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Lu ^S 



O F 



8 f 10 




VOLUME the S I X T H. 







Printed for C. Bathurft, W. Strahan. J. F. and C. Rivington, 
J. Hinton, L. Davis, W. Owen, T. Caflon, E. Johnfon, S. Crowder, 
B. White, T. Longman, B. Law, E and C. Dilly, C. Corbett, 
T. Cadell, H. L. Gardener, J. Nichols, J. Bew, J. Beecroft, 
W. Stuart, T. Lowndes, J. Rcbibn, T. Payne, T. Becket, 
F. Newberv, G. Robinfon, R. Baldwin, J. Williams, J.Ridley, 
T. Evans, W. Davies, W. Fox, and J. Murray, 








PirfSfis Reprefented. 

King Henry the Fifth. * 

Earl of Salifbury. 

Earl of Weftmoreland. 

Earl of Warwick. 

Archbifhop of Canterbury. 

Bifhop of Ely. 

Earl of Cambridge, n 

Lord Scroop, > confpirators again/I tie king. 

Sir Thomas Grey, * 

Sir Thomas Erpingham, Gower, Fluellen, Mack- 

morris, Jamy, officers In king Henrys army* 
Nym, Bardolph, Piftol, Boy, formerly fervants t% 

Falftaff, now foldiers in the king's army. 
Bates, Court, Williams, foldiers. 
Charles, the Sixth, king of France. 
The Dauphin. 
Duke of Burgundy. 
Conltable, Orleans, Rambures, Bourbon, Grandpree, 

French lords. 
Governor of Harfleur. 
Montjoy, a her aid. 
Ambajfadors to the king of England. 

Ifabel, queen of France. 

Katharine, daughter to the king of France. 

Alice, a lady attending on the princefs Katharine. 

Quickly, Piftofs wife, an hojicfs. 


Lords, Mejfengers,' French and Englijh Soldiers, "Joit'k 
other Attendants. 

The SCENE, at tie beginning of the play, lies inJLng- 
land ; but afterwards, wholly in France. 


* O, for a mufe of fire, that would afcend 
The brighteft heaven of invention ! 
A kingdom for a ftagc, 2 princes to aft* 
And monarchs to behold the fwelling fcene ! 
Then fhould the warlike Harry, like himfelf^ 
Affume the port of Mars ; and, at his heels, 
Leaih'din like hounds, fhould famine, fword,and fire, 
Crouch for employment J . But pardon, gentles all, 
The flat unraifed fpirit, that hath dar'd, 
On this unworthy fcaffold, to bring forth 
So great an objedt : Can this cock-pit hold 

1 O for a mufe. ofjfre, &c.] This goes upon the notion of tht 
Peripatetic fyitem, which imagines feveral heavens one above 
another ; the laft and higheft or which was one of fire. 


It alludes likewife to the afpiring nature of fire, which, by 
its levity, at the reparation of the chaos, took the higheft feat of 
all the elements. JOHNSON. 

* princes to aft, 

And monarch s to behold * ] 

Shakefpeare does not feem to fet diftance enough between th 
performers and fpedtators. JOHNSON. 

3 Leajbt in like hounds, Jbould famine t fword, and fire. 

Crouch for employment. J 

In K. Henry VI. " Lean famine, quartering fteel, and climb- 
ing fire," are called the three attendants on the Englifh general, 
lord Talbot ; and, as I fuppofe, are the dogs of ivar mentioned 
in Julius Cafar. 

This image of the warlike Henry very much refembles Mont- 
faucotfs defcription of the Mars discovered at JBreJJe, who leads a 
lyon and a lyonefs in couples, and crouching as for employ- 
ment. TOLLET* 

Warner, in his Albion 's England; 1602, fpeaking of King 
Henry V. fays : 

** He led good fortune in a line, and did but war and win." 
Holinflied, (p. 567*) when the people of Roan petitioned king 
Henry V. has put this fentiment into his mouth : He declared 
that the goddefle of battell, called Bellona, had three hand* 
maidens, ever of neceflitie attending upon her, as Hand) Jire^ 

B a The 


The vafty field of France ? or may we cram, 
4 Within this wooden O, 5 the very cafques 
That did affright the air at Agincourt ? 
O, pardon ! fince a crooked figure may 
Atteil, in little place, a million ; 

And let us, cyphers to this great accompf r 
6 On your imaginary forces work : 
Suppofe, within the girdle of thefe walls 
Are now confin'd two mighty monarchies, 
- 7 Whofe high-upreared and abutting fronts 
The perilous narrow ocean parts afunder. 
Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts ; 

4 Within this wooden O, ] Nothing fhews more evidently 

the power of cuftorh over language,- than that the frequent ufe 
of calling a circle an O could fo much hide the meannefs of the 
metaphor from Shakefpeare, that he has ufed it many times 
tvhere he makes his molt eager attempts at dignity of ftile. 


5 The very ca/ijucs] The helmets. JOHNSON. 

6 Imaginary forces' ^ } Imaginary for imaginative, or your 
powers of fancy. Adive and paflive words are by this author 
frequently confounded. JOHNSON. 

7 Whofc high-uprearcd, and abutting fronts 

The perilous narrow ocean parts afufider.} 
Without doubt the author wrote : 

lf r bofe higb-vpreared and abutting fronts, 
Perilous, the narrow ocean parts afunder. .] 

For his purpofe is to fliew, that the higheft danger ariles from 
the fliock of their meeting, and that it is but a little thing which 
keeps them afunder. This fenfe my emendation gives us, as the 
common reading gives us a contrary ; for thofe whom a perilous 
ocean parts af under, are in no danger of meeting. WAR BUR TON. 
Perilous narrwj in burlefque and common language meant no 
more than very narrow. In old books this mode of exprellion oc- 
curs perpetually. A perilous broad brim to a hat, a perilous long 
jhvord, &c. So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Humourous Lieu- 
tenant : 

" She is perilous crafty." 
Thus, villainous is only ufed to exaggerate, in the Tempeft : 

'* be turn'd to barnacles or apes 

" With foreheads villanous low." 
Again, in John Florio's Preface to his Tranjlation of Montaigne : 

" in this perilous crook 'd paflage " 




Into a thoufand parts divide one man, 

8 And make imaginary puiflance : 

Think, when we talk of horfes, that you fee them 
Printing their proud hoofs i* the receiving earth ; 

9 For 'tis your thoughts that now muft deck our kings, 
^TJry them here and there ; jumping o'er times; 
Turning the accomplifhment of many years 

Into an hour-glafs ; For the which fupply, 
Admit me chorus to this hiftory ; 
Who, prologue-like, your humble patience pray, 
Gently to hear, kindly to judge, our play. 

8 And make imaginary puiffance :] This fhews that Shakefpeare 
was fully fenfible of the abiurdity of (hewing battles on the thea- 
tre, which indeed is never done but tragedy becomes farce. No- 
thing can be reprefented to the eye but by fomething like it, and 
fwitkhi a wooden O nothing very like a battle can be exhibited. 


Other authors of that age feem to have been fenfible of the 
fame abfurdities. In Heywood's Fair Maid of the Wejl t 1631 ; 
a Chorus enters and fays : 

w Our ftage fo lamely can exprefs a fea, 

" That we are forc'd by Chorus to difcourfe 

*' What (hould have been in action, sV." STEEVENS. 

9 For 'tis your thoughts that novj muft deck our kings ; 

Carry them here and there ; ] 

We may read king for kings. The prologue relates only to this 
lingle play. The miftake was made by referring them to kings 
which belongs to thoughts. The fenfe is, your thoughts muft give 
the king his proper greatnefs ; carry therefore your thoughts here and 
there, jumping over time, and crowding years into an hour. 


I am not fure that Dr. Johnfon's obfervation is juft. In this 
play, the king of France as well as England, makes his appearance ; 

and the fenfe may be this ; // muft be to your imaginations that 

our kings are indebted for their royalty. Let the fancy of the fpec- 
tator furnifli out thole appendages to greatnefs which the poverty 
of our ilage is unable to fupply. The poet is ilill apologizing 
for the defects of theatrical reprefentation. 




An anflchamber in the Engliflj court, at Kenelworth. 
the archbijhop of Canterbury, and bijhop of Ely. 

*Cant. My lord, I'll tell you, that felf bill is 


1 &fe of Henry V.~\ This play was writ (as appears from a 
pafiage in the chorus to the fifth at) at the time of the earl of 
Eflex's commanding the forces in Ireland in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, and not 'till after Henry the Vlth had been played, 
as may be feen by the concluiion of this play. POPE. 

Life of Henry V.~\ The tranfadlions comprifed in this hifto- 
rical play commence about the latter end of the firit, and terminate 
in the eighth year of this king's reign : when he matried Katha- 
rine princefs of France, and clofed up the differences betwixt 
England and that crown. THEOBALD. 

This play in the quarto edition, 1608, is flyled the Chronicle 
Hijlory of Henry, &c. which feems to have been the title anci- 
ently appropriated to all Shakefpeare's hiltorical dramas. So, in 
The Antipodes, a comedy by R. Brome, 1638 : 

** Thefe lads can at the emperor's lives all over, 
*' And Shakefpeare's Chronicled Hijiories to boot." 
The players likewife in the folio edition, 162?, rank thefe pieces 
under the title of Hiftories. 

It is evident, that a play on this fubje& had been performed 
before the year 1595. Nafli, in Pierce Pennilefs bis Supplication to 
the Devil ) dated 1159;, fays : " what a glorious thing it is to 
have Henry the Fift reprefented on the ftage leading the French 
king prifoner, and forcing both him and the dolphin to fweare 
fealtie." STEEVENS. 

1 Archlijhop of Canterbury.'} This firft fcene was added fince 

the edition of 1608, which is much fliort of theprefent editions, 

B 4 whcreia 

S K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Which, in the eleventh year o'the laft. king's re i^n 
Was like, and had indeed againft us paft, 


wherein the fpeeches are generally enlarged and railed : feveral 
whole fcenes befides, and all the chorufes alfo, were fince addtd 
by Shakefpeare. POPE. 

On this fubjeft a play was written about the time of Shake- 
fpeare ; but whether betore or after his Henry V. made its ap- 
pearance, has not yet been abfolutely determined. (It is thus 
entered in the books of the Stationers' company. " Tho. Strode] 
May 2, 1594- A booke entituled the famous Victories of Henry 
the Fift, containing the honorable Battell of Agincourt." There 
are two more entries of a play of Henry V. viz. between 1596 
and 1615, and one Augufl i4th, 1600.) I have two copies^ of 
it in my pofleffion : one without date (which fecms much the 
elder of the two) and another (apparently printed from it) dated 
1617, though printed by Bernard Alfop (who was printer of the 
other edition) and fold by the fame perfon and at the fame place. 
Alfop appears to have been a printer before the year 1 6co, and was 
afterwards one of the twenty appointed by decree of the ftai - 
chamber to print for this kingdom. I believe, however, this 
piece to have been prior to that of Shakefpeare for feveral reaforis. 
Firft, becaufe it is highly probable that it is the very " difpleaf- 
ing play" alluded to in the epilogue to the fecond p'art of King 
H'.nry IV.- for Oldcaftle died a martyr. Oldcaille is the Falitaff 
of the piece, which is defpicable, and full of ribaldry and im- 
piety from the firil fcene to the laft. Secondly, becaufe Shake- 
fpeare feems to have taken not a few hints from it ; for it com- 
prehends in fome meafure the ftory of the two parts of Hairy IV. 
as well as of Henry V. and no ignorance I think could debafe the 
gold of Shakefpeare into fuch drofs ; though no chemiilry but 

that of Shakefpeare could exalt fuch bafe metal into gold. 

When the prince of Wales in Henry IV. calls Falitaff my old lad 
of the, it is probably but a fneering allufion to the deferved 
tate which this performance met with ; tor there is no proof that 
our poet was ever obliged to change the name of Oldcaftle into 
that of Falilaff, though there is an abfolute certainty that this 
piece muft have been condemned by any audience before whom 
it was ever reprefentcd. 

Laftly, becaufe it appears (as Dr. Farmer has obferved) from 
the Jefts of the famous comedian Tarlton, 410. 1611, that he 
had been particularly celebrated in the part of the Clown f in 


f Mr. OMys, in a manurcript note in his copy of Langbnine, fays, 
that Tarlton appear'd in thccharacler of the Judge who receives the 
box on the car. This Judge is likewifc a character in the old play. 

I may 

K I N G H E N R Y V. 9 

But that the fcambling and unquiet time* 
Did pulh it out of further queftion. 


Henry V. and though this character does pot exift in our play, 
we find it in the other, which, for the reafons already enumerat- 
ed, I fuppofe to have been prior to this. 

- This anonymous play of Henry V. is neither divided into ahs 
or fcenes, is uncommonly fhort, and has all the appearance of 
having been imperfectly taken down during the reprefentation. 
As much of it appears to have been omitted, we may fuppofe 
that the author did not think it convenient for his reputation to 
publifh a more ample copy. 

There is, indeed, a play, called Sir John Oldcaftle, publifhed 
in 1600, with the name of William iSbakefpeare prefixed to it. 
The prologue being very fhort, I fhall quote it, as it ferves to 
prove, that a former piece, in which the character of Oldcaftit 
yvas introduced, had given great offence : 

" The doubtfull title (gentlemen) prefixtr 

** Upon the argument we have in hajid, 

*' May breed fufpence, and wrongfully difturbe 

'* The peaceful quiet of your fettled thoughts : 

*' To flop which fcruple, let this breefe fuflice. 

" It is no pampe r V glutton we prefent, 

*' Nor aged counce Hour to youtbfull Jinne ; 

*' But one, whofe vertue fhone above the reft, 

" A valiant martyr, and a vertuous peere, 

*' In whofe true faith and loyalty expreft 

*' Unto his foveraigne, and his countries weale : 

*' We flrive to pay that tribute of our love 

*' Your favours merit : let faire truth be grac'd 

'.' Since forg'd invention former time defac'd." 


3 Tie fcambling and unquiet time."] In the old houfliold book of 
the jth earl of Northumberland, there is a particular fe&ion ap- 
pointing the order of fervice for ihc fcambling days in lent, that 
is, days on which no regular meals were provided, but every one 
Ji-amb'lea'i i. e. fcrambled and ihifted for himfelf as well as he could. 
- r So, in the old noted book intitled, " Leicefter's Common- 
one of the marginal heads is, " Scumbling between Lei- 

I may add, on the authority of the books at Stationer's-Hall, that 
Tarlton publifhed what he called his Farewell, a ballad, in Sept. 
1588. In Oft. 1589, was enter'd, " Tarlton" s Repentance, and his 
Farewell to his Friends in his Sicknefs a little before his Death j" in 1590, 
'. Tarlton s Neives out of Purgatorie :" and in the fame year, " A 
pleafaunt Ditty Dialogue-wife, between Tarlton's Ghofl and Rohn Cood- 
Jellowe." STEEVENS, 


io K I N G n E N R Y V. 

Ely. But how, my lord, fhall we refifl it now ? 

Cant. It muft be thought on. If it pafs againft US A 
We lofe the better half of our pofleflion : 
For all the temporal lands, which men devout 
By teftament have given to the church, 
Would they ftrip from us ; being valu'd thus, 
As much as would maintain, to the king's honour, 
Full fifteen earls, and fifteen hundred knights ; 
Six thoufand and two hundred good efquires ; 
And, to relief of lazars, and weak age, 
Of indigent faint fouls, paft corporal toil, 
A hundred alms-houfes, right well iupply'd; 
And to the coffers of the king, betide, 
A thoufand pounds by the year : Thus runs the bill, 

Ely- This would drink deep. 

Cant. 'Twould drink the cup and all, 

Ely- But what prevention ? 

Cant. The king is full of grace, and fair regard, 

Ely. And a true lover of the holy church. 

Cant. The courfes of his youth promis'd it not. 
The breath no fooner left his father's body; 
But that his wildnefs, mortify'd in him, 
Seem'd to die too ; yea, at that verv moment, 

cefter and Huntlngton at the upftiot." Where in the text, the 
author fays, " Haflings, for ought I fee, when he cometh to 
ihzfcambling, is like to have no better luck by the bear [Lei-, 
cefler] then his anceftors had by the boare [K. Rich. III.]" edit. 
1641, 1 2mo. p. 87. So again, Shakefpearc himfelf makes king 
Hen. V. fay to the princefs Katharine, " I get thee with fcamb- 
li'i?, and thou mufl therefore prove a good foldier-breeder.'* 

Shakefpeare ufes the fame word in Much Ado about Nothing ; 

" Shambling) out-facing, raflnon-mong'ring boys." 
Again, in Ram- Alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611 : 

*' the widow and myielf 

" W\\\fcamllc out the fhakiug of the fhccts, 

*' Without your mufic." 
Again, in the Merry Devil of Edmonton, 1626 : 

*' Leave us to ft amble for her getting out." STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. u 

4 Confederation like an angel came, 

And whipp'd the offending Adam out of him $ 

Leaving his body as a paradife, 

To envelop and contain celeftial fpirits. 

Never was fuch a fudden fcholar made : 

Never came reformation in a flood 5 , 

With fuch a heady current, fcouring faults j 

Nor never Hydra-headed wilfulnefs 

So foon did lofe his feat, and all at once, 

As in this king. 

Ely. We are blefled in the change. 

Cant. Hear him but reafon in divinity 6 , 


4 Confederation, like an angel, &c.] As pnradife, when fin and 
Adam were driven out by the angel, became the habitation of 
celeftial fpirits, fo the king's heart, fmce confederation has driven 
put his follies, is now the receptacle of wifdom and of virtue. 


5 Never came reformation in afload^\ Alluding to the method 
by which Hercules cleanfed the famous ftables when he turned a 
a river through them. Hercules flill is in our author's head 
when he mentions the Hydra, JOHNSON. 

6 Hear him but reafon in divinity, &c.] This Ipeech feems to 
have been copied from king James's prelates, fpeaking of their 
Solomon : when archbifhop VVhitgift, who, as an eminent wri- 
ter fays, died foon afterwards, and probcbiy doatcd then, at the 
Hampton-Court conference, declared himfelf verily perfuadcd^ 
that bis facred majefty fpoke by the fpirit of God. And, in eftect, 
this fcene was added after king James's acceffion to the crown : 
fo that we have no way of avoiding its being efteemed a compli- 
jnent to him, but by fuppofmg it was a fatire on his bifiops. 


Why thefe lines fhould be divided from the reft of the ipeech 
and applied to king James, I am not able to conceive ; nor why 
an opportunity fliould be fo eagerly fnatched to treat with con- 
tempt that part of his character which was leaft contemptible. 
King James's theological knowledge was not inconliderable. To 
prefide at difputations is not very fuitable to a king, but to un- 
<1erftand the queftions is furely laudable. The poet, if he had 
Barnes in his thoughts, was no fkilful encomiaft ; for the men- 
tion of Harry's Ikill in war, forced upon the remembrance of 
his audienCC the great deficiency of their preient king ; who yet 
ivith all his faults, and many faults he had, was fuch, that fir 



And, all-admiring, with an inward vvifh 
You would defire, the king were made a prelate r 
Hear him debate of common-wealth affairs, 
You would fay, it hath been all-in-all his fludy ; 
Lift his difcourfe of war, and you fhall hear 
A fearful battle rendered you in mufic : 
Turn hkn to any caufe of policy, 
The Gordian knot of it he will unloofe, 
Familiar as his garter ; that, when he fpcaks^ 
7 The air, a charter'd libertine, is ftill, 
And the mute wonder lurketh in men's ears, 
To fleal his fvveet and honey'd fentences ; 
* So that the art, and pradtic part of life 


Robert Cotton fays, be would le content that England .JhouU never 
toave a better, provided that itfoould never have a ivorfe. 


Thofe who are felicitous that juftice ihould be done to the 
theological knowledge of our Britilh Solomon, may very eafily 
furnilh themfelves with fpecimens of it from a book entitled, 
Rex Platonicus, Jive de potentijjlmi Principle Jacobi Britanniariun 
Regis ad Ulujlrijjimam AcaJemiam Qxonieiifcm adventu, Aug. 27, 
Anno 1 60^. In this performance we may ftill bear him rcafoning 
in Divinity, Phyfic, Jurifprudence, and Philofophy. On the 
fecond of thefe fubjects he has not failed to exprefs his well- 
known enmity to tobacco, and throws out many a royal witticifm 
on the " Medici Nicotianilhe," and " Tobacconiftae" of the age j 
infomuch thnt Ifaac Wake, the chronicler of his triumphs at 
Oxford, declares, thnt " nemo nifi iniquilfimus rerum aeftimator, 
bonique publici peflime invidus, Jacobo noftro recufabit immor- 
talem gloriae aram figere, qui ipfe adeo mirabilem in Thcologia^y 
yttrifprutlcntirt et ^Icdicina arcanis peritiam eamque plane aivi- 
vitus aflecutus eft, ut &c." STEEVEXS. 

7 The air, &c.J This line is exquifitely beautiful. JOHNSON, 
The fame thought occurs in As You Like It. Aft II. fc. 7 : 

'* I muft. have liberty 

*' Withal, as large a charier as the ivinJ, 
*' To blow on whom I pleafe." MAI.OKE. 
* So that the art, and pra&ic/rfr/ of life,'] All the editions, if 
I am not deceived, are guilty of a 'flight corruption in this paf- 
fage. The archbifhop has been fhewing what a mafter the king 
was in the theory of divinity, war, and policy : fo that it muft 
be expected (as, I conceive he would infer) thut the kingfhould 



Muft be the miftrefs to this theorique 9 : 

Which is a wonder, how his grace fhould glean it, 

Since his addition was to courfes vain ; 

His companies unletter'd, rude, and lhallow ; 

His hours fill'd up with riots, banquets, fports ; 

And never noted in him any ftudy, 

Any retirement, any fequeflration 

From open haunts and popularity. 

Ely. The flrawberry grows underneath the nettle ' ; 
And~wholibme berries thrive, and ripen beft, 
Neighbour'd by fruit of bafer quality : 
And fo the prince obfcur'd his contemplation 
Under the veil of wildnefs ; which, no doubt, 
Grew like the fuminer grafs, fafteft by night, 

now wed mat theory to aftion, and the putting the feveral parts 
of his knowledge into practice. If this be our author's meau- 
ing, I think, we can hardly doubt but he wrote : 

So'that tie aft, andprattic^ &c. 

Thus we have a confonance in the terms and fenfe. For theory 
is the art and ftudy of the rules of any fcience ; and action, the 
exemplification of thofe rules by proof and experiment. 


This emendation is received by Dr. Warburton, but it appears 
to me founded upon a mifreprefentation. The true meaning 
deems to be this. He difcourfes with fo much Ikill on all fub- 
je6ts, that the art and praflice of life muft be the mijlrefs or teachtr 
of bis thecrique ; that is, that his theory muft have been taught by 
art and praflice ; which, fays he, is ftrange, fince he could fee 
little of the true art or practice among his loofe companions, nor 
ever retired to digeft his practice into theory : art is ufed by the 
author (or praftice, as diitinguiftied fromfcience or theory. 


9 to this theorique :~\ Tljcoric is what terminates in fpe- 

culation So, in The Valiant Welchman^ 1615: 
i , fon Caradoc, 

* *Tis yet unfit that on this fudden warning 
' You leave your fair wife, to the theorique 
' Of matrimonial pleafure and delight/' 
Bookifh theorique is mentioned in Othello. STEEVENS. 

1 The Jlrawlerry &c.] i. e. the wild fruit fo called, that groWS 
in the woods, STEEVENS, 

; r ".% Unfeen, 

i 4 K I N G H E N R V V. 

Unfeen, yet crefcive in his faculty *. 

Cant, It muft be fo : for miracles are ceas'd ; 
And therefore we muft needs admit the means, 
How things are perfected. 

Ely. But, my good lord, 
How now for mitigation of this bill 
Urg'd by the commons ? Doth his majefty 
Incline to it, or no ? 

Cant. He leems indifferent ; 
Or, rather, fwaying more upon our part, 
Than cherifhing the cxhibiters againft us : 
For I have made an offer to his majefty, 
Upon our fpiritual convocation ; 
And in regard of caufes now in hand, 
Which I have open'd to his grace at large, 
As touching France, to give a greater funi 
Than ever at one time the clergy yet 
Did to his predeceflbrs part withal. 

Ely. How did this offer feem received, my lord ? 

Cant. With good acceptance of his majefty : 
Save, that there was not time enough to hear 
(As, I perceiv'd, his grace would fain have done) 
The feverals, ar.d unhidden paffages J , 
Of his true titles to fome certain dukedoms ; 
And, generally, to the crown and feat of France, 
Dcriv'd from Edward, his great grandfather. 

a crefcive in bis faculty.] Increafing in its proper power. 


Grt-~M like thefummergrafs, fnjlefi by night , 
Unfeen^yet crefcive in his faculty ,~\ 
Crefcit occulto vclut arbor aevo 
Fama Marcelli. 

Cre/dve is a word ufed by Drant in his tranflation of Horace's 
Art of Poetry, i 567 : 

" As lufty youths of crefcive age doe flouriflie frefhe and 

grow." STEEVENS. 

3 Tlxfeverals, and unhidden pajjages ,] This line I fufpecr, of 
corruption, though it may be fairly enough explained: the/rf/*- 
fages of his titles are the lines of fucceffion by which his claims de- 
1'cend. Unhidden is ofcn t clear. JOHNSON, 



Ely. What was the impediment that broke this off? 

Cant. The French ambaflador, upon that inftant, 
Crav'd audience : and the hour, I think, is come, 
To give him hearing ; Is it four o'clock ? 

Ely. It is. 

Cant. Then go we in, to know his embaffy ; 
Which I could, with a ready guefs, declare, 
Before the Frenchman fpeaks a word of it. 

Ely. I'll wait upon you ; and I long to hear it. 



Opens to the prefence. 

Enter king Henry, Glo/ter, Bedford, Warwick, Weft- 
'/norland, and Exeter. 

K. Henry. Where is my gracious lord of Canter- 
bury ? 

Exe. Not here in prefence. 
K. Henry. Send for him, good uncle *. 
Weft. 5 Shall we call in the ambaflador, my liege ? 
K. Hemy> Not yet, my coufm 6 ; we would be re- 


Before we hear him, of fome things of weight, 
That 7 talk our thoughts, concerning us and France.' 

Enter the archbfoop of Canterbury, and bifJiop of Ely. 

Cant. God, and his angels, guard your facred throne, 
And make you long become it ! 

4 Good Uncle.'} John Holland, duke of Exeter, was married to 
to Elizabeth the king's aunt. STEEVENS. 

* Shall we call in, &c,] Here began the old play. POPE. 
' Notyet, my con/in ; &c.] The 410. 1600 and 1608, read 
Not yet, my coujin, till ive be refold d 
Of fome Jcrious matters touching us and France. 


tafi~\ Keep bufied with fcruples and laborious difquifi- 
tions. JOHNSON. 

K. Henry. 


K. Henry. Sure, we thank you. 
My learned lord, we pray you to proceed ; 
And juftly and religioufly unfold, 
Why the law Salique, that they have in France, 
Or fhould, or mould not, bar us in our claim. 
And God forbid, my dear and faithful lord, 
That you Ihould fafhion, wreft, or bow your reading, 
8 Or nicely charge your underftanding foul 
With opening titles 9 mifcreate, whofe right 
Suits not in native colours with the truth ; 
For God doth know, how many, now in health, 
Shall drop their blood in approbation ' 
Of what your reverence ihall incite us to : 
Therefore * take heed how you impawn our perfon, 
How you awake the fleeping fword of war ; 
We charge you in the name of God, take heed : 
For never two fuch kingdoms did contend, 
Without much fall of blood ; whofe guiltlefs drops 

8 Or nicely charge your underjlanding foul] Take heed left by nice 
and fubtle fophillry you burthen your knowing foul, or know- 
ingly burthen your foul, with the guilt of advancing a falfe title, 
or of maintaining, by fpecious fallacies, a claim which, if flie\vn. 
in its native and true colours, would appear to be falfe. 


9 mifcrcate, ] Ill-begotten, illegitimate, fpurious. 


in approbation] i.e. in proving nnd fupporting that title 
which fliall be now fet up. So, in Brathwaite's Survey of Hif- 
tories, 1614. " Compofing what he wrote, not by report of 
others, but by the approbation of his own eyes." Again, in the 
Winter's Tale: 

" That lack'd fight only ; nought for approbation 
" But only feeing." MALONE. 

* take heed bovj you impawn our perfon,~\ The whole drift 
of the king is to imprefs upon the archbilhop a due fenfe of the 
caution with which he is to fpeak. He tells him that the crime 
of unjufl war, if the war be unjuft, fhall reft upon him. 

Therefore take heed how you impawn your perfon. 
So, I think it fhould be read. Take heed how you pledge yourfelf, 
your honour, your happinefs, in fupport of bad advice. 

Dr. Warburton explains impawn by engage^ and fo efcapes the 
difficulty. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 17 

Arc every one a woe, a fore complaint, 
*Gainft him, vvhofe wrong gives edge unto the fvvord 
That makes fuch wafte in brief mortality \ 
4 Under this conjuration, fpcak, my lord ; 
For we will hear, note, and believe in heart, 
That what you fpeak is in your confcience wafh'd 
"As pure as fin with baptifm. 

Cant. Then hear me, gracious fovcreign, and you 


That owe your lives, your faith, and fervices, 
To this imperial throne ; There is no bar * 
To make againft your highnefs' claim to France, 
But this, which they produce from Pharamond, - 
In t err am Salicam mulleres ne fuccedant 6 9 
No woman Jhall fv.ccesd in Saliqus land: 
Which Sdique land the French unjuftly gloze 
To be the realm of France, and Pharamond 
The founder of this law and female bar. 
Yet their own authors faithfully affirm, 
That the land Salique lies in Germany, 
Between the floods of Sala and of Elbe : 
Where Charles the great, having fubdu'd the Saxons^ 
There left behind and fettled certain French ; 
Who, holding in difdain the German women, 
For fomc dilhoneft manners of their life, 
Eftabliih'd there this law, to wit, no female 
Should be inheritrix in Salique land ; 

* Irlcf mortality. "J 

" Nulla brcvcm dominum fequetur. Hor. STEEVENS, 

* Under this conjuration,] The 4tos 1600 and 1608, read : 

After this conjuration. STEEVF.NS. 

5 There is no bar &c.] This whole fpeech is copied (in 

a manner <vcrlatltn) from Hall's Chronicle Henrv V. year the fe- 
cond, folio 4. xx. xxx. xl, &c. In the firft edition it is very 
imperfeft, and the whole hiftory and names of the princes are 
confounded ; but this was afterwards fet right, and corrected 
from his original, Hall's Chronicle,. POPE. 

6 This ipeech (together with the Latin paflage in it) may as 
well be faid to be taken from Holinfned as from Hall. STEEVENS. 

VOL. VI. C Which 


Which Salique, as I faid, 'twixt Elbe and Sala, 

Is at this day in Germany call'd Meifen. 

Thus doth it well appear, the Salique law 

Was not devifed for the realm of France : 

Nor did the French poflefs the Salique land 

Until four hundred one and twenty years 

After defun&ion of king Pharamond, 

Idly fuppos'd the founder of this law ; 

Who died within the year of our redemption 

Four hundred twenty-fix ; and Charles the gieat, 

Subdu'd the Saxons, and did feat the French 

Beyond the river Sala, in the year 

Eight hundred five. Befides, their writers fay, 

King Pepin, which depofed Childerick, 

Did, as heir general, being defcended 

Of Blithild, which was daughter to king Clothair, 

Make claim and title to the crown of France. 

Hugh Capet alib, that ufurp'd the crown 

Of Charles the duke of Lorain, fole heir male 

Of the true line and ftock of Charles the great,- 

7 To fine his title with fome fliew of truth, 

(Though, in pure truth, it was corrupt and naught) 

Convey'd himlelf as heir to the lady Lingare, 

Daughter to Charlemain, who was the fon 

To Lewis the emperor, and Lewis the fon 

Of Charles the great. Alfo king Lewis the ninth, 

7 To fine bis title &c.] This is the reading of the quarto of 
1608, that of the folio is, To find bis title. I would read : 

To line bis title ^MtthfvmeJbe-TU of truth. 

To line may fignify at once to decorate and to ftrengthen. In 
Macbeth : 

" He //'</ line the rebels ivitb hidden help and vantage" 
Dr. Warburton fays, that to fine bis title, is to refine or improve 
it. The reader is to judge. 

I now believe that^W is right ; the jury finds for the plaintiff, 
or finds for the defendant : to find his title is, to determine in fa- 
vour of bis title with fame flew of truth. JOHNSON. 

Both the quartos, 1600 and 1608, read 'To fine his title, i. e. 
to nuke itjleiiy or Jfieciom by loine appearance of juftice. 




Who was folc heir to the ufurper Capet, 

Could not keep quiet in his confcience, 

Wearing the crown of France, 'till fatisfy'd 

That fair queen Ifabel, his grandmother, 

Was lineal of the lady Ermengare, 

Daughter to Charles the forefaid duke of Lorain; 

By the which marriage, the line of Charles the great; 

Was re-united to the crown of France. 

So that, as clear as is the fummer's fun, 

King Pepin's title, and Hugh Capet's claim, 

King Lewis his fatisfa&ion, all appear 

To hold in right and title of the female : 

So do the kings of France unto this day ; 

Howbeit they would hold up this Salique law, 

To bar your highnefs claiming from the female; 

And rather chule to hide them in a net, 

Than amply to imbare their crooked titles 8 , 

Ufuro'd from you and your progenitors. 

K. Henry. 

* imbare their crooked titles^] Mr. Pope reads : 

Than openly imbrace] But where is the antithefis betwixt 
bide in the preceding line, and imbrace in this ? The two old fo 

lios read, Than amply to imbarre. We certainly muft read, a$ 

Mr. Warburton advifed me, Than amply to imbare lay open, 
difplay to view. I am furpriz'd Mr. Pope did not flart this con- 
jecture, as Mr. Rowe had led the way to it in his edition j who 
reads : 

Than amply to make bare their crooked titles. THEOBALD. 

Mr. Theobald might have found in the quarto of 1608, this 
reading : 

Than amply to embrace their crooked caufes ; 
out of which line Mr. Pope formed his reading, erroneous in- 
deed, but not merely capricious. JOHNSON. 

The 410 1600, reads imbace. 

I know of no fuch word as imbare. To unbar is to open, which 
I fuppofe to be the word fet down by the poet, and was probably 
oppofed to bar. 
So, in the firft fcene of Timoa, the poet fays, " I'll unbolt to you." 

To embar^ however, teems, from the following paflage in the 
firrt book of Stanyhurfl's tranflation of Virgil t 1582, to fignify 
to break or cut off abruptly : 

" Heere Venus embarring his tale, &c." 

C 2 Yet. 

20 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

K. Henry. May I,- with right and confcience, make 
this claim ? 

Cant. The fin upon my head, dread fovereign I 
For in the book of Numbers is it writ 
When the fon dies, let the inheritance 
Defcend unto the daughter. Gracious lord, 
Stand for your own ;. unwind your bloody flag ; 
Look back unto your mighty anceilors : 
Go, my dread lord, to your great grandfire's tomb, 
From whom you claim ; invoke his warlike fpirit, 
And your great uncle's, Edward the black prince ;. 
Who on the French ground play'd a tragedy, 
Making defeat on the full power of France ; 
Whiles his moft mighty father on a hill, 
Stood fmiling, to behold his lion's whelp 
Forage in blood of French nobility. 
O noble Englifh, that could entertain 
With half their forces the full pride of France j 
And let another half ftand laughing by, 
All out of xvork, and cold for action 9 ! 

Ely. Awake remembrance of thefc valiant dead, 
And with your puiflant arm renew their feats : 
You are their heir, you fit upon their throne ; 
The blood and courage, that renowned them, 
Runs in your veins ; and my thrice-puillant Hege 
Is in the very May-morn of his youth, 
Ripe for exploits and mighty entcrprizes. 

Exe. Your brother kings and monarchs of the earth 
Do all expert that you Ihould roufe yourfclf, 
As did the former lions of your blood. 

Yet, as to lar, in Mud Ado alout Nothing, is to flrengthen, 

** that is llronger made 

44 Which was before barrel up with ribs of iron. '*' 

SoJ amply to unbar may mean to weaken by an open difplay of 
invalidity. STEEVENS. 

9 cold for aftion /] The next fpeeches of Ely, Exeter, 
Weftmoreland, and Canterbury, were added after the quartos 
1600 and i6ob'. STEEVENS. 

K I N G H E N R Y V. 21 

Weft* l They know, your grace hath caufe, and 

means and might ; 

So hath your highncfs ; never king of England 
Had nobles richer, and more loyal fubjcdts ; 
Whofe hearts have left their bodies here in England, 
And lie pavilion'd in the fields of France. 

Cant. O, let their bodies follow, my dear liege*, 
With blood, and fvvord, and fire, to win your right : 
In aid whereof, we of the fpiritualty 
Will raife your highnefs fuch a mighty Cum, 
As never did the clergy at one time 
Bring in to any of your anceftors. 

K. Henry. We mud not only arm to invade the 

French ; 

But lay down our proportions to defend 
Againft the Scot, who will make road upon us 
With all advantages. 

Cant. They of thofe marches J , gracious fovereign, 
Shall be a wall fufficient to defend 
Our inland from the pilfering'borderers. 

K> Henry.. We do not mean the courfing matchers 

1 jTZvy know your grace hath caufe, and means, and might) 

So hath your bighnefi ; ] 

\Ve fliould read : 

-your race had caufc 

which is carrying on the lenfe of the concluding words of 
Exeter : 

j&s did the former lions of your blood $ 
meaning Edward HI. and the black prince. WARBURTOX. 

I do not fee but the prelent reading may Hand as I have 
pointed it. JOHNSON. 

* Thefetwo lines Dr. Warburton gives to Weftmoreland, but 
with fo little reafon that I have continued them to Canterbury. 
The credit of old copies, though not great, is yet more than 
nothing. JOHNSON. 

3 They of tbofe marches,] The marches are the borders, the li- 
mits, the confines. Hence the Lords Marchers, i. e. the lords 
presidents of the marches, &c. So, in the firit canto of Drayton's 
Baron? Wars : 

*' When now the marchers well urxm their way, &c." 


C 2 But 

22 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

But fear the main intendment of the Scot, 
Who hath been Hill a 4 giddy neighbour to us : 
For you fiiall read, that my great grandfather 
* Never went with his forces into France, 
But that the Scot on his unfurnifh'd kingdom 
Came pouring, like the tide into a breach, 
With ample and brim fulnefs of his force ; 
Galling the gleaned land with hot affays ; 
Girding with grievous fiegc caftles, and towns ; 
That England, being empty of defence, 
Hath fliook, and trembled 6 at the ill neigbourhood. 
Cant. She hath been then more fear'd than harm'd^ 

my liege : 

For hear her but exampled by herfelf, . 
When all her chivalry hath been in France, 
.And ihe a mourning widow of her nobles, 
She hath herfelf not only well defended, 
But taken, and impounded as a ftray, . 

4 ~ giddy neighbour ] That is, inconftant, changeable,. 


5 Never ivent with his forces into France,] Shakefpeare wrote 
the line thus : 

Nf Vr ivent with his full forces into France. 

The following expreffions of unfurnijh'd kingdom, gleaned lan^ 
and empty of defence , fhew this. WARBURTOX. 
There is no need of alteration. JOHNSON. 
The 4tos 1600 and 1608 read: 

> never my great grandfather 

Unmaflc'd bis power for France 

What an opinion the Scots entertained of the defencelefs flate 
of England, may be known by the following paflage from 
The Battle of Floddon, an ancient hiftorical poem : 
" For England's king you underftand 

" To France is part with all his peers : 
* l There is none at home left in the land, 

** But joult-head monks, and burften freers. 
* Of ragged rufties, without rules, 

** Of priefts prating for pudding (hives ; 
'* Of milners madder than their mules, 

'* Or wanton clerks, waking their wives." STEEVENS. 
* at the ill neighbourhood.] The 4tos 1 600 and 1608 read ; 
at the bruit thereof. STEEVENS. 



The king of Scots ; whom fhe did fend to France, 
To fill king Edward's fame with prifcner kings; 
7 And make your chronicle as rich with praife, 
As is the ouze and bottom of the fea 
With funken wreck * and fumlefs treafuries. 
Exe* 9 But there's a faying, very old and true, 
1 If that you will France win, 

Then with Scotland frjl be^ln : 
For once the eagle England being in prey, 
To her unguarded neft the weazcl Scot 
Comes fneaking, and fo fucks her princely eggs ; 
Playing the moufe, in abfence of the cat, 

7 And make bis chronicle as rich with praife,] He is fpeaking 
of king Edward's prifoners ; fo that it appears Shukefpeare 
wrote : 

as rl(h wit]} prize, 

i.e. captures, booty. Without this there is neither beauty nor 
likenefs in the fimjlitude. WAR BUR TON. 

The change of praife to prize, I believe no body will approve ; 
the fimilitude between the chronicle and the fea confifts only in 
this, that they are both full, and filled with fomething valuable. 
Befides, Dr f Warburton prefuppofes a reading which exifts in no 
ancient copy, for hh chronicle as the later editions give it, the 
quarto has your, the folio their chronicle. 

Tour and their written by contraction _yr are juft alike, and her 
in the old hands is not much unlike yr. I believe we ftiould read 
her chronicle. JOHNSON. 

8 and fumlefs treafuries.'} The quartos 1600 and 1608 

read : 

and fhiplefs treafury. STEEVENS. 

9 Ely. But there's q faying, &c.] This fpeech, which is dif 
fuafive of war with France, is abfurdly given to one of the 
churchmen in confederacy to pufli the king upon it, as appears 
by the firft fcene of this aft. Befides, the poet had here an eye 
to Hall, who gives this obfervation to the duke of Exeter. But 
the editors have made Ely and Exeter change fides, and fpeak 
one another's fpeeches ; for this, which is given to Ely, is Exe- 
ter's ; and the following given to Exeter is Ely's. 


1 If that you will France win, &c.] Hall's Chronicle. Hen. V. 
year 2. fol. 7. p. 2. x. POPE. 

It is likewife found in Holinfhed, and in the old anonymoui 
play of K. Henry V, STEEVENS. 

C 4. To 

24 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

* To taint and havock more than Ihe can cat. 

Ely. It follows then, the cat muft ftay at home : 
} Yet that is but a curs'd neceffity ; 
Since we have locks to fafcguard neceffaries, 
4 And pretty traps to catch the petty thieves. 
While that the armed hand doth fight abroad, 
The advifed head defends itfelf at home : 

* To tear ami havock more than Jlie can eat."] It is not much 
the quality of the moufe to tear the food it comes at, but to run 
over and defile it. The old quarto reads, fpoile \ and 'the two 
firfl folios, tame : from which laft corrupted word, I think, I 
have retrieved the poet's genuine reading, taint. THEOBALD. 

3 Tet that is bvt a curs'd nccejjlty ;] So the old quarto. The 
folios read cruflfd: neither of the words convey any tolerable 
idea ; but give- us a counter-reafoning, and not at all pertinent, 
We fbould read, 'fcus'd nectjpty. It is Ely's bufinefs to '{hew 
there is no real neceffity for flaying at home : he mull therefore 
mean, that though there be a leeming neceffity, yet it is one that 
may be well e xcufd and got over. WAR BUR TON*. 

Neither the old readings nor the emendation feem very futif- 
factory. A curfed nccejjlty has no fenfe ; a 'fcus'd neceffity is fo 
harfh that one would not admit it, if any thing elfe can be 
found. A crufh'd neceffity may mean, a neceffity which is fubdued 
and over-powered by contrary reafons. We might read a crude 
neceffity, a neccjjlty not complete^ or not well confidered and dU 
gelled, but it is too harfh. 
Sir. T. Hanmer reads : 

Tet that is not o'courfe a necejpty. JOHNSON. 
A curfd neceffity means, I believe, only an unfortunate necef- 
Jity. Cursed, in colloquial phrafe, figmfies any thing unfortunate^ 
So we fny, fuch a one leads a curfed life ; another has got into a 
curfed fcrape. It may mean, a neceffity to It execrated. 
t This vulgarifm is often ufed by fir Arthur Gorges in his tranf- 
lation of Lucan, 1614. So, B. vii. p. 293 : 
" His curfed fortune he condemned." 
Again, p. 297 : 

" : -on the cruel deftinies 

" The people pour out curfed cries." 
Again, in Chapman's tranllation of the 5th OdyJJey : 

" while thus difcourfe beheld, 

" A curs'd furge *gainfl a cutting rock impell'd 
His naked body." STEEVENS. 

* And pretty traps ] Thus the old copy j but I believe we 

fliould read petty. STEEVENS. 



5 For government, though high, and low, and lower, 
Put into parts, doth keep in one confent 6 ; 
Congruing in a full and natural clofe, 
Like mufick. 

Cant. True : therefore doth heaven divide 
The ftate of man in divers functions, 

7 Setting endeavour in continual motion ; 
To which is fixed, as an aim or butt, 
Obedience : for fo work the honey bees ; 
Creatures, that, by a rule in nature, teach 
The art of order to a peopled kingdom. 
They have a king, and officers of forts : 
Where fome, like magiftrates, correct at home ; 

8 Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad ; 
Others, like foldiers, armed in their ftings, 
Make boot upon the fummer's velvet buds ; 
Which pillage they with merry march bring home 

5 For government, though high, and low, and lower,] The 
foundation and expreffion of this thought feems to be borrowed 
from Cicero de Rcpnblica, lib. ?. Sic ex fummis, & mediis, & 
infimis interjects ordinibus, ut fonis, moderatam ratione civitatem 9 
Confenfu diflimiliorum concinere j & qua harmonia a muficis did-* 
tttr in cantu, tarn ejje in civitate concordiam. THEOBALD. 

6 in one confent,] Confent is unifon. STEEVENS. 

7 Setting endeavour in continual motion ; 
To which is fixed, as an aim or butt, 

Obedience'} Neither the fenfe nor the conftruclion of this 
paflage is very obvious. The conftruclion is, endeavour as ax 
aim or butt to which endeavour, obedience is fixed. The fenfe is 
that all endeavour is to terminate in obedience, to be fubordinate 
to the publick good and general defign of government. 


8 Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad j] What is the 
venturing trade ? I am perfuaded we fhould read and point it 
thus : 

Others, like merchant venturers, trade abroad. 


If the whole difficulty of this paflage confifts in the obfcurity 
of the phrafe to venture trade it may be eafily cleared. To ven- 
ture trade is a phrafe of the fame import and flruclure as to hazard 
battle. Nothing could have raifed an objection but the defire of 
being bufy. JOHNSON, 



To the tent-royal of their emperor : 
Who, bufy'd in his majefly, furveys 
The tinging mafons building roofs of gold ; 
9 The civil citizens kneading up the honey ; 
The poor mechanick porters crowding in 
Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate ; 
The fad-ey'd juftice, with his furly hum, 
Delivering o'er to executors pale 
The lazy yawning drone. I this infer, 
That many things, having full reference 
To one confent, may work contrarioufly ; 
As many arrows, loofed feveral ways, 
Fly to one mark ; 

As many feveral ways meet in one town ; 
As many frefh ftreams run in one felf fca ; 
As many lines clofe in the dial's center; 
1 So may a thoufand actions, once afoot, 
End in one purpofe, and be all well borne 

9 The civil citizens kneading up the honey ;] This may poflibly 
be right : but I rather think that Shakefpeare wrote heading up 
the honey; alluding to the putting up merchandife in calks. And 
this is in faft the cafe. The honey being beaded up in feparate 
and diftinft cells by a thin membrane of wax drawn over the 
mouth of each of them, to hinder the liquid matter from run- 
ning out. WARBURTON. 

To head the honey can hardly be right ; for though we head the 
cafk, no man talks of heading the commodities. To knead gives 
an eafy fenfe, though not phyfically true. The bees do in faft 
knead the wax more than the honey, but that Shakefpeare per- 
haps did not know. JOHNSON. 

The old quartos read -lading up the honey. STEEVENS. 

1 So may a thnufand attions, once afoot ,] The fpeaker is en- 
deavouring to (hew that the Hate is able to execute many pro- 
jected actions at once, and conduct them all to their completion, 
without impeding or joftling one another in their courfe. Shake- 
fpeare, therefore, muft have wrote, aftions '/ once a foot, i. e, 
at once ; or, on foot together. WARBURTON. 

Sir T. Hanmer is more kind to this emendation by reading aft. 
at once. The change is not neceflary, the old text may ftand. 




* Without defeat. Therefore to France, my liege. 
Divide your happy England into four ; 
Whereof take you one quarter into France, 
.And you withal fhall make all Galliafhake. 
If we, with thrice that power left at home, 
Cannot defend our own door from the dog, 
Let us be worried ; and our nation lofe 
The name of hardinefs, and policy. 

K. Henry. Call in the meflengers fent from the 


Now are we well refolv'd : and, by God's help ; 
And yours, the noble finews of our power, 
France being ours, we'll bend it to our awe, 
Or break it all to pieces : Or there we'll fit, 
Ruling, in large and ample empery', 
O'er France, and all her alrnoft kingly dukedoms ; 
Or lay thefe bones in an unworthy urn, 
Tomblefs, with no remembrance over them : 
Either our hiflory fhall, with full mouth, 
Speak freely of our ad:s ; or elfe our grave, 
Like Turkifh mute, fhall have a tonguelefs mouth, 
Not worfhip'd 4 with a waxen epitaph. 


4 Without defeat.] The quartos 1600 and 1608 read, With- 
out defect. STEEVENS, 

3 emperyj This word which fignifies dominion^ is now obfb- 
lete, though formerly in general ufe. So, in Claudius Tiberius 
Nero, 1607 : 

" Within the circuit of our empery" STEEVENS. 

4 with a waxen epitaph.] The quarto 1608 reads, with a 

paper epitaph. 

Either a waxen or a paper epitaph, is an epitaph eafily obli- 
terated or deftroyed ; one which can confer no lafting honour on 
the dead. Shakefpeare employs the former epithet in a fimilar 
fenfe in K. Richard II : 

" That it may enter Mowbray's "Max en coat." 

Again, in G. Whetftone's Garden of Unthriftines, 1576 : / 

" In ivaxe, fay I, men eafily grave their will ; 

** In marble ftone the worke with paine is wonne : 
" But perfect once, the print remaineth ftill, 
" When waxen feales by every browfe are donne." 


2 3 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Enter ambafladors of France. 

Now we are well prepared to know the pleafure 
Of our fair coufin Dauphin ; for, we hear, 
Your greeting is from him, not from the king. 

Amb. May't pleafe your majefty, to give us leavQ 
Freely to render what we have in charge ; 
Or fhall we fparingly ftiew you far off 
The Dauphin's meaning;, and our embafly ? 

K. Henry. We are no tyrant, but a Chriftian king ; 
Unto whofe grace our paflion is as fubjedt, 
As are our wretches fetter'd in our prifons : 
Therefore, with frank and with uncurbed plainnefs, 
Tell us the Dauphin's mind. 

Amb. Thus then, in few. 
Your highnefs, lately fending into France, 
Did claim fome certain dukedoms, in the right 
Of your great predeceflbr, king Edward the third. 
In anfwer of which claim, the prince our matter 
Says, that you favour too much of your youth ; 
And bids you be advis'd, there's nought in France, 
That can be with a nimble galliard * won ; 
You cannot revel into dukedoms there : 
He therefore fends you, meeter for your fpirit, 
This tun of treafure ; and, in lieu of this, . 
Defires you, let the dukedoms, that you claim, 
Hear no more of you. This the Dauphin fpeaks^ 

K. Henry. What treafure, uncle ? 

Exe. 6 Tennis-balls, my liege. 

The fecond reading is more unintelligible, to me at leaft, than 
the other : a grave not digni/ied with the llightell memorial. 


s a nimble galliard tuon :~\ A galliard was an ancient dance, 
no^v obfolete. So, in All for Money, 1574: 

" Where fhall we get a pipe to play the devil z galliard f M 


* Tennis-balls, my lie%e.~\ In the old play of Henry V. already 
mentioned, this prefent confiils of a gilded tun of tennis-balls and 

K. Henry. 

a g 
a carpet 

K I N G H E N R Y V. 29 

K. Henry. 7 We are glad, the Dauphin is fo pleafant 

with us ; 

His present, and your pains, we thank you for : 
When we have match'd our rackets to thefe balls, 
We will, in France, by God's grace, play a fet, 
Shall flrike his father's crown into the hazard : 
Tell him, he hath made a match with fuch a wrangler, 
That all the courts of France will be difturb'd 
With 8 chaces. And we underftand him well, 
How he comes o'er us with our wilder days, 
Not meafuring what ufe we made of them. 
We never valu'd this poor feat of England ; 
9 And therefore, living hence, did give ourfelf 
To barbarous licence ; As 'tis ever common, 
That men are merneft when they are from home. 
But tell the Dauphin, I will keep my flate ; 
Be like a king, and Ihew my fail of greatnefs, 
When I do roufe me in my throne of France : 

7 We are glad the dauphin is fo pleafant ivith us ; ] Thus ilandi 
the anfwer of K. Henry in the fame old play : 

44 My lord, prince Dolphin is very pleafant with me. 
'* But tell him, that inltead of balls of leather, 
*' We will tots him balls of brafs and of iron : 
" Yea, fuch balls as never were tofs'd in France. 
44 The proudeft tennis-court in France fhall rue it." 

And the following paflkge is in Michael Drayton's Battle of Agin* 

court : 

" I'll fend him balls and rackets if I live, 

" That they fuch racket fhall in Paris fee, 

* When over line with bandies I fliall drive ; 

44 As that, before the fet be fully done, 

* 4 France may perhaps into the hazard run." STEEVENS. 

8 Cbace is a term at tennis. JOHNSON. 

So is the hazard; a place in the tennis-court into which the 
ball is fometimes ftruck. STEEVENS. 

9 And t +:re fore, living hence, ] This expreflion has (Irength 
and energy : he never valued England ; and therefore lived 
hence; i.e. as if abfent from it. But the Oxford editor alters 
hence to here. WAR BUR TON. 

Living hence means, I believe, withdrawing from the court, 
the place in which he is now fpeaking. STEEVENS. 



1 For that I have laid by my majefty, 

And plodded like a man for working-days ; 

But I will rife there with fo full a glory, 

That I will dazzle all the eyes of France, 

Yea, flrike the Dauphin blind to look on us. 

And tell the pleafant prince, this mock of his 

Hath turn'd 1 his balls to gun-flones ; and his foul 

Shall fland fore charged for the wafteful vengeance 

That fliall fly with them : for many a thoufand widows 

Shall this his mock mock out of their dear hufbands ; 

Mock mothers from their fons, mock caftles down ; 

And fome are yet ungotten, and unborn, 

That fhall have caufe to curfe the Dauphin's fcorn. 

But this lies all within the will of God, 

To whom I do appeal ; And in whofe name, 

Tell you the Dauphin, I am coming on, 

To venge me as I may, and to put forth 

My rightful hand in a well-hallow'd caufe* 

So, get you hence in peace ; and tell the Dauphin, 

His jeft will favour but of lhallow wit, 

When thoufands weep, more than did laugh at it. 

Convey them with fafe conduct. Fare you well. 

[Exeunt AmbaJJadors. 

Exe. This was a merry meffage. 

A". Henry. We hope to make the fender blufh at it. 
Therefore, my lords, omit no happy hour, 
That may give furtherance to our expedition : 
For we have now no thought in us, but France ; 
Save thofe to God, that run before our bufmefs. 
Therefore, let our proportions for thefe wars 

1 For that I have laidly ] To qualify myfelf for this un- 
dertaking, I have defcended from my ftation, and fludied the arts 
of life iii a lower character. JOHNSON. 

The quartos 1600 and i6c8 read -for this. STEEVENS. 

"* bislallstogTin-Jtones; ] When ordinance was firft 

ufed, they difcharged balls, not of iron, but of ftone. JOHNSON. 
So Holinflied, p. 947. " About feaven of the clocke marched 
foi"ward the light peeces of ordinance, wiihjlone and powder." 




Be foon collected ; and all things thought upon, 
That, may, with reafonable fwiftnefs, add 
More feathers to our wings : for, God before, 
We'll chide this Dauphin at his father's door. 
Therefore, let every man now talk his thought, 
That this fair a&ion may on foot bebrought. [Exeunt. 


Enter Chorus. 

Chor. Now all the youth of England are on fire *, 
And filken dalliance in the wardrobe lies ; 


3 In this place, in all the editions hitherto, is inferted the 
chorus which I have poftponed. That chorus manifeftly is in- 
tended to advertife the fpeftators of the change of the fcene to 
Southampton, and therefore ought to be placed juft before that 
change, and not here, where the fcene is uill continued in Lon- 
don. POPE. 

Now all the youth of England ] I have replaced this chorus 
here, by the authority of the old folios ; and ended the firft a&, 
as the poet certainly intended. Mr. Pope removed it, becaufe, 
fays he, " This chorus manifeftly is intended to advertife the 
fpeclators of the change of the fcene to Southampton ; and 
therefore ought to be placed jufl before that change, and not 
here." It is true, the fpedlators are to be informed, that, when 
they next fee the king, they are to fuppofe him at Southampton 
But this does not imply any neceffity of this chorus being con- 
tiguous to that change. On the contrary, the very concluding 
lines vouch abfclutely againft it : 

But till the king comefortb^ ana 1 not till then, 
Unto Southampton do wejlrift our fcene, 

For how abfurd is fuch a notice, if the fcene is to change, fo 
foon as ever the chorus quits the ftage ? Befides, unlefs this cho- 
rus be prefixed to the fcene betwixt Nym, Bardolph, &c. we 
fliall draw the poet into another abfurdity. Piftol, Nym, and 
Bardolph are in this fcene talking of going to the wars or France : 
but the king had but juft, at his quitting the ftage, declared hi$ 
refolution of commencing this war ; and without the interval of 


Now thrive the armourers, and honour's thought 

Reigns folely in the breaft of every man : 

They fell the pafture now, to buy the horfe ; 

Following the mirror of all Chrillian kings, 

With winged heels, as Englifh Mercuries. 

4 For mw fits Expectation in the air ; 

And hides a fword, from hilts unto the point, 

With crowns imperial, crowns, and coronets., 

Promis'd to Harry, and his followers. 

The French, advis'd by good intelligence 

Of this moft dreadful preparation, 

Shake in their fear ; and with pale policy 

Seek to divert the Englifh purpofes. 

O England ! model to thy inward greatnefs, 

Like little body with a mighty heart, 

What might'fl thou do, that honour would thee do, 

an aft, betwixt the fcene and the comic characters entering, how 
could they with any probability be informed of this intended ex- 
pedition ? THEOBALD. 

I think Mr. Pope miftaken in tranfpofing this chorus, and 
Mr. Theobald in concluding the aft with it. The chorus evi- 
dently introduces that which follows, not comments on that which 
precedes, and therefore rather begins than ends the aft, and 
Ib I have printed it. Dr. Warburton follows Mr. Pope. 

4 For noi'jjtts Expectation In the air, 

And bides afivord, from bills unto ike point, 
With crowns imperial, &c.] The imagery is wonderfully 
fine, and the thought exquifite. Expcttation fitting in the air, 
defigns the height of their ambition ; and the/twn/ b'ul from tbc 
hilt to tbc point ivitb crowns and coronets, that all fentiments of 
danger were loft in the thoughts of glory. WARBURTON. 

The idea is taken from the ancient reprefentations of trophies 
in tapeftry or painting. Among thefe it is very common to fee 
fwords encircled with naval or mural crowns. Expectation is like- 
wife perfonified by Milton, Par. Loft, b. vi. 

" while Expectation flood 

" In horror." STEEVENS. 

In the horfe armoury in the Tower of London, Edward III. is 
reprefented with two crowns on his fword, alluding to the two 
kingdoms, France and England, of both which he was crowned 
heir. Perhaps the poet took the thought from this reprefenta- 
tion. TOLLET. 


it ING HENRY V. 33 

Were all thy children kind and natural ! 

But fee thy fault ! France hath in thee found out 

A neft of hollow bofoms, which fhe fills 

With treacherous crowns: and three corrupted men,- 

One, Richard earl of Cambridge ; and the fecond, 

Henry lord Scroop of Malham ; and the third, 

Sir Thomas Grey knight of Northumberland,- 

Have for the gilt of France *, (O guilt, indeed !) 

Confirm 'd confpiracy with fearful France ; 

5 And by their hands this 6 grace of kings mufl die, 


* the gilt of France} Gilt, which in our author, gene- 
rally fignifies a difplay of gold (as in this play: 

*' Our gaynefs and our gilt are all befmirch'd.") 
in the prefent inilance means golden money. So, in An Alarun 
for London, 1602 : 

" To fpend the victuals of our citizens, 

" Which we can fcarcely compafs now for ///." 


5 And ly their bands this grace of kings mujl die, 
(If bell and treafon bold their promifes,) 
Ere be take j)Ap for France, and in Southampton* 
Linger your patience on ; and well digcjl 
The alufe of diflance, while we force a play* 
The ftim is paid ; the traitors are agreed ; 
The king isfetfrom London ; and the fcexe 
Is 'ioi'.' traitfportcd, gentles, to Southampton : 
There h the phy-houfe now, ] I fuppofe every one that 
reads thefc lines looks about for a meaning which he cannot find. 
There is no connexion of ienfe nor regularity of tranfition from, 
one thought to the other. It may be fufpefted that fome lines 
are loft, j.nd in that cafe the fenfe is irretrievable. I rather think 
the meaning is obfcured by an accidental tranfpofuion, which I 
would reform thus : 

And ly their hands this grace of kings mujl dic t 
. If hell and treafun hold their promifes. 
The fiuii is paid, the traitors are agreed, 
The king isfetfrom London, and tbefcene 
Is no-iv tranfported, gentles, to Southampton, 
Ere he take Jhip for France. And in Southampton^ 
Linger your patience on, and well digejl 
The abufe of dijlunce, wk'lc ive force a play* 
There is the play -houfe novj " 

' VOL, VI, D This 

34 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

(If hell and treafon hold their promifes) 
Ere he take fhip for France, and in Southampton,' 
Linger your patience on ; and well digeft 7 
The abufe of diflance, 8 while we force a play. 
The ium is paid ; the traitors are agreed ; 
The king is fet from London ; and the fcene 
Is now tranfported, gentles, to Southampton : 
There is the play-houfe now, there muft you fit : 
And thence to France ihall we convey you fafe, 
And bring you back, charming the narrow feas 9 
To give you gentle pafs ; for, if we may, 
'We'll not offend one ftomach with our play. 

This alteration reftores fenfe, and probably the true fenfe. The 
lines might be otherwife ranged, but this order pleafes me beft. 


* this grace of kings ] i.e. he who does greatcft honour to 
the title. By the fame kind of phrafeology the ufurper in Ham- 
let is called the Fice of kings, i^e. the opprobrium of them. 


Shakefpeare might have found this phrafe in Chapman's tranfla- 
tion of the firft book of Homer, 1598 : 

'* with her the grace of kings^ 

" Wife Ithacus afcended " 

Again, in the 24th book : 

" Idasus, guider of the mules, difcern'd this grace of men" 


7 well (ligtfi\ The folio in which only thefe chorufes are 

found, reads, and perhaps rightly, 'we'll digeft. STEEVENS. 

* while ive- ] Thefe two words have been added by the 

modern editors, and (as it fhould feem) very properly. To 
force a play , is to produce a play by compelling many circumftances 
into a narrow compafs. STEEVENS. 

9 charming the narrow feai\ From the prologue to Every Man 
in his Humcur, it appears, that Hen. V. though not printed till 
1600, was performed before the year 1598. Though Jonfon 
was indebted, as we are told, to the kindnefs of Shakefpeare for 
the introduction of this his firft piece on the ftage, and though 
Shakefpeare himfelf played a part in it, he has in this, as iu many 
other places, endeavoured to ridicule and depreciate him. 
" He rather prays you will be pleafed to fee, 
*' One fuch to-day as other plays lliould be; 
*' Where neither c harm wafts you o'er thefeas, &c." MA LONE. 
* Witt not offend one ftomach ] That is, you fliall pal's the- 
fca without the qualms of fea-ficknefs. JOHNSON* 



4 "But, 'till the king come forth, and not 'till then, 
Unto Southampton do we fhift our fcene. [Exit* 

SCENE 1. , 

Before Quickly* s loufe in Eqftcheap. 
Enter corporal Nym, and lieutenant Bardotyl. 

3 Bard. Well met, corporal. 

Nym. Good morrow, 4 lieutenant Bardolph. 

Bard. What, are ancient Piftol and you friends 

Nym. For my part, I care not : I fay little ; but 

* But) 'till the king come forth, ] Here feems to be fomething 
omitted. Sir T. Hanmer reads : 

But when the king comes /0rA6, 

which, as the paflage now ftands, is neceflary. Thefe lines, ob- 
fcure as they are, refute Mr. Pope's conjeftures on the true place 
of the chorus ; for they fliew that fomething is to intervene be- 
fore the fcene changes to Southampton. JOHNSON. 
The Canons of Criticifm read : 

" and but till then." 

And the Revifal approves the correction. 


s Bard. Well met, corporal] I have chofe to begin the fe- 
cond aft here, becaufe each aft may clofe regularly with a cho- 
rus. Not that I am perfuaded this was the poet's intention, to 
mark the intervals of his afts^ as the chorus did on the old Gre- 
cian ftage. He had no occalion of this fort : fmce, in his time, 
the paufes of aftion were filled up, as now, with a leflbn of 
mufic : but the reafons for this diftribution are explained before. 


I have already (hewn why in this edition the act begins with 
the chorus. JOHNSON. 

* lieutenant Bardolpb.~\ At this fcene begins the connec- 
tion of this play with the latter part of Kin? Henry IV. The 
charafters would be indifKnft, and the incidents unintelligible, 
without the knowledge of what pafled in the two foregoing plays, 


D 2 when 

3<* K I N G H E N R Y V. 

when time lhall ferve, 5 there lhall be fmiles ; but 
that lhall be as it may. I dare not fight ; but I will- 
wink, and hold out mine iron : It is a fimple one ; 
but what though ? it will toaft cheefc ; and it will en- 
dure cold as another man's fvvord will : and there's 
6 the humour of it. 

Bard. I will beftow a breakfaft, to make you 
friends ; 7 and we'll be all three fworn brothers to* 
France : let it be fo, good corporal Nym. 

Nym*- Faith, I will live fo long as I may, that's 
the certain of it ; and, when I cannot live any longer, 
I will do as I may : that is my reft, that is the ren- 
dezvous of it. 

Bard It is certain, corporal, that he is married to 
Nell Quickly : and, certainly, Ihe did you wrong ; for 
you were troth-plight to her. 

Nym. I cannot tell ; things muft be as they may : 
Menmayfleep,and they may have their throats about 
them at that time ; and, fome fay,., knives have edges. 

5 there Jhallle fmiles; ] I fufpeft fmiles to be a marginal 
direction crept into the text. It is natural for a man, when he 
threatens, to break off abruptly, and conclude, But tbct Jball Is 
as it may. But this fantaftical fellow is made to fmile difdainfully 
while he threatens ; which circumftance was marked for the 
player's direction in the margin. WARBURTON. 

I do not remember to have met with thefe marginal directions 
for expreffion of countenance, in any of the old copies : neither 
do I fee occafion for Dr. Warburton's emendation, as it is vain to 
feek the precife meaning of every whimlical exprelfion employed 
by this eccentric character. Nym, however, having exprefred 
his indifference about the continuance of Piftol's friendfhip, 
might have added, ivhen time ferves there Jball be fmile J, i.e. he 
fhould be merry, even though he was to lofe it ; or, that his- 
face would be ready with a fmile as often as occafion fiiould call 
one out into fervice, though Piftol, who had excited io many, 
was no longer near him. STEEVENS. 

6 the humour of it.'} The folio reads, and there's tin end. 


7 an J iv f II all be fworn brothers to France. ] We fhould 
read, we'll all go/u.w brothers to Fiance, or, we 'tt all be fworn 
Irothtn in France. JOHNSON, 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 37 

It tnuft be as it may : though 8 patience be a tir'd 
.mare, yet fhe will plod. There muft be conclufions. 
Well, I cannot tell. 

Enter Pijlol, and Quickly* 

Sard. Here comes ancient Piftol, and his wife : 
.good corporal, be patient here. Hotfr now, mine 
Iioft Piftol ? 

PI/1. Bafetyke', call'ft thou me hoft ? 
Now, by this hand I fwear, I Icorn the term ; 
Nor fhall my Nell keep lodgers. 

^uick. No, by my troth, not long : for we cannot 
lodge and board a dozen or fourteen gentlewomen, 
that live honeftly by the prick of their needles, but it 
will be thought we keep a bawdy-houfe ftraight. ' O 


8 -patience le a frVV mare, ; ] The folio reads by cor- 
ruption, tired name ! from which fir T. Hanmer, fagacioufly 
enough, derived tired dame. Mr. Theobald retrieved from the 
quarto tired mare, the true reading. JOHNSON. 

9 j^^'tyke, ] Tike is a (mail kind of dog. STEEVENS. 

1 O well-a-day, lady, if be be not hewn n<nv !~\ I cannot un- 
derftand the drift of this expreflion. Jf he be not bewn, muft 
fignify, if he be not cut down -, and in that cafe, the very thing 
is fuppofed which Quickly was apprehenfive of. But I rather 
think her fright ariies upon feeing the fwords drawn : and I have 
ventured to make a flight alteration accordingly. If he le not 
drawn, for, if he has not his fword drawn t is an expreffion fa- 
niiliar to our poet. THEOBALD. 

I have not difturbed Mr. Theobald's emendation ; but yet I 
think we might read if he be not hewing. To hack and he-M is 
a common vulgar espreffioa. So, in If you knovj not me you kuow 
Nolody, by Heywood, 163?. " Bones o'me, he would hew it.'* 
Again, in K. Edward III." 1599 : 

'* The fin is more to hack and hew poor men." 
Again, in the metrical romance of Guy Earl of Warwick^ bl. ! 
no date : 

" The noble knights with fpear and fhield, 

" Lay all bewen in the field." 

The fame expreflion occurs many times in the fame book. 
After all (as the late Mr. Guthrie obferved) to be hewn might 
jnean, Co be drunk. There is yet a low phrafe in ufe on the fame 
) 3 occa-. 


well-a-day, lady, if he be not drawn now ! We fhall 
fee wilful adultery and murder committee!. 

Bard. 2 Good lieutenant, good corporal, offer no- 
thing -here. 

Nym. Pifti ! 

Pijl. Pifh for thee, J Iceland dog ! thou prick-ear'd 
cur of Iceland \ 

occafion, which is not much unlike ;t ; viz. " he is cut" 
" Such a one was cut a little laft night." 
So, in the #7//y Fair One, by Shirley, 1633 : 

" Then, fir, there is the cut of your leg. 
" that's when a man is drunk, is it not ? 
** Do not ftagger in your judgment, for this cut is the grace 
of your body." 

Again, in the London Cbaunticlcres, 1659 : " - when the cups 
of canary have made our heads trifle ; oh how we (hall foot it 
when we can fcarce ftand, and caper when we are cut in the leg !" 
Again, in Decker's Guls Hornbook, 1609 : " to accept the 
courteiy of the cellar when it is offered you by the drawers (and 
you muft know that kindnefs never creepes upon them but when 
they lee you almoft cleft to the fhoulders) &c." STEEVENS. 

1 Good lieutenant, ] We ftiould read, Good ancient, for it is 
Piftol to whom he addrertes himfelf. STEEVENS. 

.3 JJlanddog; ] I believe we fliould read Icelan.i dog. He 
feems to allude to an account credited in Elizabeth's time, that 
in the north there was a nation with human bodies and dogs 
heads. JOHNSON. 

The quartos confirm Dr. Johnfon's conjecture. STEEVENS. 
Iceland dog is probubly the true reading ; yet we often meet 
with ijland. Dray ton in his Moon-calfe mentions water-dogs, and 
iflands. And John Taylor dedicates his Sculler, " To the whole 
Icennel of Antichrifl's hounds, prielts, friars, monks, and jefuites, 
jnaftiffs, mongrels, i/lands, blood-hounds, bobtaile-tikes. 


So, in Ram- Alley i or Merry-Tricks, 1611; 
** - you fhall have jewels, 
" A baboon, a parrot, and an Izeland dog" 
Perhaps this kind of dog was then in vogue for the ladies to carry 
about with them. 

So, in Tat'tf Wife Men, and all the rejl Fooh .- 
Enter Levitia, cum Pedifequa, her periwig of dog* sbair white, &c." 
4 The head is a dog, 'tis a mermaid, half dog, half woman." 
" -"-No, 'tis but the hair of a dog infajhion, pulled from thefe 
Iceland dogs." 



Qttick. Good corporal Nym, fhew the valour of a 
man, and put up thy fvvord. 

Nym. 4 Will you fhogoff? I would have youfofas. 

P'lft. Solus, egregious dog ? O viper vile ! 
'Fhzfolus in thy moft marvellous face; 
The folus in thy teeth, and in thy throat, 
And in thy hateful lungs, yea, in thy maw, perdy ; 
And, which is worfe, within thy nafty mouth * ! 
I do retort the folus in thy bowels : 
6 For I can talk ; and Piftol's cock is up, 
And flafhiug fire will follow. 

Nym. 7 1 am not Barbaibn; you cannot conjure me. 
I have an humour to knock you indifferently well : If 
you grow foul with me, Piflol, I will fcour you with 
my rapier, as I may, in fair terms : If you would 
walk off, I would prick your guts a little, in good 
terms, as I may j and that's the riumour of it. 

Again : " for torturing of thefe Iceland imps, with eradicat- 
ing their fleeces, thereby to enjoy the roots." 
Again, in the Preface to Swetnam's Arraignment ef Wo^en, 1617 : 

" But if I had brought little dogs from Iceland^ or tine glavfes 
from Venice, &c." 

It appears from a proclamation in Rymcr's Fadera, that in the 
reign of Hen. V. the Englifli had a fifhery on the coafts of Nor- 
way and Iceland-, and Holinfhed, in his Defer Iption of Britain^ 
p. 231, lays, " we have fholts or curs dailie brought out of Ife- 
iand. STEEVENS. 

PL prick-ear* d cur is likewife in the lift of dogs enumerated in 
the Booke of Huntyng, &c. bl. no date : 

" trindle-tails and prick-ear'd curs." STEEVENS. 

* Will you fhog off? ] This cant word is ufed in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Coxcomb : 

*' Come, pr'ythee, let \isjhog ojf" 
Again, in Paf quill and Katharine, 1601 : 

" thus \tjhogges, " 5. e. thus it goes. STEEVENS. 

5 thy nalty mouth ! ] The quartos read : 

mefsful mouth. STEEVENS. 

6 For I can take ; ] I know not well what he can take. The 
quarto reads talk. In our author to take, is fometimes to blajtj 
which fenfe may ferve in this place. JOHNSON. 

7 / am not Barbafon ; you cannot conjure me.~\ Barlafon is the 
iiame of a dajmon mentioned in the Merry Wives of Windfor. 


D 4 Ptft^ 


Pift. O braggard vile, and damned furious wight ! 
The grave doth gape, and 8 doting death is near ; 
Therefore exhale. 

Bard. Hear me, hear me what I fay : he that 
ftrikes the firft flroke a I'll run him up to the hilts, as 
J am a foldier. 

Pift. An oath of mickle might ; and fury lhall 


Give me thy fift, thy fore-foot to me give ; 
Thy fpirits are moft tall. 

Nym. I will cut thy throat, one time or other, in 
fair terms ; that is the humour of it. 

Pift. Coupe k gorge, that is the word ? I defy thee 

hound of Crete, think'ft thou my fpoufe to get ? 
No ; to the fpital go, 

And from the powdering tub of infamy 
Fetch forth the lazar kite of Creflid's kind 9 , 
Doll Tear-fheet me by name, and her efpoufe : 

1 have, and I will hold, the quondam Quickly 

For the only ihe ; and Pauca, there's enough : 
go to '. 

Enter the Boy, 

Boy. Mine hoft Piftol, you muft come to my maf- 
ter, and you hoftefs ; he is very fick, and would 
to bed. Good Bardolph, put thy nofe between his 

* doting death is near ; ] The quarto has groaning death. 


9 the lazar kite of Creflid's kind.] The fame expref- 
fion occurs in Green's Card of Fancy, 1608 : " What courtefy 
is to be found in fuch kites of Crejjid's kind?" 
Again, in Gafcoigne's Dan Bartholomew of Bathe, 1587 : 

'* Nor feldom feene in kites of Creflides kindc." 
Shakefpeare might defign a ridicule on the hut of thefe paflages. 1 ' 


there's enough : go to. 

The firit folio read?, there's enough to go to. STEEVENS. 



iheets, and do the office of a warming-pan : faith, 
he's very ill. 

Bard. Away, you rogue. 

^uick. By my troth, he'll yield the crow a pudr 
ding one of thefe days : the king has kill'd his heart. 
-Good hufband, come home prefently. 

[Exit Quickly. 

Bard. Come, fhall I make you two friends ? We 
muft to France together ; Why, the devil, Ihould we 
keep knives to cut one another's throats ? 

Pi/t. Let floods o'erfwell, and fiends for food howl 


Nym. You'll pay me the eight fhillings I won of 
you at betting ? 

Pip. * Bafe is the flave that pays. 

Nym. That now I will have ; that's the humour of 

Pip. As manhood lhall compound ; Pufli home. 


Bard. By this fword, he that makes the firft thrufl, 
I'll kill him ; by this fword, I will. 

Pijt. Sword is an oath, and oaths muft have their 

Bard. Corporal Nym, an thou wilt be friends, be 
friends : an thou wilt not, why then be enemies with 
me too. Pry'thee, put up. 

Nym. I fhall have my eight Ihillings, I won of you 
at betting ? 

Pift. A noble ihalt thou have, and prefent pay ; 
And liquor likewife will I give to thee, 
And friendihip mall combine, and brotherhood : 
I'll live by Nym, and Nym lhall live by me ; 
Is not this juft ? for I fhall futler be 

2 Bafe is the flaw that fays.] Perhaps this expreflion was pro- 
verbial. I meet with it in The fair Maid of the Weft, by Hey- 
Wood, 1631 : 

" My motto {hall be, Bafe it the man that pays." 


42 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Unto the camp, and profits will accrue. 
Give me thy hand. 

Nym. I lhall have my noble ? 

Pift. In cafh mod juftly paid. 

Nym. Well then, that's the humour of it. 

Re-enter Quickly. 

Quick. As ever you came of women, come in 
quickly to Sir John : Ah, poor heart ! he is fo ftiak'd 
of a burning quotidian tertian, that it is moft lament- 
-able to behold. Sweet men, come to him. 

Nym. The king hath run bad humours on the 
knight, that's the even of it. 

Pift. Nym, thou haft fpoke the right ; 
His heart is fradted, and corroborate. 

Nym. The king is a good king : but it muft be as 
it may ; he paflfes fome humours, and careers. 

Pijl. Let us condole the knigh.t ; for ? lambkins, 
we will live. [Exeunt, 


Enter Exeter, Bedford, and Wejlmoreland. 

Bed. 'Fore God, his grace is bold, to truft thefc 


Exe. They fliall be apprehended by and by. 
Weft. How fmooth and even they do bear them-r 

felves ! 

As if allegiance in their bofoms fat, 
Crowned with faith, and conftant loyalty. 

Bed. The king hath note of all that they intend, 
By interception which they dream not of. 

Jxe. Nay, but the man that was his bedfellow % 


3 thai wai kis bedfellow,] So, Holinflied. " The (aid Lord 
was in fuch favour with the king, that he admitted him 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 43 

Whom he hath cloy'd and grac'd 4 with princely 


That he fhould, for a foreign purfe, fo fell 
His fovereign's life * to death and treachery ! 

[Trumpets found. 

Enter the King, Scroop, Cambridge, Grey, and attendants. 

K' Henry. Now fits the wind fair, and we will 


My lord of Cambridge, and my kind lord of Mafham, 
And you, my gentle knight, give me your thoughts: 
Think you not, that the powers we bear with us, 
Will cut their paflage through the force of France ; 
Doing the execution, and the aft, 
* For which we have in head aflembled them ? 


fometime to be his bedfellow" The familiar appellation 
fcllo<iv, wliich appears ftrange to us, was common among the an- 
cient nobility. There is a letter from \hzjixth earl of North- 
umberland (flill preferved in the collection of the prefent duke) 
addrefled ** To his beloved coufyn Thomas Arundel, &c." which 
begins, " Bedfcllo---!, after my moft harte recommendacion :" 
So, in a comedy called A Knack to know a Knave, 1594 : 
Yet, for thou waft once bedfellow to a king, 
And that I iov'd thee as my fecond felf, &c." 



n Look about Tou^ 1600 : 

if I not err 

Thou art the prince's ward. 

1 am his ward, his chamberlain and bedfellow" 

n Cynthia's Revenge, 1613 : 

Her I'll beftow, and without prejudice, 
On thee alorc, my noble bedfellow" STEEVENS. 
* cloy'd andgra<?d~~'\ Thus the quarto ; the folio reads 
JulTd and cloy'd. Perhaps dull'd is a miftake for dofd. 


s _/,, death an d treachery !~\ Here the quartos infert a line 
omitted in all the following editions. 

Exet. O ! the lord of Majbam ! JOHNSON. 
6 For <whicb ive have in head ajjembled them ?~\ This is not an 
Englifh phrafeology. I am perfuaded Shakefpeare wrote : 

For luhich ive have in aid ajfembled them f 
alluding to the tenures of thofe times. WARByRTON. 


Scroop. No doubt, my liege, if each man do his 

K. Henry. I doubt not that : fince we are well per- 


We carry not a heart with us from hence, 
That grows not in a fair confent with ours ; 
Nor leave not one behind, that doth not wifh 
Succefs and conqueft to attend on us. 

Cam. Never was monarch better fear'd, and lov'd, 
Than is your majefty ; there's not, I think, a fubjed:, 
That fits in heart-grief and uneafinefs 
Under the fweet fhade of your government. 

Grey. Even thofe, that were your father's enemies, 
Have fteep'd their galls in honey ; and do ferve you 
With 7 hearts create of duty and of zeal. 

K. Henry. We therefore have great caufe of thanks 

fulnefs ; 

And fhall forget the office of our hand, 
Sooner than quittance of defert and merit, 
According to the weight and worthinefs. 

Scroop. So fervice fhall with fleeled finews toil j 
And labour fhall refrefh itfelf with hope, 
To do your grace inceflant fervices. 

K. Henry. We judge no lefs. Uncle of Exetei'j 
Enlarge the man committed yeflerday, 
That rail'd againfl our perfon : we confider, 
It was excefs of wine that fet him on ; 
And, on his 8 more advice, we pardon him. 

Scroop. That's mercy, but too much fecurity : 
Let him be punifh'd, fovereign ; left example 
Breed, by his fufTerance, more of luch a kind, 

K. Henry. O, let us yet be merciful. 

It is ftrange that the commentator fhould forget a word fo 
eminently obfervable in this writer, as bead, tor an army formed. 


7 hearts create ] Hearts compounded or made up of duty and. 
zeal. JOHNSON. 

* more advice^ ] On bis return to more coolnefs of mind. 



K I N G H E N R Y V. 45 

Cam. So may your highnefs, and yet punilh too. 

Grey. Sir, you fliew great mercy, if you give him 

After the tafte of much correction. 

K. Henry. Alas, your too much love and care of 


Are heavy orifons 'gainft this poor wretch. 
If little faults, 9 proceeding on diftemper, 
Shall not be winkM at, ' how lhall we ftretch our eye, 
When capital crimes, chew'd, fwallovv'd,aad digefted, 
Appear before us ? We'll yet enlarge that man, 
Though Cambridge, Scroop, and Grey, in their 

dear care 

And tender prefervation of our perfon, 
Would have him punifh'd. And now to our French 

caufcs ; 
Who are the late commiffioners ? 

Cam. I one, my lord ; 
Your highnefs bade me afk for it to-day. 

Scroop. So did you me, my liege. 

Grey. And me, my royal fovereign. 

9 proceeding on diflemfer ] i. e. fudden paffions. 


Perturbation of mind. Temper is equality or calmncfs of 
mind, from an equipoife or due mixture of paffions. Diftemper 
of mind is the predominance of a paffion, as dijiemper of body is 
the predominance of a. humour. JOHNSON. 

It has been juil faid by the king that it was exccfs of wine that 
Jet him on, and dljiemper may therefore mean intoxication. D:f- 
tcmper\l in //'//.wr, is ftiil a common exprellion. Chapman in his 
epicedium on the Death of Prince Henry, t6l2, has perfonified 
this difiemper: 

" Frantick dljlcmper, and hare-ey'd unreft." 
And Brabantio fays, that Roderigo is : 

" Full of fupper and dijlemp'rin^r draughts." 
Again, Hoiinihed, Vol. III. p. 626, tc gave him wine and 
ilrong drink in fuch exceffive fort, that he was therewith dijlem- 
perciJ, and reel'd as he went." STEEVENS. 

1 hovj Jball ive Jtretch our eve, ] If we may not ivink at 
fmall faults,, ko-iv iviae niujl ive open our yes at great. JOHNSON. 

#. Hetty. 


K. Henry. Then, Richard, earl of Cambridge, there 

is yours ; 
There yours, lord Scroop of Mafharn ; and, fir 


Grey of Northumberland, this fame is yours : 
Read them ; and know, I know your vvorthinefs. 
My lord of Weftmoreland, and uncle Exeter, 
We will aboard to-night. Why, how now, gentle- 
men ? 

What fee you in thofe papers, that you lofe 
So much complexion ? look ye, how they change 1 
Their cheeks are paper. Why, what read you there, 
That hath fo cowarded and chas'd your blood 
Out of appearance ? 

Cam. I do confefs my fault ; 
And do fubmit me to your highnefs' mercy. 

Grey. Scroop. To which we all appeal. 

K. Henry. The mercy, that was * quick in us but 


By your own counfel is fupprefs'd and kill'd : 
You muft not dare, for fhame, to talk of mercy ; 
For your own reafons turn into your bofoms, 
As dogs upon their matters, worrying them. 
See you, my princes, and my noble peers, 
Thefe Englifh monfters ! My lord Cambridge here, 
You know, how apt our love was, to accord 
To furnifli him with all appertinents 
Belonging to his honour ; and this man 
Hath, for a few light crowns, lightly confpir'd, 
And fworn unto the practices of France, 
To kill us here in Hampton : to the which, 
This knight, no lefs for bounty bound to us 
Than Cambridge is, hath likewife fworn. But O I 
What fhall I fay to thee, lord Scroop ; thou cruel, 
Ingrateful, favage, and inhuman creature ! 
Thou, that didil bear the key of all my counfels, 
That knew'ft the very bottom of my foul, 

* "quick i ] That is, living. JOHNSON. 


I N G HENRY V. 4? 

That almoft might'ft have coin'd me into gold, 
Would'ft thou have pradtis'd on me for thy ufe ? 
May it be poffible, that foreign hire 
Could out of thee extradt one fpark of evil, 
That might annoy my finger ? 'tis fo flrange, 
That, ' though the truth of it {lands off as grofs 
As black from white, my eye will fcarcely fee it. 

4 Treafon, and murder, ever kept together, 
As two yoke-devils fworn to cither's purpofe, 

5 Working fo grofsly in a natural caufe, 
That admiration did not whoop at them : 

But thou, 'gainft all proportion, didft bring inr 

Wonder, to wait on treafon, and on murder : 

And whatfoever cunning fiend it was, 

That wrought upon thee fo prepofteroufly, 

He hath got the voice in hell for excellence : 

And other devils, that fuggeft by treafons, 

Do botch and bungle up damnation 

With patches, colours, and with forms being fetched 

From glittering femblances of piety ; 

But 6 he, that temper'd thee, bade thee ftand up, 

Gave thee no inftance why thou Ihouldft do treafon, 

Unlefs to dub thee with the name of traitor. 

If that fame daemon, that hath gull'd thee thus,. 

3 though the truth fiand off as grofs 

As black and ivhite , ] 

Though the truth be as apparent and vifibJe as black and white 
contiguous to each other. To Jland off is etre rekve, to be pro- 
minent to the eye. as the ftrong parts of a picture. JOHNSON. 

+ Treafon and murder y j What follows to the end of this 

fpeech is additional fuice the firit edition. POPE. 

5 Working fo grofsly ] Grofsly for commonly ^ which the Ox- 
ford editor not underitanding, alters it to dofdy. 


Grofly is neither clofely nor commonly, but palpably ; with a 
plain and vifible connexion of caufe and effect. JOHNSON. 

he that temper'd thee,} Though temper'd may ftand for 
formed or moulded, yet I fancy tempted was the author's word, for 
it anfwers better tofuggcji in the oppofition. JOHNSON. 

Temper* d) I believe, is the true reading. Falftaff fays of Shal- 
low, that he has him " tempering between his thumb and finger." 



Should with his lion gait walk the whole world^ 
He might return to vafly Tartar back 7 , 
And tell the legions I ean never win 
A foul fo eafy as that Englishman's. 

8 Oh, how haft thou with jealoufy infefted 
The fweetnefs of affiance ! Shew men dutiful ? 
Why, fo didft thou : Seem they grave and learned ? 
Why, fo didft thou : Come they of noble family ? 
Why, fo didft thou : Seem they religious ? 
Why, fo didft thou : Or are they fpare in diet ;, 
Free from grofs paflion, or of mirth, or anger ; 
Conftant in fpirit, not fwerving with the blood ; 

9 Garnifh'd and deck'd in modeft complement ; 
* Not working with the eye, without the ear, 


1 vajly Tartar] i.e. Tartarus, the fabled place of future 
puniftiment. So, in Hey wood's Brazen Age , 1613: 

" With Aconitum that in Tartar Iprings." STEEVENS. 
8 Ob, how haft thou with jealoufy infcfled 

The fwcetnefs cf affiance /] 

Shakefpeare urges this aggravation of the guilt of treachery with 
great judgment. One of the worft confequences of breach of 
truil is the diminution of that confidence which makes the happi- 
nefs of life, and the diflemination of fufpicion, which is the poi- 
fon of fociety. JOHNSON. 

9 Garni/b'd and deck'd in modcjl complement ; ] Modeft comple- 
ment, that is, fulnefs. WAR BURTON. 

This note will not much help the reader, unlefs he knows to 
what fulnefs is to be applied. I take the meaning to be this^ 
The king, having mentioned Scroop's temperance in diet, 
pafles on to his decency in drefs, and fays, that he was decked 
in mtdeft complement', that is, he was decorated with ornaments, 
but fuch as might be worn without vain oltentation. Comple- 
ment means fomething more than is necefiary ; fo complement in 
language is what we fay ad condliandam gratiam t more than is 
ilri&ly or literally meant. JOHNSON. 

Complement has in this inftance the fame fenfe as in Love's 
"Labour's Loft, Ac"t I. Complements, in the age of Shakefpeare, 
meant the fame as acfomplijbments :n the prcfcnt one. STEE VENS* 

1- Not working with the eye without the ear, ] He is here 
giving the character of a complete gentleman, and fays, he did 
not truft the eye without the confirmation of his ear. But when 
men have eye-light proof, they think they have fufficient evi- 



And, but in purged judgment, trailing neither ? 
Such, * and fo finely bbulted, didft thou feem : 
And thus thy fall hath left a kind of blot, 
3 To mark the full-fraught man, the beft endu'd, 
With fome fufpicion. I will weep for thee ; 
For this revolt/of thine, methinks, is like 

Another fall of man. Their faults are open, 

Arreft them to the anfwer pf the law ; 
And God acquit them of their practices ! 

Exe. I arreft thee of high treafon, by the name of 
Richard earl of Cambridge. 

I arreft thee of high treafon, by the name of Henry 
lord Scroop of Mafham. 

I arreft thee of high treafon, by the name of Tho- 
mas Grey, knight of Northumberland. 

Scroop. Our purpofes God juftly hath difcover'd ; 
And I repent my fault, more than my death ; 
Which I befeech your highnefs to forgive, 
Although my body pay the price of it. 

dence, and do not flay for the confirmation of an hear-fay. 
Prudent men, on the contrary, won't trull the credit of the ear, 
till it be confirmed by the demonflration of the eye. And this 
is that conduit for which the king would here commend him. So 
that we mufl read : 

Not wording with the ear, but with the eye. 


The author's meaning I fhould have thought not fo difficult 
to find, as that an emendation fhould have been propofed. The 
king means to fay of Scroop, that he was a cautious man, who 
knew that fronti nulla fides, that a fpecious appearance was de- 
ceitful, and therefore did not work with the eye without the ear, 
did not trufl the air or look of any man till [he had tried him by 
enquiry and converfation. Surely this is the character of a pru- 
dent man. JOHNSON, 

* andfo finely boulted, dldjl thou f cent :~\ i.e. refined or 

purged from all faults. POPE. 

Boithed\$ the fame with Jifted, and has confequently the mean- 
ing of refined. JOHNSON. 

3 To make the full-fraught man,'} We fhould read : 

To mark lie full-fraught maa, 
\. e. marked by the blot he fpeaks of in the preceding line. 

VOL. VI. E Cam. 


Cam. * For me, the gold of France did not feduce; 
Although I did admit it as a motive, 
The fooner to effeft what I intended : 
But God be thanked for prevention ; 
Which I in fufferance heartily will rejoice, 
Befeeching God, and you, to pardon me. 

Grey. Never did faithful fubjedt more rejoicp 
At the difcovery of moft dangerous treafon, 
Than I do at this hour joy o'er myfelf, 
Prevented from a damned enterprize : 
J My fault, but not my body, pardon, fovereign. 

K. Henry. God quit you in his mercy ! Hear your 


You have confpir'd againft our royal perfon, 
Join'd with an enemy prociaim'd, and Irom his coffers 
Keceiv'd the golden earned of our death ; 
Wherein you would have fold your king to flaughterj 
His prince^ and his peers to fervitude, 

4 For me, t}x gold of France did not feduce ;] Hojinflied, p. 549, 
ofcferves from Hull, that " diverfe write that Richard earle or* 
Cambridge did not confpire wirh the lord Scroope and Thoma^ 
jGraie for the murthering of king Henrie to pleafe the French 
king wirhall, but onlie to the intent to exalt to the crowne his 
brother-in-law Edmunde E. of March as heire to Lionell duke 
cf Clarence : after the death of which earle of March, for di- 
yetfe fecret impediments not able to have iflue, the E. of Cam- 
bridge was fure that the crowne fhould come to him by his wife, 
and to his children of her begotten. And therefore (as was 
thought) he rather confeffed himfelfe for ueede of monie to be 
corrupted by the French king, than he would declare his inward 
Tnind, &c. which if it were efpied, he faw plainlie that the earle 
of March fhould have tailed of the fame cuppe that he had 
drunken, and what Ihould hare come to his owne children, he 
much doubted, Sec." STEEVE^S. 

5 My fault, ] One of the confpirators againft queen Eliza- 
beth, I think Parry, concludes his letter to her with thcfc words, 
a culpa, but not a pocna, a'ifolve me, n;ojl d\ar lady. This 
letter was much read at that time, and the author doubtlefs co- 
pied it. 

This whole fcene was much enlarged and improved after the 
firft edition ; the particular iafertkma it would be tedious to men- 
tion, ind tediouc without much ufe. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 51 

His fuhj.ed:s to oppreflion and contempt, 

And his whole kingdom unto defolation. 

Touching our pcrfon, feck \ve no revenge ; 

But we our kingdom's fafety muft fo tender, 

Whofe ruin you three fought, that to her laws 

We do deliver you. 6 Get you. therefore he ace, 

Poor miferable wretches, to your death : 

The tafte whereof, God, of his mercy, give you 

Patience to endure, and true repentance 

Of all your dear offences ! Bear them hence. 

Now, lords, for France ; the enterprizc w hereof 

Shall be to you, as us, like glorious. 

We doubt not of a fair and lucky war; 

Since God fo gracioufly hath brought to ligtjt 

This dangerous treafon, lurking in our way, 

To hinder our beginnings, we doubt not now, 

But every rub is fmoothed in our way. 

Then, forth, dear countrymen j let us deliver 

Our puiflance into the hand of God, 

Putting it ftraight in expedition. 

Chearly to fea ; the ligns of war advance : 

3 No king of England, if not king of France. 


)v.ickly\s boitfe in Eaftcleap. 
Enter Pijlol, fym, Bardotyb, Boy, and Quid'fy. 

Qu'ukly. Pr'ythee, honcy-fwee.t Jiufband, let me 
bripg thee to Staines. 

6 Get you therefore hence,] So, in Holinflied ; " Get ye 
Jience therefore, ye poor raiierable wretches, to the receiving 
of your juft reward : wherein God's jua'iefty give you grace, 
fe"c-." STEEVENS. 

7 No king of EnglaiiJi if not k'ng of France.] So in the old 

play before that ot Shakelpcarct 
** If not king of France, 

then of nothing mutt I he king." 

K 2 Pijl. 


Pi/I. No ; for my manly heart doth yern. 
Bardolph, be blith; Nym,roufe thy vaunting veins ; 
Boy, brittle thy courage up ; for Falftaff he is dead, 
And we muft yern therefore. 

^ Sard. Would, I were with him, wherefome'er he is, 
either in heaven, or in hell ! 

Quick. Nay, fure, he's not in hell ; he's in Arthur's 
bofom, if ever man went to Arthur's bolbm. 'A 
made a 8 finer end, and went away, 9 an it had been 


8 finer end,] for final. JOHNSON. 

9 an it bad been any chrifom'd child: ] The old quarto 
has it crifomV d child. 

" The chryfom was no more than the white cloth put on the 
w baptifed child." .See Johnfon^s Canons of Ecclef. Lavj y 


I have fomewhere (but cannot recollect where) met with this 
further account of it ; that the chryfom was allowed to be car- 
ried out of the church, to enwrap inch children as were in too 
weak a condition to be borne thither ; the chryfom being fup- 
pofed to make every place holy. This cuftom would rather 
ftrengthen the allufion to the weak condition of FalftafF. 

The child itfelf was fometimes called a chryfom^ as appears from 
the following paflage in The Fancies, 1638: " the boy furely 
I ever faid was a very chrifome in the thing you wot." 
Again, in The Wits, by Sir W. Davenant, 1637 : 

** - and would'tl not join thy halfpenny 
* To fend for milk for the poor chryfome" 
Again, in fir W. Davenant's Juft Italian, 1630 : 
- and they do awe 
" The chryfome babe." 

Again, in his Albovine, 1629 : " Sir, I would fain depart in 
quiet like other young cbryfomes." Again, in Tour Five Gal- 
lants, by Middleton : ** a fine old man to his father, it 
would kill his heart i' faith : he'd away like a chryfom." 


In the Liturgie, 2 E. 6. Form of private Baptifm, is this di- 
rection. " Then the minifter mail put the white vefture, 
" commonly called the chrifome, upon the child," feV. The 

explains this ceremony 
>tizatorum, ftatiin atque 
<ia dejlucret, capita pannn 

canJido obvolvebantur, qui oftava demum die ab iis auterebatur." 
During the time therefore of their wearing this vefture, the chil- 
dren were, I fuppofe, called cbrifoms. One is regiflered under 


' commonly called tne cbnjome, upon 
Gloflary of Du Cange, vide Chrifmale, < 
thus : ** Quippe olim ut et hodie, bapt 
chrifmate in fronte ungebantur, ne chrifmc, 


any chrifom'd child ; 'a parted even juft between 
twelve and one, e'en at ' turning o'the tide : for 
after I faw him l fumble with the fheets, and play 
with flowers, and fmile upon his fingers' ends, I knew 
there was but one way 5 ; 4 for his nofe was as lharp as 

a pen, 

this defer! ption in the regifter of Tbatcbam, Berks, 160^. 
[Hearne's Append, to the Hiftory of Glajlonbury, p. 275.] *' A 
younge crifome being a man child, beinge found drowned," &c. 

1 turning o'tbe tide ] It has been a very old opinion, 
which Mead, de imperio foils, quotes, as if he believed it, that 
nobody dies but in the time of ebb : half the deaths in London 
confute the notion ; but we find that it was common among the 
women of the poet's time. JOHNSON. 

* fumble ivitb thejheets, ] This paflage is burlefqued by 

Beaumont and Fletcher, in The Captain : 

** i. How does my mailer ? 

"2. Faith, he lies drawing on apace* 

" i. That's an ill fign. 

" 2. And fumbles with the pots too. 

*' i. Then there's no -way but one with him." 
In the fpurious play of King John, 161 1, when Faulconbridge 
fees that prince at the point ot deith, he lays : 

" O piercing fight ! he fumbletb in the mouth, 

" His Ipeech doth fail." 

and Pliny in his chapter on Tie Signcs of Death, makes mention 
of " Q. fumbling and pleiting or the bed-cloths." See P. Holland's 
Tranjlation, chap. li. STEEVENS. 

The fame indication of approaching death is enumerated by 
Celfus, Lommius, Hippocrates, and Galen. The teftimony of 
the latter is fuffident to fliew that fuch a fymptom is by no means 
imaginary. " Manus ante faciem attoliere, mufcas quafi venari 
inani opera, floccos carpere de veftibus, vel pariete. Et in fe- 
ipfo hoc expertus fuit Galenus. Quum enim, &c." Van Swieten 
Comm. t. ii. fed. 708. COLLINS. 

3 / knew there ivas but one 'May ; ] I believe this phrafe is pro- 
verbial. I meet with it again in, If you know not me, you know 
Nobody, 1613 : 

" I heard the do&ors whifper it in fecret 
" There is no way but one." STEEVENS. 

4 for his nofe was as Jliarp as a fen, and a table of green 
folds.] Thefe words, and a table of green-fields, are not to be 

found in the old editions of 1600 and 1608. This nonfenfe 

got into all the tallowing editions by a plealant n\iilake of the 

E 3 %e 

54 K I N G H E N R V V. 

a pen, and 'a babbled of green fields. How now, Sir- 
John ? quoth I : \vhat r man ! be of good cheer. So 

'a cried 

ffoge editors, vrho printed from the common piece-meal writ-' 
ten p.irts in the play-houfe. A table was here directed to be 
brought in (it being a fcene in a tavern where they drink at 
parting) and this direction crept into the text from the margin. 
Greenfield was the name of the property-man in that time, who 
.furniihed implements,' &c. for the actors, A table of Greenfields. 

Po re. 

So reafonable nn account of this blunder Mr. Theobald 
vrould not accjuiefce in. He thought a tnble of Greenfield'' s part 
of the text, only corrupted, and that it fhould be read, be 
lalblcd of green fields, bfcaufe men do Ib in the ravings of a ca- 
lenture. But be did not confider how ill this agrees with the 
ntuure of the knight's illnefs, who was now in no babbling hu- 
jhour ; and fa far from wanting cooling in green fields, that his 
feet were cpld, and he juft expiring. WAR BUR TON. 

Upon this paflage Mr. Theobald has a note that fills a page, 
which I omit in pity to my readers, lince he only endeavours 
to prove, xvhat I think every reader perceives to be true, that* 
at this time no table could be wanted. Mr. Pope, in an appen- 
dix to his own edition in i zmo, feems to admit Theobald's emen- 
dation, which we would have- allowed to be uncommonly happy, 
had we not been prejudiced againit it by Mr. Pope's firft note, 
with which, as it excites merriment, we are loath to part. 


Had the former editors been apprized, that table, in our au- 
thor, iignifies a pocket-book, I believe they would have re- 
tained it, with the following alteration; for tils ?wfe was as 
Jbarp as a pen upon a table of grew fe!!s*>Qn tallt-books, filver 
or ileel pens, very fliarp pointed, were formerly and are Hill- 
fixed to the backs or covers. Mother Quickly compares Fal- 
IfofPs nofe (which in dying perfons grows thin and* fharp) to' 
<",.e of thofe pens, very properly, and ilie meant probably to 
have faid, on a table-book with a JJwgreen cover 1 , or Jbagreen- 
/'/,; bur, in her ufual blundering way, fhe calls it a table of 
grrtn fells, or a table covered with green-jkiu, which the blun- 
dering tranfcriber turned into green fields, and our editors have 
turned the prettieft blunder in Snakefpeare quite out of doors. 


Green fe/h and green ficlh might anciently have had the fame 
meaning. So, in the countcfs of Pembroke's fragile of Auto* 
/>, 1593, izmo: 

' As juice of Tynan fhe!L 
" When clarified well,. 

" To 


*a cried out God, God, God ! three or four times : 
now I, to comfort him, bid him 'afhould not think 
tef God J ; I hop'd, there was no need to trouble him- 
felf with any fuch thoughts yet : So 'a bade me lay 
more cloaths OR his feet : I put my hand into the 
bed, and felt them, and they were as cold as any Hone ; 
then I felt to his knees, and fo upward, and upward, 
arid all was as 6 cold as any (lone. 

' To wolleof fineit>/</f 

" A purple glofle it yields." STEEVE?TS< 

$ no-iv I y to comfort him, bade him * a Jbould not thin 
Perhaps Shakefpeare Was indebted to the following flory \\\ //'//., 
Fits, and Fancies, &c. 1595, for this very charadteriitic exhor- 
tation : ** A gentlewoman fearing to be drovvneJ, faid, now Jefu 
receive our foules ! Soft, rrtiilrefsj anfa'ered the waterman. I trow 
ivr are not come to that pajfi yet." MALONE. 

6 cold at any fione.\ Such is the end of FalftafF, from 
whom Shakefpeare had promiied us in his epilogue to Henry W. 
that we fhould receive more entertainment. It happened to 
Shakefpeare as to other writers, to have his imagination 
crowded with a tumultuary confufioo of images, which, while 
they were yet unforted and unexamined, teemed fufficient to 
furnifh a long train of incidents, and a new variety of merriment ; 
but which, when he was to produce them to view, fhrunk fud- 
denly from him, or could not be accommodated to his general 
defign. That he once defigned to have brought Falftaff on the 
fcene again, we know from himfelf ; but whether he could con- 
trive no train of adventures fuitable to his character, or could 
match him with no companions likely to quicken his humour, 
of could open no new vein of pleafantry, and was afraid to conti- 
nue the fame ftrain left it ihould not find the fame reception, h 
has here for ever difcarded him, and made hade to difpatch him, 
perhaps for the fame reafon for which Addilbn killed Sir Roger, 
that no other hand might attempt to exhibit him. 

Let meaner authors learn from this example, that it is dan- 
gerous to fell the bear which is yet not hunted ; to promife to 
the public what they have not written. 

This difappointment probably inclined queen Elizabeth to 
command the poet to produce him once again, and to (hew 
him in love or courtfhip. This was indeed a new fource of hu- 
mour, and produced a new play irom the former characters. 


E 4 Nym. 

56 KING H E N R Y V. 

Nytn. They fay, he cried out of fack. 

Quick. Ay, that 'a did. 

Bard* And of women. , 

Quick. Nay, that 'a did not. 

Boy. Yes, that 'a did ; and faid, they were devils 

>uick t 'A could never abide carnation ; 'twas a 
colour he never lik'd. 

Boy. 'A faid once, the devil would have him about 

)uick. 'A did in fome fort, indeed, handle wo- 
men : but then he was rheumatic ; and talk'd of the 
whore of Babylon. 

Boy. Do you not remember, 'a faw a flea flick 
upon Bardolph's nofe ; and 'a faid, it was a black foul 
burning in hell-fire ? 

Bard. Well, the fuel is gone, that maintain'd that 
fire : that's all the riches I got in his fervice. 

Nym. Shall we fliog ? the king will be gone from 

Pift. Come, let's away. My love, give me thy lips. 
Look to my chattels, and my moveables : 
7 Let fenfes rule ; the word is, 8 Pitch and pay, 


7 Let fenfes rule ; ] I think this is wrong, but how to re- 
form it I do not well fee. Perhaps we may read : 

Let fenfe us rule. 

Piftol is taking leave of his wife, and giving her advice as hekifles 
her ; he fees her rather weeping than attending, and fuppofing 
that in her heart fhe is ftill longing to go with him part of the 
way, he cries, Let fenfe us rule y that is, let us not give way to 
foolifhfondnefS) but be ruled by our better underjtanding. He then 
continues his directions for her conduct in his abience. 


Let fenfes rule."] TfuYevidently means, let prudence govern you : 
conduft yourfelf fenfibly ; and it agrees with what precedes and 
what follows. STEEVENS. 

* Pitch and pay ;] The caution was a very proper one to 
Mrs. Quickly, who had fuffered before, by letting Falflaff run 



Truft none ; 

For oaths are ftraws, men's faiths are wafer-cakes, 

And hold-fail is the only dog, my duck ; 

s Therefore, caveto be thy counfellor. 

Go, " clear thy cryftals. Yoke-fellows in arms, 

Let us to France ! like horfe-leeches, my boys ; 

To fuck, to fuck, the very blood to fuck ! 

in her debt. The fame expreffion occurs in Blurt Mafler Con- 
flable, 1602 : 

" I will commit you, fignior, to my houfe; but will you 
pitch and pay, or will your vvorfliip run" 
So, again, in Herod and Antipater, 1622: 

" he that will purchafe this, 

" Mutt, pitch and pay" 

Again, in 7 he Majlive, an ancient collection of epigrams : 

' Sufan when fhe firft bore fway, 

" Had for one night a French crown, pitch and pay" 

Old Tufler, in his defcription of Norwich, tells us it is 

*' A city trim 

" Where Grangers well, may feeme to dwell, 
" That pitch andpaie, or keepe their daye." 
John Florio fays, " Pitch and paie, and goe your waie." 

One of the old laws of Blackwell-hall, was, that, " a penny 
le paid by the owner of every bale of cloth for pitching" 

9 Therefore, caveto be thy counfellor. The old quartos read : 

Therefore Cophetua be thy councillor. STEEVENS. 
1 clear thy cryjlah. ] Dry thine eyes : but I think it may 
better mean in this place, ivajh thy glafjes. JOHNSON. 

The firft explanation is certainly the true one. So, in Tie 
Gentkman Ufier, by Chapman, 1602 : 

'* an old wife's eye 

" Is a blue chryjlal full of forcery." 
Again, in A Match at Midnight, 1633 : 

'* ten thouiand Cupids 

*' Methought fat playing on that pair of chryftah?* 
Again, in The Double Marriage, by B. and Fletcher : 

" ileep, you fweet glafles, 

" An everlafting {lumber dole thofe cbryftah" 
Again, in Coriolanus, act III. fc. 2 : 

" the glaffes of my fight." 

The old quartos 1600 and 1608, read : 

dear up thy chr/Jfals. SrEEVKxs. 

58 K I N G H E N R V V. 

Boy. And that is but unwholefome food, th'ey fay. 

Pift. Touch her foft mouth, and march. 

Bard. Fa re we 1, beliefs. 

Nym. I cannot kifs, that is the humour of it ; but 

Pift. Let houfewifry appear ; * keep clofe, I thee' 

<%uick. Farewel ; adieu. [Exeunt. 


The French kings paldce; 

Enter the French king, the Dauphin, the duke of Bar- 
gundy, and the Conjlable. 

Fr. King. Thus come the Englilh with full power 

upon us ; 
3 And more than carefully it us concerns, 

4 keep clofe, ] The quartos 1600 and 1608 read : 

keep faft thy baggie boe, 

which certainly is not nonfenfe, as the fame expreflioa is tried by 
Shirky in his 'Gentleman of Venice : 

'* -the courtifans of Venice, 

" Shall keep their bugle bowcs for thee, dear uticle." 
Perhaps, indeed, it is a Scotch term ; for in Ane vsrle excellent 
anddeltSlainiTreailfeintitulit Philotus, &i: printed at Edinburgh, 
1603, I find it again : 

" What reck to tak the %///-&>, 

** My bonieburd, for anes." 

The reader may fuppofe bungle bot to be juft what he pleafes. 


3 And more than carefully it us concerns,] This was a bulincfs 
indeed, that required more than care to dilcharge it. I am per- 
fuaded Shakefpeare wrote : 

more than carelefly 

The king is fuppoied to hint here at the Dauphin's wanton affront 
in fending over tennis-balls to Henry ; which arifing from over- 
great confidence of their own power, or contempt of their ene- 
mies, would naturally breed carele/Jnefe. WARBURTO.V, 

I do not fee any defect in the prefent reading : more than care- 
fully is with more than common care ; a phrafe of the fame kind 
with letter than cw//, JOHNSON. 



*f 6 anfwer royally in our defences. 

Therefore the dukes of Berry, and of Bretagne, 

Of Brabant, and of Orleans; fhall make forth, 

And you, prince Dauphin, with all fwiftdifpatch, 

To line,' and new repair, our towns of war, 

With men of courage, and with means defendant : 

For England his approaches makes as fierce, 

As waters to the fucking of a gulph. 

It fits us then, to be as provident 

As fear may teach us, out of late examples 

Left by the fatal arid neglected EnglriK 

Upon our fields. 

Dau. My moft redoubted father, 
It is moft meet we arm us 'gainft the foe : 
For peace itfelf fiiould not to dull a kingdom, 
(Though war, nor no known quarrel, were in quef- 


But that defences, muf!ers> preparations, 
Should be fnaintain'd, affembled, and collected, 
As were -a war in expectation. 
Therefore; I fay, 'tis meet we all go forth, 
To view the (rck and feeble parts of France : 
And let us do it with no fhew of fear ; 
No, with no more, than- if we heard that England 
Were bulled * with a Whitfun morris-dance : 
For, my good liege, fhe is fo idly king'd s , 
Her fcepter fo fantaftically borne 
By a vain, giddy, (hallow, humourous youth, 
That fear attends her not. 

Con. O peace, prince Dauphin \ 
I You are too much miilaken in this king : 

* Were bufied ] The 410 1608 reack, were tn*l>ltd 

s - -fa idly king'd,] Shakefpeare is not fingular in his ufe of 
this verb to king. I find it in YVarner's^/4/os'jjEa^/a/^, B. VIII. 
chap, xlii : 

" and k'myfd his lifter's Con." STEEVENS. 

6 You are too much mljlaken in this king :] This part is mucl) 
enlarged fince the firft writing, POPE, 



Queftion your grace the late ambaffadors, 
With what great ftate he heard their embafly, 
How well fupply'd with noble counfellors, 

7 How modeft in exception, and, withal, 
How terrible in conftant refolution, 
And you lhall find, his vanities fore-fpent 

8 Were but the out-fide of the Roman Brutus, 
Covering difcretion with a coat of folly ; 

As gardeners do with ordure hide thofe roots 
That ftiall firft fpring, and be moft delicate. 

Dau. Well, 'tis not fo, my lord high conftable, 
But though we think it fo, it is no matter ; 
In cafes of defence, 'tis belt to weigh 
The enemy more mighty than he feems, 
So the proportions of defence are fill'd ; 
Which, of a weak and niggardly projection, 
Doth, like a mifer, fpoil his coat, with fcanting 
A little cloth, 

Fr. King. Think we king Harry flrong ; 
And, princes, look, you ftrongly arm to meet him, 
The kindred of him hath been flefh'd upon us ; 
And he is bred out of that bloody {train, 

7 HOVJ modeft in exception, ] How diffident and decent m 
making objections. JOHNSON. 

8 Were but the out-fide of the Roman Brutus,] Shakefpeare not 
having given us, in the Firft or Second Part of Henry IV. or in 
any other place but this, the remoteft hint of the circumftance 
here alluded to, the comparifon muft needs be a little obfcure to 
thofe who do not know or reflect that fome hiftorians have told 
us, that Henry IV. had entertained a deep jeuloufy of his fon's 
afpiring fuperior genius. Therefore to prevent all umbrage, the 
prince withdrew from public affairs, and amufed himfelf in con- 
forting with a diflblute crew of robbers. It feems to me, that 
Shakelpeare was ignorant of this circumftance when he wrote the 
two parts of Henry IV. for it might have been fo managed as to 
have given new beauties to the character of Hal, and great im- 
provements to the plot. And with regard to thefe matters, 
Shakefpeare generally tells us all he knew, and as foon as he 
knew it. WARBURTON. 



* That haunted us in our familiar paths : 

Witnefs our too much memorable fhame, 

When Creffy battle fatally was ftruck, 

And all our princes captiv'd, by the hand 

Of that black name, Edward black prince of Wales ; 

1 Whiles that his mountain fire, on mountain ftand- 


Up in the air, crown'd with the golden fun % 
Saw his heroical feed, and fmil'd to fee him 
Mangle the work of nature, and deface 
The patterns that by God and by French fathers 
Had twenty years been made. This is a ftem 

9 Wat haunted j <] We fhould afluredly read bunted: the 
integrity of the metaphor requires it. So, foon after, the king 
again fays : 

Toufte this chafe is hotly followed. WAR BURTON. 
The emendation weakens the paflage. To haunt is a word of 
the utmoft horror, which (hews that they dreaded the Englilh as 
goblins and fpirits. JOHNSON. 

1 While that his mountain fire, on mountain ftanding, ] We fhould 
read, mounting, ambitious, afpiring. WAR BUR TON. 
Thus, in Love's Labour's Loft, aft IV : 

" Whoe'er he was, he fliew'd a mounting mind." 
Dr. Warburton's emendation may be right, and yet I believe 
the poet meant to give an idea of more than human proportion in 
the figure of the king : 

" Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, &c." Virg. 

" Like Tenerifte or Atlas unremov'd." Milton. 
Drayton, in the i8th fong of his Polyolbion, has a fimilar thought : 

" Then he, above them all, himfelf that fought to raife, 

" Upon fome mountain top, like a pyramides." 
Again, in Spenier's Faerie Queen, B. I. c. si : 

** Where ftretch'd he lay upon the funny fide 

" Of a great hill, bimfef like a great hill." 
agmcn agens, magnique ipfe agminis injtar. 
Mr. Toilet thinks this paflage may be explained by another in 
aft I. fc. i : 

his moft mighty father on a hill. STEEVENS. 

a Up in the air, cr0<ivn'd ivifh the golden fun, ] Dr. Warbur- 
ton calls this " the nonfenfical line of fome player." The idea, 
however, might have been taken from Chaucer's Legende of good 
Women : 

" Her gilt here wzsjcrownid with afon." STEEVENS. 



Of that victorious flock ; and let us fer 
The native mightineis and * fate of him. 

Enter a Mejfcngcr. 

Me$. AmbafTadors from Henry king of England 
Do crave admittance to your majefly. 

Fr. King. We'll give them prefeut audience. Go, 

and bring them. 
You fee, this chafe is hotly follow'd, friends, 

Dau. Turn head, and ftop puriuit : for coward dogs 
4 fpend their mouths, when what they fecm tq 


Runs far before them. Good my fovereign, 
Take up the Englifh ihort; and let them know 
Of what a monarchy you are the head : 
Self-love, my liege, is not fo vile a fin, 
As felf-negjecting. 

Enter Exeter. 

Fr. King. From our brother England ? 

Exe. From him ; and thus he greets your majefty, 
He wills you, in the name of God Almighty, 
That yqu diveft yourfclf, and lay apart 
The borrow'd glories, that, by gift of heaven, 
By law of nature, and of nations, 'long 
To him, and to his heirs ; namely, the crown, 
And all wide-ftretched honours that pertain 
By cuftom, and the ordinance of times, 
Unto the crown of France. That you may know, 
'Tis no finifter, nor no aukward claim, 

3 fate of him.] His fate is what is allotted him by deftiny, 
or what he is fated to perform. JOHN-SOX. 

So Virgil, fpeaking of the future deeds of the defcendants of 
jneas : " Attollens humeris lamamque et fata nepotum." 


* ftend their mouths t ] That is, lark ; the fportfman's term . 



K I N G H E N R Y V. 65 

Pick'd from the worm-holes of long-vaniih'd days, 
Nor from the duft of old oblivion rak'd, 
He fends you this mofl * memorable line, 
Jn every branch truly demonftrative ; 

[Gives the French king a paper, 
Willing you, overlook this pedigree : 
And, when you find him evenly cleriv'd 
From his moft fam'd of famous anceftors, 
JLdward the third, he bids you then refign 
Your crown and kingdom, indirectly held 
From him the native and true challenger. 

jpr. King. Or elfe what follows ? 

Exe. Bloody constraint ; for if you hide the crown 
Even in your hearts, there will he rake for it : 
And therefore in fierce tempeft is he coming, 
In thunder, and in earthquake, like a Jove, 
That, if requiring fail, he will compel. 
He bi(]s you, in the bowels of the Lord, 
Deliver up the crown ; and to take mercy 
On the poor fouls, for whpm this hungry war 
Opens his vafty jaws : and on your head 
Turns he the widows' tears, the orphans' cr jes, 
r 6 The dead mens' blood, the pining maidens' groans, 

s memorable line,'} This genealogy; thl$ deduction of his 
lineage. JOHNSON. 

' 6 The dead mem'' Hood, ] The difpofition of the images were 
more regular if \ve were to read thus : 
upon your bead 

Turning the dead men? blood, tie ^vido-ivs* tears, 
The orphan? cries, the pining maidens' groans, JoHKSoy. 
The quartos 1600 and i6c8, exhibit the pafiage thus : 

And on your treads turns he the widows' tears 9 

The orphans 1 cries, the dead mens* bones, 

The pining maidens* groans, 

for hujbands, fathers, and d'JireJJed lovers, 

Which, c\'c. 

Thefe quartos of 1600 and )6c8, agree in all but the mereft tri- 
-fles ; and therefore tor the future I fhall content myfelf in general 
to quote the tonner of them, which is the more correct of the two. 



64 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

For hufbands, fathers, and betrothed lovers, 

That fhall be fwallow'd in this controverfy. 

This is his claim, his threatning, and my mefiage ; 

Unlefs the Dauphin be in prefencc here, 

To whom exprefsly I bring greeting too. 

Pr. King. For us, we will confider of this further : 
To-morrow fhall you bear our full intent 
Back to our brother of England. 

Dau. For the Dauphin, 
I ftand here for him ; What to him from England ? 

Rxe. Scorn, and defiance; flight regard, contempt, 
And any thing that may not mifbecome 
The mighty fender, doth he prize you at. 
Thus fays my king : and, if your father's highnefs 
Do not, in grant of all demands at large, 
Sweeten the bitter mock you fent his majefty, 
He'll call you to fo hot an anfwer for it, 
That caves and womby vaultages of France 
4 Shall chide your trefpafs, and return your mock 
In fecond accent of his ordinance. 

Dau. Say, if my father render fair reply, 
It is againft my will : for I defire 
Nothing but odds with England ; to that end, 
As matching to his youth and vanity, 
I did prefent him with thofe Paris balls. 

Exe. He'll make your Paris Louvre lhake for it. 
Were it the miftrefs court of mighty Europe : 

* Shall hide^or tre/pafs, ] Mr. Pope rightly corrected it, 

Shall chide WARBURTON. 

I doubt whether it be rightly corrected. The meaning is, 
that the authors of this infult fhall fly to caves for refuge. 


Mr. Pope reflored chide from the quarto. I have therefore in- 
ferted it in the text. To chide is to rcJounJ t to echo. So, in, 
The Midfummcr Night's Dream : 

never did I hear 

" Such gallant chiding." 
So, in Henry VIII : 

" As doth a rock aga'.nft the chiding flood." STEEVENS. 



And, be affur'd, you'll find a difference, 

(As we, his fubje&s, have in wonder found) 

Between the promife of his greener days, 

And thefe he matters now s ; now he weighs time, 

Even to the utmoft grain ; which you fhall read 

lii your own lotTes, if he (lay in France. 

Fr> King. To-morrow you fnall know our mind at 
full. [Flourifi. 

Exe. Difpatch us with all fpeed, left that our king 
Come here himfelf to queilion our delay ; 
For he is footed in this land already. 

Fr. King. You ftiall be foon difpatch'd, with fair 

conditions : 

A night is but fmall breath, and little paufe, 
To anfwer matters of this confequence. [Exeunt t 


Enter Chorus. 

Cbor. Thus with imagin'd wing our fwiftfcene flies, 
In motion of no lefs celerity 

Than that of thought. Suppofe, that you have feea 
* The well-appointed king at Hampton pier 


s fa matters MOW ;] Thus the folio. The quartos r6co and 
1608, read luujlers. STEEVENS. 

6 The well-appointed king at Dover pier 

Emlark his royalty ; ] _ 

Thus all the editions downwards, implicitly, after the firft folio. 
But could the poet potfibly be fo difcordant from himfelf (and 
the Chronicles, which he copied) to make the king here embark 
at Dover ; when he has before told us fo precifely, and that fo 
often over, that he embarked at Southampton ? I dare acquit the 
poet from fo flagrant a variation. The indolence of a tranfcriber, 
or a compofitor at prefc, ruuft give rife to luch an error. They, 

VOL. VI. F feeing 

66 K I N G H E N R Y V* 

Embark his royalty ; and his brave fleet 
With filkcn ttreamers the young Phoebus fanning. 
Play with your fancies ; and in them behold, 
Upon the hempen tackle, Ihip-boys climbing : 
Hear the Ihrill whittle, which doth order give 
To founds confns'd : behold the threaden fails, 
Borne with the invifible and creeping wind, 
Draw 7 the huge bottoms through the furrow'd fea y 
Breafting the lofty furge : O, do but think,. 
You ftand upon the 7 rivage, and behold 
A city on the inconftant billows dancing ; 
For fo appears this fleet rnajeftical, 
Holding due courfe to Harfleur. Follow, follow ? 
Grapple your minds s to tternage of this navy ; 
And leave your England, as dead midnight, ttill, 
Guarded with grandfires, babies, and old women, 
Or paft, or not arriv'd to, pith and puiflance : 
For who is he, whofe chin is but enriclTd 
With one appearing hair, that will not follow 
Thefe cull u and choice-drawn cavaliers to France ? 
Work, w ork, your thoughts, and therein fee a fiege ; 

feeing pier at the end of the verfe, unluckily thought of Dover 
//*, as the beft known to them ; and fo unawares corrupted the 
text. THEOBALD. 

Hampton pitr] It is obvious, that this, and not Dover pier ac- 
cording to the folios, was the true reading. Among the records 
of the town ofr Southampton, they have a minute and aurhentic 
account (drawn up at that time) of the encampment of Henry 
the fifth near the town, befure this embarkment for France. It 
is remarkable, that the place where the army was encamped, 
then a low level plain ur a down, is now entirely covered with 
fea, and called Wefiport. WARTON. 

1 rivage, ] lai.k or fhore. JOHNSON. 
Rivage: French. So, in Spenfer's Fairy >uecn y B. IV. c. i. 
" Paclolus with his waters (here 

" Throws forth upon the rivage round about him nere." 
Again, in Gower, Dt Conj'ejjione Amantis, lib. viii. fol. 186: 

" Upon the ftronde at r/trarr." STEEVENS. 
8 to fternage of tbis navy ;] 1 he ftern being the hinder part 
of the Ihip, the meaning is, let your minds follow dofe after the- 
navy. STEEVEXS. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 67 

Behold the ordnance on their carriages, 
With fatal mouths gaping on girded Harfleur. 
Suppofc, the ambaflador from the French comes 

back ; 

Tells Harry that the king doth offer him 
Katharine his daughter; and with her, to dowry, 
Some petty and unprofitable dukedoms. 
The offer likes not : and the nimble gunner 
With 9 linftock now the devilifti cannon touches, 

[Alarum ; and chambers go off* 
And down goes all before him. Still be kind, 
And eke out our performance with your mind. [Exit t 


Before Harfleur* 
\_Alar um^ 

Enter king Henry, Exeter, Bedford, Glofter, and foldiers> 
with fooling ladders. 

K. Henry. Once more unto the breach, dear friends, 

once more ; 

* Or clofe the wall up with the Englim dead ! 
In peace, there's nothing fo becomes a man, 

linjlock ] The ftaff to which the match is fixed 

when ordnance is fired. JOHNSON. 

So, in Middleton's comedy of Blurt Mafter Conftable, 1602 t 

. " O Cupid, grant that my blufhing prove not a linjlocke^ 

and give fire too fuddenly, &c" 
Again, in the Jew of Malta, by Marlow, 1633 : 
" Till you fhall hear a culverin difcharg'd 
" By him that bears the linjlock kindled thus/' 


1 Or clofe the wall ] Here is apparently a chaftn. One 

line at leaft is loft, which contained the other part of a disjunc-" 
tive proportion. The king's fpeech is, dear friends, either win 
the town, or c lofe up the wall with dead. The old quarto gives 
no help. JOHNSON. 

This fpeech was added after the quartos 1600 and 1608. 




As modeft flillnefs, and humility : 

But when the blaft of war bldws in our ears % 

Then imitate the aftion of the tyger ; 

Stiffen the finews, iummon up the blood, 

Difguife fair nature with hard-favour'd rage : 

Then lend the eye a terrible afped: ; 

Let it pry through the 3 portage of the head, 

Like the brafs cannon ; let the brow o'erwhelm it, 

As fearfully, as doth a galled rock 

O'er-hang and jutty 4 his confounded bafe, 

S'.vill'd with the wild and wafteful ocean. 

Now fet the teeth, and ftretch the noftril wide ; 

Hold hard the breath, and 'bend up every fpirit 

To his full height ! On, on, you nobleft Englifh, 

Whofe blood is fet from fathers of war-proof 6 ! 


* '<wben the Haft of war Hows in our ears t 

Then im:taie the aflion of the tyger ; ] 

Sir Tho. Hanmer has obferved on the following paflage in 7'roilus 
and CrejjiJa, that in Jlorms and bigb winds tbs tyger roars and 
rages moft furioufly. 

even fo 

Doth valour's fiiew and valour's worth divide 

In florms of fortune : for, in her ray and brightnefs, 

The herd hath more annoyance by the brize 

Than by the tyger : but when iplitting winds 

Make flexible the knees of knotted oaks, ' 

And flies flee under fhadej why then the thing of 


*' As rouz'd with rage, with rage doth fympathize, &c." 


3 portage of the bead, ] Portage, open fpace, fit>mjr/, 

a gate. Let the eye appear in the head as cannon through the 
buttlements, or ernbraiures, of a fortification. JOHNSON. 

* bis confounded u^fc, ] His worn or wafted bafe. 


5 " bend up every fpirit ] A metaphor from the bow. 


6 Wl:of<: blond is feifiom fathers of war-proof !~\ Thus the folio 
l6zj, ud rightly. So Spcnfer's Faery Queen, o. Ill': 

" Whom ftrauge adventure did from Britain^/.'* 
Again, in the Prologue to Ben Jonfon's Silent Woman : 

*' Though there be none tariff, there will dear bought." 



Fathers, that, like fo many Alexanders, 
Have, in thefe parts, from morn 'till even fought, 
And fheath'd their fvvords for lack of 7 argument. 
Difhonour not your mothers ; now atteft, 
That thofe, whom you call'd fathers, did beget you ! 
Be copy now to men of grofler blood, 
And teach them how to war ! And you, good yeo- 

Whofe limbs were made in England, fhew us here 
The mettle of your pafture ; let us fwear 
That you are worth your breeding : which I doubt not; 
For there is none of you fo mean and bafe, 
That hath not noble luftre in your eyes. 
I fee you ftand like greyhounds in the flips, 
Straining upon the ftart. The game's afoot ; 
Follow your fpirit : and, upon this charge, 
Cry God for Harry ! England ! and faint George ! 

[Exctint King and train. 

[Alarm, and chambers go off. 


Enter Njm, Bardolpk, Plflol, and Boy. 

Bard. On, on, on, on, on ! to the breach, to the 
breach ! 

Nym. Tray thee, 8 corporal, flay ; the knocks are 
too hot ; and, for mine own part, I have not 9 a cafe 

Again, in Lord Surrey's Tranflation of the fecond book of Vir- 
gil's JEneld : 

" And with that winde had/^ the land of Grece." 
The facred writings afford many inftances to the fame purpofe. 
Mr. Pope firll made the change, which I, among others, had in- 
advertently followed. STEEVENS. 

7 argument.} Is matter, orfubjetf. JOHNSON. 

8 corporal, ] We fliould read lieutenant. It is Bardolph 

to whom he fpeaks. STEEVENS. 

9 a cafe of lives : ] A fet of lives, of which, when one 
is worn out, another may ferve. JOHNSON. 

F 3 of 


of lives : the humour of it is too hot, that is the 
very plain-fong ot it. 

Pift. The plain-fong is mofi juft : for humours do. 

abound ; 

Knocks go and come ; God's vaflals drop and die ; 
And fword and Jhiekl, 
In bloody field, 
Doth win immortal, fame. 

Boy. 'Would I were in an ale-houfe in London-! I 
tvould give all my fame for a pot of ale, and fafety, 
Pift. And I : 

1 If wifhes would prevail with me, 
My purpofe ihould not fail with me, 

But thither would I hye. 

Soy. * As duly, but not as truly, as bird doth fing 
On bough. 

Enter Fluellen. 

Flu. 'Splood ! Up to the preaches ; , you rafcals ! 
will you not up to the preaches ? 

P'lft. Be merciful, great duke, 4 to men of mould ! 
Abate thy rage, abate thy manly rage ! 
Good bawcock, bate thy rage ! ufe lenity, fvveet 
chuck ! 

Nym. Thefe be good humours ! your honour wins 
bad humours. [Exeunt. 

* If wlfics &c.] This pafiage I have replaced from the firft 
folio, which is the only Authentic copy ot this play. Thefe 
lines, which perhaps are part of a fong, Mr. Pope did not like, 
and therefore changed them in conformity to the imperfect play 
in quarto, and was followed by the fucceeding editors, for pre- 
vail I (hould read avail. JOHNSON. 

* A3 duly, &c.J This fpeech I have reftored from the folio. 


3 up to the preaches, feV.] Thus the 410, with only the 

difference of breaches inftead of preaches. Modern editors have 
been very liberal of their Welch dialed!. The folio reads, Up 
to the breach you dogges, avaunt you cullions. STEEVENS. 

+ to men / mould! ] To men of earth^ to poor mortaj 

men. JOHNSON, 


K I N G H E N R JT V. ?l 

Eoy. As young as I am, I have obferv'd thcfc three 
fw?fhcrs. 1 am boy to them all three : but all they 
three, though they would ferve me, could not be man 
to me ; for, indeed, three fuch anticks do not amount 
to a man. For Bardolph, he is white-liver'd, and 
red-fac'd ; by the means whereof, 'a faces it out, but 
fights not. For Piflol, he hath a kill ing tongue, and 
a quiet fword ; by the means whereof J a breaks words, 
and keeps whole weapons. For Nym, he hath heard, 
that men of few words are the 5 beft men ; and there- 
fore he fcorns to fay his prayers, left 'a fhould be 
thought a coward : but his few bad words are match'd 
with as few good deeds ; for 'a never broke any man's 
head but his own ; and that was againft a poft, when 
he was drunk. They will fteal any thing, and call it 
pur chafe. Bardolph ftole a lute-cafe ; bore it twelve 
leagues, and fold it for three half-pence. Nym, and 
Bardolph, are fworn brothers in filching; and in Calais 
they ftole a fire-fhovel : I knew, by that piece of fer- 
vice, 6 the men would carry coals. They would have 
me as familiar with men's pockets, as their gloves or 
their handkerchiefs : which makes much againftmy 
manhood, if I (Iiould take from another's pocket, to 
put into mine ; for it is plain pocketing up of 
wrongs. I muft leave them, and leek fome better 
fervice : their villainy goes againft my weak ftomach, 
and therefore I muft caft it up. [Exit Boy. 

5 left men; ] That is, Ira-'cft ; fo in the next lines, 

good deeds are brave aflions. JOHNSON. 

6 the men would carry coaL. ] It appears that in Shake- 

fpeare's age, to cany coals was, I know not why, tf> endure af- 
fronts. So, in Romeo and Juliet, one fervinginan aflcs another 

whether he will carry coals. JOHXSON. 

Cant phral'es are the ephemerons of literature. In the quartos 
1600 and 1608, the pafTage Itands thus : 

I knew by that they meant to carry coales. STEEVENS. 

F 4 R<- 

72 K I N G PI E N R Y V. 

Re-enter Fluclkn^ Go^cr following* 

Gvwer. Captain Fluellen, you mutt conic prcfently' 
to the mines ; the duke of Gloiler would (peak; 
with you. 

Flu. To the mines ! tell you the duke, it is not fa 
good to come to the mines t For, look you, the mines 
are not according to the difciplines of the war ; the 
concavities of it is not fufficient ; for, look you, th" 
athverfary (you may difcufs unto the duke, look you j. 
17 is digt himfclf 'four yards under the countermines : 
by Chelhu, I think, 'a, 8 will plow up all, if there is 
not better directions. 

Cower. The duke of Glofter, to whom the order 
of the fiege is given, is altogether directed by an Irilh- 
man ; a very valiant gentleman, i'faith. 

Flu. It is captain Macmorris, is it not ? 

Goiuer. I think, it be. 

Flu. By Chelhu, he is an afs, as in the 'orld : I 
will verify as much in his peard : he has no more 
directions in the true difciplines of the wars, look you. 
of the Reman difciplines, than is a puppy-dog. 

Enter Macmorris, and captain Jamy. 

G ( :;YT. Here 'a comes ; and the Scots captain, cap- 
tain Jamy, with him. 

Flu. Captain Jamy is a marvellous falorous gentle- 
man, that is certain ; and of great expedition, and 
knowledge, in the ancient wars, upon my particular 
knowledge of his directions : by Cheihu, he will main- 
tain his argument as well as any military man in the 
'orld, in the difciplines of the priftine wars of the 

7 ' is digt blmfelf four y arils unfar the countermines : ] 

Fluellen means, that the enemy had digged himfclf countermines 
four yards under the mines. JOHNSON, 

willffau up all) ] That is, kt will blow up till. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 7 j 

Jamy. I fay, gud-day, captain Fluellen. 

flu. God-den to your worfhip, goot captain Jamy. 

Govuer. How now, captain Macmorris ? have you 
quit the mines ? have the pioneers given o'er ? 

Mac. By Chrifh la, tifh ill done : the work ifh give 
over, the trumpet found the retreat. By my hand, 
I fwear, and by my father's foul, the work ilh ill 
done ; it iili give over : I would have blowed up the 
town, fo Chrifh fave me, la, in an hour. O tifh ill 
done, tifh ill done ; by my hand, tifh ill done ! 

Flu. Captain Macmorris, I pefeech you now, will 
you voutfafe me, look you, a few difputations with 
you, as partly touching or concerning the difciplines 
of the war, the Roman wars, in the way of argument, 
look you, and friendly communication ; partly, to fa- 
tisfy my opinion, and partly, for the fatisfa&ion, look 
you, of my mind, as touching the direction of the 
military discipline ; that is the point. 

Jamy. It fall be very gud, gud feith, gud captains 
bath : and 9 1 fall quit you with gud leve, as I may 
pick occafion ; that fall I, marry. 

Mac. It is no time to difcourfe, fo Chrifh fave me; 
|heday is hot, and the weather, and the wars, and the 
king, and the dukes ; it is no time to difcourfe. The 
town is befeech'd, and the trumpet calls us to the 
breach ; and we talk, and, by Chrifh, do nothing ; 'tis 
lhame for us all : fo God fa' me, 'tis fhame to ftand 
flill ; it is fhame, by my hand : and there is throats 
to be cut, and works to be done ; and there ish nothing 
done, fo Chrifh fa' me, la. 

Jamy. By the mefs, ere theife eyes of mine take 
themfelves to flumber, aile do gud fervice,or aile liggc 
i'the grund for it ; ay, or go to death ; and aile pay 
it as valoroufly as I may, that fal I furelydo, that is 

9 I fall- quit you"] That is, I (hall, with your permiflion, 
requite you, that is, anfiver you y or interpofe with my arguments, 
as I lhall find opportunity. JoHNsow. 


74 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

the breff and the long : Mary, I wad full fain heard 
fome queflion 'tween you tway. 

Flu. Captain Macmorris, I think, look you, under 
your correction, there is not many of your nation 

Mac. Of my nation ? What ifh my nation ? ilh a 
villain, and a baftard, and a knave, and a rafcal ? 
What ilh my nation ? Who talks of my nation ? 

Flu. Look you, if you take the matter otherwife 
than is meant, captain Macmorris, peradventure, I 
ihall think you do not ufe me with that affability as in 
difcretion you ought to ufe me, look you ; being as 
goot a man as yourfelf, both in the difciplines of wars, 
and in the derivation of my birth, and in other par- 

Mac. I do not know you fo good a man as myfelf : 
fo Chriih fave me, I will cut off your head. 

Gffwer. Gentlemen both, you will miflake each 

Jamy. Au ! that's a foul fault. [_A parley founded. 

Gffiver. The town founds a parley. 

Flu. Captain Macmorris, when there is more better 
opportunity to be requir'd, look you, I will be fobold 
as to tell you, I know the difciplines of war ; and 
there's an end T . 


Before the gates of Harfleur. 
Enter King Henry and bis train. 

K. Henry. How yet refolves the governor of the 

town ? 

This is the4ateft parle we will admit : 
Therefore, to our beft mercy give yourfelves ; 

' there's an end.} It were to be wiflied that the poor merri- 
ment of this dialogue had not been purchaled with fo much 
profanenefs. JOHNSON. 



Or, like to men proud of deftrudticn. 

Defy us to our worft : for, as I am a foldier, 

(A name, that, in my thoughts, becomes me beft) 

If I begin the battery once again, 

I will not leave the half-atchieved Harfleur, 

'Till in her allies fhe He buried. 

The gates of mercy lhall be all fhut up a ; 

And the flcfh'd foldier, rough and hard of heart, 

In liberty of bloody hand, fhall range 

With confcience wide as hell ; mowing like grafs 

Your frefli fair virgins,' and your flowering infants. 

What is it then to me, if impious war, 

Array 'd in flames, like to the prince of fiends, 

Do, with his fmirch'd complexion, all 3 fell feats 

Enlink'd to wafte and defolation ? 

What is't to me, when you yourfelves are caufe, 

If your pure maidens fall into the hand 

Of hot and forcing violation ? 

What rein can hold licentious wickednefs, 

When down the hill he holds his fierce career ? 

We may as bootlefs fpend our vain command 

Upon the enraged foldiers in their fpoil, 

As fend precepts to the Leviathan 

To come afliore. Therefore, you men of Harfleur, 

Take pity of your town, and of your people, 

Whiles yet my foldiers are in my command ; 

4 Whiles yet the cool and temperate wind of grace 

O'er-blows the filthy and contagious clouds 

a The gates of mercy Jhall le all Jhut up ;] Mr. Gray has bor- 
rowed this thought in his -Elegy : 

*' And fhut the gates of mercy on mankind." STEEVEXS. 

3 f ell f fats, 

Enlink'd to waftc and defolation ? ] 

All the favage pra&ices naturally concomitant to the fack of ci- 
ties. JOHNSON. 

* Whiles yet the cool and temp* rate wind of grace 

O er-Uowt the fitly and contagious doudi\ 

This is a very harfli metaphor. To gver-llovj is to drive aivay % 
or to keep off. JOHNSON. 


76 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Of heady murder, fpoil, and villainy. 

If not, why, in a moment, look to fee 

The blind and bloody foldier with foul hand 

5 Defile the locks of your fhrill-ihriek ing daughters; 

Your fathers taken by the filver beards, 

And their moft reverend heads dafh'd to the walls ; 

Your naked infants fpitted upon pikes ; 

Whiles the rriad mothers with their howls confus'd 

Do break the clouds, as did the wives of Jewry 

At Herod's bloody-hunting flaughtermen. 

What fay you ? will you yield, and this avoid ? 

Or, guilty in defence, be thus deflroy'd ? 

Enter Governor, upon the 'walls. 

Gov. Our expectation hath this day an end : 
The Dauphin, whom of fuccour we entreated, 
Returns us that his powers are not yet ready 
To raife fo great a liege. Therefore, dread king, 
We yield our town, and lives, to thy foff mercy : 
Enter our gates ; difpofc of us, and ours ; 
For we no longer are defenfible. 

K* Henry. Open your gates. Come, uncle Exeter, 
Go you and enter Harfleur ; there remain, 
And fortify it ftrongly 'gainfl the French : 
Ufe mercy to them all. For us, dear uncle,- 
The winter coming on, and ficknefs growing 
Upon our foldiers, we'll retire to Calais. 
To-night in Harfleur will we be your guefl ; 
To-morrow for the march arc we addreft 6 . 

[Flourifh, and enter the town. 


* Defile ffa locks &:c.] The folio reads : 
De/ire the locks, ?r. STEEVENS. 

8 "Me are addreft.] i. e. prepared. So, in Heywood's Rapt 

*f Lucrecc, 1630 : 

" . ourfliidd 

** We muft addreff next, for tomorrow's field." 



I S C E N E IV. 

The French camp. 
Enter Katharine, and an old gentlewoman. 

8 Kath. Alice, tu as efts en AngkUne, &f tu parks 
lien le language. 


Again, in the Brazen dge, 1613 : 

" . clamours from afar, 

" Tell us thefe champions are addreft for war." - 
Again : 

" See I am addrejl 

" With this, to thunder on thy captive creft." 


7 Scene IV. ] I have left this ridiculous fcene as I found it ; 
and am lorry to have no colour left, from any of the editions, to 
imagine it interpolated. WARBURTON. 

Sir T. Hanmer has rejected it. The fcene is indeed mean 
enough, when it is read ; but the grimaces of two French wo- 
men, and the odd accent with which they uttered the Knglifii, 
made it divert upon the ftage. It may be obferv'd, that there 
is in it not only the French language, but the French fpirit. 
Alice compliments the princefs upon her knowledge of four 
words, and tells her that Ihe pronounces like the Englifli them- 
ielves. The princefs fufpe&s no deficiency in her inflrudlrefs, 
nor the inftruclrefs in herfelf. Throughout the whole fcene 
there may be found French fervility, and French vanity. 

I cannot forbear to tranfcribe the firft fentence of this dialogue 
from the edition of 1608, that the reader who has not looked 
into the old copies may judge of the flrange negligence with 
which they are printed. 

" Kate. Alice venecia, vous aves cates en, vou parte fort bon 
Angloys englatara, comau fae palla vou la main en francoy." 


We may obferve in general, that the early editions have not 
halt" the quantity ; and every fentence, or rather every word, 
woft ridiculoufly blundered. Thefe, for feveral reafons, could 
not poflibly be published by the author , and it is extremely pro- 
bable, that the French ribaldry was at firil inferted by a different 
hand, as the many additions moft certainly were after he had left 
the ftage. Indeed, every friend to his memory will not eafily 
believe, that he was acquainted with the fcene between Katharine 
and the old Gentlewoman : or furely he would not have admitted 
fuch obfcenity and nonfenfe. FARMER. 


78 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Alice. Unpeu, madam?. 

Kath. Je te prie, nttnfsigne&i il font quefapprenni 
aparler. Comment appellezvom la main, en Anglois? 

Alice. 1x3- main ? elle eft appellee, de hand. 

Kath. De hand. Et les doigts ? 

Alice. Les doigts f mayfoy, je oublie les doigts ; maisje 
mefouviendray. Les doigts ? je penfe, qifilsfont appelle de 
fingres ; ony, de fingers ; out de fingers. 

Kath. La main, de hand ; les doigts, de fingres. je 
penfe, que je fuis k bon efcolier. J*ay gagnee deux mots 
Anglais inftancnt. Comment appellez vous les angles ? 

Alice. Les ongks ? les appellons, de nails. 

It is very certain, that authors in the time of Shakefpeare, did 
not correct the prefs tor themfelves. I hardly ever faw in one 
of the old plays a fentence of either Latin, Italian, or French, 
without the moll ridiculous blunders. In the Hift. of Clyomon, 
Knight of the Golden Shield, i 599, a tragedy which I have often 
quoted, a warrior afks a lady difguifed like a page, what her name 
is. She anfwers, " Cur Daceer" i. e. Cceur d Acier, Heart of 

8 Kath. Alice, tu as efte ] I have regulated feveral fpeeches 
in this French fcene ; fome whereof were given to Alice, and 
yet evidently belonged to Katharine : and fo, vice verfa. It is 
not material to diftinguifh the particular tranfpolitions I have 
made. Mr. Gildon has left no bad remark, I think, with re- 
gard to our poet's condudl in the character of this princefs : 
*' For why he fhould not allow her," fays he, " to fpeak in Eng- 
lifli as well as all the other French, I can't imagine : fince it adds 
no beauty, but gives a patch'd and pye-bald dialogue of no beauty 
or force." THEOBALD. 

In the collection of Cbcjter Wliitfun. "Myjlcrles, among theHar- 
leian MSS. No. 1013, I find French fpeeches introduced. In 
the Vintner's Play, p. 65, the three kings who come to worfhip 
our infant Saviour, addrefs themfelves to Herod in that lan- 
guage, and Herod very politely anfwers them in the fame. At 
firft, I fuppofed the author to have appropriated a foreign tongue 
to them, becaufe they were ftrangers ; but in the Sinner's Play, 
p. 144, I found Pilate talking French, when no fuch reafon 
could be offered to juftiry a change of language. Thefe myfteries 
are faid to have been written in 1328. It is hardly neceflary to 
mention that in this MS. the French is as much corrupted as in 
the paflage quoted by Dr. Johnfou from the 410 edition of 
King Henry V. STELVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 79 

Kath. De nails. Efcoutez : dites mcy, fi je park 
blen : de hand, de fingres, de nails. 

Alice. Cejl bien dit, madame ; // eft fort bon Anghh* 
Kath. Dites moy en Anglois, le bras. 
Alice. DC arm, madame. 
Alice. De elbow. 

Kath. De elbow. Je m*en faitz la repetition de tout 
les mots, que vous m'avcz appris des a prefent. 

Alice. II eft trop difficile, madame, commejepenfe. 
Kath. Excufez moy, Alice ; efcoutcz: De hand, dc 
fingre, de nails, de arm, de bilbow. 
Alice. De elbow, madame. 

Kath. Seigneur Dieu ! je nien oublie ; De elbow* 
Comment appellez vous lecol? 
Alice. De neck, madame. 
Kath. De neck : Et le menton ? 
Alice. De chin. 

Kath. De fin. Le col, de neck : le menton, defln." 
Alice. Ouy. Saiifvoftrekonneur;enverite,vouspro- 
tioncez ks mots avjji droicl que les natifs d* Angktene. 

Kath. Je ne doute point d"apprendre par la grace ds 
Dieu ; & en peu de temps. 

Alice. N'avez vous pas deja oublie ce que je vous ay 
cnfeignee ? 

Kath. Non,je reciter ay a vouspromptement. De hand, 
de fingre, de mails *. 

Alice. De nails, madame. 
Kath. De nails, de arme, de ilbow. 
Alice. Sauf, vojlre honneur, de elbow. 
Kath, Ainft disje ; de elbow, de neck, et de fin : 
Comment appellez vous les pieds, cff la robe ? 
Alice. De foot, madame ; & de con. 
Kath. De foot, & de con ? Seigneur Dieu i ces 

De band, de fingre, de nayle, de arme.] The firft folio hag 
this paflage thus d'band, de fingre, de mattes without de arm.'" 
...And fo it fliould be printed. TYRWHITT, 

VOL. VI, f Qnl 

So K I N G H E N R Y V. 

font mots de fon mauvais, corruptible, grofle, ct impudiquc, & 
non pour les dames ifkonncur d'ufer : Je m vcudrois pro- 
nonccr ces mots devant les Seigneurs de France, pour tout le 
monde. II faut de foot, 5* de con, neant-moins. Je red- 
terai une autrefois ma lefon enfemble : De hand, de 9 fin- 
gre, de nails, de arm, de elbow, de neck, de fin, 
de foot, de con. 

Alice. Excellent, madame ! 

Kath. C eft ajj'cz pour une fois i alkns nous a difner. 



Prefence-cJoambcr in the French court. 

Enter tie king of France, the Dauphin, duke of Bourbon, 
the Conjlable of France, and others. 

Fr. King. 'Tis certain, he hath pafs'd the river 

Con. And if he be not fought withal, my lord, 
Let us not live in France; let us quit all, 
And give our vineyards to a barbarous people. 

Dau. O Dicui'ivant ! fhall a few fprays of us, 
The emptying of ' our father's luxury, 
Our fyens, put in wild * and favage ftock, 
Sprout up fo fuddenly into the clouds, 
And over-grow their grafters ? 

our. Normans, but baftard Normans, Norman 

baftards ! 

Afort de ma vie ! if thus they march along 
Unfought withal, but I will fell my dukedom, 
To buy a flobbery and a dirty farm 

9 Jejingre, . ] It is apparent by the correction of Alice, 
that the princefs forgot the neits, and therefore it (hoald be left out 
in her part. JOHNSON. 

1 our father* i luxury,] In this place^ as in others, luxury 
means luft. JOHNSON. 

* favagc ] Is here ufed in the French original fenfc, for 
Jilvan t uncultivated, the lame with wild. JOHNSON* 


4 In that nook-fhotten ifle of Albion. 

COM. Dieu de batailles ! where have they this mettle ? 
Is not their climate foggy, raw, and dull ? 
On whom, as in defpignt, the fun looks pale, 
Killing their fruit with frowns ? s Can iodden water, 
A drench for fur-reyn'd jades, their barley broth, 
Decot their cold blood to fuch valiant heat ? 
And lhall our quick blood, fpirited with wine, 
Seem frofty ? Oh, for honour of our land, 
Let us not hang like roping icicles 
Upon the houfes' thatch, whiles a more frofly people 
Sweat drops of gallant youth in our rich fields ; 
Poor we may call them, in their native lords. 

Dau. By faith and honour, 
Our madams mock at us ; and plainly fay, 
Our mettle is bred out ; and they will give 
Their bodies to the luft of Englifli youth, 
To new ftore France with bailard warriors. 

Bom: They bid us to the Englifli dancing-fchools, 
And teach 6 lavoltas high, and fwift corantos 

. Say- 

* In that nook fhot ten [fie of Albion.'} Sbottcn fignifies anything 
projtSed: lo nook-Jbotten i/le, is an iile that fhoots out into capes, 
promontories, and necks of land, the very figure of Great Bri- 
tain. WAR BUR TON. 

5 Can fodder, -water, 

A drench for fur-reyn'd jades,* ] 

The exad meaning of fur-reyn'd I do not know. It is common 
to give horfes over-ridden or feverifh, ground malt and hot water 
mixed, which is called a majb. To this he alludes. JOHNSON. 

The word fur-rcln d occurs more than once in the old plays. 
So, in Jack Drum'' 3 Entertainment, 1601 : 

" Writes he not a good cordial fappy ftile ? 

** Afur-rein'djaded wit, but he rubs on." 
It fliould be obferv'd that the quartos 1600 and 1608 read : 

A drench hrfivolne jades. STEEVENS. 

6 lavoltas high, ] Hanmer obferves that in this dance 
there was much turning and much capering. Shakefpeare men- 
tions it more than once, but never fo particularly as the author 
of MukaJJes the Turk, a tragedy 1610 : 

" Be pleas'd, ye powers of night," and 'bout me flcip 
** Your antick mcafures ; like to coal-black moors 
VOL. VI. G " Dane* 

82 K I N G H E tf R Y V. 

Saying, our grace is only in our heels, 
And that we are moft lofty run-awa) s. 

Fr. Kin?. Where is Montjoy, the herald ? fpeetJ 

him hence; 

Let him greet England with our fharp defiance. 
Up, princes ; and, with fpirit of honour edg'd, 
More iharper than your fwords, hie to the field : 

7 Charles De-la-bret, high conftable of France ; 
You dukes of Orleans, Bourbon, and of Berry ^ 
Alen?on, Brabant, Bar, and Burgundy ; 
Jaques ChatilHon, Rambures, Vaudemont, 
Beaumont, Grandpre, Rouffi, and Fauconberg, 
Foix, Letlrale, Bouciqualt, and Charolois ; 

High dukes, great princes, barons, lords, and 


For your great feats, now quit you of great fhames, 
Bar Harry England, that fwe-cps through our land 

8 With pennons painted iu the blood of Harfieur : 


*' Dancing cheir high lavohoes to t'he fun, 
tl Circle me round : and in the midit I'll ftand, 
'* And crack my iides with laughter at your fports." 
Again, in Chapman's May -day ^ i6c6: 

" let the Bourdeaux grape 

" Skip like la volta's in their iwelling veins.'* 
Again : 

" Where love doth dance la volta* '* STESVEKS. 
7 Cbarle s Dclabretb, ] Milton fomewhere bids the EngHiTv 
take notice how their names are mifpelt by foreigners, and 
feems to think that we may law hilly treat foreign names in re- 
turn with the fame neglect. This privilege feems to be e.xer-' 
cifed in this catalogue of French names, which, lince the fenfc 
of the author is not affected,. I have left as I- found it. 


I have changed the fpelh'ug ; for I know not why we fhouktf 
leave blunders or antiquated orthography in the proper names, 
when we have been fo careful to remove them both from all other 
parts of the text. Inltead of Charles 'Dc-la-brct, we fhould read 
Cka>-L-5 D*Albrt) but the metre will not allow of it. STEEVENS.. 

- Jfitb pennons ] Ptnnons armorial were fmall flags, on which. 
the arms, device and motto of a knight were painted. 

Pennon is the fame as pendant* So, in The Stately Moral of tbA 
( Ibrte Lorih of Ltmtkn^ 1 590 ; 

" I*. 


on his hoft, as doth the 9 melted fnow 
Upon the vallies ; vvhofc low vaifal feat 
The Alps doth fpit and void his rheum upon ' : 
Go down Upon him, you have power enough,* 
And in a captive chariot^ into lioan 
Bring him our pfilbner. 

Con: This becomes the great* 
Sorry am 1$ his numbers are fo few,- 
His foldiers fick, and famim'd in their march j 
JFor, I am fure, when he ihall fee our army, 
He'll drop his heart into the fink of fear, 
Arid, for atchievementj oiler us his ranfom. 

In gtittring gold and particolour'd plumes, 
With curious pendants on their launces fix'd, &c." 
Again, n Gower, DC Confejjlone An-.cMtis, lib. vi. fol. 136. fa 
Of his eontrei the figne was 
True tiihes, vvhiche he fhulde beare 
Upon the//a" of a fpeafe>" 
Again, n Chaucer's Knvgbtcs Tale, v; 980; late edit i 
4d by his banner borne is his/j?o 
Of gold ful riche, in Which there was ybete 
The Minotaure which that he flew in <2rete. yi 
!n MS. Harl. No. 24 1^, is the following note; 


*' A pc7ton mufl bee tow y<<rdes and a half longe, fhide 
i-ound att the end, and conteyneth the anncs of the owner^ and 
fervith tor thfc conduct of flttie men." 

' { E^crye knight may have his pennon if hee bee cheefe cap- 
taine, and in it fett his armes : and if hee bee made banne- 
rett, the kinge of the liettenant (hall make a futt in the end of 
the pennon^ and the heralds fhall raiie it outj 


" Pencells or flagges for horfemen mufl bee a yarde and a halfe. 
longe, with the croiles of St. George, &e." STEKVENS. 

9 milled fn&ui ] The poet has here defeated himfelf 

by paffing too fooh from one image to another. To bid the 
French ruih upon the Englifh as the torrents formed from melted 
fnow ftream from the Alps, was at once vehement and proper, but 
its force is deftroyed by the grofliiefs of the thought in the next 
line. JOHNSON. 

1 The Jllps ilotb fp;t and void bis rbtitm upon :J 

4i Jupiter hybernas cana nive coHjpait Alpes." 

Fur.- Bibac/ap Hur* STEBVENS. 

G % Fr. King. 

S 4 K I N G II E N R Y V. 

Ft: King. Therefore, lord conftable, hafle on Mont- 

joy ; 

And let him lay to England, that we fend 
To- know what willing ranfom he will give. 
Prince Dauphin, you fhall ftay with us in Roan. 
Dan. Not fo, I do befeech yottr majefty. 
Fr. King,. Be patient, for you fhall remain with 


Now, forth, lord conflable, and princes all ; 
And quickly bring us word of England's fall. 


Enter Cower, and Fluellen. 

Gow. How now, captain Fluellen ? come you from 
the bridge ? 

Flu. I allure you, there is very excellent fervicc 
committed at the pridge. 

Gow. Is the duke of Exeter fafe ? 

Flu. The duke of Exeter is as magnanimous as 
Agamemnon ; and a man that I love and honour with 
my foul, and my heart, and my duty, and my life, 
and my livings, and myuttermoft powers : he is not, 
(Got be prailed and plefied !) any hurt in the 'odd; 
but keeps the pridge moft valiantly, with excellent 
difcipline. There is an ancient lieutenant there at the 
pridge, I think, in my very confcience, he is as va- 
liant a man as Mark Antony ; and he is a man of no 
eftimation in the 'odd ; but I did fee him do gallant 

Gow. What do you call him ? 

Flu. He is call'd ancient Piflol. 

Gow* I know him not. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 85 

Enter PiftoL 

Flu. Do you not know him ? Here comes the 

Pijl. Captain, I thee befeech to do me favours : 
The duke of Exeter doth love thee well. 

Flu. Ay, I praife Grot ; and I have merited fome 
love at his hands. 

Pift. Bardolph, a foldier, firm and found of heart, 
Of buxom valour ', hath, by cruel fate, 
And giddy fortune's furious fickle "wheel, 
That goddefs blind, 
That hands upon the rolling reftlefs ftone, 

Fit:. By your patience, ancient Piftol. * Fortune is 
painted plind, with a muffler before her eyes, to fig- 

1 Of buxom valour,] i.e. valour under good command, obe- 
dient to its fuperiours. So, in Spenfer's Faery >uecn : 
" Love tyrnnnizeth in the bitter frnarts 
*' Of them that to him are buxom and prone." 


a Fortune is painted plind, with a muffle r before her eyes, to fg- 
vify to you that fortune is plind: ] Here the fool of a player was 
for making a joke, as Hamlet fays, not Jet down for him, and 
jbe-iving a mojl pitiful ambition to be witty. For Fluellen, though 
he fpeaks with his country accent, yet is all the way reprefented 
as a man of good plain fenfe. Therefore, as it appears he knew 
the meaning of the term^//W, by his ufe of it, he could never 
have faid that Fortune was painted plind, tojignify Jbc ii'as plind. 
He might as well have laid afterwards, that Jhe was painted in- 
conftaut, to jtgnify fie 'was inconjlant. But there he fpeaks fenfe, 
and io, unqueftionably, he did here. We mould therefore flrikc 
out the firft plind, and read : 

Fortune is painted with a muffler, &c. WARBURTOK. 
The old reading is the true one. Fortune, the Godde/'i, is repre- 
fcnted blind, to fhew iivAt fortune, or the chance of_ life, is without 
<ii(cernment. STEEVENS. 

This picture of Fortune is taken from the old hiftory of For- 
tunatus ; where (lie is defcribed to be a fair woman, muffled over 
the eyes. FARMER. 

A muffler appears to have been part of a lady's drefs. So, in 
Monf. Thomas, 1639 : 

" On with my muffler." 

G 3 nify 


nify to you, that fortune is plind : And fhe is paint-? 
ed alfo with a wheel ; to fignify to yon, which is 
the moral of it, that ihe is turning, and inconftant, 
and mutabilities, and variations ; and her foot, look 
you, is fixed upon a fphcrical ftone, which rolls, and 
rolls, and rolls ; In good truth, the poet makes a 
moft excellent defcripticn of fortune : fortune, look 
you, is an excellent moral. 

Pift. Fortune is Bardolph's foe, and frowns on him; 
* For he hath ftpl'ii a p;x t and hanged mull 'a be. 
Parnn'd death ! 


3 The old editions, 

For he bathjiofn a pax, ] " And this is conformable to hif- 
tory." fays Mr. Pope, " a foldier (as Hall. tells us) being hang'd 

at this time for fuch a fad."- Both Hall and Holinftied 

agree as to the point of the theft ; but as to the thing Jlolen^ 
there is not that conformity betwixt them and Mr. Pope. It 
was an cncient cultcm, at the celebration of inafs, that when 
the prieft pronounced thele words, fax Domini fit fcniper voi'f- 
cum ! both clergy and people kifs'd onp another. And this was 
palled Ofcvlitm Pacts, the Kifs of Peace. But that cu$om being 
abrogated, a certain image is now prefented to be killed, which 
is called a Pax, But it \vas not this image which Bardolph rtole ; 
it was //>, or little cheft (from the L^tjn word, pix'u, a box) ; 
in which the confecrated baft was ufed to be kept. ' A foolifh 
foldier," fays Hall expn/sly, and Hclinflied after him, Hole a 
fix out of a church." THEOBALD. 

What Theobald fays is true, but might have been told iii fewer 
>vords: I have examined the pafThge in Hall. Yet Dr. Warbur- 
ton rejected that emendation, and continued Pope's note without 

It \sfax in the folio 1625, but altered to//.v by Theobald and 
fir T. Hanmer. They fignified the fame thing. See Pax at 
Mafs, Minfie'iv's G:iidc in:o the 7'osgne*. Fix or fax was a little 
box in which were kept the confecrated waters. JOHNSON. 

So, in May I>ay, a comedy, by Chapman, ifei j ; " Kifs 
the/fl-v, and be quiet, like your other neighbours/' So, in lh 
Dc-rnfall of Rolert JEfrrl of Huntingtnn, \6i\ : 
'* Then with this hallovv'J crucifix, 
" This holy wafer, and this^/>." 

That a fix and a pax were different things, may be feen from the 
following paflage in the Hiftory of our Eltjjcd La<iy of Loretto^ 
1608, p. 505? 

" a cup, 


Let gallows gape for dog, let man go free, 

And let not hemp his wind-pipe fuffocatc : 

But Exeter hath given the doom of death, 

for pix of little price. 

Therefore, go fpeak, the duke will hear thy voice ; 

And let not Bardolph's vital thread be cut 

With edge of penny-cord, and vile reproach : 

Speak, captain, for his life, and Iwillthee requite.. 

Flu. Ancient Piitol, I do partly vmderfland your 

Pift. 4 Why then rejoice therefore. 

Flu. Certainly, ancient, it is not a thing to re- 
joice at : for if, look you, he were my brother, I 
would defire the duke to ufe his goot plea lure, and 
put him to executions ; for difciplines ought to be 

Pift. Die and be damn'd ; andj^jo for thy friend* 
ihip * ! 

Flfi. It is well. 

fift. 6 The fig of Spain ! [Exit Pifol. 


t* a cup, acd a fp'rinkle for holy water, A fix and a pax t 

all of excellent chryftal, gold and amber." 

Again, in Store's Chronicle, p. 677 : '* palmes, chalices, 

crclles, veftments, pixfs^ paxes, and fuch like." STEEVENS. 

4 Why then rejoice therefore.'} This pafFage, with feveral others, 
in the character of Pidol, is ridiculed by Ben Jonlbn, in Tbf 
Pettafler, as follows : 

" Why then lament therefore ; damn'd be thy gut$ 
*' Unco king Pluto's hell, and princely Erebus ; 
" For fparrmvs muft have food." STEF.VENS. 

' Figo/cr thy fricndfilp !} This exprcifiou occurs likewife 

ill Ra>H-All>y, or Merry Tricks, 1610: 

water at the dock, 

" \fico lor her deck." 
Again : 

" Kfi-n for the fun and moon. STEEVEKS. 
' T'hf fig of Spain!"} This is no alluiion to \\iefico alrca^r 
explained in T/iv Merry Wives of lilndfor ; but to the CUuo;n of 
giving poifouM figs to'thofe who were the objefts either -ot Spa- 
nilh or Italian revenge. The quartos 1600 and 1608 read : " 

G firf 

88 KING H E N R Y V; 

Flu. Very good 7 . 

Gow. Why, this is an arrant counterfeit rafcal ; I 
remember him now ; a bawd, a cut-purfe. 

Flu. I'll aflure you, 'a utter'd as pravc 'ords at the 
pridge, as you lhall fee in a fummer's day : But it is 
very well ; what he has fpoke to me, thatjs well, I 
warrant you, when time is ferve. 

Gow. Why, 'tis a gull, a fool, a rogue ; that now 
and then goes to the wars, to grace himfelf, at his re- 
turn into London, under the form of a foldier. And 
fuch fellows are perfect in the great commanders' 
names : and they will learn you by rote, where fer- 
vices were done; at fuch and fuch 8 a fconce, at fuch 


fig of Spain ivithin thy jaw :" and afterwards : " The fig within thy 
bowels an J thy dirty maw." So, in The FIeire t 1610, a comedy ; 

44 Pel. Give them a fig. 

" Flo. Make them drink their laft. 

** Pel. Poifon them." 
Again, in Tic Brothers, by Shirley, 1652: 
^0^0/7 him ; one fig fends hi 

I mult ^0^0/7 him ; one fig fends him to Erebus." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Every Man in his Humour : 

' The Ive to a man of my coat, is as ominous a fruit as 

Again, in one of Gafcoigne's Poems: 

" It may fall out that thou flialt be entic'd 
" To fup fometimes with a magnifico, 
" And have a fico foilted in thy difli," feV. 
Again, in Decker's Match me in Landim^ 1631 ; 
** Cor. Now do I look for z.fig. 
" Gaz. Chew none, fear nothing: 
and the fcene of this play lies at Seville. 
Again, in The NoMc Soldier, 1634 : 

" - Is it (poifon) fpeeding? 
'* As all our Spanijhjigs are." 
Again, in Viltoria Corombona, 1612: 

" I look now for a Spanrjbfg, or an Italian fallad daily." 


7 Flu- Very good.~\ Inftead of thefe two words, the quartos 
read : - 

*' Captain Gower, cannot you hear it lighten and thunder ?" 


* a fconce, ] Appears to have been fome hafty, rude, 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 8 9 

a breach, at fuch a convoy ; who came off bravely, 
who was fhot, who difgrac'd, what terms the enemy 
flood on ; and this they con perfectly in the phrafe of 
war, which they trick up with new-tuned oaths : And 
what a beard of the general's cut, and a horrid fuit 
of the camp 9 , will do among foaming bottles, and ale- 
walh'd wits, is wonderful to be thought on ! But you 
muft learn to know ' fuch flanders of the age, or elfe 
you may be marvelloufly miftook. 

Flu. I tell you what, captain Gower; I do perceive, 
he is not the man that he would gladly make Ihew to 
the 'orld he is ; if I find a hole in his coat, I will tell 
him my mind. Hear you, the king is coming ; and 
z I muft fpeak with him from the pridge. 

inconfiderable kind of fortification. Sir Thomas Smythe, in 
one of his Difcourfes on the Art Military, 1589, mentions them 
in the following manner : " and that certen fconces by them 
devifed, without anie bulwarks, flanekers, travalfes, mounts, 
plattormes, wet or drie ditches, in forme, with counterfcarps, 
or any other good forme of fortification, but only raifed and 
formed with earth, turfe, trench, and certen poynts, angles, 
and indents, fliould be able to hold out the enemie, feV. 


9 a horrid fuit of the camp,] Thus the folio. The 4103 
l6co, &c. read a horrid Jhout of the camp. STEEVENS. 

1 -JucbJUndcri of the age,~\ This was a character very trou- 
blefome to \viie men in our author's time. " It is the practice 
with him," faysAfcham, " to be warlike, though he never looked 
enemy in the face, yet fome warlike fign muft be ufed, as a flo- 
venly bulkin, or an over-ftaring frownced head, as though out 
of every hair's top mould fuddenly {tart a good big oath." 


z I muft fyeak ivitk him from the pridge.] " Speak with him 
from the bridge, Mr. Pope tells us, is added to the latter edi- 
tions ; but that it is plain from the fequel, that the fcene here 
continues, and the affair of the bridge is over." This is a molt 
inaccurate criticifm. Though the affair of the bridge be over, 
is that a reafon, that the king muft receive no intelligence from 
thence ? Fluellen, who comes from the bridge, wants to acquaint 
the king with the tranfaftions that had happened there. This 
Jie cz\\sfpeaking to the king from the bridge. THEOBALD. 

With this Dr. Warburton concurs. JOHNSO.V. 



Drum and colours. Eater the king, Glofter, and foldiers. 

Fin. Got plefs you majefty ! 

A". Henry. How now, Fluellen ? cam'ft thou from 
the bridge ? 

Flu. Ay, fo pleafe your majefty. The duke of 
Exeter has very gallantly maintain'd the pridge : the 
French is gone off, look you ; and there is gallant 
and moft prave paffages : Marry, th'athverfary was 
have polleffion of the pridge ; but he is enforced to 
fetire, and the duke of Exeter is mafter of the pridge : 
I can tell your majefty, the duke is a prave man. 

K. Henry. What men have you loft, Fluellen ? 

Flu. The perdition of th'athverfary hath been very 
great, very reafonable great : marry, for my part, I 
think the duke hath loft never a man, but one that 
is like to be executed for robbing a church, one Bar- 
dolph, if your majefty know the man : his face is all 
bubukles, and whelks, and knobs ? , and flames of 
fire ; and his lips plows at his nofe, and it is like a 
coal of fire, fometimes plue, and fometimes red ; but 
his nofe is executed, and * his fire's out. 

K. Henry. 

3 a d whelks, and knobs,] So, in Chaucer's charafter of a 
Sompnou from which, perhaps, Shakefpeare took forae hiut| 
for his efcription of Bardolph's face : 

A Sompnour was ther with us in that place 
That hadde a fire-red cherubiunes face, &c. 

Ther n'as quickfilver, litarge, ne brimilon, 
Boras, cerufe, ne oile of tartre non, 
Ne oinement that wolde clenfe or bite, 
That might him helpcn of his r .\:he!J;cs white, 
Ne of the knobbes fitting on his chekes." 
See the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, late edit. v. 628, &c. 


* hisjire'i tut."] This is the laft time that any fport can be 
made with the red face of Bardolph, which, to coiifefs the truth, 
feems to have taken more hold on Shakefpeare's imagination than 
on any other. The conception is very cold to the Iblitary mi- 



K. Henry. We would have all fuch offenders fo cut 
off : and we give exprefs charge, that, in ourmarches 
through the country, there be nothing compelled 
from the villages, nothing taken but paid for ; none 
of the French upbraided, or abufed in difdainful 
Janguage ; For when lenity and cruelty play for a 
Jdngdom, the gentleft gamefter is the fooneft winner, 

Bucket founds* s Enter Montjoy. 

Mont. You know me 6 by my habit. 

'K. Henry. Well then, I know thee ; What fliall I 
Jcnow of thee ? 

Mont. My matter's mind, 

K. Henry. Unfold it. 

Mont. Thus fays my king : Say thou to Harry of 
England, Though we feemed dead, we did but Deep; 
Advantage is a better foldier, than raflmefs. Tell him, 
we could have rcbuk'd him at Harfleur ; but that we 
thought not good to bruife an injury, 'till it were full 
ripe : now we fpeak 7 upon our cue, and our voice 
is imperial : England lhall repent his folly, fee his 
weaknefs, and admire our fufferance. Bid him, there- 
fore, coniider of his ranfom ; which muft proportion 
the loffes we have borne, the fubjects we have loft, 
the difgrace we have digeflcd ; which, in weight to 
re-anfwer, his pettinefs would bow under. For our 
Joffes, his exchequer is too poor ; for the effufion of 

der, thoxigh it may be fomewhat invigorated by the exhibition 
pn the ftage. This poet is always more careful about the pre- 
lent than the future, about hb audience than his readers. 


5 Enter Mo-,/tj<;y.~\ 'Mont-joie Is the title of the firft king at arms 
in France, as Garter is in our own country. STEEVENS. 

6 ly my habit.} That is, by his herald's coat. The perfon 
of a herald being inviolable, was diftinguifhed in thofe times of 
formality by a peculiar urels, which is likewife yet worn on par- 
ticular occafions. JOHNSON. 

7 f>cn our cue, ] In our turn. This phrafe the author 

Jearned among players, and has imported it to kings. JOHNSON. 



our blood, the mufter of his kingdom too faint a 
number; and for our difgrace, his own perfon, kneel- 
ing at our feet, but a weak and worthlefs fatisfacftion. 
To this add defiance : and tell him, for c -nclufion, 
hehathbetray'd his followers, whofe condemnation is 
'pronounced. So iar my king and matter ; 8 fo much 
my office. 

K. Henry. What is thy name ? I know thy quality. 

Mont. Montjoy. 

K. Henry. Thou dofl thy office fairly. Turn thec 


And tell thy king, I do not feek him now ; 
But could be willing to march on to Calais 
Without impeachment * : for, to fay the footh, 
(Though 'tis no wifdom to confefs fo much 
Unto an enemy of craft and vantage) 
My people are with ficknefs much enfeebled ; 
My numbers leflen'd ; and thofe few I have, 
Almoft no better than fo many French ; 
Who when they were in health, I tell thee, herald, 
I thought, upon one pair of Englifh legs 
Did march three Frenchmen. Yet, forgive me 


That I do brag thus ! this your air of France 
Hath blown that vice in me ; I muft repent. 
Go, therefore, tell thy mailer, here I am ; 
My ranfom, is this frail and worthlefs trunk; 
My army, but a weak and fickly guard ; 
Yet, 9 God before, tell him we will come on, 


8 fo much my office.] This fpeech, as well as another pre- 
ceding it, was firft compreis'd into verle by Mr. Pope. Where 
he wanted a fyllable, he lupplied it, and where there were too 
many for his purpofe, he made i'uitable omifiions. Shikeipeare 
(if we may believe fome of the old copies) meant both fpeeches 
for profe, and as fuch I have printed them. SJEEVENS, 

* Without impeachment.] i. e. hindrance. hm^ccbc .-. 
French. STEEVENS. 

9 God before, -^ ] This was an expre lion in that age 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 93 

Though France himfelf, and fuch another neighbour, 

Stand in our way. There's for thy labour, Montjoy *. 

Go, bid thy matter well advife himfelf : 

It \\e may pafs, we will ; if we be hinder'd, 

We fliail your tawny ground with your red blood 

Difcclour : and fo, Montjoy, fare you well. 

The fum of all our anfwer is but this : 

We would not feek a battle, as we are ; 

Nor, as \ve are, we fay, we will not Hum it ; 

So tell your mafter.' 

Mont. I ihall deliver fo. Thanks to your high- 
nefs. \_Exit. 

Glo. I hope, they will not come upon us now. 

K. Henry. We are in God's hand, brother, not in 


March to the bridge ; it now draws toward night : 
Beyond the river we'll encamp ourfelves ; 
And on to-morro T .v bid them march away. [Exeunt. 

for God being my guide, or when ufed to another, Godle thy guide. 
So, in an old dialogue between a herdfman and a maiden going on 
pilgrimage to Walfingham, the herdfman takes his leave in thefe 
words : 

" Now, go thy ways, and God before." 
To prevent was uled m the fame fenfe. JOHNSOX. 

1 There's for thy labour, Montjoy. ~\ It appears from many an- 
cient books that it was always cuftomary to reward a herald, whe- 
ther he brought defiance or congratulation. So, in the ancient 
metrical hiflory of the Battle of Floddon : 

" Then gave he to the herald's hand, 
** Befides, with it, a rich reward; 
** Who haften'd to his native land 

*' To fee how with his king it far'd." STEEVENS. 


94 fc I N G H E N R Y V< 

3 S C E N E Vil. 

% French camp near Agincourt. 

Enter the conjlable of France, the lord Rambures, the Ditke 
of Orleans, Dauphin, with others. 

Con. Tut ! I have the beft armour of the world. 
Would, it were day ! 

Orl. You have an excellent armour ; but let my 
horfe have his due. 

Con. It is the beft horfe of Europe. 

Orl. Will it never be morning ? 

Dau* My lord of Orleans, and my lord high con- 
liable, you talk of horfe and armour, 

Orl. You are as well provided of both, as any 
prince in the world. 

Dau. What a long night is this ! I will not change 
my horfe with any that treads but on four patterns. 
ga, ha ! 4 He bounds from the earth, as if his en- 
trails were hairs ; le cheval volant, the Pegafus, qui a 
les narines de feu ! When I beftridc him, I foar, I am 
a hawk : he trots the air ; the earth lings when he 
touches it ; the bafeft horn of his hoof is more nun 
fical than the pipe of Hermes. 

Orl. He's of the colour of the nutmeg. 

Dau. And of the heat of the ginger. It is a 
beafl foT Perfeus : he is pure air and fire 5 ; and the 

3 Scene VII.] This fcene is fhorter, and I think better, in the 
firft editions of 1600 and i6o8v But as the enlargements appear 
to be the author's own, I would not omit them. POPE. 

* fie bounds from the earth, as if his entrails were hairs J J 
Alluding to the bounding of tennis-balls, which were iUifted 
with hair, as appears from Much Ado about Nothing^ " And the 
old ornament of his cheek hath already ilufPd tennis-balls." 


5 he is part air and fire ; anil the dull elements itf earth and 

water jtei'cr appear in />/>/,] Thus Cleopatra fpeaking ot herfeli 
'* I am air and fire ; ray other elements 
41 I etve to bafer life." STEEVENS. 


dull elements of earth and water never appear in him, 
but only in patient ftillnefs, while his rider mounts 
him : he is^ indeed, a horfe ; 6 and all other jades you 
may call bearta 

Con. Indeed, my lord, it is a moil abfolute and 
excellent horfe. 

Dau. It is the prince of palfreys ; his neigh is 
like the bidding of a monarch, and his countenance 
enforces homage. 

OrL No more, coufin. 

Dau. Nay, the man hath no wit, that cannot, from 
the rifing of the lark to the lodging of the lamb, vary 
deferred praife on my palfrey : it is a theme as fluent 
as the fea ; turn the fands into eloquent tongues, and 
my horfe is argument for them all : 'tis a fubject for 
a fovereign to reafon on, and for a fovereign's fove- 
reign to ride on ; and for the world (familiar to us, 
and unknown) to lay apart their particular functions, 
and wonder at him. I once writ a fonnet in his praife, 
and began thus, 7 Wonder of nature, 


6 and" all other jades you May call -Itafts,'} It is plain that 

jades and beafts fliould change places, it being the firft word and 

ftot the laft, which is the term of reproach ; as afterwards it is 

I had as !!e<ve have my mtflrifi a jade. WAR BURTON. 
There is no occalum lor this change. In the Second Part of 
King Henry IV. fcene i : 

" he gave his all: bcrfe the head, 

** And, bending forward, ilruck his armed heels 
*' Againft the panting fides of the poor jade" 
Jade is fomctimes ufed for a poll -horfe. lieajl is always em- 
ployed as a contemptuous diftindion. So, in Macbeth : 

' what lea/1 was't then 

" That made you break this enterprise to me ? 
Again, in Timon : " what a wicked leaf, was I to disfurniJh 
myfelf againft ib good a time ?" STEEVENS, 

7 Wonder of nature ] Here, I fnppofe, fome foolifh 

poem of our authors time is ridiculed ; which indeed partly ap- 
pears from the aufwcr. WAR BURTON. 


9 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Or/. I have heard a fonnet begin fo to one's mu'~ 

Dau. Then did they imitate that which I compos'd 
to my courfer ; for my horfe is my. miftrefs. 

Or/. Your miftrefs bears well. 

Dau. Me well ; which is the prefcript praife and 
perfection of a good and particular miftrefs. 

Con. Ma foy ! the other day, mcthought, your mif- 
trefs fhrewdly ihook your back. 

Dau. So, perhaps, did yours. 

Con. Mine was not bridled. 

Dau. O ! then, belike, fhe was old and gentle ; and 
you rode, 8 like a kerne of Ireland, your French v hofc 
off, and in your ftrait troflers. 


In the firft Part of K. Henry VI. aft V. fc. iv. Shakefpeare 
himfelf ufes the phrafe which he here feems to ridicule : 
" Be not offended, nature's miracle!" MALONE. 
The phrafe is only reprehenlible through its mifapplication. It 
is furely proper when applied to a woman, but ridiculous indeed 
when addrefled to a borfc. STEEVENS. 

8 like a kerne of Ireland, your French hofe off, and in your 

Jlrait flrolfers.] Thus all the editions have miftaken this word, 
which fliould be trojjers ; and fignifies a pair of breeches. 


This word very frequently occurs in the old dramatic writers. 
A man in The Coxcomb of Beaumont and Fletcher, fpeaking to 
an Irifh fervant, fays, " I'll have thee flcad, and trojfirs made 
of thy (kin, to tumble in." Trojjers appear to have been tight 
breeches. The kerns of Ireland anciently rode without breeches, 
and therefore firait troffers, 1 believe, means only in their naked 
Ikin, which fits clofe to them. The word is ftill preferved, but 
now written trenvfers. STEEVENS. 

" T'ronfes," fays the explanatory Index to Cox's Hiflory oflre- 

land, " are breeches and ftockings made to fit as clofe to the body 

as can be." Several of the morris-dancers repreiented upon the 

print of my window, have fuch hofe or ftrait troulers ; but the 

poet feems by the waggifh context to have a further meaning. 


The following paflage in Heyvvood's Challenge for Beauty^ 
1636, proves, that the ancient Irifli troufen were fomewhat more 
than mere buff. 


Con. You have good judgment in horfemanfhip. 

Dau. Be warn'd by me then : they that ride Ib, and 
ride not warily, fall into foul bogs ; I had rather have 
my horfe to rr\y miflrefs. 

Con. I had as lief have my miflrefs a jade. 

Dau. I tell thee, conflable, my miftrefs wears her 
own hair. 

Con. I could make as true a boafl as that, if I had 
a fow to my miflrefs. 

Dau. Le chien eft retourne a Jon propre vomiffement 9 
y la trule lavee au bourbier : thou mak'ft ufe of any 

Con* Yet do I not ufe my horfe for my miflrefs ; or 
any fuch proverb, fo little kin to the purpofe. 

Ram. My lord conflable, the armour, that I faw 
in your tent to-night, are thofe flars, or funs, upon it ? 

Con. Stars, my lord. 

Dan. Some of them will fall to-morrow, I hope. 

Con. And yet my iky lhall not want. 

Dau. That may be, for you bear many fuperfiu- 
oufly ; and 'twere more honour, fome were away. 

Con. Even as your horfe bears your praifes ; who 
would trot as well, were fome of your brags dif- 

Dau. Would I were able to load him with h is deferti 

" Manburft. No, for my money give me your fubftantial 
En.glifli hofe, round, and fomewhat full afore. 

" Maid. Now they are, methinks, a little too great. 

*' Manb. The more the difcretion ot the landlord that builds 
them he makes room enough for his tenant to iland upright m 
them he may walk in and out at eafe without Hooping : but of 
all the reft I am clean out of love with your Iriih tropes ; they 
are for all the world like a jealous wife, always clofe at a man's 
tayle." The fpeaker is here circumftantially defcribing the fa- 
fliions of different countries. So, again, in Bulwer's Pedigree of 
the Englijb Gallant, 1653 :"" Bombafted and paned hofe were, 
fmce I can remember, in fafliion ; but now our hofe are made fo 
clofe to our breeches, that, like lnft\tr<n.vfes, they too manifestly 
difcover the dimeulion of every part." lu Sir John Oldtaftle^ 
the word is fpelt jlrouc COLICS* 

VOL. VI. H Will 

9 S K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Will it never be day ? I will trot to-morrow a mile,' 
and my way fhall be paved with Englilh faces. 

Con. I will not fay fo, for fear I fhould be fac'd out 
of my way : But I would it were morning, for I would 
fain be about the ears of the Englifh. 

Ram. Who will go to hazard with me for twenty 
Englilh prifoners 9 ? 

Con. You muft firfl go yourfelf to hazard, ere you 
have them. 

Diiu. 'Tis midnight, I'll go arm myfelf. \_Exit. 

Orl. The Dauphin longs for morning. 

Ram. He longs to eat the Englifh. 

Con. I think, he will eat all he kills. 

Orl. By the white hand of my lady, he's a gallant 

Con. Swear by her foot, that fhe may tread out the 

Orl. He is, fimply, the moft active gentleman of 

Con. Doing is activity ; and he will flill be doing. 

Orl. He never did harm, that I heard of. 

Con. Nor will do none to-morrow ; he will keep 
that good name ftill. 

Orl. I know him to be valiant. 

Con. I was told that^ by one that knows him better 
than you. 

Orl. What's he ? 

Con. Marry, he told me fo himfelf ; and he faid, &e 
car'd not who knew it. 

Orl. He needs not, it is no hidden virtue in him*- 

Con. By my faith, Sir, but it is ; never any body 

9 W7jo will go to hazard ivit/j me for twenty EngllJJ: prifoners ?j| 
So, in the old anonymous Henry V : 

** Come and you fee what me tro at the kind's drummer audl 

" Faith me will tro nt the earl of Northumberland and, no\Ti 
I will tro at the king himfelf, Sec." 

This incident, however, might hve been furnifl:ed by the ch?o-i 
side. STEEVENS, 


K I N G H E N R Y V. $ g 

nw it, but ' his lacquey : * 'tis a hooded valour ; and, 
whim it appears, it will bate. 

Or/. Ill will never faid wcjl. 

Con. J I will cap that proverb with There is flat* 
tery in friendlhip. 

Or/. And I will take up that withi Give the devil 
his due. 

Con. Well plac'd ; there (lands your friend for the 
devil.: have at the very eye of that proverb, 4 with 
A pox of the devil. 

Or. You are the better at proverbs, by how much 
A fool's bolt is foon (hot. 

"Con. You have (hot over. 

Or/. 'Tis not the firft time you were over-ihot* 

Enter a Meffenger. 

Mtff. My lord high conftablc, the Engliih lie witH- 
in fifteen hundred paces of your tent. 

Con. Who hath meafnr'd the ground ? 

Mef The lord Grandpre. 

Co/i. A valiant and mod expert gentleman. 
* 'Would it were day ! Alas, poor Harry of Eng- 
land ! he longs not for the dawning, as we do. 

fas lacquey : ] He has beaten nobody yet but his footboy. 


* V/j a hooded valour, andvoken it appears, it will bat?.] 

This is faid with allufion to falcons which are kept /W/Wwhen 
they are not to fly at game, and as foon as the hood is oiT, bait 
or flap the wing. The meaning is, the Dauphin's valour has 
never been let loofe upon an enemy, yet, when he makes his tirit 
tll?y, we ihall fee how he will flutter. JOHNSON-. 

3 / 1 v/// cap that proverb ] Alluding to the practice or cap- 
ping verlcs. JOHNSON. 

+ ^Itb^A pox of tbe devil!^ The qunrtcs 1600, and 1608 
read, <zu//, Ajogge of the devil. STEEVENS. 

5 'irouM it were day / ] Inikad of this and the fucceeding 
fpeeches, the 4108 1600 and i6o3 conclude this icene, witH 
a couplet : 

Come, cone <r:i'."y, 

The fun is bigb^ and we ivear out tie day, STEEVENS. 

H 2 Or/. 


Or/. What a wretched and peevifh* fellow is this 
king of England, to mope with his fat-brain'd fol- 
lowers fo far out of his knowledge ! 

Con. If the Englifh had any apprehenfion, they 
would run away. 

Or/. That they lack ; for if their heads had any in- 
tellectual armour, they could never wear fuch heavy 

Ram. That ifland of England breeds very valiant 
creatures ; their maftiffs are of unmatchable courage. 

Or/. Fodlifh curs ! that run winking into the mouth 
of a Ruffian bear, and have their heads crufh'd like 
rotten apples : You may as well fay, that's a valiant 
flea, that dare eat his breakfaft on the lip of a lion. 

Con. Juft, juft ; and the men do fympathize with 
the maftiffs, in robuftious and rough coming on, 
leaving their wits with their wives : and then give 
them .great meals of beef 6 , and iron and fleel, they 
will eat like wolves, and fight like devils. 

Or/. Ay, but thefe Englifh are fhrewdly out of 

Con. Then we fliall find to-morrow they have only 
ftomachs to eat, and none to fight. Now it is time 
to arm ; Come, fliall we about it ? 

Or/. Tis two o'clock : but, let me fee, by 

We fliali have each a hundred Englifhmen. 

* Peevffi, in ancient language, figmfied foolifh, filly. Many 
examples of this are given in a note on Cymbeline, A&. I. fc. 7 : 

'* He's ftrange and peevijh" STEEVENS. 

6 give them great meals of beefy] So, in K. Edw. III. 


" but fcant them of their chines of leef, 

" And takeaway their downy featherbeds, &c." 




Enter Chorus. 

Ckorus. Now entertain conjecture of a time, 
%Vhen creeping murmur, and the poring dark, 
7 Fills the wide veflel of the univerfe. 
From camp to camp, through the foul womb of 


The hum of either army flilly founds, 
That the fix'd centinels almoft receive 
The fecret whifpers of each other's watch : 
Fire ajifwers fire ; and through their paly flames 
Each battle fees * the other's umber'd face : 


7 Fills the ivide vejjcl of the univerfe. ,] Univerfe for horizon : 
for we are not to think Shakefpeare fo ignorant as to imagine it 
was night over the whole globe at once. He intimates he knew 
otherwife, by that fine line in the Midfummer Night's Dream : 

following darknefs like a dream, 

Befides, the image he employs (hews he meant but half the 
globe ; the horizon round, which has the lhape of a veflel or 
goblet. WAR BUR TON. 

There is a better proof that Shakefpeare knew the order of 
night and day, in Macbeth : 

.** Nff-w o'er one half the world 
" Nature fe-ems dead." 

But there was no great need of any juftification. The univerfe ^ 
in its original fenfe, -no more means this globe fingly than the 
circuit of the horizon ; but, however large in its philofophical 
fenfe, it may be poetically ufed for as much of the world as falls 
under obfervation. Let me remark further, that ignorance can- 
not be certainly inferred from inaccuracy. Knowledge is not al- 
ways prefent. JOHNSON. 

8 the other* s umber* d face :] Umber* d or umlred is a term in 
blazonry, and fignifies fhadowed. WAR BURTON. 

the other's umber'd face :] 

Of this epithet ufed by Shakefpeare in his defcription of fires 
reflected by night, Mr. Pope knew the value, and has tranfplant- 
^d it into the Iliad on a like occafion : 

** Whofe umber' d arms by turns thick flalhes fend." 

H 3 Umltr 

to* K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Steed threatens fteed, in high and boaftful neighs 

Piercing the night's dull ear ; 9 and from the tents^ 

The armourers, accomplifning the knights, 

With bufy hammers clofing rivets up, 

Give dreadful note of preparation. 

1 The country cocks do crow, the clocks do toll ; 


Umler is a brown colour. So, in As Tou Like It : 
" And with a kind of nmftr fmirch ray race.' 4 
The diilant vifages of the foldiers would certainly appear of this 
hue when beheld through the light of midnight fires. Blazonry, 
I believe, does not acknowledge the word ymlx-r'd. Adumbra- 
tion^ indeed, fays Guillim, is ^Jkad.r ::-. &c. and I meet with 
the fame word in Warner's Albion's li^n^land, 1602. B. X. 
chap. Ivi : 

" Sweet adumbrations of her zeale, Sec." STEEVENS. 
Another interpretation occurs, evpreiFve. of the preparation of 
both armies for an engagement. In Hamlet, aft III. Mr. Stee- 
vens gives the following quotation from Sto-ve's Chronicle, " He 
brail up his umbci' three times," Where umler means the vizor 
of the helmet, as mnbricre doth in Spaifer, from the French om- 
bre, ombriere, or ombrairc, a fliadow, an umbrella, or a,ny thing 
that hides o- rovers the face. Hence umbered f-ice may denote 4 
face armed with a hehnet, a^ in K. Henry IV : 

41 I law young Harry with his bever on." 
and in the prefcnt play : 

" Big Mars fecms bankrupt in their beggard hoil, 
" And faintly through a ruuy heaver preps." 
Beaver here means exactly the fame'with wnber in Stowe. 


nnd from the tents , ] See the preparation for the battle be 
tween 1 alamon and Arcite in Chaucer : 

' And on the morwe, when the clay 'gan fpring, 

' Of horfe and barneis noife and clattering, 

* There was in the hoflelirics all about : 

' The foamy fteues on the golden bridel 

' Gnavving, .and fttft the armureres alfo 

' With fik and hammer priking to and fro," &c. 


1 77r country cocks do crow, the clocks do toll ; 
And (the third hour of dro*vfy morning nam'd) 
Pr nil d of their number!, and facurr infmtl, 
7 he confident, and over-lujly French 
Do the low-rated Englijh play at dice ; ] 

I be. 

K I N G H E N R Y V. I03 

.And the third hour of drowfy morning name. 

Proud of their numbers, and fecurc in fpul, 

The confident and over-lufty French 

5 Do the low-rated Englilh play at dice ; 

And chide the cripple tardy-gaited night, 

Who, like a foul and ugly witch, doth limp 

So tediouily away. The poor condemned Englilh, 

jLike facriiices, by their watchful fires 

Sit patiently, and inly ruminate 

The morning's danger ; and their gefture fad, 

3 Inverting lank-lean cheeks, and war-worn coats, 

Prefcnted them unto the gazing moon 

So many horrid ghofts. O, now, who will behold 

J believe every reader of tafte muft be hurt by that heavy paren? 
thefis in the fecond line. How much better might we read thus ? 
1'be country cocks do croiv, the clocks do toll, 
And the third hour of drovcfy morning name. 
Then begin another fentence. TYRWHITT. 
J have admitted this very neceflary and elegant emendation. 


1 Do the low-rated Englffi play at dice ;] i.e. do play them 
away at dice. WAR BUR TON. 

3 Inverting lank-lean cheeks, ] A gefture infuejling checks and 
foats is nonfenfe. We mould read : 

Invert in lank-lean cheeks 

which is fenfe, /. c. their fad gefture was cloath'd, or fet off, in 
lean checks and worn coats. The jmage is ftrong and pictu- 
refque. WAR BUR TON. 

Yet perhaps even this change is unneceflary. The harfhnefs 
of the metaphor is what offends, which means only, that their, 
looks are inverted in mournful gertures. 

Such another harfh metaphor occurs in Much Ado about "Nothing; 
" For my part, I am fo attired in wonder, 
" I know not what to fay." STEEVENS. 

Gefture only relates to their checks, after which word there 
faould be a comma, as in the firll folio. In the fecond fong of 
Sidney's AJlrophcl and Stella : 

" Anger invefts the face with a lovely grace." TOLLET. 
The prefent time runs throughout the whole of the defcription, 
except in this inftance, where the change feems very improper, 
\ believe we fliould read, prrfent$th. STEEVENS. 
lave/ling, perhaps we mould read, in fajlln^ &c. ANON. 

H 4 The 


Thejroyal captain of this ruin'd band, 
Walking from watch to watch, from tent to tent, 
Let him cry Praife and glory on his head ! 
For forth he goes, and vifits all his hoft ; 
Bids them good morrow, with a modeft fmile ; 
And calls them brothers, friends, and countrymen* 
Upon his royal face there is no note, 
How dread an army hath enrounded him ; 
Nor doth he Dedicate one jot of colour 
Unto the weary and all-watched night : 
But freihly looks, and over-bears attaint, 
With cheerful femblance, and fweet majefty ; 
That every wretch, pining and pale before, 
Beholding him, plucks comfort from his looks : 
A largefs univerfal, like the fun, 
His liberal eye doth give to every one, 
Thawing, cold 4 fear. Then, mean and gentle all, 
Behold, as may unworthinefs define, 
A little touch of Harry in the night : 
Apd fo our fcene muft to the battle fly ; 
Wliere, (O for pity !) we Ilia 11 much difgrace 
With four or five moft vile and ragged foils, 
Right ill difpos'd, in brawl ridiculous, 
The name of Agincourt : Yet, fit and fee ; 
5 Minding true things by what their mockeries be. 


* fear, that mean and gentle all, 

Behold (as may, &c.] 

As this flood, it was a moft perplex'd and nonfenfical paflage : 
and could not be intelligible, but as I have cbrre<fted it. The 
poet, then addreffing himfelf to every degree of his audience, 
tells them, he'll {hew (as well as his unworthy pen and powers 
can defcribe it) a little touch or Iketch of this hero in the night. 


5 Minding true things ] To mind is the fame as to call to re- 
membrance. JOHNSON. 



The EngtiJJ] camp, at Ag'mcourt. 
Enter King Henry, Bedford, and Glofter. 

K. Henry. Glofter, 'tis true, that we are in great 

danger ; 

The greater therefore fhould our courage be. 
Good morrow, brother Bedford. God Almighty ! 
There is fome foul of goodnefs in things evil, 
Would men obfervingly diftil it out ; 
For our bad neighbour makes us early flirrers, 
Which is both healthful, and good hufbandry : 
Befides, they are our outward confciences, 
And preachers to us all ; admonifhing, 
That we ihould drefs us fairly for our end. 
Thus may we gather honey from the weed, 
And make a moral of the devil himfelf. 

Rnter Erpingham. 

Good morrow, 6 old Sir Thomas Erpingham : 
A good foft pillow for that good white head 
Were better than a churlim turf of France. 

Erplng. Not fo, my liege ; this lodging likes me 

Since I may fay now lie I like a king. 

K. Henry. 'Tis good for men to love their prefent 


Upon example ; fo the fpirit is eafed : 
And, when the mind is quicken'd, out of doubt, 

6 old Sir T"bomas Erfingbam :] Sir Thomas Erpingham cam* 
over with Bolingbroke from Bretagne, and was one of the com- 
milBoners to receive king Richard's abdication. 


Sir Thomas Erpingham was in Henry V.'s time warden of 
Dover caftle. His arms are ftill vifible on one fide of the Ro- 
;nan pharos. SrEEvtis's. 



The organs, though defunct and dead before, 

Break up their drowfy grave, and newly move 

7 With eafted flough and frefh legerity. 

Lend me thy cloak, Sir Thomas. Brothers both, 

Commend me to the princes in our camp ; 

Do my good morrow to them ; and, anon, 

Defire them all to my pavilion. 

Glo. We fhall, my liege. 

Ei-ping. Shall I attend your grace ? 

A'. Henry. No, my good knight ; 
Go with my brothers to my lords of England : 
I and my bofom muft debate a while, 
And then I would no other company. 

Erping. The Lord in heaven bids thee, noble 
Harry ! 

K. Henry. God-a-mercy, old heart \ thou fpeak'ft 
cheerful iy. [Qxtunt* 

Enter piftol* 

Pift. Qui va la ? 
K. Henry. A friend. 

Pift. Diicufs unto me ; Art thou officer ? 
Or art thou bafc, common, and popular ? 
K. Henry. I am a gentleman of a company, 
Pift. Trail'ft thou the puiffant pike ? 
K. Henry. Even fo : What are you ? 
Pift. As good a gentleman as the emperor. 
K. Henry. Then you are a better than the king. 
Pift. The king's a bawcock, and a heart of gold ; 

7 W1.-iicb cafled .ficngh ] Slongb is the {kin which the ferpent 
annually throws oft", and by the change of which he is iuppoicd 
to regain new vigour and frefh youth. Legerity is lightnelg, 
himblenefs. JOHNSON. 

So, itj Stanyhurft's tranflation of A7;y/7, B. IV. 1582 : 

" His Jloiigb uncafing himfelf now youthfully bleacheth." 
legerity is a word ufed by Ben Jonlbn in JEvny 31an out of I-ls 
Humour. STEEVENS. 

A lad 

K I N G H E N R Y V. I0? 

A lad of life, an imp of fame 8 ; 

Of parents good, of fift moft valiant : 

1 kils his dirty fhoc, and from my heart-ftrings 

I love the lovely bully. What's thy name ? 

K. Henry. Harry le Roy. 

Pi/I. Le Roy ! a Corniih name : art thou of Corniflj 
crew ? 

K. Henry. No, I am a Welfnman. 

Pift. Know'ft thou Fluellen ? 

K. Henry. Yes. 

Pift. Tell him, I'll knock his leek about his pate 
Upon faint David's day. 

K. Henry. Do not you wear your dagger in your cap 
that day, left he knock that about yours. 

Pift. Art thou his friend ? 

K. Henry. And his kinfman too. 

Pift. The figo for thee then ! 

K. Henry. 1 thank you : God be with you ! 

Pift. My name is Piftol call'd. [Exit, 

K. Henry. It forts 9 well with your fiercenefs. 

Enter F'luellen, and Gozver, federally, 

Gow. Captain Fluellen, 

Flu. So ! in the name of Chelhu Chrift, fpeak fewer. 
It is the greatcft admiration in the univerfal 'odd, 
when the true and auncient prerogatifes and laws of 
the wars is not kept : if you would take the pains 
but to examine the wars of Pompey the great, you 
fhall find, I warrant you, that there is no tittle tattle, 

8 an imp of fame ;] An imp is zjijoot in its primitive fenfe, 
but means a Jon in Shakefpeare. In Holinfhed, p. 951, the laft 
words of lord Cromwell are preferved, who fays, " and after 
him that his fonne prince Edward, that goodlie impe, may long 
rcigne over you." STEEVEXS. 

9 //forts] i.e. it agrees. So, in Chapman's verfion of the 
j;th book of the OJfffey : 

" His faire lon^; lance wellyir/:;?^ with his hand." 



roS K I N G H E N R Y V. 

nor pibble pabble, in Pompey's camp ; I warrant 
you, you fhall find the ceremonies of the wars, and 
the cares of it, and the forms of it, and the fobriety 
of it, and the modefty of it, to be otherwife. 

Gaii\ Why, the enemy is loud ; you heard him all 

Flu. If the enemy is an afs and a fool, and a prat- 
ing coxcomb, is it meet, think you, that we fhould 
alib, look you, be an afs, and a fool, and a prating 
coxcomb ; in your own confidence now ? 
Gozv. I will fpeak lower. 

Flu. I pray you, and befeech you, that you will. 


K. Henry. Though it appear a little out of fafhion, 
There is much care and valour in this Welfhman. 

Enter three foldiers, John Bates, Alexander Court, and 
Michael Williams. 

Court. Brother John Bates, is not that the morning 
xvhich breaks yonder ? 

Bates. I think it be : but we have no great caufe 
to defire the approach of day. 

Will. We fee yonder the beginning of the day, but, 
1 think, we fhall never fee the end of it. Who goes 
there ? 

K. Henry. A friend. 

Will* Under what captain ferve you ? 

K. Henry. Under Sir Thomas Erpingham. 

Will. A good old commander, and a mofl kind 
gentleman : I pray you, what thinks he of oureftate ? 

K. Henry. Even as men wreck'd upon a land, that 
)ook to be wafh'd off the next tide. 

Bates. He hath not told his thought to the king ? 

K. Henry. No ; nor it is not meet he fhould. For, 
though I fpeak it to you, I think, the king is but a 
man, as I am : the violet fmells to him, as it doth to 
me ; the element fhews to him, as it doth to me ; all 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 109 

his fenfes have but human f conditions : his ceremo- 
nies laid by, in his nakednefs he appears but a man; 
and though hisaffe&ionsarehighermountedthanours, 
yet, when they ftoop, they Hoop with the like wiag ; 
therefore when he fees reafon of fears, as we do, his 
fears, out of doubt, be of the fame relifh as ours are : 
Yet, in reafon, no man Ihould poflefs him with any 
appearance of fear, left he, by ihewing it, ihould dif- 
hearten his army. 

Bates. He may fhew what outward courage he 
will : but, I believe, as cold a night as 'tis, he could 
wifh himfelf in the Thames up to the neck.; and fo 
I would he were, and I by him, at all adventures, fo 
we were quit here. 

K. Henry. By my troth, I will fpeak my confcience 
of the king; I think, he would not wiih himfelf any 
where but where he is. 

Bates. Then, 'would he wjere here alone; fo Ihould 
he be fure to be ranfom'd, and a many poor men's 
lives fav'd. 

A'. Henry. I dare fay, you love him not fo ill, to 
\\illi him here alone; howfoever you fpeak this, to 
feel other men's minds : Methinks, I could not die 
any where fo contented, as in the king's company ; 
his caufe being juft, and his quarrel honourable. 

Will. That's more than we know. 

Bates. Ay, or more than we Ihould feek after ; for 
we know enough, if we know we are the king's fub- 
jedts : if his caufe be wrong, our obedience to the 
king wipes the crime of it out of us. 

Witt. But, if the caufe be not good, the king him- 
felf hath a heavy reckoning to make ; when all thofe 

1 conditions :] Are qualities. The meaning is, that objects 
are reprefented by his fenfes to him, as to other men by theirs. 
What is danger to another is danger likewile to him, and when 
he feds fear it is like the fear oi meaner mortals. JOHXSOX. 



legs, and arms, and heads, chop'd off in a battle; 
lhall join together at the latter day, and cry all \Vo 
dy'd at fuch a place ; fome, fwearing ; fome, crying 
for a furgeon ; fome, upon their wives left poor be- 
hind them ; fome, upon the debts they owe ; fome, 
upon 4 their children rawly left. I am afeard there 
are few die well, that die in a battle ; for how can they 
charitably difpofe of any thing, when blood is their 
argument ? Now, if thefe men do not diewell, it will 
be a black matter for the king that led them to it ; 
whom to difobey, were againft all proportion of fub- 

K. Henry. So, if a fon, that is by his father fent 
about merchandize, do finfully mifcarry upon the 
fea, the imputation of his wickednefs, by your rule, 
Ihould be impofed upon his father that fent him : or 
if a fervant, under his matter's command, tranfport- 
ing a fum of money, be affail'd by robbers, and die' 
in many irreconcird iniquities, you may call the buli- 
nefs of the mafter the author of the fervant's damna- 
tion : But this is not fo : the king is not bound to an- 
fwer the particular endings of his foldiers, the father 
of his fon, nor the mailer of his fervant ; for they 
purpofe not their death, when they purpofe their fcr- 
vices. Befides, there is no king, be his caufe never 
fo fpotlefs, if it come to the arbitrement of fwords, 
can try it out with all unipotted foldiers. Some, pcr- 
adventure, have on them the guilt of premeditated 
and contrived murder ; fome, of beguiling virgins 
with the broken feals of perjury ; fome, making the 
wars their bulwark, that have before gored the gentle 
bofam of peace with pillage and robbery. Now if 
thefe men have defeated the law, and out-run native 

their children rawly left*] That is, without preparation, 
fudtlenly. What is not matured is raiv. So, in Macbeth; 
" Why in this rawaefs. left he wife and children." 




Jmnifhment ', though they can out-drip men, they 
have no wings to fly from God : war is his beadle, 
war is his vengeance ; fo that here men arepunimed,. 
lor bcfore-breach of the king's laws, in now th* 
king's quarrel : where they feared the death, they have 
borne life away ; and where they would be fafe, the^ 
perifh : Then if they die unprovided, no more is'the 
king guilty of their damnation, than he was before 
guilty of thofe impieties for the which they are now 
vifited. 4 Every fubjecl's duty is the king's ; but every 
fubjecYs foul is his own. Therefore mould every fol- 
dicr in the wars do as every fick man in his bed, walh 
every moth out of his confcience : and dying fo, death 
is to him advantage ; or not dying, th-e time was blef- 
fedly loft, wherein fuch preparation was gained : and, 
in him that efcapes, it were not fin to think, that, 
making God fo free an offer, he let him out-live that 
day to fee his greatnefs, and to teach others how they 
fhould prepare. 

Will. 'Tis certain, that every man that dies ill, the 
ill is upon his own head, the king is not to anfwer 
for it. 

Bates. I do not deiire he mould anfwer for me; and 
yet I determine to fight luftily for him. 

K. Henry* I myfelf heard the king fay, he would 
not be ranfom'cl. 

Will. Ay, he faid fo, to make us fight cheerfully : 
but, when our throats are cut, he may be ranfom'd, 
and we ne'er the wifer. 

K. Henry. If I live to fee it, I will never truft his 
word after. 

3 i native pnnijhme /, ] That is, pimifhrnent In their na- 

tive country. REVISAL. i.e. fuch as they are born to if they 
offend. STEEVENS. 

* Every fulycft's duty ] This is a very juft diftinftion, and 
the whole argument is well followed, and properly concluded. 


H2 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Will. You pay him then ! 5 that's a perilous Ihot out 
of an elder gun, that a poor and private difpleafure 
can do againft a monarch ! you may as well go about 
to turn the fun to ice, with fanning in his face with a 
peacock's feather. You'll never truft his word after ! 
come, 'tis a foolilh faying. 

K. Henry. Your reproof is fomething too round ; 
I ihould be angry with you, if the time were con- 

Will. Let it be a quarrel between us, if you live. 

K. Henry. I embrace it. 

Will. How fhall I know thee again ? 

K. Henry. Give me any gage of thine, and I will 
wear it in my bonnet : then, if ever thou dar'ft ac- 
knowledge it, I will make it my quarrel. 

Will. Here's my glove ; give me another of thine. 

K. Henry. There. 

Will. This will I alfo wear in my cap : if ever 
thou come to me and fay, after to-morrow, This h 
my glove, by this hand, I will take thee a box on 
the ear. 

K. Henry. If ever I live to fee it, I will challenge 

Will. Thou dar'ft as well be hang'd. 

K. Henry. Well, I will do it, though I take thce 
in the king's company. 

Will. Keep thy word : fare thee well. 

Bates. Be friends, you Englilh foojs, be friends ; we 
have French quarrels enough, if you could tell how to 

K, Henry. Indeed, the French may lay 6 twenty 


5 tba? s a perilous Jhot out of an elder-gun, ] In the old play 
the thought is more opened. // is a great difpleafure that an elder 
gun can do again/I a cannon. JOHNSON. 

6 twenty French crowns ] This conceit, rather too low 

for a king, has been already explained, as alluding to the vene- 
real difeafe. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 1,3 

French crowns toone, they will beat us ; for they bear 

them on their fhoulders : But it is no Englifh treafon, 

to cut French crowns ; and, to-morrow, the king him- 

felf will be a clipper. [Exeunt foldiers. 

4 Upon the king ! let us our lives, our fouls, 

Our debts, our careful wives, our children, and 

Our fins, lay on the king ; we mufl bear all. 

O hard condition ! twin-born with greatnefs, 

Subjected to the breath of every fool, 

Whofe fenfe no more can feel but his own wringing ! 

What infinite heart's eafe muft kings neglect, 

That private men enjoy ? and what have kings, 

That privates have not too, fave ceremony ? 

Save general ceremony ? 

And what art thou, thou idol ceremony ? 

What kind of god art thou, that fuffer'ft more 

Of mortal griefs, than do thy worfhippers ? 

J What are thy rents ? what are thy comings-m ? 

O cere- 
There is furely no neceflity for fuppofing any allufion In this 
pajjage to the venereal difeafe. The conceit here feems to turn 
jnerely upon the equivocal fenfe of frown, which fignifies either 
a coin ', or a bead. TYRWHITT. 

7 Upon the king ! &c.] This beautiful fpeech was added after 
the full edition. POPE. 

There is fomething very ftriking and folemn in this foliloquy, 
into which the king breaks immediately as foon as he is left alone. 
Something like this, on lefs occa lions, every breait has felr. 
Reflection and ferioufnefs rufli upon the mind upon the feparation 
of a gay company, and efpecially after forced and unwilling 
merriment. JOHNSON. 

8 What are thy rents ? What are thy comings in? . 
O ceremony, Jhe*LV me but thy worth ; 
What ! is thy foul of adoration ?~\ 

Thus is the laft line given us, and the nonfenfe of it made worfe 
by the ridiculous pointing. We fliould read, WJjat Is thy toll, 
O adoration ! Let us examine how the context {rands with my 
emendation. What are thy rents ? What are thy com ings -in ? 

What is thy worth ? What is thy toll ? (/. e . the duties and im- 

pojls, thou receive!! :) all is here confonant, and agreeable to a 

ienfible exclamation. So King John : *' No Italian prieft Jhall 

tithe or toll in our dominions," But the Oxford editor, now he find* 

VOL. VJ. I th<r 


ceremony, fliew me but thy worth ! 
What is thy foul, O adoration ? 

Art thou aught elfe but place, degree, and form, 

Creating awe and fear in other men ? 

Wherein thou art lefs happy being fear'd, 

Than they in fearing. 

What drink'ft thou oft, inftead of homage fvveet, 

But poifon'd flattery ? O, be fick, great greatnefs, 

And bid thy ceremony give thee cure ! 

Think'ft thou, the fiery fever will go out 

With titles blown from adulation ? 

Will it give place to flexure and low bending ? 

Can'ft thou, when thou command'ft the beggar's knee, 

Command the health of it ? No, thou proud dream, 

That play'ft fo fubtly with a king's repofe, 

1 am a king, that find thee : and I know, 
'Tis not the balm, the fcepter, and the ball, 
The fword, the mace, the crown imperial, 

the way open for alteration, reads, Wfjat is thy (hew nf asfrra- 
tion ? By which happy emendation, what is about to be enquir* 
cd into, is firfl taken for granted ; namely, that ceremony is but 
a (hew. And to make room for this word here, which is found 
in the immediate preceding line, he degrades it there, but puts 
as good a word indeed in its ftead, that is to fay, tell. 


This emendation is not ill conceived, yet I believe it is erro- 
neous. The firfl copy reads, What? is the foul of adoration. 
This is incorrect, but I think we may difcover the true reading 
eafily enough to be, What is thy foul, O adoration ? That is, O 
reverence paid to kings, 'what art thou -within ? What are thy 
real qualities ? What is thy intrinjtc value? JOHNSON. 

The quarto has not this fpeech. The folio reads What ? is 
thy foul of adoration ? STEEVENS. 
I do not fee any neceffity for departing from the old reading : 

W T hat is the foul of adoration ? 

The fame expreffion is found in many of Shakefpeare's plays. So, 
in Troilus and Crejjlda : 

'* my very foul of counfel." 

Again, in K. Henry IV. Part I : 

" The very bottom and the foul of hope." 
Again, in the Midfummer Night's Dream: 

' the/)*/*/ love." MALONE, 



The enter-tiflued robe of gold and pearl, 
The 9 farfed title running 'fore the king,' 
The throne he fits on, nor the tide of pomp 
That beats upon the high fhore of the world, 
No, not all thefe, thrice-gorgeous ceremony, 
Not all thefe, laid in bed majeftical, 
1 Can fleep fo foundly as the wretched Have ; 
Who, with a body fill'd, and vacant mind, 
Gets him to reft, cramm'd with diitrefsful bread, 
Never fees horrid night, the child of hell ; 
But, like a lacquey, from the rife to fet, 
Sweats in the eye of Phoebus, and all night 
Sleeps in Elyfium ; next day, after dawn, 
Doth rife, and help Hyperion to his horfe ; 
And follows fo the ever-running year 
With profitable labour, to his grave : 
And, but for ceremony, fuch a wretch, 
Winding up days with toil, and nights with fleep, 
Had the fore-hand and vantage of a king. 
The flave, a member of the country's peace, 
Enjoys it ; but in grofs brain little wots, 
What watch the king keeps to maintain the peace, 
Whofe hours the peafant belt advantages. 

9 farfed title running &c.] Farfed is Jtujfcd. The tumid 
puffy titles with which a king's name is always introduced. This 
I think is the fenfe. JOHNSON. 
So, in All for Money, by T. Lupton, 1574 : 
" -- belly-gods fo fwarm, 
" Farced, and flowing with all kind of gall." 
Again : 

" And like a greedy cormorant with belly full farced." 
Again, in Jacob and Efan, 1568: 

To make both broth and farcing, and that full deinty." 
of the firft book of F'iril : 

Again, in Stanyhurfl's verfion of 

" Or eels VK farcing with dulce and delicat hoonny." 
Again, in Every Man out of bis Humour : 

" - farce thy lean ribs with it too." STEEVENS. 
1 Canjleepfo foundly , &c.] Thefe lines are exquilitely pleaf- 
ing. To fiveaf in the eye of fhoelus, and to Jleep in Elyfium, are 
expreffions very poetical. JOHNSON. 

I 2 Enter 

>i6 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Enter Erpinghatn. 

Erp. My lord, your nobles, jealous of your ab- 

Seek through your camp to find you. 

K. Henry, Good old knight, 
Colled: them all together at my tent : 
I'll be before thee. 

Erp. I fliall do't, my lord. [Exit. 

K. Henry. O God of battles ! Heel my foldiers' 

hearts ! 

Poflefs them not with fear ; * take from them now 
The fenfe of reckoning, if the oppofed numbers 
Pluck their hearts from them ! Not to-day, O Lord 3 

not to-day, think not upon the fault 
My father made in compafling the crown ! 

1 Richard's body have interred new ; 

Jn former editions : 

" take from them *<KV 

The fenfe of reclining of tV oppofed numbers: 

Pluck their hearts from them ! ] 

Thus the firft folio. The poet might intend, " Take from them 
the fenfe of reckoning thofe oppofed numbers ; which might 
pluck their courage from them." But the relative not being ex- 
prefs'd, the fenfe is very obfcure. THEOBALD. 

The change is admitted by Dr. Warburton, and rightly. Sir 
T. Hanmer reads : 

' the oppofed numbers 

Which Jl and before them. 

This reading he borrowed from the old quarto, which gives the 
pafiage thus : 

Take from them now the fenfe of reckoning , 

That the oppofed multitudes thatjiand before them 

May not appall their courage, JOHNSON. 
Theobald's alteration certainly makes a very good fenfe ; but, 
I think, we might read, with lefs deviation from the prefent 
text : 

if tV oppofed numbers 

Pluck their hearts from them. 

In conjectural criticifm, as in mechanics, the perfe&ion of the 
art, I apprehend, confifts in producing a given effect with the 
Icail poffible force. TYRWHITT. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. n 7 

And on it have beftow'd more contrite tears, 
Than from it iffu'd forced drops of blood. 
Five hundred poor I have in yearly pay, 
Who twice a day their wither'd hands hold up 
Toward heaven, to pardon blood ; and I have built 
Two chantries, where the fad and folerrm priefts 
Sing flill for Richard's foul. More will I do : 
Though all that I can do, is nothing worth ; 
3 Since that my penitence comes after all, 
Imploring pardon. 

Enter Glofter. 
Glo. My liege ! 

K. Henry. My brother Glofter's voice ? Ay ; 
I know thy errand, I will go with thee : 
The day, my friends, and all things ftay for me. 


3 Since that my penitence comes after all, 

Imploring pardon. ] 

"VVe muft obferve, that Henry IV. had committed an injuftice, 
of which he, and his fan reap'd the fruits. But reafon tells us, 
juftice demands that they who (hare the profits of iniquity, fhali 
/hare alfo in the punifhment. Scripture again tells us, that when 
men have finned, the grace of God gives frequent invitations to 
repentance : which, in the language or divines, are filled calls. 
Thefe, if neglected, or carelelly dallied with, are, at length, ir- 
recoverably withdrawn, and then repentance comes too late. All 
this fliews that the unintelligible reading of the text fhould be 
corrected thus : 

comes after call. WAR BUR TON. 

I wifli the commentator had explained his meaning a little 
better ; for his comment is to me lefs intelligible than the text. 
I know not what he thinks of the king's penitence, whether 
coming in confequence of call, it is fufficicnt 5 or whether coming 
when calls have ceafcJ, it is ineffectual. The firft fenfe will fuit 
but ill with the pofition, that all ivhich be can do is nothing 
worth ; and the latter as ill with the intention of Shakefpeare, 
who certainly does not mean to reprefent the king as abandpned 
and reprobate. 

The old reading is in my opinion eafy and right. / do all 
jhis, fays the king, though all that I can do is nothing worth^ is fo 
far from an adequate expiation of the crimej tiat penitence comes 
after all) imploring par Jon both for the crime and the expiation, 



nS K I N G H E N R Y V, 

fhe French camp. 
Enter tie Dauphin, Orleans, Rambures, and Beaumont* 

OrL The fun doth gild our armour ; up, my lords. 
Dau. Montez acheval: My horfe ! valet! lacquay ! 
ha ! 

OrL O brave fpirit ! 

Dau. 4 Via ! les eaux & la terre.' 

Or 1. Rienplus? I* air tele feu. 

Dau. del! coufin Orleans. 

Enter Conftable. 

Now, my lord Conftable ! 

Con. Hark, how our fteeds for prefent fervice neigh. 

Dau. Mount them, and make incifion in their hides ; 
That their hot blood may fpin in Englifh eyes, 
And daunt them s with fuperfluous courage : Ha ! 

4 jr ia i leg eaux & l a terre. ] The Revlfal reads : 

Dan. Voyez les eaux & la terre. 
OrL Bienpuis 1'air & le feu ? 
Dau. Le ciel coufin Orleans. 

This is well conjeftured ; nor does the paflage deferve that more 
fhould be done : yet I know not whether it might not (land 
thus : 

Dau. Voytz lei eaux fe* la terre, 
Orl. IS air & le feu Rienpuis? 
Duu. Le del. 

yia is an old hortatory exclamation, as attons ! JOHNSON. 
Dr. Johnfon is right. So, in K. Edward III. 1 599 : 

" Then yia ! for the fpacious bounds of France !" 
Again, in the Fa-ivne, by John Marfton, 1606 : 

" Come Pia ! to this feaftful entertainment !" 
Again, in Marfton's What you Will^ 1607 : 

" Tut, Fia ! let all run glib and fquare !" STEEVENS. 
4 And Jaunt tbani\ The firft folio reads doubt, which, per- 
haps, may have been ufcd for to make to doubt ; to terrific. 



K I N G H E N R Y V. II9 

&am. What, will you have them weep our horfes* 

blood ? 
How fliall we then behold their natural tears ? 

Enter a Me/finger* 

Mejf. The Englifh. are embattled, you French 

Con. To horfe, you gallant princes ! flrait to horfe ! 
Do but behold yon poor and flarved band, 
And your fair mew mall fuck away their fouls, 
Leaving them but the lhales and hufks of men. 
There is not work enough for all our hands ; 
Scarce blood enough in all their fickly veins, 
To give each naked curtle-ax a ftain, 
That our French gallants mall to-day draw out, 
And meath for lack of fport : let us but blow on 


The vapour of our valour will o'erturn them. 
'Tis pofitive 'gainft all exceptions, lords, 
That our fuperfiuous lacqueys, and our peafants/- 
Who, in unneceflary adtion, fwarm 
About our fquares of battle, were enough 
To purge this field of fuch a hilding foe ; 
Though we, upon this mountain's bafis by 
Took ftand for idle fpeeiilation : 
But that our honours muft not. What's to fay ? 
A very little little let us do, 
And all is done. Then let the trumpets found 
6 The tucket-fonuance, and the note to mount : 


6 The tucht-fonuanc?, &c.] He ufes terms of the field as if they 
were going out only to the chafe for fport. To dare the field is 
a phrafe in falconry. Birds are dared when by the falcon in the 
air they are terrified from rifing, fo that they will be fometimes 
taken by the hand. 

Such an eafy capture the lords expected to make of the Eng- 
lifli. JOHNSON. 

The titcket-fonuance was, I believe, the name of an introduc- 

bry floutiih on the trumpet, as toccata in Italian is the prelude 

I, of 


For our approach fhall fo much dare the field, 
That England ftiall couch down in fear, and yield, 

Enter Grandpre. 

Grand. Why do you flay fo long, my lords of 

France ? 

Yon ifland carrions, defperate of their bones, 
lll-favour'dty become the morning field : 
Their ragged curtains poorly are let loofe, 
And our air lhakes them patting fcornfully. 
Big Mars feems bankrupt in their beggar'd hoft, 
And faintly through a rufty beaver peeps. 
7 Their horfemen fit like fixed candleflicks, 
Withtorch-ftavesin their hand : and their poor jades 
Lob down their heads, dropping the hide and hips ; 
The gum down-roping from their pale-dead eyes ; 
And in their pale dull mouths the " gimmal bit 


of a fonata on the harpfichord, and toccar la tromla> is to blow 
the trumpet. 

In the Spanifh tragedy, (no date) " a tucket afar off." 
Again, m the Devil's Lav.'cafe, 1623: 

" 2 tuckets by feveral trumpets." 

Sonance is a word ufed by Heywood, in his Rape of Lucrece, 

" Or, if he chance to endure our tongues fo much 
11 As but to hear their finance. STEEVENS. 
7 Their horfemen jit like fixed candlefiicks, 

With torch Jiavei in their hand \ ] 

Grandpre alludes to the form of the ancient candlefticks, which 
frequently reprefented human figures holding the fockets for the 
lights in their extended hands. 

A fimilar image occurs in Vittoria Coromlona, 1612: *' he 
fhew'd like a pewter candleftick, fafhioned like a man in armour, 
holding a tilting ftaff in his hand little bigger than a candle." 


gimmal lit ] Gimmal is in the weftern counties, a ring; 
a gimmal bit is therefore a bit of which the parts play'd one 
within another. JOHNSON. 

I meet with theovord, though differently fpelt, in the old play 
of The Raigne of Ainr Edward the Third, \ 596 : 
44 Nor lay afiue their jacks of gymold mail." 


KING H E N R Y^V. J2l 

Lies foul with chew'd grafs, ftill and motidnlefs; 
And 9 their executors, the knavifh crows, 
Fly o'er them all, impatient for their hour. 
Defcription cannot fuit itfelf in words, 
To demonftrate the life of fuch a battle 
In life fo lifelefs as it fhews itfelf. 

Con. They have faid their prayers, and they flay 
for death. 

Dau. Shall we go fend them dinners, and frelh fuits, 
And give their fafting horfes provender, 
And after fight with them ? 

Con. ' I ftay but for my guard ; On, to the field : 
I will the banner from a trumpet take, 

Gymold or gimmaFd mail means armour compofed of links like 
thofe of a chain, which by its flexibility fitted itfelf to the fhape 
of the body more exactly than defenfive covering of any other con- 
trivance. There was a fuit of it to be feen in the Tower. Spen- 
fer, in his Faerie Queen, B. I. cap. v. calls it woven mail: 

" In woven mail all armed warily." 
In Lingua, &c. 1607, is mentioned : 

*' a gimmal ring with one link hanging." 


9 their executors, the knavijjj rnwur, - ] The crows who 
are to have the difpolal of what they ftiall leave, their hides and 
their flefh. JOHNSON. 

1 I ftay lut for my guard', ] It feems, by what follows, that 
guard in this place means rather fomething of ornament or of 
djftindtion than a body of attendants. JOHNSON. 

The following quotation from Holinflied, p. $54, will bell elu- 
cidate this paflage. " The duke of Brabant, when his 

ilandard was not come, caufed a banner to be taken from a trum- 
pet and fattened upon a fpear, the which he commanded to be 
borne before him inftxjad of a ftandafd." 

In the fecond part of Heywood's Iron Age, 1632, Menelaus 
after having enumerated to Pyrrhus the treafures of his father 
Achilles, as his myrmidons, &c. adds : 

'" His fword, fpurs, armour, guard, pavilion." 
From this paflage it fhould appear that the guard was part of the 
defenfive armour; perhaps what we call at prelenc the gorget. 
Again, in Holinfhed, p 820 : 

" The one bare his helmet, the fecond his granpW, &c." 



i2 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

And ufe it for my hafte. Come, come away ! 
The fun is high, and we out-wear the day. 


The Englifo camp. 

'Untcf Glofter, Bedford, Exeter ', Erpingbarrt, with all 
the Englifo hoft ; Salt/bury and Wejimor eland. 

Glo. Where is the king ? 

Bed. The king himfelf is rode to view their battle. 

Weft. Of righting men they have full threefcore 

Exe. There's five to one ; befides, they all are frefh. 

Sal. God's arm ftrike with us ! 'tis a fearful odds. 
God be wi' you, princes all ; I'll to my charge : 
If we no more meet, 'till we meet in heaven, 
Then, joyfully, my noble lord of Bedford, 
My dear lord Glofter, and my good lord Exeter, 
And my kind kinfman, warriors all, adieu ! 

Bed. * Farewel, good Salifbury ; and good luck 
go with thee ! 

'Exe. to Sal. Farewel, kind lord ; fight valiantly 
to-day : 

a In the old edition : 

Bed. Farpivell) good Salijbury^ and good luck go with thee i 
And yet I do tbce wrong to mind thee of it y 
For thou art fram'tl of the firm truth of <valour. 

Exe. Farewell, kind lord : fight valiantly to-day. 
What ! does he do Saliibury wrong to wifli him good luck ? The 
ingenious Dr. Thirlby prefcribed to me the tranfpofition of the 
verfes, which I have made in the text : and the old quartos 
plainly lead to fuch a regulation. THEOBALD. 

I believe Mr. Theobald's tranfpofition to be perfeftly right, 
for it was already made in the quartos 1600 and 1608, as ibl- 
lows : 

Farewell kind lord ; fight valiantly to-day, 

And yet in truth I do thee wrong, 

For thou art made on the true fparkes of honour, 




And yet I do thee wrong, to mind thee of it, 
For thou art fram'd of the firm truth of valour. 

[Exit Salisbury. 

Bed. He is as full of valour, as of kindnefs ; 
Princely in both. 

Enter king Henry. 

Weft* O, that we now had here 
But one ten thoufand of thofe men in England, 
That do no work to-day ! 

K. Henry. What's he, that wifhes fo ? 

3 My coufin Weftmoreland ? No, my fair coufin : 
If we are mark'd to die, we are enough 

To do our country lofs ; and if to live, 
The fewer men, the greater fhare of honour. 
God's will ! I pray thee, wifli not one man more. 

4 By Jove, I .am not covetous for gold ; 
Nor care I, who doth feed upon my coft ; 
It yerns me not, if men my garments wear ; 
Such outward things dwell not in my defires : 
But, if it be a fin to covet honour, 

J am the moft offending foul alive. 
No, 'faith, my coz, wifh not a man from England : 
God's peace ! I would not lofe fo great an honour, 
As one man more, methinks, would lhare from me, 
For the belt hope I have. O, do not wifli one more : 
Rather proclaim it, Weftmoreland, through my hoft, 
That he, which hath no ftomach to this fight, 
Let him depart ; his paflfport fliall be made, 
And crowns for convoy put into his purfe : 
We would not die in that man's company, 
That fears his fellowfhip to die with us. 

3 My coufin Wejlmor eland? ] In the quartos i6ooand 1 60?, 
this fpecch is addrefled ro Warwick. STEEVENS. 

4 By Jove, ] The king prays like a chriflian, and fvvears 
like a heathen. JOHNSON. 



This day is call'd the feaft of * Crifpian : 

He, that out-lives this day, and comes fafe 

Will fland a tip-toe when this day is nam'd, 

And rouzc him at the name of Crifpian. 

He, that mall live this day, and fee old age, 

Will yearly on the vigil feaft his friends, 

And fay to-morrow is faint Crifpian : 

Then will he ftrip his fleeve, and mew his fears. 

Old men forget ; yet all fhall be forgot, 

But they'll remember, 6 with advantages, 

What feats they did that day : Then fliall our names r 

Familiar in their mouth as houfhold words, 

Harry the king, Bedford, and Exeter, 

Warwick and Talbot, Salifbury and Glofter, 

Be in their flowing cups frelhly remember'd : 

This ftory mall the good man teach his fon ; 

And Crifpin Crifpian mall ne'er go by, 

7 From this day to the ending of the world, 

5 of Crifpian: } The battle of Agincourt was fought ujjofl 
the z^th of October, St. Crifpin's day ; the legend upon which 
this is founded, follows. " Crifpinus and Crifpianus were bre- 
thren, born at Rome ; from whence they travelled to Soiflbns in 
France, about the year 303, to propagate the chriitian religion ; 
but becaufe they would not be chargeable to others for their main- 
tenance, they exercifed the trade of ihoemakers ; but the gover- 
nor of the town difcovering them to be chriftians, ordered them to 
b$ beheaded about the year 303. From which time, the flioe- 
makers made choice of them for their tutelar faints." Wlxatley's 
Rational Illujlratlon^ folio edit. p. 76. See Hall's Chronicle^ 
folio 47. GRAY. 

6 -with advantages ] Old men, notwithftanding the natu- 
ral forgettulnefs of age, (hall remember their feats of this day y 
and remember to tell them with advantage. Age is commonly 
boaftful, and inclined to magnify paft adts and paft times. 


7 From this day to the ending ] It may be obferved that we 
are apt to promifc to ourlelves a more lafting memory than the 
changing uate of human things admits. This prediction Is not 
verified ; the feaft of Crifpin pafles by without any mention of 
Agincourt. Late events obliterate the former : the civil wars 
have left in this nation fcarcely any tradition of more ancient 
biftory. JOHNSON. 



But we in it fhall be remembered : 

We few, we happy few, we band of brothers ; 

For he, to-day that fheds his blood with me, 

Shall be my brother ; be he ne'er fo vile,, 

This day iliall 8 gentle his condition : 

And gentlemen in England, now a-bed, 

Shall think themfelves accurs'd, they were not here; 

And hold their manhoods cheap, while any fpeaks, 

That fought with us 9 upon faint Crifpin's day. 

Enter Salifbury, 

Sal. My fovereign lord, beftow yourfelf with fpeed : 
The French are ' bravely in their battles fet, 
And will with all expedience * charge on us. 

K. Henry. All things are ready, if our minds be fo. 
Weft. Perilh the man, whofe mind is backward 

now ! 

K. Henry. Thou doft not wifh more help from Eng- 
land, coufin ? 
Weft. God's will, my liege, Vould you and I 


Without more help, might fight this battle out ! 
K. Henry. Why, now J thou haft unwilh'd five 
thoufand men ; 


8 gentle bis condition.'] This day (hall advance him to the 
rank of a gentleman. JOHNSON. 

King Henry V. inhibited any perfon but fuch as had a right 
by inheritance, or grant, to afluine coats or" arms, except thofe 
who fought with him at the battle of Agincourt ; and, I think, 
thefe lalt were allowed the chief feats of honour at all fcafts and 
public meetings. TOLLET. 

9 upon St. Cri/pin's day-] This fpeech, like mnny others of 
the declamatory kind, is too long. Had it been contracted to 
about half the number of lines, it might have gained force, and 
loll pone of the fentiments. JOHNSON, 

1 bravely ] Is fplendidly, oftentatioujly. JOHNSON. 
a expedience} i.e. expedition. STEEVENS. 

3 thou baft unwiflfd five tboufand men, ] By wilhing only 
thyfelf and me, thou haft wiflied five thoufand men away. Shake- 


126 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Which likes me better, than to wilh us one. 
You know your places : God be with you all I 

Tucket. Enter Montjoy. 

Mont. Once more I come to know of thee, king 


If for thy ranfom thou wilt now compound, 
Before thy moft afiiired over-throw : 
For, certainly, thou art fo near the gulf, 
Thou needs muft be englutted. Betides, in mercy, 
The Conftable delires thee thou wilt mind 
Thy followers of repentance ; that their fouls 
May make a peaceful and a fweet retire 
From off thefe fields, where (wretches) their poor 

Muft lie and fefter. 

K. Henry. Who hath fent thee now ? 

Mont. The Conftable of France. 

K. Henry. I pray thee, bear my former anfwer back ; 
Bid them atchieve me, and then fell my bones. 
Good God ! why ihould they mock poor fellows thus ? 
The man, that once did fell the lion's fkin 
While the beaft liv'd, was kill'd with hunting him. 
A many * of our bodies fhall, no doubt, 
Find native graves; upon the which, I truft, 
Shall witnefs live in brafs of this day's work : 
And thofe that leave their valiant bones in France, 
Dying like men, though buried in your dunghills, 

fpeare never thinks on fuch trifles as numbers. In the laft fcene 
the French are faid to be ///// ttjreefcore tboiifand, which Exeter 
declares to, be jive to one ; but, by the king's account they are 
twelve to one. JOHNSON. 

Holinflied makes the Englifli army confift of 15,000, and the 
French of 60,000 horfe, belides foot, &c. in all 100,000 ; while 
Walfingham and Harding reprefent the Englifli as but 9000 ; 
and other authors fay that the number of French amounted to 
ijO,oco. STEEVENS. 

4 A many ] Thus the folio ; the quarto <Wmany 




They fliall be fam'd ; for there the fun fhall greet 


And draw their honours reeking up to heaven ; 
Leaving their earthly parts to choak your clime^ 
The fmell whereof ihall breed a plague in France, 

5 Mark then a bounding valour in our Englilh ; 
That, being dead, like to the bullet's grazing, 
Breaks out into a fecond courfe of mifchief, 

6 Killing in relapfe of mortality. 


5 Mark then abounding valour in our Englijl\\ Thus the old 
folios. The quartos, more erroneoufly ftill : 

Mark then aboundant 

Mr. Pope degraded the paflage in both his editions, becaufe, I 
prefume, he did not underftand it. I have reformed the text, 
and the allufion is exceedingly beautiful ; comparing the revi- 
val of the Englifh valour to the rebounding of a cannon-ball. 


6 Killing in relapfe of mortality.} What it is to kill in relapfe of 
mortality , I do not know. I iufpeft that it fiiould be read : 

Killing in reliques of mortality. 

That is, continuing to kill when they are the reliques that death 
has left behind it. 

That the allufion is, as Mr. Theobald thinks, exceedingly beau- 
tiful, I am afraid few readers will difcover. The valour of a 
putrid body, that deilroys by the flench, is one of the thoughts 
that do no great honour to the poet. Perhaps from this putrid 
valour Dryden might borrow the pofthumous empire of Don Se- 
baftian, \vho was to reign wherefoever his atoms fhould be fcat- 
tered. JOHNSON. 

By this phrafe, however uncouth, Shakefpeare feems to mesn 
the lame as in the preceding line. Mortality is death. So, in 
K. Henry VI. Part I : 

" 1 beg mortality 

" Rather than lite 

RJapfe may be ufed for rebound. Shakefpeare has given mind of 
honour, for honourable mind; and by the fame rule might write 
relapfe of mortality for fatal or mortal rebound ; or by relapfe of 
mortality, he may mean after they had relapfed into inanimzt'ut:. 


This putrid- valour is common to the defcriptions of other 
poets as well as Shakefpeare and Dryden, and is predicated to 
be no lefs viftorious by Lucan, lib. vii. v. 821. 

*' Quid fugis hanc cladem, quid olentes deferis agros ? 
" Has trahe Cscfar, aquas ; hoc, fi potesj utere coeio, 

*' Scd 


Let me fpeak proudly ; Tell the conflable, 
We are but 7 warriors for the working-day : 
Our gaynefs, and our gilt 8 , are all befmirch'd 
With rainy marching in the painful field ; 
There's not a piece of feather in our hoft, 
(Good argument, I hope, we fhall not fly) 
And time hath worn us into ilovenry : 
But, by the mafs, our hearts are in the trim : 
And my poor foldiers tell me yet ere night 
They'll be in frefher robes j or they will pluck 
The gay new coats o'er the French foldiers' heads, 
And turn them out of fervice. If they do this, 
(As, if God pleafe, they lhall) my ranfom then 
Will foon be levy'd. Herald, fave thy labour ; 
Come thou no more for ranfom, gentle herald ; 
They fhall have none, I fwear, but thefe my joints : 
Which if they have as I will leave 'em to them, 
Shall yield them little, tell the Conftable. 

Mont. I lhall, king Harry. And fo fare thee well : 

*' Sed tibi tabentes populi Pharfalica rura 
" Eripiunt, campofque tenent vidore fugato." 
Corneille has imitated this paflhge in the firfl fpeech in hi* 
fompee : 

" de chars, 

" Sur fes champs empeftes cpnfufement epars, 
" Ces montagnes de morts prives d'honneurs fupremes, 
*' Que la nature force a fe venger eux-memes, 
*' Et de leurs troncs pourris exhale dans les vents 
" De quoi faire la guerre au relte des vivans." 
Voltaire, in his letter to the academy of Belles Lettres at Paris, 
oppofes the preceding part of this fpeech to a quotation from 
Shakefpeare. The Frenchman, however, very prudently flopped 
before he came to the lines which are here quoted. STEEVENS. 

7 ivarrlorsfor the working day :] We are foldiers but courfely 
drefled ; we have not on our holiday apparel. JOHNSON. 

8 our gilt ] 5. e. Golden fhow, fuperficial gilding. Ob- 
folete. So, in Timon : 

** When thou waft in thy gilt and thy perfume, &c." 
Again, in another of our author's plays : 

" The double /'// of this opportunity you let time walh off." 
Again, in Arden of Fevcrjbam, t$92 : 

" And now the rain hath beaten off thy gilt" STEEVEVS. 


I N G HENRY V. 129 

Triou never lhalt hear herald any more* [AV>. 

&. Henry. I fear, thou'lt once more come again 
for ranfom. 

Enter the Duke of Yfrk. 

Tork. My lord, moll humbly on my knee I beg 
The leading of the vaward. 

K. Henry. Take itj brave York. Now, foldiers, 

march away : 

Ai\d how thou pleafeft, God> difpofe the day ! 


The field of battle. 
Alarum, excurfions: Enter Piftol French folctier, andBoy t 

Pift. Yield, cur. 

Fr. Sol. Je penfe, que vous ejies le gmtilbomme dt 
bonne qualite. 

Prft. 9 Quality^ call you me ? Conflrue me, art 
thou a gentleman ? What is thy name ? difcufs '. 

Fr. Sol. Ofeigneur Dieu ! 

Pift. O, fignieur Dew fhould be a gentleman * :-*u 

9 >ualitj, calmly, cuflure me, art thou a gentleman ?] We 
fliould read this nonfenfe thus : 

>naL'fy, cality conftrue me, art then a gentleman ? 
i. e. tell me, let me underffcmd whether thou be'll a gentleman. 


Mr. Edwards, in his MS. notes, propofes to read : 

Duality, call you me? conftrue me, &c. STEEVENS. 

1 difcufs.] This aftefted word is ufed by Lylly in his Wd- 
man in the Moon, 1 597 : 

44 But firft I muft aifcufs this heavenly cloud." SrfcEVENS. 

* -jignititr Dc~v (hould be a gentleman :] I cannot help think- 
ing, that Shakefpeare intended here a Itroke at a pailage in a fa- 
mous old book, call'd, Tf.'C G-entlcrian* s Academic in Hawking^ 
Hunting, and Armor ie, written originally by Juliana Barnes, and 
re-pubiifhed by Gervafe Markham, 1^95. The firft chapter of 
the Booke of Armorie, is, ** the difference 'twixt Churles and 
Gentlemen ;" and it ends thus : ** From the of-fpring si gentlemanly 
Japhet came Abraham, Moyfes, Aaron, and the Prophets ; and 
alfo the king of the right line of Mary, of whom that only abfo- 
lute gentleman, Jifus, was borne '.gentleman, by his mother 
Mary, princcfle of coat armor*" FARMER* 

VOL. VI. K Per- 

Perpend my words, O fignieur Dew, and mark; 

fignieur Dew, 5 thou dy'it on point of fox, 
Except, O fignieur, thou do give to me 
Jigregious ranfom. 

Fr. Sol. O, prcnncz wifcrlcorde ! ajez pitie de moy f 
P//1. Moy fruill not ferve, I will have forty moys ; 

4 For I will fetch thy rim out at thy throat, 

In drops of ci imfon blood. 


3 thou (Heft on foint of fo\'^\ Point of fox is an exprefTio;'? 
which, if the editors underfteod it, they (hould have explained. 

1 fuppofe we may better read : 

on point of faulchion, feV. JOHXSOX. 

Fox is no more than an old cant word for a fword : 

" I made my father's o\df>x fly about his ears." 

Beaumont and Fletcher's Philajler* 

The fame expreffion occurs in The two angry Women of Abiug- 
ton, 1599: 

" I had a fword, ay the flower of Smithflcld for a fword ; 

a right fox i'faith." . 
Again, in The Devil's Charter, 1607: 

" And by this awful crofs upon my blade, 
*' And by \\\\sfox which ftinks of Pagan blood," 
Again, in The Wedding, by Shirley, 1626: 

*' My fox (hall fcratch your guts out." 

Again, not lefs than three times in The Hi/lay of tie Life' find 
Death of Captain Thomas Stid-e!y, 1 605 : 

" old hack'd f words, as foxef, bilbo's, and horn- 
Again : 

44 .This is as right a fox as e'er you faw." 
Again : 

" for/^, bilbo's, and Toledo blades." 

Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's King and no Kin* : 

" I wear as fliarp fteel, and my fox bites as dc-rp." 


4 For ' I "jaill fetch thy rym } \V r e fliould read : 

Or, Iivillfeich thy ranfom out of thy. throat, WAR BURTO>f. 
I know not what to do with r\m. The meafure gives realbn 
to fuppofe that it ftands for {ome monofyllable ; niut beiidcs, ran- 
fome is a word not likely to have been corrupted. JOHNSON. 

This line is wanting in the quartos 1600 and 1608. The folio 
reads: thyrymme. It appears, however, trom lir Arthur Gorgcs's 
Tranflation of I,ncftJi, 1614, that fome part of the intepines was 
anciently called the r:t/;me* Lucan. 15. i : 

* The 


Fr. Sol. Eft-il impo/ibk fefckapptr la force de ton 
fcw f 

pfft. 'Brafs, cur! 

Thou damned and luxurious mountain goat, 
Offer'ft me brafs ? 

Fr. Sol. O, pardonnez moy! 

Pi/I. Say'ft thou me fo ? is that 6 a ton of moys ? 
Come hither, boy ; Afk me this flave in French, 
What is his name. 

" The flender rhumc too weaike to part 

*' The boyling liver from the heart " 

parvufqne Jccat vitdlia limes* L. 62?* 

" Parvus limes (lays one of the fcholiafts) prcecordia indicat; 
membrana ilia qua: cor et pulrriones a jccore et Hehe dirimit." I 
believe it is now called the diaphragm in human creatures, and 
the Ikirt or midriff in beaits ; but frill in fome places, the rim. 

Phil. Holland, in his tranflation of Pliny's Nat. Hijl. feveral 
times mentions the rim of the paunch. See B. XXVIII. ch. ix 
p. 321, &c. STEEVENS. 

3 Brafs, curf] Either Shakefpeare had very little knowledge 
in the French language, or his over-fondnefs for punning led 
him in this place, contrary to his own judgment, into an error. 
Almoft every one knows that the French word bras is pronounced 
brau ; and what relemblance of found does this bear to brafs t 
that Piflol fhould reply Brafs, cur ? The joke would appear to a 
reader, but could icarce be dlfcovered in the performance of the 
play. Sir W. RAWI.INSON. 

If the pronunciation of the French language be not changed 
fmce Shakelpeare's time, which is not unlikely, it may be fuf- 
pe&ed Ibme other man wrote the French fcenes. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnfon makes a doubt, whether the pronunciation of the 
French language may not be changed fmce Shakefpeare's 
time ; "if not, fays he, " it may be fufpeded that fome other 
man wrote the French fcenes :" but this does not appear to he 
the cafe, at leafl in this termination, from the rules of the gram- 
rnarians, or the practice of the poets. I am certain of the for- 
mer from the French Alpbabcth of De la Mothe, and the Qrthoe* 
pia Gallica of John Eliot } and of the latter from the rhymes of 
Marot, Ronfard, and Du Bartas. Connections of this kind were 
very common. Shakefpeare himfelf affifted Ben Jonfon in his 
Sfjanus, as it was originally written j and Fletcher in his Tivo 
Nolle Kinfmen. FAR MER . 

6 , a ton of mays ?] Mays is a piece of money ; whence 

moi d'or, or moi of gold. JOHNSON. 

K 2 Boy. 

132 KING H E N R Y V. 

Boy. Efcoutez ; Comment eftes vous appeltt f 

Fr. Sol. Monfieur k Per. 

Boy. He lays, his name is matter Fer. 

Pijl. Matter Fer! I'll fer him, and firkhim \ ami 
ferret him :- difcufs the fame in French unto him. 

Boy. I do not know the French for fer, and ferret, 
and tirk. 

Pi/I. Bid him prepare, for I will cut his throat. 

Fr. Sol. Que dif-il, monfleur ? 

Boy. // me commands de vous dire que vous vous tenlez 
preft ; car ce foldat icy eft dijpofe tout a cette heure de 
cov.per voftre gorge. 

Pijl. Ouy, couper gorge, par ma foy, pefant, 
Unlcfs thou give me crowns, brave crowns ; 
Or mangled {halt thou be by this my fword. 

Fr. Sol. 0, je vous fupplie pour V amour de Dieu, me 
pardonner ! Je Juts gentilhomme de bonne maifon ; garJt z 
ma vie, & je vous donneray deux cents efcus. 

Pift. What are his words ? 

Boy. He prays you to fave his life : he is a gentle- 
man of a good houfe ; and, for his ranfom, he will 
give you two hundred crowns. 

Pift. Tell him, my fury fhall abate, and I 
The crowns will take. 

7 and firk him^\ The word^r/J- Is fo varioufly ufed by the 

old writers, that it is almoft impoffible to alcertain its precifc 
meaning. On this occafion it may mean to cbaftife. So, in 
Ram- Alley, or Merry-Tricks, i6n : 

" nay, I will/r 

' My filly^ novice, as he wns never firlftl 

" Since midwives bound his noddle." 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Rule a Wife^ &c. it means to col- 
lect by low and dilhoneft induftry : 

thefe five years Hie has/r*V 

" A pretty living." 

Again, in Ram-Alley, &c. it feems to be employed in the fenfe 
of quiblle : 

* Sir, leave this /r* of law, or by this liyhr, &c." 
In the Alcbcmift) it 13 obfcenely ufed. STKEVLNS. 



Fr. Sol. Petit monjieur, que dit-ilf 

Boy. Encore qu'll eft contre fon jurement, de pardonner 
aucun prijbnnier ; ncanimoins, pour ks efcus que vous I'a- 
vez prometteZy il eft content de vous donner la liberte t le 

Fr. Sol. Sur mes genoux, je vous donne milk remercie- 
mens : & je nfejlime heureux que je fuis tombs entre les 
mains d'un chevalier, je penfe, le plus brave, valiant , 
fcf tres diftiague feigmur d' Angleterre. 

Pijl. Expound unto me, boy. 

Boy. He gives you, upon his knees, a thoufand 
thanks : and efleems himfelf happy that he hath fallen 
into the hands of one, (as he thinks) the moil brave, 
valorous, and thrice-worthy fignieur of England. 

P/ft. As I fuck blood, I will fome mercy ihew. 
Follow me, cur. 

Boy. Sulvez vous le grand capltaine. 

[Exit Piftol, and French Soldier. 

I did never know fo full a voice ifliie from ib empty a 
heart : but the faying is true, The empty veffel 
makes the greateft found. Bardojph, and Nym, had 
ten times more valour than * this roaring devil i'the 


8 this roaring devil in the old play ; ] In modern puppet- 
jfhows, which feem to be copied from the oldrarces, punch foine- 
times fights the devil, and always overcomes him. I fuppofe 
the vice of the old farce, to whom punch iucceeds, ufed to fight 
the devil with a wooden dagger. JOHNSON. 

like this rearing devil in tbe old play ; ] This is perhaps a fneer 
at the old play of Henry the Fifth, which I have mentioned be- 
fore. There is in it a character called Derick, who behaves to a 
Frenchman taken in battle juft as Piftol does in the Icene before 
us. The firft time Dcrick makes his appearance, he enters roar- 
;e, (one of the editions reads rotting) and, throughout the piece, 
utters an oath with almoil every line he fpeaks, 

The devil, however, in the old mylteries, is as turbulent and 
vainglorious as Piftol. So, in one of the Coventry Whitfun Plays^ 
prcferved in the Britifh Mufeum, Vefpajian. & VIII. p. 136: 
*' I am your lord Lucifer that out of belle cam, 
** Prince of this world, and gret duke of helle j 

K " Wher- 

i 3 4 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

old play, that every one may pare his nails with a 
\vooden dagger ; yet they are both hang'd ; and fo 
would this be, if he duril iteal any thing advcn- 
t'roufly. I mult flay with the lacqueys, with the 
luggage of our camp : the French might have a 
good prey of us, if he knew of it ; for there is none 
to guard it, but boys. [n/* 


Another part of the field of battle. 

Enter Conftabk, Orleans, Bombon, Daupkin^ an$ 

Con. O dlable ! 

Orl. Ofeigneur ! le jour eft perdu, tout eft perdu * 
Pau. Mort de ma vie / all is confounded, all ! 
Reproach and everlafling lhame 
Sits mocking in our plumes. [A fiort alarm* 

mefchante fortune !* Do not rim away. 
Con. Why, all our ranks are broke. 

Dau. O perdurable lhame 9 ! let's flab ourfelves* 
Be thefe the wretches that we play'd at dice for ? 
Orl. Is this the king we fent to for his ranfom ? 
JBour. Shame, and eternal lhame, nothing but 
lhame ! 

1 Let us die, inftant : Once more back again ; 

" Wherfore my name is clepyd fer Satan, 

*' Whech apery th among you a mater to fpelle." 
And perhaps the character was always performed in the molt 
clamorous manner. STEEVENS. 

9 O perdu ruble Jbame ! ] Perd-urable is lafting, long to conti- 
nue. So, in Daniel's Civil Wars, &c : 

" Triumphant arcs of perdurable might." STEEVENS. 
1 Let us die, injlant : Once more back again',] This verfc, 
which is quite left out in Mr. Pope's editions, ihmds imperfect 
in the firft folio. By the addition of a fyllable, I think, I have 
retrieved the poet's fenfe. It is thus in the old copy : 

Let us die in once more back again, THEOBALD* 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 135 

And he that will not follow Bourbon no\v, 
Let him go hence, and, with his cjp in hand, 
* Like a bale pander, hold the chamber-door, 
\Vhilfl: by a ilave, no gentler than my dog, 
His faircit daughter is contaminated. 

Con. Dilbrder, that hath fpoil'd us, friend us now ! 
Let us, in heaps, go offer up our lives 
J Unto thefc Englifh, or elfe die with fame. 

Orl. We are enough, yet living in the field, 
To fmother up the h nglim in our throngs, 
If any order might be thought upon. 

Bour. The devil take order now ! I'll to the throng ; 
Let life be fhort ; elfe, fhame will be too long. 



Alarum* Enter king Henry and his train) with prlfoners. 

K. Henry. Well have we done, thrice-valiant coun- 
trymen : 

But all's not done, yet keep the French the field. 
Exc. The duke of York commends him to your 

A'. Henry Lives he, good uncle ? thrice, within this 


I fa\v him down ; thrice up again, and fighting; 
From helmet to the fpur, all blood he was. 

Exe. In which array, (brave foldier,) doth he lie, 
Larding the plain : and by his bloody fide, 
(Yoak-felfow to his honour-owing wounds,) 
The noble earl of Suffolk ahb lies. 

* JLi&e a lafe pander ^ ] The qunrtos read: 

Like a bafe leno, STEEVENS. 

3 Unto thefe Engl(lb, or elfe die with fame.] This line I have 
reitored from the quartos 1 600 and 1 608. The Conftable of 
France is throughout the play repflefented as a brave and generous 
enemy, and therefore we fhould not deprive him of a refolutioa 
which agrees fo well with his character. STEEVKNS. 

K 4 Suf-. 

136 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Suffolk firft dy'd : and York, all haggled over^ 

Comes to him, where in gore he lay infteep'd, 

And takes him by the beard ; kiffes the gafhes. 

That bloodily did yawn upon his face ; 

And cries aloud, Tarry, "dear coufin Suffolk ! 

My foul foall thine keep company to heaven : 

Tarry i Jweet foul, for mine, then fly a-breaft ; 

As, in this glorious and well-fought in field, 

We kept together in our chivalry ! 

Upon theie words I came, and cheer xl him up ; 

Jie fmil'd me in the face, raught me his hand, ' 

And, with a feeble gripe, fays, Dear my lora\ 

Coinmend my fervice to wy fovereign. 

So did he turn, and over Suffolk's neck 

He threw his wounded arm, and kifs'd his lips ^ 

And fo, efpous'd to death, with blood he feal'd 

A teflament of noble-ending love. 

The pretty and fweet manner of it forc'd 

Thofe waters from me, which Lwould have ilopp'd: 

But I had not fo much of man in me, 

* But all my mother came into mine eyes, 

And gave me up to tears. 

K. Henry. I blame you not ; 
5 For, hearing this, I muft perforce compound 
With miftful eyes, or they will iflue too. [Alarm* 
But, hark ! what new alarum is this fame ? 
The French haye re-inforc'd their fcatter'd men , 

* But all my mother came into mine eyes. 

And gave me up to tears."] 

This thought is apparently copied by Milton, Par. Loft, b. xi ; 
*' . companion quell'd 

*' His beft of man, and gave him up to tears" 

5 Fnr, bearing this, I mujl perforce compound 

With mixtful eyes,] 

The poet muft have wrote, miffiil: \. e. juft ready to over-run 
with tears. The word he took from his obfervation of nature : 
for juft before the burfting out of tears the eyes grow dim as if ia 
a miit WARBURTON. 



Then every fbldier kill his prifoners ; 

* Give the word through. [Exeunt, 

* S C E N E VII. 

Alarums continued ; after 'which, Enter Fluellen and 

Flu. 8 Kill the poys and the luggage ! 'tisexprefsly 
againit the law of arms : 'tis as arrant a piece of 


6 Give tb? ward through.] Here the quartos 1600 and 1608 add: 

Pitt. Couper gorge. STEEVENS. 

7 Scene VII.] Here, in the other editions, they begin the 
fourth ad, very abfurdly, lince both the place and time evidently 
Continue, and the words of Fluellen immediately follow thofe of 
the king jult before. POPE. 

8 Kill the~poyes and the luggage / 'tis exprefsly agaitift the law of 
arms : ] In the old folios, the 4th at is made to begin here. 
But as the matter of the Chorus, which is to come betwixt the 
4th and th ads, will by no means fort with thefcenery that here 
follows, I have chofe to fall in with the other regulation. Mr. 
Pope gives a reaibn why this fcene fhould be connective to the 
preceding fcene ; but his reafon, according to cuftom, is a mif- 
Itaken one. " The words of Fluellen," fays he, " immediately 
follow thole of the king juil before.'' The king's laft words, at 
Jlis going oft', were : 

Then ev'ry foldier kill his prifoners : 

Give the iuord through. 

Now Mr. Pope muft very accurately fuppofe, that Fluellen over- 
hears this ; and that by replying, Kill the poyes and the luggage / 

'tis e xprefty againft the law of arms ; he is condemning the 

king's order, as againil martial difcipline. But this is a molt ab- 
furd fuppofnion. Fluellen neither overhears, nor replies to, 
What the king had iaid j nor has kill the poyes and the luggage, any 
reference to the foldiers killing theitr prifoners. Nay, on the 
contrary (as there is no interval of an aft here) there muft be 
fome little paufe betwixt the king's going otf, and Fluellen's 
entering : (and therefore I have faid, Alarms continued \} for we 
find by Gower's firit fpeech, that the ioldiers had already cut 
their prifoners throats, which required fome time to do. The 
matter is this. The baggage, during the battle (as king Henry 
had no men to fpare) was guarded only by boys and lacqueys ; 
which fome French run-aways getting notice of, they came 
tlgwn upon the Englifh camp-boys, whom they kill'd, and plun- 

j 3 8 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

knavery, mark you now, as can be offcr'd, in the 'orld : 
In your conference now, is it not ? 

Gixv. 'Tis certain, there's not a boy left alive ; and 
the cowardly rafcals, that ran away from the battle, 
have done this (laughter : befides, they have burn'd 
or carried away all that was in the king's tent ; where- 
fore the king, moil worthily, has caus'd every foldier 
to cut his prifoner's throat. O, 'tis a gallant king ! 

flu. I, he was porn at Monmouth, captain Gower : 
What call you the town's name, where Alexander the 
pig was born ? 

Gozv. Alexander the great. 

Flu. Why, I pray you, is not pig, great ? the pig, 
or the great, or the mighty, or the huge, or the mag- 
nanimous, are all one reckonings, fave the phraie is 
a little variations. 

Gffiv. I think, Alexander the great was born in 
Maccdon, his father was called Philip of Mace- 
don, as I take it. 

Flu. I think, it is in Macedon, where Alexander is 
porn. I tell you, captain, If you look in the maps 
of the 'orld, I warrant, you lhall find, in the compa- 
nions between Macedon and Monmouth, that the 
fituations, look you, is both alike. There is a river 
in Macedon ; ana there is alfo moreover a river at Mon- 
mouth : it is call'd Wye, at Monmouth ; but it is out 

dered, and burn'd the baggage : in refentment of which villainy 
it was, that the king, contrary to his wonted lenity, order'd all 
prifoners' throats to be cut. And to this villainy of the French 
run-aways Fluellen is alluding, when he fays, Kill the poyes and 
the luggage! The fa6t is fet out (as Mr. Pope might have ob- 
ferved) both by Hall and Holinlhed. THEOBALD. 

Unhappily the king gives one mifon for his order to kill the 
prifoners, and Gower "another. The king killed his prifoners 
becaufe he expected another bartle, and he had not men fuffi- 
cient to guard one army and fight another. Gower declares 
that the gallant king has worthily ordered the prifoners to be de- 
flroyed, becaufe the luggage was plundered, and the boys were 
fain, JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 139 

of my prains, what is the name of the other river; 
but 'tis all one, 'tis fo like as my fingers is to my fin- 
gers, and there is falmons in both. If you mark 
Alexander's life well, Harry of Monmouth's life is 
come after it indifferent well ; for there is figures in 
all things. Alexander (Got knows, and you know) 
in his rages, and his furies, and his wraths, and his 
choiers, and his moods, and his difpleafures, and his 
indignations, and alfo being a little intoxicates in his 
prains, did, in his ales and his angers, look you, kill 
his pcft friend Clytus, 

Gozi'. Our king is not like him in that j he never 
kill'd any of his friends. 

Flu. It is not well done, mark you now, to take 
the tales out of my mouth, ere it is made an end and 
rmiih'd. I fpeak but in figures and comparifons of 
it : 9 As Alexander is kill his friend Clytus, being in 
his ales and his cups i fo alfo Harry Monmouth, 
being in his right wits and his goot judgments, is 
turn away ' the fat knight with the great pelly-doublet : 
he was full of jefls, and gypes, and knaveries, and 
mocks ; I am forget his name, 

GVv. Sir John Falflaff. 

Flit. That is he : I tell you, there is goot men 
porn at Monmouth. 

Goiv, Here comes his majefty. 

9 As Alexander &c,] I fhould fufpeft that Shakefpeare, who 
was well read in Sir Thomas North's tranflation of Plutarch, 
meant thefe Ipeeches of Fluellen as a ridicule on the parallels of 
the Greek author, in which, circumftances common to all men 
are aflembled in oppofition, and one great action is forced into 
comparifon with another, though as totally different in them- 
lelves, as was the behaviour of Harry Monmouth, from that of 
Alexander the Great. STEEVENS. 

* the fat knight ] This is the laft time that Falftaff can 

make fport. The poet was loath to part with him, and has con* 
tinucd his memory as long as he could. JOHNSON, 


i 4 o K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Alarum. Enter */,/; Herny, irwlck, GLfar, 1 
/Vr, cVc. j 

K. Henry. I was not angry (nice I came to France, 
Until this inftaut. Take a trumpet, her:ld ; 
Ride thou unto the horfemen on yon hill : 
If they will fight with us, bid them come down, 
Or void the field ; they do offend our fight : 
If they'll dp neither, we will come to them ; 
And make them fkir away *, as fwift as itones 
Enforced from the old Affyrian flings : 
* Befides, we'll cut the throats of thofe we have ; 
And not a man of them, that we fhall take, 
phall tafte our mercy : Go ? and tell them fo. 


* And make them fkir <ravn',i ] I meet with this word in Ben 
Tonfon's Nev:sfrom the Moon, a Mafque : " -- bimv atore 
pirn as far as he can fee him ; or Jkir over him with his bi.t/s 
wings, &c-" The word has already occurr'd in Macbeth. 


3 Befides, ive'll cut the throats &c,] Th e king " 1S i" a very 
bloody difpofition. He has already cut the throats of his pri- 
foners, and threatens now to cut them again. No halte of com- 
pofition could produce fuch negligence ; neither was this play, 
which is the fecond draught of the larr.e deign, written in hafle, 
There muft be fome dillocation of the fcencjs. It we place thefe 
lines at the beginning of the twelfth fcene, the abfurdity will 
be removed, and the acYion will proceed in a regular fcries. 
This tranfpofition might eafily happen in copies written for the 
players. Yet it muft not be concealed, that in the imperfect 
play of 1608 the order of the fcenes is the fame as here. 


The difference of the two copies may be thus accounted for. 
The elder was, perhaps, taken down, during the representation, 
by the contrivance of fome bookfeller who was in hafte to p-ihlifli 
it ; or it might, with equal probability, have been collected from 
the repetitions of aftors invited to a tavern for that purpofe. 
The manner in which many of the fcenes arc printed, adds 
flrength to the fuppofition ; for in thefe, a fingle line is generally 
divided into two, that the quantity of the play might be feem- 
ingly encreafed. The fecond and more ample edition may be 
that which regularly belonged) to the playhoufe ; and yet with 


K I N G & E N R Y V. 141 

Enter Montjoy. 

Exe. Here comes the herald of the French, my 

G/0. His eyes are humbler than they us'd to be. 

K. Henry. How now ! what means their herald ? 

know'fl thou not, 

ThatJ have fin'd thefe bones of mine for ranfom ? 
Com'il thou again for ranfom ? 

Mont. No, great king : - 
I come to thee for charitable licence, 
That we may wander o'er this Bloody field, 
To book our dead, and then to bury them ; 
To fort our nobles from our common men ; 
For many of our princes (woe the while !) 
Lie drown'd and foak'd in mercenary blood : 
So do our vulgar drench their peafant limbs 
In blood of princes ; while their wounded deeds 
Fret fetlock deep in gore, and, with wild rage, 
Yerk out their armed heels 4 at their dead matters, 
Killing them twice, O, give us leave, great king^ 
To view the field in fafety, and difpofe 
Of their dead bodies. 

K. Henry. 1 tell thee truly, herald, 
I know not, if the day be ours, or no ; 
For yet a many of your horiemen peer, 
And gallop o'er the field. 

Mont. The day is yours. 

K. Henry. Praifed be God, and not our ftrength, 
for it ! 

equal confidence \ve may pronounce, that every dramatic compofi- 
tion would materially fuffer, if only tranfmitted to the publick 
through the medium of ignorance, prefumptjon, and caprice, 
thofe common attendants on a theatre. ST^EVENS. 

* Yerk out ihcir armed bccls\ So. in Tie IVeakell goes to the 
/fall, 1618: 

' Their neighing gennets, armed to the field, 
" Do;.,-X' and fling, and beat the fullen ground." 



i& K I N G H E N R Y V. 

What is this caftle call'd, that ftands hard by ? 

Mont. They call it Agincourt. 

K. Henry. Then call we this the field of Agincourt, 
Fought on the day of Crifpin Crifpianus. 

Flu* Your grandfather of famous memory, an't 
plealeyour majefty, and your great-uncle Edward the 
plack prince of Wales, as I have read in the chroni- 
cles, fought a moft prave pattle here in France. 

K.Henry. They did, Fluellen. 

Flu. Your majefty fays very true : If your majefties 
is remember'd of it, the Welshmen did goot fervice 
in a garden where leeks did grow, wearing leeks in 
their Monmouth caps; which, your majefty knows, to 
this hour is an honourable padge of the fervice : and, 
3 do believe, your majefty takes no fcorn to wear the 
leek upon faint Tavy's day. 

K. Henry. I wear it for a memorable honour : 
For I am Wellh, you know, good countryman. 

Flu. All the water in Wye cannot walh your ma- 
jefty's Welfh plood out of your pody, I can tell you 
that : Got plefs and preferve it, as long as it pleafes 
his grace and his majefty too ! 

K. Henry. Thanks, good my countryman. 

Flu. By Cheflm, I am your majefty's countryman, 
I care not who know it ; I will confefs it to all the 
'orld : I need not tobe aihamed of your majefty, praifed 
be God, fo long as your majefty is an honeft man. 

K. Henry. God keep me fo ! Our heralds go 
with him ; 

Enter Williams. 

Bring me juft notice of the numbers dead 

On both our parts. -"Call yonder fellow hither. 

{Exeunt Montjoy and others. 
Exe. Soldier, you muft come to the king. 
K. Henry. Soldier, why wear'ft thou that glove in 
thy cap ? 


KING H K N R Y V. 143 

Will An't pleafe your majcfty, 'tis the gage of one 
that I fhould fight withal, it" he be alive. 

X. Henry. An Englifhman ? 

Will. An't pleafe your majefty, a rafcal, thatfwag- 
ger'd with me laft night : who, if 'a live, and if ever 
dare to challenge this glove, I have fworn to take 
him a box o'the ear : or, if I can fee my glove in his 
cap (which, he fworc, as he \vas a foldier, he would 
wear, if alive) I will ftrike it out foundly. 

A'. Henry. What think yon, captain Fluellen ? is it 
fit this foldier keep his oath ? 

Flu. He is a craven and a villain elfe, an't pleafe- 
your majefty, in my confcicncc. 

K. Henry. It may be, his enemy is a gentleman of 
5 great fort, 6 quite from the anfwcr of his degree. 

Flu. Though he be as goot a gentleman as the te- 
vil is, as Lucifer and Belzebub himfelf, it is necefiary, 
look your grace, that he keep his vow and his oath : 
if he be perjur'd, fee you now, his reputation is as 
arrant a villain, and a jack-fawce, as ever his plack fhoc 
trod upon Got's ground and his earth, in my con- 
fcience, la. 

K. Henry. Then keep thy vow, firrah, when thou 
meetTt the fellow. 

Will So I will, my liege, as I live. 

K. Henry. Who ferveft thou under ? 

Will. Under captain Gower, my liege. 

Flu. Gower is a goot captain ; and is good know- 
ledge and literature in the wars. 

K. Henry. Call him hither to me, foldier. 

Will I will, my liege. {Exit. 

5 great fort, ] High rank. So, in the ballad of Jane 

SJ.we : 

*' Lords and ladies of great fort" JoHN'SON'. 
The quartos 1600 and 1608 read : 

bis enemy may be a gentleman of worth. SrEEVENS. 

6 quite from the anfa-er of bis degree.] A man of fuch fta- 

tlon as is not bound to ha/.ard his pcrfon to anfiver to a challenge 
from one of the foldier's lo-iv degree. JOHNSON. 

K. Henry. 


K. Henry. Here Fluellen ; wear thou this favour 
for me, and flick it in thy cap : When Alencon arid 
myfelf were down together, I pluck'd this glove froni 
his helm : if any man challenge this, he is a friend 
to Alencon and an en?my to our perfon ; if thou en- 
counter any luch, apprehend him, an thou do.fl love 

Flui, Your grace does me as great honours, as can 
be denYd in the hearts of his fubje&s : I would" fain 
fee the man^ that has but two legs, that ftiall find 
himfelf aggrief'd at this glove, that is all ; but I 
would fain fee it once ; an pleafe Got of his grace, 
that I might fee it. 

K. Henry. Know'ft thou Gower ? 

Flu. He is my dear friend, an pleafe you. 

K. Henry. Pray thee, go feek him, and bring him 
to -my tent. 

Flu. I will fetch him. [Exit a 

K. Henry. My lord of Warwick, and my brother 


Follow Fluellen clofely at the heels : 
The glove, which I have given him for a favour, 
May, haply, purchafe him a box o'the ear ; 
It is the foldier's ; I, by bargain, fhould 
Wear it myfelf. Follow, good coufin Warwick i 
If that the foldier ftrike him, (as, I judge 
By his blunt bearing, he will keep his word) 
Some fudden mifchief may arife of it ; 
For I do know Fluellen valiant, 
And, touch'd with choler, hot as gun-powder, 
And quickly he'll return an injury : 
Follow, and fee there be no harm between them. - 
(jo you with me, uncle of Exeter. [Exeunt* 




Before king Henrys pavilion. 
Enter Cower, and Williams. 
Will. I warrant, it is to knight you, captain, 

Enter Fluelkn. 

Flu. Got's will and his pleafure, captain, I pe- 
feech you now, come apace to the king : there is 
more goot toward you, peradventure, than is in your 
knowledge to dream of. 

Will. Sir, know you this glove ? 

Flu. Know the glove ? I know, the glove is a glove. 

Will. I know this ; and thus I challenge it. 

[Strikes him. 

Flu. 'Sblud, an arrant traitor, as any's in the univer- 
fal 'orld, or in France, or in England. 

Gow. How now, Sir ? you villain ! 

Will. Do you think I'll be forfworn ? 

Flu. Stand away, captain Gowcr ; I will give trea- 
fon his payment 7 into plows, I warrant you. 

Will. I am no traitor. 

Flu. That's a lye in thy throat. I charge you in his 
majefly's name, apprehend him ; he's a friend of the 
duke Alenfon's. 

Enter Warwick^ and Glofter. 

War. How now, how now ! what's the matter ? 
Flu. My lord of Warwick, here is (praiied be Got 

7 into /taw, ] The Rtvlfal reads, very plaufibly : 

** in two plows." JOHNSON'. 

The quarto reads, / will givt trtafon Ih &\\z prefently. We might 
therefore read in due plows, i.e. in the beutiiig that is fo well 
his due. STEEVENS. 

VOL. VI. L for 

M-6 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

for it) a mofl contagious treafon come to light, look 
you, as you fhall defire in a fummer's day. Here is 
his majefty. 

Enter king Henry, and Exeter. 

K. Henry. How now ! what's the matter ? 
Flu. My liege, here is a villain and a traitor, that, 
look your grace, has ftruck the glove which your 
majefty is take out of the helmet of Alencon. 

Will My liege, this was my glove ; here is the fel- 
low of it : and he, that I gave it to in change, pro- 
mis'd to wear it in his cap ; I promised to ftrike him, 
if he did : I met this man with my glove in his cap, 
and I have been as good as my word. 

Flu. Your majefty hear now, (favingyour majefly's 
manhood) what an arrant, rafcally, beggarly, lowfy 
knave it is : I hope, your majefty is pear me teftimo- 
nies, and witnefles, and avouchments, that this is the: 
glove of Alenfon, that your majefty is give me, in; 
your conscience now. 

K. Henry.* Give me thy glove, foldier ; Look, here. 

is the fellow of it. 'Twas I, indeed, thou promifed'ft' 

to ftrike ; and thou haft given me moft bitter terms., 

Flu. An pleafe your majefty, let his neck anfwen 

for it, if there is any martial law in the 'orld. 

K. Henry. How canft thou make me fatisfadion W 
IVilL All offences, my liege, come from the heart :: 
never came any from mine, that might offend your: 

K. Henry. It was ourfelf thou didft abufe. 

Will. Your majefty came not like yourfelf : you 

appear'd to me but as a common man ; witnefs the 

night, your garments, your lowlinefs; and what youn 

highnefs fuffer'd under that lhape, I befeech you* 

Give me thy glove- Look, here is the fellow of it.] It mufl 
be, give we my glove ; for of the foldier's glove the king had. 
uot the fellow. JOHNSON, 


K I N G H E N R Y V. i 47 

take it for your own fault, and not mine : for had you 
been as I took you for, I made no offence ; therefore, 
I befeech your highnefs, pardon me. 

K. Henry. Here, uncle Exeter, fill this glove with 


And give it to this fellow. Keep it, fellow ; 
And wear it for an honour in thy cap, 
Till I do challenge it. Give him the crowns : 
And, captain, you mult needs be friends with him.' 

Flu. By this day and this light, the fellow has 
mettle enough in his pelly : Hold, there is twelve 
pence for you, and I pray you to ferve Got, and keep 
you out of prawls, and prabbles, and quarrels, and dii- 
fenlions, and, I warrant you, it is the petter for you. 

Will. I will none of your money. 

Flu. It is with a goot will ; I can tell you, it will 
ferve you to mend your fhocs : Come, wherefore 
Ihould you be fo painful ? your Ihoes is not fo goot : 
'tis a goot filling, I warrant you, or I will change it. 

Enter Herald. 

K. Henry. Now, herald ; are the dead number'd ? 
Her. Here is the number of the ilaughter'd French. 
A^. Henry. What prifoners of good fort are taken, 

uncle ? 
Exe. 9 Charles duke of Orleans, nephew to the 

king ; 

John duke of Bourbon, and lord Bouciqualt : 
Of other lords, and barons, knights, and 'fquires, 
Full fifteen hundred, befides common men. 

K. Hcury. This note doth tell me of ten thoufand 


That in the field lie {lain : of princes, in this number. 
And nobles bearing banners, there lie dead 
One hundred twenty -fix : added to thefe, 

9 Charles duke of Orleans, &c.] This lift is copied from Hall. 


L 2 O 

i 4 8 KING HENRY V. 

Of knights, efquires, and gallant gentlemen, 
Eight thoufand and four hundred ; of the which, 
Five hundred were but yefterday dubb'd knights ; 
So that, in thefe ten thoufand they have loft, 
There are but ' fixteen hundred mercenaries ; 
The reft are princes, barons, lords, knights, Yquires, 
And gentlemen of blood and quality. 
The names of thofe their nobles that lie dead, 
Charles De-la-bret *, high conftable of France; 
Jaques of Chatillon, admiral of France ; 
The mafter of the crofs-bows, lord Rambures ; 
Great-mafter of France, the brave Sir Guifchard 

Dauphin ; 

John duke of Alencon ; Anthony duke of Brabant, 
The brother to the duke of Burgundy ; 
And Edward duke of Bar : of lufty earls, 
Grandpre, and Roufli, Fauconberg, and Foix, 
Beaumont, and Marie, Vaudemont, and Leftrale. 
Here was a royal fellowlhip of death ! 
Where is the number of our Englifti dead ? 

Exe. ' Edward the duke of York, the earl of Suf- 


Sir Richard Ketly, Davy Gam efquirc : 
None elfe of name ; and, of all other men, 
But five and twenty. 

K. Henry. O God, thy arm was here ! 
And not to us, but to thy arm alone, 

1 Jixteen hundred mercenaries : ] Mercenaries are in this place 
common foldicr 3 1 or hired foldiers. The gentlemen ferved at their 
own charge in confequence of their tenures. JOHNSON. 

* Charles De-la-bret,] De-la-brct, as is already obferved, fliould 
be Charles D'Aibret, would the meafure permit of fuch a change. 
Holinftied fometimes apologizes for the omiffion of foreign names, 
on account of his inability to fpeli them, but always calls this 
nobleman "the lord dc la Breth, conftable of France." See 
p. 549 and p. 555, &c. STEEVENS, 

3 Edward the duke ofTork,] This fpeech, which in the 410$ 
is given to Exeter, appears iu the folio as part of the king's 


K I N G H E N R Y V. I49 

Afcribe we all. When, without flratagem, 
But in plain fhock and even play of battle, 
Was ever known fo great and little lofs, 
On one part and on the other ? Take it, God, 
For it is only thine ! 

Exe. 'Tis wonderful ! 

K. Henry. Come, go we in proceffion to the village : 
And be it death proclaimed through our holt, 
To boaft of this, or take that praife from God, 
Which is his only. 

Flu. Is it not lawful, an pleafe your majefly, to tell 
how many is kilPd ? 

K. Henry. Yes, captain ; but with this acknowledg- 
That God fought for us. 

Flu. Yes, my confcience, he did us great goot. 

K. Henry. 4 Do we all holy rites ; 
Let there be fung Non nobis, and Te Deum. 
The dead with charity enclos'd in clay, 
We'll then to Calais ; and to England then ; 
Where ne'er from France arriv'd more happy men. 


ACT v. 

Enter Chorus. 

Chorus. Vouchfafe, to thofe that have not read the 


That I may prompt them : and for fuch as have, 
I humbly pray them to admit the excufe 

* Do ive all holy rites ;~\ The king (fay the Chronicles) caufed 
the Pfalm, In exitu Ifrael de JEgypto (in which, according to the 
vulgate, is included the Pfalm, Non nolis t Dom'inc, &c.) to be 
ung after the victory. POPE. 

L 3 Of 


Of time, of numbers, and due courfe of things, 

Which cannot in their huge and proper life 

Be here presented. Now we bear the king 

Toward Calais : grant him there ; and there being 

feen, ,. 

' Heave him away upon your winged thoughts " 
Athwart the fea : Behold, the Englifh beach 
Pales in the flood with men, with wives, and boys, 
\Vhofe fhouts and claps out-voice the deep-mouth'c 


Which, like s a mighty whiffler 'fore the king, 
Seems to prepare his way : fo let him land ; 
And, folemnly, fee him fet on to London. 
So fwift a pace hath thought, that even now 
You may imagine him upon Black-heath : 
Where that his lords delire him, to have borne 

5 a mighty <iuhlfflcr ] An officer who walks firft in procef 
fions, or betore perlbns in high ftations, on otcafions of cere 
roony. The name is ftill retained in London, and there is ai 
officer fo called that walks before their companies at times o 
public folemnity. It feems a corruption from the French \vor 
buijficr. HANMER. 

a mighty whiffler ] See Mr. Warton's note to the traged 
of OtMk, Aft HI. fc. ii. 

In the play of Clyomon, Knight of the Golden ShieM, &c. 1 59^ 
\ : cr makes his appearance at a tournament, clearing th 
way before the king. In Weftward Hoe, by Decker and Web 
iter, 1612, the term is often mentioned. 
Again, in Monfieur D'Olive, 1606 : 

** I can go into no corner, but I meet with fome of my ivh:j 
Jlen in their accoutrements ; you may hear them half a mile er 
they come at you." 

" I am afraid of nothing but that I fliall be balladed, 
and all my ivbifflers." 
Again, in I' 'ffiwaril Hoe, 1607 : 

" The torch-men and wb'-fflers had an item to receive him." 
Again, in TEXNOFAMIA, 1618 : 
" Tobacco is a iub[ffler 
" And cries huff fnufF with furie : 

" His pipe's his club and linke, &c." 
Again, in The Ifle of Gulh, 1633: 

' And Manafles fhall go before like a ivbifftr, and make wa 
with his horns," STEEVENS. 



His bruifed helmet, and his bended fword, 
Before him, through the city : he forbids it, 
Being free from vainnefs and felf-glorious pride ; 

6 Giving full trophy, fignal, and oilent, 
Quite from himfelf, to God. But now behold, 

In the quick forge and working-houfe of thought, * 
How London doth pour out her citizens ! 
The mayor, and all his brethren, in bell fort, 

7 Like to the fenators of antique Rome, 
With the plebeians fwarming at their heels, 
Go forth, and fetch their conquering Caefar in : 
As, by a lower but by loving * likelihood, 

9 Were now the general of our graciouscmprefs 
(As, in good time, he may) from Ireland coming, 
* Bringing rebellion broached on his fword, 

6 Giving full trophy, ] Transferring all the honours of con- 
tjueft, all trophies, tokens, and (hews, from himfelf to God. 


7 Like to the fenators of antique Rome,] This is a very extra- 
ordinary compliment to the city. But he ever declines a'll gene- 
ral fatire on them ; and in the epilogue to Henry VIII. he hints 
with difapprobation on his contemporary poets, who were accuf- 
tomed to abufe them. Indeed his fatire is very rarely partial 
and licentious. WAR BUR TON. 

8 likdihooJ,] Likelihood for fimilitude. WARBURTON. 
The later editors, in hope of mending the meafure of this 

line, have injured the ienfe. The folio reads as I have printed ; 
but all the books, lince revifal became fafhionable, and editors 
have been more diligent to difplay themielves than to illuflrate 
their author, have given the line thus : 

dis ly a low, but loving likelihood* 

Thus they have deitroyed the praife which the poet defigned for 
Eflex ; for who would think himfelf honoured by the epithet 
low f The poet, defirous to celebrate that great man, whole po- 
pularity was then his boaft, and afterwards his deftruftion, com- 
pares him to king Harry; but being afraid to offend the rival 
courtiers, or perhaps the queen herfelf, he confefles that he is 
AKIYT than a king, but would never have reprefented him abfo- 
lutely as 7o<a>. JOHNSON. 

y U\-rc now the general &c.] The earl of Eflex in the reign 
of queen Elizabeth. POPE. 

* Bringing rebellion broached] Spitted, transfixed. JOHNSON. 

L A How 

I 5 2 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

How many would the peaceful city quit, 

To welcome him ? much more, and much more 


Did they this Harry. Now in London place him ; 
(As yet the lamentation of the French 
Invites the king of England's flay at home : 
The emperor's coming in behalf of France, 
To order peace between them) and omit 
All the occurences, whatever chanc'd, 
'Till Harry's back-return again to France ; 
There muft we bring him ; and myfelf have play'd 
The interim, by remembring you 'tis paft. 
Then brook , abridgment ; and your eyes advance 
After your thoughts, flraight back again to France. 


"The Engli/J} camp in France. 
* Enter Fluelkn^ and Goiver. 

Gow, Nay, that's right ; But why wear you your 
leek to-day ? faint Davy's day is paft. 

Flu. There is occaiions and caufes why and where" 
fore in all things : I will tell you, as my friend, captain 
Gower ; The rafcally, fcald, beggarly, lowfy, prag- 
ging knave, Piftol, which you and yourfelf, and 
all the 'orld, know to be no petter than a fellow, 
look you now, of no merits, he is come to me, and 

* Enter Fluellcn^ and Gtnver.] This fcene ought, in my opi- 
nion, to conclude the fourth act, and be placed before the laft 
chorus. There is no Englifh camp in this ad ; the quarrel, ap- 
parently happened before the return of the army to England, 
and not after fo long an interval as the chorus has fupplied. 


Fluellen prefently fays that he wore his leek in conlequence of 
an affront he had received but the day before from Piftol. Their 
prelent quarrel has therefore no reference to that begun in the 
fixth fcene of the third aft. STEEVENS. 



prings me pread and fait yefterday, look yon, and 
bid me eat my leek : it was in a place where I could 
not breed no contentions with him ; but I will be fo 
pold as to wear it in my cap 'till I fee him once again, 
and then I will tell him a little piece of my defires. 

Enter Ptftol. 

Gffiv. Why, here he comes, fwelling like a turkey 

Flit. Tis no matter for his fwellings, nor his turkey- 
cocks. Got plefs you, antient Piftol ! you fcurvy, 
lowfy knave, Got plefs you ! 

Pift. Ha ! art thou Bedlam ? doft thou thirft, bafe 


3 To have me fold up Parca's fatal web ? 
Hence ! I am qualmilh at the fmell of leek. 

Flu. I pefeech you heartily, fcurvy lowfy knave, at 
my defires, and my requefts, and my petitions, to eat, 
look you, this leek ; becaufe, look you, you do not 
love it, nor your affections, and your appetites, and 
your digeflions, does not agree with it, I would de- 
iire you to eat it. 

Pift. Not for Cadwalladcr, and all his goats. 

Flu. There is one goat for you. Will [Strikes him, 
you be fo goot, fcald knave, as eat it ? 

Pift. Bale Trojan, thou flialt die. 

Flu. You fay very true, fcald knave, when Got's 
will is : I will defire you to live in the mean time, and 

eat your victuals ; come, there is fauce for it. 

[Strikes /;.] You call'd me yeflerday, mountain- 
fquire ; but I will make you to-day a 4 fquixe of low 


3 To have me fold up &c.] Doft thou defire to have me put 
thee to death. JOHNSON. 

4 f quire of IO--M degree.'} That is, / civ'// bring tbee to tie 

ground. JOHNSON. 

The Squire of Low Degree is the tide of an old romance, enu- 
merated among other becks in a letter concerning .^ucen FJiza 
' ertainment at Kei.ekv.rth. STEEVEVS. 

a f quire 


degree. I pray yon, fall to ; if you can mock a leek, 
you can eat a leek. 

Gmv. Enough, captain ; you have 5 nftonifiYd him. 

Flu. I fay, I will make him eat fome part of my 
leek, or I will peat his pate four days : Pite, I pray 
you ; it is goot for your green wound, and your 
ploody coxcomb. 

Pi/}. Muft I bite ? 

Flu. Yes, certainly ; and out of doubt, and out 
of queftions too, and ambiguities. 

Pift. By this leek, I will moft horribly revenge ; 6 1 
eat, and eat, I fwear. 

Flu. Eat, I pray you : Will you have fome more 
fauce to your leek ? there is not enough leek to fwear 

Pift. Quiet thy cudgel ; thou doft fee, I eat. 

Flu. Much goot do you, fcald knave, heartily. 
Nay, pray you, throw none away ; the fkin is goot for 
your proken coxcomb. When you take occaiions to 
fee leeks hereafter, I pray you, mock at them ; that 
is all. 

Pift. Good. 

Flu. Ay, leeks is goot : Hold you, there is a groat 
to heal your pate. 

Pijl. Me a groat ! 

Flu. Yes, verily, and in truth, you ihall take it ; 

a f quire of lo\u degree . 

This alludes to an old metrical romance, which was very popular 
among our countrymen in ancient times, intided, The Squire of 
IWM Degree. It was burlefqued by Chaucer in his rhime of Sir 
Thopai, and begins thus : 

" It was ajyuyre of lowe dcgre 
" That loved the king's daughter of Hungrc." 
See Rcliques of Engltfb Poetry, Vol. III. p. 30. act edit. PRCY. 

5 oftonijb V/6/w.] That is, you have ilunned him with 

the blow. JOHNSON. 

6 leaf, ar.d cat, If'jiear ] Thus the firit folio, for which 

the later editors have put, I eat and f wear. We fliould read, I 
fuppofc, in the frigid tumour of Piitol's dialect : 

1 eat and eke Ifwc ar. JOHNSON. 



or I have another leek in my pocket, which you fhall 

Pift. I take thy groat, in earneft of revenge. 

Flu. If I owe you any thing, I will pay you in cud- 
gels ; you fhall be a woodmonger, and buy nothing 
of me but cudgels. Got be wi* you, and keep 'you, 
and heal your pate. [.v:7. 

Pift. All hell fhall ftir for this. 

Gow Go, go ; you are a counterfeit cowardly knave. 
Will you mock at an ancient tradition, begun upon 
an honourable refpect, and worn as a memorable 
trophy of predeceas'd valour, and dare not avouch 
in your deeds any of your words ? I have feen you 
gleeking 7 and galling at this gentleman twice or 
thrice. You thought, becaufe he could not fpcak 
Englilh in the native garb, he could not therefore 
handle an Englifh cudgel : you find it otherwiie ; 
and, henceforth, let a Welih correction teach you a 
good Englilh condition. Fare ye well. [*//. 

Pift. * Doth fortune play the hufwife with me now ? 
9 News have I, that my Nell is dead i'the fpital 


7 gleeking] i. e. fcoffing, fneering. Gleek was a game at 

cards. So, injGreene's Tu Quoquc, 1599: 

' Why gleek, that's your only game. 

" Gkek let it be ; for I am perfuaded I ftiallgleek fome of you." 
Again, in Tom Tyler and bis ll r ife\ i >,8 : 

" I fuddenly gleek, or men be aware." RTEEVENS. 
* Doth fortune flay the bufivife ] That is, they/7/. Hufivife 
is here in an ill fenie. JOHNSON. 

9 News have I, that my Dol is dead ] We muft read, my 

Nell is dead. Dol Teiirfheet was fo little the favourite of Piftol 
th;.t he offered her in contempt to Nym. Nor would her death, 
have c ut off fjis rendezvous ; that is, deprived him of a borne. Per- 
haps the poet forgot his plan. JOHNSON. 

In the quartos of 1600 and 1608, thele lines are read thus : 
" Doth fortune play the hulwye with me now ? 
" Is honour cudgel'd from my warlike lines ? 
" Well, France farewell. News have I certainly, 
" That Doll is fick on mallydie of France. 
* The warres affordeth nought, home will I trug, 


i 5 6 K I N G H E N R Y V. 

Of malady of France ; 
And there my rendezvous is quite cut off. 
Old I do wax ; and from my weary limbs 
Honopr is cudgell'd. Well, bawd will I turn, 
And fomething lean to cut-purfe of quick hand. 
To England will I fleal, and there I'll fleal : 
And patches will I get unto thefe cudgell'd fears, 
And fwear, I got them in the Gallia wars '. [*//, 


he French court, at Trots in Champaigne. 

Enter at one door king Henry, Exeter, Bedford, War- 
wick, and other lords ; at another, the French king, 
queen Ifabel, princefs Katharine, the duke of Bur-* 
gundy, and other French. 

K. Henry. * Peace to this meeting, wherefore we 

are met ! 

Unto our brother France, and to our fifter, 
Health and fair time of day ; -joy and good wifhes 
To our moft fair and princely coufm Katharine ; 
And (as a branch and member of this royalty, 
By whom this great aflembly is contriv'd) 

" Bawd will I turne, and ufe the flyte of hand. 
" To England will I fteal, and there I'll Heal ; 
" And patches will I get unto thefe Ikarres, 
*' And Iwear I gat them in the Gallia warres." JOHNSON. 
1 The comic fcenes of The Hiflory of Henry the Fourth and 
Fifth are now at an end, and all the comic perfonages are now 
difmifled. Falftaft" and Mrs. Quickly are dead ; Nym and Bar- 
dolph are hanged ; Gads-hill was loft immediately after the rob- 
bery ; Poins and Peto have vanifhed fince, one knows not how ; 
and Piftol is now beaten into obfcurity, 1 believe every reader 
regrets their departure. JOHNSON. 

* Peace to ibis meeting, wherefore we are met!] Peace, for 
which we are here met, be to this meeting. 

Here, after the chorus, the fifth ad feems naturally to begin. 



K I N G H E N R Y V. i 5? 

We do falute you, duke of Burgundy ; . 

And, princes French, and peers, health to you all ! 

Fr. King. Right joyous are we to behold your face, 
Moll worthy brother England ; fairly met : 
So are you, princes Englilh, every one. 

<^. Ifa. So happy be the iflue, brother England, 
Of this good day, and of this gracious meeting, 
As we are now glad to behold your eyes ; 
Your eyes, which hitherto have borne in them 
Againft the French, that met them in their bent, 
The fatal balls of murdering bafililks : 
The venom of fuch looks, we fairly hope, 
Have loft their quality ; and that this day 
Shall change all griefs, and quarrels, into love. 

K. Henry. To cry amen to that, thus we appear. 

H^. Ifa. You Englilh princes all, I do falute you. 

Bur. My duty to you both, on equal love, 
Great kings of France and England ! That I have 


With all my wits, my pains, and ftrong endeavours, 
To bring your moil imperial majefties 
1 Unto this bar and royal interview, 
Your mightinefs on both parts bell can witnefs. 
Since then my office hath fo far prevail'd, 
That, face to face, and royal eye to eye, 
You have congreeted ; let it not difgrace me, 
If I demand, before this royal view, 
What rub, or what impediment, there is, 
Why that the naked, poor, and mangled peace, 
Dear nurfe of arts, plenties, and joyful births, 
Should not, in this beft garden of the world, 
Our fertile France, put up her lovely vifage ? 
Alas ! Ihe hath from France too long been chas'd ; 
And all her hulbandry doth lie on heaps, 
Corrupting in its own fertility. 

3 Unto this bar ] To this barrier ; to this place of con- 

grefs. JOHNSON, 

He i 


4 Her vine, the merry chearer of the heart, 
Unpruncd dies : her hedges even-pleach 'd, 

5 Like prifoncrs wildly over-grown with hair, 
Put forth diibrder'd twigs : her fallow leas 
The darnel, hemlock, and rank fumitory, 
Doth root upon ; while that the coulter rufls, 
That fhould deracinate 6 fuch favag'ry : 

The even mead, that erfl brought fweetly forth 
The freckled cowflip, burnet, and green clover, 
Wanting the fcythe, all uncorreclred, rank, 
Conceives by idlenefs ; and nothing teems, 
But hateful docks, rough thiftles, keckfies, burs, 
Lofing both beauty and utility. 
And as our vineyards, fallows, meads, and hedges, 
7 Defective in their natures, grow to wildnefs ; 
Even fo our houies, and ourfelves, and children, 
Have loft, or do not learn, for want of time, 
The fciences that Ihould become our country; 
But grow, like favages, as foldiers will, 

Unpruned dies : ] 

We rnuft read, lyes; for negleft of pruning does not kill the vine, 
but caufes it to ramify immoderately, and grow wild ; by which 
the requifite nourifhment is withdrawn from its fruit. 


This emendation is phyfically right, but poetically the vine 
may be well enough faid to die which ceafes to bear fruit. 


3 Like prifoiurs] This image of prifoners is oddly introduced. 
A hedge even pleach' 'd is more properly imprifoned than when it 
luxuriates in unpruned exuberance. JOHNSON. 

6 - deracinate - ] To deracinate is to force up by the 
roots. So, in Troihts and Crejfida : 

" - rend and deracinate 
" The unity, c." STEEVENS. 

7 Defective in their natures, ] Nature had been changed by 
feme of the editors into nurture ; but, ns Mr. Upton obierves, 
unneceffarily. Sua deficiiintitr na'vra. They were not defeftire 
in their crtfcivt nature, for they gre.v to wildnefs ; but they 
were defective in their proper and favourable nature, which was 
to bring forth food for. man. STEEV:. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 159 

That nothing do but meditate on blood, 
To fwearing, and ftern looks, 8 diffus'd attire, 
And every thing that feems unnatural. 
Which to reduce into our 9 former favour, 
You are afiembled : and my fpeech intreats, 
That I may know the let, why gentle peace 
Should not expel thefe inconveniencies, 
And blefs us with her former qualities. 

K. Henry. If, duke of Burgundy, you would the 


Whofe want gives growth to the imperfections 
Which you have cited, you mufl buy that peace 
With full accord to all our juft demands ; 
Whofe tenours and particular effedts 
You have, enfchedul d briefly, in your hands. 
Bur. The king hath heard them ; to the which 5 

as yet, 
There is no anfwer made. 

K. Henry. Well then, the peace, 
Which you before fo urg'd, lies in his anfwer. 

Fr. King. I have but with a curforary eye 
O'er-glanc'd the articles : pleafeth your grace 
To appoint fome of your council prefently 
To fit with us once more, with better heed 
To re-furvey them, ' we will, fuddenly, 
Pafs, or accept, and peremptory anfwer. 

K. Henry. 

s diffus'il attire, ~\ Diffus'd, for extravagant. The mill- 
/fary habit of thofe times was extremely fo. Acl III. Govver 
fays, And ivhat a beard of the general's cut, and a horrid fuit of 
the camp, will do among/}, &c. is wonderful to be thought on. 


Diffused is fo much ufed by our author for wild, irregular, 
z.r\&Jl range, that in The Merry Wives of Wind/or he applies it to 
a fong fuppofed to be fung by fairies. JOHNSON. 

9 former favour,} Former appearance. JOHNSON. 

1 -We will fuddenly 

Pafs our accept, and peremptory anf-jcer. ] 

As the French king defires more time to confider deliberately of 
the articles, 'tis odd and abfurd for him to fay abfolutely, that 



A". Henry. Brother, we fhall. Go, uncle Exeter, 
And brother Clarence^ and you, brother Glofter, 
Warwick, and Huntington, go with the king : 
And take with you free power, to ratify, 
Augment, or alter, as your wifdoms beft 
Shall fee advantageable for our dignity, 
Any thing in, or out of, our demands ; 
And we'll confign thereto. Will you, fair fifter, 
Go with the princes, or flay here with us ? 

<3>. Ifa.'Our gracious brother, I will go with them ; 
Haply, a woman's voice may do fome good, 
When articles, too nicely urg'd, be flood on. 

K. Henry. Yet leave our coulin Katharine here 

with us : 

She is our capital demand, compris'd 
Within the fore-rank of our articles. 

^. Ifa. She hath good leave. [_Excunt. 

Manent king Henry, Katharine, and a lady. 
K. Henry. Fair Katharine, and moft fair * ! 
Will you vouchfafe to teach a foldier terms, 
Such as will enter at a lady's ear, 
And plead his love-fuit to her gentle heart ? 

he would accept them all. He certainly muft mean, that he 
would at once wave and decline what he diflik'd, and confign to 
fuch as he approv'd of. Our author ufes pafs in this manner in 
other places ; as in King John : 

" But if you fondly pafs our proffer 1 J love" WARBURTON. 
Pafs our accept, and peremptory anfwer : i. e. we will pafs our 
acceptance of what we approve, ami we will pafs a peremptory 
anfwer to the relh Politenefs might forbid his faying, we will 
pafs a denial, but his own digniry required more time ror delibe- 
ration. Befides, if we read pafs or accept, is not peremptory an- 
faer fuperfluous, and plainly implied in the former words ? 


* Fair Katharine, and moft fair /] Shakefpeare might have taken 
ihe hint for this fcene from the anonymous play of Henry V. fo 
often quoted, where the king begins with greater bluntnefa, and 
with an exordium moft truly Eng;li{h : 

** How now, fair lady Katharine of France ! 
*' What news?" STEEVENS. 


K I N G tt E N R V V. ,$ 

Your majcfty Ihall mock at me ; I cannot 
ipeak your England. 

K. Henry. O fair Katharine, if you will love me 
foundly with your French heart, I will be glad to hear 
you confcfs it brokenly with your Englifli tongue. Do 
you like me, Kate ? 

Kath. PcrJ.onnez moy, I cannot tell vat is like me. 

K. Henry. An angel is like you, Kate ; and you are 
like an angel. 

Kathf. >ite dit-ll? qiie je f.ds fsmblable a les anges ? 

] ,ady. Ouy, vrayment, (fauf voftre grace) ainji dit //. 

K. Henry. I faid fo, dear Katharine ; and I muft 
not blufh to affirm it. 

Kath. Ob on Dleu ! les langues des kommes font pleines 
dss tromperies. 

K. Henry. What fays me, fair one ? that the tongues 
of men are full of deceits ? 

Lady. Ouy ; dat de tongues of de mans is be full of 
deceits : dat is de princefs. 

K. Henry. The princefs is the better Engliih- woman. 
I'faith, Kate, my wooing is lit for thy underilanding : 
I am glad, thou canil fpeak no better Engiifh ; for, if 
thou couldft, thou wouldlifind me J fuch a plain king, 
that thou won Idil think, I had fold my farm to buy 
my crown. I know no ways to mince it in love, but 
direclly to fay 1 love you : then, if you urge me 

3 fnch a plain king) ] I khow not why Shakefpeare now 

gives the king nearly luch a character as he made him formerly 
ridicule in Percy. This military groflhefs and unikilfulnefs in 
all the fofter arts does not fuit very well with the gaieties of his 
youth, with the general knowledge afcribed to him at his accef- 
lion, or with the contemptuous meflage fent him by the dau- 
phin, who reprefents him as fitter for the ball-room than the 
field, and tells him that he is not to revel into dutchies, or win 
provinces ^:tb a nimble galliard. The truth is, that the poet's 
matter failed him in the fifth aft, and he was glad to fill it up 
with whatever he could get ; and not even Shakefpeare can write 
well without a proper iubject. It is a vain endeavour for the 
moil Ikillul hand to cultivate barreuncfs, or to paint upon vacuity. 


VOL. VI. M fur- 


further than to fay Do you in faith.? I wear out m* 
fuit. Give me your anfvver; i'faith, do; and i'o 
clap hands, and a bargain : How fay- you, lady ? 

Kath. Saufvoflre bomeiir, me ynomtand well. 

K. Henry. Marry, if you would put me to vcrfes, 
or to dance for your fake, Kate, why you undid me : 
for the one, I have neither words nor meafare; and for 
the other, I have no ftrength in meafure, yet a reaibn- 
able meafure in ftrength. If I could win a lady at 
leap-frog, or by vaulting into my faddle with my ar- 
rnour on my back, under the correction of bragging 
be it fpoken, I fhould quickly leap into a wife. Or r 
if I might buffet for my love, or bound my horfe for 
her favours, I could lay on like a butcher, and fit like 
a jack-a-napcs, never off : But, before God, Kate, I 
cannot look greenly, nor gafp out my eloquence, nor 
I have no cunning in proteftation ; only downright 
oaths, which I never ufe 'till urg'd, nor never break 
for urging. If thou canft love a fellow of this tem- 
per, Kate, whofe face is not worth fun-burning, that 
never looks in his glafi> for love of any thing he fees- 
rhere, let thine eye be thy cook~ I fpeak to thee 
plain foldier : If thou canft love me for this, take me : 
if not, to fay to thee : that I ftvall die, 'tis true ; 
but for thy love, by the Lord r no ; yet I love thee 
too. And while thou iiv'ft, dear Kate, 4 take a fel- 
low of plain and uncoined conftancy ; for he per- 
force muft do thee right, bccaufe he hath not the 
gift to "woo in other p'::c<?<5 : for thefe fellows of in- 
finite tongue, that can rhime themfelyes into ladies* 
favours, they do always reafon thcmfelvcs out again.. 

* take a felloe: of plain and uncoined conjlancy ; ] i.e. A 
conftancy in the ingot, that hath fuffercd no alloy, as all coined 
metal has. WAR BUR TON. 

I believe this explanation is more ingenious than- true ; to coin 
\% tojlamp and to counterfeit. He ufes it in both fenles ; unwind 
conftancy fi^aifies rw/and trite conihincy, unrcfixcJ z\\& unadorned* 




What ! a fpeaker is bur a prater ; a rhyme is but a 
ballad. A good leg will fail ; a flraight back will 
ftoop ; a black beard will turn white ; a curl'd pate 
will grow balcT; a fair face will wither ; a full eye 
will wax hollow : but a good heart, Kate, is the fun 
and the moon ; r, rather, the fun, and not the moon ; 
for it frillies bright, and never changes, but keeps his 
courfe truly. If thou would have fuch a one, take 
me: And "take me, take a" foldier ; take a foldier, 
take a king : And what fay'fl thou then to my love ? 
fpeak, my fair, and fairly, I pray thee. 

Katk. Is it poffible dat I mould love the enemy of 
France J ? 

K. Henry. No ; it is not poffible, that you fhould 
love the enemy of France, Kate : but, in loving me, 
you mould love the friend of France ; for 1 love 
France fo well, that I will not part with a X'iilage of 
it ; I will have it all mine : and, Kate, when France 
is mine, and I am yours, then yours is France, and 
you are mine. 

Katb. I cannot tell vat is dat. 

K. Henry. No, Kate ? I will tell thee in French ; 
which, I am fure, will hang upon my tongue 6 like a 
new-married wife about her hufband's neck, hardly 
to be fhook off. Qitand fay la pqfl'effion do France, & 
quand vous avez le poffeffion de moi f (let me fee, what 
then? Saint Dennis be rny fpeed !) done voftre eft 
Franc?, &f vous eftes mlenne. It is as eafy for me, Kate, 
to conquer the kingdom, as to fpeak fo much more 
French : I mail never move thee in French, unlefs it 
be to laugh at me. 

5 Is it poff.ble dat I JlioulJ love de enemy of France?] So, in 
the anonymovis play of the Famous J r ilory of fTexry the Fifth : 

" Kate. How fliould I love thee, which is rny lather's cue* 
rnie ? STEEVEKS. 

6 like a married wife about her fjuflancTs neck, ] Every 
ivife is a married ^uiff. I fuppofe we fliould read new-married ; 
an epithet more expreilive of fondnefs. [OHNSOX. 

The folio reads a new-married wife, and the quartos i 600 and 
1608 llki a t/ritte tn her nev;-.'>iarried hujiand. STESVENS. 

M % Kath, 

i6 4 KING H E N R Y V. 

KatV ''i/ic-tr, k Pra;i(ols que VQV.S par* 

i je park. 

K. Htfiyj. No, faith, is't nor, Kate : but thy {peak- 
ing of my tongue, and I thine, moft truly falfely, 
mult needs be granted to be much at one. But, 
Kate, doft thou underftand thus much Englifh ? 
Canil thou love me ? 

Kath. I cannot telh 

K. Henry. Can any of your neighbours tell, Kate? 
I'll afk them. Come, I know, thou loveft me : and 
at night when you come into your clofet, you'll quef- 
tion this gentlewoman about me ; and I know, Kate, 
you will, to her, difpraifc thofe- parts in me, that you 
love with your heart : but, good Kate, mock me mer- 
cifully ; the rather, gentle princefs, becaule I love 
thee cruelly. If ever thou bc'ft mine, Kate, (as I 
have faving faith within me, tells me thou flialt) I 
get thee with fcambiing 7 , and thou muft therefore 
needs prove a good foldier-breeder : Shall not thou 
and I, between faint Dennis and faint George, com- 
pound a boy, half French, half Engliih, that fhall 
8 go to Conftantinople, and take the Turk by the 
beard ? fhall we not ? what fay 'ft thou, my fair flower- 
de-luce ? 

Kaik. I do not know dat. 

K. Henry. No ; 'tis hereafter to know, but now to 
promife : do but now promile, Kate, you will endea- 
vour for your French part of fuch a boy ; and, for 

7 iviib fcambiing,] i. e. fcrambling. So, Mai low, iu 
his Jew of Maita, 1033 . 

" We hftTey&jMvAfa/np 

*' More wealth by far, &c." 
"See Dr. Percy's note in the firft fcene of this piny. 

Again, in Sapljo Pkao, 1591 : " ! urn driren to a mufe, 

how this lent I i\\z\\ feasible in the court." SrtEVHNS. 

8 S to CoKJiantincple ] Shukefpeare has here committed 

.ui nnachronifm. '1'he Turks were not pofilfled of Conilantino- 
ple before the year 14^3, \vhen Henry V. had been Jcad thirty- 
one years. TULOUAJ-L>. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 165 

:->tety, take the word of a. king and a 
r. How an liver you, la plus belle Katharine 
,:\ <', won tres c'here & divine decjje ? 

Your mcjefTg 'ave favjfe French enough to 
e de mofty^-,? damoifelle clat is en France. 
i . ilenry. Now, lie upon my falfe French! By 
mine honour, in tiue Englifli, I love the?, Kate: 
by which Honour- 1 dare not f..var, then k>veft me; 
yet my blood begins to flatter me that thou doft, 
notwithstanding the 9 poor and untempering eifect of 
my vifage. Now befhrew my father's ambition ! he 
was thinking of civil wars when he got me ; therefore" 
was I created with a ftubborn outlide, with an afpefl 
of iron, that, when I co'ne to woo ladies, I fright 
them. But, in faith, Kate, the elder I wax, the 
better I mall appear : my comfort is, that old age, 
that ill layer-up of beauty, can do no more fpoil up- 
on my face : thou haft me, if thou haft me, at the 
worft; and thou fhalt wear me, if thou wear me, 
better and better; And therefore tell rne, moft fair 
Katharine, will you have me > Put off your maiden 
bluihes ; avouch the thoughts of your heart with the 
looks of an emprefs; take me by the hand, and 
fay Harry of England, I am thine : which word 
thou fhalt no fooner blefs mine ear withal, but I will 
tell thee aloud England is thine, Ireland is thine, 
France is thine, and Henry Plantagenet is thine ; 

9 poor and untempering effect"} Certainly untempting. 

WAR BUR roy. 

Untempering I believe to have been the poet's word. The 
fenfe is, I understand that you love me, notwithftanding my face 
Jvas no power to temper, i. e. forten you to my purpofe : 
** nature made you 

" To temper man " Otway. 

So, again in Titus Andronicus, which may, at leaft, be quoted 
AS the^work of an author contemporary with Shakefpeare : 

" " And temper him with all the arf'1 have." STEEVENS. 

M 3 who, 


who, though I fpeak it before his face, if he be not 
fellow with the beft king, thou ihalt find the beft king 
nf good-fellows. Come, your anfwer in broken mu- 
fic ; for thy voice is mufic, and thy Engliih broken : 
therefore, queen of all, Katharine, break thy mind 
to me in broken Engliih, Wilt thou have me ? 

Kath. Dat is, as it ihall plcafe de rcy won pere. 

K. Henry. Nay, it v-illpleafe him well, Kate ; it: 
ihall pleaie him, Kate. 

Katb. Den it ihall alfo content me. 

K. Henry. Upon that I kiis your hand, and I call 
you my queen. 

Kath. Laifltz, monjeigneur, laiffcz^ laijjez : ma foy, 
je ne veuv point que vats abbaiffez voftre grandeur, en. 
half ant la main d'une voftre indigne ferviteure ; excufez 
may, je vous fifpplle, mon tres puff/hut feigneur. 
* K. Henrys Then I will kiis your lips, Kate. 

Kath- Les dames, & damojelles, pour eflre b a; jess devant 
leur nopces, il n'eft pas le coutume de France. 

K. Henry. Madam my interpreter, what fays ihe ? 

JLatfy. Dat it is not be de faihion pour de ladies ot" 
France, I cannot tell what is, baijer, en Engliih. 

K. Henry. To kifs. 

Lady. Your majeily entendre bettre que moy. 

K. Henry. It is not a faihiou for the maids in Franco 
to kifs be'fore they are married, would ihe fay ? 

Lady. Ouy, vraynh'nt. 

K. Henry. O, Kate, nice cuftoms curt'fy to great 
kings. Dear Kate, you and I cannot be confinM 
within the weak lift of a country's faihion : we are 
the makers of manners, Kate ; and the liberty, that 
follows our places, flops the mouth of all find-rfaults; 
As I will do yours, for upholding the nice faihiou 
of your country, in denying me a kifs : therefore, pa- 
tiently, and yielding [kiffing her."] You have witch- 
craft in your lips, Kate : there is more eloquence in 
a fugar touch of them, than in the tongues of the 


K I N G H E N R Y V. 167 

French council , and they fhould fooncr l perfuade 
Harry of England, than a general petition of mo- 
narchs. Here comes your father. 

Enter tic Freud kiug and queen., i^itb French and Rug- 
lifl) lords. 

B'<r? t . God fave your majefty i my royal coufin, 
teach you our princefs Englilh ? 

K. Henry. I would have her learn, my fair coufin, 
how perfectly I love her ; and that is good Englilh. 

Burg. Is ihe not apt ? 

X. Henry* Our tongue is rough, coz'; and my con- 
dition is not fmooth * : fo that, having neither the 
voice nor the heart of flattery about me, I cannot fo 
conjure up the fpirit cf love in her, that he will ap- 
pear in his true likenefs. 

Burg. 3 Pardon the franknefs of my mirth, if I an- 
fwcr you for that. If you would conjure in her, you 
mnft make a circle : if conjure up love in her in his 
true likenefs, he mud appear naked, and blind : Can 
you blame her then, being a maid yet rofy'd over 
with the virgin crimlbn of modcfty, if Ihe deny the 
appearance of a naked blind boy in her naked feeing 
felf ? It were, my lord, a hard condition for a maid 
to confign to. 

K- Plenry. Yet they do wink, and yield ; as love is 
blind, and enforces. 

1 Tour lipsjhonldf/ionerperfvnde Harry of England, tlan a gene- 
ral petition of monarch*..] So, in the old anonymous Henry V : 

*' . -TeU thy father frojn me, that none in the world fliould 
fooner have perfuaded me, &c." STEEVENS. 

* my condition is not fmootb :~\ Condition is temper. So, in 
JC. Henry IV. Fart I. fc. in : 

" my coKilitio?!, 

" Which has been fmooth as oil, &c." STEEVF.XS. 

s Pardon tht franknefs rf my mirth, ] We have here but a 
mr.m dialogue for princes ; the merriment is very grois, and the 
iemiments are very worthlefs. JOHNSON, 

^I^ Burg. 


Burg. They are then excus'd, my lord, when they 
fee not what they do. 

K. Henry* Then, good my lord, teach your coufm 
to content to winking. 

Burg. I will wink on her to confent, my lord, if 
you will teach her to^know my meaning: for maids, 
well fummer'd and warm kept, are like flies at Bartho- 
lomew-tide, blind, though they have their eyes ; and 
then they will endure handling, which before would 
not abide looking on, 

K. Henry. 4 This moral ties me over to time, and a 
hot fummer ; and fo I lhall catch the fly, your coufin^ 
in the latter end, and Ihe muft be blind too. 

Burg. As love is, my lord, before it loves. 

K. Henry. It is fo : and you may, fome of you, 
thank love for my blindnefs ; who cannot fee many 
a fair French city, for one fair French maid that 
Hands in my way. 

Fr. King. Yes, my lord, you fee them perfpccYively, 
the cities turn'd into a maid ; for they are all girdled 
with maiden walls, that war hath never enter'd. 

K. Henry. Shall Kate be my wife ? 

Fr. King. So pleafe you. 

K. Henry. I am content; fo the maiden cities you 
talk of, may wait on her : fo the maid, that flood in 
the way for my wifh, fhall Ihew me the way to my 

Fi\ King. We have confented to all terms of rcafon, 

K. Henry. Is't fo, my lords of England ? 

Weft. The king hath granted every article : 
His daughter, firfl ; and then in fequel all, 
According to their firm propofed natures. 

Exe. Only, he hath not yet fubfcribed this : = 

Where your majefty demands, That the king of 
France, having any occafion to write for matter of 

4 This moral ] That 5s, the application of this fable, the mo- 
ral being the application of a fable, our author calls any appli- 
cation a moral. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y V. !6 9 

grant, fhall name your highnefs in this form, and 
with this addition, in French : * Notre tres cber jilz 
Henry roy cT Angleterre, heretier de France: and thus ia 
Latin, Pr<eclarffimus fitius nojler Henrkus, rexAnglix, 
5* hares Francis. 

Fr. King. Yet this I have not, brother, fo deny'd, 
Buf your requeit fhall make me let it pafs. 

K. Henry. I pray you then, in love and dear alliance, 
Let that one article rank with the reft : 
And, thereupon, give me your daughter. 

Fr. King. Take her, fair fon ; and from her blood 

raife up 

Iffue to me : that the contending kingdoms 
Of France and England, whofe very fhores look pale 
With envy of each other's happinefs, 
May ceafe their hatred ; and this dear conjunction 
Plant neighbourhood and chriftian-like accord 
In their iweet bofoms, that never war advance 
His bleeding fword 'twixt England and fair France. 

All. Amen ! 

K. Henry. Now welcome, Kate : and bear me wit- 

nefs all, 
That here I kifs her as my fovereign queen. \JFlourijb. 

<%. I/a. God, the beft maker of all marriages, 
Combine your hearts in one, your realms in one J 
As man and wife, being two, are one in love, 
So be there 'twixt your kingdoms fuch a fpoufal, 
That never may ill office, or fell jealoufy, 
Which troubles oft the bed of blefled marriage, 
6 Thruft in between the paftion of thefe kingdoms, 


5 r.ojlre fres cherJHz and thus in Latin ; praclarffimus fillus. ] 
What, is fres cber, in French, PradarlJJimus in Latin ? We fhould 
read, precarijjimus. WAR BUR TON. 

" This is exceeding true," lays Dr. Farmer, " but how came 
the blunder? It is a typographical one in Holinftied, which 
Shakefpeare copied ; but muft indifputably have been corrected, 
had he been acquainted with the languages." STEEVENS. 

6 llruft in between the pailion of thefe kingdoms^ The old fo- 



To make divorce of their incorporate league ; 
Thai Engli>h mav ?s Trench, French Engliftimea, 
Receive each other ! God fpcak this Amen ! 

All. Amen! 

jfiT. Henry. 7 Prepare we for ov.r marriage : 03 

which dsv, 

My lord of Burgundy, we'll take your oath, 
And all the peers', for lurety of our leagues. 
Then fhall I fwear to Kate, and you to me ; 
And may our oaths well kept and profp'rous b 

Enter Chorus. 

Thus far, with rough, and all unable pen, 
3 Our bending author hath purfu'd the ilory ; 

In little room confining mightv men, 

9 Mangling by Harts the fuil courfe of their glory. 

iios have it, the patlon ; which makes me believe, the authors 
word was patfion ; a word, more proper on the occafiou of a 
peace flruck up. A pafTion of two kingdoms for one another is 
an odd expreffion. An amity and political harmony may be tm-d 
betwixt two countries, and yet either peopl be far from having 
a palfton for the other. TKI-.OI.ALP. 

7 Prepare ivc &c.j The quarto's 1600 and 1608 conclude with 
the following fpeech : 

Hen. Why then fair Katbarlne y 
Come, give me t/.y hand: 
Our marriage ivill -ive prrffnt foltr.inizf, 
And end our hatred by a bond of lave, 
Then -\vill I fwear to Kate, and Kate to me, 
And may onr VIHVS once tttaJc, unbroken be. STEEVENS. 
s Our bending author - ] We (houldread: 

Onr blending author - 
So he fays of him juft afterwards, mangling ly fnrt<. 


Why fhould we read Mending f By tending, our author meant 
untqual to the weight of bisjubjefl, and bending beneath it ; or he 
:nay mean, as in Hamlet: " Here Jiooping to jour clemency." 

9 3fan%l!tig iy Jlarts] By touching only on feled parts. 



K I N G H E N R Y V. 171 

Small time, but, in that fmall, moft greatly liv'd 

This ftar of England : fortune made his Ivvord ; 
By which the world's beft garden he atchjev'd, 

And of it left his fon imperial lord. 
Henry the fixth, in infant bands crown'd king 

Of France and England, did this king fucceed ; 
Whofe ftate fo many had the managing, 

That they loft France, and made his England bleed : 
Which oft our flage hath ihown ; and, for their fake, 
In your fair minds let this acceptance take T . 

1 This play has many fcenes of high dignity, and many of eafy 
merriment. The character of the king is well fupported, except 
in his courtfliip, where he has neither the vivacity of Hal, nor 
the grandeur pf Henry. The humour of Piitol is very happily 
continued : his character has perhaps been the model of all the 
bullies that have yet appeared on the Englifli ftage. 

The lines given to the Chorus have many admirers ; but the 
truth is, that in them a little may be praifed, and much muft be 
torgiven ; nor cim it be ealily discovered why the intelligence 
given by the Chorus is more necellary in this play than in many 
others where it is omitted. The great defect of this play is the 
emptinefs and narrownefs of the lafl aft, which a very little dili- 
gence might have eafily avoided. JOHNSOX. 




Perfons Reprefeated. 

King Henry the fixth. 

Duke of Glofter, uncle to the king, and proteftor', 
Duke of Bedford, uncle to the king, and regent of France. 
Cardinal Beaufort, bijhop of Wincbtfcr^ and great 

v.nck to tie king. 
Duke of Exeter. 
Duke of Somerfet. 
Earl of Warwick. 
Earl of Salifbury. 
Earl of Suffolk. 
Lord Talbot. 
Young Talbot, bis fon. 

Richard Plantagcnet, afterwards duke of Tork. 
Mortimer, earl #f March. 
Sir John Faftolfe. Woodvile, lieutenant of the Tower* 

Lord Mayor of London. Sir Thomas Gargrave. 

Sir William Glanfdale. Sir William Lucy. 
Vcrnon, of the White Rofe, or Tork faft ion. 
BafTet, of the Red Rofe, or Lancajhr faction. 

Charles, dauphin, and afterwards king of France. 

Reignier, duke of Anjou, and titular king of Naples* 

Duke of Burgundy. 

Duke of Alencon. 

Baftardof Orleans. 

Governor of Paris. 

Mafter-Gunner of Orleans. Boy, his fon. 

An old Shepherd, father to Joan la Pucellc. 

Margaret, daughter to Reignier, and afterwards uuecn 

to king Henry. 
Countefs of Auvergne. 
Joan la Pucelle, commonly called, Joan of Arc ; a maul 

pretending to be infpir'd from heaven, and fating v.p 

for the championefs of France. 
..Fiends, attending her. 

Lords, Captains, Soldiers, Mejjengcrs, and feveral At- 
tendants both on the Englifo and French. 

%be SCENE is partly in England, and partly in France. 





jfread march. Enter the funeral of king Henry the- Fifth t 
attended on by the duke of Bedford^ regent of France ; 
the duke of Glqfter, protestor ; the duke of Exeter, 
and the wl of Warwick', the blfiop of IVinchejler, 
and the duhe of Somerfet, &c. 

Bed. Hung be the heavens with black, yield day 
to night ! 


1 Flrjl Part cf King Henry J '/,] The historical tranfacYion* 
contained in this play, take in the compafs of above thirty ye'ars. 
I mult obi'erve, however, that our author, in the thiee parts of 
Henry VI* has not been very precife to the date and difpoiition or. 
his tufts ; but fliuffled them, backwards and forwards, out of 
time. For inftance ; the lord Talbot is kill'd at the end of the 
fourth act of this play, who in reality did not fall till the i3th 
of July 1453 : and The Second Part of Henry FL ope,ns with ther 
marriage of the king, which was folemniz'd eight years before 
Taibot's death, in the year 1445. Again, in the fecond part, 
ilame Eleanor Cobham is introduced to infult queen Margaret ; 
though her penance and bamfhment for forcery happened three 
years before that princefs cair.c over to England. I could point 
mt many other trarfgrt^il'-ns ugamit hillor}-, as far as the order 
of time i:. concerned. Indeed, though there are ieveral mafter- 
ftrokes in thde three plays, wlilch inronteilably betray the work- 
manfhip of Shakefpeure ;' yet I am almoit doofetful, whether they 
xvere entirely of his writing. And unleis they were wrote by 
Jilin very early, I fliould rather imagine them to have "been 



Comets, importing change of times and 
* Brandifh your cryftal treffes in the fky ; 
And with them fcourge the bad revolting flars, 
That have confcnted 5 unto Henry's death ! 
Henry the filth, too famous to live long ! 
England ne'er loft a king of fo much worth. 

brought to him as a dire&or of the flage and fo have received 
fome finifhing beauties at his hand. An accurate obferver wilt 
eafily fee, the diction of them is more obfolete, and the numbers 
more mean and profaical, than in the generality of his genuine 
compofitions. THEOBALD. 

1 Brandijb your cryftal treffes] We have heard of cryflal 
heaven, but never of cryjlal comets before. We fhould read, 
trifled or creftcd, i.e. trefles {landing an end, or mounted like a 
creft. WARBURTON. 
I believe cryjlal is right. JOHNSON. 

Cryjlal is an epithet repeatedly bellowed on comets by our an- 
cient writers. So, in a Soatietby Lord Sterline, 1604 : 

" When ns thofe cbryjlal comets whiles appear." 
Spenfer, in his Faery >ueert t Book I. c. x. applies it to a lady's 
face : 

" Like funny beams threw from her tbryJlal&ctJ* 
*< There is alfo a -white comet with lilver haires," fays Pliny , 
as tranflated by P.Holland, 1601. STEEVENS. 

3 That have confented ] It this exprefllon means no more 

than that the liars gave a bare confcnt, or agreed to let king Henry 
die, it does no great honour to its author. I believe to confent^ 
in this inftance, means to aft in concert. Conccntus, Lat. Thus 
Erato the mufe applauding the fong of Apollo, in Lylly's Midas y 
1592, cries out : " O fweet confent /" i. e. fweet union of founds. 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery >ueen, B. IV. c. ii : 

" Such mufick his wife words with time confented" 
Again, in his tranfiation of Virgil's Cukx : 

*' Chaunted their fundry notes with fweet concent." 
and in many other places. Confentcd, or as it fhoirid be fpelt, 
contented) means, have fhrtnvn themselves into a malignant configu- 
ration, to promote the death of Henry. Spenfer, in more than one 
inftance, fpells this word as it appears in the text of Shakefpeare ; 
as does Ben Jonfon, in his Epitbalamion on Mr. Wefton. The 
following lines : 

" fhall we curie the planets of milhap, 

" That plotted thus, &c." 

feem to countenance my explanation ; and Falilaff fays of Shal- 
low's fervants, that " they flock together in confent^ like fo 

wild geefe." STEEVENS. 



Glo. England ne'er had a king, until his time. 
Virtue he had, deferving to command : 
His brandifh'd fword did blind men with his beams ; 
His arms fpread wider than a dragon's wings ; 
His fparkling eyes, replete with wrathful fire, 
More dazzled and drove back his enemies, 
Than mid-day fun, fierce bent againfl their faces. 
What mould I fay ? his deeds exceed all fpeech : 
He ne'er lift up his hand, but conquered. 

Exe. We mourn in black ; Why mourn we not in 

blood ? 

Henry is dead, and never lhall revive : 
Upon a wooden coffin we attend ; 
And death's difhonourable victory 
We with our {lately prefence glorify, 
Like captives bound to a triumphant car. 
What ? lhall we curie the planets of mifliap, 
That plotted thus our glory's overthrow ? 
Or mail we think 4 the fubtle-witted French 
Conjurers and forcerers, that, afraid of him, 
By magic verfes have contriv'd his end ? 

Win. He was a king bleft of the King of kings. 
Unto the French the dreadful judgment-day 
So dreadful will not be, as was his fight. 
The battles of the Lord of hofls he fought : 
The church's prayers made him fo profperous. 

Glo. The church ! where is it ? Had not church- 
men pray'd, 
His thread of life had not fo foon decayed : 

4 the fubtlc?vjittcd French &c.] There was a notion preva- 
lent a long time, that life might be taken away by metrical 
charms. As fuperftition grew weaker, thefe charms were ima- , 
gined only to have power on irrational animals. In our author's 
time it was fuppofed that the Irifh could kill rats by a fong. 


So, in Reginald Scot's Difcoverie of Wltcbc raft, 1584: " The 
Iriflimen addift themfelves, &c. yea they will not fticke to af- 
firme that they can rime either man or beaft to death." 


VOL. VI. N None 


Ncne do you like but an effeminate prince, 
Whom, like a ichool-boy, you may over-awe. 

Win. Glofter, \vhate l er we like, thou art protector j 
And lookeil to command the prince, and realm. 
Thy wife is proud ; fhe holdeth thee in awe, 
More than God, or religious church-men, may. 

Glo. Name not religion, for thou lov'ft the flefh ; * 
And ne'er throughout the year to church thou go'ft, 
Except it be to pray againft thy foes. 

Bed. Ceafe, ceafc thcfe jars, and reft your minds| 

in peace ! 

Let's to the altar : Heralds, wait on us ; 
Inftead of gold, well offer up our arms ; 
Since arms avail not, now that Henry's dead. 
Pofterity, await for wretched years, 
When at their mothers' moil! eyes babes iliall fuck ; m 
5 Our ifle be made a nourilh of fait tears, 

5 Our iflele made amznfaoffalt tears,'] Thus it is in both 
impreilions by Mr. Pope : upon what authority, I cnnnot uam 
All the old copies read, a nourijh : and conlidenng it is laid m 
the line immediately preceding, that babes fliall fuck at their 
mothers moifl eyes, itfeems very probable that our author wrote! 
a ncuricc ; 5. e. that the whole ifle fliould be one common ur/m 
or nourijbcr, of tears : and thofe be the nourifhmcnt of its inifcnl 
able iffue. THEOBALD. 

Was there ever fuch nonfenfe ! But he did not know that 
marlfl) is an old word tor marfli or ten ; and therefore very judi- 
ioufly thus corrected by Mr. Pope. WAS BURTON. 

I have been informed, that what we call at prefent a I 

which fifh are preferred alive, was anciently called a no 

Nourice., howerer, Fr. a nurfe, was anciently fpelt m:n 
c:it ways, among which nourijb was one : 
* Ot that chylde me was blyth, 
*' After noryjba flie fent belive." 

Syr Eglamour of Ai'tois, h3. 1. no date. 

A, ncurijb therefore in this palFage of our author lignities a 
'-, as it apparently does in the i2th chapter of the /lift book 
of tie Tragedies of John Bocbas, by Lydgate : 
** Athenes whan it was in his floures 
*' Was called nourijb of philofophers wife." 
c * ... i i Jubae tellus generat, leonum 

*' Arida nufrix." STEEVENS. 


KING H E N R Y- VI. i 79 

none but women left to wail the dead. 
Henry the fifth ! thy ghoit I invocatc ; 
Profper this realm, keep it from civil broils ! 
Combat with adverfe planets in the heavens ! 
A far more glorious ftar thy foul will make, 
e Than Julius Csefar, or bright 

Enter a Mefpt!ger. 

Mi'ff* My honourable lords, health, to you all ! 
Sad tidings bring I to you out of France, 
Of lofs, of fl-iughter, and diicomfiturc : 
7 Guienne, Champaigne, Rheims, Orleans, 
Paris, Guyfors, Poidtieis, are ail quire loft. 

Bed. What fay 'ft thou, man, before dead Henry's 

corfe ? 

Speak foftly ; or the lofs of thofe great towns 
Will make him burft his lead, and rife from, death. 

Glo. Is Paris loft ? is Roan yielded up ? 
If Henry were recall'd to life again, 
Thefe news would caufe him once more yield the 

6 Than Julius Cafar, or bright ] I can't guefs the 

occafion of the hemiftic and imperfect fenfe in this place ; 'tis 
not impolTible it mi^ht have been filled up with Francis Drake > 
though that were a terrible anachronifm (as bad as Hector's 
quoting Ariftofl* in Trcllus and Crejfida) ; yet perhaps at the time 
that brave Engliihrrun was in his glory, to an Englilh-hearted 
audience, and pronounced by feme favourite ator, the thing 
might be popular, though not judicious ; and therefore by fbme 
critic in favour of the author afterwards {truck out. But. this is 
a mere (light conjecture. POPE. 

To confute the flight conjecture of pope, a whole page of ve- 
hement oppoP.tion is annexed to this pallage by Theobald. Sir 

T. Hanmer has flopped at Ctffar perhaps more judicioufly, 

It might however have been written, or Irigbt Berenice. 


" Guienn&t Champcignt) Rheims, Orleans,] This verfe might 
be completed by the iniertion of Roan among the places loft, as 
Glofler in his next fpeech infers that it had been mentioned with 
the reiL STEEVENS. 

N 2 Ext. 


Exe. How were they loft ? what treachery was us'd? 

Mejf. No treachery ; but want of men, and money. 
Among the foldiers this is muttered, 
That here you maintain feveral factions ; 
And, whilft a field fhould be difpatch'd and fought, 
You are difputing of your generals. 
One would have ling'ring wars, with little coft ; 
Another would fly fwift, but wanteth wings ; 
A third man thinks, without expence at all, 
By guileful fair words peace may be obtain'd. 
Awake, awake, Englifh nobility ! 
Let not floth dim your honours, new-begot : 
Crop'd are the flower-de-luces in your arms ; 
Of England's coat one half is cut away. 

Exe. Were our tears wanting to this funeral, 
Thefe tidings would call forth their flowing tides. 

Bed. Me they concern ; regent I am of France : 
Give me my fteeled coat, I'll fight for France. 
Away with thefe difgraceful wailing robes ! 
Wounds I will lend the French, inftead of eyes, 
* To weep their intermiflive miferies. 

Enter to them another Mejfenger. 

l Meffl Lords, view thefe letters, full of bad mif- 


France is revolted from the Englilh quite ; 
Except fome petty towns of no import : 
The Dauphin Charles is crowned king in Rheims ; 
The baftard of Orleans with him is join'd ; 
Reignier, duke of Anjou, doth take his part ; 
The duke of Alenfon flieth to his fide. [Exit. 

Exe. The Dauphin crowned king ! all fly to him ? 
O, whither fhall we fly from this reproach ? 

8 To weep their intermijjive miferies.'] \. e. their miferies, which 
have had only a fiwrt inrermiilion from Henry the Fifth's death 
to nay coming amongil them. WAS BUR TON. 



Gk. We will not fly, but to our enemies' throats : 
Bedford, if thou be flack, I'll fight it out. 

Bed. Glofter, why doubt'fl thou of my forward- 

nefs ? 

An army have I mufter'd in my thoughts, 
Wherewith already France is over-run. 

Enter a third Meflengcr. 

3 Mejf. My gracious lords, to add to your laments, 
Wherewith you now bedew king Henry's hearfe, 
I muft inform you of a difmal fight, 
Betwixt the flout lord Talbot and the French. 

Win. What ! wherein Talbot overcame ? is't fo ? 

3 Mejf. O, no ; wherein lord Talbot was o'er- 

thrown : 

The circumftance I'll tell you more at large. 
The tenth of Auguft lafl, this dreadful lord, 
Retiring from the fiege of Orleans, 
Having full fcarce fix thoufand in his troop 9 , 
By three and twenty thoufand of the French 
Was round encompaffed and fet upon : 
No leifure had he to cnrank his men ; 
He wanted pikes to fet before his archers ; 
Inftead whereof, fharp (takes, pluck'd out of hedges, 
They pitched in the ground confufedly, 
To keep the horfemen off from breaking in. 
More than three hours the fight continued ; 
Where valiant Talbot, above human thought, 
Enadtcd wonders with his fword and lance. 
Hundreds he fent to hell, and none durft ftand him ; 
Here, there, and every where, enrag'd he flew : 
The French exclaim'd, The devil was in arms; 
All the whole army flood agaz'd on him : 

9 Having full fcarce &c.] The modern editors read, -/caret 
full, but, I think unneceffarily . So, in the Tempejl : 

" Profpero, matter of a full poor cell." STEEVENS. 

N ? His 


His foldiers, fpying his undaunted fpirit, 

A Talbot ! a Talbot ! cried out amain, 

And ruih'd into the bowels of the battle. 

Here had the conqueft fully been feal'd up, 

1 If Sir John Faflolfe had not play'd the coward : 

*He being in the vaward (plac'd behind, 

With pnrpofe to relieve and follow them) 

Cowardly fled, not having ilruck o^c 1 ftroke. 

Hence grew the general wreck and niaffacre ; 

Enclofecl were they wifh their energies : 

A bafe Walloon, to win the Dauphin's grace, 

1 If Sir Jd-ii Fafolfe] Mr. Pope has taken notice, " That 
Falftaffis here introduced again, who was dead in Henry V. 
The occafion whereof is that this piny was written before Henry 
IV. or Henry V." But Sir John Fafblfe (for fo he is called) , 
was a lieutenant general, deputy regent to the duke of Bedford 
in Normandy, a^d a knight of the garter ; and not the comic 
character afterwards introduced by our author. THEOBALD. 

Mr. Theobald might have feen his notion contradicted in the ^ 
very line he quotes from. Faf.olfe, whether truely or not, is 
faid by Hall and Holiuftied to have been degraded for cowardice. 
Dr. Heylin in his St. George for England, tells us, that " he was 
afterwards, upon good realbn by him alledged in his defence, re- 
flored to his honour." " This Sir John Faljloff" continues he, 
*' was without doubt, a valiant and wife captain, notwithstanding 
the ftage hath made merry with him." FARMER. 

In the j 8th fong of Drayton's Polyolblon is the following cha 
rafter of this Sir John Pajtotpb : 

' Strong Fajlolph with this man compare we juflly rruy ; 
' By Sal{bury who ott being ferioufly imploy'd 
' In many a brave attempt the general foe annoy'd ; 
' With excellent fucceffe in Main and Anjou fought, 
' And many a bulwarke there into our keeping brought j 
' And chofen to go forth with Vadamont in wavre, 
*' Moil refolutely tooke proud Renate duke of B;irre." 


* He lei fig vi the niaward (p!ac\l behind, ] Some of the editors 
feem to have conlidered this as a comradiciion in terms, and have 
propofed to read the rerewardy but without necefTity. Some 
part of the van muft have been behind the foremolr, line of it. 
We often fay the back front of a houfe. STEEVENS. 



Thruft Talbot with a fpear into the back ; 

Whom all France, with her chief alfembled ftrcngth, 

Durft not prefume to look oitce in the face. 

Bed. Is Talbot ilain ? then I will flay myfelf, 
For living idly here, in pomp and eafe, 
Whilft fuch a worthy leader, wanting aid, 
Unto his daftard foe-men is betray'd. 

3 Mcjf. O no, he lives ; but is took prifoner, 
Ancl lord Scales with him, and lord Hun -erford : 
Molt of the reft flaughter'd, or took, iikewife. 

Bed. His ranfom there is none but I fhall pay : 
I'll hale the Dauphin headlong from his throne, 
His crown fhall be the ranfom of my friend ; 
Four of their lords I'll change for one of ours. - 
Farc-.vel, my matters ; to mv talk will I ; 
Bon [ire s in Fn.nce forthwith I am to make, 
To keep our great faint George's feaft withal : 
Ten thoufand foldiers with me I will take, 
Whofe bloody deeds mall make all Europe quake. . 
3 Meffl So you hsd need ; for Orleans is belieg'd;' 
The Englifh army is grown weak and faint : 
The earl of Snlilbury craveth fupply ; 
And hardly keeps his men from mutiny, 
Since they, fo few, watch fuch a multitude. 

Exe. Remember, lords, your oaths to Henry Avorn ; 
Either to quell the Dauphin utterly, 
Or bring him in obedience to your yoke. 

Bed. I do remember it ; and here take leave, 
To go about my preparation. [Exit* 

Glo. I'll to the Tower with all the hafle I can, 
To view the artillery and munition ; 
And then I will proclaim young Henry king. [Exif. 
Exe. To Eltham will I, where the young king is, 
Being ordain'd his fpecial governor ; 
And for his fafety there I'll beft devife. [.Y//. 

IVlfi. Each hath his place and function to attend : 
I am loft out ; for me nothing remains. 
But long I will not be Jack-out-of-office ; 

N 4 The 


The king from Eltham I intend to fend, 
And fit at chiefeft ftern of public weal. [Exit. 



Before Orleans in France. 

Enter Charles, Alen$on, and Reignier, marching with a 
drum and foldiers. 

Char. 'Mars his true moving, even as in the 


So in the earth, to this day is not known : 
Late, did he thine upon the Englifli fide ; 
Now we are vidtors, upon us he fmiles. 
What towns of any moment, but we have ? 
At pleafure here we lie, near Orleans ; 
Otherwhiles, the famim'd Englilh, like pale ghofts, 
Faintly befiege us one hour in a month. 

AUn. They want their porridge, and their fat bull- 
beeves : 

Either they muft be dieted, like mules, 
And have their provender ty'd to their mouths, 
Or piteous they will look, like drowned mice. 

Reig. Let's raife the fiege ; Why live w r e idly here ? 
Talbot is taken, whom we wont to fear : 
Remaineth none, but mad-brain'd Salifbury ; 
And he may well in fretting fpend his gall, 
Nor men, nor money, hath he to make war. 

Char. Sound, found alarum ; we will rufh on them. 
Now for the honour of the forlorn French :- 
Him I forgive my death, that killeth me, 

3 Mars bis true moving, &c.] So, Na(h in one of his prefaces 
before Gabriel Harvey's Hunt is /, 1596. " You are as igno- 
rant in the true movings of my mufe, as the aftronomers are in 
the true movings of Mars, which to this day they could never at- 
tain to." STEEYENS. 



When he fees me go back one foot, or fly. [Exeunt. 
[Here Alarum, they are beaten back by the Englifk, 
with great lofs. 

Re-enter Charles, Alen f on, and Relgnier. 

Char. Who ever faw the like ? what men have I ? 
Dogs ! cowards ! daftards ! I would ne'er have fled, 
But that they left me 'midft my enemies. 

Reig. Salifbury is a defperate homicide ; 
He fighteth as one weary of his life. 
The other lords, like lions wanting food, 
Do rufh upon us 4 as their hungry prey. 

Alen. Froifard, a countryman of ours, records, 
5 England all Olivers and Rowlands bred, 
During the time Edward the third did reign. 
More truly now may this be verified ; 
For none but Sampfons, and Goliafles, 
It fendeth forth to fkirmifh. One to ten ! 
Lean raw-bon'd rafcals ! who would e'er fuppofe 
They had fuch courage and audacity ? 

Char. Let's leave this town ; for they are hair- 

brain'd flaves, 

And hunger will enforce them to be more eager : 
Of old I know them ; rather with their teeth 
The walls they'll tear down, than forfake the fiege. 

Reig. I think, by fome odd 6 gimmals or device, 


* --As their hungry prey."\ I believe it fliould be read : 
As their \\ungredfrty. JOHNSON. 

s England all Olivers and Rowlands bred,~\ Thefe were two of 
the moft famous in the lift of Charlemagne's twelve peers ; and 
their exploits are render'd fo ridiculoufly and equally extravagant 
by the old romancers, that from thence arofethat faying amonglr. 
our plain and feniible anceftors, of giving one a Rowland for his 
Oliver, to lignify the matching one incredible lye with another. 


Rather, to oppofe one hero to another, i.e. to give a per/on as 
good a one as he brings. STEEVENS. 

6 gimmah] A gimmal is a piece of jointed work, where 

i86 F I R S T P A R T O F 

Their arms are fct, like clocks, flill to ftrike on ; 
Elfe they could ne'er hold out fo, as they do. 
By my confent, we'll e'en let them alone. 
Men. Be it fo. 

Enter ll-e Eajlard of Orleans. 

Baft. Where's the prince Dauphin ? I have news for 

Dan. Buicard of Orleans, thrice welcome to us. 

Baft. Methinks, your looks are iud, ~ your chear 

appali'd ; 

Hath the hte overthrow wrought this o.Tcnce ? 
Be not difmay'd, for fuccour is at hand : 
A holy maid hither with me I bring, 
Which, by a vifion fent to her from heaven, 
Ordained is to raife this tedious fiege, 
And drive the Englifh forth the bounds of France. 
The fpirit of deep prophecy fhe hath, 
Exceeding the 8 nine fibyls of old Rome ; 
What's pail, and what's to come, ihe can dcfcry. 

cine piece moves within another, whence it is taken at large for 
an engine. It is now by the vulgar called a glmeracl;, JOHNSON. 
In the inventory ot the jewels, feV. belonging to Salilhury 
cathedral taken in -153^, aKth of Henry VIII. is " A r'aire 
cheil with gimmah and key." Again, " Three other chcits 
with trlnimaU of lilver and gilt." 

Again, in the ancient enterlude of the Repentance of Mary Mag- 
dalent, 1567: 

" Your nether garments muft go by gymma and joints" 
Again, in B. and Fletcher's Beggar's Bufb : 
** Sure I ftiould know tnatgymmaJ. 
" 'Tis certain he : I had torgot my ring too.*' 
Again, in the f r c<:v-l>'reater, or the Fa/re Maide ofCl'ftor., 1636: 
*' My r.6tes arc like the motionall gynmah 
*' FLxt in a watch." STEEVEVS. 
7 -your ibca'r appzlFd; ] Chear is countenance, appearance. 


9 nlr.ef.lyls of eld Rome ;~\ There were no nine , 
Rome; but he confounds things, and miftakes this for the nine 
book? of Sibylline oracles, brought to one of the Tarquins. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 18; 

Speak, fhall I call her in ? 9 Believe my words, 
For they are certain and unfallible. 

Dan. Go, call her in : But tirft, to try her fkill, 
Reignier, ftand thou as Dauphin in my place : 
Queftion her proudly, let thy looks be llern ; 
By this means lhall we found what Ikill Ihe hath. 

Enter Joan la Pucelle. 

Reig. Fait- maid, is't thou wilt do thefe wond'rous 
feats ? 

Pucel. Reignier, is't thou that thinkeft to beguile 

me ? 

Where is the Dauphin ? come, come from behind ; 
I know thee well, though never feen before. 
Be not amaz'd, there's nothing hid from me : 
In private will I talk with thee apart; 
Stand back, you lords, and give us leave awhile. 

Reig. She takes upon her bravely at firft dam. 

Pucel. Dauphin, I cam by birth a mepherd's daugh- 


My wit untrain'd in any kind of art. 
Heaven, and our Lady gracious, hath it pleas'd 
To ihine on my contemptible eftate : 
Lo, whilit I waited on my tender lambs, 
And to fun's parching heat difplay'd my cheeks, 
God's mother deigned to appear to me ; 
And, in a vifion full of majefty, 
Will'd me to leave my bafe vocation, 
And free my country from calamity : 
Her aid me promis'd, and aflur'd fuccefs : 
In compleat glory Ihe rcveal'd herfelf ; 
And, \\hereas I was black and fwart before, 
With thoie clear rays which Ihe infus'd on me, 
That beauty am I bleft with, which you fee. 
A Ik me what queftion thou canft poffible, 

Believe ray wwvft,] It fhould be read : 

belitvt her worth, JOHNSON! 



And I will anfwer unpremeditated : 
My courage try by combat, if thou dar'fl, 
And thou malt find that I exceed my fex. 
Refolve on this : Thou ihalt be fortunate, 
If thou receive me for thy warlike mate. 

Dau. Thou haft aftonifh'd me with thy high terms : 
Only this proof I'll of thy valour make, 
In fingle combat thou ihall buckle with me ; 
And, if thou vanquifheft, thy words are true ; 
Otherwife, I renounce all confidence. 

Pucel. I am prepar'd : here is my keen-edg'd fword, 
Deck'd with fine flower-de-luces on each fide ' ; 
The which, at Touraine in faint Katharine's church- 
Out of a deal of old iron I chofe forth. 

Dau, Then come o'God's name, I fear no woman. 

Pucel. And, while I live, I'll never fly no man. 
[Here they fgbt, and Joan la Pucelle overcomes. 

Dau. Stay, flay thy hands ; thou art an Amazon, 
And fighteft with the fword of Debora. 

Pucel. Chrift's mother helps me, elfe I were too 

Dau. Whoe'er helps thee, 'tis thou that muft help 

me : 

Impatiently I burn with thy defire * ; 
My heart and hands thou haft at once fubdu'd. 
Excellent Pucelle, if thy name be fo, 
Let me thy fervant, and not fovereign, be ; 
'Tis the French Dauphin fueth to thee thus. 

Pucel. I muft not yield to any rites of love, 
For my profeflion's facred from above : 

1 Deck' d with fine fiower-de-hcts &c.] We fhould read, ac- 
cording to Holinflied, five flower-de-luces. " in a fecret 

place there among old iron, appointed fhe hir fword to be fought 
out and brought her, that with five floure delices was graven on 
both fides, &c." STEEVENS. 

a Impatiently Hum with thy dejire \\ The amorous conftitution 
of the Dauphin has been mentioned in the preceding pby : 

*' Doing is6Hvity and he will ftill be doing" COLLINS." 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. jg 9 

When I have chafed all thy foes from hence, 
Then will I think upon a recompence. 

2)au. Mean time, look gracious on thy proltratc 

Reig. My lord, methinks, is very long in talk. 

Akn. Doubtlefs, he flirives this woman to her 

fmock ; 
Elfe ne'er could he fo long protract his fpeech. 

Reig. Shall we difturb him, fince he keeps no mean ? 

Alen. He may mean more than we poor men do 

know : 
Thefe women are fhrewd tempters with their tongues. 

Reig. My lord, where are you? what devife you on? 
Shall we give over Orleans, or no ? 

Pucel. Why, no, I fay, diftruftful recreants ! 
Fight 'tilt the laft gafp ; I will be your guard. 

Dau. What fhe fays, I'll confirm ; we'll fight it out, 

Pucel. Afiign'd I am to be the Englifh fcourge. 
This night the fiege aiTuredly I'll ra.iie : 
3 Expert faint Martin's fummer, halcyon days, 
Since I have enter'd thus into thefe wars. 
Glory is like a circle in the water, 
Which never ceafeth to enlarge itfelf, 
'Till, by broad fpreading, it difperfe to nought. 
With Henry's death, the Engliih circle ends ; 
Difperfed are the glories it included. 
Now am I like that proud infulting ihip 4 , 
Which Casfar and his fortune bare at once. 

8 Expeft faint Martin's fummer^] That is, expe& profterity af- 
ter misfortune, like lair weather at Martlemas, after winter has 
begun. JOHNSON. 

* like that proud infulting flip, 

Which Ctffar and his fortune tore at ortce.~\ 

This alludes to a paifage in Plutarch's Life of Julius Catfar^ 
thus tranilated by fir T. North. " Cae far hearing that, ftraight 
difcovered himfelfe unto the maifter of the pynnafe, who at the 
flrft was amazed when he faw him, but Caelar, &c. faid unto 
him, Good fellow, be of good cheere, &c. and fear not, for 
thou baft Cafar and bit fortune with tbee," STEEVENS, 



Dau. Was Mahomet infpired with a dove * ? 
Thou with an eagle art infpired then. 
Helen, the mother of great Conftantine, 
6 Nor yet faint Philip's daughters, were like thec. 
Bright ftar of Venus, fall'n down on the earth, 
How may I reverently worfhip thee enough ? 

Akn. Leave off delays, and let us raife the fiege. 

Reig. Woman, do what thou canft to fave our 

honours ; 
Drive them from Orleans, and be immortaliz'd. 

Dau. Prefently we'll try : Come, let's away about 

No prophet will I truft, if fhe prove falfe. [Exeunt, 


Tower-gates^ In London. 
Enter Glofter, with bis feru ing-men. 

Glo. I am co'me to furvey the Tower this day ; 
Since Henry's death, I fear, 7 there is conveyance. 
Where be thefe warders, that they wait not here ? 
Open the gates ; it is Glofter that calls. 

i Ward. Who's there, that knocketh fo iinpc- 
riouily ? 

1 Man. It is the noble duke of Glofter. 

2 Ward. Whoe'er he be, you may not be let in. 

5 Dauph. Wa3 Mahomet inff ired with a dove?'] Mahomet had 
a dove, " which he ufed to feed with wheat out of his ear; 
which dove when it was hungry, lighted on Mahomet's fhoulder, 
and thrull its hill in to find it's breakfait ; Mahomet perfuading 
the rude and fimple Arabians, that it was the Holy Gholl that 
gave him advice." See Sir Walter Raleigh's Hijlory of the World, 
Book I. Part I. ch. vi. Life of Mahomet, by Dr. Prideaux. 


' Nor yet fault Philip's daughters, ] Meaning the four daugh- 
ters of Philip mentioned in the Afts. HANMER^ 

7 there is conveyance.] Conveyance means theft. HANMER. 

i Man. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. I9I 

i JVLv;. Villains, anfweryou fo the lord protedor ? 
i Ward* The Lord protect him ! fo we anfwer 

him : 
We do no otherwife than we are wili'd. 

Glo. Who willed you ? or whofe will Hands, but 

mine ? 

There's none protestor of the realm, but I. 
Break up the gates 8 , I'll be your \\arrantize : 
Shall I be flouted thus by dunghill grooms ? 

Glqfer's men rvjh at ike Tower gates, and Wood-vile, i '. c 
lieutenant, fpeaks within. 

JJ'ocd. What noife is this ? what traitors have -we 
here ? 

Glo. Lieutenant, is it you, whofe voice I hear ? 
Oprn the gates ; here's Glofter, that would enter. 

Wood. Have patience, noble duke ; I may not 

open ; 

The cardinal of Winchefler forbids : 
From him I have exprcfs commandement, 
That thou, nor none of thine, lhall be let in. 

Glo. Faint-hearted Woodvile, prizeft him 'fore 

me ? 

Arrogant Winchefler ? that haughty prelate, 
Whom Henry, our late fovereign, ne'er could brook? 
Thou art no friend to God, or to the king : 
Open the gates, or I'll mut thee out ihortly. 

Ser-v. Open the gates there to the lord protector ; 
We'll built them open, if that you come not quickly. 

8 Break up the gates,] I fuppofe to break up the gate ii to force 
up the portcullis, or by the application of petards to blow up the 
gates themfelves. STJ- EVENS. 


Enter to the proteffor, at the Tower-gates, Wmchejler 
and his men in tawny coats 9 . 

Win. * How now, ambitious Humphry ? what 

means this ? 
Glo. * Piel'd prieft, doft thou command me to be 

fhut out ? 

Win. I do, thou moft ufurping proditor, 
And not protestor of the king or realm. 

Glo. Stand back, thou manifeit confpirator ; 
Thou, that contriv'dft to murder our dead lord ; 
3 Thou, that giv'ft whores indulgences to fin : 


9 tawny coats. ] It appears from the following pafTage in a 
comedy called, A Maidenhead well Loft-, 1634, that a taivry coat 
was the drefs of zfumpner, i. e. an apparitor, an officer whole bu- 
finefs it was to fummon offenders to an ecclefiaftical court : 

*' Tho I was never a tawny-coat^ I have play'd t\\cj~umioner's 

Thefe are the proper attendants therefore on the bifhop of 

Winchefter. So, in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 822 : ' and 

by the way the bljhop of London met him, attended on by a 
goodly company of gentlemen in tawny-coats, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 Ho&itHV, ambitious umpire, what means tpisf] This read- 
ing has obtained in all the editions fince the fecond folio. The 
firft folio has it umpheir. In both the word is diftinguifhed in 
italicks. But why, umpire f Or of what ? The traces of the 
letters, and the words being printed in italicks, convince me, 
that the duke's chriftian name lurk'd under this corruption. 


a Pierd prieft, ] Alluding to his (haven crown. POPE. 

In Skinner (to whofe dictionary I was directed by Mr. Ed- 
wards) I find that it means more : Pilfd or peeFd garlick, cui 
pellis, *vel pill omnes ex morbo aliquo, presfertim e lue vencrea, d:- 

In Ben Jonfon's Bartholomew Fair the following inftance oc- 
curs : 

" I'll fee them p 'd firft, and//7W and double plfd." 


In Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 154. Robert Buldocke, 
bifhop of London, is called a peeled prieft, pilide clerk, feemingly 
in aHufion to his {haven crown alone. So, bald-bead was a term 
of fcorn and mockery. TOILET. 

3 Thoit) that giifjl whores indulgences to Jin: ] The public 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. i 93 

4 1'Jl canvafs thee in thy broad cardinal's hat, 
If thou proceed in this thy infolence. 

Win* Nay, ftand thou back, I will not budge afoot; 
5 This be Damafcus, be thou curfed Cain, 
To flay thy brother Abel, if thou wilt. 

Glo. I will not flay thee, but I'll drive thee back : 
Thy fcarlet robes, as a child's bearing-cloth 
I'll ufe, to carry thee out of this place. 

Win. Do what thou dar'ft ; I beard thee to thy 

Glo. What ? am I dar'd, and bearded to my face ? 
Draw, men, for all this privileged place ; 
Blue-coats to tawny-coats. Prieft, beware thy beard ; 
I mean to tug it, and to cuff you foundly : 
Under my feet I'll ftamp thy cardinal's hat; 
In fpite of pope, or dignities of church, 

ftews were formerly under the diflrift of the bifhop of Win- 
chefter. POPE. 

There is now extant an old manufcript (formerly the office- 
book of the court leet held, under the jurifdidion of the bifhop 
of Winchefter in Southwark) in which are mentioned the feveral 
fees ariling from the brothel-houfes allowed to be kept in the bi- 
fhop's manor, with the cufloms and regulations of them. One 
of the articles is, 

' ' DC bis, (jui cujlodiunt mulleres bafientes nefandam injirmita* 

" Item, That no ftewholder keep any woman within his houfe, 
that hath any ficknefs of brenning, but that (he be put out upon 
pain of making a fyne unto the lord of C fhillings." UPTON. 

4 /'// canvafs thee in thy broad car dinar 5 bat,~\ This means, I 
believe, /'// tumble tbee into thy great bat, and Jbake tbee, as Iran 
and meal are foaken in a Jteve. 

So, lir W. Davenant, in the Cruel Brother, 1630: 
*' I'll litt and winnow him in an old hat." 

To canvas was anciently ufed for tojift. So, ill Hans Beer-pot's 
Invijlbk Comedy, 1618 : 

" We'll canvas him. 

" 1 am too big STEEVENS. 

* Tins Ic Damafcus, be tbou curfed Cain,] N. B. About four 
miles from Damafcus is a high hill, reported to be the fame on 
which Cain flew his brother Abel. Maundrel's Travels, p. 131. 


VOL. VI. O Here 


Here by the cheeks I'll drag thee np and down. 

Win. Glofler, thou'lt anfwer this before the pope, j 

Glo. 6 Winchefter goofe ! I cry A rope ! a 

rope ! 

Now beat them hence, Why do you let them flay ? 
Thee I'll chafe hence, thou wolf in fheep's array. 
Out, tawny coats ! out, fcarlet hypocrite ! 

Here Glofter's men beat out the Cardinars ; and enter, in \ 
the hurly-burly, the Mayor of London, and his officers. 

Mayor. Fie, lords \ that you, being fupreme ma- 

Thus contumelioufly ihould break the peace f 

Glo. Peace, mayor ; for thou know'ft little of my 

wrongs : 

Here's Beaufort, that regards nor God nor king, 
Hath here diftrain'd the Tower to his ufe. 

Win, Here's Glofter too, a foe to citizens ; 
One that frill motions war,, and never peace, 
O'er-charging your free purfes with large fines ^ 
That feeks to overthrow religion, 
Becaufe he is protector of the realm ; 
And would have armour here out of the Tower, 
To crown himfelf king, and fupprefs the prince. 

Glo. I will not anfwer thee with words, but blows. 
[Here they Jklrmijh again. 

Mayor. Nought refls for me,, in this tumultuous- 

But to make open proclamation : 

Come, officer ; as loud as e'er thou canfl. 

Off. All manner of men, ajfembled here in arms this day, 
againft God's peace and the king's, we charge and com- 
mand you, in his highnefs' name, to repair to your feveral 
dwelling places-, and not wear, handle, or ufe, any 

6 Winckejler goofe ! ] A ilrumpet, or the confluences of her 
love, was a Winchefter goofe. JOHNSON. 



fword, weapon, or dagger > henceforward, upon pain 
of death. 

Glo. Cardinal, I'll be no breaker of the law : 
But we fliall meet, and break our minds at large. 

Win. Glofter, we'll meet ; to thy coft, be thou lure : 
*Thy heart-blood I will have for this day's work. 

Mayor. I'll call for clubs, if you will not away : 
This cardinal is more haughty than the devil. 

Glo. Mayor, farewel : thou dofl but what thou 

IVm. Abominable Glofter ! guard thy head ; 
For I intend to have it, ere long. [Exeunt. 

Mayor. See the coaft clear'd, and then we will de- 

Good God ! 7 that nobles ihould fuch ftomachs bear ! 
J myfclf fight not once in forty year. \Exewit* 


Orleans in France. 
Enter tie Mafter-Gunner of Orleans, and his Boy. 

M. Gun. Sirrah, thou know'ft how Orleans is be- 

fieg'd ; 
And how the Engliih have the fuburbs won. 

Boy. Father, I know ; and oft have fhot at them, 
Howe'er, unfortunate, I mifs'd my aim. 

7 that nobles jbould fuck Jlornacks bear ! 

I wyfilf fight not once in forty year ^\ 

The Mayor of London was not brought in to be laugh'd at, aa 
is plain by his manner of interfering in the quarrel, where he all 
along prelerves a lufficient dignity. In the line preceding thefe, 
he direfts his officer, to whom without doubt thefe two lines fhould 
be given. They fuit his character, and are very exprelfive of the 
pacific temper of the city guards. WARBURTON. 

I fee no reafon for this change. The Mayor fpeaka firft as a 
jnagiftrate, and afterwards as a citizen. JOHNSON. 

O a K Gun* 


M Gun. But now thou flialt not. Be thou 

by me : 

Chief mafler-gunner am I of this town ; 
Something I muft do, to procure me grace. 
The prince's 'fpials 8 have informed me, 
How 9 the Englifh, in the fuburbs clofe entrench'd, 
Went, through a fecret grate of iron bars 
In yonder tower,, to over-peer the city ; 
And thence difcover, how, with moft advantage, 
They may vex us, with Ihot, or with affault. 
To intercept this inconvenience, 
A piece of ordinance 'gainft it I have plac'd ; 
And fully even thefe three days have I watch'd, 
If I could fee them : Now, boy, do thou watch ; 
For I can ftay no longer. 
If thou fpy'ft any, run and bring me word ; 
And thou Ihalt find me at the governor's. [JEr/7.. 

Soy. Father, I warrant you ; take you no care ; 
I'll never trouble you, if I may fpy them. 

Enter tie lords Salisbury and. falbot l , with Sir W. Glanf- 
dak and Sir Tho. Gargrave, on the turrets. 

Sal Talbot, my life, my joy, again returned ! 
How wert thou handled, being prifoner ? 


8 The prince's *fpials] Efplah are fpies. So, in Chaucer's. 
Freres Tale : 

* For fubtilly he had his efpiaille" STEEVENS. 

9 the Englijh 

Went, through a fecret grate of iron lars 
In yonder tower, to over -peer the city ;] 
That is, the Englifh vjent y not through a fecret grate, but went-. 
to over-peer the city through a fecret grate which is in yonder tower. 
I did not know till of late that this paflage had been thought dif- 
ficult. JOHNSON. 

I believe, inftead of went, we fliould read wont, the third per- 

fon plural of the old verb > ow/. " The Englijljwont, that is, 

arc accujiomcd to overpeer the city." The word is ufed very tre- 

<}uently by Spenfer, and feveral times by Milton. TYRWHITT. 

* -Talbot,] Though the three parts of K> Henry VI. are- 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. i 97 

Or by what means got'ft thou to be released ? 

Uifcourfe, I pry'thee, on this turret's top. 
Tal. The duke of Bedford had a prifoner, 

Called the brave lord Ponton de Santrailles; 

For him was I exchang'd and ranfomed. 

But with a bafer man of arms by far, 

Once, in contempt, they would have barter'd me : 

Which I, difdaining, fcorn'd; and craved death 

Rather than I would be * fo pill'd efteem'd. . 

[n fine, redeem'd I was as I defir'd. 

But, oh ! the treacherous FailolfTe wounds my heart! 

Whom with my bare fifls I would execute, 

[f I now had him brought into my power. 
Sal. Yet teH*ft thou not, how thou wert enter- 


al. With feoffs, and fcorns, and contumelious 

In open market-place produced they me, 

To be a public fpedacle to all ; 
! Here, faid they, is the terror of the French, 

The fcare-crow that affrights our Children fo. 
, iien broke I from the officers that led me ; 

Am with my nails digg'd (tones out of the ground, 

"JTo /nrl at the beholders of my ihame. 

My grifly countenance made others fly ; 

None durft come near, for fear of fudden death. 

In iron walls they deem'd me not fecure ; 

defervedly numbered among the feebleft performances of Shake- 
fpeare, this firft of them appears to have been received with the 
greatell applauie. So, in Pierce Pennilefs's Supplication to the De- 
vil, by Nafh, 1595. " How would it have joyed brave Talbot 
(the terror of the French) to thinke that after he had line two 
hundred yeares in his tombe, he ihould triumph againe on the 
ftage, and have his bones new embalmed with the teares of ten 
thoufand fpeftators at leaft (at feveral times) who in the tragedian 
that repreients his perfon, imagine they behold him frefli bleed- 
ing." STEEVENS. 

1 fo piWd ejleem'd,'\ Thus the old copy. The modern 

editors read, but without authority " fo vile efteem'd." So 

, fojirijp'd of honours. UTEEVENS. 


I9 3 F I R S T P A R T O F 

So great fear of my name 'mongft them was fpre; 
That they fuppos'd, I could rend bars of (leel, 
And fpurn in pieces pofts of adamant : 
Wherefore a guard of chofen fliot I had, 
That walk'd about me every minute while ; 
And if I did but ftir out of my bed, 
Ready they were to ihoot me to the heart. 

Enter the j50y, with a llnftock. 

Sal I grieve to hear what torments you endur'd 
But we will be reveng'd fufficiently. 
3S 7 ow it is fupper-time in Orleans : 
Here, through this grate, I can count every one, 
And view the Frenchmen how they fortify ; 
Let us look in, the fight will much delight thee. 
Sir Thomas Gargrave, and Sir William Glanfdale, I 
Let me have your exprefs opinions, 
Where is beft place to make our battery next. 

Gar. I think, at the north gate : for there (land I 


Glan. And I here, at the bulwark of the bridge. 
Tal. For aught I fee, this city muflbe famifh'd, 7- 
Or with light Ikirmilhes enfeebled. 

[Shot from the town. Salisbury and Sir ffio. Ga'"- ' 

grave fall down. 

Sal. O Lord, have mercy on us, wretched finners ! 
Gar. O Lord, have mercy on me, woful man ! 
<Ttf/. What chance is this, that fuddenly hath 

crofs'd us ? 

Speak, Salifbury ; at leaft, if thou canfl fpeak ; 
How far'ft thou, mirror of all martial men ? 
One of thy eyes, and thy cheek's fide ftruckoff! 
Accurfed tower ! accurfed fatal hand, 
That hath contriv'd this woeful tragedy ! 
In thirteen battles Salifbury o'ercame ; 
Henry the fifth he firft train'd to the wars : 
Whilfl any trump did found, or drum (truck up, 
His fword did ne'er leave ftriking in the field. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. i 99 

Yet Hv'ft thou, Salifbury ? though thy fpeech doth 

3 One eye thou haft to look to heaven for grace : 
The fun with one eye vieweth all the world. 
Heaven, be thou gracious to none alive, 

If Salifbury wants mercy at thy hands ! 
Bear hence his body, I will help to bury it. 
Sir Thomas Gargrave, haft thou any life ? 
Speak unto Talbot ; nay, look up to him. 
Salifbury, chear thy fpirit with this comfort ; 

Thou fhalt not die, whiles 

He beckons with his hand, and fmiles on me ; 
As who fhould lay, When I am dead and gone. 
Remember to avenge me on the French. 
Plantagenet, I will ; and Nero-like, 
Play on the lute, beholding the towns bum : 
Wretched fhall France be only in my name. 

[ Here an alarum, and it thunders and lightens, 
What ftir is this ? What tumult's in the heavens ? 
Whence cometh this alarum, and this noife ? 

Enter a Meffettger. 

Me$. My lord, my lord, the French have gather'd 

head : 

The Dauphin, with one Joan la Pucelle join'd, 
A holy prophetefs, new rifen up, 
Is come with a great power to raife the fiege. 

{Hen SaUJbury,. lifteth himfelf up, and groans. 
TaL Hear, hear, how dying Salifbury doth groan ! 
It irks his heart, he cannot be reveng'd. 
Frenchmen, I'll be a Salifbury to you : 

4 Pucelle or puzzel, dolphin or dogfifh, 


3 One eye tbou baft &c.] A fimtlar thought occurs in King 
Lear : 

** tny lord, you have one eye left, 

To fee fame mifchief on him." STEEVENS. 
* Pucelle or Pujfil,] I know not what pujfel is : perhaps it 
O 4 fhould 


Your hearts I'll {lamp out with my horfe's heels, 
And make a quagmire of your mingled brains.- 
Convey me Salifbury into his tent, 
And then we'll try what daftard Frenchmen dare. 

\_Alarum. Exeunt, bearing out the bodies* 


Here an alarum again ; and Talbot purfueth the Dauphin, 
and drheth h'.ni : then enter Joan la Pucelle, driving 
Engli/hmen before her. Then enter Talbot. 

Tal. Where is my flrength, my valour, and my 

force ? 

Our Englilh troops retire, I cannot flay them ; 
A woman, clad in armour, chafeth them. 

Enter La Pucelle. 

Here, here Ihe comes : I'll have a bout with thee ; 
Devil, or devil's dam, Til conjure thee : 

{hould be pucclle or puzzle. Something with a meaning it fhould 
be, but a very poor meaning will ferve. JOHNSON. 

It fhould be remembered, that in Shakefpeare's time the word 
dauphin, was always written dolphin. STEEVENS. 

tujjel means a dirty wench or a drab, from pitzza, i. e. malus 
faetor, fays Minfhew. In a tranflation from Stephens's Apology 
for Herodotus, in 1607, p. 98, we read, '* Some filthy queans, 
efpecially our puzzled of Paris, ufe this other theft." TOLLET. 

So, Stubbs, in his Anatomic of Abufes, 1595. " ^ nor y e * 
any droye nor fuzzel in the country but will carry a nofegay in 
her hand." 

Again, in Ben Jonfon's Commendatory ferfes, prefix'd to the works 
of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Lady or Pufill that wears mafk or fan." 

As for the conceit, miferable as it is, it may be countenanced 
by that of James I. who looking at the flatue of Sir Tho. Sod- 
ley in the library at Oxford, " Pii Thomae Godly nomine in- 
lignivit, eoque potius nom'ne quam Bodly, deinceps merito nomi- 
nandum efle cenfuit." See Rex Platonicus &c. edit, quint. Oxon. 
1635, p. 187. STEEVENS. 



s Blood will I draw on thee, thou art a witch, 
And ftraightway give thy foul to him thou ferv'ft., 

PuceL Come, come, 'tis only I that muft difgrace 
thee. [They fight. 

Tal. Heavens, can you fuffer hell fo to prevail ? 
My breaft I'll burft with draining of my courage, 
And from my fhoulders crack my arms afunder, 
But I will chaftife this high-minded {trumpet. 

PuceL Talbot, farewel ; thy hour is not yet come : 
I muft go victual Orleans forthwith. 

\_AJhort alarum. Then enters the town with foldiers. 
O'ertake me if thou canft ; I fcorn thy ftrength. 
Go, go, cheer up thy hunger-ftarved men ; 
Help Salifbury to make his teftament : 
This day is ours, as many more ihall be. [Exit Pucelle. 

Tal. My thoughts are whirled like a potter's wheel; 
I know not where I am, nor what I do : 
A witch, by fear, not force, like Hannibal, 
Drives back our troops, and conquers as ftie lifts : 
So bees with fmoke, and doves with noifome ftench, 
Are from their hives, and houfes, driven away. 
They call'd us, for our fiercenefs, Englilh dogs ; 
Now, like their whelps, we crying run away. 

\_Ajhort alarum. 

Hark, countrymen ! either renew the fight, 
Or tear the lions out ot England's coat ; 
Renounce your foil, give iheep in lions' ftead : 
Sheep run not half fo timorous from the wolf, 
Or horfe, or oxen, from the leopard, 

As you fly from your oft-fubdued flaves. 

\_Alarum. Here another Jkirmi/k* 
It will not be : Retire into your trenches : 
You all confented unto Salisbury's death, 
For none would ftrike a ftroke in his revenge. 
Pucelle is enter'd into Orleans, 

^ 5 Blood will I draw on thee, ] The fuperftition of t'lofe 

times taught that he that could draw the witch's blood, was nee 
from her power. JOHNSON. 



In fpight of us, or aught that we could do. 

O, would I were to die with Salifbury ! 

The fhame hereof will make me hide my head. 

[Exit fal&of. 
\_Alarum, retreat, fouriJJ}. 


Enter , on tke walls, Pucette, Dauphin, Rcignkr, Aknfon, 
and foldiers. 

Pucel. Advance our waving colours on the walls ; 
Refcu'd is Orleans from the Englifh wolves : 
Thus Joan la Pucelle hath perform'd her word. 

Dan. Divineft creature, bright Afirsea's daughter, 
How fhall I honour thee for this fuccefs ? 
Thy promifes are 6 like Adonis* gardens, 


* like Adonis' gar Jf"<,~\ It may not be impertinent to take 

notice of a difpute between four critics, of very different orders, 
upon, this very important point of the gardens of Adonis. Miltou 
had faid : 

** Spot more delicious flan theje gardens feigned) 

" Or of reviled Adonis, or " 

which Dr. Bentley pronounces ipurious ; for that the K^TTOI A&w&f , 
the gardens of Adonis, fo frequently mentioned by Greek writers, 
Plato, Plutarch, &c. were nothing but portable earthen pots, with 
fame left ice or fennel growing in them. On his yearly fejtival every 
wo?nan carried one of them for Adonis's worjh'p : btcaufe Penus 
had once laid him in a lettice bed. Tht' next day they were tbro-ivn 
away, &c. To this Dr. Pcarce replies, That this account of the 
gardens of Adonis is right, and yet Milton may be defended for what 
he fays of them : for iviy (fays he) did the Grecians on Adonis* 
ftjlival carry thejefmall gardens about in hotiour of him f It was, 
becaufe they had a tradition, that, w&ca he was alive, he delighted 
in gardens, and had a magnificent one : for pro? f of this, we have 
Pliny's words, xix. 4. ** Antiquitas nihil priiis inirata eft quam 
Hefperidum hortos, ac regum Adonidis & Alcinoi." One would 
now think the queftion well decided : but Mr. Theobald comes, 
and will needs be Dr. Bentley's feconJ. A learned and reverend 
gcntlrman (fays he) having attempted to impeach Dr. Bentley of 
error , for maintaining there never was cxiftent any magnificent 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 203 

That one day bloom'd, and fruitful were the next. 
France, triumph in thy glorious prophetefs ! 
Recover'd is the town of Orleans : 
More blefled hap did ne'er befall our flate. 

Reig. Why ring not out the bells throughout the 

town ? 

Dauphin, command the citizens make bonfires, 
And feaft and banquet in the open flreets, 
To celebrate the joy that God hath given us. 

Akn. All France will be replete with mirth and 


When they lhall hear how we have play'd the men. 
Dau. 'Tis Joan, not we, by whom the day is won; 
For which, I will divide my crown with her : 
And all the priefts and friars in my realm 
Shall, in proceffion, ling her endlefs praife. 

or fpacious gardens of Adonis, an opinion in ivbicb it bos been my 
fortune to fee and the do ft or ^ I thought my f elf concerned in fame part , 
to iveigb thofc authorities alledged by the objeftor, sV. The reader 
fees that Mr. Theobald miitakes the very queftion in difpute be- 
tween thefe two truly learned men, which was not whether Adonis* 
gardens were ever cxiftent^ but whether there was a tradition of 
any celebrated gardens cultivated by Adonis. For this would fufti- 
ciently juftify Milton's mention of them, together with the gar- 
dens of Alcinous, confefled by the poet himielf to be fabulous. 
But hear their own words. 1 'here ivas. nofuch garden (fays Dr. 
Bentley) ever exijlent^ or even fcign'd. He adds the latter part, 
as knowing that that would juftify the poet ; and it is on that af 
fertion only that his advtrfary Dr. Pearce joins iffue with him. 
Why (fays he) did they carry tbefmall earthen gardens ? It was be- 
caufe they had a tradition, that ivben alive he delighted in gardens. 
Mr. Theobald, therefore, miflaking the queftion, it is no won- 
der that all he fays, in his long note at the end of the fourth vo- 
lume, is nothing to the purpofe ; it being to fhew that Dr. 
Pearce's quotations from Pliny and others, do not prove the real 
exiftence of the gardens. After thefe, comes the Oxford editor ; 
and he pronounces in favour of Dr. Bentley againft Dr. Pearce, 
in thefe words, The gardens of Adonis were never rcprefented under 
a;y local dtfcription. But whether this was faid at hazard, or to 
contradift Dr. Pearce, or to reftify Mr. Theobald's miftake of 
the queftion, it is fo obfcurely exprefled, that ooe can hardly de- 
termine. WARBURTOM. 

A ftate* 


A ftatelier pyramis to her I'll rear, 

r Than Rhodope's, or Memphis', ever was : 

In memory of her,, when flie is dead, 

Her afhes, in an urn more precious 

Than the rich-jewel'd coffer of Darius % 

Tranfported fhall be at high feflivals 

Before the kings and queens of France. 

No longer on faint Dennis will we cry, 

But Joan la Pucelle lhall be France's faint. 

Come in ; and let us banquet royally, 

After this golden day of victory. \_FlouriJh. Exeunt. 

7 Than Rhodope's, ] Rhodope was a famous {trumpet, who 
acquired. great riches by her trade. The leaft but moft finished 
of the Egyptian pyramids (fays Pliny in the 36th book of his 
Natural Hiftory) was built by her. She is faid afterwards to have 
married Pfammetichus, king of Egypt. Dr. Johnfon thinks that 
the Dauphin means to call Joan of Arc a ftrumpet, all the while 
he is making this loud praife of her. 

Rhodope is mentioned in the play of The Coftly Whore^ 1633 : 

a bafe Rbodope, 

" Whofe body is as common as the fea 

'* In the receipt of every luftful fpring." 
I would read : 

Than Rhodope's of Memphis, ever was. STEEVENS. 

* coffer of Darius'] When Alexander the Great took the 

city of Gaza, the metropolis of Syria, amidft the other fpoils 
and wealth of Darius treafured up there, he found an exceeding 
rich and beautiful little cheft or cafket, and afked thofe about 
him what they thought fitteft to be laid up in it. When they had 
feverally delivered their opinions, he told them, he efteemed no- 
thing fo worthy to be preferred in it as Homer's Iliad. Vide 
flutarcbum in Vita Altxandri Magni* THEOBALD* 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 20$ 

Before Orleans. 
Enter a French Serjeant^ with two Centinels. 

Serj. Sirs, take your places, and be vigilant ; 
If any noife, or foldier, you perceive, 
Near to the walls, by fome apparent fign, 
Let us have knowledge at the court of guard. 

Cent. Serjeant, you lhall. [Exit Serjeant.^ Thus arc 

poor iervitors 

(When others ileep upon their quiet beds) 
Conftrain'd to watch in darknefs, rain, and cold. 

Enter Talbot, Bedford, and Burgundy, with fcaling 
ladders. Their drums beating a dead march. 

Tal. Lord regent, and redoubted Burgundy,. 
By whofe approach, the regions of Artois, 

Walloon, and Picardy, are friends to us, 

This happy night the Frenchmen are fecure, 
Having all day carous'd and banqueted : 
Embrace we then this opportunity ; 
As fitting beft to quittance their deceit, 
Contriv'd by art, and baleful forcery. 

Bed. Coward of France ! how much he wrongs hi$ 


Defpairing of his own arm's fortitude, 
To join with witches, and the help of hell. 

Bur. Traitors have never other company. 
But what's that Pucelle, whom they term fo pure ? 

Tal. A maid, they fay. 

Bed. A maid ! and be fo martial ! 

Bur. Pray God, ilie prove not mafculine ere long ; 
If underneath the ftandard of the French, 
She carry armour, as fhe hath begun. 



?al. Well, let them pradtife and converfe with 

fpirits : 

God is our fortrefs ; in whofe conquering name, 
Let us refolve to fcale their flinty bulwarks. 

Bed. Afcend, brave Talbot ; we will follow thee, 
Tal. Not all together : better far, I guefs, 
That we do make our entrance feveral ways ; 
That, if it chance the one of us do fail, 
The other yet may rife againft their force. 
Bed. Agreed ; I'll to yon corner. 
Bur. And I to this. 
5#/. And here will Talbot mount, or make hit 


Now, Salifbury ! for thee, and for the right 
Of Englifli Henry, lhall this night appear 
How much in duty Pam bound to both. 

[_The Englijh, f eating the walls, cry, St. George ! 

A Talbot ! 

Cent. [Within."] Arm, arm! the enemy doth make 
aflault ! 

Yhe French hop over the walls in their farts. Enter, 
feveral ways, Baftard, Alen$on^ Reignier, half ready, 
and half unready. 

Alen. How now, my lords ? what, all 9 unready fo ? 


9 -^unready fo ?] Unready was the current word in thofe times 
for umlrefs^d. JOHNSON. 
So, in Hey wood's Rape of Lucre ce, 1638 : 

* Enter Sixtus, and Lucre ce unready, > H 
Again, n Tbftwo Maids of More-clncke, 1609: 

* Enter James unready In his night-cap, garterlefs," &V. 
Again, n Decker's Match nie in London^ 1631 i 

* Enter Prince John all unready , and Pacheco his page." 
Again, in A Match at Midnight^ 1633, is this ftage direction. 

" He makes himfelf unready." 

'* Why what do you mean ? you will not be fo uncivil a to 
unlrace you here ?" 
Again, in Monjuur D'Olive, 1606; 


K I N G H E N R Y Vt. 207 

Baft. Unready ? ay, and glad we 'fcap'd fo well. 

Ri'ig. 'Twas time, I trow, to wake, and leave our 

Hearing alarums at our chamber doors. 

Alen. Of all exploits, fince firft I follow'd arms, 
Ne'er heard I of a warlike enterprize 
More venturous, or defperate, than this. 

Baft. I think, this Talbot is a fiend of hell. 

Rei<r. If not of hell, the heavens, fure, favour him. 

Alen. Here cometh Charles ; I marvel, how he fped. 

Enter Charles, an d Pucelle. 

Biift. Tut ! holy Joan was his dcfenfive guard. 

Char. Is this thy cunning, thou deceitful dame? 
Didft thou at firfl, to flatter us withal, 
Make us partakers of a little gain, 
That now our lofs might be ten times fo much ? 

Pucel. Wherefore is Charles impatient with his 

friend ? 

At all times will you have my power alike ? 
Sleeping, or waking, mufl I ftill prevail, 
Or will you blame and lay the fault on me ? 
Improvident foldiers ! had your watch been good, 
This fudden mifchief never could have falTn. 

Char. Duke of Alencon, this was your default ; 
That, being captain of the watch to-night, 
Did look no better to that weighty charge. 

Alen. Had all your quarters been as fafely kept, 
As that whereof I had the government, 
We had not been thus fhamefully furpriz'd. 

Baft. Mine was fecure. 

Reig. And fo was mine, my lord. 

" You are not going to bed, I fee you are not yet unready 
Again, in Hey wood's Golden Age t 1611. 

" Here Jupiter puts out the lights, and makes himfelf *nr 
ready" STEEVENS. 



Char. And, for myfelf, moft part of all this night, 
Within her quarter, and mine own precinct, 
I was employ'd in paffing to and fro, 
About relieving of the centinels : 
Then how, or which way, fhould they firft break in ? 

Pucel. Queftion, my lords, no further of the cafe, 
How, or which way ; 'tis fure, they found fome part 
But weakly guarded, where the breach was made. 
And now there refts no other Ihift but this, 
To gather our foldiers, fcatter'd and difpers'd, 
And lay new platforms to endamage them. 

Alarum. Enter a Soldier crying, a Talbot ! a Talbot \ 
they fy, leaving their cbatbs behind. 

Sol. I'll be fo bold to take what they have left. 
The cry of Talbot ferves me for a fword ; 
For I have loaden me with many fpoils, 
Uiing no other weapon but his name. [Exit. 

* " Enter a foldier crying " a Talbot ! a Tallot /] And after- 
wards : 

The cry of T'aVjot ferves me for a fword. 

Here a popular tradition, exclufive of any chronicle-evidence, 
was in Shakefpeare's mind. Edward Kerke, the old commenta- 
tor on Spenfer's Paftorah, firft publiflied in 1579, obferves in his 
notes on June, that lord Talbot's ** noblenefle bred fuch a ter- 
rour in the hearts of the French, that oftimes greate armies were 
defaited and put to flight, at the only bearing of bis name : info- 
much that the French women, to affray their children, would 
tell them, that the TALBOT cometb" See alfo the end of Sc. iii, 

The fame is faid in Drayton's Mfiries of Queen Margaret, of 
.Lord Warwick : 

" And flill fo fearful was great Warwick's name 

" That being once cry'd on, put them oft to flight, 

*' On the king's army till at length they light." 





t/jg fame. 
Enter Tatiot, Bedfinl, Burgundy, 6fo 

Bed. The day begins to break, and night is fled, 
\Vhofe pitchy mantle over-veil'd the earth. 
Here found retreat, and ceafe our hot purfuit. 


Tal. Bring forth the body of old Salifbury ; 
And here advance it in the market-place, 
The middle centre of this curfed town, 
Now have I pay'd my vow unto his foul ; 
For every drop of blood was drawn from him, 
There hath at leaft five Frenchmen dy'd to-night. 
And, that hereafter ages may behold 
What ruin happened in revenge of him, 
Within their chiefeft temple I'll eredt 
A tomb, wherein his corpfe fhall be interr'd : 
Upon the which, that every one may read, 
Shall be engrav'd the fack of Orleans ; 
The treacherous manner of his mournful death, 
And what a terror he had been to France. 
But, lords, in all our bloody mafTacre, 
I mufe, we met not with the Dauphin's grace ; 
His new-come champion, virtuous Joan of Arc j 
Nor any of his falfe confederates. 

Bed. 'Tis thought, lord Talbot, when the fight 


Rous'd on the fudden from their drowfy beds, 
They did, amongft the troops of armed men, 
Leap o'er the walls for refuge in the field. 

Bitr. Myfelf (as far as I could well difcern, 
For fmoke, and dufky vapours of the nieht) 

VOL. VI. P Am 


Am Cure, I fcar'd the Dauphin, and his trull *; 

When arm in arm they both came fwiftly running, 

Like to a pair of loving turtle doves, 

That could not live afunder day or night. 

After that things are fet in order here, 

We'll follow them with all the power we have. 

Enter a Meffenger. 

Me$. All hail, my lords ! which of this princely 


Call ye the warlike Ta^ot, for his adts 
So much applauded through the realm of France ? 

2W. Here is the Talbot ; Who would fpeak witl 
him ? 

Meff. The virtuous lady, countefs of Auvergne, 
With modefty admiring thy renown, 
By me entreats, great lord, thou wouldft vouchfai 
To vifit her poor caftle where fhe lies ; 
That Ihe may boaft, fhe hath beheld the man 
Whofe glory fills the world with loud report. 

Bur. Is it even fo ? Nay, then, I fee, our wars 
Will turn into a peaceful comic fport, 
When ladies crave to be encounter'd with. 
You may not, my lord, defpife her gentle fuit. 

TaL Ne'ertruflme then ; for, when a world of mei 

* bis trull ;] I believe trull did not anciently bear fo harfli 
interpretation as at prefent. In the old black letter interlude 
the Difobedient Child (no date) by Tho. Ingeland, is the followi 
ftanza of a fong fung by a young man in the pretence of the 
to whom he was inftantly to be married. 

" This mynion here, this myncing trull, 

** Doth pleafe me more a thoufande folde, 
" Than all the earthe that is fo full 

" Of precious ftoncs, lilver and golde," &c, 
'* How lyke ye. this fonge my owne fwete Rofe ? 
c ' Is it well made for our purpofe ? 

"Toung lineman. 

'* I never hard in all my lyfe a better, 
*' More pleafaunte, more meete foi the matter." STEEVEM?.! 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 2II 

Could not prevail with all their oratory, 
Yet hath a woman's kindnefs over-rul'd : 
And therefore tell her, I return great thanks ; 
And in fubmiffion will attend on her. 
Will not your honours bear me company ? 

Bed. No, truly ; that is more than manners will : 
And I have heard it faid, Unbidden guefls 
Are often welcomefl when they are gone. 

Tal. Well then, alone, (ince there's no remedy,' 
I mean to prove this lady's courtefy. 
Come hither, captain. \JVhifpers.~\ You perceive my' 

Capt. I do, my lord ; and mean accordingly. 



tie countefs of Auvergne's caftle. 
Enter the Countefs, and her Porter'. 

Count. Porter, remember what I gave in charge ; 
And, when you have done fo, bring the keys to me. 

Port. Madam, I will. [Exit. 

Count. The plot is laid : if all things fall out right, 
I {hall as famous be by this exploit, 
As Scythian Tomyris by Cyrus' death. 
Great is the rumour of this dreadful knight. 
And his atchievements of no lefs account: 
Fain would mine eyes be witnefs with mine ears, 
To give their cenfure of thefe rare reports. 

Enter Mejfinger, and Talbot. 

Mejf. Madam, according as your ladyfhip defir'd, 
By meflage crav'd, fo is lord Talbot come. 

Count. And he is welcome. What ! is this the man ? 

Meff. Madam, it is. 

Count, [as mujing.'] Is this the fcourge of France ? 

P 2 IS 

212 FIRST P A R T O F 

Is this the Talbor, fo much fear'd abroad, 

That with his name the mothers flill their babes ? 

I fee, report is fabulous and falfe : 

I thought, I ihould have feen fome Hercules, 

A fecond Hedtor, for his grim afpedt, 

And large proportion of his throng- knit limbs. 

Alas I this is. a child,, a filly dwarf : 

It cannot be, this weak and wrizled fhrimp 

Should ftrike fueh terror to. his enemies. 

Tal. Madam, I have been bold to trouble you : 
But, fince your ladyfhip is nut at leifure, 
I'll fort fome other time to vifit you. 

Count. What means he now?- Go afk him, whither 
he goes. 

MeJf. Stay, my lord TalBot ;. for my lady crave:- 
To know the caufe of your abrupt departure. 

TtaL Marry, for that Ihe's in a wrong belkf r 
I go to certify her, Talbot's here. 

Re-enter Porter with- keys. 

Count. If thou be he, then art thou prifoncr, 

ftf/. Prifoner ! to whom ? 

Count. To me, blood-thrifty lord ; 
And for that caufe I train r d thee to my houfe. 
Long time thy lhadow hath been thrall to me, 
For in my gallery thy pidnre hangs : 
But now the fubflance fhall endure the like; 
And I will chain thefe legs and arms- of thine,. 
That haft by tyranny, thefe many years, 
Wafted our country, ilain our citizens, 
And fent our fons and huibands captivate *. 

fal. Ha, ha, ha! 

Count. Laugheft thou, wretch? thy mirth fliall 
turn to moan. 

3 captivate.] So, in Soliman and PerfeJa : 
44 If not deftroy'd and bound, and captivate, 
" If captivate^ then forc'd from holy faith," STEEVENS 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 213 

tfaL I laugh to fee your ladyfhip fo fond *, 
To think that you have ought but Talbot's ihauow, 
\Vhereon to pradtife your feverity. 

Count. Why, art not thou the man ? 

tfal. I am, indeed. 

Count. Then hav-e I fubftance too. 

Ta2. No, no, I am but fhadow of myfclf : 
You are deceiv'd, my fubftance is not here; 
For what you fee, is but the fmalleft part 
And lead proportion of humanity : 
I tell you, madam, were the whole frame here, 
It is of fuch a fpacious lofty pitch, 
Your roof were not fufficient to contain it. 

Count. s This is a riddling merchant for the nonce; 
He will be here, and yet he is not here : 
How can thefc contrarieties agree ? 

TaL That will I (hew you prefently.. 

Winds his fora ; drums jlr ike up : a peal of ordnance, 
Enter Soldiers* ' 

How fay you, madam ? are you now perfuaded, 
That Talbot is but fhadow of himfelf ? 
Thefe are his fubftance, linews, arms, and ftrength, 
With whiclHie yoketh your rebellious necks ; 
Razeth your cities, and fubverts your towns, 
And in a moment makes them defolate. 

Count. Victorious Talbot ! pardon my abufe : 
I find, thou art no lefs than fame hath bruited, 
And more than may be gather'd by thy fhape. 
Let my prcfumption not provoke thy wrath ; 
For I am forry, that with reverence 

4 - f a f ond j ;. e . f fcoiift. So, in K. Hen. IV. Part II : 

** Fondly brought here, and foolilhly fent hence." 


5 This ii a riddling merchant &c.] So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" What faucy merchant *.vas this." 
See a note on this pa'fiaee, a& II. fc. iv STEEVEKS. 

P 3 I did 


I did not entertain thee as them art. 

Tal. Be not difmay'd, fair lady ; nor mifconftrue 
The mind of Talbor, as you did miftake 
The outward competition of his body. 
What you have done, hath not offended me : 
K or other fatisfa&ion do I crave, 
But only (with your patience) that we may 
Tafle of your wine, and fee what cates you have ; 
For foldiers' ilomachs always ferve them well. 

Count. With all my heart ; and think me honoured 
To feafl fo great a warrior in my houfe. [Exeunt. 


London. The Temple garden. 

Enter the earls of Somerfet, Siffolk, and Warwick', 
Richard Plantagenet, Vernon, and another Lawyer. 

Plant. Great lords, and gentlemen, what means this 

filence ? 
Dare no man anfwer in a cafe of truth ? 

Suf. Within the Temple hall we were too loud ; 
The garden here is more convenient. 

Plant. Then fay at once, If I maintained the truth ; 
6 Or, elfe, was wrangling Somerfet in the error ? 
' Suf. 'Faith, I have been a truant in the law ; 
I never yet could frame my will to it ; 
And, therefore, frame the law unto my will. 

Sow. Judge you, my lord of Warwick, then be- 
tween us. 

War. Between two hawks, which flies the higher 

Between two dogs, which hath the deeper mouth, 

6 All the editions read : 

Or, e Ife, was wrangling Some rfet ? th* error ?~\ There is apparently 
a want of oppofition between the two queftions. I once read, 
Or elfe was 'wrangling Somerfet i'th' right ? JOHNSON. 
Sir T. Hanmer would read : 

And ivas not .. STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 2ls 

Between two blades, which bears the better temper, 
Between two horfes, which doth bear him beft, 
Between two girls, which hath the merriefl eye, 
I have, perhaps, fome mallow fpirit of judgment : 
But in thefe nice fliarp quillets of the law, 
Good faith, I am no wifer than a daw. 

Plant. Tut, tut, here is a mannerly forbearance : 
The truth appears fo naked on my fide, 
That any purblind eye may find it out. 

Som. And on my fide it is fo well apparell'd, 
So clear, fo fhining, and fo evident, 
That it will glimmer through a blind man's eye. 

Plant. Since you are tongue-ty'd, and fo loth to 


In dumb fignificants proclaim your thoughts : 
Let him, that is a true-born gentleman, 
And {lands upon the honour of his birth, 
If he fuppofe that I have pleaded truth, 
7 From off this briar pluck a white rofe with me. 


7 From off this Iriar pluck a white rofe with me.] This is given 
as the original of the two badges of the houfes or York and Lan- 
cafter, whether truly or not, is no great matter. But the pro- 
verbial expreflion oi faying a thing under the rofe, I am perfuaded, 
came from thence. When the nation had ranged itfelf into two 
great factions, under the white and red rofe, and were perpetu- 
ally plotting and counterplotting againlt one another, then, w hen 
a matter of facYion was communicated by either party to his 
friend in the fame quarrel, it was natural for him to add, that 
Inefaid it under the fofe ; meaning that, as it concerned the fac- 
tion, it was religioufly to be kept fecret. WARBURTON. 

This is ingenious ! What pity, that it is not learned too? 
The rofe (as the fables fay) was the fymbol of filence, and con- 
fecrated by Cupid to Harpocrates, to conceal the lewd pranks of 
his mother. So common a book as Lloyd's Difiimiary might 
have inftru&ed Dr. W T arburton in this. " Huic Harpocrati Cu- 
pidoVeneris filius parentis fuce rofam dedit in munus, utfcilicet fi 
quid licentius dictum, vel aftum fit in convivio, fciant tacenda 
efle omnia. Atque idcirco veteres ad finem convivii fub rflfa y 
Anglice under the rofe, tranfacla efle omnia ante digreffum con- 
teltabantur; cujus formae vis eadem effet, atque ifla, M^ 
P p*'- 


Som. Let him that is no coward, nor no flatterer^ 
But dare maintain the party of the truth, 
Pluck a red rofe from off this thorn with me. 

War. * I love no colours ; and, without ail colour 
Of bafe insinuating flattery, 

I pluck this white rofe, with Plantagenet. *+~^> 

Suf. I pluck this red rofe, with young Somerfet; 
And fay withal, I think h held the right. 

Per. Stay, lords, and gentlemen ; and pluck no 


'Till you conclude that he, upon whofe fide 
The feweft rofes are crop'd from the tree, 
Shall yield the other in the right opinion. 

Som. Good mailer Vernon, it is 9 well obje&ed ; 
If I have feweft, I fubfcribe in lilence. 

riant. And I. 

Ver. Then, for the truth and plainnefs of the cafe, 
I pluck this pale and maiden blofibm here, 
Giving my verdict on the white rofe fide. 

Som. Prick not your finger as you pluck it off; 
Left, bleeding, you do paint the white rofe re j, 
And fall on my fide fo agalnftyotit will. 

Ver. If I, my lord, for my opinion bleed, 
Opinion mail be furgeon to my hurt, 
And keep me on the fide where ftill I am. 
Som. Well, well, come on : Who elfe ? 

fMKiiota, ervnvrrm. Probant hanc rem verfus cjui repcriuntur m 
marmore : 

" Ell rofa flos Veneris, cujus quo furta laterent 

** Harpocrati matris dona dicavit amor. 
*' Inde rofam menlis hofpes iufpendit aitiicis, 

" Convivae ut fub ea di6ta tacenda fciant." UPTON. 

8 I love no colours; ] Co!ws is here uied ambiguoufly for 
tints and deceits. JOHNSON. 

9 vttU ofytjbJi] 1'roperly thrown in our way, juftly pro- 
pofed. JOHNSON. 

So, in Chapman's Verfion of the aift Book of Homer's OJyJJey : 
** Excites Penelope t' o6jefl the prize 
*' (The bow and bright lleeles) to the woer's ftrength." 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. ftly 

Lawyer. Unlefs my ftudy and my books be falfe, 
The argument you held, was wrong in you ; 

[To Somerfet. 
In fign whereof, I \ luck a white rofe too. 

Plant. Now, Somerfet, where is your argument? 

Som. Here, in my fcabbard ; meditating that, 
Shall dye your white rofe to a bloody red. 

Plan. Mean time, your cheeks do counterfeit our 

roles ; 

For pale they look with fear, as witnefling 
The truth on our fide. 

Som. No, Plantagenet, 

'Tis not for fear ; but anger that thy cheeks 
Blufh for pure lhame, to counterfeit our rofes ; 
And yet thy tongue will not confefs thy error. 

Plant. Hath not thy rofe a canker, Somerfet ? 

Som. Hath not thv rofe a thorn, Plantagenet ? 

Plant. Ay, lharp and piercing, to maintain his 

truth ; 
Whiles thy confuming canker eats his falfhood. 

Som* Well, I'll find friends to wear my bleeding 


That mall maintain what I have faid is true, 
W^here falfe Plantagenet dare not be feen. 

Plant. Now, by this maiden bloflbm in my hand, 
1 1 fcorn thee and thy falhion, peevilh boy. 

Sttf. Turn not thy fcorns this way, Plantagenet. 

Plant. Proud Poole, I will ; and fcorn both him 
and thee. 

1 I fcorn thee and thy fajhion, ] So, the old copies r '^ '"d 
rightly. Mr. Theobald altered it tofaflitm, not confidering that 
byfa/bion is meant the badge of the red rofe, which Somerfet 
faid he and his friends fliould be diftinguuVd by. But Mr. 
Theobald alks, If faftion was not the true reading, why Jlwuld 
Suffolk immediately reply, 

7 urn not thy fiorns this way, Plantagenet f 

Why ? becaufe Plantagenet had called Somerfet, with whom 
Suffolk fided, peevifh boy. WAR BUR TON. 

Mr. Pope had altered fajblon to f often, JOHNSON. 


Sttf. I'll turn my part thereof into thy throat. 

Sow. Away, away, good William De-la-Poole ! 
We grace the yeoman, by converting with him. 

War. Now, by God's will, thou wrong'ft him, 

Somerfet ; 

His grandfather was Lionel duke of Clarence, 
Third Ion to the third Edward king of England ; 
* Spring creftlefs yeomen from fo deep a root ? 

Plant. J He bears him on the place's privilege, 
Or durft not, for his craven heart, fay thus. 

Som. By him that made me, I'll maintain my 


On any plot of ground in Chriflendom : 
Was not thy father, Richard, earl of Cambridge, 
For treafon executed in our late king's days ? 
And, by his treafon, ftand'ft not thou attainted, 

4 Corrupted, and exempt from ancient gentry ? 
His trefpafs yet lives guilty in thy blood ; 
And, 'till thou be reftor'd, thou art a yeoman. 

Plant. My father was attached, not attainted ; 
Condemn'd to die for treafon, but no traitor ; 
And that I'll prove on better men than Somerfet, 
Were growing time once ripen'd to my will. 
For your partaker Poole, and you yourfelf, 
Fll note you in my book of memory, 

5 To fcourge you 6 for this apprehenfion : 

* Spring creftlefs yeomen ] i.e. thofe who have no right to 


3 He bear s him on the plac e's privilege, ] The Temple, being a 
religious houfe, was an afylum, a place of exemption, from vio* 
lence, revenge, and bloodfhed. JOHNSON. 

* Corrupted^ and exempt ] Exempt , for excluded. 


5 To fcourge you for this apprebenfion : ] Though this word 

poflefles all the copies, I am perfuaded it did not come from the 
author. I have ventur'd to read, rcprehenfion : and Plantagenet 
means, that Somerfet had reprehended or reproach'd him with his 
father, the earl of Cambridge's treafon. THEOBALD. 

6 -for this apprehcnjion;'} Apprehenfion, i.e. opinion. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 2X9 

Look to it well ; -and fay you are well warn'd. 

Somi Ay, thou ihalt find us ready for thee ftill : 
And know us, by thefe colours, for thy foes ; 
For thefe my friends, in fpight of thee, lhall wear. 

Plant. And, by my foul, this pale and angry rofe, 
As cognizance of my blood-drinking hate 7 , 
Will I for ever, and my fadtion, wear ; 
Until it wither with me to my grave, 
Or flourim to the height of my degree. 

Suf. Go forward, and be choak'd with thy am- 
bition ! 
And fo farewell, until I meet thee next. [Exit. 

Som. Have with thee, Poole. Farewell, ambiti- 
ous Richard. [Exit. 

Plant. How I am brav'd, and muft perforce en- 
dure it ! 

War. This blot, that they object againfl your houfe, 
Shall be wip'd out in the next parliament, 
Call'd for the truce of Winchelter and Glofter : 
And, if thou be not then created York, 
I will not live to be accounted Warwick. 
Mean time, in fignal of my love to thee, 
Againft proud Somerfet, and William Poole, 
Will I upon thy party wear this rofe : 
And here I prophefy, This brawl to-day 
Grown to this faction, in the Temple-garden, 

7 this pale and angry rofe, 

As cognizance of my blood-drinking bate,] 
So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" Either my eye-fight fails, or thou look'ft//^. , 
" And, truft me, love, in mine eye to do you : 
" Dry forrow drinks our blood." S TEE YENS. 
A ladge is called a cognifance a cognofcendo, becaufe by it fuch 
perfons as do wear it upon their lleeves, their fhoulders, or in 
their hats, are manifeftly known whofe fervants they are. In he- 
raldry the cognifance is feated upon the moil eminent part or the 
helmet ; and by a defigned blunder in Ben Jonfon's works, 175(5, 
.Vol. I. p. 160, and Vol. VII. p. 356, it is called a cullifen, 
which Mr. Whalley's Di&ionaries, or the heralds he confulted, 
could not explain. TOLLET. 



Shall fend, between the red rofe and the white, 
A thoufand fouls to death and deadly night. 

Plant. Good mafter Vernon, I am bound to you, 
That you on my behalf would pluck a flower. 

Ver. In your behalf flill ill I wear the fame. 

Lazu. And fo will I. 

Plant. Thanks, gentle fir. 
Come, let us four to dinner : I dare fay, 
This quarrel will drink blood another day. [Exeunt* 


A room in the fozvcr. 
8 Enter Afortimer, brought in a ckair^ and Jailors. 

Mor. Kind keepers of my weak decaying age, 
9 Let dying Mortimer here reft himfelf. 
Even like a man new haled from the rack, 
So fare my limbs with long imprifonment : 
And thefe grey locks, the ' puduivants of death, 

* Enter Mortimer, ] Mr. Edwards, in his MS. notes, ob- 
ferves, that Shakefpeare has varied from the truth of hiftory, to 
introduce this fcene between Mortimer and Richard Plantag'enet. 
Edmund Mortimer ferved under Henry V. in 1422, and died 
unconfined in Ireland in 1424. Holinfned lays, that Mortimer 
was one of the mourners at the funeral of Henry V. 

His uncle, fir John Mortimer, was indeed prifoner in the tower, 
and was executed not long before the earl ot March's death, be- 
ing charged with an attempt to make his efcape in order to ftir up 
an infurredtion in Wales. STEEVENS. 

9 Let dying Mortimer here rcfl. himfclf,} I know not whether 
Milton did not take from this hint the lines with which he opens 
his tragedy. JOHNSO:;. 

Rather from the beginning of the laft fcene of the third aft 
of the PhaenlJJte of Euripides : 
7 ire/las. ' 


1 - purfulvants of death,] Furfuivants. The heralds that, 
forerunning death, proclaim jjis approach. JOHNSON, 



Neftor-likc aged, in an age of care, 

Argue the end of * Edmund Mortimer. 

Thefe eyes like lamps whofc wafting oil is fpent - 

Wax dim, J as drawing to their exigent : 

Weak (boulders, over-borne with burth'ning grief; 

4 And pithlefs arms, like to a wither'd vine 
That droops his faplefs branches to the ground. 
Yet are thefe feet whofe ftrengthlefs Hay is numb, 
Unable to fupport this lump of clay, 
Swift-winged with defire to get a grave, 

As witting I no other comfort have. 

But tell me, keeper, will my nephew come ? 

Keep. Richard Pl-antagenet,. my lord, will come : 
We fen't unto the Temple, to his chamber ; 
And anfwer was retnrn'd, thct he will come. 

Mor. Enough ; my foul then fliatt be fatisfy'd. 
Poor gentleman I his wrong doth equal mine. 
Since Henry Monmouth firft began to reign, 
(Before whofe glory I was great in arms) 
This loathforne feqireftration have I had ; 
And even fince then hath Richard been obfcur'd y 
Deprived of honour and inheritance : 
But now, the arbitrator of defpairs, 

5 Juft death, kind umpire of men's miferies, 
With fwcet enlargement doth difmiis me hence; 
I would, his troubles likewife were expir'd, 
That fo he might recover what was loft. 

a EiknunJ Mvrttnifr,'} This Edmund Mortimer, Tvhen king 
Richard II. fet out upon his fatal Irifli expedition, was declared by 
that prince heir apparent to the crown; for which reafon king 
Henry IV. and V. took care to keep him in prifon during their 
whole reigns. THEOBALD. 

3 as drawing to the br exigtnt : ] Exigmt, end. JOHNSON. 
So, in Doflor DoJypoll, a comedy, 1 600 : 

" Hath driven her to fome defperate exigent." STEEVENS, 

* Andpitblefs arms, ] Pith was ufed for marrow, and, fi- 
guratively, fajlrength. JOHXSO.Y. 

5 Jyft death, kind umpire of mcns 1 miferies,] That is, he that 
terminates or concludes mifcry. The expreffion is harfli and 
forced. JOHNSON, 


222 F I R S T P A R T O F 

Enter Richard Plantagenet. 

Keep. My lord, your loving nephew now is come. 

Mor. Richard Plantagenet, my friend? Is he come? 

Plant. Ay, noble uncle, thus ignobly us'd, 
Your nephew, late-dcfpifed Richard, comes. 

Mor. Direct mine arms, I may embrace his neck, 
And in his bofoni fpend my latter gafp : 
Oh, tell me, when my lips do touch his cheeks, 
That I may kindly give one fainting kifs. 
And now declare, fweet ftem from York's great flock, 
Why didft thou fay of late thou wert defpis'd ? 

Plant. Firfl, lean thine aged back againft mine arm 
And, in that eafe, 6 I'll tell thee my difeafe. 
This day, in argument upon a cafe, 
Some words there grew 'twixt Somerfet and me : 
Among which terms, he us'd his lavilh tongue, 
And did upbraid me with my father's death ; 
Which obloquy fct bars before my tongue, 
Elfe with the like I had requited him : 
Therefore, good uncle, for my father's fake, 
In honour of a true Plantagenet, 
And for alliance' fake, declare the caufe 
My father, earl of Cambridge, loft his head. 

Mor. That caufe, fair nephew, that imprifon'd me, 
And hath detain'd me, all my flow'ring youth, 
Within a loathfome dungeon, there to pine, 

6 /'// tell thee my difeafe.'] Difeafe feems to be here uneajinefe 
or dlfcontent. JOHNSON. 

It is fo ufed by other ancient writers, and by Shakefpeare elfe- 
where. Thus likewife in Spenfer's Faery Queen, Book III. c. 5 : 

" But labour'd long in that deep ford with vain difeafc" 
That to difeafe is to difturb, may be known from the following paf- 
fages in Chapman's verfion of the Iliad and OdyJJcy : 

" But brother, hye thee to the (hips, andldomen d'Jcafc.^ i. e. 
wake him. Book VI. edit. 1^98. Again, OdyfT. B. VI : 

" with which he declin'd 

" The eyes of any \vaker when he pleas'd, 
*' And any fleepcr, when he wiih'd, difeafed" 
Again, in the ancient metrical hiftory of the Battle of Floddon : 
" He thought the Scots might him difeafe 
" With conflitutcd captains meet." STEEVEXS. 


Was curfed inftrument of his deceafe. 

Plant. Difcover more at large what caufe that was ; 
For I am ignorant, and cannot guefs. 

Mor. I will ; if that my fading breath permit, 
And death approach not ere my tale be done. 
Henry the fourth, grandfather to this king, 
Depos'd his nephew * Richard ; Edward's fon, 
The firft-begotten, and the lawful heir 
Of Edward king, the third of that defcent : 
During whofe reign, the Percies of the north, 
Finding his ufurpation mod unjuft, 
Endeavour'd my advancement to the throne : 
The reafon mov'd thefe warlike lords to this, 
Was for that (young kind Richard thus remov'd, 
Leaving no heir begotten of his body) 
I was the next by birth and parentage ; 
For by my mother I derived am 
From Lionel duke of Clarence, the third fon 
To king Edward the Third, whereas he, 
From John of Gaunt doth bring his pedigree, 
Being but the fourth of that heroic line. 
But mark ; as, 7 in this haughty great attempt, 
They laboured to plant the rightful heir, 
I loft my liberty, and they their lives. 
Long after this, when Henry the fifth, 
Succeeding his father Bolingbroke, did reign, 
Thy father, earl of Cambridge, then ueriv'd 
From famous Edmund Langley, duke of York, 
Marrying my filler, that thy mother was, 
Again, in pity of my hard diflrefs, 
Levied an army ; weening to redeem, 
And have inftall'd me in the diadem : 
But, as the reft, fo fell that noble earl, 

* bis nephew Richard ; ] Thus the old copy. Modern editors 
read his coujin but without neceffity. Nephew has fometimes 
the power of the Latin nepos, and is uled with great laxity among 
our ancient Engliih writers. Thus in Othello, lago tells Braban- 
tio he fhall " have 'his nephews (i.e. the children of his own 
daughter) neigh to him." STEEVENS. 

7 in tbii haughty great attempt} Haughty is high. JOHNSON. 



And was beheaded. Thus the Mortimers, 
In whom the title refled, were fupprefs'd. 

Plan. Of which, my lord, your honour is the laft, 

Mor* True j and thou feeft, that I no iflue have ; 
And that my fainting words do warrant death : 
8 Thou art my heir ; the reft, I wifh thee gather : 
But yet be wary in thy ftudious care. 

Plan. Thy grave admonilhments prevail with me ; 
But yet, mcthinks, my father's execution 
Was nothing lefs than bloody tyranny. 

Mor. With filence, nephew, be thou politick ; 
Strong-fixed is the houfe of Lancafter, 
And, like a mountain, not to be remov'd. 
But now thy uncle is removing hence ; 
As princes do their courts, when they are cloy'd 
With long continuance in a fettled place. 

Plan. O, uncle, 'would fome part of my young years 
Might but redeem the paffage of your age ! 

Mor. Thou dofl then wrong me ; as the flaught'rer 


Which giveth many wounds, when one will kill. 
Mourn not, except thou forrow for my good ; 
Only, give order for my funeral ; 
And fo farewel ; 9 and fair be all thy hopes ! 
And profperous be thy life, in peace, and war ! [Dies 

Plan. And peace, no war, befall thy parting foul ! 
In prifon haft thou fpent a pilgrimage, 

8 7hou art my beir ; the reft I ivijh thee gather .] The fenfe is, 
I acknowledge thee to be my heir ; the conlequences which may 
be colle&ed from thence, I recommend it to thee to draw. 


9 and fair It all thy bopes,~\ Mortimer knew Plantagenet's 
hopes were fair, but that the etfablifhment of the Lancastrian line 
difappointed them : fure, he would wifli, that his nephew's fair 
hopes might have a fair iflue. I am perfuaded the poet wrote ; 

and fair befal thy hopes ! THEOBALD. 

This emendation is received by fir Thomas Hanmer and Dr, 
Warburton. I do not fee how the readings differ in fenfe. Fair 
is lucky , or froffcrcuf. So we fay, a fair wind, zndfair fortune. 




And like a hermit over-pafs'd thy days. 

Well, I will lock his counfel in my bread ; 

And what I do imagine, let that reft. 

Keepers, convey him hence ; and I myfelf 

Will fee his burial better than his life. 

1 Here dies the dufky torch of Mortimer, 

* Choak'd with ambition of the meaner fort : 

And, for thofe wrongs, thofe bitter injuries, 

Which Somerfet hath offer'd to my houfe, * 

I doubt not, but with honour to redrefs : 

And therefore hafte I to the parliament ; 

Either to be reftored to my blood, 

3 Or make my ill the advantage of my good. [Exit. 

1 Here dies the dujky torch ] The image is of a torch juft 

extinguifhed, and yet fmoaking. But we fliould read lies inftead 
of dies. For when a dead man is reprefented by an extinguifhed 
torch, we muft fay the torch lies : when an extinguilhed torch is 
compared to a dead man, we muft fay the torch dies. The reafort 
is plain, becaufe integrity of metaphor requires that the terms 
proper to the thing illuftrating t not the thing illujlrated^ be em- 
ployed. WAR BUR TON. 

1 Choatfd with ambition of the meaner firt : ] We are to un* 
derftand the fpeaker as reflecting on the ill fortune of Mortimer, 
in being always made a tool of by the Percies of the North in 
their rebellious intrigues ; rather than in aflerting his claim to the 
crown, in fupport of his own princely ambition. WAR BURTON* 

3 In the former editions : 

Or make my will /// advantage of my good. 

So all the printed copies ; but with very little regard to the poet's 
meaning. I read : 

Or make my ill th* advantage of my good. 
Thus we recover the antitbefis of the expremon. THEOBALD* 

Vol. VI. Q ACT 


The parliament. 

Fkurlfh. Enter king Henry, Exeter, Glojler, Win- 
chejler, Warwick, Somerfet, Suffolk, and Richard 
Plant agenet. Glqfter offers to put up a bill; IPinchefter 
fnatches it, and tears it. 

Win. Com'ft thou with deep premeditated lines, 
With written pamphlets ftudioufly devis'd, 
Humphrey of Glofter ? if thou canft accufe, 
Or ought intend'ft to lay unto my charge, 
Do it without invention fuddenly ; 
As I with fudden and extemporal fpeech 
Purpofe to an fwer what thou canft objedt. 

Gfa. Prefumptuous pri'eft f this place commands 

my patience, 

Or thou fhouldft find thou haft diihonour'd me. 
Think not, although in writing I preferred 
The manner of thy vile outrageous crimes, 
That therefore I have forg'd, or am not able 
Verbatim to rehearfe the method of my pen : 
No, prelate ; fuch is thy audacious wickednefs, 
Thy lewd, peftiferous, and dhTentious pranks, 
As very infants prattle of thy pride. 
Thou arfc a moft pernicious ufurer ; 
Froward by nature, enemy to peace ; 
Lafcivious, wanton, more than well befeems 
A man of thy profeflion, and degree ; 
And for thy treachery, What's more manifeft ? 
In that thou laid'ft a trap to take my life, 
As well at London bridge, as at the Tower ? 
Befide, I fear me, if thy thoughts were fifted, 
The king, thy fovereign, is not quite exempt 
From envious malice of thy fwelling heart. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 227 

Win. Glofter, I do defy thee. Lords, vouchfafe 
To give me hearing what I fliall reply. 
If I were covetous, perverfe, ambitious, 
As he will have me, How am I fo poor ? 
Or how haps it, I feek not to advance 
Or raife myfelf, but keep my wonted calling ? 
And for difTention, Who preferreth peace 
More than I do, except I be provok'd ? 
No, my good lords, it is not that offends ; 
It is not that, that hath incens'd the duke : 
It is, becaufe no one fhould fway but he ; 
No one, but he, fhould be about the king; 
And that engenders thunder in his breaft, 
And makes him roar thefe accufations forth. 
But he fhall know, I am as good 

Gk. As good ? 
Thou baftard of my grandfather ! 

Win. Ay, lordly fir ; -For what are you, I pray^ 
But one imperious in another's throne ? 

Gk. Am I not protestor, faucy prieft ? 

Win. And am not I a prelate of the church ? 

Gk. Yes, as an out-law in a caflle keeps, 
And ufeth it to patronage his theft. 

Win. Unreverent Glofter ! 

Gk. Thou art reverent 
Touching thy fpiritual function, not thy life. 

Win. Rome fhall remedy this. 

War. 4 Roam thither then. 

5 Som. My lord, it were your duty to forbear. 


* Roam thither then.'] Roam to Rome. To roam is fuppofed 
to be derived from the cant of vagabonds, \vho often pretended a 
pilgrimage to Rome. JOHNSON. 

The jingle between roam and Rome is common to other writers. 
So, in Nafh's Lenten Stuff\ &.c. 1599: " three hundred 
thoufand people roamed to Rome for purgatorie pills, &c." 


5 Som. My lord, it were your July ioforlcar.'} This line, in the 

old copy, is joined to the former hemiflich fpoken by Warwick. 

Q 3 The 

2 2 8 FIRST PART Of 

War. Ay, fee the bifhop be not over-borne. 

Som. Methinks, my lord fhould be religious, 
And know the office that belongs to inch. 

War. Methinks, his lordlhip mould be humbler ; 
It fitteth not a prelate fo to plead. 

Som. Yes, when his holy iiate is touch'd fo near. 

War. State holy, or unhallow'd, what of that ? 
Is not his grace protector to the king ? 

Rich. Plantagenet, I fee, muft hold his tongue ; 
Left it be faid, Speak, firrah, when you Jhould > 
Muft your bold verdlft enter talk with lords ? 
Elfe would I have a fling at Winchefler. [Afide. 

K. Henry. Uncles of Glofter, and of Winchefler, 
The fpecial watchmen of our Englifh weal ; 
I would prevail, if prayers might prevail, 
To join your hearts in love and amity. 
Oh, what a fcandal is it to our crown, 
That two fuch noble peers as ye, Ihould jar ! 
Believe me, lords, my tender years can tell, 
Civil diffention is a viperous worm, 
That gnaws the bowels of the common-wealth. 

[A noife within ; Down with the tawny coats ! 
What tumult's this ? 

War. An uproar, I dare warrant, 
Begun through malice of the bilhop's men. 

[A noife again, Stones ! Stones t 

Enter the Mayor of London, attended. 

Mayor. Oh, my good lords, and virtuous Henry, 
Pity the city of London, pity us ! 
The bilhop and the duke of Glofter's men, 
Forbidden late to carry any weapon, 
Have fill'd their pockets full of pebble-Hones ; 

The modern editors have very properly given it to Somerfet, foi 
whom it feems to have been meant. 

Ay y fee^ the b(fhop be not over-borne^ 

was as erroneoufly given in the next fpeech to Somerfet inftcad 
of Warwick, to whom it has been fince reftored. STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 2*9 

And, banding themfelves in contrary parts, 
Do pelt fo raft at one another's pate, 
That many have their giddy brains knock'd out : 
Our windows are broke down in every flreet, 
And we, for fear, compelled to Ihut our fhops. 

Enter men injkirmt/h, with bkody pates. 

K. Henry. We charge you, on allegiance to ourfelf, 
To hold your flaught'ring hands, and keep the peace. 
Pray, uncle Glofter, mitigate this flrife, 

Serv. Nay, if we be 
Forbidden ftones, we'll fall to it with our teeth. 

2 Serv. Do what ye dare, we are as refolute. 

\j$kirmijh again. 

Glo. You of my houfhold, leave this peevifh broil, 
And fet this 6 unaccuftom'd fight afide. 

3 Serv. My lord, we know your grace to be a man 
Juft and upright ; and, for your royal birth, 
Inferior to none, but to his majefty : 

And, ere that we will fuffer fuch a prince. 

So kind a father of the common-weal, 

To be difgraced by 7 an, inkhorn mate, 

We, and our wives, and children, all will fight, 

And have our bodies flaughter'd by thy foes. 

i Serv. Ay, and the very parings of our nails 
Shalt pitch a field when we are dead. [Begin again. 

Qlo. Stay, flay, I fay ! 
And, if you love me, as you fay you do. 
Let me perfuade you to forbear a while. 

K. Henry. Oh, 'how this difcord doth afflict my 

foul ! 

Can you, my lord of Winchefler, behold 
My fighs and tears, and will not once relent ? 
Who fhould be pitiful, if you be not ? 

6 unaccufton! d fight afide. ~\ Unaccuftom' > d\sufifcemly t inde- 


inkborn mate^] A bookman. JOHNSON, 

0.3 Or 


Or who Ihould ftudy to prefer a peace, 

If holy churchmen take delight in broils ? 

War. My lord protedtor, yield ; yield, Win- 
chefter ; 

Except you mean, with obftinate repulfe, 
To flay your fovereign, and deflroy the realm. 
You fee what mifchief, and what murder too, 
Hath been enacted through your enmity ; 
Then be at peace, except ye thirft for blood. ' 

Win. He fhall fubmit, or I will never yield. 

Glo. Compaffion on the king commands me {loop; 
Or, I would fee his heart out, ere the prieft 
Should ever get that privilege of me. 

War. Behold, my lord of Winchefter, the duke 
Hath banifh'd moody difcontented fury, 
As by his fmoothed brows it doth appear : 
Why look you ftill fo ftern, and tragical ? 

Glo. Here, Winchefter, I offer thee my hand. 

K. Henry. Fie, uncle Beaufort ! I have heard yoir 


That malice was a great and grievous fin : 
And will not you maintain the thing you teach, 
But prove a chief offender in the fame ? 

War. Sweet king ! the bifliop 8 hath a kindly 


For fhame, my lord of Winchefter ! relent ; 
What, {hall a child inftruct you what to do ? 

Win. Well, duke of Glofter, I will yield tothee;- 
Love for thy love, and hand for hand I give. 

Glo. Ay; but, I fear me, with, a hollow heart. 
See here, my friends, and loving countrymen ; 

8 hath a kindly gird. ] \. e. Feels an emotion of kind re- 
morfe. JOHNSON. 

A kindly gird is a gentle or friendly reproof. Falihff obferves, 
that " men of all forts take a pride to gird at him :" and in 
the Taming of a Shrew , Baptifla fays : *' ' "Tranio bits you 
now ;" to which Lucentio anfwers : 

'* I thank thee for that gird^ good Tranio." STEEVENS.' 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 231 

This token ferveth for a flag of truce, 
Betwixt ourfelves, and all our followers : 
So help me God, as I diflemble not ! 

Win. [AfideJ] So help me God, as I intend it not ! 

K. Henry. O loving uncle, kind duke of Glofter, 
How joyful am I made by this contract ! 
Away, my maflers ! trouble us no more ; 
But join in friendfliip, as your lords have done. 

i Serv. Content; I'll to the furgeon's. 

2, Serv. So will I. 

3 Serv. And I will fee what phyfic 
The tavern affords. [Exeunt. 

War. Accept this fcrowl, moft gracious fovereign; 
Which in the right of Richard Plantagenet 
We do exhibit to your majefty. 

GIo. Well urg'd, my lord of Warwick; for, fweet 


An if your grace mark every circumftance, 
You have great reafon to do Richard right : 
Efpecially, for thofe occafions 
At Eltham-place I told your majefty. 

K. Henry. And thofe occafions, uncle, were of force : 
Therefore, my loving lords, our pleafure is, 
That Richard be reftored to his blood ; 

War. Let Richard be reftored to his blood ; 
So fliall his father's wrongs be recompens'd. 

Win. As will the reft, fo.willeth Winchefter. 

K. Henry. If Richard will be true, not that alone, 
But all the whole inheritance I give, 
That doth belong unto the houfe of York, 
From whence you fpring by lineal defcent. 

Rich. Thy humble fervant vows obedience, 
And humble fervice, 'till the point of death. 

K. Henry. Stoop then, and fet your knee againft 

my foot ; 
9 And, in reguerdori of that duty done, 

9 reguerdon ] Recompence, return. JOHNSON. 


I gird thee with the valiant fword of York : 
Rile, Richard, like a true Plantagenet ; 
And rile created princely duke of York. 

Rich. And fo thrive Richard, as thy foes may fall J 
And as my duty fprings, fo perifh they 
That grudge one thought againfl your majefty ! 

All. Welcome, high prince, the mighty duke of 
York ! 

Som. Perifh, bafe prince, ignoble duke of York ! 


Glo. Now will it beft avail your majefty, 
To crofs the feas, and to be crown'd in France : 
The prefence of a king engenders love 
Amongft his fubjects, and his loyal friends ; 
As it difanimates his enemies. 

K. Henry. When Glofler fays the word, king Henry 

For friendly counfel cuts off many foes. 

Glo. Your mips already are in readinefs. 

[Exeunt all but Exeter. 

Exe. Ay, we may march in England, or in France^ 
Not feeing what is likely to enfue : 
This late difiention, grown betwixt the peers, 
Burns under feigned alhes of forg'd love, 
And will at lalt break out into a flame : 
As fefter'd members rot but by degrees, 
'Till bones, and flelh, and finews, fall away, 
1 So will this bafe and envious difcord breed. 
And now I fear that fatal prophecy, 
Which, in the time of Henry, nam'4 the fifth, 
Was in the mouth of every fucking babe, 
That Henry, born at Monmouth, mould win all ; 
And Henry, born at Windfor, fliould lofe all : 
Which is fo plain, that Exeter doth wifli 
His days may finifh ere that haplefs time. 

1 So vjitt this bafe and envious difcord lreed.~\ That is, fo will 
the malignity of this difcord propagate itfclf y and advance. 





Roan in France. 

Enter Joan la Pucelle dijguis'd, and foldiers with facks 
upon their backs, like countrymen. 

Pucel. Thefe are the city gates, the gates of Roan, 
Through which our policy muft make a breach : 
Take heed, be wary how you place your words ; 
Talk like the vulgar fort of market-men, 
That come to gather money for their corn. 
If we have entrance, (as, I hope, we ihall) 
And that we find the flothful watch but weak, 
J'll by a lign give notice to our friends, 
That Charles the Dauphin may encounter them.' 

i Sol. Our lacks fhall be a mean to fack the city %" 
And we be lords and rulers over Roan ; 
Therefore we'll knock, [Knocks. 

Watch, tyvati? 

Pucel. Paifans, pauvres gens de France : 
Poor market-folks, that come to fell their corn. 

Watch. Enter, go in ; the market-bell is rung. 

fucel Now, Roan, I'll lhake thy bulwarks to the 
ground. [Exeunt \ 

Enter Dauphin, Baftard, and Alenpn. 

Dan. Saint Dennis blefs this happy flratagem \ 
And once again we'll fleep fecure in Roan. 

Baft. J Here enter'd Pucelle, and her pradtifants : 

* Our facks./W/ le the means to fack the c/Vy,] Falftaff has tljp 
fame quibble, fhewing his bottle of Jack : " Here's that will fack 
a city." STEEVENS., 

3 Here entered Pucelle, and her praftifants.'] PraSUce, in the 
language of that time, was treachery, and perhaps in the fofter 
fcnfejtratagem. Pratfifa/tts are therefore ccnfederates in JJrata- 
gems. JOHNSON. 


F I R S T P A R T O F 

Now fhe is there, how will ftie fpecify 
Where is the befl and fafeft paflage in ? 

Reig. By thrufting out a torch from yonder tower; 
Which, once difcern'd, fhews, that her meaning is, 
* No way to that, for weaknefs, which Ihe enter'd. 

Enter Joan la Pucelk on a battlement, thrujiing out a 
torch burning. 

Pucel Behold, this is the happy wedding torch, 
That joineth Roan unto her countrymen ; 
But burning fatal to the Talbotites. 

Baft. See, noble Charles ! the beacon of our friend, 
The burning torch in yonder turret Hands. 

Dau. Now fhine it like a comet of revenge, 
A prophet to the fall of all our foes ! 

Reig. Defer no time, Delays have dangerous ends; 
Enter, and cry The Dauphin ! prefently, 
And then do execution on the watch. 

[An alarum ; Talbot in an excwfion. 

?al. France, thou fhalt rue this treafon with thy 


If Talbot but furvive thy treachery. 
Pucelle, that witch, that damned forcerefs, 
Hath wrought this hellifh mifchief unawares, 
That hardly we efcap'd the pride of France. [Exit. 

* No way to that, ] That is, no way equal to tbat^ no way 
fo fit as that. JOHNSON. 

5 That hardly ive efcap'd the pride of France.] Pride fignifies 
the haughty power. The fame Speaker fays afterwards, aft IV. 
fceue vi : 

And from the pride of Gallia refcu'd thee. 

One would think this plain enough. But what won't a puzzling 
critic obfcure ! Mr. Theobald fays, Pride of France is an abfurd 

rize of France 

nd unmeaning cxprejjion, and therefore alters it to pri 
*nd in this is followed by the Oxford editor. WAR 




An alarum. : excurfions. Enter Bedford, brought in fick, 
In a chair, with Talbot and Burgundy, without. 
Within, Joan la Pucelle, Dauphin, Bajlard, and 
6 Alenpn, on the walls. 

Pucel. Good morrow, gallants ! want ye corn for 

bread ? 

I think, the duke of Burgundy will faft, 
Before he'll buy again at fuch a rate : 
'Twas full of darnel ; Do you like the tafle ? 

Burg. Scoff on, vile fiend, and ihamelefs courtezan ! 
I truft, ere long to choak thee with thine own, 
And make thee curfe the harvefl of that corn. 
Dau. Your grace may ftarve, perhaps, before that 

Bed. Oh, let no words, but deeds, revenge this 

treafon ! 
Pucel. What will you do, good grey-beard ? break 

a lance, 
And run a tilt at death within a chair ? 

Tal. Foul fiend of France, and hag of all defpight, 
Encompafs'd with thy luflful paramours ! 
Becomes it thee to taunt his valiant age, 
And twit with cowardice a man half dead ? 
Damfel, I'll have a bout with you again, 
Or elfe let Talbot perifh with this fhame. 
Pucel. Are you fo hot, fir ? Yet, Pucelle, hold 

thy peace ; 
If Talbot do but thunder, rain will follow. 

[~Talbot, and the reft, whifper together in council. 
God fpeed the parliament ! who lhallbe the fpeaker ? 
Tal. Dare ye come forth, and meet us in the field ? 
Pucel. Belike, you lordlhip takes us then for fools, 
To try if that our own be ours, or no. 

6 Alen$on, on the walls. ] Alen^on iir T. Hanmer has 

replaced here, inftead of Reignier, becaufe Alen$on, not Reig- 
Bier, appears in the enfuing Icenc. JOHNSON, 


Td. I fpeak not to that railing Hecate,, 
Bat unto thee, Alencon, and the reft ; 
Will ye, like foldiers, come and fight it out ? 

Alen. Signior, no. 

TJ/. Signior, hang ! bafe muleteers of France ! 
Like peafant foot-boys do they keep the walls, 
And dare not take up arms like gentlemen. 

PuceL Captains, away : let's get us from the walls 3 
For Talbot means no goodnefs, by his looks. 
God be wi' you, my lord ! we came, fir, but to tell 

That we are here. [Exeunt from the walls \ 

Tal And there will we be too, ere it be long, 
Or elfe reproach be Talbot's greatefl fame I- 
Vow, Burgundy, by honour of thy houfe, 
(Prick'd on by public wrongs, fufiain'd in France) 
Either to get the town again, or die : 
And I, as fure as Englilh Henry lives, 
And as his father here was conqueror $ 
As fure as in this late-betrayed town 
Great Coeur-de-lion's heart was buried 3 
So fure I fvvear, to get the town, or die. 

Burg. My vows are equal partners with thy vows. 

TaL 'But, ere we go, regard this dying prince, 
The valiant duke of Bedford : Come, my lord s 
We will beftow you in fome better place, 
Fitter for fickneis, and for crazy age. 

Bed. Lord Talbot, do not fo difhonour me \ 
Here will I fit before the walls of Roan x 
And will be partner of your weal, or woe. 
L . Burg. Courageous Bedford, letusnowperfuadeyou^ 

Bed. Not to be gone from hence ; for once I read 7 , 


7 once I read, 

Thatjiout Pendragon, in bis Utter, &c.] 

This hero was Uther Pendragon, brother to Aurelius, and father 
to king Arthur. 

Shakefpeare, has imputed to Pendragon an exploit of Aurelius, 
who, fays Holinfhed, *' even ficke of a flbie as he was, caufed 


K I Ii G H E N R Y VI. 237 

That flout P'endragon, in his litter, fick, 
Came to the field, and vanquifhed his foes : 
Methinks, I ihould revive the foldiers' hearts, 
Becaufe I ever found them as myfelf. 

Tal. Undaunted fpirit in a dying breaft ! 
Then be it fo : Heavens keep old Bedford fafe I- 
And now no more ado, brave Burgundy, 
But gather we our forces out of hand, 
And fet upon our boafting enemy. 

[Exeunt Burgundy, Talbot, and forces. 

An alarum : excurfions. Enter Sir John Faftolffe, and a 

Cap. Whither away, Sir John Faftolffe, in fuch 

hafle ? 

Fqft. Whither away ? to fave myfelf by flight ; 
We are like to have the overthrow again. 

Cap. What I will you fly, and leave lord Talbot ? 
Fajl. Ay, 

All the Talbots in the world, to fave my life. [Exit. 
Cap. Cowardly knight ! ill fortune follow thee ! 


Retreat: excurfions. Pucelle, Alenfon, and Dauphin fy. 

Bed. Now, quiet foul, depart when heaven lhall 
pleafe ; 

himfelfe to be carried forth in a litter : with whofe prefence his 
people were fo incouraged, that encountering with the Saxons 
they wan the victorie." Hift. of Scotland, p. 99. 

Harding, however, in his Chronitle, (as I learn from Dr. Gray) 
gives the Following account of Uther Pendragon : 

" For which the king ordain'd a horle-litter 
" To bear him fo then unto Verolame, 
Where Ocea lay, and Oyfa alfo in fear, 
" That faint Albonc's now hight of noble fame, 
" Bet downe the wailes ; but to him forth they came, 
" Where in battayie Ocea and Oyfa were flayn. 
*' The fielde he had, and thereof was full fayne." 




For I have feen our enemies' overthrow. 
What is the truft or ftrength of foolifli man ? 
They, that of late were daring with their feoffs, 
Are glad and fain by flight to fave themfelves. 

[DieS, and is carried of in his chair. 

An alarum : Enter Talbot, Burgundy > and the reft. 

Tal Loft, and recovered in a day again ! 
This is a double honour, Burgundy : 
Yet, heavens have glory for this victory ! 

Burg. Warlike and martial Talbot, Burgundy 
Enflirines thee in his heart ; and there erects 
Thy noble deeds, as valour's monument. 

fal. Thanks, gentle duke. But where is Pucelle 

now ? 

I think, her old familiar is afleep : 
Now where's the Baftard's braves, and Charles his 

gleeks ? 

What, all a-mort ? Roan hangs her head for grief, 
That fuch a valiant company are fled. 
Now will we take fome order in the town, 
Placing therein fome export officers ; 
And then depart to Paris, to the king ; 
For there young Henry, with his nobles, lies. 

Burg. What wills lord Talbot, pleafeth Burgundy. 

Tal. But yet, before we go, let's not forget 
The noble duke of Bedford, late deceas'd, 
But fee his exequies fulfill'd in Roan ; 
A braver foldier never couched lance, 
A gentler heart did never fway in court : 
But kings, and mightieft potentates, muft die ; 
For that's the end of human mifery. [Exeunt. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 239 


Ybefame. The plain near tie city. 
Enter tie Dauphin^ Bajlard, Alenfon, and Joan a Pucelk* 

PuceL Difmay not, princes, at this accident, 
Nor grieve that Roan is fo recovered : 
Care is no cure, but rather corrofive, 
For things that are not to be remedy'd. 
Let frantic Talbot triumph for a while, 
And like a peacock fweep along his tail ; 
We'll pull his plumes, and take away his train, 
If Dauphin, and the reft, will be but rul'd. 

Dau. We have been guided by thee hitherto, 
And of thy cunning had no diffidence ; 
One fudden foil fhall never breed diftruft. 

Baft. Search out thy wit for fecret policies, 
And we will make thee famous through the world. 

Alen. We'll fet thy ftatue in fome holy place, 
And have thee reverenc'd like a blefled faint ; 
Employ thee then, fweet virgin, for our good. 

PuceL Then thus it muft be ; this doth Joan devife : 
By fair perfuafions, mix'd with fugar'd words, 
We will entice the duke of Burgundy 
To leave the Talbot, and to follow us. 

Dau. Ay, marry, fweeting, if we could do that, 
France were no place for Henry's warriors ; 
Nor ihould that nation boaft it fo with us, 
But be extirped from our provinces 8 . 

Aim. For ever Ihould they be expuls'd from France 9 , 


8 But le extirped from our provinces.] To extirf is to root 
out. So, in Lord Sterline's Darius, 1603: 

" The world lhall gather to extirf our name." 


9 expuls'd from France,] i.e. expelled. So, in Ben Jon - 
fon's Scjanus ; 

" The 


And not have title of an earldom here. 

Puce 1. Your honours fhall perceive how I will workj 
To bring this matter to the wilted end. 

[Drums beats afar of* 

Hark ! by the found of drum, you may perceive 
Their powers are marching unto Paris-ward. 

[Here bedt an EngliJJi march. 

There goes the Talbot, with his colours fpread ; 
And all the troops of Englifli after him. 

[French march. 

Now, in the rereward, comes the duke, and his ; 
Fortune, in favour, makes him lag behind. 
Summon a parley, we will talk with him. 

[Trumpets found a parley t 

Enter the duke of Burgundy, marching* 

Dau. A parley with the duke of Burgundy* 
Burg. Who craves a parley with the Burgundy ? 
Puce!. The princely Charles of France, thy coun- 

Burg. What fay'fl thou, Charles ? for I am march- 
ing hence. 
Dau. Speak, Pucelle ; and enchant him with thy 


Pucel. Brave Burgundy, undoubted hope of France ! 

Stay, let thy humble hand-maid fpeak to thee. 

Burg. Speak on ; but be not over-tedious. 

Pucel. Look on thy country, look on fertile France, 

And fee the cities and the towns defac'd 

By walling ruin of the cruel foe ! 

* As looks the mother on her lowly babe, 


" The expulfed Apicata finds them there." 
Again, in Dray ton's Mufes Elizium : 

" And if you expulfe them there, 

'* They'll hang upon your braided hair." STEEVENS. 
1 As looks the mother on her lowly babe,] It is plain Shakefpeare 
wrote, lovely babe, it anfwering to fertile France above, which 
this domestic image is brought to illuflrate. WARBURTON. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 241 

When death doth clofe his tender dying eyes, 

See, fee, the pining malady of France ; 

Behold the wounds, the moft unnatural wounds, 

Which thou thyfelf haft given her woful breaft ! 

Oh, turn thy edged fword another way ; 

Strike thofe that hurt, and hurt not thofe that help ! 

One drop of blood, drawn from thy country's bo- 

Should grieve thee more than ftreams of foreign 


Return thec, therefore, with a flood of tears, 
And waih away thy country's flained fpots ! 

Burg. Either ftie hath bewitch'd me with her words, 
Or nature makes me fuddenly relent. 

Pucel. Befides, all French and France exclaims on 


Doubting thy birth and lawful progeny. 
Whom join'It thou with, but with a lordly nation, 
That will not trufl thee, but for profit's fake ? 
When Talbot hath fet footing once in France, 
And fafhion'd thee that inftrument of ill, 
Who then, but English Henry, will be lord, 
And thou be thruft out, like a fugitive ? 
Call we to mind, and mark but this, for proof; 
Was not the duke of Orleans thy foe ? 
And was he not in England prifoner ? 
But, when they heard he was thine enemy, 
They fet him free, without his ranfom paid, 
In fpight of Burgundy, and all his friends. 
See then ! thou fight'ft againfl thy countrymen, 
And join'ft with them will be thy flaughter-men. 
Come, come, return ; return, thou wand'ring lord ; 
Charles, and the reft, will take thee in their arms. 

The alteration is eafy and probable, but perhaps the poet by 
lowly babe meant the bale lying low in death. Lowly anfwersas 
well to towns defaced and wafting ruin, as lovely to fertile. 


VOL. VI. R Burg. 


Burg. I am vanquished ; 1 thefe haughty words of- 


Have batter'd me like roaring cannon-fhot, 
And made me almofl yield upon my knees. 
Forgive me, country, and fweet countrymen ! 
And, lords, accept this hearty kind embrace : 
My forces and my power of men are yours ; 
So, farewel, Talbot ; I'll no longer truft thee. 
PitccL } Done like a Frenchman ; turn, and turn 

again ! 
Dau. Welcome, brave duke ! thy friendfhip makes' 

us frelh. 

Baft. And doth beget new courage in our breads. 
Alen. Pucelle hatlibravely play'd her part in this,, 
And doth deferve a coronet of gold. 

Dau. Now let us on, my lords, and join GUI 

powers ; 
And feck how we may prejudice the foe. [Exeunt) 

* tbefe haughty ivorth of hers 

Have latter'd me like roaring cannon-foot,] 
How thefe lines came hither I know not ; there was nothing in the 
fpeech of Joan haughty or violent, it was all foft entreaty and* 
mild expoft ulation. JOHNSON. 

3 Done like a Frenchman ; turn, and turn again /] This feenta 
to be an offering of the poet to his royal miltrefs's refentment,i 
tor Henry the Fourth's laft great turn in religion, in the yeap 
1593. WAR BURTON. 

The inconltancy of the French was always the fubject of fatirwj 
I have read a difiertarion written to prove that the index of the 
wind upon our free pies was made in form of a cock, to ridicul? 
the French for their frequent changes. JOHNSON. 

S C E N K 



Paris. An apartment in the palace. 

Eiiter king Henry, Glofter, Vernon, Baftf, &c. To 
them Talbot, with Jobbers. 

Tal. My gracious prince, and honourablepeers, 
Hearing of your arrival in this realm, 
I have a while given truce unto my wars, 
To do my duty to my fovereign : 
In fign whereof, this arm that hath reclaim'd 
To your obedience fifty fortrefles, 
Twelve cities, and feven walled towns of flrength, 
Befidc five hundred prifoners of eftcem, 
Lets fall his fw'ord before your high nets' feet ; 
And, with fubmiflive loyalty of, heart, 
Afcribes the glory of his conquefl got, 
Firft to my God, and next unto your grace. 

K. Henry. Is this the lord Talbot, uncle Glofter, 
That hath fo long been refident in France ? 

Glo. Yes, if it pleafe your majefty, my liege. 

K. Henry. Welcome, brave captain, and victorious 


When I was young, (as yet I am not old) 
I do remember how my father fa id, 
A ftouter champion never handled fxvord. 
Long fince we were refolved of your truth, 
Your faithful fervice, and your toil in war; 
^et never have you tafted our reward, 
Or been reguerdon'd 4 with fo much as thanks, 
Becaufe 'till now we never faw your face : 
Therefore, (land up ; and, for thefe good deferts, 

4 Or leen reguerdon'd] i, e. rewarded. The word was obfo- 
ete even in the tim-e ofShakcfpeare. Chaucer ufes it in \b&Boke 
>f Boethius. STEEVENS. 

R 2 We 


We here create you earl of Shrcwfbury ; 
And in our coronation take your place. 

[Exeunt King, Gb. Tat. 

Ver. Now, Sir, to you, that were fo hot at fea, 
Difgracing of thefe colours that I wear 5 
In honour of my noble lord of York, 
Dar'ft thou maintain the former words thou fpak'fl 

Baf. Yes, fir ; as well as you dare patronage 
The envious barking of your faucy tongue 
Againft my lord, the duke of Somerfet. 
Ver. Sirrah, thy lord I honour as he is. 
Baf. Why, what is he ? as good a man as York. 
Ver* Hark ye; not fo : in witnefs, take ye that. 

[Strikes him* 

Baf. Villain, thou know'fl, the law of arms is fuch 
6 That, who fo draws a fword, *tis prefent death ; 
Or elfe this blow Ihould broach thy dearefl blood. 
But I'll unto his majefty, and crave 
I may have liberty to venge this wrong ; 
When thou fhalt fee, I'll meet thee to thy coft. 

s tbefe colours tbat I wear'} This was the badge of a rofe t 

and not an officer's fcarf. So, in Love's Labour's Lojt : 
" And wear his colours like a tumbler's hoop." 
Acl III. Scene the laft. TOLLET. 

'' Tbaff ivhofo draws ajkvordy y tis prefent death i\ Shakefpeare 
wrote : 

> draws a fword i'th' prefence 't's death ; 

*. e. in the court, or in the prefence chamber. WAR BUR TON. 

This reading cannot be right, becaufe, as Mr. Edwards ob- 
ferved, it cannot be pronounced. It is, however, a good com- 
ment, as it fliews the author's meaning. JOHNSON. 

I believe the line fliould be written as it is in the folio : 

That, who fo Jra^ws a fword 

i. t. (as Dr. Warburton has obferved) with a menace in the court^ 
or in the prefence-chamber. STEEVENS. 

Johnfon, in his collection of Ecclcjiajlical JL<7-u'.y,'has preferred 

am told that there are many other ancient canons to the fam& 
purpofe. Grey, - STEEVENS. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 245 

Per. Well, mifcreant, I'll be there as foon as you; 
And, after, meet you fooner than you would. 

[Exe nt. 


Parts. A room of fate. 

Enter king Henry, Glofter, Wincloefter, Tork, Suffolk, 
Somerfet, Warwick, 'Talbot, Exeter, and Governor of 

Glo. Lord bifhop, fet the crown upon his head. 

Win. God fave king Henry, of that name the fixth ! 

Glo. Now, governor of Paris, take your oath, 
That you elect no other king but him : 
Efleem none friends, but fuch as are his friends ; 
And none your foes, but 7 fuch as fhall pretend 
Malicious practices againft his Hate : 
This fhall ye do, fo help you righteous God ! 

Enter Sir John Fajlolfe. 

Faft. My gracious fovereign, as I rode from Calais, 
To hafte unto your coronation, 
A letter was deliver'd to my hands, 
Writ to your grace from the duke of Burgundy* 

Tal. Shame to the duke of Burgundy, and thee ! 
I vow'd, bafe knight, when I did meet thee next, 
To tear the garter from thy craven's leg. [plucking it off. 
(Which I have done) becaufe unworthily 
Though waft inftalled in that high degree.. 
Pardon me, princely Henry, and the reft : 

7 -/we/* a f Jball pretend] To pretend is to dejigri, \nintend. 


R Q This 


This daftard, at the battle of Poi&iers 8 , 
When but in all I was fix thoufand ftrong, 
And that the French were almoft ten to one, 
Before we met, or that a ftroke was given, 
Like to a trufty fquire, did run away ; 
In which affault we loft twelve hundred men ; 
Myfelf, and divers gentlemen befide, 
Were there furpriz'd, and taken prisoners. 
Then judge, great lords, if I have done amifs ; 
Or whether that fuch cowards ought to wear 
This ornament of knighthood, yea, or no. 

Glo. To fay the truth, this fad was infamous, 
And ill befeeming any common man ; 
Much more a knight, a captain, and a leader. 

Tal. When firft this order was ordain'd, my lords, 
Knights of the garter were of noble birth ; 
Valiant, and virtuous, full of 9 haughty courage, 
Such as were grown to credit by the wars ; 
Not fearing death, nor fhrinking for diftrefs, 
But always refolute in moft extremes. 
He then, that is not furniih'd in this fort, 
Doth but ufurp the facred name of knight, 
Profaning this moft honourable order ; 
And fhould (if 1 were worthy to be judge) 

8 at tie battle of Poictiers.] The battle of Poicliers was 
fought in the year 1357^ the 31 ft of king Edward III. and the 
fcene now lies in the ;th year of the reign of king Henry VI 
viz. 1428. This blunder may be juftly imputed to the players 
or tranfcribers ; nor can we very well juitiiy ourfelves for 
permitting it to continue fo long, as it was too glaring to have 
efcaped an attentive reader. The acYion of which Shakefpeare is 
noxv fpeakina:, happened (according to Holinfhed) " neere unto 
a village in Beaufle called PataieJ' which we fhould read, inileac 
of Poi fliers. " P'rom this battell departed without anie itroke 
ftrikcn, Sir John Fa/iolfe, the lame yeere by his valiantneffe 
elected into the order of the garter. But for doubt of mifdealinj 
at this brunt, the duke of Bedford tooke from him the image o 
St. George and his garter, &c." Holinfhed, Vol. II. p. 601. 


9 haughty c ouragc , ] Haughty is here in its original lenfe 

for bigk. JOHN s ON, 



Be quite degraded, like a hedge-born fwain 
That doth prefumc to boaft of gentle blood. 

K. Henry. Stain to thy countrymen,! thou hear'ft 

thy doom : 

Be packing therefore, thou that waft a knight ; 
Henceforth we banifh thce, on pain of death. 

[Exit Fajlolfe. 
And now, my lord protector, view the letter 
Sent from our uncle duke of Burgundy. 

Qlo. What means his grace, that he hath chang'd 

his ftile ? 
No more but, plain and bluntly, 'To the king ? 


Hath he forgot, he is his fovereign ? 
Or doth this churlifh fuperfcription 
Pretend fome alteration in good will ' ? 
What's here ? I have, upon efpedal caufe, [Reads. 

Mov'd with compajjion of my country's wreck, 

Together with the pitiful complaints 

Of fuch as your opprejjion feeds upon, 

Forfakcn your pernicious faction, 

And join* d with Charles, the rightful king of France. 
O monflrous treachery ! Can this be fo ; 
That in alliance, amity, and oaths, 
There fliould be found fuch falfe diflembling guile ? 

K. Henry. What ! doth my uncle Burgundy revolt? 

Glo. He doth, my lord ; and is become your foe. 

K. Henry. Is that the worft, this letter doth contain ? 

Glo. It is the worft, and all, my lord, he writes. 

K. Henry. Why then, lord Talbot there fhall talk 

with him, 

And give him chaftifement for this abufe : 
My lord, how fay you ? are you not content ? 

Tal. Content, my liege ? Yes; but that I am pre- 

In %ood will?] Thus the old copy. To 
pretend feems to be here ufed in its Latin fenfe, i.e. to hold cut, 
toflrctcbfcr-vard. Modern editors read portend, STEEVENS. 

R 4 I fhould 


I fhould have begg'd I might have been employ'd. 

K. Henry. Then gather flrength, and march unto 

him ftraight : 

Let him perceive, how ill we brook his treafon ; 
And what offence it is, to flout his friends. 

I'al. I go, my lord ; in heart defiring flill, 
You may behold confuiion of your foes. [v// Tul. 

Enter Vernon, and BaJJet. 

Ver. Grant me the combat, gracious fovereign ! 

Baf. And me, my lord, grant me the combat too ! 

York. This is my iervant ; Hear him, noble prince ! 

Som. And this is mine ; Sweet Henry, favour him ! 

K. Henry. Be patient, lords, and give them leave 

to fpeak. 

Say, gentlemen, What makes you thus exclaim ? 
And wherefore crave you combat ? or with whom ? 

Ver. With him, my lord ; for he hath done me 

Baf. And I with him ; for he hath done me wrong. 

K. Henry. W T hat is that wrong whereof you both 

complain ? 
Firft let me know, and then I'll anfwer you. 

Baf. Croffing the fea from England into France, 
This fellow here, with envious carping tongue, 
Upbraided me about the rofe I wear ; 
Saying the fanguine colour of the leaves 
Did reprefent my mailer's bluihing cheeks, 
When flubbornly he did repugn the truth % 
About a certain qucftion in the law, 
Argu'd betwixt the duke of York and him ; 
With other vile and ignominious terms : 
In confutation of which rude reproach, 
And in defence of my lord's worthinefs, 
I crave the benefit of law of arms. 

* -did repugn tbe truth,"] To repugn is to refift. 
word is ufed by Chaucer, STEEVENS, 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 249 

Vcr. And that is my petition, noble lord : 
For though he feem, with forged quaint conceit, 
To fet a glofs upon his bold intent, 
Yet know, my lord, I was provok'd by him ; 
And he firft took exceptions, at this badge, 
Pronouncing that the palenefs of this flower 
Bewray'd the faintnefs of my mailer's heart. 

York. Will not this malice, Somerfet, be left ? 

Som. Your private grudge, my lord of York, will 

Though ne'er fo cunningly you fmother it. 

K. Henry. Good Lord ! what madnefs rules in 

brain-lick men ; 

When, for fo flight and frivolous a caufe, 
Such factious emulations fliall arife ! 
Good coufins both, of York and Somerfet, 
Quiet yourfelves, I pray, and be at peace. 

Tork. Let this diflention firft be try'd by fight, 
And then your highncfslhall command a peace. 

Som. The quarrel toucheth none but us alone ; 
Betwixt ourfelves let us decide it then. 

Tork. There is my pledge ; accept it, Somerfet. 

Ver. Nay, let it reft where it began at firft. 

Baf. Confirm it fo, mine honourable lord. 

Glo. Confirm it fo ? Confounded be your ftrife ! 
And perifli ye, with your audacious prate ! 
Prefumptuous vaflals ! are you not afham'd, 
With this immodeft clamorous outrage 
To trouble and difturb the king and us ? - 
And you, my lords, methinks, you do not well, 
To bear with their perverfe objections ; 
Much lefs, to take occafion from their mouths 
To raife a mutiny betwixt yourfelves ; 
Let me perfuade you take a better courfe. 

Exe. It grieves his highnefs ; Good my lords, be 

K. Henry. Come hither, you that would be com- 
batants : 


250 F I R S T P A R T O F 

Henceforth, I charge you, as you love our favour, 

Quite to forget this quarrel, and the caufc. 

And you, my lords, remember where we are ; 

In France, amongft a fickle wavering nation : 

If they perceive diifention in our looks, 

And that within ourfelves we difagree, 

How will their grudging ftomachs be provok'd 

To wilful difobedience, and rebel ? 

Betide, What infamy will there arife, 

When foreign princes fnall be certify'd, 

That, for a toy, a thing of no regard, 

King Henry's peers, and chief nobility, 

Peftroy'd themfelves, and loft the realm of France ? 

O, think upon the conquest of my father, 

My tender years ; and let us not forego 

That for a trifle, which was bought with blood ! 

Let me be umpire in this doubtful flrife. 

I fee no reafon, if I wear this rofe, 

[Putting on a red rofe. 

That any one fliould therefore be fulpicious 
I more incline to Sornerfet, than York : 
Both are my kinfmen, and I love them both : 
As well they may upbraid me with my crown, 
Becaufe, forfooth, the king of Scots is crown'd. 
But your difcretions better can perfuade, 
Than I am able to inftruct or teach : 
And therefore, as we hither came in peace, 
So let us flill continue peace and love. 
Coufm of York, we inflitute your grace 
To be our regent in thefe parts of France : 
And good my lord of Somerfet, unite 
Your troops of horfemen with his bands of foot ; - 
And, like true fubjecls, fons of your progenitors, 
Go cheerfully together, and digefl 
Your angry choler on your enemies. 
Ourfelf, my lord protestor, and the reft, 
After fome refpite, will return to Calais ; 
Trom thence to England ; where I hope ere lone; 



To be prefented, by your victories, 

With Charles, Alencon, and that traitorous rout. 

\Ylourijh. Exeunt. 

Manent Fork, Warwick, Exeter, and Vernon. 

War. My lord of York, I promife you, the king 
Prettily, methought, did play the orator. 

Tork. And fo he did ; but yet I like it not, 
In that he wears the badge of Somerfet. 

War. Tufh ! that was but his fancy, blame him not; 
I dare prefume, fweet prince, he thought no harm. 

York. 3 And, if I wift, he did, But let it reft ; 
Other affairs muft now be managed. [Exeunt. 

Manet Exeter. 

Exe. Well didft thou, Richard, to fupprefs thy 

voice : 

For, had the paffions of thy heart burfl out, 
I fear, we fhould have feen decypher'd there 
More rancorous fpight, more furious raging broils, 
Than yet can be imagin'd or fuppos'd. 
But howfoe'er, no fimple man that fees 
This jarring difcord of nobility, 
This ihould'ring of each other in the court, 
This factious bandying of their favourites, 

3 In the former editions, 

And if I wilh be did ] By the pointing reform*d, and a 

fingle letter expung'd, I have reftor'd the text to its purity. And, 
if I iu", be did Warwick had faid, the king meant no harm in 
wearing Somerfet's rofe : York teftily replies, " Nay, if I know 
any thing, he did think harm." THEOBALD. 

This is followed by the fucceeding editors, and is indeed plau- 
fible enough ; but perhaps this fpeech may become fufliciently in- 
telligible without any change, only fuppofing it broken. 

And if I wijb he did. 
or, perhaps : 

And if be did, I wijb Jo H N S O N . 

I read, I ivijl. The pret. of the old obfolete verb I *v/;, 
which is ufed by Shakefpeare in The Merchant of Venice; 
" There be fools alive, I w/V, 
** Silver'd o'er, and fo was this." STEEVENS. 



But that he doth prefage fome ill event. 
'Tis much, when fcepters are in children's hands ; 
But r^ore, when envy breeds unkind divifion ; 
There comes the ruin, there begins confuiion. [Exit. 


Before the walls of Bourdeaux. 
Enter Talbof, with trumpets and drum. 

TaL Go to the gates of Bourdeaux, trumpeter, 
Summon their general unto the wall. [Sounds. 

Enter General aloft. 

Engliih John Talbot, captains, calls you forth, 
Servant in arms to Harry king of England ; 

And thus he would, Open your city gates, 

Be humbled to us ; call my fovereign yours, 
And do him homage as obedient fubjedts, 
And I'll withdraw me and my bloody power : 
But, if you frown upon this proffer'd peace, 
You tempt the fury of my three attendants, 
Lean famine, quartering fteel, and climbing fire ; 
Who, in a moment, even with the earth 
Shall lay your {lately and air-braving towers, 
If you forfake 4 the offer of their love. 

Gen. Thou ominous and fearful owl of death, 
Our nation's terror, and their bloody fcourge ! 
The period of thy tyranny approacheth. 
On us thou canft not enter, but by death : 
For, I proteft, we are well fortify'd, 
And flrong enough to iflue out and fight : 
If thou retire, the Dauphin, well appointed, 
Stands with the fnares of war to tangle thee : 
On either hand thee there are fquadrons pitch'd, 

4 fair love.] The old editions read : the offer of their love. 
Sir T. Haamer altered it to our. JOHN^'OX. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 

To wall thee from the liberty of flight ; 
And no way canft thou turn thee for redrefs, 
,But death doth front thee with apparent fpoil. 
And pale deftrudtion meets thee in the face. 
Ten thoufand French have ta'eq the facrament, 
5 To rive their dangerous artillery 
Upon no chriilian foul but Engliih Talbot. 
Lo ! there thou fland'ft, a breathing valiant man, 
Of an invincible unconquer'd fpirit : 
This is the lateft glory of thy praife, 
That I, thy enemy, 6 due thee withal ; 
For ere the glafs, that now begins to run, 
Finifli the procefs of his fandy hour, 
Thefe eyes, that fee thee now well coloured, 
Shall fee thee wither'd, bloody, pale, and dead. 

[T>rum afar off. 

Hark ! hark ! the Dauphin's drum, a warning bell, 
Sings heavy mufic to thy timorous foul ; 
And mine lhall ring thy dire departure out. 

[Exit from the walls. 

5 To rive their dangerous artillery] I do not underftand the 
phrafe to rive artillery, perhaps it might be to drive ; we fay to 
drive a blow, and to drive at a man, when we mean to exprefs 
furious aflault. JOHNSON. 

To rive feems to be ufed with Come deviation from its common 
meaning in Antony and Cleopatra, act iv. fc. ii : 

** The foul and body rive not more at parting." 


Rive their artillery feems to mean charge their artillery fo much, 
as to endanger their burfting. So, in Troilus and Crejfida, Ajax 
bids the trumpeter blow fo loud, as to crack his lungs and jpiit 
his brazen pipe. TOLLET. 

6 due thee withal \\ To due is to endue ^ to deck, to grace. 


The old copy reads, -dew tbee vjitbal ; and perhaps rightly. The 
/kv of praife is an expreffion I have met with in other poets ; 
Shakefpeare ufes the fame verb in Macbeth : 

" To de-M the fovereign flow'r, and drown the weeds.'* 
Again, in the fecond part of King Henry VI : 

" give me thy hand, 

14 That I may dew it with my mournful tears." 



Tal. 7 He fables not, I hear the enemy ; 
Out, fome light horfemen, and perufe their wings. 
O, negligent and heedlefs difcipline ! 
How are we park'd, and bounded in a pale ; 
A little herd of England's timorous deer, 
Maz'd with a yelping kennel of French curs ! 
If we be Englilh deer, 8 be then in blood : 
9 Not raical-like, to fall down with a pinch ; 
But rather moody-mad, and defperate flags, 
Turn on the bloody hounds ' with heads of fleel, 
And make the cowards fland aloof at bay : 
Sell every man his life as dear as mine, 
And they ihall find dear deer of *us, my friends. 
God, and faint George ! Talbot, and England's right ! 
Profper our colours in this dangerous fight ! [Exeunt. 


Another part of France. 

Enter a Mfffenger, meeting Tork^ who enters with a 
trumpet, and many foldiers. 

Tork. Arc not the fpeedy fcouts return'd again, 
That dogg'd the mighty army of the Dauphin ? 

7 He fables nof, ] This expreffion Milton has borrowed in 
his Mafque at Ludlow Caflle : 

" She fables not, I feel that I do fear." 
It occurs again in the Pinner of Wakefield, \ 599 : 

" good father fable not with him." STEETENS. 

8 be then in blood ; ] Be in high fpirits, be of true mettle, 


9 Not rafcal-like, ] A rafcal deer is the term of chafe for lean 
poor deer. JOHNSON. 

* with beads of Jleel,] Continuing the image of the Jeer t 

he fuppofes the lances to be their horns. JOHNSON. 

* dear deer of us,'] The fame quibble occurs in Kinr 
Henry IV. Part I : 

" Death hath not {truck fo fat a deer to-day, 
** Though many a dearer , &c." STEEVENS 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 255 

Meffl They are return'd, my lord ; and give it out, 
That he is march'd to Bourdeaux with his power, 
To fight with Talbot : As he march'd along, 
By your efpials were difcovcred 
Two mightier troops than that the Dauphin led ; 
Which join'd with him, and made their march for 

Tork. A plague upon that villain Somerfet ; 
That thus delays my promifed fupply 
Of horfemen, that were levied for this fiege ! 
Renowned Talbot doth expect my aid ; 
1 And I am lowted by a traitor villain, 
And cannot help the noble chevalier : 
God comfort him in this neceffity ! 
If he mifcarry, farewel wars in France. 

Enter Sir JVdtiam Lucy. 

Lucy. Thou princely leader of our Englilh flrength, 
Never fo needfu'. on the earth of France, 
Spur to the refcue of the noble Talbot ; 
Who now is girdled with a waift of iron, 
And hemm'd about with grim deflruction : 
To Bourdeaux, warlike duke ! to Bourdeaux, York! 
Elfe, farewel Talbot, France, and England's honour. 

Tork. O God ! that Somerfet who in proud heart 
Doth flop my cornets were in Talbot's place ! 
So ihould we fave a valiant gentleman, 
By forfeiting a traitor, and a coward. 
Mad ire, and wrathful fury, makes me weep, 
That thus we die, while remifs traitors fleep. 

3 And am I lovjtedt} To lowt may fignify to dtprefs, to 
wers to dijbonour ; but I do not remember it fo ufed. We may 
read, And I am flouted. / am mocktd^ and treated with con- 
tempt. JOHNSON. 

To lout) in Chaucer, fignifies lofubmit. To fubmit is to let 
down. So, Dryden : 

" Sometimes the \i\\\fubmits itfelf a while 
" la fmall defcents, &c." STEEVENS. 



Lucy. O, fend fome fuccour to the diftrefs'd lord ! 

Tork, He dies, we lofe ; I break my warlike word : 
We mourn, France fmiles ; we lofe, they daily get ; 
All 'long of this vile traitor Somerfet. 

Lucy. Then, God take mercy on brave Talbot's 


And on his fon young John ; whom, two hours fincc, 
I met in travel towards his warlike father ! 
This feven years did not Talbot fee his fon ; 
And now they meet where both their lives are done. 

York. Alas ! what joy lhall noble Talbot have, 
To bid his young fon welcome to his grave ? 
Away ! vexation almoft flops my breath, 
That funder'd friends greet in the hour of death. 
Lucy, farewel : no more my fortune can, 
But curfe the caufe I cannot aid the man. 
Maine, Bloys, Poictiers, and Tours, are won away, 
'Long all of Somerfet, and his delay. 

Lucy. Thus, while 4 the vulture of fedition 
Feeds in the bofom of fuch great commanders, 
Sleeping negledtion doth betray to lofs 
The conqucft of our fcarce-cold conqueror, 
That ever-living man of memory, 
Henry the fifth : Whiles they each other crofs, 
Lives, honours, lands, and all, hurry to lofs. [Exit* 


Another part of France. 
Enter Somerfet, with his army. 

Som. It is too late ; I cannot fend them now : 
This expedition was by York, and Talbot, 
Too rafhly plotted ; all our general force 

4 the vulture } Alluding to the tale of Prometheus. 




Might with a Tally of the very town 

Be buckled with : the over-daring Talbot 

Hath fullied all his glofs of former honour 

By this unheedful, defperate, wild adventure : 

York fet him on to fight, and die in fhame. 

That, Talbot dead, great York might bear the name; 

Capt. Here is fir William Lucy, who with me 
Set from our o'er-match'd forces forth for aid. 

Enter Sir William Lucy. 

Som. How now, fir William ? whither were you 

fent ? 
Lucy* Whither, my lord ? from bought and fold 

lord Talbot ; 

Who, * ring'd about with bold adverfity, 
Cries out for noble York and Somerfet, 
To beat afTailing death from his weak legions. 
And whiles the honourable captain there 
Drops bloody fweat from his war-wearied limbs, 
And, 6 in advantage ling'ring, looks for refcue, 
You, his falfe hopes, the truft of England's honour, 
Keep off aloof with 7 worthlefs emulation. 
Let not your private difcord keep away 
The levied fuccours that fliould lend him aid, 
While he, renowned noble gentleman, 
Yields up his life unto a world of odds : 
Orleans the Baftard, Charles, and Burgundy, 
Alencon, Reignier, compafs him about, 
And Talbot periflieth by your default. 
Som. York fet him on, York ihould have fent 

him aid. 
Lucy. And York as faft upon your grace exclaims ; 

5 ring d about ] Environed, encircled. JOHNSON. 

* in advantage lingering, ] Protracting his relillance by the 
advantage of a ftrong poft. JOHNSON. 

7 worthlefs emulation.} In this line emulation fignifies merely 
rivalry^, not ftruggle for iuperior excellence. JOHNSON. 

..VOL. VL S Swear- 


Swearing, that you withhold his levied hofl, 
Collected for this expedition. 

Som. York lies ; he might have fent, and had the v 

horfe : 

I owe him little duty, and lefs love ; 
And take foul fcorn, to fawn on him by fending. 

Lucy* The fraud of England, not the force of 


Hath now entrapt the noble-minded Talbot : 
Never to England fliall he bear his life ; 
But dies, betray'd to fortune by your flrife. 

Som. Come, go ; I will difpatch the horfemen flraight : 
Within fix hours they will be at his aid. 

Lucy. Too late comes refcue; he ista'en, or flam: 
For fly he could not, if he would have fled ; 
And fly would Talbot never, though he might. 

Som. If he be dead, brave Talbot then adieu ! 

Lucy. His fame lives in the world, his fliame in 
you. [Exeunt. 


A field of battle near Eourdeaux. 
Enter Talbot, and his fin. 

Tal. O young John Talbot ! I did fend for thee 
To tutor thee in ftratagems of war ; 
That Talbot's name might be in thee reviv'd, 
When faplefs age, and weak unable limbs, 
Should bring thy father to his drooping chair. 
But, O malignant and ill-boding flars ! 
Now art thou come unto 8 a feaft of death, 
A terrible and unavoided danger : 
Therefore, dear boy, mount on my fwifteft horfe ; 
And I'll dirett thee how thou flialt eicape 

* afcafl of <///6,] To a field where death will 
with [laughter. JOIINSO.V, 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 259 

By fudden flight : come, dally not, begone. 

John. Is my name Talbot ? and am I your fon ? 
And lhall I fly ? O ! if you iove my mother, 
Dilhonour not her honourable name, 
To make a baflard, and a Have of me : 
The world will lay He is not Talbot's blood, 
That bafely fled, when 9 noble Talbot Hood. 

Tal. Fly, to revenge my death, if I be ilain. 

John. He, that flies fo, will ne'er return again. 

y<s/. If we both flay, we both are fure to die. 

John. Then, let me ftay ; and, father, do you fly : 
Your lofs is great, fo ' your regard Ihould be ; 
My worth unknown, no lofs is known in me. 
Upon my death the French can little boaft ; 
In yours they will, in you all hopes are loft. 
Flight cannot ftain the honour you have won ; 
But mine it will, that no exploit have done : 
You fled for vantage, every one will fwear ; 
But, if I bow, they'll fay it was for fear. 
There is no hope that ever I will ftay, 
If, the firft hour, I Ihrink, and run away. 
Here, on my knee, I beg mortality, 
Rather than life preferv'd with infamy. 

3al. Shall all thy mother's hopes lie in one tomb ? 

John* Ay, rather than I'll fhame my mother's 

fal. Upon my blefling I command thee go. 
John. To fight I will, but not to fly the foe. 
Tal. Part of thy father may be fav'd in thee. 
John. No part of him, but will be fhaine in me. 
al. Thou never hadft renown, nor canil not lofe it. 

9 nolle T allot flood.] For what reafon this fcene is written in 
rhyme I cannot guefs. If Shakeipeare had not in other plays 
mingled his rhymes and blank veries in the fame manner, I 
fhould have fufpeded that this dialogue had been a part of Ibme 
other poem which was never fiuiflied, and tuat being loath to rhroW 
his labour away, he inferted it here. \ JOHXSO.V. 

* your regard } Your care of your own iafety. JOHNSON. 

S Z John. 


John. Yes, your renowned name ; Shall flight" 
abufe it ? 

fal. Thy father's charge {hall clear thee from that 

John. You cannot witnefs for me, being (lain. 
If death be fo apparent, then both fly. 

Tal. And leave my followers here, to fight, and die ? 
My age was never tainted wirh fuch fhame. 

John. And fhall my youth be guilty of fuch blame ? 
No more can I be fever'd from your fide, 
"Than can yourfelf yourfelf in twain divide : 
Stay, go, do what you will, the like do I ; 
For live I will not, if my father die. 

Tal. Then here I take my leave of thee, fair fon, 
Born to eclipfe thy life this afternoon. 
Come, fide by fide together live and die ; 
And foul with foul from France to heaven fly. 



Alarum: excurfwns, wherein Talbsts fon is kemm 'd about, 
and Talbot refcues him. 

7'al. Saint George, and vidory! fight, foldiers, fight: 
The regent hath with Talbot broke his word, 
And left us to the rage of France's fword. 
Where is John Talbot ? paufe, and take thy breath; 
I gave thee life, and refcu'd thee from death. 

Join. O twice my father ! twice am I thy fon : 
The life, thou gav'ft me firft, was loft and done ; 
'Till with thy warlike fword, defpight of fate, 
To my determin'd time thou gav'ft new date. 

Tal. When from the Dauphin's creft thy fword 

ftruck fire, 

It warm'd thy father's heart with proud defire 
Of bold-fac'd victory. Then leaden age, 
Quicken'd with youthful fpleen, and warlike rage, 



Beat down Alencon, Orleans, Burgundy, 

And frorti the pride of Gallia refcu'd thee. 

The ireful baflard Orleans that drew blood 

From thee, my boy; and had the maidenhood 

Of thy firfl fight I foon encountered ; 

And, interchanging blows, I quickly Ihed 

Some of his baflard blood ; and, in difgrace, 

Befpoke him thus : Contaminated, bafe, 

And mif-begotten blood I fpill of thine. 

Mean and right poor ; for that pure blood of mine, 

Which thou didjl force from 'Talbot, my brave boy : 

Here, purposing the Baflard to. deflroy, 

Came in flrong refcue. Speak, thy father's care ; 

Art not thou weary, John ? How doft thou fare ? 

Wilt thou yet leave the battle, boy, and fly, 

Now thou art feal'd the fon of chivalry ? 

Fly, to revenge my death, when I am dead ; 

The help of one Hands me in little flead. 

Oh, too much folly is it, well I wof, 

To hazard all our lives in one fmall boat. 

If I to-day die not with Frenchmen's rage, 

To-morrow I fhall die with mickle age : 

By me they nothing gain, an if I flay, 

'Tis but the fhortning of my life one day : 

In thee thy mother dies, our houfhold's name, 

My death's revenge, thy youth, and England's fame : 

All thefe, and more, we hazard by thy flay; 

All thefe are fav'd, if thou wilt fly away. 

John. The fword of Orleans hath not made me 


Thefe words of yours draw life-blood from my heart : 
* Oh what advantage, bought with fuch a lhame, 


* On tbat advantage, bought luitbfucb ajhame, 

To faise a paltry life, andjlay Irigbt fame /] 

This paflage feems to lie obfcure and disjointed. Neither the 
grammar is to be juftified ; nor is the fentiment better. I have 
ventur'd ;tt a flight alteration, which departs ib little from the read- 
ing which hae obtain'd, but fo much raifes the fenfe, as well a 
S 3 take* 


To fave a paltry life, and flay bright fame ! 

Before young Talbot from old Talbot fly, 

The coward horfe, that bears me, fall and die I 

* And like me to the peafant boys of France ; 
To be fliame's fcorn, and fubjedt of milchance ! 
Surely, by all the glory you have won, 

An if I fly, I am not Talbot's fon : 
Then talk no more of flight, it is no boot ; 
If fon to Talbot, die at Talbot's foot. 

TaL Then follow thou thy defperate fire of Crete, 
Thou Icarus ; thy iite to me is fweet : 
If thou wilt fight, fight by thy father's fide ; 
And, commendable prov'd, let's die in pride. [Exeunt. 


Alarum : excurfions. Enter old Talbot, led ly the French* 

J'al. Where is my other life ? mine own is 

gone ; 
O, where's young Talbot ? where is valiant John ? - 

* Triumphant death, fmear'd with captivity ! 
Young Talbot's valour makes me fmile at thee : 
When he perceiv'd me ihrink, and on my knee, 

takes away the obfcurity, that I am willing to think it reftore* 
the author's meaning : 

Out on that vantage. THEOBALD. 

Sir T. Hanmer rends, O what advantage, which I have fol- 
lowed, though Mr. Theobald's conje&ure may be well enough 
admitted. JOHNSON. 

3 And like me to the peafant loys of France ; ] To like one to the 
pea/ants is, to compare, to level ly comparifon ; the line is there- 
lore intelligible enough by itfelr, but in this fenfe it wants con- 
nection. Sir T. Hanmer reads, J}nd leave me, which makes a 
clear fenfe and juft conlequence. But as change is not to be al- 
lowed without necerlity, I have fuffered like to fland, becaufe I 
fuppofe the author meant the fame as make like, or reduce to a le- 
vel with. JOHNSON. 

4 Triumphant death, fmear'd ivilb captivity /] That is, death 
ftained and dishonoured with captivity. JOK.VSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 2 6j 

His bloody fword he brand ifh'd over me, 
And, like a hungry lion, did commence 
Rough deeds of rage, and ftern impatience : 
But when my angry guardant ftood alone, 
J Tend'ring my ruin, and afiail'd of none, 
Dizzy-ey'd fury, and great rage of heart, 
Suddenly made him from my fide to flart 
Into the clufl'ring battle of the French : 
And in that fea of blood my boy did drench 
His over-mounting fpirit ; and there dy'd 
My Icarus, my bloffom, in his pride. 

Enter John Talbot, borne. 

Serv. O my dear lord ! lo, where your fon is borne ! 
Tal. 6 Thou antic death, which laugh'ftus here to 


Anon, from thy infulting tyranny, 
Coupled in bonds of perpetuity, 
Two Talbots, 7 winged through the lither fky, 


5 Tendering my ruin,-'} Watching me with tendernefs in my 
fall. JOHNSON. 

J would rather read, Tending my ruin, &c. TYRWHITT. 
I adhere to the old reading. So, in Hamlet, Polonius fays to 
Ophelia : 

'* Tender yourfelf more dearly." STEEVENS. 

6 Thou antic death, ] The foot, or antic of the play, made 

fport by mocking the graver perfonages. JOHNSON. 

7 winged through the litherjflj,] Lither is flexible or yield- 
ing. In much the fame fenfe Milton fays : 

*' He with broad fails , 

" Winnow'd the luxom air." 
That is, the obfequious air. JOHNSON. 

Lither is the comparative of the adjeclive lithe. 
So, in Lylly's Endymion, i 591 : 

" to breed numbnefs or litherntfs?* 

Lithernffi is limber nefs or yielding ivcaknefs. 
Again, in Look about Ton, 1600 : 

" I'll bring his lither legs in better frame." 
Milton might have borrow'd the exprefiion from Spenfer, or Gower, 
who ufes it in the Prologue to his Confejjio An:antis : 

84 That 


In thy defpight, fhall 'fcape mortality. 
O thou whofe wounds become hard-favour'd death, 
Speak to thy father, ere thou yield thy breath : 
Brave death by fpeaking, whether he will, or no ; 
Imagine him a Frenchman, and thy foe. 
Poor boy ! he fmiles, methinks ; as who fhould fay- 
Had death been French, then death had died to- 

Come, come, and lay him in his father's arms ; 
My fpirit can no longer bear thefe harms. 
Soldiers, adieu ! I have what I would have, 
Now my old arms are young John Talbot's grave. 



Continues near Bourdeaux. 

Enter Charley Akn$on, Burgundy, Bqftard and Joan 
la Pucelle. 

Char* Had York and Somerfet brought refcue in, 
'We ihould have found a bloody day of this. 

Baft. How the young 8 whelp of Talbot's, raging- 


*' That unto him vvhiche the head is, 
** The membres buxom lhall bowe." 

In the old fervice of matrimony, the wife was enjoined to be 
luxom both at bed and board. Buxom therefore anciently fig 
nified obedient or yielding. Stubbs, in his Anatomic of Abufes^ 
1595, ufes the word in the fame fen fe : *' - are fo buxome to 
their fhamelefs defires, &c." STEEVENS. 

- .whelp of Talbofs, raging brood,] Thus the modern edi- 
I have reftored the old reading. Raging-wood fignifies 

raging mad. 
So, Hey 

Heywood in his Dialognes containing a number of effectual 

" and 


Did flelh his puny fword 9 in Frenchmen's blood ! 

Pucel. Once I encountered him, and thus I faid, 
bou maiden youth) be vanquiJVd by a maid : 
But with a proud, majeftical, high fcorn 
He anfwer'd thus ; Toung T^albot was not born 
2"0 be the pillage ' of a giglot wench : 
So, rufhing in the bowels of the French ", 
He left me proudly, as unworthy fight. 

Bur. Doubtlefs, he would have made a noble knight; 
See, where he lies inherfed in the arms 
Of the moft bloody nurfer of his harms. 

Baft. Hew them to pieces, hack their bones afun- 

Whofe life was England's glory, Gallia's wonder. 

Char. Oh, no ; forbear : for that which we have fled 
During the life, let us not wrong it dead. 

" and God wot 

** He is wWat a word, little pott foone hot." 
again : , 

as good 

" As {he gave him. She was, as they fay, horn-wood." 
Again, in The longer tbou livejl the more Fool tbou art t 1570 : 

" He will fight as he were wood." 
Again, in the Myftery of Candlemas-Day, 1512: 

" Like as a vjodman he gan to tray." STEEVENS. 
9 in Frenchmen's blood!] The return of rhyme where young 
Talbot is again mentioned, and in no other place, frrengthens 
the fufpicion that thefe verfes were originally part of fome other 
work, and were copied here only to fave the trouble of com- 
pofing new. JOHNSON. 

1 of a giglot <u)encb.~\ Giglot is a want on , or zjlrumpet* 


The word is ufed by Gafcoigne and other authors, though 
now quite obfolete. 
So, in the play of Orlando Furiofo, \ 599 : 

" Whofe choice is like that Greekifh gigtofs love, 
" That left her lord, prince Menelaus. STEEVENS. 

* in the bowels of the French^ So, in the firfl part of Je* 

fonimo, .1605 : 

" Meet, Don Andrea ! yes, in the tank's Itfiue h. n 




Enter Sir William Luty. 

Lucy. 3 Herald, conduct me to the Dauphin's tent ; 

to know 
Who hath obtain'd the glory of the day. 

Char. On what fubmiffive meffage art thou fent ? 

Lucy. Submiffion, Dauphin ? 'tis a meer French 

word ; 

We Englifh warriors wot not what it means. 
I come to know what prifoners thou haft ta'en, 
And to furvey the bodies of the dead. 

Char. For prifoners afk'ft thou ? hell our prifon is* 
But tell me whom thou feek'ft. 

Lticy. Where is the great Alcides of the field, 
Valiant lord Talbot, earl of Shrewfbury ? 
Created, for his rare fuccefs in arms, 
Great earl of Wafhford, Waterford, and Valence ; 
Lord Talbot of Goodrig and Urchinfield, 
Lord Strange of Blackmere, lord Verdun of Alton, 
Lord Cromwell of Wingfield, lord Furnival of Shef- 

The thrice victorious lord of Falconbridgc ; 
Knight of the noble order of faint George, 
Worthy faint Michael, and the golden fleece ; 
Great marelhal to Henry the fixth, 
Of all his wars within the realm of France ? 

Pucel Here is a filly ftately flile, indeed ! 
The Turk *, that two and fifty kingdoms hath, 
Writes not fo tedious a flile as this. 

3 Condufl me to the Dauphin 3 tent, to know 

Who bath obtain'd ] 

Lucy's meflage implied that he knew who had obtained the vic- 
tory : therefore fir T. Hanmer reads : 

Herald, conduit me to the Dauphin's tent. JOHNSON. 
* The Turk, &c.] Alluding probably to the oftentatious letter 
of Sultan Solyman the Magnificent, to the emperor Ferdinand, 
1562; in which all the Grand Senior's titles are enumerated. 
See Knolles's Hifti of the Turks, 5th edit. p. 789. GRAY. 


K I N G H E N R Y VL 267 

Him, that thou magnify'ft with all thefe titles, 
Stinking, and fly-blown, lies here at our feet. 

Lucy. Is Talbot Ham ; the Frenchmen's only 


Your kingdom's terror and black Nemefis ? 
Oh, were mine eye-balls into bullets turn'd, 
That I, in rage, might fhoot them at your faces ! 
Oh, that I could but call thefe dead to life ! 
It were enough to fright the realm of France : 
Were but his picture left among you here, 
It would amaze the proudeft of you all. 
Give me their bodies ; that I may bear them hence, 
And give them burial as befeems their worth. 

Pv.cel. I think, this upftart is old Talbot's ghoft, 
He fpeaks with fuch a proud commanding fpirit. 
For God's fake, let him have 'em ; to keep them here, 
They would but flink, and putrefy the air. 

Char, Go, take their bodies hence. 

Lucy. I'll bear 

Them hence : but from their aflies fliall be rear'd 
A phoenix, that fhall make all France afeard. 

Char. So we be rid of them, do with him what thou 


And now to Paris, in this conquering vein ; 
All will be ours, now bloody Talbot's flain. [Exeunt* 


Enter King Henry, Glofter, and Exeter. 

K. Henry. Have you perus'd the letters from the 

The emperor, and the earl of Armagnac ? 

Glo. i have, my lord ; and their intent is this, 
They humbly fue unto your excellence, 
To have a godly peace concluded of, 
Between the realms of England and of France: 

K. Henry. 


K. Henry. How doth your grace afFect their motion ? 

G&. Well, my good lord ; and as the only means 
To flop effufion of our Chriilian blood, 
And ftablifti quietnefs on every fide. 

K. Henry. Ay, marry, uncle ; for I always thought, 
It was both impious and unnatural, 
That fuch humanity * and bloody ftrife 
Should reign among profefibrs of one faith. 

Glo, Befide, my lord, the fooner to effecl:, 
And furer bind, this knot of amity, 
The earl of Armagnac near knit to Charles, 
A man of great authority in France, 
Proffers his only daughter to your grace 
In marriage, with a large and fumptuous dowry. 

K. Henry. Marriage ? uncle, alas ! my years are, 


And fitter is my fludy and my books, 
Than wanton dalliance with a paramour. 
Yet, call the ambafiadors ; and, as you pleafe, 
So let them have their anfwers every one : 
I fhall be well content with any choice, 
Tends to God's glory, and my country's weal. 

Enter a Legate, and two ambajfadors, with Wlnckefter 
as cardinal. 

Exe. 6 What ! is my lord of Winchefler inftall'd, 
And call'd unto a cardinal's degree ! 
Then, I perceive, that will be verify'd, 
Henry the fifth did fometime prophefy, 

5 immanity'} i.e. barbarity, favagenefs. STEEVENS, 

6 What ! ii my lord of Wincbejler inflalfd, 

And call'd unto a cardinal's degree /] 

This (as Mr. Edwards has obferved in his MS. notes) argues a 
great forgetfulnefs in the poet. In the firft aft Glofter fays : 

/ // canvafs tbee in thy broad cardinal'* bat ; 
tnd it is ftrange that the duke of Exeter fhould not know of his 
advancement. STEEVENS. 


If once he come to be a cardinal, 
, Hell make bis cap co-equal with the crown. 

K. Henry. My lords ambaffadors, your feveral fuits 
Have been confider'd and debated on. 
Your purpofe is -both good and reafonable : 
And, therefore, are we certainly refolv'd 
To draw conditions of a friendly peace ; 
Which, by my lord of Winchefter, we mean 
Shall be tranfported prefently to France. 

Gh. And for the proffer of my lord your matter, 
I have inform'd his highnefs fo at large, 
As liking of the lady's virtuous gifts, 
Her beauty, and the value of her dower, 
He doth intend Ihe lhall be England's queen. 

K. Henry. In argument and proof of which contract, 
Bear her this jewel, pledge of my affection. 
And fo, my lord protector, fee them guarded, 
And fafely brought to Dover ; where, inftiipp'd, 
Commit them to the fortune of the fea. 

[Exeunt king, and train. 

Win. Stay, my lord legate ; you mall firft receive 
The fum of money, which I promifed 
Should be deliver'd to his holinefs 
For cloathing me in thefe grave ornaments. 

Legate. I will attend upon your lordfhip's leifure. 

Win. Now Winchefter will not fubmit, I trow, 
Or be inferior to the proudefl peer. 
Humphrey of Glofter, thou malt well perceive, 
7 That, nor in birth, nor for authority, 
The bifhop will be over-borne by thee : 
I'll either make thee ftoop, and bend thy knee, 
Or fack this country with a mutiny. [Exeunt. 

7 That, nor in lirtb,'} I would read/^r birth. That is, thou 
flult not rule me though thy birth is legitimate and thy autho- 
rity fupreme. JOHNSON. 

The old copy reads, neither. STEEVENS, 





Enter "Dauphin^ Burgundy, Alenfon, and Joan la 

Dau. Thefe news, my lords, may cheer our droop 

ing fpirits : 

*Tis faid, the flout Parifians do revolt, 
And turn again unto the warlike French. 
Alen. Then march to Paris, royal Charles o 

And keep not back your powers in dalliance. 

Pucel. Peace be amongft them, if they turn to us 
Elfe, ruin combat with their palaces ! 

Enter a Scout. 

Scout. Succefs unto our valiant general, 
And happinefs to his accomplices ! 

Dau. What tidings fend our fcouts ? I pr'ythec^ 

Scout. The Englifh army, that divided was 
Into two parts, is now conjoin'd in one ; 
And means to give you battle prefently. 

Dau. Somewhat too fudden, firs, the warning is ; 
But we will prefently provide for them. 

Bur. I truft, the ghoft of Talbot is not there ; 
Now he is gone, my lord, you need not fear. 

Pucel. Of all bafe paflions, fear is moft accurs'd : 
Command the conqueft, Charles, it fhall be thine ; 
Let Henry fret, and all the world repine. 

Dau. Then on, my lords ; And France be fortu- 
nate ! [Exeunt* 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 2 7 x 


Alarum : excurfons. Enter Joan la Pucelle. 

PuceL The regent conquers,' and the Frenchmen 


Now help, 9 ye charming fpells, and periapts ; 

And ye choice fpirits, that admonilh me, 

And give me figns of future accidents ! {Thunder. 

You fpeedy helpers, that are fubftitutes 

Under the lordly ' monarch of the north, 

Appear, and aid me in this cnterprize ! 

Enter Fiends. 

This fpeedy and quick appearance argues proof 
Of your accuftom'd diligence to me. 
Now, ye familiar fpirits, that are cull'd 

9 -ye charming f pells, and periapts ;] Charms fow*d up. Ezek. 
xiii. 1 8. Woe to them that fo-vj pillows to all arm-boles^ to bunt 
fouls. POPE. 

Periapts were worn about the neck as prefervatives from dif- 
eafe or danger. Of thefe, the firft chapter of St. John's Gofpel 
was deemed the moil efficacious. 

Whoever is defirous to know more about them, may confult 
Reginald Scott's Difiovery of Witchcraft^ 1584, p. 230, &c. 


The following ftory which is related in fflfs, Fits, and Fan- 
cies^ 1595, proves what Mr. Steevens has aflerted. " A cardinal 
feeing a prieft carrying a cudgel under his gown, reprimanded 
him. His excuie was, that he only carried it to defend himfelf 
againft the dogs of the town. Wherefore, I pray you, replied 
the -cardinal, ferves St. John's Gofpel? Alas, my lord, faid the 
prieft, thefe curs underftand no Latin." MALONE. 

1 monarch of the nortb,~\ The north was always fuppofed to 
be the particular habitation of bad fpirits. Milton therefore af- 
fembles the rebel angels in the north. JOHNSON. 

The boaft of Lucifer in the xivth chapter of Ifaiah is faid to 
be, that he 'Mill Jit upon the mount of the congregation , in tbf Jtdes 
ef tke north. STEEYENS. 



* Out of the powerful regions under earth, 

Help me this once, that France may get the field. 

[They walk, andfpeak not* 
Oh, hold me not with filence over-long ! 
Where I was wont to feed you with my blood, 
I'll lop a member off, and give it you, 
In earnefl of a further benefit ; 
So you do condefcend to help me now. 

[They hang their heads. 

No hope to have redrefs ? My body lhall 
Pay recompence, if you will grant my fuit. 

[Tbeyjhake their heads. 
Cannot my body, nor blood-facrifice, 
Intreat you to your wonted furtherance ? 
Then take my foul ; my body, foul, and all, 
Before that England give the French the foil. 

[They depart. 

See ! they forfake me. Now the time is come, 
That France muft vail her lofty-plumed creft, 
And let her head fall into England's lap. 
My ancient incantations are too weak, 
And hell too flrong for me to buckle with : 
Now, France, thy glory droopeth to the duft. [Exit 

Excurfwns. Pucelk and York fight hand to hand. 
Pucelle is taken. The French fy. 

Tork. Damfel of France, I think, I have you faft : 
Unchain your fpirits now with fpelling charms, 
And try if they can gain your liberty. 
A goodly prize, fit for the devil's grace ! 
See, how the ugly witch doth bend her brows, 
As if, with Circe, Ihe would change my fhape. 

Pucel. Chang'd to a worfer ihape thou canft not be. 

Tork. Oh, Charles the Dauphin is a proper man ; 
No Ihape but his can pleafe your dainty eye. 

- Out of tie powerful regions under eartl,] I believe Shake- 
Ipeare wrote legions* WAR BUR TON. 



Puccl. A plaguing mifchief light on Charles, and 

thcc ! 

And may ye both be fuddenly furpriz'd 
By bloody hands, in deeping O n your beds ! 

Tork. Fell, banning hag 3 ! enchantrefs, hold thy 


Pucel. I pr'ythee, give me leave to curfe a while. 

Tork. Curie, mifcrcant, when thou comeft to the 

flake. [Exeunt. 

Alarum. Enter Suffolk, leading in lady Margaret. 

Si'.f. Be what thou wilt, thou art my prifoner. 

\_Gazcs on her. 

! Oh faircfl beauty, do not fear, nor fly ; 
For I will touch thee but with reverent hands. 
I kit's thefe fingers for eternal peace, 
And lay them gently on thy tender fide. 
Who art thou ? lay, that I may honour thcc. 

Mar. Margaret my name ; and daughter to a king, 
The king of Naples, whofoc'er thou art. . 

Suf. An earl I am, and Suffolk am I call'd. 
Be not offended, nature's miracle, 
Thou art allotted to be ta'en by me : 
Sp cloth the fwan her downy cygnets fave, 
Keeping them prifoners underneath her wings. 
Yet, if this fervile ufage once offend, 
Go, and be free again, as Suffolk's friend. [Sheisgoittg* 
Oh, flay ! I have no power to let her pals ; 
My hand would free her, but my heart fays no. 
4 As plays the fun upon the glafly ftreams, 
Twinkling another counterfeited beam, 


3 fell banning bag /] To ban is to curfe. So, in the 

y e ~M of Malta, 1633 : 

*' I Ian their fouls to everlafting pains." STEEVENS. 

4 Ai plays the fun ttfon the glajjy jireams, &c.] This comparl- 
fon, made between things which feem fufficiently unlike, is in- 
tended to exprefs the ibttnefs and delicacy of lady Margaret's 

Vot. VI. T beauty, 


So feems this gorgeous beauty to mine eyes. 
Fain would I woo her, yet I dare not fpeak ; 
I'll call for pen and ink, and write my mind : 
Fie, DC la Poole ! 5 difable not thyfelf ; 
Haft not a tongue ? is fhe not here thy prifoner ? 
Wilt thou be daunted at a woman's fighc ? 
Ay ; beauty's princely majcfty is fuch, 
Confounds the tongue, and makes the fenfcs rough. 

Afar. Say, earl of Suffolk, if thy name be fo, 
What ranfom muft I pay before I pafs ? 
For, I perceive^ I am thy prifoner. 

Suf. How can'ft thou tell, flic will deny thy fuit, 
Before thou make a trial of her love ? \_Afidc. 

Mar. Why fpeak'ft thou not ? what ranfom muft I 
- pay ? 

Suf. She's beautiful ; and therefore to be woo'd : 
She is a woman ; therefore to be won. [Afide. 

Mar. Wilt thou accept of ranfom, yea, or no ? 

Suf. Fond man ! remember, that thou haft a wife; 
Then how can Margaret be thy paramour ? \_Afide. 

Mar. I were beft to leave him, for he will not hear. 

Suf. There all is marr'd ; there lies a cooling card 6 . 

Mar. He talks at random ; fure, the man is mad. 

Suf. And yet a difpenfation may be had. 

Mar. And yet I would that you would anfwer me. 
' Suf. I'll win this lady Margaret. For whom ? 
Why, for my king : Tufh ! that's 7 a wooden thing. 


beauty, which delighted, but did not dazzle : which was bright, 
but gave no pain by its luftre. JOHNSON. 

s . difable not thyfelf;] Do not reprefent thyfelf fo weak. 

To difable the judgment of another was, in that age, the fame 
as to deftroy its credit or authority. JOHNSON. 
So, in A^ Tou Like. //, ad V : " If again, it was not well cur, 
he difabled my judgment" STEEVENS. 

6 ' a cooling card.] So, in Marias andSylla, 1594: 

" I'll have a prefent cooling card for you." STEEVENS. 

7 a yjoodcn thing.] Is an aukward bujinefs^ an undertaking 
Siot likely tofucceed. 

So, in Lylly's Galatbca, 1592: " Would I were out of thefe 
tyoods, for I (hall have but wooden luck." 



Mar. He talks of wood : It is fome carpenter. 

Suf. Yet fo my fancy may be fatisfy'd, 
And peace eftablifhed between thjefe realms. 
But there remains a fcruple in that too i 
For though her father be the king of Naples, 
Duke of Anjou and Maine, yet is he poor, 
And our nobility will fcorn the match. [Aftde. 

Mar. Hear ye, captain ? Are you not at leilure ? 

Suf. It fhall be fo, difdain they ne'er fo much : 
Henry is youthful, and will quickly yield. 
Madam, I have a fecret to reveal. 

Mar. What though I be enthral I'd ? he feems a 

And will not any way dishonour me. [dfide. 

Suf. Lady, vouchfafe to liften what I fay. 

Mar. Perhaps, I fhall be refcu'd by the French ; 
And then I need not crave his courtcfy. \_AJide. 

Suf. Sweet madam, give me hearing in a caufe 

Mar. Tufh ! women have been captivate ere now. 


Suf. Lady, wherefore talk you fo ? 

Mar. I cry you mercy, 'tis but quid for quo. 

Suf. Say, gentle princefs, would you not fuppofe 
Your bondage happy, to be made a queen ? 

Mar. To be a queen in bondage, is more vile, 
Than is a flave in bafe fervility ; 
For princes Ihould be free. 

Suf. And fo fhall you, 
If happy England's royal king be free. 

Mar. Why, what concerns his freedom unto me ? 

Suf. Til undertake to make thee Henry's queen ; 
To put a golden fcepter in thy hand, 
And fet a precious crown upon thy head, 

Again, in his Ma'uPs Mctamorpbojis, 1600 : 

*' My mailer takes but wooden pains." 
Again, in the Knave of Spades, &c. no date. 

" To make an end of that fame wooden phrafe." 

T 2 If 


If thou wilt condefccnd to be my 

Mar. What? 

St<f. His love. 

Mar. I am unworthy to be Henry's wife. 

Suf. No, gentle madam ; I unworthy am 
To woo fo fair a dame to be his wife, 
And have no portion in the choice myfelf. 
How fay you, madam ; are you fo content ? 

Mar. An if my father pleafe, I am content. 

Suf. Then call our captains, and our colours, forth : . 
And, madam, at your father's caftle walls 
We'll crave a parley, to confer with him. 

Sound. Enter Relgnicr on the walls. 

Suf. See, Reignicr, fee, thy daughter prifoncr. 

Reig. To whom ? 

Suf. To me. 

Reig. Suffolk, what remedy ? 
I am a foldier ; and unapt to weep, 
Or to exclaim on fortune's ficklenefs. 

Suf. Yes, there is remedy enough, my lord : 
Confent, (and, for thy honour, give confcnt) 
Thy daughter lhall be wedded to my king ; 
Whom I with pain have woo'd and won thereto ; 
And this her eafy-held imprifonment 
Hath gain'd thy daughter princely liberty. 

Reig. Speaks Suffolk as he thinks ? 

Suf. Fair Margaret knows, 
That Suffolk doth not flatter, face, or feign. 

Reig. Upon thy princely warrant, I defcend, 
To give thee anfvver of thy juft demand. 

[Exit from the walls. 

Suf. And here I will expect thy coming. 

Trumpets found. Enter Reignier, below. 

Reig. Welcome, brave earl, into our territories ; 
Command in Anjou what your honour plcafes. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 27y 

Suf. Thanks, Reignier, happy for fo fweet a child, 
Fit to be made companion with a king : 
What anfwcr makes your grace unto my fuit ? 

Rcig. Since thou doll deign to woo her little worth, 
To be the princely bride of fuch a lord ; 
Upon condition I may quietly 
Fnjov mine own, the countries Maine and Anjou, 
Free from opprcffion, or the ilrokc of war, 
My daughter ih:-ill be Henry's, if he plcafe. 

Suf. That is her ranfom, I deliver her ; 
And thole two countries, I wi:l undertake, 
Your grace iliall well and quietly enjoy. 

Reig. And I again, in Henry's royal name, 
As deputy unto that gracious king, 
Give thce her hand, for fign of plighted faith. 

Suf. Reignier of France, I give thee kingly thanks, 
Becaufe this is in traffic of a king : 
And yet, methinks, I could be well content 
To be mine own attorney in this cafe. \_Aflde. 

I'll over then to England with this news, 
And make this marriage to be folemniz'd : 
So, farewel, Reignier ! Set this diamond fafe ' 
In golden palaces, as it becomes. 

Rcig. I do embrace thee, as I would embrace 
The Chriftian prince, king Henry, were he here. 

Mar. Farewel, my lord ! Goodwifhes, praife, and 

Shall Suffolk ever have of Margaret. [$be is going. 

Sttf. Farewel, fweet madam ! But hark you, Mar- 
garet ; 
No princely commendations*to my king ? 

MJ?-. Such commendations as become a maid, 
A virgin, and his fervant, fay to him. 

Suf. Words fweetly plac'd, and modeftly diredled. 
But, madam, I ipuft trouble you again, 
No loving token to his majefty ? 

Mar. Yes, my good lord ; a pure unfpotted heart, 
Never yet taint with love, I fend the kiner. 

T 3 Srf. 


Sitf. And this withal. [Kijes her. 

Mar. That for thyfelf ; I will not fo prefume, 

8 To fend fuch peevifh tokens to a king. 

. [Exetmt Reignler, and Margaret. 
Saf. O, \vcrt thou for myfclf ! But, Suffolk, flay; 
Thou may'fl not wander in that labyrinth ; 
There Minotaurs, and ugly trealbns, lurk. 
Sollicit Henry with her wond'rous praife : 
Bethink thce on her virtues that furmounr, 

9 Mad, natural graces that extinguilh art ; 
Repeat their fcmblance often on the feas, 
That, when thou com'ft to kneel at Henry's feet, 
Thou may 'it bereave him of his wits with wonder. 



dimp of the duke of York in Anjou. 
Enter Tork, Warwick ^ a Shepherd^ and fucelle. 

Tork. Bring forth that forcerefs, condemn'd to 


Shcp. Ah, Joan ! this kills thy father's heart out- 
right ! 

Have I fought every country far and near, 
And, now it is my chance to find thee out, 

8 To fend fab peevifh tokens ] Pccvijb, for child ifli. 


See a note on Cymbeline, aft 1. fc. vii : " He's ftrange and 
pcevijh" STEKVENS. 

9 Mad, natural graces ^J So the old copy. The modern 

editors have been content to read her natural graces. By the 
word maJ, however, I believe the poet only meant ivildor, 
uncultivated. In the former of thefe iignilications he appears 

to have ufed it in O/kcliv he jlc /0i\/y-<j<:'V mad. Which 

Dr. Johnfon has properly interpreted. We call a wild girl, to 
this day, a mad-cap. 

Mail, in fome of the ancient books of gardening, is ufed as an 
epithet to plants which grow rampant and wild. STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VL 279 

Muft I behold thy timelefs ' cruel death ? 

Ah, Joan, fweet daughter Joan, I'll die with thee ! 

Pucel. Decrepit mifer 4 ! bafe ignoble wretch ! 
I am defcended of a gentler blood , 
Thou art no father, nor no friend, of mine. 

Shep. Out, out ! My lords, an pleafc you, 'tis 

not fo ; 

I did beget her, all the parifh knows : 
Her mother liveth yet, can teftify 
She was the firft-fruit of my batchelorfhip. 

War. Gracelefs ! wilt thou deny thy parentage ? 

Tork. This argues what her kind of life hath been ; 
Wicked and vile ; and fo her death concludes. 

Sbep. Fie, Joan ! 3 that thou wilt be fo obitacle ! 


1 timelefs] is untimely. So, in Dray ton's Legend of Robert 
Duke of Normandy : 

** Thy itrength was buried in his timelefs death." 


* Decrepit mifer !] Mifer has no relation to avarice in this paf 
fage, but fimply means a miferable creature. So, in the Inter- 
lude of Jacob and Efau, i 568 : 

" But as for thefe mifer 3 within my father's tent." 
Again, in Lord Sterline's tragedy of Crdfus, 1604 : 
" Or thinkit thou me of judgment too remifs, 

*' A mifer that in miferie remains, 
" The baftard child of fortune, barr'd from blifs, 

" Whom heaven doth hate, and all the world difdains ?" 
Again, in Holinihed, p. 760, where he is fpeaking of the death 
of Richard III : " And fo this mifer, at the fame verie point, had 
like chance and fortune, &c." Again, p. 951, among the lail 
words of lord Cromwell: " for if I Ihould fo doo, I were 
a very wretch and a mifer" Again, ibid: " and fo patiently 
fuffered the ftroke of the ax, by a ragged and butcherlie mifer, 
which ill-favouredlie performed the office." STEEVENS. 

3 that tbou ivilt be fo objiacle !] A vulgar corruption of ol> 

Jllnate, which I think has oddly lafled fince our author's time till 
now. JOHNSON. 

The fame corruption may be met with in other writers. Thus, 
in Chapman's May-day, 1611 : 

" An obftacle young thing it is." 
Again, in The Tragedy of Hoffman, 1631 : 
" Be not objlade, old duke." 

T 4 Again, 


God knows, thou art a collop of my fleili j 
And for thy fake have I fried many a tear : 
Deny me not, I pr'ythee, gentle Joan. 

Puce!, Peafant, a vaunt ! You have fuborn'd this 

Of purpofe to obfcure 4 my noble birth. 

SJ:cp. 'Tis true, I gave a noble to the prieil, 
The morn that I was wedded to her mother. 
Kneel down and take my bleffing, good my girl. 
Wilt thou not fioop ? Now curfed be the time 
Of thy nativity ! I would, the milk 
Thy mother gave thee, when thou luck'dft her breafl, 
Had been a little ratfbane for thy fake ! 
Or elfe, when thou didil keep my lambs a-field, 
I wifh fome ravenous wolf had eaten thee ! 
Dofl thou deny thy father, curfed drab ? 
O, burn her, burn her ; hanging is too good. [Exit. 

Tcrk. Take her away ; for me hath liv'd too long, 
To fill the world with vicious qualities. 

Pucel. Firft, let me tell you whom you have con- 

demn'd : 

Not me begotten of a Ihepherd fwain, 
But iilu'd from the progeny of kings ; 
Virtuous, and holy ; chofen from above, 
By infpiration of celeftial grace, 
To work exceeding miracles on earth. 
I never had to do with wicked fpirits : 
But you, that are polluted with your lulls, 
Stain'd with the guiltlefs blood of innocents, 
Corrupt and tainted with a thoufand vices, 
Bccaule you want the grace that others have, 

Again, in Goiver dc Confejjione Amantis, B. II : 

" He thanked God of his miracle, 

" To whofe might may be none objlacle" STKLVENS. 
* wy noble birth. 

'77. true, I gave a nolle ] 

This pafTage Terms to corroborate an explanation, fomcwhnr far- 
fetched, which I have, given in Henry IV. of the ncbleman* and 
Royal man. JOHNSON. 



You judge it ftraight a thing impoffible 
To compafs wonders, but by help of devils. 
5 No, mifconceived ! Joan of Arc hath been 
A virgin from her tender infancy, 
Chafte and immaculate in very thought ; 
Whofe maiden blood, thus rigoroufly effus'd, 
Will cry for vengeance at the gates of heaven. 

York. Ay, ay ; away with her to execution. 

War. And hark ye, firs; becaufe ftie is a maid, 
Spare for no faggots, let there be enough : 
Place barrels of pitch upon the fatal ftake, 
That fo her torture may be Ihortened. 

Pucel. Will nothing turn your unrelenting hearts ? 
Then, Joan, difcover thine infirmity ; 
That warranted! by law to be thy privilege.- 
I am with child, ye bloody homicides : 
Murder not then the fruit within my womb, 
Although ye hale me to a violent death. 

Tork. Now heaven forefend ! the holy maid with 
child ? 

War. The greateft miracle that e'er ye wrought : 
Is all your ftricl precifenefs come to this ? 

York. She and the Dauphin have been juggling: 
I did imagine what would be her refuge. 

War. Well, go to ; we will have no baftards live ; 
Efpecially, fince Charles muft father it. 

Pucel. You are decciv'd ; my child is none of his ; 
It was Alcncon, that enjoy 'd my love. 

Tork. 6 Alencon ! that notorious Machiavel ! 
It dies, an if it had a thoufand lives. 


5 NJ, m ij conceived ! ] i.e. No\ ye m!fconce!<vers y ye who mif- 
tnke me and my qualities. STEEVENS. 

6 Alcncon! that notorious Machiavel /] Machiavel being 

mentioned fomewhat before his time, this line is by fome of the 
editors given to the players, and ejected from the text. JOHNSON. 

The character of Machiavel feems to have made fo very deep 
a# imprellion on the dramatic writers of this age, that he is many 

82 F I R S T P A R T O F 

Pucel. O, give me leave, I have deluded you ; 
'Twas neither Charles, nor yet the duke I nam'd, 
But Reignier, king of Naples, that prevail'd. 

War. A marry 'd man ! that's moft intolerable. 

Tork. Why, here's a girl ! I think, Ihe knows not 

There were fo many, whom Ihe may accufe. 

War. It's fign, Ihe hath been liberal and free. 

Tork. And, yet, forfooth, Ihe is a virgin pure. 
Strumpet, thy words condemn thy brat, and thee : 
Ufe no intreaty, for it is in vain. 

Pucel. Then lead me hence ; with whom I leave 

my curfe : 

May never glorious fun reflex his beams 
Upon the country where you m?.ke abode ! 
But darknefs, and the gloomy fliade of death 7 
Environ you ; 8 'till mifchief, and defpair, 
Drive you to break your necks, or hang yourfelves ! 

\_Rxlt guarded. 

Tork. Break thou in pieces, and confume to afhes, 
Thou foul accurfed minifter of hell ! 

times as prematurely fpoken of. So, in the fall ant 
1615, one of the characters bids Caradoc, i. e. Caraftacus^ 

" i ... read Macbiavel : 

" Princes that would "afpirc, muft mock at hell." 
Again : 

" " - my brain 

" Italianates my barren faculties 

*' To Macbiai'dian blacknefs - " STEEVEXS. 
7 -^darknefs and the gloomy jbade of death ] The exprellion 
is fcriptural : *' Whereby the day-fpring from on high hath 
vifited us, to give light to them that fit in darknefs and tie fiafo-v 
of death" MALONE. 

8 - till mift biff and dcfpalr 

Drive you to break, your necks, - ] 

Perhaps Shakefpeare intended to remark in this execration, the 
frequency of filicide among the Englifh, which has been com- 
monly imputed to the gloominefs of their air. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 283 

Enter Cardinal Beaufort, &c. 

Car. Lord regent, I do greet your excellence 
With letters of commiffion from the king. 
For know, my lords, the ftates of Chriftendom, 
Mov'd with remorfe at thcfe outrageous broils, 
Have earnelily implor'd a general peace 
9 Betwixt our nation and the afpiring French ; 
And fee at hand the Dauphin, and his train, 
Approacheth, to confer about fome matters. 

Tork. Is all our travel turn'd to this effedt ? 
After the Slaughter of fo many peers, 
So many captains, gentlemen, and foldiers, 
That in this quarrel have been overthrown, 
And fold their bodies for their country's benefit, 
Shall we at laft conclude effeminate peace ? 
Have we not loft moft part of all the towns, 
By treafon, fallhood, and by treachery, 
Our great progenitors had conquered ? 
Oh, Warwick, Warwick ! I forefee with grief 
The utter lofs of all the realm of France. 

War* Be patient, York ,* if we conclude a peace, 
It lhall be with fuch ftridt and fevere covenants, 
As little lhall the Frenchmen gain thereby. 

Enter Charles, jflenfon, Baftard, and Reignler. 
Char. Since, lords of England, it is thus agreed, 
That peaceful truce lhall be proclaimM in France, 

9 Betwixt our nation and th* afpiring French ;] But would an 
ambaflador, who came to perfuade peace with France, ufe it as 
an argument, that France was afpiring ? Shakefpeare without 
doubt wrote : 

. t)j> refpiring French ; 

i.e. who had but juft got into breath again, after having been 
almoil hunted down by the Englifh. WAR BUR TON. 

The ambaflador yet ufes no argument, but if he did, refpir- 
in* would not much help the caufe. Shakefpeare wrote what 
might be pronounced, and therefore did not write //&' refpiring. 




We come to be informed by yourfelves 
What the conditions of that league mnft be. 

Tork. Speak, Winchcftcr; for boiling cholerchoaks 
The hollow paflage of my ' poiibn'd voice, 
By fight of thefe our - baleful enemies. 

Win. Charles, and the reft, it is enacted thus : 
That in regard king Henry gives confent, 
Of meer compaffion, and of lenity, 
To eafe your country of diftrefsful war, 
And faffe r you to breathe in fruitful peace, 
You ihall become true liegemen to his crown : 
And, Charles, upon condition thou wilt fwear 
To pay him tribute, and fubmit thyfelf, 
Thou lhalt be plac'd as viceroy under him, 
And flill enjoy thy regal dignity. 

Alen. Mult he be then as lhadow of himfelf ? 
Adorn his temples J with a coronet ; 
And yet, in fubftance and authority, 
Retain but privilege of a private man ? 
This proffer is abiurd and reafonlefs." 

Char. 'Tis known, already that I am poflefs'd 
Of more than half the Gallian territories, 
And therein rcvercnc'd for their lawful king : 
Shall I, for lucre of the reft unvanquifli'd, 
Detract fo much from that prerogative, 
As to be call'd but viceroy of the whole ? 

1 poifoji'dvoice,'] Poifond voice agrees well enough with 

baneful enemies, or with baleful, if it can be ufed in the fame 
fenfe. The modern editors read, prifond voice. JOHNSON. 

z baleful cnarrcs.'] Baleful is forr awful ; I therefore rather 
imagine that we flioulit read baneful, hurtful, or mifchievous. 


Baleful had anciently the fame meaning as baneful. It is an 
epithet very frequently beftow'd en poiibnous plants and reptiles. 
So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" With baleful weeds, and precious-juiced flowers." 

3 with a coronet ;] Ccronet is here ufed for a cro-wn. 




No, lord embaflador ; I'll rather keep 
That which I have, than, coveting for more, 
Be caft from poifibility of all. 

Tork. Infulting Charles ! hafl thou by fecret means 
Us'd interceffion to obtain a league ; 
And, now the matter grows to compromife, 
Stand'fl thou aloof * upon comparifon ? 
Either 5 accept the title thou uiurp'it, 
Of benefit proceeding from our king, 
And not of any challenge of defert, 
Or we will plague thee with inceflant wars. 

Reig. My lord, you do not well in obftinncy 
To cavil in the courfe of this contract : 
If once it be negledted, ten to one, 
We ihall not find like opportunity. 

Akn. To fay the truth, it is your policy, 
To fave your fubjects from fuch maffacre, 
And ruthlefs (laughters, as are daily feen 
By our proceeding in hoftility : 
And therefore take this compact of a truce, 
Although you break it when your pleafure ferves. 

\_Afide, to the Dauphin. 

War. How fay'ft thou, Charles ? Ihall our condi- 
tion ftand ? 

Char. It ihall : 

Only referv'd, you claim no intereft 
Jn any of our towns of garrifon. 

Tork. Then fwear allegiance to his majefty ; 
As thou art knight, never to difobey, 
Nor be rebellious to the crown of England, 
Thou, nor thy nobles, vto the crown of England. 
[Cherries, and the reft, give tokens of fealty. 

4 upon cpmfarifon ?~\ Do you ftand to compare your prefent 
ftate, a itate which you have neither rigjht or power to maintain, 
with the terms which we offer ? JOHNSON. 

5 accept the title tbou ufurp'/l. 

Of benefit ] 

Benefit is here a term of law. Be content to live as the lensf- 
ciay of our -king. JOHNSON. 



So, now difmifs your army when ye pleafe ; 
Hang up your enfigns, let your drums be flill, 
For here we entertain a folemn peace. [Exeunt. 


A room in the palace. 

Enter Suffolk, in conference with king Henry ; 
Glofter, and Exeter. 

K. Henry. Your wond'rous rare defcription, noble 


Of beauteous Margaret hath aftonifh'd me : 
Her virtues, graced with external gifts, 
Do breed love's fettled paffions in my heart : 
And like as rigour of tempeftuous gufts 
Provokes the mightieft hulk againft the tide ; 
6 So am I driven, by breath of her renown, 
Either to fuflTer fhipwreck, or arrive 
Where I may have fruition of her love. 

Suf. Tufli, my good lord ! this fuperficial tale 
Is but a preface of her worthy praife : 
The chief perfections of that lovely dame, 
(Had I fufficient fkill to utter them) 
Would make a volume of enticing lines, 
Able to ravifh any dull conceit. 
And, which is more, fhe is not fo divine, 
So full replete with choice of all delights, 
But, with as humble lowlinefs of mind, 
She is content to be at your command ; 
Command, I mean, of virtuous chafte intents, 

6 So am I driven, ] This fimile is fomewhat obfcure ; he 
feems to mean, that as a fliip is driven againft the tide by the 
wind, fo.he is driven by love agaiuil the current of his intereft. 




To love and honour Henry as her lord. 

K. Hemy. And otherwife will Henry ne'er prefume. 
Therefore, my lord protestor, give confent, 
That Margaret may be England's royal queen. 

Glo. So Ihould I give confent to flatter fin. 
You know, my lord, your highnefs is betroth'd 
Unto another lady of efteem ; 
How fhall we then difpenfe with that contradr, 
And not deface your honour with reproach ? 

Suf. As doth a ruler with unlawful oaths ; 
Or one, that, 7 at a triumph having vow'd 
To try his ftrength, forfaketh yet the lifts 
By reafon of his adverfary's odds : 
A poor carl's daughter is unequal odds, 
And therefore may be broke without offence. 

Glo. Why, what, I pray, is Margaret more than 

that ? 

Her father is no better than an earl, 
Although in glorious titles he excel. 

Suf. Yes, my good lord, her father is a king, 
The king of Naples, and Jerufalem ; 
And of fuch great authority in France, 
As his alliance will confirm our peace, 
And keep the Frenchmen in allegiance. 

Glo. And fo the earl of Armagnac may do, 
Becauie he is near kinfman unto Charles. 

Exe. Befide, his wealth doth warrant liberal dower j 
While Reignier fooner will receive, than give. 

Suf. A dower, my lords ! difgrace not fo your 


That he Ihould be fo abject, bafe, and poor, 
To chufe for wealth, and not for perfect love. 
Henry is able to enrich his queen, 
And not. to feek a queen to make him rich : 
So worthlefs peafants bargain for their wives, 

7 at a triumph .] That is, at the fports by which a tri- 
umph is celebrated. JOHNSON. 



As market-men for oxen, meep, or horfe. 
But marriage is a matter of more worth, 
Than to be dealt in 8 by attorneyfhip ; 
Not whom we will, but whom his grace affe<fr.s, 
Muft be companion of his nuptial bed : 
And therefore, lords, fince he affects her moft, 
It moft of all thefe realbns bindeth us, 
In our opinions me mould be preferr'd. 
For what is wedlock forced, but a hell, 
An age of difcord and continual flrife ? 
Whereas the contrary bringeth forth blifs, 
And is a pattern of celeflial peace. 
Whom mould we match with Henry, being a king, 
But Margaret, that is daughter to a king ? 
Her peerlefs feature, joined with her birth, 
Approves her fit for none, but for a king : 
Her valiant courage, and undaunted fpirit, 
(More than in woman commonly is fccn) will 
Anfwer our hope in iffue of a king ; 
For Henry, fon unto a conqueror, 
Is likely to beget more conquerors, 
If with a lady of ib high refolvc, 
As is fair Margaret, he be link'd in love. 
Then yield, my lords ; and here conclude with me, 
That Margaret (hall be queen, and none but me. 
K. Henry. Whether it be through force of your 


My noble lord of Suffolk ; or for that 
My tender youth was never yet attaint 
With any paffion of inflaming love, 
I cannot tell ; but this I am atfur'd, 
I feel fuch fharp diffention in my breaft, 
Such fierce alarums both of hope and fear, 
As I am fick with working of my thoughts. 
Take, therefore, /hipping ; poft, my lord, to France;, 

* -7 attornty/bifii ] By the intervention of another man's 
choice; or the diicretional agency of another, JOHNSOX. 


Agree to any covenants ; and procure 
That lady Margaret do vouchfafe to come 
To crofs the Teas to England, and be crown'd 
King Henry's faithful and anointed queen : 
For your expences and fufficient charge, 
Among the people gather up a tenth. 
Be gone, I fay; for, 'till you do return, 
I reit perplexed with a thoufand cares. 
And you, good uncle, banrfh all offence : 
9 If you do cenfure. me by what you were, 
Not what you are, I know it will excufe 
This fudden execution of my will. 
And fo condud: me, where from company, 
I may revolve and ' ruminate my grief. [Exit* 


9 If y u do cenfure me &c.] To cenfure is here (imply to judge. 
If in judging me you confider the paft frailties of your ownyoutb. 


1 ruminate my grief. ~\ Grief in the firfl line is taken gene- 
rally for fain or uneafinefi ; in the fecond fpecially forjbrr&vj. 

Of this play there is no copy earlier than that of the folio in 
1623, though the two fucceeding parts are extant in two editions 
in quarto. That the fecond and third parts were publifhed with- 
out the firft, may be admitted as no weak proof that the copies 
were furreptitioufly obtained, and that the printers of that time 
gave the publick thoie plays not fuch as the author deligned, 
but fuch as they could get them. That this play was written 
before the two others is indubitably collected from the feries of 
events ; that it was written and played before Henry the Fifth 
is apparent, becaufe in the epilogue there is mention made of 
this play, and not of the other parts : 

Henry the fix th in fivaddling bands c rsnund king t 

Whofejiatefo many had the managing 

That they loft France, and made bis England Meed 

Which oft ourftage batbfiewn. 

France is loft in this play. The two following contain, as the 
old title imports, the contention of the houfes of York and 

The fecond and third parts of Henry VI. were printed in 1600. 

When Henry V. was written, we kriow not, but it was printed 

likewiie in 1 600, and therefore before the publication of the firft 

VOL. VI. U part; 

290 FIRST PART OF, &c. 

Glo. Ay, grief, I fear me, both at firft and laft. 

[Exeunt Glofter, and Exeter. 

Suf. Thus Suffolk hath prevail'd : and thus he 


As did the youthful Paris once to Greece ; 
With hope to find the like event in love, 
But profper better than the Trojan did. 
Margaret ihall now be queen, and rule the king ; 
But I will rule both her, the king, and realm. 


part : the firft part of Henry VI. had been often Jbewn on tie 
Jlage, and would certainly have appeared in its place had the 
author been the publifher. JOHNSON. 




U j Perfons 

Perfons Reprefented. 

King Henry the Sixth. 

Humphrey, duke of Glofter, v.ncle to the k 

Cardinal Beaufort, bijhop of Wmchefter. 

Duke of York, pretending to the crown. 

Duke of Buckingham, -j 

Duke of Somerfet > left-be king's party, 

Duke of Suffolk, J 


Lord Clifford, of the king's party* 
JLprd Say. 

Lord Scales, governor of the Towtr* 
Sir Humphrey Stafford. 
Young Stafford, his brother. 
Alexander Iden, a Kentijh gentleman. 
Young Clifford, fon to lord Clifford. 
Edward Plantagenet. 7 - ,77, f 
Richard PlantafenetJ >" > the Me "/ 
Vaux, a fea captain, and Walter Whitmore, pirates*. 
A Herald. Hume and Southwell, two priefts. 
Bolingbrokc, an aftro&ger. 
A fpirit, attending on Jordan the witch. 
Thomas Homer, an armourer. Peter, his man. 
Clerk of Chatham. Mayor of Saint Albans. 
Simpcox, an impojlor. 

Jack Cade, Bevis, Michael, John Holland, Dick the 
butcher^ Smith the weaver t and fever al others, rebels* 

Margaret, queen to king Henry VI. 

Dame Eleanor, wife to tbe duke of Glojler. 

Mother Jordan, a witch. 

Wife td Simpcox. 

Petitioners, Aldermen, a Beadle, Sheriff, and Officers,, 

Citizens, with Faukoners, Guards, Mefl'engers, and 

other Attendants. 

he SCENE is laid very difperfedly in fever al parts 
of England, 



ACT I. S C E N E |. 

the Palace. 

Flourijb of trumpets : then hautboys. Enter king Henry y 
duke Humphrey, Salijbury , Warwick^ and Beaufort, on 
the one fide ; the Queen, Suffolk, Tork, Sowerfet, and 
Buckingham, on the other. 

* Suf. As by your high imperial majefty 
I had in charge at my depart for France, 


1 Second Part &c.] This and the third part were firft 
written under the title of The Contention of Tork and Lancafler y 
printed in 1600, but fince vaitly improved by the author. POPE. 

Second Part of King Henry FL] This and The Third Part 
of King Henry V~L contain that troublefome period of this prince's 
reign which took in the whole contention betwixt the houfes of 
York and Lancafter : and under that title were thefe two plays 
firft afted and publifhed. The prefent fcene opens with king 
Henry's marriage, which was in the twenty-third year of his 
reign ; and clofes with the firft battle fought at St, Albans, and 
won by the York faction, in the thirty-third year of his reign ; 
fo that it comprizes the hillory and tranfa&ioas of ten years, 


It appears from the books of the Stationers' Company that this 
play, &c. was entered by Tho. Millington, March 12, 1593. 
It was altered by Crowne, and acted in the year 1 68 1 . STEEVENS. 

1 As ly your high, &c.] Vide Hall's Chronlde, fol. 66. year 
23. init. POPE. 

It is apparent that this play begins where the former ends, and 

continues the feries of traniaftions of which it prefuppofes the 

U 3 firft 


As procurator to your excellence ? , 

To marry princefs Margaret for your grace ; 

So, in the famous ancient city, Tours, 

In prefence of the kings of France and Sicil, 

The dukes of Orleans., Calaber, Bretaigne, Alen- 

Seven earls, twelve barons, twenty reverend bU 


I have performed my tafk, and was efpous'd : 
And humbly now upon my bended knee, 
In fight of England and her lordly peers, 
Deliver up my title in the queen 
To your moft gracious hand, that are the fubftance 
Of that great fhadow I did reprefent ; 
The happieft gift that ever marquefs gave, 
The faireft queen that ever king received. 

K. Henry. Suffolk, arife. Welcome, queen Mar- 
garet : 

I can exprefs no kinder fign of love, 
Than this kind kifs. O Lord, that lends me life, 
Lend me a heart replete with thankfulnefs ! 
For thou haft given me, in this beauteous face, 
A world of earthly bleflings to my foul, 
If fympathy of love unite our thoughts. 

<j[. Mar. Great king of England, and my gracious 

firft part already known. This is a fufficient proof that the fe- 
cond and third parts were not written without dependance on the 
firft, though they were printed as containing a complete period or" 
hiftory. JOHNSON. 

3 As procurator to your excellence, feV.] So, in Holinfhed, 
p. 625: " The mar^uefle of Suffolk as procurator to king 
Henrie, efpoufed the faid ladie in the church of faint Martins. 
At the which marriage were prefent the father and mother of the 
bride; the French king himfelf that was uncle to the hulband, 
and the French queea alfo that was aunt to the wife. There 
were alfo the dukes of Orleance, of Calabre, of Alanfon, and 
of Britaine, feaven carles, twelve barons, twenty bifhops, &c." 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 295 

4 The mutual conference that my mind hath had- 
By day, by night ; waking, and in my dreams ; 
In courtly company, or at my beads, 
With you 5 mine alder-liefeft fovereign, 
Makes me the bolder to falute my king 
With ruder terms ; fuch as my wit affords, 
And over-joy of heart doth minifter. 

K. Henry. Her fight did ravifh : but her grace in 


Her words y-clad with wifdom's majefty, 
Makes me, from wondering, fall to weeping joys ; 
Such is the fulnefs of my heart's content. 
Lords, with one cheerful voice welcome my love. 

All. Long live queen Margaret, England's hap- 
pinefs ! 

j-^. Mar. We thank you all. [Flour if/:. 

Suf. My lord protector, fo it pleafe your grace, 
Here are the articles of contracted peace, 
Between our fovereign and the French king Charles, 
For eighteen months concluded by confent. 

Glo. reads.~\ Imprimis, It is agreed betzvesn the French 
king, Charks, and William de la Poole, marquefs of Suf- 
folk) embajfador for Henry king of England, that the fat d 

* T7je mutual conference ] I am the bolder to addrefs you, 
having already familiarized you to my imagination. JOHNSON. 

5 mine alder-liefeft fovcreign,] AUer-lipvcft is an old 

Englifli word given to him to whom the fpeaker is fupremely at- 
tached : lieveft being the fuperlative of the comparative levar t 
rather, from lief. So, Hall in his Chronicle, Henry VI. folio 12. 
*' Ryght hyghe and mighty prince, and my ryght noble, and, 
after one, levcft lord." WAR BURTON. 

Alder -liefejl ] Is a corruption of the German word alder- 
liebfte, beloved above all things. 

The word is ufed by Chaucer ; and is put by Marfton into the 
mouth of his Dutch courtefan : 

" O mine alder-liefeft love." 
Again : 

" pretty fweetheart of mine aUer-liefejl affection." 

Again, in Gafcoigne : 

" and to mine alder-lic'vejl lord I muft indite." 

U 4 Hcmy 

Henry Jhall efpoufe -the lady Margaret, daughter to 
Reignier king of Naples, Sicilia-, And Jerufalem ; and 
crown her queen of England, ere the thirtieth of May 
next enfuing. 

Item, 'That the dutchies of Anjou and of Maine, fhdl 
be rekafed and delivered to the king her fa 

K. Henry. Uncle, how now ? 

Glo. Pardon me, gracious lord ; 
Some fudden qualm hath ftruck me to the heart, 
And dimm'd mine eyes, that I can read no further. 

K. Henry. Uncle of Winchester, I pray, read on. 

Win. Item, it is further agreed between them, that 
the duUlnes of Anjou and Maine Jhall be releafed and de- 
livered to the king her father ; and Jhe fent over of the 
king of England' *s own proper coft and charges, without 
any dowry. 

K. Henry. They pleafe us well. Lord marquefs, 

kneel-down ; 
We here create thee the firft duke of Suffolk, 
And gird thee with the fword. 
Coufin of York, we here difcharge your grace 
From being regent in the parts of France, 
'Till term of eighteen months be full expir'd. 
Thanks, uncle Wincheiter, Glofter, York, and Buck- 

Somerfet, Salifbury, and Warwick ; 
6 We thank you all for this great favour done, 
In entertainment to my princely queen. 
Come, let us in ; and with all fpeed provide 
To fee her coronation be perform'd. 

[Exeunt King, Queen, and Suffolk. 

Glo. Brave peers of England, pillars of the Hate, 
To you duke Humphrey muft unload his grief, 

" Wi thank you for all this great favour done,~\ Undoubtedly we 
fhould read, from a regard both to the fenfe and the metre : 

W~ thank you all for this great favour done. REVISAL. 
The firft folio confirms the propriety of this conjefture. 



?K I 'N & H E N R Y VI. 297 

Your grief, the common grief of all the land. 

What ! did my brother Henry fpend his youth, 

His valour, coin, and people, in the wars ? 

Did he fo often lodge in open field, 

In winter's cold, and fummer's parching heat, 

To conquer France, his true inheritance ? 

And did my brother Bedford toil his wits, 

To keep by policy what Henry got ? 

Have you yourfelves, Somerfet, Buckingham, 

Brave York, and Salisbury, victorious Warwick, 

Receiv'd deep fears in France and Normandy ? 

Or hath mine uncle Beaufort, and myfelf, 

With all the learned council of the realm, 

Study'd fo long, fat in the council-houfe, 

Early and late, debating to and fro 

How France and Frenchmen might be kept in awe ? 

Or hath his highnefs in his infancy 

Been crown'd in Paris, in defpight of foes ; 

And fhall thefe labours, and thefe honours, die ? 

Shall Henry's conqueft, Bedford's vigilance, 

Your deeds of war, and all our counfe!, die ? 

O peers of England, fhameful is this league ! 

Fatal this marriage ! cancelling your fame ; 

Blotting your names from books of memory ; 

Razing the characters of your renown ; 

Reverfing monuments of conquer'd France ; 

Undoing all, as all had never been ! 

Car. Nephew, what means this pafiionate difcourfe? 
7 This peroration with fuch circumftance ? 
For France, 'tis ours ; and we will keep it dill. 

Glo. Ay, uncle, we will keep it, if we can; 
But now it is impoflible we fhould : 
Suffolk, the new-made duke that rules the roaft, 
Hath given the dutchies of Anjou and Maine 
Unto the poor king Reignier, whofe large ftyle 

7 This peroration with fuck circumftance ?~\ This fpeech crowd- 
ed with fo many inftances of aggravation. JOHNSON. 



Agrees not with the leannefs of his purfe. 

Sal. Now, by the death of him who dy'd for all,, 
Thefe counties were the keys of Normandy : 
But wherefore weeps Warwick, my valiant fon ? 

War. For grief that they are paft recovery : 
For, were there hope to conquer them again, 
My fword Ihould fhed hot blood, mine eyes no tears.- 
Anjou and Maine ! myfelf did win them both ; 
Thofe provinces thefe arms of mine did conquer : 
8 And are the cities, that I got with wounds, 
Deliver'd up again with peaceful words ? 
Mort Dieu ! 

Tork. For Suffolk's duke may he be fuffocatc, 
That dims the honour of this warlike ifle ! 
France ihould have torn and rent my very heart, 
'Before I would have yielded to this league. 
I never read but England's kings have had 
Large fums of gold, and dowries, with their wives : 
And our king Henry gives away his own, 
To match with her that brings no vantages. 

Gk. A proper jefl, and never heard before, 
That Suffolk ihould demand a whole fifteenth. 
For cofls and charges in tranfporting her ! 
She Ihould have {laid in France, and ilarv'd in France, 

Car. My lord of Glofler, now ye grow too hot ; 
It was the pleafure of my lord the king. 

Glo. My lord of Winchefter, I know your mind ; 
'Tis not my fpeeches that you do miflike, 
But 'tis my prefence that doth trouble you. 
Rancour will out : Proud prelate, in thy face 
I fee thy fury : if I longer Hay, 
We fhall begin our ancient bickerings 9 . 


8 And are the cities, &.C.] The indignation of Warwick is na- 
'tural, and I vvifli it had b:en better exprefled ; there is a kind of 
jingle intended in wounds and words. JOHNSO.V. 

9 Buhir'uigs.] To hi-, ker is tojt irmijb. In the ancient merri- 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 299 

Farewel, my lords ; and fay, when I am gone, 

I prophefy'd France will be loft ere long. [A://. 

Car. So, there goes our protestor in a rage. 
'Tis known to you, he is mine enemy : 
Nay, more, an enemy unto you all ; 
And no great friend, I fear me, to the king. 
Confider, lords he is the next of blood, 
And heir apparent to the Engliih crown ; 
Had Henry got an empire by his marriage, 
And all the wealthy kingdoms of the weft, 
There's reafon he Ihould be difpleas'd at it. 
Look to it, lords ; let not his fmoothing words 
Bevvitch your hearts ; be wife, and circumfped:. 
What though the common people favour hirn, 
falling him Humphrey, the good duke of Glojler ; 
Clapping their hands, and crying with loud voice 
Jefu maintain your royal excellence ! 
With God preferve the good duke Humphrey ! 
I fear me, lords, for all this flattering glofs, 
He will be found a dangerous protestor. 

cal romance of Guy E. of Warwick, bl. 1. no date, the heroes 
confult whether they fliould bicker on the walls, or defcend to 
battle on the plain. Again, in the genuine ballad of Lbevy 
Cbace : 

" Bomen lickarte upon the bent 

" With their browd aras cleare." 
Again, in Drayton's Polyollion, Song IX : 

" From bickering with his folk to keep us Britains back." 
Again, in the SpaniJJ) Mafquerado, by Greene, 11589: 

" fundry times bicke red with our men, and gave them the 

foyle." Again, in Holinfhed, p. 537 : " At another bickering 
alfo it chanced that the Englifhmen had the upper hand." Again, 
p. 572 : " At firil there was a fliarpe bickering betwixt them, but 
in the end viclorie remained with the Engliflimen." Lcvi pugna 
congredior is the expreifion by which Barrett in his Alvearie, or 
Quadruple Difl. 1580, explains the verb to bicker. STEEVENS. 

1 And all tbt wealthy kingdoms of the iveft^\ Certainly Shake- 
fpeare wrote soft. WAUBURTON". 

There are wealthy kingdoms in the iveft as well as in the cafl+ 
And the wefterp kingdoms were more likely to be in the thought 
of the ipeaker, JOHNSON. 



Buck. Why fhould he then protect our fovcreign| 
He being of age to govern of himfeif ? 
Coufm of Somerfet, join you with me, 
And all together, with the duke of Suffolk, > 
We'll quickly hoife duke Humphrey from his feat. 

Car. This weighty bnfinefs will not brook delay ;* 
I'll to the duke of Suffolk prefently. [.v;/. 

Soni. Coufin of Buckingham, though Humphrey's 

pride, ^ 

And greatnefs of his place be grief to us, 
Yet let us watch the haughty cardinal ; 
His infolence is more intolerable 
Than all the princes in the land befide; 
If Glofter be difplac'd, he'll be protestor. 

Buck. Thou, or I, Somerfet, will be protector, 
Defpight duke Humphrey, or the cardinal. 

{Exeunt Buckingham and Somerfit, 

Sal. Pride went before, ambition follows him. 
While thefe do labour for their own preferment, 
Behoves it us to labour for the realm. 
I never faw but Humphrey duke of Glofter 
Did bear him like a noble gentleman. 
Oft have I feen the haughty cardinal 
More like a foldier, than a man o'the church, 
As flout, and proud, as he were lord of all, . 
Swear like a ruffian, and demean himfeif 
Unlike the ruler of a common-weal. 
Warwick my fon, the comfort of my age ! 
Thy deeds, thy plainnefs, and thy houfe-keeping, 
Hath won the greateft favour of the commons, 
Excepting none but good duke Humphrey. 
And, brother York, thy adts in Ireland, 
In bringing them to civil difcipline ; 
Thy late exploits done in the heart of France, 
When thou wert regent for our fovereign, 
Have made thee fear'd, and honour'd, of the peo- 
ple : 
Join we together, for the public good; 


It I N G HENRY VI. 301 

fn what we can, to bridle and fupprefs 
The pride of Suffolk, and the cardinal, 
With Somerfet's and Buckingham's ambition ; 
And, as we may, cherifh duke Humphrey's deeds, 
While they do tend the profit of the land z . 

War. So God help Warwick, as he loves the land, 
And common profit of his country f 

Tork. And ib fays York, for he hath greateft caufe. 


Sal Then let's make hafte, and look unto the main. 

War. Unto the main ! Oh father, Maine is loft ; 
That Maine, which by main force Warwick did win, 
And would have kept, fo long as breath did laft : 
Main chance, father, you meant ; but I meant Maine; 
Which I will win from France, or elfe be flain. 

\_Ex. Warwick and Salijbwy. 

Tork. Anjou and Maine are given to the French ; 
Paris is loft ; the ftate of Normandy 
Stands 5 on a tickle point, now they are gone. 
Suffolk concluded on the. articles ; 
The peers agreed; and Henry was well pleas'd y 
To change two dukedoms for a duke r s fair daughter. 
I cannot blame them all ; What is't to them ? 
*Tis thine they give away, and not their own. 
Pirates may make cheap pennyworth of their pillage, 
And purchafe friends, and give to courtezans, 
Still revelling, like lords, 'till all be gone : 

* " - the profit of tie land."] I think we might read, more 
clearly to profit of the land, i. e. to profit themfelves by it, 
unlefs 'tend be written for attend. STEEVENS. 

3 - on a tickle point, - ] Tickle is very frequently ufed for 
ticklifh by poets contemporary with Shakefpeare. So, Heywood 
in his Epigrams on Proverls, 1562 : 

" Time is tickell, we may matche time in this, 

" For we be even as tickell as time is." 
Again, in the Spanijb Tragedy, 1605 : 

" Now ftands our fortune on a tickle point." 
Again, in S oilman and Perfeda, 1 599 : 

" The reft by turning of niy tickle wheel." 



While as the filly owner of the goods 
Weeps over them, and wrings his haplefs hands, 
And fhakes his head, and trembling {lands aloof, 
While all is ihar'd, and all is borne away ; 
Ready to flarve, and dares not touch his own. 
So York muft fit, and fret, and bite his tongue, 
While his own lands are bargain'd for, and fold. 
Methinks, the realms of England, France, and Ireland, 
Bear that proportion to my flefh and blood, 
As did the fatal brand Althea burnt 
Unto the prince's heart of Calydon 4 . 
Anjou and Maine, both given unto the French ! 
Cold news for me ; for I had hope of France, 
Even as I have of fertile England's foil. 
A day will come, when York fhall claim his own ; 
And therefore I will take the Nevils' parts, 
And make a fhew of love to proud duke Humphrey, 
And, when I fpy advantage, claim the crown, 
For that's the golden mark I feek to hit : 
Nor fhall proud Lancafler ufurp my right, 
Nor hold the fcepter in his childifh fift, 
Nor wear the diadem upon his head, 
Whofe church-like humour fits not for a crown. 
Then, York, be flill a while, 'till time do ferve : 
Watch thou, and wake, when others be afleep, 
To pry into the fecrets of the flate ; 
'Till Henry, furfeiting in joys of love, 
With his newbride, and England's dear-bought queen j 
And Humphrey with the peers be fall'n at jars : 
Then will I raife aloft the milk-white rofe, 
With whofe fweet fmell the air fhall be perfum'd ; 
And in my flandard bear the arms of York, 
To grapple with the houfe of Lancafler; 
And, force perforce, I'll make him yield the crown, 
Whofe bookifh rule hath pull'd fair England down. 

[Exit York. 

+ ~ the prince's heart of Calydon.'] Mcleager. STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 303 


tf&* duke of GloJleSs foufe. 

Enter duke Humphrey and bis wife Eleanor. 

Elean. Why droops my lord, like over-ripen'd corn, 
Hanging the head at Ceres' plenteous load ? 
Why doth the great duke Humphrey knit his brows, 
As frowning at the favours of the world ? 
Why are thine eyes fix'd to the fallen earth, 
Gazing on that which feems to dim thy fight ? 
What fee'ft thou there ? king Henry's diadem, 
Inchas'd with all the honours of the world ? 
If fo, gaze on, and grovel on thy face, 
Until thy head be circled with the fame. 
Put forth thy hand, reach at the glorious gold : 
What, is't too fliort ? I'll lengthen it with mine : 
And, having both together heav'd it up, 
We'll both together lift our heads to heaven ; 
And never more abafe our fight fo low 
As to vouch fafe one glance unto the ground. 

Gb. O Nell, fweet Nell, if thou doft love thy 


Banifh the canker of ambitious thoughts : 
And may that thought, when I imagine ill 
Againft my king and nephew, virtuous Henry, 
Be my laft breathing in this mortal world ! 
My troublous dream this night doth make me fad. 

Elean. What dream'd my lord ? tell me, and I'll 

requite it 
With fweet rehearfal of my morning's dream. 

G/o. Methoughr, this ftaff, mine office-badge in 


Was broke in twain ; by whom, I have forgot, 
But, as I think, it was by the cardinal ; 
And on the pieces of the broken wand 



Were plac'd the heads of Edmund duke of Somerfer, 
And William de la Poole firft duke of Suffolk. 
This was my dream ; what it doth bode, God knows. 

Elean. Tut, this was nothing but an argument, 
That he, that breaks a flick of Glofter's grove, 
Shall loie his head for his prefumption. 
But lift to me, my Humphrey, my fweet duke : 
Methought, I fat in feat of majefty, 
In the cathedral church of Weftminfter, 
And in that chair where kings and queens are 

crown'd ; 

Where Henry, and dame Margaret, kneel'd to me, 
And on my head did let the diadem. 

Glo. Nay, Eleanor, then muft I chide outright : 
Prefumptuous dame, ill-nurtur'd Eleanor ! 
Art thou not fecond woman in the realm ; 
And the protector's wife, belov'd of him ? 
Haft thou not worldly pleafure at command, 
Above the reach or compafs of thy thought ? 
And wilt thou ftill be hammering treachery, 
To tumble down thy hulband, and thyfelf, 
From top of honour to difgrace's feet ? 
Away from me, and let me hear no more. 

Elean. What, what, my lord! are you fo choleric 
With Eleanor, for telling but her dream ? 
Next time, I'll keep my dreams unto myfelf, 
And not be check'd. 

Glo. Nay, be not angry, I am pleas'd again. 

Enter a Afcffenger. 

Mejf. My lord protector, 'tis his highnefs* pleafure, 
You do prepare to ride unto Saint Albans, 
Whereas the king and queen do mean to hawk 5 . 


5 Whereas the king and queen do mean to havjk.~\ Jfficreas is 
the fame as where ; and leems to be brought into ufe only on 
account ot its being a diifyllable. So, in Marias and Sylla^ 1 594 : 
** But fee whereas Lucretius is return'd. 
" Welcome, brave Roman !" 



Glo. I go. Come, Nell, thou wilt ride with us ? 

Ekan. "Yes, my good lord, I'll follow prcfenrly. 

[Exit Glojler. 

Follow I mufr, I cannot go before, 
While Glofter bears this bale and humble mind. 
Were I a man, a duke, and next of blood, 
I would remove thefe tedious ilumbling-blocks, 
And fmooth my way upon their headlefs necks : 
And, being a woman, I will not be flack 
To play my part in fortune's pageant. 
Where are you there ? Sir John ! nay, fear not, 

We are alone ; here's none but thee, and I. 

Enter Hume. 

Hume. Jefu preferve your royal majefty ! 
Elean. My majefty ! why, man, I am but grace. 
Hume. But, by the grace of God, and Hume's ad- 
Your grace's title fhall be multiply'd. 

Ekan. What fay'fl thou, man ? haft thou as yet 


With Margery Jourdain, the cunning witch ; 
And Roger Bolingbroke, the conjurer ? 
And will they undertake to do me good ? 

Hume. This they have promiied, to fhew your 


A fpirit rais'd from depth of under ground, 
That ftia'1 make anfwer to fuch queftions, 

The word is feveral times ufed in this piece, as well as in fome 

others ; and always with the fame fenfe. 

Again, in the ; ift fonnet of Lord Stcrllnc, 1604 : 

" I dream'd the nymph, that o'er my fancy reigns, 
" Came to a part iv/je>-eas I p.ius'd alone :" 

Again, in the T'ryal of Treasure, 1567 : 

44 Whereas (he is refident, I mult needes be.'* 

Again, in Daniel's Tragedy of Cleopatra, 1^99 : 

" That I ihould pals tvberca.; O<5\avia itands 
" To view my mifery, &c." STEEVENS. 

VOL. VI. X As 


As by your grace ftiall be propounded him. 

6 El&m. It is enough ; I'll think upon the queftions : 
When from faint Albans we do make return, 
We'll fee thofe things effected to the full. 
Here, Hume, take this reward ; make merry, man/, 
With thy confederates in this weighty caufe. 

\_Rxit Eleanor. 

Hume. Hume muft make merry with the dutcheis' 

gold ; 

Marry, and frail. But, how now, Sir John Hume ? 
Seal up your lips, and give no words but mum ! 
The bufinefs afketh lilerit fecrecy. 
Dame Eleanor gives gold, to bring the witch : 
Gold cannot come amifs, were Ihe a devil. 
Yet have I gold, flies from another coaft : 
I dare not fay, from the rich cardinal, 
And from the great and new-made duke of Suffolk ; 
Yet I do find it fo : for, to be plain, 
They, knowing dame Eleanor's afpiring humour, 
Have hired me to undermine the dutchcfs, 
And buz thefe conjurations in her brain. 
They fay, A crafty knave does need no broker 7 ; 
Yet am I Suffolk's and the cardinal's broker. 
Hume, if you take not heed, you mail go near 
To call them both a pair of crafty knaves. 

6 Elean. It is enough ', &c.] This fpeech flands thus in the 
old quarto : 

" Elean. Thanks, good fir John, 

Some two days hence I guefs will fit our time ; 

Then fee that they be here. 

For now the king is riding to St. Albans, 

And all the dukes and earls along with him. 

When they be gone, then fafely may they come, 

And on the backficle of mine orchard here 

There caft their fpells in filence of the night, 

And fo refolve us of the thing we wifh : 

Till when, drink that for my fake, and farewell." 


7 " >-A crafty knave does need no broker ;] This is a prover- 
bial lenter.ce. See Ray's Colletfion. STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 307 

Well, fo it ftands : And thus, I fear, at laft, 
Hume's knavery will be the dutchefs' wreck ; 
And her attainture will be Humphrey's fall : 
8 Sort how it will, I lhall have gold for all. [Exit. 


An, apartment in the palace. 

Enter three or four petitioners. Peter, the armourer's wan y 
being one. 


i Pet. My matters, let's (land clofe ; my lord pro- 
tector will come this way by and by, and then we 
may deliver our fupplications 9 in the quill. 

2 Pet. 

8 Sort how it <suitt, ] Let the iflue be what it will. 


9 in the quill."] In quill is fir Thomas Hanmer's read- 
ing ; the reft have in the quill. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps our fupplications in the quill, or in quill, means no more 
than our written or penned fupplications. We ftill fay, a drawing 
in chalk, for a drawing executed by the ufe of chalk. STEEVENS. 

In the quill ^\ This may mean, with great exathiefs and obferv- 
ance of form, or with the utmoft pun6tilio of ceremony. The 
phrafe feems to be taken from part of the drefs of our anceftors, 
whofe ruffs were quilled. While thefe were worn, it might be 
the vogue to fay, fuch a thing is in the quill, i. e. in the reigning 
mode of tafte. TOLLET. 

To this obfervation I may add, that after printing began, the 
fimilar phrafe of a thing being in print, was ufed to exprefs the 
fame circumftance of exaftnefs. " All this," (declares one of the 
quibbling fervants in the Tkvo Gentlemen of fcrona) " I fay /' 
print, for in print I found it." STEEVENS. 

Deliver our fupplications in quill.~\ This may be fuppofed to 
have been a phrafe formerly in ufe, and the fame with the French 
en quille, which is faid of a man, when he ftands upright upon 
his feet without ftirring from the place. The proper fenie of 
quille in French is a nine-pin, and in fome parts of England, 
nine-pins are ftill called cayls, which word is ufed in the ftatute 
X z 33 Hen, 


2 Pet. Marry, the Lord protedt him, for he's a 
good man ! Jefu bids him ! 

Enter Suffolk, and <j)ueen, 

1 Pet. Here 'a comes, methinks, and the queen 
with him : I'll be the firft, fure. 

2 Pet. Come back, fool ; this is the duke of Suf- 
folk, and not my lord protestor. 

Suf. How now, fellow ? wouldfl any thing with 
, me ? 

i Pet. I pray, my lord, pardon me ! I took ye for 
my lord proteftor. 

Q. Mar. For my lord protector ! are yo^ r fnp- 
plications to his lordlhip ? Let me fee them : What 
is thine ? 

i Pet. Mine is, an't pleafe your grace, againtt John 
Goodman, my lord cardinal's man, for keeping my 
Jioufe, an4 lands, and wife and all, from me. 

Suf. Thy wife too ? that is fome wrong, indeed. 
What's your's ? what's here ! [reads.'] Againft the duke 
of Suffolk, for encbfing the commons of Melford. How 
now, fir knave ? 

2, Pet. Alas, fir, I am but a poor petitioner of our 
whole townfhip. 

Peter. Againft my matter, Thomas Homer, for fay- 
ing, That the duke of York was rightful heir to the 

^. Mar. What fay'fl thou ? Did tjie duke of York 
fay, he was rightful heir to the crown ? 

Peter. That my miftrefs was ? No, forfooth : my 
matter faid. That he was ; and that the king was an 

Suf. Who is there ? Take this fellow in, and fend 

33 Hen. VIII. c. ix. Duetts in the old Britifli language alfo fig- 
jiifies any piece of wood fet upright. HAWKINS. 



for his mafter with a purfbivant prefently : we'll hear 
more of your matter before the king. 

[Exit Peter, guarded. 

^. Mar. And as for' you, that love to be protected 
Under the wings of our protedtor's grace, 
Begin your fuits anew, and fue to him. 

[Tears the petitions. 
Away, bafe cullions ! Suffolk, let them go 

All. Come, let's be gone. [Exeunt Petitioners. 

<$. Mar. My lord of Suffolk, fay, is this the guife, 
Is mis the fafhion in the court of England? 
Is this the government of Britain's ifle, 
And this the royalty of Albion's king ? 
What ! fhall king Henry be a pupil ftill, 
Under the furly Glofter's governance ? 
Am I a queen in title and in flyle, 
And muft be made a fubject to a duke ? 
I tell thee, Poole, when in the city Tours 
Thou ran'ft a tilt in honour of my love, 
And ftol'ft away the ladies' hearts of France; 
I thought, king Henry had refembled thee, 
In courage, courtfhip, and proportion : 
But all his mind is bent to holinefs, 
To number Ave-Marics on his beads : 
His champions are the prophets, and apoftles j 
His weapons, holy faws of facred writ ; 
His ftudy is his tilt-yard, and his loves 
Are brazen images of canoniz'd faints. 
I would, the college of the cardinals 
Would chufe him pope, and carry him to Rome, 
And fet the triple crown upon his head ; 
That were a ftate fit for his holinefs. 

Suf. Madam, be patient : as I was caufc 
Your highnefs came to England, fo will I 
In England work your grace's full content. 

i^. Mar. Befide the haught proteclor, have .we 


The imperious churchman ; Somerfet, Buckingham, 
X 3 And 


And grumbling York : and not the lead of thefe," 
But can do more in England than the king. 

Suf. And he of thefe, that can do moft of all, 
Cannot do more in England than the Nevils : 
Salifbury, and Warwick, are no limple peers. 

<^. Mar. Not all thefe lords do vex me half fo much, 
As that proud dame, the lord protector's wife. 
She fweeps it through the court with troops of ladies, 
More like an empreis, than duke Humphrey's wife ; 
Strangers in court do take her for the queen : 
She bears a duke's revenues on her back, 
And in her heart fhe fcorns our poverty : 
Shall I not live to be aveng'd on her ? 
Contemptuous bafe-born callat as fhe is, 
She vaunted 'mongft her minions t'other day, 
The very train of her worft wearing-gown 
Was better worth than all my father's lands, 
'Till Suffolk gave two dukedoms for his daughter. 

Suf. Madam, myfelf have lim'd a bum for her ' ; 
And plac'd a quire of fnch enticing birds, 
That ftie will light to liften to their lays, 
And never mount to trouble you again. 
So, let her reft : And, madam, lift to me ; 
For I am bold to counfel you in this. 
Although we fancy not the cardinal, 
Yet mult we join with him, and with the lords, 
'Till we have brought duke Humphrey in difgrace. 
As for the duke of York, 4 this late complaint 
Will make but little for his benefit : 
So, one by one, we'll weed them all at laft, 
And you yourfelf fhall fleer the happy helm. 

1 lim'd a lufh for her\~\ So, inArden of FevtrJ):am^ 1592 : 

" Lime your twigs to catch this weary bird." 
Again, in the Tragedy of Mariam, 1613 : 

" A crimfon bujb that ever limes the foul." STEEVEXS. 
* - this late complaint] That is, The complaint of" Peter 

the armourer's man againft his mailer, for laying that York was 
the rightful king. JOHNSON. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 3 u 

20 them enter king Henry, duke Humphery, Cardinal 
Beaufort, Buckingham^ Tork, Salisbury, Warwick, 
and the dutchefs of Glojler. 

K. Henry. For my part, noble lords, I care not 

which ; 
Or Somerfet, or York, all's one to me. 

Tork. If York have ill demean'd himfelf in France, 
Then let him J be deny'd the regentfhip. 

Som. If Somerfet be unworthy of the place, 
Let York be regent, I will yield to him. 

War. Whether your grace be worthy, yea, or no^ 
Difpute not that ; York is the worthier. 

Car. Ambitious Warwick, let thy betters fpeak. 

War. The cardinal's not my better in the field. 

Buck. All in this prefence are thy betters, War- 

War. Warwick may live to be the beft of all. 

Sal. Peace, fon ; and fhew fome reafon, Buck- 
Why Somerfet Ihould be preferr'd in this. 

%. Mar. Becaufe the king, forfooth, will have it 

Glo. Madam, the king is old enough himfelf 
To give 4 his cenfure : thefe are no women's matters; 

j^. Mar. If he be old enough, what needs your 

To be protector of his excellence ? 

Glo. Madam, I am protector of the realm ; 
And, at his pleafure, will refign my place. 

Suf. Refign it then, and leave thine infolence. 
Since thou wert king, (as who is king, but thou ?) 

s le deny* d ] The folio reads denay'd. I have 

noted the variation onty to obferve, that the one word is fre- 
quently ufed for the other among the old writers. STEEVENS. 

* , bis cenfurc :~\ Through all theie plays cenfure is ufed 

in an indifferent fenfe, fimply for judgment or opinion. 

" X 4 The 


The commonwealth hath daily run to wreck : 
The Dauphin Hath prevailed beyond the feas ; 
And all the peers and nobles of the realm 
Have been as bondmen to thy fovereignty. 

Car. The commons haft thou rack'd ; the clergy's 

Are lank and lean with thy extortions. 

Som. Thy fumptuous buildings, and thy wife's 

Have coft a mafs of publick treafury. 

Buck. Thy cruelty in execution, 
Upon offenders, hath exceeded law, 
And left thee to the mercy of the law. 

^. Mar. Thy fale of offices, and towns in France, 
If they were known, as the fufpect is great, 
Would make thee quickly hop without thy head. 

[Exit Glofter. The Queen drops her fan. 
Give me my fan : What, minion ! can you not ? 

[Gives the Dutcbefs a box on the ear, 
I cry you mercy, madam ; Was it you ? 

Elean. Was't I ? yea, I it was, proud French- 

woman : 

Could I come near your beauty with my nails, .- 
I'd fet my ten commandments in your face s . 

K. Henry. Sweet aunt, be quiet ; 'twas againfl her 

Elean. Againfl her will ! Good king, look to't in 

time ; 
She'll hamper thee, and dandle thee like a baby : 

s P II fet my ten commandments in your face. ~\ So, 'v 
Hoe y 1607: 

" your harpy \\zsjet his ten commandments on my back." 
Again, in Selimus Emperor of the Turks, 1638 : 

" I would fet a tap abroach, and not live in fear of my wife's 
ten commandments." 
Again, in 77je Play of the Four .P'.f, 1569 : 

" Now ten times I befeeche him that hie fits, 
" Thy wives x com. may ferche thy five wits." 




Though in this place moft mafter wears no breeches, 
She fhall not flrike dame Eleanor unreveng'd. 

6 [Exit Eleanor. 

Buck. Lord cardinal, I will follow F.leanor, 
And liften after Humphrey, how he proceeds : 
She's tickled now ; her fume can need no fpurs, 
She'll gallop faft enough to her deftruction. 

[Exit Buckingham. 

Re-enter duke Humphrey. 

Glo. Now, lords, my cholcr being over-blown 
With walking once about the quadrangle, 
I come to talk of commonwealth affairs. 
As for your fpightful falfe objections, 
Prove them, and I lie open to the laxv : 
But God in mercy deal fo with my foul, 
As I in duty love my king and country ! 
But, to the matter that we have in hand : 
I fay, my fovereign, York is meeteft man 
To be your regent in the realm of France. 

Suf. Before we make eledtion, give me leave 
To fhew fome reafon, of no little force, 
That York is moft unmeet of any man. 

Tork. I'll tell thee, Suffolk, why I am unmeet. 
Firft, for I cannot flatter thee in pride : 
Next, if I be appointed for the place, 
My lord of Somerfet will keep me here, 
Without difcharge, money, or furniture, 
'Till France be won into the Dauphin's hands. 
Laft time, I danc'd attendance on his will, 

Exit Eleanor.'] The quarto adds, after the exit of Eleanor, 
the following : 

" King. Believe me, love, that thou wert much to blame. 
" I would not for a thoufand pounds in gold, 
" My noble uncle had been here in place. 

k" See, where he comes ! I am glad he met her not." 



'Till Paris was befieg'd, famifh'd, and loft. 

War. That can I witnefs ; and a fouler fat 
Did never traitor in the land commit. 

Suf. Peace, head-ftrong Warwick ! 

War. Image of pride, why fhould I hold my 
peace ? 

Enter Homer the armourer, and his man Peter, guarded. 

Suf. Becaufe here is a man accus'd of treafon : 
Pray God, the duke of York excufe himfelf ! 

Tork. Doth any one accufe York for a traitor ? 

K. Henry. What mean'ft thou, Suffolk ? tell me : 
What are thefe ? 

Suf. Pleafe it your majefty, this is the man 
That doth accufe his matter of high treafon : 
His words were thefe ; that Richard, duke of York, 
Was rightful heir unto the Englifh crown ; 
And that your majefty was an ufurper. 

K. Henry. Say, man, were thefe thy words ? 

Arm. An't lhall pleafe your majefty, I never faid 
nor thought any fuch matter : God is my witnefs, I 
am falfely accus'd by the villain. 

Peter. 7 By thefe ten bones, my lords, [holding up 
his hands'] he did fpeak them to me in the garret 
one night, as we were fcouring my lord of York's 

Tork. Bafe dunghill villain, and mechanical, 

7 By thefe ten loncs, &c.] We have juft heard a dutchefs 
threaten tofct her ten commandments in the face or a queen. The 
jefts in this play turn rather too much on the enumeration of 

This adjuration is, however, very ancient. So, in the myflery 
of Candlemas-Day , 1512: 

" But by their bouys ten, thei be to you untrue." 
It occurs likewife more than once in the morality of Hycke Scor- 
ntr. Again, in Monjicur Thomas, 1637 : 

" By thefe ten bont^ fir, by thefe eyes and tears." 
Again, in The longer thou livejl the more Fool thou art, 1 570 : 

" By thefe tenne boues I will, I have fwornet" STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 

I'll have thy head for this thy traitor's fpeech : 

I do befeech your royal majefty, 

Let him have all the rigour of the law. 

Arm. Alas, my lord, hang me, if ever I fpake the 
words. My accufer is my prentice ; and when I did 
correct him for his fault the other day, he did vow 
upon his knees he would be even with me : I have 
good witnefs of this ; therefore, I befeech your ma- 
jefty, do not caft away an honeft man for a villain's 

K. Henry. Uncle, what fhall we fay to this in law ? 

Glo. This doom, my lord, if I may judge. 
Let Somerfet be regent o'er the French, 
Becaufe in York this breeds fufpicion : 
And let thefe have a day appointed them 
For fmgle combat, in convenient place ; 
For he hath witnefs of his fervant's malice : 
This is the law, and this duke Humphrey's doom. 

8 K. Henry. Then be it fo. My lord of Somerfet, 
We make your grace lord regent o'er the French. 

8 K. Henry. Then le iifo, &c.] Thefe two lines I have in. 
ferted from the old quarto ; and, as I think, very neceflarily. 
For, without them, the king has not declared his aflent to Glof- 
ter's opinion : and the duke of Somerfet is made to thank him 
for the regency before the king has deputed him to it. 


After the lines inferted by Theobald, the king continues his 
fpeech thus : 

over the French ; 

And to defend our right 'gainft foreign foes, 
And fo do good unto the realm of France. 
Make hafte, my lord ; 'tis time that you were gone : 
The time of truce, I think, is full expir'd. 
Som, I humbly thank your royal majefty, 

And take my leave, to poft with Ipeed to France. 

[Exit Somerfet. 

King. Come, uncle Glofter ; now let's have our horfe, 
For we will to St. Albans prefently. 
Madam, your hawk they lay, is iwift of flight, 
And we will try how fhe will fly to-day. [Exeunt omnes. 




Som. I humbly thank your royal majefty. 

Arm. And I accept the combat willingly. 

Peter. Alas, my lord, I cannot fight ; for God's 
fake, pity my cafe ! the fpight of 9 a man prevaileth 
againft me. O, Lord have mercy upon me ! I ihall 
never be able to fight a blow : O Lord, my heart ! 

Glo. Sirrah, or you mutt fight, or elfe be hang'd.- 

K. Henry. Away with them to prifon : and the day 
Of combat ihall be the laft of the next month. 
Come, Somerfet, we'll fee thee lent away. 

[Flour i/b. Exeunt. 

Duke Humphrey's garden. 

1 Enter mother Jourdain, Hume, Soutkwely and 

Hume. Come, my matters ; the dutchefs, I tell 
you, cxpefts performance of your promifes. 

Baling. Matter Hume, we are therefore provided : 
Will her ladyfhip behold and hear our exorcifms ? 

Hume. Ay ; What elfe ? fear you not her courage. 

Roling. I have heard her reported to be a woman of 
an invincible fpirit : But it fhall be convenient, matter 
Hume, that you be by her aloft, while we be bufy be- 
low ; and fo, I pray you, go in God's name, and leave 
us. [*/V Hume.] Mother Jourdain, be you proftrate, 

, a man ] The old copy reads of my man. STEEVENS. 

1 Enter, &c.] The quarto reads : 
Enter Elcatior, Sir John Hum, Roger Bolinglrook a conjurer , anil 

Margery Jourdain a witch. 

Eleanor. Here, fir John, take this fcroll of paper here, 
Wherein is writ the queftions you Ihall afk : 
And I will ftand upon this tower here, 
And hear the fpirit what it fays to you ; 
And to my queftions write the anfwers down. 

[She goes uj> to tie to-ivcr. 



and grovel on the earth : John Southwel, read yon ; 
and let us to our work. 

Enter Eleanor, above. 

Elean. Well faid, my matters ; and welcome all. 
To this geer ; the fooner the better. 

Boling. Patience, good lady ; wizards know their 

times : 

* Deep night, dark night, the filent of the night, 
The time of night when Troy was fet on fire ; 

1 Deep night, dark night, the filer.t of the night,] T'he filent of 
the night is a c'afiical expreffion : and means nn interlunar night. 

Arnica jiicntla luna. So Pliny, Inter omne> <-'ero convenit, 

vtllljjime in coitu ejusfierni, quern diem alii interhuai, alii filentis 
luna: appellant, lib. xvi. cap. 39. In imitation of this language, 
Milton fays : 

" The fun to me is dark 
" And/fc/ as the moon, 
' When (he deferts the night, 

** Hid in her vacant Interlunar cave." WAREURTON. 
I believe this difplay of learning might have been fpared. Si- 
lent, though an adjedive, is ufed by Shakefpeare as a lubftantive. 
So, in The Tempejl, the -jafl of night is ufed for the greatefl 
part of it. The old quarto reads, the filencc of the night. The 
variation between the copies is worth notice. 
Bolingbrook wakes a circle* 

Sol. Dark night, dread night, \hejilence of the night, 
Wherein the furies maflt in hellifh troops, 
Send up, I charge you, from Cocytus' lake 
The fpirit Afcalon to come to me ; 
To pierce the bowels of this central earth, 
And hither come in twinkling of an eye ! , 

Afcalon, afcend ! afcend !" 

In a fpeech already quoted from the quarto, Eleanor fays, 
they have 

caft their fpells injilence of the night. 

And in the ancient Interlude of Nature, bl. 1. no date, is the 
fame expreffion : 

*' Who taught the nyghtyngall to recorde befyly 
** Her ftrange entunes \njylence of the rygkt ?" 
Again, in the Faithful Shepherdefs of B. and Fletcher : 
' ThrougrTiYill/7fcc of the night, 
** Guided by the glow-worm's light." STEEVENS, 



The time when fcritch-owls cry, and ban-dogs howl *, 
When fpirits walk, and ghofls break up their graves, 
That time befl fits the work we have in hand. 
Madam, fit yon, and fear not ; whom we raife, 
We will make fafl within a hallow'd verge. 

[Here they perform the ceremonies, and make the circle ; 
Bolingbroke^ or Southwel reads, Conjuro te, &c. 
It thunders and lightens terribly ; then the fpirit 


Spirit. Adfum. 
M. Jourd. Afmath, 

By the eternal God, whofe name and power 
Thou tremblcft at, anfwer that I fhall afk ; 
For, 'till thou fpeak, thou fhalt not pafs from hence. 
Spirit. Aflc what thou wilt: That I had faid and 

done 4 ! 

Baling. Ftrft, of the king. What Jhall of him be- 
come ? [Reading out of a paper. 
Spirit. The duke yet lives, that Henry fhall depofe; 
But him out-live, and die a violent death. 

[As the Spirit fpeaks 9 they write the anjiver. 
Boling. What fates await the duke of Suffolk ? 
Spirit. By Water fhall he die, and take his end. 
Boling. What flail befall the duke of Somerfet ? 
Spirit. Let him fhun caflles ; 
Safer fhall he be upon the fandy plains, 
5 Than where caflles mounted ftand. 


3 ban-dogs 0-u'/,] The etymology of the word bait'doesis un- 
fettled. They leem, however, to have been defigned by poets 
to fignify fome terrific beings whofe office it was to make night 
hideou^ like thole mentioned in the firlt book and eighth fatire of 
Horace : 

ferpentes, atque videres 

" Infirnas errare canes" STEEVENS. 

* that I had faid and done!] It was anciently believed 

that fpirits who were raifed by incantations, remaiu'd above 
ground, and anfwer'd queftions with reluctance. See both Lucan 
and Statius. STEEVENS. 

5 Than where cajlks mounted J! and.] I rememler to have read 



Have done, for more I hardly can endure. 

Soling. Defcend to darknefs, and the burning lake : 
* Falfe fiend, avoid ! 

der and lightning. Spirit defiends. 

Enter the duke of York, and the duke of Buckingham, with 
their guard, and break in. 

York. Lay hands upon thefe traitors, and their 


Beldame, I think, we watch'd you at an inch. 
What, madam, are you there ? the king and com- 

Are deep indebted for this piece of pains ; 
My lord protestor will, I doubt it not, 
See you well guerdon'd for thefe good deferts. 

Elean. Not half fo bad as thine to England's king, 
Injurious duke ; that threat'fl where is no caufe. 
Buck. True, madam, none at all. What call you 
this? [Shewing her the papers. 

Away with them ; let them be clapp'd up clofe, 

this prophecy in fome of our old chronicles, where, I think, it 
ran thus : 

" Safer (hall he be on fand, 

*' Than where cailles mounted (land :" 
at prefent I do not recollect where. STEEVENS. 

6 Falfc fiend, avoid!'} Inftead of this fhort fpeech at the d if- 
million of the Ipirit, the old quarto gives us the following : 

Then down, I fay, unto the damned pool 

Where Pluto in his fiery waggon fits, 

Riding, amidll the fing'd and parched fmoaks, 

The road of Dytas, by the river Styx ; 

There howle and burn for ever in thofe flames : 

'Zounds ! we are betray 'd !" 
Dytas is written by miftake for Ditis, the genitive cafe of Dis t 
which is ufed inftead of the nominative by more than one ancient 

So, in Tho. Drant's Tranflation of the fifth Satire of Horace, 

" And by that meanes made manye foules lord 2)///j hall 
to feeke," STEEVENS, 



And kept afunder : You, madam, fhall with us : 

Stafford, take her to thee 

We'll ice your trinkets here forth-coming a!l ; 
Away ! [_&xeuni guards with Jour darn, Southwell, &c.' 
Tork. 7 Lord Buckingham, methinks, you watch'd 

h?r well : 

A pretty plot, well chofe to build upon ! 
Now, pray, my lord, let's fee the devil's writ. 
What have we here ? [Reads. 

'The duke yet lives, that Henry flail depofe ; 
But him out -live, a nd die a violent death. 
Why, this is juft, Alo te, JLinida, Romanes vlncerc 


Well, to the reft : 

Tell me what fate awaits the duke of Suffolk ? 
By Water flail he die, and take his end. 
Wbat flail betide the duke of Somerfet ? 
Let him flun caftles ; 
Safer flail he be on thefandy plains, 
Than where caftks mounted Jland. 
Come, come, my lords : 
8 Thefe oracles are hardily attain'd, 
And hardly underftood. 

7 Lord Buckingham, tnetbinks &c.] This repetition of the pro- 
phecies, which is altogether unneceflary. jsfrer what the Ipeclators 
had heard in the fcene immediately preceding, is not to be found 
in the firfl edition of this play. POPE. 
8 Thefe oracles arc hardly attain d y 

Ad hardly undfrfiood. ] 

Not only the iamenefs of the verfification, but the imperfec- 
tion of the fenfe too, made me fufpeft this paflage to be corrupt. 
York, feizing the parties and their papers, fays, he'll fee the 
devil's writ ; and finding the wizard's anfwers intricate and ambi- 
guous, he makes this general comment upon iuch fort of intelli- 
gence, as I have refiored the text : 

Thefe oracles are hardily attained, 

And hardly underload. 

i. e. A great rifque and hazard is run to obtain them ; and yet, 
atter the'e hardy fteps taken, the informations are fo perplexed 
that they are hardly to be underflood, THEOBALD. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 321 

The king is ndw in progrefs towards faint Albahsj 
With him, the hufband of this lovely lady : 
Thither go thcfe news, as faft as horfe can carry them; 
A forry breakfaft for my lord protestor. 

Buck. Your grace fhall give me leave, mv lord of 

To be the port, in hope of his reward. 

York. At your pleafure, my good lord. 
Who's within there, ho ! 

Enter a Serving-man. 

Invite my lords of Salifbury, and Warwick, 

To fup with me to-morrow night. Away ! [Exeunt* 


At Saint Albans. 

Enter king Henry, )ueen 9 Glofter, Cardinal, and. 
Suffolk) with Falconers hallooing. 

<3>. Mar. Believe nie, lords, 9 for flying at the 


I faw not better fport thefe feven years' day : 
Yet, by your leave, ' the wind was very high ; 
And, ten to one, old Joan had riot gone out. 

for fying at the IrooJc^] The falconer's term for haWk- 

ing at water-fowl. JOHNSON. 

1 the ~.\jind -tut. s vny big/j j 

And) ten to one^ old Joan bad not gone out,~\ 

I am told by a gentleman better acquainted with falconry thaft 
myfelf, that the meaning, however exprefied, is, that the wind 
being high, it was ten to one that the old hawk had flown o^uite 
away ; a trick which hawks often play their mailers in windy 
weather. JOHNSON. 



K. Henry. But what a point, my lord, your falcoa 


And what a pitch fhe flew above the reft ! 
To lee how God in all his creatures works ! 
Yea, man and birds % are fain of climbing high. 

Suf. No marvel, an it like your majefty, 
My lord protector's hawks do tower fo well ; 
They know, their mailer loves to be aloft J , 
And bears his thoughts above his falcon's pitch. 

Glo. My lord, 'tis but a bafe ignoble mind 
That mounts no higher than a bird can foar 

Car. 1 thought as much ; he'd be above the clouds. 

Glo. Ay, my lord cardinal ; How think you by 

Were it not good, your grace could fly to heaven-? 

old Joan had not gone out, i.e. the wind was fo high it 
was ten to one that old Joan would not have taken her flight at 
the game. PERCY. 

The ancient books of hawking do not enable me to decide on 
the merits of fuch difcordant explanations. It may yet be re- 
marked, that the terms belonging to thisonce popular amufement, 
were in general fettled with the utmofl precifion ; and I may at leaf] 
venture to declare, that a miftrefs might have been kept at a cheaper 
rate than a falcon. To compound a medicine to cure one ol 
thefe birds of worms, it was necefiary to defiroy no fewer ani- 
mals than a iamb, a culver, a pigeon, a bitfk, and a cat. I have 
this intelligence from the Booke of Haukinge, &c. bl. 1. no date. 
This work (as I learn from fir John Hawkins's very elegant edi- 
tion of Walton's Complete Angler} was written by dame Julyana. 
Bernes, priorefs of the nunnery of Sopwell, near St. Albans, 
(where Shakefpeare has fixed the prefent fcene) and was firft 
trynted at Wepmeftre by JPynlyn Je Wordt, 1496. STEEVENS. 

1 - are fain of climbing high."] Fain, in this place, fig- 
nifies fond. The word (as I am informed) is flill ufed in Scot- 

So, in Heywood's Epigrams on Proverbs^ 1562 : 
" Fay re words make fooles faine." 

Again, in Whettfone's Promos and Caffandra, 1^78: 
" Her brother's life will make her glad andyi/.' r 


- to 1'e aloft,} Perhaps alluding to the adage : 
Hyia^; hawks are fit for princes,." 
ion. $TE<TENI. 

K. Hatty, 

KING H E N R Y t VI. 323 

K. Henry. The treafury of everlafting joy ! 
Car. Thy heaven is on earth ; thine eyes and 

4 Beat on a crown, the treafure of thy heart; 
Pernicious protector, dangerous peer, 

That fmooth'ft it fo with king and common-weal ! 
Glo. What, cardinal, is your prieflhood grown fa 

peremptory ? 

Tanteae animis c<elejlibus ir<e ? 
Churchmen fo hot ? good uncle, hide fuch malice ; 

5 With fuch holinefs can you do it ? 

Suf. No malice, fir ; no more than well becomes 
So good a quarrel, and fo bad a peer. 

* Beat &c.] To bait or leat (bathe] is a term in falconry. 


To bathe and to beat, or bate, are diftinct terms in this diverfion* 
To bathe a hawk was to vvafti his plumage. Tobcat, or bate, was to 
flutter with his wings. To beat on a crown is equivalent to an 
expreffion which is ftill ufed to hammer, i. e* to work in the 
mind. Shakefpeare employs it in another play : 

" Wilt thou 1H11 be hammering treachery ?" 
So, in. Lylly's Maid's Metamorphojis, 1600: 

" With him whofe reftlefs thoughts do beat on thee*'" 
Again, in Dodor Dodypoll, 1600 : 

" Since my niind beats on it mightily." 
Again, in Herod and Aniipate r, 1622: 

" I feel within my cogitations beating" 
Later editors concur in reading) Bent on a crown. I follow the 

Old Copy. S TEE YENS. 

s With fuch holinefs can you do it ?] Do what ? The verfe wants 
a foot ; we fhould read : 

With fuch holinefs can you not do it ? 

Spoken ironically. By holinefs he means hypocrify : and fays, 
have you not hypocrily enough to hide your malice ? 


The verfe is lame enough after the emendation, nor does the 
negative particle improve the fenfe. When words are omitted it 
is not often eafy to lay what they were if there is a perfect fenfe 
without them. I read, but fomewhat at random : 

A churchman, withfach holinefs can you do it ? 
The tranfcriber faw churchman juft above, and therefore omitted 
it in the fecond liae. JOHNSON. 

Y 2 Gfa 


Glo. As who, my lord ? 

Suf. Why, as yourielf, my lord ; 
An't like your lordly lord-protectorfhip. 

Glo. Why, Suffolk, England knows thine info 

<|>. Mar. And thy ambition, Glofter. 

K. Henry. I prythee, peace, good queen ; 
And whet not on thefe too too furious peers, 
For blefTed are the peace-makers on earth. 

Car. Let me be bleffed for the peace I make, 
Againft this proud protector, with my fvvord \ 

Glo. Faith, holy uncle, 'would 'twere" 
come to that. 

Car. Marry, when thou dar'ft. 

Glo. Make up no factious numbers for 

the matter, ) Afide* 

In thine own perfon anfwer thy abufe. 

Car. Ay, where thou dar'lt not peep : 

an if thou dar'ft, 
This evening, on the eaft fide of the grove. J 

K. Henry. How now, my lords ? 

Car. Believe me, coufin Glofter, 
Had not your man put up the fowl fo fuddenly, 
We'd had had more fporr. 6 Come with thy two- 
hand fword. \Afide to Glofter. 

Glo. True, uncle. 
Are you advis'd ? the eaft fide of the grove ? 

6 "Come ivitb thy two-band fivord, 

Glo. True, uncle^ are ye (idvii'd the eafi-Jide of the grove. 

Cardinal, I am <vjitb you.~\ 

Thus is the whole fpeech placed to Glofter, in all the editions : 
but, furely, with great inadvertence. It is the cardinal who firft 
appoints the eaft-fide of the grove : and how finely does it ex- 
prefs rancour and impetuofity for fear Glofter fhould iniftake, to 
repeat the appointment, and aik his antagonift if he takes him 
right! THEOBALD. 

The two-band fouord is mentioned by Holinfhed, p. 833 : 
** And he that touched the tawnie ftiield fhould eaft a fpear on 
foot with a target on his arme, and after to fight with a t-wo- 
handjword." STEEVENS. 



Cardinal, I am with you. \_Afide* 

K. Henry. Why, how now, uncle Glofter ? 

Glo. Talking of hawking; nothing elfe, my lord. 
Now, by God's mother, prieft, I'll fhave your crown 

foi this, 
Or all my fence ihall fail ?. [Jfide. 

Car. [afide] Medice, teipfum ; 
Protector, fee to't well, protect yourfelf. 

K, Henry. The winds grow high ; fo do your fto- 

machs, lords. 

How irkfome is this mufic to my heart ! 
When fuch firings jar, what hopes of harmony ? 
I pray, my lords, let me compound this ftrife. 

Enter one, crying, A miracle ! 

Glo. What means this noife ? 
Fellow, what miracle doft thou proclaim ? 

One. A miracle ! a miracle ! 

Suf. Come to the king, and tell him what miracle. 

One. Forfooth, a blind man at faint Alban's mrine, 
Within this half hour, hath received his fight ; 
A man, that ne'er faw in his life before. 

K. Henry. Now, God be prais'd ! that to believing 

Gives light in darknefs, comfort in defpair ! 

Enter the Mayor of faint Albans, and bis brethren, bear- 
ing Simpcox between two in a chair, Simpcox's wife 

Car. Here come the townfmen on proceffion, 
To prefent your highnefs with the man. 

K. Henry. Great is his comfort in this earthly vale, 
Though by his fight his fin be multiply'd, 

7 my fence flail fail. ~\ Fence is the art of defence. So, 

ifcl Much Ado about Nothing : 

" Defpight hi3 4 nice/fff, and his aftive practice," 


Y 3 G/<7.; 


Glo. Stand by, my matters, bring him near the 

His highnefs' pleafure is to talk with him. 

K. Henry. Good fellow, tell us here the circum* 


That we for thee may glorify the Lord. 
What, haft thou been long blind, and now reftor'd ? 

Simp, Born blind, an't pleafe your grace. 

Wife. Ay, indeed, was he. 

Suf. What woman is this ? 

Wife. His wife, an't like your worfhip. 

Glo. Had'fl thou been his mother, thou could'ft 
have better told. 

K- Henry. Where wert thou born ? 

Simp. At Berwick in the north, an't like your 

K. Henry. Poor foul ! God's goodnefs hath been 

great to thee : 

Let never day nor night unhallow'd pafs, 
But Hill remember what the Lord hath done. 

Queen* Tell me, good fellow, cam'il thou here by 

Or of devotion, to this holy ihrine ? 

Simp. God knows, of pure devotion ; being call'd 
A hundred times, and oftner, in my fleep 
By good faint Alban ; 8 who faid, Saunder, come ; 
Come, offer at my farine, and I will help tbec. 

Wife. Moft true, forfooth ; and many time and oft 
Myfelf have heard a voice to call him fo, 

Car. What, art thou lame ? 

Simp. Ay, God Almighty help me ! 

8 who/aid, Saunder, &c.] The former copies : 

ivbofaiJ) Simon, come ; 

Come offer at my Jhrine, find / *'.'/// help thee. 

Why, Simrnf The chronicles that take notice of Glofter's de 
teting this pretended miracle, tell us, that the impoftor, who af- 
ferted himfelf to be cured of blinrlnefs, was called SaunJcr Sinip'- 
(oxSimon was therefore a corruption. THEOBALD. 



Suf. How cam'ft them fo ? 

Simp. A fall off of a tree. 

Wife. A plum-tree, mafter. 

Glo. How long haft thou been blind ? 

Simp. O, born fo, mafter. 

Glo. What, and would'ft climb a tree ? 

Simp. But that in all my life, when I was a youth, 

Wife. Too true ; and bought his climbing very dear. 

Glo. Mafs, thou lov'dft plums well, that would'ft 

venture fo. 
Simp. Alas, good mafter, my wife defir'd fome dam- 

And made me climb, with danger of my life. 

Glo. A fubtle knave ! but yet it lhall not ferve. 
Let me fee thine eyes: wink now; now open 

them : 
In my opinion, yet thou fee'ft not well. 

Simp. Yes, mafter, clear as day ; I thank God, and 

faint Alban. 
Glo. Say'ft thou me fo ? What colour is this cloak 


Simp. Red, mafter ; red as blood. 
Glo. Why, that's well faid : what colour is my 

gown of ? 

Simp. Black, forfooth ; coal-black, as jet. 
K. Henry. Why then, thou know'ft what colour 

jet is of? 

Suf. And yet, I think,, jet did he never fee. 
Glo. But cloaks, and gowns, before this day, a 


Wife. Never, before this day, in all his life. 
Glo. Tell me, firrah, what's my name ? 
Simp. Alas, mafter, I know not. 
Glo. What's his name ? 
Simp. I know not. 
Gb. Nor his ? 
Simp. No, indeed, mafter. 
Glo. What's thine own name ? 
Y 4 


Simp. Saunder Simpcox, an if it pleafe you, matter, 

Glo. Then Saunder, fit there, the lyingeft knave 
In Chrittendom. If thou hadft been born blind, 
Thou might'ft as well have known all our names, as 


To name the feveral colours we do wear. 
Sight may diftinguim colours; but fuddcnly 
To nominate them all, it is impoflible. 
My lords, faint Alban here hath done a miracle ; 
Would ye not think that cunning to be great, 
That could rettore this cripple to his legs again? 

Simp. O, matter, that you could ! 

Glo. My mailers of faint Alban's, 
Have you not beadles in your town, and things 
Call'd whips ? 

Mayor. Yes, my lord, if it pleafe your grace. 

Glo. Then fend for one prefently. 

Mayor. Sirrah, go fetch the beadle hither ftraight. 

[Exit Meffenger. 

Glo. Now fetch me a ftool hither by and by. Now, 
firrah, if you mean to fave yourfelf from whipping, 
leap me over this ftool, and run away. 

Simp. Alas, matter, I am not able to ftand alone : 
You go about to torture me in vain. 

Enter a Beadle, with icbips. 

Glo* Well, fir, we rnuft have you find your logs. 
Eirrah beadle, whip him '.till he leap over that fame 

Bead. I will, my lord. Come on, firrah ; off 
with your doublet quickly. 

Simp. Alas, matter, what mail I do ? I am not able 
to ftand. 

[Afier lie Beadle bath lit him once, le leaps over 
/reel, and runs away ; and the people foUobo 
and cry, A Miracle. ! 

ft. Henry. O God, feeft thou this, and bcar'ft fo 
long ? 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 329 

SHtecn. It made me laugh, to fee the villain run. 

Glo. Follow the knave ; and take this drab away. 

W~if. Alas, fir, we did it for pure need. 

Glo. Let them be whipt through every market town 
Until they come to Berwick, whence they came. 

[Exit Beadle, with the woman, &c. 

Gar. Duke Humphrey has done a miracle to day. 

Suf. True ; made the lame to leap, and fly away. 

Glo. But you have done more miracles than I; 
You made, in a day, my lord, whole towns to fly. 

Enter Buckingham. 

K. Henry. What tidings with our coufin Buck- 
ingham ? 

Buck. Such as my heart doth tremble to unfold. 
A fort of naughty perfons, 9 lewdly bent, 
Under the countenance and confederacy 
Of lady Eleanor, the protector's wife, 
The ring-leader and head of all this rout, 
Have practis'd dangeroufly againft your liate, 
Dealing with witches, and with conjurers : 
Whom we have apprehended in the fadt; 
Railing up wicked fpirits from under ground, 
Demanding of king Henry's life and death, 
And other of your highnefs* privy council, 
As more at large your grace fliall underftand. 

Car. And fo, my lord protedtor, by this means 
1 Your lady is forth-coming yet at London. 
This news, I think, hath turn'd your weapon's edge; 
J Tis like, my lord, you will not keep your hour. 

[Afide to Glofter. 

Glo. Ambitious churchman, leave to afflidt my 
heart ! 

* ' ' lewdly lent,"} Lewdly, in this place, and in fome others, 
does not fignify wantonly , but wickedly. STEEVENS. 

1 Tour lady is fertb-c oming ] That is, Your lady is in Cllf- 
fody. JOHNSON. 


33 o S E C O N D P A R. T O F 

Sorrow arid grief have vanquifh'd all my powers ; 
And, vanquifli'd as I am, I yield to thee, 
Or to the meaneft groom. 

K. Henry, O God, what mifchiefs work the wicked 

ones ; 
Heaping confufion on their own heads thereby ! 

Queen. Glofter, fee here the tainture of thy nefl ; 
And, look, thyfelf be faultlefs, thou wert befl. 

Glo. Madam, for myfelf, to heaven I do appeal, 
How I have lov'd my king, and common-weal : 
And, for my wife, I know not how it ftands ; 
Sorry I am to hear what I have heard : 
Noble {he is ; but, if fhe have forgot 
Honour, and virtue, and conversed with fuch 
As, like to pitch, defile nobility, 
I banifh her, my bed, and company ; 
And give her, as a prey, to law, and fhame, 
That hath difhonour'd Glofter's honeft name. 

K. Henry. Well, for this night, we will repofe us 

here : 

To-morrow, toward London, back again, 
To look into this bufinefs thoroughly, 
And call thefe foul offenders to their anfwers ; 
* And poife the caufe in juftice' equal fcales, 
Whofe beam (lands fure, whofe rightful caufeprevails. 

\_Flouriff}. Exeunt. 

* And polfe the caufe injiiftice* equal fcalcs^ 
WTiofe beamjiands fure, lubofe rit ' 

rightful caufe prevails.] 

The fenfe will, I think, be mended if we read in the optative 
mood : 

jufllce^ equal fcale, 
Whofe beam Hand/an- , whoft rightful caufe prevail ! 





fhe duke of Tork's garden. 
Enter Tork, Salijbury, and Warwick. 

Tork. Now, my good lords of Salisbury and War- 

Our fimple fupper ended, give me leave, 
In this clofe walk, to fatisfy myfelf, 
3 In craving your opinion of my title, 
Which is infallible, to England's crown. 

Sal. My lord, I long to hear it at full. 

War. Sweet York, begin ; and if thy claim be good, 
The Nevils are thy fubjects to command. 

Tork. Then thus : 

Edward the Third, my lords, had feven fons : 
The firft, Edward the Black Prince, prince of Wales; 
The fecond, William of Hatfield; and the third, 
Lionel, duke of Clarence ; next to whom, 
Was John of Gaunt, the duke of Lancafter : 
The fifth, was Edmund Langley, duke of York ; 
The fixth, was Thomas of Woodftock, duke of 

Glofter ; 

William of Windfor was the feventh, and laft. 
Edward, the Black Prince, dy'd before his father ; 
And left behind him Richard, his only fon, 
Who, after Edward the Third's death, reign'd king ; 
'Till Henry Bolingbroke, duke of Lancafter, 
The eldeft fon and heir of John of Gaunt, 
Crown'd by the name of Henry the fourth, 
Seiz'd on the realm ; depos'd the rightful king ; 
Sent his poor queen to France, from whence Ihe came, 

3 In craving your opinion of my title, x 

Which is infallible, to England's crown,"] 

I know not well whether he means the opinion or the title is in- 
fallible. JOHNSON, 



And him to Pomfret; where, as both you know, 
Harmlels Richard was murder'd traiteroufly. 

War. Father, the duke hath told the truth; 
Thus got the houfe of Lancafter the crown. 

Tork. Which now they hold by force, and not b] 

right ; 

For Richard, the firft fon's heir, being dead, 
The iffue of the next fon mould have reign'd. 

Sal. But William of Hatfield dy'd without an hei 

Tork. The third fon, duke of Clarence, (from who! 


I claim the crown) had iffue Philippe, a datighte 
Who married Edmund Mortimer, earl of March. 
Edmund had iffue Roger, earl of March : 
Roger had iffue Edmund, Anne, and Eleanor. 

Sal. This Edmund, in the reign of Bolingbroke 
As I have read, laid claim unto the crown ; 
And, but for Owen Glendower, had been king, 
Who kept him in captivity, 'till he dy'd. 
But, to the reft. 

Tork. His eldeft filler, Anne, 
My mother, being heir unto the crown, 
Married Richard, earl of Cambridge ; who was fa 
To Edmund Langley, Edward the third's fifth fon. 
By her I claim the kingdom : Ihe then was heir 
To Roger, earl of March ; who was the fon 
Of Edmund Mortimer; who married Philippe, 
Sole daughter unto Lionel, duke of Clarence: 
So, if the iffue of the elder fon 
Succeed before the younger, I am king. 

War. What plain proceeding is more plain than 

this ? 

Henry doth claim the crown from John of Gaunt 
The fourth fon ; York claimeth it from the third. 
'Till Lionel's iffue fails, his Ihould not reign : 
It fails not yet ; but flourifhes in thee, 
And in thy fons, fair flips of fuch a flock. 
Then, father Salifbury, kneel we both together ; 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 333 

And, in this private plot, be we the firft, 
That fhall falute our rightful fovcreign 
With honour of his birth-right to the crown. 

Both. Long live our fovereign Richard, England's 
king ! 

York. We thank you, lords. But I am not your 


'Till I be crown'd ; and that my fvvord be ftain'd 
With heart-blood of the houfe of Lancafter : 
And that's not fuddenly to be perform'd ; 
But with advice, and filent fecrecy. 
Do you, as I do, in thefe dangerous days, 
Wink at the duke of Suffolk's infolence, 
At Beaufort's pride, at Somerfet's ambition, 
At Buckingham, and all the crew cf them, 
'Till they have fnar'd the fhepherd of the flock, 
That virtuous prince, the good duke Humphrey : 
'Tis that they feek ; and they, in feeking that, 
Shall find their deaths, if York can prophefy. 

Siil. My lord, break we off; we know your mind 
at full. 

War. My heart aifures me, that the earl of War- 
Shall one day make the duke of York a king. 

York. And, Nevil, this I do affure myfelf, 
Richard fhall live to make the earl of Warwick 
The greateft man in England, but the king. [Exeunt. 


A hall of juftice. 

Sound trumpets. Enter king Henry, queen Margaret, Glqfter, 
York, Suffolk, and Salisbury ; the Dutchefs, mother Jour* 
dain, Sout fa-el, Hume, and Bolingln'oke, under guard. 

K. Henry. Stand forth, dame Eleanor Cobham, 
Glofter's wife : 



In fight of God, and us, your guilt is great ; 
Receive the fentence of the law, for fins 
Such as by God's book are adjudg'd to death.- 
You four, from hence to priibn back again ; 

[To the other prifoturM 

From thence, unto the place of execution : 
The witch in Smithfield fhall be burnt to afhes, 
And you three fhall be ftrangled on the gallows. 
You, madam, for you are more nobly born, 
Defpoiled of your honour in your life, 
Shall, after three days open penance done, 
Live in your country here, in banifhment, 
With fir John Stanley, in the ifle of Man. 

Ekan. "^"elconie is banilhment, welcome were myj 

Glo. Eleanor, the law, thou feeft, hath judged thee; 
I cannot juftify whom the law condemns. 

[Exeunt Eleanor, and the others, guarded*. 
Mine eyes are full of tears, my heart of grief. 
. Ah, Humphrey, this difhonour in thine age 
Will bring thy head with forrow to the ground ! > 
I befeech your majefty, give me leave to go ; 
4 Sorrow would folace, and mine age would eafe. 

K. Henry. Stay, Humphrey duke of Giofter : ere 

thou go, 

Give up thy ftaff; Henry will to himfelf 
Protedtor be ; and God (hall be my hope, 
My ftay, my guide, and lanthorn to my feet t 
And go in peace, Humphrey ; no lefs belov'dj 
Than when thou weit proteclor to thy king. 

<$>. Mar. I fee no reafon, why a king of years 

Should be to be protected like a child. 

I God and king Henry govern England's realm : 

4 Sorrow -xouldfolace, and my age would eafe. ~\ That is, Sof 
..lei have ; iorrow requires lolace, and age requires cafe. 


* Cod and king Henry govtr* England? s realm ;] The word' 


KING HE N R Y VI. 335 

Give up your ftaff, fir, and the king his realm. 

Glo. My ftaff? here, nolle Henry, is my ftaff: 
As willingly do I the fame rfign, 
As e'er thy father Henry made it mine ; 
And even as willingly at thy feet I leave it, 
As others would ambitioufty receive it. 
Farewel, good king : When I am dead and gone, 
May honourable peace attend thy throne ! 

[Rvt Glojter. 

Q. Mar. Why, now is Henry king, and Margaret 

queen ; 

And Humphrey, duke of Glofter, fcarce himfelf, 
That bears fo fhrewd a maim ; two pulls at once, 
His lady banifh'd, and a limb lopp'd off. 
6 This ftaff of honour raught : There let it ftand, 
Where beft it fits to be, in Henry's hand. 

Suf. Thus droops this lofty pine, and hangs his 

fprays ; 
Thus Eleanor's pride dies in her youngeft days. 

York. 7 Lords, let him go. Pleafe it your majefty, 
This is the day appointed for the combat ; 
And ready are the appellant and defendant, 
The armourer and his man, to enter the lifts, 
So pleafe your highnefs to behold the fight. 

^. Mar. Ay, good my lord ; for purpofely there- 

realm at the end of two lines together is difpleafing ; and when 
it is confidered that much of this fcene is written in rhyme, it 
will not appear improbable that the author wrote, govern Eng- 
lancTi helm. JOHNSON. 
So, in a preceding fcene of this play : 

And you yourfelf (hall fteer the happy helm. STEEVENS. 

6 Tbisjlajf of honour raught : ] Raught is the ancient prete- 
rite of the verb reach, and is frequently ufed by Spenfer, as in 
the following inftance, b. iii. c. ix. i". 20 : 

'* Her golden lockes that were in trnmels gay 
*' Upbounden, did themfelves adowne difplay, 
** And raught unto her heeles."- STHEVEN^. 

7 Lords, let him go. ] i.e. Let him pafs out of your thoughts, 
ukcHumphrey had already left the fiage, STEEVENS. 



Left I the court, to lee this quarrel try'd. 

K. Henry. O' God's name, fee the lifts and all things 

fit ; 
Here let them end it, and God defend the right I 

Tork. I never faw a fellow 8 worfe betted, 
Or more afraid to fight, <han is the appellant, 
The fervantof this armourer, my lords. 

Enter at one door the armourer and his neighbours, d)-ink- 
ing to him Jo much that he is drunk ; and be enters 
with a drum before him, and his ft off 9 with a fand- 
bag faftened to it ; and at the other door enters his man, 
with a drum and fand-bag, and prentices drinking IQ 

i Neigh. Here, neighbour Homer, I drink to you 
in a cup of fack ; And fear not, neighbour, you fhall 
do well enough. 

2, Nrigh. And here, neighbour, here's * a cup of 


8 -varfc be/fed,] In a worfe plight. JOHNSON. 

9 - with a fand'bag faftened to it ;] As, according to the 
old laws of duels, knights were to fight with the lance and 
fword ; fo thofe of inferior rank fought with an ebon ftaft" or 
battoon, to the farther end of which was fixed a bag cramm j d 
"hard with fand. To this cuftom Hudibras has alluded in thefe 
humourous lines : 

** Engag'd with money-bags, as bold 

" As men with fand-bags did of old." WAR BUR TON. 
Mr. Sympfon, in his notes on Ben Jonfon, obferves, that apaf- 
fage in St. Chryfoftom very clearly proves the great antiquity of 
this practice. STEEVENS. 

1 - a cup of charneco.'] On which the Oxford Editor thus 
criticizes in his index : " This feems to have been a cant word 
for fome flrong liquor, which was apt to bring drunken fellows to 
the flocks, fince in Spanifh charniegos is a term ufed for the flocks." 
It was no cant word, but a common name for a fort of fweet wine, 
as appears from a paflage in a pamphlet intitled, The Difcovery of 
a London Monjter y called the Black Dog of Newgate , printed 
1612: ' ; Some drinking the neat wine of Orleance, fome the 
Gafcony, fome the Bourdeaux. There wanted neither flierry, 
fack, nor charncco, inaligo, nor amber-colour'd candy, nor li- 



3 Neigh. And here's a pot of good double beer, 
neighbour : drink, and fear nor your man. 

Arm, Let it come, i'faith, and I'll pledge you all ; 
And a fig for Peter ! 

1 Pren. Here, Peter, I drink to thee ; and be not 
afraid. v 

2 Pren. Be merry, Peter, and fear not thy matter : 
fight for credit of the prentices. 

Peter. I thank you all : drink, and pray for me, I 
pray you ; for, I think, I have taken my laft draught 
in this world. -Here, Robin, an if I die, I give thee 
my apron j and, Will ^ thou ihalt have my hammer : 
and here, Tom, take all the money that I have. 
O Lordj blefs mej I pray God ! for I am never able 

quorifh ipocras, brown beloved baftard, fat aligant, or any quick - 
fpirited liquor." And as charneca is, in Spanifti, the name of a 
kind of turpentine-tree, I imagine the growth of it was in fome 
diftrift abounding with that tree ; or that it had its name from a 
certain flavour refembling it. WAR BURTON. 

The vulgar name for this liquor was cbaringo. I meet with it 
In an old catch fet to mufic by Lavves. HAWKINS. 

In a pamphlet entitled, Wit's Miferie, or the World's Mad- 
ucfs, printed in 1596, it is faid, that " the only medicine for 
the fleghm is three cups of cbarneco falling.'* 

In A Collection of Epig rams and Satires^ without date, but of 
the fame age, this liquor is mentioned again : 

** happy is the man doth rightly know 

" The virtue of three cups of cbarneco." 
Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit without Many: 
" Where no old charneco is, nor no anchovies." 
Again, in Deckar's tioncft WTjore, 1630, adPart: 

" Imprimis, a pottle of Greek wine, a pottle of Peter-fa- 
meene, a pottle of cbarneco, and a pottle of Ziattica." 
Again, in the Fair Maid of the Weft, 1615 : 

" Aragoofa, or Peter-fee-me, canary, or cbarneco" 


a cup of charnico.] Mention is made &f this liquor in ao 

ancient colle&ion of Epigrams, now in my poneilion : 

;t When Seigneur Sack -and -Sugar drink-drown 'd reels, 
1 He vows to hew the fpurs from fellow's heels ; 
" When calling for a quart of charnico y 
" Into a loving league they prefent grow : &c." PERCY, 

VOL. VI. Z to 

338 SEC ON D P A R T C F 

,to deal with, my mafter, he hath learnt fo much 
fence already, 

Sal Come, leave your drinking, and fall to blows. 
Sirrah, w hat's thy name ? 

Peter. Peter, forfooth. 

Sal. Peter ! what more ? 
- Peter. Thump. 

Sal. Thump! then fee thou thump thy mafterwelF. 

Arm. Mailers, I am come hither, as it were, upon 
my man's inftigation, to prove him a knave, and myi 
felf an honeft man : and touching the duke of York, i 
I will take my death, I never meant him any ill, no* 
the king, nor the queen ; And therefore, Peter, have 
at thee with a downright blow, ' as Bcvis of South* 
ampton fell upon Afcapart. 

York. Difpatch.: * this knave's' tongue begins tj 

Sound trumpets, alarum to the combatants. 

[They fight, and Peter firikes him down. 

Arm. Hold, Peter, hold ! I confefs, I confefs trea-r 
ion. [Dies. 

Tork. Take away his weapon : ^-Fellow, thank God* 
and the good wine in thy matter's way. 

1 - as Bei'ii of Southampton fell upon Afcapart J\ I havt? 
added this From the old quarto. WAR BURTON. 

Afiapart the giaiat 01 the ftory a name familiar to our attf 
ceftors, is- mentioned by Dr. Donne: 

'* Thofe dfiaparts, men big enough to throw 
" Charibg-crbfs for a bar, &V." JOHNSON. 

The figures of thefe Combatants are fUll preferved on the gatejf 
of Southampton. ST>:EVENS, 

* tbis^ knai>t's tonguf begins to Jou1>le.\ So, in Holinflied, whefe 
narrative Shakelptare has deierted, by making the armourer con- 

hen he fhould have come to the field frelh and faft- 
ing, his neighbours came to him, and gave him wine and ftrongl 
dnhk in fuch excellive fort, that he was therewith diftempered, 
and reeled as he went ; and fo was llain without guilt ; as for 
the faHip fervant he lived aot long," sV. STEEVENS. (J 

K I N G 'H E N R Y VI. 339 

Peter. O God ! have I overcome mine enemy in 

this prefence ? 
O Peter, thou haft prevailed in right ! 

K. Henry. Go, take hence that traitor from our 

fight ; 

For, by his death, we do perceive his guilt 3 : 
'And God, in juflice, hath rcveaPd to us 
The truth and innocence of this poor fellow, 
Which he had thought to ha vc murder'd wrongfully.- 
Come, fellow, follow us for thy reward. [Exeunt. 


Enter duke Humphrey, and his men, in mourning cloaks. 

Glo. Thus, fometimes, hath the brighteft day a 

cloud ; 

And, after fummer, evermore fucceeds 
Barren winter, with his wrathful nipping cold : 
So cares and joys abound, as feafons fleet 4 . 
Sirs, what's o* clock ? 

Serv. Ten, my lord. 

Glo. Ten is the hour that was appointed me, 
To watch the coming of my puniih'd dutchefs : 

3 For, by his death, w e Jo perceive his guilt.'] According to the 
ancient ufage of the duel, the vanquifhed perfon not only loft his 
life but his reputation, and his death was always regarded as a 
certain evidence of his guilt. We have a remarkable initance of 
this in an account of the Duellum inter Dominum Jobanncm Han- 
nejly, Militem, & Robertum Katlenton, Armigerum, in quo Robertus 
ftiit occifuf. From whence, fays the hiitorian, ** magna fuit evi- 
dtxtia quod militis caufa erat vera, ex quo mors alter iui fey ue&atttr." 
A. Murimuth, ad ann. 1380, p. 149. BOWLE. 

* as feafons fleet.] "Tojiect is to change. So, \nAntony and 
Cleopatra : 

" now \hcjleeting moon 

" No planet is of mine." STEEVKJJS. 

Z 2 Uneath 

3 4o S E C O N D P A R T O F 

5 Uneath may flic endure the flinty ftreets, 
To tread them with her tender-feeling feet. 
Sweet Nell, ill can thy noble mind abrook 
The abject people, gazing on thy face, 
With envious looks ftill laughing at thy fhamc ; 
That erfl did follow thy proud chariot wheels, 
When thou didft ride in triumph through the flrcets* 
But, ibft ! I think, fhe comes ; and I'll prepare 
My tear-flain'd eyes to fee her miieries. 

Enter the Dutckefs in a white JJxet, far feet bare, and 
a taper burning in her band, with Sir John Stanley, 
ajlwiff, and officers. 

. So pleafe your grace, we'll take her from the 

Glo. No, ftir not for your lives ; let her pafs by., 

Elean. Come you, my lord, to fee my open fhame ? 
Now thou dofl penance too. Look, how they gaze ! 
See, how the giddy multitude do point, 
And nod their heads, and throw their eyes on thec ! 
Ah, Glofter, hide thee from their hateful looks ; 
And, in thy clofet pent up, rue my mame, 
And ban thine enemies, both mine and thine. 

Glo. Be patient, gentle Nell ; forget this grief. 

Ekan. Ah, Glofter, teach me to forget my felt" : 
For, vvhilft I think I am thy marry'd wife, 
And thou a prince, protestor of this land, 
Methinks, I fliould not thus be led along, 

5 Uneatb] 5. e. Scarcely. POPE. 

So, in the metrical romance of Guy Earl nf JPartvict, bl. I. no 
date : 

'* Utat^cs we came from him certain, 
" That he ne had us all (lain." 

Eatb is the ancient word for eafe or eafv. So, in Spenfcr't 
Faery ,, B. IV. c. 6 : 

** More eath was new impreflion to receive." 
Uneatb is commonly ufed by the fame author for of tafily. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 34t 

* Mail'd up in fhame, with papers on my back ; 

And followed with a rabble, that rejoice 

To fee my tears, and hear my deep-fee groans. 

The ruthlefs flint doth cut my tender feet ; 

And, when I ftart, the envious people laugh, 

And bid me be advifed how I tread. 

Ah, Humphrey, can I bear this ftiameful yoke ? 

Trow'ft thou, that e'er I'll look upon the world ; 

Or count them happy, that enjoy the fun ? 

No ; dark lhall be my light, and night my day ; 

To think upon my pomp, fhall be my hell. 

Sometime I'll fay, I am duke Humphrey's wife ; 

And he a prince, and ruler of the land : 

Yet fo he rul'd, and fuch a prince he was, 

That he flood by, whilft I, his forlorn dutchefs, 

Was made a wonder, and a pointing-ftock, 

To every idle rafcal follower. 

But be thou mild, and bluih not at my fliame ; 

Nor flir at nothing, 'tilt the axe of death 

Hang over thee, as, fure, it fhortly will. 

For Suffolk, he that can do all in all 

With her, that hatcth thee, and hates us all, 

And York, and impious Beaufort, that falfe prieft, 

Have all lim'd buihes to betray thy wings, 

And, fly thou how thou canft, they'll tangle thee : 

But fear not thou, until thy foot be fnar'd, 

Nor never feek prevention of thy foes. 

Glo. Ah, Nell, forbear ; thou aimeft all awry ; 
I muft offend, before I be attainted : 
And had I twenty times fo many foes, 
And each of them had twenty times their power. 
All thefe could not procure me any fcathe 7 , 
So long as I am loyal, true, and crimelefs. 

6 MaiVdnp injkame, ] Wrapped up; bundled up in dif- 
grace ; alluding to the flieet of penance. JOHNSO.V. 

7 any fcathe,] Kcatbe is harm, or rnifchicf, Chaucer, 
Spenfer, and all our ancient writers, are frequent in their ufe of 
this word. STEEVENS. 

Z 2 Wouldft 


Would'ft have rne refcue thee from this reproach- > 
Why, yet thy fcandal were not wip'd away, 
But I in danger for the breach of law. 
8 Thy greateft help is quiet, gentle Nell : 
I pray thee, fort thy heart to patience ; 
Thefe few-days' wonder will be quickly worn. 

Enter a Herald. 

Her. I fummon your grace to his majefty's parlia- 
ment, holden at Bury the firft of this next month. 
Glo. And my confent ne'er afk'd herein before ! 
This is clofe dealing. Well, I will be there. 

[Exit Herald 

My Nell, I take my leave : and, matter meriff, 
Let not her penance exceed the king's commifiion. 
iSfor. Ao't pleafe your grace, here my commiilion 


And fir John Stanley is appointed now 
To take her with him to the ifle of Man. 

Glo. Muft you, fir John, protect my lady here ? 
Stan. So am I given in charge, may't pleafe your 


Glo. FiiLieat her not the worfe, in thnt I pray 
You ufe her well : 9 the world may laugh again j 
And I may live to do you kindnefs, if 
You. do it her. And ib, fir John, farewek 

Elean. What gone, my lord ; and bid me not fare- 

wel ? 
Glo. Witnefs my tears, I cannot flay to fpeak. 

[Exit Gloftcr. 
Elean, Art thou gone too ? All comfort go with 

.the . 
For none'abjuLS with me ; my joy is death ; 

8 Thy .^rt-atef help is <ju?ct, ] The poet has not endeavoured 
to raife much -compailvn for the dutchefs, \vho indeed i'ufters 
but wiiat.iiii; : - ll deiierved. JoH^soN. 

9 _. .ii may laugh ] That is, The world may 

.u-iibly upon me. JOHNSON, 


r KING H E N R Y VI. S 43 
Death, at whofe name I oft have been afear'd, 
Becaufe I u ifh'd this world's eternity. 
Stanley, I pr'ythce,. go,, and take .me hcpce^ 
I care not whither, for I beg no favour, - 
Only convey me where thou art commanded. 

Stan. Why, madam, that is to- .the ifle of Man ; 
There to be us'd according to your flate. 
. Ekan. That's bad enough, for I am but reproacljj 
And fhall I then be us'd reproachfully ? 

Stan. Like to a dutcheis, and 'duke 'Humphrey's 

According to -that flate you lhall be us'd. 

Ek an. Sheriff, farcwel, and better than I fare ; \ 
Although thou haft been conduct of my lhame. 
5 Sher. It is my office ; and, madam, pardon me. t 
Elean. Ay, ay, farewel ; thy office is difcharg'd." 
Come, Stanley, fhall we go ? 

Stan. Madam, your penance done, throw off this 

And go we to attire you for our journey. 

J^lean. My fhame will not be Ihifted with my 

fheet : 

No, it will hang upon my richeft robes, 
And {hew itfelf, attire me how I can. 
Go, lead the way ; 1 1 long to fee my prifon. 


1 / long to fee my prifon.} This impatience of a high 

fpirit is very natural. It is not fo dreadful to be imprifoned, as 
it is defireable in a Hate of difgrace to be flickered from the fcora 
of gazers. JOHNSON. 



The abbey at Bury. 

Enter king Henry, Queen, Cardinal, Suffolk, York) 
and Buckingham, &c. to the parliament. 

K. Henry. I mufe, my lord of Gloilcr is not come ; 
*Tis not his wont to be the hindmoft man, 
Whate'er occafion keeps him from us now. 

>. Mar. Can you not fee ? or will you not pbferve 
The ftrangenefs of hjs alter'd countenance ? 
With what a majefty he bears himfelf j 
]How inlblent of late he is become, 
How proud, how peremptory, and unlike himfelf > 
We know the time, fince he was mild and affable j 
And, if we did but glance a far-off look, 
Immediately he was upon his knee, - 
That all the court admir'd him for fiibmiffipn : 
But meet him now, and, be it in the n;orn, 
When every one will give the time of day, 
He knits his brow, and mews an angry eye, 
And paffeth by with ftiff unbowed knee, 
Difdaining duty that to us belongs. 
Small curs are not regarded, when they grin ; 
But great men tremble, when the lion roars j 
And Humphrey is no little man in England. 
Firft, note, that he is near you in defcent ; 
And, Ihould you fall, he is the next will mount, 
*Me feemeth then, it is no policy, 
Refpe&ing what a rancorous mind he bears, 

* Mefccmrth ~] That is, it feemeth to me, a word morf 
grammatical than mctbink.^ which has, I know not how, intrud- 
ed into its place. JOHNSON. 



And his advantage following your deceafe, 

That he Ihould come about your royal perfon, 

Or be admitted to your highnefs' council. 

By flattery hath he won the commons' hearts ; 

And, when he pleafe to make commotion, 

'Tis to be fear'd, they all will follow him. 

Now 'tis the fpring, and weeds are fhallow-rooted ; 

Surfer them now, and they'll o'er-grow the garden, 

And choak the herbs for want of hufbandry. 

The reverent care, I bear unto my lord, 

Made me colledr. thefe dangers in the duke. 

If it be fond, call it a woman's fear; 

Which fear if better reafons can fupplant, 

I will fubfcribe, and fay I wrong'd the duke. 

My lords of Suffolk, Buckingham, and York, 

Reprove my allegation, if you can ; 

Or elfe conclude my words effectual. 

Suf. Well hath your highnefs feen into this duke j 
And, had I firfl been put to fpeak my mind, 
I think, I fhould have told 3 your grace's tale. 
The dutchefs, by his fubornation, 
Upon my life, began her devilifh practices : 
Or if he were not privy to thofe faults, 
Yet, by reputing of his high defcent 4 , 
(As next the king, he was fucceffive heir,) 
And fuch high vaunts of his nobility, 
Did inftigate the bedlam brain-lick dutchefs, 
By wicked means to frame our fovereign's fall. 
Smooth runs the water, where the brook is deepefl ; 
And in his fimple fhew he harbours treafon. 
The fox barks not, when he would fteal the lamb. 

3 your grace's tale.~\ Suffolk ufes blghnefs and grace 

promifcuoufly tp the queen. Majefty was not the fettled title till 
the time of king James the Firft. JOHNSON. 

* Tet ly reputing of bis high Jcfienty] Thus the old copy. 

The modern editors read repeating. Refuting of his high deficit, 

JS valuing himfelf upon it. The fame word occurs in the jth aft : 

And in my confcie,njce do rfpute his grace, &c. STEEVENS, 



No, no, my fovcrcign ; G-loiler is a man 
Unfounded yet, and full of deep decrit. 

Car. Did he not^ contrary to form of law, 
Devife ftrange deaths for fmall offences done ? 

York.' And did he. not, in his proteclorfhip, 
Levy great fums of money through the realm, 
For.foldiers 1 pay in France, and never fent it ? 
By means whereof, the towns each day revolted. 

Buck. Tut ! thefe are petty faults to faults un- 

Which time will bring to light in fmooth duke Hum-- 
" phrey. 

K* Henry. My lords, at once : The care you have 

of us, 

To mow down thorns that would annoy our foot, 
fs worthy praife.: But fliall ! fpeak my conference ? 
Our kinfman Glofler is as innocent 
From, meaning treafon to our royal perfon 
As is the fucking lamS, or harmlefs dove : 
The duke is virtuous, mild ; and too well given, 
To dream on evil, or to work my downfall. 

j^J. Mar. Ah, what's more dangerous than this 

fond affiance ! 

Seems he a dove ? his feathers are but borrowed, 
For he's difpofed as the hateful raven. 
Is he a larrib ? his fkin is furely lent him, 
For he's inclin'd as is the ravenous wolf. 
Who cannot fleal a fliape, that means deceit ? 
Take heed, my lord ; the welfare of us all 
Hangs on the cutting Ihort that fraudful man. 

Enter Somerfet. 

Som. All health unto, my gracious fovereign ! 
K.Henry. Welcome, lord Somerfet. What news 

from France ? 

Som. That all your intereft in thofe territories 
Is utterly bereft you ; all is- loft. 

K. Henry t 

KING-HE -NR-Y VI. 547 

K. Henry. Cold news, lord Somerfet : But God's 

will be done ! 
Tork. 5 Cold news for me ; for I had hope of 


As firmly as I hope for fertile England. 
Thus are my bloffoms blafled in the bud, 
And caterpillars eat my leaves away : 
But I will remedy 6 this gear ere long, 
Or fell my title for a glorious grave. \_dpde. 

Enter GloJIer. 

G.lo. All happinefs unto my lord the king ! 
Pardon-, my liege, that I have {laid fo long. 

Suf. Nay, Glofter, know, that thou art come too 


Unlefs thou wert more loyal than thou art : 
I do arreft thee of high treafon here. 

Glo. Well, Suffolk, yet thou ftialt not fee me bluih, 
Nor change my countenance for this arreft; 
A heart unfpotted is not eafily daunted. 
The pureft ipring is not fo free from mud, 
As I am clear from treafon to my fovereign : 
Who can accufe me ? wherein am I guilty ? 

Tork. 'Tis thought, my lord, that you took bribes 

of France, 

And, being protestor, ftay'd the foldiers* pay ; 
By means whereof, his highnefs hath loft France. 

Glo. Is it but thought fo ? What arc they, that 
think it ? 

5 Cold news for me ; &c.] Thefe two lines York had fpoken 
before in the firfl aft of this play. He is now meditating on his 
tiifappointment, and comparing his former hopes with his prefent 
lofs. STEEVENS. 

6 this gear ] Gear was a ' general word for things or 

lhatters. JOHNSON. 

So, in the ftory of King Darius, an interlude, 1565 : 
" Wyll not yet this^m- be amended, 
' Nor your finful afts corrected?" STEEVENS. 

J never 


I never robb'd the foldiers of their pay, 
Nor ever had one penny bribe from France. 
So help me God, as I have watch'd the night, 
Ay, night by night, in fludying good for Eng- 
land ! 

That doit that e'er I wrefted from the king, 
Or any groat I hoarded to my ufe, 
Be brought againft me at my trial day ! 
No ; many a pound of mine own proper (lore-, 
Becaufe I would not tax the needy commons, 
Have I difpurfed to the garrifons, 
And never afk'd for reftitution. 

Car. It ferves you well, my lord, to fay fo much. 

Glo. I fay no more than truth, fo help me God ! 

Tork. In your protectorfhip, you did devife 
Strange tortures for offenders, never heard of, 
That England was defatn'd by tyranny. 

Glo. Why, 'tis well known, that, whiles I was pro 


Pity was all the fault that was in me ; 
For I fhould melt at an offender's tears, 
And lowly words were ranfom for their fault, 
Unlefs it were a bloody murderer, 
Or foul felonious thief, that fleec'd poor paffcngers, 
I never gave them condign punifhment : 
Murder, indeed, that bloody fin, I tortur'd 
Above the felon, or what trefpafs elfe. 

Suf. My lord, 7 thefe faults are eafy, quickly an* 

fwer'd : 

But mightier crimes are laid unto your charge, 
Whereof you cannot eafily purge yourfelf, 
I do arrelt you in his highnefs' name ; 
And here commit you to my lord cardinal 
To keep, until your further time of trial. 

K. Henry. My lord of Glofter, 'tis my fpecial hope, 

1 'tbcfe faults are <#,] Eafy is flight, inconfidcr- 

able, as in other pafiagee of this author. JOHNSON. 



That you will clear yourfelf from 8 all fufpicion ; 
My confcience tells me, you are innocent. 

Glo. Ah, gracious lord, thefe days are dangerous ! 
Virtue is choak'd with foul ambition, 
And charity chas'd hence by rancour's hand ; 
Foul fubornation is predominant, 
And equity exil'd your highnefs' land. 
I know, their complot is to have my life ; 
And, if my death might make this ifland happy, 
And prove the period of their tyranny, 
I would expend it with all willingnefs : 
But mine is made the prologue to their play ; 
For thoufands more, that yet fufpecl: no peril, 
Will not conclude their plotted tragedy. 
Beaufort's red fparkling eyes blab his heart's malice, 
And Suffolk's cloudy brow his flormy hate ; 
Sharp Buckingham unburdens with his tongue 
The envious load that lies upon his heart ; 
And dogged York, that reaches at the moon, 
Whofe over-weening arm I have pluck'd back, 

By falfe accufe doth level at my life : 

And you, my fovereign lady, with the reft, 

Cauielefs have laid difgraces on my head ; 

And, with your befl endeavour, have ftirr'd up 

My- 9 Hefeft liege to be mine enemy : 

Ay, all of you have laid your heads together, 

Myfelf had notice of your conventicles, 

And all to make away my guiltlefs life : 

I lhall not want falfe witnefs to condemn me, 

Nor ftore of treafons to augment my guilt ; 

8 all fufpicion;] The folio reads allfufpence, 

Perhaps the author wrote -fufoffl. So, in a following fcene : 

" If my/uffefibe falfe, forgive me, God!" STEEVESTS. 

*. - 'lief eft ] Is dearcfi. JOHNSOW. 

So, in Spenfer's Faery Queen, B. II. c. i : 

44 -Madam, my Hef, 

" For God's dear love, &c." 
Again, c. ii : 

*' Fly, oh my liefejt lord," STSEVENS. 



The ancient proverb will be well effe&ed,^- 
A ftaff is quickly found to beat a dog. 

Car. My liege, his railing is intolerable : 
If thofe, that care to keep your royal perfon 
From tceafon's fecret knife, and traitors' rage, 
Be thus upbraided, chid, and rated at, 
And the offender granted fcope of fpeech, 
'Twill make them cool in zeal unto your grace. 

Suf. Hath he not twit our fovereign lady here, 
With ignomkiious words, though clerkly couch'd, 
As if fhe had fuborned fome to fwear 
Falfe allegations to o'erthrow his ftate ? 

Q. Mar. But I can give the lofer leave to chide. 

Glo. Far truer fpoke, than meant : I lofe, indeed ; 
Beferew the winners, for they play me falfe ! 
And well fuch lofers may have leave to fpeak. 

Buck. He'll wreft the fenfe, and hold us here all 

day : 
Lord cardinal, he is your prifoner. 

Car.\ Sirs, take away the duke, and guard him fure. 

Glo. Ah, thus king Henry throws away his crutch, 
Before his legs be firm to bear his body : 
Thus is the fnepherd beaten from thy fide, 
And wolves are gnarling who (hall gnaw thee firft. 
Ah, that my frar were falfe ! ah, that it were ! 
For, good king Henry, thy decay I fear. 

[Exit guarded. 

K. Henry. My lords, what to your wifdom icemcth 

Do, or undo, as if ourfelf were here. 

>. Mar. What, will your highnefs leave the_ par- 
liament ? 
. K. Henry. Ay, Margaret; my heart is drown'd with 


Whofe flood begins to flow within mine eyes ; 
My body round engirt with mifery ; 
For what's more miferable than difcontent ? 
Ah, uncle Humphrey ! in thy face I fee 


K I N G" II EN R Y VI;' $$ 

The map of honour, truth, and loyalty ; 

And yet, good Humphrey, is the hour to come, 

That e'er J prov'd thee falfc, or fear'd thy faith. 

What low 'ring ftar now envies thy eftate, 

That thefe great lords, and Margaret our queen, 

Do feck fubverfion of thy harmlefs life ? 

Thou never didfl them wrong, nor no man wrong : 

* And as the butcher takes away the calf, 

And binds the wretch, and beats it when it ftrays, 

Bearing it to the btoody flaughter-houfe ; 

Even fo, remorfelefs, have they borne him hence* 

And as the dam runs lowing up and down, 

Looking the way her harmlefs young one went, 

And can do nought but wail her darling's lofs ; 

Even fo myfelf bewail good Glofter's cafe, 

With" fad unhelpful tears ; and with dimm'd eyes 

Look after him, and cannot do him good ; 

So mighty are his vowed enemies. 

His fortunes I will weep ; and, 'twixt each groan, 

Say Who's a traitor '? Glcfier he is none. [Eyit. 

* And as the luickr takes away the calf ^ 

And binds the wretch, and leafs'it when ttftrays, ] 
But how can \\..Jlwy when it is bound? The poet certainly in- 
tended when \tj?rives ; i. e. when it ftruggles to get loofe. And 
To he elfewhere employs this word. THIRLBY. 

This emendation is admitted -by 'the fucceeding editors and 'I 
iiad once put it in the text. I am, however, inclined to believe 
'thut in this paflage, as in many, ' there is a conifuiion of ideas, 
nnd that the poet 'had at once 'before him a butcher carrying a 
v calf bound, and a butcher driving a calf to the {laughter, and 
.beating him when he did not keep the path. Part of the lino 
Tvas fuggefted by one image, and part by another, fo that Jlrivt 
is the oeft word, but^r^ is the right. JOHJCSON. 
-' -There-needs no alteration. It is common for butchers to tie a 
rope or halter about the neck of a calf when they take it away 
'from the breeder's farm, and to beat it gently if it attempts to 
Uray from the direft road, The duke ot Glofter is borne away 
like the calf,' that is, he is taken away upon his feet; bur he is 
not earned away as a burthen on horfeb^ck, or upon men's 
Ihoulders,' or in their hands* TOLLET. 


J3>. Mar. * Free lords, cold fnovv melts with the 

fun's hot beams. 

Henry my lord is cold in great affairs, 
Too full of foolifli pity ; and Glofler's fliew 
Beguiles him, as the mournful crocodile 
With forrow fnares relenting paffengers ; 
Or as the make, roll'd on a flowering bank, 
With flnning checker'd flough, doth fling a childy 
That, for the beauty, thinks it excellent. 
Believe me, lords, were none more wife than I, 
(And yet, herein* I judge my own wit good) 
This Glofler fliould be quickly rid the world, 
To rid us from the fear we have of him. 

Car. That he Ihould die, is worthy policy ; 
But yet we want a colour for his death : 
'Tis meet, he be condemn'd by courfe of law, 

Suf. But, in my mind, that were no policy ; 
The king will labour ftill to fave his life, 
The commons haply rife to fave his life ; 
And yet we have but trivial argument, 
More than miltruft, that {hews him worthy death. 

Tork. So that, by this, you would not have him die. 

Suf. Ah, York, no man alive fo fain as I. 

Tork. J 'Tis York that hath more reafon for his 

But, my lord cardinal, and you, my lord of Suffolk, 

* Free lords, &c.] By this flie means (as may be feen by the 
fecjuel) you, who are not bound up to fuch precife regards of re- 
ligion as is the king ; but are men of the world, and know how 
jo live. WARBURTON. 

3 'Tis Tork that hath more reafon for bis death.'] Why York had 
more reafon than the reft for defiring Humphrey's death, is not 
very clear ; he had only decided the deliberation about the re- 
gency of France in favour of Somerfet. JOHNSON. 

York had more reafon, becaufe duke Humphrey flood between 
fcirn and the crown, which he had propofed to himfelf as the ter- 
mination of his ambitious views. So aft III. fc. v : 
For Humphrey being dcaJ^ as hejball &e t 
And Henry put apart ) the ntxt for tr.e , STEEVF.NS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VL 353 

Say as you think, and fpeak it from your fouls,. 

Wer't not all one, an empty eagle were fet 

To guard the chicken from a hungry kite, 

As place duke Humphrey for the king's proteclor? 

>. Mar. So the poor chicken fliould be fare of 

Skf. Madam, 'tis true : And wer't not madnefa 


To make the fox furveyor of the fold ? 
Who being accus'd a crafty murderer, 
His guilt fhould be but idly potted over, 
Becauie his purpofe is not executed. 
4 No ; let him die, in that he is a fox, 
By nature prov'd an enemy to the liock, 
Before his chaps be ftain'd with crimfon blood ; 
As Humphrey prov'd by reafons to my liege. 
And do not ftand on quillets, how to flay him : 
Be it by gins, by fnares, by fubtilty, 
Sleeping, or waking, 'tis no matter how, 
JSo he be dead ; for that is good deceit 5 
Which mates him firft, that firft intends deceit. 

^. Mar. Thrice-noble Suffolk, 'tis refolutely fpoke. 

4 No : let him die, in that he is afox t 
By nature proved an enemy to the flock, 
Before hi 3 chaps be f.aind with crimfon Uood; 
As Humphrey prov'd by reafons to my liege- .] 

The meaning of the fpeaker is not hard to be difcovered, but his 
expreffion is very much perplexed. He means that the fox may 
be lawfully killed, as being known to be by nature an enemy to 
flieep, even before he" has aftually killed them ; fo Humphrey 
may be properly deftroyed, as being proved by arguments to be 
the king's enemy, before he has committed any adtunl crime. 

Some may be tempted to read treafons for rcafons, but the drift 
of the argument is to ihew that there may be reafin to kill him 
before any treafon has broken out. JOHNSON. 

5 for that is good deceit 

IWrich mates himjirjl^ that firjt intends deceit.} 
Mates him means that firft puts an end to his moving. To mate 
is a term in chefs, ufed when the king is {topped from moving, 
and an end put to the game, PERCY. 

VOL. VI. A 9 Suf. 


Suf. Not refolute, except fo much were done ; 
For things are often fpoke, and feldom meant : 
But, that my heart accordeth with my tongue, 
Seeing the deed is meritorious, 
And to preferve my fovereign from his foe, _ 
Say but the word, and I will be his prieft. 

Car. But I would have him dead, my lord of Suf- 


Ere you can take due orders for a prieft : 
Say, you confent, 7 and ccnfure well the deed, 
And I'll provide his executioner, 
I tender fo the fafety of my liege. 

Suf. Here is my hand, the deed is worthy doing;, 

g^Mar. And fo fay I. 

Tork. And I : and now we three have fpoke it, 
* It fkills not greatly who impugns our doom. 

Enter a Pojl. 

Poft. Great lords, from Ireland am I 
To fignify that rebels there are up, 
And put the Englilhmen unto the fword : 
Send fucconrs, lords, and flop the rage betime, 
Before the wound do grow incurable ; 
For, being green, there is great hope of help. 

Car. A breach, that craves a quick expedient flop ! 
What counfel give you in this weighty caufe ? 

Tork. That Somerfet be fent a regent thither : 
Tis meet, that lucky ruler be employ'd ; 
Witnefs the fortune he hath had in France. _ 

Som. If York, with all his far-fet policy, 

6 *-ImiebisprieJi.-\ I will be the attendant on .his lad 
fcene, I will be the laft man whom he will fee. JOHNSON 

A an f ce ' l f ure M th e Jet,l That is, approve the deed, 

judge the deed good. JOHNSON. 

Itjkilh & ] It is of no importance. JOHNSON. 

So, in Sir T. More's Utopia, tranllated by R. Robinfon, 16:4: 

I will defcnbe to you one or other of them, for itjkilltth no 

ereatlv winch." MALONE J 

greatly which." JMALO.NE. 

K I N 6 H E N R Y VI. $ $ 

Had been the regent there inftead of me, 
He never would have ftaid in France fo long. 

York. No, not to lofe it all, as thou haft done : 
I rather would have loll my life betimes, 
Than bring a burden of dimonour home, 
By flaying there fa long, 'till all were loft. 
Shew me one fear charactered on thy fkin : 
Men's fleih preferv'd fo whole, do feldom win. 

j^. Mar. N ay then, this fpark will prove a raging 

If wind and fuel be brought to feed it with : 

No more, good York ; fweet Somerfet, be ftiii ; 
Thy fortune, York, hadft thou been regent there, 
. Might happily have prov'd far worfe than his. 

Tork. What, worfe than nought ? nay, then alhame 
take all ! 

Som. And, in the number, thee, that wifheft fhame I 

Car. My lord of York, try what your fortune is* 
The uncivil kerns of Ireland are in arms, 
And temper clay with blood of Englifhmen j 
To Ireland will you lead a band of men, 
Collected choicely, from each county fome, 
And try your hap againft the Iriftimen ? 

fork. I will, my lord, fo pleafe his majefty, 

Suf. Why, our authority is his confent ; 
And, what we do eftablifh, he confirms : 
Then, noble York, take thou this tafk in hand. 

Tork. I am content : Provide me foldiers, lords^ 
Whiles I take order for mine own affairs. 

Suf. A charge, lord York, that Iwill fee performed. 
But now return we to the falfe duke Humphrey. 

Car. No more of hirn^ for I will deal with him, 
That, henceforth, he lhall trouble us no more. 
And fo break off; the day is almoft fpent : 
Lord Suffolk, you and I muft talk of that event. 

Tork. My lord of Suffolk, within fourteen cUy3 a 
At Briftol I expect my foldiers ; 
For there I'll Ihip them all for Ireland* 

A a 2 fuf, 


Suf. I'll fee it truly done, my lord of York. 

[Exeunt all but York. 

Tork. Now, York, or never, fteel thy fearful 


And change mifdoubt to refolution : 
Be that thou hop'fl to be ; or what thou art 
Refign to death, it is not worth the enjoying : 
Let pale-fac'd fear keep with the mean-born man, 
And find no harbour in a royal heart. 
Falter than fpring-time fhowers, comes thought on 

thought ; 

And not a thought, but thinks on dignity. 
My brain, more bufy than the labouring fpider, 
Weaves tedious fnares to trap mine enemies. 
Well, nobles, well ; 'tis politickly done, 
To fend me packing with an hoft of men : 
I fear me, you but warm the ftarved fnake, 
Who, cherilh'd in your brcafts, will fling your hearts. 
'Twas men I lack'd, and you will give them me : 
I take it kindly ; yet, be well affur'd 
You put lharp weapons in a mad-man's hands. 
Whiles I in Ireland nourilh a mighty band, 
I will flir up in England fome black ftorm, 
Shall blow ten thouiand fouls to heaven, or hell : 
And this fell tempeft ihall not ceafe to rage 
Until the golden circuit on my head, 
Like to the glorious fun's tranfparent beams, 
Do calm the fury of this 9 mad-bred flaw. 
And, for a minifler of my intent, 
I have feduc'd a head-ftrong Kentilhman, 
John Cade of Afhford, 
To make coi#rnotion, as full well he can, 
Under the title of John Mortimer. 
In Ireland have I feen this ftubborn Cade 
Oppofe himfelf againft a troop of kerns ; 

* mad-bred J^w,] Flaw is a fudden violent gull of wind. 




And fought fo long, 'till that his thighs with darts 
Were almoft like a fharp-quill*d porcupine : 
And, in the end being reicu'd, I have feen him 
Caper upright like to ' a wild Morifco, 
Shaking the bloody darts, as he his bells. 
Full often, like a lhag-hair'd crafty kern, 
Hath he converfcd with the enemy ; 
'And undifcover'd come to me again, 
And given me notice of their villainies. 
This devil here fhall be my fubftitute ; 
For that John Mortimer, which now is dead, 
In face, in gait, in fpeech he doth refemble : 
By this I fhall perceive the commons' minds, 
How they affect the houfe and claim of York. 
Say, he be taken, rack'd, and tortured ; 
I know, no pain, they can inflidt upon him, 
Will make him fay I mov'd him to thofe arms. 
Say, that he thrive, (as 'tis great like he will) 
Why, then from Ireland come I with my ftrength, 
And reap the harvefl which that rafcal fow'd : 

1 - a wild 'Morifio^l A Moor in a military dance, now 
called Morris, that is, a Moorilh dance. JOHNSOX. 

In Albion's Triumph, a mafque, 1631, the feventh entry con- 
fifts of mimicKS or Morifcos. 
Again, in Marfton's What you iv/7/, 1607 : 
" Your wit (kips 'J.' Morifco" 

The Morris-dance was the Tripujium Mauritaniaim, a kind of 
hornpipe. Junius defcribes it thus : ** - faciem plerunque 
inficiunt fuligine, et peregrinum veftium cultum affumunt, qui 
ludicris talibus indulgent, ut Mauri efle videantur, aut e longius 
remota patria credantur advolafle, atque infolens recreationis 
genus advexifle." 

In the churchwardens' accompts of the parifli of St. Helen's 
in Abingron, Berkftiire, from the firft year of the reign of Phi- 
lip and Mary, to the thirty-fourth of queen Elizabeth, the Mor- 
rice bells are mentioned. Anno 1 560, the third of Elizabeth, 
*' For two doffin of ^forrcs bells." As thefe appear to have been 
purchafed by the community, we may fuppofe this diverfion was 
conftantly practifed at their public feftivals. See the plate of 
Morris-mincers at the end of the firft part of K. Henry IV. with 
Mr. Toilet's remarks annexed to it. S TEEVEXS. 

A a 3 For* 


For, Humphrey being dead, as he ihall be, 

And Henry put apart, the next for me. [Exit. 


An apartment in the palace. 

Enter two or three, running over the fage, from the 
murder of duke Humphrey. 

Fir/}. M. Run to my lord of Suffolk; let him know, 
We have difpatch'd the duke, as he commanded. 

Second M' O, that it were to do ! What have we 

done ? 
Didft ever hear a man fo penitent ? 

Enter Suffolk. 

Firjl M. Here comes my lord. 

Suf. Now, firs, have you difpatch'd this thing ? 

Firft M. Ay, my good lord, he's dead. 

Suf. Why, that's well faid. Go, get you to my 

houfe ; 

J will reward you for this venturous deed. 
The king and all the peers are here at hand ; 
Have you Jaid fair the bed ? are all things well, 
According as I gave directions ? 

* Scene //.] Tim. foene, and the directions concerning it, ftan4 
thus in the quarto edition : 

> curta:nes Icing draiutie, Duke Humphrey is difcovertd 
in his <W, and tivo men lying on bis breft, axdfmotbering bin: 
led. And then enter the Duke of Suffolk to than. 

Sujf. How new, iirs ! what have you difpatch'd him ? 
One, Aye, ray lord 5 he's dead, I warrant you. 
f>ujf. Then fee the c.oaths laid fmooth about him ftill, 
That when the king comes, he may perceive 
No other, but that he dide of his own accord. 
2. All things is handfome, now my lord. 
Sujft Then drew the curtains again, and get you gone, 
And you (hall have your firm reward anon. 

[Exit murtberen, STEEVEVS. 
Ftrjl M, 

Firft M. Yes, my good lord. 
Suf. Away, be gone ! [Exeunt Murderers. 

Eater king Henry, tie Qveaij Cjrdi/id, Somerfet, ivltb 

K. Henry. Go, call our uncle to our prcfenceflraight: 
Say, we intend to try his grace to-day, 
If he be guilty, as 'tis publiihed. 

Suf. Til call him prefently, my noble lord. [Exit.. 

X. Henry. Lords, take your places ; And, I pray 

you all, 

Proceed no ftraitcr 'gainft our uncle Glofter, 
Than from true evidence, of good efleem, 
He be approv'd in pradice culpable. 

4J; Mar. God forbid, any malice mould prevail, 
That faultlefs may condemn a nobleman ! 
Pray God, he may acquit him of fufpicion ! 

A'. Henry. * I thank thee : Well, thefe words con- 
tent me much. - 

Re-enter Suffolk. 

How now ? why look'ft thou pale ? why trembleft 

thou ? 

Where is our uncle ? what is the matter, Suffolk ? 
Suf. Dead in his bed, my lord ; Giofter is dead. 
<$\ Mar. Marry, God forefend ! 
Car. God's fecret judgment : I did dream to-night, 
The duke was dumb, and could not fpeak a word. 

[The king fzvoons. 

* / thank thee : &c.] In former editions : 

/ thank thee, AW/, thefe words content me much. 
This is king Henry's reply to his wife Margaret. There can be 
no reafon why he fhould forget his own wife's name, and call her 
Nell inftead of Margaret. As the change of a fingle letter fets 
all right, I am willing to fuppofe it came from his pen thus : 
/ thank thee. Well, thefe words content rr.e much. 


A a 4 %. Marg* 


%. Alar. How fares my lord ? Help, lords ! the 
king is dead. 

Som. Rear up his body ; wring him by the nofe. 

. Mar. Run, go, help, help ! Oh, Henry, optf 
thine eyes ! 

Suf. He doth revive again ; Madam, be patient. 

K. Henry. O heavenly God ! 

<. Afar. How fares my gracious lord ? 

Suf. Comfort, my fovereign ! gracious Henry, com- 
fort ! 

K. Henry. What, doth my lord of Suffolk com* 

fort me ? 

Came he ; right now to ling a raven's note, 
Whofe difoial tune bereft my vital powers ; 
And thinks he, that the chirping of a wren, 
By crying comfort from a hollow breaft, 
Can chalc away the firft-conceived found ? 
Hide not thy poifon with fuch fugar'd words. 
Lay not thy hands on me ; forbear, I fay ; 
Their touch affrights me, as a ferpent's ftir-g. 
Thou baleful meflenger, out of my fight ! 
Upon thy eye-balls murderous tyranny 
Sits, in grim majefly, to fright the world. 
Look not upon me, for thine eyes are wounding : ^ 
Yet do not go away ; Come, bafilifk, 
And kill the innocent gazer with thy fight : 
For in the made of death I mail find joy ; 
In life, but double death,, now Glofter's dead. 

<^. Mar. Why do you rate my lord of Suffolk thus ? 
Although the duke was enemy to him, 
Yet he, moft chriftmn-like. laments his death : 
And for my ft.- If, foe as he was to me, 
Might liquid tears, or heart-offending groans, 
Or blood-confuming fighs recall his life, 
I would be blind with weeping, fick with groans, 
Look pale as primrofe, with blood-drinking fighs, 

5 ~ - right KO-JJ ] Juft now, evcp now, JOHNSON, 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 3 6j 

And all to have the noble duke alive. 

What know I how the world may deem of me ? 

For it is known, we were but hollow friends ; 

It may be judg'd, I made the duke away : 

So lhall my name with flander's tongue be wounded, 

And princes' courts be fill'd with my reproach. 

This get I by his death : Ay me, unhappy ! 

To be a queen, and crown'd with infamy ! 

A'. Henry. Ah, woe is me for Glofter, wretched 

man ! 
<^. Mar. 4 Be woe for me, more wretched than 

he is. 

What, doft thou turn, away, and hide thy face ? 
I am no loathfome leper, look on me. 
What, art thou, like the adder, waxen deaf * ? 

4 Pe ivoefor me, ] That is, Let not woe be to thee for 

Glofter, but for me. JOHNSON. 

5 JFbat, art tbou, like the adder, <vjaxen deaf?] This allufion 
which has been borrowed by many writers from the Proverbs of 
Solomon, and Pfalm Iviii. may receive an odd illullration from the 
following paflage in Gmver de ConfeJJione Amaniis, B. I. fol. x, 

A ferpent, which that afpidis 

Is cleped, of his kinde hath this, 

That he the flone nobleft of all 

The whiche that men carbuncle call, 

Bereth in his heed above on hight ; 

For whiche whan that a man by flight 

(The flone to \vynne, and him to dantc) 

With his carecte him wolde enchante, 

Anone as he perceiveth that, 

He leytb downe bis one eare all plat 

Unto the groundc, and bait it faft : 

And eke that other eare ahfafte 

Hcfioppctb ivitb his faille fo fore 

Thai be the ivordes, Jaffe nor more, 

Of his encbantcment ne beretb : 

And in this wife himfelfe he (kiereth, 

So that he hath the wordes wayved, 

And thus his eare is nought deceived." 
Shakefpeare has the fame allufion in Troilus and CreJJida: 

" Have ears more deaf than adder t^ tp the voice of any true 
Uccilion." STEEVENS, 


Be poifonous too, and kill thy forlorn queen. 

Is all thy comfort fhut in Glofler's tomb ? 

Why, then dame Margaret was ne'er thy joy : 

Ereft his flatue then, and worfhip it, 

And make my image but an ale-houfe iign. 

XVas I, for this, nigh wreck'd upon the fea ; 

And twice by 6 aukward wind from England's bank 

Drove back again unto my native clime ? 

What boded this, but well-fore-warning wind 

Did fcem to fay, Seek not a fcorpion's ncft, 

Nor fct no footing on this unkind fhore ? 

What did I then, but curs'd the gentle gufts, 

And he that loos'd them from their brazen caves ; 

And bid them blow towards England's blcfled fhoie, 

Or turn our flern upon a dreadful rock ? 

Yet ./Eolus would not be a murderer, 

ut left that hateful office unto thee : 

The pretty vaulting fea refus'd to drown me ; 

Knowing, that .thou wouldft have me drown'd on fhore 

With tears as fait as fea through thy unkindnefs : 

7 The fplitting rocks cowr'd in the finking fands, 

And would not dam me with their ragged fides ; 

Becaufe thy flinty heart, more hard than they, 

Might in thy palace perifh Margaret 3 . 

As far as I could ken thy chalky cliffs, 

When from thy fhore the tempeft beat us back, 

I flood upon the hatches in the florin : 

And when the dufky fky began to rob 

My earnefl-gaping fight of thy land's view, 

6 i ' auk-ivard wind ] Thus the old copy. The modern 
editors read adverfc ivinds. STEEVENS. 

7 The fplitting rocks &c.] The fenfe feems to be this. The 
rocks hid themielves in the fands, which funk to receive them 
into their bofom. STEEVENS. 

8 Might in t/y palace perifli Margaret."} The verb ptrijb is here 
ufed actively. So, in the Maid's Tragedy, by Beaumont and, 
Fletcher : 

" let not my fins 

'* Perijh your noble youth." STEEVENS. 

I took 


I took a coflly jewel from my neck, 

A heart it was, bound in with diamonds, 

And threw it towards thy land ; the fea receiv'd it ; 

And fo, I wifh'd, thy body might my heart : 

And even with this, I loft fair England's view, 

And bid mine eyes be packing with my heart ; 

And call'd them blind and dufky fpe&acles, 

For lofing ken of Albion's wifhed coaft. 

How often have I tempted Suffolk's tongue 

(The agent of thy foul inconftancy) 

5 To fit and witch me, as Afcanius did, 

When he to madding Pido, would unfold 

Kis father's acts, commenc'd in burning Troy ? 

Am I not witch'd like her ? or thou not falfe like 

him ? 

Ay me, I can no more ! Die, Margaret ! 
For Henry weeps, that thou doft live fo long. 

Noife within. Enter Warwick, Salisbury, and many 

War. It is reported, mighty fovereign. 
That good duke Humphrey traiterouily is murdcr'd 
By Suffolk's and the cardinal Beaufort's means. 

9 To Jit and \\'ztc\i niCy as Afcanius did^ 

When be to madding Dido "Mould unfold 

His father 's aEls^ commenced in burning Troy f\ 
The poet here is unqueftionably alluding to Virgil (sEneiJ I.) 
but he ftrangely blends fat with fiftion. In the firft place, it 
was Cupid in the femblance of Afcanius, who fat in Dido's lap, 
and was fondled by her. But then it was not Cupid who related 
to her the procefs of Troy's deftrudtion, but it was jEneas him- 
felf who related this hiftory. Again, how did the fuppofed Af- 
canius fit and watch her ? Cupid was ordered, while Dido mif- 
takenly carefled him, to bewitch and infect her with love. To 
this circumftance the poet certainly alludes ; -and, unlefs he had 
wrote, as I have reilored to the text : 

To Jit and witch me, 
why fliould the queen immediately draw this inference : 

Am I not witch'd like her f THEOBALD. 



The commons, like an angry hive of bees, 
That want their leader, fcatter up and down, 
And care not who they fting in his revenge. 
Myfelf have calm'd their fpleenful mutiny, 
Until they hear the order of his death. 

K. Henry. That he is dead, good Warwick, 'tis too'i 

true ; 

But how he died, God knows, ' not Henry : 
Enter his chamber, view his breathlefs corpfe, 
And comment then upon his fudden, death. 

War. That I fhall do, my liege : Stay, Salifbury, 
With the rude multitude, 'till I return. 

^Warwick goes in. 
K. Henry. O thou that judgeft all things, flay my 

thoughts ; 

My thoughts, that labour to perfuade my foul, 
Some violent hands were laid on Humphrey's life ! 
If my fufpect be falfe, forgive me, God ; 
For judgment only doth belong to thee ! 
Fain would I go to chafe his paly lips 
With twenty thoufand kiffes, and to drain 
Upon his face an ocean of fait tears ; 
To tell my love unto his dumb deaf trunk, 
And with my fingers feel his hand unfeeling : 
But all in vain are thefe mean obfequies ; 
And, to furvey his dead and earthy image, 
What were it but to make my forrow greater ? 

[A bed, with Glofter's body y put fort J:. 
War. Come hither, gracious fovereign, view this 

K- Henry. That is to fee how deep my grave is 

made : 

For, with his foul, fled all my worldly folace ; 
* For feeing him, I fee my life in death, 


1 not Henry :\ The poet commonly ufes Henry as a 

word of three fyllables. JOHNSON. 

* for feeing bim t I fee my life in death. ~\ Though, by a violent 



War. As furely as my foul intends to live 
With that dread King, that took our (late upon him 
To free us from his Father's wrathful curfe, 

do believe that violent hands were laid 
Upon the life of this thrice-famed duke. 

Suf. A dreadful oath, fworn with a folemn tongue ! 
What inftance gives lord Warwick for his vow ? 

War. Sec, how the blood is fettled in his face ! 
1 Oft have I feen a timely-parted ghoft, 


operation, fome fenfe may be extracted from this reading, yet I 
think it will be better to change it thus : 

For feeing him, I fee my death in life. 

That is, Seeing him I live to fee my own deftru(ftion. Thus it 
will aptly correfpond with the firft line : 

Come hither ) gracious fovereign, view this body. 

K. Henry. That is to fee bvvj deep my grave is made* 


I fee my life in death. ~\ Surely the poet's meaning is obvious 
as the words now fland. I fee my life def.royed or endangered ly 
J>is death. PERCY. 

3 Oft have I feen a timely-parted gboft^ 

Of afiy femblancel, meager % fate, and bloodlefi^\ 
All that is true of the body of a dead man, is here laid by War- 
wick of the foul. I would read : 

Oft have I feen a timely-parted corfe. 

But of two common words how or why was one changed for the 
other ? I believe the tranfcriber thought that the epithet timely- 
farted could not be ufed of the body, but that, as in Hamlet 
there is mention of peace-parted fouls, fo here timely-parted muft 
have the fame fubilantive. He removed one imaginary diffi- 
culty, and made many real. If the foul is parted from the body, 
the body is likewife parted from the foul. 

I cannot but flop a moment to obferve that this horrible de- 
fcription is fcarcely the work of any pen but Shakefpeare's. 


This is not the firft time that Shakefpeare has confounded the 
terms that fignify body and foul, together. So, in the Muifummer 
Right's Dream : 

" .damned^/r/Af all 

" That in crofs-ways and floods have burial." 
It is furely the body and not the foul that is committed to the 
earth, or whelm'd in the water. The word ghoft, however, is 
Ccentioufly ufed by our ancient writers. In Spenfer's Faery 


Of afhy femblance, meager, pale, and bloodlefs, - 

Being all defcended to the labouring heart ; 

Who, in the conflict that it holds with death, 

Attracts the fame for aidance 'gainft the enemy ; 

Which with the heart there cools, and ne'er returneth 

To biulh and beautify the cheek again. 

But, fee, his face is black, and full of blood ; 

His eye-balls further out than when he liv'd, 

Staring full ghaflly like a Wrangled man : 

His hair up-rear'd, his noftrils itretch'd with ftrug- 

gling ; 

His hands abroad difplay'd, as one that grafp'd 
And tugg'd for life, and was by ftrength fubdu'd. 
Look on the fhcets, his hair, you fee, is flicking ; 
His well proportion'd beard made rough and rugged, 
Like to the fu turner's corn by tempefl lodg'd. 
It cannot be, but he was murder'd here ; 
The leaft of all thefe figns were probable. 

Suf. Why, Warwick, who ihould do the duke to 

death ? 

Myfelf, and Beaufort, had him in protection ; 
And we, I hope, fir, are no murderers. 

War. But both of you were vow'd duke Hum- 
phrey's foes ; 

And you, forfooth, had the good duke to keep : 
Tis like, you would not feaft him like a friend; 
And 'tis well fccn, he found an enemy. 

>uecn, B. II. c. viii. Sir Gnyon is in a fvvoon, and two knights 
are about to ftrip him, when the Palmer fays : 

" no knight fo rude 1 weene 

" As to doen outrage to a ileeprng gkoft" 

Again, in the fhort copy of verfes printed at the conclufion of 
the three firft books of Spenfer's Faerie $ueen, 1 596 : 

" And grones of buried gbofles the heavens did perfe.'* 
Again, in our author's K. Richard II : 

" Thegbqfls they have depos'd." 
Again, in Sir A. i&orges's tranflation of Lucan, B. IX : 

a peafant of that court 

" Bids him not tread on He&or's gboft." STEEVENS. 


. Mar. Then you, belike, fufpect thefc noblemen 
As guilty Of duke Humphrey's timelefs death. 

War. Who finds the heifer dead, and bleeding frefli, 
And fees fa ft by a butcher with an axe, 
But will fufpect, 'twas he that made the daughter? 
Who finds the partridge in the puttock's neft, 
But may imagine how the bird was dead, 
Although the kite foar with unbloody'd beak ? 
Even fo fufpicious is this tragedy. 

<jij. Mar. Are you the butcher, Suffolk ? whcre's 

your knife ? 
Is Beaufort tcrm'd a kite ? where are his talons ? 

Suf. I wear no knife, to Slaughter flecping men ; 
But here's a vengeful fvvord, rufted with eafe, 
That fhall be fcoured in his rancorous heart, 
That ilandcrs me with murder's crimfon badge : 
Say, if thou dar'ft, proud lord of Warwickfhire, 
That I am faulty in duke Humphrey's death. 

[Exit Cardinal. 

War. What dares not Warwick, if falfe Suffolk 
dare him ? 

>. Mar. He dares not calm his contumelious fpirit, 
Nor ceafe to be an arrogant controller, 
Though Suffolk dare him twenty thoufand times. 

War. Madam, be (till ; with reverence may I 

fay it ; 

For every word, you fpeak in his behalf, 
Is flander to your royal dignity. 

Suf. Blunt-witted lord, ignoble in demeanour ! 
If ever lady wrong'd her lord fo much, 
Thy mother took into her blameful bed 
Some Item untutor'd churl, and noble flock 
Was graft with crab-tree flip ; whofe fruit thou art, 
And never of the Nevils' noble race. 

War. But that the guilt of murder bucklers thee, 
And I iliould rob the death's-man of his fee, 
Quitting thee thereby of ten thoufand ihames, 
.And that my fovereign's prefence makes me mild, 

I would, 


I would, falfc murderous coward, on thy knee 
Make thee beg pardon for thy pafled fpeech, 
And fay it was thy mother that thou mcant'ft, 
That thou thyfelf waft born in baftardy : 
And, after all this fearful homage done, 
Give thee thy hire, and fend thy foul to hell, 
Pernicious blood-fucker of fleeping men ! 

Suf. Thou lhalt be waking, while I Ihed thy blood, 
If from this prefencc thou dar'ft go with me. 

War. Away even now, or I will drag thee hence : 
Unworthy though thou art, Pll cope with thee, 
And do fome fervice to duke Humphrey's ghofh 


K. Henry. What ftronger breafl-plate than a heart 

untainted ? 

Thrice is he arm'd, that hath his quarrel juft; 
And he but naked, though lock'd up in fteel, 
Whofe conscience with injuftice is corrupted. 

[A noife within. 

Q. Mar. What noife is this ? 

Re-enter Suffolk and Warwick, with their weapons drawn. 

K. Henry. Why, how now, lords ? your wrathful 

weapons drawn 

Here in our prefence ? dare you be fo bold ? 
Why, what tumultuous clamour have we here ? 

Suf. The traiterous Warwick, with the men of Bury, 
Set all upon me, mighty fovereign. 

Noife of a crowd within. Enter Salifbury. 

Sal. Sirs, ftand apart ; the king ihall know your 


Dread lord, the commons fend you word by me, 
Unlefs lord Suffolk ftraight be done to death, 
Or banifhed fair England's territories, 
They will by violence tear him from your palace, 
And torture him with grievous lingering death. 


They fay, by him the good duke Humphrey died ; 
They fay, in him they fear your highnefs" death j 
And mere inftindt of love, and loyalty, 
Free from a ftubborn oppofite intent, 
As being thought to contradict your liking, 
Makes them thus forward in his banilhment. 
They fay, in care of your molt royal perfon, 
That, if your highnels fhould intend to flcep, 
And charge that no man ftiould difturb your reft, 
In pain of your diflike, or pain of death ; 
Yet, notwithftanding fuch a flrait edict, 
Were there a ferpent feen, with forked tongue, 
That flily glided towards your majcfty, 
It were but neceffary you were wak'd j 
Left, being fuffcr'd in that harmful flumbcr, 
The mortal worm 4 might make the deep eternal : 
And therefore do they cry, though you forbid, 
That they will guard you, whe'r you will, or no, 
From fuch fell ferpents as falfe Suffolk is ; 
With whofe envenomed and fatal fting, 
Your loving uncle, twenty times his worth, 
They fay, is fruimefully bereft of life. 

Commons [w///>///.] An anfwer from the king, my lord 

of Salifbury. 

St'.f. 'Tis like, the commons, rude uripolifh'd hinds* 
Could fend fuch meflage to their fovereign : 
But you, my lord, were glad to be empioy'd, 
To fhew how quaint an orator you are : 
But all the honour Salisbury hath won, 
Is that he was the lord ambaflador, 
Sent from 5 a fort of tinkers to the king. 

4 The mortal worm] Serpents in general, were art- 
ciently called worms. So, in the Dei-ifs Charter, 1607, Pops 
Alexander fays when he takes off the afpicks from the young 
princes : 

" How now, proud -Morais f how taftes yon princes' blood ?'" 


5 -a fort ] Is a company. JOHNSOX, 

o, in the MUfummer Night's Drer.m : 

*' rullet-pated choughs, many in. fort* STEEVENS. 

VOL. VI. B b 


Within. An anfwer from the king, or we will all 

break in. 

K. Henry. Go, Salifbury, and tell them all from me, . 
I thank them for their tender loving care : 
And had I not been cited fo by them. 
Yet did I purpofe as they do entreat ; 
For, fure, my thoughts do hourly prophefy 
Mifchance unto my ftate by Suffolk's means. 
And therefore, by his majefly I fwear, 
Whofe far unworthy deputy I am, 
He mail not breathe infection in this air 
But three days longer, on the pain of death. 

[Exit Salifbury. . 

<^. Mar. Oh Henry, let me plead for gentle Suf- 
folk ! 

K. Henry. Ungentle queen, to call him gentle Suf- 

No more, I fay ; if thou doft plead for him, 
Thou wilt but add encreafe unto my wrath. 
Had I but faid, I would have kept my word ; 
But, when I fwear, it is irrevocable : 
If, after three days fpace, thou here be'ft found 
On any ground that I am ruler of, 
The world mall not be ranfom for thy life. 
Come, Warwick, come, good Warwick, go with . 

me ; 
I have great matters to impart to thee. 

[Exeunt all but Suffolk, and the Queen. 
Q. Mar. Mifchance, and forrow, go along with you { 
Heart's difcontent, and four affliction, 
Be play-fellows to keep you company ! 
There's two of you ; the devil make a third ! 
And three-fold vengeance tend upon your fteps 1 

Suf. Ceafe, gentle queen, thefe execrations, 
And let thy Suffolk take his heavy leave. 

Q. Mar. Fie, coward woman, and foft-hearted 

wretch ! 
Haft thou not fpirit to curfe thine enemies ? 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 37, 

Suf. A plague upon them ! wherefore Ihould I 

curfe them ? 

6 Would curfes kill, as doth the mandrake's groan, 
I would invent as bitter fearching terms, 
As curft, as harlh, and horrible to hear, 
Delivered itrongly through my fixed teeth^ 
With full as many iigns of deadly hate, 
As lean-fac'd Envy in her loathfome cave : 
My tongue Ihould ftumble in mine earneft words; 
Mine eyes Ihould fparkle like the beaten flint; 
My hair be fix'd on end, as one diftraft ; 
Ay, every joint Ihould feem to curfe and ban : 
And even now my burden'd heart would break, 
Should I not curfe them. Poifon be their drink ! 
Gall, worfe than gall, the daintieft that they tafte ! 
Their fweeteft fhade, a grove of cyprefs trees 7 I 
Their chiefefl profpedt, murdering bafilifks 8 ! 
Their fofteft touch, as fmart as lizards' flings ! 
Their mufic, frightful as the ferpent's hifs ; 
And boding fcritch-owls make the concert full ! 
All the foul terrors in dark-featcd hell 

$. Mar. Enough, fweet Suffolk, thou torment'ft 
thyfelf ; 

6 Would curfes kill, as doth tie mandrake s groan,} The fabulous 
accounts of the plant called a mandrake give it an inferior degree 
of animal life, and relate, that when it is torn from the ground 
it groans, and that this groan being certainly fatal to him that is 
offering fuch unwelcome violence, the pra&ice of thofe who ga- 
ther irrmdrakes is to tie one end of a ftring to the plant, and 
the other to a dog, upon whom the fatal groan discharges its 
malignity. JOHNSON-. 

The fame alluiion occurs in Ariftippxs, or tie Jovial Pbilofo' 
pber, by Randolph : 

'* This is the mandrake's voice that undoes me" STEEVENS. 

7 a cyprefc tree!} Cyprefs was employed in the funeral 

tites of the Romans, and hence is always mentioned as an ill- 
boding plant. STEEVENS. 

8 murdering lajilifis ! Lizard's flings!] It has been 

laid of the lafdijk that it had the power of deftroying by a fmgle 
glance of its eye. A lizard has. no fling, but is quite inoffea- 
five. STEEVENS. 

B b 2 And 


And thefe dread curfes like the fun 'gainft glafs, 
Or like an over-charged gun, recoil, 
And turn the force of them upon thyfelf. 

Suf. 9 You bade me ban, and will you bid me 1 

leave ? 

Now, by the ground that I am bnnifh'd from, 
Well could I curfe away a winter's night, 
Though {landing naked on a mountain top, 
Where biting cold would never let grafs grow, 
And think it but a minute fpent in iport. 
j^. Mar. Oh, let me entreat thec ceafe ! Give me 

thy hand, 

That I may dew it with my mournful tears ; 
Nor let the rain of heaven wet this place, 
To walh away my woeful monuments. 
Oh, could this kifs be printed in thy hand ; 

[Kffis his band. 

1 That thou might'ft think upon thefe by the feal, 
Through whom a thoufand fighs are breath 'd for thee! 
So, get thee gone, that I may know my grief; 
'Tis but furmis'd whilfl thou art Handing by, 
As one that furfcits thinking on a want. 
I will repeal thee, or, be well afTur'd, 
Adventure to be banifhed myfelf : 
And banifhed I am, if but from thee. 
Go, fpeak not to me ; even now be gone. 
Oh, go not yet ! Even thus two friends condemn'd 
Embrace, and kifs, and take ten thoufand leaves, 

9 You laJemelan, and will you lid me leave ?] This incon- 
liflency is very commotv in real life. Thofe who are vexed to 
impatience are angry to fee others lefs diftuvbed than themfelves ; 
but when others begin to rave, they immediately lee in them 
what they could not find in themfelves, the deformity and folly 
of ufelefs rage. JOHNSON. 

1 Tfjat tbeu might'J} think upon, thefe by tbefeal^ 

through whom a thoufand Jigbs &c.] 

That by the imprcflion of my kifs for ever remaining on thy hand 
. thou mightefl think on thofe lips through which a thoufand lighs 
will be breathed for thee. JOHNSON. 



Lothcr a hundred times to part than die. 
Yet now farewel ; and farewel life with thee ! 

Suf. Thus is poor Suffolk ten times banifhed, 
Once by the king, and three times thrice by thee. 
Tis not the land J care for, wert thou hence ; 
A wildernefs is populous enough, 
So Suffolk had thy heavenly company : 
For where thou art, there is the world itfelf, 
With every feveral plcafure in the world ; 
And where thou art not, defolation. 
I can no more : Live thou to joy thy life ; joy in nought, but that thou liv'fl. 

Enter Vnuy, 

<3>. Mar. Whither goes Vaux fo fafl ? what news, 
I pry'thce ? 

Vaux. To fignify unto his majefty, 
That cardinal Beaufort is at point of death : 
For fuddenly a grievous ficknefs took him, 
That makes him gafp, and flare, and catch the air, 
Blafpheming God, and curfing men on earth. 
Sometime, he talks as if duke Humphrey's ghoft 
Were by his fide ; fometime, he calls the king, 
And whifpers to his pillow, as to him, 
The fecrets of his over-charged ibul : 
And I am fent to tell his majefty, 
That even now he cries aloud for him. 

^ Mar. Go, tell this heavy meflage to the king. 

[Exit Vaux. 

Ay me ! what is this world ? what news are thefe * ? 
But wherefore grieve I } at an hour's poor iofs, 


- jfy me ! -ivl-at is tfcs -wM ? what no'vs are tl:rfef\ Imtead 
of this line, the quarto reads : 

Oh ! what is worldly pomp ? all men muft die, 
And woe am I tor Beaufort's heavy end. STEEVENS. 
3 - at an hour' spoor &/},] She means, I believe, at a Iofs 
which any hour fpent in contrivance and deliberation will enable 
B b 3 her 


Omitting Suffolk's exile, my foul's treafure ? 
Why only, Suffolk, mourn I not for thee, 
And with the fouthern clouds contend in tears ; 
Theirs for the earth's encreafe, mine for my forrows > 
Now, get thee hence. The king, thou know'il, U 

coming ; 
If thou be found by me, thou art but' dead. 

Suf. If I depart from thee, I cannot live : 
And in thy fight to die, what were it elfe, 
But like a pleafant flumber in thy lap ? 
Here could I breathe my foul, into the air, 
As mild and gentle as the cradle babe, 
Dying with mother's dug between its lips : 
Where, from thy fight, I fhould be raging mad^ 
And cry out for thee to clofe up mine eyes, 
To have thee with thy lips to (top my mouth ; 
So fhouldft thou either 4 turn my flying foul, 
Or I ihould breathe it fo into thy body, 
And then it liv'd in fweet Elyfium. 
To die by thee, were but to die in jefl ; 
From thee to die, were torture more than death ; 
Oh, let m,e flay, befall what may befall. 

Q. IvLir. Away ! though parting be a fretful cor 


It is applied to a deathful wound. 
To France, fwect Suffolk : Let me hear from thee ; 
For wherefoe'er thou art in this world's globe, 

lier to fupply. Or perhaps flie may call the ficknefs of the car- 
dinal the lofs of an hour, as it may put fome {top to her fchemes. 


I believe the poet's meaning is, Wherefore do I grieve that 
Beaufort las tiled an lour before bis time, who, being an old man, 
covild not have had a long time to live ? STEEVENS. 

4 -turn tby fly ing foul,] Perhaps Mr. Pope was indebted 

to this paflfage in his Eloifa to AMard y where he makes that vo* 
brift ofexquifite fenfibiiity fay : 

" See my lips tremble, and my eye-balls roll, 
' Suck my laft breath, and catch my flying foul." 


s I'll have an Iris that lhall find thee out. 

Suf. I go. 

Q. Mar. And take my heart with thee. 

Suf. A jewel lock'd into the woful'ft cafk 
That ever did contain a thing of worth. 
Even as a fplitted bark, fo funder we ; 
This way fall I to death. 

. Mar. This way for me. [Exeunt, feverally. 


We Cardinals bed-chamber. 

Enter king Henry 6 , Sail/bury f Warwick, and others, to tie 
Cardinal in bed. 

K. Henry. How fares my lord ? fpeak, Beaufort, to 

thy fovereign. 
Car. If thou be'ft death, I'll give thee England's 


Enough to purchafe fuch another ifland, 
So thou wilt let me live, and feel no pain. 

K. Henry.- Ah, what a fign it is of evil life, 
When death's approach is feen fo terrible ! 
War. Beaufort, it is thy fovereign fpeaks to thee.; 

Car. Bring me unto my trial when you will. 
Dy'd he not in his bed ? where fhould he die ? 
Can I make men live, whe'r they will or no ? 
Oh! torture me no more, I will confefs. 
Alive again ? then fhew me where he is ; 

5 ril have an Iris ] Iris was the meflenger of Juno. 


So, in Afft Well that Ends Well'. 

this diftemper'd meflenger of wet, 

" The many-colour'd Iris " STEEVENS. ^ 

fi Enter king Henry, &c.] The quarto offers the following ftage 
directions. Enter King and Salijbury, and then the curtaines be 
draivnt, and the carc'inal is difcovered in bis fyd, raving and flar- 
ing . if he were mad. STEEVENS. 

37$ S E C O N D P A R T O F 

I'll give a thoufand pound to look upon him. 
He hath no eyes, the duft hath blinded them. 
Comb down his hair ; look ! look ! it ftands upright 
Like lime-twigs fet to catch my winged foul ! 
Give me fome drink ; and bid the apothecary 
Bring the ftrong poifon that I bought of him. 

K. Henry. O thou eternal Mover of the heave 
Look with a gentle eye upon this wretch ! 
Oh, beat away the bufy meddling fiend, 
That lays ftrong fiege unto this wretch's foul, 
And from his bofom purge this black defpair ! 

. See, how the pangs of death do make hii 


Sal. Difturb him not, let him pafs peaceably. 
K. Henry. Peace to his foul, if God's good pleafui 


Lord cardinal, if thou think'fl on heaven's blifs, 
Hold up thy hand 7 , make fignal of thy hope. 
He dies, and makes no fign : O God, forgh 

him ! 

War. So bad a death argues a monftrous life. 
K. Henry. 8 Forbear to judge, for we are fmnc 


Cloie up his eyes, and draw the curtain clofe ; 
And let us all to meditation, 9 [Exeunt 


7 HcUup thy hand,} Thus in the fpurious play of K. Jo 
l6|i, Pandulph fees the king dying, and fays : 

" Then, good my lord, if you forgive them all, 
" Lift ufyour ban<H y in token you forgive." 
Again : 

" Lift up thy hand, that we may witnefs here, 
*' Thou dieit the fervant of our Saviour Chriil : 
" No\v joy beride thy foul'!" 

This K. John was firlt publifhed in 1591. STEEVENS. 
* Forbear tojitilge, &c.] 

" Peccantcs culpare cave, nain labimur omnes, 

*' Aut furaus, aut fuimus, vcl pofllimus efle quod hie eft.' 

f Exeunt,] This is one of the fccnes which have been appl 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 377 

The coaft of Kent. 

Alarm. Fight at fea\ Ordnance goes of. Enter cap- 
tain Whitmore t and other pirates, with Suffolk, and 
other prifoners. 

Cap. * The gaudy, blabbing, and remorfeful day 
Is crept into the bofom of the fea ; 
And now loud-howling wolves aroufe 4 the jades 
That drag the tragic melancholy night ; 

ed by the critics, and which will continue to be admired when 
prejudice (hall ceafe, and bigotry give way to impartial examina- 
tion. Thefe are beauties that rife out of nature and of truth ; 
the fuperficial reader cannot mifs them, the profound can image 
nothing beyond them. JOHNSON. 

1 Fight at fea.] Perhaps Ben Jonfon was thinking of this 
play, when he put the following declaration into the mouth of 
Morofe in the Silent Woman. " Nay, I would fit out a play 
that were nothing butjigbts affect, drum, trumpet, and target." 


* ne gaudy y Mailing, day,] The epithet Matting applied 

to the day by a man about to commit murder, is exquifitely 
beautiful. Guilt is afraid of light, coniiders darknefs as a na- 
tural fhelter, and makes night the confidante of thofe acTions 
which cannot be trufted to the tell-tale day. JOHNSON. 

3 remorfeful day.~\ Remorfeful is pitiful. So, in the 

Tew Gentlemen of Verona : 

" a gentleman, 

" Valiant, wife, remorfeful^ well accomplim'd." 
The fame idea occurs in Macbeth : 

" Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day" STEEVENS. 
4 - 'the jades 

That drag the tragic melancholy night, 

t?7;o Wtto their dro-~Mfy, JlffW, and flagging ivings 

Clip dead men? graves, ] 

The wings of the jades that drag night appears an unnatural 
image, till it is remembered that the chariot of the night is fup- 
pofed, by Shakefpeare', to be drawn by dragons. JOHNSON. 



Who with their drowfy, flow, and flagging wings 
Clip dead men's graves, and from their mifty jaws 
Breathe foul contagious darknefs in the air. 
Therefore, bring forth the foldiers of our prize ; 
For, whilft our pinnace anchors in the Downs, 
Here fliall they make their ranfom on the fand, 
Or with their blood ftain this diicolour'd fhorc. 
Matter, this prifoner freely give I thee ; 
And thou that art his mate, make boot of this ; 
The other, Walter Whitmore, is thy ihare. 

[Pointing to Suffolk. 

i Gent. What is my ranfom, mafter ? let me know. 

Maft. A thoufand crowns, or elfe lay down your 

Mate. And fo much fliall you give, or off goes 

Wlnt. What, think you much to pay two thoufand 


And bear the name and port of gentlemen ? 
Cut both the villains' throats ; for die you fliall ; 
5 Nor can thofe lives which we have loft in fight, 
Be counter-pois'd with fuch a petty fum. 

1 Gent. I'll give it, fir ; and therefore fpare my life. 

2 Gent. And fo will I, and write home for it 


fPhit. I loft mine eye in laying the prize aboard, 
And therefore, to revenge it, flialt thou die ; 

[fTo Suffolk. 

And fo fliould thefe, if I might have my will. 
Cap. Be, not fo rafh ; take ranfom, let him live. 
Suf. 6 Look on my George, I am a gentleman ; 
Rate me at what thou wilt, thou flialt be paid, 
Whit* And fo am I ; my name is Walter Whit- 

* Nor can tbofe //'*] The old copy reads the lives of tbofe. 


* Look on nty George j*\ In tlve firfi e-lition it is my ring. 




How now ? why ftart'ft thou ? what, doth death af- 
fright ? 

Suf. Thy name affrights me, in whofe found is 


A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
And told me that by Water I mould die 7 : 
Yet let not this make thee be bloody-minded ; 
Thy name isGualtier, being rightly founded. 

Whit. Gualtier, or Walter, which it is, I care not : 
Ne'er yet did bafe dimonour blur our name, 
But with our fword we wip'd away the blot ; 
Therefore, when merchant-like I fell revenge, 
Broke be my fword, my arms torn and defac'd, 
And I proclaim'd a coward through the world ! 

Suf. Stay, Whitmore ; for thy prifoner is a prince, 
The duke of Suffolk, William de la Pole. 

Whit. The duke of Suffolk, muffled up in rags ! 

Suf, Ay, but thefe rags are no part of the duke ; 
Jove fometime went difguis'd, And why not I ? 

Cap. But Jove was never {lain, as thou malt be. 

Suf. Obfcure and 9 lowly fwain, king Henry's 

The honourable blood of Lancafter, 

not be ihed by fuch a jaded groom. 

7 v Water ] So, In queen Margaret's letter to this duke of 
Suffolk, by Michael Druyton : 

" I pray thee, Poole, have care how thou doft pafs, 
" Never the fea yet half fo dangerous was, 
" And one foretold, by -wafer thou fhould'it die, &c.'* 
A note on thefe lines fays, " The witch of Eye received anfwer 
from her fpirit, that the duke of Suffolk fhould take heed of 
water." See the fourth fcene of the firfl aft of this play. 


8 Jove fometime went difguis'd, &c.] This verfe is omitted in 
all but the firfl: old edition, without which what follows is not 
fenfe. The next line alfo : 

OS/cure and lowJyfivain^ king Henry's llooct t 
yiras falfly put in the Captain's mouth. POPE. 
Anvfr/uw'g, ] The quarto reads kwfy final*. 




Haft thou not kifs'd thy hand, and held my ftirrop ? 
And bare-head plodded by my foot-cloth mule, 
And thought thee happy when I fliook my head ? 
How often haft thou waited at my cup, 
Fed from my trencher, kneel'd down at the boan|j 
When I have feafted with queen Margaret ? 
Remember it, and let it make thee creft-fall'n ; 
Ay, and allay this thy ' abortive pride : 
How in our voiding lobby haft thou flood, 
And duly waited for my coming forth ? 
This hand of mine hath writ in thy behalf, 
And therefore fhall it charm thy riotous tongue. 

Whit. Speak, captain, lhall I ftab the forlorn 
fwain ? 

Cap. Firft let my words ftab him, as he hath me. 

Suf. Bafe flave ! thy words are blunt, and fo art 

Cap. Convey him hence, and on our long boat's fide 
Strike off his head. 

Suf. * Thou dar'ft not for thine own. 

Cap. 3 Poole ? Sir Poole ? lord ? 
'Ay, kennel, puddle, fink ; whofe filth and dirt 
Troubles the filver fpring where England drinks. 

1 -abortive pride :] Pride that has had birth too foon, 

pride iffuing before its time. JOHNSON. 

* Thou dar'Jl not &c.] In the quarto edition the paflage ftands 
thus ; 

Suf. Thou dar'ft not for thy own. 
Cap. Yes, Pole. 
Suf. Pole? 

Cap. Ay, Pole, puddle, kennel, fink, and dirt, 
I'll flop that yawning mouth of thine. 

I think the two intermediate fpeeches fhould be inferred in the 
text, to introduce the captain's repetition of Poole^ &c. 


3 PooJef Sir Poole? lord?] The diflbnance of this broken 
line makes it almoil certain that we fhould read with a kind oi 
ludicrous climax : 

Poole ? Sir Poole ? lord Poole ? 
He then plays upon the name Poole ^ kennel, pttdJle. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 3 g t 

Now will I dam up this thy yawning mouth, 
For fwallowing the treafure of the realm : 
Thy lips, thatkifs'd the queen, fhall fwecp the ground ; 
And thou, that fmil'dft at good duke Humphrey's 


Againft the fcnfelefs winds ihalt grin in vain, 
Who, in contempt, ihall hifs at thee again : 
And wedded be thou to the hags of hell, 
For daring to affy 4 a mighty lord 
Unto the daughter of a worthlefs king. 
Having neither fubjedt, wealth, nor diadem. 
By devilifh policy art thou grown great, 
And, like ambitious Sylla, over-gorg'd 
With gobbets of thy mother's bleeding heart. 
By thee, Anjou and Maine were fold to France : 
The falfe revolting Normans, thorough thee, 
Difdain to call us lord ; and Picardy 
Hath flain their governors, furpriz'd our forts, 
And fent the ragged foldiers wounded home. 
The princely Warwick, and the Nevils all, 
Whofe dreadful fwords were never drawn in vain,- 
As hating thee, are rifing up in arms : 
And now the houfe of York thruft from the crown, 
By lhamefnl murder of a guiltlefs king, 
And lofty proud encroaching tyranny, 
Burns with revenging fire ; whofe hopeful colours 
Advance our half-fac'd fun, ftriving to fhine, 
Under the which is writ Invitis mibibus. 
The commons here in Kent are up in arms : 
And, to conclude, reproach, and beggary, 

4 to affy ] To affy is to betroth in marriage. So, 

in Drayton's Ltgend of Pierce Gave/ion : 

" In bands of wedlock did to me affy 
" A lady, &c." 
Again, in the 171!* Song of the Polyolbion : 

" the Almaine emperor's bride 

" Which after to the earl of Anjou was a/y'J." 




Is crept into the palace of our king, 

And all by thee : Away ! convey him hence. 

Suf. O that I were a god, to (hoot forth thunder 
Upon thefe paltry, fervile, abjedt drudges ! 
Small things make bafe men proud : this villain here,- 
Being captain of a pinnace 5 , threatens more 
6 Than Bargulus the flrong Illyrian pirate. 
Drones fuck not eagles' blood, but rob bee-hives. 
It is impoflible, that I fhould die 
By fuch a lowly vaflal as thyfelf. 
Thy words move rage, and. not remorfe, in me : 
I go of meffage from the queen to France ; 
I charge thee, waft me fafely crofs the channel. 

5 Being captain of a pinnace,] A pinnace did not anciently fig- 
nify, as at prefent, a man of war's boat, but a (hip of fmall bur- 
then. So, in Winwootfs Memorials, Vol. III. p. 118: " The 
king (James I.) naming the great mip, Trade's Increafe ; and 
the prince, a pinnace of 250 tons (built to wait upon her) Pepper- 
corn." STEEVENS. 

6 Than Bargulus tbejlrong Elyrian pirate.] Mr. Theobald fays, 
" This wight I have not been able to trace, or difcover from 
what legend our author derived his acquaintance with him." 
And yet he is to be met with in Tullfs Offices ; and the legend is 
the famous Theopompus* s Hiftory. " Bargulus Illyrius latro, dc quo 
rfl apud Tbeopompum t magnas opes babuit," lib. ii. cap. n. 


Dr. Farmer obferves that Shakefpeare might have met with 
this pirate in two translations. Robert Whytinton, 1533, calls 
him " Bargulus, a pirate upon the fee of Illiry ;" and Nicholas 
Grimald, about twenty-three years afterwards, *' Bargulus, the 
Illyrian robber." 

Bargulus does not make his appearance in the quarto ; but we 
meet with another hero in his room. The Captain, fays Suffolk, 
.Threatens more plagues than mighty Abradas^ 
The great Macedonian pirate. 

I know nothing more of this Abradat, than that he is men* 
tioned by Greene in his Penelope's Web, 1601 : 

" Abradas the great Macedonian pirat thought every one had 
a letter of mart that bare fayles in the ocean." STEEVENS. 

In Cotgrave's Dictionary, Abbras is the name of a terrible 
gyant in the old Romants : whence, Ce fier Abbras ; this kil- 
cow, fkarecrow, bugbear, fa-nfli-buckler, horrible hackfter. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 383 

Cap. Walter, 

Wit* Come, Suffolk, I muft waft thee to thy 

Suf. Gelidus tlmor occupat artus 7 : 'tis thee I fear. 

Whit. Thou fhalt have caufe to fear, before I leave 

What, are ye daunted now ? now will ye floop ? 

i Gent. My gracious lord, entreat him, fpeak him 

Svf. Suffolk's imperial tongue is flern and rough, 
Us'd to command, untaught to plead for favour. 
Far be it, we fhould honour fuch as thefe 
With humble fuit : no, rather let my head 
Stoop to the block, than thefe knees bow to any, 
Save to the God of heaven, and to my king ; 
And fooner dance upon a bloody ipole, 
Than itand uncovered to the vulgar groom. 
True nobility is exempt from fear : 
More can I bear, than you dare execute. 

Cap. Hale him away, and let him talk no more : 
Come, fokliers, fliew what cruelty ye can 8 . 

. That this my death may never be forgot!* 
Great men oft die by vile bezonians 9 : 
A Roman fwordcr ' and banditto Have 

7 Gelidus timor occupat artus :] Ovid, tie Triftibus, 313. 


8 Come foUlersJlewivbat cruelty ye can.'} Surely this line belongs, 
to the next fpeech. No cruelty was meditated beyond decollation ; 
and without fuch an introduction, there is an obfcure abruptnefs 
in the beginning of Suffolk's reply to the captain. STEEVENS. 

9 lezon:ans.~\ See a note on the ad part of Henry IV, at V. 
fc. iii : 

Bifognofo, is a mean low man. 
So, in Sir Giles Goofecap, 1 606 : 

" if he come to me like your Befognio or your boor.'* 

Again, in Markham's Englijb Hujbandman, p. 4 : 

" The ordinary tillers of the earth, fuch as we call huiband- 
mcn ; in France pefants, in Spaine befonyans^ and generally the 
cloutfhoe." STEEVENS. 

1 A Roman fivorder, &c.] :. e. Herennius a centurion, and 
Popilius Laenas, tribune of the foldiers. STEEVENS. 



Murder'd fweet Tully ; Brutus' baftard hand * 

Stabb'd Julius Czefar ; favage iflanders, 

3 Pompey the great ; and Suffolk dies by pirates. 

[Exit Walter Whitmore, with Suffolk. 
Cap. And as for thefe whole ranfom we have fet, 
It is our pleafure, one of them depart : 
Therefore come you with us, and let him go. 

[Exit Captain, with all but thefrjl Gentleman. 

Re-etfter Whitmore, with Suffolk's body. 

Whit. 4 There let his head and lifelcfs body lie, 
Until the queen his miftrefs bury it. [Exit. Whit. 

i Gent. O barbarous and bloody fpedacle ! 
His body will I bear unto the king : 
If he revenge it not, yet will his friends ; 
So will the queen, that living held him dear. [Exit. 

4 Brutus' baftard hand] Brutus was the fon of Servilia, a 
Roman lady, who had been, concubine to Julius Caefar. 


3 Pompey the great ; &c.] The poet feems to have confounded 
the ftory of Pompey with forre other. JOHNSON. 

This circumftance might be advanced as a ilight proof, in aid 
of many ftronger, that our poet was no claffical fcholar. Such 
a one could not eafily have forgotten the manner in which the 
life of Pompey was concluded. Spenfer likewife abounds with 
deviations from eftablifhed hiftory and fable. STEEVENS. 

* 77j>ere let bis brad, &c.] Inftead of this fpeech the quarto 
gives us the following : 

Cap. Off with his head, and fend it to the queen, 
And ranfomlefs this prifoner fliall go free, 
To fee it fate delivered unto her. STEEVENS. 


KING HE N K Y VI. 385 


Another part of Kent. 
Enter George Be-vh and John Holland. 

' Bevis. Come, and get thec a fword J , though made 
Jof a lath ; they have been up thefe two days. 

HoL They have the more need to fleep now then. 

Bevis. I tell thee, Jack Cade the clothier means to 
chefs the commonwealth, and turn it, and fet a new 
| nap upon it. 

HoL. So he had need, for 'tis thread-bare. Well, I 
fay, it was never merry world in England, fince gen- 
tlemen came up. 

Bevis. O milcrable age ! Virtue is not regarded in 

Hoi. The nobility think fcorn to go in leather 

Bevis. Nay more, the king's council are no good 

! Hoi. True ; And yet it is laid, Labour in thy 
vocation : xvhich is as much to fay as, let the ma- labouring men ; and therefore fhould we 
be magiftrates. 

Bevis. Thou haft hit it : for there's no better fign 
of a brave mind, than a hard hand. 

HoL I lee them ! I fee them ! There's Beft's fon, 
the tanner of Wingham. 

Bevis. He (hall have the fkins of our enemies, to 
make dog's leather of. 

HoL And Dick the butcher, 

Bevis. Then is fin ftruck down like an ox, and ini- 
quity's throat cut like a calf. 

s get the afiuorj,] The 4to reads 'put a kng.ftaf In 

thy pike , &c. STE: 

VOL, VI. C c W. 


Hoi. And Smith the weaver : 

Bevis. Argo, their thread of life is fpun. 

Hoi. Come, come, let's fall in with them.' 

Drum. Enter Cade, Dick the butcher, Smith the-, 
weaver, and a faityer, with infinite numbers. 

Cade. We John Cade, fo term'd of our fuppofed 

Did. Or rather, of Healing 6 a cade of herrings. 


Cade. For 7 our enemies fhall fall before us, infpired ! 
with the fpirit of putting down kings and princes. 
Command filence. 

Dick. Silence ! 

Cade. My father was a Mortimer, 

Dick. He was an honeft man, and a good brick- 
layer. [Afide. 

Cade. My mother a Plantagenet, 

Dick. I knew her well, fhe was a midwife. [_AJide. 

Cade. My wife defcended of the Lacies, 

Dick. She was, indeed, a pedlar's daughter, and fold 
many laces. [Afide. 

6 a cade of herrings.'] That is, A barrel of herrings,: 
I fuppofe the word keg, which is now ufed, is cade corrupted. 


Nafh fpeaks of having weighed one of Gabriel Harvey's 
books againft a. cade of herrings, and fays; " That the rebel 
Jacke Cade was the firft that devifed to put redde herrings im 
cades, and from him they have their name." Praife of the Red 
Herring, 1599. STEEVENS. 

7 ~ our enemies Jliall fall before KJ, ] He alludes to hi* 
name Cade, from cada* Lat. to full. He has too much learning 
for his character. JOHNSON. 

We John Cade, &c.J This paflage, I think, fhould be regu- 
lated thus. 

Cade. We John Cade, fo term'd of our fuppofed father, for 
our enemies {hall fall before us ; 

Dick. Or rather of Healing a cade of herrings. 

Can'*, Infpired with the fpirit &c. TYRWHITT. 



Smith. But, now of late, not able to travel with 
er 8 furr'd pack, {he wafhes bucks here at home. 

Cade. Therefore am I of an honourable houfe. 

Dick. Ay, by my faith : the field is honourable ; and 
here was he born, under a hedge; for his father had 
lever a houfe, but the cage. [Afide. 

Cade. Valiant I am. 
I Smith. 'A muft needs ; for beggary is valiant. \_Afide. 

Cade. I am able to endure much, 
i Dick. No queftion of that ; for I have feen him 
.vhipp'd three market days together. \_Afide. 

Cade. I fear neither fword nor fire. 

Smith. He need not fear the fword, for his coat is 
of proof. \_Afide. 

Dick. But, methinks, he fliould Hand in fear of fire, 
being fb often burnt i'the hand for ftealing of flieep. 

Cade. Be brave then ; for your captain is brave, and 
vows reformation. There {hall be, in England, feven 
half-penny loaves fold for a penny : the three-hoop'd 
pot (hall have ten hoops 9 ; and I will make it felony, 
to drink fmall beer : all the realm {hall be in com- 
mon, and in Cheapfide {hall my palfry go to grais. 
And, when I am king, (as king I will be) 

All. God fave your majefty ! 

Cade. I thank you, good people : ' there {hall 


jfcrrVfjr*, ] A wallet or knapfack of fkin with the 

hair outward. JOHNSON. 

9 the three-hoop'd pot Jball have ten hoops ;] In the Gulf 

Horn-Bookt; a fatirical pamphlet by Deckar, 1609, hoops are 
mentioned among other drinking meafures : " his boopes, cans, 
half-cans, &c." And, in Naih's Pierce Pennileffe bis Supplication 
to the Devil, \ 595 : *' I believe hoopcs in quart pots were invented 
to that end, that every man fliould take his boopc, and no more." 


1 there Jbatth 110 money; ] To mend the world by banifhing 

money is an old contrivance of thole who did not confider that 

the quarrel* and mifcbiefs which arife from money, as the fign. 

C c 2 or 


be no money ; all mall eat and drink on my fcore ; 
and I will apparel them all in one livery, that they 
may agree like brothers, and worihip me their lord. 

Dick. The firft thing we do, let's kill all the 

Cade. Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a la- 
mentable thing, that of the {kin of an innocent lamb 
ihould be made parchment ? that parchment, being 
fcribbled o'er, ihould undo a man ? Some fay, the bee 
flings : but I fay, 'tis the bee's wax ; for I did but 
feal once to a thing, and I was never my own matt 
iince. How now ? who's there ? 

Enter fomc f bringing In the clerk of Chatham. 

Smith. The clerk of Chatham : he can write ancj. 
read, and caft accompt. 

Cade. O monflrous ! 

Smith. We took him fetting of boys copies. 

Cade. Here's a villain ! 

Smith. H'as a book in his pocket, with red letters 

Cade. Nay, then he is a conjurer. 

Dick. Nay, he can make obligations, and write 

Cade. I am forry for't : the man is a proper man, 
on mine honour ; unlefs I find him guilty, he mall not 
die. Come hither, firrah, I muft examine thee 
What is thy name ? 

Clerk. Emanuel. 

Dick. z They ufc to write it on the top of letter; 
'Twill go hard with you. 


or ticket of riches, muft, if' money were to ceafe, arife 5mm 
diately from riches thcmk-lvcs, and could never be at an end t 
every man was contented with his own iliarc of the goods of life 


* Tbcy i'fc to write it on the top of letters',] i.e. Of lettt 
iniffive, and fuch like public adts. See Mabillon's Diplomata. 



Cade. Let me alone : Doft thou ufe to write thy 
lame ? or haft thou a mark to thyfelf, like an honetl 
>lain-dealing man ? 

Clerk. Sir, I thank God, I have been fo well brought 
ip, that I can write my name. 

All. He hath confefs'd : away with him ; he's a 
villain, and a traitor. 

Cade. Away with him, I fay : hang him with his 
>en and inkhorn about his neck. 

[Exit dne with the Clerk. 

Enter Michael. 

Mich. Where's our general ? 

Cade. Here I am, thou particular fellow. 

Mich. Fly, fly, fly ! fir Humphrey Stafford and his 
ibrother, are hard by, with the king's forces. 

Cade. Stand, villain, ftand, or I'll fell thee down : 
He fliall be encounter'd with a man as good as him- 
felf : He is but a knight, is a' ? 

Mich. No. 

Cade. To equal him, I will make myfelf a knight 
prefcntly ; Rife up fir John Mortimer. Now have 
at him. Is there any more of them that be knights ? 
Mich. Ay, his brother. 

Cade. Then kneel down, Dick Butcher ; 
Rife up fir Dick Butcher. Now found up the drum. 

In the old anonymous play, called The famous Vittorics of 
Henry V. containing the honourable Eattcll of 4gin-court, I find 
the fame circumftance. The archbifhop of Burges (i. e. Bruges) 
is the fpeaker, and addreffes himfelf to king Henry : 

" I befeech your grace to deliver me your fafe 
" Conduct, under your broad feai Emanuel." 
The king in anftver fays : 

" deliver him fate conduct 

44 Under our broad feal Eaianuel" STEEVENS. 

C c 3 Enter 


Enter Sir Humphrey Stafford, and his Brother, with 
and foldiers. 

Staf. Rebellious hinds, the filth and fcum of 
Mark'd for the gallows, lay your weapons dowi 
Home to your cottages, forfake this groom ; 
The king is merciful, if you revolt. 

T. Staf. But angry, wrathful, and inclin'd to bl< 
If you go forward : therefore yield, or die. 

Cade. As for thefe filken-coated flaves, J I pafs not , 
It is to you, good people, that I fpeak, 
O'er whom, in time to come, I hope to reign ; 
For I am rightful heir unto the crown. 

Staf* Villain, thy father was a plaiflerer ; 
And thou thyfelf, a fhearman, Art thou not ? 

Cade. And Adam was a gardener. 

T. Staf. And what of that ? 

Cade. Marry, this : Edmund Mortimer, earl 

Married the duke of Clarence* daughter ; Did he not! 

Staf. Ay, fir. 

Cade. By her he had two children at one birth. 

T. Staf. That's falfe. 

Cade. Ay, there's the queftion ; but, I fay, 'tis true: 
The elder of them, being put to nurfe, 
Was by a beggar-woman ftol'n away ; 
And, ignorant of his birth and parentage, 
Became a bricklayer, when he came to age : 
His fon am I ; deny it, if you can. 

Dick. Nay, 'tis too true; therefore he ftiall be king. 

Smith. Sir, he made a chimney in my father's houfe, 
and the bricks are alive at this day to teflify it ; there- 
fore, deny it not. 

3 I pafs not \\ I pay them no regard. JOHNSON. 
So, in Drayton's S^uejl of Cynthia ' 

" Transform me to what fliape you can, 
" I j>afs not what it be." STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 39I 

Staf. And will you credit this bafe drudge's words, 
That fpeaks he knows not what ? 

AIL Ay, marry, will we ; therefore get you gone. 

T. Staf. Jack Cade, the duke of York hath taught 
you this. 

Cade. He lies, for I invented it myfelf. dfide. 
Go to, firrah, Tell the king from me, that for his 
father's fake, Henry the fifth, in whofe time boys 
went to fpan-counter for French crowns, I am con- 
tent he lhall reign ; but I'll be protector over him. 

Dick. And, furthermore, we'll have the lord Say's 
head, for felling the dukedom of Maine. 

Cade. And good reafon ; for thereby is England 
maim'd, and fain to go with a ftaff, but that my puif- 
fance holds it up. Fellow kings, I tell you, that that 
lord Say hath gelded the common-wealth, and made it 
an eunuch : and more than that, he can fpeak French, 
and therefore he is a traitor. 

Staf. O grofs and miferable ignorance ! 

Cade. Nay, anfwer, if you can : The Frenchmen 
are our enemies : go to then, I afk but this ; Gan he, 
that fpeaks with the tongue of an enemy, be a good 
counfcllor, or no ? 

M. No, no ; and therefore we'll have his head. 

T. Staf. Well, feeing gentle words will not prevail, 
Aflail them with the army of the king. 

Staf. Herald, away : and, throughout every town, 
Proclaim them traitors that are up with Cade ; 
That thofe, which fly before the battle ends, 
May, even in their wives' and childrens' fight, 
Be hang'd up for example at their doors : 
And you, that be the king's friends, follow -me. 

[Exeunt the two Staffords, with their train. 

Cade. And you, that love the commons, follow 


Now fliew yourfelves men, 'tis for liberty. 
We will not leave one lord, one gentleman : 
Spare none, but fuch as go in clouted Ihoon ; 

C c 4 For 


For they are thrifty honefl men, and fuch 

As would (but that they dare not) take our parts. 

Dick. They are all in order, and march toward us. 

Cade. But then are we in order, when we are moftj 
out of order. Come, march forward, [_Exeunt*\ 


Another -part of tie field. The parties fight, and both 
the Stafforfa arc Jlain. 

Re- enter CaJe, and the reft. 

Cade. Where's Dick, the butcher of Afhford ? 

Dick. Here, fir. 

Cade. They fell before thee like fneep and oxen, 
and thou behav'dft thyfelf as if thou hadft been in 
'thine own ilaughter-houfe : therefore thus I will re- 
ward thee, The * Lent lhall be as long again as it is; 
and thou fhalt have a licence to kill for a hundred 
"Jacking one. 

Did. I defire no more. 

Cade. And, to fpeak truth, thou deferv'ft no lefs. 
5 This monument of the victory will I bear ; and the 
bodies {hall be dragg'd at my horfe' heels, 'till I do' 
come to London, where we will have the mayor's 
fword borne before us. 

* Lentjhallbe as long as It Is, < ' ] Methinks it might 
be read more humoroufly, Lentjball Ic as long again as it is. 


The old quarto reads as long again as it is. STEEVLNS. 

5 This monument of the viflory 'will I bear ] Here Cade m u ft 
be fuppofed to take off Stafford's armour. So, Holinfhed : 

** Jack Cade, upon viftory againit the Staffords, apparelled 
himfelt in fir Humphrey's brigandine, fet lull of gilt nails, and 
for iu forae glory returned again toward London." STEEVENS. 



Dick. 6 If we mean to thrive and do good, break 
jppen the gaols, and let out the prifoners. 

Cade. Fear not that, I warrant thee. Come, let's 
march towards London. \_Exevnt. 



Enter king Henry with a fupplication, and queen Mar- 
garet with Suffolk's head', the duke of Buckingham) and 
and the lord Say. 

>. Mar. Oft have I heard that grief foftens the 


And makes it fearful and degenerate, ; 
Think therefore on revenge, and ceafe to weep. 
But who can ceafe to weep, and look on this ? 
Here may his head lie on my throbbing bread : 
But where's the body that I ihould embrac. ? 

Buck. What anfwer makes your grace to the rebels* 
fupplication ? v 

K. Henry. I'll fend fome holy bifhop to entreat : 
For God forbid, fo many fimple fouls 
Should perifh by the fword ! And I myfelf, 
Rather than bloody war Ihould cut them fhort, 
Will parly with Jack Cade their general. 
But flay, I'll read it over once again. 

Q. Mar. Ah, barbarous villains ! hath this lovely 


7 Rul'd, like a wandering planet, over me ; 
And could it not enforce them to relent, 

6 If ivc mean to thrive and do good, &c.] I thirk it flrj'.sld be 
read thus, If we mean to thrive, do good; bre^k open :Le gaols ^ 

7 RuV d like a wandering ] Predominate i irrefiii!l..y < vcr 
my paifions, as the planets ovtr ! e lives of ihof; that are bora 
under their influence, JOH:>SON. 



That were unworthy to behold the fame ? 

K. Henry. Lord Say, Jack Cade hath fworn to have 
thy head. 

Say. Ay, but I hope, your highnefs fhall have his. 

K. Henry. How now, madam ? 
Lamenting ftill, and mourning Suffolk's death ? 
I fear, my love, if that I had been dead, 
Thou wouldeft not have mourn'd fo much for me. 

^. Mar. No, my love, I fliould not mourn, but 
die for thee. 

Enter a Mcffenger. 

K. Henry. How now ! what news ? why com'ft thou 
in fuch hafte ? 

Mef. The rebels are in Southwark ; Fly, my lord ! 
Jack Cade proclaims himfelf lord Mortimer, 
Defcended from the duke of Clarence' houfe ; 
And calls your grace ufurper, openly, 
And vows to crown himfelf in Weftminfter. 
His army is a ragged multitude 
Of hinds and peafants, rude and mercilefs : 
Sir Humphrey Stafford and his brother's death 
Hath given them heart and courage to proceed : 
All fcholars, lawyers, courtiers, gentlemen, 
They call falfe caterpillars, and intend their death. 

K. Henry. O gracelefs men ! they know not what 
they do. 

Buck. My gracious lord, 8 retire to Kenelworth, 
Until a power be rais'd to put them do\vn. 

<%. Mar. Ah ! were the duke of Suffolk now alive, 
Thefe Kentilh rebels Ihould be foon appeas'd. 

* retire to Killingworth,] Thus all the modern editors, 

but we fnould read to Kenekvortb ; or perhaps Killingworth might 
be the old pronunciation. STEEVKNS. 

In the letter concerning Q^ Elizabeth's entertainment at this 
place, we find, "the caltle hath name of Kyllclingwoortb ; but 
of truth, gvoounded upon faythfull liory, Kcnehvoorth." 


A'. Htur. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 395 

K. Henry. Lord Say, the traitor hateth thee, 
Therefore away with us to Kenelworth. 

Say. So might your grace's perfon be in danger ; 
The fight of me is odious in their eyes : 
And therefore in this city will I flay, 
And live alone as fecret as I may. 

Enter another Mejfenger. 

2 Mef. Jack Cade hath gotten London-bridge ; 
The citizens fly him, and forfake their houfes : 
The rafcal people, thirfting after prey, 
Join with the traitor; and they jointly fwear, 
To fpoil the city, and your royal court. 

Buck. Then linger not, my lord ; away, take horfe. 

K. Henry. Come, Margaret ; God, our hope, will 
fuccour us. 

<$>. Mar. My hope is gone, now Suffolk is deceased. 

K. Henry. Farewel, my lord ; truft not to Kentilh 

Buck. Truft no body, for fear you be betray'd. 

Say. The truft I have is in mine innocence, 
And therefore am I bold and refolute. [Exeunt. 



Enter lord Scales, and others, on the walls of the Town, 
'Then enter two or three Citizens below. 

Scales. How now ? is Jack Cade flain ? 

i Cit. No, my lord, nor likely to be flain ; for they 
have won the bridge, killing all thole that withftand 
them : The lord mayor craves aid of your honour from 
the Tower, to defend the city from the rebels. 

Scales. Such aid as I can fpare, you Ihall command; 
But I am troubled here with them myfelf, 



The rebels have affay'd to win the Tower. 
But get you into Smithfield, gather head, 
And thither will I fend you Matthew Gough : 
Fight for your king, your country, and your lives ; 
And fo farewel, for I muft hence again. [Exeunt. 


Cannon- Street. 

Enter Jack Cade, and the reft. He jtrikes his Jiaff on 

' Cade. Now is Mortimer lord of this city. And 
Here, fitting upon London-ftone, I charge and com- 
mand, that, of the city's coft, the pifling-conduit run 
nothing but claret wine the firft year of our reign. 
And now, henceforward, it fhall be treafon for any that 
calls me other than lord Mortimer. 

Enter a Soldier running. 

' & 

Sol. Jack Cade ! Jack Cade ! 

Cade. Knock him down there 9 . [They kill him. 

Smith. If this fellow be wife, he'll never call you 
Jack Cade more ; I think, he hath a very fair warning. 

Dick. My lord, there's an army gathered together 
in Smithfield. 

Cade. Come then, let's go fight with them : But, 
firft, go and fet London-bridge on fire ; and, if you 
can, burn down the Tower too. Come, let's away. 


9 Knock hini down there."] So, Holinfhed, p. 634 : " He alfo 
put to execution, &c. and other being his old acquaintance, left 
they (hould bewraie his bafe lineage, difyaraging him for his uiurp- 
ed name of Mortimer." 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 397 



with the 

Enter Jack Cade with his company, fheyfght 
> king's forces, and Matthew Gough ' hjlavt. 

Cade. So, firs : Now go fome and pull down the 
Savoy ; others to the inns of court ; down with them 

Dick. I have a fuit unto your lordfhip. 

Cade. Be it a lordfhip, thou ihalt have it for that 

Dick. Only, that the laws of England may come out 
of your mouth *. 

John. Mafs, 'twill be fore law then; for he was 
thruft in the mouth with a fpear, and 'tis not whole 
yet. \Afide. 

Smith. Nay, John, it will be {linking law ; for his 
breath flinks with eating toafled cheefe. [Afide* 

Cade. I have thought upon it, it mall be fo. Away, 
burn all the records of the realm ; my mouth fhall 
be the parliament of England. 

John. Then we are like to have biting ftatutes, 
unlefs his teeth be pull'd out. \_Af\de. 

Cade. And henceforward all things lhall be in com- 

1 Matthew Gougb] ** A man of great wit and much experience 
in teats of chivalrie, the which in continuall warres had {pent his 
time in iervice of the king and his father." Holinlhed, p. 635. 


1 That the la-jjs of England may come out of your mouth.] This 
alludes to what Holinflied has related of I fat Tyler, p. 432. *' It 
was reported indeed, that he fhould faie with great pride, putting 
his hands to his lipps, that within four daies all the laives of ILng* 
land jbould come fourth of bii mouth" T YRWHITT. 



Enter a MeJJenger. 

Mef. My lord, a prize, a prize ! here's the lord 
Say, which fold the town in France ; he that made us 
pay one and twenty fifteens, and one (hilling to the 
pound, the lafl fubfidy. 

Enter George Bevis, with the lord Say. 

Cade. Well, he fhall be beheaded for it ten times. 
Ah, 3 thou fay, thou ferge, nay, thou buckram lord ! 
now art thou within point-blank of ourjurifdiction 
regal. What canft thou anfwer to my majefty, for 
giving up of Normandy unto monfieur Bafimecu, the 
dauphin of France ? Be it known unto thee by thefe 
prefence, even the prefence of lord Mortimer, that I 
am the befom that muft fweep the court clean of fuch 
filth as thou art. Thou haft moft traiteroufly cor- 
rupted the youth of the realm, in erecting a grammar- 
fchool : and whereas, before, our fore-fathers had no 
other books but the fcore and the tally, thou haft 
caufed 4 printing to be us'd ; and, contrary to the 


3 thoufay y tboufergc, ] Say was the old word for 

Jilk\ on this depends the feries of degradation, foom/iy toferge t 
from ferge to buckram. JOHNSON. 
So, in Spenfer's Faerie Queen, B. I. c. iv : 
" All in a kirtle of difcolour'dyay 
" He clothed was." 
Again, in his Pcrigot and Cuddy's Roundelay : 

*' And in a kirtle of green fay." 

It appears, however, from the following paflage iu the Fttery 
Queen, B. III. c. ii. that fay was notjilk: 

" His garment neither was oijilk nory^y." STEEVENS. 

* : printing to be ajV; ] Shakelpeare is a little too 

early with this accufation. JOHNSON'. 

Shakefpeare might have been led into this miilake by Daniel, 
in the fixth book of his Civil Wars, who introduces printing and 
artillery as contemporary^ inventions : 

" Let there be found two fatal inftruments, 
The one to publifh, th' other to defend 

" In/pious 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 399 

king, his crown, and dignity, thou haft built a paper- 
mill. It will be proved to thy face, that thou haft 
men about thee, that ufually talk of a notfn, and a 
verb ; and fuch abominable words, as no chriftian car 
can endure to hear. Thou haft appointed juftices 
of peace, to call poor men before them about mat- 
ters they were not able to anfwer. Moreover, thou 
haft put them in prifon ; and, s becaufe they could not 
read, thou haft hang'd them ; when, indeed, only for 
that caufe they have been moft worthy to live Thou 
doft ride on a foot-cloth, doft thou not 6 ? 

Say. What of that ? 

Cade. Marry, thou ought'ft not 7 to let thy horfc 

** Impious contention, and proud difcontents ; 
" Make that inftamped characters may fend 
" Abroad to thoufands thoufand men's intent ; 
" And, in a moment, may difpatch much more 
" Than could a world of pens perform before." 
Shakefpeare's abfurdities may always be countenanced by thofeof 
writers nearly his contemporaries. 

In the tragedy of Herod and dntipater, by Gervafe Markham 
and William Sampfon, who were both fcholars, is the following 
paflage : 

" Though cannons roar yet you muft not be deaf." 
Spenfer mentions cloth made at Lincoln during the ideal reigti 
of K. Arthur, and has adorn 'd a caftle at the fame period " with 
cloth of Arras and of Toure." Chaucer introduces guns in the 
time of Antony and Cleopatra, and (as Mr. Warton has obferved) 
Salvator Rofa places a cannon at the entrance of the tent of Ho- 
lofernes. STEEVENS. 

s . lecaufe they could not read thou baft hang'd them ; ] 

That is, They were hanged becaufe they could not claim the be- 
nefit of clergy. JOHNSON. 

6 Thou doft ride on a footcloth, ] A footdoth was a 

horfe with houfings which reached as low as his feet. So, in 
the tragedy of Mttleajfis the Turk, 1610 : 

" I have feen, fmce my coming to Florence, the fon of a 
pedlar mounted on & footdoth" STEEVENS, 

1 - '-10 let thy horfe wear a cloak,'-] This is a reproach 
truly charafteriiHcal. Nothing gives fo much offence to the 
lower ranks of mankind as the light of fuperfluiries merely often- 



wear a cloak, when honefter men than thou go in 
their hofe and doublets. 

Dick. And work in their fhirt too; as myfelf, for 
example, that am a butcher. 

Say. You men of Kent, 

Dick. What fay you of Kent ? 

Say. Nothing but this : 'Tis 8 bona terra, mala gens. 

Cade. Away with him, away with him ! he fpeaks 

Say. Hear me but fpeak, and bear me where you 


Kent, in the commentaries Csefar writ, 
Is tern-i'd the civil'il place of all this hie 9 : 
Sweet is the country, becaufe full of riches ; 
The people liberal, valiant, active, wealthy ; 
Which rmkes me hope you are not void of pity. 
I fold not Maine, I loft not Normandy ; 
Yet, to recover them, would lofe my life. 
Jufticc with favour .have I always done ; 
Prayers and tears have mov'd me, gifts could never. 
* When have I aught exacted at your hands ? 


8 Ion ft terra, main gem. ] After this line the quarto pro- 
ceed thus : 

" Cade. Bonj/m terrum, what's that? 
" Dick. He fpeaks French. 
" 7f?//. No, 'tis Dutch. 

" NIC?:, No, 'tis Outnlian : I know it well enough." 
Holinftied has likewife ftigmatized the Kenrifli men, p. 677. 
' The Ke::tijh-?.:en, in this feafon (whole minds be ever move- 
able at the Change of princes) came, &:c." STEEVENS. 

5 Is term\l the cl- -'H'fi place of all' ilh //?,;] So, in C^far'a 
Comment. B. V. " Ex his omnibus fi'.r.t hurnaniffimi qui Cant! um 
incolunt." The paflage is thus tranfiated by Arthur Gelding, 
i 590. " Of all the mhabitanteS of this ifle, the clvile/l are the 
Kentifhfoke." STEKVENS. 

1 WL-. . -/;/ excised atyour hands ? 

Kefir to maintain, the king, the realm, and you, 
Large gifts have I brfio-vStl on Isanied f!trks % 
B'ecav/e my look preferred me to the king.] 

This paff-.^e I know not well how to explain. It is pointed To as 
to make Say declare that he preferred clerks to maintain Kent 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 oi 

!ent to maintain, the king, the realm, and you, 
,arge gifts have I beftow'd on learned clerks, 
Becanfe my book preferred me to the king : 
JAnd feeing ignorance is the curfe of God, 
((Knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven, 
: tUnlefs you be poflefs'd with devilifh fpirits, 
You cannot but forbear to murder me. 
This tongue hath parly'd unto foreign kings 

CFor your behoof, 

I Cade. Tut ! when ftruck'ft thou one blow in the 

Say. Great men have reaching hands : oft have I 


Thofe that I never faw, and flruck them dead. 
George. O monftrous coward ! what, to come be- 
hind folks ! 
Say. Thefe cheeks are pale with watching for your 

Cade. Give him a box o'the ear, and that will make 

'em red again. 

Say. Long fitting to determine poor mens' caufes 
Hath made me full of ficknefs and difeafes. 

Cade. Ye fhali have a hempen caudle then, and the 
help of a hatchet. 

Dick. Why doft thou quiver, man 2 ? 


and the king. This is not very clear ; and belides he gives in 

the following line another reafon of his bounty, that learning 

raifed him, and therefore he fupported learning. I am inclined 

to think Kent flipped into this paflage by chance, and would read: 

When have I aught exaded at your hand, 

But to maintain the king, the realm, and you? JOHNSON. 

I concur with Dr. Johnfon in believing the word Kent to have 
been fliuffled into the text by accident. Lord Say, as the paflage 
Hands at prefent, not only declares he had preferred men of 
learning to maintain Kent, 'the king, the realm, but adds tautolo- 
gical \yyou ; for it fliould be remembered that they 'are Kentifh 
men to whom he is now fpeaking. I would read, Bent to main- 
tain, feV. i. e. ftrtnuoufly refohed to the utmoft, to &c. STEEVENS. 

1 Why doft thou quiver, man? &c.] Otway has borrowed this 
thought in Venice Preferred: 

VOL. VI. D d " Sfi- 


Say. The pally, and not fear, provokes me ? 

Cade. Nay, he nods at us ; as who Ihould fay, I'll 
be even with you. I'll fee if his head will ftand 
fteadier on a pole, or no : Take him away, and behead 

Say. Tell me, wherein have I offended moft ? 
Have I affe&ed wealth, or honour ; fpeak ? 
Are my chefts fill'd up with extorted gold ? 
Is my apparel fumptuous to behold ? 
Whom have I injur'd, that ye feek my death ? 
Thefe hands are free from guiltlefs blood-fhedding, 
This breaft from harbouring foul deceitful thoughts, 
O, let me live ! 

Cade. I feel remorfe in myfelf with his words : but 
I'll bridle it ; he fhall die, an it be but for pleading fo 
well for his life ; . Away with him ! he has a familiar 
under his tongue 4 ; he fpeaks noto'God's name. Go, 
take him away, I fay, and ftrike off his head pre- 
iently ; and then break into his fon-in-law's houfe, Sir 
James Cromer, and ftrike off his head, and bring 
them both upon two poles hither. 

All. It ftiall be done. 

Say. Ah, countrymen ! if when you make your 

God Ihould be fo obdurate as yourfelves, 

" Splnofa. You are trembling, fir. 
*' Renault. 'Tis a cold night indeed, and I am aged, 
" Full of decay and natural infirmities." 


3 "-bejljall die, an it le but for pleading fo 'well for bis 
life."] This fentiment is not merely defigned as an exprelfion of 
ferocious triumph, but to mark the eternal enmity which the 
vulgar bear to thofe of more liberal education and fuperior rank. 
The vulgar are always ready to depreciate the talents which they 
'behold with envy, and infult the eminence which they deipair to 
reach. STEEVENS. 

* a familiar under his tongue;] k. familiar is a damon who 

Was fuppofed to attend at call. So, in Love's Labour's Loft : 
** Love is a familiar j there is no angel but love :" 




How would it fare with your departed fouls ? 
And therefore yet relent, and fave my life. 

Cade. Away with him, and do as I command ye. 

[Exeunt fome, with lord Say. 

The proudeft peer of the realm mall not wear a head 
on his fhoulders, unlefs he pay me tribute ; there Ihall 
not a maid be married, but (he Ihall pay to me her 
maiden-head * ere they have it : Men mall hold of me 
in capite ; and we charge and command, that their 
wives be as free as heart can wifh, or tongue can tell. 

Dick. My lord, when mail we go to Cheaplide, 
and take up commodities upon our bills 5 ? 

Cade. Marry, prefently. 

All. O brave! 

Re-enter one with the heads. 

Cade. But is not this braver ? Let them kifs one 
another 6 ; for they lov'd well, when they were alive* 
Now part them again, left they confult about the giv- 
ing up of fome more towns in France. Soldiers, de- 
fer the fpoil of the city until night : for with thefe 
borne before us, inflead of maces, we will ride through 
the lireets ; and, at every corner, have them kifs. 
Away ! \JLxeunt. 

* Jb all pay to me her maidenhead, &c.] Alluding to an ancient 

ufage on which B. and Fletcher have founded their play called the 
Cuftom of the Country. See Mr. Seyward's note at the beginning 
of it. See alfo Cowell's LavjDiB. in voce Manbet, &c. &c. &c. 


s Take Kf commodities upon our li!h ?] Perhaps this is an 

equivoque alluding to the brown bills, or halberds, with which 
the commons were anciently armed. PERCY. 

6 Let them kife one another ; ] This is from the Mlrrourfor Magi~ 
Jtrates in the legend of Jack Cade : 

** With thefe two heads I made a pretty play, 

" For pight on poales I bore them through the ftrete, 

" And for my fport made each kijje other fwete." 


It is likewife found in Holinflied, p. 634 : " and as it were in a 
fpite caufed them in every ftreet t kijje together," STEEVENS. 

D d 2 SCENE 




Alarum, and retreat. Enter again Cade, and all />" 

Cade. Up Fifh-ftreet ! down faint Magnus* corner ! 
kill and knock down ! throw them into Thames ! - 

\_A parley founded. 

What noife is this I hear ? Dare any be fo bold 
to found retreat or parley, when I command them 
kill ? 

Enter Buckingham, and old Clifford, attended. 

Buck. Ay, here they be that dare, and will difturb 

thee : 

Know, Cade, we come ambaffadors from the king 
Unto the commons, whom thou haft mif-led ; 
And here pronounce free pardon to them all, 
That will forfake thee, and go home in peace. 

Clif. What fay ye, countrymen ? will ye relent, 
And yield to mercy, whilfl 'tis offer'd you ; 
Or let a rabble lead you to your deaths ? 
Who loves the king, and will embrace his pardon, 
Fling up his cap, and fay God fave his majefty t 
Who hateth him, and honours not his father, 
Henry the fifth, that made all France to quake, 
Shake he his weapon at us, and pafs by. 

AIL God fave the king ! God favc the king ! 

Cade. What, Buckingham, and Clifford, are ye fo i 
brave ? And you, bafe peafants, do ye believe him? 
will you needs be hang'd with your pardons about 
your necks ? Hath my fword therefore broke through 
London gates, that you fhould leave me at the 
White-hart in Southwark ? I thought, ye would I 
never have given out thefe arms, 'till you had reco- 

ver'd i 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 o 5 

ver'd your ancient freedom : but you are all recreants, 
and daftards ; and delight to live in flavery to the no- 
bility. Let them break your backs with burdens, 
take your houfes over your heads, ravifti your wives 
and daughters before your faces : For me, I will 
make Ihift for one ; and ib God's curfe 'light upon 
you all ! 

All We'll follow Cade, we'll follow Cade. 

Clif. Is Cade the fon of Henry the fifth, 
That thus you do exclaim you'll go with him ? 
Will he conduct you through the heart of France, 
And make the meaneft of you earls and dukes ? 
Alas, he hath no home, no place to fly to ; 
Nor knows he how to live, but by the fpoil, 
Unlefs by robbing of your friends, and us. 
Wer't not a lhame, that, whilft you live at jar, 
The fearful French, whom you late vanquifhed, 
Should make a flart o'er feas, and vanquifh you ? 
Methinks, already, in this civil broil, 
I fee them lording it in London ftreets, 
Crying Villageoh ! unto all they meet. 
Better, ten thoufand bafe-born Cades mifcarry, 
Than you fhould floop unto a Frenchman's mercy. 
To France, to France, and get what you have loft ; 
Spare England, for it is your native coaft : 
7 Henry hath money, you are (Irong and manly ; 
God on our fide, doubt not of vidtory. 

AIL A Clifford ! a Clifford ! we'll follow the king, 
and Clifford. 

Cade. Was ever feather fo lightly blown to and fro, 
as this multitude ? the name of Henry the fifth hales 

7 Henry bath money, ] Dr. Warburton reads, Henry bath 

mercy, but he does not feem to have attended to the fpeaker's 
drift, which is to lure them from their prefent defign by the 
hope of French plunder. He bids them fpare England, and go 
to France, and encourages them by telling them that all is ready 
for their expedition j that they have Jlrength, and the king has 
money. JOHNSON, 

D d 2 them 


them to an hundred mifchiefs, and makes them leave 
me defolate. I fee them lay their heads together, to 
furprize me : my fword make way for me, for here 
is no flaying. In defpight of the devils and hell, have' 
through the very midtl of you ! and heavens and hor 
nour be witnefs, that no want of resolution in me, but 
only my followers' bafe and ignominous treafons, 
makes me betake me to my heels. [Exit. 

Buck. What, is he fled ? go fome, and follow him j 
And he, that brings his head unto the king, 
Shall have a thoufand crowns for his reward. 

[Exeunt fome of them. 

Follow me, foldiers ; we'll devife a mean 
TO reconcile you all unto the king. [fyttriit\ 


Kenelworth cajlk, 

'Sound trumpets. Enter king Henry 9 queen Margaret, 
and Somerfet, an tke terras. 

K. Henry, Was ever king, that joy'd an earthly 


And could command no more content than I ? 
No fooner was I crept out of my cradle, 
IBut I was made a king, at nine months old ; 
Was never fubje<ft long'd to be a king, 
As I dp long and wifh to be a fubjed:. 

Enter Buckingham^ and Clifford. 

Buck. Health, and glad tidings, to your majefly ! 
K. Henry. Why, Buckingham, is the traitor Cade 

furpriz'd ? 
pr is he but retir'd to make him ftrong ? 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 407 

Enter belmv, multitudes with halters about their necks. 

Clif. He's fled, my lord, and all his powers do 

yield ; 

And humbly thus with halters on their necks 
Expert you highnefs' doom, of life, or death. 

K. Henry. Then, heaven, fet ope thy everlafting 


To entertain my vows of thanks and praifc ! 
Soldiers, this day have you redeemed your lives, 
And fhew'd how well you love your prince and 

country : 

Continue ft ill in this fo good a mind, 
And Henry, though he be infortunate, 
Allure yourfelves, will never be unkind : 
And fo, with thanks, and pardon to you all, 
I do difmifs you to your feveral countries. 

All God fave the king ! God fave the king ! 

Enter a Mejfenger. 

Mef. Pleafe it your grace to be advertifcd, 
The duke of York is newly come from Ireland : 
And with a puiflant and a mighty power, 
Of Gallow-glafies, and flout Kernes 8 , 
Is marching hitherward in proud array ; 
And ftill proclaimeth, as he comes along, 
His arms are only to remove from thee 
The duke of Somerfet, whom he terms a traitor. 

K. Henry. Thus ftands my ftate, 'twixt Cade and 

York diflrefs'd ; 

Like to a ihip, that, having 'icap'd a tempeft, 
9 Is ftraitway calm'd, and boarded with a pirate : 


5 O/Callow^lafles and ft out Kernes,] Thefe were two orders of 
foot ioldiers among the Irifli. See Dr. Warburton's note on the 
fecond fcene of the firft aft of Macbeth. STEEVENS. 

// Rraitway claim'd and boarded with a pirate;} So the edt- 
D d 4 nons 


But now is Cade driven back, his men difpers'd ; 
And now is York in arms, to fecond him. 
I pray thee, Buckingham, go and meet him ; 
And afk him, what's the reatbn of thefe arms. 
Tell him, I'll fend duke Edmund to the Tower ;-w 
And, Somerfet, we will commit thee thither, 
Until his army be difmifs'd from him. 

Som. My lord, 

I'll yield myfelf to prifon willingly, 
Or unto death, to do my country good. 

K. Henry. In any cafe be not too rough in terms j 
For he is fierce, and cannot brook hard language. 

Buck, I will, my lord ; and doubt not fo to deal, 
As all things ihall redound unto your good. 

K. Henry. Come, wife, let's in, and learn to go- 
vern better ; 
For yet may England curfe my wretched reign. 


tions read ; and one would think it plain enough ; alluding to 
York's claim to the crown. Cade's head-long tumult was 'well 
compared to a tempcjl, as York's premeditated rebellion to & pi- 
racy. But fee what it is to be critical ; Mr. Theobald fays, 
claimed fliould be calm*d, becaufe a calm frequently fucceeds a 
tempeji. It may be fo ; but not here, if the king's word may be 
taken ; who exprelly fays, that no fooner was Cade driven back, 
but York appeared in arms : 

But now ii Cade driv'n back, bis men difpers'd ; 
And now is Tork in arms to fecond him. WAR BURTON. 
Dr. Warburton begins his note by roundly aliening that the 
editions read claimed. The paflage, indeed, is not found in the 
quarto ; but the folio, 1623, which is the only copy of autho- 
rity, reads calmt, Theobald fays, that the third folio had anti- 
cipated his correction. I believe calnfd is right. The commo- 
tion raifed by Cade was over, and the mind of the king was 
fubfiding into a calm, when York appeared in arms, to raife frefh 
diflurbauces, and deprive it of its momentary peace. STEEYENS, 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 


A garden in Kent f . 
Enter Jack Cade. 

Cade. Fie on ambition ! fie on myfelf ; that have a 
fword, and yet am ready to familh ! Thefe five days 
have I hid me in thefe woods ; and durft not peep out, 
for all the country is lay'd for me ; but now am I fo 
hungry, that if I might have a leafe of my life for a 
thoufand years, I could flay no longer. Wherefore, 
on a brick-wall have I climb 'd into this garden ; to fee 
if I can eat grafs, or pick a fallet another while, 
which is not amifs to cool a man's ftomach this hot 
weather. And, I think, this word fallet was born to 
do me good : for, many a time, z but for a fallet, my 
brain-pan had been cleft with a brown bill ; and, 
many a time, when I have been dry, and bravely 
marching, it hath ferv'd me inftead of a quart-pot to 
drink in ; and now the word fallet muil ferve me to 
feed on. 

I A garden in Kent. ~\ Holinfhed, p. 635, fays: *' a gen- 
tleman or Kent, named Alexander Eden, awaited fo his time, 
that he tooke the faid Cade in a garden in Suffix, fo that there he 
was flaine at Hothfield, &c." 

Inftead of the foliloquy with which the prefent fcene begins, 
the quarto has only this ftage direction. Enter Jack Cade at one 
doorc, and at the other M. Alexander Eyden and bis men, and Jack 
Cade lies do-tun picking of hearbes, and eating them, S TEE YENS. 

II but for a fallet, my brain-pan &c.] A fallet by corrup- 
tion from cidata, a helmet (fays Skinner) quia galca calatce fue- 
runt. POPE. 

So, in fir Thomas North's tranflation of Plutarch, " One 
of the company feeing Brutus athirft alfo, he ran to the river for 
water, and brought it in h\s fa/let." 

Again, Ibid: " Some were driven to fill their fallctfs and mur- 
riuns with water." 

Again, in The longer thou live]} the more Fool thou art, 1570 : 
" This will beare away a good rappe, 
" As good as a fallet to me verilie." STEEVEXS. 



Enter Iden, with Servants. 

Iden. Lord, xvho would live turmoikd in the 


And may enjoy fuch quiet walks as thefe ? 
This fmall inheritance, my father left me, 
Contenteth me, and's worth a monarchy. 
I feck not to wax great by others' waining ; 
Or gather wealth, I care not with what envy ; 
Sufficeth, that I have maintains my (late, 
And fends the poor well pleafed from my gate. 

Cade. Here's the lord of the foil come to feize 
for a ftray, for entering his fee-fimple without leave. 
Ah, villain, thou wilt betray me, and get a thoufand 
crowns of the king for carrying my head to him ; but 
I'll make thee eat iron like an oflridge, and fwallow 
my fword like a great pin, ere thou and I part. 

Iden. Why, rude companion, whatfoe'er thou be, 
I know thee not ; Why then mould I betray thee ? 
Is't not enough, to break into my garden, 
And, like a thief, to come to rob my grounds, 
Climbing my walls in fpight of me the owner, 
But thou wilt brave me with thefe fancy terms ? 

Cade. Brave thee ? ay, by the bcfl blood that ever 
was broach'd, and beard thee too. Look on me well : 
I have eat no meat thefe five days ; yet, come thou 
and thy five men, and if I do not leave you all as dead as 
a door-nail, I pray God, I may never eat grafs more. 

Iden. Nay, it mall ne'er be faid, while England 


That Alexander Iden, an efquire of Kent, 
Took odds to combat a poor familh'd man. 
Oppofe thy fledfafl-gazing eyes to mine, 
See if thou canft out-face me with thy looks, 
Set limb to limb, and thou art far the leffer : 
Thy hand is but a finger to my fifl ; 
Thy leg a flick, compared with this truncheon ; 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 n 

My foot fliall fight with all the ftrength thou haft ; 

And if mine arm be heaved in the air, 

Thy grave is digg'd already in the earth. 

1 As for more words, whofe greatnefs anfwers words, 

Let this my fvvord report what fpeech forbears. 

Cade. By my valour, the moft complete champion 
that ever I heard. Steel, if thou turn the edge, or 
cut not out the burly-bon'd clown in chines of beef 
ere thou fleep in thy fheath, I befeech Jove on my 
knees, thou may'ft be turn'd to hobnails. 

[Here they fgbt. 

O, I am flam ! famine, and no other, hath flam me : 
let ten thoufand devils come againft me, and give me 
but the ten meals I have loft, and I'd defy them all. 
Wither, garden ; and be henceforth a burying-place 
to all that do dwell in this houfe, becaufe the uncon- 
quer'd foul of Cade is fled. 

Iden. Is't Cade that I have flain, that monftrous 

traitor ? 

Sword, I will hallow thee for this thy deed, 
And hang thee o'er my tomb, when I am dead 4 : 
Ne'er fliall this blood be wiped from thy point ; 
But thou ihalt wear it as a herald's coat, 

3 As for more words , ivbofe greatnefs anfivers words, 

Let this my fivord report what fpeech forbears.] 
Sir Thomas Hanmer, and, after him", Dr. Warburton, read : 
As for more words, let this my fword report 
( Wbofe greatnefe anfwers words ) wbatjpeecb forbears. 
It feems to be a poor praife of a fword, that its greatnefs anfovers 
words, whatever be the meaning of the expreffion. The old 
reading, though fomewhat obfcure, feems to me more capable 
of explanation. For more words, whofe pomp and tumour may 
anfwer words, and only words, I fliall forbear them, and refer the 
rejt to my fword. JOHNSON. 

4 when I am dead:] How Iden was to hang a fword over his 
own tomb, after he was dead, it is not eafy to explain. The 
fentiment is more corre&ly exprefled in the quarto : 

Oh fword, I'll honour thee for this, and in my chamber 

Shalt thou hang, as a monument to after age, 

For this great fervice thou hail done to me. STEEVENS. 



To emblaze the honour that thy mafter got. 

Cade. Iden, farewel ; and be proud of thy victory : 
Tell Kent from me, Ihe hath loft her beft man, and 
exhort all the world to be cowards ; for I, that never 
fear'd any, am vanquifh'd by famine, not by valouilj 


Lien. * How much thou wrong'ft me, heaven b^ 

my judge. 

Die, damned wretch, the curfe of her that bare thee ! 
And as I thruft thy body in with my fword, 
6 So wifli I, I might thruft thy foul to hell. 
Hence will I drag thee headlong by the heels 
Unto a dunghill, which fhall be thy grave, 
And there cut off thy moft ungracious head ; 
Which I will bear in triumph to the king, 
Leaving thy trunk for crows to feed upon. [E.v/7. 

5 How muck thou wrongjl it, ] That is, in fuppofing that I 
am proud of my victory. JOHNSO-J. 

6 So ivijb I, I might thruft thy foul to hell.~\ Not to dwell upon 
the wickednefs of this horrid wifti, with which Iden debafes his 
character, the whole fpeech is \vild and confufed. To draw a 
man by the heels, headlong, is fomewhat difficult ; nor can I 
difcover how the dunghill would be his grave, if his trunk were 
left to be fed upon by crows. Thefe I conceive not to be the 
faults of corruption but negligence, and therefore do not attempt 
correction. JOHNSON. 

The quarto is more favourable both to Iden's morality and 
language. It omits this fuvage wifh, and makes him only add, 
after the lines I have juft quoted : 

I'll drag him hence, and with my fword 
Cut off his head, and bear it to the king. 

The player editors feem to have preferred want of humanity and 
common fenfe, to fewnefs of lines, and defect of verfification. 






Fields near Saint Albans. 

Enter York, attended, with drum and colours. 

York, at a diftance from his followers. 

From Ireland thus comes York, to claim his right, 
And pluck the crown from feeble Henry's head : 
Ring, bells, aloud ; burn, bonfires, clear and bright, 
To entertain great England's lawful king. 
7 Ah, fanfta majejlas ! who would not buy thee dear ? 
Let them obey, that know not how to rule; 
This hand was made to handle nought but gold : 
I cannot give due action to my words, 
Except a fword, or fcepter, 8 balance it. 
9 A fcepter ihall it have, have I a foul ; 
On which I'll tofs the flower-de-luce of France. 

Enter Buckingham. 

Whom have we here ? Buckingham, to difturb me ? 
The king hath fent him, fure : I muft diflemble. 
Buck. York, if thou meaneft well, I greet thee well. 
York. Humphrey of Buckingham, I accept thy 

Art thou a meiFenger, or come of pleafure ? 

7 Ab, fanSa majeftas !] Thus the old copy ; inftead of which 
the modern editors read, Ah, majefty! STEEVENS. 

8 balance /'/.] That is, Balance my hand. JOHNSON. 
9 Ajlepter ftall it have, have I ajoul ; ] 

I read : 

Afccpte rfoall it have, have I a fword. 

York observes that his hand mult be employed with a fword or 
fcepter ; he then naturally oblerves, that he has a fword, and re- 
foives that if he has a fword he will have a fcepter. JOHNSON. 

I rather think York means to fay -If I have a fcr.l^ my hand 
flwll not be without a fcepter. STEEVEXS. 



Buck. A meffenger from Henry, our dread liege, 
To know the reafon of thefe arms in peace ; 
Or why, thou being a fubjedt as I am, 
Againft thy oath and true allegiance fworn, 
Should'ft raife fo great a power without his leave, 
Or dare to bring thy force fo near the court. 
- Tork. Scarce can I fpeak, my cholcr is fo great. 
Oh, I could hew up rocks, and fight with flint, 
I am fo angry at thefe abject terms ; 
And now, like Ajax Telamonius, 
On ilieep and oxen could I fpend my fury f 
I am far better born than is the king ; 
More like a king, more kingly in my thoughts : 
But I mufl make fair weather yet a while, 

'Till Henry be more weak, and I more ftrong. 

O Buckingham, I pr'ythee, pardon me, 
That I have given no anfwer all this while ; 
My mind was troubled with deep melancholy. 
The caufe why I have brought this army hither, 
Is to remove proud Somerfet from the king, 
Seditious to his grace, and to the flate. 

Buck. That is too much prefumption on thy part : 
But if thy arms be to no other end, 
The king hath yielded unto thy demand ; 
The duke of Somerfet is in the Tower. 

Tork. Upon thine honour, is he prifoner ? 

Buck. Upon mine honour, he is prifoner. 

Tork. Then, Buckingham, I do difmils my pow- 

Soldiers, I thank you all ; difperfe yourfelves ; 
Meet me to-morrow in faint George's field, 
You fliall have pay, and every thing you wifh. 
And let my fovereign, virtuous Henry, 
Command my eldefl fon, nay, all my fons, 
As pledges of my fealty and love, 
I'll fend them all as willing as I live ; 
Lands, goods, horfe, armour, any thing I have 
is his to ufe, fo Somerfet may die. 



Buck. York, I commend this kind fubmiflion : 
We twain will go into his highnefs' tent. [Exeunt. 

Enter king Henry, and Attendants. 

K. Henry. Buckingham, doth York intend no harm 

to us, 
That thus he marcheth with thee arm in arm ? 

York. In all fubmiffion and humility, 
York doth prefent himfelf unto your highnefs. 

K. Henry. Then what intend thefe forces thou doft 
bring ? 

York. To heave the traitor Somerfet from hence ; 
And fight againfl that monftrous rebel, Cade, 
Whom fince I hear to be difcomfited. 

Enter Idea, with Cade's bead- 

Iden. If one fo rude, and of fo mean condition, 
May pafs into the prefence of a king, 
I,o, I prefent your grace a traitor's head, 
The head of Cade, whom I in combat flew. 

K. Henry. The head of Cade ? Great God, how 

juft art thou ! 

O, let me view his vifage being dead, 
That living wrought me fuch exceeding trouble. 
Tell me,-my friend, art thou the man that flew him ? 

Iden. I was, an't like your majefly. 

K. Henry. How art thou call'd ? and what is thy 
degree ? 

Iden. Alexander Iden, that's my name ; 
A poor efquire of Kent, that loves the king. 

Buck. So pleafe it you, my lord, 'twere not amifs 
He were created knight for his good fervice. 

K. Henry. Iden, kneel down ; [be kneeh.~\ Rife up 

a knight. 

We give thee for reward a thoufand marks ; 
And will, that thou henceforth attend on us. 



Iden. l May Iden live to merit fuch a bounty, 
And never live but true unto his liege ! 

K. Henry. See, Buckingham ! Somerfet comes with 

the queen ; 
Go, bid her hide him quickly from the duke. 

Enter queen Margaret, and Somerfet. 

<. Mar. For thoufand Yorks he fhall not hide his 

But boldly ftand, and front him to his face. 

Tork. How now ! is Somerfet at liberty ? 
Then, York, unloofe thy long imprifon'd thoughts, 
And let thy tongue be equal with thy heart. 
Shall I endure the fight of Somerfet ? 
Falfe king ! why haft thou broken faith with me, 
Knowing how hardly I can brook abufe ? 
King did I call thee ? no, thou art not king; 
Not fit to govern and rule multitudes, 
Which dar'ft not, no, nor canft not rule a traitor. 
That head of thine doth not become a crown ; 
Thy hand is made to grafp a palmer's ftaff, 
And not to grace an awful princely fcepter. 
That gold mull round engirt thefe brows of mine; 
Whofe fmile and frown, like to Achilles' fpear, 
Is able with the change to kill and cure. 
Here is a hand to hold a fcepter up, 
And with the fame to adt controlling laws. 
Give place ; by heaven, thou ihalt rule no more 
O'er him, whom heaven created for thy ruler. 

Som. O monflrous traitor! I arreft thee, York, 
Of capital treafon 'gainft the king and crown : 
Obey, audacious traitor ; kneel for grace. 

* May Iden &c.] Iden has fai J before : 

Lord ! "Mho ivould live tur moiled in a court t 
And may enjoy , &c. 

Shakcfpeare makes Iden rail at tliofe enjoyments which he fup- 
pofes to be out of his reach ? but no fooner are they offered to 
him but he readily accepts them. ANONYMOUS. 


K I N G H E N R Y Vt. 417 

TorL Sirrahj call in my fons to be my bail.- 

[Exit an Attendant. 

* Wouldft have me kneel ? firfl let me affc of thefe, 
If they can brook I bow a knee to man. 
I know, ere they will let me go to ward, 
They'll pawn their fwords for my enfranchifement. 

i^. Mar. Call hither Clifford ; bid him come amain-, 
To lay, if that the baftard boys of York 
Shall be the furety for their traitor father. 

Tork. O blood-befpotted Neapolitan, 
Out-cafl of Naples, England's bloody fcourge t 
The fons of York, thy betters in their birth, 
3 Shall be their father's bail ; and bane to thofe 
That for my furety will refufe the boys. 

Enter Edward and Richard. 

See, where they come ; I'll warrant, they'll make it 

* Wouldft have me kneel f firft let me aft of thefe t 
If they can brook I IHKV a knee to man. 
Sirrah, call ip my fons to be my bail.'} 

As thefe lines have hitherto flood, I think the fenfe perplexed 
and obfcure. I have ventured to tranfpofe them. AVAR BUR TON. 
I believe thefe lines fhould be replaced in the order in which 
they ftood till Dr. Warburton tranfpofed them. By thefe York 
means his knees. He fpeaks, as Mr. Upton would have faid, 
fa&iMi : laying his hand upon, or at leaft pointing to, his knees. 


The fpeech originally ftood thus : 

Would'ft have me kneel ? Firfl: let me afk of thele, 
If they can brook I bow a knee to man. 

Sirrah, call in my fons to be my bail : 

I know, ere they will have me go to ward, 
They'll pawn their fwords of my enfranchifement. 


3 Shall lc tldr father* s bail ; and bane to thofe} Conlidering how 
our author loves to play on words fimilar in their found, but 
oppofite in their fignification, I make no doubt but the author 
wrote bail and bale. Bale (from whence our common idjefibve, 
taleful) iignifies detriment, ruin, misfortune, &c. THEOBALD. 
Bale figuifies forrow. Either word may ferve. JOHNSON. 

VOL. VI. E e 

4i8 S E C O N D P A R T O F 

Enter Clifford. 

4>. Mir. And here comes Clifford, to deny their 

Clif. Health and all happinefs to my lord thd 


V e thank thee, Clifford : Say, what news 
with thee ? 

Nay, do not fright us with an angry look 
We are thy fovereign, Clifford, kneel aeai'n ; 
For thy miftaking ib, we pardon thcc. 

Clif This is my king, York, I do not miftake; 
But thou miftak'ft me much, to think I do : 
To Bedlam with him ! is the man grown" mad ? 
K. Henry. Ay, Clifford; * a bedlam and ambitious 

Makes him oppofe himfelf againfl his kinj*. 

Clif. He is a traitor ; let him to the Tower, 
And crop away that fadious pate of his. 

^ Mar. He is arrefled, but will not obey ; 
-iis^fons, he fays, {hall give their words for him. 
York. Will you not, fons ? 

E. Plan. Ay, noble father, if our words will ferve. 
R.Plan. And if words will not, then our weapons 


Clif. Why, what a brood of traitors have we here ! 
Tork. Look in a glafs, and call thy image fo ; 
I am thy king, and thou a falfe-heart traitor. 
s Call hither to the ftake my two brave bears, 


4 ~ . * *^* and amb'itlotn humour} Tine wwd bedlam was 
not ufcd m the reign of king Henry- the Sixth, nor was Beth- 
lehem Hofmtal (vulgarly called Bedlam) converted into a houfc 
or hoipital for lunatics till the reign of king Henry the Eighth, 
^hogaveittotheatyot London for that purpofe! DR. GRAY 
5 CaUb.tbtr to tbeftalte my two brave <4;v, 

- Bid Salt/bury and Warwick come - 1 
The, earls of Warwick, had *tt*-'~*r&ijyfo * 
cogjuzance ; but the Talbot3, who were formerly earls of Shrewf- 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 , 9 

That, with the very fhaking of their chains, 
They may aftonifh thefe fell lurking curs 6 : 
Bid Salifbury, and Warwick, come to me. 

Dwns. Enter tkc carls of Warzvkk and Sail/bury. 

Clif. Are thefe thy bears ? we'll bait thy bears to 


And manacle the bear-ward in their chains, 
If thou dar'ft bring them to the baiting-place. 

R. Plan. Oft have I feen 7 a hot o'er-wcening cur 
Run back and bite, becaufe he was withheld ; 
Who, being fuffer'd with the bear's fell paw, 
Hath clapp'd his tail between his legs, and cry'd : 
And fuch a piece of fervice will you do, 
If you oppofe yourfelvcs to match lord Warwick. 

Clif. Hence, heap of wrath, foul indigefted lump, 
As crooked in thy manners as thy fhape ! 

Tork. Nay, we fhall heat you thoroughly anon. 

Clif. Take heed, left by your heat you burn your- 

K. Henry. Why, Warwick, hath thy knee forgot to 

bow ? 

Old Salifbury, lhame to thy iilvcr hair, 
Thou mad mif-leader of thy brain-lick fon ! - 
What, wilt thou on thy death-bed play the. ruffian, 
And feek for forrow with thy fpedtacles ? 
Oh, where is faith ? oh, where is loyalty ? 

bury, had a lion ; and the prefent earl of Talbot, a defcendant of 
that family, has the fame. $IR J. HAWKINS. 

6 fell lurking cars .-] Mr. Roderick would read " fell 

barking;" the author of the Revifal " fell lurching;" but, per- 
haps, by fell lurking is meant, curs v.'ho are at once a compound 
of cruelty and treachery. STEEVENS. 

''Oft have I feen Sec.] Bear-baiting was anciently a royal fport. 
See Sto'.v's Account of $>ueen Elizabeth's Amufements of this kind', 
and Langham's Letter concerning that Queen's Entertainment at 
Kenekvorth Cajth. PERCY. 

E e 2 If 


If it be banifiYd from the frofly head, 
Where ihall it find a harbour in the earth ? 
Wilt thou go dig a grave to find out war, 
And fliame thine honourable age with blood ? 
Why art thou old, and want'it experience ? 
Or wherefore doft abufe it, if thou haft it ? 
For lhame ! in duty bend thy knee to me, 
That bows unto the grave with micklc age. 

Sal. My lord, I have confidcr'd with myfelf 
The title of this moft renowned duke ; 
And in my confcicnce do repute his grace 
The rightful heir to England's royal feat. 

K. Henry. Haft thou not fworn allegiance unto me ? 

Sal. I have. 

K. Henry. Canft thou difpenfe with heaven for fuch 
an oath ? 

Sal. It is great fin, to fwear unto a fin ; 
But greater fin, to keep a finful oath. 
Who can be bound by any folcmn vow 
To do a murderous deed, to rob a man, 
To force a fpotlefs virgin's chaftity, 
To reave the orphan of his patrimony, 
To wring the widow from her cuftom'd right ; 
And have no other reafon for this' wrong, 
But that he was bound by a folemn oath ? 

Q. Mar. A fubtle traitor needs no fophifrer. 

K. Henry. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm him- 

Tork. Call Buckingham, and all the friends thou 

I am rcfolv'd for death, or dignity. 

Old Clif. The firft I warrant thee, if dreams prove 


War. You were beft go to bed, and dream again, 
To keep thee from the tempcft of the field. 

Old Clif. I am refolv'd to bear a greater ftorm, 
Than any thou canft conjure up to-day; 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 2 r 

And that I'll write upon thy burgonet % 
Might I but know thee by thy houfe's badge. 

War. Now by my father's badge 9 , old Ncvil's 


The rampant bear chain'd to the ragged ftaff, 
This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet, 
(As on a mountain top the cedar Ihews, 
That keeps his leaves in fpight of any ftorm) 
Even to affright thee with the view thereof. 

Old Clif. And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear, 
And tread it under foot with all contempt, 
Defpight the bear-ward that protects the bear. 

T. Clif. And fo to arms, victorious noble father, 
To quell thefe traitors, and their 'complices. 

R. Plan. Fie ! charity, for ftiame ! fpeak not in 

For you fliall fup with Jefu Chrift to-night. 

T. Clif. Foul ftigmatic ', that's more than thou 
canft telj. 

R. Plan. If not in heaven, you'll furely fup in hell. 

[Exeunt federally. 


The field of battle at Saint Mans. 

Enter Warwick. 

War. Clifford of Cumberland, 'tis Warwick calls ! 
And if thou doft not hide thee from the bear, 

lurgojict,'} Is a helmet. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Martyr' d Solder, 1638 : 

" now tye 

" Strong charms upon my full-plum'd burgonet" 


9 n y father's badge,] The quarto reads age. STEEVENS. 
1 Foul ftigmatic,] \jligmttif is one on whom nature has fee a 
iark of deformity, a ftigma. STEEVENS. 

E e 3 Now 

Now, when the angry trumpet founds alarm, 
And dead mens* cries do fill the empty air, 
Clifford, I fay, come forth and fight with me ! 
Proud northern lord, Clifford of Cumberland, 
Warwick is hoarfe with calling thee to arms. 

Enter York, 

How now,, my noble lord ? what, all a-fo.ot ? 

Tork. The deadly-handed Clifford flew my fteed j 
But match to match I have encountcr'd him, 
And made a prey for carrion kites and crows 
Even of. the. bonny beaft he Ipv'd fq well. 

Enter Clifford. 

IVcr. Of one or both of us the time is come. 
Tork. Hold, Warwick, feek thee out fome other 

For I myfelf muft hunt this deer to death. 

flTar. Then, nobly, York ; 'tis for a crown thou. 


As I intend, Clifford, to thrive to-day, 
It grieves my foul to leave thee unaflaird. 

[Exit Warwick. 
Clif. What feefl thou in me, York ? why dofl thou 

paufe ? 

Tork. With thy brave bearing ihould I be in love, 
But that thou art fo fafl mine enemy. 

Clif. Nor fliould thy prowcfs want praife and efteem, 
But that 'tis ihevvn ignobly, and in treafon, 

Tork. So let it help me now againft thy fword, 
AS I in juftice and true right exprefs it ! 

Clif. My foul and body on the action both ! 
Tork. 9 A dreadful lay ! addrefs thee inftantly. 

, and Clifford falls, 

rf dreadful lay /] A dreadful wager j a tremendous foikc. 


' Clif, 


Clif. La fin couronne les oeuvres J . [D/ 4 * 

Tork. Thus war hath given thee peace, for thou art 

Peace with his foul, heaven, if it be thy will ! [Exit. 

Enter young Clifford. 

T. Clif. Shame and confufion ! all is on the rout ; 
Fear frames diforder, and difordcr wounds 
Where it fhould guard. O war, thou fon of hell, 
Whom angry heavens do make their miniifor, 
Throw in the frozen bofoms of our part 
Hot coals of vengeance ! Let no foldier fly : 
He, that is truly dedicate to war, 
Hath no felf-love ; nor he, that loves himfelf, 
Hath not eiTentially, but by circumftance, 
The name of valour. O, let the vile world end, 

[Seeing bis dead father. 
' And the premifed flames of the lait day 
Knit earth and heaven together ! 
Now let the general trumpet blow his blaft, 
Particularities and petty founds 
To ceafe 6 ! Waft thou ordain'd, dear father, 

3 Lafiit couronne les ceuvres.] The players read : 

La fin corrone les eumcnes. STHEVENS. ' 

* York kills Clifford,'} Our author has here departed from the 
truth of hiftory, a practice not uncommon to him when he does 
his utmoft to make his characters conuderable. This circum- 
ftance however ferves to prepare the reader or fpeaator tor t 
vcneeance afterwards taken by Clifford's fon on York and Rutland. 
It is remarkable, that at the beginning of the third part of this 
hiftorical play, the poet has forgot this occurrence, and there re 
prefents Clifford's death as it really happened : 
Lord Clifford and lord Stafford all clrcajt 
CLargd our mam battled front ; an d breaking in, 
Were by the fiords of common foldier sjlain. PERCY. _ 

5 And the pnmifed flames ] Premifed, for fent before their 

time. The ienle is, let the flames referved for the lait day be 
fent now. WAR BURTON. . 

6 To ceafe !] is tojtop, a verb a&ive. So, m Ttmon : 

^l b e no t ceased 

With flight denial STEEVENS. 

E e 4 >9 


To lofe thy youth in peace, and 7 to atchieve 

The filver livery of advifed age ; 

And, in thy reverence, and thy ohair-days, thus 

To die in ruffian battle ? Even at this fight, 

My heart is turn'd to ftone : and, while 'tis mine, 

It ftiall be Jtony. York not our old men fpares ; 

No more will I their babes : tears virginal 

Shall be to me even as the dew to fir?; 

And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims, 

Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax 8 . 

Henceforth, I will not have to' do with pity ; 

Meet I an infant of the houfe of York, 

Into as many gobbets will I cut it, 

As wild Medea young Abfyrtus did : 

In cruelty will I feek out my fame. 

Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's houfe ; 

(Taking up the bod\\ 
. As did ^Encas old Anchifes bear, 
So bear I thee upon my manly fhoulders 9 : 
But then ./Eneas bare a living load, 
Nothing fo heavy as thefe woes of mine, [Ev/Y, 

7 " to atcb-cve\ Is, to obtain. JOHXSON-. 

to, ny flaming waib h oil and f tax .-\ So, in Hamlet; 
1 o flaming youth let virtue be as wax, 
And melt in her own fire. STEEVENS. 
The quarto copy has thefe lines : 

Even fo will I. But ftay, here's one of them, 
^ In whom my foul hath fworn immortal hate. 
gattr Richard, and then Clifford lays down bis father t figbts b>m 

and Rlcbard flies a^ay again. 

Out, crook-back'd villain, get thee from my fieht ! 
But I will after thee, and once again 

When I have borne my father to his tent) 
\ 1J try my fortune better with thee yet. 

[Exit young Gilford with bis father. 



Enter Richard Plantagenet and Somerfet 9 tofght. 

R. Plan. ' So, lie thou there; [Somerfet is killed. 
For, underneath an ale-houfe* paltry fign, 
The Caftle in faint Albans, Somerfet 
Hath made the wizard * famous in his death. 
Sword, hold thy temper ; heart, be wrathful ftill : 
Priefts pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit. 

Fight. Excurftons. Enter king Henry * and queen Mar- 
garet, and others. 

>. Mar. Away, tny lord, you are flow ; for fhame, 
away ! 

1 So, lie thou there ; - 
- For^ underneath an ale -houfe* paltry fgn t 
The Caftle in faint Allans, SomerJ'et 
Hath made the wizard famous - ] 

The particle for in the fecond line feems to be ufed without any 
very apparent inference. We might read : 

Fall'n underneath an ale-houfe 1 paltry fgn, &c. 
Yet the alteration is not neceflary for the old reading is 
though obfcure. JOHNSON. 

Thus the paflage {lands in the quarto : 

Rich. So lie thou there, and tumble in thy blood ! 
What's here ? the fign of the Caftle ? 
Then the prophecy is come to pafs ; 
For Somerfet was forewarned of caflles, 
The which he always did obferve ; and now, 
Behold, under a paltry ale-houfe fign, 
The Caftle in faint Albans, Somerfet 
Hath made the wizard famous by his death. 


* - - famous in his death. - ] The death of Somerfet 
here accomplifhes that equivocal prediction given by Jourdain, 
the witch, concerning this duke ; which we met with at the 
clofe of the firft aft of this play : 
Let him Jbun caftles : 
Safer Jball he le upon the fandy plains ^ 
Than where caftles, mounted, ftand. 
i. e . the reprefentation of a cajile , mounted for njigri. 


K. Henry} 

426 S E C O N D P A R T O F 

K. Henry. Can we out-run the heavens ? good Mar- 
garet, (lay. 
<$>. Mar. What are you made of? you'll nor fight, 

nor fly : 

Noxv is it manhood, wifdom, and defence, 
To give the enemy way ; and to fecure us 
By what we can, which can no more but fly. 

[Atzrum afar off. 

If you be ta'en, we then fhould fee the bottom 
Of all our fortunes : but if we hapiy fcapc, 
(As well we may, if not through your ncgicdt) 
We ihall to London get ; where you are lov'd ; . 
And where this breach, now in our fortunes made, 
May readily be ftopp'd. 

Enter young Clifford. 

Clif. But that my heart's on future mifchief fct, 
I would fpeak blafphemy ere bid you fly ; 
But fly you muft ; uncnrable difcomfit 
Reigns in the hearts of all our prefent parts '. 
Away, for your relief ! and we will live 
To fee their day, and them our fortune give : 
Away, my lord, away ! [Exeunt. 


Alarum. Retreat. Enter Tork, Richard Plantagenet, 
Warwick, and Soldiers, with drum and colours. 

To^k. Of Salifbury, who can report of him ; 
That winter lion, who, in rage, forgets 
Aged contufions and all 4 brulh of time ; 

3 all our prefent parts.] Should we not read ? party. 


4 ^Irujh of time:'] Read Irulfe of time. WARBURTON. 
The Irujh of time, is the gradual detrition of time. The oW 

reading I fuppofe to be the true one. So, in Timon : 
one winter's brujb." SiiiEVEXS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 427 

And, like a 5 gallant in the brow of youth, 
Repairs him with occafion ? this happy day 
Is not- itfelf, nor have we won one foot, 
If Salifbury be loft. 

R. Plan. My noble father, 
Three times to day I holp him to his horfe, 
6 Three times beftrid him ; thrice I led him off, 
Perfuaded him from any further aft : 
But flill, where danger was, Hill there I met him ; 
And like rich hangings in a homely houfe, 
So was his will in his old feeble body. 
But, noble as he is, look where he comes. 

Enter Salt/bury. 

Sal Now, by my fword, well haft thou fought to- 
day ; 

By the mafs, fo did we all. I thank you, Richard: 
God knows, how long it is I have to live ; 
And it hath pleas'd him, that three times to-day 
You have defended me from imminent death. 
Well, lords, we have not got that which we have ; 
? Tis not enough our foes are this time fled, 
Being oppofitcs of fuch repairing nature. 

Tork. I know, our fafety is to follow them ; 
For, as I hear, the king is fled to London, 
To call a prefent court of parliament. 
Let us purfue him, ere the writs go forth : 

s -gallant in the Irovj of youth ,] The brotv of youth is an 
exprellion not very eafily explained. I read the blow of youth ; 
the bloflbm, the Ipring. JOHNSON. 

The brow of youth, is the height of youth, as the brow of a 
liill is its fummit. So, in Othello : 

" the head and/;w;/ of my offending." 

Again, in K. John : 

* Why here walk I in the black broiv of night." 


6 Three times beflrid him; ] That is, Three times I faw 

him fallen, and, finding over him, defended him till he reco- 
vered. JOHNSON. 



What fays lord Warwick, fhall we after them > 

War. After them ! nay, before them, if we can. 
Now by my hand, lords, 'twas a glorious day : 
Saint Alban's battle, won by famous York, 
Shall be eterniz'd in all age to come. 
Sound, drums and trumpets ; and to London all : 
And more fuch days as thefe to us befall \ [Exeunt. 





Perfons Reprefented. 

King Henry the Sixth. 
Edward, Prince of Wales, his fon. 
Duke of Somerfet, 
Earl of Northumberland, 


Earl of Weftmoreland, 
Lord Clifford, 
Richard, Duke of York. 
Edward, earl of March, afterwards king 
George, Duke of Clarence, i , . - 

'Richard, Duke of Glocefter, 
Edmund, E. of Rutland, 
Duke of Norfolk, 
Marquis of Montague, 
Earl of Warwick, 

Earl of Salifbury, 
Earl of Pembroke, 
Lord Haftings, 
Lord Stafford, 

of the duke of Fork's party. 

Q- rh \r er ' \ uncles to the duke of York. 
Sir Hugh Mortimer, j 

Lord Rivers, brother to the lady Gray. 
Sir John Montgomery, lieutenant of the Tower. 
Mayor of York, Sir John Somerville. 
Humphrey, and Sinklo, two huntfmen. 
Lewis XL king of France. 

Queen Margaret. Bona, fiftcr to the French king. 
Lady Gray, afterwards queen to Edward IV. 

Soldiers and other Attendants on K. Henry and K. Edward > 

In part of the third aft, the Scene is laid in France ; 
; during all the reft of the play, in England. 





London. TJ:e Parliament Houfc. 

Alarum. Enter duke of Tork, Edward, Richard, Nor- 
folk, Montague, Warwick, and others, with ivhite 
rojes in their hats. 

War. * I wonder, how the king efcap'd our hands. 
Tork. While we puriii'd the horfemen of the north, 


' 7 bird Part ] Firft printed under the title of Tbt true Tra- 
?rdy of Richard Duke of l~ork, anil the good King Henry tbe Sixth ; 
or, The Second Part of the Contention between Tork and Lancafter, 
iboc. POPE. 

Third Part of King Henry /*"/.] The adion of this play 
( which was at firft printed under this title, The true Tragedy of 
Richard Ditke of Tork, find the good King Henry tbe Sixth ; or, 
The Second Part of tbe Contention of Tork and Lancafter) opens 
" juft after the lirit battle at Saint Albaas, wherein the York faction 
carried the day ; and eloles with the murder of king Henry VI. 
and the birth of prince Edward, afterwards king Edward V. So 
that this hiitory takes in the fpace of full fixteen years. 


The prefcnt hiftorical drama was altered by Crowne, and brought 
on the flage in the year 1680, under the title of Tbe Miferies of 
Ci-'!l IVar. Surely the works of Shakefpeare could have been 
little read at that period ; for Crowne in his prologue, declares 
the play to be entirely his own compoliticn : 

" For by his 'feeble (kill 'cis built alone, 
" The divine Shakeipeare did not lay oneftonc" 
whereas the very firft fcene is that of Jack Cade copied almoft 
verbatim from the fecond part of K. Hen. VI. and feveral others 
from this third part, with as little variation. STEEVENS. 


He flily flole away, .and left his men : 
Whereat the great lord of Northumberland, 
Whofe warlike ears could never brook retreat, 
Chear'd up the drooping army ; and himfelf, 
Lord Clifford, and lord Stafford, all a-breaft, 
Charg'd our main battle's front, and, breaking in, 
Were by the fwords of common foldiers flain. 

Edw. Lord Stafford's father, duke of Buckingham , 
Is either flain, or wounded dangeroufly : 
I cleft his beaver with a downright blow | 
That this is true, father, behold his blood. 

[Shewing his bloody fzvord. 

Mount. And, brother, here's the earl of Wiltfhire's 
blood, [To Warwick, foewing his. 

Whom I encounter'd as the battles join'd. 

Rich. Speak thou for me, and tell them what I 
[Throwing dozvn the duke of Somerfefs head. 

Tork. Richard hath beft deferv'd of all my fons. 
Is your grace dead, my lord of Somerfet ? 

Notf. Such hope have all the line of John of 
Gaunt ! 

Rid\ Thus do I hope to iliake king Henry's head. 

War. And ib do I. Victorious prince of York, 
Before I fee thee feated in that throne 
Which now the Jioufe of Lancafter ufurps, 
I vow by heaven, thefe eyes lhall never clofe. 
This is the palace of the fearful king, 
And this the regal feat : poflefs it, York ; 
For this is thine, and not king Henry's heirs'. 

Tork. Affift me then, fweet Warwick, and I will ', 
For hither are we broken in by force. 

Norf. We'll all affift you ; he, that flies, fhall die. 

2 I wonder bow the king ] This play is only divided from the 
former tor the convenience of exhibition ; for the feries of action 
13 continued without interruption, nor are any two fcenes of any 
p!ay more clofely connected than the firfl fcene of this play with 
the la ft of the former. JOHNSON. 



Tork. Thanks, gentle Norfolk. Stay by me, my 

lords ; - 
And, foldiers, ftay, and lodge by me this night. 

War. And, when the king comes, offer him no 

Unlefs he feek to put us out by force. 

Tork. The queen, this day, here holds her parlia- 


But little thinks, we mall be of her council : 
By words, or blows, here let us win our right. 

Rich. Arm'd as we are, let's ftay within this honfe. 

War. The bloody parliament mall this be call'd, 
Unlefs Plantagenet, duke of York, be king ; 
And bamful Henry depos'd, whofe cowardice 
Hath made us by-words to our enemies. 

Tork. Then leave me not, my lords ; be refolute ; 
I mean to take poffeffion of my right. 

IVar, Neither the king, nor he that loves him beft, 
The proudeft he that holds up Lancafler, 
Dares ftir a wing, J if Warwick ihake his bells. 
I'll plant Plantagenet, root him up who dares : 
Refolve thee, Richard ; claim the Englifh crown. 
[JVarwick leads Tork to the throne, who feats himfelf. 

Enter king Henry, Clifford, Northumberland, Wejlmore- 
land, Exeter, and others, at the further end of the 

K. Henry. My lords, look where the fturdy rebel 


Even in the chair of ftate ! belike, he means, 
(Back'd by the power of Warwick, that falfe peer) 
To afpire unto the crown, and reign as king. 
Earl of Northumberland, he flew thy father ; 

3 - if Ifarwtckjbake bis lfUi."\ The allufion is to falconry. 
The hawks had fometimes little bells hung upon them, perhaps 
to dare the birds j that is, to fright them from rifing. JOHNSON. 

VOL. VI, F f And 


And thine, lord Clifford ; and you both vow'd re- 

On him, his ions, his favourites, and his friends. 
North. If I be not, heavens, be reveng'd on me ! 
Clif. The hope thereof makes Clifford mourn in 

Weft. What, {hall we fuffer this ? let's pluck him 

down : 
My heart for anger burns, I cannot brook it. 

K. Henry. Be patient, gentle earl of Weflmoreland. 
Clif. Patience is for poltroons, and fuch as he : 
He durfl not fit trrere, had your father liv'd. 
My gracious lord, here in the parliament 
Let us aflail the family of York. 

North. Well haft thou fpoken, coufin ; be it fo. 
K. Henry. Ah, know you not, the city favours 


And they have troops of foldiers at their beck ? 
Exe. But, when the duke is flain, they'll quickly fly. 
K Henry. Far be it from the thoughts of Henry's 


To make a mambles of the parliament houfe ! 
Coufin of Exeter, frowns, words, and threats, 
Shall be die war that Henry means to ufe. 

[They advance to the duke* 

Thou factious duke of York, defcend my throne, 
And kneel for grace and mercy at my feet ; 
I am thy fovereign. 

Tork. Thou art deceived, I am thine. 

Exe. For lhame, come down ; he made thee duke 

of York. 

Tork. 'Twas my inheritance, as the kingdom is *. 
Exe. Thy father was a traitor to the crown. 
War. Exeter, thou art a traitor to the crown, 
In following this ufurping Henry. 

4 as the kingdom is.] Thus the quarto 1600, and that with- 
out date. The folio erroneoufly reads : 

' as the earldom was* STEEVENS. 



C?if. Whom fhould he follow, but his natural king? 

War. True, Clifford ; and that's Richard, duke of 

K. Henry. And {Hall I ftand, and thou fit in my 
throne ? 

Tork. It muft and fhall be fo. Content thy fclf. 

War. Be duke of Lancafter, let him be king. 

Weft. He is both king and duke of Lancafter; 
And that the lord of Weftmoreland fhall maintain. 

War. And Warwick fhall difprove it. You forget, 
That we are thofe, which chas'd you from the field, 
And flew your fathers, and with colours fpread 
Vtarch'd through the city to the palace*gates, 

North. No, Warwick, I remember it to my grief; 
And, by his foul, thou and thy houfe fhall rue it. 

Weft. Plantagenet, of thee, and thefe thy fons, 
Thy kinfmen, and thy friends, I'll have more lives, 
;Than drops of blood were in my father's veins. 

Clif. Urge it no more ; left that, inftead of words, 
I fend thee, Warwick, fuch a mefienger, 
As fhall revenge his death, before I ftir* 

War* Poor Clifford ! how I fcorn his worthlefs 
threats ! . , 

Tork. Will youj we fhew our title to the crown ? 
I If not, our fwords fhall plead it in the field. 

A". Henry. What title haft thou, traitor, to the 

crown ? 

Thy father was, as thou art, duke of York ; 
Thy grandfather, Roger Mortimer, earl of March : 
J I am the fon of Henry the fifth, 
Who made the Dauphin and the French to ftoop, 
And feiz'd upon their towns and provinces. 

War. Talk not pf France* fith thou haft loft it all. 

K. Henry. The lord protestor loft it, and not I ; 

5 / am the fon of Henry the Fifth,] The military reputation of 
Henry the Fifth is the fole fupport of his fon. The name of 
Henry the Fifth difperfed the followers of Cade. JOHNSON. 

F f 2 When 


When I was crown'd, I was but nine months old. 
Rid\ You are old enough now, and yet, methinks 3 

you lofe : 

Father, tear the crown from the ufurper's head. 
Edw. Sweet father, do fo ; fet it on your head. < 
Mont. Good brother, as thou lov'ft and honour'ft- 


Let's fight it out, and not (land cavilling thus. 
Rich. Sound drums and trumpets, and the king will 


Tork. Sons, peace ! 
K. Henry. Peace thou ! and give king Henry leave 

to fpeak. 
War. Plantagenet fhall fpeak firft : hear him, 

lords ; 

And be you filent and attentive too, 
For he, that interupts him, lhall not live. 

K. Henry. Think'ft thou, that I will leave my kingly 


Wherein my grandfire, and my father, fat ? 
No : firft fhall war unpeople this my realm ; 
Ay, and their colours often borne in France ; 
And now in England, to our heart's great forrow, 
Shall be my winding-fheet. Why faint you, lords ? 
My title's good, and better far than his. 

War. But prove it, Henry, and thou fhalt be king.. 
K. Henry. Henry the fourth by conquefl got the 


Tork. 'Twas by rebellion againft his king. 
K. Henry. I know not what to fay ; my title's weak.. 
Tell me, may not a king adopt an heir ? 
Tork. What then ? 

K. Henry. An if he may, then am I lawful king : 
For Richard, in the view of many lords, 
Rcfign'd the crown to Henry the fourth ; 
Whofe heir my father was, and I am his. 

Tork. He rofe againft him, being his fovereign, 
And made him to refign the crown perforce. 



War, Suppofe, my lords, he did it unconflrain'd, 
6 Think you, 'twere prejudicial to the crown ? 

Exe. No ; for he could not fo refign his crown, 
But that the next heir fhould fucceed and reign. 
K. Henry. Art thou againft us, duke of Exeter ? 
Exe. His is the right, and therefore pardon me. 
Tork. Why whifper you, my lords, and anfwer 

not ? 

Exe. My confcience tells me, he is lawful king. 
K. Henry. All will revolt from me, and turn to 


North. Plantagenet, for all the claim thou lay ft, 
Think not, that Henry fliall be fo depos'd. 
War. Depos'd he ihall be, in defpight of all. 
North. Thou art deceiv'd : 'tis not thy fouthern 


Of Effex, Norfolk, Suffolk, nor of Kent, 
Which makes thee thus prefumptuous and proud, 
Can fet the duke up, in defpight of me. 

Clif. King Henry, be thy title right or wrong, 
Lord Clifford vows to fight in thy defence : 
May that ground gape, and fwallow me alive, 
Where I Ihall kneel to him that flew my father ! 
K. Henry. O Clifford, how thy words^ revive my 

heart ! 

York. Henry of Lancafter, refign thy crown :-~ 
What mutter you, or what confpire you, lords ? 

War. Do right unto this princely duke of York ; 
Or I will fill the houfe with armed men, 

6 Tbiniyou, 'twere prejudicial to the crown t~\ The phrafe pre- 
judicial to the rrowa, if it be right, muft mean, detrimental to 
the general rights of hereditary royalty ; but I rather think th 
the tranfcriber's eye caught crown from the line below, and that 
we fhould read prejudicial to bis fon, to his next heir. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Percy obierves on Dr. Johnfon's note, that fon could not 
have been the right word, as Richard the lid. had no iffue ; ai 
our author would hardly have ufed it limply for heir general. Fre 
judicial to the crown, is right, i.e. to the prerogative of t 
crown. STEEVENI, 

F f 3 And 

438 T H I R D PART OF 

And, o'er the chair of ftate, where now he fits. 
Write up his title with ufurping blood. 

\_HeJlamps, and thejoldiersjlxiv tkemfehiSi 

K. Henry. My lord of Warwick, hear me but one 

word ; 
Let me, for this my life-time, reign as king. 

Tork. Confirm the crown to me, and to mine heirs, 
And thou lhalt reign in quiet while thou liv'ft. 

K. Henry, I am content : Richard Plantagenet, 
Enjoy the kingdom after my deceafe. 

Clif. What wrong is this unto the prince your fon ? 

War. What good is this to England, and himfelf ? 

W$. Bafe, fearful, and defpairing Henry ! 

Clif. How haft thou injur'd both thyfelf and us ? 

H'eft. I cannot flay to hear thefe articles. 

North. Nor I. 

Clif. Come, coufm, let's go tell the queen thefe news. 

W$* Farewel, faint-hearted and degenerate king, 
In whofe cold blood no fpark of honour bides. 

North. Be thou a prey unto the houfe of York^ 
And die in bands for this unmanly deed ! 

Clif*. In dreadful war may'ft thou be overcome I 
Or live in peace, abandon'd, and defpis'd ! 

Exeunt Northumberland, Clifford, and Wejlmorcla;:3, 

JVar. Turn this way, Henry, and regard them not. 

Exe. 7 They feck revenge, and therefore will not 

K. Henry. Ah, Exeter! 

War. Why fhould you figh, my lord ? 

A'. Henry. Not for myfdf, lord Warwick, but my 


Whom I unnaturally {hall difmherir. 
But, be it as it may : I here entail 
The crown to thee, and to thine heirs for ever; 

7 Tljeyfcck revenge t ] They go r,vviy, not becaufe they doubt 
the juiiice of this determination, but becaufe they have been 
conquered, and leek to be revenged. They are not influenced 
By principle, but pafikm. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 437 

Conditionally, that here thou take an oath 
To ceaic this civil war, and, whilft I live, 
To honour me as thy king and fovereign ; and 
Neither by treafon, nor hoftility, 
To feck to put me down, and reign thyfelf. 

Tork. This oath I willingly take, and will perform. 
War. Long live king Henry ! Plantagenet, em- 
brace him. 

K. Henry. And long live thou, and thefe thy for- 
ward fons ! 

Tork. Now York and Lancafter are reconcil'd. 
Exe. Accurs'd be he, that feeks to make them foes ! 
[Here the lords come forward. 

Tork. Farewell, my gracious lord ; I'll to my caftle. 
War. And I'll keep London with my foldicrs. 
Norf. And I to Norfolk, with my followers. 
Mont. And I unto the fea, from whence I came. 
[Exeunt Tork, and his fons, Warwick, Norfolk, 

and Montague. 

K. Henry. And I, with grief and forrow, to the 

Enter the Queen, and Prince. 

Exe. Here comes the queen, whofe looks bewray 

her anger : 
I'll fteal away. 

K. Henry. Exeter, fo will I. [Going. 

fieen. Nay, go not from me ; I will follow thee. 
Henry. Be patient, gentle queen, and I willftay. 
Queen. Who can be patient in fuch extremes ? 
Ah, wretched man ! 'would I had died a maid, 
And never feen thee, never borne thee fon, 
Seeing thou haft prov'd fo unnatural a father ! 
Hath he deferv'd to lole his birth-right thus ? 
Had ft thou but lov'd him half fo well as I ; 
Or felt that pain which I did for him once ; 
Or nourilh'd him, as I did with my blood ; 

F f 4 Thou 


Thou wouldft have left thy dearefl heart-blood there, 
Rather than made that favage duke thine heir, 
And difmherited thine only Ion. 

Prince. Father, you cannot difmherit me : 
If you be king, why Ihould not I fucceed ? 

K, Henry. Pardon me, Margaret ; pardon me, 

fweet fon ; 
The earl of Warwick, and the duke, enforc'd me. 

Queen. Enforc'd thee ! art thou king, and wilt 

be forc'd ? 

I ihame to hear thee fpeak. Ah, timorous wretch ! 
Thou haft undone thyfelf, thy fon, and me ; 
And given unto the hcufe of York fuch head,, 
As thou fhalt reign but by their fufferance, 
To entail him and his heirs unto the crown; 
8 What is it, but to make thy fepulchre, 
And creep into it far before thy time ? 
Warwick is chancellor, and the lord of Calais; 
Stern Faulconbridge commands the narrow feas \ 
The duke is made prqteftor of the realm ; 
And yet lhalt thou be fafe ? fuch fafety finds 
The trembling lamb, environed with wolves. 
. Had I been there, which am a filly woman, 
The foldiers fhould have tofs'd me on their pikes, 
Before I would have granted to that aft, 
But thou preferr'fl thy life before thine honour ; 
And, feeing thou doft, I here divorce myfelf, 
Both from thy table, Henry, and thy bed, 
Until that ad; of parliament be repeal'd, 
Whereby my fon is disinherited. 
The northern lords, that have forfworn thy colours,, 
Will follow mine, if once they fee them fpread : 
And fpread they fhall be ; to thy foul difgrace, 
And utter ruin of the houfe of York. 

8 What is it, Ijut to moke t):y fcpulchre ,~\ The queen's reproach 
is founded on a pofition long received among politicians, that 
the lofs of a king's power is loon followed by lois of lite. 




Thus do I leave thee : Come, fon, let's away ; 
Our army's ready ; come, we'll after them. 

K. Henry. Stay, gentle Margaret, and hear me fpeak. 
Queen. Thou haft fpoke too much already ; get 

thee gone. 
K. Henry. Gentle fon Edward, thou wilt ftay with 


Queen. Ay, to be murder'd by his enemies. 
Prince. When I return with victory from the field, 
I'll fee your grace : 'till then, I'll follow her. 
Queen. Come, fon, away ; we may not linger thus. 
[Exeunt ^ueea, and Prince. 
K. Henry. Poor queen ! how love to me, and to 

her fon, 

Hath made her break out into terms of rage ! 
Reveng'd may ihe be on that hateful duke ; 
* Whole haughty fpirit, winged with defire, 


Whofe bauglty fpirit, winged with defire, 
Will coft my crown, and, like an empty eagle, 
Tire on tbeflcjb ] Read coaft, i.e. hover over It. 


The word which Dr. Warburton would introduce, appears to 
violate the metaphor, nor is to coajl ufed as a term of falconry in 
any of the books profefledly written on that fubjeft. To coajl 
is a fea-faring exprellion, and means to keep along fhore. We 
may, however, maintain the integrity of the figure, by infert- 
jng the word cote, which is ufed in Hamlet, and in a fenfe con- 
venient enough on this occafion : 

" We cflta/them on the way." 
To cote is to come up with, to overtake. 

So, in The Return from ParnaJJus, a comedy, 1 606 : 

" marry, we prefently cotedand outftript them." 

Yet I am not certain, that to coajl is a fea-faring exprelTion 
pnly. It is ufed in the following inflance to denote fpeed : 
" And all in hafte (he coajletb to the cry." 

Shakefpeare's Venus and Adonis. 
Again, in the Loyal Subject, by B. and Fletcher : 
*' Take you thole horfe, and coajl them." 
Again, in Tie Maid of the Mill, by the fame authors, two gen- 
tjemen are entering, and a lady alks : 

f i ... -who are thofe that coajl us ?" 


Will coaft my crown, and, like an empty eagle, 
Tire on the flefh of me, and of my Ton ! 
The lofs of ' thofe three lords torments my heart : 
I'll write unto them, and entreat them fair ; 
Come, coufm, you mall be the mcffcnger. 
Exe. And I, I hope, Ihall reconcile them all. 



Sandal Cajlk, mar JVakcfield, in Torkfoire* 
Enter Edward, Richard, and Montague. 

'Rich. Brother, though I be youngcft, give me 


Efav. No, I can better play the orator. 
Mont. But I have reafons flrong and forcible. 

Enter tie duke of York. 

York. Why, how now, l fons, and brother, at aftrife ? 
What is your quarrel ? how began it firlt ? 

Mr. Toilet obferves, that Dr. Warburton's interpretation may be 
right, as Holinfhed often ufes the verb to coaj? y i. e. to hover, 
or range about any th;ng. See "Vol. III. p. 352: "William 
Douglas ftill coafied the Englishmen, doing them what damage 
he might." So, again, p. 58;, and 404, and in other writers. 


To tire is to fallen, to fix the talons, from the French titcr. 


To tin is to peck. So, in Decker's Match me in London, 163 1 : 
** : the vulture tires 
** Upon the eagle's heart." STEEVEXS. 

1 - thnfe ihrce lords - ] That is, or" Northumberland, 
tVeftmorlaud, 'and Clifford, who had left him in dilgufl. 


a --- fons ana brother ] I believe we fliould read 

coujin inftead of brother^ unlefs brother be ufed by Shakefpeare as 

a term expreflive of endearment, or becaufe they embarked, like 

brothers, in one cauic. Montague \vas only cotiiin to York, 

- ' and 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 443 

Edzv. 3 No quarrel, but a fweet contention. 

York. About what ? 

Rich. About that which concerns your grace, and 

The crown of England, father, which is yours. 

York. Mine, boy ? not 'till king Henry be dead. 

Rich. Your right depends not on his life, or death. 

Edw. Now you are heir, therefore enjoy it now : 
By giving the houfe of Lancafter leave to breathe, 
It will out-run you, father, in the end. 

York. I took an oath, that he Ihould quietly reign. 

Edzi~. But, for a kingdom, any oath may be 

broken : 
I'd break a thoufand oaths, to reign one year. 

Rick. No ; God forbid, your grace ftiould be for- 

York. I fhall be, if I claim by open war. 

Rich. I'll prove the contrary, if you'll hear me 

York. Thou canft not, fon ; it is impoffible. 

and in the quarto he is fo called. Shakefpeare ufes the expref- 
fion, brother of the ivar, in King Lear. STEEVENS. 

It fhould be fans and brothers ; my fons, and brothers to each 
other. JOHNSON. 

fons and brother. This is right. In the two fucceed- 
ing pages York calls Montague brother. This may be in refpeft 
to their being brothers of the war, as Mr. Steevens obferves, or 
of the fame council as in 1C. Henry VIII. who fays to Cran- 
mer, " You are a brother of us." Mountague was brother to 
Warwick ; Warwick's daughter was married to a fon of York : 
therefore York and Montague were brothers. But as this alli- 
ance did not take place during the life of York, I embrace Mr. 
Steevens's interpretation rather than fuppofe that Shakefpeare 
made a miftake about the time of the marriage. TOLLET. 

3 No quarrel, but a flight contention.] Thus the players, firfr, 
in their edition ; who did not underftand, I prelume, the force 
of the epithet in the old quarto, which I have reftored -facet 
contention, i. e. the argument of their difpute was upon a grate- 
ful topic ; the queftion of their father's immediate right to the 
crown, THEOBALD. 



Rich. 4 An oath is of no moment, being not took 
Before a true and lawful magiflrate, 
That hath authority over him that fwears : 
Henry had none, but did ufurp the place ; 
Then, feeing 'twas he that made you to dcpofe, 
Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous. 
Therefore, to arms : And, father, do but think, 
How fweet a thing it is to wear a crown ; 
Within whofe circuit is Elyfinm, 
And all that poets feign of blifs and joy. 
Why do we linger thus ? I cannot reft, 
Until the white rofe, that I wear, be dy'd 
Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry's heart. 

Tork. Richard, enough ; I will be king, or die. 
Brother, thou ihalt to London prefently, 
And whet on Warwick to this enterprize. 
Thou, Richard, Ihalt to the duke of Norfolk, 
And tell him privily of our intent. 
You, Edward, {hall unto my lord Cobham, 
With whom the Kentiihmen will willingly rife : 
In them I truft ; for they are foldiers, 
5 Witty, and courteous, liberal, full of fpirit. 


4 An oatb is of no moment, ] The obligation of an oath is 
here eluded by very delpicable fophiftry. A lawful magiftrate 
alone has the power to exaft an oath, but the oath derives no 
part of its force from the magiitrate. The plea againll the obli- 
gation of an oath obliging to maintain an ufurper, taken from 
the unlawfulnefs of the oath itielf in the foregoing play, was 
rational and juft. JOHNSON. 

5 In former editions : 

Witty, courteous, liberal, full of fpirit.} 

"~ What a blefled harmonious line have the editors given us ! and 
what a promifing epithet, in York's behalf, from the Kcntifhrnen 
being fo witty ! I cannot be Ib partial, however, to my own 
county, as to let this compliment pals. I make no doubt to read: 
for they arefoldiers^ 

Wealthy and courteous, liberal, full of fpirit. 
Now thefe five charafteriitics anfwer to lord Say's defcription of 
them in the preceding play : 

" Kent, 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 445 

While you are thus employ'd, what refteth more, 
But that I leek occafion how to rife ; 
And yet the king not privy to my drift, 
Nor any of the houfe of Lancafter ? 

6 Enter a Meflenger. 

But, (lay ; What news? Why com'fl thou in fuch poft ? 

Gab. 7 The queen, with all the northern earls and 


Intend here to befiege you in your caftle : 
She is hard by with twenty thoufand men ; 
And therefore fortify your hold, my lord. 

York. Ay, with my fword. What ! think'!! thou, 

that we fear them ? 

Edward and Richard, you mail flay with me; 
My brother Montague mall poft to London : 
Let noble Warwick, Cobham, and the reft, 
Whom we have left protestors of the king, 
W T ith powerful policy flrengthen themfclves, 
And truft not fimple Henry, nor his oaths. 

Mont. Brother, I go ; I'll win them, fear it not : 
And thus moft humbly I do take my leave. 

[Exit Montagu?. 

*' Kent, in the commentaries Caefar writ, 

" Is term'd the civil'il place in all this ifle ; 

" The people liberal, valiant, adtive, wealthy." 


This is a conjecture of very little import. JOHNSON. 
I fee no reafon for adopting Theobald's emendation. Jf?//y, 
anciently fignified, of found judgment. The poet calls Bucking- 
ham, " the deep-revolving, witty Buckingham." STEEVENS. 

6 Enter a Me]finger.~\ Thus the quartos ; the folio reads, Enter 
Gabriel. STEEVENS. 

7 The quten^ ivith all &c.] I know not whether the author 
intended any moral inftruclion, but he that reads this has a Unk- 
ing admonition againil that precipitancy by which men often ufe 
unlawful means to do that which a little delay would put honeflly 
in their power. Had York ftaid but a few moments, he had faved 
his caufe from the ftain of perjury. JOHNSON. 



Enter Sir Jobn and Sir Hugh Mortimer. 

Tork. Sir John, and Sir Hugh Mortimer, mine 

uncles ! 

You are come to Sandal in a happy hour ; 
The army of the queen means to befiege us. 

Sir John. She fhall not need, we'll meet her in the 


Tork. What, with five thoufand men ? 
Rich. Ay, with five hundred, father, for a need. 
A woman's general ; What Ihould we fear ? 

[_A march afar off'. 
Edw. I hear their drums; Let's fet our men in 

order ; 
And iflue forth, and bid them battle fl^aight. 

Tork. Five men to twenty ! though the odds be 


I doubt not, uncle, of our victory. 
Many a battle have I won in France, 
When as the enemy hath been ten to one ; 
Why fhould I not now have the like fuccefs ? 

[Alarum. Exeunt. 


Afeld of bank, betwixt Sandal Cajlle and Wakefield. 
Enter Rutland, and his 'Tutor. 

Rut. Ah, whither ihall I fly, to Tcape their hands ! 
Ah, tutor ! look, where bloody Clifford comes ! 

Enter Clifford, and Soldiers. 

Clif. Chaplain, away ! thy priefthood faves thy life. 
As for the brat of this accurfed duke, 
Whofe father flew my father, he Ihall die. 

Tutor. And I, my lord, will bear him company. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 447 

Qif. Soldiers, away, and drag him hence perforce. 

'Tutor. Ah, Clifford! murder not this innocent child, 
Left thou be haced both of God and man. 

[Exit, dragged off. 

Cliff. How now ! is he dead already ? Or, is it fear, 
That makes him clofe his eyes ? I'll open them. 

Rut. 8 So looks the pent-up lion o'er the wretch 
That trembles under his devouring paws : 
And fo he walks, infukingo'er his prey; 
And fo he comes, to rend his limbs afunder. 
Ah, gentle Clifford, kill me with thy fword, 
And not with fuch a cruel ;hrcat'ning look. 
Sweet Clifford, hear me fpeak before I die ; 
I am too mean a fubjedt for thy wrath, 
Be thou reveng'd on men, and let me live. 

Clif. In vain thou fpeak'ft, poor boy ; my father's 


Math ftopp'd the paflage where thy words fliould 

Rv.t. Then let my father's blood open it again ; 
He is a man, and, Clifford, cope with him. 

Clif. Had I thy brethren here, tneir lives, and thine, 
Were not revenge fufficient for me : 
No, if I digg'd up thy forefathers' graves, 
And hung their rotten coffins up in chains, 
It could not flake mine ire, nor eafe my heart. 
The fight of any of the houfe of York 
Is as a fury to torment my foul ; 
And 'till I root out their accurfed line, 
And leave not one alive, I live in hell. 
Therefore [Lifting bis band. 

Rut. O, let me pray before I take my death : 
To thee I pray ; Sweet Clifford, pity me ! 

Clif. Such pity as rny rapier's point affords. 

8 So looks the put-up lion} That is, The lion that hath been 
Jong confined without food, and is let out to devour a man con- 
demned. JOHNSON. 


Rut. I never did thee harm ; Why wilt thon flay 
me ? 

Clif. Thy father hath. 

Rut. But 'twas ere I was born. 
Thou haft one fon, for his fake pity me ; 
Left, in revenge thereof, fith God is juft, 
He be as miferably flam as I. 
Ah, let me live in prifon all my days ; 
And when I give occafion of offence, 
Then let me die, for now thou haft no caufe. 

Clif. No caufe? 
Thy father flew my father ; therefore, die. 

{Clifford Jlah kirn. 

Rut. 9 Diifada*t t laudisfummajitijlatu*! [Dies. 

Clif. Plantagenet ! I come, Plantagenet ! 
And this thy fon's blood, cleaving to my blade, 
Shall ruft upon my weapon, 'till thy blood, 
Congeal'dwith this, do make me wipe off both. [Exif. 


Alarum. Enter Richard duke of Tork. 

York. The army of the queen hath got the field : 
My uncles both are flam in refcuing me '; 
And all my followers to the eager foe 
Turn back, and fly, like fliips before the wind, 
Or lambs purfu'd by hunger-ftarved wolves. 
My fons God knows, what hath bechanced them : 
But this I know, they have demean'd themfelves 
Like men born to renown, by life, or death. 
Three times did Richard make a lane to me ; 

This line is in Ovid's Epiftle from Pblltis to Dtmopboo*. I 
lave met with the fame quotation in more than one of the old 
plays. STT.EVENS. 

1 My uncles loth arejlain in refcuing me ; ] Thefe were two baftard 
uncles by the mother's fide, fir John and fir Hugh Mortimer, 
See Oration's Chronicle. PERCY. 



And thrice cry'd, Courage, father ! fight it out ! 
And full as oft came Edward to my fide, 
With purple faulchion, painted to the hilt 
In blood of thofe that had encounter'd him : 
And when the hardiefl warriors did retire, 
Richard cry'd, Charge ! and give no foot of ground f 
And cry'd A crown, or elfe a glorious tomb ! 
Afcepter, or an earthly fepulchre ! 
With this, we charg'd again : but, out, alas ! 
* We bodg'd again ; as I have feen a fwan 
With bootlefs labour fwim againft the tide, 
And fpend her ftrength with over-matching waves. 

[AJhort alarum within. 
Ah, hark ! the fatal followers do purfue ; 
And I am faint, and cannot fly their fury : 
And, were I ftrong, I would not fhun their fury : 
The fands are numbered, that make-up my life ; 
Here muft I flay, and here my life muft end. 

Enter the Queen, Clifford, Northumberland, and Sol" 

Come, bloody Clifford, rough Northumberland,* 

I dare your quenchlefs fury to more rage ; 

I am your butt, and I abide your Ihot. 

North. Yield to our mercy, proud Plantagenet, 
Cliff. Ay, to fuch mercy, as his ruthlefs arm, 

With downright payment, Ihew'd unro my father. 

Now Phaeton hath tumbled from his car, 

1 We bodgd again ; ] Of this word tne meaning is plain, but 
I never faw it in any other place. I fuppofe it is only the word 
budged, perhaps mifprinted. JOHNSON. 

I find bodgery ufed by Naflie in his Apologie of Pierce Pennilefs^ 
*593 f r botchery. 

" Do you know your own milbegotten bodgery ?" 
To bodge might therefore mean (as to botch does now) to do a 
thing imperre&ly and aukwardly ; and thence to fail or mi/carry 
in an attempt. MALONE, 

VOL. VI. G g 


And made an evening at the ' noon-tide prick. 

Tork. My afhes, as the phoenix, may bring forth 
A bird that will revenge upon you all : 
And, in that hope, I throw mine eyes to heaven, 
Scorning whate'er you can afflict me with. 
Why come you not ? what \ multitudes, and fear > 

Clif. So cowards fight, when they can fly no fur- 
ther ; 

So doves do peck the faulcon's piercing talons ; 
So dciperate thieves, all hopelefs of their lives, 
Breathe out invedtives 'gainft the officers. 

Tork. O, Clifford, but bethink thee once again, 
And in thy thought o'er-run my former time : 
And, if thou canft for blulhing, view this face ; 
And bite thy tongue, that flanders him with cowar- 
Whofe frown hath made thee faint and fly ere this. 

Clif. I will not bandy with thee word for word ; 
But buckle with thee blows, twice two for one. 


Queen. Hold, valiant Clifford ! for a thoufand caufes, 
I would prolong a while the traitor's life : 
Wrath makes him deaf : fpeak thou, Northumber* 

North. Hold, Clifford ; do not honour him fo 


To prick thy finger, though to wound his heart : 
What valour were it, when a cur doth grin, 
For one to thruft his hand between his teeth, 
When he might fpurn him with his foot away ? 
* It is war's prize to take all vantages ; 

3 noon-tide prick.'] Or, noon-tide point on the dial. 


* // is war's prize ] Read^ra/y^. WARBURTON. 
I think the old reading right, which means, that all Vantage* 
are in war lawful prize ; that is, may be lawfully taken and ufed. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 45r 

And ten to one is no impeach of valour. 

[They lay bands on Tork, who Jiruggks. 

Cllf. Ay, ay, fo ftrives the woodcock with the gin. 

North. So doth the coney ftruggle in the net. 

[Tork is taken prifoner. 

Tork. So triumph thieves upon their conquer'd 

booty ; 
So true men yield, with robbers fo o'er-match'd. 

North. What would your grace have done unto 
him now ? 

Queen. Brave warriors, Clifford, and Northumber- 

Come make him ftand upon this mole-hill here ; 
5 That raught at mountains with out-ftretched arms, 
Yet parted but the lhadow with his hand 
What ! was it you, that would be England's king ) 
Was't you, that revell'd in our parliament, 
And made a preachment of your high defcent ? 
Where are your mefs of fons, to back you now ? 
The wanton Edward, and the lufty George ? 
And where's that valiant crook-back prodigy, 
Dicky your boy, that, with his grumbling voice, 
Was wont to cheer his dad in mutinies ? 
Or, with the reft, where is your darling Rutland ? 
Look, York ; I ftain'd 6 this napkin with the blood 
That valiant Clifford, with his rapier's point, 
Made iffue from the bofom of the boy : 
And, if thine eyes can water for his death, 

5 Tbatrattgbt] i.e. That reach 1 d. The ancient preterite 
and participle paifive of reach. So, Shakefpeare in another 
place : \ 

* The hand of death has raught him." 
So, in Tancred and Gulfmund^ \ 592 : 

'fhe raught the cane, 

** And with her own fweet hand did give it me.'* 
Again, Hid: 

" Therewith fhe raught from her alluring lock* 
" This golden trefs." STEEVENS. 
* ibis napkin ] A napkin is a handkerchief. JOHNSON, 

G g 4 I giv? 


I give thee this to dry thy cheeks withal. 

Alas, poor York ! but that I hate thee deadly, 

I fhould lament thy miferable flate. 

I pr'ythee, grieve, to make me merry,- York. 

What, hath thy fiery heart fo parch'd thine entrails, * 

That not a tear can fall for Rutland's death ? 

Why art thou patient, man ? thou fliouldft be mad ; 

And I, to make thee mad, do mock thee thus. 

Stamp, rave, and fret, that I may fing and dance. 

Thou wouldft be fee'd, I fee, to make me fport; 

York cannot fpeak, unlcfs he wear a crown. 

A crown for York ; and, lords, bow low to him. 

Hold you his hands, whilit I do fet it on. 

[Putting a paper crown on bis lead 7 . 
Ay, marry, fir, now looks he like a king ! 
Ay, this is he that took king Henry's chair ; 
And this is he was his adopted heir. 
But how is it, that great Plantagenet 
Is crown'd fo foon, and broke his folemn oath ? 
As I bethink me, you fhould not be king, 
'Till our king Henry had ihook hands with death. 
And will you pale your head in Henry's glory, 
And rob his temples of the diadem, 
Now in his life, againft your holy oath ? 
O, 'tis a fault too too unpardonable ! 
Off with the crown ; and, with the crown, his head ; 
And, whilfl we breathe, take time to do him dead. 

Cliff. That is my office, for my father's death. 

Queen. Nay, ftay ; let's hear the orifons he makes. 

York. She-wolf of France, but worfe than wolves 

of France, 

Whofe tongue more poifons than the adder's tooth ! 
How ill-befeeming is it in thy fex, 

7 Putting a paper croivn on his bead.~\ Shakefpeare has on this 
occafion deviated from hiftoiy. The paper crown was not placed 
on the duke of York's head 'till after it had been cut off. Rut- 
land likewife was not killed by Clifford 'till after his father's 
death. STEEYENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 < 3 

To triumph, like an Amazonian trull, 

8 Upon their woes, whom fortune captivates ? 

But that thy face is, vizor-like, unchanging, 

Made impudent with life of evil deeds, 

I would afiay, proud queen, to make thce blufli : 

To tell thec whence thou cam'it, of whom deriv'd, 

Were lhame enough to fname thec, wert thou not 


Thy father bears the type of king. of Naples, 
Of both the Sicils, and Jerufalem ; 
Yet not fo wealthy as an Englifh yeoman. 
Hath that poor monarch taught thee to infult ? 
It needs not, nor it boots thee not, proud queen ; 
Unlefs the adage muft be vcrify'd, 
That beggars, mounted, run their horfe to death. 
J Tis beauty, that doth oft make women proud ; 
But, God he knows, thy fhare thereof is fmall : 
'Tis virtue, that doth make them mod admir'd ; 
The contrary doth make thee wonder'd at : 
9 'Tis government, that makes them feem divine ; 
The want thereof makes thee abominable : 
Thou art as oppofite to every good, 
As the Antipodes are unto us, 
Or as the fouth to the feptentrion. 
Oh, tygres heart, wrapp'd in a woman's hide ! 
How could'ft thou drain the life-blood of the child, 
To bid the father wipe his eyes withal, 
And yet be feen to bear a woman's face ? 
Women are foft, mild, pitiful, and flexible ; 
Thou ftern, obdurate, .flinty, rough, remorfelefs. 
Bidft thou me rage ? why, now thou haft ' thy wifh : 

8 Upon their ivoes ] So, the folio. The quarto reads Upon 

bis ivoes. STEEVEXS. 

9 'Tis government that makes them feem divine \\ Government y in 
the language of that time, fignified evennefs of temper, and de- 
cency or manners. JOHNSON. 

1 tl.y ivj/b :] So, the folio. The quarto reads thy will. 


G g 3 Wouldft 

454 T H I R D P A R T O F 

Wouldft have me weep ? why, now thou haft thy 

will : 

* F6r raging wind blows up inceffant fhowers, 
And, when the rage allays, the rain begins. 
Thefe tears are my fvvect Rutland's obfequies ; 
' And every drop cries vengeance for his death, 
'Gainft thee, fell Clifford, and thee, falfe French- 

North. Befhrew me, but his paffions move me fo, 
That hardly can I check mine eyes from tears. 

York. That face of his the hungry cannibals 
Would not have touch'd, 4 would not have ilain'd 
with blood : 


* For raging wind blows up inceffant flowers, ~\ Thus the folio. 
The quartos read : 

For raging winds blow up a ftorm of tears. STEEVENS. 
3 And every drop cries vengeance for his death,] So : the folio. 
The quarto thus : 

And every drop begs -vengeance as it falls, 
On thee y &c. STEEVENS. 

* - -would not havejiain'd the rofes juft with blood:'] So, 
the fecond folio nonfenfically reads the paflage ; but the old quarto, 
and firft folio editions, of better authority, have it thus : 

That face of his the hungry cannibals 

IVould not have touch'd, would not havejlaitfd ivitb blood. 
And this is fenfe. Cpuld any one now have believed that an 
editor of common underftanding fliould reject this, and fatten 
upon the nonfenfe of a later edition, only becaufe it afforded 
matter of conjetlure ? and yet Mr. Theobald will needs correct, 
rofes juft with blood, to rofes juic'd "with blood, that is, change 
one blundering editor's nonfenfe for another's. But if there ever 
was any meaning in the line, it was thus exprefied : 

Wauld not havcjlain'd the rofes juft in bud. 
And this the Oxford editor hath efpoufed. WAR BURTON. 

the rofes juft *ivitb : blood.] The words [the rofes jufl~\ are 

only found in the fecond folio. But as without correction they 
do not make good fenfe, there is very little reafon to fufpeft their 
being interpolated, and therefore it is moil probable they were 
preferved among the players by memory. The correction i* 
this : 

That face of his, the hungry cannibals 

Would not have touch'd : 

Would not have itaia'd the rofs juft /' tV bloom. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 455 

But you are more inhuman, more inexorable,*- 
O, ten times more, than tygers s of Hyrcania. 
See, ruthlefs queen, a haplefs father's tears : 
This cloth thou dipp'dfl in blood of my fvveet boy, 
And lo ! with tears I vvafh the blood away. 
Keep thou the napkin, and go boaft of this : 

\He gives back the handkerchief* 
And, if thou tell'ft the heavy (lory right, 
Upon my foul, the hearers will fhed tears ; 
Yea, even my foe will flied fail-falling tears, 
And fay, Alas, it was a piteous deed ! 
There, take the crown, and, with the crown, my 

curfe ; 

And, in thy need, fuch comfort come to thee, 
As now I reap at thy too cruel hand ! 
Hard-hearted Clifford, take me 'from the world ; 
My foul to heaven, my blood upon your heads ! 

North. Had he been flaughter-man to all my kin, 
6 I fhould not for my life but weep with him, 
To fee how inly forrow gripes his foul. 

Queen. What, weeping ripe, my lord Northumber- 
land ? 

Think but upon the wrong he did us all, 
And that will quickly dry thy melting tears. 

Clif. Here's for my oath, here's for my father's 
death. [Stabbing him. 

The words [the rofis jufi} were, I fuppofe, left out by the firft 
editors in order to get rid of the fuperfluous hemiftich. 


5 of Hyrcania.~\ So, the folio. The quartos read of 

Arcadia. STEEVENS. 

6 Ijbould notfcr my life but ivecp with bim^ 

To fee botv inly forrow gripes his foul.] 
So, the folio. The quartos as follows : 

/ could not choofe but iveep with bim t to fee 
How inward anger gripes bis heart, SxEEYENSt 

G g 4 


Queen. 7 And here's to right our gentle-hearted king. 

[Stabs him* 

York. Open thy gate of mercy, gracious God ! 
My foul flies through thefe wounds to feek out thee. 


ueen. Off with his head, and fet it on York gates ; 
So York may overlook the town of York. [Exeunt. 


Near Mortimer's, crofs in Wales* 
A march. Eater Edward, Richard) and their power * 

Etkv. I wonder, how our princely father 'fcap'd ; 
Or whether he be 'fcap'd away, or no, 
From Clifford's and Northumberland's purfuit : 
Had he been ta'en, we fhould have heard the news ; 
Had he been flain, we fliould have heard the news ; 
Or, had he 'fcap'd, mcthinks, we fhould have heard 
The happy tidings of his good efcape. 
f How fares our brother ? wjiy is he fo fad ? 

7 And kerfs to right our gentle-hearted king.'} Thus the folio; 
The quarto thus : 

And there's to right our gentle-bar led kind. 

Of thefe kind of variations there are many, but it is ufelefs la- 
bour to enumerate them all. STEEVENS. 

8 How fares our brother? ] This fcene, in the old quartos, 

begins thus : 

*' After this dangerous fight and haplefs war, 
" How doth my noble brother Richard fare r" 
Had the author taken the trouble to revife his plav, he hardly 
would have begun the firft act and the fecond with 'almoft the 
fame exclamation, exprefs'd in almoft the fame words. Warwick 
opens the fcene with 

bow the king tfcapd our hands, STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 457 

Rich. I cannot joy, until I be refolv'd 
Where our right valiant father is become. 
I faw him in the battle range about ; 
And watch'd him, how he fingled Clifford forth. 
Methought, he bore him in the thickeft troop, 
As doth a lion in a herd of neat : 
Or as a bear, encompafs'd round with dogs ; 
Who having pinch'd a few, and made them'cry, 
The reft ftand all aloof, and bark at him. 
So far'd our father with his enemies ; 
So fled his enemies my warlike father ; 
9 Methinks, 'tis prize enough to be his fon. 
See, how the morning opes her golden gates, 
1 And takes her farewel of the glorious fun 1 
How well refembles it the prime of youth, 
Trimm'd like a yonker, prancing to his love ? 

Edw. Dazzle mine eyes, or do I fee three funs ? 

Rich. Three glorious funs, each one a perfect fun ; 
Not feparated by the racking clouds *, 
But fever'd in a pale clear-lhining fky. 
See, fee ! they join, embrace, and feem to kifs, 
As if they vow'd fome league inviolable : 
Now are they but one lamp, one light, one fun. 
Jn this the heaven figures fome event. 

Edw. 'Tis wondrous ftrange, the like yet never 
heard of. 

9 Methinks, 'tis prize enough to Z>e his fan. ~\ The old quarto 
reads pride, which is right, for ambition, i. e. We need not aim 
at any higher glory than this. WAR BUR TON. 

I believe prize is the right word. Richard's fenfe is, though 
we have miffed the prize for which we fought, we have yet an 
honour left that may content us. JOHNSON. 

* And takes her farevjel of the glorious fun !~\ Aurora takes for 
a time her farewel of the fun, when flie difmifles him to his 
diurnal courfe. JOHNSON. 

* the racking clouds,] So, in The Raigne of King EJ- 
II. 1596 : 

" like inconftant clouds 

'* That, rarefy upon the carriage of the winds, 

('' Encreafe and die," STEEVENS. 

J think 


I think, it cites us, brother, to the field ; 
That we, the fons of brave Plantagenet, 
Each one already $ blazing by our meeds, 
Should, notwithffonding, join our lights together, 
And cver-ftiine the earth, as this the world. 
Whate'er it bodes, henceforward will I bear 
Upon my target three fair Ihining funs. 
. Rick* Nay, bear three daughters ; by your leav 

I fpeak it, 
You love the breeder better than the male. 

Enter a MeJJenger. 

But what art thou, whofe heavy looks foretcl 
Some dreadful flory hanging on thy tongue ? 
Mef. Ah, one that was a woeful looker on, 
When as the noble duke of York was ilain, 
Your princely father, and my loving lord. 
Etkv. 4 Oh, fpeak no more ! 5 for I have heard toe 


Rich. Say how he dy'd, for I will hear it all. 
tykf. Environed he was with many foes ; 
And flood againft them, as the hope of Troy 
Againft the Greeks, that would have enter'd Troy. 
But Hercules himfelf muft yield to odds ; 
And many ftrokes, though with a little axe, 
Hew down and fell the hardeft-timber'd oak. 
By many hands your father was fubdu'd ; 
But only flaughter'd by the ireful arm 

3 Hazing ly our meeds,] Illuftrious and fliining by the 

armorial enfigns granted us as meeds of our great exploits. Meet 
likewife is merit. It might be plaufibly read : 

Hazing ly our deeds. JOHXSON. 

* Ok, fpeak no more f] The generous tendernefs of Edward, 
and favage fortitude of Richard, are well diflinguiflied by their 
different reception of their father's death. JOHNSON. 

5 for I have beard too much.] So, the folio. The 

quartos thus : 

for I can hear no more. 

Rich. Tell on thy talc, 2<c. STEEVENS. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 459 

Of unrelenting Clifford, and the queen : 

Who crown'd the gracious duke, in high defpight ; 

Laugh'd in his face ; and, when with grief he wept, 

The ruthlefs queen gave him, to dry his cheeks, 

A napkin fleeped in the harmlefs blood 

Of fweet young Rutland, by rough Clifford flam : 

And, after many fcorns, many foul taunts, 

They took his head, and on the gates of York 

They fet the fame ; and there it doth remain, 

The faddcft fpectacle that e'er I view'd. 

Edw. Sweet duke of York, our prop to lean upon; 
Now thou art gone, we have no fluff, no flay .! . 
Oh Clifford, boifbous Clifford, thou hafl flain 
The flower of Lurope for his chivalry ; 
And treachemufly haft thou vanquifh'd him, 
For, hand to hand, he would have vanquifh'd thee! 
Now my foul's palace is become a prifon : 
Ah, would fhe break from hence ! that this my body 
Might in the ground be clofed up in refl : 
For never henceforth lhall I joy again, 
Never, O, never, lhall I fee more fiy. 

Rich. I cannot weep ; for all my body's moifhire 
Scarce ferves to quench my furnace-burning heart: 
Nor can my tongue unload my heart's great burden; 
For felf-fame wind, that I fhould fpeak withal, 
Is kindling coals, that fire all my breafl, 
And burn me up with flames, that tears would quench. 
To weep, is to make lefs the depth of grief : 
Tears, then, for babes ; blows, and revenge, for 

me ! 

Richnrd, I bear thy name, I'll venge thy death, 
Or die renowned by attempting it. 

Edw. His name that valiant duke hath left with 

thee ; 
* His dukedom and his chair with me is left. 

6 His dukedom and bis chair with me is left.] So, the folio. 
The quartos thus : 

His chair, and dahdom^ that rsmains for mt, STEEVENS. 


460 T H I R D P A R T O F 

RL :. Nay, if thou be that princely eagle's bird, 
Shew thy defcent by gazing 'gainft the fun 5 : 
For chair and dukedom, throne and kingdom fay ; 
Either that is thine, or elfe thou wert not his. 

'Marcb. "Enter Warwick, marquis of Montague, 
their army. 

War. How now, fair lords ? What fare ? what 
news abroad ? 

Rich. Great lord of Warwick, if we fiiould recount 
Our baleful news, and, at each word's deliverance, 
Stab poniards in onr flelh, 'till all were told, 
The words would add more anguifh than the wounds. 
O valiant lord, the duke of York is ibin. 

Edw. O Warwick ? Warwick ! that Plantagenet, 
Which held thee dearly, as his foul's redemption, 
J Is by the ftern lord Clifford done to death. 

War. Ten days ago I drown'd thefe news in tears : 

7 Shew thy defcfnt by gazing 'gainjl the fun.} So, in Spcnfcr's 

Hymn of Heavenly Beauty : 

** like the native brood of eagle's kind, 

" On that bright fun of glory fix thine eyes." 
' Again, in Solyman and Perfeda, i 99 : 

" As air-bred eagles, if they once perceive 

" That any of their brood but clofe their fight, 

" When they fliould gaze againil the glorious fun, 

'* They ftraitway feize upon him with their talons, 

" That on the earth it may untimely die, 

*' For looking but alkew at heaven's bright eye." 

' Is Jy the Jiern lord Clifford done to death.} Done to death for 

lilled) was a common expreffion long before Shakefpeare's time. 

Thus Chaucer : 

" And feide, that if ye done us both to /&." GRAY. 

Spenfer mentions a plague " which many did to djc." JOHNSON, 

So, in the Battle of Alcazar ^ 1594 : 

*' We underftand that he was done to death," 

Again, ibid: 

" done to death with many a mortal wound." 

Again, \nOrlandoFuriofo, 1599: 

* I am the man that did the Have to death " STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 461 

And now, to add more mcafure to your woes, 
I come to tell you things fince then befall'n. 
After the bloody fray at Wakefield fought, 
Where your brave father breath'd his lateft gafp, 
Tidings, as fwiftly as the pofts could run, 
Were brought me of your lofs, and his depart. 
I then in London, keeper of the king, 
Mufter'd my foldiers, gathered flocks of friends, 
9 And very well appointed, as I thought, 
March'd towards faint Alban's to intercept the 


Bearing the king in my behalf along : 
For by my fcouts I was advertifed, 
That Ihe was coming with a full intent 
To dam our late decree in parliament, 
Touching king Henry's oath, and your fucceffion. 
Short tale to make, we at faint Alban's met, 
Our battles join'd, and both fides fiercely fought ; 
But, whether 'twas the coldnefs of the king, 
Who look'd full gently on his warlike queen, 
That robb'd my foldiers of their heated fpleen ; 
Or whether 'twas report of her fuccefs ; 
Or more than common fear of Clifford's rigour, 
Who thunders to his captives blood and death, 
I cannot judge : but, to conclude with truth, 
Their weapons like to lightning came and went ; 
Our foldiers' ' like the night-owl's lazy flight, 
Or like an idle threlher with a flail, 
Fell gently down, as if they ftruck their friends, 
I cheer'd them up with juftice of the caufe, 
With promife of high pay, and great rewards : 
But all in vain ; they had no heart to fight, 

9 And very well &c.j This line I have reftored from the old 
quartos. STEEVEKS. 

V like the night-owl's lazy flight,] This image is not 

very congruous to the fubjeft, nor was it neceflary to ' the compa- 
rifon, which is happily enough completed by the threflier. 




And we, in them, no hope to win the day, 
So that we fled ; the king, unto the queen ; 
Lord George your brother, Norfolk, and myfelf, 
In hafle, poft-hafte, are come to join with you ; 
For in the marches here, we heard, you were, 
Making another head to fight again. 

Edzv. Where is the duke of Norfolk, gentle War- 
wick ? 
And when came George from Burgundy to England ? 

War. Some fix miles off the duke is with his power: 
And for your brother, he was lately fent 
From your kind aunt, dutchefs of Burgundy, 
With aid of foldiers to this needful war. 

Rich. 'Twas odds, belike, when valiant Warwick 


Oft have I heard his praifes in purfuit, 
But ne'er, 'till now, his fcandal of retire. 

War. Nor now my fcandal, Richard, doft thou 

hear : 

For thou flialt know, this flrong right hand of mine 
Can pluck the diadem from faint Henry's head, 
And wring the awful fcepter from his fift ; 
Were he as famous and as bold in war, 
As he is fam'd for mildnefs, peace, and prayer. 

Rich. I know it well, lord Warwick : blame me 


'Tis love, I bear thy glories, makes me fpeak. 
But, in this troublous time, what's to be done ? 
Shall we go throw away our coats of fteel, 
And wrap our bodies in black mourning gowns, 
Numbering our Ave-Maries with our beads ? 
Or fhall we on the helmets of our foes 
Tell our devotion with revengeful arms ? 
If for the laft, fay Ay, and to it, lords. 

War. Why, therefore Warwick came to feek you 


And therefore comes my brother Montague. 
Attend me, lords. The proud infulting queen, 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 463 

With Clifford, and the haught Northumberland ', 
And, of their feather, many more proud birds, 
Have wrought J the eafy-melting king like wax. 
He fwore confent to your fucceflion, 
His oath enrolled in the parliament ; 
And now to London all the crew are gone, 
To fruftrate both his oath, and what befide 
May make againft the houfe of Lancafter. 
Their power, I think, is thirty thoufand flrong : 
Now, if the help of Norfolk, and myfelf, 
With all the friends that thou, brave earl of March, 
Amongft the loving Welfhmen canft procure, 
Will but amount to five and twenty thoufand, 
Why, Via I to London will we march amain ; 
And once again beftride our foaming fteeds, 
And once again cry Charge upon the foe ! 
But never once again turn back, and fly. 

Ricb. Ay, now, methinks, I hear great Warwick 

fpeak : 

Ne'er may he live to fee a fun-lhinc day, 
That cries Retire, when Warwick bids him (lay. 

Ethv. Lord Warwick, on thy fhoulder will I lean ; 
And when thou fail'ft, (as God forbid the hour !) 
Muft Edward fall, which peril heaven forefend ! 

* haught "Northumberland,} So, Grafton in his Chronicle 

fays, p. 417: " the lord Henry Percy, whom the Scottes 

for his haut and valiant courage called fir Henry Hotfpurre." 


The word is common to many writers. So, in Merlow's K, JSJ- 
vjard II. 1622 : 

** This bought refolve becomes your majefty." 
Again, in Kyd's Cornelia, 1 59*; : 

*' Pompey, that fecond Mars, whofe haught renown, &c." 
Again, in Lylly's Woman in the Moon, \ 597 : 

" Thy mind as haught as Jupiter's high thoughts.*' 


3 the eafy-melting king, like wax.] So, again in this play, 
of the Lady Gray : 

" As red as fire ; nay, then her wax raufl melt." 




War. No longer earl of March, but duke of York j 
The next degree is, England's royal king : 
For king of England fhalt thou be proclaimed 
In every borough as we pals along ; 
And he, that cafts not up his cap for joy, 
Shall for the offence make forfeit of his head. 
King Edward, valiant Richard, Montague, 
Stay we no longer dreaming of renown, 
But found the trumpets, and about our tafk. 

Rich. Then, Clifford, were thy heart as hard as 


(As thou haft fhewn it flinty by thy deeds) 
I come to pierce it, or to give thee mine. 

Ediu. Then ftrike up, drums ; God, and faint 
George, for us ! 

Enter a Mejfenger. 

War. How now ? what news ? 

Mef. The duke of Norfolk fends you word by me, 
The queen is coming with a puiflant hoft ; 
And craves your company for fpeedy counfel. 

War. * Why then it forts, brave warriors : Let's 
away. [Exeunt. 


* Tork. 

Enter king Henry , the Queen, the prince of Wales, Clif- 
ford, and Northumberland, with forces. 

Queen. Welcome, my lord, to this brave town of 

* Wly then it forts ; ] Why then things are as they ftiould 

So, in Greene's Card of Fancy, 1608 : " thy love (hall 

fort to fuch happy fuccefs as thou thyfelf dofl feek for." 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4 6 5 

Vender's the head of that arch-enemy, 
That fought to be encompafs'd with your crown : 
Doth not the object cheer your heart, my lord ? 
K. Henry. Ay, as the rocks cheer them that fear 

their wreck ; 
To fee this fight, it irks my very foul. 
Withhold revenge, dear God ! 'tis not my fault, 
Nor wittingly have I infring'd my vow. 

Cllf. My gracious liege, this too much lenity 
And harmful pity, muft be laid afide. 
To whom do lions caft their gentle looks ? 
Not to the beaft that would ufurp their den. 
jWhofe hand is that, the forefl bear doth lick ? 
!Not his, that fpoils her young before her face. 
iWho Ycapes the lurking ferpent's mortal fting ? 
iNot he, that fets his foot upon her back. 
'The fmalleft worm will turn, being trodden on ; 
And doves will peck, 5 in fafeguard of their brood. 
, Ambitious York did level at thy crown, 
Thou fmiling, while he knit his angry brows : 
iHe, but a duke, would have his fon a king, 
And raife his ifluc, like a loving fire ; 
Thou, being a king, blcft with a goodly fon, 
Didft yield confent to difinherit him, 
Which argued thee a moft 6 unloving father. 
Unreafonable creatures feed their young : 
And though man's face be fearful to their eyes, 
Yet, in protection of their tender ones, 
Who hath not feen them (even with thofe wings 
Which fomctime they have us'd in fearful flight) 
Make war with him that climb'd unto their neft, 
Offering their own lives in their young's defence ? 
For ihame, my liege, make them your precedent ! 
Were it not pity, that this goodly boy 

5 ". in fafeguard ] Thus the folio. The quartos read 

in re/cue. STEEVENS. 

6 unloving father. ] The quartos read unnatural father. 


VOL. VI. H h Should 


Should lofe his birth-right by his father's fault; 

And long hereafter fay unto his child, 

What my great-grandfather and grand/ire got. 

My carelefs father fondly gave away ? 

Ah, what a fhame were this ! Look on the boy ; J 

And let his manly face, which promifeth 

Succefsful fortune, fteel thy melting heart, 

To hold thine own, and leave thine own with him. 

K. Henry. Full well hath Clifford play'd the orator, 
Inferring arguments of mighty force. 
But, Clifford, tell me, didft thou never hear, 
That things ill got had ever bad fuccefs ? 
And happy always was it for that fon, 

7 Whofe father for his hoarding went to hell ? 
I'll leave my fon my virtuous deeds behind ; 
And 'would, my father had left me no more ! 
For all the reft is held at fuch a rate, 

As brings a thoufand fold more care to keep, 

8 Than in poffeffion any jot of pleafure. 

Ah, coufin York ! 'would thy bcft friends did know, 
How it doth grieve me that thy head is here ! 

Queen. My lord, cheer up your fpirits ; our foes 

are nigh, 

And this foft courage makes your followers faint. 
You promis'd knighthood to our forward fon ; 
Unfheath your fword, and dub him prefently. 
Edward, kneel down. 

K. Henry. Edward Plantagenet, arifc a knight; 
And learn this leffon, Draw thy fword in right. 

Prince. My gracious father, by your kingly leave, 
I'll draw it as apparent to the crown, 
And in that quarrel ufe it to the death. 

Clif. Why, that is fpoken like a toward prince. 

7 Whofc father, &c.] Alluding to a common proverb : 

Happy the child ivbofe father ivent to the devil. JOHNSON. 

* Than in pojjejjion any jot of pleafure.' ] Thus the folio. The 
quartos thus : 

Than may the prcfcnt profit countervails. STEEVENS. 

- Entsr 


Enter a MeJJenger. 

Mef. Royal commanders, be in readinefs : 
For, with a band of 9 thirty thoufand men, 
Comes Warwick, backing of the duke of York ; 
And, in the towns as they do march along, 
Proclaims him king, and many fly to him : 
1 Darraign your battle, for they are at hand. 

Clif. I would, your highnefs Would depart the 

field 4 ; 
The queen hath beft fuccefs when you are abfent. 

Queen. Ay, good my lord, and leave us to our 

K.Henry. Why, that's my fortune too ; therefore 
I'll flay. 

North. Be it with refolution then to fight. 

Prince. My royal father, cheer thefe noble lords, 
And hearten thofe that fight in your defence : 
Unlheath your fword, good father ; cry, Saint George ! 

9 _ -thirty thoufand ] The quarto reads fifty thoufand. 


1 Darraign ] That is, Range your hoft, put your holt in 

order. JOHNSON. 

Chaucer, Skelton, and Spenfer, ufe this word. 
So, in Guy Earl of Warwick, a Tragical Hifiory, 166 1 : 

*' Darraign our battles, and begin the fight. 
The quartos read Prepare your battles. Sec. STEEVENS. 
a I would your highnefs would depart the field; 

The queen &c.] 

This fuperftmous belief relative to the fortunes of our unhappy 
prince, is yet more circumftantially introduced by Drayton in 
The Miferies of %ueen Margaret : 

" Some think that ffanvict had not loft the day, 
<< But that the king into the field he brought ; 
* For with the wofle that fide went ilill away 
. " Which had king Henry with them \vhen they fought j 
" Upon his birth fo fad a curie they lay, 
" As that he never profpered in aught. 

" The queen wan two, among the lofs of many, 
* Her hylband abfent ; preient, never any." 


H h 2 March. 


March. Enter EiSward, Clarence, Richard, Warwick, 
Norfolk, Montague, and Soldiers. 

Eaw. Now, perjur'd Henry ! wilt thou kneel for 


And fet thy diadem upon my head ; 
Or bide the mortal fortune of the field ? 

Queen. Go rate thy minions, proud infultingboy I 
Becomes it thee to be thus bold in terms, 
Before thy fovereign, and thy lawful king ? 

Edw. I am his king, and hefhould bow his knee; 
I was adopted heir by his confent : 
3 Since when, his oath is broke ; for, as I hear, 
You that are king, though he do wear the crown, 
Have caus'd him, by new adt of parliament, 
To blot out me, and put his own fen in. 

Clif. And reafon too ; 
Who ihould fucceed the father, but the fon ? 

Rich. Art thou there, butcher ? O, I cannot 
fpeak ! 

Clif. Ay, crook-back ; here I ftand, to anfwer thee, 
Or any he the proudeft of thy fort. 

Rich. 'Twas you that kill'd young Rutland, was 
it not'? 

Gif.- Ay, and old York, and yet not fatisfy'd. 

Rich. For God's fake, lords, give fignal to the fight. 

War. What fay'ft thou, Henry, wilt thou yield the 
crown ? 

}ueen. Why, how now, long-tongu'd Warwick ? 

dare you fpeak ? 

When you and I met at faint Alban's laft, 
Your legs did better fervice than your hands 4 . 

3 Since when, &c.] The quartos give the remainder of this 
fpeech to Clarence, and read : 

To blot our brother out, &c. STEEVENS. 

* Your legs did letter fervice than yvur bands.] An allufion to 
the proverb, " One pair of heels is worth two pair of hands." 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 469 

War. Then 'twas my turn to fly, and now 'tis thine. 

Clif. You faid fo much before, and yet you fled. 

War* 'Twas not your valour, Clifford, drove me 

North. No, nor your manhood, that durft make 
you ftay. 

Rich. Northumberland, I hold thee reverently ; 
Break off the parley ; for fcarce I can refrain 
The execution of my big-fwoln heart 
Upon that Clifford there, that cruel child-killer. 

Clif. I flew thy father ; Call'ft thou him a child ? 

Rich. Ay, like a daftard, and a treacherous coward, 
As thou didft kill our tender brother Rutland ; 
But, ere fun-fet, I'll make thee curfe the deed. 

K. Henry. Have done with words, my lords, and 
hear me fpeak. 

Queen. Defy them then, or elfe hold clofe thy lips. 

K. Henry. I pr'ythee, give no limits to my tongue ; 
I am a king, and privileg'd to fpeak. 

Clif. My liege, the wound, that bred this meeting 

Cannot be cur'd by words ; therefore be flill. 

Rick. Then, executioner, unfheath thy fword : 
By him that made us all, 5 1 am refolv'd, 
That Clifford's manhood lies upon his tongue. 

Edw. Say, Henry, fliall I have my right, or no ? 
A thoufand men have broke their fails to-day, 
That ne'er fhall dine, unlefs thou yield the crown. 

War. If thou deny, their blood upon thy head ; 
For York in juftice puts his armour on, 

Prince. If that be right, which Warwick fays is 

There is no wrong, but every thing is right. 

Rich. Whoever got thee, there thy mother flands ; 
For, well I wot, thou haft thy mother's tongue. 

5 1 am rcfoh?aj\ It is my firm perfuafion ; I am no 

longer in doubt. JOHNSON. 

H h 3 jfuecn. 


Queen. But thou art neither like thy fire, nor dam ; 
But like a foul 6 mif-fhapen ftigmatic, 
Mark'd by the deflinies to be avoided, 
As venom'd toads, or 7 lizards' dreadful flings. 

Rich. Iron of Naples, hid with Englifli gilt % 
Whofe father bears the title of a king, 
(As if a channel Ihould be call'd the tea) 
Sham'ftthou not, knowing whence thou art extraught, 
9 To let thy tongue detect thy bafe-born heart ? 

Eckv. ' A vvifp of flraw were worth a thoufand 
crowns, ~ 

6 mlf-Jbapen Jligmatic,~\ " A Jligmatic" fays J. Bullo- 
kar in his Englljb Expajitor, 1616 : " is a notorious lewd fellow, 
which hath been burnt with a hot iron, or beareth other marks 
about him as a token of his punifhment." 

The word is likewiie ufed in The Second Part of tie Downfall 
of Robert Earl of Huntington, 1 60 1 : 

" that prodigious, bloody Jligmatic." 

Again, in Drayton's Epiflle from .. Margaret to W. de is Pool: ; 

" That foul, ill-favour'd, crook-back'd_/?/Wrt//<r." 
Again, in Two Tragedies in One, 1601 : 

" A one-ey d Cyclop, zjligmattc brat." 
Again, in Drayton's epillle Irom K. John to Matilda: 

" Thefe for the crook'd, the halt, \\\z Jiigmatic" 


T lizards' dreadful J? ings. ~\ Thus the folio. The quartos 

have this variation : 

or lizards' fainting looks. 

This is the fecond time that Shakefpeare has armed the lizard 
(which in reality has no fuch defence) with a fling ; but great 
powers feem to have been imputed to its looks. So, in Naab's 
Flood, by Drayton : 

** The lizard ihuts up \i\sjharf>-jigbted eyes, 
" Amongft the ferpents, and there fadJy lies." 


8 gilt,] Gilt is a fuperficial covering of gold. STEEVENS. 

9 To let thy tongue detefi ] To fhew thy meannefs of birth by 
the indecency of language with which thou raileft at any defor- 
mity. JOHNSON. 

To let thj tongue detefi thy bafc-lorn heart ?] So the folio. The 
quartos : 

To parley thui with England's lawful heirs. STEEVENS. 
1 A ivifp of ftra'M ] I fuppoie for an inflrument of cor- 
rection that might difgrace but not liuit her. JOHNSON, 

I be. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 4?I 

To make this ihamelefs callat know herfelf. 
Helen of Greece was fairer far than thou, 


I believe that a wify fignified fome inftrument of correction 
ufed in the time of Shakefpeave. The following inftance feems 
to favour the fuppofition. See A Woman never faxed, a comedy, 
by Rowley, 1632: 

** Nay, worfc; I'll ftain thy ruff; nay, worfe than that, 
" I'll do thus [Holds up a <wifp" 

c< daft wifp me, tboti tatterdemallion ?*' 

Again, in Marfton's Dutch Courtezan, 1604: 

" Thou little more than a dwarf, and fomething lefs than a 
woman ! 

" Crif. Aiulfye! awifpe! awtfjbe!" 

Barrett in his Alvcarie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, inter- 
prets the word ivifpe by peniculus or c-swyaj, which fignify any 
thing to wipe or cleanfe with ; a cook's linen apron, &c. Pewter 
is ftill fcoured by a <vjifpe of Jlraiv, or hay. Perhaps, Edward 
means one of thefe wifps, as the denotement of a menial fervant. 
Barrett adds, that, like a =ivafe, it Signifies " a wreath to be laied 
under the veflel that is borne upon the head, as women ufe." If 
this be its true fenfe, the prince may think that fuch a vjifp 
would better become the head of Margaret, than a crown. 

It appears, however, from the following pailage in Thomas 
Drant's tranllatlon of the feventh fatire of Horace, 1567, that a 
wiCpe was the punifhment of a fcold : 

*' So perryte and exale a fcoulde that women mighte geve 

*' Whole tatling tongues had won a ivifpe, &c." 


* To make this foetmelefs callat know berftlf. ] Shakefpeare ufes 
the word callat likewiie in The Winter's Tale, acl II. fc. iii : 

Leonatus of Paulina. " A callat 

" Of boundlefs tongue, who late hath beat 
*' Her hu&and, and now beats me," 

Callat, a le\vd woman, a drab, perhaps fo called from the 
French calotc, which was a fort of head-drefs worn by country 
girls. See, Glcjjliry to Urry's Chaucer. 

" A cold old knave cuckolde himfelf winyng, 
" And of calot of lewd demenyng." 

Chaucer's Remedy of Love, ver. 307. 
So, Skelton, in his Elinour Rumming, Works, p. 133 : 
*' Then Elinour faid, ye callette^ 
" I fliall break your palettes." 
And again, p. 1 36 : 

" She was a cumlye callet" 

H h 4 Gam- 


Although thy hufband may be Menelaus ; 

And ne'er was Agamemnon's brother wrong'd 

By that falfe woman, as this king by thee. 

His father revell'd in the heart of France, 

And tam'd the king, and made the Dauphin floop ; 

And, had he match'd according to his ftate, 

He might have kept that glory to this day : 

But, when he took a beggar to his bed, 

And grac'd thy poor fire with his bridal day ; 

Even then that fun-lhine brew'd a mower for him, 

That\vafh'd his father's fortunes forth of France, 

And heap'd fedition on his crown at home. 

For what 3 hath broach'd this tumult, but thy pride ? 

Hadfl thou been meek, our title ftill had flept ; 

And we, in pity of the gentle king, 

Had flipp'd our claim until another age. 

da. But, whcn^we faw our fun-mine made thjf 


And that thy fummer bred us no encreafe, 
We fet the axe to thy ufurping root : 
And though the edge hath fomething hit ourfelves, 

Gammar. " Vengeance on thpfe calkts, whofe conference is 
fo large." Gammar Gurton's Needle, aft III. fc. iii. Old Plays^ 
publifned 1744, Vol. I. p. 154 : 

" A cart for a calkt" Id. ib. 

" Why the calkt you told me of here, 

" I have tane difguis'd." 

Sen Joiifon's Volpovc, ad\ IV. fc. iii. 

3 bath IroacUd tils tumult, ] The quarto read^, 

*f hath mov'd this," &c. STEEVENS. 

* ' tveja'iv our Jttn-Jbire made tby ft>ring t 

Anil that thy fumnier bred us HO cncfcafe, ~\ 

When we faw that by favouring thee we made thee grow in for- 
tune, but that we received no advantage from thy fortune flou- 
nfhing by our favour, we then refolved to deftroy thee, and de- 
termine to try fome other mesas, though our firit efforts have 
failed. JOHNSQN. 
The quartos read : 

But when we faw our fummer brought thee gain, 

at the harveft brought us no increafe. STEEVENS. 



Yet, know thou, fiftce we have begun to ftrike, 
We'll never leave, 'till we have hewn thee down, 
Or bath'd thy growing with our heated bloods. 

Edw. And, in this refolution, I defy thee ; 
Not willing any further conference, 
Since thou deny 'ft the gentle, king to fpeak. 
Sound trumpets ! - let our bloody colours wave ! 
And either victory, or elfe a grave. 

Queen. Stay, Edward. 

Edvu. No, wrangling woman, I'll no longer flay : 
Thy words will coft ten thoufand lives to day. 



A peld of baffle, at Ferrybridge in TorkJJjire. 
Alarum. Excurfiom. Enter Warwick. 

War. 5 Forfpent with toil, as runners with a race, 
I lay me down a little while to breathe : 
For ftrokes receiv'd, and many blows repaid, 
Have robb'd my ftrong-knit finews of their ftrength, 
And, fpight of fpight, needs muft I reft a while. 

Enter Edward, running. 

Edw. 6 Smile, gentle heaven ! or ftrike, ungentle 

death ! 
For this world frowns, and Edward's fun is clouded. 

5 Forfpent iv'itb toil, ] Thus the folio. The quartos read 

" Sore Ipent," feV. STEEVENS. 

6 Smile, gentle heaven ! &c.] Thus the folio. Inftead of thefe 
Jines, the quartos give the following : 

Smile, gentle heavens, or itrike, ungentle death, 
That we may die unlefs we gain the day ! 
What fatal ftar malignant frowns from hearen 
Upon the harmlcfs line of York's true houfe ? 




War* How now, my lord ? what hap ? what hope 
of good ? 

Enter Clarence. 

Cla. 7 Our hap is lofs, our hope but fad defpair ; 
Our ranks arc broke, and ruin follows us : 
What counfel give you ? whither fhall we fly ? 

Ediv. Bootlefs is flight, they follow us with wings ; 
And weak we are, and cannot fhun purfuit. 

Enter Richard. 

Rich. Ah, Warwick, why haft thou withdrawn 


* Thy brother's blood the thirfty earth hath drunk, 


7 Our hap is lofs, &c] Thus the folio. The quartos thus : 
Come, brother, come, let's to the field again, 
For yet there's hope enough to win the day : 
Then let us back to cheer our tainting troops, 
Left they retire now we have left the field. 

War. How now, my lords ? what hap ? what hope 

of good ?" STEEVENS. 

* Thy brother's Hood the thirfty earth hath drunk,] This paflage, 
from the variation of the copies, gave me no little perplexity. 
The old quarto applies this defcription to the death of Salifbury, 
Warwick's father. But this was a notorious deviation from the 
truth of hiftory. For the earl of Salifbury in the battle at Wake- 
field, wherein Richard duke of York loft his life, was taken pri- 
foner, beheaded at Pomfret, and his head, together with the 
duke of York's, fixed over York gates. Then the only brother 
of Warwick, introduced in this play, is the marquefs of Mon- 
tacute (or Montague, as he is called by our author) : but he 
does not die till ten years after, in the battle at Barnet ; where 
Warwick likewife was killed. The truth is, the brother here 
mentioned is no perfon in the drama, and his death is only au 
incidental piece of hiftory. Confulting the chronicles, upon this 
aftion at Ferrybridge, I find him to have been a natural fon of 
Saliftniry (in that refpect a brother to Warwick) and efteemed a 
valiant young gentleman. THEOBALD. 

Tfjy brother's Hood, &c.] Inllead of this fpeech, which is 
printed, like almoft all the reft of the play, from the folio, the 
quartos give the following : 



Broach'd with the fleely point of Clifford's lance : 

And, in the very pangs of death, he cry'd, 

Like to a difmal clangor heard from far, 

Warwick^ revenge ! brother, revenge my death ! 

So underneath the belly of their Heeds,. 

That ftain'd their fetlocks in his fmoking blood, 

The noble gentleman gave up the ghoft. 

. War. Then let the earth be drunken with our 

blood : 

I'll kill my horfe, becaufe I will not fly 9 . 
Why Hand we like foft-hcarted women here, 
Wailing our lofles, whiles the foe doth rage ; 
And look upon, as if the tragedy 
Were play'd in jeft by counterfeiting adtors ? 
Here on my knee I vow to God above, 
I'll never paufe again, never ftand ftill, 
'Till either death hath clos'd thcfe eyes of mine, 
Or fortune given me meafure of revenge. 

Edw. O Warwick, I do bend my knee with thine ; 
1 And, in this vow, do chain my foul to thine. 
And, ere my knee rife from the earth's cold face, 
I throw my hands, mine eyes, my heart to Thee, 

Thy noble father in the thickeft throngs 
Cry'd ftill for Warwick, his thrice valiant fon ; 
Until with thoufand fwords he was befet, 
And many wounds made in his aged breaft. 
And, as he tottering fat upon his fteed, 
He waft his hand to me, and cried aloud, 
Richard, commend me to my valiant fon : 
And ftill he cried, Warwick, revenge my death J 
And with thele words he tumbled oft" his horfe ; 
And fo the noble Salifbury gave up the ghoft. 


P II kill my horfe i &c.] So, in the Miferies of S>ucc!i Marga- 
ret by Dray ton : 

** Refolv'd to win, or bid the world adieu : 
" Which fpoke, the earl his fprightly courfer flew." 
Again, in Daniel's Civil I'l^ars, B. VIII. St. xiii. STEEVENS. 

1 And in this t'o-.v do chain my foul to thine. J Thus the folio. 
The quarto as tollows : 

** And in that vow now join my foul to (fee. STEEVENS. 



Thou fetter up and plucker down of kings 1 
Befeeching thec, if with thy will it ftands, 
That to my foes this body mult be prey, 
Yet that thy brazen gates of heaven may ope, 
And give fweet paflage to my finful foul ! 
Now, lords, take leave until we meet again, 
Where-e'er it be, in heaven, or on earth. 

Rich. Brother, give me thy hand ; and, gentle 

Let me embrace thee in my weary arms : 

I, that did never weep, now melt with woe, 
That winter Ihould cut off our fpring-time ib. 

War. Away, away ! Once more, fweet lords, fare- 

Cla. Yet let us all together to our troops : 
And give them leave to fly that will not ftay ; 
And call them pillars, that will {land to us ; 
And, if we thrive, promife them fuch rewards 
As vidtors wear at the Olympian games : 
This may plant courage in their quailing breads ; 
For yet is hope of life, and victory. 
Fore -flow no longer % make we hence amain. 


* Fore-flow no longer , ] To fore-JUrjj is to be dilatory, to 

loiter. So, in the Battle of Alcazar , 1594 : 

" Why, king Scbaftian, wilt thou now fort/low ?" 
Again, in Marlow's Rihxard II. 1612 : 

*' Fore/low no time ; fweet Lancafter, let's march." 
Again, in Promos and CaJJandra, 1578 : 

" Good knight, for time do not my fuit/ or(/faiv." 
Again, in Drayton's Mtferies of >uecn Margaret : 

" No time therein flie meaneth to fore/low." 
Again, in The weakeft goes to the Wall, 1618 : 

" And youforefloiu the prefcnt time's occafion," 
Again in Turbervile's Book on Hawking, * ?75 : 

** Water dothforf/Jo<iv her mewing." 

I have been the more liberal of inftances, becaufe I fuppofe % /W- 
Jlvw is one of the words in this play which Mr. Theobald has 
diflinguifhed as obfolete in the time of Shakefpeare. STEL.VENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 477 


Another part of the field. 
Excurftons. Enter Richard, and Clifford. 

Rich. 3 Now, Clifford, I have fingled thee alone : 
Suppofe, this arm is for the duke of York, 
And this for Rutland ; both bound to revenge, 
Wert thou environ'd with a brazen wall. 

Clif. Now, Richard, I am with thee here alone : 
This is the hand, that ftabb'd thy father York ; 
And this the hand, that flew thy brother Rutland ; 
And here's the heart, that triumphs in their death, 
And cheers thefe hands, that Hew thy fire and bro- 

To execute the like upon thyfelf ; 
And fo, have at thee. 

\*Tbey fight. Warwick enters, Clifford flies. 

Rich. Nay, Warwick, fingle out fome other chace; 
For I myfelf wilt hunt this wolf to death. [Exeunt. 


Another part of the field. 

Alarum. Enterking Hnry. 

K. Hcnfy. 4 This battle fares like to the morning's 


3 Now, Clifford, I have Jingled tbee alone: &c.] Thu the 
folio. The quartos thus : 

Now, Clifford, for York and young Rutland's death, 
This thirfty fword, that longs to drink thy blood, 
Shall lop thy limbs, and flice thy curfed heart, 
For to revenge the murders thou haft made. STEEVENS. 

4 This battle fares like to the morning's war, &c.] Inftead of this 
interesting fpeech, the quartos exhibit only the following : 


478 T H I R D P A R T O F 

When dying clouds contend with growing light; 
What time the Ihepherd, blowing of his nails, 
Can neither call it perfect day, nor night. 
Now fways it this way, like a mighty lea, 
Forc'd by the tide to combat with the wind : 
Now fways it that way, like the felf-fame fea 
Forc'd to retire by fury of the wind : 
Sometime, the flood prevails ; and then, the wind ; 
Now, one the better ; then, another beft ; 
Both tugging to be victors, breaft to breaft, 
Yet neither conqueror, nor conquered : 
So is the equal poife of this fell war. 
Here on this mole-hill will I fit me down. 
To whom God will, there be the victory ! 
For Margaret my queen, and Clifford too, 
Have chid me from the battle ; fwearing both, 
They profper beft of all when I am thence. 
'Would I were dead ! if God's good will were fo : 
For what is in this world, but grief and woe ? 
O God ! 5 methinks, it were a happy life, 


Oh gracious God of heaven, look down on us, 

And fet fowe ends to thefe mediant griefs ! 

How like a maftlefs (hip upon the feas, 

This woeful battle doth continue ftill, 

Now leaning this way, now to that fide driven, 

And none doth know to whom the day will fall. 

Oh, would my death might ftay thefe civil* jars ! 

Would 1 had never reign'd, nor ne'er been king ! 

Margaret and Clifford chide me from the field, 

Swearing they had beft fuccefs when I was thence. 

Would God that I were dead, fo all were well ; 

Or, would my crown fuffice, I were content 

To yield it them, and live a private life ! 
The leading thought in both thefe folilpquies is borrowed from 
Holinlhed, p. 665 : " This deadly conflict continued ten hours 
in doubtfull ftate of vit%rie, uncertainlie heaving and letting on 
both fides, &c." STEEVENS. 

5 me thinks it were a happy life^} This fpeech is mourn- 
ful and foft, exquifitely fuited to the character of the king, and 

* The quarto 1600 reads-'-rrw/ jars. 



To be no better than a homely fwain ; 

To fit upon a hill, as I do now, 

To carve out dials quaintly, point by point, 

Thereby to fee the minutes how they run : 

How many make the hour full complete, 

How many hours bring about the day, 

How many days will finilh up the year, 

How many years a mortal man may live. 

When this is known, then to divide the time : 

So many hours muft I tend my flock ; 

So many hours muft I take my reft ; 

So many hours muft I contemplate ; 

So many hours muft I fport myfelf ; 

So many days my ewes have been with young ; 

So many weeks ere the poor fools will yean ; 

6 So many months ere I fhall fheerthe fleece : 

So minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, and years, 

Paft over to the end they were created, 

Would bring white hairs unto a quiet grave. 

Ah, what a life were this ! how fweet ! how lovely \ 

Gives not the hawthorn bufli a fweeter lhade 

To ihepherds, looking on their filly fheep, 

Than doth a rich embroider'd canopy 

To kings, that fear their fubjects' treachery ? 

O, yes, it doth ; a thoufand fold it doth. 

And to conclude, the fhepherd's homely curds, 

His cold thin drink out of his leather bottle, 

His wonted fleep under a frefh tree's fhade, 

All which fecure and fweetly he enjoys, 

Is far beyond a prince's delicates, 

His viands fparkling in a golden cup, * 

His body couched in a curious bed, 

When care, miftruft, and treafou waits on him. 

makes a pleafing interchange, by affording, amidft the tumult and 
horrer of the battle, an unexpected glimpie of rural innocence aud 
paftoral tranquillity. JOHNSON. 

6 So many months] The old copy reads fo many years; and ia 
the next line, iveeki was fupplied by Mr. Rowe. STEKVENS. 



Alarum. Enter a Son that load killed "hh Father r . 

Son. Ill blows the wind, that profits no-body.- 
This man, whom hand to hand I flew in fight, 
May be poffefled of fome (lore of crowns : 
And I, that haply take them from him now, 
May yet ere night yield both my life and them 
To fome man elfe, as this dead man doth me. 
Who's this ? Oh God ! it is my father's face, 
Whom in this conflict I unwares have kill'd. 
Oh heavy times, begetting fuch events ! 
From London by the king was I prefs'd forth ; 
My father, being the earl of Warwick's man, 
Came on the part of York, prefs'd by his matter ; 
And I, who at his hands receiv'd my life, 
Have by my hands of life bereaved him. - 
Pardon me, God, I knew not what I did ! 
And pardon, father, for I knew not thee ! 
My tears lhall wipe away thefe bloody marks ; . 
And no more words, 'till they have flow'd their fill. 

K. Henry. O piteous fpectacle ! O bloody times ! 
Whilft lions war, and battle for their dens, 
Poor harmlefs lambs abide their enmity. 
Weep, wretched man, I'll aid thee tear for tear ; 
8 And let our hearts, and eyes, like civil war, 
Be blind with tears, and break o'ercharg'd with grief. 

7 Thefe two horrible incidents are felefted to fhew the innu- 
merable calamities of civil war. JOHNSON. 

In the battle of Conflantine and Maxentius, by Raphael, the 
fecond of thefe incidents is introduced on a limilar occafion. 

* And let our hearts and eyes, like civil <war, 

e blind with tears, and break overcharged with grief. 
The meaning is here inaccurately exprefled. The king intends 
to fay that the itate of their hearts and eyes fhall be like that of 
the kingdom in a civil war, all (hall be deftroyed by power 
formed within themfelves. JOHNSON. 



Enter a Fbther, bearing his Son. 

Path. Thou that fo ftoutly hail refilled me, 
Give me thy gold, if thou haft any gold ; 
For I have bought it with an hundred blows.* 
But let me fee : Is this our foeman's face, 5 
Ah, no, no> no, it is mine only fon ! 
Ah> boy, if any life be left in thee, 
Throw up thine eye ; fee, fee, what fliowers arife 9 > 
Blown with the windy tempeft of my heart, 
Upon thy wounds, that kill mine eye and heart ! * 
O, pity, God, this miferable age !-- 
1 What ftratagems, how fell, how butcherly, 
Erroneous, mutinous, and unnatural* 
This deadly quarrel daily doth beget ! 
a O boy, thy father gave thee life too foon, 


9 ' what Jbowers arife, 

Blown 'with the windy tempeft of my heart\ 
This image had occurred in the preceding at : 

For raging wind blows up incej/ant Jbow 1 'rs. SrEEVENS. 

* JPhatJtratagems,-'] Stratagem feems to ftand here only fof 
an event of war, or may intend fnares and furprizes. JOHNSON* 

* O boy / thy father gave thee life too foon ,] Becaufe had he 
been born later he would not now hive been of years to engage 
in this quarrel. JOHNSON. 

And hath bereft thee of thy life too late /] i. e. He fliould have 
done it by not bringing thee into being, to make both father and 
fon thus miferablei This is the fenfe, fuch as it is, of the two 
lines ; however, an indifferent fenfe was better than none, as ic 
is brought to by the Oxford editor, by reading the lines thus : 
O boy ! thy father gave thee life too late, 
And hath bereft thee of thy life too foon. WAR EUR TON. 

I rather think the meaning of the line, And hath bereft thee of 
thy life too foon, to be this : Thy father expofed thee to danger 
by giving thee life too foon, and hath bereft thee of life by Hviffg 
himfelf too long. JOHNSON. 

The Oxford editor might have juflified the change he made, 
from the authority of the quarto, according to which I would 
read ; explaining the firft line thus. Thy father begot thee at too late 
a period of his life, and therefore thou ivert not did artdftrong enough 
to cope v)ith him. The next line can want no explanation. Mr. 

VOL. VI. I i Tollci 


And hath bereft thee of thy life too late ! 

K. Henry. Woe above woe ! grief more than com- 
mon grief ! 
O, that my death would flay thefe ruthful deeds ! 

O pity, pity, gentle heaven, pity ! 

The red rofe and the white arc on his face, 
The fatal colours of our ft riving houfes : 
The one, his purple blood right well refembles ; 
The other, his pale cheek, methinks, prefenteth : 
5 Wither one role, and let the other flouriih ! 
If you contend, a thoufand lives mufl wither. 

Son. How will my mother, for a father's death, 
Take on with -me, and ne'er be fatisfy'd ? 

Path.- How will my wife, for (laughter of my fon, 
Shed feas of tears, and. ne'er be fatisfy'd ? 

K. Henry. 4 How will -the country, for thefe woeful 

Mif-think the king, and not be fatisfy'd ? 

Son. Was ever fon, fo ru'd a father's death ? 

Path. Was ever father, fo bemoan'd his fon ? 

K. Henry. Was ever king, fo griev'd for fubj efts' 

woe ? 
Much is your forrow ; mine, ten times fo much. 

Sun. I'n bear thee hence, where I may weep my fill. 

[Exit 9 with the body. 

Toilet thinks, that by too late, is meant too latch, as itt 
K. Rich. III. aft III: 

** Too laic he died that might have kept that title." 


3 Wither one roff, and let tht other fiourijb ! &c,] TJius the: 
folio. The quartos thus : 

** For if you ilrive, a thoufand lives muft perifli." 


* How will the country, &c.] So, the folio. The quartos thus : 
How will the country now mifdeem their king ! 
Oh, would my death their minds could fatisfy ! 
To mtf-thlnk is to think ill, unfavourably. So, in the Northern 
Lafsy 1613 : 

' and heaven pardon me what I mif-tbtugbt every hour 

of the night !" STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 483 

Path. Thcfe arms of mine fliall be thy winding- 

flieet ; 

My heart, fweet boy, lhall be thy fepulchre ; 
For from my heart thine image ne'er fhall go. 
My fighing breaft lhall be thy funeral bell j 
5 And fo obfequious will thy father be, 
Sad for the lofs of thee 6 , having no more, 
7 As Priam was for all his valiant fons. 
Ill bear thee hence ; and let them fight that will, 
For I have murder'd where I ftiould not kill. 

[Exit, With the body. 
K. Henry. Sad-hearted men, much overgone with 

Here fits a king more woeful than you are* 

Alarums. Excurjtons. Enter the Queen, prince of 
Wales, and Exeter. 

Prince. Fly, father, fly ! for all your friends are fled, 
And Warwick rages like a chafed bull : . 
Away ! for death doth hold us in purfuit. 

>ueen. Mount you, my lord, towards Berwick poft 

amain : 

Edward and Richard, like a brace of greyhounds 
Having the fearful flying hare in fight, 
.With fiery eyes, fparkling for very wrath, 
And bloody fteel grafp'd in their ireful hands, 
Are at our backs ; and therefore hence amain. 

Exe. Away ! for vengeance comes along with them ; 

5 Andfo obfequious 'will thy father &,] Obfequious is here care- 
ful of obfequ.e?, or of funeral rites. JOHNSON. 

' In the fame fenie it is ufed in Hamlet: 

" to do obfequious forrow." STEEVENS. 

6 Sad for the lofs of tbee,] The old copy reads men for the 
lofs, &c. Mr. Rowe made the alteration, but I think we might 
read man, STEEVENS. 

7 As Priam was for all ] I having but one fen, will grieve 
as much for that one, as Priam, who had many, could grieve 
for many. JOHNSON. 

I i i Nay ; 

Nay, (lay not to expoftulate, make fpeed ; 
Or elfe come after, I'll away before. 

K. Henry. Nay, take me with thee, good fvvectf 

Exeter ; 

Not that I fear to flay, but love to go 
Whither the queen intends. Forward ; away ! 



A kiid alarum^ Enter Clifford, wounded 8 . 

Cl/f. Here bums my candle out, ay, here it dies, 
Which, while it lafted, gave king Henry light- 
Ah, Lancafter ! I fear thine overthrow, 
More than my body's parting with my foul. 
My love, and fear, glew'd many friends to thee ; 
And, now I fall, 9 thy tough commixture melts, 
Impairing Henry, flrength'ning mif-proud York. 
The common people fwarrh like fummer flies : 
And whither fly the gnats, but to the fun ? 
And who Ihines now, but Henry's qnemy ? 
O Phoebus ! hadft thou never given confent 
That Phaeton fhould check thy fiery fteeds, 
Thy burning car had never fcorch'd the earth : 
And, Henry j hadft thou fway'd as kings fhould do 
And as thy father, and his father, did, 
Giving no ground unto the houfe of York, 

8 Enter Clifford, woundcJ.'] The quarto adds, *w/-6 <*a <rmnv A 
his neck. In ridicule of this B. and Fletcher have introduce 
Ralph, the grocer's prentice, in the Knight of the Burning Peflle 
with n forked arrow through his bead. It appears, however, fron 
Holinfhed, p. 664, that this circumftance has fome relation t 
the truth: " The lord Clifford, either for heat or paine, put 
ting off his gorget luddenlie, with an arrow (as fome faie) with 
out a head, was ftriken into the throte^ and immediately rendere 
his fpirit." STEEVENS. 

9 - thy tough commixture " ] Perhaps better, t). 
tough commixture > JOHNSON. 

Th.e quartos read " that tough commixture melts." STEEVEN: 



They never then had fprung like fummer flics 
[, and ten thoufand in this luckleft realm, 
Had left no mourning widows for our deaths, 
And thou this day hadft kept thy throne in peace. 
For what doth cherifh weeds, but gentle air? 
And what makes robbers bold, but too much lenity > 
Bootlefs are plaints, and curelefs are my wounds ; 
1 No way to fly, nor ftrength to hold out flight: 
The foe is mercilefs, and will not pity ; 
And, at their hands, I have deferv'd no pity. 
The air hath got into my deadly wounds, 
And much efTufe of blood doth make me faint : 
Come, York, and Richard, Warwick, and the reft; 
? I ftabb ? d your fathers' bofoms, fplit my breaft. 

[He faints. 

Alarum and retreat. Enter Edward, Clarence, Richard, - 
Montague, Warwick, and Soldiers. 

Edw. J Now breathe we, lords; good fortune bids 

us paufe, 
An4 fmooth the frowns of war with peaceful 1< 

* No way to fly, nor firtngtl to $ald our flight.} This line is 
clear and proper as it is now read ; yet perhaps an oppofition of 
images was meant, and Clifford faid : 

g No way to fly, norflrengtb to hold out fight JOHN-SON 

The quartoi read no ftrength to hold (out flight." i. c. No 
way to fly, nor with ftrength fufficient left to fuilam myfelf ir, 

' WO So the folio. 

ar os rcz . . facer's, now come fplit my breaft." 


? Now breathe w, lords ; &c.] Inftead of this fpeech, th<? 
nuartM have the following : 

Thus far our fortunes keep an upward coiirte, 
And we are grac'd with wreaths ot vidtory. 
Some troops purfue the bloody-minded queen, 
That now towards Berwick doth poft amain : - 
But think you that Clifford is fled away with them ? 


I i 3* Some 


Some troops purfue the bloody-minded queen ; 
That led calm Henry, though he were a king, 
As doth a fail, fill'd with a fretting guft, 
Command' an argofyto ftem the waves. 
But think you, lords, that Clifford flew with them * 
. War. No, 'tis impoflible he fhould efcape : 
For, though before his face I fpeak the word, 
Your brother Richard mark'd him for the grave ; 
And, wherefoe'er he is, he's furely dead. 

[Clifford groans, and dies* 
*Edw. Whofe foul is that which takes her heavy 

leave ? 

Rich. A deadly groan, s like life and death's de- 

Eeku. See who it is : and, noxv the battle's ended, 
If friend, or foe, let him be gently us'd. 

Rich. Revoke that doom of mercy, for 'tis Clifford ; 
Who not contented that he lopp'd the branch 
In hewing Rutland when his leaves put forth, 
But fet his murdering knife unto the root 
From whence that tender fpray did fweetly fpring, 
I mean, our princely father, duke of York. 

War. From off the gates of York fetch down the 


Your father's head, which Clifford placed there ; 
Inilead whereof, let his fupply the room ; 
Meafure for meafure muft be anfwered. 
Edw. Bring forth that fatal fcritch-owl to our 

* Edw. Whofe foul &c.] I have diflinguifhed thefe fpceches 
according to the authority of the quarto. The folio gave all to 
Richard, except the laft line and half. STEEVENS. 

5 like life and death's departing.} Sir Thomas Hanmer 

reads, like life in death departing ; which Dr. Warburton has re- 
ceived. JOHNSON. 

The quartos read, like life and death's departure. 


There is no occafion for correction. " 'Till death us depart" 
Was the expreffiou in the old Marriage Service. FARMER. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 487 

That nothing fung but death to us and ours : 
Now death fliall flop his difmal threatening found, 
And his ill-boding tongue no more {hail fpcak. 

[Attendants bring the body forward. 

War. I think his underftanding is bereft : 
Say, Clifford, deft thou know who fpeaks to thee ? 
Dark cloudy death o'erfliades his beams of life, 
And he nor fees, nor hears us what we fay. 

Rich. O, 'would he did ! and fo, perhaps, he doth ; 
'Tis but his policy to counterfeit, 
Becaufe he would avoid fuch bitter taunts 
As in the time of death he gave our father. 

Cla. If fo thou think'fl, vex him with 6 eager words, 

Rich. Clifford, afk mercy, and obtain no grace. 

Edw. Clifford, repent in bootlefs penitence. 

War. Clifford, devife excufes for thy faults. 

Cla. While we devife fell tortures for thy faults. 

Rich. Thou didft love York, and I am Ion to York. 

Edw. Thou pitied'ft Rutland, I will pity thee. 

Cla. Where's captain Margaret, to fence you now ? 

War. They mock thee, Clifford ; fwear as thou waft 

Rich, What, not an oah ? nay, then the world 

goes hard, 

When Clifford cannot fpare his friends an oath : 
I know by that, he's dead ; And, by my foul, 
Would this right hand buy but an hour's life, 
That I in all defpight might rail at him, 
I'd chop it off; and with the ifluing blood 
Stifle the villain, whofe unftanched thirft 
York and young Rutland could not fatisfy. 

War. Ay, but he's dead* Off with the traitor's head, 
And rear it in the place your father's Hands. 

6 eager words.] Sour words j words of afperity. 


So. in Hamlet : 

" It is a nipping and an eager air," STEEYENS. 

T ; A And 


And now to London with triumphant march, 

There to be crowned England's roya ; king. 

From thence fhall Warwick cut the fea to France, 

And afk f he lady Eona for thy queen ; 

So fhalt thou finew both thefe lands together ; 

And, having France thy friend, thou flult not dread 

The fcattcr'd foe, that hopes to rife again ; 

For though they cannot greatly fting to hurt, 

Yet look to have them buz, to offend thine ears. 

Firft, will I fee the coronation ; 

7 And then to Britany I'll crofs the fea, 

To effecl: this marriage, fo it pleafe my lord. 

Edw. Even as thou wilt, fweet Warwick, let it be ; 
For on thy fhoulder do I build my feat ; 
And never will I undertake the thing, 
Wherein thy counfel and confent is wanting. 
Richard, I will create thee duke of Glofter; 
And George, of Clarence ; Warwick, as ourfelf, 
Shall do, and undo, as him pleafech beft. 

Rick. Let me be duke of Clarence ; George, of 

For Glofter's dukedom is too ominous 8 . 

War. Tut, that's a foolifh obferyation ; 
Richard, be duke of Glofter : Now to London, 
To fee thefe honours in pofleffion. [Exeunt* 

T And then to Britany Pttcrofi the fea,] Thus the folio. The 
quartos thus : 

And afterwards I'll crofs the feas to France. 


* - -" too ominous} Alluding, perhaps, to the deaths of T ho- 
tnasofWoodftock, and Humphrey, dukes of Glofter. STEEVENS, 


SING HENRY yi. 483 
A C T III. S C E N E I. 

A wood in Lancajbire. 

Enter Sinklo, 9 and Humphrey, with crofs-bows in tfair 

Siak. Under this thick-grown brake we'll Ihroud 

ourfelves ; 

For through ' this laund anon the deer will come ; 
And in this covei t will we make our ftand. 
Culling the principal of all the deer. 

Hum. I'll ftay above the hill, fo both may Ihoot. 

Sink. That cannot be ; * the noife of thy crofs-bow 
Will fcare the herd, and fo my ihoot is loft. 
Here ftand we both, and aim we at the beft : 
And, for the time ftiall not feem tedious, 
I'll tell thee what befell me on a day, 
In this felf place where now we mean to ftand. 

Hum. Here comes a man, ' let's ftay 'till he be paft. 

9 Enter Sinklo] Dr. Gray obferves from Hall and Holinflied, 
that the name of the perfon who took K. Henry, was Cantlowe. 
See Mr. Tyrwhitt's note on the firfl fcene in the Taming of a 

1 this laund ] Laund means the fame as lawn ; a 

plain extended between woods. 

$o, in the play of Orlando Furiofo, 1594. : 

*' And that they trace the fhady la-vinds, &c." 
Again : 

" Tread {he thefe lawnds, kind Flora boafts her pride." 


* the noife of thy crofe-low] The poet appears not to 

have forgof the ferrets of his former profeffion. 
So, in the Merry Devil of Edmonton, \ 626 : 

" Did I not hear a bow go off, and the buck bray ?" 

3 tefsjlay 'till he be f aft.} So the folio. The quartos 


* " let's Uftcn him a while. STEEVENS. 



Enter king Henry, with a prayer-book. 
K. Henry. From Scotland am I ftol'n, even of pure 

4 To greet mine own land with my wifhful fight. 
No, Harry, Harry, 'tis no land of thine ; 
Thy place is fill'd, thy fcepter wrung from thee, 

5 Thy balm wafh'd off, wherewith thou waft anointed : 
No bending knee will call thee Csefar now, 

No humble fuitors prefs to fpeak for right, 
No, not a man comes for redrefs to thee ; 
For how can I help them, and not myfelf ? 

Sink. Ay, here's a deer whofe fkin's a keeper's fee : 
' This is the quondam king ; let's feize upon him. 

K. Henry. Let me embrace thefe four adverfities * ; 
For wife men fay, it is the wifeft courfe. 

Hum. Why linger we ? let us lay hands upon him. 

Sink. Forbear a while ; we'll hear a little more. 

K. Henry. My queen, and fon, are gone to France 

for aid ; 

And, as I hear, the great commanding Warwick 
Is thither gone, to crave the French king's lifter 
To wife for Edward : If this news be true, 
Poor queen, and fon, your labour is but loft ; 
For Warwick is a fubtle oratdr, 

4 To greet mine own land with my wffifuljjght.] So, the folio" 
The quartos perhaps better thus : 

And thus difguis'd to greet my native land. 


s Tljylalm'waJWdoff, ] This is an image very frequent in 
the works of Shakefpeare. So, again, in this fcene : 

/ was anointed king. 

It is common in thefe plays to find the fame images, whether 
jocular or ferious, frequently recurring. JOHNSON. 

6 This is the quondam king\ &c.] Thus the folio. Th$ 
auartos thus : 

Ay, marry, fir, here's a deer, his fkin is a 
Keeper's fee. Sirrah ftand clofe, for as I think, 
This is the king, king Edward hath depos'd. 


t four adverfitiei ; ] The old copy reads tfo fowrt 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 49 r 

And Lewis a prince foon won with moving words. 
By this account, then, Margaret may win him; 
For fhe's a woman to be pity'd much : 
Her fighs will make a battery in his breaft; 
Her tears will pierce into a m?rble heart ; 
The tyger will be mild, while fhe doth mourn; 

7 And Nero will be tainted with remorfe, 

To hear, and fee, her plaints, her brinilli tears. 
Ay, but fhe's come to beg; Warwick, to give ; 
She, on his left fide, craving aid for Henry; 
He, on his right, afking a wife for Edward. 
She weeps, and fays her Henry is depos'd ; 
He fmiles, and fays his Edward is inftall'd ; 
That fhe, poor wretch, for grief can fpeak no more : 
Whiles Warwick tells his title, fmooths the wrong, 

8 Inferreth arguments of mighty ftrcngth ; 
And, in conclufion, wins the king from her, 
With promife of his fitter, and what elfe, 

To ftrengthen and fupport king Edward's place. 

9 O Margaret, thus 'twill be ; and thou, poor foul, 
Art then forfakcn, as thou went'fl forlorn. 

Hum. Say, what art thou, that talk'ft of kings 

and queens ? 
K> Henry. More than I feem, and l lefs than I wa$ 

born to : 

A man at leaft, * for lefs I fhould not be ; 
And men may talk of kings, and why not I ? 

7 And Nero <uw'// ] Perhaps We might better read, A Ner 

will . STEEVENS. 

8 Inferreth arguments of mighty Jtrength j ] In the former a6t 
was the fame line : 

Inferring arguments of mighty force. JOHNSON. 

9 O Margaret, &c.] The piety of Henry fcarce interefts us 
more for his misfortunes, than this his conflant folicitude for tho 
welfare of his deceitful queen. STEEVENS. 

1 lefs than I was born to:] Thus the folio. The quartos 
thus : for lefs I fhould not be. STEEVENS. 

* for lefs IJhould not be ;] Such is the reading of the folio. 
The quartos thus, and more I cannot be. STEEVENS. 



Hum. Ay, but thou talk'ft as if thou wert a king, 
K. Henry. Why, fo I am, in mind ; ' and that's 


Hum. But, if thou be a king, where is thy crown ? 
K. Henry. My crown is in my heart, not on my 


Not deck'd with diamonds, and Indian flones, 
Nor to be feen : my crown is call'd, content ; 
A crown it is, that feldom kings enjoy. 

Hum. Well, if you be a king crown'd with con- 

Your crown content, and you, muft be contented 
To go along with us : for, as we think, 
You are the king, king Edward hath depos'd ; 
* And we his fubjedts, fworn in all allegiance, 
Will apprehend you as his enemy. 

K. Henry. But did you never fwear, and break an 

oath ? 

Hum. No, never fuch an oath ; nor will we now. 
K. Henry. Where did you dwell, when I was king 

of England ? 

HUM. Here in this country, where we now remain. 
K. Henry. I was anointed king at nine months old ; 
My father, and my grandfather, were kings ; 
And you were fworn true fubjedts unto me : 
And, tell me then, have you not broke your oaths ? 
Sink. No ; for we were fubjedts but while you were 

K. Henry. Why, am I dead ? do I not breathe a 

man ? 

Ah, fimple men, you know not what you fwear. 
Look, as I blow this feather from my face, 

3 and that's enough.'} So, the folio. The quartos thus: 

though not in fhew. STEEVENS. 

* Andivebisfubjefif, &c.] So, the folio. The quartos thus : 
And therefore we charge you in God's name, and the 

To go along with us unto the officers. STEEVEXS, 



And as the air blows it to me again, 

Obeying with my wind when I do blow, 

And yielding to another when it blows, 

Commanded always by the greater guft ; 

Such is the lightnefs of you common men. 

But do not break your oaths ; for, of that fin 

My mild entreaty lhall not make you guilty. 

Go where you will, the king lhall be commanded ; 

And be you kings ; command, and I'll obey. 

Sink. We are true fubjects to the king, king Ed- 

K. Henry. So would you be again to Henry, 
If he were feated as king Edward is. 

Sink. We charge you, in God's name, and in the 

. king's, 
To go with us unto the officers. 

K. Henry. s In God's name, lead ; your king's name 

be obey'd : 

And what God will, that let your king perform ; 
And what he will, I humbly yield unto. [Exeunt, 


London. 'The palace. 
Enter king Edward, Glofter, Clarence, and lady Grey. 

K. Edw. Brother of Glofter, at faint Alban's field 
This lady's hufband, 6 fir John Grey, was flain, 
His land then feiz'd on by the conqueror : 
Her fuit is now, to repoflefs thofe lands ; 

5 In God's name, lead', &c.] So, the folio. Inftead of thja 
fpeech, the quartos have the following : 

God's name be fulfilPd, your king's name be 
Obey'd ; and be you kings ; command, and 111 obey. 


Sir John Grty,} Vid. Hall, $d Tear of Ed. It". 

folio c. It was hitherto falfly printed Richard. POPE. 


294 T H I R D P A R T O F 

Which we in juftice cannot well deny, 
Becaufe in quarrel of the houie of York 
The noble gentleman did lofe his life. 

Glo. Your highnefs mall do well, to grant her fuit J 
It were dishonour, to deny it her. 

K. Ediv. It were no lefs ; but yet I'll make a paufe. 
7 Glo. Yea ! is it fo ? [dfide. 

I fee the lady hath a thing to grant, 
Before the king will grant her humble fuit. 

Cla. He knows the game ; How true he keeps the 
wind ? [Afide. 

Glo. Silence ! 

K. Edw. 8 Widow, we will confider of your fuit ; 
And come fome other time, to know our mind. 

Grey. Right gracious lord, I cannot brook delay : 
May it pleafe your highnefs to refolve me now ; 
And what ,your pleafure is, mail fatisfy me. 

Glo. \_Afide.'] Ay, widow ? then I'll warrant you all 

your lands, 

An if what pleafes him, mall pleafure you. 
Fight clofer, or, good faith, you'll catch a blow. 
Gar. [_Ajide.~\ I fear her not, unlefs me chance to 


Glo. [Afide.~] God forbid that ! for he'll take van- 
K. Edw. How many children haft thou, widow ? 

tell me. 
.Clar. [Afide.~] I think, he means to beg a child of 


Glo. [Afide.~] Nay, whip me then ; he'll rather give 
her two. 

* Glo. Tea, is it /of &c.] So the folio. The quartos read 
with the following variations : 

Glo. I, Is the wind in that door? 
Clar. I fee the lady, feV. STEEVENS. 

* WlJiKv, we- iv'tH cm-filler ] This is a very lively and fpritely 
dialogue ; the reciprocation is quicker than is common in Shake- 
fpeare. JOHNSON. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 495 

Grey. Three, my moft gracious lord. 

GIo. [Ajide.~\ You fliall have four, if you'll be rul'd 

by Tiim. 
K. Edw. 'Twere pity, they Ihould lofe their father's 


Grey. Be pitiful, dread lord, and grant it then. 
K. Edw. Lords, give us leave ; I'll try this widow's 

GIo. Ay, good leave have you ; for you will have 


"Till youth take leave, and leave you to your crutch. 

[Glojler and Clarence retire to the other fide. 

K. Raw. Now tell me, madam, do you love your 

children ? 

Grey. Ay, full as dearly as I love myfelf. 
K. Edw. And would you not do much to do them 

good ? 
Grey. To do them good, I would fuftain fome 

K. Edw. Then get your hufband's lands, to do them 


Grey. Therefore I came unto your majefty. 
K. Edw. Pll tell you how thefe lands are to be got. 
Grey. So fhall you bind me to yourhighnefs'fervice. 
K. Edw. What fervice wilt thou do me, if I give 

them ? 

Grey. What you command, that refts in me to do. 
K. Edw. But you will take exceptions to my boon. 
Grey. No, gracious lord, except I cannot do it. 
K. Edw. Ay, but thou canft do what I mean to afk. 
Grey. Why, then I will do what your grace com- 

GIo. He plies her hard; and much rain wears the 

marble. \_Afide. 

Clar. As red as fire ! nay, then her wax muft melt. 

Cry. Why Hops my lord ? fhall I not hear my 

4 ^ T H I R D P A R f O F 

K. Edw. An eafy tafk ; 'tis but to love a king. 
Grey. That's foon perform'd, becaufe I am a fub- 

K. Edw. Why then, thy huiband's lands I freely 

give thee. 

Grey. I take my leave, with many thoufand thanks.' 
Gk. The match is made ; ftie feals it with a cuft'fy* 
K. Edw. But flay thee, 'tis the fruits of love I 


Grey. The fruits of love I mean, my loving liege. 
K. Edw. Ay, but, I fear me, in another fenfe. 
What love, think'ft thou, I fue fo much to get ? 
Grey. My love 'till death, my humble thanks, my 

prayers ; 

That love, which virtue begs, and virtue grants. 
K. Edw. No, by my troth, I did not mean fuch 

Grey. Why, then you mean not as I though* you 

K. Edw. But now you partly may perceive my 


Grey. My mind will never grant what I perceive 
Your highnefs aims at, if I aim aright. 

K. Edw. To tell thee plain, I aim to He with thee. 
Grey. To tell you plain, I had rather lie in prifon. 
K. Edw. Why, then thou fhalt not have thy huf- 

band's lands. 

Grey. Why, then mine honefty mall be my dower; 
For by that lofs I will not purchafe them. 

K. Edw. Herein thou wrong'ft thy children migh- 
Grey. Herein your highnefs wrongs both them and 


But, mighty lord, this merry inclination 
Accords not with the fadnefs of my fuit ; 
Pleafe you difmifs me, either with ay, or no. 

K. Edw. Ay ; if thou wilt fay ay, to my requeft ; 
No ; if thou doft fay no, to my demand. 



Grey. Then, no, my lord. My fuit is at an end. 
Glo. The widow likes him not, fhe knits her brows. 

Clar. He is the blunted wooer in Chriftendom. 

K. Edzv. \_Ajide.~\ 9 Her looks do argue her replete 

with modefty ; 

Her words do Ihew her wit incomparable ; 
All her perfections challenge fovereignty : 
One way, or other, flie is for a king ; 
And fhe ihall be my love, or elfe my queen.- 
Say, that king Edward take thee for his queen ? 
Grey. 'Tis better faid than done, my gracious 

lord : 

I am a fubject fit to jeft withal, 
But far unfit- to be a fovereign. 

K. Edw. Sweet widow, by my flate I fwear to thee, 
I fpeak no more than what my foul intends ; 
And that is, to enjoy thee for my love. 

Grey. And that is more than I will yield unto : 
I know, I am too mean to be your queen ; 
And yet too good to be your concubine '. 
K. Edw. You cavil, widow ; I did mean, my 

Grey. 'Twill grieve your grace, my fons fhould call 

you father. 

K. Ediv. No more, than when my daughters call 
thee mother. 

' Her looks Jo argue her replete luitb modcfty .] So, the folio. 
The quartos read : 

Her looks are all replete with majefty. STEEVENS. 
' And yet too good to be your concubine.] So, in Warner's Al-> 
lion's England, 1602, B. VII. chap, xxxiv : 

" His plea was love, my fuit was land : I plie him, he 

plies me : 

" Too bace to be his queene, too good his concubine to be." 
Shakefpeare, however, adopted the words from Stowe's Chronicle* 


VOL. VI. K k Thou 


Thou art a widow % and thou haft fome children ; 

And, by God's mother, I, being but a batchelor, 

Have other fome : why, 'tis a happy thing 

To be the father unto many fons. 

Anfwer no more, for thou lhalt be my queen. 

Glo. The ghoftly father now hath done his fhrifu 

Clar. When he was made a Ihriver, 'twas for Ihift. 

K. Edw. Brothers, you mufe what chat we two 

have had. 

Glo. The widow likes it not, for flie looks fad. 
A". Etkv. You'd think it ftrange, if I ftiould marry 


Clar. To whom, my lord ? 
K. Edw. Why, Clarence, to myfelf. 
Glo. That would be ten days' wonder, at the lead. 
Clar. That's a day longer than a wonder lafts. 
Glo. By fo. much is the wonder in extremes. 
K. Edw. Well, jeft on, brothers : I can tell you 

Her fuit is granted for her hufband's lands. 

Enter a Nobleman. 

Nob. My gracious lord, Henry your foe is taken, 
And brought as prifoner to your palace gate. 

K. Edw. See, that he be convey'd unto the 

Tower : 

And go we, brothers, to the man that took him, 
To queftion of his apprehenfion. 
Widow, go you along; - Lords, ufe her honour- 

[Exeunt King> Lady, Clarence, and Lords. 

* Tbnn art a w/V&w, &c.] This is part of the king's reply to- 
h's mother in Stovve's Chronicle ; *' That (he is a widow-, and hath 
already children; by God's blefled lady lam a batchelor, and 
Lave fome too, and fo each of us hnth a proofe that neither of 
us is like to be barroin; &c." STEEVENS.. ' 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 499 

Glo. Ay, Edward will ufe women honourably. 
'Would he were wafted, marrow, bones, and all, 
That from his loins no hopeful branch may fpring, 
To crofs me from the golden time I look for ! 
And yet, between my foul's defire, and me, 
(The luftful Edward's title buried) 
Is Clarence, Henry, and his fon young Edward, 
And all the unlook'd-for iflue of their bodies, 
To take their rooms, ere I can place myfelf : 
A cold premeditation for my purpofe ! 
Why, then I do but dream on fovereignty ; 
Like one that ftands upon a promontory, 
And fpies a far-off fhore where he would tread, 
Wiihing his foot were equal with his eye ; 
And chides the fca that funders him from thence, 
Saying he'll lade it dry to have his way : 
So do I wifh the crown, being fo far off ; 
And fo I chide the means that keep me from it ; 
And fo I fay I'll cut the caufcs off, 
Flattering me with impoffibilities. 
My eye's too quick, my heart o'erweens too much, 
Unlefs my hand and ftrength could equal them. 
Well, fay there is no kingdom then for Richard ; 
What other pleafure can the world afford ? 
'I'll make my heaven in a lady's lap, 
And deck my body in gay ornaments, 
And witch fweet ladies with my words and looks; 
O miferable thought ! and more unlikely, 
Than to accomplish twenty golden crowns ! 
Why, love forfWore me in my mother's womb : 
And, for I fhould not deal in her foft laws, 
She did corrupt frail nature with fome bribe 

3 /'// make my heaven &.] Thus the folio. The quartoi 
alter and tranfpofe the two lines, as follows : 

I will go clad my body with gay ornaments, 
And lull myftlf within a lady'* lap. STEEVENS. 

K k 2 To 


To fhrink mine arm up 4 like a withered Ihrub ; 

To make an envious mountain on my back, 

Where fits deformity to mock my body ; 

To fhape my legs of an unequal lize ; 

To difproportion me in every part, 

Like to a chaos, or an s unlick'd bear-whelp, 

That carries no impreffion like the dam. 

And am I then a man to be belov'd ? 

O, monftrous fault, to harbour fuch a thought ! 

Then, fince this earth affords no joy to me, 

But to command, to check, 6 to o'erbear fuch 

As are of better perfon than myfelf, 

I'll make my heaven to dream upon the crown ; 

And, while I live, to account this world but hell, 

7 Until my mif-ftiap'd trunk that bears this head, 

* like a ivit/jfr'tl Jbrnl) ] So the folio. The quartos 

like a vrither'djbrimp. STEEVENS. 

s , . unlick'd bear-whelp,] It was an opinion which, in 
fpite of its abfurdity, prevailed long, that the bear brings forth 
only fhapelefs lumps ot animated flefti, which fhe licks into the 
form of bears. It is now well known that the whelps of the 
bear are produced in the lame flate with thofe of other creatures 


6 to overbear fuch 

As are of better perfon than my f elf, ] 

Richard fpeaks here the language of nature. Whoever is ftig- 
matized with deformity has a conftant fource of envy in his mind, 
and would counter-balance by fome other fuperiority thefe advan- 
tages which he feels himfclt to want. Bacon remarks that the 
deformed are commonly daring ; and it is almoft proverbially ob- 
ferved that they are ill-nattired. The truth is, that the deform- 
ed, like all other men, are dilpleaied with inferiority, and en- 
deavour to gain ground by good or bad means, as they are vjr 
tuous or corrupt. JOHNSON. 

i*l 45678 

7 Until my mif-fiap\I trunk that bean this bead y 

jBe round impaled &C.J 
A tranlpolition ieems to be necefTary : 

128(73 4 6 

" Until my head, that this mif-fnap'd trunk bears." 
Otherwife the trunk that bean the bead is to be encircled with the 
crown, and not the btad itfelf. STEJEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 501 
Be round impaled 8 with a glorious crown. 
And yet I know not how to get the crown, 
For many lives ftand between me and home : 
And I, like one loft in a thorny wood, 
That rents the thorns, and is rent with the thorns ; 
Seeking a way, and ftraying from the way ; 
Not knowing how to find the open air, 
But toiling defperately to find it out, 
Torment myfelf -to catch the Englifh crown : 
And from that torment I will free myfelf, 
Or hew my way out with a bloody axe. 
Why, I can fmile, and murder while I fmile ; 
And cry, content, to that which grieves my heart; 
And wet my cheeks with artificial tears, 
And frame my face to all occafions. 
I'll drown more failors than the mermaid lhall ; 
I'll flay more gazers than the bafiliik ; 
I'll play the orator as well as Ncflor, 
Deceive more flily than Ulyfles could, 
And, like a Sinon, take another Troy ; 
I can add colours to the cameleon ; 
Change fhapes, with Proteus, for advantages, 
* And fet the murd'rous Machiavel to fchool. 
Can I do this, and cannot get a crown ? 
Tut ! were it further off, I'll pluck it down. [Exit. 

8 impaled] i.e. encircled. So, in Heywood's Rape 

of Lucrece, 1630 : 

" Tear off the crown that yet empales his temples." 


9 And fet the murderous Macbiavel tofcbool."] As this is an an i- 
ehronifm, and the old quarto reads : 

And fet the afpiring Cataline to fchool. 
I don't know why it fhould not be preferred. WAR BURTON. 

This is not the firft proof I have met with, that Shakefpearc 
in his attempts to familiarize his ideas, has diminished their pro? 
priety. STEEVSNS. 


502 T H I R D P A R T O F 



Flourifh. Enter Lewis tie French king, lady Bona, 
Bourbon, queen Margaret, prince Edward, her Jon, 
and the earl of Oxford. Lewis fits, and rifeth up again. 

K. Lewis. ' Fair queen of England, worthy Mar- 

Sit down with us ; it ill befits thy flate, 
And birth, that thou ftiouldft fland, while Lewis doth 


Queen. * No, mighty king of France ; now Margaret 
Mutt (hike her fail, and learn a while to ferve, 
Where kings command. I was, I muft confefs, 
Great Albion's queen in former golden days : 
But now mifchance hath trod my title down, 
And with difhonour laid me on the ground ; 
Where I muft take like feat unto my fortune, 
And to my humble feat conform myfelf. 

K. Lewis. Why, fay, fair queen, whence fprings this 

deep defpair ? 

Queen. From fuch a caufe as fills mine eyes with 

1 Fair queen of England, &c.] Tftus the folio. The quartos 
give the following : 

Welcome, queen Margaret, to the court of France, 
It fits not Lewis to fit while thou doft fland. 
Sit by my fide ; and here I vow to the?, 
Thou lhalt have aid to rc-pofTefs thy right. 
And beat proud' Edward from his ufurped feat, 
And place king Henry in his former rule. STEEVENS. 
* No, mighty king of France ; &c.] Inftcad of this fpeech the 
quartos only fupply the following : 

S>uccn. I humbly thank your royal majefty, 
And pray the God of heaven to blefs thy ftate, 
Great king of France, that thus regard'ft our wrongs. ' 




And flops my tongue, while heart is drown'd in. 

K. Lewis. Whate'er it be, be thou ftill like thyfelf, 
And fit thee by our fide : yield not thy neck 

[Seats her by him, 

To fortune's yoke, but let thy dauntlefs mind 
Still ride in triumph over all mifchance. 
Be plain, queen Margaret, and tell thy grief; 
It fhall be eas'd, if France can yield relief. 

<3>ueen. Thofe gracious words revive my drooping 


And give my tongtie-ty'd forrows leave to fpeak. 
Now, therefore, be it known to noble Lewis, 
That Henry, fole pofTeflbr of my love, 
Is, of a king, become a banifh'd man, 
And forc'd to live in Scotland a forlorn ; 
While proud ambitious Edward, duke of York, 
Ufurps the regal title, and the feat 
Of England's true-anointed lawful king. 
This is the caufe, that I, poor Margaret, 
With this my fon, prince Edward, Henry's heir, 
Am come to crave thy juft and lawful aid ; 
And, if thou fail us, all our hope is done : 
Scotland hath will to help, but cannot help ; 
Our people and our peers are both mif-led, 
Our trcalure feiz'd, our foldiers put to flight, 
And, as thou fee'fl, ourfelves in heavy plight. 

K. Lew. Renowned queen, with patience calm the 

While we bethink a means to break it off. 

Queen. The more we flay, the flronger grows our 

K. Lew. The more I ftay, the more I'll fuccourthee. 

Queen. 3 O, but impatience waiteth on true forrow : 
And fee, where comes the breeder of my forrow. 


3 O, lut impatience waitftb on true farrow : 
Ai'dfce, inhere coma the breeder of mj farrow.] 

K k 4 How 


Enter Warwick. 

K. Lew. What's he, approacheth boldly to our 
prefence ? 

Queen. Our earl of Warwick, Edward's greateft 

K. Lew. Welcome, brave Warwick ! What brings 
thee to France ? [He defcends. She arifetb* 

Queen. Ay, now begins a fecond florm to rife ; 
For this is he, that moves both wind and tide, 

War. From worthy Edward, king of Albion, 
My lord and fovereign, and thy vowed friend, 
I come., in kindnefs, and unfeigned love, 
Firft, to do greetings to thy royal perfon ,* 
And, then, to crave a league of amity ; 
And, laftly, to confirm that amity 
With nuptial knot, if thou vouchfafe to grant 
That virtuous lady Bona, thy fair fifter, 
To England's king in lawful marriage. 

Queen. If that go forward, 4 Henry's hope is done, 

War. And, gracious madam, in our king's behalf, 

[Speaking to Bona* 

How does impatience more particularly wait on true forrow ? On 
the contrary, fuch forrow as the queen's, which came gradually 
on through a long courfe of misfortunes, is generally lei's impa- 
tient than that of thpfe who have fallen into fuduen miferies, 
The true reading feems to be : 

O, tut itr.pattcnce waiting, rues to-morrow : 
And fee , ivbere comes the breeder of my forroiv. 
i.e. When impatience waits and folicits for redrefs, there is no- 
thing fhe fo much dreads as being put off till to-morrow (a pro- 
verbial expreffion tor procraflination). This was a very proper 
reply to what the king faid laft, and in a fentiment worthy of the 
poet. A rhime too is added, as was cuflomary with him at the 
clofing a-fcene." WARBURTON. 

It is ftrange that, when the fenfe is fo clear, any commentator 
fhould thus laborioufly obfcure it, to introduce a new reading j 
and yet ftranger that he (hould fhew fuch confidence in his emen- 
dation as to infert it in the text. JOHNSON. 

4 Henry's hope is donc.~\ So, the folio. The quartos 

jread : -all our hope is done. STEEVENS. 

J am. 

K I N G H E N R Y VL 505 

I am commanded, with your leave and favour, 
Humbly to kifs your hand, and with my tongue 
To tell the pafllon of my fovereign's heart ; 
Where fame, late entering at his heedful ears, 
5 Hath plac'd thy beauty's image, and thy virtue. 

Queen. King Lewis, and lady Bona, hear me 


Before you anfwer Warwick. His demand 
Springs not from Edward's well-meant honeft love, 
But from deceit, bred by neceflity : 
For how can tyrants fafely govern home, 
Unlefs abroad they purchafe great alliance ? 
To prove him tyrant, this reafon may fuffice, - 
That Henry liveth ftill : but were he dead, 
Yet here prince Edward ftands, king Henry's fon. 
Look therefore, Lewis, that by this league and 


Thou draw not on thy danger and difhonour : 
For though ufurpers fway the rule a while, 
Yet heavens aje juft, and time fupprefleth wrongs. 

War. Injurious Margaret ! 

Prince. And why not queen ? 

War. Becaufe thy father Henry did ufurp ; 
And thou no more art prince, than Ihe is queen. 

Oxf. Then Warwick difannuls great John of 


Which did fubdue the greateft part of Spain ; 
And, after John of Gaunt, Henry the fourth, 
Whofe wifdom was a mirror 6 to the wifeft ; 
And, after that wife prince, Henry the fifth, 
t Who by his prowefs conquered all France : 
From thefe our Henry lineally defcends. 

5 Hath plac'd thy beauty's image , and thy virtue.] So, the folio. 
The quartos thus : 

Hath plac'd thy glorious image, and thy vertues. 


6 to the wlfejl ;] So, the folio. The quartos, to 




War. Oxford, how haps it, in this fmooth dif- 


You told not, how Henry the (ixth hath loft 
All that which Henry the fifth had gotten ? 
Methinks, thefe peers of France fhould fmile at that. 
But for the reft, You tcil a pedigree 
Of threefcore and two years ; a filly time 
To make prefer! ption for a kingdom's worth. 

Oxf. Why, Warwick, canft thou fpeak againft thy 


Whom thou obeyed'ft 7 thirty and fix years, 
And not bewray thy treafon with a blulh ? 

War. Can Oxford, that did ever fence the right, 
Now buckler falihood with a pedigree ? 
For fhame, leave Henry, and call Edward king. 

Oxf. Call him my king, by whofe injurious doom 
My elder brother, the lord Aubrey Vere, 
Was done to death? antf more than fo, my father, 
Even in the downfall of his mellow'd years, 
8 When nature brought him to the door of death ? 
No, Warwick, no ; while life upholds this arm, 
This arm upholds the houfe of Lancafter. 

War. And I the houfe of York. 

K. Lew. Queen Margaret, prince Edward, and 


Vouchfafe, at our requeft, to ftand aiide, 
While I ufe further conference with Warwick. 

Queen. Heavens grant, that Warwick's words be- 
witch him not ! [They retire. 

7 thirty-ajid-fix years,] So, the folio. The quartos, 

thirty and eight years. STEEVENS. 

8 Wlxn nature brought him to the door' of death ?~\ TKus the 
folio. The quartos : 

Whca are uiu call him to the door of death. 


This paffage unavoidably brings -before the mind that admir- 
able .injage or old age in Sackville's Induftlon : 

- His withered fifi iiill kaccking at Jcaifa's <&>r, &c." 




K. Lew. Now, Warwick, tell me, even upon thy 


Is Edward your true king ? for I were loth, 
To link with him 9 that were not lawful chofen. 

War. Thereon I pawn my credit and mine honour. 

K. Lew. But is he gracious in the people's eye ? 

War. The more, that Henry was unfortunate. 

K. Lew. Then further, all diflembling fet afide, 
Tell me for truth the meafure of his love 
Unto our filler Bona. 

War. Such it feems, 
As may befeem a monarch like himfelf. 
Myfelf have often heard him fay, and fwear, - 
1 That this his love was an eternal plant ; 
Whereof the root was fix'd in virtue's ground, 
The leaves and fruit maintain'd with beauty's fun ; 
* Exempt from envy, but not from difdain, 
Unlefs the lady Bona quit his pain. 

K. Lew. Now, filler, let us hear your firm refolve. 

j?0fl. Your grant, or your denial, fliall be mine : 
Yet I confefs, that often ere this day, 

[Speaking to Warwick. 

9 that were not lawful chofen.'] Thus the folio. The 

quartos as follows : 

" that is not lawful heir. STEE YENS. 

1 That this hit. love was an external plant;] The old quarto 
reads rightly eternal; alluding to the plants of Paradife. 


* Exempt from enty, but not from dlfJain,~\ Envy is always 
fuppofed to have fome fafcinating or blafting power ; and to be 
out of the reach of envy is therefore a privilege belonging only 
to great excellence. I know not well why envy is mentioned 
here, or whofe eniy can be meant ; but the meaning is, that his 
love is fuperior to envy, and can feel no blaft from the lady's- 
difdain. Or, that if Bona refufe to quit or requite his pain, his 
love may turn to difdain, though the conlcioufnefs of his own 
merit will exempt him from the pangs of euiy. \ jc;ixso.\. 

I believe envy is in this place, as in many others, put for n:a- ' 
lice or hatred. His iituation places him above thefe, though it 
cannot fecure him from female difdain. STEEVENS. 

->i . When 


When I have heard your king's defert re-counted, 
Mine ear hath tempted judgment to defire. 

K. Lew. Then, Warwick, this, Our filler fhall 

be Edward's ; 

And now forthwith lhall articles be drawn 
Touching the jointure that your king mufl make, 
Which with her dowry ihall be counterpois'd : 
Draw near, queen Margaret ; and be a witnefs, 
That Bona lhall be wife to the EngHlh king. 

Prince. To Edward, but not to the Englilh king. 

Queen. Deceitful Warwick ! it was thy device 
By mis alliance to make void my fuit ; 
Before thy corning, Lewis was Henry's friend. 

K. Lezv. And itill is friend to him and Margaret : 
But if your title to the crown be weak, 
As may appear by Edward's good fuccefs, 
Then 'tis but reaibn, that I be releas'd 
From giving aid, which late I promiied. 
Yet lhall you have all kindnefs at my hand, 
That your eltate requires, and mine can yield. 

War. Henry now lives in Scotland, at his eafe; 
Where having nothing, nothing he can lofe. 
And as for you yourlelf, our quondam queen, 
3 You have a father able to maintain you ; 
And better 'twere, you troubled him than France. 

<j$ueen. Peace, impudent and lhamelefs Warwick, 

peace ; 

Proud fetter-up and puller-down of kings ! 
I will not hence, 'till with my talk and tears, 
Both full of truth, I make king Lewis behold 
* Thy fly conveyance, and thy lord's faife love ; 

[P(>/?, blowing a born within* 
For both of you are birds of felf-fame feather. 

3 You have a father able ] This feems ironical. The po- 
verty of Margaret's father is a very frequent topic of reproach. 


* Thy fly conveyance, ] Conveyance '^jv^gling^ and thence 

taken for artifice and fraud. JOHNSON. 

K. Lnv. 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 509 

K. Lezv. Warwick, this is fome poft to us, or 

Enter a Poft. 

Pojl. My lord ambaflador, thefe letters are for you ; 

[To Wanvick. 

Sent from your brother, marquis Montague. 
Thefe from our king unto your majefly. 

[To K. Lexis. 

And, madam, thefe for you ; from whom, I know 

not. [To the hteen. They all read their letters. 

Qxf. I like it well, that our fair queen and miftrefs 

Smiles at her news, while Warwick frowns at his. 

Prince. Nay, mark, how Lewis (tamps as he were 

nettled : 
I hope, all's for the beft. 

K. LTJV. Warwick, what are thy news? and yours, 

fair queen ? 
Queen. Mine, fuch as fills my heart with unhop'd 


War. Mine, full of forrow and heart's difcontcnt. 
K. Lew. What ! has your king marry 'd the lady 

Grey ? 

And now, to footh your forgery and his, 
Sends me a paper to perfuade me patience ? 
Is this the alliance that he feeks with France ? 
Dare he prefume to fcorn us in this manner ? 

>ueen. I told your majefly as much before : 
This proveth Edward's love, and Warwick's honefty. 
War. King Lewis, I here proteft, in fight of 


And by the hope I have of heavenly blifs, 
That I am clear from this mifdeed of Edward's ; 
No more my king, for he difhonours me ; 
But moft himfelf, if he could fee his fhame. - 
Did I forget, that by the the houfe of York 
My father came untimely to his death ? 



5 Did I let pafs the abufe done to my niece ? 
Did I impale him with the regal crown ? 

6 Did I put Henry from his native right ; 
And am I guerdon'd at the laft with fliame ? 
Shame on himfelf ! for my defert is honour. 
And, to repair my honour loft for him, 

I here renounce him, and return to Henry : - 
My noble queen, let former grudges pafs, 
And henceforth I am thy true fervitor ; 
I will revenge his wrong to lady Bona, 
.And replant Henry in his former ilate. 

Queen. Warwick, thefe words have turn'd my hate 

to love ; 

And I forgive and quite forget old faults, 
And joy that thou becom'ft king Henry's friend. 

War. So much his friend, ay, his unfeigned friend, 
That, if king Lewis vouchfafe to furniih us 
With fome few bands of chofen foldiers, 
I'll undertake to land them on our coafl, 
And force the tyrant from his feat by war. 
'Tis not his new-made bride fhall fuccour him : 
And as for Clarence, as my letters tell me, 
He's very likely now to fall from him ; 
For matching more for wanton luft than honour, 
Or than for flrength and fafety of our country. 

Bona. Dear brother, how fhall Bona be rcveng'd, 
But by thy help to this diftrcfled queen ? 

s Did I let pafi the alufe done to n:\ niece ?] Thus Holinfhcd, 
p. 668 : " King Edward did attempt a thing once in the carles 
houfe which was much againir. the eavles honeftie (whether he 
would have defloured his daughter or his niece, the certaintie was 
not for both their honours revealed) for furcly fuch a thing was 
attempted by king Edward." STEEVICN'S. 

6 Did I put Henry from his native right) &c.] Thus the folio. 
The quartos read : 

And thrull king Henry from his native home ? 
And (moil ungrateful) dcth he ufe me thus ? 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 5,, 

Queen. Renowned prince, how ihall poor Henry live, 
Unlefs thou refcue him from foul defpair ? 

Bona. My quarrel, and this Englifh queen's, are one. 

War. And mine, fair lady Bona, joins with yours. 

K. Lew. And mine, with hers, and thine, and 


Therefore, at laft, I firmly am refolv'd, 
You ihall have aid. 

<j$ueen. Let me give humble thanks for all at once. 

K. Lew. Then England's meflenger, return in pofl; 
And tell falfe Edward, thy fuppofed king, 
That Lewis of France is fending over maikers, 
To revel it with him and his new bride : 
Thou feeft what's paft, 7 go fear thy king withal. 

Bona. Tell him, In hope he'll prove a widower 

I'll wear the willow garland for his fake. 

>ueen. Tell him, My mourning weeds are laid afide, 
And I am ready to put armour on 2 . 

War* Tell him from me, That he hath done me 

wrong ; 

And therefore I'll uncrown him, ere't be long. 
There's thy reward * ; be gone. {Exit Poft* 

K. Lew. But, Warwick ; 
Thyfelf, and Oxford, with five thoufand men, 
Shall crofs the feas, and bid falfe Edward battle 9 : 

7 -go fear tfy king ] That is, fright thy king. JOHNSON. 

* to put armour on.~\ It was once no unufual thing for 

queeng themfelres to appear in armour at the head of their forces. 
The fiiit which Elizabeth wore when fhe rode through the lines 
at Tilbury to encourage the troops, on the approach of the ar- 
mada, may be ftill feen in the tower. STEEVENS. 

9 an Jb\d falfe Eikvard battle :~\ This phrafe is common 

to many of our ancient writers. So, in the Misfortunes of %ing 
Arthur, a dramatic performance, 1587 : 

'* my flefli abhorrs 

" To lid the tattle to my proper blood." STEEVENS. 

* thy reward;] Hare we are to fuppofe that, according to 

ancient cuftom, Warwick makes a prefent to the herald or mef- 
fcnger, whom the original copies call a Pofl. STEEVENS. 


512 YH I R D P A R f O F 

And, as occafion ferves, this noble queen 
And prince lhall follow with a frefh fupply. 
Yet, ere thou go, but anfwer me one doubt ; ' 
What pledge have we of thy firm loyalty ? 

War. This lhall allure my conftant loyalty; 
That if our queen and this young prince agree, 
* I'll join my younger daughter, and my joy, 
To him forthwith in holy wedlock bands. 

Ghteen. * Yes, I agree, and thank you for your 

motion : 

Son Edward, me is fair and virtuous, 
Therefore delay not, give thy hand to Warwick ; 
And, with thy hand, thy faith irrevocable, 
That only Warwick's daughter mall be thine. 

Prince. Yes, I accept her, for fhe well deferves it; 
And here, to pledge my vow, I give my hand. 

\_He gives his hand to Warwick. 

K. Lew. Why flay we now ? Thefe foldiers lhall 

be levy'd, 

And thou, lord Bourbon, our high admiral, 
Shall waft them over with our royal fleet. 

1 Iii former copies : 

nijoin my eldeft daughter and nyjoy y 

To him forthwith, ] 

Surely this is a miftake of the copyifts. Hall, in the ninth year 
of K. Edward IV. fays, " Edward prince of Wales wedded 
Anne fecond daughter oo the earl of Warwick." And the duke 
of Clarence xvas in love with the elder, the lady Ifabel ; and in, 
reality was married to her five years before prince Edward took 
the lady Anne to wife. And in King Richard the Third, Glou- 
cefter, who married this lady Anne when a widow, fays : 

" For then I'll marry Warwick's youngeft daughter. 

" What though I kill'd her hufoand and her father ?" 
i. e. Prince Edward, and king Henry VI. her father in-law. See 
likewife Holinfhed in his Chronicle, p. 671 and 674. THEOBALD. 
4 Yes, I agree, &c.] Inftead of this fpeech, the quarto hat 
only the following : 

With all my heart ; I like this match full well. 

Love her, ion Edward ; (he is fair and young ; 

And give thy hand to Warwick, for his love." 


I long, 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 513 

I long, 'till Edward fall by war's mifchance, 
For mocking marriage with a dame of France. 

[Exeunt. Mam 1 . Warwick* 
War. I came from Edward as embaflador, 
But I return his fworn and mortal foe : 
Matter of marriage was the charge he gave me, 
But dreadful war mall anfwer his demand. 
Had he none elfe to make a flale, but me ? 
Then none but I mall turn his jeft to forrow. 
I was the chief that rais'd him to the crown, 
And I'll be chief to bring him down again : 
Not that I pity Henry's mifery, 
But feek revenge on Edward's mockery. [Exit. 

A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

The palace in England. 
Enter Glojler, Clarence, Somerfet, and Montague. 

Glo. Now tell me, brother Clarence, what think you 
Of this new marriage with the lady Grey ? 
Hath not our brother made a worthy choice ? 

Clar. Alas, you know, 'tis far from hence to France ; 
How could he flay 'till Warwick made return ? 

Sow* My lords, forbear this talk ; here comes the 

FlouriJJi. Enter king Edtvard, lady Grey, as queen ; 
Pembroke, Stafford, and Haftings. Four Jland on, 
one fide, and four on the other 3 . 

Glo. And his well-chofen bride. 

Clar. I mind to tell him plainly what I think. 

3 This flage direction is fufficient proof that the play, as ex- 
hibited in the folio, was printed from a ihige copy. I fuppofe 
thcfe eight important perfonages were attendant!. STEEVENS. 

VOL. VI. L 1 K, Edw. 


K. Edzv. Now, brother of Clarence, how like yoti 

our choice, 
That you ftand penfive, as half malecontent ? 

Clar. As well as Lewis of France, or the earl of 

Warwick ; 

Which are fo weak of courage, and in judgment, 
That they'll take no offence at our abufe. 

K. Edzv. Suppofe, they take offence without a 


They are but Lewis and Warwick ; I am Edward, 
Your king and Warwick's, and muft have my will. 
Glo. And you lhall have your will, becaute our 

king : 
Yet hafty marriage feldom proveth well. 

K. Etkv. Yea, brother Richard, 9 arc you offended 

too ? 

Glo. Not I : 

No ; God forbid, that I fhould \vifli them fever'd 
Whom God hath join'd together : ay, and 'twere 

To (under them that yoke fo well together. 

K.Edw. Setting your fcorns, and your millikc, afide, 
Tell me fome reafon, why the lady Grey 
Should not become my wife, and England's queen :- 
And you too, Somerfet, and Montague, 
Speak freely what you think. 

Clar. s Then this is my opinion, that king Lewis 
Becomes your enemy, for mocking him 
About the marriage of the lady Bona. 

* - " are you eft-tided too?] So, the folio. The quartos 

" are yo u againft us too ? S T 1 1 v K N s . 

5 Cla, <Then this is my opinion, &c.] Initead of thia and the 
following fpeech, the quartos read thus : 

Llq. My lord, then this is my opinion ; 
That Warwick, being diflionour'd in his embaflage, 
Doth feek revenge, to quit his injuries. 

Glo. And Lewis in regard of his filler's wrongs, 
Doth join with Warwick to fupplant your itate. 



1C 1 N H E tf R Y VI. 515 

Glo. And Warwick, doing what you gave in charge, 
Is now difhonoured by this new marriage* 

K. Edw. What, if both Lewis and Warwick be 

By fuch invention as I can devife ? 

Mont. Yet to have join'd with France in fuch al- 

Would more have ftrengthen'd this our common- 

'Gainft foreign florms, than any home-bred marriage. 
Haft. Why, knows not Montague, that of itfelf 
England is fafe, if true within itfelf ? 

Mont. Yes ; but the fafer, when 'tis back'd with 


Haft. *Tis better ufing France, than trufting France: 
Let us be back'd with God, and 6 with the feas, 
Which he hath given for fence impregnable, 
And with their helps alone defend ourfelves ; 
In them, and in ourfelves, our fafety lies. 

Clar. For this one fpeech, lord Haftings well de- 
fer ves 
To have the heir of the lord Hungerford. 

K. Ediv. Ay, what of that ? it was my will, and 

grant ; 

And, for this once, my will fhall ftand for law. 
Glo. 7 And yet, methinks, your grace hath not 

done well, 

To give the heir and daughter of lord Scales 
Unto the brother of your loving bride ; 

6 ci-// the feat,] This has been the advice of every 
man who in any age understood and favoured the intereft of Eng- 
land. JOHNSON. 

7 AndyctymetbinkS) &c.] The quartos vary from the folio, as 
follows : 

Cla. Ay, and for fuch a thing too, the lord Scales 
Did well deferve at your hands, to have the 
Daughter of the lord Bonfield ; and left your 
Brothers to go feek elfewhere ; but in your madnefs 
You bury brotherhood. STEEVENS. 

L 1 2 She 


She better would have fitted me, or Clarence : 
But in your bride you bury brotherhood. 

Clar. Or elfe 8 you would not have beflow'd the heir 
Of the lord Bonville on your new wife's fon, 
And leave your brothers to go fpeed elfewhere. 

K. Edw. Alas, poor Clarence ! is it for a wife, 
That thou art malecontent ? I will provide thee. 

Clar. In choofing for yourfelf, you Ihew'd your 

judgment : 

Which being fhallow, you fhall give me leave 
To play the broker in mine own behalf; 
And, to that end, I Ihortly mind to leave you. 

K. Edw* Leave me, or tarry, Edward will be king, 
And not be ty'd unto his brother's will. 

)ueen. My lords, before it pleas'd his majefty 
To raife my flate to title of a queen, 
Do me but right, and you muft all confefs 
That I was not ignoble of defcent, 
And meaner than myfelf have had like fortune. 
But as this title honours me and mine, 
So your diflikes, to whom I would be pleafing, 
Do cloud my joys with danger and with forrow. 

K. Edw. My love, forbear to fawn upon their 

frowns : 

What danger, or what forrow can befall thee, 
So long as Edward is thy conftant friend, 
And their true fovereign, whom they muft obey ? 
Nay, whom tlrey fhall obey, and love thee too, 
Unlefs they feek for hatred at my hands : 
Which if they do, yet will I keep thee fafe, 
And they fhall feel the vengeance of my wrath. 

do. \_ajide.~] I hear, yet fay not much, but think 
the more. 

8 you luould not have lefto^d the bc!r~\ It muft be re- 

membered, that till the R^ftoration, the heirefles of great eftates 
were in the wardlhip of the king, who in their minority gave 
them up to plunder, and afterwards matched them to his favour- 
ites. I know not when liberty gained more than by the abolition 
of the court of wards. JOHNSON. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 5I? 

Enter a Poft. 

K. Edw. Now, meflenger, what letters, or what 


From France ? 
Poft. My fovercign liege, no letters ; and few 


But fuch as I, without your fpecial pardon, 
Dare not relate. 

K. Edw. Go to, we pardon thee : therefore, in brief, 
Tell me their words as near as thou canft guefs them. 
What anfwer makes king Lewis unto our letters ? 
Pqft. At my depart, thefe were his very words ; 
Go tell falfe Edward, thy fuppofed king, 
That Lewis of France is fending over ma/tiers, 
To revel it with him and his new bride. 

K. Edw. Is Lewis fo brave ? belike, he thinks me 

But what faid lady Bona 6 to my marriage ? 

Poft. Thefe were her words, utter'd with mild dif- 

dain : 

Tell him, in hope he* II prove a widower Jhortly, 
ril wear the willow garland for his fake. 

K. Edw. I blame not her, me could fay little lefs; 
She had the wrong. But what faid Henry's queen ? 
For I have heard, that me was there in place. 

Poft. Tell him, quoth me, my mourning weeds are done, 
And I am ready to put armour on. 

K. Edw. Belike, me minds to play the Amazon. 
But what faid Warwick to thefe injuries ? 

Pqft+ He, more incens'd againft your majefty 
Than all the reft, difcharg'd me with thefe words ; 
Tell him from me, that he hath done me wrong, 
And therefore I'll uncrown him, ere't be kng. 

9 to my marriage ?] The quartos read : 

to thefe wrongs. STEEVENS. 

L 1 3 


K. Echu. Ha ! durfl the traitor breathe out fo proud 

words ? 

Well, I will arm me, being thus forewarn'd ; 
They fhail have wars, and pay for their preemption* 
But fay, is Warwick friends with Margaret ? 

Pqft. Ay, gracious fovereign ; they are fo HnkM 

in rriendihip, 

That young prince Edward marries Warwick's daugh- 
Clar, T Belike, the younger ; Clarence will have 

the elder. 

Now, brother king, farewel, and fit you faft, 
For I will hence to Warwick's other daughter ; 
That, though I want a kingdom, yet in marriage 
I may not prove inferior to yourfelf. 
* You, that love me and Warwick, follow me. 

[Exit Clarence, and Somerfet follows* 
Glo. Not I : 

My thoughts aim at a further matter ; I 
Stay not for love of Edward, but the crown. \AJide* 
K. Edw. Clarence and Somerfet both gone to War* 

wick ! 

Yet am I arm'd againft the word can happen ; 
And hafle is needful in this defperate cafe. - 

1 Belike the elder; Clarence will have the younger.] I have 
ventured to make elder and younger change places in this line 
againil the authority of all the printed copies. The reafon of it 
will be obvious. THEOBALD. 

* ToU) that love me and Warwick, follow me.] That Clarence 
ihould make this fpeech in the king's hearing is very improbable, 
yet I do not fee how it can be palliated. The king never goes 
out, nor can Clarence be talking to a company apart, for he 
answers immediately to that which the Poft fays to the king. 


You, t' at love me and Wanu'uk^ follow mc.~\ When -the earl 
of Eflex tt empted to raife a rebellion in the city, with a defign, 
as was fuppofed, to ftorm the queen's palace, he ran about the 
greets with Viis fwoid drawn, crying out, " They that love me, 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 519 

3 Pembroke, and Stafford, you in our behalf 
Go levy men, and make prepare for war ; 
They are already, or quickly will be landed : 
Myfelf in perfon will ftraight follow yon. 

[Exeunt Pembroke and Stafford. 
But, ere I go, Haftings, and Montague, 
Refolve my doubt. You twain, of all the reft, 
Are near to Warwick, by blood, and by alliance : 
Tell me, if you love Warwick more than me ? 
If it be fo, then both depart to him ; 
I rather wifh you foes, than hollow friends : 
But if you mind to hold your true obedience, 
Give me aflurance with fome friendly vow, 
That I may never have you in fufped:. 

Mon. So God help Montague, as he proves true ! 

Hajl. And Haftings, as he favours Edward's caufe ! 

K. Edw. Now, brother Richard, will you ftand 
by us ? 

Glo. 4 Ay, in defpight of all that ftiall withftand you. 

K. Edw. Why fo ; then am I fure of vidtory. 
Now therefore let us hence ; and lofe no hour, 
'Till we meet Warwick with his foreign power. 


3 Pembroke, and Stafford > &c.] The quartos give the paflage 

Pembroke go raife an army prefently ; 

Pitch up my tent ; for in the field this night 

I mean to reft ; and, on the morrow morn, 

I'll march to meet proud Warwick, ere he land 

Thofe ftraggling troops which he hath got in France, sV." 


* Ay^ in defpigbt of all flat Jfjatt witbjland you.] The quartos 
continue the fpeech thus : 

Ay, my lord, in defpight of all that fhall withftand you ; 
For why hath nature made me halt downright, 
But that I fhould be valiant, and ftand to it : 
For if I would, I cannot run away. STEEVEXS. 



Enter Warwick and Oxford, with French foldiers. 

War. Truft me, my lord, all hitherto goes well ; 
The common people by numbers fvvarm to us. 

Enter Clarence^ and Somerfet. 

But, fee, where Somerfet and Clarence comes ; 
Speak fuddcnly, my lords, are we all friends ? 

Gar. Fear not that, my lord. 

War, Then, gentle Clarence, welcome unto War- 
wick ; 

And welcome, Somerfet : I hold it cowardice, 
To reft miftruftful where a noble heart 
Hath pawn'd an open hand in fign of love ; 
Elfe might I think, that Clarence, Edward's brother, 
Were but a feigned friend to our proceedings : 
But welcome, Clarence ; my daughter fhall be thine. 
And now what refts, but, in 5 night's coverture, 
Thy brother being carelefly encamp'd, 
6 His foldiers lurking in the towns about, 
And but attended by a fimple guard, 

5 nigh t's overture,] The author mu ft, I think, have 

written night's coverture. For though overture, which fignifies 
firft an opening, then an offer, may likewife mean an opportu- 
nity, yet in an overture feems to be an improper phrafe. 


Coverture is the reading of the old quartos as well as the folio; 
and thefe are the only au'thentick copies of the three parts of 
this play. STEEVENS. 

6 His folders lurking in the town about,} Dr. Thirlby advifed 
the reading towns here ; the guard in the fcene immediately fol- 
lowing lays : 

--but tuhy commands the king, 

is chief followers lodge in towns about him. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 521 

We may furprize and take him at our pleafure ? 
Our fcouts have found the adventure 7 very eafy : 
That as Ulyfles, and flout Diomede, 
With flight and manhood dole to Rhefus' tents, 
And brought from thence the Thracian fatal fleeds ; 
8 So we, well cover'd with the night's black mantle, 
At unawares may beat down Edward's guard, 
And feize himfelf ; I fay not flaughter him, 
For I intend but only to furprize him. 
You, that will follow me to this attempt, 
Applaud the name of Henry, with your leader. 

[They all cry> Henry ! 

Why, then, let's on our way in filent fort : 
For Warwick and his friends, God and faint George '. 



Edward's Camp. 

Enter the Watchmen to guard his tent. 

1 Watch. Come on, my maflers, each man take 

his Hand; 
The king, by this, is fet him down to fleep. 

2 Watch. What, will he not to bed ? 

1 Watch. Why, no : for he hath made a folemn 


Never to lie and take his natural reft, 
'Till Warwick, or himfelf, be quite fuppreft. 

2 Watch. To-morrow then, belike, (hall be the day, 
If Warwick be fo near as men report. 

3 Watch. But fay, I pray, what nobleman is that, 
That with the king here refteth in his tent ? 

17 very eajy:~\ Here the quartos conclude this fpeech, 

adding only the following lines : 

Then cry king Henry with refolved minds, 
And break we prefently into his tent. STEEVENS. 
8 So ive, ivtll cover* d with the night's black mantle,] This line 
may confirm the reading of coverture. JOHNSON. 

I Watch* 


1 Watch. 'Tis the lord Mailings, the king's chiefeft 

3 Watch. O, is it fo ? But why commands the 


That his chief followers lodge in towns about him, 
While he himfelf keepeth in the cold field ? 

2 Watch. Tis the more honour, becaufe more 


3 Watch. Ay ; but give me worihip, and quietnefs, 
I like it better than a dangerous honour. 

If Warwick knew in what eftate he Hands, 
'Tis to be doubted, he would waken him. 

1 Watch. Unlefs our halberds did ihut up his paf- 


2 Watch. Ay ; wherefore elfe guard we his royal 

But to defend his perfon from night-foes ? 

Enter Warwick, Clarence, Oxford, Somerfet, and French 
foldiers, fdent all. 

War. This is his tent ; and fee, where iland his 


Courage, my mailers : honour now, or never ! 
But follow me, and Edward mail be ours. 

1 Watch. Who goes there ? 

2 Watch. Stay, or thou dieft. 

[WarwickjOqd the reft, cry all, Warwick! Warwick! 
and fet upon, the guard ; wbojly, crying, Arm ! 
Arm ! Warwick, and the reft, following them. 

Tbe drum beating, and trumpets founding. 

Enter Warwick, Somerfet, and the reft, bringing the king 
out in a gown, fitting in a chair : Glojier and Haftings 
fy over thejioge. 

Som. What are they that fly there ? 
// j,-. Richard, and Railings : let them go, here's 
the duke. 

K. Edw. 


K. Edw. The duke ! why, Warwick, when, we 

parted laft, 
Thou call'dft me king ? 

War. Ay, but the cafe is alter'd : 
When you difgrac'd me in my cmbaflage, 
Then I degraded you from being king, 
9 And come now to create you duke of York. 
Alas ! how fhould you govern any kingdom, 
That know not how to ufe embafladors ; 
Nor how to be contented with one wife ; 
Nor how to ufe your brothers brotherly ; 
Nor how to ftudy for the people's welfare ; 
Nor how to ftirowd yourfclf from enemies ? 

K. Edw. Yea, brother of Clarence, art thou here 

too ? 

Nay, then I fee, that Edward needs muft down. 
Yet, Warwick, in defpight of all mifchance, 
Of thee thyfelf, and all thy complices, 
Edward will always bear himfelf as king : 
Though fortune's malice overthrow my ftate, 
My mind exceeds the compafs of her wheel. 

War. Then, for his mind, be Edward England's 

king : [Takes off his crown. 

But Henry now fhall wear the Englilh crown, 
And be true king indeed ; thou but the ftiadow.- 
My lord of Somerfet, at my requeft, 
See that forthwith duke Edward be convey'd 
Unto my brother, archbilhop of York. 
When I have fought with Pembroke and his fellows, 
I'll follow you, and tell what anfwer 
Lewis, and the lady Bona, fend to him : 
NOW, for a while, farewel, good duke of York. 
K- Edw. What fates impofe, that men muft needs 

abide ; 

9 And come now to create you duke of Tork.] Might we read 
with a flight alteration ? 

And come to new create^?* duke of Tork, JOHNSON. 

524 T H I R D P A R T O F 

It boots not to refift both wind and tide. 

[En/ king Edward, led out. 

Oxf. ' What now remains, my lords, for us to do, 
But march to London with our foldiers ? 

War. Ay, that's the firft thing that we have to do ; 
To free king Henry from imprifonment, 
And fee him feated in the regal throne. [Exeunt. 


London, ^he Palace. 
* Enter tbe ueen, and Rivers. 

Rh. Madam, what makes you in this fudden 
change ? 

Queen. Why, brother Rivers, are you yet to learn, 
What late misfortune is befall'n king Edward ? 

Riv. What, lofs of fome pitch'd battle againft 
Warwick ? 

Queen. No, but the lofs of his own royal perfon. 

Riv. Then is my fovereign flain ? 

Queen. Ay, alrnoft ilain, for he is taken prifoner ; 
Either betray'd by falfhood of his guard, 
Or by his foe furpriz'd at unawares : 

1 What now remains, &c.] Inftead of this and the following 
fpeech, the quartos have : 

Clar. What follows now ? all hitherto goes well, 
But we muft difpatch fome letters into France, 
To tell the queen of our happy fortune ; 
And bid her come with fpeed to join with us. 

War. Ay, that's the firft thing that we have to do, 
And free king Henry from imprifonment, 
And fee him feated on the regal throne. 
Come, let's away ; and, having paft thefe cares, 
I'll poft to York, and fee how Edward fares. 


* Enter Rivers, &c.] Throughout this fcene the quartos vary 
in almoit every fpeech from the folio. The variations however 
are hardly fuch as to deferve notice. STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 525 

And, as I further have to underftand, 
Is new committed to the bifhop of York, 
Fell Warwick's brother, and by that our foe. 

Riv. Thefe news, I muft confefs, are full of grief; 
Yet, gracious madam, bear it as you may ; 
Warwick may lofe, that now hath won the day. 

Queen. 'Till then, fair hope mult hinder life's decay. 
And I the rather wean me from defpair, 
For love of Edward's offspring in my womb : 
This is it that makes me bridle my paffion, 
And bear with mildnefs my misfortune's crofs ; 
Ay, ay, for this I draw in many a tear, 
And ftop the rifing of blood-fucking fighs, 
Left with my fighs or tears I blaft or drown 
King Edward's fruit, true heir to the Englifh crown. 

Riv. But, madam, where is Warwick then become ? 

^ueen. I am informed, that he comes towards Lon- 

To fet the crown once more on Henry's head : 
Guefs thou the reft ; king Edward's friends muft down. 
But, to prevent the tyrant's violence, 
(For truft not him that once hath broken faith) 
I'll hence forthwith unto the fan&uary, 
To fave at leaft the heir of Edward's right ; 
There lhall I reft fecure from force, and fraud. 
Come therefore, let us fly, while we may fly ; 
If Warwick take us, we are fure to die. [Exeunt. 


A park near Middleham Caftle in Torkjbire. 
Enter Glofter, Hajlings, and Sir William Stanley. 

Glo. Now, my lord Haftings, and fir William 


Leave off to wonder why I drew you hither, 
Into this chiefeft thicket of the park. 



Thus {lands the cafe : You know, our king, my bro- 

Is prifoner to the bifhop here, at whofe hands 
He hath good ufage and great liberty ; 
And often, but attended with weak guard, 
Comes hunting this way to difport himfelf. 
I have advertis'd him by fecret means, 
That if, about this hour, he make this way, 
Under the colour of his ufual game, 
He lhall here find his friends, with horfe and men, 
To fet him free from his captivity. 

Enter king Edward) and a Huntfman. 

Hunt. This way, my lord ; for this way lies the 

K. Edw. Nay, this, way, man ; fee, where the 

huntfmen fland. 

Now, brother of Glofter, lord Haflings, and the reft, 
Stand you thus clofe to fteal the bifhop's deer ? 

Glo. Brother, the time and cafe requireth hafte ; 
Your horfe ftands ready at the park-corner. 
K. Edw. But whither lhall we then ? 
Haft. To Lynn, my lord ; and fliip from thence to 

Glo. Well guefs'd, believe me ; 'for that was my 


K. Edw. Stanley, I will requite thy forwardnefs. 
Glo. But wherefore flay we ? 'tis no time to talk. 
K. Edw. Huntfman, what fay'fl thou ? wilt thou 

go along ? 

Hunt. Better do fo, than tarry and be hang'd. 
Glo. Come then, away ; let's ha* no more ado. 
K. Edw. Bifhop, farewel : fhield thee from War- 
wick's frown ; 
And pray that I may repoflefs the crown. [Exeunt. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 527 


1'he Tazver in London. 

Enter king Henry, Clarence, Warwick, Somerfet, young 
Richmond, Oxford, Montague, and Lieutenant of the 

K. Henry. Matter lieutenant, now that God and 


Have fhaken Edward from the regal feat; 
And turn'd my captive flate to liberty, 
My fear to hope, my forrows unto joys ; 
At our enlargement what are thy due fees ? 

Lieu. Subjects may challenge nothing of their fo- 

vereigns ; 

But, if an humble prayer may prevail, 
I then crave pardon of your majefty. 

K. Henry. For what, lieutenant ? for well ufmg rne* 
Nay, be thou fure, I'll well requite thy kindnefs, 
For that it made my imprifonment a pleafure : 
Ay, fuch a pleafure as incaged birds 
Conceive, when, after many moody thoughts, 
At laft, by notes of houfhold harmony, 
They quite forget their lofs of liberty. 
But, Warwick, after God, thou fet'fl me free, 
And chiefly therefore I thank God, and thee ; 
He was the author, thou the inftrument. 
Therefore, that I may conquer fortune's fpight, 
By living low, where fortune cannot hurt me ; 
And that the people of this bleffed land 
May not be punim'd with my thwarting ftars ; 
Warwick, although my head ftill wear the crown, 
I here refign my government to thee, 
For thou art fortunate in all thy deeds. 

War. Your grace hath ftill been fam'd for virtuous ; 
And now may feem as wife as virtuous, 



By fpying, and avoiding, fortune's malice, 
For J few men rightly temper with the flars : 
Yet in this one thing let me blame your grace, 
For chufing me, when Clarence is in place. 

Clar. No, Warwick, thou art worthy of the fway, 
To whom the heavens, in thy nativity, 
Adjudg'd an olive branch, and laurel crown, 
As likely to be blefl in peace, and war ; 
And therefore I yield thee my free confent. 

War. And I chufe Clarence only for protector. 

K. Henry. Warwick, and Clarence, give me both 

your hands ; 
Now join your hands, and, with your hands, your 


That no diflention hinder government : 
J make you both protectors of this land ; 
While I myfelf will lead a private life, 
And in devotion fpend my latter days, 
To fin's rebuke, and my Creator's praife. 

War. What anfwers Clarence to his fovereign's 
will ? 

Clar. That he confcnts, if Warwick yield confent ; 
For on thy fortune I repofe myfelf. 

War. Why then, though loth, yet muft I be con- 
tent : 

We'll yoke together, like a double fhadow 
To Henry's body, and fupply his place; 
I mean, in bearing weight of government, 
While he enjoys the honour, and his eafe. 
And, Clarence, now then it is more than needful, 
Forthwith that Edward be pronounc'd a traitor, 
And all his lands and goods confifcated. 

Clar. What elie ? and that fucceflion be determin'd. 

3 -few men rightly temper with tbejlan ; ] I fuppofe the 

meaning is, that few men conform their temper to their deftiny, 
\vhich king Henry did, when finding himfelr unfortunate he gave 
the management of public affairs to more profperous hands. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 52p 

War. Ay, therein Clarence lhall not want his parr. 

A'. Henry. But, with the firft of all our chief affairs, 
Let me entreat, (for I command no more) 
That Margaret your queen, and my fon Edward, 
Be fent for, to return from France with fpeed : 
For, 'till I fee them here, by doubtful fear 
My joy of liberty is half eclips'd. 

Clar. It ftiall be done, my fovereign, with all fpeed. 

K. Henry. My lord of Somerfet, what youth is that, 
Of whom you feem to have fo tender care ? 
. Som. My liege, it is young Henry, earl of Rich- 

K. Henry. Come hither, England's hope : If fecret 
powers [La? 5 b* s ^ an ^ on his bead. 

Suggeft but truth to my divining thoughts, 
4 This pretty hid will prove our country's blifs. 
His looks are full of peaceful majefty ; 
His head by nature fram'd to wear a crown, 
His hand to wield a fcepter ; and himfelf 
Likely, in time, to blefs a regal throne. 
Make much of him, my lords ; for this is he, 
Muft help you more than you are hurt by me. 

Enter a Poft. 

War. What news, my friend ? 

* This pretty lad ] He was afterwards Henry VII, a man 

\vho put an end to the civil war of the two houfes, but not other- 
wile remarkable for virtue. Shakefpeare knew his trade. Henry 
VII. was grandfather to queen Elizabeth, and the king from 
whom James inherited. JOHNSON. 

Shakefpeare only copied this particular, together with many 
others, from Holinfiied : " whom when the king had a good 
while bchelJ, he laid to fuch princes :is were with him : Lo, 
iuerlie this is he, to whom both we and our adverfaries leaving 
the poileffion of all things, (hail hereafter give roome and place." 
p. 678. 

This pretty lad <volll prove our country s lift.] Thus the folio. 
The quartos thus ; 

'* Thou, pretty boy, fiialt prove this country's blifs." 


VOL. VI. M m Ftf. 


PoJI. That Edward is efcaped from your brother, 
And fled, as he hears fince, to Burgundy. 

War. Unlavoury news : But how made he efcape ? 

Pqft. He was convey'd by Richard duke of Glofter, 
And the lord Haftings, who attended him 
In fecret ambufh on the foreft fide, 
And from the bilhop's huntfmen refcued him ; 
For hunting was his daily exercife. 

War. My brother was too carclefs of his charge. 
But let us hence, my fovereign, to provide 
A falve for any fore that may betide. [Exeunt. 

Manent Somerfet, Richmond) and Oxford. 

Sow. My lord, I like not of this flight of Edward's : 
For, doubtlefs, Burgundy will yield him help ; 
And we fliall have more wars, before't be long. 
As Henry's late prefaging prophecy 
Did glad my heart, with hope of this young Rich- 
mond ; 

So doth my heart milgivc me, in thefe conflicts 
What may befall him, to his harm, and ours : 
Therefore, lord Oxford, to prevent the worft, 
Forthwith well fend him hence to Britany, 
'Till ftorms be pail of civil enmity. 

Oxf. Ay ; for, if Edward re-poifefs the crown, 
'Tis like, that Richmond with the reft fhalldown. 

Som. It fhall be fo ; he fhall to Britany. 
Ccmc therefore, let's about it fpeedily. [Exeunt. 




Enter king Edward* Glofter, Haftings, and Soldiers. 

K. Edw. J Now, brother Richard, lord Haftings, 

and the reft ; 

Yet thus far fortune maketh us amends, 
And fays that once more I fhall enterchange 
My waincd ftate for Henry's regal crown. 
Well have we pafs'd, and now rcpafs'd the feas, 
And brought defined help from Burgundy : 
What then remains, we being thus arrived 
From Ravenfpurg haven before the gates of York, 
But that we enter, as into our dukedom ? 

Glo. The gates made faft ! Brother, I like not 

this ; 

For many men, that Humble at the threshold, 
Are well foretold that danger lurks within. 

K. Edw. Tulh, man ! abodements muft not now 

affright us : 

By fair or foul means we muft enter in, 
For hither will our friends repair to us. 

Haft. My liege, I'll knock once more, to fummon 


Enter, on the walls* the Mayor of Tork t and his Brethren. 

Mayor. My lords, we were fore-warned of your 

5 No-iv, Irotber Richard, &c.] Inftead of this and the three 
following fpeeches, the quartos read only : 

Enter Edward and Richard, tultb a troop of Hollanders. 
Edvj. Thus far from Belgia have we pall the feas, 
And march'd from Raunfpur-haven unto York : 
But foft ! the gates are fluit ; I like not this. 

RLh. Sound up the drum, and call them to the walls. 


M m 2 


And flint the gates for fafety of ourfelves ; 
For now we owe allegiance unto Henry. 

K. Edw. But, matter mayor, if Henry be your 

Yet Edward, at the leaft, is duke of York. 

Mayor. True, my good lord ; I know you for no 

K. Edzv. Why, and I challenge nothing but my 

dukedom ; 
As being well content with that alone. 

Glo. But, when the fox has once got in his nofe, 
He'll foon find means to make the body follow. 

Haft. Why, mafter mayor, why ftand you in a 

doubt ? 
Open the gates, we are king Henry's friends. 

Mayor. Ay, fay you fo ? the gates mall then be 
open'd. [_He defcends. 

Qk. A wife flout captain, and pcrfuaded foon ! 
Haft. 6 The good old man would fain that all were 


So 'twere not 'long of him : but, being enter'd, 
I doubt not, I, but we mall foon perfuade 
Both him, and all his brothers, unto reafon. 

Re-enter tic Mayor and trco ALknnen, bdoiu. 

K. Edw. So, mafter mayor : thefe gates mull not 

be ihur, 

But in the night, or in the time of war. 
What ? fear not, man, but yield me up the keys ; 

\^Takes bis keys. 

For Edward' will defend the town, and rhec, 
And all thofe friends that deign to follow me. 

6 7 be good old man ivoaUfii'u thai all were :'<//,] The mayor 
is willing we fhould enter, fo lie may not be blamed. JOHNSON. 




Mrch. Enter Montgomery, with a drum and Soldiers. 

Glo. Brother, this is fir John Montgomery, 
Our trufty friend, unlefs 1 be deceiv'd. 

K. Edw. Welcome, fir John ! But why come you 

in arms ? 

Montg. To help king Edward in his time of ftorm, 
As every loyal fubjedt ought to do. 

Edw. Thanks, good Montgomery : But we now 


Our title to the crown ; and only claim 
Our dukedom, 'till God pleafe to fend the reft. 

Mont. Then fare you well, for I will hence again ; 
I came to ferve a king, and not a duke. 
Drummer, ftrike up, and let us march away. 

\be drum begins a. march. 
K. Edw. Nay, flay, fir John, a while ; and we'll 

By what fafe means the crown may be recover'd. 

Montg. What talk you of debating ? in few words, 
If you'll not here proclaim yourfelf our king, 
I'll leave you to your fortune ; and be gone, 
To keep them back that come to fuccour you : 
Why Ihould we fight, if you pretend no title ? 
Glo. Why, brother, wherefore Hand you on nice 

points ? 
K. Edw. When we grow ftronger, then we'll make 

our claim : 

'Till then, 'tis wifdom to conceal our meaning. 
Htift. Away with fcrupulous wit ! now arms muft 


Glo. And fearlefs minds climb fooneft unto crowns. 
Brother, we will proclaim you out of hand ; 
The bruit thereof 7 will bring you many friends. 

7 The bruit] i.e. noife. So, in Prefton's Cambifa >: 

' ; whole manly acts do fly 

** By bruit of fame." STEEVENS. 

M m 3 K. Eax.\ 


K. Edzv. Then be it as you will ; for 'tis my right, 
And Henry but uiurps the diadem. 

Montg. Ay, now my fovereign fpeaketh like him- 

And now will I be Edward's champion. 

Haft. Sound, trumpet ; Edward lhall be here pro- 

claim'd : 
Come, fellow-foldier, make thou proclamation. 


Sold, [reads] Ecku ard tkefourtb, by the grace 
king of England and trance^ and lord of Ireland, &c. 

Montg. And whofoe'er gainfays king Edward's 

By this I challenge him to fingle fight. 

\T" brows donvn bis gauntlet, 

All. Long live Edward the fourth ! 

K.Eikv. 8 Thanks, brave Montgomery; - and 

thanks unto you all. 

If fortune ferve me, I'll requite this kindncfs. 
Now, for this night, let's harbour here in York : 
And, when the morning fun ihall raife his car 
Above the border of this horizon, 
We'll forward towards Warwick, and his mates ; 
For, well I wot, that Henry is no ibldier. 
Ah, froward Clarence ! how evil it befeems thee, 
To flatter Henry, and forfake thy brother ! 
Yet, as we may, we'll meet both thee and Warwick. 
Come on, brave foldiers ; doubt not of the day ; 
And, that once gotten, doubt not of large pny. 

8 T'hanlis, Irave Montgomery ; &c.] Inftead of this fpecch, tlie 
quartos have only the following : 

Edvj. We thank you all : lord mayor, lend on the way. 
For this night we will harbour here in York ; 
And then as early as the morning fun 
Lifts up his beams above this horizon, 
We'll march to London to meet with Warwick, 
And pull falfe Henry from the regal throne. STEEVHN?. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 535 



Enter king Henry, Warwick, Clarence, Montague, 
Exeter, and Oxford. 

War. What counfel, lords ? Edward from Bclgia, 
With hafty Germans, and blunt Hollanders, 
Hath pafs'd in fafety through the narrow fcas, 
And with his troops doth march amain to London ; 
And many giddy people flock to him. 

K. Henry. 9 Let's levy men, and beat him back again. 

Clar. A little fire is quickly trodden out ; 
Which, being fufFer'd, rivers cannot quench. 

War. In Warwickshire I have true-hearted friends, 
Not mutinous in peace, yet bold in war; 
Thofe will I mufter up : and thou, fon Clarence, 
Shall flir, in Suffolk, Norfolk, and in Kent, 
The knights and gentlemen to come with thcc : 
Thou, brother Montague, in Buckingham, 
Northampton, and in Leicefterfhire, ihalt find 
Men well inclin'd to hear what thou command'fl : 
And thou, brave Oxford, wondrous well belov'd, 
In Oxfordshire fhalt mufter up thy friends. 
My fovereign, with the loving citizens, 
Like to his ifland, girt in with the ocean, 
Or modcft Dian, circled with her nymphs, 
Shall reft in London, 'till we come to him. 

9 Lefs levy men, and beat him lack a%ain."\ This line exprefles 
a fpitit of war ib linfuitable to the 'character of Henry, thut I 
would give the firft cold fpeech to the king, and the brilk anfwer 
to Warwick. This line is not in the old quarto ; and when 
Henry faid nothing, the firft fpeech might be as properly given 
to Warwick as to any other. JOHNSON. 

Every judicious reader muil concur in this opinion. 


M m 4 Fair 


Fair lords, take leave, and ftand not to reply. 
Farewel, my fovereign. 

K. Henry. Farewel, my Hector, and my Troy's 
true hope. 

Clar. In fign of truth, I kifs your highnefs' hand. ' 

K. Henry. Well-minded Clarence, be thou fortu- 
nate ! 

Mont. Comfort, my lord ; and fo I take my leave. 

Oxf. [Kiffing Henry 's band.'] And thus I leal my 
truth, and bid adieu. 

K. Henry. Sweet Oxford, and my loving Montague, 
And all at once, once more a happy farevvel. 

War. Farewel, fweet lords ; let's meet at Coventry. 
[Exeunt Warwick, Clarence, Oxford, and Montague. 

K. Henry. Here at the palace will 1 reft a while. 
Coufm of Exeter, what thinks your lordfhip ? 
Methinks, the power, that Edward hath in field, 
Should not be able to encounter mine. 

.Exe. The doubt is, that he will feducc the reft. 

K. Henry. That's not my fear, ' my meed hath got 

me fame : 

I have not ftopp'd mine cars to their demands, 
Nor ported off their fuits with flow delays ; 
My pity hath been balm to heal their wounds, 
My mildnefs hath allay'd their fwelling griefs, 
My mercy dry'd their water-flowing tears : 
I have not been defirous of their wealth, 
Nor much opprefs'd them with great fubfulies, 
Nor forward of revenge, though they much err'd ; 

1 my meed bath got me fame:} Meed fignifies reward. 

We ft.ould read, my deed, i. e. my manners, conduft in the ad- 
miniftration. WAR BUR TON. 

This word fignifies merit, both as a verb and a fuhftantive : 
that it is ufed as a verb, is; clear from the following foolifh coup, 
let, which I remember to have read : 
" Deem if I meed, 
" Dear madam, rcaJ." 

. A Specimen of J^erfes that read the fane Way lack-~varj 
and forward. Sir JOHN EAWKI.VS. 



Then why ftiould they love Edward more than me ? 
No, Exeter, thefe graces challenge grace : 
And, when the lion fawns upon the lamb, 
The lamb will never ceafe to follow him. 

[ 7 Shout within. A Lancqfter ! A Lancqfter / 
Exe* Hark, hark, my lord ! what fhouts are thefe ? 

Enter king Edivard, Glofter, andfoldiers. 

K. Edw. Seize on the fhame-fac'd Henry, bear him 


And once again proclaim us king of England. 
You are the. fount, that makes fmall brooks to flow : 
Now flops thy fpring ; my fea lhall fuck them dry, 

And fwell fo much the higher by their ebb. 

Hence with him to the Tower ; let him not fpeak. 

[Exeunt fome with king Henry. 

And, lords, towards Coventry bend we our courfe, 
Where peremptory Warwick now remains : 
The fun Ihines hot, and, if we ufe delay, 
Cold biting winter mars our hop'd-for hay. 

Glo. Away betimes, before his forces join, 
And take the great-grown traitor unawares : 
Brave warriors, march amain towards Coventry. 


* Shout within. A Lanca/ler /] Surely the fhouts that ufhered 
king Edward fhould be, A York ! A York ! I fuppofe the author 
did not write the marginal directions, and the players confounded 
the chara&ers. JOHNSON. 



Before the town of Coventry. 

Enter Warwick, the Mayor of Coventry, two Meffengers, 
and others, upon the walls. 

War. Where is the poft, that came from valiant 

Oxford ? 
How far hence is thy lord, mine honeft fellow ? 

1 Mef. By this J at Dunfmore, marching hitherward. 
War. How far off is our brother Montague ?- 

Where is the poll that came from Montague ? 

2 Mef. By this at 4 Daintry, with a puiflant troop. 

Enter Sir John Somerville. 

War. Say, Somerville, what fays my loving fon ? 
And, by thy guefs, how nigh is Clarence now ? 
Somerv. At Southam I did leave him with his 


And do expect him here fome two hours hence. 
War. Then Clarence is at hand, I hear his drum. 
Somerv. It is not his, my lord ; here Southam lies ; 
The drum your honour hears, marcheth from War- 
War. Who Ihould that be ? belike, unlook'd-for 


Somerv. They are at hand, and you fliall quickly 

3 < at Dunfmore^ ] The quartos read at Daintry. 

* " at Ddr/Vry, ' -] The quartos read at Dunfmore. 





March. Flour ffi. Enter king Edward, Glofter, and 

K. Ediu. Go, trumpet, to the walls, and found a 


Glo. See, how the furly Warwick mans the wall. 
War. Oh, unhid ipight ! is fportful Edward 

come ? 

Where flept our fcouts, or how are they feduc'd. 
That we could hear no news of his repair ? 

K. Ed-zu. Now, Warwick, wilt thou ope tjie city 


Speak gentle words, and humbly bend thy knee ? 
Call Edward king, and at his hands beg mercy, 
And he fhall pardon thee thefe outrages. 

War. Nay, rather, wilt thou draw thy forces hence, 
Confefs who fet thee up and pluck'd thcc down ? 
Call Warwick patron, and be penitent, 
And thou ftialt ftill remain the duke of York. 

Glo. I thought, at leaft he would have faid ~ the 

king ; 

Or did he make the jeft againft his will ? 
War. Is not a dukedom, fir, a goodly gift f 
Glo. Ay, by my faith, for a poor e'arl to give; 
I'll do thee fervice for fo good a gift. 

War. 'Twas I, that gave the kingdom to thy bro- 

A'. Edw. Why, then 'tis mine, if but by War- 
wick's gift. 

War. Thou art no Atlas for fo great a weight : 
And, weakling, Warwick takes his gift again ; 
And Henry is my king, Warwick his fubjecl. 

K. Edw. But Warwick's king is Edward's prifoncr : 
And, gallant Warwick, do but anfwer this, 
What is the body, when the head is off? 

Glot Alas, that Warwick had no more fore-caft, 



But, whiles he thought to fteal the fingle ten', 
The king was 5 flily finger'd from the deck ! 
You left poor Henry at the bifhop's palace, 
And, ten to one, you'll meet him in the Tower. 

K. Edw. 'Tis even fo ; yet you are Warwick fliil. 

Glo. Come, Warwick, take the time, kneel down, 

kneel down. 
Nay, when ? ftrike now, or elfe the iron cools. 

War. I had rather chop this hand off at a blow, 
And with the other fling it at thy face, 
Than bear fo Iowa fail, to ftrike to thee. 

K. Edw. Sail how thou canft, have wind and tide 

thy friend ; 

This hand, faft wound about thy coal-black hair, 
Shall, whiles thy head is warm, and new cut off, 
Write in the duft this fentence with thy blood, 
Wind-changing Warwick now can change no more. 

Enter Oxford, with drum and cokurs. 

War. O chearful colours ! fee, where Oxford 

comes ! 
Oxf. Oxford, Oxford, for Lancafler ! 

5 The king ivas llily finger* d from the deck ! ] 

Jlily finger'd ] The quartos read finely finger'd. 
Finely is fubtily. So, in Holinfhed's reign of K. Henry VI. 
p. 640. " In his way he tooke by fine force, a tower, &c." 
Again, p. 649, " and \>y fine force either to win their pur- 
pofe, or end their lives in the fame." 

A pack of cards was anciently term'd a deck of earns, or a 
fair of cards. It is flill, as I am informed, fo called in Ireland. 
Thus, in K. Edward I. 1 599 : 

** as it were, turned us, with duces and trays, out of the 
Again, in the Two Maids of Moreclacke, 1609 : 

" I'll deal the cards and cut you from the deck." 
Again, in Stiffttut F.niperor of the Turks, 1638 : , 

" \\ ell, ir" I chance but once to get the deck, 

*' To deal about and flmffle as I would." STE::VF.\S. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 541 

Glo. 7 The gates are open, let us enter too. 

K. Edw. So other foes may fet upon our backs. 
Stand we in good array ; for they, no doubt, 
Will iflue out again, and bid us battle : 
If not, the city being of fmall defence, 
We'll quickly rouze the traitors in the fame. 

War. O, welcome, Oxford ! for we want thy help. 

Enter Montague, with drum and colours. 

Mont. Montague, Montague, for Lancafter ! 

Glo. Thou and thy brother both fliall buy this 

Even with the deareft blood your bodies bear. 

K. Edw. The harder match'd, the greater victory; 
My mind prefageth happy gain, and conqueft. 

Enter Somerfet, with drum and colours. 

Sow. Somerfet, Somerfet, for Lancafter ! 

Glo. Two of thy name, both dukes of Somerfet, 
Have fold their lives unto the houfe of York ; 
And thou fhalt be the third, if this fword hold. 

Enter Clarence, with drum and colours. 

War. And lo, where George of Clarence fweeps 

Of force enough * to bid his brother battle ; 

7 Tfje gates are open, let us enter too.} Thus the folio. The 
quartos read : 

The gates are open, fee they enter in, 

Let's follow them, and bid them battle in the ftreets. 

Ed~v. No : fo fomc other might fet upon our backs, 
We'll itay till all be enter'd, and then follow them. 


8 fo LlJ bis brother battle;] Here the quartos conclude 

this fpeech, and add the following : 

Clar. Clarence, for Lancafter ! 
Edw. Et tu Brute ! wilt thou ftab Cssfar too ? 
A parly, firra, to George of Clarence, STEEYENS. 


With whom an upright zeal to right prevails, 
More than the nature of a brother's love :- 
Come, Clarence, come; thou wilt, if Warwick calls. 

[ 9 A parky is founded ; Richard and Clarence wbifper 
together ; and then Clarence takes his red rqfe out of 
his haty and throws it at Warzvick. 

Clar. Father of Warwick, know you what this 

means ? 

Look here, I throw my infamy at thee : 
I will not ruinate my father's houfe, 
Who gave his blood ' to lime the ftones together, 
And fet up Lancafter. Why, trow'ft thou, Warwick, 
That Clarence is fo harfh, ib z blunt, unnatural, 
To bend the fatal inflruments of war 
Againft his brother, and his lawful king ? 
Perhaps, thou xvilt object my holy oath : 
To keep that oath, were more impiety 
Than Jepthah's when he facrific'd his daughter. 
I am fo forry for my trefpafs made, 
That, to deferve well at my brother's hands, 
I here proclaim myfelf thy mortal foe ; 
With refolution, wherefoe'er I meet thee, 
(As I will meet thee, if thou ftir abroad) 
To plague thee for thy foul mif-leading me. 
And ib, proud-hearted Warwick, I defy thee, 
And to my brother turn my blulhing cheeks. 
Pardon me, Edward, I will make amends ; 
And, Richard, do not frown upon my faults, 
For I will henceforth be no more unconftant. 

K. Edw. Now welcome more, and ten times more 

* A parley isfmiutlcJ; &c.] This note of direftion I reftored 
from the old quarto. And, without ir, it is impoffihle that any 
reader can guefs at the meaning of this line of Clarence : 

Look, here, I throw my infamy at tbee. THEOBALD. 

1 to lime the fonts ] That is, To cement the ttones. 

Lime makes mortar. JOHNSON. 

~-, ] Srupid, infenfible of paternal fondnefs. 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 543 

Than if thou never hadft deferv'd our hate. 

Glo. Welcome, good Clarence; this is brother-like. 

War. O 3 paffing traitor, perjur'd, and unjuft ! 

K. Edw. What, Warwick, wilt thou leave the 

town, and fight ? 
Or fliall we beat the flones about thine ears ? 

War. Alas, I am not coop'd here for defence : 
I will away towards Barnet prefently, 
And bid thee battle, Edward, if thou ctar'ft. 

K. Edw. Yes, Warwick, Edward dares, and leads 

the way : 
Lords, to the field ; faint George,, and victory ! 

March. Warwick and his company follow. 


Afeld of battle near Barnet. 

Alarum and Evcurfions. Enter Edzuard, bringing forth 
Warwick wounded. 

K. Edw. So, lie thou there : die thou, and die our 


4 For Warwick was a bug, that fear'd us all. 
Now, Montague, fit fail ; I feek for thee, 
That Warwick's bones may keep thine company. 


3 P a jpg ] Eminent, egregious ; traiterous beyond 

the common track of treafoh. JOHNSON. 

* i or Warwick --Mas a bug that fear 1 J us all. ] Bug is 2 

bugbear, a terrific being. JOHNSON. 
So, in Cymbeline : 

*' are become 

*' The mortal bugs o' the field." 
Again, in Stephen Goflbn's School of Abufe, 1579: 

" Thefe bttgges are fitter tofeare babes than to move nvn." 
Again, in Spenfer's Fairy Igueen, B. II. c. xii : 

" Be but as bugs lofiaren babes withal." STEEVENS. 


War. Ah, who is nigh ? come to me, friend, or foe, 
And tell me, who is victor, York, or Warwick ? 
Why afk I that ? my mangled body ihows, 
My blood, my want of ftrength, my iick heart Ihows, 
That I muft yield my body to the earth, 
And, by my fall, the conqueft to my foe. 
Thus yields the cedar to the axe's edge s , 
Whofe arms gave ihelter to the princely eagle, 
Under whofe ihade the ramping lion flept ;' 
Whofe top branch over-peer'd Jove's fpreading tree, 
And kept low fhrubs from winter's powerful wind* 
Thefe eyes, that now are dimm'd with death's black 


Have been as piercing as the mid-day fun, 
To fearch the fecret treafons of the world : 
The wrinkles in my brows, now fill'd with blood, 
W^ere liken'd oft to kingly fepulchres ; 
For who liv'd king, but I could dig his grave ? 
And who durfl fmilc, when Warwick bent his brow ? 
.Lo, now my glory fmear'd in duft and blood ! 
6 My parks, my walks, my manors that I had, 
Even now forfake me; and, of all my lands, 
Is nothing left me, but my body's length 1 
Why, what is pomp, rule, reign, but earth and duft? 
And, live we how we can, yet die we muft. 

5 Thus yields the cedar to the axe's cdge y 

Wbofe arms gave falter to tbc princely eagle , 
Under wbofe foade the ramping lionjlept ; &c.] 
It has been obferved to me that the vft chapter of the pro- 
phet .E2tff;V/ fuggefted thefe images to Shakefpeare. ** All the 
fowls of heaven made their nefts in his boughs, and under his 
branches did all the beafts of the field bring forth their young." 


6 Cedes coemptis falt'thus, et domo, I'illaque, HOR . 
This mention of his^<7/-^j and manors diminilhes the pathetic 
' cffttt of the foregoing lines. JOHNSON. 



Enter Oxford and Somerfit. 


Sow. 7 Ah, Warwick, Warwick ! wert thou as 

we are, 

We might recover all our lofs again ! 
The queen from France hath brought a puifiunt 

power ; 
Even now we heard the news : Ah, couldft thou fly ! 

War. Why, then I would not fly. Ah, Montague, 
If thou be there, fweet brother, take my hand, 
And with thy lips keep in my foul a while ! 
Thou lov'ft me not ; for, brother, if thou didir,' 
Thy tears would wafli this cold congealed blood, 
That gtews my lips, and will not let me fpcak. 
Come quickly, Montague, or I am dead. 

Som. Ah, Warwick, Montague hath breath'd his 


And to the lateft gafp, cry'd out for Warwick, 
And faid Commend me to my valiant brother. 
And more he would have faid ; and more he fpoke, 
* Which founded like a clamour in a vault, 


7 Ab, fPawicl, Warwick ! &c^] Thefe two fpeeches ftand 
thus in the quartos : 

Oxf. Ah, Warwick, Warwick ! chear up thyfelf, and 

live ; 

For yet there's hope enough to win the day. 
Our warlike queen with troops is come from France, 
And at Southampton landed hath her train ; 
And, might'ft thou live, then would we never fly. 

IVar. Why, then I would not fly, nor have I now ; 
But Hercules himfelf irtuft yield to odds : 
For many wounds receiv'd, and many more repaid, 
Hath robb'd my flrong-knit finews or their ftrength, 
And fpite of fpites needs niuft I yield to death. 


* Winch founded like a cannon in a vault,] The old quarto 

reads clamour, which is undoubtedly right, /. e. a clamour of 

tongues, which, as he fays, could not be diiVmguUhed. This 

VOL. VI. N n wa* 


That could not be diftinguifh'd ; but, at laft, 
I well might hear deliver'd with a groan, 
O, farewel, Warwick ! 

War. Sweet reft his foul ! 

Fly, lords, and fave yourfelves ; for Warwick bids 
You all farcwcl, to meet in heaven. \D\es. 

Oxf. 9 Away, away, to meet the queen's great power ! 
[They bear away his body^ and Exeunt. 


Another part -of the field. 

FlourifJj. Enter king Edward in triumph ; with Glo~ 
Jter y Clarence, and the reft. 

K. Eduv. * Thus far our fortune keeps an upward 


And we are grac'd with wreaths of victory. 
But, in the midft of this bright-fhining clay, 

was a pertinent fimilitude : the other abfurd, and neither agrees 
with what is predicated of it, nor with what it is intended to il- 
luftrate. WAR BUR TON. 

9 Away, a*ivay, &c.] Inflead of this line, the quartos have 
the following : 

Come, noble Somerfet, let's take our horie, 

And caufe retreat be founded through the camp ; 

That all our friends remaining yet alive 

May be forewarn'd, and fave thernfelves by flight. 

That done, with them we'll poft unto the queeu, 

And once more try our fortune in the field. 

1 Thus far our fortune keeps an upward courfe, 

And we are grac'd with wreaths of vitfory.^ Thus the fo- 
lh>. The quartos thus : 

Thus {till our fortune gives us vi&ory ; 

And girt our temples with triumphant joys. 

The big-bon'd traitor Warwick hath breatVd his lad. 




1 fpy a black, fufpicious, threat'ning cloud, 
That will encounter with our glorious fun, 
Ere he attain his eafeful weftern bed : 
I mean, my lords, thofe powers, that the queen 
Hath rais'd in Gallia, * have arriv'd our coaft, 
And, as we hear, march on to fight with us. 

Clar. A little gale will foon difperfe that cloud, 
And blow it to the fource from whence it came : 
Thy very beams will dry thofe vapours up ; 
For every cloud engenders not a ftorm. 

Glo. The queen is valu'd thirty thoufand ftrong, 
And Somerfet, with Oxford, fled to her ; 
If fhe have time to breathe, be well aflur'd, 
Her faction will be full as ftrong as ours. 

K. Etlzv. We are advertis'd by our loving friends, 
That they do hold their courfe towards Tewkfbury ; 
We, having now the beft at Barnet field, 
Will thither flraight, For willingnefs rids way ; 
And, as we march, our ftrength will be augmented 
In every county as we go along. 
* Strike up the drum ; cry Courage ! and away. 


* lave arriv'd our coaft, ] Milton ufes the fame ftruc- 

ture, B. II. Par.LoJt: 

" .ere he arrive 

' The happy ifle." STEEVENS. 

3 Strike up the drum ; cry Courage! and away, ,] Thus the 
folio. The quartos have the following couplet : 

Come, let's go ; for if we flack this bright fummer's day, 
Sharp winter's fhowers will mar our hope for hay. 


N n 2 SCENE 



e Tcwkjl>i'.ry. 

March. Enter tbe Queen, Prince of Wales, Somerfet t 
Oxford, and Soldiers. 

Queen. Great lords, wile men ne'er fit and wail their 


But chearly leek how to redrefs their harms. 
What though the maft be now blown over-board, 
The cable broke, our holding anchor loft, 
And half our failors fwallow'd in the flood ? 
Yet lives our pilot ftill : Is't meet,, that he 
Should leave the helm, and, like a fearful lad, 
With tearful eyes add water to the fea, 
And give more ftrength to that which hath too much ; 
Whiles, in his moan, the fhip fplits on the rock, 
Which induftry and courage might have fav'd ? 
Ah, what a lhame ! ah, what a fault were this ! 
Say, Warwick was our anchor ; What of that ? 
'And Montague our top-mail ; What of him ? 
Our ilaughter'd friends the tackles ; What of thefe r 
Why, is not Oxford here another anchor ? 

And Somerfet another goodly maft ? 

The friends of France our ihrouds and tacklings ? 

And, though unfkilful, why not Ned and I 

For once ailow'd the ikilful pilot's charge ? 

We will not from the helm, to lit and weep ; 

But keep our courfe, though the rough wind fay no> 

From flielves and rocks that threaten us with wreck. 

As good to chide the waves, as fpeak them fair. 

And what is Edward, but a ruthlefs fea ? 

What Clarence, but a quick-fand of deceit ? 

And Richard, but a ragged fatal rock ? 

All thefe the enemies to our" poor bark. 

Say, you can fwim ; alas, 'tis but a while : 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 549 

Tread on the fand ; why, there you quickly fink ; 
Beftride the rock ; the tide will wafh you off, 
Or elfe you famifh, that's a threefold death. 
This fpeak I, lords, to let you underftand, 
In cafe fome one of you would fly from us, 
That there's no hop'd-for mercy with the brothers, 
More than with ruthlefs waves, with fane's, and 


Why, courage, then ! what cannot be avoided, 
'Twere childifh wcaknefs to lament, or fear. 

Prince. 7 Methinks, a woman of this valiant fpirit 
Should, if a coward heard her fpeak thefe words, 
Infufe his brcaft with magnanimity, 
And make him, naked, foil a man at arms. 
I fpeak not this, as doubting any here : 
For, did I but fufpeft a fearful man, 
He fhould have leave to go away betimes ; 
Left, in our need, he might infedt another, 
And make him of like fpirit to himfelf. 
If any fuch be here, as God forbid ! 
Let him depart, before we need his help. 

Oxf. Women and children of fo high a courage ! 
And warriors faint ! why, 'twere perpetual mame. . 
Oh, brave young prince ! thy famous grandfather 

4 Methinlis, a woman &c.] The preceding fpeech is very 
impeded in the quartos and therefore not worth infertion. In 
this of the prince there is however much and important varia- 
tion : 

Prince. And if there be (as God forbid there fhould) 
'Mongll us a timorous or fearful man, 
Let him depart before the battles join ; 
Left he in time of need entice another, . 
And fo withdraw the ibldiers' hearts from us. 
I will not itand aloof, and bid you fight, 
But with my iword prels in the thickeft throngs, 
And fmgle Edward from his itrongell guard, 
And hand to hand enforce him lor to yield, 
Qr leave my body, aswitnels to my thoughts. STEEVENS. 

N n 3 Doth 


Doth live again in thee ; Long may'fl thou live, 
To bear his image, and renew his glories ! 

Sow. And he, that will not fight for fuch a hope, 
Go home to bed, and, like the owl by day, 
If he arife, be mock'd and wonder'd at. 

Queen. Thanks, gentle Somerfet ; fweet Oxford, 


Prince. And take his thanks, that yet hath nothing 

Enter a Mejjenger. 

Meff. Prepare you, lords, for Edward is at hand, 
Ready to fight ; therefore be refolute. 

O.v/. I thought no lefs : it is his policy, 
To haile thus faft, to find us unprovided. 

Som. But he's deceiv'd, we are in readinefs. 

Queen* This cheers my heart, to fee your forward- 

Oxf. Here pitch our battle, hence we will not budge, 

Marclo. Enter king Edward, Glofler, Clarence, and 
Soldiers, on tke otber fide of the ftage. 

5 K. Ediv. Brave followers, yonder flands the thorny 


Which, by the heavens' affiftance, and your ftrength, 
Muft by the roots be hewn up yet ere night. 
I need not add more fuel to your fire, 
For, well I wot, ye blaze to burn them out : 
Give fignal to the fight, and to it, lords. 

Queen. Lords, knights, and gentlemen, what I 
fhould fay, 

* K. Edw. Brave followers, &c.] This fcene is ill-contrived, 
in which the king and queen appear at once on the ftage at the 
Ijead of oppofite armies. It had been eafy to make one retire 
before the other entered. JOHNSON. 



My tears gainfay 6 ; for every word I fpeak, 
Ye fee, I drink the water of mine eyes. 
Therefore, no more but thU : Henry, your fove- 


Is prifoner to the foe ; his flate ufurp'd, 
His realm a flaughter-houfe, his fubjedts flain, 
His ttatutes cancell'd, and his treafure fpent ; 
And yonder is the wolf, 'that makes this fpoil. 
You fight in juftice : then, in God's name, lords, 
Be valiant, and give fignal to the fight. 

[Both parties go out. Alarum. Retreat. Excurfwns. 


Enter king Edward, Glofter, Clarence, &c. The 
Queen, Oxford, and Somerfet, prifoners. 

K. Edw. Lo, here a period of tumultuous broils. 
Away with Oxford to Hammes' Gaftle ftraight : 
For Somerfet, off' with his guilty head. 
Go, bear them hence ; I will not hear them fpeak. 

Oxf. For my part, I'll not trouble thee with words. 

Som. Nor I, but ftoop with patience to my fortune. 
[Exeunt Oxford and Somerfet , guarded. 

Queen. So part we fadly in this troublous world, 
To meet with joy in fweet Jerufalem. 

K. Edw. Is proclamation made, that, who finds 

Shall have a high reward, and he his life ? 

Glo. It is ; and, lo, where youthful Edward comes. 

My tears gainfay ;] To gal nf ay is to unfay, to deny, tocon- 
So, in a Knack to know a Knave, 1594: 

feeing my father grants 

I will notrt/w/foy." STEEYENS. 

N n 4 gnter 


Enter foldiers with the Prince. 

K. Ed&. Bring forth the gallant, let us hear hiri\ 

fpeak : 

What ! can fo young a thorn begin to prick ? 
Edward, what fatisfadtion canft thou make, 
For bearing arms, for flirring up my fubjects, 
And all the trouble thou haft turn'd me to ? 

Prince. Speak like a fubjeet, proud ambitious York ! 
Suppofe, that I am now my father's mouth ; 
Refign thy chair, and, where I ftand, kneel thou, 
Whilrt I propofe the felf-fame words to thee, 
Which, traitor, thou wouklft have me anfwer to. 

Queen. Ah, that thy father had been fo refolv'd ! 

Glo. That you might ftill have worn the petticoat, 
And ne'er have ftol'n the breech from Lancafler. 

Prince. 7 Let ./Efop fable in a winter's night ; 
His currifh riddles- fort not with this place. 

Glo. By heaven, brat, I'll plague you for that word. 

Queen. Ay, thou waft born to be a plague to men. 

Glo. For God's fake, take away this captive fcold. 

Prince. Nay, take away this fcolding crook-back 

K. Edw. Peace, wilful boy, or I will 3 charm your 

Clar. Untutor'd lad, thou art too malapert. 

Prince. I know my duty, you are all undutiful : 
Lafcivious Edward, and thou perjur'd George, 

7 Let Mfop &c.] The prince calls Richard, for his, crooked - 
wcf?, ^fop ; and the poer, following nature, makes Jflichard 
highly incenfcd at the reproach. JOHNSON. 

" charm your tovgiii\ The quarto reads, tame your 


The former is beft. So, in fir A. Gorges' Tranfiation of Lu- 
can, 1614 : 

** In hope that thy victorious arme 

'* Their dunghill crovving fo will c/.>arme" STEEVENS. 


K I N G H E N R Y VI. 553 

And thou mifhapen Dick, I tell ye all, 
J am your better, traitors as ye are ; 
And thou ufurp'ft my father's right and mine. 
K. Edw. Take that, 9 thou likenefs of this railer 
here. [Stabs him. 

Glo. Sprawl'ft thou ? take that, to end thy agony, 

[Glo. ftabs him. 
Clar. And there's for twitting me with perjury. 

[Clar.Jlabs him. 
Queen. Oh, kill me too ! 

Glo. Marry, and fhall. [Offers to kill her. 

K. Edw. Hold, Richard, hold, for we have done 

too much. 
Glo. Why Ihould me live, to fill the world with 

words ? 
K. Edw. What ! doth Ihe fwoon ? ufe means for 

her recovery. 

Glo. Clarence, excufe me to the king my brother; 
I'll hence to London on a ferious matter : 
Ere ye come there, be fure to hear more news. 
Clar, What ? what ? 

Glo. The Tower, man, the Tower ' ! [Er//, 

Queen. Oh, Ned, fweet Ned ! fpeak to thy mo- 
ther, boy ! 

Canft thou not fpeak ? O traitors ! murderers I- 
They, that ftabb'd Csefar, ihed no blood at all, 
Did not offend, nor were not worthy blame, 

9 thou likenefs of this railer here.'] Thou that refembleft 

thy railing mother. JOHNSON. 

The old copies defcribe Edward as ftriking the firft blow, and 
Glojler the next ; and I believe rightly, for hiiiory informs us 
that Edward fmote the prince with his gauntlet, on which the 
reft difpatch'd him. The words fprawVJl tbou ? feem evidently to 
belong to Richard; and I have therefore continued them to him 
on the authority of ancient editions, in preference to the allot- 
ment of modern innovation. STEEVENS. 

1 Tfje Tower man, the Tower /] The quarto adds/*// root them 
cur, but, perhaps, injudicioufly. STEEVENS, 



If this foul deed were by, to equal it. 
He was a man ; this, in refpedt, a child ; 
And men ne'er fpend their fury on a child. 
What's worfe than murderer, that I may name it ? 
No, no ; my heart will burft, an if I fpeak : 
And I will fpcak, that fo my heart may burft. 
Butchers and villlains, bloody cannibals ! 
How fwcet a plant have you untimely cropp'd ! 
You have no children, butchers ; if you had, 
The thought of them would have flirr'd up remorfe : 
But, if you ever chance to have a child, 
Look in his youth to have him fo cut off, 
As, deathfmen ! * you have rid this fweet young 

K. Edzv. A\vay with her ; go, bear her hence by 

Queen. Nay, never bear me hence, difpatch me 

here ; 

Here fheath thy fword, I'll pardon thee my death : 
What ! wilt thou not ? then, Clarence, do it thou. 
Clar. By heaven, I will not do thee fo much eafe. 
Queen. Good Clarence, do ; fweet Clarence, do 

thou do it. 
Clar. Didft thou not hear me fwear, I would not 

do it ? 

Queen. Ay, but thou ufeft to forfvvear thyfelf ; 
3 'Twas (in before, but now 'tis charity. 
What ! wilt thou not ? 4 where is that devil's butcher, 


* -you have rid this fweet young prince, ~\ The condition of 

this warlike queen would move compalfion, could it be forgotten 
that flie gave York, to wipe his eyes in his captivity, a hand- 
kerchief ftaincd with his young child's blood. JOHNSON. 

4 Tivasfo ] She alludes to the defertion of Clarence. 


* where is that dcviFs butcher, 

Richard?-] Thus all the editions. But Jcv IPs butcher, in 
ether terms, I think, is kill-devil: rare news for the free-think- 

K I N G H E N R Y VI. 555 

Hard-favour'd Richard ? Richard, where art thou ? 
Thou art not here : Murder is thy alms-deed ; 
Petitioner for blood thou ne'er put'ft back. 

K. Edw. Away, I fay ; I charge ye, bear hdr- 

Queen. So come to you, and yours, as to this 
prince ! [Exit Queen. 

K. Edw. Where's Richard gone ? 

Clar. To London, all in poft ; and, as I gucfs, 
To make a bloody flipper in the Tower. 

K. Edzv. He's fudden, if a thing comes in his head. 
Now march we hence : difcharge the common fort 
With pay and thanks, and let's away to London, 
And fee our gentle queen how well fhe fares ; 
By this, I hope, fhe hath a fon for us. [Exeunt. 


The 'Tower of London. 

Enter king Henry with a book, and Glofter with tie 
Lieutenant^ on the Tower walls. 

Glo. Good day, my lord ! What, at your book fo 

hard ? 
K. Henry. Ay, my good lord : My lord, I ftiould 

fay rather ; 

; Tis fin to flatter, good was little better : 
Good Glofter, and good devil, were alike, 
And both prepoflerous ; therefore, not good lord. 

ers, if there were any grounds for depending on it. But the 
poet certainly wrote devil-butcher ; and the firft part of the com- 
pound is to be taken adjedtively, meaning, execrable, infernal, 
devilifli. THEOBALD. 

DeviFs butcher is a butcher fet on by the devil. Either rcad 
jug may ferve without fo long a note. JOHNSON. 

556 T H I R D P A R T O F 

Glo. Sirrah, leave us to ourfelves : we muft confer. 

[Exit Lieutenant. 

K. Henry. So flies the recklefs fliepherd from the 

wolf : 

So firft the harmlefs iheep doth yield his fleece, 
And next his throat unto the butcher's knife. 
5 What fcene of death hath Rofcius now to ait ? 

Glo. Sufpicion always haunts the guilcy mind ; 
The thief doth fear each buili an officer. 

K. Henry. The bird, that hath been limed in a bufhj 
With trembling wings mifdoubteth every bufh 6 : 
And I, the haplefs male to one fu'eet bird, 
Have now the fatal object in my eye, 
Where my poor young was lim'd, was caught, and 

5 It'hat fcene of death hath Rofcius now to at?~\ Rofcius was 
certainly put for Richard by fome fimple conceited player, who 
had heard of Rofcius and of Rome ; but did not know that he was 
an aftor in comedy, not in tragedy. WARSURTON. 

Shakefpeare had occafion to compare Richard to fome player 
about to reprefent a fcene of murder, and took the firft or only 
name of antiquity that occurred to him, without being very fcru- 
pulous about its propriety. 

I know not, however, that it is proved, on claiFtcal authority, 
that Rofcius was no actor in tragedy. Naih, in Pierce Pennilcfe's, 
Supplication to the Devil, 1595, fays, " Not Rofcius nor jEfope, 
thofe admired tragedians, that have lived ever fince before Chrill 
was borne, could ever performe more in action than famous Ned 
Again, in Acolajlus his Aftervjittc, 1600 : 

" Through thee each murthering Rafchr* is appointed 
*' To aR Jlrange fcenes of Jcath on God's anointed." 
Again, in Ccrtainc Satyrcs, 1598: 

*' Was penn'd by Rofcioihe tragedian." STEEVENS. 

6 mifdoubteth every bujf? :] To mif doubt is to fufpecl clan- 
ger, to fear. So, in Humour out of Breath, a comedy by John 
Day, 1608 : 

" Hip. Doubt and mif doubt ! what difference is there here ? 
" O#. Yes much : when men 'tis laid they fear." 



K I N G H E N R Y VI. 557 

Glo. Why, what a 7 peevifh fool.was that of Crete, 
That taught his fon the office of a fowl ? 
And yet, for all his wings, the fool was drown'd. 

K. Henry. I, Daedalus ; my poor fon, Icarus ; 
Thy father, Minos, that deny'd our courfe ; 
The fun, that fear'd the wings of my fweet boy, 
Thy brother Edward ; and thyfelf, the fea, 
\Vhofe envious gulph did fwallow up his life. 
Ah, kill me with thy weapon, not with words ! 
My breaft can better brook thy dagger's point, 
Than can my ears that tragic hiftory. 
But wherefore doft thou come ? is't for my life ? 

Glo. Think'ft thou, I am an executioner ? 

K. Henry. A perfectitor, I am furc, thou art ; 
If murdering innocents be executing, 
Why, then thou art an executioner. 

Glo. Thy fon I kill'd for his prefumption. 

K. Henry. Hadft thou been kill'd, when firfl thou 

didft prefumc, 

Thou hadft not liv'd to kill a fon of mine. 
And thus I propheTy, that many a thoufand, 
8 Which now miflruft no parcel of my fear ; 
And many an old man's figh, and many a widow's, 

And many an orphan's water-ftanding eye, 

Men for their fons, wives for their huibands' fate,' 
And ^rphans for their parents' timelefs death, 
Shall rue the hour that ever thou waft born. 
The owl fliriek'd at thy birth, an evil fign ; 
The night-crow cry'd, aboding lucklefs time ; 

? peevijbfool--- ] As peevifinefs is the quality of children, 

peevijb fcems to fignify childijh, and by confequence^//y. Ptevijb 
is explained by coildijb, in a former note of Dr. Warburton. 


Shakefpeare employs the word peevijb in the fame (enfe in CyM- 
ieline, where the reader will find many inftances of this ufe of it." 


8 Wljich novj miflruft no parcel of my fear ;] Who fufpeft no 
part of what my fears prefage. JOHNSON, 


_ JDogs howl'd, and hideous tempefts fliook down trees ; 
9 The raven rook'd her on the chimney's top, 
And chattering pyes in difmal difcords fung. 
Thy mother felt more than a mother's pain, 
And yet brought forth lefs than a mother's hope ; 
To wit, an undigeft deformed lump, 
Not like the fruit of fuch a goodly tree. 
Teeth hadft thou in thy head, when thou waft born, 
To fignify, thou cam'ft to bite the world : 
1 And, if the reft be true which I have heard, 


9 The raven rooVJ her ] What is rook'd her? Read, croatfd 

loarfe. WAR BURTON. 

The true reading ieems to be at no great diitance : 
the tempcft Jhook do\vn trees, 

The raven rock'd her on the chimney's top,~\ 
On the top of the chimney fhaken by the tempeft. JOHNSOV. 

To rook, or rather to ruck, is a north-country word, fignity- 
Ing toftjuat do-ivn, or lodge on any thing. 
So, in Chaucer's Knight a Tale, late edit. v. 1310 : 
" What is mankind more unto you yhold, 
" Than is the fhepe, that roukcth in the fold ?" 
Again, in the Nonnes Prccftes Tale, ibid. v. 15232 : 

*' O falfe morderour, rucking in thy den." 
Again, in Gower De ConfcJJionc Amantis, Lib. IV. fol. ^2 : 
** But now thei rucken in her neft, 
** And reften as hem liketh befte." 

Again, in the Preface to Stanyhurft's Tranflation of Virgil, 1582: 
'* I cannot devine upon fuch bookes that happlye rouke in llu- 
dentes mewes, &c." 
Again, in the Tranflation of the IVth Book : 

" Alfo on the turrets the fkrich hovvle, &c. 

** doth ruck, &c." 

Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, B. VII. ch. 37 : 

*' Have lazy wings, be ever lean, in fullen corners ruck^ 

1 And, if the reft Ic true ivhlch I have beard, 

Thou canty ] 

Had our editors had but a grain of fagacity, or due diligence, 
there could have been no room for this abfurd break, fince they 
might have ventured to fill it up with certainty too. The old 
quarto would have led them part of the way : 
Thou catJR into the world 



Thou cam'ft into the world with thy legs forward : 
Glo. I'll hear no more ; Die, prophet, in thy 
fpeech ; [Stabs him. 

For this, amongft the reft, was I ordain'd. 

X. Henry. Ay, and for much more daughter after 

God ! forgive my fins, and pardon thce ! [Dies. 
Glo. What, will the afpiring blood of Lancafter 

Sink in the ground ? 1 thought, it would have 

See ; how my fword v\*eeps for the poor king's death ! 

0, may fuch purple tears be ahvay fhed 

From thofe that wifh the downfal of our houfe ! 
If any fpark of life be yet remaining, 
Down, down to hell ; and fay I lent thee thither, 

[Stabs tim again. 

1, that have neither pity, love, nor fear. 
Indeed, 'tis true, that Henry told me of ; 
For I have often heard my mother fay, 

1 came into the world with my legs forward : 
Had I not reafon, think ye, to make hafte, 
And feck their ruin that ufurp'd our right ? 
The midwife wonder'd ; and the women cry'J, 
O, Jefus blefs us; he is born ivltb teeth ! 

And fo I was ; which plainly fignify'd 

That I mould fnarl, and bite, and play the dog. 

Then, fince the heavens have fhap'd my body fo, 

And that the verfe is to be completed in the manner I have 
given it, is inconteftible ; for unlefs we fuppofe king Henry ac- 
tually reproaches him with this his prepofterous birth, how can 
Richard in his very next foliloquy fay ? 

Indeed, 'tis true that Henry told ntt of, 
For I have often heard my mother fay , 
/ came into the world ivitb my legs forward. 
I can eafily fee, that this blank was caufed by the nicety of the 
players, to fupprefs an indecent idea. But, with fubmiffion, 
this was making but half a cure, unlefs they had expunged the 
repetition of it out of Richard's fpeech too. THEOBALD. 



* Let hell make crook'd my mind, to anfwer it; 

I had no father, I am like no father : 

I have no brother, I am like no brother : 

And this word love, which grey-beards call di 


Be refident in men like one another, 
And not in me ; I am myfelf alone. 
Clarence, beware ; thou keep'ft me from the light 

3 But I will fort a pitchy day for thee : 

4 For I will buz abroad fuch prophecies, 
That Edward fhall be fearful of his life ; 
And then, to purge his fear, I'll be thy death. 
King Henry, and the prince his fon, are gone : 
Clarence, thy turn is next ; and then the reft ; 
Counting myfelf but bad, 'till I be beft. 

I'll throw thy body in another room, 

And triumph, Henry, in thy day of doom. 

* Let bell &c.] This line Drydeu- feems to have thought on 
in his Oedipus : 

" It was thy crooked mind hunch 'd out thy back, 
" And wander'd in thy limbs." STEEVENS. 
3 But I will fort a pitchy day for thec :] But I will chufe out 
an hour whofe gloom fhall ba as fatal to you. To fort is to/elctf. 
So, in The Spanijb Tragedy, 160; : 

** - for they had-forteJ leifure." 
Again, in the fifaaruboJy Lover, 1629 : 

" We tt\al\/ort time to take more notice of him." 

* For I will buz about fuch prophecies, 

That EJ-ivardJhatt be fearful of his life;} 
The quartos add a line between thefe : 

fuch prophecies, 

Under pretence of outward feeming ill, 
That &c. STEEVENS. 


KING II K N R Y VI. y>, 


The palace in London. 

Enter king EdzawJ, the ^ueen, wilk tie yo:>.n? Trl,:, -.-, 
Clarence, Glqfter, Ha/tings, and At tenant*. 

K.Ediv. Once more we fit in England's royal 


Rc-purchas'd with the blood of enemies. 
What valiant foe-men, like to autumn's corn, 
Have we mow'd down, in top of all their pride r 
Three dukes of Somerfet, threefold renown'd 
For hardy and undoubted champions : 
Two Cliffords, as the father and the fon, 
And two Northumberlands ; two braver men 
Ne'er fpurr'd their courfers at the trumpet's found : 
With them, the two brave bears, Warwick and Mon- 
tague, ^ 

That in their chains fetter'd the kingly lion, 
And made the foreft tremble when they roai'd. 
Thus have we fwept fufpicion from our feat, 
And made our footflool of fccurity. 
Come hither, Befs, and let me kits my boy : ' 

\faktng the cb'dd. 

Young Ned, for thee, thine uncles and my fell", 
Have in our armours watch'd the winter's night ; 
Went all afoot in fummer's fcalding heat, 
That thou might'fl repoflefs the crown in peace ; 
And of our labours thou fhalt reap the gain. 

Glo. I'll blaft his harveft, if your head were lay'd ; 
For yet I am not look'd on in the world. 
This moulder was ordain'd fo thick, to heave ; 
And heave it lhall fome weight, or break my back : 
5 Work thou the way, and thou fhalt execute. [Afide. 

K. t fc. 

5 Work tlov. the iwrj 1 , ami that fhah execute.] I believe we 
fliould read : 

VOL. VI. O o and 

562 T H I R D P A R T O F 

K. EJiU. Clarence and Gloftcr, love my lovely 

queen ; 
And kifs your princely nephew, brothers both. 

Clar. The duty, that I owe unto your majefty, 
I feal upon the lips of this fvveet babe. 

Queen. 6 Thanks, noble Clarence ; worthy brother, 


Glo. And, that I love the tree from whence thou 

Witnefs the loving kifs I give the fruit : 

To fay the truth, fo Judas kifs'd his matter ;-j 
And cry'd all hail ! when as he meant z.\\\A[ide. 

harm. J 

K. Eikv. Now am I feated as my foul delights, 
Having my country's peace, and brothers' loves. 

Clar. What will yourgracehavedonewithMargaret? 
Reignier, her father, to the king of France 
Hath pawn'd the Sicils and Jeruialem, 
And hither have they fent it for her ranfom. 

K. Edw. Away with her, and waft her hence to 

, France. 

And now what refts, but that we fpend the time 
With irately triumphs, mirthful comic mows, 

Such as befit the pleafures of the court ? 

Sound, drums and trumpets ! farewel, four annoy ! 
For here, I hope, begins our lading joy. 

[Exeunt omnes. 

<eend this. /&<?// execute. 
Richard laying his hand on his forehead fays : 

Work thou the -Ttv.'v 
then bringing down his hand, and beholding it, 

and \.\\\sjball execute. 

Though that may Hand, the arm being included in the fhoulder. 

The quartos read : 

Work thou the -iivy, and \.\\o\\Jbalt execute. 

J fuppofe he fpenks this line, firft touching his Lead) and then 
looking on his band. STEEVENS. 

6 Thanh, noble Clarence', worthy brother, thanks.] This line 
has been given to king Edward ; but I have, with the old quarto, 
i cltorcd it to the queen. THEOBALD. 


The three parts of Henry VI. are fufpe&ed, by Mr. Theobald, 
of being fuppofititious, and are declared, by Dr. Warburton, 
to be certainly not Shakefpeare's. Mr. Theobald's fulpicion 
arifes from fome obfolete words ; but the phrafeology is like the 
veil: of our author's ftile, and iingle words, of which however I 
do not obferve more than two, can conclude little. 

Dr. Warburton gives no reafon, but 1 fuppofe him to judge 
upon deeper principles and more compreheniive views, and to 
draw his opinion from the general efteft and fpirit of theeompo- 
fition, which he thinks inferior to the other hiilorical plays. 

From mere inferiority nothing can be inferred ; in the produc- 
tions of wit there will be inequality. Sometimes judgment will 
err, and fometimes the matter itfelf will defeat the artift. Of 
every author's works one will be the beft, and one will be the 
vvorft. The colouis are not equally pleafing, nor the attitudes 
equally graceful, in all the pictures of Titian or Reynolds. 

Diflimilitude of ftile and heterogeneoufnefs of fentiment, may 
diffidently fliow that a work does not really belong to the re- 
puted author. But in thefe plays no fuch marks of fpurioufnefs 
are found. The diftion, the verfification, and the figures, are 
Shakefpeare's. Thefe plays, conlidered, without regard to cha- 
radters and incidents, merely as narratives in verfe, are more hap- 
pily conceived and more accurately finifhed than thofe of king 
John, Richard II. or the tragic fcenes of Henry IV. and V. It 
we take thefe plays from Shakefpeare, to whom fliall they be 
given ? What author of that age had the fame eafmefs of ex- 
preffion and fluency of numbers ? 

Having confidered the evidence given by the plays themfelvcs, 
and found it in their favour, let us no-.v enquire what corrobo- 
ration can be gained from other teftimony. They are afcribed 
to Shakefpeare by the firft editors, whofe atteftation may be re- 
ceived in queftions of fa6t, however unlkiltully they iuperin- 
tended their edition. They feem to be declared genuine by the 
voice of Shakefpeare himfelf, who refers to the fecond play in 
his epilogue to Henry V. and apparently connects the firlt act of 
Richard III. with the laft of the third part of Henry VI. If it 
be objected that the plays were popular, and that therefore he 
alluded to them as well known ; it may be anfwered, with equal 
probability, that the natural patfions of a poet would have dif- 
pofed him to feparate his own works from thofe of an inferior 
hand. And, indeed, if an author's own teftimony is to be over- 
thrown by fpeculative criticifm, no man can be any longer fe- 
cure of literary reputation. 

Of thefe three plays I think the fecond the beft. The truth 
is, that they have not fufficient variety or action, for the inci- 
dents are too often of the fame kind ; yet many of the charac- 
ters are well difcriminated. King Henry, antt his queen, king 
O o 2 Ed- 


toward, the d'A "ier, and the carl of Warwick, are 

ivm;ly and diit:n>;!y painted, 

The v Id copies 01 the two latter parts or" Henry VI. and of 
Henry V. are i'o apparently imperfect and mutilated, that there 
is no realon for fuppofiog them the firft draughts of ijhakefpeare. 
I am inclined to believe them copies taken bv ibme auditor who 
wrote down, during the representation, what the time would per- 
mit, then perhaps filled up fome of his omniums at a lecond or 
third hearing, and when he had by this method formed lomething 
like a play, lent it to the printer. JOHNSON. 

So, Hey wood, in the Preface to his Rape of Lucrcce, (fourth 
imprcilion) 1630 : 

44 for though fome have tifed a double fale of their la- 
bours, firft to the itage and after to the prefs, for my own part 1 
here proclaim myfelt ever faithful to the firft, and never guilty 
of the la ft : yet lince fome of my plays have (unknown to me, 
and without any of my direction) accidentally come into the 
printer's hands, and therefore fo corrupt and mangled (copied 
only by tbc f.?/-), that I have been as unable to know them as 
afhamed to challenge them. This therefore I was the wiliinger, 
&c." COLLINS. 

Dr. John'.on's conjecture is likewife confirmed by a Prologue of 
Th' Heywocd's to a play of his intitled, If you know not me yon 
buna Nobodj, 1623 : 

'Twas ill nurft, 

44 And yet received as well perform 'd at firft, 
*' Grac'd and frequented, for the cradle age 
' Did throng the feats, the boxes and the llage 
" So much, that fome \yy fteno^raphy drew 
44 The plot, put it in print ; fcarce one word true : 
44 And in that lamenefs it has limp'd fo long, 
*' The author now, to vindicate that wrong, 
44 Hath took the pains upright upon its feet 
" To teach it walk fo pleafe you fit and fee it." 


There is another circumftance which may ferve to ftrengtheu 
this fuppofition, viz. that moft of the fragments of Latin verfes, 
omitted in the quartos, are to be found in the folio ; and 
when any of them are inferted in the former, they are fhame- 
fully corrupted and mif-lpelt. The auditor, who underftood Eng- 
liih, might be unfldll'd in any other language. STEEVENS. 

I have already given fome realbns, why I cannot believe, that 
thefe plays were originally written by Shakefpeare. The qucf- 
tion, who did write them ? is at beft, but an argument ad igno- 
rantiam. We muft remember, that very many old plays are 
anonymous ; and thztflay-writing wasfcarcely yet thought reput- 
able : nay, fome authors exprefs for it great horrors of repent- 


nnce. I will attempt, however, at fome future time, to anfa-er 
this queition : the difquifition of it wouW be too long for this 

One may ar k'ift argue, that the plays were not written by 
Shakefpeare, from Shakefpeare himfelf. The Chorus at the end 
of" Henry V. addrefles the audience 

" For their fake, 

" In your fair minds let this acceptance take." 
But it could be. neither agreeable to the poet's judgment or his 
modefty, to recommend his new play trom the merit aid fuccefs 

of Henry VI.! His claim to indulgence is, that, though 

bending and unequal to the talk, he hns ventured to purfue the 
Jlory : and this fufficientty accounts for the connection of the 
whole, and the allufions of particular paflages. FARMER. 

It is fcldom that Dr. Farmer's arguments fail to enforce con- 
virtion ; but here, perhaps, they may want fomewhat of their 
ufual weight. I think that Shakefpeare's bare mention of thefe 
pieces, is a fufticient proof they were his. That they were fo, 
could be his only motive for inferring benefit to himfelf from 
the fpectator's recollection of their paft Yuccefs. For the fake of 
three hirtorical dramas of mine which have already afforded you 
entertainment, let me (fays he) intreat your indulgence to a 
fourth. Surely this was a ftronger plea in his behalf than any 
ariiing from the kind reception which another might have al- 
ready met with in the fame way of writing. Shakefpeare's claim 
to favour is founded on his having previoufly given pleafure in 
the courfe of three of thofe hiftories ; becaufe he is a lending, 
fupplicatory author, and not a literary bully like Ben Jonfon ; 
and becaufe he has ventured to exhibit a feries of annals in a 
fuite of plays, an attempt which 'till then had not received the 
function of the ftage. 

' I hope Dr. Farmer did not wifh to exclude the three dramas be- 
fore us, together with the Taming of a Shrew, from the number 
or" thofe produced by our author, on account of the Latin quo- 
tations to be found in them. His proofs of Shakefpeare's want 
of learning are too Itrong to ftand in need of fuch a fupport ; and 
yet Venus and Adcnis, " the nrft heire of his invention," h 
ufher'd into the world with a Latin motto : 

Vilia miretur vulgus ; mihi flavus Apollo 
Pocula Caftalia plena miniftrat aqua. STEEVENS. 
Though the objections, which have been raifed to the ge- 
nuinenefs of the three plays of Henry the fixth, have been fully 
conlidered and anfwered by Dr. Johnfon, it may not be amifs to 
add here, from a contemporary writer, a paflage, which not 
only points at Shakefpeare as the author of them, but alfo (hews, 
that, however meanly we may now think of them in comparifon. 
with his later productions, they had, at the time of their ap- 
pearance, a fufficient degree of" excellence to alarm the jealoufy 



of the older playwrights. The paflage, to which I refer, is in 
a pamphlet, entitled, Greene's Groatfiuorth of Witte, fuppofed 
to have been written by that voluminous author, Robert Greene, 
M. A. and faid, in the title-page to be publijhed at his dying re- 
queft ; probably, about 1592. The conclufion of this piece is an 
addrefs to his brother-poets, to difluade them from writing any 
more for the ftage, on account of the ill treatment which they 
were ufed to receive from the players. It begins thus : To thofe 

his quondam acquaintance, that fpend their wits in mak- 
<ngplaycs, R. G. ivijheth a better exer cife, &c. After having ad- 
dreu himfelf particularly to Chrifiopher Marlowe and Thomas 

Lodge, (as I guefs from circumftances, for their names are not 
mentioned ;) he goes on to a third (perhaps George Peek) ; and 
having warned him againft depending on fo meane a ftay as the 
players, he adds : Tes, truft them not : for there is an upfiart crow 
beautified with our feathers, that with his tygres head wrapt in a 
players hyde, fuppofes hce is as well able to bombajle out a blanke 
verfe as the beft of you j and being an abfolute Johannes fac totum 
is in his own conceit, the onely Shake-fcene in a countrey. There 
can be no doubt, I think, that Shakc-fccne alludes to Shakefpeare ; 
or that his tygres head wrapt in a players hyde is a parodie upon 
the following line of York's fpeech to Margaret, Third Part of 
Henry the Sixth, adt I. fc. iv : 

" Oh tygres heart, wrapt in a woman's hide" 



This book is DUE on the last date stamped below 

Form L-9-35m-8,'28 

PR Johnson, Steevens- 
2#2-Tiie plays of 
J63 William 

177o Shakespeare. 
v.6 . 



iii mi mi ii mill mi iii 111 inn ill mm i ., ,. 

3 1158 00989 8072 

A 000017797 2