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r IX 




VOL. IV, B Perfons 

Perfons Reprefentec? J, 

Xing of France. 

Duke of Florence. 

Bertram, Count o/Roufillon. 

.Lafeu, an old Lord. 

Parolles % a parafitical follower of Bertram ; a cozvarfi, 

but vain, and a great pretender to valour. 
Several young French Lords, that ferve with Bertram in 

the Florentine war. 

Servants to tjye Comte f 5 

Countefs o/Roufillon, mother to Bertram. 

Helena, daughter to Gerard de Narbon, a famous phy- 

ficiatii fame timefince dead. 
An old widow of Florence. 
Diana, "Daughter to the widow. 

-A! . '1- Neighbours and friends to the widow. 
Lords, attending on the King ; Officers, Soldiers, &c. 
SCENE lies partly in France, and partly in Tufcany^ 

1 The perfons were firft enumerated by Rtnve. 

a Parolles.] I fuppofe we (hould write this name Paroles, i.e. a 
creature made up of empty words. STEEVENS. 

3 Viohnta only enters once, and then fhe neither fpeaks, nor ia 
fpoken to. STEEVENS. 



'The Countefs of Roufillorfs boufe in France. 

Enter Bertram, the Countefs af Roufillon, Helena, and 
Lafeu, all in black. 

Count. 5 In delivering my Ton from me, I bury a 
fecond hufband. 

Ber. And I, in going, madam, weep o'er my fa- 
ther's death anew : but I muft attend his majefly's 

* The ftory of ^//'j Well that Ends W~ell y or, as I fuppofe it to 
have been fometimes called, Love's Labour Wonne, is originally 
indeed the property of Boccace, but it came immediately to Shake- . 
fpeare from Painter's Gilletta of Narbon, in the firft vol. of the 
PalaceofPleafure, 410, 1566, p. 88. FARMER. 

Shakefpeare is indebted to the novel only for a few leading cir- 
cumftances in the graver parts of the piece. The comic bulinefs 
appears to be entirely of his own formation. STEEVE.N'S. 

5 In delivering my fan from me , ] To deliver from, in the 

fenfe of giving />, is not Englifli. Shakelpcare wrote, in difle- 

vering my fon from me The following words, too, I Inry a 

I'icond biijlatui demand this reading. For to dijje<ver implies a 

violent divorce ; and therefore might be compared to the burying a 
bnjland\ which delivering does not. WAR .;CRTON. 

Of this change I fee no need : tKe preient reading is clear, and, 
perhaps, as proper as that which the great commentator would 
iubftitwe ; for the king iUjJe-ven her foii from her, ihe only deli" 
vers liim. JOHNSON. 

B 2 command, 

4 A L L's W E L t 

command, to whom I am now 6 in ward, evermofe 
in fubjedlion. 

Laf. You fhall find of the king a hufband, ma- 
dam \ you, fir, a father : He that ib generally is at 
all times ebod, mult of neceffity hold his virtue to 
you ; 7 whofe worthiness would ftir it up where it 
wanted, rather than lack it where there is fuch abun- 

Count. What hope is the*e of his majefty's amend- 
ment ? 

Laf. He hath abandonM his phy^cians, madam ; 
under whole practices he hath perfecuted time with 
hope ; and finds no other advantage in the procefs, 
but only the lofing of hope by time. 

Count. 8 This young gentlewoman had a father, 
(O, that bad! how fad a paffage 'tis !) whofe fkill 


6 in ivarj, ] Under his particular care, as my guar- 
dian, till I come to age. It is now almoft forgotten in England, 
that the heirs of great fortunes were the king's wards. Whether 
the fame practice prevailed in France, it is of no great ufe to en- 
quire, for Shakefpeare gives to all nations the manners of England. 


Howell's fifteenth letter acquaints us that the province of Nor- 
mandy was fubjeft to wardfliips, and no other part of France be- 
fiues ; but the fuppofition of the contrary furnifhed Shakefpeare 
with a reafon why the king compelled Roufillon to marry Helen. 


in iivzrv/,- ] The prerogative of ivardjblp is a branch of the 
feudal law, and may as well be fuppofed to be incorporated with 
the conftitution of France, as it was with that of England, till the 
reign of Charles II. SIR J. HAWKINS. 

7 whofe ivortbincfs wonld Jllr it itp ivhere it wanted ^ rather 
than lack it where there is fuch abundance. ~\ An oppofition of term* 
is vifibly defigned in this fentence ; tho' the oppolition is notfo vi- 
fible, as the terms now ftand. Wanted ^and abundance are the op- 
polites to one another ; but how is lack a contraft toj?/r up ! The 
addition of a lingle letter gives it, and the very fenfe requires it. 
Rezdjlack it. WAR BURTON. 

8 Thisyottng gentkwoman\v2idi a father (O, that had ! hvwfaila 
paflage 'tis /] Lafeu was fpeaking of the king's defperate condi- 
tion : which makes the counteis recall to mind the deceafed Ge- 
rard de Narbon, who, fhe thinks could have cured him. But ii> 



was almoft as great as his honefty ; had it ftretch'd 
fo far, it would have made nature immortal, and death 
fhould have play'd for lack of work. 'Would, for 
the king's fake, he were living ! I think, it would be 
ihe death of the king's difeafe. 

Laf. How call'd you the man you fpeak of, ma- 
dam ? 

Count. He was famous, fir, in his profeffion, and 
it was his great right to be fo : Gerard de Narbon. 

Laf. He was excellent, indeecj, madam ; the king 
very lately fpoke of him, admiringly, and mourn- 

ufing the word had, whick implied his death, ftie flops in the mid- 
idle of her fentence, and makes a reflection upon it, which, accor- 
ding to the prefent reading, is unintelligible. We muft therefore 
believe Shakefpeare wrote (O that had ! how fad a prefage 'tis) 
i.e. a. prefage that the 'king muft now expet no cure, lince fo fkil- 
ful a perfon was himfelf forced to fubmit to a malignant diftemper. 


This emendation is ingenious, perhaps preferable to the pre- 
fent reading, yet fince pajjage may be fairly enough explained, I 
have left it in the text. Paffage is any thing that paj/Jes, fo we now 
fay, zpajjage of an author, and we faid about a century ago, the 
paffages of a reign. When the countcfs mentions Helena's lofs of a 
father, (he recollects her own lofs of a hulband, and flops to ob 
ierve how heavily that word had pafles through her mind. 


Thus Shakefpeare himfelf. See The Comedy of Errors, ad III. 
fc. i: 

" Now in the ftirring^T^rgr of the day." 
So, in The Gamcjier, by Shirley, 1637 : " I'll not be witnefs 
of your pajjages myfelf." i. e. of what pafles between you. 
Again, in A Woman's a Weathercock, 1612 : 

" never lov'd thefe prying liftening men 

" That aflc of other's ftates a&ufatffages. 
Again : 

" I knew the pajjages 'twixt her and Scudamore." 
Again, in the Dumb Knight, 165 3 : 

have beheld 

" Your vile and moll lafclvious pajjages." 

Again, in the Englifh Intelligencer, a tragi -comedy, 1641 : ** two 
philofophere that jeer and weep at fospaffaget of the world." 


BS ingly: 

6 A L L's W E L L 

ingly : he was fkilful enough to have liv'd ftill, if 
knowledge could have been fet up againfl mortality. 

Ber. What is it, my good lord, the king lan- 
guilhes of ? 

Laf. Afiftula, my lord. 

Ber. I heard not of it before, 

Laf. I would, it were not notorious. Was this 

gentlewoman the daughter of Gerard de Narbon ? 

Count. His fole child, my lord ; and bequeathed to 
my overlooking. J have thofe hopes of her good, 
that her education promifes : her difpqfitions Ihe in- 
herits, which makes fair gifts fairer : for 9 where an 
unclean mind carries virtuous qualities, there com- 
mendations go with pity, they are virtues and traitors 


9 where an. unclean mind carries virtuous qualities, there com~ 
mentations go with pity , they are 'virtues and traitors too j in her 
they are the better for \hz\rjimplencfs ; Jhe derives her honefy, and-at- 
cbieves her gooJncfs.] This obicure encomium is made ftill more 
pbfcure by a flight corruption of the text. Let us explain the paf- 
fage as it lies. By virtuous qualities are meant qualities of good 
breeding and erudition ; in the fame fenfe that the Italians fay, 
'qualita virtuofa ; and not moral ones. Qn this account it is, fhe 
fays, that, in an ill mind, thefe virtuous qualities are virtues and 
traitors ton: i. e. the advantages of education enable an ill mind 
to go further in wickednefs than it could have done without them. 
But, lays the countefs, in her they are the better for i\\e\r Jimplenefs, 
"&\\t Jimpknefe is the fame with what is called hcncjly, immediately 
after; which cannot be predicated of the qualities of education. 
We mu ft certainly read &$*. jjmpbaefs t and then the fentence 
is properly concluded. The countefs had faid, that virtuous qua- 
lities are the worfe for an unclean mind, but concludes that Helen's 
are the letter for her Jimplenefs, \. e. her clean, pure mind. She 
then fums up the character, (he had before given in detail, in 
thefe words, Jhe derives her honcjiy^ and atchieves her goodnefsy 
i.e. fhe derives \\er bonejly, her. .faiplenfft* her moral character, 
from her father and her anceftors ; but (he atchieves or wins her 
gooa'fiefs, her virtue, or her qualities of good breeding and erudU 
pon, by her own pains and labour. WAREURTOX. 

This is likewife a plaufible but unneceflary alteration. Her vir- 
tues are the better for their f.mplencff, that is, her excellencies are 
tne better becaufe they are artlefs and open, without fraud, with- 
out defign. The learned conmentator has well explained virtues, 



too ; in her they are the better for their fimplenefs ; 
fhe derives her honefty, and atchieves her goodnefs. 

Laf. Your commendations, madam, get from her 

Count. "Pis the beft brine a maiden can feafon her 
praiie in. The remembrance of her father never ap- 
proaches her heart, but the tyranny of her forrows 
takes ' all livelihood from her cheek. No more of 
this, Helena, go to, no more; left it be rather 
thought you afFedt a forrow, than to have. 

Net I do affect a forrow, indeed, but I have it too. 

'Laf. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead, 
exceffive grief the enemy to the living. 

Count. * If the living be enemy to the grief, the 
excefs makes it foon mortal. 

Tnit has not, I think, reached the force of the word traitors, and 
therefore has not fhewn the full extent of Shakefpeare's mafterly 
obfervation. Virtues in an unclean mind are virtues and traitors too. 
Eftimable and ufeful qualities, joined with evil difpofition, give 
that evil difpofition power over others, who, by admiring the 
virtue, are betrayed to the malevolence. The Tatler, 'mention- 
ing the (harpers oi his time, obferves, that fome of them are men 
ot fuch elegance and knowledge, that a young man ivbo falls inta 
their -ivay^ is betrayed as much by his judgment as his pajjlons. 


Virtue, and virtuous, as I am told, flill keep this fignification in 
the north, and mean ingenuity and ingenious. Of this fenfe per- 
haps an inftance occurs in the eighth book of Chapman's Per/ion 
of the Iliad: 

" Then' will I to Olympus' top our vertuous engine bine?, 
" And by it every thing (hall hang, &c." 
Again, in Marlowe's T.amlurlainc., p. i. "1590,: 
If the'e had made one poem's peiipd, 
And all combin'd in beauties worthyncfie, 
Yet (hould there hover in their rcftlefie heads 
One thought, one grace, one wonder at the leaft, 
Which into wort's no iiertue can digeil ." STEEVENS. 

1 all livelihood'} i. e. all appearance of life. STEEVENS. 

2 If the living be enemy to the grief, the excefs makes it foon mor- 
tal.'} This feems very oblcure ; but the addition of a negative per- 
fectly difpels ali the mift. If the living be not cnnriy, &c. excelfive 
grid is an enemy to the living, fays Lalcu : Yes, replies the 

B 4 countcls; 

S A L L's W E L L 

Eer. Madam, I defire your holy wiihes. 

Laf. How underftand we that ? 

Count. Be thou bleft, Bertram ! and fucceed thy 


In manners, as in fhape ! thy blood, and virtue, 
Contend for empire in thee ; and thy goodneis 
Share with thy birth-right ! Love all, truft a few, 
Do wrong to none : be able for thine enemy 
Rather in power, than ufe ; and keep thy friend 
Under thy own life's key : be check'd for filence, 
But never tax'd for fpeech. What heaven more will, 
3 That thee may furnifh, and my prayers pluck down, 
Fall on thy head ! Farewell. My lord, 
'Tis an unfeafon'd courtier, good my lord, 
Advife him. 

Laf. He cannot want the beft, 
That fhall attend his love. 

Count. Heaven blefs him ! Farewell, Bertram. 

[Exit Countefs.. 

Eer. [To Helena.] 4 The beft wilhes, that can be forg'd 
in your thoughts, be fervants to you ! Be comfortable 
to my mother, your miftrefs, and make much of her, 

Laf. Farewell, pretty lady : Yon mult hold the 
credit of your father. [Exeunt Bertram and Lafeu. 

countefs ; and if the living be not enemy -to the grief, [i. e. ftrive 
to conquer'it,] the excefs makes it loon mortal. WARBURTON. 

This emendation I had once admitted into the text, but re- 
flored the old reading, becaufe I think it capable of an eafy expli- 
cation. Lafeu fays, excejjive grief is the enemy of the living: the 
countefs replies, If the living be an enemy to grief \ the excefs foon 
makes it mortal : that is , if the living do not indulge grief ^ grief de- 
Jlroys itfelfby its own excefs. By the word mortal I underftand that 
which dies, and Dr. Warburton, that which deftroys, I think that 
my interpretation gives a fentence more acute and more refined. 
Let the reader judge. JOHNSON. 

3 That tbec may furnijb, ] That may help thee with more 

and better qualifications. JOHNSON. 

4 The left wijbes, &c.] That is, may you be miftrefs of your 
withes, and have power to bring them to effect. JOHNSON. 



Hel Oh, were that all! I think not on my father; 

5 And thefe great tears grace his remembrance more, 
Than thofe I fhed for him. What was he like ? 

I have forgot him : my imagination 
Carries no favour in it, but Bertram's. 
I am undone ; there is no living, none, 
If Bertram be away. It were all one, 
That I fliould love a bright particular ftar, 
And think to wed it, he is fo above me : 

6 In his bright radiance and collateral light 
Mult I be comforted, not in his fphere. 
The ambition in my love thus plagues itfelf : 
The hind, that would be mated by the lion, 

Muft die for love. 'Twas pretty, though a plague, 

To fee him every hour ; to fit and draw 

His arched brows, his hawking eye, his curls, 

In our heart's table ; heart, too capable 

Of every line and 7 trick of his fweet favour, 

But now he's gone, and my idolatrous fancy 

Muft fanSify his relicks, Who comes here ? 

Enter Parolles. 

One that goes with him : I love him for his fake ; 
And yet I know him a notorious liar, 

5 tbefe great tears] The tears which the king and coun- 

tefs fhed for him. JOHNSON. 

6 In bis bright radiance &c.J I cannot be united with him and 
move in the famtfpherc, but miift be comforted at a diftance by the 
radiance that fhoots on all fides from him. JoHNSONt 

Milton, b. x ; 

" from his radiant feat he rofe 

" Of high collateral glory." STEEVENS. 

7 i trick of bis fvjeet favour,] So, in King John : ** he hath 
a trick of Coeur de Lion's face." Trifl feems to be fome peculi- 
arity or feature. JOHNSON. 

Triek is an exprellion taken from drawing, and is fo explained ia 
another place. The preient inftance explains itfelf: 

. . to fit and draw 
His arched brows, &c. 

and trick of his fweet favour. 

f'ridj however, may mean peculiarity^ STEEVENS. 


*o A L L's W E L L 

Think him a great way fool, folely a coward ; 
Yet thefe fix'd evils fit fo fit in him, 
That they take place, when virtue's fleely bones 
Look bleak in the cold wind : withal, full oft we fee 
* Cold wifdom waiting on fuperfluous folly. 

Par. Save you, fair queen. 

Hel. And you, monarch 9 . 

Par. No. 

HeL And no. 

Par. Are you meditating on virginity ? 

HeL Ay. You have fome ' ftain of loldier in you ; 
let me alk you a queftion : Man is enemy to virgi- 
nity ; how may we barricade it againft him ? 

Par. Keep him out. 

Hel. But he afiails ; and our virginity, though va- 
liant, in the defence yet is weak : unfold to us fome 
warlike refinance. 

Par. There is none; man, fitting down before you, 
tvill undermine you, and blow you up. 

HeL Blefs our poor virginity from underminers, and 

8 Cold vjlfdom waiting on fuperfluous folly."} Cold for naked ; 
as fuperfluous for over-cloathed. This makes the propriety of the 
antithefis. WAR BURTON. 

9 Andyou monarch.] Perhaps here is fome allunon defigned to 
Xuunschoi a ridiculous fantaflical character of the age of Shake- 
fpeare. Concerning this perfon, fee the notes on Loves Labour 
Loft, aft IV. fc. i. STEEVEN-S. 

* ftxunoffoldicr' ] Stain for colour. Parolles was in red, 

as appears from his being afterwards called red-taifd bumblebee. 


It does not appear from either of thefe expreffions, that Parolies 
was entirely dreft in red. Shakefpeare writes only-fame jlain offol- 
dier, meaning in one fenfe, that he had red breeches on, (which is 
fufficiently evident from calling him afterwards red-tailed humMe- 
T>ee,} and in another, that he was a difgrace to foldiery. Stain is 
ufed in an adverfe fenfe by Shakefpeare, in Troilus and Crejfida : 
*' nor any man an attaint, but he carries fcmcjtahi of it." 


Stain rather for what we now fay tinfture, fome qualities, atleait 
fuperficial, ofafoldier. JOHNSOX. 



blowers up ! Is there no military policy, how vir- 
gins might blow up men ? 

Par. Virginity being blown down, man will quick- 
lier be blown up : marry, in blowing him down again, 
with the breach yourfelves made, you lofe your city. 
It is not politick in the commonwealth of nature, to 
preferve virginity. * Lofs of virginity is rational inr 
creafe ; and there was never virgin got, till virginity 
was fir ft loft. That, you were made of, is metal to 
make virgins. Virginity, by being once loft, may be 
ten times found : by being ever kept, is ever loft: 
'tis too cold a companion ; away with it. 

HeL I will ftand for't a little, though therefore I 
die a virgin. 

Par. There's little can be faid in't ; 'tis againft the 
rule of nature. To fpeak on the part of virginity, is 
to accufe your mothers; which is molt infallible dif- 
pbedience. 3 He, that hangs himfelf, is a virgin: vir- 
ginity murders itfelf; and fhouldbe buried in high- 
ways, out of all fanctified limit, as a defperate often- 
drefs againft nature. Virginity breeds mites, much 
like a cheefc; confumes itfelf to the very paring, and 

* Lofs of 'virginity is rational incrcaft ; ] I believe we mould 
read, national. TYRWHITT. 

Rational increafe may mean the regular increafe by which ra- 
tional beings are propagated. STEEVENS. 

3 He t that hangs himfelf , is a virgin :] But why is he that hangs 
himfelf a virgin f Surely, not for the reafon that follows ; Virgi- 
nity murders itftlf. For though every virgin be a fuicide, yet every 
filicide is not a virgin. A word or two are dropt, which introdu- 
ced a eomparifon in this place ; and Shakefpeare wrote it thus : 

as he , that hangs himfelf, fo is a virgin, 

And then it follows naturally, 'virginity murders itfelf. By this 
emendation, the Oxford editor was enabled to alter the text thus : 

He that hangs hinifclf is like a virgin, 

And this is his ufual way of becoming a critick at a cheap expence. 


I believe moft readers will fpareboth the emendations, which I 
do not think much worth a claim or a conteft. The old reading is 
mere fpritely and equally juft. JOHNSON. 


n A L L's WELL 

fo dies with feeding its own ftomach. Befides, virgi- 
nity is peevifh, proud, idle, made of felf-love, which 
is the moft inhibited fin 4 in the canon. Keep it not ; 
you cannot chufe but lofe by't : Out with't : within 
ten years it will make itfelf two 5 , which is a goodly in- 
creafe ; and the principal itfelf not much the worfe : 
Away with't. 

Hel. How might one do, fir, to lofe it to her own 
liking ? 

Par. Let me fee : 6 Marry, ill, to like him that 
ne'er it likes. 'Tis a commodity will lofe the glofs with 
lying ; the longer kept, the lefs worth : off with't, 
while 'tis vendible : anfwer the time of requeft. 
Virginity, like an old courtier, wears her cap out of 
fafhion ; richly fuited, but unfuitable : juft like the 
brooch and the tooth-pick, which 7 wear not now : Your 
date 8 is better in your pye and your porridge, than 
in your cheek; And your virginity, your old virginity, 

* inhibited Jin ] i.e. forbidden. So, in Othello: 

< apraftifer 

" Of arts inhibited zn& out of warrant." 
So the firft folio. Theobald reads prohibited. STEEVENS. 

5 within ten years it will make itfelf two, which is goodly 

increafe; ] I think we fhould either read : within tenyears it 
will make itfelf ten ; or, within two years it will make itfelf two, 
Inftead of two, Mr. Toilet would read twelve. STEEVENS. 

* Marry, ill, to likt him that ne'er it likes."] Parolles, in 
anfwer to the quefh'on, how one Jhall lofe virginity to her own liking? 
plays upon the word liking, and fays, Jhe muft do ill, for virginity, 
to be fo loft, muft like him that likes not virginity. JOHNSON. 

7 lubich wear not now: ] Thus the old copy, and rightly. 
Shakefpeare often ufes the active for the paffive. The modern 
editors read, " which we wear not now." TYRWHITT. 

8 Tour date is better ] Here is a quibble on the word 

date, which means both age, and a kind of candied fruit much 
ufed in our author's time. So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" They call for dates and quinces in the paftry." 

The fame quibble occurs in Troilus and CreJJida : " and then 

to -be bak'd with no date in the pye, for then th~ man's date is out." 




<s like one of our French wither'd pears : it looks ill, 
it eats dryly; marry, 'tis a wither'd pear : it was for- 
merly better ; marry, 9 yet, 'tis a wither'd pear j 
Will you any thing with it ? 

HeL l Not my virginity yet. 
There mall your mafter have a thoufand loves, 
A mother, and a miftrefs, and a friend, 

Yoryet, as it ftood before, fir Thomas Hanmer reads yes* 


1 Not my virginity yet.~\ This whole fpeech is abrupt, uncon- 
ae&ed, and obfcure. Dr. Warburton thinks much of it fuppofi- 
titious. I would be glad to think fo of the whole, for a^commenta- 
tor naturally wifhes to reject what he cannot underftand. Some- 
thing, which ftiould connect Helena's words with thofe of Parolles, 
feems to be wanting. Hanmer has made a fair attempt by reading : 
Not my -virginity yet You're for the court, 
There jhallyour mafter, &c. 

Some fuch claufe has, I think, dropped out, but ftill the firH 
words want connection. Perhaps Parolles, going away after his 
harangue, fold, ivillyou any thing with me ? to which Helen may 
reply. 1 know not what to do with the paflage. JOHNSON. 

I do not perceive fo great a want of connection as my predecef- 
fors have apprehended ; nor is that connection always to be fought 
for, in fo carelefs a writer as ours, from the thought immediately 
preceding the reply of the fpeaker. Parolles has been laughing at 
the unprofitablenefs of virginity, efpecially when it grows ancient, 
and compares it to withered fruit. Helena, properly enough re- 
plies, that hers is not yet in that ftate ; but that in the enjoyment of 
Jier, his matter fhould find the gratification of all his molt romantic 
wifhes. What Dr. Warburton fays afterwards, is faid at random, 
as all pofitive declarations of the fame kind muft of neceflity be. 
Were I to propofe any change, I would read^a/i/inftead of Jhall. 
It does not however appear that this rapturous effufion of Helena 
was defigned to be intelligible to Parolles. Its obfcurity, therefore, 
may be its merit. It fufficiently explains what is palfing in the 
mind of the fpeaker, to every one but him to whom fhe does not 
mean to explain it. STEEVENS. 

Perhaps we mould read : " Will you any thing with *?" i. c* 
will you fend any thing with us to court ? to which Helena's an* 
fwer would be proper enough - 

" Not my virginity yet." 

A fimilar phrafe occurs in Twelfth Night, at III. fc. i : 
*' Tou'U nothing, madam, to my lord by me?" 



H A L L's W E L L 

* A phoenix, captain, and an enemy, 
A guide, a goddefs, and a fovereign, 
A counfellor, a J traitrefs, and a dear ; 
His humble ambition, proud humility, 
His jarring concord, and his diicord dulcet, 
His faith, his fweet difafter ; with a world 
Of pretty, fond, adoptious chriftendoms *, 

That blinking Cupid goffips. Now fhall he 

I know not what he lhall : God fend him well ! ^ 
The court's a learning place ; and he is one . 

* A phoenix, captain, &c.] The eight lines following friend, I 
am perfuaded is the nonfenfe of fome foolifh conceited player; 
What put it into his head was Helen's faying, as it ihould be read 
for the future : 

There Jliall your majtcr have a thouf and loves ~ t 

A mother, and a miftrefs, and a friend. 

/ know not what he Jhall God fend him ivelh 

Where the fellow, finding a thoufa?id loves fpoken of, and only 
three reckoned up, namely, a mother's, a miftrcfs's, and a. friend's, 
(which, by the way, were all a judicious writer could mention ; 
for there are but thefe three fpecies of love in nature) he would 
help out the number, by the intermediate nonfenfe : and, becaule 
they were yet too few, he pieces out his loves with enmities, and 
makes of the whole fuch finilhed nonfenfe as is never heard out of 
Bedlam. WAR BURTON. 

3 a traitrefs, ] It feems that traitrefs was in that age a 

term of endearment, for when Lafeu introduces Helena to the 
king, he fays, Tou are like a traytor, but fuch traytors his majejly 
does not much fear. JOHNSON. 

I cannot conceive that traitrefs (fpoken ferioufly) was in any 
age a term of endearment. From the prefent paiTage, we might as 
well fuppole enemy (in the laft line but one) to be a term of en- 
dearment. In the other paflage quoted, Lafeu is plainly fpeaking 
ironically. TYRWHITT. 

Traditora, a traitrefs, in the Italian language, is generally ufed. 
as a term of endearment. The meaning of Helen is, that {he lhall 
prove every thing to Bertram. Our ancient writers delighted in, 
catalogues, and always characterize love by contrarieties. 


4 chriftendoms,'} This word, which fignifies the collective 

body of chriltianity, every place where the chriftian religion is 
embraced, is furely ufed with much licence on this occafion. 




Par. What one, i'faith ? 

Hel. That I wifli well Tis pity . 

Par. What's pity ? 

Hel. That wiming well had not a body in't, 
Which might be felt : that we, the poorer born, 
Whofe bafer flars do fhut us up in wifhes, 
Might with effects of them follow our friends, 
5 And fhew what we alone muft think ; which never 
Returns us thanks. 

Enter Page. 

Page. Monlieur Parolles, my lord calls for youv 

[Exit page* 

Par. Little Helen, farewel : if I can remember 
thee, I will think of thee at court. 

Hel. Monfieur Parolles, you were born under a 
charitable ftar. 

Par. Under Mars, L 

Hel. I efpecially think, under Mars. 

Par. Why under Mars ? 

Hel. The wars have kept you fo under, that you 
muft needs be born under Mars. 

Par. When he was predominant. 

Hel When he was retrograde, I think, rather. 

Par. Why think you fo ? 

Hel. You go fo much backward, when you fight. 

Par. That's for advantage. 

Hel. So is running away,, when fear propofes the 
fafety : But the compofition, that your valour and 
fear makes in you, 6 is a virtue of a good wing, and 
I like the wear well. 


s And fa what ive alone mujl think ', } And Jbevj by reali- 
ties what we now muft only think. JOHNSON. 

6 i s a virtue of a good wing, and I like the wear we".} The 

Integrity of the metaphor directs us to Shakefpeare's true reading; 

which, doubflefs, was a good ming, i.e. mixture,, compofition ; 

a word common to Shakefpcare and the writers of this age, and 


,6 A L L's W E L L 

Par. I am fo full of bufinefles, I cannot anfwer 
thee acutely : I will return perfect courtier ; in the 
which, my inftru&ion fhall ferve to naturalize thee, 
fo thou wilt be capable of courtier's counfel, and un- 
deriland what advice fhall thruft upon thee; elfe thou 
dieft in thine unthankfulnefs, and thine ignorance 
makes thee away ; fareweh When thou haft leifure, 
fay thy prayers ; when thou haft none, remember 

taken from the texture of cloth. The M was turned the wrong 
tvayatprefs, and from thence came the blunder. WARBURTON* 

This conjecture I could wifh to fee better proved. This common 
word ming I have never found. The firfl edition of this play ex- 
hibits wing without a capital : yet, I confefs, that a virtue of d 
good wing is an expreffion that I cannot underftand, unlefs by a 
metaphor taken from falconry, it may mean, a virtue that willjly 
high) and in the ftile of Hotfpur, " Pluck honour from the moon.'* 


Mr. Edwards is of opinion, that a virtue of a good wing refers 
to his nimblenefs or fleetnefs in running away. The phrafe, how- 
ever, is taken from falconry, as may appear from the following 

paflagc in Marfton's Fawne , 1606: " 1 love my horfe after 

a journeying eafinefs, as he is eafy in journeying ; my hawk for 
the goodnefs of his wing, &c." Or it may be taken from drefs : 
So, in Every Matt out of his Humour : " I would have mine fueh 
a fuit without a difference; fuch fluff, fuch aw/g, fuch a fleeve, 
&c." Mr. Toilet obferves, that a good wing iignifies a ftrong 
wing in lord Bacon's Natural Hijlory, experiment 886: " Cer- 
tainly many birds of a good wing (as kites and the like) would 

bear up a good weight as they fly." There is, however, fuch a 
Verb as ming. It is ufed by Tho. Drant, in his Tranjlation of one 
ef the Epiftles of Horace : 

" He beares the bell in all refpe&s who good with fweete 

doth minge" 
Again, Hid: 

" She carves it fyne, and mings it thicke, &c.'* 
And again, by fir A. Gorges, in his Tranjlation of Lucan t 1614 : 

' which never mings 

" With ot'her ftream, &c." 
and often by Chaucer. STEEVENS. 

The reading of the old copy is fupported by a paflage in K. Hen* 
V. in which we meet with a fimilar expreffion : ** Though his af- 
fedtions are higher mounted than ours, yet when they {loop, they 
ftoop with the like iving." MALONB. 



thy friends : get thee a godd hufband, and ufe him 
as he ufes thee : fo farcwcl. [Exit: 

Hel. Our remedies oft in ourfelves do lie, 
Which we afcribe to heaven : the fated fky 
Gives us free fcope ; only, doth backward pull 
Our flow defigns, when we ourfelves are dull. 

7 What power is it, which mounts my love fo high ;' 
That makes me fee, and cannot feed mine eye ? 

8 The mighticfi fpace in fortune nature brings 
To join like likes, and kifs like native things. 

7 WbtttptwlSF is it, vabfcb mounts, my love fo hi<*b ; 

That makes me fee ) 'and cannot feed mine eye ?] She meansj 
by xvhat influence is my love directed to a perfon Ib much above me? 
\vhy am I made to difcerri excellence, and left to long after it, 
without the food of hope? JOHNSON. ' 

8 1 he iuigbtitft I pace in fortune nature brings 

To join like likes, and kifs like native things^ 

Impojfille be Jt range attempts, to ihofc 

That ivi'ig/.i their fuin hi fenfc ; an 

What bath been, ] 

All thefe four lines are obfcure, and, I believe, corrupt; I (half 
propofe an emendation, which thole who can explain the prefect 
reading, are at liberty to reject: 

Through migbtiefljface in fortune nature brings 

Likes to join likes, 'and kifs like native th' 

That is, nature brings like qualities and difpolitions to meet through 
any dijlaiice that fortune may have let between them / Q\c joins tlieiii 
;ir.d makes them kifs like tbingt lorn together. 
The next lines I read with Hanmer : 

Imboffbtt be firan^c a: tempts to tbofe 

Tfjtit weijth their pain infenfe, dAiU 

What ha'n't leer., cannot in. 
_Av:r attempts feem impoffi'ole to thofe who eil'.mate their . 
or entcrprifes by fenfe, and believe that nothing can be but wl:;;t 
they lee before them. JOHN-SOX. 

Shakefpeare ufes one of thefc conteileJ phrafts in a different 
fcnie, in JtM^jCMar: 

" And il-il the mighty fpace of ouf larae honours 

*' For fo much trafli -as mi^ht be gralped thus." 
I have bflered this inltahce lor the ufe of any fucceeding com- 
mentator who cvoi apply it to the paflage before us* Part of the 
fan'e thought is lei's wnbigudufly exprefs'd in Ti:c-u : 

" That Iblder'll clofe impoiribili'.ies, 

*' And mak'it their. k:fs. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. C Inv 

i8 A L L's W E L L 

Impoffible be ftrange attempts, to thofe 
That weigh their pain in fenfe ; and do fuppofe> 
What hath been cannot be : Whoever ftrove 
To ihew her merit, that did mifs her love ? 
The king's difeafe my projedt may deceive me, 
But my intents are fix'd, and will not leave me. 



'The court of France. 

Fkurifb cornets. Enter the king of France, with letter s^ 
and divers attendants. 

King. The Florentines and 9 Senoys are by the ears; 
Have fought with equal fortune, and continue 
A braving war. 

i Lord. So 'tis reported, fir. 

King. Nay, 'tis moft credible ; we here receive it 
A certainty, vouch'd from our coufm Auftria, 
With caution, that the Florentine will move us 
For fpeedy aid ; wherein our deareft friend 
Prejudicates the bufinefs, and would fecm 
To have us make denial. 

I Lord. His love and wifdom, 
Approv'd fo to your msjefty, may plead 
For amplefl credence. 

King. He hath arm'd our anfwer, 
And Florence is deny'd before he comes : 
Yet, for our gentlemen, that mean to fee 
The Tufcan fervice, freely have they leave 
To fland on either part. 

9 Senoys ] The Sanefi t as they are term'd by Boccace, 

. Painter, who translates him, calls them Senois. They were the 
people of a fmall republick, of which the capital was Sienna. The 
Florentines were at perpetual variance with them. S TEE YENS. 

2 Lord, 


2, Lord. It may well ferve 
A nurfery to our gentry, who are lick 
For breathing and exploit. 

King. What's he comes here ? 

Enter Bertram, Lafcu, and Parolks. 

i Lord. It is the count Roufiilon % my good lord, 
Young Bertram. 

King. Youth, thou bear'it thy father's face ; 
Frank nature, rather curious than in hafte, 
Hath well composed thee. Thy father's moral parts 
May'ft thou inherit too ! Welcome to Paris. 

er. My thanks and duty are your majefty's. 

King. I would I had that corporal foundnefs now, 
As when thy father, and myfelf, in friendfhip 
Firfl try'd our foldierfhip ! He did look far 
Into the fervice of the time, and was 
Difcipled of the bravefl : he lafled long; 
But on us both did haggim age fteal on, 
And wore us out of act. It much repairs me 
To talk of your good father : In his youth 
* He had the wit, which I can well obferve 


1 Roujttton, - ] The old cop}* reads Rojignoll. 


1 He bad the iu/V, ivhich I can ive II obferve 
To- day in oar young lords ; but they may jejl, 
Till their own fcorn return to them unnoted, 
Ere they can hide their levity in honour* ] 

1; e. Ere their titles can cover the levity of their behaviour, and 
make it pafs for defert. The Oxford editor, not underftanding 
this, alters the line to 

Ere they can tye their levity iuilh his honour. WAR BUft TON. 
I believe honour is not dignity of birth or rank, but acquired repu- 
tation : Tour father, fays the king, had the fame airy flights ofj'a- 
tirical u>/V, with the young lords of the prefent time, but they do not 
what he did, hide their unnoted levity in honour, cover petty faults 
ivith great merit. 

This is an excellent obfervatiom Jocofe follies, and flight of- 
fences are only allowed by mankind in him that overpowers them 
by great qualifies. JOHNSON. 

C 2 A paf- 

lo A L L's W E L L 

To-day in our young lords; bur they may jefr^ 
Till their own fcorn return to them unnoted,- 
Ere they can hide their levity in honour. 

3 So like a courtier, contempt nor bitternefs 
Were in his pride or iharpneis ; if they \yerc, 
His equal had awak'd them ; and his honour, 
Clock to itfelf, knew the true minute when 
Exception bid him fpeak, and, at that time, 

4 His tongue obey'd his hand : who were below him 

A paflage in the fecond aft of the Merry Wives of Wind/or , may 
ferve to {hew, that Hanmer's change is needlefs : 

" hiding mine honour in my neceffity." STEEVENS. 

3 So like a courtier, contempt nor bitternefs 
Were in his pride or fiarpnefs ; //"they ivcre, 
His equal had aivaK' 'd them ; j 

This paflage is fa very incorrectly pointed, that the author's mean- 
ing is loft. As the text and ftops are reformed, thefe are moil 

beautiful lines, and the fenfe is this " He had no contempt or 

bitternefs ; if he had any thing that look'd like pride orjlwpnefs, 
(of which qualities contempt and bitternefs are the excefies,) his 
equal had awaked them, not his inferior : to whom he Icorn'd to 
difcover any thing that bore the fhadow of pride cr lharpneis." 

The original edition reads the firft line thus : 

So like a courtier^ contempt nor bitternefs 

The fenfe is the fame. Nor was ufed without reduplication. So, 
in Mcafure for Meafure : 

" More nor lefs to others paying, 
" Than by felt-offences weighing." 

The old text needs to be explained. He was fo like a courtier, 
that there was in bis dignity of manner nothing contemptuous , and in 
his keennefs of cu// nothing bitter. If bitternefs or contemptuoufnefs 
ever appeared, they had been awakened by ibme injury, not of A 
man below him, but of his c./ual. This is the complete image of 
a well bred man, and fomeuhat like this Voltaire has exhibited his 
hero Lewis XIV. JOHNSON-. 

* His tongue obeyed his hand : ] We fiiould read : 

His tongue obeyed the hand. 

That is, the baiidoi h:s honour's clock , mewing the true minute when 
exceptions bad him fpeak. JOHNSOX. 
His is put for its; fo, in Othello: 

" her motion 

" Blufh'd at bcrfelf" inilead of itfelf. STEEVENS. 



5 He us'd as creatures of another place ; 
And bow'd his eminent top to their low ranks, 

6 Making them proud of his humility,, 

In their poor praife he humbled : Such a man 
Might be a copy to thele younger times ; 
Which, follow'd well, would demonftrate them now 
But goers backward. 

Bcr. His good remembrance, fir, 
Lies richer in your thoughts, than on his tomb ; 

7 So in approot lives not his epitaph, 
As in your royal fpeech. 

5 He u? das creatures of another place ; ] i. e. He made allowances 
for their conduct, and bore from them what he would not from one 
or his own rank. The Oxford editor, not umlerflanding thcienfe, 
has altered another place, to a ^rafter-race. WAR BURTON'. 
6 Making them proud ot bis 'bumillt\<, 

In their poor praife, he. bumbled - ] 

But why were they proud of his humility ? It fhould be read and 
pointed thus : 

j\l(iki>i% them proud ; and his humility, 
In their poor praljc, he humbled - 

i. e. by condeiccnding to (loop to his inferiors, he exalted them 
and made them proud; and, in the gracious receiving their poor 
praife, he humbled even his humility. The fentiment is fine. 


Every man has lben the mca?i too often proud nf\\\e humility of 
the great, and perhaps the great may fometimes be humbled in the 
praifcs of the mean, of thofe who commend them without convic- 
tion ordiicernment : this, however, is not fo common; the mean 
are found more frequently than the gnat. JOHNSON. 
7 So in approof lives not bis epitaph, 

As in yon r royal fprcc'b.} 
Epitaph for character. \V AK. EUR TON. 
I fhould wifh to read : 

dpprooffo lives not //; his epitaph, 
As in your royal fpeech. 

./Ipproof is approbation. If I (houM allow Dr. Warb&tafl'l inter- 
pretation of Epitaph, which is more than c;m be reafoliably t.\- 
pecled, I can yet find no (enfe in the prelcnt reading. JOHNSON. 
W r e might, by a llit;ht tnnifpoiition, read : 
So his appronf lives tint in epitaph. 
certainly means approbation. So, in CiHtb- 


^^ A L Us WELL 

* King. Would, I were with him ! He would al- 
ways fay, 

(Methinks, I hear him noxv ; his plaufive words 
He fcatter'd not in ears, but grafted them 
To grow there, and to bear) Let me not live, 
Thus his good melancholy oft began, 
On the cataftrophe and heel of paftime, 
When it was out, let me not live, quoth he, 
After my fame lacks oil, to be the faff 
Of younger fpir its, whofe apprehenfive fenfes 
All but new things difdain \ whofe judgments are 
8 Mere fathers of their garments ; whofe conflancies 

Expire before their fajhions : This he wiih'd : 

I, after him, do after him wifh too, 
Since I nor wax, nor honey, can bring home, 
I quickly were diffolved from my hive, 
To give fome labourer room. 
2 Lord. You are lov'd, fir ; 
They, that leafl lend it you, fhall lack you firft. 
King. I fill a place, Iknow't, How long is't, count, 

'* A man fo abfolute in my approof, 

*' That nature hath referv'd fmali dignity 

'* That he enjoys not." 
Again, in Meafurcfor Meafure : 

" Either of condemnation or approof." STEEVEKS. 
Perhaps the meaning is this : His epitaph or infcription on his 
tomb is not Jo much in approbation or commendation of him, as is your 
royal fpeech. ToLLET. 

b ^vchofe judgments are 

Mere fathers of their garments ', ] 

Who have no other ufe of their faculties, than to invent new modes 
ofdreis. JOHNSON. 

I have a fufpicion that Shakefpeare wrote metr feathers of 

their garments ; i.e. whofe judgments are meerly farts ^and infig- 
nificant parts) of their arcfs, worn and laid afide, as feathers are, 
from the meer love of novelty and change. He goes on to fay, 
that they are even lefs conftant in their judgments than in theii: 
drefs : 

their con ft, 

r con fancies 

Expire before their fnjbioru. TYRWHITT. 



Since the phyfician at your father's died ? 
He was much fam'd. 

Ber. Some fix months fince, my lord. 

King. If he were living, I would try him yet ; 

Lend me an arm ; the reft have worn me out 

With feveral applications : nature and ficknefs 
Debate it at their leifure. Welcome, count ; 
My fon's no dearer. 

Ber. Thank your majefty. [Flcurijh. Exeunt. 


A room In the count's palace. 
Enter Countefs, Steward, and Clown 9 . 

Count. I will now hear : what fay you of this gen- 
tlewoman ? 

9 Steward, and Clown.] A Clown in Shakefpeare is com- 
monly taken for a licenfedjefter, or domeftick/W. We are not to 
wonder that we find this character often in his plays, fince fools 
were, at that time, maintained in all great families, to keep up 
merriment in the houfe. In the pi&ureof fir Thomas More's fa- 
mily, by Hans Holbein, the only fervant reprefented is Patifon 
the/o/?/. This is a proof of the familiarity to which they were ad- 
mitted, not by the great only, but the wife. 

In fome plays, a lervant, or a ruftic, of remarkable petulance 
and freedom of fpeech, is likewife called a down. JOHNSON. 

This dialogue, or that in Twelfth Night , between Olivia and the 
7<m's, feems to have been particularly cenfured by Cartwright, 
in one of the copies of verfes prefixed to the works of Beaumont 
and Fletcher. 

" Shakefpeareto thee was dull, whofe beft jeft lies 
" I* th' ladys queftions, and /vWs replies ; 
*' Old fafhion'J wit, which walk'd from tov/n to town 
" In trunk hofe, which our fathers call'd the Clown.'* 
In the MS. regiiler of lord Stanhope of Harrington, treafurer of 
the chamber to king James I. irom 161510 i6;6, are the follow- 
ing entries: " Tom Derry, his majefty's fool, at 2 s. per diem, 
i 1615. Paid John Mawe, for the diet and lodging ot Thomas 
Derrie, her majefly's^V/?^, for 13 weeks, io/. iH/. 6d. 1616. 


C 4 Stm. 


iv. Madam, the care I have had to ' even your 
content, I wifh might be found in the calendar oi my 
paft endeavours ; for then we wound our modefty, 
and make foul the clearnefs of our defervings, when 
of ourfelves we publilh them. 

Count. What does this knave here ? Get you gone, 
lirrah : The complaints, I have heard of you, I do not 
all believe ; 'tis my flownefs, that I do not : for, I 
know, you * lack not folly to commit them, and have 
ability enough to make fuch knaveries yours. 

Clo. 'Tis not unknown to you, madam, that I am a 
poor fellow. 

Count. Well, fir. 

Clo. No, madam, 'tis not fo well, that I am poor; 
though many of the rich are damn'd : But, if I may 

1 to even your content, ] To aft up to your defires. 


* you Jack not folly to comrnit them, and Lav e ability enough 

*" nr.Kcfuch knaveries yours.] Well, but if he had folly to cojnmit 
them, he neither wanted knavery, nor any thing el!e, fure, to 
rtake them his ov:n ? This nonfenfe fliould be read, To make fuch 
Knaveries Y AS E ; nimble, dextrous, i.e. Though you be fool enough 
to commit knaveries, yet you have quicknefs enough to commit 
them dextroufly : for this obiervation was to let us into his cha- 
racter. But now, though this be fet right, and, I dare lay, in 
Shakefpeare's own words, yet the former part of the fentence will 
ftill be inaccurate you lack not folly to commit them. Them, what ? 
the fenfe requires knaveries, but the antecedent referred to, is com- 
plainL. But this was certainly a negligence of Shakefpeare's, and 
therefore to be left as we find it. And the reader, who cannot lee 
that this is an inaccuracy which the author might well commit, and 
the other what he never could, has either read Shakefpeare very 
little, or greatly mifpent his pains. The principal office of a cri'- 
tick is to diftinguifh between thofe two things. But 'tis that branch 
of criticifm which no precepts can teach the writer to difcharge, 
or the reader to judge of. WAR BURTON. 

After prernifmg that the accufative, them, refers to the precedent 
word, complaints, and that, this by a metonymy of the eft'eft for the 
caufe, ftands for the freaks which occaiioned thole complaints, the 
fenle will be extremely clear. You are fool enough to commit thofe 
irregularities you arc charged i^ith, ana yet net fo much fno I neither, 
as to J'-fcredit the accufalicn Jy cny defcft in your ability. REVISAL, 



have your ladyfhip's good will to go to the world J , 
Ifbel the woman and I will do as we may. 

Count. Wilt thou needs be a beggar ? 

Go. I do beg your good will in this cafe. 

Count. In what cafe ? 

Go. In Ifbel's cafe, and mine own. Service is no 
heritage : and, I think, I ihall never have the blcfl- 
ing of God, till I have iifue of my body ; for, they 
fay, beams are blcflings. 
. Count. Tell me thy reafon why thou wilt marry. 

Go. My poor body, madam, requires it : 1 am 
driven on by the flelh ; and he muft needs go, that 
the devil drives. 

Count. Is this all your worship's reafon ? 

Go. Faith, madam, I have other holy rcafons, fuch 
as they are. 

Count. May the world know them ? 

Clo. I have been, madam, a wicked creature, as 
you and all fleih and blood are ; and, indeed, I do 
marry, that 1 may repent. 

Count. Thy marriage, fooner than thy wickcdncfs. 

Clo. I am out of friends, madam ; and I hope to 
have friends for my wife's fake. 

Count. Such friends are thine enemies, knave. 

Clo. You are fhallow, madam, in great friends *; 
for the knaves come to do that for me, which I am a 

3 toga to the <:iw7,/, ] Thisphrnfe has already occurred 

in Much Ailo about Nothing, and fignifies to be married: and thus, 

in As you like //, Audrey lays : " it is no difhoneft delire, to 

defire to be a woman of the iiwA/." S TEE YENS. 

4 Clo. Tou arc J}jallo--jj, madam, in great friends ; for the knaves 
cane to do that for me vjhicJj I am a 1'^eury of, ] This lalt fpeech, 
I think, fliould be read thus : 

ITou arc JJialloiv^ madam', my great friends', 


The meaning fecms to be, you are not cieeply Ikillcd in the 
character or offices or great friends, JOHKSO.N. 


6 A L L's W E L L 

weary of. He, that ears my land 5 , fpares my team, 
and gives me leave to inn the crop : if I be his cuck- 
old, he's my drudge : He, that comforts my wife, is 
the cherifher of my flefh and blood; he, that cherifhes 
my flefti and blood, loves my flelh and blood ; he, 
that loves my flefh and blood, is my friend : ergo, 
he that kifles my wife, is my friend. If men could 
be contented to be what they are, there were no fear 
in marriage; for young Charbon the puritan, and old 
Poyfam the papift, howfoe'er their hearts are fever'd 
in religion, their heads are both one, they may joul 
horns together, like any deer i' the herd. 

Count. Wilt thou ever be a foul-mouth 'd and ca- 
lumnious knave ? 

Clo. 6 A prophet, I, madam; and I fpeak the truth 
the next way : 

For I the ballad will repeat , 
Which men full true (ball find ; 

5 that ears my land, ] To ear is to plough. So, in 

Anthony and Cleopatra : 

** Make the fea ferve them, which they ear and wound 
" With keels of every kind," STEEVENS. 

6 A prophet , /, madam; and I fpeak the truth the next way :] It 
is a fupemition, which has run through all ages and people, that 
natural fooh have fomething in them of divinity. On which ac- 
count they were efteemed facred : travellers tell us in what efteein 
the Turks now hold them ; nor had they lefs honour paid them 
heretofore in France, as appears from the old word benct, for a 
natural fool. Hence it was that Pantagruel, in Rabelais, advifed 
Panurge to go and confultthe fool Triboulet as an oracle; which 
gives occafion to a fatirical itroke upon the privy council of Fran- 
cis the firft- -Par l t a^<ls, confeil, prediction des foh vos f$ai>ez 

quants princes, feV. ont efte confcrvcz, &c. The phrafe -j'peak 

the truth the next way, means dircfily ; as they do who are only 
the inftruments or canals of others ; fuch as infpired perfons were 
fuppofed to be. WAR BUR TON. 

Nexfivay, is near eft -->.'oy. So, mK.Hfn.IV.Partl: 
" 'Tis the next way to turn taylor, &c." STEEVENS. 



Tour marriage comes by deftiny 9 
Tour cuckoo fmgs by kind 1 . 

Count. Get you gone, fir ; I'll talk with you more 

Stew. May it pleafe you, madam, that he bid He-* 
len come to you ; of her I am to fpeak. 

Count. Sirrah, tell my gentlewoman, I would fpeak 
with her ; Helen I mean. 

Clo. 8 Was this fair face the caufe, quoth Jhe, [Singing. 

Why the Grecians facked 'troy ? 
Fond done, done fond 9 ^ 

Was this king Priam's joy. 
With thatJJjefighed asjhejlood, 
With that foe jighe d asfoejlood ', 

And gave this fenicnce then ; 

7 -Jing 3 ly kind.'] I find fomething like t\vo of the lines of 

this ballad in John Grange's Garden, 1577 : 

" Content yourfelf as well as I, let reafon rule your minde, 
" As cuckdldes come by deftinie, ib cuckovves fing by kinde." 

8 Was this fair face the caufe, quoth Jfie y 

Why the Grecians facked Troy ? 
Fond done, fond done ; 

Was this king Priam 'f^Vy.] 

This is a ftanza of an old ballad, out of which a word or two arc 
dropt, equally necetfary to make the fenfe and the alternate rhime. 
For it was not Helen, who was king Priam's joy, but Paris. The 
third line therefore fhould be read thus : 

Fond done, fond done, for Paris, he. WARBURTON. 
If this be a ftanza taken from any ancient ballad, it will proba- 
bly in time be found entire, and then the refloradon may be made 
with authority. STEEVENS. 

8 fond done, is fooliihly done. So, in the Merchant of 

<' Jailor, why art thou fofond 
" To let this man abroad." STEEVENS. 
1 With that jhefigbed as. fbe flood,} 

At the end ot the line of which this is a repetition, we find 
added in Italic characters the word bis, denoting, I fuppofe, the 
necefli'y of its being repeated. Ths correfponding line was twice 
printed, as it is here inferted, from the ancieat and only authentic 
copy. STEEVENS. 


28 A L L's W ELL 

Among nine bad if one be good, 
2 Among nine bad if one be good, 
'There s yet one good in ten. 

Count. What, one good in ten ? you corrupt the 
fong, firrah. 

Clo. One good woman in ten, madam ; which is a 
purifying o' the fong : Would God would ferve the 
world fo all the year ! we'd find no fault with the 
tythe-woman, if I were the parfon : One in ten, 
quoth a' ! an we might have a good woman born but 
every blazing ftar =, or at an earthquake, 'twould 
mend the lottery well ; a man may draw his heart out, 
ere he pluck one. 

Count. You'll be gone, fir knave, and do as I com- 
mand you ? 

Clo. 4 That man mould be at a woman's command, 


2 Among nine Lad if one l>e good, 
There's yet one good in tcn.~\ 

This fecond ftanza of the ballad is turned to a joke upon the wo- 
men : aconfeffion, that there was one good in ten. Whereon the 
Countefs obferved, that he corrupted the fong, which fhews the 
long faidj ^iinc good in ten. 

If or.r be lad among ft nine good, 
Torre's hit one lad in ten. 

This relates to the ten fons of Priam, who all behaved themfelves 
well but Paris. For though he once had fifty, yet at this un- 
fortunate period ot his reign he had but ten ; Agatbon, Antipbon, 
Dcipbobt'S, Dins, Heflor, Hclenus, Hippothom,, Pammon, Paris, 
and Politcs. WAR BUR TON. 

3 hut every blazing ftar, ] The old copy reads l-nt 

ore every blazing ftar. S T EE v E \ s . 

* Clo. That man, &c.] The clown's anfwer is obfcure. His 
lady bids him do as he is commanded. He anfwers with the licen- 
tious petulance ot his character, that If a man decs as a woman com- 
}f:aKffs, it is likely he will do arnifs; that he does not amifs, being at 
the command of a woman, he makes the eflect, not of his lady's 
goodncfs, but of his own honefty, which, though not very nice or 
puritanical, will do no hurt; and will not only do no hurt, but, 
unlike the puritans, will comply with the injunctions of i'uperiors, 
and wear fi\e.J'urplice of humility over tbcllack gc^-nof a big heart ; 



nnd yet no hurt done ! Though honcfty be no puri- 
tan, yet it will do no hurt ; it will wear the furplicc 
of humility over the black gown of a big heart. I 
am going, forfooth : the bufinefs is for Helen to 
come hither. [Exit. 

Count. Well, now. 

Stez;.\ I know, madam, yon love your gentlewoman 

Connr. Faith, I do: her father bequeath'd her tome; 
and ihe herfelf, without other advantage, may law- 
fully make title to as much love as fhe finds : there is 
more owing her, than is paid ; and more fhall be paid 
her, than ftie'll demand. 

Stew. Madam, I was very late more near her than, 
I think, Ihe wifh'd me: alone fhe was, and did com- 
municate to herfelf, her own words to her own ears ; 
Ihe thought, I dare vcw for her, they touch'd not 
any (Iranger fenfe. Her matter was, fhe lov'd your 

will obey commands, though not much pleafed with a ftate of 
1 abjection. 

Here is an allufion, violently enough forced in, to fatirize the 
obftinacy with which the puritans refilled the ufeof the ecclefiaftical 
habits, which was, at that time, one principal caufe of the breach 
of union, and, perhaps, to inunuate, that the modeft purity of 
the furplice was Ibmetimes .a cover tor pride. JOHNSON. 

I cannot help thinking that we fhould read Though ho- 

nefty be a puritan. TYRWHITT. 

The averfion ot the puritans to a. furplice is alluded to in many of 
the old comedies. So in the following inftances : 

" She loves to act in as clean linen as any gentlewoman. 

of her function about the town ; and truly that's the realbn that 
your lincere puritans cannot abide a furplice, becaufe they lay 'tis 
made ot the fame thing that your villainous 1m is committed in, of 
your prophane holland." Cupid's WTjirlig(g\sef E. S 1616. 

Again, in the Match at Midnight, 1633, by W. R. 
" He has turnM my ftomach for all the world like Sipurita;*'* at 
the fight ot a. furplice" 

Again, in The Hollander, 16^: 

" a puritan, who, becaufe he fuw a furplice in the church, 
would needs hang himfelt in the bell-ropes." ST^EVJENS. 

fon r 

$0 A L L's W E L L 

fon : * Fortune, Ihe faid, was no goddefs, that had 
pur fuch difference betwixt their two eflates ; Love, 
MO god, that would not extend his might, only 
where qualities were level ; Diana, no queen of vir- 
gins, that would fuffer her poor knight to be fur- 
prifed without refcue in the firft alfault, or ranfom 
afterward : This Ihe delivered in the moft bitter 
touch of forrow, that e'er I heard a -virgin exclaim 
in: which I held my duty, fpeedily to acquaint you 
withal ; fithence, in the lofs that may happen, it con- 
cerns you fomething to know it. 

Count. You have difcharg'd this honeftly ; keep it 
to yourfelf : many likelihoods inform'd me of this 
before, which hung fo tottering in the balance, that 
I could neither believe, nor mifdoubt : Pray you, 
leave me : flail this in your bofom, and I thank you 
for your honeft care : I will fpeak with you further 
anon. [Exit Steward. 

Enter Helena. 

Count. Even fo it was with me, when I was young .* 
If we are nature's 6 , thefe are ours ; this thorn 

3 Fortune , Jbe faid, was no goddefs, &c. Love no god, &c 

complained againft the queen of virgins, &c.] This pafiage Hands 
thus in the old copies : 

Love, no god, that would not extend his might only where qualities 
tvere level, queen of virgins, that would fuffer her poor knight, &c. 

'Tis evident to every fenfible reader that fomething muft hare 
flipt out here, by which the meaning of the context is rendered 
detective. The fteward is fpeaking in the very words he over, 
heard or" the young lady ; fortune was no goddefs, fhe faid, for 

one reafon ; love, no god, for another; what could (lie then 

more naturally fubjoin, than as I have amended in the text ? 

Diana, no queen of virgins, that ivouldfuffer her poor knight to ie 
Jurprifed without rcfcuc, &C 

For in poetical hiftory Diana was well known to prefide over 
chajlity, as Cupid over love, or Fortune over the change or regula- 
tion or our circumftances* THEOBALD. 

6 If we are nature's, ] The old copy reads : If ever we are 

nature's* STEEVEKS. 



t)oth to our rofe of youth rightly belong ; 

Our blood to us, this to our blood is born ; 
It is the fhew and feal of nature's truth, 
Where love's ftrong paffion is impreft in youth : 

7 By our remembrances of days foregone, 

8 Such were ourfaults,O! then we thought them none. 
Her eye is iick on't ; I obferve her now. 

Hel. What is your pleafure, madam ? 

Count. You know, Helen, 
I am a mother to you. 

Hel. Mine honourable miftrefs. 

Count. Nay, a mother ; 
Why not a mother ? When I faid, a mother, 
Methought you faw a ferpent : What's in mother, 
That you flart at it ? I fay, I am your mother ; 
And put you in the catalogue of thofe 
That were enwombed mine : 'Tis often feen, ' 
Adoption flrives with nature ; and choice breeds 
A native (lip to us from foreign feeds : 
You ne'er opprefs'd me with a mother's groan, 
Yet I exprefs to you a mother's care : 
God's mercy, maiden ! does it curd thy blood, 
To fay, I am thy mother ? What's the matter, 
That this dilremper'd meffenger of wet, 
The many-colour'd Iris, rounds thine eye ? 
Why ? that you are my daughter ? 

Hel. That I am not. 

Count. I fay, I am your mother. 
Hel. Pardon, madam; 
The count Roufillon cannot be my brother : 
I am from humble, he from honoured name ; 

7 By our remembrances ] That ia, according to our recol- 
lection. So xve fay, he is old by my reckoning. JOHNSO.V. 

8 Such were our faults, or then we thought them none."] We {houid 
read : 

O ! then ive thought them none. 

A rnotive for pity and pardon j agreeable to faft, and the indul- 
gent charafter of the fpeaker. This was fent to the Oxford edito*, 
and he altered O, lotho*. WARBURTON, 


S 2. A L L's WELL 

No note upon my parents, his all noble : 
Ivly mafter, my dear lord he is ; and I 
His fervant live, and will his varTat die : 
He muft not be my brother. 

Count. Nor I your mother ? 

HcL You are my mother, madam ; 'Would yoil 


("So that my lord, your fon, were not my brother) 
Indeed, my mother ! 9 or were you both our mothers, 
I care no more for, than I do for heaven, 
So I were not his fiftcr : ' Can't no other, 
But, I your, daughter, he muft be my brother ? 

9 .- - or -:iv/-f \'ou both our mothers, 

I care no more for, than I do for hcav'/i, 

So I iverc not his Jijler : ] 

The fecond line has not the leaft glimmering of fenfe. Helen, by 
the indulgence and invitation of her miftrefs, is encouraged to dif- 
cover the hidden caufe of her grief; which is the love of her mif- 
trefs's fon ; and taking hold of her miftrefs's words, where (he bids 
her call her mother, {he unfolds the and, as fhe is difco- 
vering it, emboldens herlelf by this reflection, in the line in quef- 
tion, as it ought to be read in a parenthefis : 

('/can no more fear, than I do fear bcav*n.) 

i. e. I can no more fear to trull lo indulgent a miftrefs with thefe- 
cret, than I can fear heaven, who has my vows for its happy iffue. 
This break, in her difcovery, is exceeding pertinent and fine. 
Here again the Oxford editor does his part. WAR BUR TON. 

I do not much yield to this emendation ; yet I have not been 
able to pleale myfelr with any thing to which even my own par~ 
tiality can give the preference. 
Sir Thomas Hanmer reads : 

Or --vercjcit loth our mother-, 

1 cannot aik for more than that of heaven, 

So I -xerc n.}t Lisfefter : can't be no other 

A\ ay lyour daughter, but be ?nuji be ray brother ? JOHNSON. 

" Were you both our mothers, 

*' I care no more for, than I do for heaven, 

*' So I were not his filter." 
There is a deiigned ambiguity : I care no more for, is, I care as 

much for. 1 w r i(h it equally. FARMER. 

1 Can't no other, 

But, I your daughter, he muft be M\' brother ?~\ 

The meaning is obfcur'd by the elliptical diction. Can it be no other 
way, but if / ocjcar t?(iug'.>!cr he mujl l\ my brother ? JOHNSON. 

Count. Yes, Helen, you might be my daughter-in- 
law ; 

God ihield, you mean it not ! daughter, and mother, 
So flrive upon your pulfe : What, pale again ? 
My fear hath catch'd your fondnefs : a Now I fee 
The myftery of your lonelinefs, and find 
3 Your fait tears' head. Now to all fenfe 'tis grofs, 
You love my fon ; invention is afham'd, 
Againit the proclamation of thy paffion, 
To fay, thou dofl not : therefore tell me true ; 
But tell me then, 'tis fo : for, look, thy cheeks 
Confefs it one to the other ; and thine eyes 
See it fo grofly fhewn in thy behaviours, 
That in their kind they fpeak it ; only fin 
And hellilh obftinacy tie thy tongue, 
That truth fhould be fufpedted : Speak, is't fo ? 
If it be fo, you have wound a goodly clue ; 
If it be not, forfwear't : howe'er, I charge thee, 
As heaven fhall work in me for thine avail, 
To tell me truly. 

Hel. Good madam, pardon me ! 

Now I fee 

The niyftery of your lovelinefs, and find 

Tour fait tears' bead. ] 

The myitery of her lovelinefs is beyond my comprehenfion : the old 
Countefs is faying nothing ironical, nothing taunting, or in re- 
proach, that this word (hould find a place here ; which it could 
not, unlefs farcaftically employed, and with fome fpleen. I dare 
warrant the poet meant his old lady (hould fay no more than this: 
** I now find the myftery of your creeping into corners, and weep- 
ing, and pining in fecret." For this realbn I have amended the 
text, lonelinefs. The Steward, in the foregoing fcene, where he 
gives the Countefs intelligence of Helena's behaviour, fays : 

Alone flie watf. and did communicate to hsrfelf her own words to 
her o-iva ears. THEOBALD. 

The late Mr. Hall had corrected this, I believe, rightly, 

your lowlinefs. TYRWHITT. 

I think Theobald's correction as plaufible. To chufe folitudc is 
a mark of love. STEEVENS. 

3 Tour fait tears* bead.'] The fource, the fountain of your rears, 
the caufe of your grief. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IV. D Count. 

34 A L L's WELL 

Count. Do you love my fon ? 

Hel, Your pardon, noble miftrefs J 

Count. Love you my fon ? 

Hel. Do not you love him, madam ? 

Count. Go not about ; my love hath in't a bond, 
Whereof the world takes note : come, come, difclofe 
The ftate of your affection ; for your paflions 
Have to the full appeach'd. 

Hel. Then, I confefs, 

Here on my knee, before high heaven and you, 
That before you, and next unto high heaven, 
I love your fon : 

My friends were poor, but honeft ; fo's my love : 
Be not offended ; for it hurts not him, 
That he is lov'd of me : I follow him not 
By any token of prefumptuous fuit ; 
Nor would I have him, 'till I do deferve him ; 
Yet never know how that defert fhould be. 
I know I love in vain, flrive againft hope; 
Yet, in this 4 captious and intenible fieve, 
I ftill pour in the waters of my love, 
And lack not to lofe ftill 5 : thus, Indian-like, 
Religious in mine error, I adore 
The fun, that looks upon his worfhipper, 
But knows of him no more. My deareft madam, 
Let not your hate encounter with my love, 
For loving where you do : but, if yourfelf, 
Whofe aged honour cites a virtuous youth, 
Did ever, in fo true a flame of liking, 
Wifh chaflly, and love dearly, that your Dian 

* captious and intenible fieve^ The word captltus I never 

found in this lenfe ; yet I cannot tell what to fubftitute, unlefsr*- 
rious for rotten, which yet is a word more likely to have been mif- 
taken by the copyers than ufed by the author. JOHNSON. 

The old copy reads intemlh fieve. STEEVENS. 

5 And lack not to \okjl ill; ] 

Perhaps we fhould read : 

A:td lack not to \Q\ejlllL TYRWHITT. 



Was both herfelf and love ; O then, give pity 
To her, whofe ftate is fuch, that cannot chufe 
But lend and give, where fhe is fare to lofe ; 
That feeks not to find that, her fearch implies, 
But, riddle-like, lives fweetly where Ihe dies. 

Count. Had you not lately an intent, fpeak truly, 
To go to Paris ? 

Net. Madam, I had. 

Count. Wherefore ? tell true. 

Hel. I will tell truth ; by grace itfelf, I fwear* 
You know, my father left me fome prescriptions 
Of rare and prov'd effects, fuch as his reading, 
And manifeft experience, had collected 
For general fovereignty ; and that he will'd me 
In heedfulleft refervation to beftow them, 
As 6 notes, whofe faculties inclufive were, 
More than they were in note : amongft the reft, 
There is a remedy, approv'd, fet down, 
To cure the defperate languilhings, whereof 
The king is render'd loft. 

Count. This was your motive 
For Paris, was it ? fpeak. 

Hel. My lord your fon made me to think of this \ 
Elfe Paris, and the medicine, and the king, 
Had, from the converfation of my thoughts, 
Haply, been abfent then* 

Count. But think you, Helen^ 
If you ihould tender your fuppofed aid, 
He would receive it ? He and his phyficians 
Are of a mind ; he, that they cannot help him, 
They, that they cannot help : How fhall they credit 
A poor unlearned virgin, when the fchools, 


, wboft faculties inclujtve- ] Receipts in which 

greater "virtues were m70//than appeared to obfervation. 


D 2 Em- 

36 A L L's W E L L 

EfnbowelFd of their do&rine 7 , have left ofT 
The danger to itfelf ? 

HeL 8 There's fomething hints, 
More than my father's fkill, which was the greateft 
Of his profeffion', that his good receipt 
Shall, for my legacy, be fandtified 
By the luckieft ftars in heaven : and, would your 


But give me leave to try fuccefs, I'd venture 
The well-loft life of mine on his grace's cure, 
By fuch a day, and hour. 

Count, Doft thou believe't ? 

Hel. Ay, madam, knowingly. 

Count. Why, Helen, thou ihalt have my leave, and 


Means, and attendants, and my loving greetings 
To thofe of mine in court ; I'll flay at home, 
And pray God's bleffing into thy attempt 9 : 
Be gone to-morrow ; and be fure of this, 
What I can help thee to, thou Ihalt not mifs. 


T Emlowcird of their dotirine, J i.e. exhaufted of their (kill. 

So, in the old fpurious play of K. John : 

" Back warmen, back; embowel not the clime." 

8 There's fo?neth!ng in't 

More than my father' 's Jkill * 

that his good receipt &c.] 

Here is an inference, [that'} without any thing preceding, to 
which it refers, which makes the fentence vicious, and (hews that 
we (hould read : 

There's fomething hints 
]\Iore than my father 1 s JJrill, 

that bis good receipt 
i. e. I have a fecret premonition orprefage. WARBURTOX. 

9 -into thy attempt:} So the old copy. We might better 

read unto thy attempt. STKEVENS. 




he Court of France. 

Enter the King, with young lords taking leave for the 
Florentine war. Bertram and Parolles. 

Flourifh cornets. 

King. * Farewel, young lords^ thefe warlike prin- 

Do not throw from you : and you, my lords, * fare- 
wel : 

Share the advice betwixt you ; if both gain all, 

The gift doth flretch itfelf as 'tis receiv'd, 

And is enough for both. 

1 In all the latter copies thefe lines flood thus : 
Fare-wel, young lords ; tbefe warlike principles 
Do not thro-iv from you. Tou, my lords, farevucl ; 
Share the advice betwixt you ; if both again t 
The gift doth flre tch itfelf as 'tis received. 

The third line in that ftate was unintelligible. Sir Thomas Han 
mer reads thus : 

Fare^velyoung lord, thefe warlike principles 
Do not thro-'M front you ; you t tny lord, farewely 
Share the advice betwixt vou ; if both gain all, 
The gift doth flr etch itfelf as 'tis received \ 
And is enough for both. 

The firft edition, from which the paflage is reftored, was fuffi- 
cicntly clear ; yet it is plain, that the latter editors preferred a 
reading which they did not underftand. JOHNSON. 

* andyou, my lords, farewcl : ] 

It does not any where appear that more than two French lords 
.(befides Bertram) went to ferve in Italy ; and therefore I think the 
king's fpeech fhould be correifted thus : 

' Farewel, young lord ; thefe warlike principles 
" Do not throw from you ; and you my lord, farewel ;" 
what follows, (hews this correction to be neceflary : 

44 Share the advice betwixt you ; if both gain all, &c." 


D 3 i Lord. 

A L L's W E L L 
"Pis our hope, fir, . 
After well-enter'd foldiers, to return 
And find your grace in health. 

King. No, no, it cannot be ; and yet my heart 
Will not confefs, he owes the malady 
That does my life befiege. Farewel, young lords ; 
Whether I live or die, be you the fons 
Of worthy Frenchmen : 3 let higher Italy 


(Thofe 'bated, that inherit but the fall 
Of the loft monarchy) fee, &V.] 

This is obfcure. Italy, at the time of this fcene, was under three 
very different tenures. The emperor, as fucceflbr of the Roman 
emperors, had one part ; the pope, by a pretended donation from 
Conftantine, another ; and the third was compofed of free ftates. 
Now by the laji monarchy is meant the Ro?na-i, the laft of the four 
general monarchies. Upon the fall of this monarchy, in the 
fcramble, feveral cities fet up for themfelves, and became free 
ftates : now theie might be faid properly to inherit the fall of the 
monarchy. This being premiied, let us now coniider fenfe. The 

King fays, higher Italy ; giving it the rank of preference to 

France ; but he corrects himfelf and fays, I except thofe from that 
precedency, who only inherit the fall of the laft monarchy ; as all 
the little petty ftates ; for inftance, Florence, to whom thefe vo^ 
luntiers were going. As if he had faid, J give the place of honour 
to the emperor and the pope, but not to the free ftates. 


The ancient geographers have divided Italy into the higher and 
the lower, the Apennine hills being a kind of natural line of par- 
tition ; the fide next the Adriatick was denominated the higher 
Italy, and the other fide the lower : and the two feas followed tho 
fame terms of diftin&ion, the Adriatick being called the upper fea, 
and the Tyrrhene or Tufcan the lower. Now the Sennones or 
Senois with whom the Florentines are here fuppofed to be at war, 
inhabited the higher Italy, their chief town being Arminium, 
jiow called Rimini, upon the Adriatick. HANMER. 

Sir T, Hanmer reads : 

Thofe baftards that inherit^ &c. 
with this note : 

Reflecting upon the abject and degenerate condition of the cities 
and ftates which aroie out of the ruins of the Roman empire, the 
laft of the four great monarchies of the world. HANMER. 

Dr. Warburton's obfervation is learned, but rather too fubtle ; 
Sir Tho. Hanmer's alteration is merely arbitrary. The paflage is 

con fe fled \y 


(Thofe 'bated, that inherit but the fall 
Of the lafl monarchy) fee, that you come 
Not to woo honour, but to wed it ; when 
The braveft queftant Ihrinks, find what you feek, 
That fame may cry you loud : I fay, farewel. 

2 Lord. Health, at your bidding, ferve your ma- 
jefty ! 

King. Thofe girls of Italy, take heed of them ; 
They fay, our French lack language to deny, 
If they demand : 4 beware of being captives, 
Before you ferve. 

Both. Our hearts receive your warnings. 

King. Farewel. Come hither to me. 

[The King retires to a couch. 

1 Lord. Oh niy fvveet lord, that you will ftay be- 

hind us ! 
Par. 'Tis not his fault ; the fpark 

2 Lord. Oh, 'tis brave wars ! 

Par. Mofl admirable : I have feen thofe wars. 

confefledly obfcure, and therefore I may offer another explanation. 
I am of opinion that the epithet higher is to be underftood of fitu- 
ation rather than of dignity. The fenfe may then be this, Let up- 
per Italy, where you are to exercife your valour, fee that you come 
to gain honour, to the abatement, that /j, to the dif^race and depref- 
Jion of thofe that have now loft their ancient military fame, and in- 
herit but the fall of the laji monarchy. To abate is ufed by Shake- 
fpeare in the original fenfe of abatre, to deprefs, to Jink^ to dejetf, 
\ofubdue. So, in Coriolanus : 

" 'till ignorance deliver you, 

" As moil <wated captives to fome nation 

*' That won you without blows." 
And bated is ufed in a kindred lenie in the Merchant of Penice : 

" in a bondman's key, 

" With bated breath and whiip'ring humblenefs. 
The word has ftill the fame meaning in the language of the law. 


4 Beware of being captives, 

Before you ferve. ] 

The word ferve is equivocal ; the fenfe is, Be not captives before 
you ferve in the war. Be not captives before you arefolaiers. 


D 4 Ber. 

4 A L L's W E L L 

Ber. I am commanded here, and kept a coil with ; 
Too young, and the next year , and '/ too <w/y. 

iW. An thy mind ftand to it, boy, fteal away 

Ber. I mall Hay here the forehorfe to a fmock, 
Creaking my Ihoes on the plain mafonry, 
'Till honour be bought up, and no fword worn, 
But one to dance with ! By heaven, I'll fteal away. 

1 Lord. There's honour in the theft. 
Par. Commit it, count. 

2 Lord. I am your acceflary ; and fo farewel. 

Ber. 6 1 grow to you, and our parting is a tortur'd 

1 Lord. Farewel, captain. 

2 Lord. Sweet monfieur Parolles ! 

Par. Noble heroes, my fword and yours are kin. 
Good fparks and luftrous, a word, good metals : 
5 You fnall find in the regiment of the Spinii, one 
captain Spurio, with his cicatrice, an emblem of war, 
here on his finifter cheek ; it was this very fword en- 
trench'd it : fay to him, I live ; and obferve his re- 
ports for me. 

2 Lord, We mail, noble captain, 

5 / grciv to you, and our parting is a tortur'd body.] I read thus : 
Our parting is the parting of a tortured body. Our parting is as the 
difruption of limbs torn "From each other. Repetition of a word is 
often the caufe of roiftakes : the eye glances on the wrong word, 
and the intermediate pare of the ientence is .omitted. JOHNSON. 

So, in K. Henry VIII. ad II. fc. iii : 

<' it is a fufferance, panging 

" As foul and body's fevering," STEEVENS. 

c Youjhalljind in the regiment of the Spinii, one captain Spurio, 
his cicatrice, with an emblem efivar here on bisjinifter cheek ',"] It is 
lurprifmg, none of the editors could fee that a flight tranfpofhion 
>vas abfoiutely neceflary here, when there is not common fenfe in 
the paffage, as it Hands without fuch tranfpofition. Parolles only 
means: " You fliall find one captain Spurio in the camp, with a 
fca,r on his leit cheek, a mark pt war that my fword gave him." 




Par. Mars doat on you for his novices ! what will 
you do ? 

Ber. Stay ; the king 

Par. Ufe a more fpacious ceremony to the noble 
lords; you have reftrain'd yourfelf within the lift of 
too cold an adieu : be more expreffive to them ; for 
7 they wear themfelves in the cap of the time, there 
do mufter true gait, eat, fpeak, and move under the 
influence of the moft received ftar ; and though the 
devil lead the meafure, fuch are to be follow'd : after 
them, and take a more dilated farewel. 

Ber. And I will do fo. 

Par. Worthy fellows; and like to prove moft 
finewy fword-men. [Exeunt. 

Enter Lafeu. [Lafeu kneels* 

Laf. Pardon, my lord, for me and for my tidings. 
King. I'll fee thee to Hand up. 

7 they : iv 'ear tbemf elves in the cap of the time, there ', do mufter ^ 
true gait, &c.] The main obfcurity of this paflage arifes from the 
miftake of a fingle letter. We {hould read, inftead of, do mufter^ 
to mufter. \ To ivear tbtmf elves in the cap of the time, fignifies to 

be the foremofl in the fafhion : the figurativeallufionis to the gal- 
lantry then in vogue, of wearing jewels, flowers, and their mif- 
trefs's favours in their caps. there to nntfter true gait, lignifies 
to aflemble together in the high road of the fafhion. All the reft is 
intelligible and eaiy. WARBURTON. 

I think this emendation cannot be faid to give much light to the 
obfcurity of the paflage. Perhaps it might be read thus : They 
do mufter with the true gaite, that is, they have the true military 
Hep. Every man has obferved fomething peculiar in the ftrut of a 
foldier. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps we {hould read majler true gait. To majler any 

thing, is to learn it perfectly. So, in the Firft Part ofK. Hen. IV; 

" As if he majler d there a double Ipirit 

<* Of teaching and of learning" 
Again, in K. Hen. V : 

" Between the promife of his greener days, 

'* And thofe he majfors now." 

In this laft inftance, however, both the quartos, viz, 1600, and 
j6o8, read mu/len. STEEVEKS. 


4 z A L L's W E L L 

Laf. Then here's a man 

Stands, that has bought his pardon 8 . I would, you 
Had kneel'd, my lord, to afk me mercy ; and 
That, at my bidding, you could fo ftand up. 

King. I would I had ; fo I had broke thy pate, 
And afk'd thee mercy for't. 

Laf. Goodfaith, 9 acrofs : but, my good lord, 

'tis thus ; 
Will you be cur'd of your infirmity ? 

King. No. 

Laf. O, will you eat 

No grapes, my royal fox ? f yes, but you will, 
My noble grapes, an if my royal fox 
Could reach them : * I have feen a medecin, 
That's able to breathe life into a flone ; 
Quicken a rock, and make you dance canary 
With fprightly fire and motion; whofe fimple touch 
Is powerful to araife king Pepin, nay, 
To give great Charlemain a pen in his hand, 
And write to her a love-line. 

King. What her is this ? 

1 that has bought bis pardon.'} The old copy reads brought. 


9 acrofs: ] This word, as has been already obferved, is 

ufcd when any pafs of wit mifcarries. JOHNSON. 

1 Tes, lutyou will, my nolle grapes ; an' if~\ 
Thefe words, my noUe grapes, feem to Dr. Warburton and Sir T. 
Hanmer, to ftand fo much in the way, that they have filently 
omitted them. They may be indeed rejected without great lofs, 
but I believe they are Shakefpeare's words. Ton will eat, fays 
Lafeu, no grapes. Tes, but you will catfuch noble grapes as I bring 
you, if you could reach them, JOHNSON. 

* / have feen a medecin, 

That *s able to breathe life into a ft one ; 
Quicken a rock, and make you dance canary] 

Mr. Rich. Broom, in his comedy, intitled, The City Wit, or the 
Woman ivears the Breeches, act IV. fc. i. mentions this among other 
dances : ** As for corantoes, levoltos, jigs, meafures, pavins, 
brawls, galiiards or canaries ; I fpeak it not fwellingly, but I fub- 
fcribe to no man." Dr, GRAY. 



Laf. Why, do&or me ; My lord, there's one ar- 


If you will fee her now, by my faith and honour, 
If fcrioufly I may convey my thoughts 
In this my light deliverance, I have fpoke 
With one, that, in her fex, } her years, profeffion, 
Wifdom, and conftancy, hath amaz'd me more 
Than I dare blame my weaknefs 4 : Will you fee her, 
(For that is her demand) and know her bufinefs ? 
That done, laugh well at me. 

King. Now, good Lafeu, 
Bring in the admiration ; that we with thee, 
May fpend our wonder too, or take off thine, 
By wond'ring how thou took'ft it. 

Laf. Nay, I'll fit you, 
And not be all day neither. [Exit Lafeu. 

King. Thus he his fpecial nothing ever prologues. 

Laf. [Returns.'], Nay, come your ways. 

[Bringing in Helena* 

King. This hafte hath wings indeed. 

Laf. N ay, come your ways ; 
This is his majefly, fay your mind to him : 
A traitor you do look like ; but fuch traitors 
His majefly feldom fears : I am Creffid's uncle s , 
That dare leave two together ; fare you well. [Exit. 

King. Now, fair one, does your bufmefs follow us ? 

Hel. Ay, my good lord. Gerard de Narbon was 
My father ; in what he did profefs, well found. 

King. I knew him. 

Hel. The rather will I fpare mypraifes toward him; 
Knowing him, is enough. On his bed of death 

3 leryears, profejfion,] JHy profejfion is meant her declaration 

of the end and purpofe of her coming. WAR BUR TON. 

4 Than I dare blame my lucakncfs :] This is one or Shakefpeare's 
perplexed expreffions. To acknowledge how much fhe has afto- 
nifhed me, would be to acknowledge a weaknefs ; and this I have 
not the confidence to do. STEEYENS. 

5 Orchid's uncle t ] I am like Pandarus. See Troilus and 



44 A L L's W E L L 

Many receipts he gave me ; chiefly one, 
Which, as the dearefl iflue of his practice, 
And of his old experience the only darling, 
He bad me llore up, as a triple eye 6 , 
Safer than mine own two, more dear ; I have fo : 
And, hearing your high majefly is touch'd 
With that malignant caufe wherein the honour 7 
Of my dear father's gift Hands chief in power, 
I come to tender it, and my appliance, 
With all bound humblenefs. 

King. We thank you, maiden ; 
But may not be fo credulous of cure, 
When our moil learned dodtors leave us ; and 
The congregated college have concluded, 
That labouring art can never anfwer nature 
From her inaidable eflate, I fay we mull not 
So ftain our judgment, or corrupt our hope, 
To proilitute our paft-cure malady 
To empericks ; or to difiever fo 

Our great felf and our credit, to efleem 

A fenfelefs help, when help pafl fenfe we deem. 
HeL My duty then lhall pay me for my pains : 

I will no more enforce mine office on you ; 

Humbly intreating from your royal thoughts 

A modefl one, to bear me back again. 

King. I cannot give thee lefs, to be call'd grateful : 
Thou thought'ft to help me ; and fuch thanks I give, 

As one near death to thofe that wifh him live : 

But, what at full I know, thou know'fl no part ; 

I knowing all my peril, thou no art. 

HeL What 1 can do, can do no hurt to try, 

Since you let up your reft 'gainft remedy : 

* a triple )*,] i. e. a Mm/ eye." STEEVENS, 

7 ivbercin the honour 

Of my dear father's gift Jlands chief in po'ver^] 
Perhaps we may better read : 

wherein the power 

Of my dear father' i giftjlands chief in honour, JOHNSON . 



He that of greateft works is finilher, 

Oft does them by the weakeft minifter : 

So holy writ in babes hath judgment mown, 

When judges have been babes. Great floods have 


From fimple fources ; and great feas have dry'd, 
When miracles have by the greateft been deny'd g . 
Oft expectation fails, and molt oft there 
Where moft it promifes ; and oft it hits, 
Where hope is coldeft, and defpair molt fits. 

King. I mult not hear thee ; fare thee well, kind 

maid ; 

Thy pains, not us'd, mult by thyfelf be paid : 
Proffers, not took, reap thanks for their reward. 

Hel. Infpired merit fo by breath is barr'd : 
It is not fo with him that all things knows, 
As 'tis with us that fquare our guefs by mows : 
But moft it is prefumption in us, when 
The help of heaven we count the adt of men. 
Dear fir, to my endeavours give confent; 
Of heaven, not me, make an experiment. 
I am not an impoftor, that proclaim 
9 Myfelf againft the level of mine aim ; 
But know I think, and think I know moft fure, 
My art is not paft power, nor you palt cure. 

8 Wl)e* miracle* have by the great eft been deny'd,} 

I do not fee the import or connexion of this line. As the next 
line ftands without a correfpcmdent rhyme, I fufpect that fome- 
thing has been loft. JOHNSON. 

I point the paflage thus ; and then I fee no reafon to complain of 
want of connection : 

When judges have leen bales. Great floods, &c. 

}yhen miracles have by the greateft leen denjyd. 
5. e. miracles have continued to happen, while the wifeft men have 
been writing againft the poffibility of them. STEEVENS, 

9 Myfelf againjl the level of mine aim ;] 

i. e. pretend to greater things than befits the mediocrity of my 
condition. WAR BURTON. 

I rather think that (he means to fay, / am not an impojlor that 
proclaim one thing and defign another, that proclaim a cure and aim 
at a fraud : I think what I fpsak. JOHNSON. 

46 A L L's WELL 

King. Art thou fo confident ? Within what fpaefi 
Hop'lt thou my cure ? 

Hel. The greateft grace lending grace r , 
Ere twice the horfes of the fun fhall bring 
Their fiery torcher his diurnal ring ; 
Ere twice in murk and occidental damp 
Moift Hefperus hath quench'd his fleepy lamp ; 
Or four and twenty times the pilot's glafs 
Hath told the thievilh minutes how they pafs ; 
What is infirm from your found parts fhall fly, 
Health fhall live free, and ficknefs freely die. 

King. Upon thy certainty and confidence, 
What dar'it thou venture ? 

Hel. Tax of impudence, 
A ftrumpet's boldnefs, a divulged fhame *, 
Traduc'd by odious ballads ; my maiden's name 

, Sear'd 

1 The great eft grace lending grace,] 

1 fliould have thought the repetition of grace to have been fuper- 
fluous, if the grace of grace had not occurred in the fpeech with 
which the tragedy QrM&cbetk concludes. STEEVENS. 
* a div ulgedjkame, 

Iradufd by odious ballads j my maiden's name 

Scared otberwife, no ivorfe ofworft extended^ 

With vilefl torture let my life be ended. ~\ 

This paffage is apparently corrupt, and how fhall it be rectified ? 
I have no great hope of fuccefs, but fomething muft be tried. I 
read the whole thus : 

King. Wbat dar'Jl tbou venture f 
Hel. Tax of l?npudence, 

A fir-limpet's boldnefs ; a divulged Jbamc, 

Traduced by odious ballads my maiden name ; 

Sear'd otberwife, to worft ofworjl extended ; 

With vilejt torture let my^ life be ended. 

When this alteration firit came into my mind, I fuppofed Helen to 
mean thus: Firft^ I venture what is deareit to me, my maiden re- 
putation ; but if your diftruft extends my character to the ivnrjl of 
the ivor/, and fuppofes me feared againit the fenfe of infamy, I 
will add to the flake of reputation, the flake of life. This cer- 
tainly is fenfe, and the language as grammatical as many other paf- 
fages of Shakefpeare. Yet we may try another experiment : 

Fear othcr'Mife to word of icorji extended ; 

With vikji torture let nty life be ended. 



Sear'd otherwife ; no worfe of worfl extended, 
With vileft torture let my life be ended. 

King. J Methinks, in thee fome blefled fpirit doth 

fpeak ; 
His powerful found, within an organ weak : 


That is, let me aft under the greateft terrors poflible. 

Yet once again we will try to find the right way by the glimmer 
of Hanmer's emendation, who reads thus : 
my maiden name 

Sear'd ; otherwife the worft of worft extended, &c. 
Perhaps it were better thus : 

- my maiden name 

Sear'd; otherwife the worft to worft extended; 
With vileft torture let my life be ended. JOHNSON. 
Let us try, if poffible, to produce fenfe from this paflage with- 
out exchanging a fyllable. / would bear (fays (he) the tax of im- 
pudence, which is the denotement of aftrumpet ; would en Jure ajbame 
refulting from my failure in ivhat I have undertaken, and thence be- 
come the fitbjcft of odious ballads ; let my maiden reputation be other* 
wife branded \ and, no worfe of worft extended, i. e. provided no- 
thing worfe is offered to me, (meaning violation) let my life be ended 
with the worft of tortures. The poet for the fake of rhime has ob- 
fcured the fenfe of the paflage. The worft that can befal a ntiman, 
being extended tome, feems to be the meaning of the laft line. 

The old copy reads not fear'd, butyivzrV. The impreffion in 

my book is very faint, but that, I think, is the word. In the 

fame line it reads not no, but ne, probably an error for the. I 
would wifh to read and point the paflage thus : 

- a divulged Jhame 

Traduc'd by odious ballads my maiden's name ; 
Sear'd otherwifc ; the worft of worft, extended 
With vileft torture, let my life be ended. 
5. e. Let my maiden reputation become the fubjeft of ballads 

let it be otherwife mangled and (what is the ivorft of worft, the 

eonfummation of mifery) my body being extended on the rack by the 
moft cruel torture, let my life pay the forfeit of my prefumption* 


3 Mtthinks, in thee fome blejjed fpirit doth fpeak 
His powerful found, within an organ vjeahi\ 

To fpeak a found is a barbarifm : for to fpeak fignifies to utter an ar- 
ticulate found, /. e. a voice. So, Shakefpeare, in Love's Labour 
Loft, fays with propriety, And when love fpeaks the voice of all the 
gods. To fpeak a found therefore is improper, though to utter a 
Jottnd\$ not; becaufe the word utter may be applied either to an 


4 S A L L's W E L L 

And what impoffibility would flay 
In common fenfe, fenfe faves another way. 
Thy life is dear ; for all, that life can rate 
Worth name of life, in thee hath eftimate 4 ; 
5 Youth, beauty, wifdom, courage, virtue, all 
That happinefs and 6 prime, can happy call : 
Thou this to hazard, needs muft intimate 
Skill infinite, or monftrous defperate. 
Sweet practifer, thy phyfick I will try ; 
That minifters thine own death, if I die. 

Hel If I break time, or flinch in property 
Of what I fpoke, unpitied let me die ; 

articulate or inarticulate. Befides, the conduction is vicious with 
the two ablatives, in thee, and, within an organ weak. The lines 
therefore fliould be thus read and pointed : 

Methinks, in thee fame blejjed fpirit dothfpeak : 
His power full founds within an organ weak. 

But the Oxford editor would be only fo far beholden to this emen- 
dation, as to enable him to make fenfe of the lines another way, 
whatever become of the rules of criticifm or ingenuous dealing : 

\tpowerfulfounds within an organ weak* \VARBUR TON*. 
The verb, dothfpeak, in the firil line, fhould be underflood to 
be repeated in the conftruCtion of the fecond, thus : 

His powerful found fpeaks within a weak organ. REVISAL. 
This, in my opinion, is a very juft and happy explanation. 


* in thee hath ejlimate :] Maybe counted among the gifts 
enjoyed by them. JOHNSOV. 

5 Touth, beauty, wifdom, courage, all ] 

The verfe wants a foot. Virtue, by mifchance, has dropt out of 
the line. WAR BUR TON. 

* - prime, - ] Youth ; the fpring or morning of life. 


Should not we read pride I Dr. Johnfon explains prime to 
mean youth ; and indeed I do not fee any other plaufible interpre- 
tation that can be given of it. But how does that fuit with the 
context ? " You have all that is worth the name of life ; youth, 
beauty, &c. all, That happinefs and youth can happy calh" - 
Happinefs and pride, may iignify, I think, the pride of happinefs ; 
the proudeft ftate of happinefs. So, in the Second Part of Henry IV. 
att III. fc. i : the voice and echo , is put for the voice ofecbo> or, the 
echoing voice. T Y R w H I T T . 



And well deferv'd : Not helping, death's my fee ; 
But, if I help, what do you promife me ? 

King. 7 Make thy demand. 

Hel. But will you make it even ? 

King. Ay, by my fcepter, and my hopes of heaveni 

Hel. Then lhalt thou give me, with thy kingly hand^ 
What hufband in thy power I will command : 
Exempted be from me the arrogance 
To chufe from forth the royal blood of France j 
My low and humble name to propagate 
With any branch or image of thy ftate 8 : 
But fuch a one, thy vaflal, whom I. know 
Is free for me to afk, thee to beftow. 

King. Here is my hand ; the premifes obferv'd f 
Thy will by my performance mail be ferv'd : 
So make the choice of thine own time ; for I, 
Thy refolv'd patient, on thee flill rely. 
More fhould I queftion thee, and more I muft ; 
Though, more to know, could not be more to truft; 
From whence thou cam'ft, how tended on, But reft 
Unqueftion'd welcome, and undoubted bleft. 
Give me fome help here, ho ! If thou proceed 
As high as word, my deed fhall match thy deed. 

7 King. Make tf.y demand. 

Hel. But will you make it even f 
King. Ay, by my fccptcr, and my hopes 0/"help.] 
The king could have but a \ery flight hope of /W/> from her, fcarce 
enough to fwear by : and therefore Helen might fufpeft he meant 
to equivocate with her. Befides, obterve, the greateft part of the 
fcene is ftrictly in rhime : and there is no (hadow of real'on \vhyit 
ihould be interrupted here. I rather imagine the poet wrote : 

-4Vi by my fcepter, and my /jofes of heaven. TIURLBY. 
8 With any branch or image of ' tlyjlat! ; ] Shakefpeare unquef- 
tionably wrote impagc, grafting. Impe a graff, or flip, or fucker : 
by which fl-.e means one of the fons of France. Caxton calls our 
prince Arthur, that noble impe of fame. WAR.EURTOV. 

fmanli farely the true reading, and may mean any reprefenta- 
tive of thine ; i. e. any one who relembles you as being related 
to your family, or as a prince reflects any part of your itate and 
maielty. There is no fuch word as hnpagt. STEEVEXS. 


50 A L L's WELL 


Enter Countefs and Clown. 

Count. Come on, fir; I lhall now put you to the 
height of your breeding. 

Clo. I will fhew myfelf highly fed, and lowly- 
taught : I know my bufinefs is but to the court. 

Count. But to the court ! why,, what place make 
you fpecial, when you put off that with fuch con- 
tempt ? But to the court f 

Clo. Truly, madam, if God have lent a man any 
manners, he may eafily put it off at court : he that 
eannot make a leg, put off's cap, kifs his hand, and 
fay nothing, has neither leg, hands, lip, nor cap ; 
and, indeed, fuch a fellow, to fay precifely, were 
not for the court : but, for me, I have an anfwer 
will ferve all men. 

Count. Marry, that's a bountiful anfwer, that fits 
all queftions. 

Clo. It is like a barber's chair, that fits all but- 
tocks 9 ; the pin-buttock, the quatch-buttock, the 
brawn-buttock, or any buttock. 

Count. Will your anfwer ferve fit to all queftions ? 

Clo. As fit as ten groats is for the hand of an at- 
torney, as your French crown for your taffaty punk, 
as Tib's rufh for Tom's fore-finger ', as a pancake for 


9 It is like a laser's chair, &c.] This expreffion is proverbial. 
See Ray's Proverls. STEEVENS. 

1 TiVsrufb for Tom's fore-finger, ~~\ Tom is the man, and 
by Tib we are to underftand Taiitha the woman, and therefore, 
more properly we might read Tom's rujhfor, &c. The allufion is 
to an ancient practice of marrying with a rufli ring, as well in 
other countries as in England. Breval, in his Antiquities of Paris^ 
mentions it as a kind of efpoufal ufed in France, by fuch perfons 
as meant to live together ia a Hate of concubinage ; but in Eng- 


Shrove-tuefday, a morris for May-day, as the nail 
to his hole, the cuckold to his horn, as a fcolding 
quean to a wrangling knave, as the nun's lip to the 
friar's mouth ; nay, as the pudding to his ikin. 

Count* Have you, I fay, an anfwer of fuch fitnefs 
for all queflions ? 

Clo. From below your duke, to beneath your cort- 
flable, it will fit any queftion. 

Count. It inuft be an anfwer of moil monftrous fize, 
that muft fit all demands. 

land, it was fcarce ever praftifed except by defigning men, for the 
purpofe of corrupting thofe young women, to whom they pre- 
tended love. 

Richard Poore, bifhop of Salifbury, in his Conjlitittlons, ami- 
12 1", forbids the putting of rnjb rings, or any the like matter, on 
women's fingers, in order to the debauching them more readily : 
and he infinuates as the reaibn for the prohibition, that there were 
Ibme people weak enough to believe, that what was thus done in 
jeft, was a real marriage. 

But notwithihmding this cenfure on it, the practice was not abo- 
lifhed ; for it is alluded to in a fong in a play written by fir Wil- 
liam Davenant, called Tie Rivals: \ 
" I'll crown thee with a garland of draw then, 
*' And I'll marry thee with a rujb ring" 

Which fong, by the way, was firft fung by Mifs Davis ; {he acted 
the part of Celania in the play ; and king Charles II. upon hear- 
ing it, was fo plea fed with her voice and action, that he took her 
from the ftage, and made her his miftrefs. 

Again, in the fong called the Wincbefter H^eddhig, in D'Urfey's 
Pilh to Purge. Melancholy y vol. i. p'tge 276: 
*' Pert Strephon was kind to Betty, 

*' And blithe as a bird in the fpring ; 
** And Tommy was fo to Katy, 

" And wedded her with a ruJJ) rinsr." 


7il>'s rufli for Tom's fore-finger, ^] In humorous oppofi- 

iion to the regular form of matrimony, this may have been the 
exadt ceremonial of an unlawful efpoufal. I conceive the fare* 
fnger to moan the thumb in Romeo and Juliet ^ act I. fc. iv. as 
the thumb muft be confidered the foremojl, where five fingers lire 
faid to appertain to a Innd ; which hitter expreflion occurs in 
Shakefpeare's Troilus ami CrefiJa, aftll. fc. ii : 

tied." TOLLKT< 

E a Clo. 

5 2 A L L's W E L L 

Clo. But a trifle neither, in good faith, if the learnert 
ihouid ipeak truth of it : here it is, and all that be- 
longs to't : Afk me, if I am a courtier ; it fhall do 
you no harm to learn. 

Count. * To be young again, if we could : 1 will be 
a fool in queflion, hoping to be the wifer by your 
anfwer. I pray you, lir, are you a courtier ? 

Clo. 3 O Lord, fir, There's a fimple putting 

off: more, more, a hundred of them. 

Count. Sir, I am a poor friend of yours, that loves 

Clo. O Lord, fir,, Thick, thick, fpare not me. 

Count. I think, fir, you can eat none of this homely 

Clo. O Lord, fir, Nay, put me to't, I war- 
rant you. 

Count. You were lately whip'd, fir, as I think. 

Clo. O Lord, fir, Spare not me. 

Count. Do you cry, O Lord, fa, at your whipping, 
andjpare not me ? Indeed, your Lord* Ji>' is very 
fequent to your whipping ; you would anfwer very 
well to a whipping, if you were but bound to't. 

Clo. I ne'er had wcrfe luck in my life, in my 

O Lord, fir : I fee, things may ferve long, but not 
ferve ever. 

Count. I play the noble houfewife with the time, to 
entertain it fo merrily with a fool 

Clo. O Lord,, fir, Why, there't ferves well again. 

a To be young again, ] The lady cenfures her own levity in 
trifling with her jefler, as a ridiculous attempt to return back to 
youth. JOHNSON. 

3 O Lord, Jir, ] A ridicule on that foolifh expletive of 

fpeech then in vogue at court. WAR BUR TON. 

Thus Clove and Orange, in Every Man out of his Humour : 

" You conceive me, fir ?" " O Lord, fir." 

Clea-veland, in one of his fongs, makes his gentleman, 

" Anfwer, OLord)fo! and talk play-look oaths." 




. An end, fir, to your bufinefs : Give Helen 


And urge her to a prefent anfwer back : 
Commend me to my kinfmen, and my fon ; 
This is not much. 

Go. Not -much commendation to them. 
Count. Not much employment for you : You im- 
jderftand me ? 

' Clo. Mod fruitfully ; I am there before my legs. 
Count. Hafle you again. \JLxeunt. 


The Court of France. 
Enter Bertram, Lafeu, and Parolles. 

Laf. They fay, miracles are paft ; and we have 
our philofophical perfons, to make modern and 
familiar, things fupernatural and caufelefs. Hence 
is it, that we make trifles of terrors; enfconclng our- 
felves into foeming knowledge, when we ihould fub- 
jnit ourfelves to an unknown fear*. 

Par. Why, 'tis the rareft argument .of wonder., that 
hath {hot out in our later times, 

Ber. And fo 'tis. 

Laf. To be relinquifh'd of the artifts, 

far. So I fay ; both of Galen and Paracelfus 5 . 


4 * unknown fear.] Fear is here the objeft of fear. JOHNSON. 
5 Par. So I fay, both of Galen and Paracelfus. 

Laf. Of all the learned and authentick fellows, ] 

Sliakefpeare, as I have often obferved, never throws out his words 
at random. Paracelfus, though no better than an ignorant and 
knavish enthufiaft, was at this time in fuch vogue, even amongll 
the learned, that he had almoft juftled Galen and the ancients out 
of credit. On this account learned is applied to Galen ; and autbcn- 
tick or fafhionable to Paracelfus. Sancy, in his Confi-JjionCatboll- 
yuf, p. 501. Ed. Col. 1720, is made to fay ; " Je trouve la Ri vicre 
j premier 

4 A L Us WELL 

Laf* Of all the learned and authentic fellows 6 , 

Par. Right, fo I fay. 

Laf. That gave him out incurable, 

Par. Why, there 'tis ; fo fay I too. 

Laf. Not to be help'd, 

Par. Right j as 'twere, a man affur'd of an 

Laf. Uncertain life, and fure death. 

Par. Juft, you fay well ; fo would I have faid. 

Laf. I may truly fay, it is a novelty to the world, 

Par. It is, indeed : if you will have it in fliewing 7 , 
you fhall read it in, What do you call there ? 

Laf. A fhewiiig of a heavenly effedt in an earthly 
adtor 8 . 

Par. That's k I would have faid ; the very fame, 

'Laf. 9 Why, your dolphin is not luftier : 'fore me 
I fpeak in refped: 

premier medecin, dc mcilleure humeur que ces gens la. II eft Ion Ga- 
Icnifte, & tres ban Paracelnfte. // Jit que la doctrine dc Galien ejl 
honorable^ & nonmefprifable pour la pathologie^ & profitable pour les 
boutiques. L'autrc^ pourvcu que ce foit d; iirais preceptcs de Para- 
celie, eft bonne a fuivre pour la verite, pour la fubtilite, pour 
1'efpargne ; en fomme pour la Therapeutique." WARBURTON. 

As the whole merriment of this fcene confifts in the pretenfions 
of Parolles to knowledge and fentiments which he has not, I be- 
lieve here are two paflages in which the words and fenfe are be- 
ftowed upon him by the copies, which the author gave to Lateu. 
I read this paflage thus : 

Laf. To be relinquijbed of the art;Jls 

Par. So I fay. 

Laf. Both of Galen and Par ace Ifus, of all tie learned and autbcii" 
tick fellows 

Par. Right, Jo I fay. JOHNSON. 

6 authentick fello-ivs, J The phrafc of the diploma is, 

autkentice licentiatus. MUSGRAVE. 

7 Par. It is indeed : If you will have it mjheiving, &c. ] We fhould 
read, I think : " It is, indeed, if you will have it a fhewing you 
fnall read it in what do you call there" - TYRWHITT. 

8 AJbetuitig of a heavenly ejfeft, &c.] The title of fome pamph- 
let here ridiculed. WARBURTON. 

9 Wly, ynur dolphin 'is not luftier : ] By dolphin, is meant the 
elaupbiit) the heir apparent, and hcpe of the cro'.vn of France. His 
title is fo tranflated in all the eld books. STHEVEXS. 



Par. Nay, 'tis ftrange, 'tis very ftrange, that is the 
brief and the tedious of it ; and he is of -a moft faci- 
norous fpirit ', that will not acknowledged tobe the 

Laf. Very hand of heaven. 

Par. Ay, fo I fay. 

Laf. In a moft weak 

Par. And debile minifter, great power, great tran- 
fcendence : which fhould, indeed, give us * a farther 
ufe to be made, than alone the recovery of the king ; 
as to be 

Laf. Generally thankful. 

Enter King, Helena, and attendants. 
Par. I would have faid it ; you fay well : Here 
comes the king. 

1 facinorous fpirit, ] This word is ufed in Hey wood's 

JLngUJb Traveller, 1633 : 

** And magnified for high facinorous deeds." 
Facinorous is wicked. The old copy fpells the word facincrious ; 
but as Parolles is not defigned for a verbal blunderer, I have ad- 
hered to the common fpelling. STEEVENS. 

z which Jhouul, ,indeed, give us a farther vfe to be made, &c.^ 
Between the words us and a farther, there feems to have been two 
or three words dropt, which appear to have been to this purpofe 
Jkould, indeed, give us [notice, that there is of this,] a farther vfe 
to be made to that the paflage fhould be read with afleriflcs for 
the future. WAR BURTON. 

I cannot fee that there is any hiatus, or other irregularity of 
language than fuch as is very common in thefe plays. I believe 
Parolles has again ufurped words and fenle to which he has no 
right ; and I read this paflage thus : 

Laf. In a moft weak and dcbile minifter, great power, great tran- 
fccndence ; which Jhould, indeed, give us a farther vfe to be made than 
the mere recovery of the king. 

Par. Ai to be 

Laf. Generally thanlfnl. JOHNSON. 

When the parts are written out for players, the names of the 
characters which they are to reprefent are never fet down ; but 
only the luft words of the preceding fpeech which belongs to their 
partner in the fcene. If the plays ot Sluikefpeare were printed (as 
there is good reafon to fufped) from thefe piece-meal tranfcripts, 
how eafily may the miftake be accounted for, which Dr. Johnfon 
has judiciouily ftrove to remedy ? STELVENS. 

E 4 Laf. 


Laf. Luftick, as the Dutchman fays ? : I'll like a 
maid the" better, while I have a tooth in my head r 
Why, he's able to lead her a corranto. 

Par. Mort du Vinalgrei Is not this Helen ? 

Laf. 'Fore God, I think fo. 

King. Go, call before me all the lords in court.- 
Siti my preferver, by thy patient's fide ; 
And with this healthful hand, whofe banifh'd fenfo 
Thou haft repeal'd, a fecond time receive 
The confirmation of my promis'd. gift, 
Which but attends thy naming. 

Enter feveral Lords. 

Fair maid, fend faith thine eye : this youthful parcel 
Of noble bachelors ftand at my bellowing, 
O'er whom both fovereign power and father's voice 
I have to ufe : ' thy frank election make ; 
Thou hafl power to chufe, and they none to forfake. 
Hel. To each of you-on-e fair and virtuous miftrefs 
Fall, when love plcafe ! marry, to each but one 4 ! 

Laf. I'd give bay cuftal 5 , and his furniture, ' 
My mouth no more were broken 6 than thefe boys', 
And writ as little beard. 

3 Luftick, as the Dutchman fays : ] Luftigh is the Dutch 

word for lufty, chearful, pleafant. It is ufed in Hans 'Beer-pot's 
Zwifiblc Comedy, 1618:' 

can walk a mile or two 

** As luftique as a boor" 
Again, in the Witches of Lancajbire, by Hey wood and Broome, 

" What all lujl'icli, all frolickfome !" STEEVENS. 
* * marry, to each but one /] I cannot underftand this pafTage 
in any other fenfe, than as a ludicrous exclamation, in confequence 
of Helena's wifh. of one fair arid virtuous miftrefs to each of the 
lords. If that be fo, it cannot belong to Helena: and might 
properly enough be given to Parolles. TYRWHITT. 
; s . ~ lay curt al ] i. e. a. bay, .dock'd horfe. STEEVENS, 

6 My month no more were broken ] 

A Ircken mouth is a mouth which has loft part of its teeth. 


* Kins:, 


King. Perufe them well : 
Kot one of thofe, but had a noble father. 

' Hel. Gentlemen, 
Heaven hath, through me, reftor'd the king to health. 

Ail We underftand it, and thank heaven for you. 

Hel. I am a fimple maid ; and therein wealthieft, 

That, I prbteft, I limply am a maid : 

Pleafe it your majefty, I have done already : 

The bluihes in my cheeks thus whifper me, 

We blufh, that thou fioultfjl chufe, but be refits' d-, 

Let the white death fit on thy cheek for ever 7 , 

Will neer come there again. 

' King. Make choice ; and, fee, 

Who Ihuns thy love, fliuns all his love in me. 

Hel. Now, Dian, from thy altar do I fly ; 
And to imperial 8 love, that god moft high, 
>o my fighs ftream. Sir, will you hear my fuit > 

i Lord. And grant it. 

Hel. Thanks, fir; all the reft is mute *. 

Laf. I had rather be in this choice, than threw? 
ames-ace 9 for my life. 

' Hel. The honour, lit, that flames in your fair eyes, 
Before I fpeak, too threatningly replies : 

7 Let the white death Jtt on thy check for ever,"] 
Ghakefpcare, I think, wrote dearth; i.e. want of blood, or more 
figuratively barrennefs, want of fruit or iflue. WARBURTON.' 
' The white death is the chlorojts. JOHNSON. 

8 And to imperial Love, ] The old editions read impartial^ 

which is right. Love who has no regard to difference of condition, 
but yokes together high and low, which was her cafe. 


There is no edition of this play older than that of 1623, the 
next is that of 1632, of which both read imperial: the fecond 
reads itapgriatj&re. JOHNSON. 

'" " // the reft is mute;] i.'e. I have no more to fay to you. 
Go Hamlet : " the reft isjilcncc" STEEVENS. 

9 ames-ace ] i. e. the loweft chance of the dice. So, in 

the Ordinary, by Camvright : " may I at my hit Hake, &c. 

throw amcf- ace thrice together." STEEVEN&. 

>. . 


58 A L L's W E L L 

Love make your fortunes twenty times above 
Her that fo wiihes, and her humble love ! 

2 Lord. No better, if you pleafe. 

Hel. My wiih receive, 
Which great love grant ! and fo I take rhy leave. 

Laf. Do all they deny her l ? An they were fons 
of mine, I'd have them whipt ; or I would fend them 
to the Turk, to make eunuchs of. 

Hel. Be not afraid that I your hand Ihould take ; 
I'll never do you wrong for your own fake : 
Bleffing upon your vows ! and in your bed 
Find fairer fortune, if you ever wed ! 

Laf. Thefe boys are boys of ice, they'll none of 
her : fure, they are baftards to the Englifh ; the 
French ne'er got them. 

Hel. You are too young, too happy, and too good, 
To make yourfelf a fon out of my blood, 

4 Lord. Fair one, I think not fo. 

Laf. z There's one grape yet, j I am fure, thy father 

drunk wine. But if thou be'ft not an afs, I am a 

youth of fourteen ; I have known thee already. 

Hel. I dare not fay, I take you ; but I give 
Me, and my fervice, ever whilil I live, 
Into your guiding power. This is the man. 

[To Bertram. 

y/Laf. Do they all deny her f ] None of them have yet denied 
lier, or deny her afterwards but Bertram. The fcene muft be fo 
regulated that Lafeu and Parolles talk at a diftance, where they 
may fee what pafles between Helena and the lords, but not hear it, 
fo that they know not by whom the refufal is made. JOHNSON. ; 

2 There's one grape yet, ' ] This fpeech the three lair, editors 
have perplexed themfelves by dividing between Lafeu and Parol- 
les, without any authority of copies, or any improvement of fenfe. 
I have reftored the old reading, and ihould have thought no ex- 
planation neceflary, but that Mr. Theobald apparently mifunder- 
ftood it. 

Old Lafeu having, upon the fuppofition that the lady was re- 
fufed, reproached the young lords as bnysofice, throwing his eyes 
on Bertram who remained, cries out, 'There is one yet into whom his 

father put good blood, but I have known thee Icng enough to know 

thsefor an afs. JOHNSON. 



King. Why then, young Bertram, take her, flic's 
thy wife. 

Set'. My wife, my liege? I lhall befeech your 


In fuch a bufmefs give me leave to ufe 
The help of mine own eyes. 

King. Know'ft thou not, Bertram,' 
What fhe hath done for me ? 

er. Yes, my good lord ; 
But never hope to know why I mould marry her. 

King. Thou know'ft, Ihe has rais'd me from my 
lickly bed. 

Ber. But follows it, my lord, to bring me down 
Muft anfwer for your railing ? I know her well ; 
She had her breeding at my father's charge : 
A poor phylician's daughter my wife ! Difdain 
Rather corrupt me ever ! 

King. 'Tis only title thou difdain'ft in her, the 


I can build up. Strange is it, that our bloods, 
Of colour, weight, and heat, pour'd all together, 
Would quite confound diftindtion, yet (land off 
In differences fo mighty : If me be 
All that is virtuous, (fave what thou diflik'ft, 
A poor phyfician's daughter,) thou diilik'ft 
Of virtue for the name : but do not fo : 
3 From lowefl place when virtuous things proceed, 
The place is dignify'd by the doer's deed : 
Where great addition fvvells, and virtue none, 
Jt is a dropfied honour : 4 good alone 


3 From Imveft place whence virtuous things proceed*] 
This eafy correction (when) was prefcribcd by Dr. Thirlby. 


4 ~ good alone 

Is good without a name. Vilcncfs is fo : ] 
The text is here corrupted into nonfenie. We fhould read : 

good alone 

Is good; and, with a name, vlkncfs is //. 

f, e good is good, though there be no addition of title; and 


60 A L L's W E L L 

Is good, without a name ; vilenefs is fo : 
The property by what it is Ihould go, 
Not by the title. She is young, wife, fair s ; 
In theie to nature flic's immediate heir ; 


vilenefs is vilenefs, though there be. The Oxford editor, imder- 
ihmding nothing of this, ftrikes out vilenefs, and puts in its place, 
intfflf. W A R B u R T o N- . 

The prefent reading is certainly wrong, and, to confefs the 
truth, I do not think Dr. Warburton's emendation right; yet I 
have nothing that I can propofe with much confidence. Of all 
the conjectures that I can make, that -which lea ft difpleafes me is 

good alont, 

Is good without a name ; Helen isfo ; 
The reft tallows eafily by this change. JOHNSON. 

without a name, vilenefs isfo,] 

I would wifh to read : 

-- good alone 

Is good, without a name ; in vilencfs is fo : 

i. . good alone is good unadorned by title, nay, even in the mean- 
eft ftateit is fo. F'ilenefs does not always mean, moral turpitude, but 
'humility of Jituation ; and, in this fenfe it is ufed by Drayton. 
Shakeipeare, however, might have meant that external circum- 
jbmcts have no power over the real nature ot things. Good alone 
<i. e. by it felt" ) without a name (i. e. without the addition of ti- 
tles) is good. Tilencfs is fo, (i. e. is itfelf.) Either of them i$ 
what its name implies : 

The property by what it is fliould go, 

Not by the title. 

*' Let's write good angel on the devil's horn, 

*' 'Tts not the devil's creft." Mcafnre for Mcafure. 

3 . - .gfrg is young, wife, fair ; 

In thefe, to nature Jhc's immediate heir i 

-A.'ul thffe breed honour ; ] 

The objection was, that Helen had neither riches nor title : to this 
the king replies, (he's the immediate heir of nature, from whom 
ine inherits youth, wifdom, and beauty. The thought is fine. 
Tor by the immsdia-te heir to nature, we muft underftand one who 
inherits wifdom and beauty in a fupreme degree. From hence it 
appears &&% young is a faulty reading, for that does not, like wif- 
dom and beauty, admit of different degrees of excellence; there- 
fore flie could not, with regard to that, be laid to be the immedi- 
ate heir of nature ; for in that fhe was only joint-heir with all the 
.left of her fpecies, Befides, though wifdom and beauty may breed 

T H A T E N D S W E L L. 6* 

And thefe breed honour : that is honour's fcorn, 
Which challenges itfelf as honour's born, 
And is not like the fire : Honours beft thrive, 
When rather from our acts we them derive 
Than our fore-goers : the mere word's a flave, 
Debauch'd on every tomb ; on every grave, 
A lying trophy ; and as oft is dumb, 
Where duft, and damn'd oblivion, is the tomb 
Of hononr'd bones indeed. What fliould be faid ? 
If thou.can'ft like this creature as a maid, 
I can create the reft : virtue, and (he, 
Is her own dower ; honour, and wealth, from me. 
Her. I cannot love her, nor will flrive to do't. 

honour, yttyotitb cannot be faid to do fo. On the contrary, it fs 
age which has this advantage. It feems probable, that fome 
ioolifli player, when he traiiicribed this part, not apprehending 
the thought, and wondering to find youth not reckoned amongft 
the good qualities of a woman when Ihe was propofed to a lore), 
and not confidering that it was comprifed in the wordy}*//-, foifled 
\\\ young, to the exclufion of a word much more to the purpofe. 
For I make no queftion but Shakefpeare wrote : 

She ii good, wife, fair. 

For the greateft part of her encomium turned upon her virtue. 
To omit this therefore in the recapitulation of her qualities, had 
been againft all the rules of good fpeaking. Nor let it be objected 
that this is requiring an exaclnefs in our author which- we flioufd 
not expect. For he who could reafon with the force our author 
doth here, (and we ought always to diftinguifh between Shake- 
fpeare on his guard and in his rambles) and illuftrate that reafou- 
ing with fuch beauty of thought and propriety of expreffion, could 
never make ufe of a word which quite deftroyed the exac'tncfs of 
his reafoning, the propriety of his thought, and the elegance at" 
his expreffion. WAR BUR TON. 

Here is a long note which I wifh had been morter. Goodis bet- 
ter thanjfPirarft as it refers to honour. But flic is more the imme- 
tt'uitc heir of nature with refpect to youth than yocdtu-fi.. To be hn- 
mediate heir is to inherit without any intervening tranl'tnittcr : this 
Hie inherits beauty :r:. t -j/ ( i/ely from nature, bur honour is tranl - 
mitted by ancestors ; youth is received i.mmeAiate'y from ua'ur,' t 
butgot&ufi may be conceived in part the gift of parents, or ths 
crtl'tt of education. The alteration therefore Jofus ou one fide 
what it gains on the other. JOHNSON. ' 

62 A L L's W E L L 

King. Thou wrong'fl thyfelf, if thou fhould'ft ftrive' 
to chufe. 

Hel. That you are well reftor'd, my lord, I'm glad ; 
Let the reft go. 

King. 6 My honour's at the flake; which to defeat,- 
I muft produce my power : Here, take her hand, 
Proud fcornful boy, unworthy this good gift ; 
That doft in vile mifprifion fhackle up 
My love, and her defert ; that canft not dream, 
We, poizing us in her defective icale, 
Shall weigh thee to the beam ; that wilt not know, 
It is in us to plant thine honour, where 
We pleafe to have it grow : Check thy coritempt : 
Obey our will, which travails in thy good : 
Believe not thy difdain, but prefently 
Do thine own fortunes that obedient right,- 
Which both thy duty owes, and our power claims j 
Or I will throw thee from my care for ever,* 
Into the ftagp-ers 7 , and the carelefs lapfe 


6 My honour's at the Jlake ; ivhicb to defeat 

/ muft produce my power : ] 

The poor king of France is again made a man of Gotham, by our 
unmerciful editors. For he is not to make ufe of his authority to 
defeat, but to defend, his honour. THEOBALD. 

Had Mr. Theobald been aware that the implication or clavfe of 
the fentence (as the grammarians fay) ferved for the antecedent 

" Which danger to defeat" there had been no need of his wit 

or his alteration. FARMER. 

Notwithftandmg. Mr. Theobald's pert cenfure of former editors 
for retaining the word defeat, I fhould be glad to fee it reftored 
again, as I am perfuaded it is the true reading. The French 
verb defaire (from whence our defeat) fignifies *to free, to difem- 
iarrafs, as well as to dejlroy. Defaire un nocud, is to untie a knot j 
and in this fenie, I apprehend, defeat is here ufed. It may be 
obferved, that our verb undo has the fame varieties of fignification ;- 
and I fuppofe even Mr. Theobald would not have been much 
puzzled to find the fenfe of this paflage, if it had been written ; 
My honour's at the ftake ', which to undo. I mujl produce my power. 


7 Into the Jlaggers ,~ ] One fpecies of the fia^gcrs, or the 
borfes* apoplexy , is a raging impatience which makes the animal dafh 


T H A T E N D S W E L L. 65 

Of youth and ignorance; both my revenge and hate, 
Looling upon thee in the name of juftice, 
Without all terms of pity : Speak ; thine anfwer. 

Ber. Pardon, my gracious lord ; for I fubmit 
My fancy to your eyes : When I confider, 
What great creation, and what dole of honour, 
Flies where you bid it, I find, that flie, which late 
Was in my nobler thoughts moft bafe, is now 
The praifed of the king ; who, fo ennobled, 
Is, as 'twere, born fo. 

King. Take her by the hand, 
And tell her, ilie is thine : to whom I promife 
A counterpoize ; if not to thy eflate, 
A balance more repleat. 

Ber. I take her hand. 

King. Good fortune, and the favour of the king, 
Smile upon this contract; whofe ceremony 
Shall feem expedient on the new-born brief 8 , 
And be perform'd to-night ; the folemn feaft 
Shall more attend upon the coming fpace, 

himfelf with definitive violence againft pofb or walls. To this 
the allufion, I fuppofe, is made. JOHNSON. 

Shakefpeare has the fame exprellion" in Cymbelinc^ where Pofl> 
humus fays : 

" Whence come thckJZaggcrs on me ?" STEEVENS. 
8 whofe ceremony 

Shall feum expedient on the new-lorn brief \ 

And be performed to-night ; ] 

This, if it be at all intelligible, is at leaft obfcureand inaccurate. 
Perhaps it was written thus : 

what ceremony 

Shall feem expedient on the new-born br!ef+ 

Shall be performed to-night ; the folemn feaft 

Shall more attend ] 

The Irufu the contraR of efpoufal, or the licence of the church. 
The king means, What ceremony is neccflary to make this contract 
a marriage, fhall be immediately performed; the reft may be de- 
layed. JOHNSON. 


64 A L L's W E L L 

Expecting abfent friends. As thou lov'ft her, 
Thy love's to me religious ; elfe, does err. 

[Exeunt all but Par oiks and Lafeu " 

Laf. Do you hear, monfieur ? a word with you. 

Par. Your pleafure, fir ? 

Laf. Your lord and mafter did well to make his 

Par. Recantation ? My lord ? my mafter? 

Laf. Ay ; Is it not a language, I fpeak ? 

Par. A moft harfh one ; and not to be underftood 
without bloody fucceeding. My mafter ? 

Laf. Are you companion to the count Roufillon ? 

Par. To any count ; to all counts ; to what is 

Laf. To what is count's man ; count's mafter is 
of another ftile. 

Par. You are too old, fir ; let it fatisfy you, you 
are too old. 

Laf. I muft tell thee, firrah, \ write man ; to 
which title age cannot bring thee. 

Par. What I dare too well do, I dare not do. 

Laf. I did think thee, for two ordinaries ', to 
be a pretty wife fellow ; thou didft make tolerable 
vent of thy travel ; it might pafs : yet the fcarfs, and 
the bannerets, about thee, did manifoldly difiuade me 
from believing thee a vefTel of too great a burden. I 
have now found thee ; when I lofe thee again, I care 
not : yet art thou good for nothing but taking up * ; 
and that thou art fcarce worth. 

Par. Hadft thou not the privilege of antiquity 
upon thee, 

' The old copy has this fingular ftage dire&ion : ParoHes and 
Lafeu Jtay behind, commenting of this wedding. SrEEVEKS. 

1 for two ordinaries, ] While I lat twice with thee at 

table. JOHNSON. 

1 taking up ; ] To take up, is to contradift^ to call t9 

t) as well as to pick off the grtund. JOHNSON, 


Laf. Do not plunge thyfelf too far in anger, left 
thou haften thy trial; which if Lord have mercy 
on thee for a hen ! So, my good window of lattice, 
fare thee well ; thy cafement I need not open, for I 
look through thee. Give me thy hand. 

Par. My lord, you give me moil egregious indig- 

Laf. Ay, with all my heart ; and thou art worthy 
of it. 

Par. I have not, my lord, deferv'd it. 

Laf. Yes, good faith, every dram of it ; and I will 
aot bate thee a fcruple. 

Par. Well, I fhall be wifer: 

Laf. E'en as foon as thou can'fl, for thou haft to 
pull at a fmack o'the contrary. If ever thou be'fi 
bound in thy fcarf, and beaten, thou ihalt find what it 
is to be proud of thy bondage. I have a defire to 
hold my acquaintance with thee, or rather my know- 
ledge ; that I may fay, in the default 5 , he is a man 
I know. 

Par. My lord, you do rile mofl infupportable vex- 

Laf. I would it were hell-pains for thy fake, and 
rhy poor doing eternal : for doing, I am part ; as I 
will by thee, in what motion age will give me 
leave 4 . [Exit. 


3 in. tie default, ] That is, at a nc?J. JOHNSON'. 

* for doing I am pcift : as I tx*/// by thce^ in what motion age 
iuill give me leave.} Here is a line loft after pajl ; fo that it fiiould 
be diftinguiflied by a break With afterifk?. The very words of the 
loft line it is impoilible to retrieve; but the fenfe is obvious enough. 
For Hoi ng I ampajl; age has deprived me of much of my force 
and vigour, yet I have ftill enough to fliew the world I can do my- 
lelf right, as I will ly thcc, in what motion [or in the beft manner] 
age will give me leave. W.\ R r. r R T o x . 

This fufpicion of chafm is groundlefs. The conceit which is fo 
thin that it might well eicape a hairy reader, is in the word/ar/f, / 
v.>n paft, as I \';ill be paft ly tbcc. JOHNSON. 

VW. IV. Do!>< S , 

66 A L L's W E L L 

Par. Well, thou haft a fon mall take this difgrace 
off me 5 ; fcurvy, old, filthy, fcurvy lord ! Well, 
1 muft be patient ; there is no fettering of authority. 
I'll Beat him, by my life, if I can meet him with any 
convenience, an he were double and double a lord. 
I'll have no more pity of his age, than I would have 
of I'll beat him, an if I could but meet him again. 

Re-enter La feu. 

Laf. Sirrah, your lord and matter's marry'd, there's 
news for you ; you have a new miftrefs. 

Par. I moft unfeigncdly befeech your lordfhip to 
make foms refervation of your wrongs : He is my 
good lord : whom I ferve above,, is my mailer. 

Laf. Who ? God ? 

Par. Ay, fir. 

Laf. Thedevrl it is r that's thy matter. Why doft 
thou garter up thy arms o' this fafhion ? dott make 
hofe of thy fkeves ? do other fervants fo ? Thou vvert 
bed fet thy lower part where thy nofe ftands. By 
mine honour, if I were but two hours younger, Fd 
beat thee : methinks, thou art a general offence, and 
every man fhould beat thee. I think, thou waft cre- 
ated for men to breathe themfelves upon thee. 

Doing is here ufed obfcenely. So, in Mcafure for Mcafure : 
' " Bawd. Well, what has he done? 

" Clnvu. A woman." 

Again, in Ben Jonfon's tranflation of a paflage in an Epigram of 
Petronius : 

" Jlre-'is rjl, &c. et fa'Ja -voluptas. 

" Doing, a filthy pleafure is, and fhort." 
Again, in The Fox: 

" Do I not know if women have a will, 

" They'll do, 'gainft all the watches in the world ?" 


5 Well, thou baft afonJhaU take this difgrace off me : ] This 
the poet makes Parolles fpeak alone ; and this is nature. A cow- 
ard ftiould try to hide his poltroonery even from himfelf. An ordi- 
nary writer would have been glad of fuch an opportunity to bring 
him to confeffion. WARBuaroif. 



Par. This is hard and undeferved meafure, my 

Laf. Go to, fir ; you were beaten in Italy for pick- 
ing a kernel out of a pomegranate ; you are a vaga- 
bond, and no true traveller : you are more faucy with 
lords, and honourable perfonages, than 6 the heraldry 
of your birth and virtue gives you commirHon. You 
are not worth another word, elfe I'd call you knave. 
I leave you. [Exit. 

Enter Bertram. 

Par. Good, very good ; it is fo then. Good, very 
good ; let it be conceal'd a while. 

Ber. Undone, and forfeited to cares for ever ! 

Par. What is the matter, fweet heart ? 

Ber. Although before the folemnpriefll have fworn, 
I will not bed her. 

Par. What ? what, fweet heart ? 

Ber. O my Parolles, they have married me : 
I'll to the Tufcan wars, and never bed her. 

Par. France is a dog-hole, and it no more merits 
The tread of a man's foot : to the wars ! 

Ber. There's letters from my mother ; what the 

import is, 
I know not yet. 

Par. Ay, that would be known : To the wars, my 

boy, to the wars ! 

He wears his honour in a box unfeen, 
7 That hugs his kickfy-wickfy here at home ; 
Spending his manly marrow in her arms, 

6 In former copies : 

than the camxljjion of your birth and virtue gives you be* 

;aldry.~\ Sir Tho. Hanmer reitored it. JOHNSON. 

1 That hugs his kifkjy-iuickjy &c.] 

Sir T. Hanmer, in his Glolfrry, obfcrves that liicKfy-vzlc'kfy is a 
made word in ridicule and difdain of a wife. Taylor, the water- 
poer, has -a poem in dil'dain of his debtcrt t intitled, a kickj^- 
a Lerry come'tv.'an^. Dr. GRAY. 

F a Which 

68 A L L's W E L L 

Which mould fuftain the bound and high curvet 
Of Mars's fiery fteed : To other regions ! 
France is a liable ; we that dwell in't, jades; 
Therefore, to the war ! 

Ber. It fhall be fo ; I'll fend her to my houfe, 
Acquaint my mother with my hate to her, 
And wherefore I am fled ; write to the king 
That which I durft not fpcak : His prefent gift 
Shall furnifh me to thofe Italian fields, 
Where noble fellows ftrike : War is no ftrife 
To the dark houfe % and the detefled wife. 

Par. Will this capricio hold in thee, art fure ? 

Ber. Go with me to my chamber, and advife me.. 
I'll fend her flraight away : To-morrow 
I'll to the wars, fhe to her fingle fcrrow. 

Par. Why, thefe balls bound; there's noife in it. 

'tis hard ; 

A young man, married, is a man that's marr'd : 
Therefore away, and leave her bravely ; go : 
The king has done you wrong ; but, hufli ! 'tis fo. 


Enter Helena and Clown. 

Kel. My mother greets me kindly ; Is fhe well- ? 
Clo. She is not well; but yet fhe has her health: 

8 To tljf <far\ ''-'VT-, ] The dark bojife is a houfe made gloomy 
by difcoment. Milton lays of death and thet:;ig of hell preparing 
to combat : 

" So frown'd the mighty combatants, that hell 

** Grew darker at their frown." JOHNSON. 
perhaps this is the fame thought we meet with in K. Htnry I V". 
only more folemnly exprefs'd : 

" - he's as tedious 

" As is a tired horle. a ratling if//>, 

*' Worfe than a faivaly btmfe." 
'J'hc old copy reaJs ti.^c^lf^ ui;e. SriiE^. . 



fhe's very merry ; but yet (he's not well : but, thanks 
be given, fhe's very well, and wants nothing i'the. 
world ; but yet fhe is not well. 

Hel. If fhe be very well, what does fhe ail, that 
fhe's not very well ? 

Clo. Truly, fhe's very well, indeed, but for two 

Hel What txvo things ? 

6lo. One, that fhe's not in heaven, whither God 
fend her quickly ! the other, that fhe's in earth, from 
whence God fend her quickly ! 

Enter Parolles. 

Par* Blcfs you, my fortunate lady ! 

Hel. I hope, fir, I 'have your good will to have mine 
own good fortune?. 

Par. You have my prayers to lead them on ; and 
to keep them on, have them ttill. O, my knave ! 
How does my old lady ? 

Clo. So that you had her wrinkles, and I her money, 
I woujd fhe did a3 you fay. 

Par. Why, I fay nothing. 

Clo, Marry, yon are the wifer man ; for many a 
man's tongue fhakes out his matter's undoing : 'To 
fay nothing, to do nothing, to know nothing, and to 
have nothing, is to be a great part of your title ; 
which is within a very little of nothing. 

Par. Away, thou'rt a knave. 

Clo. You mould have faid, fir, before a knave, 
thou art a knave; that is, before me thou art a knave : 
this had been truth, fir. 

Par. Go to, thou art a witty fool, I have found 

Clo. Did you find me in yourfelf, fir ? or were you 
taught to find me ? The fearch, fir, was profitable ; 
and much fool may you find in you, even to the 
world's pleafure, and the incrcafe of laughter. 

F 3 Par. 

70 A L L's W E L L 

Par. A good knave, i'faith, and well fed.- 
Madam, my lord will go away to-night ; 
A very ierious bufinefs calls on him. 
The great prerogative and right of love, 
Which, as your due,, time claims, he does acknow-* 

ledge ; 

But puts it otfby a compell'd reflraint ; 
"Whofe want, and whole delay, 9 is ftrew'd with fweets, 
Which they diflil now in the curbed time, 
To make the coming hour o'edlow with joy, 
And pleafure drown the brim. 

Hel What's his will elfe ? 

Par. That you will take your inftant leave o'the 

And make this hafte as your own good proceeding, 
Strengthen'd with what apology you think, 
May make it probable need ', 

Hel. W T hat more commands he ? 

Par. That, having this obtain'd, you prefently 
Attend his further pleafure. 

HeL In every thing I wait upon his will. 

Par. I fhall report it fo. [Exit Parolles. 

HeL I pray you. Come^ firrah. [To the Clo~;jn. 



Enter Lafeu and Bertram. 

Laf. But, I hope, your lordlhip thinks not him a 

Ber. Yes, my lord, and of very valiant approof. 
Laf. You have it from his own deliverance. 
Ber. And by other warranted teftimony. 

9 Wliofe went, and ivbefe delay, &c.j The fixeds with which 
this want zrej?rei<:ed, I fuppofe, are compliments and profeffions 
of kindnefs. JOHNSON. 

* - probable need.] A fpecious appearance of necefiity. 




Laf. Then my dial goes not true ; I took this lark 
for a bunting *. 

Ber. I do affure you, my lord, he is very great in 
knowledge, and accordingly valiant. 

Laf. I have then finned againft his experience, and 
tranfgrefs'd againft his valour ; and my ftatc that way 
is dangerous, fince I cannot yet find in my heart to 
repent : Here he comes ; I pray you, make us friends, 
I will purfue the amity. 

Enter Parolks. 

Par. Thefe things ihall be done, fir, 

Laf. I pray you, fir, who's his taylor ? 

Par. Sir ? 

Laf, O, I know him well : Ay, fir ; he, .fir, is a 
good workman, a very good taylor. 

Ber. Is fhe gone to the king ? [Afide to Parolks. 

Par. She is. 

Ber. Will Ihe away to-night ? 

Par. As you'll have her. 

Ber. I have writ my letters, cafketed my treafurc, 
Given order for our horfes ; and to-night, 
When I fhould take pofleffion of the bride, 
And, ere I do begin, - 

Laf. A good traveller is fomething at the latter end 
of a dinner ; but one that lies three thirds, and ufes 
a known truth to pafs a thoufand nothings with, 
fhould be once heard, and thrice beaten. - God 
fave you, captain. 

Ber. Is there any unkindnefs between my lord and, monfieur? 

* - a bunting.] This bird is mentioned in Lylly's Lo-vc'sMe- 
iamorphojis, 1601 : " - but f.^reiters think all birds to be bunt- 
/;^t. Barrett's Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, gives this 
account of it : " Terraneola et rul>etra, avisalaudae limilis, &c. 
Dit r ta terrancola quod non in arboribur., led in terra verfctur ct 
nidificet." The ibllo\\ ing proverb is in Ray's Collodion ; " 
gofshawk beats not at a bunting" 

F 4 Par. 

7* A L L ? s W E L L 

Par. I know not how I have deferv'd to run into 
my lord's difpleafurc. 

Laf. 3 You have made fhift to run into't, boots and 
fpurs and all, like him that leapt into the cuflard j 
and out of it you'll run again^ rather than fuffer 
queflion for your refidence. 

Ber. It may be, you have miftaken him, my lord. 

Laf. And lhall do fo ever, though I took him at's 
prayers. Fare you well, my lord : and believe this 
of me, There can be no kernel in this light nut ; the 
foul of this man is his clothes : truft him not in 
matter of heavy confequence ; I have kept of them 
tame, and know their natures.- Farewell, monfieur : 
I have fpoken better of you, than you have or will 
deferve at my hancj ; but we mult do good againft 
evil. [Exit. 

Par. An idle lord, I fwear. 

'Ber. I think fo. 

Par. Why, do you not know him ? 

Ber. Yes, I know him well ; and commpn fpeech 
<3ive him a worthy pafs. Here comes my clog. 

Enter Helena. 

Hel. I have, fir, as I was commanded from you, 
Spoke with the king, and have procur'd his leave 

3 Ton lave made Jlnft to run into't^ boots and fpurs and all, like 
him that leapt into tfye cullard ;] This odd a'llufion is not introduced 
without a view to fatire. It was a foolery prattifed at city enter- 
tainments, whilit the jefter or zany was in vogue, for him to jump 
into a large deep cuftard, fet for the purpofe, to fit on a quantity 
i:f barren I'peftators to laugh, as our poet fays in his Hamlet. I dp 
not advance this without fome authority ; and a flotation from 
Ben Jonfon will very well explain it : 

* He may perhaps, in tail of a fr.eriff's dinner 

* Skip with a rhime o' th* table, from New-nothing, 
And take his Almalne leap into a cujfard, 

Shall make my lady mayorefs, and her fillers, 
Laugh all their hoods over their fhoulders." 

Devil's an Af>, aft I. fc. i. THEOBALD. 



For prefcnt parting ; only, he defires 
Some private fpcech with you. 

Ber. I fhall obey his will. 
You mufl not marvel, Helen, at my courfe, 
Which holds not colour with the time, nor does 
The miniftration and required office 
On my particular : prepared I was not 
For fuch a bufmefs ; therefore am 1 found 
So much unfettled : This drives me to intreatyou, 
That prefently you take your way for home ; 
And rather mufe *, than alk, why I entreat you : 
For my refpe&s are better than they feem ; 
And my appointments have in them a need, 
Greater than Ihews itfelf, at the firft view, 
To you that know them not. This to my mother : 

[Giving a letter. 

'Twill be two days ere I fhall fee you ; fo 
I leave you to ypur wifdom. 

Hel. Sir, I can nothing fay, 
But that I am your moft obedient fervant. 

Ber. Come, come, no more of that. 

Hel. And ever fhall 

With true obfervance feck to eke out that, 
Wherein toward me my homely itars have failM 
To equal my great fortune. 

Ber. Let that go : 
My hafte is very great : Farewel ; hie home. 

Hel. Pray, fir, your pardon. 

Ber. Well, what would you fay ? 

Hel. I am not worthy of the wealth I owe * ; 
Nor dare I fay, 'tis mine ; and yet it is ; 
But, like a timorous thief, moft fain would fleal 
What law does vouch mine own. 

Ber. What would you have ? 

* Aud rather mufe, &c.] To mufe is to wonder. So, in Mac- 
icfb : " Do not mufe at me my moft noble friends." STEEVENS. 
5 the wealth I owe ; ] i.e. I own. STEEVENS, 


74 A L L's WELL 

HcL Something; and fcarce fo much : nothing-, 


I would not tell you what I would ; my lord, 'faith, 


Strangers, and foes, do funder, and not kifs. 
Ber. I pray you, ftay not, but in hafte to horfc. 
HeL 6 I fhall not break your bidding, good my 
lord. [Exit Helena. 

Ber. Where are my other men, monfieur ? Fare- 


Go thou toward home ; where I will never come, 
Whilft I can ihake my fword, or hear the drum : 
Away, and for our flight. 

Par. Bravely, coragio! [Exeunt, 


The Duke 3 court in Florence. 

Flour ffi. Enter the Duke of Florence, two French Lords^ 
with fohiiers. 

Duke. So that, from point to point, now have 

you heard 

The fundamental reafons of this war ; 
Whofe great deciiion hath much blood let forth 
And more thirfts after. 

* In former copies : 

Hel. IJball not break your liiMing, good my lard : 
\Vhere are my other men ? Monfieur, far e-vjel. 

Ber. Go thou toward borne, ivhere I will never c ome. ] 
What other men is Helen here enquiring after ? Or who is fiie flip- 
pofed to afk for them ? The old Countefs, 'tis certain, did not lend 
her to the court without fome attendants : but neither the Clown, 
nor any of her retinue, are now upon the flage : Bertram, obferv- 
ing Helen to linger fondly, and wanting to fliift her oft, puts on 
a fhew of hafte, alks Parolles for his fen-ants, and then gives his 
wife an abrupt difmrflion. THEOBALD. 

I Lord. 


1 Lord. Holy feems the quarrel 

Upon your grace's part ; black and fearful . 
On the oppofer. 

Duke. Therefore we marvel much, our coufin 


Would, in fojuft a bufinefs, fliut his bofom 
Againft our borrowing prayers. 

2 Lard. Good my lord, 

The reafons of our ftate I cannot yield 7 , 
But like a common and an outward man % 
That the great figure of a council frames 
By felt-unable motion 9 : therefore dare not 
Say what I think of it ; fince I have found 
Myfelf in my uncertain grounds to fail 
As often as I guefs'd. 

Duke. Be it his pleafure. 

2 Lord. But I am fure, the younger of our nature*, 
That furfeit On their cafe, will, day by day, 
Come here for phyfick. 

Duke. Welcome lhall they be ; 
And all the honours, that can fly from us, 
Shall on them fettle : You know your places well; 
When better fall, for your avails they fell : 
To-morrow to the field. [Exeunt. 

7 1 cannot yield,~\ I cannot inform you of the reafons. 


8 an outward man,] i. e. one not in the fecret of aftairs. 


So inward is familiar, admitted to fecrets. " I ivas an inward 
of his." Meafure for Meafure. JOHNSON. 

9 By felf- unable motion : ] We fhould read notion. 

This emendation had been recommended by Mr. Upton. 

-the younger of c 

3. e. as we fay at prefent, cur young fillinvs. The modern editors 
read nation. I have reitored the old reading. STEEVENS. 


}6 A L L's W E L L 


Rouftllon, in France. 

Enter Countefs and Clown. 

Count. It hath happened all as I would have had it, 
fave, that he comes not along with her. 

Clo. By my troth, I take my young lord to be a 
very melancholy man. 

Count. By what obfervance, I pray you ? 

Clo. Why, he will look upon his boot, and ling; 
mend the ruff, and fing ; aik queftions, and ling ; 
pick his teeth, and fing : I know a man that had this 
trick of melancholy, fold a goodly manor for a fong z . 

Count. Let me fee what he writes, and when he 
means to come. 

Clo. I have no mind to Ifbel, fince I was at court : 
our old ling and our Ifbels o'the country, are no- 
thing like your old ling and your Ifbels o'the court : 
the brain of my Cupid's knock'd out ; and I begin to 
love, as an old man loves money, with no ftomach. 

Count. What have we here ? 

Clo. E'en that you have there. [Er/V, 

Countefs reads a letter. 

I have fent you a daughter-in-law : foe hath recovered 
the king, and undone me. I have wedded her, not bedded 
her ; and fworn to make the not eternal. Toujhall hear, 
I am run awcy ; know it, before the report come. If there 
be breadth enough in the world, I will hold a long difiance. 
My duty to you. 

Tour unfortunate fon, 


1 ii fold a goodly man ar for a fang.] Thus the modern editors,- 
The old copy reads hold a goodiy. Sec. The emendation however 
feems neceflary. STEEVENS. 



This is not well, rafh and unbridled boy, 
To fly the favours of fo good a king ; 
To pluck his indignation on thy head, 
By the mifprizing of a maid too virtuous 
For the contempt of empire. 

Re-enter Clown. 

Clo. O madam, yonder is heavy news within, be- 
tween two foldiers and my young lady. 

Count. What is the matter ? 

Clo. Nay, there is fome comfort in the news, fome 
comfort ; your fon will not be kill'd fo foon as I 
thought he would. 

Count. Why fhould he be kill'd ? 

Clo. So fay I, madam, if he run away, as I hear 
he does : the danger is in Handing to't; that's the lofs 
of men, though it be the getting of children. Here 
they come, will tell you more : for my part, I only 
bear, your fon was run away. 

Enter Helena, and two gentlemen. 

1 Gen. Save you, good madam. 

Hel. Madam, my lord is gone, for ever gone. 

2 Gen. Do not fay fo. 

Count. Think upon patience. Tray you, gentle- 

I have felt fo many quirks of joy, and grief, 
That the firft face of neither, on the flart, 

Can woman me unto't : Where is my fon, I pray 

2 Gen. Madam, he's gone to fervc the duke of 

Florence : 

We met him thitherward ; for thence we came, 
And, after fome difpatch in hand at court, 
Thither we bend again. 

Hd. Look on this letter, madam ; here's my pafT- 

78 A L L's W L L 

* When tJ:ou canft get the ring upon my finger, tvl-icfy ne- 
ver JJoall come off, andfaeiv me a child begotten of thy 
body, tk at lam father to, then call me hujland : but 
infuch a Then I write a Never. 
This is a dreadful fentence. 

Count. Brought you this letter, gentlemen ? 

1 Gen. Ay, madam ; 

And, for the contents' fake, are forry for our pains* 

Count. I pr'ythee, lady, have a better cheer ; 
If thou cngroffeft, all the griefs are thine, 
Thou robb'ft me of ^ moiety : He was my fon ; 
But I do waih his name out of my blood, 
And thou art all my child. Towards 'Florence is he ? 

2 Gen. Ay, madam. 
Count. And to be a foldier ? 

2 Gen. Such is his noble purpofe : and, believe'C, 
The duke will lay upon him all the honour 

That good convenience claims. 

Count. Return you thither ? 

i Gen. Ay, madam, with the fwifteft wing of fpeed. 

Hel. 'Till I have no wife, I have nothing in France. 
'Tis bitter. [Reading. 

Count. Find you that there ? 

Hel. Ay, madam. 

i Gen. 'Tis but the boldnefs of his hand, haply, 

His heart was not confenting to. 

Count. Nothing in France, until he have no wife ! 
There's nothing here, that is too good for him, 
But only me ; and me deferves a lord, 

3 When tljoucarfft get the ring upon my finger ', ] i. e. When 

thou canft get the ring, which is on my finger, into thy policffion. 
The Oxford editor, who took it the other way, to fignify, when 
thou canft get it on upon my finger, very fagncioufly alters it to, 
IVhen tbou canft git the ring from my finger. WAREURTOX. 

I think Dr. \\ arburton's explanation fufficient, but I once read 
it thus : When tbou canft get the ring upon thy fingc r, cv.6iV/6 xftvr 
jball come <^"mine. JOHNSON. 


T H A T E N D S W E L L. 79 

That twenty fuch rude boys might tend upon, 

And call her hourly, miftrefs. Who was with him? 

i Gen. A fervant only, and a gentleman 
Which I have fome time known* 

Count. Parolles, was't not ? 

i Gen. Ay, my good lady, he. 

Count. A very tainted fellow, and full of wickednefs; 
My fon corrupts a well-derived nature 
With his inducement. 

1 Gen. Indeed, good lady, 

The fellow has a deal of that, too much, 
Which holds him much to have >'. 

Count. You are welcome gentlemen. 
I will intreat you, when you fee my fon, 
To tell him, that his fword can never win 
The honour that he lofes : more I'll intreat you 
Written to bear along. 

2 Gen. We ferve you, madam, 

In that and all your worthiefl affairs. 

Count. * Not ib, but as we change our courtefies* 
Will you draw near ? \_Exeunt Count ejs and gentlemen* 

Hel. 'Till I have no wife, I have nothing in Frd/L'c. 
Nothing in France, until he has no wife ! 
Thou ihalt have none, Roufillon, none in France, 
Then haft thou all again. Poor lord ! is't I 
That chafe thee from thy country, and expofe 

* a deal of that) too much^ 

WHiicI} holds him mttch to have.] 

That is, his vices (land him in (lead. Helen had before delivered 
this thought in all the beauty of exprellion. 

/ know him a notorious liar ; 

Think hint a great way fool, fo'rty a coward \ 
Tct thefefxt evils Jit~f fit in hlm^ 
7 bat they take place, ivbile virtue's fiedy bones 

Look bleak in the cold wind 

But the Oxford editor reads : 

Which 'bovcs him not much to have. WARBURTOV. 
5 Not fa, &c.] The gentlemen declare that they are ir 
the Countefs; fhe replies, No otherwife than as ihe returns the 
fame offices ot "civility. JOH.NO.V. 


8o A L L's W E L L 

Thofe tender limbs of thine to the event 

Of the none-fparing war ? and is it I 

That drive thee from the fportive court, where thou 

Wail fhot at with fair eyes, to be the mark 

Of fmoky mufkets ? O you leaden meffengers, 

That ride upon the violent fpeed of fire, 

Fly with faife aim ; move the ilill-piecing air c , 

That fings with piercing, do not touch my lord ! 

Whoever fhoots at him, I fet him there ; 

Whoever charges on his forward breaft, 

I am the caitiff, that do hold him to it ; 

And, though I kill him not, I am the caufe 

His death was fo effected : better 'twere, 

I met the ravin lion when he roar'd 

With lharp conftraint of hunger ; better 'twere, 

That all the miferies, which nature owes, 

Were mine at once : No, come thou home,Roufillori, 

Whence honour but of danger wins a fear ; 

As oft it lofes all ; I will be gone : 

My being here it is, that holds thee hence ; 

Shall I flay here to do't ? no, no, although 

The air of paradife did fan the houfe 

And angels offic'd all : I will be gone ; 

* move the ftill -piercing air, 

Thatjitigs with piercing, ] 

The words are here oddly ftiuffled into nonfenfe. We fhould read : 

pierce the iHll-moving air, 

Thatjings with piercing, , 

i. e. pierce the air, which is in perpetual motion, and fuflfers ne 
injury by piercing. WARBURTON. 

The old copy reads the Kill-peering air. 
Perhaps we might better read : 

the ftill-piecing air. 

i. e. the air that clofes immediately* This has been propofcd al- 
ready, but I forget by whom. STEEVENS. 

I have no doubt tinaX. jtiU-kitcing was Shakefpeare's word. But 
the paflage is not yet quite found. We ihould read, I believe : 

rove the Jt ill-piecing air. 

i. fly at random through. The allufion is tojbooting atrovers'in 
archery, which was fliooting without any p-^ticula.r aim. 




That pitiful rumour may report my flight, 

To conlblate thine ear. Come, night ; end, day ! 

For, with the dark, poor thief, I'llftcal away. [*//. 


The Duke's court in Florence. 

Flouri/h. Enter the Duke of Florence, Bertram, drum 
and trumpets, foldiers, &V. 

Duke. The general of our horfe thou art ; and we, 
Great in our hope, lay our beft love and credence, 
Upon thy promifing fortune, 

Bcr. Sir, it is 

A charge too heavy for my ftrength ; but yet 
We'll itrive to bear it for your worthy fake, 
To the extream edge of hazard 7 . 

Duke. Then go forth ; 

And fortune play upon thy profperous helm, 
As thy aufpicious miflrefs ! 

Ber. This very day, 
Great Mars, I put myfelf into thy file : 
Make me but like my thoughts ; and I lhall prove 
A lover of thy drum, hater of love. [Exeunt* 


Rotation in France. 

Filter Count efs and SttWGTa* 

Count. Alas ! and would you take the letter of her ? 
Might you not know, fhe would do as ihe has done, 
By lending me a letter ? Read it again. 

7 fa the extream edge of hazard.] 
Milton has borrowed this expt dlion Par. Reg. B, i t 
" You fee our danger on the utmojl tJgt 

VOL. IV, G Stew. 

$ A L L's W ELL 

Stew. 7 am 8 St. Jaques' pilgrim,- thither gone ; 
* Ambitions love bath fo in me offended, 
That bare- foot plod I the cold ground upon. 

With fainted vow my faults to have amended. 
Write, write, that, from the bloody courfe of war ^ 

My dear eft mafier, your dear fon may bye ; 
Blefs him at home in peace, wbilft I from far, 

His name with zealous fervour fantlijy : 
His taken labours bid him me forgive ; 

/, bis dsfpigbtful 9 Juno, 'fait him forth 
From courtly friends, with camping foes to live, 

Wloere death and danger dog the heels ofzvorth * 
He is too good and fair for death and me ; 
Whom I myfelf embrace, to fet him free. 

Ah, what {harp flings are in her miklefl words ! * 
Rinaldo, you did never lack advice ' fo much, 
As letting her pafs fo ; had I fpoke with her, 
I could have well diverted her intents, 
Which thus ihe hath prevented. 

Stew. Pardon me, madam : 
If I had given you this at over-night. 
She might have been o'er-ta'en ; and yet Ihe writes, 
Purfuit would be but vain. 

Count. What angel lhall 

Blefs this unworthy hufband ? he cannot 'thrive, 
Unlefs her prayers, whom heaven delights to hear, 
And loves to grant, reprieve him from the wrath 

8 St. Jaques' pilgrim, } I do not remember any place fa- 
mows for pilgrimages confecrated in Italy to St, James, but it is- 
common to vifit St. James of Coinpoftella, in Spain. Another 
faint might eafily have been found, Florence being fomewhat out 
of the road from Roufillon to Compoftella. JOHNSON. 

9 Juno, ] Alluding to the ftory of Hercules. JOHNSON. 
1 lack advicey mwb^\ Advice, is difcrtiio* or thought. 




Of greateft jufticc. Write, write, Rinaldo, 
To this unworthy hufband of his wife ; 
Let every word weigh heavy of her worth, 
That he does weigh too light : my greateft grief, 
Though little he do feel it, fet down fharply. 
Difpatch the moft convenient meffenger : - 
When, haply, he fhall hear that fhe is gone, 
He will return ; and hope I may, that ihe, 
Hearing fo much, will fpeed her foot again, 
Led hither by pure love : which of them both 
Is deareft to me, I have no fkill in fenie 
To make diftinclion : Provide this meffenger : 
My heart is heavy, and mine age is weak ; 
Grief would have tears, and forrow bids me fpcak. 



Without the walls of Florence* 
A tucket afar off. 

Enter an old Widow of Florence, Diana, Vwlcnta, and 
Mariana, with other citizens. 

Wid. Nay, come; for if they do approach th 
we fhall lofe all the fight. 

Dia. They fay, the French count has done moft 
honourable fervice. 

H'ui It is reported that he has ta'en their greateft 
commander; and that with his own hand he flew the 
duke's brother. We have loft our labour; they are 
gone a contrary way : hark ! you may know by their 

Mdr. Come, let's return again, and fuffice our- 

fdvcs with the report of it. Well, Diana, takejiced 

of this French carl : the honour of a maid is her name; 

and no legacy is fo rich as honcfty. 

G 2 

84 At L's WELL 

IVid, I have told my neighbour., how you have 
been folicited by a gentleman lib companion. 

Mar. I know the .knave ; hanghlm! one Parol- 
les : a filthy officer he is in 1 tho^e fuggeftions for the 
young earl. Beware of them y Dkna; their promifes, 
enticements, oaths, tokens,: and all thefe engines of 
luft, a are not the things they go under: many a maid 
hath been feduced by them ; and the mifery is, ex- 
ample, that fo- terrible (hews- in the wreck of maiden- 
hood, cannot for all that difluaJg focceffion, but that 
they are limed with the twigs that threaten them. I 
hope, I need not to adviie you' further ; but, I hope,, 
your own grace will keep you where you arc, though 
there were no further danger known> but the madefy 
which is fo loft. 

Dia. Yon ihall not need to fear me, 

Enter Helena, difgidfd like a pilgrim* 

Wid. I hope fo. Look, here comes a pilgrim r 

I know flic will lye at my houfe : thither they fend 

one another : 1*11 queftion her.- 

God fave you, pilgrim ! Whither are you bound ? 

z are 'not the fkfngs they go under',-] Mr. Theobald explains 
thefe words by, They, are not really fo true andfincere as in appear- 
ance they feem to Is. He found fomething like this fenfe would fit 
the paflage, but whether the words would fit the fenfe he feems not 
to have confidered. The truth is, the negative particle fhould be 
flruck out, and the words read thus are the things they go wider ; 
ir c. they make ufe of oaths, promifes, &c, to facilitate their de- 
fign upon us. The allufion is to the military ufe of covered-ways, 
to facilitate an approach or attack ; and the fcene, which is a be'- 
fieged city, and the perfons fpoken of who are foldiers, make the 
phrafe very proper and natural. The Oxford editor has adopted 
this correction, though in his ufual way, with a but ; and reads, 

are but the things they go under* WAREURTOX. 
I think Theobald's interpretation right ; to g 
any thing is a known expreflion. The meaning is, they are not 

interpretation right ; to go under the name of 

the things for which their names would make them pals. 




HeL To St, Jaqucs le grand. 
Where do the palmers 5 lodge, 1 d bcfeech you ? 

IVid. At the St. Francis here, befide the port. 

HeL Is this the way ? [ A ,. . nyh afar off. 

Wid. Ay, marry, is it. Hark you \ 
They come this \vay : If you will tarry,, h&ly pil- 

But 'till the troops come by, 
I will condud: you where you ihall be lodg'd; 
The rather, for, I think, I know your hoftefs 
As ample as myfelL 

HeL Is it yourfclf ? 

. If you Ihall pleafe fo, pilgrim. 
. I thank you, and will Hay upon your leifure. 
You came 9 I think, from France ? 

HeL I did fo. 

fyld. Here you ihall fee a countryman of yours, 
That has done worthy fervice. 

HeL His name, I pray you ? 

Dia. The count Roufillon; K&ow you fuch a one ? 

HeL But by the ear, that hears moft nobly of him; 
His face I know not. 

Dia. Whatfoe'er he is, 

He's bravely taken here. He ftole from France, 
As 'tis reported, for the king had married him 
Againft his liking : Think you it is fo ? 

HeL Ay, furely, mcer the truth ; I know his lady. 

Dia. There is a gentleman, that ferves the count, 
Reports but coarfely of her. 

3 palmers ] Pilgrims that vifited holy plnces ; fo called 
from a frufT, or bough of palm they were wont to carry, cfpecially 
fuch as had vifited the holy places at Jerufalcm. " A pilgrim and 
a palmer differed thus : a pilgrim had fome dwelling-place, a pal- 
mer had none ; the pilgrim travelled to fome certain place, the 
palmer to all, and not to any one in particular; the pilgrim nuift 
.',(> at his own charge, \\\cpal,ncr mull profefs wilful poverty; the 
pilgrim might give'ovcr his profeflion, the palmer muft be con- 
itant." BLO. 

G < HeL 

86 A L L's W E L L 

Hel. What's his name ? 

Dia. Monfieur Parolles. 

Hel. Oh, I believe with him, 
In argument of praife, or to the worth 
Of the great count himfelf, Ihe is too mean 
To have her name repeated ; all her deferving 
Is a referved honefty, and that 
I have not heard examined 4 . 

D hi. Alas, poor lady ! 
'Tis a hard bondage, to become the wife 
Of a detelling lord. 

fyld. A right good creature : wherefoe'er flie is, 
Her heart weighs fadly s : this young maid might do her 
A Ihrewd turn, if ihe pleas'd. 

Hel. How do you mean ? 
May be, the amorous count folicits her. 
In the unlawful purpoie. 

Wid. He docs, indeed ; 
And brokes 6 with all that can in fuch a fuit 
Corrupt the tender honour of a maid : 
But ihe is arm'd for him, and keeps her guard 
In honeflefl defence. 

* examined.] That is, qucfiiorfd, doubted. JOHNSON*. 

' 5 A right good creature : '-Mherefoetr Jhe /.', 

Her heart weighs fadly : ] 

It has been already obferved, that there is great reafon to' believe, 
that when thefe plays were copied for the prefs, the transcriber 
trailed to the ear, and not to the eye ; one perfon dictating, and 
another tranfcribing. Hence, when we wifn to amend any cor- 
rupted paflage, we ought, I apprehend, to look for a word fimilar 
in found, rather than for one of a fimilar appearance to that 
which we would correct. 

The old copy exhibits this line thus : 

I vyritK good creature ivbcrcfoe'erjlic is - 

I would correcl : 

A right good creature &c. 

Mr. Rowe reads Ab ! right good creature ! Others, Ay right : 
Good creature ! MILON-E. 

Some change is necefiary ; and M;-. Malone's being the mofl 
esfy, I have inferted it in the text. STEEVENS. 
6 $:-ok:s r-J Deals as a broker, JOKNSOX. 



Eater with drum and colours, Bertram, Parolles, Officers 
and Soldiers attending. 

Mar. The gods forbid elfe ! 
JVid. So, now they come : 
That is Antonio, the duke's eldeft Ton ; 
That, Efcalus. 

Hel. Which is the Frenchman > 
Dia. He ; 

That with the plume : 'tis a moft gallant fellow ; 
I would, he lov'd his wife : if he were honelter, 
,He were much goodlier : Is't not a handfome gen- 
tleman ? 

Hel. I like him well. 
Dia* 'Tis pity, he is not honeft : Yond's that fame 

knave % 

That leads him to thefe places ; were I his lady, 
I'd poifon that vile rafcal. 
Hel Which is he ? 

Dia. That jack-an-apes with icarfs : Why is he 
melancholy ? 

Hel. Perchance he's hurt i* the battle.. 
Par. Lofe our drum ! well. 

Mar. He's Ihrewdly vex'd at fomething : Look, 
he has fpied us. 

IVid. Marry, hang you ! 

[Exeunt Bertram, Parolles, &c. 
Mar. And your courtefy, for a ring-carrier ! 

7 Tond's that fame kuave, 

7 hat leads him to tbcfe places ; ] 

What^fttt7 Have they been talking of brothels; or, indeed, 
any particular locality ? I make no queftion but our author wrote : 

That leads him to tbcfe paces. 

i. e. fuch irregular fteps, to courfes of debauchery, to not loving 
his wife. THEOBALD. 

The places are, apparently, where he 

brakes ivitb all, that can infticb afuit 

Corrupt &c. STEEVENS. 

G 4 if'U 

83 A L L's W E L L 

Wid. The troop is paft : Come, pilgrim, I will 

bring you 

Where you fliall hoft : of enjoin'd penitents 
There's four or five, to great Saint Jaques bound, 
Already at my houfe. 

Hel. I humbly thank you : 
Pleafe it this matron, and this gentle maid, 
To eat with us to-night, the charge, and thanking, 
Shall be for me ; and, to requite you further, 
I will beftow fome precepts on this virgin, 
Worthy the note. 

Both* We'll take your offer kindly. [Exeunt. 


Enter Bertram, and the two French Lords. 

1 Lord. Nay, good my lord, put him to't ; let 
him have his way, 

2 Lord. If your lordfhip find him not a hilding, 
hold me no more in your refpecl:. 

i Lord. On my life, my lord, a bubble. 

Bcr. Do you think, I am fo far deceiv'd in him ? 

1 Lord. Believe it, my lord, in mine own direct 
knowledge, without any malice, but to fpeak of him 
as my kinfman, he's a moil notable coward, an infi- 
nite and endlefs liar, an hourly promife-breaker, the 
owner of no one good quality worthy your lordlhip's 

2 Lord. It were fit you knew him ; left, repofing 
too far in his virtue, which he hath not, he might, at 
fome great and trufty bufinefs, in a main danger, fail 

Ecr. I would, I knew in what particular action to 
try him. 

2 Lord, None better than to let him fetch off his 
drum, which you hear him fo confidently undertake 
to do, 

i Lord. 


1 Lord. I, with a troop of Florentines, will fudden- 
ly furprizc him ; fuch I will have, whom, I am lure, 
he knows not from the enemy : we will bind and 
hood-wink him ib, that he mall fuppofe no other but 
that he is carried into the leaguer of the adverfaries, 
when we bring him to our own tents : Be but your 
lordfhip prefent at his examination ; if he do not, for 
the promifc of his life, and in the highefl compul- 
fion of bafe fear, offer to betray you, and deliver all 
the intelligence in his power againft you, and that 
with the divine forfeit of his foul upon oath, never 
truft my judgment in any thing. 

2 Lord. O, for the love of laughter, let him fetch 
his drum ; he fays, he has a ftratagem for't: '* when 
your lordfhip fees the bottom of his fuccefs in't, and 


8 when your lor dJJiip fees the bottom of bis fnccff< int, and to 
wbat netai tbh counterfeit lump of ours --iv'/V be melted, if you give 
hitu not Jf>b Drum's entertainment, your inclining cannnt he rcmov J (L"\ 
Lump of ours has been the reading of all the 'editions. Ore, ac- 
cording to my emendation, bears a confonancy with the other 
terms accompanying, (viz. metal, lump and melted) and helps the 
propriety of the poet's thought : for lo one metaphor is kept up, 
and all the words are proper and fuitablc to it. But, what is the 
meaning of John Drum's entertainment ? Lafeu feveral times af- 
terwards calls Parolles, Tom Drum. But the difference of the 
ChrifHan name will make none in the explanation. There is au 
old motly interlude, (printed in 1601) cull'd Jack Drums Enter- 
tainment : Or, Tlie Comedy of Pafqull ami Katharine. In this, 
Jack Drum is a fervantof intrigue, who is ever aiming at projects, 
and always foil'd, and given the drop. And there is another old 
piece (publifli'd in 1627) call'd, Apollo Jlrov ing, in which I find 
thefe expreffioris : 

' Tlwriger. Thou lozel, hath Slug infcfted you ? 

" Why do you give fuch kind entertainment to that cobweb ? 

" Scofas. It fliall have Tom Drum'' s entertainment; a rl.ip with u 
fox- tail." 

But both thefe pieces are, perhaps, too late in time, to come to 
the ailiihmce ot our author: Ib we mult louk a little higher. 
What is laid here to Bertram is to this eftcft : " My lord, ;is you 
ha re taken this fellow [Parolles] into fo near a confidence, it, upon 
his being found a counterfeit, you don't cafhierhim from your fa- 
vour, then your attachment is not to be remov'd." I'll now 


9 o A L L's WELL 

to what metal this counterfeit lump of ore will 'be 
melted, if you give him not John Drum ? s entertain- 
ment, your inclining cannot be removed. Here he 

Enter Parolles. 

1 Lord. O, for the love of laughter, hinder not the 
luimour of his defign ; let him fetch off his drum in 
any hand ". 

Ber. How now, monfieur ? this drum flicks forely 
in your difpofition. 

2 Lord. A pox on't, let it go ; 'tis but a drum. 
Par. But a drum ! Is't but a drum ? A drum fo loft \ 

There was an excellent command ! to charge in with 
our horfe upon our own wings, and to rend our own 

2 Lord. That was not to be blamed in the command 
of the fervice ; it was a difcfter of war that Cxfar 
himtelf could not have prevented, if he had been there 
to command. 

Ber. Well, we cannot greatly condemn our fuccefs : 
fome difhonour we had, in the lois of that drum; but 
it is not to be recovcr'd. 

fubjoin ti quotation from Holingfhed. (of whofe books Shakefpeare 
was a moft diligent reader) which will pretty well afcertain Drum's 
hiftory. This chronologer, in his deicription of Ireland, fpeak- 
ing of Patrick Scarfefield, (mayor of Dublin in the year 1551) 
and of his extravagant hofpitality, fubjoins, that no ^uelt had ever 
a cold or forbidding look from any part of his family : fo that b-s 
porter or any other nff.cer, ditrjl not, for both bis cars, give the 
jimple[l max, that refortcd to bls.bvufe, Tout Drum's entertainment ^ 
-vbicb is > to hale a man in by the head, and thrull him out by b,oth 
the fhoulders. THEOBALD. 

1 hi any "hand.~\ The tifual plirafe is at any hand, but/^/ 

aw I-and\\\\\ do. It is ufed in Holland's Pliny, p. 456. " he 

muft be a free citizen of Rome in any hand" Again, p. 508, 
555, and 546. STEEVE.NS. 



Par. It might have been recover'd. 

Ber. It might ; but it is not now. 

Par. It is to be recover'd : but that the merit of 
fervice is feldom attributed to the true and exact per- 
former, I would have that drum or another, or kic 

Ber. Why, if you have a flomach to't, monfieur, 
if you think your myftery in ftratagem can bring this 
inftrumcnt of honour again into its native quarter, be 
magnanimous in the enterprize, and go on ; I will 
grace the attempt for a worthy exploit : if you fpecd 
well in it, the duke lhall both fpeak of it, and ex- 
tend to you what farther becomes his greatnefs, even 
to the utinoft fyllable of your worthinefs. 

Par. By the hand of a foldier, I will undertake it. 

Ber. But you muft not now Dumber in it. 

Par. I'll about it this evening : and * I will prc- 
fently pen down my dilemma's, encourage myfelf in 
my certainty, put myfelf into my mortal preparation, 
and, by midnight, look to hear further from me. 

Ber. May I be bold to acquaint his grace, you are 
gone about it ? 

Par. I know not what the fuccefs will be, my lord ; 
but the attempt I vow. 

Ber. I know, thou art valiant; and, to the * poffi- 
bility of thy foldierlhip, will fubfcribc for thee. 

* - I -vill prrfcntly pen Jo-vn my dilemma's - ] By this 
word, Parolies is made to infinuate that he had feveral ways, all 
equally certain of recovering his drum. Fur a illUmma is au ar- 
gument thnt concludes both way?. WAR BURTON. 

Shakefpcare might have found the word thus uied in Holinflicd. 


3 - p>$y$Mie)fiif t - J Dele tly: the icafc re- 
quires it. WARI.URTON. 

There is no occafion to omit this word. I ov// fulfil- He (lajs 
Bertram) to the poflUv.lity ofyourfglditrjbip t He fuppreires that 
he fliould not be fo willing to Vouch tor ito probability. STEEVI :;r. 

9 2 A L L's W E L L 

Par. 1 love not many words. [/{.v/r. 

1 Lord. No more than a fifh loves water. Is not 
this a ftrange fellow, mv lord ? that fo confidently 
Teems to undertake this bufincfs, which he knows is 
not to be done ; damns himlelf to do, and dares bet- 
ter be damn'd than do't ? 

2 Lord. You do not know him, my lord, as we 
<k>: certain it is, that he will ileal himfelf into a man's 
favour, and, for a week, efcape a great deal of difco- 
x'eries ; but when you find him out, you have him 
ever after. 

Ber. Why, do you think, he will make no deed 
at all of this, that fo fcrioufly he does addrcls him- 
felf unto ? 

2 Lord. None in the world; but return with an in- 
vention, and clap upon you two or three probable 
lies ; but we have almoit 4 imbofs'd him, you lhall 


* *ivc have almojl inibofsd him , ] To imlofi a deer is 

to inclofe him in a wood. Milton ufes the fame word : 
" Like that fell -begotten bird 
*' In th' Arabian woods emboft, 
*' Which no iecond knows or third." JOHNSON'. 
It is probable that Shahefpeare was unacquainted with this word 
In the fenfe which Milton affixes to it, viz. from emlofcare, ItaL 
to enclofe in a thicker. 

When a deer is run hard and foams at the mouth, in the lan- 
guage of the field, he is i~a id to be cmbofsd. So, in the induction 
to the Taming of the Shrew: ** the poor cur ib imbofi" 

Again, in Albumazar : 

" 1 am cmlofs'd 

" With trotting all the ilreets." 
Again, in Monfaur Thomas, 1639 

" A boar embofid takes fantluary in his (hop, 
" And twenty dogs ru(h after." 
Again, in Swetnam Arraigiid, 1620: 

" Had thou been running for a wager, Swafn ? 
*' Thou art horribly .emboj'SJ" 
Again, in Warner's Albion i England ^ 1602, b. vii. c. 36: 

44 For lo, afar my chafed heart imboft and almoit Ipent.** 




fee his fall to-night ; for, indeed,, he is not for your 
iordfhip's rcfpect. 

1 Lord. We'll make you fome fport with the fox, 
ere s we cafe him. He was firft fmok'd by the old 
lord Lafeu : when his difguife and he is parted", tell 
me what a fprat you fhall iind him ; which you mall 
fee this very night. 

2 Lord. 1 mult go look my twigs; he fhall be 

Ber. Your brother, he fhall go along with me. 

2 Lord. As't pleafe your lordihip : I'll leave you. 


Ber. Now will I lead you to the houfe, and mew you 
The lafs I fpoke of. 

i Lord. But, you fay, flic's honeft. 

Ber. That's all the fault : I fpokc with her butoncc, 
And found her wondrous cold ; but I lent to her, 
]?y this fame coxcomb that we have i r the win8, 
Tokens and letters, which me did re-fend ; 
And this is all I have done : She's a fair creature ; 
Will you go fee her ? 

i Ijord. With all my heart, my lord. \_Exeunt. 


Florence. The Widow's loufe. 
Enter Hehia, and Iftdoiv. 

Hel. If you mifdoubt me that I am not fhe> 
I know not how I (hall afiiire you further, 
* But I lhall lofc the grounds I work upon. 

" To know when a fhig is weary (as Markham's Cttuntrv Con- 
tentments fay) you fhall fee him imbojl^ that is, foam-tig aiidy^i-iw- 
i>ig about the mouth with a thick white troth, &c." TOI.LKT. 

5 ere ive cafe him.~\ That is, before we ilrip him nuked. 

* But IJhallloft the grounds I -.".w^ r.^0;;.] 
1, e. by Jifcovering herfelf to the count. WAR BURTON'. 

94 A L L's WE L L 

Wid. Though my estate be fallen, I was well bora, 
Nothing acquainted with thefe bufinefTes; 
And would not put my reputation now 
In any flaming adt. 

Hel. Nor would I wifh you. 
Firrt, give me truft, the count he is my hufband ; 
.And, 7 what'to your fworn counfel I have fpoken, 
Is fo, from word to word ; and then you cannot, 
By the good aid that I of you fhall borrow, 
Err in bellowing it. 

Wid. I ihould believe you ; 

For you have fhew'd me that, \vhich well approves 
You are great in fortune. 

HeL Take this purfe of gold, 
And let me buy your friendly help thus far, 
Which I will over-pay, and pay again, 
When I have found it. The count he wooes your 


Lays down his wanton ficge before her beauty, 
Relblves to carry her ; let her, in fine, confent, 
As we'll diredt her how 'tis beft to bear it, 
8 Now his important blood will nought deny 
That fhe'll demand : A ring the county wears, 
That downward hath fucceeded in his houfe, 
From fon to fon, fome four or five defcents 
Since the firfl father wore it : this ring he holds 
In moft rich choice ; yet, in his idle fire, 
To buy his will, it would not fecm too dear, 
Howe'er repented after. 

Wfid. Now I fee 
The bottom of your purpofc. 

7 'to your fiuorn counfd ] To your private knowledge, 

after having required from you an oath of fecrecy. JOHNSON. 

8 No-'.v bis important blood ivill nought dtny~\ 
Important here, and elfevvhere, \$intportu>iate. JOHNSON. 
So, Spenferin the Fairy Queen, b. ii. c. vi. fr. 29 : 

" And with important outrage him affailed." 
Important from the Fr. Etnpertant. TYR \VHITT. 


t H A T E N D S W E L L. 95 

Hel. You fee it lawful then : It is no more, 
But that your daughter, ere (he feems as won, 
Defires this ring ; appoints him an encounter ; 
In fine, delivers me to fill the time, 
Herfelf moft chaftly abfent : after this, 
To marry her, I'll add three thoufand crowns 
To what is part already. 

IVid. I have yielded : 

Inftrudt my daughter how me mall perfever, 
That time, and place, with this deceit fo lawful, 
May prove coherent. Every night he comes 
With muficks of all forts, and fongs compos'd 
To her unworthinefs : it nothing fteads us, 
To chide him from our eaves ; for he perfiils, 
As if his life lay on't. 

Hel. Why then, to-night 
Let us allay our plot ; which, if it fpeed, 
9 Is wicked meaning in a lawful c!eed, 

9 Is wicked ?nt aiiin^ In a lawful deed \ 
And lawful meaning in a lawful aft ;] 

To make this gingling riddle complete in all its parts, we fhould 
read the fecond line thus : 

And lawful meaning in a wicked afl ; 

The fenfe of the two lines is this : It is a wicked meaning becaufe 
the woman's intent is to deceive : but a. lawful deed, becaufe the 
man enjoys his own wife. Again, it is a lawful meaning becauib 
done by her to gain her hulband's eflranged affe&ioa, but it is a 
luicktd a& becaufe he goes intentionally to commit adultery. The 
riddle concludes thus : Where both not fin and yet a finfulfafl. \, e. 
Where neither of them fin, and yet it is a fmful fact on both fides; 
which conclution, we fee, requires tUe emendation here made. 

Sir Thomas Har.mcr reads in the fame fenfe : 

Unlawful meaning in a lawful acl. JoHXSON. 
I believe the following is the true f'gaificimou of the paflage. 
Bertram's meaning is wicked in a lawful deed, and Helen's liic.m- 
ing is lawful in a lawful act ; and neither of them fin : yet on his 
part It wa.s a lintul fact, lor hii meaning was to commit adultery, 
vl which he was innocent, as rhc l.;dy was his wife. Toj-i.tT. 


96 A L L's W ELL 

And lawful meaning in a lawful act ; 

Where both not fin, and yet a fmful fad: : 

But let's about it. [Exeunt* 


Part of the French camp in Florence. 

Enter one of the French Lords, ivith five or fix Soldiers hi 

Lord. He can come no other way but by this hedge* 
corner : When you fally upon him, fpeak what ter- 
rible language you will; though you underftand it 
not yourielves, no matter : for we muft not feem to 
underftand him ; unlefs fome one ainongft us, whom 
we mult produce for an interpreter. 

Sol. Good captain, let me be the interpreter. 

Lord. Art not acquainted with him ? knows he not 
thy voice ? 

Sol. No, fir, I warrant you. 

Lord. But what linfy-woolfy haft thou to fpeak to 
us again ? 

Sol. Even fuch as you fpeak to me. 

Lord. He muft think us ' fome band of ftrangers 
i'the adverfary's entertainment. Now he hath a fmack 
of all neighbouring languages ; therefore we muft 
every one be a man of his own fancy, not to know 
what we fpeak one to another ; fo we feem to know, 
is to know ftraight our purpofe : chough's language, 
gabble enough, and good enough. As for you, in- 

1 * ' fomt band of Jt rangers in the aJi'trfarlcs entertainment. ~\ 
That is, foreign troops in the entmfspay. JOHNSON. 



tcrpreter, you muftfeem very politick. But couch* 
ho ! here he comes ; to beguile two hours in a ileep, 
and then to return and fwear the lies he forges. 

Enter Parolles. 

Par. Ten o'clock : within thefe three hours 'twill 
be time enough to go home. What fhall I fay I have 
done ? It muft be a very piaufive invention that carries 
it : They begin to fmoke me ; and difgraces have of 
b.te knock'd too often at my door. I find, my tongue 
is too fool-hardy; but my heart hath the fear of Mars 
before it, and of his creatures, not daring the reports 
of my tongue. 

Lord. This is the firft truth that e'er thine dwn 
tongue was guilty of. \_Afide. 

Par*, What the devil Ihould move me to undertake 
the recovery of this drum ; being not ignorant of the 
impoffibility, and knowing I had no fuch purpofe ? I 
muft give myfelf foine hurts, and fay^ I got them in 
exploit i Yet flight ones will not carry it. They will 
fay, Came you off with fo little ? and great ones I 
dare not give ; Wherefore ? what's the * inftance ? 
Tongue, I muft put you into a butter-woman's 
mouth, and buy another of J Bajazet's mule, if you 
prattle me into thefe perils; 

Lord. Is it poflible, he Ihould know what he is, 
and be that he is ? [Afide. 

^ the inftance? ] The proof. JOHNSON^ 

3 and buy m^filf another of Jlajazefs mule, ] We fliould 

read, Baja-zct's mute, i. e. a Turkifh mute. So, in Henry V : 
<s Either our hmory (hall vi\ti\ full mnutb 
" Speak freely of our a6rs ; or ellc our grave, 
'* Like Turkijb ?nute> mall have a tonguelefs mouth." 


As a mule is as dumb by nature, as the mure is by art, the read- 
ing may ftand. In one of our old Turkifti hiftories, there is a 
pompous delcriptiou of Bajazet riding on a mult to the Divan. 


VOL. IV,' H Par. 

5>8 A L L's W E L L 

Par. I would, the cutting of my garments would 
ferve the turn ; or the breaking of my Spanifh fword. 

Lord. We cannot afford you fo. [AJide. 

Par. Or the baring of my beard; and to fay, it was 
in ftratagem. 

Lord. 'Twould not do. [Afide. 

Par. Or to drown my clothes, and fay, I was ftript. 

Lord. Hardly ferve. [Afide. 

Par. Though I fwore I leap'd from the window of 
the citadel 

Lord. How deep? \Afids. 

Par. Thirty fathom. 

Lord. Three great oaths would fcarce make that be 
believ'd. \Afide. 

Par. I would, I had any drum of the enemies' ; I 
would fwear, I recover'd it. 

Lord. You ihall hear one anon. \_Afide. 

' Par. A drum now of the enemies ! \_Alarum within. 
'Lord, fhroca movoujus, cargo, cargo, cargo. 

All. Cargo, cargo, villianda par cor bo, cargo. 

Par. Oh ! ranfom, ranfom : Do not hide mine 
eyes. \hey feize him and blindfold him. 

Inter. Bojkos thromuldo bojkos. 

Par. I know you are the Muikos' regiment, 
And Ilhall lofe my life for want of language : 
If there be here German, or Dane, low Dutch, 
Italian, or French, let him fpeak to me, I'll 
Difcover that which lhall undo the Florentine. 

Inter. Bojkos vauvado : 

I underfland thee, and can fpeak thy tongue : > 

Kerelybonto : Sir, 

Betake thee to thy faith, for feventeen poniards 
Are at thy bofom. 

Par. Oh! 

Inter. Oh, pray, pray, pray. 
Manka revania dulche. 

Lord. Ofcorbi dukhos volivorco. 

Inter. The general is content to fpare thee yet ; 



And, hood-winkt as thou art, will leadthce on 
To gather from thee : haply, thou may'ft inform 
Something to fave thy life. 

Par. Oh, let me live, 
And all the fecrets of our camp I'll fhew, 
Their force, their purpofes : nay, I'll fpeak that 
Which you will wonder at. 

Infer. But wilt thou faithfully ? 

Par. If I do not, damn me. 

Inter. Acordalinta. 

Come on, thou art granted fpace. [Exit with Parolles. 

. [AJhort alarum within. 

Lord. Go, tell the count Roufillon, and my brother, 
We have caught the woodcock, and wiltlceep him 

'Till we do hear from them. 

Sol. Captain^ I will. 

Lord. He will betray us all unto ourfelves ; - 
Inform 'em that.. 

Sol. So I will, fir. 

Lord. Till then I'll keep him dark, and fafely 
lock'd. [Exeunt; 


The Widow's houfe : . 
Enter Bertram and Dianas 

Ber. They told me, that your name was Fontitell; 
Dia. No, my good lord, Diana, 
Ber. Titled goddefs ; 

And worth it, with addition ! But, fair foul, 
In your fine frame hath love no quality ? 
If the quick fire of youth light not your mind, 
You are no maiden, but a monument : 
When you are deadj you fhould be fucli a one 
As you are now, for you are cold and item ; 
And now you ihould be as your mother was, 
When your fwcet felf wa$ got. 
H a 

ioo A L L's W E L L 

Dm. She then was honefl. 

Ber. So Ihould you be. 

Dia. No: 

My mother did but duty ; fuch, my lord, 
As you owe to your wife. 

Be r. 4 No more of that ! 
I pr'ythee, do not ftrive againft my vows : 
I was compell'd to her; but I love thee 
By love's own fweet conftraint, and will for ever 
Do thee all rights of fervice. 

Dia. Ay, fo you ferve us, 

'Till we ferve you : but when you have our rofes, 
You barely leave our thorns to prick ourfelves, 
And mock us with our barenefs. 

* No more of that! 

I pr'ythee) do notjlrivc again/I my vows : 

/ ivas compclfd to her ; ] 

I know not well what Bertram can mean by entreating Diana not 
to Jf rive againjl bis vows. Diana had juft mentioned his wife, fo 
that the vows feem to relate to his marriage. In this fenfe not 
Diana, but himfelf Drives againji bis vows. His vows indeed may 
mean vo-ivs made to Diana ; but, in that cafe, to^rwt againjl^ is 
notproperly ufed for to rejeft, nor does this fenfe cohere well with 
bis firft exclamation of impatience at the mention of his wife. No 
more of that ! Perhaps we might read : 

1 pr'ythee do not drive againjl my vows. 

Do not run upon that topick; talk of any thing elfe that I can leaf to 

I have another conceit upon this paflage, which I would be 
thought to offer without much confidence : 

No more of that ! 

I pr'ythee do not fhrive againjl my voice 

/ was compelled to her ; ' 

Diana tells him unexpectedly of his wife. He anfwers with per- 
turbation, No moi v of that ! I pSytbec do wo/play the confeflbr 
againjl my OWM conlent I was compelled to her. 

When a young profligate finds his courrfhip fo gravely repreffed 
by an admonition of his dnty, he very naturally defires the girl not 
to take upon her the cilice of a confeilbr. JOHNSON. 

jQgainjl his vows, I believe, means againjl his determined rtfolu- 
tion never to cohabit with Helena', and this vow, or rcfolution^ he 
had very flrongly exprefled in liis letter to her. STEEVENS. 


Ber. How have I fworn ? 

Dia. 'Tis not the many oaths, that make the truth; 
But the plain tingle vow, that is vow'd true, 
5 What is not holy, that we fwear not by, 
But take the Higheft to witnefs : Then, pray you, tell 

5 Wliat is not holy, that wefwear not by, j 

Yes, nothing is more common than fuch kind of oaths. But Diana 
is not here accufing Bertram for fwearing by a being not holy, but 
for fwearing to an unholy purpofe ; as is evident from the preced- 
ing lines : 

3 Tis not the many oaths , that make the truth ; 
But the plain fimple vtnv, that is vow'd true. 
The line in queftion, therefore, is evidently corrupt, and fhould 
be read thus : 

What is not holy, that wefivear, not 'bides, 

i. e. if we fwear to an unholy purpofe the oath abides not, but is 
diflolved in the making. This is an aniwer to the purpofe. She 
fubjoins the reafon two or three lines after : 

this has no holding, 

To fwear by him, whom I protejl to love, 
That I will work againjl him* 

i. e. that oath can never hold, whofe fubjecl is to offend and dif- 
pleafe that being, whom, I profefs, in the aft of fwearing by him, 
to love and reverence. What may have miiled the editors into the 
common reading was, perhaps, miftaking Bertram's words above : 

By love's o-Tivz Jweet conftraint 
to be an oath j whereas it only lignifies, being conftrained ly lovt. 


This is an acute and excellent conjecture, and I have done it the 
due honour of exalting it to the text ; yet, methinks, there is 
fomething yet wanting. The following words, but take the Higb*Ji 
to ivitnrfs, even though it be underftood as an anticipation or af- 
fumption in this fenfe, but now fuppofe that you take the Higheft 
to ivitnefs, has not fufficient relation to the antecedent fentence. 
I will propofe a reading nearer to the furface, and let it take its 

Ber. Hotv have Ifivorn ! 

Diana. "Tis not the many oaths, that make the truth ; , 

But the plain finglc vo-iv, that is iwvV true. 

Ber. What is not holy, that vjffivear not hy\ 
But take the High'Ji to witnefs. 

Dinna. Then, p>-ay you tell rue, 
Jf IJhoiihlfwar, &c. 

H 3 Bertram 

102 A L L's W E L L 

6 If I fhould fwear by Jove's great attributes,, 
I lov'd you dearly, would you believe my oaths, 
When I did love you ill ? this has no holding*,, 


Bertram means to enforce his fuit, by telling her, that he has 
bound himfelf to her, not by the petty protections ufual among 
lovers, but by vows of greater folemnity. She then makes a pro- 
per and rational reply. JOHNSON. 

I have replaced the old reading, being convinced that it is the? 
true one, by the following paflage in the REVISAL. 

" The fenfe is, We never fwear by what is not holy, but fwear 
by, or take to vvitnefs, the Higheft, the Divinity. The tenor of 
the reafoning contained in the rolloxving lines perfectly correfponds 
with this ; If I Ihould fwear by Jove's great attributes, that I lov'd 
you dearly, would you believe my oaths, when you found by ex- 
perience that I loved you ill, and was endeavouring to gain credit 
with you in order to feduce you to your ruin ? No, furely, but 
you would conclude that I had no faith either in Jove or his attri- 
butes, and that my oaths were mere words of courfe. For that 
oath can certainly have no tye upon us, which we fwear by him 
we profefs to love and honour, when at the fame time we give the 
ftrohgeft proof of our dilbelief in him, by purfuing a courfe which 
we know will offend and difhonour him. By not comprehending 
the poet's fcope and meaning, Dr. Warburton hath been reduced 
to the neceffity of fathering upon him fuch ftrange Englifh as this ; 
*' What is not holy, that ^juejkvcar," to fignify, Jfivejkvear to 
an unholy purpoje ; a fenfe thofe words will by no means bear. 
" Not 'bides" to iignify, The oath is dijolvcd in the making ; a 
meaning which can no more be deduced from the words than the 

As to the remaining words, " But take the High'Jl to wzVw/}," 
they fo plainly and directly contradict Dr. Warburton's interpre- 
tation; that it was utterly impracticable for him to reconcile them 
to it, and therefore he hath very prudently parted them over with^ 
out notice." STEEVENS. 

6 If I Jboitleif'joear ly Jove's great attrilutcs,~\ 
In the print of the old folio, it is doubtful whether it be jfove's 
or Love's, the characters being not diftinguifhable. If it is read 
Zy/7-w's, perhaps it may be fomething lefs difficult. I am full aj; 4 
lofs. JOHNSON. 

* , t/jis has no holding, &c. It may be read thus : 

this has no holding, 

To fwear by him whom I attcft to love, 

That I will work againft him. 

There is no conMence in expreiling reverence for Jupiter by 



7 To fwear by him whom I proteft to love, 
That I will work againtf him : Therefore, your oaths 
Are words, and poor conditions ; but unfeal'd ; 
At leaft, in my opinion. 

Ber. Change it, change it ; 
Be not fo holy-cruel : love is holy ; 
And my integrity ne'er knew the crafts, 
That you do charge men with : Stand no more off, 
But give thylelf unto my fick defire, 
Who then recovers : fay, thou art mine, and ever 
My love, as it begins, fliall fo perfever. 

)ia. I fee, that men make hopes in fuch affairs % 
That we'll forfake ourfelves. Give me that ring. 

Ber. I'll lend it thee, my dear, but have no power 
To give it from me, 

calling him to attejl ruy love, and (hewing at the fame time, by 
wfkig againjl him by a wicked pallion, that 1 h:ive no refpetl to 
the name which 1 invoke. JOHNSON. 

7 To fwear by him ivhon; I protc/l to love, 

That I "Mill work agairift him : ] 

This paiFage likewife appears to me corrupt. She fwears not by 
him whom (lie loves, but by Jupiter. I believe we may read, to 
fivear to him. There is, fays f he, no holding, no confiftency, in 
fwearing to one that / love him, when I fwear it only to injure him. 


8 I fee, that men make hopes in fuch affairs] 
The four folio editions read : 

make rope'^ in fuch a fcarre. 

The emendation was introduced by Mr. Rowe. I find the word 
fcarre in the Tragedy of Hoffman, 163 I : 

" I know a cave, wherein the bright day's eye 

" Look'd never but afcance, through a fmall cr 

Or little cranny of the fretted fcarre : 
fometimes liv'd &c." 

mall creeke, 

" There I have 

Again : " Where is the villain's body ? 

" Marry, even heaved over thefcarr, andfentafwimming&c." 
A^ain : " Run up to the top of the dreadful fcarre. 1 ' 

Again : " I itood upon the top of the highyZw;r." 

Ray fays, that zjlarrc is the cliff of a rock, or a naked rock on 
the dry land, from the Saxon carre, cautes. He adds, that this 
$yord gave denomination to the town of Scarbo -ovgb. STEEVENS. 

H A Dia. 

104 A L L's WELL 

Dia. Will you not, my lord ? 

/ter. It is an honour 'longing to our houfe,, 
Bequeathed down from many anceftors ; 
Which were the greateft obloquy i' the world 
In me to lofe. 

Dia. Mine honour's fuch a ring : 
My chaftity's the jewel of our houfe, 
Bequeathed down from many anceftors ; 
Which were the greateft obloquy i'the world 
In me to lofe : Thus your own proper wifdom 
Brings in the champion honour on my part, 
Againft your vain aflault. 

Ber. Here, take my ring : 
My houfe, mine honour, yea, my life be thine, 
And I'll be bid by thee, 

Dia. When midnight comes, knock at my chamber 

window ; 

I'll order take, my mother ihall not hear. 
Now will I charge you in the band of truth, 
When you have conquer'd my yet maiden bed, 
Remain there but an hour, nor fpeak to me : 
My reafons are moft ftrong; and you Ihall knowthem, 
When back again this ring fhall be deliver'd : 
And on your ringer, in the night, I'll put 
Another ring ; that, what in time proceeds, 
May token to the future our paft deeds. 
Adieu, 'till then ; then, fail not 2 You have won 
A wife of me, though there my hope be done. 

Ber. A heaven on earth I have won, by wooing 
thee. [Exit. 

Dia. For which live long to thank both heaven and 
me ! 

You may fo in the end. 

My mother told me juft how he would woo, 
^ As if fhe fat in his heart ; me fays, all men 
Have the like oaths : he had fworn to marry me, 
When his wife's dead ; therefore I'll lie with him, 

When I am bury'd. 9 Since Frenchmen are fo braid, 
Marry that will, I live and die a maid : 
Only, in this difguife, I think't no fin 
To cozen him, that would unjuftly win. [Exit* 


The Florentine camp. 

Enter the two French Lords, and two or three Soldiers. 

1 Lord. You have not given him his mother's let- 

ter ? 

2 Lord. I have delivered it an hour fince : there is 
fomething in't that flings his nature ; for, on the 
reading it, he chang'd almoft into another man. 

9 Since Frenchmen are Jo braid, 

Marry that ivitt, /'// live and die a maid{\ 

What ! becaufe Frenchmen were falfe, fhe that was an Italian, 
\vould marry nobody. The text is corrupted ; and we fhould read : 

Since Frenchmen arefo braid, 

Marry ? em that w///, /'// live and die a Maid. 
\. e. fince Frenchmen prove fo crooked and perverfe in their man- 
ners, let who will marry them, I had rather live and die a maid, 
than venture upon them. This fhe fays with a view to Helen, 
who appeared fo fond of her hufband, and went through fo many- 
difficulties to obtain him. WAR BUR TON. 

The pafTage is very unimportant, and the old reading reafonable 
enough. Nothing is more common than for girls, on fuch occa- 
fions, to fay in a pet what they do not think, or to think for a 
time what they do not finally refolve. JOHNSON. 

JB raid does not fignify crooked at perverfe^ but crafty or deceitful. 
So, in Greene's Never too Late, 1 6 1 6 : 
' Dian rofe with all her maids, 
" Blulhing thus at love his braids" 

Chaucer ufes the word in the famefenfej but as the paflage where 
it occurs in his Troilus and Crcjjida, is contefted, it may be necef- 
fary to obferve, that Bjieb is an Anglo-Saxon word, fignifying 
frays, ajius. Again, in Tho. Drant's Tranjlation of Horace i 
E.pijlle3, where its import is not very clear : 

" Profefling thee a friend, toplaie the ribbaldeat a Iradc" 
In the Romauiit of the Rofe, 1336, Braid feems to mean forth- 
with, or, at a jerk. There is nothing to anfwer it in the Fr. ex- 
cept tantoji. SrEf VENS. 


io6 A L L's W E L L 

1 Lord f . He has much worthy blame laid uponhimj, 
for fhaking ofFfo good a wife, and fo fweet a lady. 

2 ZxW. Efpecially he hath incurred the everlafting 
difpleafure of the king, who had even tun'd his boun- 
ty to fing happinefs to him. I will tell you a thing, 
but you fhall let it dwell darkly with you. 

1 Lord. When you have fpoken it, 'tis dead, and I 
am the grave of it. 

2 Lord, He hath perverted a young gentlewoman 
here in Florence, of a moil chafte renown ; and this 
night he flelhes his will in the fpoil of her honour : 
he hath given her his monumental ring, and thinks 
Jiimfelf made in the unchafte compolition. 

1 Lord. Now God delay our rebellion ; as w^ are 
ourfelves, what things are we ! 

2 Lord. Merely our own traitors. And as in the 
common courfe of all treafons, we ft ill fee them re- 
veal themfelves, till they attain to their abhorr'd ends*; 
fo he, that in this action contrives againft his own 
nobility, * in his pro'per flream overflows himfelf. 

I Lord. Is it not meant damnable in us, to be 

1 i Lord."] The latter editors have with great liberality beftowed 
lordfhip upon thefe interlocutors, who, in the original edition, are 
called, with more propriety capt. E. and capt. G. It is true that 
taptain E. is in a former fcene called lord E. but the fubordina- 
tion in which they feem to aft, and the timorous manner in which 
they converfe, determines them to be only captains. Yet as the 
latter readers of Shakefpeare have been uled to find them lords, I 
have not thought it worth while to degrade them in the margin. 


G. and E. were, I beiieve, only put to denote the players who 
performed thefe characters. In the lift of aftors prefixed to the 
firft folio, I find the names of Gilburne and Eccleitone, to whom 
thefe infignificant parts probably fell. MALO.VE. 

* x. till they attain to their abhorred ends; ] This may 

mean they are perpetually talking about the mifchief they intend 
$o do, till thev have obtained an opportunity of doing it. STEEVENS. 

3 in bis proper Jlrcavi a* erftc^v-, bimfclj^ That is, betrays his 

rivnfccrets in his o<i':n talk. The reply (hews that this is the mean- 
ing. JOHNSON. 



trumpeters of our unlawful intents ? We ihall not 
then have his company to-night ? 

2 Lord. Not 'till after midnight ; for he is dieted 
to his hour. 

1 Lord. That approaches apace : I would gladly 
have him fee his company anatomized; that he might 
take a meafure of his own judgment 4 , wherein fo 
curioufly he had fet this counterfeit. 

2 Lord. We will not meddle with him till he come ; 
for his prefence muft be the whip of the other. 

1 Lord. In the mean time, what hear you of thefe 
wars ? 

2 Lord. I hear, there is an overture of peace. . 

1 Lord. Nay, I affure you, a peace concluded. 

2 Lord. What will count Roufillon do then ? will 
he travel higher, or return again into France ? 

1 Lord. I perceive by this demand, you are not al- 
together of his counfel. 

2 Lord. Let it be forbid, fir ! fo ihculd I be a 
great deal of his act. 

2 Lord. Sir, his wife, fome two months fince, fled 
from his houfe ; her pretence is a pilgrimage to Saint 
Jaques le grand; which holy undertaking, with moft 
aufterefanctimony, Ihe accomplilh'd : and, there refid- 
ing, the tendernefs of her nature, became as a prey to 
her grief ; in fine, made a groan of her laft breath, and 
now Ihe fings in heaven. 

2 Lord. How is this juftified ? 

1 Lord. The ftronger part of it by her own letters ; 
which makes her (lory true, even to the point of her 
death : her death itfelf, which could not be her office 
to fay, is come, was faithfully confirm'd by the rector 
of the place. 

2 Lord. Hath the count all this intelligence ? 

* he might take a meafure of hi* own j it clement, < * ] This 

is a very juft and moral reafon. Bertram, by finding how errone- 
pufly he has judged, will be lefs confident, aud more eafily moved 
>y admonition. JOHNSON, 

I Lord. 

io8 A L L's WELL 

1 Lord. Ay, and the particular confirmations, point 
from point, to the full arming of the verity. 

2 Lord. I am heartily forry, that he'll be glad of 

1 Lord. How mightily, fometimes, we make us 
comforts of our lofles ! 

2 Lord. And how mightily, fome other times, we 
drown our gain in tears ! the great dignity, that his 
valour hath here acquired for him, mall at home be 
encounter'd with a ihame as ample. 

1 Lord. The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, 
good and ill together : our virtues would be proud, if 
our faults whip'd them not ; and our crimes would 
(lefpair, if they were not cherifti'd by our virtues.-?-*, 

Enter a Servant, 

How now ? where's your matter ? 

Serv. He met the duke in the flreet, fir, of whom 
he hath taken a folemn leave ; his lordfhip will next 
morning for France. The duke hath offered him 
letters of commendations to the king. 

2 Lord. They {hall be no more than needful there, 
if they were more than they can commend. 

Enter Bertram. 

1 Lord. They cannot be too fweet for the king's 
tartnefs. Here's his lordfhip now. How now, my 
lord, is't not after midnight ? 

Ber. I have to-nightdifpatch'd fixteen bufineffes, a 
month's length a-piece, by an abftracl of fuccefs : I 
have conge'd with the duke, done my adieu with his 
neareft ; buried a wife, mourn'd for her ; writ to my 
lady mother, lam returning; entertain'd my convoy; 
and, between thefemain parcels of difpatch, effected 
many nicer needs : the laft was the greateft, but that 
J have not ended yet. 

2 Lord. If the bufmefs be of any difficulty, and this 



morning your departure hence, it requires hafte of 
your lordfhip. 

Ber. I mean, the bufmefs is not ended, as fearing 
to hear of it hereafter : But ihall we have this dialogue 

between the fool and the foldier ? Come, 5 bring 

forth this counterfeit module ; he has deceived me, 
like a double-meaning propheficr. 

2 Lord. Bring him forth : he has fat in the ftocfcs 
all night, poor gallant knave. 

Ber. No matter; his heels have deferv'd it, in 
ufurping his fpurs fo long. How does he carry him- 

1 Lord. I have told your lordfhip already; the 
flocks carry him. But, to anfwer you as you would 
be underflood; he weeps, like a wench that had fhed 
her milk : he hath confefs'd himfelf to Morgan, 
whom he fuppofes to be a friar, from the time of his 
remembrance, to this very inftantdifafler of his fetting 
i'the flocks : And what, think you, he hath confeft"? 

Ber. Nothing of me, has he ? 

2 Lord. His confeffion is taken, and it mall be read 

(to his face : if your lordihip be in't, as, I believe 
you are, you muft have the patience to hear it. 

Re-enter Soldiers with Parolles. 

Ber. A plague upon him ! muffled ! he can fay no- 
thing of me ; hufli ! hufli ! 

i Lord. Hoodman comes ! Porto fartarofla. 

Inter. He calls for the tortures ; What will you 
fay without 'em ? 

5 _,/,. f or th this counterfeit module ; ] This epithet is 

improper to a module, which profeffes to be the counterfeit of an- 
other thing. We fhould read medal. And this the Oxford editor 
follows. WAR BURTON. 

Module being the pattern of any thing, may be here iifed in that 
fenfe. Bring forth this fellow, who, by counterfeit virtue pretend- 
ed to make himfelf a /a^rw. JOHNSON. 

no A L Us WELL 

Par. I will confefs what I know without conflraint i 
if ye pinch me like a pafty, I can fay no more. 

Inter. Bo/ko chimurcho. 

2 Lord. Boblibindo chicurmurco. 

Inter. You are a merciful general : Our general 
bids you anfwer to what I fliall aik you out of a note* 

Par. And truly, as I hope to live. 

Inter. Firft demand of him how many horfe the duke is 
flrong. What fay you to that ? 

Par. Five or fix thoufand ; but very weak and un- 
ferviceable : the troops are all fcatter'd, and the com- 
manders very poor rogues ; upon my reputation and 
credit, and as I hope to live. 

Inter. Shall I fet down your anfwer fo ? 

Par. Do ; I'll take the facrament on't, how and 
which way you will : all's one to him a . 

Ber. What a paft-faving Have is this ! 

1 Lord. You are deceiv'd, my lord ; this is mon- 
fieur Parolles, the gallant militarift, (that was his own 
phrafe) that had the whole theorique of war in the knot 
of his fcarf, and the practice in the chape of his dag- 

2 Lord. I will never truft a man again, for keeping 
his fword clean; nor believe he can have every thing 
in him, by wearing his apparel neatly. 

Inter. Well, that's fet down. 

Par. Five or fix thoufand horfe, I faid, I will fay 
true, or thereabouts, fet down, for I'll fpeak truth; 

i Lord. He's very near the truth in this. 

Ber. But I con him no thanks for't 7 , in the nature 
he delivers it. 


* aWs one to him. ] Thus the old copy. The modern edi- 
tors read " all's one to me," but without authority. I be- 
lieve thefe words fhould begin the next fpeech. They would 
then appear as a proper remark made by Bertram on the aflertion 
of Parolles. STEEVENS. 

7 ' / etui biin no thanks for't ,--] i. c. I {hall not thank 



Par, Poor rogues, I pray you, fay. 

Inter. Weil, that's fet down. 

Par. I humbly thank you, fir : a truth's a truth, 
the rogues are marvellous poor. 

Inter. Demand of him, ofwbatftrengthtlocyarea-foot. 
What fay you to that ? 

Par. By my troth, fir, if I were to live this pre- 
fent hour 8 , I will tell true. Let me fee : Spurio a 
hundred and fifty, Sebaftian fo many, Corambus fo 
many, Jaquesfo many; Guiltian, Colmo, Lodowick, 
and Gratii, two hundred fifty each : mine own com- 
pany, Chitopher, Vaumond, Bentii, two hundred 
and fifty each : fo that the mufter file, rotten and 
found, upon my life, amounts not to fifteen thoufand 
poll; half of the which dare notlhake the fnow from 
off their caflbcks 9 , left they fhake themfelves to pieces. 


him in Studied language. I meet with the fame expreffion in Pierce 
PtnnlkJJe his Supplication, &c. 

" I believe he will con thfe little thanks for it" 

Again, in Wily B egmled, 1613: 

" I con mafter Churms thanks for this." 

Again, in Any Thing far a S>uict Life : *' He would not trulr, you 
with it, I con him thanks for it." To con thanks may, indeed, ex- 
actly anfwer theFrenchyrtf-twV^r/. To con is to know. STEEVENS. 
* if I were to live this prefent hour, &c.] I do not underftand 
thispaifage. Perhaps (as an anonymous correfpondent obferves) 
we fliould read : 

" If I were to live lut this prefent hour." STEEVENS. 

Perhaps he meant to fay if I were to die this prefent hour. 

But fear may be fuppofed to occafion the miftake, as poor frighted 
Scrub cries : 

' Spare all I have, and take my life." TOLLET. , , 

9 off their Co/forks, ] CaJJbck fignifics a hotieman's loofe 

coat, and is ufed in that fenfe by the writers of the age of Shake- 
ipeare. So, in Every Man in his Humour, Brainworm fays " He 
will never come within the fight of zcajjock or a mufquet reil again.'* 
Something of the fame kind, likewile appears to have been part of 
the drefs of ruilicks, in MmeJorus, an anonymous comedy, i59fc> 
attributed by fome writers to Shakefpeare : 

" Within my clofet there does hang a caJJbck, 

t( Though bafe the weed is, 'twas a ihepherd's." 


i iz A L L's W E L L 

Bet: What lhall be done to him ? 

i Lord. Nothing, but let him have thanks. De- 
mand of him my conditions, and what credit I have 
with the duke. 

Inter. Well, that's fet down. Ton foall demand of 
him, whether one captain Dumam be i'the camp, a French- 
man ', what his reputation is with the duke, what his 
valour, honefty, and expertnefs in wars ; or whether he 
thinks, it were not pojfible with well-weighing fums of 
gold to corrupt him to a revolt. What fay you to this ? 
what do you know of it ? 

Par. Ibefeech you, let meanfwer to the particular 
of the interrogatories : Demand them fingly. 

Inter. Do you know this captain Dumain ? 

Par. I know him : he was a botcher's 'prentice in 
Paris, from whence he was whip'd for getting the me- 
riff's fool with child ; a dumb innocent, that could 
not fay him, nay. [Dumain lifts up his hand in anger. 
. Ber. Nay, by your leave, hold your hands; though 
I know, his brains are forfeit to the next tile that falls. 

Inter. Well, is this captain in the duke of Flo 
rence's camp ? 

Par. Upon my knowledge, he is, and loufy. 

Nafli, in Pierce Pennilcffe bis Supplication to the Devil, J9, fays J 
" I lighted upon an old ftraddling ulurer, clad in a daraalk caffeck 
edged with fur, &c." Again, in Lingua, or a Combat of the Tongue, 
&c. 1607 : " Enter Memory, an old decrepid man in a velvet 
cajfock." Again, in WTjetJlone s Promos and Cajjandra, 1578: 

" I will not ftick to wear 

" A blue caflbck." 

On this occafion a woman is the fpeaker. So again^ Puttenham, 
in his Art of Poetry, 1589 : " Who would not think it a ridi- 
culous thing to fee a lady in her milk-houfe with a velvet gown, 
and at a bridal in her cajjock of moccado?" In The Hollander, a 
comedy by Glapthorne, 1640, it is again fpoken of as part of a 
foldier's drefs : 

" Here fir, receive this military cajjbck, it has feen fervice." 

" This military cajjbck has, I fear, fome military 

hangbys." STEEVEXS. 

I Lord, 


i Lord. Nay, look not fo upon me ; we lhall hear 
t)f your lordfhip anon. 

Inter. What is his reputation with the duke ? 

Par. The duke knows him for no other but a poor 
officer of mine; and writ to me the other day, to turn 
him out o'the band : I think, I have his letter in 
my pocket. 

Inter. Marry, we'll fearch. 

Par. In good fadnefs, I do not know; either it is 
there, or it is upon a file, with the duke's other let- 
ters, in my tent. 

Inter. Here 'tis ; here's a paper ; Shall I read it to 
you ? 

Par. I do not know, if it be it, or no. 

Ber. Our interpreter does it well. 

i Lord. Excellently. 

Inter. ' Dian. *T!oe count's a fool, and full of 'gola \ 

Par. That is not the duke's letter, fir ; that is an 
advertifement to a proper maid in Florence, one Di- 
ana, to take heed of the allurement of one count 
Roufillon, a fbolifli idle boy, but, for all that, very 
ruttilh : I pray you, fir, put it up again. 

Inter. Nay, I'll read it firfc> by your favour. 

Par. My meaning in't, I prc-teft, was very honeft 
in the behalf of the maid i for I knew the young 
count to be a dangerous and lafcivious boy; who is a 
whale to virginity, and devours up all the fry it 

Ber. Damnable, both fides rogue ! 

1 Dian. The count's a fool, and full of gold, ] 

After this line there is apparently a line loit, there being ne 
rhime that correfponds to gold. JOHNSON. 

I believe this line is incomplete. The poet might hav* 
v.'ritten : Dian. 

T%e count's a fool, and full of ^oldtn ftore or orf ; 
-ind this addition rhimes with the following alternate verles. 


Vox.. IV, I fkttrfrtijr. 

ii4 A L L's W E L L 

Interpreter reads the letter. 

When fa /wears oaths, bid him drop gold, and take if ;' 

After he f cores, he never pays the /core : 
* Half won, is match well made ; match, and well make it $ 

He ne'er pays after-debts, take it before ; 
And fay, afoldier, Dian, told thee this, 
3 Men are to mellwith, boys are but to kifs : 
For count of this, the count's a fool, I know it, 
Who pays before, but not when he does owe it. 

'Thine, as he vow'd to thee in thine ear, 


* Half won, is match well nrade ; match, and well make it ;] 
This line has no meaning that I can find. I read, with a very 
flight alteration : Half won is match well made ; watch, and well 
malic it. That is, a match well made is half wou ; watch, and 
make it well. 

This is, in my opinion, not all the error. The lines are mif- 
placed, and mould be read thus : 

Half won is match well made ; watch, and well make it ; 
When hefwears oaths, lid him drop gold, and take it. 
Sifter he J 'cores , he never pays the f core : 
He ne'er pays after-debts, take it before. 

And fay 

That is, take his money, and leave him to himfelf. When the 
players had loft the fecond line, they tried to make a eonnecYion 
out of the reft. Part is apparently in couplets, arid the whole was 
probably uniform. JOHNSON. 
Perhaps we fliould read : 

Half won is match well made, match an' we'll make it. 
i. e. if we mean to make a match of it at all. STEEVENS. 

3 Men are to mell with, boys are not to kifs :] 
All the editors have obtruded a new maxim upon us here, that boys 
are not to kifs. - Li via, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Tamer 
Tanfd, is of a quite oppofite opinion : 

" For boys were made for nothing but dry kiflcs." 
And our poet's thought, I am perfuaded, went to the lame tune. 
To-/f/7, is derived from the French word, melcr; to mingle. 




Ser. He fhall be whip'd through the army, with 
this rhime in his forehead. 

2 Lord. This is your devoted friend, fir, the ma- 
nifold linguift, and the armipotent foldier. 

Et'i\ I could endure any thing before but a cat, and 
now he's a cat to me. 

Inter* I ^perceive, fir, by our general's looks, we 
fhall be fain to hang you. 

Par. My life, fir, in any cafe : not that I am afraid 
to die; but that, my offences being many, I would re- 
pent out the remainder of nature : let me live, fir, 
in a dungeon, i'the flocks, or any where, fo I may 

Inter. We'll fee what may be done, fo you confefs 
freely; therefore, once more to this captain Dumain: 
You have anfwer'd to his reputation with the duke, 
and to his valour ; What is his honefty ? 

So, in Avc verie Excellent and Dektfalill Treatife^ intltitUt 
PHILOTCS, &c. 1603 : 

*' But he na huflwnd is to mee, 
" Then how could wee twa difagree 
" That never had na melling" 

" Na melting, miftrefs ? will you then 

" Deny the manage of that man ?" 

Again, in the Corpus Chrijli P/ay, acted at Coventry. MSS. Cotf. 
reft. VIII. p. 122: 

** A fayr yonge qwene herby doth dwelle, 

" Both frech and gay upon to loke, 

*' And a tall man with her doth melle, 

*' The way into hyr chawmer ryght evyn he toke." 
The argument of this piece is the Woman taken in Adultery. 

The old copy reads : 

Men are to well <wltl>, loys are not to kifs. 
I do not fee any neceffity for change, nor do I believe that nny 

oppofition was intended between the words well and kifs. The 

advice of Parolles to Diana fimply is, to grant her favours to men 
and not to boys. He himfdf calls his letter, 4 ** An advertifcment 
to Diana to take heed of the allurements of one count Roufillon, a 
foolifh tdje boy" MAI.OVE. 

I 2 far. 

1 1.6 'A L L's W ELL 

Pai: He xvill fteal, fir, 4 an egg out of a cloifter; 
for rapes and ravifhments he parallels Neffus. Hepro- 
fefles no keeping of oaths ; in breaking them^ he is 
ftronger than Hercules. He will lie, fir, with fuch vo- 
lubility, that you would thin-k truth were a fool : 
drunkennefs is his befl virtue ; for he will be fwine- 
drunk ; and in his fleep he does little harm, fave to his 
bed-cloaths about him; but they know his conditions, 
and lay him in ftraw, 1 have but little more to fay, 
fir, of his honcfty : he has every thing that an honeft 
man fhould not have ; what an honeft man ihould 
have, he has nothing. 

i Lord. I begin to love him for this. 

Ser. For this defcription of thine honcfty ? A pox 
upon him for me, he is more and more a cat. 

Inter. What fay you to his expertnefs in war ? 

Par. Faith, fir, he has led the drum before the 
Englilh tragedians, to belie him, I will not, and 
more of his foldierfhip I know not ; except, in that 
country, he had the honour to be the officer at a place 
there call'd Mile-end, to inftruct for the doubling of 
files : I would do the man what honour I can, but 
of this I am not certain. 

i Lord. He hath out-villain'd villany fo far, that 
the rarity redeems him. 

Rer. A pox on him I y he's a cat ft ill. 


* an Fgg out of a cloijler ; ] I know not that cL)>fier, 

though it may etymologically fignify any tbin^Jlmt, is ufed by our 
author, otherwiie than for a monajlcry, and therefore I cannot 
guefs whence this hyperbole could take its original : perhaps it 
means only this : He willjleal any thing, however trifling, from 
.anyplace, however haly. ' . JOHNSON. 

5 he's a catjlill.~\ That is, throw him how you will, he 

lights upon his legs. JOHNSON. 

Bertram has no fuch meaning. In a fpeech or two before, he 
declares his averfion to a cat, and now only continues in the fame 
opinion, and fays he hates Pafottes as much as a cat. The othe,r 
explanation v.iii not do, as Parolles coul J not be meant by the cat, 



Inter. His qualities being at this poor price, I need 
not to afk you, if gold will corrupt him to revolt. 

Par. Sir, for a quart fecu he will fell the fee-fim- 
ple of his falvation, the inheritance of it ; and cut 
the intail from all remainders, and a perpetual fuccef- 
iion for it perpetually. 

Inter. What's his brother, the other captain Du~ 
main ? 

2 Lord. 6 Why does he aik him of me ? 

Inter. What's he ? 

Par. E'en a crow of the fame ncft ; not altogether 
fo great as the firft in goodnefs, but greater a great 
deal in evil. He excels his brother for a coward, yet 
his brother is reputed one of the beft that is : In a re- 
treat he out-runs any lacquey ; marry, in coming on 
he has the cramp. 

Inter. If your life be faved, will you undertake to 
betray the Florentine ? 

Par. Ay, and the captain of his horfe, count Rou- 

which always lights 0:1 its legs, for Parolles is now in a fair way 
to be totally disconcerted, STEEVENS. 

I am ftill of my former opinion. The fame fpeech was applied 
by king James to Coke, with refpeCt to his lubtilties of law, that 
throw him which way we would, he could ftill like a cat light upon 
his legs. JOHNSON. 

I do not fee any neceflity for this explanation. The count had 
faid, that formerly a cat was the only thing in the world which he 
could not endure ; but that now, Parolles was as much the object 
of his averfion, as that animal. After Parolles has gone through 
his next 111! or" falfhoods, the count adtie, ' he's more and more 
u cat" ftill more and more the object of my averfion than he 
was. As Parolles proceeds ilill further, one of the Frenchmen 
obferves, that the fingularity ot his impudence and villany redeems 

his character. Not at all, replies the count; " he's a cat 

{till ;" he is as hateful as ever. In this there appears to me 

no difficulty. MA; 

6 Wt.y does be afk him of me ?] This is nature. Every man is 
<,n fuch occaiions more willing to hear his neighbour's character 
fliun his own, JOHNSON. 

I 3 Inte 

n8 A L L's W E L L 

Inter. Pll whifper with the general, and know his 

Par. I'll no more drumming; a plague of all drums! 
Only to feem to deferve well } and 7 to beguile the fup- 
pofition of that lafeivious young boy the count, have 
I run into this danger : Yet, who would have fuf- 
pected an ambufh where I was taken? \_Afide.^ 

Inter. There is no remedy, fir, but you mull: die : 
the general fays, you, that have fo traiteroufly difco- 
vered the fecrets of your a'rmy, and made fuch pefti- 
ferous reports of men very nobly held, can ferve the 
world for no very honelt ufe ; therefore you muft die. 
Come, headfman, off with his head. 

Par. O Lord, fir ; let me live, or let me fee my 
death ! 

Inter. That ihall you, and take your leave of all 
your friends. \Unbin$ng him. 

So, look about you ; Know you any here ? 
Ber. Good-morrow, noble captain. 
2 Lord. God blefs you, captain Parollcs. 
i Lord. God fuve you, noble captain. 
i Lord. Captain, what greeting will you to my lord 
Lafeu ? I am for France. 

i Lord. Good captain, will you give me a copy of 
that fame fonnet you writ to Diana in behalf of the 
count Roufillon ? an I were not a very coward, I'd 
compel it of you ; but fare you well. [_Rxcunt. 

Inter. You are undone, captain; all but your fcarf, 
that has a knot on't yet. 

Par. Who cannot be cruih'd with a plot ? 
Inter. Jf you could find out a country where but 
xvomen were that- had received fo much fhame, you 

7 to leguile the fxppofition ] That is, to tkcelve tbeofi- 

ti-or/ t to make the count think me a man that defirvcs w//. 




might begin an impudent nation. Fare you well, 
fir; I am for France too ; we fhall fpea&of you there. 


Par. Yet am I thankful : if my heart were great, 
'Tvvould burft at this : Captain 111 be no more ; 
But I will eat and drink, and fleep as foft 
As captain lhall : limply the thing I am 
Shall make me live. Who knows himfelf a braggart, 
Let him fear this ; for it will come to pafs, 
That every braggart lhall be found an afs. 
Ruft, fword ! cool, blirfhes ! and, Parolles, live 
Safeft in fhame ! being fool'd, by foolery thrive ! L 
There's place, and means, for every man alive. 3 
I'll after them. [Exit. 


Tbe Widffivs houfe at Florence. 
Enter Helena, Widozv, and Diana. 

HeL That you may well perceive I have not 

wrong'd you, 

One of the greateft in the chriftian world 
Shall be my furety ; 'fore whofe throne, 'tis needful, 
Ere I can perfect mine intents, to kneel : 
Time was, J did him a defircd office, 
Dear almoit as his life ; which gratitude 
Through flinty Tartar's bofom would peep forth, 
And anfwer, thanks : I duly am inform'd, 
His grace is at Marfeillcs ; to which place 
We have convenient convoy. You muft know, 
1 am fuppofed dead ; the army breaking, 
My hufband hies him home ; where, heaven aiding, 
And by the leave of my good lord the king, 
We'll be, before our welcome. 

IPld. Gentle madam, 
You never had a fcrvant, to whofe truft 
Your bufmefs was more welcome. 

I 4 HA 

J33 A L Us W E L i. 

Hd. Nor you, miflreis, 

Ever a friend, whole thoughts more truly labour 
To recompence your love ; doubt not, but heaver} 
Hath brought me up to be your daughter's doxver, 
As it hath fated her to be 8 my motive 
And helper to a hufband. But O ftrange men ! 
That can fuch fvveet ufe make of what they hate, 
9 When fauey tmfting of the cozen'd thoughts 
Defiles the pitcny night ! fo lull doth play 
With what it loaths, for that which is away : 

But more of this hereafter : You, Diana, 

Under my poor inftrudtions yet muft fuffer 
Something in my behalf. 

Dia. Let death and honefty 
Go with your impofitions, I am yours 
Upon your will to fuffer. 

Hel. Yet, I pray you, 

1 But with the word, the time will bring on fummei^ 
When briars fhall have leaves as well as thorns, 


* wy motive] Motive for afliftant. WARBUSTOX. 

* When faucy tr lifting of the cozen'd thoughts 
Defies the' pitchy night! 


i. . makes the perfon guilty of intentional adultery. But truft- 
iiig a miirake cannot make any one guilty. \\ e ihculd read and 
point the lines thus : 

Wh-:n fancy, trvjting pf the cozen "d thought .^ 
Defiles the' pitchy night. 

i. e. die^;:o', or imagination, that he lay with his miilrefs, though 
it was, indeed, his wife, made him incur the guilt of adultery. 
Nigfo, by the ancients, \vas reckoned odious, obfcene, and abo- 
minable. The poet, alluding to this, fays, with great beauty, 
Defile* the pitchy night, i. e. makes the night, more than ordinary, 
abominable. WAK.BURTGX. 

This conjecture is truly ingenious, but, I believe, the author 
of it will hhnfel: think it unneceflary, when he recollects that 
faucy may very properly ilgnify luxurious, and by confequencc 
lafcivious. JOHNSON. 

1 But with the word, the time vjill bring onfummer^ 
W}th the worj, i. e. in an infhnt of time. The Oxford editor 
rtads (but what he means by it I know not) Bear ivith the word* 



And be as fweet as iharp. We mufi away; 
* Our waggon is prepar'd, and time revives us : 
' ell, that ends well : ilill the fine's the crown ; 

e courfe, the end is the renown. [Exeunt. 

$ C E N E V, 


Enter Coiinnfi, Lafeu, and Clown. 
Laf. No, no, no, your fon was mif-led with a 

The meaning of this obfervation is, that as Irian hare fivett* 
ycfs with their prickles, fo fhali thefe troubles he, recpmpeftied with 
joy. JOHNSON. 

z Our waggon is prepaid, and time revives us ; ] 
The word revives conveys ib little fenfe, that it feems very liabk 
t\> fufpicicn- 

- and time revyes us ; 

i. e. looks vis in the face, calls upon us to haften. WAR BURTON. 
. The prefent reading is corrupt, and I am atraid the emendation 
none ot the foundeft. I never remember to have feen the word 
rcvye. One may as well leave blunders a.s make them. ' Why^ 
may we not read for a fbift, without much effort, the time invites 

To iye and revye were terms at feveral ancient games at cards, 
but particularly :\\,Gleek. So, in Greene's Art tf Coney-catching^ 
1592 : " I'll either win (omething or lyte fomething, therefore I'll 
vie and revie every card at my plealure, till either yours or mine 
come out; therefore izd, upon this card, my card comes firft." 
Again : '' i lo they vie and revie till fome ten fhillings be on 
the ftake &c." Again : " This, fielheth the Conie, and thefvveet- 
nefs of gain makes him frolick, and none more ready to vie and 
rcvie than he." Again : "So they vie and rcvie, and for once 
that the Barnacle wins, the Conie gets five." Again, in the 
Mufcs Elizium, by Drayton : 

" fie and revie, like chapmen profter'd, 
" Would't be rcceiv'd what you have offer'd." 
Perhaps however, rciyu is not the true reading. Shakefpeare 
might have written - time reviles us, i. e. reproaches us for 
wailing it. Yet. time icvives us may mean, it roufes us. So, 
Li another play ot our author : 

*' i - 1 would revive the foldier's hearts, 

{< 1 fovuiQ ever as myfelf." STEEVEKS.. 


12* A L L's W E L L 

fnipt-taffata fellow there; J whofe villainous faffron 
xvould have made all the unbakM and doughy youth 


' wbofc villainous faffron would have made all the unlaVd 

and doughy youth of a nation in his colour : ] Parolles is vepre- 
iented as an attested follower of the faftiion, and an encourager of 
his matter to run into all the follies of it ; where he fays, Ufe a 
more fpiicioits ccremmiy to the noble lords they wear themf elves in t!>t 
cap of time aiul though the devil lead the meafure, fuch arc to be 
followed. Here fome particularities of fafhionable drefs are ridi- 
culed. Snipt-taffata needs no explanation ; but villainous fafron 
is more obicure. This alludes to a fantaftic fafhion, then much 
followed, of ufing yellow Jlarch for their bands and ruffs. So, 
Fletcher, in his Queen of Corinth : 

" Has he familiarly 

*' Diflik'd your yellow ftarch ; or faid your doublet 

" Was not exactly frenchified r" 
And Jonfon's Devil's an Aft : 

" Carmen and chimney-fweepers are got into the yellow 


This was invented by one Turner, a tire-woman, a court-bawd ; 
and, in all reipecb, of fo infamous a character, that her invention 
deferred tjie name of villuinou* faffron. This wonr.: \\ \\\. , ^a-r- 
wards, arnongft the mifcreaats concerned in the murder of Sir 
Thomas Overbury, for which Ihe was hanged at Tyburn, and 
would die in z yellow rvff oi her own invention : which made yel- 
low ftarch fo odious, that it immediately went out of fafhion. 'Tis 
this then to which Shakefpeare alludes : but ufing the word faffron 
for yellow, a new idea prefented itfelf, and he purfues h'u- thought 

under a quite different alluiion Whofe villainous faffron would 

have made all tie unbak'd and doughy youths of a nation in his colour, 
i. e. of his temper and difpofition. Here the general cuftom of 
that time, of colouring pajie with faffron, is alluded to. So, in 
the Ifttitcr's Tale: 

" I rnuil have faffron to colour the warden pyes." 


Stubbs, in his Anatomic of Alufes, publifhed in 1595, (peaks of 
ftarch of various colours : 

" The one arch or piller wherewith the devil's kingdome of 

great ruffes is underpropped, is a certain kind of liquid matter, 
which they call jlartch, wherein the devjll hath learned them to 
wafh and die their ruffes, which, Being drie, will ibmd ftiff and 
inflexible about their neckes. And this ftartch they make of di- 
vers fubftances, fometimes of wheate flower, ot branne, and other 
graines : fometimes ot rootes, and fometimes of other thinges : of 
*11 coliours and hues, as whice, redde, blewe, purple, and the like.'* 



of a nation in his colour : your daughter-in-law had 
been alive at this hour ; and your fon here at home, 
more advanced by the king, than by that red-tail'd 
humble-bee I fpeak of. 

Count. 4 I would, I had not known him! it was the 
death of the moft virtuous gentlewoman, that ever 
nature had praife for creating : if fhc had partaken of 
my flcfti, and coft me the deareft groans of a mother, 
I could not have owed her a more rooted love. 

Laf. 'Twas a good lady, 'twas a good lady : we 
may pick a thoufand fallads, ere we light on fuch 
another herb. 

Clo. Indeed, fir, me was the fwect-marjoram, of the 
fallet, or, rather, the herb of grace. 

Laf. They are not fallet-herbs, you knave, they 
are nofe-herbs. 

In The World tofs'J at Tcnn'a, a mafque by Middleton, 1620 
the five Jlarcbes are perfonified, and introduced contciling for fu- 
periority. Again, in , 1610 : 

" What price bears wheat andy^^/v//, that your band's fo 

Again, in Two Wife Men and all the reft Fofls, 1 6 1 9 : 

" What's that about her neck ? a pancake, or a tanfey ? 

" 'Tis a band ytfleyjjlarcli' d : how cum'it thou to 

think it to be a tanfey r 

" Becaufe it looks fojello-iv," 

Again ; ** t\i\sfajfroHniiig was never ufed but in Ireland for 

body linen, to diflipate the company of creepers." Again, in the 
Wonder of a Kingdom, 1636 : 

" Garters, things, and ruff: 

" Haft not xfajfron fliirt on too ?" 
Again, in Heyvvood's If you know not Me, y Lno-M NobnJv t 

1633 : ** have taken an order to \\'c&v ycllo-:v garters, pointy, 

and flioe-tyings, and 'tis thoughtj'<*///>:i' will grow a cuilom." 
'* It has been long ufed at Londpn." 

It may be added, that in the year 1446, a parliament wa held 
at Trim in Ireland, by which the natives were directed, among 
other things, not to wear fliirt- (tamed \\~\\\\ /~uffro>:. STEVENS, 

4 Iivould, I had not kno-ivu him / ] This dialogue ferves to 

connect the incidents of Parollcs with the main plan of the play. 



124 A L L's WELL* 

CYt>. I am no great Nebuchadnezzar, fir, I have 
not much fldll in grafs. 

Laf. Whether doit thou pro fefs thy felf; a knave, 
or a fool ? 

Clo. A fool, fir, at a woman's fen-ice, and a knave 
at a man's. 

Laf. Your diftindtion ? 

Ck. I would cozen the man of his wife, and do his 

Laf. So you were a knave at his fervicc, indeed. 

Go. And I would give his wife my bauble, fir, to 
dp her fervice *. 


5 ' I would give his wife my bauble, fir, to Jo her fervice.]' 
Part of the furniture of a fool, was a bauble, which though it be 
generally taken to fignify any thing of fmall value, has a precife 
and determinable meaning. It is, in ihort, a kind of truncheon 
with a head carved on it, which the fool anciently carried in his 
hand. There is a reprefentation of it in a picture of Watteau, 
formerly in the colle&ion of Dr. Mead, which is engraved by 
Baron, and called ComeJ/ens Italicns. A faint refemblance of it 
may be found in the frontispiece of L. de Guernier to king Lear i* 
Mr. Pope's edition in duodecimo. SIR J. HAWKINS. 
So, in Marfton's Dutch Courtefan, 1 604 : 

" if afoot, we muft bear his baulk" 

Again, in The Two angry Women of Abington, 1559 : " "The fool 
will not leave his bauble for the Tower of London." Again, ii^ 
Jack Drum'! Entertainment, 1601 : 

" She is enamoured of the foot's bauble." 
Again, in Sir W.'Davenant's Law againft Lovers : 

" And fence againft his dart with a fool's bauble" 
Again, in Sir W. Davenant's The Mans the Mafter, 1673 : 

" Love ! is that fool's bauble in fafhion ftill ?" 
In the STXJLTIFERA NAVIS, 1497, are feveral reprefentaticns of 
this instrument, as well as in Cockc Lordle's Bate, printed by Wyn- 
kyn de Worde. Again, in Lingtia, &c. 1607 : " It had been 
better for you for to have found a fool 's coat and a bauble." Again, 
in Lyte's Herbal: '* In the hollownefs of the faid flower (the great 
blue wolf's bane) grow two fmall crooked hayres, fomewhat great 
at the end, fafliioned like a fool's bablc." In the long, a<ft I. fc. ii. 
of Volpone, we ought to read : '* Tongue and IciuUe" inftead of 
" Tongue'and babble" " Free from flaughter," in the next line 
but one, means that the fool was licenfed'to fpeak truth without 
being hurt or flain for doing fo. An ancient proverb in Ray'* 

collection , 


Laf. I will fubfcribe for thee; thou art both knave 
and fool. 

&o. At your fervice. 

Laf. No, no, no. 

Clo. Why, fir, if I cannot ferve you, I can ferve as 
great a prince as you are. 

Laf. Who's that ? a Frenchman ? 

Clo. Faith, fir, he has an Englifti name 6 ; but his 
7 phifnomy is more hotter in France, than there. 

Laf. What prince is that? 

Clo. The black prince, fir, alias, the prince of 
darknefs; alias, the devil. 

Laf. Hold thee, there's my purfe : I give thee not 
this to fuggeft thee 8 from thy mailer thou talk'ft of ; 
ferve him Sill, 

Clo. 9 1 am a woodland fellow, fir, that always lov'd 

collection, points out the materials of which thefe baubles were 
made : " If every fool fhould wear a table, fewel would be dear." 
See figure 12, in the plate at the end of the Second Part of King 
H(nry IV. with Mr. Toilet's explanation. STEEVENS. 

6 an Englijh name;-} The old copy reads malne. 


7 his pblfaomy is more hotter in France than there. ~\ This is in- 
tolerable nonfenfe. The ftupid editors, becaufe the devil was 
talked of, thought no quality would fuit him but hotter. We 
fhould read, more honoured. A joke upon the French people, as 
if they held a dark complexion, which is natural to them, in more 
eftimation than the Englilh do, who are generally white and fair. 


This attempt at emendation is unneceflary. Thealhjfion is, in 
all probability, to the Morbus Gallicus. STEEVENS. 

b -- to fuggeft thee from thy majler - ] Thus the old copy. 
The modern editors read - -feduce, but without authority. To 
fuggejl had anciently the fame meaning. So, in Tic Two Gentle' 
men of Verona : 

" Knowing that fender youth is foon/uggeffeeF. 
" I nightly lodge her in an upper tower/ _ S 


9 lam a woodland fellow, fir, &c.] Shakefpcafe is but rarely 
guilty of fuch impious trafh. And it is oblervabic^ that then he 
always puts that into the n:o ith of his fools, which^'Tnow grown 
the chara&eriftic of the tint gentleman. WAR BUK 

a great 

iz6 A L L's WELL 

a great fire j and the mafter I fpeak of, ever keeps 
good fire. But, fure, he is the prince of the world ', 
let his nobility remain in his court. I am for the houfe 
with the narrow gate, which I take to be too little for 
pomp to enter : ibme, that humble themfelves, may ; 
but the many will be too chill and tender; and they'll 
be for the flowery way, that leads to the broad gate, 
and the great fire. 

Laj\ Go thy ways, I begin to be a-weary of thee ; 
and I tell thee fo before, becaufe I would not fall out 
with thee. Go thy ways ; let my horfes be well look'd 
to, without any tricks. 

Clo. If I put any tricks upon 'em, fir, they fliall be 
jades' tricks,- which are their own right by the law of 
nature. [Exit. 

Ltif. A fhre\vd knave, and an * unhappy. 

Count. So he is. 3 My lord, that's gone, made 
himfclf much fport out of him : by his authority he 
remains here, which he thinks is a patent for his fau- 
cinefs ; and, indeed, he has no pace, but runs where 
he will. 

Laf. I like him well ; 'tis not amifs : and I was 
about to tell you, Since I heard of the good lady's 
death, and that my lord your fon was upon his re- 

* Rut, fure, l-e is the prince of the world, ] I think we 
fhould read But iince he is, &c. and thus Sir T. Hanmer. 
1 - unhappy.'] That is, mlfchievoujly waggij}}, unlucky. 


So, in HamUt : 

" Though nothing fure, yet much unhappily." STEEVENS. 

3 So he is, Myltri!, that's gone, made himfclf ?nuch fport out of 
him ; ly bis authority be remains here, which he thinks is a patent 
for his fauclneft ; and, indeed, he has no pace, but runs where he 

Should not we read noplace, that is, \\ojlation, or iiffice'mthe. 
family? TYRWHITT. 

A pace is fc certain or prefcribed walk ; fo we fay of a man mean- 
ly oblequiout, that he has learned his paces, and of a horte who 
moves irregularly, that he has no paces. JOHNSON. 


turn home, I mov'd the king my. mailer, to fpeak in 
the behalf of my daughter; which, in the minority 
of them both, his majefty, out of a felf-gracious re- 
membrance, did firft propofe : his highnefs has pro- 
mis'd me to do it : and, to Hop up the difpleafure he 
hath conceiv'd againft your fon, there is no fitter mat- 
ter. How does your ladyfhip like it ? 

Count. With very much content, my lord, and I 
\viih it happily effected. 

Laf. His highnefs comes poft from Marfeilles, of 
as able a body as when he numbered thirty; he will 
be here to-morrow, or I am deceiv'd by him that in 
fuch intelligence hath feldom fail'd. 

Count. It rejoices me, that I hope I fllall fee him 
ere I die. I have letters, that my fon will be here 
to-night : I fliall befeech your lordfhip, to remain 
with me till they meet together, 

Laf. Madam, I was thinking, with what manners I 
might fafely be admitted. 

Count. You need but plead your honourable privi- 

Laf. Lady, of that I have made a bold charter ; 
but, I thank my God, it holds yet. 

Re-enter Clown. 

Clo. O madam, vender's my lord your fon with a 
patch of velvet on's face : whether there be a fear 
under't, or no, the velvet knows ; but 'tis a goodly 
patch of velvet : his left cheek is a cheek of \yo pile 
and a half, but his right cheek is wornJtiafe. > 

Count. A fear nobly got, or a nobla alar, is a good 
livery of honour : fo, belike, is that* 1 

Go. But it is your 4 carbonado'd face. : 

.;. Laf. 

4 Hut it is your carlmado* d face*~\ Mr. Pope reads \k j eqrl-.>tado > cl, 
which is right. The joke, fueh as it is, con lifts "jUjjie allufion 
to a wound made with a carabine ; arms, which.H^ IV. ."hail 
made famous, by bringing into ufe amongft his hone. 


iz8 A L L's W E L L 

Laf. Let us go fee your Ton, I pray you ; I long 1 
to talk ivith the young noble foldier. 

Ck. 'Faith, there's a dozen of 'em, with delicate fine 
hats, and moil courteous feathers, which bow the 
head, and nod at every man. [Exeunt* 


The Court of France at Marfeilles. 

Ent&r Helena, Widow, and Diana, with two Attendants. 

Hel. But this exceeding polling, day and night, 
Mufl wear your fpirits low : we cannot help it ; 
But, iince you have made the days and nights as one, 
To wear your gentle limbs in my affairs, 
Be bold, you do fo grow in my requital, 
As nothing can unroot you. In happy time j 

Enter a gentle AJlringer * . 
This man may help meJ:o his majefty's ear, 

Carbonadoed means fcotched like a piece of meat for the grid- 
iron, and is, I believe, the true reading. STEEVEXS. 

5 Enter a gentle Aftrlngcr.} Perhaps a gentle Jir anger, i. e. a 
ftranger of gentle condition, a gentleman. The error ot this con- 
jecture which I have learn'd (fince our edition firft made its ap- 
pearance, from an old book of Falconry, 1633,) fhould teach diffi- 
dencetothofe who conceive the words which they donot underfland, 
to be corruptions. An aftrlnger or aftringer is a falconer, and 
fuch a character was probable to be met with about a court which 
was famous for the leve of that diversion. So, in Hanihl: 

" We'll e'en to it like French Falconers" 

A gentle ajlringcr is a gentleman falconer. The word is derived 
from ojlercus or anftcrcns^ a gofhawk ; and thus, fays Cowell in his 
Law DiRionary .- " We ufually call a falconer who keeps that kind 
of hawks, an tn^ringer" Agin, in the Book of Hawking, &c. 
b. 1. no date : " Now bicaufe I Ipoke of ofircgicn, ye fhall under- 
ftand that the ben called ojlrcgicn that keep gofshaukes or ter- 
tels, &c, STEEVEXS. 



If he would fpend his power. God fave you, fir. 

Gent. And you. 

HeL Sir, I have feen you in the court of France. 

Gent. I have been fometimes there. 

HeL I do prefume, fir, that you are not fallen 
From the report that goes upon your goodnefs ; 
And therefore, goaded with moft lharp occafions, 
Which lay nice manners by, I put you to 
The ufe of your own virtues, for the which 
I lhall continue thankful. 

Gent. What's your will ? 

HeL That it will pleafe you 
To give this poor petition to the king ; 
And aid me with that (tore of power you have, 
To come into his prefence. 

Gent. The king's not here. 

HeL Not here, fir ? , 

Gent. Not, indeed : 

He hence remov'd laft night, and with more hafte 
Than is his ufe. 

IVuL Lord, how we lofe our pains ! 

HeL AlV 5 well, that ends well, yet ; 
Though time feem fo adverfe, and means unfit.- 
1 do befeech you, whither is he gone ? 

Gent. Marry, as I take it, to Roufillon ; 
Whither I am going. 

HeL I do befeech you, fir, 
Since you are like to fee the king before me, 
Commend the paper to his gracious hand ; 
Which, I prefume, lhall render you no blame, 
But rather make you thank your pains for it : 
I will come after you, with what good fpeed 
6 Our means will make us means. 

( ' Our meant -TLV'// make us means."} 

Shakefpeare delights much in this kind of reduplication, feme- 
times fo as to oblcure his meaning. Helena fays, they <uciil fellow 
with fuch fteed as the meant which they have *w ill give them ability 
;o t'Aev/. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IV. K Gent. 

130 A L L's WELL 

Gent. This I'll do for you. 

Hel And you fhall find yourfelf to be well thank'd, 
What-e'er falls more. We muft to horfe again ; 
Go, go, provide. [Exeitnt. 


tinier Clown and Parolles. 

Par. Good Mr. Lavatch, give my lord Lafeu this 
letter : I have ere now, fir, been better known to 
you, when I have held familiarity with frefhef 
clothes ; 7 but I am now, fir, muddy'd in fortune's 
moat, and fmell fomewhat ftrong of her ftrong dif- 

7 In former editions : 

. but lam now, fir, muddy'd in fortune's mood, and fmell 
fomewhat Jlrong of 'her Jlrong difpleafure.'} I believe the poet wrote, 
hi fortune's moat; becaufe the clown in the very next fpeech re- 
plies; Iivill henceforth eat no fifh of fortune*! buttering ; and again, 
when he comes to repeat Parolles's petition to Lafeu, that hath 
fall\n itrto the unclean fifh pond of her difpleafure, and, as be fays, is 
muddy'd withal. And again, Pray you, fir, ufe the carp as you 
may, "&c. In all which places, 'tis obvious a moat or a pond is the 
alluBoh. Belides* Parolles fmelling ftrong, as he fays, of for- 
tune's ftrong difpleafure, carries on the fame image ; for as the 
moats round old feats were always replenifli'd with fifh, ib the 
Clown's joke of holding his nofe, we may prefume, proceeded 
from this, that the privy was always over the moat ; and there- 
fore the Clown humouroufly fays, when Parolles is preffing him 
to deliver his letter to lord Lafeu, Foh f pr'ytbee, Jland away j 
a paper from fortune's clofeftool, to give to a nobleman f 


Dr. Wdfburton's corre&ion may be fupported by a paflage in 
the Alchemift : 

" Subtle. Come alongrfrr, 

*' I now muft fhew you Fortune's fri<vy lodgings. 

' Face. Are they perfumed, and his bath ready ? 

" 1 Sub. All. 

44 Only the fumigation's fomewhat ftrong." FARMER* 



Clo. Truly, fortune's difpleafure is but fluttifh, if 
it fmell fo ftrongly as thou fpeak'fl of: I will hence- 
forth eat no fifh of fortune's buttering. Pr'ythee, al- 
low the wind 8 . 

Par. Nay, you need not to flop your nofe, fir ; I 
fpake but by a metaphor. 

Clo. Indeed, fir, if your metaphor ftink, I will 
ftop my nofe ; or agamft any man's 9 metaphor. Pr'y- 
thee, get thee further. 

Par. Pray you, fir, deliver me this paper. 

Clo. Foh ! pr'ythee, ftand away; A paper from 
fortune's clofe-ftool to give to a nobleman ! Look, 
here he comes himfelf. 

Enter Lafeu. 

Here is a pur of fortune's, fir> or of fortune's cat, 
(but not a mufk-cat) that has fallen into the unclean 
fifhpond of her difpleafure, and, as he fays, is mud- 

8 allow the iivW.] i. e. ftand to the windward of me. 


9 Indeed, fir, if your metaphor Jlink, I will Jl op my nofe ; or again/I 
any man's metaphor. ] Nothing could be conceived with greater 
humour or juftnefs of fatire, than this fpeech. The ufe of the 

Jl inking metaphor is an odious fault, which grave writers often com- 
"init. It is not uncommon to fee moral declaimers againit vice, de- 
fcribe her as Hefiod did the fury Triilitia : 

T)j{ IK Jt'(u> p.(J|a eeor 

Upon which Longinus juftly obierves, that, inftead of giving a 
terrible image, he has given a very natty one. Cicero cautions 
well againft it, in his book de Or at. " Qttoniam b#c, fays he, vel 
ftimma lans eft in verlis tramfercndh lit fcnfum feriat i</, quodtraxfl 
latumjit) fuvicnJa ejl omnls turpitudo carutn rcrtun, ad yttos ear urn 
anhnos qui auulunt Irahct fmllitudo. Nolo morte dfet Afriiani ca- 
llratam rjjc rewfuHlcaftl. Nolo flercus curia did Glauciam. Our 
poet himlelt is extremely delicate in this refpect ; who, through- 
out his large writings, if you except a paflage in Hamlet, has 
fcarce a metaphor tliut can offend the molt fqueamiffi reader. 


K 2 dy'd 

132 A L L's WELL 

dy'd withal : Pray you, fir, ufe the carp as you may ; 
for he looks like a poor, decay'd, ingenious, foolifh,, 
rafcally knave. ' I do pity his diftrefs in my i'miles 
of comfort, and leave him to your lordfliip. 

[Exit Clown, 

Par. My lord, I am a man whom fortune hath 
cruelly fcratch'd. 

Laf. And what would you have me to do ? 'tis too 
late to pare her nails now. Wherein have you play'cl 
the knave with fortune, that me mould feratch you, 
who of herfelf is a good lady, and would not have 
knaves thrive long under her ? There's a quart <Fecu, 
for you : Let the juftices make you and fortune 
friends ; I am for other bufinefs. 

Par. I beieech your honour, to hear me one fmglc 

Laf. You beg a fingle penny more : come, you 
fhall ha't ; fave your word. 

Par. My name, my good lord, is Parollcs. 

Laf. You beg more than one word then z . Cox' my 
paffion ! give me your hand : How does your drum ? 

Par. O my good lord, you were the firft that found 

Laf. Was I, in footh ? and I was the fitft that loft 

* 1 do pity his dlftrefs in my frailes of comfort, ] \Ve 

ihould read, Jfmilies of comfort, fuch as the calling him for- 
tune's cat, carp, &c. WARBURTON. 

The meaning is, I teftify my pity for his diftrefs, by encou- 
faging him with a gracious (mile. The old reading may ftand. 


DP^ Warburtoa's propofed emendation may be countenanced by 
an entry on the books of the Stationers' Company, 1 595 : " A 
booke of verie pythie Jtmilies, comfortable and profitable for all 
men to reade." STEEVENS. 

1 You leg more than one word then. ] A quibble is intended 
on the word Parolks^ which hi French, is plural, and fignifies 



Par. It lies in you, my lord, to bring me in fomc 
grace, for you did bring me out. 

Laf. Out upon thee, knave I doft thou put upon 
me at once both the office of God and the devil ? one 
brings thce in grace, and the other brings thee out. 
[Sound trumpet s.~] The king's coming, I know by 
his trumpets. Sirrah, inquire further after me ; I 
had talk of you laft night : though you are a fool and 
a knave, you mall eat 3 ; go to, follow. 

Par. I praife God for you. [Exeunt* 


Flour iJJo. Enter King, Count efs, Lafiu^ Lords, Atten- 
dants, &V. 

King* We loft a jewel of her ; and our 4 efteem 
Was made much poorer by it : but your fon, 
As mad in folly, lack'd the fenfe to know 
Her eftimation home s . 

Count. 'Tis pad, my liege : 
And I befeech your majefty to make it 
Natural rebellion, done i'the blade of youth 6 ; 

3 ' ' youjballeat;'] Parolles has many of the lineaments 
of Falftaff, and feems to be the character which Shakefpeare de- 
lighted to draw, a fellow that had more wit than virtue. Though, 
juftice required that he fhould be dete&ed and expofed, yet hit 
vices Jit fo fit in him that he is not at laft fuffered to tfarve. 


* cftccm] Dr. Warburton, in Theobald's edition, altered 

this word to eftate ; in his own he lets it iland and explains it by 
worth or efiatf. But efteeni is here reckoning or cjl'ui'.atc. Since 
the lofs of Helen with her virtues and qualifications^ our account is 
funk ; what we have to reckon ourfelves king of, is nuch poorer thaii 
before. JOHNSON. 

5 home.} That is, completely, in its full extent. JOHNSON. 

6 lladtofyputb ;] In t\\tjpri*g of early life y when the man 
is yd green, Oilzn&fre iuit but ill with llatle^ and therefore Dr t 
Warburton reads, lla^c of youth. JOHNSON. 

K i When 

134 A L L's WELL 

When oil and fire, too ftrong for reafon's force, 
O'erbears it, and burns on. 

King. My honour 'd lady, 
I have forgiven and forgotten all : 
Though my revenges were high bent upon him, : 
And watch'd the time to ftioot. 

Laf. This I muft fay, 

But firft I beg my pardon, The young lord 

Did to his majefty, his mother, and his lady, 

Offence of mighty note ; but to himfelf 

The greateft wrong of all : he loft a wife, 

Whofe beauty did aftonifh the furvey 

Of richeft eyes 7 ; whofe words all ears took captive; 

Whofe dear perfection, hearts that fcorn'd to ferve, 

Humbly call'd miftrefs. 

King, Trailing what is loft, 

Makes the remembrance dear. Well, call him 


We are reconciled, and the firft view ihall kill * 
All repetition : Let him not a/k our pardon ; 
The nature of his great offence is dead, 
And deeper than oblivion we do bury 
The incenfing relicks of it : let him approach, 

7 O/" richeft eyes ; J Shakefpeare means that her beauty had 

aftonifhed thofe, who, having feenthe greateft number of fair wo- 
men, might be faid to be the ricbeft in ideas of beauty. So, in 

As you like It : " to have feen much and to have nothing, is 

to have rich eyes and poor hands." STEEVENS. 

8 the fir/1 view Jbatt kill 

All repetition : 

77>e firft interview Jhall put an end to all recollection of tbc pa/?. 
Shakefpeare is now haftening to the end ot the play, finds his mat- 
ter fufficient to fill up his remaining fcenes, and therefore, as on 
other fuch occafions, contracts his dialogue and precipitates his 
action. Decency required that Bertram's double crime of cruelty 
and difobedience, joined likevvife with fome hypocrify, fliould raife 
more refentment; and that though his mother might eafily forgive 
Jiim, his king (hould more pertinacioufly vindicate his own au- 
thority and Helen's merit. Of all this Shakefpeare could not be 
ignorant, but Shakefpeare wanted to conclude his play. JOHNSON. 

A ftran- 


A (tranger, no offender ; and inform him, 
So 'tis our will he Ihould. 
Gent. I fliall, my liege. 
King. What fays he to your daughter ? have you 

fpoke ? 
Lfif. All that he is hath reference to your high- 

King. Then lhall we have a match. I have letters 

fent me, 
That fct him high in fame. 

Enter Bertram. 

Laf. He looks well on't. 

King. I am not a day of feafon, 
For thou may'ft fee a fun-fhine and a hail 
In me at once : But to the brighteft beams 
Diftradted clouds give way ; fo ftand thou forth, 
The time is fair again. 

Ber. My high-repented blames 9 , 
Dear fovereign, pardon to me. 

King. All is whole; 

Not one word more of the confumed time. 
Let's take the inflant by the forward top ; 
For we are old, and on our quick'it decrees 
The inaudible and noifelefs foot of time 
Steals, ere we can effedt them : You remember 
The daughter of this lord ? 

Ber. Admiringly, my liege : At firft 
I ftuck my choice upon her, ere my heart 
Durft make too bold a herald of my tongue : 
Where the impreffion of mine eye enfixing, 
-Contempt his fcornful perfpedtive did lend me, . 
Which warp'd the line of every other favour; 

9 My high-repented blames, ~\ 

High-repented blames, are faults repented of to the height, to the 
.Vtnioft. Shukefpeare has blgb-fantajlical in the following play. 


K 4 Scorn'd 

I3 A L L's WELL 

Scorn'd a fair colour, or exprefs'd it (lol'n ' j 
Extended or contracted all proportions, 
To a mofl hideous, object : Thence it came, 
That fhe, whom all men prais'd, and whom myfelf, 
Since I hare -loft, have lov'd, was in mine eye 
The duft that did offend it, 

King. Well excus'd ; 

That thou doft love her, ftrikes fome fcores away 
From the great compt : But lovs-, that comes too late, 
Like a remorfeful pardon flowly carried, 

1 Scorn'd a fair colour, or exprefs'd it JloFn ;] 
Fir/}, it is to be obferved, that this young man's cafe was not in- 
difference to the fex in general, but a very itrong attachment to 
one ; therefore he could not fcorn a fair colour, for it was that 
which had captivated him, But he might very naturally be faid 
to do what men, ftrongly attached to one, commonly do, not al- 
low beauty in any face but his miftrefs's. And that this was the 
thought here, is evident : 

i. From the latter part of the verfe : 

or cxprefs* d it JloF n : 

z'. From the preceding verfe : 

WJiicb warped the line of every other favour ; 
3. From the following verfes : 

Extended or contra fled all proportions 

To a moft hideous objefl : 

Secondly, It is to be obferved, that he defcribes his indifference 
for others in highly figurative expreffions. Contempt is brought 
in lending him her perfpective-glafs, which dees its office proper- 
ly by 'warping the lines ot all other faces ; by extending or contrail- 
ing into a hideous object : or by (xprejjing or fhewing native red and 
white as paint. But with what propriety of fpeech can this glafs 
be faid tofcorn, which is an affe&ion of the mind ? Here then the 
metaphor becomes mifcrably mangled ; but the foregoing obferva- 
tion will lead us to the genuine reading, which is : 
Scorch'd a fair colour , or exprefs'-d it JtoVn \ 

i.e. this glafs reprefented the owner as brown or tanned ; or, if 
not fo, caufed the native colour to appear artificial. Thus he 
fpeaks in character, and confidently with the reft of his fpeech. 
The emendation reftores integrity to the figure, and, by a beauti- 
ful thought, makes ti\z fcornful perjpcli<ve of contempt do the office 
of a burning-glafs. WAR BUR TON'. 

It was butjufl to infert this note, long as it is, becaufe thecom- 
ir.entator feems to think it of importance. Let the reader judge. 




To the great fender turns a four offence, 
Crying, That's good that's gone : our ralh faults 
Make trivial price of ferious things we have, 
Not knowing them, until we know their grave : 
Oft our difpleafures, to ourfelves unjufl, 
Deftroy our friends, and after weep their dull : 
* Our own love waking cries to fee what's done, 
While fhameful hate ileeps out the afternoon. 
Be this fweet Helen's knell, and now forget her. 
Send forth your amorous token for fair Maudlin : 
The main confents are had ; and here we'll flay 
To fee our widower's fecond marriage-day. 

Count. 3 Which better than the firil, O dear hea-, 

ven blefs ! 
Or, ere they meet, in me, O nature, ceafe ! 

Laf. Come on, my fon, in whom my houfe's name 
Muft be digefted, give a favour from you, 
To fparkle in the fpirits of my daughter, 
That ihc may quickly come. By my old beard, 
And every hair that's on't, Helen, that's dead, 
Was a fweet creature ; fuch a ring as this, 

* Our oivn love ivaking &c.] 

Thefe two lines I fliould be glad to call an interpolation of a player. 
They are ill connected with the former, and not very clear or pro- 
per in themfelves. I believe the author made two couplets to the 
fame purpofe. Wrote them both down that he might take his 
choice, and Co they happened to be both preferved. 

fovjlccp I think we fliould ready??//. Love cries to fee what was 
done while hatred./?/-//, and fuffered mifchief to be done. Or the 
meaning may be, that hatred ftill continues to Jlerp at eafc, while 
love is weeping ; and fo the prefent reading may ftand. 

3 Which letter than the firft, O dear heaven, llejs ! 

Or, e'er tbev jnret, in me, O nature, ceafe !~\ 
I have ventur'd, aguinil the authorities of the printed copies, to 
pa fix the Countefs's name to thcfe'two lines. The king appears, 
indeed, to be a favourer of Bertram : but if Bertram fliould make 
a bad hufband the fecond time, why fhould it give the king fuch 
mortal pangs t A fond and difappointed mother might reasonably 
not delire to live to fee fuch a day : and from her the wifli of dying, 
ather than to behold it, come* with propriety. THLOEALD. 


1 3 8 A L L's WELL 

The laft that e'er fhe took her leave at court, 
I faw upon her finger. 

Ber. Her's it was not. 

King. Now, pray you, let me fee it; for mine eye, 

While I was fpeaking, oft was faften'd to't. 

This ring was mine ; and, when I gave it Helen, 

I bade her, if her fortunes ever flood 

Neceffity'd to help, that by this token 

I would relieve her : Had you that craft, to reave her 

Of what Ihould ftead her moft ? 

Ber. My gracious fovereign, 
Howe'er it pleafes you to take it fo, 
The ring was never her's. 

Count. Son, on my life, 
I have feen her wear it ; and ihe reckoned it 
At her life's rate. 

Laf. I am fure, I faw her wear it. 

Ber. You are deceiv'd, my lord, Ihe never faw it : 
In Florence was it from a cafemcnt thrown me 4 , 
Wrap'd in a paper, which contain'd the name 
Of her that threw it : 5 noble Ihe was, and thought 

* In Florence *jjas it from a cafemcnt thryv?n^\ 

Bertram ftill continues to have too little virtue to deferve Helen. 
He did not know indeed that it was Helen's ring, but he knew 
that he had it not from a window. JOHNSON. 

5 noble Jhe was, and thought 

I flood engag'd ; ] 

I don't underftand this reading ; if we are to underftand> that fhe 
thought Bertram engag'd to her in affeiftion, inlnared by her 
' charms, this meaning is too obfcurely exprefs'd. The context 
rather makes me believe, that the poet wrote : 

noble JJ:e iivw, and thought 

I flood ungag'd ; 

i. e. unengag'd : neither my heart, nor perfon, difpos'd of. 


The plain meaning is, when flie faw me receive the ring, flie 
thought me engaged to her. JOHNSO.V. 

The firft folio reads ingagd, which perhaps may be intend- 
ed in the fame fenfe with the reading propofed by Mr. Theobald, 
L e. not engaged ; as Shakefpeare in another place ufes gagd for 
t*.gtged. Slcrchant of Venice ^ a&I. fc. i. TYRVVHITT. 

I flood 


I flood engag'd ; but when I had fubfcrib'd 
To mine own fortune, and informed her fully, 
I could not anfvver in that courfe of honour 
As Ihe had made the overture, Ihe ceas'd, 
In heavy fatisfa&ion, and would never 
Receive the ring again. 

King. Plutus himfelf, 

That knows the tintt and multiplying medicine % 
Hath not in nature's myftery more fcience, 
Than I have in this ring : 'twas mine, 'twas Helen's, 
Whoever gave it you : Then, if you know 7 
That you are well acquainted with yourfelf, 
Confefs 'twas hers, and by what rough enforcement 
You got it from her : fhe call'd the faints to furety, 
That fhe would never put it from her finger, 
Unlefs fhe gave it to yourfelf in bed, 
(Where you have never come) or fent it us 
Upon her great difafler. 

Her. She never faw it. 

King. Thou fpeak'fl it falfely, as I love mine ho- 
nour ; 
And mak'ft conjectural fears to come into me, 

6 King. Plutus limfelf, 

That kno-ivs the tin5l and multiplying medicine ^\ 
Plutus the grand alchemift, who knows the tinfture which confers 
the properties of gold upon bafe metals, and the matter by which, 
gold is multiplied, by which a fmall quantity of gold is made to 
communicate its qualities to a large mafs of metal. 

In the reign of Henry the fourth, a law was made to forbid all 
men thenceforth to multiply gold t or ufe any craft of multiplication. 
Of which law, Mr. Boyle, when he was warm with the hope of 
tranfmutation, procured a repeal. JOHNSON. 

7 77jea t if you know 

That you are well acquainted with yourfilf,] 

i. e. then if you be wife. A Itrangc way of expreffing fo trivial a 
though! WARBURTON. 

The true meaning of \\\\s Jlrangc expreffion is, If you kno--ju that 
your faculties are fo found, as that you have the proper cotifcioufnefs 
of \i>u/- o-ivn alio>is, and are able to recollect ;md relate what you 
have done, tellmc^ &c. JOHNSON. 


i4o A L L's W E L L 

Which I would fain mut out : If it fhould prove 
That thou art fo inhuman, 'twill not prove Ib ; 
And yet I know not : thou didfl hate her deadly, 
And fhe is dead ; which nothing, but to clofe 
Her eyes myfelf, could win me to believe, 
More than to fee this ring. Take him away. 

[Guards feixe Bertram. 

My forc-pafl proofs, howe'cr the matter fall 8 , 
Shall tax my fears of little vanity, 
Having vainly fear'd too little. Away with him; 
We'll lift this matter further. 

Ber. If you lhall prove 
This ring was ever hers, you (hall as eafy 
Prove that I huibanded her bed in Florence, 
Where yet ftie never was. [Exit Bertram, gu&d&U 

Enter a Gentleman. 

King. I am wrap'd in difmal thinkings. 

Gent. Gracious fovereign, 

Whether I have been to blame, or no, I know not; 
Here's a petition from a Florentine, 
Who hath, for four or five removes, come fhort 9 
To tender it herfelf. I undertook it, 
Vanquifti'd thereto by the fair grace and fpeech 
Of the poor fuppliant, who by this, I know, 

* My fore -$aft proofs, bowe'er the matter fall, 
Shall tax my fears of little vanity, 
Having vainly fear'd too little. ] 

The proofs which / have already had, are iufficient to fl'.evv that 
my fears were not vain and irrational. I have rather been hither- 
to more eafy than I ought, and have unrcafonally had too little fear. 


9 Who hath for four or five removes, come Jljort~\ 
\Ve (hould read : 

Who bath fame four or Jive removes come fieri. 
So, in Kin? Lear : 

' For that I zmfome twelve or fourteen moonfhines 

*' Lag or a brother, WAR BUR TON. 

Removes zrejcurnits or pi/l-Jtages. JOHNSON. 



Is here attending : her bufinefs looks in her 
With an importing vifage ; and me told me, 
In a fvveet verbal brief, it did concern 
Your highnefs with herfelf. 

The King reads. 

Upon bis many protections to marry we, when hii 

wife was dead, I blvjh to fay it, be won me. Now is the 
count Ropjillon a widower ; his vows are forfeited to me, 
and my honour's paid to him. He f ok from Florence, tak- 
ing no leave, and I follow him to his country for juftice : 
Grant it me, O king ; in you it bejl lies ; otberwife a ft- 
ducer jlouri/hes, and a poor maid is undone. 


Laf. I will buy me a fon-in-law in a fair, and toll 
for this. I'll none of him '. 

King. The heavens have thought well on thee, Lafeu, 
To bring forth this difcovery. Seek thefe fuitors : 
Go, fpeedily, and bring again the count. 

1 I will buy me afon-i/t-la--jc in a fair % and to\Aefor this. 

ni none of him. 
Thus the firft folio. ' The fecond reads : 

/ iv ill buy me a fon-in-la-'M in afaire, andtoule him for this. Pll 
none of him. 

The reading of the firft copy feems to mean this : I'll buy me a 
new fon-in-law, &c. and toll the bell tor this ; i. e. look upon him 
its a dead man. The fecond reading, as Dr. Percy fuggefts, may 
imply : I'll buy me a fon-in-law as they buy a horfe in a fair ; 
.ml him, i. e. enter him on the tout or /o//-book, to prove I carru-. 
honeftly by him, and afcertain my title to him. In a play called 
The famout Hijlory of Tho. Stuktly, 1605, is an allutioa to this 
?uftom : 

*' Gov. I will be anfwerable to thee for thy horfet. 

" Stuk. Doit thou keep a tolc -booth ? zounds, doft thou make 
a borfe-cou<fcr of me ?" 

Ir the reading of the fecond folio be the true one, we muft alter 
the punctuation thus : 

/ luillbuy me a fon-in-la~M in a fair, atnl toll bin: for this, Pll 
ion< o him. Srtt v t ,\ i . 


142 A L L's W L L 

Enter Bertram, guarded. 

I am afeard, the life of Helen, lady, 
Was foully fnatch'd. 

Count. Now, juftice on the doers ! 

King. I wonder, fir, fince wives are monftersto you 1 / 
And that you fly them as you fwear them lordfhip, 
Yet you defire to marry. What woman's that ? 

Enter Widow, and Diana. 

Dia. I am, my lord, a wretched Florentine, 
Derived from the ancient Capulet ; 
My fuit, as I do underftand, you know, 
And therefore know how far I may be pitied. 

Wid. I am her mother, fir, whole age and honour, 
Both fuffer under this complaint we bring, 
And both fhall ceafe J , without your remedy. 

King. Come hither, count -, Do you know thefe 
women ? 

Ber. My lord, I neither can nor will deny 
But that I know them : Do they charge me further ? 

Dia. Why do you look fo flrange upon your wife ? 

* 1 wonder, fir, ] Thispaffage is thus read in the firft folio : 

1 wonder , fir, fir, wives are monjlcrs to yon, 
And that you fly them, asyoufwear them lordjlnf, 

Yet you defire to marry. 

Which may be corrected thus : 

I wonder, fir, fince wives are monjlem, &c. 

The editors have made it wives are fo monftrous to you, 

and in the next line fwear to them, inflead of /wear them lord' 
Jhip. Though the latter phrafe be a little obfcure, it ihould not 
have been turned out of the text without notice. I fuppofe lord- 
Jbip is put for that proteflion, which the hulband in the marriage- 
ceremony promifes to the wife. TYRWHITT. 

I read with Mr. Tyrwhitt, whofe emendation I have placed in 
the text. STEEVENS. 

3 -JJiall ceafe, ] i.e. deceafe, die. So, m King Lear: 

** Fall and ceafe." I think the word is ufed in the fame ienfe in 
a former fcene in this comedy. STEEVENS. 


T H A T E N D S \V E L L. 14.3 

JSet'. She's none of mine, my lord, 

Dia. If you fhall marry, 
You give away this hand, and that is mine ; * 
You give away heaven's vows, and thofe are mine ; 
You give away myfelf, which is known mine ; 
For I by vow am fo embody'd yours, 
That fhe, which marries yon, muft marry me, 
Either both, or none. 

Laf. Your reputation comes too Ihort for my 
daughter, you are no hulband for her. [To Bertram. 

Ber. My lord, this is a fond and defperate creature, 
Whom ibmetime I have laugh'd with : let your high- 

Lay a more noble thought upon mine honour, 
Than for to think that I would fink it here. 

King. Sir, for my thoughts, you have them ill to 


'Till your deeds gain them : Fairer prove your ho- 
Than in my thought it lies ! 

Dia. Good my lord, 

Afk him upon his oath, if he does think 
He had not my virginity. 

King. What fay'ir, thou to her ? 

Bcr. She's impudent, my lord ; 
And was a common gamefter to the camp. 

Dia. He does me wrong, my lord ; if I were fo, 
He might have bought me at a common price : 
Do not believe him : O, behold this ring, 
Whofe high refpedt, and rich validity 5 , 

* Whoje b;gb rcfpcft, and rich validity,] 

Validity is a very bad word for value , which yet I think Is its mean- 
ing, vmlefs ir be eonfidered as making a contrail -valid. JOHNSON. 
yal'ulity certainly means value. So, in K. Lear : 
" No let's in fpace, validity^ and pleafure." 
Again, in Twelfth-Night: 

' Of what validity and pitch foever." STEEVENS. 


1 4 4 A L L's W E L L 

Did lack a parallel ; yet, for all that, 
He gave it to a commoner o'the camp, 
If I be one. 

Count. He blufhes, and 'tis it 6 : 
Of fix preceding anceftors, that gem 
Conferred by teftament to the fequent iiTue, 
Hath it been ow'd, and worn. This is his wife $ 
That ring's a thoufand proofs* 

King. Methought you faid, 
You law one here in court could witncfs it. 

Dia. I did, my lord> but loth am to produce 
So bad an inftrument ; his name's Parolles. 

Laf. I faw the mail to-day, if man he be. 

King. Find him, and bring him hither. 

Ber. What of him ? 

He's quoted 7 for a moft perfidious flave, 
With all the fpots o'the world tax'd and debofh'd * ; 
Whofe nature fickens but to fpeak a truth 9 ; 
Am I or that, or this, for what he'll utter, 
That will fpeak any thing ? 

King. She hath that ring of yours. 

6 Count. Heilujbesj and 'tis It:} 
The old copy has : 

He bluJbeS) and 'tis hit. 
Perhaps we fhould read : 

He blu/het, and is hit. M ALONE. 
7 His quoted for a moft perfidious Jlave , J 
Quoted has the fame fenfe as noted. So, in Hamlet : 

" I am forry that with better heed and judgment 

*' I had not quoted him." STEEVENS. 

* debofb'd;] See a note on the Tempeft, at III. fc. ii. 


9 Wliofe nature Jickens but tofptak a truth :] 
Here the modern editors read : 

Which nature fokens ivlth : 

A moft licentious corruption of the old reading, in xvhich the 
punctuation only wants to be corrected. We fhould read, as here 
printed : 

Whofe nature Jickens ) but to fpeak a truth ; 
i. e. enly to fpeak a truth. TYRWHITT. 


Ber. I think, fhe has : certain it is, I lik'd her, 
And boarded her i'the wanton way of youth : 
She knew her diftance, and did angle for me, 
Madding my eagernefs with her reibaint, 
As ' all impediments in fancy's courfe, 
Are motives of more fancy ; and, in fine, 
Her infuit coming with her modern grace, 
Subdu'd me to her rate : fhe got the ring ; 
And I had that, which. any inferior might 
At market-price have bought. 

D'ui. I mud be patient ; 
You, that turn'd off a firfl fo noble wife, 
May jutfly diet me 2 . I pray you yet, 
(Since you lack virtue, I will lofe a hu(band) 
Send for your ring, I will return it home, 
And give, me mine again. 

Ber. I have it not. 

King. "What ring was yours, I pray you ? 

1 all impediments in fancy's courfe, 

Are motives of more fancy : - ] 

Every thing that obftrufls love is an occafion by which love is heigh- 
tened. And) to conclude, "her felicitation concurring w&fi her fajhion- 
able appearance, fhe got the ring. 

I am not certain that I have attained the true meaning of the 
word modern, which, perhaps, iignifies rather meanly pretty. 


I believe modern means common. The fenfe will then be this 
Herfolicitation concurring ivith her appearance of being common, i. e. 
with the appearance of her being to be had as we lay at prefent. 
Shakefpeare ufes the word modern frequently, and always in this 

'* fcorns a modern invocation." K. John. 

*' Full of wife faws and modern inttances." As you like it. 

" Trifles, fuch as we prefent modern friends with." 

" to make modern and familiar things fupernatural and 

cnufelefs." STEEVENS. 

* May juflly diet me. ] i.e. make me faft, by depriving me 
(as Dcldemona fays) of " the rites for ivhich I love you" 


VOL. IV. L Dia. 

146 A L L's W E L L 

Dia. Sir, much like 
The fame upon your finger. 

King. Know you this ring? this ring was his of late. 

Dia. And this was it I gave him, being a-bed. 

King. The ftory then goes falfe, you threw it him 
Out of a cafement. 

Dia. I have fpoke the truth. 

Enter Parolles. 

Be?: My lord, I do confefs, the ring was hers. 

King. You boggle fhrewdly, every feather ftarts 

Is this the man you fpeak of ? 

Dia. It is, my lord. 

King. Tell me, firrah, but tell me true, I charge 


Not fearing the difpleafure of your matter, 
(Which, on your juft proceeding, I'll keep off ) 
By him, and by this woman here, what know you? 

Par. So pleafe your majefty, my matter hath been 
an honourable gentleman; tricks he hath had in 
him, which gentlemen have. 

King. Come, come, to the purpofe ; Did he love 
this woman ? 

Par. 'Faith, fir, he did love her ; But how ? 

King. How, I pray you ? 

Par. He did love her, lir, as a gentleman loves a 

King. How is that ? 

Par. He lov'd her, fir, and lov'd her not. 

King. As thou art a knave, and no knave : What 
an equivocal companion is this ? 

Par. I am a poor man, and at your majefty 's com- 

Laf. He's a good drum, my lord, but a naughty 

Dia. Do you know, he promis'd me marriage ? 

Par, 'Faith, I know more than I'll fpeak. 



King. But wilt thou not fpeak all thou know'ft ? 

Par. Yes, fo pleafc your majeity : I did go be- 
tween them, as I faid ; but more than that, he loved 
her, for, indeed, he was mad lor her, and talk'd of 
Satan, and of limbo, and of furies, and I know not 
what : vet I was in that credit with them at that time, 
that I knew of their going to bed ; and of other mo- 
tions, as promifing her marriage, and things that 
would derive me ill will to fpeak of, therefore I will 
not fpeak what I know. 

Kitig. Thou haft fpoken all already, unlefs thou 
canit fay tlu-y are marry'd : But thou art too fine in 
thy evidence 5 ; therefore ftand afide. This ring, you 
fay, was yours ? 

Dhi. Ay, my good lord. 

King. Where did you buv it ? or who gave it you ? 

Dla. It was not given me, nor did I buy it. 

King. Who lent it you ? 

Dia. It was not lent me neither. 

King. Where did you find it then ? 

Dia. I found it not. 

King. If it were yours by none of all thcfe ways^ 
How could you give it him ? 

Dia. I never gave it him. 

Laf. This woman's an eafy glove, my lord j Ihe 
goes off and on at pleafurc. 

King. The ring was mine, I gave it his firft wife. 

Dia. It might be yours, or hers, for aught I know. 

King. Take her away, I do not like her now ; 

To prifon with her : and away with him.- 

Unlefs thou tell'ft me where thou hadft this ring, 
Thou dicft within this hour. 

Dia. I'll never tell you. 

King. Take her away. 

3 JRut thou art too fine in fl-y e--iiicKcc ; ] Too fine t too 

full of fine lie ; too artful. A French expreifion trap fine. 


L a D'u. 

I4 $ A L L's WELL 

Dia. I'll put in bail, my liege. 

King. I think thee now fome common cuftomer *. 

Dia. By Jove, if ever I knew man, 'twas you. 

King. Wherefore haft thou accus'd him all this 
while ? 

Dia. Becaufe he's guilty, and he is not guilty ; 
He knows, I am no maid, and he'll fwear to't : 
I'll fwear, I am a maid, and he knows not. 
Great king, I am no {trumpet, by my life ; 
I am either maid, or elie this old man's wife. 

[Pointing to Lafeu. 

King. She does abufe our ears ; to prifon with her. 

Dia. Good mother, fetch my bail. Stay, royal fir ; 

[Exit Widow. 

The jeweller, that owes the ring is fent for, 
And he ihall furety me. But for this lord, [To Bert. 
Who hath abus'd me, as he knows himfelf, 
Though yet he never harm'd me, here I quit him : 
5 He knows himfelf, my bed he hath defil'd ; 
And at that time he got his wife with child : 
Dead though frie be, fhe feels her young one kick ; 
So there's my riddle, One, that's dead, is quick. 
And now behold the meaning. 

Re-enter Widow, with Helena. 

King. Is there no exorcift 6 , 
Beguiles the truer office of mine eyes ? 
Is't real, that I fee ? 

Hel. No, rny good lord ; 

* - C7{ftomer."\ i.e. a common woman. So, \nOtbeUo: 
" I marry her! what ? a cuftomer!^ STEEVENS. 
5 He knows himfelf, &c. - ] 

This dialogue is too long, fince the audience already knew the 
whole tranlaftion ; nor is there any reafon for puzzling the king 
and playing with his paffions ; but it was much eaiier thari to make 
a pathetical : nterview between Helen and her huibaud, her mother, 
and. the king. JOHNSOX. 

//?,] This word is ufed not very properly for enchanter. 




*Tis but a fliadow of a wife you fee, 
The name, and not the thing. 

Ber. Both, both ; oh, pardon ! 

HeL Oh, my good lord, when I was like this maid, 
I found you wond'rous kind. There is your ring, 
And, look you, here's your letter; This it fays, 
W 'hen from wy finger you can get this ring, 
And are by me with child, &c. This is done : 
Will you be mine, now you are doubly won ? 

Ber. If me, my liege, can make me know this clearly, 
I'll love her dearly, ever, ever dearly. 

HeL If it appear not plain, and prove untrue, 
Deadly divorce ftep between me and you ! 
O, my dear mother, do I fee you living ? 

[To the Countefs. 

Laf. Mine eyes fmell onions, I fhall weep anon : 
Good Tom Drum, lend me a handkerchief: [To Pa- 
rolles.~] So, I thank thee ; wait on me home, I'll 
make fport with thee : Let thy courtefies alone, they 
are fcurvy ones. 

King. Let us from point to point this ftory know, 

To make the even truth in pleafure flow : 

If thou be'lt yet a frefh uncropped flower, [To Diana, 
Chufe thou thy hufband, and I'll pay thy dower; 
For I can guefs, that, t by thy honefl aid, 
Thou kept'ft a wife herfelf, thyfelf a maid. 
Of that, and all the progrefs, more and lefs, 
Refolvedly more leifure fliall exprefs : 
All yet fcems well ; and, if it end fo meet, 
The bitter paft, more welcome is the fweet. 

Advancing : 

The king's a beggar, now the play is done : 
All is well ended, if this fuit be won, 
That you exprefs content ; which we will pay > 
Withjlrlfe to plcafe you, day exceeding day : 

L 3 Ours 

i 5 o A L L's W E L L, &c. 

7 Ours be your patience tbm, and yours our parts ; 

Tour gentle bands lend us, and take our hearts. [Exeunt. 

7 Ours be your pat lend then^ and yours our parts ;~\ 
The meaning is : Grant us then your patience ; hear us without in- 
terruption. ^Wtake our parts; that is, fuppovt and defend us. 

This play has many delightful fcenes, though not fufficiently 
probable, and fome happy characters, though not new, nor pro- 
duced by any deep knowledge of human nature. Parolles is a 
boafter and a coward, fuch as has always been the fport of the 
fhge, but perhaps never raifed more laughter or contempt than in 
the hands of Shakefpeare. 

I cannot reconcile my heart to Bertram ; a man noble without 
generality, and young without truth ; who marries Helen as a 
coward, and leaves her as a profligate : when me is dead by his 
xmkindnefs, fneaks home to a fecond marriage, is accufed by a 
woman whom he has wronged, defends himfelt by falfehood, and 
is difmifTed to happinefs. 

The ftory of Bertram and Diana had been told before of Mari. 
ana and Angelo, and, to confefs the truth, fcarcely merited to be 
heard a fecond time. JOHNSON. 


O R, 


L 4 

Perfons Reprefented. 

Orfino, Duke of Illyria. 

Sebaftian, a young gentleman, brother to Viola, 

Antonio, a fa-captain, friend to Sebaftian. 

Valentine, i , ,. 7 T> / - 

Q ' > Gentlemen, attending on we Duke, 

Sir Toby Belch, uncle to Olivia. 

Sir Andrew Ague-cheek, afoolffi knight, pretending to 


A fe a- captain, friend to Viola. 
Fabian, fervant to Olivia. 
Malvolio, afantajlicaljleward to Olivia. 
Clown, fer-vant to Olivia. 

Olivia, a lady of great beauty and fortune, belov'd by the 


Viola, in love with the Duke. 
Maria, Olivia'.* woman. 

Prieft, Sailors, Officers, and other attendants. 
SCENE, a city on the coajl of Illyria* 

The firfl edition of this play is in the folio of 1623. 

The perfons of the drama were firft enumerated, with all the cant 
of the modern ftage, by Mr. Rowe. JOHNSOX. 



O R, 



The Duke's Palace. 
Enter the Duke, Curio> and Lords. 

Duke. If mufick be the food of love, play on, 
Give me excefs of it ; ' that, furfeiting, 


1 There is great reafon to believe, that the ferious part of this 
Comedy is founded on fome old tranilation of the feventh hiftory 
in the fourth volume of Belief or eft's Hiftoires Tragiques. It ap- 
pears from the books of the Stationers' Company, July 15, 1596, 
that there was a verfion of " Epitomes des cent Hijloires Tra- 
giqites, partie extrai&es des ates des Remains, et autres, &c." 
JBelletoreft took the ftory, as ufual, from Bandello. The comic 
fcenes appear to have been entirely the production of Shakefpeare. 
Auguft 6, 1607, a Comedy called What you Will, (which is the 
fecond title of this play) was entered at Stationers' Hall by Tho. 
Thorpe. I believe, however, it was Marfton's play with that 
name. Ben Jonfon, who takes every opportunity to find fault 
with Shakefpeare, feems to ridicule the condudt of Twelfth-Night 
in his Every Man out of his Humor, at the end of act III. fc. vi. 
where he makes Mills fay ; " That the argument of his comedy 
might have been of fome other nature, as of a duke to be in love 
with a countefs, and that countefs to be in love with the duke's 
fon, and the fon in love with the lady's waiting maid : lomefuch 
srofs wooing, with a clotvn to their ferving man, better than be 
thus near and familiarly allied to the time." STEEVENS. 

* that, furfeiting, 

The appetite mayjicken, andfo die. ] 

There is an impropriety of exprelfiou in the prefent reiding of 



The appetite may ficken, and fo die. 

3 That ftrain again ; it had a dying fall : 
O, it came o'er my ear like the Tweet fouth *, 
That breathes upon a bank of violets, 


this fine paflage. We do not fay, that the appetite fikens and dies 
through afurfeit ; but the fubjecl of that appetite. I am perfuad- 
ed, a word is accidentally dropt j and that we Ihould read and 
point the paflage thus : 

that) forfeiting 

The app'titc, love may Jickcn, andfo die. WAREURTON. 
It is trub, we do not talk ot the death of appetite, becaufe we do 
not ordinarily fpeak in the figurative language of poetry ; but 
that appetite Jickens by afurfeit is true, and therefore proper. 


3 T7jat jlraiti again. ; // had a dying fall: 
O y it came o'er my ear like the fivect fouth) 
That breathes upon a bank of violet s^ 

Stealing, and giving odour. ] 

Amongit the beauties of this charming fimilitude, its exacl: pro. 
priety is not the leaft. For, as a fouth wind, while blowing over 
a violet-bank, wafts away the odour of the flowers, it, at the 
fame time communicates its own fweetnefs to it ; fo the foft af- 
fefting mufick, here defcribed, though it takes away the natural, 
fweet tranquility of the mind, yet, at the fame time, it com- 
municates a new pleafure to it. Or, it may allude to another 
property of mufick, where the fame {trains have a power to ex- 
cite pain or pleafure, as the ftate is, in which it finds the hearer. 
Hence Milton makes the felf-famc {trains of Orpheus proper to 
excite both the affections of mirth and melancholy, juft as the 
mind is then difpofed. If to mirth, he calls for fuch mufick :. 
That Orpheus' felf may heave his head 
From golden {lumbers on a bed 
Of heapt Elyfian flowers, and hear 
Such {trains as would have won the ear 
Of Pluto, to have quite fet free 
His half-regain'd Eurydice." L? Allegro, 

If to m ancholy 

Or bid the foul of Orpheus {ing 

Such notes as warbled to the ftring, 

Drew iron tears down Pluto's cheek, 

And made hell grant what love did feck." IlPenfcrofo. 


Thekfelf-fame ftrains of Orpheus, as Mr. Edwards has likewife 
obferved, are, in the firft initance, what are performed by another 
perfon, when Orpheus is only a hearer ; in the fecond, Orpheus 



Stealing, and giving odour. Enough; no more; 

'Tis not fo fweet now, as it was before. 

O fpirit of love, how quick and frefh art thou ! 

That, notwithftanding thy capacity 

Receiveth as the fea, nought enters there, 

Of what validity and pitch foever 5 , 

But falls into abatement and low price, 

Even in a minute ! 6 fo full of fhapes is fancy, 

That it alone is high-fantaftical. 

Cur. Will you go hunt, my lord ? 

Duke. What, Curio ? 

Cur. The hart. 

Duke. Why, fo I do, the noblefl that I have : 
O, when my eyes did fee Olivia firft, 

fmgs himfelf. Milton, in his ParaJlfe Loft, b. iv. ha< very fuc- 
cci!> fully introduced the fame image : 
" now gentle gales, 

" Fanning their odoriferous wings, difpenfe 
" Native perfumes, and whifper whence they ftole 
" Thofe balmy fpoils." STEEVENS. 

* the fweet fouth,] The old copy reads {vteetJ0u*J t 

which Mr. Rowe changed into iviad t and Mr. Pope into />//>. 


5 Of what validity and pitch foever,'] 
falulity is here ufed for value. So, in Aid Well that ends Well : 

" O behold this ring, 

" Whofe high refpeft and rich validity 
"- Doth lack a parallel." MALONE. 
6 -fo full ofjhapes is fancy, 

That it alone is high fantaftical.] 
This complicated nonfenfe fliould be rectified thus : 

fo full ofjhapes infancy, 

That it alone is hig\\t farita/tical, 

L e. love is fo tull ot fhapes infancy, that the name of fan'ajlicnl 
is peculiarly given to it alone. 

But, for the old nonfenfe, the Oxford editor gives us his ne\v: 
- fo full nfjbapes is fancy , 
And thou all o'er art high fantaftical, 
fays the critic. WARBURTON. 

Highfantajliccl, means no more than fantajlLal to the /'tight. 
So, in Airs Well that cads Well: 

'* My high-repented blames 
'* Dear forercign, p:irdon me." STEEVENS. 



Methought, ftie purg'd the air of peftilence ; 
That inftant was I turn'd into a hart 7 ; 
And my defires, like fell and cruel hounds, 
E'er fince purfue me. How now ? what news from 

Enter Valentine. 

Vol. So pleafe my lord, I might not be admitted, 
But from her hand-maid do return this anfvver : 
The element itfelf, till feven years hence, 
Shall not behold her face at ample view ; 
But, like a cloiftrefs, fhe will veiled walk, 
And water once a day her chamber round 
With eye-offending brine : all this, to fcafon 
A brother's dead love, which fhe would keep frefh. 
And lading, in her fad remembrance. 

Duke. O, fhe, that hath a heart of that fine frame, 
To pay this debt of love but to a brother, 
How will fhe love, when the rich golden fhaft 
Hath kill'd the flock of all affedtions elfe 
That live in her 8 ! when liver, brain, and heart, 


7 That inftant icas I turned into a hart ; ] 

This image evidently alludes to the ilory of Afteon, by which 
Shakefpeare feems to think men cautioned againft too great fami- 
liarity with forbidden beauty. Acleon, who faw Diana naked, 
and was torn in pieces by his hounds, reprefents a man, who in- 
dulging his eyes, or his imagination, with the view of a woman 
that he cannot gain, has his heart torn with incefi'ant longing. 
An interpretation far more elegant and natural than that ot Sir 
Francis Bacon, who, in his Wifdom of tbe Antients, fuppofes this 
itory to warn us againft enquiring into the fecrets of princes, by 
fhewing, that thofe who knew that which for reafons of flate is 
to be concealed, will be deteded and deftroyed by their own fer~ 
vants. JOHNSON. 

* O, Jbe, that bath a heart of that fine frame ^ 

To pay this debt of love but to a brother, 

Ho'-v wlUjbt love, <vjbsn the rich golden fyaft 

Hath kllVd the fleck of all affeSiions elfe 

That live in her! } 



Thcfe fovereign thrones, are all fupply'd, and fill'd, 
1 (Her fweet perfections) with one felf-famc king ! 
Away before me to fweet beds of flowers ; 
Love-thoughts lie rich, when canopy 'd with bowers, 




Enter Viola % a Captain, and Sailors, 
Vio. What country, friends, is this ? 
Cap. This is Illyria, lady. 
Vio. And what fhould I do in Illyria ? 
My brother he is in Elyfium. 
Perchance, he is not drown'd : What think you* 

failors ? 
Cap. It is perchance, that you yourfelf were fav'd. 

Dr. Hurd obfervcs, that Shno, in the Andrian of Terence^ reafons 
on his fon's concern for CbrySs in the lame manner : 

" Nonnunquam conlacrumabat : placuit turn id mihl. 
*' Sic cogitabam : hie parvse confuetudinis 
** Caufa hujus mortem tam fert familiariter : 
** Quid fi ipfe amafiet ? quid mihi hie faciet patri ?" 
- the flock of all a/eft Ions - 

So, in Sidney's Arcadia: " - has the Jlock of unfpeakablc 
virtues." STEEVENS. 

9 Theie Sovereign thrones, - ] 

We fhould read three fovereign thrones. This is exactly in the 
manner of Slmkefpeare. So, afterwards, in this play, Thy tongue^ 
thy j ace, thy limbs, actions, andfpirit, do give thec fivefold bla-mm. 


We fhould read and point it thus : (O fvottt-perftSian ! ) 


There is no occafion for this new pointing, as the poet does 
not appear to have meant exclamation, /./tvr, brain, and heart, 
are ;;Jmitted in poetry as the refidence of pajfiuns, judgment, and 
fciitimcnti. Thele are what Shakeipeare calls, her fweet per fee* 
tions, though he has not very clearly exprclled what he might de- 
lign to have faid. STEEVENS. 

a Enter iTiola, - ] Piola is the name of a lady in the fifth 
book of Gowcr ik Confejfione Amantis. STESVEN s. 



Vlo* O my poor brother ! and fo, perchance, may 
he be. 

Cap. True, madam : and, to comfort you with 


AfTure yourfelf, after our ihip did fplit, 
When you, and that poor number fav'd with you, 
Hung on our driving boat, I faw your brother, 
Molt provident in peril, bind himfelf 
(Courage and hope both teaching him the practice) 
To a firong maft, that liv'd upon the fea ; 
Where, like Anon on the dolphin's back, 
I faw him hold acquaintance with the waves, 
So long as I could fee. 

Vto. For faying fo, there's gold : 
Mine own efcape unfoldeth to my hope, 
Whereto thy fpeech ferves for authority, 
The like of him. Know'll thou this country ? 

Cap. Ay, madam, well ; for I was bred and born, 
Not three hours travel from this very place. 

Wio. Who governs here ? 

Cap. A noble duke in nature, as in name J . 

F~w. What is his name ? 

Cap. Orfino. 

Vw. Orfino ! I have heard my father name him : 
He was a batchelor then. 

Cap. And fo is now, or was fo very late : 
For but a month ago I went from hence ; 
And then 'twas frefh in murmur, (as, you know, 
What great ones do, the lefs will prattle of) 
That he did feck the love of fair Olivia. 

Vio. What's ihe? 

Cap. A virtuous maid, the daughter of a count 
That dy'd fome twelve-month fince; then leaving her 

3 A nolle duke in nature, as in name. ] 

I know not whether the nobility of the name is comprifed in ///Y, 
r in Qrfine, which is, I think, the name of a great Italian family. 



In the protection of his fon, her brother, 
Who Ihortly alfo dy'd : for whofe dear love, 
They fay, fhe hath abjur'd the fight 
And company of men. 

Ylo. O, that I ferv'd that lady ; 
And might not be delivered to the world 4 , 
'Till I had made mine own occafion mellow, 
What my eftate is ! 

Cap. That were hard to compafs ; 
Becaufe fhe will admit no kind of fuit, 
No, net the duke's. 

Vio. There is a fair behaviour in thee, captain ; 
And though that nature with a beauteous wall 
Doth oft clofe in pollution, yet of thee 
I will believe, thou haft a mind that fuits 
With this thy fair and outward character. 
I pray thee, and I'll pay thee bounteoufly, 
Conceal me what I am ; and be my aid 
For fuch difguife as, haply, fhall become 
The form of my intent. I'll ferve this duke J ; 
Thou lhalt prelcnt me as an eunuch to him, 
It may be worth thy pains ; for I can ling, 
And fpcak to him in many forts of muiick, 
That will allow me very worth his fervice 6 . 

4 Ami w'-^ht a at be deliver* J, &C.] 

I wifli I might not be made public to the world, with regard'to the 
fiatc of my birth and fortune, till I have gained a ripe opportunity 
for my defign. 

Viola feems to have formed a very deep defign with very little 
premeditation : fhe is thrown by fliipwrcck on an unknown coaft, 
hears that the prince is a batchelor, and refolves to fupplant the 
lady whom he courts. JOHNSON. 

5 1* II fine this duke ; ] 

Viola is an excellent fchemer, never at a lofs ; if (he cannot ferve 
the lady, fhe will ferve the duke. JOHNSON. 

6 That will allow me ] To allow is to approve. So, in, 

King Lear : 

" if your Aveet fway 

*' Alle-M obedience" STEEVEXS. 



What elfe may hap, to time I will commit ; 
Only ihape thou thy filence to my wit. 

Cap. Be you his eunuch, and your mute I'll be : 
When my tongue blabs, then let mine eyes not fee ! 

Vio. I thank thee : Lead me on. \_Exeum. 


Olivia's houfe. 

Enter Sir Toby, and Maria. 

Sir To. What a plague means my niece, to take 
the death of her brother thus ? I am fure, care's an 
enemy to life 7 . 

Mar. By my troth, Sir Toby, you muft come in 
earlier o'nights ; your coufin, my lady, takes great 
exceptions to your ill hours. 

Sir To. Why, let her except, before excepted 8 . 

Mar. Ay, but you muft confine yourfelf within 
the modeft limits of order. 

Sir To. Confine ? I'll confine myfelf no finer than 
I am : thefe clothes are good enough to drink in, and 
fo be thefe boots too ; an they be not, let them hang 
themfelves in their own ftraps. 

Mar. That quaffing and drinking will undo you : 
I heard my lady talk of it yefterday ; and of a fooliih 
knight, that you brought in one night here, to be her 

Sir To. Who ? Sir Andrew Ague-cheek ? 

Mar. Ay, he. 

7 * care's an enemy to l(fe.~\ Alluding to the old proverb, 
Care ivitt kill a cat. STEEVENS. 

8 Let her except, before excepted.} This fhould probably be, 
*j before excepted : a ludicrous'uie of the formal lavo-phrafe. 


Sir To. 


Sir To. He's as tall a man 9 as any's in Illyria. 

Mar. What's that to the purpofe ? 

Sir To. Why, he has three thoufand ducats a year. 

Mar. Ay, but he'll have but a year in all thefe du- 
cats ; he's a very fool, and a prodigal. 

Sir To. Fie, that you'll fay fo J he plays o'th' viol- 
de-gambo *, and fpeaks three or four languages word 
for word without book, and hath all the good gifts of 

Mar. He hath, indeed, almoft natural : for, be- 
iides that he's a fool, he's a great quarreller ; and, but 
that he hath a gift of a coward to allay the guft he 
hath in quarrelling, 'tis thought among the prudent, 
he would quickly have the gift of a grave. 

Sir To. By this hand, they are fcoundrels, and fub- 
tractors, that fay fo of him. Who are they ? 

Mar. They that add moreover, he's drunk nightly 
in your company. 

Sir To. With drinking healths to my niece; I'll 
drink to her, as long as there's a pafiage in my throat, 

9 as tall a man ] Tall means^a/, courageous. So, in 
Wily Beguiled: 

" Ay, and he is a tallfellov.^ and a man of his hands too." 
Again : 

" If he do not prove himfelf as tall a man as he." 


1 vlol-Jc-gamljo, ] The <vio!-dc-gamlt> fecms, in our 

author's time, to have been a very fafliionuble inftrumcnt. In The 
Return from ParnaJJiiS) 1606, it is mentioned, with its proper de- 
rivation : 

" Her viol-de-gamto is her beft content, 
" For 't-ivixt her legs fhe holds her inurnment." COLLINS. 
So, in the induction to the Male-content , 1606 : 

*' come fit between my legs here. 

*' No indeed, coufin, the audience will then take me forav/W- 
Je-gambo, and think that you play upon me." 

In the old dramatic writers frequent mention is made of a cafe of 

viols, confiding of the <v i ol -de- ?aml o^ the tenor arid the treble. 

See Sir John Hawkins's Hljl.of Mufjd, vol. IV. p. 32. n. 338, 

wherein is a defcription of a cafe, more properly termed a cbcjl of 

viols. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. M and 


and drink in Illyria : He's a coward, and a coyftril % 
that will not drink to my niece, till his brains turn 
o'the toe like a parilh-top 3 . What, wench ? 4 Caftili- 
ano volgo ; for here comes Sir Andrew Ague-face. 


a a coyjlril, -] i. e. a coward cock. It may however 

be a kejlrel, or a baftard hawk ; a kind or ilione hawk. So, in 
Arden of Fever/bam, 1592: 

** as dear 

" As ever ccyftril bought fo little fport." STEEVENS. 

A coyjlrll is a paltry groom, one only fit to carry arms, but not 
to ufe them. So, in Holinflied's Defcription of England, vol, I. 
p. 162 : " Cojlcreh, or bearers of the armes of barons or knights." 
Vol. III. p. 248 : " So that a knight with his efquire and coijlrcll 
with his two horfes." P. 272, "women, lackies and coifterels are 
confidered as the unwariike attendants on an army." So again, irt 
p. 127, and 217 of his Hi ft. ofScotlatid. For its etymology, fee 
coujlllle and Coujtillier in Cotgrave's Dittionary. TOLLET. 

3 like a parifh-top. j This is one of the cultoms now 

laid afide. A large top was formerly kept in every village, to be 
whipped in froily weather, that the peafants might be kept warm 
by exercife, and.out of mifchief , while they could not work. 


+ CaiViliano volgo:, ] We fliould rend volto. In En- 

glifh, put on your Caftiiian countenance ; that is, your grave, fo- 
lemn looks. The Oxford editor has taken my emendation r But, 
by Caftilian countenance, he fuppofes it meant moil civil and court- 
ly looks. It is plain, he underftands gravity and formality to be 
civility and courtlinefs. WAR BUR TON. 

Caftillano volgo ;] I meet with the word Caftilian and Co/lilians 
in feveral of the old comedies. It is difficult to affign any peculiar 
propriety to it, unlefs it was adopted immediately after the defeat 
of the Armada, and became a cant term capricioufly expreflive of 
jollity or contempt. The hojl, in the M. IF. of Wlndfor, calls 
Caius a Caftitian-king Urinal ; and in the Merry Devil of Edmon- 
ton, one of the characters fays : " Ha ! my CajHHan dialogues !" 
In an old comedy called Look about ycu, \ 6co, it is joined with 
another toper's exclamation very frequent in Shakefpeare : 

" And Rlvo will he cry, and Caftik too." 
So again, in Hey wood's Jav of Malta, 1633: 

** Hey, Rivo Cajiiliano, man's a man." 

Again, in the Stately Moral of the Three Lords of London, 1590 : 
" Three Cavalieros Cajiitianes here &c." 

Cotgrave, however, informs us, that Cajlllle not only fignifies 
the nobleft part of Spain, but contention^ delate , trailing, alter ca- 


Enter Sir Andrew* 

Sir And. Sir Toby Belch! how now, Sir Toby 

Sir 'To. Sweet fir Andrew ! 

Sir And. Blefs yon, fair fhrew. 

Mar. And you too, fir. 

Sir To. Accofl, fir Andrew, accoft. 

Sir And. What's that ? 

Sir To. My niece's chamber-maid. 

Sir And. Good miftrefs Accoft, I defire better ac- 

Mar. My name is Mary, fir. 

Sir And Good Mrs. Mary Accofl, 

Sir To. You miftake, knight : accoft, is, front her, 
"board her, woo her, ailail her. 

Sir And. By my troth, I would not undertake her 
in this company. Is that the meaning of accoft ? 

tion. Us font en Caflille. Tbcre is ajarre letwixt them; and pren- 

dre la Caflille pour autruy : To undertake another man's quarrel. 

Mr.Maloneobferves, that CV*/?//ra feems likewifeto have been a 

cant term forafinicalafte6ted courtier. So,inMarilon'sSW/m, 1599 : 

" The abfolute Caft'dio, 

w He that can all the points of courtfhip ftiew." 
Again : 

" Come, come, Caflilian, fkim thy poflet curd, 

" Shew thy queere fubftance, worthlefs, moft abfurd.'* 
Again : 

*' Take ceremonious compliment from thee, 

Alas, I fee CaftiliSs beggary." 
Again : 

Or (hall perfum'd Gaftitio cenfure thee." 
Again : 

" Ca/iilios, Cyprians, court-boyes, Spanifh blocki 

*' Ribanded eares, Granada nether-flocks." 
Again : 

* When fome (lie golden-flop'd CaflHh, 

** Can cut a manor a firings at Primero." 

Thefe jiaflages Mr. Malone fuppofes to confirm Dr. Warburton'f 
emendation, and Sir T. Hanmer's comment. Mariten, however, 
leems to allude to the famous Balthafar Cafli%tioni y whofe moft ce- 
Jcbrated work was // Cortiglano, or The Courtier. STEEVENS. 

M 2 Mar. 


Mar. Fare you well, gentlemen. 

Sir To. Ai/thou let part fo r ilr Andrew, would 
thou might'ft never draw fword again. 

Sir And. An you part fo y miftreis, I would I- might 
never draw fword again \ Fair lady, do you think 
you have fools in hand ? 

Mar. Sir, I have not you by the hand. 

Sir And. Marry, but you ihall have ; and here's 
siy hand. 

Mar. Now, fir, thought is free : I pray you, bring, 
your hand to the buttery-bar, and let it drink. 

Sir And. Wherefore, fweet heart ? what's your me- 
taphor ? 

Mar* It's dry, fir s . 

Sir Arid. Why, I think fo ; I am not fuch an afs, 
but I can keep my hand dry. But what's your jeil ? 

Mar. A dry jeft, fir. 

Sir And. Are' you full of them ? 

5 /A thy, Jir.~\ What is the jeft of dry anJ, I know not any 
better than Sir Andrew. It may poffibly mean, a hand with no 
money in it ; or, according to the rules of phyfiognomy, (he may 
intend to infinuate, that it is not a lover's hand, a moiil hand 
being vulgarly accounted a fign of an amorous confutation. 


** But to fay you had a dull eye, a {harp nofe (the vifible marks. 
of a fhrew), a dry band, which is ihejign of a bad liver , as hefaid 
you were, being toward a hujband too, this was intolerable." 

Monfuur D' Olive, l6o6 

Again, in Decker's Honeft Wljare^ 1635: " Of all dry-fifted 
knights, I cannot abide that he fhould touch me." Again, in 

Weftward-Hoe r by Decker and Webfter, 1606 : " Let her 

marry a man of a melancholy completion, {he fr.all not be much- 
troubled by him. My hufband has a band as dry as -his brains &c.'*' 
The Chief Juftice likewife in the fecond part of K. Hen. IV. enu- 
merates a dry hand among the charafterifticks of debility and age. 
Again, in Antony and Cleopatra^ Charmian fays: " if an 

oily palm be not a fruitful prognoftication, I cannot fcrntch mine 
e;ir." All thefe paflages will ferve to conrirm Dr. Johnfon's latter 
fuppolition. STEEVENS. 


Mar. Ay, fir ,* I have them at my fingers' ends : 
inarry, now I let go your hand, I am barren. 

[ Ex it Maria. 

Sir To. O knight, thou lack'it a cup of canary ; 
When did I fee thee fo put down ? 

Sir And. Never in your life, I think ; uniefs you fee 
canary put me down : Methinks, ibmetimcs I have 
no more wit than a chriflian, or an ordinary man has: 
but I am a great eater of beef, and, I believe, that 
does harm to my wit. 

4$Vr To. No qucflion. 

Sir And. An I thought that, Fd forfWear it. I'll 
ride home to-morrow, fir Toby. 

Sir To. Poitrguoy, my dear knight ? 

Sir And. What is poitrquoy ? do, or not do ? I would 
I had beftowed that time in the tongues, that I have 
in fencing, dancing, and bear-baiting : O, had I 
but followed the arts ! 

Sir To. Then hadft thou had an excellent head of 

Sir And. Why, would that have mended my hair? 

Sir To. Paft queilion ; for 6 thou feeft, it will not 
curl by nature, 

Sir And. But it becomes me well enough, does't 
not ? , 

Sir To. Excellent ! it hangs like flax on a diftaff; 
'and I hope to fee a houfewife take thee between her 
legs, and fpin it off. 

Sir And. Faith, I'll home to-morrow, fir Toby : 
your niece will not be fecn ; or, if me be, it's four to 
one lhe'11 none of me : the count himfclf, here hard 
by, wooes her. 

Sir To. She'll none 6'the count; flie'll not match 

* In former copies ; 'tbtntfcc/t, it will ncfcool my nature."] 

read : it wot not curl by nature. The joke is evident. 


This emendation is Theobald's, though adopted without acknow- 
ledgement by Dr. Warburton. STEEVENS. 

M 3 above 


above her degree, neither in eftate, years, nor wit; I 
have heard her fwear it. Tut, there's life in't, man. 

Sir And. I'll flay a month longer. I am a fellow 
o'the ftrangeft mind i'the world ; I delight in mafques 
and revels fometimes altogether. 

Sir 'To. Art thou good at thefe kick-fliaws, knight ? 

Sir And. As any man in Illyria, whatfoever he be, 
tinder the degree of my betters ; 7 and yet I will not 
compare with an old man. 

Sir To. What is thy excellence in a galliard, knight ? 

Sir And. 'Faith, I can cut a caper. 

Sir To. And I can cut the mutton to't. 

Sir And. And, I think, I have the back-trick, (im- 
ply as ftrong as any man in Illyria. 

Sir To. Wherefore are thefe things hid ? wherefore 
have thefe gifts a curtain before them ? are they like 
to take duft, like miftrefs Mall's picture 8 ? why doft 


7 and yet I luillnot compare <v:itb an old man.~\ This is 
intended as a fatire on that common vanity of old men, in prefer- 
ring their own times, and the paft generation, to the prelent. 


This firoke of pretended fatire, but ill accords with the cha- 
racter of the foolifh knight. Ague-cbeeli^ though willing enough 
to arrogate to himfelf fuch experience as is commonly the acquifi- 
tion of age, is yet careful to exempt his perfon from being com- 
pared with its bodily weakneis. In fhort, he would fay with Fal- 
Jtaff: " / am old in nothing but my undc rjlanding" STEEVENS. 

8 'miftrefs Mall's pitfure ? J The real name of the woman 

whom I fuppofe to have been meant by Sir Toty, was Mary Frith. 
The appellation by which fhe was generally known, vtz&Mall Cut- 
purfe. She was at once A.nbermapbroJlte, a proftitute, a bawd, a bully, 
a thief, a receiver of ftolen goods, &c. &c. On the books of the 

Stationers' Company, Augurt 1610, is entered " A Booke 

called the Madde Prancks of Merry Mall of the Bankiide, with 
her walks in man's apparel, and to what purpofe. Written by- 
John Day." Middleton and Decker wrote a comedy, of which fhe 
is the heroine. In this, they have given a very flattering repre- 
fentation of her, as they-obferve in their preface, that " it is the 
excellency of a writer to leave things better than he finds them." 

The title^ of this piece is Tie Roaring Girl, or, Mall Cut -pur fe\ 

af it bath been lately afted on the Fortune Stage, by the Prince bis 



thou not go to church in a gal Hard, and come home 
in a coranto ? my very walk Ihould be a jig ; I would 
not fo much as make water, but in a fink-a-pace 9 . 
What doft thou mean ? is it a world to hide virtues 
in ? I did think, by the excellent conftitution of thy 
leg, it was form'd under the ftar of a galliard. 

Sir And. Ay, 'tis ftrong, and it does indifferent well 
in a flame-colour'd flock '. Shall we fet about fome 
revels ? 

Sir To* What ftiall we do elfc ? were we not born 
under Taurus ? 

Players, 161 1. The frontifpiece toil contains a full length of her 
in man's clothes, fmonking tobacco. Nat/j. Field, in his Amtmis 
for Ladies, another comedy, 1059, gives the following character 
of her : 

" Hence lewd impudent, 
I know not what to term thee, man or woman, 
For nature, {haming to acknowledge thee 
For either, hath produc'd thee to the world 
Without a fex : Some lay that thou art woman, 
Others, a man ; to many thou art both 
Woman and man ; but I think rather neither ; 
Or man, or horfc, as Centaurs old was ieign'd." 
A life of this woman was likewife published, izmo, in, 1662, with 
her portrait before it in a male habit ; an ape, a lion, and an eagle 
by her. As this extraordinary perfonage appears to have partook 
ot both fexes, the curtain which Sir Toly mentions, would not have 
been uimeceflarily drawn before fuch a picture of. her as might 
have been exhibited in an age, of which neither too much delicacy 
cr decency was the chara&eriflick. STEEVENS. 

ajink-a-pace. ] i.e. a cinque-pace ; the name of a 

dance, the meafur-es whereof are regulated by the number five. 
The word occurs eltewhere in our author. SIR J. HAWKINS. 

1 Jlame-colour'ajlock. ] The old copy reads a dam\l 

colour' djlock. Stocking were in Shakefpeare's time, called Jiocks. 
So, in Jack Drum's Entertainment, 1601 : 

" or would my iilk_/W fhould lofe his glofs elfe." 

The fame folicitude concerning the furniture of the legs, makes 
part of mailer Stephen's character in Kveiy Man in bis Humour : 

" I think my leg would (how well in afilk hofe." 


M 4 Sir 


Sir And. Taurus ? that's fides and heart *. 

Sir To. No, fir ; it is legs and thighs. Let me fee 

thce caper: ha! higher: ha, ha! excellent! 



The palace. 

Enter Valentine, and Viola in man's attire. 

Vol. If the duke continue thefe favours towards 
you, Cefario, you are like to be much advanc'd ; he 
hath known you but three days, and already you arc 
no ftranger. 

Vw. You either fear his humour, or my negligence, 
that you call in queftion the continuance of his love : 
Is he inconftant, fir, in his favours ? 

Val. No, believe me. 

Enter Duke, Curio, and attendants. 

Vio. I thank you. Here conies the count. 

Duke. Who faw Cefario, ho ? 

Vio. On your attendance, my lord ; here. 

Duke. Stand you a-while aloof. Cefario, 
Thou know'ft no lefs but all ; I have unclafp'd 
To thee the book even of my fecret foul : 
Therefore, good youth, addrefs thy gait unto her; 
Be not deny'd accefs, fland at her doors, 
And tell them, there thy fixed foot lhall grow, 
'Till thou have audience. 

Vio. Sure, my noble lord, 
If fhe be fo abandon'd to her forrow 
As it is fpoke, Hie never will admit me. 

-* Taurus ? tbafsjides and heart.'] Alluding to the medical aftro- 
logy ftill preferved in almanacks, which refers the affeclions of 
particular parts of the body, to the predominance of particular 
conftellations. JOHNSON. 



Duke. Be clamorous, and leap all civil bounds, 
Rather than make unprofited return. 

V"io. Say, I do fpeak with her, my lord; What then? 

Duke. O, then, unfold the paffion of my love, 
Surprize her with difcourfe of my dear faith : 
It ihall become thee well to aft my woes ; 
She will attend it better in thy youth, 
Than in a nuncio of more grave afpeft. 

Vio. I think not fo, my lord. 

Duke. Dear lad, believe it; 
For they Ihall yet belye thy happy years, 
That fay, thou art a man : Diana's lip 
Is not more fmooth, and rubious ; thy fmall pipe 
Is as the maiden's organ, flirill, and found, 
And all is femblative a woman's part J . 
I know, thy conftellation is right apt 
For this affair : Some four, or five, attend him ; 
All, if you will ; for I myfelf am befi, 
When lead in company : Profper well in this, 
And thou fhalt live as freely as thy lord, 
To call his fortunes thine. 

Vio. I'll do my beft, 

To woo your lady : [_ExitDuke.~\ yet, a barrful ftrife +! 
Who-e'er I woo, myfelf would be his wife. [Exeunt* 


Olivias loufe. 

Enter Maria and Clown. 

Mar. Nay, either tell me where thou haft been, or 
I will not open my lips, fo wide as a brittle may enter, 

3 a woman's part. ,] 

That is, thy proper part in a play would be a woman's. Women 
were then perfonated by boys. JOHNSON. 

4 - a barrful Jlrifc .'] 

i. e. a conteft full of impediments. STEEVENS. 



in way of thy excufe : my lady will hang thee for 
thy abfence. 

Go. Let her hang me : he, that is well hang'd in 
this world, needs fear no colours s . 

Mar. Make that good. 

Clo. He ihall fee none to fear. 

Mar. A good lenten 6 anfwer : I can tell thee where 
that faying was born, of, I fear no colours. 

Clo. Where, good miitrefs Mary ? 

Mar. In the wars ; and that may you be bold to 
fay in your foolery. 

Clo. Well, God give them wifdom, that have it; and 
thofe that are fools, let them ufe their talents. 

Mar. Yet you will be hang'd, for being fo long ab- 
fent, or be turn'd away ; Is not that as good as a hang- 
ing to you ? 

Clo, Marry, a good hanging prevents a bad mar- 
riage; 7 and, for turning away, let fummer bear it out. 


5 fear no colours."} This exprefiion frequently occurs in 

the old plays. So, in Ben Jonfon's Sejanus. The perfons con- 
verling are Sejanus, and Eudemus the phylician to the princefs 

* c Sef. You miniiler to a royal lady then. 
'* E'uJ. She is, my lord, and fair. 
*' Se>- That's underftood 
'* Of all their fex, who are or would be (b j 
'* And thofe that would be, phyfick foon can make 'em : 
** For thofe that are, their beauties fear no colours." 
Again, in the Two Angry Women of Abington^ 1599 : 

44 are you difpofed, fir ? 

" Yes indeed : I fear no colours ; change fides, Richard." 


*-! lenten anfiver: ] A lean, or as we now call it, a dry 
anfwer. JOHNSON. 

Sure a lenten anfwer, rather means a JJ-ort and (pare one, like 
the commons \nlent. So, in Hamlet : " what lenten. enter- 
tainment the players {hall receive from you." STEEVENS. 

7 ...... and for turning away, let fummer bear it out.] This 

feems to be a pun from the nearnefs in the pronunciation of turn- 
ing away and turning of <wbey. 

I found this obfervation among fome papers of the late Dr. 



Mar. You are refolute then ? 

Cto. Not fo neither; but 1 am refolv'd on two points. 

Mar. That, if one break, the other will hold ; or, 
if both break, your gafkins fall. 

Clo. Apt, in good faith ; very apt ! Well, go thy 
way ; if fir Toby would leave drinking, thou wert as 
witty a piece of Eve's fiefh as any in Illyria. 

Mar. Peace, you rogue, no more o'that ; here 
comes my lady : make your excufe wifely, you were 
bell. [Exit. 

Enter Olivia? and Malvolio. 

Clo. Wit, and't be thy will, put me into good 
fooling ! Thofe wits, that think they have thee, do 
very oft prove fools; and I, that am furc I lack thee, 
may pafs for a wife man : For what lays Quinapa- 

lus ? Better a witty fool, than a foolilh wit 8 . 

God blefs thee, lady ! 

Oli. Take the fool away. 

Clo. Do you not hear, fellows? take away the lady. 

Oil. Go to, you're a dry fool ; I'll no more of you : 
bc-fides, you grow difhoneft. 

Cio. Two faults, Madonna 9 , that drink and good 

Letherlarid, for the perufal of which, I am happy to have an op- 
portunity of returning my particular thanks to Mr. Glover, the 
author of Medea and LconiJas, by whom, before, I had been obli- 
ged only in common with the fen of the world, 

I am yet of opinion that this note, however fpecious, is wrong, 
the literal meaning being eafy and appofite. For turning away , let 
fummer bear it out. It is common tor uniettled and vagrant ferv- 
ing-men, to grow negligent of their bulinefs towards futnmer ; 
and the fenfe of the paifage is: If I am turned away^ the advan- 
tages of the approaching Jummer ivi!! bear out, or fupport all the in- 
conveniences of tlifmijjion ; for I Jliall find employment in every Jleld t 
and lodging under every hedge. STEEVENS. 

8 Better a witty fool, than a fonliJJj ivif. ] Hall, in 

his Chronicle, (peaking of the death of Sir Thomas More, lays, 
*' that he knows not whether to call him a faolijfj wife man^ or a 
r M : fe fooliJJ) nia/i." JOHNSON. 

9 Madonna, ] Ita!. miftrefs, dame. So, La MaJdona. t 

by way of pre-eminence, the BleJJcd /7'^/V/. STEEVENS. 



counfel will amend: for give the dry fool drink, then 
is the fool not dry ; bid the difhoncft man mend him- 
felf ; if he mend, he is no longer diihoneft; if he can- 
not, let the botcher mend him : Any thing, that's 
mended, is but patch'd : virtue, that tranfgrefles, is 
but patch'd with fin ; and fin, that amends, is but 
patch'd with virtue: If that this fimple fyllogifm will 
ferve, fo; if it will not, What remedy ? as there is no 
true cuckold but calamity, fo beauty's a flower : the 
lady bade take away the fool ; therefore, I fay again, 
take her away. 

OK. Sir, I bade them take away you. 

Clo. Mifprilion in the higheft degree ! Lady, Cu- 
cullus nonfacit monacbum; that's as much as to fay, I 
wear not motley in my brain. Good Madonna, give 
me leave to prove you a fool. 

Oli. Can you do it ? 

Clo. Dexterouily, good Madonna. 

Oli. Make your proof. 

. Clo. I mufl catechize you for it, Madonna; Good 
my moufe of virtue, anfwer me. 

Oli. Well, fir, for want of other idlenefs, I'll bid^ 
your proof. 

Clo. Good Madonna, why mourn'ft thou ? 

Oli. Good fool, for my brother's death. 

Clo. I think, his foul is in hell, Madonna. 

Oli. 1 know his foul is in heaven, fool. 

Clo. The more fool you, Madonna, to mourn for 
your brother's foul being in heaven. Take away the 
fool, gentlemen. 

Oli. What think you of this fool, Malvolio ? doth 
he not mend ? 

Mai. Yes ; and fliall do, till the pangs of death 
lhake him : Infirmity, that decays the wife, doth ever 
make the better fool. 

Clo. God fend you, fir, a fpeedy infirmity, for the 
better encreafing your folly ! fir Toby will be fworn, 



that I am no fox ; but he will not pafs his word for 
two pence that you are no fool. 

Oil. How fay you to that, Malvolio ? 

Mill. I marvel your ladyfhip takes delight in fuch 
a barren rafcal ; I faw him put down the other day 
with an ordinary fool, that has no more brain than a 
flone : Look you now, he's out of his guard already; 
imlefs you laugh and minuter occafion to him, he is 
gagg'd. I proteft, I take thefe wife men, that crow 
Ib at thefe fet kind of fools, no better than the fools* 

OIL O, you are fick of felf love, Malvolio, and 
tafte with a diftemper'd appetite : to be generous, 
guiltlefs, and of free difpofition, is to take thofc 
things for bird-bolts, that you deem cannon-bullets : 
There is no iiander in an allow'd fool, though he do 
nothing but rail ; nor no railing in a known difcreec 
man, though he do nothing but reprove. 

Clo. l Now Mercury indue thee with leafing, for 
thou fpeak'ft well of fools ! 

Enter Maria. 

Mar. Madam, there is at the gate a young gentle* 
man, much defires to fpeak with you. 
Oli. From the count Orlino, is it ? 

1 Notv Mercury indue tbee with leafing, for tbou fyeaPft well of 
fools /] This is a ilupid blunder. We fhould read, with pleafing, 
i. c. with eloquence, make thee a gracious and powerful fpeaker, 
for Mercury was the god of orators as well as cheats. But the firlt 
editors, who did not underftand thephrafe, indue thte with plcaf- 
iu.g , made this foolifh correction ; more excufable, however, thaji 
the lail editor's, who, when this emendation was pointed out tx> 
him, would make one of his own ; and fo, in his Oxford edition, 
reads, with learning ; without troubling himfelf to fitisty the 
reader how the firft editor Ihould blunder in a word fo cafy to be 
underftood as learning^ though they well might in the word pleaf- 
ing, as it is uied in this place. WAR BURTON. 

I think the prefent reading more humourous. May Mercury 
teach tbee to /:r, face thou tlejl in favour off^oli, JOH.NSON. 


Mar. I know not, madam ; 'tis a fair young man/ 
and well attended. 

Oli. Who of my people hold him in delay ? 

Mar. Sir Toby, madam, your kinfman. 

OH- Fetch him off, I pray you ; he fpeaks nothing 
but madman ; Fie on him ! Go you, Malvolio : if it 
be a fuit from the count, I am fick, or not at home ; 
what you will, to difmifs it. [_Rxlt Maholw.~\ Now 
you fee, fir, how your fooling grows old, and people 
dillike it. 

Clo. Thou haft fpoke for us, Madonna, as if thy 
cldert fon ihould be a fool : whofe fcull Jove cram 
with brains, for here comes one of thy kin has a moft 
weak pia mater ! 

Enter Sir Toby. 

OIL By mine honour, half drunk. W r hat is he at 
the gate, coufin ? 

Sir To. A gentleman. 

Oli. A gentleman ? What gentleman ? 

Sir To. * 'Tis a gentleman here A plague o'thefc 
pickle-herring ! How now, fot ? 

Clo. Good Sir Toby, 

OK. Coufin, coufin, how have you come fo early 
by this lethargy ? 

* 'T'is a gentleman. Here ] He had before faid it was a 

gentleman. He was afked what gentleman ? and he makes thi 
reply ; which, it is plain, is corrupt, and (hould be read thus : 

'7?j a gtntleman-\&\t. 

5. e. feme lady's eldeft fon juft come out of the nurfery ; for this 
was the appearance Viola made in men's clothes. See the cha- 
racter Malvolio draws of him prefently after. WAR EUR TON. 

Can any thing be plainer than that Sir Toby was going to de- 
fcribe the gentleman, but was interrupted by the effe&s of his 
pickle-herring f I would print it as an imperfect lentence. Mr. 
Edwards has the fame obfervation. STEEVEXS. 

Mr. Steevens's interpretation may be right : yet Dr Warburton's 
reading is not fo ftrange, as it has been reprefemed. In Rroome's 
Jovial Crew, Scentwell fays to the gypiies : " We mull find & 
young gentlewoman-heir among you." FARMER. 


Sir "To. Lechery ! I defy lechery : There's one at 
the gate. 

Oli. Ay, marry ; what is he ? 

Sir To. Let him be the devil, an he will, I care 
not : give me faith, fay I. Well, it's all one. [Exit. 

OIL What's a drunken man like, fool ? 

Clo. Like a drown'd man, a fool, and a madman : 
one draught above heat J makes him a fool ; the fe- 
cond mads him ; and a third drowns him. 

Oil. Go thou and feek the coroner, and let him fit 
o' my coz ; for he's in the third degree of drink, he's 
drown'd : go, look after him. 

Clo. He is but mad yet, Madonna ; and the fool 
ihall look to the madman. [Exit 

Re-enter Malvolio. 

Mai. Madam, yond young fellow fwears he will 
fpeak with you. I told him you were fick ; he takes 
on him to underfland fo much, and therefore comes 
to fpeak with you : I told him you were afleep ; he 
ieems to have a fore-knowledge of that too, and there- 
fore comes to fpeak with you. What is to be faid to 
him, lady ? he's fortified againft any denial. 

Oli. Tell him, he fhall not fpeak with me. 

Mai. He has been told fo ; and he fays, he'll *ftand 


3 above heat - ] i. e. above the ftate of being warm in a 
proper degree. STEEVEXS. 

* - Jtand at your door like afierlfipoft,] It was thecuf- 
tom. for that officer to have large pojls let up at his door, as an in- 
dication of his office. The original of which was, that the king's 
proclamations, and other public a&s, might be affixed thereon by 
way of publication, So, Jonfon's Every Man out of bis Humour: 
" --- put off 

" To the lord Chancellor's tomb, or the Shrives fojls. rt 
So again, in the old play called Lingua: 

" Knows he how to become a fearlet gown, hath he a pair of 
frefli pofti at his doorr" WAX BUR TON. 

Dr. Letherland was of oph.ion, thu: " by this pofl is meant a 



at your door like a ftieriff 's poll, and be the fuppprtrf 
to a bench, but he'll fpeak with you. 

OU. What kind of man is he ? 

Mai. Why, of man kind. 

OU. What manner of man ? 

Mai. Of very ill manner ; he'll fpeak with you> 
\vill you, or no. 

On. Of what perfonage, and years, is he ? 

Mai. Not yet old enough for a man, nor young 
enough for a boy ; as a fquaih is before 'tis a peafcod, 
or a codling when 'tis almoft an apple : 'tis with him 
e'en {landing water, between boy and man. He is 
.very well-favour'd, and he fpeaks very Ihrewifhly ; 
one would think, his mother's milk were fcarce out of 

On. Let him approach : Call in my gentlewoman. 

Mai. Gentlewoman, my lady calls. [Exit* 

Re- enter Maria. 

OH. Give me my veil: come, throw it o'er my face; 
We'll once more hear Orfmo's embafly. 

Enter Viola. 

Via. The honourable lady of the houfe, which is 

jsoft to mount his horfe from, a horfeblock, which, by thecuftom 

cf the city, is ftill placed at the flieriff's door." 

In the Contention for Honour and Riches, 3. mafque by Shirly, 

1633, one of the competitors ivvears 
" By the Shric^ves poft, &c." 

Again, in A Woman never vex'd, Com. by Rowley, 1632 j 
" If e'er I live to fee \hcejber iff of London, 
" I'll gild thy painted pofts cum privilegio." 

Again, in Cyntbias Revels, by B. Jonfon : 

" The provident painting of his pojls, againft he fliould hav$ 
been pra;tor." 

Again, in Hey wood's Englijh Traveller, 1633 : 

*' What brave carv'd /<?/?.?? who knows but here 
* In time, fir, you may keep JQVX Jbrivalty ?" 




Oil. Speak to me, I mall aniwer for her ; Your 
will ? 

Vio. Moil radiant, exquifite, and unmatchable beau- 
ty, I pray yon, tell me, if this be the lady of the 
houfe, for I never faw her : I would be loth to caft- 
away my fpeech ; for, befides that it is excellently 
well penn'd, I have taken great pains to con it. Good 
beauties, let me fuftain no fcorn ; 5 1 am very comp- 
tiblej even to the ieaft fmifter ufage. 

Oli. Whence came you, fir ? 

Vio. I can fay little more than I have ftudied, and 
that queflion's out of my part. Good gentle one, 
give me modeft aflurance, if you be the lady of the 
houfe, that I may proceed in my fpeech. 

Oil. Are you a comedian ? 

Vio. No, my profound heart : and yet, by the very 
fangs of malice, I fvvcar, I am not that I play. Are 
you the lady of the houfe ? 

OIL If I do not ufurp myfelf, I am. 

Vio. Moft certain, if you are me, you do ufurp 
yourfelf ; for what is yours to bcftow, is not yours to 
referve. But this is from my commiffion : I will on 
with my fpeech in your praife, and then Ihew you the 
heart of my meflage. 

OIL Come to what is important in't : I forgive you 
the praife. 

Vio. Alas, I took great pains to ftudy it, and 'tis 

OIL It is the more like to be feign'd ; I pray you, 
keep it in. I heard, you were faucy at my gates; and 
allow'd your approach, rather to wonder at you thaa 
s to hear you. If you be not mad, be gone ; if you 

5 1 am very compt'Me^ ] ComptlUe for ready to call to 

account. WAR BURTON. 

Viola feems to mean iuft the contrary. She begs (lie may not 
be treated with fcorn, "becaufu fhc is very fubmiifive, even to 
lighter marks of reprchenfiou. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. N have 


have reafon, be brief : 'tis not that time of the moon 
with me, to make one in fo 6 flopping a dialogue. 

Mar. Will you hoift fail, fir ? here lies your \vayv 

Vio. No, good fwabber ; I am to hull here a little 
longer 7 . Some mollification for your 8 giant, fweet 

9 OIL Tell me your mind. 

Vio. I am a mefTenger. 

OIL Sure, you have fome hideous matter to deliver, 
xvhen the courtefy of it is fo fearful. Speak your 

Vio. It alone concerns your ear. I bring no over- 
ture of war, no taxation of homage ; I hold the olive 
in my hand : my words are as full of peace as matter. 

Oil. Yet you began rudely. What are you ? what 
wbuld you ? 

Vw. The rudenefs, that hath appeared in me, havtf 

6 -flipping ] Wild, frolick, mad. JOHNSO.V. 

So, in K. Henry IV. P. 1 : 

I " The flipping king, he ambled up and down &c. rt 


7 . I am to hull ken ] To lull means to drive to and 

fro upon the water, without fails or rudder. So, in the Noble 
Soldier , 1634 : 

" That all thefe mifchiefs foflwith flagging fail." 


8 Some mollification for your giant,* ] Ladies, in romance^ 
re guarded by giants, who repel all improper or troublefome ad- 
vances. Viola, feeing the waiting-maid fo eager to oppofe her 
meflage, intreats Olivia to pacify her giant. JOHNSON. 

Viola likewife alludes to the diminutive iize of Maria, who is 
called on fubfequent occafions, little villain, youngeft ivren of 
nine, &c. STEEVENS. 

>Vio. Tell me your mind, I am a mejfinger. ] Thefe word* 
muft be divided between the two fpeakers thus : 
Oli. Tell me your mind. 
Vio. / am a taffjingcr. 

Viola growing troublefome, Olivia \vould difmifs her, and there- 
fore cuts her fhort with this command, T'ell me your mind. The 
other, taking advantage of the ambiguity or the word mind, which 
fignifies either bufinefs or inclination?, replies as if flic had uied it 
iu the latter fenfe, I am a mtfltHgtr* WARBURTOX. 

I learn'd 

WH A T YOU WILL. i 79 

I learn'd from my entertainment. What I am, and 
what I would, arc as fecret as maiden-head : to your 
ears, divinity ; to any other's, prophanation. 

OIL Give us the place alone : [Exit Maria.~\ we will 
hear this divinity. Now, fir, what is your text ? 

Vio. Moft fwcet lady, 

OIL A comfortable doctrine, and much may be 
faid of it. Where lies your text ? 

Vio. In Orfino's bofoin. 

Oil. In his bofom ? in what chapter of his bofom ? 

Vio. To anfwer by the method, in the firft of his 

Oil. O, I have read it ; it is herefy. Have you 
no more to fay ? 

Flo. Good madam, let me fee your face. 

Oil. Have you any commiffion from your lord to 
negotiate with my face ? you are now out of your 
text : but we will draw the curtain, and fhew you the 
picture. ' Look you, fir, fuch a one I was this pre- 
fent : Is't not well done ? [Unveiling. 

Vio. Excellently done, if God did all. 

Oli. 'Tis in grain, fir; 'twill endure wind and 

Vio. J Tis beauty truly blent % whofe red and white 


1 Look you, Jir, fucb a one /was this prefent : is't not well 

Jonef] This is nonfenle. The change of was to wear, I think, 
clears all up, and gives the expreffion an air of gallantry. Viola 
prefles to fee Olivia's face : The other at length pulls off her veil, 
and fays : IVe 'Mill drcrw the curtain, anJJbew you the picture. I 
wear this complexion to day, I may wear another to morrow ; jo- 
cularly intimating, that fhe^te/ffW. The other, vext at the jeft, 
fays, " Excellently doiit^ if God did all." Perhaps, it may be 
true, what you fay in jeft; otherwife 'tis an excellent face. 'Tis 
ingrain, &c. replies Olivia. WARLURTON. 

I am not fatisfied with this emendation. She fays, I was this 
prefent, inftead of faying I am ; becaufe ihe had once fhewn her- 
lelf, and perfonates the beholder, who is afterwards to :nake the 
relation. STEEVENS. 

a 'Tis leauty trufy blent, ] 5. e. blended, mix'd together: 

N 2 Blent 


Nature's own fweet and cunning hand laid on : 
Lady, you are the cruell'ft fhe alive, 
3 If you will lead thefe graces to the grave, 
And leave the world no copy. 

OH. O, fir, I will not be fo hard hearted ; I will 
give out diverfe fchedules of my beauty : It ihall be 
inventoried ; arrd every particle, and utenfil, labell'd 
to my will : as, itern, two lips indifferent red ; item, 
two grey eyes, with lids to them ; item, one neck, 
one chin, and fo forth. Were you" fent hither to 'praife 
me * ? 

Vio. I fee you what yon are : you are too proud y 
But, if you were the devil, you are fair. 
My lord and matter loves you ; O, fuch love 
Could be but recompens'd, though you were crown'd 
The non-parcil of beauty ! 

OH. How does he love me ? 

Flo. With adorations, with fertile tears, 

Blfnt is the antient participle of the verb to blend. So, in a Look- 
ing Glafs for London and En gland \ 1617 : 

" the beautiful encreafe 

" Is wholly blent." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Qucin^ b. i. c. 6 : 

" for having blent 

*'. My name with guile, and traiterous intent." STEEVE\S. 
3 If you iv ill lead thefe graces to the grave ^ 

And leave tie ivorld no copy.~\ 

How much more elegantly is this thought exprefled by Shake- 
fpeare, than by Beaumont and Fletcher in their Pbilafter? 

" I grieve fuch virtue fliould be laid in earth 

" Without an heir." 
Shakefpeare has copied himfelf in his i ith fonnet : 

" She carv'd thee for her feal, and meant thereby 

*' Thou fhould'ft print more, nor let that copy die." 
Again, in the $d fonnet : 

" Die finglc, and thine image dies with thee." 


4 IfarcyorifeHtbit/jertflprAifeme?] The foregoing words 
fcbeJulfAnA. inventoried, ftiev/, I think, that this ought to be printed: 

" Were you ftnt hither to 'praife me ? 
i. e. to appretiate or appraife me. MAI.OKE* 



5 With groans that thunder love, with fighs of fire. 

OK. Your lord does know my mind, I cannot love 

him : 

Yet I fuppofe him virtuous, know him noble, 
Of great eftate, of frclh and ftainlefs youth ; 
In voices well divulg'd, free, Jearn'dj and valiant, 
And, in dimenfioii, and the fhape of nature., 
A gracious perfon : but yet I cannot love him ; 
He might have took his anfwer long ago. 

Vlo. If I did love you in my matter's flame, 
With fuch a fuffering, fuch a deadly life, 
In your denial I would find no fenfe, 
I would not underiland it. 

Oli.. Why, what would you ? 

Vio. Make me a willow cabin at your .gate, 
And call upon my foul within the houfe ; 
Write loyal cantos of contemned love, 
And ling them loud even in the dead of night ; 
f Haloo your name to the reverberate hills, 
And make the babling goffip of the air 
Cry out, Olivia ! O, you ihould not reft 
Between the elements of air and earth., 
But you ihould pity me. 

This line 

5 With groans that ihunder love, withJighsoffireC\ 
lis line is worthy of Dryden's Almanzor, and if not faid in 
.mockery of amorous hyperboles, might be regarded as a ridicule 
On a paffage in Chapman's tranllation of the firll book of Hoiiicr^ 

" Jove thunder 1 d out ajtgb'," 
0r, on another in Lodge's Rnfalynde, i 592 : 

" The winds of my deepe lighes 

" That thunder ftill for noughts, &c. w STEEVENS. 
6 Halloo yow name to the reverberate hills,'] 
J have corrected, revcrlerant. THEOBALD. 

Mr. Upton well obferves, that Shnkefpeare frequently ufes thr 
adjective paffive, afti-vely. Theobald's emendation is therefore 
iinneceflary. B. Jonfon in one of his mafques at court, fays : 

" which fkill, Pythagoras 

" Firfl taught to men by a reverberate glafs." STEEVENS. 

N 3 Qli f 


OIL You might do much : What is your parent-* 
age ? 

Flo. Above myfortunes, yet my flate is well : 
I am a gentleman. 

OIL Get you to your lord ; 
I cannot love him : let him fend no more ; 
Unlefs, perchance, you come to me again, 
To tell me how he takes it. Fare you well : 
I thank you for your pains : fpend this for me. 

Vio. I am no fee'd poft, ladv ; keep your purfc j 
My mafter, not myfelf, lacks recompence, 
Love make his heart of flint, that you fhall love ; 
And let your fervour, like my mailer's, be 
Plac'd in contempt ! Farevvel, fair cruelty. [E.v;/, 

OIL What is your parentage ? 

Above my fortunes, yet my fate is well: 

I am a gentleman. Fll be fworn thou art ; 

Thy tongue, thy face, thy limbs, adlions, and fpirit, 
Do give thee five-fold blazon : Not too fait; loft ! 


Unlefs the matter were the man. How now ? 
Even fo quickly may one catch the plague ? 
Methinks, I feel this youth's perfections, 
"With an invifible and fubtle ftealth, 
To creep in at mine eyes. Well, let it be,; 
What, ho, Malvolio! 

Re-enter Malvolio* 

Mai. Here, madam, at your fervice. 
OIL Run after that fame pcevifh nieflenger, 
The county's man : he left this ring behind him. 
Would I, or not ; tell him, I'll none of it. 
Defire him not to flatter with his lord, 
Nor hold him up with hopes ; I am not for him ; 
If that the youth will come this way to-morrow, 
I'll give him rcafons for't. Hye thee, Malvolio. 
Mai Madam, I will. [Exit. 



Oil. I do I know not what ; and fear to find 
7 Mine eye too great a flatterer for my mind. 
Fate, Ihew thy force : Ourfelvcs we do not owe ; 
What is decreed, muft be ; and be this fo ! [Exif. 

A C T II. S C E N E I. 

Enter Antonio and Sebaftian. 

Ant. Will you ftay no longer ? nor will you not, 
that I go with you ? 

Self. By your patience, no : my ftars Ihine darkly 
over me ; the malignancy of my fate might, perhaps, 
-diilcmper yours \ therefore I Ihall crave of you your 
leave, that I may bear my evils alone : It were a bad 
recompence for your lov.e, to lay any of them on you. 

Ant. Let me yet know of you, whither you are 

Seb. No, in footh, fir ; my determinate voyage is 
meer extravagancy. But I perceive in you fo excel- 
lent a touch of modefty, that you will not extort from 
me what I am willing to keep in ; therefore it charges 
me in manners the rather 8 to exprefs myfelf : You 
muft know of me then, Antonio, my name is Sc- 
baftian, which I call'd Rodorigo; my father was that 
Sebaflian of Mcflaline 9 , whom I know, you have 


7 Mine eye &c.] I believe the meaning is ; I am not miftrefs 
of my own a&ions, I am afraid that my eyes betray me, and 
flatter the youth without my coufent, with discoveries of love. 


8 to exprefs niyfdf: - ] That is, to reveal myfclf. 


9 - MeJJaUne t - ] Sir Thomas Hanmer very judicioufly 
offers to read Mttin. an illand in the Archipelago ; but Shake- 

N 4 f P ear 

heard of : he left behind him, myfelf, and a fitter, 
both born in an hour; If the heavens had beenpleas'd, 
would we had fo ended ! but you, fir, alter'd that ; 
for, fome hour before you took me from the breach 
of the fea, was my fifter drown'd. 

Ant. Ahs, the day ! 

Seb. A lady, fir, though it was faid fhe much rc- 
fembled rne ? was yet of many accounted beautiful : 
but, though I could not, l with fuch eflimable wonder, 
over-far believe that, yet thus far I will boldly pub- 
lifh her, fhe bore a mind that envy could not but call 
fair : fhe is drown'd already, fir, with fait water, 
though I feem to drown her remembrance again with 

Ant. Pardon me, fir, your bad entertainment, 

Seb. O good Antonio, forgive me your trouble. 

Ant. If you will not murther me for my love, let 
me be your fervant. 

Seb. If you will not undo what you have done., 
that is, kill him whom you have recover'd, deiire it 
not. Fare ye well at once : my bofom is full of kind- 
nefs ; and 1 am yet fo near the manners of my mother., 
that upon the leaft occafion more, mine eyes will tell 
tales of me. I am bound to the count Orfmo's court : 
farevvel. [Exit. 

fpeare knew little of geography, and was not at all folicitous about 
orthographical nicety. The fame miftake occurs in the con- 
cluding fcene of the play : 

" Of Mcjjaline ; Sebaftian was my father." STEEVENS. 

1 with/neb eftimable wonder , ] Thefe words Dr. War- 
burton calls an interpolation of the players, but what did the players 
gain by it ? they may be fometimes guilty of a joke without the 
concurrence of the poet, but they never lengthen a fpeech only 
to make it longer. Shakefpeare often confounds the active and 
pallive adjectives. Eflimable Bonder is cjlccming wnJtr, or v.-oj- 
Jcr and ejfccm. The meaning is, that he could not venture to 
think fo highly as others of his filter. JOHXSON, 

Thus Milton ufes uncxprefi-je notes for unexprrjjing, in his hymn 
on the Nativity. MALONE. 



Ant. The gcntleneis of all the gods go with thee ! 
J hare many enemies in Orfmo's court, 
Elfe would I very fhortly fee thee there : 
Put, come what may, I do adore thee fo, 
That danger mall feem fport, and I will go, [v;V, 


Enter Viola and Malvolio, at fever al doors, 

Mai. Were not you even now with the countcfs 
Olivia ? 

Vio. Even now, fir ; on a moderate pace I have 
nnce arrived but hither. 

Mai. She returns this ring to yon, fir ; you might 
have faved me my pains, to have taken it away your- 
felf. She adds moreover, that you mould put your 
lord into a defperate affurance me will none of him ; 
And one thing more ; that you be never fo hardy to 
come again in his affairs, unlefs it be to report your 
lord's taking of this. Receive it fo. 

Vio. She took the ring of me, I'll none of it. 

Mai. Come, fir, you peevimly threw it to her ; and 
her will is, it mould be fo return'd : if it be worth 
(looping for, there it lies in your eye ; if not, be it his 
that finds it. [Exit. 

Vio. I left no ring with her : What means this lady ? 
Fortune forbid, my outfide have not charm'd her ! 
She made good view of me ; indeed fo much, 
That, lure *, methought ' her eyes had loft her tongue, 


a tkaf, fare, ] Sure has been added, to complete the 

rerfe. STEEVENS. 

3 . i i. her eyes bad loft her tongue,] 
This is nonfenfe : we fliould read : 

her eyes bad croft her tongue^ 

Alluding to the notion of the fafcination of the eyes ; the effects 
of which were called crqfltng. WAREURTOX. 

That the fafcination of the eyes was called croffing, ought tohaTe 
been proved. But however tliat be, the prelcnt reading has not 



For Ihe did fpeak in ftarts diftraftcdly. 

She loves me, fare ; the cunning of her paffion 

Invites me in this churlim mcffenger. 

None of my lord's ringi why, he lent her none, 

I am the man ; If it be fo, (as 'tis) 

Poor lady, fhe were better love a dream. 

Difguifc, I fee, thou art a widkednefs, 

Wherein 4 the pregnant enemy does much. 

How eafy is it, for the proper fa-lfe * 


only fenfe but beauty. We fay a man lofts his company when 
they go one way and he goes another. So .Olivia's tongue loft her 
eyes ; her tongue was talking of the duke, and her eyes gazing 
on his mefienger. JOHNSON. 

+ the pregnant enemy ] Is, I believe, the dexterous 

fiend, or enemy of mankind. JOHNSON. 

Pregnant is certainly dextrous, or ready. So, in Hamlet : ' ' How 
pregnant fometimes his replies are !" STEEVENS. 
5 How eafy is it, for the proper falfe 

In women's ivaxen hearts to fct their forms /] 

This is obfcure. The meaning is, how eafy is difguife to women ; 
how eafily does their <^r falfebooa, contained in their waxen 
jchangeable hearts, enable them to allume deceitful appearances ! 
The two next lines are perhaps tranfpoied, and (hould be read thus : 

Forfuch as <we are made, iffuch v:e be, 

Alas, our frailty is the caufe, not ive. JOHNSON*. 
I am not certain thitt this explanation is juft. Viola has been 
condemning thofe who difguife themfelves, becaufc Olivia had 
fallen in love with a fpe.cious appearance. How eafy is it, fhe 
adds, for thofe who are at OVCQ proper (i. e. fair in their appear- 
ance) and/rt^7', (i.e. deceitful) to make an impreffion on the hearts 
of women? The proper falfe is certainly a leis elegant expreilion 
than the fair deceiver, but feems to mean the fame thing. A 
proper man, was the ancient phrafe for a hanJfomc man : 

* 4 This Ludovico is a proper man." Othello, 
The proper falfe may be yet explained another way. Shakefpeare 
Ibmetimes ufes proper for peculiar. So, in Othello: 

*' In my defunft and a proper fatisfadion." 

The proper falfe will then mean thofe who are pec uliarly falfc, 
through premeditation and art. To fct their forms means, to plant 
their images, /. e. to make an impreffion on their eafy minds. 
Mr. Tynvhitt concurs with me in the firlt fuppofition, and adds 
" inftead of tranfpoling thele lines according to Dr. Johnfon's 
u;;i;ec"ture, I am rather inclined to read the latter thus ; 

* For iuch as we are made of t fuch we be." 



Jn women's waxen hearts to let their forms ! 

Alas, our frailty 6 is the caufe, not we ; 

For, fuch as we are made, if luch we be. 

How will this fadge 7 ? My mafter loves her 

And I, poor monfter, fond as much on him; 

And fhe, miftaken, leems to dote on me : 

What will become of this ? As I am man, 

My ftate is de-fpcrate for my mailer's love ; 

As I am woman, now alas the day ! 

What thriftlefs fighs ihall poor Olivia breathe ? 

D time, thou mult untangle this, not I ; 

Jt is too hard a knot for .me to untye. [.v// t 


Olivia's boufe* 

Enter Sir Toby, and Sir Andrew. 
Sir To. Approach, fir Andrew ; not to be a-bed 
after midnight, is to be up betimes j and dilucuh 
furgere, thou know'ft, 

JSo, in the Tempeft : 

*' we are fuch fluff 

" As dreams are made of." STEE'VF.:NS. 
For, ft:fb as vje are made, ifju\:b -7W be.~\ 
i, e. if, fuch as we are made for, luch we be. MALONE. 

6 our frailty ] The old copy reads O frailty. 


7 How will this fadge ? ] 

TofaJge, is to fait, to Jit. So, in Decker's comedy of Old For- 
tunatus, 1600 : 

*' I fliall never faJge with the humour, becaufe I cannot lie.' 1 
So, in our author's Love's Labour's Loft : 

" We will have, if \h\sf aclgc not, an antick." 
iSo, in Mother Bombie, I ^94 : 

" I'll have thy advice, and if it^/s^r, thoufhalt eat." 

*' But how will hfacigc in the end ?" 

' All this /T.^YJ well"" 

" \Ve are ab.out a mauer of li^erdcnuin, liow will this 




Sir And. Nay, by my troth, I know not: but I" 
know, to be up late, is to be up late. 

Sir To. A falfe conclufion ; I hate it as an un- 
ll'd can : To be up after midnight, and to go to 
bed then, is early ; ib that, to go to bed after mid- 
night, is to go to bed betimes. Does not our life 
confitl of the four elements ? 

Sir And. 'Faith, fo they fay ; but, ? I think, it rar 
ther confifts of eating and drinking. 

Sir To. Thou art a fcholar ; let us therefore eat and 
drink. Marian^ I fay ! a ftoop 9 of wine \ 

Enter Ckivn. 

Sir And. Here comes the fool, i 'faith. 
do. How now, my hearts ? Did you never fee the 
picture of we three ? 

S/r To. Welcome, afs. Now let's haye a catch. 
Sir And. * By my troth, the fool has an excellent 


* I think, it rather conjijls of fating anef drinking.'] A ridicule 
.on the medical theory of chat time, which iuppofed health to eon-- 
lift in the juil temperament and balance of thde elements in the 
human frame. WARB-URTON.. 

9 -akftoop ] i.e. a c up. So, \i\Otbcllo: 

" Come lieutenant, I have a.jloop of wine." STEEVENS, 

1 By my troth* the fool has an excellent breaft. ] Breaft, voice. 
JSrtatb has been here propofed : but many inftances may be 
brought to juftify the old reading beyond a doubt. In the ftatutes 
of Stoke-college, founded by archbifliop Parker, 1535, Strype's 
Parker, p. 9 : "Which faid querifters, after their breaftj are 
changed, &c." that is, after their voices are broken. In Fiddes* 

Life of J'J'olfcy, Append, p. 128: " Singingmen 
In Tufler's Httjbandric, p. 155. edit. P. S 
The better hrjf, the lelTer reft, 

" To ferve the queer .now there now heere." 
in this piece, called The Author's Life, tells us that he was 
a choir-boy in the collegiate chapel of Wallingford caftle ; and 
that, on account of the excellence of his voice, he was fucceffively 
removed to various choirs. WAR TON-. 

B. Jonfon ufes the word brcttjt in the fame manner, in his Majijue 
efGyfJies, p. 623, edit. 1692. In an old play called the 4 P's t 
written by j. Hey wood, 15^9) is this pafiage; 

" Poticary. 


breaft. I had rather than forty (hillings I had fuch a 
kg ; and fo fvveet a breath to fing, as the fool has. 
In looth, thou waft in very gracious fooling la ft nighty 
when thoii fpok'ft of Pigrogrornitus, of the Vapians 
paffing the equinoctial of Queubus; 'twas very good, 
TL faith. I fen-t thee fix-pence for thy leman ; Had'it 


" Poticary. I pray you, tell me cm you fing ? 
*' Peifler. Sir, I have fome light irrfinging. 
*' Poticary. But is your breajl any thing fweet ? 
" Pedlar. Whatever my Ircetft is, my voice is m.iet.'* 
In Tie Pilgrim of B. and Fletcher, the fool fays : 

" Let us hear him ling ; he has a fine breafl" 
Again, in Middleton's Woman beware Women : 
" Yea, the voice too, fir. 

" Ay, and a fweet Ireaft too, my lord, I hope." 
Again : 

" Her father prais'd her Ireaft ; (he'd voice forfootta; 

* I marvell'd Ihe fung fo fmall " 

Again, in the Martial Maid of B. and Fletcher :' 

" Sweet-foea/ted as the nightingale or throfh.' r 
I fuppofe this cant term to have been current among the mufi- 
cians of the age. All profeffions have in fonie degree their jargon ; 
and the remoter they are from liberal fcience, and the lefs conle- 
quentiai to the general interefts of life, the more they ilri veto hide 
themlelves behind affected terms and barbarous phraleology. 


a / feat tbee fix-pence far thy lemon; bad'Jlit?] But the 

Clown was neither pantlcr, nor butler. The poet's word was cer- 
tainly miltaken by the ignorance of the printer. I have reflored, 
leman, i. e. I fent thee fix-pence to fpend on thy miftrefs. 


I receive Theobald's emendation, becaufe I think it throws a 
light on the obfcurity of the following fpeech. 

Leman is frequently ufed by the ancient writers, and Spenfer 
in particular. So again, in The Noble Soldier, 1634. : 

" Fright him as he's embracing his new leman.'* 
The money was given him for his leman, \. e. his miftrefs. He 
fays he did impeticoat the gratuity, i. e. he gave it to \\\s petticoat 
companion ; for (fays he) Mafoolio's nofe is no wbipjlock, i. e. Mal- 
volio may fmell out our connexion, but his fulpicion will not 
prove the inftrument of our puniflunent. My m : Jlrefi has a white 
hand, and the myrmidons are no lottk-ah houfes, i. c. my miftrefs is 
handfome, but the houfes kept by officers of juftice, are no places 



Clo. J I did impeticoat thy gratuity; for MalvolioV 
nofe is no whip-iloek : My lady has a white handy 
and the Myrmidons are no bottle-ale houfes. 

Sir Andt Excellent ! Why, this is the beft fooling/ 
when all is done. Now, a fong. 

Sir !70; Come on j there is fix-pence for you : let's 
have a fong. 

Sir And. There's a teflril of me too : if one knight 
give a 

Clo. Would you have a love-fong, or a fong of 
good life 4 ? 


to make merry aha entertain her atj Such may be the meaning 
of this whimfical fpeech. A ivhlpjlock is, I believe, the handle of 
a whip, round which a ft rap ot leather is ufually twitted, and is 
fometimes put for the whip itfelf. So, in Albiunazar^ 1616 : 

" out, Carter, 

" Hence dirty wblpjlock '* 

Again in the Two Angry Women of Abington, 1599 : 

'* the coaeh-man lit ! 

*' His duty is before you to iland, 

" Having a lufty ivbipjiock in his hand.'* 
The word occurs again in The Span'ify Tragedy, 1605 : 

" Bought you a whiftle and a ivbipjiock too." 
Again, fu Gafcolgne : 

" caft c MbipJtoch to clout his flioon.'* 

Again, in The Downfal of Robert Earl of Huntittgton t 1 60 1 : 

" I would knock my wbipjiock on your addle pate." 
Again, in the Tkvo Nolle Kinfmcn, by B. and Fletcher : 

*' Phoebus when 

' f He broke his ivhipjlock, and exclaim *d igafcu 

*' The horfes of the fun " STEEVEXS, 

3 I didimpeticos &c.] This, fir T. Hanmef tells us, is the 
fame with i/npockct tly gratuity. He is undoubtedly right ; but 
^e muft read : / did impeticoat //;; gratuity. The fools were 
kept in long coats, to which the allulion is made. There is yet 
much in this dialogue which I do not underftand. JOHNSON. 

Figure 1 2 in the plate of the Morris-dancers, at the end of 
K.Hen. IV. P. II. fufficiently proves that pc ttlcoats were not al- 
lays a part of the drefs of fools or jejlers, though they were of 
ideots, lor a reafon which I avoid to offer. STEEVENS. 

4 gf good life ?] I do not fuppofe that by a fong of good 

life, the Clown means a fong of a moral turn ; though iir Andrew 



Sir 70. A love-fong, a love-long. 

Sir And. Ay, ay ; I care not for good life. 

Clown rings-. 

O miftrefs mine, where arevou roaming ? 
O, flay and bear ; your true love's cowing} 

That ca fifing both high and low : 
Trip no further ; pretty jweeting ; 
Journeys end In lovers' meeting, 

Every wife man's fan doth knvx* 

Sir And. Excellent good, i'faith ! 
Sir Toi Good, good. 

Clo. What is love ? 'tis nor hereafter 
Prefent mirth hath prefent laughter ; 

What's to come, isftill unfurc : 
5 In delay there lies no plenty ; 
* Then come kifs me, fweet and twenty, 
Youth's a fluff will not endure. 


tnftvers to it in that (ignification, Good life, 1 believe, is harm* 
lefs vbirth or jollity. It may be a Gallicifm : we call a jolly felknV 
a ban vivaut. STEEVENS. 

5 In delay tlere lies no plenty ;] This is a proverbial faying cor- 
rupted ; and fliould be read thus : 

In decay there lies no plenty. 

A reproof of avarice, which Itores up perirtiable fruits till they 
decay. To thefe fruits the poet, humouroufly, compares youth or 
virginity j which, he fays, is zJJnff^ill not endure. WARBURTON. 
I believe delay is right. JOHNSON. 

Delay is certainly right. No man will ever be worth much, who 
delays the advantages offered by the prefent hour, in hopes that the 
future will offer more. So, in K. Rich. III. aft IV. fc. iih 

" Delay leads impotent and fnail-pac'd beggary." 
Again, in K. Henry VI. P. I : 

" Defer no time, delays have dangerous ends." 
Again, in a Scots proverb : " After a delay comes a let."' Se 
Kelly's Collection, p. 52. STEEVENS. 

6 Then come kifs me, fiveet, and /cu?y,] 
This line is obfcure ; we might right read : 

Come, a kifs then, fixeet and twenty . 

Vet I know not whether the prefent reading be not right, for in 



Sir And. A mellifluous voice, as lam a true knighiV 

5VV To. A contagious breath. 

Sir And. Very fweet and contagious, i'faith. 

Sir To. To hear by the nofe, it is dulcet in conta- 
gion. But fhall we 7 make the welkin dance indeed ? 
Shall we rouze the night-owl in a catch, that will 
8 draw three fouls out of one weaver ? fliall we do 

fome counties fweet and twenty, whatever be the meaning, is a 
phrafe of endearment. JOHNSON. 
So, in Wit of a Woman, 1604 : 

" Sweet and twenty : all fweet and fweet." STEEVENS* 
Again, in Rowley's When you fee Me you know Me^ 1632: 

" God ye good night and twenty , fir." 
Again, in the Merry Wives ofWmdfor: 

*' Good even and twenty." MALOXE. 

7 - make the welkin dance ] That is, drink till the fty 
feems to turn round. JOHNSOX. 
Thus, Mr. Pope .' 

44 Ridotta fips and dances, till fiie fee' 
" The doubling luftres dance as raft as fhe." STEEVEXS. 
* 'draw three fouls out of one weaver ? - ] Our author re- 
prcfents weavers as much given to harmony in his time. I have 
fhewn the caufe of it elfewhere. This expreffion of the power of 
inufick, is familiar with our author. Much ado about Nothing i 

Now- is his foul ravffied. Is it not jl range that Jheep's-guts jhould 
le fouls out of men's bodies?" - Why, he fays, three fouls, is be- 
caufe he is fpeaking of a catch in three parts. And the peripatetic 

bale fouls out of 
caufe he is fpeak 

philofophy, then in vogue, very liberally gave every man three 
fouls. The vegetative or plaftic, the animal, and the rational* 
To this, too, |onfon alludes, in his Pocta/ler : " What, will I 
turn Jkark upon my friends'? or my friends 1 friends? I f corn, //with 
my three fouls." By the mention of thefe three, therefore, we 
may fuppofe it was Shakefpeare's pvirpofe, to hint to us thofe fur- 
prizing effecb of mufick, which the ancients fpeak of. When 
they tell us of Amphion, who moved flones and trees ; Orpheus 
and Arion, who tamed favage beajls ; and Timotheus, who go- 
verned, as he pleafed, the pajjions of his human auditors. So noble 
an obfervation has our author conveyed in the ribaldry of this buf- 
foon character. WAR EUR TON. 

In a popular book of the time, Carew*s tranflation of Huarte*s 
Trial of Wits, 1594: there is a curious chapter concerning the 
three fouh) " vegetative^ fenjit-ve, and rcafonable" FARMER. 



Sir And. An you love me, let's do't ; I am a dog 
at a catch. 

do. By'r lady, fir, and fonie dogs will catch well. 

Sir And* Moft certain : let our catch be, 'Thou knave. 

Clo. Hold thy peace, tbou knave, knight? I fhail be 
conftrain'd in't to call thee knave, knight. 

Sir And. Tis not the firft time I haVe conftrain'd 
one to call me knave* Begin, fool ; it begins, Hold 
tby peace. 

Clo. I ihall never begin, if I hold my peace. 

Sir And. Good, i'faith ! come, begin. 

[fbeyfmg a catcb 9 , 

Enter hfaria* 

Afar. What a catterwauling do you keep here ? If 
my lady have not call'd up her fteward, Malvolio, 
and bid him turn you out of doors, never truft me. 


9 Tljcyjing a catch.] This catch is loft. JOHNTSOV. 

A catch is a fpecies of vocal harmony to be fung by three or 
more perfons ; and is fo contrived that though each lings pre- 
cifcly the fame notes as his fellows, yet by beginning at ftated 
periods of time from each other, there refu Its from the perform- 
ance a harmony of as many parts as there are fingers. Compofi- 
tions of this kind are, in ftriclnefs, called Canons in the unijon ; and 
as properly, Catches, when the words in the different parts are 
made to catch or anfwer each other. One of the moil remarkable 
examples of a true catch is that of Purcel, Lefs llv good honrft 
lives, in which, immediately after one pcrfon has uttered the'fe 
words : " What need we fear the Pope?" another "in the courfe 
of his finding fills up a reft which the firft makes, with the words, 
" The devil." 

The catch above-mentioned to be fung by fir Toby, fir An- 
drew, and the Clown, from the hints given of it, appears to be 
fo contrived as that each of the lingers calls the other knave in 
turn ; and for this the clown means to apologize to the knight, 
when he fays, that he fliall be conftrained to call him knave. I 
have here fubjoined the very catch, with themufical notes to which 

VOL. IV, O it 


Sir To. My lady's a Catalan ', we are politicians-; 
Malvolio's a z Peg-a-Ramfey, and Three merry men 

be we. 


it w.-rs fung in the time of Shakefpeare, and at the original per- 
formance "of this Comedy. 

A 3 voc. 

Hold thy peace and I pree thee hold thy peace 


Et E 


_, . , 





P i 

-> r 


i H 

thou knave, thou knave: hold thy peace thou knave. 
The evidence of its authenticity is as follows : There is extant 3 
book entitled, " PAMMELlA, Mujfdes Mifcellanie, or mixed- 
Varictie of pie a Cant Roundelays and delightful catches of 3. 4. 5. 6* 
7. 8. 9. 10. parti in one,"" Of this book there are at leaft two edi- 
tions, the fecond printed in 1618. In 1609, a fecond part of 
this book was publifhed with the title of DEUTEROMELIA > 
and in this book is contained the catch above given. 


1 ' a Cataian^ ] It is in vain to feek the precife mean- 
ing of this term of reproach. I have attempted already to explain 
it in a note on the Merry Wives of WiuJfor. I find it uled again 
in Love and Honour, by fir W. Davenant, 1649 : 
" Hang him, bold Cataian" STEEVEXS. 

* Peg-a-Rawfcy, ] I do not underitand. Tilly -vally 

was an interjection of contempt, which fir Thomas More's lady 
is recorded to have had very often in her mouth. JOHNSON. 

In Durfey's Pills to purge Melancholy is a very obicene old fong, 
entitled Feg-a^Ramfcy. See alfo Ward's Lives of the Profejori 
ofGrejbam College, p. 207. PERCY. 

Tilly i' alley is u fed as an interjection of contempt in the old play 
of Sir John Oldcajlle ; and is likewiie a character in a comedy en- 
titled Lady Al'unony* 

Nafli mentions Peg ofRamfcy among fereral ether ballads, viz, 

Roger <?, 

W H A T Y O U W I L L. 195 

Am not I confanguineous ? am I not of her blood ? 
Tilly valley', lady ! There dwelt a man in Babylon *, la- 
dy, lady! [Singing. 


Rogero, Bajiltno, TnrMony, All the flowers of the Broom, Pepper is 
black, Green Sleeves, Peggie Ramfie. It appears from the fame 
author, that it was likewife a dance performed to the mulic of a 
long ot that name. STEEVENS. 

Pcg-a-Ramfey'] Or Peggy Ramfay, Is the name of fome old 
fong ; the following is the tune to it. 

Peggy Ram fey. 







H"" 1 






Three merry men be we, is likewife a fragment of fome old long, 
which I find repeated in Wejiward Hoe, by Decker and Web- 
fter, 1607, and by B. and Fletcher in The Knight of the Burning 
Pcjllc : 

" Three merry men 
" And three merry men 
" And three merry men be civ." 
Again, in The Bloody Brother of the fame authors : 
" Three merry boys, and three merry boys, 

" And three merry boys are we, 
" As ever did fing, three parts in a firing, 

** All under the triple tree." 
Again, in Ram-alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611 : 

" And three merry men, and three merry men, 
" And three merry men be we a'." STEEVENS. 

three merry men tve be.] This is a conclufion common to 

many old fongs. Oae of the moil humorous that I can recollect 
is the following : 

" The wife men were but feaven, nor more fliall be for 


*' The mufeswere but nine, the worthies three times three ; 
*' And three merry boyes, and three merry boyes, and 
three merry boyes are wee. 

O 2 " The 


Clo. Beftirew me, the knight's in admirable fooling, 

Sir And. Av, he does well enough, if he be dii- 
pos'd, and fo do I too ; he does it with a better 
grace, but I do it more natural. 

Sir To. O, tke twelfth day of December, *&!*'?& 

Mar. For the love o'God r peace. 

Enter Mah'olio* 

Mai. My matters, are you mad ? or what are you ? 
Have you no wit, manners, nor honefty, but to gab- 

*' The venues they were feven, and three the greater bee ; 
* 4 The Csefars they were twelve, and the fatall fillers three. 
** And three merry girles, and three merry girles, and 

three merry girles are wee." 

There are ale-houfes in fome of the villages in this kingdom, 
that have the fign of" the Three Merry Boys : there was one at 
Highgate in my memory. SIR J. HAWKINS. 

three merry men be <wt.~\ May, perhaps, have been taken 

originally from the long of Robin Hood ami the Tanner. Old Sal' 
lads, vol. I. p. 89 : 

" Then Rabin Hood took them by the hands, 

" With a bey, &cc. 
" And danced about the oak-tree ; 
" For three merry men, and three merry men r 
" And three merry men we be" TYRWHITT. 
3 Tilly valley, lady ! There dwelt a man in Babylon, lady, lady.] 
Malvolio's ufe of the word lady brings the ballad to fir Toby's re- 
membrance : Lady, lady, is the burthen, and mould be printed as 
fuch. My very ingenious friend, Dr. Percy, has given a itanza 
of it in his Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. I. p. 204. Juft the fame 
may be faid, where Mercutio applies it, in Romeo and Juliet Y 
aclll. fc. iv. FARMER. 

I found what I once fuppofed to be a part of this fong, in All's 
loft by Lujl, a tragedy by William Rowley, 1633 : 

14 There was a nobleman of Spain, lady, l?-dy v 
' ' That ivcnt abroad and came not again 
" To bii poor lady. 

*' Oh, cruel age, tobf* one brother^ lad}Y ^y* 
*' Shall ft orn to look upon another 
" Of his poor lady" STEEVENS. 

* There dwelt a ?nan in Babylon Lady, lady.} This fong r 
or, at leaft, one with the fame burthen, is alluded to in B. Jonfoivs 
tic Lady, vol. IV. p. 449 : 
4< Com. As true it is, lady, lady i'the fong." TYRWHITT.. 



ble like tinkers at this time of night ? Do ye make 
an ale-houfe of my lady's houfe, that ye fqueak out 
your 5 coziers' catches without any mitigation or re- 
morfe of voice ? Is there no refpeft of place, per- 
fons, nor time in you ? 

Sir To. We did keep time, fir, in our catches. 

Mill. Sir Toby, I muft be round with you. My 
lady bade me tell you, that, though flic harbours you 
as her kinfman, fhe's nothing ally'd to your di~foi> 
ders. If you can feparate yourfelf and your mifde- 

5 coolers - ] A cozier is a taylor, from coudrc to few, 
part, coufu, French. JOHNSON. 

The word is ufed by Hall in his Vir^idemiarum, lib. iv> fat. 2. 
" Himfelr goes patch'd like ibine bare Cottyer, 
" Leit he might ought his future ftock impair." 


6 - Sued up!~\ The modern editors fee m to have regarded 
this unintelligible exprellion as the delignation of a hiccup. It is 
however ufed in B. and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pejlle, as 
it fliould feem, on another occaiion : 

- " Ic: thy father go J "neck /., he ihall never come between. 
a pair of flieets with me again while he lives.** 

Again, in the fame play : 

- " Give him his money, George, and let him gofneck up" 
Again, in Hey wood's Fair Maid of the Weft, 1631 : 

" She {hall not rife : go let your mAetJiuck up." 
Again, in Wily Reguiled: " And if my miftrefs v/ould be ruled by 
him, Sophos 'might go fnick up" Again, in the Fleirc^ 1615: 

" if not let thorn y/y/V/t ;/*." 

Again, in Blurt Maficr ConJIMe , 1602: 

" I have been believed of your betters, marry fnlck up" 
Again, in The tv-o Angry Women of Abington, 1599: 

" - if they be not, let them gofuick'up." 
Again, in Chapman's May Day, 161 1 : 

" - being a magnifico, flie {lull go///-V^c /." 
Pcrh.ips in the two former of thefe inltances, the words may be 
corrujned. In Hen. IV. P. I. Falttaff fays : " The Prince is a 
Jack, a Siieaft-cjip." i. c. one \vhorakes his glafs in a fneaking man 
ner. I think we might fafely ve-A&fneak cup, at leaft, in iir To- 
by's reply to Malvolio. I fliould not however omit to mention 
that / . b a nortli country cxprt'lFion tor latch the door. 

O 3 mcanors, 


meanors, you are welcome to the houfe ; if not, an 
it would pleafe you to take leave of her, Ihe is very 
willing to bid you farewel. 

Sir To. 7 Farewell dear heart, fmce I mull needs be 

Mai. Nay, good fir Toby. 

Clo. His eyes dojbcjj bis days are almoft done. 

Mai. Is't even fo ? 

Sir To. But I will never die. 

Clo. Sir Toby, there you lie. 

Mai. This is much credit to you. 

Sir To. Shall I bid him go ? [Singing. 

Clo. What an if you do ? 

Sir I'D. Shall I bid him go, and (pare not ? 

Clo. O no, no, no, no, you dare not. 

Sir To. Out o'tune, fir, ye lie. Art any more 

than a fteward ? 8 Doll thou think, becaufe thou art 
virtuous, there ihall be no more cakes and ale ? 

Clo. Yes, by Saint Anne ; and ginger fhall be hot 
i'the mouth too. 

Sir To. Thou'rt i'the right. Go, fir, rub your 

chain with crums 9 : A ftoop of wine, Maria ! 


7 Farewel, dear heart, &c.] This entire fong, with fome vari- 
ations, is publifhed by Dr. Percy, in the firft volume of his Rell- 
tjues of Ancient Englijlj Poetry. STEEVENS. 

8 Dojl tbou think, bccanfe thou art virtuous, there flail lie 

no more cakes and ale?] It was the cuftom on holidays or faints' 
days to make cakes in honour of the day. The Puritans called 
this, fuperilition, and in the next page Maria fays, that Malvolio 
is fometimes a kind of Puritan. See, Quarlous's^a-0/ of Rabbi 
Bufy, aft I. fc. iii. in Ben Jonfon's Bartholomew Fair. 


- rub your chain 'with crums: ] I fuppofe it fhould be 

read rub your chin ivitb crams, alluding to what had been faid 
before that. Malvolio was only a lleward, and confequently din- 
ed after his lady. JOHNSON-. 

That ftewards anciently wore a chain as a mark of fuperiority 
over other fen-ants, may be proved from the following paflage in 
the Martial Maid of B. and Fletcher : 

" Doft thou think I fhall become the Jlcv.wd's chair? Will 
not thefe {lender haunches fhe\v well in a chain ? " 

Again ; 


Mai. Miftrefs Mary, if you priz'd my lady's fa- 
vour at any thing more than contempt, you would not 
give means for this uncivil rule ' ; fhe ihall know of 
it, by this hand. \Exlt. 

Mar. Go fhake your ears. 

Sir And. 'Twere as good a deed, as to drink when a 
man's a hungry, to challenge him to the field ; and 

Again : 

" Pia. Is your chain right ? 
*' Bob. It is both right and juft, fir; 
*' For though I am .a_/V-:iwv/, I did get it 
" With no man's wrong." 

The beft method of cleaning any gilt plate, is by rubbing it with 
crumf, Xnlh, in his piece entitled Have with you to Saffron U'al- 
Jcn, i ^95, taxes Gabriel Harvey with " having Jlolen a nobleman's 
iteward's chain, at bis lord's in/tailing at Windfor." 
Again, in Middleton's comedy of A "Mad World my Majlers, 1608 : 
" Gag gaping rafcal, though he be my grandiire's chief 
gentleman in the chain of gold." 

To conclude with the molt appofite inftance of all. See, Web- 
fter's Dutcbefs ofMalfy, 1623 : 

*' Yes, and thechippings of the buttery fly after him 
" To /lower bis gold chain" STEEVKNS. 

1 rulr- ] Rule is method of lite, fo mifrule is tumult 

and riot. JOHNSON. 

A' .-.'/<, on this occafion, is fomething Icfs than common method 
of life. It occafionally means the arrangement or conduct of a 
feftival or merry-making, as well as behaviour in general. So, in 
the 2Jth foug of Drayton's Polyolbion: 

" Call in a gallant round about the hearth they go, 
'* And at each paufe they kifs ; was never feen Inch rule 
" In any place but here, at bon-fire or at yeulc." 
Again, in Heywood's Rnglijb Traveller, 16^3 : 

*' What guefts we harbour, and what rule we keep." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Talc of a 'Ti<!> : 

" And let him in the (locks for his ill rule" ' 
In this laft inltance it fignifies behaviour* 

There was formerly an officer belonging to the court, called 
J.nrd of M'f,-nlt>. So, in Decker's Satiromajlix : '* I have fome 
coufins-gerraan at court fliall beget you the rcvcrfion of the mafter 
of the king's revels, or clie be lord "of his Mifndc now at Chrift- 
JT.::S." So, in tlie Return from Parnajfits, 1606 : *' We are fully 
bent to be lords of Mifrule in the world s wild heath." In the 
country, at all periods of feftivity, an oflkerof the fame kind wad 
elc&ed. STEEVEKI. 

O 4 then 


then to break promife with him, and make a fool of 

Sir To. Do't, knight ; I'll write thee a challenge ; 
or I'll deliver thy indignation to him by word of 

Mar. Sweet fir Toby, be patient for to night ; 
iince the youth of the count's was to-day with my 
lady, ihe is much out of quiet. For monfieur Mal- 
volio, let 'me alone with him : if I do not gull him 
into a nay word % and make him a common recrea- 
tion, do not think I have wit enough to lie flraight 
in my bed : I know, I can do it. 

Sir To. PoiTefs us \, pofTefs us ; tell us fomething 
of him. 

Mar. Marry, fir, fometimes he is a kind of pu- 

Sir And. O, if I thought that, I'd beat him like a 

Sir To. What, for being a puritan ? thy exquifite 
reafon, dear knight ? 

Sir And. I have no exquifite reafon for't, but I 
have reafon good enough. 

Mar. The devil a puritan that he is, or any thing 
conftantly but a time-pleafer ; * an affedtion'd afs, 
that cons ftate without book, and utters it by great 
fwarths : the belt perfuaded of himfelf, fo cram'd, as 
he thinks, with excellencies, that it is his ground of 
faith, that all, that look on him, love him ; and on 
that vice in him will my revenge find notable caufe 
to work. 

* a nayword, ] A nqyivordis what has been fince called 

a byc-ivorJ, a kind of proverbial reproach. STEEVENS. 

3 Pofieft us, ] That is, inform us, tell us, make us matters 

pf the matter. JOHNSON. 

4 an affeftion'd afs, ] AffeRion'd, for full of affection. 

Affettion'd means ajfefleJ. In this fenfe, I believe, it is ufed 

in Hamlet " no matter in it that could indite the author of 

ajfcfilon," i. e. affectation. STEEVEKS. 


W H A T Y O U W I L L. 201 

Sir To. What wilt thou do ? 

Mar. I will drop in his way fome obfcure epiftles 
of love ; wherein, by the colour of his beard, the 
lhape of his leg, the manner of his gait, the expref- 
fure of his eye, forehead, and complexion, he ihall 
find himfelf mofl feelingly perfonated : i can write 
very like my lady, your niece ; on a forgotten matter 
we can hardly make diftinclion of our hands. 
Sir To. Excellent ! I fmell a device. 
Sir And. I have't in my nofe too. 
Sir To. He Ihall think, by the letters that thou wilt 
drop, that they come from my niece, and that Ihe 
is in love with him. 

Mar. My purpofe is, indeed, a horfe of that 

Sir And. And your horfe now would make him 
an afs s . 

Mar. Afs, I doubt not. 
Sir And. O, 'twill be admirable. 
Mar. Sport royal, I warrant you : I know, my 
phyfick will work with him. I will plant you two, 
and let the fool make a third, where he Ihall find the 
letter ; obferve his conftruction of it. For this night, 
to bed, and dream on the event. Farewel. [Exit. 
Sir To. Goodnight, Penthefilea 6 . 
Sir And. Before me, (he's a good wench. 
Sir To. She's a beagle, true-bred, and one that 
adores me ; What o'that ? 

Sir And. I was ador'd once too. 
Sir To. Let's to-bed, knight. Thou had'ft need 
fend for more money. 

5 Sir And. Ami your borfe <KV &c.] This conceit, though 
bad enough, (hews too quick an apprehenfion for/r AnJrcvj. It 
fliould be given, I believe, to//- Toly ; us well as the next fhorc 
ipcech : O, 'twill Ic admirable. Sir AndiTM does not ufually give 
his own judgment on any thing, till he has heard that of fome 
other perfon. TYRWHITT. 

6 Psntbcjilca.] \. e. araazon. STEEVENS. 



Sir And. If I cannot recover your niece, I am a 
foul way out. 

Sir To. Send for money, knight ; if thou haft her 
not i'the end, call me Cut 7 . 

Sir And. If I do not, never truft me, take it how 
you will. 

Sir To. Come, come ; I'll go burn fome fack, 'tis 
too late to go to bed now : come, knight ; come 
knight. [Exeunt* 


The Duke's Palace. 
Enter Duke, Vtcla, Curio, and oilers. 

"Duke. Give me fome mufic : Now, good mor- 
row, friends : 

Now, good Cefario, but that piece of fong, 
That old and antique fong we heard laft night : 
'Methought, it did relieve my paffion much ; 
More than light airs, and recollected 8 terms, 

7 call me Cut.] So, in a Woman* s a Weathercock , 1612 : 
*' If I help you not to that as cheap as any man in England, call 
me Cut." This contemptuous diftincYion is likewife preferred in 
the Merry Wives of Wine/for : 

" He will maintain you like a gentlewoman 

" Ay, that I will, come cut and long-tail, under the degree 
of a 'fquire." 

The allufion in both places is to a cut or curtail dog. By the 
laws ot the foreft, the dog of an unqualified perlon was dock'd, 
while that of a gentleman was allowed the benefit of his tail. 
Again, in the Two Angry Women of Aldington, 1599 : 

" I'll meet you there ; if I do not, call me Cut." 
This exprefBon hkew;fe occurs feveral times in Hey wood's If you 
know not me \ou know Nobinly, i6;r, fecond part. STEEVKXS. 

8 recdlefted ] Studied. WAREURTOX, 

I rather think that recollefted fignifies, more nearly to its pri- 
mitive fenfe, recalled, repeated, and alludes to the practice of 
compofers, who often prolong the fong by repetitions, JOHNSOX. 



Of thefe moftbriik and giddy-paced times : 

Come, but one verfe. 

Cur. He is not here, fo pleafe your lordmip, that 
fhould fing it. 

Duke- Who was it ? 

Ci'.r. Fefte, the jefter, my lord ; a fool, that the 
lady Olivia's father took much delight in : he is 
about the houfe. 

Duke. Seek him out, and play the tune the while. 
[Exit Curio. \_Mi>Jick. 

Come hither, boy ; If ever thou fhalt love, 
In the fvveet pangs of it, remember me : 
For, fuch as I am, all true lovers are ; 
Unitaid and fkittifh in all motions elfe, 
Save, in the conilant image of the creature 
That is belov'd. How doit thou like this tune ? 

V~io. It gives a very echo to the feat 
Where love is thron'd. 

Duke. Thou doll fpeak mafterly : 
My life upon't, young though thou art, thine eye 
Hath ftay'd upon fome favour that it loves ; 
Hath it not, boy ? 

Vio. A little, by your favour 9 . 

Duke. What kind of woman is't ? 

Flo. Of your complexion. 

Duke. She is not worth thee then. What years, 
i'faith > 

Vio. About your years, my lord. 

Duke. Too old, by heaven ; Let Hill the woman 


An elder than herfelf ; fo wears ihe to him, 
So fways fhe level in her hufband's heart. 
For, boy, however we do praife ourfelves, 
Our fancies are more giddy and unfirm, 

9 favour.] The word favour ambiguoully ufed. JOHNSON. 



More longing, wavering, fooner loft and worn ', 
Than women's are. 

Vio. I think it well, my lord. 

Duke. Then let thy love be younger than thyfelf, 
Or thy affection cannot hold the bent : 
For women are as rofes ; whofe fair flower, 
Being once difplay'd, doth fall that very hour. 

Vio. And fo they are : alas, that they are fo ; 
To die, even when they to perfection grow 1 

Re-enter Curio, and Clown. 

Duke. O fellow, come, the fong we had lafl night : 
Mark it, Cefario; it is old, and plain: 
The fpinilers and the knitters in the fun, 
And the free * maids that weave their thread with 


Do ufe to chaunt it ; it is filly footh J , 
And dallies with the innocence of love 4 , 
Like the old age 5 . 

Clo. Are you ready, fir ? 

Duke. Ay; pr'ythee, fing. [Mufick. 

1 ' ' lojl and ivorn , ~\ 

Though loft and ivorn may mean loft and worn out, yet loft and 
wen being, I think, better, thcie two words coming ufnally and 
naturally together, and the alteration being very flight, I would 
.fo read in this place with fir T. Hanmer. JOHNSON-. 

* ' frt e ] is, perhaps, vacant , unengaged^ eajy in mind. 

3 filly footb^] It is plain, fimple truth. JOHNSON. 

4 And dallies with the innocence of love ^\ 

Dallies has no fenfe. We (hould read, tallies t i. e. agrees with ; 
is of a piece with. WAR BUR TON. 

To dally is to play harmlefsly. There is no need of change. So, 
aft III. " They that dally nicely with words." 
Again, in Swetnam Arraigned ^ 1620: 

" he void of fear 

" Dall'fd with danger. " 

Again, injir W. Davenant's Allovive, 1629: " Why doft thou 
dally thus with feeble motion ?" STEEVENS. 

5 oldage.} The old age is the ages />/?, the times of limplicity. 



WHAT YOU W I L L. 205 


Come away, come away, death y 
And in fad cyprefs let me be laid; 
Fly azvay, Jfy away, breath ; 
/ amjlain by a fair cruel maid. 
Myjhrowd of white, flack all with ytw, 

Oy prepare it 4 

My part of death no one fo true 
Didfrare it \ 

Not a flower, not aflozverjweet y 
On my. black cvffin let there bejlrown ; 

Not a friend, not a friend greet 
My poor LWpfe, where my banes Jhall le thrown : 
A thoufand thoufand Jighs tofave> 

Lay me, O ! where 
Sad true-love never find my grave, 
To weej) there. 

Duke. There's for thy pains, 

Clo. No pains, fir ; I take pleafure in finging, fir. 

Duke. I'll pay thy pleafure then. 

Clo. Truly, fir, and pleafure will be paid, one time 
or other. 

Duke. Give me now leave to leave tliee. 

Clo. Now, the melancholy god protedt thee; and the 
taylor make thy doublet of changeable taffata, for thy 
mind is a very opal 7 ! I would have men of fuch 


6 My part of death no one fu true 

Didjhare it,] 

Though death is a fart in which every one a As hlsjbare, yet of all 
thcfc adtors no one isfo true as I. JO-HNSOX. 

7 a very opal ! ] A precious itone of ahnoft all co^ 

lours. POPE. 

So, Milton dcfcribinc: the walls of heaven : 

" With ofaltaw'rs, and battlements adorn'J." 
The efial is a gem which varies its appearance as it is viewed 



conftancy put to fea, 8 that their bufmefs might be 
every thing, and their intent every where ; for that's 
it, that always makes a good voyage of nothing. 
Farewel. [Exit. 

Duke. Let all the reft give place.- [Exeunt. 

Once more, Cefario, 

Get thee to yon fame fovereign cruelty : 
Tell her, my love, more noble than the world, 
Prizes not quantity of dirt? lands ; 
The parts that fortune hath beftow'd upon her, 
Tell her, I hold as giddily as fortune ; 
9 But 'tis that miracle, and queen of gems, 
That nature pranks her in, attracts my foul. 


in different lights. So, in the Mufes* Eliziumfiy Dray ton : 
" With opals more than any one 
" We'll deck thine altar fuller, 
" For that of every, precious ftone 

" It doth retain fome colour." 

" In the opal (fays P. Holland's translation of Pliny's Nat. Hljl. 
b. xxxvii. c. 6.) you fliall fee the burning fire of the carbuncle or 
rubie, the glorious purple of the amethyft, the green fea of the 
cmeraud, and all glittering together mixed after an incredible 
manner." STEEVENS. 

that their lujinefs might be every thing, and their intent every 
where ; ] Both the preferva'tion of the antithefis, and the recovery 

of the fenfe, require we fhould read,- and their intent no 

where. Becaufe a man who fuffers himfelf to run with every 
wind, and fo makes his bufmefs every where, cannot be faid to 
have any intent ; for that word fignifies a determination of the 
mind to fomething. Belides, the conclulion of making a good 
voyage out of nothing, directs to this emendation. WAREURTOX. 
An intent every where, is much the fame as an intent no where, 
as it hath no one particular place more in view than another. 

9 But 'tis that miracle, and queen of getns, 

That nature pranks her in, ] 

What is that miracle, and queen of gems ? we are not told in this 
reading. Befides, what is meant by nature pranking her in a mi- 
rack ? -We fnould read : 

But 'tis that miracle, and queen of gems , 
That nature pranks , her mind, - 


l r io. But, if Ihe cannot love you, fir ? 

Duke. I cannot be fo anfwer'd '. 
Vio. 'Sooth, but you mufl. 
Say, that fome lady, as, perhaps, there is, 
Hath for your love as great a pang of heart 
As you have for Olivia : you cannot love her; 
You tell her fo ; Muft ihe not then be anfwer'd ? 

Duke. There is no, woman's fides, 
Can bide the beating of fo flrong a<pafiion, 
As love doth give my heart : no woman's heart , 
So big, to hold fo much ; they lack retention. 
Alas, their love may be call'd appetite, 

No motion of the liver, but the palate, 

That fufTcr furfeit, cloyment, and revolt; 
But mine is ail as hungry as the fea, 
And can cligeft as much : make no compare 
Between that love a woman can bear me ? 
And that I owe Olivia. 

Vio. Ay, but I know, 

Duke. What doft thou know ? 

Vio. Too well what love women to men may owe : 
In faith, they are as true of heart as we. 
My father had 'a daughter lov'd a man, 
As it might be, perhaps, were I a woman, 
I fhould your lordihip. 

Duke. And what's her hiflory ? 
Vio. A blank, my lord : She never told her love, 

X.e. what attracts tny foul, is not her fortune, but her minJ, that 
miracle and queen of gems tbat nature pranks, i.e. fctsout, adorns. 


The miracle and qnscn of gems is her beauty, which the commen- 
tator might have found without fo emphatical an enquiry. As to 
her mind, he that (hould be captious would fay, that though it 
may be formed by nature it mull \>^ pranked by education. 

Shnkefpeare does not fay that nature pranks, her in a miracle, but. 
in the miracle vf gems, that is, in a gem miraculoufiy beautiful. 


1 I cqnnot Icfo anfi^er 1 il.~\ 
The folio reads, /> cannot be, &c. STEEVENS. 



But let concealment, like a worm i'the bud % 
Feed on her damafk cheek : fhe pin'd in thought ; 
And, with a green and yellow melancholy, 
3 She fat like patience on a monument, 
Smiling at grief. Was not this love, indeed ? 


4 like a worm i'the bud,] 

So, in the <;th formet of Shakefpeare : 

" Which, like a canker in the fragrant role, 

" Doth fpot the beauty of thy budding name.'* 

3 She fat like patience on a monument , 

Smiling at grief . ] 

Mr. Theobald fuppofes this might poffibly be borrowed from 
Chaucer : 

" And her lefulis wonder difcrctlie 

'" Dame pacience yjittinge there I fonde 

" lHtb face pale, upon a hill of fondc ." 

And adds : ' ' If he was indebted, however, for the firjl rude draught , 
bow amply has he repaid that debt, in heightening the pi 1 ure ! HfW 
much docs the green and yellow melancholy tranfcend the eld bard's 

pale face; the monument his hill of fand." 1 hope this critic 

does not imagine Shakefpeare meant to give us a pifture of the 
face of patience, by his green and yelloiu melancholy ; becaufe, h 
fays, it tranfcends the paleface of patience given us by Chaucer. 
To t\\ro\v patience into a fit of melancholy, would be indeed very 
extraordinary. The green andyellovj then belonged not to patience , 
but to her who fat like patience. To give patience a pale face y 
was proper : and had Shakefpeare defcribed her, he had done it 
as Chaucer did. But Shakefpeare is fpeaking of a marble ftatue 
of patience ; Chaucer, of 'patience herfelf. And the two repre- 
fentatioris of her, are in quite different views. Our poet, fpeak- 
ing of a defpairing lover, judicioufly compares her to patience ex- 
ercifed on the death of friends and relations ; which affords him 
the beautiful picture of patience on a, monument. The old bard 
fpeaking of patience herfelf, directly, and not by comparifon, as 
judicioufly draws her in that circumitance where fhe is moltexer- 
cifed, and has occafion for all her virtue ; that is to fay, under 
the loff~es of JJiifnvrcck. And now we fee why fhe is represented 
y& fitting on a hill of fand, to defign the fcene to be the fea-fhore. 
li is finely imagined ; and one of the noble firnplicities of that ad- 
mirable poet. But the critic thought, in good earneft, that 
Chaucer's invention was fo barren, and his imagination fo beg- 
garly, that he was not able to be at the charge of a monument for 
his goddefs, but left her, like a ftroller, funning herfelf upon a 
heap of fand. WAREURTO.V. 



\Ve men may fay more, iwear more : but, indeed, 
t)urfhovvs arc more than will ; for flill we prove 
Much in our vcr.vs, but little in our love. 

Duke, jiiut clj \1 ;.hy lifter of her love, my boy ? 

ViO. I am all the daughters of my father's houie*,. 

This celebrated irrage was not improbably firft fketched out in 
the old play ot Perlck-s. I think, Shukeipeare's hand may he feen in the latter part ot it, and there only : two or 

three paflages, which he was unwilling to lofe, he has tranfplant- 
ied, with fon.e alteration, into his own plays. 
" She fat like patience en a monument, 

" Smiling at grief." 

In Pericles: " Thou (Mariana) deft look like patience gazing 
on kind's graves, and foiling extremity out of aft." 

Thus a little before, Mariana afks the bavjd, " Are you a wo- 
man r" Bfr.'.-i 1 . * k T A'hat would you have me to be, if not a woman r" 

Mar. " An hone/I ^jjoman, cr not a woman." Somewhat limi- 

lar to the dialogue between lagn and Othello, relative to Cajjio : 

'* I think, that he is boncft. 
" Men fhould be what they feem, 
" Orthofe that be not, would they might feem none." 
Again, " She fiarves the ears (lie feeds, (lays Pericles,} and make* 
them hungry, the more fhe gives them fpeech." 
So, in HemJet: 

" As if increafe of appetite had grown 
" By what \tfed on." FARMER. 
* / c.m -all the daughters of my father's houfe^ 

'' all the brothers too ; ] 

This ,vas the moft artful aniwer that could be given. The quef- 
tion was of fuch :; nature, that to have declined the appearance of 
a UIIM -..rfwer, muit have railed fuipicion. This has the appear- 
ance of a uireft anfwer, that the Jljhr died of her love ; {lie (who. 
patted for a man) faying, fhe was all the daughters of her father's 
houfe. But the Oxford editor, a great enemy, as fhould feem, to 
all equivocation, obliges her to aniwer thus : 

She'j all the (laughters of my father' s houfe y 

And I am all the ions 

But if it fhould be afked now, how the duke to take this for 
an anfwer to his qu-ftion, to be fure the editor can tell us, 

Such another equivoque occurs in Lylly's Galathea, -1592 i 

*' my father hud but one daughter, and therefore I could 

have no filler." STEEVENS. 



And all the brothers too ; and yet I know not : 
Sir, lhall I to this lady ? 

Duke. Ay, that's the theme. 
To her in hafte ; give her this jewel ; fay, 
My love can give no place, bide no denay 5 . [Exeunt. 


Olivias garden. 
Enter Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Fabian. 

Sir To. Come thy ways, fignior Fabian. 

Fab. Nay, I'll come ; if I lofe a fcruple of this 
fport, let me be bo i I'd to death with melancholy. 

Sir To. Would'ft thou not be glad to have the 
niggardly rafcally Iheep-biter come by fome notable 
ilia me ? 

Fab. I would exult, man : you know, he brought 
me out of favour with my lady, about a bear-baiting 

Sir To. To anger him, we'll have the bear again ; 
and we will fool him black and blue : Shall we nor, 
fir Andrew ? 

Sir And. An we do not, it is pity of our lives. 

Enter Maria. 

Sir To. Here comes the little villain : How now, 
my nettle of India 6 ? 


s Ude no denay.] 

Denay is denial. To denay is an antiquated verb fometimes ufed by 

Holinfhed : fo, p. 620 : " the date of a cardinal which was 

naied and denaled him." Again, in Warner's Allions En^land^ 
1602, b. ii. ch. 10 : 

" thus did fay 

*' The thing, friend Battus, you demand, not gladly I 
Jenay." STEEVEXS. 

6 nettle of India 2~\ The poet muft here mean a zoophyte, 

railed the Urtica Marina^ abounding in the Indian leas. 

" Quse 


Mar. Get ye all three into the box-tree : Malvo- 
lio's coming clown this walk; he has been yonder i'the 
fun, praclifmg behaviour to his own lhadow, this half 
hour : obierve him, for the love of mockery ; for, 
I know, this letter will make a contemplative idcot 
of him. Clofe, inthenameof iefting! Lie thou there ; 
for here comes the trout that mult be caught with 

[They bide tbemfehes. Maria throws down a letter^ and 


Enter Malvol'o. 

Mai "Pis but fortune ; all is fortune. Maria once 
told me, Ihe did aired: me ; and I have heard hc-rfclf 
come thus near, that, fhould fhe fancy, it fhould be 
one of my complexion. Befides, fhe ufes me with a 
more exalted refpctfr, than any one elfe that follows 
her. What Ihould I think on't ? 

Sir 5T0. Here's an over-weening rogue ! 

Fab. O, peace ! Contemplation makes a rare tur- 

" Qua? tafta totius corporis pruritum quendam excitat, unde 
romen vrtica eft fortita." Wolfgang. Frar.gii Hijl. Animal. 

" Urticez marina: omnes pruritum quendam movent, ct acri- 
raonia fua i-enerem extinftam et fopitam excitant." 

Johnftoni Hift. Nat. dc Exang. Aquat. p. 56. 
Perhaps the fame plant is alluded to by Greene in his GarJ of 

Fancy, 1608 : " the^uvr of India pleafant to be feen, but 

whofo fmelleth to it, feeleth prrfent fmart." Again, in his Ma- 
millla, i $93 : " Confider, the herb of India is of pleafant fmell, 
but whofo cometh to Kfeeletbprcjentfmart" Again, in P. Hol- 
land's tranllation of the gth book of Pliny's Nat. Hift. " As for 
thofe nettle^ there be of them that in the night raunge to and fro t 
and Hkewife change their colour. Leares they carry of a fleihy 
lubftance, and of flefli they feed. Their qualities is to raife an 
itching fmart." The old copy, however, reads mettle of Indla^ 
which may mean, my girl of gold, my precious girl; and this is 
probably the true reading. The change, which 1 have not dil- 
turbed, waa made by Mr. Rowe. STEEVEX*. 

P 2 kev- 


kcv-cock of him; how he jets 7 under his advanced 
plumes ! 

Sir And. 'Slight, I could fo beat the rogue : 

Sir To. Peace, I fay. 

Mel. To be count Malvolio ; 

Sir To. Ah, rogue! 

Sir And. Piftolhim, piftol him- 

Sir To. Peace, peace ! 

Mai. There is example for't ;. 8 the lady of the- 
ftrachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe. 


jets] To jet is to ftrut, to- agitate the body by a. 
proud motion. So, in Arden of Fcverjl->am, i^gz;. 
44 Is now become the fteward of the houie,. 
" And bravely jets it in a filken gown." 
A^airs, in B-uJJy D'Amlois, 1640: 

" To jet in others' plumes fo haughtily."' STEEVF.N'S. 

* - the lath ef the Strachy- ] We fhould read Tracfy,-. 
i.e. Thrace ; for fo the old Englifh writers called it. Maaceviiie 
fays : t4 As Trachye and Macedoignc, of the ivbicb Aiifandre was 
kyng" It was common to ufe the article tbe before names or" 
places : and this was no improper inflance, where the &ene was in 
Illyria. WAS BUS TON. 

"What we mould read is hard to fay. Here is an allufion to fome; 
old itory which I have not yet difcovered. JOHNSOX. 

Straccio (fee Torriano's and Altieri's diclionarits) fignifies clouts 
and tatters, and Torriano in his grammar, at the eud of his dic- 
tionary, fays that Jlraccln was pronounced ilrati -hi. So that it is 
probable that Shnkefpeare's meaning was this, that the lady of the 
queen's wardrobe", had married a yecrnan of the king's, who was 
vaftly inferior to her. SMITH. 

Such is Mr. Smith's note ; but it does not appear that Strac/.y 
was ever an EngHili word, nor will the meaning given it by the 
Italians be of any ufe on the prefent occaiion. 

Perhaps a letter has been mi {placed, and we ought to read-~ 
Jlarcby ; i.e. the room in which linen underwent the once moft 
complicated operation ot Jlai-clhig. I do not know that fuch a word 
exifts ; and yet it would not be unanalogically tormed from the* 
fubftantivey?rt;-(7\ In Harftietfs Declaration, 1603, we meet with 
" a yeoman ot thej^rna-ry ;" 5. e. wardrobe; and in the Nortb- 
xw'ierlandHoufeboLl Boojc, ir.trfeiy is fpelt, nurcy. Starchy, there- 
fore, for Jiarcbcry may be admitted. In R:.';.-:co and Juliet, the 
place where pajic was made, is called the p.-f y. The lady who 

WHAT YOU W I L L. 213 

'Sir And. Fie on him, Jezebel ! 

Fiib. O, peace ! now he's deeply in ; look, how 
imagination blows him '. 

Mai. Having been three months married to her, 
fitting in my flate, 

Sir To. ' O for a -Hone-bow, to hit him in the eye ! 

Mai. Calling my officers about me, in my branch'd 
velvet gown ; having conic from a day-bed % where 
I have left Olivia fieeping. 

iS'/V To. Fire and brimilone'! 

iiadthe care of the linen, may be fignificzntly oppoied to the^>- 
man, i.e. an inferior officer of the wardrobe. \\ hile \bz five dif- 
ferent coloured were worn, fuch a term might have been 
current. In the year '561, a Dutch woman profeffed to tench this 
art to our fair country-women. ^ Her ufual price (fays Stowe) 
was four or five pounds to teach them how to Jlarcb, and twenty 
(hillings how to leeth Jlarcb.''* The alteration was luggeited to 
me by a typographical error .in The WorU tcfid at Ter.nh, 1620, 
by Middle to n and Rowley ; \\\\vcejiracbcf is printed torj'arc/jes. 
I cannot fairly be accufeu of having dealt much in conjectural 
emendation, and therefore leel the Ids reluctance to hazard a guels 
on this defperate paflage. STEEVENS. 

s liases bi-t:.'] i. e. puffs him up So, in Antbony and Cleopatra: 

** on her breail 

*' There is a vent of blood, and fomething MKW." 


1 -ftone-lctv, ] That is, a crofs-bow, a bow which 

ilioots ftones. Jon.\so\'. 

This inftrun-.ent is mentioned again in Marftori's Dittcb. Cour- 
tcCiifi, 1601; ** whoever will hit the mark of profit, muft, like 
thole who (hoot in Jloae-bows, wink with one eye." Again, iuB. 
and Fletcher's King and no Kin* : 

'* children will ihortly take him 

" Fora wall, and let d\<:\r fane- bows in his forehead." 
Again, in Pbilajlcr: ** He fliall .flioot in .a Jtotic-boiv tor me." 


1 - cane ils~':n from a day -bed, ] Spenfer, in the firft 

canto of the third book of his Faery ^ucen y has dropped a ftrokeof 
iutire on this !a/y fafiiion : 

" So was that chamber clad in goodly wize, 

** And round about it many bt<k were dight, 

*' As u'hihune \v;is the antique worldcs guize, 

*' i>on>e-ibr nittimfly cafe, fome for delight." STEEVENS. 

P Fab. 


Fab. O, peace, p. ace! 

Mai. And then to have the humour of flate : and 
after a demure travel of regard, telling them, I know 
my place, as I would they Ihould do theirs, ^to aik 
for my kinfrmn Toby : 

Sir To. Bolts and ihackles ! 

Fab. O, peace, peace, peace ! now, now. 

Mai. Seven of my people, with an obedient ftart, 
make out for him : I frown the while; and, perchance, 
wind up my watch ', or play with fome rich jewel. 
Toby approaches ; curtfi; s there to me : 

Sir To- Shall this fellow live ? 

Fab. Though our lilence be drawn from us with 
cars, yet peace 4 , 


3 wind up my watch, ] In our author's time watches 

were very uncommon. When Guy Faux was taken, it was urged 
as a circumftance of fufpicion that a watch was tound upon him. 

In the Antipodes, a comedy, 1638, are the following pafiages : 

** your project againft 

" The multiplicity of pocket watches." 
Again : 

*' when every puny clerk can carry 

" The time o' th' day in his breeches." 
Again, in the Alcbemifi : 

" And I hrd lent my watch laft night to one 

" That dines to day at the flieriff's." STEEVE.VS. 

4 Though cur filcnce be drawn from us with cares, J i. e. though 
it is the great^ft pain to us to keep lilence. Yet the Oxford editor 
has altered it to : 

Though our filence be drawn from us ly the ears. 
There is fome conceit, I fuppofe, in this, as in many other of 
his alteration, yet it crten lies ib deep that the reader has reafon to 
wifh he cculd have explained his own meaning. WAR BUR TON. 

I believe the true reading is : Though our Jjlence be drawn from 
us with carts, yet peace. In the Two Gentlemen of Verona, one of 
the Clowns fays : " I have a mijlrefs, but who that is, a team of 
horfes fi.-all net pluck from me. :> So, in this piny : " Oxen an 
Lvaiarcpcs will not bring them together. JOHNSON. 

The old reading is cars, as I have printed it. It is well known 
that cars and carts have the fame meaning." STEEVENS. 

If I were to fuggeft a word fn the place of car a, which I think 


Mai. 1 extend my hand to him thus, quenching 
my familiar fmile with an auftere regard of controul : 

Sir To. And does not Toby take you a blow o'the 
li-ps then ? 

Mai. Saying, Coufin Toby, nry fortunes having caft 
me on your niece, give me this prerogative ofjpeecb ; 

Sir To. What, what ? 

Mai. You mv.ft amend your drunkennefs. 

Sir To. Out, fcab ! 

Fab* Nay, patience, or we break the finews of our 

Mai. Be/ides, you Wiifte the treafure of your time with a 
fooli//} knight ; 

Sir And. That's me, I warrant you. 

Mai. One Sir Andrew ; 

Sir And. I knew, 'twas I ; for many do call me 

Mai. What employment have we here s ? 

[Taking tip the letter. 

Fab. Now is the woodcock near the gin. 

Sir To. Oh peace ! and the fpirit of humours in- 
timate reading aloud to him ! 

Mai. By my life, this is my lady's hand : thefe 
be her very C*s, her i7's, and her 5*'s; and thus makes 
fhe her great P's 6 . It is, in contempt of queflion, 
her hand. 


is a .corruption, it ftiould be cables. It may be worth remarking, 
perhaps, that the leading ideas ot Malvolio, in his humour ofjlate, 
bear a itrong reiemblsmce to thofe of Alnafchar in the Arabian 
Nigbfs Entertainments. Some of the exprelfions too are very li- 
milar. TYRWHITT. 

5 What tmploynunt have ive here ?~\ A phrafc of that time, equi- 
valent to our common fpeech of What's to do here. The Ox- 
ford .editor, not attending to this, alters it to, 

What implement have ive here? 

By which happy emendation, he makes Malvolio to be in the plot 
againft himfelf ; or how could he know that this letter was an /;- 
pument made ufe of to catch him ? WARSURTOX. 

6 her great P's. ] In the direction of the letter which 

P .. Malvolio 


Sir And. Her C's, her L r 's, and her 2"s : Why 
that ? 

Mai. To the unknown belovd, this, and my good 
w'foes : her very phrafes ! By your leave, wax. 
Soft ! and the impreilure her Lucrece, with which ihe 
ufes to feal : 'tis my lady : To whom ihould this be ? 
Fab. This wins him, liver and all. 
Mai. Jove knows, I love : 

But who ? 
Lips do not move, 
No man muft know. - <, 

No man mujl know. What follows ? the numbers 

alter'd ! No man mvfi knowz if this ihould be thee, 
Malvolio ? 

Sir To. Marry, hangthee, brock 7 ! 
Mai. I may command, where I adore :. 

But jilence, like a Lucrece knife, 
With bloodlefs (iroke my 'heart doth gore ; 

M. O. A. I. dothjwjy my life. 
Fab. A "fuftian riddle ! 
Sir To. -Excellent wench, fay I. 
Mai. M. 0. A. I. doth fway my life. Nay, butfirft, 
let me lee, let me fee, let me fee. 

Fab. What a diih of poifon has ihe drefs'd him ! 
Sir To. And with what wing the 8 ilannyel checks 
at it! 


Malvolio reads, there is neither a C, nor a P., to be found. 


There may, however, be words in the direction which he does 
net read. To formal directions of two ages ago were often added 
thefe words, Humbly Prefent. JOHNSON. 

It would puzzle the learned commentaror to difcover a C in the 
words which he fuppofes to have been added. STEEVENS. 

7 Ir^k!] i.e. badger. Recalls Malvolio fo, becaufe he 

is likely to be hunted and perfecuted like that animal. To badger 
a man, is a phraie ilili in ufe for making a fool of him. STEEVJ.XS. 

8 -Jlaaxyel ] The name of a kind of hawk is very judici- 
onfly put here for ajlalliort, by fir Thomas Hanmer. JOHNSON. 

To check, fays Latham in his book of Falconry, is " when crows, 



Mai. I may command where I adore. Why, flie may 
command me ; I ferve her, ihe is my lady. Why, 
this is evident to any 9 formal capacity. There is no 
cbftruction in this ; And the end ; What Ihould 
that alphabetical pofition portend ? if I could make 

that referable ibmething in me, Softly ; M. O 

A. /. 

Sir 0. O, ay ! make up that ; he is now at a cold 

l\iby Sowtcr ' will cry upon't, for all this, though 
it be as rank as a fox % 

Mai. M, Malvolio; M, why, that begins 

my name. 

Fab. Did not I fay, he would work it out ? the 
cur is excellent at faults. 

Mai. My But then there is no confonancy in the 
fequel; that fuffers under probation: A Ihould foU 
low, 'but O does. 

Fab. And ihall end, I hope % 


rooks, pies, or other birds, coming in view of the havvke, fhe for- 
faketh her natural llight, to fly at them." TheJZannyelis the com- 
rnon ftone-hawk which inhabits old buildings and rocks ; in the 
jNorth ca.l\edjtanc-bil. 1 have this information from Mr. Lambe'a 
notes on the ancient metrical hiilory of the battle of Floddon. 


9 formal capacity. ] Formal, for common. WARBURTON. 

Formal capacity,} i. e. any one in his fenfes, any one whofe ca- 
pacity 'is notdif-:;rrangedoroutof/0;v. So, in the Comedy of Error* : 

" Make of him a formal man again." 
In Xleafurefir Mcafnrc : 

"" The : e hiformal women." STEEVENS. 

1 ^V-.-vr ] Sifter is here, I fuppofe, the name of a hound. 
Sotv/erty, however, is often employed as a term of abufe. So, in 
Like -TV/// tn Like, Jcc. i j8; : 

" Youfoivtcrfy knaves, ftioxv you all your manners at once ?" 
Afwfer was a coblcr. So, in Greene's Card of Fancy, 1608 : 

*' It Apeiicb thut cunning painter fuffer the greafyyiw/er 

to take a view of his curious work, &c." STEEVENS. 

a as rank as a fox,~\ Sir Thomas Hanmer reads, not at 

rank. The other editions, thnn^h it be as rank. JOHNSON. 

3 ^ndOJliall end, I bope.~\ By O is here meant what we now call 
a btm''cn collar. JOHNSON. 


Sir To. Ay, or I'll cudgel him, and make him 
cry, 0. 

Mai. And then I comes behind. 

Fab. Ay, an you had an eye behind you, you 
might fee more detraction at your heels, than for- 
tunes before you. 

Mai. M. 0. A. I. This fimulation is not as the 
former : and yet, to crufh this a little, it would bow 
to me, for every one of thefe letters is in my name. 

Soft; here follows profe. If this fall into tky hand, 

revolve. In myjlars I am above thee ; but be not afraid 
of greatnefs : Some are born great *, fame atchicve great- 
nefs, and fome have greatnefs thruft upon them. Thy 
fates open their hands ; let thy blood and fpirit embrace 
them. And, to inure thyfelf to what thou art like to be y 
caft thy humble Jlough, and appear frejh. Be oppofite 
with a kinjman, furly with fervants : let thy tongue tang 
arguments of ft ate ', put thyfelf into the trick of Angularity : 
She thus advifes the?, thatfighs for thee. Remember who 
commended thy yellow ftockings 4 ; and wi/Wd to fee thee 


I believe he means only, // Jball end ix/ghitig, in difappoint- 
n?ent. So, fomevyhere elfe : 

" How can you fall into fo deep an Ob?" 

So, in Decker's Honcft Whore, fecond part, 1630: " the brick 
honfe of Caitigation, the fchool where they pronounce no letter 
well but O/" Again, in Hymen's Triumph, by Daniel, 1623: 

" Like to an O, the character of woe." 
Again, in Greene's Groats-worth of Wit, 1625 : 

*' comparing every round circle to a groaning O" 
Again, in the fecond canto of the Barons' Wars, by Drayton : 

" With the like clamour and confufed O, 
' To the dread fhock the defp'rate armies go." STEEVENS. 

* are born gre at. ] The old copy reads are become great. 


* i*~~jeBtmJlttKagSi ] Before the civil wars, yellow flock- 

hio;s were much worn. In Davenant's play, called The Wits y 
act IV. p. 208. Works fol. 1673: 

" You faid, my girl, Mary Queafie by name, did find your 
uncle's yello*ivjtockings in a porringer ; nay, and you faid fhe flole 
them." Dr. PERCY. 

So Middleton and Rowley in their mafque entitled Tbc World 
Toj's V at Tennis, 1620, where the five diifereut-coloured ftarches 


ever crofs-garter* d J : I fay-, remember. Go to ; thou art 
made, if thou dcfireft to be fo ; if not, let me fee thee ajlciv- 
ard Jlill, the fellow of fervants, and not worthy to touch 
fortune's fingers. Farewel. She, that would alter fer- 
vices with thee i 'The fortunate-unhappy. Day-light and 

are introduced as ilriving for fuperiority. Yellow Jlarcb fays to 
white : 

*.' iince (he cannot 

" Wear her own linen yellow, yet flie fiiows 
" Her love to't, -and makes him wtaryelfav bofe?* 
So, in Heyvvood's If you KHHW not me you know nobody : 

" Many of our young married men have ta'en an order to wear 
yellow garters, points and (hoe-tyings, and 'tis thought jW/ow will 
grow a cuftom." 
Again, in Decker's Match me in London, 1631 : 

" becaufe you wear 

" A kind ui yellow flocking" 

Again, in his Honeft H'ljore, fecond part, 1630: " What 
flockings have you put on this morning, madam ? if they be not 
yellow, change them." The yeomen attending the earl of Arun- 
del, lord Windfor, and Mr. Fulke Greville, who alfifted at an en- 
tertainment performed before Q^ Elizabeth, on the Monday and 
Tuefday in Whitfun-week 1581, were drefled \njellow iuorftcd 
/lockings. The book from which I gather this information, was 
published by Henry Goldweli, gent, in the fame year. STEEVENS. 
5 crojs-garttrtl : ] So, in the Lover's Melancholy, 1639: 

" As rare an old youth as ever walked crqfs-garterteU" 
Agajn, in a Wffmatfs a Weathercock, 1612 : 

" Yet let me fay and iwearin a crofi garter, 
" Pauls never lliew'd to eyes a lovelier quarter." 
Very rich garters were anciently worn below the knee. So, in 
Warner's ALMons England, b. ix. ch. 47 : 

" Garters of liftes ; but now oijilk, fome edged deep with 


It appears, however, that the ancient puritans afFefted this fafhion. 
Thus Barton Holyday, ipeaking of the ill fuccefs of his TEXNQ- 
TAMIA, lavs : 

" Had there appear'd fome {harp crofs-garter'a 1 man 
" Whom their loud laugh might nick-nainiB^*n/dur t 
"'d up in factions breeches, and fmall rufte, 
*' That hates the furplice, and defies the cuffe. 
" Then, &c. 

Jn a former fcene Malvolio was faid to be an affeder of puritanifm. 




champian difcovers not more 6 : this is open. I wilj 
be proud, I will read politic authors, I will baffle 
iir Toby, I will walh off grofs acquaintance, I will 
\)Z point- de-vice, the very man 7 . I do not now fool 
myielf to let imagination jade me ; for every reafon 
excites to this, that my lady loves me. She did com- 
mend my yellow {lockings of late, Ihe did praife my 
leg being crofs-garter'd ; and in this Ihe manifefls 
herfelf to my love, and, with a kind of injunction, to thefc habits of her liking. I thank my 
ftars, I am happy* I will be ftrange, flout, in yel- 
low flockings, and crofs-garter'd, even with the fwift- 
nefs of putting on. Jove, and my flars be praifed ! 
Here is yet a poflfcript. Thou canjl notchv.fe but know 
.who I am. If thou entertainejl my love, let it appear in. 
thy failing i thy fmiles become thee well: therefore in my 
prefence Jlill fm'de , dear my fweet y I pr'ythee. Jove, I 
thank thee. I will fmile; I will do every thing that 
thou wilt have me. [Exit, 

* ivith thee. The fortunate and happy day -light and champian 
Jifcovers no more:"] Wrong pointed : We fhould read : ^ith tbee t 
tJje fortunate, and happy. Day-light and champian dif cover no more: 
i. e. broad day and an open country cannot make things plainer. 


The folio, which is the only ancient copy of this play, reads, 
the fortunate-unhappy, and fo I have printed it. The fortunate-un- 
happy feeins to be the fubfcription of the letter. STEEVENS. 

7 I will be point-de-vice, the we ry man. - ] This phrafe 
is of French extraction a points-devifez. Chaucer ufes it in the 
Romaunt of the Rfij'r : 

^ ** Her noie was wrought at point-device" 
i. e. with the ntmoft poffible exa&ncfs. 
Again, \\\ K. Edward \. 1599: 

** That \ve may have our garments point-device" 
Again, in Warner's Atiions England, 1602, b. xiii. c. 76 : 

" And, underftandingly, of all difcourfeth point-device.''* 
Jvaftril, in the Alchemijl, calls his fitter Punk devife : and again, 
in the Tale of a Tul, aft III. fc. vii : 

and if the dapper prieir. 
t as cunning 
" As I was in m lie. 


Be but as cunning ^fl/a/ in his 


Fab. I will not give 'my part of this fport fora pen- 
fion of thoufands to be paid from the Sophy. 

Sir To. I could marry this wench for this device ; 

Sir And. So could I too. 

Sir To. And afk. no other dowry with her, but fuck 
another jelt. 

Enter Afarij+ 

Sir And. Nor I neither. 
Fab. Here comes my noble gull-catcher. 
Sir To. Wilt thou let thy foot o'my neck? 
Sir And. Or o'mhie either ? 

Sir To. Shall I play my freedom at tray-trip % and 
become thy bond-Have ? 


8 tray-trip, ] The word tray -trip I do not underftand. 


Tray-trip is mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful 
Lad)/, 1616: 

" Reproving him at 'tray-trip, fir, for fwearing." 
Again, in GJaptberne's Wit in a Conf.abk, 1639 : 

" mean time, you may play at tray -trip or cockall, for 

black puddings." 

Since our firft imprellion of this work, I found, from an old 
MS. note to a copy of fir W. Davenant's comedy of the ff'ltSf 
1637, that tray-trip was a game at cards : the paflage to which it 
referred was this : 

" My watch are above, at trea-trip, fora black pudding &c." 
Again : 

** With lanthorn on Hall, at trea-trip we play, 

" For ale, chcefe, and pudding, till it be day &c." 


tray-tr:l>, ] A p;ame much in vogue in our author's days : 

It is (til! retained among the lower clafs of young people in the Weft 
of Engknd ; and was, I apprehend, the fame as now goes under 
the name of Scotch-hop, which was phiy'd either upon level ground 
marked out with chalk in the form of fq-mres or diamonds, or up- 
on a chequered pavement. Jaiper Maine in the City Match evi- 
dently alludes to the latter : 

" Aur. Marry a fool, in hope to be a lady -may orefs ? 
" Plot. Why, fitter, I 

** Could name good ladies that are fain to find 
" Wit for themfelves, and knights too. 

" A*r. 


Sir And. I'faith, or I either ? 

Sir To. Whv, thou haft put him in fuch a dream, 
that, when the image of it leaves him, he mull run 

Alar. Nay, but fay true, does it work upon him ? 

Sir To. Like aqua-vitse with a midwife 9 . 

Mar. If you will then fee the fruits of the fport, 
mark his fii ft approach before my lady : he will come 
to her in yellow {lockings, and 'tis a colour fhe ab- 
hors ; and crofs-garter'd, a fafhion me detefls ' ; and 
he will fmile upon her, which will now be fo unfuit- 
ableto her difpofition, being addicted to a melancholy 
as Ihe is, that it cannot but turn him into a notable 
contempt : if you will fee it, follow me. 

Sir To. To the gates of Tartar, thou moll excel- 
lent devil of wit ! 

Sir Aid. I'll make one too. [Exeunt. 

" Aur, I have heard 

" Of one u'hofe hufband was fo meek, to be 
*' % For need her gentleman-uftier, and while fhe 
*' Made viiits above ftairs, would patiently 
" Find himfelf bufinefs at tre-trlp i'th' hall." 

See Dodfley's Old Plays, vol. X. p. 28. 

It is not improbable, that, in the fimplicity or Shakefpeare's time, 
even a young nobleman might pique himfelf upon his activity at 
Scotch-hop, or tray-trip. And from the paflage cited from Maine 
it is clear the game might be play'd by one only. HAWKINS. 

The following paflage might incline one to believe that tray-trip 
was the name of fome game at tables, or draughts. " There is 
great danger of being taken fleepers at tray-trip, if the king fvveep 
luddenljv* Cecil's Correfpondence, lett. x. p. 126. Ben Jonfoii 
joins tray-trip with mum-cbance. Alcbimljl, p. 126. vol. Ill: 
" Nor play with coftar-mongers at mum-chance, tray-trip" 


9 aqua vita ] Is the old name otjlrong --Maters. 


1 crofs-garter'd, afajlnonfie detcjls ; ] Sir Thomas Over- 
bury, in his character of a footman without gards on his coat, re- 
prefents him as more upright than any crojj's-garter'd gentlemaa- 
ufher. FARMER. 



Oliv/a's garden. 

Eater Viola, and Gloivn. 

Vio. Save thee, friend, and thy mufick : Doft thou: 
live z by thy tabor ? 

Clo. No, fir, I live by the church. 

Vio. Art thou a churchman ? 

Clo. No luch matter, fir ; I do live by the church : 
for I do live at my houfe, and my houfe doth fland 
by the church. 

Vio. So thou may'ft fay, the king lies by a beg- 
gar, if a beggar dwell near him ; or, the church 
Hands by thy tabor, if thy tabor ftand by the 

Clo. You have faid, fir. To fee this age ! A fen- 
tence is but a cheveril glove 3 to a good wit ; How 
quickly the wrong iide may be turned outward'! 

Vio. Nay, that's certain ; they, that dally nicely 
with words, may quickly make them wanton. 

Clo. I would therefore, my filter had had no name, 

Vio. Why, man ? 

Clo. Why, fir, her name's a word; and to dally 
with that word, might make my filler wanton : But, 
indeed, words are very rafcals, fince bonds difgrac'd 

1 ly thy tabor? Clown. Ne, Jlr, I live by the church.] The 
Clo<wn y I fuppofe, wilfully miftakes his meaning, and anfwers, as 
if he bad been afked whether he lived by they?gvz of the tabor, the 
ancient defignation of a mufic fhop. STEEVENS. 

3 a chcveril glove ] i. c. a glove made of kid leather: 

cbevreau, Fr. So, in Jtomco and Juliet : " a wit of cheveril " 
Again, in a proverb in Ray's collection : " He hath a confcience 
like a cbevereVs (kin." STEHVENS. 



Vto. Thy reafon, man ? 

Clo. Troth, fir, I can yield you none without! 
words ; and words are grown fo falfc, I am loth td 
prove reafon with them. 

Vto. I warrant, thou art a merry fellow, and careft 
for nothing. 

Clo. Not fo, fir, I do care for fomething : but in 
my confcience, fir, I do not care for you ; if that be 
to care for nothing, fir, I would it would make you 

Flo. Art not thou the lady Olivb's fool ? 

Clo. No, indeed, fir; the lady Olivia has no folly: 
fhe will keep no fool, fir, 'till {he be married ; and 
fools are as like hufbands, as pilchards are to her- 
rings, the hufband's the bigger : I am, indeed, not 
her fool, but her corrupter of words. 

Vio. I faw thee late at the'ccunt Orfino's. 

Clo. Foolery, fir, does walk about the orb, like the 
fu-n ; it fhines every where. I would be lorry, fir, 
but the fool mould be as oft with your mailer, as 
with my miilrefs : I think, I faw your vvifdom there; 

Vio. Nay, an thou pafs upon me, I'll no more with 
thee. Hold, there's expences for thee. 

Clo. Now Jove, in his next commodity of hair, 
fend thee a beard ! 

Flo. By my troth, I'll tell thee ; I am almofl fick 
for one; though I would not have it grow on my chin* 
Is thy lady within ? 

Clo. Would not a pair of thefe have bred, fir ? 

Vto. Yes, being kept together, and put to life. 

Clo. I would play lord Pandavus 4 of Fhrygia, fir, 
to bring a Crefiida to this Troilus. 

Vio. I undcrftandyou, fir; 'tis well begg'd. 

Clo. The matter, I hope, is not great, fir, beg- 
ging but a beggar ; Crefiida was a beggar. My lady 

* ' lord Panjarus > ~\ See our author's play of Troilus and 
Crejfida. JOHNSON. 



!s within, fir. I will confter to them whence you 
come; who you are, and what you would, is out of 
my welkin : I might fay, element; but the word is 
over-worn. [Exit. 

Vio. This fellow is wife enough to play the fool ; 
And, to do that wel), craves a kind of wit : 
He muft obijerve their mood on whom he jells, 
The quality of the perfonsj and the time ; 
And, like the haggard % check at every feather 
That comes before his eye. This is a pra<ftiee> 
As full of labour as a wife man's art : 
For folly, that he wifely (hews, is fit; 
But wife men's folly fail'ii 6 , quite taints their wit* 

s the boggart^ ] The hawk called the haggard, if not well 
trained and watched, will fly after every bird without diftaiction. 


'the meaning may be, that he rnuft catch every opportunity, as 
the wild hawk rtrikes every bird. But perhaps it might be icad 
more properly : 

Not like the haggard. 

He muft chufe perfons and times, and obferve tempers, he mu(t 
fly at proper game, like the trained hawk, and not fly at large 
like the unreclaimed haggard, to feize all that comes in his way. 


6 But wife men's folly fall* H," - ] 
Sir Thomas Hanmer reads, folly Jbfvjht JOHNSON. 

The lit'it folio reads : But -.:' iff men's folly falne, quite tairit their 
wit. From whence I fliould eonjedture, that Shakefpeare poffi- 
bly wrote : 

But wife men, folly-fain, quite taint their <w/V 
i.e. wile men, fallen into folly. TYRWHITT. 

The fenfe is : But wife mt^s folly, when it is once fatten into ex- 
\ravagancc, overpowers their Jijcrction. REVISAL. 

I explain it thus : The foily which he fhews with proper adap- 
tation to perfons and times, is fit, has its propriety, and therefore 
produces no centure ; but the folly of wife men when it falls or 
happens, taints their wit, deftroys the reputation of their judg- 
ment. JOHNSON* 

VOL. IV. O v Enter 


Enter Sir Toby, and Sir Andrew* 

Sir And. Save yon, gentleman 7 

Flo. And you, fir. 

Sir TV. Dieu vous garde, monfieur. 

Vio. Et vous ai'JJi \ votre fervttcf.r. 

Sir To. I hope, fir r you are; and I am yours, 
Will yon encounter the houfe ? my niece is defirous 
you fliould enter, if your trade be to her. 

Vio. I am bound to your niece, fir : I mean, fhe 
is the lift 8 of my voyage. 

Sir To. Tafte your legs, fir 9 , put them to motion. 

Vio. My legs do-better understand me, fir, than I 
underfland what you mean by bidding me tafte my 

Sir To. I mean, to- go, fir, to enter. 

Vio. I will anfwer you with gait and entrance : But 
we are prevented. 

7 In former editions : 

Sir To. Save you, gentleman. 

Vio. And you, Jlr. 

Sir And. Dieu voits garclc\ iitonjicur. 

Vio.- Et vous aujjl ', votreferviteur. 

Sir And. / hope, fir, you are ; and I am yours. } 
I have ventured to make the two knights change fpeeches in this 
dialogue with Viola ; and, I think, not without good reafon. It 
were a prepofterous forgetfulnefs in the poet, and out of all pro- 
bability, to make fir Andrew not only fpeak French, but under- 
Hand what is laid to him in it, who in the fait ad did not know- 
the Englifli of Pourquoi. THEOBALD. 

8 -the lift ] Is the 0a,v</, limit, far tleft point. 


* Tafteyour legs, Jir, &c.j Perhaps this expreffion was em- 
ployed to ridicule the fantaiHc ufe of a verb, which is man}' times 
as quaintly introduced in the old pieces, as in this play, or in Tie. 
true "Tragedies of Marius and Sc>lla, \ 594. : 

" A climbing tow'r that did not tajle the wind." 
Again, in Chapman's verfion of the 21 it Odyfley : 

** . ni now began 

* To taftc the bow, the lharp fnaft took, tugg'd hard." 




Enter Olivia and h'laria. 

Moft excellent accomplim'd lady, the heavens rain 
odours on you ! 

Sir Audi That youth's a rare courtier ! Rain odours ! 

Flo. My matter hath no voice^ lady, but to your 
own moil pregnant and vouchfafed ear 1 . 

Sir And-. Odours, pregnant > and vouchfafed: I'll 

get 'em all three ready *. 

OIL Let the garden door be Unit, and leave me to 
my hearing* 

[Exeunt Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria* 
Give me your hand, fir. 

Flo. My duty* madam^ and moft humble fervice* 
Oli. What is your name ? 

ViOk Cefario is your fervant's name^ fair princefs< 
Oli My fervant, fir ! 'Twas never merry world, 
Since lowly feigning was call'd compliment i 
You are fcrvant to the count Orfino, youth. 

Vio* And he is yours, and his mult needs be yours j 
Your fervant's fervant is your fervant* madam. 

Oli. For him, I think not on him: for his thoughts, 

*\Vould they were blanks, rather than fill'd with me ! 

Vio. Madam, I come to whet your gentle thoughts 

On his behalf: 

Oli. O, by your leave* I pray you ; 
I bade you never fpeak again of him : 
But, would you undertake another fuit, 
I had rather hear you to folicit that, 
Than mufick from the fpheres* 
Vlo* Dear lady, 

* moft pregnant ar.d <voucbfafed earJ\ Pregnant fof ready* 


Pregnant is a word 3n this writer of very lax fignificatioa* It 
tnay here mean liberal, JOHNSON. 

It means ready , as in Meafure for Kfeafure, adT: I. fe. i. 


* all thru ready.] The old copy reads all three already. 


2 Oli. 


OIL Give me leave, I befeech you : I did fend, 
After the laft enchantment, (you did hear) * 
A ring in chafe of you ; fo did I abuie 
Myfclf, my fcrvant, and, I fear me, you : 
Under your hard conftrudtion muft I fit, 
To force that on you, in a fha'meful cunning, 
Which you knew none of yours : What might you 

think ? 

Have you not fet mine honour at the flake, 
And baited it with all the unmuzzled thoughts 
That tyrannous heart can think ? To one of your re- 

ceiving J 

Enough is Ihcwn ; a Cyprus 4 , not a bofom, 
Hides my poor heart : So let me hear you fpeak. 

fto. I pity you. 

OIL That's a degree to love. 

Via, No, not a grice 5 ; for 'tis a vulgar proof, 
That very oft we pity enemies. 

OIL Why then, methinks, 'tis time to fmile again: 
O world, how apt the poor arc to be proud ! 
If one fliauld be a prey, how much the better 
To fall before the lion,, than the wolf > [Clock jlrikes. 

* Afti-.r the laft enchantment, (you did hear)] 
Nonfenfe. Read and point it thtls : 

After the lajl mcJk&uttuttt you did here, 
i. e. after the enchantment your prefence wqrked in my affeion. 


The prefent reading is no more nonfenfe than the emendation. 


5 to one cfyour receiving] 

5. e. to one of your ready apprebwjion, ! She confiders him as an arch 
page. WAR BURTON. 

* - a cypms, - ] Is a tranfparent fluff. JOHNSON. 
So, in "No ivit like a Woman* s, by Miildleton : " I have thrown 
a yprefi over my face for fear of fun-burning." STEEVENS. 

5 - a grice ;] - ] Is a, fief, fonietimes written greefe from 
Jegrc;, French. JOHNSON. 
So, in Othello : 

" Which, as tgrlfe ftep, may hdp thefe lovers," 



The clock upbraids me with the waftc of time.- 
Be not afraid, good youth, I will Rot have you : 
And yet, when wit and youth is come to harvoft, 
Your wife is like to reap a proper man : 
There lies your way, due welt. 

Vio. Then weftward-hoe 6 : 

Grace, and good difpofition, attend your ladyihip ! 
You'll nothing, madam, to my lord by me ? 

Oli. Stay: 
I pr'ythee, tell me, what thoa think'ft of me. 

Vio. That you do think, you are not what you are. 

OIL If I think fo, I think the fame of you. 

Vto. Then think you right ; I am not what I am. 

OH. 1 would, you were as I would have you be ! 

Via. Would it be better, madam, than I am, 
I wilh it might ; for now I am your fool. 

Oli. O, what a deal of fcorn looks beautiful 
In the contempt and anger of his lip t 
A murd'rous guilt fhcws not itfelf more foon 
Than love that would feem hid : love's night is noon. 
Ce&rioj by the roles of the fpring, 
By maidhood, honour, truth, and every thing, 
I love thee fo, that, maugre 7 all thy pride, 
Nor wit, nor reafon, can my paflion hide. 
Do not extort thy rea/ons from this claufe, 
For, that I woo, thou therefore haft no caufe : 
But, rather, rcaibn thus with reafon fetter : 
Love fought is good, but given unibught, is better. 

Vio. By innocence I fwear, and by my youth, 
J have one heart, one bofom, and one truth, 

* Tlcn weftward-hoe :] This is the name of a comedy by J. 
Decker, 1607. He was affifted in it by Webller, and it was act- 
ed with great fuccefs by the children of Pauls, on whom Shake- 
fpeare has beftowed luch notice in Hamlet, that we may be lure 
they were rivals to the company patronized by himfelf. 


7 maugre ] i. e. in fpite of. So, in David and Bsth- 

fobe, 1599: 

* Maogrt the fons of Ammon and of Syria." STEEVENS. 

0.3 And 


* And that no woman has ; nor never none 
Shall miftrefs be of it, fave I alone 9 . 
And fo adieu, good madam ; never more 
Will I my matter's tears to VQU deplore, 

OIL Yet come again ; for thou, perhaps, may'$ 

That heart, which now abhors, to like his love. 



An apartment in Olivias koufe. 
Enter Sir Toby, Sir Andrew^ and Fabian. 

Sir And. No, faith, Til not Hay a jot longer. 

Sir To. Thy reafon, dear venom, give thy reafon, 

Fab. You muft needs yield your reafon, fir Andrew. 

Sir And, Marry, I faw your niece do more favours 
to the count's ferving-man, than ever ihe bellowed 
upon me; I faw't i'the orchard. 

Sir To. Did fhe fee thce the while, old boy; tell me 
that ? 

Sir And. As plain as I fee you now, 

Fab. This was a great argument of love in her to-! 
\vards you. 

Sir And. 'Slight ! will you make an afs o' me ? 

Fab. I will prove it legitimate, fir, upon the oath? 
of judgment and reafon. 

Sir To. And they have been grand jury-men, fince 
before Noah was a failor. 

Fab. She did fhew favour to the youth in your fight, 
only to exafperate you, to awake your dormoufe var 

8 And that no woman has ; ] 

And that heart and bofom I have never yielded to any woman. 


9 fave I alone. ] 

Thefe three words fir Thomas Hanmer gives to Olivia probably 


lour a 


four, to put fire in your heart, and briraftonc in your 
liver : You fheuld then have accofted her.; and with 
ibme excellent jefts^ fire-new from the mint, you 
ihould hare bang'd the youth into dum'bnefs. This 
was look'd for at your hand, and this was baulk'd '. 
the double gilt of this opportunity you let time wafh 
off, and you are now -fail'd into the north of my lady's 
opinion; where you will hang like an icicle on a 
Dutchman's beard, unlefs you do redeem it by fome 
laudable attempt, cither of valour, or policy. 

Sir And. And't be any way, it mutt be with valour ; 
for policy I hate: I Iiad as lief be a Brownift ', as 
a politician. 

Sir To. Why then, build me thy fortunes upon the 
bafts of valour. Challenge rne the count's youth to 
ifight with him * ; hurt him in eleven places.; my niece 
iliall take note of it : and aflure thyfelf, there is no 

1 * *as.llcf lf a Brownift, ] The Jttvwnifts were fo 

<alled from Mr. Robert Browne., a noted fcparadft in queen Eli- 
zabeth's reign. [See Strype's Annals of^veen Elizabeth, vol. HI. 
p. 15, 16, &c.] In his lite of Whitgift, p. 323, he informs us, 
that 2?rvHi>xe, in the year 1589, " went off from the reparation 
and came into the communion of the church." 

This Browne was deicended from an ancient and honourable fa- 
jnily in Rutlandfhire ^ his grandfather Francis, had a charter 
granted him by king Henry VIIL and confirmed by aft of parlia- 
ment ; giving him leave to " put on his cap in the prefcnc e of the 
king, or bis heirs, or any lord fpiritual or temporal in the laiul t and 
3iot to tin i~t nfj , but for his o c Mn cafe and pleafure" 

Neul's Hifiory of New England, vol. I. p. 58, GRAY. 

The Broivnijls feem, in the time of our author, to have been 
the conilant objects of popular fatire. In the old comedy of Ram- 
alley, 161 1, is the following ftrok-e at them : 

" of a new iecl, and the good profeflbrs, will, like the 

Browiiji, frequent gravel-pits fhordy, for they ule woods and ob- 
icure holes already." 

Again, in I*ove ami Honour, by iir \V. Davcnant: 
" Go kils her: by this hand, a Brawny* i^ 
" More amorous " STKEVENS. 

a Challenge me the count's youth to fight -ivitb him ; ] This 

is nonfenfe. We fl.ould read, I believe : Challenge me the 

'* joutL ; go, fght with him; hurt h:fn y &c. TYK.WHITT. 

Q. 4 4o\v- 


love-broker in the xvorld can more prevail in man's 
commendation with woman, than report of valour. 
Fab. There is no way but this, fir Andrew. 

Sir And. Will either of you bear me a challenge to 
him ? 

Sir To. Go, write it in a martial hand * ; be curft and 
brief : it is no matter how witty, fo it be eloquent, 
and full of invention ; 4 taunt him with the licence of 
ink : if thou tkou'Jl him fome thrice, it lhall not be 
amifs ; and as many lies as will lie in thy meet of pa- 
per, although the meet were big enough for the bed 
of Ware in England, fet 'em down, go* about it. 
Let there be gall enough in thy ink; though thou 
write with a goofe-pen, no matter ; About it. 

3 In a martial band; } Martial hand, feems to be a 

cnrelefs fcrawl, fuch as fliewed the writer to negleft ceremony. 
Curf, is petulant, crabbed - a curd cur, is a dog that with little 
provocation fnarls and bites. JOHNSON'. 

4 taunt him with the licence of ink : if thou thou'ft him fame 

thrice, ] There is no doubt, I think, but this paflage is one of 

thole in which our author intended tofliew his relpeft for fir Wal- 
ter Raleigh, and a delegation of the virulence of his profecutors. 
The words quoted, feem to me directly levelled at the attorney- 
general Coke, who, in the trial of lir Walter, attacked him with 
air the following indecent expreflions : " All that he did was by 
thy ifijligatien^ thou <zvj&<r ; for /thou five, thou fray tor!" (Here, 
by the way, are the poet's three thou's.) " You are an odious man."' 
" Is he bafe? I return it into thy throat, on his behalf." " O 
damnable athctft!" 11 Thou art a irionfteri thou hajl an Englijb 
fftcC) but a SpaniJJ} heart."- *' Thou haft a Spanijb heart) and thy ~ 
feffart afpidcr of hell.'" " Go to, I ivil! lay thee on thy lack for 

the confident'jl traitor that ever came at a bar, &c." Is not here 
all the licence of tongue, which the poet fatyrically prefcribes to 
fir Andrew's ink ? And how mean an opinion Shakefpeare had of 
thefe petulant inveftives, is pretty evident from his clofe of this 
fpeech : Let there be gall enough in thy ink ; though thou ivrite it 
ivit/j a goofe-pen no matte*. A> keener lafh at the attorney for a 
fool, than all the contumelies the attorney threw at the prifonerj 
as a iuppofed traitor ! THEOBALD. 

The lame expreffion occurs in Shirley's Opportunity, 1640: 

" Does he than me ? 

* 4 How would he domineer an he were duke !" 



Sir And. Where (hall I find yon ? 

Sir To. We'll call thee at the Cubiculo : Go. 

[Exit Sir Andrew* 

Fab. This is a dear manakin to yon, fir Toby. 

Sir To. I have been dear to him, lad j fome two 
thousand ftrong, or fo. 

Fab. We fliall have a rare letter from him ; but 
you'll not deliver't. 

Sir To. Never truft me then; and by all means flir 
on the youth to an anfxver. I think, oxen and wain- 
ropes cannot hale them together. For Andrew, if he 
were open'd, and yon find fo much blood in his liver 
as will clog the foot of a flea, I'll eat the reft of the 

Fab, And his oppofite, the youth., bears in his vii 
fage no great preiage of cruelty, 

Enter Maria. 

Sir To. s Look, where the youngeft wren of nine 

Mar. If you defire the fpleen, and will laugh your- 
felves into flitches, follow me: yon' gull Malvolio is 
turned heathen, a very renegade ; for there 1 is no 
chriftian, that means to be fav'd by believing rightly, 
can ever believe fuch impoffible paffages of groHhefs, 
He's in yellow ftockings. 

Sir To. And crofs-garter'd ? 

Mar. Mod villainoufly ; like a pedant that keeps 
a ichool i'thc church. ^-1 have dogg'd him, like his. 
murthcrer : He does obey every point of the letter 

5 Look, where the youngejl ivrcn of?iinc comes."] The women's 
parts were then lifted by boys, fometimes fo low in ftature, that 
there was occanon to obviate the impropriety by fuch kind of ob- 
lique apologies. WARBURTON. 

The ~jc>-ffi generally lays nine or ten eggs at a time, and the laft 
hatch'd ot all birds are ufually the fmalleii and weakelt of the 
brood, The old copy, however, reads tvrea of mine. 



that I dropp'd to betray him. He does fmile his face 
into more lines, than is in the new map, with the 
augmentation of the Indies : you have not feen fuch 
a thing as 'tis ; I can hardly forbear hurling things at 
him. I know, my lady will flrike him 6 ; if Ihe do, 
he'll fmile, and take't for a great favour. 

$r 'To. Come, bring us, bring us where he is. 



Enter Antonio and Sebqftian. 

Seb. I would not, by my will, have troubled you; 
But, fince you make your pleafure of your pains, 
I will no further chide you. 

Ant. I could not flay behind you ; my defire, 
More lharp than filed ftecl, did fpur me forth ; 
And not all love to fee you, (though fo much, 
As might have drawn one to a longer voyage) 
But jealoufy what might befal your travel, 
Being ikillefs in thefe parts ; which to a ftranger, 
Unguided, and unfriended, often prove 
Rough and unhofpitable : My willing love, 
The rather by thefe arguments of fear, 
Set forth in your purfuit. 

Scb. My kind Antonio, 
I can ao other anfwer make, but, thanks 7 , 


' 7 it'itnv jrty lady w/7/ ftrike him', - J We may fuppofe, 

that in an age when ladies -{truck their fervants, the box on the ear 
xvliich queen Elizabeth is faid to have given to the earl of Eflex, 
was not regarded as a tranfgreilion againlt the rule's of cojnraon 
behaviour. STEEVENS. 
7 In former editions : 

/ can no other anfiver male tut thanks^ 
jind thanks : and ever-oft goad turns 
Arc Jkrtfflcd off with fucb un current pay ; 

The fccond line is too fhort by a whole foot. Then, who evef 



And thanks, and ever : Oft good turns 
Arc iliufflcd off with fuch uncurrent pay : 
But, were my worth, as is my confcience, firm, 
You fliould find better dealing. What's to do ? 
Shall we go lee the reliques of this town s ? 

Ant, To-morrow, fir ; belt, firft, go fee your lodg- 

Seb. I am not weary, and 'tis long to night ; 
I pray you, let us fatisfy our eyes 
With the memorials, and the things of fame, 
That do renown this city. 

Ant. 'Would, you'd pardon me ; 
I do not without danger walk thefe fleeets : 
Once, in a fea-fight, 'gainft the duke his gallles, 
I did fome fervice ; of fuch note, indeed, 
That, were I ta'en here, it would fcarce be anfwer'd. 

Seb. Belike, you flew great number of his people, 

Ant. The offence is not of fuch a bloody nature ; 
Albeit the quality of the time, and quarrel, 
Might well have given us bloody argument. 
It might have iince been anfwer'd in repaying 

heard of this goodly double adverb, ever-oft^ which feems to have 
as much propriety as, always- fometimesf As I have reitored the 
pavThge, it is very much in our author's manner and mode of ex- 
pi elfion. So, in Cymlelinc : 

" Since when I have been debtor to you for eourtefics, 

which I will be ever to pay, and yet payy////." 
And in All's Well that Ends Well: 

' And let me buy your friendly help thus far, 
" Which I will o-<cr-pay, and/vry again 
" When I have found it." THEOBALD. 

My reading, which is 

And thanks and ever : oft good turns 

is fuch as is found in the old copy, only altering the punctuation, 
which every editor mull have done in his turn. Theobald has 
fompleted the line, as follows : 

** And thanks and ever thanks and of t good turns." 


T would read : And thanks again, and ever. TOLLET. 

h the reliques of this to-ivn ?~\ I fuppofe he means the re- 

lids of faint S) or the remains of ancient f.ibricks. STEEVENS. 



What we took from them ; which, for traffick's fake. 
Molt of our city did : only myfelf flood out : 
For which, if I be lapfed in this place, 
I ihall pay dear. 

Seb. Do not then walk too open. 

Ant. it doth not fit me. Hold, fir, here's my purfe; 
In the fouth fuburbs, at the Elephant, 
Is belt to lodge : I will toefpeak our diet, 
Whiles you beguile your time, and feed your know* 

With viewing of the town ; there fliall you have me, 

Seb. Why I your purfe ? 

Ait. Haply, your eye lhall light upon fome toy 
You have defire to purchafe ; and your ftore, 
I think, is not for idle markets, fir. 

Seb. I'll be your purfe-bearer, and leave you fof 
An hour. 

Ant. To the Elephant.' 

fob. I do remember. 


Olivia s koufe. 

Enter Olivia and Maria. 

Oli. I have fent after him : 9 He fays, he'll come ^ 
How lhall I feaft him ? what beftow of him ? 

9 In former editions : 

I Lave fent after him : He fays he'll come', 

From whom could my lady have any fuch intelligence ? Her fer- 
vant, employed upon this errand, was not yet return'd; and, 
when he does return, he brings word, that the youth would hard- 
Jy be intreated back. I am perfuaded, (he was intended rather 
to be in fufpenfe, and deliberating with herfelf : putting the fup- 
polition that he would come ; and afldng herfelf, in that cafe, 
how (he fhould entertain him. THEOBALD. 

he fays he*ll come ;] i. e, I fuppofe now, or admit now, 
he fays he'll come; which Mr. Theobald, not underftanding, 
akers unneceflarily to, fay l:c TI-/// ccme j in which the Oxford 
editor has followed him, WA&BURTOK. 


WHAT YOU W I L L. 337 

For youth is bought more oft, than begg'd, or bor- 
row 'd. 

I fpeak too loud. 

Where is Malvolio ? he is fad, and civil, 

And fuits well for a fervant with my fortunes ; 

Where is Malvolio ? 

' Mar. He's coming, madam ; but in very flrange 

He is Cure, poffeft, rnadam. 

OIL Why, what's the matter ? does he rave ? 

Mar. No, madam, 

He does nothing but fmile : your ladyfhip were bell 
To have fome guard about you, if he come, 
For, fure, the man is tainted in his wits. 

OIL Go call him hither. I'm as mad as he. 

Enter Malvolio. 

If fad and merry madnefs equal be. 
How now, Malvolio ? 

Mai. Sweet lady, ho, ho. [Smiks fantajlicdly. 

OIL Smil'ft thou ? 
I fent for thee upon a fad occafion. 

Mai. Sad, lady ? I could be fad : This does make 
fome obftruction in the blood, this crofs-gartering ; 
But what of that ? if it pleafe the eye of one, it is 
with me as the very true fonnet is : Pleafe one y and 
pleafe all. 

OIL Why, how doft thou, man ? what is the mat- 
ter with thee ? 

Mai. Not black in my mind, though yellow in my 
Jfgs : It did come to his hands, and commands fhali 
be executed. I think, we do know the fweet Roman 

OIL Wilt thou go to bed, Malvolio ? 

Mai. To bed ? ay, fvvoct heart ; and I'll come to 

OIL God comfort thee ! \Vhy dofi thou fmile fo, 
and kifs thy hand fo oft f 



Mar. How do you, Malvolio ? 

Mai. At your requefl ? Yes ; Nightingales anfvvcf 

Mar. Why appear you with this ridiculous bold- 
nefs before my lady ? 

Mai. Be not afraid of greatnefs : 'Twas well writ* 

OIL What meaneft thou by that, Malvolio ? 

Mai. Some are born great, 

OK. Ha? 

Mai. Some atcbleve greatnefs, 

Oli. What fay'ft thou ? 

Mai. Andfome have greatnefs thritjl upon them. 

Oil. Heaven reflore thee ! 

Mai. R emember, who commended tJyydlozvJloi 'kings ; * 

Oli. Thy yellow {lockings ? 

Mai. And wiflfd to fee thee croft-garter* d. 

Oil. Crofs-garter'd ? 

Mai. Go to : thou art made, iftbou dcfirejl to be fo ; * 

Oli. Am I made ? 

Mai. If not, let me fee thee afervant Jlill. 

Oil. Why, this is a very midfummer madnefs '. . 

Enter Servant. 

Ser. Madam, the young gentleman of the count 
Orfmo's is returned ; I could hardly entreat him 
back : he attends your ladylhip's pleaiure.- 

Oli. I'll come to him. Good Maria, let this fel- 
low be look'd to. Where's my coufin Toby ? let 
fome of my people have a fpeeial care of him ; I 
would not have him mifcarry for the half of my 
dowry. [Exit. 

Mai. Oh, ho ! do you come near me now ? no- 
worfe man than fir Toby to look to me ? This con- 

1 mldfumm'er maffnefs.'] Hot weather often turns the brain,- 

which is, I fuppofe, alluded to here. JOHNSON. 

*Tismidfummer moon ivith you, is a proverb in Ray's collection, 
fignifying you are mad. S TEE YENS. 



furs directly with the letter : fhe fends him on pur- 
pofe, that I may appear ftubborn to him ' f for fhe in- 
cites me to that in the letter. Caft tby bumble Jlough, 
fays fhe ; be oppofite with a kinfman 9 furly ivitb jer- 
vants, let tly tongue tang i ivith arguments of ft ate, 

put tbyj'elf into the trick of fi/igularity ; and, confe- 

quently, fcts down the manner how ; as, a fad face, 
a reverend carriage, a flow tongue, in the habit of 
lome fir of note, and fo forth. I have lim*d her 3 : 
but it is Jove's doing, and Jove make me thankful ! 
And, when fhe went away now, Let this fellow be look'd 
to : Fellow 4 \ not Malvolio, nor after my degree, 
but fellow. Why, every thing adheres together ; 
that no dram of a fcruple, no fcruple of a fcruple, no 
ebftacle, no incredulous or unfafe circumftance,, 
What can be faid ? Nothing, that can be, can come 
between me and the full profpcct of my hopes. 
Well, Jove, not I, is the doer of this, an<j he is to 
>e thanked. 

Re-enter Maria, 'With Sir Toby and Fabian. 

Sir To. Which way is he, in- the name of fanctity ? 
If all the devils in hell be drawn in little, and Legion 
himielf pofleft him, yet 111 fpeak to him. 

Fab. Here he is, here he is : How is't with- you,- 
fir ? how is't with you, man ? 

Mai Go off; I difcard you ; let me enjoy rny pri- 
vate ; go off. 

Mar. Lo, how hollow the fiend fpeaks within him !- 

* le t thy tongue tang, &c.] Here the old copy reads langcr ; 
but it (hould be tang, as I have corrected it from the letter which, 
Maivolio reads in a former fcene. STEEVHNS. 

The fecund folio reads tang, TYRU HITTV 

3 7 have limd Lcr, ] I have entangled or caught 

her, as a bird is caught with birdlime. [OHNSON. 

4 Feil:>--.'j ! ] This word, which originally fignified 

companion, was not yet totally degraded to its prefent me::nin ; 
and Malvolio takes it in the favourable fetile. JOHNSON. 



did not I tell you ? fir Toby, my lady prays you t<> 
have a care of him. 

Mai. Ah, ha ! does fhe fo ? 

$/> jTo. Go to, go to , peace, peace, we muft deal 
gently with him ; let me alone* How do you, Mal- 
volio ? hoxv is't with you ? What man ! defy the de- 
vil : conlider, he's an enemy to mankind* 

Mai. Do you know what you fay ? 

Mar. La you [ an you fpeak ill of the devil, 
how he takes it at heart ! Pray God, he be not be- 
witch'd ! 

Fab. Carry his water to the wife woman* 

Mar. Marry, and it mall be done fo-morrow morn- 
ing, if I live. My lady would not lofe him for more 
than I'll fay. 

Mai. How nowj mitlrefs ? 

Mar. O lord ! 

Sir To. Pr'ythee, hold thy peace, this is riot the 
way : Do you not fee, you move him ? let me alone" 
with him. 

Fab. No way but gentlcnefs ; gently, gently : the 
fiend is rough, and will not be roughly us'd. 

Sir To. Why, how now, my bavvcoek ? how doft 
thou, chuck ? 

Mai. Sir? 

Sir To. Ay, biddy, come with me. What man ! 
'tis not for gravity to play at cherry-pit 5 with fatan : 
Hang him, foul collier 6 ! 


* cherry -pit ] Cherry-pit is pitching cherry- ftones into 

a little hole. Nafh, fpeaking of the paint on ladies' faces, fays : 
*' You may play at cherry-pit in their cheeks." So, in a comedy 

called The IJJr of Gwils, 16 1 1 : " if fhe were here, I would have 

a bout at cobnut or cherry -pit." So, in The Witch of Edmonton : " I 
have lov'd a witch ever fince I play'd at cherry-pit" STEEVENS* 

6 -Hang him, foul collier !\ Collier was, in our author's timd, 
n term of the highefl reproach. So great were the impofitions 
practifed by the venders of coals, that R. Greene, at the conclufioti 



Mar. Get him to fay his prayers ; good fir Toby, 
get him to pray. 

Mai. My prayers, minx ? 

M?r. No, 1 warrant you, he will not hear of god 

Mai. Go, hang yourfelves all ! you are idle ihallow 
things : I am not of your element ; you mall know 
rriore hereafter. [.r;V. 

Sir To. Is't pomble ? 

Fab. If this were play'd upon a ftage now, I could 
condemn it as an improbable fiction. 

Sir To. His very genius hath taken the infection of 
the device, man. 

Mar. 'Nay, purfue him now; left the device take 
air, and taint. 

fab. Why, we mall make him mad, indeed. 

Mar. The houfe will be the quieter. 

Sir To. Come, we'll have him in a dark room, and 
bound. My niece is already in the belief that he is 
jnad ; we may carry it thus, for our pleafurc, and his 
penance, till our very paftime, tired out of breath, 
prompt us to have mercy on him : at which time, we 
will bring the device to the bar, and crown thee for 
a finder 7 of madmen : But fee, but fee. 

of his Notable Difcovery of Cozenage, 159?, has publiftied what 
he calls, A fhafant Difcoveryof the Cofinage of Colliers. 


The devil is called Collier for his blacknefs ; Like w/// to lite^ 
fays the Devil to the Collier. JOHKSON. 

7 a finder of madmen : ] This is, I think, an allullon 

to the voitch-faiikrs, who were very bufy. JOHNSON. 

crown tbee for a finder, rather feems to be an allufion 

to coroners. It is furely a fatire on thofe officers, who fo often 
bring in felf-murder, lunacy, to which title many other offences 
have to the full as juft pretenfions. STEEVENS, 

VOL. IV. R Enter' 


Enter Sir Andrew. 

Fab. More matter for a May morning *. 
" Sir And. Here's the challenge, read it ; I warrant., 
there's vinegar and pepper in't. 

Fab. Is't Ib fawcy ? 

Sir And. Ay, is't ? I warrant him : do but read. 

Sir To. Give me. [Sir Toby reads. 

Touth, whatfoever thou art^ thou art but afiurvy fel- 

Fab. Good, and valiant. 

Sir To. Wonder not, nor admire not in thy mind, why 
I do call thee fo y for I will (hew thee no reajbnfort. 

Fab. A good note : that keeps you from the blow 
of the law. 

Sir To. Thou com'ft to the lady Olivia, and in my fight 
Jhc ufes thee kindly : but thou Heft in thy throat, that is not 
the matter I challenge thee for. 

Fab. Very brief, and exceeding good fenfe-lefs. 

Sir To. I will way-lay tkze going home ; where if it be 
thy chance to kill me, 

Fab. Good. 

Sir To. Thou k'ill*ft me like a rogue and a villain. 

Fab. Still you keep o'the windy fide of the law : 

Sir To. Fare thee well; And God have mercy upon one 
of our fouls ! He may have mercy upon mine 9 ', but my hope 

8 More matter for a May morning.] It was ufual on the firft of 
May to exhibit metrical interludes of the comic kind, as well as 
the morris-Jam-e^ of which a plate is given at the end of the firfl 
part of K. He nry IV. with Mr. Toilet'* obfervations on it. 


* Ht may have mercy upim miue ', ] We may read : He 

may have mercy upnp. thine, but my hope is better. Yet the pailage 
may \\ell enough ftand without alteration. 

It were much to be wifued that Shakefpeare in this and fome 
other pafiages, had not ^ventured fo near profan^nefs. JOHNSON. 



is better, andjb look to tbyfdf. Thy friend, as thou ufejl 
kirn, and thy favor n enemy, ANDREW AGUE-CHEEK. 

Sir To. If this letter move him not, his legs cannot : 
I'll give't him. 

Mar. You may have very fit occafion for't ; he is 
now in fome commerce with my laSy, and will by 
and by depart 

Sir To. Go, fir Andrew; fcont me for him at the 
corner of the orchard, like a bum-bailiff: To foon as 
ever thou feeft him, draw ; and, as thou draw'ft, 
fwear horribly : for it comes to pafs oft, that a terri- 
ble oath, with a fwaggering accent fharply twang'd 
off, gives manhood more approbation than ever proof 
itfelf would have earn'd him. Away. 

Sir And. Nay, let me alone for fwearing. [Exit. 

Sir To. Now will not I deliver his letter : for the 
behaviour of the young gentleman gives him out to 
be of good capacity and breeding ; his employment 
between his lord and my niece confirms no lefs; there- 
fore this letter, being fo excellently ignorant, will 
breed no terror in the youth, he will find it 
comes from a clodpole. But, fir, I will deliver his 
challenge by word of mouth ; let upon Ague-cheek 
a notable report of valour ; and drive the gentleman, 
(as, I know, his youth will aptly receive it) into a 
moil hideous opinion of his rage, fkiil, fury, and im- 
petuofity. This will fo fright them both, that they 
will kill one another by the look, like cockatrices. 

Enter Olivia and Viola. 

Fab. Here he comes with your niece : give them 
way, 'till he take leave, and prefently after him. 

Sir To. I will meditate the while upon fome horrid 
meffage for a challenge. [Exeunt. 

Oli. I have {aid too much unto a heart of itone, 
And laid mine honour too unchary out : 
There's fomething in me, that reproves my fault ; 
R 2 But 


But fuch a headftrong potent fault it is, 
That it but mocks reproof. 

Vio. With the fame haviour that your paffion bearsy 
Goes on my maker's grief. 

Oil. Here, wear this 'jewel for me, 'tis my picture;, 
Refufe it not, it hath no tongue to vex you : 
And, I befeech you, come again to-morrow. 
What ihall you afk of me, that I'll deny ; 
That honour, fav'd, may upon aiking give ? 

Vio. Nothing but this, your true love for my 

Oli. How with mine honour may I give him that,. 
Which I have given to you ? 

Vio* I will acquit you. 

OH. Well, come again to-morrow: Fare thee well;, 
A fiend, like thee, might bear my foul to hell. [Exit* 

Re-enter Sir 'Toby, and Fabian. 

Sir To. Gentleman, God fave thee. 

Vio. And you, fir.. 

Sir To. That defence thou haft, betake thee to't r: 
of what nature the wrongs are thou haft done him, I 
know not ; but thy intercepter % full of defpight,, 
bloody as the hunter, attends thee at the orchard' 
end : difmount thy tuck,, be yare in thy preparation, 
for thy affailant is quick, ikilful and deadly. 

Via* You miftake, fir; I am fure, no man hath 
any quarrel to me; my remembrance is very free and 
clear from any image of offence done to any man. 

Sir To. You'll find it otherwife, I allure you : there- 

1 wear this jewel for me, ] Jewel does not properly 

iigniiy a -fingle-jr/s, but any precious ornament or fuperfkiity.' 


So, in Markham's Arcadia, 1607: " She gave "him :i very 
fine .jewel, wherein was let i rich diamond." See alfo, 
Warton's - Hift. of Englljl Poetry, vol. I. p. 121. STEEVENS. 

* tby intercepter,-] Thus the old copy. The modern 

editors read interpreter, bTtSYiiNs. 



, if you hold your life at any price, betake you to 
guard ; for your oppofite hath in him what 
youth, itrcngth, fkill, and wrath, can furniih man 

Flo. I pray you, fir, what is he .? 
Sir To. He is knight, dubb'd with unhack'd J ra- 

3 He is knigJjf, thill? d --with whack" 1 d rapier , and on carpet confe- 
deration; ] That is, he is no foldier by profetfion, not a knight 
banneret, dubbed in the field of battle, but, on carpet conjidera- 
tion, at a feltivity, or on fome peaceable occafion, when knights 
receive their dignity kneeling not on the ground, as in war, but 
on a carpet. This is, I believe, the original of the contemptuous 
term a carpet knight, who was naturally held in fcorn by the men 
of war. JOHNSON, 

There was an order of knighthood of the appellation of 
KNIGHTS of the CARPET, though few, or no perlons (at Jeaft 
among thofe whom I have consulted) feem to know any thing 
about it, or even to have heard of it. I have taken fome memo- 
randa concerning the inftitution, and know that William lord 
Burgh (of Starborough caftle in the county of Surry, father to 
Thomas lord Burgh, deputy of Ireland, and to fir John Burgh 
who took the great Caracca (hip in i 592) was made a Knight of 
the Carpet, at Weftminller, on the 2d of October, 1553, the day- 
after Queen Mary's coronation : and I met with a lift of all who 
were made fo at the Came time, in Strype's Memorials, vol. Ill* 
Appendix, p. 1 1. 

See Anftis's Obfervations on the Knighthood of the Bath, (Lond. 
1725) p. 50. " Upon the acceffion of Queen Mary to the throne, 
a commiflion was granted to the earl of Arundel, empowering him 
to make knights, but WITHOUT any additional title, within two 
days after the date of that patent : which were the two days pre- 
ceding her coronation. In purfuance hereof, we find the 'names 
iii the knights created by him, according to the ftated form of 
creating knights of the Bath ; and the variety of the ceremonieg 
uied, (o ditlmctly related, that it particularly to be con- 
fulted in the appendix." 

So that Mr. Anftis plainly con riders them as being only a fpecies 
f Knights of the Bath, though without any additional title. 

If fo, the appellation ot Knights of the Carpet might be only 
popular] nor their ftritf or proper title. This, however, was fuf- 
fk-icnt to induce Shakefpeare (who wrote whilft they were com- 
rnonly fpokcn of by fuch an appellation) tQ ///! that term, in con" 
inijl to a knighthoo'd cocferred upon a real lbidie r , ffs a rewai'd of 

R 3 For 


pier, and on carpet confideration ; but he is a devil in 
private brawl: fouls and bodies hath he divorc'd three; 
and his incenfement at this moment is fo implacable, 
that fatisfaclion can be none but by pangs of death 
and fepulcher : hob, nob 4 , is his word; give't, or 

Vlo. I will return again into the houfe, and defire 
fome conduct of the lady. I am no fighter. I have 
heard of fome kind of men, that put quarrels pur-: 
pofely on others to tafte their valour ; belike, this is 
a man of that quirk, 

Sir fo. Sir, no ; his indignation derives itfelf out 
of a very competent injury; therefore, get you on, and 
give him his defire. Back you fhall not to the houfe, 
unlefs you undertake that with me, which with as 
much fafety you might anfwer him : therefore, on, or 
ilrip your fword Hark naked ; for meddle you muft 5 , 
that's certain, or forfwear to wear iron about you. 

For this valuable note I am happy to confefs my obligations 
to fir JAMES BURROW, of the Temple, F, R, S, and F. S. A. 

Greene ufes the term Carpet-knights, in contempt of thofe of 

whom he is fpeaking; and in The Downfal of Rolert Earl of Hunt 
tington, 1601, it is employed for the fame purpofe : 

; " foldiers come away, 

" This Carpet-knight fits carping at our fears." 
Again, \\\Elicfto Libidinofo, a novel, by John Hinde, 1606: 

" Deiire took inceftuous Pelight captive, and little Cupid, like 
a valiant Carpet-lutight, flew into Venus his mother's bofom." 

In Barrett's Alvearie 1 580 : " thofe which do not exercife 

themfelves with fome honeft affaires, but ferve abhominable and 
filthy idlenels, are as we ufe to call them, Carpet-knightes." 
B. anteO. Again, among iir John Harrington'? Epigrams, b. iv, 
ep. 6. Of Merit and Demerit: 

" That captaines in thofe days were not regarded, 
" That only Carpet-knights were well rewarded." 
The old copy reads unhatch'd rapier. STEEVENS. 

* bob, nob,_ ] This adverb is corrupted from hap ne ha fa 

as would ne would, will tie will; that is, let it happen or not ; an4 
fignifies at random, at the mercy of chance. See Johnfon's Die-, 
tionary. STEEVENS. 

5 meddle you mujt, ] Meddle is here perhaps ufed in the 
fame fenie as the Fr. meler. To mix in fight is a phrafe ufed by 
guf beil Englifh poets. STEEVENS. 


Vio. This is as uncivil, as flrange. I befcech you, 
do me this courteous office, as to know of the knight 
what my offence to him is ; it is fomething of my neg- 
ligence, nothing of my purpofe. 

Sir To. 1 will do fo. Signior Fabian, flay you by 
this gentleman till my return. [Exit Sir 'Toby. 

Vio. Pray you, fir, do you know of this matter ? 

Fab. I know, the knight is incens'd againft you, 
even to a mortal arbitrement ; but nothing of the cir- 
cumftance more, 

Vio. I beieech you, what mariner of man is he ? 

Fab, Nothing of that wonderful promife, to read 
him by his form, as you are like to find him in the 
proof of his valour. He is, indeed, fir, the moft 
ikilful, bloody, and fatal oppofite that you could 
poffibly have found in any part of Illyria: Will you 
walk towards him? I will make your peace with him, 
if I can. 

Vio. I fhall be much bound to you for't : I am one, 
that had rather go with fir prieft, than fir knight : I 
care not who knows fo much of my mettle. [Exeunt* 

Re-enter Sir tfoby, with Sir Andrew. 

Sir To. Why, man, he's a very devil 6 ; I havetiot 
feen fuch a virago 7 . I had a pafs with him, rapier, 


* Why, man, he's a very devil, &C.] Ben Jonfon has imitated 
this Icene in the Silent Woman. The behaviour of fir John Daw, 
and fir Amorous la Foole, is formed on that of Viola and Ague- 
cheek. STEEVENS. 

7 . . / have not feen fuch a virago. ] firago cannot be 

properly ufed here, unlefs we fuppofe fir Toby to mean, I never 
faw one that had fo much the look of woman with the prowefs of 
man. JOHNSON. 

The old copy reads ~>firago. A virago always means a fe- 
male warrior, or, in low language, a fcold, or turbulent woman. 
In Heywood's Golden. Age, i6ri, Jupiter enters "like a nymph 
or virago ;" and fays : *' I may pals tor a bona-roba, a rouuceval, 
a virago, or a good' manly lafs." If Shakefpeare (who knew Vi- 
K 4 ola 

i 4 8 TWELFTH-NIGHf : OR, 

fcabbnrd, and all, and he gives me the ftuck 8 in with 
fuch a mortal motion, that it is inevitable ; and on 
the anfwer, he pays you asfurely as your feet hit the 
ground they flep on : They fay, he has been fencer 
to the Sophy. 
Sir And. Pox on't, I'll not meddle with him. 

Sir To. Ay, but he will not now he pacified : Fa- 
bian can fcarce hold him yonder. 

Sir And. Plague on't ; an I thought he had been 
valiant, and fo cunning in fence, I'd have fcen him 
damn'd ere I'd have challeng'd 'him. Let him let 
the matter flip, and I'll give him my horfe, grey 

Sir To. I'll make the motion : Stand here, make a 
good fhcw on't ; this fhali end without rhe perdition 
of fouls : Marry, I'll ride your horfe as well as I ride 

Re-enter Fabian and Viola. 

I have his horfe to take up the quarrel ; I have per- 
fuaded him, the youth's a devil, [To Fabian. 

Fab. He is as horribly conceited of him ; and pants, 
and looks pale, as if a bear were at his heels, 

Sir To. There's no remedy, fir, he will fight with 
you for's oath fake : marry, he had better bethought 
him of his quarrel, and he finds that how fcarce to be 
worth talking of : therefore draw for the fupportance 
of Ms vow j he protcfts, he will not hurt you. 

h fo be a woman, though ilr Toby did not) has made no blun* 
der, Dr. fohnfon has fupplied the only obvious meaning of the 
word. Firngif may however be a ludicrous term of Shakefpeare's 
coinage. STEEVEVS. 

8 - t&e ftuck- - ] The jtuck is a corrupted abreviation of 
the^0av;/rt, an Italian term in fencing So, in the Return from 
farnajj'u;, i6c6 : 4 ' Here's a rellmv, Judicio, that carried the 
deadly ^flflfc in his pen." Again, in Mariton's Mai-content, 1604 : 
*' The clofe flock, O mortal <kc." Again, in Antonio's Revenge^ 
t'6o2 : 

*' I \vcu!d pafs oa him v/ith a mortal f:cck." STEEVENS. 


Via. Pray God defend me ! A little thing would 
fnake me tell them how much I lack of a man. 

Ftib. Give ground, if you fee him furious. 

Sh- TO. Come, fir Andrew, there's no remedy ; the 
gentleman will for hi^honour's fake, have one bout 
with you : he cannot 9 by the duello avoid it : but he 
has promis'd me, as he is a gentleman and a foldier, 
lie will not hurt you. Come on ; to't. [They draw, 

Sir And. Pray God, he keep his oath ! 

Enter Antonio. 

Vio. I do allure you, 'tis againft my will. 

Ant. Put up your fvvord ; If this young gentleman 
"Have done offence, I take the fault on me ; 
If you offend him, I for him defy you. [Drawing. 

Sir To. You, fir ? why, what are you ? 

Ant. One, fir, that for his love dares yet to do more 
Than you have heard him brag to you he will. 

SirTo. Nay, if you be an undertaker ', I am for you. 1 


9 ly the duello ] i. e. by the laws of \hzdudlo, which, 

in Shakclpeare's time, were fettled with the utmoft nicety. 


1 Nay, if you be an undertaker, ] But why was an under" 

taker fo oflfenfive a chara&er ? I believe this is a touch upon the times y 
which may help to determine the date of this play. At the meet- 
ing of the parliament in 1614, there appears to have been a very 
general perfuafion, orjealoufy at leaft, that the king had been in- 
duced to call a parliament at that time, by certain perfons, who 
bad undertaken, through their influence in the houfe of commons, 
to carry things according to his majefty's wifhes. Thefe perfon 
were immediately ftigmatized with the invidious name of under- 
taken ; and the idea was fo unpopular, that the king thought it 
necellary, in two fet fpeeches, to deny pofitively (how truly, i* 
another "queilion) that there had been any fuch undertaking. Parl. 
Hift. vol. V. p. 2 77, and 286. Sir Francis Bacon alfo (then attorney- 
general) made an artful, apologetical fpeech in the houfe of com- 
mons upon the fame fubjedt ; when the houfe (according to the title 
of the fpeech) ivai in great heat, and much troubled about the under' 
hixcfs. Bacon's Works, vol. II. p. 236. 410 edit. TYRWHITT, 



Enter Officers. 

Fab. 6 good fir Toby, hold ; here come the of, 

Sir To.. I'll be with you anon. 

V~w. Pray, fir, put your fword. up, if you pleafe. 

[T0 Sir Andrew. 

Sir And. Marry, will I, fir; and, for that I pro~ 
mis'd you, I'll be as good as my word : He will bear 
you eafily, and reins well. . 

1 Off. This is the man ; do thy office. 

2 Off. Antonio, I arrefl thee at the fuit of count 

Ant. You do miftake me, fir. 

1 Off. No, fir, no jot; I know your favour well, 
Though now you have no fea-cap on your head. 
Take him away; he knows, I know him well. 

Ant. I muflobey. This comes with feekingyouj 
But there's no remedy; I fhall anfwer it. 
What will you do ? Now my neceffity 
Makes me to afk you for my purfe : It grieves me 
Much more, for what I cannot do for you, 
Than what befals myfelf. You Hand amaz'd ; 
But be of comfort. 

2 Off. Come, fir, away. 

Ant. I muft intreat of you fome of that money. 

Vio. What money, fir ? 

For the fair kindnefs you have fhew'd me here, 
And, part, being prompted by your prefent trouble, 
Out ot my lean and low ability 
I'll lend you fomething : my having is not much ; 
I'll make divifion of my prefent with you : 
Hold, there's half my coffer. 

Ant. Will you deny me now ? 
Is't poffible, that my deferts to you 
Can lack perfuafion ? Do not tempt my mifery, 
Left that it make me fo unfound a man, 



.As to upbraid you with thofe kindneffcs 
That I have done for you, 

Vw. I know of none ; 
Nor know J you by voice, or any feature ; 
I hate ingratitude more in a man, 
Than lying, vainnefs, babling drunkcnnefs, 
Or any taint of vice, whole itrong corruption 
Inhabits our frail blood. 

Ant.. O heavens themfelves ! 

2 'Off. Come, fir, I pray you, go, 

Ant. Let me fpeak a little. This youth that you 

fee here, 

I fnatch'd one half out of the jaws of death ; 
Relieved him with fuch fandtity of love, 
And to his image, which, methought, did prorhife 
lyloft venerable worth, did I devotion. 

i Off. What's that to us r the time goes by ; 

Ant. But, oh, how vile an idol proves this god! 
Thou haft, Sebaitian, done good feature ihame. 
In nature there's no blemilh, but the mind ; 
None can be call'd deform'd, but the unkind : 
Virtue is beauty ; but the beauteous evil 
Are empty trunks, o'erflourifh'd by the devil % 

i Off, The man grows mad ; away with hirrr. 
Come, corne, iir. 

Ant. Lead me on. [Exit Antonio with Officers. 

1 d* erflourifi? d ly the efevil.] In the time of Shakefpeare, 

trunks, which are now depofited in lumber-rooms, or other ob- 
fcure placet, were part of the furniture of apartments in which 
company was received. I have Teen more than one of thefe, ns 
old as "the time of our poet. They were richly ornamented on 
the tops and fides with fcroll work, emblematical devices, &c, 
and were elevated on feet. Shakefpeare has the fame expreffion in 
ftleafurc for Meafitre : 

" . your title to him 

" Dotlv1iW/-i/& the deceit " STEEVENS. 



Vw. Methinks, his words do from fuch paffionfly, 
That he believes himfelf ; fo do not I J . 
3' rove true, imagination, oh, prove true, 
That I, dear brother, be now ta'en for you! 

Sir To. Come hither, knight; come hither, Fabian ; 
We'll whifper o'er a couplet or two of moflfage faws, 

Vw. He nam'd Sebaftian : I my brother know 
Yet living in my glafs j even fuch, and fo, 
In favour was my brother ; and he went 
Still in this fafhion, colour, ornament, 
For him I imitate : Oh, if it prove, 
Tempers are kind, and fait waves frefh in love ! 

Sir 70. A very difhonefl paltry boy, and more a 
coward than a hare : his difhonefty appears, in leavr 
ing his friend here in neceflity, and denying him j 
and for his cowardihip ? afk Fabian. 

Fab. A coward, a mpft devout coward, religious 
in it. 

Sir And. 'Slid, Fll after him again, and beat him. 

Sir To- Do, cuff him foundly, but never draw thy 

Sir And. An I do not, - [.r// Sir Andrew* 

Fab. Come, let's fee the event. 

Sir To. I dare lay any money, 'twill be nothing 
yet, [Exeunt, 

3 - fo Jo not 7.] 

This, I believe, means, I do not yet believe myfelf, when, from 
this accident, I gather hope of my, brother's lite. JOHNSON. 



Enter Sebaftian and Clown. 

Clo. Will you make me believe, that I am not fent 
for you ? 

Seb. Go to, go to, thou art a foolifh fellow ; 
Let me be clear of thee. 

Clo. Well held out, i'faith \ No,. I do not know 
you ; nor I am not fent to you by my . lady, to bid 
you come fpcak with her ; nor your name is not ma- 
iler Cefario ; nor this is not my nofe neither. no- 
thing, that is fo, is fa. 

Seb* I pr'ythee, vent thy folly fomewhere elfe ; 
Thou know'ft not me, 

Clo. Vent my folly f He has heard that word of 
fome great man, and now applies it to a fool. Vent 
my folly ! I am afraid this great lubber* the world 
will prove a cockney.! pr'ythee now, ungird thy 
ftrangenefs, and tell me what I lhall vent to my lady; 
Shall I vent to her, that thou art coming ? 

Seb. I pr'ythee, foolifh Greek 5 , depart from me; 
There's money for thec ; if you tarry longer, 
I fhall give worfe payment. 

Clo. By my troth, thou haft an open hand : Thefe 

4 / am afraid this great luller ] That is, affe&ation 
and foppery will overfpread the world. JOHNSON. 

5 IfSytbee, foolljl) Greek, - ] Greek, was as much as to fay 
Imvd or pander. He underftood the Clown to be afting in that 
office. A bawdy-houle was called Corinth, and the frequenters of 
ir Corinthians, which words occur frequently in Shajcefpeare, efpc- 
cially in Timon of Athens^ and Hen, IV. Yet the Oxford editor 
alters it to Geek. WA&BUR ro^' 



wife men, that give fools money, get themfelves a good 
report after fourteen years' purchafe 6 . 

Enter Sir Andrezv, Sir Toby, and Fabian. 

Sir And. Now, fir, have I met you again ? there's 
for you. [Striking Sebqftiant 

Seb. Why, there's for thee, and there, and there : 
Are all the people mad ? [Beating Sir Andrew* 

Sir To. Hold, fir, or I'll throw your dagger O'er 
the houfe. 

CIo. This will I tell my lady ftfaight : I would not 
be in fome of your coats for two pence. [Exit Clown 1 . 

Sir To. Come on, fir ; hold* [Holding Sebaftian. 

Sir And. Nay, let him alone, I'll go another way 
to work with him ; I'll have an aftion of battery 
againft him, if there be any law in Illyria : though I 
ftruck him firft, yet it's no matter for that* 

Seb. Let go thy hand. 

Sir To. Come, fir, I will not let y6u go. Come, 
my young foldier, put up your iron : you are well 
ilelh'd ; come on. 

6 -get tkemf elves a good report after fourteen years' purcbafr.'] 
This feems to carry a piece of fatire upon monopolies, the crying 
grievance of that time. The grants generally '.vere for fourteen 
years : and the petitions being referred to a committee, it was 
fir/petted that money gained favourable reports from thence. 


Perhaps four teen years' fitrcbafe was in Shakefpeare's time, the 
higheft prica for land. Lord Bacon's EJjiij on Ufuty mentions 
Jixfeen years purchafe. " I will not give more than according to 
fifteen years purchafe, faid a dying ufurer to a clergyman, who ad- 
vifed him to ftudy for a purchafe of the kingdom of heaven.'* 


This pailage may be confidered as a further corroboration of Mr* 
Tyrwhitt's conjecture, that Twelfth Night was written in 1614. 
The grievance of monopolies, though long complained of, had, it 
fliould feem, rifen to a greater height at that time than ever, for 
pext to the undertakers, it was the great fubjeot of parliamentary 
debate, during the fliort feffion of that year. MALO.VE. 


Seb. I will be free from thee. WFrat wouldft thou 

now ? 
If thou dar'ft tempt me further, draw thy fword. 

Sir To. What, what ? Nay, then' I muft have an 
ounce or two of this malapert blood from you. 

[Tbey draw and fight. 

Enter Olivia. 

OIL Hold, Toby; on thy life, I charge thee, hold. 

Sir To. Madam ? 

OIL Will it be ever thus ? Ungracious wretch, 
Fit for the mountains, and the barbarous caves, 
Where manners ne'er werepreach'd ! out of my fight f 

Be not offended, dearCefario : 

Rudefby, be gone ! I pr'ythee, gentle friend, 

[Exeunt Sir Toby, and Sir Andrew. 
Let thy fair wifdom, not thy paffion, fway 
In this uncivil and unjufl extent 7 
Againft thy peace. Go with me to my houfe ; 
And hear thou there how many fruitlefs pranks 
This ruffian hath botch'd up 8 , that thou thereby 
May'ft fmile at this : thou lhalt not chufe but go ; 

7 In this uncivil and unjuft extent\ 

Extent is, in law, a writ of execution, whereby goods are feized 
tor the king. It is therefore taken here for violence in general. 


8 This ruffian bath botch'd up, ] 

i. e, fwelled and inflamed. A botch being a fwelling or abfcefs. 


I fancy it is only a coarfe expreffion for made nf>, as a bad taylor 
is called a botcher, and to botch is to make clumhly JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnfon is certainly right. A fimilar expreffion occurs in 
Ant. and Cleopatra : 

" if you'll patch a quarrel 

" As matter whole you've not to make it with." 
Again, in A'. Hen. V : 

" Do botdj and bungle up damnation." STEEVENS. 



Do not deny : Bcfhrew his foul for me, 
He flatted one poor heart of mine in thee 9 . 

Seb. What reliih is in this l ? how runs the ftrearri ? 

Or I am mad, or elle this is a dream : 

Let fancy flill my fenfe in Lethe jftcep ; 
If it be thus to dream, flill let me fleep ! 

OK. Nay, come, I pr'ythee : 'Would, thoti'dfl be 
rul'd by me ! 

Seb. Madam, I will. 

O& O, fay fo, and fo be ! 


An apartment in Olivia's houfe. 
Enter Maria 3 and Clown. 

Mar. Nay^ I pr'ythee, put oh this gown, and this 
beard; make him believe, thou art fir Topas * the cu- 
rate ; do it quickly : I'll call fir Toby the whilft. 

[Exit Maria; 

Clo. Well, Hlputiton, and I will diffemble my- 
felf in't ; and I would I were the firft that ever dif- 
fembled in fuch a gown. I am not tall enough to be- 
come the function well ' ; nor lean enough to be thought 

9 He Jt 'art 'cd onfpoor heart ef mine in thee.~\ 

I know not whether here be not an ambiguity intended benveen 
heart and bart. The fenfe however is eafy enough. Ht that nf+ 
fends tbee, attacks one of my hearts j or, as the ancients exprefled it, 
half my heart. JOHNSON. 

* Wljat relijb is in thh ? ] 

How does this taite ? What judgment am I to make of it ? 


* JirTopas ] The name of.yfr Toj>as is taken from 

Chaucer. STEEVEXS. 

3 / am not tall enough to become the funSlion well; ] This 

cannot be right. The word wanted fliould be part of the defcrip- 
tion of a careful man. I Ihould have no objection to read pale. 


Tall enough, perhaps means not of fuf.clent height to overlook a 

a good 


ja good fludent : but to be faid, an honcft man, and 
r. good houfekeeper, goes as fairly, as to fay, a carc- 
f 'i man, and a great fcholar 4 , The competitors enter. 

Exler Sir Toly, and M; 

Sir To. Jove blefs thee, matter parfon. 

os dies, fir Toby: for as the old hermit of 
Prague, that never faw pen and ink, 5 very wittily 
laid to a niece of king Gorboduc, That, that M, is: lo 
I, being matter parfon, am mailer parfon ; For what 
is that, but that ; and is, but is ? 

Sir To. To him, fir Topas. 

Clo. What, hoa, I fay, -Peace in this prifon ! 

Sir To. The knave counterfeits well ; a good knave. 

MaL [t-V~itkm.~\ Who calls there ? 

Clo. Sir Topas, the curate, who comes to vifit 
Malvolio the lunatick. 

Mai. Sir Topas, fir Topas, good fir Topas, go to 
my lady. 

Clo. Out, hyperbolical fiend ! how v'exeft thou this 
marl ? talkeft thou nothing but of ladies ? 

Sir To. Well faid, mailer parfon. 

Mai. Sir Topas, never was man thus wrong'd ; 
good fir Topas, do not think I am mad ; they have 
laid me here in hideous darknefs. 

Clo. Fye, thou difhoneft Sathan ! I call thee by the 

4 mtofay, a careful man, and a great fcholar ~\ This refers 
to what went before : / am not tall enough to become tbi funfl': on vjtll^ 
nor lean enough ro be thought a. good Jtudent ; it is plain then that 
Shakelpeare \VTote : as to fay a graceful man, i. e. comely. To 
this the Oxford editor lavs, recli. WAR BUR TOM. 

A careful man I believe means a man who has fuch a regard for 
his character as to intitle him to ordination. STSCVENS. " 

s vet y wittily f alJ Wat, that is, is: ] This is 

iumorous banter ot" the rules eftabliflied in the fchools, that 
all realbnings are sx pracognitii & praconc fjfis , which lay the foun- 
dation ofr every fcieucc in thcfc maxims, lukatfeevir it, is ; art,l it 
ii impojfible for tljtfame thing to be and not to be ; with much ttiflicg 
r liis likt kind. WARIURTO.V. 

. IV, 3 mod 


moft modeft terms; for I am one ofthofe gentle onc-^ 
that will ufe the devil himiclf with courtefy ; Say It 
thou, that houfe is dark ? 

Mai. As hell,, fir Topas. 

Clo. Why, 6 it hath bay windows tranfparent as bar* 
ricadoes, and the clear ftones towards the fouth -north- 
are as luftrous as ebony; and yet complained thou of 
obftrudtion ? 

Mai. I am not mad, fir Topas;, I fay to yon, this- 
houfe is dark. 

Clo. Madman, thou erreft : I fay, there is no dark- 
nefs, but ignorance ; in which thou art more puzzled,. 
than the Egyptians in their fog. 

MaL I fay, this houfe is as dark as ignorance,. 
though ignorance were as dark as hell ; and I fay, 
there was never man thus abus'd ^ I am no more mad 

6 - it hath bay-r^'mdr-^s \ A fay-Viuzt/P'iV is the fame as a 
lo-M-vjhtdo'Vj ; a window in a rcccjs, or 'bay. See A*Wood's L;fe r 
publifhed by T. Hearne, 1730, p. 548 and 555. The following 
inftances may likewife fupport the luppolition : 

** We are fimply itock'd with cloth of tifTue cufliions 

** To furnifh out bay-ivhufans.** 

Cbaftt Maid in Cbcap-fide, 1620. 
Again, in Cintbia's Rwelsby B. Jonfon, 1601: 

- " retiring myfelf into a bay-^Mindo^vj^ &c.'* 
Again, in Stowe's Chronicle of Hen. IV : 

*' As Tho. Montague refted him at a bay -window ^ a gun wa 
levell'd, Sec." 

Again, in a fmall black letter book, entitled, Beware tie Cat r 
1584, written by Maiiler Streamer: 

" I was lodged in a chamber, which had a faire lay-^indo'Vt 
opening into the garden." 
Again, in Hey :wW the Epigrammatift : 

" All Newgate windowes, bay-windw:s thev be, 

" All lookers out there ftand at bs.y sve iee." 
Again, in Middleton's IVomcn beuobreWfynen: 

" 'Tis a fweet recreation for a gentlewoman 

" To ftand in a bay-i^indnw and fee gallants." 
Chaucer, in the AJJemUie of Lad'-es mentiv . ^ q;ain, 

in K. Henry the SiAib'i D^refiifai for hi. itiiig's 

Collet , Cawbrnlt: 44 cu every l..ic ; .w-7 .'*' 



than you are, make the trial of it in any conftant 
queftion 7 . 

Clo. What is the opinion of Pythagoras, concern- 
ing wild-fowl ? 

ak That the foul of ourgrandam might haply 
inhabit a bird; 

Clo. What thihk'fl thou of his opinion ? 

Mai. I think nobly of the foul, and no way ap- 
prove his opinion. 

Clo. Fare thee well : Remain thou flill in darknefs : 
thou fhalt hold the opinion of Pythagoras, ere I will 
allow of thy wits ; ancf fear to kill a woodcock, left 
thou diipoffefs the foul of thy grandam. Fare thee 

MaL Sir Topas, fir Topas, 

Sir To. My moil exquifite fir Topas ! 

Clo. Nay, I am for all waters 8 . 

Mar. Thou might'ft have done this without thy 
beard and gown ; he fees thee not. 

Sir *70 To him in thine own voice, and bring me 
word how thou find'il him : I would, we were all rid 
of this knavery. If he may be conveniently deli- 
Vcr'd, I would he were ; for I am now fo far in of- 
fence with my niece, that I cannot purfue with any 
lafety this fport to the upfhot. Come by and by to 
my chamber. [Exit with Maria* 

'Clo. Hey Robin > jolly Robin 9 , 

Tell me bow thy lady does. [Singing. 


7 conjlant queftion.'} A fettled, a determinate, a regular 

queftion. JOHN-SON. 

* Nay, I am fir all waters.] A phrafe taken from the a&or's 
ability ot making the audience cry either vtith mirth or grief. 


I rather think this expreffion borrowed from fportfmen, and re- 
lating to the qualifications of a complete fpaniel. JOHNSON. 

A cloak for all kinds of knavery ; taken rroro the Italian pro* 
Verb, Tu bai mantilla da ogni acqua. SMIT.H. 
9 He? Robin, jolly Robin,] 

Thi long ihould ccruinly begin : 


Mai. Fool, 

Go. Mv lady is unkind, perdy* 

Mai. Fool, 

do. Alas, wty isJJoefo ? 

Mai. Fool, I fay ; 

Clo. Sh loves another Who calls, ha ? 

Mai. Good fool, as ever thou wilt deferve well at 
my hand, help me to a candle, and pen, ink, and pa- 
per ; as I am a gentleman, I will live to be thankful 
to thee fort. 

Clo. Mailer Malvolio ! 

Mai. Ay, good fool. 

Clo. Alas, fir, how fell you befide your five wits ' ? 

Mai. Fool, there was never man fo notorioufiy 
abus'd : I am as well in my wits, fool, as thou art. 

Clo. But as well ? then you are mad, indeed, if 
you be no better in your wits than a fool. 

Mai. They have here * property'd me ; keep me in 
darknefs, fend minifteps to me, aflcs, and do all they 
can to face me out of my wits. 

Clo. Advife you what you fay; theminifterishere. 
Malvolio, Malvolio, thy wits the heavens reftore ! 
endeavour thyfelf to fleep, and leave thy vain bibble 

Mai. SirTopas, 

Q>. ; Maintain no words with him, good fellow.- 


"- Hey, jolly Robin, tell to me 

*' How does thy lady do ? 
*' My lady is unkind, perdy. 

" Alas, why is Hie for" FARMER. 

1 '' your five wits?] Thus the fne ft /.fa verc anciently 
called. So, in K. Lear, Edgar fays : 

" Blefs thy five ivits-! Tom's a cold." 

-, in the old morality of J<ve >y Man : '* Anil remember 
beaute, f\'.-c v.yi'ts, ftren^th, and dvicrecyoii." STE:.'- 

2 -. . prefer f\ ? tJ we; ] They have taken poik.Iion or" rn^ 

as-of H man unable to lock to himfelf. Jo; 

.alii no <x'artfs with him, ; -] Here the Clown in the 
dark acts two peribns, aad countericits, by variation of" voice, a 


"Who, I, fir ? not, I, fir. God b'w'you, good fir 
Topas. Marry, amen. I will, fir, I will. 

M&L Fool, fool, fool, I lay, 
Clo. Alas, fir, be patient. What f:iy you, fir > I 
am fhent for fpeaking to you 4 . . ' 

Mdl. Good fool, help me to fome light, and fome 
paper; I tell thee, .1 am us well m my wits, as any 
man in Illyria. 

Clo. Well-a-day, that you were, fir"! 
j\Lih By this hand, I am : Good fool, fome ink, 
.paper, and light, and convey what I let down to my 
lady ; it lhall advantage thee more than ever the bear- 
ing -of letter did. 

Clg* I will help you to't. But tell me true, arc you 
not mad indeed, or do you but counterfeit 5 ? 
Mai Believe me, I am not ; I tell thee true. 
Clo. Nay, I'll ne'er believe a mad man, 'till I fee 
his brains. I will fetch you light, and paper, and 
dialogue between himfelf and fir Topas. ^ /<uv//, Jir, / ivi'll, is 
fpoken, aft era paufe, as if, in the mean time, fir Topa* had whil- 
pered. JOHNSON. 

* /rf/wihent, &c.] ToJJwiJ is to treat roughly. So, in^ 

May Ge/tc of Rokyn Hoodc, bl. 1. no date : 

" \Vith bowes beat and arrowes fharpe, 
" For to./?tfW that companye." 

As;am, in the old metrical romance of Guy E. ef irar-ivic$, bl. 1. 
BO date : 

" The emperor faw his men fofient." STEEVEXS. 

5 tell me, arc you not mad, or do you but counte rfeit ? ] If 

he was not mad, what did he counterfeit by declaring that he \vas 

nut mad : The fool, who meant to infult him, I think, alks, are 

\<sn tr.atl, or do you but counterfeit? That is,jv look like a madman^' 

jou talk like a madman : /j your maJnefe real, or have you any fccrct 

n it? This, to a man in poor Malvolio's ilate, was a levere 


Jji-f tell me truly, arc you not mail, hulteJ, ordoyoulut court- 
:-} This is the reading of the old copy. We fliould read I 
apprehend: - are you mad indeed, or do you but counterfeit ? or 
eilsj : are you not niaJ ;>/</m/, and do you but counttrfe'-t ? 


S 3 M>I. 


Mai. Fool, I'll requite it in the higheft degree 3 
I pr'ythee, be gone, 

Clo. I am gone, fir, [Singing, 

And anon, fir, 
I'll be with you again, 

In a trice, 

Like to the old vice 6 , 
Your need to fvjlain ; 
Who with dagger of lath, 
In his rage and his wrath, 

Cries, ah, ha! to the devil ; 
Like a mad lad, 
Pare thy nails, dad, 

7 Adieu, goodman devil, [Exit* 

6 Like to the old vice,] 

Vice was the fool of the old moralities. Some traces of this cha- 
rafterare Hill preferred in puppet -(hows, and by country mummers. 


This character was always ailed in a majk ; it probably had its 
name from the old French word vis, for which they now uie ;/"- 
tge, though they {till retain it in vis a vis, which is, literally, 
face to face. STEEVENS. 

7 Adieu, goodman, devil.] 

This laft line has neither rhime nor meaning. I cannot but 
fufpeiSt that the fool tranfiates Malvolio's name, and fays : 
Adieu, goodman mean-evil. JOHNSON. 

We have here another old catch ; apparently, I think, not of 
Shakefpeare. I am therefore willing to receive the common readt 
ing of the laft line : 

Adieu, goodman drivel. 

The name of Malvolio feems to have been form'd by an acci- 
dental tranfpofition in the word, Malivolo. 

I know not whether a part of the preceding line fhould not be 
thrown into a queftion, " pare thy nails, dad ?" 

In Hen. V. we again meet with " this roaring devil i'th' old 
play ; every one may pare bis nails with a wooden dagger." 


In the old tranflation of the Mctuechmi, 159^, Menaechmus 
fays to Peniculus : " Away filthie mad drivcll, away ! I will talk, 
no longer with thee." . STEEVENS. 




Olivia's garden. 
Enter Sebitjlian. 

'Seb. This 'is the air ; that is the glorious fun ; 
This pearl ilie gave' me, I do feei't, and fee't: 
And though 'tis wonder that enwraps me thus, 
Yet 'tis not madnefs. Where's Antonio then? 
I could not.find him at the -Elephant : 
Yet there he was; and there I found this credit 8 , 
That he did range the town to feek me out. 
His counfel now might do me golden fervice : 
For though my foul difputes well with my fenfe, 
That this may be fome error, "but no madnefs, 
Yet doth this accident and flood of fortune 
So far exceed all inftance, all difcourfe 9 , 
That I am ready to diftruft mine eyes, 

wrangle with my reafon, that perfuades me 

8 Tet there he was ; and there I found this credit, 

That if (lit/ range, &C.J 

L e. I fomid it juftified, credibly vouched. Whether the word 
credit will ealily carry this meaning, I am doubttul. The expref- 
iion feems obfcure ; and though I have not difturbed the text, I 
very much fufpcft that the poet wrote : 

and there I found this credent. 

He ufes the fame term again in the very fame fenfe in the Winter's 

" Then 'tis very credent, 

" Thou may'Jt cojoin vjith-fornetbiug, and thou doft, fe>V." 


I found this credit,] Credit, for account, information. 
The Oxford editor roundly alters it to current ; as he does almolt 
every word that Shakefpeare ufes in an anomalous fignirtcation. 


' all inftance, all difaourfe,] 

Jtiflance^ for fenfe ; t^jcnurfi^ for reafoii. WARBURrcy. 
Jajiam-e is example. JOUKSOX. 

84 To 

To any other trnfl ', but that I am mad, 
Or elfe the lady's mad ; yet, if 'twere fo, 
She couklnot fvvay her houfe, command her followers, 
Take, and give back, affairs, and their difpatch, 
With iuch a fmooth, difcreet, and liable bearing, 
As, I perceive, fhe does : there's fomething in't, 
That is deceiyable. But here the lady comes. 

Eater Olivia, and a Pricft. 

OIL Blame not this hafte of mine ; If you mean 


Now go with me, and with this holy man, 
Into the chantry by : there, before him, 
And underneath that confpcrated roof, 
Plight me the full aflurance of your faith ; 
That my mpfl jealous and too doubtful foul 
May live at peace : He fhall conceal it, 
* Whiles you are willing it ihall come to note ; 
What time we wiUour celebration keep 
According to my birth What do you fay ? 

Seb. 1*11 follow this good man, and go with you ; 
And, having fworn 3 truth, ever will be true. 

C/:. Then lead the way, good father ; And 

heavens fo fhine % 
That they may fairly note this ad of mine ! [Exeunt* 

1 To any ot/.-er trujl, ] 

To any other belief, or confidence, to any other fixed opinion. 


1 Wl'les - ] Is vr.ill. This word is ftill fo ufed in the northern 
counties. It is, I think, uied in this fenfe in the preface to the 
Accidence. JOHNSON. 

Almoit throughout the eld copies of Shakefpeare, voiles is gi- 
ven us initead 'of mobile, Mr. Rowe, the firil reformer of his 
fpelling, made the change. STEEVENS. 

3 tru*t? t ] Truth is fdc Iffy. JOHNSON-. 

4 btai'cns fo Jbine, &c.] Alluding perhaps to a fuperftitious 

fuppoiition, the memory of which is ftill preserved in a proverbial 
faying: " Haffy is the bride upon <v:hom tbe fun JJ:inc^ and bltfied 

': the rainfall*" STEEVEXS. 



A C T V. S C E N E I. 

Enter Clown,- and Fabian. 

Fab. Now, as thou lov'ft me, let me fee his letter. 
dp. Good mafter Fabian, grant me another re- 


Fab. Any thing. 

Go. Do not dcfireto fee this letter. 
Fab. That is, to give a clog, and, in recompence, 
defire my dog again. 

Enter Duke* Viola, and attendants. 

Duke. Belong you to the lady Olivia, friends ? 

Clo. Ay, fir ; we are fome of her trappings. I know thee well; How do ft thou, my good 
fellow ? 

Clo. Truly, fir, the better for my foes, and the 
worfe for my friends. 

Duke. Juft.the contrary; the better for thy friends. 

Clo. No, fir, the worfe. 

Duke. How can that be ? 

Clo. Marry, fir, they praife me, and make an afs 
of me ; now my foes tell me plainly, I am an afs : 
fo that by my foes, fir, I profit in the knowledge of 
myfelf ; and by my friends I am abufed : fo that, 
conclusions to be as kifles 5 , if your four negatives 


s - f that, conclufionsto It as kiffcs, - ] Though it might 
be unreasonable to call our poet's fools and knaves every where to 
account ; yet, if we did, for the generality we (hould find them 
refponfible. But what monftrous abfurdity have we here ? To 
fuppofe the text genuine^ we muft acknowledge it too wild to have 
any known meaning : and what has no known meaning, cannot 
be allowed to have either wit or humour. Beiidcs, the Clown is 



make your two affirmatives, why, then the worfe for 

my friends, and the better for my foes. 

Duke. Why, this is excellent. 

Clo. By my troth, fir, no ; though it pleafe you to 
be one of my friends. 

Duke . Thou fhalt not be the worfe for me ; there's 

Clo. But that it would be double-dealing, fir, I 
would you could make it another. 

Duke. O, you give me ill counfeL 

Clo. Put your grace in your pocket, fir, for this 
once, and let your flefh and blood obey it. 

Duke. Well, I will be fo much a tinner to be a 
double dealer ; there's another. 

Clo. Primo, fecundo, tertio, is a good play ; and the 
old faying is, the third pays for all ; the triplex, fir, 

affedYmg to argue ferioufly and in form, I imagine the poet 
iv rote : 

So that condition to be afked, i?, 

i.e. So that the concluiion I have to demand of you is this, if your 

four, sV. He had in the preceding words been inferring iome 

premiJTcs, and now comes to the condujlon very logically ; you grant 

me, lays he, the premhTes j I now afk you to grant the conclusion. 


Though I do not difcover much ratiocination in the Clown's 
<Jifcourfe, yet, methinks, I can find fome glimpfe of a meaning 
in his obfervation, that the condiifion is as kiffi's. For, fays he, if 
four negatives make two affirmatives, tbe condttjion is as iijfis : that 
'is, the concluiion follows by the conjunction of two negatives, 
which, by k'^:,:g and embracing, coalefce into one, and make an 
affirmative. What the four negatives are I do not know. I read : 
So that be as kijjes* JOHNSON*. 

concKifions to be as kifles If jour four negatives male your 

t--^o afiirinati--ei, ] One cannot but wonder, that this palfege' 

ihould have perplexed the commentators. In Marloe's Lifts Do- 
minion, the Queen fays to the Moor : 

" Come, let's kifle." 

Moor. " Away, away." 

Qietn. " Xo, no, layes, / and r-j:ice a~vay, fayesyF^y." 
Sir Philip Sidney has enlarged upon this thought in the fixry- 
thiiu itanza at his AJlrcpbel a/ui Stella. FAH rirv. 



is a good tripping meafure ; or the bells of St. Ben* 
net 6< i fir, may put you in mind, One, two, three. 

Duk^. You can fool no more money out of me at 
this throw : if you will let your lady know, I am 
here to fpeak with her, and bring her along with you, 
it may awake my bounty further. 

Go. Marry, fir, lullaby to your bounty, till I come 
again. I go, fir ; but I would not have you to think, 
that my defire of having is the fin of covetoufoefs : 
but, as you fay, fir, let your bounty take a nap, and 
I will awake it anon. [Exit Clowa* 

Enter Antonio, and Officers. 

Vio* Here comes the man, fir, that did refcue me, 
Duke. That face of his I do remember well; 
Yet, when I faw it laft, it was befmear'd 
As black as Vulcan, in the fmoke of war : 
A bawbling veflel was he captain of, 
For ihallow draught, and bulk, unprizable ; 
With which fuch fcathfui 7 grapple did he make 


6 Iclls if St. Bennet, ] When in this play he mentioned 

the led of Ware, he recollected that the fcene was in Illyria, and 
added, in England; but his fenfe of the lame impropriety could 
not rcftrain him from the bells of St. Bennet. JOHNSON. 

Shakefpeare's improprieties and anachronifms are furely venial 
in companion with thofe of contemporary writers. Lodge, in his 
T' r tfe Tragedies of Mcirlus and Sylla, \ 594, has mentioned the razors 
of Palermo and St. Paufsfteeple, and has introduced a Frenchman^ 
named Don Pedro, who, in consideration of receiving forty crowns^ 
undertakes to poiibn Marius. Stanyhurft, the tranflator of four 
books of Virgil, in 1582, compares Chorasbus to ^bedlamite; fays, 
that old Priam girded on his fword Morglay ; and makes Dido tell 
^Eneas, that (he fhouid have been contented had fhe been brought 
to bed even of a coclney. 

Saltern fi qua mi hi dt te fufccpta fuljjet 
Ante ftfvam Juboh's - 

1 " yf yeet foom progenye from me 

" Had crawl 'd, by the father 'd, yf a cockney dandiprat 
hopthumb." STEEVENS. 

7 'fcathfui ] i. e. mifchievous, deflruftive. So, in 

pecker's If this le not a good Play, the Devil is in it, 1612 : 
* He mickleyl <//' has done me," 



With the mofl noble bottom of our fleet, 

That very envy, and the tongue of lofs, 

Cry'd fame and honour onhim. What's the matter ? 

i Off, Orfino, this is that Antonio, 
That took the Phoenix, and her fraught, from 

Candy ; 

And this is he, that did the Tyger board, 
When your young nephew Titus loft his leg : 
Here in the itreets, defperate of fhame, and ftate *, 
In private brabble did we apprehend him. 

Via. He did me kindnefs, fir ; drew on my fide ; 
But, in conclnfion, put ftrange fpeech upon me, 
J know not what 'twas, but diffraction. 
' Duke. Notable pirate ! thon falt-watcr thief ! 
What foolifh boldnefs brought thce to their mer 
Whom thou, in terms fo bloody, and ib dear, 
Haft made' rfiine enemies ? 

Ant. Orfino, noble fir, 

Be pleas* d that I (hake off thefe names you give nv: ; 
Antonio never yet was thief, or pirate, 
Though, I confefs, on bafe and ground enough, 
Orfino's enemy. A witchcraft drew me hither : 
That moft ungrateful boy there, by your fide, 
From the rude lea's enrag'd and foamy mouth 
Did I redeem ; a wreck pad hope he was : 
His life I gave him, and did thereto add 
My Jove, without retention, or reftraint, 
All his in dedication : for his fake, 
Did lexpofe mvfelf, pure for his love, 
Into the danger of this adverfe town ; 
Drew to defend him, when he was befet : 
Where being apprehended, his falfe cunning, 

Again, inthePijpuraffFa&eJuht, I J99* 

" That otferethy2-rt//' unto the town of Wakefield.'* 


8 Jcfpcratfpffiamc, and ft ate, ~\ 

Unattemive to his character or his condition, like a defperattJ mnn. 




(Not meaning to partake with rac in danger) 

Taught him to face me out of his acquaintance, 

Aad grew a txventv-ycars-rcmoved thing, 

While one would wink; deny'd me mine own purfr. 

Which I had recommended to his ufe 

Not half an hour before. 

Vio. How can this be ? 

Duke. When came he to this town ? 

j4nt. To-day, my lord ; and for three months be* 


(No interim, not a minute's vacancy) 
Both day and night did we keep company. 

Enter Olivia, and Attendants. 

Duke. Here comes the countefs; now heaven wallet 

on earth. 

But for thee, fellow, fellow, thy words are madnef?: 
Three months this youth hath tended upon me ; 
But more of that anon. Take him afide. 

OIL What would my lord, but that he may not 


Wherein Olivia may feem ferviceable ? 
Cefario, you do not keep promife with me. 

Vio. Madam ? 

Duke. Gracious Olivia, 

OH. What do you 'fay, Cefario ? Good iry 

Vio. My lord would fpeak, my duty hulries me. 

OIL If it be' ought to the old tune, my lord, 
It is as fat and fulfome to mine ear 9 , 
As howling after mufick. 

Duke. Still fo cruel ? 

OH. Still fo conftant, lord. 

9 as fat aad fulfome ] 

We fhould read : as flat. WAR BUR TON. 

means </////; fo we fay a fatbemUJ fellow ; fat likevvile 
means grofs, and is fonntimes ufed for obfccve ; and fat is more 
congruent io fttlftmt thanjfo/. Jot 1 



Duke. What, to perverfenefs ? you uncivil iady^, 
To whofe ingrate and unaufpicious altars 
My foul the faithfull'ft offerings hath breath'd out, 
That e'er devotion tender'd ! What fhall I do ? 

Oil. Even what it pleafe my lord, that ihall be- 
come him* 

Duke. Why fhould I not, had I the heart to do it,- 
* Like to the Egyptian thief, at point of death, 
Kill what I love ; a favage jealoufy, 
That fometimes favours nobly ? But hear me this : 
Since you to non-regardance cafl my faith, 
And that I partly know the inftrument, 
That fcrews me from my true place in your favour^ 
Live you, the -marbled-breafted tyrant, flill ; 
But this your minion, whom, I know, you love, 
And whom, by heaven I fwear, I tender dearly, 
Him will I tear out of that cruel eye, 
Where he fits crowned in his matter's fpight. - 

1 Wlyjboutt I not, had 1 the heart ty Jo'f, 
Like to the Egyptian thief, at point of death > 

Kill what I lave ; ] 

In thwjfew&j a particular ftoiy is prefuppos'd ; which ought td 
be known to fhevv the juftnefs and propriety or the companion^ 
It is taken from Hsliodorus's jEfhiopics t to which our author was 
indebted for the allufion. This Egyptian thief was Thyamis, 
who was a native of Memphis, and at the head of a band of rob- 
bers. Theagenes and Chariclea falling into their hands, Thya- 
mis fell defperate'.y in love with the lady, and would have mar- 
ried her. Soon after,, a ftronger body of robbers coming down 
upon Thyamis's party, he was in fuch fears for his miftrefs, that 
he had her (hut into a cave with his treafure. It was cuftomary 
with thole barbariuns, ibe;t they dcfpaired of their o^nfxfcty, firjl 
to make away ivitb tbofe ivJjotn they held dear, and defucd tor com- 
panions in the next life. Thyamis, therefore, bcnetted found 
with his enemies, raging with love, jealoufy, and anger, went 
to his cave ; and calling aloud in the Egyptian tongue, fo foon 
as he heard himielf anfwer'd towards the cave's mouth by a Gre- 
cian, making to the perfon by the direction of her voice, he 
caught her by the hair with his left hand, and (fuppofing her to 
be Chariclea) with his right hand plunged his 1'word into her 
breail. THEOBALD. 



Come, boy, with me ; my thoughts are ripe in -mif- 

chief : 

I'll facrifice the lamb that I do love, 
To fpight a raven's heart within a dove* [Golxg* 

Vio. And I, moil jocund, apt, and willingly, 
To do you reft, a thoufand deaths would die. 

Oil. Where goes Cefario ? 

Vio. After him I love, 

More than I love thefe eyes, more than my life, 
More, by all mores, than e'er I fhall love wife : 
If I do feign, you witnefTcs above, 
Punilh my life, for tainting of my love ! 

OIL A\ r me, detefted I how am I beguil'd ! 

Vio. Who does beguile you? who does do yoU 
wrong ? 

OIL Haft thou forgot thyfelf ? Is it ib long ? 
Call forth thy holy father. 

Duke. Come, away. [To V.olt. 

OIL Whither, my lord? Cefario, hufbaml,, flay, 

Duke. Hufband? 

OIL Ay, hufband ; Can he that deny ? 

Duke. Her hulband, fir rah? 

Vio. No, my lord, not I. 

Oil. Alas, it is the bafenefs of thy fear, 
That makes thee itrangle thy propriety : 
Fear not, Cefario, take thy fortunes up ; 
Be that thou know'ft thou art, and then thou art 
As great as that thou fear'ft. O welcome, father ! 

Enter Priejl. 

Father, I charge thee by thy reverence, 
Here to unfold (though lately we intended 
To keep in darknefs, what occafion now 
Reveals before 'tis ripe) what thou doft know, 
Hath newly paft between this youth and me. 
Prie/l. A contract of eternal bond of love, 
Confirmed by mutual joindur^ of your hands, 



Attefted by the holy clofe of lips, 

Strengthen'd by enterchangement of your rings ; 

And all the ceremony of this compact 

Seal'd in my function, by my teftimony : 

Since when, my watch hath told me, toward my grave 

I have travell'd but two hours. 

Duke. O thou diflembling cub ! what wilt thou be, 
When time hath fow'd a grizzle on thy z cafe ? 
Or will not elfe thy craft fo quickly grow, 
That thine own trip lhail be thine overthrow ? 
Farevvel, and take her ; but direct thy feet, 
Where thou and I henceforth may never meet. 

Vio. My lord, I do proteft, 

Oli. O, do not fwear ; 
Hold little faith, though thou haft too much fear. 

Enter Sir Andrew, with bis head broke. 

Sir And. For the love of God, a furgeon ; and fend 
one prefently to fir Toby. 

Oli. What's the matter ? 

Sir And. H'as broke my head acrofs, and given 
fir Toby a bloody coxcomb too : for the love of God, 
your help : I had rather than forty pound, I were at 

OIL Who has done this, fir Andrew ? 

Sir And. The count's gentleman* one Cefario : we 
took Kim for a coward, but he's the very devil incar- 

Duke, My gentleman, Cefario ? 

Sir And. Oil's lifelings, here he is : You broke 

my head for nothing ; and that that I did, I was fct 
on to do't by fir Toby. 

* cafe?] Cafe is a word ufecl contemptuoufly "htjkin. We yet 
talk of a fox cafe, meaning the ftuffed (kin of a fox. JOHNSON. 

So, in Cary's Prefcnt State nf England, 1626 : ' Queen Eli- 
zabeth alked a knight named Young, how he liked a company of 

brave ladies ? He anftvered, as I like my lilver-baired conies 

at home j the cafes are tar better than the bodies." MA LONE, 


W H A T Y O U W I L L. 273 

Vio. Why do you fpeak to me ? I never hurt you : 
You drew your fword upon me, without caufe ; 
But I befpake you fair, and hurt you not. 

Sir Ana. If a bloody coxcomb be a hurt, you have 
hurt me ; I think, you fet nothing by a bloody cox- 

Enter Sir Toby, drunk, led by the Clown. 

Here comes fir Toby halting, you mall hear more : 
but if he had not been in drink, he would have 
tickled you othergates than he did. 

Duke. How now, gentleman ? how is't with you ? 

Sir To. That's all one; he has hurt me, and there's 
an end on't. Sot, didfl fee Dick furgeon, fot ? 

Clo. O he's drunk, fir Toby, above an hour agone ; 
his eyes were fet at eight i'the morning. 

Sir To. J Then he's a rogue, and a pafTy-meafurc 

pavin : 
I hate a drunken rogue. 


3 Then he's a rogue, and a pzft-meafure pavin :] 
This is the reading of the old copy, and probably right, being an 
allufion to the quick meafure of the pavin, a dance in Shake- 
fpeare's time. GRAY. 

& pajfj -meafure pavin may perhaps mean a pavin danced out of 
time. Sir Toby might call the furgeon by this title, becaule he 
was drunk at a time when he Jbcntld have bienfoler, and in a con- 
dition to attend on the wounded knight. Panyn however is the 
reading of the old copy, though the u in it being reverfed, the 
modern editors have been contented to read 

and a pajl-meafurt painim. 

This dance called the pavyn is mentioned by B. and Fletcher in 
the Mad Lover : 

" I'll pipe him fuch a pavan." 

And in Stephen GoJ/bu's School of Abufe, containing a plea fount /' 
veflive againjl Poets, Pipers, &c. 1579* it is enumerated, as fol- 
lows, amongft other dances : 

" Dumps, pavins, galliardes, meafures, fancyes, or news 
flreynes." I do not, at lafi) fee how the fenfe will completely 
quadrate on the prefent occafion. Sir W. Davenant, in one of 
his interludes, mentions " a doJeful/><n>/." In the Cardinal, bv 
Shirley, 16^2 : " Who then lhall dance the />**> with Oforio r" 
Again, in 'Tiipityjhe'i a Wl.'ore, by Ford, 1633 : "I have feen 
VOL. IV. T an 


OIL Away with him : Who hath made this havock 
with them ? 


an afs and a mule trot the Spanifh pavin with a Better grace." 
Again, in Decker's Fortunatus, iboo : " La pavyne Hifpani- 
ola fea veftra mufica, y gravidad y majeftad." Laftly, in 
Shadwell's f^irtuofo^ 1676: " A grave pavin or almain, at which 
the black Tarantula only moved ; it danced to it with a kind of 
grave motion much like the benchers at the revels." 

In 1604, John Dowland the celebrated lutanift publifhed " Se- 
ven teares figured infeven paffionate pavaxs y fett for the kite, &c." 

In a comedy by Middleton, called More Iftjjcmblers bcjldes Wo- 
'men, is mentioned : 

** A itrain or two of paffh-nxafures galliard." 
Again, \n. Lingua, &c. 1607: " Prithee lit ilill ; thou mufl dance 
nothing but the pajjing-meafurcs" STEEVEXS. 

Bailey's Dictionary fays, pavan is the loweft fort of inftru- 
mental mufic ; and when this play was written, the pevvin and the* 
pajjamez-zo might be in rogue only with the vulgar, as with Eal- 
fbffand Doll Tearfheet ; and hence fir Toby may mean, he is 
a rogue and a mean low fellow. TOLLET. 

Then he's a rogue^ and a pajjy nicafure pavia* 
I bate a drunken rogue. ~\ 

B. Jonfon alfo mentions ihepavin, and calls it a Spanifh dance, 
Alcbemift, p. 97. but it feems to come originally from Padua, and" 
fliould rather be written pavane, as a corruption of paduana. A 
dance of that name (fahatio paduana) occurs in an old writer^ 
quoted by the annotator on Rabelais, b..v. c. 30. 

Pajjy meafures is undoubtedly a corruption, but I know not how 
it fhould be rectified. TYRWHITT. 

"Thepavan from favo a peacock, is a grave and majeftickdance 
The method of dancing it was antiently by gentlemen drefled with 
a cap and fword, by thofe of the long robe in their gowns, by 
princes in their mantles, and by ladies in gowns with long trains, 
the motion whereof in the dance, refembled that of a peacock's 
tail. This dance is fuppofed to have been invented by the Spani- 
ards, and its figure is given with the characters for the lleps in the 
Orchefograpbia of Thoinet Arleau. Every pavan has its galliard, a 
lighter kind of air, made out of the former. The courant, the^ 
jig, and the hornpipe are fufficiently known at this day. 

Of the pajfamez-zo little is to be faid, except that it was a favour- 
ite air in the days of Q^. Elizabeth. Ligon in his hiftory of Bar- 
badoes, mentions a pajfamezzo galliard, which in the year 1647, a 
Padre in that ifland played to him on the lute ; the very fame, he 
fays, with an air of that kind which in Shakcfpeare's play of 


Sir An.l I'll help you, fir Toby, becaufe we'll be" 
dreft together. 

Sir To. Will you help an afs-head, and a coxcomb* 
and a knave ; a thin-fac'd knave, a gull ? 

\_Exettnt Clown^ Sir Toby, and Sir Andrew. 

OH. Get him to bed, and let his hurt be look'd to. 

Enter Sebajlian. 

Seb. I am forry, madam, I have hurt your kinf- 

man ; 

But, had it been the brother of my blood, 
I muft have done no lefs, with wit, and fafety. 
You throw a ftrange regard upon me, and 
By that I do perceive it hath offended you ; 
Pardon me, fweet one, even for the vows 
We made each other but fo late ago. 

Duke. One face, one voice, one habit, and two 

perfons ; 
4 A natural peripe&ive, that is, and is not ! 


Htn. IV. was originally played to fir John Falftaffand Doll Tear- 
fheet, by Sneak, the mufician, there named. This little anec- 
dote Ligon might hare by tradition, but his conclufion, that be- 
caufe it was played in a dramatic reprefentation of the hiftory.of 
flen. IV. it mult be fo ancient as his time, is very idle and injudi- 
cious. PaJJy-meafure is therefore undoubtedly a corruption 

from pajffamezzo. SIR J. HAWKINS. 

With the help of fir John Hawkins's explanation Q^jbaJJy-mea- 
furc, I think I now fee the meaning of this paflage. The fecond 
/olio reads after a pajjy meafurcs flavin. So that I mould ima- 
gine the following regulation of the whole fpeech would not be far 
from the truth : 

Then he's a rogue. After a pafly-meafure or a flavin, 1 bate a 
drunken rogue, i. e. next to a pajjy-meafure or a flavin, &c. It is 
in character, that fir Toby Ihould exprefs a flrong dillike offer tout 
ttaaceSf fuch as the paffame zzo and theflavan are defcribed to be. 


4 A natural perfpefli've ] 

A perfpeBive feems to be taken for (hows exhibited through a glafs 

with luch lights as make the pictures appear really protuberant. 

The Duke therefore fays, that nature has here exhibited fuch a 

T 2 fliow, 


Seb. Antonio, O my dear Antonio ! 
How have the hours rack'd and tortur'd me, 
Since I have loft thee ? 

Ant. Sebaftian are you ? 

Seb. Fear'ft thou that, Antonio ? 

Ant. How have you made divifion of yourfelf ?-* 
An apple, cleft in two, is not more twin 
Than thefe two creatures. Which is Sebaftian.? 

Oil. Moft wonderful ! 

Seb. Do I ftand there ? I never had a brother : 
Nor can there be that deity in my nature, 
Of here and every where. I had a fifter, 
Whom the blind waves and furges have devoured : 
Of charity, what kin are you to me ? [70 Viola. 

What countryman ? what name ? what parentage ? 

Vio. Of Meffaline : Sebaftian was my father ; 
Such a Sebaftian was my brother too, 
So went he fuited to his wat'ry tomb : 
If fpirits.can affume both form and fuit, 
You come to fright us. 

Seb. A fpirit I am, indeed ; 
But am in that dimenfion grofly clad, 
Which from the womb I did participate. 
Were you a woman, as the reft goes even, 

fhow, where fhadcnvs feem realities j where that which is not ap- 
pears like that which is. JOHNSON. 

I apprehend this may be explained by a quotation from a duo- 
decimo book called Humane Indu/try^ 1661, p. 76 and 77 : " It 
is a pretty art that in a pleated paper and table furrowed or in- 
dented, men make one picture to reprefent fevera! faces that 

being viewed from one place or {landing, did (hew the head of a 
Spaniard, and from another, the head of an afs." " A pic- 
ture of a chancellor of France prefented to the common beholder 

a multitude of little faces but if one did look on it through a 

ptrfpettive, there appeared only the iingle pourtrai&ure of the 
chancellor himfelf." Thus that, which is, is not, or in a diffe- 
rent pofition appears like another thing. . This feems allb to ex- 
plain a paflage in K. Hen. V. aft V. ic. ii : " Yes, my lord, you 
iee tbemperfyetflvffy) the cities turn'd into a maid." TOLLET. 

I fhouia 


I fhould my tears let fall upon your cheek, 
And fay Thrice welcome, drowned Viola ! 

Ho. My father had a mole upon his brow. 

Seb. And fo had mine. 

Vw. And dy'd that day when Viola from her birth 
Had number'd thirteen years. 

Seb. O, that record is lively in my foul 1 
He finiihed, indeed, his mortal act, 
That day that made my fifter thirteen years. 

Vw. If nothing lets to make us happy both, 
But this my mafculine ufurp'd attire, 
Do not embrace me, till each circumftance 
Of place, time, fortune, do cohere, and jump, 
That I am Viola : which to confirm, 
I'll bring you to a captain in this town 
Where lie my maid's weeds ; by whofe gentle help 
I was preferv'd, to ferve this noble count : 
All the occurrence of my fortune fmce 
Hath been between this lady, and this lord. 

Seb. So comes it, lady, you have been miftook : 

[To Olivia. 

But nature to her bias drew in that. 
You would have been contracted to a maid ; 
Nor are you therein, by my life, deceived, 
You are betroth'd both to a maid and man. 

Duke. Be not amaz'd ; right noble is his blood. 
If this be fo, as yet the glafs feems true, 
I fhall have mare in this moft happy wreck : 
Boy, thou haft faid to me a thoufand times, [To Viola. 
Thou never fhouldft love woman like to me. 

Vlo. And all thofe fayings, will I over-fwear ; 
And all thofe fwearings keep as true in foul, 
As doth that orbed continent the fire 
That fevers day from night. 

Duke. Give me thy hand ; 
And let me fee thee in thy woman's weeds. 

Vio. The captain, that did bring me firft on Ihore, 
Hath my maid's garments : he, upon fome action, 
T 3 Is 


Is now in durance ; at Malvolio's fuit, 
A gentleman, and follower of my lady's. 

OH. He fhall enlarge him : Fetch Malvolio hither, 
And yet, alas, now I remember me, 
They fay, poor gentleman, he's much diftract. 

Re-enter Clown, with a letter. 

A moft extracting frenzy * of mine own 
From my remembrance clearly banifh'd his. 
How does he, firrah ? 

Clo. Truly, madam, he holds Belzebub at the ftave's 
end, as well as a man in his cafe may do : h'as hero 
writ a letter to you, I Ihould have given't you to day 
morning; but as a madman's epiflles are no gofpels. 
fo it ikills not much, when they are deliver'd. 

OH. Open't, and read it. 

Clo. Look then to be well edify'd, when the fool 
delivers the madman. By the Lord, madam, 

Oil. How now, art thou mad ! 

Clo. No, madam, I do but read madnefs : an your 
lad yihip will have it as it ought to be, you muft allow 
vox 6 . 

OH. Pr'ythee, read i'thy right wits. 

5 A moft extracting jfaazy ] i. e, a frenzy that drew me 
away from every thing but its own object, WAR EUR TON. 

Till fome example is produced of the word extracting being ufed 
in the fenfe in which Dr. Warburton explains it, I fhould wifli to 

read d>Jtraling> which I conjecture, from the preceding line, 

to have been the author's word. MALOKB. 

6 you muft allovj vox.~\ I am by no means certain that I 

underftand this paflage, which, indeed, the author of the Revifal 
pronounces to have no meaning. I fuppofe the Clown begins 
reading the letter in fome fantaftical manner, on which Olivia afks 
him, if he is mad. No, madam, fays he, / do but barely deliver 
the fenfe of this madman's epiftle', if you would have it read as it 
ought to le, that is, vivhifucb a frantic accent and gcjlure as a mad- 
man luould read it, you muft allow vox, i. e. you muft furnijh tkf 
reader <vjitb a voice, or, in other words, read it yourfelf. 




Clo. So I do, madonna ; but to read his right wits 7 , 
is to read thus : therefore perpend, my princels, and 
give ear. 

Oli. Read it you, firrah. [To Fabian. 

Fah. [Reads.] By the Lord^ madam, you 'wrong me^ 
and the world flail know it: though you have put me in- 
to darknefs, and given your drunken cottjin rule over me, 
yet have I the benefit of my fenfis, as well as your ladyfiip. 
I have your ozi'n letter that induced me to the femblance I 
put on ; with the which I doubt not but to do niyfelf much 
right, or you much flame. Think of me as you pleafe. I 
leave my duty a little unthought of, and j'peak out of wiy 
injury* 'the madly -us* d Malvolio. 

OK. Did 'he write this ? 

Clo. Ay, madam. 

Duke. This favours not much of diftradtion. 

Oli. See him deliver'd, Fabian ; bring him hither. 
My lord, fo pleafe you, thefe things further thought 


To think me as well a filter as a wife, 
One day lhall crown the alliance on't, fo pleafe you f , 
Here at niy houfe, and at my proper coft. 

Duke. Madam, I am moft apt to embrace your offer. 
Your mailer quits you : and, for your fervice done 


So much againft the metal of your fex, [To Viola. 
So far beneath your foft and tender breeding, 
And fmce you call'd me matter for fo long, 

7 but to read bis rlglft wits, j Perhaps fb, but to rtad 

bis wits right is to read thus. To reprefent his prefent ftate of mind, 
is to read a madman's letter, as I now do, like a madman. 


1 One day Jh all crown the alliance on't, fo pleafe you, ~\ The word 
*'/, in this place, is mere nonfenfe. I doubt not the poet wrote : 

ziftfo pleafe you. REVISAL. 

This is well conjectured ; but on't may relate to the double cha- 
racter of fifter and wife. JOHNSON. 

T 4 Here 

Here is my hand ; you fliall from this time be 
Your matter's miftrefs. 

OIL A filler ? you are fhe. 

Re-enter Fabian, 'with Afalvolio. 

Duke. Is this the madman ? 

Oli. Ay, my lord, this fame : How now, Malvolio? 

Mai. Madam, you have done me wrong, notorious 

Oli. Have I, Malvolio ? no. 

Mai. Lady, you have. Pray you, perufethat letter: 
You muft not now deny it is your hand, 
Write from it, if you can, in hand, orphrafe; 
Or fay, 'tis not your feal, nor your invention : 
You can fay none of this : Well, grant it then, 
And tell me, in the modefty of honour, 
Why you have given me fuch clear lights of favour ; 
Bade me come fmiling, and crofs-garter'd to you 9 , 
To put on yellow llockings, and to frown 
Upon fir Toby, and the ' lighter people : 
And, acting this in an obedient hope, 
Why have you fuffer'd me to be imprifon'd, 
Kept in a dark houfe, vifited by the prieft, 
And made the moft notorious geek 2 , and gull, 

' ~ croft-garter' d -yellow Jleckings, ] In an enter- 
tainment called Cupid and Death, by Shirley, 1653, a Holt en- 
ters \n yellow Jlcckings and croft-gartered. STEEVENS. 

1 lighter'} People oflefs dignity or importance. JOHNSON. 

4 geek. ] A fool. JOHNSON. 

So, in the vifion at the conclufion of Cymbeline : 
*' And to become the geek and fcorn 

" Of th' other's villainy." 

Again, in Ane verie excellent and dektfabitt T'rcatife intitulit PKI- 
I.OTUS, &c. 1603 : 

" Thocht he be auld, my joy, quhat reck, 
" When he is gane give him ane-, 
" And take another be the neck." 
Again : 

" The carle that hecht fa weill to treit you, 
" I think fall get ane gcck" STEEVENS. 



That e'er invention play'd on ? tell me why ? 

Oil. Alas, Malvolio, this is not my writing, 
Though, I confefs, much like the character : 
But, out of queftion, 'tis Maria's hand. 
And now I do bethink me, it was flie 
Firft told me, thou waft mad ; then cam'ft in fmiling, 
And infuch forms which here were prefuppos'd 1 
Upon thee in the letter. Pr'ythee, be content : 
This practice hath moft fhrewdly pafs'd upon thee ; 
But, when we know the grounds and authors of it, 
Thou {halt be both the plaintiff and the judge 
Of thine own caufe. 

Fab. Good madam, hear me fpeak ; , 
And let no quarrel, nor no brawl to come, 
Taint the condition of this prefent hour, 
Which I have wondred at. In hope it iliall not, 
Moft freely I confefs, myfelf, and Toby, 
Set this device againft Malvolio here, 
Upon fome ftubborn and uncourteous parts* 
We had conceiv'd againft him : Maria writ 
The letter, at fir Toby's great importance J ; 
In recompence whereof, he hath marry'd her. 
How with a fportful malice it was follow'd, 
May rather pluck on laughter than revenge ; 

3 here were prefuppos'd] 

Prefupfatfd) for impofed. WAR EUR TON, 

Prefuppos'd rather feems to mean previoufly pointed out for thy 
imitation ; or fuch as it was fuppofed thou would'ft aflume after 
thou hadil read the letter. Thefuppo/ttiort was previous to the afl. 


* Upon fame ftublorn and uncourteous parts 
IVe bad conceived againft him : ] 

Surely we fhould rather read : concei < v > d'vs\ him. TYRWHITT. 

5 at fir To^/.fj-mjrMmportance;] 

Importance is importunacy, impor tenement* So, in the Comedy of 
Errors : 

" At your important letters." STEEVENS. 
So, in Heywood's Hiftory of Women, 1624. : " Their importanty 
fo tar pievailed, that the Jirft decree was quite abrogated." 




If that the injuries be juftly weigh'd, 
That have on both fides paft. 

Oli. Alas, poor fool ! how have they baffled thee 6 ? 

Go. Why, fome are born great, fame aicbieve great- 
mfs, and fame have greatnefs thrown upon them. I was 
.one, fir, in this interlude ; one fir Topas, fir ; but 

that's all one : By the Lord, fool, I am not mad; 

But do you remember, madam 7 , Why laugh you at 
fach a barren rafcal? an you fmik not, hesgaggd: And 
thus the whirligig of time brings in his revenges. 

Mal f I'll be reveng'd on the whole pack of you. 


OH. He hath been moft notoriouily abus'd. 

Duke. Purfue him, and intreat him to a peace : * 
He hath not told us of the captain yet ; 
When that is known, and golden time convents *, 
A folemn combination fhall be made 
Of our dear fouls : Mean time, fweet fitter, 
We will not part from hence. Cefario, come; 
For fo you fliall be, while you are a man ; 
But, when in other habits you are feen, 
Orfino's miftrefs, and his fancy's queen. [Exeunt*. 

Clown fings. 

When that I was and a little tiny boy 9 , 
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, 


B bow have tlxy baffled tbcef\ See Mr. Toilet's note on a 

paflage in the firft fcene of the firft a6l of K. Rich. II : 

" I am difgrac'd, impeach'd, and baffled here." STEEVENS. 

7 but do you remember, rn&dam^ ] As the Clown is 

fpeaking to Malvolio, and not to Olivia, I think this paflage fhould 

be regulated thus but doyou remember"? Madam, why laugh 

you, &c. TYRWHITJ. 

* convents t ~\ Perhaps we fliould read confents. To convent, 
however, is to affcmble ; and therefore, the count may mean, 
when the happy hour calls us again together. STEEVENS. 

9 When that I ivas and a little tiny boy^\ 

Here again we have an old fong, fcarcely worth correftion. 'Gainft 
inaves and thieves muft evidently be, againft JEa0v and thief. 
When I was a boy, my folly and mifchievous adtions were little 

regarded : 


Afooli/J'} thing was but a toy, 
For the rain it raineth every day. 

But when I came to man's ejlate, 

With bey, ho, &c. 
'Gtiinft knaves and thieves, men flint their gate. 

For the rain, &c, 

But when I came, alas ! to wive, 

With hey, ho, &c. 
By fzv agger ing could I never thrive, 

For the rain, &c. 

But when I came unto my beds 

With hey, ho, &c. 
With tofs-potsftill had drunken heads, 

For the rain, &c. 

A great while ago the world begun^ 

With hey, ho, &c. 
But that's all one, our play is done, 

And we'lljlrive to pleafe you every day. [Exit, 

regarded : but when I came to manhood, men fliut their gates 
jigainfr. me, as a knave and a thief. 

Sir Tho. Hanmer rightly reduces the fubfequent words, ltd* 
and beads, to the fingular number: and a little alteration is ftilj 
wanting at the beginning of fome of the ftanzas. 

Mr. Steevens obferves in a note at the end of Much ado about 
Nothing, that the play had formerly patted under the name of Be* 
nedift and Beatrix. It feems to have been the court-fajhion to al- 
ter the titles. A very ingenious lady, with whom 1 have the ho- 
nour to be acquainted, Mrs. Aflcew of Queen's Square, has a fine 
copy of the fecond folio edition of Shakefpeare, which formerly 
belonged to king Charles I. and was a prcfent from him to h 
Matter of the Revels, fir Thomas Herbert. Sir Thomas has al- 
tered live titles in the lift of the plays, to ** Benedick and Betrice y 
Pyramus and Thijby, Rofalinde, Mr. Paroles, and Malvolio." 

It is lamentable to fee how far party and prejudice will carry 
the wifefl men, even againft their own practice and opinions. 
Milton, in his EixooxXa'r? cenfures king Charles for reading, u one, 
whom," fays he, * we well knew was the clofet companion of his 
folitudes, William ShalfeJ)>eare" FARMER. 

Dr. Fanner might have obferved, that the alterations of the 
titles arc in his majefty's own hand-writing, materially differing 



from fir Thomas Herbert's, of which the fame volume affords 
more than one fpecimen. I learn from another manufcript note 
in it, that John Lvwine afted K. Hen, VIII. and Jobn. Taylor the 
part of Hamlet. The book is now in my polfeffion. 

To the concluding remark of Dr. Farmer, may be added the 
following paflage from An Appeal to all rational Men concerning 
King Charles's Trial, by JohnCooke, 1649 : " Had he but ftudied 
fcripture half fo much as Ben Jonfon or Shake/peare, he might have 
learnt that when Amaziah was fettled in the kingdom, he fuddenly 
did juftice upon thofe fervants which killed his father Joalh, &c." 
With this quotation I was furnifhed by Mr. Malone. 

A quarto volume of plays attributed to Shakefpeare, with his 
majefty's cypher on the back of it, is preferved in Mr. Garrick's 
collection. STEEVENS. 

This play is in the graver part elegant and eafy, and in fome of 
the lighter fcenes exquifitely humorous. Ague-cheek is drawn 
with great propriety, but his character is, in a great meafure, that 
of natural fatuity, and is therefore not the proper prey of a fatirift. 
The foliloquy of Malvolio is truly comic ; he is betrayed to ridicule 
merely by his pride. The marriage of Olivia, and the fucceeding 
perplexity, though well enough contrived to divert on the ftage, 
wants credibility, and fails to produce the proper inftru&ion re- 
quired in the drama, as it exhibits no jufl picture of life. 



W I N T E R's 




Perfons Reprefented. 

Leontes, King o 

Polixenes, King of Bohemia. 

Mamillius, young Prince o/Sicilia. 

Florizel, Prince of Bohemia. 

Camillo. "] 

Antigonus. I Sicilian L ^. 


Dion, J 

Another Sicilian Lord. 

Archidamus, a Bohemian Lord. 

Rogero, a Sicilian Gentleman. 

An Attendant on the young Prince Mamillius. 

Officers of a Court of Judicature. 

Old Shepherd, reputed Father of Perdita. 

Clown, his Son. 

A Mariner. 


Servant to the old Shephei'd. 

Autolycus, a Rogue. 

Time, as Chorus. 

Hermione, Queen to Leontes. 

Perdita, Daughter to Leontes and Hermione. 

Paulina, Wife to Antigonus. 

Emilia, a Lady. 

Two other Ladies. 

Mopfa. l c , , , . 
-P. * > Sbcpberdffles. 
jL/orcas. 3 

Satyrs for a dance t Shepherds, 'ShepherdeJJes, Guards, and 

SCENE, fometimes in Sicilia ; fometimes in Bohemia. 



An antickamber in Leontes* palace. 
Enter Camillo, and Archidamus. 

Arch. If you fliall chance, Camillo, to vifit Bohe- 
mia, on the like occafion whereon my fervices are 


1 *The Winter 1 1 Tale."] This play, throughout, is written in the 
very fpirit of its author. And in telling this homely and fimple, 
though agreeable, country tale, 

Our fweetejl Sbaktfpeare, fancy's child) 
Warbles bis native wood-notes vjild. 

This was neceflary to obferve in mere juftice to the play ; as the 
meannefs of the fable, and the extravagant condudt of it, had 
milled fome of great name into a wrong judgment of its merit; 
which, as far as it regards fentiment and character, is fcarce infe- 
rior to any in the whole colle&ion. WARBURTON. 

At Stationers' Hall, May 22. 1594, Edward White entered 
" A booke entitled A Wynter Nygbt's Pa/lime" STEEVENS. 

The ftory of this play is taken from the Pleafant Hijiory of Da- 
raftus and Faivnia, written by Robert Greene. JOHNSON. 
In this novel, the king of Sicilia whom Shakefpeare names 

Leontes, is called . Egiftus. 

Polixenes K. of Bohemia ' Pandofto. 

Mamillias P. of Sicilia Garinter. 

Florizel P. of Bohemia Doraitus. 

Camillo Franion. 

Old Shepherd Porrus. 

Hermione - . - Bellaria. 

Perdita .. '. . Faunia. 

Mopfa - . Mopfa. 

The parts of Antigonus, Paulina, and Autolycus, are of the 
poet's own invention ; but many circumflances of the novel are 
omitted in the play. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. None 

288 W I N T E R's TALE. 

now on foot, you lhall fee, as I have faid, great dif- 
ference betwixt our Bohemia and your Sicilia. 


None of our author's plays has been more cenfured for the 
breach of dramatic rules than the Winter's Tale. In confirmation 

of what Mr. Steevens has remarked in another place " that 

Shakefpeare was not ignorant of thefe rules, but difregarded 
them" it may be obferved, that the laws of the drama are clearly 
laid down by a writer once univerfally read and admired, fir 
Philip Sydney, who, in his Defence of Pocfy, has pointed out the 
very improprieties which our author has fallen into, in this play. 
After mentioning the defects of the tragedy of Gorboduck, he 
adds : " But if it be fo in Gorboducke, how much more in all the 
reft, where you {hall have Afia on the one fide, and Affricke of 
the other, and fo manie other under kingdomes, that the player 
when he comes in, muft ever begin with telling where he is, or 
elfe the tale will not be conceived. Now of time they are much 
more liberal. For ordinarie it is, that two young princes fall in 
love, after many traverfes {he is got with childe, delivered of a 
fa ire boy : he is loft, groweth a man, falleth in love, and is readie 
to get another childe, and all this in two houres fpace : which 
how abfurd it is in fence, even fence may imagine." 

This play is iheered at by B. Jonfon, in the induction to Bar~ 
tholomew Fair, 1614:- > " If there be never a fervant monfter in 
the fair, who can help it, nor a ncft of antiques ? He is loth to 
make nature afraid in his plays, like thofe that beget Tales, Tem- 
pefts, and fuch like drolleries." 

By the r.ejl of antiques, the twelve fatyrs who are introduced at 
the {heep-ftiearing feftival, are alluded to. MALONE. 

The Winter's 'Tale may be ranked among the hiftoric plays of 
Shakefpeare, though not one of his numerous criticks and com- 
mentators have difcovered the drift of it. It was certainly intend- 
ed (in compliment to queen Elizabeth) as an indirecl apology for 
her mother Anne Boleyn. The addrefs of the poet appears no 
\vhere to more advantage. The fubjeft was too delicate to be ex- 
hibited on the ftage without a veil ; and it was too recent, and 
touched the queen too nearly, for the bard to have ventured fo 
home an allufion on any other ground than compliment. The 
unreafonable jealouiy of Leontes, and his violent conduct in con- 
. fequence, form a true portrait of Henry the Eighth, who gene- 
rally made the law the engine of his boifterous paflions. Not only 
the general plan of the ftory is moft applicable, but feveral paf- 
fages are fo marked, that they touch the real hitlory nearer than, 
the fable. Hermione on her trial fays ; 
** for honour^ 


W I N T E R's T A L F. 289 

Cam. I think, this coming fumuier, the king of 
JSicilia means to .pay Bohemia the vifitation whicl\ he 
juttly owes him. 

Arch. Wherein our entertainment lhall fhame us % 
we will be juftified in our loves : for, indeed, - . 

Cam. 'Befeech you, - 

Arch. Verily, I fpcak it in the freedom of my 
knowledge : we cannot with fuch magnificence in fa 

" 'Tis a derivative from me 

" And only that I ftand for." 
This feems to be taken from the very letter of Anne Boleyn W 
the king before- her execution, where flie pleads for the infant 
princels his daughter. Mamillius, the young prince, an unne- 
ceflary character, dies in his infancy j but it confirms the allufion^ 
as queen Anne, before Elizabeth, bore a ftill-born fon. But the 
molt finking paflage, and which had nothing to do in the tragedy, 
but as it pictured Elizabeth, is, where Paulina, defcribing the 
new-born princeis, and her likenefs to her father^ fays: "She 
has the very trick of his frovcn." There is one fentence indeed fo 
applicable, both to Elizabeth and her father, that I fhould fufpedt 
the poet ihferted it after her death. Paulina, fpeaking of the 
child, tells the king : 

" - : Tis yours; 

*' And might we lay the old proverb to your charge, 

a So like you, 'tis the worfe." 

The Winter Evening's Tale was therefore in reality a fecond part 
of Henry the Eighth. WALPOLE, 

Sir Thomas Hanmer gave himfelf much needlefs concern that 
Shakcfpeare fhould conlider Bohemia as a maritime country. He 
would have us read Jyytbinia : but our author implicitly copied the 
novel before him. Dr. Grey, indeed, was apt to believe that Do- 
rajlus and Faunia might rather be borrowed from the play, but I 
have met with a copy of it, which was printed in 1 588. - Cer- 
vantes ridicules thefe geographical miftakes, when he makes the 
princeis Micomicona land at Offuna. - Corporal Trim's king of 
Bohemia "delighted in navigation, and had never a fea-port in 
his dominions;" and my lord Herbert tells us, that De Luines 
the prime minifler of France, when he was embaflador there, de- 
manded, whether Bohemia was an inland country, or lay " upon 
thefea ?" - There is a fimilar miftake in the Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, relative to that city and Milan. FARMER. 

a .. - our entertainment Sec.] Though we cannot give you 
equal entertainment, yet the confcioufnefs of our good-will (hall 
juflify us. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IV. U rare- 

290 W I N T E R's TALE. 

rare I know not what to fay. We will give toll- 

fleepy drinks ; that your fenfes, unintelligent of our 
infufficience, may, though they cannot praife us, as 
little accufe us. 

Cam. You pay a great deal too dear, for what's 
given freely. 

Arch. Believe me, I fpeak as my understanding in- 
ftrufts me, and as mine" honefty puts it to utterance. 

Cam. Sicilia cannot fhew himfelf over-kind to Bo- 
hemia. They were trained together in' their child- 
hoods j and there rooted betwixt them then fuch aa 
^ffedtion, which cannot chufebut branch now. Since 
their more mature dignities, and royal neceffities, made 
feparation of their fociety, their encounters, though 
not perfonal, have been royally attorney 'd', with inter- 
change of gifts, letters, loving embaffies ; that they 
have feem'd to be together, though abfent ; fhook 
hands, as over a vaft 4 : and einbrac'd, as it were, from 
the ends of oppofed winds. The heavens continue 
their loves ! 

Arch. I think, there isrnot in the world either ma- 
lice, or matter, to alter it. You have an unfpeak- 
able comfort of your young prince Mamillius ; it is a 
gentleman of the greateft promife, that ever came 
into my note. 

Cam. I very well agree with you in the hopes of 
him: It is a gallant child j one that, indeed, phy licks 

3 royally attorney* d, ~\ Nobly fupplied by fubftitution of 
embattles, &c. JOHNSON. 

* as over a vaft: ] Thus the folio 1623. The folio 

1632 : over a vaft fea. I have fince found that Hanmer at- 
tempted the fame correction, though I believe the old reading to 
be the true one. Vaftum is the ancient term for -ivafte uncultivated 
land. Over a va/l, therefore means at a great and vacant diftance 
from each other. P'aft^ however, may be uled for they^, in Perl- 
eks Prince of Tyre : 

*' Thou God of this great vaft^ rebuke the furges." 



W 1 N T E R's T A L E. 291 

the fubjecV, makes old hearts frefh : they, that went 
on crutches ere he was born, defire yet their life, to 
fee him a man. 

Arch. Would they elfe be content to die ? 

Cam. Yes ; if there were no other excufe why they 
fliould defire to live. 

Arch. If the king had no fon, they would defire to 
live on crutches 'till he had one. [Exeunt* 


A room offtate. 

Enter Leontcs, Hermione, Mamillius, Pollxews, Camillo, 
and Attendants. 

Pol. Nine changes of the watry ftar hath been 
The ihepherd's note, fince we have left our throne 
Without a burden : time as long again 
Would be fill'd up, my brother^ with our thanks ; 
And yet we fhould, for perpetuity, 
Go hence in debt : And therefore, like a cypher, 
Yet {landing in rich place, I multiply, 
With one we thank you, many thousands more 
That go before it. 

Leo. Stay your thanks a while ; 
And pay them when you part. 

Pol. Sir, that's to-morrow. 

I am queflion'd by my fears, of what may chance, 
Or breed upon our abfence : That may blow 6 


5 pbyjtds tbcfuljefl, ] Affords a cordial to the ftate ; 

has the power of afluaging the fenle of milery. JOHNSON. 
So, in Macbeth: *' The labour we delight in, phyjicks pain." 


6 that may M<nu 

Nofneafing winds ] 
This is aonfenle, we fhould read it thus : 

- may there //nv, &c. 

He had faid he was apprehenfive that his prefcnce might be wanted 
U 2 at 

2 9 z W I N T E R's T A L E. 

No {heaping winds at home, to make us fay, 
Ibis is put forth too truly I Betides,, I have ftay'd 
To tire your royalty. 

Leo. We are tougher, brother,- 
Than you can put us to't. 

Pol. No longer ftay. 

Leo. One feven-night longer. 

Pol. Very (both, to morrow. 

Leo. We'll part the time between's then ; and in 

I'll no gain-faying. 

Pol. Prefs me not, 'befeech you, fo ; 
There is no tongue that moves ; none, none i'tlie 

world 7 

So foon as yours, could win me : fo it fhould now, 
Were there neceffity in your requeft, although 

at home ; but, led this mould prove an ominous fpeech, he en- 
deavours, as was the cuitom, to avert it by a deprecatory prayer ; 

Jl/rty there blow 

yoj~iif(jp:/:g -ivinds -*to make us Jay , 

Tins -jv as put forth too truly. 

But the Oxford editor, rather than be beholden to this correction^ 
alters it to : 

there may Utrje 

Somzf neaping winds. 

and fo deftroys the whole featiment.. WAR BURTON'. 

That may blo~>v, is a Gallicifm, for may then blow.* JOHNSON'. 

7 'bat may blarjj 

Nofneaping winds at homi\ 

Dr. Warburton calls this uonfenfc ; aiid Dr. Johnfon tells us it rs 
a GalUc'ifm. It happens however to be both fenfe and EtigliJ]}. 
That, for Oh ! That, is not uncommon. In an old traniiatioti or' 
the ramoiis Alcoran of the Francifcan; : " St. Francis obierving 
the holinefs of friar Juniper, faid to the priors, That I had a wood, 
ofluch Junipers !" And, in The T<vo Noblt Kinfmen : 

w In thy rumination, 

" That I poor man ini^ht eftfoones come beuvecn !" . 
And fo in other places. This is the conttrutlion of the pallage in 
Romeo and Juliet : 

" That runaway's eyes may wink ! ?! 

Which in other refpect^ Mr. Steeveni has rightly interpreted. 



W I N T E R's T A L E. 293 

*Twsre needful I deny'd it. My affairs 
Do even drag me homeward : which to hinder, 
Were, in your love, a whip to me ; my ftay, 
To you a charge, and trouble : -to fave both, 
Farewel, our brother. 

Leo. Tongue-ty'd, our queen ? fpeak you. 

Her. I had thought, fir, to .have held my peace, 


You had drawn oaths from him, not to 'flay. You, fir, 
Charge him too coldly : Tell him, you are furc, 
All in Bohemia's well : this fatisfadtion 7 
The by-gone day proclaim'd ; fay this to him, 
He's beat from his beft ward. 

Leo. Well faid, Hermione. 

Her. To tell, he longs to fee his fon, were ftrong- 
But let him fay fo then, and let him go ; 
But let him fwear fo, and he fhall not flay, 
We'll thwack him hence with diftafts. 
Yet of your royal prefence I'll adventure 

[To Polixenez. 

The borrow of a week. When at Bohemia 
You take my lord, I'll give you my commiffion % 
To let hiru there a month, behind the gefl 9 


7 - tbisfatisfafllon] 

We had fatisfattory accounts ycilerday of the {late of Bahemia. 


* I'll give him my commijjion,] 

We fhould read : 

J'Mgive you my commijjion, 

The verb /</, or hinder, which follows, fhews the neceflhy of if: 
for (lie could not fay {he would give her hufband a corHmillion to 
iet or hinder himfelf. The commiifion is given to Polixencs, to 
whom flie is fpeaking, to Ice or hinder her hulband. 


~bcbind the gefi\ 

Mr. Theobald fays : be can ne;tfxr trace, nor under/land tbe pbrafe, 
and therefore thinks it fhould be jujl : But the word <rcji is right, 
and fignifies a ftage or journey. In the time of royal'progrejjcs the 
's itajjes, as, we may fee by the journals of them in the he- 

U 5 l;Jo .; 

a 9 4 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Prefix'd for his parting : yet, good-deed, ' Leontes., 
I love thee not a jar o'the clock z behind 
What lady flie her lord You'll flay ? 

Pol. No, madam. 

Her. Nay, but you will ? 

Pol. I may not, verily, 

raid's office, were called blsgefis ; from the old French 
(Tiverforiiun. WAR BUR TON. 

In Strype's Memorials of ArMlJbop Cranmcr, p, 283. - The 
archbilhop intreats Cecil, " to let him have the new-refolved- 
upon /?J, from that time to the end, that he might from time to 
time know where the king was." 

Holland, in his tranflation of Plhiy, fays, p. 282 : " Thefe 
quailes have their fet^//?j, to wit, ordinane retting and baiting 
Again, in Decker's Match me in London, 1631: 

** It (i. e. the court) remov'd laft to the mop of a millener j 
" The gefts are fo fet down, becaufe you ride." 
Again, in Friar Bacon, and Friar Bungay, 1599: 
" Caftile, and lovely Elinor with him, 
- * t Have in their gefts refolved for Oxford town/' 
Again, in Vittoria Ccromlona, 1612 : 

-- " Do like ^ gefts in the progrefs, 
" You know where you fhall find me." STEEVEXS. 
1 yet) good hced^ Lcontes."] 

i. e. you take good heed, Leontes, to what I fay. Which phrafr, 
Mr. Theobald not undemanding, he alters it to, good deed. 


yet good-deed, Leontes, - 

is the reading of the old copy, and fignifies indetd, in very deed^ 
*ts Shakefpeare in another place exprefles it. Good deed is ufed in 
the fame lenie by the aarl of Surry, lir John Hayward, and Gaf- 
coigne. STEEVENS. 

The fecond folio reads good beed^ which, I believe, is right. 


a a jar o't/jf clack - ] A jar is, I believe, a fingle repe- 

tition of the noife made by the pendulum of a clock ; what chil- 
dren call the ticking of it. So, in K. Richard III : 

" My thoughts are minutes, and with iighs theyy^r." 


Ajar perhaps means a minute, for I do not fuppofe that the 
ancient clocks ticked or noticed the feconds. See Holinlhed's J}e . 
firiftion of England^ p. 241. ToLLET, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 295 

JJer. Verily! 

"Yon put me off with limber vows : But I, 
Though you would fcek to unfphere the ftars with 


Should yet fay, Sir, m going. Verily, 
You mall not go ; a lady's verily is 
As potent as a lord's. Will you go yet ? 
Force me to keep you as a priibner, 
Not like a gueft ; fo you mall pay your fees, 
When you depart, and fave your thanks. How fay 

you ? 

My prifoner ? or my gueft ? by your dread verily, 
One of them you fhall be. 

Pol. Your gueft then, madam : 
To be your prifoner, mould import offending; 
Which is for me lefs eafy to commit, 
Than you to punilh. 

Her. Not your goaler then, 
But your kind hoftefs. Come, I'll queftion you 
Of my lord's tricks, and yours, when you were boys; 
You were pretty lordings ' then. 

Pol We were, fair queen, 

Two lads, that thought there was no more behind, 
3But fuch a day to-morrow as to-day, 
And to be boy eternal. 

Her. Was not my lord the verier wag o'the two ? 

Pol. We were as twinn'd lambs, that did frifk 

i'the fun, 

And bleat the one at the other : what we chang'd, 
Was innocence for innocence ; we knew not 
The doctrine of ill-doing, no, nor dream'd 
That any did : Had we purfu'd that life, 
And our weak fpirits ne'er been higher rearM 

* 3 lord; figs ] This diminutive of lord is often ufed by 
Chaucer. So, in the prologue to his Canterbury Tales, the Holl 
^fiiys to the company, v. 790, late edit. 

" Lordnges (quod he; now herkeneth for the befle." 


U 4 With 

296 W I N T E R's T A L E.; 

With ftronger blood, we ihould have anfwerM 


Boldly, Not guilty ; the impofaion clear'd 4 ? 
Hereditary ours. 

Her. By this we gather, 
You have tripp'd fince. 

Pol. O my moft facred lady, 
Temptations have fince then been born to us : for 
In thofe unfledg'd days was my wife a girl ; 
Your precious felf had then not crofs'd the eyes 
Of my young play-fellow. 

Her. 5 Grace to boot ! 
Of. this make no conclusion ; left you fay, 
Your queen and I are devils : Yet, go on ; 
The offences we have made you do, we'll anfwer ; 
If you firft finn'd with us, and that with us 
You did continue fault, and that you flipp'd not 
With any but with us. 

Leo. Is he won yet ? 

Her. He'll flay, my lord. 

Leo. At my requefl, he would not, 

f ' ; the impojition clcar^dy 

Hereditary ours.] 

5. e. fetting afide original Jin ', bating the impofition from the of- 
fence of our firft parents, we might have boldly protefted our in- 
nocence to heaven. WAR BUR TON. 
5 Grace to loot I 

Of this make no conclujion ; left you fcty^ &c.] 

Poli^enes had faid, that fince the time or childhood and inno- 
cence, temptations had grown to them ; for that, in that interval, 
the two queens were become women. To each part of this obfer- 
vation the queen anfwers in order. To that of temptations fhe re- 
plies, Grace to loot I i. e. though temptations have grown up, 
yet I hope grace too has kept pace with them. Grace to toot, 
was a proverbial expi effion on.theie occafions. To the other part, 
fhe replies, as for our tempting you, pray take heed you draw no 
cor.clufion from thence, for that would be making your queen- 
and me devils, &c. WAR BURTON. 

The explanation is good ; but I have no great faith in the ex- 
iuspce of iuch a proverbial expreilion. STEEVEXS. 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 297 

Hermione, my deareft, thou never fpok'ft 
To better purpofe. 

Her. Never ? 

Leo. Nevpr, but once. 

Her. What ? have I twice faid well ? when 'twas 

before ? 

I pr'ythee,tell me : Cram us with praife, and make us 
As.fat as tame things : One good deed, dying tongue- 


Slaughters a thoufand, waiting upon that. 
Our praifes are our wages : You may ride us 
With one foft kiis a thoufand furlongs, ere 
With fpur we heat an acre. But to the goal 6 ; 
My laft good deed was, to intreat his ftay ; 
What was my firft r 1 it has an elder lifter, 
Or I miflake you : O, would her name were Grace ! 
But once before I fpoke to the purpofe : When ? 
Nay, let me have't ; I long. 

Leo. Why, that was when 
Three crabbed months had four'd themfelves to 


Ere J could make thee open thy white hand, 
And clap thyfelf my love 7 ; then didft thou utter, 
/ am yours for ever, 


6 With fpur ive beat an acre. But to the goal ;] 

Thus this paffage has been always printed ; whence it appears, 
that the editors did not take the poet's conceit. They imagined 
that, But to ttf goal, meant, but to come to the purpofe; but the 
fenfe is different, and plain enough when the line is pointed thus : 

With fpur tve heat an acre, lut to the goal. 

\. e, good ufage will win us to any thing ; but, with ill, we flop 
(hort, even there where both our imereft and our inclination 
would otherwife have carried us. WAR BUR TON. 

I have followed the old copy, the pointing of which appears to 
afford as apt a meaning as that produced by the change recom-f 
mended by Dr. Warburton. STEEVENS. 

7 And clepe thy f elf my love ; ] 

The old edition reads clap tbyfulf. This reading may be ex- 
plained ; She open'd her hand, to dap the palm of it into his, as 


2 9 3 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Her. It is Grace, indeed. 
Why, lo you now, I have fpoke to the purpofc 

twice : 

The one for ever earn'd a royal huiband ; 
The other, for fome while a friend. 

[Giving her hand to Polixenes. 
Leo. Too hot, too hot : 

To mingle friendfhip far, is mingling bloods. 
I have tremor ''COY 'dis on me : my heart dances ; 
But not for joy, not joy. This entertainment 
May a free face put on ; derive a liberty 
From heartinefs, from bounty, fertile bofom, 
And well become the agent : it may, I grant : 
But to be padling palms, and pinching fingers, 
As now they are ; and making practis'd fmiles, 
AS in a looking-glafs ; and then to figh, as 'twere 
The mort o'the deer 8 ; oh, that is entertainment 
My bofom likes not, nor my brows. Mamillius, 
Art thou my boy ? 

Mam. Ay, my good lord. 
Leo. I'fecks ? 

Why, that's my bawcock 9 , What, haft fmuteh'd 
thy nofe ? - 


people do when they confirm a bargain. Hence the phrafe to 
clap up a bargain, i. e. make one with no other ceremony than the 
junction of hands. So, in Ram-alley or Merry Tricks, 1611 ; 

"'Speak, widow, is'tamatch? 

" Shall we dap it up i" 
Again, in a Trick to catch tie old One, 1616 : 

" Come, dap hands, a match." 
Again, in K. Hen. V: 

" and to clap hands, and a bargain," STEEVENS. 

8 T/.'f mort o'the deer ; ] 
A leflbn upon the horn at the death of the deer. THEOBALD. 

So, in Greene's Card of Fancy, 1608: " He that bloweth 
the mort before the death of the buck, may very well mifs of his 
fees." Again, in the oldeft copy of Chevy Chafe : 

'* The blcwe a mort uppone the bent." STEEVEXS. 
9 Jf7<y, that's my bawcock. ] Perhaps from beau and coq. It 
is full faid ii> vulgar language that fuch a one is a jolly cock^ a cock 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 299 

They fay, it's a copy out of mine. Come, captain* 
We mult be neat ' ; not neat, but cleanly, captain : 
And yet the fteer, the heifer, and the calf, 
Are all call'd, neat. Still virginalling* 

[Obferving Polixencs and Herm'wne, 
Upon his palm ? How now, you wanton calf? 
Art thou my calf ? 

Mam. Yes, if you will, my lord. 

Leo. Thou want'ft a rough pafh, and the fhoots 
that I have ', 


of the game. The word has already occurred in Twelfth Night, and 
is one of the titles by which Pitfol fpeaks of K. Henry the Fifth. 


1 U'e muft le neat : ] 

t-eontes, feeing his fon's nofe fmurch'd, cries, we muft le nea? 9 
then recollecting that neat is the ancient term for horned cattle, 
he lays, not neat, lut cleanly. JOHNSON, 
So, in Drayton's Polyolbion, fong 3 : 

" His large provifion there of ttefli, of fowl, of neat" 


* Still virginalling'} 

Still playing with her fingers, as a girl playing on the virginals, 


A virginal, as I am informed, is a very fmall kind of fpinnetv 
Queen Elizabeth's virginal book is yet in being, and many ot the 
leflbns in it have proved Ib difficult, as to baffle our moft expert 
players on the harpfichord. 

'* When we have hulbands, we play upon them like virginal 
jacks, they muft rife and fall to our humours, or elfe they'll never 
get any good itrains of mufic out of one of us." 

Decker's Untruffing the Humorous Poet t 
in Ram-alley or Merry Tricks, 1611: / 
" Where be thefe raicals that fkip up and down 
" Like virginal jacks ?" 
Again, in Decker's Honeft Whore ^ 1635 : " This was her fchool- 
jualler, and taught her to play upon the virginal^ &c." 


3 Thou ant*Jl a rough pafli, and the fhoots that I ha-ve,~\ 
Pajh\^> k;fs. Paz. Spanifll. i. e. thou wanfft a mouth made rough 
ty a beard, to k'ifs ivith. Shoots arc branches, i.e. horns. Leontes 
alluding to the enfigns of cuckoldom. A mad-braiu'd boy is, 
call'd a m^fajl: in Chcflvire, STHEYEKS. 

A rough 


3 oo W I N T E R's TALE, 

To be full like me : yet, they fay, we are 
Almoit as like as eggs ; women fay ib, 
That will fay any thing : But were they falfe 
4 As o'er-dy'd blacks, as winds, as waters ; falfc 
As dice are to be wifh'd, by one that fixes 
No bourn 5 'twixt his and mine ; yet were it true 
To fay, this boy were like me. Come, fir page, 
Look on me with your welkin-eye 6 : Sweet villain ! 
Mod dear'ft ! my collop 7 ! Can thy dam ? may't be ? 
Affe&ion ! thy intention {tabs the center $ . 


A rough paflj feems to mean a rough hide or fkin. Perhaps it 
.comes from the plural of the French wordpcau, or from a corrup- 
tion of the Teutonic, peltz^ a pelt. TOLLET. 

* As o'er-dy' d blacks^ ^ j 

Sir T. Hanmer underftands, blacks died too much, and therefore 
rotten. JOHNSON. 

It is common with tradefmen to dye their faded or damaged 
fluffs, black. O'er-dy V blacks may mean thofe which have receiv- 
ed a dye over their former colour. 

There is a paffage in The old Lcru of MafTenger, which might 
Jead us to offer another interpretation : 

* f B lac&s are often fuch diflembling mourners 
" There is no credit given to't, it has loft 
" All reputation \>y fslfe fons and widows 
'* I would not hear of blacks?' 

It feems that Hacks was the common term for mourning. So, in 
a Mad World my Mafters, i 608 : 
" in fo many blacks 

*' I'll have the church hung round " 

Black however will receive no other hue without difcovering itfelf 
through it. ** Lanarum nigrts nulluni coloitm bibunt" 

Pl'm. Nat. Hlft. lib. viii. STEEVENS. 
5 No bourn ' - ] Bourn is boundary. So, w Hamlrt : 

*' from whofe bourn 

'* No traveller returns-^ " STEEVEKS. 

Blue eye ; an eye of the fame colour with the <a/W/ff, or flcy. 


7 my collop ! ] So, in the Firft Part of K. Henry VI : 

*' God knows, thou art & collop of my flefh." STEEVENS. 
8 Affefflon ! thy intention Jlabs the center. ~\ 
Jnftead of <his line, which I find in the folio, the modern 


W I N T E R's TALE. 301 

Thou doft make poffible things not fo held 9 , 
Communicat'ft with dreams, How can this be ? . 
With what's unreal ; thou coa&ive art, 
And fellow'li nothing : Then, 'tis very credent", 
Thou may*ft co-join with fomething; and thou doft j 
And that beyond commiffion ; and I find it, 
And that to the infedion of my brains> 
And hardning of my brows^ 

Pol. What means Sicilia ? 

Her. He fomething feems unfettled. 

Pol. How ? my lord ? 

Leo. What cheer? howis't with you, beft brother*? 

Her. You look, 

As if you held a brow of much diftraftion. : 
Are you mov'd, my lord ? 

Leo. No, in good earned. 
How fometinres nature will betray its folly, 
Its tendernefs ; and make itfelf a paftime 
To harder bofoms ! Looking on the lines 

editors have introduced another of no authority : 

Imagination ! tbou doft ft ab to the center. 

Mr. Rowe firft made the exchange. I am not certain that I tm- 
derftand the reading which I have reftored. Affection^ however, 
I believe, fignifies imagination. Thus, in the Merchant of Femce : 

' Matters of paffion, fway it, &c." 

\. e. imaginations govern our pajpons. Intention is as Mr. Locke 
exprefles it, " when the in'md with great earneftnefs, and of choice, 
fixes its view on any idea, confiders it on every fide, and will not 
be called off by the ordinary felicitation of other ideas." This 
vehemence of the mind feems to be what affects Leontes fo deeply, 
or, in Shakefpeare's language, -Jlabi Llm to the center. STEEVENS. 

9 Tbou dojl make poffible things not fo held,] 

i. e. thou doft make thofe things poffible, which are conceived to 
be impoffible. JOHNSON. 

' credent,] i.e. credible. So, in Meafure for Meafure, 

aft V. fc. v : 

" For my authority bears a credent bulk." STEEVE\S. 
* Wljat deer f ho-VJ i?t with you^ bejl brother ?] 
This line feems rather to belong to the preceding fhort fpeech of 
than to Lcontes. STEEYE.VS, 


3 o2 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Of my boy's face, mcthoughts, I did recoil 
Twenty three years ; and law myfelf unbreech'd^ 
In my green velvet coat ; my dagger muzzled, 
Left it Ihould bite its matter, and fo prove, 
As ornament oft does, too dangerous. 
How like, methought, I then was to this kernel, 
This fquaih, this gentleman : Mine honeft friend, 
Will you take eggs for money 3 ? 
Mam. No> my lord, I'M fight. 
Leo. You will ? why, 4 happy man be his dole! 

My brother, 

Are you fo fond of your young prince, as we 
Do feem to be of ours ? 
Pol. If at home, fir, 

He's all my exercife, my mirth, my matter : 
[Now my fworn friend, and then mine enemy 5 
My parafite, my foldier, ftates-man, all : 
He makes a July's day fhort as December ; 
And, with his varying childnefs, cures in me 
Thoughts that would thick my blood* 

3 Will you take eggs for money f\ 

This feems to be a proverbial expreffion, ufed when a man fees 
himfelf wronged and makes no refiftance. Its original, or pre- 
cife meaning, I cannot find, but I believe it means, will you be 
a cuckold for hire. The cuckovv is reported to lay her eggs in an- 
other bird's neft ; he therefore that has eggs kid in his neft, is 
laid to be cucullatus, cnckew'd, or cuckold. JOHNSON. 

The meaning of this is, ivill you put up affronts ? The French 
have a proverbial faying, A qui vendez vous co^ailles f i. e. whom 
do you defign to affront ? Mamillius's anfwer plainly proves it. 
Mam. No, my lord, Pllfgbt. SMITH. 

I meet with Shakelpeare's phrafe in a comedy, call'd A 

Match at Midnight, 1633 : " I fhall have eggs for ?ny money ; I 

muft hang myfelf." STEEVENS. 

4 J:appy man be his dole ! ]. 

May his dole orj/jare in life be to be a happy man. JOHNSON. 

The expreffion is proverbial. Dole was the term for the allow- 
ance of provifion given to the poor, in great families. So, in 
Greene's Tu S>uoq-ue, 1 599 : 

" Had the women puddings to their dole?" STEEVENS, 

W I N T E R's TALE. 303 

Leo. So ftands this fquire 
Offic'd with me : We two will walk, my lord, 
And leave you to your graver fteps. Hermione, 
How thou lov'ft us, fhew in our brother's welcome ; 
Let what is dear in Sicily, be cheap : 
Next to thyfelf, and my young rover, he's 
Apparent 5 to my heart. 

Her. If you would feek us, 
We are yours i'the garden: Shall's attend you there? 

Leo* To your own bents ch'fpofe you : you'll be 


Be you beneath the fky : I am angling now, 
Though you perceive me not how I give line ; 

\_A[ide, obferving Hermione, 
Go to, go to ! 

How Ihe holds up the neb, the "bill to'him ! 
And arms her with the boldnefs of a wife 

\_Rxeunt Polixenes> Hermione^ and attendants. 
To her allowing hufband ! Gone already ; 
Inch-thick, knee-deep ; o'er head and ears a fork'd 

one 6 .- 

Go, play, boy, play ; thy mother phys, and I 

Play too ; but fo diigrac'd a part, whofe iilue 
Will hifs me to my grave ; contempt and clamour 
Will be my knell. Go, play, boy, play ; There 

have been, 

Or I am much deceived, cuckolds ere now ; 
And many a man there is, even at this preient, 
Now, while I fpeak this, holds his wife by the arm, 
That little thinks me hath been flu ic'd in his abfence, 
And his pond filh'd by his next neighbour, by 
Sir Smile, his neighbour : nay, there's comfort in't, 

^ 5 Apparent ] 

That is, heir apparent, or the next claimant. JOHNSON. 

^ 6 a fork'd one ] 

That is, a/^erWone; a cuckold, JOHNSON, 


W I N T. E R's T A L E. 

Whiles other men have gates; and thofe gates operi'd, 
As miney againft their will .: Should all defpair, 
That have revolted wives, the tenth of mankind 
Would hang themfelves. Phyfick for't there is 

none ; 

It is a bawdy planet, that will flrike 
Where 'tis predominant ; and 'tis powerful, think it, 
From eaft, weft, north, and fouth : Be it concluded, 
No barricado for a belly ; know it j 
It will let in and out the enemy, 
With bag and baggage : many a thoufand of us 
Have the difeafe, and feel't not. How now a boy ? 

Mam. I am like you, they fay. 

Leo. Why, that's fome comfort. 
What ? Camillo there ? 

Cam. Ay, my good lord. 

Leo. Go play,' Mamillius ; thou'rt an honeft 
man. [Exit Mamillius. 

Camillo, this great fir will yet ftay longer. 

Cam. You had much ado to make his anchor hold; 
When you caft out, 7 it flill came home. 

Leo. Didil note it ? 

Cam. He would not ftay at your petitions; made 
His buiinefs more material *. 

Leo. Didft perceive it ?- 

? They're here with me already ; whifpering, round- 
ing ', 


7 " it Ji ill came home.'] 

This is a fea-fai ing expreffion, meaning, the anchor would not take 
bold. STEEVENS. 

His bujinefs more material.] 

5. e. the more you requefted him to ftay, the more urgent he re- 
jwefented that buiinefs to be which fummoned him away, 


9 They're here with me already ; - ] 

Not Polixenes and Hermione, but cafual obfervers, people ac- 
cidentally prefent. THIRLBY. 

e. rounding in the ear, a phrafe in ufe at that timet But the 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 305 

Sicilia is afo-fortb : 'Tis far gone, 

When I fhall guft it laft 1 . How came't, Camilio, 

That he did flay ? 

Cam. At the good queen's entreaty. 

Leo. At the queen's, be't : good, ihould be per- 

tinent ; 

But fo it is, it is not. Was this taken 
By any understanding pate but thine ? 
For thy conceit is foaking J , will draw in 
More than the common blocks : Not noted, is't, 
But of the finer natures ? by fome feverals, 
Of head-piece extraordinary ? lower mefles *, 
Perchance, are to this bufinefs purblind : fay. 


Oxford editot not knowing that, alters the text to, 
round. WA R B U R T O N . 

To round in the ear, is to vottifar.) or to tell ftcrctly. The ex- 
preflion is very copioufly explained by M. Cafaubon, in his book 
Je Ling. Sax. JOHNSON. 

The word appears to have been fometimes written - r inviting. 
So, in one of the articles againft cardinal Wolfey : " come 
daily to your grace, rovwing in your ear and blowing upon your 
grace with his perillous and infective breath," Again, in Speed's 
Hift. of Great Britaine, 1614, p. 906 : *' - not lo much as 
r owning among themfelves, by which they might feem to com- 
mune what was beft to do." MALOXE. 

1 - gtijl it - ] i. e. tafte it. STEEVEXS. 

" Dedecus ille domus fciet ultimus." Juv.Sat. 10. 


3 is foaking, - ] Dr. Gray would read - in foaking ; but 
I think without neceffity. Thy conceit is of an alforlcnt nature, 
will draw in more, &c. feems to be the meaning. StKEtriNS. 

* " - lo-iver vicjfis,'] 

Mefs is a contraclion of Majler, as Mcfs John, Mafler John ; an 
appellation ufed by the Scots, to thole who have taken their aca- 
demical degree. Lower mejjes, therefore, are graduates of a lower 
form. Thefpeaker is now mentioning gradations of underlbnding, 
and not of rank. JOHNSON. 

I believe, lower mejjes is only ufcd as an expreffion to fignify the 
loweit decrees about the court. See Anftis. Orel. Gart. i. A pp. 
p. 15 : " The earl of Surry began the borde in prefcnce : thceurl 
of Arundel wafhed with him, and fat both i;r the jlrf. tKcjfr" Ac 
every great man's table the viiuanrs were anciently, as at prefent, 

Vol. IV. X placed 

306 W I N T E- R's T A L E. 

Cam. Bufinefs, my lord ? I think, moft underftand 
Bohemia flays here longer. 

Leo. Ha? 

Cam. Stays here longer. 

Leo. Ay, but why ? 

Cam. To fatisfy your highnefs, and the entreaties- 
Of our moft gracious miftrefs. 

Leo. Satisfy 

The entreaties of your miftrefs ? fatisfy ? * 
Let thkt fuffice. I have trufted thee, Camillo, 
With all the neareft things to my heart, as well 
My chamber-councils : wherein, prieft like, thou 
Haft cleans'd my bofom ; I from thee departed 
Thy penitent reform'd : but we have been 
Deceiv'd in thy integrity, deceiv'd 
In that which feems fo. 

p-aced according to their confequence or dignity, but with addi- 
tional marks of inferiority, viz. of fitting below the great 
laltfeller placed in the center of the table, and of having 
coarier provisions fet before them. The former cuftom is men- 
tioned in the Hone/} Whore by Decker, 1635: " Plague him ; fet 
him beneath the fait, and let him not touch a bit till every one has 
had his full cut." The latter was as much afubjeft of complaint 
in the time of B. and Fletcher, as in that of Juvenal, as the fol- 
lowing inftance may prove : 

" Uncut up pies at the nether end, filled with mofs and 

41 Partly to make a fhew with, 

*' And partly to keep the lower mefe from eating." 

Woman Hater > aft I. fc. ii. 

This paflage may be yetfomewhat differently explained. It ap- 
pears from a paflage. in The merye Jcft of a Man called H0-iv!eglas y 
bl. 1. no date, that it was anciently the cuflom in public houies to 
keep ordinaries of different prices : " What table wyl you be at ? 
for at the lordes table thei give me no lei's than to fhylinges, and 
at the merchaunts table xvi pence, and at my houfehold iervantes, 
geve me twelve pence." Inferiority of underitanding, is, on this 
occafion, comprehended inthe idea of inferiority of rank. STEEVEN-S. 

lower mefles 

Perchance are purblind ] 

Concerning the different mejjes in the greaf families of our ancient 
nobility, lee the Houjhold Book of the 5/6 Earl of Northumbei'- 
laiiJ> 8vo, 17/0. PERCY. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 307 

Cam. Be it forbid, my lord ! 

Leo. To bide upon't; Thou art not honeft: or, 
If thou inclin'ft that way, thou art a coward ; 
Which hoxes honefly behind 5 , reflraining 
From courfe requir'd : Or elfe thou muft be counted 
A fervant, grafted in my ferious trufl, 
And therein negligent : or elfc a fool ; 
That fceft a game play'd home, the rich flake drawn, 
And tak'ft it all forjeft. 

Cam. My gracious lord, 
I may be negligent, foolilh, and fearful ; 
In every one of thefe no man is free, 
But that his negligence, his folly, fear, 
Amongft the infinite doings of the world, 
Sometime puts forth : In your affairs, my lord, 
If ever I were wilful-negligent, 
It was my folly ; if induftrioufly 
I play'd the fool, it was my negligencCj 
Not weighing well the end ; if ever fearful 
To do a thing, where I the iflue doubted, 
Whereof the execution did cry out 6 
Againft the non-performance, 'twas a fear 
Which oft infedts the wifeft : thefe, my lord, 
Are fuch allow'd infirmities, that honefty 

5 hoxes Jjonefty behind, ] 

To box is to ham-ftring. So, in Knollcs* Hift. of the Turks' 

" alighted, and with his fword boxed his horfe." 

King James VI. in his nth Parliament, had an aft to puniftl 
*' bochares, or flayers of horfe, oxen, &c. STEEVENS. 
6 Whereof the execution did cry out 

Againft the non-performance, ] 

This is one of the expreffions by which Shakefpeare too frequently 
clouds his meaning. This founding phrafe means, I think, no 
more than a thing neccjjary to be done. JOHNSON. 

I think we ought to read " the w^w-pertbrmance," which 

gives us this very reafonable meaning: At the execution ivhereof, 
fuch circumjlancei difcovered themfeh'es^ as made It prudent to fitfpend 
all further proceeding r />. REVISAL. . 

I do not fee that this attempt does any thing more, than produce 
a harder word without an eafier fenfe, JOHNSON. 

X 2 J3 

5 oS W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Is never free of. But, 'bcfecch your grace,. 
Be plainer with me ; let me know my trcfpafs 
By its own vifage : if I then deny it, 
'Tis none of mine. 

Leo. Have not you feen, Camillo, 
(But that's paft doubt : you have ; or your eye-glaf* 
Is thicker than a cuckold's horn) or heard, 
(For, to a vifion fo apparent, rumour 
Cannot be mute) or thought, (for cogitation 
Refides not in that man, that does not think it) 
My wife is flippery ? if thou wilt,- confefs ; 
Or eife be impudently negative, 
To have nor eyes, nor ears, nor thought : Then fay y 
My wife's a hobby-horfe ; deferves a name 
As rank as any flax-wench, that puts to 
Before her troth-plight : fay it, and juftify it. 

Cam. I would not be a ftandcr-by, to hear 
My fovereign miftrefs clouded fo, without 
My prefent vengeance taken : 'Shrew my hearty 
You never fpoke what did become you lefs 
Than this ; which to reiterate, were fin 7 
As deep as that, though true. 

Leo. Is whifpering nothing ? 
Is leaning cheek to cheek ? is meeting nofes * * 
Kiffing with infide lip ? flopping the career 
Of l-aughter with a figh ? (a note infallible 
Of breaking honefty t) horfing foot on foot ? 
Skulking in corners ? wifhing clocks more fwift 
Hours, minutes ? the noon, midnight ? and all eyes 
Blind with the pin and web 9 , but theirs, theirs only, 

As cUsp as that, though true.] 

\. e. your fulpicion is as ^reat a fin as would be that (if commit- 
ted) for which you fufpctft her. WAR BURTON. 

8 meeting nofes ? J 

Dr. Thrrlby reads meting nofes ; that is, meafurlng nofes. JOHNSON. 

the pin and web, ] Diforders in the eye. Sec-A'* 

ad III. fc. iv. STKEVENS. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 309 

That would urf^en be wicked ? is this nothing ? 
"Why, then the world, and all that's in't, is nothing; 
The covering fky is nothing ; Bohemia nothing ; 
My wife is nothing; nor nothing have theie nothings, 
If this be nothing. 

Cam. Good my lord, be cur'd 
Of this difeas'd opinion, and betimes; 
For 'tis mod dangerous. 

Leo. Say, it be ; 'tis true. 

Cam. No, no, my lord. 

Leo* It is ; you lie, you lie : 
I fay, thou lieft, Camilla, and I hate thee; 
Pronounce thee a grofs lowt, a mindlefs flave; 
Or elfe a hovering temporizer, that 
Canfl with thine eyes at once fee good and evil, 
Inclining to them both : Were my wife's liver 
Infected as her life, me would not live 
The running of one glafs. 

Cam. Who does infect her ? 

Leo. Why he, that wears her like her medal, haqg- 

About his neck, Bohemia : Who, if I 

Had fervants true about me j that bare eyes 
To fee alike mine honour as their profits, 
Their own particular thrifts, they would do that 
Which mould undo more doing: Ay, and thou, 
His cup-bearer, whom I, from meaner form 
Have bench'd, and rear'cl to worfhip ; who may'fl fee 
Plainly, as heaven fees earth, and earth fees heaven, 
How I am gal I'd, thou might'ft be-fpicc a cup, 
To give mine enemy a lafting wink '; 
Which draught to me were cordial. 

Ccirri* Sir, my lord, 
I could do this; and that with no ram potion, 

1 a Iafl!i2g \yink ;] So, in the Tcmpcjl : 

*' To the perpetual whik t for aye might put 
' This ancient morfel." STEEVENS. 

X 3 But 

5 io W I N T E R's T A L E. 

But with a ling'ring dram, that fhould not work * 
Malicioufly, like poifon : But I cannot J 


2 J?-'.t -juitb a lingering dram^ that JJjould not work) 

Malic! o ujly , like poifon : ] 

The thojght is here beautifully exprefled. He could do it with 3 
dra- that'fhould have none of thofe vifible effeds that deteft the 
poiioner. Thefe efte&s he finely calls the malicious workings ot 
poifon, as if done with defign to betray the uler. But the Oxford 
editor would mend Shakefpeare's expreffion, and reads : 

tbatfiould not iKork 

Like a malicious poifon : 
So that Camilla's reafon is loit in this happy emendation. 

V.'.Vrt BURTON. 

Raj}} is hajly^ as in another place, rajfy gunpowder, Mallcioujly 
is malignantly, with effects ofcnly hurtful. Shakefpeare had no 
thought of betraying the vfer. The Oxford emendation is harm- 
lefs and ufelefs. JOHNSON. 

3 But I cannot, &c.] In former copies : 

But I cannot 

Believe this crack to be in my dread mijlrcfs y 
Sofov ereignly being honourable. 
I have lo\ 'd thee 

X,eo. Make that t/.y nueftion, and go rot!~\ 

The laft hemiftich affign'd to Camillo, muit have been miitaker.- 
ly placed to him. It is difrefpeit and infolence in Camillo to his 

king, to tell him that he has once lov'd him. ^I have ventured 

at a tranfpoiition, which feems felf-evident. Camillo will not be 
perfuaded into a fufpicion of the difloyalty imputed to his mil- 
trefs. The king, who believes nothing but his jealouiy, pro- 
voked that Camillo is fo obfiinately diffident, finely ftarts into a 
rage, and cries : 

Vve lo'j *d thee, - Make V thy queftion, and go rot ! 
i. e. I have tendered thee well, Camillo, but 1 here cancel all 
former refpecl: at once. If thou any longer make a q-.iefnon of 
my wife's difloyalty, go from my prefence, and perdition overtake 
thee for thy itubbornnefs. THEOBALD. 

I have admitted this alteration, as Dr. Warburton has Gone, 
but am not convinced that it is heceflary. Camillo, defirous to 
defend the queen, and willing to fecure credit to his apology, 
begins, by tell ing the king that be has loved b ////, is about* to give 
inftances of his love, and to infer from them his prefent zeal, when 
he is interrupted. JOHNSON. 

I have reftored the old reading. Camillo is about to tell Le- 
ontes how much he haJ loved him. The impatience of t|ie kin^ 
interrupts him by faying ; Maks that ify quff^cti, i. c, naal 

W I N T E R's T A L E. 311 

Believe this crack to be in my dread miilrefs, 
So fovereignly being honourable, 
I have lov'd thee 4 

Leo. Make that thy queftion, and go rot ! 
Doft think, I am fo muddy, fo unfettled, 
To appoint myfelf in this vexation ? fully 
The purity and whitenefs of my Iheets, 
Which to preferve, is deep ; which being fpotted, 
Is goads, thorns, nettles, tails of wafps ? 
Give fcandal to the blood o'the prince my fon, 
Who, I do think, is mine, and love as mine, 
Without ripe moving to't ? Would I do this ? 
Could man fo blench 3 ? 

Cam. 1 mufl believe you, fir ; 
I do ; and will fetch off Bohemia for't : 
Provided, that when he's remov'd, your highnefs 
Will take again your queen, as yours at firft ; 
Even for your fon's fake ; and, thereby, for fealing 
The injury of tongues, in courts and kingdoms 
Known and ally'd to yours, 

love of which you boaft, the fubjeft of your future converfation, 
and go to the grave with it. ^ueflion, in our author, very often hat 
this meaning. So, in Meafurefor Meafure : *' But in the lofsot 
qiuftion'? 1 i.e. in converfation that is thrown away. Again, in 
Hamlet: " queftionableihaye" is a form propitious to converfation. 
Again, in As you like it: * an unqueftionaUe fpirit," is a fpirit un- 
willing to be converfed with. Again, in Shakefpeare's Tarquin. 
and Lucrcce : 

" And after fupper, long he qnejlioned 

** With modeft Lucrece, &c." STEEVENS. 

* I have lov'J, tbce ] 

In the firft and fecond folio, thefe words are the conclufion of 
Camillo's fpeech. The later editors have certainly done right in 
giving them to Leontes, but I think they would come in better at 
the end of the line : 

Make that t'.y quejlion, and go rot!--- ! have lov'd tbee, 


5 Could man fo blench?] 
To lltnch is to ftart off, to flirink. So, in Hamlet: 

" ifhebut^W;, 

" I know my courle." 

Leontes means could any man fo flart or fly off from propriety 
of behaviour? STEEVESJS. 

X 4 ' La. 

3 i 2 WI N T E R's T A L E. 

Leo. Thou doft advife me, 
Even fo as I mine own courfe have fet down : 
I'll give no blemifti to her honour, none. 

Cam. My lord, 

Go then ; and with a countenance as clear 
As friendfhip wears at feafts, keep with Bohemia, 
And with your queen : I am his cup-bearer ; 
If from me he have wholfome beveridge, 
Account me not your fervant. 

Leo. This is all : 

Do't, and thou haft the one half of my heart ; 
Do't not, thou fplit'ft thine own. 

Cam. I'll do't, my lord. 

Leo. I will feem friendly, as thou haft advis'd me. 


Cam. O miferable lady '.But, for me, 
What cafe ftand I in ? I muft be -the poifoner 
Of good Polixenes : and my ground to do't 
Is the obedience to a mafter ; one, 
Who, in rebellion with himfelf, will have 
All that are his, fo too. To do this deed, 
Promotion follows : If I could find example 
Of thoufands, that had ftruck anointed kings, 
And fiourifh'd after, I'd not do't : but fince 
Nor brafs, nor ftone, nor parchment, bears not one, 
Let villainy itfelf forfwear't. I muft 
Forfake the court : to do't, or no, is certain 
To me a break-neck. Happy ftar, reign now 1 
Here comes Bohemia. 

Enter Polixenes. 

PoL This is ftrange ! methinks, 
My favour here begins to warp. Not fpeak ? 
Good-day, Camillo. 

Cam. Hail, moft royal fir ! 

Pol. What is the news i'the court ? 

Cam. None rare, my lord. 

PoL The king hath on him fuch a countenance, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 313 

As he had loft fome province, and a region, 
Lov'd as he loves himfelf : even now I met 
With cuftomary compliment ; when he, 
Wafting his eyes to the contrary, and falling 
A lip of much contempt, fpeeds from me ; and 
So leaves me, to confider what is breeding, 
That changes thus his manners. 

Cam. I dare not know, my lord. 

Pol. How ! dare not ? do not ? do you know, and 

dare not 

Be intelligent to me 6 ? 'Tis thereabouts ; 
For, to yourfelf, what you do know, you muft ; 
And cannot fay, you dare not. Good Camillo, 
Your chang'd complexions are to me a mirror, 
Which fhews me mine chang'd too : for I muft be 
A party in this alteration, finding 
Myfelf thus alter'd with it. 

Cam. There is a ficknefs 
Which puts fome of us in diftemper ; but 
I cannot name the difeafe ; and it is caught 
Of you, that yet are well. 

Pol. How ! caught of me ? 
Make me not lighted like the bafilifk : 
I have look'd on thoufands, who have fped the better 
By my regard, but kill'd none fo. Camillo, 
As you are certainly a gentleman ; thereto 
Clerk-like, experienc'd, which no lefs adorns 
Our gentry, than our parents' noble names, 
In whofe fuccefs we are gentle 7 , I befeech you, 

* Hoivf Jure not? do not ? doyouknoiU) and dare not 

JSe intelligent to tne? ] 

i. C. do you knoiV) and dare not confefs to me that you know ? 


7 In ivbofe fucccfs ive are gentle ; ] 

I know not whethery?/<:cr/} here does not meanjurcfffion. JOHNSON". 
Gentle in the text is evidently oppofed tojimple ; alluding to the 
diftin&ion between the gentry and yeomanry. So, in The Infa- 
untefS) 1631: 
" And make thee <;///? being born a beggar." 


3 -14 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Jf you know aught which does behove my know* 

4 ledge, 

Thereof to be inform'd; imprifon it not 
In ignorant concealment. 

Cam. I may not ahfwer. 

Pol. A iicknefs caught of me, and yet I well ! 
I muft be anfwer'd. Doft thou hear, Camillo, 
I conjure thee, by all the parts of man, 
'Which honour does acknowledge, whereof the leaft 
Js not this fuit of mine, that thou declare 
What incidency thou dofl guefs of harm 
Is creeping toward me ; how far off, how near ; 
Which way to be prevented, if to be; 
If not, how beft to bear it. 

Cam. Sir, I'll tell you ; 
Since I am chargM in honour, and by him 
That I think honourable : Therefore, mark my 

counfel ; 

Which muft be even as fwiftly follow'd, as 
I mean to utter it ; or both yourfelf and me 
Cry, loftt and fo good-night. 

Pol On, good Camillo. 

Cam. I am appointed Him to murder you *. 

Pol By whom, Camillo ? 

Cam. By the king. 

Pol. For what ? 

Cam. He thinks, nay, with all confidence he 


As he had fcen't, or been an inftrurnent 
'To vice you to't 9 ,7-that you have touch'd his queen 


In whofe /?>ar/} we are gentle, may mean in confequence of whofe 
juccefs in life, &c. STEEVENS. 

fc I am appointed Him to murder you, ~\ 
J. e. I am the peifon appointed to murder you. STEEVENS. 

9 To vicejtK fo't, ] 

i. e. to draw, perfuude you. The character called the t'ue : io tte 
old plays, \va? iiie tempter to evil. WARBURTON. 

W I N T E R's TALE. 315 

Pol. Oh, then my beft blood turn 
To an infe<fted jelly ; and my name 
Be yok'd with his, that did betray the bed ! 
Turn then my frefhefl reputation to 
A favour, that may ftrike the dulleft noftril 
Where I arrive ; and my approach be fhun'd, 
Nay, hated too, worfe than the great'it infection 
That e'er was heard, or read! 

Cam. Swear his thought over ' 
By each particular flar in heaven, and 
By all their influences, you may as well 
Fortnd the fea for to obey the moon, 

The vice is an inftrument well known ; its operation is to hold 
things together j So the bailiff fpeak ing of Falitatf: " If be come 
lut within my vice, &c." A vice, however, in the age of Shake- 
fpeare, might mean any kind of clock-work or machinery. So, 

in Holinfhed, p. 945 : *' the rood of Borleie in Kent, called 

the rood of grace, made with diverfe vices to moove the eyes and 
lips, &c." It may, indeed, be no more than a corruption of " to 
i&uife you " So, in the old metrical romance of Syr Guy of 
Warwick, bl. 1. no date : 

" Then faid the emperour Ernis, 

" Methinketh thou fayed a. good vyce." 

IVIy firft attempt at explanation is I believe the beft. STEEVENS. 
* Cam. Swear his thought over 

By each particular Jtar in heaven, &c.] 

The tranfpofition of a fingte letter reconciles this paflage to good 
fente. Polixenes, in the preceding Ipeech, had been laying the 
deepeft imprecations on himlelf, if he had ever abus'd Leontes in 
any familiarity with his queen. To which Camillo very perti- 
nently replies : 

S-ivear this though over, &c. THEOBALD. 

Swear his thought over 

may however perhaps mean, ovcrfwear Ins prefent pcrfuajion, that 
is, endeavour to overcome his opinion, by i\v earing oaths numerous 
as the Itars. JOHNSOX. 
1 do not fee any neccllity for departing from the old copy. 

Swear his thought over, 
may mean : " Though you Ihould endeavour to/;i\w away his 

jealoufy though you ihould itrive, by your oaths, to change 

his prelent thoughts", The vulgar iVill ulc a liiuilar cxpreifion : 

** Toy'i-aw a perfou <M'.v. ; ."' MA LONE*. 


3i6 W I N T E R's TALE. 

As or, by oath, remove, or counfel, ftiake, 
The fabrick of his folly ; whofe foundation * 
Is pil'd upon his faith, and will continue 
The (landing of his body. 

Pol. How fhould this grow ? 

Cam* I know not : but, I am fure, Yis fafer to 
Avoid what's grown, than queftion how 'tis born, 
If therefore you dare truft my honefty, 
That lies inclofed in this trunk, which you 
Shall bear along impawn'd, away to-night. 
Your followers I will whifper to the bufmefs ; 
And will, by twos, and threes, at feveral pofterns, 
Clear them o'the city : For myfelf, I'll put 
My fortunes to your fervice, which are here 
By this difcovery loft. Be not uncertain ; 
For, by the honour of my parents, I 
Have utter'd truth : which if you feek to prove, 
I dare not fland by ; nor fhall you be fafer 
Than one condemned by the king's own mouth, 

His execution fworn. 

Pol. I do believe thee ; 

I faw his heart in his face. Give me thy hand ; 
Be pilot to me, and thy places ihall 
Still neighbour mine : My Ihips are ready, and 
My people did expect my hence departure 

Two days ago.' This jealoufy 

Is for a precious creature : as fhe's rare, 

Muft it be great ; and, as his per Ion's mighty, 

Muft it be violent ; and as he does conceive 

He is difhonour'd by a man which ever 

Profefs'd to him, why, his revenges muft 

In that be made more bitter. Fear o'er-lhades me : 

iv hnfe foundation 

on Ins faith, ] 

This folly which is ereded on the foundation of fettled Mief. 



W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Good expedition be my friend, and comfort J 

The gracious queen, part of his theam, but nothing 

Of his ill-ta'en fufpicion ! Come, Camillo ; 

I will refpect thee as a father, if 

Thou bear'fl my life off hence : Let us avoid.- 

3 Good expedition be my friend, and comfort 

The graciotis queen, } 

But how could this expedition comfort the queen ? on the con- 
trary it would increafe her hufband's fufpiciorr. We fliould read j 
.. and comfort 

The gracious qireen's ; 

i. e. be expedition my friend, and be comfort the queers frien'd. 
The Oxford editor has thought fit to paraphrafe my correction, 
and fo reads : 

Heaven comfort 

Tie gracious queen ;" WAR BUR TON. 

Dr. Warburton's conjecture is, I think, juft ; but what {halite 
done with the following words, of which I can make nothing.'? 1 ' 
Perhaps the line which connected them to- the reit, is loft, 
and comfort 
The gracious queen, part of bis theme, lut nothing 

Of bis ill-t a* en fufpicion ! 

Jealoufy is a palTion compounded of love'and fufpicion ; this paf- 
tion is the theme or fubject of the king's thoughts. Polixenes, per- 
haps, wifhes the queen, for her comfort, fo much of that theme or 
fubject as is good, but deprecates that which caufes mifery. May 
part of the king's prefer* fentiments oomfort the queen, but away 
with his fufpicion. This is fuch meaning as can be picked out. 


Perhaps the fenfe is May that good fpeed which is my friend, 
tomfort likewife the queen who \s part of its theme, \. e. partly on 
whofe account I go away ; but may not the fame comfort Extend 
atfelf to the groundlefs fufpicionsof the king;- i. e. may not my' 
departure fupport him in them. His for its is common with Shake- 
fpeare ; and Paulina fnys in a fubiequent fcene, that (lie does not 
chufe to appear a friend to Leontes, in comforting bis evils, i. e. in 
Hrengthening his jealoufy by appearing to acquiefce in it. 


Comfort is I apprehend here ufed as a verb. Good expedition, 
befriend me, by removing me from a place of danger, and com- 
fort the innocent queen, by removing the object of her hulband's 
jealoufy the queen, who is the fubject of his converfation, but 
without reafon the object ot his. [\ifpicion. MALO.NE. 

3 i8 W I N T E R's T A L E: 

Cam. It is in mine authority, to command 
The keys of all the pofterns : Pleafe your highnefs 
To take the urgent hour : come, fir, away. [Exeunt. 


'The palace. 
Enter Hermlone, Mamillitts, and Ladies. 

Her. Take the boy to you : he fo troubles me/ 
*Tis paft enduring. 
, i Lady. Come, my gracious lord* 
Shall I be your play-fellow ? 

Mam. No, I'll none of you. 

1 Lady. Why, my f\veet lord ? 

Mam. You'll kifs me hard ; and fpeak to me as if 
I were a baby dill. I love you better. 

2 Lady. And why fo, my lord ? 
Mam. Not for becaufe 

Your brows are blacker ; yet black brows, tkey fay. 
Become fome women beft ; fo that there be not 
Too much hair there, but in a femicircle, 
Or a half-moon made with a pen. 

2 Lady. Who taught you this ? 

Mam. I learn'd it out of women's faces. Pray- 
What colour are your eye-brows ? 

1 Lady. Blue, my lord. 

Mam. Nay, that's a mock : I have feen a lady's nofe' 
That has been blue, but not her eye-brows. 

2 Lady. Hark ye : 

The queen, your mother, rounds apace : we fhall 
Prefent our fervices to a fine new prince, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 3 i 9 

One of thefe days ; and then you'd wanton with us, 
If we would have you. 

2 Lady. She is fpread of late 
Into a goodly bulk ; Good time encounter her ! 

Her. What wifdom flirs amongft you ? Come, fir, 


I am for you again : Pray you, fit by us, 
And tell us a talc. 

Mam. Merry, or fad, fliall it be ? 

Her. As merry as you will. 

Mam. A fad tale's bed for winter * : 
I have one of fprights and goblins. 

Her. Let's have that, good fir. 
Come on, fit down: Come on, anddo your befl 
To fright me with your fprights ; you're powerful 
at it. 

Mam. There was a man, 

Her. Nay, come, fit down; then on. 

Mum. Dwelt by a church-yard ; 1 will tell it 

foftly ; 
Yon crickets fhall not hear it. 

Her. Come on then, 
And give't me in mine ear. 

Enter Leontes, Antigonu^ Lords, and others. 

Leo. Was he met there ? his train ? Camillo with. 

him ? 

Lord. Behind the tuft of pines I met them ; never 
Saw I men fcour fo on their way : I ey'd them 
Even to their ihips. 

Leo. How bleil am I 
In my juft cenfure s ? in my true opinion ? 


4 A fad tale's left for winter :] 

Hence, I fuppofe, the title of the play. TYRWHITT. 

5 In my juft cenfure ? in my true opinion ? } 

Cenfure > in the time of our author, was generally ufed, (as in this 


gio W I N t E R's T A L E. 

Alack, for lefler knowledge 6 ! how accursed, 
In being fo blefl ! There may be in the cup 
A fpider fleep'd, and one may drink ; depart, 
And yet partake no venom ; for his knowledge 
Is not infedted : but if one prefent 
The abhor'd ingredient to his eye, make known 
How he hath drunk, he cracks his gorge, his fides, 

With violent'hefts 7 : 1 have drunk, and feen the 


Camillo was his help in this, his pander : 

There is a plot againft my life, my crown ; 
Airs true, that is miftrufted : that falfe villain, 
Whom I employed, was pre-employ'd by him : 
H!e hath difcover'd my defign, and 1 8 
Remain a pinch'd thing ; yea, a very trick 


inftance) for judgment, opinion. So, fir Walter Raleigh, in his 
verfes prefixed to Gafcoigne's Steel Glajfc, 1576 : 

*' Wherefore to write my cenfure or this book/* 


6 Alack, for lejfer knowledge! ] 

That is, O that my knowledge were lefs. JOHNSON* 

7 "violent hefts : ] Hefts are heavings, what is heaved 

up. So, in fir Arthur Gorges' TranJIation of Lucan, 1614: 
" But if a part of heav'n's huge fphere 
'* Thou chufe thy pondrous heft to beare." STEEVENS. 
8 He hath dif cover d my dejign^ and I 

Rehiain a pinch'd thing;] 

Alluding to the fuperftition of the vulgar, concerning thofe who 
were enchanted, and faftened to the fpot, by charms fuperior to 
their own* WARBURTON. 

The fenfe, I think, is, He hath now difcovered my defign, and 
I am treated as a mere child's baby, a thing pinched out of clouts, 
a puppet for them to move and actuate as they pleafe. Dr. War-, 
burton's fuppofed allufion to enchantments, is quite befide thepur- 
pofe. REVISAL, 

This fenfe is poffible, but many other meanings might ferve as 
well. JOHNSON. 

The lame-expreflion occurs in Eliojlo Ltbidinofo, a novel by 
one John Hinde, 1606: " Sith then, Cleodora, thou mpinched<> 
and haft none to pity thy paffions, diffemble thy affedlion, though 
itcoft thee tliy life." Again, in QreeneYAvcvr too /ate, 1616: 

W I N T E R's TALE. 321 

For them to play at will: How came the pofterns 
So eafily open ? 

Lord. By his great authority ; 
\Vhich often hath no lefs prevailed than fo, 
On your command. 

Leo. I know't too well . 

Give me the boy ; [20 Hermione.~] I am glad, you did 

riot nurfe him : 

Though he does bear fome figns of me, yet you 
Have too much blood in him. 

Her. What is 'this? fport ? 

Leo. Bear the boy hence, he {hall not come about 


Away with him : and let her fport herfelf 
With that {he's big with ; for 'tis Polixenes 
Has made thec fwell thus. 

Her. But I'd fay, he had not, 
And, I'll be fworn, you would believe my faying, 
Howe'er you lean to the nayward. 

Leo. You, my lords, 
Look on her, mark her well , be but about 

" Had the queenc of poetrie teen, pinched with fo many paffions, 
&c." Thefe inftances may ferve to Ihew that pinched had anci- 
ently a more dignified meaning than it appears to have at pre- 
fent. Spenfer, in his Faery igueen, b. iii. c. 12. has equipped 
grief with, a pair of pincers : 

" A pair of pince rs in his hand he had, 

" With which he pinched people to the heart." 
Again, in the Tcmpefl : 

" Thou'rt^/<r/>ft/for't now, Sebaftian, " 
Again, ibid. 

" Whofe inward pinches therefore are moft ftrong." 
Again, in the Tragedie of Anton ic^ by the countefs of Pembroke, 

" And ftill I am with burning *'*cw* nipt." 
The fenfe propofed by the author of the Revifal may, however, 
be fupported by the following paflbge in the City Match, by Jaf- 
per Maine, 1639 : 

" Pinch* d napkins, captain, and laid 

" Like fifhes, fowls, or faces." STEEVENS. 

^ T OL. IV, Y To 

322, W I N T E R's T A L E t 

To fay, Jhe is a goodly lady, and 

The juflice of your hearts -will thereto add, 

'Tis pit}') Jhis not honejl, honourable : 

Praife her but for this her vvhhout-door form, 

(Which, on my faith, deferves high fpeech) and 


The flirug, the hum, or ha ; thefe petty brands,. 
That calumny doth ufe : Oh, I am out, 
That mercy does ; for calumny will fear 
Virtue itfelf : thefe fhrugs, thefe hums, and ha's^ 
When you have faid, ihe's goodly, *comc between, 
Ere you can fay Ihe's honeil : But be it known, 
From him that has moft caufe to grieve itihould be, 
She's an adultrefs. 

Her. Should a villain fay fo, 
The moft replenish 'd villain in the world, 
He were as much more villain : you, my lord, 
Do but miftake 9 - 

Leo. You h^ve miftook, my lady, 
Polixencs for Leontes : O thou thing, 
Which I'll not call a creature of thy place, 
Left barbarifm, making me the precedent, 
Should a like language ufe to all degrees, 
And mannerly diflinguifhment leave out 
Betwixt the prince and beggar T I have faid, 
She's an adultrefs ; I have laid, with whom :. 
More, llie's a traitor ; and Camillo is 
A federary with her ' ; and one that knows 
What fhe Ihould ftiame to know herfclf, 

s J0i( t my lord, 

Do Int miftake.~\ 

Otway had this paflage in his thoughts, when he put tlie following 

lines into the mouth of Caitalio : 

" Should the bra veil man 

" That e'er wore conquering fword, but dare to whifpor 
' What thou proclaim'^, he were the word of liars : 
" My friend may be miftaken." S.TEEVENS. 
1 A federary ivltb her ; ] AfeJewy is a confederate, an 

accomplice. STEEYENS. 


W I N T E R's TALE; 323 

But with her moil vile principal * f that flic's 
A bed-fwerver, even as bad as thofc 
That vulgars give bold'il titles ; ay; and privy 
To this their late efcape. 

Her. No, by my life, 

Privy to none of this : How will this grieve you, 
When you lhall come to clearer knowledge, that 
You thus have publilh'd me ? Gentle my lord, 
You fcarce can right me throughly then, to fay 
You did miftake. 

Leo. No; if I miftake' 
In thole foundations which I build upon, 
The center is not big enough to bear 
A fchool -boy's top. Away witli her to prifon : 
He, who lhall fpeak for her, is afar oft' guilty % 
But that he fpeaks. 

Her. There's fome ill planet reigns : 
I muft be patient, till the heavens look 
With an afpect more favourable. Good my lords, 
I am not prone to weeping, as our fex 
Commonly are ; the want of which vain dew, 
Perchance, lhall dry your pities : but I have 

1 But ivitbber mcjl vile principal, ] One that knows what 

Hermione fhould be afhamed of, even if the knowledge of it reft- 
ed alone in her own breall and that of her paramour, without the 
participation of any confident. But, which is here ufed tor alone, 
renders this paflage fomewhat obfcure. MALONB. 

3 if I miftake 

77>e center, &c. ] 

That is, if the proofs which I can offer will not fupport the opini- 
on I have formed, no foundation can be trufted. JOHNSON. 

4 He =ivbo Jhall fpeak for her is far off guilty, 
But that be fpeaks.] 

This cannot be the Speaker's meaning. Leontes would fay, I fhall 
hold the perfon, in a great meafure guilty, who fhall dare to intercede 
for her : and this, I believe, Shakefpeare ventured to exprefs thus : 

He who Jliall fpeak for her, is far of guilty, &c. 
i.e. partakes far, deeply, of her guilt. THEOBALD. 

It is ftrange that Mr/Theobald could not find out that far off 
guilty, fignifies, guilty in a remote degree . JOHNSON. 

Y 2. That 

324 W I N T E K's TALE. 

That honounible grief lodg'd here, which burns : 
Worfe than tears drown : 'Befeech you all, my lords,. 
With thoughts fo qualified as your charities 
Shall befl inftrucl: you, meafure me ; and fo 
The king's will be performed !' 

Leo. Shall I be heard ? [To the guards 

Her. Who is't, that goes with me ? 'befeech your 


My women may be with me ; for, you fee, 
My plight requires it. Do not weep, good fools ; 

[To her ladies. 
There is no caufe : when you fhall know, your mif- 


Has deferv'd prifon, then abound in tears, 
As I come out ; this action 5 , I now go on, 
Is for my better grace. Adieu, my lord: 
I never wilh'd to fee you forry ; now, 

T trull', I fhall. My women, come; you have 


Leo. Go, do-on r bidding ; hence. 

[Exit Gtueen, and Ladles. 

Lord. 'Befeech yourhighnefs, call the queen again. 

Ant. Be certain what you do, fir ; left your jullicc 
Prove violence ; in the which three great ones fufTer,, 
Yourfelf, your queen, your fan. 

Lord. For her, my lord, 
I dare my life lay down, and will do't, fir, 
Pleafe you to accept it, that the queen is fpotlefs 
1'the eyes of heaven, and to you.-; I mean, 
In this which you accuie her. 

Ant. If it prove 
She's otherwife, I'll keep mv ftable where 6 

I lodge 

5 this aftion; ] The word aSlion is here taken in the 

lawyer's fenfe, for indifl;nant t charge y or accufation. JOHNSON. 

6 rilkccp my ftable.*ivbert 

I lodge my ivife ; -- ] 

Sta&k-Jlaad (Jiabilis fiat'io^. as Spelman interprets it) is a term of 


W I N T E R's TALE. 325 

I lodge my wife ; I'll go in couples with her ; 
Than when I feel, and fee her, no further trufl her,; 
For every inch of woman in the world, 
Ay, every dram of woman's fiefh, is falfe, 
If flic be. 

Leo. Hold your peaces. 

Lord. Good my lord, 

Ant. It is for you we fpeak, not for ourfelves : 
You are abus'd, and by fome putter-on, 
That will be damn'd for't; 'would I knew the villain, 
I would land-damn 7 him : Be Ihe honour-flaw'd, 

I have 

the foreft-laws, and fignifies a place where a dcer-itealer fixes his 
Hand under fome convenient cover, and keeps watch for the pur- 
pofe of killing deer as they pals by. From the place it came to 
be applied alto to the perfon, and any man taken in a foreft in that 
lituation, with a gun or bow in his hand, was prefumed to be an 
offender, and had the name of 9.Jlablc-ftane!. In all former edi- 
tions this hath been printed fables, and it may perhaps be object- 
ed, that another fy liable added fnoils the fmoothnefs of theverfe. 
But by pronouncing/fl/i- fhort, the meafure will very well bear it, 
according to the liberty allowed m this kind of writing, and 
which Shakefpeare never fcruples to ufe ; therefore I read, Jlabie- 
Jland. HANMER. 

There is no need of Hanmer's addition to tle text. So, in the 
ancient enterlude ot the Repentaunce of Marie Magdalainc, 1567 : 
** Where thou dvvelleft, the devyll may have *Jlab!c" 


7 land-famn him: -] 

Sir T. Hanmer interprets, ftop bis urine. Land or lant being the 
old word for urixc. 

L.and-da:n is jjrobably one of thofe words which caprice brought 
into fafliion, and which, after a ihort time, renfon and grammar 
drove irrecoverably away. It perhaps meant no more than I will 
rid the country of him ; condemn him to quit the land. JOHNSON. 

Land-damn him, if fuch a reading can be admitted, may mean, 
be ".vauld procure f entente to le paji on him Is. this world, on thif 

Antigonus could no way make d the threat of flopping his 
wine. Befidc.s it appears too ridiculous a punifhment for fo atro- 
cious a criminal. It muft be confeflcd, that what fir T. Hamrr-r 
iias faid concerning the word lant, is true. I meet with the follow- 
ing inftance in Glapthorne's lilt in a Confialle, 1639 : 

*' Ycur frequent drinking country ale with lant in't." 

V 3 And 

326 \V I N T E R's TALE. 

I have three daughters ; the eldcft is eleven ; 
The fecond, and the third, nine, and 8 fome five ; 
If this prove true, they'll pay for't : by mine hon 


I'll geld them all ; fourteen they lhall not fee, 
To bring falfe generations : they are co-heirs ; 
9 And I had rather glib myfelf, than they 
Should not produce fair ifTue. 

Leo. Ceafe ; no more. 
You fmell this bufinefs with a fcnfe as cold 
As is a dead man's nofe : but I dofee't, and feel't; 
As you feel doing thus, and fee withal 

And in Shakefpeare's time, to drink a lady's health in urine, ap- 
pears tq have been efteemed an at of gallantry. One inftauce 
(for I could produce many) may furnce : " Have I not religiouf- 
ly vow'd my heart to you, been drunk for your health, eat glaifes, 
drank urine, ftab'd arms, and done all the offices of protefled ga- 
lantry for your fake ?" Antigonus, on this occafion, may there- 
fore have a dirty meaning. It fhould be remembered, however, 
fhat to damn, anciently fignified to condemn. So, in Promos and 
CaJJandra, 1578: 

" Vouchfafe to give my damned hufband life." 
Again, in Julius Cafar, act IV. fc. i : 

44 He fhall not live ; look, with a fpot J damn him." 


* and fame fife ; J 

This is Mr Theobald's correction ; the former editions read, Jans 
jive. JOHNSON. 

9 And I had rather glil myfelf, &c. ] 
for glib I think we fhould read lib, which, in the northern lan- 
guage, is the fame with geld. 

In the Court Beggar, by Mr. Richard Brome, adl: IV. the word 
lib is ufed in this ienfe ; " He can fing a charm (he fays) lhall 
make you feel no pain in your lilbing, nor after it : no tooth- 
drawer, or corn-cutter, did ever work with fo little feeling to a 
patient," GRAY. 

So, in the comedy of The Fancies, by Ford, 1638 ; 

" What a terrible fight to a UVd breech, is a fow-gelder ?" 

Though lib may probably be the right word, yet glib is at th'^s 

time current in many counties, where they fay '-to glib a boar, to 

glib a borfe. So, in St. Patrick for Ireland^ a play by Shirley ? 

J$40 : 

" Jf I come back, let me be ^WJ." STEEVENS, 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 327 

The inftruments that feel. [Striking bis brews '- 

Ant. If it be fo, 

We need no grave to bury honefly ; 
There's not a grain of it, the face to fweeten 
Of the whole dungy earth. 

Leo. What ? lack I credit ? 

Lord. I had rather you did lack, than I, my lord, 
Upon this ground : and more it would content me 
To have her honour true, than your fufpicion ; 
Be blam'd for't how you might. 

Leo. W T hy, what need we 
Commune with you of this ? but rather follow 
Our forceful inftigation ? Our prerogative 
Calls not your connfels ; but our natural goodnefs 
Imparts this : which, if yon, (or ftupified ; 
Or feeming fo in {kill) cannot, or will not, 
Rclim as truth, like us ; inform yourfelves, 
We need no more of your advice : the matter, 
The lofs, the gain, the ord'ring on't, is all 
Properly ours. 

Ant. And I wilh, my liege, 
You had only in your lilent judgment try'd it, 
Without more overture. 

Leo. How could that be ? 
Either thou art moil ignorant by age, 
Or thou wert born a fool. Camillo's flight, 
Added to their familiarity, 
(Which was as grofs as ever touch'd conjecture, 

1 Striking bis Irovis."] Thisftage direftion is not in the old copy. 
1 doubt its propriety. Leontes might feel a ftroke upon h : , brows, 
but could not lee the internments that feel, i. e. his brows. 


Dr. Johnfon's former edition reads finking b'n /-<KW, 

which I cot-reeled into Jlriking. Sir T. Hanmer gives 

Laying bold of his arm. Some ftage direclion feems necef- 
&ry, but \vhajt it fliould be, is not very eafy to be decided. 


Y 4 That 

328 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

That lack'd fight only, nought for approbation % 

But only feeing, all other circumstances 

Made up to the deed) do pufti on this proceeding : 

Yet, for a greater confirmation, 

(For, in an act of this importance, 'twere 

Molt piteous to be wild; I have difpatch'd in poft, 

To facred Delphos^ to Apollo's temple, 

Cleomenes and Dion, whom you know 

Of {tuff'd fufficiency 5 : Now, from the oracle 

They will bring all ; whole fpiritual counfel had, 

Shall ftop, or fpnr me. Have I done well ? 

Lord. Well done, my lord. 

Leo. Though I am fatisfy'd, and need no more 
Than what I know, yet mail the oracle 
Give reft to the minds of others ; fuch as he, 
Whofe ignorant credulity will not 
Come up to the truth : So have we thought it good^ 
From our free perfon ihe fhould be confm'd ; 
Left that the treachery of the two 4 , fled hence, 
Be left her to perform. Come, follow us ; 
We are to fpeak in publick : for this bufinefs 
Will raife us all. 

Ant. [Afide.'] To laughter, as I take it, 
If the good truth were known. [Exeunt* 

a nought for approbation , 

But only feeing, ] 

Approbation , in this place, is put for proof. JOHNSON. 

3 Jluff'd Sufficiency; ] * 

That is, of abilities more than enough. JOHNSON. 

4 Left that the treachery of the /civ?, &c. ] 

He has before declared, that there is a plot agalnft his life and 
cr0"jm. and that Hermidne isfcderary with Polixenes and Camillo, 



W I N T E R's TALE. 329 


ILiiicr Paulina, and Gentleman. 

Paul The keeper of the prifon, call to him ; 

[Exit Gentkman, 

Let him have knowledge who I am. Good lady ! 
No court in Europe is too good for thee, 
What dolt thou then in priibn ? Now, good fir, 

Re-enter Gentleman, with tie Keeper. 
You know me, do you not ? 

Keep. For a worthy lady, 
And one whom much I honour. 

Paul. Pray you then, 
Conduct me to the queen. 

Keep. I may not, madam ; to the contrary 
I have expreis commandment. 

Paul. Here's ado, 

To lock up honefly and honour from 
The accels of gentle vifitors ! Is-it lawful 
Pray yon, to fee her women? any of them ? 
Emilia ? 

Keep. So pleafe you, madam, 
To put apart thefe your attendants, I 
Shall bring Emilia forth. 

Paul. I pray you now, 
Call her : Withdraw yourfelves. [Exeunt Gent. 

Keep. And, madam, I mull 
Be prefent at your conference. 

Paul. Well, be it fo, pr'ythee. Here is fuch ado, 

[Exit Keeper. 
To make no ftain a ftain, as paffes colouring. 

Re-enter Keeper, with Emilia. 

Dear gentlewoman, how fares our gracious lady ? 


330 W I N T E R's TALE. 

EmiL As well as one fo great, and fo forlorn, 
May hold together : On her frights, and griefs, 
(Which never tender lady hath borne greater) 
She is, fomething before her time, deliver'd. 

Paul. A boy? 

EmiL A daughter ; and a goodly babe, 
Lufty, and like to live : the queen receives 
Much comfort in't : fays, My poor prifoner, 
I am innocent as you. 

Paul. I dare be fworn : 

Thefe dangerous unfafe lunes o'the king * ! befhrew 

them ! 

He muft be told on't, and he mall : the office 
Becomes a woman beft ; I'll tak't upon me : 
If I prove honey-mouth'd, let my tongue blifter ; 
And never to my red-look'd anger be 
The trumpet any more : -Pray you, Emilia, 
Commend my beft obedience to the queen ; 
If fhe dares truft me with her little babe, 
I'll ihew't the king, and undertake to be 
Her advocate to th' loudcft : We do not know 
How he may foften at the fight o'the child ; 
The filence often of pure innocence 
Perfuades, when fpeaking fails. 

EmiL Moft worthy madam, 
Your honour, and your goodnefs, is fo evident, 
That your free undertaking cannot mifs 
A thriving iffue ; there is no lady living, 

5 Tbefe dangerous unfafe lunes o'the king!- ] 

I have no where, but in our author, obferved this word adopted 
in our tongue, to fignify, frenzy, lunacy. But it is a mode of ex- 
preffion with the French. II y a de la lune : (5. e. he has got 
the moon in his head ; he is frantick.) Cotgrave. "Lune. folie. 
Lesfemmei ont dcs lunes dans la fete. Richelet." THEOBAL n. 

A limiiar expreffion occurs in the Revenger's Tragedy, 1608 : 
" I know 'twas but feme peevifh moon in him." Lunes, however, 
were part of the accoutrements of a hawk. So, in Greene's Ma- 
mittia: *' yea, in feeking to unloofe the lunes ^ the more ihe 
was intangled." STEEVEHS, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 331 

So meet for this great errand : Pleafe your ladyfhip 
To vifit the next room, I'll prefently 
Acquaint the queen of your moft noble offer ; 
Who, but to-day, hammer'd ot this defign; 
But durft not tempt a minifter of honour, 
Left fhe fhould be deny'd. 

Paul. Tell her, Emilia, 

I'll ufe that tongue I have : if wit flow from it, 
As bpl.dnefs from my bofom, let it not be doubted 
lihail do good. 

Emil. Now be you blcft for it \ 
I'll to the queen : pleafe you, come fomething nearer, 

Keep. Madam, if ? t pleafe the queen to fend die 


I know not what I {hall incur, to pafs it, 
Having no warrant. 

Paul. You need not fear it, fir : 
The child was prifoner to the womb ; and is, 
By law and procefs of great nature, thence 
Free'd and enfranchis'd : not a party to 
The anger of the king ; nor guilty of, 
If any -be, the trefpafs of the queen. 

Keep. I do believe it. 

Paul. Do not you fear : upon mine honour, I 
Will ftand 'twixt you and danger. \JLxcunt. 


fke palace. 
Enter Leontes, Antlgonus^ Lords, and other attendants. 

Leo. Nor night, nor day, no reft : It is but 


To bear the matter thus ; mere weaknefs, if 
The caufc were not in being ; part o'the caufc, 
She, the adultrefs ;-for the harlot king 


33 2 WINTER'sTAL E. 

Is quite beyond mine arm, out of the blank 6 
And level of my brain, plot- proof : but fhe 
I can hook to me : Say, that fhe were gone, 
Given to the fire, a moiety of my reft 
Might come to me again. Who's there ? 

Enter an. Attendant. 

Atten. My lord ? 

Leo. How does the boy ? 

Atten. He took good reft to-night ; 'tis hop'd, 
His ficknefs is difcharg'd. 

Leo. To fee his noblenefs ! 
Conceiving the dishonour of his mother, 
He ftraight declin'd, droop'd, took it deeply ; 
Faften'd and fix'd the Ihame on't in himfelf ; 
Threw off his fpirit, his appetite, his fleep, 
And down-right languifh'd. Leave me folely : go, 

[Exit Attendant. 

See how he fares. Fye, fye ! no thought of him ; 
The very thought of my revenges that way 
Recoil upon me : in himfelf too mighty ; 
And in his parties, his alliance,->-Let him be, 
Until a time may ferve : for prefent vengeance, 
Take it on her. Camillo and Folixenes 
Laugh at me ; make their paftime at my forrow : 
They Ihould not laugh, if I could reach them ; nor 
Shall fhe, within my power. 

Enter Paulina^ 'with a child. 

Lord. You muft not enter. 

Paul. Nay, rather, good my lords, be fecond to 

me : 
Fear you his tyrannous pafiion more, alas, 

6 out of tie Mank 

Anil level r>f my Irain, ] 

Beyond the aim of any attempt that I can make againfl him. 
Blank and /nr/are terms of archery. JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 333 

Than the queen's life ? a gracious innocent foul ; 
More free, than he is jealous. 

Ant. That's enough. 

Atten. Madam, he hath not flept to-night ; com- 
None ihould come at him. 

Paul. Not fo hot, good fir ; 
I come to bring him fleep. 'Tis fuch as you, 
That creep like ihadows by him, and do figh 
At each his needlefs heavings, fuch as you 
Nourilh the caufe of his awaking : I 
Do come with words as med'cinal as true ; 
Honed, as either ; to purge him of that humour, 
That prefles him from fleep. 

Leo. What noife there, ho ? 

Paul. No noife, my lord ; but needful conference. 
About fome goffips for your highnefs. 

Leo. How? 

Away with that audacious lady : Antigonus, 
I charg'd thee, that fne fhould not come about me ; 
I knew, fhe would. 

Ant. I told her fo, my lord, 
On your difplca lure's peril, and on mine, 
She Ihould not vifit you. 

Leo. What, can'ft not rule her ? 

Paul. From all diftionefty, he can : in this, 
(Unlefs he take the courfe that you have done, 
Commit me, tor committing honour) truft it, 
He ihall not rule me. 

Ant. Lo you now ; you hear ! 
When Ihe will take the rein, I let her run ; 
But ftie'll not ftumble. 

Paid. Good my liege, I come, 
And, I befeech you, hear me, who profefs 
Myfelf your loyal fervant, your phyfician, 
Your moft obedient counfellor ; yet that dares 
Lefs appear fo, in comforting your evils, 
Than fuch as moft fecm yours : I fay, I come 


334 W I N T E R's T A L E.V 

From your good queen. 

Leo. Good queen ! 

Paul. Good queen, my lord, good queen ! I fay, 

good queen ; 

And would by combat make her good, fo were 1 7 
A man, the worft about you. 

Leo. Force her hence. 

Paul. Let him, that makes but trifles of his eyes> 
Firfl hand me : on mine own accord, I'll off; 
But, firft, I'll do my errand. The good queen, 
For me is good, hath brought you forth a daughter; 
Here 'tis ; commends it to your bleffing. 

{Laying dozvn the child.' 

Leo. Out! 

A mankind witch'! Hence with her, out o' door : 

A moft 

* And would ly combat make her good, fo -ivere I 

A man, the e iuorji about you.~\ 

Paulina fuppofes the king's jealoufy to be r'aifed and inflamed by 
the courtiers about him ; who, (he finely fays : 

. creep like JbaJd'Jcs by him, and do fgh 

Jit each bis ncedlej's heavhigs : ] 

Surely then, fhe could not fay, that were flie a man, the worft of 
theft, fhe would vindicate her miftrefs's honour againft the king's 
fufpicions, in fingle c<jmbat. Shakefpeare, I am perfuaded, 
wrote : 

A man, on th' worft about you* 

\. e. were T a man, I would vindicate her honour, on theworflof 
thefe fycophants that are about you. WAR BURTON*. 

The worjl means only the lo-.-.-eft. Were I the meaneft of your 
fervants, I would yet claim the combat agaifiil any accufer. 


8 A mankind witch ! ] 

A mankind woman, is yetufed in the midland counties, for a wo- 
man violent, ferocious, and mifchievous. It has the fame lenfe 
in this paflage. Witches are fuppofed to be mankind, to put oft 
the foftnefe and delicacy of \vonien; therefore fir Hugh, in the 
Merry IFlvcs of Whidfar, fays of a woman fufpected to be a witch, 
*' that he does not like ivhen a ^oman has a beard." Of this mean^ 
ing Mr. Theobald has given examples. JOHNSON. 
So, in the Tkvo Angry Women of Ablngton, l 599 : 

" That e'er I fliould be feen to lirike a woman. 
'* Why (he is mankind, therefore t-hou may 11 ftrike her." 


W I N T E R's TALE. 3S5 

A moft intelligencing bawd ! 

Paul. Notfo: 

I am as ignorant in that, as you 
In Ib intitling me : and no lefs honeft 
Than you are mad ; which is enough, I'll warrant, 
As this world goes, to pafs for honeft. 

Led. Traitors ! 

Will you not pufli her out ? give her the baftard : 

[_To Antigonus. 

Thou, dotard, thou art woman-tyr'd 9 , unroofted 
By thy dame Partlet here, take up the baftard ; 
Take't up, I fay ; give't to thy f crone. 


It has been obferved to me that man-keen is a word ftill ufed in 
the north of England, where it is applied to horfes that bite at 
thofe who drefs them, and to girls when they are indecently for- 
ward and {hew themfelves too fond of men. Mankind and man- 
keen, however, feem in general to have one common meaning. 
So, in Stephens's apology for Herodotus, p. 263 : " He cured a 
man-keene wolfe which had hurt many in the city." STEEVENS. 

I fhall offer an etymology of the adjective mankind, which may 
perhaps more fully explain it. Dr. Hickes's Anglo-Saxon gram- 
mar, p. 119. edit. 170$, obferves : *' Saxonict man eft a mein. 
quod Cimbrice eft nocumentum, Francice eft nefas, fcelus." So that 
mankind may fignify one of a wicked and pernicious nature, from 
the Saxon man, mifchief or wickednefs, and from kind, nature. 


9 thou art woman-tyr* d ; ] 

Woman tyr'd, is pecked by a woman. The phrafe is taken from 
falconry, and is often employed by writers contemporary with 
Shakefpeare. So, in TbeWubw't Tears, by Chapman, i6ia: 

" He has given me a bone to tire on." 
Again, in Decker's Match me in London, 1631 : 

** the vulture tires 

" Upon the eagle's heart." 
lin, in Heyw 

Again, in Heywood's Rape ofLucrece, 1630: 

44 Mult with keen fang tire upon thy flefli." 

Partlet is the name of the hen in the old ftory book of Reynard the. 


1 thy crone.} 

\. e. thy old worn-out woman. A croan is an old toothlefs fheep : 

thence an old woman. So, in the Mal-cnttnt, 1606: " There 

33 6 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Paul. For ever 

Unvenerable be thy hands, if thou 
Tak'fl up the princefs, by that forced bafenefs a 
Which he has put upon't ! 

Leo. He dreads his wife. 

Paul. So, I would, you did ; then, 'twere pad at! 

You'd call your children yours. 

Leo. A neft of traitors ! 

Ant. I am none,, by this good light, 

Paul. Nor I; nor any, 

But one, that's here ; and that's himfelf : for he 
The facred honour of himfelf, his queen's, 
His hopeful foil's, his babe's, betrays to flander, 
Whofe fling is {harper than the fword's ; and will not 
(For, as the cafe now ftands, it is a curfe 
He cannot be compell'd to't) once remove 
The root of his opinion, which is rotten, 
As ever oak, or {lone, was found. 

Leo. A callat, 
Of boundlefs tongue ; who late hath beat her huf- 


And now baits me ! This brat is none of mine ; 
It is the iflue of Polixcnes : 

is an old crone in the court, her name is Maquerelle." Again, in 
Love's Mijlrefs, by T. Hey wood, 1636: 

" Witch and hag, crone and beldam." 

Again, in Hey wood's Golden Age, 1611 : " All the gold in Crete 
cannot get one of you old crones with child." Again, in the an 
cient enterlude of the Repentaiince of Marie Magdalene, 1567 : 

*' I have knowne painters that have made old crones y 

" To appeare as pleafant as little prety young Jones." 

* "Unvenerable le tly bands, if tbau 

Tatfft up the frincefs, ly that forced lafencfs\ 

Leontes had ordered Antigonus to take up the bajlard; Paulina for* 
bids him to touch the princefs tinder that appellation. Forced is 
ffilfty uttered with violence to truth. JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 337 

tlence with it ; and, together with the dam, 
Commit them to the fire. 

Paul. It is yours ; 

And, might we lay the old proverb to your charge, 
So like you, 'tis the worfe. Behold, my lords, 
Although the print be little, the whole matter 
And copy of the father : eye, nofe, lip, 
The trick of his frown, his forehead ; nay, the valley, 
The pretty dimples of his chin j and cheek ; his fmiles J ; 
The very mould and frame of hand, nail, finger I- 
And, thou, good goddefs nature, which haft made it 
So like to him that got it, if thon haft 
The ordering of the mind too, 'mongft all colours 
No yellow in't 4 ; left fhe fufpect, as he does, 
Her children not her hufband's ! 

Leo. A grofs hag! 

5 And, lozel, thou art worthy to be hang'd, 
That wilt not flay her tongue. 

Ant. Hang all the hufbands* 
That cannot do that feat, you'll leave yourfelf 
Hardly one fubjedt. 

Leo. Once more, take her hence. 

Paul. A moft unworthy and unnatural lord 
Can do no more. 

Leo. I'll have thee burnt* 

3 -'his fmiles;] Thefe two redundant words might be re- 
jefted, efpecially as the child has already been reprefented as the 
inheritor of its father's dimples and frown. STEEVENS. 

4 No yellow ;''/; ] 

Ttllnv is the colour of jealoufy. JOHXSOK. 

So, Nym fays in the Merry Wives ofHlndfor: " I will pofleff 
him vntbjdbwM/f." STEEVENS. 

5 And, lozel, ] 

This is a term of contempt, frequently ufed by Spenfer. I like- 
wife meet with it in the Death of Robert EarlofHuntington, 1601: 

" To have the load's company." 

A lozel is a worthlefs fellow. Again, in The Pinner of H r akefdd t 
1 599 : 

" Pence, prating lozcl, &c." STEEVEJTS. 

VOL. IV. Z Paul 

338 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Paul. 1 care riot : 

It is an heretick, that makes the fire, 
Not (he, which burns in't. I'll not call you tyrant j 
But this moft cruel ufage of your queen 
(Not able to produce more accufation 
Than your own weak-hing'd fancy )fometh ing favours 
Of tyranny, and will ignoble make you, 
Yea, fcandalous to the world- 

Leo. On your allegiance, 

Out of the chamber with her.. Were I a tyrant, 
Where were her life ? Ihe durft not call me fo, 
If he did know me one. Away with her. 

Paul. I pray you, da not pufh me ; I'll be gone. 
Look to your babe, my lord ; 'tis yours : Jove fend 


A better guiding fpirit f What need thefe hands ? 
You, that are thus fo tender o'er his follies, 
Will never do him good., not one of you. 
So, fo : Farewel ; we are gone. [Ear//, 

Leo. Thou, traitor, haft fet on thy wife to this. 
My child ? away with't ! even thou, that haft 
A heart fo tender o'er it, take it hence, 
And fee it inftantly confum'd with fire ; 
Even thou, and none but thou. Take it up ftraight : 
Within this hour bring me word 'tis done, 
(And by good teftimony) or I'll feize thy life, 
With what thou elfe call'ft thine : If thou refufe, 
And wi'lt encounter with my wrath, fay fo ; 
The baftard brains with thefe my proper hands 
Shall I dafti out. Go, take it to the fire ; 
For thou fett'ft on thy wife. 

Ant. I did not, fir : 

Thefe lords, my noble fellows,, if they pleafc,. 
Can clear me in't. 

Lord. We can ; my royal liege, 
He is not guilty of her coming hither* 

Leo. You are liars all. 

Lord. 'Befeech your highnefs, give us better credit: 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 339 

We have always truly ferv'd you ; and befeech 

So to efteem of us : And on our knees we beg, 

(As recompence of our dear fervices, 

Pad, and to come) that you do change this purpofe; 

Which being fo horrible, fo bloody, muft 

Lead on to iome foul iflue : We all kneel . 

Leo. I am a feather for each wind that blows : 
Shall I live on, to fee this baftard kneel 
And call me father ? better burn it now, 
Than cnrfe it then. But, be it ; let it live : 
It fhall not neither. You, fir, come you hither ; 

[To Antigonus. 

You, that have been fo tenderly officious 
W^ith lady Margery, your midwife, there, 
To fave this baftard's life : for 'tis a baftard, 
So fure as this beard's grey, what will you adventure 
To fave this brat's life ? 

Ant. Any thing, my lord, 
That my ability may undergo, 
And noblenefs impofe : at leaft, thus much ; 
I'll pawn the little blood which I have left, 
To fave the innocent : any thing poffible. 

Leo. It fliall be poffible : Swear by this fword 6 , 
Thou wilt perform my bidding. 

Ant. I will, my lord. 

Leo. Mark, and perform it ; (feeft thou ?) for the 


Of any point in't ihall not only be 
Death to thyfelf, but to thy lewd-tongu'd wife ; 
Whom, for this time, we pardon. We enjoin thee, 
As thou art liegeman to us, that thou carry 

6 Swear by this fivord^\ It was anciently the cuftom to 

fwear by the crofs on the handle of a fword. So, in Spenfer's 
Faery $>ucen, b. vi. c. i : 

** he made him Jkueare 

*' By his own blade and by the crojje thereon," 
See a note on Hamlet, aft I. fc. v. STEEYENS. 

Z 2 This 

540 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

This female baftard hence ; and that thou bear it 
To fome remote and defert place, quite out 
Of our dominions ; and that there thou leave it, 
Without more mercy, to its own prote&ion, 
And favour of the climate. As by ftrange fortune 
It came to us, I do in juftice charge thee, 
On thy foul's peril, and thy body's torture, 
That thou commend it ftrangely to fome place 7 T 
Where chance may nurfe y or end it : Take it up 

Ant. I fwear to do this ; though a prefent death, 
Had been more merciful. Come on, poor babe : 
Some powerful fpirit inflrudt the kites and ravens, 
To be thy nurfes ! Wolves, and bears, they fay, 
Cafting their favagenefs afide, have done 
Like offices of pity. Sir, be profperous 
In more than this deed does require ! and blefling,. 
Againft this cruelty, fight on thy iide 
Poor thing, condemn'd to lofs ! \Exit, with the ckilfr 

Leo. No, I'll not rear 
Another's iffue. 

Enter a Mejjenger. 

Mef. Pleafe your highnefs, ports, 
From thofe you fent to the oracle, are come 
An hour lincc : Cleomenes and Dion, 
Being well arriv'd from Delphos, are both landed, 
Hafting to the court. 

Lord. So pleafe you, fir, their fpecd 
Hath been beyond account. 

Z.r0. Twenty-three days 

They have been abfent : 'Tis good fpeed ; foretels > 
The great Apollo luddenly-will have 
The truth of this appear. Prepare you, lords ; 
Summon a feflion, that we may arraign 


7 commend it jlrangek io.fom? place ^] 
Commit to fome place, as a. ft 'ranger , without more provifioiv 


W I N T E R's TALE. 
Our moft difloyal lady : for, as Ihe hath 
Been publickly accus'd, fo fhall Ihe have 
A juft and open trial. While fhe lives, 
My heart will be a burden to me. Leave me ; -t W 
And think upon my bidding. [Exeunt. 


Apart of Sicily, near the fea fide. 
Enter Ckomenes, and Dion. 

Clco. The climate's delicate ; the air moft fiveet; 
Fertile the iile s ; the temple much furpafling 
Tkc common praife it bears. 

Dion. I lhall report 9 , 
For molt it caught me, the celeftiai habits, 


8 Fertile tix "ifle ; ] 

But the temple of Apollo at Delphi was not in an hland, but in 
Phocis, on the continent. Either Shakefpeure, or his editors, had 
their heads running on Delos, an ifland of the Cyclades. If it 
was the editor's blunder, then Shakefpeare wrote : Fertile the foil, 
which is more elegant too, than the prefent reading. 


Shakefpeare is little careful of geography. There is no need 
of this emendation in a play of which the whole plot depends up- 
on a geographical error, by which Bohemia is fuppofed to be a 
maritime country. JOHNSON. 

In the Hi ft. of Doraftvs and Faunia, the queen defires the king 
to fend fix of his nobles whom he bell trufted, to the//?* of Del- 
phos, &c." STEEVENS. 
9 1 fliall report , 

For moft // caught me, &c.] 

"What will he report ? And what menns this reafon of his report, 
that the celeftial habits moft ftruck his oblervation ? We ftunil J 

It (hames report, 

Foremoft ;'/ caught mt, 

Z i Ckomcncs 

34* W I N T E R's T A L E. 

(Methinks, I fo Ihould term them) and the reverence 
Of the grave wearers. O, the facrince ! 
How ceremonious, iblemn, and unearthly 
It was i'the offering ! 

Cleo. But, of all, the burft 
And- the ear-deafning voice o'the oracle, 
Kin to -Jove's thunder, fo furpriz'd my ienfe, 
That I was nothing. 

Dion. If the event o'the journey 
Prove as fuccefsful to the queen, O, be't fo ! * 
As it hath been to us, rare, pleafant, fpeedy, 
The time is worth the ufe on't '. 

Cleo. Great Apollo, 

Turn all to the beft ! Thefe proclamations, 
So forcing faults upon Hermione, 
I little like. 

Dion. The violent carriage of it 
Will clear, or end, the bufmefs : When the oracle, 
(Thus by Apollo's great divine feal'd up) 
Shall the contents difcover, fomething rare, 

Even then will rufli to knowledge. Go, frefli 

horfes ; 
V\nd gracious be the iffue ! [Exeunt, 

Gleorrienes had juft before {kid, that \ht-tcmple mvcl furpajTed the 

common praife It lore. The other very naturally replies itjhamcs 

report, as far furpafllng what report faid of it. He then goes on 
to particularize the wonders of the place : roremf/f, or firft ot all, 
the prieils' garments, their behaviour, their act of facfifice, &c. in 
reafonable good order. WARBUK.TOX. 

. Of this emendation I fee no reafon ; the utmoft that can be ne- 
cefTary is, to change, /'/ caught mc^ to they caught me ; but even 
this may well enough be omitted. It may relate to the whole 
fpedlacle. JOHNSON. 

1 The time is vjortb the ufe ont.~\ 
It fhould be juft the reverie : 

The ufe is worth the time c;:'t. . ' 

and this alteration the Oxford editor approves. WAR BUR TON. 

Either reading may ferve, but neither is very elegant. Thetimt 
it worth the ujeon't, means, the time which we have fpent in vifit- 
ing Delos,. has recompenfed us for the trouble of fo fpending it. 



W I N T E R's TALE. 343 


A Court ofjitftice. 
Leontes, Lords, and Officers, appear properly feated. 

Leo. This feffion (to our, great grief, we pro- 

Even pufhes 'gainft our heart : The party try'd, 
The daughter of a king ; our wife -, and one 
Of us too much belov'd. Let us be clear'd 
Of being tyrannous, fince we fo openly 
Proceed in juftice ; which fhall have due courfe, 

Even to the guilt, or the purgation z . 

Produce the prifoner. 

Offi. It is his highnefs* pleafure, that the queen 
Appear in perfon here in court. Silence ! 

Hermione is brought /, guarded ; Paulina and L 

attending. a ^ 

Leo. Read the indictment. 

Offi. Hermione, queen to the worthy Leontes, king of 
Sicilia, thou art here accufed and arraigned of high treafon^ 
in committing adultery with Polixenes, king of Bohemia ; 
and conjpiring with Camillo to take away the life of our fo- 
'uereign lord the king, thy royal hufband : the pretence * 
whereof being by cir cum/lances partly laid open, thou, Her- 
mione, contrary to the faith and allegiance of a true JubjeR t 
didji counfel and aid them, for their better fafety, to fly aivay 
by night. 

* Even to the guilty or the purgation. ~\ 

Mr. Roderick obferves, that the word even is not to be underftood 
here as an adverb, but as an adjeftive, fignifying equal ur indifferent. 


3 pretence ~\ Is, in this place, taken for zfcbente laid, a 

dcfign formed \ to pretend means to dcjigji, in the Gent, of I'erona. 


Z 4 Her. 

344 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Her. Since what I am to fav, muft be but that 
Which contradicts my accufation ; and 
The teftimony on my part, no other 
But what comes from myfelf ; it lhall fcarce boot me 
To fay, Not gtiilty : mine integrity +, 
Being counted falfehood, iliall, as I exprefs it, 
Be fo receiv'd. But thus, If powers divine 
Behold our human actions, (as they do) 
I doubt not then, but innocence fhall make 
Falfe accufation blufh, and tyranny 
Tremble at patience. You, my lord, beft know, 
(Who leaft will fecm to do fo) my pafl life 
Hath been as continent, as chafte, as true, 
As I am now unhappy ; which is more 
Than hiftory can pattern, though devis'd, 
And play'd, to take fpedtators : For behold me, 
A fellow of the royal bed ? which owe 
A moiety of the throne, a great king's daughter, 
The mother to a hopeful prince, here {landing, 
To prate and talk for life, and honour, 'fore 
W r ho pleafe to come and hear. For life, I prize it - 
As I weigh grief, which I would fpare * : for honour, 
'Tis a derivative from me to mine 7 , 
And only that I (land for. I appeal 
To your own cohfcicncc, fir, before Polixcncs 

* -- mine integrity, &c.] 

That is, my virtue being accounted i^lckf^icfs,, my aflertion of it 
will pafs but for a He. Falf'ebood-mcz&s both treachery and lie. 


5 - For Il f^ Iprte it, &c.] 

L'ff is to me now only griff', and as iuch only is confidcred by me, 
I would therefore willingly diiinifs it. JOHNSON. 

6 I ivouldfoart : - ] To (pare any thing is to //.'/'/ go, -to quit 
the pojlejjlon of it. JOHNSON. 

7 'Tis a deriv.ctii'vc from vie to m inc, j 
This fentiment, which is probably borrowed jro,rn E 
chap. iii. verfe 11. .cau:ut _be too often .inijprciled, P"; .t 

_ .. 

mind: *' The glory of a man is from the honour of his father j 
and a mother :;i dlfbonour^ is a reproach unto btr children" 



W I N T E R's TALE. 345 

Came to your court, how I was in your grace, 
How merited to be fo : Since he came, 
\Yith what encounter fo uncurrent 1 8 
Have ftrain'd, to appear thus ? if one jot beyond 
The bound of honour ; or, in act, or will, 
That xvay inclining ; hardned be the hearts 
Of all that hear me, and my near'fl of kin 
Cry, Fye upon my grave { 
Leo. I ne'er heard yet, 

* ~ Since became, 

With what encounter fo uncurrent I 

llavejtrai/i't/, to appear thus ? ] 

Thefe lines I do not underihmd ; with the licence of all editors, 
what I cannot underftand I fuppofe unintelligible, and therefore 
propole that they may be altered thus : 

* <8JBce he came. 

With what encounter f o uncurrent have I 

Keen ftain'd to appear f/jus. 
At leaft I think it might be read : 

With what encounter Jo uncurrent have I 

Strained to appear thus ? If one jot beyond JOHJCSON". 
Thefenfe (eems to b.ethis: WhatJ'uddenJlip have Imade^ thai 
Jfi'oultl catch a wrench in my charailer ? 

" a noble nature 

" May catch a wrench." Timon. 

An uncurrent encounter feems to mean an irregular, unjuftifiable 
congrefs. Perhaps it may be a metaphor from tilting, m 
which the fhock or meeting adverfaries was fo called. Thus, in 
Dray ton's Legend of T. Cromwell E.. of EJJex : 

" Yet thele encounters thruft me not aiviy." 

The fenfe would then be : In what bafe reciprocation of love 

have I caught this It rain ? Uncurrent is what will not pals, and is, 
at prefent, only apply'd to money. 

Mrs. Ford talks oi-fonie ftrain in her charaftcr, and in B. and 
Fletcher s Cnjlom of the Country, the fame expreinon occurs : 

' Jlrain your loves 

* With any bafe, or hir'd perfuafions." 

'Tojiral , I believe, means to go aivry. So, in the 6th fong of 
Drayton s Polyolbion : 

* As wantonly tkicjfraitu in her lafcivious courfc." 
Prayton 13 fpeaRing of the irregular courfe of the river Wye, 



346 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

That any of thefe bolder vices wanted 9 
Lefs impudence to gain-fay what they did, 
Than to perform it firft. 

Her. That's true enough ; 
Though 'tis a faying, fir, not due to me. 

Leo. You will not own it. 

Her. More than miftrefs of, . 
Which comes to me in name of fault, I muft not 
At all acknowledge. For Polixenes, 
(With whom I am accus'd) I do confefs, 
I lov'd him, as in honour he requir'd ; 
With fnch a kind of love, as might become 
A lady like me ; with a love, even fuch, 
So, and no other, as yourfelf commanded : 
Which not to have done, I think, had been in me 
Both difobedience and ingratitude, 
To you, and towards your friend ; whofe love had 


Even fince it could fpeak, from an infant, freely, 
That it was yours. Now, for confpiracy, 
I know not how it tafles ; though it be difh'd 
For me to try how : all I know of it, 
Is, that Camillo was an honeft man ; 
And, why he left your court, the gods themfelves, 
Wotting no more than I, are ignorant. 

9 / ne'er heard yet, 

TTjat any of thcfe lolder vices wanted , 

Lefs impudence to gain-fay ivhat they did^ 

Than to perform itfirjl.'] 

It is apparent that according to the proper, at leaft according to 
the prefent, ufe of words, lefs fliould be more, or wanted fhould 
be had. But Shakefpeare is very uncertain in his ufe of negatives. 
It may be neceflary once to obferve, that in our language, two ne- 
gatives did not originally affirm, but itrengthen the negation. 
This mode of fpeech was in time changed, but as the change was 
made in oppofition to long cuilom, it proceeded gradually, and 
uniformity was not obtained but through an intermediate conf ufion. 



W I N T E R's TALE. 347 

Leo. You knew of his departure, as you know 
What you have underta'en to do in his abfence. 

Her. Sir, 

You fpeak a language that I underftand not : 
My life (lands in the level of your dreams ', 
Which I'll lay down. 

Leo. Your actions are my dreams ; 
You had a baftard by Polixenes, 
And I but dream'd it: As you were- paft all fhame % 
(Thofe of your fact are fo) fo paft all truth : 
Which to deny, concerns more than avails : for as 
Thy brat hath been caft out, like to itfelf, 
No father owning it, (which is, indeed, 
More criminal in thee, than it) fo thou 
Shalt feel our juftice ; in whofe eafieft paflage, 
Look for no lefs than death. 

Her. Sir, fpare your threats ; 
The bug, which you will fright me with, I feek. 
To me can life be no commodity : 
The crown and comfort of my life, your favour, 
I do give loft ; for I do feel it gone, 
But know not how it went : My fecond }oy, 

1 J\fy l'ife jtands in the let'el of your dreams , ] 

To be /;; the level is by a metaphor from archery to be within the 
reach. JOHNSON. 

1 As you were paft all flame, 

(Thofe of your fad arefo) fa paft all truth.'} 

I do not remember that/a^ is uled any where abfolutely for guilty 
which mult be its lenle in this place. Perhaps \ve may read : 

Thofe of your pack are fb. 

Pack is a low coarfc word well fuited to the reft of this royal in- 
veftive. JOHNSON. 

Thofe of your fact arefo. 1 Ihould guefsyf^? to be the right 

word. See K. Hen. IV. P. II. aft II, fc. iv. 

In Middleton's Mad World, myMaJlcrs, a Courtezan fays : " It 
is the eafieft art and cunning for ourfetf to counterfeit lick, that 
are always full of fits when we are well." FARMER. 

Thus, Falftaff fpeaking to Dol Tearfheet : " So is all her/v? : 
if they be once in a calm they are lick." Thofe of your f aft, may, 
however, mean, thoft who have done as you do. STEEVENS. 


34-3 WINTER'sTAL E. 

And firft-fruits of my body, from his prefencc 

I am barr'd, like one infectious: My third comfort, 

3 Starr'd moil unluckily, is from my breaft 

The innocent milk in its moft innocent mouth, 

Hal'd out to murder : Myfelf on every poil 

Proclaim'd a ftrumpet ; with immodeft hatred, 

The child-bed privilege deny'd, which *longs 

To women of all fafhion ; Laftly, hurried 

Here to this place, i'the open air, before 

I have got ftrength of limit 4 . Now, my liege, 

Tell me what bleflings I have here alive, 

That I mould fear to die ? Therefore, proceed. 

But yet hear this ; miftake me not; No ! life, 

J prize it not a flraw : but for mine honour, 
(Which I would free) if I fhall be condemn'd 
Upon furmifes ; all proofs fleeping elfe, 
But what your jealoufies awake, I tell you, 
'Tis rigour, and not law. Your honours all, 
I do refer me to the oracle ; 
Apollo be my judge. 

Enter Dion, and Ckomenes. 

Lord. This your requcft 
Is altogether juit: therefore, bring forth, 
And in Apollo's name, his oracle. 

3 Starred moft unluckily, ] 

i. e. born under an inaufpicious planet. STEEVENS. 

4 / have gotjlrengtb of limit, ] 

I know not well how Jlrengtb of limit can mzzn Jlrengtb to fafs tie 
limits of the child-bed chamber, which yet it muft mean in this 
place, unlefs we read in a more eafy phrafe, Jlrength of limb. 
And\\<yx, sV. JOHNSON. 

I have got ftrength of limit. ] 

from the following patfage in the black letter hiftory of Titana 
andTbeJ'eus (of which I have no earlier edition than that in 1636) 
it appears that limit was anciently ufed for limb : 

44 thought it very ft range that nature fhould endow fo fair a 

face with fo hard a heart, fuch comely limits with fuch perverfe 
conditions." STEEVENS. 

W I N T E R's TALE. 349 

Her. The emperor of Ruffta was my father : 
Oh, that he were alive, and here beholding 
His daughter's trial ! that he did but fee 
The flatnefs of my mifery 5 ; yet with eyes 
Of pity, not revenge ! 

Offi. You here fhall fwear upon the fword of juftice, 
That you, Cleomenes and Dion, have 
Been both at Delphos; and from thence have brought 
This feaFd-up oracle, by the hand dcliver'd 
Of great Apollo's prieft ; and that, fincc then, 
You have not dar'd to break the holy feal, 
Nor read the fecrets in't. 

Cko. Dion. All this we fwear. 

Leo. Break up the feals, and read. 

Offi. Hermione is cbajle, Polixenes blamelefs, Camilla a 
true fubjeft, Leontes a jealous tyrant, bis innocent babe truly 
begotten ; and the kingjliall live without an heir, if that, 
which is loft, be not found. 

Lords. Now bleffed be the great Apollo ! 

Her. Praifed! 

Leo. Haft thou read truth ? 

Offi. Ay, my lord ; even fo as it is here fet down. 

Leo. There is no truth at all i'the oracle : 
The feffion fliall proceed ; this is mere falfehood. 

Enter Servant. 

Ser. My lord the king, the king ! 

Leo. What is the bufmefs ? 

Ser. O fir, I fhall be hated to report it :' 
The prince your fon, with mere conceit and fear 
Of the queen's fpeed 6 , is 

5 The flattie ft of my mifery ... ] 

That is, how low, how Jlat I am laid by my calamity. JOHKSOX. 
So, Milton, Par. Loji, b. ii : 

*' - Thus rcpuls'd, our final hope 
*' Is flat defpair." MALONE. 
6 Ofthequeen y 3f}>ee<l, - ] 

Of ihe event of the queen's trial : fo \ve ftill fay, \\efpej well or ill. 



350 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Leo. How ! gone ? 

Ser. Is dead. 

Leo. Apollo's angry ; and the heavens themfelves 

Do ftrike at my injultice. How now there ? 


Paul. This news is mortal to the queen : Look 

And fee \vhat death is doing. 

Leo. Take her hence : 
Her heart is but o'er-charg'd ; fhe will recover.- 

[Exeunt Paulina and ladies, with Hermione. 
I have too much believ'd mine own fufpicion : 
'Befeech you, tenderly apply to her 
Some remedies for life. Apollo, pardon 
My great profanenefs 'gainft thine oracie ! 
I'll reconcile me to Polixenes ; 
New woo my queen ; recall the good Camillo ; 
Whom I proclaim a man of truth, of mercy : 
For, being tranfported by my jealoulies 
To bloody thoughts and to revenge, I chofe 
Camillo for the miniiler, to poifon 
My friend Polixenes : which had been done, 
But that the good mind of Camillo tardy 'd 
My fwift command ; though I with death, and with 
Reward, did threaten and encourage him, 
Not doing it, and being done : he, moft humane, 
And fill'd with honour, to my kingly gueft 
Unclafp'd my practice ; quit his fortunes here, 
Which you knew great ; and to the certain hazard 
Of all incertainties himfelf commended, 
No richer than his honour : How he gliders 
Through my dark ruft ! arid how his piety 
Does my deeds make the blacker 7 ! 

7 Does ?ny deeds ?nake the Hacker ! ] 

This vehement retraction of Leontes, accompanied with the con- 
feffion of more crimes than he was fufpecled of, is agreeable to 
our daily experience of the viciffitudes of violent tempers, and the 
eruptions of minds opprefled with guilt. JOHNSON. 


\V I N T E R's T A L E, 351 

Re-enter Paulina. 

Paul Woe the while ! 
O, cut my lace ; left my heart, crackinglit, 
Break too ! 

'Lord. What fit is this, good lady ? 

Paul. What ftudied torments, tyrant, haft for me ? 
What wheels ? racks ? fires ? What flaying ? boiling ? 
In leads, or oils ? what old, or newer torture 
Muft I receive ; whofe every word deferves 
To taile of thy moft worft ? Thy tyranny, 
Together working with thy jealoufies, 
Fancies too weak for boys, too green and idle 
For girls of nine ! O, think, what they have done, 
And then run mad, indeed ; ftark mad ! for all 
Thy by-gone fooleries were but fpices of it. 
That thou betray'dft Polixenes, 'twas nothing ; 
That did but ihew thee, of a fool, inconftant % 
And damnable ungrateful : nor was't much, 
Thou would'ft have poifon'd good Camillo's honour, 
To have him kill a king ; poor trefpaffes, 

8 That thou betray* dft Polixenes , 't-tvas nothing ; 

'That did butjbciu t/jee, of a fool inconftant ^ 

And damnable ungrateful: j] 

I have ventured at a flight alteration here, againft the authority 
of all the copies, and for fool read foul. It is certainly too groi's 
and blunt in Paulina, though flie might impeach the king of 
fooleries in fome of his paft ations and conducl, to call hitn 
downright a fool. And it is much more pardonable in her to ar- 
raign his morals, and the qualities of his mind, than rudely to 
call him idiot to his face. THEOBALD. 

So all the copies. We (hould read : 
Jfjeiv thee off^ a fool \ 
i. e. reprefent thee in thy true colours ; a fool, an inconftant., &c. 


Poor Mr. Theobald's courtly remark cannot be thought to de- 
ferve much notice. Dr. Warburton too might have (pared his 
fagacity if he had remembered, that the prefent reading, by a 
mode of fpeech anciently much ufed, means only, // JhfjJd thtt 
l, then inconftant and ung rateful, JOHNSON. 


55z \V I N T E R's TALE. 

More monftrous (landing by : whereof I reckon? 
The cafting forth to crows thy baby daughter, 
To be or none, or little; 9 though a devil 
Would have fhed water out of fire, ere don't : 
Nor is't directly laid to thee, the death 
Of the young prince; whole honourable thoughts 
(Thoughts high for one fo tender) cleft the heart, 
That could conceive, a grofs and foolifli fire 
Blemilh'd his gracious dam : this is not, no, 
Laid to thy anfwer : But the laft, O, lords, 
When I have laid, cry, woe ! the queen, the queen,- 
The fweeteft, dearcft, creature's dead; and ven- 
geance for't 
Not drop down yet. 

Lord. The higher powers forbid ! 

Paul. I fay, Ihe's dead ; I'll fwear't : if word, nor 


Prevail not, go and fee : if you can bring. 
Tincture, or luftre, in her lip, her eye, 
Heat outwardly, or breath within, I'll ferve you 
As I would do the gods. But, O thou tyrant ! 
Do not repent thefe things ; for they are heavier 
Than all thy woes can ftir : therefore betake thee 
To nothing but defpair. A thoufand knees, 
Ten thoufand years together, naked, failing, 
Upon a barren mountain, and fUll winter 
In ftorm perpetual, could not move the gods 
To look that way thou wert. 

Leo, Go on, go on : 

Thou canit not fpeak too much ; I have deferv'd 
All tongues to talk their bittereft. 

Lord. Say no more ; 
Howe'er the bufinefs goes, you have made fault 

though a devil 

Would have Jbed "Mater out ofjire, ere don't :] 
i. e. a devil would have fhed tears of pity o r er the damn'd, ere he 
would have committed fuch an action. STEEVENS, 


W I N T E R's T A L E, 

1'the boldnefs of your fpecch. 

}\i:(l. I am forry for't ' ; 

All faults I make, when I fhall come to know 
I do repent : Alas, I have fhew'd too much 
The rafhnefs of a woman : he is touch'd 
To the noble heart. -What's gone, and what's paft 


Should be pail grief : Do not receive affliction 
At my petition, I befeech you ; rather 
Let me be punifh'd, that have minded you 
Of what you fhould forget. Now, good my liege, 
Sir, royal fir, forgive a fooliih woman : 
The love I bore your quccn ? lo, fool again ! 
I'll fpeak of her no tftore, nor of your children ; 
I'll not remember y6u of my own lord, 
Who is loft too : Take your patience to you, 
And I'll fay nothing. 

Leo* Thou didft fpeak but well, 
When moft the truth ; which I receive much better 
Than to be pitied of thee. Pr'ythee, bring me 
To the dead bodies of my queen, and fon : 
One grave fhall be for both ; upon them fhall 
The caufes of their death appear, unto 
Our fhame perpetual : Once a day, I'll vifit 
The chapel where they lie ; and tears, ihed there, 
Shall be my recreation : fo long as nature 
Will bear up with this exercife, fo long 
I daily vow to ufe it. Come, 
And lead me to thcfe forrows. [Exeunt* 

1 / am forry for't ; ] 

This is another inftance of the fudden changes incident to vehe- 
ment and ungovernable minds. JOHNSON-. 


354 W I N T E R's TALE, 


Bohemia. A defer t country near the fea. 

Enter Antigonus ivith the Child, and a Mariner. 

Ant. Thou art perfedt then, our fhip hath touch'd 

The deferts of Bohemia ? 

Mar. Ay, my lord ; and fear 

We have landed in ill time : the fides look grimly, 
Arid threaten prefent blufters. In my confciencc, 
The heavens with that we have in hand are angry, . 
And frown upon us. 

Ant. Their facred wills be done ! Go, get aboard ; 
Look to thy bark ; I'll not be long, before 
I call upon thee. 

Mar. Make your beft hade ; and go not 
Too far i'the land : 'tis like to be loud weather ; 
Betides, this place is famous for the creatures 
Of prey, that keep upon't. 

Ant. Go thou away ; 
I'll follow inftantly, 

Mar. I am glad at heart 
To be fo rid o'the bufinci's. [Exit. 

Ant. Come, poor babe : 

I have heard, (but not believ'd) the fpirits of the 


May walk again : if fuch thing be, thy mother 
Appear'd to me laft night ; for ne'er was dream 
So like a waking. To me comes a creature, 
Sometimes her head on one fide, fome another, 
'I never faw a veflel of like for row, 
So fill'd, and fo becoming : in pure white robes, 

* 77jou art perfect then* ] 

Perfeft is often ufed by Shakefpeare for certain^ well affured, or 
iv fit informed. JOHNSON. 

It is fo ufed by almoit all our ancient writers. STEEVENS. 


\V I N T E R's TALE. 355 

Like very fandtity, fhe did approach 

My cabin where I lay : thrice bow'd before me ; 

And, gafping to begin fome fpeech, her eyes 

Became two fpouts : the fury fpent, anon 

Did this break from her : Good Antigonus,- 

Since fate, againjl thy better difpofition, 

Hath made thy per Jon for the thrower -out 

Of my poor babe, according to thine oath,- 

Places remote enough are in Bohemia, 

<fhere weep, and leave it crying ; and, for the babe 

Is counted loft for ever, Perdita, 

I pr'ythee, caWt : for this ungentle bujinefs, 

Put on theeby my lord, thou ne' er Jhalt fee 

1"hy wife Paulina more : and fo, with fhrieks, 

She melted into air. Affrighted much, 

I did in time collect myfelf ; and thought 

This was fo, and no flumber. Dreams are toys : 

Yet, for this once, yea, fuperftitiouily, 

I will be fquar'd by this. I do believe, 

Hermione hath fuffer'd death ; and that 

Apollo would, this being indeed the iffue 

Of king Polixenes, it Ihould here be laid, 

Either for life, or death, upon the earth 

Of its right father. Bloflbm, fpeed thee well! 

[Laying down the child. 
There lie ; and there thy character J : 'there thefe ; 

[Laying down a bundle. 
Which may, if fortune pleafe, both breedthee, pretty, 

And dill reft thine. The ftorm begins: Poor 

That, for thy mother's fault, art thus expos'd 

To lofs, and what may follow ! Weep I cannot, 

But my heart bleeds : and moft accurs'd am I, 

3 thy character : ] i. e. the writing afterwards discovered 

wtih Perdita " the letters of Antigonus found with it, which 

' they knew to be his character. 1 ' STEEVENS. 

A a 2 To 

3 3 6 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

To be by oath enjoin'd to this. Farewel ! 

The day frowns more and more ; thou art like to have 

A lullaby too rough : I never favv 

The heavens fo dim bv day. A favage clamour 4 ? 

Well may I get aboard ! This is the chace ; 

I am gone for ever. [Exif, pinfeed by a bear, 

Enter an old Shepherd. 

Shep. I would, there were no age between ten and 
three and twenty ; or that youth would ilecp out the 
reft : for there is nothing in the between but getting 
wenches with child, wronging the ancientry, ftealing, 
fighting. Hark you now ! Would any but thele 
boilM brains of nineteen, and two and twenty, hunt 
this weather? They have fcar'd away two of my beft 
Iheep ; which, I fear, the wolf will fooner find, than 
the mafter : if any where I have them, 'tis by the fea- 
fide, brouzing of ivy. Good luck, an't be thy will ! 
what have w r e here ? \jTaking up the child.~^ Mercy 
on's, a barne ! a very pretty barne 5 ! A boy, or a 
child, I wonder ? A pretty one ; a very pretty one : 
Sure fome fcape : though I am not bookiih, yet I can 
read waiting-gentlewoman in the fcape. This has 
been fome flair-work, fome trunk-work, fome behind- 
door-work : they were warmer that got this, than the 
poor thing is here. I'll take it up for pity : yet I'll 
tarry till my fon come ; he holloo'd but even now. 
Whoa, ho hoa ! 

4 A favage clamour ? ] 

This clamour was the cry of the dogs and hunters ; then feeing 
the bear, he cries, this is the <.-/jace, or, the animal purfued. . 


5 a barne ! a very pretty barne ! ] i.e. child. So, in 

R. Broome's 'Northern La/s, 1633 : 

" Peace wayward barne ; O ceafe thy moan, 

" Thy far more wayward daddy's gone." 

It is a North Country word. Barns for borns^ things born ; feem- 
ing to anfwer to the Latin nati. STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 357 

Enter Clown. 

Clo. Hilloa, loa ! 

Sbep. What, art ib near ? If thou'lt fee a thing to 
talk on when thou art dead and rotten, come hither. 
What ail'ft thou, man ? 

Clo. I have fccn two fuch fights, by fea, and by 
land ; but I am not to fay, it is a fea, for it is now 
the fky; betwixt the firmament and it, you cannot 
thru ft a bodkin's point. 

Sbcp. Why, boy, how is it ? 

Clo. I would, you did but fee how it chafes, how it 
rages, how it takes up the ihore! but that's not to the 
point : Oh, the molt piteous cry of the poor fouls ! 
Ibmetimcs to fee 'em, and not to fee 'em : now the 
ihip boring the moon with her main-mail: ; and anon 
fwallow'd with ycft and froth, as you'd thruft a cork 
into a hogihead. And then for the land fervice, 
To fee how the bear tore out his ihoulder-bone; how 
he cry'dto me for help, and faid, his name was Anti- 
gonus, a nobleman: But to make an end of the fhip;- 
to fee how the fea flap-dragon'd it : but, firft, how 
the poor fouls roar'd, and the fea mock'd them; 
and how the poor gentleman roar'd, and the bear 
mock'd him, 'both roaring louder than the fea, or 

Sbep. 'Name of mercy, when was this, boy ? 

Clo. Now, now; I have not wink'd fince I faw thcfe 
fights : the men are not yet cold under water, nor 
the bear half din'd on the gentleman; he's at it now. 

Sbcp. 6 Would I had been by, to have help'd the 
old man. 


Shcp. ll'tmltl I baJ been ly, io bavc help V the old man.~\ 
Though all the printed copies concur in this reading, I am pcr- 
fuiidcd, we ought to reftore, nMtman. The Shepherd knew no- 
thing of Antigonus's age ; bclides, the Clown had iult told his fa- 
(hcr, that he faid his name was Antigonus, a nobleman, anil IK> 
A a 3 lefs 

358 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Go. I would you had been by the fliip fide, to have 
help'd her; there your charity would have lack'd 
footing, [Afide. 

Shep. Heavy matters ! heavy matters ! but look 
thee here, boy. Now blefs thyfelf ; thou met' ft with 
things dying, I with things new born. Here's a fight 
for thee ; look thee, a bearing-cloth 7 for a fquire's 
child ! Look thee here ; take up, take up, boy ; 
open't. So, let's fee; It was told me, I fhould be 

rich by the fairies : this is fome changeling 8 : 

open't : What's within, boy ? 

9 Clo. You're a made old man ; if the fins of your 
youth are forgiven you, you're well to live. Gold ! 
all gold ! 


lefs than three times in this fhort fcene, the Clown, fpeaking of 
him, calls him ths gentleman. THEOBALD. 

I fuppofe the Shepherd infers the age of Antigonus from his 
inability to defend himfelf; or perhaps Shakefpeare, who was con- 
fcious that he himfelf defigned Antigonus for an old man, has in- 
advertently given this knowledge to the Shepherd who had never 
feen him. STEEVENS. 

7 a bearing-cloth ] A bearing-cloth is the fine mantle or 

cloth with which a child is ufually covered, when it is carried to 
the church to be baptized. PERCY. 

8 fame changeling. ] i. e. fome child left behind by the 

fairies, in the room of one which they had ftolen. 

So Spenfer, b. i. c. ic : 

*' And her bafe Elfin brood there for thee left, 

" Such, men do changelings call, fo call'd by fairy theft.'* 


9 Yotfte a. made old man ; ] In former copies : ToiSre a 
mad old man ; if thefns of your youth arc forgiven you, you re well 
to live. Gold! all gold! This the Clown fays upon his open- 
ing his fardel, and discovering the wealth in it. But this is no 
reafon why he fhould call his rather a mad o\& man. I have ven- 
tured to correct in the text Yoiire a made old man: i. e. your 

fortune's made by this adventitious treafure. So our poet, in a 
number of other paflages. THEOBALD. 

Dr. Warburton did not accept this emendation, but it is cer- 
tainly right. The word is borrowed from the novel : " The good 
man defired his wife to be quiet : if fhe would hold peace, they 
were made for ever." FARMER. 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 359 

Shep. This is fairy gold, boy, and 'twill prove fo : 
up with it, keep itclofe; home, home, the next way. 
We are lucky, boy; and to be fo dill, requires no- 
thing but fecrecy. Let my fheep go : Come, good 
boy, the next way home. 

Clo. Go you the next way with your findings ; I'll 
go fee if the bear be gone from the gentleman, and 
how much he hath eaten : they are never curft, but 
when they are hungry : if there be any of him left, 
I'll bury it. 

Skep. That's a good deed : If thou may 'ft difcern 
by that which is left of him, what he is, fetch me to 
the fight of him. 

Clo. Marry, will I ; and you (hall help to put him 
i'the ground. 

Shep. 'Tis a lucky day, boy ; and we'll do good 
deeds on't. [Exeunt. 

ACT jv. 

Enter Time, as Chorus. 

Time. I, that pleafe fomc, try all ; both joy, and 


Of good and bad ; that make, and unfold error ', 


So, in Love's Mi/trrfs, a mafque by T. Heywood, 1636 : "I 
before was but a man made, but am now a made man" Agam, in 
M. Kyffin's tranfl:ition of the Andria of Terence, 15X8 : " I am a 
n-.aiif man if this be true." Again, in Acolajlus. a comedy, 1529: 
<: I am fate for ever, I am a made man for this world." 


1 thai make, and unfold err nr, ] 

This does not, in my opinion, take in the poet's thought. Time 
does not make miftakes, and fe9ver then:, at different conjunc- 
tures ; but the poet means, that Time often for a feafon covers 
A a 4 eiror* 

360 W I N T E R's T A L E.. 

Now take upon me., in the name of Time, 
To ufe my wings. Impute it not a crime, 
To me, or my fwift paffage, that I flide 
O'er fixteen years % and leave the growth untry'd * 


errors, which he afterwards difplays and brings to light. I chufe 
therefore to read : 

.that mafk and unfold error, THEOBALD. 

Theobald's emendation is f LI rely unneceflary. Departed time 
renders many fads obfcure, and in that fonfe is the caufe of error. 
fime to come brings difcoveries with it. STEEVENS. 

1 that IJlide 

O'f r Jixtcen years, ] 

This trelpals, in refpet of dramatic unity, will appear venial 
to thole who have read the once famous Lilly's Endymlon, or (as 
he hiraielf calls it in the prologue) his Ma-i In the Monti. This 
author was applauded and very liberally paid by queen Elizabeth. 
Two afts ot his piece comprize the fpace of forty years, Endy- 
rnion lying down to lleep at the end of the fecond, and waking in 
the firil fcene ot the fifth, after a nap of that unconfcionable 
length. Lilly has likewife been guilty of much greater abfurdi-. 
ties than ever Shakefpeare committed ; for he fuppofes that En- 
dymion's hair, features, andpeiibn, were changed by age during 
his fleep, while all the other perlbnages of the drama remained 
without alteration. 

George Whetftone, in the epiftle dedicatory, before his Pro- 
mos and Caffiindra, 1578, (on the plan of which Mcafurc for Mea- 
fure is formed) had pointed out many of thefe abfurdities and of- 
fences again u the laws of the Drama. It mutt be owned therefore 
that Shakeipeare has not fallen into them through ignorance of 
what they were. " For at this daye^ the Italian is Ib lafcivious 
in his comedies, that honelt hearts are" grieved at his actions. The 
Frenchman and Spaniard follow the Italian's humour. The Ger- 
man is too holy ; for he prefents on everye common ftage, what 
preachers Ihould pronounce in pulpits. The Englifliman in this 
quailitie, is moft vaine, indilcreete, and out of order. He firil 
grounds his worke on impoffibilities : then in three houres ronnes 
he throwe the worlde : marryes, gets children, makes children 
men, men to conquer kingdomes, murder 'moniters, and bringeth 
goddes from heaven, and fetcheth devils from hell, &c." This 
quotation will ferve to Ihew that our poet might have enjoyed the 
benefit of literary laws, but like Achilles, denied that laws were 
defigned to operate on beings confident of their own powers, and 
fecure of graces beyond the reach of art. STEEVENS. 

3 and 

W I N T E R's T A L E. 361 

Of that wide gap ; fince it is in my power * 

To o'erthrow law, and in one felt-born hour 

To plant and o'crwhclm cuftom : Let me pafs 

The fame I am, ere ancient'ft order was, 

Or what is now received : I witnefs to 

The times that brought them in ; fo lhall I do 

To the frefheft things now reigning; and make ftale 

The glittering of this prefent, as my tale 

Now feems to it. Your patience this allowing, 

I turn my glafs ; and give my fcene fuch growing, 

As you had flept between. Leontcs leaving 

The effedts of his fond jealoufies ; fo grieving, 

That helhuts up himfelf ; Imagine me 5 , 

Gentle fpecftators, that I now may be 


* and leave the growth unify 1 d 

Of that wide gap ; ] 

The growth of what ? The reading is nonfenfe. Shakefpeare 
wrote : 

and leave the gulf /ryV, 

i. e. unwaded through. By this menus, too, the uniformity of 
the metaphor is reitored. All the terms of the fentence, relating 
to a gulf', 9*Jwjifi pqQage t Jlide overuntry'd wide gap. 


This emendation is plaufible, but the common reading is con- 
fiftent enough with our author's manner, who attends more to his 
ideas than to his words. The gro-ivth of the wide gap, is fomc- 
what irregular ; but he means, the growth, or progreflion of the 
time which filled up the gap of the ilory between Perdita's birth 
and her fixteenth year. To leave this growth untried, is to leave the 
pajjages of the intermediate yean unnoted and nncxamined. Untrlfd 
is not, perhaps, the word which he would havechofen, but which 
his rhyme required. JOHNSON. 

4 fincc it is in my power &C.] 

The reafoningof Ti;tie is not very clear; he feems to mean, that 
he who has broke fo many laws may now break another ; that he 
\vho introduced every thing, may introduce Perdita on her Cx- 
tcenth year; and he that he may pafs as of old, before 
any order orfuccdlion of objects, ancient or modern, dilVmguiflied 
his periods. JOHNSON. 
5 imagine me, 

Gentle fpetfators, that I noiu may be 
In fair Bohemia : ' 1 

362 W I N T E R's TALE. 

In fair Bohemia ; and remember well, 

I mentioned a fon o'rhe king's, which Florizel 

I now name to you ; and with fpeed fo pace 

To fpeak of Perdita, now grown in grace 

Equal with wond'ring : What of her enfues, 

I lift not prophecy ; but let Time's news 

Be known, when 'tis brought forth : a fhepherd's 


And what to her adheres, which follows after, 
Is the argument of time 6 : Of this allow, 
If ever you have fpent time worfe ere now ; 
If never yet, that Time himfelf doth fay, 
He wiihes earneftly, you never may 7 . [,v/V. 


The Court of Bohemia. 

Enter Polixenes and Cam'illo. 

Pol. I pray thee, good Camillo, be no more im- 
portunate : 'tis a ficknefs, denying thee any thing ; a 
death, to grant this. 

Cam. It is fifteen years 8 , fince I faw my country : 


Time is every where alike. I know not whether both fenfe and 
grammar may not didate : 

imagine we, 

Gentle fpcflators, that you nmv may &>,, &c. 
Let us imagine that^o//, who behold theie fcenes, are now in Bo- 
hemia. JOHNSON. 

6 Is the argument of time : ] 
Argument is the fame with//V#. JOHNSON. 

7 He -Tvljles carneftly, you never }>iay.~\ 

I believe this fpeech of Time rather begins the fourth aft than con- 
cludes the third. JOHNSON. 

It does fo in the old copy, and I have therefore replaced it. 


8 It is fifteen years, ] We fhould read fxteen. Time has 

juft faid : 

that IJlide 
O'er fixteenjrarj 


W I N T E R's TALE. 363 

though I have, for the mod part, been aired abroad, 
I defire to lay my bones there. Befides, the peni- 
tent king, my maftcr, hath fent for me : to whofe 
feeling forrows I might be fome allay, or I o'erween 
to think fo ; which is another fpur to my departure. 
Pol. As thou lov'ft me, Camillo, wipe not out the 
reft of thy fervices, by leaving me now : the need I 
have of thee, thine own goodnefs hath made ; better 
not to have had thee, than thus to want thee : thou, 
having made mebufineiies, which none, without thee, 
can fufficiently manage, mult either flay to execute 
them thyfelf, or take away with thee the very fervices 
thou haft done : which if I have not enough conlider'd, 
(as too much I cannot) to be more thankful to thee, 
ihall be my ftudy ; and my profit therein, the heap- 
ing friendfhips 9 . Of that fatal country Sicilia, pr'y- 
thee fpeak no more : whofe very naming punifhes me 
with the remembrance of that penitent, as thou call'ft 
him, and reconciled king, my brother; whofe lofs of 
his moft precious queen, and children, are even nowto 
be afrem lamented. Say to me, when faw'ft thou the 

Again, aft V. fc. iii : ** Which lets go by fome fifteen years." 

Again, Hid. " Which fixtcen winters' cannot blow away.** 


9 and my profit therein, the \\eap\ng friend/lifts. ] This 

is nonfenfe. We ftould read, reaping friendjbips. The king 

had faid his ftudy fliould be to reward his friend's deferts ; and then 
concludes, that his profit in this ftudy Ihould be reaping the fruits 
of his friend's attachment to him ; which refers to what he had 
before faid of thenecelfity of Camillo's flay, orotherwife he could 
not reap the fruit ct thofe bufitirjfis, which Camillo had cut out. 


I fee not that the present reading is nonfenfe ; the fenfe of heaf- 
ing friendfl)ips\s, though like many other of our author's, unul'u- 
al, at lead unufual to modern ears, is not very obfcure. To be 
more thankful Jball be ?ry fiuJy ; and my profit therein the heaping 
friendjbips. That is, / <:/// for the future be more liberal of recom- 
fcnce, frpm which I foal I rtccivc this an--fi,:tage, that as I heap be- 
nefits Ifiallhcapfi-iendjblps, as I confer favours on thee I foall in- 
creafe the fricnafyip bttwcn us. JOHNSON. 


364 W I N T E R's TALE. 

prince Florizcl my fon ? kings are no lefs unhappy, 
their iffue not being gracious ; than they are in loiing 
them, when they have approved their virtues. 

Cam. Sir, it is three days, fince I faw the prince : 
What his happier affairs may be, are to me unknown : 
but I have, miffingly, noted ', he is of late much re- 
tired from court ; and is lefs frequent to his princely 
cxercifes, than formerly he hath appeared. 

Pol. I have confidcr'd ib much, Camillo; and with 
ibme care; fo far, that I have eyes under my fervice, 
which look upon his removednefs : from whom I have 
this intelligence; That he is feldom from the houfe of 
a mod homely fhcpherd ; a man, they fay, that from 
very nothing, and beyond the imagination of his 
neighbours,, is grown into an unfpeakable eftate. 

Cam. I have heard, fir, "of fuch a man, who hath 
a daughter of moft rare note : the report of her is ex- 
tended more, than can be thought to begin from fuch 
a cottage. 

Pol. That's likewiie part of my intelligence. 
* But, I fear the angle that plucks our fon thither. 

1 -lut I have, miffingly noted, "] We fhould read, but 

1 have, miffing him, noted. This accounts for the reafon -of his 
taking note, becaufe he often miffed him, that is, wanted his 
agreeable company. For a compliment is intended ; and in that 
fenfe, it is to be underitood. The Oxford editor reads, - inujingly 
noted. W A R B u R T o \ . 

1 fee not how the fenfe is mended by fir T. Hanmer's alteration, 
nor how it is at all changed by Dr. WaVburton's. JOHNSON. 

MiJJingly noted, means, I have obferved him at intervals, not 
conftantly or regularly, but occafionally. STEEVENS. 

2 But, I fear the angle ] Mr. Theobald reads, and 

I fear the cngle. JOHNSON. 

Angle in this place means * fjlring-rod,^ which he reprefents as 
drawing his fon, like afilh, away. So, in K. Hcn.\\ T . P. I : 

" he did win 

" The hearts of all that he did angle for." 
Again, in AlPs Well that Ends Well: 

" She knew her diftance, and did angle for me." 
Again, in Trollus and CreJJiJa : 

*' And fell fo roundly to a large conteffion, 

" To angle for your thoughts." STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 365 

Thou fhalt accompany us to the place : where \vc will, 
not appearing what we arc, have fome queftion with 
the ihepherd ; from whofe timplicity, I think it not 
uneafy to get the caufe of my foil's refort thither. 
IVythee, be my prefent partner in this bufinefs, and 
lay afide the thoughts of Sicilia. 

Cam. I willingly obey your command. 

Pol. My beft Camilla ! We miift difguife our- 



The Country. 
Enter Autolycus 

daffodils begin to peer,' 

heigh ! the doxy over the dak, 
then conies in the Jweet o* the year ; 
For the red bhod reigns in the winter's pah 4 . 


3 - Autolycus ] Autolycus was the fon of Mercury', and 
ai famous for all the arts of fraud and thievery as his father: 
*' Nonfuit Autolyci tarn piceata manui." Martial. 

4 Why, then comes /* tbejkveet <? the year ; 

For tic red blood reigns in the winter's /<*/?.] 
I think this nonfcnfe fhould be read thus : 

Why then come in thefxeet o 1 the year ; 
'Fore tbe rcJ blooJ reins-/a the winter pale. 

i. e. why then come in, or let us enjoy, pleafure, while the fea- 
iun ferves, before pale winter relns-in the red or youthful blood \ 
us much as to lay, let us enioy life in youth, before old age conies 
and freezes up the blood. WAR BURTON. 

Dr. Thirlby reads, perhaps rightly T certainly with much more 
probability, . and eafinefs of conftru^tion : 

For tbe red blood runs in the winter pale. 
That is, for tbe red Hood n<n> pale in tbe winter. 
Sir T. Hamncr reads : 

For the red Hood reigns o'er tbe winter's pale. Jo H N so N. 
This line has fuffered a great variety of alterations, but I am per- 
fuaded the old reading is the true one. The firit folio has *' the 

366 W I N T E R's TALE. 

The white Jheet bleaching on the hedge, 

With) hey! the fweet birds, O, how theyfing!* 

Doth fet my pugging tooth on edge 5 ; 
For a quart of ale is a dijh for a king* 

ffie lark, that tirra-lirra chaunts, 

With* hey! with, hey! the thrift) and the jay : 
Are fummer fongs for me and my aunts 6 , 

While we lie tumbling in the hay. 

I have 

winter's pah" and the meaning is, the red, the faring blood now 
reigns o'er the parts lately under the dominion of winter. The En- 
glijb pale, the Irifl} pale, were frequent expreffions in Shake- 
ipeare's time ; and the words red and pale were chofen for the fake 
of the aiitithejis. FARMER. 

Dr. Farmer is certainly right. I had offered this explanation to 
Dr. Johnibn who rejected it. In K. Hen. V. our author fays : 

tha Englilh breach 

" Pahs in the flood, &c." 
Again, in another of his plays : 

" Whate'er the ocean pales, or fky inclips." 
Holinfhed, p. 528, calls fir Rickard Alton, *' Lieutenant of the 
Englifh pale, for the earle of Summerfet." Again, in K. Hen. VI. 
IV* I: 

How are we park'd, and bounded in a pale." STEEVENS. 

5 pugging tooth ] 

Sir T. Hanmer, and after him ( Dr. Warburton, read, pegging 
tooth. It is certain that pugging is not now underftood. But Dr. 
Thirlby obferves, that it is the cant of gypfies. JOHNSON. 

The \vor& pugging is ufed by Greene in one of his pieces, and 
fragging by B. and Fletcher in the SpaniJIy Curate. And npnggard 
was a cant name for fome particular kind of thief. So, in the 
Roaring Girl, 1 6 1 1 : 

" Of cheaters, lifters, nips, foifts, puggards^ curbers." 
See P tiggig in Minfbew. STEEVENS. 

" my aunts, ~\ 

Aunt appears to have been at this time a cant word for a lawd. In 
Middleton's comedy, called, A Trick to catch the Old one, 1616, 

is the following confirmation of its being ufed in that fenfe :- 

" It was better beftow'd upon his uncle than one of his aunts, I 
need not fay &a*b, tor every one knows what aunt ftands for in 
the laft tranflation." Again, in Ram-alley, or Merry Tricks^ 

" 1 never knew 

'* What flecking, glazing, or what preffing meant, 

" Till 

W I N T E R's TALE. 367 

I have ferv'd prince Florizel, and, in my time, wore 
three-pile 7 ; but now I am out of fervicc : 

Butfoatt I go mourn for that, my dear ? 

'the pale moonjhines by night : 
And when I wander here and there, 

I then do go mojl right. 

If tinkers may have leave to live, 

And bear the fow-Jkln budget ; 
hcn my account I well may give, 

And In thejlocks avouch it. 

1 My traffick is Iheets; when the kite builds, look to 
lefler linen. 9 My father nam'd me, Autolycus ; who, 


" Till you preferr'd me to your aunt the^lady : 

*' I knew no ivory teeth, no caps of hair, 

*' No mercury, water, fucus, or perfumes 

** To help a lady's breath, untill your aunt 

" Learn 'd me the common trick." 

Again, in Decker's HonejiWliore, 1635 : " I'll call you one of 
my aunts, lifter, that were as good as to call you arrant whore." 


7 ivore three-pile ; j i e rich velvet. So, in Ram- 

alley or Merry Tricks, 161 1 : 

" - and line them 

'* With black, crwnfon, and tawny tbree-pil'd velvet." 

* My traffick is fleets ; - ] i.e. I am a vender of meet ballads, 
and other publications that are fold unbound. From the wcrdjkeets 
the poet takes occalion to quibble. 

** Our fingers are lime twigs, and barbers we be, 
" To catch Jbeets from hedges moftpleafant to fee." 

Three Ladies of London, 1 5 84. 
Again, in B. and Fletcher's Beggars Bujb : 

" To fteal from the hedge both the fhirt and thejittti," 


J - My fatbc r nam 'J i?ie, Autclycus, &C.J Mr. Theobald lays, 
tie allujlon is unqueftionally to Ovid. He is miitaken. Not only 
iheallulion, but the whole fpeech is taken from Lucian; who ap- 
pears to have been one of our poet's favourite luuhors, as may be 
collected trom feveral places of his works. It is from hi* Jj'caurfe 
o?i judicial aftrology, where Autolycus talks much in the fame man- 


3 68 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

being, as I am, litter'd under Mercury, waslikewife 
a fnapper-up of nnconfider'd trifles : With die, and 
drab, I pnrchas'd this caparifon ' ; and my revenue is- 
the filly cheat*: 3 Gallows, and knock, are toa 
powerful on the high-way : beating, and hanging, are 
terrors to me ; for the life to come, I fleep out the 
thought of it. A prize ! a prize ! 

Enter Clonvn. 

Go. Let me fee: Every" 'leven weather tods 4 ; 
every tod yields pound and odd fhilling : fifteen hun- 
dred Ihorn, What comes the wool to ? 

Aut. If the fpringe hold, the cock's mine. \_Afide. 

do. I cannot do't without counters. Let me fee ; 

tier ; and 'tis only on this account that he is called the fon of 
Mercury by the ancients, namely becaufe he was born under that 
planet. And as the infant was fuppofed by the allrologers to com- 
municate of the nature of the ftar which predominated, io Auto- 
lycus was a thief. WARBUKTO.V. 

This piece of Lucian, to which Pr. Warbufton refers, was 
tranflated long before the time of Shakefpeare. I have feen it, 
but it had no date. STEEVENS. 

1 With die and drab, I purchased this caparifon ; 1 
i. e. with gaming and whoring, I brought myfelf to this ihabby 
drefs. PERCY* 

2 my revenue is the filly cheat : ] Silly is ufed by the 

writers of our author's time, for fimple, low, mean ; and in this 
the humour of the Ipeech con lifts. I don't afpire to arduous and 
high things, as bridewell or the gallows ; I am contented with this 
humble and low way of life, as -^ fnapper-up of vnconfidered trifles. 
But the Oxford editor, who, by his emendations, feems to have 
declared war againft all Shakefpeare's humour, ahers it to, the 

Jh cheat. WAS :;tJRTON. 

The_/?7/)> cheat is one of the technical terms belonging to the art 
of coney catching artbicvtry, which Greene has mentioned among the 
reft, in his treatiie on that ancient and honourable feience. I 
think it means picking pockets. STE.EVEXS. 

3 Gallowi, antiknock, &c.] The refiftance which a high- 
wayman encounters in the faft, and the punifhment which he fuf- 
fers on detection, with-hold me from daring robbery, and determine 
me to the filly cheat and petty theft. JOHN sox. 

4 tods', ] A.Wis twenty-eight pounds of wool. PERCY, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 369 

tohat am I to buy for our fheep-lhearing feaft? Three 

found of fugar ; five pound of currants ; rice What 

will this lifter of mine do with rice ? But my father 
hath made her miftrefs of the fcaft, and flie lays it 
on. She hath made me four and twenty nofe-gays 
for the fliearers : three-man fong-men all 5 , and 
very good ones ; but they are moft of them means 6 , 
and bafes : but one puritan among them, and he 
lings pfalms to horn-pipes. I muft ha\Q faffrort, to 
colour the warden-pies 7 ; mace dates- none ; that's 
out of my note : nutmegs, /even ; a race, or two, of gin- 
g er but that I may beg ; four pound of prunes, and 
as many raifins o'tbe fun. 

Ant. Oh* that ever 1 was born ! 

[Groveling on the ground. 

Aut. Oh, help me," help me! pluck but off thefe 
rags ; and then, death, death ! 

Clo. Alack, poor foul; thou haft need of more 
rags to lay on thee, rather th,an have thefe off. 

5 three-man fong-men all, ] i.e. fingers of catches in 

three parts. A fix-man fong occurs in the Tournament of Totten- 
ham. See The Rel. of Poetry, vol. II. p. 24. PERCY. 

So, in Heywood's K. Edward TV. 1626 : " call Dudgeon 
and his fellows, we'll have a three-man fong." Before the comedy 
of the Gentle Craft, or the Shoemaker? Holiday, 1600, fome of 
thefe three-man fongs are printed. STEEVENS. 

6 means, andbafes: ] Means are trebles. STEEVENS. 

' warden-pies', ] Wardens are a fpeciesof large pears. 

I believe the name is difufed at prefer.: ; it however afforded Ben 
Jonfon room for a quibble in his malque of GypJiesMetamorfhofed: 

" A deputy tart, a chwreh-warJen pye." 

It appears from a paflage in Cupid's Revenge, by B. and Fletcher, 
that thefe pears were ufually eaten roafted : 

" I would have had him roajled like a warden, 

" In brown paper." 
The French call this peare \he poire de gardt. STEEVEXS. 

8 Fthe name of me ] This is a vulgar invocation, which I 

have often heard ufed. So, fir Andrew Ague-cheek ; *' Before 
me, fhe's a good wench." STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. B b Aut. 

370 WI N T E R's TALE. 

Aut. Oh, fir, the loath fomenefs of them offends 
me, more than the flripes I have reeeiv'd ; which are 
mighty ones, and millions. 

Go. Alas, poor man ! a million of beating may 
come to a great matter. 

Aut. I am robb'd, fir, and beaten ; my money and 
apparel ta'en from me, and thefe deteftable things 
put upon me. 

Clo. What, by a horfe-man, or a foot-man ? 

Aut. A foot-man, fwect fir, a foot-man. 

Clo. Indeed, he fhould be a foot-man, by the gar- 
ments he hath left with thee; if this be a horfc-man's 
eoat, it hath feen very hot fervice. Lend me thy 
hand, I'll help thee : come, lend me thy hand. 

[Helping him up.- 

Aut. Oh f good fir, tenderly, oh ! 

Go. Alas, poor foul. 

Aut. O, good fir, foftly, good fir : I fear, fir, my 
ihoulder-blade is out. 

Clo. How now ? canfl ftand ? 

Aut. Softly, dear fir ; [Picks bis pocket] good fir,, 
foftly : you ha' done me a charitable office. 

Clo. Doft lack any money ? I have a little money 
for thee. 

Aut. No, good fweet fir ; no, I befeech you, fir : 
I have a kinfman not paft three quarters of a mile 
hence, unto whom I was going ; I lhall there have 
money, or any thing I want : Offer me no money, I 
pray you ; that kills my heart. 

Clo. What manner of fellow was he that robb'd 
you ? 

Aut. A fellow, fir, that I have known to go about 
with trol-my-dames 9 : I knew him once a fervant of 


9 <vuitb trol-my- flames : ]' Trou-madame, French. The 

game of nine-holes. WAR BURTON. 

In Dr. Jones's old treatifc on Buck/tone lathes, he fays : "The 
ladyes, gentle woomen, wyves, maydes, if the weather be not 


W I N T E R's TALE. 371 

the prince ; I cannot tell, good fir, for which of his 
virtues it was, but he was certainly whip'd out of the 

Clo. His vices, you would fay ; there's no virtue 
vvhip'd out of the court : they cherifh it, to make in 
flay there ; and yet it will no more but l abide. 

Av.t. Vices I would fay, fir. I know this man well : 
Tie hath been fince an ape-bearer; then aprocefs-ferver, 
a bailiff; then he compafs'd a motion of the prodigal 
fon *, and married a tinker's wife within a mile where 
my land and living lies ; and, having flown over 
many knavilh profeflions, he fettled only m a rogue : 
fome call him Autolycus. 

Clo. Out upon him ! Prig, for my life, prig : he 
haunts wakes, fairs, and bear-baitings. 

Aut. Very true, fir; he, fir, he; that's the rogue, 
that put me into this apparel. 

Clo. Not a more cowardly rogue in all Bohemia ; 

agreeable, may have in the ende of a benche, eleven holes made, 
intoo the which to troule pummits, either wyolent or fofte, after 
their own difcretion, the paftyme troule in madams is termed." 


The old Englifli title of this game was pigeon-holes ; as the archef 
in the machine through which the balls are rolled, refemble the 
cavities made for pigeons in a dove^boufe. So, in the Antipodes^ 

" Three-pence I loft at nine-pins ; but I got 
" Six tokens towards that zt pigeon-boles,'* 
Again, in A Woman never vex^d, l6;i: 

" What quickfands he finds out, as dice, cards, pigeon* 


Drayton, however, in the i^th fong of his Polyo&ion) mentions 
rt by its preient title: 

** At nine* bole* on the heath while they together play." 


1 abide.] To ablde^ here, muft fignify, to/cjourn, to live 
for a time without a iettJed habitation. ToHHSOV. 

1 motion of the prodigal fon, ] i. e. the puppet -Jkew^ 

then called motions. Aterm frequently ,oc,curing in our author. 


B b 2 "if 

tfz . W I N T E R's T A L E. 

if you had but look'd big, and fpit at him, he'd have 

Aut. I muft confefs to you, fir, I am no fighter : 
I am falfe at heart that way ; and that he knew, I 
warrant him. 

Go. How do you now ? 

Aut. Sweet fir, much better than I was ; I can 
fland, and walk : I will even take my leave of you, 
and pace fbfcly towards my kinfman's. 

Ck. Shall I bring thee on thy way ? 

Aut. No, good-fac'd fir ; no, fweet fir. 

Ck. Then fare thee well ; I muft go to buy fpices 
for our fheep-ihearmg. [Exit.- 

Aut. Profper you, fweet fir ! Your purfe is not hot 
enough to purchafe your fpice. I'll be with you at 
your Iheep-fhearing too : If I make not this cheat 
bring out another, and the fliearers prove Iheep, let 
me be unroll'd, and my name put into the book of 
virtue J ! 

Jog on, jog on, the foot-path way, 

And merrily hent thejlile-a 4 : 
A merry heart goes all the day^ 

Tour fad tires~ in a mile-a. [Exit. 

et me be unrolfd^ and my name put into tbe $oolt\of 'virtue !~\ 
Begging gypfies, in the time of our author, were in gangs and 
companies, that had fomething of the fhew of an incorporated 
body. From this noble fociety he wiflies he may be unrolled if 
he does not fo and fo. WAR BURTON. 

* And merrily hent the ftile-a :~\ 

To bent the ilile, is to take hold ot it. I was miftaken when I 
laid in a note on Meafure for Meafure, aCl I V. ic. ult. that< the 
verb was to bend. It ie to Xw//, and comes from the Saxon 
penrar. So, in the old romance of Guy Earl of Warwick, bl. 1. 
no date : 

** Some by the arnies lent good Guy" 
Again : 

" And foine by the brydle him hent? 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery S>ueen, b. iii. c. 7 : 

" Great labour fondly hall thou lent in hand."' 



W I N T E R's TALE. 373 


A Shepherds Cot. 
Enter Flortzel and Perdita. 

Flo. Thefe your unufual weeds to each part of you 
Do give a life : no fhepherdefs ; but Flora, 
Peering in April's front. This your iheep-lhearing 
Is as a meeting of the petty gods, 
And you the queen on't. 

Per. Sir, my gracious lord, 
To chide at your extremes, it not becomes me ?; 
Oh, pardon, that I name them : your high felf, 
6 The gracious mark o'the land, you have obfcur'd 
With a fwain's wearing ; and me, poor lowly maid, 
Moft goddefs-like prank'd up 7 : But that our feafts 
In every mefs have folly, and the feeders 
Digeft it with a cuftom, I Ihould blufh 
To fee you fo attired ; fworn, I think, 
To ihew myfclf a glafs 8 . 


5 ' . ' - your extremes, ] 

That is, your exrtj/es, the extravagatice of yourprailes. JOHNSON. 

6 The gracious mark o'tbc land^ ] 

The objf-fl of all men's notice and expectation. JOHNSON. 

7 prank* d up: ] 

To frank is to drefs with oftentation. So, in Coriolantis: 

*' For they Ao prank them in authority." 
Again, in Tom Tyler and bis Wife^ 1 598 : 

" I pray you %p prank you." STEEVENS. 

* J-ivorUi I think) 

To flew myfclfa glafs. ~\ 

i. e. one would think that in putting on this habit of a (hepherd, 
you had fworn to put me out of countenance ; for in this, as in a 
glafs, you fhew me how much below yourfelf you muft defcend 
before you can get upon a level with me. The fentiment is ue, 
and exprefles all the delicacy, as well as humble modefty of the 
.character. But the Oxford editor alters it to : 
Jhuooit) I thi 
yfelf a glafs. 

B b 3 \Vhat 

374 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Flo. I blefs the time, 

When my good falcon made her flight acrofs 
Thy father's ground. 

Per. Now Jove afford you caufe ! 
To me, the difference forges dread ; your greatnefs 
Hath not been us'd to fear. Even now I tremble 
To think, your father, by fome accident, 
Should pafs this way, as you did : Oh, the fates ! 
How would he look, to fee his work, fo noble, 
Vilely bound up 9 ? What would he fay ? Or how 


What he means I don't know. But Perdita was not fo much gi. 
ventofwooHixg, as appears by her behaviour at the king's threats, 
when the intrigue, was difcovered. WAR BU,R TON. 

Jpr. Thirlby inclines rather to fir T. Hanmer's emendation, 
which certainly makes an eafy fcnfe, and is, in my opinion, pre- 
ferable to the prefent reading. But concerning this patfiige I know 
not what to decide. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Warburton has well enough explained this pafiage accord- 
ing to the old reading. Though I cannot help offering a tranf- 
pcfuion, which I would explain thus: 

But that our feafts 

In every mefe have folly, and the feeders 

Digefl it ivitjy a cujlom (fivcm I think) 

^ofceyoufo attired, IJbould bluflj 

fojbevj myfelfa :. . 

i. e. But that our ruitick ftafts are in every part accompanied 
with abfurdity of the fame kind, which cuitom has authorized, 
(cuftom which one would think the guefts had fworn to obferve) 
J fhould blufti to prefent tnyfelf before a glafs, which would ihew 
le my own perfon adorned' in a manner fo foreign to my humble 
jftate, pr fo much better habited than even that of my prince. 


s> His wort, fo nolle, &c.] 

It is impoffible for any man to rid his mind of his profeffion. The 
authorfhip of Shakefpeare has fupplied him with a metaphor, which 
rather than he would lofe it, he has put with no great propriety 
>nto the mouth of a country maid. Thinking of his own works, 
fcis mind palled naturally to" the binder. I am glad that he has no 
hint at an editor. . JOHNSO.V. 

This allufion occurs more than once in Romeo and Juliet: 

* This precious book of love, i\\\s unbound lovcr^ 

( l To beautify him only lacks a cover." 

Again ; 

W I N T E R's TALE. 375 

-Should I, in thefe my borrow'd flaunts, behold 
The fternnefs of his prefence ? 

Flo. Appreherid 

Nothing but jollity. The gods themfelves ', 
Humbling their deities to love, have taken 
The fhapes of beafts upon them : Jupiter 
Became a bull, arid bellow'd ; the green Neptune 
A ram, and bleated ; and the fire-rob'cl god, 
Golden Apollo, a poor humble fvvain, 
As I feem now: Their transformations 
Were never for a piece of beauty rarer ; 
Nor in a way fo chafte : fince my defires 
Run not before mine honour , nor my lufts 
Burn hotter than my faith. 

Per. O but, dear fir, 
Your refolution cannot hold, when 'tis 
Oppos'd, as it muft "be, by the power o'the king : 
One of thefe two muft be neceffities, 
Which then will fpeak; that you muft change this 

Or I my life. 

Flo. Thou dearcft Perdita, 

With thefe forc'd thoughts, I pr'ythce, darken not 
The mirth o'thc feart : Or I'll be thine, my fair, 
Or not my father's : for I cannot be 
Mine own, nor any thing to any, if 
I be not thine : to this I am molt conftant, 

Again : 

" That book in many eyes doth {hare the glory, 

" That in gold clafps locks in the golden itory." 


1 - The gnth themfelves , 

Humbling their (kit its Sic.] 

This is taken almoit literally from the novel: " And yet, Do- 
niiUis, fliame not thy Hiepherd's weed. The heavenly gods have 
fomctime earthly thought; Neptune became a rain, Jupiter n 
bull, Apollo, a ihepherd : they gods, and yet in love - thou a 
man, appointed to love." Gicen's Dorajhts ftnJ F.mnlrt, 

B b 4 Though 

37 6 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Though deftiny fay, no. Be merry, gentle j 
Strangle fuch thoughts as thefe, \vith any thing 
That you behold the while. Your guefts are coming \ 
Lift up your countenance ; as it were the day 
Of celebration of that nuptial, which 
We "two have fworn fhall come. 

Per. O lady fortune, 
Stand you aufpicious ! 

Enter Shepherd, Clown, Mopfa, Dorcas, Servants ; with 
Polixenes, and Camilla difguis'd, 

Flo. See, your guefts approach ; 
Addrefs yourfelf to entertain them fprightly, 
And let's be red with mirth. 

Sbep. Fye, daughter ! when my old wife liv'd, upon 
This day, ihe was both pantler, butler, cook ; 
JBoth dame and fervant : welcom'd all ; ferv'd all : 
Would fing her fong, and dance her turn : now here, 
At upper end o'the table, now, i'the middle ; 
On his fhoulder, and his : her face o'fire 
With labour ; and the thing, fhe took to quench it, 
She would to each one tip : You are retir'd, 
As if you were a feafted one, and not 
The hoflefs of the meeting : Pray you, bid 
Thefe unknown friends to us welcome ; for it is 
A way to make us better friends, more known. 
Come, quench your blufhes ; and prefent yourfelf 
That which you are, miftrefs o'the feaft : Come on, 
And bid us welcome to your fheep-fhearing, 
As your good flock fhall profper. 

Per. Sir, welcome ! [To Pol, and Cam. 

It is my father's will, I fhould take on me 
The hoflefsfhip o'the day : You're welcome, fir ! 
Give me thofe flowers there, Dorcas. Reverend firs. 
For you there's rofemary, and rue ; thefe keep 
jSeeming, and favour, all the winter long : 


W I N T E R's TALE. 377 

'Grace, and remembrance, be to you both, 
And welcome to our fhearing ! 

Pol. Shephevdefs, 

(A fair one are you) well you fit our ages 
With flowers of winter. 

Per. Sir, the year growing ancient, 
Not yet on Cummer's death, nor on the birth 
Of trembling winter, the faireft flowers o'the Ceafon 
Are our carnations, and flreak'd gilly-flowers, 
Which Come call, nature's baftards : of that kind 
Our ruftick garden's barren ; and I care not 
To get flips of them. 

Pol Wherefore, gentle maiden, 
Do you neglecl: them ? 

Per. For I have heard it faid, 
There is an art 3 , which, in their piednefs, fhares 
With great creating nature. 

Pol Say, there IDC ; 

Yet nature is made better by no mean, 
Bat nature makes that mean : Co, o'er that art 
Which, you fay, adds to nature, is an art 
That nature makes. You fee, fweet maid, we many 
A gentler cyon to the wildeft flock ; 
And make conceive a bark of bafer kind 
By bud of nobler race : This is an art 
Which does mend nature : change it rather : but 
The art itfelf is nature, 

Per. So it is. 

* Grace, and remembrance, ] 

Rue was called herb of grace, Rofemary was the emblem of re- 
membrance ; I know not why, unlefs becaufe it was carried at 
funerals. JOHNSON. 

Rofemary was anciently fuppofed to ftrengthen the memory, 
and is prefcribed for that purpole in the books of ancient phyfic. 


3 There is an art, &c.] This art is pretended to be taught at 
the ends of fome of the old books that treat of cookery, &c. but 
being utterly impracticable is not worth exemplification. 



378 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Pol. Then make your garden rich in gilly-flowers >, 
And do not call them baitards. 

Per. I'll not put 

The dibble * in earth to fet one flip of them : 
No more than, were I painted, I would wifh 
This youth fhould fay, 'twere well; and only there- 

Deiire. to breed by me. Here's flowers for you ; 
Hot lavender, mints, favory, marjoram ; 
The marigold, that goes to bed with the fun, 
And with him rifes weeping : thefe are flowers 
Of middle fummer, and, I think, they are given 
To men of middle age : You arc very welcome. 

Cam. I fhould leave grazing, were I of your flock, 
And only live by gazing. 

4 in gilly-flowers,] There is fome further conceit relative 

to gitty -flowers than has yet been difcovered. In a Wom 9n never 
vcx'd, 1632, is the following paflage : A lover is behaving with 
freedom to his miftrefs as they are going into a garden, and after 
(he has alluded to the quality of many herbs, he adds : *' You 
have fair rofes, have you not?" " Yes, fir, (fays ihe) but n 
gilly-flowers.^ Meaning perhaps that fhe would not be treated 
like a gill-flirt, \. e. a wanton, a word often met with in the old 
plays, but written flirt-gill in Romeo and Juliet. I fuppofe gill* 
flirt to be derived, or rather corrupted, from giU$f(Ufr or carna- 
tion, which, though beautiful in its appearance, is apt, in the 
gardener's phrafe, to run from its colours, and change as often as 
a wanton woman, 

Prior, in his Solomon, has taken notice of the fame variability 
in this fpecies of flowers : 

*' the fond carnation loves to (hoot 

'* Two various colours from one parent root." 
In Lyte's Herbal, 1578, fome forts ot gill/flowers are called _/;//*// 
feagnriMf cuckoo gillofers, &c. And in A, W*s CominendaiioH of 
Gafcoine and his Pofas, is the following remark on this fpecies of 
flower : 

" Some thinke \b.^ gillijla^crs iio yield a Delias f^ticH,^ 
See Gafcoigne's Works, 1587. STEEVE.NS. 

5 i dibble ] An instrument uled by gardeners to make 

holes in the earth for the reception of young plants. See it in 
Minjbevd. STEEVEKS. 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 379 

Per. Out, alas ! 

You'd be fo lean, that binds of January 
Would blow you through and through. Now, my 

faireft friend, 

I would, I had fome flowers o'the fpring, that might 
Become your time of day ; and yours, and yours ; 
That wear upon your virgin branches yet 
Your maidenheads growing : O Proferpina 6 , 
For the flowers now, that frighted, thou let'ft fall 
From Dis's waggon ! daffodils, 
That come before the {wallow dares, and take 
The winds of March with beauty ; violets, dim 7 , 

6 - O Proferpina, 

For the. flowers now, that, fritted, thou let Ji fall 
Front Dis's waggon ! - ] 
So, Ovid; 

" - ut fumma we/tern lax aw it d!> era, 
<( Collefti floret tunicis cecidere remijjis" STEEVEN>S 
violets dim, 

But f'ueeter than the lids of Juno's eyes,"] 

d that our author miftakes Juno for Pallas, who was the 

goddcf's of bine eyes. Sweeter than an eye-lid is an odd image : bur 
perhaps he ufes/uwf in the general ienfe, for delightful. 


It was formerly the fafhion to kifs the eyes, as a mark of extra- 
ordinary tendernefs. I have fomewhere met with an account of 
the firft reception one of our kings gave to his new queen, where 
he is faid to have kijjld her fayre eyes. So, in Albuma-Mr^ Trin- 
calo fays : 

" -- O Armellina, 
" Come let me kifs thy brows like my own daughter." 
Again, in Chaucer's Troilus and Crcffeide, v. 1358 : 
" This Troilus full oft her eyin two 
" Can fortokille, &c." 

Again, in an ancient MS. play of Tunon of Athens, in the pof- 
Icliion of Mr. Strutt the engraver : 

" O Juno, be not angry with thy Jove, 
" But let me kitfe thine r>r.f, my fweece delight." p. 6. b. 
The eyes of Juno were as remarkable as thofe of Pallas. 

(sofo'Tn; TTOTMZ Hp% Homer. SlEEVEXS. 
Again, in Marfton's Injlttiate Countcfs, 1608: 
" -- That eye was Juno's, 

Thofe lips were hers that won the golden ball, 
*' That virgin blulh Diana's." MALO.VE-. 


3 So W I N T E R's T A L E. 

But fweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes, 
Or Cytherea's breath ; pale primrofes, 
That die unmarried, ere they can behold 
Bright Phrobus in his ftrength, a malady 
Molt incident to maids ; 8 bold oxlips, and 
The crown-imperial ; lilies of all kinds, 
The flower-de-lis being one ! O, thefe I lack, 
To make you garlands of ; and, my fweet friend, 
To ftrow him o'er and o'er. 

Flor. What ? like a corfe ? 

Per. No, like a bank, for love to lie and play on ; 
Not like a corfe : or if, not to be buried, 
But quick, and in mine arms 9 . Come, take your flowers: 
Methinks, I play as I have feen them do 
In Whitfun* paftorals : fure> this robe of mine 
Does change my difpofition. 

Flo. What you do, 

Still betters what is done. When you fpeak, fweet, 
Yd have you do it ever : when you fmg, 
Yd have you buy and fell fo ; fo give alms ; 
Pray fo ; and, for the ordering your affairs, 
To (ing them too : When you do dance, I wifh you 

-lohi oxlips, ] 

Is the reading of fir T. Hanmer ; the former editions have 
bold. JOHNSON. 

I am not certain but that the old reading is the true one. The 
txlip has not a weak flexible ftalk like the cowslip, but ereds itfelf 
loldly in the face of the fun. Wallis, in his Hifl. of Northumber- 
landj fays, that the great oxlip grows a foot and a half high. It 
fnould be confefled, however, that the colour of the oxlip is taken 
notice of by other writers. So, in the Arraignment of Paris t 

" yellow oxlips bright as burnifh'd <?/</." STEETEKS. 

9 not to le buried^ 

But quick, and in my arms."] 
So, Marfton's Infatiate Countcfs^ 1603: 

" Ifaf>. Heigh ho, you'll bury ;r, I fee. 
'* Rol. In the fwan's down, and tomb thee in my arms." 
There is no earlier edition of ihe Winter's Tale than that in 1623. 


A wave 

W I N T fe R's TALE. S 8i 

A wave o'the fca, that you might ever do 

Nothing but that ; move ftill, ftill fo, 

And own no other fu nation : ' Each your doing, 

So fingular in each particular, 

Crowns what you are doing in the prefent deeds, 

That all your acts are queens. 

Per. O Doricles, 

Your praifes are too large : but that your youth % 
And the true blood, which peeps fairly through it, 
Do plainly give you out an unftain'd Ihepherd ; 
With wifdom I might fear, my Doricles, 
You woo'd me the falfe way. 

Flo. I think, you have ' 
As little fkill to fear, as I have purpofe 
To put you to't. But, come ; our dance, I pray : 
Your hand, my Perdita : fo turtles pair, 
That never mean to part. 

Per. I'll fwear for 'em 4 . 


Each your doing, ~ 

That is, your manner in each aft crowns the ac~h JOHNSON. 
* but that your youth, 

And the true blood which peeps fairly through //,] 
So, Marlowe, in his Hero and Lcander : 

" Through whofe white flun, fofter than foundeit fleep, 

" With damaflce eyes the ruby blood doth peep" 
This poem was certainly publiflied before 1600, being frequently 
quoted in a collection of verfes entitled England 1 ** Parnaffus^ 
printed in that year. From that collection it appears, that Mar- 
lowe wrote only the two firft Selliads, and about ico lines of the 
third, and that the remainder was written by Chapman. OYthe 
Winter's Tale there is no earlier edition than that o'f the folio 
1623. MALO.VE 

3 / think, you have 

As little (kill to fear, ] 

To havejkill to do a thing was a phrafe then in ufe equivalent to^ 
our to have reafon to do a thing,. The Oxford editor, ignorant of 
this, alters it to : 

As little Jkill in fear. 
which has no kind of fenfe in this place. WAR EUR TON. 

* Per. I'll fwear for 'cm.] 

1 fancy this half line is placed to a wrong perfon. And that' the 
king begins his fpeech afide : 


*82 WINTER^ T A L E. 

Pol. This is the prettieft low-born lafs, that ev'ef 
Ran on the gr.een-fward : nothing Ihe does, or feems, 
But fmacks of fomething greater than herfelf ; 
Too noble for this place. 

Cam. He tells her fomething 5 , 
That makes her blood look out : Good (both, Ihe is 
The queen of curds and cream. 

Clo. Come on, ftrike up. 

Dor* Mopfa muft be your miftrefs : marry, garlick, 
To mend her killing with. 

Mop. Now, in good time ! 

Clo. Not a word, a word ; 6 we Hand upon our 

Come, ftrike up. 

Here a dance of Shepherds and Shepherdess. 

Pol. Pray, good ihepherd, what 
Fair fwain is this, which dances with your daughter ? 
Shep. They call him Doricles ; and he boafts him- 

To have a worthy feeding 7 ; but I have it 


Pol. rilfxcarfor'cm, 

Tfjis is the pretticfti &c. JOHNSON. 
3 He tells her fomething, 

That makes her blood look on't : - 3 

SThus all the old editions. The meaning muft be this* The 
prince tells her fomething, thai calls the blood up into her chteks, ana 
makes her blujb. She, but a little before, ufes a Hke expreffion to 
defcribe the prince's lincerity ; 

- your youth 

And the true blood, ivhicb peeps fcrth fairly through it, 

Do plainly give you out an unjlalnd Jhepbcrd. THEOBALD* 

That is, we are now on our behaviour. JOHNSON. 

7 a worthy feeding : - 3 

Certainly Breeding. WAR BUZ TON. 
I conceive/m//7/- to be zfajturt, and a fup 
of pafturage not inconfiderable, not unworthy of my daughter's 
fortune. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnibn's exnlanation is juft. So, in Drayton's Moon-calf: 

" Finding 

W I N T E R's TALE. 383 

Upon his own report, and I believe it ; 

He looks like footh 8 : He fays, he loves my daughter; 

I think fo too ; for never gaz'd the moon 

Upon the water, as he'll ftand, and read, 

As 'twere, my daughter's eyes : and, to be plain, 

I think, there is not half a kils to chufe, 

\Vho loves another beft. 

Pel. She dances featly. 

Sbcp. So ihe does any thing ; though I report it, 
That Ihould be iilent : if young Doricles 
Do light upon her, ihe ftiall bring him that 
Which he not dreams of. 

Enfa- a Servant. 

Ser. O matter, if you did but hear the pedlar at the 
door, you would never dance again after a tabor and 
pipe; no, the bag-pipe could not move you : he fings 
ieveral tunes, fatter than you'll tell money; he utters 
them as he had eaten ballads, and all men's ears grew 
to his tunes. 

Clo. He could never come better : he ihall come in : 
I love a ballad but even too well ; if it be doleful mat- 
ter, merrily fet down 9 , oraverypleafant thing indeed, 
and fung lamentably. 

Ser. He hath fongs, for man, or woman, of all 
fizcs ; no milliner can fo fit his cuflomers with gloves : 

" Finding the feeding for which he had toil'd 
" To have keptfafe, by thefe vile cattle fpoil'd." 
Again, in the fixth fong of the Polyollion : 

" fo much that do rely 

*' Upon their feedings, flocks, and their fertility." 


8 He looks like (both : ] Sooth is truth. Obfolete. So, in 

Lylly's Woman in the Moon, i 597 : 

' Thou doit diflemble, but I mean good/oo//;." 


9 doleful matter merrily fit down ; ) This feems robe another 
ftroke aimed at the title-page or Preiion's Caml/fe^ " A lamenta- 
lle Tragedy, mixed full ot pleujant Mird>> fictv" STEM-ENS. 


3 S4 W I N T E R's TALE. 

he has the prettieft love-fongs for maids ; fo without 
bawdry, which is ftrange; with fuch delicate burdens 
of* dil-do's and fadings ' : jump her and thump her ; and 
where fome ftretch-mouth'd rafcal would, as it were, 
mean mifchief, and break a foul gap into the matter, 
he makes the maid to anfwer, f^hoop, do me no harm, 
good man ; puts him off, flights him, with HShoop, do 
ms no harm, good man *. 

Pol. This is a brave fellow. 

Clo. Believe me, thoutalkefl of an admirable-con- 
ceited fellow. Has he any unbraided wares 3 ? 


1 fadings: ] An Irifli dance of this name is mentioned 

by B. and Jonfon, in The IriJJ} Mafqueat Court, vol. V. p. 421, 2 : 

" and daunfh a fading at te wedding." 

Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of tbc Burning Pcjlle^ 
p. 4.16: 

" I will have him d&nce fading ; fading is a fine jigg." 

So, in TlcBirdin a Cage, by Shirley, 1633: 

" But under her coats the ball be found < - 

" With * fading." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon' s 9;th epigram : 

" See you yond motion ? not the oldfajuig.'' STEEVENS-. 
* ~ Whoop, do me no harm, good man.'] This was the name of 
an old fong. In the famous hiftory of Fryar Bacon we have a bal- 
lad to the tune of, "Ob/ do me no harme good man." FARMER. 

3 unbraided wares ?] purely we mult read braided, for fuch 

are all the ivares mentioned in the anfwer. JOHNSON. 

I believe by unbraided -Mares, the Clown means, has he any 
thing befides laces which are braided, and are the principal com- 
modity fold by ballad-finging pedlars. Yes, replies the fervant, 
he has rittons, &c. which are things not braided, but woven. 
The drift of the Clown's queffion, is either to know whether Auto-- 
lycus has any thing better than is commonly fold by fuch vagrants ; 
any thing worthy to be prefented to his miftrefs : or, as probably, 
by enquiring for fomething which pedlars ufually have not, to 
*fcape laying out his money at all. The following paffage in Any 
Thing for a quiet Life, however, leads me to fuppofethat there is 

here fome allufion which I cannot explain : " She fays that 

you fent ware which is not warrantable, braided ware, and that 
you give not London meafure." Again, in the Honeft Lawyer, 
1616: "A moil fearful peftilence to happen among taylors^ 
There's ajtatute lace (hall undo them." STEEVENS. 


\V I N T E R's T A L E. 385 

Ser* He hath ribbons of all the colours i'the rain- 
bow ; points, more than all the lawyers in Bohemia 
can learnedly handle, though they come to him by 
thegrofs; inkles, 4 caddhTes, cambricks, lawns: why, 
he (ings them over, 'as they were gods or goddefles -: 
you would think, a fmock were a ihe-angel ; he fo 
chants to the 5 fleevc-hand, and the work about the 
fquare on't* 


Unlraided wares may be wares of the bed manufacture. Braid 
in Shakefpeare's All's Well, fefc. aft IV. fc. ii. fignifies deceitful. 
B raided in Bailey's Diet; means faded, or having loft its colour ; 
and why then may not unbra'.ded import whatever is undamaged, 
or what is of the better fort? Several old ftatutes forbid the im- 
portation of ribbands, laces, &c. as " fitlfcly and deceitfully 
wrought." TOLLET. 

+ caddijjes, ] I do not exactly know what caJJlffes are. 

In Shirley's Witty Fair One, 1633, one of the characters fays \ 
" I will have eight velvet pages, and fix footmen in caddis." 

In the Firji Part of K. Hen. IV. I have fuppofed caddis to be 
fenet. Perhaps by fix -footmen in caddis, is meant fix footmen 
with their liveries laced with fuch a kind of worded fluff. As this 
xvorfted lace was particoloured, it might have received its title from 
cadejje, the ancient name for a da-iv. STEEVENS. 

5 jieeve-batid, ] Is put very properly by fir T. Hanmer j 

it was befarejleevc-barid. JOHNSON. 

The old reading is right, or we muft alter fbme paflages in 
other authors. The word Jleeve-hands occurs in Leland's Collec- 
tanea,' 1770, vol. IV. p. 32 j : " A furcoat [of crimfon velvet] 
furred with mynever piire, the coller, flcirts, and fleeve-bands 
garniflied with ribbons of gold." So, in Cotgrave's Dift. " Poi- 
gnet de la chemife" is Englifhed the wriflband, or gathering at the 
Jleevc-hand of a Ihirt." Again^ in Leland's Collectanea, vol. IV. 
p. 293, king James's " {hurt was broded with thred of gold," and 
in p. 341, the word Jle eve -band occurs, and feems to fignify the 
cuffs of a furcoat, as here it may mean the cuffs of a fmoclc, I 
conceive, that the work about the fquare on't, fignifies the work 
or embroidery about the bofom part of a (hi ft, which might then 
have been of a fquare form, or might have a fquare tucker, as 
Anne Bolen and Jane Seymour have in Houbraken's engravings 
of the heads of illullrious perfons. So, in Fairfax's tranilation of 
TaJJb, b. xii. ft. 64 : 

*' Between her breads the cruel weapon rives, 

" Her curious /quarc, irnbofs'd with fweilme gold." 

VOL. IV. (J c 1 fhould 

5 86 W I N T E R's TALE. 

C!o. Pr'ythee, bring him in ; and let him approach 

Per. Forewarn him, that he ufe no fcurrilous words 
in his tunes. 

Clo. You have of thefe pedlers, that have more in 
'em than you'd think, fifter. 

Per. Ay, good brother, or go about to think. 

Enter Autolycus, finging. 

Lawn, as white as driven fnow ; 
Cyprus, black as e'er was crow ; 
Glove $1 asfweet as damajk rofes ; 
Mii/ks for faces, and for nofes ; 
Bugle bracelet, neck-lace amber ; 
Perfume for a lady's chamber ; 
Golden quoifs, andftomachers, 
For my lads to give their dears ; 
Pins, and -poklng-fiicks offteel^, 
What maids lack from head to heel : 


I fliould have taken the fquare for a gorget or ftomacher, but for 
this palfaee in Shakefpeare* TOLLET. 

The following paflage in John Grange's Garden, 1577, may 
likewife tend to the fupport of the ancient reading fleeve-/W</. 
In a poem called The Payntiug of a Curtlzan, he fays : 

** Their fmockes are all bewrought about the necke and 
bande" STEETENS. 

6 polivg-ftickt ofjlcel,~} 

Thefe poking-fticks were heated in the fire, and made ufe of to ad- 
juft the plaits of ruffs. In Marfton's Malecvntent, 1604, is the 

iollowing inftance ; " There is fuch a deale of pinning thefe 

ruffes, when the fine clean fall is worth them all :" and, again, " if 
you fhould chance to take a nap in an afternoon, your falling 
band requires no poking-Jlick to recover his form, feV." So, in 
Middleton's comedy of Blurt Ma/ter Con/table, 1602 ; " Your 
ruff mult fland in print, and for that purpofe get poking-Jllcki with, 
fair long handles, leit they fcorch your hands." Again, in 
Decker's Satiro maftix : " 'Love is a rebato indeed : a rebato 
muft be poak'd; now many women wear rebatoes, and many thut 

wear rebatoes muft bzpoak'd" Again, in the Roaring Girl r 

j6i l ; 

"' came in as I vns poking my ruff*.'* 

Again v 

W I N T E R's T A L E. 387 

Come, buy of me, come : come buy, come buy, 
Buy, lads, or elje your laJJ'es cry : 
Come buy, &c. 

Clo. If I were not in love withMopfa, thou fhould'ft 
take no money of me ; but being enthfall'd as I am, 
it will alfo be the bondage of certain ribbons and 

Mop. I was promis'd them againft the feaft ; but 
they come not too late now. 

Dor. He hath promis'd you more than that, or 
there be liars. 

Mop. He hath piaid you all he promis'd you : may 
be, he has paid you more ; which will ihame you to 
give him again. 

Cloi Is there no manners left among maids ? will 
they wear their plackets, where they fhould bear their 
faces ? Is there not milking-tirhe, when you are go- 
ing to bed, or kill-hole, to whittle off thefe fecrets ; 
but you muft be tittle-tattling before all our guells ? 
'Tis well they are whifpering : 7 Clamour your tongues, 
and not a word more. 


bloelthead ? 

Again, in Monjleur Thomas, 

*' I leave my ftate to pins anc 
*' To farthingales and frounces.' 
Again, in Decker 'sHotir/l Whore, 1635 

'* Where's my raff and poker, you 
" Your ruff and poker are, &c." 
T\\ek poking-Jtiiks are feveral times mentioned in Hey wood's If 
you know not me you know Nof'odv, 1633, fecond part ; and in the 
Torkjbire Tragedy, 1619, which has been attributed to Shakefpeare. 
In the books of the Stationers' Company, July 1590, was entered 
" A ballat entitled Blewe Starche and Poking-fiich. Allowed 
under the hand of the Biihop of London." 

Stowe informs us that " about the lixteenth yeere of thequn 
[Elizabeth] began the making of fteele poki?~Jl;ckcs, and untill 
that time all lawndreffes uled fetting ilickes OUMM of wood or bone." 


7 Clamour^w tongua, ] Th phrafe is tuken from 

C c 2 ringing. 

388 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Mop. I have done. Come, 8 you promised me 3 
tawdry lace, and a pair of fweet gloves. 


ringing. When belis are at the height, in order to ceafe them, 
the repetition of the ftrokes becomes much quicker than before; 
this is called clamouring them. The allufion is humourous. 


The word clamour, when applied to bells, does not fignify in 
Shakefpeare a ceafing, but a continued ringing. Thus ufed in 
Much ado about Nothing, ad V. fc. vii : 

Ben. " If a man do not ere ft in this age his own tomb e'er' 

he dies, he Jlall live no longer in monument than the bells ring 
and the widow lueefs. 

Beat. " And- how long is that, think you ? 
Ben. " Qucfiiojt ; why an hour in clamour, and a quarter in. 


But I Ihould rather think he wrote charm your tongues, as fir 
T. H. has altered it, as he ufes the expreflion, Third Part of 
Henry VI. aft V. fc. vi : 

K.Ed. ** Peace wilful boy, or IJhall charm your tongue" 
And in Othello, aft V. fc. viii : 

lago. " Mijtrcfs, go to, charmj>0r fatigue. 
Emil. '* / will not charm my tongue, lam, &c." 
We meet with the fame expreffion, and in the fame fenfe in B, 
Jonfon's Cynthia's Revels, aft I, fc. i : 

Mercuric. " How now my dangerous braggart in dccimo fexto j 

charm your fkipping tongue, or I'll" 


5 ynu promised me a tawdry lace, andapairoffweetglo-i<esC[ 
Tawdry Ifnc is thus defcribed in Skinner, by his friend Dr. Hen- 
fhawe : " Tawdrie lane, airrigmenta, timbria:, feu fafciola, emtx, 
Nundinis Sx. Etheldredee celebratis : Ut rede raonet Doc. Tho- 
mas Henfhawe.'* Etymol. in voce. We find it in Spenfer's Paf- 
torah, Aprill : 

" And gird in your wafte, 
" For more finenelle, with a tawdrie lace." 

As to the other prefent, promifed by the Clown to Mopfa, of fweet, 
or perfumed gloves, they are frequently mentioned by Shake- 
fpeare, and were very hiihionable in the age or Elizabeth, and 
long afterwards". Thus Autolycus, in the fong juft preceding 
this paflage, offers to ule : 

" Gloves a^fwett as damajk rnfes.'' 

Store's Continuator, Edmund Howes, infbrms'us, that the En- 
gliih could not " make any coftly wafli or perfume, until about ther 
li>urtceuth or fifteenth of the ^ueeue [Elizabeth,] the right ho- 

W I N T E R's TALE. 

do. Have I not told thee, how I was cozcn'd by 
the way, and loft all my money ? 

nourable Edward Vere earle of Oxford came from Italy, and 
brought with him gloves, fweet baggcs, a perfumed leather jer- 
kin, and other pleafant things : and that yeare the fjueene had u 
payre ot perfttmd tbves trimmed onlie with foure tuftes, or rofes, 
of cullered iilkc. The queene took fuch p'.eafure in thofe gloves, 
that fhee was pi&ured with thofe gloves upon her hands : and for 
many yeers utter it was called the trie of Oxforda perfume" Sto^e 1 * 
Annah by Howes, edit. 1614, p. X63. col. 2. 

In the compritus of the burlars of Trinity college,- Ox ford, for 
tl>c year 1631 , the following article occurs : 4i fumigan- 
dis cbirotbecii" Gloves makes a conitant and conliderable article 
of expence in the earlier accompt-books of the college here men- 
tioned ; and without doubt in thofe of many other focieties. 
They were annually given (a cuftom ftillfubfifting) to the college- 
tenants, and often prefented to gueits of diitinttion. But it ap- 
pears .(at leaii, from accompts qi the faid college in preceding 
years) that the practice or. perfuming gloves for tliis purpole was 
fallen into difufe loon after the reign of Charles the Firit. 

So, in the Life and Dsafh of Jack Stra~v, a comedy, 1593 

*' Will you in raith, and I'll give you a tavwrit lace" 
Tom, the miller, ofters this prefent to the queen, if flic will pro- 
cure his pardon. 

It may be worth while to obferve, that thefe tawdry laces were 
not the firings with which the ladies fallen their flays, but were 
worn about their heads, and their vvailts. So, in The Four Ps, 
1569 : 

" Brooches and rings, and all manner of beads, 

" Laces round and flat for vponitns beads" 
Again, in Dray ton's Polyollion, fong the lecond : 

" Of which the Naides and the blew Nereides make 

" Them ta-.^ric; fyr their necks." 

In a marginal note it is obferved that ta-ivdries are a kind of neck- 
laces worn by country wenphes. 
Again, in the fourth fong : 

" not the fmalleft beck, 

" But with "white pebbles makes her teKudries for her 

Again, in the Faithful SLepberJefs of B. and Fletcher: 

" The primrofe chaplet, tawJy tai-e, and ring." 


C c ^ Aut. 

39 W I N T E R ? s TALE. 

Aut. And, indeed, fir, there are cozeners abroad ; 
therefore it behoves men to be wary. 

Clo. Fear not thou, man, thou malt iofe nothing 

Aut. I hope fo, fir ; for I have about me many 
parcels of charge. 

Clo. What haft here ? ballads ? 

Mop. Pray now, buy fome : I love a ballad in 
print, a'-life 2 for then we are fure they are true. 

Aut. Here ? s one, to a very doleful tune, How an 
ufurer's wife was brought to bed with twenty money- 
bags at a burden ; and how me long'd to eat adders* 
heads, and toads carbonado'd. 

Mop. Js it true, think you ? 

Aut. Very true ; and but a month old. 

Dor. Blefs me'from marrying a ufurer ! 

Aut. Here's the midwife's name to't, one miftrefs 
Taleporter; and five or fix honeft wives' that were pre r 
fent : Why mould I carry lies abroad ? 

Mop. Pray you now, buy it. 
Clo. Come on, lay it by : And lets firft fee more 
ballads ; we'll buy the other things" anon. 

* Hove a I alii d in print, a -life \ ] Theobald reads, as it 

has been hrtherto printed, or a life. The text, however, is 

right ; only it fhould be printed thus : a -life. So, it is in B, 
Jonfon : 

*' thou lovft a' -life 

*? Their perfum'd judgment." 

Jt is the abreviation, J fuppofe, of at life ; as a 1 -work is, of at 
work. TYRWHITT. 

This reftoration is certainly proper. So, in Tl-e Ifie tf Gulh > 
1635 : " Now in good deed I love them a'-life too." Again, in 

Monfitur Thomas, by B. and Fletcher : " a clean inftep, 

and that I love a'-l ; fe." Again, in a Trick to catch the Old One, 
1616 : "1 love that fport d'-life, i'faith. Again, in Tom Tyler ^ 
&c. 159?: " Yes, marry, I love this gear cC-lifc." A-life is 
the reading of the only ancient copy of the Ifl/iter's Tale, fol. 1 623. 
Again, in La~v Tricks, &c. 1608 : " He loves to follow his oc- 
tupntion a' -life" 

\V I N T E R's TALE. 39 i 

API. Here's another ballad, Of a filh ' , that appear'd 
upon the coafl, on Wedncfday the fouricore of April, 
forty thoufand fathom above water, and fung this bal- 
lad againfl the hard hearts of maids : it was thought', 
Ihe was a woman, and was turn'd into a cold fifti, for 
flic would not exchange flelh with one that lov'd her: 
The ballad is very pitiful, and as true. 

Dor. Is it true too, think you ? 

Aut. Five jutHces' kands at it ; and vvirncflcs, more 
$han my pack will hold. 

Clo. Lay it by too : Another. 

Ant. This is a merry ballad ; but a very pretty 

Mop. Let's have forne merry ones, 

Aut. Why, this is a paffing merry one; and goes 
to the tune of, Two maids wooing a man: there's fcarce 
a maid weftward, but flie lings it ; 'tis in requeft, I 
can tell you. 

Mop. We can both fing it ; if thou'lt bear a part, 
thou ihalt hear; 'tis in three parts. 

Dor. We had the tune on't a month ago. 

Aut. I can bear my part ; you muft know, 'tis my 
occupation : have at it with you. 


A. Get you hence > for I mttfl go ; 
Where, it fits not you to know. 

D. Whither ? M. 0, whither ? D. Whither ? 

1 a ballad^ Of a fiJJ} ] Perhaps in later times profe 

has obtained a triumph over poetry, though in one or its meanoir 
departments ; tor all dying fpeeches, conteffions, narratives ot 
murders, executions, &c. lecm anciently to have been written iu 
verfe. Whoever was hanged or burnt, a merry, or a lamentable 
ballad (for both epithets are occafionally beftowed on thei'e com- 
pofuions) was immediately entered on the books of the Company 
of Stationers. Thus, in a fubfcquent fcene of this play : - 
*' Such a deal of wonder is broken out within thishouu, that bfl- 
IaJ-fnakers cannot be able to exprefs it." STEEVENS. 

C c 4 M. It 

392 W I N T E R's T A L E.; 

M. It becomes thy oath full well, 
fhou to me thy fecrets tell : 
D. Me too, let me go thither. 

M. Or tbou gcfjl to the grange, or mill: 
P. If to either, thou daft HL 

A! Neither. D. What, neither ? A. Neither* 
D. 1'hou haft fworn my love to be ; 
M. 1'hou haft fworn it more to me: 

"Then, whither go'ft ? fay, whither f 

:Glo. We'll have this fong out anon by ourfelves ; 
My father and the gentlemen are in 2 fad talk, and 
we'll not trouble them : come, bring away thy pack 
after me. Wenches, I'll buy for you both; Pedler, 
let's have the firlt choice. Follow me, girls, 

Aut. And you lhall pay well for 'em. 

Will you buy any tape, 

Or lace for your cape, 
My dair.ty duck, my dear-a ? 

Anyfilk, any thread, 

Any toys for your head, 
Cf the new'J}, and fin' ft, fin ft wear -a? 

Come to the pedler ; 

Money 's a medler, 
^hat doth J utter all wens' ware-a, 

[Exit Clown, Autolycus, Dorcas, an 

Enter a Servant. 

Ser. 4 Mailer, there are three carters, three Ihep- 


*. fad ] Tex fit-low, -JOHNSON. 

3 That doth utter all ;ncnS =ivare-a."\ 
To Titter. To bring out, or produce. JoHXSON. 

4 yiciflcr, there arc three carters, three Jkcpbcrds. three neat- 

. and three Jiivhie-kerJs, ] Thus all the printed copies 

hitherto. No\v, in two fpe^sches after this, thefe are called four 
three's of hcrdfmcn. But coulji the carttrs properly be called 

herdfmen f 

W I N T E R's TALE. 393 

herds, three neat-herds, three fwine-herds, that have 
made'themfelves all men of hair s ; they call them, 
felves, falticrs : and they have a dance, which the 
wenches fay is a gallimaufry qf gambols, becaufe 
they are not in't; but they themfelves are o'the mind, 
(if it be not too rough for fome, that know little but 
bowling 6 ) it will pleale plentifully. 

$bep. Away ! we'll none on't ; here has been too 
much homely foolery already : I know, l;r, we weary 

Pol. You weary thofe that refrcfh us ; Pray, lct ? s 
fee thefe four threes of herdfmen. 

Sgr. On.e three of them, by their own report, fir, 
hath danc'd before the king ; and not the worft of 
the three, Ijut jumps twelve foot and a half by the 

herafiien ? At leaft, they have not the final fyllable, herd, in their 
names ; which, I believe, Shakefpeare intended, all the four 

three's fhould have. I therefore guefs that he wrote : Majhr, 

tiocfe are three goat-herds, feV. And fo, I think, we take in the 
four fpecies of cattle ufually tended by berdfmen, THEOBALD. 

5 all men of hair ; ] i.e. nimble, that leap as if they 

rebounded : The phrafe is taken from tennis-balk, which were 
fluffed with hair. So, in Henry V. it is laid of a courfer. 

*' He bounds as if his entrails were hairs" WARBURTON. 
This is a ftrange interpretation. " Errors," lays Dryden, "Jtow 
vfon the Surface," but there are men who will fetch them from the 
bottom. Men of hair, are hairy men, en fatyrs. A dance of fatyrs 
was no unufual entertainment in the middle ages. At a great 
feftival celebrated in France, the king and fome of the nobles per- 
fonated fatyrs dreiled in clofe habits, tufted or fliagged all over, 
to imitate hair. They began a wild dance, and in the tumult of 
their merriment one of them went too near a candle and fet fire 
;o his fatyr's garb, the flame ran inltantly over the loole tufty, 
and fpread itfelf to the drels of thofe that were next him ; a great 
number of the dancers were cruelly fcorched, being neither able 
to throw off their coats nor extinguish them. The king had fet 
himfelf in the lap of the dutchefs of Burgundy, who threw her 
robe over him and faved him. JOHNSON. 

6 bowling) ] oil-ling, I believe, is here a term for a dance 
pf fmooth motion without great exertion of agility. JOHNSON. 


394 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Sbep. Leave your prating ; fince thefc good men 
are pleas'd, let them come in ; but quickly now. 

$er. Why, they Hay at door, fir. 

Here a dance of twelve Satyrs. 

Pol [Afide.~] O, father, you'll know more of that 

hereafter 7 . 

Is it not too far gone ? 'Tis time to part them. 
He's fimple, and tells much. How now, fair fhep- 

herd ? 

Your heart is full of fomething, that doth take 
Your mind from feafling. Sooth, when I was young, 
And handed love, as you do, I was wont 
To load my fhe with knacks : I would have ranfack'd 
The pedler's filken treafury, and have pour'd it 
To her acceptance ; you have let him go, 
And nothing marted with him : If your lafs 
Interpretation ihould abufe ; and call this, 
Your lack of love, or bounty ; you were flraited 
For a reply, at lealt, if you make a care 
Of happy holding her. 
Flo. Old fir, I know, 
She prizes not fuch trifles as thefe are : 
The gifts, me looks from me, arepack'd, and locked, 
Up in my heart; which I have given already, 
But not deliver'd. O, hear me breathe my life 
Before this ancient fir, who, it fhould feem, 
Hath fometime lov'd : I take thy hand ; this hand, 
As foft as dove's down, and as white as it ; 
Or Ethiopian's tooth, or the fann'd mow % 

7 Pol. O, father, you'll kn<rjj more of that hereafter."} 
This is replied by the king in anfwer to the fhepherd's faying, 
fince tbefe good men are f leafed. Yet the Oxford editor, I can't tell 
why, gives this line to Florizel, fince Florizel and the old man 
were not in converfation. \\~AHBURTON. 

8 or the fann'd f now, "\ So, in the Midfummer Night's 

tyrtam : 

" That pure congealed white, high Taurus' fnow, 
' Fann'd by the eaftern wind, turns to a crow, 
" When thJou hold'il up thy hand." STEEVEKS. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 395 

That's bolted by the northern blafls twice o'er. 

Pol. What follows this ? 

How prettily the young fvvain feerns to wafti 

The hand, was fair before ! I have put you out : 

Bur, to your proteftation ; let me hear 

What you profefs. 

Flo. Do, and be wifnefs to't. 
Pol. And this my neighbour too ? 
Flo. And he, and more 

Than he, and men ; the earth, the heavens, and all ? 
That, were I crown'd the moft imperial monarch, 
Thereof moft worthy ; were I the faireft youth 
That ever made eye fwerve ; had force, and know* 


More than was ever man's, I would not prize them, 
Without her love : for her, employ them all ; 
Commend them, and condemn them, to her fervice ? 
Or to their own perdition. 
Pol. ^Fairly offer'd. 
Cam. This mews a found affection. 
Sbcp. But my daughter, 
Say you the like to him ? 

Per. I cannot fpeak 

So well, nothing lo well ; no, nor mean better : 
By the pattern of mine own thoughts I cut out 
The purity of his. 

Sbep. Take hands, a bargain ; 
And, friends unknown, you fhall bear witnefs to't : 
J give my daughter to him, and will make 
jier portion equal his. 

Flo. Q, that mud be 

I'the virtue of yqur daughter : one being dead, 
I fhall have more than you can dream of yet ; 
Enough then for your wonder : But, come on* 
Contract us 'fore thefe witnefFes. 

Sbep. Come, your hand ; 
And, daughter, yours. 

fol. Soft, fwain, a while, 'befeech you ; 


S9 6 W I N T E R's TALE. 
Have you a father ? 

Flo. I have : But what of him ? 

Pol, Knows he of this ? 

Flo. He neither does, nor lhall. 

Pol Methinks, a father 
Is, at the nuptial of his fon, a gueft 
That befl becomes the table. Fray you, once rnor e ; 
Is not your father grown incapable 
Of reafona!5le affairs ? is he not ftupid 
With age, and altering rheums ? Can he fpeak ? 

hear ? 

Know man from man r difpute his own eftate 9 ? 
Lies he not bed-rid ? and again does nothing, 
But what he did being chilclilh ? 

Flo. No, good fir; 

He has his health, and ampler flrength, indeed, 
Than moft have of his age. 

Pol. By my white beard, 
You offer him, if this be fo, a wrong 
Something unfilial : Reafon, my fon 
Should chufe himfelf a wife; but as good reafon, 
The father (all whofe joy is nothing elfe 
But fair pofterity) Ihould hold fome counfel 
In fuch a bufinefs. 

Flo. I yield all this ; 

But, for fome other reafons, my grave fir, 
Which 'tis not fit you know, I not acquaint 
My father of this bufinefs. 

Pol. Let him know't. 

Flo. He lhall not. 

Pol. Pr'ythee, let him. 

Flo. No, he muft not. 

9 difpute bis o-ivrt cf.ate ?] 

Perhaps for difpute we might read compute ; but difpute his ejtate 
may be the fame with talk over his affairs. JOHNSON. 

Does not this allude to the next heir fuing for the eilate in cafe* 
f imbecillity, lunacy, irV. CHAMIES. 

W I N T E R's T A L E. g97 

. Let him, my fon ; he fhall not need to grieve 
At knowing of thy choice. - 

Flo. Come, come, he muft not I- 
Mark our contract 

Pol. Mark your divorce, young fir, 

[Difcovering himfelf* 

Whom fon I. dare not call ; thou art too bafe 
To be acknowledged : Thou a fcepter's heir, 
That thus affecYit a Iheep-hook ! Thou old traytor, 
I am forry, that, by hanging thee, I can but 
Shorten thy life one week. And thou, frelh piece 
Of excellent witchcraft ; who, of force, muft know 
The royal fool thou cop'ft with ; 

Shep. O, my heart ! 

Pol. I'll have thy beauty fcratch'd with briars, and 


More homely than thy ftate. For thee, fond boy, 
If I may ever know, thou doft but figh, 
That thou no more lhalt never fee this knack, (as 


I mean thou lhalt) we'll bar thee from fucccffion ; 
Not hold thee of our blood, no not our kin, 
1 Far than Deucalion off: Mark thou my words ; 
Follow us to the court. Thou churl, for this time, 
Though full of our difpleafure, yet we free thee 
From the dead blow of it. And you, enchantment, 
Worthy enough a herdfman ; yea, him too, 
That makes himfelf, but for our honour therein, 

1 Far than ] 

I think for far than we fhould read far as. We will not hold thee 
of our kin even ib tar off as Deucalion the common ancetbr of all. 


The okl reading farre^ i. e. further, is the true one. The an- 
cient comparative otfer was ferret: See the O/offarifsto Robt. of 
Glocefter and Robt. of Brunne. This, in the time of Chaucer, 
was foftened into ferrf. 

" But er I here thee moche ferre." H. of Fa. P>. 2. v. 9:. 
" Thus was it peinted, I can fay noferr f ." 

Ktiigbft Ta/ei 206 z. TYR \THITT. 


39 8 .W I N T E R's TALE. 

Unworthy thee, if ever, henceforth, thou 

Thefe rural latches to his entrance open, 

Or hoop his body more with thy embraces, 

I will devife a death as cruel for thee, 

As thou art tender to it. [Exiit 

Per. Even here undone ! 
I was not much afeard * : for oncCj or t \\ice, 
I was about to fpeak ; and tell him plainly, 
The felf-fame fun, that fhines upon his court, 
Hides not hisvifage from our cottage, but 
Looks on alike, Wilt pleafc you, fir, be gone ? 

[To FlorizeL 

I told you, what would come of this : 'Befeech youj 
Of your own ftate take care : this dream of mine, 
Being now awake, I'll queen it no inch farther, 
But milk my ewes, and weep. 

Cam. Why, how now, father ? 
Speak, ere thou dieft. 

Shep. I cannot fpeak, nor think, 
Nor dare to know that which I know. ^O, fir, 

[To FlorizeL 

You have undone a man of fourfcore three 3 , 
That thought to fill his grave in quiet ; yea, 
To die upon the bed my father dy'd, 
To lie clofe by his honeft bones : but now 
Some hangman muft put on my fhrowd, and lay me 

^ I iveti not mac/j afiarJ, &TC.} 

The chara&er is here finely fuftained. To have made her quite 
aftonifhed at the king's difcovery of himfelf, had not become 
her birth ; and to have given her prefence of mind to have made 
this reply to the king, had not become her education. 


3 Tou have undone a man of four fi ore three, &C.J 
Thefe fentiments, which the poet has heighten'd by a flrain of 
ridicule that runs through them, admirably characterize the 
fpeaker ; whofe felfifhnefs is feen in concealing the adventure of 
Perdita ; and here fupported, by (hewing no regard for his Ion or 
"her, but being taken up entirely with himfelf, though fourf>.orc 
tfrree. WAOCRTON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 399 
Where no prlcft fhovels-in dufl *. O curfed wretch ! 

[To Perdita. 

That knew'ft this was the prince, and would'it ad- 

To mingle faith with him. Undone ! undone I 
If I might die within this hour, I have iiv'd 
To die when I defire. [Exit. 

Flo. Why look you fo upon me ? 
I am but forry, not afeard ; delay'd, 
But nothing alter'd : What I was, I am : 
More draining on, for plucking back; not following 
My learn unwillingly. 

Cam. Gracious my lord, 
You know your father's temper : at this time 
He will allow no fpecch, which, I do guefs, 
You do not purpofe to him ; and as hardly 
Will he endure your fight as yet, I fear : 
Then, 'till the fury of his highnefs fettle, 
Come not before him. 

Flo. I not purpofe it. 
I think, Camillo. 

Cam. Even he, my lord. 

Per. How often have I told you, 'twould be thus ? 
How often faid, my dignity would laft 
But *till 'twere known ? 

Flo. It cannot fail, but by 
The violation of my faith ; And then 
Let nature crulh the fides o'the earth together, 
5 And mar the feeds within ! Lift up thy looks : 
From my fucceflion wipe me, father ! I 
Am heir to my affection. 

4 Where no prieft Jbovth-in JuJ?.' ] 

This part of the prieft\ office might be remembered in Shake- 
Ipearc's time : it was not left oft" till the reign of Edward the VI. 


5 And mar the feeds within ! ] 
So, in Masbctb : 

' And nature's trmim tumble all together," JimvEN't. 


400 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Cam. Be advis'd. 

Flo. I am ; and by~my fancy 6 : if my reafoii 
Will thereto be obedient, I have reafon ; 
If not, my fenfes, better pleased with madncfs, 
Do bid it welcome. 

Cam. This is defperate, fir* 

F/0 So call it : but it does fulfil my vow ; 
I needs mull think it honefty. Camillo, 
Not for Bohemia, nor the pomp that may 
Be thereat glcan'd ; for all the fun fees^ or 
The clofe earth wombs, or the profound fea hides 
In unknown fathoms, will I break my oath 
To this my fair belov'd : Therefore, I pray you, 
As you have ever been my father's friend, 
When he lhall mifs me, (as, in faith, I mean not 
To fee him any more) call your good counfels 
Upon his paffion ; Let myfelf, and fortune, 
Tug for the time to Come* This you may know,- 
And fo deliver, I an~i put to fea 
With her, whom here I cannot hold on Ihore ; 
And, moft opportune to our need, I have 
A veflel rides faft by, but not prepar'd 
For this defign. What courfe I mean to hold^ 
Shall nothing benefit your knowledge, nor 
Concern me the reporting. 

Cam. O my lord, 

I would your fpirit were eafier for advice, 
Or ftronger for yonr need, 

Flo. Hark, Perdita. 

I'll hear you by and by. [7b Camilk* 

Cam. [_Afide.~\ He's irremoveable^ 
Refolv'd for flight : Now were I happy, if 
His going I could frame to ferve my turn ; 

6 and by my fancy : ] 

It muft be remembered that fancy in our author very often, as in 
this place, means love. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Midfummer Night's Dream : 

** Fair Helena infancy following me." STEEVENS* 


W I N T E R's T A X K. 4 ot 

Save him from danger, do him love~?nd honour ; 
Purchafe the fight again of dear Sicilia, 
-And that unhappy king, my matter, whom 
I fo much thirft to fee. 

Flo. Now, good Camillo, 
I am fo fraught with curious bufinefs, that 
I leave out ceremony. ' 

Cam. Sir, I think, 

You have heard of my poor fervices, i'the love 
That I have borne your father ? 

Flo. Very nobly 

Have you deferv'd : it is my father's muiickj 
To fpeak your deeds ; not little of his care 
To have them recompenc'd as thought on. 

Cam. Well, my lord, 
If you may pleafe to think I love the king ; 
And, through him, what is neareftto him, which is 
Your gracious felf ; embrace but my direction, 
(If your more ponderous and fettled project 
May fuffer alteration) on mine honour, 
I'll point you where you fliall have fuch receiving 
As fliall become your highnefs ; where you may 
Enjoy your miftrefs ; from the whom, I fee, 
There's no disjunction to be made, but by 
(As heavens forefend !) your ruin : Marry her ; 
And (with my beft endeavours in your abfence) 
Your difcontenting father I'll flrive to qualify, 
And bring him up to liking. 

Flo. How, Camillo, 
May this, almoil a miracle, be done ? 
That I may call thec fomething more than man, 
And, after that, truft to thee. 
Cam. Have you thought on 
A place, whereto you'll go ? 

Flo. Not any yet : 

But as the unthought-on accident is guilty 
To what we wildly do ; fo we profcfs 

VOL. IV. D d Our- 

4 oz W I N T E R's TALE. 

7 Ourfelves to be the Haves of chance, and flies 
Of every wind that blows. 

Cam. Then lill to me : 

This follows, if you will not change your purpofe, 
But undergo this flight; Make for Sicilia; 
And there prefent yourfelf, and your fair princefs, 
(For fo, I fee, fhe muft be) Yore Leontes ; 
She fhall be habited, as it becomes 
The partner of your bed. Methinks, I fee 
Leontes, opening his free arms, and weeping 
His welcomes forth : afks thee, the fon, forgivenefs, 
As 'twere i'the father's perfon : kiffes the hands 
Of your frefii princefs : o'er and o'er divides him 
"Twixt hisunkindnefs and his kindnefs ; the one 
He chides to hell, and bids the other grow ? 
Fafter than thought, or time. 

Flo. Worthy Camillo, 
What colour for my vifitation fliall I 
Hold up before him ? 

Cam. Sent by the king your father 
To greet him, and to give him comforts. Sir, 
The manner of your bearing towards him, with 
What you, as from your father, fliall deliver, 
Things known betwixt us three, I'll write you down 8 : 


1 Our/elves to le the JJavi's of chance, andjliei\ 
As chance has driven me to thefe extremities, fo I commit myfelf 
. to chance to be conducted through them. JOHNSON. 

8 Things known betwixt us three, 1*11 ivrite you down : 

The which Jhall point you forth at every fitting, 

What you muft fay ; ] 

Every fitting, methinks, gives but a very poor idea. JLvecyfittitijfr 
as I have ventur'd to correct the text, means every convenient op- 
portunity : every juncture, when it is ft to fpeak of fuch or fuch 
a point. THEOBALD. 

The which fyatt point you forth at every fitting,] 
Every fating, fays Mr. Theobald, methinks, gives us lut a very 
poor idea. But a poor idea is better than none ; which it comes 
to, when he has alter'dit to every fitting. The truth is, the com- 
mon reading is very expreffive ; and means, at every audience 


W I N T E R's TALE. 403 

The which fhall point you forth, at every fitting, 
What you muft fay ; that he ftiall not perceive, 
But that you have your father's bofom there, 
And fpeak his very heart. 

Flo. I am bound to you : 
There is fome fap in this. 

Cam. A courfe more promifing 
Than a wild dedication of yourfelvcs 
To unpath'd waters, undream'd fhorcs ; mod certain, 
To miferies enough : no hope to help you ; 
But, as you fhake off one, to take another : 
Nothing fo certain, as your anchors ; who 
Do their beft office, if they can but flay you 
Where you'll be loth to be : Befides, you know, 
Profperity's the very bond of love ; 
Whofe frefh complexion and whofe heart together 
Affliction alters. 

Per. One of thefe is true : 
I think, affliction may fubdue the cheek, 
But not take in 9 the mind. 

Cam. Yea, fay you fo ? 
There fliall not, at your father's houfe, thefe feven 

Be born another fuch. 

Flo. My good Camillo, 
She is as forward of her breeding, as 
She is i'the rear of birth. 

Cam. I cannot fay, 'tis pity 

you fhall have of th king and council. The council-days being, 
iu our author's time, called, in common fpeech, the fittings. 


i. . .1 at every fitting,] 

Howel, in one of his letters, fays: " My lord prefident hopes to 
be at the next fitting in York." FARMER. 

9 But not take in the mind.'] 

To take in anciently meant to conquer, to get the better of. So, in 
Anthony and Cleopatra -' 

" He could fo quickly cut th* Ionian feas, 

*' And take :>i Toryne." STE$VENS. 

D d 2 She 

She lacks inilruttions ; for Ihe feems a miftrefs 1 
To mo ft that teach. 

Per. Your pardon, fir, for this ; 
I'll blufh you thanks. 

Flo. My prettieft Perdita. 

But, oh, the thorns we ftand upon ! Camillo, 

Preferver of my father, now of me ; 

The medicin of cur houfe ! how lhall we do ? 

We are not furnilh'd like Bohemia's fon ; 

Nor mail appear in Sicily 

Cam. My lord, 

Fear none of this : I think, you know, my fortunes 
Do all lie there : it Ihall be fo my care 
To have you royally appointed, as if 
The fcene, you play, were mine. For inftance, fir, 
That you- may know you lhall not want, one word. 

[They talk afide. 

Enter Autolycus- 

Aut. Ha, ha ! what a fool honefty is \ and truft, 
his fworn brother, a very fimple gentleman ! : I have 
fold all my trumpery ; not a counterfeit ftone, not a 

1 1 have fold all my trumpery ; not a counterfeit jlone, not a 

ribbon, g-afs, pomander, ] A pomander was a little ball made 

of perfumes, and worn in the pocket, or about the neck, to pre- 
vent infection in times of plague. In a tract, intitled, Certain 
necejj'ary Directions, as well for curing the Plague, as for preventing 
Infiftion, printed 1636, there are directions for making two forts 
of fomandcrs, one for the rich, and another for the poor. 


In Lingua, or a Comlat oftJjc Tongue, &c. 1607, is the follow- 
ing receipt given, act IV. fc. iii : 

" Your only way to make a apod-fMiaaderia this. Take an 
ounce of the pureft garden mould, cleans'd and fteep'd fevendays 
in change of motherlels role-water. Then take the beft labdanum, 
benjoin, both lloraxes, amber-gris and civet and muflc. Incor- 
porate them together and work them into what form you pleafe. 
This, if your 'breath be not too valiant, will make you fmell as 
fweet as my lady's dog." 

The fpeaker represents ODO-R. STEEVEXS, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 405 

ribbon, glafs, pomander, brooch, table-book, ballad, 
knife, tape, glove, flioe-tye, bracelet, horn-ring, to 
keep my pack from fading : they throng who fhould 
buy firit; as if my trinkets had been * hallowed, and 
brought a benediction to the buyer: by which means, 
Ifaw whofe purfe was bell in piclure; and, what Ifaw, 
to my good ufe, I remember'd. My clown, (who 
wants but fomething to be a reaibnable man) grew fo 
in love with the wenches' fong, that he 'would not 
ftir his pettitoes, 'till he had both tune and words ; 
which fo drew the reft of the herd to me, that all 
their other fenfes ftuck in ears : you might have 
pinch'd a placket 3 , it was fenfelefs; 'twas nothing, to 
geld a codpiece of a purfe; I would have filed keys 
off, that hung in chains : no hearing, no feeling, but 
my fir's fong, and admiring the nothing of it. So 
that, in this time of lethargy, I pick'd and cut molt 
of their feftival purfes : and had not the old man come 
in with a whoo-bub againft his daughter andthe king's/ 
fon, and fcar'd my choughs from the chaff, I had not 
Jeft a purfe alive in the whole army. 

[Camillo, Florizeland Perdita, come forward. 

Cam. Nay, but my letters by this means beingthere 
So foon as you arrive, ihall clear that doubt. 

Flo. And thofe that you'll procure from king Lc- 

Cam. Shall fatisfy your father. 

Per. Happy be you ! 
All, that you fpeak, fhews fair. 

Cam. Who have we here ? \_SeehgAutolycus, 

We'll make an inftrumcnt of this ; omit 

1 as if my trinkets badlecn hallowed,- ] This alludes 

to beads often fold by the Romanics, vis made particularly effica- 
cious by the touch of fome relick. JOHNSON. 

3 a placket, ] Plucket is properly the opening in a 

woman's petticoat. It is here figuratively ufed. So perhaps, 
again, in K. I, car ; 

" Keep thy hand out of plackets" STEEVENS. 

D d 3 Nothing, 

4 o6 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Nothing, may give us aid. 

Ant. If they have over-heard me now, why 

hanging. \_Ajidc. 

Cam. How now, good fellow ? Why fhakeft thou fo ? 
Fear not man ; here's no harm intended to thee. 

Aut. I am a poor fellow, fir. 

Cam. Why, be fo ftill ; here's nobody wil fteal 
that from thee : Yet, for the outfideof thy poverty, we 
muft make an exchange : therefore, difcafe thee in- 
ftantly, (thou mufl think, there's neceffity in't) and 
change garments with this gentleman : Though the 
pennyworth, on his fide, be the worft, yet hold thee, 
there's fome 4 boot. 

Ant. I am a poor fellow, fir : I know ye well 
enough. [Afide. 

Cam. Nay, pr'ythee, difpatch : the gentleman is 
half flead already. 

Aut. Are you in earned, fir ? I fmell the trick of 
it. [Afide. 

Fk. Difpatch, I pr'ythee. 

Aut. Indeed, I have hadearneft; but I cannot with 
conscience take it. 

Cam. Unbuckle, unbuckle. 
Fortunate miftrefs, let my prophecy 
Come home to you ! you muft retire yourfelf 
Into fome covert : take your fweet-h cart's hat, 
And pluck it o'er your brows ; muffle your face ; 
Difmantle you ; and as you can, difliken 
The truth of your own feeming ; that you may, 
(For I do fear eyes over you) to mip-board 
Get undefcry'd. 

Per. I fee, the play fo lies, . 
That I muft bear a part. 

Cam. No remedy. 
Have you done there ? 

* loot."] That is, fofnctbing over and aOcrc, or ;is we now 

fay, Jomething to boot. JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 407 

Flo. Should I now meet my father, 
He would not call me fon. 

Cam. Nay, you fhall have no hat : 
Come, lady, come. Farcwel, my friend. 

Aut. Adieu, fir. 

Flo. O Perdita, what have we twain forgot ? 
Pray you, a word. 

Cam. What I do next, fhall be, to tell the king 

Of this cfcape, and whither they are bound ; 
Wherein, my hope is, I ihall fo prevail, 
To force him after : in whofe company 
I Ihall review Sicilia ; for whofe fight 
I have a woman*s longing. 

Flo. Fortune fpeed us ! 
Thus we fet on, Camillo, to the fea-fidc. 

Cam. The fwiftcr fpeed, the better. 

[Exeunt Flo. Per. and Cam. 

Aut. I underltand the bufmefs, I hear it : To have 
an open ear, a quick eye, and a nimble hand, is ne- 
celTary for a cut-purfe ; a good nole is requifite alfo, 
to fmell out work for the other fenfes. I fee, this is 
the time that the unjuft man doth thrive. What an 
exchange had this been, without boot ? what a boot 
is here, with this exchange ? Sure, the gods do this 
year connive at us, and \vc may do any thing extem- 
pore. The prince himfelf is about a piece of iniquity ; 
Healing away from his father, with his clog at his 
heels : 5 If I thought it were not a piece of honefty to 
acquaint the king withal, I would do't : I hold it 
the more knavery to conceal it ; and therein am I 
conftant to my profeffion. 

5 If I thought it were nnt a piece of honefty to acquaint the 

king withal, I would deft : ] This is the reading of fir T. Han- 
mer, inflead of, if I thought it were a piece of bontfly to acquaint 
the king withal, J'dnottfoif. JOHNSON. 

D d 4 Enter 

4o8 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Enter Cloiun and Shepherd. 

Afide, afide ; here's more matter for a hot brain : 
Every lane's end, every lhop ? church, feffion, hang- 
ing, yields a careful man work. 

Clo. See, fee; what a man you are now ! there is no 
other way, but to tell the king flic's a changeling, 
and none of your flelh and blood. 

Shep. Nay, but hear me. 

Clo. Nay, but hear me. 

Step. Go to then. 

Clo. She being none of your fleih and blood, your 
flelh and blood has not offended the king; and, fo, 
your flefh and blood is not to be punifh'd by him. 
Shew thofe things you found about her ; thofe fecret 
things, all but what Ihe has with her : This being 
done, let the law go whittle ; I warrant you. 

Shep. I will tell the king all, every word, yea, and 
his fons pranks too; who, I may fay, is no honeft 
man neither to his father, nor to me, to go about to 
make me the king's brother-in-law. 

Clo. Indeed, brother-in-law was the fartheft offyou 
could have been to him ; and then your blood had 
been the dearer, by I know how much an ounce. 

Ant. Very wifely ; puppies ! [Afide. 

Shep. Well ; let us to the king ; there is that in 
this farthel, will make him fcratch his beard. 

Aut. I know not, what impediment this complaint 
may be to the flight of my mafter. 

Clo. Tray heartily he be at palace. 

Aut. Though I am not naturally honeft, I am fp 

fometimes by chance : Let me pocket up my 

pedler's 6 excrement. How now, fuflicks ? whi- 
ther are you bound ? 

Shep % 

6 feJIer's excrement. ] Is pedler's beard. JOHNSON. 

So, in the old tragedy of Soliman and Perfeda^ \ 599 : 

" WhofQ 

W I N T E R's T A L E. 409 

Skep. To the palace, an it like your worfhip. 

Ant. Your affairs there ? what ? with whom ? 
the condition of that farthel, the place of your 
dwelling, your names, your ages, or what having, 
breeding, and any thing that is fitting to be known, 

Clo. We are but plain fellows, fir. 

Aut. A lie ; you are rough and hairy : Let me have 
no. lying ; it becomes none but tradefmen, and they 
pften give us foldiers the lie : but we pay them for 
it with flamped coin, not {tabbing fteel ; therefore 
they do not give us the lye 7 . 

Clo. Your worfhip had like to have given us one, 
if you had not taken yourfelf with the manner. 

Sbep. Are you a courtier, an't like you, fir ? 

Aut. Whether it like me, or no, I am a courtier. 
See'ft thou not the air of the court, in thefe enfold- 
ings ? hath not my gait in it, the meafure of the 
court ? receives not thy nofe court-odour from me ? 
reflect I not on thy bafenefs, court-contempt ? 
Think'ft thou, for that I infinuate, or toze 8 from 


* Whofe chin bears no impreffion of manhood, 

*' Not a hair, not an excrement." 
Again, in Love 3 Labour's Loft : 

" dally with my excrement, with my muftachio." 

Again, in the Comedy of Errors : ** Why is Time fuch a niggard 
of his hair, being, as it is, fo plentiful an excrement ?" 


7 therefore ihey do not give us the lye>~\ Dele the negative: 
the fenfe requires it. The joke is this, they have a profit in lying 
to us, by advancing the price of their commodities ; therefore 
they do lie. WAR BURTON, 

The meaning is, they are paid for lying, therefore they do not 
give us the lye, theyy^// it us. JOHNSON. 

8 infmuate, or toze ] The rir ft folio reads at toaze; 

the fecond or toaze. To feaze, or toze^ is to disentangle wool or 
flax. Autolycus adopts a phrafeology which he fuppoies to be 
intelligible to the Clown, who would not have unclerftood the 
word infinuatc. without fuch a comment on it. STEEVENS. 

mi Think* Jl thai) for that 1 infinuate, or toze from t/jce &c,] 


4 io W I N T E R's T A L E. 

thee thy bufinefs, I am therefore no courtier ? I am 
courtier, cap-a-pe ; and one that will either pufh on, 
or pluck back thy buiinefs there : whereupon I com- 
mand thee to open thy affair. 

Shep. My bufinefs, fir, is to the king. 

Aut. What advocate haftthou to him? 

Shep. I know not, an't like you. 

Clo. Advocate's the court-word for a pheafant 9 ; 
fay, you have none. 

Shep. None, fir ; I have no pheafant, cock, nor 

Aut. How blefs'd are we, that are not fimple men ! 
Yet nature might have made me as thefe are, 
Therefore I will not difdain. 

Clo. This cannot be but a great courtier. 

Shep. His garments are rich, but he wears them not 

Clo. He feems to be the more noble in being fan- 
taftical : a great man, I'll warrant ; I know, by the 
picking on's teeth '. 

To injinuate, I believe, means here, to cajole, to talk with con- 
defcenfion and humility. So, incur author's Fenus and Adonis : 
" With death fhe humbly doth infinuate, 
" Tells him of trophies, ilatues, tombs, and ftories, 
*' His victories, his triumphs, and his glories." 
The word toaze is ufedjn Mcafure for Meafurc, in the fame fenfe 
as here : 

" We'll toaze you joint by joint, 
" But we will know this purpofe." MALOXE. 

9 Adv ocafe's the court-word fo r a pbeafant; ] Thisfatire, on 

the briber)' of courts, is not unplealant. WARBURTOX. 

This fatire, or this pleafantry, I confefs myfelf not well to un- 
derftand. JOHNSON. 

As he was a fuitor from the country, the Clown fuppofes his fa- 
ther fliould have brought a prefent of game, and therefore ima- 
gines, when Autolycus alks him what advocate he has, that by the 
word advocate he means a pheafant. STEEVENS. 

* a great man, by the picking on 1 s teeth.'} It feems, that 

to pick the teeth was, at this time, a mark of fome pretenflon to 
greatnefs or elegance. So, the Baflard, in King John, Ipeaking 
of the traveller, fays: 

4i He and bh ticJt-tooib at my worfhip's mefs." JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 4 n 

Aut. The farthel there ? what's i'the farthel ? 
Wherefore that box ? 

Skep. Sir, there lies fuch fecrets in this farthel, and 
box, which none mnft know but the king; and which 
he mall know within this hour, if I may come to the 
ipeech of him. 

Aut. Ae;e, thou haft loft thy labour. 

Shop. Why, fir ? 

Aut. The king is not at the palace ; he is gone 
aboard a new fhip to purge melancholy, and air him- 
felf : For, if thou be'ft capable of things ferious, thou 
muft know, the king is full of grief. 

Sbep. So 'tis laid, fir ; about his fon, that mould 
have married a fhepherd's daughter. 

Aut. If that Ihepherd be not in hand-faft, let him 
fly ; the curies he mall have, the tortures he lhall feel, 
will break the back of man, the heart of monfter. 

do. Think you fo, fir ? 

Aut. Not he alone fhall furTer what wit can make 
heavy, and vengeance bitter; but thofe that are ger- 
mane to him, though removed fifty times, mail all 
come under the hangman : which though it be great 
pity, yet it is neceflary. An old fheep-whiftling 
rogue, a ram-tender, to offer to have his daughter 
come into grace ! Some fay, he mail be fton'd ; but 
that death is too foft for him, fay I : Draw our throne 
into a Ihecp-cote ! all deaths are too few, the Iharpeft 
too eafy. 

Clo. Has the old man e'er a fon, fir, do you hear, 
a n't like you, fir ? 

Aut. He has a fon, who fnall be flay 'd alive; then, 
'nointed over with honey, fet on the head of a wafp's 
neft ; then ftand, till he be three quarters and a dram 
dead : then recover'd again with aqua-vitae, or fome 
other hot infufion : then, raw as he is, and in the 
hotteft day * prognostication proclaims, lhall he be fet 

a the hot fej} day, &c.] That is, the botttfl day foretold in 

"f almanack. JOHNSON. 


4 i2 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

againft a brick-wall, the fun looking with a fouth- 
ward eye upon him ; where he is to behold him, with 
flies blown to death. But what talk we of thefe trai- 
torly rafcals, whofe miferies are to be fmil'd at, their 
offences being fo capital ? Tell me, (for you feem to 
be honeft plain men) what you have to the king : J be- 
ing fomething gently confider'd, I'll bring you where 
he is aboard, tender your perfons to his prefence, 
w.hifper him in your behalfs ; and, if it be in man, 
befides the king, to effed: your fuits, here is man 
fhall do it. 

Clo. He feems to be of great authority : clofe with 
him, give him gold; and though authority be a flub- 
born bear, yet he is oft led by the nofe with gold : 
fhew the infide of your purfe to the outfide of his 
hand, and no more ado : Remember, fton'd, and 
flay'd alive. 

Shep. An't pleafe you, fir, to undertake the bufi- 
nefs for us, here is that gold I have : I'll make it as 
much more ; and leave this young man in pawn, 'till 
1 bring it you. 

Aut. After I have done what I promifed ? 

Shep. Ay, fir. 

Aut. Well, give me the moiety : Are you a party 
in this bufinefs ? 

Clo. In fome fort, fir : but though my cafe be a 
pitiful one, I hope I fhall not be flay'd out of it. 

Aut. Oh, that's the cafe of the fhepherd's fon : 
Hang him, he'll be made an example. 

Clo.. Comfort, good comfort : We mult to the king, 

3 "being fomething gently confidered, ] Means, 1 hav- 
ing a gentlemanlike confederation given me, i. e. a bribe, -civ'/V bring 
you, &c. So, in the Three Ladies of London, 1584: 

" fure, iir, I'll conjiderit hereafter it \ can. 

*' What, conjlder me f doft thou think that I am a bribe- 

Again, in the IJle of Gulls, 1633: " Thou (halt be well confuler- 
ed, there's twenty crowns in earneit." STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's T A. I, E. 4 i 5 

and {hew our ftrange fights : he muft know, 'tis none 
of your daughter, nor my filter ; we are gone elfe. 
Sir, I will give you as much as this old man does, 
when the bufinefs is perform'd ; and remain, as he 
fays, your pawn, 'till it be brought you. 

Aut. I will truft you. Walk before toward the 
fea-fide ; go on the right hand ; I will but look upon 
the hedge, and follow you. 

Clo. We are blefs'd in this man, as I may fay, even 

Skep* Let's before, as he bids us : he was provided 
to do us good. [Exeunt Sbep. and Clo. 

Aut. If I had a mind to be honeft, I fee, fortune 
would not fuffer me ; me drops booties in my mouth. 
I am courted now with a double occafion ; gold, and 
a means to do the prince my mafter good ; which, 
who knows how that may turn back to my advance- 
ment? I will bring thefe two moles, thefe blind ones, 
aboard him : if he think it fit to Ihore them again, 
and that the complaint they have to the king concerns 
him nothing, let him call me, rogue, for being fo far 
officious ; for I am proof againft that title, and what 
fhame elfe belongs to't: To him will I prefentthem, 
there may be matter in it. [Ev//. 


Enter Leontes, Cleomcnes, Dlort, Paulina, and Servants. 

Clo. Sir, you have done enough, and have per- 

A faint-like forrow : no fault could you make, 
Which you have not rcdcem'd; indeed, paid down 


4 i4 W I N T E R's TALE. 

More penitence, than done trefpafs : At the laflv 
Do, as the heavens have done ; forget your evil ; 
With them, forgive yourfelf. 

Leo. Whilft I remember 
Her, and her virtues, I cannot forget 
My blemifhes in them ; and ib ilill think of 
The wrong I did myfelf : which was fo much, 
That heirlefs it hath made my kingdom ; and 
Deilroy'd the fweet'ft companion, that e'er man * 
Bred his hopes out of. 

Paid. True, too true, my lord : 
If, one by one, you wedded all the world, 
Or, from the 5 all that are, took fomething good, 
To make a perfect woman ; Ihe, you kill'd, 
Would be unparallel'd. 

Leo. I think fo. Kill'd ! 
She I kill'd ? I did fo : but thou ftrik'fl me 
Sorely, to fay I did ; it is as bitter 
Upon thy tongue, as in my thought : Now, good now, 
Say fo but feldom. 

Cle. Not at all, good lady : 

You might havefpoke a thoufand things, that would 
Have done the time more benefit, and grac'd 
Your kindnefs better. 

Paul. You are one of thofe, 
Would have him xved again. 

Dio. If you would not fo, 
You pity not the ilate, nor the remembrance 
Of his molt fovereign name ; conlider little, 

4 In former editions : 

Dcjlroy'd the fixeefjl companion^ that e'er man 
Bred his hopes out of, true. 
Paul. Too true, mylord:\ 

A very flight examination will convince every intelligent reader, 
that true y here has jumped out of its place in all the editions. 


5 Or, from the all that arc, took fomethlng good, ~\ 
This is a favourite thought : it was beftowed on Miranda aad 
Rofaiind before, JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 4x5 

What dangers, by his highnefs' fail of iflue, 
May drop upon his kingdom, and devour 
Incertain lookers on. What were more holy, 
Than to rejoice, the former queen is well 6 ? 
What holier, than, for royalty's repair, 
For prefent comfort, and for future good, 
To blefs the bed of majefty again 
With a fweet fellow to't ? 

Paul There is none worthy, 
Refpecting her that's gone, Befides, the gods 
Will have fulfill'd their fecret purpofes : 
For has not the divine Apollo (aid, 
Is't not the tenour of his oracle, 
That king Leontes fliall not have an heir, 
'Till his loft child be found ? which, that it fliall, 
Is all as monftrous to our human reafon, 
As my Antigonus to break his grave, 
Aijd come again to me ; who, on my life, 

6 Than to rejoice, the former queen is well ? 

The fpeaker is here giving reafons why the king fiiould marry 
again. One reafon is, pity to the ftate ; another, regard to the 
continuance of the royal family ; and the third, comfort and con- 
foktion to the king's affliction. All hitherto is plain, and be- 
coming a privy-counfellor. But now comes in, what he calls, a 
holy argument for it, and that is a rejoicing that the former queen is 
wf// md at rejh ' To make this argument of force, we muft con- 
clude that the fpeaker went upon this opinion, that a widower can 
never heartily rejoice that his former wife is at reft, till he has got 
another. Without doubt Shakefpeare wrote : 
IVhat vjere more holy, 

Than to rejoice the former queen f This will. 

What, fays the fpeaker, can be a more holy motive to a new choice, 
than that it will glad the fpirit of the former queen ? for fhe was 
of fo excellent a difpofition that the happinefs of the king and 
kingdom, to be procured by it, will give her extreme plenfure. 
The poet goes upon the general opinion, that the fpirits of the 
happy in the other world are concerned for the condition of their' 
furviving friends. WAR BURTON. 

This emendation is one of thofe of which many may be made > 
it is fuch as we may wifh the author had chofen, but which w 
cannot prove that he did chufe j :he xeafons for it are plaufible, 
but not cogent. JOHNSON. 


4 l6 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Did perifh with the infant. 'Tis your counfet, 
My lord fhould to the heavens be contrary, 
Oppofe againft their wills. Care not for iflue ; 

[To the king. 

The crown will find an heir : Great Alexander 
Left his to the worthieft ; fo his fucceffor 
Was like to be the beft. 

Leo. Good Paulina, 
Who haft the memory of Hermione, 
I know, in honour, O, that ever I 
Had fquar'd me to thy counfel ! then, even now, 
I might have look'd upon my queen's full eyes ^ 
Have taken treafure from her lips, 

Paul. And left them 
More rich, for what they yielded. 

Leo. Thou fpeak'ft truth. 

No more fuch wives ; therefore, no wife : one worfe 3 
And better us'd, would make her fainted fpirit * 
Again poiTefs her corps ; and, on this ftage, 

7 would make her fainted fpirit, &c.] In the old copies : 

would make her fainted fpirit 
Again pojjefs her corps ; and, on this ft age, 
(Inhere we offenders now appear) foul-vex t y 
And begin, &c. 

'Tis obvious, that the grammar is defective ; and the fenfe con- 
fequently wants fupporting. The flight change, I have made, 
cures both : and, furely, 'tis an improvement to the fentiment for 
the king to fay, that Paulina and he offended his dead wife's ghofl 
with the fubjeft of a fecond match ; rather than in general terms 
to call themfelves offenders, Jlnners. THEOBALD. 
The Reyifal reads : 

Were we offenders now 
very reafonably. JOHNSON. 

We might read, changing the place of one word only : 

icould make her fainted fpirit 

Again pojjefs her corps j and on thisjlage 
(WTyere ive offenders nwv appear, foul-vex'J) 

Begin And why to me ? 

The blunders of the folio are fo numerous, that it fhould feern 
when a word dropt out of the prefs, they were carelefs into 
which line they inlsned it. STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 417 

(Where we offend her now) appear foul-vext, 
And begin, Why to me f 

Paul. Had fhe fuch power, 
She had juft fuch caufe. 

Leo. She had ; and would incenfe me 
To murder her I married. 

Paul I fhould fo : 

Were I the ghoft that walk'd, I'd bid you mark 
Her eye; and tell me, for what dull part in't 
You chofe her : then I'd fhriek, that even your ears 
Shou'd rift to hear me; and the words that follow'd 
Should be, Remember mine. 

Leo. Stars, flars, 

And all eyes clfe, dead coals ! fear thou no wife, 
I'll have no wife, Paulina. 

Paul. Will you fwear 
Never to marry, but by my free leave ? 

Leo. Never, Paulina ; fo be blefs'd my fpirit ! 

Paul. Then, good my lords, bear witnefs to his 

Cle. You tempt him over-much. 

Paul. Unlefs another, 
As like Hermione as is her picture, 
8 Affront his eye. 

Cle. Good madam, I have done 9 . 

Paul. Yet, if my lord will marry, if you will, fir; 
No remedy, but you will ; give me the office 
To chufe you a queen : fhe fhall not be fo young 
As was your former ; but fhe fhall be fuch, 
As, walk'd your firft queen's ghoft, it fhould take joy 

8 Affront his eye.~] To affront, is to meet, JOHNSON. 

9 Good madam , Ihavedone>\ 

Surely this hemiftich fhould be divided between Cltomenu and 
Paulina : 

Cle. Good madam, 

Paul. 1 have done: 
Tel if, &c. 
The modern editors have read : 

Good madam, pray have done. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. E e To 

4i8 W I N T E R's TALE, 

To fee her in your arms. 

Leo. My true Paulina, 
We fhall not marry, 'till thou bid'ft us. 

Paul. That 

Shall be, when your firft queen's again in breath ; 
Never till theru 

Enter a Gentleman. 

Gent. One that gives out himfelf prince Florizef, 
Son of Polixenes, with his princefs, (Ihe 
The faireft I have yet beheld) defires 
Accefs to your high prefence* 

Leo. What with him ? he comes not 
Like to his father's greatnefs : his approach, 
So out of circumftance, and fudden, tells us,. 
Tis not a vifitation fram'd, but forc'd 
By need, and accident, What train ? 

' Gent. But few, 
And thofe but mean. 

Leo. His princefs, fay you, with him ? 

Gent. Ay ; the moft peerlefs piece of earth, I think, 
That e'er the fun fhone bright on. 

Paul. Oh Hermione, 
As every prefent time doth boafl itfelf 
Above a better, gone ; fo muft thy grave 
Give way to what's feen now. Sir, you yourfelf * 
Have faid, and writ fo ; but your writing now 
Is colder than that theme : She had not been, 
Nor was not to be equatfd t thus your verfe 
Flow'd with her beauty once ; 'tis ihrewdly ebb*d r 
To fay, you have feen a better. 

Gent. Pardon, madam : 
The one I have almoft forgot ; (your pardon) 


<SYr, you yourfelf 

Havefaid) andivritfo ; J 
The reader muft obferve, thaty2> relates not to what precedes, but 
to what follows that,, fa bad not beefieiuall'tL J.OHNSOX . 


W I N T E R's TALE. 419 

The other, when fhe has obtain'd your eye, 
Will have your tongue too. This is a creature, 
Would fhe begin a fed:, might quench the zeal 
Of all profeflbrs elfe ; make profelytes 
Of who me but bid follow. 

Paul. How ? not women ? 

Gent. Women will love her, that me is a woman 
More worth than any man ; men, that me is 
The rareft of all women. 

Leo. Go, Cleomenes ; 
Yourfelf, affifted with your honour'd friends, 

[Exit Cleomenes* 

Bring them to our embracement. Still 'tis ftrange, 
He thus mould fteal upon us. 

Paul. Had our prince, 

(Jewel of children) feen this hour, he had pair'd 
Well with this lord ; there was not full a month 
Between their births. 

Leo. Pr'ythee, no more ; ceafe; thou know'ft, 
He dies to me again, when talk'd of : fure, 
When I mail fee this gentleman, thy; fpeeches 
Will bring me to confider that, which may 
Unfurnifh me of reafon. They are come. 

Enter Florizel, Perdita, Cleomenes, and others. 
Your mother was moft true to wedlock, prince ; 
For Ihe did print your royal father off, 
Conceiving you : Were I but twenty one, 
Your father's image is fo hit in you, 
His very air, that I mould call you brother, 
As I did him ; and fpeak of fomething, wildly 
By us perform'd before. Moil dearly welcome ! 
And your fair princefs, goddefs ! O, alas! 
I loft a couple, that 'tvvixt heaven and earth 
Might thus have flood, begetting wonder, as 
You, gracious couple, do ! and then I loft 
(All mine own folly) the fociety, 
Amity too, of your brave father; whom, 

E e 2- Though 

4*0 W I N T E R's TALE. 

Though bearing mifery, I defire my life 
Once more to look on. 

Flo. Sir, by his command 
Have I here touch'd Sicilia ; and from him 
Give you all greetings, that a king, at friend, 
Can fend his brother : and, but infirmity 
(Which waits upon worn times) hath fomething feiz'd 
His wifh'd ability, he had himfelf 
The lands and waters 'twixt your throne and his 
Meafur'd, to look upon you ; whom he loves 
(He bade me fay fo) more than all the fcepters, 
And thofe that bear them, living. 

Leo. Oh, my brother ! 

(Good gentleman) the wrongs I have done thee, flir 
Afrem within me ; and thefe thy offices, 
So rarely kind, are as interpreters 
Of my behind-hand ilacknefs ! Welcome hither, 
As is the fpring to the earth. And hath he too 
Expos'd this paragon to the fearful ufage 
(At leaft, ungentle) of the dreadful Neptune, 
To greet a man, not worth her pains ; much lefs 
The adventure of her perfon ? 

Flo. Good my lord r 
She came from Libya. 

Leo. Where the warlike Smalus, 
That noble honour'd lord, is fear'd, and lov'd ? 

Flo. Moft royal fir, from thence; from him, whofe 

daughter * 
His tears proclaimed his, parting with her : thence 

1 whofe daughter 

His tears proclaimed bis+ parting ivit/j her: ] 

This is very ungrammatical and obfcure. We may better read : 

ivbofe daughter 

His tears proclaimed her parting vslth her,. 

The prince firlt tells that the lady came from Lybia, the king, in- 
terrupting him, fays, from Smalus ? from him, fays the prince, 
ivbofe tears, at parting, Jhewed her to be his daughter. JOHNSON. 
The obfcurity ariies from want of a proper punctuation. By 
placin^ a comma after his^ I think the fenfe is clear'd. STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 421 

(A profperous fouth-wind friendly) we have crofs'd, 

To execute the charge my father gave me, 

For vifiting your highnefs : My befl train 

I have from your Sicilian mores difmifs'd ; 

Who for Bohemia bend, to fignify 

Not only my fuccefs in Libya, fir, 

But my arrival, and my wife's, in fafety 

Here, where we are. 

Leo. The blefled gods 
Purge all infection from our air, whilft you 
Do climate here ! You have a holy father, 
A graceful gentleman ; againtf whofe perfon, 
So facred as it is, I have done fin : 
For which the heavens, taking angry note, 
Have left me iffue-lefs ; and your father's blefs'd, 
(As he from heaven merits it) with you, 
Worthy his goodnefs. What might I have been, 
Might I a fon and daughter now have look'd on, 
Such goodly things as you ? 

Enter a Lord. 

Lord. Moft noble fir, 

That, which I fliall report, will bear no credit, 
Were not the proof fo nigh. Pleafe you, great fir, 
Bohemia greets you from himfelf, by me : 
Defires you to attach his fon ; who has 
(His dignity and duty both call off) 
Fled from his father, from his hopes, and with 
A fhcphcrd's daughter. 

Leo. Where's Bohemia ? fpeak. 

Lord. Here in your city ; I now came from him : 
I fpeak amazedly ; and it becomes 
My marvel, and my meflage. To your court 
Whiles he was haftning, (in the chafe, it feems, 
Of this fair couple) meets he on the way 
The father of this feeming lady, and 
Her brother, having both their country quitted 
With this young prince. 

E c 3 Flo. 

422, W I N T E R's TALE. 

Flo. Camillo has betray'd me ; 
Whofe honour, and whole honefly 5 'till now, 
Endur'd all weathers. 

Lord. Lay't fo, to his charge ; 
He's with the king your father. 
Leo. Who ? Camillo ? 

Lord. Camillo, fir ; I fpake with him ; who now 
Has thefe poor men in queflion. Never faw I 
Wretches fo quake : they kneel, they kifs the earth; 
Forfwear themfelves as often as they fpeak : 
Bohemia flops his ears, and threatens them 
With divers deaths in death. 

Per. Oh, my poor father ! 

The heaven fets fpies upon us, will not have 
Our contract celebrated. 
Leo. You are marry'd ? 
Flo. We are not, fir, nor are we like to be ; 
The liars, I fee, will kifs the valleys firft :- 
The odds for high and low's alike. 

Leo. My lord, 
Is this the daaghter of a king ? 

Flo. She is, 
When once ihe is my wife. 

Leo. That once, I fee, by your good father's fpeed, 
Will come on very floxvly. I am forry, 
Mofl forry, you have broken from his liking, 
Where you were ty'd in duty : and as forry, 
Your choice is not fo rich in worth as beauty J , 

3 'Tour choice is not fa rich in worth as beauty,] 
The poet muft have wrote : 

Your choice is notfo rich in birth as beauty ; 

Becaufe Leontes was fo far from difparaging, or thinking meanly 
of her worth, that, on the contrary, he rather efteems her a trea- 
fure ; and, in his next fpeech to the prince, calls her his precious 
inijirefs. WAR BUR TON. 

Worth is as proper as link. IVorth fignifies any kind of cu<w- 
tbinefs, and among others that of high defcent. The king means 
that he is forry the prince's choice is not in other refpeifts as wor- 
thy of him as in beauty. JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 423 

That you might well enjoy her. 

Flo. Dear, look up : 
Though fortune, vifible an enemy, 
Should chafe us, with my father ; power no jot 
Hath fhe, to change our loves. 'Beicech you, fir, 
Remember fince you ow'd no more to time 
Than I do now : with thought of fuch affections, 
Step forth mine advocate ; at your requeft, 
My father will grant precious things, as trifles. 

Leo. Would he do fo, I'd beg your precious rnif- 

Which he counts but a trifle. 

Paul. Sir, my liege, 

Your eye hath too much youth in't : not a month 
'Fore your queen dy'd, fhe was more worth fuch 

Than what you look on now. 

Leo. I thought of her, 
Even in thefe looks I made. But your petition 

[70 FlorlzeL 

Is yet unanfwer'd : I will to your father ; 
Your honour not o'erthrown by your defires, 
I am friend to them, and you : upon which errand 
I now go toward him ; therefore, follow me, 
Afld mark what way I make : Come, good my lord. 



The fame. 
Enter Autolycus^ and a Gentleman. 

Aut. 'Befeech you, fir, were you prefent at this re- 
lation ? 

i Gent. I was by at the opening of the farthcl, heard 

the old fhepherd deliver the manner how he found it : 

whereupon, after a little amazcdncls,\vc were all com- 

E c 4 mandcd 

424 W I N T E R's T A L E.. 

manded out of the chamber :' only this, methought, 
I heard the Ihepherd fay, he found the child. 
Aut. I would moft gladly know the iffue of it. 

1 Gent. I make a broken delivery of thebufinefs; 
But the changes I perceived in the king, and Camillo, 
were very notes of admiration : they feem'd almoft, 
with ftaring on one another, to tear the cafes of their 
eyes ; there was fpeech in their dumbnefs, language 
in their very gefture ; they look'd, as they had heard 
of a world ranfom'd, or one deftroy'd : A notable 
paffion of wonder appear'd in them : but the wifeft 
behoWer, that knew no more but feeing, could not 
fay, if the importance were joy, or forrow ; but in the 
extremity of the one, it muft needs be, 

Enter a fecond Gentleman, 

Here comes a gentleman, that, happily, knows more: 
The news, Rogero ? 

2 Gent. Nothing but bonfires : The oracle is ful- 
fill'd ; the king's daughter is found : fuch a deal of 
wonder is broken out within this hour, that ballad- 
makers cannot be ab^e to exprefs it. 

Enter- a third Gentleman. 

Here comes the lady Paulina's fteward, he can deliver 
you more. How goes it now, fir ? this news, which 
is call'd true, is fo like an old tale, that the verity of 
it is in ftrong fufpicion : Has the king found his heir? 

3 Gent. Moft true ; if ever truth were pregnant by 
circumftance : that, which you hear, you'll fwear you 
fee, there is fuch unity in the proofs. The mantle of 
queen Hermione; her jewel about the neck of it; 
the letters of Antigonus, found with it, which they 
know to be his character ; the majefty of the crea- 
ture, in refemblance of the mother; the affec- 
tion of noblenefs, which nature {hews above her 
breeding, and many other evidences, proclaim her, 


W I N T E R's TALE. 425 

with all certainty, to be the king's daughter. Did 
you fee the meeting of the two kings ? 

2 Gent. No. 

3 Gent. Then have you loft a fight, which was to 
be leen, cannot be fpoken of. There might you have 
beheld one joy crown another; fo, and in fuch man- 
ner, that, it feem'djlbrrow wept to take leave of them; 
for their joy waded in tears. There was cafting up of 
eyes, holding up of hands ; with countenance of fuch 
diftracl:ion, that they were to be known by garment, 
not by favour. Our king, being ready to leap out of 
himfelf for joy of his found daughter; as if that joy 
were now become a lofs, cries, Oh, thy mother, thy 
mother f then afks Bohemia forgivenefs ; then em- 
braces his fon-in-lavv ; then again worries he his 
daughter, with clipping her 4 : now he thanks the old 
fhephcrd, which ftands by, like a weather-beaten* 
conduit of many kings' reigns. I never heard of fuch 
another encounter, which lames report to follow it, 
and undoes defcription to do it. 

2 Gent. What, pray you, became of Antigonus, 
that carry'd hence the child ? 

3 Gent. Like an old tale (till; which will have mat- 
ters to rebearfe, though credit be afleep, and not an ear 
open : He was torn to pieces with a bear : this avouches 
the fhepherd's fon ; who has not only his innocence 
(which feems much) to juftify him, but a handker- 
chief, and rings, of his, that Paulina knows. 

* with clipping her. ] i, e. embracing her. So, 

Shinty : 

" He, who before fiiun'd her, to fliun fuch harms, 
" Now runs and takes her in his dipping arms." 


s cwd/A-r-beaten ] Thus the modern editors: The 

old copy iveatber-bitten. Hamlet fays : " The air bites 

Ihrewdly;" and the Duke, in As you like it: " when \tbitet 

and blows." Weather-bitten, therefore, may mean, corroded by 
the weather. STEEVENS. 

I Gc'if. 

4 i6 \V I N T E R's T A L E. 

i Gent. What became of his bark, and his fol- 
lowers ? 

3 Gent. Wreck'd, the fame inflant of their matter's 
death ; and in the view of the Ihepherd : fo that all 
the inftruments, which aided to expofe the child, were 
even then loft, when it was found. But, oh, the no- 
ble combat, that, 'twixt joy and forrow, was fought in 
Paulina ! She had one eye declin'd for the lofs of her 
hufband ; another elevated that the oracle was ful- 
fillM : She lifted the princefs from the earth ; and fo 
locks her in embracing, as if ihe would pin her to 
her heart, that Ihe might no more be in danger of 

i Gent. The dignity of this act was worth the au- 
dience of kings and princes ; for by fuch was it 

3 Gent. One of the prettiefl touches of all, and 
that which angled for mine eyes, (caught the water, 
though not the fiih) was, when at the relation of the 
queen's death, with the manner how fhe came to it, 
(bravely confefs'd, and lamented by the king) how 
attentivenefs wounded his daughter : 'till, from one 
iign of dolour to another, Ihe did, with an alas ! I 
would fain fay, bleed tears ; for, I am fure, my heart 
wept blood. Who was moft marble there 6 , changed 
colour ; fome fwooned, all forrowed : if all the world 
could have feen it, the woe had been univerfal. 

i Gent. Are they returned to the court ? 

3 Gent. No : The princefs hearing of her mother's 
ftatue, which is in the keeping of Paulina, a piece 
many years in doing, and now newly perform'd by 
? that rare Italian matter, Julio Romano; who, had he 


' moft marttc there, ] i. e. moft petrified with wonder. 


7 . . that rare Italian majler^ Julio Romano ; ] All the 
encomiums, put together, that have been conferred on this excel- 
lent artift in painting and archite&ure, do not amount to the fine 


W I N T E R's TALE. 427 

himfelf eternity, and could put breath into his work, 
would beguile nature of her * cuftom, To perfectly he is 


praife here given him by our author. He was born in the year 
1492, lived juft that circle of years which our Shakefpeare did, 
and died eighteen years before the hitter was born. Fine and ge- 
nerous, therefore, as this tribute of praife muft be owned, yet it 
was a ftrange abfurdity, fure, to thrult it into a tale, the action of 
\yhich is fuppofed within the period of heathenifm, and whilft the 
oracles of Apollo were confulted. This, however, was a known 
and wilful anachronifm ; which might have llept in obfcurity, 
perhaps Mr. Pope will fay, had I not animadverted on it. 


-- -that rare Italian majier, Julio Romano ; &c.] Mr. Theo- 
bald fays : All the encomiums put together, that have been conferred 
on this excellent artijt in fainting and architecture, do not amount to 
the fine praife here given him by our author. But he is ever the un- 
luckieftof all critics when he pafles judgment on beauties and det 
fe&s. The paflage happens to be quite unworthy Shakefpeare. 
i/l, He makes his fpeaker fay, that was Julio Romano the God 
of Nature, he would outdo Nature. For this is the plain mean- 
ing of the words, had he himfelf eternity, and could put breath into 
b'uivork, be would beguile nature of her cujlom. zdly, He makes 
of this famous painter, njlatuary ; I fuppofe confounding him 
with Michael Angelo; but, what is worft of alL, & painter t>fjla~ 
tues, like Mrs. Salmon ot her wax-work. WARBURTON. 

Poor Theobald's encomium on this paflage is not very happily 
conceived or exprefled, nor is the pallage of any eminent excel- 
lence ; yet a little candour will clear Shakefpeare from part of the 
impropriety imputed to him. By eternity he means only immor- 
tality, or that part of eternity which is to come ; fo we talk of 
eternal renown and f ternal infamy. Immortality may fubfift with- 
out divinity, and therefore the meaning only is, that if Julio could 
always continue his labours, he would mimick nature. JOHNSON. 
I wifh we could underftand this paflage, as if Julio Romano had 
only painted the ftatue carved by another. Ben Jonfon makes 
Dodor Rut in the Magnetic Lady, act V. fc. viii. fay : 
44 all city ilatues mult \\tpainted, 
" Elfe they be worth nought i'their fubtil judgments." 
Sir Henry Wotton, in his Elements of Architecture, mentions the 
fafliion of colouring even regal ftatues for the ftronger exprelliou 
ofnflfeftion, which he takes leave to call an Englilh barbarifm. 
Such, however, was the practice of the time : and unlefs the fup- 
pofed ftatue of Hermione were painted, there could he no ruddi- 
nefs upon her lip, nor could the veins verily feem to bear blood, as 
the poet exprefles it afterwards. TOLLET. 


428 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

her ape : he fo near to Hermione hath done Her- 
mione, that, they fay, one would fpeak to her, and 
ftand in hope of anfwer : thither with all greedinefs 
of affedtion, are they gone ; and there they intend to 

2 Gent. I thought, ihe had fome great matter there 
in hand; for Ihe hath privately, twice or thrice a day, 
ever lince the death of Hermione, vifitedthat removed 
houfe. Shall we thither, and with our company piece 
the rejoicing ? 

i Gent. 9 Who would be thence, that has the bene- 
fit of accefs ? every wink of an eye, fome new grace 
will be born : our abfence makes us unthrifty to our 
knowledge. Let's along. [Exeunt. 

Aut. Now, had I not the dafh of my former life in 
me, would preferment drop on my head. I brought 
the old man and his fon aboard the prince ; told him, 
I heard them talk of a farthel, and I know not what : 
but he at that time, over-fond of thefhepherd's daugh- 
ter, (fo he then took her to be) who began to be much 
fea-lick, and himfelf little better, extremity of wea- 

Sir H. Wotton could not poflibly know what has been lately 
proved by fir William Hamilton in the MS. accounts which ac- 
company feveral valuable drawings of the difcoveries made at 
Pompeii, and prefented by him to our Antiquary Society, viz. that 
it was ufual to colour ftatues among the ancients. In the chapel 
of Ifis in the place already mentioned, the image of that goddefs 
had been painted over, as her robe is of a purple hue. Mr. Toilet 
has fince informed me, that Junius, on the painting of the ancients, 
obferves from Paufanias and Herodotus, that fometimes the fla- 
tues of the ancients were coloured after the manner of pictures. 


* of her ciiftom, ] That is, of her trade, would draw 

her cuftomers from her. JOHNSON. 

9 Who would be thence, that has the benefit of accefs? } It was, 

I fuppofe, only to fpare his own labour that the poet put this whole 
fceneinto narrative, for though part of the tranfattion was already 
known to the audience, and therefore could not properly be {hewn 
again, yet the two kings might have met upon the ftage, and af- 
ter the examination of the old fhepheni, the young lady might 
have been recognifed in fight of the Ipeftators. JOHNSON. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 429 

ther continuing, this myftery remained u'ndifcovered. 
But 'tis all one to me : for had I been the finder-out 
of this fecret, it would not have reliih'd among my 
other difcredits. 

Enter Shepherd, and Clown. 

Here come thofe I have done good to againftmy will, 
and already appearing in the bloffoms of their fortune. 

Shep. Come, boy ; I am pad more children ; but 
thy fons and daughters will be all gentlemen born. 

Clo. You are well met, fir : You denied to fight 
with me this other day, becaufe I was no gentleman 
born : See you thefe clothes ? fay, you fee them not, 
and think me flill no gentleman born : you were beft 
fay, thefe robes are not gentlemen born. Give me 
the lie ; do ; and try whether I am not now a gentle- 
man born. 

Aut. I know, you are now, fir, a gentleman born. 

Clo. Ay, and have been fo any time thefe four 

Shep. And fo have I, boy, 

Clo. So you have : but I was a gentleman born 
before my father : for the king's fon took me by the 
hand, and call'd me, brother; and then the two kings 
call'd my father, brother ; andthen the prince, my bro- 
ther, and the princefs, mr fifter, call'd my father, fa- 
ther; and fo we wept : and there was the firft gentle- 
man-like tears that ever we Ihed. 

Shep. We may live, fon, to fhed many more. 

Clo. Ay ; or elfe 'twere hard luck, being in fo pre- 
pofterous eftate as we are. 

Aut. I humbly bcfeech you, fir, to pardon me all 
the faults I have committed to your worlhip, and to 
give me your good report to the prince my mailer. 

Shep. Wythec, fon, do ; for we muft be gentle, 
now we are gentlemen. 

Clo. Thou wilt amend thy life ? 

Aut. Ay, an it like your good worfhip. 

430 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Clo. Give me thy hand : I will fwear to the prince, 
thou art as honed a true fellow as any is in Bohemia. 

Shep. You may fay it, but not fwear it. 

Clo. Not fwear it, now I am a gentleman ? Let boors 
and ' franklins fay it, I'll fwear it. 

Shep. How if it be falfe, fon ? 

Clo, If it be ne'er fo falfe, a true gentleman may 
fwear it, in the behalf of his friend : And I'll fwear to 
the prince, thou art a tall fellow of thy hands, and 
that thou wilt not be drunk ; but I know, thou art 
no * tall fellow of thy hands, and that thou wilt be 
drunk; but I'll fwear it : and I would, thou woulft'ft 
be a tall fellow of thy hands. 

Aut. I will prove fo, fir, to my power. 

Clo. Ay, by any means prove a tall fellow : If I do 
not wonder, how thou dar'fl venture to be drunk, not 
being a tall fellow, truft me not. Hark ! the kings 
and the princes, our kindred, are going to fee the 
queen's pidture. Come, follow us : we'll be thy 
good m afters. [Exeunt. 

1 ' franklins fay it, ] Franklin is & freeholder, or yeoman^ 

a man above a villain, but not a gentleman. JOHXSON. 

* tall fellow of thy bands, ] Tall, in that time, was 

the word ufed forj?ouf. JOKXSOX. 

The reft of the phrafe occurs in Gower DC Conftjjione Amantis t 
lib. v. fol. 114.: 

" A noble knight eke of bis bonde." 

Again, in the comedy of Wdy Beguiled: " Ay, and he's a tall 
fellow, a man of his bands too," Again, in the anonymous play of 
K. Henry V : 

"I tell you he is zman of his bands." 

A man of bis bands had anciently two fignifications. It either 
meant an adroit fellow ivbo bandied bis weapon <u.W/, or a. fellow 
Jkilful in Jbievery. Phrafeology like this is often met with. So, 
in Acoloftus, a comedy, i 529 : 

*' Thou art a good man of tbyne babitt" STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's TALE. 431 


Paulina's houfe* 

Enter Leontes, Polixenes, Florizel, Perdita> Camilk, 
Paulina* Lords, and Attendants. 

Leo. O grave and good Paulina, the great comfort 
That I have had of thee ! 

Paid. What, fovereign fir, 
I did not well, I meant well : All my fervices, 
You have paid home: but that you have vouchfaf 'd, 
With your crown'd brother, and thefe your contracted 
Heirs of your kingdoms, my poor houfe to vifit ; 
It is a furplus of your grace, which never 
My life may laft to anlwer. 

Leo. O Paulina, 

We honour you with trouble : But we came 
To fee the ftatue of our queen : your gallery 
Have we pafs'd through, not without much content 
In many fingularities ; but we faw not 
That which my daughter came to look upon, 
The ftatue of her mother. 

Paul. As Ihe liv'd peerlefs, 
So her dead likenefs, I do well believe, 
Excels whatever yet you look'd upon, 
Or hand of man hath done J therefore I keep it 
Lonely, apart 3 : But here it is : prepare 
To fee the life as lively mock'd, as ever 

3 therefore I keep it 

Lovely, apart : j 

Lovely, i. e. charily, with more than ordinary regard and tender- 
nefst The Oxford editor reads : 

Lonely , apart : 
As if it could be apart without being alone, WARBURTON. 

I am yet inclined to lonely, which in the old angular writing 
cannot be diftinguiflied from lovely. To fay, that / keep it alone, 
Jefaratt/rom the refl^ is a pleonafrn which fcarcely any nicety declines, 



43* W I N T E R's TALE. 

Still fleep mock'd death : behold; and fly, 'tis weiL 
[Paulina undraws a curtain^ and difcovers aftatue* 
I like your filence, it the more fhews off 
Your wonder : But yet fpeak ; firft, you, my liege. 
Comes it not ibmething near ? 

Leo. Her natural polture I 
Chide me, dear {tone ; that I may fay, indeed, 
Thou art Hermione : or, rather, thou art fhe, 
In thy not chiding ; for Ihe was as tender, 
As infancy, and grace. But yet, Paulina, 
Hermione was not fo much wrinkled ; nothing 
So aged, as this feems. 

Pol. Oh, not by much. 

Paul. So much the more our carver's excellence ; 
Which lets go by fome lixteen years, and makes her 
As fhe liv'd now. 

Leo. As now fhe might have done, 
So much to my good comfort, as it is 
Now piercing to my foul. Oh, , thus fhe flood, 
Even with fuch life of majefly, (warm life, 
As now it coldly ftandsj when firft I woo'd her ! 
I am afham'd : Does not the flone rebuke me, 
For being more ftone than it ? Oh, royal piece > 
There's magick in thy majefty ; which has 
My evils conjur'd to remembrance ; and 
From thy admiring daughter took the fpirits, 
Standing like ftone with thee I 

Per. And give me leave ; 
And do not fay, 'tis fuperftition, that 
I kneel, and then implore her blefling. Lady, 
Dear queen, that ended when I but began, 
Give me that hand of yours, to kifs. 

Paul. Oh, patience 4 ; 
The ftatue is but newly fix'd, the colour's 
Not dry. 

4 Q patience \\ 

That is, Stay a while, be notfo eager. JOHNSON* 


VV I N T E R's TALE, 433 

Cam. My lord, your forrow was too fore laid on ; 
Which fixteen winters cannot blow away, 
So many fummers, dry : fcarce any joy 
Did ever fo long live ; no forrow, 
But kill'd itfelf much fooner. 

PoL Dear my brother, 

Let him, that was the caufe of this, have powef 
To take off fo much grief from you, as he 
Will piece up in himfelf. 

Paul. Indeed, my lord % 
If I had thought, the fight of my poor image 
Would thus have wrought you, (for the ftone is mine) 
I'd not have ftiew'd it. 

Leo. Do not draw the curtain. 

Paul. No longer lhall you gaze on't; left your 

May think anon, it moves. 

Leo. Let be, let be. 

6 Would I were dead, but that, methinks, already* 
What was he, that did make it ? See, my lord, 

5 Indeed, my lord t 

If I bad thought, thejight of my poor image 

Would thus have wrought you (for the {tone is mine) 

Pd not bavejbevfd it.] 

1 do not know whether we fhould not read, without a parenthcfis : 
for the ftone i'th' mine 

I'd not bMrcJb&xrel it. 

A mine ol ftone, or marble, would not perhaps at prefentbe efteem- 
ed an accurate expreffion, but it may ftill have been ufed by Shake- 
fpeare, as it has been ufed by Holinfhed. Defer iff . of Engl. c. ix^ 
p. 235 : " Now if you have regard to their ornature, how many 
mines of fundrie kinds of coarfe anil fine marble are there to be had 

in England ?" And a little lower he ufes the fame word again 

for a quarry of ftone, or plaifler : " Andfuch is the mine of it , that 
the Jlones thereof lie injlakcs, &c." TYRWHITT. 

To change an accurate expreffion for an expreffion confefledly 
not accurate, has ibmewhat of retrogradation. JOHNSON. 

6 }^ouU I were dead, but that, methinks, already] 
The fentence compleated is : 

but that, methinks, already I converfe vjitb the dead. 

But there his pullion made him break off. WARBWRTOK. 

VOL. IV. F f Would 

434 W I N T E R's T A L E. 

Would you not deem, it breath'd ? and that thofe 

Did verily bear blood ? 

Pol. Mafterly done : 
The very life feems warm upon her lip. 

Leo. The fixure of her eye has motion in't 7 , 
As we are mock'd with art. 

Paul. I'll draw the curtain ; 
My lord's almoft fo far tranfported r that 
He'll think anon, it lives. 

Leo. O fweet Paulina, 

Make me to think fo twenty years together ; 
No fettled fenfes of the world can match 
The pleafure of that madnefs. Let't alone. 

Paul. 1 am forry, fir, I have thus far flirr'd you : 

I could afflict you further, 

Leo. Do, Paulina ; 
For this affliction has a tafte as fweet 
As any cordial comfort. Still, methinks, 
There is an air comes from her : What fine chizzel 
Could ever yet cut breath ? Let no man mock me. 
For I will kifs her. 

Paul. Good my lord, forbear r 
The ruddinefs upon her lip is wet ; 
You'll mar it, if you kifs it ; ftain your own 
With oily painting : Shall I draw the curtain ? 

Leo, No, not thefe twenty years. 

7 The fixure of her eye bos motion /V,3. 
This is fad nonfenfe. We fhould read : 

The fiflure of her eye - - 
5. e. the focket, the place where the eye is. WARBURTOX-. 

Fixwe is right. The meaning is, that her eye, though JixcJ t 
as in an earneft gaze, has motion in it. EDWARDS. 

The word fixure , which Shakeipeare has ufed both in the Merry 
Wives of Windfor, and Troilus ami Crejjida, is iikewife employ'd 
by Drayton in the firft canto of the Barons' Wan: 

* Whofe glorious Jixure in lo clear a Iky." STEEVENS. 


W I N T E R's T A L E. 435 

Per. So long could I 
Stand by, a looker on. 

Paul. Either forbear j 
Quit prefently the chapel ; or refolve you 
For more amazement : If you can behold it^ 
I'll make the flatue move indeed ; defcend, 
And take you by the hand : but then you'll think, 
(Which I proteft againft) I am affifted 
By wicked powers. 

Leo. What you can make her do, 
I am content to look on : what to fpeak^ 
I am content to hear ; for 'tis as eafy 
*To make her fpeak^ as move. 

Paul. It is requir'd, 

You do awake your faith : Then, all ftand flill 
Or, thofej that think it is unlawful bufmefs 
I am about, let them depart. 

Leo. Proceed ; 
No foot fhall flir. 

Pauh Mufick ; awake her: ftrike.< \_Muftcki 

*Tis time ; defcend ; be ftone no more : approach ; 
Strike all that look upon with marvel. Come ; 
I'll fill your grave up : flir; nay, come away ; 
Bequeath to death your nnmbnefs, for from him 
Dear life redeems you. You perceive, Ihe ftirs : 

[Hermione comes dowrti 
Start not ; her actions fliall be holy, as, 
You hear, my fpell is lawful : do not Ihun her, 
Until you fee her die again ; for then 
You kill her double ; Nay, prefent your hand : 
When flic was young, you woo'd her ; now, in age^ 
Is Ihe become the fuitor. 

Leo. Oh, file's warm ! [Embracing her. 

If this be magick, let it be an art 
Lawful as eating. 

Pel. She embraces him, 

Cam. She hangs about his neck ; 
If flie pertain to life, let her fpeak too. 

' F f J PoL 

W I N T E R's TALE. 

Pol Ay, and make't manifeft where fhe has Hv'cTj, 
Or how ftol'n from the dead ? 

Paul. That fhe is living, 
Were it but told you, ihould be hooted at 
Like an old tale ; but it appears, ihe lives, 
Though yet file fpeak not. Mark a little while.- 
Pleafe you to interpofe, fair madam ; kneel, 
And pray your mother's bleffing. Turn, good lady ; 
Our Perdita is found. 

[Preferring Perdtta, who kneels to Hermione. 

Her. You gods,, look down, 
And from your faered vials pour your graces 
Upon my daughter's head ! Tell me, mine own, 
Where haft thou been preferv'd ? where liv'd ? how 


Thy father's court ? for thou fhalt hear, that I, 
Knowing by Paulina, that the oracle 
Gave hope thou waft in being, have preferv'd 
Myfelf, to fee the ifiue. 

Paul. There's time enough for that ; 
Left they defire, upon this pufh, to trouble 
Your joys with like relation. Go together, 
8 You precious winners all ; your exultation 
Partake to every one : I, an old turtle 9 , 


8 Ton precious winners all ; ' ] 

You who by this difcovery have gained what you defired, may join 
in feftivity, in which I, who have loft what never can be reco- 
vered, can have no part. JOHNSON. 
9 .. /, an old turtle, 

Will wing me to fame wither' 'd bough ; and there 

My mate, that's never to lie found again^ 

Lament 'till I am loft.'] 

So, Orpheus, in the exclamation which Johannes Secundus has 
written for him, fpeakingof his grief for the lots of Euridice, fays : 

" Sic gtmitareiUi viduatus ab arbore turtur." 
It is obfervable, that the two poets, in order to heighten the 
image, have ufed the very fame phrafe, having both placed their 
turtles on a dry and withered bough. I have fince discovered the 
fame idea in Lodge's Rofulyndor Eupfmes' golden Legacie^ 1592? a 
book which Shakefpeare is known to have read ; 

" A 

W I N T E R's TALE. 437 

Will wing me to fome wither'd bough ; and there 
My mate, that's never to be found again, 
Lament 'till I am loft. 

Leo. O peace, Paulina ; 
Thou fhould'il a hufband take by my confent, 
As I by thine, a wife : this is a match, 
And made between's by vows. Thou haft found mine ; 
But how, is to be queftion'd : for I faw her, 
As I thought, dead ; and have, in vain, faid many 
A prayer upon her grave : I'll not feek far 
(For him, I partly know his mind) to find thee 
An honourable hufband : Come, Camillo, 
And take her by the hand : whofe worth, andhonefty, 
Is richly noted ; and here juftify'd 
By us, a pair of kings. Let's from this place. 
What ? Look upon my brother ? both your par- 

That e'er I put between your holy looks 
My ill fufpicion. This your fon-in-law, 
And fon unto the king; who, heavens directing, 
Is troth-plight to your daughter. Good Paulina, 
Lead us from hence ; where we may leifurely 
Each one demand, and anfwer to his part 
Perform'd in this wide gap of time, fince firft 
We were diflever'd : Haftily lead away. 

[Exeunt omnes. 

'* A turtle fat upon a leavclefs tree, 

*' Mourning her abfentpbeer 

** With fad and forry cheere, 

'* And whilft her plumes fhe rents, 

" And for her love laments, &c." 

Chapman feems to have imitated this paflage in his WiJovfs Ttar.r, 
1612 : " Whether fome wandering Eneas fliould enjoy your rc- 
verfion, or whether your true turtle would 'ft mourning on a wither- 
ed bough till Atropos cut her throat" MALONE. 

Of this play no edition is known published before the folio of 

This play, as Dr. Warburton juftly obferves, is, with all its 
abfurdities, very entertaining. The charader of Autolycus is 
very naturally conceived, and ilrongly reprefented. JOHNSON. 

Ff 3 MAC- 


F f 4 -Pcrfons 

Perfons Reprefented. 

Duncan, King of Scotland. 
Malcolm, 7 c , , v . 

DonalbainJ Sons to the Km S , 

Lenox, ~\ 

MeSeth, \ Noblemen of Scotland 
Cathnefs, J 
Fleance, Son to Banquo. 
JSiward, General of the Englijli forces* 
Young Siward, his fan. 
Seyton, an Officer attending on Macbeth. 
Son to Macduff. 
An Englfo Dottor. 

A Scotch Dottor. A Captain* A Porter. An old Man, 
Lady Macbeth. 
Lady Macduff. 

Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth. 
Hecate, and three Witches. 

Lords, Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murderers, Atten-. 
dants, and Me/engers. 

The Ghoft of Banquo, andfeveral other Apparitions. 
|5 C E N E, in the end of the fourth act, lies in England ; 

through the reft of the play , in Scotland; and, chiefly, 

at Maebeth'j caftle *. 

Of this play there is no edition more ancient than that of 1623, 
Moft of the notes which the prefent editor has fubjoined to this 
play, were publifiied by him in a fmall pamphlet in 1 745. 


* I have taken a liberty with this tragedy, which might beprac- 
tifed with' almoft equal propriety in refpecl ofa few others : I mean, 
the retrenchment of fuch ftage-direftions as are not fupplied by 
the oldeft copy. Mr. Rowe had tricked out Macbeth, like many 
more of Shakefpeare's plays, in all the foppery of the reign of 
cjueen Anne. Every change of fituation produced notice that the 
fcene lay in an anti-chamber, a royal apartment, or a palace ; and 
even fome variations and ftarts of paffion were fet down in a man- 
ner no Iei3 oftentatious and unneceflary, STEEVENS. 



and Lightning. * Enter three Witches. 

i Witch. When lhall we three meet again 
Jn thunder, lightning, or in rain ? 

2 Witch, 

* Enter three Jl r itcJ.>es.~\ In order to make a true eftimate of the 
abilities and merit of a writer, it is always neceflary to examine 
the genius of his age, and the opinions of his contemporaries. A 
poet who fhould now make the whole adion of his tragedy depend 
upon enchantment, and produce the chief events by the affiftance 
of fupernatural agents, would be cenfured as tranfgreffing the 
bounds of probability, be banifhed from the theatre to the nur- 
fery, and condemned to write fairy tales inftead of tragedies ; but 
a furvey of the notions that prevailed at the time when this play 
was written, will prove that Shakefpeare was in no danger of luch 
cenfures, fince he only turned the fyftem that was then univer- 
fally admitted, to his advantage, and was far from overburthening 
the credulity of his audience. 

The reality of witchcraft or enchantment, which, though not 
ftri&ly the fame, are confounded in this play, has in all ages and 
countries been credited by the common people, and in molt, by 
the learned themfelves. The phantoms have indeed appeared 
more frequently, in proportion as the darknefs of ignorance has 
been more grofs ; but it cannot be fnown, that the brightelt 
gleams of knowledge have at any time been fufficient to drive 
them out of the world. The time in which this kind of credu- 
lity \vas at its height, feems to have been that of the holy war, 
in which the Chriftians imputed all their defeats to enchantments 
or diabolical oppofition, as they aicribed their fuccefs to the afli- 
flance of their military faints ; and the learned Dr. Warburton 
appears to believe (Suj>pL to tbe Introduction to Don Qt!.\'i>te) that 
the firfl accounts of enchantments were brought into this part of 
the world by thofe who returned from their eailern expeditions. 



2 Witch. When the hurly-buriy's done, 
1 When the battle's loft and won ; 

3 Witch. 

But there is always fome diftance between the birth and maturity 
of folly as of wickednels : this opinion had long exifted, though 
perhaps the application of it had in no foregoing age been fo fre- 
quent, nor the reception fo general. Olympiodorus, in Photius's 
extracts, tells us of one Libanius, who practifed this kind of mi- 
Jitary magic, and having promifed^p? OTZ-XJT u turret fSctfidfut ii-^yvv, 
to perform great things agabift the Barbarians without foldiers, was, 
at the initances ot the emprefs Piacidia, put to death, when he 
v as nbout to have given proofs of his abilities. The emprefs 
iliewed Ibme kindneis in her anger, by cutting him off at a time fq 
convenient for his reputation. 

But a more remarkable proof of the antiquity of this notion may 
be found in St. Chryfoftom's book dc Sacerdotio, which exhibits a 
fcene of enchantments not exceeded by any romance of the mid- 
dle age : he fuppofes a fpectator overlooking a field of battle at- 
tended by one that points out all the various obje&s of horror, 
the engines of destruction, and the arts of llaughter. AEW.X/TO \ rr 

, xctt 'Ka.ffr.r youTsia; ovvx.f*M> xtzitiia*. Let him then pr 
him in the opptyfitc armies borfes flying ly enchantment, armed 
men tranfported through the air, and every power and form of magic. 
Whether St. Chryibilom believed that fuch performances were 
really to be feen in a day of battle, or only endeavoured to enli- 
ven his deicription, by adopting the notions of the vulgar, it is 
equally certain, that fuch notions were in his time received, and 
that therefore they were not imported from the Saracens in a later 
age ; the wars with the Saracens however gave occafion to their 
propagation, not only as bigotry naturally discovers prodigies, but 
as the Icene of action was removed to a great diflance. 

The Reformation did not immediately arrive at its meridian, 
and though day was gradually encreafing upon us, the goblins of 
witchcralt ilill continued to hover in the twilight. Jn the time of 
queen Elizabeth was the remarkable trial of the witches of War- 
bois, whofe conviction is lull commemorated Jn an annual fermon 
at Huntingdon. But in the reign of king James, in which this 
tragedy was written, many circumilances concurred to propagate 


1 When the battle's Injl and ivon .] 

i. e. the battle, in which Macbeth was then engaged. Thefe 
wayward fitters, as we may fee in a note on the third fcene of this 
acft, were much concerned in battles. 

Hce nominantur Falkyrits ; quas t[uod<vis ad pral'nrni Odinus mittlf, 



3 Wild). That will be ere th' fet of fun, 
j ff r itck, Where the place ? 

2 ff'ltcb. 

and confirm this opinion. The king, who was much celebrated 
for his knowledge, had, before his arrival in England, not only 
examined inperfon a woman accufed of witchcraft, bur had given 
a very formal account of the practices and illufions of evil fpirits, 
the compacts of witches, the ceremonies ufed by them, the man- 
ner of detecting them, and the juftice of punifhing them, in his 
dialogues of Damonologie > written in the Scottish dialed, and 
ubli(hed at Edinburgh, This book was, foon atter his accellion, 
reprinted at London, and as the ready way to gain king James's 
favour was to flatter his fpeculations, the fyftem of Dtemonologie 
was immediately adopted by all who defired either to gain prefer- 
jnent or not to lofe it. Thus the doctrine of witchcraft was very 
powerfully inculcated ; and as the greateft part of mankind have 
no other reafon for their opinions than that they are in faihion, 
it cannot be doubted but this perfualion made a rapid progrefs, 
fince vanity and credulity co-operated in its favour. The infec- 
tion foon reached the parliament, who, in the firft year of king 
James, made a law, by which it was enacted, chap. xii. That 
*' if any perfon fhall ufe any invocation or conjuration of any evil 
or wicked fpirit ; 2. or fhall confult, covenant with, entertain, 
(employ, feed or reward any evil or curled fpirit to or for any 
intent or purpofe ; 3. or take up any dead man, woman or child 
out of the ^rave, or the fkin, bone, or any part of the dead 
perfon, to be employed or ufed in any manner of witchcraft, 
forccry, charm, or enchantment; 4. or (hall ufe, practife or 
exercile any fort of witchcraft, forcery, charm, or enchant- 
ment; 5. whereby any perfon fhall be deftroyed, killed, wafted, 
confumed, pined, or 'lamed in any part of the body ; 6. That 
every fuch perfon being convicted fhail fuffer death." This law 
was repealed in our own time. 

Thus, in the time of Shakefpeare, was the doctrine of witch- 
craft at once eftablifhed by law and by the fafhion, and it became 
pot only uppolite, but criminal, to doubt it ; and as prodigies 
are always fcen in proportion as they are expefted, witches were 
every day difcovered, and multiplied fo faft in fume places, that 
bifhop Hall mentions a village in Lancafhire, where their num- 
ber was greater than that of the houfes. The jefuits and fe<Sh- 
ries took advantage of this univerfal error, and endeavoured to 
promote the interefl of their parties by pretended cures of rjerfons 
afflided by evil fpirits ; but they were detected and expofed by the 
clergy of the eftabliihed church. 

Upon this general infatuation Shakefpeare might be eafily al- 
Jowed to found a play, efpecially fmce he has followed with great 



2 Witch. Upon the heath : 

3 Witch. * There to meet with Macbeth* 
i Witch. I come, Gray-malkin * \ 

All. Paddock calls : Anon 4 . 

5 Fair is foul, and foul is fair : 
Hover through the fog and filthy air. 


exa&nefs fuch hiftories as were then thought true ; nor can it be 
doubted that the fcenes of enchantment, however they may now be 
ridiculed, were both by himfelf and his audience thought awful 
and affecting. JOHNS ox. 

a There to meet with Macbeth.] 
Thus the old copy. Mr. Pope, and after him other editors read ; 

There I go to meet Macbeth. 

The infertion, however, feems to be injudicious. To meet with 
Macbeth was the general defign of all the witches in going to the 
heath, and not the particular bufinefs or motive of any one of 
them in diftinftion from the reft ; as the interpolated words, I go^ 
jn the mouth of the third witch, would moft certainly imply. 


* Gray-malkin. !. ] 

From a little black letter book, entitled, Beware the Cat, 1584, 
I find it was permitted to a Witch to take on her a cattes body nine 
times. Mr. Upton obferves, that to underftand this paflage we 
ihould fuppofe one familiar calling with the voice of a cat ? ancl 
another with the croaking of a toad. STEEVENS. 

4 Paddock calls : Anon. ] 

This, as well as the two following lines, is given in the folio to the 
three Witches. Preceding editors have appropriated the firft of them 
to the fecond Witch. 

According to the late Dr. Goldfmith, andfome other naturalifts, 
zfrog is called % paddock in the North j as in the following inltance 
in Ctffar and Pompey, by Chapman, 1602: 

" Paddockes, todes, and vvaterfnakes." 

In Shakefpeare, however, it certainly means a toad. The re- 
prefentation of St. James in the witches' houfe (one of the fet of 
prints taken from the painter called Hellijh Brcugel, 1566) ex- 
hibits witches flying up and down the chimney on brooms ; and 
before the fire fit grimalkin %n& paddock, i. e. a cat and a toad^ 
with feveral baboons. There is a cauldron boiling, with a witch 
near it, cutting out the tongue of a fnake, as an ingredient for the; 
charm. STEEVENS. 

5 Fair is foul) and foul is fair ;] 



uttarum within. Enter King Duncan, Malcolm, Do- 
nalbain, Lenox, with Attendants, meeting a bleeding 

King. What bloody man is that ? He can report, 
As feemeth by his plight, of the revolt 
The neweft ftate. 

Mai. This is the ferjeant 6 , 
\Vho like a good and hardy foldier fought 
'Gainft my captivity : Hail, brave friend ! 
Say to the king the knowledge of the broil, 

i. e. we make thefe fudden changes of the weather. And Mac- 
beth, fpeaking of this day, foon after fays : 

So foul and fair a Jay I have notfecn. WAR BUR TON. 
The common idea of witches has always been, that they had 
abfolute power over the weather, and could raile ftorms of any 
kind, or allay them, as they pleafed. In conformity to this no- 
tion, Macbeth addrefles them in the fourth act : 

Tbougbyou untye the winds, &c. STEEVENS. 
I believe the meaning is, that to us, perverfe and malignant as 
we are, fair is foul, and foul is fair. JOHNSON. 

This expreffion feems to have been proverbial. Spenfer has it 
in the 4th book of the Faery ^ueen : 

*' Then fair grew foal, w& foul grew fair in fight." 


6 77/is is tie ferjeant,] 

Holinflied is the beft interpreter of Shakefpeare in his hiftorical 
plays ; for he not only takes his fals from him, but often his very 
words and expreffions. Thathiflorian, in his account of Macdowald's 
rebellion, mentions, that on the firft appearance of a mutinous fpirit 
among the people, the king fent ^ferjeant at arms into the country, 
to bring up the chief offenders to anfwer the charge preferred 
againft them, but they, inftead of obeying, mifufed the mejjenger 
ivitb fitndry reproaches^ and finally Jlew bint. Thisferjeaat at arms 
is certainly the origin of the bletditig Serjeant introduced on this 
occafion. Shakefpeare juft caught the name from Holinfhed, but 
the reft of the ftory not fuiting his purpofe, he does not adhere to 
it. The ftage direction of entrance, where the Heeding Captain is 
mentioned, was probably the work of the player editors, and 
not of Shakefpeare. STEEVENS. 



As thou didft leave it. 

Cap. Doubtful it flood 7 ; 

As two fpent fwimmers, that do cling together^ 
And choak their art. The mercilefs Macdonel 
(Worthy to be a rebel ; for> to that, 
The multiplying villanies of nature 
Do fwanii upon him) 9 from the weftern ifles 
Of Kernes and Gallow-glaffes is fupply'd ; 
1 And fortune, on his damned quarrel imiling, 


7 Doubffullong it 

Mr. Pope, who firft introduced the word long to affift the metre, 
has thereby injured the fenfe. If the companion was meant tor 
coincide in all circumftances, the flruggle could not be long. 


8 - Macdonel} 

According to Holinfhed we fiiould read Macdawald. The folio 
reads Macdonivald. STEEVENS. 

9 - -from the ivejtcrn ijles 

Of Kernes and Gallnv-glajjes is /apply* d \\ 

Whether /apply* d of, for fnpply V from -or with, was a kind of 
Grecifm of Shakefpeare's expreffion ; or whether of be a corrup- 
tion of the editors, who took Kernes and Gallo^jo-glajjes^ which 
were ouly light and heavy-armed foot, to be the names of two of 
the weilern iflands, I don't know. Hinc conjectures vigorem etiam 
adjiciunt arm a qnadam Hibernica, Gallicis antiquis Jimilia, jacula 
nimirum peditum levis armatures quos Kernos vacant, nee non fecures 
& lorictf ferrece peditum illorum gravioris armatures, quos Galloglaf- 
fios appellant. Waraei Antiq. Hiber. cap. vi. WARBURTON. 

Of and -with are indifcriminately ufed by our ancient writers. 
So, in the Spanifa Tragedy ; 

" Perform'd ^/'pleafure by your fon the prince." 
Again, in God's Revenge again ft Murder, hift. vi : " Sypontus in 
the mean time is prepared of two wicked gondaliers, &c." Again,- 
in The Hiftory of Rely as Kn'rghi of tht Sun, bl. 1. no date : " he 
was well garnifhed of fpeur, fvvord, and armoure, &c/' Thefe 
are a few out of a thouland inftauces which might be brought to- 
the fame purpofe. STEEVKNS. 

1 Andfgrtune, on his damned quarry fmiling,"] 
Thus the old copy ; but I am inclined to read quarrel. hiar~ 
rel was formerly ufed for car'/i', or for the occajion of a quarrel^ 
and is to be found in thnt ienie in Holinfhed's account of the 
itory of Macbeth, who, upon thecreation of the prince of Cum- 
berland, thought, fays the hiilorian, that he had ajvjl quarrel to 



Shew'd like a rebel's whore : But all's too weak : 
For brave Macbeth, (well he dcferves that name) 
Difdaining fortune, with his brandifh'd Heel, 
Which fmoak'd with bloody execution, 
Like valour's minion, carved out his paflage, 

And ne'er fhook hands *, nor bade farewel to him, 
Till J he unfeam'd him from the nave to the chops, 
And fix'd his head upon our battlements. 


endeavour after the crown. The fenfe therefore is, Fortune fmil- 
ing on bis execrable caufe, &c. This is followed by Dr. Warburton. 


The word quarrel occurs in Holinfted's relation of this very 
facl, and may be regarded as a futficient proof of its having beeii 
the term here employed by Shakefpenre : " Out of the weftern itles 
there came to Macdowald a great multitude of people, tj afful 
him in that rebellious quarrel" Befides, Macdowald's quarry, 
(i. e. game) muft have confilted of Duncan's friends, and would the 
fpeaker then have applied the epithet damned to them ? and what 
have the fmiles of fortune to do over a carnage, when we have 
defeated our enemieb ? Her bufmt-fs is then at an aid. Her fmiles 
or frowns are no longer of any confequence. We only talk of 
thefe, while we are purfuing our quarrel, and the event of it ia. 
uncertain. STEEVEXS. 

- And ntffxjljook bands, &c.] 
The oUl copy reads which never. STEEVEKS. 

3 he u'ifcani'd him from the nave to the chops, ~\ 

We feldom hear of fuch terrible crofs blows given and received 
but by giants and mifcreants in Amadls de Caule. Belides it mult 
be a ftrange auk^vard flroke that could unrip him upwards tro:u 
the navel to the chops. But Shakefpeare certainly wrote : 

he unjeanfd him from the nape to the chops, 

i.e. cut his Ikull in two ; which might be done by a Hi gli lan- 
der's fword. This was a reafonable blow, and very naturally ex- 
prefled, on fuppofing it given when the head of the wearied com- 
batant was reclining downwards at the latter end of a lung duel. 
For the nape is the hinder part of the neck, where the vari^ra 
join to the bone ol the ikull. So, in Coriolaum : 

" O ! that you could turn your eyes towards the napes of 

your necks." 

The word unfeamcd likewife, becomes very proper ; and alludes 
to the future which goes crofs the crown of the head in tint direc- 
tion called the futura fagittalis ; and which) coiifojuently, muft 


44 8 MACBETH. 

King. Oh, valiant coufin ! worthy gentleman 1 
Cap. 4 As whence the fun 'gins his reflexion 

be opened by fuch a ftroke. It is remarkable, that Milton, xvho 
in his youth read and imitated our poet much, particularly in his 
Comus, was milled by this corrupt reading. For in the rnanufcript 
of that poem, in Trinity-College library, the following Hues are 
read thus ; 

" Or drag him by the curls, and cleave hisfcalpe 

"' Down to the hippes." 

An evident imitation of this corrupted paffage. But he alter'd it 
with better judgment to : 

" to a foul death 

" Curs'd as his life." WAREURTOX. 

The learned commentator is certainly right in his alteration of 
nave into nape ; but notwithstanding his fagacity in that point, he 
feems to be miftaken in his defcription of the ftroke. To unfeam, 
is to diflever, to cut in two. The word is thus ufed by B. and 
Fletcher in the firft of their Four Plays in One : 

" not a vein runs here, 

*' But Sophocles would unfeam" 

To unfeam a man from the nape to the chops, is a plain exact de- 
fcription as can be given of cutting off the head at the neck by a 
blow from the hinder part quite through to the fore part where it 
joins the chops, according to our common idea of decollation. 
The words will fcarcely bear the other interpretation of cutting bis 
fcull in tv:o through the crown of the head and fagittal future. 
That would be unfeaming him down to the nape and the chops ; 
but Macbeth's blow is from the nape to the chops. 

The blow in Milton was copied from the romances he was fo 
fond of, which are full of fuch downward cleaving ftrokes ; and 
could never be taken from the aukward, upward, almoft impoffi.- 
ble one in this corrupted paflage of Shakefpeare, STEEVENS. 

* As whe?i the fun 'gins his reflection] 

Here are two readings in the copies, gives, and 'gias t i. e. begins. 
But the latter I think is the right, as founded on obfervation, 
that ilcrms generally come from the eaft. As from the place (fays 
he) ivbence the fun begins his courfe, (viz. the eaft) JbipwrecVng 
Jlorms proceed, fo, &c. For the natural and conftant motion of the 
ocean is from eaft to weft ; and the wind has the fame general di- 
redtion. Pracipaa & generalis [ventorum] cavfa ejl ipfe Sol qui 
aerem rarefacit & attenuat. Aer enim rarefafius multo major cm lo- 
cum pojlulat. Inde jit ut Aer a fole impulfus alium vicbium aerem 
magno impctu protrudat ; cumque Sol ab Oriente in occidentcm circum- 
rotctur, prcecipuus ab eo aeris impulfus fiet verfr.s occidentem. 
VareniiGecgr, 1. i, c. xiv. prop. 10. See alfo Dr. Ha/ley's Ac- 



Shipwrecking ftorms and direful thunders break 5 ; 
So from that fpring, whence comfort feem'd to come., 
fl Difcomfort fwells. Mark, king of Scotland, mark : 
No foonef juftice had, with valour arm'd, 
Compell'd thefe Skipping Kernes to truft their heels; 
But the Norweyan lord, furveying vantage, 

count of the Trade W^inds of the Moufflons. This being fo, it is r.o 
wonder that ftorms fhould come moft frequently from that quar- 
ter ; or that they fhould be moil violent, becauie there is a con- 
currence of the natural motions of wind and wave. This prove* 
the true reading is 'gifts ; the other reading not fixirig it to that 
quarter. For the fun may give its reflection in any part of its 
Courfe above the horizon ; but it can begin it only in one. The 
Oxford editor, however, flicks to the other reading, gives: and 
fays, that, by the fun's giving bis reflexion, is meant the 'rain-bo-T.v t 
theftrongejl and moft remarkable reflexion of any the fun gives. He 
appears by this to have as good a hand at reforming our phyfica 
as our poetry. This is a diicovery, that fhipwrecking ftorms pro- 
ceed from the rainbow. But he was milled by his want ot Ikiil 
in Shakefpeare's phrafeology, who, by the fun's reflexion, means 
only the fun's light. But while he is intent on making his au- 
thor fpeuk correctly, he flips himielf. The rainbow is no more 
a reflexion of the inn than a tune is a fiddle. And, though it be 
the moft remarkable effect of reflected light, yet it is not the 
Jlrongej}. W A R E u X T o x . 

There are not two readings : both the old folios have 'gins. 


The thought is exprefled with fonre obfcurity, but the plain 

meaning is this : As the fame quarter, ivhenct the blejfinsr of 

day-light arifes, fcmctimes fends us, by a dreadful reverfe, tfa 
talamities of ft arms and te?;ipejls ; fo- the pjorivus event of jl/./c 1 - 
bct.h j s viflory, ivhicb proniifed us the comforts of peace, was immedi- 
ately fuccccdfd by the alarming news of the Norvsyan invafon. The 
natural hifbry of the winds, &c. is foreign to the explana- 
tion of this paffage. Shakefpeare does not mean, in cont r- 
mity to any theory, to fay that florms jj<.>*<-7Y///y come from the ealr. 
If it be allowed that they fometimes ilfue from that quarter, it is 
fufficient for the purpofe of his companion. STEEYENS. 

5 thunders break \~\ 

The word break is wanting in the olded copy. The other folios and 
Rowe read brcaki-ng. Mr. Pope made the emendation. STEEVEN^. 

6 Difcomfort fwells - ] 

D if comfort the natural oppolitc to co mfort. WeWd, h\ jiowed, \vaf 
an emendation. The common copies have, ii-j\omfort , 


VOL. IV. G g With 


With farbifh'd arms, and new fupplies of men, 
Began a frefh aflault. 

King. Difmay'd not this 
Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo ? 

Cap. Yes; 

As fparrows, eagles ; or the hare, the lion. 
If I lay footh, I muft report they were 
7 As cannons overcharged with double cracks ; 
So they 

Doubly redoubled ftrokes upon the foe : 
Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, 
* Or memorize another Golgotha, 


7 As cannons overcharged with double cracks ; 
So they doubly redoubled Jlrokes upon the foe :] 

Mr. Theobald has endeavoured to improve the fenfe of this paf- 
fage by altering the punctuation thus : 

they "were 

As cannons overcharged, ivitb double cracks 

So they redoubled firokes ] 

He declares, with fome degree of exultation, that he has no idea 
of a cannon charged <witb double cracks ; but furely the great au- 
thor will not gain much by an alteration which makes him fay 
of a hero, that he redoubles firokes with double cracks, an expref- 
fion not more loudly to be applauded, or more eafily pardoned 
than that which is rejected in its favour. That a cannon is .charged 
with thunder, or tur6 double thunders, may be written, not only 
without nonfenfe, but -with elegance, and nothing elfe is here 
meant by cracks, which in the time of this writer was a word of 
fuch emphafis and dignity, that in this play he terms the general 
difiblution of nature the crack ofdooia. 
The old copy reads : 

They doubly redoubled firoka. JOHNSON. 

I have followed the old reading. In Rich. II. act I. we find 
this paflage in fupport of it : 

* 4 And let thy blows, doubly redoubled^ 

Fall, &c." STEEVENS. 

8 Or memorize another Golgotha ,] 
Memorize, for make memorable. WAR BURTON. 

memorize another Golgotha,'] That is, to tranfmit another 
Golgotha to pofterity. The word, which fome fuppofe to have 
been coined by Shakefpeare, is ufed by Spenfer in a former to lord 
Buckhurft prefixed to his Paftorah* 1579 ; 

" IB 


I cannot tell : - 

But I am faint, my gafhes cry for help. 

King. So well thy words become thee, as thy 

wounds ; 
They fmack of honour both : Go, get himfurgeons. 

9 Enter Rof\ 

Who comes here ? 

MaL The worthy thane of Rofle. 

Len. W'hat a hafte looks through his eyes ? So 

ihould he look ', 
That feems to fpeak things ftrange. 


* In vaine I thinke, right honourable lord, 

' By this rude rime to memorize thy name." WAR TON. 
The word is likevvife ufed by Chapman, in his tranflation of 
the fecond book of Homer, 1598. 

* which let thy thoughts be fure to memorize" 
Again, n The Fawne, by Marfton, 1606: 

* - oh, let this night 

* Be ever manor IT? d with prouder triumphs." 
Again, in Daniel's dedication to the tragedy of Philotas : 

" Defign our happinefs to memorize" 
Again^ in Drayton's PolyoLbion, fong 5 : 

" Which to fucceeding times ihall memorize your ftories." 
Again, in the 2 ift fong ; 

" Except poor widows' cries to memorize your theft." 
Again, in the Miracles ofMofcs : 

" That might for ever memorize this deed." 
And again, in a copy of verfes prefixed to fir Arthur Gorges'a 
tranllation of Lucan, 1614: 

" Of them whole adls they mean to memorize." 



Enter RoJJe and Angus.] As only the thane of Rofle is (poken 
to, or fpeaks any thing in the remaining part of this fcene, An- 
gus is a luperfluous character, the king exprefling himfelf in the 
Angular number; 

Whence cani'Jl tbou y ivorthy Thane f 
I have printed it, Enter Roffe only. STEEVENS. 

1 SoJboMbelook, 

That feems to fpeak tb'<ng sfirange.~\ 

The meaning of this palFage as it now Itands, is, fo JJwuldbe Unk^ 

that looks as if he told things Jl range. But Roile neither yet told 

Urange things, nor could look as if he told them -, Lenox only 

G g 2 con- 

45* H A C B E T H. 

Roffe. God fave the king ! 

King. Whence cam'ft thou, worthy thane ? 

Rqflc. From Fife, great king, 
Where the Nbrweyan banners 2 flout the Iky, 
And fan our people cold. 
Norway himfelf, with terrible numbers, 
Affifted by that moft difloyal traitor 
The thane of Cawdor, began a difmal conflict : 
'Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapt in proof, 
f Confronted him 4 with felf-comparifons, 


conjectured from his air that he had frrange things to tell, and 
therefore undoubtedly faid : 

IfTtat hafte looks through his eyes? 

SoJbouU be look, that teems tofpeak things ftrange. 
He looks like one that is big vjitb fomething of importance ; * 
metaphor fo natural that it is ever}' day ufed in common difcourfe.- 


The following pafiage in Cymldine feems to afford no unapt com- 
ment upon this : , 

*' one but painted thus, 

" Would be interpreted a thing perplex'd, &c." 
Again, in the Tempeft : 

*' prithee, fay on : 

" The fetting of thine eye and cheek proclaim 

" A matter from thee- 

Again, in K.Ricbardll : 

*' Men j.udge by the complexion of the Iky, &c. 

" So may you, by my dull and heavy eye, 

*' My tongue hath but a heavier tale to fay." STZEVENC,, 

flout thejty,] 

To flout is to dafli any thing^ in another's face. WARBURTOX. 

T-o^flout does never fifnify to dajh any thing in another's fact- 
Tojlout is rather to niock or infult. The banners are very poeti- 
cally defcribed as waving in mockery or defanct of the flcy. So, in/ 
K^E.dv:ard\\\. 1599: 

'* And new replenifh'd pendants cufFthe air, 

'* And beat the wind, that for their gaudinefs 

" Struggles to kifs them." STEEV-ENS* 
7 Confronted hira with felf-comparifons^\. 

The Jijloval Cawdor, fays Mr. Theobald. Then comes another, 
and fays, a ftrange forgetfulnefs in Shakefpeare, when Macbeth 
hud lakcn the Thane of Ca~j;dor prifoner, not to kno\v that he wa 
fallen the king's difplcafure for rebellion* But this is only 


Point againfl point rebellious, arm 'gainft arm, 
Curbing his lavifli fpirit : And to conclude, 
The victory fell on us ; 

King. Great happinefs i 

Rojj'e. That now 

Sweno, the Nonvays* king, craves compofttion ; 
Nor would we deign him burial of his men, 
'Till he drfburfed, at 5 Saint Colmes' inch, 
Ten thoufand dollars to our general ufe. 

King. No more that thane of Cawdor lhall deceive 
Our bofom intcreit : Go, pronounce his prefent 

blunder upon blunder. The truth is, by him, in this verfe, i* 
meant Norway ; as the plain conftru&ion of the English requires. 
And the affiftance the thane of Cavjdor had given Norway was un- 
derhand ; which Roffe and Angus, indeed, had difcovered ; but 
was unknown to Macbeth. Cawdor being in the court all this 
while, as appears from Angus's fpeech to Macbeth, when he 
jneets him to lalute him with the title, and infmuates his crime toy 
be lining the rebel -ivitb bidden help and ^vantage. WAR BURTON. \ 
The fecond blunderer was the prefent editor. JOHNSON. 

4 with felf-comparifons,] 

/. e. give him as good as he brought, fliew'd he was his equal. 


5 Saint Colmct inch,] 

The folio reads : 

At Saint Colme? ynch. 

Colmes-inch, now called Inchcoml, a fmall ifland lying in the Firth 
of Edinburgh, with an abbey upon it, dedicated to St. Columb ; 
called by Camden Inch Colm^ or the IJle of Columba. The mo- 
dern editors, without authority, read : 

Saint Colmcf-kitt IJle ; 

arid very erroneoufly ; for Colmes' Inch, and Calm-kill are trio 
different ilhmds ; the former lying on the eaftern coaft, near the 
place where the Danes were defeated ; the latter in the weftern 
leas, being the famous lona, one of the Hebrides. 

Holinfhed thus mentions the whole circumftance : " The Danes 
that rfcaped, and got once to tbtirjhips. obtained of Macbeth for a 
great fum of gold, \\vs\fuch of their friends as were flaine, might 
be buried in Saint Colme? Inch, In memory whereof many old le 
pulturcs are yet in the faid Inch, graven with the arms of the 
Danes." Inch, or Injbc in the Irifli and Erfe languages, fignifiea 
an iiiund. See Lhuyd's Arcbaologia, STE^vENa.. 

G g 3 And 


And with his former title greet Macbeth. 

Roffe. I'll fee it done. 

King. What he hath loft, noble Macbeth hath won. 



Thunder* Enter the three Witches. 

1 Witch. Where haft thou been, fifter ? 

2 Witch. Killing fwine. 

3 Witch f Sifter, where thou ? 

i Witch. A failor's wife had chefnuts in her lap, 
And mouncht, and mouncht, and mouncht : Give 

me, quoth I. 

6 Aroint thee, witch ! the 7 rumprfed 3 ronyon cries. 


6 Aroint thee, ] 

Aroint, or avaunt, be gone. POPE. 

Aroint thee, ivitcb ! ] 

In one of the folio editions the reading js Anoint thee, in a fenfe 
very confiftent with the common account of witches, who are re- 
lated to perform many fupernatural ab by the means of un- 
guents, and particularly to fly through the air to the places where 
they meet at their hellifh feftivals. In this fenfe, anoint thee, 
witch, will mean, Aivay, witch, to your infernal ajjembly. This 
reading I was inclined to favour, becaufe I had met with the word 
aroint in no other author ; till looking into Hearne's Collections 
I found it in a very old drawing, that he has publiflied, in which 
St. Patrick is reprefented vififing hell, and putting the devils in- 
to great confufion by his prefence, of whom one that is driving 
the damned before him with a prong, has a label iffuing out of 
his mouth with thefe words, OUT OUT ARONGT, of which thelait 
is evidently the fame with aroint, and ufed in the lame fenfe as in 
this paflage. JOHNSON. 

Ryntyou witch, quoth EcJJe Locket to her mother, is a north coun- 
try proverb. The word is ufed again in K. I. car : 

" And aroint thee witch, aroint thee." STEEVENS. 

7 the rump-fed ronyon ] 

The chief cooks in noblemen's families, colleges, religious houfes, 
hofpitals, &c. anciently claimed the emoluments or kitchen fees 
of kidneys, fat, trotters, rumps, &c, which they fold to the poor. 
The weird fifter in this fcene, as an infult on the poverty of the 
woman who had called her witch, reproaches her poor abjeft Hate* 


Her hufband's to Aleppo gone, matter o'the Tyger : 
But in a fieve I'll thither fail 9 , 
1 And, like a rat without a tail, 
I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do. 

2 Witch* I'll give thee a wind *. 

AS not being able to procure better provifion than offals, which 

are confidered as the refufe of the tables of others. 

So, in Ben Jonfon's Staple of News, old Penny-boy lays to the 


" And then remember meat for my two dogs ; 
" Fat flaps of mutton, kidneys, rumps, &e." 

Again, in Wit at federal Weapons, by B- and Fletcher : 
" A niggard to your commons, that you're fain 
" To fize your belly out with (houlder fees, 
*' With kidneys, rumps, and cues of fin gle beer." 

In the Book cf Haukynge, &c. (commonly called the Book of St. 

j4Ibans) bl. 1. no date, among the proper terms vfcd in kepyng of 

baukes, itisfaid: " The hauke tyreth upon rumps" STEEVENS. 

8 ron\o7i cries."] 

\. e. fcabby or mangy woman. Fr. rogneux, royne, fcurf. 
Thus Chaucer, in the Romaunt of the Rofe, p. 551 : 

" - her necke 

" Withouten bleine, or fcabbe, or roine." 
Shakefpeare ufes the word again in Tfa Merry Wives ofWmafor. 


9 - in afr-ve 1*11 tbitberfail, ] 

Reginald Scott, in his Difcovc ry of Witchcraft, 1584, fays it was 
believed that witches " could fail in an egg fliell, a cockle or 
mufcle Ihell, through and under the tempeftuous leas." Again, 
fir W. Davenant, in his Albovine, 1629 : 

" He fits like a v>\tc\i failing in afeve." STEEVENS. 
1 And like a rat ivithout a tail,\ 

It fhould be remembered j(as it was the belief of the times) that 
though a witch could aflume the form of any animal flic pleafed, 
the tail would ftill be wanting. 

The reafon given by fome of the old writers, for fuch a defi- 
ciency, is, that though the hands and feet, by an eafy change, 
might be converted ,into the four paws of a beaft, there was iHll 
no part about a woman which correfponded with the length of 
tail common to almoft all four-footed creatures. SrEt\ 

1 Pll-givf thee a <U'.W.] 

This free git; of a wind is to be confidered as an af> of filterly 
friendfliip, t'or witches were fuppofcd to 1'tll them. So, in w/p. 
ttur't I aft Will and Tcjlamcnt, 1 6co : 

G g 4 ' in 


i Witch. Thou art kind. 
3 Witch. And I another. 
i Witch. I myfelf have all the other; 
3 And the very points they blow. 
All the quarters that they know 
I' the fhipman's card 4 . 
I will drain him dry as hay s : 
Sleep ihall, neither night nor day, 
Hang upon his pent-hqufe lid j 
6 lie Ihafl live a man forbid ; 


<< in Ireland and in Denmark both, 

* ' Witches for gold \v\\\fe II a man a wind, 
" Which in the corner of a napkin wrap'd, 
" Shall blow him fafe unto what coaft he will." 
Drayton, in his Moon-calf, fays the fame. STEEVENS. 

3 And the very points they lltnv j] 

As the word very is here of no other ufe than to fill up the verfe, 
it is likely that Shakefpeare wrote various, which might be eafily 
iniftaken for very, being either negligently read, haftily pro. 
pounced, or imperfectly heard. JOHNSON. 

The very points are the true exadt points. Very is ufed here (as 
in a thoufand inftances which might be brought) to exprefs the 
deck, ration more emphatically. 

Inftead pf points, however, the ancient copy reads ports. But 
this cannot be right ; for though the witch), from her power 
over the winds, might juftly enough fny that fhe had all the 
joints and quarters from whence they blow, Ihe could not with any 
degree of propriety declare that Ihe had the ports to which they 
were direfted. STEEVENS. 

4 the Jl>zf man's r<7>v7 r ] 

The card is the paper on which the winds are marked under the, 
pilot's needle. So, in the Loyal Snbjcfl, by B. and Fletcher : 

**" The card of goodnefs in your minds, that (hews you 

" When you fail falfe." STEEYE^S. 

5 dry as bay .-] 

So, Spenfer, in his Faery S>uecn, b. iii. c. 9 : 

" But he 'is old and withered as bay. 3 ' STEEVENS, 

6 llejliall live a man forbid :] 

i. e. as oac under a curfe, an ihterdifiion. So, afterwards in thij 
play : 

" By his own interdiction {lands accvffdf* 

So among the Romans, an outlaw's fentence was, Aqua fe" Ignlj 
jnterdidtio ; '/. e. he was forbid the ufe of water and fire, which 
y'd the necejity of banifaneiii, THEOBAJ.P, 


Weary feven-nights, nine times nine, 
Shall he dwindle 7 , peak, and pine : 
Though his bark cannot be loft, 
Yet it ihall be tempeft-toft. 
Look what I have. 

2 Witch. Shew me, fhew me. 

i Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, 
Wrecked, as homeward he did come. [Drum within, 

g Witch. A drum, a drum ; 
Macbeth doth come. 

All. 8 The weird fitters, hand m hand, 
Poflcrs of the fea and land, 


Mr. Theobald has very juftly explained forbid by accurfed, but 
without giving any reafon of his interpretation. To bid is origi- 
nally to pray, as in this Saxon fragment : 

He ip pif ? b't 1 bore, &c. 
He is ivife that prays and makes amends. 

As to forbid therefore implies to prohibit, in oppofition to the 
word bid in its piefent fenfe, it fignifies by the fame kind of op- 
pofition to curfc, when it is derived from the fame word in its prU 
mirive meaning. JOHNSON. 

7 Shall he dwindle, faV.] 

This mifchief was fuppofed to be put in execution by means of a 
waxen figure, which reprefented the perfon who was to be con- 
futed by flow degrees. 

So, in Webfter's Dutchefs ofMalfy, 1623: 

" it i>,-aj:es me more 

" Than were't my picture faihion'd out of war, 
" Stuck with a magick needle, and then buried 
" In fome foul dunghill." 

So, Holinfl-.ed, fpcaking of the witchcraft prac~tifed to deftroyking 
Ditfe : 

" found one of the witches ronfting upon a wooden broch 

an image of wax at the fire, refembling in each feature the king's 
perfon, &c." 

V* for as the image did walte afore the fire, fo did the 

bodie pf the king break forth in fweat. And as for the words of the 
jnchantmer.t, they lerved to keep him ftill waking /hw/yfo^*, &e'* 
This may ferve to explain the foregoing paflagc : 
Sleep fliall neither night norday, 
Hang upon his pemhoufe lid. STEEVENS. 
8 The wey warder >v, hand in hand,] 

-The witd'ts arc herefpeakingofthemfelves : and it is worth an 



Thus do go about, about ; 
Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, 
And thrice again, to make up nine : 
Peace ! the charm's wound up. 


enquiry why they fhould ftile themfelves tbt wcvwarJ, or way 
ward Jijte rs. This word, in its general acceptation, fignifies, 
ffrverfe, frvxard, moody, olftinate, untraflable, &c. and is every 
where Ib ufed by our Shakefpeare. To content ourfelves with 
two or three inftances : 

" Fy, fy, how wayward is this foolifli love, 
" That, like a tefty babe, &c." 

Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

*' This wimpled, whining, purblind, it-rtynvm/boy." 
Love's Labour Loft. 

*' And which is worfe, all you have dene 
*' Is but for a wayward Ion." 

It is improbable the witches would adopt this epithet to them- 
felves, in any of thefe femes, and therefore we are to look a lit- 
tle farther for the poet's word and meaning. "When I had the firlr. 
iufpicion of our author being corrupt in this place, it brought to 
my mind the following paflage in Chaucer's 'Trcilus and C'-ejTeide, 
lib. iii. v. 618 : 

" But O fortune, executrice of wVr/fcj." 

"Which word the Gl'-raria expound to us by f Mrs, or dcjlinies. I 
was foon confirmed in my fufpicion, upon happening to dip into 
Heylin's CofmografLy, where he makes :i fhort recital of the ftory 
of Macbgth and Banquo. 

** Theietwo," fays he. ' travelling together through a forefl, 
were met by three fairies, witches, *" ivicrds. The Scots call 
them, &c." 

I prefently recollected, that this ftory muft be recorded at more 
length by Holinfhed, with whom, I thought, it was very proba- 
ble, that our author had traded for the materials of his tragedy, 
and therefore confirmation was to be fetched from this fountain. 
Accordingly, looking into the Hi/lory of Scotland, I found the 
writer very prolix and exprefs, from Hector Boethius, in his re- 
markable ftory ; and, p. 170, fpeaking of thefe witches, he ufes 
this expreflion : 

* But afterwards the common opinion was, that thefe women 
were either the weird fifters ; that is, as ye would fay, the God - 
defies of Deftiny, &c." 
Again, a little lower : 

" The words of the three weird fifters alfo (of \vhom before ye 
have heard) greatly encouraged him thereunto." 

And in feveral other paragraphs there this word is repeated. I 



Enter Macbeth and Banquo. 

. So foul and fair a day I have not feen. 


believe, by this time, it is plain, beyond a doubt, that the word 
wayward has obtained in Macbeth, where the witches are fpoken 
of, from the ignorance of the copyifts, who are not acquainted 
with the Scotch term ; and that in every paflage, where there is 
any relation to thefe witches or wizards, my emendation muft be 
embraced, and we mult read weird. THEOBALD. 

The weyward^/ftrj, band in band,'] 

Mr. Theobald had found out who thefe weyward fiftcrs were ; but 
obierved they were called, in his authentic Holinfhed, weird 
Jlfters ; and fo would needs have weyward a corruption of the text, 
becaufe it figu:ries/*r-r?r/i', froward, &c. and it is improbable (he 
faysj that the witches Jbould adopt this epithet to themfelves. It was 
hurd that, when he knew fo much, he fliould not know a little 
more ; that wfyward had anciently the very fame fenfe, as weird; 
and was, indeed, the very fume word differently fpelt ; having 
acquired its later fignification from the quality and temper of thefe 
imaginary witches. But this is being a critic like him who had 
difcovered that there were two Hercules's ; and yet did not know 
that he had two next-door neighbours of one and the lame name. 
As to thefe weyviardfiftcr*, they were the Fates of the northern 
nations ; the three hand-maids of Odin. Ha nominantur Valky- 
rite, qua* quod-vis ad praUum Odinus mil tit. H<e viros morti deju- 
nant, & vlSloriatn gubernant. Gunna, & Rota, & par car um mi- 
nima Skullda : per aera & maria equitant femper ad morituros eli- 
gendos ; & carder in potejlate habent. Bartholinus de Cau(is con- 
tempts a Danis adhuc Gentilibus mortis. It is for this reafon 
that Shakeipeare makes them three ; and calls them, 

Pojlers ofthefca and land ; 

and intent only upon death and mifchief. However, to give this 
part ot his work the more dignity, he intermixes, with this 
northern, the Greek and Roman fuperftitions ; and puts Hecate 
at the head of their enchantments. And to make it Itill more ra- 
iniliar to the common audience (which was always his point) he 
adds, for another ingredient, a lufficient quantity of our own 
country fuperfUtions concerning witches ; their beards, their 
cuts, and their broomfticks. So that his wiich-fccnes are like the 
i-harm they prepare in one of them ; where the ingredients are ga- 
thered from every thing fi-ocking in the natural world, as here, 
irom every thing alfurd in the moral. But as extravagant as all 
this is, the play has had the power to charm and bewitch every au- 
dience from that time to this. WAR BURTON. 

ll r urd comes from the Anglo-Saxon jyrt*, and is ufed as afub- 



Ban. How far is't call'd to Fores 9 ? What are thefe, 
So wither'd, and fo wild in their attire ; 
That look not like the inhabitants o'the earth, 
And yet are on't ? Live you ? or are you aught 
1 That man may queftion ? You feem to underfland 


By each at once her choppy finger laying 
Upon her fkinny lips : You fliould be women, 

ftantive fignifying a prophecy by the rranflator of HeRor Eoethius 
in the year 1 541 , as well as for the Deftinies by Chaucer and Ho- 
linfhed. Of the iveirdis gevyn to Makbeth and Ba/iqhuo, is the 
argument of 'one of the chapters. Gawin Douglas, in his tranf- 
lation of Virgil, calls the Parcee the fntird RfttTs ; and in Ane verie 
excellent and deleclabill Treatife intitulit PHILOTUS, qubairin i':e 
may perfave the grclt inconveniences that f "alii s out In the Mariage le- 
t~i<:ec ne Age and Zcuth, Edinburgh, 1605, the word appears again ; 

" How dois the quheill of fortune go, 

" Quhat wickit vticrd has wrocht our wo." 
Again : 

" Quhat neidis Philotus to think 511, 

" Or zit his ivierdto warie ?" 

The other method of fpelling was merely a blunder of the tran- 
fcriber or printer. 

The yalkyrite, or Valkyriur, were not barely three in numlcr. 
The learned critic might have found in, not only 
Gunna t Rofa, ct Skullda^ but alfo Scflgnla, Hilda, Gondula, and 
Geirofcogula. Bartholinus adds that their number is yet greater, 
according to other writers who fpeak of them. They were the 
cup-bearers of Odin, and conductors of the dead. They were diftin- 
guilhed by the elegance of their forms, and it would be as juft to 
compare youth and beauty with age and deformity, as the Valky~ 
ric? of the North with the Witches of Sbakefpearc. STEEVENS. 

9 How far iff call'd to Fores f : ] 

The king at this time refided at Fores, a town in Murray, not -far 
from Inverncfs. " It fortuned, (fays Holinfhcd) as Macbeth and 
Banquo journeyed towards Fares, where the king then lay, they 
went {porting by the way, without other company, fave only 
themfelves, when fuddenly in the midft of a laund, there met 
them three women in ftrange and wild apparell, refembling crea- 
tures of the elder world, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 That man may .? ] 

Are ye any beings with which man is permitted to hold converfe, 
or of whom it is lawful to afl; qitef.ior.s f JOHNSON. 



And yet your beards 1 forbid me to interpret 
That you are fo. 

Macb. Speak, if you can ; What are you ? 
i Witch. All hail, Macbeth 3 ! hail to thee, thane 
of Glamis 4 ! 

2 Witch* 

* your beards ] 

Witches were fuppofed always to have hair on their chins. So, in 
Decker's Hone/} Whore, 1635 : 

" Some women have beards, marry they arc half 

vjitches" STEEVENS. 

3 All bail, Macbeth! ] 

It hath lately been repeated from Mr. G uthrle's RJTay upon Englijb 
Tragedy, that the portrait of Macbeth's wife is copied from Bu- 
chanan, " whole fpirit, as well as words, is tran dated into the 
play of Shakelpeare : and it had lignified nothing to have por- 
ed onfy on Holiufhed for faffs." " Animus etiam, per fe 

ferox, prope quotidianis conviciis uxoris (qua? omnium confi- 
liorum ei erat confcia) ftimulabatur." This is the whole, 
that Buchanan fays of the Lady, and truly I fee no more fpirit in 
the Scotch, than in the EnglUh chronicler. " The wurdea of 
the three weird filters allb greatly encouraged him [to the mur- 
der of Duncan], but fpecially his wile lay fore upon him to at- 
tempt the thing, as (he that was very ambitious, brenning in un- 
quenchable deiire to beare the name of a queene." Edit. 1577, 
p. 244.' 

This part of Holinflied is an abridgment of Job lie Bellenden** 
trandation of the noble clerk, HeRor Boece, imprinted at Eding- 
burgh, in fol. 154.1. I will give the paflage as it is found there. 
'* His wyfe impacient of lang tary (as all wemen ar) fpecially 
^uhare they are defirus of ony purpos, gaif hym- gret artation to 
purlew the third weird, that fche micht be anc quene, calland 
tym oft tymis febyl cowart and nocht defyrus of honouris, frn 
he durft not aflailze the thing with manheid and enrage, quhilk, 
is offerit to hym be beniuolence ot tbrtoun. Howbeit lindry 
otheris hes aflailzeit lie thinges arore with maiit ternbyl jeopardyis, 
quhen thay had not lie lickerncs to fucceid in the end of thair hiu- 
bouris as he had." p 173. 

But we can demonftratc, that Shakcfpeare had not the ftory from. 
Buchanan. According to him, the weird fillers falute Macbeth : 

*' Una Angufae Thanum, altera Moravia;, tcrtia Regem." 

Thane of Angus, and of Murray, &c. but according lo Holiu- 
Ihed, immediately from Bdlenden, as it irands in bhakcfpeare : 
44 The firft of them fpake and frydc, All hayle Makbeth Thane 
of Glammis, the fccond of them Ciy de, Hayle Makbeth Thane 


4 6* MACBETH. 

2 Witcb. All hail, Macbeth ! hail to thee, thane 

of Cavvdor ; ! 

3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth ! that flialt be king 

Ban. Good fir, why do you ft art; and feem to 


Things that do found fo fair ? Fthe name of truth, 
6 Are ye fantaflical, or that indeed 


of Cawder ; but the third fayde, All hayle Makbeth, that hereaf- 
ter fhall be king of 'Scotland '." p. 243. 
. i Witch. AUbail, Macbeth! Hall to thee , tbaneofGlamis ! 

2 Witch. All hail, Macbeth ! Hail to thee, thane ofCawdor ! 

3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that Jhalt be king hereafter ! 
Here too our poet found the equivocal predictions, on which his 
hero fo fatally depended : " He had learned of certaine vvyfards, 

how that he ought to take heede of Macduffe ; and furely 

hereupon had he put Macduffe to death, but a certaine witch 
whom he had in great truft, had tolde, that he fhould neuer be 
flain with man borne of any woman, nor vanquiftied till the wood 
of Bernane came to the caftell of Dunfinane." p. 244. And the 
fcene between Malcolm and Macduff in the fourth aft is almoft li- 
terally taken from the Chronicle. FARMER. 

4 thane ofGlamis!] 

The thanefhip of Glamis was the ancient inheritance of Macbeth's 
family. The caftle where they lived is ftill ftanding, and was lately 
the magnificent refidence of the earl of Strath more. See a parti- 
cular defcription of it in Mr. Gray's letter to Dr. Wharton, dated 
from Glames Cajlle. STEEVENS. 

5 thane o/Cawdor !j 

Dr. Johnfon obferves in his Journey to the Weflern I/lands of Scot- 
land, that part of* Calder cajlle, trom which Macbeth drew hi* 
fecond title, is itill remaining. STEEVENS. 

6 Are yt fantaftical, ] 

"Ry fantajlical is not meant, according to the common fignifica- 
tion, creatures of his own brain ; for he could not be ib extrava- 
gant to alk fuch a queftion : but it is ufed for fupernatural, ffiri- 

By fantaftical, he means creatures of fantafy or imagination ; 
the queftion is, Are thefe real beings before us, or are we deceived 
by illufions of fancy ? JOHNSON. 

So, in Reginald Scott's Difcovery of Witchcraft, 1584: "He 
affirmeth thefe tranfubitantiations to be \>utfantajiical, not accor- 
ding to the veritie, but according to the appearance." The fame 
expreffion occurs in All's Lojl by Litfti 1633, by Rowley: 


Which outwardly ye fhew ? My noble partner 

You greet with prefent grace, and great prediction 

Of noble having 7 , and of royal hope, 

That he feems rapt withal ; to me you fpeak not : 

If you can look into the feeds of time, 

And fay, which grain will grow, and which will not ; 

Speak then to me, who neither beg, nor fear, 

Your favours, nor your hate. 

i Witch. Hail ! 

i, Witch. Hail! 

$ Witch. Hail! 

1 Witch. Lefler than Macbeth, and greater. 

2 Witch. Not fo happy, yet much happier. 

3 Witch. Thou fhalt get kings, though thou be 

none : 
So, all hail, Macbeth, and Banquo ! 

i Witch. Banquo, and Macbeth, all hail ! 

Mac. Stay, you imperfect fpeakers, tell me more : 
8 By Sinel's death, I know, I am thane of Glamis ; 
But how of Cavvdor ? the thane of Cawdor lives, 
A profperous gentleman ; and, to be king, 
Stands not within the profpedt of belief, 
No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence 

or s 

that thing, 

' Which fliould fupply the place of foul in thee, 
' Merely pbantajlical f ' ' 
Shakefpeare, however, took the word from Holinfhed, who in his 
nt of the witches, fays ; ** This was reputed at firft but fome 
cal illufion by Macbeth and Banquo." STEEVENS. 


7 Of nolle having, -- ] 
Having is eilate, pofleffion, fortune. So, in Twelfth Night : 

" - My having is not much ; 

" I'll make divifion of my prefent {lore: 

" Hold ; there is half my coffer." 

Again, in the old metrical romance of Syr Btvys of 'Hampton , bl. 1. 
no date : 

*' And when he heareth this tydinge, 

" He will go theder with great having." STEEVENS. 
8 By SitFs (teat/.',] The father of Macbeth. POPE. 



You owe this flrange intelligence ? or why. 
Upon this Mailed heath you ilop our way 
With fuch prophetick greeting ? Speak, I charge 
you. [Witches vanijk; 

Ban. The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, 
And thefe are of them : Whither are they vanilh'd ? 

Macb. Into' the air ; and what fcem'd corporal, 

As breath into- the wind. 'Would they had ft aid ! 

Ban. Were fuch things here, as we do fpeak about ? 
Or have we 9 eaten of the infane root, 
That takes the reafon prifoner ? 

Macb. Your children fliall be kings. 

Ban. You lhall be king. 

Macb. And thane of Cawdor too'; went it not fo ? 

Ban. To the felf-fame tune, and words. Who's 
here ? 

Enter Roffe, and Angus. 

Roffe. The king hath happily received, Maebeth,- 
The news of thy fuccefs : and when he reads 
Thy perfonal venture in the rebel's fight, 
His wonders and his praifes do contend, 
Which fhould be thine, or his ' ; Silene'd with that, 


9 eaten of the infane root,] 

Mr. Theobald has a long and learned note on- thefe words ; and", 
after nvuch puzzling, he at length proves from HeSlor Boethius^ 
that this root was a berry. WASBURTON. 

' ' eaten of the infane root^ 

Shakefpeare alludes to the qualities anciently afcribed t hemlock. 
So, in Greene's Never too late, 1616: "You gaz'd againit the 
fun, and ib blemifhed your fight ; or elfe you have eaten of the roots 
of hemlock, that makes mens' eyes conceit unften objects" Agam, 
in Ben Jonfon's Sejanus : 

" .... -thoy lay that hold upon thy fenfes, 

" As thou'hadft fnuft up hemlock" STEEVEKS. 
1 His <uJondgrs and his praifcs dff contend^ 

Which Jhould be thine , or his : ] 

i. e. private admiration of your deeds, and a deflre p do them 
publick juilice by commendation, contend in his mind for pre- 


In viewing o'er the reft o' the felf-fame day, 
He finds thee in the ftout Norweyan ranks, 
Nothing afraid of what thyfelf didfl make, 
Strange images of death. * As thick as tale, 
Came poft with poft ; and every one did bear 
Thy praifes in his kingdom's great defence, 
And potir'd them down before him. 

Ang. We are fent, 

To give thee, from our royal mafler, thanks ; 
Only to herald thee into his fight, 
Not pay thee. 

Rqffe. And, for an earneft of a greater honour, 
He bade me, from him, call thee thane of Cawdori 
In which addition, hail, moft worthy thane ! 
For it is thine* 

Ban. What, can the devil fpeak true ? 

Macb. The thane of Cawdor lives ; Why do you 

drefs me 
In borrow'd robes ? 

Ang. Who was the thane, lives yet ; 
But under heavy judgment bears that life, 
Which he deferves to lofe. Whether he was 

eminence. Or There is a conteft in his mind whether he fnould 
indulge his defire of publifhing to the world the commendations 
due to your heroifm, or whether hefhould remain in filent admi- 
ration of what no words could celebrate in proportion to its defert. 


* As thick as \\z\\,'} 

Was Mr. Pope's correction. The old copy has : 
As thick as tale 

Can poft tv/V poft : 

which perhaps is not amifs, meaning that the news came as thick 
as a tale can travel with the poft. Or we may read, perhaps yet 
better : 

As thick as tale 

Came poft with poft ; 

That is, pofts arrived as faft as they could be counted. JOHNSON'. 
So, in K. Hen. VI. P. III. ad II.' fc. i : 

" Tidings, asjvjiftlyasthcpoftscouljrun^ 

" Were brought, &c." STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. H h Com- 

4 66 M A C B E T H. 

Combin'd ? with Norway ; or did line the rebel 
With hidden help and vantage ; or that with both 
He labour'd in his country's wreck, I know not ; 
But treafons capital, confefs'd, and prov'd, 
Have overthrown him. 

Macb. G-lamis, and thane of Cawdor : 
The greateft is behind. Thanks for your pains. 
Do you not hope your children fhall be kings, 
When thofe that gave the thane of Cawdor to me, 
Promis'd no lefs to them ? 

Ban. That, trufted home *, 
* Might yet enkindle you unto the crown, 
Befides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis ftrange : 
And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, 
The inftruments of darknefs tell us truths ; 
Win us with honeft trifles, to betray us 
In deepeil confequence. Coufins,. a word I pray you, 

Macb. Two truths are told, 
As happy prologues to the 6 fwelling ad: 
Of the imperial theme. I thank you, gentlemen. 
7 This fupernatural folliciting 
Cannot be ill ; cannot be good : If ill, 
Why hath it given me earned of fuccefs, 
Commencing in a truth ? I am thane of Cawdor : 

3 with Norway ; ] The folio reads : 

vjitb tbofc of Norway. STEEVEKS. 
* tntftc d borne,'] i.e. carried-as far as it will go. STEEVENS?; 

5 Might yet enkindle you ] 

Bnliindki for to Simulate you to feek. WAR-BURTON. 

fc fuelling aft] Swelling is ufed ia the fame fenfe in the 

prologue to Hen. V : 

" princes to al, 

*' And monarchs to behold theyiw/// < g-fcene." STEEVENS, 
7 This fupernatural folliciting] 
Soliciting for information. WARBUR.TON. 

Sotticiting is rather, in my opinion, incitement than information, 




If good, s why do I yield to that fuggeftioti 

Whofe horrid image doth unfix my hair, 

And make my feated heart knock at my ribs, 

Againil the uie of nature ? Prefent fears 9 

Are lefs than horrible imaginings : 

My thought, whofe murder yet is but fantaftical, 

Shakes fo my ' fingle ftate of man, that * function 

8 ivty do I yield ] 

Yield, not for confent, but for to lefubdued ly. WARBUB.TON. 
TVy/VWis, fimply, to gi 've tvay to. JOHNSON. 
9 -Prefett fears 

Are Iffs than horrible imaginings :~\ 

Macbeth, while he is projecting the murder, is thrown irito the 
rnoft agonizing affright at the profpect or it : which foon reco- 
vering irom, thus he reafons on the nature of his diforder. But 
imaginings are ib far from being more or lefs than prefent fears, 
that they are the fame things under different words. Shakeipeare 
certainly wrote : 

Prcferft feats 

Are lefs than horrible imaginings : 

i.e. when I come to execute this murder, I fhall find it much lefs 
dreadful than my frighted imagination now prefents it to me. A 
confideration drawn from the nature -of the imagination. 


Prefent fears are fears of things prefent -, which Macbeth declares, 
and every man has found, to be lefs than the imagination prefenta 
them while the objects are yet dirtant. Fears is right. JOHNSON. 
So, in the Tragedie ofCrcefus, 1604, by lord Sterline : 
" For as the fhadow feems more monitrous Itili, 
*' Than doth the fubftance whence it hath the being^ 
* ' So th' apprehenjion of approaching ill 
** Seems greater than itfelf, whiljt fears are lying." 


1 Jingle Jf ate of man, } 

Thcjitiglejlateofman feems to be ufed by Shakefpeare for an in- 
dividual, in oppolition to a commonwealth, or conjunEl body. 


Is /mother* d in furmife ', and nothing //, 

But ivhat is not.~\ 

All powers of action are opprefled and crufhedby one ovenvbelm- 
ing image in the mind, and nothing is prefent to me but that 
\vhich is really future. Of things now about me I have no per- 
ception, being intent wholly on that which has yet no exiltcnce. 


H h a 1$ 


Is fmother'd in furmife ; and nothing is, 
But what is not. 

Ban. Look, how our partner's rapt. 

Rfocb. If chance will have me king, why, chance 

may crown me, 
Without my ftir. 

San. New honours, come upon him 
Like our ftrange garments, cleave not to their mouldy 
But with the aid of ufe. 

Mack* Come what come may ; 
_ 3 Time and the hour runs through the rougheft day. 


3 Time and the hour runs tbrovgk the rougkejl Jay.] 
I fuppofe every reader is difgufted at the tautology in this paflage, 
Time and the hour, and will therefore willingly believe that Shake- 
fpeare wrote it thus : 

Come what come may, 

Time ! on ', the hour runs through the roughefi day. 
Macbeth is deliberating upon the events which are to beial him, 
but finding no iatisfa<Ttion from his own thoughts, he grows im- 
patient of reflection, and refolves to wait the clofe without harraff- 
ing himielf with conjectures. 

Come what come mc.y. 

But to fiiorten th^ pa in of fufpenfe, he calls upon Time in the 
ufual ftile of ardent defire, to quicken his motion : 

Time ! on ! 

He then comforts himfelf with the reflection that all his per- 
plexity muft have an end : 

' the hour runs through the ronghcjl day. 

This conjecture is fupported by the paflage in the letter to his 
lady, in which he fays, they referred me to the coming on of time, 
<with Hail) king that foaltlc. JOHNSOM. 

Time and the hour . ] 

Time is painted with an hour-glafs in his hand. This occafioncd 
the expreflion. WAR EUR TON. 

By this, I ccnfefs I do not with his two laft commentators ima- 
gine is meant either the tautology of time and the hour, or an 
allufion to time painted with an hour-glafs, or an exhortation to 
time to haften forward, but rather to fay tempus & hora, time and 
cccaficn, will carry the thing through, and bring it to fome de>- 
termined point and end, let its nature be what it will. 

This note is taken from an E.Jj~ay ou the Writings and Genius of 
Sbakefpeare, See. by Mrs. Montagu. 

Such tautology is common to Shakefpeare. 


MACBETH. 4 6 9 

Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we ftay upon your leifurc. 
Macb. Give me your favour : 4 my dull brain was 


With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains 
Are regifter'd where every day I turn 
The leaf to read them. Let us toward the king. 
Think upon what hath chanc'd ; and, at more time, 
The interim having weigh'd it 5 , let us fpeak 
Our free hearts each to other. 
Ban. Very gladly. 
Macb. 'Till then, enough. Come, friends. 



Fkuri/h. Enter King^ Malcolm, Donaibain, Lenox, anJ, 

King. Is execution done on Cawdor ? Afe not 
Thofe in commiflion yet return'd ? 

" The very head and front of my offending," 
is little lefs reprehenfible. Time and the hour, is time with his 
hours. STEEVENS. 

The fame expreffion is ufed by a writer nearly contemporary 
with Shakefpeare : " Neither can there be any thing in the world 
more acceptable to me than death, whofe bovver and time if they 
were as certayne, &c." Fenton's Tragical Difcourjes, 1579. 
Again, in Duvifon's Poems, 1621 : 

" Time's young bowes attend her ftill, 

** And her.eyes and cheeks do rill 

" With frefh youth and beauty." 
Again, in Hoffman's Tragedy t 1631 : 

" The hour, the place, the time of your arrive." 

* my dull I rain was wrought 

Witb things forgotten. ] 

My head was worked, agitated, put into commotion. JOHNSON. 
5 Tbe^ interim having iveigb'd it, ] 
" time is alm 
dge ; as t 

H h 3 

This intervening portion of time is almoft perfonified : it is repre- 
frnted as u cool impartial judge ; as the prtufir Reafon. 


47 o MACBETH. 

Mai. My liege, 

They are not yet come back. But I have fpoke 
6 With one that faw him die : who did report, 
That very frankly he confefs'd his treafojis ; 
Implor'd your highnefs'pardon ; and fet forth 
A deep repentance : nothing in his life 
Became him, like the leaving it ; he dy'd 
As one that had been 7 ftudied in his death, 
To throw away the deareft thing he ow'd, 
AS 'twere a carelefs trifle. 

King. There's no art, 

8 To find the mind's construction in the face : 
"He was a gentleman on whom I built 
An abfolute truft. O worthieil coufin ! 

Enter. Macbeth, Banquo, Roffe, and Angus. 

The fin of my ingratitude even now 

Was heavy on me : Thou art fo far before, 

That fwifteft wing of recompence is flow 

To overtake thee. 'Would thou hadft lefs deferv'd ; 

That the proportion both of thanks and payment 

6 With one that j "avj bits tile : ] 

The behaviour of the thane of Cawdor correfponds in almoft 
every circumftance with that of the unfortunate earl of Eflex, as 
related by Stowe, p. 793. Kis afking the queen's forgivenefs, 
his confeffion, repentance, and concern about behaving with pro- 
priety on the fcaflbld, are minutely defcribed by that hiilorian. 
Such an alliiiion could not fail of having the defired effect on an 
audience, many of whom were eye witnefles to the feverity of that 
juftice which deprived the age of one of its greatelr. ornaments, 
and Southampton, Shakefpeare's patron, of his deareft friend. 


7 '"Jludlcd in bis death, ] 

Inftructed in the art of dying. It was ufual to fay Jludiedj for 
learned in fcience. JOHNSOX. 

8 To fuel the ?nlnd' > 3 conftruttion In the face :~\ 

The coufiruclion of the mind is, I believe, a phrafe peculiar to 
Shakefpeare ; it implies the frame or il':l'pffltion of the mind, by 
which it is determined to good or ill. JOHNSON, 



Might have been mine ! only I have left to fay, 
More is thy due than more than all can pay. 
Macb. The fervice and the loyalty I owe, 
Jn doing it, pays itfelf. Your highnefs* part 
Is to receive our duties : and our duties 
Are to your throne and ftate, children, and fervants ; 
? Which do but what they fliould, by doing every 

Safe toward your love and honour. 


5 Which (Jo lut what theyjbould, by doing every thing 

Safe toward your love and honour.] 

Of the lail line of this fpeech, which is certainly, as it is now 
read, unintelligible, an emendation has been attempted, which 
Dr. Warburton and Mr. Theobald once admitted as the true 
reading : 

our duties 

Are to your throne and ft ate, children and fervants, 

Which do but what they Jfjould, in doing every thing, 

Fiefs to your love and honour. 

My eftcem for thefe critics inclines me to believe that they can- 
not be much pleafed with thefe expreffions jfr/} to love, or fiefs to 
honour, and that they have propofed this alteration rather be- 
caufe no other occured to them, than becaufe they approved of it. 
I (hall therefore propofe a bolder change, perhaps with no better 
iuccels, but/ua cuique placent. I read thus : 
our duties 

Arc to your throne and ftate, children and fervants, 

Which do but what theyjljould, in doing nothing, 

Save toward your love and honour. 

We do but perform our duty when we coatratt all our views to 
your fervice, when we adl: with no other principle than regard to 
your love and honour, 

It is probable that this paflage was firft corrupted by writing 
fafe ioYj'ave, and the lines then ftood thus : 

doing nothing 

Safe toward your love and honour. 

which the next tranfcriber observing to be wrong, and yet not be- 
ing able to difcover the real fault, altered to the prefent reading. 

Dr. Warburton has fince changed fiefs tojfr/V, and Haniner 
has altered fafc to Jliapd. I am afraid none of us have hit the 
right word. JOHNSON. 

Mr. Upton gives the word fnfc as an inftance of an adjective ufed 
adverbially ; and fays that it means here, withfafcty, fccurity, and 
Jfoslilbip. Dr. Kenrick propofes to read : 

H h 4 Saft 


King. Welcome hither : 
I have begun to plant thee, and will labour 
To make thee full of growing. Noble Banquo, 
That haft no lefs defejv'd, nor muft be known 
No lefs to have done fo, let me enfold thee, 
And hold thee to my heart. 

Ban. There if I grow, 
The harveft is your own. 

King. My plenteous joys, 
Wanton in fulnefs, feek to hide themfelves 
In drops of forrow. Sons, kinfmen, thanes. 
And you whofe places are the neareft, know, 
We will efiablim our eflate upon 
Our eldeft, Malcolm ; whom we name hereafter, 1 
The prince of Cumberland : which honour muft 
Not, unaccompanied, inveft him only, 
But figns of noblenefs, like ftars, lhall fhine 
On all defer vers. -From hence to Invernefs ', 
And bind us further to you. 

Macb. The reft is labour, which is not us'd for 

you : 
I'll be myfelf the harbinger, and make joyful, 

Safe to ward your love and honour. 
To ivard is to defend. So, in Titus Andronicus : 

*< it was a hand that warded him 

" From thoufand dangers." 
Again, more appofitely in Love's Labour's Loft : 

" for the be&ivarJof m i ne honour, is rewarding my de- 

Again, in K. Richard III. aft V : 

" Then, if you fight againft God's enemies, 

" God will, in juftice, ivardyou as his foldiers." 
Dr. Kenriek would certainly be right, if inftead of love and bo- 
ncxr, the, words had been crown and honour, but there is fome- 
wjiat of obfcurity in the idea of defending a prince's love in fafety. 


1 to Invernefs,] 

Dr. Johnfon obferves, in his Journty to the Wejlern Ifles of Scotland, 
that the walls of the caftle of Macbeth at Invernefs are yet ftand- 



The hearing of my wife with your approach ; 
So, humbly take my leave. 

King. My worthy Cawdor ! 

Macb. The prince of Cumberland*! .That is a flep, 
On which I muft fall down, or elfe o'er-leap, [Afide, 
For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires ! 
Let not light fee my black and deep defires : 
The eye wink at the hand ! yet let that be, 
Which the eye fears, when it is done, to fee. [Exit. 

King. True, worthy Banquo ; he is full fo valiant ; 
And in his commendations I am fed ; 
It is a banquet to me. Let us after him, 
Whofe care is gone before to bid us welcome : 
Jt is a peerlefs kinfman. [Fkurifh. Exeunt, 


Enter Macbeth' s wife alone, with a letter. 
Lady. They met me in the day of fuaefs ; and I 

* The prince of Cumberland! ] 

So, Holinfhed, Hift. of Scotland, p. 171 : " Duncan having 
two fonnes, &c. he made the elder of them, called Malcolmc, 
prince vl Cumberland, as it were thereby to appoint him fuccefibr 
in his kingdome immediatlie after his deceafe. Mackbeth forely 
troubled herewith, for that he faw by this means his hope fore 
hindered, (where, by the old laws of the realme the ordinance 
was, that if he that fhould fucceed were not of able age to take the 
charge upon himfelf, he that was next of bloud unto him fhould 
be admitted) he began to take counfel how he might ufurpe the 
kingdome by force, having a juft quarrel fo to doe, (as he tooke 
the matter) for that Duncane did what in him lay to defraud him 
of all manner of title and claime, which he mighr, in time to come, 
pretend unto the crowne." 

' The crown of Scotland was originally not hereditary. When 
a fucceflbr was declared in the life-time of a king, (as was of- 
ten the cafe) the title of Prince of Cumberland \\yas immediately 
beftowed on him as the mark of his defignation. Cumberland was 
jrt that time held by Scotland of the crown of England, as a fief. 



474 M A C B E T H, 

have learned 5 by the perfeftejl report, they have more in 
them than mortal knowledge. When I burnt in defire to 
qucftion them further, they made themfelves air, into 
which they vaniflfd. Whiles I Jlood rapt in the wonder 
of it, came mi/fives from the king, who all-hail' d me, 
Thane of Cawdor ; by which title, before, thefe weird 
Jifters faluted me, and referred me to the coming on of time, 
with, Hail, king that ihalt be ! This have I thought 
good to deliver thee, my dear eft partner of greatnefs ; that 
thou might* ft not lofe the dues of rejoicing, by being igno- 
rant of what greatnefs is promifd thee. Lay it to thy heart, 
and farezuel. 

Glamis thou art, and Cawdor ; and fhalt be 

What thou art promised : Yet do I fear thy nature ; 

It is too full o'the milk of human kindnefs, 

To catch the neareil way : Thou would'fl be great ; 

Art not without ambition ; but without 

The illnefs fhould attend it. What thou would'fl 


That would'fl thou holily ; would'fl not play falic, 
And yet would'fl wrongly win : 4 thou'd'fl have, great 


That which cries, Thus thou mvft do, if thou have it ; 
5 And that which rather thou dofl fear to do, 

3 - l y tbeperfeflcfl report, - ] By the beft intelligence. Dr. 
Warburton would read, perfected; and explains report by predic- 
tion. Little regard can he paid to an emendation that inftead of, 
clearing the fenfe, makes it more difficult. JOHNSON. 
* - tboi?d*Jl have, great Glamis, 

T'bat which cries, thus thou mult do, if thou have // ; 

And that, csV.] 

As the object of Macbeth's defire is here introduced fpeaking of 
itlelf, it is neceflhry to read , 

- thou'dyi bai'c, great Glamis, 

Tbat which cries, thus thou muft do, if thou have int. 

5 And tbat which rather, &C.] 
Perhaps the poet wrote : 

.:/:./ that's what rad\-r, &c. STEEVENS. 



Than wifheft mould be undone. Hie thee hither, 
That I may pour my fpirits in thine ear 6 ; 
And chart ife with the valour of my tongue 
All that impedes thee from the golden round, 
7 Which fate and metaphyfical aid doth feem 

fo have thee crown'd withal. What is your 

tidings ? 

Enter a MeJJenger. 

Mcf. The king comes here to-night. 

Lady. Thou'rt mad to fay it : 
Is not thy mailer with him ? who, wer't fo, 
Would have inform'd for preparation. 

Mef. So pleafe you, it is true : our thane is coming : 
One of my fellows had the fpeed of him ; 
Who, almoft dead for breath, had fcarc^ly mqnj 
Than would make up his meflage. 

Lady. Give him tending, 

6 That I may pour my fpirits in thine ear;'] 

I meet with the lame exprelfion in lord Sterline's Julim Cafar^ 
1607 : 

" Thou in my bofom us'd to pour thy fpright" 
There is no earlier edition of Macbeth than that of 162 -. 

7 Which fate and mctaphyjL-al aid doth feem 

To have thee crown* d iviibal. ] 

for feem, the fenfe evidently directs us to read feeL The crowa 
to which fate deftincs thee, and which preternatural agents endea- 
vour to beftow upon thee. The golden round is the Jiade.'K. 

Which fate and metaphyfical aid doth feem 

To have thee crown'd withal. 

RTf?aph\Jical for fupcrnatural. But doth feem to have thee cro-~vu'J. 
withal, is not fenfe. To make it fo, it fliould be fupplied thus : 
dcihfeem dejirous to have. But no poetic licence would excufe tlus. 
AD cafy alteration will reflore the poet's true meaning : 

doth feem 

To have crown'd thee ivithal. 

i. e. they feem already to have crown'd thee, and yet thy difpo- 
fition at prefent hinders it from taking effecl. WAR BUR i ox, 
The words, as they now ftand, have exactly the fame meaning. 
Such arrangement is fufliciently common among our ancient writers. 




He brings great news. 8 The raven himfelf is hoarfe, 

[Exit Mef, 

That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements. Come, you fpirits 9 
That tend on I mortal thoughts, unfex me here; 
And fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full 
Of direfl cruelty ! make thick my blood, 
Stop up the accefs and paffage to remorfe ; 
That no compunctious vifitings of nature 
Shake my fell purpofe, * nor keep peace between 


8 The raven himfelf is hoarfe^ 

Pr. Warburton reads ; 

' The raven himfelf *s not hoarfe % 

yet I think the prefent words may ftand. The meflenger, fays 
the fervant, had hardly breath to make up his mejfage ; to which 
the lady anfwers mentally, that he may well want breath, fuch a 
meflage would add hoarienefs to the raven. That even the bird, 
whofe harfh voice is accuftomed to predict calamities, could not 
croak the entrance of Duncan but in a note of unwonted harfhnefs. 


9 Come &\\you fpirits] 

The word all was added by fome of the editors to fupply the defi- 
ciency of the metre, and is not found in the old copy. STEEVENS. 

1 mortal thoughts, ] 

This expreffion lignifies not the thoughts of 'mortals , but murtberovs t 
deadly, or dejlruflive dcfigns. So, in aft V I 

" Hold fa ft the mortal fword." 
And in another place : 

V With twenty /?/<// murthers." JOHNSON. 

Come you fpirits 

That tend on mortal t 'bought s, &c.] 

In Pierce Pennilefs his Supplication to the Devil, by Nalhe, I 9 J, 
(a very popular pamphlet of that time) our author might have 
found a particular defcription of theie fpirits, and ( of their office. 
" The fecond kind of devils, which he moft employeth, are 
thofe northern Martii, called t\\e fpirits of revenge, and the authors 
of maffacres, and feedfmen of miichief ; for they have commilfion 
to incenfe men to rapines, facrilege, theft, murder, wrath, fury, 
and all manner of cruelties : and they command certain of the 
ibuthern ipirits to wait upon them, as alfo great Arioch, that is 
termed thefpirit of revenge" MALONE. 
a nor keep peace between 

Theeffctf, and it! ] 

The intent of lady Macbeth evidently is to wifh that no wo- 



The effedt, 3 and it ! Come to my woman's breafts, 
And 4 take my milk for gall, you murd'ring mini- 


Wherever in your fightlefs fubflances 
5 You wait on nature's mifchief ! Come, thick night 6 , 


manifli tendernefs, or confcientious remorfe, may hinder her pur- 
pofe from proceeding to effect ; but neither this, nor indeed any- 
other fenfe, is expreffed by the prefent reading, and therefore it 
cannot be doubted that Shakefpeare wrote differently, psrhapj 
thus : 

That no compunctious vijitings of nature 
Shake my fell purpofe, nor keep pace between 

The effect and it. 

To keep pace between, may fignify to pafs between, to intervene. 
Pace is on many occafions a favourite of Shakefpeare's. Thit 
jphrafe is indeed not ufual in this fenfe, but was it not its novelty 
that gave occafion to the prefent corruption ? JOHNSON. 

The fenfe is, that no compunfiious vifitingi of nature may prevail 
upon her, to give place in her mind to peaceful thoughts, or to 
jeft one moment in quiet, from the hour of her purpofe to its full 

mpletion in the effect. REVISAL. 

This writer thought himfelf perhaps very fagacious that he 
found a meaning which nobody miffed, the difficulty ftill remain* 
how fuch a meaning is made by the words. JOHNSON. 

3 and it! ] The folio reads, and hit. STEEVENS. 

Her purpofe was to be effected by action. To keep peace between, 
the effett and purpofe, I Ihould therefore think meant, to delay the 
execution of her purpofe. For as long as there fhouid be a peac 
between the effect and purpofe, or in other words, till hoftilitias 
were commenced, till fome action fhouid be performed, her pur- 
pofe could not be carried into execution. There is no need of al- 
teration. MALONE. 

4 ' - take my milk for gall, } 

Take away my milk, and put gall into the place. JOHNSON. 

5 Tou wait on nature's mifchief! ~] 

Nature's mifchief \s mifchief done to nature, violation- of nature's 

order committed by wickednefs. JOHNSON. 
6 Come, thick night, &c.] 

A fimilar invocation is found in A learning for falrt ll'omen, 

a tragedy which was certainly prior to Macbeth : 

" Oh fable night, lit on the eye of heaven, 
" That it difcern not this black deed of darknefs ! 
" My guilty foul, burnt with luft's hateful fire, 
*' Muu wade through blood to obtain my vile defire 

47 S M A C B E T H. 

7 And pall thee in the dqnnefl fmoke of hell ! 
That my keen knife 8 fee not the wound it makes , 4 
Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark 9 , 
1 To cry, Hold^ bold!- Great Glamis ! worthy 



" Be then my coverture thick ugly night! 

" The light hates me, and I do hate the light." 


7 A*d pall fkeej - ] 
i.e. wrap thy felt" in a pall. WAR BUR TON. 

A fall is a robe of ftate. So, in the ancient black letter romance 
of Syr Eglamoure of Artoys, no date ; 

14 The knyghtes were clothed in poll" 
Again, in Milton's Pcnferofo : 

*' Sometime let gorgeous tragedy 

" In feepter'd pall come iweeping by." 

Dr. Warburton feems to mean the covering which is thrown over 
the dead. STEEVEXS. 

B That my keen knife - ] 

The word knife which at prefent has a familiar meaning, was an- 
ciently ufed to exprefs */fewnA So, in the old black letter ro- 

mance of Syr Eglamnure of Artoys, no date : 

" Through Goddes myght, and his knyfe t 

" There the gyaunte loft his lyfe." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Queen^ b. 5. c. 6 : 

'* - the red-crois knight was (lain v.'ith payriim kn!fe" 


9 -- the blanket of the dark,] 

Drayton, in the i6th fong of his Polyolbion, has an expreffion re- 
fembling this : 

" Thick vapours that, like rugs, ftill hang the troubled 
air." STEEVENS. 

1 To cry, Hold, hold ! -- ] 
On this paffage there is a long criticifm in the Ramller. 


In this criticifm the epithet dun is objected to as a mean one. 
Milton, however, appears to have been of a different opinion, 
and has reprefented Satan as flying 

" - in the dun air fublime." STEEVENS. 
To cry, Hold, hold! -- ] 

The thought is taken from the old military laws which inflicled 
capital puniftiment upon " whofoever fhall ftrike ftroke at his 
adveriary, either in the heat or otherwife, if a third do cry hoU t 
to the intent to part them ; except that they did fight a combat in 
a place inclofed : and then no man lhall be fo hardy as to bid hold* 


M A C B E T H. 479 

Efjiu- Macbeth. 

Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter .' 

Thy letters have transported me beyond 

3 This ignorant prefent time 4 , and I feel now j 

but the general." P. 264 of Mr. Bellay's tnJiriiX ions for tbtWa;-;, 
tranllated in 1589. Toi.r.&f. 

Mr. Toilet's note will likewife illustrate the lafl line in Macbeth's 
Concluding ipeech : 

" And damn'd be him who firfc cries, hold, enough!" 


1 Great Glamb ! worthy Candor /] 

Shakefpeare has fupported the characler or lady Macbeth, by re- 
peated efforts, and never omits any opportunity of adding a trait of 
ferocity, or a mark of the want or human feelings, to this monger 
of his own creation. The fofter paffions are more obliterated in 
her than in her hufband, in proportion as her ambition is greater. 
She meets him here on his arrival from an expedition of danger, 
with fuch a falutation as would have become one of his friends 
or vaflals ; a falutation apparently fitted rather to raife his 
thoughts to a level with her own purpofes, than to teftify herjoy 
at his return, or manifeit an attachment to his perfon : nor does 
any fentimcnt expreffive of love or foftnefs fall from her through- 
out the play. While Macbeth himfelf, in the midft of the hor- 
rors of his guilt, ftill retains a character lefs fiend-like than that of 
his queen, talks to her with a degree of tendernefs, and pours his 
complaints and fears into her bofom, accompanied with terms of 
endearment. STEEVENS. 

3 This ignorant prefent time, ] 

Ignorant, for bafe, poor, ignoble. WARBURTOV. 

Ignorant has here the fignification of unknowing ; that is, I feel 
by anticipation thofe future hours, of whichj according to the pro- 
cefs of nature, the prefent time would be ignorant. JOHNSON. 
So, in Cymbcline : 

" his fhipping, 

" Poor ignorant baubles, &c." STEEVENS. 

* prefent time, ] 

The word time is wanting in the old copy. It was fupply'd by Mr. 
Pope, and perhaps without neceifity, as our author omits it in the 
iirit fcene of the Tempt/I : " If you can command thefe elements 
to filence and work the peace of theprefcnt, we will not handle a- 
rope more." The fenle does not require the word A'.?.:-, ynd it is 
too much for the meafure. Again, in Corlolanus : 

*' And that you not delay the f re/eat ; but &c." 

Again, \nCorintbiansI. ch.xv. v. 6: " of whom the greater 
gart remain unto this/rt/^." STEEVENS,- 


480 M A C B E T M. 

The future in the inftant. 

Macb. My dearefl love, 
Duncan comes here to-night. 

Lady. And when goes hence ? 

Macb. To-morrow, as he purpofes. 

Lady. Oh, never 
Shall fun that morrow fee ! 
Your face, my thane, is as a book 5 , where nieri 
May read ftrange matters : To beguile the time. 
Look like the time 6 ; bear welcome in your eye, 
Your hand, your tongue : look like the innocent 


But be the ferpent under it. He that's coming 
Muft be provided for : and you mall put 
This night's great bufinefs into my difpatch ; 
Which Ihall to all our nights and days to come 
Give folely fovereign fway and mafterdom^ 

Macb. We will fpeak further. 

Lady. Only look up clear ; 
To alter favour ever is to fear : 
Leave all the reft to me. [Exeunt. 

5 Your face, my thane^ is as a booli, vobt/rt men 
May read, &c.] 

So, in Pericles Prince of Tyre, 1 609 : 

" Her face the look of praifes, where is read 
" Nothing but curious pleafures." STEEVEIJS. 

6 i to beguile the time, 

Look like the time ; ] 

The fame expreffion occurs in the 8th book of Daniel s Civil 

He draws a traverfe 'tvvixt his grievances ; 

Looks 'like the time : his eye made not report 

Of what he felt within ; nor was he lefs 

Than ufually he was in every part ; 

\\ore a clear face upon a cloudy heart." 

It is almoft needlefs to obferve that the Poem of Daniel was pu- 
blifhed many years before Macbeth could have been written. 





Hautboys and Torches. Enter King, Malcolm, Dona!' 
bain, Banquo, Lenox, Macduff, Rojfi, Angus, and 

King. This caflle hath a pleafant feat; the air 
Nimbly and fvveetly recommends itfelf 
7 Unto our gentle fenfes. 

Ban. This gueft of fumrrier, 
The temple-haunting 8 martlet, does approve, 
By his lov'd manfionry, that the heaven's breath 
Smells wooingly here : n*> jutty frieze, 
Buttrefs, nor coigne of vantage 9 , but this bird 

7 Unto our gentle fenfes.] 

How odd a chara6ter is this of the air that it could recommend it- 
felf 'to all the fenfes, ,not excepting the fight and hearing ? With- 
out doubt, we fliould read : 

Unto our general fenfe, 

meaning the touch or feeling; which not being confined to one 
part, like the reft or the ienfes, but extended over the whole 
body, the poet, by a fine periphralis, calls the general fenfe. 
Therefore by the air's recommending itfelf r.imlly and fleetly mult 
be underftood that it was clear and foft, which properties recre- 
ated the fibres, and alTJlled their vibration. And furely it was a 
good circumiiance in the air of Scotland that it was foft and warm : 
and this circumftance he would recommend, as appears from the 
following words : 

This gueft offummer, 

The temple-haunting martlet >> ' 

General hus been corrupted to gentle once again in this very play. 
See note, a& III. fcene v. WARBURTON. 

Senfes are nothing more than each man's fenfe. Gentle fenfes is 
very elegant, as it means placid, calm, compofcd, and intimates 
the peaceable delight o! a fine day. JOHNSON. 

8 - <JHartlet t ] This bird is in the old edition called barkt. 

Jo UN sox. 

The correction is fupported by the following pallagc in the 
Merchant of Ponce : 

" like the Martlet 

" Builds in the weather on the outward wall." bTEEVKXfc 
coigne f vantage, ] Convenient corner. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IV. I i Han 


Hath made hi& pendant bed, and procreant cradle : 
Where they ' moft breed and haunt, I have obferv'd, 
The air is delicate. 

Enter Lady Macbeth. 

King. See, fee \, our honour'd hoftefs \ - 
The love that follows us, fometime is our trouble, 
Which flill we thank as love. Herein I teach you, 

* How you fhall bid God yield us for your pains, 
And thank us for your trouble. 

Lady. All our fervice 

In every point twice done, and then done double, 
W^ere poor and fingle bufinefs, to contend 
Againft thofe honours deep and broad, whereivith 
Your majefty loads our houfe : For thofe of old, 
And the late dignities heap'd up to them, 

* We reft your hermits. 

* i ' moft breed, - ] The folio, muft breed. S TEE v ENS. 

a HocivyouJJjouldbidGodi-yzld. us - ] 

To bid any one God-yeld him, i. e. God-yield him, was the fame 
as God reward him. WAR BUR TON. 

I believejuVW, or, as it is in the folio of 1623, eyld, is a cor- 
rupted contraction Qijbitld. The wifli implores not reward, but 
protection. JOHNSON. 

I rather believe it to be a corruption of God-yield, i. e. reward,, 
In Anthony and Cleopatra, we meet with it at length : 

" And the gods yield you for't." 
Again, in the interlude of Jacob and Efau, \ 568 : 

*' God yeldeyou Efau, with all my ilomach - " 
Again, in the old metrical romance of Syr Guy of Warwick, bl, 1. 
no date : 

" Syr, cruoth Guy, God yield it you, 
" Of this great gift you give me now." 
Again, in Chaucer's Sompnoure's Tale, v. 7759 ; late edit. 

" GodjyeMejou adoun in your village.'* 

Godjhield means God forbid, and could never be ufedas a form oi 
returning thanks. So, in Chaucer's Miller es Tale : 

" Godjbilde that he died fodenly." v. 3427 ; late edit. 


3 We r^ft your hermits.] 
Hermits* for beadfmen. WARBURTOX. 


King. Where's the thane of Cawdcr ? 
We cours'd him at the heels, and had a purpofe 
To be his purveyor : but he rides well ; 
And his great love, marp as his fpur 4 , hath holphim 
To his home before us : ^air and noble hoftefs, 
We are your guefl to-night. 

Lady. * Your fervants ever 

Have theirs, themfelves, and what is theirs, incompt, 
To make their audit at your highnefs' pleafure, 
Still to return your own. 

King. Give me your hand : 
Conduct me to mine hoil ; we love him highly, 
And fhall continue our graces towards him. 
By your leave, hoflefs. [Exeunt. 

That is, we as hermits fiiall always pray for you. So, in Arden 
f Fever/}? am , 159-: 

*' I am your &eae?/manbound to pray for you." 
Again, in HeyWood's Englijh Traveller, 1633: 

*' -- worfhipful fir, 

" I fhall be {till your beaafman." STEEVEXS. 
4 - his great love, JJiarp as his fpur, - ] 
So, in Twelfth Night, aft III. fc. ill : 

** - my defire, 

'* More Jbarp than fled Ji eel, did fpur me forth." 

5 Tour fervants ever, &c. ] 

The metaphor in this fpeech is taken from the Steward's compt- 
ing-houfe or audit room. In ccmpt means, fubjeR to account. The 
fcnle of the whole is : We, and all i<:ho belong to us, look upon <>z.r 
lives and fortunes not as our <HU properties, but as ive have 
received ntercly for your ufe, and for which <vjc tntt/l ie accnuntablt 
whenever you pleafe to call us to our audit ; ivben, like faithful 
fa-wards, wejhattbe ready to anjwer jour f unmans, ly returning yo 
-,>:bat isyour cr.\:n. 


484 M A C B E T Hf. 


Hautboys and torches. Enter a fiuuer 6 , and divers fer^ 
vants ii-ith dffies and fervke over tbe Jlage. 'Then 
enter Macbeth. 

Macb. 7 If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere 


It were done quickly : 8 If the afTaffination 
Could trammel up the confequence, and catch, 

6 Enter a fewer, ] I have refbred this ftage dire&ion from 

the old copy. The office of a. fewer was to place the diflies in or- 
der at a feaft. His chief mark of diilinftion was a towel round 

his arm. So, in Ben Jonforv's Silent Woman ; " clap me a 

clean towel about you, like * fewer ." Again : " See, fir Amo- 
rous has his towel on already. [He enters like a fewer."] 


7 If it were done, feV.] 
A man of learning recommends another punctuation : 

If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere -well. 

It were Jone quickly, if, &c. JOHNSON. 

8 If the ajjajjination} 

Of this foliloquy the meaning is not very clear ; I have never 
found the readers of Shakefpeare agreeing about it. I underiland 
it thus : 

. " If that which I am about to do, when it is once done and ex- 
ecuted, were done and ended without any following effects, it 
\vould then be beft to do it quickly; it the murder could terminate 
in itfelf, and reftrain the regular courfe of confequences, ifitsfuc.- 
<ef> could fecure itsfiarceafe^ if being once &G&eJuccffsfuUy v with- 
out dete6tion, it could Jix a period to all vengeance and enquiry, 
So that this blow mig^ht be all that I have to do, and this anxiety 
all that I have to fuffer ; if this could be my condition, even here 
in this world^ in this contracted period of temporal exiftence, on 
this narrow lank in the ocean of eternity, I would jump tbe life to 
come, I would venture upon the deed without care of any future 
ikte. But this is one of thcfe cafes in which judgment is pro- 
nounced and vengeance inflicted upon us here in our prefent life. 
We teach others to- do as we have dene, and are punifhed by our 
own example." JOHXSOK. 



* With his furceafe, fucccfs; that but this blow 
Might be the be-all and the end-all here, 
But here, upon this bank and ' fhoal of time, 
We'd jump the life to come z . But, in thefe cafes, 
We ftill have judgment here ; that we but teach 
Bloody inftruclions, which, being taught, return 
To plague the inventor : This even-handed juftice * 
Commends the ingredients of our poifon'd chalice 
To our own lips. He's here in double truft : 
Firft, as I am his kinfman and his fubieft, 
Strong both againfl the deed ; then, as his hofl, 
\Vho fhould againfl his murderer mut the door, 
Not bear the knife myfelf. Befides, this Duncan 
4 Hath borne his faculties fo meek, hath been 

^ With bn furceafe, fuccefs ; ] 

I think the reafoning requires that we fliould read : 

With its fuccefs furceafe. JOHNSON. 

A trammel is a net in which either birds or fifties are caught. 
So, in the I fie of Gulls, 1633 : 

" Each tree and {hrub wears trammels of thy hair." 
Surccafe is ceflaticn, ftop. So, in the Valiant H'elcbman, 1615: 

*' Surceafe brave brother: Fortune hath crown'd our 

His is ufed inftead of its, in many places. STEEVENS. 

1 jboal of time, ] 

This is Theobald's emendation, undoubtedly right. The old 
etUtion hasyc-/>W, and Dr. Warburtony/Ww. JOHNSON. 

* We'd jump the life to come. ] 

.So, in Cymbeline, aft V. fc. iv : 

** 01 jump the after-enquiry on your own peril." 


3 - 7 bis ei'ens-bandedjujlicel 

Our poet, apis Matinee more modoque, would ftoop to borrow a fweet 
from any flower, however humble in its fituation. 

" The pricke of confcience (fays Holinfhed) caufed him ever 
to reare, left he fliould be ferved of the fame cup as he had mini- 
fter'd to his predeceflbr." STEEVEXS. 

4 licit b borne bis faculties Co meek, ] 

Faculties, for office, exercife of power, fe*r. WARBURTON. 

Hath borne bis faculties fo ?ncck, ] 

-" Duncan (fays Holinflicd) was fott and gentle of nature." 
And again: ** Macbeth fpoke much againft the king's fortnefs, and 
overmuch flacknefs in punithing oflcndors." STELVENS. 

I i 3 So 


So clear in his great office, that his virtues 

Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongu'd, againft 

The deep damnation of his taking-off: 

And pity, like a naked new-born babe, 

Striding the blaft, 5 or heavens cherubin, hors'd 

Upon the fightlefs couriers of the air, 

Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, 

6 That tears ihall drown the wind. I have no fpur 7 

To prick the fides of my intent, but only 

Vaulting ambition, which o'er-leaps itfelf, 

And falls on the other 8 How now ! what news ? 

s i or heaven's cherulin, hors'd 

Upon thefightlefi couriers of the air t ] 

But the cherubin is the courier; fo that he can't be faid to be horfd 
upon another courier, Wemuftread, therefore, courfers. 


Courier is only runner. Couriers of air are ivinds^ air in mo- 
tion. Sigbtkfs is invijible. JOHNSON, 
Again, in this play : 

" Wherever in your Jightlefe fubftances, &c." 
Again, in Hey wood's raxen Age, 1613 : 

" The flames of hell and Pluto's./%-M/} fires." 
Again : 

" Hath any fightlefs and infernal fire 
* Laid hold upon my flefh ?" 
Again, in Warner's Albions England, 1602, b. ii. c. n : 

" The icouring winds that Jigbtlcfs'va. the founding air do 
fly." STEEVENS. 

6 That tears Jball Jrtnvn the w/W. ] 

Alluding to the remiffion of the wind in a fliower. JOHNSON. 

7 no fpur &c.] 

Thejfur of the occafion is a phrafe ufedby lord Bacon. 


8 And falls on the other } 

Haninei" has on this occafion added a word which every reader can- 
not fail to add for himfelf. He would give : 

And falls on the other fide. 

But the ftate of Macbeth 's mind is more ftrongly marked by this 
break in the fpeech, than by any continuation of it which the mod 
uccefsful critic can fupply. STEEVENS. 



Eater Lady 9 . 

Lady. He has almoft fupp'd ; Why have you left 
the chamber ? 

Macb. Hath he afk'd for me ? 

Lady. Know you not, he has ? 

Macb. We will proceed no further in this bufinefs : 
He hath honour'd me of late ; and I have bought 
Golden opinions from all forts of people, 
Which would be worn now in their neweft glofs, 
Not cafl afide fo foon. 

Lady. Was the hope drunk, 
Wherein you dreft yourfelf ? hath it flept fincc ? 
And wakes it now, to look fo green and pale 
At what it did fo freely ? From this time, 
Such I account thy love. Art thou afraid 

9 Enter La<fy.] The arguments by -which lady Macbeth per- 
fuades her hufband to commit the murder, afford a proof of Shakc- 
fpeare's knowledge of human nature. She urges the excellence 
and dignity of courage, a glittering idea which has dazzled man- 
kind from age to age, and animated fometimes the houfe-breaker, 
and fometimes the conqueror ; but this Ibphifm Macbeth has for 
ever deftroyed, by diiiinguilhing true from falfe fortitude, in a 
line and a half; of which it may almoft be faid, that they ought 
to beftow immortality on the author, though all his other produc- 
tions had been loft : 

I dart do all that may become a man y 
Jf^/jo dares do more t is none. 

This topic, which has been always employed with too much 
fuccefs, is ufed in this fcene with peculiar propriety, to a foldier 
by a woman.' Courage is the'diftinguilhing virtue of a foldier, 
and the reproach of cowardice cannot be borne by any man from 
a woman, without great impatience. 

She then urges the oaths by which he had bound himfelf to 
murder Duncan, another art of fophiftry by which men have 
fometimes deluded their conferences, and perfiuided themfelves 
that what would be criminal in others is virtuous in them ; this 
argument Shukcfpeare, whole plan obliged him to mukc Macbeth 
yield, has not confuted, though he might calily have flicwn that 
a former obligation could not be vacated by a latter : that obli- 
gations laid on us by a higher power, could not be over-ruled by 
obligations which we lay upon ourfelves. JOHNSON. 

I i 4 To 


To be the fame in thine own aft and valour, 
As thou art in defire ? l Wouldft thou have that 
Which thou efteem'ft the ornament of life, 
And live a coward in thine own efteem ; 
Letting I dare not wait upon I would, 
* Like the poor cat i' the adage ? 

Macb, Pr'ythee, peace 3 : 
I dare do all that may become a man ; 
Who dares do more, is none. 

Lady. What beaft was it then, 
That made you break this enterprize to me ? 
When you durfl do it, then you were a man ; 
And, to be more than what you were, you would 
Be fo much more the man. Nor time, nor place, 

* Wouldjl thou have that, 

Which thou ejleem*jl the ornament of life, 

dind live a. coward in thine own ejleeni ; ] 
In this there feems to be no reafoning. I fhould read : 

Or live a coward in thine own ejlecm ? 
Unlefs we choofe rather : 

Wouldft thou leave that. JOHNSON. 

The reafoning is rendered imperfect by inferting the note of in- 
terrogation after the word cjhem ; the two enfuing lines belonging 
as neceflarily to the fentence as any line that went before, and 
making an effential part of the Lady's argument. Put the note of 
interrogation where it ought to be, at the end of the fpeech, and 
then the argument becomes entire, and the reafoning conclusive. 
"Do you wijli to obtain the crown, and yet would you remain fuch a 
coward in your oivn eyes all your life, as to fujjer your paltry fears, 
which whlfper, " I dare not," to controulyour nolle ambition, ivhich 
cries out, "I would?" STEEVENS. 

" 4 Like the poor cat ? the adage f] 

The adage alluded to is, The cat loves fjb, but dares not wet her 

" Catus amat pifces, fed non vuh tingerc plantas" JOHNSON. 
3 Pr'ythec, peace, &c.] 

A pafTage limilar to this, occurs in Meafure for Meafurc, acl II. 
fcene ii : 

^ be that you are, 

" That is a woman : if you're more, you're none." 
The folio, infteadof do more, reads no more, but the prefent read-, 
ing is undoubtedly right. STEEVENS. 



* Did then adhere, and yet you would make both : 
They have made themfelves,and that their fitnefs now 
JDoes unmake you. I have given fuck ; and know 
How fender 'tis, to love the babe that milks me : 
I would, while it was milling in my face, 
Have pluck'd my nipple from his bonelefs gums, 
And dafh'd the brains out, had I but ib fvvorn 
As you have done to this. 

Macb. If we mould fail, 

Lady. We fail ! 

But icrew your courage to the flicking place J , 
And we'll not fail. When Duncan is afleep, 
(Whereto the rather mall his day's hard journey 
Soundly invite him) his two chamberlains 
6 Will I with wine and waflel fo convince, 


* Did tben adhere, ] 

The old copy reads adhere. Dr. Warburton would read cohere ', not 
improperly, but without neceflity. In the Merry Hives of Hind- 
for, Mrs. Ford fays of Falftaff, that his words and actions " no more 
adhere and keep pace together than, &c." STEEVENS, 

5 But fcretit} ytoir courage to the flicking place, ~\ 

This is a metaphor from an engine formed by mechanical compli- 
cation. Tktjfticklng place is the Jlop which fuipends its powers, 
till they are difcharged on their proper object ; as in driving 
piles, &c. So, in fir W. Davenant's Cruel Brother, 1630 : 

*' There is an engine made, 

" Which fpends its ftrength by force of nimble wheels ; 

" For they, onceJcrewcJtip, in their return 

" Will rive an oak." 
Again, in Coriolanus, ad I. fc. viii : 

" Wrench up thy power to the higheft." 

Perhaps indeed Shake fpeare had a more familiar image in view, 
and took his metaphor Irom i&e Jcrtwtng up the chords of flring- 
inftruments to their proper degree of tenfion, when the peg re- 
mains faftin its flicking place, i.e. in the place from which it is 
not to move. STEEVENS. 

6 Will I with ivitie and ivajjclfo convince,] 

To convince, is in Shakefpeare, to overfo-iver orftibdue, as in this 

*' Their malady convinces 

" The great aflay of art." JOHNSOK. 
So, in the old comedy ot Cambyfes : 

*' If that your heart add'ided be the F-gyptians to convince." 

Again : 

4 9 o MACBETH. 

That memory, the warder of the brain 7 , 
Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reafon 8 

A lim- 

Again : 

" By this his grace, by conqueft great the Egyptians did 


Again, in Holinfhed : " thus mortally fought, intending to 
vanquish and convince the other." 

What was anciently called ivas-baile (as appears from Selden's 
notes on the ninth fong of DrxytOB*tPelyo&rrtt) was an annual cuf- 
tom obferved in the country on the vigil of the new year ; and 
had its beginning, as fome fay, from the words which Ronix 
daughter of Hengift ufed, when fhe drank to Vortigern, loverd 
king ivas-beil ', he anfwering her, by direction of an interpreter, 
drinc-heile ; and then as Geoffery of Monmouth fays : 

" Kufte hire and fitte hire adoune and glad dronke hire 

" And that was tho in this land the verft "Mas-bail, 

*' As in langage of Saxoyne that me might eve re iwite, 

" And fo wel he paith the folc about, that he is not yut 


Afterwards it appears that <was-baile t and drinc-beil, were theufual 
phrafes of quaffing among the Englifli, as we may fee from Tho- 
mas dc la Moore in the Life of Edward II. and in the lines of Han- 
vil the monk, who preceded him : 

" Ecce vagante cifo diftento gutture <iw/}-<W, 

" Ingeminant wafs-beil 

But Selden rather conjectures it to have been a ufual cere* 
mony among the Saxons before Hengifl, as a note of heahb-<wijh- 
ing, 'fuppofing the expreffion to be corrupted from ivijh-beih 

WaJJel or Wajfail is a word fall in ufe in the midland counties, 
and fignifies at prefent \\1iat is called Lambs Wool, /'. e. roafted 
apples in -ftrong beer, with fugar and fpice. See Beggar 's Eujb^ 
act IV. fc. 4 : 

What think you of a waffelt 

' thou and Ferret 

** And Ginks to {ing the fong : I for the flru&ure, 

" Which is the bowl, &c." 

Again, in a fong introduced in Laneham's Narrative of^uten Eli- 
zabeth's Entertainment at Kenchvorth Cajlle, 11575 : 

" For ivine and ivaftctt he had at will." 

WaJJel is, however, fometimes ufed for general riot, intemperance, 
or feftivity. On this occafion I believe it means intemperance. 

Ben Jonfon perfonifies ivajftl thus: Enter Waflel like a 



A limbeck only : When in fwiniih fleep 
Their drenched natures lie, as in a death, 
What cannot you and I perform upon 
The unguarded Duncan ? what not put upon 
His fpungy officers ; ' who ihall bear the guilt 
Of our great quell ? 

Macb. Bring forth men-children only ! 
For thy undaunted mettle fhould compofe 
Nothing but males. Will it not be receiv'd, 
When we have mark'd with blood thofe fleepy two 
Of his own chamber, and us'd their very daggers, 
That they have don't ? 

Lady. Who dares receive it other, 
As we fhall make our griefs and clamour roar 
Upon his death ? 

Macb. I am fettled, and bend up z 

tie atfempjle r and fongfttr ; be r page bearing a brcKvn loivl dreft wltb 
ribbands and rofemary, before her. 'SrEEVENS. 

7 the warder of the brain,] 

A warder is a guard, a centmel. So, in another play of Shake- 
fpeare : 

" Where be thefe warders, that they wait not here ?" 


8 the receipt of reafon\ 
\. e. the receptacle. MALONE. 

9 A limbeck only : ] 

That is, lhall be only a veflel to emit fumes or vapours. JOHNOW. 
* who Jl?all bear the guilt 

Of our great quell.] 

Quell is murder^ man-Muellers being in the old language the term 
for which murderers is now ufed. JOHNSON. 

So, in Chaucer's Tale of the Nontits Pritjl, v. 15396, late edit. 

" The dokes cryeden as men wold hem quellc." 

The word is ufed in this fenfe by Holinflied, p. 567 : " fh 

poor people ran about the ftreets, calling the cnpteins and gover- 
nors murtbcrers and manquellcrs." Again, in The Cooler's Pr* 
fbecy, 1594 : 

*' Prefs'd through defpair myfelf to quell" STEEVENI, 

* and bend up] 

A metaphor from the bow. vSo, in A'. Henry V. aft III. fc. i : 

" bend up every fpirit 

44 To his full height." STBEVENS. 


492. MACBETH. 

Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. 
Away, and mock the time with fairefl fhow : 
Falfe face muft hide what the falfe heart doth know. 


A C T II. S C E N E I. 

Enter Banqtio, and Fleance, with a torch before him, 

3 Ban. How goes the night, boy ? 

Fie. The moon is down ; I have not heard the 


Ban, And flie goes down at twelve. 
Fie. I take't, 'tis later, fir. 
Ban. Hold, take my fword : There's husbandry 

in heaven, 

Their candles are all out. Take thee that too. 
A heavy fummons lies like lead upon me, 
And yet I would not deep : 4 Merciful powers ! 


3 Banquet.] The place is not mark'd in the old edition, nor i 
5t eafy to lay where this encounter can be. It is not in the hall t 
as the editors have all fuppofed it, for Banquo lees the Iky ; it is 
not far from the bedchamber, as the conversation fhevvs : it muft 
be in the inner court of the caftle, which Banquo might properly 
crofs in his way to bed. JOHNSON. 
* : Merciful powers ! 

Rejlrain in me the cur fed thoughts, that nature 

Gives way to in repofe ! ] 

It is apparent from what Banquo fays afterwards, that he had been 
folicited in a dream to attempt fomething in conlequence of the 
prophecy of the witches, that his waking fenfes were fhock'd at; 
and Shakefpeare has here finely contrafted his character with that 
of Macbeth. Banquo is praying againft being tempted to en- 
courage thoughts of guilt even in his fleep ; while Macbeth is hur- 
rying into temptation, and revolving in his mind every fcheme, 
however flagitious, that may affift him to complete his purpofe. 
The one is unwilling to fleep, left the fame phantoms fhould af- 



Reftrain in me the curfed thoughts, that nature 
Gives way to in repofe ! Give me my fword ; 

Enter Macbeth, and afervant with a torch. 

Who's there ? 

Macb. A friend. 

Ban. What, fir, not yet at reft? The king's a-bed : 
He hath J been in unufual pleafure, and 
Sent forth great largefs to your officers : 
This diamond he greets your wife withal, 
By the name of molt kind hoftefs ; and ihut up s 
In meafurelefs content, 

Macb. Being unprcpar'd, 
Our will became the fervant to defect ; 
Which elfe ihould free have wrought 7 . 

Ban. All's well. 
I dreamt laft night of the three weird fitters : 

fail his refolution again, while the other is depriving hirafclf of 
reft through impatience to commit the murder. The fame kind of 
invocation occurs in Cymbeline : 

" From fairies, and the tempters of the night , 

" Guard me!" STEEVENS. 

5 He hath to-night, c.] 
To-night was unneceflarily inferted by Mr. Pope. STEEVENS. 

6 font u p] 

Tojbut up, is to conclude. ' So, in the Spantfi Tragedy : 

" And heavens have Jlwt up day to pleafure us." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Queen, b. iv. c. 9 : 

" And for tojbut up all in friendly love." 
Again, in Reynolds's God's Revenge againjl Murder, 1621, fourtk 

edit. p. 157: " cluvgh the parents have already Jhut np the 

contract." Again, in St- ,e's account of the earl of Eflex's fpeech 
on the fcaftbld: " \\tJJn.t ..p all with the Lord's prayer." 

7 Being tinprepar't!, 

Our iuill lecatne the fervant to defeft ; 

Wbicb elfc JJjQtiU free have wfrought.] 

This is obfcurely exprefled. The meaning leems to be : Being 
unprepared, our entertainment was nccclliirily Jefeflii-t, and we 
only had it in our power to fhcw the king our ivUl-n^tufs tof?r<vt 
him. Had we received fufficient notice ot his coining, our zea 
(hyuld have been more clearly manifelted by our afli. MALONE 


494 M A O B E T H, 

To you they have fhew'd fome truth. 

Macb. I think not of them : 
Yet, when we can intreat an hour to ferve, 
We would fpend it in fome words Upon that bufinefs, 1 
If you would grant the time. 

Ban. At your kind'il leifure. 

Macb. 8 If you fliall cleave to my confent, when 'tis, 
It fliall make honour for you. 

Ban. So I lofe none, 
In feeking to augment it, but ftill keep 
My bofom franchis'd, and allegiance cleaij 
I fhall be counfel'd. 

Macb. Good repofe, the while ! 

Ban. Thanks, fir; The like to you ! [Exit Banquo. 

Macb. Go, bid thy miftrefs, when my drink is 


She ftrike upon the bell. Get thee to bed. [Exit Serv. 
Is this a dagger, which I fee before me, 
The handle toward my hand ? Come, let me 9 clutch 

thee : 

I have 

8 If you Jhall cleave to my confent, lube* *tis,~\ 
Confent for will. So that the fenfe of the line is, If you fliall ga 
into my meafures when I have determined of them, or when the 
time comes drat 1 want your affiftance. WARBURTON. 

If you jb all cleave, &C.1 

Macbeth exprefles his thought with affe&ed obfcurity ; he does 
not mention the royalty, though he apparently had it in his mind* 
If you Jhall cleave to my confent^ if you fhall concur with me whert 
I determine to accept the crown, when 'tit, when that happens 
which the prediction promifes, it Jhall make honour for you. 


Such another expreffion occurs in lord Surrey's tranflation of 
the fecond book of ^irgiVs ^Eneid: 

*' And if thy will^Y unto mine, I fliall 
'* In wedlocke fure knit, and make her his own.'* 
When '//j, means, when 'tis my leifure to talk i<cith you on this lit* 
fnefs; referring to what Banquo had juil faid, at your kindeft 

Macbeth could never mean to ^ive Banquo at this time the moft 
diftant or obfcure hint of his defign upon the crown. STEEVENS. 

9 clutch] The meaning-of this word is well known, 



I have thce not ; and yet I fee thee dill. 
Art thou not, fatal vifion, fenfible 
To feeling, as to fight ? or art thou but 
A Dagger of the mind ; a falfe creation, 
Proceeding from the heat-opprefled brain ? 
I fee thee yet, in form as palpable 
As this which now I draw. 
Thou marflial'fl: me the way that I was going ; 
And fuch an inftrument I was to ufe. 
Mine eyes are made the fools o'the other fenfes, 
Or clfe worth all the reft : I fee thee ftill ; 
1 And on thy blade, and dudgeon, x gouts of blood, 


nor is the note introduced for any other reafon than juft to men- 
tion, that our author's ufe of it feems to be fneered at by Bet 
Jonfon mhisPoeta/ltrj actV. fc. ii. where Crifpinus, after having 
taken fome pills from Horace, by way of a light vomit, to purge 
his brain and ftomach, among many other uncouth words and 
phrafes he brings up, this is one. Shakefpeare ufes it in Mea- 
furt for Meafure, aft III. fc. v. and K. John, aft II. fc. 6. always 
in the fame fignification. WARNER. 

This word, though reprobated by Ben Jonfon, was not jiecu- 
liar to Shakefpeare. It is alfo ufed by Marfton, in the fecond part 
or Antonio and Mellida, 1602: 

" all the earth is clutch' 'd 

" In the dull leaden hand of fnoring deep." MALONE. 
It appears from the following paflage in an old comedy, called 
The Return from ParnaJJus, 1606, that Shakefpeare and Ben Jon- 
fon had been at variance : " O that Ben Jonfon's a peftilent fellow, 
he brought up Horace giving the poets a pill ; but our fellow 
Shakefpeare hath given him a purge that made him bewray his 
sredit." Burbage and Kemp are the fpeakers in this fcene. 


' And on thy blade, and dudgeon, goutt of blood,] 
Certainly, if on the blade, then on the dudgeon ; for dudgeon, fig-. 
nifies a foall dagger. We fhould read therefore : 

And on the blade fifth' dudgeon, WARBURTON. 

Though dudgeon does fometimes lignify a dagger, it more pro- 
perly means the baft or handle of a dagger, and is ufed 1'jr that 
particular fort of handle which has fome ornament carved on 
the top of it. Junius explains tr.e dudgeon, i. e. ban, by die 
Latin exprelfion, manubrium apiatum, which means a handle of 
with a grain rough as if the feeds ofparjty vjfre Jirov:n over it. 


496 M A C B E T H. 

Which was not fo before. There's no fuch thing 1 
It is the bloody bufinefs, which informs 
Thus to mine eyes. 5 Now o'er the one half \vorld 


So, in Lyllie's comedy of Mother Bombie^ 1594.: " thert 

have at the bag with the dudgeon, bafte, that is, at the dudgeon dag- 
ger that hangs by his tantony pouch." In Soliman and Perfeda is 
the following pallage : 

" Typhon me no Typhons, 

' But fwear upon my dudgeon dagger." 

Again, in Decker's Satiromaftix ; " I am too wellrank'd, Afinius,- 
to be rtabb'd with his dudgeon wit." STE EVENS. 

Gafcolgne confirms this : " The mod knottie piece of box may 
be wrought to a fayre doogen bafte" Gouts for drops is frequent in 
old Englifh. FARMER. 

2 gouts of blood,] Or drops, French. POPE. 

Gouts is the technical term for the fpots on Ibme part of the 
plumage of a hawk : or perhaps Shakefpeare ufed the word in al- 
lufion to a phrafe in heraldry. When a field is charg'd or fprinkled 
with red drops, it is faid to be gutty of gules, or gutty de fang. 


3 A r <nv o'er the one half world 

Nature fecms dead, ] 

That is, over our bemifphere all aftion and motion feem to have ceaf- 
td. This image, which is perhaps the moil ftriking that poetry 
can produce, has been adopted by Dryden in his Conquejl of 
Mexico : 

' All things are hufh'd as Nature's felf lay dead, 

* The mountains feem to nod their drowfy head ; 

* The little birds in dreams their fongs repeat, 

' And fleeping flow'rs beneath the night dews fweat, 

* Even lull and envy fleep !" 

Thefe lines, though fo well known, I have tranfcribed, that the 
contraft between them and this paflage ot Shakefpeare may be more 
accurately obferved. 

Night is defcribed by two great poets, but one defcribes a night 
of quiet, the other of perturbation. In the night of Dryden, all 
the difturbers of the world are laid afleep ; in that of Shakefpeare, 
nothing but forcery, lull, and murder, is awake. He that reads 
Dryden, finds himfelf lull'd with ferenity, and difpofed to folitude 
and contemplation. He that perufes Shakefpeare, looks round 
alarmed, and ftarts to find himfelf alone. One is the night of a 
lover, the other, of a murderer. JOHNSON. 

Now o'er one half the world, &c.] 

So, in Marfton's fecond part of Antonio and Mcllida, 1602, which 
probably preceded Macbeth ; 


Nature feems dead, and wicked dreams abufe 
The curtain'd fleep 4 ; now witchcraft celebrates 
Pale Hecate's offerings ; 5 and wither'd murder, 


" 'Tis yet dead night ; yet all the earth is clutcht 

** In the dull leaden hand of fnoring lleep : 

*' No breath difturbs the quiet of the air, 

*' No fpirit moves upon the bread of earth, 

" Save howling dogs, night-crows, and fcreeching owls, 

" Save meagre ghofts, Piero, nnd black thoughts. 

" ' " I am great in blood, 
" Unequal'd in revenge : - you horrid fcouts 
" That fentlnel fa-art night, give loud applaufe 
" From your large palms." MALONE. 
4 The curtain d Jleep ; now witchcraft celebrates'} 
The word now has been added by the editors for the fuke 
of metre. Probably Shakefpeare wrote : The curtain'd jict-pcr. 
The folio fpells the word Jleepe, and an addition of the letter r 
only, affords the propoled emendation. S TEEVENS. 
* iv it he r'd murder ', 

thus with hisftealtby face, 

With Tar quirts ravijlnng fides twJrd bis dejign 

Moves like a ghoft. ] 

This was the reading of this paflage in all the editions before that 
of Mr. Pope, whofbr/ftfo, inferted in the text prides, which Mr. 
Theobald has tacitly copied from him, though a more proper al- 
teration might perhaps have been made. A raw!jbbtgjlriat is an 
action of violence, impetuofity, and tumult, like that ot a favage 
rufhingon his prey ; whereas the poet is here attempting to exhi- 
bit an image of fecrecy and caution, of anxious circumfpeclion 
and guilty timidity, the Jiealtby^ pace, of a ravijJjcr creeping into 
the chamber of a virgin, and of an aflaffin approaching the bed of 
him whom he propofes to murder, without awaking him ; thefe 
he defcribes as moving like ghojis, whofe progreflion is fo different 
from^r/Vfo, that it has been in all ages repreiented to be, as Mil- 
ton exprefles it : 

" Smooth fliding without fl:ep." 

This hemiltic will afford the true reading of this place, which is, 
I think, to be corrected thus : 

and 'wither' \l murder, 

thus with his Healthy ^flcr, 

With Tarquin raviJJring, ilides t^rds his dejign^ . 

Moves likes a ghoft. 

Tarquin is in this place the general name of a ravifher, and the 

fenfe is : Now is the time in which everyone is a-fleep, but thofe 

who are employed in wickednefs ; the witeii who is facrificing to 

VOL. IV. ' K k Hecate, 

498 M A C B E T H. 

Alarum'd by his fentinel, the wolf, 
Whofe howl's his watch, thus with his Healthy pace* 
6 With Tarquin's ravifhing ftrides, towards his defign 
Moves like a ghofl. 7 Thou fure and firm-fet earth, 


Hecate, and the ravifher, and the murderer, who, like me, arc 
Dealing upon their prey. 

When the reading is thus adjufted, he wiflies with great pro. 
priety, in the following lines, that the earth may not bear hi* 
jffeps. JOHNSON. 

6 With Tarqttin's ran>ijbingjlride5, ] 

The juftnefs of this iimilitude is not very obvious. But a ftanza, 
in his poem of Tarquin and Lucrece, will explain it : 
~No\\Jiole upon the time, the dead of 'night , 
When heavy lleep had clos'd up mortal eyes ; 
No comfortable^;- did lend his light, 
No noife but owls and evolves dead-boding cries} 
Now ferves- the feafon that they may furprife 
The filly lambs. Pure thoughts are dead and ftill, 
While lull and murder wake tojlain and kill" 


I cannot agree with Dr. Johnfoh that tiJlflJt is always an aflio* 
tf violence, impetuojlty, or tumult. Spenfer ufes the word in his 
Faery Queen, b. iv. c. 8. and with no idea of violence annexed^ 
to it: 

" With eafy fteps fo foft as foot could Jlride." 
And as an additional proof that a jtride is not always a iu Timlin OK* 
effort, the following initasce from Harrington's Tranjlation 6f Ari~ 
ffto, may be brought : 

He takes a long and leifurable_^r/V&, 
And lorigeft on the hinder foot he ftaid j 
So foft he treads, altho' his fteps were wide^ 
As though to tread on eggs he was afraid. 
And as he goes, he gropes on either fide 
To find the bed, &c." 

Orlando Furiofo, 2 8th book, ffenza6j 

This tranflation was entered on the books of the Stationers' Com 
pany, Dec. 7. 1593. 

Whoever has been reduced to the neceffity of finding his way 
about a houfe in the dark, muft know that it is natural to take 
large JlriJcs, in order to feel before us whether we have a fafe foot- 
ing or not. The ravifher and murderer would naturally take fuch 
ftrides, not only on the lame account, but that their fteps might 
be fewer in number, and the found of their feet be repeated a* 
feldom as poffible. STEEVEKS. 

7 Thou found and Jirtn-fet earth)"] 



tlear not my fteps, 8 which way they walk, for feat 
Thy very ftones prate of my where-about 9 , 
1 And take the prefent horror from the time, 


is the reading of the modern editors : but though that of the folio 
is corrupt, it will direct us to the true one. 

Thou fowre and firm-fit earth, 

is evidently wrong, but brings us very near the right \rord, which' 
was evidently meant to be '. 

Thou fure and firm-fit earth) 

as I have inferted it in the text. So, in adt IV. fc. iii : 

" Great tyranny, lay thou thy bafisyr^" STEE'VENS. 

8 which <vjay they walk, ] 

The folio reads : 

which they may walk, STEEVEXS. 

9 Thy very Jiones prate of my where- about,] 

The following beautiful paffage in a play which has been fre- 
quently mentioned, and \Wiich Langbaihe fays was very popular 
in the time of queen Elizabeth, A Warning for faire Women, 
J 599> perhaps fuggefted this thought : 

Mountains will not fuffice to cover it, 
Cimmerian darknefle cannot fhadow it, 
Nor any policy wit hath in (lore, 
Cloake it fo cunningly, but at the laft, 
It nothing elfe, yet will the veryjtcnes 
' That lie within the ftreets, cry out for vengeance*, 

And point at us to be the murderers." MALONE. 
* And tale the prefent horror from the time, 

Which nowftiits with it. ] 

i. e. left the noife from the ftones take away from this midnight 
feafon that prefent horror which fuits fo we'll with what is going 
to be afted in .it. What was the horror he means ? Silence, than 
which nothing can be more horrid to the perpetrator of an atro- 
cious defign. This fliews a great knowledge of human nature. 


Of this paffage an alteration was once propoled by me, of 
which I have now a lefs favourable opinion, yet will inlert it, as 
it may perhaps give fome hint to other critics : 
And take the prefent borrour from the time. 

Which now fuits with it. 

I believe every one that has attentively read this dreadful foliloqu/ 
is diiappointed at the conclufion, which, if not wholly unintel- 
ligible, is, at leaft, obfcure, nor can be explained into any lenfc 
worthy of the authour. I fliall therefore propofe a flight alters 

* . .. . Thou found and firm- fit eartb 9 

K k 2 Htar 

5 oo M A C B E T H. 

Which now {bits with it. While I threat, he lives- i 
Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives. 

[_A bell rings. 

I go, and it is done ; the bell invites me. 
Hear it not, Duncan ; for it is a knell 
That fummons thee to heaven, or to hell. 

Hear not my fiefs, which tvay they <tvar/, for fear 

Thy very ft ones prate of my lubert-about, 

y/Wtalk the prefcnt horro ur of the time ! 

That now fuits ivith it. - 

Macbeth has, in the foregoing lines, difturbed his imagination 
by enumerating all the terrors of the night ; at length he is 
wrought up to a degree of frenzy, that makes him afraid of feme 
fupernatural difcovery of his delign, and calls out to the ftones 
not to betray him, not to declare where he walks, nor to talk. 
As he is 'going to fay of what, he diicovers the abfurdity of h*s 
fufpicion r and paufes ;, but is again overwhelmed by his guilt, 
and concludes, that fuch are the horrors of the prefent night, 
that the ftones may be expefled to cry out againft him : 

That now-j(ititt"tviti} it, - 

He obferves in a fubfequent paflage, that on fuch occafions- 
Jlones have been known to move. It is now a very juft and ftrong 
picture of a man about to commit a deliberate murder under the 1 
ftrongeft conviction of the wickednefs of his defign. Of this al- 
teration, however, I do not now fee much ufe, and certainly lee 
no neceflkyv 

Whether to take hm-rovr from the time means not rather to catch 
it as communicated, than to deprive the time of horro ur r deferves to 
be confidered. JOHNSON. 

The latter is furely the true meaning.. Macbeth would have 
nothing break through the univerfal filence that added fuch a hor- 
ror to the night, as fuited well with the bloody deed he was about 
to perform. Mr. Burke, in his EJfay OK the Sublime and Beauti' 
ful, obferves, that "all general privations are great, becaufethey 
are all terrible;" and, with other things, he gives JiJeace as an in- 
ftance, illutfrating the whole by that remarkable paflage in Fii-giL* 
where amidft all the images or" terror that could be united, the 
circumftance oijtlence is particularly dwelt upon : 

" Dii quibus imperium eft animarum, umbrajque Jikntei) 

*' Et Chaos et Phlegethon, loca notte_/f/f ntia late." 





Enter Lady Macbeth. 

Lady. That which hath made them drunk, hath 

made me bold ; 
What hath quench'd them, hath given me fire .: 

Hark! Peace! 

It was the owl that ftiriek'd, the fatal bell-man, 
Which gives the flern'ft good-night. He is about it: 
The doors are open ; and the furfeited grooms 
Do mock their .charge with fnores: I have drugg'd 

their pofiets 2 , 

That death and nature do contend about them, 
Whether they live, or die. 

Macb. [Witbin.~\ Who's there-? what, .ho ! 
Lady. Alack! I am afraid they have awak'd, 
And 'tis not done : the attempt, and not the deed,. 
Confounds us : Hark ! I laid their daggers ready, 
He .could not mils them. J Had he not rcfembled 
My father as he ilept, I had don't. My hufband ? . 


It appears from this paflage, as well as from many others in our old 
-dramatic performances, that it was .the general cuftom to f&t ppflets 
juit before bed-time. So, in the firft part -or" K. -Edward IV. by 
Hey wood ' " thou (halt be welcome to beef and bacon, and 
perhaps a bag-pudding ; and my daughter Nell (hall popxpaj/ft upon 
thee when thou goett to bed." Macbeth himfeU has already faid : 

44 Go bid thy miftrefs when my drink is ready, 

" She itrike upon the bell." 

And in the Merry Hives ofHlnilfur^ Mrs. Quickly promifes Jack 
Rugby afoj/ftut night:"' STEEVENS. 
3 Had he ,'iat refemlled 

J/y father as bcjlfpt, / /W </<'/ ] 

This is very artful. For, as the poet has drawn the lady and -her 
luilbond, it would be thought the aft (hould have been done by 
her. It is likewife highly jull ; for though ambition had fubduod 
in her all the tenements of nature towards prtftnt objects, yet the 
;likenefs of one pajl, which (he had been accultotned to regard 
jyith reverence, made her unnatural palTions, for a moment, give 
way t the fcntiments of inftincl and humanity. WARBURTON. 

K k 3 Enter 

$oz M A C R E T H, , 

Enter Macbeth. 

Macb. I have done the deed : Didft thou not hear 

a noife ? 
Lady. I heard the owl fcream, and the crickets 


Did not you fpeak ? 
Macb. When? 
Lady. Now. 

. Macb. As I defcended ? 
Lady. Ay. 

Macb. Hark ! Who lies i'the fecond chamber ? 
Lady. Donalbain. 

Macb. This is a forry fight. [Looking on his hands. 
Lady. A fooliih thought, to fay a forry fight. 
Macb. There's one did laugh in his fleep, and one 

cry'd, murder ! 
That they did wake each other ; I Hood and hearci 

them : 

But they did fay their prayers, and addrefs'd them 
Again to ileep. 

Lady. There are two lodg'd together. 

Miacbi One cry'd, God blefs us! and, Amen^ the,. 

other ; 

^.s they had feen me, with thefp hangman's hands, 
t Liftening their fear. I could not fay, amen, 

4 Liftening their fear. I could not fay, amen t 

When tbcy did fay, GodUcfsus.} 

\. e. Liftening to their fear, the particle omitted. This is com- 
inon in our author. Jul. Caf. a6t IV, fc. i : 
' and now Oftavius, 

* Lijlen great things." 

Contemporary writers took the fame liberty. So, in the World 
tofs'd at Tennis, by Middleton and Rowley, 1620 : 

* Lificn the plaints of thy poor votaries." 
.Again, n Lylly's Maid's Meta?norpbojis, 1600 : 

* There, in rich feats, all wrought of ivory, 

* The Graces lit, liftenin? the melody 

*".,- T-l- 1---I.. ,-P * 

Of warbling birds." Si 




When they did fay, God blcfs us. 

Lady. Confider it not ib deeply. 

Macb. But wherefore could not I pronounce, amen ? 
I had moil need of bleffing, and amen 
Stuck in my throat. 

Lady. Thefe deeds muft not be thought 
After thefe ways ; fo, it will make us mad. 

Macb. Methought, I heard a voice cry, Sleep no 

more ! 

Macbeth docs murder Jleep, the innocent fleef ; 
Sleep, that knits up the ravell'd * Jleave of care, 
"The death of each day's life, fore labour s bath. 


5 Jleave of care ,] 

*L fkein of filk is called tjieavt of filk, as I learned from Mr. Se- 
ward, the ingenious editor ot Beaumont and Fletcher. JOHNSON. 

Sleep, that knits up the ravcll'd Heave of care,] 
To confirm the ingenious conjecture that Jleave means fleaved, 
Jilk ravell'd, it is obfervable, that a poet of Shakefpeare's age, 
Dray ton, has alluded to it likewife in his S^uejl of Cynthia: 

" At length I on a fountain light, 

f * Whofe brim with pinks was platted, 

" The banks with daffadillies dight, 

" With grafs, like./Aww, was matted." LANGTON. 
Shave is mentioned in Holinlhed's Hifi. of England, p. 835 : 
*' Eight wild men all apparelled in green mofs made vrithSfVfd 
Clk." Perhaps the fame word, though difterently Ipelt, occurs 
in the Lover's Complaint, by Shakefpeare, p. 87, and 88, Lin- 
tot's edition : 

" Found yet mo letters fadly penn'd in blood, 

" With^7f/^^filke, feate and atteftedly 

** Enfwath'd and feal'd to curious fecrecy.'* 
Again, \r\t\\cMufesElizium, by Dray ton : 

" thrumb'd with grafs 

" As foft -jAJleave or farcenet ever Was.** 
Again : * 

** That in the handling feels as foft as unyjleavc." 


6 7be death of each day's life, fore labour's bath, &c.] 
In this encomium upon fletp, amongft the many appellations 
which are given it, lignificant of its beneficence and Iriendlinefs 
to life, we find one which conveys a different idea, and by n 
means agrees with the reft, which is : 

The death of each day's life, ] 

Kk 4 


Balm of hurt minds, great nature* s fecond courfe. 
Chief nourifher in life- s feajl 1 ; 

Lady. What do you mean ? 

Macb. Still it cry'd, Sleep no more / to all the houfe 2 
Glamls bath murder* djleep ; and therefore Cawdor 
Shall Jleep no more, Macbeth Jhdljleep no more ! 

Lady. Who was it, that thus cry'd ? Why, worthy 


You do unbend your noble ftrength, to think 
So brain-fickly of things : Go, get fome water, 
And wafh this filthy witnefs from your hand. 
Why did you bring thefe daggers from the place ? 
They muft lie there : Go, carry them ; and fmear 
The fleepy grooms with blood. 

Macb. I'll go no more : 
I am afraid to think what I have done ; 
Look on't again, I dare not. 

Lady. Infirm of purpofe ! 

Give me the daggers : The Sleeping, and the dead, 
Are but as pictures : 'tis the eye of childhood, 
That fears a painted devil 8 . If he do bleed, 
I'll 9 gild the faces of the grooms withal, 


I make no queftion but Shakefpcare wrote : 

The birth of each day's life, 

The true charncleriflick or fleep, which repairs the decays of la- 
bour, and affifls that returning vigour which fupplies the next 
day's activity. The player-editors feem to have corrupted it for 
the fake of a filly gingle between life and death. WARBURTON. 

I neither perceive the corruption, nor any neceflity for altera- 
tion. The death of each Jay's life, means the end of each day's la~ 
lour, the conclujion of all that luftlc and fatigue that each day's life 
brings ivit/j it. STEEVENS. 

7 Chief nourijher in life's feajl ;] 
So, in Chaucer's Squierfs Tale, v. 10661 ; late edit. 

" The norice of digeftion, theJ2efie." STEEVENS. 

8 'tis the eye of childhood, 

That fears a painted devil. ] 

So, in Vittoria Corwnbona, 16121 

" Terrify lobes, my lord, vi\\h painted devils " STEEVENS. 

9 gild the faces of the grooms withal, 

For it muft fcem their guilt.] 



For it muft feem their guilt. [Er//. Knocking within. 

Macb. Whence is that knocking ! 
How is't with me, when every noife appals me ? 
What hands are here? Ha! they pluck out mine eyes! 
Will. all great Neptune's ocean wafh this blood ' 
Clean from my hand ? No ; this my hand will rather 
The multitudinous leas l incarnardine, 
Making the green one red } . 

Could Shakefpeare poflibly mean to play upon the fimilitude of 
giL / and guilt? JOHNSON. 

This quibble very frequently occurs in the old plays. A few 
inftances (for I could produce a dozen at leaft) may fuffice : 
** Cand. You have a iilver beaker of my wife's ? 
" Flu. You fay not true, 'tis gilt. 
" Cand. Then you fay true : 

" And being gilt, the guilt lies more on you." 
Again, in Middleton's comedy of AmadWorldmy Mafters, 1608: 

" Though guilt condemns, 'tis gilt mull make us glad." 
And, laftly, from Shakefpeare himfelf: 

" England fliall double gild his treble guilt." Hen. IV. p. 2. 
Again, in Hen. V : 

Have for the gilt of France, Q guilt indeed!" STSEVENS. 
1 Will all great Neptune's ocean &c.] 

*' Sufcipit, o GcIIi, quantum non ukima Tetlys, 
* ' Non genitor nympharum abluit oceanus. '* 

Catullus in Gellium, 83. 

OTfxai yap T a, "l<rrpo art <p<ri an 
Nk\J/a xa.&f(4M rw& rtjv trreyno. Sophoc. Oedif. 

" >uis eluet me Tanais? ant qute larlaris 
* ' Maotis itndis Pontico incumbent marl f 
*' Non ipfe toto magnm Qccanm pater 

" Tantum expiarit fcehrls !" Senec. Hippol. STEEVENS. 
So, in the Infatiate Countefs, by Marfton, 1603: 
*' Although the waves ot all the northern fea 
" Should flow for ever through thefe guilty hands, 
** Yet the fanguinolent {tain would exftant be." 


* incarnardine,'] To incarnardine, is to {lain any thing of 

a flefti colour, or red. Carnardine is the old term for carnation. 
So, in a comedy called Any Thing for a quiet Lift : 
" Grograms, fattins, velvet fine, 
** The rofy-colour'd carnartlins" SrEEVENI. 
3 Making the green one red.~\ 


506 MAC B E T H. 

Re-enter Lady Macbeth. 

Lady. My hands are of your colour ; but I ihame 
To wear a heart fo white. I hear a knocking [Knock. 
At the foutji entry : retire we to our chamber : 
A little water clears us of this deed : 
How e'afy is it then ? Your conftancy 
Hath left you unattended. Hark ! more knocking : 


Get on your night-gown, left occafion call us, 
And fhevv us to be watchers : Be not loft 
So poorly in your thoughts, 
Mich. 4 To know my deed, Twere beft not know 
myfelf. [Knock. 

Wake Duncan with thy knocking ! I would, thou 
couldft ! [Exeunt^ 

The fame thought occurs in The Do-Mnfal nf Robert Earl of Hunt 
iingdony 1 60 1 : 

" He made the green fea red with Turkilh blood." 
Again : 

" The multitudes of feas died m/with blood." 
Another not unlike it is found in Spenfer's Faery 3>aec, b. ii, 
e. 1O. ft. 4# : 

" The whiles with blood they all the ftiore did ftain, 

*' And the grey ocean into purple dye." 
Again, in the igth long ot Drayton's Polyolbion: 

' ' And the vaft grccnljbfea dif coloured like to Hood" 
It had been common to read : 

Making the green one, red. 

The author 9r" the Gray's Inn Journal, No. 17, firft made this 
elegant and' neceflary change, which has hitherto been adopted 
without acknowledgment. STEEVENS. 

* To know friy dcsd^ 'Tivere bcjl not kno~M mvfelf.~\ 
3. e. While I have the thoughts of this deed, it were beft not know, 
or be lojl tp, myfelf. This is an anfwer to the lady's reproot : 
" be not loft 

So poorly in your thoughts. 

But the Oxford editor, perceiving neither the fenfe, nor the per- 
tinency of the anfwer, alters it to : 

To unknow my deed. 'Tivere left not know myfelf. 





Enter a Porter. 

[Knocking within.'] Port. Here's a knocking, in- 
deed ! If a man were porter of hell-gate, he fliould 
have old turning the key. [Knock.'] Knock, knock, 
knock : Who's there, i'the name of Belzebub ? Here's 
a fanner, that hang'd himfelf on the expedition of 
plenty : come in time ; have napkins * enough about 
you; here you'll fweat for't. [Knock.'] Knock, knock: 
Who's there, i'the other devil's name? 'Faith, 6 herc's 
an equivocator, that could fwear in both the fcales 
againft either fcale ; who committed treafon enough 
for God's fake, yet could not equivocate to heaven : 
oh, come in, equivocator. [Knock."] Knock, knock, 
knock : Who's there ? 'Fa;th, 7 here's an Englifh tay- 


5 napkins enough ~\ i.e. handkerchiefs. So, in Othello: 

" Your napkin is too little." STEEVENS. 

6 here's an eguivocator, ivho committed treafon enough for God's 
fake, ] Meaning a jefuit : an order fo troublefome to the ftate in 

queen Elizabeth and king James the firft's time. The inventors 
of the execrable docftrine of equivocation. WAR BURTON. 

7 here's an F^iiglijh taylor came hither, for Jitaling out of a 

French hofe: ] The archnefs of the joke confiib in this, that a 

French hofe being very ftiort and ftrait, a taylor muft be matter of 
his trade who could fteal any thing from thence. WAR BUR TON. 

Dr. Warburton has faid this at random. The French hofe (ac- 
cording to Stubbs in his Anatomic of Abufes) were in the year 

1595 much in fufhton. " The Gallic hofen arc made very large 

and wide, reaching do*ivn to their knees only y *u}lth three or faurt 
gardes apccce laid down along either hofe" Again, in the Ladies. 
Privilege, 1 640 : 

* wear their long 

Parijian breeches, with five points at knees, 

Whofe tags concurring with their harmonious fpurs, 

Afford rare mufic ; then have they doublets 

So fliort i'th' waifT, they feem as 'twere begot 

Upon their doublets by their cloaks, which tofave fluff, 

Are but a year's growth longer than their flcirts ; 

" And 


lor come hither, for ftealing out of a French hofe : 
come in, taylor ; here you may roaft your goofe. 
[Knack] Knock, knock : Never at quiet ! What are 
you ? But this place is too cold for hell. I'll devil- 
porter it no further : I had thought to have let in fome 
of all profeffions, that go the primrofe way to the 
^verlafting bonfire. [Knock] Anon, anon ; I pray you, 
remember the porter. 

Enter Macdiff, and Lenox. 

Mac. Was it fo late, friend, ere you went to bed, 
That you do lie fo late ? 

Part. 'Faith, fir, we were caroufing 'till the fecond 
cock : and drink, fir, is a great provoker of three 

Macd. What three things doth drink efpecially 
provoke ? 

Port. Marry, fir, nofe-painting, fleep, and urine. 
Lechery, fir, it provokes, and unprovokes ; it pro- 
vokes the defire, but it takes away the performance : 
Therefore, much drink may be faid to be an equivo- 
cator with lechery : it makes him, and it mars him; 
it fets him on, and it takes him off"; it perfuades him, 
anddifheartens him ; makes him {land to, and not 
(land to : in conclufion, equivocates him in a ileep, 
and, giving him the lie, .leaves him. 

<c And all this magazine of device is furnifh'd 
" By your French taylor." 

Again, in the Defence of Coueycatching, 1592: *' Blell be the 
'French fleeves and breech ve.rdingales that grants them (thetaylors) 
leave to caney-catch fo mightily?' STEEVENS. 

When Mr. Steevens cenfured Dr. Warburton in this place, he 
forgot the uncertainty of French fa/hi ons. In the Trcafury of an- 
cient and modern Times, 1613, we have an account (from Guyon, 
I fuppofe) of the old French dreffes : '* Metis hofe anfwered in 
length to their lliort-lkirted doublets ; being made clofc io their 
limbes, wherein they had no meanes for pockets." And Withers^ 
in his fatyr againil vanity, ridicules " the fpruze, eUniiniti-ve, 
neat, Frenchman's hofe" FARMER.. 



Macd. I believe, drink gave thee the lie laft night. 

Port. That it did, fir, i'the very throat o'me : But 
I requited him for his lie ; and, I think, being too 
ftrong for him, though he took up my legs fometimc, 
yet * I made a fhift to call him. 

Macd. Is thy mafter ftirring ? 

Our knocking has avvak'd him; here he comes. 

Leit. Good-morrow, noble fir ! 

Enter Rfacbeth* 

Macb. Good-morrow, both \ 

Macd. Is the king ftirring, worthy thane ? 

Macb. Not yet. 

Macd. He did command me to call timely on him; 
I have almoft flipt the hour. 

Macb. I'll bring you to him. 

Macd. I know, this is a joyful trouble to ydu; 
But yet, 'tis one. 

Macb. The labour we delight in, phyficks pain. 
This is the door. 

Macd. I'll make fo bold to call, 
For 'tis my limited fervice 9 . [Exit Macduff. 

Len. Goes the king hence to-day ? 

Macb. He does : he did appoint fo. 

Len. The night has been unruly : Where we lay, 
Our chimneys were blown down : and, as they fay, 

8 1 made ajlnft to cajl him.'} To caft him up, to cafe my 

ftomach of him. The equivocation is between cajl or throw, as 
a term of wreftling, and caft or caft up. JOHXSOX. 

I find the fame play upon words, in an old comedy, entitled 
The Tiao angry Women of Abington, printed I 599 : 

" to-night he's a good hufwife, he reels all that he 

wrought to-day, and he were good now to play at dice, for he 
cajlt excellent well. STEEVEKS. 

9 For 'tis my limited fervid.] 
Limited, for appointed. WAR BURTON. 


5 io MACBETH. 

Lamentings heard i'the air ; T ftrange fcreams of death ; 

And prophefying^ with accents terrible^ 

Of dire combuftion, and confus'd events, 

New hatch'd to the woeful time : The obfcure bird 

Clamour'd the live-long night : ibme fay, the earth 

Was feverous, and did ihake. 

Macb. 'Twas a rough night. 

Len. My young remembrance cannot parallel 
A fellow to it. 

Re-enter Macduffi 

Macd. O horror ! horror ! horror ! * Tongue, nor 


* < grange fcreams of death ; 

And prophecying, with accents terrille 

Of dire combuftion, and confus'd events^ 

New hatch'd to the woeful time. 

The obfcure bird clamoured the live-long night. 

Some fay, the earth v:as fev'rous, and didjhake."^ 
Thefe lines I think fhould be rather regulated thus : 

< prophecying with accents terrible, 

Of dire combuftion and confus'd events. 

New-hatch' d to th' ivoful time, the obfcure bird 

Clamour'd -the live-long night* Some fay the earth 

Was feverous and didjhake. 

A prophecy of an event new hatch'd, feems to be a prophecy of a'ri 
event paji. And a prophecy new hatch'd h a wry expreffion. The 
term new hatch'd is properly applicable to a bird, and that birds 
of ill omen fhould be new-hatch' d to the vjoful time, that is, fhould 
appear in uncommon numbers, is very confiftent with the reft of 
the prodigies here mentioned, and with the univerfal diforderjnta 
which nature is defcribed as thrown, by the perpetration of this 
horrid murder. JOHNSON. 

I think Dr. Johnfon's regulation of thefe lines is improper. 
frophecying is what is ne^M-hatcfj'd, and in the metaphor holds the 
place oi the egg. The events are the fruit of fuch hatching. 


* - Tongue, r.or heart,"} 

The ufe of two negatives, not to make an affirmative, but to 
deny more flrongly, is very common in our author. So, Jul. C<ef. 
a III. fc, i : 


Cannot conceive, nor name thee ! 

Macb. andLen. What's the matter ? 

Macd. Confufion now hath made his mafler-piccc I 
Moft facrilegious murder hath broke ope 
The Lord's anointed temple, and ftole thence 
The life o'the building. 

Macb. What is't you fay ? the life ? 

Len. Mean you his majefty ? 

Alacd. Approach the chamber, and deftroy your 


With a new Gorgon : Do not bid me fpeak ; 
See, and then fpeak yourfclvcs. Awake ! awake! 
[Exeunt Macbeth and Lenox. 
Ring the alarum-bell : Murder ! and treafon ! 
Banquo, and Donalbain ! Malcolm ! awake ! 
Shake off this downy fleep, death's counterfeit, 
And look on death itfelf ! up, up, and fee 
The great doom's image ! Malcolm ! Banquo ! 
As from your graves rife up, and walk like fprights, 
To countenance } this horror ! Ring the bell. 

Bell rings. Enter Lady A&cbetb. 

Lady* What's the bufinefs, 
That fuch a hideous trumpet calls to parley 
The ileepers of the houfc ? fpeak, fpeak, 

Macd. O, gentle lady, 
*Tis not for you to hear what I can fpeak : 
The repetition in a woman's ear, 
Would murder as it fell. O Banquo ! Banquo ! 

" there is no harm 

" Intended to your perfon, nor to no Roman elfe." 


3 this horror!] 

Here the old edition adds, ring the lell, which Theobald rejected, 
as a dire&ion to the players. He has beoi followed by Dr. War- 
burton and J>r. Johnlbn. Shakefpeare might think a repetition of 
the command to ring the bell neccflTary, and I know not how an 
editor is authorized to reject that which apparently make* a part of 
fcii author's text. S.T&EVNS. 



Enter Banquo. 

Our royal matter's murder'd ! 

Lady. Woe, alas! 
4 What, in our houfe ? 

Ban. Too cruel, any where.- 

$ Dear Duff, I pr'ythee, contradidr, thyfelf, 
And fay, it is not fo. 

Re-enter Macbeth, and Lenox. 

Mad. Had I but dy'd an hour before this chance, 
I had liv'd a blefled time ; for, from this inflant, 
There's nothing ferious in mortality : 
All is but toys : renown, and grace, is dead ; 
The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees 
Is left this vault to brag of. 

"Enter Malcolm^ and Donalbain, 

Don. What is amifs ? 

Macb. You are, and do not know it : 
The fpring, the head, the fountain of your blood 
Is ftopt ; the very fource of it is ftopt. 

Macd. Your royal father's murder'd. 

4 What, in our boufe ?} 

This is very fine. Had fliebeen innocent,, nothing but the mur- 
der itfelf, and not any of its aggravating circumftances, would 
naturally have atfefted her. As it was, her bufinefs was to ap- 
pear highly difordered at the news. Therefore, like one who has 
her thoughts about her, (he feeks for an aggravating circumftance, 
that might be fuppofed moft to affedt her personally ; not confi- 
dering, that by placing it there, fhe discovered rather a concern 
for herfelf than for the king. On the contrary, her hufband, who 
had repented the act, and was now labouring under the horrors of 
a recent murder, in his exclamation, gives all the marks of forrow 
for the fact itfelf. WAR BUR TON. 

5 DearDu/]] In the folio, for MacJuffls readD.^r Duff. 


If the original copy reads Dear Duffy on what authority can 
it be chang'd into Macduff? We are not writing out the parts for 
players. S TEE YENS. 


M A C B E T H. 513 

Mai. Oh, by whom ? 

Leu. Thofe of his chamber, as it feem'd, had don't: 
Their hands and faces were all^badg'd with blood 6 , 
So were their daggers, which, unwip'd, we found 
Upon their pillo\vs ; they ftar'd, and were diftra&edj 
No man's life was to be trufled with them. 

Macb. O, yet I do repent me of my fury, 
That I did kill them. 

Macd. Wherefore did you fo ? 

Macb. Who can be wife, amaz'd, temperate, and 


Loyal and neutral in a moment ? No man : 
The expedition of my violent love 
Out-ran the paufer reafon. 7 Here lay Duncan, 

6 - badg'd iw///> Hood,] 
So, in the fecond part of K. Hen. VI : 

" With murder's crimfon badge." MALONE. 
7 - Here lay Duncan, 

His Jilvcr Jkin lac\livith bis golden blood; 

And his gaJVdJlabs loolid like a breach in nature^ 

For ruin's -voajleful entrance: - ] 

Mr. Pope has endeavoured to improve one of thefc lines by fub- 
lHtuting0arj> blood for golden vlivj; but it may ealily be admit- 
ted that he who could on i'uch an occaiion talk of lacing thejiher 
Jkin, would lace it with golden blood. No amendment can be made 
to this line, of which every word is equally faulty, but by a gene- 
ral blot. 

It is not improbable, that Slukcfpeare put thefe forced and un- 
natural metaphors into the mouth of Macbeth as a mark of arti- 
fice and diilimulation, to fliew the difference between the ihidied 
language of hypocrify, and the natural outcries of fudden puilion. 
This whole Ipecch Ib confidcred, is a remarkable inftancc of judg- 
ment, as it contifts entirely of antithefis and metaphor. Jo: 

To gild any thing -vjith blood is a very common phraie in the old 
plays. So, Heywood, in the fecond part of his Iran A^c, 1632: 

we have gilt our Grcekifli arms 
" With blood si our own nation." 
Shakefpe-.tre repeats the imajrr in K. John : 

*' Their armours that marchM hence fo /.'. 
** Hither return all tilt with Frenchmen'; 

VOL. IV. L 1 His 


* His filver ikin lac'd with his golden blood , 

And his gafh'd ftabs look'd like a breach in nature, 
For ruin's wafteful entrance : there, the murderers, 
Steep'd in the colours of their trade, their daggers 

* Unmannerly breech'd with gore : Who could re- 



8 His ftLvtrJfriit laced with bis golden blood ;} 

The allufion is fo ridiculous on fuch an occafion, that it difcovers 
the declaimer not to be affefted rn the manner he would reprefent 
himfelf. The whole fpeech is an unnatural mixture of far-fetch'd 
and common iplace thoughts, that fhevvs him to be acting a part. 


9 Unmannerly breech 1 d with gore : ] 

An unmannerly dagger, and a dagger breech* d, or as in fome edi- 
tions breached with gore, are expreflions not eafily to be under- 
ftood. There are undoubtedly two faults in this paflage, which I 
have endeavoured to take away by reading ; 
- -- daggers 
Unmanly drench'd vaitbgort : 

Ifaw drench'd with the king's blood the fatal daggers, not only 
ii'Jlruments of murder but evidences of cowardice. 

Each of thefe words might eafily be confounded with that which 
I have fubftituted for it, by a hand not exact, a cafual blot, or a 
negligent infpe&ion. JOHNSON. 

Unmannerly breech'd with gore : - ] 

This nonfenfical account of the fiate in which the daggers were 
found, muft furely be read thus : 

Unmanly reech'd with gtre:] 

Reech'd, foiled with a dark yellow, which is the colour of any 
reechy fubftance, and mull be Ib of fteel itain'd with blood. He 
ufes the word very often, as reechy hangings, reechy neck, &c. So, 
that the fenfe is, that they were unmanly ftain'd with blood, and 
that circumftance added, becauie often fuch ftains are moil ho- 
nourable. WAREURTOX. 

Dr. Warburton has, perhaps, rightly put reeclj'd for breecb'J. 


I apprehend it to be the duty of an editor to reprefent his author 
fuch as he is, and explain the meaning of the words he finds, to 
the bell advantage, inftead of attempting to make them better by 
any violent alteration. 

The espreliion may mean, that the daggers were covered with 
blood, quite to their breeches, i. e. their hilts or handles. The 
lower eud of a cannon is called the breech of it ; and it is known 


MACBETH. 5 i 5 

That had a heart to love, and in that heart 
Courage, to make his love known ? 


that both to breech and to unbreecb a gun are common terms. So, 
in B. and Fletcher's Cujlom of the Country : 

" The main fpring's weaken'd that holds up his cock, 

*' He lies to be new breech* d" 

" Unbreecb his barrel, and difcharge his bullets.'* 

A Cure for a Cuckold, by Webfter and Rowley. 


Whether the word which follows be reech\l, breech* d, batch '</, 
or drenched, I am at leaft of opinion that unmannerly is the genuine 
reading. Macbeth is defcribing a fcene fhocking to humanity : 
and, in the midit of his narrative, throws in a parenthetical re- 
flection, confuting of one word not connected with the fentence, 
*' (O moft unfcemly fight !)" For this is a meaning of the word un- 
mannerly : and the want of considering it in this detached ienfe has 
introduced much confufion into the pafiage. The Latins often 
ufed nefas and infanJum in this manner. Or, in the lame ienfe, 
the word may be here applied adverbially. The correction of the 
author of the Revifal is equally frigid and unmeaning. " Their 
daggers in a manner lay drench'd with gore." The manifcft: arti- 
fice and diffimulation of the fpeech feems to be heightened by the 
explanation which I have offered. WARTON. 

This paflage, fays Mr. Heath, feems to have been the crux cri- 
ticorum ! Every one has tried his ikiil at it, and I may venture 
to fay, no one has fucceeded. 

The feule is, in plain language, Daggers filthily in a foul 
manner -Jheath d vjith blood. Afcabbard is called a piLht, a lea- 
ther coat, in Romeo but you will aflc, whence the alluiion to 
breeches ? Dr. Warburton and Dr. Johnfon have well obierved, 
that this fpeech of Macbeth is very artfully made up of unnatural 
thoughts and language: in 1605 (the year in which the play ap- 
pears to have been written) a book was published by Peter Eron- 
deil, (with commendatory poems by Daniel, and other wits of the 
time) called The French Garden, or a Summer Dayes Labour, con- 
taining, among other matters, fome dialogues of a dramatick cafr, 
which, I am perfuaded, our author had read in the Englifli; and 
from which he took, as he fuppofed, for his prefent purpoie, this 
quaint expreffion. I will quote literatim from the tth dialogue : 
" Boy ! you do nothing but play tricks there, go fetch your n Kil- 
ter's ulver hatched daggers, you Ivive not bruflied their breeches, 
bring the bruflies, and Wufli them before me." Shakefpearc was 
deceived by the pointing, and evidently fuppofiu breeches to be a 
new and afteded term for fcab !>ard>. But had he bean able to have 
read the French on the other page, even as; a karncr t he mult have 
L 1 2 been 


Lady. Help me hence, ho ! 

Macd. Look to the lady. 

Mai. Why do we hold our tongues, 
That mod may claim this argument for ours ? 

Don. What ihoukl be fpoken here, 
Where our fate, hid within an augrc-holc, 
May rufh, and feize us ? Let's away, our tears 
Are not yet brcw'd. 

Mai. Nor our ftrong forrow 
Upon the foot of motion. 

Ban. Look to the lady : 
And when we have our naked frailties hid, 
That fuffer in cxpofure ', let us meet, 
And queftion this moft bloody piece of work, 
To know it further. Fears and fcruples fliake us : 
* In the great hand of God I Hand ; and, thence, 


been fet right at once. <; Garqon, vous ne faites que badiner, 
allez querir les poignards argentez de vos maillres, vous n'avez 
pas efpouffete leur baxt-cie-cbaujjes" their breeches, in the com- 
mon fenfe of the word : as in the next fentence l>as-de-cbaujjes t 
jiockings, and fo on through all the articles of drefs. FARMER, 

1 And v:hen we have our naked frailties bid, 
That fuffer in expofure, --- ] 

5. e. ivbeu v:e have clothed oar half Adrift bodies, ivbicb may take 
'void from being expofed to the air. It is po-ffible that in fuch a cloud 
of words, the meaning might efcape the reader. STEEVENS. 

2 In the great band nf God I Jland j and, thence y 
Agabijl the undivulgd pretence 1 fight 

Of treajomnts malice ^\ 

Pretence, for ac'r. The ienfe of the whole is t My innocence 
places me under the protection of God, and under that fhadow, 
or, from thence, I declare myfelf an enemy to this, as yet hid- 
den, deed of milch ief. This was ;i very natural fpeech for him 
who muft needs fufpeft the true author. WARBURTON. 

Pretence is not a6t, \)^Jimulation, 3. pretence of the traitor, who- 
ever he might be, to fuipect fome other of the murder. I here 
fly to the protestor of innocence from any charge which^ yet nn~ 
tiiintlg'd, the traitor may pretend to fix 

upon me. JoH\so>f. 

Pretence is intention, deiign, a fenfe in which the word is often 
wfed by Shakefpeare. So, in the Winter's Tale: " - confpir- 
ing with Camilio to take away the life of our fovereign lord the 



Againft the undivulg'd pretence I fight 
Of treafonous malice. 

Macb. And fo do I. 

All So all. 

Macb. Let's briefly put on manly readinefs, 
And meet i'the hall together. 

All. Well contented. [Exeunt. 

Mai What will you do ? Let's not confort with 

them : 

To fliew an unfelt for row, is an office 
Which the falfe man does eafy : I'll to England. 

Don. 1 o Ireland, I ; our leparated fortune 
Shall keep us both the fafer : where we are, 
There's daggers in men's fmiles ; the near in blood, 
The nearer bloody 3 . 

Mil. 4 This murderous ihaft that's ihot, 


king, thy royal hufoand, the pretence whereof being by circum- 
ilance partly laid open." Again, in this tragedy ot Macbeth: 

" \Vhat good could they pretend ?" 

i. e. intend to themfelves. Banquo's meaning is, in our pre- 
fent ftate of doubt and uncertainty about this murder, I have no- 
thing to do but to put myfelf under the direction of God ; and re- 
lying on his fupport, I here declare myfelf an eternal enemy to 
this treafon, ana to all its further deJJgm that have not y_et come to 
light. STEEVENS. 

3 -- the near 

The nearer lloody.] 

Meaning, that he fufpected Macbeth to be the murderer j for he 
was the ncarejl in Hood to the two princes, being the coufin-ger- 
rnan of Duncan. STEEVENS. 

+ Tl is murderous foaft thafsfiot) 

Hath not yet light td \ - ] 

The deiign to fix the murder upon fome innocent perfon, has not 
yet taken etfcxft. JOHNSON. 

This murderous Jhaft that's JboJ t 

Hath not yet lighted ; - ] 

Thefiaft is not yet lightiJ, and though it has done mifihief in iff 
flight, i vc have reafon to apprehend Jlill more before it has f/>tnt iti 
force and falls to the ground The end for which the murder wa* 
committed, is not yet attained. The death of the king only, 
could neither infurc the crown to Macbeth, nor accomphfli any 
other purpoie, while his fons were yet living, who had therefore 
L 1 3 juil 

5 i8 MACBETH. 

Hath not yet lighted ; and our fafeft way 
Is, to avoid the aim. Therefore, to horfe ; 
And let us not be dainty of leave-taking, 
But ihift away : There's warrant in that theft 
Which ileals itfelf, when there's no mercy left. 



Enter RoJJe, with an Old Mem. 

Old M. Threefcore and ten I can remember well : 
Within the volume of which time, I have feen 
Hours dreadful, and things ftrange ; but this fore 

Hath trifled former knowings. 

Roffe. Ah, good father, 

Thou feed, the heavens, as troubled with man's a<ft, 
Threaten his bloody ftage : by the clock, 'tis day, 
And yet dark night flrangles the travelling lamp : 
Is it night's predominance, or the day's fhame, 
That darknefs does the face of earth intomb, 
When living light fhould kifs it ? 

Old M. 'Tis unnatural, 

Even like the deed that's done. On tnefday lad, 
A faulcon, towring 5 in her pride of place, 
Was by a moufing owl hawk'd at, and kill 'd, 

JRoffe. And Duncan's horfes, (a thing moft flrange, 
and certain) 

juft reafon to apprehend they Ihould be removed by the fame 

Such another thought occurs in Bujfy D'Amlois, 1606 ; 
" The chain-fliot of thy luft is yet aloft, 
*' And it mull murder, &c." STEEVENS. 

5 in her pride of place, J 

Finely expre fled, for confidence in its quality. WARBURTOK. 

This is found among the prodigies confequent on king Duffe's 
murder : " There was a ffarba-ivk ftrangled by an owl."* 




Beauteous, and fwift, 6 the minions of their race, 
Turn'd wild in aature, broke their flails, flung out, 
Contending 'gainft obedience, as they would 
Make war with mankind. 

Old M. 'Tis faid, they eat each other. 

JRoffe. They did fo; to the amazement of mine 


That look'd upon't. Here comes the eood Mac- 
duff: -- 

Rnter Macdvff* 

How goes the world, fir, now ? 
Macd. Why, fee you not ? 
Roffe. Is't known, who did this more than bloody 

Macd. Thofe that Macbeth hath flain. 

Rofe. Alas, the day ! 
7 What good could they pretend ? 

Macd. They were fuborn'd : 
Malcolm, and Donalbain, the king's two fons, 
Are flol'n away and fled ; which puts upon them 
Suspicion of tie deed. 

Rofe. 'Gainft nature ftill : 
Thriftlefs ambition, that wilt ravin up 
Thine own life's means ! Then 'tis moft like 8 , 


c - minions of their race,"] 
Theobald reads : 

-- minions of the race, 
very probably, and very poetically. JOHNSON. 

Moft of the prodigies jurt before mentioned, are related by Ho- 
linflied, as accompanying king Dufte's death ; and it is in par- 
ticular aflerred, that horfrs of Jingular beauty and fwiftncfe did cat 
their ownjlejb. Macbeth's killing Duncan's chamberlains is ta- 
ken from Donwald's killing thofe of king Duffe. STEEVENS. 

7 What good could they pretend r] 

To pretend re here to propnfe to tbemfelvcs^ to/'/ lefore themf elves M 
a motive of ac~tion. JOHNSON. 
8 Then '/M mnft 'like, 

The fovereignty it 1 /// fall upon Macleth."} ' 

Macbeth by his binli ftood next in the fuccellkm to the crown, im- 
L 1 4 mediately 


The fovereignty will fall upon Macbeth. 

Macd. He is already nam'd ; and gone to Scone, 
To be inverted. 

Roffe. Where is Duncan's body ? 

Macd, Carried to Colmes-kill 9 ; 
The iacred ftorehoufe of his predeceflbrs, 
And guardian of their bones. 

Roffe. Will you to Scone ? 

Macd, No, coufin, I'll to Fife. 

Roffe. Well, I will thither. 

Macd, Well, may you fee things well done there j 

adieu ! 

Left our old robes fit eafier than our new ! 

Roffe. Farewel, father. 

Old M. God's benifon go with you; and with thofe 
That would make good of bad, and friends of foes ! 



Enter Banqjw. 

Thou haft it now, King, Cawdor, Glamis, all, 
As the weird women promis'd ; and, I fear, 
Thou playd'ft moft foully for't : yet it was faid, 
It ftiould not ftand in thy pofterity ; 

mediately after the fons of Duncan. King Malcolm, Duncan's 
predeceflbr, had two daughters, the eldeft of whom was the mo- 
ther of Duncan, the youngeft, the mother of Macbeth. HolinJkeJ. 


9 Colmes-kill ;] Colmes-hill, or Colm-kill, is the famous 

Java, one of the weltern illes, \vhichDr.Johnfonvifited, andde- 
fcribes in his Tour. Holinflied fcarcely mentions the death of any 
of the ancient kings of Scotland, without taking notice of their 
being buried with their predeceflbrs in Coliye+kitt. STEEVENS. 



But that myfelf fhould be the root, and father 
Of many kings : If there come truth from them, 
(' As upon thee, Macbeth, their fpeeches fhine) 
Why, by the verities on thee made good, 
May they not be my oracles as well, 
And fet me up in hope ? But, hufh ; no more. 

Senet founded. Enter Macbeth as King ; Lady Macbeth, 
Lenox, Rojfe, Lords, and Attendants. 

Macb. Here's our chief gueft. 

Lady. If he had been forgotten, 
It had been as a gap in our great feaft, 
And all things unbecoming, 

Macb. To-night we hold a folemn fupper, fir, 
And I'll requeft your prefence. 

Ban. a Lay your highncfs' 
Command upon me ; to the which, my duties 
Are with a moft indifibluble tyc 
For ever knit. 

Macb. Ride you this afternoon ? 

Ban. Ay, my good lord. 

Macb. We Ihould have elfe defir'd your good 


(Which (HI 1 hath been both grave and profperous) 
In this day's council ; but we'll take to-morrow. 
I s't far you ride ? 

Ban. As far, my lord, as will fill up the time 
'Twixt this and fupper : go not my horfe the better', 

I mult 

1 (As upon thee, Macbeth, their fpeechcs 
Shine i for profper. WARBURTON. 

Shine, for appear with all the Iqftre of confpicuous truth. 


I rather incline to Dr. Warburton's interpretation. So. in K. 
//<*. VI. F.I. fc. ii: 

** Heaven, and our lady gracious, hath it pleafed 
" To Jhine on my contemptible eftate." STEEVENS. 
* Layyour ] The folio reads, Let your STEEVENS. 
3 Go not my borfe the better,] i. e. if he does not go well, 



I muft become a borrower of the night, 
For a dark hour, or twain. 

Macb. Fail not our feafL 

Ban. My lord, I will not. 

Macb. We hear, our bloody coufins are beftow'd 
In England, and in Ireland ; not confeffing 
Their cruel parricide, filling their hearers 
With ftrange invention : But of that to-morrow ; 
When, therewithal, we fhall have caufe of ft ate, 
Craving us jointly. Hie you to horfe : Adieu, 
Till you return at night. Goes Fleance with you ? 

Ban. Ay, my good lord ; our time does call up- 
on us. 

Macb. I wilh your horfes fwift, and fure of foot ; 
And fo I do commend you to their backs. 

Farewel. [Exit Banqy.o. 

Let every man be matter of his time 
'Till feven at night ; to make fociety 
The fweeter welcome, we will keep ourfelf 
'Till fupper-time alone : while then, God be with you. 
[Exeunt Lady Macbeth, and Lords- 
Sirrah, a word with you : Attend thofe men our 
pleafure ? 

Ser. They are, my lord, without the palace gate. 

Macb. Bring them before us, To be thus, is no- 
thing ; [Exit Servant. 
But to be fafely thus : Our fears in Banquo 
Stick deep ; and in his royalty of nature 

Shakefpeare often ufes the comparative for the pofitive zndfuperla- 
tii>e. So, in K. Lear : 

" her fmiles and tears 

" Were like a better day." 
Again, in Macbeth : 

" - it hath cow'd my letter part of man." 

Again, in P. Holland's tranllation of Pliny's Nat. Hift, b. ix. c. 46 . 

*' Many are caught out of their feilowes hands, if they be- 

flirrenot themfelves the letter." It may mean, If my horfe does 
pot go the better for the hafte I fliall be in to avoid the night. 




Reigns that, which would be fear'd : 'Tis much he 

dares ; 

And, to that dauntlefs temper of his mind, 
He hath a wifdom that doth guide his valour 
To ad: in fafcty. There is none, but he, 
Whofe being I do fear : and, under him, 
My genius is rebuk'd; 4 as, it is faid, 
Mark Antony's was by Casfar. He chid the fitters, 
When firft they put the name of King upon me, 
And bade them Ipeak to him ; then, prophet-like, 
They hail'd him father to a line of kings : 
Upon my head they plac'd a fruitlefs crown, 
And put a barren fcepter in my gripe, 
Thence to be wrench'd with an unlincal hand, 

* as, it is fat 'd, 

Mark Antony's was by Cafar. - ] 

Though I would not often aflume the critic's privilege of being 
confident where certainty cannot be obtained, nor indulge myfelf 
too far in departing from the eilablifhed reading ; yet I cannot but 
propofe the rejection of this paflage, which I believe was aninfer- 
tion of fome player, that having ib much learning as to difcover 
to what Shakefptare alluded, was not willing that his audience 
fhould be leTb knowing than himfelf, and has therefore weakened 
the authour's fenfe, by the intruiion of a remote and ufelefs image 
into a fpeech burftin^ from a man wholly poflefs'd with his own 
prefent condition, and therefore not at leifure to explain his own 
allunons to himfelf. If thefe words are taken away, by which 
not only the thought bur the numbers are injured, the lines of 
Shakefpeare clofe together without any traces of a breach, 

My genius is rebuk'd. He chid thejiflers, 

This note was written before I was rully acquainted with Shake- 
fpeare's manner, and I do not now think it of much weight; for 
though the words, which I was once willing to eject, feem inter- 
polated, I believe they may ftill be genuine, and added by theau- 
thour in his revifion. The authour of the Rcvifal cannot admit 
the meafure to be faulty. There is only one foot, he fays, put 
for another. This is one of the effects of literature in minds not 
naturally perlpicacious. Every boy or girl finds the metre imper- 
fect, but the pedant comes to its detente \\'ih a tribrachys or an 
anapaeft, and fets it right at once by applying to one language the 
rules of another. If we may be allowed to change feet, like the 
/old comic writers, it will not be eafy to write a line not metrical. 
To hint this once, is fufficicnt, JOHNSON. 



No fon of mine fucceeding. If it be fo, 
5 For Banquo's iffue have I fil'd my mind ; 
For them the gracious Duncan have I murder'd ; 
Put rancours in the veffel of my peace 
Only for them ; and mine eternal jewel 
Given to 6 the common enemy of man, 
To make them kings, the feed of Banquo kings ! 
Rather than fo, 7 come, fate, into the lift, 
And champion me to the utterance! Who's there? 


s For Banquo's ifjue have I fil'd my mind -A 
We fhould read : 

'filed my mind', 

\. e. defiled. WARBURTOX. 

This mark of contraction is not necefTary. To fdc is in the 
bifhop's Bilk. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Reve tiger's Tragedy, 1608 : 

" He called his father villain, and me (trumpet, 

" A name I do abhor tojile my lips with." 

Again, in the Miferies of Inforc'd Marriage, 1607: *' like 
fmoke through a chimney that fles all the way it goes." Again, 
in Spenfer's Faery ueea t b. iii. c. j : 

" She lightly lept out of her filed bed." STEEVENS. 

6 the common enemy of man,~\ 

It is always an entertainment to an inquiiitive reader, to trace a 
fentiment to its original fource ; and therefore, though the term 
enemy of man , applied to the devil, is in itfelf natural and obvious , 
yet fome may be pleafed with being informed, that Shakefpeare 
probably borrowed it from the firlt lines of the Dejlruftion of Troy, 
a book which he is known to have read. This expreffion, how- 
ever, he might have had in many other places. The word fond 
Signifies enemy. JOHNSON. 

7 come, fate, into the lift, 

And champion me to the utterance ! ] 

This paflage will be beft explained by tranflating it into the Ian* 
guagefrom whence the only word of difficulty in it is borrowed. 
S^ue la deflineefe rende en lice, et qi? die me donne un dcfiz. 1'outrance, 
A challenge or a combat a Fcutrancc, to extremity, was a fix'd term 
in the law of arms, ufed when the combatants engaged with an 
odium Intcrnecinum, an intention to dcjlroy each other, in oppofition 
to trials of Ikill at feftivals, or on other occalions, where the con- 
teft was only for reputation or a pri?e. The fenfe therefore is : 
Let fate, that has fvre-doomd t':c i'.\'alt<i;:nn of i^c fo:is of Bane, uo, 
foe Jrfls agaiitft tnt t , in defence of i^ 



Re-enter Servant, with two Murder t -rs. 
Now go to the door, and flay there till we call. 

[Exit Servant. 

Was it not yefterday we fpoke together ? 
Mur. It was, fo pleafc your highncfs. 
Macb. Well then, now 
Have you confider'd of my fpeeches ? Know, 
That it was he, in the times paft, which held you 
So under fortune ; which, you thought, had been 
Our innocent felf : this I made good to you 
In our laft conference, paft in probation with you ; 
8 How you were borne in hand ; how croft ; the in- 
ftruments ; 


o-ivn decrees, which I will endeavour to invalidate, whatever be the 
danger. JOHNSON. 

Rather than fo, come, fate, into the lift, 

And champion me to the utterance ! ] 

This is exprefled with great noblenefs and fuHimity. The me- 
taphor is taken from the ancient combat en champ clos; in which 
there was a marshal, who prefided over, and directed all the punc- 
tilios ot the ceremonial. Fate is called upon to difcharge this of- 
fice, and champion him to the utterance ; that is, to fight it out to tht 
extremity, which they called combatre a oultrance. But he ufes the 
Scotch word utterance from oultrar.ce, extremity. WAR BUR TON. 
After the former explication, Dr. Warburton was defirous to 
feem to do fomcthing ; and he has therefore made fate the marjhal, 
whom I had made the champion, aud has left Macbeth to enter the 
Hits without an opponent. JOHNSON. 

We meet with the fame expreffion in Gawin Douglas's tranfla- 
tion of A7rf //, p. 33 1 , 349 : 

*' That war not put by Gre;ki8 to utterance. 

Again, in the Hijiory of Ground Amour e and la bel Pucelle, &c. by 
Stephen Hawes, 1555 ; 

" That fo many monfters put to utterauncc? 
Shakefpeare ufes it again in Cymbeiine, ad III. fc. i. STEEVE&S. 

8 How you were borne in hand ; -] 

i. e. made to believe what was not true, what would never happen 
or be made good to you. In this fcule Chaucer nils it, IV if i of 
Bath'sProl. p. 78. 1.2. 32 : 

" A wife wife (hall, &V. 

" i'i-in them in hondi that the cowe is wode." 


Who wrought with them ; and all things elfe, that 


To half a foul, and to a notion craz'd, 
Say, Thus did Banquo. 

i Mur. You made it known to us. 

Macb. I did fo ; and went further, which is now 
Our point of fecond meeting. Do you find 
Your patience fo predominant in your nature, 
That you can let this go ? 9 Are you fo gofpell'd, 
To pray for this good man, and for his iffue, 
VVhofe heavy hand hath bow'd you to the grave, 
And beggar'd yours for ever ? 

i Mur. We are men, my liege. 

Macb. Ay, in the catalogue you go for men ; 
As hounds, and greyhounds, mungrels, fpaniels, curs, 
1 Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are cleped 
All by the name of dogs : the valued file 2 


and our author in many places, Meafure for Meafure, al I. 
fc. viii. WARNER. 

So, in Ram-alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611 : 

' Yet I will bear fome dozen more in hand, 
' And make them all my galls." STEEVENS. 

Ire you. fo gofpclF d,~\ 
Tee of precife virtue ? 

Are you of that degree of" precife virtue ? Gofpeller was a name of 
contempt given by the Papiits to the Lollards, the puritans of early 
times, and the precurfors of protejlantifm. JOHNSON. 
So, in the Morality called Lufy Juventus, 1561 : 
" What, is Juventus become fo tame 
" To be a newe gofpeller /"' 
Again : 

" And yet ye are a great gofpeller in the mouth." 
I believe, however, that gofpelled means no more than kept in obe- 
dience to that precept of the gofpel, " to pray for tbofe that defpite- 
fully vfe us." STEEVENS. 

1 Sbougbs, ] Sbougbs are probably what we now call./taofc, 

demi-wolves, lycifca j dogs bred between wolves and dogs. 

This fpecies of dogs is mentioned in Nafli's Lenten Stufe, &c. 

1599: " a trundle-tail, tike, or Jlough or two." 


* the valued file] In this fpeech the wordfle occurs twice, 
and feems in both places to have a meaning different from its pre- 



Diftinguifhes the fvvift, the flow, the fubtle, 
The houfe-keeper, the hunter, every one 
According to the gift which bounteous nature 
Hath in him clos'd ; whereby he does receive 
Particular addition, from the bill 
That writes them all alike : and fo of men. 
Now, if you have a flation in the file, 
Not in the woril rank of manhood, fay it ; 
And I will put that bufinefs in your bofoms, 
Whofe execution takes your enemy off; 
Grapples you to the heart and love of us, 
Who wear our health but fickly in his life, 
Which in his death were perfect. 

2 Mur. I am one, my liege, 
Whom the vile blows and buffets of the world 

fent ufe. The expreffion, valued file, evidently means, a lift or 
catalogue of value. A ftation in the file, and not in the worft 
rank, may mean, a place in the lift of manhood, and not in the 
loweft place. f>\\tfile teems rather to mean in this place, a poft 
of honour; the firft rank, in oppofition to the laft ; a meaning 
which I have not obferved in any other place. JOHNSON. 

the valued file] Is theji/e or lift where the value and peculiar 

qualities of every thing is fet down, in contradiftinclion to what he 
immediately mentions, tie bill that writes them all alike. File, in 
the fecond inftance, is ufed in the fame fenle as in this, and with 

a reference to it. Now if you belong to any clafs that Jeferves a, 

place in the valued file of man, and are not of the lowejl rank, the 
common herd of mankind, that are not worth dlftlnguljb ing from each 

Fik and lift are fynonymous, as in fhe laft aft of this play : 

" 1 have zfile 

" Of all the gentry." 
Again, in Heywood's dedication to the fecond part of his Iron Agf, 

1632 : " to nurrber you in the file and lift of my beft and 

choiceil well-wia.ers." This expreflion occurs more than once in 
the JJeggar's Bujb of B. and Fletcher : 

" all ways worthy, 

" As elfe in znyji/e of mankind." 

Shakefpeare likewife has it in M ' r r->fcn .- " Tb,> greater 

file of the fubjeft held the duke to be \vife " In fiiort, the valued 
jileis the catalogue with prices annexed to it."' STEEV&NS. 



Have fo incens'd, that I am recklefs what 
I do, to fpite the world. 

i Mur. And I another, 

3 So weary with difaftcrs, tugg'd with fortune^ 
That I would fet my life on any chance, 
To mend it, or be rid on't. 

Macb. Both of you 
Know, Banquo was your enemy. 

Mur. True, my lord. 

Macb, So is he mine : and 4 in fuch bloody diftance. 
That every minute of his being thrufts 
Againft my near'ft of life : And though I could 
With bare-fac'd power fweep him from my fight. 
And bid my will avouch it ; yet I muft not, 
For certain friends that are both his and mine, 
Whofe loves I may not drop, but wail his fall 
Whom I myfelf ftruck down : and thence it is, 
That I to your afiiftance do make love ; 

3 So weary with difafters, tugg'd with fortune,"] 
We fee the fpeaker means to fay, that he is weary with ftruggling 
with adverfe fortune. But this reading exprefles but half the 
idea ; viz. of a man tug'd and haled by fortune without making 
refiftance. To give the compleat thought, welhould read ; 

So weary with difaftrous tugs with fortune. 

This is well exprefled, and gives the reafon of his being weary, 
becaufe fortune always hitherto got the better. And that Shake- 
fpeare knew how to exprefs this thought, we have an inftance in the 
Water's Tale : 

" Let m\-f elf and fortune tug for the time to come." 
Befides, to It tug dwtib fortune > is Icarce Englifh. WARBURTON* 
Tugd with fortune may be, tug'd or worried by fortune. 


* infnch lloody diftance,] 

Diftance, for enmity. WAR BURTON. 

By lloody dljianceik here meant, fuch a diftance as mortal ene- 
mies would ftand at from each other whe'n their quarrel muir. be 
determined by the fword. This fcnfe feems evident from the 
continuation ot the metaphor, where every minute of his being is 
rep relented as thru/ling at the near ejl part where life rejtdes. 




Ma/king the bufinefs from the common eye, 
For fundry weighty reafons. 

Mur. We (hall, my lord, 
Perform what you command us. 

i Mur. Though our lives 

Macb. Your fpirits fhine through you. Within 

this hour, at moft, 

I will advife you where to plant yourfelves ; 
5 Acquaint you with the perfed: fpy o'the time, 
The moment on't ; for't mutt be done to-night, 
And fomething from the palace ; always thought 6 , 
That I require a clearnefs : And with him, 
(To leave no rubs, nor botches, in the work) 

s Acquaint you wit/j the perfeRffy o* the time ^\ 
What is meant by the fpy of the time, it will be found difficult to 
explain ; and therefore fenfe will be cheaply gained by a flight al- 
teration. Macbeth is alluring the aflaffins that they fliall not 

want directions to find Banquo, and therefore fays : 

Acquaint you ivitb a perfect fpy o'the time.. 

Accordingly a third murderer joins them afterwards at the place 
of action. 

Perfect is well inftrttfted, or well informed, as in this play : 

" Though in your ftate of honour I amperfefl." 
though I am well acquainted with your quality and rank. 


the perfetffpy if tie time,] 

i.e. the critical juncture. WARBURTON. 

How the critical juncture is thej#y o'the time, I know not, but I 
think my own conjecture right. JOHNSON. 

The perfeft fpy of the time feems to be, the exaft time, whlcbJhaU 
lefpied and watched for the purpofe. S r E E v E N s. 
I rather believe we mould read thus : 

Acquaint you with the perfect fpot, the time. 
Tie moment on>t ; TYRWHITT. 

* ' always thought, 

That I require a clfarnefs : ] 

i. e. you muft manage matters fo, that throughout the whole 
tranfac"Hon I may ftand clear of fufpicion. So, Holinflicd : 
" appointing them to meet Banquho and his fonne without 
the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to ileu 
them, fo that he would not have his houfe flandered, but that in 
time to come he might chart himfelf." STEEVENS. 

VOL. IV. M m Fleance 

$ 5 o MACBETH. 

Fleance his fon, that keeps him company, 
Whofe abfence is no lefs material to me 
Than is his father's, muft embrace the fate 
Of that dark hour : Refolve yourfelves apart ; 
I'll come to you anon. 

Mur. We are relblv'd, my lord. 

Macb. I'll call upon you ftraight ; abide within. 
It is concluded :- Banquo, thy foul's flight, 
If it find heaven, muft find it out to-night. [Exeunt. 


Enter Lady Macbeth, and a Servant. 

Lady. Is Banquo gone from court ? 

Serv. Aj, madam ; but returns again to-night. 

Lady. Say to the king, I would attend his leifurc 
For a few words. 

Serv. Madam, I will. . [Exit, 

Lady. Nought's had, all's fpent, 
Where our defire is got without content : 
'Tis fafer to be that which we deftroy, 
Than, by deftruftion, dwell in doubtful joy. 

Enter Macbeth. 

How now, my lord ? why do you keep alone, 
Of forrieft fancies 7 your companions making ? 
Ufing thofe thoughts, which fhould indeed have dy'd 
With them they think on? Things without all remedy 
Should be without regard : what's done, is done. 
Macb. We have 8 icotch'd the fnake, not kill'd it, 


7 fome& fancies ] i.e. worthlefs, ignoble, vile. So, 

in Otbello: 

" I have a fait VR& firry rheum oftends me." 
Sorry, however, might fignify melancholy, difmal. So, in the Co- 
>nedy of Errors: 

" The place of death and ferry execution." STEF.VENS. 
* -fcotfb'it ] Mr. Theobald. Fol. /wv?V, JOHNSON-. 



She'll clofe, and be herfelf ; whilft our poor malice 

Remains in danger of her former tooth. 

9 But let the frame of things disjoint, both the worlds 


Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and fleep 
In the affliction of thefe terrible dreams, 
That lhake us nightly : Better be with the dead, 
Whom \ve, to gain our place, have fent to peace ', 
Than on the torture of the mind to lie 
* In reftlefs ecftacy. Duncan is in his grave ; 
After life's fitful fever, he fleeps well ; 
Treafon has done his worfl : nor fleel, nor poifon, 
Malice domeftic, foreign levy, nothing, 
Can touch him further ! 

Lady. Come on ; Gentle my lord, 
Sleek o'er your rugged looks ; be bright and jovial 
Among your guefts to-night. 

Macb. So mall I, love ; 
And fo, I pray, be you : let your remembrance 

Scotched 'is the true reading. So, in Cnriolanus, adt IV. fc v j 
** \&fcotctfd him and notch'd him like a carbonado." 


9 But let the frame of things disjoint, loth the worlds fuffer, ] 
The old copy reads thus, and I have followed it, rejecting the mo- 
dern innovation, which was : 

But let both worlds disjoint, and all things fuffer. 


* Wl)om ive, to gain our place, battefent to peace, ] 
The old copy rends : 

Whom ive, to gain our peace, have fent to fcace. 
This change, which appears to be neceffary, was made by Mr. 

* In refllefs ecftacy ] 

Ecjlacy, for madnefs. WAR BURTON. 

Ecjlacy, in its general lenfe, fignifies any violent emotion, 
of the mind. Here it means the emotions of pain, agony. So, ia 
Marlow's Tamburlaine, p. 1 : 

" Griping our boux-ls with retorqued thoughts, 

*' And have no hope to end our ext.tfa." STEEVENS. 

M m 2 A-r 


Apply to Banquo ; 3 prefent him eminence, both- 
With eye and tongue : Unfafe the while, that we 
Muft lave our honours in thefe flattering ftreams. ; 
And make our faces vizards to our hearts,, 
Difguifing what they are. 

Lady. You muft leave this* 

Mach. O, full of fcorpions is my mind, dear wife ? 
Thou know'ft, that Banquo, and his Flcance, lives. 

Lady. But in them 4 nature's copy's not eterne. 

Macb. There's comfort yet, they are aflailable ; 
Then be thou jocund : Ere the bat hath flown 
His cloifterM flight ; ere, to black Hecat*s fum- 

5 The ihard-borne beetle, with his drowfy hums, 


3 <-prefent him eminence, " ] 

i. e. do him the higheft honours. WAR BUR TON. 

4 nature's copy's not eterne.}. 

The cof>y, the leafe, by which they hold their lives from- nature, 
has its time of termination limited. JOHNSON. 

Eterne for eternal is often ufed by Chaucer. So, in theKn<gkj?s 
Tale, late edit. v. 1305. 

*' O cruel goddes, that governe 

44 This world with binding of your word eterne, 

44 And writen in the table of athamant 

ci Your parlement and your eterne grant." STEEVEMS. 

5 The fhard-borne beetle, ] 

5. e* the beetje hatched in clefts of wood. So, in Anthony and Cleo- 
patra : 

44 They are his J&ards, and he their bee tie." WARBURTONV 
The fiiard-&orne beetle is not only the ancient but the true read- 
ing: i.e. the beetle borne along the air by \tsjhards or fcaly. 
<w!ngs. From a paflage in Gower De Confejfioxe Amantis, it ap- 
pears ihatjbards fignifiedyiYZ/rj : 

4 ' She figh, her thought, a dragon tho, 

44 WhofeJckerJes fhynen as the fonne :" 1. 6. fol. 138^ 
and hence the upper or outward wings of the beetle were called 
jbardi, .they being of a fcaly fubftance. To have an outward pair 
of wings of a fcaly hard'neis, ierving as integuments to a filmy, pair 
beneath them, is the charafteriftick of the beetle kind. 
Ben Jonib.n, in his Sad Shepherd, fays : 

' 4 Theylvr/y beetles with their habergeons, 

44 That make a humming murmur as they fly." 
In Cyntbetinc, Shakefpeare applies this epithet again to the beetle : 

44 we 


Hath rung night's yawning peal, there (hall be done 
A deed of dreadful note. 


we find 

in a fafer hold 

" Than is the full-wing'd eagle." 

Here there is a manifeft oppofuion intended between the wings 
and flight of the injlfl and the bird. The beetle, whofe fiarded 
iwVfg-Jcan but juft raife him above the ground, is often in a itate of 
greater fccurity than the waft-winged eagle that can foar to any 

As Shakefpeare is here defcribing the beetle in the aft of flying, 
(for he never makes his humming noife but when he flies) it is 
more natural to fuppofe the epithet iliould allude to the peculiarity 
ot his wings, than to the circumftance of his origin, or his place 
of habitation, both of which are common to him with feveral other 
creatures of the infeft kind. 

The quotation from Anthony and Cleopatra , feems to make againft 
Dr. Warburton's explanation. 

The meaning of JEnobarbus in that paflage is evidently this : 
Lepidus, fays he, is the beetle of the triumvirate, a dull, blind 
creature, that would but dawl on the earth, if Octavius and An- 
tony, his more active colleagues in power, did not ferve him for 
Jharih or wings to raife him a little above the ground. 

What idea is afforded, if we fay that Oftavius and Antony are 
two clefts in the old wood in which Lepidus was hatch'd ? 


The fyard-born beetle is the beetle born in dung. Ariftotle 
and Pliny mention beetles that breed in dung. Poets as well as 
natural hiftorians have made the fame obfervation. See Drayton't 
Ideas, 31 ; "I fcorn all earthly dung-bred fcarabies." So, Ben 
Jonlbn, Whalley's edit. vol. I. p. 9 : 

" But men of thy condition feed on floth, 
" As doth the beetle on the dung fhe breeds in." 
That/wv/ figiiifies dung, is well known in the North of Stafford- 
ihire, where cow/bard is the word generally ufed for coiv-dung. 
So, in A petite Palace of Pcttie his Pkafure, p. 165 : 
44 The humble-bee taketh no fcorn to loge in a cowe's foule 
JJjard." Again, in Bacon's Nat. Hijl. exp. 775: " Turf and 
peat, and cow/beards, are cheap fuels, and laft long." The firft 
folio edit, of Shakefpeare reads Jliard-borne, and this manner of 
fpelling borne is in favour of the prefent conftruftion. So Shake- 
fpeare, as I believe, always writes it, when it fignifies brought 
forth, as in Macbeth: " none of woman borne" " one of wo- 
"man borne" In fhort, his Bible, or the the old tranflntion of the 
Bible, fpelt it lb. In Much Ado about Nothing, adt III. fc. iv. 
Jae Wiitcs mderborn without the final e, 

M in 3 Sbartid 


Lady. What's to be done ? 

Macb. Be innocent of the knowledge, deareft 

chuck 6 , 

'Till thou applaud the deed. 7 Come, feeling night, 
Skarf up the tender eye of pitiful day ; 
And, with thy bloody and mvinble hand, 
Cancel, and tear to pieces, that great bond 
Which keeps me pale j 8 Light thickens and the 


Sharded beetle inCymbeline, means the beetle lodged in dung; and 
there the humble earthly abode of the beetle is oppoled to the 
lofty eyry of the eagle in " the cedar, vvhofe top branch over- 
peer'd Jove's fpreading tree," as the poet obferves in the third 
part of AT. Hen. VI. ad V. fc. ii. TOLLET. 

6 dear eft chuck,] 

I meet with this term of endearment (which is probably corrupted 
from chick or chicken) in many of our ancient writers. So, in War- 
DCl's Albion's England, b. v. C. 27 ; 

" injmortal fhe-egg chuck ofTyndarus his wife." 


7 ..I, . i Come fealing night, ~\ 

Thus the common editions had it ; but the old one, feeling, i. e. 
blinding ; which is right. It is a term in falconry. 


So, in the Booke of Haivkyng, Huntyng, &c. bl. 1. no date : 
*' And he muft take wyth hym nedle and threde to enfyle the 
haukes that bene taken, And in thys maner the muft be enjihd. 
Take the nedel and thryde, and put it through the over eye lyd, 
and foe of that other, and make them fail under the beeke that 
/he fe not, &c." STEEVENS. 

< ' Come feeling night, 

Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond 

Which keeps me pale ! ] 

This may be well explained by the following paffage in Rich. Ill ; 

" Cancel hi*, bond of life, dear God, I pray." 
Again, in Cymbeline, aft V; fc. iv : 

" take this life, 

" And cancel thefe cold bonds" STEEVENS. 
8 Light thickens : and the croiv~] 

By the expreflion, light thickens, Shakefpeare means, the light 
rrnvs dull or muddy. In this fenfe he ufes it in Ant. andCleop. 
* " my luftre thickens 

^ When he fhines by" EDWARDS'S MSS. 



' Makes wing to the rooky wood : 
Good things of day begin to droop and drowze ; 
While night's black agents to their preys dorouze. 
Thou marveirft at my words : but hold thee Hill ; 
Things, bad begun, make ftrong thcmfelves by ill : 
So, pr'ythee, go with me. [Exeunt. 


Enter three Murderers. 

1 Mm: * But who did bid thec join with us ? 
3 Mur'. Macbeth. 

2 Mur. He needs not our miilruft ; fincc he de- 


Our offices, and what we have to do, 
To the direction juft. 

i M"/-. Then Hand with us. 
The weft yet glimmers with fome flreaks of day : 
Now fpurs the lated traveller apace, 

It miy be added, that in the fecond part of K. Hen. IV. Prince 
John of Lancafter tells Falftaff, that " his defert is too thick tojbint" 


9 Makes iving. to the rooky ivood:] 

Rooty may mean damp, mljly, Jicannag ivitb exhalations. It is 
only a North country variation of dialect from reeky. In Carlo- 
tavuf, Shakefpeare mentions 

" the reek of th* rotten fens." 

And, in Caltha Poetarum, &c. 1 599 : 

" Comes in a vapour like a rooJ:iJJj ryme." 
Rocky wood may, however, figniry a rookery, the wood that 
abounds voitb rooks. STEEVENS. 

1 But who did bid thec join ivith us ?] 

The meaning of this abrupt dialogue is this. The pcrfcfl fyy, 
mentioned by Macbeth in the foregoing fcene, has, before they 
enter upon the ftage, given them the directions which were pro- 
mifed at the time of their agreement ; yet one of the murderers 
fuborned, fufpefts him of intending to betray them ; the other ob- 
ferves, that, by his exaft knowledge of -ivhat they were to do, he 
appeals to be employed by Macbeth, and needs not be miftrufted. 

Jo UN sox. 

M m 4 To 

536 M' A C B E T H. 

To gain the timely inn ; and near approaches 
The fubjed of our watch. 

3 Mur. Hark ! I hear horfes. 

[Banquo within.'] Give us a light there, ho \ 

2 Mur. Then it is he ; the reft 

That aie within a the note of expectation, 
Already -are i'the court. 

1 Mur. His horfes go about. 

3 Mur. Almoft a mile : but he does ufually, 
So all men do, from hence to the palace gate 
Make it their walk. 

Enter Banquo, and Fleance with a torch. 

2 Mur. A light, a light ! 

3 Mur. 'Tis he. 

i Mur. Stand to't. 

San. It will be rain to-night. 

i Mur. Let it come down. [They affault Eanquo. 

Ban. Oh, treachery ! Fly, good Fleance, fly, fly, fly; 

Thou may'ft revenge. Ohflave! 

[Dies. Fleance efcapes* 
3 Mur. Who did ftrike out the light ? 

1 Mur. 3 Was't not the way ? 

3 Mur. There's but one down ; the fon is fled. 

2 Mur. We have loft beft half of our affair. 

i Mur. Well, let's away, and fay how much is 
done. [Exeunt* 

* ike note of 'expectation ,] 

i, e. they who are fet down in the lift of guefts, and expected to 
{Upper. STEEVENS. 

3 Was't not the ivay ?] 
i. e. the beft means we could take to evade difcovery. 





banquet prepared. Enter Macbeth, Lady, Rojfe, Lenox 9 
Lords, and Attendants. 

Macb. * You know your own degrees, fit down : at 

And laft, the hearty welcome, 

Lords. Thanks to your majefly. 

Macb. Ourfelf will mingle with fociety, 
And play the humble hofl. 
Our hoftefs keeps her Hate * ; but, in beft time, 
We will require her welcome. 

Lady. Pronounce it for me, fir, to all our friends ; 
For my heart fpeaks, they are welcome. 

Enter firft Murderer, to the door. 

Macb. See, they encounter thce with their hearts' 

thanks : 

Both fides are even : Here I'll fit i'the midft : 
J3e large in mirth ; anon, we'll drink a meafure 

4 Tou know your own degrees, Jit down : 

At firft and laft the hearty welcome.] 

As this pafrage ftands, not only the numbers are very imperfect, 
but the lenfe, if any can be found, weak and contemptible. The 
numbers will be improved by reading : 

Jit down at firft ', 

And laft a hearty welcome. 

But for laft fhould then be written next. \ believe the true read- 
ing is : 

Tou know your own degrees. Jit down.Tojirft 

And laft the hearty welcome. 

All of whatever degree, from the higheft to the loweft, may be 
aflured that their vifit is well received. JOHNSON. 

* Our hoftefs keeps herftate^ &c.] 

This idea might have been borrowed from Holinfhed, p. 805 : 
* The king (Hen. VIII.) caufed the queene to kecfe the (ftatr, 
and then fat the ambafladours and ladies as they were marflialled 
by the king, who would not fit, but walked from place to place, 
waking cheer &c," STEEVKNS ( 


538 M A C B E T H. 

The table round. There's blood upon thy face, 

Mur. *Tis Banquo's then. 

Much. 6 'Tis better thee without, than he within. 
Is he dilpatch'd ? 

Mur. My lord, his throat is cut; that I did for him. 

Mxb. Thou art the bed o'the cut-throats : Yet 

he's good, 

That did the like for Fleance : if thou did'ft it, 
Thou art the non-pareil. 

Mur. Moft royal fir, 
Fleance is 'fcap'd. 

Mat^b. Then corses my fit again : I had elfe been 

perfed: ; 

Whole as the marble, founded as the rock; 
As broad, and general, as the caiing air : 
But now, I am cabin'd, cribb'd, confin'd, bound in 
To faucy doubts and fears. But Banquo's fafe ? 

Mur. Ay, my good lord ; fafe in a ditch ho bides, 
With twenty trenched gafhes 7 on his head ; 
The leaft a death to nature, 

Macb. Thanks, for that : 

There the grown ferpent lies ; the worm, that's fled, 
Hath nature that in time will venom breed, 
No teeth for the prefent. Get thee gone ; to-morrow 
We'll hear, ourfelves again, [Exit Murderer, 

6 'Tis letter thee without, than he within.] 
The fenfe requires that this paffage ftiould be read thus : 

'Tis fatfer thee without , than him within. 

That Is, I am letter 'pteafed that the lloddof BanyuoJIwuldbe on tly 
face than in his body, 

The authcur might mean, // is letter that Panquo's llobd were 
on thy face, than he in this room, Expreffions thus imperfect ar<; 
common in his works. JOHNSON. 

7 trenched gq/bes ] 

Trancher to cut. Fr. So, in Ardcn of fever/bam, > ,92 : 
" Is deeply trenched on my blufhing brow." 

So, in another play of Shakefpeare : 

" like a figure 



Lady. My royal lord, 

You do not give the cheer : th.e feaft is fold *, 
That is not often vouch'd while 'tis a making, 
' Tis given with welcome : To feed, were beft at home; 
From thence, the fauce to meat is ceremony ; 
Meeting were bare without it. 

[Enter the gboft of Banquo 9 , and fits in ftlacbeth''* 

'Miiclf. Sweet remembrancer ! 
Now, good digeftion wait on appetite, 
And health on both ! 

Len. May it pleafe your highnefs fit ? 

Much. Here had we now our country's honour 


Were the grac'd perfon of our Banquo prefent ; 
Who may I rather challenge for unkindnefs, 
Than pity for mifchance ! 

Rofle. His abfence, fir, 

Lays blame upon his promife. Pleafe it your high- 
To grace us with your royal company ? 

Macb. The table's full. 

8 the feaft is td& 9 to-.] 

Mr. Pope reads : the feaft is cold, and not without plaufi- 

bility. Such another exprefiion occurs in The Elder Brother of 
Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" You muft be welcome too : the feaft fsjlat elfe." 
And the fame exprelRon as Shakefpeare's occurs in the Remount of 
the Rofe : 

" Good dcde done through praiere, 

" Is foil, and bought to acre." STEEVENS. 

thcfcajl is fold, ] 

The meaning, is, That which is not given clem-fully , cannot be 

called a gift, it is fpmething that muft be paid for. JOHNSON. 

9 Enter the gboft of Banqno, ] This circumftance of Ban~ 

quo's gboft feems to be alluded to in The Puritan, firrt printed in 
j6oy, and ridiculoufly afcribcd to Shakefpeare : " We'll ha' the 
gkoft i* th' white fteet (it at upper end o* t/j table" FARMER. 

The circumftance of Banquo's gboji could not be alluded to in 
the Puritan, which was printed in 1600, fomc years before Mac- 
letb was written. MALQNE, 


Len. Here is a place referv'd, fir. 

Macb. Where? 

Len. Here, my good lord. What is't that moves 
your highnefs ? 

'Macb. Which of you have done this ? 

Lords. What, my good lord ? 

Macb. Thou can'ft not fay, I did it : never ihake 
Thy goary locks at me. 

RoJJe. Gentlemen, rife ; his highnefs is not well. 

Lady. Sit worthy friends : my lord is often thus, 
And hath been from his youth: pray you, keep feat; 
The fit is momentary ; upon a thought 
He will again be well : If much you note him, 
You mall offend him, and ' extend his paffion ; 
Feed, and regard him not. Are you a man ? 

Macb. Ay, and a bold one, that dare look on that 
Which might appall the devil. 

Lady. *O proper fluff! 
This is the very painting of your fear : 
This is the air-drawn-dagger, which, you faid, 
Led you to Duncan. 3 Oh, thefe flaws, and flans, 


* extend bis pa/ion ;] 

Prolong hi s fuffering; make his fit longer. JOHNSON*. 

* O proper fiuf!} 

This fpeech is rather too long for the circumftances in which it is 
fpoken. It had begun better at, Shame itfelf! JOHNSON. 
3 ' Ob, thefe flaws andfiarts, ' 

(Impoftors to true fear,) would well become 

A woman 's fiory at a winter's fire, 

Authorized by her grandam. ] 

Flaws, zx&fudden gufis. The authour perhaps wrote : 

Thoje fiaws andfiarts, 

Impoftures true to fear would well become ; 

A woman* s fiory, 

Thefe fymptoms of terrour and amazement might better become 
impofiures true only to fear, might become a coward at the recital of 
fuch falfehoods as no man could credit, whofe underfianding I'.'as not 

rity of her 

Oh, tJjcfe fiaws andfiarts, 
fors to true fear i \ 

i. e. 

his terrors', tales told by a woman over afire OH the au~ 
tbority of her grandam. JOHNSON. 
" thcCe ' 


(Impoftors to true fear,) would well become 
A woman's ftory, at a winter's fire, 
Authorized by her grandam. Shame itfelf ! 
Why do you make fuch faces ? When all's done, 
You look but on a ftool. 

Macb. Pr'ythee, fee there ! behold ! look ! lo ! 

how fay you ? 

Why, what care I ? If thou can'ft nod, fpeak too. 
If charnel-houfes, and our graves, muft fend 
Thofe that we bury, back ; our monuments 
Shall be the maws of kites *. 

Lady. What ! quite unmann'd in folly ? 

Macb. If I Hand here, I faw him. 

Lady. Fie, for fhame ! 

Macb. Blood hath been ihed ere now, i'the olden 


5 Ere human flatute purg'd the gentle weal ; 
Ay, and fince too, murders have been perform'd 
Too terrible for the ear : the times have been, 
That, when the brains were out, the man would die, 
And there an end : but now, they rife again, 
With twenty mortal murders on their crowns, 
And pufti us from our flools : This is more ftrange 
Than fuch a murder, is. 

Lady. My worthy lord, 
Your noble friends do lack you. 

Macb. I do forget : 

i. e. thefe flaws and Harts, as they are indications of your needleft 
fears, are the imitators or impoftors only of thofe which arife from 
a fear well grounded. WARBURTON. 

4 Sballle the maivs of kites.] 
The fame thought occurs in Spenfer's Faery $>uee, b. ii. c. 8 : 

" But be entombed in the raven or the kight" STEEVENS. 
5 Ere human Jlatute purged the gentle weal ; ] 
The gentle weal, is, the pea cealle community, the Hate made quiet 
and fafe by human Jlatutes. 

" Molliafecura feragelant otia genles" JOHNSON. 



Do not mufe at me 6 , my moft worthy friends j 

I have a flrange infirmity, which is nothing 

To thofe that know me. Come, love and health to 


Then I'll fit down : Give me fome wine, fill full : 
I drink to the general joy of the whole table, 

Re-enter Ghoft. 

And to our deaf friend Banquo, whom we mifs ; 
Would he were here ! to all, and him, we thirft, 
7 And all to all. 

Lords. Our duties, and the pledge. 

Macb. Avant ! and quit my fight ! Let the earth 

hide thee ! 

Thy bones are marrowlefs, thy blood is cold ; 
Thou haft no fpeculation in thofe eyes 
Which thou doft glare with ! 

Lady. Think of this, good peers, 
But as a thing of cuftom : 'tis no other ; 
Only it fpoils the pleafure of the time. 

Macb. What man dare, I dare : 
Approach thou like the rugged Ruffian bear, 

6 Do not mufe at ;ar, ] 

To mufe anciently fignified to be in amaze. So, in AW 's Well that 
Ends 'Well: 

" And rather mufe than aft." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Alchjmift : 

'* 'Slid, doftor, how canft thou fo foon know this ? 

" I a"m a-muSdat that." 
Again, in K. Hen. IV. P. II. act IV : 

" I mufe you make fo ilight aqueftion." STEEVEXS. 
7 And all to all.} 

i. e. all good wiflies to all : fuch as he had named above, Iovt t 
health^ andjoy. WARBURTON. 

I once thought it fliould be hail to all, but I now think that the 
prefent reading is right. JOHHSON. 

Timon ufes nearly the fame expreffion to his guefts, aft I : " All 
tejiu.'* STEBVENS. 



The arm'd rhinoceros, or the Hyrcan tyger 8 , 
Take any fhapc but that, and my fivm nerves 
Shall never tremble : Or, be alive again, 
And dare me to the defert with thy fword ; 
* If trembling I inhabit, then protcft me 
The baby of a girl. Hence, horrible fliadow ! 
Unreal mockery, hence ! Why, fo ; being gone, 
I am a man again. Pray you, fit ftill. 

Lady. You have dilplac'd the mirth, broke the 

good meeting, 
With mofl admir'd diibrder. 

Macb. ' Can fuch things be, 


8 the Hyrcan tyger ,) 

Theobald chules to read, in oppofition to the old copy : Hyr- 
tanian tyger; but the alteration was unneceflary, as Dr. Philemon 
Holland, in his tranflation of Pliny's Nat. Hijt. p. 122, mentions 
the Hyrcane fea. TOLLET. 

9 If treadling I inhabit, ] 

This is the original reading, which Mr. Pope changed to inhibit, 
which inhibit Dr. Warburton interprets refufe. The old reading 
may ftand, at lead as well as the emendation. Suppofe we read : 

If trembling I evade :'/. JOHNSON. 

Inhibit feems more likely to have been the poet's own word, as 
he ufes it frequently in thefenfe required in this paifage. Ot*xUi 
suit I. fc. 7 : 

" a practifer 

* l Of art* intititcJ" 

Hamlet, ad II. fc. 6 : 

** I think their inhibition comes of the late innovation." 
To inhibit is to forbid. The poet probably might have written; 

If trembling 1 inhibit thee, proteft me, &c. STEEVENS. 
1 (^anfuch things bt^ 

And overcome /, like afummer's cloud, 

Without oitrfpecial wonder ? ] 

Why not ? if they be only like a fummer's cloud ? The fpeech is 
given wrong ; it is part or the lady's foregoing fpeech ; and, be-' 
iiiles that, is a little corrupt. We fliould read it thus : 

Can'tyo& things be, 

And overcome us, like a fummer's cloud^ 

II 'Ithojtt ourfpecial wonder f ] 

i. e. cannot thefe vifions, without fo much wonder and amaze- 
ment, be prelented to the difturbed imagination in the manner 
that air vilions, in fummer clouds, are prelented to a -Canton one : 



And overcome us like a fummer's cloud, 

Without our fpecial wonder? * You make me Grange 

Even to the difpofition that I owe, 

When now I think you can behold fuch fights, 

And keep the natural ruby of your cheek, 

When mine is blanch'd with fear J . 

which fometimes fliew a lion, a caftle, or a promontory ? The 
thought is fine, and in character. Overcome is ufed for deceive. 


The alteration is introduced by a mifinterp relation. The mean- 
ing is not that thefe things are like a fummer-doud, but can fuch 
wonders as theie pafs over us without wonder, as a cafual fummer 
cloud pafles over us. JOHNSON. 

No inftance is given of this fenfe of the word overcome, which has 
caufed all the difficulty ; it is however to be found in Spenfer, 
Faery Queen, b. iii. c. 7. ft. 4 : 

" A little valley 

" All covered with thick woods, that quite it overcame?* 


A fimilar expreflion occurs in the Merchant of Venice : "I 
pr'ithee overname them ; and as thou nameft them, &c." 


* You make me ft range 

Even to the difpoftion that I owe,] 
Which in plain Englilh is only ; You make mejujl mad. 


Yon produce in me an alienation of mind, which is probably the 
expreflion which our author intended to paraphrafe. JOHNSON. 
I do not think th