ov StJt' eycoy, dXX' et77oi> C09 Son?*' irakou. 

01. TTodev Xa/3c6v \ oIk€lov, rj 'f ctXXou Ttz^09 ; 

©E. €/xo^ /xe> ovk eyejy, ihe^dpuqv Se' tov. 

OI. tu>09 77oXitoj^ 7wSe zed* 770ta9 crTeyrjs ', 

©E. /at) 77/009 #e<wj>, /LC17, SecnroO\ IcrTopei tt\4ov. 1 165 

J, 01. oX<yXa,9, et ere raur' e/o^ero/xcu irakiv. 

^*^ <£-. ©E. 7W Aatov Toivvv T19 ^ yevvrjfxdTOJv. 

^ 1145^oj]/3/3^os Wecklein. 

1144 t£ 8* frrn,;='what is the 1146 ovk cis oXtGpov; see on 430. — 
matter?' 'what do you mean?' Cp. ov o-iwmjo-as fcrci; =a fut. perfect, — a/ 
319 (n.). — irpos ri cannot be connected once, or once for all ; Dem. or. 4 § 50 rh. 
as a relative clause with ri 5' &tti, since biovra ia6fieda iyvufebres ical Xbyojv pa- 
rts in classical Greek can replace Sorts ralojv airrjWayixivoL. So Ant. 1067 dm- 
only where there is an indirect question; 8oi/s ?<ret, O. C. 816 XvTrjdels foei. The 
^.^. tlirt rt <xoi <pl\ov. Cp. El. 316 : 7>. situation shows that this is not an 'aside.' 
339. Hellenistic Greek did not always The depdircov, while really terrified, could 
observe this rule : Mark xiv. 36 ov rt iyu affect to resent the assertion that his 
t?Aw, aWa rt at. master had been a foundling. 

1145 (3 t<xv, triumphantly, 'my good 1147 KoXa^c : of words, Ai. 1107 
friend.' It is not meant to be a trait of to. <t£iav' tiry \ KoXaf inelvovs. On the 
rustic speech: in Ph. 1387 Neoptolemus Harvard stage, the Theban at 1146 was 
uses it to Philoctetes; in Eur. Her. 321 about to strike the Corinthian (see § 9 of 
Iolaus to Demophon, and ib. 688 the the first note in the Appendix). 
depdiruv to Iolaus; in Bacch. 802 Diony- 1149 u> <f>cpurT£: in tragedy only here 
sus to Pentheus. and Aesch. Th. 39 ('EreoKXees, (pepiare 


Me. Come, tell me now — wottest thou of having given me 
a boy in those days, to be reared as mine own foster-son ? 

He. What now ? Why dost thou ask the question ? 

Me. Yonder man, my friend, is he who then was young. 

He. Plague seize thee — be silent once for all ! 

Oe. Ha ! chide him not, old man — thy words need chiding 
more than his. 

HE. And wherein, most noble master, do I offend ? 

Oe. In not telling of the boy concerning whom he asks. 

He. He speaks without knowledge — he is busy to no purpose. 

Oe. Thou wilt not speak with a good grace, but thou shalt 
on pain. 

He. Nay, for the gods' love, misuse not an old man ! 

Oe. Ho, some one — pinion him this instant ! 

He. Alas, wherefore ? what more wouldst thou learn ? 

Oe. Didst thou give this man the child of whom he asks ? 

He. I did, — and would I had perished that day ! 

Oe. Well, thou wilt come to that, unless thou tell the honest 

He. Nay, much more am I lost, if I speak. 

Oe. The fellow is bent, methinks, on more delays... 

HE. No, no! — I said before that I gave it to him. 

Oe. Whence hadst thou got it ? In thine own house, or 
from another ? 

He. Mine own it was not — I had received it from a man. 

Oe. From whom of the citizens here ? from what home ? 

He. Forbear, for the gods' love, master, forbear to ask more! 

Oe. Thou art lost if I have to question thee again. 

He. It was a child, then, of the house of Laius. 

Katifielcov aval-) ; ironical in Plat. Phaedr. 1158 els To8' = efr to dXiadar. At. 

238 D. 1365 (tiros ivd&d' tifo/^cu, i.e. els rd 6&tt- 

1152 irpos X^P IV > so as to oblige: reoQai. 

Dem. or. 8 § 1 firjre irpos ^x^P av iroLeladai 1160 is Tpi|3d$ €\<j, will push (the 

Xbyov ixriMva firjre irpos x<*P Lv: Ph. 594 matter) to delays {Ant. 577 fit) rpifias 

irpbs laxtos Kpdros, by main force. — kXolC- eVi), — is bent on protracting his delay: 

wv: see on 401. iXafoeiv as in Her. 2. 124 es iroUrav kolk6- 

1154 Cp. Ai. 72 rbv ras alxpt-aXwrldas r-qra iXdaat, they said that he went all 
Xfycts I Seo-fioh oLTevdivovra (preparatory to lengths in wickedness: Tyrtaeus n. 10 
flogging): Od. 22. 189 aiiv de irldas x«pas dp.cpore'pwv 8' els nbpov ifXacare, ye had 
re Sew OvfiaXytt deo-pup \ eS /xd\' diroaTpi- taken your fill of both. For the fut., ex- 
^a^re(of Melanthius the goat-herd) j then pressing resolve, cp. Ar. Av'. 759 cape 
kIov av y i\f/r)XT]v ^pvaav ir^Xaadu re 8okoi~ wXrJKTpov, d p.axe'i. 

aiv : and so left him hanging. 1161 ov 8ijt' tywye, as Ph. 735, 

1155 8v<tttivos sc. iyib. This agrees Tr. 1208. Remark irdXai referring to 
best with Soph.'s usage: see Tr. 377 w 1 157: so dudum can refer to a recent 
8i)o-Ti]vos (n.): though the adj. could also moment. 

refer to Oed. (cp. 1071). 1167 The words could mean either: 


OI. 17 SouXo5, rj Keivov tls eyyevr)<$ yeycos ' 

©E. oifiOL, 77/005 avrco y et/jtt rw Seivq) keyeiv. 

OI. Kaycoy aKoveiv dXX' o/xoj? d/coucrreW. 1 1 70 

©E. Keivov ye toi St) 77ai5 eKkrj^eO** r] 8' ecny 
KaWicrT dv eliroi err) yvvr) rdS' oj? e>(€t. 

OI. 77 yap SiScutxw T^Se croi ; ©E. fidXicrr, aVaf. 

OI. ok 77/005 rt -^peias', ©E. cJ? aVaXcucrai/u */«/. 

OI. re/covcra Tkrjpoiv ; ©E. Oecr^aTcov y okvco kolkojv. 1 1 75 

OI. iroitov ; ©E. Kreveiv viv tovs T€/ccWa5 r)v Xoyos. 

OI. 770)5 8177 a<f)rJKa<; tw yepovri rcGSe cry ; 
» ©E. fcarot/crtcra5, c3 hecnrod\ a>5 dWrjv yOova 
Sokcov airoicreiv, avro5 evOev r)v 6 oe 
kclk €5 p.eyio~T eacocrev. el yap OVT05 el 1 1 80 

oi> (jyrjcrLV 07JT05, tcr#i S?jcr77or^o5 yeya>5. 

OI. tou iotJ* rd 77a^T' aV e^rjKoi cracfyr}. 

c3 c/)Ct>5, TeXeuratoV ere TrpocrfiXexjjaifAi vvv, 

octtls 77ec/)acr/xai c/>u5 r* dc/>* a>^ ou XPV V > ^ vv °^ T ' 

otj x/ 31 ?^ oynXcov, 07J5 re' /x,' ouk eSec ktolvcov. 1 185 

o-Tp. a. XO. tci yei^eal /3poTc2v, 

2 co5 v/xoL5 tcra /cat to fJLrjhev £cocra5 evapiOyLto. 

1170 cUoiW L, with most of the later MSS., including A. But in some (as V, V 2 , 
V 3 , V 4 ) clkovuv has been made from duotieiv. Plutarch, who twice quotes this verse, 
reads dicoveiv {Mor. 522 C, 1093 b). The schol. in L, K&yu (haavrws el/xi t£ vvv 
aKoveiv, cannot be taken, however, as proving that he read the infin., since r£ vvv 

(1) 'he was one of the children of Lams'; is rarer: we find it in Ar. Nub. 372, 

or (2) 'he was one of the children of the Plato Phaedr. 264 A, Rep. 476 E, 504 A, 

household of Laius,' t&v Aatov being gen. Crito 44 C. 

of oX Aatov. The ambiguity is brought 1174 cos = 'in her intention': see on 

out by u68. See on 814. 848. — irpos ri xpefas nearly = 7r/)6s iroiav 

1168 Keivov tis eyycvTis yty<as, some xP^ au > "with a view to what kind of need 
one belonging by birth to his race, the or desire, i.e. with what aim: cp. 1443: 
genit. depending on the notion oi yhos Ph. 174 iirl vavrl rip xP e ^ Icrraiiivip: 
in the adj., like dufx&Tuv virdareyoi, El. Ant. \ii<) iv r$ (=rlvi) j-vfupopas, in 
1386. what manner of plight. 

1169 I am close on the horror, — close 1176 tovs t€k6vto,s, not, as usually, 
on uttering it: {ware) \tytw being added 'his parents' (999), but 'his father': the 
to explain the particular sense in which plur. as rvpdvvois, 1095. 

he is irpos t<3 8eiv<3, as cxkovciv defines 1178 'I gave up the child through 

that in which Oedipus is so. Cp. El. pity,' cos... 8ok<3v, 'as thinking' etc.: i.e., 

542 twv 4/x(vv...i/xepov riKvwv...i<xx e <> a L- as on e might fitly give it up, who so 

caadai: Plat. Crito 52 B ovd' imdvpiia thought. This virtually elliptic use of 

ere (SXXt/s 7r6Xews ovd' dWuv vdfxwv fKapev ws is distinct from that at 84S, which 

tibtvai. would here be represented by ws d-rrol- 

1171 While y4 toi, ye fiivroi, ye fxlv govti. — o\\t)v \Gova curofcrtiv (avrov): 

drj are comparatively frequent, yi toi St| cp. 0. C 1769 Qrjfias 5' rj/xas | rets tbyv- 




He. The tale ran that he must 

Oe. A slave ? or one born of his own race ? 

He. Ah me— I am on the dreaded brink of speech. 

Oe. And I of hearing; yet must I hear. 

He. Thou must know, then, that 'twas said to be his own 
child— but thy lady within could best say how these things are. 

Oe. How ? She gave it to thee ? He. Yea, O king. 

Oe. For what end ? He. That I should make away with it. 

Oe. Her own child, the wretch? He. Aye, from fear of 
evil prophecies. 

Oe. What were they ? 
slay his sire. 

Oe. Why, then, didst thou give him up to this old man ? 

He. Through pity, master, as deeming that he would bear 
him away to another land, whence he himself came ; but he 
saved him for the direst woe. For if thou art what this man 
saith, know that thou wast born to misery. 

Oe. Oh, oh! All brought to pass — all true! Thou light, 
may I now look my last on thee — I who have been found 
accursed in birth, accursed in wedlock, accursed in the shedding 
of blood ! \He rushes into the palace. 

Ch. Alas, ye generations of men, how mere a shadow do I 1st 

count your life! ^^ 

anotieiv might be an instrum. dat. paraphrasing aKotiwv. 1172 /caAA«rr'] Nauck 

conject. /xd\iffT\ 1185 oti XPW op.CKQ,v L: ov XPV V /*' bfuXQv r, and the older 

edd. Cp. 461. 1186 l<a] The 1st hand in L wrote cJ (found also in later 

MSS.); another has corrected it to lib, rightly, since lib answers to ooris in 1 1 97. 
1188 ivapi.dp.Cj] ivapi6p,Cji (i.e. ev dpidpup) L rst hand: the final t has been almost 

yiovs iri^ov. 

1180 kc£k' : a disyllabic subst. or adj. 
with short penult, is rarely elided unless, 
as here, it is (a) first in the verse, and 
also (6) emphatic: so O.C. 48, 796: see 
A. W. Verrall in Journ. Phil. XII. 140. 

1182 av f^rJKoi, must have come true 
(cp. 1011), the opt. as Plat. Gorg. 502 D 
ovkovv i) prjTopiKT] 5r}fir)yopia dv dr) : Her. 
1. 2 etrjaav 5' dv oCtoi Kpryres: id. 8. 136 
Tdxa 8' dv nal rd xP r l (XT Vpi- a ravrd 61 

1184 d<j>* wv ov \pi\v (<pvvai), since he 
was foredoomed to the acts which the two 
following clauses express. 

1186 — 1222 crdaLfxov riraprov. See 
§ 10 of the first note in the Appendix. 

\st strophe (1186 — 1195)- How vain 
is mortal life ! Tis well seen in Oedipus: 

1st antistrophe (1196 — 1203): who 
saved Thebes, and became its king: 

ind strophe (1204— 12 12): but now 
what misery is like to his? 

2nd antistrophe (12 13 — 1222). Time 
hath found thee out and hath judged. 
Would that I had never known thee! 
Thou wast our deliverer once; and now 
by thy ruin we are undone. 

1187 ws with evapi0|jL(5: to (iT|8ev ad- 
verbially with £c£o-as : i.e. how absolutely 
do I count you as living a life which is 
no life. t«o-as should not be taken as = 
'while you live,' or 'though you live.' 
We find ovSiv el/u, 'I am no more,' and 
also, with the art., rd fxrjS^v d/u, ' I am as 
if I were not': Tr. 1107 k&v t6 firjSiv cJ: 
Ai. 1275 to ixr}8kv 6vras. Here £»o-as is 
a more forcible substitute for ofiaas, 
bringing out the contrast between the 
semblance of vigour and the real feeble- 
ness. — ttra Kal = taa (or taov) di<nrep, a 
phrase used by Thuc. 3. 14 {tea Kal t/c^rat 
iaixhf), and Eur. El. 994 ((re/3^w <r' fact 
Kal /xaKapas), which reappears in late 
Greek, as Aristid. r. 269 (Dind.). — eva- 
pi0fjLw only here, and (midd.) in Eur. Or. 

156 I0<t>0KAE0Y2 

3 Tig ydp, tis dvrjp 7r\4ov 

4 rets evSaifJLOvias (jyepu 1 1 90 

5 rj toctovtov oaov hoKtiv 

6 kclI ho^avT diro k\7v at ; 

1 rov crov tol TrapdSeLyfM e^cov, 

8 rov crov Saifjiova, tov crov, a> rXafiov OtSt7roSa, 

fipoTcov IX 95 

9 ovSev fJLOLKapi^o)* 

avr. a. ocrrts Ka6* VTrep/3o\dv 

2 Tofeucra? eKpaTrjcre rov irdvr ev&aifjiovos o\/3ov, 

3 (h Zed, Kara /xa> (frOCaas 

4 rdv yafxxjjcjvv^a irapOivov 

5 -^prjcrixcpSov, Oavdrcov 8' ifxa 1200 

6 \(apa irvpyos oVe'crra* 

7 e£ ou /cat fiacrikevs /caXet 

8 e/xo9 /cat rd fxeyLCTT ert/xa^?, rat? fieydXato-iv iv 

9 SrffiaLCTLv dvdcrcroiv, 

arp. /?. ravvv S' aKoveiv rtg dOXtcoTepos ; 1 204 

erased. A gloss ivraTTW is written above. 1193 rd <t6j' rot MSS. L has a 

comma after to (added as if to guard against the words being read Tbaov), and the 
marg. schol., rbv abv fiiov irapdbeiyna 2x uv obteva fxaicaplfa Kal e&baifAovLfa. As filov 
would be a natural equivalent for baljxova here, the Scholiast may have read rbv abv 
toi: though it is also possible that he took to abv as = 'thy lot.' — rbv abv toi 
Camerarius, and so most of the recent edd. 1196 oi>teva MSS. : oibev Hermann. 

1197 iKpaT-rjae Hermann, with some later MSS. (expa^ae M 2 , UpaTrjaev Vat. a): 

623 el Toifibv £x#o$ i vapid fiei Krjbbs r' HnXivev. 

i/xbv = iv apidfiy iroiet, if you make of 1193 t6v <rov toi k.t.X. The ap- 

account. parently long syllable tov ( = i£ in 1202) 

1190 $4pei=(pe'peTai, cp. 590. is 'irrational,' having the time-value only 

1191 Sokciv 'to seem,' sc. eibaifiove'iv : of **: see Metrical Analysis. The to <tov 
not absol., 'to have reputation,' a sense toi of the MSS. involves a most awkward 
which ol boKovvTes, to. Bokovvto. can some- construction : — ' having thy example, — 
times bear in direct antithesis to ol dbo- having thy fate, I say, (as an example) ' : 
tovvres or the like (Eur. Hec. 291 etc.). for we could not well render 'having thy 
Cp. Eur. Her. 865 Tbv eirrvx^v boKovvra case {to abv) as an example.' Against 
fir) fyXovv irplv dv I davbvr* (by tis : Ai. t6v o-6v, which is decidedly more forcible, 
125 bpQ yap r)/j.ds oibev 6vras dXXo ttXtjv | nothing can be objected except the three- 
elbcoX' oaonrep fw/iev r) Kotxprjv aKidv. fold repetition; but this is certainly no 

1192 dirotcXivcu, a metaphor from the reason for rejecting it in a lyric utterance 
heavenly bodies ; cp. diroKXivofJie'vrjs tt)% of passionate feeling. 

i)n4p7)s (Her. 3. 104): and so icXivei r) 1195 ovhkv PpoTwv, nothing {i.e. no 

yntpa, b yXios in later Greek: Dem. or. 1 being) among men, a stronger phrase 

§ 13 oi>K tirl rb padvpieiv dirinXivev. Xen. than oiibeva: Nauck compares fr. 652 ol 

Mem. 3. 5. 13 i] TrbXis...iirl rb x^-P 0V && T V yXuaajj dpaaeis | <pe6yovre$ dras 



Where, where is the mortal who wins more of happiness than 
just the seeming-, and, after the semblance, a falling away? 
Thine is a fate that warns me, — thine, thine, unhappy Oedipus 
— to call no earthly creature blest. 

For he, O Zeus, sped his shaft with peerless skill, and won 1st anti- 
the prize of an all-prosperous fortune; he slew the maiden with str0 P he - 
crooked talons who sang darkly; he arose for our land as a 
tower against death. And from that time, Oedipus, thou hast 
been called our king, and hast been honoured supremely, bear- 
ing sway in great Thebes. 

But now whose story is more grievous in men's ears ? 2nd 


iKparrjaaa L. Blaydes writes iKparrjaas is (for tov) ira.vr\ a former conject. of 
Hermann's. 1200 avkara. L ist hand : a much later hand has added <r. Most of 
the later mss. have dviaras, but L 2 has dviara. Hermann preferred dvearas. 
1202 f. Kakei I e/xbs] To avoid the hiatus, Elmsley proposed ifibs | /caXe?, Blaydes 
/caXet t' I ifids, Heimsoeth /cXt/ets | £fj.6s. But, as Wunder said, the hiatus is allowed 
here. Cp. 1190 <ptpet \ ij, Ant. 119 <rr6fia j £/3<x. — For e/xos, Hermann and Blaydes 
give dpjo 5, in order that this verse, like the corresponding one in the strophe (1195), 
may begin with a long syllable ; but this is unnecessary, since the anacrusis is com- 

4kt6* elai tuv ko.kQv' \ "Aprjs yhp otidtp 
twv Ka.Ku>j> Xwr/^ercu, 'no dastard life': 
Hoju. Hymn. 4. 34 otiirep ri wecpvyp^vov 
£<tt' 'A<ppo8iTrjv I otfre de&v /xcucdpuv otfre 
dvryrCov dvdpunrwv. Add Phil. 446 (with 
reference to Thersites being still alive) 
ificW' iirel oiiMv 7rw ko.k6v 7' dir&XeTO, | 
dXX' ev irepiaTe'XXovaiv adra 5a.Lfj.over \ kolL 
Teas ra. p.€V iravovpya koX iraXivTpifirj 
Xa■Lpov(r , dvao-TptcpovTes c£ "Aidov, ra 5e 
SUaia Kal rb. xPV^t' d^^o(rTe'XXovo~ , del. 
The ovSeva of the MSS. involves the reso- 
lution of a long syllable (the second of ov- 
8cv) which has an ictus ; this is inadmis- 
sible, as the ear will show any one who 
considers the antistrophic verse, 1203, 
Q-qfiauJiv dvdacwv. 

1197 ko.9' virep(3o\dv To|ev(ras, having 
hit the answer to the riddle of the Sphinx, 
when Teiresias and all others had failed : 
cp. 398: Aesch. Ag. 628 ticvpo-as wore 
to^6ttjs aKpos aKoirov. — eKpdrqo-e. At 
1 1 93 the Chorus addressed Oedipus: at 
1 197 (oaris k.t.X.) they turn to invoke 
Zeus as the witness of his achievements ; 
and so in 1200 L, which here has the 
corrupt iKpdrrjaas, rightly gives dv&rra. 
Then at 1201 (!£ ov k.t.X.) they resume 
the direct address to Oedipus, which is 
thenceforth maintained to the end of the 
ode. To read iKpaT7j<ras and dVeVras 
would be to efface a fine trait, marking 

the passion of grief which turns from 
earth to heaven, and then again to earth. 
— tov iravr' €v8aip.ovos : for the adverbial 
iravra see on 475; also 823, 1425. 

1198 <J>0C<ras, because the Sphinx, 
when her riddle was solved, threw her- 
self from a rock (Apollod. 3. 5): cp. 397 
Hiravcrd viv. 

1199 Tdv •yap\]/o>wxa k.t.X. In poetry, 
when a subs, has two epithets, the first 
may stand, with the art., before it, and the 
second after it. This is the 'divided attri- 
bute ' : see Phil. 392 n. rbv fityav Hdnrw- 
Xov etixpwov '■ 0. C. 1 234 r6 re Kovrdii.ep.inov 
... I yrjpas &(piXov : El. 133 rbv€p > 
tidXiov. So Pind. Pyth. I. 95, 5. 99 etc. 
This is not like rb gov GT6pi.a...eXecvov in 
672 (n.). — irapOevov: see on Kopa, 508. 

1200 6avdTCDVirvp-yos: see on 218. 
12 04 dKou€iv, to hear of, defining 

aOXidmpos : Eur. Hipp. 1 202 <ppucw5r} 
KX6eiv. Whose woes are more impressive 
to others, or more cruel for himself? Cp. 
O. C. 306 TroXii...Tb obv \ 8vofxa dnfjKei 
irdvras. The constr. is rts dQXiwrcpos 
oLkovciv, tCs (dflXtcirepoj) £vvoikos iv drais 
k.t.X., who is more wretched to hear of 
(whose story is more tragic), who is more 
wretched as dwelling amid woes (whose 
present miseries are sharper)? It is not 
possible to supply fiaXXov with gvvoiicos 
from dOXiwTcpos- 



2 ri's arous aypLcus, rt? tv ttovols I 205 

3 £vpolko<; aXXaya fiiov ; 

4 tco /cXet^or OiSiVou Kapa, , ... 

) 6 avTdgr^ffpKecrev 

< 7 7TCuSl /Cat TTOLTpl 0a\afxrj7r6\co 7T€(Te?V, 1210 

/ 8 7T&>5 7Tore 7T&)5 7ro0' ai 7rar/owat cr' dkoKes (frepetv, raAas, 

/ 9 crty' ihvvdOiqaav e? TOcrwSe ; 

■• /5- i(j)evpe <r cLkovO* 6 TrdvO* opcov )(p6vos' 

2 Si/ca^ei toi> ayajwv jydfiov rrakai 

3 reK-^ovrra^KaT tckvovixSov. 

4 tw Aateto^ < c3 > t4kvov, 

5 cftfe <x' ei#e ere 

6 pafjTTOT elhofxav. 

7 Svpojxai yap # a>cr7re/o IdXtfiov yew 


mon. Cp. Metrical Analysis, p. lxxxviii. 1205 ris iv irbvois, rt's drats ayplais 

mss. rt's arats tvyptats, rts ^ ttopois Hermann: who, however, in his 3rd ed. (1833) 
preferred rts d5' e? aratj, tIs iv dyplois ttovols, inserting AUa before SiK&fri. in 
12 14. Hartung writes here ris drats ayplais irXiov (omitting rls iv irovois), and in 
I2r4 diKafr 1 t' aya/iov ya/xov : and so Heimsoeth, but with rdtrats for irXtov. 1208 $ 
jj.eyas Xifxijv] Heimsoeth conject. ttws ya/xov XijA-qp, Mekler rj ariyas (i.e. ariy-qs) 
Xifiyv. 1209 irarpl] woaei Blaydes, as Wunder suggested. — ■treaeiv'] 'fxireaeiv 

Hartung: iriXeiv Heimsoeth. 1214 dwafri rbv mss.: biKafri r' Hermann, 

for the sake of metrical correspondence with 1205 tIs arats ayplais k.t.X. Gleditsch, 
keeping rbv here, would insert iv before ayplais in 1205. But neither change is 

12 05 In 1 2 14 the dwdfri rbv of the 
mss. should be kept (see Metrical Analy- 
sis) : here the simple transposition of t£s 
ev irovots is far the most probable cure 
for the metre. 4v with aVcus as well as 
ttovois: see on 734: for the redundant 
4v...£ov-, 1 126. 

1206 The dat. aXXa-y^ might be in- 
strumental, but is rather circumstantial, 
= rod filov rjXXay/xivov. 

1208 Xijatjv: schol. on fJ-^T-qp tjv koX 
ywr] 7] 'loKdvTT], rp>j Xtyu Xip.iva. Cp. 
420 ff. 

1210 TT€<rtiv here = ep.ire<reiv (which 
Hartung would read, but unnecessarily). 
Ar. Th. 1 122 Trareiv is ei/pas sal yafiijXiov 
X^Xos. The bold use is assisted by 0aXa- 
ji.r|Tr6Xo) (bridegroom) which goes closely 
with trtattv. 

1211 oiXokcs: cp. 1256, Ant. 569, 
Aesch. Th. 753. 

1212 criy: cp. Aesch. Ag. 37 oXkos 

5' auros, el <pdoyyr)i> Xd/3ot, | <ra0^<xrar' 
av Xii-eiep. 

1213 aK0v8', not as if he had been a 
criminal who sought to hide conscious 
guilt; but because he had not foreseen 
the disclosure which was to result from 
his inquiry into the murder of Laius. — 
Xpovos, which <piei &8r)Xa {Ai. 647) : fr. 
280 7rpds raOra KpOirre /xrjSiv, ws 6 Tr&vd' 
bpQv | Kal -k6.vt' aKotiuv (cp. note on 660) 
7TOW aVa7rr^(T(ret XP° V0 * '• see on 614. 
Time is here invested with the attributes 
of the divine omniscience and justice. 

1214 SiKoltei (see on 1205), prop, 
'tries,' as a judge tries a cause [SUctp 
SiKdfri) : here, • brings to justice,' pun- 
ishes : a perhaps unique poetical use, for 
in Find. Olymp. 2. 59, which Mitchell 
quotes, ctXtr/)a...5iKd£eirts = simply 'tries.' 
Aesch. has another poet, use, Ag. 141 2 
8iKdfris...<pV}ty ifiol = KaraSiKafr is <f>vyr}v 
ifiov. — ■ydfiov irdXcu tckvovvto, Kal T€K- 



Who is a more wretched captive to fierce plagues and troubles, 
with all his life reversed ? 

Alas, renowned Oedipus! The same bounteous place of rest 
sufficed thee, as child and as sire also, that thou shouldst make 
thereon thy nuptial couch. Oh, how can the soil wherein thy 
father sowed, unhappy one, have suffered thee in silence so long? 

Time the all-seeing hath found thee out in thy despite : he 2nd ami 
judgeth the monstrous marriage wherein begetter and begotten str0 P he - 
have long been one. 

Alas, thou child of LaTus, would, would that I had never 
seen thee! I wail as one who pours a dirge 

necessary, since the 1st syllable of Ayplais can be long: cp. Metrical Analysis, 
p. lxxxviii. 1216 iu kateiov t£kvqv MSS. : Erfurdt supplied cJ before 

rUvov. See comment. 1217 dde cr' eWe MSS.: etde tr' etde <re Wunder. 

1218 dMpofiai MSS. : dipo/xai Seidler. — clxr TrepiaXXa | lax^uv £k <STO\xdrwv L. The 
later mss. offer no variation, except weptaXa (Bodl. Barocc. 66), and a'x^w (V 2 ). 
— For laxtuv, Erfurdt conjectured laKx^ou. — Wecklein has given, dvpofxai ydp ws 
■neplaXX' iaXtpuav \ e/c (XTOfidTuv, making iaXtpuav an adj., and quoting Hesych., 
laX4/j.uw dvarifivaiv, ddXlwv. Eur. H. F. 109 iriXtpuav \ yowv aoidos. — Burges, ws 
wepiaW lav x^ wv - — Neither of the two latter emendations was known to me when 
I conjectured uxrwep laXe/mov x^up, — getting IdXe/mov not, as Wecklein does, from 

vovfwvov : one in which 6 T€Kvo6fj.evos has 
long been identified with 6 tgkvQv : i. e. 
in which the son has become the hus- 
band. The expression is of the same 
order as rd 7' £pya fxov \ TreirovdoT' i<rrl 
fidWov 7/ dedpaKjTa, O. C. 266. 

1216 Ito Acueiov <a t^kvov. Erfurdt's 
<3 is the most probable way of supplying 
the required syllable, and Reisig's objec- 
tion to its place is answered by At. 395 
ipefios w (pcMworarov. Hermann, how- 
ever, preferred oi, as a separate excla- 
mation: 'Alas, of Lai'us (oh horror!) the 
son.' Bothe's Aa'itfiov could be supported 
by Eur. /. A. 757 ^oi^iov ddiredop: id. 
fr. 775. 64 bdiav ^aaik-fjiov : but seems 
less likely here. 

1218 ff. The mss. give Svpopai -yap cSs 
irepiaXXa [sic; in one MS. «s irepfaXa] 
I lax&ov «k <rTop.dTa>v. I conjecture 8v- 
pojuu Yap wo-irep la.Xep.ov \itav \ Ik oto- 
p.dT<ov : ' I lament as one who pours from 
his lips a dirge': i.e., Oedipus is to me as 
one who is dead. Cp. Pind. Isthm. 7. 
58 €7ri 6pTJvov...iro\ij<pafiOP %x eav i 'over 
the tomb they poured forth a resounding 
dirge.' My emendation has been adopted 
by Prof. Kennedy (ed. 1885). 

Every attempt to explain the vulgate 
is unavailing. (1) «s irtpiaXX' is sup- 
posed to be like ws tTT)Tvp.tas, ws /xahia-ra, 

1 in measure most abundant.' Now irepC- 
aXXa could mean only ' preeminently? 
'more than others*: Soph. fr. 225 vo- 
fjLOJv I oOs Qa/xvpas irepiaXXa {xovaoiroLei, 
'strains which Thamyras weaves with 
art preeminent' : Ar. Th. 1070 t'i 7tot' 
'AvSpopitSa I irepiaXXa Kanuv /xipos e'^- 
Xaxov, 'why have I, Andromeda, been 
dowered with sorrows above all women?* 
Pindar Pyth. 11. 5 drjvavpbv 8v irepiaXX' 
erip.a<xe Ao£ias, honoured preeminently. 
Here, irepCaXXa is utterly unsuitable ; 
and the added «s makes the phrase 
stranger still. 

(2) The mss. have lax&*v. Both laxelv 
and idxtiv occur: but the latter should, 
with Dindorf, be written ^a«x^w. Eur. 
Her. 752 foux^are : 783 6XoXiry/iara... 
laKxei: Or. 826 Tvvdapls laKXV&e rdXaiva: 
965 la/cxeirw 5e 7a KvuXwiria. The parti- 
ciple, however, is unendurably weak after 
Svpopcu, and leaves 4k <rrop.aT<«)v weaker 

(3) €K ottohcLtwv can mean only 'from 
my lips' 1 (the plur. as Tr. 938 dfx<piiriirTwv 
<TT6fia<Tiv, kissing her lips: Eur. Ale. 404 
7tot£ aotai irirvuv crro/xaaiv) : it could not 
mean ' loudly.' 

(4) Elmsley, doubtless feeling this, took 
lax&ov as gen. of a supposed, but most 
questionable, lax^os, 'loud,' formed from 



8 4k ctto/jloltcov. to 8* opOov elireiv, dveirvevard r e/c creOev 

9 /cat KaTeKOLfxrjcra Tovfxov ofXfia. 1222 


<3 yrjs jiteytcrra t^ctS* aa TLfJLa>[Aevoi, 
ot e/9y aKovaeau , ota o €uro\jJ€(Tu , ocro*> o 
dpelcrOe tt£v6o% eiirep eyyevcos en 1225 

ra>^ Aa/3Sa/cetW evTpeTrecrOe ScofxaTCJ^. 
olfxai yap ovr av "\o~Tpov ovre <£>a<riv dv 
, vi\\)ai Kadapfjia) TrjvSe ttjv crTeyrjv, ocra 
k KevOei, rd 8' olvtik €ts to c^cS? (fravei /ca/cd 


fidXiCTTa \viTovcr at (^avcoo"' avOaipeToi. ^< *v 


taxtuv, but from ws ireplaWa. 

1231 a£ L 1st hand: V added by a later 

Zax^- Erfurdt conjectured laKx^wv, 'from 
lips wild as a bacchant's.' But a Greek 
poet would not have brought Iacchos and 
Thanatos so close together; x w /^ s V Ti A^ 


(5) IdXejxov gives exactly the right force ; 
for them, Oed. is as the dead. IdXcjiosis 
a wail for the dead in the four places of 
Eur. where it occurs {Or. 1391, Phoen. 
1033, Tro. 600, 1304), in [Eur.] Ehes. 
895, and in the one place of Aesch., 
Suppl. 115, which is just to our point: 
the Chorus of Danai'des say, ira9ea...6peo- 
fiha... I LifKiixounv ifiirpeTrj £<x><t<x yoois jxe 
Tifiw, 'lamenting sorrows meet for funeral 
wails (*".*. the sorrows of those who are 
as dead), while yet living, I chant mine 
own dirge.' Ik <rro|i.dTttv fits \io>v, since 
X"*' was not commonly used absolutely 
for 'to utter' (as by Pindar, /. c. above). 

(6) The corruption may have thus arisen 
in a cursive MS.: laXefiov being written 
laXefio, the last five letters of wairep- 
laXefioxewv would first generate axwv 
(as in one MS.), or, with the second 
stroke of the m, taxewv. the attempt to 
find an intelligible word in the imme- 
diately preceding group of letters would 
then quickly produce the familiar irepl- 
aXXa (in one MS. irepiaKa). The non- 
elision of the final a in the MSS. favours 
this view. As to metre, with irarpl in 
1209, a tribrach {-rpl 6a\a/j.) answers to a 
dactyl (ws wept-, my wairep 1-), whether 
we keep the traditional text, or adopt 

my conjecture, or that of Wecklein or of 
Burges; though Wecklein, by a strange 
oversight, has noticed this objection as if 
it were peculiar to my conjecture. Wun- 
der's wdaet for warpl in 1209 would restore 
exact correspondence, and may be right ; 
but I rather prefer, with Heinrich Schmidt 
{Compositionslehre lxiv), to regard the wy 
as an 'irrational syllable': see Metrical 

1221 to 8* 6p06v climv, like ws dtrciv 
tiros, prefaces the bold figure of speech: 
I might truly say that by thy means (Ik 
<r£dev) I received a new life (when the 
Sphinx had brought us to the brink of 
ruin) ; and now have again closed my eyes 
in a sleep as of death, — since all our 
weal perishes with thine. The Thebans 
might now be indeed described as rr& r r n 
t' is dpdbv koX ireo-ovTes Harepov (50). — 
dv£rrvev<ra, 'revived,' i.e. was delivered 
from anguish; cp. //. 11. 382 avbrvevo-av 
KaKOTijTos, had a respite from distress: 
Ai. 274 fKyte Kayiirvevae rijs voaov. 

1222 Ka.T€KOLfJLT]o-a : cp. Aesch. Ag. 
1293 a>5 da(f>ada<XT0S...6fifia &vfij3a\<0 
roSe: Ai. 831 /caXw 0' d'/xa | irofivaiov 
^EpfXTJv xQoviov ed fie Koi/xlaai. 

1223— 1630 ?£o8os. It is told how 
Iocasta has taken her own life. The self- 
blinded Oedipus comes forth. Creon 
brings to him the children his daughters, 
but will not consent to send him away 
from Thebes until Apollo shall have 



from his lips; sooth to speak, 'twas thou that gavest me new 
life, and through thee darkness hath fallen upon mine eyes. 

Second Messenger (from the house). 

2 Me. Ye who are ever most honoured in this land, what 
deeds shall ye hear, what deeds behold, what burden of sorrow 
shall be yours, if, true to your race, ye still care for the house 
of Labdacus ! For I ween that not Ister nor Phasis could wash 
this house clean, so many are the ills that it shrouds, or will 
soon bring to light, — ills wrought not unwittingly, but of pur- 
pose. And those griefs smart most which are seen to be of our 
own choice. 

hand. Most of the later mss. have at 'v. J 


1223 A messenger comes forth from 
the house. An O-ayyeXos is one who 
announces to. &rw yeyovbra, tois 2i-<a (He- 
sych.), while the dyyeXos (924) brings 
news from a distance: in Thuc. 8. 51 
(t<£ ffTparetj/xaTi i^dyyeXos yiyverai ws, 
k.t.X.), one who betrays secrets. 

1224 f. 00-ov 8': see on 29.— dp€icr0e, 
take upon you, i.e. have laid upon you: 
like atpeadat ax^os (so Ant. 907 irbvov, Tr. 
491 vbaov): while in //. 14. 130 fi-f) ttcij 
tls i<f>' 2\Ke'i cXkos aprjTai is more like 
//. 12. 435 fuadbv dprjTCU, 'win.' — lyvcvws 
— o)s iyyeveis ovtzs, like true men of the 
Cadmean stock to which the house of 
Labdacus belonged (261, 273). 

1227 "Io-Tpov, the Thracian name for 
the lower course of the river which the 
Kelts called Danuvius (for this rather 
/than Danubius is the correct form, Kie- 
pert Anc. Geo. § 196 n., Byzantine and 
modern Aot/j/a/3is). — <J?acriv_ {Rion), di- 
viding Colchis from "Asia"^j^ Linor and 
flowing into the rLuxme. (* Phasis' in 
Xen. An. 4. 6. 4 must mean the Araxes, 
which flows into the Caspian.) Soph, 
names these simply as great rivers, not 
with conscious choice as representatives 
of Europe and Asia. Ovid Met. 2. 248 
arsit Oron/es \ '1 hermodonque citus Gan- 
gesque et Phasis et Ister. Commentators 
compare Seneca Hipp. 715 Quis eluet 
me Tanais? aut quae barbaris Maeolis 
undis Pontico incumbens mari? Non 
ipse toto magnus Oceano pater Tantum 
piarit sceleris, and Shaksp. Macbeth 2. 2. 60 
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this 
blood Clean from my hand? : where, how- 
ever, the agony of personal remorse renders 
the hyperbole somewhat more natural 

J. S. I. 8 

than it is here in the mouth of a messenger. 

1228 Ka0app,$, modal dat., 'by way 
of purification,' so as to purify. — vC- 
t|mi: Eur. I. 71 1191 dyvois nadapfioh 
TrpCoTa viv vi\pai W\w. The idea oi washing 
offz. defilement belongs to vlfav (as to its 
cognates in Sanskrit and Old Irish, Curt. 
Etym. § 439), cp. //. 11. 830 etc.— 6'<ra, 
causal, = 8ti roaavra : Her. I. 31 ifia.Ka.pi- 
£ov TTjv pvqripa o'iuv ( = on toio&tcov) t£kvcov 
iKijprjo'e : Aesch. P. V. 908 &rrcu raireivos, 
olov i£apTV€TCU I y6.p.ov yafidv. II. 5. 757 
od ve/xealfri "Apei... \ baadnov re Kal olov 
dirwXeae Xabv 'Axatwi' : 77. 18. 262 otos ( = 
tirel rolos) eiceivov dv/abs virip^tos, ovk ide- 
A^<ret I filpiveiv iv ire8i(p. Cp. 0. C. 263 n. 

1229 The construction is ocra Kai<d 
(rd fxev) K€u0€t, rd Be olvtCko. Is t£ <{>»s 
cpavei: cp. El. 1290 rrarpipav kttjo-iv... | 
dvrXeijTa. 5' e/cx« k.t.X. The house con- 
ceals (K€v0€i) the corpse of Iocasta; it 
will presently disclose (<j>av€i) the self- 
blinded Oedipus: both these horrors 
were due to conscious acts (Ikovto,), as 
distinguished from those acts in which 
Oed. and Iocasta had become involved 
without their knowledge (&kovtol). 4kov- 
Ttt...aKovTtt for £Kouaia...&Kovo-ia, the 
epithet of the agent being transferred to 
the act: see on 12 15. 

1231 (JtaXurra, because there is not 
the consolation of recognising an inevi- 
table destiny: cp. Ai. 260 rb ybp iaXeijo-- 
ffeiv oketa ir&dr) \ (jLrjdevbs dXXov irapairpd^- 
olvtos I fxeydXas <55iVas viroreivei : but here 
Xviroflori refers rather to the spectators 
than to the sufferers. — at for at av, as oft. 
in poetry {O. C. 395 etc.), rarely in 
prose, Thuc. 4. 1 7 od fxev j8pax«s dpnuai, 
18 olTives...vofj.lo-wo~i. 





XO. keiwei fxep ot/8' a irpocrOev rjSeLfjLev to purf ov 
fiapvcrrov elvai* irpos 8' £k€ivoi<jiv tl <j>tjs ; 

EH. o fib/ ra^icrros tcov koycov enreiv re kolL 

fiadeiv, t€0j/y)K€ Oelov 'Io/cacrr^? Kapa. I2 35 

XO. c5 SucrraXawa,, 77/305 raw 77or' aiTia? ; 

EH. avrrj 77/369 0,1/7775. toji> Se irpaydivTOiv toL /u,ei> 
aXytoT' aneo-TLV rj yap oxJjls ov irdpa. 

O/XC05 8', OCTO^ y€ KOLV ifiol fJLVqfJLrjS €VL, 

7revcr€L ra Keivrjs dd\ias iradrj para. 1240 

0770)S yap opyfj ^po^xdvri iraprjXO" ecra> 

BvpUtVOS, t€r' €U#U 77/305 TO, VVfl(f)LKd 

X^X 7 )* Koprjv crncocr a/x<£(,Se£ioi5 a/ctiat?* 

77vXa5 8', 67x0)5 elo-TjkO', iirippd^acr ecra> 

/caXci ro*> 77877 Actio*/ 77aXai veKpov, I 2 45 

fjLwjfjLrjv Tra\ai(ov cnreppaTcoj/ clover', v^>' <5i/ 

0aVoi fte^ avTos, t?)z> Se TiKTOvaav XtVoi 

T015 oib"w avroi) Svcrre/c^oi/ Traihovpy'iav. 

yoaro 8' evvds, evda Svo'tyjvos 8177X01)5 

1232 -fideifiev MSS. etSopev Wecklein. 1244 iiripp^^aa' MSS. In L, a has been 
written over i) by a later hand, iirippd^aa' Dobree. 1245 KdXei MSS. : KaXei 


1232 Xcfom, fail: Polyb. 3. 14 ^ twv 
"AXirew irapdopeia... .irpoKaTaX-qyovaa Xelirei 
tov p,T] (TwdirTetv airy, the chain of the 
Alps, stopping short, fails of touching 
(the inmost recess of the Adriatic). — jjwj 
ov, because of ovSk with XcCim: the added 
to makes the idea of the infin. stand out 
more independently of XcCirei: cp. 283. — 
fiScincv, which the mss. give, should be 
kept. It was altered to ydepLev by Elms, 
on Eur. Bacch. [345 6>' ifidded' yfias, tire 
& ^XPV"i ovk ydere: where the etdere of 
the mss. is possible, but less probable. 
Aeschin. or. 3 § 82 has f/Setpev : Dem. or. 
55 § 9 Z?5are. See Curtius, Verb II. 239, 
Eng. tr. 432, who points out that the 
case of the third pers. plur. is different : 
for this, the forms in eaav (as ijdeaap) 
alone have good authority. 

1235 06iov, epic epithet of kings and 
chiefs, as in //. of Achilles, Odysseus, 
Oileus, Thoas, etc., also of heralds, and 
in Od. of minstrels, as dtos ib. 16. 1 of 
Eumaeus: Plat. Phaedr. 234 D (rwe/Scuc- 
yevaa. /nerd crov tt)$ delas K€<paXi}s ('your 

1236 For irpos here see note on 493 

ad Jin. 

1238 ov irdpa — ov irdpecrriv i/pxv'. ye 
have not been eye-witnesses, as I have 

1239 icdv epol, 'e'en in me,' — though 
your own memory, had you been present, 
would have preserved a more vivid im- 
pression than I can give: cp. [Plat.] 
Alcib. 1. 127 E av debs edtXy et tl del kolL 
rrj ep.y pavTelq. vio-rejjeiv, <rt> re Kdyu 
(3{\tiov <rxhaop.ev. kv — tvi ( = e'veoTi), as 
tvelvcu kv Ar. Eg. 1132 etc. 

1241 We are to suppose that, when 
she rushed from the scene in her pas- 
sionate despair (1072), Iocasta passed 
through the central door of the palace 
(PaaLXeios dtipa) into the dvpwp, a short 
passage or hall, opening on the court 
\ati\i)) surrounded by a colonnade (irepl- 
<ttv\ov). Across this court she hurried 
to the Od\apu>s or bedroom of the master 
and mistress of the house, and shut her- 
self into it. Presently Oedipus burst into 
the court with that cry of which we heard 
the first accents (1182) as he fled from 
the scene (pocov clo-liraurcv, 1252). The 
messenger and others who were in the 



Ch. Indeed those which we knew before fall not short of 
claiming sore lamentation : besides them, what dost thou an- 
nounce ? 

2 Me. This is the shortest tale to tell and to hear: our 
royal lady Iocasta is dead. 

Ch. Alas, hapless one! From what cause ? 

2 Me. By her own hand. The worst pain in what hath 
chanced is not for you, for yours it is not to behold. Never- 
theless, so far as mine own memory serves, ye shall learn that 
unhappy woman's fate. 

When, frantic, she had passed within the vestibule, she 
rushed straight towards her nuptial couch, clutching her hair 
with the fingers of both hands ; once within the chamber, she 
dashed the doors together at her back ; then called on the name 
of Lai'us, long since a corpse, mindful of that son, begotten long 
ago, by whom the sire was slain, leaving the mother to breed 
accursed offspring with his own. 

And she bewailed the wedlock wherein, wretched, she had 

borne a twofold brood, 

Erfurdt. (Brunck VdXet, Blaydes e/cdXei.) So in Eur. Ale. 183, Med. 1141 the MSS. 

court watch him in terror as he raves for 
a sword and asks for Iocasta. Then the 
thought strikes him that she is in the 
dakaiios. He bursts into it (IvrjXaTO 1261). 
They follow. There they find Iocasta 
dead, and see Oedipus blind himself. 

1242 €v8i>, 'straight,' is obviously 
more forcible here than ei)0i$s, 'without 
delay'; a distinction to which Eur. Hipp. 
1 1 97 tt}v etidi>s"Apyov$ KdTnSavplas 686t> is an 
•exception rare in classical Attic. Nauck, 
with tasteless caprice, writes eidds is. 

1243 dn4»i8e£iois here = not simply 
'both? but 'belonging to both hands' 1 (for 
dxfiats alone would scarcely have been 
used for 'hands') : so in O. C. 11 12 ipel- 
aare irkevpbv dp.<f>L8i^iov can mean, 'press 
your sides to mine on either hand.'' dfi- 
<pi8t£ios usu. means 'equally deft with 
either hand' (ambidexter), opp. to dfupa- 
plcrrepos, 'utterly gauche' (Ar. fr. 432): 
hence 'ambiguous' (of an oracle, Her. 5. 
92). The Sophoclean use has at least 
so much warrant from etymology that 
8e£td\ from 5e/c with added <r, prop, 
meant merely 'the catcher' or 're- 
ceiver': see Curt. Etym. §§ 11, 266. 

1244 eirippdgcur' from bripp&aaw, 
Plut. Mor. 356 C robs 84 avvSvras 4irt8pa- 
p.6vTa$ iirippai-ai to 7rwfia, hastily put the 
lid on the chest. II. 24. 452 d&pi)v 8* 

%X e povvos iTl/3\7]S I elXdrivos, rbv rpeis 
fiev $Tnpp-f}<TGe<TKov 'Axcuol, I rpeis 5' dvaot- 
ye<TKov k.t.X. (from iiripprjo-ffcj). Hesych. 
iiripp^a-aei. imicKelei. Plat. Prot. 314 C 
&fi(po?p toTv X € P°ii p T V V 6ipav...iir'fjpa^e 
(from 4irapd<r<r(a). In O. C. 1503 (xd\a?) 
iirippd^aaa is intrans. 

1245 tov t]8t] A. irdXai vexpov: for 
the order cp. O. C. 15 14 al TroXXa fipovral 
SiareXets: Ph. 1316: El. 183: Thuc. 7. 
23 al irpb rod arofxaros pijes vavjxaxov- 
cai: Isocr. or. 4 § 179 ri\v re trepl ij/ids 
drifdav yeyanj/xivTiP : Dem. or. 18 § 271 
rty airdvT(i)v...dvdpunr(av r&xw KOivfjV. 
esp. with proper names, as Pind. 01. 13. 
53 rdv irarpbs dvrta Mrj8eiav 8ep.4vav 
ydfiov: El. 283. 

1248 iraiSovpvfav for iraiSovpybv, i.e. 
ywaiKa reKvowoibv (Her. 1. 59), abstract 
for concrete : see on 1 (rpoQ-q) : cp. Od. 
3. 49 ve&repbs ianv, bfirjXtidr) 84 fioi ai'ry 
( = 6/a?5Xi£). Not ace. in appos. with sen- 
tence, 'an evil way of begetting chil- 
dren,' because XCttoi | tois ot<rtv avrov, 
'left to (or for) his own,' would then be 
very weak. 

1249 -yoaTO. Cp. Curtius, Verb I. 
138, Eng. tr. 92 : 'It seems to me best 
on all grounds to suppose that shortly 
before the rise of the Greek Epic the 
[syllabic] augment became occasionally 

II— 2 



X cf dvSpos avSpa /ecu t4kv e/c t4kvo)v re/cot. 1 250 

V 0)77605 /*€> €/C TCOvS* OVK€T otS' aVoWi'Tar 

^ ftoaiv yap >ei(T€TTaL(r€v Olol7tov<;, v(f> ov 
ovk rfv to KeLvrjs iKOedcrao-Oai kclkov, 
aXk* €t? £k&vov irepnrokovvT eXeucrcro/xez'. 
<f)OLTa yap ^{xas eyx os *£ <u ™ v Tropelv, 1255 

yvvalKa t ov yvvalKa x anrp(pav 8* ottov 
kl\ol 8177X771/ apovpav ovre /ecu t£kvq)v. 
XvarcrwvTL 8* avrco Scufiovtov heiKvvai tl<s* 
ovSels yap dvhpav ol 7raprjfX€v eyyvdev. 
Beivov 8' aucras, a>5 vcfrrjyrjTov twos, 1 2 60 

trvkais 8t7r\at5 ivrjKaT*' e/c 8e Trvdyiivojv 

*i e/eXwe KolXa KXfjOpa KaifXTTLTTTei aTeyrj. 
ov 877 KpejJLaa-Trjv ttjv yvvalic iaeiSofxep, 
irXeKTalaLV alvpaio-iv e/A7re7r\ey/xeV77*>. 

have Kivn for /ewe?. 1250 41- iv5pb<r tLvopa L ist hand; a later hand 

added a to fi^Spa. Most of the later mss. have avdpas (altered in E to &p8pa, 
with rbv Ol6iiro8a written above). The plur. diirXovs in 1249 caused the error. 
1260 i/<p' yyrjTov L (and so the Aldine) : ij^ijyqrov r (with gloss odrjyou in A and 
E). 1264 f. L has irXeKToua 4upcu<r (corrected from icopaur) 4fiireirXeyfi4vr]v (from 

4fnr€7r\T}yfJ^PV v )' ° ^ I b^us ^ <W VLV ' The poet prob. wrote irXeKTcuaiv alupauriv 
tfnreirXeyfitvTjw \ 6 5' ws bpq. viv. Then (1) alwpauriv became alupais, which is 

exposed to the same tendency towards 
wearing away ( Verwitterung) which the 
d of &pa and the 4 of Zvepde could not 
always withstand; that there were, in 
short, pairs of forms then in use, one 
with the augment and one without... The 
omission of the syllabic augment in 
Homer was purely a matter of choice... 
Post- Homeric poetry adopts the power of 
dispensing with the syllabic augment as 
an inheritance from its predecessor, and 
makes the greater use of it in proportion 
as it is removed from the language of or- 
dinary life. Hence it is that, as is shown 
by the careful investigations made by 
Renner {Stud. i. 2. 18 ff.), the omission 
of the syllabic augment is extremely rare 
in iambic, and far more common in ele- 
giac and lyric verse. Hence, as is shown 
{Stud. i. 2. 259) by Gerth, in the dialogue 
of tragedy the range of this license is 
very limited indeed, while the majority 
of instances of it occur in the slightly 
Epic style of the messengers' speeches, 
or still more commonly in lyric passages. ' 
The tragic p'vaeis here borrow from a 
practice more marked in epic narrative 
than in epic speeches. In Homer, where 

augmented and unaugmented forms are 
on the whole about equally numerous, 
the proportion of augmented to unaug- 
mented is in the speeches about 10 to 3, 
in the narrative about 5 to 7: see Monro, 
Horn. Grammar § 69. — SiirXovs, ace. 
plur., a twofold progeny, viz. (1) Oedipus 
by La'ius (e?£ dvdpbs dvdpa), and (2) her 
four children by Oedipus (rticva 4k t4k- 
puv, where the poetical plur. t4kvwv is for 
symmetry with t4kvcl, as 1176 roi>s tckov- 
ras = rbv Traripa). 

1251 The order (instead ofdiroXXvrat, 
ovk£t ot8a) is a bold 'hyperbaton': cp. 
O. C. 1427 rls 64 ToXfifoei KXduv | tA 
rods' iireadai r&vdpbs...; and ib. 135 f. 
Blaydes cp. Eur. Her. 205 <rol 5' ws 
dvdyKij Tovade /9otf\o/4cu <t>pdo~cu \ aip^eiv, 
where aqfav ought to come before pot- 

1255 <|>oiT<j, moves wildly about. 
Cp. //. 15. 685 ws Afas 4irl voXXd dodcav 
f/cpta vt\(av I <potra fWKpd j3i/3ds — where he 
has just been likened to a man jumping 
from one horse to another, dp&aiciov 
dWor' 4tt' &XXov. So of the sharp, sudden 
visits of the voaos, Ph. 808 d^eia <poira kclI 
raxe? &ir4pxerai. Ai. 59 ^otrwyr' dvdpa. 



husband by husband, children by her child. And how there- 
after she perished, is more than I know. For with a shriek 
Oedipus burst in, and suffered us not to watch her woe unto 
the end; on him, as he rushed around, our eyes were set. To 
and fro he went, asking us to give him a sword, — asking where 
he should find the wife who was no wife, but a mother whose 
womb had borne alike himself and his children. And, in his 
frenzy, a power above man was his guide ; for 'twas none of us 
mortals who were nigh. And with a dread shriek, as though 
some one beckoned him on, he sprang at the double doors, 
and from their sockets forced the bending bolts, and rushed 
into the room. 

There beheld we the woman hanging by the neck in a 

twisted noose of swinging cords. 

found in some later MSS. (as B, V) : (2) alwpats was changed for metre's sake to 
iupais, as it is in L, A, and others: (3) to complete v. 1264, now too short by 
a loot, the words 6 8i were borrowed from 6 8' ws at the beginning of 1265 : 
and (4) cbs in 1265 became the metrically requisite oirus. The 5' after otws in 
L may be a survival from the original 6 5' ws. A has 6 8e | 6'7rws without 5'. 
Wecklein reads as I do, but with &'7rws 8' instead of 6 5' us. We seem, however, 
to need the pron. here. The case would thus resemble that of vv. 943, 944, 
— a gap in the former verse being filled with words borrowed from the latter, 

ixaviaaiv vdcrois, 'raving.' Curtius (Etym. 
§ 417) would refer the word to 0v, <poLrd<a 
coming from 0cf-i-ra-w, ' to be often ' 
(in a place). 

1255 f. Trope iv is epexegetic of 4fj- 
aiTaiv, which governs a double accusa- 
tive. — (ii-airuv) t€ Sirov k(x° 1 ) optative, 
and not subj., because the pres. <f>oiT<£ 
is historic, representing a deliberative 
subjunctive, trod k£x w > Cp. n. on 72 pv- 
aalp.r)v. Xen. Hellen. 7. 4. 39 ijTdpei re 
6 ti -xfi-qaaiTo t$ irp6.yixa.Ti. : i.e. his thought 
was, tL x/^crw/Jcu ; 

1257 dpoupav: see on nil. 

1259 ovSds yap dvSpcov: cp. Aesch. 
Ag. 662 r)rot ris e^K\e^/ev 77 ^rjTrjcaTO | 
6e6s ns, ovk &pdpuiros : At. 243. 

1260 <os vcjyiry. : see on 966. 

1261 irvXcus SiirXcus, the folding 
doors of the 6d\afios. Od. 2. 344 (the 
ddXa/xos of Odysseus) K^Tjia-ral 8' iireaav 
aaviSes vvkivQs dpapviai | SacXlSes. — irv9- 
HeVwv, prop, 'bases': Aesch. P. V. 1046 
Xddva 8' £k irvdfitvuv \ aureus pifais irvevfia 
KpaSaLvoi. Here the 'bases' of the kXtj- 
0pa (bolts) are the staples or sockets 
which held them. They were on the 
inner side of the doors, which Iocasta 
had closed behind her (1244). The pres- 
sure of Oedipus on the outer side forces 
the bolts, causing them to bend inwards 

(KOiXa). So Oedipus, within the house, 
gives the order hiolyeiv KXrjdpa, 1287. 
Others understand: 'forced the doors 
from their hinges or posts': but this 
gives an unnatural sense to KXrjdpa. 
Trvdfifres would then mean the arp6(piy- 
7es (Theophr. Hist. PI. 5. 5. 4) or pivots 
(working in sockets called arpo^eis) 
which served as hinges. 

1264 aloSpcuoriv expresses that the 
suspended body was still oscillating, and 
is thus more than aprdvais. a lib pa (akin 
to aelpca, dop, dopr-f)p, dtapos 'uplifted,' 
Od. 12. 89, Curt. Etym. § 518) meant a 
swing (as in Modern Greek), or swinging 
movement: Plat. Phaed. in E ravra 8k 
irdvra Kiveiv dvco re ical tcdru) wawep ai&pav 
Tivd ivovcrav iv ttj 777, there is a sort of 
swinging in the earth which moves all 
these things up and down; ...alwpelrai 
Si] koI Kvp.alvei dvo) Kal Kdrw, so they 
swing and surge : Legg. 789 D 8<xa re vwb 
£avTU>t> (Kiveirai) rj Kal iv alupais (in 
swings) 77 Kal Kard ddXarrav rj Kal e0' 
if7T7raw dxovpivuv. Cp. Athen. 618 E t)v 
8e Kal iirl rats iwpais rts, eV' 'HpiydvQ, 
t)v Kal dXrjriv KaXovaiv (pdrjv, 'at the 
Feast of Swings there was also a song in 
memory of Erigone, otherwise called the 
Song of the Wanderer.' The festival 
was named iwpai (small images, like the 



6 8' m opa viv, 8€u>a Ppv^qOel^ raXas 1 265 

X^Xa KpefJLao-Trjv apTairqv. eVei Se 777 
£k€lto tXtJiaojv, SeLva 8' ^1/ TavOevh* opav. 
aTTocnracras yap elfxaTcop ^pvarjXarov^ 
Trepovas air olvttJs, alcriv efecrreXXero, 
apas eiraicrev apOpa tcov olvtov kvkXcjv, 1 2 JO 

avScov ToiavO\ odovveK ovk oxJjolvto viv 
ov# 01 eTraoyev ouc7 o7rot co/oa /ca/ca, 
aXX' e^ (TKOTCp to \ol7t6v oi>9 ju,ei> oi)/c eSet 
6\\ioia0\ ous 8* expyCtv ov yvcocroLaTO. 
Toiavr i<f>vfiva)v 7roXXa/ct5 re kov^ aira^ I2 75 

jjpaocr iiraipcov fikecfrapa' <J)Olvicll 8' d//,ou 
yXifJ^at yivei ireyyov, ov& avieaav 
a . ifyovov fJLv8c6o-as orayovas, aXX' d/xoi) jxe'Xas 
"\ ofxfipos ^aXa^s # aijuarovs ireyyeTO. 

which was afterwards expanded. — Nauck conjectures TrXeKTcuaiv dprdvaiaty alu- 
povpjkvqv. 1279 6/j.ppos x a ^° L ?V a ' atya-Tocr iriyyero L. Some later MSS. 

oscilla offered to Bacchus, Verg. G. 1. 
389, being hung from trees) because 
Erigone had hanged herself on the tree 
under which she had found the corpse of 
her father Icarius; the name dXrjris al- 
luding to her wanderings in search of him, 
Hesych. s. v. dXrJTLS has iibpa : the gloss 
of Suidas (et6pcr H^uais rj /xerapais) is 
from the schol. here, idop-qp-a for al&prjfxa 
(the stage p-t)X av 'n) occurs in schol. Ar. 
Pax 77. alwpa, however, is the only 
form for which there is good authority of 
the classical age. [Eustathius on //. 3. 
108 says: Tjepidecrdai 84 Kvplws pxv rb 4v 
dipt Kptpuurdou, 4t~ ov teal r\ al&pa. 6'ti 84 
77 prjdetaa a lib pa icai 8ta rod e \j/iXov £%et 
tt)v dpxovaav, cos 8t)\oi ov pbvov rb irXeic- 
tcus iibpais 4p.ireir\eyp.4vTiv t dXXa 
Kal rb /xer 4u) pos, 4repoi 4irayu)t>if4o~6u)' 
<rav. Prof. Kennedy quotes this to prove 
•the classical use of ec6pa.' But it rather 
indicates that this verse furnished the only 
classical example of iupa known to Eusta- 
thius; and there is no proof that here he 
was following an older or better MS. than 
L.] — i|i.ireir\T)-yiJL€VT]v (see crit. n.) would 
mean 'having dashed herself into...': but 
this can hardly be justified by the intrans. 
use of the active, Od. 22. 468 f. 8rav... 
r4Xeiai I 4picei 4vnr\Tjl-b)at: nor is it ap- 
propriate here in reference to the hanging 

1266 yg, locative dat.: see on 20: 
cp. 145 1 valeiv 6pe<nv. 

1267 Seivd 8*. For 84 introducing 
the apodosis after a temporal protasis 
(even when it is a short one), cp. Od. 7. 
46 d\X' 8re 8i) PaaiXrjos ayajcXvrd 86{xad' 
Ikovto, I rottri 84 ptidwv ypxe &ed yXavKu- 
irts 'AdrjVTj: and ib. 184 4irel (rireiadv r' 
4tti6v 0' oaov ijdeXe dvpAs, \ Tocaiv 5' 'AX- 
kIvoos dyop-qo-aro. 

1269 irepovas (called Trbpirai by Eur. 
Ph. 62), brooches with long pins which 
could serve as small daggers : one fasten- 
ed Iocasta's l/xdnov on her left shoulder, 
and another her Doric x iT( ^ v on the right 
shoulder, which the IpuLriov did not cover. 
The Doric x iT( ^" was sleeveless, and 
usually made with a slit at each shoulder, 
requiring the use of brooches. (Cp. 
Guhl and Koner, Life of the Greeks and 
Romans, p. 162 Eng. tr.) In 'The 
Harvard Greek Play' (1882), plate 11. p. 
26 represents Iocasta with the Ipdnov 
thus worn. Cp. Her. 5. 87, where the 
Athenian women surround the sole sur- 
vivor of the expedition to Aegina, rertf- 
<ras T^crt irepdvrjai rwv Ifiarlwv, and so 
slay him. Thus too in Eur. Hec. 11 70 
the women blind Polymestor; T6pwat 
XajStwcu rds raXatrupovi Kbpas \ KevTov- 
ai*, alpwro'ovffi.v. 

1270 ap8pa can only mean the 



But he, when he saw her, with a dread, deep cry of misery, 
loosed the halter whereby she hung. And when the hapless 
woman was stretched upon the ground, then was the sequel 
dread to see. For he tore from her raiment the golden brooches 
wherewith she was decked, and lifted them, and smote full on 
his own eye-balls, uttering words like these : ' No more shall 
ye behold such horrors as I was suffering and working ! long 
enough have ye looked on those whom ye ought never to have 
seen, failed in knowledge of those whom I yearned to know — 
henceforth ye shall be dark ! ' 

To such dire refrain, not once alone but oft struck he his 
eyes with lifted hand ; and at each blow the ensanguined eye- 
balls bedewed his beard, nor sent forth sluggish drops of gore, 
but all at once a dark shower of blood came down like hail. 

(E, V 2 ) have at/xarbs t\ — afyxarous Heath : alfidrcov Hermann : x^a& #' at- 
fia-Towa' Porson. For x a ^^V^> Herm. once conjectured xaXctfjjs (i.e. xaXa^eis), 

sockets of the eye-balls (kvkXwv). 'He 
struck his eye-balls in their sockets,' is a 
way of saying that he struck them full. 
dpdpa could not mean nbpas (pupils), as 
the schol. explains it. Eur. has another 
bold use of the word, Cyc. 624 a-tydre 
irpbs deCbv, dijpes, Tjcrvxd^eTe, | avpd&res 
dpdpa arbfiaros, i.e. shut your lips and be 

1271 ovk 6\J/oivto k.t.\. His words 
were: — ovk oxf/eadi fie ovd* biroV 2iraax ov 
oW biroV tdpuu /ca/cd, d\\' kv <tk6t(j} t6 
Xourbv ous jxev ovk £5ei o\f/eo~de, ovs 5' 
tXPVt 0V ov yv&o-z<xde: Ye shall not see 
the evils which I was (unconsciously) 
suffering and doing [as defiled and de- 
filing], but in darkness henceforth ye 
shall see those whom ye ought never to 
have seen [Iocasta and his children], and 
fail to know those whom I longed to 
know [his parents, La'ius and Iocasta], — 
'<Lira<r\sv..Mpa....'&ei...'4xpr\X ) €V can repre- 
sent nothing but imperfects of the direct 
discourse : had they represented presents, 
they must have been ira<rx ei > e *c, or else 
irct<rxot, etc. &ira<rx€V...£8pa mean 'was 
suffering,' 'was doing' all this time, while 
ye failed to warn me; and express the 
reciprocal, though involuntary, wrong of 
the incestuous relation, with its conse- 
quences to the offspring. (Cp. Ant. 171 
iraiaaprks re Kal \ vX'qyeures avrbx^tpi avv 


1273 f. 4v o-KOTu>...6v|/ota9\ i.e. ovk 
dtyovTcu: see on 997. The other verbs 
being plural (with kvk\oi for subject), the 
subject to ?xPTlt €v cannot be dpdpa kvkXwv, 

but only Oed. He had craved to learn 
his true parentage (782 ff.). 6\|/oio,to, 
yvwrolaTO, Ionic, as O. C. 44 be^aiaro, 
921 irvdolcLTo, 945 8ei-ola.To: El. 211 d7ro- 
valaro: Aesch. Pers. 369 (pev^oiaro, 451 
iKO-io^oiaro : Eur. H. F. 547'. 
Hrfen. 159 dpTi8u)p7)(rala.To. So Thuc. 3. 
13 can say kcpddparai , A6r] 5' i(p 7 
ijfjuv Terdxarai (and 4. 31, 5. 6, 7. 4). 

1275 €<f>v|ivu>v, of imprecation, as 
Ant. 1305 /ca/cds | 7rpd£eis k-pv^-fjo-aaa t<J) 
iraiboKTbvip : here the idea of repetition is 
also suggested: cp. Ai. 292 j8cu' del 5' 
vixvotijAeva: so Lat. canere, decantare. 

1276 Cp. Ant. 52 oxf/eis dpd^as avrbs 
avTovpycp x e P^ 6p.ov = at each blow 
(hence imperf. ^reyyov) : but in 1278 
6,u.ov = all at once, not drop by drop 
(d<rra/CTi, and not ardydrju). See on 517 

1279 The best choice lies between 
Heath's op.J3pos x a ^t T ls aiparovs and 
Porson's 6|x(3pos x°^ a t* ®' aipaToBa-o-'. 
The fact that all the mss. have xa\dt>]5 
and that most (including L, A) haveat'pa 
tos favours Heath's reading, which is also 
the stronger. Dindorf prefers Porson's 
on the ground that such forms as al/xa- 
rods, cdfiaTovv are rarer than the feminine 
forms ; but this seems an inadequate 
reason. Seneca's free paraphrase {Oed. 
978 rigat or a foedus im&er, et lacerum 
caput Largum revulsis sanguinem venis 
vomit) affords no clue as to his text of 
Sophocles. pc'Xas op(3pos aipaxovs x a ~ 
Xd£ns = a shower of dark blood-drops, 
rushing down as fiercely as hail : cp. 


tclS' e/c Svolv eppcoyev ov fxovov # /cara, 1280 

aW dvhpl /cat yvvaiKi (rv/xixiyrj /ca/ca. 

d 77y)ii> 7ra\aio5 8' o\/3o? 771/ irapoide fxev 

6k/3o<; St/cat'cas* i/w Se r^Se Orjixepa 

crreray/xd?, ar^, #aVaro9, alo-yyvrj, kolkqjv 

ocr iari ttolvtcov ovofxaT, ouSeV icrr anov. 1285 

XO. z^ 8* ecrO* 6 TXrjfxwv ev tlvl cr^oXy kolkov ; 

E3. fiod hioiyeiv KkfjOpa /cat SryXou^ tivol 
rots 7racri KaSjutetotcrt ro^ TrarpoKTovov, 

** toi> fjLrjTpos, ayhcjv dvocri ovSe pr)T<£ [jlol, 

a>S e/c xdovbs pixpojp eavrov, ouS'^ert 1 290 

fievcov Softots dpaios, (os ijpdcrcLTo. 
pwfirjs ye p,evToi /cat irpoyjyrjTov tlvos 
Seiraf to yap voarjfia fxel^ov 77 <j>ep€LV. 
Setfet Se /cat crot* KXrjOpa yap ttvXcov raSe 
StotyeTaf deoLfia 8' eto-di//et ra^a 1 295 

TOtouro^ otoi> /cat arrvyovvr eVot/crt<xai. 

*OMAWS. XO. to Setl>6*> tSetl^ TTOL0OS dv0p(O7TOLS, 

which Blaydes adopts, reading aluarous. 1280 ov [xbvov Kaica MSS. ou ^yov 

Kara Otto. The same emendation had been made by me independently. It is 
received by Wolff and Wecklein. — oil nbvu> nana Schneidewin ; ov fibvov irdpa Ken- 
nedy ; ov /xbvov iwvlo Lachmann ; ovx &bs /xbvov Porson ; ovk dvbpbs /xbvov Arndt ; ov 

O. C. 1502 6/xfipla \ x a ^ a f eirippd^ao-a. 1283 SucaCus, in a true sense: cp. 

Pindar has iv iro\v<p6bp<{)...Aibs b/xppy | 853. 

dvapld/iwv dvdp&v xa^a-&€VTi tpbvcp (/stlim. 1284 £ Instead of icaicd wdvra, baa. 

4. 49) of a slaughter in which death- dvopdfcrai, irdpeanv, we have ocra ovo- 

blows are rained thick as hail ; and so |ia.Ta irdvTcov Kaxwv lori, (tovtwv) ovS^v 

Xd\a£av a'l/xaros {I. 6. 27): so that the &ireo~Tiv : ovo/xa kclkov standing for nanbv 

resemblance is only verbal. dvo/xafb/xeyov. So Aesch. P. V. 210 rata, 

1280 f. Soph, cannot have written iroXk&v dvo/xdrojv /iop<t>i] /xla = jxop<pr] /xta 

these two verses as they stand ; and the deas iro\\ax&$ bvo/xa^o/xivr/s. 

fault is doubtless in 1280. Porson's ovx 1286 ?v nvi is right. Even if rls 

evos uovov, though plausible, is in sense <rx°^-V xaKov could mean * what form of 

somewhat weak, and does not serve to respite from misery ? ' rlvt would be less 

connect 1280 with t*8i. In the conjee- suitable. The Chorus mean : 'and is he 

ture, ov jiovov Kara, the force of the now calmer?' — to which the answer is 

prep, is suitable to the image of a de- that he is still vehemently excited, 

scending torrent which overwhelms: and 1289 at]T^p' (Schneidewin), suggested 

for its place cp. Ai. 969 tL dijTa rovd' by Ar. Vesp. 11 78, would debase this 

^reyyeXyei' av Kdra; ib. 302 \byovs... passage. 

rods fih 'Arpeibwv Kdra. 1291 Souois dpaios, fraught with a 

1282 6 irplv, = which they had till curse for the house, making it accursed, 

lately: iroXaios, because the house of the «s ipdo-aTo, in terms of his own curse 

Labdacidae was dpxaibrXovTos ; tracing (238 /-mJt' e/o-S^xf^^at A"fre irpo<r<f>(dveiv, 

its line to Cadmus and Agenor, 268. /c.r.X.), according to which anyone who 



From the deeds of twain such ills have broken forth, not on 
one alone, but with mingled woe for man and wife. The old 
happiness of their ancestral fortune was aforetime happiness 
indeed ; but to-day — lamentation, ruin, death, shame, all earthly- 
ills that can be named — all, all are theirs. 

Ch. And hath the sufferer now any respite from pain ? 

2 Me. He cries for some one to unbar the gates and show 
to all the Cadmeans his father's slayer, his mother's— the unholy 
word must not pass my lips, — as purposing to cast himself out 
of the land, and abide no more, to make the house accursed 
under his own curse. Howbeit he lacks strength, and one to 
guide his steps ; for the anguish is more than man may bear. 
And he will show this to thee also ; for lo, the bars of the gates 
are withdrawn, and soon thou shalt behold a sight which even 
he who abhors it must pity. 


O dread fate for men to see, 


/xov6<TTo\a Winckelmann ; oi> p.ovo£vy?j Hermann. — Dindorf rejects vv. 1280, 1281 as 
spurious. 1283 ryde drjp.e'pq'] rijcd^d' ijntycu L. (The final 1, which might easily 

be taken for a comma, is from a later hand.) Trjd' iv yp-tpa Erfurdt. Cp. Ai. 756 
Tflde 6-rjp.ipq. 1234 are L 1st hand, corrected to arq. 1286 iv rivi L. 

was knowingly 1-vvfoTios with the crimi- 
nal incurred the like curse as he (270). 
Cp. Eur. Med. 608 Kal aoh dpala 7' ovaa 
Tvyxavid ddfiois, i.e. bring a curse on it. 
/. T. 778 (K6fMi<ral fie)...rj aois dpaia 800- 
fiaaiv yepriaofxai. Aesch. Ag. 236 (pddy- 
yov apaiov oi'/cois. Not |x.€v<3v Soaois, as 
though the dat. were locative, like 777, 

129311 <NP 61V : Eur. Hec. 1 107 Kpelaaov' 
fi <p£peiv /ca/cd: the fuller constr., Her. 3. 
14 p-e"fa Kaica i) uxxre avaKkalew. 

1294 The subject to 8e£g€i is Oedipus. 
Cp. Ai. 813 xav>e«' e"TOLpx>s,Ko{)\byi$ 5el£(a 
pMvov. 0. C. 146 br{kG) 5' : 'and I prove 
it' (viz. that I am wretched), like reKpA\- 
ptov 8t. In Ar. Eccl. 933 del£ei ye Kal 
<rol' T&xa yap eT<ru> &s ip.4, a person just 
mentioned is the subject of both verbs, 
as just afterwards we have, tb. 936, deli-ei 
rdx' ai/rfo- On the other hand the verb 
seems really impersonal in Ar. Ran. 1261 
travv ye pA\rj Bavyjaara' dell-ei 5^ rdx a 
(for the subject cannot well be either p.4\f] 
or Aeschylus) : and so in Her. 2. 134 5i^- 
6e|e, it was made clear: as 2. 117 dr/KoT, 
it is manifest In 3. 82, however, the 
subject to 5i^5e£e may be pwwapxLy. Cp. 
Plat. Hipp. mai. 288 B el 5' iirtxeipriaas 

eVrai KaraytXacrTos; afrrb del^ei (the event 
will show) : cp. Theaet. 200 E, and see on 
341. The central door of the palace is 
now opened. Oedipus comes forth, lean- 
ing on attendants; the bloody stains are 
still upon his face. 

1296 otov ciroiKThrai, proper for one 
to pity, Kal orvyovvra, even though he 
abhors it. The infin. with ohs, as with 
other adjectives of ability or fitness (ka- 
v6s, iirir^deios, etc.) : so, too, with oaos 
as = sufficient ' : Xen. An. 4. 1. 5 4\ei- 
irero rijs pvkt6$ 6<rov aKoralovs BieXdeTv rb 
veUov. Cp. Tr. 672: fr. 598. 8 <pev' kov 
avoiKrlppicw tis olKrlpeti vtv. 

1297 — 1368 A Kop.pi.6s (see p. 9). 
The Chorus begin with anapaests (1297 
— 1306). The first words uttered by 
Oedipus are in the same measure (1307 
— 131 1). Then, after a single iambic 
trimeter spoken by the Chorus (131 2), 
(1) 1st strophe 1313 — 1320= (2) 1st anti- 
strophe 1321 — 1328; (3) 2nd strophe 1329 
— 1348 = (4) 2nd antistrophe 1349 — 1368. 
Oedipus here speaks in dochmiac mea- 
sures blended with iambic ; the Chorus, 
in iambic trimeters or dimeters only. 
The effect of his passionate despair is 
thus heightened by metrical contrast with 



cS htLvoroLTov rrdvTcov ocr iyo) 
npocreKvpcr 77S77. tis a, a> tXtJ/jlov, 
irpocrefir) fxavca ; Tig 6 irrfSTjcraq 


7rp09 Q"rj Svo-Sal fAovt, jxoLpa; 

(f)€V (f>€V, # SvCTTTJl/ • 

a\X' ovS* icnheLv SvvajjLaL cr', £04\o)v 
7t6X)C dvepecrOai, wokkd ttv64<t6(u 9 
ttoWol 8* dOprjcrai* 
roiav (f)pLKr)v irape^eis fJLOt. 



01. cuai, </>€u 0€u, SvcrTavos iyci, 

ttol ya? (j>epofjLai TXdficoj/ ; na /jlol 
(f)6oyyd ^hiaTroiTarai <f>opd8r)v ; 

1 3 IO 

1299 tKtiixov has been made from rK-fjutav in L. After this verse, v. 1302 {irpbs arj . . 
fioipq.) had been written by an oversight, but has been partially erased, dots having been 
placed above it : and it is repeated in its proper place. 1301 /mcl/cLo-tup] In L 

the 1st hand had written Kadaruv, but altered the initial k into fi. Some of the later 
MSS. (as B and V) have KcudaTcav. 1303 <pev $eu Mvravoff L, and so most of 

the later mss. : but T has <pev <f>ev Marav\ which is preferred by Hermann and 
Bothe. The latter writes 86arr]v\ (and so Elmsley,) because Sophocles did not 
admit Doric forms in choral anapaests. That rule is subject to exceptions (see on 
Ant. 1 10) : but here, at least, the Doric form seems unsuitable ; see commentary. 
I formerly read <pev dforavos (the os could be excused by the pause) ; but 
now prefer the other reading. Dindorf deletes the words, on the assumption that 

a more level and subdued strain of sor- 
row. Compare Ai. 348 — 429, where the 
KOfifiSs has in this sense a like character. 
Some regard the koijl/jl6s as beginning only 
at 1 313; less correctly, I think. Its 
essence is the antiphonal lament rather 
than the antistrophic framework. 

1298 5<ra...irpoo-€Kvpcra: I know no 
other example of an accus. after vpoa- 
Kvpe7v, which usu. takes the dat. : but 
the compound can at least claim the 
privilege of the simple nvpeiv. The neut. 
plur. accus. of pronouns and adjectives 
can stand after rvyxcu'eu' and Kvpeiv, not 
as an accus. directly governed by the 
verb, but rather as a species of cognate 
or adverbial accus. : Ph. 509 ad\' ola 
fxrjbels r(av ipuv tvxoi (ptXuv: O. C. 1 106 
atVets a reti^ei (which need not be ex- 
plained by attraction): Aesch. Cho. 711 
Tvyxaveut ra irp6<T<f>opa, ib. 714 Kvpoiv- 
TU3V...T0. irpuacpopu: Eur. Ph. 1666 oi> yap 
av rvxois rade : cp. Munro on Ag. 1228 ff. 
oZd...Tetf£eTcu in foum. Phil. XI. 134. 
In Hipp. 746 rip/jam Kipuv is not simi- 

lar, since toUpuv = ' reaching,' and the 
accus. is like that after acpiKvetadai. 

1300 ff. 6 TTT]8T]cras...[J.oLpa.; 'who is 
the deity that hath sprung upon thy hap- 
less life with a leap greater than the 
longest leap?' i^. 'has given thee sorrow 
which almost exceeds the imaginable limit 
of human suffering?' For |xei£ova t«v 
fxaK icttcov see on 465 appyr' appqTwv. The 
idea of a malignant god leaping from 
above on his victim is frequent in Greek 
tragedy: see on 263. But here (jtaKio-- 
t»v, as in 311 tva, combines the notion 
of swooping from above with that of 
leaping to a far pointy — as with Pindar 
Haupbi... uX/tctTa (Nem. 5. 19) denote sur- 
passing poetical efforts. We should then 
conceive the 8va8aifji.u}v fiotpa, the ill-fated 
life, as an attacked region, far into which 
the malign god springs. Here we see a 
tendency which may sometimes be ob- 
served in the imagery (lyric especially) of 
Sophocles: the image is slightly crossed 
and blurred by the interposing notion 
of the thing: as here he was thinking, 



O most dreadful of all that have met mine eyes ! Unhappy one, 
what madness hath come on thee ? • Who is the unearthly foe 
that, with a bound of more than mortal range, hath made thine 
ill-starred life his prey ? 

Alas, alas, thou hapless one ! Nay, I cannot e'en look on 
thee, though there is much that I would fain ask, fain learn, 
much that draws my wistful gaze, — with such a shuddering dost 
thou fill me ! 

Oe. Woe is me ! Alas, alas, wretched that I am ! Whither, 
whither am I borne in my misery ? How is my voice swept 

abroad on the wings of the air ? 

they came in from 1308. — o - ' idtXwv r: <re diXiov L. 1304 Nauck rejects as spu- 

rious the words irdXX 7 dvepeadat, voXXd irvdtadai, rroXXa 5' adpr)<rai. 1307 f. Lhas 

at at at | <pev <pev' dtiffTavos iyd)' irol ydo~ | etc. Some of the later MSS. have at four 
times (as T), others only twice (as V 4 , A). I now think that the latter is most 
probably right, in view of the division of the verses. 1309 L has <p£ rXd/mw 
irai fioi (pdoyya | dtaTiraraL <popd8irjv |. The only variants for diair^arat in the later 
MSS. are the corrupt 8i4irTarat and 8iair£irTaTai, both of which probably arose from 
diairtraTai itself. Musgrave and Seidler conjectured diairwraTai, and so Blaydes : 
Kennedy, iriraTai.: F. Bellermann, 5ia7r eiroTarai (Dor. for -ireiroTrjTai), so that the 
verse should be a proceleusmaticus (-^~~^~--£~~.z). Nauck, following Din- 
dorf's former view, writes irq. /xoi (pdoyya; without any verb; and then, (popddrjif, c3 

'what suffering could have gone further V 
See on Si' aldipa Tewudfrres, 866. With 
Aeschylus, on the other hand, the ob- 
scurity of imagery seldom or never a- 
rises from indistinctness of outline, but 
more often from an opposite cause, — the 
vividly objective conception of abstract 

1302 irpos with dat., after a verb of 
throwing or falling, is warranted by epic 
usage: Od. 5. 415 /x^ttcos /a' infialvovTa 
PaXy XLdaKi ttotl Wt/jt; | KVfia fiiy' ap~ 
Tra£av : //. 20. 420 Xia^bfievov irporl yairj, 
sinking to earth. At. 95 irpb<s...GTpaT$ i 
97 7rp6s 'Arpeldaiaiv are different, since 
no motion is strictly implied. Here the 
conjecture iirl is metrically admissible 
(Ag. 66 Ka/xaicos Qi\<jb)v Aavaoiat, Pers. 48 
(po^epav 6\piv irpocriSiadai), but needless. 

1303 The Attic Svo-ttjv' harmonises 
with a-g (1302) and (ppUriu (1306), while 
Moray* would hardly be confirmed by 
fiaKL<TTwv, since Tragedy used the latter 
form, and not /i^Kcaros, in dialogue also 
(Aesch. fr. 275 : cp. Ag. 289 : so Pers. 
698 fxaKtaTTjpa). The use of Attic forms 
by the Chorus helps to bring out the 
more passionate lyric tone which Do- 
ricisms lend to the words of Oedipus 
(1307 f.). Cp. n. on Ant. 804 f. 

1304 The fate of Oedipus is a dark 

and dreadful mystery into which they are 
fain to peer (dvepecrGcu, irvOe'o-Ocu : cp. 
the questions at 1299 ff., 1327): in its 
visible presentment it has a fascination 
(ri0pTj(rai) even for those whom it fills 
with horror. 

1310 8iair€TaTai (MSS.) is unques- 
tionably corrupt. The view that these 
are anapaests of the 'freer kind' ('ex 
liberioribus,' Herm.) does not explain 
a verse which is not anapaestic at all. 
SiairttTaTai is far the most probable re- 
medy. The epic iruyracrdai, which Pind. 
uses, is admissible in lyrics. When there 
is no caesura after the 2nd foot, there is 
usually one in the 3rd : cp. however 
Aesch. P. V. 172 Kai /*' ov rt fxeXiyXucaois 
veidovs: and Ar. Av. 536, Pax 1002. 
Cp. O. C. 1 77 1 diaK(SXij<Tii}\fJLcv Ibvra <p6vov. 
The wilder and more rugged effect of such 
a rhythm makes it preferable here to 
(pdoyya <popd8r)P SiaTTUTarai, though the 
hiatus before 1& (in 1311) would be justi- 
fied by the pause. To the conjecture 
ir£rerai (or ir^raTai) it may be objected 
that the notion of dispersed sounds sup- 
ports the compound with 8td. Hermann 
simply omitted diairtraTai, dividing thus : 
alat — I 5ti<rTai>o$ — | rX&fuav ; xa /xoi 
(pdoyya <popddr)v ; Bergk, vra /jloi | <pdoyyd ; 
81a fiot iriraTai <popa5r}v. Schneidewin 



cnp. a 

OI. 1 l(D (TKOTOV 

2 vecfros ijjiov atTOTpoiTOV, i7wr\6fJL€vov a<j)aTOJ>, 

3 dSdfJLdTov re /cat Svo-ou/Hcr7oz> <6v.> 131 5 

4 OLfXOL, 

5 oifAOL fJidX clvOls* olov eloreSv jx djxa 

6 Kivrpoyv re tcD^S* OLCTTprjfxa /cat pjvr)\x/r) kglkcov. 
XO. 7 kcu OavfJid y ovhev iv rocroicrhe wrjfJLacrLv 

8 St7rXa ere nevdelv /cat 8t7rXa (frepeuv /ca/ca. 1320 

OI. 1 ta> <£iAos, 

2 cru /llc^ ejLto? e7rt7roXo5 ert fJbovLfxos' ert yap 

3 VTTOfJL€V€L<; [A€ TOV TV(f)X6v K7)SeV(i)V. 

4 c/>eu <^€u* 

dai/xov, iv/jXw. 1311 to Sai/uov ifv' 4i-r)Xov L (<?£i}\w r) : i^XXov Hermann: ^iJXw 

Nauck. 1314 iirnrXw/xevov L. Some of the later MSS. have this reading. In Bodl. 
Laud. 54 is written over w, with gl. eirepxop-evov. Others have the true tirurXofievov 
(as B, E, V 2 , Bodl. Barocc. 66). 1315 dddfiaarop MSS. : dddfiarov Hermann. — 

dvaovpurrov MSS.: dvaotipiarop ov Hermann. I conjecture dvao^piar' lov. 1320 <po- 

(ed. Nauck) ?ra /*ot (pOoyyd ; | tpopddiqvy 
w daifiov, ev-fjko). — <j>opd8t]v = ' in the man- 
ner of that which is carried ' ; here corre- 
lative to (ptpeadai as said of things which 
are swept onward by a tide or current : 
thus, of persons deficient in self-restraint, 
Plat. Theaet. 144 B qirrovres (ptpovrcu 
oiairep rd dvepixdnara TrXola, they are hur- 
ried away on currents like boats without 
ballast: Crat. 411 C ptlv koX <p£pe<rdcu: 
Kep. 496 D irvevp-a <pep6p.evoy. He has 
newly lost the power of seeing those to 
whom he speaks. He feels as if his voice 
was borne from him on the air in a direc- 
tion over which he has no control. With 
the use of the adverb here, cp. pddrjv, 
8pop.d8rju, oiibrjv. Elsewhere <f>opct8nv is 
parallel with (ptpeadai as = to be carried, 
instead of walking: Eur. Andr. 1166 
<popdd7]u...8Qfjia ireAdfei, i.e. borne in a 
litter : Dem. or. 54 § 20 £71975 O-eXduiv 
(popddrjv ffXdov olicade. Such adverbs in 
•5rjv, which were probably accusatives 
cognate to the notion of the verb, are 
always formed from the verbal stem, (a) 
directly, like fid-drjv, or {b) with modified 
vowel and inserted a, like ipopddrjv instead 
of *<pep8r)v, airopdd-qv instead of *airep8r]i>. 

1311 l|rj\ov. In a paroemiac, the foot 
before the catalectic syllable is usually 
an anapaest, seldom, as here [£l-r}X — ), 
a spondee: but cp. Aesch. Pers. 33 
iinrtav r' iXarrjp "Zidadavrjs : Suppl. 7 ^17- 
0cf> irSXews yvwadelacu: ib. 976 /3ct|ei 
XaQv iv x&PV '• Ag. 366 /3Aos ijXldtov 
fficfpp6L€v. L and A are of the MSS. 
which give ei-TJXov: and good MS. au- 
thority supports ivrjXov in Aesch. Pers. 
516, doaXoLix-qv in Soph. fr. 685, rfXovro 
in Xen. Hellen. 4. 4. 11. The evidence, 
so far as it goes, seems to indicate that, 
while rj\dp.r]v (itself rare in prose) was 
preferred in the indicative, a form 17X6- 
pvqv was also admitted : see Veitch, Irreg. 
Verbs, ed. of 1 879. Blaydes gives egijXu : 
Elms, gave ^|aXa), 'inaudite daplfav,' in 
Ellendt's opinion : but Veitch quotes 
Theocr. 17. 100 i^dXaro. The imperf. 
€|tj\Xov, which Dindorf, Campbell and 
others read, was explained by Hermann 
as = tendebas, i.e. l whither wast thou pur- 
posing to leap ? ' To this I feel two ob- 
jections: (1) the unfitness of thus re- 
presenting a swift act: (2) the use of 
iva, which means where. This could 
not be used with the imperfect of a verb 



Oh my Fate, how far hast thou sprung ! 

Ch. To a dread place, dire in men's ears, dire in their sight. 

Oe. O thou horror of darkness that enfoldest me, visitant ist 
unspeakable, resistless, sped by a wind too fair ! strop e * 

Ay me! and once again, ay me! 

How is my soul pierced by the stab of these goads, and 
withal by the memory of sorrows ! 

Ch. Yea, amid woes so many a twofold pain may well be 
thine to mourn and to bear. 

Oe. Ah, friend, thou still art steadfast in thy tendance of ist anti- 
me, — thou still hast patience to care for the blind man! Ah me! stro P lie - 

peiu L, with some of the later mss.: others (including A) have (pipuv. See comment. 
Nauck gives dpoeiv. 1323 fie Erfurdt: 4fie mss. (Instead of 4 fie rbv Tv<p\6v, T 

has tov ye Tv<p\6v, an attempt to restore the metre.) Hermann conjectured £n ykp 
irirofi4veis' rv<p\6v re K-fjdeve (with SvaotipHTTOv ot/iot in 1315). For icqbeiuv, Linwood 

of motion (as tVa efiaive, instead of of), 
but only with the perfect, as 'Lva ^Pyxe 
(i.e. where is he now) or the aorist 
when equivalent to the perfect : as O. C. 
273 Ubp-qv (I have come) Iv* UbpTjv. So, 
here, the aor. alone seems admissible: 
tv l£rjXov, where hast thou leaped to, i.e. 
where art thou? cp. 15 15 &»' 4£r)Kets, and 
see on 947. 

1314 diroTpoirov=5 tis civ airoTpeTroiTO 
(Hesych.) : and so Ai. 608 rbv cXTcbrpoirov 
d'tdrjXov "Ai8av, such as all would turn 
away from, abhorred. Not, 'turning 
away from others,' 'solitary,' as Bion 
Idyll. 2. 2 rbv dir&rpoirov ..."Epctrra. — tiri- 
vk6\L€vov = 4inire\6jievoi', pres. part., as 
Od. 7. 261 4irur\6fievov iros rjXde. 

1315 Svo-oupwrrov is defective by one 
syllable as compared with 1323 rv<p\bv 
KT)8ev<av. Now the second syllable of 
Krjdevojv is 'irrational,' i.e. it is a long 
syllable doing metrical duty for a 
short one (the third of an antibacchius, 

~). Hence in this verse also the 

penultimate syllable can be either long 
or short. Hermann's Svo-ovpiorov ov 
is therefore metrically admissible. It is, 
however, somewhat weak, and the sound 
is most unpleasing. I should rather pro- 
pose Svo-ovpio-T lov: for the adverbial 
neut. plur., cp. {/ir4po7rTa...irope6eTcu (883, 
where see note) ; for the part., Plat. Legg, 
873 E iraph 6eov...p4\os I6v. Nauck con- 
jectured Sv<roi<ovi<rTov. Blaydes gives 
8v<rdjovpi<rTOv (not found), in the dubious 

sense of 'hard to escape from.' 

1318 K^vTpwv, not literally the pins 
of the brooches, (which we can scarcely 
suppose that he still carried in his hands,) 
but the stabs which they had dealt: as 
piercing pangs are Ktvrpa, Tr. 840. 

1319 cv TOo-oi<r8e v iri]pLa(rtv, when thy 
woes are so many : cp. 893 4v to?<t5\ 

1320 ir€v06iv...ical 4>«p€iv. The form 
of the sentence, in dependence on 0av/xa 
o&54v, seems to exclude the version : * It is 
not strange that, as you bear, so you 
should mourn, a double pain' (parataxis- 
for hypotaxis). Rather the sense is: 
' that you should mourn (aloud) and (in- 
wardly ) suffer a double pain' — /.<?., the phy- 
sical pain of the wounds, and the mental 
pain of retrospect. I do not agree with 
Schneidewin in referring 8iir\d irevBciv 
to the double otfioi (1316 f.) as = ' make a 
twofold lament.' The <f>€peiv of A must 
be right. Qopetv can stand for <p4pecv 
'to carry' when habitual carrying is 
implied (Her. 3. 34, and of bearers in Tr. 
965) : or fig., of mental habit (ijflos <t>opetv 
Ant. 705): but (popelv /ca/cd could only 
mean 'to carry ills about with thee 5 ;, 
which is not appropriate here. 

1322 p,dvi|xos, steadfast: Xen. Cyr. 
8. 5. 11 61 fiovifiufTaroi irpbadev 6vres 
(said of hoplites). Cp. Ai. 348 ff. 
where Ajax addresses the Chorus as fibvot 
4p.Qv (plXwv, J fibvoi 4fifi4yovTes It' 6p6£ 

i 74 SO<t>OKAEOYI 

5 ov ydp /x€ Xr/^et?, aXXa yiyvcocrKco cra^wg, J 3 2 5 

6 Kainep (TKoreivos, ttjv ye crrjv avSrjv o/xws. 
XO. 7c3 Seivd Spdcras, ttcqs erXrjs roiavra eras 

8 oi//et9 fiapavcu ; tls <f inrjpe haipLOvtov ; 

arp. p. OI. l 'AnoWcov ra8' 77^, 'A7roXXft>i>, cj)i\oi, \ 

2 d /ca/ca /ca/cd rcXwi^ e/xa raS' e/xa irdOea, 1330 

3 e7rato"€ 8' avToyeip viv ovtls, aXX' eyw rXdfjLtov. 

4 rt ya/o eSet //,' opdv, 

5 oro) y' opcovTi fxrjSep r\v tSetz^ yXv/cu J 1335 

XO. 6 TjV TOLvO* O7TC0CT7T€p KOU (TV <£>fc. 

OI. 7 rt S^r' 6/aoi fiXewTov, 77 

8 (TTepKTov, rj TTpocnjyopov 

9 er ecrr aKoveiv rjoovtt, 91A.01 ; 

10 dirdyer iKroinop on Tdyicnd /z,e, !34° 

11 dirdyer ', gj cfyiXoi, rov # /xey' 6\e6picv, 

12 ro> KaraparoraroVy £tl Se kcu deols *345 


|ju XO. 14 SetXate tou ^ou t^5 re CTVjJL<f>opds icrov, 
aV* \ 15 c5s cr* rfdehqera pjqhe y *dv yvcoval irore. 

& proposed K-qdefiibv. 1330 In L the rst hand wrote 6 /ca/cd reXaJv rd5' l/*d xdflea : 

an early hand added a second kolkcl after 6, and a second e/m before rdd'. Many of the 
later MSS. have «-a/cd only once (the second having been taken for a dittographia), 
while they have ifia twice (owing to the interposed rdd'). 1339 ribovq. MSS.: 

dbovq Dindorf. 1341 rbv dXidpiov fiiyav L: rbv dXidpiop fiiya r (B, E, T) : rbv 

fity' bXibptov Erfurdt. Turnebus conjectured rbv SXedpov fxAyav (received by Brunck and 
others) : Bergk, rbv 6\e6p6i> /xe yds. 1348 L has w<r (made from &r<x' or 6a) a* i)d£- 

1325 A distinct echo of //. 24. 563 Kal (1350) which is corrupt. Prof. Camp- 
$h ok yiyv&GKu, Upia/xe, <ppe<Tlv, o&bf fxe bell, however, retaining the latter, here 
Xrjdeis. Besides Xtj0w, XiJ<rw, \4Xrjda, changes the second koikcI to kcikws, and 
Soph, has fK-qdov (EL 1359). Cp. O. C. the first l\ux to ifiol. The iteration of 
891, where Oed. recognises the voice of rdhe, Kaicd, 4|iol is in a style which the 
Theseus. lyrics of tragedy admitted where vehe- 

1326 <tkot«iv6s: cp. At. 85 4y& ment agitation was expressed. Euripides 
OKOT&au (3\t<papa kcU dedopK&ra. carried it to excess. But here, at least, it 

1329 f. 'AmSXXttv. The memory of is in place. 

Oedipus (cp. 1318) is connecting the 1331 viv, t4$ 6\f/ets (1328). — ovtis 

oracle given to him at Delphi (789) with (dXXos), aXX' : cp. . Od. 8. 311 drdp oH 

the mandate which afterwards came rl fiot afnos &\\os | dXXA roKrje d6u. 

thence (106). Apollo was the author of Schneid. cp. //. 21. 275 dXXos 5' oUtls 

the doom (tcXwv), but the instrument of fiot rbaov ainos oiipav abvcov \ d\Xd [instead 

execution (Kirawr*) was the hand of of 6<top] <pl\q pvfjrrip. 
Oedipus. 1337 ff. The simple mode of expres- 

1330 6 KaKo. KaKci k.t.X. The doch- sion would have been : rl kfiol tJS^ojj 
miac metre is sound (see Metrical Analy- ^Xeirrbu, rj <rrepicT6v, 17 duovorbv It' iarlv ; 
sis): it is vo/xabos in the antistrophe what henceforth can be pleasurably seen, 



Thy presence is not hid from me — no, dark though I am, yet 
know I thy voice full well. 

Ch. Man of dread deeds, how couldst thou in such wise 
quench thy vision ? What more than human power urged thee ? 

Oe. Apollo, friends, Apollo was he that brought these my 2nd 
woes to pass, these my sore, sore woes : but the hand that slrop e * 
struck the eyes was none save mine, wretched that I am ! Why 
was I to see, when sight could show me nothing sweet ? 

Ch. These things were even as thou sayest. 

Oe. Say, friends, what can I more behold, what can I love, 
what greeting can touch mine ear with joy ? Haste, lead me 
from the land, friends, lead me hence, the utterly lost, the thrice 
accursed, yea, the mortal most abhorred of heaven ! 

Ch. Wretched alike for thy fortune and for thy sense 
thereof, would that I had never so much as known thee ! 

\yjaa /*tj5' {sic) dvayvQval iror'' &v. Instead of iror' dv, some later MSS. (including A) have 
wore. As in 561 dv /xeTprjdeiev was corrupted to dvafxerpr^delev, so here dvayvQvcu is 
probably a corruption of dv yvQvai. Hermann restored u>s c' rj9iXtj<ra firjdt 7' dv yvCival 
irore. This is slightly nearer to the MSS. than Dindorf 's ws ridiXtjaa fMijdt a' dv yvuval 
7rore: and 7c suits the emphasis ('never so much as known thee'). — Dobree proposed 
ws a* r)d£\r)<ra fiyda/Aa yv&val tot* dv. (For the short vowel lengthened before yv, cp. 
El. 547 arjs dixa- yvw/Mrjs, Tr. 389 obit dirb yvdb/nrjs.) Wecklein (Ars Soph. em. p. 21) 

or loved, or heard by me? But instead 
of the third clause, we have tj irpoo-ij- 
■yopov I It Iot* clkovciv ii8ov<£, 'or what 
greeting is it longer possible for me to 
hear with pleasure?' irpoo-ifyopov, pas- 
sive in Ph. 1353, is here active, as in 
Ant. 1 185 ILa.XXd8os Beds \ 8iru)$ 'iKolfirjv 
ciyfJuxT&v irpoaifiyopos. ^Sovcj, modal dat. 
adverbially, as dpyjj 405. The form 
ijdovdv, intermediate between Attic ijdovqv 
and Doric ddovdv, is given by L in El. 
1277, where Herm. keeps it, but most 
edd. give ddovdv. If right, it was a com- 
promise peculiar to tragedy. The Dori- 
cism of scenic lyrics was not thorough- 
going: here, for instance, we have rXdpnav 
(1333) yet irpoa-ityopov (1338). 

1340 cktoitiov: cp. 141 1 6aXdcr<riov, 
and see Appendix on v. 478. 

1341 t6v \i4y' oX^0piov is a certain 
correction of the MS. rbv oX&dpiov fityav 
(or fieya), a corruption due to the omis- 
sion and subsequent marginal insertion 
of fx^ya. Cp. //. 1. 158 o> /i£y' dvaidis: 
16. 46 p.tya vrjTTios: Ph. 419 fiiya \ 0dX- 
Xovres. The antistrophic words are afrrbs 
£<pvv rdXas (1363). oXidpiov, pass., 'lost,' 
as Tr. 878 rdXa^ dXedpia. rlvi rp6irq> 
tiaveiv ff<pe <pr)S} The objections to the 

conject. oXcGpov p.£yav (metrically ad- 
missible as a dochmiac, if the second of 
6Xe8pov is made short) are: (1) the 
awkward necessity of supplying 6vra in 
order to defend the position of f^iyav: 
(2) the phrase 6Xe6pov, which belongs to 
the colloquial vocabulary of abuse; Dem. 
or. 18 § 127 ireplTpifxixa dyopds, 6Xedpos 

1347 He is to be pitied alike for the 
intrinsic misery of his fate, and for his 
full apprehension (avvto-ews, schol.) of it. 
A clouded mind would suffer less. 

1348 <£v with tjOe'X-no-a : ye emphasises 
p.t]8e. Oedipus had been the all-admired 
(8), the 'saviour of the land' (48). But 
now the Theban elders wish that they 
had never so much as heard his name or 
looked upon his face. That bitter cry is 
drawn from them by the very strength of 
their sympathy: for his ruin was the re- 
sult of his coming to Thebes. The ob- 
jections to the reading of the mss., <5>s or' 
ij9£\i]<ra (MiS* avayvavaC itotc, are these: 
(1) Eur. Helen. 290 has the 1st aor. pass., 
dveyvdxrd-ntuv &v, 'we should have been 
recognised': but dvayiyvuxriceiv occurs 
nowhere else in tragedy ; and in Attic its 
regular sense was 'to read,' or in the 1st 



\ /P. Ol.ioXoiff octtls tjv 05 dyptas TreSa? 

2 "ti/o/iaS'l" eV 1770810,9 eXvcr' oVo re <f>6vov l 3SO 

3 eppvro KavecTGHTe fx, ovSev eis ydpiv 7rpdcr(rcov. 

4 roVe ya^> ai> Oavtov 

5 ou/c 771/ <l>i\oicriv ovS* e/xot toctoVS' d^09. 1355 
XO. 6 Oikoyri K<i}xol tovt dv TjV. 


8 rj\6ov, ovSe wfic^Los 

9 fipoTols iKk-qdrjv oiv e<j>vv airo. * 

10 iw S' d0eos fxiv eifi, dyncr"'™ 8* uafc, * 1 360 

11 d/xoye^s 8' a<£' cSi> avros c<£w raXa?. 

uls cr' i}dt\T)<ra /irjSdfi' dv yvQval irore. 1349 efypfas] a7r' d7pfos L. Triclinius 

rightly struck out dv\ which was probably added to make the construction of the gen. 
clearer. Hermann preferred to omit rjv, reading, o\oi0' Sorts, 6's /a' dir' dypias irtSas. 
1350 vofiddoa tiwro8la<r \ fKvaeu dird re (povov | ip'pvro Kdviauxrev L. i\v<rev has been 
made by an early hand from iXa^/i* (Campbell thinks, from ?\aj9^ /*'), above which 
had been written \i<r. The later mss. have ZXvaev (as A), IXvcrl /*' (E), e"W e>' ( V 4 ), 

aor. act., 'to persuade.' I have not 
found a single example of dvayiyvwoKca 
2LS=avayv<apifa ('to recognise') in Time, 
Plato, Xen., or the Orators. (2) But the 
2nd aor. has that sense in Homer, in 
Pindar {Isthm. 2. 23) and in Herod. 
(2. 91) : may not an Attic poet have fol- 
lowed them? Granted. The sense re- 
quired here, however, after jm]86, is to 
know, not to recognise: the latter would 
be pointless. (3) The ellipse of dv with 
the aor. ydtXrjaa would be strangely 
harsh. Such an ellipse with the imperf. 
sometimes occurs : as Antiphon or. 5 § 1 
tpovXSfirjv (and so Ar. Ran. 866), ib. § 86 
-rfelovv. But if, as seems clear, &v is re- 
quired here, then the probability is 
strengthened that dva-yvcovcu arose from 
dv -yvtovai. Between Dindorfs «s ij8^- 
\T)<ra [lt]S4 cr dv ^vaivai and Hermann's 
ws <r TJ0iX.T]<ra |atj84 y dv -yvaivai the 
question is : Which is more likely to 
have passed into the reading of the MSS.? 
Now they have <Ss <r , and the loss of 
y through a confusion with the same 
letter in -yvcovai is slightly more probable 
than the double error of omitting a* be- 
fore dv and inserting it after (6s. 

1350 The vopdSos of the mss. is cor- 
rupt. It would require an improbable 
alteration in the strophe (see on 1330); 
and it yields no good sense. The Scholi- 
asts hesitated between rendering it (1) 

'feeding on my flesh'! or (2) 'in the 
pastures.' Reading vo|xd&', we have a 
dochmiac dimeter, agreeing with 1330: 
see Metrical Analysis. But the use of 
the word is extraordinary. It must mean 
iv vo/xais, 'in the pastures' — said of the 
babe whom the shepherd had been 
ordered to expose on Cithaeron. Now 
elsewhere vo/xds always means % roaming,* 
said {e.g.) of pastoral tribes, or of animals : 
Tr. 271 tirwovs vop.d8a$ e^x" 00 "* 07 ™"* 
tracking horses that had strayed: fr. 87 
vofids 84 tis hepovarf d7r' 6pdi(av irdyuv | 
Kadeipwev tXa<pos : of waters wandering 
over the land which they irrigate, O. C. 
686 Kpijvcu... I Kr)<pi<rou vo/xdSes fietdpuv. 
The idea of wandering movement is in- 
separable from the word. To apply it 
to a babe whose feet were pinned to- 
gether would have been indeed a bold 
use. Prof. Campbell, retaining voptASos, 
takes ire^cis as ace. plur. : 'that loosed 
the cruel clog upon my feet, when I was 
sent astray? But could vofids, 'roaming,' 
be said of the maimed child merely in the 
sense of '■turned adrift'' by its parents? 
The nomin. vopds, referring to the roving 
shepherd (irXdvrjs 1029) would be intel- 
ligible; but the quadruple -as is against 
it. Now cp. Aesch. Pers. 734 ixovdoa 
8k E4pi-rjv £pT)fM)v, 'Xerxes alone and 
forlorn.' Simply transposing v and /i I 
conjecture \10vdt', a word appropriate to 



OE. Perish the man, whoe'er he was, that freed me in the ™ ( l anti- 
pastures from the cruel shackle on my feet, and saved me from stro P ie 
death, and gave me bac k to life,— a thankless deed ! Had I 
died then, to my friends and to mine own soul I had not been 
so sore a grief. 

Ch. I also would have had it thus. 

Oe. So had I not come to shed my father's blood, nor been 
called among men the spouse of her from whom I sprang : but 
now am I forsaken of the gods, son of a defiled mother, 
successor to his bed who gave me mine own wretched being : 

or gXafie' yti' (V). Some have tppvro, others tyvro. Eor vop.d8o$ Elmsley conjectured vo- 
Aid5' : I suggest fxovd8\ For K&veauxreu Campbell has given Kavtawat /n\ 1355 dxos 
r, dx&o$ L. Faehsi's conjecture, cryos, is less suitable here. 1360 dOXios mss. : 

ddeos was restored by Erfurdt, and independently (in the same year, 1811) by Seidler, 
De Vers. Dochtn. 59. The same emendation was afterwards made by Elmsley, and 
by Reisig (Conject. I. 191). 1362 bfjcoyevr)* MSS. : bpLoXexys Meineke : 6/x6yafws 

the complaint that the babe, sent to the 
lonely mountain, had not been left to 
perish in its solitude. The fact that the 
Corinthian shepherd received the child 
from the Theban is no objection: the 
child was (pLXwv /j.enovw/j.e'vos, desolate 
and forlorn. €'Xw\ which suits the 
dochmiac as well as ZXafit fi\ is more 
forcible here. There is a further argu- 
ment for it. The MSS. give air' dyplas in 
1349, but the strophe (1329) shows that 
dn-' must be omitted, since 'AirbXXwv, 
<pl\ot = 8s d-ypias irc'Sas, the first syllable 
of depicts being short, as in 1205, Ant. 
344, 1 124. Now ir^Sas (i.e. t£8t}s) ^XapJe, 
took from the fetter, would be too harsh : 
we could only do as Schneidewin did, 
and refer dir<5 back to -ire'Sas : but though 
Ae\0w»> Kairb AavXias (734) admits of such 
treatment, the case is dissimilar here. 
On the other hand ir&as 2Xv<r , loosed 
from the fetter, is correct. Thus the 
metrical impossibility of air confirms 
e'Xv<r\ The epithet dypia, 'cruel,' is ap- 
plied to ir£8rj as it is to 686vr} in Tr. 975. 
1351 gppvro, a strong aorist of pvw, 
formed as if there were a present ptifu : 
in //. 18. 515 pCaro for pivro is its 3rd 
plur. Cp. II. 5. 23 %p\no <rdio<T€ 84, where 
the aor. has a like relation to £p6w (the 
temporal augment being absent). — els 
Xaptv: see on 1152. 

1356 0€Xovti: O. C. 1505 irodovvn 
irpov<pdvr)$ : Tr. 18: Thuc. 2. 3 rep ydp 
irXrjdei ...o& fiovXo/JLe'vcp rjv... dcplaraffdai : 
Tac. Agric. 1 8 quibus bellum volentibus erat. 

1357 <j>ov6vs i|X0ov, have come to be 
the slayer, a compressed phrase for ^s 

J. S. I. 3 

roaovTOv rjXBov c!xrre (frovevs etvcu : cp, 
15 19 and Ant. 752 7) KdiraireLX&v w8 T 
iire^epx^c 6 pads', Tr. 1 157 i^rjKeis 8' Xva\ 
(pavei. II. 18. 180 el niv ti vtnvs ^ax^/A- 
/jievos <:Xdxi, come to be dishonoured (where 
some explain, '■reach //^dishonoured'): 
in Xen. An. 3. 2. 3 o/aws 8e Set £k twv irap- 
6vtu)v av8pas dyadous tXdeiv (so the MSS.: 
reXe'deiv G. Sauppe) ical fir] vcpieadai, the 
clause iic tcov irapbv^ruv helps iXdeiv as = 
evadere. In 1433 kXQ&v is not similar. 
No classical use of venire seems really 
parallel : thus in Iuv. 7. 29 ut dignus 
venias hederis, venias= 'may come for- 
ward' (Mayor ad loc). 

1359 [tot&tuv) d<j>' c5v, i.e. raijTrjs d0' 
fjs: plur., as 1095, 1176, 1250. 

1360 aOeos is a necessary correction 
of the MS. d'8Xio$, the verse being a 
dochmiac dimeter, = i^od-wayer' ^ktotiov 
on rdx^rd fie. vvv answers to the short 
first syllable of d-trayer , since the ana- 
crusis can be either long or short : cp. 
Aesch. Theb. 81, where aidepia k6vis is 
metrically parallel to vvv 8' adeos /xiv et/j.' 
here. He is dvo<rCwv (i.e. dvoaias) trah 
since through him Iocasta became such. 

1362 f. 6|X0Y€vqs 8* d<f>' c5v &f>vv = 
Kotvbv ytvos ^x wv (to6tols) &(f>' uv atirbs 
§<pvv: i.e. having a common brood (one 
born of the same wife) with those (La'i'us) 
from whom he sprang. For the plur., 
cp. 366: for (to&tois) wv, Ph. 957 irapi^ut 
8cuQ' u0' wvicpeppdfirjv. op-o-yeviis is usu. 
taken as = 6itou 7evj'w»', i.e. 'engendering' 
bfiov ry TeKoijay. But bfioyevrjs is a com- 
pound from bp.0- and the stem of ytvos, 
and could no more mean yevvQv o/jlov 



12 el Se tl n peer /3vre pop in kolkov kclkov, !3^5 

13 to vt eka\ OiSiVov?. 

XO. 14 ovk otS' ottcds ere <£a) /3e/3ov\evardai KaXcos* 
15 KpeCcrcrcov yap rjaOa fjLrjKer cov rj £,cov rix^Xo?. 

. (w? ^Ltez/ rao ov^ a>o ecrr apiar etpyavfieva, 

yjrj fx eAcStSacr/ce, ^Se crvfjiftovkev in. l 370 

iyco yap ovk oltV ofjufxacrw ttolols /Skeircov 
Trarepa ttot av wpocrelSov eU "A&ov /jloXcov, 
ov8* av TaXaivav ixyrep, olv ifiol Svoiv 
— ipy icrrl Kpeicrcrov dy^ovr)^ elpyacrfxeva. 

aW r] t4kvcov hr)r 01//19 rjv e^t/xepo?, 1 375 

fiXao-Tovcr onus ifikacrTe, TTpocrXevcrcTeiv ifiou ; 

ov SfjTa rols y ip,olcriv o<£#a\/xots 7rore' 

ovo acrrv y , ovoe irvpyos, ovoe oaiixovcov 

ayakfiaO* lepd, tcov 6 iravT\rjjxcov iyco 

KaWicrT dvrjp €19 iv ye tols ©r;/3at5 T/oa</>ei$ 1 3 80 

Musgrave. 1365 eVt Hermann: t<pv mss. The correction is necessary, since the 

words eri /cawO Ka/f6y answer metrically to ?rt de *a£ deois (1345). 1368 fjcrda) f)<xd'' av 
Porson(on Tr. 114, Adv. p. 174). Purgold ( C>&r. Crit. inSoph. etc., i8o2)made the same 
conjecture, and Hartung so reads : but see comment. 1376£';3Xa<rrer, i^Xaarev L. 

than avyyevfis could mean yevvwv avv, 6\i\ Cp. Ph. no irCos ouv fiXe'iruv 

or iyyevf)s, yevvQv iv. In 460 irarpbs tls raura roXurjaei XaXeiv ; Her. I. 37 pup 

bp.6airopos as = airelpwv rr\v avTyv r)v 6 re rioKxi pe XPV *Wta<ri Zs re dyoprjv ical e£ 

irarrjp is different, since the second part d7op^s (poire" ovra (palvecrdai; [Dem.] or. 

of the compound adj. represents a trans- 25 § 98 (the work of a later rhetorician) 

itive verb. Meineke's bp,oXexvs would ttoIols irpoaJjwois i) rlaiv 6<p6aXpLols irpbs 

be better than Musgrave's 6p.6yap.os: but ficao-rov toutcov dvTifiXtyeTe; Cp. Ai. 

neither is needed. 462 nai irdiov Trarpl brjXdjab) <f>apels | 

1365 Trpeo-pvTcpov, 'older,' then, TeXapicHvi; 

'ranking before'; here, 'more serious': 1372 «is "Ai8ov. Blind on earth, 

Her. 5. 63 ra yap tov deov irpeafivTepa Oed. will be blind in the nether world. 

iiroievvTO rj ra rQiv avbpdiv: Thuc. 4. 61 Cp. Od. 12. 166 ical p.01 tiros Zp.Teo~e 

tovto. . .irpeofivraTov .. .Kplvas, rb kolvus <f>o- dvpxp | p.6vTt]os dXaou Qijj3aiov Teipeaiao, 

fiepbv airavTas el dtaQai. where Odysseus is thinking of the blind 

1368 Kp€Co-<ra>v...^<r0a piKeV «v= Teiresias as he had found him in Hades. 
Kpetaaov y\v ae p.t)k4t' > elvai'. see on 1061. Cp. 11. 91, where kyvu need not imply 
av is omitted, as after iSei, eUbs rjv, etc., that the poet of the vticvia conceived 
Kpelcawv r)ffda pvq uv implying the thought, Teiresias as having sight. So Achilles 
ovk av tiada, el ra /SArttrra eVa^x": see in Hades is still swift-footed (n. 546). 

on 256. 1373 otv...8voiv, a dative of the per- 

1369 tfpto-T is adverbial, the con- sons affected, as, instead of the usual iroiiS 
struction being ov\ a>8« {elpyacrp.e'va) ior\v raurd ae, we sometimes find woita ravrd 
dpio-ra €tpvao-p.^va : that, thus done, they <tol: cp. Tr. 808 (Spwcr') : Od. 14. 289 
are not done best. So tipiara is adverb rpdiKT-qs, 6s drj iroXKa icdx? dvdpwiroiaiv 
407, 1046, Ai. 160. i&pyei. Plat. Apol. 30 A ravra ical veoj- 

1371 p\€ir«v = ei tfiXeirovy which is rip(p ical irpeafivTe'pip...iroi.r)o'(t), jcal ^ivcp 

more forcible than to take it with iroiois ical do~T<p, p.a\\ov 8£ rots darols. Charm. 



and if there be yet a woe surpassing woes, it hath become the 
portion of Oedipus. 

Ch. I know not how I can say that thou hast counselled 
well: for thou wert better dead than living and blind. 

Oe. Show me not at large that these things are not best 
done thus: give me counsel no more. For, had I sight, I know 
not with what eyes I could e'er have looked on my father, 
when I came to the place of the dead, aye, or on my miserable 
mother, since against both I have sinned such sins as strangling 
could not punish. But deem ye that the sight of children, born 
as mine were born, was lovely for me to look upon ? No, no, 
not lovely to mine eyes for ever ! No, nor was this town with 
its towered walls, nor the sacred statues of the gods, since I, 
thrice wretched that I am, — I, noblest of the sons of Thebes, 

For (HXac-rovo-' Hartung gives §XaaTbvr\ omitting the comma after ?(3\a<TTe (' that I should 
look upon offspring so born') : but see comment. 1379 lepd L ; ipd r, Dindorf. The 
longer form is the regular one in L (though in 0. C 16 it has lp6s). Here, as in 1428, 
the tribrach lends a certain pathos to the rhythm. Nauck unnecessarily writes lepd 6' 

157 C obn av ^x ot A tei ' Tt irototpJv <rou 
Xen. Hier. 7. 2 roiavra yap bi] Troiovai 
rots rvpdvvois ol dpxbfievoi Kal &XXcv oVtip' 
av ad ti/jluvtcs riry^di/wcrt. Ar. Vesp. 
1350 iroXXoh yap rjbr) x aT fy° L s a ^ T ' dp- 
ya<ru. In Xen. An. 5. 8. 24 Tofrry 
rdvavria ironfjcreTe 97 toi)s Kiivas iroioO<ri t 
there is warrant for tovtov : and in Isocr. 
or. 16 § 49 fxrjdev ay adbv iroufjcras rrj 
nbXei, for tt)v irbXiv. 

1374 Kpeio-o-ov dy\6vr\s, not ' worse 
than hanging' (such that, rather than do 
them, he would have hanged himself) : 
but '■too bad for hanging' (such that 
suicide by hanging would not adequately 
punish their author). Eur. Hipp. 121 7 
elaopQcri be I diafia Kpetcraov bepyfxdrcav 
icpaivero, too dreadful to be looked on : 
Aesch. Ag. 1376 vif/os Kpetcraov e'Kirrjbrip.a- 
toj, too high to be leaped over. dy\6- 
vtjs: cp. Eur. Ale. 229: Ar. Ach. 125 
ravra byr' oiiK dyxbvr); 'is not this 
enough to make one hang oneself?' 

1375 £ d\X' introduces (or answers) 
a supposed objection (the iiroQopd of 
technical Rhetoric): Andoc. 1 § 148 riva 
yap Kal dva^L^dcrofiai ber](xb[ievov vvep 
ip,avTov; rbv iraripa', dXXa rkQvqKev. 
dXXa Tot>s dbeXcpotis; dXV oiic eialv. dXXd 
roi)s waidas ; dXX' oHiru) yeyivrjvrai. — T€K- 
ywv oi|as...p\a<rTov<ra = 6/3Ci>/i«'a riicva 
pXaarovra: cp. Eur. Ale. 967 Qp-jjaaais 
& <raviaiv rds | 'Op<pda nardypaij/ev yij- 

pvs, which the melodious Orpheus wrote 
down. — oirws 4'pXa<rre: Eur. Med. ion 
riyyeCXas oV rjyyeiXas. 

1378 irup-yos, the city- wall with its 
towers and its seven gates (already famous 
in the Odyssey, 11. 263 GiJ^s Zbos iirra- 
7r6Xoto). Cp. Eur. Bacch. 170 Kdbfiov... 
5s irbXiv "ZibuvLav \ Xiir&v tiripywa' &<ttv 
Qt)fiaiov rbbe. Hec. 1209 ire" pit- be irvpyos 
elx' ert irrbXiv. 

1379 d"yd\|Aa0' lepd, the images of 
the gods in their temples: cp. 20. — twv 
= u>v, as Ant. 1086: cp. 1427. Soph, 
has this use in many other places of 
dialogue: see 0. C. 747 n. 

1380 KdWurr* dvr\p ds...Tpa$d<s. 
cts, in connection with a superlative, is 
strictly correct only where one is com- 
pared with several: as Thuc. 8. 40 oi 
yap oiK^rai reus X£ots ttoXXoI ovres Kal 
ye irbXei ttXtjv AaKebat/xoviuv irXei<TTOi ye- 
vbfievoL : Eur. Heracl. 8 irXelaroiv fxertaxov 
eh dvrjp 'HpaKXe'ei. So Tr. 460 vXelaras 
avrjp eh...e , yvfJt-e- But here, where the 
question is of degree in nobility, it 
merely strengthens KaXXio-r: cp. Thuc. 
8. 68 TrXei<TTa eh dvrfp, oarcs ^vfifiovXed- 
(rairb tl,' bvvdfievos (bcpeXeiv : which, not- 
withstanding irXeiora, is really like our 
passage, since we cannot suppose a con- 
trast with the collective wisdom of several 
advisers. — iv -ye Tats 0ijP<us: the -ye, by 
adding a second limitation, helps, like eh 

12 — 2 



d7T€(TTCpr)<T i/JLCLVTOV, auTos ivviircov 

toOeiv OLTTavTas tov acreffij, tov e/c decov 

fyavevr L avayvov /cat yeVou? tov Aatov. 

to taV8' iyco K7]XlSa fjirjvvaas ifxrjv 

6p6ol<; efxeXXov o^acriv tovtovs opav ; *3%5 

rj/acrra y' dXX* et Trjs aKovovcrrjs er' tjv 

Trrjyrj^ $i cotcov (frpayjAos, ovk dv ior-^6fi7]v o^- 

to jxrj airoKkficrai tovjxov dOXiov Se/^ag, 

Iv rj TV(j)\6<; re /cat kXvcov firjSev' to yap 

TYjV (frpOVTih* Z£o) TtOV KdKCOV OlK€LV yXvKV. I 39° 

t&> KuOaipcov, tl fji iSd^ov ; tl fx ov Xafitov 

c/cret^as evOvs, cu? eSetfa fjajnoTe 

ifxavTOv dvOpMTToicriv evOev 77 yeycos ; 

co HoXvfie /cat KopLvOe /cat ret iraTpicx 

Xoyco 7ra\ata Sfcj/xa^ otoz; ay>a /xe 1395 

/caXXos kcxkcov vttovXov i^eOpexpoLTe, 

uv. 1383 Kal yivovs tov Aatov] These words seem sound (see comment.), but have 
been variously amended. Blaydes, Kal ytvos rbv Aatov ('by birth the son of L.') : Har- 
tung, k&v yivovs tov Aatov ('though he be of L.'s race'): Herwerden, koI yivovs d\d- 
cropa: Mekler, Kal yivovs tov/xov ixvaos. Benedict {Obs. in Soph., 1820) would place 
the full stop after dvayvov, and take Kal ytvovs tov A. with KrjXida ('a stain on the 
race'); and so Kennedy. 1387 av eaxbvw, L, i.e. dvea-x^Wt as is shown by the 

absence of accent on dv and of breathing on e : the scribe often thus leaves a small 
space between syllables or letters. Most of the later MSS. have dveax^M v or y)veax^M v * 

dtnfip, to emphasise the superlative. If 
the glories of Thebes can rejoice the sight, 
no Theban at least had a better right to 
that joy: (and who could have a better 
right than Thebans?) 

1381 dir€o-T^pT]<r' Ifmvrov: a regular 
phrase in reference to separation from 
civic life : Antiphon or. 5 § 78 el 5' 4v 
Alvip x a, / 5O l ^ e *> tovto ovk dirooTep&v ye 
tG>v els tt)v tt6\iv iavrbv ovdevbs (not for- 
feiting any of his relations with Athens) 
ouS' ire" pas irbXeus ttoKIttjs yeyemjfxevos : 
[Dem.] or. 13 § 22 ovdevbs tpywv twv 
t6tc direaT^prjaav eavrovs, the Athenians 
of those days did not renounce their 
share in any of the great deeds of the 
Persian Wars. 

1382 t<Jv &<rt$r\ naturally depends 
on <o9eiv. But, if so, it would be very 
awkward to take TO>...<|>aWvTa k.t.X. 
with dTceoTtp^ ifiavrbv. Rather tov 
<|>aWvTa k.t.X. also depends on wBeiv. 
'Bidding all to expel the impious one, — 
that man who has [since] been shown by 

the gods to be unholy — and of the race 
of Lai'us.' His thought passes from the 
unknown person of the edict to himself, 
precisely as in 1440 f. The words Kal 
^e'vovs tov Aatov are a climax, since the 
guilt of bloodshed, which the oracle had 
first denounced, was thus aggravated by 
a double horror. 

1384 KT]\t8a: see on 833: jnjvvcras 
lurjv, sc. odcrav. 

1385 opOots: see on 528. 

1386 ttjs dKovovo-t]]VtiS, the 
source (viz. the orifice of" the ear) from 
which sounds flow in upon the sense: 
cp. Plat. Phaedr. 245 C ^/vx^.-.trriyy) Kal 
dpxv Kivfjaews. (Not the stream of sound 
itself.) &Y <3t«v supplements ttjs dKov- 
ojjo~7)s irrtyijs by suggesting the channel 
through which the sounds pass from the 
fount. Cp. fr. 773 (3pa5eia jxev yap iv 
\6yoiffi 7T/>o<r/3o\^ | yu6Xis 5i' drrbs ipx^rat. 
Tpviruiixivov. i} dKovovaa irrjy^, instead of 
ij irrryr) ttjs dKoticreus, is said with a con- 
sciousness that irr\yi] means the organ of 



— have doomed myself to know these no more, by mine own 
command that all should thrust away the impious one, — even 
him whom gods have shown to be unholy — and of the race of 
Lams ! 

After baring such a stain upon me, was I to look with steady 
eyes on this folk ? No, verily : no, were there yet a way to 
choke the fount of hearing, I had not spared to make a fast 
prison of this wretched frame, that so I should have known nor 
sight nor sound; for 'tis sweet that our thought should dwell 
beyond the sphere of griefs. 

Alas, Cithaeron, why hadst thou a shelter for me ? When 
I was given to thee, why didst thou not slay me straightway, 
that so I might never have revealed my source to men ? Ah, 
Polybus, — ah, Corinth, and thou that wast called the ancient 
house of my fathers, how seeming-fair was I your nursling, and 

what ills were festering beneath ! 

but two at least (A, V) give dv kax^f) v ' 1388 rb /xt) diroKXe'io-ai MSS. : rb fii] dro- 

K\rjaai Elmsley. The original form of the verb was kXtjiu (being formed from the 
noun-stem KXijpi, cp. kovIco, firjuiu), and nXr/a, not /cXe/w, was the older Attic form, 
still used, doubtless, in the time of Sophocles : thus kXtjLs occurs in an Attic inscrip- 
tion later than 403 B.C.; though icXeLs, icXeWpov, etc., occur as early as about 378 — 
330 B.C. (Meisterhans, Gramm. Att. Inschr. p. 17.) The spelling of /cXeiw, etc., 
fluctuates in our MSS. : thus L has KXeWpa above in v. 1262, but icXrjiOpa in 1287, 

hearing, just as we might have rd d/coi/- 
ovra wra. Seneca paraphrases: uiinam 
quidem rescindere has quirem vias, Mani- 
busque adactis omne qua voces meant 
Aditusque verbis tramite angusto patet, 
Eruere possem, gnata:...aures ingerunt, 
quicquid mihi Donastis, oculi (Oed. 
226 ff.). 

1387 €<rx<>|ATjv, usu. in this sense with 
gen., as Od. 4. 422 <rx&r0cu.../3:??s. 

1388 to [it] : cp. 1232. For the simple 
fir), where (as here) /xtj ov is admissible, 
see At. 96: Ant. 443: Antiph. Tetral. 
3 (3 § 4 ovdels i]/juv X6yos inreXeLTrero ju^ 
<j>ovevau> elvai. 

1389 tv 4\. For i] (as 1393) see on 
1 123. The negative (iTjSe'v here shows 
how in this construction Iva is essentially 
final, 'so that I might have been'; not 
= 'in which case I should have been' — 
for which the negative must have been 
ovtev. So us 25eij-a [Mr/wore (1392), that 
I might never have shown. Eur. fr. 442 
<pev <pev rb pA) rd trpdypa^ dvdp&irois 
iX etv I tyartPi tv' t\g<xv p.t]8h ol dewol 

1390 <•£<■> tcov koxcov, i.e. undisturbed 
by those sights and sounds from the 
outer world which serve to recall past 


1391 The imperf. tSe'xov helps the per- 
sonification : ' wast ready to shelter me.' 

1392 cos e'8€i£a: see on 1389, and cp. 
Aesch. P. V. 776 tL...ovk iv rdxet \ £ppi\f/' 
e p.auT7}v . . . 57T07S ir45(p o~Kif}\{/ao~a. tQiv irdvTuv 
tcovwv I dirrfXXdynjv ; 

1394 to! iraTpta XoYto = rd Xoycp ird- 
rpta, an order the less harsh since irdrpta 
( = of my fathers, not irarptpa, of my 
father) is supplemented by iraXaid. Cp. 
At. 635 6 voa&v pAtolv : El. 792 tov Qav- 
bvros dprius: Aesch. P. V. 1013 rep <ppo- 
vovvti /xr) /caXws : Eur. Med. 874 rotcrt 
jSoiAeiJovcrtv e8. 

1396 KaXXos kclkcov virovXov, a fair 
surface, with secret ills festering beneath 
it (gen. kclkcov as after words of fulness, 
= KpvirrQv KaK&v ytpAv) : because he had 
seemed most prosperous (775), while the 
doom decreed from his birth was secretly 
maturing itself with his growth. — KaXXos, 
concrete, a fair object, Xen. Cyr. 5. 2. 7 
tt\v dvyartpa, 8euf6u n koXXos ical pdye- 
60s, irevdiicQs 5' typwav. — virovXov, of a 
sore festering beneath an ovX-q or scar 
which looks as if the wound had healed : 
Plat. Gorg. 480 B oVcoj p.T] iyxpoviadev rb 
vo<rrip.<i rijs ddiidas virovXov tijv ^vxv v 

182 I04>0KAE0YI 


vvv yap / ca/cog r a)v /ca/c kolkw evpicrKOfxai. 
to rpetg KekevOoi /cat KeKpyfifievrj vdirr) 
SpvfAos re /cat arevoiiro^ ev rpirr\ax% dSots, 
at rovfJLOv atyxa rcov ijxcov yeipcov euro 1400 

eiriere irarpoq, dpa /xou fiefirrqade tl, 
oV epya Spdcras u/ui> etra Sev/o' taw 
ottoV etrpacrcTov avOis ; gj ydfjioi yd/xoi, 
icbvcraO' rjua?, /cat Ayrevcravres ird\iv 
a^etre ^ravrov crirepiia, Kaireoeigare 
rrarepas, aSe\<£ou9, 7ratSa5, at//,' ifufrvXiov, 
vvfJL<f)a<; yvvaiKas paqrepa^ re, ^wTrocra 
alcryiarr ev avOpamoicriv epya yiyverai. 
— a\X' ov yap avSaV ecr^' a fxrjSe hpdv /caXoV, 

ottox; ra^tora 7rpos 6ecov e£(o fxe rrov 1410 

KakvxjjaT, rj (frovevcrar, rj 6a\d(rcnov 

eKptyar, evOa [kr]rror elaoxpecrO 9 en. 

It, a^tajcrar' dvSpos dOXCov Oiyeiv 

TriOeo-de, fir) heienqre* rand yap /ca/ca, 

ov§€t9 otos re rr\r)v e/xov <j)epew fiporcov. I4 T 5 

1294. 1401 ap& fiov mss. : a/>' fyiou Brunck, Erfurdt: dpa /*t; Blaydes. Linwood 

suggested a/>d /tot. — /t^/ti^o-fl' 8ti L, with most of the later mss. (including A); but 
a few have ixkixvr\a6' iri\ fxtfivrjedt n Elmsley. 1405 raiirbv MSS. I read 

rairoC. Nauck, roi/fiov. 1414 irddeade MSS.: trldeade Elmsley, which almost 

all edd. receive. The pres. = 4 be persuaded': the aor. ='obey,' 'comply with my 

iroiifjffei Kal avlarov, 'lest the disease of irXats 68ois). See on 733. The genu- 

injustice become chronic, and render his ineness of v. 1399 has been groundlessly 

soul gangrenous and past cure ' (Thomp- questioned, on the score of supposed tau- 

son). Thuc. 8. 64 farovkov afrrovofxlav, tology. The language may be compared 

unsound independence opp. to tt]v dvri- with that of the verses from the Oedipus 

Kpvs iXevdepLav. Dem. or. 18 § 307 ijffv- of Aeschylus (fr. 167), quoted in the In- 

Xia-v &yeiv adixov Kal virovXov, unjust and troduction. 

insecure peace. Eustath. Od. 1496. 35 1400 rovfiov atp.a, thus divided from 

2o<poK\i)s...\£yeTat...i)irov\ov direiv rbv irarpos, is more than aZ/ta roifiov irarpos: 

Bovpeiov tinrov, the wooden horse at Troy, 'the same blood which flows in my own 

as concealing foes. veins — the blood of my father.' 

1397 kcIk KdKwv like avocluv ircus 1401 For ti, which has a tone of 

(1360), with reference to the stain in- bitterness here, see on 124, 969. The on 

cuVred by Iocasta. of the mss. must be explained in one of 

1308 f. His memory recalls the two ways: — (1) as if the construction 

scene as if he were again approaching was irregularly changed by ota, oirota : 

it on his way from Delphi. First, he but the immediate succession of ota to 

descries three roads converging in a deep on makes this intolerably harsh : or (2) 

glen or ravine (rpeis kcXcvOoi — KtKpv\i\Uvr\ as if ota, diroia were exclamatory substi- 

vdirrj): then, descending, he comes to a tutes for Seivd or the like: which seems 

coppice (Spvud's) at a point where his inadmissible. 

own road narrows (orT€V«ir6s) just before 1405 dvfirt tcivtov crirep|xa. By the 

its junction with the two others {kv rpi- change of one letter, we restore sense to 



at father's 

For now I am found evil, and of evil birth. O ye three roads, 
and thou secret glen, — thou coppice, and narrow way where 
three paths met — ye who drank from my hands tha 
blood which was mine own, — remember ye, percnance 
deeds I wrought for you to see, — and then, when I came hither, 
what fresh deeds I went on to do ? 

O marriage-rites, ye gave me birth, and when ye had brought 
me forth, again ye bore children to your child, ye created an 
incestuous kinship of fathers, brothers, sons, — brides, wives, 
mothers, — yea, all the foulest shame that is wrought among 
men ! Nay, but 'tis unmeet to name what 'tis unmeet to do : — 
haste ye, for the gods' love, hide me somewhere beyond the 
land, or slay me, or cast me into the sea, where ye shall never 
behold me more ! Approach, — deign to lay your hands on a 
wretched man ; — hearken, fear not, — my plague can rest on no 
mortal beside. 

wish.' In El. 1015 and 0. C. 520 ireldov is fitting, as in Plat. Crito 44 B in /ecu vvv 
4/j.ol irddov Kal crt60?jTi: on the other hand, in Tr. 122? indov is best; and in Aesch. 
P. V. 276 Treldeade {bis) seems rightly changed to iridea&e by Blomfield. Here, as 
in most cases, either pres. or aor. is admissible ; but the aor. seems clearly prefer- 

the passage. The tcxvtov of the mss. is 
unintelligible. Oedipus was the <nr€p|Att 
of La'ius and Iocasta. When Iocasta weds 
Oedipus, the marriage cannot be said 
avitvai rairbv airtpfia : for it is absurd to 
suppose that the seed sown by Oedipits 
could be identified with Oedipus himself . 
But the marriage can be rightly said 
a.vUva.1 raiiTov (nrtpixa, to yield seed from 
the same man (Oedipus) whom that womb 
had borne. 

1405 ff. The marriage of Iocasta 
with Oedipus constituted (dir€8€i£aTe) 
Oedipus at once father and brother (of 
his children), while he was also son (of 
his wife), ...the closest relation in blood 
(atji* 4p,<pvXiov) becoming also the hus- 
band. The marriage made Iocasta the 
bride (vv(jwj>as)...aye, and the child-bear- 
ing wife (-yvvaiKas), — of him to whom 
she was also mother (jMyripas). Thus, 
through the birth of children from such a 
marriage, complex horrors of relationship 
arose (oirocra aicrxwrra ep^a -yfyveTCu). 
atp.' €p.<pvXiov is in apposition with ira- 
Tc'pas d8eX<|>ov$ iraiSas, — 'a blood-kin- 
ship ' standing for ' a blood-kinsman.' 
It expresses that the monstrous union 
confounded the closest tie of consan- 
guinity with the closest tie of affinity. 
The phrase £p.<p&\iov atfia, like crvyyevh 
alfia, would in Tragedy more often mean 

'murder of a kinsman.' But it can, of 
course, mean also ' kindred blood ' in 
another sense ; and here the context 
leaves no ambiguity. Cp. 0. C. 1671 (n.) 
fy<pvTov dl/xa, Eur. Phoen. 246 Koivbv 
alfia, Koiva Tticea \ rijs Kepa<r<p6pov iri- 
(pvicev 'loCs. 

14 10 ff. <fga> p.e irou | KaXv\|/ar : the 
blind man asks that they will lead him 
away from Thebes, and hide him from 
the sight of men in some lonely spot — as 
amid the wilds of Cithaeron (1451). We 
must not transpose KaXityaT and €Kp£- 
t|«xT , as is done in Schneidewin's ed. (as 
revised by Nauck), after Burges. 

1411 f. OaXdcnriov : cp. Appendix, 
note on v. 478. Cp. O. C. 119 n. — 
(fv0a with fut. indie, as At. 659, El. 
380, Tr. 800. 

1415 No one can share the burden of 
his ills. Other men need not fear to be 
polluted by contact with him, as with 
one guilty of blood. His Unwitting 
crimes and his awful sufferings — alike 
the work of Apollo — place him apart. 
In illustration of the fear which he seeks 
to allay, compare the plea of Orestes that, 
since he has been duly purified from 
bloodshed, contact with him has ceased 
to be dangerous (Aesch. Eum. 285 8<rois 
irpoarikdov dj9\a/3et swovcrlq.). — Contrast 
O. C. 1 1 32 ff., where Oed. will not allow 

8 4 


XO. aXX* up eVan-ei? e5 heov irdpecrO* oSe 

KpeW 70 Trpdcrcreiv /cat to fiovXeveiv, eVel 
Xtopas Xe\et77rat jjlovvos dvrl aov <f>v\a£. 

OI. otfxoL, tl 8777a Xe^ofiev 77/005 ro^S' 67705 ; 

ri5 /xot (j)av€LTou 77UT715 cVSik:o5 ; t<x yap 1420 

irdpos 77/305 ai)70> 77a^r i(f)evprjiJLaL /ca/co5. 

KP. ou^ 0)5 yeXacrr^, OiSiVovs, iXrjXvOa, 
ovS' cj5 dreiSiaiz' tl twi^ ndpos kolkcov. 
dXX' ec TO- OvrjTcov fxrj KOJTauTyyvzcrQ' en 
yeveOXa, tt)v yovv irdvTa fiocrKOVcrav <f)X6ya H 2 5 

a^Seicr^' a^aKT05 'HXtou, rotd^S' ayo5 
aKaXviTTOv ovtoj SeLKvvvoLL, to yarjT€ yrj 
fxrjT ofxfipos lepo5 /xtJtc c^ak TTp ocr Several. 
aXX' oj5 ri)(i(TT €5 oIkw ecr/co/Ai^ere' 
rot5 eV yeVei, yap Trtyyei^ /xaXto"^' dpaV !430 

fjLOvous t aKoveiv evcreftcos e^ei Aca«-a. 

able. 1422 oi)x &"] L has o£, with a letter erased after it: a later hand has written 
ovx in the margin. The erased letter was probably 0' (or t'), as in the next verse the 
i st hand wrote otid\ which a later changed to oW (A's reading), while another wrote 
a second ov% in the margin. oi>x---ov8' seems better here, because simpler, than the 

his benefactor Theseus to touch him. 
There, he feels that he is still formally 
dvayvos, and that gratitude forbids him 
to impart a possible taint. Here, he 
thinks only of his unique doom and his 
incommunicable anguish. 

1416 f. cSv eiraiT€is Is 8&>v = season- 
ably in respect of those things which (*5v = 
toijtuv a) you ask. For the gen. of rela- 
tion cp. Xen. H. 6. 2. 9 Keiadai rr)v Ktp- 
Kvpav ev Kakif jxh rod KopivdiaKov k6\tov 
koX tQiv irdXeuv at kirl tqvtov Kad^KOvaty 
('conveniently in respect to'), £v KaXy di 
rod ttjv AaKOJviicijv x^P av /SXdVreu'. — to 
irpdUr<r€iv Kal t<$ fSovXcveiv are strictly 
accusatives of respect, 'as to the doing 
and the planning,' i.e. with a view to 
doing and planning. So Ant. 79, El. 1030, 
0. C. 442, Ph. 1253, etc. 

1418 [xovvos: see on 304. Kuhlstadt 
(De Dial. Trag. 104) thinks that Soph, 
never uses fxovvos for fidvos unless with 
some special emphasis: but, as Ellendt 
remarks, such instances as 0. C. 875, 
991, Ant. 705, fr. 434 refute that view. 
Rather it was a simple question of metri- 
cal convenience. The same is true of 
leij/os and l-ivos, with this exception, that, 

even where metre admitted £&', £et»>' 
occurs as the first word of an address: 
Eur. /. T. 798 i£v\ oil SlkclIuis. In O. C. 
928 also, L and A give £eivov ira.p' do-ruts. 

1420 tis [Aoi4>av€uTai ttCo-tis evSikos; 
'what reasonable claim to confidence can 
be produced on my part?' Oedipus had 
brought a charge against Creon which 
was false, and had repudiated a charge 
against himself which was true. He 
means: — 'How can I expect Creon to 
believe me now, when I represent myself 
as the blind victim of fate, — when I crave 
his sympathy and pity?' irlans has two 
main senses, each of which has several 
shades, — (1) faith, and (2) a warrant for 

faith. Here it is (2) essentially as in 
0. C. 1632 56s fxoi X € P 0S ff V* idffTiv. Not 
'a persuasive argument' in the technical 
sense of Rhetoric, for which irlo-Teis were 
'instruments of persuasion,' whether tv- 
rexvoi, provided by the Art itself (Xoyuafc 
iradrjTiK^, yBucfy, or drexvot, external to 
the art, as depositions, documents, etc. 

1421 irdvT : see on 475. 

1422 Cp. the words of Tennyson's 
Arthur to Guinevere: 'Yet think not that 
I come to urge thy crimes.' 



Ch. Nay, here is Creon, in meet season for thy requests, 
crave they act or counsel; for he alone is left to guard the land 
in thy stead. 

Oe. Ah me, how indeed shall I accost him ? What claim 
to credence can be shown on my part ? For in the past I have 
been found wholly false to him. 


I have not come in mockery, Oedipus, nor to reproach thee 
with any bygone fault. — {To the Attendants^) But ye, if ye 
respect the children of men no more, revere at least the all- 
nurturing flame of our lord the Sun, — spare to show thus 
nakedly a pollution such as this, — one which neither earth can 
welcome, nor the holy rain, nor the light. Nay, take him into 
the house as quickly as ye may ; for it best accords with piety 
that kinsfolk alone should see and hear a kinsman's woes. 

more rhetorical oW . .oijd\ 1424 — 1431 ctW eira 6pvtwv..Jx €lkclk ^- On Nauck's 
transposition of these eight verses, see comment. 1428 iepbs] ipbs Dindorf. See 

on 1379. 1430 [MjcXurd' bpav MSS. Dobree conjectures fibvois bpav (and so Blaydes, 

1424 — 1431 Nauck gives these verses 
to Oedipus, making them follow 141 5. 
He regards toiovS' ctyos k.t.X. as incon- 
sistent with the profession which Creon 
has just made. Rather may we consider 
them as showing a kinsman's anxious and 
delicate concern for the honour of Oedipus 
and of the house (1430). Creon, deeply 
moved, deprecates the prolonged indul- 
gence of a painful curiosity (cp. 1304). 
It is again Creon who says tdc crreyrjs &rw 
(1515) when Oedipus would fain linger. 
Clearly, then, these verses are rightly 
placed in the mss. 

1425 p6<TKOV<rav boldly for Tptcpovaav : 
cp. Aesch. Ag. 633, where the sun is rod 

Tp£<j>OVTOS...-xdovbs (piilOLV. 

1427 f. SeiKvvvcu depends on alSetcrGe, 
for the constr. of which with (1) ace. of 
persons revered, and (2) infin. of act which 
such reverence forbids, cp. Xen. An. 2. 
3. 22 •$GyjjvQr\ koX deobs ical avdpwTrovs 
irpoSovvcu airrbp, ' respect for gods and for 
men forbade us to betray him.' — t6 { = 8, 
see on 1379) |M]T6, not otire, since tol6v& 
ayos indicates a class of &yr) : not merely 
'which? but 'such as,' 'earth will not 
welcome' {quod Terra non admissura sit) : 
cp. 817, El. 654 Screw ifioi \ ddcrvoia p.ij 
irp6<re<TTit>. yfj — 6|x|3pos — <J>«3s. The pol- 
lution (&yos) of Oedipus is such that the 
pure elemental powers — represented by 
earth, the rain from heaven, the light — 

cannot suffer it to remain in their pre- 
sence (irpo<r8€f;€T<H) : it must be hidden 
from them. Cp. Aesch. Eum. 904 f., 
where the Erinyes, as Chthonian powers, 
invoke blessings on Attica, yrjdev — &c re 
Trovrlas dpbaov — ££ oipavov re. 6'fif3pos 
here is not a synonym but a symbol of 
water generally, as with Empedocles 282 
ws rbr* l-7raT' iSlrjve Kijirpis xQt> va Srjpbv ev 
o/JL^pep I ddea Kai iroiovcra doip irvpl duixe 
Kparupai: cp. Lucr. 1. 714 f. quattuor ex 
rebus posse omnia rentur Ex igni terra 
atque anima procrescere et imbri. In Ant. 
1073 the exposure of the unburied corpse 
is spoken of as a violence to ol avu deoi 
{Pi&£ovtcu). It was a common form of 
oath to pray that, if a man swore falsely, 
neither earth, nor sea, nor air, might 
tolerate the presence of his corpse (Eur. 
Or. 1085, Hipp. 1030). 

1428 The original sense of Upo's, 
'strong' (Curt. Etym. § 614), suits a few 
phrases, such as Iepbs 1x06s (//• 16. 407). 
But in such as Upbv rifiap, Kvtyas, 0/*- 
(Spos, irorafjiol etc. it is more likely that 
the poet had no consciousness of any 
other sense than 'sacred.' 

1430 The objection to taking [ia\io-Ta 
with tois kv yiv&. is not that it follows 
these words (see on 1394), but that toIy- 
Y€vtj intervenes. Rather join it with 
evo-€J3<us ?x ei " opa»' plows r aKotieiv = fib- 
vois bpav aKotiew re. 



OI. 77/309 Oecov, eireiTrep eXniSo^ fi dneo'Tracras, 
ctptcrros eX0a)v 77/069 k&kmttov dvhp e/xe, 

TTlOoV Tl jJLOl* 77/30? (TOV ydp, OVO* ifJLOV, <j)pdor(0. 

KP. Kai tov fie ^peta? cSSe Xarapels Tvyelv ', l 435 

01. plxjjov fie yrjs e/c t^ctS' oo-oi> Ta^crff, 6Vov 

Ovtjtojv <\>avovfiai firjSevos 7Tpocnjyopos. 
KP. eSpacr dv ev tovt lad* av, el fir) tov Oeov 

npcoTio-T expytov eKfiadeiv tl wpaKTeov. 
OI. aXX' 77 y eKeivov 77aa- , iSrjXwdr) Claris, 144° 

tov 7raTpo(j)6vTr)v, tov acre/877 fi diroXXvvai, 
KP. oi/tcos ekeyOv) Tavd*' Sficos o\ Iv ecrTapev 

X/octas, dfieivov eKpaOelv tl opacrTeov. 
01. ourcos a/)' dvSpos dOXiov irevo-ecrO* virep ; 
KP. /cat yap crv vvv rav tw 6ea> ttlcttiv (frepous. 1445 

01. Kai ctol y erna ktjtttco re Kai npoaTpexpofiaL, 

Trjs fiev /car* olkovs auros 6V deXecs Ta<j>ov 

0ov' Kai yap opdcos tSv ye crcov reXets V77€/0' 

ijJiov Se fJL7]7TOT dtji(odr)T(i> ToSe 

TTaTpcoov acrTV ^covtos oIktjtov Tvyeiv, I 45° 

aA.V ea fie vaueuv opecriv, evda KXrj^eTai 

with fibvois 8' in 1431): Meineke, fidvois 0' bpav. 1437 <pavovfiai] davodfiai 

Meineke, which Nauck adopts. 1445 t' av L (i.e. tol av, Taj/), with most of the 

1432 tX-irtSos |t dir&nrao"as, suddenly 
plucked me away from (made me to aban- 
don) my uneasy foreboding: cp. Lat. 
revellere (falsorum persuasionem. Sen. 
Epist. 95), and our phrase, 'a revulsion 
of feeling': Ai. 1382 iSs pf tyevaas iX- 
iridos iroXi. Conversely (El. 809) diro- 
<nrd(ras...<ppevds | at jxoi p.6vai irapijaav 

1433 apio-TOS IXQoSv irpos...£pi, having 
come to me in so noble a spirit; cp. 1422 
iXrjXvda. This is more natural than to 
render, ' having proved thyself most 
noble towards me' (see on 1357). 

1434 irpds <rov, in thy interest : Eur. 
Ale. 58 irpbs tGjv ix&rwv, <J»ot/3e, rbv v6/iov 
t16t)$ ; Tr. 479 del yap Kai rb irpbs neivov 
Xtyew, the argument on his side. 

1435 xP €ias > request: O. C. 1754 
wpo<nriTVOfJL4v o~oi. 9H. tivos, w 7ra?5es, 
Xpelas avtiaai ; 

1437 ut)Scvos irpoo-iivopos, accosted 
by no one: for the gen., cp. El. 1214 

OVTUS &TI/jU)S tl/XL TOV TedvTJKOTOS ', ib. 344 

Kdvys 8i5aKT&. With dat. Ph. 1353 t$ 
irpoo-qyopos; see on 1337: for oirov jvrj 
with fut. indie, on 141 2. 

1438 For the double dCv, cp. 139. 
tout depends on fodi, not ?8paaa. 

14 40 <pdTis (1 5 i ), the message brought 
by Creon from Delphi (86); ira<r, 'in 
full,' explicitly: Ai. 275 Keivos...Xi!iirrf 
iras A^Xarot. The indefinite person of 
the 0dris is identified with Oedipus just 
as in 1382 f. 

1441 chroWvvai could refer either to 
misery in exile (1436), or to death: cp. 
100. Ph. 252 5iojXX6pL7)v. 

1442 f. t'va...xp€ias, see 367. 

1444 ovtws with aOXCou : Ph. 104 
ofh-a>s fj^ei tl deivbv Inx&os dpdaos ; 

1445 The Kai belongs to o-u: 'even 
thou' who didst not believe Teiresias. 
This is not spoken in mockery, but with 
grave sorrow. The phrase irkrriv <plpoi$ 
as = TrwreiJois (El. 735 rip WXci ttLlttlv 
4>ipwv) prob. = ' render belief (as a tribute 
due), cp. <pbpov, daa/xbv, x/ 57 7/« tTa <ptpeiv> 



Oe. For the gods' love — since thou hast done a gentle 
violence to my presage, who hast come in a spirit so noble to 
me, a man most vile — grant me a boon: — for thy good I will 
speak, not for mine own. 

Cr. And what wish art thou so fain to have of me ? 

Oe. Cast me out of this land with all speed, to a place 
where no mortal shall be found to greet me more. 

Cr. This would I have done, be thou sure, but that I craved 
first to learn all my duty from the god. 

Oe. Nay, his behest hath been set forth in full, — to let me 
perish, the parricide, the unholy one, that I am. 

Cr. Such was the purport; yet, seeing to what a pass we 
have come, 'tis better to learn clearly what should be done. 

Oe. Will ye, then, seek a response on behalf of such a 
wretch as I am ? 

CR. Aye, for thou thyself wilt now surely put faith in the 

Oe. Yea ; and on thee lay I this charge, to thee will 
I make this entreaty: — give to her who is within such 
burial as thou thyself wouldest; for thou wilt meetly render 
the last rites to thine own. But for me — never let this city 
of my sire be condemned to have me dwelling therein, while 
I live : no, suffer me to abide on the hills, where yonder is 

later MSS. ; L 2 and T have 7' dv, which some edd. prefer. But rot has a pensive tone, 
while ye here would be almost derisive. 1446 irpoaTptyofuu L: irpoTptyo/ r, 

and the like figure in Pind. 01. n. 17 
vlkwv I "TKa (pepe'rco x^P lv - 

1446 K<xl <ro£ 7' : yes [I am prepared 
to abide by Apollo's word], and on thee 
too I lay an injunction, and I will now 
make a prayer to thee; i.e. as I turn to 
the god for what he alone can give (cp. 
1519 rod deov /*' aireis 56<riv), so I turn 
to thee for that which lies in thine own 
power. The midd. irpoaTpcxf/opai as in 
fir. 759 'Epydvrjv ( Athene)... Trpoarpe'ireade: 
the active has the same sense in Ai. 831, 
O. C. 50. On the future, see 1077. 
There is no cause to desire iiriaK-rfxpu: 
each tense has its due force : I now en- 
join, and am going on to ask. Just so in 
Thuc. 2. 44 ovk 6\o< fidXkov 7) irapa- 
fivd^aofiai, where the conjecture 6\o<f>v- 
pov is needless : ' I do not bewail them, 
but rather intend to comfort them.' The 
reading irpoTpt'vJ/ofiai must be judged by 
the context. With it, the sense is : — 
yes [/ am sensible of my duty to 
Apollo], and I enjoin on thee, and will 
exhort thee, to do thine. (Cp. 358 trpoi- 

Tptyco; Plat. Legg. 711 B irpbs dperrjs 
iiriTrjdeijfmTa irporpiweffdai tovs iroXiras.) 
But this strain of lofty admonition seems 
little in accord with the tone of the 
broken man who has just acknowledged 
Creon's unexpected goodness (1432), and 
is now a suppliant (cp. 1468). In Ai. 
831 and 0. C. 50, where irpocTpiiru} is 
undoubtedly right, irpoTpiwu occurs as a 

1447 TTJs...KaT oKkovs: the name of 
Iocasta has not been uttered since 1235. 
Contrast 950. 

1448 reXcis absol., like fpSeiv, per- 
form rites, i.e. the iprd<pia (Isae. or. 8 
§ 38). The special term for offerings to 
the dead was ivayifriv (Isae. or. 3 § 46). 

1449 d£ico0iyr<0, be condemned: Her. 
3. 145 4/xe jUv, (3 KOLKiare av5puv,...&5ucfi- 
ffavra oiidev d^iov deafxov yopytipys rj%la}- 
cas, doomed me to a dungeon though I 
had done no wrong worthy of bonds. 

1451 ia, a monosyllable by synizesis, 
and in Ant. 95 d\V £a /te. Cp. Od. 9. 283 
via [x£v fioi Karia^e ILoaeiddwp ivoalxOwv. 



ovfjios KiOaipoiv ourog, ov (JltJttjp re jjloi 
TraTTjp r iOiaOrjv ^covre Kvpiov rdfiov, 
Iv i£ eKeivcov, ol ll diroiWvTiqv, Odvco. 


lltjt aXXo nepcraL LirjSev ov yap dv 7tot€ 

0vrjO~K(i)v io~(66rjv, lltj Vt toj Sei*>a> KaKco. 

aXX 7) fxev rjficov fxolp , oirourep eicr, lto)* 

ttollSqjv Se tcov licv dpcrevcov jxtj llol, Kpeov, 

TTpocrOf) LiepiLivav dvhpes elatv, ojo~t€ lltj 1460 

cnrdviv wore o-^eiv, evff dv <Sctl, tov ftiov 

toIv S' dOktaiv oiKTpaiv re Trapdivoiv ifxalv, 

olv ovttoO* 17/177 \cop\^ io-rdOrj fiopds 

which some edd. receive: but see comment. 1453 favre MSS. : £G)vti Toup. 

1458 'oiroLTcep L: oinrirep r, which Brunck and others prefer; but Oed. is thinking 
rather of the end to which his destiny may go than of the course by which the end is 
to be reached. 1450 npiuv L: *p£ov r. Cp. on 637. 14 60 Trpbcdj) (sic) L, 

— 6p€<riv, locative dative, cp. 777, 1266. 
— I'vOa kXtj£€tcu k.t.X., lit., 'where my 
Cithaeron yonder is famed, ' = 'where yon- 
der is Cithaeron, famed as mine,' — i.e. 
made famous by the recent discovery that 

it is OldlTTOV TpOCpOS Kdl fJLlf]T7)p (1O92). 

There is an intense bitterness in the 
words; the name of Cithaeron is for ever 
to be linked with his dark story. Statius 
(quoted by Schneidewin) was doubtless 
thinking of this place: habeant te lustra 
tuusque Cithaeron (Theb. u. 752). kXtj- 
£€tcu is stronger than KaXeirai, as in Tr. 
659 Zvda KXijfcTcu dvT-rjp means, 'where 
fame (that brought the tidings of his great 
victory) tells of him as sacrificing.' For 
the idiom cp. //. 11. 757 'AXeialov tvda 

KoXwVT) I K€K\r]Tai. 

1453 The words 6§ IkcCvwv form the 
decisive argument for the £(Svt6 of the 
mss. against Toup's specious emendation, 
£a>vTi. His parents in their life-time ap- 
pointed Cithaeron to be his grave. Now 
they are dead; but, though he can no 
longer die by their agency, he wishes to 
die ii; iicdvuv, by their doom; i.e. by self- 
exposure in the same wilds to which they 
had consigned him(cp. 719 2ppi\f/ev dWuv 
Xepa-lv els dfiarov opos). The thought of 
the dead bringing death upon the living 
is one which Sophocles has also in Ai. 
1026 elSes u?s XP&V I fyieXX^ ^'"E/crw/) kclI 
davuv 6.Tro<t>dieiv ; Tr. 1163 (Heracles 
speaking of Nessus) fwvrd /*' ttcreivev 
davwv : Ant. 871. The reading £<wvti, 

on the other hand, yields nothing but a 
weak verbal antithesis with Ta<|>ov. Had 
his parents meant him to live in lonely 
misery on Cithaeron, there would be some 
point in calling it his 'living grave.' But 
they meant him to die there forthwith 
(cp. 1 1 74) ; fcvri, then, would mean no- 
thing more than that the grave was chosen 
before the babe was dead. — Kvpiov, ap- 
pointed by their authoritative decision : 
cp. Aesch. Eum. 541 iroivd yap ^W<rraf| 
ntipiov fxivei rAos. 

1454 dirttXXvTTiv : for the imperf. of 
intention, cp. Andoc. or. 1 §41 rbv irartpa. 
fxov air&Wve ('sought to ruin'), ffweidbra 

1455 o!8a [ii] &v trip<rai= t l am con- 
fident that nothing can destroy me.' fiJ} 
is admissible since otda here = T^iroida, 
and fit) dv tripvai represents a negative 
conception of the mind. So with partic. 
0. C. 656 oW £yu> <re pA\ riva \ ivdfrd' 
aTr&ijovr'. 018a obic dv wtpaai would be 
more usual ; the difference being that this 
would be the oblique form of oWa on ovk 
dv irtpaeie. The ordinary usage is (1) 06 
with infin. (=6'n with indie.) after verbs 
of saying or thinking, X£yw, jyq/d, oto/xcu, 
etc. ; (2) /tr) with infin. after verbs of feel- 
ing confident, promising, etc., as 7rt<rreiJw, 
irtiroiBa, virio-xvovixai, ofivv/u. Cp. Ph. 
1329. Butafewexceptionsoccurbothways, 
when a verb of either class is virtually equi- 
valent to a verb of the other '.e.g. (1) [Dem.] 
or. 29 § 48 oteaOe ovk dv airrijv Xafietv (-ort 



Cithaeron, famed as mine, — which my mother and sire, while 
they lived, set for my appointed tomb, — that so I may die by 
their decree who sought to slay me. Howbeit of thus much am 
I sure, — that neither sickness nor aught else can destroy me ; 
for never had I been snatched from death, but in reserve for 
some strange doom. 

Nay, let my fate go whither it will : but as touching 
my children, — I pray thee, Creon, take no care on thee for 
my sons ; they are men, so that, be they where they may, 
they can never lack the means to live. But my two girls, 
poor hapless ones, — who never knew my table spread apart, 

with most of the later mss. The ancient grammarians were not agreed on the accen- 
tuation of such forms; cp. Chandler, Greek Accentuation, § 820, 2nd ed. In Her. 6. 
109 MSS. give irpoadr). Elmsley conjectured irpodrj (V has irpbdrj). 1462 f. to?v 

...oh. Attic inscriptions of the 5th and 4th cent. B.C. recognise no dual in -a, -aiv for 

oi5/c dv ZXajSev avT-qv), but Xen. Mem. 1. 
1. 41 olfxai |it] av diKaLm rvx^iv roirov tov 
ixalvov tov fir] eldbra: (2) Plat. Prot. 
336 B b/xoXoyel |XT) fiere?val ol fiaicpoXoylas, 
but Apol. 17 A dfioXoyoirjv av gywye ov 
/caret tojjtovs etvai p-qrup. Cp. Whitelaw 
in Trans. Cam. Phil. Soc. (1886) p. 34, 
and Gildersleeve in Amer. Journ. Philol. 
I. 49. — Whitelaw here takes iripo-at. &v 
as = £irepo~€v av, and reads t£ (not Tip) 
deivip Kaicy: 'my parents wished to kill 
me; but nothing could have killed me; I 
was reserved for this dread evil. ' Surely, 
however, it is better to connect the 
verses with the wish for death which he 
has just uttered. The poet of Colonus 
gives Oedipus a presentiment that his 
end is not to be as that of .other men. 

1457 with jwj understand o-wBcfe, = el 
fir] icribdrjv iirl KaKip rep: cp. Ai. 950 ovk 
av t&8' i<TT7] rrjde fir) 6eQv /j.4ra, sc. o~Tav- 
ra = el fir) terr). 

14 60 irpo<r0fj (X€pt|JLvav, take care upon 
thee: so often of assuming a needless bur- 
den: Thuc. I. 78 nr)...oliceiov irbvov irpoo~- 
drjade: id. 144 KivSvvovs avdatptrovs fxr] 
irpo(TTLde<rdai: Plat. Prot. 346 D ^x^P as 
£Kov<rlas...Trpo<rTldeo~6ai.. Elmsley's plau- 
sible irpoOrj (El. 1334 evXd(3eiav rrpov- 
$4fi7jv) would be weaker. — dvSpes, males 
(though not ii-rjvdpw/JLtvot.); cp. Tr. 1062 
OijXvs ovcra kovk dvdpbs <pv<nv. 

1462 ff. toiv 8' dOXuuv. Instead of 
supplying trpbadov n4pi,uvav, it is better 
to regard otv in 1466 as an anacolouthon 
for toijtoiv, arising from the length of the 
preceding clause. Cp. Antiphon or. 5 
§§ 11, 12 d4ov <re aa 6 at.... a <rv trap- 
eXdtbv, where, after a long parenthetic 

clause, a has been irregularly substituted 
for ravra. 

1463 f. otv for whom x\ €(ii) (?opds 
Tpdirc^a the table at which I ate ovttotc 
X.wpls eo-TdOt] was never placed apart, 
dvev tov8' dvSpos (so that they should be) 
without me. Instead of &veu avraXv, we 
have &vev toOS' dvbpbs, because (otv being 
dat. of persons affected) otv oSirore i) 4p.r) 
rpdire^a X W P^ ^rddrj avev to 05' dvdpbs is 
equivalent to w otiirore rrjv 4p.r\v rpdve^av 
X^pls aradetaav ddirrjv, (dare etvai) &vev 
tou5' dvdpbs. This is simpler than to 
construe : ' for whom the dinner-table, 
which was (always) mine, was never 
placed apart, or without me' : when 7)p.f) 
would be a compressed substitute for i) 
4/xr] del odaa in the sense of dXXd i) 4p.rj 
del rjv. We cannot take r)p.r) fiopas 
rpdirefa as merely = 'the table which I 
provided' : the emphasis on rjfir) would 
alone exclude this. Prof. Kennedy un- 
derstands: 'apart from whom (otv %<«>/>«) 
my dinner-table ne'er was set without my 
bidding? i.e. never except on special oc- 
casions, when I had so directed, avev 
could certainly mean this (0. C. 926 etc.). 
But can we understand Oedipus as say- 
ing, in effect, — 'who always dined with 
me — except, indeed, when I had directed 
that they should not'?— I am much in- 
clined to receive Arndt's &\Xt] for i]p.rf 
(AA for M), as Wecklein has done. — The 
attributive gen. (3opds is equivalent to an 
adj. of quality like rpbtpifios, as Eur. 
Phoen. 149 1 (ttoXIs Tpv<pas = o-ToXls rpv- 
<f>epd: not like afia^ai clrov (Xen. Cyr. 
1. 4. 18) 'waggon- loads of grain.' — «rxd- 
0i], because a light table is brought in for 



TpdneC avev tovcV dvSpos, aAA' octcov eyco 

xjjavoLjjLL, irdvrcov 7wS' del p,eTeiyeTy}v r 4^5 

olv fiot fidkeaOai' kcu /utaXiora fxev yepolv 

xpavcrai fi eacrov Kair o Kkav ctcl(t 6 ai /ca/ca. 

Iff cova£, 

10* co yovff yevvale. X e P (T ^ T ^ v ^ i y 0)V 

SoKolfJi eyeiv erects, cocnrep tjvik e/Skenov, !47° 

tl <f>yjf^i; 

ov Brj kXvco ttov wpos Oecov tolv fxoi c\>l\olv 


errefx\\fe fiOL rd cpikTar eKyovoLV e/xolv ; 

Xeyco tl; ^ 1475 

KP. Xeyeis* iyco ydp elfx 6 Troparvvas raSe, 

yvovs ttjv irapovcrav TepxfjLV, tj cr el)(ev 7raXai. 
OI. a\X' tvTvxoirjs, kox ere rrjcrSe rrjs ohov 

SaLficov djJLeivov rj 3 fxe fypovprjcras rvyoi. 

co Tewa, ttov 7T0T ecrTe ; Sevp* lt, eXdere 1 480 

cos rot? dSeXcfrds racrSe rds ifids x^P a? » 

pronoun-forms in -a, -17. Thus they give, as fem., too, tolv, tovtolv, olv. See Meis- 
terhans, Gr. d. Att. Inschr. p. 50. 1466 olv] Heath's emendation tolv is received 

by Brunck, Erfurdt, and others. I found raiv in one of the later mss. , V 2 , and Blaydes 
cites it from cod. Paris. 2820, with gloss to6twv: it was probably an old conjecture, 
intended to smooth the construction. See comment, on 1462 ff. 147O<r0ao-L, 

the meal, and removed after it (cp. II. 
24. 476, Od. 10. 354 etc.). — d'vev tov8' 
dvSpos, explaining x^pk, as m Ph. 31 
kcptjv oturjo-iv is explained by dvdpwirwv 
bixa, Ai. 464 yvfivbv (pavivra by tlov 
&pi<TTelwp &rep. avev as in Tr. 336 p.ddr)S 
avev tojv8\ hear apart from these. 

1466 n&.€o-0cu, infin. for imper. : cp. 
462. fi.d\ia-Ta \i.iv : see on 926. 

1468 IQ* wva|. A moment of agitated 
suspense is marked by the bacchius inter- 
rupting the trimeters, as Ph. 749 f. (in an 
anxious entreaty, as here) td\ c3 irai. So 
0. C. 1271 tL o~iyq.s; 318 rdXaiva. The 
speech of the agonised Heracles is simi- 
larly broken by short dactylic or chori- 
ambic phrases, Tr. 1081, at, at, wrdXas: 
1085 wvai; 'Atdrj 5^£at p,\ \ u> Aibs durls, 
valaov. But Soph, has used the license 
most sparingly, and always, it may be 
said, with fine effect. 

1469 -yovxj ■ycwaU, noble in the 
grain, — one whose yewaibTTjs is yvrjala, 
inbred, true, — referring to the dperi] just 

shown by Creon (1433). "yovfj here is 
not merely intensive of Yevvaic, making 
it = yevvailrare, (as the sarcastic yivei 
seems to be in Plat. Soph. 231 B t\ yevei 
yewala o-ocpurTucfi, 'the most noble.') 
Cp. At. 1094 p.rjhev cSv yovaicriv. 

14 70 8okoi|x : for this form, cp. Ph. 
895 Spy/*' (n.). ^X €lv <r<j>as- cr^as has 
the accent in Homer when it is emphatic, 
as when joined with avrovs, being then 
a disyllable: 77. 12. 43 a<pias avrovs. 
When non-emphatic and enclitic, it is a 
monosyllable : Od. 4. 77 Kal <r<peas <f>wvq- 
<ras. The perispomenon <r<pas corre- 
sponds to o-tpias, as in o-<pas avrofo: the 
enclitic <r0as to cr0eas. Thus in O. C. 
486 we must write Cos o-<pas Ka\ovp.ev with 
Herm.; where Elmsley gave ws <r0as, 
holding (against the grammarians) that 
this form was never enclitic. Here, as in 
1508, the pronoun is non-emphatic. Ac- 
cording to the rule now generally received, 
a monosyllabic enclitic stands unaccented 
after a paroxytone word, the latter re- 



or lacked their father's presence, but ever in all things shared 
my daily bread, — I pray thee, care for them; and — if thou canst 
— suffer me to touch them with my hands, and to indulge my 
grief. Grant it, prince, grant it, thou noble heart ! Ah, could I 
but once touch them with my hands, I should think that they 
were with me, even as when I had sight... 

[CREON's Attendants lead in the children 
Antigone and Ismene.] 

Ha ? O ye gods, can it be my loved ones that I hear 
sobbing, — can Creon have taken pity on me and sent me my 
children — my darlings ? Am I right ? 

Cr. Yea: 'tis of my contriving, for I knew thy joy in them 
of old, — the joy that now is thine. 

Oe. Then blessed be thou, and, for guerdon of this errand, 

may heaven prove to thee a kinder guardian than it hath to 

me ! My children, where are ye ? Come hither, — hither to 

the hands of him whose mother was your own, 

though the a might easily be taken for &, the accent found in some later mss. 
1474 kyybvoiv L; inydvoiv r (B, V 4 ). 1477 f) cr' elxev L: rjv elxesr (including A), 

evidently a prosaic correction. Wunder, whom Hermann and others follow, adopts y\ 
cr' &x.eL from one 14th century MS. (Laur. 32. 2), taking 7rdXcu with yvofc. For irapov- 
<rav KviSala conjectures rrdpos <rV, Blaydes irdpoide. 1481 ibs MSS. : els Elmsley. 

maining unaffected : we therefore write 
£x €LV o"<£as. But, according to Arcadius 
and Herodian, a paroxytone word fol- 
lowed by an enclitic beginning with a<f> 
took the acute on its last syllable, as 
kx^v enacts: see Chandler, §§ 965, 966, 
2nd ed. 

1471 tC 4>t||xC ; the cry of one startled 
by a sound or sight, as Tr. 865: 0. C. 
315 ri <p&; Aesch. P. V. 561 rls yrj; ri 
■ytvos ; rlva <pu> Xeticraeiv ; 

1472 f. Toiv...<j>£\oiv I SaKpvppoovv- 
toiv. Cp. Ant. 381 oil d-/j irov . .; In par- 
ticiples belonging to the 3rd declens. the 
masc. form of the dual is often used as 
fern.; indeed the specially fern, forms, 
such as ^xo&ra, are very rare. See 0. C, 
append, on 1676, p. 293. Similarly rc6, 
tow, ro&roiv, olv were the usual fern, 
forms: cp. 1462 f., 1504, and Ant. 769 n. 
Thus Xen. Cyr. 1. 2. 11 fitav an<pw roi/rw 
rib 7}[jApa Xoylfrvrai. Plat. Phaedr. 237 
D i]iiG)v iv iKda-rip 56o rive" karov 184a 
dpxovre koX ayovre, oh eir6/j.eda. So rib 
Bed), rdiv Qeolv (Demeter and Persephone). 

1474 Tct cpfXTCtT €K-y. ep.otv. my chief 
treasure, (consisting in) my two daugh- 
ters: cp. on 261 koivwv iraLdwv noivd: El. 
682 wpbaxtl^ dywvos, a glory (consisting 
in) a contest. 

1475 X£yco ti; see Plat. Crat. 404 A 
Kivlvveveis ti \4yew, compared with 
Symp. 205 D KivSwetiets oWrjdrj \4yetv. 
Ar. Eq. 333 vvv hel^ov cbs otidh \e~yei rb 
ffwcppdvM rpacprjvai, ' what nonsense it is.' 

1477 ■yvovs...*jraXai: aware of the 
delight which you now feel, — as you ever 
felt it : i.e. taught by the past to foresee 
that you would thus rejoice. 

1478 Soph, may have been thinking 
of Aesch. Cho. 1063 dXX' e&Tvxoiys, Kai 
cr' iiroirreticw irp6<ppwv \ debs 0i»Xdrroi 
Kauptoiffi crvpupopcus. ttjctSc rr\s 68ov, 
causal gen. : El. 626 dpdaovs | tov8' ovk 
d\'J£eis: Eur. Or. 1407 tppot. ras da^xov 

1479 r\ 'pi is required here, since 
with ij fxe the stress would fall wholly on 
cppoupijcras. On the other hand in 1478 
Ka( <r€ is right, because, after €vtvxo£t]s, 
the person does not need to be at once 
emphasised again. This is not, however, 
like 77. 23. 724 if /*' dvdeip' tj 4yu at, 
where fie suffices because the sense is, 
• slay or be slain.'' In El. 383, 121 3 fxe 
and <roi are justified by the stress on 
darepov and trpovfycei respectively. 

1481 tos T&s..-x^P a S. As the sense is 
so plainly equivalent to u>s 4 fie", we are 
scarcely justified in changing cos to ds 



at rov <f)VTOvpyov irarpos vplv cSS' opav 
ra irpoaOe Xafxirpa TTpov^evr\o~av o^ara* 

c\ e / ^> /» v/}>c^ v sp t * 

09 VjJLLV, 0) T€KV , OVU 0p(DV OVU LO"TOpCx)V 

7raTrjp i(f)avdiqv evdev cu/ro9 TjpoOr^v. l 4&5 

Acal crc^a) Sa/cpw Trpoo-fiXeTreLv yap ov crdevco' 

voovfJLevos tol XoLna tov rrucpov fiiov, 

olov fiicovai a(j)0) 777)09 avOpcoiroiv yjpeu>v. 

7rota5 yap dcrrcov rj^er €19 OfJuXCas, 

7rota? S* eopras, evdev ov KeKkavfievai ^49° 

777)69 oikov i^ecrO' avri rrjs Oecoplas ; 

aAV rfviK av St) 777)69 ydfJLCov T]K'qT afc/xa9, 

ri9 ovros eoTou, ri9 Trapappixjjei, rewa, 

1487 Ta Xonra tov iriKpov'] Some of the later MSS. have tcl irLKpa tov Xotirov, which 
Blaydes prefers, because hitherto their lives had not been bitter. This may have 
been the motive of the change, unless it was a mere oversight: but L's reading 
is equivalent to rbv Xotirbv fiiov rbv inKpbv. 1491 i'£e<70'] ri^td' L ist hand: 

(with Elmsley), or H (with Blaydes). 
Tr. 366 86/j.ovs \ us Toti<r8e is a slightly 
stronger case for such a change, yet not a 
conclusive one. ^s is now read for us in 
Ar. Ach. 242 {us rb irpbadev) and in 
Thuc. 8. 36 (ws tt]v MLXtjtov), 103 (ws 
tt\v "Afivdov). Soph, has il>s tificis Tr. 

1482 f. Construe: at irpovfjevrio-av 
vulv who have effected for you rd irp6<r0€ 
Xauirpd tov <|>vt. irarpos op.uaTa coSe 
opav that the once bright eyes of your 
sire should see thus, i.e. should be sight- 
less : cp. his own phrase quoted in 1273 
iv OKOTurb \01nbv . . .6\f/oia.TO. Ph. 862 <hs 
'Ai'Sa TrapaKeifievos bpq, he sees as the 
dead, i.e. not at all. Cp. Xen. Apol. 
Socr. § 7 6 debs 6V eiifxeveiav irpo^evet /u>i 
ov p.6vov to ev naipf ttjs ifXiKlas KaraXv- 
vat. rbv {Hov, dXXa nal rb jj p'q.ara, the 
god's kindly offices grant to me that I 
should close my life etc. irpo^tveLv — {i) 
to be a irpbi-evos: then (2) fig., to lend 
one's good offices: either (a) absol., as 
O. C. 465 irpo&vei, stand my friend : or 
{b) with dat. and ace, or ace. and infin., 
to effect a thing, or result, for one: Xen. 
An. 6. 5. 14 tare... fie. ..ovbe'va ttio kIvSvpov 
irpoi-evriaaPTa iifuv: Plut. Alex. 22 olvt$... 
ToiavTa bveidrj irpo^evQv (said of one who 
panders to vices) : Soph. Tr. 726 kXirls 
irfns kolI dpaaos tl trpoj-evel. In particular, 
irpo^evety rivo. tivi = avviaravai, to intro- 

duce one person to another. So Prof. 
Kennedy understands here: 'which in- 
troduced to you your father's once 
brilliant eyes, that you should thus 
behold them' — i.e. presented them to 
you in this state. But c58* opav seems 
thus to lose its force : and the ordinary 
usage of irpol-evelv confirms the version 
given above. The conjecture irpova-^X-r]- 
o-av ('maltreated') has found some un- 
merited favour. Besides TrpovcreXov/xepov 
in Aesch. P. V. 438, we find only irpov- 
ffeXoOfxev in Ar. Pan. 730. 

1484 ov8* opwv ov6' Urropuv: i.e. 
neither recognising his mother when he 
saw her, nor possessing any information 
which could lead him to suspect that she 
was such. IffTopelv is (1) to be, or (2) to 
become, tarup, a knower : i.e. ( 1 ) to have 
information, or (2) to seek it. Sense {2} 
is more frequent: but Aesch. has (1) in 
Eum. 455 and Pers. 454. [In Tr. 382 
ovUv ioropZv prob. = 6'rt oiidev iarbpeL 
(imperf.), 'did not ask.'] Here (1) is 
best, because it would be almost absurd 
to say that he had wedded Iocasta 'with- 
out asking any questions' — as if he could 
have been expected to do so. Cp. O. C* 
273 vvv 5' ovdep el bus iKbfirjv tv iKb/xrjv. 

1485 r\p6Qr\v: cp. 1257, 1210. 
1489 f. 6|ii\£as...copTd$. The poet 

is thinking of his own Athens, though the 
language is general. opiXCas comprises 



the hands whose offices have wrought that your sire's once bright 
eyes should be such orbs as these, — his, who seeing nought, 
knowing nought, became your father by her from whom he 
sprang ! For you also do I weep — behold you I cannot — when I 
think of the bitter life in days to come which men will make you 
live. To what company of the citizens will ye go, to what festi- 
val, from which ye shall not return home in tears, instead of shar- 
ing in the holiday ? But when ye are now come to years ripe for 
marriage, who shall he be, who shall be the man, my daughters, 

an early corrector (the first, S, ace. to DUbner) changed this to i£e#', writing <r 
above the e, i.e. L'£e<r0'. Some of the later MSS. (B, E, V 4 ) have ^er', generated, 
doubtless, by rffer' in 1489: as conversely in 1489 T has ^er', prompted by t&ad' 
here. 1493 forcu, rls] Elmsley conjectured iariv Ss (one of the later MSS., E, 

all occasions on which Attic women 
could appear in public, — as at the de- 
livery of 4iriT&<piot (Thuc. 2. 45): copras 
suggests such festivals as the Thesmo- 
phoria, the Panathenaea, or the Dionysia 
(when women were present in the theatre, 
at least at tragedy). To feel the force of 
this passage, we must remember how 
closely the Greek festivals were bound 
up with the life of the family. Kinsfolk 
took part in them together : and at such 
moments a domestic disgrace, such as 
that which the sisters inherited, would be 
most keenly felt. In Athenian law-courts 
the fact of association at festivals could 
be cited in evidence of family intimacy: 
Isocr. or. 19 § 10 ?ojs fih yap iraldes 
rj/J-ev, irepl 7r\4ovos 17/ias avroi/s ijyotjfieda 7} 
toi>s d5e\0otfs, koX otire Bvaiav otire 6eu- 
plav (public spectacle) oftr' &X\rjv eop- 
T7]v oide/xlav xwpis aWTffkwv TjyofMev. 
Isae. or. 8 § 15 kclI els Aiovfoia els dypbv 
rfyev del 7?/*as, Kal fier' itceLvov re i deca- 
pod fie v (in the theatre) Kad-fmevoi irap i 
atirbv, Kal ras ioprds ijyo/Aev Trap* ineivov 
irdcras. It was the Attic custom for a 
bridegroom Qea/j.o<f>6pia eo-nav ras yvvai- 
kcls, to provide a banquet at the next 
Thesmophoria for the women of his deme 
(Isae. or. 3 § 80), and also <pp&Topo~i 
ya/jL7)\lav elo~<f>4peiv t to provide a banquet 
for his clansmen when his bride was in- 
troduced into his <f>parpla (or. 8 § 18). 

1490 K€KXav|i€vcu, only poet.: later 
poets and Plut. have /c&Xetuoyuu : the 
poet, dedcucpvfie'vos also occurs in later 
prose, Plut., Lucian, etc. The festivals 
were religious celebrations, which would 
be polluted by the presence of persons 
resting under an inherited Ayos (cp. note 

J. S. I. 1 

on 240). Some word or act reminds the 
daughters of Oedipus that they are thus 
regarded, and they go home in tears. 
Greek sensitiveness to public notice on 
such occasions might be illustrated by the 
story in Her. of the affront offered to the 
deposed king Demaratus by his successor 
Leotychides at the Spartan festival of the 
yv/jLvoiraidlcu (6. 67). Demaratus drew 
his robe over his head, and left the 
theatre : KaraKa\v\f/djj.evos Tj£e i< tov 
defjrpov is ra icavrov olda. Contrast the 
effusive public greeting which Electra 
imagines herself and Chrysothemis as re- 
ceiving lv 0' ioprals ev re iravd^fjup irdXei 
{El. 982).^ 

1491 dvii rfjs Oewpias, in place of the 
sight-seeing (for which they had looked). 
decopLa is (1) subjectively, a sight-seeing: 

ii) objectively, a spectacle. In sense 
1) the article is added here because a 
definite occasion is meant; usually, the 
art. is absent: Thuc. 6. 24 tr66(p oxj/ews 
Kal dewplas : Plat. Rep. 556 C % Kara deio- 
plas ri Kara arpareias (on travels or cam- 
paigns) : Isocr. or. 17 § 4 &p.a /car' ipiro- 
plav Kal Kara dewplav. In Her. 1. 30 
tt)s deuplrjs iKb % ti(iiiffas...€lveKev, the art. 
is added as in i] elp-hyi) ('peace') etc., 
because 'seeing the world' is spoken of 

1493 Tfe 0$TOS ?OT<n, Tfe, K.T.X., IS 

more animated for tLs ovtos ftrrcu, 5<ms. 
Theocr. 16. 13 rls tQv vvv Toi6a5e; rls ev 
elirbvra tpikaae?', is compared by Jacobs 
there, and by Schneidewin here, but is 
not really similar, since roibaSe there re- 
fers back to v. 5 f» rls ydp...inro5i£erai 



Toiavr oveCSrj Xafifidvcov, a *rcus e//,ai9 

*yov<xicriv ecrrat o~(f)(ov 0* Sfiov S^X^/xara ; *495 

tl yap KCLKGJV a7T€0"T(,; tov rrarepa Trarrjp 

vfxcoit iire^ve' ttjv t€kov<tolv rjpoarev, 

o0ev wep avros icnrdpr), kolk tcov lctcov 

eKTrjaatf vjxa<; covnep avros egeyv. 

roiavT oveihiticrOe* Kara rts yafiel; 1500 

ovk ecTTLV ovdeLS, (o T€kv , aAAa orjkaorj 

■vepcrovs <j)0aprjv<u Kayd/xovs vfidq xpeatv. 

o) nal M.€voLK€G)s f aXX €7T€i fAovos iroLTrjp 

tovtoiv Xekeujjcu, va ydp y a) '<£vr€vcra/Aei>, 

6\(o\afJL€V Sv OVT€, fJLT] <T(f)€ * 7T€puBrjS l 5°5 

7TT0)^as dvdvSpovs iyyeveis aXw/xeVa?, 
1X7)8* i^LcrcjcrTjs rdcrSe rots e/xots /ca/cotg. 
aXX' oiKTicrov cn^as, <SSe nqkLKdcrS* opcov 
Trdvroiv iptf/JLovs, ttKtjv ocrov to crov /xe/009. 
.(jvwevo'ov, 3) yevvale, 077 i/favcras X e P L - ^S l ° 

o-<j)q)v S\ <£ t4kv, el /xep eiyiTTjv rjSr) (jtpevas, 

has tarou 7' 5s) : 'at languet hoc,' as Hermann says. 1494 f. toTs tfioh \ yovev- 

<ru> MSS. Schenkel conjectures ybvoiaiv: Amdt, yafi/3pouriv: Kennedy rats ifiais \ 
yovaicw. Hartung changes ifiois to y&fiois, and cfyX^uara to 'ic/xefiayfie'va ('re- 
proaches which will cleave to your marriage, on your parents' account and on your 
own'). Heimsoeth would keep yovevaw, and change a rots ifiots to a V rijs f<n;s. 
1497 ff. Nauck supposes that Soph, wrote, after ereQvev, merely ovirep a&rbs iairdpy}, | 
Kdui-riioad' v/xas wvirep airbs 0-4<f>v. He now grants that 66ev can mean 4% 17s, but 

1494 Xa^pdvcov instead of the infin. irbpwv d-r/Xrjfia x^ttjs bp6.K<av (the ser- 
with irapapplxf/ei, as Plat. Legg. 699 A pent in the fields, a bane of wayfarers). 
otidds rbre ifio^drjffev o#5' iKivbivevae The disgraces are 8nXi]fjLaTa to the sons 
£vfxfMax6fievo$. and daughters as involving their ruin in 

1495 -yovawriv. The disgraces of the life: but could not be called dyX-v/iara to 
polluted house will be ruinous not only the dead in the remote figurative sense 
to the children of Oedipus, but to his of disgracing their memories. Nor would 
children's children (cnjxjiv, genit., sc. 70- there be any fitness in the conjunction 
pais). I formerly read ybvouriv : but Ken- of harm of another kind to the living, 
nedy justly objects that the plur. of 76^0$ Oedipus here thinks of the living, and 
is not used ; and his conjecture, reus of the future, alone. The conject. ya\i.- 
4fiais yovaiffiv, gives more point here. f3poi<riv, besides being far from the mss. , 
For yoval, ' offspring,^ cp. 0. C. 1192, presumes the event which he regards as 
Ant. 641. The *yov6v<riv of the MSS. impossible. 

yields no tolerable sense, whether it is 1496 ira/rlpa: for the tribrach see on 

referred to Laius and Iocasta or to 719. 

Iocasta alone. — b^X-qfia is a hurt, bane, 1498 t»v tcrwv is poetically equiva- 

mischief, in a physical or material sense: lent to tQu aiirCbv, i.e. r^j afrrys: it is 

Od. 12. 286 Ave/ioi x a ^ €ir °l' brfX^fiara like saying, 'from a source which was 

vtiQv: Horn. Horn. Hymn. Apoll. 364 (of even as that whence he sprang,' instead 

the dead monster) oi/5i at ye fi6oucra Ka- of, 'from the same source whence he 

kov 8rj\7jfLa PpoToiai}': Aesch. fr. 119 ddoi- sprang.' Cp. 845 oi> yap yevoir' av eh 



that will hazard taking unto him such reproaches as must be 
baneful alike to my offspring and to yours ? For what misery 
is wanting? Your sire slew his sire, he \}^c\ seed nfc heri whn 
bare him, and begat you at the sources of his' own being ! Such 
are the taunts that will be cast at you; and who then will wed ? 
The man lives not, no, it cannot be, my children, but ye must 
wither in barren maidenhood. 

Ah, son of Menoeceus, hear me — since thou art the only 
father left to them, for we, their parents, are lost, both of us, — 
allow them not to wander poor and unwed, who are thy kins- 
women, nor abase them to the level of my woes. Nay, pity 
them, when thou seest them at this tender age so utterly forlorn, 
save for thee. Signify thy promise, generous man, by the touch 
of thy hand 1 To you, my children, I would have given much 

objects to tQv tcrcav, and to the marriage being dwelt upon at more length than the 
parricide. 1505 fiij <r<pe irapldys MSS. (wapidfja- L). Dawes conjectured yrf\ o~(f>e 

irepUdys : Fritzsch, /jlt) irepl atf tbrjs : pJ} irapd <r<p' Idys Porson : Erfurdt, pvq <r<f>e 8r] 
(p.01 Blaydes) irpodys, and afterwards pvtj aft dnp-da-ys. 1506 iyyevels MSS. (made 

in L from ivyeveic). Dindorf conjectures iKyeveh, comparing £kj3los, itcrifios, i^otjcrios: 
Hermann, dor^yoi/s: Schneidewin, iicaTeyeis: Wolff, ervyyev-qs. 1511 elx^v MSS.: 

7c rols iroXXots foos, and note. 

1500 ovciSiciarde : see on 672. 

1501 8r)Xa8t] : prosaic, but also in 
Eur. Or. 780, /. A. 1366. 

1503 dXX.' after the vocative, like ai> 
64, but stronger, as introducing an ap- 
peal: as 0. C. 1405 w to05' op.aifj.01 ircu- 
8es, dXX' vp.ets...p.^ /a' 6.TLp^do"ifri ye : and 
ib. 237. 

1505 8v' Svtc, both of us: cp. Tr. 539 
6ff odacu pJ.pjvop.ev : Eur. Ion 518 ov 5' ev 
<f>p6vet ye Kal 5tf' <?jt' ev irpdl-ofiev. — rrepit- 
8]]S : on Porson's objection, see Appendix. 

1506 lyycvcis, vour kinswomen as 
they are (where in prose we should have 
ovffas added). The word was full of 
meaning for an Attic audience, who 
would think of Creon as placed by 
Oedipus in the position of imrpo-rros 
(guardian) and /ctf/wos (representative be- 
fore the law) of the unmarried girls who 
are here viewed as orphans (1505); their 
brothers not being of age. Cp. Isae. or. 
5§ 10; [Dem.]or. 46 § 18. 

1507 €£«rco<rns tcutSc, do not put 
them on the level of my miseries : cp. 
425 : for rdffSe instead of to, TuvSe icaicd, 
cp. note on 467. 

1508 TT)XiKa<r8', at their age, i.e. so 
young: Ant. 726 ol rrjXiKoLde (so old) Kal 
8i5ai-6p£(rda 5^ | <ppoveiv irpbs dvdpbs 7-17X1- 
Kovde (so young) rqv (pticriv; 

1509 irXijv ocrov to <rov p-cpos, ex- 
cept in so far as, on thy part, ovk ipr\p.oi 

1511 etx^Tqv, 2nd pers. dual, with 
the form proper to the 3rd (p-ereix^T^v, 
1465). Before the Attic period, the 
Greek language had attained to this re- 
gular distinction of active dual forms : — 
(1) primary tenses, 2nd pers. -tov, 3rd 
pers. -tov ; (2) secondary tenses, 2nd pers. 
•tov, answering to Skt. lam: 3rd pers. 
•TTjv, Skt. tarn. As regards (2), two 
classes of exceptions occur: (a) Homeric 
3rd pers. in -tov instead of -tt)v; three 
instances, 6i<i)Kerov (II. 10. 364), irevxe- 
tov (13. 346), Xa0iWeT<w (18. 583). 
These Curtius refers to 'the want of 
proper linguistic instinct on the part of 
some late rhapsodist.' (b) Attic 2nd pers. 
in -ttjv instead of -tov. Our d\iTr\v here 
is the only instance proved by metre : but 
8 others are established. Against these 
fall to be set at least 13 Attic instances 
of the normal -tov. Curtius regards the 
2nd pers. in -tijv as due to a false an- 
alogy. In the third person dual -tt\v 
was distinctive of the secondary tenses. 
Attic speech sometimes extended this 
distinction to the second person also. 
(Curtius, Verb 1. 80, Eng. tr. 53.) Cp. 
n. on O. C. 1378 f. 


9 6 


ttoXK 3 dv iraprjvow vvv Se tovt evyecrOe /xot, 
ov Kcupos # ea £,rjv, tov fiiov 8e X&Wos 
vfids Kvprjcrair tov fyvreucravTos TraTpos. 

2 KP. ol\ls ly _ifp]K€i<5 8aKpvo)v aXX* Wl crrey^s ecra). 1515 
OI. TTtiariov, k€l firjSev ii]Sv. KP. irdvra yap Kaipco Kakd. 
OI. 6ta6 > icfS ofs our el/xi ; KP. Xefeis, /cat ror* euro/iai 

OI. y^5 //,' 07TOJS 7T6/Xl//€tS CLTTOIKOV. KP. TOV #€OV /A* aiT€l9 

OI. aXXa 0€ois y' e^OucrTos tjkq). KP. roiyapovv revfei 

OI. <£?)$ Ta8' ouV ; KP. a fiij <f}pov<o ydp ov <£iX<u Xeyetv 

fldT7]V. 15 20 

OI. airaye vvv fi ivrevdev 17817. KP. crret^e jaw, reKvoyv 
8* d<j>ov. 

etxerdv 7' Brunck. 1612 ttytodk /toe MSS. (In L the third e had been at.) — 
Wunder, etfxe<r0' ^/M>f : Blaydes, rovd' (w eCxofiai (so Wecklein), suggesting also tovt' 
iireuxoncu: Dindorf, vftixdb) fibvop. (Plat Phaedr. 279 C has rfbicrcu, pass., and Soph. 
Tr. 610 rivyiHtjv, midd. : but the imperat. of rjdyfiai does not occur.) 1513 ov 

xoupbs del jfiv tov fllov 5e \<?ovos mss. The modes of correction tried have been 
chiefly three. (1) Omitting f^v, Elmsley explains thus: evx^ode nvfrqaai tov filov 
od xaipbs &el (Kvpyjaal ian), Xyovos Se tov </>vt. irarpSs. Hermann, also omitting 
jfiv, makes etix €<T € passive (i.e. 'let that prayer be made for you by me, which is 
fitting at each season'). (1) Omitting tov, Hartung writes, ov Kaipds. alel tfjv, /S/ou Se 

1512 ff. Oedipus now . turns from 
Creon to the children. 'I ne few words 
which he addresses to them are spoken 
rather to the older hearers and to him- 
self, tovt d&\eo~Qi uoi, ' make this 
prayer, as I bid you ' (not, ' pray on my 
account,' in which sense Wunder reads 
ipu>L): the ethic dat. p.01 in request, as 
O. C. 1475. In these words Oedipus is 
thinking solely of his children: he has 
now passed away from the thought of 
self (1458). vjias in 1514 is no argu- 
ment for understanding fie as subject to 
£nv : rather it is added to mark the con- 
trast with irarpds. 

1513 I prefer ov" Kaipos c£ £fjv, tov 
PCov jc.t.X. to ov Kaipos del My, pfov 
k.t.X. on these grounds. 1. tov before 
PCov, though not required, is commend- 
ed, by Greek idiom; it also gives a de- 
cidedly better rhythm ; and it is not likely 
to have crept into the text, since the oc- 
currence of del with the a long was not 
so uncommon that it should have sug- 

gested the need of supplementing the 
metre by tov: but, apart from metrical 
motive, there was no other for intruding 
the article. 1. otf Kaipos, without any 
verb, though a possible phrase, is a harsh 
one. 3. From cat to aci would be an 
easy transition. And Kaipos t$ is quite 
a natural expression : cp. Eur. /. A. 858 
SoOXos' oi>x afipvvofuu r<£$'* rj t6xv 7<*/> 
ovk i$. The foreboding of Oedipus is 
that his daughters must become home- 
less exiles (1506) unless Creon shelters 
them at Thebes. 'To live where occa- 
sion allows'' means in his inner thought, 
'to live at Thebes, if that may be — if 
not, in the least unhappy exile that the 
gods may grant you.' The monosyllabic 
ia (1451, Ant. 95) and iq, (II. 5. 256 
Tpelv /*' ovk iq. IlaXXas ^kdijvTf) go far to 
remove the metrical objection. Meineke's 
conjecture, y, gives a more prosaic phrase, 
and is too far from the del of the mss. 

1615 !£t(kcis: see on 1357. 

1516 Kaipw=eV /catpy. In Thuc. 4.. 



counsel, were your minds mature ; but now I would have this 
to be your prayer — that ye live where occasion suffers, and that 
the life which is your portion may be happier than your sire's. 

Cr. Thy grief hath had large scope enough: nay, pass into 
the house. 

Oe. I must obey, though 'tis in no wise sweet. Cr. Yea: 
for it is in season that all things are good. 

Oe. Knowest thou, then, on what conditions I will go ? 
Cr. Thou shalt name them ; so shall I know them when I hear. 

Oe. See that thou send me to dwell beyond this land. 
Cr. Thou askest me for what the god must give. 

Oe. Nay, to the gods I have become most hateful. Cr. Then 
shalt thou have thy wish anon. 

Oe. So thou consentest ? Cr. 'Tis not my wont to speak 
idly what I do not mean. 

Oe. Then 'tis time to lead me hence. Cr. Come, then, — 
but let thy children go. 

Xojovos. Blaydes and Campbell read thus, but keep &el y and place no comma after 
Kcupos. (3) Others alter del. Dindorf gives ov icaipbs eg. jfiv, rod fttov 8h Xcpovos. 
This has been the most generally received emendation, and seems the best. Meineke, 
ov Kcupbs xi £v v : Blaydes, ov Kaip6s, etilfiv. 1517 elfd L: elpu Brunck. 1518 ire'jx- 
\peia L 1 st hand, corrected to wifirf/rjia; and then (by a still later hand) back to 
irifixf/eiff. The later MSS. are divided, but most have irifi\f/eis. — dir' oticwv L, ov written 
over ojv by a late hand. Most of the later mss. have dir' oticwv (over which in A is 
yp. Attoikop), but V 2 has diroLicuiv, and B awoiicov. 1521 vvv [bis) L, and so Wolff; 

vvv (bis) Brunck, and most edd. T has vvv . . vw, but this, at least, can hardly be 

59 most mss. give el /x^ naipup rvxoiev 
eK&repoi irpdaaovres'. Classen reads iv 
Kaipio on the ground that Thuc. so has 
it in 1. 121, 5. 61, 6. 9. 

1517 The words oto-0' i$ ots ovv 
etpa; were said with some return of his 
former agitation: Xcge.s k.t.X. is said by 
Creon with calm, grave courtesy ; they 
have nothing in them of such irony as, 
'I shall know when you are pleased to 
tell me.' So Aesch. Theb. 260 ET. al- 
tov/jUvu) /ulol Kovcj>ov el dolrjs riXos : ' would 
that thou couldst grant me a light boon.' 
XO. X^yois av cJj T&xto-Ta, Kal t&x' efoo- 
ficu (i.e. and then I shall know if I can 
serve thee). 

1518 oirws -rre'ijujms : sc. 6 pa: Xen. 
An. 1. 7. 3 07T«s ovv taeaQe &v8pes, 'see 
that ye be': Plat. Rep. 337 a owus fioi, 
w dvdpwire, fM^ ipeis. Not (et/u iicl to6- 

TOts), 07TWS K.T.X. 

1519 d\Xd 0€ots y* : *'•'• 'Nay, the 
gods, who hate me, will not be displeased 
that I should be thrust forth.' For the 
synizesis in Oeois cp. 215. — tjk«: cp. 

*357» O.C. 1 177 ^x e ^ T0V v**h has come 
to be most hateful. Creon's reply, toi- 
■yapovv T€vfj€t rdxa, means: 'if the gods 
do desire thy banishment, thou wilt soon 
have thy wish' — when the oracle at 
Delphi is consulted (1443). According to 
the story which Soph, follows, Oedipus 
was at first detained at Thebes against 
his own wish. But when some time had 
elapsed, and that wish had given place 
to a calmer mood, the Thebans, in their 
turn, demanded his expulsion; and Creon 
then yielded (0. C. 433 ff.). 

15 20 d pi) 4>povu. In the 0. C. 
(765 ff.) Creon is represented as oppos- 
ing a distinct refusal to this prayer of 
Oedipus. His words here could mean: 
'No, I do not promise, for I am not 
wont to speak vain words when I lack 
knowledge' (<ppovQ as in 569) : i.e., 'lean- 
not tell how Apollo may decide. ' But I 
now think that, on the whole, it suits the 
context better to take them as expressing 
consent (a firj <f>povu> — what I do not mean 
to do). As this consent can be only pro- 



OI. firjSafxcos tolvtcls y €A# jjlov. KP. Trdvra jxt) fiovkov 
/ecu yap aKpaTrjo-as ov <roi rq> ftico £vvecnreTo. 

XO. a> naTpas (2)77/3779 Zvolkoi, Xevcrcrer', OISl7tov<s oSe, 

os tol KXeiv aiviyfiar rjSei /cat /cpartcrros rjv oivrjp, 1525 
*ov ri's ov £77X0) 7to\lto)v *tcus Tu^at? * iTrdfiXeirev, 
eis ocroy /cXvSwra Sea^s o-vfufropas ekrjkvdev. 
cScrre Ovy)tov ovt eKeivrjv ttjv rekevraiav ISelv 
• rjiLepav Ittictkottovvtcl firjSev' 6\/3C^€Lv f irplv av 
\ I repfxa tov fiiov irepdcrrj fj/qhev aky eivov Tradojv. 1530 

right, though wv . . vvv would be quite defensible. 1523 t$ fiLy] 5ia /Stov Nauck. 

1524 — 1530 The MSS. rightly give these verses to the Chorus. The Scholiast gives 
them to Oedipus, but thinks that the play would end better with v. 1523: to. yap 
£i-r)s dvoliceta, yvw/x6\oyovvros tov OtdLirodos. This error arose, as Dindorf points out, 
from the fact that in Eur. Phoen. 1758 ff. Oed. speaks similar verses, of which the 
first two are taken almost verbatim from our passage : — (3 irdrpas K\eivi)s TroXirai, 
\euo~o~eT\ Otdiirovs 65e, | 6s to. KXeLv' ably par* Zyv<a Kal fiiyiaros t\v dvf\p. — Fr. Ritter 
would delete vv. 1524 — 1530: but the close of the play would then be too abrupt. 
1526 6o-Ti<r ov frf}\(j) ttoXltCov koI Tv~x ai(T tiripXtirwv L. In the later MSS. the only 
variations are iv for ov (V, M, M 5 1st hand), and /3/y for fi}X<p (M), — mere blunders. 
Musgrave conjectured, ov rls ov ^X(p ttoXituv rrjs tvxv* iirtfiXeTrev; (So Blaydes.) 

visional — depending on the approval of 
Apollo — it is not necessarily inconsistent 
with O. C. 765 ff. 

1522 i-X-g (iov: cp. 1022 x €L P& v ^ a " 

1524 — 1530 See critical note. These 
verses are spoken by the Chorus, as Creon 
turns with Oedipus to enter the house. 
The calm close which the tragedy re- 
quires would be wanting if they were 
spoken by the chief sufferer himself. 
Of extant Greek tragedies, the Prome- 
theus and the Agamemnon are the only 
ones which end with words spoken by 
one of the actors; and in each case this 
is justified by the scheme of the trilogy 
to which the play belonged. 

1525 Here, as elsewhere, the mss. 
fluctuate between xj8«i and ffir\. The 
Attic fl8r), as first pers. sing., is con- 
tracted from ij5ea : in the third, the 
classical form was not $8r} but flSct, or, 
before a vowel, ydeiv (as it must be in 
Eur. Jon 1187, Ar. Pax 1182 etc.). No 
^rd sing, in ea, from which ij could come, 
6 said, or can be supposed, to have ex- 
isted. Aristarchus, indeed, is quoted by 
the schol. on //. 5. 64 in favour of the 17. 
But the Doric 3rd sing. airo\w\ri in Tab. 
Heracl. 1. 39 is the only such form which 
is beyond question. Curtius {Verb II. 

237, Eng. tr. 431 ff.) therefore agrees 
with those textual critics who, like La 
Roche, Cobet, and Kontos (A6710S 'Epurjs 
p. 61) would always write the 3rd sing. 
rjdei (or rjdeiv). -gSei aiviy\iara {plur. 
with reference to the hexameter iirrj 
in which it was chanted) = knew in- 
stinctimlyi by the intuition of genius : in 
Eur. Phoen. 1759 the adapter of this 
verse has altered y8et (perhaps by a slip 
of memory) to the more natural but less 
forcible iyvu, 'read aright,' solved. 

1526 o5 tCs ou £i]Xa>...Ttus Tv^ais 
€ire(3X., 'on whose fortunes what citizen 
did not look with emulous admiration?' 
(Cp. Xen. Hiero 1. 10 7r<2s hk irdvres 
i£r}Xovv av rods rvpdvvovs;) To me it 
appears certain that we should here read 
the interrogative ris, with eir^pXeirev in- 
stead of 4iripX£ir«v. Cp. O. C. 1 1 33 v 
rls ovk ivi I ktjXIs ica/cuv tjtivoiKos; 871 
ottov rls opvcs ou%i kXayydvei ; El. 169 f. 
tL..ovk... I ...dyyeXlas: Eur. Phoen. 878 
A7W tL dpwv ov, trola 5' ov Xtywv Ihn], | 
c£s £x.dos rj\doi>. Dem. or. 18 § 48 i\av- 
vofxtvuv Kal vfipifofifruv Kal ri KaKbv ovxl 
Taax 0VT<av iraaa 17 oUovfx&7} fieari) y£- 
yovev. Then the tcai of the MSS. should 
probably be rats: though it is possible 
(as Whitelaw proposes) to take f^Xy Kal as 'his glory and his fortunes': 



Oe. Nay, take not these from me! Cr. Crave not to be 
master in all things: for the mastery which thou didst win hath 
not followed thee through life. 

Ch. Dwellers in our native Thebes, behold, this is Oedipus, 
who knew the famed riddle, and was a man most mighty ; on 
whose fortunes what citizen did not gaze with envy ? Behold 
into what a stormy sea of dread trouble he hath come ! 

Therefore, while our eyes wait to see the destined final day, 
we must call no one happy who is of mortal race, until he hath 
crossed life's border, free from pain. 

Combining iirtfiXeirev with two other conjectures (Martin's ov rts, and Ellendt's rats for 
kclI) Hartung restored, ov ris ov {rjXw ttoXltijJv tou$ rvxais iwipXeirev. Nauck now reads, 
ofi rts ov ftXu iroXtrQv r\v ri5x ats £in{5\tiruv (r/v for nal with Enger). Campbell con- 
jectures irpuros £v tfXip ttoXitQv ko! tIjx - 1 * eirHpXe'ywv, citing a gloss 4iraip6p.evos (on 
iTn^X^Truv) which occurs in M (not, however, in E, where on p. no, which contains 
vv. 1518 — 1530, there is no gloss). 1528 iKetv-qv] kcIvtjv L 1st hand : the initial 

e is from the first corrector (S). — ideiv has been suspected: see comment on 1529. 
1529 In L four words (probably belonging to a gloss) have been erased above ix-qUv' 
dXpifav irph av. In the margin the first corrector has written yp. irdvra irpoaboKav 
%<as av : i.e., some copies had irdyra irpoadoKav e'ws (to which the corrector of L has 
wrongly added &v) for /*7/5A>' 6X(3L£eiv irpiv av, — a conjecture of the same class as that 
noticed on v. 134. 

cp. At. 503 otas Xarpelas dvd y 8aov ItfXov 
rp4<pei. I doubt, however, whether tire"- 
(ilXeirev, without i^Xy, could mean 'ad- 
mired.' On the usage of the verb iiri- 
/SXeVw, see Appendix. 

1529 The use of lirwrKOirovvTa is 
peculiar. I take the exact sense to be : — 
' fixing one's eye on the final day (as on a 
point towards which one is moving), that 
one should see it,'' i.e. 'until one shall 
have had experience of it.' Thus eVi- 
ffKoireiv is used in a sense closely akin 
to its common sense of 'attentively con- 
sidering ' a thing : and the whole phrase 
is virtually equivalent to, ' waiting medi- 
tatively to see the final day.' For the 
added infin., cp. Thuc. 3. 2 ve&v icolt\aiv 
iirtfJLevov reXeadrjvai, nal o<ra £k tov II6v- 
tov £8« 6\<puc£<r6cu. Cp. Plin. 7 § 132 
alius de alio iudicat dies, et tamen supre- 
mus de omnibus, ideoque nullis creden- 
dum est. Hartung proposed to replace 
ISeiv by ye Set (where ye would be in- 
tolerable); Stanley by hdei, Seyffert by 
84ov, and Nauck by XP €UV ' Kennedy, 
keeping I8etv, changes i/celi/riv into dfxet- 
vov. But the infin. 6X|3i£eiv as a 'sen- 
tentious' imperative (see on 462) is ap- 
propriate in this The accus. 
(dvTjrbv 6vt\ iiriaKoirovvra) stands with 
the infin. when, as here, the infin. repre- 
sents an imperat. of the third person; 

cp. 77. 3. 284 el 84 k' ' Kk4i-av8pov KTeivrj 
l-avd6s Mev4Xaos, \ Tp&as £ireid' 'EX4vrjv 
/cat KT7]p.aTa iravr'' airodovvai, with Leaf's 
note: and Madvig Qr. § 546. When 
the infin. = an imperat. of the second per s., 
the case is regularly the nom. (Od. 11. 
441), rarely the ace. (Hes. Op. 389). 
The view that 6Xj3l£etv depends on wore 
requires a shorter pause at iXrjXvdev, and 
thus weakens the effect of v. 1527. 

Ii/n&v* o\{3i£€iv. Eur. Androm. 100 ff. 
partly reproduces the language of this 
passage: XPV &' oUttot* eiireiv ov84v' 
6Xj3tov pporuiv, I trpiv av davdvros tt\v 
reXevraiav I8jj% \ Situs irepdaas ijp.4pav , 
i]i;ei Kara. He has the thought also 
in Tro. 510, Heracl. 866, /. A. i6r, 
as Soph, in Tr. 1 and fr. 588. The 
maxim, • Call no man happy before death,' 
first appears in Greek literature as a 
set yvwpit) in Aesch. Ag. 928 dXfilaai 
8e xph I Pl° v reXevrfjO-avT' 4v evearoi 
<plXy but Aristotle recognises the popular 
tradition which ascribed it to Solon. 
In Her. 1. 32 Solon says that a man 
may be called eirrvxiis in life, but 0X/3ios 
only after a life exempt from reverse. 
Cp. Iuv. 10. 274 f. Et Croesum, quern 
vox iusli facunda Solonis Respicere ad 
longae iussit spatia ultima vitae, where 
Mayor refers to the proverbs AvSds (Croe- 
sus) dtrodvi}<TKei. ao<pbs dvfjp, and riXos opa 



filov (Paroemiogr. II. 187, I. 315 n.), and 
to notices of the saying in Cic. (De Fin. 
» § 87, 3 § 76), Diog. Laert. (1 § 50 ra 
dpv\o6/xa>a), Ovid (Met. 3. 135), Seneca 
(De Tranq. An. n § 12), Josephus {Bell. 
Iud. 1. 5. 11 = 29 § 3)i Arrian (7 § 16. 7), 
Lucian (Charon 10): cp. Ecclus. 11. 28. 
Does Solon mean, Aristotle asks, (1) that 
a man is happy when he is dead? Or 
(2) that, after death, he may be said to 
have been happy? If (1), Arist. declines 
to allow that the dead are positively 

happy; and popular opinion, he says, 
denies that they are always negatively so, 
i.e. free from unhappiness. If (2), then 
is it not absurd that at the time when he 
is happy we are not to call him so? The 
fallacy, he concludes, consists in treating 
' happiness ' as dependent on bright for- 
tunes: ov yap iv ravTcus rb et> 77 kcikuJs, 
dWa irpoabeirai rofrrwv b avdp&irivos jSios, 
Kaddirep etwafiev, Kijpiai 5' dclv al /car' 
dper^v ivipyetat tt)$ eibaifiovias, al 5' 4- 
vavrlou rod ivavrlov. (Eih. Nic. 1. 11.) 


The Oedipus Tyrannus at Harvard. — Reference has been made in 
the Introduction (§ 29) to the performance of the Oedipus Tyrannus by 
members of Harvard University in May, 1881. The thorough scholar- 
ship, the archaeological knowledge and the artistic skill which presided 
over that performance invest the record of it with a permanent value 
for every student of the play. Where the modern imagination most 
needs assistance, this record comes to its aid. Details of stage- 
management and of scenic effect, which a mere reading of the text 
could suggest to few, become clear and vivid. Mr H. Norman's 
'Account of the Harvard Greek Play' — illustrated by excellent photo- 
graphs — is, in fact, a book which must always have a place of its own 
in the literature of the Oedipus Tyrannus. I select those passages 
which relate to the principal moments of the action ; and, for more 
convenient reference, I arrange them in successive sections. 

§ 1. Opening Scene. * Account,' p. 65. 'The scene behind the 
long and narrow stage is the palace of Oedipus, king of Thebes, — a 
stately building with its frieze and columns. There is a large central 
door with two broad steps, and two smaller side doors ; all three are 
closed. In the centre of the stage in front is a large altar ; beside each 
of the smaller doors of the palace is another altar. A flight of steps 
leads from the stage at each side. The sound of the closing doors has 
warned the audience that the long-expected moment is at hand, and an 
immediate silence ensues. Under these circumstances the first notes of 
the orchestra come with great effect, and the entire prelude is unusually 
impressive. As it closes, the spectators are sympathetic and expectant. 

' Slowly the crimson curtains on the right-hand side below the stage 
are drawn apart, and the Priest of Zeus enters, leaning on a staff, a 
venerable and striking figure.... Behind him come two little children. 
They are dressed in soft white tunics and cloaks, their hair is bound 
with white fillets, and they carry in their hands olive branches twined 
with wool, — 

ikaiaq 0* vif/iyewrfTOi/ kXoSov, 

Xljv€l /U-CyiOTO) <T(l)cf>p6v<l)S £<JT€fJLfACVOV. 


This shows that they come as suppliants. Behind the children come 
boys, then youths, and then old men. All are dressed in white and 
carry suppliant boughs ; in the costumes of the men, the delicate fabric 
of the undergarment, the x tTa > v > contrasts beautifully with the heavy 
folds of the t/xaTiov. With grave, attentive faces the procession crosses 
the front of the stage, and mounts the steps ; the suppliants lay down 
their branches and seat themselves on the steps of the altars. The 
priest alone remains standing, facing the palace door. 

1 The first impression upon the spectators was fortunate. The inno- 
cent looks of the children, the handsome figures of the men, the 
simplicity and solemnity of their movements, set off as they were by 
the fine drapery of their garments and the striking groups around the 
altars, had an instant and deep effect. It is safe to say that fears of 
crudeness or failure began rapidly to vanish. The spectacle presented 
at this moment was one of the most impressive of the play. 

' After a short pause the great doors of the palace are thrown back, 
and the attendants of Oedipus enter and take up their positions on 
each side. They wear thin lavender tunics reaching nearly to the knee. 
Their looks are directed to the interior of the palace, whence, in a 
moment, Oedipus enters. His royal robes gleam now with the purple 
of silk and now with the red of gold ; gold embroidery glitters on his 
crimson tunic and on his white sandals; his crown gives him dignity 
and height. 

i For an instant he surveys the suppliants, and then addresses them.' 

§2. Arrival of Creon from Delphi: verses 7 8 fF. 'Account,' p. 69. 
'While Oedipus is speaking, the children on the [spectators'] left of the 
stage have descried some one approaching, and one of them has pointed 
him out to the priest. It is Creon, who enters with rapid strides, 
wearing a wreath of bay leaves sparkling with berries, the symbol of a 
favorable answer. He is dressed in the. short salmon-colored tunic and 
crimson cloak, with hat and staff. A hasty greeting follows; and 
Oedipus, the priest, and the suppliants wait for the answer of the 

§ 3. Withdrawal of the Suppliants, and Entrance of the Chorus : 
w. 143 — 151, p. 71. 'With the assurance of speedy aid [for the The- 
bans] he [Oedipus] leads Creon into the palace, and the attendants 
follow and close the doors. Slowly the white-robed suppliants rise ; the 
petition being granted, each one takes his bough, and led by the priest 
they descend the steps and disappear. 

' As the last figure passes out of sight the notes of the orchestra are 
heard once more, this time with a measured beat which instantly attracts 
attention, and the Chorus of old men of Thebes issues from the same 
entrance. They are men of various ages, dressed in tunics reaching to 
the instep, and full fyurria, of harmonious soft warm colors. The excel- 
lence of the costumes was marked ; each man seemed to have worn his 
dress for years, and to exhibit his individuality in the folds of it. They 
enter three deep, marching to the solemn beat of the music ; and as the 


first rank comes in sight of the audience the strains of the choral ode 
burst from their lips. 



• 1 


Shoulder to shoulder and foot to foot the old men make their way to 
the altar on the floor of the theatre and take up their positions around 
it. This entrance of the Chorus was surpassed in dramatic effect by 
few features of the play : the rhythmical movements, the coloring and 
drapery, the dignity of the faces, the impressive music sung in unison by 
the fifteen trained voices, — all these combined to produce a startling 
effect on the audience.' 

§ 4. Entrance of Teiresias, v. 297, p. 75. ' At this moment Teiresias 
enters, a towering venerable figure, with long white hair and beard. He 
is guided to the stage by a boy, whose blue cloak contrasts with the 
snowy draperies of the old man.' His exit, v. 462, p. 79. 'The two 
men part in deadly anger, Oedipus going within the palace and the boy 

leading Teiresias down tr\e steps [from the stage, see § 1] Once more 

the music sounds, and the Chorus gives voice to its feelings concerning 
the strange scene which has just been enacted.' 

§ 5. Entrance of Creon, when he comes to repudiate the charge of 
treason brought against him by Oedipus: v. 512, p. 81. 'As the strains 
of [choral] music die away, Creon is seen hastily ascending the steps [to 
the stage] on the right [of the spectators : cp. § 2]. He is no longer 
dressed as a traveller, but in garments suited to his high rank. His 
tunic is of delicate dark crimson material, with a gold border; his 
Ifxanov is of bright crimson cashmere, with a broader gold border ; his 
sandals are of crimson and gold. He strides to the centre of the stage 
and bursts out in indignant denial of the charges that Oedipus has made 
against him.' 

§ 6. Iocasta enters while high words are passing between Oedipus and 
Creon: v. 631, p. 83. 'Just as this [altercation] reaches its height the 
doors of the palace are seen to open, and the Chorus bids both angry 
speakers cease, as Jocasta is approaching. The attendants of Jocasta 
enter and place themselves on each side of the door, and a moment 
later the queen herself stands upon the threshold. Oedipus turns to her 
with welcome, and Creon with a gesture of appeal. 

' Her dress consists of a richly trimmed silvery undergarment, and an 
IfiaTLov of crimped pale yellow silk. She wears a crown, bracelets, and 
necklace, and white sandals embroidered with gold.' 

It was upon this group — the first complex one in the play — that Mr 
F. D. Millet based his scheme of the costumes, to which he gave long 
study, both from the historical and from the artistic point of view, and 
which he has described in the Century Magazine of Nov., 1881. 
From this article, Mr Norman (p. 83) quotes the following passage : — 


1 It was part of the original scheme that in each group the most 
prominent character should, as far as possible, be the focus, not only of 
interest in the text, but from the point of view of costume. Let us see 
how the first complex group fulfilled this condition. On the stage left 
stood Oedipus, in rich but deep-toned red ; on the right, Creon, equally 
in red, but of a color entirely different in scale ; the attendants of the 
king, in lavender tunics bordered with gold-embroidered white, flanked 
the doorway ; and the two attendants of Jocasta, in delicate blue and 
salmon, brought the eye by a pleasing graduation in intensity of color 
and strength of tone up to the figure of the queen, clothed in lustrous 
and ample drapery.' 

§ 7. Arrival of the Messenger from Corinth: v. 924, p. 89. 'As 
the Chorus closes, Jocasta enters [v. 911] in a new state of mind. She 
has comforted Oedipus by ridiculing all oracles ; but she is not without 
faith in the power of Gods, and she brings frankincense and garlands, 
and lays them with a prayer upon the altar. 

' While she is speaking, an old man has entered on the left below the 
stage. He is dressed as a common traveller, in a tunic and short cloak, 
his hat slung over his shoulder, and a stout staff in his hand. It is the 
messenger from Corinth. He looks round as if in search of something, 
and as soon as the queen has finished her prayer he inquires of the 
Chorus where the home of Oedipus, or, better still, the king himself, can 
be found. He is promptly informed that the mansion he sees is the 
palace of Oedipus, and that the lady before it is the queen. With a 
profound salutation as he ascends to the stage, he declares himself to 
be the bearer of news at once good and bad. Old Polybus, king of 
Corinth, is dead, and the citizens are about to make Oedipus king. 
This is indeed news to Jocasta. Oedipus has long avoided Corinth lest 
he should slay his father, Polybus j now he can return, as king, all fear 
dispelled. Oedipus enters in response to her summons. His royal 
robes have been exchanged for simpler ones of white and gold. He, 
too, learns the news with triumph.' 

§ 8. Iocasta divines the worst: — her final exit; vv. 1040 — 1072, 
p. 92. 'But Jocasta? At the other end of the stage the queen is writhing 
in anguish. The deep-red cloak which she wears is twisted about her ; 
now she flings her hands up and seems about to speak, then her hands 
are pressed on her mouth to stop the cries which rise, or on her bosom 
to silence the beating of her heart. She rushes toward the king, but 
stops half-way; her face shows the tortures of her soul. The truth is all 
too clear to her. The spectator feels that this suspense cannot last, and 
relief comes when the Chorus suggests that perhaps Jocasta can tell 
something about the shepherd of Laius. When appealed to by Oedipus, 
she forces the suffering from her face and turns with a smile. But 
Oedipus has gone beyond recall. Her last appealing words are scorned, 
and with the language and the gesture of despair she rushes from the 


§ 9. The Herdsman of Ldius is brought in : the whole truth is ex- 
torted from him: vv. 1110— 1185, pp. 94 ff. 'As the music ceases the 
attendants of Oedipus appear at the entrance on the right, supporting a 
strange figure between them. It is an aged man, with grizzled hair and 
beard, clothed in coarse homespun cloth, and with a rough, untanned 
sheepskin over his shoulders. He supports himself on a sapling staff 
which he has cut in the woods. He mounts the steps with difficulty, and 
faces the king. He is no stranger to the errand on which he has been 
brought, and with the greatest difficulty he is made to speak. The 
contrast between the eagerness of the messenger from Corinth to tell all 
he knows, and the silence of the tender-hearted old shepherd, is very 
striking. The shepherd cannot bear the other's telltale chatter, and 
with the words, "Confusion seize thee and thine evil tongue!" he swings 
his staff to strike him. At a gesture from Oedipus the attendant stops 
the blow. The old man must be made to speak. The muscular 
attendants spring forward and seize him. Then the truth is wrung 
from him, word by word. He gave the child to the Corinthian; it 
came from the palace; they said it was the son of Laius; Queen 
Jocasta herself placed it in his hands; they said that an oracle 
had declared that it should kill its father. The truth is out; the 
oracles are not falsified; his father's murderer, his mother's husband, 
Oedipus faces his doom. With a fearful, choking cry he pulls his 
robes over his head and face, and bursts into the palace. 

' This scene... was the dramatic climax of the play. The acting led 
up to it gradually by the excited conversation and the shepherd's blow. 
When Oedipus burst through the doors of the palace, his attendants 
quickly followed him; the horror-stricken messengers turned with 
despairing gestures and descended the steps, the one to the right, the 
other to the left, and a profound silence fell upon the theatre.' 

§ 10. Effect of the fourth stasimon, vv. 1223 — 1530, p. 98. 'In the 
opening strains of the last choral ode, which now ring out, the emotions 
of the scene are wonderfully expressed. Each one recognizes the 
solemnity and depth of his own feelings in their pathetic tones.' 

p^Mrtteito d 

-Sf — 


§ 11. The Messenger from the House: the entrance of the blinded 
Oedipus, 1223 — 1296, pp. 98 f. 'As the ode [just mentioned] closes, the 
palace doors are opened violently from within, and the second messenger 
rushes on the stage. He is a servant from the palace, clad, like the at- 
tendants, in a short light tunic. He brings a tale of horror : Oedipus, 
on entering, had called for a sword, and demanded to know where 
Jocasta was. No one would tell him; but at last, seeing the doors of the 
bedchamber shut, he had broken through them and disclosed the body 
of the queen hanging by the bed. Tearing down the body, he had. 


snatched from the shoulders the golden clasps and had thrust them into 
his eyes.'. ..'In a moment Oedipus himself appears, leaning on his at- 
tendants, his pale face marred by bloody stains. The dismayed Chorus 
hide their faces in their robes, and the king's voice is broken with sobs 
as he cries, cuai, aiai, 8v(TTavo<; eyw.' 

§12. Closing scene, vv. 1416 — 1530, pp. 101 ff. 'As Oedipus is 
begging to be slain or thrust out of the land, the approach of Creon, who 
has resumed his royal powers, is announced. The memory of all his 
injustice to Creon overwhelms Oedipus, and he cannot bear to meet 
him. But he is blind and unable to flee, so he hides his face and waits 
in silence. Creon enters, crowned, followed by two attendants.... His 
first words are reassuring ; the new king does not come with mocking or 
reproach, but directs that a sight so offensive to earth and heaven be 
hidden within the palace. Oedipus asks the boon of banishment, but is 
informed by the cautious Creon that the God must be consulted. Then 
the blind man begs that his wife be buried decently, and reiterates his 
prayer that he may be permitted to leave the city which he has afflicted. 
And one thing more he asks, — that he may embrace his daughters again. 
By a sign Creon despatches his own attendants to bring them, and while 
Oedipus is still speaking their voices are heard. 

' Antigone and Ismene now enter, led by the attendants of Creon, 
and are placed in the arms of Oedipus, who falls on his knees beside 
them, and addresses them with saddest words. The children are too 
young to appreciate the horror of the scene, but they are filled with pity 
for their father's pain. There is a look of genuine sympathy on the two 
bright faces which watch the kneeling figure. Creon has retired to the 
right of the stage and has wrapped his robe round him, unable to bear 
the sight of the terrible farewell. He is summoned by Oedipus to give 
his hand in token of his promise to care for the helpless girls. The 
children fall back, the blind man waits with outstretched hand, and 
Creon slowly and sadly walks across the stage and gives the sign. Then 
Oedipus turns again to his little ones. The painful scene, however, has 
lasted long enough, and Creon orders Oedipus to leave his children and 
withdraw. It is a dreadful separation, but the king's order is impera- 
tive. So Oedipus tears himself away, his attendants throw open the 
doors, the attendants of Creon take the children by the hand, and Creon 
himself leads Oedipus up the steps and into the palace.... The children 
and the second messenger follow; the attendants of Oedipus enter last 
and gently close the doors. 

'The music sounds again in pathetic tones, and the Coryphaeus 
expresses for his fellows the lesson of life.' 

Verse 2. On the meaning of Ood&rc. The points of the question 
are these. 1. Ood&iv, from Oo-6-s swift (rt. Oep, 0ca>; Curt. Etym. 
§ 3 J 3)> occurs ten times in Eur., four times transitively, 'to impel,' 
'urge,' as Bacch. 66 0oa£a> Bpo/xtw, 7rovov -tjhvv: six times intransitively, as 
Troad. 349 ixxuvas Ood£ova. If it is the same word here, what would 
Oodfcv ISpas mean? (a) Not, I think, 'to urge, press your supplication,' 


— referring to the eager gestures or aspect of the suppliants: for rapid 
motion, and not merely eagerness, is implied by 0oa'£<D. Rather (b) ' to 
come with eager haste as suppliants': as Herm. explains Erfurdt's 'cur 
hanc sessionem festinatis ? ' — ' cur tanto studio hie sessum venitis ? ' 
Now I can conceive Sophocles saying <nr€v$eiv or iireiycw or even dodfav 
iKereiav : but could he have said Ood&iv ISpas? The primary notion of 
a fixed attitude stands out too clearly above the secondary notion of 
a supplication. 

2. For another 0oa£civ, 'to sit,' only two passages are cited, (i) Em- 
pedocles 52 OdpcrtL kcu totc Srj crocpLTjs Itr a/cpowrt 0oa£c. This might 
mean 'hasten on to the heights of wisdom' : though, when kirl with dat. 
denotes motion, it usually means 'against,' as in Od. 10. 214 ov8' ol y 
iopfXYjO-qaav lif dvSpdaiv. But the more natural sense would be, ' sit on 
the heights of wisdom.' (ii) Aesch. Suppl. 595 vV dpxa.% [L apx<*s] 


<T€/?€i kcitco. Hermann renders the first words : ' hasting at no one's 
bidding,' nullius sub imperio properans. So Mr Paley : ' Himself urged 
to action (Oodfav) by no authority.' But the Scholiast is right, I believe, 
in rendering dodtpv by Ka6rjp.€vos. Only vtt ap^as outivos dodfynv does 
not mean 'sitting under no other's rule,' but 'sitting by no other's 
mandate.' (I should prefer virapxos.) For the Aeschylean image of 
Zeus throned on high, cp. Aesch. Agam. 182 Sai/xoVcov Se irov x^P^ I 
jStattus (reXfia crepvov r\p.kvmw. 

3. Ancient tradition recognised 6od£eiv as = Odcro-civ here. Plut. 
Mor. 22 E says, tu> God^eiv 77 to KivelcrOat <rY)p,aivov(rLV, o>s EvptTriS^s... 
77 to KaOe&crdai kox OadaraeiVj ws 2o<£okAt7S, — quoting this passage. So 
the Etym. Magn. 460. IO Sid ri 7rpoo-0a.K€iT€ rdarSe tols <fSpas ; ti 
irpoiTxprjZerc tolvtclis reus ISpats ; If 77 had stood before t£ the last clause 
would have seemed to glance at the other explanation. So the Schol. 
Ood&Te, Kara SiaXvcriv dvrl rov Odcraere' but adds, 77 6oto<; irpoaKdOrjaOe. 

4. Buttmann would connect 0oa£w to sit with Oe, the stem of tlO^u 
6od£a> cannot be obtained directly from Oe. It is possible, however, that 
a noun-stem, from which 0oa£a> to sit came, may itself have been 
derived from a secondary form of 6e. It might be said that 0aa-, 0oa>-, 
suggest a OeF or 0af or Ov akin to Oe: cp. <pav (irKpavo-Kw) with <pa, 
<rrv (crrvX.os) with <rra. 

5. To sum up : — Emped., Aesch. and Soph, seem to have used 
Bod&iv as = 6d<T<r€iv. We can only say that (i) the sound and form 
of 6od£o) may have suggested an affinity with Oado-aro), $6<dkos : (ii) as 
a purely poetical word, Ood£a> belonged to that region of language in 
which the earlier Attic poets — bold manipulators of old material — used 
-a certain license of experiment, not checked by scientific etymology, 
and so liable to be occasionally misled by false or accidental analogies. 

44 f. In discussing these two verses, it is essential that the whole 
-context from v. 35 should be kept clearly before the mind : — 

35 05 y' c^cAvo-as, aarv KaS/xctov p.o\cov, 
OTcAiypas aotSov SaayxoV 6V irapiC^Ofiev 


Kal ravO* v<f> 77/tAcov ovSev e£e«8ak ir\«ov 
ov8* €*8i8ax0€ts, a\\a Trpoa-drJKrj Oeov 
\cy€i vofii&L Ty/Aiv opdtacrai /3tov 
40 vGv t , a> KpaTiaTOv TTacTLv OiSurov Kapa, 

lK€T€UOp.cV <T€ 7TaVT€? of($€ irp6(TTp07rOL 

dkicrjv tvv evpeiv rfp-w, citc tov Otuiv 
<f>ijixr)v aKovaas €lt air avopos olcrOd irow 

0)5 TOlCaV C/ATTCtpOlO-t KCU TCt? £vjA<pOpd<; 

45 £axra5 op (3 /otaXto-Ta twv ^ovXev/xdroiv. 

The general sense is : * Thou didst save us from the Sphinx ; and 
now we pray thee to save us from the plague : for, when men are 
experienced, we see that they are also (/ecu) most successful in giving 
counsel.' The last two verses form a comment on the whole preceding 
sentence. The complaint that, thus understood, they involve ' bathos ' 
is doubly unjust. For, even if the trouble which Oedipus is now asked 
to heal had been precisely similar to the trouble which he had formerly 
healed, yet the general sentiment, ' Experience teaches prudence,' is no 
more * bathos' than is Spda-avrt iradeiv, iraOijjjuiTa /xaOyj/JLara, or many 
other maxims which occur in Greek Tragedy. But in this case the new 
trouble was of a different order from the old \ and the definition of the 
old trouble, given in 35 f., naturally suggests a supplementary thought 
which lends a special force to the yvw/xr). The experience of a great 
national crisis will stand Oedipus in good stead, though the problem 
now presented to him is unlike that which he formerly solved. 

The old scholium on v. 44 in the Laurentian ms. runs thus : — <os 
ToixTW e/Aireipotcriv ev rots eruvcTots tcis crvvTV^Cas Kal ras diro/3d<r€i<; 
tcuj/ ^SovXcv/AotTOJv opw £oxras Kal ovk aTToWv/xwas. ov acjidWeTai aAAa 
to a7ro^cro'/M€vov o-roxa£eTai KaAws. Prof. Kennedy calls this ' the poor 
gloss of a medieval scholiast.' The scribe was medieval; but the gloss? 
The age and origin of the old scholia in L have been discussed by Wunder, 
G. Wolff, O. Pauli, and others, with results of which I have given an out- 
line in the second part of the Introduction to the Facsimile of the Lauren- 
tian ms. (p. 21). These old scholia represent, in the main, the work of 
the Alexandrian scholars, and more especially of two commentators, one 
of whom is unknown, the other being the famous grammarian Didymus, 
who flourished circ. 30 B.C. The other interpreters from whose com- 
ments these scholia were compiled belonged chiefly to the period from 
about 250 B.C. down to the age of Didymus. There is nothing in this 
scholium on v. 44 to suggest a ' medieval ' rather than an Alexandrian 
origin ; while on the other hand there are definite reasons for believing 
that, like the rest of the old scholia, it represents an explanation which 
had been handed down, through successive generations of Alexandrian 
scholars, from an age when the feeling for classical Greek idiom was 
still fresh. 

The interpretation thus sanctioned by the Greek commentary has 
been accepted by the all but unanimous judgment of modern critics. 
We may here state, and answer, the chief objection which has recently 
been made to it 


It is said that tjvpcpopd cannot mean 'issue' or -'outcome'; and that, 
therefore, ras £u/x<£opas tw /SovXevfxaTUiv cannot mean 'the issues of their 
counsels.' The answer is that the phrase, ' the issues of their counsels,' 
is only a convenient way of saying, ' the occurrences connected with 
their counsels'; i.e., in this particular case, 'the occurrences which 
result from their counsels.' No one has contended that the word $vp.- 
<f>opd, taken by itself, could mean 'outcome' or 'issue.' The fallacious 
objection has arisen from the objectors failing to distinguish between 
the use of the English genitive and the much larger and more varied 
use of the Greek genitive. We could not say, 'the occurrences' (meaning 
'consequences') i of their counsels.' But our l of is not an exhaustive 
equivalent for the force of the Greek genitive. £vp,cpop<xL povXevfxaTuiv, 
' occurrences connected with, belonging to, counsels,' could mean, 
according to context, that the occurrences (a) consist of the counsels, 
(b) accompany them, (c) result from them. It would be just as reason- 
able to object to the phrase \vypuv -n-oviov tKTfjpes at v. 185, because 
'suppliants of weary woes' would be unintelligible. The ancient Greek 
commentator has explained the phrase, ras gvp.cpopd<s fw f3ov\€vp.aTU)v, 
with a precision which could not have been happier if he had foreseen 
the objection which we have been noticing ; and those who raise that 
objection might have profited by attention to his language. In his 
paraphrase, rd<s crwrv^ias kou tos oVo/SaVeis twv fiovXevLidriov, the first 
word, o-wTvxtas, marks that gvpupopds bears its ordinary sense : the 
second word, aVo/Jao-eis, marks that the relation expressed by the geni- 
tive case is here the relation of cause to effect. It is as if he had 
said: 'the occurrences connected with — that is (/cai), v the results of — 
the counsels.' Similarly in O. C. 1506, kolL o-ot 0cooi/ | rvxqv ns Zo-OXrjv 
rrjo-ft WrjKtrrjs 6Bov, 'a good fortune connected with this coming,' means 
' a good fortune which this coming bestows.' There, as it happens, we 
can say simply, 'the good fortune of this coming': but we might say also, 
' a happy issue from this coming,' — and that, too, without fear of being 
supposed to think that tv^V means the same thing as rcActm/. In Thuc. 
1. 140 (quoted in my commentary) ras £vp,<popd<$ tcov Trpayfidroiv is a 
phrase strictly parallel to rds $vfj.<j)opd<; rSv fiovXev/xdroiv. That is, the 
genitive is a genitive of connection ; the phrase means literally, ' the 
occurrences connected with human affairs,' i.e., the ways in which 
human affairs turn out ; and therefore we may accurately render, 
'the issues of human affairs.' Prof. Kennedy renders it, 'the course 
of actual events,' and says that the genitive ' is attributive or descrip- 
tive, not possessive.' This is not very clear; but the translation in- 
dicates that he takes the gen. to be descriptive; so that the phrase 
would mean literally, 'the £v/jL<f>opai consisting in Trpdyfiara.^ Such a 
phrase, though oddly expressed, would be intelligible if the course of 
events in real life was being opposed to the course of events in a poem 
or other work of fiction. But it is inadmissible in Thuc. 1. 140, 
where the comparison is not between real and imaginary fr/jupopai, but 
between the incalculable conjunctures of outward circumstances and the 
incalculable caprices of human thought : evSexercu yap ra? £v//.</>opa$ 
twv irpayp.aTO)v ov^ rjaaov d/xaOws x u) PV aat V KaL T( * s Siavotas tov dvOpurn-ov. 

J. S. I. 3 14 


Before leaving this topic, it may be well to say a word on the choice 
of the word 'issues,' employed in my translation. In my first edition, 
commenting on xa? £v/x<£opas r<2v /SovXevfjLaToyv, I had said, ' the events, 
issues, of their counsels.' On this Prof. Kennedy remarks, ' he seems 
to confuse the words events and issues, as if they were identical.' 
A little before, the critic states what he himself regards as the distinction 
between them : — 

' Etymologically they are much the same, both meaning out-come; event from 
tvenire, issue from exire. Both can be used in the sense of ending: as ' the event 
(or the issue) of the battle of Tel-el-Kebir was the defeat of Arabi.' But we could 
not say, 'the event of the battle was the surrender of Cairo,' though we might say 
'the issue' &c. In short, event may not be used in the sense of 'result' or 'conse- 
quence ' ; issue may be so used. ' 

The statement that 'event' cannot be used in the sense of 'result or 
consequence' is surprising. The first two meanings given by Dr 
Johnson to 'event' are (i) 'incident; anything that happens': (2) 'con- 
sequence of an action ; conclusion ; upshot.' So Webster defines 
'event,' first, as 'incident,' secondly as 'the consequence of any thing; 
the issue,' etc. Nor is there the least warrant for saying that ' event ' 
can denote only an immediate consequence, while 'issue' can denote 
also an ulterior consequence. See, e.g., Richard II. 2. 1. 212: 

'What will ensue hereof, there's none can tell; 
But by bad courses may be understood 
That their events can never fall out good.' 

Shakespeare would probably have been surprised to learn that he 
ought to have written 'issues.' And Tennyson was doubtless unconscious 
of a blunder in the words, 

'One God, one law, one element, 
And one far-off divine event 
To which the whole creation moves.' 

* Event' and 'issue,' both alike, can mean either 'ending' (as victory 
is the 'event,' 'issue,' of a battle), or 'consequence.' The second sense 
belongs to ' event ' by precisely the same right as to ' issue ' (exitus) : 
cp. Cicero Inv. 1. 28. 42 eventus est alicuius exitus negotii, in quo quaeri 
solet, quid ex quaque re evenerit, eveniat, eventurum sit. The distinction 
in our usage at the present day is simply this. ' Event ' has become 
familiar in the sense of ' incident,' and unfamiliar in the sense of ' out- 
come,' except in certain phrases, such as ' the event will show,' etc. 
Hence to say, for instance, ' the events of human affairs,' would have 
an awkward sound now; though it is just as correct, and could bear 
exactly the same sense, as ' the issues of human affairs.' One cause is 
manifest. We have a verb, ' to issue,' but no verb, to ' evene ' ; and, 
through saying, ' the affair issued in that,' it has become natural to say 
' the issue ' (rather than ' the event ') ' of the affair.' 

It is this shade of contemporary preference, and no other reason, 
which has guided my use of the words ' issue ' and ' event ' in the note 
on vv. 44 f. (p. 18). I have used 'issue' in the sense of 'outcome,' 
and 'event' only in the sense of 'occurrence.' But, when 'event' does 
mean ' outcome,' then it is synonymous with ' issue.' Prof. Kennedy's 



assertion that 'event' can mean only (i) 'occurrence' or (2) 'ending,' 
while 'issue' can mean either of these, and also (3) 'consequence,' seems 
to have no foundation either in the history of the words or in the usage 
of the best English writers. 

The first modern writer who dissented from the traditional interpre- 
tation was John Young, who held the Chair of Greek at Glasgow from 
1774 to 182 1 1 . He rendered $vp.<f>opd<s by collationes, taking the sense 
to be: 'I see that with men of experience comparisons of counsels also 
are most in use': i.e., such men are not only fitted to be counsellors, 
but are also ready to consult other men. Thus understood, the two 
verses are no longer a comment on the whole preceding sentence ; they 
refer to the latter part of v. 43, ctr d-rr dvSpos dio-Oa ttov. A view 
identical with Young's was expressed by Dr Kennedy in 1854, and is 
maintained in his edition. He renders thus : — 

' <os since toio-lv IpnTupoio-iv to men of experience dp<3 / see that (not 
only counselling but) /cat also rds £vpxpopd<; rwv fiovXevfxdroiv comparisons 
of their counsels fidXiara £wo-as are in most lively use.' 

In a note On ras £vfxcpopd<; t&v Trpay/xdriov (Thuc. I. 140 § 3) 
Shilleto wrote thus : — 

'Interpreting here (see § 1) "events, issues, results," I disagree with 

1 John Young, a very acute and accomplished scholar — known to many by 
his fine criticism on Gray's Elegy — published nothing on Sophocles. His note on 
O. T. 44 f. was communicated to Andrew Dalzell, Professor of Greek in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. In 1797 Dalzell published the second volume of his Collectanea 
Graeca Maiora, containing extracts from poets, as the first volume had contained 
prose extracts. Young's note does not appear in the edition of 1797, which on v. 44 
gives only Brunck's note (as below). The book went through several editions. The 
edition of 1822 was revised by Dalzell's successor in the Greek Chair, George Dunbar, 
who added some comments of his own. There the note on v. 44 stands as follows : — 

' 44. 'fls Toiaiv ifiirelpoKTi. — ] Usu enim peritis video felici quoque eventu consilia 
maxime vigere. Brunck. Ita interpretes: sed av/Mpdpav (sic) pro eventu consilii 
sumi posse non credo; ea enim vox fortuitum aliquid semper innuere videtur: hie 
autem potius in primitivo sensu sumi, locusque adeo totus ita reddi potest: Sicubi 
alicujus deorum vocem audisti, vel etiam £ mortalium quocunque quicquam acceperis ; 
video enim apud prudentes expertosqne viros etiam collationes consilii maxime in usu 
esse. Ipsius sapientiam supra laudaverat ; iam etiam alios consultasse posse addit : 
qui sensus vulgato multo melior videtur ; otiosum enim alias foret ical, neque tota 
sententia loco suo digna. T. Y. Esto ut i-vficpopa aliquid fortuiti semper innuit (sic). 
Hoc ipsum est quod quaerimus. Sensus loci esse videtur Sapientes Fortuna iuvat. 
Cantab. Anon. *Vix credere possum rds £v/M<j>opas tQv ^ov\evp.6.Twv significare 
collationes consilii. Sensus videtur esse ; video enim apud expertos eventus consiliorum 
maxime vigere, i. e. Ex eventu consiliorum quae prius dederant facilius et rectius de 
futuro iudicare possunt.' 

The last note, with an asterisk prefixed, is Dunbar's own. In the initials appended 
to Young's note, 'TV is a misprint for 'J.' (Another obvious misprint, viz. 'innuit' 
for 'innuat,' closely follows it.) It was very natural that Dr Kennedy should have 
thought this better authority than my statement, and should have continued to speak 
of ' Dr T. Young.' (John Young took no degree beyond that of M. A.) But I do not 
know what ground my eminent critic had for saying that Young's view was 'accepted 
by Prof. Dalzell.' The mere printing of Young's note, along with two others of a 
different tendency, can scarcely be held to prove it. And the fact that Brunck's note 
is still placed first (as in the ed. of 1797) rather suggests the contrary. Dunbar, it will 
be noticed, records his dissent from Young. — I have to thank my colleague, the Rev. 
Prof. W. P. Dickson, for access to Dunbar's ed. of Dalzell, — now a somewhat rare 

14 — 2 


such rendering of Soph. Oed. T. 44 cos rolaiv ip.Trzipoicri kcu tcU $v/x(f>opd<; | 
£uxra<; opui fxaXta-ra tu>v fiovXevfxaTiav. 1 have long thought that 'com- 
parisons of counsels' was there meant and have compared ^schyl. Pers. 
528 quoted above on 128, 9. (I am rejoiced to find that Prof. Kennedy 
and I have independently arrived at the same conclusion. See Journal 
of Philology, Vol. 1. pp. 311, 312.) /cat seems thus to have more signi- 
ficance. Men of experience may receive suggestions from not only 
gods but from other men (ctr aV avSpo? oTaOd irov). Collations also of 
counsels are most effective. It is not improbable that Sophocles had 
in view the adage crvv tc Sv y ip^o/xivio kcu re 71-po o tov ivorjcrtv Horn. 
Iliad x. 224.' 

It will be seen that Mr Shilleto agreed with Professor Kennedy in 
taking £v/xcf>opd<$ as = 'comparisons,' but differed from him (1) in taking 
£cocras — as I do — to mean * effective] not 'in vogue' (an old schol. in L 
has £axra<j, avTt tov ivepy co-rep as) : (2) in taking the kcu ('also') to 
imply ' independently of hints from the gods,' and not * in addition to 
offering counsels.' 

Mr Whitelaw, too, agrees with Dr Kennedy about £vfx<f>opd<s, but not 
about £axras, which he takes to mean 'prospering.' 'Conference also of 
counsels prospers for men of experience more than others.' Remark 
that this version makes ras $vfxcj>opd<; rav j3ov\ev[xdToiv equivalent to to 
£vfx<f>ep€iv rd povXevfxaTa. It is this act that prospers for them. 

Dr Fennell now renders (Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc, 1886, p. 72), 
1 since I see that with men of experience their collections of counsels (i.e. 
the counsels which they bring together) are also (as well as a <f>rjp.rj Ocov) 
most of all living.' Thus £oxras is virtually the epithet of the counsels, 
since tcls £. tmv (3. is taken = rd £>ep6fM£va ^ovXcvfxara. By ' living/ 
Dr Fennell means 'effective.' He remarks, with justice, that his version 
'embodies a less trite sentiment than that attributed to the poet by 
Professor Kennedy.' 

One more interpretation of £v/jL<f>opds has lately been given by Sir 
George Young, in a note to his translation of the play. ' I see that, for 
men of experience, the correspondences of their counsels actually exist' \ 
i.e., ' the things that actually exist correspond with their counsels.' In 
other words, their counsels suit the conditions of the crisis. This sense 
must be derived from £v/x4>epecr6aL (to agree, concur), not from gvfjL<f>ep€iv 
(to bring together). 

With regard, then, to the advocates of the new interpretation, it is a 
case of 'quot homines, tot sententiae.' Dr Kennedy, indeed, exactly 
agrees with John Young; but the rest differ in various points both from 
Dr Kennedy and from each other. The only point on which they are 
unanimous is that £vfjL<)>opds must mean something which it never means 
anywhere else. We may first consider this contention. 

1. <rvpL<j>opd is a word of very frequent occurrence, and yet in the 
extant literature of the classical age it is never found except in one of 
two senses, — (i) an occurrence ; (ii) an unhappy occurrence, — a mis- 
fortune. That is, usage had restricted this very common noun to 
senses parallel with the intransitive <rvfx<fiep€Li> as meaning ' to happen ' 
(Thuc. 6. 20 gvveveyKoi pXv ravra ws fiovkopeOa, ita eveniant). The limit. 


imposed by usage can be illustrated from Lucian. His Lexipha?ies is a 
satire on a certain kind of affectation in language. There (§ 6) we 
have the phrase to fxkv Srj Selirvov yv d-n-6 (rv/jL<f>opu}v, ' the repast was 
furnished from contributions.' The point is that the learned speaker 
has employed crvpicpopd in a sense which derivation warranted, but which 
sounded strangely, as parallel with the transitive a-v/xcpepeLv, 'to bring 
together'; the ordinary phrase would have been diro <rvix(3o\<Zv. To this 
argument Dr Kennedy replies : ' As to Lucian's jests (dating in the 
second century of our era), I decline to trouble myself with anything so 
irrelevant to the question.' The irrelevancy, we gather, depends, first, 
on the fact that Lucian is jesting, and secondly on the fact that he 
flourished about 160 a.d. Now, as to the jests, my point is precisely 
that Lucian did think this use of <rvp.<popd a jest. He cannot have been 
jesting in the sense of pretending to think it ludicrous when he did not 
really think it so. And as to 160 a.d., that date surely did not preclude 
Lucian from treating many points of classical idiom with an authority 
which no modern can claim. Can no illustrations of classical Greek be 
derived from Athenaeus, Arrian, Pausanias, Galen, Hermogenes, or 
Oppian? But Dr Verrall has another way of dealing with Lucian's 
evidence. He assumes that Lucian's satire rested on the fact that some 
earlier writer had actually used <rvp.<popd in the sense of 'contribution.' 
This view grants at least the singularity of such a sense, since, if there 
was nothing odd in it, there was no room for ridicule. But does such 
a view suit Lucian's drift here? His Lexiphanes is especially the 
man who employs words in a sense warranted by etymology but not 
warranted by usage. Thus, a few lines further on, Lexiphanes speaks 
of Aa'xava ra re wroycia koX toL V7r€p<f>vr}, 'vegetables which grow under 
ground (i.e. roots) and above ground? His use of virep<pvtjs has just as 
much, and as little, warrant as his use of o-vp.<f>opd : viz., the etymo- 
logical warrant. If, however, Greek literature had actually recognised 
<rvfjL<popd as 'contribution,' then the satire would have missed its peculiar 
point. Lexiphanes would merely be using a fine word where a simpler 
one would have served. And is it probable that any classical writer had 
opposed vTT€p(pvrjs to v7roycio? ? It remains to notice some passages of 
the dramatists in which Dr Verrall has suggested that o-vp.<j>opd means 
neither 'occurrence' nor 'misfortune.' In each case his proposed 
version is added in brackets, while the ordinary version immediately 
follows the Greek. 

(1) Aesch. Eum. 897 r£ yap ctfiovri a-v/M<popas dpddxrofiev: 'we will prosper the 
fortunes of our worshippers.' ['We will prosper their unions,' — making them and 
their living possessions fertile.] (2) ib. 1019 /MeroiKtau 5' ifi^v \ eixrefiovvTes otiri 
fxtfixpeade <rvfji.<f>opas fiiov: 'while ye revere us as dwellers among you, ye shall not 
complain of the fortunes of your lives.' [' Ye shall not complain of the union of our 
life,' — i.e., of our united life.] (3) Soph. El. 1179 ot/xoi raXalvrjs apa ri]<r8e avfupopas : 
*Woe is me, then, for this thy wretched plight.' ['For our unhappy meeting.'] (4) ib. 
1230 bpCbjxev, c5 7rcu, Kairl trvfitfropaurl fioi \ yeyydbs Zpwei S&Kpvov 6pm.dr<av &iro: 'we 
see it, and for thy (happy) fortunes a tear of joy trickles from our eyes.' ['For thy 
meeting (with thy brother).'] (5) O. T. 452 kyyevT)* \ (pav^a-erai Qrjficuos, oi>8' y\adi]- 
cerat \ ry ^vfi^opo], 'and shall not be glad of his fortune.' ['His union with the 
citizen-body.'] (6) [Eur.] Rhes. 980 <5 ircudoTrocoi i^vfupopai, irbvoi fipor&v: 'sorrows 
in the begetting of children, woes for men.' ['Child-producing unions'] In these 


six places, the unexampled sense of <rvp:<pop& is sought from av/Kpipeadai. In the 
following, it is sought from the active sense of av/upipeiv. (7) Eur. Med. 552 7ro\\&» 
i<pt\icwv £v[x(t>opa.s d/xrjxdvovs : ' cumbered with many perplexing troubles. ' Jason means 
Medea and his children by her. ['Much troublesome luggage,' — lit., 'things carried 
along with me.'] (8) ib. 54 xpt)<jtoi<ti. 8o6\ots i-vjjupopa rh decnroT&v \ kcikios irirvovTa, 
xai 4>pevG)v avddirreTai: 'to good slaves their masters' ill luck is a misfortune,' etc. 
['Their masters' ill luck is a burden which they share, — lit. 'a thing borne jointly' 
by them.] — The shorter form of the saying in Bacch. 1029, xPV< TTC ^ <Tl SovXois £vp:<t>opa rh. 
8e<nroTu>i>, may, as Dobree thought, be an interpolation ; but in any case $-vp.(pop& can 
mean 'misfortune,' since t& deairoTuv is shown by the context to mean, * their 
masters' troubles.' 

In each of the above passages the ordinary sense of av^opd is not 
only perfectly clear, but also perfectly appropriate and satisfactory. 
The attempt to invest it with an unexampled meaning is in every 
instance strained ; in some of the instances it is extremely so. Is there 
a single one of those passages in which the unusual version would have 
occurred to a critic who was not in search of an argument by which to 
defend the strange version of £u/x<£opa<> as ' comparisons ' in O. T. 44 ? 
But the process might be carried further. There is hardly any passage 
of Greek literature in which a novel sense for £vp.(popd, fairly suitable 
to the particular context, might not be devised, if we were free to draw 
upon all the senses both of avfupeptiv and of <rvp,(pcpe<r6au. And so at 
last we might prove that o-vp.cpopd never meant ' occurrence ' or ' misfor- 

2. Next, we will suppose that Sophocles intended to hazard an 
exceptional use of the noun, relying on the context to show that 
£vfxcpopd<s meant 'comparisons.' Convenience prescribes the general rule 
that, when a strange use of a word or phrase is risked in reliance on an 
explanatory context, this context should not follow at an interval, but 
should either precede or closely accompany the word or phrase which 
would otherwise be obscure. A rough illustration — the first that occurs 
to me — from our own language will serve to show what I mean. ' Many 
of the visitors were afterwards present at a collation, and did ample 
justice to the difference of hands in the mss.' If we heard that read 
aloud, we should be apt to suppose — down to the word 'to' — that 
' collation ' meant luncheon ; and a certain degree of discomfort would 
attend the mental process of apprehending that it meant a comparison 
of documents. This inconvenience would not arise if the mention 
of the mss. preceded, or closely accompanied, the word 'collation.' 
Such an argument applies a fortiori to <TVfx<popd, since the literary sense 
of the word ' collation ' is at least thoroughly recognised, while <rvp.<popd 
nowhere else occurs in the sense of 'comparison.' Consider now the 
two verses, 

ws roiaiv c/X7r€i'po«rt koX ras £vp.<popds. 

£(uo-as op<3 fidXicTTa tw /JovXcu/acitwv. 

When the first verse was spoken, would any hearer in the theatre doubt 
that £vficf>opd<s bore its usual sense, or divine that it was to bear the 
unexampled sense of 'comparisons'? And the indispensable clue, 
TtZv povXevp-droiv, is postponed to the end of the next line. In the cir- 
cumstances, it is hard to imagine any good writer arranging his words 


thus ; it is, to me, altogether inconceivable that a skilled writer for the 
stage should so arrange them. If Sophocles had intended to suggest 
$v/x<f>4peiv fiovXevfxaTa, he would at least have given £v/x<j>opa<; fiovkev- 
IxaTwv. In reply to this argument, Dr Kennedy merely says that no 
modern can tell; and that Sophocles has used many words, each of 
which occurs only once in his writings. But he has overlooked the 
distinction between a rare word, and a rare meaning for a common 
word. Suppose that the word <rv/jLcf>opd occurred only in O. T. 44; 
then his reply would at least be relevant. But the word is exceedingly 
common ; and yet in the entire range of classical Greek literature this 
is the solitary place where any one has even suggested that it means 
'comparison.' The argument from the order of words is not, therefore, 
one which can be answered by simply saying that it is an argument 
which no modern is qualified to use. It is an argument which a modem 
writer is here strictly entitled to use. When people hear a familiar 
word, they will take it in its usual sense, unless they are warned to the 
contrary. This, we may presume, was as true in 450 B.C. as it is to-day. 
Now, turning from the phrase ras £v/x<£opas twv fiovXzvixdruv, I wish 
to compare the received version with Dr Kennedy's in respect of two 
other points: (1) £wcras : (2) the force of #c<u. Dr Kennedy maintains 
that his version is the only one which suits these words. I grant that 
his version suits them ; but I submit that the received version suits 
them equally well. First, as to £wo-as. When Shakespeare says, ' the 
evil that men do lives after them,' he is using the verb 'to live' as 
Sophocles uses &}v here: i.e., 'to live' means 'to be operative,' 'to 
have effect'; as, conversely, 'dead' can be used of what has ceased to 
be active. In two other passages of Sophocles (quoted in my note) the 
use of t,rjv is strictly similar. In v. 482 the oracles are ffivra, 'living' 
— not dead letters — because they remain operative against the criminal; 
a divine power is active in them, and will not suffer him to escape. In 
Ant. 457 the 'unwritten and unfailing laws of heaven' live (£#), as 
having an eternal and ever-active validity, which no edict of man can 
extinguish or suspend. Here, the events which flow from the counsels 
of experienced men are said to 'live,' because they are effective for their 
purposes, — £ao-as ko.1 ovk d7ro\\vfjL€vas, as the old scholium in L has it; 
they do not 'come to nothing.' On v. 45 the Scholiast has ^uVas' oVti 
tot) cvepyeo-Tepas: i.e., more 'operative' than are the counsels of the 
inexperienced. Dr Kennedy renders, ' comparisons of counsels are in 
most lively use.' This is quite legitimate; it is as possible to say, to 
Wo<$ £17, the custom lives (i.e., is in lively use), as to say, ot vofioi £<3o-iv, the 
laws live (i.e., are in active operation). But Dr Kennedy has not observed 
that, by adding the word ' lively,' he has extended the figurative use of 
tfiv to just those limits which I claim for it, and beyond the limits to 
which he himself seeks to restrict it when he says that, figuratively, it 
can mean only (1) 'to live well' (2) 'to survive, to remain alive.' For 
if he rendered £coo-a<? in real conformity with his second proposed sense, 
he would have to say merely, ' I see that it is with men of experience 
that comparisons of counsels chiefly survive' (or 'remain in use'). That 
is to say, the words would imply that the consulting of other people 


was an old-fashioned practice, the survival of which was chiefly due to 
the conservative instincts of experienced persons. Then as to the /ecu. 
Prof. Kennedy takes it to mean: 'counsellors of experience do also, 
most of any, consult other people.' I take it to mean : 'the men of 
experience are also, in most cases, the men whose counsels prove 
effectual.' To put it more shortly, ol ZjXTrupoi Kai cv(3ov\oi elat ^dkicrra. 
It is, therefore, incorrect to say that the received version deprives 
Kat of its point. It has just as much point in that version as in the 
new one. 

Prof. Kennedy lays peculiar stress on a new canon which he has 
formulated, and which he calls ' the law of ok, since.' The gist of this 
law is to prove that ws, in O. T. 44, must necessarily refer to the clause 
€lt air avSpos olaOd irov in 43, and cannot refer to the whole preceding 
sentence from vvv r in 40 onwards. The law is stated thus: — 009, 'since,' 
as used by Sophocles, is invariably 'referred to words immediately going 
before it.' This statement lacks something in clearness. On my view 
also oj? refers to 'words immediately going before it,' — only to a greater 
number of them. Nor is it easy to see how ok could do anything else. 
But what Prof. Kennedy evidently means to say is this: — When the sen- 
tence preceding ok, 'since,' consists of more than one clause, then Sopho- 
cles always refers ok to the last clause, and never to the whole sentence. 
I venture to hope that some readers will accompany me in an attempt 
to test this canon. Prof. Kennedy begins by referring to seven other 
passages in this play, which will not detain us long. Three of them are 
irrelevant, since the sentence preceding ws is of one clause only : 365 
OI. ocrov ye xpr^eis- wg etc.: 445 01. ko/ai^ctw hrjO'' wg etc.: 1050 OI. 
<rr)ix7Jva(f • o>s etc. Two of them are really apposite for Dr Kennedy's 
purpose, viz. 47 and 54, in each of which wg refers to the nearest clause 
of the preceding sentence. Two are ambiguous, viz. 922, where <os 
may refer to the whole sentence, from 918 to 921, just as well as to 921 
alone : and 56, where o>s may refer to the whole of vv. 54 and 55, 
just as well as to v. 55 alone. The fact is, as might have been ex- 
pected, that (os ('since'), when it follows a sentence of more than one 
clause, sometimes refers to the whole sentence, and sometimes to the 
last clause of that sentence. 

Prof. Kennedy proceeds : — 

'The other places to which I refer are: 0. C. 562, 937, 1016, 1028, 1075, 
1229, 1528, 1691 ; Ant. 66, 499, 624, 765, 1337; Tr. 385, 391, 453, 488, 502, 596, 
599, 921, 1 120; At. 39, 92, 131, 141, 789, 1314; EL 17, 2r, 324, 369, 470, 633, 821, 
1112, 1319, 1337, 1446, 1489; Ph. 46, 53, 117, 464, 807, 812, 847, 9r 4 , 1043, H4 2 > 
and a few in the fragments. I have examined all, and find the fact to be as I state 
it ; and I must confess myself amazed that any scholar can look at this passage care- 
fully without discerning that 44, 45 are in immediate dependence on e£r' d7r' &p8pbs 
oladd 7Tov y even without the clinching proof supplied by this crowd of examples.' 

The number of passages thus alleged as examples is 50. Prof. 
Kennedy claims them all as proving that wg, in v. 44, must refer to 
cit oV dvSpos olo-Od 7tov in v. 43, and could not refer to the whole 
preceding sentence from v 40 to v. 43. I have examined all these 50 
passages, and I propose to give here the results of that examination. 


I find that Dr Kennedy's 50 citations can be classified under the 
following heads. 

I. Passages which are irrelevant to 0. T. 40 — 44, owing to the form of the 
sentence. In each of these, us refers to a short and compact sentence preceded by 
a full stop. There is no separable clause, like efr' d7r' dvSpbs olcrdd irov, which could 
appropriate us to itself, and so withdraw its significance from the whole sentence. 

(1) 0. C. 937 XO. bpq.s tV 7Jk(ls, u £eV; us etc. (2) ib. 10 16 9H. dXts Xbyuv, 
us etc. (3) ib. 1028 kovk &XXov f'£ets els t68 k us etc. (4) ib. 1074 ^p8ova' 17 /jUXXov<tlv ; 
us etc. (5)7^.1689 — 169 1 /card fxe <p6vios 'A'£5as e'Xot | irarpl %vv0ave'iv yepaug \ rdXaivav 
<l>setc Similar are (6) ^«A 65 f. (7)^.499. (8) #.1337. (9) Tr. 385. (10)^.391. 
(11) #. 453. (12) ib. 592. (13) tf. 596. (14) ib. 598.' (15) #. 920 f. (16) #. ri20. 
< r 7) Ai. 1313. (18) .£/. 15 — 17. (19) #. 20 f. (20) #. 324. (21) ib. 369. (22) #. 
470. (23)^.820. (24) ib. 1318. (25) #. 1337. (26) #. 1445 f. (27) Ph. 464. 
(28)^.807. (29)^.844—847. (30) ib. 9r 4 . (31)^.1440. 

II. Passages which are irrelevant because in them us does not mean ' since,' but 
either (a) 'that,' (b) 'how,' (c) 'how!' (exclamatory), (d) 'in order that,' or 
(e) 'even as.' 

a. (32) 0. C. 562 8s oT8a Kavrbs us eirai8ev0T)i> £eVos. (33) Ai. 39 AG. us &ttij> 
dvSpbs rovSe r&pya ravrd <roi. (34) Ph. 117 OA. ws rour6 7' epijas 5tfo 0ep a 8upr)p.ara. 
(35) #. 812 NE. u>s ov 64/jus 7' i/notfaTi aou p,oXeiv drep. 

b. (36) ^/. 789 toOS' eladnove rdi'Spos, us ?;Vet (pe"puv etc. 

*• (37) ib' 9 2 ^ X a 'P' 'Afld^a, x a 'P e Stc^e^es t£kvov, \ us e5 irapiaTrjs. (38) £/. 
II 12 HA. t£ 5' ftrrii', c5 £&»'; u>s ^' virepxerai cpbfios. 

d. (39) ^4w/. 765 ('I will go') wj rots diXovai ruv (piXuu /xatvrj avvuv. 

e. (40) ^4z. 141 (following a full stop) us xal tt/s vvv (pdiptv-qs vvktos etc. 

Thus, of 50 passages cited by Dr Kennedy from plays of Sophocles 
other than the Oed. Tyr., 40 are wholly irrelevant. Of the remaining 
10, one is a wrong reference, viz. Ant. 624. If Ant. 643 (w?...avTa/xv- 
viovrai) is meant, that comes under II. (d) above, and -raises the list of 
40 to 41. The other 9 illustrate the fact which I stated above; viz., 
that when <os, meaning 'since,' follows a sentence of more than one 
clause, it sometimes refers to the whole sentence, and sometimes spe- 
cially to the last clause of that sentence. Dr Kennedy maintains that 
it must always refer to the last clause (as to ut dir aVSpos o!o-0a 7rov 
here). Among the 9 passages which now remain to be considered, it 
will be found that there are only three such instances : — 

(1) Ph. 45 — 47 rbv o$i> irapbvTa irep.ipov els Karao'KOTr'fiv, \ pii] kclI Xddtj /xe irpoaire- 
cup' us /naXXov av | 2\otr6 //.' 77 tovs irdvTas 'Apyeiovs Xafielv. Here us refers to fit) ical 
\ddrj etc. 

(2) ib. 50 — 53 'AxOCXius irai, Set <r' i<p' ots eXirjXvdas \ yevva7ov efoou, /xr) y.bvov 
t£ aufJLCLTt, I d\X' tjv ti naivbv ojv irplv ovk dKf)Koas I kXijtjs, virovpyelv, us vrrrjp^Tris 
irdpet. Here the last three words, though they enforce the whole precept, are more 
particularly a comment on birovpyetv. 

(3) El. 632 f. iu, K€XeCu, 6ve' yU^S' iiraiTiu \ rovfibv <TTbfx, us ovk civ ire" pa Xe^cu/i' 
tri. This is the usual punctuation. But we might also place a comma at due, and 
a colon at <rrbn\ when the passage would be more evidently a case of us referring to 
the last clause of a sentence. 

In the following passages, on the other hand, to? refers to the whole 
preceding sentence; as I hold that, in O. T. 44, ws refers to the whole 
sentence from v. 40 onwards : — 

(1) Tr. 484 — 489 iirel ye fiev Si} irdvT' iTrl<rTao~cu Xbyov, \ Kelvov re ical <jt\v ££ 
(<xov Kotvrjv x^P lv I Kai o"r£pye rty yvvcuKa icai (iovXov Xbyovs | ovs etnas is tt}v8' ifiire8us 


fiprjutPCU' | WS TCtXX' iKe'tVOi , k6lVt'' 6,pi<TT€Uh)V X f / 00 "' \ T °V T^ffS' UpWTOS els CUTOU/d' 7\G<J(j)V 

(<pv. Here, w$ does not refer to the last clause, ical /SotfXou \6yovs etc., but to the 
whole sentence from v. 484 to 487. 

(2) Ph. 1040 — 1044. ws in 1443 refers to the whole prayer for vengeance, and 
not merely to the clause d rt /i<x/x' olKrlpere in 1042. 

(3) 0. C. 1526 — 1530. d>$ in 1528 refers to the whole sentence from 1526. 

(4) At. 127 — 133. ws in 131 refers to the whole sentence from 127. 

(5) O. C. 1225 — 1230. ws in 1229 refers to the whole sentence from n^ <f>vvai 
in 1225. 

(6) El. 1487 — 1490. ws in 1489 refers to the whole sentence, and not merely to 
the clause koX ktclvuv irpbdes etc. 

We have now examined Prof. Kennedy's 50 passages, with this 
result : — 40 are irrelevant : 3 make for his view : 6 make for mine : and 
1 (Ant. 924) is either irrelevant (being for Ant. 643) or undiscoverable. 
It seems, then, permissible to say that the new 'law of cos' is as devoid 
of ground in the actual usage of Sophocles as it is contrary to what 
we might have reasonably expected. 

The questions of language raised by the different interpretations 
have now been considered. With regard to the general spirit and tone of 
the speech in which the disputed passage occurs, they appear decidedly- 
favourable to the old interpretation, and decidedly adverse to the new. 
The Priest of Zeus salutes Oedipus, not, indeed, as a god, but as unique 
and supreme among mortals. It was by the direct inspiration of a god 
(TrpoaO-qKY) Oeov, v. 38), not by any help from man, that Oedipus was 
believed to have solved the riddle of the Sphinx. His success on that 
occasion is the ground assigned for believing that he will succeed now. 
But, according to the new interpretation, the passage expressing this 
belief winds up with a remark to the effect that ' men of experience are 
just those who are most ready to consult other people.' In this context, 
such a remark is both illogical and unpoetical. It is illogical, because 
the thought is that, as formerly he found a remedy when Theban 
advice could not aid him (v<f> -qn&v ovBkv c£eiSa>s irXiov), so he may find 
a remedy now, though the Thebans have no counsels to offer him. It 
is unpoetical, because Oedipus, who has just been exalted far above all 
other men, — to a rank which is only not divine, — is suddenly lowered 
to the ordinary level of shrewd humanity. 

In concluding this Note, I may briefly recapitulate the points which 
it has sought to establish. The old interpretation of verses 44 and 45, 
— that which has come down, presumably, from the Alexandrian age, 
and which modern scholars have been all but unanimous in upholding, — 
suits the general context, employs £vfx<f>opd in its ordinary sense, and 
gives a legitimate meaning both to £wo-as and to xai. The new inter- 
pretation gives £vfjL<popd a meaning which the word, though extremely 
common, never once bears in the classical literature. Etymology, 
indeed, warrants that meaning; but, as Lucian shows by the example of 
this very word £vfuf>opd, it was possible to observe etymology and yet 
to commit a ludicrous offence against usage. Further, if Sophocles had 
desired to use £vfi<popd in an unexampled sense, it is improbable that he 
would have chosen to arrange his words in such an order as to aggravate 
the obscurity. The contention that ws must refer to the last clause of v. 


43, rather than to the whole sentence, is groundless. Lastly, the general 
sense obtained by the new interpretation is not in good harmony either 
with the argument or with the spirit of the context. 

It is among the advantages and the pleasures of classical study that 
it gives scope for such discussions as this passage has evoked. I have 
endeavoured to weigh carefully what can be said on both sides, and to 
give the result, — as it appears to me. If any one prefers a different 
view, Ktlvos t ckcTkx arepyeroi, Kayto rdSe. 

198 f. tcXciv yap, el ti vv£ d<pf}, 

tovt eir rjiiap epxerai. 

Before adopting TeXelv, I had weighed the various interpretations of 
TcXet, and had for some time been disposed to acquiesce in Elmsley's 
as the least strained. He renders ' omnino] ' absolute] comparing Eur. 
Bacch. 859 ff. yvuxreraL Be tov Aios | Aiorucroi/ os 7re<pvKev ev reXei deos 
I SeivoTaros, dvOpwTroLo-i 8' TjiTHOTaTos. On Elmsley's view, ev reXet there 
means omnino, 'in fulness'; and here the sense would be 'in fulness — 
if night spare aught — day attacks this ' : i.e. so as to make the tale of 
havoc full. Yet I think with Professor Tyrrell that in Bacch. 860 ev 
reXei could not bear the sense which Elmsley gave to it. I should 
prefer there to render it, as Dr Sandys did, 'in the end' — i.e., when 
his wrath has been aroused. I now believe, however, that Munro's 
brilliant emendation in that place is right, — os TrecpvKev ev dreXel Oebs | 
oWotcitos: 'who is a god most terrible towards the uninitiated' (Journ. 
Philol Vol. xi. p. 280). If, then, tcXci is to mean 'in fulness' here, it 
must dispense with even such support as might have been derived from 
the passage in the Bacchae. And, at the best, the sense obtained by 
such a version is hardly satisfactory. Still less would it be so, were 
reAei joined with d<prj, as = 'spare anything at all': ei n reXei dcf>rj could 
not possibly mean el otiovv dcpfj. Nor could reAct go with a^ as = 
' remit anything in regard to completeness ' : nor again, as Hermann 
proposed, ' remit anything to the completion ' — i.e. fail to complete. 

Others have rendered — 'if night at its close spare anything.' The 
objections to this are, — (i) the weakness of the sense : (ii) the simple 
dative in this meaning : for ' at the end ' is on tw reAei (Plat. Polit. 
268 d), onrposTeAei (Legg. 768 c). The Scholiast who explains riXet as 
€7rt t<3 iavrf}^ TcAei begs the question by his addition of iirl t<3. Of pro- 
posed emendations, the obvious tcAcu/ — which Hermann merely sug- 
gested, himself preferring the bolder cure mentioned below — is at once 
the simplest and the best. Dindorf spoils it (in my judgment) by taking 
it with a<£f? instead of iirepxeraL : — ' Fortasse igitur scribendum, tcAccV 
yap el (vel 17) tl vv£ d<f>rj, i.e. nox si (vel ubi) quid malorum perficiendum 
reliquerit, id dies aggreditur et perficit.' 

Among other conjectures are: (1) Kayser, reXel yap- el tl k.t.X. 'for 
Ares will finish his work.' (2) Hermann, fieWet yap- el ti vv£ 8' d<f>y 
k.t.X. : 'Cunctatur enim (sc. Mars): si quid nox autem dimiserit, id 
invadit dies ' : p&Xet, ' delays,' meaning, I suppose, ' tarries too long 
among us.' (3) Arndt would change reXci into del, and in the 5th ed. 


of Schneidewin (revised by Nauck) this is approved, rekci being pro 
nounced 'clearly wrong.' 

219 ff. aycJ £cVos pXv rov Xoyov tovS* c^epco, 

crcVos Sc rov Trpa\$€VTO<;' ov yap av fxaxpav 
Ixvevov olvtos, fxiq ovk c^odv tl crvfxfioXov. 

Professor Kennedy understands ov yap k.t.X. as referring to a sup- 
pressed clause. ' On my having been a foreigner at the time of the 
deed, I lay no stress ; for had I been no foreigner, but one of the 
citizens, I myself, whatever my native shrewdness, as in guessing the 
riddle of the Sphinx, should not have traced the matter far, seeing that 
I had not (fxrj ovk cx<oj') any token (i.e. any clue to guide me).' 

The difficulties which I feel in regard to the above interpretation 
are these, (a) I do not see how the hearer could be expected to supply 
mentally such a suppressed clause as 'That, however, matters not; for 
even if I had been a citizen'... {p) The o-»ixfioXov lacking to Oed. is 
some way of obtaining such a clue. We should not expect him, then, 
to say that, even if he had been a citizen of Thebes at the time, he 
could not have made much progress in the investigation, because he 
would have had no clue. 

According to Professor Campbell, the suppressed clause is el lyyevov, 
and the sense is : * I have remained a stranger to the matter, for, if I 
had undertaken an inquiry, I could not have followed it far, since I had 
no clue to guide me.' ' He offers this excuse for having hitherto 
neglected what he now feels to be an imperative duty.' But Sophocles 
assumes that Oed. has just heard, for the first time, of the mysterious 
murder (105 — 129). On hearing of it, Oed. straightway asked why the 
Thebans themselves had not at the time made a search (128). Here, 
then, we cannot understand him to speak as if he had all along shared 
the knowledge of the Thebans, or as if he were apologising for having 
neglected to act upon it sooner. 

Mr Blaydes understands : ' For (were it otherwise, had I not been 
thus ignorant), I should not have had to investigate it (avro, the foul 
deed) far, without finding (quin haberem) some clue.' To this the 
objections are that (1) fxrj ovk ex (liV = l unless I had,' and could not mean 
'without finding': (2) the remark would be suitable only if Oed. had 
already for some time been engaged in a fruitless search, whereas he is 
only about to commence it. 

Schneidewin formerly conjectured rj [forov] yap dV fxaKpav \ Ixvevov 
avros, ovk [for fxrj ovk] lx <av ti o-vfifioXov : 'for [if I had not appealed to 
you] I should have searched long indeed by myself, seeing that I have 
no clue.' In the 5th ed., revised by Nauck, ov is wisely replaced 
instead of 77 (though ovk for firj ovk is kept), and the sense is given 
substantially as I give it. 

Much of the difficulty which this passage has caused seems 
attributable (1) to a prevalent impression that ov yao...aV in such a 
sentence always means, 'for else! etc - • ( 2 ) t0 want of clearness regarding 

[At] OV. 


Now, as to (i), it depends on the context in each case whether ov ydp 
av means, 'for else,' etc. When it has that force, it has it because there 
is a suppressed protasis. Such is the case in v. 82 dXX eiKdVai pkv rJSvq- 
ov ydp av...€tp7r€: i.e. d pr) rJSvs rjv. Such is also the case in 318 SiwAeo-'* 
ov ydp dv Scvp' Iko/xyjv: i.e. ei pvrj SicoAeo-a. But when the protasis is not 
suppressed, then, of course, there is no such ellipse as our word 'else' 
implies. Thus Xen. Anal?. 7. 7. n koX vvv aVei/Ai* ovSe ydp dv M^Soko? 
/u.€ o /^ao-tXcvs liraivoir], ei i^tXavvoip.i tovs evepye'ras : ' and now I 
will go away ; for Medocus the king would not commend me, if I 
should drive out our benefactors. 1 Had the protasis d e£e\avVoiui tovs 
€vepy. been suppressed, then ovSe yap aV...eVauW?7 must have been 
rendered, ' for else he would not commend me ' : but, since it is 
given, we do not need 'else.' So Dem. or. 18 § 228 wpoXoyrjKe vvv 
y r]p,as VTrdpyziv iyvoio-pLevovs i/xe pkv Aeyeiv vVep rrjq 7raTpi'Sos, avrov 8' 
VTrtp ^tAi7T7rov. ov yap av fAtTaTTtiOeiv vpas ei^rjrei, pr) TOLavTrjs ovcrrjs rrjs 
virapxovo-r)<; vTroXrjif/cujq 7repl tKarepov : ' he has admitted that, as matters 
stand, we are already pronounced to be speaking, I, in our country's 
cause, and he, in Philip's; for he would not have been seeking to bring 
you over to his view, were not such the existing impression with regard to 
each.' Here, p.r) ToiavV^s ovo~r\% represents the protasis, d p.r) Toiavr-q rjv, 
exactly as here in O. T. 221 per) ovk c^wi/ represents the protasis ei prj 
ct^ov: and we do not insert 'else' after 'for.' 

(2) As regards p.rj ov with the participle, the general principle may, 
I think, be stated thus. Every sense possible for (e.g.) per) notwv is 
possible for p.r) ov iroidiv when the principal verb of the sentence is 
negative. Take the sentence pdScov r)plv £,r)v p.r) ttovovo-l. The participial 
clause here could represent, according to the sense intended, any one of 
four things, viz. (1) ei p.r) irovovpav, 'if, — as is the fact, — we are not 
labouring' : (2) idv p,r) irovlop^v, 'whenever we do not labour,' or, 'if we 
shall not labour': (3) et p.r) Trovolp,ev, 'if we should not labour': (4) d 
p.r) €Trovovp.€v, 'if we had not (then) been labouring, (as in fact we then 
were,)' or, 'if we were not (now) labouring, (as in fact we now are).' 
So in the negative sentence, ov paSiov £rjv p.r) ov ttovovo-l, the 
participial clause can equally represent any one of the same four things. 

But from the very fact that p.r) ov can stand only in a negative 
sentence it follows that a participial clause with p,r) ov will, in practice, 
most often express an exception to a negative statement. This must not, 
however, make us forget that firj ov with the participle is still equivalent 
to the protasis of a conditional sentence. Thus : — 

Her. 6. 9 TTv66p.€VOL to TrXrjOos twv 'IaoW vcoji/ Karappu&rjo-av pr) ov 
Bvvarol yevoivrai VTrepfiaXicrOai, koX ovtlo ovt€ rrjv M.lXt)tov 0X01 re ewci 
i$eXciv pvrj ovk covtcs vav/cpaTopes k.t.X.: where pr) ovk €oVt€?=€i pvq etci, 
(or rjv pr) eWi,) the negative condition. Her. 6. 106 dvarr} Se ovk 
iieXevaeaOat. l<pao-av pvr) ov TrXr/peo^ eoVros rov kvkXov, i.e. d pvrj irXrjpr]% 
io-rlv 6 kvkXos, 'if (as is the case) the moon is not full' (they are 
speaking on the dvarr) itself). Plat. Lysis 212 d ovk dpa Zo-tI <f>iXov 
to) (pcXovvTi p.r) ovk avTicpiXovv, i.e. (dv p.r) dvTHpiXrj, unless it love in 
return. Soph. O. C. 359 ^/ceis yap ov Ktvr) ye, tovt eyco o~a(p<jj<; | !£oiSa, 
pr) ov^t S*tp.' cpol cpepovo-d rt : ' thou hast not come empty-handed, 


without bringing,' etc. : where the participial clause, epexegetic of k«^, 
implies «i fxrj locoes, (ovk av rJKts,) — ' hadst thou not been bringing (as 
thou art bringing), thou wouldst not have come.' 

In all the above passages, it is the present participle which stands 
after p.rj ov, as it is also in O. T. 13, 221. Now compare (1) Dem. 
Or. 18 § 34 fir) Karrryoprjcravros Attr^iVov ( = ct p.rj Karrryoprjaev Al<T)(ivr)<;) 
firj&tv e£u) Trjs ypacprjs ov8' av iyio Xoyov ovStva €7roiovfxr)v erepov. (2) or. 
19 § 123 ov yap tvrjv p.rj rrapaKpovo-Oevroiv vpiwv ( = el p,rj irapiKpov- 
aOr]T€ vfieU) p.€ivai <J>iA.ur7ra>. Here, though the sentences are nega- 
tive, we have p/17, not p.rj ov, with the aorist partic, representing the 
protasis. In (1) the order of clauses affects the question, but not in (2). 
Owing to the comparative rarity of p.rj ov with the participle, generali- 
sation appears unsafe; but it looks as if prevalent usage had accustomed 
the Greek ear to /at} ov with partic. chiefly in sentences where the pro- 
tasis so represented would have been formed with (1) imperf. indie, or 
(2) pres. subjunct., or (3) pres. optat. In conditional sentences with 
the aor. indicative, even where the negative form admitted p.r) ov, 
there may have been a preference for paj. The instances cited seem 
at least to warrant the supposition that, in such a sentence as ovk av 
d-n-eOavev ei p.rj tntae, Demosthenes would have chosen p.rj (rather than 
p.rj ov) 7reow as the participial substitute for the protasis. 

227 f. K€t /A€l> <pofi€LTai, TOVirUX-qp! VTTC^Awi/ 

auTOS KaO* avrov. 

With this, the common reading, it is necessary to suppose some 
ellipse. I believe vire£c\<ov and auYo? to be indefensible. If they were 
to be retained, I should then, as the least of evils, translate thus : — 
1 And if he is afraid, — when (by speaking) he will have removed the 
danger of the charge from his own path, — [let him not/ear].' Such an 
ellipse — though, to my mind, almost impossibly harsh — would at least 
be mitigated by the following 7r€io-€rai yap aAAo p.€v | aorcpyes ovSev, 
which we might regard as an irregular substitute for an apodosis in the 
sense of prj <po(3eLo-dw, yap being virtually equivalent to 'I tell him.' 

Among the interpretations of the received text which have been 
proposed, the following claim notice. 

1. Professor Kennedy renders (the italics are his): 'and if he fears 
and hides away the charge | against himself, let him speak out.' Here 
vVc^cXtoi/ =' having suppressed,' and p.rj o-iw7rara> is mentally supplied 
from v. 231 (three verses further on). 

2. Professor Campbell gives the preference to the following version 
(while noticing two others) : — 'And let the man himself, if he be touched 
with fear, inform against himself, by taking the guilt away with him': 
i.e. vire$€\wv= l having withdrawn,' and 'the words Ka$ y avrov are to be 
construed Kara o-vvecriv with v. 226, sc. irouiroy rdSe, self- banishment 
being in this case equivalent to self-impeachment.' This is tantamount 
(if I understand rightly) to supplying o-q/uuverco from o-qp.aiv€Lv in 226. 

3. Schneidewin: 'And if he is afraid, because he will have revealed 
(uVc^tA-a^) a charge against himself, — let him not fear* (sc. fir} <f>ofi€io-0u)). 
So Lin wood, only supplying o~r)p.atvLru. 


4. Elmsley: 'And if he is afraid, (still let him denounce himself, 
sc. crrjfiaiveTai,) thus extenuating the guilt (by confession),' — crimen con- 
fitendo diluens. To say nothing of the sense given to vVc^eAw, the 
aorist part, seems strange on this view. 

5. Matthiae regards the construction as an irregular form of what 
might have been more simply put thus : kci p\v <£o/?€itcu, to lirUXr)p.a. 
avros kolO* avrov VTrt^tXwv (aTreXBeru) £k rijs yys)' irctVeTat yap ovolv 
dXXo ao-Tcpyc?: 'If he is afraid, (let him leave the country,) thus faking 
azvay the charge against himself.' He explains vVc^cAW by ' subripiensl 
i.e. subterfugiens, dectinans, 'evading the danger of being accused.' 
Neither this nor the ellipse of dirzXOtroi seems possible. Wunder nearly 
agrees with Matthiae. 

6. Hermann (3rd ed.) translates v. 227 'Si metuit, subterfugiens 
accusationem sui ipsius,' and supposes the apodosis to be y^s airetcrLv 
dpXapTJs, — fxXv and h\ having been added because the clause 7T€io-€tcu 
yap has been put first. Thus he agrees with Matthiae as to vVe^eAwi/, 
but takes it with </>o/?etTai, not with a supposed d-rreXOiru. 

7. Dindorf also takes Matthiae's view of vir^Xtav, but wishes (ed. 
i860) for vTre£e\oi in an imperative sense: 'crimen subterfugiat': 'let 
him evade the charge against himself (by going into exile). 

Under one or another of the above interpretations those given by 
most other commentators may be ranged. 

Among emendations, the palm for ingenuity seems due to Hartung's 
Kel fxlv <£o/?€(/rai, tov7tlk\7)ix cVc^itco I avros Katf avrov : ' and if he is 
afraid, still let him prosecute the charge against himself.' This is, how- 
ever, more brilliant than probable. 

Mr Blaydes in his note proposes to read k*1 p.\v fyofi&r at rov-n-UX-qfji 
vTre&Xziv {to draw forth from the recesses of his own mind), and sup- 
plies, 'let him feel assured.' For this view of v-rreieXtlv, cp. above, 
no. 3. In his text, however, he gives (on his own conjecture) kol firj 
<j>of3ei(r6<i) TovirLKXy]fx V7re$eX€LV | avros Ka#' avrov. 

246 ff. The proposed transposition of verses 246 — 251, Karev^o/xai... 

Otto Ribbeck suggested that these six verses should stand imme- 
diately after 272 (c^tovi). He thought that their displacement in the 
mss. arose from a confusion between vplv Sc in 252 and the same words 
in 273. He argued that 251, rraOeiv aVcp toutS' dprCws yjpao-d/JLrjv, has no 
meaning unless it follows 269 — 274, *al ravra -rots fxrj Spaxri k.t.X. 
Many recent editors adopt the transposition. Against it, and in favour 
of the mss., I would submit these considerations. (1) The transposition 
destroys the natural order of topics. The denunciation of a curse on 
the murderer must stand in the fore-front of the speech, whereas the 
transposition subjoins it, as a kind of after-thought, to the curse on those 
who disobey the edict. It thus loses its proper emphasis. (2) The 
transposition enforces an awkward separation between ravra toU 
fxrj 8p<oo-iv (269) and toi? aXXoivt (273). The latter depends for its 
clearness on juxtaposition with the former: but six verses are now in- 
serted between them. (3) In 251 Ribbeck's objection would fail if we 


had rw& instead of toutS': but toio-8' is used to include the hypothesis 
of several murderers (247, cp. 122). 

305. €t kolL and koX d. — (1) cl naC, in its normal usage, = 'granting 
that...,' where the speaker admits that a condition exists, but denies 
that it is an obstacle: above, 302: 408, ct kou rvpawels: EL 547, el koX 
o-fjs 81'^a yvioprjs Acyco. 

(2) In our passage (as in Ai. 1127, Tr. 71), the «u has a slightly- 
stronger sense, — * if indeed — though I should be surprised to hear it' 

(3) Both these uses differ from that in which cl kcU has the sense 
which properly belongs to Kal ct, i even supposing that...,' where the 
speaker refrains from granting the existence of the alleged condition: 
Tr. 1 2 18 ct /ecu jxcLKpa Kapr cVtiv, ipyaaOijatTai, 'even if the favour is 
a very large one, it shall be granted.' 

For the regular distinction between el k<u and k<xI ct, see //. 4. 347 
kcu ci Sixa TrvpyoL 'AxaicoV I v/a€l<jw TrpoTrdpoiOe /xa^oiaro, compared with //. 
5. 410 TuSctS^s, el Kal pidXa Kaprcoos eoriv. 

The normal use of Kal ct occurs below, 669, 1077: O. C. 306 k« 
fipa&vs I evSei: Ant. 234 K€i to /x/^Scv c^cpco: 461 kci fxrj crv 7rpovKijpv^a<;: 

El. 6l7 K€t /XT) 80KCO (TGI. 

Conversely, we have Kal ct for ct Ka( in Ai. 536, 692, 962 : O. C. 661 : 
below, 986, 15 16. 

(4) All the foregoing uses, in which el k<x£ forms a single expression, 
must be distinguished from those cases in which k<x£ belongs closely to 
\ht following word, as 283 el *ai rpir* eo~ri: Ant. 90 ct Kal Swrjcrei y. 

Similarly, for Kal cl, distinguish those cases in which Ka£='and': 
O. C. 1323 cyco 8e cro's, kcI ui} cto's, aAAd rov kolkov | irorpiov (pvrevOets. 

328 f. OV p.f) 7TOTC 

rap\ co's dV elirui purj rd a tKcpyjio) Kama. 

Prof. Kennedy takes the passage thus : — cyco o° ov pirfirore curco rapid, 
I will never speak my things, cos dv (el-n-oi), however I may call them 
(whatever they may deserve to be called), pirj rd a eKcpyjvoi KaKa, lest I 
disclose your things as evil. Or, as he renders it in verse, 'but mine I 
ne'er will speak, | however named, lest I display thine — evil.' For cos 
dv as -'in whatever way,' he compares 77. 2. 139 cos dv cycoi/ ei7rco, 
7rci0w/x£#a ttoVtcs: Soph. Ai. 1369 cos av 7roi7]o~r)S, TravTa\ov \pr)crr6<s y* 
ccrct : Dem. or. 18. 292 [§ 192] To\..7rcpas, cos dv 6 &aip.o)v (3ov\r]6r), 
irdvTUiv yiyvtrai: and adds: 'We might place commas before and after 
cos dv, to indicate the quasi-adverbial character which it acquires by the 
ellipse [of eliroi], in reality not more abnormal than that of tjSolo in 900 
[937], 178010 /xeV, 77-cos 8' ovk dv;' (Oed. Tyr., pp. 76 f.). 

As Prof. Kennedy has well said elsewhere {Stud. Soph. p. 62), if any 
emendation were to be admitted, the simplest would be elirwv for curco (a 
change which Hermann also once suggested), with a comma after rap!. 
cyco 8' ov pLYjiron (curco) rapid, cos dv eliriov (by telling them) pirj . . . €K(f>7Jvw. 
But with him (though our interpretations differ) I believe that the words 
are sound as they stand. 


Hardly any passage, however, in Sophocles has given rise to so large 
a number of conjectures. Most of these have been directed to the same 
general object — some such alteration of the words Ta/x' o>? aV ct7ro> as 
shall make it easier to take the second fxrj with t/c^Vw. The following 
may be mentioned: (i) Wolff, ra/x oij/av en™, 'my visions,' — oif/avov 
having that sense in Aesch. Cho. 534. (2) Hartung, rd 6eo-<f>aT el-n-w. 
(3) C F. Hermann, to" /xdcrcrov ei7ru). (4) Campbell, €i7ra) raS', gjs av 
fxrj rd <r €K^yqvm Ka/ca. (5) Nauck, approved by Bonitz, avwya? ciuco. 
(6) Campe, Quaest. Soph. 1. 18, dyvmv dvu7ro>. (7) Arndt, TaAAcov 
avetVaj. (8) Seyffert, Weismann, Ritter, ra/x,' ws aVei7ra>. (9) VVecklein, 
To./* a>8' avctVw. (10) Pappageorgius, rdfx is <r av€i7ro). See his Beitrage 
zur Erklarung u?id Kritik des Sophokles, p. 22, Iena, 1883. 

361. The forms yvcoros #«*/ yi/wo-ros. — yvcuros is regularly formed 
from the verbal stem yva> with the suffix to: cp. Skt. gna-t-as, Lat. notus. 
In the form yvoxrTos, the origin of the a is obscure : Curtius remarks 
that we might suppose a stem yvws expanded from yi>a>, but also a 
present *yi/o)jw, which might be compared with O. H. G. knau. In the 
case of kclvo-tos (Eur.), kAoujo-to's (Soph.), the a- is explained by /caFyw 
(koiu), KAaF_yo> (KXaio)). The existing data do not warrant us in assign- 
ing the forms with or without o- to certain periods with such rigour as 
Elmsley's, for example, when he regarded evyvwTos as the only correct 
Attic form. dyvtoo-Tos occurs in Odyssey, Thucydides, Plato (who has 
also yvuxrros) j in Pindar Isthm. 3. 48 dyvwo-Tot is doubtful ; Mommsen 
gives dyvuiToi, and so Fennell, who remarks ad loc. that in 01. 6. 67 for 
dyvoiTov (as against dyvwcnov) Mommsen has the support of two good 
mss. We have ay^oros in Sophocles and Aristophanes ; evyvcoo-Tos in 
Sophocles, Euripides, Lysias, etc. 

With regard to the meaning of these verbals, it has been held that, 
where such forms as yvtuTos and yvoxrros existed side by side, Attic 
writers appropriated the potential sense to the sigmatic form, distinguish- 
ing yvwo-To's, as ' what can be known,' from yvwros, ' what is known/ 
Nothing in the sigmatic form itself could warrant such a distinction. 
However the a- be explained, yvwa-ro's, no less than yvwro's, must 
have primarily meant simply ' known,' as ko.vo-t6<s i burnt ' and k\o.v- 
<rrds ' wept.' And we find a/cAavo-Tos as = * unwept ' (not, ( what can- 
not be wept for'), iroXvKXavaTos as =' much-wept ' (not, 'worthy of 
many tears'). When the modal idea of 'may' or 'can' attached itself 
to these verbals, it was merely by the same process as that which in 
Latin brought invicius, ' unconquered,' to the sense of ' unconquerable.' 
Yet I would suggest, on the other hand, that the special attribution 
of a potential sense to the sigmatic forms may have thus much ground. 
When two forms, such as yywrds and yi/coo-ro's, were both current, regular 
analogies would quicken the sense that yvcuTos had a participial nature, 
while yvtoo-ros, in which the o- obscured the analogy, would be felt more 
as an ordinary adjective, and would therefore be used with less strict 
regard to the primary participial force. Thus it might be ordinarily 
preferred to yvcoros, when 'knowable' was to be expressed. At the 
same time, it would always remain an available synonym for yvwi-o's 

J. S. I. 3 15 

226 * APPENDIX. 

as = ' known.' And we have seen in the commentary that Sophocles 
is said to have used yywo-rds, as well as yvwros, in the sense of ' well- 

478. The reading of the first hand in the Laurentian ms., 7reTpatos 6 
Tavpos. — This reading raises one of those points which cannot be lightly 
or summarily decided by any one who knows the rapid transitions and 
the daring expressions which were possible for the lyrics of Greek 
Tragedy. Hermann — who was somewhat more in sympathy with the 
manner of Aeschylus than with that of Sophocles — characteristically 
adopted the reading, — which he pronounces * multo vulgata fortiorem.' 
The mere substitution of metaphor for simile is not, indeed, the difficulty. 
Euripides, for instance, has {Med. 184) drdp </>d/?os el ireto-o) \ SeWoirav 
€fX7JV...KaiTOi TOKCtSos hipyfxa keaCvr}'; I diroTavpovTaL 8fJL(o(riv. But 
the boldness of ktalvrjs so closely followed by S/xw