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1 VOL. VII. 



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Printed for C. Bathurft, W. Strahan, J. F. and C. Rivington, 
J. Hinton, L. Davis, W. Owen, T. Caflon, E. Johnfon, S. Crowder, 
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T. Cadell, H. L. Gardener, J. Nichols, J. Bew, J. Beecroft, 
W. Stuart, T. Lowndes, J. Rcbfon, T. Payne, T. Becket, 
F. Newbery, G. Robinfon, R. Baldwin, J. Williams, J. Ridley, 
T. Evans, W. Davies, W. Fox, and J. Murray, 






Perfons Reprefented. 

King Edward IV. 

Edward, Prince of Wales, after- ") 

wards Edward V. \Sons to Edward -IV. 

Richard, Duke of York, J 

George, Duke of Clarence, Brother to Edward IV. 
A young Son of Clarence. 
Richard, Duke of Gloftcr, Brother to Edward IV. 

afterwards King Richard III. 
Cardinal Bourchier, Arcbbijbop of Canterbury. 
ArcWijkop of York. 
Bijkop of Ely. 
Duke of Buckingham. 
Duke of Norfolk. Earl of Surrey. 
Earl Rivers, brother to K. Edwards'j Queen. 
Marquis of Dorfet, 1 7 r 
jWGrc'jr. W^K 

Earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII. 
Lord Haftings. 
Sir Thomas Vaughan. 
Sir Richard Ratcliff. 

Sir William Catefby. 

Sir James Tyrrel. 

Lord Stanley. 

Earl of Oxford. 

Sir James Blount. 

Sir Walter Herbert. 

Sir Robert Brakenbury, Lieutenant of the Tower. 

Chriftopher Urfwick, a Prieft. Another Prieft. 

Lord Mayor. 

Elizabeth, Queen of Edward IV. 

Queen Margaret, Widotvo of Henry VI. 

Anne, Widow of Ed ward Prince of Wales, Son to Hen- 

ry VI. afterwards married to the Duke of Glofter. 
Dutchefs of York, Mother to Edward IV. Clarence 

and Richard III. 

Sheriff, Purfuivant, Scrivener, Citizens, Ghofts, Soldiers, 
and other Attendants. 


O F 


. , - 



London. A Street. 
Enter Richard Duke of Glojler. 

Glo. Now is the winter of our difcontent 
Made glorious fummer by this fun of York *; 


1 Life and Death of King Richard III.] This tragedy, 
though it 13 called the Life and Death of this prince, comprizes, 
at moft, but the laft eight years of his time ; for it opens with 
George duke of Clarence being clapped up in the Tower, which 
happened in the beginning of the year 14.77 5 a "d clofes with the 
death of Richard at Bofworth field, which battle was fought on 
the 22d of Auguft, in the year 1485. THEOBALD. 

It appears that feveral dramas on the prefent fubjeft had been 
written before Shakefpeare attempted it. See the notes at the 
conclufion of this play, which was firft enter'd at Stationers' Hall by 
Andrew Wife, Oft. 20, 1597, under the title of The Tragedie of 
King Richard the Third) with the Death of the Duke of Clarence. 
Before this, viz. Aug. i;th, 1586, was entered, A Tragical re- 
port of King Richard the Third, a Ballad. It may be necefTary 
to remark that the words, fong, ballad, book, enterlude and play y 
were often fynonymoufly ufed. STEEVENS. 

* 'this fun of Tork ;] Alluding to the cognizance of Ed- 

ward IV. which was a fun, in memory of the three funs, which 
are faid to have appeared at the battle which he gained over the 
Lancastrians at Mortimer's Crofs. 

B * So, 


And ail the clouds, that lowr'd upon our houfe> 
In the deep bofom of the ocean bury'd. 
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths 
Our bruifed arms hungup for monuments ; 
Our Item alarums chang'd to merry meetings J , 
Our dreadful marches to delightful meafures. 
Grim-vifag'd war hath fmooth'd his wrinkled front ; 
And now, inftead of mounting barbed fleeds 4 , 


So, in Di'ayton's Miferies of htcen Sfargarrt : 

** Threeyft/M were feen that inliant to appear, 

" Which loon again fluu themielves up in one, 

*' Ready to buckle as the armies were, 

** Which this brave duke took to himfelf alone &c." 
Again, in the 2id Song of the Polyollion: 

" And thankful to high heaven which of his caufe had 1 

" Three funs for his device ftill in his enfign bare." 
Again, in the Wrighte's Play in the Chefter Collection. M. S. Harl. 
1013, the fame prodigy is introduced as attending on a more fo- 
lenm event : 

** That day was feene veramente 

" Three fonnes in the firmament, 

*' And wonderly together went 

tv And torned into one." STEEVENS. 

3 merry meetings,] bo, in The tragical Life and Death of 
King Richard the Third) which is one of the metrical monologues 
in a collection entitled, The Mir r our of Magijt rates. The nut 
edition ot it appeared in 1587, but the lines quoted on the pre- 
fent as well as future occaftons throughout this play, are not found 
in any copy before that of 16 10, fo that the author was more pro* 
bably indebted to Shakefpeare than Shakefpearc to him : 

the bat tie if ought infield* before 

Were turrfd to meetings of fvjeet auntie ; 

The ivar-goJ's tbundnng cannons dreadful rore^ 
And rattling drum-founds* warlike hannonie^ 
Tofweet-tnndnoife of pleajlng ninjlrelfie. 

God Man laid by his launce, and tookt his luie, 
And turned his 1 'iiggcti frow?;ts toftniiin? lookes ; 

Injliadof eriMjan fields, wrs fatal fruit, 
He bath'd his iimles in Cypris <warlling broolu, 
And fet his thoughts upon her wanton lookcs. STFEVENS, 

4 barbed ft eeds,] I. Haywarde, in his L :f* a nd Raigne of 

IV. | 599, fays, The duke of Hereford came to the barriers, 

n a white C9urftr t barbed with blew and green velvet, &c. 


To fright the fouls of fearful adverfaries, - 

5 He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber, 

To the lafcivious pleating of a lute. 

But I, that am not lhapi'd for fportive tricks, 

Nor made to court an amorous looking-glafs ; 

I, that am rudely ftamp'd, and want love's ma- 


To ftrut before a wanton ambling nymph ,; 
I, that am curtail'd of this fair proportion, 

:So, in far vis Maikham's E>igl:Jb Arcadia, 1607 : 

" - armed in a black armour, curioufly damafk'd with in- 
teminding wreaths of cyprefs and ewe, his larbe upon his horfe, 
all or" black abrofetta, cut in broken heopcs upon curled cyprefs." 
.Again, in the zd Part or" K.EJwardlV. by Hey wood, 1626 : . 
k ' \\ : ith larked horfe, and valiant armed foot." 

, however, may be no more than a corruption of larded. 
Equus bardatuS) in the Latin of the middle ages, was a horfe 
-.adorned with military trappings. I have met with the word 
larded many times in our ancient chronicles and romances. An 
inflance or t\vo may fuilice. ** They mounted him furely upon 
a good and mighty courfer, well barded, &c." 

liift. of Helyas Knight of the Swanne^ bl. 1. no date. 
Again, in HalFsChronide, King Hairy VIII. p. 4.^: 

" appereilled in ryche armure, on a bardt'd courfer &c." 
Again, in the Miracles of j\fof?s, by Drayton : 

" There floats the bard iteed with his rider drown 'd, 

" Whofe foot in his caparifon is caft." 
Again, in Warner's Albion s England^ B. VIII. chap. 38 : 

" For whether that be trots, or turns, or bounds his 

barded fteed." 
Again, in Barrett's Aivcarle^ or f^uadrnplr Dictionary , 1^80: 

*' Bardts or trappers of horfes. Phalerce, Lat." 
Again, Holinfl.eJ fpeaking of the preparations for the battle of 
Agincourt: *' - - to the intenc that if the barded horfes ran 
fiercely upon them, &c " Again, p. 802, he fays, that bards and 
trappers had the fame meaning. 

It is obferved in the Turkijh Spy^ that the German cuiraffiers, 
though armed and barbed^ man and horfe, were not able to ftand 
againit the French .cavalry. STEHVENS. 

5 He capers - ] War capers. This is poetical, though a 
little harfh ; if it be York that capers, the antecedent is at fuch 
a diibnce, that it is ulmuil forgotten, JOHNSON. 

B i Cheat- 


6 Cheated of feature by diflembling nature, 
Deform'd, unfinifti'd/fent before my time 
Into this breathing world, fcarce half made up, 
And that fo lamely and unfaftiionably, 
That dogs bark at me, as I halt by them ; 
Why I, in this weak piping time of peace. 
Have no delight to pafs away the time ; 
Unlefs to fpy my fhadow in the fun, 
And defcant on mine own deformity 7 : 
And therefore, iince I cannot prove a lover *, 
To entertain thefe fairwell-fpoken days, 
I am determined to prove a villain, 
And 9 hate the idle pleafures of thefe days. 
Plots have I laid, ' irfdu&ions dangerous, 
By drunken prophefies, libels, and dreams, 
To fet my brother Clarence, and the king, 
In deadly hate the one againft the other : 

' * Cheated of feature ly diflembling nature,] By diffcmlllng is not 
meant hypocritical nature, that pretends one thing and does an- 
other : but nature that puts together things of a diflknilar kind, 
as a brave foul and a deformed body. WAR EUR TON. 

JDiJJeml'ling is here put very licentioufly iorfraudful, deceitful: 


7 And defcant on mine own deformity:'} Defcant is a term in 
Tnufic, fignifying in general that kind of harmony wherein one 
part is broken and formed into a kind of paraphrafe on the other. 
The propriety and elegance of the above figure, without fuch an 
idea of the nature of defcant^ could not be difcerned. 


8 And therefore, Jince I cannot prove a lover,'] Shakefpeare very 
diligently inculcates, that the wickednefs of Richard proceeded 
from his deformity, from the envy that rofe at the comparifon of 
his own perfon with others, and which incited him to difturb the 
pleafures that he could not partake. JOHNSON. 

9 And hate the idle pleafures ] Perhaps we might read : 

Andbztt the idle pleafures JOHNSON. 

i'ldu ftions dangerous, ] Preparations for mifchief. The 

jnetufiion is preparatory to the action of the play. JOHNSON. 

Marfton hus put this line, with little variation, into the mouth 
of Fame : 

" Plots ha' you laid ? inductions dangerous ?" 




And, if king 1 Edward be as true and jufl, 
As I am fubtle, falfe, and treacherous, 
This day fhould Clarence clofely be mew'd up ; 
About a prophefy, which fays that G 
Of lidward's heirs the murderer fhall be. 
Dive, thoughts, down to my foul ! here Clarence 

Enter Clarence guarded, and Brakenbury. 

Brother, good day : What means this armed guard, 
That waits upon your grace ? 

Clar. His majeity, 

Tendering my perfon's fafety, hath appointed 
This conduct to convey me to the Tower. 

Glo. Upon what caufe ? 

Cla. Becaufe my name is George. 

Glo. Alack, my lord, that fault is none of yours; 

He fhould, for that, commit your godfathers : 

O, belike, his majefty hath fome intent, 

That you fliould be new chriften'd in the Tower. 

But what's the matter, Clarence ? may I know ? 

Clar. Yea, Richard, when I know ; for, I proteft, 
As yet I do not : But, as I can learn, 
He hearkens after prophefies, and dreams ; 
And from the crofs-row plucks the letter G, 
And fays a wizard told him, that by G 
His iffue difinherited fhculd be ; 
And, for my name of George begins with G J , 
It follows in his thought, that I am he : 

z Edward be as true and juft,] i.e. as open-hearted and 
free from deceit. WARBURTON. 
The meaning is only this ; if Edward keeps his word. 


3 And, for my name of George begins with G, &c.] Sp, in Ni- 
cols's Tragical Life and Death of Richard III : 
" By that blind riddle of the letter G, 
" George loll his life ; it took effeft in me." STEEVENS. 

B 4 Thefe, 


Thefe, as I learn, and fuch like toys as thefe *, 
Have mov'd his highnefs to commit me now. 

Glo. Why, this it is, when men are rul'd by 

women : 

J Tis not the king, that fends you to the Tower ; 
My lady Grey his wife, Clarence, 'tis flie, 
That tempts him to this harfli extremity, 
\Vas it not fhe, and that good man of worlhip, 
Anthony Woodeville, her brother there, 
That made him fend lord Haftings to the Tower; 
From whence this prefent day he is deliver'd ? 
We are not fafe, Clarence, we are not fafe, 

Clar. By heaven, I think, there is no man fecure, 
But the queen's kindred, and night-walking heralds 
That trudge betwixt the king and miftrefs Shore. 
Heard you not, what an humble fuppliant 
Lord Haflings was to her for his delivery ? 

Glo. s Humbly complaining to her deity 
Got my lord chamberlain his liberty. 
I'll tell you what, I think, it is our way, 
Jf we will keep in favour with the king, 
To be her men, and wear her livery : 
6 The jealous o'er-worn widow, and herfelf, 
Since that our brother dubb'd them gentlewomen^ 
Are mighty goffips in this monarchy. 

Erak. I befeech your graces both to pardon me ; 
His majefty hath ftraitly given in charge, 
That no man lhall have private conference, 
Of what degree foever, with his brother. 

Glo. Even fo ? an pleafe your worlhip, Brakenbury, 
You may partake of any thing we fay ; 
We fpeak no treafon, man ;- We fay, the king 
Is wife, and virtuous ; and his noble queen 

* ^~^ ys ~^ Fancles f rea ks of imagination. JOHNSON. 

Humbly complaining &c.] I think thefe two lines might be 
better given to Clarence. JOHNSON. 

6 ne jealous o'er-worn w/Vfcw, and btrfelf^ ThaKs. the queen 
and Shore. JOHNSON. 



Well ftruck in years 7 ; fair, and not jealous : 
We fay, that Shore's wife hath a pretty foot, 
A cherry lip, a bonny eye, a pafling pleafing tongue ; 
That the queen's kindred are made gentle-folks : 
How fay you, fir ? can you deny all this ? 

Brak. With this, my lord, myfelf have nought 

to do. 
Gk. Naught to do with miftrefs Shore ? I tell thee, 


He that doth naught with her, excepting one, 
Were beft to do it fecretly, alone. 
Brak. What one, my lord ? 
Gk. Her hufband, knave : Would'ft thou betray 

me ? 
Brak* I befeech your grace to pardon me ; and, 

Forbear your conference with the noble duke. 

Gar. We know thy charge, Brakenbury, and will 


Glo. We are the 8 queen's abjedls, and muft obey. 
Brother, farewel : I will unto the king ; 
And whatfoe'er you will employ me in, 
Were it, to call king Edward's widow fifler 9 , 

I will 

7 #V/ftruck In years ;] This odd expreilion in our language 
was preceded by one as uncouth though of a fimilar kind. 

* Well ft\o\. in years he feentd &c.] Spenfer's F< Queen, B. V. 
c. vi : The meaning of neither is very obvious ; but as Mr. War- 
ton has obferved in his EfTay on the Faery >t!ecn, by an imper- 
ceptible progreffion from one kindred fenfe to another, words at 
length obtain a meaning entirely foreign to their original etymo- 
logy. STEEVENS. 

8 the queen's aljefls ] That is, not the queen's 

fuljefls, whom fhe might proteft, but her abjefts, whom (he drives 

away. JOHNSON. 

9 Were it to call king E(hjard'sividov jifter,~] This is a very 
covert and fubtle manner of iufmuating treaibn. The natural 
exprelfion would have been, <- Mcrc // t o call .kixg Edward's wife, 

jifter. I will folicit for you, though it fliould be at the expence 
of ib much degradation and conilraint, us to own the low-born 
wife of King lidvyard for a fitter. But by Hipping, as it were 



I will perform it, to enfranchife you. 

Mean time, this deep difgrace in brotherhood, 

Touches me deeper than you can imagine. ,-,, .* 

Clar. I know, it pleafeth neither of us well. 

Clo. Well, your imprifonment fhall not be long ; 
I will deliver you, or elfe lye for you : 
Mean time, have patience. 

Clar. I mud perforce ' ; farewel. 

[Exeunt Clarence and Rrakeiibury. 

Glo. Go, tread the path that thou lhalt ne'er return, 
Simple, plain Clarence ! I do love thee fo, 
That I will ftiortly fend thy foul to heaven, 
If heaven will take the prefent at our hands. 
But who comes here ? the new-deliver'd Haftings ? 

Enter Haftings. 

Haft. Good time of day unto my gracious lord 

Glo. As much unto my good lord chamberlain ! 
Well are you welcome to this open air. 
How hath your lordfhip brook'd imprifonment ? 

Haft. With patience, noble lord, as prifoners mud : 
But I fliall live, my lord, to give them thanks, 
That were the caufe of my imprifonment. 

Glo. No doubt, no doubt ; and fo fliall Clarence 

too ; 

For they, that were your enemies, are his, 
And have prevail'd as much on him, as you. 

Hajl. More pity, that the eagle Ihould be mew'd % 


cafually, ciuV&w, into the place of wife, he tempts Clarence 
with an oblique propofal to kill the king. JOHNSON. 

King Edward's widow is, I believe, only an expreffion of con- 
tempt, meaning the widow Grey, whom Edward had chofen for 
his queen. Glofter has already called her, the jealous overworn 
iviiiew. STEEVENS. 

' I muft perforce.] Alluding to the proverb, " Patience per- 
force is a medicine tor a mad dog." STEEVENS. 

* Jhouldbc mew'd,] A 7u was the place of confinement 

where a hawk was kept till he had moulted. So, in Albumazar : 

" Stand 


While kites and buzzards prey at liberty. 

Glo. What news abroad ? 

Haft. No news fo bad abroad, as this at home ; 
The king is fickly, weak, and melancholy, 
And his phyficians fear him mightily. 

Glo. Now, by faint Paul 3 , that news is bad indeed. 
O, he hath kept an evil diet long, 
And over-much confum'd his royal perfon ; 
'Tis very grievous to be thought upon. 
What, is he in his bed ? 

Haft. He is. 

Glo. Go you before, and I will follow you. 

[Exit Haftings. 

He cannot live, I hope ; and muft not die, 
'Till George be pack'd with poft-horfe up to heaven. 
I'll in, to urge his hatred more to Clarence, 
With lies well fteel'd with weighty arguments; 
And, if I fail not in my deep intent, 
Clarence hath not another day to live : 
Which done, God take king Edward to his mercy, 
And leave the world for me to buftle in ! 
For then I'll marry Warwick's youngeft daughter : 
W T hat though I kill'd her hufband, and her father ? 
The readied way to make the wench amends, 
Isto become her hufband, and her father : 
The which will I ; not all fo much for love, 
As for another fecret clofe intent, 
By marrying her, which I muft reach unto. 
But yet I run before my horfe to market : 
Clarence flill breathes ; Edward ftill lives, and reigns; 
When they are gone, then muft I count my gains. 


" Stand forth, transform'd Antonio, fully mevfd 
" From brown foar feathers of dull yeomanry, 
" To the glorious bloom of gentry." STEEVENS, 
] The " 

* Now, ly faint Paul, ] The folio reads : 

AW, ly faint John, STEEVENS. 




Another Street. 

Enter tie corfe of Henry the fixth, with halberds t9 
guard it ; Lady Awe being the mourner. 

Ame. Set down, fet down your honourable load, 
If honour may be fhrouded in a hearfe, 
Whilft I a while obfequjoufly lament * 
The untimely fall of virtuous Lancafter. 
Poor key-cold figure 5 of a holy king J 
Pale afhes of the houfe of Lancafter ! 
Thou bloodlefs remnant of that royal blood ! 
Be it lawful that I jnvocate thy ghoft, 
To hear the lamentations pf poor Anne, 
Wife to thy Edward, to thy flaughter'd fon, 
Stabb'd by the felf-fame hand that made thcfe 

wounds ! 

Lo, in thefe windows, that let forth thy life, 
I pour the helplefs balm of my poor eyes : 
O, curfed be the hand, that made thefe holes ! 
Curfed the heart, that had the heart to doit ! 
Curfed the blood, that let this blood from hence J 
More direful hap betide that hated wretch, 
That makes us wretched by the death of thee, 
Than I can wifti to adders, fpiders, toads, 

* obfequioufly lament'} Ol>fcquious t in this inftance, means 

fuweaL So, in Hamlet, a<5t I. fc. ii : 

'*. To do obfec]uiousyj>rr/>w." STEEVENS. 

s key -cold] A key, on account of the coldnefs of the 

metal of which it is compoled, was anciently employed to flop 
any llight bleeding. The epithet is common to many old writers ; 
among the^reft, it is ufed by Decker in his Satiramafrix : 

*' It is heft you hide your head, for fear your wife brain* 
take key-cold" 
Again, in the Country G/r/, by T. B. 1647 : 

" The key-cold figure of a man." STEEVENS. 



Or any creeping venom'd thing that lives I 

If ever he have child, abortive be it, 

Prodigious, and untimely brought to light, 

Whole ugly and unnatural afpedt 

May fright the hopeful mother at the view 3 

And that be heh\to his unhappinefs ! 

If ever he have wife, let her be made 

More miferable by the death of him, 

Than I am made by my young lord, and thee ! * 

Come, now, toward Chertfey with, your holy load, 

Taken from Paul's to be interred there ; 

And, ftill as you are weary of the weight, 

Reft you, whiles I lament king Henry's corfe. 

Enter Glo/ler* 

Glo. Stay you, that bear the corfe, and fet it down. 

Anne* What black magician conjures up this fiend, 
To flop devoted charitable deeds ? 

Glo. Villains, fet down the corfe ; or y by faint Paul, 
I'll make a corfe of him that difobeys J . 

Gen. My lord, ftand back, and let the coffin pafs* 

Glo. Unmanner'd dog f ftand thou when- I com- 
mand ; 

Advance thy halberd higher than my breaft, 
Or, by faint Paul, I'll ftrike thee to my foot, 
And fpurn upon thee, beggar, for thy boldnefs. 

Anne. What, do you tremble ? are you all afraid ? 
Alas, I blame you not ; for you are mortal, 
And mortal eyes cannot endure the devil. 
A vaunt, thou dreadful minifter of hell ! 
Thou had'Jft but power over his mortal body, 
His foul thou canft not have ; therefore, be gone. 

Glo. Sweet faint, for charity, be not fo curll. 

Anne. Foul devil, for God's fake, hence, and 
trouble us not ; 

5 III make a corfe of him that Jifoleys.'] So, in Hamlet I 
44 /'// make a ghojl of him that lets me ." JOHNSO.Y. 



For thou haft made the happy earth thy hell, 

Fill'd it with curfing cries, and deep exclaims, 

If thou delight to view thy heinous deeds, 

Behold this pattern of thy butcheries : 6 

Oh, gentlemen, fee, fee ! dead Henry's wounds 

Open their congeal'd mouths, and bleed afrefti ! - 7 

Blufh, bluih, thou lump of foul deformity ; 

For 'tis thy prefence that exhales this blood 

From cold and empty veins, where no blood dwells ; 

Thy deed, inhuman, and unnatural, 

Provokes this deluge moft unnatural. 

6 pattern of thy butcheries :~\ Pattern is injlance, or example. 


Holinfhed fays : " The dead corps on the Afceniion even was 
conveied with billes and glaives pompouflie (if you will call that 
a funerall pompe) from the Tower to the church of faint Paule, 
and there laid on a beire or coffen bare-faced ; the fame in the 
prefence of the beholders did bleed ; where it relied the fpace of 
one whole daie. From thenfe he was carried to the Biack-fricrs, 
and bled there likewife ; &c." STEEVENS. 

7 fee, dead Henry 9 3 -wounds, 

Optn their congeal* d mouths, and bleed afrejli ! ] 
It is a tradition very generally received, that the murdered body 
bleeds on the touch of the murderer. This was fo much be- 
lieved by fir Kenelm Digby that he has endeavoured to explain 
the rcafon. JOHNSON. 

So, in Arden of Fever/ham, 1592 : 

The more I found his name, the more he bleeds : 
4 This blood condemns me, and in gufliing forth 
" Speaks as it falls, and afks me why I did it." 
Again, in the Widow's Tears, by Chapman, 1612 : 

" The captain will aflay an old conclufion often approved ; 
that at the murderer's fight the blood revives again and boils 
afreih ; and every wound has a condemning voice to cry out guilty 
againft the murderer." 

Again, in the 46th Idea of Dray ton : 

41 If the vile afters of the heinous deed, 
* Near the dead body happily be brought, 
" Oft t'hath been prov'd the breathlefs corps will Meed." 
Mr. Toilet obferves that this opinion feems to be derived from 
the ancient Swedes, or Northern nations from whom we defcend ; 
for they pratfifed this method of trial in dubious cafes, as ap- 
pears from Pitt's Atlas y in Sweden, p. 20, STEEVENS. 

O God ! 


O God, which this blood mad'ft, revenge his death ! 
O earth, which this blood drink'ft, revenge his death ! 
Either, heaven, with lightning ftrike the murderer 


Or, earth, gape open wide, and eat him quick ; 
.As thou doit fwallow up this good king's blood, 
Which his hell-govern'd arm hath butchered ! 

Glo. Lady, you know no rules of chanty, 
Which renders good for bad, bleffings for curfes. 

Anne. Villain, thou know'ft no law of God nor 

man ; 
No beaft fo fierce, but knows fome touch of pity. 

Glo. But I know none, and therefore am no beaft. 

Anne. O wonderful, when devils tell the truth ! 

Glo. More wonderful, when angels are fo angry. 
Vouch fafe, divine perfection of a woman, 
-Of thefe fuppofed evils, to give me leave, 
By circumftance, but to acquit myfelf. 

Anne. 8 Vouchfafe, diffus'd infection of a man, 
For thefe known evils, but to give me leave, 
By circumftance, to curfe thy curfed felf. 

Glo. Fairer than tongue can name thee, let me have 
Some patient leifure to excufe rnyfelf. 

Anne. Fouler than heart can think thee,, thou canft 

No excufe current, but to hang thyfelf. 

Glo. By fuch defpair, I Ihould accufe myfelf. 

8 Vouchfafe, diffus'd infe Rion of a ;//,] I believe, dijfufd'm 
this place fignifies irregular, uncouth ; fuch is its meaning in other 
paflages of Shakefpeare. JOHNSON. 

Diffiis'd infeflion of a man may mean, thou that art as danger- 
ous as a peililence, that infecls the air by its diffufion. Diffufd 
may, however, mean irregular. So, in 'The Merry Wives ^ &c, 

" rufti at once 

" With fome dlffufed fong. J ' 
Again, in Green's Farewell to Follie, 1617 : 

" I have feen an Englifh gentleman {odefufed in his futes ; his 
doublet being for the wears of Caftile, his hole for Venice, &c.'-* 




Anne. And, by defpairing, malt thou fland excus'd 
For doing worthy vengeance on thyfelf, 
That didfl unworthy Daughter upon others. 

Glo. Say, that I flew them not ? 

Anne. Then fay, they were not flam : 
But dead they are, and, devilifh flave, by thee. 

Glo. I did not kill your hufband. 

Anne. Why, then he is alive* 

Glo. Nay, he is dead ; and flain by Edward's hand. 

Anne* In thy foul throat thou ly'fl ; queen Mar- 

garet faw 

Thy murderous faulchion fmcking in his blood ; 
The which thou once didfl bend againfl her breafl, 
But that thy brothers beat afide the point. 

Glo. I was provoked by her fland'rous tongue, 
9 That laid their guilt upon my guiltlefs moulders^ 

Anne. Thou waft provoked by thy bloody mind, 
That never dreamt on aught but butcheries : 
Didfl thou not kill this king ? 

Glo. I grant ye. 

Anne. Dofl grant me, hedge-hog ? then, God grant 

me too, 

Thou may'fl be damned for that wicked deed ! 
O, he was gentle, mild, and virtuous '. 

Glo. The fitter for the King of heaven that hath 

Anne. He is in heaven, where thou lhalt never 

Glo. Let him thank me, that hoip to fend him 

thither ; 
For he was fitter for that place, than earth. 

9 That laid their guilt ] The crime of my brothers. He 

has juft charged the murder of lady Anne's hufband upon Ed- 
ward. JOHNSON. 

1 O, he ivas gentle, mild, and 'virtuous. 
Glo. The Jitter for the king of heaven, &c.] 
So, in Pericles Prince of Tyre, 1 609 : 

" I'll do't : but yet (he is a goodly creature. 
" Dion. The fitter then the gods Ihould have her." STEEVENS. 



Anne. And thou unfit for any place, but hell. 

Gh. Yes, one place elfe, if you will hear me 
name it. 

Anne. Some dungeorh 

Glo. Your bed-chamber. 

Anne. Ill reft betide the chamber where thou lyeft ! 

Glo. So will it, madam, 'till I lie with you. 

Anne. I hope fo. 

Glo. I know fo, But, gentle lady Anne,^ 
To leave this keen encounter of our wits, 
And fall fomewhat into a flower method 5 ;- 
Is not the caufer of the timelefs deaths 
Of thefe Plantagenets> Henry, and Edward, 
As blameful as the executioner ? 

Anne. 6 Thou waft the caufe, and moft accuts'd 

Gh. Your beauty was the caufe of that effedt ; 
Your beauty, which did haunt me in myileep, 
To undertake the death of all the world, 
So I might live one hour in your fweet bofom. 

Anne. If I thought that, I tell thee, homicide, 

a a flower method', ] As quick was ufed tot fyrigljtfy fo 

Jliruier was put forfenous. In the next fcene lord Grey deiires 
the queen to 

cheer his grace with quick and merry words. 


3 Thou waft the caufe, and moft accur? d effect ;] Ejfefl, for exe- 
cutioner. He alks, was not the caufer as ill as the executioner f 
She anfwers, Thou waft both. But, for caufer, ufmg the word 
<aufe, this led her to the word tff:&, for ex;cution, or execrittonefi. 
But the Oxford editor, troubling himfelf with nothing of this, 
will make a fine oratorical period of it : 

Thou *wajl the caujc. And mojl accurfd til* effefl / 


I cannot but be rather of fir T. Hanmer's opinion than Dr. 
Warburton's, becaufe ejefl is ufed immediately in its common 
fenfe, in anfwer to this line. JOHXSOX. 

I believe the old reading is the true one, So, in the TorliJJiirt 
Trizptt/Vj 1608 : 

thou art the caufe, 

" fffitf, quality, property ; thou, thou." STEVEVS. 

VOL. VII. C Thefc 


Thefe nails fhould rend that beauty from my cheeks. 

Glo. Thefc eyes could not endure that beauty's 


You Ihould not blemifh it, if I flood by : 
As all the world is cheered by the fun, 
So I by that ; it is my day, my life. 

Anne. Black night a r er-fliade thy day, and death 
thy life f 

Glo. Curfe not thyfelf, fair creature ; thou art both. 

Anne. I would I were, to be reveng'd on thee. 

Glo. It is a quarrel molt unnatural, 
To be reveng'd on him that loveth thee. 

Anne. It is a quarrel juft and reafonable, 
To be reveng'd on him that kill'd my hufband. 

Glo. He that bereft thee, lady, of thy hufband, 
Did it to help thee to a better hufband. 

Anne. His better doth not breathe upon the earth, 

Glo. He lives, that loves you better than he could, 

Anne. Name him. 

Glo. Plantagenet. 

Anne. Why, that was he. 

Glo. The felf-fame name, but one of better nature^ 

Anne. Where is he ? 

Glo. Here : [Sbefpits at him.~] W T hy doft thou fpit 
at me ? 

Anne. Would it were mortal poifon, for thy fake I 

Glo. Never came poifon from fo fweet a place. 

Anne. Never hung poifon on a fouler toad. 
Out of my fight ! thou doft infedt mine eyes. 

Glo. Thine eyes, fweet lady, have infedted mine. 

Anne. 'Would they were bafililks, to ftrike thee 

Glo. I would they were, that I might die at once ; 
For now they kill me with a living death *. 

4 dy %M e with a living dcatl.~\ In imitation of thi* 

paflage,^and, I fuppofe, of a thoufand more, Pope writes : 

< living death Ilear^ 
? Say t Doff t n\iit t and funk Itfd* bis char." JOH.VSOK. 



Thofe eyes of thine from mine have drawn fait tears* 
Sham'd their afpe&s with itore of childifli drops : 
5 Thefe eyes, which never ihed remorfeful tear, 
Not, when my father York and Edward wept, 
To hear the piteous moan that Rutland made, 
When black-fac'd Clifford fhook his fword at him : 
Nor when thy warlike father, like a child, 
Told the fad ftory of my father's death ; 
And twenty times made paufe, to fob, and weep, 
That all the flanders-by had wet their cheeks, 
Like trees bedafh'd with rain : in that fad time, 
My manly eyes did fcorn an humble tear ; 
And what thefe forrows could not thence exhale, 
Thy beauty hath, and made them blind with weeping. 
I never fu'd to friend, nor enemy ; 
My tongue could never learn fweet foothing word ; 
But now thy beauty is proposed my fee, 
My proud heart fues, and prompts my tongue to fpeak. 
[She looks fcornfully at him. 
Teach not thy lip fuch fcorn ; for it was made 
For killing, lady, not for fuch contempt. 
If thy revengeful heart cannot forgive, 
Lo ! here I lend thee this lharp-pointed fword ; 
Which if thou pleafe to hide in this true breaft, 
And let the foul forth that adoreth thee, 
I lay it naked to the deadly ftroke, 
And humbly beg the death upon my knee. 

[He lays bis breaft open, jhe offers at it with his fword. 
Nay, do not paufe ; for I did kill king Henry ; 
6 But 'twas thy beauty that provoked me. 
Nay, now difpatch ; 'twas I that ftabb'd young Ed- 
ward ; 

5 T7jefe eyes, which never &c.] The twelve following beauti- 
ful lines added after the firft editions. POPE. 

They were added with many more. JOHNSON. 

6 But 'twas thy beauty ; ] Shakefpeare countenances 

the obfervation, that no woman can ever be offended with the 
mention of her beauty. JOHNSON. 

C a But 


But 'twas thy heavenly face that fet me on. 

[She lets fall the faoret. 
Take up the fword again, or take up me. 

Anne. Arife, diflembler ; though I wifh thy death, 
I will not be thy executioner. 

Glo. Then bid me kill myfelf> and I will x3o it. 

Anne. I have already. 

Glo. That was in thy rage : 
Speak it again, and, even with the word, 
This hand, which for thy love, did kill thy love., 
Shall, for thy love,, kill a far truer love ; 
To both their deaths- lhalt thou be acceffary. 

Anne. I would, I knew thy heart. 

Glo. 'Tis figur'd in my tongue, 

Anne. I fear me, both are falfe^ 

Glo. Then never man was true. 

Anne. Well, well, put up your fword. 

Glo. Say then, my peace is made. 

Anne. That fhall you know hereafter. 

Glo. But fhall I live in hope ? 

Anne. All men, I hope, live fo. 

Glo. Vouchfafe to wear this ring. 

[&* puts on the ring. 

Anne. To take is not to give. 

Glo. Look, how this ring encompafTeth thy ringer, 
Even fo thy breafl enclofeth my poor heart ; 
Wear both of them, for both of them are thine. 
And if thy poor devoted fervant may 
But beg one favour at thy gracious hand, 
Thou doll confirm his happinefs for ever. 

Anne. What is it ? 

Glo. That it may pleafe you kavc thefe fad dcfigns 
To him that hath more caufe to be a mourner, 
And prefemly repair to Crofbv-placc 7 : 


7 Crojly -place:} A houfe near Blfhopfgate-ftreet, belong- 
ing to the duke of Glorter. JOHN-SOV. 

Cro/by-PIace is now Cr/^-fijuare in Bifhopfgate-ftreet ; part of 



Where after I have folemnly interr'd, 
At Chcrtfey monaft'ry this noble king, 
And wet his grave with my repentant tears, 
I will with all expedient duty fee you : 
For divers unknown reafons, I befeech you, 
Grant me this boon. 

Anne. With all my heart ; and much it joys me too, 
To fee you are become fo penitent. 
Treflel, and Berkley, go along with me. 

Glo. Bid me farewel. 

Anne. 'Tis more than you deferve : 
But, fince you teach me how to flatter you 
8 Imagine I have faid farewel already. 

[Exeunt two, with lady Anne. 

Glo. Take up the corfe, firs. 

Gen. Towards Chertfey, noble lord ? 

Glo. No, to White-Fryars ; there attend -my 
coming. [Exeunt tJ:e reft, with tl:e corfe. 
Was ever woman in this humour woo'd 
Was ever woman in this humour won ? 
I'll have her, but I will not keep her long. 
What ! I, that kill'd her hufband, and his father, 
To take her in her heart's extremeft hate ; 
With curies in her mouth, tears in her eyes, 
The bleeding witnefs of her hatred by ; 
With God, her confcience, and thefe bars againft me, 
And I no friends to back my fair withal, 
But the plain devii, and diitcmbHng looks, 
And yet to win her, all the world to nothing ! 
Hath Ihe forgot already that brave prince, 

the houfe is yet remaining, and is a meeting place for a pre'by- 

terian congregation. Sir J. HAWKINS. 

8 Imagine, I have J'^iA fare-wel already.] Gibber, who altered 

Rich. III. tor the ibige, was fo thoro'jgtily convinced of the ri- 

diculoufnefs and improbability of this icene, that he thought him- 

iclf obliged to make TreHel lay : 

When future chrmicks Jbatt fpcnk of this, 
yby will be thought romance, not ijifijrj. ST 

c 3 


Edward, her lord, whom I, fome three months firice, 

Stabb'd in my angry mood at Tewkfbury ? 

A fweeter and a lovelier gentleman, 

9 Fram'd in the prodigality of nature, 

Young, valiant, wife, and, no doubt, right 

royal ', 

The fpacious world cannot again afford : 
And will Ihe yet abafe her eyes on me, 
That cropp'd the golden prime of this fweet prince^ 
And made her widow to a woeful bed ? 
On me, whofe all not equals Edward's moiety ? 
On me, that halt, and am mifhapen thus ? 
My dukedom to a beggarly denier, 
I do miftake my perfon all this while : 
Upon my life, Ihe finds, although I cannot, 
Myfelf to be a marvellous proper man. 
I'll be at charges for a looking-glafs ; 
And entertain a fcore or two of taylors, 
To ftudy fafhions to adorn my body : 
Since I am crept in favour with myfelf, 
I will maintain it with fome little coft. 
But, firft, Til turn yon' fellow in his grave ; 
And then return lamenting to my love. 

9 Framed in the prodigality of nature,"] i. e. when nature was iQ 
a prodigal or lavifli mood. WARBURTON. 

1 ar.d, no doubt ) right royal, ] Of the degree of royalty- 
belonging to Henry the fixth there could be no doubt, nor could 
Richard have mentioned it with any fuch hefitation ; he could 
not indeed very properly allow him royalty. I believe we mould, 
read ; 

and, no doubt, right loyal. 

That is, true to her bed. He enumerates the reafons for which 
Ihe mould love him. He VMS young, wife, and valiant', thefe 
were apparent and indifputable excellencies. He then mentions 
another not lefs likely to endear him to his wife, but which he had 
lefs opportunity of knowing with certainty, and, no doubt right 
loyal. JOHNSON. 

Richard is not fpeaking of king Henry, but of Edward hisfon, 
whom he means to reprefent as/W/ of all the noble properties of a 
fag. No doubt ,^ right royal, may, however, be ironically fpoken, 
alluding to the incontinence of Margaret, his mother, STEEVENS. 



Shine out, fair fun, 'till I have bought a glafs, 
That I .may fee my lhadow as I pafs. [Exit. 


*Tbe palace. 

Enter the Qyeen, Lord Rivers her brother, and Lord 
-Grey her fon* 

Riv. Have patience, madam ; there's no doubt, 

his majefty 
Will foon recover his accuftom'd health, 

Grey. In that you brook it ill, it makes him worfe : 
Therefore, for God's fake, entertain good comfort, 
And chear his grace with quick and merry words. 

Queen. If he were dead, what would betide of me ? 

Grey. No other harm, but lofs of fuch a lord. 

Queen. The lofs of fuch a lord includes all harms. 

Grey. The heavens have blefs'd you with a goodly 

To be your comforter, when he is gone. 

Queen. Ah, he is young ; and his minority 
Is put into the truft of Richard Glofter, 
A man that loves not me, nor none of you. 

Riv. Is it concluded, he fliall be protector ? 

Queen. l It is determined, not concluded ye-t : 
But fo it mufl be, if the king mifcarry. 

Enter Buckingham, and Stanley. 

Grey. Here come the lords of Buckingham and 
Stanley '. 


a It is determin'd, not concluded yct:~\ Determined fignifies the 
fiaal conclufion of the will : concluded, what cannot be altered by 
reafon of fome adl, confequent on the final judgment. 


3 Here come the krds of Buckingham and Derby.j'This is a blun- 
C 4 der 


Buck. Good time of day unto your royal grace ! 
Stanley. God make your majefty joyful as you have 

been ! 
gueen. The countefs Richmond, good my lord of 


To your good prayer will fcarcely fay amen. 
Yet, Stanley, notwithftanding flic's your wife, 
And loves not me, be you, good lord, affur'd, 
I hate not you for her proud arrogance. 

Stanley. I do befeech you, either not believe 
The envious fianders of her falfe accufers ; 
Or, if fhe be accus'd on true report, 
Bear with her weaknefs, which, I think, proceeds 
From wayward ficknefs, and no grounded malice. 
gtueen. Saw you the king to-day, my lord of 

Stanley ? 

Stanley. But now the duke of Buckingham, and I, 
Are come from vifiting his majefty. 
, Queen. What likelihood of his amendment, lords? 
Buck. Madam, good hope ; his grace fpeaks chear- 

Queen. God grant him health ! Did you confer 

with him ? 

Buck. Ay, madam : he defires to make atonement* 
Between the duke of Glofter and your brothers, 

<ler of inadvertence, which has run through the whole chain of 
impretfions. It could not well be original in Shakefpeare, who 
was moft minutely intimate with his hiftory, and the intermar- 
riages of the nobility. The perfon here called Derby, was Tho- 
mas lord Stanley, lord fleward of king Edward the fourth's houf- 
hqld. But this Thomas lord Stanley was not created earl of Derby 
till after the acceffion of Henry the ieventh ; and accordingly, 
afterwards, in the fourth and fifth ads of this play, before the 
battle of Boiworth-field, he is every where called lord Stanley. 
This fufficiently juflifies the change I have made in his title. 


4 /fy, mactam : he drftres to make atonement] Thus all the old, 
editions that I have feen ; but Mr. Pope altered it thus : 

" Madam, we did ; he feeks to make atonement ;'* 
anj h:is been followed by fucceedin^ editors. STEEVENS. 


And between them and my lord chamberlain ; 
And fent to warn them 5 to his royal prefence. 

Queen. 'Would all were well ! But that will never 

I fear, our happinefs is at the height. 

Enter Gbfter, Haft'ings, and Dorfet. 

Glo. They do me wrong, and I will not endure 

it : 

Who are they, that complain unto the king, 
That I, forfooth, am ftern, and love them not ? 
By holy Paul, they love his grace but lightly, 
That fill his ears with fuch difientious rumours. 
Becaufe I cannot flatter, and fpeak fair, 
Smile in men's faces, fmooth, deceive, and cog, 
Duck with French nods and apifh courtefy, 
I muft be held a rancorous enemy. 
Cannot a plain man live, and think no harm, 
But thus his fimple truth muft be abus'd 
By filken, fly, infinuating Jacks ? 

Grey. To whom in all this prefence fpeaks your 
grace ? 

Glo. To thee, rtiat hart nor honefty, nor grace. 
When have I injur'd thee ? when done thee wrong ? 
Or thee ? or thee ? or any of your faction ? 
A plague upon you all ! His royal grace, 
Whom God preferve better than you would wifli ! 
Cannot be quiet fcarce a breathing while, 
But you muft trouble him with lewd complaints. 

vtyeen. Brother of Glofter, you miftake the matter : 
The king of his OWQ royal difpofition, 
And not provok'd by any fuitor elfe ; 
Aiming, belike, at your interior hatred, 
That in your outward action fliews itfelf, 
Againft my children, brothers, and myfelf ; 

9 ii ~to warn tbem~\ i. e. to fummon. So, in Julius Cafar : 
*' They mean to warn us at Philippi here." STEEVENS. 



Makes him to fend ; that thereby he may gather 
The ground of your ill-will 6 , and fo remove it. 

Glo. I cannot tell ; The world is grown fo bad, 
That wrens may prey where eagles dare not perch : 
Since every Jack became a gentleman, 
There's many a gentle perfon made a Jack. 

Queen. Come, come, we know your meaning, 

brother Glofler ; 

You envy my advancement, and my friends : 
God grant, we never may have need of you ! 

Glo. Meantime, God grants that we have need of 

you : 

Our brother is imprifon'd by your means, 
Myfelf difgrac'd, and the nobility 
Held in contempt ; while great promotions 
Are daily given, to enoble thofe 
That fcarce, fome two days lince, were worth a noble. 

Queen. By Him, that rais'd me to this careful height 
From that contented hap which I enjoy'd, 
I never did incenfe his majefly 
Againft the duke of Clarence, but have been 
An earneft advocate to plead for him. 
My lord, you do me fhameful injury, 
Falfely to draw me in thefe vile fufpe&s. 

Glo. You may deny that you were not the caufe 
Of my lord Haftings' late imprifonment. 

Riv. She may, my lord ; for - 

Glo. She may, lord Rivers ? why, who knowsi 

not fo ? 

She may do more, fir, than denying that : 
She may help you to many fair preferments ; 
And then deny her aiding hand therein, 
And lay thofe honours on your high defert. 
What may Ihe not ? She may, ay, marry, may flie, , 

Riv. What, marry, may Ihe ? 

Of your M-will, &c,] This line is rcltored from thefirft edi- 
tion. POPE, 



Glo. What, marry, may fhe ? marry with a king, 
A batchelor, a handfome {tripling too : 
I wis, your grandam had a worfer match. 

Queen. My lord of Glofter, I have too long borne? 
Your blunt upbraidings, and your bitter feoffs : 
By heaven, I will acquaint his majefty, 
Of thofe grofs taunts I often have endur'd. 
I had rather be a- country fervant-maid, 
Than a great queen, with this condition- 
To be fo baited, fcorn'd, and (formed at : 
Small joy have I in being England's queen. 

Enter j$ueen Margaret, behind. 

. Mar. And leffen'd be that fmall, God, I befeecTi 

Thy honour, ftate, and feat, is due to me. 

Glo. What ! threat you me with telling of the king ? 
7 Tell him, and fpare not ; look, what I have faid 
I will avouch in prefence of the king : 
I dare adventure to be fent to the Tower. 
J Tis time to fpeak, 8 my pains are quite forgot. 

<%. Mar. 9 Out, devil ! I remember them too well : 
Thou kill'dfi: my hufband Henry in the Tower, 
And Edward, my poor fon, at Tewkfbury. . 

Glo. Ere you were queen, ay, or your hufband 

7 Tell him, and fpare not ; look, ivbat I bavefaiJ] This verfe 
I have reftored from the old quarto's. THEOBALD. 

my pains - ] My labours ; my toils. JOHNSON. 

9 Out, devil! - ] Read, No. WAR BURTON. 

There is no need of change j but if there were, the commeru 
tator does not change enough. He fhould read : 
- 1 remember them 

that is, his pains. JOHNSON. 

Mr. Lambe obferves in his notes on the ancient metrical hif- 
tory of the Battle of Floddon Field, that out is an interjection of 
abhorrence or contempt, moll frequent in the mouths of the 
Common people of the north. It occurs again in at IV : 
" " out on ye, owls!" STEEVENS. 

I was 


I was a pack-horfe in his great affairs ; 
A weeder-out of his proud adversaries, 
A liberal rewarder of his friends ; 
To royalize ' his blood, I fpilt mine own. 

j^. Mar. Ay, and much better blood than his, or 

Glo. In all which time, you, and your huiband 


Were factious for the houfe of Lancafter ;^ 
And, Rivers, fo were you : * Was not your hufband 
In Margaret's battle at faint Alban's flain ? 
Let me put in your minds, if you forget, 
What you have been ere now, and what you are ; 
Withal, what I have been, and what I am. 
' J3\ Mar. A murd'rous villain, and fo ftill thou art, 

Glo. Poor Clarence did forfake his father Warwick, 
Ay, and forfwore himfelf, Which Jefu pardon ! 

j^. Mar. Which God revenge ! 

Glo. To fight on Edward's party, for the crown ; 
And, for his meed, poor lord, he is mew'd up : 
I would to God, my heart were flint, like Edward's, 
Or Edward's foft and pitiful, like mine ; 
I am too childifh-foolifh for this world. 

>. Mar. Hie thee to hell for fhame, and leave this 

Thou cacodaemon ! there thy kingdom is. 

Riv. My lord of Glofter, in thofe bufy days, 
Which here you urge, to prove us enemies, 
We follow'd then our lord, our fovereign king; 
So Ihould we you, if you ihould be our king. 

1 royalize^\ i. e. to make royal. So, in Claudius Tiberius 

Nero, 1607 : 

" Who means to-morrow for to realize 
" The triumphs &c." STEEVENS, 

* Was not your bujband, 

In Margaret's battle, ] 

It is faid in Henry VI, that he died in quarrel cf the houfe ofTork. 




Glo. If I fhould be ? I had rather be a pedlar : 
Far be it from my heart, the thought thereof ! 

Queen. As little joy, my lord, as you fuppofe 
You fhould enjoy, were you this country's king ; 
As little joy you may fuppofe in me, 
That I enjoy, being the queen thereof. 

<%. Mar. A little joy enjoys the queen thereof; 
For I am ihe, and altogether joylefs. 
I can no longer hold me patient. [She advances. 
3 Hear me, you wrangling pirates, that fallout 
In lharing that which you have pill'd from me 4 : 
Which of you trembles not, that looks on me ? 
If not, that, I being queen, you bow like fubjecls ; 
Yet that, by you deposed, you quake like rebels ? 
5 Ah, gentle villain, do not turn away ! 

G/o. Foul wrinkled witch, what mak'ft thou in my 
fight ? 

<^. Mar. But repetition of what thou haft marr'd ; 
That will I make, before I let thee go. 

Glo. Wert thou not banifhed, on pain of death ? 

<^. Mar. I was ; but I do find more pain in ba- 


Than death can yield me here by my abode. 
A hufband, and a fon, thou ow'ft to me, 

3 Hear me, you wrangling pirates, &c.] This fcene of Marga- 
ret's imprecations is fine and artful. She prepares the audience, 
like another Caflandra, for the following tragic revolutions. 


* ivhicbyou have pill'd from me :] To pill is to pillage. 

So, in the Martyr d Soldier, by Shirley, 1638 : 

" He has not/tV/Vthe rich, nor fTay'd the poor.'* 

5 Ah, gentle villain,' ] We fhould read : 

u n gentle villain , WA R B u R T o .v . 

The meaning ok gentle is not, as the commentator imagine*, 
tender or courteous, but high-lorn. An oppoiition is meant be- 
tween that and villain, which means at once a wicked and a lo-iv* 
lorn wetfh. So before : 

Since ev'ry Jack is made a gentleman, 

1' here's many a gentle perfoa made a jack. JOHNSO-V. 



And thou, a kingdom ; all of you, allegiance : 
This forrow that I have, by right is yours ; 
And all the pleafures you ufurp, are mine. 

Glo. The curfe my noble father laid on thee, 
When thou didft crown his warlike brows with paper, 
And with thy fcorns drew'ft rivers from his eyes ; 
And then, to dry them, gav'ft the duke a clout, 
Steep'd in the faultlefs blood of pretty Rutland ; 
His curfes, then from bitternefs of foul 
Denounc'd againft thee, are all fallen upon thee ; 
And God, not we, hath plagu'd thy bloody deed, 

6 Queen. So juft is God, to right the innocent. 

Haft. O, 'twas the fouleft deed, to flay that babe, 
And the mofl mercilefs, that e'er was heard of. 

Riv. Tyrants themfelves wept when it was re- 

Dorf. No man but prophefy'd revenge for it. 

Buck. Northumberland, then prefent, wept to fee it. 

>. Mar. What ! were you fnarling all, before I 


Ready to catch each other by the throat, 
And turn you all your hatred now on me ? 
Did York's dread curfe prevail fo much with heaven, 
That Henry's death, my lovely Edward's death, 
Their kingdom's lofs, my woeful banifliment, 
Could all but anfwer for that peevifh brat ? 
Can curfes pierce the clouds, and enter heaven ? 
Why, then give way, dull clouds, to my quick 

curfes ! 

Though not by war, 7 by furfeit die your king, 
As ours by murder, to make him a king I 
Edward, thy fon, that now is prince of Wales, 
For Edward my fon, that was prince of Wales, 
Die in his youth, by like untimely violence ! 

e QJMar. SojufiisGoJ, &c.] This line fhould be given to 
Edward IVth's queen. WARBURTON. 

L " furfeit die your king /] Alluding to his luxurious life. 




Tliyfelf a queen, for me that was a queen, 
Out-live thy glory, like my wretched felf ! 
Long may'ft thou live, to wail thy children's lofs ; 
And fee another, as I fee thee now, 
Deck'd in thy rights, as thou art ilall'd in mine ! 
Long die thy happy days before thy death ; 
And, after many lengthen'd hours of grief, 
Die neither mother, wife, nor England's queen !J 
Rivers, and Dorfet, you were ftanders by, 
And fo waft thou, lord Haflings, when my fon 
Was ftabb'd with bloody daggers ; God, I pray him, 
That none of you may live your natural age, 
But by fome unlook'd accident cut off ! 

Glo. Have done thy charm, thou hateful withered 

Q. Mar. And leave out thee ? flay, dog, for thou 

lhalt hear me. 

If heaven have any grievous plague in ftore, 
Exceeding thofe that I can wifh upon thee, 
O, let them keep it, 'till thy fins be ripe, 
And then hurl down their indignation 
On thee, the troubler of the poor world's peace ! 
The worm of confcience ftill be-gnaw thy foul ! 
Thy friends fufpeft for traitors while thou liv'fr, 
And take deep traitors for thy deareft friends t 
No fleep clofe up that deadly eye of thine, 
Unlefs it be while fome tormenting dream 
Affrights thee with a hell of ugly devils ! 
Thou elvifti-mark'd 6 abortive, 7 rooting hog ! 


* g/i>//fr-mark*d] The common people in Scotland (as I 
learn from Kelly's Proverbs) have ftill an averfion to thole who 
have any natural defecl or redundancy, as thinking them mark'J 
out for rnifchief. STEEVENS. 

* rooting bog /] The expreffion is fine, alluding (in 

memory of her young fon) to the ravage which hogs make, with, 
the fineft flowers, in gardens ; and intimating that Elizabeth was 
Jo expeft no other treatment for her fons. WARBURTOX. 

She calls him bog t as an appellation more comemptuoui than 

$i KING R I C'H A R D HI. 

Thou that waft feal'd in thy nativity 
1 The flave of nature, and the fon of hell ! 
Thou flander of thy mother's heavy womb ! 
Thou loathed ifiue of thy father's loins ! 
* Thou rag of honour ! thou detefted 


loar, as he is elfewhere termed from his enfigns armorial. There 
Is no iuch heap of allufion as the commentator imagines. 


In the Mirror for Magiftrates (a book already quoted) is the 
following Complaint of Collingbourne, who was cruelly executed for 
snaking a rime. 

For where I meant the king I>y name of hog, 
I only alluded to his badge the bore : 

To Level's name I added more, our Jog ; 
JSecaufe moft dogs have borne that name of yore. 
Thefe metaphors I us'd with other more, 
As cat and rat, the half-names of the reft, 
To hide thefenfe that theyfo wrongly wrejl, 
That Level was once the common name of a dog, may be like- 
wife known from a paflage in The Hiftorie of Jacob and Efau> 
an interlude, 1 568 : 

" Then come on at once, take my quiver and my bowe j 
" Fette love II my hounde , and my home to blowe." 
The rhime for which Collingbourne fuffered, was : 
'* A cat, a rat, and Lovel the dog, 
** Rule all England under a hog." STEEVENS. 
1 Thejlave of nature, ] The expreflion is flrong and no- 
ble, and alludes to the ancient cuftom of mafters branding their 
profligate Haves : by which it is infmuated that his mislhapen per- 
fon was the mark that nature had fet upon him to ftigmatize his 
ill conditions. Shakefpeare exprefles the lame thought in The 
Comedy of Errors : 

'* He is deformed, crooked, &c. 

" Stigmatical in making, " 

But as the fpeaker rifes in her refentment, flie exprefles this con- 
temptuous thought much more openly, and condemns him to a 
ftill worle ftate of flavery : 

" Sin, death, and hell, have fet their marks on h-m." 
Only, in the firft line, her mention of his moral condition infi- 
nuates her reflections on his deformity : and, in the laft, her men- 
tion of his deformity infinuates her reflections on his moral con- 
dition : And thus he has taught her to fcold in all the elegance 
of figure. WARBURTON. 

a Thou rag of honour, &c.] We fliould certainly read : 
Thou wrack of honour 


trio. Margaret. 
. Mar. Richard ! 
Glo. Ha ? 

. Mw. I call thee not. 
Glo. I cry thee mercy then ; for I did think, 
That thou had'rt call'd me all thefe bitter names, 
j^. Mar. Why, fo I did ; but look'd for no reply, 

0, let me make the period to my curfe. 

Glo. 'Tis done by me ; and ends in Margaret. 
gtueen. Thus have you breath'd your curfe againft 

<^. Mar. Poor painted queen, vain fiourifh of my 

fortune J ! 

Why ftrew'ft thou fugar on that 4 bottled fpider, 
Whofe deadly web enfnareth thee about ? 
Fool, fool ! thou whet'ft a knife to killthyfelf. 
The day will come, that thou lhaltwifhfor me 
To help thee curfe this pois'nous bunch-back'd toad. 
Haft. Falfe-boding woman, end thy frantick curfe ; 
Left, to thy harm, thou move our patience. 

j^. Mar. Foul ihame upon you ! you have all mov'd 

1. e. the ruin and deftruftion of honour ; which, I fuppofe, was 
firit writ rack, and then further corrupted to rag. WAR BURTON. 

Rag is, in my opinion, right, and intimates that much of his 
honour is torn away. Patch is, in the fame manner, a contemp- 
tuous appellation. JOHNSON. 

This word of contempt is ufed again in Timon : 

" If thou wilt curfe, thy father, that poor rag, 
Muft be the fubjedV 
Again, in this play : 

*' Thefe over-weening rags of France." STEEVENS. 

s flourijh of my fortune /] This expreffion is likevvife ufcd 

by Maffinger in the Great Duke of Florence : 
*' . I allow thefe 

*' AsJIourifljings of fortune. 9 ' STEEVENS. 

4 bottled fpider,'} A fpider is called bottled, becaufe, 

like other infefts, he has a middle flender ami a belly protuberant. 
Richard's form and venom, make her liken him to a fpider. 


VOL. VII. D Rto. 


RIv. Were you well ferv'd, you would be tauglst 
your duty. 

>. Mar. To fcrve me well, you all ihould do me 


Teach me to be your queen, and you my fubjedls : 
O, ferve me well, and teach yourfelves that duty. 

Do>'f. Dilpute not with her, Ihe is lunatic. 

j^. Mar. * Peace, mailer marquis, you are malapert; 
Your fire-new flamp of honour is icarce current : 
O, that your young nobility could judge, 
What 'twere to lofe it, and be miferable ! 
They that iland high, have many blafts to fhakc 

them ; 
And, if they fall, they daili themfelves to pieces. 

Glo. Good counfel, marry ; learn it, learn it, 

Dorf. It touches you, my lord, as much as me. 

Glo. Ay, and much more : But I was born fo high, 
Our aiery buildeth in the cedar's top, 
And dallies with the wind, and fcorns the fun. 

j^. Mar. And turns the fun to Ihade ; alas [ alasf 
Witnefs my fun, now in the ihade of death ; 
Whofe bright oiit-fhimng beams thy cloudy wrath 
Hath in eternal darknefs folded up. 

s Peace, w after marquis ; you arc malaptrt ; &C.] Shakefpeare 
may either allude to the late creation ot the marquis of Dorfet, or 
to the inftitution of the title of marquis here m England, as a fpecial 
dignity, which was no older than Richard II. Robert Vere, earl 
of Oxford, was the firll, who, as a diitinft dignity, received the 
title of marquis, ift December, anno nono RicbardifecunJl. Sqe 
Afhmole's Hiftory of the Order of the Garter, p. 4^6. GRAY. 

Peace ^ maftcr marqui^ you are malapert ;] As near a hundred 
years had elapfed between the time when the title of marquis 
was firft inftituted in England, and the creation of this Thomas 
Grey marquis of Dorfet, I think Shakefpeare can hardly allude 
to the inftitution of the dignity itfelf ; much lefs could he call it 
ajjrc-nt'-iujtamfl of honour J'curce current. Robert Verc, the firft 
created marquis received thi? new title, A. D. 1386. Thomas 
Grey was created marquis of Dorfet, A. D. 1476. PERCY. 



Your aiery buildeth in our aicry's neft 6 : 
O God, that fee'ft it, do not differ it ; 
As it was won with blood, loft be it fo ! 

Buck. Peace, peace, for lhame, if not for charity. 

<3>. Mar. Urge neither chanty nor fhame to me ; 
Uncharitably with me have you dealt, 
And fhamefully by you my hopes are butcher'd. 
My charity is outrage^ life my fhame, 
And in my lhame Hill live my forrow's rage ! 

Buck. Have done, have done. 

<. Mar. O princely Buckingham, I'll kifs thy hand, 
In fie;n of league and amity with thee : 
Now fair befal thee, and thy noble houfe ! 
Thy garments are not fpottcd with our blood, 
Nor thou within the compafs of my curfe. 

Buck. Nor no one here ; for curfes never pafs 
The lips of thofc that breathe them in the air. 

>. Mar. I'll not believe but they afcend the fky, 
And there awake God's gentle-fleeping peace. 
O Buckingham, beware of yonder dog ; 
Look, when he fawns, he bites ; and, when he bites, 
His venom tooth will rankle to the death : 
Have not to do with him, beware of him ; 
Sin, death, and hell, have fet their marks upon him ; 
And all their minifters attend on him. 

Glo. What doth Ihe fay, my lord of Buckingham ? 

Buck. Nothing that I refpecl:, my gracious lord. 

<. Mar. What, doft thou fcorn me for my gentle 

counfel ? 
And footh the devil that I warn thee from ? 

6 Tour aiety lulUetl in our aiery 'j neft : ] An alery is a hawk's 
or an eagle's neft. So, in Green's Card of Fancy ', 1608 : 

" It is a fubtle bird that breeds among the aiety of hawks." 
Again, in Heywood's Rape of Lucrecc, 1630 : 

" His high-built alery fliall be drown'd in blood." 
Again, in Maflinger's Maul of Honour : 

*' One aiery , with proportion, ne'er difdofes 

" The eagle and the wren." STEEVENS. 

D 2 O, but 


O, but remember this another day, 

When he fliall fplit thy very heart with forro\v ; 

And fay, poor Margaret was a prophetefs. 

Live each of you the fubjects to his hate, 

And he to yours, and all of you to God's 7 ! [Exit. 

Buck. My hair doth (land on end to hear her curies. 

Riv. And fodoth mine; I wonder, Ihe's at liberty 8 . 

Glo. I cannot blame her, by God's holy mother ; 
She hath had too much wrong, and I repent 
My part thereof, that I have done to her. 

Qiteen. I never did her any, to my knowledge. 

Glo. Yet you have all the vantage of her wrong* 
I was too hot to do fome body good, 
That is too cold in thinking of it now. 
Marry, as for Clarence, he is well repay'd ; 
9 He is frank'd up to fatting for his pains ; 
God pardon them that are the caufe thereof ! 
Riv. A virtuous and a chriflian-like conclufion, 

7 Live each of you thefubjefls to his bate, 

And be to yours, and all of you to God*s .'] 

It is evident from the conduct of Shakefpeare, that the houfe of 
Tudor retained all their .Lancaftrian prejudices, even in the reign 
of queen Elizabeth. In this play of Richard the Third, he 
feems to reduce the woes of the houfe of York from the curfes 
which queen Margaret had vented againft them ; and he could 
not give that weight to her curfes, without fuppofing a right in 
her to utter them. WALPOLE. 

* / wonder JJx's at liberty.} Thus the quarto. The folio 

reads : 

I mufe, why {he's at liberty. STEEVENS. 
9 He is frank'd up to fatting for his pains j ] A frank is an old 
Englifh word for a hog-Jly. 'Tis poffible he ufes this metaphor 
to Clarence, in allufion to the creft of the family of York, which 
was a boar. Whereto relate thofe famous old verfes on Rich- 
ard.III : 

The cat, the rat, and Level the dog^ 
Rule all England under a hog. 
He ufes the fame metaphor in the lait fcene of aft IV. POPE. 

\frank was not a common hog-Jlye, but the pen in which thofc 
hogs were confined of whom brawn was to be made. 




To pray for them that have clone fcathe to us '. 

Glo. So do I ever, being well advis'd; 
For had I curs'd now, I had curs'd myfelf. [Afide. 

Enter Catejby. 

Catef. Madam, his majefty doth call for you, 
And for your grace, and you, my noble lords. 

Queen. Catefby, I come : Lords, will you go 
with me ? 

Riv. Madam, we will attend your grace. 

[Exeunt all but Glofter. 

Glo. I do the wrong, and firft begin to brawl. 
The fecret mifchiefs that I fet abroach, 
I lay unto the grievous charge of others. 
Clarence, whom I, indeed, have laid in darknefs, 
I do beweep to many fimple gulls ; 
Namely, to Stanley, Haftings, Buckingham ; 
And tell them Vis the queen and her allies, 
That flir the king againft the duke my brother. 
Now they believe it ; and withal whet me 
To be reveng'd on Rivers, Vaughan, Grey : 
But then I figh, and, with a piece of fcripture, 
Tell them that God bids us do good for evil : 
And thus I clothe my naked villainy 
With old odd ends, flol'n forth of holy writ ; 
And feem a faint, when moil I play the devil. 

Enter two Murderers, 

But foft, here come my executioners.-^- 
How now, my hardy, flout, rcfolved mates ? 
Are you now going to difpatch this thing ? 

1 . done fcathe to ns.~\ Scqtbe is harm, mifchief. 

So, in Soliman and Perfeda : 

" Whom now that paltry ifland keeps from feath" 
Again : 

" Millions of men oppreft with ruin QD&Jcatti" 


D 3 I Mir. 


i Mur. We arc, my lord ; and come to have the 

That we may be admitted where he is. 

Glo. Well thought upon, I have it here about me : 
When you have done, repair to Crofby-place. 
But, firs, be fudden in the execution, : 
Withal obdurate, do not hear him plead ; 
For Clarence is well fpoken, and, perhaps, 
May move vour hearts to pity, if you mark him. 

i Mur. Tut., tut, my lord, we will not Hand tq 


Talkers are no good doers ; be affur'd, 
We go to ufe our hands, and not our 'tongues. 

Glo. Your eyes drop mill-Hones, when fools' eyes 

drop tears * : 

I like you, lads ; about your bufinefs ftraight ; 
Go, go, difpatch. 

I Mitr. We will, my noble lord. [Exeunt, 


An apartment in the Tower. 

Enter Clarence, and Bjrakenbury. 

rak. Why looks your grace fo heavily to-day ? 

Gar. O, I have paft a miferable night, 
So full of fearful dreams, of ugly fights, 
That, as I am a chriftian 1 faithful man, 
I would not fpend another fuch a night, 
Though 'twere to buy a world of happy days ; 
So full of difmal terror was the time. 

fo*r eyts fry mill-Jlones, -when fools' eyes fop tears ;~\ This, I 
lieve, is a proverbial expreffion. It is ufed again in the tra- 
gedy of Cxfar andPompcy, 1607 5 

' Men's eyes muft mill-Jlones drop, when fools (bed tears." 

' faithful man,] Not an infidel. JOHNSO.V. 


Brak. What was your dream, my lord ? I pray 
you, tell me. 

Clar. Mcthought, that I had broken from the 


And was cmbark'd to crofs to Burgundy ; 
And, in my company, my brother Glofter : 
Who from my cabin tempted me to walk 
Upon the hatches; thence we look'd towards Eng- 

And cited up a thoufand heavy times, 
During the wars of York and Lanca'fter 
Thnt had befall'ii us. As we pac'd along 
Upon the giddy footing of the hatches,- 
Methoughr, that Gloftcr {tumbled ; and, in falling, 
Struck me, that thought to ftay him, over-board, 
Into the tumbling billows of the main. 
O Lord ! methought, what pain it was to drown ! 
What dreadful noife of water in mine ears ! 
What fights of ugly death within mine eyes ! 
Methought, I faw a thoufand fearful wrecks ; 
A thoufand men, that fifties gnaw'd upon ; 
Wedges of gold, great anchors, heaps of pearl, 
Ineftimable {tones, unvalued jewels 4 , 
All fcatter'd in the bottom of the fea. 
Some lay in dead men's ikulls ; and, in thofe holes, 
Where eyes did once inhabit, there were crept, 
(As 'twere in fcorn of eyes) reflecting gems, 
5 That woo'd the flimy bottom of the deep, 
And mock'd the dead bones that lay fcatter'd by. 

4 Incftimallfftones, unvalued yVi'.r/f,] UiHM&fdn here ufed for 
ix-jahtallc. So, in Lovelace's Pofthumous Poems, 1659: 

" the unvalcvj'd robe Ihe wore 

" Made infinite lay lovers to adore." 
Again : 

" And what fubfhntial riches I poflefs, 

" I muft to thcie f-v/ra/rcuV dreams confefs." MALOKE. 

5 Tbat woo'd the Jlimy bottom ] By feeming to gaze 

upon it j or, as we now fay, to ogk it. JOHNSON, 

D 4 Brat. 


Brak. Had you fuch leifure in the time of death, 
To gaze upon rhefe fecrets of the deep ? 

Clar. Methought, I had ; and often did I drive 
To yield the ghoft : but ftill the envious flood 
Kept in my foul, and would not let it forth 
To feck the empty, vaft, and wancTring air ; 
But fmother'd it within my panting bulk, 
Which almoft burft to belch it in the fea. 

Erak. Awak'd you not with this fore agony? 

Clar. O, no, my dream was lengthen'd after life j 
O, then began the tempeft to my foul ! 
I pafs'd, methought, the melancholy flood, 
With that grim ferryman 6 which poets write of, 
Unto the kingdom of perpetual night. 
The firft that there did greet my ftranger foul, 
Was my great father-in-law, renowned Warwick ,; 
Who cry'd aloud, What fcourge for perjury 
Can this dark monarchy afford falje Clarence ? 
And fo he vanifh'd : Then came wand'ring by 
A fhadow like an angel, with bright hair x 
Dabbled in blood ; and he ihriek'd out aloud, , 
Clarence is come, falfe, * fating* perjur'd Clarence, 
Thatjlabb'd me in the field by Tewkjlury ; 
Seize on him, furies, take him to your torments ! 
With that, methought, a legion of foul fiends 8 


6 'grim ferryman.] The folio reads -four ferryman. 


7 fleeting, perjufd Clarence,} Fluting is the fame as 

Clanging Jldes. JOHNSON. 

So, in Antony and Cleopatra : 

1 now \hcjlceting moon 

No planet is of mine. 

Clarence broke his oath with the earl of Warwick, and joined 
the army of his brother king Edward IV. STEEVENS, 

- a legion of foul fiends 
Environed me, &c.] 

Milton feems to have thought on this paflage where he is defcnb- 
ing the midnnrht iuffcrings of Our Saviour, in the 4 th book of Pa- 


Environed me, and howled in mine ears 
Such hideous cries, that, with the very noife, 
I trembling wak'd, and, for a feafon after, 
Could not believe but that I was in hell; 
Such terrible impreffion made my dream. 

Brak. No marvel, lord, that it affrighted you; 
I am afraid, methinks, to hear you tell it. 

Gar. O, Brakenbury, I have done thefe things, 
That now give evidence agamft my foul, 
For Edward's fake ; and, fee, how he requites ine ! 
9 O God ! if my deep prayers cannot appeafe thce, 
But thou wilt be avcng'd on my mifdeeds, 
Yet execute thy wrath on me alone : 
O, fpare my guiltlefs wife, and my poor children ! 
I pray thee, gentle keeper, Itay by me ; 
My foul is heavy, and I fain would fleep. 

Brak. I will, my lord ; God give your grace good 
reft ! [Clarence Jleeps. 

1 Sorrow breaks feafons, and repofing hours, 
Makes the night morning, and the noon-tide night. 
* Princes have but their titles for their glories, 
An outward honour for an inward toil ; 

*' nor yet ftay'd the terror there, 

*' Infernal ghofts, and hellifh furies, round 

?* Environ'd thee, fome howl'd, iome yell'd, forae 

fhriek'd " STEEVENS. 

9 OGod! if my deep prayers &c.] The four following lines have 
been added fince the firit edition. POPE. 

1 Soi -row , breaks feafons, &c.] In the common editions, the 
keeper is made to hold the dialogue with Clarence till this line. 
And here Brakenbury enters, pronouncing thefe words ; which 
feein to me a reflection naturally refulting from the foregoing con- 
verfation, and therefore continued to be fpoken by the fame per- 
foo, a& it is accordingly in the firil edition. POPE. 
* Princes have but their titles for their glories^ 

An outward honour, for an inward toil ; ] 

The firft line may be underltood in this fenfe, The glories ofprincef 
arc nothing more than empty titles: but it would more imprefs the 
purpofe or" the fpeaker, and correfpond better with the following 
lilies, if it were read : 

Prjjices have but their titles for their troubles. JOHNSOK. 



And, J for unfelt imaginations, 
They often feel a world of reftlefs cares : 
So that, between their titles, and low name, 
There's nothing differs but the outward fame. 

Enter the two Murderers. 

1 Murd. Ho ! xvho's here ? 

Brak. What would'Il thou, fellow ? and how cam'ft 
thou hither ? 

2 Murd. I would fpeak with Clarence, and I came 
hither on my legs. 

Brak. What, fo brief ? 

i Murd. O, fir, 'tis better to be brief, than te- 
dious : 
Shew him our commiffion, talk no more. 

Brak. I am, in this, commanded to deliver 
The noble duke of Clarence to your hands :- 
I will not reafon what is meant hereby, 
Becaufe I will be guiltlefs of the meaning. 
Here are the keys ; there fits the duke aileep : 
I'll to the king ; and fignify to him, 
That thus I have refign'd to you my charge. 

1 Murd. You may, fir ; 'tis a point of wifdom : 
Fare you well. [Exit Brakenbury. 

2 Murd. What, fhall we flab him as he fleeps ? 

1 Murd. No ; he'll fay, 'twas done cowardly, when 
he wakes. 

2 Murd. When he wakes ! why, fool, he lhall ne- 
ver wake until the great judgment day. 

l Murd. Why, then he'll fay, we flabb'd him flccp- 

^ Murd. The urging of that word, judgment, hath 
bred a kind of remorie in me, 

3 for unfelt imaginations, 

They often feel a wrM of reJHcfs 
They often fuffer real miferies for ima*ii 
tions, JOHNSON. 

Icfs cares :] 

iginary and unreal gratifica- 

j Murd* 


1 Murd. What ? art thou afraid ? 

2 Murd. Npt to kill him, having a warrant for it; 
but to be damn'd for killing him, from the which 
no warrant can defend me, 

1 Murd. I thought, thou had'ft been refolute. 

2 Murd. So I am, to let him live. 

1 Murd. I'll back to the duke of Glofler, and tell 
fcim fo. 

2 Murd. Nay, I pr'ythee, ftay a little : I hope, this 
compaffiunate humour of mine will change ; it was 
\vpnt to hold me but while one would tell twenty. 

1 Muni How doft thou feel thyfelf now ? 

2 Murd. 'Faith, fome certain dregs of confcience 
are yet within me. 

1 Murd. Remember our reward, when the deed's 

2 Murd. Come, he dies; I had forgot the reward. 

1 Murd. Where's thy confcience now ? 

2 Murd. In the duke of Gloftcr's purfe. 

1 Murd. When he opens his purfe to give us our 
reward, thy confcience flies out. 

2 Murd. 'Tis no matter ; let it go ; there's few, 
pr none, will entertain it. 

j. Murd. W T hat, if it come to thee again ? 

2 Murd. I'll not meddle with it, it is a dangerous 
thing, it makes a man a cpward ; a man cannot fleal, 
but it accufeth him ; a man cannot fwear, but it checks 
him; a man cannot lie with his neighbour's wife, 
but it detedts him : 'Tis a blufhing ihame-fac'd fpirit, 
that mutinies in a man's bofom ; it fills one full of 
obftacles : it made me once reftore a purfe of gold, 
that by chance I found ; it beggars any man that 
keeps it : it is turn'd out of all towns and cities for a 
dangerous thing ; and every man, that means to live 
well, endeavours to truft to himfelf, and live with- 
out it. 

i Murd. 'Zounds, it is even now at my elbow, 
perfuading me nqt to kill the duke. 



2 Murd. 4 Take the devil in thy mind, and believe 
him not : he would infinuate with thec, but to make 
thee figh. 

1 Murd. I am flrong fram'd, he cannot prevail 
with me". 

2 Murd. * Spoke like a tall fellow, that refpects 
his reputation. Come, fhall we fall to work ? 

1 Murd. Take him over the colbrd 6 with the hilts 
of thy fword, and then throw him into the malmfey- 
butt, in the next room. 

2 Murd. O excellent device ! and make a fop of 


1 Murd. Soft ! he wakes. 

2 Murd. Strike. 

i Mttrd. No, 7 we'll reafon with him. 

Clar. Where art thou, keeper ? give me a cup of 

i Murd. You ftiall have wine enough, my lord, 


Clar. In God's name, what art thou ? 
i Murd. A man, as you are. 
Clar. But not, as I am, royal, 
i Murd. Nor you, as we are, loyal. 
Clar. Thy voice is thunder, but thy looks are 


4 Take the devil in tJy mind, and believe him not: he would iiiji- 
nuate with thee, &c.] One villain fays, Confcience is at his elbows, 
perfuading him not to kill the duke. The other lays, take the 
devil into thy nearer acquaintance, into thy mind, who will be a 
match for thy confcience, and believe it not, &c. It is plain 
then, that him in both places in the text fhould be //, namely, 
confcience. WAR BURTON, 

Shakefpeare fo frequently ufes both thefe pronouns indifcrimi- 
nately, that no correction is neeeflary. STEEVENS. 

5 Spoke like a tall fellow, ~] The meaning of tall, in old Englifh, 
Kjtout, daring, fearlefs, zn&Jirong. JOHNSON. 

6 the coftard] /. e. the head, a name adopted from an ap- 
ple fhap'd like a man's head. So, in Arden of Feve rJJ:am^ 1592 : 

" One and two rounds at his cojlar,!." 
Hence likcvvifc the term c oft ar -monger. STEEVENS. 

7 willreafcn ] We'll talk,. JOHNSOX. 

i Murd. 


1 Murd. My voice is now the king's, my looks mine 

Clar. How darkly, and how deadly doft thou 

fpeak ! 

Your eyes do menace me : Why look you pale ? 
Who fent you hither > Wherefore do you come ? 

2 Murd. To, to, to, 
Clar. To murder me ? 
Both. Ay, ay. 

Clar. You fcarce'y have the hearts to tell me fo, 
And therefore cannot have the hearts to do it. 
Wherein, my friends, have I offended you ? 

1 Murd. Offended us you have not, but the king. 
Clar. I fhall be reccncil'd to him again. 

2 Murd. Never, my lord ; therefore prepare to die. 
Clar. 8 Are you call'd forth from out a world of men, 

To flay the innocent ? What is my offence ? 
Where is the evidence that doth accufe me ? 
What lawful 9 queft have given their verdict up 
Unto the frowning judge ? or who pronounc'd 
The bitter fentence of poor Clarence' death ? 
Before I be convict by courfe of law, 
To threaten me with death, is moft unlawful. 
I charge you, as you hope to have redemption % 
That you depart, and lay no hands on me ; 
The deed you undertake is damnable. 

i Murd. What we will do, we do upon command. 

* Are you call'd forth from out a world of men,] I think it may 
be better read : 

Are ye c\\\\' forth JOHNSON. 

The folio reads : 

Are you drawn forth among a world of men. 
I adhere to the reading now in the text. So, in Nolojy aid 
ScmeloJy, \ 598 : 

" Art thou caWd forth amongft a thoufand men 
" To minhler this foveraign antidotq ?" STEEVENS. 
" What lawful queft ] Queft is inqueft or jury. JOHNSON. 

1 asyou hope to have redemption,] The folio reads 

you hope /or any goodnefs. The quarto likewife adds : 

By Chrift's dear blood fhed for our grievous fins. STEEVEVS. 

2 Murd. 


2. Murd. And he, that hath commanded, is our king. 

Gar. Erroneous vaflal ! the great King of kings 
Hath in the table of his law commanded^ 
That thou ftialt do no murder ; Wilt thou then 
Spurn at his cdidt, and fulfil a man's ? 
Take heed ; for he holds vengeance in his hand^ 
To hurl upon their heads that break his law* 

2 Murd. And that fame vengeance doth he hurl on 


For falfe forfwearing, and for murder too : 
Thou didft receive the facrament, to fight 
In quarrel of the houfe of Lancafler. 

1 Murd. And, like a traitor to the name of God, 
Didft break that vow ; and, with thy treacherous 

XJnrip'dft the bowels of thy fovereign's fon. 

2 Murd. Whom thou waft fworn to cherilh and 


i Murd. How canft thou urge God's dreadful law 

to us, 
When thou haft broke it in fuch dear degree ? 

Clar. Alas ! for whofe fake did I that ill deed ? 
For Edward, for my brother, for his fake : 
He fends you not to murder me for this ; 
For in that fin he is as dee"p as I. 
If God will be avenged for the deed, 
O, know you yet, he doth it pnblickly ; 
Take not the quarrel from his powerful arm ; 
J-le needs no indirect nor lawlefs courfe, 
To cut off thofe that have offended him. 

i Murd. Who made thee then a bloody minifter, 
When gallant-fpringing ', brave Plantagenet, 

Ringing Plantagenet,'} Blooming Plantagenet; a prince 
in tVc/fritte of life. JOHNSON. 

When gallant, fpringing,] This (hould be printed as one word, 
I think igaUaut-fyr'mgiHg. Shakefpeare is fond of thefe com- 
pound epithets, in which the firft adjedive is to be confidered as 
an adverb. So, in this play he ufes cbiMyb-foollJb* fenfdcfc-objli- 
wut and tnorta!-J!ari s . TYRWHITT. 



That princely z novice, was (truck dead by thee ? 

Clar. My brother's love, the devil, and my rage, 

Murd. Thy brother's love, our duty, and thy fault, 
Provoke us hither now to Slaughter thee. 

Clar. If you do love my brother, hate not me ; 
I am his brother, and I love him well. 
If you are hir'd for meed, go back again, 
And I will fend you to my brother Glofter ; 
Who fhall reward you better for my life, 
Than Edward will for tidings of my death. 

2 Murd. You are deceiv'd, your brother Glofter 
hates you. 

Clar. Oh, no ; he loves me, and he holds me dear : 
Go you to him from me. 

Both. Ay, fo we will. 

Clar. Tell him, when that our princely father York 
Blefs'd his three fons with his victorious arm, 
And charg'd us from his foul to love each other, 
He little thought of this divided friendfhip : 
Bid Glofter think on this, and he will weep J . 

i Murd. Ay, mili-ftones ; as he leflbn'd us to weep. 

Clar. O, do not flander him, for he is kind. 

i Murd. Right, as fnow in harveft. Come, you 

deceive yourfelf ; 
'Tis he that fends us to deftroy you here. 

Clar. It cannot be ; for he bewept my fortune, 
And hugg'd me in his arms, and fwore, with fobs, 
That he would labour my delivery. 

1 Murd. Why, fo he doth, when he delivers yo\l 
From this earth's thraldom to the joys of heaven. 

2 Murd. Make peace with God, for you muft die, 

my lord. 

* novice, ] Youth ; one yet new to the world. JoHlf SON. 

3 he "Mill weep. 

i Murd. Ay, millftones. 
So, in Maffinger's City Madam : 

'* He, good gentleman, 

" Will weep when he hears how we are ufed. - 
11 Ys, miUftonti. STEEVEKS." 



Clar. Haft thou that holy feeling in thy foul, 
To counfel me to make my peace with God, 
And art thou yet to thy own foul fo blind, 
That thou wilt war with God by murdering me ?- 
O, firs, confider, he, that fet you on 
To do this eked, will hate you for the deed. 

2 Murd. What lhall we do ? 

Clar. Relent, * and fave your fouls. 
Which of you, if you were a prince's fon, 
Being pent from liberty, as I am now, 
If two fuch murderers as yourfelves came to you, 
Would not intreat for life ? as you would beg, 
Were you in my diftrefs, 

i Murd. Relent ! 'tis cowardly, and womanilh. 

Clar. Not to relent, is beaftly, favage, deviliih. 
My friend, I fpy fome pity in thy looks ; 
O, if thine eye be not a flatterer, 
Come thou on my fide, and entreat for me : 
A begging prince what beggar pities not ' ? 

2 Murd. 

4 andfaveyourfoul^ &c.] The fix following lines are not 
in the old edition. POPE. 

They are not neceflary, but fo forced in, that fomething feems 
omitted to which thefe lines are the anfwer. JOHNSON. 

5 what beggar pities not ?"] I cannot but fufpecl that the 

lines, which Mr. Pope obferved not to be in the old edition, are 
now mifplaced, and fliould be inferted here, fomewhat after thia 
manner : 

Clar. A begging prince ivbat beggar pities not ? 
Vil. A begging prinee / 

Clar. -Wljich of you, if you were a prince's fan, &c. 
Upon this provocation, the villain naturally ftrikes him. JOHNSON, 
Mr. Pope's note is not accurately flated. I believe this paflTage* 
(hould be regulated thus. 

Clar. 'Relent and fave your fouls. 
I Vil. Relent! 'tis cowardly and womanifh. 
Clar. Not to relent is beaftly, favage, devilifh. 
Which of you if you were a prince's fon 

Being pent . 

If two fuch 

Would nof intreat for life ? 

My friend, I fpy 


2 Murd. Look behind you, my lord. 

1 Murd. Take that, and that; if all this will not 

ferve, [Stabs bim. 

I'll drown you in the malmfey-butt within. [Exit. 

2 Murd. A bloody deed, and defperately dif- 

patch'd ! 

How fain, like Pilate, would I wafli my hands 
Of this molt grievous guilty murder done ! 

Re-enter firft Murderer. 

1 Murd. How now ? what mean'fl thou, thatthou 

help'ft me not ? 

fey heaven, the duke mail know how flack you have 

2 Murd. I would he knew, that I had fav'd his bro- 

ther ! 

Take thou the fee, and tell him what I fay; 
For I repent me that the duke is flain. [Exit. 

i Murd. So do not I ; go, coward, as thou art. 
Well, I'll go hide the body in fome hole, 
'Till that the duke give order for his burial : 
And when I have my meed, I will away ; 
For this will out, and then I muft not ftay. 

[Exif 9 with the body. 
O, if thine eye 

Come then on my fide, and intreat for me, 
As you would beg, were you in my diftrefs. 
A begging prince what beggar pities not ? TYRWHITT. 

A legging prince what beggar pities not?] To this in the quarto, 
the murderer replies : 

I, thus and thus : .if this will not ferve, 
I'll chop thee in the malmefey but in the next roame. 
and then flabs him. STEEVENS. 


A C T II. S C E N E I. 

The Court. 

Enter King Edward fid, the Queen, Dorfet, 'Rivers; 
Hajlings, Buckingham, Grey, and others. 

K. Edw. Why, fo : now have I done a good day's 

work ; 

You peers, continue this united league : 
I every day expect an embaflage 
From my Redeemer to redeem me hence ; 
And now in peace my foul lhall part to heaven, 
Since I have made my friends at peace on earth. 
Rivers, and Haflings, take each other's hand ; 
Diflemble not your hatred, fwear your love. 

Riv. By heaven, my foul is pnrg'd from grudging 

hate ; 

And with my hand I feal my true heart's love. 
Haft. So thrive I, as I truly fwear the like ! 
K. Edzv. Take heed, you dally not before your 


Left he, that is the fupreme King of kings, 
Confound your hidden falfhood, and award 
Either of you to be the other's end. 

Haft. So profper I, as I fwear perfect love ! 
Riv. And I, as I love Hailings with my heart ! 
K. Edw. Madam, yourfelf are not exempt in this, 
Nor your fon Dorfet, Buckingham, nor you ; 
You have been fadious one againft the other. 
Wife, love lord Haflings, let him kifs your hand ; 
And what you do, do it unfeignedly. 

$ueen. There, Hailings ; I will never more re- 

Our former hatred, So thrive I, and mine ! 
/T. fer. Dorfet, embrace him ; Hailings, love 
lord marquis. 


KltiG iiCHARD lit. 51 

tior. This enterchange of love, I here proteft, 
tjpon my part, fhall be inviolable. 

Haft. And Ib fwear I. 

K. Edw. Now, princely Buckingham, feal thou 

this league 

With thy embracements to my wife's allies, 
And make me happy in your unity. 

Buck. Whenever Buckingham doth turn his hate 
Upon your grace, but with all duteous love 

[To the Queen. 

Doth cherim you* and yours, God punifh me 
With hate in thole where I exped: moft love ! 
When I have moft need to employ a friend, 
And moft affured that he is a friend, 
JDeep, hollow, treacherous, and full of guile, 
Be he unto me ! this do I beg of heaven, 
When I am cold in love, to you, or yours. 

[Embracing Rivers, &c. 

K. Edzv. A pleafing cordial, princely Buckingham, 
Is this thy vow unto my iickly heart* 
There wanteth now our brother Glofter here, 
To make the blefled period of this peace. 

Buck. And, in good time, here comes the noble duke* 

Enter Glofter. 

Glo. Good morrow to my fovereign, king, and 

queen ; 
And, princely peers, a happy time of day ! 

K. Edzv. Happy, indeed, as we have fpent the 

day : 

Brother, we have done deeds of charity ; 
Made peace of enmity, fair love of hate, 
Between thefe fwelling wrong-incenfed peers. 

Glo. A blefled labour, my moft fovereign liege. ^ 
Among this princely heap, if any here, 
By falfe intelligence, or wrong furmife, 
Hold me a foe ; if I unwittingly 
Have aught committed that is hardly borne 

E 2 By 

5 i KING RICHARD lit* 

By any in this prefence, I defire 

To reconcile me to his friendly peace : 

'Tis death to me, to be at enmity ; 

I hate it, and defire all good men's love. 

Fir ft, madam, I entreat true peace of you, 

Which I will purchafe with my duteous iervice ; 

Of you, my noble coufin Buckingham, 

If ever any grudge were lodg'd between us ; 

Of you, lord Rivers, and, lord Grey, of you f 

That all without defert have frown'd on me ; 

Of you, lord Woodville,. and lord Scales, of you, 

Dukes, earls, lords, gentlemen ; indeed, of all. 

I do not know 6 that Englishman alive, 

With whom my foul is any jot at odds, 

More than the infant that is born to-night ; 

I thank my God for my humility. 

Queen. A holy-day this Ihall be kept hereafter : 
I would to God, all ftrifes were well compounded. 
My fovereign lord, I do befeech your highnefs 
To take our brother Clarence to your grace.. 

Glo* Why, madam, have I offer'd love for this, * 
To be fo flouted in this royal prefence ? 

6 Ida not know- &c.} Milton in his EIKONOKAASTHS, lias 
this obfervation. " The poets, and Ibme Englifli, have been in 
this point Ib mindful of decorum, as to put never more pious 
words in the mouth of any perlbn, than of a tyrant. I fliall not 
inftance an abftrufe author,, wherein the king might be lefs con- 
verfant, but one whom we well know was the clofet-companion 
of thefe his folitudes, William Shakefpeare ; who introduced the 
perfon of Richard the Third, fpeaking in as high a itrain of 
piety and mortification as is uttered' in any paffage in this book, 
and fomctimes to the fame fenie and purpole with fome words in 
this place; I Intended, faith he, not only to oblige my, friends, but 
my enemies. The like faith Richard, act II. fc. i t 

I do not know that Englifliman alive 

With whom my foul is any jot at odds, 

More than the infant that is born to-night j 

I thank my God for my humility. 

Other ftufF of this fort may be read throughout the tragedy, 
wherein the poet ufed not much licence in departing from the 
truth of hiftory, which delivers him a deep diircmbler, not of 
his affections only, but of religiou." brtiiVJiNS* 



W'ho knows not, that the gentle duke is dead ? 

[They alljlart. 
You do him injury, to fcorn his corfe. 

K. Edzv. Who knows not, he is dead ! who knows t 
he is ? 

<Queen. All-feeing heaven, what a world is this ! 

Buck. Look I fo pale, lord Dorfet, as the reft ? 

Dor. Ay, my good lord ; and no man in the prefence, 
But his red colour hath forfook his cheeks. 

K.Etkv. Is Clarence dead? the order was reversed. 

Glo. But he, poor man, by your firft order died, 
And that a winged Mercury did bear ; 
Some tardy cripple bore the countermand 7 , 
That came too lag to fee him buried : 
God grant, that fomc, lefs noble, and lefs loyal, 
Nearer in bloody thoughts, and not in blood, 
Defcrve not worfc than wretched Clarence did, 
And yet go current from fufpicion ! 

Enter Lord Stanley. 

Stan. A boon, my fovereign, for my fervice done ! 
K. Edw. I pr'ythee, peace ; my foul is full of for- 


Stan. I will not rife, unlefs your highnefs hear me. 
K. Edw. Then fay at once, what is it thou requeft'ft. 
Stan. 8 The forfeit, fovereign, of my fervant's life; 
Who flew to-day a riotous gentleman, 
Lately attendant on the duke of Norfolk. 

K. Edw. 9 Have I a tongue to doom my brother's 


7 foiiu tardy cripple &c.] This is an allufion to a prover- 
bial expreffion which Drayton has vcrfified in the fecond canto of 
the Baron's If "ars : 

" 111 news hath wings, and with the wind doth go ; 

*' Comfort's a cr'tpple > and comes ever flow." STEEVETNS. 

8 Tic forfeit ~\ He means the remiffion of the forfeit. 


5 Have I a tottgue to doom ny IrotlMifsdeaib?} This lamentation 
3 is 


And fhall that tongue give pardon to a flave ? 
My brother kill'd no man, his fault was thought^ 
And yet his punishment was bitter death. 
Who fu'd to me for him ? who, in my wrath, 
Kneel'd at my feet, and bid me be advis'd ? 
Who fpoke of brotherhood . ; who fpoke of love ? 
Who told me ? how the poo<* foul did forfake 
The mighty Warwick, and did fight for me ? 
Who told me, in the field at Tewkfbury, 
When Oxford had me down, he refcu'd me, 
And faid ? Dear brother, live, and be a king f 
Who told me, when we both lay in the field, 
Frozen almoft to death^ how he difi lap me 
Even in his garments ; and did give himfelf, 
All thin and naked, to the numb-cold night ? 
All this from my remembrance brutifh wrath 
Sinfully, pluck'd, and not a man of you 
Had fo much grace to put it in my mind. 
But, when your carters, or your waiting vaflals, 
Have done a drunken flaugfiter, and defac'd 
The precious image of our dear Redeemer, 
You ftraight are on your knees for pardon, pardon \ 
And I, unjuftly too, muft grant it you : 
But for my brother, not a man would fpeak,-r- 
Nor I (ungracious) fpeak unto myfelf 
For him, poor foul. -The proudeft of you all 
Have been beholden to him in his life ; 
Yet none of you would once plead for his life,; 
O God ! I fear, thy juftice will take hold 
On me, and you, and mine, and yours, for this. 
Come, Haftings, help me to my clofet. Oh, 
Poor Clarence ! [Exeunt King and Queen, Ha/lings,^ 

Rivers, Dorfet, and Grey. 

Qlo. Thefe are the fruits of ralhnefs ! Mark'd 
you not, 

^ tender and pathetick. The recolleftion of the good qua- 
lities of the dead is very natural, and no lefs naturally does the 
king endeavour to communicate the crime to others. JOHNSON, j 



How that the guilty kindred of the queen 

Look'd pale, when they did hear of Clarence' death > 

O ! they did urge it (till unto the king : 

God will revenge it. Come, lords ; will you go, 

To comfort Edward with our company ? 

Buck. We wait upon your grace, [Exeunt. 


The fame. 

Enter tie Dutchefs of Tork, with the two children of 

Son. Good grandam, tell us, is our father dead ? 

Dutcl. No, boy. 

Daugh. Why do you weep fo oft ? and beat your 

breaft ? 
And cry, O Clarence, my unhappy fon ! 

Son. Why do you look on us, and lhake your head, 
And call us orphans, wretches, caft-aways, 
If that our noble father be alive ? 

Dutch. My pretty coufins, you miftake me both ; 
I do lament the ficknefs of the king, 
As loth to lofe him, not your father's death ; 
It were loft forrow, to wail one that's loft. 

Son. Then, grandam, you conclude that he is dead. 
The king mine uncle is to blame for this : 
God will revenge it ; whom I will importune 
With earncft prayers, all to that effedt. 

Daugh. And fo will I. 

Dutch. Peace, children, peace ! the king doth love 

you well : 

Incapable and (hallow innocents, 
You cannot guefs who caus'd your father's death. 

Son. Grandam, we can : for my good uncle Gloftcr 
Told me, the king, provok'd to't by the queen, 

E 4 DC- 


Devis'd impeachments to imprifon him : 
And when my uncle told me fo, he wept, 
And pitied me, and kindly kifs'd my cheek ; 
Bade me rely on him, as on my father, 
And he would love me dearly as his child. 

Dutch. Ah, that deceit Ihould fteal fuch gentle 


And with a virtuous vizor hide deep vice ! 
He is my fon, ay, and therein my fhame. 
Yet from my dugs he drew not this deceit. 

Son. Think you, my uncle did diffemble, gran- 
dam ? 

Dutch. Ay, boy. 

Son. I cannot think it. Hark ! what noife is this ? 

Enter the ^ueen, diftraftedly ; Riven, and Dorfet, after 

Queen. Ah ! who ftiall hinder me to wail and weep ? 
To chide my fortune, and torment myfelf ? 
I'll join with black defpair againft my foul. 
And to myfelf become an enemy. 

Dutch. What means this fcene of rude impatience ? 

Queen. To make an ad: of tragic violence : 
Edward, my lord, thy fon, our king, is dead. 
Why grow the branches, when the root is gone ? 
Why wither not the leaves, that want their lap ? 
If you will live, lament ; if die, be brief ; 
That our fwift- winged fouls may catch the king's ; 
Or, like obedient fubje&s, follow him 
To his new kingdom of perpetual reft. 

Dutch. Ah, fp much intereft have I in thy forrow, 
As I had title in thy noble hufband ! 
I have bewept a worthy hulband's death, 
And liv'd by looking on * his images : 
But now, two mirrors of his princely femblance 

1 bis images:] The children by whom he was repre- 

feiited, JOHNSON. 


Are crack'd in pieces by malignant death ; 
And I for comfort have but one falfe glafs, 
That grieves me when I fee my lhame in him. 
Thou art a widow ; yet thou art a mother. 
And haft the comfort of thy children left thec : 
But death hath fnatch'd my hulband from mine arms, 
And pluck'd two crutches from my feeble hands, 
Clarence, and Edward. O, what caufe have I, 
(Thine being but a moiety of my grief) 
To over-go thy plaints, and drown thy cries ? 

Son. Ah, aunt ! [To the <$ueen.'] you wept not for 

our father's death ; 
How can we aid you with our kindred tears ? 

Daugh. Our fatherlefs diftrefs was left unmoanM, 
Your widow dolour likewife be unwept ! 

Queen. Give me no help in lamentation, 
I am not barren to bring forth laments : 
All fprings reduce their currents to mine eyes, 
That I, z being governed by the watry moon, 
May fend forth plenteous tears to drown the world! 
Ah, for my hufband, for my dear lord Edward ! 

Cbil. Ah, for our father, for our dear lord Clarence ! 

Dutch. Alas, for both, both mine, Edward and 
Clarence ! 

Queen. What ftay had I, but Edward ? and he's 

CJjil. What ftay had we, but Clarence ? and he's 

Dutch. What ftays had I, but they ? and they are 
' gone. 

Queen. M r as never widow, had fo dear a lofs. 

Cbil. Were never orphans, had fo dear a lofs. 

Dutch. Was never mother, had fo dear a lofs. 
Alas ! I am the mother .of thefe griefs ; 

a being governed l>y lie ivatiy mron,} That I may live 

^ercafter under the influence of the moon, which governs the 
tides, and by the help of that influence dn.vvn the world. The 
introduction of the mcon is not verv mtural. JOHNSQX. 



Their woes are parcell'd, mine are general. 
She for an Edward weeps, and fo do I ; 
I for a Clarence weep, fo doth not fhe : 
Thefe babes for Clarence weep, and fo do I ; 
I for an Edward weep, fo do not they : 
Alas ! you three, on me, threefold diftrefs'd, 
Pour all your tears ; I am your forrow's nurfe, 
And I will pamper it with lamentations. 

Dor. Comfort, dear mother; God is much dif- 


That you take with imthankfulnefs his doing : 
In common worldly things, 'tis call'd ungrateful, 
With dull unwillingnefs to repay a debt, 
Which with a bounteous hand was kindly lent; 
Much more, to be thus oppofite with heaven, 
For it requires the royal debt it lent you. 

Riv. Madam, bethink you, like a careful mo~ 


Of J:he young prince your fon : fend ftraight for him, 
Let him be crown'd ; in him your comfort lives : 
Drown defperate forrow in dead Edward's grave, 
And plant your joys in living Edward's throne. 

Enter Gloftcr, Buckingham, Stanley, Ha/lings, and 

Glo. Sifter, have comfort : all of us have caufe. 
To wail the dimming of our fhining ftar; 
But none can cure their harms by wailing them. 
Madam, my mother, I do cry you mercy, 
I did not fee your grace : Humbly on my knee 
I crave your blcffing. 

Dutch. God blefs thec ; and put meeknefs in thy 

Love, charity, obedience, and true duty ! 

Glo. Amen ; and rriake me die a good old man ! 
That is the butt-end of a mother's bleffing ; [Aftde, 
I marvel, that her grace did leave it out. 



Buck. You cloudy princes, and heart-forrowing 


That bear this mutual heavy load of moan, 
Now chear each other in each other's love : 
Though we have fpent our harveft of this king, 
We are to reap the harveft of his fon. 
The broken rancour of your high-fwoln hearts, 
But lately fplinted, knit, and join'd together, 
Muft gently be preferv'd, cheriih'cl, and kept : 
Me feemeth good, that, with fome little train, 
3 Forthwith from Ludlow the young prince be fetch'd 
Hither to London, to be crown'd our king. 

jv. Why with fome little train, my lord of Buck- 
ingham ? 

Buck. Marry, my lord, left, by a multitude, 
The new-heal'd wound of malice fhould break out; 
Which would be fo much the more dangerous, 
By how much the eftate is green, and yet ungovern'd : 
Where every horfe bears his commanding rein, 
And may direct his courfe as pleafe himfelf, 
As well the fear of harm, as harm apparent, 
In my opinipn, ought to be prevented. 

Glo. I hope, the king made peace with all of us ; 
And the compact is firm, and true, in me. 

Riv. And fo in me ; and fo, I think, in all ; 
Yet, fince it is but green, it Ihould be put 
To no apparent likelihood of breach, 
Which, haply, by much company might be urg'd : 
Therefore I fay, with noble Buckingham, 
That it is meet fo few fhould fetch the prince. 

3 Fortfnvitb from Ludlcrjj the young prince le fetci'd] Edward 
the young prince, in his father's lifetime, and at his demifc, kept 
his houfticld at Ludlow, as prince of Wales ; under the govern- 
ance of Antony Woodville, earl of Rivers, his uncle by the 
mother's fide. The intention of his being fent thither was to fee 
juftice done in the Marches ; and, by the authority of his pre- 
fence, to reftrain the Welfiimen, who were wild, diflblute, and 
ill-djfpofed, from their accuftomed murders and outrages. Vid. 
pall, Holinflied, &c. THEOBALD. 


Haft. And fo fay I. 

Gb. Then be it fo ; and go we to determine 
Who they lhall be that ftraight fhall poll to Ludlow, 
Madam, and yon my mother, will you go 
To give your cenfures 4 in this weighty buiinefs ? 

[Exeunt ueen, &c? 

Manent Buckingham^ and Glojier. 

Buck. My lord, whoever journeys to the prince, 
For God's fake, let not us two flay at home : 
For, by the way, I'll fort occafion, 
As index to the flory we late talk'd of s > 
To part the queen's proud kindred from the prince, 

Gb. My other felf, my counfel's confiftory, 
My oracle, my prophet ! My dear coufin, 
I, as a child, will go by thy direction. 
Towards Ludlow then, for we'll not ftay behind. 


* your cenfures ] TO cenfure formerly meant 

liver an opinion. So, in Heywood's Golden Age^ 1611; 

, *' yet if I cenfure freely, 

*^ I needs muft think that face and perfonage 
" Was ne'er deriv'd from bafenefs." 
Again, in Marlus and Sylla t 1594: 

** Cinna affirms the fenate's cenfure juft, 
"And faith, let Marius lead the legions forth.** 
Again, in Orlando Furiofo^ 1 594. : 

** Set each man forth his paflions how he can, 
" And let her cenfure make the happieft man." 

5 rilfort occajion. 

As index to the fiery] 
\. e. preparatory by way of prelude. So, in Hamlet : 

44 That ftorms fo loud and thunders in the index" 
See the note on that paflage. MALONE. 




A Jlreet near the court. 
Enter two Citizens, meeting. 

1 Cit. Good morrow, neighbour : Whither away 

fo faft ? 

2 Cit. I promife you, I hardly know myfelf ; 
Hear you the news abroad ? 

1 Cit. Yes, that the king is dead. 

2 Cit. Ill news, by'r lady ; feldom comes a better : 
I fear, I fear, 'twill prove a giddy world. 

Enter another Citizen. 

3 Cit. Neighbours, God fpeed ! 

1 Cit. Give you good morrow, fir. 

3 Cit. Doth the news hold of good king Edward's 
death ? 

2 Cit Ay, fir, it is too true ; God help, the while ! 

3 Cit. Then, matters, look to fee a troublous world. 

1 Cit. No, no ; by God's good grace, his fon ftiall 


3 Cit. Woe to that land, that's e;overn'd by a 
child 6 ! 

2 Cit. In him there is a hope of government ; 
7 That, in his nonage, council under him, 
And, in his full and ripen'd years, himfelf, 

No doubt, lhall then, and 'till then, govern welL 

' Woe to that land that's governed by a child !~\ 

" Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child." 

Ecclefiaftes, ch. x. STEEVENS. 

7 Which in his nonage, ] -The word .which has no ante- 
cedent, nor can the fenfe or connection be eafily reftored by any 
change.^ I believe a line to be loft, in which ibme mention was 
made of the land or t\\e people. JOHNSON. 
The quarto reads, that. STEE,V^NS. 

i Cit. 


i Cit. So flood the flate, when Henry the fixth 
Was crown'd in Paris but at nine months old. 

3 Cit. Stood the ftate fo ? no, no, good friends, 

God wot ; 

For then this land was famoufly enrich'd 
With politick grave connfel ; then the king 
Had virtuous uncles to protect his grace. 

i Cit. Why, fo hath this, both by his father and 

3 Cit. Better it were, they all came by his father ; 
Or, by his father, there were none at all : 
For emulation now, who lhall be neareft, 
Will touch us all too near, if God prevent not. 
O, full of danger is the duke of Glofler ; 
And the queen's fons, and brothers, haught and 

proud : 

And were they to be rul'd and not to rule, 
This fickly land might folace as before. 

1 Cit. Come, come, we fear the worft ; all will be 

3 Cit. When clouds are feen, wife men put on their 

, cloaks ; 

When great leaves fall, then winter is at hand ; 
When the fun fets, who doth not look for night ? 
Untimely ftorms make men expedt a dearth : 
All may be well ; but, if God fort it fo, 
'Tis more than we deferve, or I expect. 

2 Cit. Truly, the hearts of men are full of fear : 
You cannot reafon almoft with a man 

That looks not heavily, and full of dread* 

3 Git. Before the days of change 8 , ftill is it fo : 
By a divine inftinct, men's minds miftruft 
Enftring danger ; as, by proof, we fee 

8 Before the days of change, &c.] This is from Holinflied's 
Chronicle, Vol. III. p. 721. " Before fuch great things, men's 
hearts ot a fecret inftinft of nature mifgive them ; as the fea 
without wind fwelleth of himfejf fome time before a tempeft." 




The water fwell before a boift'rous ftorm. 
But leave it all to God. Whither away ? 

2 Cit. Marry, we were fent for to the juftices. 

3 Cit. And fo was I ; I'll bear you company. 



A room in the palace. 

Enter Archbijhop of York, the young Duke of York, the 
Queen, and the Dutchefs of Tork. 

Arch. Laft night, I heard, they lay at Northampton ; 
At Stony-Stratford they do reft to-night : 
To-morrow, or next day, they will be here. 

Dutch. I long with all my heart to fee the prince ; 
I hope, he is much grown iince laft I faw him. 

Queen. But I hear, no ; they fay, my fon of York 
Has almoft overta'en him in his growth. 

York. Ay, mother, but I would not have it fo. 

Dutch. Why, my young coufin ? it is good to grow. 

York. Grandam, one night as we did fit at fupper, 
My uncle Rivers talk'd how I did grow 
More than my brother; Ay, quoth my uncle Glofter, 
Small herbs have grace, great 'weeds do grow apace : 
And fince, methinks, I would not grow fo faft, 
Becaufe fweet flowers are flow, and weeds make hafte. 

Dutch. Good faith, good faith, the faying did not 


In him that did object the fame to thee : 
He was 9 the wretched'ft thing, when he was young, 
So long a growing, and fo leifurely, 
That, if his rule were true, he Ihould be gracious. 

Arch. And fo, no doubt, he is, my gracious madam. 

9 the wretched'ft //,] Wretched is here ufed in 

a fenfe yet retained in familiar language, for f>ahrj t pitiful, be- 
ing below expectation. JOHNSON. 



Dutch. I hope, he is ; but yet let mothers doubt; 

York. Now, by my troth, if I had ' been remem- 


I could have given my uncle's grace a flout, 
To touch his growth, nearer than he touch'd mine. 

Dutch. How, my young York > I pr'ythee, let me 
hear it. 

York. Marry, they fay, my uncle grew fo faft, 
That he could gnaw a crufl at two hours old ; 
'Twas full two years ere I could get a tooth. 
Grandam, this would have been a biting jeft. 

Dutch. I pr'ythee, pretty York, who told thec this ? 

York. Grandam, his nurfe. 

Dutch. His nurfe ! why, flie was dead ere thou waft 

York. If 'twere not me, I cannot tell who told me. 

<$ueen. A parlous boy * : Go to, you are too 

'Dutch. Good madam, be not angry with the child* 

Queen. Pitchers have ears. 

Enter a Meffenger '. 

Arch. Here comes a meflenger : What news ? 

Mef. Such news, my lord, as grieves me to unfold. 

Queen. How doth the prince ? 

Me/. Well, madam, and in health. 

Dutch. What is thy news ? 

Mef. Lord Rivers, and lord Grey, 
Are fent to Pomfret, prifoners ; and, with them, 
Sir Thomas Vaughan. 

1 " been remembered, ] To le remembered is in Shakefpeare, to 
have one's memory quick, to have one's thoughts about one. 


* A parlous Icy.} Parlous is keen, flirevvd. So, in La-iv Tricks t 
&C. 1608 : 

" A^<7r/0aj youth, fliarp and fatirical." STEEVENS. 
3 Enter a Meffcngcr. The quarto reads Enter Dorfet. 




Dutch. Who hath committed them ? 

Mef. The mighty dukes, Glofler, and Bucking- 

Queen. 4 For what offence ? 

Mef. The fum of all I can, I have difclos'd ; 
Why, or for what, the nobles were committed, 
Is all unknown to me, my gracious lady. 

Queen. A\\ me, I fee the ruin of my houfe ! 
The tyger now hath feiz'd the gentle hind ; 
Infulting tyranny begins to jut 
Upon the innocent and 6 awlefs throne : 
Welcome deftruction, blood, and maffacre ! 
I fee, as in a map, the end of all. 

Dutch. Accurfed and unquiet wrangling days ! 
How many of you have mine eyes beheld ? 
My hufband loft his life to get the crown ; 
And often up and down my fons were toft, 
For me to joy, and weep, their gain, and lofs : 
And being feated, and domeftick broils 
Clean over-blown, themfelves, the conquerors, 
Make war upon themfelves ; brother to brother, 
Blood to blood, felf againft felf : O, prepofterous 
And frantick outrage, end thy damned fpleen ; 
7 Or let me die, to look on death no more ! 

4 For what offence?] This queftion is given to the archbifliop 
in former copies, but the meflenger plainly fpeaks to the queen 
or dutchefs. JOHNSON. 

6 ai'.'ic/s ] Not producing awe, not reverenced. To 
jut upon is to encroach. JOHNSON. 

7 Or let me die, to look on earth no more.~\ This is the reading of 
nil the copies, from the firft edition put out by the players, down- 
wards. But I have reftored the reading of the old quarto in 1 597, 
which is copied by all the other authentic quartos, by which the 
thought is finely and properly improved. 

Or let me die, to look on death no wore. THEOBALD. 
This quarto printed in i 597 I have never feen, neither was it 
in Theobald's collection of the old copies, which the late Mr. 
Tonfon poflefled entire. STHEVENS. 



Queen. Come, come, my boy, we will to fenc- 

Madam, farewel. 

Dutch. Stay, I will go with you. 

Queen. You have no caufe. 

Arch. My gracious lady, go., 
And thither bear your treafure and your goods. 
For my part, I'll reiign unto your grace 
The feal I keep ; And fo betide to me, 
As well I tender you, and all of yours ! 
Come, I'll conduct you to the fanctuary. [Exeunt. 


In London. 

The trumpets found. Enter the Prince of Wales, the 
Dukes of Glojler and Buckingham, Cardinal Bourchier, 
and others. 

Buck. Welcome, fweet prince, to London, 8 to 

your chamber. 
Glo. Welcome, dear coufin, my thoughts' fove- 

reign : 
The weary way hath made you melancholy. 

Prince. No, uncle ; but our croffes on the way 
Have made it tedious, wearifome, and heavy : 
I want more uncles here to welcome me. 

Glo. Sweet prince, the untainted virtue of your 

8 * toy our chamber.] London was anciently called Ca' 
trier regia. POPE. 

So, in Heywood's If you knoi': not me you know Nobody , 1633 : 
2d Pai;t : 

** This city, our great cbaml>.r" S TEE YENS. 

' Hath 


Hath not yet div'd into the world's deceit : 

No more can you diftinguifh of a man, 

Than of his outwacd fhew ; which, God he knows, 

Seldom, or never, jumpeth with the heart 9 . 

Thofe uncles, which you want, were dangerous ; 

Your grace attended to their fugar'd words, 

But look'd not on the poifon of their hearts : 

God keep you from them, and from fuch falfe 

friends ! 
Prince. God keep me from falfe friends ! but they 

were none. 
Glo. My lord, the mayor of London comes to 

greet you, 

Enter the Lord Mayor, and his train, 
Myor. God blefs your grace with health and hap- 

py days 1 
ince. I 

Prince. I thank you, good my lord ; and thank 

you all. 

I thought, my mother, and my brother York, 
Would long ere this have met us on the way : 
Fie, what a Hug is Haftings ! that he comes not 
To tell us, whether they will come, or no. 

Enter Haftings. 

Buck. And, in good time T , here comes thefweating 


Prince. Welcome, my lord : What, will our mo- 
ther come ? 

Haft. On what occafion, God he knows, not I, 
The queen your mother, and your brother York, 
Have taken fanctuary : The tender prince 

' jumpeth *xitb the heart:]. So, in Soliman andPerfeda: 

" Wert thou try friend, thy mind would jump with mine." 

* ' " in good time )~\ A la bonne heure. Fr. STEEVENS. 

F a Would 


Would fain have come with me to meet your grace, 
But by his mother was perforce withheld. 

Buck. Fie ! what an indirect and peevifh courfe 
Is this of hers ? Lord cardinal, will your grace 
Perfuade the queen to fend the duke of York 
Unto his princely brother prefently ? 
If flie deny, lord Hailings, you go with him, 
And from her jealous arms pluck him perforce. 

Card. My lord of Buckingham, if my weak oratory 
Can from his mother win the duke of York, 
Anon cxpedt him here : But if flie be obdurate 
To mild entreaties, God in heaven forbid 
We mould infringe the holy privilege 
Of blefled fanctuary ! not for all this land, 
Would I be guilty of fo deep a fin, 

Buck. You are too fcnfelefs-obftinate, my lord, 
* Too ceremonious, and traditional : 
J Weigh it but with the groffnefs of this age, 

4 Too ceremonious, ^/traditional :] Ceremonious for fu peril i- 
tious ; traditional for adherent to old cuftoms. WARBURTON. 

3 Weigh it but with the grollhefs of this age,] But the moregrofs, 
that is, the more iuperititious the age was, the ftronger would 
be the imputation o I violated fan&uary. The queftion, we fee 
by what follows, is whether fan&uary could be claimed by an in- 
fant. The fpeaker refolves it in the negative, becaufe it could be 
claimed by thofe only whole actions neceffitated them to fly thi- 
ther ; or by thofe who had an understanding to demand it ; nei- 
ther of which could be an inhmt's cafe : It is plain then, the fidt 
line, which introduces this reafoning, mould be read thus : 

Weigh it but with tie greennefs of his age, 

i, c. the young duke of York's, whom his mother had fled with 
to fandtuary. The corrupted reading of the old quarto is fome- 
thing nearer the true : 

the greatnefs of his age. WAR BUR TON. 
This emendation is received by Hanmer, and is very plaufiblci 
yet the common reading may ftand : 

Weigh it but with the groffnefs of this age, 

You break not fanEluary ,- 

That is, compare the act of feizing him with tliegrofs and licen- 
tious practices of tbtfi times, it will not be confidered as a viola- 
tion of faoftuary, for you may give fucli reafcms as men are now 
ttfed to admit. JOHNSOXI 



You break not fanftuary in feizing him. 

The benefit thereof is always granted 

To thofe whofe dealings have dcferv'd the place, 

And thofe who have the wit to claim the place : 

This prince hath neither claim J d it, nor deferv'dit; 

Therefore, in mine opinion, cannot have it : 

Then, taking him from thence, that is not there, 

Your break no privilege nor charter there. 

Oft have I heard of fanctuary men 4 ; 

But fandtuary children, ne'er 'till now. 

Card. My lord, you fhall o'er-rule my mind for 

Come on, lord Haftings, will you go with me ? 

Haft. I go, my lord. 

Prince. Good lords, make all the fpeedy hafle you 
may. [Exeunt Cardinal, and Haft ings. 

Say, uncle Glofter, if our brother come, 
Where fhall we fojourn 'till our coronation ? 

Glo. Where it feems befl unto your royal felf. 
If I may counfel you, fome day, or two, 
Your highnefs lhall repofe you at the Tower : 
Then where you pleafc, and fhall be thought mod fit 
For your befl health and recreation. 

Prince. I do not like the Tower, of any place : 
Did Julius Casfar build that place, my lord ? 

Glo. He did, my gracious lord, begin that place ; 
Which, fince, fucceeding ages have re-edify'd. 

Prince. Is it upon record ? or elfe reported 
Succcffively from age to age, he built it ? 

Buck. Upon record, my gracious lord. 

Prince. But fay, my lord, it were not regifter'd ; 
Methinks-, the truth fhould live from age to age, 

* Oftbavelbeardoffanftuary men\ &c.] Thefe arguments 
againft the privilege of fanftuary are taken from fir Tho^ More's 

Life of K. EJ-ivard the Fifth, publifhed by Stowe : " And 

verily, I have often heard of ian&uary men, but I never heard 
fan&uary children, &c." STEEVENS. 

F a As 


* As 'twere retail'd to all poflcrity, 
Even to the general all-ending day. 

Qlo. So wife fo young, they fay, do ne'er live 
long 6 . \_4fide. 

Prince. What fay you, uncle ? 
Glo. I fay, .without characters, fanie lives long. 
7 Thus, like the formal vice, Iniquity, ? , c , 
I moralize, two meanings in one word. $ e ' 


5 As 'twere retailed to all pojlerity ,] And fo it is : and, by that 
means, like mofl other retailed things, became adulterated. We 
fliould read : 

intail'd to all poflcrity ; 

which is finely and fenfibly exprefied, as if truth was the natural 
inheritance of our children ; which it is impiety to deprive them 

Retailed may fignify diffufed, difperfed. JOHNSON. 

6 So wife, &c.] 

Is cadlt antefenem, quifapit ante diem t 
a proverbial line. 

* Nov. 2!, 1576, was enter'd on the books of the Stationers* 
Company, ** Carminum proverbialium totius humans vitas, loci 
Communes." From this collection, perhaps, the pentameter, 
which I have quoted from memory, 1 is derived. STEEVENS. 
7 Thus, like the formal vice, Iniquity, 

I moralize t"jjo meanings in one ivord, ~\ 

By vice, the author means not a quality, but aperfon. There was 
hardly an old play, till the period of the Reformation, which had 
not in it a devil, and a droll character, a jefter ; (who was to play 
upon the devil ;) and this buffoon went by the name of a f^icc. 
Tliia buffoon was at full accoutred with a long jerkin, a cap with 
a pair of als's ears, and a wooden dagger, with which (like an- 
other av'equin) he was to make fport in belabouring the devil. 
This was the conilant entertainment in the times of popery, whilit 
fpirirs, and witchcraft, and exorcifmg held their own. When the 
P -nation took place, the flage fhook off fome groffities, and 
encreafed in refinements. The mafter-devil then was foon dif- 
jnifTed from the fcene ; and this buffoon was changed into a fub- 
ordiuate fiend, whofe bufinefs *vas to range on earth, and feduce 
poor mortals into that perforated vicious quality, which he occa- 
fionally fupported ; as, i,-ii^\l:y in general, lypocrtfy , -afury, va- 
nity, -prodlgfility, gluttony, &c. Now, as the fiend (or Wo-,) who 
perfonated Iniquity (or H) pocrify, for inftance,) could never hope 
to play his game to the purpofe but by hiding his cloven foot, 
fcnd afiuming a fen.blance q^uite different from his real character ; 



Prince. That Julius CWar was a famous man ; 
With what his valour did enrich his wit, 


he muft certainly put on a formal demeanour, moralize and pre- 
varicate in his words, and pretend a meaning directly oppofite to 
\i\sgenuine K\\& primitive intention. If this does not explain the 
pafliigein quelHon, 'tis all that I can at prefent fuggeft upon it. 


Thus, like the formal vice, Iniquity, 
I moralize fovo meanings in oneivord.] 

That the buffoon, or jefter of the old Englifh farces, was called 
the vice, is certain : and that, in their moral reprefentations, it 
was common, to bring in the deadly fins, is as true. Of thefe we ' 
have yet feveral remains. But that the vice ufed to a flu me the 
perfonage of thole fins, is a fancy of Mr. Theobald's, who knew 
nothing of the matter. The truth is, the vice was always a fool 
or jefter : And, (as the woman, in the Merchant of Venice, calls 
the clown, alluding to this character,) a merry devil. Whereas 
thefe mortal fins were fo many fad ferious ones. But what milled 
our editor was the name, Iniquity, given to this vice : But it was 
only on account of his unhappy tricks and rogueries. That it 
was given to him, and for the reafon I mention, appears from the 
following paflage of Jonfon's Staple of Neves, fecoud intermeane ; 
*' M. H'Jtv like you the vice i the play ? 
*' T. Here if never a fiend to carry bim away. Befides he has 

never a wooden dagger. 

" M. That --Mas the old ivay,gojf:p, ivhen Iniquity came in, like 

Hocas Pocas, in a jagler's jerkin, iuith falfe Jkirts, like the knave 

of clubs." 

And, in The DeviFs an Afs, we fee this old vice, Iniquity, de- 
fcribed more at large. 

From all this, it may be gathered, that the text, where Rich- 
ard compares himfelf to the formal vice, Iniquity, muft be cor- 
rupt : And the interpolation of fome toolifli player. The vicc t 
or iniquity being not a formal but a merry, buffoon char rcter. 
Befides, Shakefpeare could never make an exact fpeaker refer to 
this character, becaufe the fubjecl he is upon is tradition and an- 
tiqnity, which have no relation to it ; and becaufe it appears from 
the turn of the paflage, that he is apologizing for his equivoca- 
tion by a refutable practice. To keep the reader no longer in 
fufpence, my conjecture is, that Shakefpeare wrote and pointed 
the lines in this manner : 

Thus like the formal-wife Antiquity, 
I moralize : Tkva meaning in one <v:ord 

Alluding to the mythologic learning cf the antients, of whom 
they arc all here fpeaking. So that Richard's ironical apology 


His wit fet down to make his valour live :' 
Death makes no conqueit of this conqueror ; 


is to this effect, You men of morals who fo much extol your all- 
wife antiquity, in what am I inferior to it ? which was but an 
equivocator as I am. And it is remarkable, that the Qreeks 
themfelves called their remote antiquity, Aip/o^S- or the ctjui- 
uocator. So far as to the general fenfe ; as to that which ariics 
particularly out ot the corrected expreffion, I {hall only obferve, 
tixsA formal-wife is a compound epithet, an extreme fine one, and 
admirably fitted to the character ot the fpeaker, who thought all 
luifdom \t\\t formality. It muft therefore be read for the future 
with a hyphen. My other obfervation is with regard to the 
pointing ; the common reading: 

/ moralize i'MO meanings 

is nonfenfe : but reformed in this manner, very fenfible : 
Thui like the formal-wife Antiquity 
I moralise : Two meanings in one word. 

i.e. I moralize as the antients did. And how was that? the 
having two meanings to one word. A ridicule on the morality 
of the antients, which he infinuates was no better than equivo- 
cating. WAR EUR TON. 

This alteration Mr. Upton very juftly cenfures. Dr. Warbur- 
ton, has, in my opinion, done nothing but correct the punctua- 
tion, if indeed any alteration be really neceflary. See the difler- 
tation on the old vice at the end of this play. 

To this long collection of notes may be added a queftion, to 
what equivocation Richard refers ? The pofition immediately 
preceding, \\\<& fame lives long vjithout characters, that is, without 
the help of letters, feems to have no ambiguity. He muft allude 
to the former line : 

So young fo wife, they fay, did ne'er live long, 
in which he conceals under -a proverb, his defign of haftening the 
prince's death. JOHNSON. 

From the following fiage direction, in an old dramatic piece, 
entituled, H:Jiriot:;aJiix t or the Player ivhipt, 1610, it appears, 
that the Fife and Iniquity were fometimes d^ftinct perfonages : 

** Enter a roaring devil, with the Vice on his back, Iniquity in. 

one hand, and Juventus in the other." 
The devil likewile makes the diflinction in his firft fpcech : 
" //<?, l>o, bo ! tbffe lobes mine are all, 
" The rice, Iniquitic, and child prodigal" 

The following part of this note was obligingly communicated 
by the rev. Mr. Bowie, of Idmeflone near Salifbury. I know- 
no writer who gives fo complete an account of this obfolete cha- 
jradter, as archbifhop Harfnet, in his Declaration of Popijh Im- 


For now he lives in fame, though not in life, 
I'll tell you what, my coufin Buckingham. 

Buck. What, my gracious lord ? 

Prince. An if I live until I be a man, 
I'll win our ancient right in France again, 
Or die a foldier, as I liv'd a king. 

Glo. Short fummers 8 lightly have a forward fpring. 

Enter York, He/lings, and the Cardinal* 

Buck. Now, in good time, here comes the duke of 

Prince. Richard of York ! how fares our loving 
brother ? 

York. Well, my 9 dread lord ; fo mufl I call you 

Prince. Ay, brother; to our grief, as it is yours : 
' Too late he died, that might have kept that title, 
Which by his death hath loft much majeily. 

Glo. How fares our coufin, noble lord of York ? 

York. I thank you, gentle uncle. O, my lord, 
You faid, that idle weeds are fail in growth : 
The prince my brother hath outgrown me far. 

Glo. He hath, my lord. 

York. And therefore is he idle ? 

poftures, p. 114, Lond. 1603 : " It was a pretty part (he tells us) 
in the old church playes, when the nimble Vice would fldp up 
nimbly like a jackanapes into the devil's necke, and ride the de- 
vil a courfe, and belabour him with his wooden dagger, till he 
made him roare, whereat the people would laugh to fee the devil 
fo vice- haunted.'' STEEVENS. 

s lightly ] Cpmmonly, in ordinary courfe. JOHNSON. 

So, in the old proverb : " There's lightning lightly before thun- 
der." See Ray's Proverbs, p. 130. edit. ^d. STEEVENS. 

9 dread lord ; ] The original of this epithet 

applied to kings has been much difputed. In fome of our old 
Itatutes, the king is called Rex metuendiffimus. JOHNSON. 

* Too late be died, ] i. e. too lately, the lofs is too frefh 

jn our memory. But the Oxford editor makes him fay : 
Top foon be died < < WA R B u R TON . 

O, my 


Glo. O, my fair coufin, I muft not fay fo. 
Tork. Then is he more beholden to you, than I. 
Glo. He may command me, as my fovereign ; 
But you have power in me, as in a kinfman. 
Tork. I pray you, uncle, give me this dagger. 
Glo. My dagger, little coulin ? with all my heart. 
Prince. A beggar, brother ? 

Tork. Of my kind uncle, that I know will give ; 
And, being but. a toy, which is no gift to give z . 
Glo. A greater gift than that I'll give my coufin. 
Tork. A greater gift ! O, that's the fword to it ? 
Glo. Ay, gentle coufin, were it light enough. 
Tork. O then, I fee, you'll part but with light 

_ gifts ; 

In weightier things you'll fay a beggar, nay. 
Glo. It is too weighty for your grace to wear. 
Tork. * I weigh it lightly, were it heavier. 
Glo. What, would you have my weapon, little 

lord ? 
Tork. I would, that I might thank you as you call 


Glo. How? 
Tork. Little. 

Prince. My lord of York will ftill be crofs in talk ;- 
Uncle, your grace knows how to bear with him. 

* And, leing lut a toy, ivbich is no gift to give.] This is the 
reading of the quartos ; the firft folio reads : 

And, Icing but a toy, ivhicb is no grief to give. 
This reading, made a little more metrical, has been followed, I 
think erroneoully, by all the editors. JOHNSON. 
The quarto 1612 reads : 

no grief STEEVENS. 

3 I weigh it lightly, &c.] i.e. I fhould ftill efteem it but a tri- 
fling gift, were it heavier. But the Oxford editor reads : 

I'd ~wcigh it lightly, * 
i. e. I could manage it, tho' ic were heavier. WAR BURTON". 

Dr. Warburton is right. So, in Love's Labours Loft, aft V. 
ic. ii : 

" You iveigb me not, O that's you care not for me." 




Tork. You mean, to bear me, not to bear with 

me : 

Uncle, my brother mocks both you and me ; 
3 Bccaufe that I am little 'ike an ape, 
He thinks that you Ihould bear me on your ihoulders. 

Buck. With what a Iharp-provided wit he reafons ! 
To mitigate the fcorn he gives his uncle, 
He prettily and aptly taunts himfelf : 
So cunning, and fo young, is wonderful. 

do. My lord, will't pleafe you pals along ? , 
Myfeif, and my good coufin Buckingham, 
Will to vour mother ; to entreat of her, 
To meet you at the Tower, and welcome you. 

York. What, will you go unto the Tower, my lord ? 

Prince. My lord protestor needs will have it fo. 

Tork. I ihall not ileep in quiet at the Tower. 

Glo. Why, what fhould you fear ? 

Tork. Marry, my uncle Clarence' angry ghoft ; 
My grandam told me, he was murther'd there. 

Prince. I fear no uncles dead. 

Glo. Nor none that live, I hope. 

Prince. An if they live, I hope, I need not fear. 
But come, .my lord, and, with a heavy heart, 
Thinking on them, go I unto the Tower. 

[Exeunt Prince, Tork, Ha/lings, Cardinal and attendants. 

Buck. Think you, my lord, this little prating 


Was not incenfed by his fubtle mother, 
To taunt and fcorn you this opprobrioufly ? 

3 Bccai/fe that lam little like an afe,~\ The reproach feems to 
confilt in this : at country fhews it was common to fet the mon- 
key on the back of fome other animal, as a bear. The duke 
therefore, in calling himfelf d^V, calls his uncle bear. JOHXSON. 
To this cuflom there feems to be an allufion in Ben Jonfon'a 
of Gypjics : 

" A gypfy in his fhape, 

" More calls the beholder, 

*' Than the fellow with the ape, 

** Or 't'be ape on hisfiottlder" STEEVENS. 



Glo. No doubt, no doubt : O, 'tis a parlous boy ; 
Bold, quick, ingenious, fprward, capable ; 
He's all the mother's, from the top to toe. 

Buck. Well, let them reft. Come hither, Catefby ; 

thou art fworn 

As deeply to effed: what we intend, 
As clofely to conceal what we impart : 
Thou know'ft our reafons urg'd upon the way ; . 
What think'ft thou ? is it not an eafy matter 
To make William lord Haftings of our mind, 
For the inftalment of this noble duke 
In the feat royal of this famous ifle ? 

Catef. He for his father's fake fo loves the prince, 
That he will not be won to aught againft him. 

Buck. What think'ft thou then of Stanley ? will 
not he ? 

Catef. He will do all in all as Haftings doth. 

Buck. Well then, no more but this: Go,, gentle 


And, as it were far off, found thou lord Haftings, 
How he doth ftand affected to our purpofe ; 
And fummon him to-morrow to the Tower, 
To fit about the coronation. 
If thou doft find him tractable to us, 
Encourage him, and tell him all our reafons : 
If he be leaden, icy, cold, unwilling, 
Be thou fo too ; and fo break off the talk, 
And give us notice of his inclination : 
For we to-morrow hold ' divided councils, 
Wherein thyfelf lhalt highly be employ'd. 

Glo. Commend me to lord William : tell him, 


His ancient knot of dangerous adverfaries 
To-morrow are let blood at Pomfret-caftle ; 

* divided councils,] That is, a private confutation^ 

fcparafe from the known and publick council. So, in the next 
fccne, Haftings fays : 

Bid him not fear the feparated councils, JOHNSON. 



And bid my friend, for joy of this good news, 
Give miftrefs Shore one gentle kifs the more. 

Buck. Good Catelby, go, effedt this bufinefs 
found ly. 

Catef. My good lords both, with all the heed I can. 

Glo. Shall we hear from you, Catefby, ere wefleep ? 

Catef. You fhall, my lord. 

Glo. At Crofby-place, there you lhall find us both. 

[Exit Catejby. 

Buck. Now, my lord, what lhall we do, if we per- 
Lord Haftings will not yield to our complots ? 

Glo. Chop off his head, man ; fomewhat we will 

do s : 

And, look, when I am king, claim thou of me 
The earldom of Hereford, and all the moveables 
Whereof the king my brother was poflefs'd. 

Buck. I'll claim that promife at your grace's hand, 

Glo. And look to have it yielded with all kindnefs. 
Come, let us fup betimes ; that afterwards 
We may digeft our eomplots in fome form. [Exeunt. 


Before Lord Hafting? looufe. 
Enter a Mejfmger. 

Mef. My lord, my lord, 

Haft. [lVithm.-\ Who knocks? 
Mef. One from lord Stanley, 
Haft. What is't o'clock ? 
JMef. Upon the flroke of four. 

s vcill Jo .-] The folio reads will determine, STEEVEN^. 

6 Scene II. Every material circumftance in the following 
fcene is taken from the Chronicles, except that it is a knight with 
whom Hallings converfes, inftead of Buckingham. STEEVENS. 



Enter Hqftings. 

Haft. Cannot thy mafter fleep thefe tedious nights ? 

Mef. So it fhould feem by that I have to fay. 
Firft, he commends him to your noble iordfiiip. 

Haft. And then, 

Mef. Then certifies your lordfhip, that this night 
He dreamt, the boar had rafed off his helm 7 : 
Befides, he fays, there are two councils held ; 
And that may be determined at the one, 
Which may make you and him to rue at the other. 
Therefore he fends to know your lordmip'spleafure, 
If prefently you will take horfe with him, 
And with all fpeed poft with him toward the north, 
To ihun the danger that his foul divines. 

Haft. Go, fellow, go, return unto thy lord ; 
Bid him not fear the feparated councils : 
His honour, and myfelf, are at the one ; 
And, at the other, is my good friend Catefby ; 
"Where nothing can proceed, that toucheth us, 
Whereof I fliall not have intelligence. 
Tell him, his fears are mallow, 9 wanting inftance : 
And for his dreams, I wonder, he's fo fond 
To truft the mockery of unquiet {lumbers : 

7 , fbg b oar bad ra fed off his helm.] This term rafed GV 
rajhed is always given to defcribe the violence inflicled by a boar. 
So, in K. Lear, 410 edit : 

" In his anointed flefh rajb boarilh fangs." 
Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, B. VII, ch. 36 : 

" ha, cur, avaunt, the bore fo rafe thy hide !" 

By the loar, throughout this fcene, is meant Glofter, who was 
called the boar , or the bog, from his having a loar for his cog- 
nizance, and one of the fupporters of his coat of arms. 


8 wanting injiance :~\ That is, wanting fome example^ 

or aft of malevolence, by which they may be jxiftified : or which, 
perhaps, is nearer to the true meaning, wanting any immediate 
ground or reafon. JOHNSON. 

The folio reads -^without inftance. STEEVENS, 



To fly the boar, before the boar purfues, 
Were to incenfe the boar to follow us, 
And make purfuit, where he did mean no chafe. 
Go, bid thy mailer rife and come to me ; 
And we will both together to the Tower, 
Where, he fliall fee, the boar will ufe us kindly. 
Mef, I'll go, my lord, and tell him what you fay. 

Enter Catejly. 

Catef. Many good morrows to my noble lord ! 
Haft. Good morrow, Catefby ; you are early 

flirring ; 
What news, what news, in this our tottering {late ? 

Catef. It is a reeling world, indeed, my lord ; 
And, I believe, will never ftand upright, 
'Till Richard wear the garland of the realm. 

Haft. How ! wear the garland ? doft thou mean 

the crown ? 

Catef. Ay, my good lord. 
Hfift. I'll have this crown of mine cut from my 


Before I'll fee the crown fo foul mifplac'd. 
But canft thou guefs that he doth aim at it ? 

Catef. Ay, on my life ; and hopes to find you for- 


Upon his party, for the gain thereof : 
And, thereupon, he fends you this good news, 
That, this fame very day, your enemies, 
The kindred of the queen, muft die at Pomfret. 

Haft. Indeed, I am no mourner for that news, 
Becaufe they have been flill my adverfaries : 
But, that I'll give my voice on Richard's fide, 
To bar my matter's heirs in true defcent, 
God knows, I will not do it, to the death. 

Catef. God keep your lordfhip in that gracious 
mind ! 



Haft. But I ihall laugh at this a twelve-month 


That they, who brought me in my matter's hate, 
I live to look upon their tragedy. 
Weil, Catefby, ere a fortnight make me older, 
I'll fend fome packing, that yet think not on'r. 

Catef. 'Tis a vile thing to die, my gracious lord, 
When men are unprepar'd and look not for it. 

Haft. O monftrous, monftrous ! and fo falls it out 
With Rivers, Yaughan, Grey : and fo 'twill do 
With fome men elfe, who think themfelves as fafc 
As thou, and I ; who, as thou know'ft, are dear 
To princely Richard, and to Buckingham. 

Catef. The princes both make high account of 

For they account his head upon the bridge. [slfule. 

Haft. I know, they do ; and I have well deferv'd it. 

Enter Stanley. 

Come on, come on, where is your boar-fpear, man ? 
Fear you the boar, and go fo unprovided ? 

Stanl. My lord, good morrow ; and good morrow, 

Catefoy : 

You may jeft on, but, by the holy rood 9 , 
I do not like thefe feveral councils, I. 

Haft. My lord, 

I hold my life as dear as you do yours ; 
And never, in my days, I do proteft, 

9 the holy rood,] i. e. the crofs. So, in the old myftery 

of Candlemas-Day, 1512: 

** Whan hir fwete fone fhall on a rood deye." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Qneen, B. VI. c. v : 
" And nigh thereto a little chapell ftoode 
*' Which being all with yvy overfpred, 
" Deck'd all the roofe, and fhadowing the roode* 
*' Seem'd like a grove fair branched overhed." 




Was it more precious to me than 'tis now : 
Think you, but that I know our flate fecure, 
I would be fo triumphant as I am ? 

Stanl. The lords at Pomfret, when they rode from 


Were jocund, and fuppos'd their ftates \vere fure, 
And they, indeed, had no caufe to miftruft; 
But yet, you fee, how foon the day o'er-caft. 
This fudden flab of rancour I mifdoubt ; 
Pray God, I fay, I prove a needlefs coward ! 
What, ihall we toward the Tower ? the day is fpent. 

Haft. Come, come, ' have with you. Wot you 

what, my lord ? 
To-day the lords you talk of are beheaded. 

Stanl. * They, for their truth, might better wear 

their heads, 

Than fome, that have accus'd them, wear their hats. 
But come, my lord, let's away. 

Enter a Purfuivant. 

Haft. Go on before, I'll talk with this good fellow. 
[Exeunt Lord Stanley, and Catefby. 
Sirrah, how now ? how goes the world with thee ? 

Purf. The better, that your lordfhip pleafe to afk. 

Haft. I tell thee, man, 'tis better with me now, 
Than when thou met'ft me laft where now we meet : 
Then I was going prifoner to the Tower, 
By the fuggeftion of the queen's allies ; 
But now, I tell thee, (keep it to thyfelf) 
This day thofe enemies are put to death, 
And I in better flatc than ere I was. 

Purf. God ' hold it, to your honour's good content ! 

1 have with you. ] A familiar phrafe in parting, as 

much as, take fomcthing along with you, or 1 have fometbing to fay 
toyou. JOHNSON. 

a They, for their truth, ] That is, with refpedt to 

their hotiejiy. JOHNSON. 

3 hold it, I, . ] That is, continue it. JOHNSOK. 

VOL. VII. G Haft. 


Haft. Gramercy, fellow : There, drink that for 

me. [Throws him his purje. 

Purf. I thank your honour. [Exit Purfuivant. 

Enter a Prieft. 

Prieft. Well met, my lord ; I am glad to fee your 

. honour. 
Hajl. I thank thee, good fir John, with all my 


I am in your debt for your lafl 4 exercife ; 
Come the next fabbath, and I will content you, 

Enter Buckingham. 

Buck. What, talking with a prieft, lord cham- 
berlain ? 

Your friends at Pomfret, they do need the prieft ; 
Your honour hath no 5 fhriving work in hand. 

Hajl. Good faith, and when I met this holy man, 
The men you talk of came into my mind. 
What, go you toward the Tower ? 

Buck. I do, my lord ; but long I mall not flay 

there : 
I ftiall return before your lordfhip thence. 

Haft. Nay, like enough, for I ftay dinner there. 

Suck. And fupper too, although thou know'ft it 
.not. [Ajide. 

Come, will you go ? 

Haft. I'll wait upon your lordfhip. [Exeunt. 

. * extrclfe\\ Performance of divine fervice. JOHNSON. 

3 fir wing work in hand.] Shriving ivork is confeffion. 





Before Pomfret-cajlk. 

Enter Sir Richard Rat cliff, conducing Lord Rivers, Lord 
Richard Grey, and Sir Thomas Vaughan to execution* 

Rat. Come, bring forth the prifoners 6 . 

Riv. Sir Richard Ratcliff, let me tell thee this,- 
To-day ihalt thou behold a fubjeft die, 
For truth, for duty, and for loyalty. 

Grey. God keep the prince from all the pack of 

you ! 
A knot you are of damned blood-fuckers. 

Vaugh. You live, that {hall cry woe for this here- 

Rat. Difpatch ; the limit of your lives is out. 

Riv. O Pomfret, Pomfret ! O thou bloody prifon, 
Fatal and ominous to noble peers ! 
Within the guilty clofure of thy walls, 
Richard the fecond here was hack'd to death : 
And, for more {lander to thy difmal feat, 
We give thee up our guiltlefs blood to drink. 

Grey. Now Margaret's curfe is fallen upon our 


When fhe exclaim'd on Haftings, you, and I, 
For {landing by when Richard ftabb'd her fon. 

Riv. Then curs'd {he Haftings, curs'd fhe Buck- 

Then curs'd flie Richard : O, remember, God, 
To hear her prayer for them, as now for us ! 
As for my fifter, and her princely fons, 
Be fatisfied, dear God, with our true bloods, 
Which, as thou know'ft, unjuflly muft be fpilt ! 

6 Cowc, Irlng forth the trifoners.] This fpeech is wanting in 
the folio. STEEVENS. 

G 2 fat. 


Rat. Make hafte, the ho\ir of death is now expir'J. 
Riv. Come, Grey, come, Vaughan, let us here 

embrace : 
Farevvcl, until we meet again in heaven. [Exeunt. 


The Tower. 

'Buckingham, Stanley, Ha/lings, Rijbop of Ely, Catefiy, 
Lovely with others, at a table. 

Haft. Now, noble peers, the caufe why we are met 
Is to determine of the coronation : 
In God's name, fpeak, when is the royal day ? 

Buck. Are all things ready for that royal time ? 

Stanl. They are, and wants but nomination. 

Ely. To-morrow then I judge a happy day. 

Buck. Who knows the lord protector's mind herein ? 
Who is molt inward with the noble duke ? 

Ely. Your grace, we think, ihould fooneft know 
his mind. 

Buck. We know each other's faces : for our hearts, 
He knows no more of mine, than I of yours ; 
Nor I of his, my lord, than you of mine : 
Lord Haftings, you and he are near in love. 

Hcjl. I thank his grace, I know he loves me well; 
But, for his purpofe in the coronation, 
-1 have not founded him, nor he deliver'd 
His gracious pleafure any way therein : 
But you, my noble lord, may name the. time ; 
And in the duke's behalf I'll give my voice, 
Which, I prcfume, he'll take in gentle part. 

Enter Glofter. 

Ely. In happy time, here comes the duke himfelf. 
Glo. My noble lords and coufins, all good morrow : 

I have 

K I N G R I C H A R D III. 85 

I have been long a fleeper ; but, I truft, 
My abfence doth negled: no great defign, 
Which by my prefence might have been concluded. 

Buck. 7 Had you not come upon your cue, my lord, 
William lord Haftings had pronounc'd your part, 
I mean, your voice, for crowning of the king. 

Glo. Than my lord Haftings, no man might be 

bolder ; 

His lordfhip knows me well, and loves me well. 
My lord of Ely, when I was laft in Holborn, 
I faw good ftrawberries 8 in your garden there ; 
I do befeech you, fend for fome of them. 

Ely. Marry, and will, my lord, with all my heart. 

[Exit Ely, 

Glo. Coufin of Buckingham, a word with yon. 
Catefby hath founded Haftings in our bufinefs ; 
And finds the tefty gentleman fo hot, 

7 Ha 'd you not come upon your cue ] This expreflion is bor- 

x rowed from the theatre. The cue, queue, or tail of a fpeech, 

confifts of the laft words, which are the token for an entrance or 
anfwer. To come on the cue, therefore, is to come at the proper 
time. JOHNSON. 

8 Ifcew good Jtra-T,vberriei\ The reafon why the bifliop 
was difpatched on this errand, is not clearer in Holinfhed, from 
whom Shakefpeare adopted the circumftance, than in this fcene, 
where it is introduced. Nothing feems to have happened which 
might not have been tranfafted with equal fecurity in the pre- 
fence of the reverend cultivator of tlxftjhwoierrief, whofecom- 
plaifance is likewife recorded by the author of the Latin play on 
the fame fubject, in the Mufeum : 

Elienjis antljles venis ? fenem quies^ 

Jttvcnem labor dccet : ferunt bortiim titum 

Decora fraga plurimum producere. 

Nil tibi claudetur bortus quod meus 

Producit ; cjfct lautius I'ellcm mihi 

Quo Jim tibi grains. 

This circumftance of afking for the ftrawberries, however, may- 
have been mentioned by the hiftorians merely to fiiew the unufual 
affability and good humour which the diflenibling Glofter aftecled 
at the very time when he had determined on the death of Hafting.. 


G 3 Thar 


That he will lofe his head, ere give confent, 
His matter's child, as worfhipfully he terms it, 
Shall lofe the royalty of England's throne. 

Buck. Withdraw yourfelf awhile, I'll go with you. 
[Exeunt Glofter, and Buckingham. 

StanL We have not yet fet down this day of tri- 

To-morrow, in my judgment, is too fudden ; 
For I myfelf am not fo well provided, 
As elfe I would be, were the day prolong'd. 

Re-enter Bfoop of Ely. 

Ely. Where is my lord protestor ? I have fent 
For thefe ilrawberries. 

Haft. His grace looks chearfully and fmooth this 

morning ; 

There's fome conceit or other likes him well, 
When he doth bid good morrow with fuch fpirit. 
I think, there's ne'er a man in Chriftendom, 
Can lefler hide his love, or hate, than he ; 
For by his face flraight mail you know his heart. 

StanL What of his heart perceive you in his face, 
By any 9 likelihood he ihew'd to-day ? 

Haft. Marry, that with no man here he is offended; 
For, were he, he had Ihewn it in his looks. 

Re-enter Glofter, and Buckingham. 

Glo. I pray you all, tell me what they deferve, 
That do confpire my death with deviliih plots 
Of damned witchcraft ; and that have prevail'd 
Upon my body with their hellilh charms ? 

Haft. The tender love I bear your grace, my lord, 
Makes me moft forward in this ncble prefence 

9 likelihood ] Semblance ; appearance. JOHNSON. 

So, in another of our author's plays : 

poor likelihoods^ and modern feemings, STEEVENS. 



To doom the offenders : Whofoe'er they be, 
I fay, my lord, they have deferved death. 

Glo. Then be your eyes the witnefs of their evil, 
Look how I am bewitch'd ; behold, mine arm 
Is, like a blafted fapling, wither'd up : 
And this is Edward's wife, that monftrous witch, 
Conforted with that harlot, ftrumpet Shore, 
That by their witchcraft thus have marked me. 

Haft. If they have done this deed, my noble lord, 

.Glo. If! thou protestor of this damned ftrumpet, 
Talk'ft thou to me of ifs ? Thou art a traitor : 
Off with his head : now, by faint Paul I fwear, 
I will not dine until I fee the fame. - 
1 Lovel, and Catefby, look, that it be done; 
The reft, that love me, rife, and follow me. 

[Exit Council, with Richard and Buckingham. 

Haft. Woe, woe, for England ! not a whit for me ; 
For 1, too fond, might have prevented this : 
Stanley did dream, the boar did rafe his helm ; 
But I difdain'd it, and did fcorn to fly. 

l^ and Catejbv, look, that it be done ; ] In former copies : 
Lovel, and RatciiJT, look, that it be done. 

The fcene is here in the Tower ; and lord Haftings was cut off 
on that very day, when Rivers, Grey, and Vaughnn iuffered at 
Pom fret. How then could Ratciiff be both in Yorkfhire and the 
Tower ? In the fcene preceding this, we find him conducting 
thofe gentlemen to the block. In the old quarto, we find it, 
Exeunt : Manet Catejby ivitb Ha/lings. And in the next fcene, 
before the Tower walls, we find Lovel and Catefby come back 
from the execution, bringing the head of Haftings. THEOBALD. 
Mr. Theobald fnould have added, that, in the old quarto, no 
names are mentioned in Richard's Ipeech. He only fays ''fame 
fee it done." Ncr, in that edition, does Lovel appear in the 
next fcene ; but only Catefiy, bringing the head of Haftings. The 
confufion feems to have arifen, when it was thought neceflarv, 
that Catejly Ihould be employed to fetch the mayor, who, in the 
quarto, is made to come without having been fent for. As fome 
other perfon was then wanted to bring the head of Haftings, the 
poet, or the players, appointed Lovel and Ratciiff to that office, 
without reflecting that the latter was engaged in another fervice 
OB the fame day at Pomfret. TYRWHITT. 

G 4 Three 


Three times to-day my foot-cloth horfe did ftumble % 

And ftarted, when he look'd upon the Tower, 

As loth to bear me to the flaughter-houfe. 

O, now I need the priefl that fpake to me : 

I now repent I told the purfuivant, 

As too triumphing, how mine enemies 

To-day at Fornfret bloodily x'.'ere butcher'd, 

And I myfelf fecure in grace and favour. 

O, Margaret, Margaret, now thy heavy curfe 

Is lighted on poor Raftings' wretched head. 

Catef. Difpatch, my lord, the duke would be at 

Make a Ihort fhrift, he longs to fee your head. 

Haft. O momentary grace of mortal men, 
Which we more hunt for than the grace of God ! 
3 Who builds his hope in air of your fair looks, 
Lives like a drunken failor on a maft ; 
Ready, with every nod, to tumble down 
Into the fatal bowels of the deep. 

* Three times to-day my foot-cloth horfe did ftumble, &c.] So, in 
the Legend of Lord Haftings, by M. D. 

My palfrey, in the pla'uiejl paved Jlrect, 
Thrice bovj'd bis bones, thrice kneeled on the floor, 
Thrice Jhumi'd (m Balaam's afi) the dreaded tower. 
Tojlumble was anciently efteem'd a bad omen. So, in theHonffi 
Lawyer. " And juft at the threfhold Matter Bromley Jtumbled. 
Signs ! figns !" 

The houj'ings of a horfe, and fometimes a horfe himfelf, were 
anciently denominated afoot-cloth. So, in Ben Jonfon's play called 
Tkc Cafe is Altered: 

" I'll go on my foot-doth, I'll turn gentleman." 
Again, in A fair Quarrel, 'by Middleton, 1617: 

thou fhalt have a phyfician, 
" The belt that gold can fetch upon his foot-cloth." 
Again, in Ram- Alley, or Merry Tricks, 1610: 

" nor mail I need to try 

" Whether my well-greas'd tumbling foot-cloth nag 
" Be able to out-run a well-breath'd catchpole." 

3 Who builds, & c .] So, Horace : 

Ncfiius aurae fallacis. JOHNSON, 


Lov. Come, come, difpatch ; 'tis bootlefs to ex- 

Haft. Oh, bloody Richard ! miferable England ! 
I prophefy the fearfuFft time to thee, 
That ever wretched age hath look'd upon. 
Come, lead me to the block, bear him my head ; 
They fmile at me, who fhortly ihall be dead. [Exeunt. 


be Tower-walls. 

Enter Glofter, and Buckingham, in rujfy armour 4 , mar- 
vellous ill-favour* d. 

Glo. Come coufin, canft thou quake, and change 

thy colour ? 

Murder thy breath in middle of a word, 
And then again begin, and flop again, 
As if thou wert diftraught, and mad with terror ? 

Buck. Tut, I can counterfeit the deep tragedian ; 
Speak, and look back, and pry on every fide, 
Tremble and ftart at wagging of a ftraw, 
Intending deep fufpicion : ghaftly looks 
Are at my fervice, like enforced fmiles ; 
And both are ready in their offices, 
At any time, to grace my ftratagems, 
But what, is Catefby gone ? 

Glo. He is ; and, fee, he brings the mayor along. 

Enter the Lord Mayor, and Catejby. 

Suck. Let me alone to entertain him. Lord 
mayor ! 

* in rufty armour, &c.] Thus Holinflied : " himfelfe 

with the duke of Buckingham, flood harnefled in old ill-faring 
briganders, fuch as no man Ihould weene that they would vouch- 
fafe to have put upon their backes, except that feme fudden no 
ceflitie had conilreiried them.'* STEEVENS. 



Gk. Look to the draw-bridge there, 

Buck. Hark ! a drum. 

Gk. Catefby, o'erlook the walls. 

Buck. Lord mayor, the reafon we have fent for 


Gk. Look back, defend thee, here are enemies. 
Buck. God and our innocency defend and guard us ! 

Enter Lovel t andRatcllf, with .Hafting? head.. 

Glo* Be patient, they are friends ; RatclirT, and 

Ij>v. Here is the head of that ignoble traitor, 
The dangerous and unfufpected Haftings. 

Gk. So dear I lov'd the man, that I muft weep. 
I took him for the plainefl harmlefs creature, 
That breath'd upon the earth a chriftian s ; 
Made him my book, wherein my foul recorded 
The hiftory of all her fecret thoughts : 
So fmooth he daub'd his vice with Ihevv of virtue* 
That, his apparent open guilt omitted, 
I mean, his converfation with Shore's wife, 
He liv'd from all attainder of fufpcdl. 

Buck* Well, well, he was the covert'ft Ihelter'd 

That ever liv'd Look you, my lord mayor, 

\Vould you imagine, or almoft believe, 
(Were't not, that by great prefervation 
We live to tell it you) the fubtle traitor 
This day had plotted, in the council-houfe, 
To murder me, and my good lord of Glofter ? 

5 the earth a chriftian ;] Here tt\e quarto adds : 

Lookyou, my lord mayor. 

This hemiftich_I have inferted in the following fpeech of Buck-, 
ingham, to which I believe it originally belonged ; as without it 
T&'e meet with an imperfeft verfe. 

Well, well, he was the covert'il fhclter'd traitor 

That ever lived. 

Would you imagine, Sec. STEEVENS. 



Mayor. What ! had he fo ? 

Gk. What ! think you we are Turks, or infidels ? 
Or that we would, againft the form of law, 
Proceed thus rafhly in the villain's death ; 
But that the extreme peril of the cafe, 
The peace of England, and our perfons* fafety, 
Enforc'd us to this execution ? 

Mayor. Now, fair befal you ! he deferv'd his death ; 
And your good graces both have well proceeded, 
To warn faife traitors from the like attempts. 
I never look'd for better at his hands, 
After he once fell in with miflrefs Shore. 

Buck. Yet had we not determin'd he fhould die, 
Until your lordfhip came to fee his end ; 
Which now the loving hafte of thefe our friends, 
Somewhat againft our meaning, hath prevented : 
Becaufe, my lord, we would have had you heard 
The traitor fpeak, and timoroufly confefs 
The manner and the purpofe of his treafons ; 
That you might well have fignify'd the fame 
Unto the citizens, who, haply, may 
Mifconflrue us in him, and wail his death. 

Mayor. But, my good lord, your grace's word fhall 


As well as I had feen, and heard him fpeak : 
And do not doubt, right noble princes both, 
But I'll acquaint our duteous citizens 
With all your jufl proceedings in this cafe. 

Gk. And to that end we wifli'd your lordfhip here, 
To avoid the cenfures of the carping world. 

Buck. But fince you came too late of our intent, 
Yet witnefs -what you hear we did intend : 
And fo, my good lord mayor, we bid farcwel. 

[Exit Mayor. 

Gk. Go, after, after, coufin Buckingham. 
The mayor towards Guildhall hies him in all port : 
There, at your meetefl vantage of the time, 
Infer the baflardy of Edward's children : 



Tell them, how Edward put to death a citizen e> , 

Only for faying he would make his fon 

Heir to the crown ; meaning, indeed, his houfe, 

Which, by the fign thereof, was termed fo. 

Moreover, urge his hateful luxury, 

And beftial appetite in change of luft ; 

Which llretch'd unto their fervants, daughters, wives, 

Even where his ranging eye 7 , or favage heart, 

Without controul, lilted to make his prey. 

Nay, for a need, thus far come near my perfon : 

Tell them, when that my mother went with child 

Of that infatiate Edward, noble York, 

My princely father, then had wars in France ; 

And, by juft computation of the time, 

Found, that the iffue was not his begot ; 

Which well appeared in his lineaments, 

Being nothing like the noble duke my father. 

Yet touch this fparingly, as 'twere far off; 

Becaufe, my lord, you know, my mother lives. 

Buck. Doubt not, my lord ; I'll play the orator, 
As if the golden fee, for which I plead, 
Were for myfelf : and fo, my lord, adieu. 

Glo. If you thrive well, bring them to Baynard's 

caille ; 

Where you fhall find me well accompanied, 
With reverend fathers, and well-learned biihops. 

Buck. I go ; and, towards three or four o'clock, 
Look for the news that the Guild-hall affords. 

[Exit Buckingham. 

Glo. Go, Lovel, with all fpeed to doctor Shaw, 
Go thou to friar Penker * ; bid them both 

6 - put to death a citizen,"} This perfon was one 

a fubftantial citizen and grocer at the Crown in Cheapfide. 


7 - bis ranging cyc,~\ Thus the modern editors. The folip 
reaJs raging the quartos luftful. STEEVENS. 

8 This Pinker or Penker was provincial of {he Augujline friars. 
See Speed. STEEVENS. 



Meet me, within this hour, at Baynard's caftle. 

[Exeunt Lovel, and Cafe/by. 
Now will I in, to take fome privy order 
To draw the brats of Clarence out of fight ; 
And to give notice, that no manner of perfon 
Have, any time, recourfe unto the princes. \_Exit. 


A Street. 
Enter a Scrivener. 

Scriv. Here is the indictment of the good lord 

Haftings -, 

Which in a let hand fairly is engrofs'd, 
That it may be to-day read o'er in Paul's 9 . 
And mark how well the fequel hangs together : 
Eleven hours I have fpent to write it over, 
For ycfternight by Catelby was it fent me ; 
The precedent was full as long a doing : 
And yet within thefe five hours Haftings liv'd, 
Untainted, unexamin'd, free, at liberty. 

Here's a good world the while ! Who is fogrofs, 

That cannot fee this palpable device ? 
Yet who fo bold, but fays he fees it not ? 
Bad is the world ; and all will come to nought, 
When fuch bad dealing muft be \ feen in thought. 


9 read o'er in Pau?s.] The fubftance of this fpeech is from 
Stowe's Chronicle, p. 450. " Now was this proclamation made 
within two houres after that he was beheaded, and it was fo cu- 
rioully indited, and fo faire written in parchment, in fo well a 
fet hand, and therewith of itfelf fo long a procefle, that every 
child might well perceive that it was prepared before, for all the 
time between his death and the proclaiming could fcant have fuf- 
Irccd unto the bare writing alone, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 fccK In thought. 1 That is, feen in filence, without no- 
tice or detection. JOHNSON. 




Baynara"s caftle. 
Enter Glofter, and Buckingham, at feveral doors. 

Glo. How now, how now ? what fay the citizens ? 

Buck. Now by the holy mother of our Lord, 
The citizens are mum, fay not a word. 

Glo. Touched you the baftardy of Edward's chil- 
dren ? 

Buck. I did ; with his contract with lady Lucy, 
And his contract by deputy in France : 
The infatiate greedinefs of his defires, 
And his enforcement of the city wives ; 
His tyranny for trifles ; his own baflardy,' 
As being got, your father then in France, 
And his refemblance, being not like the duke. 
Withal, I did infer your lineaments, 
Being the right idea of your father, 
Both in your form and noblenefs of mind : 
Laid open all your victories in Scotland, 
Your difcipline in war, wifdom in peace, 
Your bounty, virtue, fair humility ; 
Indeed, left nothing, fitting for your purpofe, 
Untouch'd, or flightly handled, in difcourfe. 
And, when my oratory grew toward end, 
I bade them, that did love their country's good, 
Cry God fave Richard, England's royal lung ! 

Glo. And did they fo ? 

Buck. No, fo God help me, they fpake not a word ; 
But, like dumb flatucs, or unbreathing ftones, 
Star'd on each other, and look'd deadly pale. 
Which when I faw, I reprehended them ; 
And afk'd the mayor, what meant this wilful filence ; 
His anfwcr was, the people were not us'd 
To be fpoke to, but by the recorder. 



Then he was urg'd to tell my tale again ; 
Thus faith the duke, thus hath the duke inferred ; 
But nothing fpoke in warrant from himfelf. ' 
When he had done, fome followers of mine own, 
At lower end o' the hall, hurl'd up their caps, 
And fome ten voices cry'd, Godfave king Richard! 
And thus I took the vantage of thofe few, 
Thanks, gentle citizens, and friends, quoth I ; 
This general applaufe, and chearfuljhoitt, 
Argues your wifdom, and your love to Richard: 
And even here brake off, and came away. 

Glo. What tonguelefs blocks were they ; Would 

they not fpeak ? 
Will not the mayor then, and his brethren, come ? 

Buck. The mayor is here at hand ; * Intend fome 


Be not you fpoke with, but by mighty fuit : 
And look you get a prayer-book in your hand, 
And Hand between two churchmen, good my lord; 
For on that ground I'll make a holy defcant : 
And be not eafily won to our requeft's ; 
Play the maid's part, ftill anfvver nay, and take it, 

Glo. I go ; And if you plead as well for them, 
3 As I can fay nay to thee for myfelf ; 
No doubt we'll bring it to a happy iflue. 

[Exit Glofler, 

* " ' mtendyg/.vc/iw ;] Perhaps, pretend', though intend 
will ftand in the fenfe of giving attention. JOHNSON. 

One of the ancient fenfes of to intend was certainly to preiiniL 
So, in fc. v. of this aft : 

Tremble and ftart at wagging of a ftraw, 
Intending deep fufpicion. STEEVENS. 
3 At I can fay, nay to tbee>~\ I think it muft be read ; 

if you plead as well for them 

As I mujt fay, nay to them for myfelf. JOHNSON". 
Perhaps the change is not neceflary. Buckingham is to pleaii 
for the citizens ; and //(fays Richard) you fpeak for them as plau- 
Jibly as I in my own perfon t or for my ownpiirpofe^Jballfsem to deny 
your fuit) there is no doubt but we Jball bring ad to a hnpfy ijjue. 




Buik. Go, go, up to the leads ; the lord mayor 
knocks. [Exit Glofter. 

Enter the Lord Mayor, and Citizens. 

Welcome, my lord : I dance attendance here ; 
I think, the duke will not be fpoke withal. 

Enter Catejly. 

Now, Catefby ? what fays your lord to my requeft ? 

Catef. He doth entreat your grace, my noble lord, 
To vifit him to-morrow, or next day : 
He is within, with two right reverend fathers, 
Divinely bent to meditation ; 
And in no worldly fuit would he be mov'd, 
To draw him from his holy exercife. 

Buck* Return, good Cateiby, to the gracious duke; 
Tell him, myfelf, the mayor and aldermen, 
In deep defigns, in matter of great moment, 
No lefs importing than our general good, 
Are come to have fome conference with his grace. 

Catef. I'll lignify fo much unto him ftraight. [Exit. 

Buck. Ah, ha, my lord, this prince is not an 

Edward ! 

He is not lolling on a lewd day-bed, 
But on his knees at meditation ; 
Not dallying with a brace of courtezans, 
But meditating with two deep divines ; 
Not fleeping, 4 to engrofs his idle body, 
But praying, to enrich his watchful foul : 
Happy were England, would this virtuous prince 
Take on himfelf the fovereignty thereof ; 
But, fure, I fear, we mall ne'er win him to it. 

Mayor. Marry, God defend his grace fhould fay 
us nay ! 

Buck. I fear, he will : Here Catefby comes again : 

-] To fatten ; to pamper. JOHNSON-. 




Re-enter Catejby. 

Catefby, what fays your lord ? 

Catef. He wonders to what end you have affembled 
Such troops of citizens to come to him, 
His grace not being warn'd thereof before : 
He fears, my lord, you mean no good to him. 

Buck. Sorry I am, my noble coufin Ihould 
Sufpedt me, that I mean no good to him : 
By heaven, we come to him in perfect love; 
And fo once more return and tell his grace. 

[Exit Catejby. 

When holy and devout religious men 
Are at their beads, 'tis hard to draw them thence; 
So fweet is zealous contemplation. 

Enter Glofter above, between two Bijhops s . Catefby re- 

Mayor. See, where his grace flands 'tween two 
clergymen ! 

Buck. Two props of virtue for a chriflian prince, 
To ftay him from the fall of vanity : 
And, fee, a book of prayer in his hand ; 
True ornaments to know a holy man. 
Famous Plantagenet, molt gracious prince, 
Lend favourable ear to our requefts ; 
And pardon us the interruption 
Of thy devotion, and right-chriftian zeal. 

Glo. My lord, there needs no fuch apology ; 
I rather do befeech you pardon me, 
Who, earneft in the fervice of my God, 

5 two HJhops.} It fhould feem from a former paflage that 
thefe two clergymen, here called bifhops, were Dr. Sbaw t and 
Friar P enter already mentioned. 

Go, Lovel, with all fpeed to Doflor Shaw : 

Go thou to Friar Penker ; bid them both 

Meet me within this hour at Baynard's caftle. STEEVENS. 

VOL. VII. H De- 


Deferred the vifitation of my friends. 

But, leaving this, what is your grace's pleafure ? 

Buck. Even that, I hope, which pleaicth God above, 
And all good men of this ungovern'd ifle. 

Gib. I do fufpedt, 1 have done fome offence, 
That feems difgracious in the city's eye ; 
And that you come to reprehend my ignorance. 

Buck. You have, my loid ; Would it might pleafc 

your grace, 
On our entreaties, to amend your fault ! 

G/o. Elfe wherefore breathe I in a Chriflian land ? 

Buck. Know, then, it is your fault, that you refign 
The fupreme feat, the throne majeflical, 
The fcepter'd office of your anceflors, 
Your ftate of fortune, and your due of birth, 
The lineal glory of your royal houfe, 
To the corruption of a blemifh'd flock : 
Whilfl, in the miklnefs of your fleepy thoughts, 
(Which here we waken to our country's good) 
The noble ifle doth want her proper limbs ; 
Her face defac'd with fears of infamy, 
Her royal flock graft with ignoble plants, 
6 And alrnofl fhoulder'd in the fwallowing gulph 
Of dark forgetfulnefs and deep oblivion. 

* And almofi fhoulder'd in the fivallowing gttlf 

Of dark forgetfulntfi ] 

What it is to bejheu&erdtm a gulpb, Hanmer is the only editor 
who leems not to have known : for the reft let it pafs without ob- 
fervation. He reads : 

Almoft Jbouldcr'd into tiff wallowing gulpb. 
I believe we fhould read : 

Andalmojl inioulder'd In tbefiuattowinggulpb, 
That is, almoft fmotber*J, covered and loft. JOHNSON-. 

I fuppofe the old reading to be the true one. So, in the B(t~ 
rons* Wars, by Dray ton, canto I : 

" Stoutly t' aftront zndfiouMer in debate." STEEVENS. 
Shouldered is, I believe, the true reading. Not, thruft in by the 
fhoulders, but, immerfed up to tbe Jhculders. 
So, M Othello: 

Steep me in poverty to tbt very lips." MALONE. 



Which to recure 7 , we heartily folicit 
Your gracious felf to take on you the charge 
And kingly government of this your land : 
Not as protestor, fteward, fubflitute, 
Or lowly factor for another's gain ; 
But as fucceffively, from blood to blood, 
Your right of birth, your empery, your own. 
For this, conforted with the citizens, 
Your very wodhipful and loving friends, 
And by their vehement inftigation, 
In this juft fuit corne I to move your grace. 
Glo. I cannot tell, if to depart in filence, 
Or bitterly to fpeak in your reproof, 
Beft fitteth my degree, or your condition : 
For, not to anfwer, you might haply think, 
Tongue-ty'd ambition, not replying, yielded 
To bear the golden yoke of fovereignty, 
Which fondly you would here impofe on me ; 
If to reprove you for this fuit of yours, 
So feafon'd with your faithful love to me, 
Then, on the other fide, I checked my friends. 
Therefore, to fpeak, and to avoid the firfl ; 
And then, in fpenking, not to incur the laft, , 
Definitively thus I anfwer you. 
Your love deferves my thanks ; but my defert 
Unmeritable, fliuns your high requeft. 
Firft, if all obftacles were cut away, 
And that my path were even to the crown, 
As the ripe revenue and due of birth ; 
Yet fo much is my poverty of fpirit, 
So mighty, and fo many, my defecls, 
That I would rather hide me from my greatnefs, 
Being a bark to brook no mighty -fea, 
Than in my greatnefs covet to be hid, 

7 JFTiich to recure,] To recure is to recover. This word is fre- 
quently ufed by Spenfer ; and both as a verb and a fabftantive in 
Lylly's Endymian.) 1591. STEEVENS. 

H 2. And 


And in the vapour of my glory fmother'd. 
Bur, God be thank'd, there is no need of me ; 
( 7 And much I need to help you, if need were) 
The royal tree hath left us royal fruit, 
Which, mellow'd by the Healing hours of time, 
Will well become the feat of majefty, 
And make, no doubt, us happy by his reign. 
On him I lay what you would lay on me, 
The right and fortune of his happy jftars, 
Which, God defend, that I Ihould wring from him ! 
Buck. My lord, this argues conscience in your grace ; 

But the refpedts thereof are nice and trivial, 

All circumftances well confidcred. 

You fay, that Edward is your brother's fon ; 

So fay we too, but not by Edward's wife : 

For firft was he contract to lady Lucy, 

Your mother lives a witnefs to his vow ; 

And afterwards by fubftitute betroth'd 

To Bona, filler to the king of France. 

Thefe both put by, a poor petitioner, 

A care-craz'd mother to a many fons, 

A beauty-waning and diftrefled widow, 

Even in the afternoon of her beft days, 

Made prize and purchafe of his wanton eye, 

Seduc'd the pitch and height of all his thoughts 

To bafe declenfion and loath'd bigamy : 

By her, in his unlawful bed, he got 

This Edward, whom our manners call the prince. 

More bitterly could I expoftulate, 

Save that, for reverence to fome alive, 

I give a fparing limit to my tongue. 

Then, good my lord, take to your royal felf 

This proffer'd benefit of dignity : 

If not to blefs us and the land withal, 
Yet to draw forth your noble anceftry 

8 And much I need to help you, ] And I want much of the ability 
requifite to give you help, if help were needed. JOHNSON. 



From the corruption of abufing time, 
Unto a lineal true-derived courie. 

Mayor. Do, good my lord ; your citizens entreat 

y u - 

Buck. Refufe not, mighty lord, this proffer'd love. 

Catef. O, -make them joyful, grant their lawful 

Glo. Alas, why would yon heap tHefe cares on me ? 
I am unfit for ftate and majefty : 
I do befeech you, take it not amifs ; 
I cannot, nor I will not yield to you. 

Buck. If you refufe it, as in love and zeal, 
Loth to depofe the child, your brother's fon ; 
As well we know your tendernefs of heart, 
And gentle, kind, effeminate remorfe 9 , 
Which we have noted in you to your kindred, 
And equally, indeed, to all eflates, 
Yet know, whe'r you accept our fuit or no, 
Your brother's fon fhall never reign our king ; 
But we 'will plant fome other in the throne, 
To the difgrace and downfal of your houfe. 
And, in this refolution, here we leave you;- 
Come, citizens, we will entreat no more. [Exeunt. 

Catef. Call them again, fweet prince, accept their 

If you deny them, all the land will rue it. 

Glo. Will you enforce me to a world of cares ? 
Well, call them again ; I am not made of ftone, 

[Exit Catefby. 

But penetrable to your kind entreaties, 
Albeit againft my confcience and my foul. 

9 v effeminate remorfe.] i.e. pity. So, in the Miferiti of 
enforced Marriage, 1600 : 

" Be all his days, like winter, comfortlefs ; 
" Reftlefs his nights, his wants rcmorfelefs" 
i, c, unpitltd. STEEVEKS, 

H 7 Re-enter 


Re-enter Buckingham, and the reft. 

Coufin of Buckingham, and fage, grave men, 

Since you will buckle fortune on my back, 

To bear her burden, whe'r I will, or no, 

I muft have patience to endure the load : 

But if black fcandal, or foul-fac'd reproach, 

Attend the fequel of your impofition, 

Your meer enforcement fhall acquittance me 

From all the impure blots and ftains thereof ; 

For God doth know, and you may partly fee, 

How far I am from the defire of this. 

Major. God blefs your grace ! we fee it, and will 
fay it. 

Glo. In faying fo, you ftiall but fay the truth. 

Buck.' Then I falute you with this royal title, 
Long live king Richard, England's worthy king ! 

AIL Amen. 

Buck. To-morrow may it pleafe you to be crown'd ? 

Glo. Even when you pleafe, for you will have it fo. 

Buck. To-morrow then we will attend your grace ; 
And fo, moft joyfully, we take our. leave. 

Glo. [To the Clergymen."] Come, let us to our holy 

work again : 

Farewel, good coufm ; farewel, gentle friends T . 


1 Farcwel, good conjin ; fareivel, gentle friends.] To this aft 
iliould, perhaps, be added the next fcene, fo will the coronation 
pafs between the acts ; and there will not only be a proper interval 
of a&ion but the conclufion will be more forcible. JOHNSON. 




Before the Tower* 

Enter tbe Queen, Dutcbefs of Tork, and Marquis of 
Dorfet, at one door ; Anne Dutcbefs of Glofter^ had- 
ing Lady Margaret Plantagenet) Clarence's young 
daughter , at the other, 

Dutch. Who meets us here ?-^-my niece Planta- 


Led in the hand of her kind aunt of Glofter * ? 
Now, for my life, fhe's wand'ring to the Tower, 
On pure heart's love, to greet the tender prince.-^- 
Daughter, well met. 

Anne. God give your graces both 
A happy and a joyful time of day ! 

Queen. As much to you, good lifter ! Whither 
away ? 

Anne. No further than the Tower ; and, as I guefs, 
Upon the like devotion as yourfelves, 
To gratulate the gentle princes there. 

^ueen. Kind filter, thanks ; we'll enter all toge- 
ther : 

Enter Brakenbury. 

And, in good time, here the lieutenant comes. * 
Matter lieutenant, pray you, by your leave, 

* pffio meets us here ?my niece Plantagenet, 

Led in the band of her kind aunt of Glofter ? ] 

Here is a manilell intimation, that the dutchefs of Glofter leads in 
fomebody in her hand ; but there is no direction marked in any 
of the copies, from which we can learn who it is. I have ventured 
to guefs it muft be Clarence's young daughter. The old dutchefs 
of York calls her niece, i. e. grand-daughter ; as grand-children 
are frequently called nephews. THEOBALD, 

H 4 Haw 


How doth the prince, and my young fon of York ? 

Brak. Right well, dear madam : By your patience, 
I may not iuffer you to vifit them ; 
The king hath llriclly charg'd the contrary. 

Queen. The king ! who's that ? 

Brak. I mean, the lord protestor. 

Queen. The Lord protect him from that kingly title ! 
Hath he fet bounds between their love, and me ? 
I am their mother, Who fhall bar me from them ? 

Dutch. I am their father's mother, I will fee them. 

Anne. Their aunt am I in law, in love their mother : 
Then bring me to their fights ; I'll bear thy blame, 
And take thy office from thee, on my peril. 

Brak. No, madam, no, 3 1 may not leave it fo ; 
I am bound by oath, and therefore pardon me. 

[Exit Brakenbury. 

Enter Stanley. 

Stanl. Let me but meet you, ladies, one hour hence, 
And I'll falute your grace of York as mother, 
And reverend looker-on, of two fair queens. 
Come, madam, you muft ftraight to Weftminfter, 

[To the Dut chefs of Glofter. 
There to be crowned Richard's royal queen. 

Queen. Ah, cut my lace afunder ! 
That my pent heart may have fome fcope to beat, 
Or elfe I fwoon with this dead-killing news. 

Anne. Defpightful tidings ! O unpleafing news ! 

Dor. Be of good chear r Mother, how fares your 
grace ? 

Queen. O Dorfet, fpeak not to me, get thee gone, 
Death and dcflruclion dog thee at the heels; 
Thy mother's name is ominous to children : 
If thou wilt out-firip death, go crofs the feas, 
And live with Richmond, from the reach of hell. 

3 I may not leave itfo.~\ That is, I may notfo refigti my office ^ 
which you oft'er to take on you at your peril. JOHNSON. 

Go 3 


Go, hie thee, hie thee from this flaughter-houfe, 
Left thou encreafe the number of the dead ; 
And make me die the thrall of Margaret's curfe, 
Nor mother, wife, nor England's counted queen. 

StanL Full oi \vife care is this your counfel, madam: 
Take all the fwift advantage of the hours ; 
You ihall have letters from me to my fon 
In your behalf, to meet you on the way : 
Be not ta'en tardy by unvvife delay. , 

Dutch. O ill-difperfing wind of mifery ! 
O my accurfed xvomb, the bed of death ; 
A cockatrice haft thou hatch'dto the world, 
Whofe una voided eye is murderous ! 

StanL Come, madam, come ; I in all hafte was fent. 

Anne. And I with all unwillingnefs will go. 
O, would 'O God, that the inclufive verge 
Of golden metal, th at muft round my brow, 
Were red-hot fteel, to fear me to the brain 4 ! 
Anointed let me be with deadly venom ; 
And die, ere men can fay God fave the queen ! 

Qu.cen. Go, go, poor foul, 1 envy not thy glory ; 
To feed my humour, wilh thyfelf no harm. 

Anne. No ! why ? When he, that is my hufband 


Came to me, as I follow'd Henry's corfe ; 
When fcarce the blood was well wafti'd from his hands, 

4 Were red-hot Jieel, to fear me to tie brain!] She feems to allude 
to the ancient mode of punifhing a regicide, viz. by placing a 
crown of iron heated red-hot, upon his head. In the Tragedy of 
Hoffman, 1631, this puniftiment is introduced : 

" Fix on thy mailer's head my burning crown," 
Again : 

" And wear his crown made hot with flaming fire. 

" Bring forth the burning crown there." 
Again : 

" was adjudg'd 

" To have his headyiwV with a burning crown." 
In fome of the monkifh accounts of a place of future torment, a 
burning croivn is appropriated to thofe who deprived any lawful 
monarch of his kingdom. STEEVENS. 



Which iflu'd from my other angel hufband, 

And that dead faint which then I weeping follow'd ; 

O, when, I fay, I look'd on Richard's face, 

This was my wilh, Be thou, quoth I, accursed, 

For making me,foyoung,fo old a widozv ! 

Andy zvhen thou tved'Jt, let for row haunt thy bed ; 

And be tJ:y wife (if any be Jo mad) 

Afore miserable by the life of thee, 

Than tbou haft made me by my dear lord's death ! 

Lo, ere I can repeat this curfe again, 

Even in fo fhort a fpace, my woman's heart 

Grofsly grew captive to his honey words, 

And prov'd the fubjecl: of mine own foul's curfe : 

Which ever fince hath held mine eyes from reft ; 

For never yet one hour in his bed 

Did I enjoy the golden dew of fleep, 

5 But with his timorous dreams was ftill awak'd. 

Befides, he hates me for my father Warwick ; 

And will, no doubt, fhortly be rid of me. 

Queen. Poor heart, adieu ; I pity thy complaining. 

Anne. No more than with my foul I mourn for yours. 

Dor. Farewel, thou woful welcomer of glory ! 

Anne. Adieu, poor foul, that tak'ft thy lenve of it ! 

Dutch. Go thou to Richmond, and good fortune 
guide thee ! [71 Dorfet, 

Go thou to Richard, and good angels tend rh- ! 

[To Anne. 

Go thou to fandtuary, and good thoughts poiielsthee! 

[T0 the Queen. 

I to my grave, where peace and reft lie with me ! 
Eighty odd years of forrow have I feen, 
And each hour's joy wreck'd with a week of teen 6 . 

5 But with his timorous dreams ] 'Tis recorded by Poly-. 
dore Virgil, that Richard was frequently disturbed by terrible 
dreams : this is therefore no fiftion. JOHNSON. 

6 -of teen.] Teen is forrow. So, in Romeo and Juliet; 
" And yet to my teen be it fpoken, &c." 

Again, in the Return from Pat-naffus, 1606 : 

" Flies have their fpleen, each filly ant his teem" 



Queen. Stay yet ; look back, with me, unto the 


Pity, you ancient flones, thofe tender babes, 
Whom envy hath immur'd within your walls ! 
Rough cradle for fuch little pretty ones ! 
7 Rude ragged nurfe ! old fullen play-fellow 
Fqr tender princes, ufe my babies well ! 
So foolifh forrow bids your flones farewel 8 . [E&tttth 


'The court. 

Flourijh of trumpets. Enter Richard, as King, Bucking- 
ham, Catejby, a Page, and others. 

K. Rich. Stand all apart. Coufin of Bucking- 

Buck. My gracious fovereign. 
K. Rich. Give me thy hand. Thus high, by thy 


And thy affiftance, is king Richard feated : 
But lhall we wear thefe glories for a day ? 
Or lhall they laft, and we rejoice in them ? 

Buck. Still live they, and for ever let them laft ! 
K. Rich. 9 Ah, Buckingham, now do I play the 


^ 7 Rude ragged nurfe ! old fullen play -fellow} To call the Tower 
vurfe 3.K&playfillovj is very harfh : perhaps part of this Jpeech is 
addrefled to the Tower, and part to the lieutenant. JOHNSON. 

* So foolijh forrtnv bids your Jtones fareiveh'} Hither the third 
ad fhould be extended, and here it very properly ends with a 
paufe of action. JOHNSON. 

9 Ah, Buckingham, now do /play the touch,'] The technical 
term is requifite here. The poet wrote : 
no*w do I 'ply the touch, 

i. e. apply the touch/tone ; for that is meant by what he calls touch. 



To try if thou be current gold, indeed : 

Young Edward lives ; Think now what I would 


Buck. Say on, my loving lord. 
K. Rich. Why, Buckingham, I fay, I would be 


Buck. Why, To you are, my thrice-renowned liege. 
K. Rich. Ha ! am I king ? 'Tis fo : but Edward 


Suck. True, noble prince. 
K. Rich. O bitter confequence, 

That Edward ftill fhould live true ! noble prince ! 
Coufin, thou waft not wont to be fo dull : 
Shall I be plain ? I wifti the baftards dead ; 
And I would have it fuddenly perform'd. 
\Vhat fay'il thou now ? fpeak fuddenly, be brief. 
Buck. Your grace may do your pleafure. 
K. Ricb. Tut, tut, thou art all ice, thy kindnefs 

freezes : 
Say, have I thy confent, that they mall die ? 

Buck. Give me fome breath, fome little paufe, dear 


Before I pofitively fpeak in this : 
I will refolve your grace immediately. 

\_Exit Buckingham. 

So, again, in 'Timon of Atbens, fpeaking of gold, he fays : 

O, thou touch of hearts ! 

\. e. thou trial, touchftone. WARBURTON. 

To play the touch is to reprcfent the toucbjlone. No emendation 
is neceffary. 

So, in the i6th Song of Drayton's Polyolblon: 

*' With alabafter, tuch, and porphyry adorn'd," 
Again, in the epiflle of Mary the French S>ueen to Charles Brandon^ 
by Drayton : 

" Before mine ^eye, like touch, thy fhape did prove." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery j^mvz, B. I. c. iii : 

' Though true as touch, though daughter of a king." 



Catef. The king is angry ; fee, he gnaws his lip '. 
K. Rick. I will converfe with iron-witted fools, 
And unrefpedtive boys * ; none are for me, 
That look into me with confiderate eyes : 
High-reaching Buckingham grows circumfpeA. 

Page. My lord. 

K. Rich. Know'It thou not any, whom corrupting 

Would tempt unto a ' clofe exploit of death ? 

Page. 1 know a difcontented gentleman, 
Whofe humble means match not his haughty mind : 
Gold were as good as twenty orators, 
And will, no doubt, tempt him to any thing. 
K. Rich. What is his name ? 
Page. His name, my lord, is -Tyrrel. 
K. Rich. I partly know the man ; Go, call him hi- 
ther, boy. [Exit boy. 
The deep-revolving witty 4 Buckingham 
No more ihall be the neighbour to my counfels : 
Hath he fo long held out with me untir'd, 
And flops he. now for breath ? well, be it fo. 

1 'fee, he gnaws bis lip,'] Several of our ancient hiftoriana 

obferve, that this was an accuftomed a&ion of Richard, whether 
he was penfive or angry. STEEVENS. 

a And unrefpedive boys ; ] Unrefpeflive is inattentive, tak- 
ing no notice, inconfiderate. 
So, in Daniel's Cleopatra, 1 599 : 

" When diflblute impiety poflefs'd 

" The unrefpefti-ve minds of prince and people." 


3 clofe exploit ] is fecret aft. JOHNSON. 

* witty] in this place fignifies judicious or cunning. A 

wit was not at this time employed to fignify a man of fancy , but 
was ufed for wifdom or judgment. So, in Daniel's Cleopatra^ 

" Although unvvife to live, had iu;V to die." 
Again : 

" And at her feet do ivitfy ferpents move." 

One of Ben Jonfon's Maf$ues. STEEVENS, 



Enter Stanley. 

How now, lord Stanley ? what's the news ? 

Stanl. Know, my loving lord, 
The marquis Dorfet, as I hear, is fled 
To Richmond, in the parts where he abides. 

K. Rich. Come hither, Catefby : rumour it abroad. 
That Anne my wife is very grievous fick ; 
I will take order for her keeping clofe. 
Enquire me out fome mean-born gentleman, 
Whom I will marry flraight to Clarence' daughter : 
The boy is foolifh, and I fear not him. 
Look, how thou dream'ft ! I fay again, give out, 
That Anne my queen is fick, and like to die : 
About it ; for it Hands me much upon, 
To flop all hopes, whofe growth may damage me. 

[Exit Catefby t 

I mufl be marry'd to my brother's daughter, 
Or elfe my kingdom ftands on brittle glafs : 
Murder her brothers, and then marry her ! 
Uncertain way of gain ! But I am in 
So far in blood, * that fin will pluck on fin. 
Tear-falling pity dwells not in this eye. 

Enter TwreL 
Is thy name Tyrrel 6 ? 


So far in blood, that Jin will pluck onfinC\ 
The fame reflections occur in Macbeth : 
" i. / am in Hood 

*' Step'd info far, that .faould 1 wade no morf t 
" Returning tvere as tedious, &c. 
Again : 

*' -Things lad begun make ftrong themfelves by ill." STEEVENS. 

e Is thy name Tyrrel?] It feems, that a late editor (who boafls 

much of his fidelity in " marking; the places of adlion, both general 

and particular, and fupplying fcenical directions") throughout this 

fcene, has left king Richard on his throne ; whereas he might have 



7>r. James Tyrrel, and your moft obedient fubjedt 
' K. Rich. Art thou, indeed ? 
Jyr. Prove me, my gracious lord. 
K. Rich. Dar'ft thou refolve to kill a friend of 

mine ? 

Tyr. Pleafe you ; but I had rather kill two enemies. 
K. Rich. Why, then thou hail it ; two deep ene- 

Foes to my reft,' and my fweet fleep's diflurbers, 
Are they that I would have thee deal upon : 
Tyrrel, I mean thofe bailards in the Tower. 

Tyr. Let me have open means to come to them, 
And foon I'll rid you from the fear of them. 
K. Rich Thou fing'ft fweet mufick. Hark, come 

hither, Tyrrel ; 
Go, by this token : Rife, and lend thine ear : 


There is no more but fo : Say, it is done, 
And I will love thee, and prefer thee for it. 

lyr. I will difpatch it ftraight. [Exit. 

Re-enter Buckingham. 

Buck. My lord, I have confider'd in my mind 
That late demand that you did found me in. . 
K. Rich. Well, let that reft. Dorfet is fled to 

Buck. I hear the news, my lord. 

learnt from the following paflage in fir John Harrington's Mftamor- 
pbofis ofAjax, 1 596, that the monarch appeared, during the prefent 
interview with Tyrrel, on an elevation of muchhfs dignity. ** The 
beft part (fays fir John) of our chronicles, in all men's opinions 
is that of ELichard the third, written as I have heard by Moor- 
ton, but as moft fuppofe, by that worthy and incorrupt magiftrate 
fir Thomas More, iometime lord chancellor of England, where 
it is faid, how the king was devifmg with Tcril to have his ne- 
phews privily murdred ; and it is added, be was then fitting on a 
draught ; a fit carpet for fuch a counfel." See likewife Holinjhed t 
vol.ii. p. 735, STEEVENS. 

K. Rich. 


K. Rich. Stanley, he 13 your wife's fon : Well, 
look to it. 

Buck. My lord, I claim the gift, my due by pro- 


For which your honour and your faith is pawn'd ; 
The earldom of Hereford, and the moveables, 
W'hich you have promifed I lhall poffefs. 

K. Rich. Stanley, look to your wife ; if fhe convey 
Letters to Richmond, you fhall anfwer it. 

Buck. What fays your highnefs to my juft requefl ? 

K. Rich. I do remember me, Henry the fixth 
Did prophefy, that Richmond fhould be king, 
When Richmond was a little peevifh boy. 
7 A king ! perhaps 

Buck. My lord, 

K. Rich. How chance, the prophet could not at 

that time. 
Have told me, I being by, that I fhould kill him ? 

Buck. My lord, your promife for the earldom, 

K. Rich. Richmond ! When laft I was at Exeter, 
The mayor in courtfy fhew'd me the caftle, 
And call'd it Rouge-mont : at which name, I 

ftarted ; 

Becaufe a bard of Ireland told me once, 
I fhould not live long after I faw Richmond. 

Buck. My lord, 

K. Rich. Ay, what's o'clock ? 

Buck. I am thus bold to put your grace in mind 
Of what you promis'd me. 

K. Rich. Well, but what's o'clock ? 

Buck. Upon the flroke of ten. 

K. Rich. Well, let it ftrike. 

Buck. Why let it ftrike ? 

7 A king! perhaps] From hence to the words, Thou troub- 
Jefl me , lam not in the vein have been left out ever lince the 
iirft editions, but I like them well enough to replace them. POPE. 

The allufions to the plays of Henry VI. are no weak proofs of 
jhe authenticity of thefe difputed pieces. JOHNSON. 

K. Rich. 


it. Rich. 8 Becaufe that, like a Jack, thou keep'ft 

the flroke 

Betwixt thy begging and my meditation. 
I am not in the giving vein to-day. 

Buck. Why, then relblve me whe'r you will, or no. 
K. Rich. Thou troubled me ; I am not in the vein. 


8 Becarife, that, like a Jack, &c.] This pailage, though I do 
hot believe it corrupted, 1 do. not undeiftand. JOHNSON. 

Becaufe that, like a Jack, &c.] An image, like thofe at St. 
Dunftan's church in Fleet-ltreet, and at the market- houfes at fe- 
Veral towns in this kingdom, was ufually called a Jack of the clock- 
houfe. See Cowley's Dlfcourfe on the Goverment of Oliver Crom- 
well. Richard refembles Buckingham to one of thofe automatons, 
and bids him not fufpend the itroke on the clock-bell, but ftrike, 
that the hour may be paft, and himfelf be at liberty to purfue his 
meditations. Sir J. HAWKINS. 

So, in The Fleire, a comedy, 1610 : " their tongues are, like 
a Jack o* the clock, ihill in labour." 
Again, in The Coxcomb, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 
** ' Is this your Jack 0' the c70o-houfe ? 
< " Will yoMjlrike, fir ?" 
Again, in a pamphlet by Deckar, called the Guh Hornbook , 

1609 : " but howfoever, if Poxvles Jacks be once up with 

their elbowes, and quarrelling to ftrike eleven, as foon as ever 
the clock has parted them, and ended the fray with his hammer, 
let not the duke's gallery conteyne you any longer." 

Perhaps thefe figures were called Jacks, becaufe the engines of 
that name which turn the fpit were anciently ornamented with 
iuch a puppet. In the Gentleman tf/kcr, a comedy by Chapman, 
1606, they are alluding to a roafting Jack, and a man fays ; 

*' as in that quaint engine you have feen 
" A little man Injhreds ftand at the winder, 
" And ieem to put all things in aft about him, 
" Lifting and pulling with a mighty ftir, 
*' Yet adds no force to it, nor nothing does." 
In Lantern and Candle-light* or the Bellman* s Second Night- 
fivalk, &c. by Deckar, is a paflage " of a new and cunning draw- 
ing of money from gentlemen," which may tend to a fome- 
what different explanation. " There is another fraternitie of 
wandring pilgrims, who merrily call themfelves Jackes of the 
Clock-houfe. The jacke of a clflck-houfe goes upon fcrews, and 
his office is- to do nothing \MtJirike: fo does this noife (for they 
walke up and down like fldlers) travaile with motions, and what- 
erer their motions get them, is called Jinking" STEEVEKS. 

VOL. VII. I " Buck. 


Buck. Is it even fo ? repays he my deep fervice 
With fuch contempt ? made I him king for this? 
O, let me think on Haftings ; and be gone 
To Brecknock, while my fearful head is on. [Exit. 


Enter 1'yrrel. 

7}T. The tyrannous and bloody act is done ; 
The moft arch deed of piteous maflacre, 
That ever yet this land was guilty of. 
Dighton, and Forrcft, whom I did fuborn 
To do this piece of ruthlefs fnitchery, 
Albeit they were fkih'd villains, bloody dogs, 
Melting with tendernefs and mild compaffion, 
"Wept like two children, in their deaths' fad ftory.. 
O thus, quoth Dighton, lay the gentle babes, 
Thus, thus, quoth Forreft, girdling one another 
Within their alakajier innocent arms : 
'Their lips were four redrofes on aftalk^ 
Which, in their fummer beauty, kifs'd each other. 
A book of prayers on their pillow lay ; 
Which once, quoth Forreft, almoft changed my mind :. 
But, O, the devil there the villain llopp'd ; 
When Dighton thus told on, we /mothered 
The moft replenifhed jweet work of nature, 
That, from the prime creation, e'er Jhe fram'd. 
Hence both are gone with confcience and remorfe, 
They could not fpeak ; and fo I left them both, 
To bear thefe tidings to the bloody king. 

Enter king Richard. 

And here he comes : All health, my fovereign lord ! 
K. Rich. Kind Tyrrel ! am I happy in thy news ? 
Tyr. If to have done the thing you gave in charge 



Beget your happinefs, be happy then, 
For it is done. 

K. Rick But did ft thou fee them dead ? 

lyr. I did my lord. 

K. Rick. And buried, gentle Tyrrel ? 

'Tyr. The chaplain of the Tower hath buried them ; 
But where, to fay the truth, I do not know.' 

K. Rich. Come to me, Tyrrel, foon at after fupper, 
When thou lhalt tell the procefs of their death. 
Mean time, but think how I may do thee good, 
And be inheritor of thy defire, 
Farewel, 'till then. 

Tyr. I humbly take my leave. [Exit. 

K. Rich. The fon of Clarence have I pen'd up 

clofe ; 

His daughter meanly have I fnatch'd in marriage ; 
The fons of Edward fleep in Abraham's bofom, 
And Anne my wife hath bid the world good night. 
Now, for 1 know the Bretagne Richmond aims 
At young Elizabeth, my brother's daughter, 
And, by that knot, looks proudly on the crown, 
To her go I, a jolly thriving wooer. 

Enter Gate/by. 

Catef. My lord, 

K. Rich. Good news or bad, that thou com'ft in fo 

bluntly ? 

Catef. Bad news, my lord : Morton is fled to Rich- 
mond ; 

And Buckingham, back'd with the hardy Wellhmen, 
Is in the field, and ftill his power encreafeth. 

K. Rich. Ely with Richmond troubles me more 


Than Buckingham and his raih-levicd ftrength. 
Come, I have learn'd, that 9 fearful commenting 


9 fearful commenting 

Is leaden fervitor> < ] 

1 2 Tiroo- 


Is leaden fervitor to dull delay ; 

Delay leads impotent and fnail-pac'd beggary : 

Then fiery expedition be my wing, 

Jove's Mercury, and herald for a king ! 

Go, mutter men : My counfel is my Ihield ; 

We muft be brief, when traitors brave the field. 



Enter Queen Margaret. 

<3>. Mar. So, now profperity begins to mellow T 5 
And drop into the rotten mouth of death. 
Here in thefe confines ilily have I lurk'd, 
To watch the wamng of mine enemies. 
A z dire induction am I witnefs to, 
And will to France ; hoping, the confequencc 
Will prove as bitter, black, and tragical. 
Withdraw thee, wretched Margaret ! who comes 
here ? 

Enter the Queen, and the Dutchefs of York* 

Queen. Ah, my poor princes ! ah, my tender babes* 
My unblown flowers, new-appearing fweets ! 
If yet your gentle fouls fly in the air, 
And be not fix'd in doom perpetual, 
Hover about me with your airy wings, 
And hear your mother's lamentation ! 

Timorous thought and cautious difquilition are the dull attendants 
on delay* JOHNSON. 

1 begins to mclloiv, &c.] The fame thought occurs in 

Marfton's Antonio and Mell'ida, 1602 : 

" now is his fate grown mellow, 

" Inftant to fall into the rotten jaws 
*' Of chap-fall'n death." STEEVENS.. 

*' dire indufiion ] Induflion. is preface, introduction, firft 

part, It is fo ufed by Sackville in our author's time. JOHNSON. 

>. Mar. 


j^. Mar. Hover about her ; J fay, that right for right 
Hath dimm'd your infant morn to aged night. 

Dutch. So many miferies have craz'd my voice, 
That my woe-wearied tongue is ftill and mute. 
Edward Plantagenet, why art thou dead ? 

^. Mar. Plantagenet doth quit Plantagenet, 
Edward for Edward pays a dying debt. 

Queen. Wilt thou, O God, fly from fuch gentle 


And throw them in the entrails of the wolf ? 
Why didft thou fleep, when fuch a deed was done ? 

<>>. Mar. When holy Henry dy'd, and my fweet fon ? 

Dutch. Dead life, blind fight, poor mortal living 

Woe's fcene, world's fhame, grave's due by life 


Brief abftradt and record of tedious qjays, 
Reft thy unrefl on England's lawful earth, 

[Sitting down. 
.Unlawfully made drunk with innocent blood ! 

Queen. Ah, that thou wouldft as foon afford a grave, 
As thou canft yield a melancholy feat ; 
Then would I hide my bones, not reft them here ! 
Ah, who hath any caufe to mourn, but we ? 

[Sitting down by her. 

Q. Afar. If ancient forrow be mofl reverent, 

3 fay, that right for right] It's pjain Shakefpeare 

wrote : 

wrong for wrong 
but the players thought a little rhime was better than all reafon. 


It is fo unlikely that words fo plain and fo proper, as wrong for 
wong would have been either ignorantly or officioufly changed, 
that I believe right for riglt is the true though not the beft reading^ 
This is one of thefe conceits which our author may be fufpe&ed 
of loving better than propriety. Right for right \sjujlice anfiver* 
ivg to the claims of juftice. So, in this play : 

That forehead 

be Irandsdy if that right were right. 


I 3 Give 


Give mine the benefit of 4 figniory, 

And let my griefs frown on the upper hand. 

[Sitting down with them. 
If forrow can admit fbciety, 
Tell o'er your woes again by viewing mine : ? 
I had an Edward, 'till a Richard kilPd him ; 
I had a hufband, 'till a Richard kill'd him : 
Thou hadft an Edward, 'till a Richard kill'd him ; 
Thou had'ft a Richard, 'till a Richard kill'd him. 
Dutch. I had a Richard too, and thou did'lt kill 

him ; 
I had a Rutland too, thou holp'ft to kill him. 

j^. Mar Thou had'fl a Clarence too, and Richard 

kili'd him. 

From forth the kennel of thy womb hath crept 
A hell-hound, that doth hunt us all to death : 
That dog that 'had his teeth before his eyes, 
To worry lambs, and lap their gentle blood ; 
That foul defacer of God's handy-work ; 
That excellent grand tyrant of the earth, 
That reigns in galled eyes of weeping fouls y , 
Thy womb let loofe, to chafe us to our graves. : 
O upright, juft, and true-difpofing God, 
How do I thank thee, that this carnal cur 
Preys on the ifTue of his mother's body, 
And makes her 6 pue-fellow with others* moan ! 


4 J*g n i r y tor feniority. JOHNSON. 
So, in Stovve's Chronicle, edit. 1615, P* '49' 

** the fon of Edmund, the fon of Edward they^/gwar, the 
fon of Alured, &c." STEEVEKS. 

5 That reigns &c.] This and the preceding line have been 
omitted by all the modern editors, Rowe excepted. STEEVENS. 

6 And makes her pue-fellovj ] Pue-fcllovj feems to be compa- 
nion. We have now a new phrafe, nearly equivalent, by which 
we fay of perfons in the fame difficulties, that they are in the 

fame box. JOHNSON. 

Pue-fiUtKv is a word yet in ufe. Sir J. HAWKINS. 
In find the word in Northward Hoe. a comedv, by Decker and 
Wpbfter, 1607: 

" lie would make him pue-fcllcw with a lord's ileward at 


Dutch. O, Harry's wife, triumph not in my woes ; 
God witncfs with me, I have wept for thine. 

>. Mar. Bear with me ; i :ini hungry for revenge, 
And now I cloy me with beholding it. 
Thy Edward he is dead, that kilFd my Edward ; 
Thy other Edward dead, to quittmy Edwarcf ; 
7 Young York he is but boot, beoaufe both they 
Match not the high perfection of my lofs. 
Thy Clarence he is dead, that ftabb'd my Edward ; 
And the beholders of this tragic play, 
* The adulterate Haftings, Rivers, Vaughan, Grey, 
Untimely fmother'd in their duiky graves. 
Richard yet lives, hell's black intelligencer; 
Only referv'd their fatftor, to buy fouls, 
And fend them thither : But at hand, at hand; 
Enfues his piteous and unpitied end : 
Earth gapes, hell burns, fiends roar, faints pray, 
To have him fuddenly convey'd from hence : 
Cancel his bond of life, dear God, I pray, 
That I may live to fay, The dog is dead ! 

<$ueen. O, thou didft prophefy, the time would 

Again, in a comedy, by Decker, called, If this Ic not a good 
flay the Devil is in it : 

" Loft not a minute, pue-fillovj, &c." 
Again, in Decker's Satiromaftix : 

" Conic, pue-felliKV." 
Again, in Wcfiward-Hoe, by Decker tnd Webfter, 1606 : 

*' being both ray fcholars, and your honefrpuc-fe/bws.'" 


7 Toung Tork he is but loot ] Boot is that which is thrown 

in to mend a purchafe.jfoHNsoN. 

8 The adulterate ^fy^Sf^j ] I believe Shakefpeare wrote : 

The adulterer [raftings, - WAR BUR TON. 

Adulterate is right. We iay metals are adulterate ; and adulte- 
rate fometimes means the I' as adulterer. In either fenfe, on 
this occafion, the epithet will fuit. Raftings was adulterate, as 
Margaret had try'd his frienoihip and found it faithlefs ; he was 
an adulterer, as he cohabited with Jane Shore during the life of 
her hufband. So, the Ghort in Hamlet, {peaking of the King, fays : 

" that inceftuous, that adulterate beaft." STEEVENS. 

J 4 That 


That I ihould wilh for thee to help me curfe 
That bottled fpider, that foul bunch-back'd toad, 
j^. Mar. I call'd thee then, vain flourilh of my 

fortune ; 

I call'd thee then, poor fhadow, painted queen ; 
The prefentation of but what I was, 
1 The flattering index of a direful pageant, 
One heav'd a high, to be hurl'd down below : 
A mother only mock'd with two fair babes ; 
A dream of what thou waft ; a garilh flag % 
To be the aim of every dangerous ihot ; 
A lign of dignity, a breath, a bubble ; 
A queen in jeft, only to fill the fcene, 
Where is thy huiband now ? where be thy brothers ? 
Where be thy two ions ? wherein doft thou joy ? 
Who fues, and kneels, and fays God fave the queen ? 
Where be the bending peers that flatter'd thee ? 
Where be the thronging troops that follow'd thee ? 
Decline all this, and fee what now thau art. 
For happy wife, a mofl diftrefled widow ; 
For joyful mother, one that wails the name ; 
For one being fu'd to, one that humbly fues ; 
For queen, a very caitiff crown'd with care : 
For one" that fcorn'd at me, now fcorn'd of me ; 

9 7be Jlattring index of a, direful pageant,] Without doub$ 
Shakefpeare wrote : 

' ; direful page. WARBURTON. 

Surely there is no need of change. Pageants are dumb (hews, and 
the poet meant to allude to one of thefe, the index of which pro- 
mifed a happier conclufion. The pageants then difplayed on pub- 
lic occafions were generally preceded by a brief account of the 
order in which the characters were to walk. Thefe indexes were 
diftributed among the fpe&ators, that they might understand the 
meaning of fuch allegorical fluff as was ufually exhibited. The 
index of every book was anciently placed before the beginning of it. 


* a garijl} flag, 

To le the aim of every dangerous Jhot ; ] 

Alluding to the dangerous fituation of thofe perfons to whole 
care the ftandards of armies were entrusted. STEEVENS. 



For one being fear'd of all, now fearing one ; 

For one commanding all, obey'd of none. 

Thus hath the courfe of juftice wheel'd about *, 

And left thee but a very prey to time ; 

Having no more but thought of what thou wert, 

To torture thee the more, being what thou art. 

Thou didft ufurp my place, And doft thou not 

Ufurp the juft proportion of my forrow ? 

Now thy proud neck bears half my burden'd yoke ; 

From which even here I flip my wearied head, 

And leave the burden of it all on thee. 

Farewel, York's wife, and queen of fad mifchance, 

Thefe Englifh woes fhall make me fmile in France. 

Hieen. O thou well fkill'd in curfes ! ftay a while, 
And teach me how to curfe mine enemies. 

^ Mar. Forbear to fleep the night, and fail the 


Compare dead happinefs with living woe ; 
Think that thy babes were fairer than they were, 
And he, that flew them, fouler than he is : 
Bettering thy lofs makes the bad caufer worfe ; 
Revolving this will teach thee how to curfe. 

Queen. My words are dull, O, quicken them with 
thine ! 

Q. Mar. Thy woes will make them fliarp, and 
pierce like mine. [Exit Margaret. 

Dutch. Why fhould calamity be full of words ? 

Queen. J Windy attorneys to their client woes, 
* Airy fucceeders of inteftate joys, 


* wheel'd about,] Thus the quartos. The folio whirl 1 J 

about. STEEVENS. 

3 Windy attorneys to their client woes,] In former editions this 
line was read thus : 

Windy attorneys to your client's woes. 
The emendation is fir Thomas Hanmer's. JOHNSON. 

4 Airy fucceeders of inteiline joy**"] I cannot underftand this read- 
ing. I have adopted another from the quarto in 1597 

Airy fucceeders of inteflate joji ; 



Poor breathing orators of miferics ! 

Let them have fcope : though what they do impart 

Help nothing elfe, yet they do eafe the heart, 

Dutch. If fo, then be not tongue-tyM : go with me, 
And in the breath of bitter words let's (mother 
My damned fon, that thy two fweet fons fmother'd. 

[Drum i within. 
I hear his drum, be copious in exclaims. 

Enter King Richard, and his train, marching. 

K. Rich. Who intercepts me in my expedition ? 

Dutch. O, (he, that might have intercepted thee, 
By Wrangling thee in her accurfed womb, 
From all the (laughters, wretch, that thou haft done. 

Queen. Hid'ft thou that forehead with a golden 


Where (hould be branded, if that right were right, 
The (laughter of the prince that ow'd that crown, 
And the dire death of my poor fons, and brothers ? 
Tell me, thou villain-flave, where are my children ? 

Dutch. Thou toad, thou toad, where is thy brother 

Clarence ? , 

And little Ned Plantagenet, his fon ? 

>ueen. Where is the gentle Rivers, Vaughan,Grey ? 

Dutch. Where is kind Haftings ? 

K. Rich. A flourim, trumpets ! ftrike alarum, 

drums ! 

Let not the heavens hear thefe tell-tale women 
Rail on the Lord's anointed : Strike, I fay. 

[_FlouriJh. AlaMtms* 

Either be patient, and entreat me fair, 
Or with the clamorous report of war 
Thus will I drown your exclamations. 

Dutch. Art thou my fon ? 

i. e. words, tun'd to complaints, fucceed joys that are dead ; and 
unbequeath'd to them, to whom they fliould properly defcend. 


K. Rich, 


K. Rick. Ay; I thank God, my father, and your- 

Dutch. Then patiently hear my impatience. 

K. Rich. Madam, I have 5 a touch of your condition, 
That cannot brook the accent of reproof. 

Dutch. O, let me fpeak. 

K. Rich. Do, then ; but I'll not hear. 

Dutch. I will be mild and gentle in my words. 

K. Rich. And brief, good mother ; for I am in 

Dutch. Art thou fo hafty ? I have ftaid for thee, 
God knows, in torment and in agony. 

A". Rich. And came I not at laft to comfort you ? 

Dutch. No, by the holy rood, thou know'ft it well, 
Thou cam'ft on earth to make the earth my hell. 
A grievous burden was thy birth to me ; 
Tetchy and wayward was thy infancy ; 
Thy fchooi-days, frightful, defperate, wild, and 


Thy prjme of manhood, daring, bold, and venturous; 
Thy age confirmed, proud, fubtle, fly, and bloody, 
More mild, but yet more harmful, kind in hatred : 
What comfortable hour canft thou name, 
6 That ever grac'd me in thy company ? 

K. Rich. Faith, none, but Humphry Houre 7 , that 
call'd your grace 


5 a touch of your condition,] A fpice or particle of your 

temper or difpofitlon. JOHNSON. 

So, in Chapman's tranllation of the 24th Iliad: 

** his cold blood embrac'd a fiery touch 

" Of anger, &c. STEEVENS. 

6 That ever grac'd me ] To grace feems here to mean the 

fame as to blc/s, to make happy. So, gracious is kind, and graces 
are favours. JOHNSON. 

7 Humphry Houre, ] This may probably be an allu- 
fion to fome affair of gallantry of which the dutchefs had been 
fufpefted. I cannot find the name in Holinfhed. Surely the 
poet's fondnefs for a quibble has not induced him at once to per- 



To breakfaft once, forth of my company. 
If I be fo difgracious in your fight, 

fonify and chriften that hour of the day which fummon'd his mo- 
ther to breakfaft. 

So, in Tic Wit of a Woman , 1592 : 

" Gentlemen, time makes us brief : our old miftrefs, Hourc 
is at hand." 

The common cant phrafe of dining vlith duke Humphrey, I have 
never yet heard fatisraftorily explained. It appears, however, 
from a fatirical pamphlet called the Gu/s Horn-bookc, 1609, writ- 
ten by T. Deckar, that in the ancient church of St. Paul, one 
of the ailes was called Duke Humphrey's Walk ; in which thole 
who had no means of procuring a dinner, affected to loiter. 
Deckar concludes his fourth chapter thus : " By this, I imagine 
you have walked your bellyful, and therupon being weary r or 
(vyhich is rather, I beleeve) being moft gentleman-like, hun- 
gry, it is fit that as I brought you unto the duke, fo (becaufe he 
folloyves the fafhion of great men in keeping no houfe, and that 
therefore you muft gofeeke your dinner} fufter me to take you by 
the hand and leade you into an ordinary." The title of this 
chapter is, " How a gallant mould behave himfelfe in Powlcs 

Hall, in the 7th Satire, B. III. feems to confirm this interpre- 
tation : 

" 'TisRuffio: Trow'ft thou where he din'd to-day ? 
*' In footh I faw him fit with duke Humfray : 
" Manie good welcoms, and much gratis cheere, 
" Keepes he for everie flragling cavaliere ; 
" An open houfe haunted with greate refort, 
*' Longfervice mixt with mufic all dif port, &c." 

Hall's Satires, Edit. 1602, p. 60. 

See likewife Foure Letters and certain Sonnets, by Gabriel Harvey, 
1592 : 

" -to feeke his dinner in Poules with duke Humphrey ? 

to licke dimes, to be a beggar." 

Again, in the Return of the Knight of the Poft, &c. by Nafh, 
1606 : " - in the end comming into Poules, to behold the old 
duke and his gttcjls, &c." 

Again, in A wonderful, Jlrangc, and miraculous Prognojllccttion,for 
ibis Tear, &c. 1 59 1, by Naih : " -- fundry fellowes in their 
filkes fliall be appointed to keepe duke Humfrye company in Poules, 
becaufe they know not where to get tkeir dinners abroad." 

It it be objected that duke Humphrey was buried at St. Albans, 
let it likewife be remember'd that cenotaphs were not uncommon. 




Let me march on, and not offend you, madam. 
Strike up the drum. 

Dutch. I pry'thee, hear me fpeak. 

K. Rich. You fpeak too bitterly. 

Dutch. Hear me a word ; 
For I lhall never fpeak to thee again. 

K. Rich. So. 

Dutch. Either thou wilt die, by God's jufl ordinance, 
Ere from this war thou turn a conqueror ; 
Or I with grief and extreme age fhall periih, 
And never look upon thy face again. 
Therefore, take with thee my moil heavy curfe ; 
Which, in the day of battle, tire thee more, 
Than all the compleat armour that thou wear'fl ! 
My prayers on the adverfe party fight ; 
And there the little fouls of Edward's children 
Whifper the fpirits of thine enemies, 
And promife them fuccefs and victory ! 
Bloody thou art, bloody will be thy end ; 
* Shame ferves thy life, and doth thy death attend. 


Queen. Though far more caufe, yet much lefs fpi- 

rit to curfe 
Abides in me ; I fay amen to her. [Going* 

K. Rich. 9 Stay, madam, I muft fpeak a word 
with you. 

Queen. I have no more fons of the royal blood, 
For thee to murder : for my daughters, Richard,* 
They lhall be praying nuns, not weeping queens ; 
And therefore level not to hit their lives. 

K. Rich. You have a daughter call'd Elizabeth, 
Virtuous and fair, royal and gracious. 

Queen. And muft Ihe die for this ? O, let her live, 

3 Shame ferves thy life, ] Tofervi is to accompany, fervant3 

being near the perfons of their matters. JOHNSON. 

9 Stay, madam, ] On this dialogue 'tis not neceflary ta 

beftovv much criticifm : part of it is ridiculous, and the whole 
improbable. JOHNSON, 



And I'll corrupt her manners, ftain her beauty ; 
Slander myfelf, as falfe to Edward's bed ; 
Throw over her the veil of infamy : 
So fhe may live unfcarr'd of bleeding flaughter, 
I will cont'efs Ihe was not Edward's daughter. 

K. Rich. Wrong not her birth, Ihe is of royal 
blood '. 

fteen. To lave her life, I'll fay ihe is not fo. 
Rich. Her life is fafeft only in her birth. 
Queen. And only in that fafety dy'd her brothers. 
K. Rich. Lo, at their births good flars were op- 
polite *. 

Queen. No, to their lives bad friends were contrary. 
K. Rick. All unavoided is the doom of deftiny. 
Queen. True, when avoided grace makes deftiny : 
My babes were deftin'd to a fairer death, 
If grace had blefs'd thee with a fairer life. 

K. Rich. You fpeak, as if that I had flam my 


Queen. Coufins, indeed ; and by their uncle cozen'd 
Of comfort, kingdom, kindred, freedom, life. 
Whofe hands foever lanc'd their tender hearts, 
Thy head, all indiredtly, gave direction : 
No doubt the murderous knife was dull and blunt, 
"Till it was whetted on thy ftone-hard heart ? , 
To revel in the entrails of my lambs. 

1 - " Jbe is of royal blood.~\ The folio reads fhe is a royal 
frhicefs. STEEVENS. 

* Lay at their births ] Perhaps we fhould read No, at their 
births TYRWHITT. 

3 77/7 *'/ -was whetted on thy Jt one-bard heart,] This conceit 
feems to have been a great favourite of Shakefpeare. We meet 
with it more than once. In K. Henry IV. zd Part : 
Thou bid'Ji a tboufand daggers in thy thoughts^ 
Winch thou baft whetted on thy ftony hearty 
Tojlab, &c." 
'Again, in the Merchant of Venice : 

4 Not on thy foal, but on thy Joul, harfl) y^V, 
Thou. jna'VJl thy knife kcsn " STEEVENS. 



But that ftill ufe of grief makes wild grief tame, 
My tongue fhould to thy ears not name my boys, 
'Till thiit my nails were anchor'd in thine eyes ; 
And I, in luch a defperate bay of death, 
Like a poor bark, of fails and tackling reft, 
Ruih all to pieces on thy rocky bofom. 

K. Rich. Madam, fo thrive I in my enterprize, 
And dangerous fuccefs of bloody wars, 
As I intend more good to you and yours, 
That ever you or yours by me were harm'd ! 

ueen. What good is cover'd with the face of hea- 
To be difcover'd, that can do me good ? 

K. Rich. The advancement of your children, gentle 

Queen. Up to fome fcaffold, there to lofe their heads. 

K. Rich. No, to the dignity and height of fortune, 

4 The high imperial type of this earth's glory. 

Queen. Flatter my forrows with report of it; 
Tell me, what flate, what dignity, what honour, 

5 Canfl thou demife to any child of mine ? 

K. Rich. Even all I have ; ay, and myfelf and all, 
Will I withal endow a child of thine ; 
So in the Lethe of thy angiy foul 
Thou drown the fad remembrance of thofe wrongs, 
Which, thou fuppofeft, I have done to thee. 

Queen. Be brief, left that the procefs of thy kindnefs 
Laft longer telling than thy kindnefs' date. 

K. Rich. Then know, that, from my foul, I love 
thy daughter. 

feeen. My daughter's mother thinks it with her foul. 
Rich. What do you think ? 

* The high imperial type ] Type is exhibition, (hew, difplay. 


5 Canft tbou demife ] The fenfe of the word Jemife is evident, 
but I do not remember it any where fo ufed : perhaps it fhould 
be t'cvife^ which the lawyers ufe for to transfer, or make over. 


The common meaning of the verb to demife is to grant, from 
to devolve a right from one to another. STEEVENS. 


Queen. That thou doft love my daughter, from 

thy foul : 

So, from thy foul's love, didft thou love her brothers ; 
And, from my heart's love, I do thank thee for it. 

K. Rich. Be not fo hafly to confound my meaning: 
I mean, that with my foul I love thy daughter, 
And do intend to make her queen of England. 
Queen. Well then, who doft thou mean ihall be her 

king ? 

K. Rich. Even he, that makes her queen ; Who 
elfe fhould be ? 

f'tetn. What, thou ? 
Rich. I, even I : What think you of it, madam? 

Queen. How canft thou woo her ? 

K. Rich. That I would learn of you, 
As one being beft acquainted with her hurhour. 

Queen. And wilt thou learn of me ? 

K. Rich. Madam, with all my heart. 

Queen. Send to her, by the man that flew her bn> 


A pair of bleeding hearts ; thereon engrave, 
Edward, and York ; then, haply, will Ihe weep : 
Therefore prefent to her, 6 as fometime Margaret 
Did to thy father, fteep'd in Rutland's blood, 
A handkerchief; which, fay to her, did drain 
The purple fap from her fweet brothers' bodies, 
And bid her wipe her weeping eyes withal. 
If this inducement move her not to love, 
Send her a letter of thy noble deeds ; 
Tell her, thou mad'fl away her uncle Clarence, 
Her uncle Rivers ; ay, and, for her fake, 
Mad'fl quick conveyance with her good aunt Anne. 

K. Rich. You mock me, madam; this is not the way 
To 4 win your daughter. 

Queen. There is no other way ; 
Unlefs thou could'fl put on fome other fhape, 

6 as fometime Margaret} Here is another reference to th 

plays of Henry VI. JOHNSON. 



And not be Richard that hath done all this. 

K. Rick. Say, that I did all this for love of her ? 

Queen. Nay, then indeed, file cannot chufe but 

hate thee 7 , 
Having bought love with fuch a 8 bloody fpoil. 

K. Rich. Look, what is done cannot be now 

amended : 

Men fliall deal unadvifedly fometimes, 
Which after-hours give leifure to repent. 
If I did take the kingdom from your fons, 
To make amends, I'll give it to your daughter. 
If I have kill'd the iflue of your womb, 
To quicken your encreafe^ I will beget 
Mine iflue of your blood upon your daughter. 
A grandam's name is little lefs in love, 
Than is the doting title of a mother ; 
They are as children, but one flep below, 
Even of your metal, of your very blood ; 
Of all one pain, fave for a night of groans 
Endured of her, for whom you 9 bid like forrow; 
Your children were vexation to your youth, 
But mine iha-ll be a comfort to your age. 
The lofs, you have, is but a fon being king, 
Andj by that lofs, your daughter is made queen. 
I cannot make you what amends I would, 
Therefore accept fuch kindnefs as I can. 
Dorfet your fon, that; with a fearful foul> 
Leads difcontented fteps in foreign foil, 
This fair alliance quickly fhall call home 
To high promotions and great dignity. 
The king, that calls your beauteous daughter wife, 

7 Nay then, indeed, Jbe cannot cbvfc but hate thcc^] The fenfe 
feems to require that we fliould read : 

lut love (bee, 

ironically. TYRWHITT. 

8 lloedy fpoil.~\ Spoil is \va'fte, havock. JOHNSON. 

' lid like farrow,} Bid is in the paft tenle from bide. 


VOL, VIL K Fami- 


Familiarly {hall call thy Doriet brother ; 
Again fhall you be mother to a king, 
And all the ruins of diftrefsful times 
Repair'd with double riches of content. 
What ! we have many goodly days to fee : 
The liquid drops of tears that you have Ihed, 
Shall come again, transform'd to orient pearl ; 
'.Advantaging their loan, with intereil 
Of ten times double gain of happinefs. 
Go then, my mother, to thy daughter go ; 
Make bold her balhful years with your experience ; 
Prepare her ears to hear a wooer's tale ; 
Put in her tender heart the afpiring flame 
Of golden ibv'reignty ; acquaint the princefs 
With the fweet filent hours of marriage joys : 
And when this arm of mine hath chaftifed 
The petty rebel, dull-brain'd Buckingham, 
Bound with triumphant garlands will I come, 
And lead thy daughter to a conqueror's bed ; 
To whom I will retail my conqueft won, 
And {he fhall be fole vidrefs, Czfar's Cafar. 

Queen. What were I beft to fay ? her father's brother 
Would be her lord ? Or {hall I fay, her uncle ? 
Or, he that flew her brothers, and her uncles ? 
Under what title fliall I woo for thee, 
That God, the law, my honour, and her love, 
Can make feem pleafmg to her tender years ? 

1 Advantaging their love with in? reft, 
i Oftentimes double gain of happinefs.'] 

My eafy emendation will convince every reader Jove and lone are 
made out of one another only by a letter turned upfide down. 
Oftentimes is a ftupid concretion ot three words. My emendation 
gives this apt and eafy fenfe. The tears that you have lent to your 
riffli{ions,jhalll>e turn d into gems ; and rcquiteyou byway fl/'intereft, 
with happinefs twenty times as great as your farrows have been. 


Theobald found this concretion, as he calls it, rather loofely 
formed in the folio, where it ftands thus, Of ten-times. 


K. Rid. 


K. Rich. Infer fair England's peace by this alliance. 
Queen. Which Ihe lhall purchafe with ftill lafting 

K. Rich. Tell her, the king, that may command, 

Queen. That at her hands, which the king's King 

forbids \ 
K. Rich. Say, flie fliall be a high and mighty 


Queen. To wail the title, as her mother doth. 
K. Rich. Say, I will love her everlaftingly. 
Queen. But how long lhall that title, ever, laft 3 ? 
K. Rich. Sweetly in force unto her fair life's end. 
tueen. But how long fairly lhall her fweet life laft? 
Ich. As long as heaven, and nature, lengthens it. 
Queen. As long as hell, and Richard, likes of it. 
K. Rich. Say, I, her fov'reign, am her fubjeft 

low 4 . 

fteen. But Ihe, your fubjecl:, loaths fuch fov'reignty. 
Rich. Be eloquent in my behalf to her. 
Queen. An honeft tale fpeeds belt, being plainly 

K. Rich. Then, in plain terms tell her my loving 


lueen. Plain, and not hone, is too harlh a ftyle. 
r. Rich. Your reafons are too lhallow and too 


Queen. O, no, my reafons are too deep and dead ; 
Two deep and dead, poor infants, in their graves. 

* which the king's King forbids. ~\ Alluding to the prohibi- 
tion in the Levitical law. See Leviticus xviii. 14. GRAY. 

3 But hffw long Jhall that title, ever, laft ?~\ Young has borrow'4 
this thought in his Univerfal Pajjlon : 

" But fay my miftrefs and my frie.nd y 

*' IVhicb day next week the eternity Jhall end?" SrEEVENS. 

* am her fiibjeft low.] Thus the folio. The quartos read : 

htrfuljtft love. STEEVENS. 

"K 2 K. Rich. 


A'. Rich. Harp not on that firing, madam ; that is 

' pafl 5 . 
Q^ n. Harp on it flill fhall I, 'till heart-firings 

K. Rich. Now, by my george, my garter, and my 


Queen. Profan'd, difhonour'd, and the third ufurp'd. 
K. Rich. I fwear. 

Queen. By nothing ; for this is no oath. 
The george, profan'd, hath loft his holy honour ; 
The garter, blemilh'd, pawn'd his knightly virtue ; 
The crown, ufurp'd, difgrac'd his kingly glory : 
If fomething thou wouldft fwear to believ'd, 
Swear then by fomething that thou hafl not wrong'd. 
JC Rich. Now by the world, 
Queen. 'Tis full of thy foul wrongs. 
K. Rick. My father's death, 

*. Thy life hath that difhonour'd. 
t. Rich. Then, by myfelf, 
]ueen. Thyfelf is felf-mif-us'd. 
?. Rich. Why then, by heaven, 
Queen. Heaven's wrong is mofl of all. 
If thou didft fear to break an oath with heaven 6 , 
The unity, the king my hufband made, 
Had not been broken, nor my brother flain. 
If thou hadil fear'd to break an oath by him 7 , 
The imperial metal, circling now thy head, 
Had grac'd the tender temples of my child ; 
And both the princes had been breathing here, 

5 Harp not See.] In the regulation of thefe fliort fpeeehes I 
have followed the firft and fecoud quartos. STEEVENS. 

tvit/j heaven.] The quarto reads by him. The folio 
with him. STEEVENS. 

7 ~ly him,] Thus all the old copies. The modem 

ones read : 

with heaven. 

I have retlored the old reading, becaufe him (the oblique cafe of 
fie) was anciently ufed for /', in a neutral fen ft. STEEVENS. 



8 Which now, two tender bed-fellows for duft, 
Thy broken faith hath made a prey for worms. 
What can'ft thou fwear by now ? 

K. Rich. By time to come. 

Queen. That thou haft wronged in the time o'er- 


For I myfelf have many tears to wafh 
Hereafter time, for time paft, wrong'd by thee. 
The children live, whofe parents thou haft flaughter'd, 
Ungovern'd youth, to wail it in their age : 
The parents live, whofe children thou haft butcher'd, 
Old barren plants, to wail it with their age . 
Swear not by time to come ; for that thou haft 
Milus'd ere ns'd, by times ill-us'd o'er-paft. 

K. Rick. As I intend to profper, and repent ! 
So thrive I in my dangerous attempt 
Of hoftile arms ! myfelf myfelf confound ! 
Heaven, and fortune, bar me happy hours !. 
Day, yield me not thy light; nor, night, thy reft ! 
Be oppolite all planets of good luck 
To my proceeding, if, with pure heart's love, 
Immaculate devotion, holy thoughts, 
I tender not thy beauteous princely daughter ! 
In her confifts my happinefs, and thine ; 
Without her, follows to myfelf, and thee, 
Herfelf, the land, and many a chriftian foul, 
Death, delbhtion, ruin, and decay : 
It cannot be avoided, but by this ; 
It will not be avoided, but by this, 
Therefore, dear mother, (I muft call you fo) 
Be the attorney of my love to her ; 
Plead what I will be, not what I have been ; 
Not my deferts, but what I will deferve : 
Urge the neceffity and ftate of times, 

8 Which nmu two tender, See.] Mr. Roderick pb&rves, that the 
word t~vo is without any force, and would read : 
Which now too tender &c. S' 

3 And 


And be not peevifh found in great defigns. 
Queen. hall I be tempted of the devil thus ? 
K. Rich. Ay, if the devil tempt thee to do good, 

f'teen. Shall I forget myfelf, to be myfelf? 
Rich. Ay, if your felfs remembrance wrong 


Queen* But thou didft kill my children. 
K. Rich. But in your daughter's womb I bury them ; 
Where, in that neft of fpicery 9 , they lhall breed 
Selves of themfelves, to your recomforture. 

fieen. Shall I go win my daughter to thy will ? 
Rich. And be a happy mother by the deed. 
Queen. I go. Write to me very fhortly, 
And you lhall underftand from me her mind. 

A'. Rich. Bear her my true love's kifs, and fo fare- 
wel. [Klffing her. Exit Queen \ 

Relenting fool, and fhallow, changing woman ! 
Hew now ? what news ? 

Enter Raidiff, and Catejby. 

Rat. Moft mighty fovereign, on the weftern coafl 
Rideth a puiflant navy ; to the fhore 
Throng many doubtful hollow-hearted friends, 
Unarm'dj and unrefolv'd to beat them back : 
*Tis thought, that Richmond is their admiral ; 
And there they hull, expecting but the aid 
Of Buckingham, to welcome them afhore. 

K. Rich. l Some light-foot friend poft to the duke 

of Norfolk; 
Ratcliff, thyfelf, or Catelby ; where is he ? 

Catef. Here, my good lord. 

K. Rich. Catefby, fiy to the duke. 

9 in that neft of fpicery ^~\ Alluding to the phoenix. 


* Some light-foot friend poft to the Juke ] Richard's precipita- 
tion and confufion is in this fcene very happily represented by in- 
conjilieiit orders, and fudden variations of opinion. JOHNSOX. 


Catef. I will, my lord, with all convenient hafte. 
K. Rich. Ratcliff, come hither : Poft to Saliibury ; 
When thou com'ft thither, Dull unmindful villain, 

[To Catejby. 

Why ftay'ft thou here, and go'ft not to the duke ? 
Catef. Firft, mighty liege, tell me your highnefs* 

What from your grace I lhall deliver to him. 

K. Rich. O, true, good Catefby; Bid him levy 


The greateft ftrength and power he can make, 
And meet me fuddenly at Salisbury. 

Catef. I go. [Exit. 

Rat. What, may it pleafe you, lhall I do at Salif- 

bury ? 
K. Rick. Why, what wouldfl thou do there, before 

I go? 
Rat. Your highnefs told me, I mould poft before, 

Enter Lord Stanley. 

K. Rich. My mind is chang'd. Stanley, what news 

with you ? 
Stanl. None good, my liege, to pleafe you with the 

hearing ; 
Nor none fo bad, but well may be reported. 

K. Rich. Heyday, a riddle ! neither good, nor bad ! 
What need'ft thou run fo many miles about, 
When thou may'fl tell thy tale the neareft way ? 
Once more, what news ? 

Stanl. Richmond is on the feas. 

K. Rich. There let him fink, and be the feas on 

White-liver'd runagate *, what doth he there ? 

a white -liver'd runagate,] This epithet, defcriptive of 
cowardice, is not peculiar to Shakefpeare. Stephen Gorton in 
bis School of Abufe, \ 579, fpeaking of the Helots, fays : 

*' Leave thofe precepts to the white-livered Hylotes." 


K 4 


Stanl. I know not, mighty fovereign, but by guefs. 

K. Rich. Well, as you guefs ? 

Stanl. Stirr'd up by Dorfet, Buckingham, and 

He makes for England, here to claim the crown. 

K. Rich. Is the chair empty ? is the fword unfway'd ? 
Is the king dead ? the empire unpoflefs'd ? 
What heir of York is there alive, but we ? 
And who is England's king, but great York's heir ? 
Then, tell me, what makes he upon the feas ? 
Stanl. Unlefs for that, my liege, I cannot guefs. 
K. Rich. Unlefs for that he comes to be your liege. 
Yon cannot guefs wherefore the Welfliman comes. 
Thou wilt revolt, and fly to him, I fear. 

Stanl. No, mighty liege ; therefore miftruft me not. 
K. Rich. Where is thy power then, to beat him 

back ? 

Where be thy tenants, and thy followers ? 
'Are they not now upon the weflern more, 
Safe-conduCting the rebels from their mips ? 

Stcjil. No, my good lord, my friends are in the 

K. Rich. Cold friends to me : What do they in the 


When they fhould ferve their fovereign in the weft ? 
Stanl. 1 hey have not been commanded, mighty 

king : 

Pleafeth your majefty to give me leave, 
I'll mufter up my friends ; and meet your grace, 
Where, and what time, your majefty mall pleafe. 
K. Rich. Ay, ay, thou wouldft be gone to join 

with Richmond : 
But I'll not truft you, fir. 

Stanl. Moft mighty fovereign, 

'You have no caufe to hold my friendfhip doubtful ; 
J never was, nor never will be falfe. 

K. Rich. Well go, mufter thy men. But, hear you, 
leave behind 



Your fon, George Stanley : look your heart be firm, 
Or clfe his head's affurance is but frail. 

Stanl. So deal with him, as I prove true to you. 

[Exit Stanley. 

Enter a Meffenger. 

Mef. My gracious fovereign, now in Devonfhire, 
As I by friends am well advertifed, 
Sir Edward Courtney, and the haughty prelate, 
Bifhop of Exeter, his elder brother, 
With many more confederates, are in arms. 

Enter another MeJJenger. 

2 Mef. In Kent, my liege, the Guilfords arc in 


And every hour J more competitors 
Flock to the rebels, and their power grows flrong. 

Enter another MeJJenger. 

3 Mejf. My lord, the army of great Bucking- 


K. Rich. Out on ye, owls ! nothing but fongs of 
death ? \He Jlrikes him. 

There, take thou that, 'till thou bring better news. 

3 Mef. The news I have to tell your majefly, 
Is. that, by fudden floods and fall of waters, 
Buckingham's army is difpers'd and fcatter'd ; 
And he himfelf wander'd away alone, 
No man knows whither. 

K. Rich. Oh, I cry you mercy : 
There is my purfe, to cure that blow of thine. 
Hath any well-advifed friend proclaim'd 
Reward to him that brings the traitor in ? 

3 Mef. Such proclamation hath been made, my 

? more competitors] That is, more opponents. JOHNSON. 



Enter another Mefenger. 

4 Mef. Sir Thomas Lovel, and lord marquis Dorfet> 
*Tis faid, my liege, in Yorkfhire are in arms. 
But this good comfort bring I to your higbnefs, 
The Bretagne navy is difpers'd by tempeft : 
Richmond, in Dorfctfliire, fent out a boat 
Unto the Ihore, to aik thofe on the banks, 
If they were his affiants, yea, or no; 
Who anfwered him, they came from Buckingham 
Upon his party : he, miftrufcing them, 
Hois'd fail, and made his courfe again for Bretagne. 

K. Rich. March on, march on, fince we are up in 

arms ; 

If not to fight with foreign enemies, 
Yet to beat down thcie rebels here at home. 

Enter Cate/by. 

Catef. My liege, the duke of Buckingdam is taken, 
That is the bert news ; That the cari of Richmond 
Is with a mighty power landed at Milford, 
Is colder news, but yet it mutt be told. 

K. Rich. Away towards Salifbury ; while we reafon 


A royal battle might be won and loft : 
Some one take order, Buckingham be brought 
To Saliibury ; the reft march on with me. [Exeunt. 


Lord Stanley's houfe* 
Enter Lord Stanley, and Sir Chnjlopher Urfwick. 

Stanl. 4 Sir Chriftopher, tell Richmond this from 
me : 


* SirCbriJlophcr, tellRicbmond this from tne: ] The perfon, who 
is called fir Chriftopher here, and who has been filled Co in the 


That, in the five of this moft bloody boar, 
My fon George Stanley is frank'd up in hold ; 
If I revolt, off goes young George's head ; 
The fear of that witholds my prefent aid. 
But, tell me, where is princely Richmond now ? 

Chri. At Pembroke, or at Ha'rford-weft, in Wales. 

Stanl What men of name refort to him ? 

Chri. Sir Walter Herbert, a renowned fold ier; 
Sir Gilbert Talbot, and fir William Stanley; 
Oxford, redoubted Pembroke, fir James Blunt, 
And Rice ap Thomas, with a valiant crew ; 
And many other of great name and worth : 
And towards London do they bend their courfe, 
If by the way they be not fought withal. 

Stanl. Well, hie thee to thy lord; commend m$ 

to him ; 

Tell him, the queen hath heartily confented 
He lhall efpoufe Elizabeth her daughter. 
Thefe letters will refolve him of my mind. 
Farewel. [Exeunt. 

Dramatis Perfonee of all the impreffions, I find by the chronicles 
to have been Chriftopher Urfvvick, a bachelor in divinity ; and 
chaplain to the countefs of Richmond, who had intermarried 
with the lord Stanley. This prielt, the hiftory tells us, frequently 
went backwards and forwards, unlufpe6ted, on meflages betwixt 
the countefs of Richmond, and her hufband, and the young earl 
of Richmond, whilft he was preparing to make his defcent on 
England. THEOBALD. 

Dr. Johnfon has obferved, that Sir was anciently a title aflumed 
by graduates. This the late Mr. Guthrie difputes ; and fays, it 
was a title fold by the pope's legates, &c. that his holinefs might 
be on the fame footing with the king. STEEVENS. 

In the Scornfull Lady of Fletcher, Welford fays to Sir Roger, 
the curate, " I acknowledge you to be your ari'smafter," " I 
nm but a bacbdor of art, fir," replies Sir Roger. Mr. Guthrie 
would have done well to have informed us, how Sir Roger could 
poffibly have lough his title of the pope's nuncio ; when, as Abi- 
gail tells us, he had only " twenty nobles de claro, befides his 
pigges in fqffe." FARMER. 

Perhaps, after all, this title was originally derived from JFre 9 
father. Chaucer, and all our ancient poets, beflow it on the 
clergy. STEEVENS, 



'Enter tloe Sheriff, with Buckingham, led to execution. 

Buck. Will not king Richard let me fpeak with 
him 5 ? 

Sher. No, my good lord ; therefore be patient. 

Buck. Haftings, and Edward's children, Rivers, 


Holy king Henry, and thy fair fon Edward, 
Vaughan, and all that have mifcarried 
By underhand corrupted foul injuftice; 
If that your moody difcontented fouls 
Do through the clouds behold this prefent hour, 
Even for revenge mock my deftruction ! 
This is All-Souls' day, fellows, is it not ? 

Sher. It is, my lord. 

Buck. Why, then All-Souls' day is my body's 


This is the day, which, in king Edward's time, 
I wifh'd might fall on me, when I was found 
Falfe to his children, or his wife's allies : 
This is the day, wherein I wilh'd to fall 
By the falfe faith of him whom moft I trufted ; 
This, this All-Souls' day to my fearful foul, 

5 Will not king Richard Jet me fpeak iv'ztb him ?] The reafon 
why the duke of Buckingham foliated an interview with the 
king, is explained in K. HcnryVlll, aft I : 
I would have played 
The part my father meant to aft upon 
The ufurper Richard; who, being at Salijbary, 
Madcfuit to come in his pr if face ; <wbicb, if granted^ 
As he made femblance of his duty, would 
Have put bis knife into him. STEEVENS, 



6 Is the determin'd refpite of my wrongs. 
That high All-feer whom I dally'd with, 
Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my head, 
And given in earneft what I begg'd in jeft. 
Thus doth he force the fwords of wicked men 
To turn their own points on their mailers' bofoms : 
Thus Margaret's curfe falls heavy on my neck,- 
When be, quoth fhe, Jball fpllt thy heart with forrow 9 
Remember Margaret was a prophetefs. - 
Come, firs, convey me to the block of ihame ; 
Wrong hath but wrong, and 7 blame the due of blame. 
[Exeunt Buckingham, &c. 


'Tamworth, on the borders of Leicefterflrire. A camp. 

Enter Henry Earl of Richmond, Earl of Oxford, Sir 
James Blunt, Sir Walter Herbert, and others, with 
drum and colours. 

Richm. Fellows in arms, and my molt loving 

6 Is the determin'd refpite of my wrongs.] This is nonfenfe, we 
ftiould read : 

refpeft of my wrongs , 
i.e. requital. WARBURTON. 

Hanmer had rightly explained it, the time to which the puniih- 
ment of his wrongs was refpited. 

Wrongs in this line means -wrongs done, or injurious pra&ices. 


7 llame the due of llame.~\ This fcene fhould, in my opi- 
nion, be added to the foregoing at, fo the fourth act will have a 
more full and ftriking conclulion, and the fifth aft will comprife 
the bulinefs of the important day, which put an end to the com- 
petition of York and Lancaiter. Some of the quarto editions arc 
not divided into ads, and it is probable, that this and many other 
plays were left by the author in one unbroken continuity, and af- 
terwards diftributed by chance, or what feems to have been, a guide 
rery little better, by the judgment or caprice of the firft editors. 




Bruis'd underneath the yoke of tyranny, 
Thus far into the bowels of the land 
Have we march'd on without impediment ; 
And here receive we from our father Stanley 
Lines of fair comfort and encouragement. 
The wretched, bloody, and ufurping boar, 
That fpoil'd your fummer fields, and fruitful vines, 
Swills your warm blood like wafh, and makes his 


In your 8 embowell'd bofoms, this foul fwine 
Lies now even in the centre of this ifle, 
Near to the town of Leicefter, as we learn : 
From Tamworth thither, is but one day's march. 
In God's name, chearly on, courageous friends, 
To reap the harveil of perpetual peace 
By this one bloody trial of lharp war. 

Oxf. Every man's confcience is a thoufand fwords, 
To fight againfl that bloody homicide. 

Herb. I doubt not, but his friends will turn to us. 

Blunt. He hath no friends, but who are friends for 

fear ; 
Which, in his deareft need, will fly from him. 

Richm. All for our vantage. Then, in God's name, 
march ; 

8 emZ/0-T.vell'd lofoms, ] Exenterated ; ripped up : allud- 
ing, perhaps, to the Promethean vulture ; or, more probably, 
to the fentence pronounced in the Englifh courts againft traitors, 
by which they are condemned to be hanged, drawn, that is, em- 
lowtlkd, and quartered. JOHNSON. 

Drawn, in the fentence pronounced upon traitors only, fignifies 
to be drawn ly the heels or on a hurdle from the prifon to the place 
of execution. So, Dr. Johnfon has properly expounded it in 
Meafure for Meafure, aft II. So, Holinfhed in the year 1569, 
and Stowe's Chronicle, edit. 1614, p. p. 162, 171, 418, 763, 766. 
Sometimes our hiftorians ufe a colloquial inaccuracy of expreffion 
in writing, hanged, drawn, and quarter'd ; but they often ex- 
prefs it drawn, hanged, and quartered; and fometimes they 
add bowelled, or his bowels taken out, which would be tauto- 
logy, if the fame thing was implied in the word drawn. 




True hope is fwift, and flies with fwallow's wings; 
Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures kings. 



Bofworth Field. 

Enter King Richard In arms, with the Duke of Norfolk, 
Earl of Surrey, and others. 

K. Rich. Here pitch our tent, even here in Bof- 

worth field. 
My lord of Surrey, why look you fo fad ? 

Surr. My heart is ten times lighter than my looks, 

K. Rick. My lord of Norfolk, 

Nor. Here, moft gracious liege. 

K. Rich. Norfolk, we muft have knocks ; Ha ! 
muft we not ? 

Nor* We muft both give and take, my loving 
lord. _ 

K. Rich. Up with my tent : Here will I lie to-night; 
But where, to-morrow ? Well, all's one for that. 
Who hath defcry'd the number of the traitors ? 

Nor. Six or feven thoufand is their utmoft power. 

K. Rich. Why, our battalia trebles that account : 
Befides, the king's name is a tower of ftrength, 
Which they upon the adverfe faction want. 
Up with the tent. Come, noble gentlemen, 
Let us furvey the vantage of the ground ; 
Call for fome men of 9 found direction : 
Let's want n<$ difcipline, make no delay ; 
For, lords, to-morrow is a bufy day. [Exeunt. 

9 found Jirettion ; ] True judgment ; tried military (kill. 




Enter on the other fide of the field, Richmond, Sir 
William Brandon, Oxford, Dorfet, fefr. 

Richm. The weary fun hath made a golden fet, 
And, by the bright track of his fiery car, 
Giv<^ token of a goodly day to-morrow. 
Sir William Brandon, you fhall bear my flandard. 
1 Give me fome ink and paper in my tent ; 
I'll draw the form and model of our battle, 
Limit each leader to his feveral charge, 
And part in juft proportion our fmall power. 
My lord of Oxford, you, fir William Brandon, i 
And you, fir Walter Herbert, flay with me : 
The earl of Pembroke keeps his regiment ; 
Good captain Blunt, bear my good night to him. 
And by the fecond hour in the morning 
Defire the earl to fee me in my tent : 
Yet one thing more, good captain, do for me ; 
Where is lord Stanley quarter'd, do you know ? 

Blunt. Unlefs I have mifta'en his colours muchy 
(Which, well I am afiur'd, I have not done) 
His regiment lies half a mile at leaft 
South from the mighty power of the king. 

Richm. If without peril it be pofiible, 
Sweet Blunt, make fome good means to fpeak with 

And give him from me this moft needful note. 

Blunt. Upon my life, my lord, I'll undertake it j 

1 Give me fome ink and paper ] I have placed thefe lines here 
as they ftand in the firft editions : the reft place them three fpeeches 
before, after the words Sir William Brandon, you Jball bear my 
ftandard; interrupting what there follows ; The earl of Pembroke^ 
&c. I think them more naturally introduced here, when he is 
retiring to his tent ; and coniidering what he has to do that night. 


I have followed the folio, which, of this play, is by far the 
moft correct copy. I do not find my felt much influenced by Mr. 
Pope's remark. STEEVENS. 



And fo, God give you quiet reft to-night ! 

Ricbm. Good night, good captain Blunt. Come, 


Let us confult upon to-morrow's bufinefs ; 
In to my tent, the air is raw and cold. 

\Tkey withdraw into tie tent. 

Enter, to bis tent, King Richard, Ratcliff, Norfolk^ and 

K. Rich. What is't o'clock ? 

Catef. It's (upper time, my lord ; 
It's nine o'clock. 

K. Rich. I will not fup to- night.-*- 
Give me fome ink and paper. 
What, is my beaver eafier than it was ?- 
And all my armour laid into my tent ? 

Catef. It is, my liege ; and all things are in readi- 

K. Rich. Good Norfolk, hie thee to thy charge ; 
Ufe careful watch, chufe trufty centinels. 

Nor. I go, my lord. 

K. Rich. Stir with the lark to-morrow, gentle 

Nor. I warrant you, my lord, [Exit. 

K. Rich. Ratcliff, 

Rat. My lord ? 

K. Rich. Send out a purfuivant at arms 
To Stanley's regiment ; bid him bring his power 
Before fun-rifing, left his fon George fail 
Into the blind cave of eternal night. 
Fill me a bowl of wine : z Give me a watch : 

[To Catejby. 


* Give me a watch : ] A ivatcb has many figmfications, 

but I fhould believe that it means in this place not a centinel, 
which would be regularly placed at the king's tent ; nor an inftru- 
inent to meafure time, which was not uled in that age ; but a 

VOL. VII, L vvutch- 


Saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow \ 
* Look that my itaves be found, and not too heavy, 

watch-light, a candle to burn by him ; the light tliat afterwards 
burnt blue ; yet a few lines after, he fays : 

Eld my guard watch, 
which leaves it doubtful whether watch Is not here a fentinel. 


A watch, i. e. guard, would certainly be placed about a royal 
tent, without any requeft of the king concerning it. 

I believe, therefore, that particular kind of candle is here 
meant, which was anciently called a watch, becaufe, being mark- 
ed out into feftions, each of which was a certain portion of time 
in burning., it fupplied the place of the more modern inftrument 
by which we meafure the hours. I have feen thefe candles repre- 
fented with great nicety in Come of the pictures of Albert Durer. 
Barret, in his Alvcarie, 1580, mentions wat-cbing lamps or 
candles. So, in Love in a Maze, 1632 : 

" flept always with a watching candle." 

Again, in The Noble Soldier, 1634 : 

* Beauty was turn'd into a watcbing-eandle that went out 

Again : in the Return from ParnaJJus, 1606 r 

" Sit now immur'd within their private cells, 
" And drink a long lank watching candle's fmoke." 
Again, in Albumazar, 1610 : 

" Sit up all night like a watching candle." STEEVENS. 
Lord Bacon mentions a fpecies of light called an all-night t 
which is a wick fet in the middle of a large cake of wax. 


3 Saddle white Surrey for the field tomorrow.] So, in Holinfhed, 
p. 754: 

" he was mounted on a great white conrfer, &c. 


* Look, that ffiy flaves lefounel t ] Staves are the wood of the 
lances. JOHNSON. 

As it was ufual to carry more lances than one into the field, the 
lightnefs of them was an object of confequence. Hall informs us, 
that at the jufts in honour of the marriage of Mary, the younger 
filter of king Henry VIII. with the king of France, that a " a 
gentleman called Anthony Bownarme came into the feld all armed, 
and on his body brought in fight x fperes, that is to wyt, iii fperes 
fet in every ftyroppe forward, and under every thigh ii fperes up- 
ivarde, and under his left arme was one fpere backward, and the 
I0th in his hand, &c." STEE.VENS. 



Rat. My lord ? 

K. Rich. Saw'ft thou the melancholy lord North- 
umberland ? 

Rat. Thomas the earl of Surrey, and himfelf, 
Much about cock-fhut time S 3 from troop to troop, 

5 Much a&w/ cock-fliut time, ] Ben Jonfon ufes the fame 
expreifion in one of his entertainments : 

" For you would not yefternight, 

" Kifs him in the cock-Jbut light." 

Again, in the Widw, by B. Jonfon, Fletcher, and Middleton, 
1652 : 

" Come away then : a fine cockfiut evening." 
Again : 

<{ In the twilight, coclflmt light.'* 

Arden of FeverJIjam, 1 59?* 

In the Treatyfe of Fyjhynge with the Angle, by dame Julyana 
Bernes, 1496, among the directions to make a filhing rod is the 
following: " Take thenne and frette him fafte with a cockejbott 
cordc, &c." but I cannot interpret the word. STEEVENS. 

Cockjbut time,] i.e. twilight. In Mr. Whalley's note upon Sen. 
Jonfon, Vol. V. p. 204.* " Cock/hut is faid to be a net to catch 
woodcocks ; and as the time of taking them in this manner is in. 
the twilight, either after fun-fet or before its rifing, cockfuut light 
may very properly exprefs the evening or the morning twilight." 
The particular form of fuch a net, and the manner of ufing it, 
is delineated and defcribed in Dittionarlum RufiLum, 2 vols. bvo- 
3d edit. 1726, under the word cock-roads. It is the cuitom of 
the woodcock to lie clofe all day, and towards evening he takes 
wing, which aft of flight might anciently be termed his Jloot or 
Jbot. So, the ballaft of a fliip is laid to_/Zw/, when it runs from 
one fide to the other. This etymology gives us, perhaps, the 
original fignification of the word, without any recourfe for it to 
the name of a net, which might receive its denomination from 
the time of the day, or from the occanon on which it was ufed ; 
for I believe there was a net which was called a cock-jbot. Ho- 
linflied's Defcription of Britain, p. nc, calls a {tone which na- 
turally has a hole in it, *' an apt cocke-Jbot for the devil to run 
through ;" which, I apprehend, alludes to the refemblance of 
the hole in the itone to the mefhes of a net. TOLLET. 

Mr. Toilet's opinion may be fupported by the following paflage 
in a little metrical performance, called, No Wbippinge nor Trip- 
pinge : but a kinde friendly Snippingc, j6oi : 

" A filly honeft creature may do well 

<s To watch a cockejbcott, or a limed bufli." STEEVENS. 

L z Went 


Went through the army, cheering up the foldiers, 

A'. Rick. 1 am fatisfy'd. Give me a bowl of wine : 
I have not that alacrity of fpirit 6 , 
Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have. 
So, fet it down, Is ink and paper ready ? 
Rat. It is, my lord. 

K. Rich. Bid my guard watch, and leave me. 
About the mid of night, come to my tent 
And help to arm me, Ratcliff. Leave me, I fay. 

{Exit Ratcliff'. 

Richmond's tent opens, and d/fcovers loim,and bis officer s 3 &V. 
Enter Stanley. 

Stanl Fortune and vldory fit on thy helm f 
Richm. All comfort that the dark night can afford, 
Be to thy perfon, noble father-in-law ! 
Tell me, how fares our loving mother ? 

Stanl. I, 7 by attorney, bleis thee from thy mother, 
Who prays continually for Richmond's good : 
So much for that. The filent hours fleal on, 
And flaky darknefs breaks within the eaft. 
In brief, for fo the feafon bids us be, 
Prepare thy battle early in the morning ; 
And put thy fortune to the arbitrement 
Of bloody flrokes, and mortal flaring war 8 . 
'I, as I may, (that which I would, I cannot) 
With beft advantage will deceive the time, 

* I have not that alacrity offpirit, &c.] So, in Holinlhed, 
p. 775 : " not ufing the alacritie of mirth and mind and coun- 
tenance as he was accuflomed to doo before he came toward the 
battell." STEEVENS. 

7 by attorney < ] By deputation. JOHNSON. 

* mortal {laving ivar.] Thus the old copies. I fuppofe, 
\yyjiaring war is meant ivar that looh big. STEEVENS. 

/, as I may, 

With beft advantage ivill deceive the tlme^\ 
I will take the beft opportunity to elude the dangers of this con- 
juuiture. JOHNSON. 



And aid thee in this doubtful fhock of arms : 
But on thy fide I may not be too forward, 
Left, being feen, thy tender brother George 
Be executed in his father's fight. 
Farewell : ' The leifure, and the fearful time 
Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love, 
And ample enterchange of fweet difcourfe, 
Which fo long fundred friends fliould' dwell upon; 
God give us leifure for thefe rites of love ! 
Once more, adieu : Be valiant, and fpeed well ! 

Ricbm. Good lords, conduct him to his regiment : 
I'll ftrive, with troubled thoughts, to take a nap ; 
Left leaden flumber peize me down to-morrow % 
When I fhould mount with wings of victory : 
Once more, good night, kind lords and gentlemen. 

{Exeunt Lords, sV. 

O Thou ! whofe captain I account myfelf, 
Look on my forces with a gracious eye ; 
Put in their hands thy bruifing irons of wrath, 
That they may crufh down with a heavy fall 
The ufurping helmets of our adverfaries ! 
Make us thy minifters of chaflifement, 
That we may praife thee in thy vidtory ! 

1 The leifure, and the fearful time 

Cuts off" the ceremonious <uovjs of love,] 

We have ftill a phrafe equivalent to this, however harfh it may 
feem, / would do this, if leifure would permit, where leifure^ as 
in this paflage, ilands for want of leifure. So, again : 

-More than I have J ~uid 
The leifure and enforcement of the time 

Forbids to dwell upon. JOHNSON. 

* peize me down to-morrow,] Thus the old copies. The 

modern editions read poize. To peizc, i. e. to weigh down, from 
pefcr, French. |W^ 

I meet with the word in the old play of The Raigne of King 
Edward the third, 15^6: 

" A&A peize their deeds with heavy weight of lead." 
Again, in All for Money, 1574: 

** Then if yqu counter^^gf me learning with money,'* 


L * To 


To thee I do commend my watchful foul, 

Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes ; 

Sleeping, and waking, O, defend me Hill ! [Sleeps. 

Enter the Gkqft J of Prince Edward, fan to Henry the 

Let me fit heavy on thy foul to-morrow ! 

[To K. Rich. 

Think, how thou flab'dft me in the prime of youth 
At Tewkfbury ; Defpair therefore, and die ! 
Be chearful, Richmond ; for the wronged fouls 

[To Richm. 

Of butcher'd princes fight in thy behalf : 
King Henry's iflue, Richmond, comforts thee. 

3 Enter the Ghojt, &c.] This circumftance is likewife found in the 
old book firft called the Mirror for Magiftrates, which was after- 
wards published under the title of the Falles of unfortunate Princes. 
" As in my tent onjlumbring led I //<?, 
" Horrid afpcfts appeared unto mine eye : 
" / thought that all thofe murder* d ghofts, whom I 

" By death had fent to their untimely grave, 
tl With baleful noife about my tent did crye, 

" And of the heavens, ivith fad complaint, did crave 
' ' That they on guilty -wretch might vengeance have" 
His terror on waking is hkcwife very forcibly defcribed. 
Again, Drayton in the azd Song of his Polyofbion : 

" Where to the guilty king, the black forerunning night, 

" Appear the dreadful ghofts of Henry and hisy "on t 

*' Of his own brother George, and his t=tvo nephews ^ done 

*' Moft cruelly to death ; and of his ivifc, VoAjriend. 

*' Lord Haftirtgs, with pale hands prepar'd as they would 


tl Him piece-meal ; at which oft he roareth in his fleep." 
It is not unpleafant to trace the progrefs of a poetical idea. 
Some of our oldeft hiftorians had informed us that king Richard 
was much difturb'd in his dreams. The author of a metrical le- 
gend, who follows next in fucceffion, proceeds to tell us the qua- 
lity of thefe ominous vifions. A poet who takes up the ftory, 
goes further, and acquaints us with the names of thofe who are 
fuppofed to have appeared in them ; r.nd laft of all comes the 
dramatic writer, who brings the phantoms, fpeaking in their par- 
ticular chara&ers, on the ftage. STEEVENS. 


Enter ihe Ghoft of Henry tke Jixtt>. 

Gbcft. When I was mortal, my anointed body 

[To K. ' 

By thee xvas punched full of deadly holes : 
Think on the Tower, and me ; Defpair, and die; 
Henry the fixrh bids thee defpair and die I- 

Virtuous and holy, be thou conqueror ! [ToRickfH. 
Harry, z that prophefy'd thou ihouldft be king, 
Doth comfort thee in thy ileep ; Live, and fiourifti. 

Enter tie Gbcft of Clarence* 

Gkcft. Let me fit heavy on thy foul to-morrow t 

[To K. Ricb. 

I, that was waih'd to death with fulfom wine, 
Poor Clarence, by thy guile betray'd to death ! 
To-morrow in the battle think on me, 
And fall thy edgelefs fvvord ; Defpair, and die I- 

Thou offspring of the houfe of Lancafter, 

[To Rlchm. 

The wronged heirs of York do pray for thee ; 
Good angels guard thy battle ! Live, .and flourish ! 

Enter the Gbcft s of Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan. 

Riv. Let me fit heavy on thy foul to-morrow, 

[To K. Rid. 

Rivers, that dy'd at Pomfret I Defpair, and die ! 
Grey. Think upon Grey, and let thy foul defpair ! 

[To K. Ricb. 

Vnngb. Think upon Vaughan; and, with guilty fear, 
Let fall thy lance ! Defpair, and die ! 

[To K. Rich. 

4 Harry , that prophefy'd tbou fioulnj} be &' : gj\ This prop'iecy, 
to which this aliuiion is made, was uttered ia one of the parts or 
JLtity thef.xtb. JOHNSON. 

L 4 AIL 


All. Awake ! and think, our wrongs in Richard's 

Will conquer him ; awake, and win the day ! 

[To Rickm< 

Enter tie Ghoft of Lord Haftings. 

Ghoft. Bloody and guilty, guiltily awake ; 

[To K. Rich. 

And in a bloody battle end thy days ! 
Think on lord Haftings ; and defpair, and die ! 

Quiet untroubled foul, awake, awake ! [To Richm. 
Arm, fight, and conquer, for fair England's fake ! 

Enter the Ghoft s of the two young "Princes. 

Ghofis. Dream on thy coufins fmother'd in thg 

Tower ; 
5 Let us be lead within thy bofom, Richard, 

[To K. Rich. 

And weigh thee down to ruin, fhame, and death ! 
Thy nephews' fouls bid thee defpair and die. 
Sleep, Richmond, fleep in peace, and wake in joy ; 

[To Richm* 

Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy ! 
Live, and beget a happy race of kings ! 
Edward's unhappy fons do bid thee flouriih, 

Enter the Ghojl of Lady Anne, 

Ghoft. Richard, thy wife, that wretched Anne thy 
wife, [To K. Rich. 

5 Let us le laid within thy lofom, Richard,] This is a poor feeble 
reading. I have reftorcd from the elder quarto, publifhed in 1597, 
which Mr. Pope does not pretend to have feen : 
Let us 6e lead within t!y lofom, Richard. 

This correfponds with what is faid in the line immediately fol- 
lowing : 

And weigh thee down to ruin, flame, and death ! 




That never ilept a quiet hour with thee a 
Now fills thy fleep with perturbations : 
To-morrow in the battle think on me, 
And fall thy edgelefs fword ; Defpair, and die ! 
Thou, quiet foul, fleep thou a quiet fleep ; 

[To Rkknt. 

Dream of fuccefs and happy victory ; 
Thy adverfary's wife doth pray for thee. 

Enter the Ghoft of Buckingham. 
Ghoft. The firft was I, that help'd thee to the crown 

[To K. Rich. 

The laft was I, that felt thy tyranny : 
O, in the battle think on Buckingham, 
And die in terror of thy guiltinefs ! 
Dream on, dream on, of bloody deeds and death ; 
Fainting, defpair ; defpairing, yield thy breath ! 
f J dy'd for hope, ere I could lend thee aid : 

[70 Richm. 

hope, } i. e. I died for wifhing well to you. But 
Mr. Theobald, with great fagacity, conjectured holpe or aid} 
which gave the line this fine fenfe, I died for giving tbce aid be- 
fore I could give thee aid. WAR BUR TON. 

Hanmer reads : 

7 died forfook, - 
and fupports his conjecture thus. 

This, as appears from hiftory, was the cafe of the duke of 
Buckingham : that being ftopp'd with his army upon the banks 
of Severn by great deluges of rain, he was deferted by his ibl- 
diers, who, being in great diftreis, half famiflied for want of 
victuals, and deftitute of pay, difbanded themfelves and fled. 

Hanmer's emendation is very plaufible ; but may not the mean- 
ing of the expreffion be, I died for only having hoped to give you, 
that ajjiftanct) which I never had it in my power to afford you in 
reality ? 

It may, however, be obferved, that/orr, ov for, when joined to 
a verb, had anciently a negative iignification. So, in Macbeth : 

" - He fliall live a man/0rbid." 

As to 3/Wwas to pray, fo to/orbid had the meaning directly op- 
poiite, /, e . to curfc. In Antony and Cleopatra^ toyi/vfpeak is to 



But cheer thy heart, and be thou not difmay'd : 
God, and good angels, fight on Richmond's fide ; 
And Richard fails in height of all his pride. 

[The Ghofts -vamjh. 
[K. Richard flarts out of his dream. 

K. Rich. 7 Give me another horfe, bind up my 


Have mercy, Jefu 1-^Sofr ; I did but dream. . 
8 O coward confcience, how doft thou afflid: me ! 
' The lights burn blue 9 . Is it not dead midnight ? 


fpeak againft. In Hamlet, and the Midfummer Night's Dream, to 
fordo is the very reverfe of to do. Holpen or holp is the old par- 
ticiple paffive of help, and is ufed in Macbeth ': 

" His great love, (harp as his fpur, hath holp him 
" To his home before us." 

Inftead of for hope, we may therefore read, forholpf, which 
would mean unaided, abandoned, dcferted, unhelp'd, which was 
the real misfortune of the duke of Buckingham. The word 
holp has occurred likewife in this play : 

" Let him thank me that holp to fend him thither.'* 
Again, in Coriolanus : 

" Have holp to make this refcue." STEEVENS. 

7 Give me another horfe, . .] There is in this, as in many 
of our author's fpeeches of paffion, fomething very trifling, and 
fomething very ftriking. Richard's debate, whether he fhould 
quarrel with himfelf, is too long continued, but the fubfequent 
exaggeration of his crimes is truly tragical. JOHNSON. 

* O f0<uwv/confcience. ] This is extremely fine. The fpeaker 
had entirely got the better of his confdtnce, and banifhed it from 
all his waking thoughts. Bat it takes advantage of his fleep, and 
frights him in his dreams. With greater elegance therefore he is 
made to call it coward confcience, which dares not encounter him 
while he is himfelf awake, and his faculties entire ; but takes ad- 
vantage of reafon being oif its ^,u.rd, and the powers of the foul 
diflblved in Ueep. But the players, amongil their other innu- 
merable abfurdities in the repretentation of this tragedy, make 
Richard fay, inftead of O coward confcience, O tyrant confcience ! 
whereby not only a great beauty is loft, but a great blunder com- 
mitted. For Richard had entirely got the better of his confdtnce ; 
which could, on no account, therefore, be laid to play the tyrant 
with him. WAR BUR TON. 

The lights bum blue.} So, in Lylly's Galatkea, 1^92 : " I 
thought there was fomeffirit in it becaufe it burnt fo blue ; for 



Cold fearful drops {land on my trembling flefh. 

What do I fear ? myfelf ? there's none elfe by : 

Pvichard loves Richard ; that is, I am I. 

Is there a murd'rer here ? No ; Yes ; I am : 

Then fly, -What, from myfelf? Great reafon : Why ? 

Left I revenge. What ? Myfelf on myfelf ? 

I love myfelf '. Wherefore ? for any good> 

That I myfelf have done unto myfelf ? 

O, no : alas, I rather hate myfelf, 

For hateful deeds committed by myfelf. 

I am a villain : Yet I lye, I am not. 

Fool, of thyfelf fpeak well : Fool, do not flatter. 

My confcience hath a thoufand feveral tongues, 

And every tongue brings in a feveral tale, 

And every tale condemns me for a villain. 

Perjury, perjury, in the higheft degree, 

Murder, flern murder, in the dir'ft degree ; 

All feveral fins, all us'd in each degree, 

Throng to the bar, crying all, Guilty ! guilty! 

I lhall defpair. There is no creature loves me ; 

And, if I die, no foul fhall pity me : 

Nay, wherefore ihould they ? fmce that I myfelf 

Find in myfelf no pity to myfelf. 

* Methought, the fculs of all that I had murder'd 

Came to my tent ; and every one did threat 

To-morrow's vengeance on the head of Richard. 

jny mother would often tell me when the candle burnt blue, there 
was fome \\lfpirit in the houle." It was anciently luppoled that 
fire was a preiervative againft evil fpirits ; " becaufe," (lays Nafli, 
in Pierce Pcnmhfi's Supplication to the Devil, 1595) " when any 
fpirit appeareth, the lights by little and little goe out as it were 
of their own accord, find the tckers are by degrees extinguiihed." 
The takers are the fpirits who biait or ta.';c. bo^ in K. Lear : 

*' ftrike her young bones, 

" Ye taking airs, with lamenefs ! ?} STEEVRXS. 
J / love myfelf.'] The old copies re..d Alack, I love, &c. 


* Metboagbt, the fouls &c.] Thefe lines ibnd with fo little 
propriety at the end or' this fpeech, that ] cunnot but iufpeft them 
to be mifplaced. Where then iha!l tncy be inferted ? Perhaps 
after thefe words : 

foot, do notf.atter. JOHNSON. 



Enter Rat cliff. 

"Rat. My lord, 

K. Rick. Who's there ? 

Rat. My lord, 'tis I : The early village cock 
Hath twice done falutation to the morn ; 
Your friends are up, and buckle on their armour, 

K. Rich. O, Ratcliff, I have dream'd a fearful 

dream ! 
What thinkeft thou ? will our friends prove all true? 

Rat. No doubt, my lord. 

K. Rich. Ratcliff, I fear, I fear, 

Rat. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of lhadows, 

K. Rich. By the apoflle Paul, lhadows to-night 
Have ftruck more terror to the foul of Richard, 
Than can the fubflance of ten thoufand foldiers, 
Armed in proof, and led by lhallow Richmond. 
It is not yet near day. Come, go with me 
Under our tents ; I'll play the eaves-dropper, 
To hear, if any mean to Ihrink from me. 

{Exeunt K. Richard, and Ratcliff. 

Richmond zvakes. Enter Oxford, and others. 

< Lords. Good morrow, Richmond. 

Richm. 'Cry mercy, lords, and watchful gentlemen, 
That you have ta'en a tardy iluggard here. 

Lords. How have you flept, my lord ? 

Richm, The fweetefl fleep, and faireft-boding 


That ever enter'd in a drowfy head, 
Have I fince your departure had, my lords. 
Methought, their fouls, whofe bodies Richard mur~ 


Came to my tent, and cry'd On ! victory ! 
I promife you, my heart is very jocund 
In the remembrance of fo fair a dream. 
How far into the morning is ir, lords ? 

Lords. Upon the ftroke of four. 


Ricktn. Why, then 'tis time to arm, and give di- 
rection. [He advances to the troops* 
More than I have faid, loving countrymen, 
The Icifure and enforcement of the time 
Forbids to dwell upon : Yet remember this, 
God, and our good caufe, fight upon our fide ; 
The prayers of holy faints, and wronged fouls, 
Like high-rear'd bulwarks, fland before our faces ; 
Richard except, thofe, whom we fight againft, 
Had rather have us win, than him they follow. 
For what is he they follow ? truly, gentlemen, 
A bloody tyrant, and a homicide ; 
One rais'd in blood, and one in blood eftablifh'd ; 
One that made means 3 to come by what he hath, 
And flaughter'd thofe that were the means to help him; 
A bafe foul flone, made precious 4 by the foil 
Of England's chair, where he is falfely fet ; 
One that hath ever been God's enemy : 
Then, if you fight againft God's enemy, 
God will, injuftice, ward you as his foldiers j 
If you do fweat to put a tyrant down, 
You fleep in peace, the tyrant being flain ; 
If you do fight againft your country's foes, 
Your country's fat lhall pay your pains the hire ; 
If you do fight in fafeguard of your wives, 

3 One that made means ] To make means was, in Shake - 

Ipeare's time, always ufed in an unfavourable fenfe, and fignified 
to come at any thing by indirect practices, STEEVENS. 

+ ly the foil 

Of England's chair, ] 

It is plain that foil cannot here mean that of which the obfcurity 
recommends the brightnefs of the diamond. It mult mean the 
leaf (feuille) or thin plate of metal in which the ftone is fet. 


Nothing has been, or is ftill more common, than to put a 
bright-coloured foil under a cloudy or low-prized flone. The 
fame allufion is common to many writers. So, in a Song pub- 
lifhed in England's Helicon, 1614: 

" Falfe ftones by foiles have many one abus'd." 



Your wives lhall welcome home the conquerors ; 
3f you do free your children from the fword, 
Your childrens' children quit it in your age. 
Then, in the name of God, and all thefe rights, 
Advance your flandards, draw your willing fwords I 
For me, s the ranfom of my bold attempt 
Shall be this cold corps on the earth's cold face ; 
But if I thrive, the gain of my attempt 
The leaft of you fhall ihare his part thereof. 
Sound, drums and trumpets, boldly and cheerfully ; 
* God, and faint George ! Richmond, and vidtory ! 



5 'the ranfom of ;ny bold attempt] The fine paid by me in 
atonement for my raflmeis fhall be my dead corpfe. JOHNSON. 

6 Got!, and faint George ! ] Saint George was the common cry 
of the Englifh foltliers when they charged the enemy. The au- 
thor of the old Artc of Warre, printed in the latter end of queen 
Elizabeth's reign, formally enjoins the ufe of this cry among 
his military laws, p. 84. 

" Item, that all fbuldiers entring into battaile, aflault, ikirmifh, 
or other facYion of armes, lhall have for their common cry and 
word, Saint George, forward, or upon them, faint George , where- 
by the fouldiour is much comforted, and the enemy difmaied by 
calling to minde the ancient valour of England, which with that 
name has fo often been victorious ; and therefore he, who upon 
any jlnifter zeale, mall malicioujly omit fo fortunate a name, fliall 
\)t fever rly punifljed ioi his obftinate erroneous heart, and pcrverie 

Hence too the humour of the following lines in Marfton's ner- 
vous but neglected fatires, entitled the Scourge of yillainic, print- 
ed in 1599. 1 1 T. Lib. Sat. viii : 

A pox upon't that Batebis* name fhould be 

The watch-word given to the foldierie. 

Goe troupe to field, mount thy obfcured fame, 

Cry out Saint George, invoke thy miftrefle' name j . 

Thy Miftrefs and Saittt George, c." 
In Beaumont and Fletcher's K?i!gbt of the Burning Pcjlle, that ad-' 
mirable and early ridicule of romance-writing, where the chain-* 
pion Ralph is going to attack the Barber, or the 1 huge giant Bar~ 
barofo, the burlefque is heightened, when, with much Iblemnity, 
and as if a real heroic encounter hnd been going forward, he cries 
out, " Saint George ! let on before, inarch fquire and page.'* 
Act III. ic. i. vol. vi. p. 405. And afterwards, when the en- 



Re-enter King Richard, Ratcliff, &?<:. 

K. Rkb. What faid Northumberland, as touching 

Richmond ? 

Rat. That he was never trained up in arms. 
K. Rich. He faid the truth : And what faid Surrey 

then ? 

Rat. He fmil'd and faid, the better for our purpofe. 
K. Rich. He was i'the right ; and fo, indeed, it is. 
Tell the clock there. Give me a kalendar. 

[Clock Jlrlkes. 

Who favv the fun to day ? 
Rat. Not I, my lord. 
K. Rich. Then he difdains to fliine ; for, by the 


He fhould have brav'd the eaft an hour ago : 
A black day it will be to fomebody, - 

Rat. My lord ? 

K. Rich. The fun will not be feen to-day ; 
The fky doth frown and lour upon our army. 
I would, thefe dewy tears were from the ground. 
Not ihine to-day ! Why, what is that to me, 
More than to Richmond ? for the felf-fame heaven, 
That frowns on me, looks fadly upon him. 

Enter Norfolk. 

Nor. Arm, arm, my lord ; the foe vaunts in the 

K. Rich. Come, buflle, buftle ; Caparifon my 

horfe ; 

Call up lord Stanley, bid him bring his power : 
I will lead forth my foldiers to the plain, 
And thus my battle lhall be ordered. 

gagement begins, Ralph fays, " St. George for me :" and Bar- 
larcfo t " Garagantua for me," WARTON. 



My foreward lhall be drawn out all in length, 
Confiding equally of horfe and foot ; 
Our archers lhall be placed in the midft : 
John duke of Norfolk, Thomas earl of Surrey, 
Shall have the leading of this foot and horfe. 
They thus directed, we will follow 
In the main battle ; whofe puiflance on either fide 
Shall be well winged with our chiefeft horfe. 
I This, and faint George to boot ! What think'ft 
thou, Norfolk ? 

Nor. A good direction, warlike fovereign. 
This found I on my tent this morning. 

[Giving a fcrowL 

K. Rich. Jocky of Norfolk, be not too bold, [Reads. 

For Dickon thy mafter 8 is bought and fold. 
A thing devifed by the enemy. 
Go, gentlemen, every man unto his charge : 
Let not our babbling dreams affright our fouls 9 ; 
For confcience is but a word that cowards ufe, 
Devis'd at firft to keep the ftrong in awe ; 
Our flrong arms be our confcience, fwords our la\v. 
March on, join bravely, let us to't pell-mell ; 
If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell. 

7 This, and St. George to loot! ] 

That is, this is the order ofour battle, which promifes fuccefa ; 
and over and above this, is the protection of our patron faint, 


To loot is (as I conceive) to help, and not over and above. 


* Dickon thy tnafter] Diccon is the ancient abbreviation of 
Richard. In Gammer Gurton's Needle, 1 57 (, Diccon is the name 
of the Bedlam. In the words bought and fold, I believe, there 
is fomewhat proverbial. So, in the Comedy of Errors : 

'* It would make a man as mad as a buck, to be fo bought 
andfold." STEEVENS. 

* Let not our babbling dreams, &c.] I fufpecl: thefe fix lines to 
be an interpolation ; but if Shakefpeare was really guilty of them 
in his firft draught, he probably intended to leave them out whem 
he iubftituted the much more proper harangue that follows. 




What fhall I fay more than I have infer'd ? 
Remember whom you are to cope withal ; - 
1 A fort of vagabonds, rafcals, and run-aways, 
A fcum of Brittains, and bafe lackey peafants, 
Whom their o'er-cloyed country vomits forth 
To defperate ventures and affur'd deftruftion. 
You Sleeping fafe, they bring you to unreft ; 
You having lands, and bleft with beauteous wives, 
* They would diftrain the one, diiiain the other. 
3 And who doth lead them, but a paltry fellow, 


1 A fort of vagabonds,** ] A fort, that is, a company , a 

colleRion. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Mirror for Magifirates : 

" And, for his company, a fort there be 
** Of rafcal French and Britifh runawaies, &c." 
Again, in Prejlons Camlyfes : 

" There is & forte for feare the king doo praife." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery >ueen, B. V. c. iv : 

" But like a fort of flieep difperfed farre." STEEVENS. 
* They would reftrain the one , diftain the other. ~\ The one means 
the lands j the other, their wives. It is plaiu then we fliould 
read : 

They would diftrain. . . . 
i. e. feize upon. WARBURTON. 

3 And who doth lead them but a paltry felloe ^ 
Long kept in Britaine at our mother's cojl ?] 

This is fpoken by Richard, of Henry earl of Richmond : but 
they were far from having any common mother, but England : 
and the earl of Richmond was not fubfifted abroad at the nation's 
public charge. During the greateft part of his refidence abroad, 
he was watched and reftrained almoir. like a captive ; and fubfifted 
by fupplies conveyed from the countefs of Richmond, his mother. 
It feems probable, therefore, that we muft read : 

Long kept in Rretagne at his mother's coft. THEOBALD. 
Our mother's cojl .?] Mr. Theobald perceives to be wrong : he 
reads therefore, and all the editors after him : 

Long kept in Bretagne at his mother's cojf. 

But give me leave to tramcribe a few more lines from Holinfhed, 
and you will find at once, that Shakefpeare had been there before 

*' Ye fee further, how a companie of traitors, theeves, out* 

laws and runnagates be aiders and partakers of his feat and enter- 

prife. And to begin with the erle of Richmond captaine ot this 

VOL. VII.' M rebel- 


Long kept in Brittaine at our brother's coft ? 
A milk-fop 4 , one that never in his life 
Felt fo much cold as over Ihoes in fnow ? 
Let's whip thefe ftragglers o'er the feas again ; 
Lafh hence thefe over-weening rags of France, 
Thefe famifh'd beggars, weary of their lives ; 
Who, but for dreaming on this fond exploit, 
For want of means, poor rats, had hang'd themfelves : 
If we be conquer'd, let men conquer us, 
And not thefe baftard Brittains ; whom our fathers 
Have in their own land beaten, bobb'd, and thump'd, 
And, on record, left them the heirs of fhame. 
Shall thefe enjoy our lands ? lie with our wives ? 
Ravifh our daughters ? Hark, I hear their drum. ' 

[Drum afar off. 

Fight, gentlemen of England ! fight, bold yeomen 1 
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head ! 
Spur your proud horfes hard, and ride in blood ; 
s Amaze the welkin with your broken Haves ! 

rebellion, he is a Welch milkfop brought up by my moot her 1 's 
meanes and mine, like a captive in a clofe cage in the court of 
Francis duke of Britaine." p. 759. 

Holinlhed copies this 'verbatim from his brother chronicler 
Hall, edit. 1548. fol. 54. but his printer has given us by acci- 
dent the word moother inftead of brother ; as it is in the original, 
and ought to be in Shakefpeare. FARMER. 

* A milkfop, &c.] So, in the Mirror of Magiftrates already 
quoted : 

" Firft with our foe-inens captnine to begin, 

** A weake Welch milkfop, one that I do know 

*' Was ne'er before, &c." STEEVENS. 

5 Amaze the welkin with your Iroken flaves !~\ That is, frigfa 
the Jkies with thejbivers of your lances. JOHNSON. 
So, in Soliman and Pcrfeda : 

'* Now by the marble face of theowtt/a." 
The feme idea is more tamely exprefled in W. Smith's Palfgrave^ 
1613 : 

'* Spears flew in fplinters half the way to heaven." 




Enter a Mejfcnger. 

What fays lord Stanley ? will he bring his power ? 

Mef. My lord, he doth deny to come. 

K. Rich. Off with his Ton George's head. 

Nor. My lord, the enemy hath paft the marm ; 
After the battle let George Stanley die. 

K. Rich. A thoufand hearts are great within my 

bofom : 

Advance our ftandards 6 , fet upon our foes ; 
Our ancient word of courage, fair Saint George, 
Infpire us with the fpleen of fiery dragons ! 
Upon them ! Vidtory fits on our helms. [Exeunt, 


Another part of the field. 
Alarum. Excurfwns. Enter Calefy. 

Catef. Refcue, my lord of Norfolk ! refcue ! ref- 

cue ! 

The king enadts more wonders than a man, 
Daring an oppofite to every danger 7 ; 


6 Advance our flandards, &c.] So again, in the Mirror for 
Magiftrates : 

" Advance then captaines, forward to the fight, 
" Draw forth your fwords, each man addrefs his flieeld; 

" Hence faint conceites, die thoughts of coward flight, 
' To heaven your hearts, to fight your valours yeeld : 
" Behold our foes do brave us in the field. 

" Upon them, friends; the caufe is yours and mine; 
** Saint George and conqueft on our helmes doth fhine." 

7 Daring an oppofite to every clanger ; ] Perhaps the poet wrote : 

Daring and oppofite to every danger. TYRWHITT. 
Perhaps the following paflage in Chapman's verfion of the eighth 
book of Homer's Odyjfiy may countenance the old reading : 

" a moft dreadful fight 

" Daring againjl him," STEEYENS. 

M z Th 


His horfe is ilain, and all on foot he fights, 
Seeking for Richmond in the throat of death : 
Rcfcue, fair lord, or elfe the day is loft ! 

Alarum. Enter King Richard. 

K. Rick. A horfe ! a horfe ! my kingdom for a 

horfe 8 ! 

Catef. Withdraw, my lord, I'll help you to a norfe* 
K. Rich. Slave, I have fet my life upon a caft, 
And I will ftand the hazard of the dye : 
I think, there be fix Richmonds in the field ; 
Five have I flam to-day, inftead of him 9 : 
A horfe ! a horfe ! my kingdom for a horfe ' ! 


The old reading is probably rigftt. An oppofte is frequently 
ufed by Shakefpeare and the contemporary writers, for an advcr- 

fary. So, in Twelfth Night : " your ofpoji/e hath in him 

'what youth, tfrength, Ikill, and wrath, can furnifli man withal." 

Again: " and his oppojite the youth, bears in his vifage no 

prefage of cruelty." So, in The Fa-ivrr, by Marfton, 1605: 
*' A moft protefted oppojite to the match." Again, \\\Biurt, Mr. 
Con/raffle, by Middleton, 1602 : " To ftrcngthen us ngainft ait 
oppofites" The fenfe then fliould feem to be, that king Richard 
enafts wonders, daring tbe advcrfary be meets ivitb to every danger 
attending Jingle combat. MALOKE. 

3 In the Battle of Alcazar + 1^98, the Moor calls out in ths 
fame manner : 

" A horfe, a horfe, villain a horfe ! 

*' That I may take the river ftrait, and fly \ 

" Here is a horfe, my lord, 

" As fv.-iftly pac'd as Fegafus, 

This paffage in Shakefpeare appears to have been imitated' by fe- 
veral of the old writers, if not ftolen. So, -Hey wood, ia the 
Second Part of his Iron Age> 1632 : 

" a horfe, a horfe ! 

" Ten kingdoms for a horfe to enter Troy !" STEEVENS. 
Marfton feems to have imitated this line in his Satires^ i ^99 : 

*' A man, a man, a kingdom for a man !" MAUKVI:. 
9 Five have Iflain to day ir.ReaJ of him : ] Shakefpeare had 
employ'd this incident with hiitorical propriety in the firit Fart 
t K. Henry IV. STEEVENS. 

1 A horfe! a borfe ! &c. ] Some inquiry liath been made for 
the firft performers of the capital charadters'of Shakcfpesre. 



Alarums. Enter King Richard and Richmond ; thy fight, 
Richard is Jlain. 

Retreat 3 and Jlouri/h. Enter Richmond, Stanley, bearing 
the .crown, with divers other Lords. 

Richm. God, and your arms, be prais'd, victorious 

friends ; 
The day is ours, the bloody dog is dead. 

StanL Courageous Richmond, well haft thou ac- 
quit thec ! 

Lo, here, thefe long-ufurped royalties, 
From the dead temples of this bloody wretch 
Have I pluck'd off, to grace thy brows withal ; 
Wear it, enjoy it, * and make ufe of it. 

Richm. Great God of heaven, fay, amen, to all ! 
But, tell me, is young George Stanley living ? 

Sia;:L He is, my lord, and fafe in Leicester town ; 
Whither, if itpleafe you, we may now withdraw us. 

Richm. What men of name are ilain on either fide ? 

We learn, that Burbage, the alter Refers of Camuen, was the 
original Richard, from a pafiage in the poems of biihop Corbet; 
who introduces his hoft at Bolworth deicr:b:njj the battle : 

" But when he would have faid km 3 Lvichard died, 

" And call'd a horfe, a borfe, he Burbage cried." 

4 and make ufe of it."] Some old books read : 

-make much t>f it : 

and therefore ]Mr. Theobald reads fo too : but very foolifhly. 
Without doubt Shakefpeare himlelf thus corrected it to 

-make ufe of it. 

Y\ hich gnifies, don't abufe it like the tyrant you have deftroyed : 
whereas the other reading : 

make much of it, 

fignifies be fond of it ; a very ridiculous moral for the concLifion 
of the play. WAREURTON. 

Dr. \\ arburton's reading may receive fupport from a palTa^e ia 
A". Kcnry VIII. where Wolfey is giving advice to Cromwell: 

" Negleft hiip not ; maks nfc now, and provide 

" For thiue own future lafety." STEEVENS. 

M ^ Sian\ 


Stanl. John duke of Norfolk, Walter lord Ferrers, 
Sir Robert Brakenbury, and fir William Brandon. 

Rich. Interr their bodies as becomes their births. 
Proclaim a pardon to the foldiers fled, 
That in fubmiffion will return to us ; 
\ And then, as we have ta'en the facrament J , 
We will unite the white rofe and the red : 
Smile heaven upon this fair conjunction, 
That long hath frown'd upon their enmity ! 
What traitor hears me, and fays not, amen ? 
England hath long been mad, and fcarr'd herfelf ; 
The brother blindly Ihed the brother's blood, 
The father rafhly fiaughter'd his own fon, 
The fon* compell'd, been butcher to the fire ; 
4 All this divided York and Lancafter, 
Divided, in their dire divifion. 
O, now, let Richmond and Elizabeth, 
The true fucceeders of each royal houfe, 
By God's fair ordinance conjoin together ! 
And let their heirs, (God, if thy will be fo) 
Enrich the time to come with fmooth-fac'd peace. 
With fmiling plenty, and fair profperous days ! 
Abate the edge of traitors, gracious Lord, 
That would reduce thefe bloody days again, 

3 as ivc hav e to* en tkefacrame nt : ] So, in Holinflied, 

p. 745 : ** The earle himfelfe firft tooke a corporall oth on his 
honor, promifing that incontinent nfter he (huhl be poflefled of 
the crovvne and dignitie of the realme of England, he would be 
conjoined in matrimonie with the ladie Elizabeth daughter to king 
Edward the fourth." STEEVENS. 

4 All this divided York and Lancafter^ 

Divided, in their dire divijion. ] 

I think the paflage wilt be fomewhat improved by a flight alte-? 
ration : 

All that divided York and Lancajler, 

Divided in their dire divijion, 

O now let Richmond and Elizabeth, 

The true fucceeders of each royal houfe, 

Jiy God's fair ordinance conjoin together, 

Let them unite all that York and Lancafter divided. JOHNSON. 



And make poor England weep in ftreams of blood ! 
Let them not live to tafte this land's encreafe, 
That would with treafon wound this fair land's peace ! 
Now civil wounds are ftopp'd, peace lives again ; 
That Ihe may long live here, God fay Amen ! 

[Exeunt *. 

5 This is one of the moft celebrated of our authour's perform- 
ances ; yet I know not whether it has not happened to him as to 
others, to be praifed moft, when praife is not moft deferred. 
That this play has fcenes noble in themfelves, and very well con- 
trived to ftrike in the exhibition, cannot be denied. But fome 
parts are trifling, others (hocking, and fome improbable. 


P. 3. THE L(fe and Death of King Richard tie Third.'} The 
oldeft known edition of this tragedy is printed for Andrew Wife, 
1597 : but Harrington, in his Apoiogle of Poetrie, written 1590, 
and prefixed to the tranllation of Ariojlo, fays, that a tragedy of 
Richard the Third, had been acted at Cam bridge. His words are, 
*' For tragedies, to omit other famous tragedies, that which was 
played at St. John's in Cambridge, of Richard the Third, would 
move, I think, Phalaris the tyrant, and terrifie all tyrannous 
minded men, &c." He moft probably means Shakefpeare's ; and 
if fo, we may argue, that there is fome more antient edition of 
this play than what T have mentioned ; at leaft this fhews how 
early Shakefpeare's play appeared ; or if fome other Richard the 
Third is here alluded to by Harrington, that a play on this fub- 
jec"l preceded our author's. WAR TON. 

It appears from the following paflage in the preface to Naflie's 
Have with you fo Saffron Walden, or Gabriel Harvey's Hunt is up y 
i $96, that a Latin tragedy of K. Rich. III. had been acted at 

Trinity college, Cambridge: " or his fellow codfhead, that 

in the Latine tragedie ot King Richard, cried Ad urbs, ad ur&s, 
ad vrbs, when his whole part was no more than Urk, vrbs, ad 
arma, ad arma." STEEVENS. 

The play on this fubjed mentioned by fir John Harrington in 
his Apologle for Pcetrie, 1591, and fometimes miftaken for Shake- 
fpeare's, was a Latin one, written by Dr. Legge ; and acted at St. 
John's in our univerfity, fome years before 1588, the date of the 
copy in the Mufeum. This appears from a better MS. in our 
library at Emmanuel, with the names ot the original performers. 

A childiih imitation of Dr. Legge's play was written by one , 
Lacy, 1583 ; which had not been worth mentioning, were they 
not confounded by Mr. Capell. FARMER. 

M 4 Hey\vood, 


Heywood, in his Atfor's Vindication, mentions the play of 
K. Rich. III. " afted in St. John's Cambridge, Co eflentially, 
that had the tyrant Phalarh beheld his bloody proceedings, it had 
mollified his heart, and made him relent at light of his inhuman 
jnaflacres." And in the bookes of the Stationers' Company, 
Tune iq, i TQ4, Thomas Creede made the following entry. "An 
enterlude, intitled the tragedie of Richard the Third, wherein is 
fhown the deathe of Edward the Fourthc, with the fmotheringe 
of the twoo princes in the Tower, with the lamentable ende of 
Shore's wife, and the contention of the two houfes of Lancafler 
and Yorke." This could not have been the work of Shakefpeare, 
unlefs he afterwards difmifTed the death of Jane Shore, as an un 
necefiary incident, when he revifed the play. Perhaps, how- 
ever, it might be fome tranflation of Lacey's play, at the end of 
the firft aft of which is, " The fhowe of the proceilion. i. 
Tipftaffe. 2. Shore's wife in her petticote, having a taper burn- 
ing in her hande. 3. The Verger. 4. Querifters. 5. Singing, 
men. 6. Prebendary. 7. Bifhoppe of London. 8. Citizens." 
There is likewife a Latin fong lung on this occafion in MS. 
Had. 2412. STEEVENS. 

The Latin play of Richard III. (MS. Harl. n. 6926.) has 
the author's name Henry Lacey, and is dated i<b6. 

The pafiage, which I would mention, is upon the appearance 
of Richard to Buckingham and the others who came to offer him 
the crown : 

Sed nunc dttolus cinBus eccc epifcofis 
Apfaret infumma domo princtps plus. 

It is difficult, I think, to account for fuch a co-incidence, in a 
circumftance of mere invention, without fuppofing that one of 
the poets muft have profited by the other's performance. 


This circumftance is not an invention of either poet, but taken 
from Halfs Chronicle : 

** At the laft he came out of his chambre, and yet not doune to 
theim, but in a galary ouer theim, with a biihop on euery hande 
of hym, where thei beneth might fe hym and fpeke to hym, as 
thoughe he woulde not yet come nere them til he wift,what they 
meante, &c." FARMER. 

1 fhall herefubjoin two DifTertations, one by Dr. Warburton, and 
one by Mr. Upton, upon the f^icc, 


THUS likf the formal vice, Iniquity, &c.] As this corrupt 
reading in the common books hath occafioned our faying fome- 
thing of the barbarities of theatrical reprefentations amongft us 
before the time of Shakefpeare, it may not be improper, for a 



better apprehenfion of this whole matter, to give the reader forne 
general account of the rife and progrefs ot the modern ftage. 

The firft form in which the drama appeared in the weft of Eu- 
rope, after the deftrucYion of learned Greece and Rome, and that 
a calm of dulnefs had finiihed upon letters what the rage of 
barbarifm had begun, was that of the Myfteries. Thefe were the 
fafhionnble and favourite diverfions of all ranks of people both in 
France, Spain, and England. In which laft place, as we learn by 
Stow, they were in ule about the time of Richard the fecond and 
Henry the fourth. As to Italy, by what lean find, the firft ru- 
diments of their ftage, with regard to the matter, were prophane 
fubjedls, and, with regard to the/0;v//, a corruption of the ancient 
mimes and attellajies : by which means they got fooner into the 
right road than their neighbours ; having had regular plays 
amongft them wrote as early as the fifteenth century. 

As to thefe myjleries, they were, as their name Ipeaks them, a 
reprefentation of ibme icripture-ftory, to the life : as may befeen 
from the following paflage in an old French hiftory, intitled, La 
Cbronique de Mctz conipofee par le cure de St. ILvcbaire ; Which will 
give the reader no bad idea of the furprifing ablurdity of thefe 
itrange reprefentations : " L'an 147 le 3 Juiiiet (fays the boneft 
Chronicler] fut fait le Jeu de la Pailion de N. S. en la plaine de 
Veximiel, Et fut Dieu un fire appelle Seigneur Nicoile Doin 
Neufchaftel, leqii'.l eroit Cure de St Victour de Metz, lequel 
fut prefque mort en la Croix, s'il ne fut etc fecourus ; & con- 
vient (ju'un autre Pretre fut mis en la Croix pour parfaire le Per- 
fonnage du Crucifiment pour cc jo u ; & le lendemain le dit Curs 
de St. Vigour parfir la Reiurrection, et fit tres hautement foa 

perfonage ; & dura le dit Jeu Et autre Pretre qui &' appelloit 

Mre. Jean de Nicey, qui eftoit Chapelain de Metrange, fut 
(udas : lequel fut prefque mort en pendant, car le cuer li faillir, 
et fut bien hativement dependu & porte en Voye. Et etoit la 
bouche d'Enfer tres-bien faite ; car elle ouvroit & clooit, qi;and 
les Diables y vouloient entrer et ifler ; & avoir deux grufs Culs 
d'Acier, &c." Alluding to this kind of reprefentations avch- 
bifliop Harfnet, in his Declaration of Popijh Impojiures, p. 71. 
lays, " The little children were never fo afraid of Hell-mouth 
in the old plays, painted with great gang teeth, ftaring eyes, 
and foul bottle nofe." Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall t gives 
a fuller defcription of them in thefe words, " The Guary Miracle^ 
in Englifh a Miracle Play, is a kind of interlude complied in. 
Cornifh out of fome fcripture hiftory. For repreientiiig it, they 
raife an earthen amphitheatre in fome open field, having the dia- 
meter of an inclofed playne, fome 40 or so toot. The country 
people flock from all fides many miles off, to hear and fee it. 
For they have therein devils and devices, to delight as well the 
eye as the ear. The players conne not their parts without book, 
t>ut are prompted by one called the ordinary, who lollovveth at 



their back with the book in his hand, &c. &c." There was al- 
ways a droll or buffoon in thefe myficries, to make the people 
mirth with his fufferings or abfurdities : and they could think of 
no better a perfonage to fuftain this part than the devil himitlf. 
Even in the myjlery of the Pnflion mentioned above, it was con- 
trived to make him ridiculous. - Which circumitance is hinted at 
by Shakefpeare (who has frequent alluvions to thefe things) in the 
Talking of the Sbre-jj) where one of the players a&s for a little 
vinegar (as a property} to make the devil roar. For after rhe 
fpunge with the gall and vinegar had been employed in the repre- 
fentation, they ufed to clap it to the nofe of the devil ; which 
making him roar, as if it had been holy-water, afforled infinite 
diverfion to the people. So that vinegar in the old farces, was 
always- afterwards in ufe to torment their devil. We have divers 
old Englifti proverbs, in which the devil is reprefenttd as acting or 
fuffering ridiculoufiy and abfurdly, which nil arofe from the part 
he bore in thefe ?nyjleries, as in that, for inilance, of Great cry 
and little vjool, as the devil faid tJehai be Jheercd bis hogs. For 
the fheep-fhearing of Nabal being reprefented in the myjlen of 
David and Abigail, and the devil always attending Nd', was 
made to imitate it by Jhearing a hog. This kind of abfurdity, as 
it is the propereft to create laughter, was the lubjecT: of the ridi- 
culous in the ancient mimes, as we learn from thefe words of faint 
Auftin : Ne faciamus ut mimi folent, et optemus a libero aquam, a 
Jympbis vinum -J-. 

Thefe ?nyjlcrics, we fee, were given in France at firft, as well as 
in England fub dio, and only in the provinces. Afterwards we 
find them got into Paris, and a company eftablifhed in the Hotel 
de Bourgogne to reprelent them. But good letters and religion be- 
ginning to make their way in the latter end of the reign or. Francis 
the firft, the ftupidity and prophanenefs of the myjleries made the 
courtiers and clergy join their intereft for their fupprefnon. Ac- 
cordingly, in the year 1541, the procureur-general, in the name 
of the king, prefented a r^e/#againft the company to the parlia- 
ment. The three principal branches of his charge againft them 
were, that the reprefentation of the Old Teftament ftories inclined 
the people to Judaifm ; that the New Teftament ftories encouraged 
libertinifm and infidelity ; and that both of them leflened the cha- 
rities to the poor : It feems that this profecution fucceeded ; for, 
in 1548, the parliament of Paris confirmed the company in the 
pofleffion of the Hotel de Bourgogne, but interdicted the reprefenta- 
tion of the myjleries. But in Spain, we find by Cervantes, that 
they continued much longer ; and held their own, even after 
good comedy came in amongft them : as appears from the excel- 
lent critique of the canon, in the fourth book, where he fliows 
how the old extravagant romances might be made the foundation 

f Civ. D. I. iv, 



of a regular epic (which, he fays, tamblen pucde cfcrivirfe enprofa 
como en verfo f ;) as the myjlery-plays might be improved into art- 
ful comedy. His word are Pucf qi'.cji vcnimos a las comedias divi- 
tias, qite i!e milagros falfos fiiigcti en ellas, que dc cojlis apocrifa$,ymal 
entcnilidas, attribueyendo a un fanto los milagros de otro % ; which 
made them fo fond of miracles that they introduced them into/<arj 
comedias humatias, he calls them. To return : 

Upon this prohibition, the French poets turned thcmfelves from 
religious to mural farces. And in this we foon followed them : 
the public tafte not fuffering any greater alteration at firft, though 
the Italians at this time afforded many juft compofitions for better 
models. Thefe farces they called moralities. Pierre Gringore, one 
of their old poets, printed one of thefe moralities, intitled La Me- 
ralite de I' Homme Olftine. The pertbns of the drama are f Homme 
Objline Pugnition Divine Simonie Hypocrijie and Djmerltes- 
Communes. The Homme Obfiin's is the atheift, and comes in blal- 
pheming, and determined to perfift in his impieties. Then Pug- 
nit ion Divine appears, fitting on a throne in the air, and menacing 
the atheift with punifhment. After this fcene, Simonie, Hypocrijie, 
and Demerites-Communes appear and play their parts. In conclu- 
fion, Pugnition Divine returns, preaches to them, upbraids them 
ivith their crimes, and, in fliort, draws them all to repentance, 
all but the Homme Oljline, who perfifts in his impiety, and is de- 
flroyed for an example. To this fad ferious fubjeft they added, 
though in a feparate reprefcntation, a merry kind of farce called 
Sottie, in which there was an PayJ'an [the clown] under the name 
of Sot-Commun [or Fcol.~\ But we, who borrowed all thefe delica- 
cies from the French, blended the Moralite and Softie together : 
So that the Pay/an or Sot-Commun, the Clnvn or Fool, got a place 
in our ferious moralities : Whofe bulinefs we may underitand in 
the frequent aUufions our Shakefpeare makes to them : as in that 
fine fpeech in the beginning of the third acl of Meafurefor Mea- 
fu're, where we have this obfcure pnflage : 

" - merely than art Death's Fool, 
*' For him tboti labour^ ly thy f,i%ht toj/mn, 
" And yet runnfc tovj'rdbimjtill." 

For, in thefe moralities, the Fool of the piece, in order to flieiv the 
inevitable approaches of Death, (another of the Dramatis Pcrfonai) 
is made to employ all his ftratagems to avoid him ; which, z\ the 
matter is ordered, bring the Fool, at every turn, into the very jaws 
of his enemy : So that a reprefentation of thefe fcenes would af- 
ford a great deal of good mirth and morals mixed together. The 
very fame thing is again alluded to in thefe lines of .l.ovg's La- 
bour's Loft 

** So Portent-//7r I would o*cr-rule hisjtafc, 
" That heJbouU be my Fool, and I bh Fate." 

. Act IV 

f B. iv. c. 20. J Ib, 21. 



But the French, as we fay, keeping thefe two forts of farces dir 
tfinifl, they became, in time, the parents of tragedy and comedy j 
while we, by jumbling them together, begot in an evil hour, 
that mungrel fpecies, unknown to nature and antiquity, called 
tragi-comedy. WAR BUR TOW. 

TO this, when Mr. Upton's Diflertation is fubjoined, there 
will, perhaps, be no need of any other account of the Vice. 

LIKE the old Vice.] The allufion here is to the Vice, a droll 
character in our old plays, accoutred with a long coat, a cap with 
n pair of afs's ears, and a dagger of lath. Shakefpeare alludes to 
his buffoon appearance in Twelfth Night, aft IV : 
" In a trice, like to the old Vice ; 

*' Who with dagger of lath, in his rage and his -wrath >, 
" Cries, ah, ha! to the Devil. 

In the fecond part of K. Henry IV. act III. Falftaff compares 
Shallow to a Vice's dagger of lath. In Hamlet, act III. Hamlet 
calls his uncle : 

A vice of kings : 

i. e. a ridiculous reprefentation of majefty. Thefe paflages the 
editors have very rightly expounded. I will now mention fome 
others, which feem to have efcaped their notice, the allufions 
being not quite fo obvious. 

The Iniquity was often the Vice in our old moralities ; and is 
introduced in B. Jonfon's play called The Devil's an Afs ; and, 
likewife mentioned in his Epigr. cxv : 

*' Being no vitious perfon, lut the Vice 
*' About the town. 
" Afls old Iniquity, and in the fit 
'* Of miming, gets th* opinion of a wit." 

But a paflage cited from his play will make the following obfer- 
vations more plain. Aft I. Pug afks the Devil " to lend him a 

" Satan. What Vice? 
" What kind would thou have it of? 

" Pug. Why, any Fraud, 
" Or Covetoufnefi, or lady Vanity, 
" Or old Iniquity : I'll call him hither. 
Thus the paflage fliould be ordered : 

Pug. Why any : Fraud, 
" Or Covetoufncfs, or lady Vanity, 
" Or old Iniquity." 

" Satan. I'll call him hither. 

" Enter Iniquity the Vice. 
*' Ini. What is he calls upon me, and would feem to lack 

' Ere his words be half fpoken, I am with him in a trice." 



/Vnd in his Staple of News, act II : 

44 Mirth. How like you the rice V th' play ? 
*' Expectation. Which is he ? 

44 Mirth. Three or four ; old Covetoufuefs, the fordid 
Penny-boy, the Mony-baw4 t who is a fiem-bawd too, they 

* fay. 

44 Tattle, But here is never a Fiend to carry him away. 
Befides, he has never a wooden dagger ! I'd not give a 
ru(h for a Pice, that has not a wooden dagger to fnap at 

* every body he meets. 

44 Mirth. That was the old way, goflip, when Iniquity 
44 came in, like hokos pokes, in a jugler's jerkin, &c." 
He alludes to the Pice in the Akhymift, aft I. fc. 3. 

44 Sub. And, on your ftall, a puppet, with a F"ice" 
Some places of Shakefpeare will from hence appear more eafy : as 
in the firft part of Henry IV. act ii. where Hal. humouroufly 
characterizing Falftaff, calls him, That reverend Vice, that grey 
Iniquity, that father Ruffian, that Vanity in years, ill allufion to 
this buffoon character. In K. Richard III. act iii. 

Thus like the formal Pice, Iniquity, 

/ moralize two meanings in one word. 
Iniquity is the formal Vice. Some correct the paflage, 

Thus, like formal-wife antiquity 

I moralize Tivo meanings in one ivorj. 

Which correction is out of all rule of criticifm. In Hamlet, acl 
I. there is an allufion, ftill more diftant, to the Vice ; which will 
not be obvious at firft, and therefore is to be introduced with a 
Ihort explanation. This buffoon character was ufed to make fun 
with the Devil ; and he had feveral trite expreflions, as, /'// lie 
with you in a trice : Ah, ha, boy, are you there ? &c. And this 
was great entertainment to the audience, to fee their old enemy 
fo belabour'd in effigy. In K. Henry V. act iv. a boy characteriz- 
ing Piftol, fays, Bardolph and Nim had ten times more valour, than 
this roaring Devil fthe old play ; every one may pare his nails <uiith a 
wooden dagger. Now Hamlet, having been inftructed by his fa- 
ther's ghoft, is refolved to break the fubiect of the difcourfe to 
hone but Horatio ; and to all others his intention is to appear as 
a fort of madman ; when therefore the oath of fecrecy is given to 
the centinels, and the Ghoft unfeen calls out fivear Hamlet 
fpeaks to it as the Pice does to the Devil. Ah, ha, boy, fayft thou 
fo ? Art thou there, Truepenny ? Hamlet liad a mind that the cen- 
tinels fhould imagine this was a (hape that the devil had put on j 
and in act III. he is fornewhat of this opinion himfelf, 

Thefpirit that I have feen 

My be the devil. 

The manner of fpeech therefore to the Devil was what all the au- 
dience were xvell acquainted with ; and it takes oft" in Ibme mca- 
fure from the horror of the icene. Perhaps too the poet was will- 


ing to inculcate, that good humour is the beft weapon to deal vvifk 
the devil. Truepenny, either by way of irony, or literally from 
the Greek, Tpwaoi-, veterator. Which word the Scholiaft on 
Ariftophanes' Clouds, ver. 447. explains, r^r,, o sn^nn^^iwii *' 
ro7j -s^ay/***, oV 6 '? TPYflANON x^ovpfv. Several have tried to 
find a derivation of the Vice : if I fhould not hit on the right, I 
fliould only err with others. The, Vice is either a quality perfon- 
alized as BIH and KAPTOE in Hefiod and ^Efchylus. Sin. and 
Death in Milton ; and indeed Vice itfelf is a perfon, B. xi. 517: 

" And took his Image whom they fervid, a brutijli Vice." 
bis image, i.e. a brutifh Dice's image : the Vice, Gluttony; not" 
without fome allufion to the Vice of the plays : but rather, I 
think, 'tis an abbreviation of vice-devil, as vice-roy, vice-doges, 
c. and therefore properly called the Vice. He makes very free 
with his mafter, like moft other vice-roys, or prime minifters. 
So that he is the Devil's Vice, and prime mim'fter ; and 'tis this 
that makes him fo fawcy. UPTON. 

Mr. Upton's learning only fupplies him with abfurdities. His 
derivation of vice is too ridiculous to be anfwered. 

I have nothing to add to the obiervations of thefe learned critics, 
but that fome traces of this antiquated exhibition are ftill retained 
in the ruftic puppet-plays, in which I have feen the Devil very 
luftily belaboured by Punch, whom I hold to be the legitimate 
fucceflbr of the old Vice. JOHNSON. 



Perfons Reprefented. 

King Henry the Eighth* 

Cardinal Wolfey. Cardinal Campeius. 

Capucius, Embajfador from the Emperor, Charles V, 

Cranmer, Arcbbifhop of Canterbury. 

Duke of Norfolk. Duke of Buckingham. 

Duke of Suffolk. Earl of Surrey. 

Lord Chamberlain. Sir Tho. Audley, Lord Keeper^ 

Gardiner, Eifoop of Winchefter. 

B'tjhop of Lincoln. Lord Abergavenny. Lord Sands, 

Sir Henry Guildford. Sir Thomas Lovell. 

Sir Anthony Denny. Sir Nicholas Vaux. 

Sir William Sands '. 

Cromwell, Servant to Wolfey. 

Griffith, Gentleman-UJher to ^ueen Katharine, 

Three other Gentlemen. 

DoRor Butts, Phyfician to the King. 

Garter, King at Arms. 

Surveyor to the Duke of Buckingham, 

Brandon, and a Serjeant at arms. 

Door Keeper of the Council Chamber. Porter, and his Man, 

Queen Katharine, 

Anne Bullen. 

An old Lady, Friend to Anne Bullen. 

Patience, Woman to Queen Katharine* 

Several Lords and Ladies in the dumb flows. Women at" 

tending upon the Queen ; Spirits, which appear to her. 

Scribes , Officers. Guards, and other Attendants* 

The SCENE lies moflly in London and Wejlm'mjler ; 
once, at Kimbolton. 

1 Sir William Sands was created lord Sands about this time, but 
is here introduced among the perfons of the drama, as a diftindU 
character. Sir William has not a lingle fpeech afligned to him ; 
and to make the blunder the greater, is brought on after lord Sands 
has already made his appearance. STEEVENS. 

There is no enumeration of the perfons in the old edition. 



J come no more to make you laugh ; things now, 

hat bear a weighty and a ferious brow, 

Sad, high, and working, full of ft ate and woe, 

Such noble fcenes as draw the eye tofloiv, 

We noiv prefent. e Tbofe, that can pity, her: 

May, if they think it well, let fall a tear ; 

*The fubjeEt will deferve it. Such, as give 

*Their money out of hope they may believe, 

May here find truth too. Thofe, that come to fee 

Only a J/JQW or two, and fo agree, 

The play may pafs ; if they be ft ill, ami willing, 

Til undertake, may fee away their foilling 

Richly in two floor t hours. Only they, 

That come to hear a merry, bawdy play, 

A noife of targets ; * or to fee a fellow 

In a long motley coat, guarded with yellow, 

Will be deceived : for, gentle hearers, kno-zv, 

To rank our chofen truth with J fitch afkozu 


a or to fee a fellow 

In a long motley coat, *] 

Alluding to the fools and buffoons, introduced for the generality in 
the plays a little before our author's time : and of whom he has 
left us a fmall talte in his own. THEOBALD. 

So, Nafli, in his Epiflle Dedicatory to Have with you to Saf- 
fron Wal&n, or Gabriel Harvey' 's Hunt is Up, 1^96 : '* foolea 
ye know ahvaies for the moft part (efpeciallie if they bee natural! 
foolei) are futed in long coats." STEEVENS. 

3 fucb ajho-vj 

As fool and fight is, ] 

This is not the only palFage in which Shakefpeare has difcovered 
his conviction of the impropriety of battles represented on the 
ftage. He knew that five or fix men with fwords, gave a very 
unlatisfaclory idea of an army, and therefore, without much care 
to excufe his former practice, he allows that a theatrical fight 
would deflroy all opinion of truth, and leave him never an undsr* 
jlanding friend. Magnis ingcniis ct multa nihilcminus habit ur is Jim- 
plex erroris confefTio. Yet I know not _\vhfether the coro- 
V,. Vli. N natioa 

178 P R O L O G U E. 

A& fool and fight is, (befide forfeiting 

Our own brains^ and 4 the opinion that we bring 

To make that only true we now intend) 

Will leave us never an underjlanding friend. 

Therefore, for goodnefs* fake, and as you are known 

The firjl and happiefi. hearers of the town, 


nation (hewn in this play may not be liable to all that can be ob- 
jected againft a battle. JOHNSON. 

* the opinion that ive I ring 

To make that only true ive now intend^}~\ 

Thefe lines I do not underftand, and fufpecT: them of corruption, 
I believe we may better read thus : 

th' opinion, that ive bring 

Or make; that only truth ive noiv intend. JOHNSON. 
To intend in our author, has fometimes the fame meaning as 
to pretend. So, in the preceding play- 

" Intend, fome deep fufpicion." STEEVENS. 
If any alteration were necelfary, I fhould be for only changing 
the order of the words and reading 

That only true to make we now intend : 
j. e. that now we intend to exhibit only what is true. 

This paflage, and others of this Prologue, in which great ftrefs 
is laid upon the truth of the enfiiing representation, would lead 
one to fufpeft, that this play of Henry the Vlllth, is the very 
play mentioned by Sir H. Wottnn, [in his letter of 2 July, 
1613, Reliq. Wotton, p. 423.] under the defcription of a " anew 
flay, [acted by the king's players at the Bank's Side] called, All 
is True, representing, fome principal pieces of the reign of Henry 
the Vlllth." The extraordinary circuraftanccs of pomp and ma- 
jtfty, with which, fir Henry fays, that play was fet forth, and 
the particular incident of certain cannons foot off at the king's entry 
to a mafque at the cardinal Wolfey's hor/fe, (by which the theatre 
was fet on fire and burnt to the ground,) are uri&ly applicable 
to the play before us. Mr. Chamberlaine, in Winwood's Memo- 
rials, Vol. III. p. 469, mentions, * the burning of the Globe, 
or playhoufe, on the Bankfitle, on St. Peter's-day [1613], which, 
(fays he) fell out by a peak of chambers, that I know not on what 
occafion were to be ufed in the play." B. Jonfon, in his Exe- 
cration upon F'rilcan, fays, they were two poor chambers. [See 
the ftage-direcYion in this play, a little before the king's entrance. 
Drum and trumpet, chambers &fiaarfred.~\ The continuator of 
Stowe's Chronicle, relating the fame accident, p. 1003, fays ex- 
prefsly, that it happened at the play of Henry the VJHth. 

In a MS. letter of Tho. Lorkin to fir Tho. Puckering, dated 

London ^ 


Be fad, as we would make ye : s Think, ye fee 
'The very perfons of our noble ftory, 
As they were living ; think, you fee them great, 
And follo^u'd with the general throng, and jweat 
Of thoufand friends ; then, in a moment ', fee 
H(nv foon this mightinefs meets mifery ! 
And, if you can be merry then, Til fay, 
A man may weep upon his wedding day. 

Lai/Jon, this loft of June, 1613, the fame fa<9: is thus related. 
*' No longer fince irMa.ytftcrday, while Bourbage his compauie 
were acting at the Globe the play of Hen. fill* and there fhoot- 
ing of certayne chambers in way of triumph, the fire catch'd 
&c." MS. Harl. 7002. TYRWHITT. 

s " Think, ye fee 

The very perfons of our noble Jtory^\ 

Why the rhyme fhould have been interrupted here, when it was Co 
afily to be fupplied, I cannot conceive. It can only be account- 
ed for from the negligence of the prefs, or the tranfcribers ; and 
therefore I have made no fcruple to replace it thus : 

Think before ye. THEOBALD. 

This is fpecious, but the laxity of the verfification in this pro- 
logue, and in the following epilogue, makes it not neceflary. 


The author of the Revifal would read : 
~ of our hiftory. STEEVENS. 




An Antichamber in the Palace. 

E/iter the Duke of Norfolk, at one door ; at the other $ 
the Duke of Buckingham, and the Lord Abergavenny. 

Buck. Good morrow, and well met. How hare 

you done, 
Since laft we faw in France ? 

Nor. I thank your grace : 
Healthful ; and ever fince a 6 freih admirer 
Of what I faw there. 

Buck. An untimely ague 
Stay'd me a prifoner in my chamber, when 
Thofe fons of glory, thofe two lights of men, 
Met in the vale of Arde. 

Nor. 'Twixt Guines and Arde : 
I was then prefent, faw them falute on horfe-back ; 

5 We are unacquainted with any dramatic piece on the fubject 
of Henry VIII. that preceded this of Shakefpeare ; and yet on 
the hooks of the Stationers' Company appears the following entry. 
" Nathaniel Batter] (who was one of our author's printers) Feb. 
12, 1604. That he get good allowance for the enterlude of 
K. Henry VIII. before he begin to print it; and with the war- 
dens hand to yt, he is to have the lame for his copy." Dr. Far- 
mer in a note on the epilogue to this play, ouferves from 
Stow, that Robert Greene had written fomewhat on the fa;i;c ftory. 


6 r, frejb admire r ] An admirer untired ; an admirer ftill 

feeling the impreffion as if it were hourly renewed. JOHNSON. 

N 3 Be- 


Beheld them, when they lighted, how they clung 
In their embracement, as they grew together ; 
Which had they, what four thron'd ones could have 

Such a compounded one ? 

Buck. All the whole time* 
I was my chamber's prifoner. 

Nor. Then you loft 

The view of earthly glory : Men might fay, 
7 'Till this time, pomp was fingle ; but now marry'ci 
To one above itfelf. 8 Each following day 
Became the next day's matter, 'till the lait 
Made former wonders it's : To-day, the French^ 
9 All clinquant, all in gold, like heathen gods, 
Shone down the Englilh ; and, to-morrow, they 

7 Till this time pomp was Jingle \ lut no^j marry* d- 

To one above itfclf.~ ] r 

The thought Is odd and whimfical ; and obfcure enough, to need 
an explanation Till this time (fays the fpeaker) Pomp led a fin- 
ale lite, as not finding a hufband able to fupport her according to 
her dignity ; but fhe has now got one in Henry VIII. who could 
fupport her even above her condition of finery. WAR EUR TON. 
Dr. Warburton has here difcovered more beauty than the au- 
thor intended, who only meant to fay in a noify periphrafe, that 
pomp li'as encreafcd on tLis ot'cnfion to more tban twice as much as ii 
bad ever been before. Pomp is no more married to the Englifli 
than to the French king, for to neither is any preference given 
by the fpeaker. Pomp is only married to pomp, but the new 
pomp is greater than the old. JOHNSON. 
* Each following day 

Became the next day's majlcr, &c.] 

Dies diem docet. Every day learned fomething from tba pre- 
ceding, till the concluding day collected all the fplendor of all 
the former (hews. JOHNSON. 

9 All clinquant, ] A 11 glittering, d\Jbitiing. Clarendon ufes 
this word in his description of the Spanifli Juego de Toros. 


It is likewife ufed in a Memorable Mafyue, &c. performed be- 
fore king James at Whitehall in 1613, at the marriage of the 
Palfgrave andprincefs Elizabeth: 

" his bufldns clinquant as his other attire." 




Made Britain, India : every man, that flood, 
Shevv'd like a mine. Their dwarfifh pages were 
As cherubims, all gilt : the madams too, 
Not us'd to toil, did almoft fweat to bear 
The pride upon them, that their very labour 
Was to them as a painting : now this mafk 
\Vas cry'd incomparable^ and the enfuing night 
Made it a fool, and beggar. The two kings, 
Equal in luftre, were now belt, now worft, 
As prefence did prefent them ; ' him in eye, 
Still him in praife : and, being prefent both, 
'Twas faid, they faw but one ; and no difcerner 
* Durft wag his tongue in cenfure. When thefe funs, 
(For fo they phrafe *em) by their heralds chalieng'd 
The noble fpirits to arms, they did perform 
Beyond thought's compafs; that former fabulous ftory, 
Being now feen poffible enough, got credit, ' 
That ' Bevis was believ'd. 

Buck. Oh, you go far. 

Nor* As I belong to worfhip, and affect 
In honour honefly, 4 the tradt of every thing 
Would by a good difcourfer lofe fome life, 
Which action's felf was tongue to. * All was royal ; 


Still him in praife \ * J < 

So, Dryden: 

" TWO f/v'f/f 

*' So matclSd as each fccmd worllncjl when alone. 1 * JOHNSON. 

* Dnrftivag } } ' 13 tongue in cenfure.] Cenfure for determination, 
of which had the noblelt appearance. WAR EUR TON. 

3 That Bevis "Mas bcHev'tf.'] The old romantic legend of Bevig 
of Southampton. This Bevis (or Beavois) a Saxon, was for his 
prowefs created by William the Conqueror earl of Southampton : 
of whom Camden in his Britannia. THEOBALD. 

+ the traSl of every thing &c.] The courfe of thefe 

triumphs and pleafure?, however well related, mufr. lofe in the" 
defcription part of that fpirit and energy which were exprefTed in 
the real action. JOHNSON. 

5 All v:as royal ; Sec.] This fpeech was given in all the 

editions to Buckingham; but improperly. For he wanted ir.for- 


To the difpofing of it nought rebell'd, 
Order gave each thing view ; 6 the office did 
Diitindtly his full fundion. 

Buck. Who did guide, 
I mean, who fet the body and the limbs 
Of this great fport together, as youguefs? 

Nor. One, ccrtes, that promifes no 7 element 
In fuch a bufinefsr 

Buck. I pray you, who, my lord ? 

Nor. All this was order'd by the good discretion 
Of the right reverend cardinal of York. 

Buck. The devil fpeed him ! no man's pye is free'd 
From his ambitious ringer. What had he 
To do in thefe 8 fierce vanities ? I wonder, 
9 That fuch a kcech can with his very bulk 


mntion, having kept his chamber during the folemnity. I have 
therefore given it to Norfolk. WARBUR.TON. 
I would point thus : 

all was royal 

To the difpofing of it ; 
i. e. even to the difpofing of it. MUSGRAVE. 

6 ' the office did 

Dijlinttly bis full function.'] 

The commiilion for regulating this fcftivity was well executed, 
and gave exactly to every particular perfbn and adion the proper JOHNSON. 

7 elftnent] No initiation, no previous practices. Elements 

are the firft principles of things, or rudiments of knowledge. The 
word is here applied, not without a catacbrcfes^ to a peribn. 


9: ~-$ercfvanitzts? ] Fierce is here. I think, ufed like 

the French fier foe proud, unlefs we fuppofe an allufion to the mi- 
mical ferocity of the combatants in the tilt. JOHNSON. 

It is certaiujy ufed as the French word far. So, in Ben Jon- 
fon's Bartholomew Fair, the puritan fays, the hobby horfe "is 
a farce and rank idol." STEEVENS. 

9 That fitch a keech ] Ketch, from the Italian caiccbio, 

fignifying a tub, barrel, or hogfhead, Skinner. POPE. 

The wcrd in th.e folio is fitetb, which, not being underflood, is, 
changed into ketch. 

A keccb is a foJid lump or mafs. A cake of wax or tallow form- 
ed in a mould is called yet in fome places a keccb. JOHNSON. 



.Take up the rays o' the beneficial fun, 
And keep it from the earth. 

Nor. Surely, fir, 

There's in him fluff that puts him to thefe ends : 
For, being not propt by anceftry, (whofe grace 
Chalks fucceflbrs their way) nor call'd upon 
For high feats done to the crown ; neither ally'd 
To eminent affiflants, but, fpider-like, 

1 Out of his felf-drawing web, he gives us note, 
The force of his own merit makes his way ; 

2 A gift that heaven gives for him, which buys 
A place next to the king. 

Aber. I cannot tell 

What heaven hath given him, let fome graver eye 
Pierce into that ; but I can fee his pride 
Peep through each part of .him : Whence has he 


If not from hell, the devil is a niggard ; 
Or has given all before, and he begins 
A new hell in himfelf. 

Buck. Why the devil, 
Upon this French going-out, took he upon him, 

There may, perhaps, be a fingular propriety in this term of con- 
tempt. Vf r olfy was the foil of a lutcber, and in the fecond part 
of King Henry IV. a butcher's wife is called Goody Keech. 


1 Out of hh fflf-faw'mg txel ; ] Thus it frauds in the firft edi- 
tion. The later editors, by injudicious correclion, have printed : 

Out of his felf-drawn iueb. JOHNSON. 
4 A gifc that heaven gives for him, which luys 

A flace next to the king.] 

It is evident a word or two in the fentence is mifplaced, and that 
we fhould rend : 

A gift that heaven gives : which buy^ for him 
A place next to the kin-. "W.vRBURTON. 
It is full as likely that Shakefpeare wrote : 

gives to him, 

which will fave any greater alteration. JOHNSON. 

I am too dull to perceive the neceifity of any change. What 
^he is unable to give himfelf, heaven gives or depofits _/*>; him, 
and that gift, or depofit, buys a place, &c. STEEVENS. 



Without the privity o* the king, to appoint 

Who fhould attend on him ? He makes up J the fife 

Of all the gentry ; for the moft part fuch 

Too, whom as great a charge as little honour 

He meant to lay upon : and his own letter, 

The honourable board of 4 council out, 

5 Muft fetch in him he papers. 

Aber. I do know 

Kinfmen of mine, three at the leaft, that have 
By this fo licken'd their eftates, that never 
They lhall abound as formerly. 

Buck. O, many 

Have broke their backs with laying manors on them 
For this great journey 6 . 7 What did this vanity, 
But mmifter communication of . 
A moft poor iffue ? 

s the file] That is, the lift. JOHNSON. 

* council out,] Council not then fitting. JOHNSON. 

The expreffion rather means, " all mention of the board of 
council being left out of his letter." STEEVENS. 

5 Muft fetch in him he papers.] He papers, a verb,; his own 
letter, by his own fingle authority, and without the concurrence 

of the council, muft fetch in him whom he papers down. 1 

don't underftand it, unlefs this be the meaning. POPE. 

Wolfey published a lift of the feveral perfons whom he had ap- 
pointed to attend on the king at this interview. See Hall's Chro- 
nicle, RymerVjFVn&r*, torn. 13, &c. STEEVENS. 

6 Have Iroke their backs with laying manors on them 
For this great journey.] 

In the ancient Interlude of Nature, bl. 1. no date, but appa- 
rently printed in the reign of king Henry VIII. there feema to 
have been a fimilar ftroke aimed at this expenfive expedition : 
** PryJe. I am unhappy, I fe it well, 
For thexpence of myne apparell 
Towards this vyage 
What in horfes and other aray 
Har; compelled me for to lay 
* All my land to mortgage" STEEVENS. 

7 What did this vanity 

Hut ] 

What effeft had this pompous fliew but the produdion of a wretch- 
ed conclulkm. JOHNSON. 



AV. Grieyingly I think^ 

The peace between the French and us not values 
The coft that did conclude it. 

Buck. 8 Every man, 

After the hideous florin that follow'd, was 
A thing infpir'd ; and, not confulting, broke 
Into a general prophecy, That this tempeft, 
Dafhing the garment of this peace, aboaded 
The fuddcn breach on't. 

Nor. Which is budded out ; 

For France hath flaw'd the league, and hath attached 
Our merchants' goods at Bourdeaux. 

Aber. Is it therefore 
I The ambafiador is filenc'd ? 

AV. Marry, is'r. 

Aber. ' A proper title of a peace ; and purchas'd 
At a fuperfluous rate ! 

Buck. Why, all this bufmefs 
Our reverend cardinal carry'd. 

AV. Like it your grace, 
The flate takes notice of the private difference 
Betwixt you and the cardinal. I advife you, 
(And take it from a heart that wifhes towards you 
Honour and plenteous fafety) that you read 

* Every man, 

After the hideous Jlorm that follow? J^ &c.] 

His author, Hall, fays, " Monday, \ %th day of June , there Hew 
fitch jlorms of wind and weather, that marvel was to Jjcar ; for 
~vhicb hideous tempeft fome faid it ivas a i-cry prcgnoftication of trou- 
ble and hatred to came between princes " In Henry VIII. p. 80. 


9 The amlajjador is filenc'd ?] Silene'd for recall'd. This be- 
ing proper to be faid of an orator ; and an ambaflador or public 
mimfter being called an orator, he applies fdencd to ambaflador. 


I underftand it rather of the French ambaffador refiding in 
England, who, by being refufed an audience, may be faid to be 
filenc'd. JOHNSON. 

^ ' A proper title of a peace ; ] A fine name 01" u peace. Iro 
jnically. foKxsox. 



The cardinal's malice and his potency 
Together : to confider further, that 
What his high hatred would effed, wants not 
A minifter in his power i You know his nature, 
That he's revengeful ; and I know, his fword 
Hath a lharp edge : it's long, and, it may be faid, ; 
It reaches far ; and where 'twill not extend, 
Thither he darts it. Bofom up my counfel, 
You'll find it wholefome. Lo, where z comes that 

That I advife your Ihunning. 

Enter Cardinal Wolfey, the pur fe borne be fore him ,- certain 
of the guard, and two Secretaries with papers. The 
Cardinal in his pajfage fixeth his eye on Buckingham > 
and Buckingham on him, both full of difdain. 

Wol. The duke of Buckingham's furveyor ? ha ? 
Where's his examination ? 

Seer. Here, fo pleafe you. 

Wol. Is he in perfon ready ? 

Seer. Ay, pleafe your grace. 

Wol. Well, we mail then know more ; andBuck-^ 

Shall lefTen this big look. 

[Exeunt Cardinal, and his train* 

Buck. This ? butcher's cur is venom-mouth'd, and I 

a comes that rock,] To make the rock come i$ not very 

juir. JOHNSON. 

3 butcher's cur ] Wolfey is faid to have been the font 

of a butcher. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Gray obferves, that when the death of the duke of Buck- 
ingham was reported to the emperor Ch; ' v.s V. he faid, " The 
firft buck of England was worried to death by a butcher's dog." 
Skelton, whofe fatire is of the groflell iJtvi , M H r by come you not 
to Cnurt, has the fame reflection on the mcannels of cardinal 
.Wo Key's birth : 

" For drede of the boucbefs do$, 

" Wold winy them like an hog." STKEVENS. 



Have not the power to muzzle him ; therefore, belt 
Not wake him in his ilumber. 4 A beggar's book 
Out-worths a noble's blood, 

Nor. What, are you chaf 'd ? 

Aik God for temperance ; that's the appliance only, 
Which your difeafe requires. 

Suck. I read in his looks 
Matter againfl me ; and his eye revil'd 
Me, as his abject objedt : at this inftant 
* He bores me with fome trick : He's gone to tho 

king ; 
. I'll follow, and out-ftare him. 

Nor. Stay, my lord, 

And let your reafon with your choler queftion 
What 'tis you go about : To climb fteep hills, 
Requires flow pace at firft : Anger is like 6 
A full-hot horfe ; who being allow'd his way, 
Self-mettle tires him. Not a man in England 
Can advife me like you : be to yourfelf, 
As you would to your friend. 

Buck. I'll to the king ; 
And 7 from a mouth of honour quite cry down 

4 >A beggar's look 

Out-worth's a noble's blood.~\ 

That is, the literary qualifications of a bookifh beggar are more 
prized than the high defcent of hereditary greatnefs. This is a 
contemptuous exclamation very naturally put into the mouth of 
one of the antient, unletter'd, martial nobility. JOHNSON. 

5 He bores me with fame trick : ] He ftabs or Wounds me 

by fome artifice or fidtion. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Life and Death of the Lord Cromwell, 1613: 

" One that hath gull'd you, that hath bor'd you, fir." 

6 Anger is like 

A full hot horfe; ] 

So, Maifinger, in the Unnatural Combat : 

Let pajjion work, and, like a hot-rein' d horfe t 
'Twill quickly tire itfelf. STEEVENS. 

7 from a mouth of honour ] I will crulh this bafebora 

fellow, by the due influence of my rank, or fay that all diftinc- 
tion of perfons is at an end. JOHNSCN. 



This Ipfwich fellow's infolence ; or proclaim, 
There's difference in no perfons. 

Nor. Be advis'd ; 

Heat not a furnace 8 for your foe fo hot 
That it do finge yourfelf : We may out-run, 
By violent fwiftnefs, that which we run at, 
And lofe by over-running. Know you not, 
The fire, that mounts the liquor 'till it run o'er, 
In feeming to augment it, waftes it ? Be advis'd ; 
I fay again, there is no Englifti foul 
More ftronger to dired: you than yourfelf; 
If with the fap of reafon you would quench, 
Or but allay, the fire of paffion. 

Buck. Sir, 

I am thankful to you ; and I'll go along 
By your prefcription : but this top-proud fellow, 
(Whom from the flow of gall I name not, but 
From 9 imcere motions) by intelligence, 
And proofs as clear as founts in July, when 
We fee each grain of gravel, I do know 
To be corrupt and treasonous. 

Nor. Say not, treafonous. 

Buck. To the king I'll fay't ; and make my vouch 

as ftrong 

As ihore of rock. Attend. This holy fox, 
Or wolf, or both, (for he is equal ravenous, 
As he is fubtle ; and as prone to mifchief, 
As able to perform't : ' his mind and place 


8 Heat not a furnace &c.] Might not Shakefpeare allude to 
Dan. iii. 22 ? " Therefore becaufe the king's commandment was 
urgent, and the furnace exceeding hot, the flame of fire flew 
thofe men that took up Sbadrach, Mejbac> and Abednego" 


9 -fincere motions^) ] Honeft indignation ; warmth of in* 

tegrity. Perhaps name not, fhould be Uame not. 

Whom from the flow of gall /blame not. JOHNSON. 
1 his mind and place 




Infe&ing one another, yea, reciprocally) 

Only to ihew his pomp as well in France 

As here at home, * fuggefts the king our mailer 

To this laft coftly treaty, the interview, 

That fwallow'd fo much treafure, and like a glafs 

Did break i' the rinfing. 

Nor. 'Faith, and fo it did. 

Buck. Pray, give me favour, fir. This cunning 


The articles o' the combination drew, 
As himfelf pleas'd ; and they were ratify'd, 
As he cry'd, Thus let be : to as much end, 
As give a crutch to the dead : But our court cardinal J 
Has done this, and 'tis well ; for worthy Wolfey, 
Who cannot err, he did it. Now this follows, 
(Which, as I take it, is a kind of puppy 
To the old dam, 'treafon) Charles the emperor, 
Under pretence to fee the queen his aunt, 
(For 'twas, indeed, his colour ; but he came 
To whifper Wolfey) here makes vifitation : 
His fears were, that the interview, betwixt 
England and France, might, through their amity, 
Breed him fome prejudice ; for from this league 
Peep'd harms that menac'd him : He privily 
Deals with our cardinal ; and, as I trow, 
Which I do well ; for, I am fure, the emperor 
Pay'd ere he promis'd ; whereby his fuit was granted, 
Ere it was afk'cl but when the way was made, 
And pav'd with gold, the emperor thus defir'd ; 
That he would pleafe to alter the king's courfe, 
And break the forefaid peace. Let the king know, 

This is very fatirical. His mind he reprefents as highly corrupt ; 
and yet he luppofes the conragion of the place of firll inimiter as 
adding an infeftion to it. WARBURTOX. 

'* Tuggeils the king our majier~\ foggffli, for excites. 

3 cur court cardinal.] The old copy reads : 

1 count cardinal, which may be right. STEEVENS. 



(As foon he lhall by me) that thus the cardinal 
t)oes buy and fell his honour as he pleafes, 
And for his own advantage. 

Nor* I am forry 

To hear this of him ; and could wifh, he were 
Something miftaken in't. 

Buck. No, not a fyllable ; 
I do pronounce him in that very lhape, 
He lhall appear in proof. 

Enter Brandon ; a Serjeant at arms before him, an two 
or three of the guard. 

Bran. Your office, ferjeant ; execute it. 

Serf. Sir, 

My lord the duke of Buckingham, and earl 
Of Hereford, Stafford, and Northampton, I 
Arrefl thee of high treafon, in the name 
Of our moft fovereign king. 
. Buck. Lo you, my lord, 
The net has fallen upon me ; I lhall perifh 
Under device and practice. 

Bran. * I am forry 

To fee you ta'en from liberty, to look on 
The bufinefs prefent : 'Tis his highnefs' pleafurc, 
You lhall to the Tower. 

Buck. It will help me nothing, 
To plead mine innocence ; for that dye is on me, 
Which makes my whiteft part black. The will of 

Be done in this and all things ! I obey , 

my lord Aberga'ny, fare you well 

* lam forry 

To fee you ta* en from liberty, to look on 
The lufinefs prefent : ] 

1 am forry that I am obliged to be prefent and an eye-witnefe of 
your lofs of liberty. JOHNSON. 



Bran. Nay, he muft bear you company : The 
king [To Aberg+ 

Is pleas'd, you fhall to the Tower, 'till you know 
How he determines further. 
. Abcr. As the duke faid, 

The will of heaven be done, and the king's pleafure 
By me obey'd. 

Bran. Here is a warrant from 

The king, to attach lord Montacute ; and the bodies 
Of the duke's confeflbr, John de la Court 5 , 
6 One Gilbert Peck, his chancellor, 

Buck. So, fo ; 
Thefe are the limbs of the plot : No more, I hope. 

Bran. A monk o' the Chartrcux. 

Buck. O, 7 Nicholas Hopkins ? 

Bran. He. 

Buck. My furveyor is falfe ; the o'er-great cardinal 
Hath fliew'd him gold : 8 my life is fpann'd already: 
I am the fhadow of poor Buckingham 9 ; 


5 John tie la Court,] The name of this monk of the Chartreuse 
was John de la Car, alias de la Court, See Holinfhed, p. 865. 


6 One Gilbert Peel; bis counfellor.] So, the old copies have it, 
but I, from the authorities of Hall and Holinflied, chang'd it 
to chancellor. And our poet himfelf, in the beginning of the fe- 
cond aft, vouches for this correction : 

./// tffhich '> appear* d againjl him his furveyor t 
Sir Gilbert Peck his chancellor. THEOBALD. 
Holinflied calls this perfon, " Gilbert Perke prieft, the duke's 
chancellor." STEEVENS. 

7 Michael Hopkins.'] So all the old copies had it ; and fo Mr. 
Rowe and Mr. Pope from them. But here again, by the help of 
the chronicles, I have given the true reading. THEOBALD. 

8 ' ' my life is fpann'd already :] Tofpan is to gripe, or inclofe 
in the hand; tofpan is alfo to meafure by the palm and fingers. 
The meaning, therefore, may either be, that hold is taken of my 
life, my life is in the gripe of my enemies ; or, that my time is mea- 
fured, the length of my life is now determined. JOHNSON. 

y I am thejhadovj of poor^ Buckingham ; 
Whofe figure even this inftant cloud puts on t 

By darlfning my clear fun. ] 

VOL. VII. O Thefe 


Whofe figure even this inftant cloud puts on, 
By dark'ning my clear fun. My lord, farewel. 


Thefe lines have patted all the editors. Does the reader under- 
Hand them ? By me they are inexplicable, and muft be left, I fear, 
to feme happier fagacity. If the uiage of our author's time 
could allow figure to be taken, as now, for dignity or importance, 
\ve might read : 

Wbofefigurt even this inftant cloud puts out. 
But I cannot pleafe myfelf with any conje&ure. 

Another explanation may be given, ibmewhat harfh, but the 
bell that occurs to me : 

I am tbejbadmv of poor Buckingham , 
Wljofe figure even this inftant cloud puts on, 

whofe port and dignity is ailumed by this cardinal, that over- 
clouds and opprefles me, and who gains my place 

By darkening my clear fun, JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Shakefpeare has exprefled the fame idea more clearly in 
the Two Gentlemen of Verona, Antony and Cleopatra, and King 
John : 

** Oh, how this fpring of love refembeleth 
** Th' uncertain glory of an April day, 
*' Which now fliews all the beauty of the fun, 
" And, by and by, a cloud takes all away." 
Antony remarking on the various appearances alTumed by the 
flying vapours, adds : 

now thy captain is 

*' Even fuch a body : here I am Antony, 
** But cannot hold this vifible fliape, my knave," 
Or yet more appofitely in King John : 

** being but the fhadow of your fon 

$< Becomes a fun, and makes your fon a ftiadow." 
Such another thought appears in the famous Hift. of Tho. Stukely^ 
1605 : 

** He is \\\zfubjiance of myy/Wo'uWlove." 
There is likewife a paflage fimilar to the conclufion of this, 
hi the Bloody Brother of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

** is drawn fo high, that, like an ominous comet, 

, ** He darkens all your light." STEEVEN&. 




The Council-Chamber. 

Cornet. Enter King Henry, leaning on the Cardinals 
Jhoulder ; the Nobles, and Sir Thomas LoveL The 
Cardinal places hlmfelf under the King's feet, on his 
right fide. 

King. My life itfelf, ' and the bed heart of it, 
Thanks you for this great care : * I flood i' the level 
Of a full-charg'd confederacy ; and give thanks 
To you that choak'd it. Let be call'd before us 
That gentleman of Buckingham's : in perfon 
I'll hear him his confeffions juftify ; 
And point by point the treafons of his mailer 
He fhall again relate. 

A noife within, crying, Room for the Queen. Enter 
the Queen, vjhered by the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk : 
jhe kneels. The King rifeth from hisjlate, takes her up, 
kiffes, and placeth her by him. 

j^ueen. Nay, we mufl longer kneel ; I am a fuitor. 

1 and the left heart of it,~\ The expreffion is monftrous. 

The heart is fuppofed the feat of life : but, as if he had many 
lives, and to each of them a heart, he fays, bis beft heart. A 
way of fpeaking that would have become a cat rather than a king. 


This expreffion is not more monftrous than many others. Heart 
is not here taken for the great organ of circulation and life, but, 
in a common and popular fenie, for the molt valuable or precious 
part. Our author, in Hamlet, mentions the heart of heart. Ex- 
haufted and effete ground is faid by the farmer to be out of heart. 
The hard and inner part of the oak is called heart of oak. 


* flood ? the level 

Of a full~c harg'el confederacy ; ] 

To ftand in the level of a gun is to (land in a line with in mouth, 
fo as to be hit by the (hot. JOHNIOX, 

O z King. 

i$ K I N G H E N R Y VIII. 

King. Arife, and take your place by us : Half 

your fuit 

Never name to us ; you have half our power : 
The other moiety, ere you afk, is given ; 
Repeat your will, and take it. 

Queen. Thank your majefty. 
That you would love yourfelf ; and, in that love, 
Not unconfider'd leave your honour, nor 
The dignity of your office, is the point ' V' 
Of my petition. 

King. Lady mine, proceed. 

Queen. 1 am folicited, not by a few, 
And thofe of true condition, that your fubjedts 
Are in great grievance : There have been commif- 


Sent down among them, which haveflaw'd the heart 
Of all their loyalties : wherein, although, [To Wolfey* 
My good lord cardinal, they vent reproaches 
Mod bitterly oh -you, as putter-on 
Of thefe exactions, yet the king our mailer, 
(Whofe honour heaven ihield from foil !) even he 

efcapes not 

Language unmannerly, yea, fuch which breaks 
The fides of loyalty, and almoft appears 
In loud rebellion. 

Nor. Not almoft appears, 
It doth appear : for, upon thefe taxations, 
The clothiers all, not able to maintain 
1 The many to them 'longing, have put off 
The fpinflers, carders, fullers, weavers, who, 
Unfit for other life, compell'd by hunger 

3 The many to them 'longing, ] The many is the me'niy, the train, 
the people. Dryden is, perhaps, the laft that ufed this word : 

" The kings before their many rode" JOHNSON. 
I believe the many is only the multitude. Thus, Coriolanus, fpeak- 
ing of the rabble, calls them : 

** the mutable rank-fcented many" STEEVENS. 



4 And lack of other means, in defperate manner 
Daring the event to the teeth, are all in uproar, 

5 And Danger ferves among them. 

King. Taxation ! 

Wherein ? and what taxation ? My lord cardinal, 
You that are blam'd for it alike with us, 
Know you of this taxation ? 

Wol. Pleafe you, fir, 
I know but of a fingle part, in aught 
Pertains to the ftate ; 6 and front but in that file 
Where others tell fteps with me. 

}uecn. No, my lord, 

4 And lack of other means, ] Means does not fignify methods 
of livelihood, for that was laid immediately before : 

Unfit for other life, 

but it lignifies, nccejfarics compelled^ fays the fpeaker, for ivant 
of bread and other necejjarics. But the poet ufing for the thing 
\vjar.t of bread] the effect of it, [hunger] the paflage is become 
doubly obfcure j firft, by ufing a term in a licentious fenfe, and 
then by putting it to a vicious conflruclion. The not apprehend- 
ing that this is one of the difHnguifhing peculiarities in Shake^- 
fpeare's ftile, has been the occafion of fo much ridiculous cor- 
rection of him. WARBURTON. 

I have inferted this note rather becaufe it feems to have been 
the writer's favourite, than becaufe it is of much value. It explains 
what no reader has found difficult, and, I think, explains it wrong. 


5 And Danger ferves among them."] Could one eafily believe, 
that a writer, who had, but immediately before, funk fo low in 
his expreffion, fhould here rife again to a height fo truly fublime ? 
where, by the nobleft ftretch of fancy, Danger is perfonalized as 
ferving in the rebel army, and fhaking the eftabliftied govern- 
ment. WAR BURTON. 

Chaucer, Gower, Skelton, and Spenfer, have perfonified 
Danger, The firft, in his Romaunt of the Rofe', the fecond, in 
his firth book De Confcffione Amantis ; the third in his Bouge of 
Court : 

" With that, anone out ftart dangcre" 

and the fourth, in the icth Canto of the fourth book of his 
paeiy ^ueen^ and again in the fifth book and the ninth Canto. 


6 front but in that jlli\ I am but primus infer pares. I am 
but fir# in the row of counfellors. JOHNSON, 

O 3 You 


You know no more than others : but you frame 
Things, that are known alike ; which are not whole- 


To thofe which would not know them, and yet muft 
Perforce be their acquaintance. Thefe exactions, 
Whereof my fovereign would have note, they are 
Mofl peftilent to the hearing ; and, to bear them, 
The back is facrifice to the load. They fay, 
They are devis'd by you ; or elfe you fuffer 
Too hard an exclamation. 

King. Still exadtion ! 

The nature of it ? In what kind, let's know, 
Is this exadion? 

Queen. I am much too venturous 
In tempting of your patience ; but am bolden'd 
Under your promis'd pardon. The fubjedYs grief 
Comes through commiflions, which compel from 


The fixth part of his fubftance, to be levy'd 
Without delay ; and the pretence for this 
Is nam'd, your wars in France : This makes bold 

mouths : 

Tongues fpit their duties out, and cold hearts freeze 
Allegiance in them ; their curfes now, 
Live where their prayers did ; and it's come to pafs, 
That tradable obedience 7 is a Have 
To each incenfed will. I would, your highnefs 
Would give it quick confideration, for 
8 There is no primer bufincfs. 


* traflabic oled : ence &c.] i. e. thofe who are tra&able and 
obedient muft give way to others who are angry. MVSGKAVE. 

8 There is no primer bufinefs.] In the old edition : 

There zs no primer b:ifenefs. 

The queen is here complaining of the fuffering of the commons ; 
which, fhe fufpects, arofe from the abufe of power in fome great 
men. But fhe is very referved in fpeakins; her thoughts concern- 
ing the quality of it.- We may be aflured then, that fhe did not, 
in conclulion, call it the highelt bajcnejs ; but rather made ufe of 

a word 


King. By my my life, 
This is againft our pleafure. 

Wol. And for me, 

I have no further gone in this, than by 
A fmgle voice ; and that not paft me, but 
By learned approbation of the judges. If I am 
Traduc'd by ignorant tongues, which neither know 
My faculties, nor perfon, yet will be 
The chronicles of my doing, let me fay, 
'Tis but the fate of place, and the rough brake 
That virtue muft go through. We muft not Hint 9 
Our neceflary adtions, in the fear 
1 To cope malicious ccnfurers ; which ever, 
As ravenous tifhes, do a veffel follow 
That is new trimm'd ; but benefit no further 
Than vainly longing. What we oft do beft, 
* By lick interpreters, once weak ones *, is 

a word that could not offend the cardinal, and yet would incline 
the king to give it a fpeedy hearing. I read therefore : 

There is no primer bulinefs. 
i, e. no matter of Hate that more earneftly prefles a difpatch. 


9 We muft not ftint] To flint is to _/?#;>, to retard. Many in- 
ftances of this fenfe of the word are given in a note on the firft 
ad of Romeo and Juliet. STEEVENS. 

1 To cope J To engage with ; to encounter. The word i* 
Hill ufed in fome counties. JOHNSON. 
* Byfak&c,] The old edition reads : 

Byjick interpreters, (Once weak ones) is 

Not ours, ; 

I do not know that the old reading ought to be reflored, but it 
may be noted. JOHNSON, 

The modern editors read or weak ones ; but once is not 

unlrequently uled for fomttime, or at one time or other, among 
our ancient writers. 

So, in the i 3th Idea of Dray ton : 

* This diamond ihall once confume to duft." 
Again, in the Merry Wives of Windfor-," I pray thee once tq. 
pight give my fweet Nan this ring." STEEYENS. 

Q 4 Not 

tco K I N G H E N R Y VIII, 

Not ours, or not allow'd ; 4 what worft, as oft, 

Hitting a groffer quality, is cry'd up 

For our beft act If we ihall ftand ftill, 

In fear our motion will be mock'd or carp'd at, 

We fhould take root here where we fit, or fit 

State ftatues only. 

King. Things done well, 

And with a care, exempt themfelvcs from fear ; 
Things done without example, in their ifliie 
Are to be fear'd. Have you a precedent, 
Of this commiflion ? I believe, not any. 
We muft not rend our fubjedb from our laws, 
And ftick them in our will. Sixth part of each ? 
A trembling contribution ! Why, we take, 
5 From every tree, lop, bark, and part o' the timber ; 
And, though we leave it with a root, thus hack'd, 
The air will drink the fap. To every county, 
Where this is queftion'd, fend our letters, with 
Free pardon to each man that has deny'd 
The force of this commiflion ; Pray, look to't ; 
I put it to your care. 

IVol. A word with you. [To the Secretary. 

Let there be letters writ to ever ihire, 
Of the king's grace and pardon. The griev'dcom-' 


'Hardly conceive of me ; let it be nois'd, 
That, through our intercefjion 6 , this revokement 

4 'iii. v.-hat worjl, as oft, 

Hitting a gr offer quality, ] 

The \vorft actions of great men are commended by the vulgar, as 
jpore accommodated to the groflnefs of their notions. JOHNSON. 

5 From every tree, lop, bark, and part o' the timber ; ] Lop is a 
fubfiantive, and fignifies the branches. WAX BURTON. 

6 That through our inter ceff.on, &c.] So, in Holinflied, p. 892 : 
" The cardinal!, to deliver himfelf from the evill will of the 
commons, purchafed by procuring and advancing of this demand, 
affirmed, and cauled it to be bruted abrode that through bis inter- 
(.tjjien the king had pardoned, and releafed all things." STEEVENS. 



And pardon comes : I fliall anon advife you 
Further in the proceeding. [Exit Secretary. 

Enter Surveyor. 

Queen. I am forry, that the duke of Buckingham 
Is run in your difpleafure. 

King. It grieves many : 

The gentleman is learn'd % a moft rare fpeaker, 
To nature none more bound ; his training luch, 
That he may furnifli and inftrucl: great teachers, 
And never feek for aid s out of himfelf. Yet fee, 
When thefe fo 9 noble benefits fhall prove 
Not well difpos'd, the mind growing once corrupt, 
They turn to vicious forms, ten times more ugly 
Than ever they were fair. x This man, fo compleat, 


7 The gentleman is learn V, &c.] It appears from " The Pro- 
logue of the tranflatour," that the Knyght of the Swanne, a 
French romance, was tranflated at the requeil of this unfortunate 
nobleman. Copland the printer, adds, " this prefent hiftory 
compyled, named Helyas the Knight of the Sivanne, of whom 
linially is defcended my faid lord." The duke was executed on 
Friday the i^th of May, 1521. The book has no date. 


8 out of himfelf. ] Beyond the treafures of his own 

mind. JOHNSON. 

noble benefits 

Not well difpos'd, ] 

Great gifts of nature and education, not joined with good difpo- 
Jitions. JOHNSON. 

* This man, fo compleat, 

Wljo ivas enroll'd 'mongft wonders, and when ive t 
Almoft with lift'ning ravifh'd, could not find 
His hour of fpeech, a minute ; he, my lady, &c. ] 
This fentence is broken and confufed, though, with the allow- 
ances always to be made to our authour, it may be underftood. 
Yet it may be proper to examine the old edition, which gives it 

1 and when iw, 

flmojl with ravifh'd liit'ning 

I know 


Who was enroll'd 'mongft wonders, and when we, 
Almoft with ravifh'd lifc'ning, could not find 
His hour of fpeech a minute ; he, my lady, 
Hath into monftrous habits put the graces 
That once were his, and is become as black * 
As if befmear'd in hell. Sit by us ; you fliall hear 
(This was his gentleman in truft) of him 
Things to flrike honour fad. -Bid him recount 
The fore-recited practices ; whereof 
We cannot feel too little, hear too much. 

Wol* Stand forth ; and with bold fpirit relate what 


Moft like a careful fubjedr., have collected 
Out of the duke of Buckingham, 

King. Speak freely. 

Sum* Firft, it was ufual with him, everyday 
It would infect his fpeech, That if the king 
Should without iffue die, he'd carry it fo 
To make the fcepter his : Thefe very words 
I have heard him utter to his fon-in-law, 
Lord Aberga'ny ; to \vhom by oath he menac'cj 
Revenge upon the cardinal. 

Wol* Pleafe your highnefsj note 

I know not whether we may not read : 

this man 

Who was enroled with wonder, and whom ie 

^.Imojl were ravijh'd lijlening, could not find 

His hour of fpeech a minute. 

To I'iften a man, for, to hearken to him, is commonly ufed by our 
authour. So, by Milton : 

" Illjlendthem a while." 

I do not rate my conje&ure at much ; but as the common read- 
ing is without authority, fomething may be tried. Perhaps the 
pairage is beft as it was originally publifhed. JOHNSON. 
a is become as black 

As iflefmcar'd in bell.~\ 
So, in Othello : 

4< HT name, that was as frefh 

'* As Dian's vifage, is now begrim'd and blacfc 

** AS mine own face." STEEVENS. 



? This dangerous conception in this point. 
Not friended by his wifh, to your high perfon. 
His will is moft malignant ; and it flretches 
Beyond yon, to your friends. 

Queen. My learn'd lord cardinal, 
Deliver all with charity. 

King. Speak on : 

How grounded he his title to the crown, 
Upon our fail ? to this point haft thou heard him 
At any time fpeak ought ? 

Surv. He was brought to this 
*By a vain prophecy of Nicholas Hopkins. 

King. What was that Hopkins ? 

Surv. Sir, a Chartreux friar, 
His confeflbr ; who fed him every minute 
With words of fovereignty. 

King. How know'ft thou this ? 

Surv. Not long before your highnefs fped to France, 
The duke being at the Rofe, within the parifli 
Saint Lawrence Poultney, did of me demand 
What was the fpeech among the Londoners 
Concerning the French journey : I reply'd, 

3 This dangerous conception in this poi;it.'\ Note this particular 
part of this dangerous defign. JOHNSON. 

* By a vain prophecy of Nicholas Kcpkins.] In former editions : 

By a vain prophecy of Nicholas Her.ton. 

We heard before, from Brandon, of one Nicholas Hopkins ; and 
now his name is changed into Henton ; fo that Brandon and the 
furveyor feem to be in two ftories. There is, however, but one 
and the fume perfon meant, Hopkins ; as I have reftored it in the 
text, for perspicuity's fake : yet will it not be any difficulty to ac- 
count for the other name, when we come to contider, that he was 
a monk of the convent, call'd Henton, near Briitol. So both Hall 
and Holinflied acquaint us. And he might, according to the 
cuftom of thefe times, be called Nicholas of Henton, from the 
place ; as Hopkins from his family. THEOBALD. 

This miikke, as it was undoubtedly made by Shr.kefpeare, is 
worth a note. It would be doing too great an honour to the play- 
ers to fuppoie them capable of being the authors of it. STEEVENS. 



Men fear'd, the French would prove perfidious, 

To the king's danger. Prefently the duke 

Said, 'Twas the fear, indeed ; and that he doubted, 

'Twould prove the verity of certain words 

Spoke by a holy monk ; that oft, fays he, 

Hath fent to me, wifoing me to permit 

John de la Court, my chaplain, a choice hour 

30 bear from him a matter of fome moment : 

Whom after s under the confefliotfs feat 

He folemnly had /worn, that, what he fpoke, 

My chaplain to no creature living, but 

To me, jhould utter, with demure confidence 

^his paitfingly enfifd, Neither the king nor his heirs, 

("Tell you the duke) fhattprofper : bidhimjlrive 

For the love 6 of the commonalty ; the duke 

Shall govern England. . 

>ueen. If I know you well, 

.You were the duke's furveyor, and loft your office 
On the complaint o' the tenants : Take good heed, 
You charge not in your fpleen a noble perfon, 
And fpoil your nobler foul ; I fay, take heed ; 
Yes, heartily befeech you. 

King. Let him on : 
Go forward. 

Surv. On my foul, I'll fpeak but truth. 
I told my lord the duke, By the devil's illufions 

s _ un der the commiffion'j feal 

He folemnly bad f worn, ] 

So, all the editions down from the very beginning. But what 
com?K!/un's feal ? That is a queftion, I dare fay, none of our 
diligent editors ever afked themielves. The text muft be rcilored, 
as I have corrected it ; and honeil Holiufhed, from whom our 
author took the fubitancc of this paflage, may be called in as a 
teflimony. " The duke in talk told the monk, that he had done 
very well to bind his chaplain, John de !a Court, under the feal of 
confcjfion, tokeepfecret fuch matter." Fid. Life of Hen. VIII. 
p. 863. THEOBALD. 

6 For the lo"je\ The old copy reads To the love. STEEVEKS, 



The monk might be deceiv'd ; and that 'twa s 

dang'rous for him 
To ruminate on this fo far, until 
It forg'd him fome defign, which, being believ'd, 
It was much like to do : He anfwer'd, <Tufh! 
It can do me no damage : adding further, 
That, had the king in his laft ficknefs fail'd, 
The cardinal's and fir Thomas Level's heads 
Should have gone off. 

King. Ha ! what, fo rank J ? Ah, ha ! 
There's mifchief in this man : Canft thou fay fur- 
ther ? 

Surv. I can my liege. 

King. Proceed. 

Surv. Being at Greenwich, 
After your highnefs had reprov'd the duke 
About fir William Blomer,- 

King. 1 remember 

Of fuch a time : 6 Being my fworn fervant, 
The duke retain'd him his. But on ; What hence ? 

Surv. Iff quoth he, / for this had been committed, 
As to the Tower, I thought) I would have play'd 
The part my father meant to aft upon 
'The ufurper Richard : who, being at Salijbury, 
Made fuit to come in his prefence ; which if granted, 
As he made femblance of his duty, would 
Have put his knife into him. 

King. A giant traitor ! 

Wol. Now, madam, may his highnefs live in 

And this man out of prifon ? 

5 fo rank? ] Rank weeds, are weeds that are grown up to 
great height and ftrength. IVbat, fays the king, ivas be advanced 
to this pitch ? JOHNSON. 

* Being my fiuorn fervant, &c.] Sir William Blomer 

(Holinflied calls him Htjmer) was reprimanded by the king in 
the ftar-chamber, for that, being his fworn fervant, he had left 
the king's fervice for the dukefof Buckingham's. EtfwMrtft 




Queen. God mend all ! 

King. There's fomerhing more would out of thee ; 
What fay'fl ? 

Surv. After the duke his father, with the 


He ftretch'd him, and, with one hand on his dagger, 
Another fpre'ad on his breaft, mounting his eyes, 
He did difchnrge a horrible oath ; whofe tenour 
Was, Were he evil us'd, he would out-go 
His father, by as much as a performance 
Does an irrefolute purpofe. 

King. There's his period, 
To fheath his knife in us. He is attach'd ; 
Call him to prefent trial : if he may 
Find mercy in the law, 'tis his ; if none, 
Let him not feek't of us : By day and night, 
He's traitor to the height. [Exeunt. 


An Apartment in the Palace. 
Enter the Lord Chamberlain, and Lord Sands. 

Cham. 7 Is it poffible, the fpells of France fhould 

Men into fuch ftrange myfteries ? 


7 Is itpojible, the fpells of France Jbould juggle 

Men into fuch Jlrange myfteries ?] 

Thefe myfteries were the fantaftic court-fafhions. He fays they 
were occafioned by the fpells of France. Now it was the opinion 
of the common people, that conjurers, jugglers, &c. with Jjbells 
and charms could force men to commit idle lantaitic aftions ; and 
change even their fhapes to fomething ridiculous and grotefque. 
To this fuperftition the poet alludes, who, therefore, we muft 
think, wrote the fecond line thus : 

Men into fuch Jlrange mockeries. 

A word well expreffive of the whimfical fafhions here complained 
of. Sir Thomas More, fpeaking of this very matter, at the fame 
time, fays : 



Sands. New cuftoms, 
Though they be never fo ridiculous, 
Nay, let 'em be unmanly, yet are follow'd. 

Cham. As far as I fee, all the good, our Englifli 
Have got by the late voyage, is but merely 
* A fit or two o'the face ; but they are ihrewd ones ; 
For, when they 'hold 'em, you would fwear dire&ly, 
Their very nofes had been counfellors 
To Pepin, or Clotharius, they keep ftare fo. 

Sands. They have all new legs, and lame ones ; one 

would take it, 

That never faw them pace before, the fpavin 
9 And fpringhalt reign'd among 'em. 


** Ut more firmae iaboret fingere 
" Et temulari Gallicas ineptias." 

But the Oxford editor, without regard to the metaphor, but in 
order to improve on the emendation, reads mimiciriei ; not con- 
fidering neither that whatfoe^er any thing is changed <yc juggled 
into by falls, muft have z pa/jive ngnification, as mockeries, [i.e. 
vinble figures] not an afiivc, as mimick'ries. WARBURTON. 

I do not deny this note to be plaufible, but am in doubt whe- 
ther it be right. I believe the explanation of the word myfterles 
will fpare us the trouble of trying experiments of emendation. 
Myfterics were allegorical (hews, which the mummers of thofe time* 
exhibited in odd and tantaftic habits. Myjieries are ufed, by an 
eafy figure, for thofe that exhibited myjleries; and the fenfe is 
only, that the travelled Englishmen were metamorphofed, by fo- 
reign fafliions, into fueh an uncouth appearance, that they looked 
like mummers in a myftery. JOHNSON. 

8 A fit or Mi'u #' the face; ] A fit of the face feems to be 

what we now term & grimace, an artificial caft of the countenance. 


Fletcher has more plainly exprefled the fame thought in TJjt 
Uer Brother : 

44 learnt new tongues 

" To vary his face as ieamen do their compafs. 


9 And fpringhalt reigned among 'em."] The ftringhalt^ ovfj>rig- 
halt) (as the old copy reads) is a difeafe incident to horfes, which 
gives them a convullive motion in their paces. 

So, in MuleaJJis the Turk, 1610 : 

** by reafon of a general fpring-halt and debility in their 



Cham. Death ! my lord, 
Their cloaths ar-e after fuch a pagan cut too, 
That, fure, they have worn out chriftendom. HOT/ 

now ? 
What news, fir Thomas Lovel ? 

Enter Sir Thomas Lovel. 

Lov. Faith, my lord, 
I hear of none, but the new proclamation 
That's clapp'd upon the court gate. 

Cham. What is't for ? 

Lov. The reformation of our travell'd gallants, 
That fill the court with quarrels, talk, and tailors. 

Cham. I am glad, 'tis there ; now I would pray 1 

our monfieurs 

To think an Englifh courtier may be wife, 
And never fee the Louvre. 

Lov. They mufl either 

(For fo run the conditions) leave thefe remnants 
Of fool, and feather ', that they got in France, 
With all their honourable points of ignorance 
Pertaining thereunto, (as fights, and fire-works ; 

Again, in Ben Jonfon's Bartholomew-Fair: 

" Poor foul, {he has had ^.Jiringhalt" STEEVENS. 

1 leave thofe remnants 

Of fool and feather,] 

This does not allude to the feathers anciently worn in the hats 
and caps of our countrymen, (a circumftance to which no ridi- 
<lule could juftly belong) but to an effeminate fafhion recorded 
in Greene's Farewell to Folly, 1617; from whence it appears 
that even young gentlemen carried fans of feathers in their 
hands : " we ftrive to be counted womanifli, by keeping 

of beauty, by curling the hair, by wearing plumes of feathers in 
our hands, which in wars, our anceftors wore on their heads." 
Again, in his >uip for an upftart Courtier, 1620: " Then our 
young courtiers ftrove to exceed one another in vertue not in 
bravery ; they rode not with fannes to ward their faces from the 
wind, &c." Again, in Lingua, &c. 1607. Phantaftes, who is a 
male character, is equipped with a fan, STEEYENS. 



Abufing better men than they can be, 

Out of a foreign wifdom) renouncing clean 

The faith they have in tennis, and tall itockings, 

Short blifter'd breeches', and thofe types of travel, 

And underftand again like honeft men ; 

Or pack to their old play-fellows : there, I take it, 

They may, cum privikgio, wear away 

The lag end of their lewdnefs, and be hugh'd at. 

Sands. 'Tis time to give them phy fick, their difeafcs 
Are grown fo catching. 

Cham. What a lofs our ladies 
Will have of thefe trim vanities ! 

Lov. Ay, marry. 

There will be woe indeed, lords : the fly whorefons 
Have got a fpeeding trick to lay down ladies ; 
A French fong, and a fiddle, has no fellow. 

Sands. The devil fiddle 'em ! I am glad, they're 

going ; 

(For, fure, there's no converting of 'em) now 
An honeft country lord, as I am, beaten 
A long time out of play, may bring his plain-fong, 
And have an hour of hearing ; and, by'r-lady, 
Held current mufick too. 

Cham. Well faid, lord Sands ; 
Your colt's tooth is not caft yet. 

Sands. No, my lord ; 
Nor fliall not, while I have a flump. 

Cham. Sir Thomas, 
Whither were you a going ? 

Lov. To the cardinal's ; 
Your lordlhip is a gueft too. 

Cham. O, 'tis true : 

This night he makes a fupper, and a great one, 
To many lords and ladies ; there will be 
The beauty of this kingdom, I'll affure you. 

"* blifter'd breeches,] Thus the old copy. i.e. breeches puff'd, 
fwell'd out like Uijlers. The modern editors read boljlsr d 
breeches, which has the fame meaning. STVENS. 

VOL. VII. P Lov. 


Lov. That churchman bears a bounteous mind in- 

A hand as fruitful as the land that feeds us ; 
His dews fall every where. 

Cham. No doubt, he's noble ; 
He had a black mouth, that laid other, of him. 

Sands. He may, my lord, he has wherewithal ; in 


Sparing would mew a worfe fin than ill do&rine : 
Men of his way Ihould be mofl liberal, 
They are fet here for examples. 

Cham. True, they are fo ; 

But few now give fo great ones. My barge flays ; 
Your lordfhip mall along : Come, good fir Tho- 

We mall be late elfe ; which I would not be, 
For I was fpoke to, with fir Henry Guilford, 
This night to be comptrollers. 

Sands. I am your lordfhip's. {Exeunt* 


Changes to Tork-Place. 

Hautboys. A<fmall table under a Jlate for the Cardinal, 
a longer table for the guefts. Then enter Anne Bulkn, 
and divers other ladies and gentlewomen, as guefts, at 
one door ; at another door, enter Sir Henry Guilford. 

Guil. Ladies, a general welcome from his grace 
Salutes you all : This night he dedicates 
To fair content, and you : none here, he hopes, 
In all this ? noble bevy, has brought with hoi- 
One care abroad ; he would have all as merry 

J ~ noble bevy ] Milton has copied this word : 
** A 'bevy of fair dames" JOHNSON. 


* As firft-good company, good wine, good welcome, 
Can make good people. O, my lord, you are tardy ; 

Enter Lord Chamberlain, Lord Sands, and fir Thomas Lovd. 

The very thought of this fair company 
Clap'd wings to me. 

Cham. You are young, fir Harry Guilford. 

Sands. Sir Thomas Lovel, had the cardinal 
But half my lay-thoughts in him, fome of thefe 
Should find a running banquet ere they relied, 
I think, would better pleafe 'em : By my life, 
They are a fweet fociety of fair ones. 

Lov. O, that your lordfliip were but now confeflbr 
To one or two of thefe ! 

Sands. I would, I were ; 
They fhould find eafy penance. 

Lov. 'Faith, how eafy ? 

Sands. As eafy as a down-bed would afford it. 
Cham. Sweet ladies, will it pleafe you fit ? Sir 


Place you that fide, I'll take the charge of this : 
His grace is entring. Nay, you muft not freeze; 
Two women plac'd together make cold weather : 
My lord Sands, you are one will keep 'em waking ; 
Pray, fit between thefe ladies. 

Sands. By my faith, 

* As, firft, good company ^ good ivlne. Sec.] As this paflage has 
been all along pointed, fir Harry Guiltord is made to include all 
thefe under the./fr/? article ; and then gives us the drop as to what 
fliould follow. The poet, I am perfuaded, wrote : 

As firrt-good company, goodiuine, good welcome, &c. 
i. e. he would have you as merry as thefe three things can make 
you, the belt company in the land, of the beft rank, good wine, 

Sir T. Hanmer has mended it more elegantly, but with greater 
violence : 

i good company, then good ivine, 8fC. JOHNSON. 

P a And 

112 tflNG HENRY VIII. 

And thank you lordfhip. By your leave, fweet la*- 
dies : [Sits. 

If I chance to talk a little wild, forgive me ; 
I had it from my father. 

Anne. Was he mad, fir ? 

Sands. O, very mad, exceeding mad, in love too : 
But he would bite none ; juft as I do now, 
He would kifs you twenty with a breath. [Ktffes "her. 

Cham. Well faid, my lord. 
So, now you are fairly fcated : Gentlemen, 
The penance lies on you, if thefe fair ladies 
Pafs away frowning. 

Sands. For my little cure, 
Let me alone. 

Hautboys. Enter Cardinal Wolfey, and takes his fate. 

Wol* You are welcome, my fair guefts ; that 

noble lady, 

Or gentleman, that is not freely merry, 
Is not my friend : This, to confirm my welcome ; 
And to you all good health. [Drinks, 

Sands'. Your grace is noble : 
Let me have fiich a bowl may hold my thanks, 
And fave me fo much talking. 

IVoL My lord Sands, 

I am beholden to you : cheer your neighbours.* 
Ladies, you are not merry ; Gentlemen, 
Whofe fault is this ? 

Sands. The red wine firft muft rife 
In their fair checks, my lord ; then we ihall have 'era 
Talk us to filencc. 

Anne. You are a merry gamefter, 
My lord Sands. 

'Sd;ids. Yes, if I make my play 7 . 

y/Ar/.] i.e. if I make my party. 




Here's to your ladyfhip : and pledge it, madam, 
For 'tis to fuch a thing, 

Anne. You cannot ihew rue. 

Sands. I told your grace, they would talk anon. 
[Drum and trumpets, chambers difchargd 6 . 

Wol. What's that ? 

Cham. Look out there, fome of you. {Exit Servant. 

Wol. What warlike voice ? 

And to what end is this ? Nay, ladies, fear not ; 
By all the laws of war you are privileg'd. 

Re-enter Servant. 
Cham. How now ? what is't ? 
Serv. A noble troop of flrangers ; 
For fo they fcem : they have left their barge, and 

landed ; 

And hither make, as great ambaffadors 
From foreign princes. 

Wol. Good lord chamberlain, 
Go, give 'em welcome, you can fpeak the French 

tongue ; 

And, pray, receive 'em nobly, and conduct 'em 
Into our prefence, where this heaven of beauty 
Shall ihine at full upon them : Some attend him. 
[All arife, and tables removed. 

6 Clambers difcharg d.~\ A chamber is a gun which ftands 

ereft on its breech. Such are ufed only on occaiions of rejoicing, 
and arc fo contrived as to carry great charges, and thereby to 
make a noife more than proportioned to their bulk. They are 
called chambers becaufe they are mere chambers to lodge pow- 
der ; a chamber being the technical term for that cavity in a piece 
of ordnance which contains the combutVibles. Some of them are 
Hill fired in the Park, and at the places oppofite to the parlia- 
ment-heuie, when the king goes thither. Camden enumerates 
them among other guns, as follows : " cannons, demi-cunnons, 
chambers, arquebuie, mufquet." 
Again, in A Ne-iv Trick fo cheat the Devil, 1636 : 

" I ftill think o' the Tower ordinance, 

" Or of the peal of chambers, that's 1H11 fir'd 

" When my lord-muyor takes his barge." STEEVENS. 

P 3 You 


You have now a broken banquet ; but we'll mend it. 
A good digeftion to you all : and, once more, 
I Ihower a welcome on you ; Welcome all. 

Hautboys. Enter the King, and others, asMaJkers 7 , habited 
like Shepherds* vjher d by the Lord Chamberlain. 
They pafs directly before the Cardinal, and gracefully 
falute' him. 

A noble company ! What are their pleafures ? 

Cham. Becaufe they fpeak no Englifh, thus they 


To tell your, grace ; That, having heard by fame 
Of this fo noble and fo fair aflembly 
This night to meet here, they could do no lefs, 
Out of the great refpedt they bear to beauty, 
But leave their flocks ; and, under your fair conduct. 
Crave leave to view thefe ladies, and entreat 
An hour of revels with them. 

mi. Say, lord chamberlain, 
They have done my poor houfe grace ; for which I 

pay them 

A thoufand thanks, and pray them take their plea- 
[Chufe ladies for the dance. King, and Anne Sullen. 

King. The faireft hand I ever touch'd ! O, beauty, 
'Till now I never knew thee. [Mujick. Dance. 

mi. My lord, 

Cham. Your grace ? 

Wol. Pray, tell 'em thus much from me : 
There ihould be one amongft 'em, by his perfon, 
More worthy this place than myfelf ; to whom, 
If I but knew him, with my love and duty 
I would furrender it. 

Cham. I will, my lord. 

[Cham, goes to the company, and returns. 

7 Enter tie king, and others, as m(i(kcrs.~\ For an account of this 
mafque fee Holinlhed, Vol.11, p. 921. STEEVEXS. 



What fay they ? 

Cham. Such a one, they all confefs, 
There is, indeed ; which they would have your grace 
Find out, and he will 8 take it. 

Wol Let me fee then. 

By all your good leaves, gentlemen ; Here Fll make 
My royal choice. 

King. 9 You have found him, cardinal : 
You hold a fair affembly ; you do well, lord : 
You are a churchman, or, I'll tell you, cardinal, 
I fhould judge now ' unhappily. 

Wol I am glad, 
Your grace is grown fo pleafant. 

King. My lord chamberlain, 
Pry'thee, come hither : What fair lady's that ? 

Cbam. An't pleafe your grace, fir Thomas Bullen's 

The vifcount Rochford, one of her highnefs' women. 

King. By heaven, me is a dainty one. Sweet heart, 
I were unmannerly, to take you out, [To Anne Bullen. 
And not to kifs you *. A health, gentlemen, 

8 take it. ] That is, take the chief place. JOHNSON*. 

9 You have found him, cardinal:"] Holinfhed fays the cardinal 
miftook, and pitched upon fir Edward Neville; upon which the 
king laughed, and pulled oft' both his own malk and lir Edward's. 
Edward's MSS. STEEVENS. 

1 unhappily. ~\ That is, unluckily, mifcbievoujly. JOHNSON. 

So, in A merye Jejl of a Man called H&ivleglas , bl. 1. no date : 

" in fuch manner colde he cloke and hyde his unbappinejje 
'and falfnefle." STEEVENS. 

* I iv ere unmannerly to take you ouf t 
And not to liifs vou.~\ 

A kifs was anciently the eftablilhed fee of a lady's partner. So, 
in A Dialogue l/etiveeti Cvftotn and Veritie^ concerning the fJ(e and 
Abufe of Dauncitig and Mitiftrcljic, bl. 1. no date. " Imprinted at 
London, at the long fliop adjoining unto faint Mildreds church ia 
the Pultrie, by John Allde." 

" But fome reply, what fqole would daunce, 

"If that when daunce is doon, 
** He may not have at ludyes lips 

** That which in duunce he woon r" STEEVENS. 

r P 4 Let 


Let it go round. 

WoL Sir Thomas Lovel, is the banquet ready 
J' the privy chamber ? 
Lov. Yes, my lord. 
Wol. Your grace, 

I fear, with dancing is a little heated. 
King. I fear, too much. 
Wol. There's frefher air, my lord, 
In rhe next chamber. 

King. Lead in your ladies, every one. -Sweet 


I muft not yet forfake you : Let's be merry ; 
Good my lord cardinal, I have half a dozen healths 
To drink to thefe fair ladies, and a meafure. 
To lead them once again ; and then let's dream 
Who's befl in favour. Let the mufick knock it. 

, [Exeunt, with trumpets. 

A C T II. S C E N E I. 

A Street. 
Enter two Gentlemen at feveral doors. 

1 Gen. Whither away fo faft ? 

2 Gen. O, God fave you ! 

Even to the hall, to hear what fhall become 
Of the great duke of Buckingham. 

1 Gen. I'll fave you 

That labour, fir. All's now done, but the ceremony 
Of bringing back the prifoner. 

2 Gen. Were you there ? 

1 Gen. Yes, indeed, was I. 

2 Gen. Pray, fpeak, what has happened ? 

i Gen. 


1 Gen. You may gucfs quickly what. 

2 Gen. Is he found guilty ? 

1 Gen. Yes, truly, is he, and condemn'd upon it. 

2 Gen. I am forry for't. 

1 Gen. So are a number more. 

2 G^. But, pray, how pafs'd it ? 

1 Gen. I'll tell you in a little. The great duke 
Came to the bar ; where, to his accufations, 

He pleaded Hill, not guilty, and alledg'd 
Many ftiarp reafons to defeat the law. 
The king's attorney, on the -contrary, 
Urg'd on the examinations, proofs, confeffions 
Of divers witnefTes ; which the duke defir'd 
To have brought, vfodvoce, to his face : 
At which appear'd againft him, his furveyor; 
Sir Gilbert Peck his chancellor ; and John Court, 
Confeflbr to him , with that devil-monk 
Hopkins, that made this mifchief. 

2 Gen. That was he, 

That fed him with his prophecies ? 

1 Gen. The fame. 

All thefe accus'd him ftrongly ; which he fain 
Would have flung from him, but, indeed, he could 

not : 

And fo his peers, upon this evidence, 
Have found him guilty of high treafon. Much 
He Ipoke, and learnedly, for life ; but all 
Was either pitied in him, or forgotten. 

2 Gen. After all this, how did he bear himfelf? 

i Gen. When he was brought again to the bar, 

to hear 

His knell rung out, his judgment, he was ftirr'd 
With fuch an agony, he fweat extremely ; , 
And fomething ipoke in choler, ill, and hafty : 

3 /' bef-Mcat extremely ;] TJiis circumflanceis taken from 
Holinfhed. - " After Ke was round guilty, the duke was brought 
to the bar, fore chafing, and/iwvrt ^narveloujly" STEEVENS. 



But he fell to himfelf again, and, fweetly, 

In all the reft ihew'd a moft noble patience, 

2 Gen. I do not think, he fears death. 

1 Gen. Sure, he does not, 

He never was fo womartifti ; the caufe 
He may a little grieve at. 

2 Gen. Certainly, 

The cardinal is the end of this. 

1 Gen. 'Tis likely, 

By all conjectures : Firft, Kildare's attainder, 
Then deputy of Ireland ; who remov'd, 
Earl Surrey was fent thither, and in hafte too 5 
Left he fhould help his father. 

2 Gen. That trick of ftate 
Was a deep envious one. 

1 Gen. At his return, 

No doubt, he will requite it. This is noted, 
And generally ; whoever the king favours, 
The cardinal inftantly will find employment, 
And far enough from court too. 

2 Gen. All the commons 

Hate him pernicioufly, and, o' my confcienee, 
Wilh him ten fathom deep : this duke as much 
They love and doat on ; call him, bounteous Buck- 
The mirrour of all courtefy ; 

1 Gen. Stay there, fir, 

And fee the noble ruin'd man you fpeak of, 

Enter Buckingham from bis arraignment, (Tipftaves before 
him, the axe with the edge toward him ; halberds on 
on each fide) accompanied with Sir 'Thomas Lovel, Sir 
Nicholas Faux, Sir William 4 Sands, and common 
people, &c. 

2 Gen. Let's ftand clofc, and behold him. 
Buck. All good people, 

* Sir William.'] The old copy reads, Sir Walter. STEEVEVS. 



You that thus far have come to pity me, 

Hear what I fay, and then go home and lofe me. 

I have this day receiv'd a traitor's judgment, 

And by that name muft die ; Yet, heaven bear witnefs, 

And, if I have a conference, let it fink me, 

Even as the axe falls, if I be not faithful ! 

The law I bear no malice for my death, 

'T has done, upon the premifes, but juftice ; 

But thofe, that fought it, I could wilh more chri- 

ftians : 

Be what they will, I heartily forgive 'em : 
Yet let 'em look they glory not in mifchief, 
Nor build their evils on the graves of great men ; 
For then my guiltlefs blood muft cry againfl 'em. 
For further life in this world I ne'er hope, 
Nor will I fue, although the king have mercies 
More than I dare make faults. 5 You few that lov'd 


And dare be bold to weep for Buckingham, 
His noble friends, and fellows, whom to leave 
Is only bitter to him, only dying, 
Go with me, like good angels, to my end ; 
And, as the long divorce of ftecl falls on me, 
Make of your prayers one fweet facrifice, 
And lift my foul to heaven. Lead on, o' God's name. 

Jjov. I do befeech your grace, for charity, 
If ever any malice in your heart 
Were hid againft me, now to forgive me frankly. 
Buck. Sir Thomas Lovcl, I as free forgive you, 
As I would be forgiven : I forgive all ; 
There cannot be thofe numberlefs offences 
'Gainft me, that I can't take peace with : 6 no black 



5 - You fe-w, that Imfd me+ &c.] Thefe lines are re- 

markably tender and pathetic. JOHNSON. 

6 -no black envy 

Shall make my grave. ] 



Shall make my grave. Commend me to his grace-; 
And, if he fpeak of Buckingham, pray, tell him, 
You met him half in heaven : my vows and prayers 
Yet are the king's; and, 'till my foul forfake me, 

The fenfe of this is, that envy fliould not procure or advance his 
death. But this is' not what he would fay ; he believed the car- 
dinal's envy did procure his death. He is fpeaking not of an- 
cther's envy but his own. And his thought is, that he would 
not be remembered for an implacable unforgiving temper, W 
fhould read therefore : 

no black envy 

Shall mark my grave. 

alluding to the old cuftom of marking good or ill, by a white or 
Hack ilone. WAR HUSTON. 

Dr. Warburton has with good judgment obferved the error, 
but has not, I think, very happily corrected it. I do not fee how 
the envy of thofe that are buried can mark the grave. In reading 
the lines I cannot but fufpect that two words, as it may naturally 
happen, have changed places : 

7 here cannot be thofe mtmbcrlcfe offences 

*GainJi me, I can't take peace with: ua black envy 

Shall m ake my grave. 

I would read thus : 

There cannot be thofe numberlefs affences 

*Gai?ift tnCj I catft make peace with, HO black envy 

Shall take my grave. 

TofaZe, in this place, is to blajl, to ftrike with malignant influ* 
ence. So, in, Lear: 

" Strike her young limbs > 

" Te taking airs, -with lamenefs. 
Again, in Hamlet: 

" No fpint Hares vsalk abroad, 

" No planet takes. " JOHNSON. 

I believe Shakefpeare, by this expreilion, meant no more than 
to make the duke lay, No atiicn cxprejjive of malice Jfyall condudt 
tny lift: Envy by our author is ufed for malice and hatred in 
other places, and, perhaps, in this. 

Again, in the ancient metrical romance of Syr Btvis of Hamb* 
ton y bl. 1. no date : 

" Traytoure, he fayd with great eitny^ 

' Turne thee now i tiiec Jefye." 
Again : 

*' They drevve theyr fwordes hnftely 

" And fmot together witli great envy." 

And Barrett, in his Alvcari'c, or 'QuadYttph Dictionary , 1580, interprets it. STEEVENS. 


Shall cry for bleffings on him : May he live 
Longer than I have time' to tell his years ! 
Ever belov'd, and loving, may his rule be ! 
And, when old time fhall lead him to his end, 
Goodnefs and he fill up one monument ! 

Lov. To the water fide I muft conduct your grace ; 
Then give my charge up to fir Nicholas Vaux, 
Who undertakes you to your end. 

Vaux. Prepare there, 

The duke is coming : fee, the barge be ready ; 
And fit it with fuch furniture, as fuits 
The greatnefs of his perfon. 

Buck. Nay, fir Nicholas, 
Let it alone ; my ftate now but will mock me. 
When I came hither, I was lord high conilab'e, 
And duke of Buckingham ; now, poor Edward 

Bohun 7 : 

Yet I am richer than my bafe accufers, 
That never knew what truth meant : 8 1 now feal it; 

'i poor Edward Bohun :] The duke of Buckingham's namfc 
was Stafford, Shakefpeare was led into the miftake by Holinihed. 


This is not an expreflion thrown ovit at random, or by mif- 
take, but one ftrongiy marked with hiltorical propriety. The 
name of the cluke of Buckingham moff generally knou r n, \vas 
Stafford; but the H-ft. of Remarkable Tr':als, 8vo. 1715, p. 170, 
fays : " itfeems he affe&ed that fumamc [of Bobun\ before that of 
Stafford, he being defcended from the Bohuns, earls of Hereford.'" 
His reafon for this might be, beccmle he was lord high conftable 
of England by inheritance of tenure from the Bobuns ; and as 
the poet has taken particular notice of his great office, -does it 
not feem probable that he had fully confidered of :the duke's 
foundation for aijuming tne name of Bobun ? In truth, the duke's 
name was BAGOT ; for a gentleman ot that very ancient family 
married the heirefs of the barony of Stafford, and their fon re- 
Knquifhing his paternal lurname, a (Turned that of his fnother, 
which continued in his pofterity. TOLLET. 

8 ' / ntrjjfeal if, &:c.] I now feal my truth, my loyalty, 
with blood, which blood ii.aii one day make them groan. 



42* K I N G H E N R Y VIIL 

And with that blood, will make 'em one day groan 


My noble father, Henry of Buckingham, 
Who firft rais'd head againft ufurping Richard, 
Flying for fuccour to his fervant Baniiler, 
Being diftrefs'd, was by that wretch betray'd, 
And without trial fell ; God's peace be with him ! 
Henry the fcventh fucceeding, truly pitying 
My father's lofs, like a mofl royal prince, 
Reftor'd me to my honours, and, out of ruins, 
Made my name once more noble. Now his fon, 
Henry the eighth, life, honour, name, and all 
That made me happy, at one ftroke has taken 
For ever from the world. I had my trial, 
And, muft needs fay, a noble one ; which makes me 
A little happier than my wretched father : 
Yet thus far we are one in fortunes, Both 
Fell by our fervants, by thofe men we lov'd moft ; 
A mofl unnatural and faithlcfs fervice ! 
Heaven has an end in all : Yet, you that hear me, 

This from a dying man receive as certain : 

Where you are liberal of your loves, and counfels, 

Be fure, you be not loofe ; for thofe you make friends, 

And give your hearts to, when they once perceive 

The leaft rub in your fortunes, fall away 

Like water from ye, never found again 

But where they mean to fink ye. All good people, 

Pray for me ! I muft now forfake you ; the laft hour 

Of my long weary life is come upon me. 

Farewel : 

And when you would fay fomething that is fad 9 , 

9 And when you would fay fometbing that is fad &c.] So, in 
K, Richard II : 

" Tellthou the lamentable tale of me, 

" And fend the hearers weeping to their beds. 




Speak how I fell. I have done ; and God forgive 
me ! [Exeunt Buckingham, and 'Train, 

1 Gen. O, this is full of pity-! Sir, it calls, 
I fear, too many curfes on their heads, 

That were the authors. 

2 Gen. If the duke be guiltlefs, 

'Tis full of woe : yet I can give you inkling 
Of an enfuing evil, if it fall, 
Greater than this. 

1 Gen. Good angels keep it from us ! 

What may it be ? You do not doubt my faith, fir ? 

2 Gen. This fecret is fo weighty, 'twill require 
1 A ftrong faith to conceal it. 

1 Gen. Let me have it j 
I. do not talk much. 

2 Gen. I am confident ; 

You lhall, fir : Did you not of late days hear 
A buzzing, of a feparation 
Between the king and Katharine ? 

1 Gen. Yes, but it held not : 

For when the king once heard it, out of anger 
He fent command to the lord mayor, ftraight 
To flop the rumour, and allay thofe tongues 
That durft difperfe it. 

2 Gen. But that flander, fir, 

Is found a truth now : for it grows again 
Frelher than e'er it was ; and held for certain, 
The king will venture at it. Either the cardinal, 
Or fome about him near, have, out of malice 
To the good queen, poflefs'd him with a fcrnple 
That will undo her : To confirm this too, 
Cardinal Campeius is arriv'd, and lately ; 
As all think, for this bufinefs. 

i Gen. 'Tis the cardinal ; 
And meerly to revenge him on the emperor, 
For not beftowing on him, at his aiking, 

1 Strong faith ] is great fidelity. JOHNSON. 



The archbifhoprick of Toledo, this is purpos'd. 

2 Gen. I think, you have hit the mark : But is't 

not cruel, 

That Ihe fhould feel the fmart of this ? The cardinal 
Will have his will, and Ihe muft fall. 

i Gen. 'Tis woeful. 
We are too open here to argue this ; 
Let's think in private more. [Exeunt. 


An Antichamber in the Palace. 

Enter the Lord Chamberlain, reading a letter. 

My lord, The horfes your lordjhip fent for, with all 
the care I had, I faw well chofen, ridden, and furnffied. 
They were young, and handfome ; and of the beft breed in 
the north. Wl:en they were ready to Jet out for London, 
a man of my lord cardinal's, by commijjion, and mam 
power, took 'em from me ; with this reafon, His mafter 
would, lye ferv'd before a fubjecJ, if not before the king : 
which Jlopp'd our mouths, fir. 

I fear, he will, indeed : Well, let him have them ; 
He will have all, I think. 

Enter the l}ukes of Norfolk, and Suffolk. 

Nor. Well met, my lord chamberlain. 

Cham. Good day to both your graces. 

Suf. How is the king employ'd ? 

Cham. I left him private, 
Full of fad thoughts and troubles. 

Nor. What's the caufe ? 

Cham. It feejns, the marriage with his brother's wife 
Has crept too near his confcience. 

Suf. No, his confcience 
Has crept too 'near another lady. 

Nor. 'Tis fo ; 



'This is the cardinal's doing, the king-cardinal : 
That blind prieft, like the eldeft Ton of fortune, 
Turns what he lifts. This king will know him one 

Suf. Pray God> he do ! he'll never know himfelf 

Nor. How holily he works in all his bufinefs ! 
And with what zeal ! For, now he has crack'd the 


Between us and the emperor, the queen's great nephew, 
He dives into the king's foul ; and there fcatters 
Doubts, dangers, wringing of the confcience, 
Fears, and defpairs, and all thefe for his marriage : 
And, out of all thefe to reftore the king, 
He counfels a divorce : a lofs of her, 
That, like a jewel, has hung twenty years 
About his neck, yet never loft her luftre ; 
Of her, that loves him with that excellence 
That angels love good men with ; even of her, 
That, when the greateft ftroke of fortune falls, 
Will blefs the king : And is not this courfe pious ? 

Cham. Heaven keep me from fuch counfel ! 'Tis 

moft true, 

Thefe news are every where ; every tongue fpeaks 'em, 
And every true heart weeps for't : All, that dare 
Look into thefe affairs, fee his main end, 
The French king's lifter z . Heaven will one day open 
The king's eyes, that fo long have flept upon 
This bold bad man. 

Suf. And free us from his flavery. 

Nor. We had need pray, 
And heartily, for our deliverance ; 
Or this imperious man will work us all 
3 From princes into pages : all men's honours 

- Tix French king's fijler.} i. e. the duchefs of Alei^on. 


3 From princes into pages : ] This may allude to the retinue of 
the cardinal, who had feveral of the nobility among his menial 
fervants. JOHNSON. 

VOL. VII. Q_ Lie 


Lie like one lump before him, to be falhion'd 
4 Into what pitch he pleafe. 

Suf. For me, my lords, 

I love him not, nor fear him ; there's my creed : 
As I am made without him, fo I'll ftand, 
If the king pleafe ; his curies and his bleffings 
Touch me alike, they are breath I not believe in. 
I knew him, and I know him ; fo I leave him 
To him, that made him proud, the pope. 

Nor. Let's in ; 

And, with fome other bufinefs, put the king 
From thefe fad thoughts, that work too much upon 

him : 
My lord, you'll bear us company ? 

Cham. Excufe me ; 

The king hath fent me other-where : befides, 
You'll find a moft unfit time to difturb him : 
Health to your lordfhips. 

Nor. Thanks, my good lord chamberlain. 

[Exit Lord Chamberlain. 

A Door opens, and difcovcrs the King fitting and reading 
penfwely *. 

Suf. How fad he looks ! fare, he is much afflicted. 

King. Who's there ? ha ? 

Nor. Pray God, he be not angry. 

4 Into what pitch at pleafe,] Here is a flrange diflbnance in the 
metaphor, which is taken from unbak'd dough. I read : 

Into what pinch he pleafe. 
\. e. into what fhape he pleafe. WAR BURTON. 

I do not think this emendation neceflhry, let the allufion be to 
what it will. The mafs muft be faihioned VOUQ pitch or height, as 
well as into particular form. The meaning is, that the cardinal 
can, as he pleafes, make high or low. JOHNSON. 

The allufion feems to be to the 2 ill verfe of the gth chapter of 
the Epiftle of St. Paul to the Romans : " Hath not the potter 
power over the clay of the fame lump, to make one veflel unto 
honour, and another unto difhonour ?" COLLINS. 

5 A door opens, &c.] The ftage direction in the old copy is a 
fingular one. >xit Lord Chamberlain^ and the King draws the 
cur tain i and Jits reading penfivcly . STEE.vt.N3. 



King. Who's there, I fay ? How dare you thruft 


Into my private meditations ? 
Who am I ? ha ? 

Nor. A gracious king, that pardons all offences, 
Malice ne'er meant : our breach of duty, this way, 
Is bufinefs of eftate ; in which, we come 
To know your royal pleafure. 

King. You are too bold : 

Go to ; I'll make ye know your times of bufinefs : 
Is this an hour for temporal affairs ? ha ? 

Enter Wolfey> and, Campeius with a Commrffion. 

Who's there ? my good lord cardinal ? O my 


The quiet of my wounded confcience> 
Thou art a cure fit for a king. You're welcome, 

[To Campeius. 

Mori: learned reverend fir, into our kingdom ; 
Ufe us, and it : My good lord., 6 have great care 
I be not found a talker. [To Wolfey. 

WoL Sir, you cannot. 

I would, your grace would give us but an hour 
Of private conference. 

King. We are bufy ; go. To Norf. and Suf. 

Nor. This prieft has no pride in him ? 

Suf. Not to fpeak of; 
I would not be 7 fo fick though, for his place : 
But this cannot continue. Afide. 

Nor. If it do> 
I'll venture one heave at him. 

Suf. I another. [Exeunt Norfolk and Suffolk^ 

6 have great care 

I It not found a talker. ~\ 

I take the meaning to be, Let care le taken that my prom if e le per- 
formed, that my profcffiotis of welcome lie not found empty talk. 

7 -fojlcli tbtvrb)] That \3 9 fJck as he is proud. JOHNSON. 


WoL Your grace has given a precedent of wifdom; 
Above all princes, in committing freely 
Your fcruple to the voice of Chriilendom : 
Who can be angry now ? what envy reach you ? 
The Spaniard, ty'd by blood and favour to her, 
Muft now confefs, if he have any goodnefs, 
The trial juft and noble. All the clerks, 
I mean, the learned ones, in chriftian kingdoms, 
Have their free voices : Rome, the nurfe of judgment. 
Invited by your noble felf, hath fent 
One general tongue unto us, this good man, 
This juft and learned prieft, cardinal Campeius ; 
Whom, once more, I prefent unto your highnefs. 

King. And, once more, in mine arms I bid him 


And thank the holy conclave for their loves ; 
They have fent me fuch a man I would have wilh'd for. 

Cam. Your* grace muft needs deferve all ftrangers* 


You are fo noble : To your highnefs' hand 
I tender my commiflion ; by whofe virtue, 
(The court of Rome commanding) you, my lord 
Cardinal of York, are join'd with me their fervant, 
In the unpartial judging of this bufmefs. 

King. Two equal men. The queen lhall be ac- 
Forthwith, for what you come : Where's Gardiner ? 

Wol. I know, your majefty has always lov'd her 
So dear in heart, not to deny her that 
A woman of lefs place might alk by law, 
Scholars, allow'd freely to argue for her. 

King. Ay, and the belt, Ihe lhall have ; and my 


To him that does belt; God forbid elfe. Cardinal, 
Pr'ythee, call Gardiner ta me, my new fecretary ; 
I find him a fit fellow. 



Cardinal goes out, and re-enters with Gardiner. 

Wol Give me your hand : much joy and favour to 

You are the king's now. 

Gard. But to be commanded 

For ever by your grace, whofe hand has rais'd me. 


King. Come hither, Gardiner. [Walks andwlifpers. 

Cam. My lord of York, was not one do&or Pace 
In this man's place before him ? 

Wol. Yes, he was. 

Cam. Was he not held a learned man ? 

JVol Yes, furely. 

Cam. Believe me, there's an ill opinion fpread then 
Even of yourfelf, lord cardinal* 

Wd. How ! of me f 

Cam. They will not flick to fay, you envy'd him; 
And, fearing he would rife, he 'was fo virtuous, 
* Kept him a foreign man ftill : which fo griev'd him, 
That he ran mad, and dy'd. 

Wol Heaven's peace be with him ! 
That's chriftian care enough : for living murmurers, 
There's places of rebuke. He was a fool ; 
For he would needs be virtuous : That good fellow, 
If I command him, follows my appointment ; 
I will have none fo near elfe. Learn this, brother, 
We live not to be grip'd by meaner perfons. 

King. Deliver this with modelty to the queen. , 

[Exit Gardiner* 

The mod convenient place that I can think of, 
For fuch receipt of learning, is Black-Friars ; 
There ye fliall meet about this weighty bufmefs : 
My Wolfey, fee it furnifh'd. O my lord, 
Would it not grieve an able man, to leave 

8 Kept lint a foreign manjlill: ] Kept him out of the king's 
prefeuce, employed in foreign embaffies. JOHNSON, 



So fweet a bedfellow ? But, confcience, conference, 
O, 'tis a tender place, and I muft leave her. [Exeunt. 


An Antichamber of the Queen's Apartments. 
Enter Anne Sullen, and an old Lady. 

Anne. Not for that neither ; Here's the pang that 

pinches : 

His highnefs having liv'd fo long with her ; and Ihc 
So good a lady, that no tongue could ever 
Pronounce difhonour of her, by my life, 
She never knew harm-doing; O nov/, after 
So many courfes of the fun enthron'd, 
Still growing in a majefly and pomp, the which 
To leave is a thoufand-fold more bitter, than 
'Tis fweet at firft to acquire, after this procefs, 
9 To give her the avaunt ! it is a pity 
Would move a monfter. 

Old L. Hearts of moft hard temper 
Melt and lament for her. 

Anne. O, God's will ! much better, 
She ne'er had known pomp : though it be temporal., 
1 Yet, if that quarrel, fortune, do divorce 


9 To give her the avaunt ! ] To fend her away contemp- 

tuouily ; to pronounce aguinft her a fentence of ejection . 


1 Yet, if that quarrel, Fortune, "] She calls Fortune a quarrel 
or arrow, from her linking fo deep and fuddenly. Quarrel was a 
large arrow fo called. Thus Fairfax : 

" T*M*d tbt firing out Jlcvj the quarrel long. 


Such is Dr. Warburton'i interpretation. Sir Thomas Hanmcr 
reads : 

That quarreller Fortune. 

I think 


It from the bearer, 'tis a fufferance, panging 
As foul and body's fevering. 

Old L. Alas, poor lady ! 
She's z ftranger now again. 

Anne. So much the more 
Muft pity drop upon her. Verily, 
I fwear, 'tis better to be lowly born, 
And range with humble livers in content, 
Than to be perk'cl up in a glittering grief, 
And wear a golden forrow. 

Old L. Our content 
Is J our beft having. 

I think the poet may be eaftly fuppofed to ufe quarrel for quarrel* 
ler, as murder for murderer, the aft for the agent. JOHKSON. 
Dr. Johnfon may be right. So, in Antony and Cleopatra: 

* but that your royalty 

" Holds idlenefs your fubjecl, I fhould take you 

" For Idlenefi itfelf^ 

Like Martial's " Non vitiofus homo es, Zoile, fedyitivm" We 
might, however, read 

Yet if that quarrel fortune to divorce 

It from the bearer." 

5. e. if any quarrel happen or chance to divorce it from the bearer. 
To fortune is a verb ufed by Shakefpeare : 

" I'll tell you as we pafs along, 

" That yon will wonder what hath fortuned?" 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery $>ueen, B. I. c. ii : 

** It fortuned (high heaven did fo ordaine) &c.'* 


* granger no^a again.] Again an alien ; not only no longer 
queen, but no longer an Engliflnvoman. JOHNSON. 

It rather means, flie is alienated from the king's affection, is a 
ftranger to his bed ; for fhe ftill retained the rights of an Englifh- 
Hroman, and was princefs dowager of Wales. So, in the feccnd 
fcene of the third adt : 

" Katharine no more 

" Shall be call'd queen ; but princefs dowager, 

" And widow to prince Arthur." TOLLET. 
3 our beft having.] That is, our beft pojjcjfian. So, 

)n Haclftb : 

" Promifes 

" Of nolle having and of royal hope* 
I". Span'.fh, ta^ienda. JOHNSON. 

Q. Anae. 


Anne. By my troth, and maidenhead, 
I would not be a queen. 

Old L. Befhrew me, I would, 
And venture maidenhead for't ; and fo would you., 
For all this fpice of your hypocrify : 
You, that have fo fair parts of woman on you, 
Have too a woman's heart ; which ever yet 
AfFedted eminence, wealth, fovereignty ; 
Which, to fay footh, arebleffings: and which gifts 
CSaving your mincing) the capacity 
Of your foft 4 cheveril confcience would receive. 
If you might pleafe to ftretch it. 

Anne. Nay, good troth, 

Old L. Yes, troth and troth, You would not be 
a queen ? 

Anne. No, not for all the riches under heaven. 

Old L. 'Tis flrange ; a three-pence bow'd would 

hire me, 

Old as I am, to queen it : Bur, I pray you, 
What think you of a dutchefs ? have you limbs 
To bear that load of title ? 

Anne. No, in truth. 

Old . Then you are weakly made : 5 Pluck off a 
little ; 

* - cbeveril~\ is kid-fk'm, fqft-leather. JOHNSON. 
So, in Hiftriomaftix, 1 6 1 o : 

" The cheveril confcience qf corrupted law." STEEVENS. 

5 Pluck off a little;'} What muft {he pluck off ? I thinly 

we may better read : 

Pluck up a little. 

Pluck up ! is an idiomatical expreflion for take courage. 


The old lady firft queftions Anne Bullen about being a quecn^ 
which fhe declares her averfion to ; flie then propofes the title of 
a Jutchcfs, and alks her if ftie thinks herfelf equal to the tafk of 
fuftaining it ; but as fhe fall declines the offer of greatnefs ; 

Pluck off a little, 

fays (he, i. e. let us defcend {till lower, and rpore upon a level 
with your own quality ; and then adds : 

I mould not be a youn* count in your nuay, 

which is ftill an inferior degree of honour to any yet fpoken of. 


I WQU14 


I would not be a young count in your way, 
For more than blufhing eomes to : if your back 
Cannot vouch fafe this burden, 'tis too weak 
Ever to get a boy. 

Anne. How you do talk ! 
I fwear again, I would not be a queen 
For all the world. 

Old L. In faith, for little England 
6 You'd venture an emballing : I myfelf 
Would for Carnarvonfhire, although there 'Jong'd 
No more to the crown but that. Lo, who comes here ? 

Enter the Lord Chamberlain. 

Cham. Good morrow, ladies. What were't worth, 

to know 
The fecret of your conference ? 

Anne. My good lord, 

No: your demand ; it values not your afking : 
Our miftrcfc' forrows we were pitying. 

Cham. It was a gentle bufinefs, and becoming 
The action of good women : there is hope, 
All will be well. 

Anne. Now I pray God, amen ! 

Cham. You bear a gentle mind, and heavenly 


Follow fuch creatures. That you may, fair lady. 
Perceive I fpeak iincerely, and high note's 
Ta'en of your many virtues, the king's majefly 
Commends his good opinion to you, and 
Does purpofe honour to you no lefs flowing 
Than marchionefs of Pembroke ; to which title 
A thoufand pounds a year, annual fupport, 
Out of his grace he adds. 

Anne. I do not know, 

6 Tou'd venture an emballing: ] You would venture to be 
diftinguiflied by the ball, the enlign of royalty. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnfon's explanation cannot be right, becaufe a qitecn- 
confort, fuch as Aime Bullen was, is not diftinguiihed by the ball^ 
the enfign of royalty, nor has the poet expreffed that ftie was fo 



What kind of my obedience I fhould tender; 
7 More than my all is nothing : nor my prayers 
Are not words duly hallow'd, nor my wifhes 
More worth than empty vanities ; yet prayers, and 


Are all I can return. 'Befeech your lordihip, 
Vouchfafe to fpeak my thanks, and my obedience, 
As from a blufhing handmaid, to his highnefs ; 
Whofe health, and royalty, I pray for. 

Cham, Lady, 

*I fhall not fail to approve the fair conceit, 
The king hath of you. I have perus'd her well 9 ; 
Beauty and honour in her are fo mingled, [Afide* 
That they have caught the king : And who knows 


But from this lady may proceed a ' gem, 
To lighten all this ifle ? I'll to the king, 
And fay, I fpoke with you. 

7 More than my all, is nothing : ] No figure can free this 

expreffion from nonfenie. In Ipite of the exaftnefs of meafure, 
we fhould read : 

More than my all, which is nothing. 
i.e. which all is nothing. WARBURTON. 

It is not nonfenfe, but only a hyperbole. Not only my all is 
nothing^ but if my all were more than it is, it were itill nothing. 


* IJhall not fail &c.] I fhall not omit to ftrengthen by my 
commendation, the opinion which the king has formed. 


9 I have perus'd her well;'] From the many artful Itrokes of 
addrefs the poet has thrown in upon queen Elizabeth and her 
mother, it fliould feem, that this play was written and performed 
in his royal miftrefs's time : if fo, fome lines were added by him 
in the lafl fcene, after the acceffion of her fucceflbr, king James, 


1 a gem 

To lighten all this ijle ? ] 

Perhaps alluding to the carbuncle, a gem fuppofed to have intrinfic 
light, and to fhine in the dark ; any other gem may reflect light, 
but cannot give it. JOHNSON. 
So, in Titus Antlronicus : 

" A precious ring that lightens all the hole." STEEVENS, 



Anne. My honour'd lord. [Exit Lord Chamberlain. 

Old L. Why, this it is ; fee, fee ! 
I have been begging fixteen years in court, 
(Am yet a courtier'beggarly) nor could 
Come pat betwixt too early and too late, 
For any fuit of pounds : and you, O fate !) 
A very frefti fifli here, (fye, fye upon 
This compell'd fortune !) have your mouth fill'd up, 
Before you open it. 

Anne. This is ftrange to me. 

Old L. How taftes it ? is it bitter ? * forty pence, no. 
There was a lady once, ('tis an old ftory) 
That would not be a queen, that would ihe not, 

* is it bitter f forty pence no.] Mr. Roderick, in his 

appendix to Mr. Edvvards's book, propofes to read : 

for t-'jo-pc;icc. 

The old reading may, however, {land. Forty pence was in thofc 
days the proverbial exprellion of a fmall wager, or a fmall fum. 
Money was then reckoned by pounds, marks, and nobles. Forty 
pence is half a noble, or the lixth part of a pound. Forty pence, 
or three and four pence, ftill remains in many offices the legal 
and eftablifhed fee. 

So, in K, Rich. II. aft V. fc. v : 

" The cheapeft of us is ten groats too dear." 
Again, in Alfs Well that Ends Well, ad II; the clown fays, As 
jit as ten groats for the hand of art attorney. 
Again, in The IfildGoofe Chafe of Beaumont and Fletcher: 

*' Now could I fpend my forty pence , 

" With all my heart." 
Again, in Green's Groundwork of Coneycatc hing : 

" wagers laying; &c. forty fence gaged againft a match 

of vvreftling." 

Again, in Hiftriomaftix t or the Player Wliipt^ 1610. This fum 
is the fee of fome players : 

" Give them 'forty pence, and let them go." 
Again, in The longer tboit Live/I, the more Fool tbou art, 1570 : 

" I dare ivagc with any man forty pence.'" 

Again, in the old Enterlude ot the Repentance of Mary Magdalene, 
1567 : 

" To fe her fafiiion I would bedew my forty pence." 
Again, in the Storye of King Darius, 1565, an interlude : 

*' Na\, taat I will not fa four ty pence" STEEVENS. 



For all the mud in jEgypt : Have you heard it ? 

Anne. Come, you are pleafant. 

Old L. With your theme, I could 
O'er-mount the lark. The marchionefs of Pembroke! 
A thoufand pounds a year ! for pure refped: ; 
No other obligation : By my life, 
That promifes more thoufands : Honour's train 
Is longer than his fore-ikirt. By this time, 
I know, your back will bear a dutchefs ; Say, 
Are you not ftronger than you were ? 

Anne. Good lady, 

Make yourfelf mirth with your particular fancy, 
And leave me out on't. 'Would I had no being, 
If this falute my blood a jot ; it faints me, 
To think what follows. 
The queen is comfortlefs, and we forgetful 
In our long ab fence : Pray, do not deliver 
"^hat here you have heard, to her. 

Old L. What do you think me ? [Exeunt, 


A Hall m Black-Fryars. 

Trumpets, 4 fennel, and comets. Enter two Vergers, 
with Jhort Jilver wands ; next them, two Scribes, in 


3 For all the mud in Egypt :] The fertility of Egypt is derived 
from the mud and ilime ot the Nile. STEEVENS. 

* fcnnet^\ I know not the meaning of this word, \vhichisin 
all the editions, except that of Hanmer, who, not undemanding 
it, has left it out. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Burney (whofe General Hiftory of Mujtc has been fo highly 
and defervedly applauded) undertook to trace the etymology, and 
difcover the certain meaning of this term, but without fuccefs. 
The following conjecture of his, fhould not, however, be witheld 
from the public. 


the habits of doftvrs ; after them, the Archbijhop of 
Canterbury alone ; after him, the Biflwps of Lincoln, 
Ely, Rocbefter, and faint Afaph ; next them, with fome 
fmall diftance, follows a Gentleman bearing the purfe, 
with the great fed, and a cardinafs hat ; then, two 
Priefts, bearing each a filver crofs ; then a Gentleman- 
itflw bare-headed, accompanied with a Serjeant at arms, 
bearing a fiver mace ; then two Gentlemen, . bearing 
two great . fiver * pillars ; after them, fide by fide, the 
two Cardinals ; two Noblemen with the fword and 

Senne otfennle de 1'Allemand fat qui fignifie afiemblee. 
de vieux Langage : 

*' Senne aflemblee a fan de cloche." Menage. 
Perhaps, therefore, fays he, fennet mny mean a flourilh for the 
purpofe of aflembling chiefs, or apprizing the people of their 
approach* I have likewifc been informed, (as is elfevvhere noted) 
thztfeneftc is the name of an antiquated French tune. See Julius 
*far, aft I. fc ii. STEEVE.VS. 

In the fecond part of Marftons Antonio : 

*' Cornets found a cyxet." FARMER. 

5 pillars ;] Pillars were fome of the enfigns of dignity carried 

before cardinals. Sir Thomas More, when he was fpeaker to 

the commons, advifed them to admit Wolfey into the houfe with 

his maces uod his pillars. Moris Life of Sir T. More. JOHNSON. 

Skelton, in his Satire againft cardinal Wolfey, has thefe liaes : 

' With worldly pom pe increc'ible, 
" Before him rj'deth two preftes ftronge ; 
** And they bear two crofles right longe, 

*' Gapynge in every man's face: 
** After them folowe two laye men fecular, 
** And cache of theym holdyn a. pillar, 

" In their hondes fteade of a mace." STEEVEKS. 
t-joo great Jtlver pillars.'} At the end of Fiddes's Life of 
Cardinal Wolfey, is a curious letter of Mr. Anftis's on the fubjedt 
of the two finer pillars ufually borne before Cardinal Wolfey. 
This remarkable piece of pageantry did not efcape the notice of 
Shakefpeare. PERCY. 

Wolfey had two great crofles of filver, the one of his archbi- 
fhoprick, the other of his legacy, borne before whitherfoever 
he went or rode, by t\vo of the talleft priefts that he could get 
within the realm. This is from Vol. III. p. 920 of Holinflied, 
and it feems from p. 837, that one of the pillars was a token of 
a cardinal, and perhaps he bore the other pillar as an archbiihop. 




mace. The King takes place under the ckth of fiat e^ 
the two Cardinals fit under kirn, as judges. The 
Queen takes place, fome difiance from the King. The 
Bifiops place themfelves on each fide the court, m 
manner of a confiftory ; below them, the Scribes. The 
Lords fit next the Biflwps. The reft of the attendants 
Jland in convenient order about the fiage. 

Wol. Whilft our commimon from Rome is read 5 
Let filence be commanded. 

King. What's the need ? 
It hath already publickly been read, 
And on all fides the authority allow'd 3 
You may then fpare that time. 

Wol. Be't Ib : Proceed. 

Scribe. Say, Henry king of England, come into 
the court. 

Crier. Henry king of England, &c. 

King. Here. 

Scribe. Say, Katharine queen of England, come 
Into the court, 

Crier. Katharine queen of England, &c. 

{The Queen makes no anfwer, rifes out of her chair, goes 
about the court, comes to the ^ing, and kneels at his 
feet; then fpeaks.~] 

Queen. Sir, I defire you, do me right and juflice 6 
And to beftow your pity on me : for 
I am a moft poor woman, and a ftranger, 
Born out of your dominions; having here 
l^o judge indifferent, nor no more affurance 
Of equal friendfhip and proceeding. Alas, fir, 
In what have I offended you ? what caufe 
Hath my behaviour given to your difpleafure, 
That thus you ihould proceed to put me off, 

6 &V, / defire you Ho i*ic right and jitjlice ; &c.] This fpeech bf 
the queen, and the king's reply, are taken from Holinlhed with 
the moft trifling variations. SfEEVfcNS. 



And take your good grace from me ? Heaven witnefs, 

I have been to you a true and humble wife, 

At all times to your will conformable : 

Ever in fear to kindle your diflike, 

Yea, fubjecl: to your countenance ; glad, or forry, 

As I faw it inclined. When was the hour, 

I ever contradicted your defire, 

Or made it not mine too ? Or which of your friends 

Have I not ftrove to love, although I knew 

He were mirus enemy ? what friend of mine, 

That had to him deriv'd your anger, did I 

Continue in my liking ? 8 nay, gave not notice 

He was from thence difcharg'd ? Sir, call to mind, 

That I have been your wife, in this obedience, 

Upward of twenty years, and have been bleft 

With many children by you : If, in the courfe 

And procefs of this time, you can report, 

And prove it too, againft mine honour aught, 

My bond to wedlock, or my love and duty 

Againft your facred perfon, in God's name, 

Turn me away ; and let the foul'fl contempt 

Shut door upon me, and fo give me up 

To the lharpeft kind of juftice. Pleafe you, fir, 

The king, your father, was reputed for 

A prince moft prudent, of an excellent 

And unmatch'd wit and judgment : Ferdinand, 

My father, king of Spain, was reckon'd one 

The wifeft prince, that there had reign'd by many 

A year before : It is not to be queftion'd 

That they had gathered a wife council to them 

Of every realm, that did debate this bufmefs, 

7 nay, gave not notice} In former editions : 

nay, gave notice, 

which, though the author's common liberties of fpeech might 
juftity. yet I cannot but think that not ^'as dropped before notice^ 
having the fame letters, and have therefore followed fir Thomas 
faanraer's correction. JOHNSOK. 



Who deem'd our marriage lawful : Wherefore I 


Befeech you, fir, to fpare me, 'till I may 
Be by my friends in Spain advis'd j whofe counfel 
I will implore : If not ; i'the name of God, 
Your pleafure be fulfill'd ! 

Wol. You have here, lady, 

(And of your choice) thefe reverend fathers ; men 
Of fmgular integrity and learning, 
Yea, the eledt of the land, who are aifembled 
To plead your caufe : It fliall be therefore bootlefs^ 
That longer you defer the court ; as well 
-For your own quiet, as to rectify 
What is unfettled in the -king. 

Cam. His grace 

Hath fpoken well, and juftly : Therefore, madam, 
It's fit this royal feflion do proceed ; 
And. that, without delay, their arguments 
Be now produc'd, and heard. 

Queen. Lord cardinal, -. 
To you I fpeak. 

Wol. Your pleafure, madam ? 

Queen. Sir, 

I am about to weep 8 ; but, thinking that 
We are a queen, (or long have dream'd fo) certain^ 
The daughter of a king, my drops of tears 
I'll turn to fparks of fire. 

Wol. Be patient yet. 

Queen* I will, when you are humble ; nay, before, 
Or God will puniih me. I do believe, 
Induc'd by potent circumftanccs, that 

8 7 am about to iveep ; &c.] Shakefpeare has given aim oft a fi- 
roilar fentiment to Hermione in the Winter's Talc, on an almoft 
iimilar occafion : 

*' I am not prone to weeping, as our fex 

" Commonly are &c. but I have 

*' That honourable grief lodg'd here, which burns 

" Worfe than tears drown ; &c." STEEVENS. 



You are mine enemy ; 9 and make my challenge, 

You fhall not be my judge : for it is you 

Have blown this coal betwixt my lord and me, 

Which God's dew quench ! Therefore, I fay again, 

I utterly abhor, yea, from my foul 

Refufe you for my judge ; whom, yet once more, 

I hold my moft malicious foe, and think not 

At all a friend to truth. 

Wol. I do profefs, 

You fpeak not like yourfelf ; who ever yet 
Have flood to charity, and difplay'd the effects 
Of difpofition gentle, and of wifdom 
O'er-topping woman's power. Madam, you do me 

wrong : 

I have no fpleen againft you ; nor injuftice 
For you, or any : how far I have proceeded, 
Or how far further lhall, is warranted 
By a commiflion from the confiitory, 
Yea, the whole confiftory of Rome. You charge me, 
That I have blown this coal : I do deny it : 
The king is prefent ; If it be known to him, 
That I gainfay ' my deed, how may he wound, 
And worthily, my falfhood ? yea, as much 
As you have done my truth. If he know 
That I am free of your report, he knows, 
I am not of your wrong. Therefore in him 
It lies, to cure me : and the cure is, to 

9 ' and make my challenge, 

Youjball not be my judge :] 

Challenge is here a verbum juris, a law term. The criminal, when 
he refutes a juryman, fays, / challenge him. I think there is a 
flight errour which deftroys the connection, and would read : 

Indued by potent circumftances, that 

You are mine enemy, I make my challenge. 

You Jball not be my judge. JOHXSON. 
1 < g ain f a y~\ i- e. deny. So, in lord Surrey's tranflation 
of the fourth book of 

** I hold thec not, nor yet gainfay thy words.'* 


VOL. VII. R Re- 


Remove thefe thoughts from you : The which before 
His highnefs fhall fpeak in, I do befeech 
You, gracious madam, to unthink your fpeaking, 
And to fay fo no more. 

Queen. My lord, my lord, 
I am a fimple woman, much too weak 
To oppofe your cunning. You are meek, and hum- 

ble-mouth'd ; 

1 You fign your place and calling, in full feeming, 
With meeknefs and humility : but your heart 
Is cramm'd with arrogancy, fpleen, and pride. 
You have, by fortune, and his highnefs' favours, 
Gone flightly o'er low fteps ; and ROW are mounted ', 
Where powers are your retainers : and your words, 
Domefticks to you, ferve your will, as't pleafe 
Yourfelf pronounce their office. I muil tell you, 
You tender more your perfon's honour, than. 

a You fign jour place and catting, ] Sign, for anfwer. 


I think, to Jtga, muft here be to./fow, to denote. By your out- 
ward meeknefs and humility, youjboiv that you are of an holy or- 
der, but, &c. JOHNSON. 

3 now are mounted, 

IVljere powers are your retainers ; andyour words, 

Dome/licks to you, ferve your will,' ] 

You have now got power at your beck, following in your retinue : 
and words therefore are degraded to the fervile flate of perform- 
ing any office which you fhall give them. In humbler and more 
common terms ; Having now got power, yon do not regard your 
word. JOHNSON. 
I believe we ftiould read : 

" Where powers are your retainers, and your wards, 

" Domefticks to you, &e." 

The Queen rifes naturally in her defcription. She paints the 
powers of government depending upon Wolfey under three 
images ; as his retainers, his wards, his domejlic fervants. 


So, in Storer's Life and Death of Thomas JFolfey, Cardinal, a 
poem, i 599 : 

*' I muft have notice where their wards mufl dwell ; 

** I car'd not for the gentry, for I had 

** Yong nobles of the land, &c," STEEVEKS. 



Your high profeffion fpiritual : That again 
I do refufe you for my judge ; and here, 
Before you all, appeal unto the pope, 
To bring my whole caufe 'fore his holinefs, 
And to be judg'd by him. 

[She curfjies to the King and offers to depart* 

Cam. The queen is obflinate, 
Stubborn to juftice, apt to accufe it, and 
Difdainful to be try'd by it ; 'tis not well. 
She's going away. 

King. Call her again. 

Crier. Katharine, queen of England, come into the 

UJher. Madam, you are call'd back. 

$ueefa What need you note it ? pray you, keep 

your way : 

When you are call'd, return. Now the Lord help, 
They vex me pafl my patience ! pray you, pafs on : 
I will not tarry ; no, nor ever more, 
Upon this bufinefs, my appearance make 
In any of their courts. 

\Exev.nt Gtueen, and her Attendants. 

King. Go thy ways, Kate : 
That man i'the world, who fhall report he has 
A better wife, let him in nought be trufted, 
For fpeaking falfe in that : Thou art, alone, 
(If thy rare qualities, fweet gentlenefs, 
Thy meeknefs faint-like, wife-like government, 
Obeying in commanding, and thy parts 
Sovereign and pious elfe, 4 could fpeak thee out) 
The queen of earthly queens : She is noble born ; 
And, like her true nobility, flie has 
Carried herfelf towards me. 

WoL Moft gracious fir, 
In humbleft manner I require your highnefs, 

* could fpeak tlee out)'] If thy feveral qualities had tongues 

ta fpeak thy praife. JOHNSON. 

R 2 That 


That it fnall pieafe you to declare, in hearing 

Of all thefe ears, (for where I am robb'd and boundy 

There muft I be unloosed ; * although not there 

At once and fully fatisfy'd) whether ever I 

Did broach this buiinefs to your highnefs ; or 

Lay'd any fcruple in your way, which might 

Induce you to the queftion on't ? or ever 

Have to you, but with thanks to God for fuch 

A royal lady, fpake one the leaft word, that might 

Be to the prejudice of her prefent Hate, 

Or touch erf' her good perfon ? 

King. My lord cardinal, 
I do excufe you ; yea, upon mine honour, 
I free you from't. You are not to be taught 
That you have many enemies, that know not 
Why they are fo, but, like to village curs, 
Bark when their fellows do : by fome of thefe 
The queen is put in anger. You are excus'd : 
But will you be more juftify'd ? you ever 
Have wiih'd the fleeping of this buiinefs ; never 
Defir'd it to be flirr'd ; but oft have hindred, oft, 
The paffages made toward it : 6 on my honour, 

I fpcak 

although not there 

At once, and fully fat isficd) --} 

What lie aims at is this ; where I am robbed and bound, there 
mult I be unloofed, though the injurers be not there to make me 
fati&fation-; as much as to fay, I owe fo much to my own inno- 
cence, as to clear up my character, though I do not my 
wrongers will do me juflice. It feems then that Shakefpeare 
Wrote : 

Aton'd, and fully fatisfied. WAR BUR TON. 

I do not fee what is gained by this alteration. The fenfe, 
which is encumbered with words in either reading, is no more 
than this. I muft be loofed, though when fo loofcd, I (hall not be 
fathfied fully and at once; that is, I (hall not be immediately fatil- 
fied. JOHNSON. 

6 on my honour , 

Ifpeak my good lard cardinal to this point ^\ 

The king, having firft addreiled to Wolfey, breaks off; and de- 
clares upon his honour to the whole court, that he fpeaks the car- 


I ipeak my good lord cardinal to this point, 
And thus far clear him. Now, what mov'd me to't,. 
I will be bold with time, and your attention : 
Then mark the inducement. Thus it came ; give 

heed to't : 

My conference firft receiv'd a tendernefs, 
7 Scruple, and prick, on certain fpeeches utter'd 
By the bifhop of Bnyonne, then French ambailador ; 
Who had been hither fent on the debating 
A marriage, 'twixt the duke of Orleans and 
Our daughter Mary ; Tthe progrefs of this bufinefs, 
Ere a determinate refolution, he 
(I mean, the bifhop) did require a refpite ; 
Wherein he might the king his lord advertife 
Whether our daughter were legitimate, 
Refpecting this our marriage with the dowager, 
Sometime our brother's wife. 8 This refpite fhook 
The bofom of my confcience, enter'd me, 
Yea, with a fplitting power, and made to tremble 
The region of my breaft ; which forc'd fuch way, 
That many maz'd confiderings did throng, 

dinars fentiments upon the point in queftion ; and clears him 
from any attempt, or wifli, to fHr that bufmefs. THEOBALD. 

7 Scruple, and prick, 3 Prick of conscience was the term 

in confeifion. JOHNSON. 

The expreffion is from Holinfhed, where the king fays : " The 
fpecial caufe that moved me unto this matter was a certaine fcru- 
pulofkie that pricked my confcience &c." See Holinjbcd, p. 907. 


8 Tbi '$ refpite Jhook 

The bofom of my confcience^ ] 

Though this reading be ienfe, yet, I verily believe, the poet 
wrote : 

The bottom of my confc'ence, 

Shakefpeare, in all his hiftorical plays, was a moft diligent ob- 
ferver of Holinftied's Chronicle. Now Holinftied, in the fpeech 
which he has given to king Henry upon this fubjecT:, makes him 
deliver himfelf thus : " Which words, once conceived within the 
fecret bottom of my confcience, ingendred fuch a fcrupulous doubt, 
that my confcience was incontinently accombred, vexed, and dif- 
Fid, Lite of Henry V11L p. 907. THEOBALD. 

R 2 And 

24 6 K I N G H E N R Y VIII. 

And prefs'd in with this caution. Firft, methought, 

J flood not in the fmile of heaven ; who had 

Commanded nature, that my lady's womb, 

Jf it conceiv'd a male child by me, Ihould 

Do no more offices of life to't, than 

The grave does to the dead : for her male-ifTue 

Or died where they were made, or fhortly after 

This woild had air'd them : Hence I took a thought, 

This was a judgment qn me ; that my kingdom, 

Well worthy the beft heir o'the world, fhould not 

Be gladded in't by me : Then follows, that 

I weigh'd the danger which my realms flood in 

By this my iflue's fail ; and that gave to me 

Many a groan; g throe. Thus 9 hulling in 

The wild fea of my confcience, I did fleer 

Toward this remedy, whereupon we are 

Jow prefcnt here together ; that's to fay, 

I meant to redtify my confcience, which 

I then did feel full fick, and yet not well, 

By all the reverend fathers of the land, 

And doctors learn'd. Firft, I began in private 

With you, my lord of Lincoln ; you remember 

How under my oppreflion I did reek, 

When I firft mov'd you. 

Lin. Very well, my liege. 

King. I have fpoke long ; be pleas'd yourfelf to fay 
How far you fatisfy'd me. 

Lin. So pleafe your highnefs, 
The queflion did at firfl fo ftagger me,-^ 

hulling in 

The iviMfea ] 

That is, floating without guidance ; tofs'd here and there. 


The phr&fe belongs to navigation. A fhip is faid to hull, 
when fhe is difmafted, and only her hull, or hulk, is left at the 
direction and mercy of the waves. 
So, in the Alarum for London , 1602 : 

" And they lye butting up and dawn the ftream." 




Bearing a ftate of miehty moment in't, 
And confequence of dread, that I committed 
The daring'ft counfel which I had, to doubt ; 
And did entreat your highnefs to this courfe, 
Which you are running here. 
King. ' 1 then mov'd you, 
My lord of Canterbury ; and got your leave 
To make this prefent fummons : Unfolicited 
I left no reverend perfon in this court ; 
But by particular confent proceeded, 
Under your hands and feals. Therefore, go on; 
For no diflike i'the world againft the perfon 
"Of our good queen, but the {harp thorny points 
Of my alledged reafons, drive this forward : 
Prove but our marriage lawful, by my life, 
And kingly dignity, we are contented 
To wear our mortal ftate to come, with her, 
Katharine our queen, before the primeft creature 
* That's paragon'd o'the world. 

1 I then mov'd you,] I have refcued the text from Holinfiied, 
" I moved it in confeffion to you, my lord of Lincoln, then 
ghoftly father. And forafmuch as then you yourfelf were in 
fome doubt, you moved me to afc the counfel of all thele my 
lords. Whereupon I moved you, my lord of Canterbury, firft 
to have your licence, in as much as you were metropolitan, to put 
this matter in queftion ; and Jo I did of all you, my lords." Ho- 
linfhed's Life of Henry fill. p. 908. THEOBALD. 

* That's paragon'd i'th'<ow/*/.] Hanmer reads, I think, better; 

The primcjl creature 

Thai* s paragon o'th'w0r/</. JoHNSON. 
So, in the Two Gentlemen of fcrona : 

No : but (he is an earthly paragon. 
Again, in another of our author's plays : 

an angel ! or, if net, 

An earthly paragon. 

To paragon, however, is a verb ufed by Shakefpeare both u) 
Antony and Cleopatra, and Othello : 

If thou with Csefar paragon again 

My man of men 

That paragons defcription and wild fame, STEEVENS, 

R 4 Cam. 


Cam. So pleafe your highnefs, 
The queen being abfent, 'tis a needful fitnefs 
That we adjourn this court to further day : 
Mean \vhile muft be an earneft motion 
Made to the queen, to call back her appeal 
She intends unto his holinefs. [They rife to depart J , 

King, I may perceive, 
Theie cardinals trifle with me : I abhor 
This dilatory floth, and tricks of Rome. 
My learn'd and well beloved fervant, Cranmer, 
Tr'ythee, return ! with thy approach, I know, 
My comfort comes along. Break up the court : 
I fay, let on. [Exeunt, in manner as they enter' d. 


The Speeds Apartments. 
The Queen and her Women, as at work. 

Queen. Take thy lute, wench : my foul grows fad 

with troubles ; 

Sing, and difperfe them a if thou canft : leave work- 

3 T'bey rife to depart.} Here the modern editors add : The king 
fpcaks to Cranmer. \ This marginal direction is not found in the 
old folio, and was wrongly introduced by fome fubfequent editor. 
Cranmer was now abfent from court on an embafly, as appears 
from the laft icene of this acl, where Cromwell informs Wolfey y 
that he is return'd and inftall'd archbifhop of Canterbury : 

My learned and well-beloved fervant^ Cranmer, 

Pr'ytbee, return ! 

is no more than an apoflrophe to the abfent bifhop of that name. 




Orpheus with his lute made trees, 
And the mountain-tops, that freeze, 

Bffiv themfelves, when he did fing : 
To bis mvfick, plants, and flowers, 
Ever fprung ; as fun, and flowers, 

I'here had made a lajling faring. 

Every thing that heard him play, 
Even the billows of the fea, 

Hung their heads, and then lay ly. 
In fweet mufick is fuch art ; 
Killing care, and grief of heart, 

Fallajleep, or, hearing, die. 

Enter a Gentleman. 

Queen. How now ? 

Gent. An't pleafe your grace, the two great car- 
Wait in the prefence 4 . 

Queen. Would they fpeak with me ? 
Gent. They will'd me fay fo, madam. 
<$ueen. Pray their graces 
To come near. [Exit. Gent.'] What can be their bu- 


With me, a poor weak woman, fallen from favour ? 
I do not like their coming, now I think on't. 
* They fhould be good men ; their affairs are righ- 
teous : 


* Wait in the prefence.] i. e. in tbeprefence-clamler. 


5 They fyould le good men; their affairs are righteous:] jQ fairs 
for profcjpons ; and then the fenfe is clear and pertinent:. The 
proportion is they are priefts. The illation^ therefore they are 
good men ; for being underftood : but if affairs be interpreted in 
its common lignificatbn, the fentence is abfurd. WARBURTON. 



But, All hoods make not monks 6 . 

Enter Wolfey, and Campeius. 

Wol. Peace to your highnefs ! 

Queen. Your graces find me here part of a houfe- 

vvife ; 

I would be all, againft the worfl may happen. 
What are your pleafures with me, reverend lords ? 

Wol. May it pleafe you, noble madam, to withdraw 
Into your private chamber, we ihall give you 
The full caufe of our coming. 

Queen. Speak it here ; 

There's nothing I have done yet, o' my eonfcience, 
Deferves a corner : 'Would, all other women 
Could fpeak this with as free a foul as I do 1 
My lords, I care not, (fo much I am happy 
Above a number) if my adtions 
Were try'd by every tongue, every eye faw 'em, 

7 Envy and bafe opinion fet againfl 'em, 
I know my life fo even : If your bufmefs 

8 Seek me out 9 , and that way I am wife in, 
Out with it bpldly ; Truth loves open dealing. 

The fentence has no great difficulty : Affairs means not their 
prcfent errand^ but the bufinefs of their calling. JOHNSON. 

6 All hoods make not monks.'} Cucullus not facit monachum, 


7 Envy and lafe opinion fet againfl '#,] I would be glad that 
my conduct were in fome publick trial confronted with mine ene- 
mies, that envy and corrupt judgment might try their utmoft 
power againft me. JOHNSON. 

8 Seek me out,] I believe that a word has dropt out here, and 

that we fhould read if your bufincfs feck me, fpeak out, and 

that way 1 am wife In. i. e. in the way that I can underftand. 


* and that way lam wife /,] That is, if you come 

to examine the title by which I am the king's ivifc ; or, if you 
come to know how I have behaved as a wife. The meaning^ 
whatever it be, is fo coarfely and unfkilfully exprefTed, that the 
latter editors have liked nonfenfe better, and contrarily to the 
ancient and only copy, have publifhed : 

And slat way I am wile /. JOHNSON. 


Wol. Tanta eft erga te mentis- integritaS) regina fere- 

>ueen. O, good my lord, no Latin ' ; 
I am not fuch a truant fince my coming, 
As not to know the language I have liv'd in : 
A ftrange tongue makes my caufe more ftrange, fuf- 


Pray, fpeak in nglifh : here are fome will thank you, 
If you fpeak truth, for their poor miftrefs* fake ; 
Believe me, fhe has had much wrong : Lord cardinal, 
The willing'ft fin I ever yet committed, 
May be abfolv'd in Englifti. 

Wol. Noble lady, 

I am forry, my integrity fhould breed, 
(And fervice to his majefty and you) 
So deep fufpicion, where all faith was meant. 
We come not by the way of accufation, 
To taint that honour every good tongue blefles ; 
Nor to betray you any way to forrow ; 
You have too much, good lady : but to know 
How you ftand minded in the weighty difference 
Between the king and you ; and to deliver, 
Like free and honeft men, our juft opinions, 
And comforts to your caufe. 

Cam. Mofl honour'd madam, 
My lord of York, out of his noble nature, 
Zeal and obedience he flill bore your grace ; 
Forgetting, like a good man, your late cenfure 
Both of his truth and him, (which was too far) I 
Offers, as I do, in a fign of peace, 

His fervice, and his counfel. 

Queen. To betray me. 
My lords, I thank you both for your good wills, 

1 0, good my lord) no Latin, ,] So, Holinflied p. 908 : 

** Then began the cardinall to fpeake to her in Latine. Naic 



good my lord (quoth foe) fpeake to me in Englifh." 


252 K I N G H E N R Y VIII. 

Ye fpeak like honeft men, (pray God, ye prove fo !) 

But how to make ye fuddenly an anfwer, 

In fuch a point of weight, fo near mine honour, 

(More near my life, I fear) with my weak wit, 

And to fuch men of gravity and learning, 

In truth, I know not. I was fet at work 

Among my maids ; full little, God knows, looking 

Either for fuch men, or fuch bufinefs. 

For her fake that I have been % (for I feel 

The laft fit of my greatnefs) good your graces, 

Let me have time, and counfel, for my caufe ; 

Alas ! I am a woman, friendlefs, hopelefs. 

WoL Madam, you wrong the king's love with thefe 

fears ; 
Your hopes and friends are infinite. 

<!>)ueen. In England, 

But little for my profit : Can you think, lords, 
That any Englifhman dare give me counfel ? 
Or be a known friend, 'gainft his highnefs' pleafure, 
( 3 Though he be grown fo defperate to be honcft) 
And live a fubjedt? Nay, forfooth, my friends, 
They that muft 4 weigh out my afflictions, 
They that my truft mufl grow to, live not here; 
They are, as all my other comforts, far hence, 
In mine own country, lords. 

Cam. I would, your grace 

* For her fake that I have been, &c.] For the fake of that roy- 
alty 'thtft I have heretofore poflefled. MALONE. 

3 (Though he be grown fo defperate to be boneft}~\ Do you think 
that any Englifhman dare advife me ; or, if any man fhould ven- 
ture to advife with honefty, that he could live ? JOHNSON. 

4 weigh out my afflictions,"} This phrafe is obfcure, 

To weigh out, is, in modern language, to deliver by weight ; but 
this fenie cannot be here admitted. To weigh is likewiie to deli- 
berate upon, to confider with due attention. This may, perhaps, 
be meant. Or the phrale, to weigh out, may iignify to counter- 
balance, to countcrah with equal force. JOHNSON. 

To nw'gh out is the fame as to outweigh. In Macbeth, Shake - 
fpearc has overcome for come over. STEEYENS, 



Would leave you* griefs, and take my counfel. 

Queen. How, fir? 

Cam. Put your main caufe into the king's pro- 
tection ; 

He's loving, and moft gracious : 'twill be much 
Both for your honour better, and your caufe ; 
For, if the trial of the law o'ertake you, 
You'll part away difgrac'd. 

Wol. He tells you rightly. 

Queen. Ye tell me what ye wifh for both, my ruin: 
Is this your chriftian counfel ? out upon ye ! 
Heaven is above all yet ; there (its a judge, 
That no king can corrupt. 

Cam. Your rage miftakes us. 

Queen. 6 The more fhame for ye ; holy men I 

thought ye, 

Upon my foul, two reverend cardinal virtues ; 
But cardinal fins, and hollow hearts, I fear ye : 
Mend 'em for fhame, my lords. Is this your comfort ? 
The cordial that ye bring a wretched lady ? 
A woman loft among ye, laugh'd at, fcorn'd ? 
I will not wifh ye half my miferies, 
I have more charity : But fay, I warn'd ye ; 
Take heed, for heaven's fake, take heed, left at once 
The burden of my forrows fall upon ye. 

Wol. Madarn, this is a mere diftrad:ion ; 
You turn the good we offer into envy. 

Queen. Ye turn me into nothing : Woe upon ye, 
And all fuch falfe profefibrs ! Would ye have me 
(If you have any juftice, any pity ; 
If you be any thing but churchmen's habits) 
Put my lick caufe into his hands that hates me ? 
Alas ! he has baniih'd me his bed already ; 
His love, too long ago : I am old, my lords, 

6 The more Jhame for je ; ] If I miftake you, it is by yeur 

fault, not mine; for I thought you good. The diftrefs of Ka- 
tharine might have kept her from the quibble to which Ihe is ir- 
refiftibly tempted by the word cardinal. JOHNSON. 


4$4 K I N G H E N R Y VIII, 

And all the fellowlhip I hold now with him 
Is only my obedience. What can happen 
To me, above this wretchednefs ? all your fludies 
Make me a curfe like this. 

Cam. You fears are worfe. 

Queen. Havelliv'dthus long, let me fpeakmyfelf, 
Since virtue finds no friends, a wife, a true one ? 
A woman, (I dare fay, without vain-glory) 
Never yet branded with fufpicion ? 
Have I with all my full affections 
Still met the king ? lov'd him next heaven ? obey'd 

him ? 

Been, out of fondnefs, 7 fuperflitious to him ? 
Almoft forgot my prayers to content him ? 
And am 1 thus rewarded ? 'tis not well, lords. 
Bring me a conftant woman to her hufband, 
One that ne'er dream'd a joy beyond his pleafure ; 
And to that woman, when ihe has done mofl, 
Yet will I add an honour, a great patience. 

Wol. Madam, you wander from the good we aim at. 

Queen. My lord, I dare not make myfelf fo guilty, 
To give up willingly that noble title 
Your mafter wed me to : nothing but death 
Shall e'er divorce my dignities. 

Wol. Pray, hear me. 

Queen. 'Would I had never trod this Englifh earth, 
Or felt the flatteries that grow upon it ! 
* Ye have angels' faces, but heaven knows your hearts. 


7 fuperflitious to himf] That is, ferved him with fuper- 
ftitious attention ; done more than was required. JOHNSON. 

8 Te have angel? faces^ ] She may perhaps allude to the 

old jingle of Angli and AngcU. JOHNSON. 

I find this jingle in the Arrangement of Pan's, 1584. The 
goddefles refer the difpute about the golden apple to the decifion 
of Diana, who fetting afide their refpe&ive claims, awards it to 
queen Elizabeth ; and adds : 

" Her people are ycleped angeli^ 
" Or if I miss a letter, is the mofl." 
In this paftoral, as it is called, the queen herfelf may be al- 



What will become of me now, wretched lady ? 
I am the moft unhappy woman living 
Alas ! poor wenches, where are now your fortunes ? 

[To her women. 

Shipwreck'd upon a kingdom, where no pity, 
No friends, no hope 1 ; no kindred weep for me, 
Almoft, no grave allow'd me : Like the lilly, 
That once was miflrefs of the field, and flourifli'd, 
I'll hang my head, and perifh. 

IVol. If your grace 

Could but be brought to know, our ends are honed, 
You'd feel more comfort : why Ihould we, good lady, 
Upon what caufe, wrong you ? alas! our places, 
The way of our profeffion is againft it ; 
We are to cure fuch forrows, not to fow y em. 
For goodnefs' fake, confider what you do ; 
How you may hurt yourfelf, ay, utterly 
Grow from the king's acquaintance, by this carriage. 
The hearts of princes kifs obedience, 
So much they love it ; but, to ftubborn fpirits, 
They fwell, and grow as terrible as forms. 
I know, you have a gentle, noble temper, 
A foul as even as a calm ; Pray, think us 
Thofe we profefs, peace-makers, friends, and fer- 

Cam. Madam, you'll find it fo. You wrong your 


With thefe weak women's fears. A noble fpirit, 
As yours was put into you, ever cafts 

moft faid to have been a performer, for at the conclufion of it, 
Diana gives the golden apple into her hands, and the Fates de- 
polit their infignia at her feet. It was prefented before her ma- 
jefty by the children of her chapel. 

It appears from the following paflage in The Spanifh Mafque* 
rado, by Greene, i ,8 , that this quibble was originally the 
quibble of a faint." England, a little illand, where, as faint 
Augujlin faith, there be people with angels faces, fo the inhabi- 
tants have the courage and hearts of lyons," STEEVENS. 



Such doubts, as falfe coin, from it. The king loves 


Beware, you lofe it not : For us, if you pleafe 
To truft us in your bufinefs, we are ready 
To ufe our utmoft ftudies in your fervice. 

ueen. Do what yc will, my lords : And, pray, 

forgive me, 

If I have us'd myfelf unmannerly ; 
You know, I am a woman, lacking wit 
To make a feemly anfwer to fuch perfons. 
Pray, do my fervice to his majefty : 
He has my heart yet ; and mall have my prayers, 
While I ftiall have my life. Come, reverend fathers, 
Beflow your counfels on me : me now begs, 
That little thought, when ihe fet footing here, 
She Ihould have bought her dignities fo dear. 



Antkhamber to the King's Apartment. 

Enter Duke of Norfolk, Duke of Suffolk, the Earl of 
Surrey, and the Lord Chamberlain* 

Nor. If you will now unite in your complaints, 
And 9 force them with a conftancy, the cardinal 
Cannot ftand under them : If you omit 
The offer of this time, I cannot promife, 
But that you mall fuftain more new difgraces, 
With thefe you bear already. 

Sur. I am joyful 

To meet the leaft occafion, that may give me - 
Remembrance of my father-in-law > the duke, 
To be reveng'd on him. 

Suf. Which of the peers 

And force them ] Force is enforce t urge. JOHNSON-. 



Have uncontemn'd gone by him, ' or at leaft 
Strangely negledted ? when did he regard 4 
1 he ftamp of noblenefs in any perfon, 
Out of himfelf ? 

Chain. My lords, you fpeak your pleifures : 
What he deierves of you and me, I know ; 
What we can do to him, (though now the t;ms 
Gives way to us) I much fear. If you cannot 
Bar his accefs to the king, never attempt 
Any thing on him ; for he hath a witchcraft 
Over the king in his tongue. 

Nor. O, fear him not ; 

His fpell in that is out : the king hath found 
Matter againft him, that for ever mars 
The honey of his language. No, he's fettled, 
Not to come off, in his difplcafure. 

Sur. Sir, 

I fhould be glad to hear fuch news as this 
Once every hour. 

Nor. Believe it, this is true. 


Strangely negleftedf - ] 
The plain fenfe requires us to read : 

Stood not neglefted ? - WAR BUR TON. 
Dr. Warburton's alteration makes a more correct fentence, but 
in our authour's licentious Englifli, the paflage, as it ftands, 
means the fame as, which of the peers has not gone by him contemned 
orneglcflcd? JOHNSON. 

* whe n did he regard 

The Jlamp of nobJencfs in any perfon^ 
Out of himfelf?] 

The expreffion is bad, and the thought falfe. For it fuppofes 
Wolfey to be nolle, which was not fo : Ve fliould read and point : 
- ivhen did he regard 
The Jlamp of noblenefs in any perfon ; 
Out oftbimfelf? 

i. e. when did he regard nollenefs of blood in another j having 
none of his own to value himfelf upon ? WAREURTOX. 

I do not think this correction proper. The meaning of the 
prefent reading is eafy. When did he, however careful to carry 
his own dignity to the utmoit height, regard any dignity of another f 




In the divorce, his 5 contrary proceedings 
Are all unfolded ; wherein he appears,. 
As I would wifh mine enemy. 

Sur. How came 
His practices to light ? 

Suf. Moft ftrangely. 

Sur. O, how, how ? 

Suf. The cardinal's letter to the pope mifcarried,. 
And came to the eye o' the king : wherein was read, 
How that the cardinal did entreat his holinefs 
To flay the judgment o* the divorce ; For if 
It did take place, J do, quoth he, perceive, 
My king is tangled In affeftion to 
A creature of the queen's, lady Anne Sullen. 

Sur. Has the king this ? 

Suf. Believe it. 

Sur. Will this work ? 

Cham. The king in this perceives him, how he 

* And hedges, his own way. But in this point 
All his tricks founder, and he brings his phyfick 
After his patient's death ; the king already 
Hath married the fair lady. 

Sur. 'Would he had ! 

Suf. May you be happy in your wifh, ray lord ; 
For, I profefs, you have it. 
Sur. Now all my joy 

* Trace the conjun<ftion ! 


3 ' contrary proceedings] Private practices oppofite to hi* 
public procedure. JOHNSON. 

4 And hedges, Ins own way. ] It is not faid, that the 
king perceives how he olftniat his own way ; but how obliquely 
he purfues it : we fhould read therefore : 

edges bis own way. > WARBURTON. 

To hedge, is to creep along by the hedge : not to take the di 
reft and open path, but to fleal covertly through circumvolutions. 


5 Trace the conjunftion /] To trace , is tofollo-iv, JOHNSON. 
So, in Macbeth ; 



Suf. My amen to'c ! 

Nor. All men's. 

Suf. There's order given for her coronation : 
Marry, this is yet but young, and may be left 
To fome ears unrecounted. But, my lords, 
She is a gallant creature, and compleat 
In mind and feature : I perfuade me, from her 
Will fall ibme bleffing to this land, which fhall 
In it be memoriz'd 6 . 

Sur. But, will the king 
Digeft this letter of the cardinal's ? 
The lord forbid ! 

Nor. Marry, Amen ! 

Suf. No, no ; 

There be more wafps that buz about his nofe, 
Will make this fling the fooner. Cardinal Campeius 
Is ftolen away to Rome ; hath ta'en no leave ; 
Has left the caufe o' the king unhandled ; and 
Is polled, as the agent of our cardinal, 
To fecond all his plot. I do allure you, 
The king cry'd, ha ! at this. 

Cbam. Now, God incenfe him, 
And let him cry, ha, louder ! 

Nor. But, my lord, 
When returns Cranmer ? 

Suf. He is return'd, in his opinions ; which 
Have fatisfy'd the king for his divorce, 
Together with all famous colleges 
Almoft in Chriftendom 7 : ihortly, I believe, 


** all unfortunate fouls 

** That trace him in his line." STEEVEXS. 
6 In It be memoriz'd.] To memorize is to make memorable. 
The word has been already uled in Macbeth, aft I. fc. ii : 


7 He is returned in his opinions ; which 
Have fatiijy* d the king for his divorce^ 
Together with all famous colleges^ 

Almofi in Cbrijiendom ; ] 

S z Thui 


His fecond marriage fhall be publifh'd, and 
Her coronation. Katharine no more 
Shall be call'd, queen ; but princefs dowager, 
And widow to prince Arthur, 

Nor. This fame Cranmer's 
A worthy fellow, and hath ta'en much pain 
In the king's bulinefs. 

Suf. He has ; and we lhall fee hina 
For it, an archbilhop. 

Nor. So I hear. 

Suf. Tis fo. 
The cardinal 

Enter Wolfey, and Cromwell. 

Nor. Obferve, obferve, he's moody. 

Wol. The packet, Cromwell, 
Gave't you the king? 

Crom. To his own hand, in his bed-chamber. 

Wol. Look'd he o' the infide of the paper ? 

Crom. Prefently 

He did unfcal them : and the firft he view'd, 
He did it with a ferious mind ; a heed 
Was in Iris countenance: You, he bade 
Attend him here this morning. 

Wol. Is he ready 
To come abroad ? 

Thus the old copy. The meaning is this : Crantxer, fays Suffolk, 
is returned In his opinions, i. e. with the fame fentiments, which he 
entertained before he went abroad, which (fentiments) have 
fatisfied the king, together with all the famous colleges referred 

to on the occaiion. Or, perhaps, the paffage (as Mr. Tyr- 

whitt obierves) may mean He is return' d in efFed, having fent 
bit opinions, i.e. the opinions of divines, &c. collected by him. 
Mr. Rowe altered thefe lines as follows, and all fucceeding edi- 
tors have filently adopted his unneceflary change : 

He is return' d with his opinions, which 

Have fatitfy'd the king for his divorce, 

Gather'd from all the famous colleges 

Almoft in Cbrijlcndom, STEEVEXS. 



Crom. I think, by this he is. 

Wol. Leave me a while. [Exit Cromwell. 

It fhall be to the dutchefs of Alencon, 
The French king's fitter : he fhall marry her. 
Anne Bullen ! No ; I'll no Anne Bullens for him : 
There's more in't than fair vifage. Bullen ! 
No, we'll no Bullens ! Speedily I wilh 
To hear from Rome. The marchionefs of Pem- 
broke ! 

Nor. He's difcontented. 

Suf. May be, he hears the king 
Does whet his anger to him. 

Sur. Sharp enough, 
Lord, for thy juftice ! 

Wol. The late queen's gentlewoman ; a knight's 


To be her miftrefs' miftrefs ! the queen's queen ! 
This candle burns not clear : 'tis I muft muff it ; 
Then, out it goes. What though I know her vir- 

And well-deferving ? yet I know her for 
A fpleeny Lutheran ; and not wholefome to 
Our cauie, that ihe fhould lie i' the bofom of 
Our hard-rul'd king. Again, there is fprung up 
An heretic, an arch one, Cranmer ; one 
Hath crawl'd into the favour of the king, 
And is his oracle. 

Nor. He is vex'd at fomething. 

Sur. I would, 'twere fomething that would fret the 

The mafler cord of his heart ! 

8 Enter the King, reading a fcleduk ; and Lovel. 
Suf. The king, the king. 

King. What piles of wealth hath he accumulated 


8 Enter the King, reading a fckedule \\ That the cardinal gave 

the king an inventory of his "own private wealth, by miflake, 

S 3 and 


To his own portion ! and what expence by the hone 
Seems to flow from him ! How, i'the name of thrift, 
\Does he rake this together ! Now, my lords ; 
Saw you the cardinal ? 

Nor, My lord, we have 

Stood here obferving him : Some ftrarere commotion 
Is in his brain : he bites his lip, and ihirts ; 
Stops on a fudden, loo.ks upon the ground, 
Then, lays his finger on his temple ; ftraight, 

and thereby ruined himfelf, is a known variation from the truth 
of hiftory. Shakefpeare, however, has not injudlcioufly repre- 
fented the fall of that great man, as owing to an incident which 
he had once improved to the deftruftion of another. See Holin- 
fbcd, Vol. II. p. 796 and 797. 

" Thomas Kuthiill, bifhop of Durham, was, after the death, 
of king Henry VII. one of the privy council to Henry VIII. 
to whom the king -gave in charge to write a book of the whole 
eftate of the kingdom, &c. Afterwards, the king commanded 
cardinal Wolfey to go to this biftiop, and to bring the book away 

with him. This biftiop having written two books (the one to 

jinfwer the king's command, and the other intreating of his own 
private affairs) did bind them both after one fort in vellum, &c. 
!Now, when the cardinal came to demand the book due to the 
king, the bifliop unadvifedly commanded his fervant to bring him 
the book bound in white vellum, lying in his ftudy, in fuch a 
place. The fervant accordingly brought forth one of the books 
fo bound, being the book intreating of the Hate of the bifhop, 
Sec. The cardinal having the book, went from the bifiiop, and 
after, (in his ftudy by himfelf) understanding the contents there- 
of, he greatly rejoiced, having now occafkm (which he long 
fought for) offered unto him, to bring the bilhop into the king's 

" Wherefore he went forthwith to the king, delivered the book 
into his hands, and briefly informed him of the contents there- 
of; putting further into the king's head, that if at any time he 
were deftiuite of a mafs of money, he ftiould not need to feek 
further therefore than to tjie coffers of the bifhop. Of all which 
^vhen the bifliop had intelligence, tic. he was ftricken with fuch 
grief of the fame, that he fhortly, through extreme forrow, ended 
his life at London, in the year of Chrift 1573. After which, 
the cardinal, who had long before gaped after his bifhoprick, in 
Angular hope to attain thereunto, had now his wifh in effecl:, &c," 


S A rings 


Springs out into fafl gait ; then, flops again ', 
Strikes his breaflhard; and anon, he cafls 
His eye againfl the moon : in mofl ftrange poftures 
We have feen him fet himfelf. 

King. It may well be ; 

There is a mutiny in his mind. This morning 
Papers of flate he fent me to perufe, 
As I requir'd ; And, wot you, what I found 
There ; on my confcience, put unwittingly? 
Forfooth, an inventory, thus importing, 
The feveral parcels of his plate, his treafure, 
Rich fluffs, and ornaments of houfhold ; which 
I find at fuch proud rate, that it out-fpeaks 
Poffeflion of a fubjedr.. 

Nor. It is heaven's will ; 
Some fpirit put this paper in the packet, 
To blefs your eye withal. 

King. If we did think 
His contemplations were above the earth, 
And fix'd on fpiritual object, he mould flill 
Dwell in his mufings ; but, I am afraid, 
His thinkings are below the moon, not wortfe 
His ferious confidering. 
\IJe takes his feat; andwhifpers Lovel, who goes to Wolfey. 

Wol. Heaven forgive me ! 
Ever God blefs your highnefs ! 

King. Good my lord, 

You are full of heavenly fluff, and bear the inventory 
Of your beft graces in your mind ; the which 
You were now running o'er : you have fcarce time 
To fleal from fpiritual leifure a brief fpan, 
To keep your earthly audit : Sure, in that 
I deem you an ill hufband ; and am glad 
To have you therein n^y companion. 
' Wd. Sir, 

* .,.. , , . then, flops again,} Salluft defcribing the difturbed 
ftate of Cataline's mind, takes notice of the fame circumfhmce. 
f caws modo, modo tardus inceffus," STEEVEKS, 

S For 

264 K I N G H E N R Y VIII. 

For holy offices I have a time ; a time 
To think upon the part of bufmefs, which 
I bear i'the flate ; and nature does require 
Her times of prefervadon, which, perforce, 
I her frail fon, amongfl my brethren mortal, 
Mufl give my tendance to. 

King. You have faid well. 

WoL And ever may your highnefs yoke together, 
As I will lend you caufe, my doing well 
With my well faying ! 

King. ' f is well faid again ; 
And 'tis a kind of good deed, to fay well : 
And yet words are no deeds. Kjy father lov'd you : 
He faid, he did ; and with his deed did crown 
His word upon you. Since I had my office, 
I have kept you next my heart ; have not alone 
Employ'd you where high profits might come home, 
But par'd my prelent havings, to bellow 
My bounties upon you. 

IVol. What ihoulcl this mean ? [^/?^ 

Sur. The Lord increale this bufmefs ! \_Afide. 

King. Have 1 not made you 

The prime man of the flate ? I pray you, tell me, 
If what 1 now pronounce, you have found true : 
And, if you may confefs it, fay withal, 
If you are bound to us, or no. What fay you ? 

Wol. My fovereign, I confefs, your royal graces, 
Shower'd on me daily, have been more, than could 
My fludied purpofes requite ; which went 
1 JBeyond all man's endeavours : my endeavours 

1 Beyond all mean's endeavours] Endeavours for deferts. 
But the Oxford editor not knowing the fenfe in which the word 
is here ufed, alters it to ambition. WARBURTCN. 

To put ambition in the place of endeavours is certainly wrong ; 
and to explain endeavours by deferts is not right. The fenfe, and 
that not very difficult, is, my purpofes went beyond all human r- 
rfeavour. I purpofed for your honour more than it falls within 
jhe compafc of nian's natu,r? to attempt. JOHNSON, 



Have ever come too fhort of my defires, 
* Yet, fil'd with my abilities : Mine own ends 
Have been mine fo, that evermore they pointed 
To the good of your moft facred perfon, and 
The profit of the ftate. For your great graces 
Heap'd upon me, poor undeferver, I 
Can nothing render but allegiant thanks ; 
My prayers to heaven for you ; my loyalty, 
Which ever has, and ever fhall be growing, 
'Till death, that winter, kill it. 

King. Fairly anfwer'd ; 
A loyal and obedient fubject is 
Therein illuftrated : the honour of it 
Does pay the aft of it ; as, 3 i'the contrary, 
The foulnefs is the punifhment. I prcfume, 
That, as my hand has open'd bounty to you, 
My heart dropp'd love, my power rain'd honour, more 
On you, than any ; fo your hand, and heart, 
Your brain, and every function of your power, 
Should, 4 notwithstanding that your bond of duty, 
As 'twere in love's particular, be more 
To me, your friend, than any. 

Wol. I do profefs, 

That for your highnefs' good I ever laboured 
More than mine own ; that am, have, and will be. 
Though all the world fhould crack their duty to you, 

1 Tet y fil'd with my abilities ' ] My endeavours, though led 
than my defires, havejf/V, that is, have gone an equal pace with 
my abilities. JOHNSON. 
So, in a preceding fcene : 

front but in that file 

Where others tellfleps with ate. SrEEVENJ. 

3 o' the contrary 

Ihe foulnefs is the punijhment.] 
So Hanmer. The reft read : 

i' the contrary. JOHNSON. 

* notivitbftanding that your land of duty,] Befides the ge- 
neral bond of duty, by which you are obliged to be a loyal and 
'obedient fubjeft, you owe a particular devotion of yourfelf to me, 
#s your particular benefactor. JOHNSON. 

VOL. VII, And 


And throw it from their foul ; though perils did 
Abound, as thick as thought could make 'em, and 
Appear in forms more horrid ; yet my duty, 
As doth a rock againft the chiding flood, 
Should the approach of this wild river break, 
And ftand unlhaken yours. 

King. 'Tis nobly fpoken : 
Take notice, lords, he has a loyal breaft, 
For you have feen him open't. Read o'er this; 

[Giving him papers. 

And, after, this : and then to breakfaft, with 
JVhat appetite you have. 

[Exit King, frowning upon Cardinal Wolfey ; the 
Nobles throng after lolm y whlfpering and falling* 
Wol What fhould this mean ? 
What fudden anger's this ? how have I reap'd it ? 
He parted frowning from me, as if ruin 
Leap'd from his eyes : So looks the chafed lion 
Upon the daring huntfman that has gall'd him ; 
Then makes him nothing. I mud read this paper; 
I fear, the flory of his anger. 'Tis fo ; 
This paper has undone me : 'Tis the account 
Of all that world of wealth I have drawn together 
For mine own ends ; indeed, to gain the popedom, 
And fee my friends in Rome. O negligence, 
Fit for a fool to fall by ! What crofs devil 
Made me put this main fecret in the packet 
I Tent the king ? Is there no way to cure this ? 
No new device to beat this from his brains ? 
I know, 'twill ftir him ftrongly ; Yet I know 
A way, if it take right, in might of fortune 
Will bring me off again. What's this To tie Pope? 
The letter, as I live,' with all the bufinefs 
I writ to his holinefs. Nay then, farewel ! 
I have touch'd the higheft point of all my greatnefs; 
And, from that full meridian of my glory, 
I hafte now to my fetting : I lhall fall 



Like a bright exhalation in the evening, 
And no man fee me more. 

Re-enter tie Dukes of Norfolk, and Suffolk, the Earl of 
Surrey, and the Lord Chamberlain. 

Nor. Hear the king's pleafure, cardinal : who 

commands you 

To render up the great feal prefently 
Into our hands ; and to confine yourfelf 
To Efher houfe ', my lord of Winchefter's, 
? Till you hear further from his highnefs. 

IVol Stay, 

Where's your commiffion, lords ? words cannot carry 
Authority fo mighty. 

Suf. Who dare crofs 'em ? 

Bearing the king's will from his mouth exprefsly ? 
Wol. 6 'Till 1 find more than will, or words, to 
do it, 

(I mean 

5 To Eflier boufe,] The old copy reads AJher. It was anci- 
pptly io called, as appears from Holinjked : 

*f and everie man took rheir horfes and rode {trait to 
Afar." Hollaed, p. 90 . Vol. II. WARNER. 
6 Till I find more than will or words to do it, 

(I mean your malice') know, 

I dare deny //.] 

They bid him render up \\\%feal. He anfwers, where 1 s your com- 
rnijjion? They fay, ive bear the king's will from his mouth. He 
replies, //'// 1 find, &c. i. e. all the will or words I yet difcover 
proceed from your malice ; and till I find m Tt than that, I (hall 
not comply with your demand. One wouid think this plain 
enough ; yet the Oxford editor, in the rage of emendation, alters 
the line thus : 

Whilft / find mart than his will or words to do it, 

I mean your malice, &C. 

which bears this noble fenfe, worthy a wife lord chancellor : 
Whilft I find your malice joined to the king's will and pleaiuie, 
I (hall not obey that will and pleafure. WARBURTON. 
' Wolfey had faid : 

v.-ords cannot carry 

Authority fo mighty, 



(I mean, your malice) know, officious lords, 

I dare, and muft deny it. Now I feel 

Of what coarfe metal ye are moulded, envy. 

How eagerly ye follow my difgrace, 

As if it fed ye ? and how fleek and wanton 

Ye appear in every thing may bring my ruin ? 

Follow your envious courfes, men of malice ; 

You have chriftian warrant for 'em, and, no doubt, 

In time will find their fit rewards. That feal, 

You afk with fuch a violence, the king, 

(Mine, and your mafter) with his own hand gave me : 

Bade me enjoy it, with the place and honours, 

During my life ; and, to confirm his goodnefs, 

Ty'd it by letters patents : Now, who'll take it ? 

Stir. The king, that gave it. 

Wol. It muft be himfelf then. 

Sur. Thou art a proud traitor, prieft. 

WoL Proud lord, thou Heft ; 
Within thefe forty hours Surrey durft better 
Have burnt that tongue, than faid fo. 

Sur. Thy ambition, 

Thou fcariet fin, robb'd this bewailing land 
Of noble Buckingham, my father-in-law : 
The heads of all thy brother cardinals, 
(With thee, and all thy beft parts bound together) 
Weigh 'd not a hair of his. Plague of your policy ! 
You fent me deputy for Ireland ; 
Fa.r from his fuccour, from the king, from all 
That might have mercy on the fault thou gav'ft him ; 
Whilft your great goodnefs, out of holy pity, 
Abfolv'd him with an axe. 

WoL This, and all elfe 
This talking lord can lay upon my credit, 

To which they reply : 

Who dare crofs 'em f &c. 

Wolfey, anfwering them, continues his own fpeech, Till I ftmi, 
mo; c than *ivill or "jjordi (I mean more than^vx/' malicious will and 
words) to do it ; that is, to carry authority fo mighty, I will deny 
to return what the king has given me. JOHNSON. 

I an* 


I anfvver, is mod falfe. The duke by law 
Found his deferts : how innocent I was 
From any private malice in his end, 
His noble jury and foul caufe can witnefs. 
If I lov'd many words, lord, I fhould tell you, 
You have as little honefty as honour; 
That I, in the way of loyalty and truth 
Toward the king, my ever royal matter, 
Dare mate a founder man than Surrey can be, 
And all that love his follies. 

Sur. By my foul, 
Your long coat, prieft, protects you ; thou ihould'ft 


My fword i'the life-blood of thee elfe. My lords, 
Can ye endure to hear this arrogance ? 
And from this fellow ? If we live thus tamely, 
To be thus jaded by a piece of fcarlet, 
Farewel nobility ; let his grace go forward, 
And dare us with his cap, like larks 7 . 

fy r ol. All goodnefs 
Is poifon to thy ftomach. 

Sur. Yes, that goodnefs 
Of gleaning all the land's wealth into one, 
Into your own hands, cardinal, by extortion ; 
The goodnefs of your intercepted packets, 
You writ to the pope, againft the king : your goodnefs, 
Since you provoke me, lhall be moft notorious. 
My lord of Norfolk, as you are truly noble, 
As you refpedt the common good, the flate 
Of our defpis'd nobility, our iflues, 
Who, if he live, will fcarce be gentlemen, 
Produce the grand fum of his fins, the articles 
Collected from his life : I'll flartle you 

7 And dare us ivltb bis cap, like larks.] It is well known that 
the hat of a cardinal is fcarlet ; and the method of daring larks 
was by fmall mirrors fattened on fcarlet cloth, which engaged 
Ihe attention ofthefe birds while the fowler drew his net over them. 




8 Worfe than the facring bell, when the brown wench 
Lay kiffing in your arms, lord cardinal. 

IVol. How much, methinks, I could defpife this 

But that I am bound in charity againft it ! 

Nor. Thofe articles, my lord, are in the king's 

hand : 
But, thus much, they are foul ones. 

W"ol. So much fairer, 
And fpotlefs, fhall mine innocence arife, 
When the king knows my truth. 

Sur. This cannot fave you : 
I thank my memory, 1 yet remember 
Some of thefe articles ; and out they ihall. 
Now, if you can blufti, and cry guilty, cardinal., 
You'll fhew a little honefty. 

Wol. Speak on, fir; 

I dare your worft objections : if I blufh, 
It is, to lee a nobleman want manners. 

Sur* I'd rather want thofe, than my head. Have 

at you. 
Firft, that, without the king's afTent, or knowledge, 

8 Worfe than the facring bell, ] The little bell, which is rung 
to give notice of the Hoji approaching when it is carried in pro- 
ceffion, as alfo in other offices of the Romifti church, is called 
the fairing or confecratlon bell ; from the French word, facrer. 


So, in Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, 1614 : 
" Love is perhaps the facring <?//, 
" That rings all in to heaven or hell." 
Again, the abbefs in the Merry Devil of Edmonton^ 1626, fays : 

" you fhall ring the facring bell, 

" Keep your hours, and toll your knell." 
Again, in Reginald Scott's Difcovery of Witchcraft, 1584 : 

" He heard a \\tt\efacring bell ring to the elevation of a 

tomorrow mafs." 

Again, in Drayton's Epiftle from King John to Matilda : 
" Who would not rife to ring the morning knell, 
" When thy fweet lips might be the facring bell ?" 
The now obfolete verb tofacre, is ufed by P. Holland in his tranf- 
lation of Pliny's Nat, H\ft, B, X, ch, vi, STEYENS. 



You wrought to be a legate; by which power 
You maim'd the jurifdiction of all bifhops. 

Nor. Then, that, in all you writ to Rome, or elfe 
To foreign princes, Ego &? Rex meus 
Was flill infcrib'd ; in which you brought the king 
To be your fervant. 

Suf. Then, that, without the knowledge 
Either of king or council, when you went 
AmbaiTador to the emperor, you made bold 
To carry into Flanders the great feal. 

Sur., Item, you fent a large commiffion 
To Gregory de CaiTalis, to conclude, 
Without the king's will, or the Hate's allowance, 
A league between his highneis and Ferrara. 

Suf. That, out of mere ambition, you have caus'd 
Your holy hat to be ftampt on the king's coin. 

Sur. Then, that you have fent innumerable fub- 


(By what means got, I leave to your own confcience) 
To furnim Rome, and to prepare the ways 
You have for dignities ; to the mere undoing 9 
Of all the kingdom. Many more there are; 
Which, lince they are of you, and odious, 
I will not taint my -mouth with. 

Cham. O my lord, 

Prefs not a falling man too far ; 'tis virtue : 
His faults lie open to the laws; let them, 
Not you, corred: him. My heart weeps to fee him 
So little of his great felf. 
Sur. I forgive him. 

Suf. Lord cardinal, the king's further pleafure is, 
Becaufe all thofe things, you have done of late 
By your power legatine within this kingdom, 

9 to the mere undoing ] Mere is abfolute. So, in the- 

Honefl Man's Fortune, by B. and Fletcher : 

" 1 am as happy 

*' In my friend's good, as if 'twere merely mine." 


272 KING HENRY Vlll. 

Fall into the compafs of a Premunirgj ' 

That therefore fuch a writ be fu'd againft you ; 

To forfeit all your goods, lands, tenements, 

* Caftles, and whatfoever, and to be 

Out of the king's protection : I his is my charge. 

Nor. And fo we'll leave you to your meditations 
How to live better. For your ftubborn anfwer, 
About the giving back the great feal to us, 
The king lhall know it, and, no doubt, lhall thank 

So fare you well, my little good lord cardinal. 

[Exeunt all but Wolfey. 

IVol. So farewel to the little good you bear me. 
Fnrewel, a long farewel, to all my greatnefs ! 
This is the flate of man ; To-day he puts forth 
The tender leaves of hope, to-morrow bloflbms, 
And bears his blulhing honours thick upon him : 
The third day, comes a froft, a killing froft; 
And, when he thinks, good eafy man, full furely 
His greatnefs is a ripening, ' nips his root, 


1 of a pramunire,] It is almoft unneceflary to obferve that 
premunire is a barbarous word ufed inftead of pramonere. 


* Caftles, and whatfoe vc r, 

I have ventured to fubftitute chattels here, as the author's genuine 
word, becaufe the judgment in a writ of Premunire is, that the 
defendant fhall be out of the king* s protection ; and his lands and te- 
nements, goods and chattels forfeited to the king ; and that his 
body lhall remain in prifon at the king's pleafure. This very de- 
fcription of the Premunire is fet out by Holinfhed in his Life of 
King Henry VIII. p. 909. THEOBALD. 

8 nips his root,"] As fpring frofts are not injurious to the 

roots of fruit-trees, I fhould imagine the poet wrote Jboot, i. e. that 
tender Jboot on which are the young leaves and llojjbms. The 
comparifon, as well as expreffion of nips, is jufter too in this 
reading. He has the fame thought in Love's Labour* s Loft : 
** Biron is like an envious J neaping froft 
" That lites the firft-born infants of the fpring." 



, And then he falls, as I do. I have ventur'd, 
Like little wanton boys that fwim on bladders, 
Thefe many fummers in a fea of glory j 
But far beyond my depth : my high-blown pride 
At length broke under me ; and now has left me, 
Weary, and old with ferviee, to the mercy 
Of a rude ftream, that muft for ever hide me. 
Vain pomp, and glory of this world, I hate ye ; 
I feel my heart new open'd : O, how wretched 
Is that poor man, that hangs on princes' favours ! 
There is, betwixt that fmile we would afpire to, 
That fweet afpec~l of princes, and our ruin % 
More pangs and fears than wars or women have ; 
And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer 5 , 
Never to hope again, 

Enter Cromwell^ amaze dly. 
Why, how now, Cromwell ? 

So, Milton in Sampfon Agoniftes : 

** Abortive as the firft-born bloom of fpring, 
*' Nip'd ivitb the lagging fear of winter's froft." 
which feems to be taken trom the place in queftion. WARBURTON. 
Here is a long note. But at lait we may as well continue the an- 
cient reading. Vernal frofts indeed do not kill the root, but then 
to nip thejbwfs does not kill the tree or make it fall. The meta- 
phor will not in either reading correfpond exactly with nature* 


I adhere to the old reading, which is countenanced by the fol- 
lowing paflage in A. W's Commendation cf Gafioigne and bit Poe* 

" And frofts fo nip the rootes of vertuous meaning minds.'* 
See Gafcoigne 1 * ; ff^r^s, 1587. STEEVENS. 

4 and our raz',] The old copy reads : 

their ruin. STEEVENS. 

5 A*4<*btn be falls, he falls like Lvcifer,] In the Life and 
Death of Thomas Wolfcy, &c. a poem, by Tho. Storer, ftudentof 
Chrift-church, in Oxford, 1599, the cardinal exprefles himfelf in 
a manner fomewhat nmilar : 

" If once we fall, we fall Coloflus-like, 

" We fall at once like pillars of the funne, &c." 


VOL. VII. T Crom. 

274 K I N G H E N R Y VHL 

Crow* I have no power to fpeak, fir. 

Wol. What, amaz'd 

At my misfortunes ? can thy fpirit wonder, 
A great man ihould decline ? Nay, an you weep, 
I am fallen indeed. 

Crom. How does your grace ? 

WoL Why, well ; 

Never fo truly happy, my good Cromwell. 
I know myfelf now ; and I feel within me 
A peace above all earthly dignities, 
A ftill and quiet confcience. The king has cur'd me, 
I humbly thank his grace ; and from thefc fhoulders, 
Thefe ruin'd pillars, out of pity, taken 
A load would fink a navy, too much honour : 
O, 'tis a burden, Cromwell, 'tis a burden, 
Too heavy for a man that hopes for heaven. 

Crom. I am glad, your grace has made that right 
ufe of it. 

Wol. I hope, I have : I am able now, mcthinks, 
(Out of a fortitude of foul I feel) 
To endure more miferies, and greater far, 
Than my weak-hearted enemies dare offer. 
What news abroad ? 

Crom. The heaviest, and the worft, 
Is your difpleafure with the king. 

Wol. God blefs him ! 

Crom. The next is, that fir Thomas More is chofcn 
Lord chancellor in your place. 

Wol. That's fomewhat fudden : 
But he's a learned man. May he continue 
Long in his highnefs' favour, and do iuftice 
For truth's fake, and his confcience ; that his bones, 
When he has run his courfe, and ileeps in bleffings, 
May have 6 a tomb of orphans' tears wept on them ! 
What more ? 

6 " a tomb of orphans' tears ivept on them /] The chancellor 
is the general guardian of orphans. A tomb of tear* is very harlh. 




Crom. That Cranmer is return'd with welcome, 
Inftall'd lord archbilhop of Canterbury. 

Wol. That's news indeed. 

Crom. Laft, that the lady Anne, 
Whom the king hath in fecrecy long marry'd, 
This day was vievv'd in open, as his queen, 
Going to chapel ; and the voice is now 
Only about her coronation. 

Wol. There was the weight that pulPd me down, 

O Cromwell, 

The king has gone beyond me, all my glories 
In that one woman I have loft for ever : 
No fun fiiLill ever ulher forth mine honours, 
Or gild again the noble troops that waited 
Upon my fmiles. Go, get thee from me, Cromwell ; 
I am a poor fallen man, unworthy now 
To be thy lord and mailer : Seek the king ; 
That fun, I pray, may never fet ! I have told him 
What, and how true thou art : he will advance thee ; 
Some little memory of me will flir him, 
I know his noble nature, not to let 
Thy hopeful fervice perifh too : G<Jod Cromwell, 
Neglect him not ; make ufe now, and provide 
For thine own future fafety. 

Crom. O my lord. 

Mull I then leave you ? muft I needs forego 
So good, fo noble, and fo true a mailer r 
Bear witnefs, all that have not hearts of iron, 
With what a forrow Cromwell leaves his lord. 
The king mall have my fervice ; but my prayers 
For ever, and for ever, {hail be yours. 

Wol. Cromwell, I did not think to flied a tear 
In all my mifcrics ; but thou hail forc'd me, 
Out of thy honcfl truth, to play the woman. 
Let's dry our eyes : And thus far hear me, Cromu'dl ; 
And, when I am forgotten, as I fnail be ; 
And deep in dull coM marble, where no mention 
Of me mo;c ir.uft be heard of, fay, I taught thee, 
T 2 Say, 


Say, Wolfey, -that once trod the ways of glory, 
And founded all the depths and fnoals of honour,- 
Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rife in ; 
A fure and fafe one, though thy mailer mifs'd ir. 
Mark but my fall, and that that ruin'd me. 
Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition ; 
By that fin fell the angels, how can man then, 
The image of his Maker, hope to- win by't ? 
Love thyfelf laft : 7 cheriih thofe hearu that hate 


Corruption wins not more than honefty. 
Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace, 
To filence envious tongues. Be juft, and fear not t 
Let all the ends, thou aim'ft at,, be thy country's, 

7 chcrijb thofe hearts that hate thee ;J Though this be good 

divinity, and an admirable precept for our conduct in private life; 
it was never calculated or defigned for the magiftrate or public 
minifter. Nor could this be the diredtion of a man experienced, 
in affairs, to his pupil. It would make a good chriftian but a 
very ill and very unjuft ftatefman.. And we have nothing ib in- 
famous in tradition, as the fuppofed advice given to one of our 
kings, to cherljb his eaemies, and be in no pain for bis friends. I 
am of opinion the poet wrote : 

cberijb thofe hearts that wait thee f 

\. e. thy dependants. For the contrary practice had contributed 
to Wolfey's ruin. He was not careful enough in making depen- 
dants by his bounty, while intent in amaffing wealth to himielf.. 
The following line feems to confirm this correction : 

Corruption voins not more than honejiy. 

i. e. You. will never find men won over to your temporary occa- 
lions by bribery, fo uleful to you as friends made by a juft and 
generous munificence. WARBURTOX. 

I am unwilling wantonly to contradict fo ingenious a remark, 
but that the reader may not be mifled, and believe the emenda- 
tion propofed to be absolutely neceflary, he fhould remember that 
this is not a time for Wolfey to fpeak only as * ft ate. /'man, but as 
a cbriftian, Shakefpeare would have debafed the character, juft 
when he was employing his ftrongeit efforts to raiie it, had he 
drawn it otherwife. Nothing makes the hour of difgrace more 
irktbme, than the reflection, that we have been deaf to offers of 
reconciliation, and perpetuated that enmity which we might have 
converted into friendfhip. STEEYENS. 


Thy God's, and truth's ; then if thou fall'ft, O 


Thou fall'il a bleflbd martyr. Serve the king; 
And, Pr'ythee, lead me in : 
There take an inventory of all I have, 
To the laft penny ; 'tis the king's : my robe, 
And my integrity to heaven, is all 
I dare now call mine own. O Cromwell, Cromwell, 
8 Had I but ferv'd myGod with half the zeal 
I ferv'd my king, he would not in mintage 
Have left me naked to mine enemies. 

Crom. Good .fir, have patience. 

Wol. So I have. Fare we 1 

The hopes of court i my hopes in heaven do dwell. 


A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

A Street in Wefminfter. 
Enter two Gentlemen, meeting one another, 

' i Gen. You are well met 9 once again. 
2, Gen. So are you. 

j Gen,. You come to take your fland here, and be- 

8 Had I kit fern? d my God, &c.] This fentence was really ut- 
ttred by Wolfey. JOHNSON. 

When Samrah, the deputy governor of Baforah, was depofed 
by Moawiyah the fixth caliph, he is reported to have expreisi'd 
himfelf in the lame manner : " If I had ferved God fo well 
as I have ferved him, he would never have condemned me to ail 
eternity." STEEVENS. 

once again.] Alluding their former meeting in 

&e fecond aft. JOHKSON. 

T 3 Thq 


The lady Anne pafs from her coronation ? 

2 Gen. "Tis all my bufinefs. At our laft encounter, 
The duke of Buckingham came from his trial. 

1 Gen. v f is very true : but that time offer'd for- 

row ; 
This, general joy. 

2 &en. 'Tis well : the citizens, 

I am fure, have fhewn at full their royal minds ; 
As, let 'em have their rights, they are ever forward 
In celebration of ' this day with Ihews, 
Pageants, and fights of honour. 

1 Gen. Never greater, 

Nor, I'll affure you, better taken, fir. 

2 Gen. May I be bold to aik what that contains, 
That paper in your hand ? 

1 Gen. Yes ; 'tis the lift 

Of thofe, that claim their offices this day, 

By cuftom of the coronation. 

The duke of Suffolk is the firft, and claims 

To be high fteward ; next, the duke of Norfolk^ 

To be earl marfhal : you may read the reft. 

2 Gen. I thank you, fir ; had I not known thofc 


I Ihould have been beholden to your paper. 
But, I befeech you, what's become of Katharine, 
The princefs dowager ? how goes her bufinefs ? 

i Gen. That I can tell you too. The archbifhop 
Of Canterbury, accompanied with other 
Learned and reverend fathers of his order, 
Held a late court at Dunftable, fix miles off 
From Ampthill, where the princefs lay; to which 
She oft was cited by them, but appear'd not : 
And, to be ihort, for not appearance, and 

1 this day " ] Hanmer reads ; 

but Shakefpeare meant fucb a Jay as this, a coronation day. And 
fuch is the Engiifh idiom, which our authour commonly prefers 
to grammatical nicety. JOHNSON. 



The king's late fcruple, by the main affent 
Of all thefe learned men ihe was divorc'd, 
And the late marriage made of none efFed: : 
Since which, ihe was removed to Kimbolton, 
Where ihe remains now, fick. 
2 Gen. Alas, good lady ! 

The trumpets found : ftand clofe, the queen is com- 
ing. [Hautboys. 


1. A lively fiourffi of trumpets. 

2. Then two Judges. 

3. Lord Chancellor ; with tie purfe and mace before him. 

4. Chorifters finging. \ Mufick. 

5. Mayor of London, bearing the mace. 'Then Garter, 
in his coat of arms, and on his head a gilt copper 

6. Marquis Dorfet, bearing a fcepter of gold, on bis 
head a demi-coronal of gold. With him, the Earl of 
Surrey, bearing the rod ofjiher with the dove, crown' d 
with an earfs coronet. Collars of SS. 

7. 'Duke of Suffolk, in his robe of eftate, his coronet on 
his head, bearing a long white wand, as high fteward. 
With him, the Duke of Norfolk, with the rod of mar- 

Jhalfoip, a coronet on his head. Collars of SS. 

8. A canopy borne by four of the Cinque ports ; under it, 
the Queen in her robe ; in her hair richly adorned with 
pearl, crowned. On each fide her, the b'Jhops of Lon- 
don and Winchefier. 

9. The old Dut chefs of Norfolk, in a coronal of gold, 
wrought with flowers, bearing the Queens train. 

jo. Certain Ladies or Count cjj'es, with plain rirckti tf 

gold without floivers. 
They pafs over the ft age in order and jlate. 

T 4 2 Gen. 

28o K I N G H E N R Y VIII. 

2 Gen. A royal train, believe me. Thefel know ; 
Who's that, that bears the fcepter ? 

1 Gf. Marquis Dorfet : 

And that the earl of Surrey, xvith the rod. 

2 Gen. A bold brave gentleman. That fhould be 
The duke of Suffolk. 

1 Gen. 'Tis the fame ; high-fteward. 

2 Gen. And that my lord of Norfolk. 

1 Gen. Yes. 

2 Gen. Heaven blefs thee ! [Looking on the queen. 
Thou haft the fweetefl face I ever look'd on. 
Sir, as I have a foul, me is an angel ; 

Our king has all the Indies in his arms, 

And more, and richer, when he ftrains that lady : 

I cannot blame his confcience. 

1 Gen. They, that bear 

The cloth of honour over her, are four barons 
Of the Cinque-ports, 

2 Gen. Thofe men are happy ; fo are all, are near hert 
I take it, fhe that carries up the train, 

Is that old noble lady, dutchefs of Norfolk. 

1 Gen. It is ; and all the reft are countefles. 

2 Gen. Their coronets fay fo. Thefe are ftars, in- 

deed ; 
And, fometimes, falling ones. 

1 Gen. No more of that. 

[Exit Proctffion, ivltb a great jhurifi of trumpet^ 

Enter a third Gentleman. 

God fave you, fir ! Where have you been broiling ? 

2 Gen. Among the croud i' the abbey ; where a, 


Could not be wedg'd in more : I am ftifled, 
With the mere ranknefs of their joy. 

2 Gen. You faw the ceremony ? 

3 Gen. That I did. 

j Gen. How was it ? 

3 Gen, 


3 Gen. Well worth the feeing. 

2 Gen. Good fir, fpeak it to us. 

3 Gen. As well as 1 am able. The rich ftream 
Of lords, and ladies, having brought the queen 
To a prepared place in the choir, fell off 

A diftance from her ; while her grace fat down 
To re it awhile, fome half an hour, or fo, 
In a rich chair of ft'ate, oppofing freely 
The beauty of her perfon to the people. 
Believe me, fir, fhe is the goodlieft woman 
That ever lay by man : which when the people 
Had the full view of, fuch a noife arofe 
As the fhrouds make at fea in a fliff'tempeft, 
As loud, and to as many tunes : Hats, cloaks, 
(Doublets, I think) flew up ; and had their faces 
Been loofe, this day they had been' loft. Such joy 
I never faw before. Great-belly 'd women, 
That had not half a week to go, 2 like rams 
In the old time of war, would fhake the prefs, 
And make 'em reel before 'em. No man living 
Could fay, This is my wife, there ; all were woven 
So ftrangely in one piece. 

2 Gen. But, what follow'd ? 

3 Gen. At length her grace rofe, and with modeft 


Came to the altar ; where fhe kneel'd, and, faint-like, 
Caft her fair eyes to heaven, and pray'd devoutly. 
Then rofe again, and bow'd her to the people : 
When by the archbifhop of Canterbury, 
She had all the royal makings of a queen ; 
As holy oil, Edward Confeffor's crown, 
The rod, and bird of peace, and all fuch emblems 
Lay'd nobly on her : which performed, the choir, 
With all the choiceft mufick of the kingdom, 
Together fung Te Deum. So fhe parted, 
,And with the fame full Hate pac'd back again 

* r* like ram] That is, like battering rams. JOHNSON. 



To York place, where the feaft is held. 

1 Gen. You mufl no more call it York place, that's 

paft : 

For, fince the cardinal fell, that title's loft ; 
'Tis now the king's, and call'd Whitehall. 

3 Gen. I know it ; 

But 'tis fo lately alter'd, that the old nam<? 
Is frefh about me. 

2 Gen. What two reverend bifnops 

Were thofe that went on each fide of the queen ? 

3 Gen. Stokeily, and Gardiner; the one, of Win- 

ch efter, 

(Newly preferr'd from the kirig's fecretary) 
The other, London. 

2 Gen. He of Winchefter 

Is held no great good lover of the archbifhop's, 
The virtuous Cranmer. 

3 Gen. All the land knows that: : 

However, yet there's no great breach ; when it comes, 
'Cranmer will find a friend will not fhrink from him. 

2 Gen. Who may that be, I pray you ? 

3 Gen. Thomas Cromwell ; 

A man in much efteem with the king, and truly 
A worthy friend. The king has made him 
Mailer o' the jewel-houfe, 
And one, already, of the privy-council. 

2 Gen. He will deferve more. 

3 Gen. Yes, without all doubt. 

Come, gentlemen, ye fhall go my way, which 
Is to the court, and there fhsll be my gucffo ; 
Something I can command. As I walk thither,, 
I'll tell ye more. 

Both. You may command us, fir. [Exeunt. 





Enter Katharine, Dowager, Jtck, led between Griffith her 
gentlenian-ufoer, and Patience her woman. 

Grif. How does your grace ? 

Kath. O, Griffith, fick to death : 
My legs, like loaded branches, bow to the earth, 
Willing to leave their burden : Reach a chair; 
$ 0> now, methinks, I feel a little cafe. 
Didft thou not tell me, Griffith, as thou led'ft me, 
That the great child of honour, cardinal Wolfey 
Was dead ? 

Grif. Yes, madam ; but, I think, your grace, 
Out of the pain you ftiffer'd, gave no ear to't. 

Kath. Pry'thcc, good Griffith, tell me how he dy'd : 
If well, he ftep'd before me, happily *, 
For my example. 

Grif. Well, the voice goes, madam : 
For after the flout earl Northumberland 
Arrefted him at York, and brought him forward 
(As a man forely tainted) to his anfwcr, 
He fell fick fuddenly, and grew fo ill, 
He could not fit his mule. 

3 SCENE II.] This fcene is above any other part of Shake- 
fpeare's tragedies, and perhaps above any Iceneof any other poet, 
tender and pathetick, without gods, or furies, or poifons, or pre- 
cipices, without the help of romantick circumftances, without 
improbable Tallies of poetical lamentation, and without any throes 
ot tumultuous mifery. JOHNSON. 

4 hefiepp'd lefore me, happily, 

For my example.] 

Happily feems to mean on this occafion peradventure^ haply. I 
Jiave been more than once of this opinion, when I have met with 
the fame word thus fpelt in other paflagcs. STEEVENS. 



Kath. Alas, poor man ! 

Grif. At laft, with eafy roads 5 , he came to Lei- 


Lodg'd in the abbey ; where the reverend abbot, 
With all his convent, honourably receiv'd him ; 
To whom he gave thefe words, O father abbot, 
An old man, broken with the ftorms of Jlate, 
Is come to lay his weary bones among ye ; 
Give htm a little earth for .charity /" 
So went to bed : where eagerly his ficknefs 
Purfu'd him ftill; and, three nights after this, 
About the hour of eight, (which he himfelf 
Foretold, fhould be his laft) full of repentance, 
Continual meditations, tears, and forrows, 
He gave his honours to the world again, 
His blefled part to heaven, and flept in peace. 

Kath. So may he reft ; his faults lie gently on him! 
Yet thus far, Griffith, give me leave to fpeak him, 
And yet with charity, He was a man 
Of an unbounded ftomach, 6 ever ranking 
Himfelf with princes ; 7 one, that by fuggeftion 


5 with eafy roads,* ] i. c. by fhort ftage?. STEEVENS. 

* Of an unbounded ftomach, J i. e. of unbounded pridt^ 

or baugbtincfs. So, Holinfhed, fpeaking of king Richard III : 
*' Such a great audacitie and fuch zftotnacb reigned in his 

bodie." STEEVENS. 
7 one y that ly fuggeftion 

Ty'd all the kingdom :] 

i.e. by giving the king pernicious counfel, he /y V or enflaved 
the kingdom. He ufes the word here with great propriety, and 
feeming knowledge of the Latin tongue. For the late Roman 
writers, and their gloflers, agree to give this fenfe to it : Suggeftio 
eft cum' magiftratus quillbet principi falubre conJUlumfuggcrit. So 
that nothing could be feverer than this reflection, that that whole- 
fome counlel, which it is the minifter's duty to give his prince, ' 
was fo empoifoned by him, as to produce llavery to his country. 
Yet all this fine fenie vanilhes inltantaneouily before the touch of 
the Oxford editor, by his happy thought of changing ty'd into 
tjtVd. WAR BUR TON. 

The viorAfnggeftion, fays the critick, is here ufed with great 



Ty'd all the kingdom : fimony was fair play ;- 
His own opinion was his law : 1' the pretence 


propriety, and feemlng knowledge of the Latin tongue : and he 
proceeds to fettle the fenfe of it from the late Roman writers and 
their glojjers. But Shakefpeare's knowledge was from Holiuflied, 
whom he follows verbatim : 

" This cardinal was of a great ftomach, for he compted him- 
felr equal with princes, and by crattie fuggejlion got into his 
hands innumerable trcafure : he forced little on lunonie, and was 
not phifull, and flood affectionate in his own opinion : in open 
pretence he would lie and ieie untruth, and was double both in 
fpeech and meaning : he would promife much and perform little : 
he was vicious of his bodie, and gave the clergie euil example." 
Edit, i 587, p. 922. 

Perhaps after this quotation, you may not think, that fir Tho- 
mas Hanmer, who reads tytVd inftead of iy'd all the kingdom ^ 
deferves quite fo much or Dr. Warburton's ieverity. Indifput- 
ubly the pafiage, like every other in the fpeech, is intended to 
exprefs the meaning of the parallel one in the chronicle ; it can- 
not therefore be credited, that any man, when the original was 
produced, mould Hill chufe to defend a cant acceptation, and in- 
form us, perhaps, ferioujly, that in gaming language, from I 
know not what practice, to tye is to equal ! A fenfe of the word, 
as far as I have yet found, unknown to our old writers ; and, if 
kno-jjn^ would not furely have been ufed in this place by our au- 

But let us turn from conjecture to Shakefpeare's authorities. 
Hall, from whom the above defcription is copied by Holinfhed, 
is very explicit in the demands of the cardinal: who having in- 
folenrly told the lord-mayor and aldermen^ " For fothe I thinke, 
that halfe your fubftance were too little," allures them by way of 
comfort at the end of his harangue, that upon an average^ the 
tytbe fliould be fufficient ; " Sers, fpeake not to breake that thyug 
thr.t is concluded, for fame ftiall not paie, the tenth parte, and feme 
more." And again,- " Thei faied, the cardinall by vifnacions, 
imkyng of abbottes, probates of teftamentes, grauntingof facul- 
ties, licences, and other pollyngs in his courtes legantines, had 
made his threafore egall with the kyngei." Edit. 1548, p. 138, and, 
143. FARMER. 

in Storer's Life and Death of Tlo. Wolfcy, a poem, 1599, the 
cardinal fays : 

** I car'd not for the gentrie, for I had 

" 7/V^-gentlemen, yong nobles of the land, &c." 


Ty'd all the kingdom :] J. e. He was a man of an unbounded 
fiomach, or pride, ranking himlelf with princes, and by fug- 



He would fay untruths ; and be ever double, 
Both in his words and meaning : He was never, 

gefHon to the king and the pope, he ty'd, \. e. limited, circum- 
fcribed, and fet bounds to the liberties and properties of all per- 
fons in the kingdom. That he did fo, appears from various 
paflages in the play. Aft II. fc. ii. " free us from his ilavery," " or 
this imperious man will work us all from princes into pages ; all 
men's honours, &c. Aft III. fc.ii. *' You wroughtto be a legate, by 
which power you maintd the jurifdiftion of all bifhops." See alfo 

. fc. i. and Aft III. fc. ii. This conftruftion of the pafiage 
may be fupported from D'Ewes's Journal of Queen Elizabeth'' i 
Parliaments^ p. 644. " Far be it from me that the Hate and pre- 
rogative of the prince mould be tied by me, or by the act of any 
other fubjeft." 

Dr. Farmer has difplayed fuch eminent knowledge of Shake- 
fpeare, that it is with the utmoft diffidence I diflent from the al- 
teration which he would eftablifh here. He would read tytb\l, 
and refers to the authorities of Hall and Holinfhed about a tax of 
the tenth ^ or tytbe, of each man's fubftance, which is not taken 
notice of in the play. Let it be remarked that it is queen Ka- 
tharine fpeaks here, who, in Aft I. fc. ii. told the king it was a de- 
mand of the Jlxtb part of each fubjeft's fubftance, that caufed 
the rebellion. Would (he afterwards fay that he, /. e. Wolfey, 
had tytbed all the kingdom, when (he knew he had almoft doub'lc- 
tythed\tt Still Dr. Farmer infills that " the patfage, like every 
other in the fpeech, is intended to exprefs the meaning of the 
parallel one in the Chronicle" i.e. The cardinal "by craftie 
i'uggeftion got into his hands innumerable treafure." This pafTage 
does not relate to a public tax of the tenths, but to the cardinal's 
own private acquilitions. If in this fenfe I admitted the altera- 
tion, tyth'a 1 ^ I would fuppofe that, as the queen is defcanting on 
the cardinal's own acquirements, flie borrows her term from the 
principal emolument or payment due to priefts ; and means to in- 
timate that the cardinal was not content with the tythcs legally 
accruing to him from his own various pluralities, but that he ex- 
torted fomeching equivalent to them throughout all the kingdom. 
So Buckingham fays, Aft I. fc. i. " No man's pye is freed from 
his ambitious finger." So, again, Surrey fays, Aft III. fc. ult. 
*' Yes, that goodnefs of gleaning all the land's wealth into one, into 
your own hands, cardinal, by extortion :"oi)d //<&. " You have 
fent innumerabU fuljlatice (by what means got, I leave to your own 
confcience) to the mere undoing of all the kingdom." This cx- 
tortiou is fo frequently fpokcu of, that perhaps our author pur- 
pofely avoided a repetition of it in the paflagc under ccnfidera- 
tion, and therefore gave a different ientiment declarative of the 
confequeuce of his unbounded pride, that mull humble all others. 



But where he meant to ruin, pitiful : 
His prcmifes were, as he then was, mighty ; 
But his performance, as he is now, nothing 8 , 
Of his own body he was ill 9 , and gave 
The clergy ill example. 

Grif. Noble madam, 

Men's evil manners live in brafs ; their virtues 
We write in water '. May it plcafe your highnefs 
To hear me fpeak his good no'.v ? 

Kath. Yes, good Griffith ; 
I were malicious elfe. 

Grif. This cardinal, 

Though from an humble flock, undoubtedly 
Was falhion'd to much honour. From his cradle, 
He was a fcholar, and a ripe, and good one : 
Exceeding wife, fair fpoken, and perfuading : 
Lofty, and four, to them that lov'd him not ; 
But, to thofe men that fought him, fweet as fummer. 

8 as be is #<nv, nothing.] So, in Mallinger's Great Dukf of 

*' -- Great men 

** Till they have gain'd their ends, we giants in 
" Their prom'fes ; but thole obtai-n'd, weak pygmies 
** In their performance" STEEVKNS. 

9 Of his oivn body beivas ///,] A criminal connection with wo- 
men was anciently called the vice of the body. So, in Hollnjbed^ 
p. 1258 : " he laboured by all meanes to cleare miftrefle Sanders 
of committing cvill of her lodie with him. STEEVENS. 

* their virtues 

'* We ivrite in water. - ] 
Beaumont and Fletcher have the fame thought in their 

" - all your better deeds 

" Shall be in water writ, but this in marble." STEEVENS, 
This reflexion bears a great rcfemblance to a pafiags in iir 
Tho. More's H'tjl. of Richard III. whence Shakefpeare undoubt- 
edly formed his play on th ;t fubject. Speaking of the ungrate- 
ful turns which Jane Shore experienced hx>m thole whom file had 
ferved in her profperity ; More adds, " Men ufe, it they have 
an evil turne, to write it in marble, nd \/hofo doth us a good 
turne, we write it iu dufte." JLW.f V/'o>. .>, LU 1. 1557, p. 59. 



And though he were unfatisfy'd in getting, 

(Which was a fin) yet in beftowing, madam, 

He was mofl princely : Ever witnefs for him 

Thole twins of learning, that he rais'd in you, 

Ipfwich, and Oxford ! one of which fell with him? 

Unwilling to out-live the good he did it z ; 

The other, though unfinilh'd, yet fo famous, 

So excellent in art, and flill fo rifing, 

That Chriftendom ihall ever fpeak his virtue. 

His overthrow heap'd happinefs upon him ; 

For then, and not 'till then, he felt himfelf, 

And found the bleffednefs of being little : 

And, to add greater honours to his age 

Than man could give him, he dy'd, fearing God. 

Katb. After my death I wifli no other herald, 
No other fpeaker of my living actions, 
To keep mine honour from corruption,' 
But fuch an honeil chronicler as Griffith. 
Whom I moft hated living, thou haft made me^ 
With thy religious truth, and modefty, 
Now in his allies honour : Peace be with him ! 
Patience, be near me flill ; and fet me lower : 
I have not long to trouble thee. Good Griffith, 
Caufe the muficians play me that fad note 
I nam'd my knell, whilft I fit meditating 
On that celeftial harmony I go to. 

Sad and folemn mujick. 
Grif. She is afleep : Good wench, let's fit down 

For fear we wake her : Softly, gentle Patience. 

The vifwn. Enter, folemnly tripping one after another *, 
fix perfonages, clad in white robes, wearing on their 

* he did it ;] The old copy reads : 

that did it. STEEVENS. 

3 folemnly tripping one after another ,] This whimfical 

ftage-diredion is exa&ly taken from the old copy. STEEVENS. 



garlands of bays, and golden vizards on. their 
faces ; branches of bays, or palm, in their hands. They 
jirjl congee unto her, then dance ; and, at certain 
changes, the firft two hold a fpare garland ovtr her 
head ', at which, the other four make reverend courte- 
fies ; then the two, that held the garland, deliver the 
fame to the other next two, who obferve the fame order 
in their changes, and holding the garland over her head : 
ivhich done, they deliver the fame garland to the lajl 
two, who likewife obferve the fame order : at wbicb, 
(as it were by inspiration) fhe makes in her Jleepfigns 
of rejoicing, and holdeth up her hands to heaven : and 
fo in their dancing they vani/h, carrying the garland with 
them. The mujick continues. 

Kath. Spirits of peace, where are ye ? Are ye all 

gone ? 
And leave me here in wretchednefs behind ye ? 

Grif. Madam, we are here. 

Kath. It is not you I call for : 
Saw ye none enter, lince I flept ? 

Grif. None, madam. 

Kath. No ? Saw you not, even now, a blefled troop 
Invite me to a banquet ; whofe bright faces 
Call thoufand beams upon me, like the fun ? 
They promis'd me eternal happinefs ; 
And brought me garlands, Griffith, which I feel 
I am not worthy yet to wear : I ihall, 

Grif. I am mofl joyful, madam, fuch good dreams 
Poffefs your fancy. 

Kath. Bid the mufick leave, 
They are harfh and heavy to me. [Mufick ceafes* 

Pat. Do you note, 

How much her grace is alter'd on the fudden ? 
How long her face is drawn ? How pale Ihe looks, 
And of an earthy cold ? Mark her eves. 

VOL. VII. U Grif, 

290 K I N G H E N R Y VII 

Grlf. She is going, wench ; pray, pray. 
Pat.- Heaven comfort her \ 

Enter a 

Mcf. An't like your grace, 

Katb. You are a fawcy fellow ;. 
Deferve we no more reverence ? 

Grlf. You are to blame, 

Knowing, Ihe will not lofe her wonted greatnefs,- 
To ufe fo rude behaviour : go to, kneel. 

Mef. I humbly do entreat your highnefs' pardon ;: 
My hafte made me unmannerly : There is flaying 
A gentleman, fent from the king, to fee you. 

Katb. Admit him entrance, Griffith : But this 

Let me ne'er fee again. 

[Exeunt Griffith, andMeflenger* 

Re-enter Griffith, with Capudus. 

If my fight fail not, 

You fhould be lord ambaflador from the emperor, 

My royal nephew, and your name Capucius. 

Cap. Madam, the fame, your fervant. 

Katb. O my lord, 

The times, and titles, now are alter'd flrangely 
With me, fince firft you knew me. But, I pray you a 
What is your pleafure with me ? 

Cap. Noble lady, 

Firft, mine own fervice to your grace ; the next, 
The king's requeft that I would vifit you ; 
Who grieves much for your vveaknefs, and by me 
Sends you his princely commendations, 
And heartily entreats you take good comfort. 

Kath.Q my good lord, that comfort comes too late ; 
J Tis like a pardon after execution : 


That gentle phyfick, given in time, had cur'd me; 
But now I am pail all comforts here, but prayers. 
How does his highnefs ? 

Cap. Madam, in good health. 

Kath. So may he ever do ! and e.ver flourifh, 
When I mall dwell with worms, and my poor name 
Banifh'd the kingdom ! Patience, is that letter^ 
I caus'd you write, yet fent away ? 

Pat. No, madam. 

Katrj. Sir, I moft humbly pray you to deliver 
This to my lord the king 9 . 

Cap. Mofl willing, madam. 

Kath. In which I have commended to his goodnefe 
The model of our chafle loves, his young daugh- 
ter : 

The dews of heaven fall thick in bleffings on her ! 
Befeeching him, to give her virtuous breeding ; 
(She is young, and of a noble modeit nature ; 
I hope, Ihe will deferve well) and a little 
To love her for her mother's fake, that lov'd him, 
Heaven knows how dearly. .My next poor petition 
Is, that his noble grace would have fome pity 
Upon my wretched women, that fo long 
Have follow'd both my fortunes faithfully : 
Of which there is not one, I dare avow, 
(And now I fhould not lye) but will deferve, 
For virtue, and true beauty of the foul, 
For honefty, and decent carriage, 
A right good hufband ; let him be a noble ; 
And, fure, thofe men are happy that mall have 'emi 

4 This to my lord the king, "\ So, Hollnjbed^ p. 939: " per-* 
ceiving hir felfe to wax verie weak and feeble, and to feele death 
approaching at hand, caufed one of hir gentlewomen to -.vrire a 
letter to the king commending to him hir daughter and his, be- 
feeching him to {land good father unto hir ; and further defired 
him to have fome confideration of hir gentlewomen that had 
ferved hir, and to fee them beftowed in marriage. Further that 
it would pleafe him to appoint that hir fervants might have their 
due wages, and a yeares wages befide." STEEVENS, 

U z The 

*5>2 KING H E N R Y VIII. 

The laft is, for my men ; they are the pooreft, 

But poverty could never draw 'em from me ; 

That they may have their wages duly paid *em, 

And fomething over to remember me by : 

If heaven had pleas'd to have given me longer life, 

And able- means, we had not parted thus. 

Thefe are the whole contents : And, good my lord, 

By that you love the deareft in this world, 

As you wifh chriitian peace to fouls departed, 

Stand thefe poor people's friead, and urge the king 

To do me this laft right. 

Cap. By heaven, 1 will ; 
Or let me lofe the fafhion of a man I 

Katb. I thank you, honeft lord. Remember me 
In all humility unto his highnefs : 
Say, his long trouble now is paffing. 
Out of this world : tell him, in death I bleft him, 
For fo I will. Mine eyes grow dim. Farewel, 

My lord. Griffith, farewel. Nay, Patience, 

You mud not leave me yet. I muft to bed ; 

Call in more women. When lam dead, good wench, 
Let me be us'd with honour ; ftrew me over 
With maiden flowers, that all the world may know 
I was a chaile wife to my grave : embalm me, 
Then lay me forth : although unqueen'd, yet like 
A queen, and daughter to a king, interr me. 
I can no more. [Exeunt, leading Katharine. 



A C T V. S C E N E I. 

Some part of the Palace. 

Enter Gardiner Bifiop of Wmckefter, a Page with & 
torch before him^ met by Sir 'Thomas Lovel. 

Card. It's one a' clock, boy, is't not ? 

Boy. It hath ftruck. 

Card. Thefe Ihould be hours for neceffities, 
5 Not for delights ; times to repair our nature 
With comforting repofe, and not for us 
'To wafte thefe times. Good hour of night, fir 

Thomas ! 
Whither fo late .? 

Lov. Came you from the king, my lord ? 

Card. I did, fir Thomas ;. and left him at primcro 6 
With the duke of Suffolk. 

Lov. I muft to him too, 
Before he go to bed. I'll take my leave. 
Card. Not yet, fir Thomas Lovel. What's the 
matter ? 

s Not for iklig'jts ; ] Gardiner himfelf is not much delight- 

d. The delight at which* he hints, feems to be the king's diver- 
lion, which keeps him in attendance. JOHNSON, 

6 at primero] Primero and primavifta, two games at 

Cards, H. I. Primera Prituavifta. La Primierc, G. Prime, f. 
Prime vcuc. Primum^ et primum vifum, that is, firft, and firft 
feen : becaufe he that can fiiew fuch an order of cards firit, wins 
the game. Minjfhieifs Guide into Tongues^ col. 575. GRAY. 
So, in Woman s a Weathercock, 1 6 1 2 . 

" Come will your lordfliip make one at primero ?" 
.ftgain, in the Preface to The Rival Friends, 1632 : 

" when it may be, fome of our butterfly judgment* 

expected a fet at maw or primavifta from them." 


U 3 It 


It feems, you are in hafte : an if there be 
No great offence belongs to't, give your friend 

7 Some touch of your late bufinefs : Affairs, tha* 


(As, they fay, fpirits do) at midnight, have 
In them a wilder nature, than the bufmefs 
That feeks difpatch by day. 

Lw. My lord, I love you ; 
And durft commend a fecret to your ear 
Much weightier than this work. The queen's jrj 


They fay, in great extremity ; and fear'd, 
She'll with the labour end. 

Gard. The fruit, Ihe goes with, 
I pray for heartily ; that it may find 
Good time, and live : but for tjie flock, fir Thomas^ 
I wifh it grubb'd up now. 

Lov. Methinks, I could 
Cry the amen ; and yet my confcience fays 
She's a good creature, and, fweet lady, does 
Deferve our better wilhes. 

Gard. But, fir, fir, 
Hear me, fir Thomas : You are a gentleman 

8 Of mine own way ; 1 know you wife, religious j 
And, let me tell you, it will ne'er be well, 
'Twill not, fir Thomas Lovel, take't of me, 
'Till Cranmer, Cromwell, her two hands, and flic, 
^leep in their graves. 

Lov. Now, fir, you fpeak of two 
The moft rcmark'd i'the kingdom. As for Crorru 


Befide that of the jewel-houfe, he's made mafter 
O'the rolls, and the king's fecretary j further, fir., 

7 Some touch of your late Infuse fs : ] Some hint of the bufii 

jjpfs that keepi you awake fo late. JOHNSON. 

v;r. way ; ] Mine own opinion in religion. 



Stan'ds in the gap and trade of more preferments, 
"With which the time will load him : The archbilhpp 
Is the kirrg's hand, and tongue*; And who dare fpeak 
-"One fyllable againft him ? 

Gard. Yes, yes, fir Thomas, 
There are that dare ; and I myfelf have ventur'd 
To fpcak my mind of him : and, indeed, this day., 
Sir, (I may tell it you) I think, I have l 
Incens'd the lords o'the council, that he is 
(For fo I know he is, they know he is) 
A moft arch heretick, a peftilencc 
That does infedt the land : with which they moved, 
Have * broken with the king ; who hath fo far 
Given ear to our complaint, (of his great grace 
And princely care ; forefeeing thofe fell mifchiefs 
Our reafons laid before him) he hath commanded, 
To-morrow morning to the council-board 
He be convented '. He's a rank weed, fir Thomas, 
And we mud root him out. From your affairs 
J hinder you too long : good night, fir Thomas. 

Jjyv. Many good nights, my lord ; I reft your 
fervant. {Exeunt Gar diner , and Page. 

9 Stands in the gap and trade of more preferments, ] We fliould 
feadfftth/, i.e. road. WARBURTONT. 

Trade is the praft 'fed me thod, the general courfe. JOHNSON. 

Trade has been already ufed by Shakefpearc with this meaning 
jn K. Richard II: 

*' Some way of common trade." STEEVEXS. 

Incens'd the lords o* the council, that he is, &c. 

A moft arch heretick, ] 

Thispaflage, according to Shakefpeare's licentious grammar, may 
mean I have incens'd the lords of the council, for that he is, 
. e. becaufe. STEEA'EXS. 

z ''broken with the king; ] They have broken filence; 

told their minds to the king. JOHNSON. 

3 tie be convented.] Conventfdi^ fummoacd^ convened. 


U 4 & 


As Lovel is going out, enter the King, and the Duke of 

King. Charles, I will play no more to-night ; 
My mind's not on't, you are too hard for me. 

Suf. Sir, I did never win of you before. 

King. But little, Charles ; 

Nor lhall not, when my fancy's on my play. 
Now, Lovel, from the queen what is the news ? 

Lov. I could not perfonally deliver to her 
What you commanded me, but by her woman 
I fent your mefiage ; who return'd her thanks 
In the greateft humblenefs, and defir'd your highnef$ 
Moil heartily to pray for her. 

King. What fay'ft thou ? ha ! 
To pray for her ? what, is flie crying out ? 

Lov. So faid her woman ; and that her fufferance 

Almoft each pang a death. 

King. Alas, good lady ! 

Suf. God fafely quit her of her burden, and 
With gentle travel, to the gladding of 
Your highnefs with an heir ! 

King. 'Tis midnight, Charles, 
Pr'ythee, to bed ; and in thy prayers remember 
The eftate of my poor queen. Leave me alone ; 
For I muit think of that, which company 
Would not be friendly to. 

Suf. I wifh your highnefs 
A quiet night, and my good miilrefs will 
Kemember in my prayers. 

King. Charles, good night. [Exit Suffolk* 


Enter Sir Anthony Denny *. 

Well, fir, xvhat follows ? 

Denny. Sir, I have brought my lord the archbifhop, 
As you commanded me. 


4 Enter Sir Anthony Denny.'} The fubftance of this and the two 
follou'ing icenes is taken from Fox's A&s and Monuments of tat 
Cbrijilan Martyrs^ &c. 1563. 

" When night came, the king fent fir Anthonie Denie about 
midnight to Lambeth to the archbifhop, willing him forthwith, 
to relort unto him at the court. The melTage done, the arch- 
bifliop fpeedily addrelTed himfelfe to the court, and comming into 
the galerie where the king walked and taried for him, his high- 
nefle faid, Ah, my lorde of Canterbury, I can tell you newes. 
For divers weighty conliderations it is determined by me and the 
counfaile, that you to-morrowe at nine of the clocke fhall be 
committed to the Tower, for that you and your chaplaines (as 
information is given us) have taught and preached, and thereby 
fown within the realme fuch a number of execrable herefies, that 
it is feared the whole realme being infected with them, no frnall 
contention and commotions will rile thereby amongft my fubjefts, 
as of late daies the like was in divers parts of Germanic, and 
therefore the counfell have requefted me for the trial! of the mat- 
ter, to fuffer them to commit you to the Tower, or elfe no man 
dare come forth, as witnefle in thefe matters, you being a coun- 

When the king had faid his mind, the archbifhop kneeled 
down, and faid, I am content if it pleafe your grace with al 
my hart, to go thither at your highnefs commandement ; and I 
moil humbly thank your majefty that I may come to my triall, 
for there be that have many waies flandered me, and now this 
way I hope to trie myfelre not worthy of fuch reporte. 

The king perceiving the mans uprightneiTe, joyned with fuch 
funplicitie, faid; Oh Lorde, what mciner a man be you ? What 
iimplicitie is in you ? I had thought that you would rather have 
fued to us to have taken the paines to have heard you and your 
accufers together for your triall, without any fuch indurance. 
Do not you know what itate you be in with the whole world, and 
how many great enemies you have ? Do you not confider what 
an eafie thing it is to procure three or foure falfe knaves to 
witnelTe againft you ? Thinke you to have better lucke that waie 
than your m after Chrift had ? I fee by it you will run headlong 
Jo your undoing, if I would fuffer you. Your enemies fhall not 



King. Ha ! Canterbury f 
Denny. Ay, my good lord. 


fo prcvaile agairrft you ; for I hax-e otherwite dcvifed with my 
felfe to' keep you out of their handes. Yet notwithstanding 
tomorrow when the counfaile fhall fit, and fend for you, refort 
*mto them, and if in charging you with this matter, they do 
commit you to the Tower, require of them, becaufe you are one 
of them, a counfailer, that you may have your accufers brought 
tefore them without any further indurance, and ufe for your felfe 
as good perfuafions that way as you may devife ; and if no Jn- 
treatie or reafonable requeft will ferve, then deliver unto them 
this my ring (which then the king delivered unto the archbifhop) 
and faie unto them, if there be no remedie my lords, but that I 
onuft needes go to the Tower, then I revoke niy caufe from you, 
and appeale to the kinges ovvne perfon by this token unto you all, 
for (faide the king then unto the archbifhop) fo foone as they (hall 
fee this my ryng, they knowe it fo well, that they (hall underirande 
that I have referved the whole caufe into mine owne handes and 
determination, and that I have difcharged them thereof. 

The archbifhop perceiving the kinges benignity foinuch to him 
wards, had much ado to forbeare teares. Well, faid the king, go 
your waies, my lord, and do as I have bidden you. My lord, 
tumbling himielfe with thankes, tooke his kave of the kinges 
ihighnefle for that night. 

On the morrow, about nine of the clocke before noone, the 
.counfaile lent a gentleman ufher for the archbifhop, who, when hee 
came to the oounfaile chamber doore, could not be let in, but of 
purpofe (as it feemed) was compelled there to waite among the 
pages, lackies, and ferving men all alone. D. Buts the king's 
phyfition reforting that way, and efpying how my lord of Can- 
terbury was handled, went to the king's highneile, and faid ; My 
lord of Canterbury, if it pleafe your grace, is well promoted ; 
for nowe he is become a lackey or a ferving man, for yonder 
hee ftandeth this halfe hower at the counfaile chamber doorc 
amongfte them. It is not fo, (quoth the king) I trowe, nor the 
counfaile hath not fo little difcretion as to ufe the metropolitans 
of the realme in that fort, fpeciaily being one of their own 
number. But let them alone (faid the king) and we (hall heare 
?nore foone. 

Anone the archbifhop was called into the counfaile chamber, 
to whom was alleadged as before is rehearfed. The archbifhop 
aunfwered in like fort, as the king had advifed him ; and in the 
end when he perceived that no maner of perluaiion or intreatic 
could ferve, he delivered them the king's ring, revoking his caufe 
into the kings hands. The whole counfaile being thereat fome- 



King. Tis true : Where is he, Denny ? 
Denny. He attends your highnefs' pleafure. 
King. Bring him to us. \_ExitDenny. 

Lov. This is about that which the bifliop fpake ; 
1 am happily come hither [Afide. 

Re-enter Denny, with Cranmer. 
King, Avoid the gallery. [Lavel feemeth to Jlay* 

xvhat amazed, the earle of Bedford with a loud voice confirming 
Ills words with a folemn othe, faid ; When you firft began the 
matter, my lordes, 1 told you what would. come of it. Do you 
thinke that the king would fuffer this man's finger to ake ? Much 
more (I warrant you) will hee defend his life againit brabling 
varlets. You doe but cumber yourfelves to hear tales and fables 
againft him. And incontinently upon the receipt of the kings 
token, they all rofe, and carried to the king his ring, furrendring 
that matter as the order and ufe was, into his own hands. 

When they were all come to the kings preience, his highnefs, 
with a fevere countenance, faid unto them ; ah, my lordes, I 
thought I had had wifer men of my counfaile than now I find 
you. What difcretion was this in you thus to make the primate 
of the realme, and one of you in office, to wait at the counfaile 
chamber doore amongft ferving men ? You might have conndered 
that he was a counfailer as wel as you, and you had no fuch 
commiflkm of me fo to handle him. I was content that you 
ihould trie him as a counfellor, and not as a meane fubjecT:. But 
now I well perceive that things be done againft him malicioullie, 
and if fome of you might have had your mindes, you would have 
tried him to the uttermoft. But I doe you ail to wit, and pro- 
teft, that if a prince may bee beholding unto his fubject (and fo 
folemnelie laying his hand upon his breft) faid, by the faith I 
owe to God I take this man here my lord of Canterburie, to bee 
pf all other a moil faithfull fubjeft unto us, and one to whome 
we are much beholding, giving him great commendations other- 
wife. And, with that, one or two of the chiefeft of the coun- 
faile, making their excufe, declared, that in requefting his in- 
tluraunce, it was rather ment for his triall and his purgation 
againft the common fame and flander of the worlde, then for any 
malice conceived againft him. Well, well, my lords, (quoth the 
Icing) take him, and well ufe him, as hee is worthy to bee, and 
make no more adoe. And with that, every man caught him by 
the hand, and made faire weather of altogethers, which might 
cafilie be done with that man," STEEVENS. 



Ha ! I have faid. Be gone. 

What! {Exeunt Level, and Denny* 

Cran. I am fearful : Wherefore frowns he thus ? 
'Tis his afpedt of terror. All's not well. 

King. How now, my lord ? You do defire -to know 
W T herefore I fent for you. 

Cran. It is my duty, 
To attend your highnefs' pleafure- 

King. Pray you, arife, 
My good and gracious lord of Canterbury. 
Come, you and I muft walk a turn together ; 
I have news to tell you : Come, come, give me your 


Ah, my good lord, I grieve at what I fpeak, 
And am right forry to repeat what follows : 
I have, and moil unwillingly, of late 
Heard many grievous^ I do fay, my lord, 
Grievous complaints of you ; which, being confider'd, 
Have mov'd us and our council, that you fhall 
This morning come before us ; where, I know, 
You cannot with fuch freedom purge youriclf, 
But that, 'till further trial, in thofc charges 
Which will require your aniwer, you muft take 
Your patience to you, and be well contented 
To make your houfe our Tower : 5 You a brother o( 


It fits we thus proceed, or elfe no witnefs 
Would come again ft you. 

Cran. I humbly thank your highnefs ; 
And am right glad to catch this good occafion 
Moft thoroughly to be winnow'd, where my chaff 
And corn fnall fly afunder : for, I know, 
7'here's none ftands under more calumnious tongues,, 

* *l~cu a tirntver of j,] You being nr.c of the council, 

Jt is neceirary to itnprifon you, that the \vitiK-iies a gain ft you may 
not be deterred. JOHNSON. 


Than I myfelf, poor man 6 . 

King. Stand up, good Canterbury ; 
Thy truth, and thy integrity, is rooted 
In us, thy friend : Give me thy hand, (land up ; 
Pr'ythee, let's walk. Now, by my holy-dame, 
What manner of man are you ? My lord, I look'd 
You would have given me your petition, that 
I flaould have ta'en fome pains to bring together 
Yourfelf and your accufers ; and to have heard you, 
Without indurance, further. 

Cran. Moft dread liege, 

7 The good I ftand on is my truth,, and honefiy ; 
If they lhall fail, I, with mine enemies, 
Will triumph o'er my perfon ; which I weigh not, 
Being of thofe virtues vacant. I fear nothing 
What can be faid againil me. 

King. Know you not 
How your flate ftands i' the world, with the whole 

world ? 

Your enemies are many, and not fmall ; their prac- 

Muft bear the fame proportion : and not ever 
The juftice and the truth o' the queflion carries 
The due o' the verdift with it : At what eafe 
Might corrupt minds procure knaves as corrupt 
To fwear againft you ? fuch things have been done. 
You are potently oppos'd ; and with a malice 
Of as great fize. Ween you of better luck % 
I mean, in perjur'd witnefs, than your mailer, 
Whofe minifter you are, whiles here he liv'd 

6 Than I myfelf , poor man. \ Poor man probably belongs to the 
king's reply. "JOHNSON. 

7 The good Iftand on ] Though good may be taken for ad- 
vantage orfupcriority, or any thing which may help or fupporr, 
yet it would, I think, be more natural to fay : 

The ground IJland on JOHNSON. 

8 Ween you of letter luck, ] To <ween is to tbink y to imagine. 
Though now obfolete, the word was common to all our ancient 
writers. STEEVENS, 


3 d>2 KING HENRY Vllt 

Upon this naughty earth ? Go to, go to ; 
You take a precipice for no leap of danger^ 
And woo your own deftrudion. 

Cran. God, and your majefly, 
Protect mine innocence, or I fall into 
The trap is laid for me ! 

King. Be of good cheer ; 

They ihall no more prevail, than we give way to** 
Keep comfort to you ; and this morning fee 
You do appear before them : if they Ihall chance^ 
In charging you with matters, to commit you, 
The beft perfuafions to the contrary 
Fail not to ufe, and with what vehemency 
The occafion ihall inilrucl you : if entreaties 
Will render you no remedy, this ring 
Deliver them, and your appeal to us 
There make before them. - Look, the good man 

weeps ! 

He's honeft, on mine honour. God's bleft mother ! 
I fwear, he is true-hearted ; and a foul 
None better in my kingdom. Get you gone, 
And do as I have bid you. He has flrangled 
His language in his tears. [Exit Cranmer* 

Enter an 

Gen. [within."] Come back ; What mean you ? 

Lady. I'll not come back ; the tidings that I bring 
Will make my boldnefs manners. Now, good angels 
Fly o'er thy royal head, and fhade thy perfon 
Under their blefled wings ! 

King. Now, by thy looks 
I gueis thy meflage. Is the queen deliver'd ? 
Say, ay ; and of a boy. 

Lady. Ay, ay, my liege ; 
And of a lovely boy : The God of heaven 
iBoth now and ever 9 blefs her ! - 'tis a girl, 

9 -kiefs her! - ] It is doubtful whether her is referred 

to the queen or the girl. JOHNSON, 



?romifes boys hereafter. Sir, your queen 
Defircs your vifitation, and to be 
Acquainted with this ftranger ; 'tis as like you, 
As cherry is to cherry. 

King. Lovel ", 

Enter LoveL 

Lov.- Sir* 

King. Give her an hundred marks. I'll to the 1 
queen ^ [Exit King* 

Lady- An hundred marks ! By this light, I'll have 


An ordinary groom is for fuch payment. 
I will have more or fcold it out of him. 
Said I for this, the girl was like to him ? 
I will have more, or elfe unfay't ; and now, 
While it is hot, I'll put it to the iffue. [Exeunt. 


Before the Council-Chamber. 
Cranmer, Servants, Door-keeper &c. attending* 

Cran. I hope, I am not too late ; and yet the gen- 


That was fent to me from the council, pray'd me 
To make great hafte. All faft ? what means this ? 

Who waits there ? Sure, you know me ? 

D. Keep. Yes, my lord ; 
But yet 1 cannot help you. 
Cran. Why ? 

D. Keep. Your grace muft wait, 'till you be call'd 

/,] Lovel has been juft fent out of the prefence, 
and no notice is given of his return : I have placed it here at the 
ioflant when the king calls for him. STEEVEI*S. 



Enter DoElor Butts. 

Cran. So. 

Butts. This is a piece of malice. I am glad, 
I came this way fo happily : The king 
Shall underftand it prefently. [Exit SuttSt 

- Cran. [dfide.~] 'Tis Butts, 
The king's phyfician ; As he paft along, 
How earneftly he caft his eyes upon me ! 
Pray heaven he found not my difgrace ! For certain, 
This is of purpofe lay'd, by fome that hate me, 
(God turn their hearts ! I never fought their malice) 
To quench mine honour : they would fhame to make 


Wait elfe at door ; a fellow counfellor, 
Among boys, grooms, and lackeys. But their plea- 

Muft be fulfill'd, and I attend with patience. 

Enter tie King, and Butts, at a window above. 

Butts. I'll fliew your grace the ftrangcft fight, 

King. What's that, Butts ? 

Butts. I think, your highnefs faw this many a day. 

King. Body o' me, where is it ? 

Butts. There, my lord : 

The high promotion of his grace of Canterbury ; 
Who holds his flate at door, 'mongft purfuivants, 
Pages, and foot-boys. 

King. Ha ! 'Tis he, indeed : 
Is this the honour they do one another ? 
'Tis well, there's one above 'em yet. I had thought, 
They had parted fo much honefty among 'em, 
(At leaft, good manners) as not thus to fuffer 
A man of his place, and fo near our favour, 
To dance attendance on their lordlhips' pleafures, 
And at the door too, like a poft with packets. 
By holy Mary, Butts, there's knavery : 


Let 'em alone, and draw the curtain clofe ; 
We lhall hear more anon. 

Enter the Lord Chancellor, places himfelf at the upper end 
cf the table on the left hand ; a leaf being left 'void 
above him, as for the Archbifiop of Canterbury. Duke 
of Suffolk, Duke of Norfolk, Surrey, Lord Chamberlain^ 
vnd Gardiner, feat themfehes in order on each fide. 
Cromwell at the lower end^ as fecreta/y. 

1 Chan. Speak to the bufinefs, mafler Secretary : 
Why are we met in council ? 

Crom. Pleafe your honours, 
The chief caufe concerns his grace of CanterburVt 

Card. Has he had knowledge of it ? 

Crom. Yes. 

Nor. Who waits there ? 

D. Keep. Without, my noble lords ? 

Card. Yes. 

JD. Keep. My lord archbifhop ; 
And has done half an hour, to know your pleafurcs. 

Chan. Let him come in. 

D. Keep. Your grace may enter now. 

[Cranmer approaches the council table. 

Chan. My good lord archbilhop, I am very forry 
To fit here at this prefent, and behold 

1 Chan. Speak to the bujinefs, ] This lord chancellor, though 
a character, has hitherto had no place in the Dramatis Perfon** 
In the laft fcene of the fourth act, we heard that fir Thomas 
More was appointed lord chancellor : but it is not he, whom the 
poet here introduces. Wolfey, by command, delivered up the 
feals on the i8th of November, ip9 ; on the 2$th of the fame 
month, they were delivered to fir Thomas More, who furrendered 
them on the i6th of May, 1532. Now the conclufion of this 
fcene taking notice of qtieen Elizabeth's birth, (which brings it 
down to the year 1534) fir Thomas Audlie muft neceflarily be 
our poet's chancellor ; who fucceeded fir Thomas More, and held 
the ieals many years. THEOBALD. 

VOL. VII. X That 

, 6 K I N G H E N R Y VTII. 

That chair {land empty : But * we all are men, 
In our own natures frail ; and capable 
Of our flefh, few are angels : out of which frailty,. 
And want of xvifdom, you, that beft mould teach us, 
Have mifdemean'd yourfelf, and not a little, 
Toward the king firft, then his laws, in filling 
The whole realm, by your teaching, and your chap- 

(For fo we are informed) with new opinions, 
Divers, and dangerous ; which are herelies, 
And, not reform'd, may prove pernicious. 

Card. Which reformation muft be fudden too, 
My noble lords : for thofe, that tame wild horfes, 
Pace 'em not in their hands to make 'em gentle ; 

* <i V g are all mm 

In our own natures frail, and capable 

Of frailty, ] 

If all men were actually frail, they were more than capable of 
fiailty; to underftand this therefore, as only faid of the natural 
vveaknefs of humanity, it is nbfurdly exprefied ; but this was not 
our authour's fenfe : By in our oivn natures frail, he alludes to 
the doctrine of original fin : fo that the fentiment is this, We are 
finners by imputation, and liable to become actually ib. 


This fentence, I think, needed no commentary. The meaning, 
and the plain meaning, is, ive are men frail by nature, and there- 
fore liabk to acts of frailty, to deviations from the right. I wifh 
'every commentator, before he fufters his confidence o kindle, 
would repeat : 

ivc arc all men 

In our o-ivn natures frail, and capable 
Of frailty ; few arc angels. JOHNSON. 

There are no fuch words as thofe which either commentator 
has been ambitious to explain. The firii and only ancient copy 
reads : 

-and capable 

Of our flefh, fciv are angels : 

If this paflage means any thing, it may mean, few are perfect, 
while they remain in their mortal capacity. 
bhakefpeare ulcs the word capable as perverfely in A". Lear : 

and of my land, 

Loyal and natural boy, I'll work the m ean 
To make thee capable. STEEVENS. 



feut flop their mouths with flubborn bits, and fpur 


'Till they obey the manage. If we fufTer 
(Out of our eafmefs, and childifh pity 
To one man's honour) this contagious ficknefs, 
Farewel all phyfick : And what follows then ? 
Commotions, uproars* with a general taint 
Of the whole date : as, of late days, our neighbours. 
The upper Germany J , can dearly witnefs, 
Yet f refill y pitied in our memories. 

Cran. My good lords, hitherto, in all theprogrefs 
Both of my life and office, I have labour'd, 
And with rto little iludy, that my teaching, 
And the flrong courfe of my authority, 
Might go one way, and fafely ; and the end 
Was ever, to do well : nor is there living 
(I fpeak it with a fingle heart, my lords) 
A man, that more detefts, more flirs againft, 
Both in his private confcience, and his place, 
Defacers of a publick peace, than I do. 
Pray heaven, the king may never find a heart 
With lefs allegiance in it ! Men, that make 
Envy, and crooked malice, nourishment, 
Dare bite the beft. I do befeech your lordfliips, 
That, in (his cafe of juftice, my accufers, 
Be what they will, may ftand forth face to face, 
And freely urge againft me. 

Suf. Nay, my lord, 
That cannot be ; you are a counfellor, 
And, by that virtue, no man dare accufe you. 

Gard. My lord, becaufe we have bufinefs of more 

We will be fhort with you. 'Tis his highnefs* plea- 

And our confent, for better trial of you, 

3 Tlje upper Germany, &c.] Alluding to the herefy of Thomas 
Muntzer, which fprung up in Saxony in the years 1521 and 
1522. GRAY. 

X 2 From 


From hence you be committed to the Tower ; 
Where, being but a private man again, 
You fhall know many dare accufe you boldly, 
More than, I fear, you are provided for. 

Cran. Ah, my good lord of Winchester, I thank 


You are always my good friend ; if your will pafs y 
I fhall both find your lordfhip judge and juror, 
You are fo- merciful : I fee your end, 
'Tis my undoing : Love,, and meeknefs, lord, 
Become a churchman better than -ambition ; 
Win {fraying fouls with modefly again, 
Caft none away. That I fhall clear myfelf, 
Lay all the weight ye can upon my patience, 
I make as little doubt, as you do conicience 
In doing daily- wrongs. I could fay more, 
But reverence to your calling makes me modeft. 

Gard. My lord, my lord, you are a fedtary, 
That's the plain truth ; 4 your painted glofs difcovers, 
To men that underftand you, words and weakncfs. 

Crem. My lord of Winchefter, you are a little, 
By your good favour, too fharp ; men fo noble* 
However faulty, yet fhould find refpcct 
For what they- have been : 'tis a cruelty >', 
To load a falling man. 

Gard. Good mafter Secretary, 
I cry your honour mercy ; you may, worft 
Of all this table, fay fo. 

Crom. Why, my lord ? 

Card. Do not I know you for a favourer 

* . . -your painted glofs &c.]. Thofe that underftand you, un- 
der this jfc/#/ ^/o/V this fair outlide, difcover your empty t?ik 
and your falfe reifoning, JOHXSON-. 

5 V/j a cruelly 

To had & falling m<an.~\ ' 

This fentitBeiit haJ occurred before. The lord chamberlain 
checking the earl of Surrey for bib reproaches to \Volfey , faj-s : 

O my IorJ y 

Prefs not a falling man too far. SrfiEVENS* 



Of this new fed: ? ye are not found. 

Crom. Not found ? 

Gard. Not found, I fay. 

Crom. 'Would you were half fo honeft ! 
Men's prayers then would feek you, not their fears. 

Gard. I fhall remember this bold language. 

Crom. Do : 
Remember your bold life too. 

Cham. This is too much ; 
Forbear, for fhame, my lords. 

Gard. I have done. 

Crom. And I. 

Cham. Then thus for you, my lord, It Hands 


I take it, by all voices, that forthwith 
You be convey'd to the Tower a prifoner ; 
There to remain, 'till the king's further pleafure 
Be known unto us : Are ycu all agreed, lords ? 

All. We are. 

Cran. Is there no other way of mercy, 
But I muft needs to the Tower, my lords ? 

Gard. What other 

Would you expect ? You areftrangely troubkfome . 
Let ibme o' the guard be ready there. 

Enter Guard, 

Cran. For me ? 
Muft I go like a traitor thither ? 

Curd. Receive him, 
And fee him fafe i' the Tower. 

Cran. Stay, good my lords ? 
I have a little yet to fay. Look there, my lords j 
By virtue of that ring, I take my caule 
Out of the gripes of cruel men, and give it 
To a moft noble judge, the king my mafter, 

Cham. This is the king's ring. 

Sar. 'Tis no counterfeit. 

X 3 Suf. 


Suf. J Tis the right ring, by heaven : I told ye all, 
When we firft put this dangerous ftone a rolling, 
'Twould fall upon ourfelves. 

Nor. Do you think, my lords, 
The king will fuffer but the little finger 
Of this man to be vex'd ? 

Cbam. 'Tis now too certain : 
How much more is his life in value with him ? 
'Would I were fairly out on't. 

Crom. My mind gave me, 
In feeking tales, and informations, 
Agairift this man, (whole honefty the devil 
And his difciples only envy at) 
Ye blew the fire that burns ye : Now have at ye, 

Enter King) froTxr.iiig on them ; takes bis feat. 

Card. Dread fovereign, how much are we bound 

to heaven 

In daily thanks, that gave us fuch a prince ; 
Not only good and wife, but moll religious : 
One that, in all obedience, makes the church 
The chief aim of his honour ; and, to ftrengthen 
That holy duty, out of dear refpedt, 
His royal felf in judgment comes to hear 
The caufe betwixt her and this great offender. 

King. You were ever good at fudden commen- 


Bifhop of Winchefter. But know, I come not 
To hear fuch flatteries now, and in my prefence; 
They arc too thin and bafe to hide offences. 
To me you cannot reach : You play the fpaniel, 
And think with wagging of your tongue to win me ; 
But, whatfoe'er thou tak'ft me for, 1 am fure, 
Thou haft a cruel nature, and a bloody. 
Good man, fit down. Now let me fee the proudeft 

He, that dares moft, but wag his finger at thee : 



By ail that's holy, he had better ftarve, 

Than but once think this place becomes thee not. 

Sur. May it pleafe your grace, 

King. No, fir, it does not p!eafc me. 
I had thought, I had men of ibme underftanding 
And wifdom, of my council ; but I find none. 
Was it difcretion, lords, to let this man, 
This good man, (few of you deferve that title) 
This honeft man., wait like a lowfy foot-boy 
At chamber door ? and one as great as you are ? 
Why, what a fhame was this ? Did my commiffion 
Bid ye fo far forget yourfelves ? I gave ye 
Power as he was a counfellor to try him, 
Not as a groom : There's fome of ye, I fee, 
More out of malice than integrity, 
Would try him to the utmoft, had ye mean ; 
Which ye (hall never have, while I live. 

Chan. Thus far, 

My mod dread jfovere'ign, may it like your grace 
To let my tongue, excufe all. What was purpos'd, 
Concerning his imprifonment, was rather 
(If there be faith in men) meant for his trial, 
And fair purgation to the world, than malice ; 
I am fure, in me. 

King. Well, well, my lords, refpecft him ; 
Take him, and ufe him well, he's worthy of it, 
I will fay thus much for him, If a prince 
May be beholden to a fubjedr., I 
Am, for his love and fervice, fo to him. 
Make me no more ado, but all embrace him ; 
Be friends, for fhame, my lords. My lord of Can- 

I have a fuit which you mufl not deny me : 
There is a fair young maid, that yet wants baptifm ; 
You muft be godfather, and anfwer for her. 

Cran. The greateil monarch now alive may glory 
In fuch an honour ; How may I deferve it, 
That am a poor and humble fubjed: to you ?. 

X 4 KM** 


King. Come, come, my lord, 6 you'd fpare your 

ipoons : you {hall have 
Two noble partners with you ; the old dutchefs of 


And lady marquifs Dorfct ; Will thefe pleafe you ? 
Once more, my lord of Winchefter, I charge you* 
Embrace, and love this man. 

Card. With a true heart, 
And brother's love, I do it. 

Gran. And let heaven 

' 6 yorfdfpare your fpoons :] It appenrs by this and another 

paffage in the next fcene, that the goffips gave ipoons. JOHNSON. 
It was the cuftom, long before the time of Shakefpeare, for 
the fponfors at chriftenings, to offer gilt ipoons as a prefent to 
the child. Thefe fpoons were called apcftle fpoons, becaufe the 
figures of the apoflles were carved on the tops of the handles. 
Such as were at once opulent and generous, gave the whole 
twelve ; thofe who were either more moderately rich or liberal, 
efcaped at the expence. of the four evangeliils ; or even fome- 
times contented themfelves with prefenting one fpoon only, which 
exhibited the figure of any faint, in honour of whom the child 
received its name. 

Ben Jonfon, in his Bartholomew Fair, mentions fpoons of this 

kind : " and all this for the hope of a couple of apojlk fpoons, 

and a cup to eat caudle in." 

So, in Middleton's comedy of A ckafte MaidinCbcapjide, 1620: 

" What h;;s he given her ? what is it, goilip ? 

*' A faire high ilanding-cup, and two great 

" *PoftlefpooiU) one of them gilt. 

" Sure that was Judas with the red beard." 
Again : 

" E'en the fame gornp 'twas that gave \hefpoons" 
Again, in fir W. D'avenant's comedy of The Ifffs, 1636: 

my pendants, carcanets, and rings, 

*' My chrift'ning caudle-cup, ftodj^ftmtf, 

*' Are dilfolv'd into that lump." 
Again, in the Maid in the Mill, by B. and Fletcher : 

" Did ft aflc her name ? 

** Yes, and who gave it her ; 

" And what they promis'd more, befides a fpoon, 

** And what apoftles picture" 
Again, in the Na&le Gentleman, by the fame authors : 

" I'll be a goflip, Bewford, 

" I have an odd apoftleffoon," STEEVENS. 



Witnefs, how dear I hold this confirmation. 

King. Good man, thofe joyful tears fliew thy true 


The common voice, I fe e , is verify'd 
Of thee, which fays thus, Do my lord of Canterbury 
A forewd turn, and he is your friend for ever.-~ 
Come, lords, we trifle time away ; I long 
To have this young one made a chriftian. 
As I have made ye one, lords, one remain ; 
So I grow itronger, you more honour gain. [Exeunt, 


The Palace Yard. 
Noife and tumult. within : Enter Porter, and his Man. 

Port. You'll leave your noife anon, ye rafcals : Do 
you take the court for 7 Paris-garden ? ye rude Haves, 
leave your gaping. 

' Paris-garden?] The bear-garden of that time. JOHNSON. 
So, in Sir W. Davenant's Newifrom Pllmoutb : \ 

do you take this manfion for Pift- hatch ? 

You would be fuitors : yes, to a ftie-deer, 
And keep your marriages in Paris-garden" 


n Ben Jonfon's Execration on Vulcat, 

And cried, it was a threatning to the bears, 
And that accurfed ground the Paris-gari r." 
The Glole theatre, in which Shakeipeare was a performer, flood 
on the fouthern lide of the river Thames, and was contiguous to 
this noted place of tumult and difofder. St. Mary Overy's church 
is not far from London Bridge, and almoft oppoGte to Fifh- 
mongers' Hall. Wmchefter Houfe was over-againlt Cole Har- 
bour. Paris-garden was in a line with Bridewell, and the Globe 
playhoufe faced Blackfryars, Fleetditch, or St. Paul's. It was a 
hexagonal building of ftone or brick. Its roof was of rufhes, 
with a flag on the top. See a South View of London, (as it ap- 
peared in i ^99) publifhed by T. Wood, in Bifhop's Court, in 
Chancery-Lane, in 1771. STEEVENS. 


W~itbin. Good matter porter, I belong to the larder. 

Port. Belong to the gallows, and be hang'd, you 
rogue. Is this a place to roar in ? Fetch me a do- 
zen crab-tree ftaves, and ftrong ones ; 8 thefe are but 
fwitches to 'em. I'll fcratch your heads : You muii 
be feeing chriftenings ? Do you look for ale and cakes 
here, you rude rafcals ? 

Man. Pray, fir, be patient 9 ; 'tis as much impoffi- 


(Unlefs we fweep them from the door with cannons) 
To fcatter 'em, as 'tis to make 'em flecp 
On May-day morning ' ; which" will never be : 
We may as well pufh againft Paul's, as iHr 'em. 

Port. How got they in, and be hang'd ? 

Man. Alas, I know not ; How gets the tide in ? 
As much as one found cudgel of four foot 
(You fee the poor remainder) could diftribute, 
I made no fpare, fir. 

Port. You did nothing, fir. 

Man. I am not Samplon, nor * fir Guy, nor Col- 
brand, to mow 'em down before me : but, if I fpar'd 
any, that had a head to hit, either young or old, he or 

tbefc are Ivt fivitches to V;.] To what, or whom ? We 
fliould point it thus, thefe are t>nt faitches. To 'em, i. e. have at 
you, as we now fay. He fays this as he turns upon the mob. 


The prefent pointing feems to be right. JOHNSON. 

9 Pray, Jlr, be patient ; ] Part of this fcene in the old copy ic 
printed as verfe, and part as profe. Perhaps the whole, with the 
occafional addition and omiffion of a few harmlefs fyllables, 
might be reduced into a loofe kind of metre ; but as I know not 
what advantage would be gained by "making the experiment, I 
have left the \vhole as I found it. STKHVENS. 

1 On May-day morning ;] It was anciently the cuilom for all 
ranks of people to go out a Maying on the firit of May. It is 
on record that king Henry VIII. and queen Katharine partook of 
this diverfion. STEEVENS. 

* -fir Guy, nor Colbrand,'] Of Guy of Warwick every one 
has heard. Colbrand was the Danifh giant, whom Guy fubdued 
at Winchefter. Their combat is very elaborately defcribcd by 
Drayton in his Polyolblon. Jor.xso:;. 



flie, cuckold or cuckold-maker, let me never hope to 
fee a chine again ; and that I would not for a cow, 
God fave her. 

Within. Do you hear, mafter Porter ? 

Port. I fliall be with you prefently, good mafter 
puppy. Keep the door clofe, firrah. 

Man. What would you have me do ? 

Port. What Ihould you do, but knock 'em down 
by the dozens ? Is this 5 Morefields to muiler in ? or 
have we ibme ftrange Indian * with the great tool come 
to court, the women fo beiiege us ? Blefs me, what 
a fry of fornication is at door ! O' my chriilian con- 
fcience, this one chriftening will beget a thoufand ; 
Jiere will be father, god-father, and all together. 

Man. The fpoons will be the bigger, fir. There is 
a fellow fomewhat near the door, he * fhould be a 
brafier by his face, for, o' my conference, twenty of 
the dog-days now reign in's nofe ; all that fland a- 
bout him are under the line, they need no other pe- 
nance : That fire-drake did I hit three times on the 

3 Morefields to miifter in?] The train-bands of the city were 
exercifed in Morefields. JOHNSON. 

+ -fame jirange Indian] To what circumftance this refers, 
perhaps, cannot now be exactly known. A fimilar one occurs ia 
Ram- Alley, or Merry Tricks, 1 6 1 1 : 

" You (hall fee the ftrange nature of an outlandifh beaft 
" Lately brought from the land of Cataia." 
Again, in The Tkvo Noble Kinfmen, by Beaumont, Fletcher, an4 
Shakefpeare : 

" The Bavian with long tail and eke long TOOL." 


Fig. I. in the print of Morris-dancers, at the end of King 
Henry IV. has a bib which extends below the doublet ; and its 
length might be calculated for the concealment of the phallic ob- 
fcenity mentioned by Beaumont and Fletcher, of which perhaps 
the Bavian fool exhibited an occafional view for the<liverfion of 
our indelicate anceftors. TOLLET. 

5 bcjhould be a brafier ly bis face ;] A IraJIer fignifies a man 
that manufactures brafs, and a refervoir for charcoal occasionally 
^eated to convey warmth. Both thefe fenfes are here underftood. 




head, and three times was his nofe difcharg'd againft 
me ; he (lands there, like a mortar-piece, to blow us. 
There was a haberdafher's wife of fmall wit near him, 
that rail'd upon me 'till her pink'd porringer fell off 
her head, for kindling fuch a combuftion in the ftate. 
I mifs'd the 6 meteor once, and hit that woman, who 
cry'd out, clubs ! when I might fee from far fome 
forty truncheoneers draw to her fuccour, which were 
7 the hope of the ftrand, where fhe was quarter'd. 
They fell on ; I made good my place ; at length they 
came to the broomftaff with me, I defy'd 'em flill ; 
when fuddenty a file of boys behind 'em, loofe Ihot, 
deliver'd fuch a Ihower of pebbles, that I was fain 
to draw mine honour in, and let 'em win the work : 
The devil was amongft 'em, I think, furely. 

Port. Thefe are the youths that thunder at a play- 
houfe, and fight for bitten apples 8 ; that no audience, 


the meteor} The fire-drake, the brafier. JOHNSON. 
Fire-drake. A fire-drake is both a ferpent, anciently called 
a Ircnning-drake, or dipfas, and a name formerly given to a Will 
e'ttiWifp, or ignis fatuus. So, in Albert us IVallenJlein, 1640: 
** Your wild irregular luft, which like tboftjirtdrakes 
" Mifguiding nighted travellers, will lead you 
" Forth from the fair path, &c," 
Again, in Dray ton's Nymphidia : 

" By the hilling of the fnake, 
" The ruftling of \hzfire-drake." 

^Awain, in Ccefar and Pompcy, a tragedy, by Chapman, 1631; 
'* So have I feene a fire-drake glide along 
" Before a dying man, to point his grave, 
" And in it ftick and hide." 

A fire-drake was likewife an artificial firework. So, in Tour 
Five Gallants, by Middleton : 

" but \i\ie, fire-drakes, 

" Mounted a little, gave a crack, and fell." STEEVENS. 
? the hope of tbejlrand)] Hanmer reads, the forlorn hope. 


1 that thunder at aplaybou/e, and fight for litten apples.] The 
prices of feats for the vulgar in our ancient theatres were fo very 
low, that we cannot wonder if they were filled with the tumul- 
tuous company defcribed by Shakefpeare in this fcene. So, in 
the Gul's Hornbook t by Deckar, 1609 : 

" Your 


but ' the Tribulation of Tower-hill, or the limbs of 
Limehoufe, their dear brothers, are able to endure. 

I have 

" Your groundling and gallery commoner buys his fport by 

In Wit without Money, by B. and Fletcher, is the following 
mention of them : 

- break in at plays like prentices, for three a groat, and 

crack nuts with the fcholars in penny rooms again." 
Again, in the Black Book, 1604: Sixpenny rooms in playhoufes 
are fpoken of. 
Again, in the Bellman's Night~Wallt$, by Decker, 1616 : 

* Pay thy twopence to a player in this gallery, thou may'ft 

fit by a harlot." 
Again, in the Prologue to Beaumont and Fletcher's Mad Lover; 

" How many t-ivopences you've ftow'd to-day !" 
The prices of the boxes indeed were greater. 
Again, in the Gut's Hornbook, by Deckar, 1609: " At a new 
playe you take up the twclvepenny room next the ftage, becaufe 
the lords and you may feeme to be haile fellow well met, &c." 
In Wit without Monfy : 

" And who extoll'd you in the half-crown boxes, 
" Where you might lit and mufter all the beauties.'* 
and laftly, it appears from the induction to Bartholomew Fair t 
by Ben Jonfon, that tobacco was fmoked in the fame place : 

" He looks like a fellow that I have feen accommodate gen- 

tlemen with tobacco at our theatres." 

And from B. and Fletcher's Woman-Hater, 1607, it fhould feem 
that beer was fold there : " There is no poet acquainted with 
more ftiakings and quakings towards the latter end of his new 
play, when he's in that cafe that he {lands peeping between the 
curtains fo fearfully, that a bottle of ale cannot be opened, but he 
thinks fomebody hifles." STEEVENS. 

9 the Tribulation of Tower-hill, or the limbs of Limehoufe, ] I 
fufpecl the Tribulation to have been a puritanical meeting-houfe. 
The limbs of Limehoufe, I do not underftand. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnibn's conjecture may be countenanced by the follow- 
ing paflage in " Magnificence, a goodly interlude and a mery, de- 
viled and made by mayfter Skelton, poet-laureate, lately deceafyd." 
Printed by John Raftel, fol. no date : 

* Some fall to foly them felfe for to fpyll, 
*' And fome fall prechynge on toure byll" STEEVENS. 
Alliteration has given rife to many cant expreflions, confifling 
of words paired together. Here we have cant names for the in- 
habitants of theie places, who were notorious puritans, coined 
for the humour of the alliteration, In the mean time it mutt not 



I hav fome of 'em in Limbo Patrum, and there they 
are like to dance thefe three days ; befides the l run- 
ning banquet of two beadles, that is to come. 

Enter the Lord Chamberlain* 

Cham. Mercy o* me, what a multitude are here ! 
They grow ftill too, from all parts they are coming, 
As if we kept a fair ! Where are thefe porters, 
Thefe lazy knaves ? Ye have made a fine hand, 


There's a trim rabble let in : Are all thefe 
Your faithful friends o'the fuburbs ? We fliall have 
Great ftore of room, no doubt, left for the ladies, 
When they pafs back from the chriflening. 

Port. Pleafe your honour, 
We are but men ; and what fo many may do, 

be forgotten, that " precious limbs" was a common phrafe of 
contempt for the puritans. WAR TON. 

Limehoufe was before the time of Shakefpeare, and has conti- 
nued to be ever lince, the refidence of thofe who furnifh ftores, 
fails, &c. for fhipping. A great number of foreigners having 
been conftantly employed in thefe manufaftures (many of which 
were introduced from other countries) they affembled themfelves 
under their feveral paftors, and a number of places of different 
worlhip were built in conference of their refpeftive afibciations. 
As they claflied in principles, they had frequent quarrels, and 
the place has ever fince been famous for the variety of its fes, 
and the turbulence of its inhabitants. It is not improbable that 
Shakefpeare wrote the lands of Limchoujc. 

A limb of the devil, is, however, a common vulgarifm ; and 
in A JVkv Trick to cheat the Devil, 1636, the fame kind of ex- 
preflion occurs : 

" I am a puritan ; one that will eat no pork, 
" Doth ufe to {hut his fhop on Saturdays, 
" And open them on Sundays : a familitl, 
" And one of the arch limls of Belzebub." 
Again, in Every Man out of bis Humour : 

" I cannot abide thefe'fatds of fattin, or rather Satan, &c." 

11 ^wining lanquct of two leadleS)] A publick whipping. 




Not being torn a piece?, we have done : 
An army cannot rule 'em. 

Cham. 'As I live, 

If the king blame me for'r, I'll lay ye all 
By the heels, and fuddenly ; and on your heads 
Clap round fines, for negledt : You are lazy knaves 5 
And 5 here ye lie baiting of bumbards, when 
Ye iliould do fervice. Hark, the trumpets found ; 
They are come already from the chriftening : 
Go, break among the prefs, and find a way out 
To let the troop pafs fairly ; or I'll find 
A Marfhalfea, mall hold you play thefe two months. 

Port. Make way there for the princefs. 

Man. You great fellow, ftancl clofe up, or I'll 
make your head ake. 

Port. You i'the camblet, get up o'the rail ; I'll 
peck you o'er the pales elle. [Exeunt. 

S C E N E IV. 

The Palace. 

Enter Trumpets, founding ; then two Aldermen, Lord' 
Mayor, Garter, Cranmcr, Duke of Norfolk with bis 
Marfials ftfff, T)nke of Suffolk, two Noblemen bear- 
ing great ponding bowls for the chriftening 'gifts ; thm 
four Noblemen bearing a canopy, under which the Dut- 
chefs of Norfolk, godmother, bearing the child richly 
habited in a mantle, &fc. Train borne by a Lady : 
then follows the Marchionefs of Dorfet, the other goa- 
wotfar, and ladies. The troop pafs once about the 
fiage, and Garter fpeaks. 

4 here ye lie baiting of bumbards,] A litmlard is an ah-larrcl\ 
to I ait bumbards is to tipple , to lie at thcfpigot. JOHNSOX. 

It appears from a paflage already quoted in a fiote on the Tem- 
pcft, adt II. fc. ii. out ot Shirley's Martyred Soldier, 1638, that 
bumlarJs were the large veflels in which the beer was carried to 
foldiers upon duty. They releinbled black jacks of leather. So, 
in H'cmans a Weathercock, 1612 : " She looks like a black bom- 
lard with a pint pot waiting upon it." STEEVENS. 



Gart. Heaven, from thy endlefs goodnefs, fend 
profperous life, long, and ever happy, to the high 
and mighty princefs of England, Elizabeth ! 

Flourijh. Enter King, and Train. 

Cran. [Kneeling.] And to your royal grace, and the 

good queen, 

My noble partners, and myfelf, thus pray; 
All comfort, joy, in this mofl gracious lady, 
Heaven ever laid up to make parents happy, 
May hourly fall upon ye ! 

King. Thank you, good lord archbilhop : 
What is her name ? 

Cran. Elizabeth. 

King. Stand up, lord. [The King kiffes the child. 
With this kifs take my bleffing : God protect thee ! 
Into whofe hand I give thy life. 

Cran. Amen. 

King. My noble goffips, ye have been too prodigal : 
I thank ye heartily ; fo lhall this lady, 
When Ihe has fo much Englilh. 

Cran. Let me fpeak, fir, 

For Heaven now bids me ; and the words I utter 
Let none think flattery, for they'll find 'em truth. 
This royal infant, (heaven ftill move about her f) 
Though in her cradle, yet now promifes ' 
Upon this land a thoufand thoufand bleflings, 
Which time fhall bring to ripenefs : She lhall be 
(But few now living can behold that goodnefs) 
A pattern to all princes living with her, 
And all that ihall fucceed : Shcba was never 
More covetous of wifdnm, and fair virtue, 
Than this pure foul ihall be : all princely graces, 
That mould up fuch a mighty piece as this is, 
With all the virtues that attend the good, 
Shall ftiil be doubled on her : truth lhall nurfe her, 
Holy and heavenly thoughts flill counfel her : 



She ihall be lov'd, and fcar'd : Her own lhall blef s 

her ; 

Her foes lhake like a field of beaten corn, 
And hang their heads with forrow : Good grows with 

her : 

In her days, every man Ihall eat in fafety J , 
Under his own vine, what he plants ; and fing 
The merry fongs of peace to all his neighbours : 
God lhall be truly known ; and thofe about her 
From her lhall' read the perfedt way of honour, 
And by thofe claim their greatncfs, not by blood, 
4 Nor lhall this peace fleep with her : But as when 
The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phcenix, 
Her afhes new create another heir, 
As great in admiration as herfelf ; 
So lhall Ihe leave her bleflednefs to one, 
(When heaven lhall call her from this cloud of 


3 every manjhalleat infafety,~\ This part of the prophecy 
feems to have been burlefqued by B. and Fletcher in iheJlrggar's 
Bujb, where orator Higgin is making his congratulatory fpeecH 
to the new king of the beggars : 

" Each man fhall eat his own ftolen eggs, and butter, 

*' In his own fhade, or funfhine, &c," 

The original thought, however, is borrowed from the 4th chap- 
ter of the firft book of Kings : " Every man dwelt fafely under 
his vine." STEEVENS. 

4 [NorJ/iall this peace Jleep tvit/j her: ] Thefe lines, to the 

interruption by the king, feem to have been inferted at fome re- 
vifal of the play, after the acceffion of king James. If the pai- 
fage, included in crotchets, be left out, the fpeech of Cranmer 
proceeds in a regular tenour of prediction and continuity of fen- 
timents ; but, by the interpofition of the new lines, he firft cele- 
brates Elizabeth's fucceflbr, and then withes he did not know that 
fiie was to die ; firil rejoices at the confequence, and then laments 
the caufe. Our authour was at once politick and idle ; he refolved 
to flatter James, but neglec~h>d to reduce the whole fpeech to pro- 
priety, or perhaps intended that the lines inferted fhould be fpo 
ken in the aftion, and omitted in the publication, if any publi* 
cation ever was in his thoughts. Mr. Theobald has made the 
fame oblervation. JOHNSON. 

VOL. VII. Y Who, 


Who, from the facred alhes of her honour, 
Shall ftar-like rife, as great in fame as Ihe was, 
And fo Hand fix'd : Peace, plenty, love, truth, terror, 
That were the fervants to this chofen infant, 
Shall then be his, and like a vine grow to him ; 
Wherever the bright fun of heaven fhall Ihine, 
His honour, and the greatnefs of his name 
Shall be, and make new nations : He lhall flourilh, 
And, like a mountain cedar, reach his branches 
To all the plains about him : Our children's children 
Shall fee this, and blefs heaven. 

King. Thou fpeakeft wonders.] 

Cran. She lhall be, to the happinefs of England, 
An aged princefs $ ; many days lhall fee her, 
And yet no day without a deed, to crown it. 
'Would I had known no more ! but Ihe mull die, 
She muft, the faints muft have her ; yet a virgin, 
A molt unfpotted lily lhall Ihe pafs 
To the ground, and all the world lhall mourn her. 

King. O lord archbilhop, 
Thou haft made me now a man ; never, before 

5 Sbejball le, to the happinefs of England, 

An aged princefs,] 

The tranfition here from the complimentary addrefs to king Jama 
the firft is fo abrupt, that it feems obvious to me, that compli- 
ment was inferted after the acceffion of that prince. If this play 
was wrote, as in my opinion it was, in the reign of queen Eli- 
zabeth ; we may eafily determine where Cranmer's eulogium of 
that princefs concluded. I make no queftion but the poet refted 
here : 

And claim by tbofe their grcatnefs, not by blood. 
All that the bifhop fays after this, was an occafional homage paid 
to her fucceflbr ; and evidently inferted after her demife. How 
naturally, without this infertion, does the king's joy and fatisfac- 
tory reflection upon the bifhop's prophecy, come in ! 
King. Thou fpeakejl wonders. O lord arcbbijhop, 

Tboujl made me now a man. Never, before 
This happy child, did I get any thing, &c. 

Whether the king would fo properly have made this inference, 
upon hearing that a child of fo great hopes fliould die without 
iflue, is fubmitted to judgment. THEOBALD. 


K i N G HENRY vm. 323 

This happy child, did I get any thing : 
This oracle of comfort has fo pleas'd me. 
That, when I am in heaven, I fhall defire 
To fee what this child does, and praife my Maker. ^ 
I thank ye all. To you, my good lord mayor, 
6 And your good brethren, I am much beholden ; 
I have receiv'd much honour by your pre(ence, 
And ye fhall find me thankful. Lead the way, lords; 
Ye muft all fee the queen, and Ihe muft thank ye, 
She will be lick elfe. This day, no man think 
He has buiinefs at his houfe ; for all fhall flay, 
This little one fhall make it holiday. [Exeunt; 

* And you good Iretbren^ ] But the aldermen were never 

called brethren to the king. The top of the nobility are but cou- 
fins and counfellors. Dr. Thirlby, therefore, rightly advifed ; 

And your good brethren 

i. e. the lord mayor's brethren ; which is properly their flyle. 


THE play of Henry the Eighth is one of thofe, which ftill keeps 
pofleffion of the ftage, by the fplendour of its pageantry. The 
coronation, about forty years ago drew the people together in 
multitudes for a great part of the winter. Yet pomp is not the 
only merit of this play. The meek forrows and virtuous diftreff 
of Katharine have furnifhed fome fccnes, which maybejuftly 
numbefed among the greateft efforts of tragedy. But the genius 
of Shakefpeare comes in and goes out with Katharine. Every 
ther part may be eafily conceived and eafily written. JOHNSON, 



}e Tis ten to one, this play can never pleafe 
All tha't are here : Some ccme to take their eafe, 
And jleep an aR or two ; but thofe, we fear, 
We have frighted with our trumpets ; fo, 'tis clear 9 
They'll fay, 'tis naught : other ~s, to hear the city 
Abus'd extremely, and to cry, that's witty ! 
Which we have not done neither : that, 1 fear y 
All the expetted good we are like to hear 
For this play at this time, ts only in 
The merciful conftruftion of good women j 
.For fuch a one we fiew'd 'em* : If they fmile 7 , 
And jay, 'twill do, I know, within a while 
All the beji men are ours ; for 'tis ill hap, 
If they hold, zvhen their ladies bid 'em clap. 

, * In the character of Katharine. 

7 If they f mile, &c.] This thought is too much hackney'd. It 
had been ufed already in the Epilogues to As Tou Like //, and 
the fecond part of King Henry //^. STEEVENS. 

Though it is very difficult to decide whether fhort pieces be ge- 
nuine or fpurious, yet I cannot reftrain myfelf from expreffing 
my fufpicion that neither the prologue nor epilogue to this play 
is the work of Shakefpeare ; non vultus, non color. It appears to 
me very likely that they were fupplied by the friendfhip or offici- 
oufnefs of Jonfon, whofe manner they will be perhaps found ex- 
actly to refemble. There is yet another fuppofition poffible : the 
prologue and epilogue may have been written after Shakefpeare's 
departure from the ftage, upon ibme accidental revifal of the play, 
and there will then be reafon for imagining that the writer, who- 
ever he was, intended no jrreat kindnefs to him, this play being 
recommended by a fubtle and covert cenfure of his other works. 
There is in Shakefpeare fo much of fool and fight : 

the fellow 

In a long niniley coat, guarded with ycllovj, 

nppears fo often in his drama, that I think it not very likely that 
he would have animadverted fo feverely on himfelf. All this, 
however, muft be received as very dubious, fince we know not 
the exact date of this or the o^her plays, and cannot tell how our 
avithour might have changed his practice or opinions. 

I en- 


I entirely agree in opinion with Dr. Johnfon, that Ben Jonfon 
wrote the prologue and epilogue to this play. Shakefpeare had a 
little before aflifted him in his Sejanus ; and Ben was too proud to 
receive affiftance without returning it. It is probable, that he 
drew up the directions for the parade at the chriflening, &c. 
which his employment at court would teach him, and Shakefpeare 
mult be ignorant of: I think, I now and then perceive his hand 
in the dialogue. 

It appears from St<nve, that Robert Green wrote fomewhat oa 
this fubjecl. FARMER. 

In fupport of Dr. Johnfon's opinion, it may not be amifs to 
<pote the following lines from old Ben's prologue to his Every 
laa in his Humour : 

To make a child now fwaddlcd, to proceed 
' Man, anJ'tbeti Jlioot up, in one beard and weedy 
' Paft tbrcefcore years : or with three ruftyfwords, 
' And help nf fame few foot-and-half -foot words ) 
Fight over York and Lancafter's long wars, 
And in the tyring-houfc, &c." STEEVENS. 

THE historical dramas are now concluded, of which the two 
parts of Henry the Fourth, and Henry the Fifth, are among the 
nappiefl of our author's competitions ; and King John, Richard 
the Third, and Henry the F^ighth, defervedly ftand in the fecond 
clafs. Thofe whofe curiofity would refer the hiftorical fcenes to 
their original, may confult Holinfhed, and fometimes Hall : from 
HolinPred Shakefpeare has often inlerted whole fpeeches with no 
inore alteration than was neceflary to the numbers of his verfe. 
To tranfcribe them into the margin was unnecefiary, becaufe the 
original is eafily examined, and they are feldom lei's perfpicuous 
in the poet than in the hiilorian. 

To play hiftories, or to exhibit a fucceffion of events by action 
and dialogue, was a common entertainment among our rude an- 
ceftors upon great feftivities. The parifh clerks once performed 
at Clerkenwell a play which lafted three days, containing The 
Hiftory of the World. JOHNSON. 

It appears from more than one MS. in the Britifh Mufeum, 
that the tradefmen of Chefter were three days employed in the 
reprefentation of their twenty-rour \Vhitfun plays or myfteries. 
The like performances at Coventry muft have taken up a longer 
time, as they are no lels than forty in number.. The exhibition 
of them began on Corpus Cbrijli day, which was, ''according to 
Dugdale) one of their ancient fairs. See the Harleian MSS. 
No. 2013, 21:4, 212$, and MS. Cott. Vcfp. D. VIII. and 
/>' . , p. 116. STEEVENS. 




Perfons Reprefented. 

Caius Marcius Coriolanus, a noble Rowan. 

Com^us mUS ' } Generah a aln ft the Volfc 
Menenius Agrippa, friend, to Coriolanus. 

Sicinius Velutus. 7, ., r , 7 -r, , 
^unes of the People. 

Junius Brutus, 

Tullus Aufidius, General of the Volfcians* 

Lieutenant to Aufidius. 

Toung Marcius, Son, to Coriolanus. 

Confpirators with Aufidius. 

Volumnia, Mother to Coriolanus. 
"Virgilia, Wife to Coriolanus. 
Valeria, Friend to Virgilia. 

Roman and Volfdan Senators, &diles, Liftors, Soldiers^ 
Common People, Servants to Aufidius, and other 

SCENE is partly in Rome ; and partly In th$ 
Territories of the Volfdans and Antiates. 

The whole hiftory is exaftly followed, and many of the prin- 
cipal fpeeches exadtly copied from the Life of Coriolanus in 
Plutarch. POPE. 

Of this play there is no edition before that of the players, in 
folio, in 1623. JOHNSON. 

C O R I O- 



A Street In Rome. 

Enter a company of mutinous Citizens, with ftaves, clubs, 
and other weapons. 

i Cit. Before we proceed any further, hear me 

AIL Speak, fpeak. 

i Cit. You are refolv'd rather to die, than to fa- 
mifh ? 

All. Refolv'd, refolv'd. 

i Cit. Firft, you know, Caius Marcius is chief 
enemy to the people. 

All. We know't, we know't. 

i Cit. Let us kill him, and we'll have corn at our 
own price. Is't a verdict ? 

All. No more talking on't ; let it be done : away, 

2, Cit. One word, good citizens T . 

I Cit. We are accounted poor citizens ; the patri- 
cians, good : What authority 'forfeits on, would re- 

* One <word, good citizens. 

i Cit. We are accounted /<w citizens ; the patricians, good.] 
Good is here ufed in the mercantile fenfe. So, Touchftonc in Eajt- 
nvard Hoe : 

" known good men, well monied." FARMER. 

in, in the Merchant of Venice : 

" Antonio's a good man." MALONE. 


330 C O R I O L A N U S, 

lieve us : If they would yield us but the fuperfluity, 
while it were wholefome, we might guefs, they re- 
lieved us humanely : * but they think, we are too 
dear : the leannefs that afHidh us, the objedt of our 
mifery, is as an inventory to particularize their abun- 
dance ; our fufferance is a gain to them. * Let us 
revenge this with our pikes, 4 ere we become rakes : 

* But they think, we are too dear .-] They think that the charg 
of maintaining us is more than we are worth. JOHNSON. 

3 Let us revenge this <witb our pikes, ere we become rakes :] It 
was Shakefpeare's defign to make this fellow quibble all the way. 
But time, who has done greater things, has here flifled a mifer- 
ble joke j which was then the fame as if it had been now wrote, 
Let us now revenge this with forks, ere tue become rakes : for pikes 
then fignified the fame as forks do now. So Jewel in his own 
tranflation of his Apology, turns Chrijlianos ad iurcas condemnare t 
to To condemn Chriftians to the pikes. But the Oxford editor, 
without knowing any thing of this, has with great fagacity found 
out the joke, and reads on his own authority, pitch-forks. 


4 ere *we lecome rakes :] It is plain that, in our authour's time, 
we had the proverb, as lean as a rake. Of this proverb the ori- 
ginal is obfcure. Rake now fignifies a dijjblute man, a man worn 
out with difeafe and debauchery. But the fignification is, I think, 
much more modern than the proverb. R&kef, in Ulandick, is 
faid to mean a cur-dog, and this was probably the firft ufe among 
us of the word rah ; as lean as a rake is, therefore, as lean as a 
dog too worthlefs to be fed. JOHNSON. 

It may be fo : and yet I believe the proverb, as lean as a rake, 
owes its origin fimply to the thin taper form of the inftrument 
made ufe of by hay-makers. Chaucer has this fimile in his de- 
fcription of the clerk's horfe in the prologue to the Canterbury 
Tales, late edit. v. 2%% : 

" As lene was his hors as is a rale" 

Spenfer introduces it in the fecond book of his Faery %ueen t 
Canto II : 

" His body lean and meagre as a rake" 
As thin as a whipping-pojl , is another proverb of the fame kind. 

Stanyhurft, in his tranllation of the third book of Virgil, i 582, 
defcribing Achcemenides, fays : 

** A meigre leane rake, &c." 

This paffage fecms to countenance Dr. Johnfon's fuppofition. 



C O R I O L A N U S. 33 i 

for the gods know, I fpeak this in hunger for bread, 
not in thirft for revenge. 

2 Cit. Would you proceed efpecially againfl Caius 
Marcius ? 

All. Againfl him firft ; he's a very dog to the 

2 Cit. Confider you what fervices he has done for 
his country ? 

I Cit. Very well ; and could be content to give 
him good report for't, but that he pays himfelf with 
being proud. 

All. Nay, but fpeak not malicioufly. 

1 Cit. I fay unto you, what he hath done famoufly, 
he did it to that end : though foft-confcienc'd men 
can be content to fay, it was for his country, he did 
it to pleafe his mother, and to be partly proud ; which 
he is, even to the altitude of his virtue. 

2 Cit. What he cannot help in his nature, you ac- 
count a vice in him : You muft in no way fay, he 
is covetous. 

1 Cit. If I muft not, I need not be barren of accu- 
fetions ; he hath faults, with furplus, to tire in repe- 
tition. [Shouts within.] What fhouts are thefe? The 
other fide o'the city is rifen : Why ftay we prating 
here ? to the Capitol. 

All. Come, come. 

j Cit. Soft ; who comes here ? 

Enter Menenius Agrippa. 

2 Cit. Worthy Menenius Agrippa ; one that hath 
always lov'd the people. 

j Cit. He's one honeft enough ; 'Would, all the 

reft were fo ! 
Men. What work's, my countrymen, in hand ? 

Where go you 

With bats and clubs ? The matter ? Speak, I pray 

2 Cit. 


2 Ctt. Our bufinefs is not unknown to the fenate ; 
they have had inkling, this fortnight, what we intend 
to do, which now we'll fhew 'em in deeds. They fay, 
poor fuiters have ilrong breaths ; they fliall know, 
we have flrong arms too. 

Men. Why, mailers, my good friends, mine honeft 

Will you undo yourfelves ? 

2 Cit. We capnot, fir, we are undone already, 

Men. I tell you, . friends, moll charitable care 
Have the patricians of you. For your wants, 
Your fuffering in this dearth, you may as well 
Strike at the heaven with your flaves, as lift them 
Againfl the Roman ilate ; whofe courfe will on 
The way it takes, cracking ten thoufand curbs 
Of more flrong link afunder, than can ever 
Appear in your impediment : For the dearth, 
The gods, not the patricians, make it ; and 
Your knees to them, not arms, mufl help. Alack^ 
You are tranfported by calamity 
Thither where more attends you ; and you {lander 
The helms o'the flate, who care for you like fathers^ 
When you curfe them as enemies. 

2 Cit. Care for us ! True, indeed ! They ne'er 
car'd for us yet. Suffer us to famiih, and their flore^ 
houfes cramm'd with grain ; make edi:l~s for ufury, 
to fupport ufurers : repeal daily any wholefome adl 
eflabliftied againfl the rich ; and provide more pier- 
cing flatutes daily, to chain up and reftrain the poor. 
If the wars eat us not up, they will ; and there's all 
the love they bear us. 

Men. Either yoVTmiift 
Confefs yourfelves wond'rous malicious, 
Or be accus'd of folly. I mall tell you 
A pretty tale ; it may be, you have heard it ; 
But, iince it ferves my purpofe 5 , I will venture 


b . ' / iv ill venture 

To fcale't a little more.'} Thus 


Yo fcale't a little more. 

2 Cit. Well, I'll hear it, fir : yet you muft not 

Thus all the editions, as Mr. Theobald confefles, who alters it 
tojtale't. And for a good reafon, lecaufe be can find nofrnfe (he 
fays) in the common reading. For as good a reafon, I, who can, 
have reftored the old one to its place. Tofiale't fignifying to 
weigh, examine, and apply it. The author ufes it again, in the 
fame fenfe, in this very play : 

Scaling his prcfent bearing with bis pafl 
And fo, Fletcher, in The Maid of the Mill: 

*' What fcale my invention before hand? you Jball pardon 

me for that ." WARBURTON. 

Neither of Dr. Warburton's examples afford a fenfe congruous 
to the prefent occafion. In the paflage quoted, to fcale may be 
to iveigh and compare, but where do we find that fcale is to apply ? 
If \\efcatc the two criticks, I think Theobald has the advantage. 


To fcale is to di/Jserfe. The Word is ftill ufed in the North. If 
emendation were at all neceflary, Theobald's is as good a one as 
could be propofed. The fenfe of the old reading is, Though 
fome of you have heard the ftory, I will fpread it yet wider, and 
diffufe it among the reft. 

A meafure of wine fpilt, is called " z.fca?d pottle of wine' 1 
in Decker's comedy of The Honejl H^jorc, 1635. So, in T7je 
Hyftorie of Clyomon, Knight of the Golden Shield, &c. a play pub* 
lifhed in 1 99 : 

*' The hugieheapes of cares that lodged in my minde 
" Axejkaied from their rieftling place, and pleafures paf 

fage find." 
Again, in Deckar's Hontjl IVljore, already quoted : 

" ; Cut off his beard. , 

" Fye, fye ; idle, idle ; he's no Frenchman, to fret at the lofs 
of a little >tf/V hair." In the North" they fay fcale the corn, /. e. 
icatter it : fcale the muck well, /. e. fpread the dung well. The 
two foregoing inftances are taken from Mr. Lambe's notes on the 
old metrical hiftory of -Floddon Field. 

Again, Holinjbt^ vol. ii. p. 499, fpeaking of the retreat of the 
Welchmcn during the abfence of Richard II. fays : " they 
would no longer abide, butfcaled and departed away." So again, 
p. 530 : " whereupon their troops fcaled, and fled their waies." 
In the Gloflary to Gawin Douglas's Tranflation of Virgil, the 
following account of the word is given. Skail^ jkale, to fcaffcr, 
to_/^;v.7r/, perhaps from the Fr. efcl-cvelcr, Ital. fcaf>i^liare t crinea 
paffos, feu fparfos habere. All from the Latin capittus. Thus 
^ fcbevel, Jkail ; but of a more general fignification. 




think to fob off our 6 difgrace with a tale : but, an f t 
pleafe you, deliver. 

Men. There was a time, when all the body's mem- 

Rebell'd againft the belly ; thus accus'd it : . 
That only like a gulf it did remain 
I' the midft o' the body, idle and unaclive, 
Still cupboarding the viand, never bearing 
Like labour with the reft ; 7 where the other inftru- 


Did fee, and hear, devife, inflrud, walk, feel, 
And mutually participate, did minifter 
Unto the appetite and affection common 
Of the whole body. The belly anfwer'd, 

2 Cit. Well, fir, what anfwer made the belly ? 

Men. Sir, I lhall tell you. With a kind of (mile, 
8 Which ne'er came from the lungs, but even thus, 
(For, look you, I may make the belly fmile, 
As well as fpeak) it tauntingly reply'd 
To the difcontented members, the mutinous parts 
That envy'd his receipt ; 9 even fo moft fitly 
As you malign, our fenators, for that 
They are not fuch as you. 

2 Cit. Your belly's anfwer : What ! 
The kingly-crowned head, the vigilant eye, 
1 The counfellor heart, the arm our foldier, 
Our (teed the leg, the tongue our trumpeter, 
With other muniments and petty helps 
In this our fabrick, if that they 

tt difgrace with a tale :] D If graces are hard/trips, injuries. 


7 --where tJie other inftruments\ Where for whereas. 


8 WlAck ne'er came from the lungi, ] With a fmile not in- 
dicating pleafure, but contempt. JOHNSON. 

9 "-even fo moft filly,] i.e. exaftly. WARBURTON. 

1 The couf/fellor heart, ] The heart was anciently efteemed 

the feat at prudence. Hamo cordatus is a prude at man. 




Men. What then ? 
'Fore me, this fellow fpeaks ! what then ? what then ? 

2 Cit. Should by the cormorant belly be reftrain'd, 
Who is the fink o' the body, 

Men. Well, what then ? 

i Cit. The former agents, if they did complain, 
What could the belly anfwer ? 

Men. I will tell you ; 

If you'll beftow a fmall (of what you have little) 
Patience, a while, you'll hear the belly's anfwer. 

i Cit. You are long about it. 

Men. Note me this, good friend ; 
Your moft grave belly was deliberate, 
Not rafh like his accufers, and thus anfwer'd. 
True is it, my incorporate friends, quoth he, 
That I receive the general food at firft, 
Wtchyou do live upon : and Jit it is ; 
Becaufe I am the ftore-houfe, and the Jhop 
Of the whole body : But, if you do remember, 
I fend it through the rivers of your blood, 
Even to the court, the heart, to the feat o'tbe brain l ; 
And, through the cranks and offices of man, 
The Jlrongejl nerves, and fmall inferior veins 9 
From me receive that natural competency 
Whereby they live : And though that all at once, 
Tou, my good friends, (this fays the belly) mark 

4 To th'fcat o 1 the brain ; ] feems to me a very languid expreG- 
fion. I believe we fhould read, with the omiffion of a particle ; 

Even to the court, the heart, to the feat, the brain. 
He ufesjeat tor throne, the royal feat, which the firlt editors pro- 
bably not apprehending, corrupted the paflage. It is thus ufed 
in Richard II. aft III. fc. iv : " 

*' Yea, diftaft- women manage ruity bills 

" Agairvft thyfeaf." 

It fliould be oblerved too, that one of the Citizens had juft be- 
fore charafterifed thefe principal parts of the human fabrick by 
fimilar metaphors : 

The kingly -crowned head, the vigilant eye, 

The counfellor heart. . > TYRWHITT. 

2 Cit. 


2 Cit. Ay, fir ; well, well. 
Men. Though all at once cannot 

See what I do deliver out to each ; 

Tet I can make my audit up, that all 

From me do back receive the flower of all, 

And leave me but the bran. What fay you ro't ? 

2 Cit. It was an anfwer : How apply you this ? 

Men. The fenators of Rome are this good belly, 
And you the mutinous members : For examine 
Their counfels, and their cares ; digeft things rightly. 
Touching the weal o' the common ; you fhall find, 
No publick benefit, which you receive, 
But it proceeds, or comes, from them to you, 
And no way from yourfelves. What do you think ? 
You, the great toe of this affembly ? 

2 Cit. I the great toe ? Why the great toe ? 

Men. For that, being one o'the lowefl, bafeft, 


Of this mod wife rebellion, thou go 'ft foremoft : 
? Thou rafcal, that art worft in blood, to run 
Lead'il firft, to win fome vantage. 
But make you ready your (lift' bats and clubs ; 
Rome and her rats are at the point of battle, 

3 Thou rafcal, that art ivtrft In blood, to run 
Lead'ji firft, to ivzn fome 'vantage, ] 

I think, we may better read, by an eafy change, 
Thou rafcal that art ivorjl t in blood, to ruin 
Lead'Jlfirft, to TV///, Sic. 

Thou that art the meaneft by birth, art the foremoft to lead thy 
fellows to ruin, in hope of Ibme advantage. The meaning, how- 
ever, is perhaps only this, Thou that art a hound, or running dog 
of the lowefl breed, lead'ft the pack, when any thing is to be 
gotten. JOHXSON. 

IForft in blood may be the true reading. In K. Henry VI. P. I : 

" If we bee Englifh deer, be then in llooJ" 
i, t. high fpiriis. 

Again, in this play of Coriolanus, a&IV. fc. v. " But when they fnall 
fee his creft up again, and the man in blood, &c." STEEVEVS. 
To win fome vantage, is to get the flart, or to begin the chacc 
before another dog. TOLLET. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 337 

4 The one fide muft have bale. Hail, noble Mar* 

. cius ! 

Enter Cams Mardus. 

Mar* Thanks. What's the matter, you diflentious 


That, rubbing the poor itch of your opinion, 
Make yourfelves fcabs ? 

2 Cit. We have ever your good word. 

Afar. He that will give good words to thee, will 

Beneath abhorring. What would have, you curs, 

5 That like nor peace, nor war ? the one ajFrights 



4 The onefiac mujl have bale. ] Bale is an old Saxon word, for 
mifery or calamity. 

" For light the hated as the deadly lak." 

Spenfer's Fairy $>ueen. 
5 That like nor peace, nor war ? Tfje one affrights you. 

The other makes you proud j 

That they did not like war is evident from the reafon affigned, of 
its frighting them j but why they fhould not like peace (and the 
reafon of that too is aifigned) will be very hard to conceive. 
Peace, he fays, made them proud, by bringing with it an increafe 
of wealth and power, for thofe are what make a people proud ; 
but then thofe are what they like but too well, and fo m-jft needs 
like peace the parent of them. This being contrary to what the 
text fays, we may be allured it is corrupt, and that Shakefpeare 
wrote : 

That likes notpeace t nor war f 

i. e. whom neither peace nor war fits or agrees with, as making 
them either proud or cowardly. By this reading, peace and ivar, 
from being the accufatives to likes, become the nominatives. But 
the editors not understanding this conftruclion, and feeing likes a 
verb fingular, to curs a noun, plural, which they fuppofed the no- 
minative to it, would, in order to fhew their flcill in grammar, al- 
ter it to like ; but likes for plea fes was common with the writers of 
this time. So Fletcher's Maid's Tragedy : 

" WbatlocikV&u*yv*litfl? WAR BURTON. 
That to like is to pleafe^ every one knows, but in that fenfe it 
VOL. VII. Z ii 

3 3 8 C O R I O L A N U S. 

The other makes you proud. He that trufts to you,. 

Where he fhould find you lions, finds you hares ; 

Where foxes, geefe : You are no furer, no, 

Than is the coal of fire upon the ice, 

Or hailfcone in the fun. 6 Your virtue is, 

To make him worthy, whofe offence fubdues him, 

And curfc that juftice did it. Who deferves great- 


Deferves your hate : and your affections are 
A fick man's appetite, who defires mofl that 
Which would increafc his evil. He that depends 
Upon your favours, fwims with fins of lead, 
And hews down oaks with rufhes. Hang ye ! Truft 


With every minute you do change a mind ; 
And call him noble, that was now your hate, 
Him vile, that was your garland. What's the mat- 

That in thefe feveral places of the eity 
You cry againft the noble fenate, who, 
Under the gods, keep you in awe, which elfe 
Would feed on one another ? What's their feek- 
ing 7 ? 

is as hard to fay why peace fhould not like the people, as, in the 
other ienfe, why the people fhould not like peace. The truth is, 
that Coriolanus does not ufe the two fentences confequentially, 
but firfi reproaches them with unfteadinefs, then with their other 
occafional vices. JOHNSON. 
6 Tour virtue is, 

To make him worthy, whofe offence ful dues him. 

And curfc that jitjiice did it.- ] 

ie. Your virtue is to fpeak well of him whom his own offences 
have fubjedtcd to juilice ; and to rail at thofe laws by which h& 
whom you praife wus punished. STEEVENS. 

7 I'} 'bat's their feck:ng?~\ I believe Shakefpeare wrote : 

What is't they Mefeckizg ? 

which from the fimilarity of found might eafily have been con- 
founded with the prevent text. Had feeking been ufed fubftan- 
fively, the anfwer would have been, not -fur corn but corn. 



C 6 R 1 O JL A N U S. 33 

Men. For corn at their own rates; whereof, they 

The city is well flor'd. 

Mar. Hang 'em ! They fay ? 
They'll fit by the fire, and prefume to know 
What's done i' the Capitol : who's like to rife, 
Who thrives, and who declines : fide factions, and 

give out 

Conjectural marriages ; making parties ftrong, 
And feebling fuch, as fland not in their liking, 
Below their cobled Ihoes. They fay, there's grain 

enough ? 

Would the nobility lay afide their ruth % 
And let me ufe my fword, 9 I'd make a quarry 
With thoufands of" thefe quarter'd flaves, as high 
x\s I could pitch my lance '. 

Men. Nay, thefe are almoft thoroughly perfuaded ; 
For though abundantly they lack difcretion, 
Yet are they paffing cowardly. But, I befeech you, 
What fays the other troop ? 

Mar. They are diflblv'd : Hang 'em ! 
They faid, they were an-hungry ; figh'd forth pro- 
verbs ; 
That, hunger broke ftone walls ; that, dogs muft 

eat ; 

That, meat was made for mouths ; that, the gods 
fent not 

8 their ruth,] i. e. their pity, companion. Fairfax and 

Spenfer often ufe the word. STEEVENS. 

9 Vd make a quarry 

With thoufands ] 

Why a quarry ? I fuppofe, not becaufe he would pile them fquare, 
but becaufe he would give them for carrion to the birds of prey. 

So, in the Miracles of Mofes, by Drayton : 

" And like a quarry call them on the land." STEEVENS. 

1 pitch my lance.] The old copy reads pickc my lance : 

and fo the word is ftill pronounced in Staffordfhire, where they 
hy pickc me fuch a thing, that is, throw any thing that the 
demander wants. TOLLET. 

Z 2 Corn 

340 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Corn for the rich men only : With thefe fhreds 
They vented their complainings ; which being an- 


And a petition granted them, a flrange one, 
(To break * the heart of generofky, 
And make bold power look pale) they threw their caps 
As they would hang them on the horns o'the moon, 
Shouting their emulation. 

Men. What is granted them ? 

Mar. Five tribunes, to defend their vulgar wif- 

Of their own^ choice : One's Junius Brutus, 

Sicinius Velutus, and I know not s' death ! 

The rabble fhould have firft unroof d the city, 
Ere ib prevailed with me : it will in time 
Win upon power, and throw forth greater themes 
For infurreclion's arguing. 

Men. This is flrange. 

Mar. Go, get you home, you fragments I 

Enter a Meffenger. 

Mef. Where's Caius Marcius ? 

Mar. Here : What's the matter ? 

Mef. The news is, fir, the Voices are in arms. 

Mar. I am glad on't ; then we mall have means to 

Our mufty fuperfluity : See, our beft elders. 

Enter Commits, Titus Lartius, with other Senators ; 
Junius Brutus, and Sicinius Velutus. 

i Sen. Marcius, 5 'tis true, that you have lately 
told us; 


^ the heart of generouty,] To give the final blow to the 

nobles. Gcncrojity is high birth. JoHNSO\. 
3 ' //.> true, that you have lately told m ; 
The I r olces are in arms.} 


C O R I O L A N U S. 341 

The Voices are in arms. 

Mar. They have a leader, 
Tullus Aufidius, that will put you to'f. 
I fin in envying his nobility : 
And were I any thing but what I am, 
I would wifh me only he. 

Com. You have fought together. 

Mar. Were half to half the world by the cars, 

and he 

Upon my party, Fd revolt, to make 
Only my wars \vith him : He is a lion 
That I am proud to hunt. 

i Sen. Then, worthy Marcius, 
Attend upon Cominius to thefe wars. 

Com. It is your former promife. 

Mar. Sir, it is ; 

And I am conftant. Titus Lartius, thou 
Shalt fee me once more .flrike at Tullus' face : 
What, art thou ftiff ? ftand'ft out ? 

'Tit. No, Caius Marcius ; 

I'll lean upon one crutch, and fight with the other, 
Ere Hay behind this bnfinefs. 

Men. O, true bred ! 

i Sen. Your company to the Capitol ; where, I 

Our greateil: friends attend us. 

'Tit. Lead you on : 
Follow, Cominius ; we muft follow you ; 
Right worthy you priority. 

Com. Noble Lartius ! 

i Sen. Hence ! To your homes, be gone, 

[70 the Citizen's* 

Mar. Nay, let them follow : 
The Voices have much corn ; take thefe rats thither, 

Coriolanus had been but juil told himfelf that the Voices i<vre 
in arms. The meaning is, The intelligence which you gave us fume 
little time ago of the dejigns of the Voices are nvx CY;V/' ; tbcy 
fire tit arms . JOHNSON. 

Z 3 To 

34? C O R I O L A N U S. 

To gnaw their garners : Worfhipful mutineers, 
* Your valour puts well forth : pray, follow'. - 

Citizens jleal away. Manen-t Sicinius, and Brutus. 

Sic. Was ever man fo proud as is this Marcius ? 

ru. He has no equal. 

Sic. When we were chofen tribunes for the peo- 


Bru. Mark'd you his lip, and eyes ? 
S/c. Nay, but his taunts, 
Bru. Being mov'd, he will not fpare to 5 gird the 


Sic. Be-mock the modeft moon. 
Em. 6 The prefent wars devour him ! he is grown 


4 Tour valour puts well forth : > ] That is, You have in 
this mutiny fhevvn fair bloflbms of valour. JOHNSON. 

s - to s i r j, - ] 'To fneer, to gibe. So Falftaff ufes the 
fioun, when he fays, every man has a gircl at me. JOHNSON. 
6 The prefent wars devour but: ! be is grown 

loo proud to be Jo valiant.] 

Mr. Theobald fays, This is olfcurely exprcjjcd, but that the poet's 
meaning muff. certainly be, that Marcins is Jo ccnfcious of, and fo 
(late upon the notion of his own valour, that he is eaten tip tuitl) 
pride, &c. According to this critick then, we inuft conclude, that 
when Shakefpeare had a mind to fay, A man was eaten up with 
pride, he was fo great a blunderer in expreffion, as to fay, He 
was eaten up with war. But our poet wrote at another rate, and 
the blunder is his critick's. The prefent wars devour him, is an 
imprecation, and fhould be fo pointed. As much as to fay, May 
hefallintkcfevjars! The reafon of the curfe is fubjoined, for 
(fays the fpeaker) having fo much pride with fo much valour, his 
life, with increafe of honours, is dangerous to the republick, 
But the Oxford editor alters it to, 

y oo proud si being fo valiant. 

and by that means takes away the reafon the fpeaker gives for 
Jiis curling. WAR BUR TON. 

I am by no means convinced that Dr. Warburton's punctuation, 
pr explanation, is right. The fenfe may be, that the prefent wars 
Annihilate his gentler qualifies. To cat up, and conlequently to 


C O R I O L A N U S. 343 

Too proud to be fo valiant. 

Sic. Such a nature, 

Tickled with good fuccefs, difdains the fliadow 
Which he treads on at noon : But I do wonder, 
His infolence can brook to be commanded 
Under Cominius. 

Bru. Fame, at the which he aims, 
In whom already he is well grac'd, cannot 
Better be held, nor more attain'd, than by 
A place below the firft : for what mi (carries 
Shall be the general's fault, though he perform 
To the utmoft of a man ; and giddy ccniurc 
Will then cry out on Marcius, O, if be 
Had borne the bujlnefs .' 

Sic. Befides, if things go well, 
Opinion, that fo flicks on Marcius, Ihall 
7 Of his demerits rob Cominius. 

Bru. Come : 

Half all Cominius' honours are to Marcius, 
Though Marcius earn'd them not ; and all his faults 
To Mc'.rcius fhall be honours, though, indeed, 
In aught he merit not. 

Sic. Let's hence, and hear 
How the difoatch is made ; and in what fafhion, 

devour, has this meaning. "So, in the fecond part cf K. 
IV. aft IV. fc. iv : 

But thou (the crown) rnoft fine, moil honour'd, mod 

renown 'd, 

liaji cat thy learcr up. 

He is grovin ton proud to lefo valiant, may fignify, his pride is 
fuch as not to defer ve the accompany ment of fo much valour. 


7 Of his demerits rob Comin'nis.~\ Merits and Demerits had an- 
ciently the fame meaning : So, \nOthello: 
- and my demerits 
May fpeak, c. 

Again, in Stowe's Cbronkle, cardinal Wolfey fays to his fervants, 
" - 1 have not promoted, preferred, and advanced you all ac- 
cording to your demerits" Again, in P. Holland's tranllation of 
PHav's Eptjite to T. faftafian, 1600: " his demerit had been 
fce greater to luive continued his ftory," STEEVENS. 

2i 4 More 

344 C O R I O L A N U S. 

8 More than his fingularity, he goes 
Upon this preient adtion. 
Bru. Let's alon. 



tfhe Senate-Hottfe in Corioli. 
Enter ^Tullus Aufdius? with Senators,, 

i Sen. So, your opinion is, Aufidius, 
That they of Rome are enter'd in our counfels, 
And know how we proceed. 

Auf. Is it not yours ? 

What ever hath been thought on in this ftate, 
That could be brought to bodily aft ere Rome 
Had circumvention ? J Tis not four days gone 9 , 
Since I heard thence ; thefe are the words : I think, 
I have the letter here ; yes, here it is ; 
They have prefs'd a power, but it is not known [Pleading, 
Whether for eqft, or weft ; The dearth is great ; 
^hc people mutinous : and it is rumoured, 
Cor.:ixius, Mardus your old enemy, 
(Who is of Rome worje hated than of you) 
And Titus Lartius, a mojl valiant Roman, 
%'befe three lead on this preparation 
Whither 'tis bent : r.tofl likely, 'tis for you : 
Conf.der of it. 

i Sen Cur army's in the field : 
We never yet made doubt but Rome was ready 
To anfwer us. 

Auf. Nor did you think it folly, 

s Morc.than his Angularity, &c.J We v.'ill learn what he is to 
4o, befides going himfelf; what are his powers, and what is his 
Appointment. JOHNSON. 

9 ~^Tis not four Jays gone,] i. e. four days^^. 




To keep your great pretences veil'd, 'till when 
They' needs muft (hew therhfelves ; which in the 


It feem'd, appear'd to Rome. By the difcovery, 
We fhall be fhorten'd in our aim; which was/ 
Tp take in many towns, ere, almoft, Rome 
Should know we were afoot. 

1 Sen. Noble Aufidius, 

Take your commiffion ; hie you to your bands ; 
Let us alone to guard Corioli : 
If they fet down before us, ' for the remove 
Bring up your army ; but, I think, you'll find 
They have not prepar'd for us. 

Auf. O, doubt not that ; 
I fpeak from certainties. Nay, more, 
Some parcels of their power are forth already, 
And only hitherward. I leave your honours. 
If we and Caius Marcius chance to meet, 
'Tis fworn between us, we ihall ever ilrike 
'Till one can do no more. 

All. The gods affifl you ! 

Auf. And keep your honours fafe ! 

I Sen. Farewel. 

1 for the remove 

Bring up your army ~] 

The firft part of this fentence is without meaning. The general 
had told the fenators that the Romans had preft a power, which 
was on foot. To which the words in queftion are the anfwer of 
a fenator. And, to make them pertinent, we fhould read them 
thus : 

'fore they remove 

Bring up your army : 

i. e. Before that power, already on foot, be in motion, bring up 
your army ; then he corrects himfelf, and fays, but I believe you 
will find your intelligence groundlefs, the Romans are not yet 
prepared for us. WAR BUR TON. 

I do not fee the nonfenfe or impropriety of the old reading. 
Says the fenator to Aufidius, Go to your troops, ivc will garrifon 
Corioli. If the Romans beliegc us, bring up your army to re- 
move them. If any change fliould be made, I \vould read : 
for their remove. JomvON. 

I Sen* 

346 C O R I O L A N U S. 

2 Sen. Farewel. 

All. Farewel. [Exeunt. 


Calm Marcius* Houfe in Rome. 

Enter Volumnia, and Vlrgllla : They fit down on two low 
ftools, and few. 

Vol. I pray you, daughter, fing ; or exprefs your- 
felf in a more comfortable fort : If my fon were 
my hufband, I mould freelier rejoice in that abfence 
wherein he won honour, than in the embracements of 
his bed, where he would mew moft love. When yet 
he was but tender-body'd, and the only fon of my 
womb; when youth with comelinefs pluck'd all gaze 
his way ; when, for a day of king's entreaties, a mo- 
ther fhouki not fell him an hour from her beholding ; 
I,- -confidering how honour would become fuch a per- 
fon ; that it was no better than picture-like to hang 
by the wall, if renown made it not ftir, was pleas'd 
to let him feek danger where he was like to find fame. 
To a cruel war I fent him ; from whence he return'd, 
his 1 brows bound with oak : I tell thee, daughter, 
I fprang not more in joy at firft hearing he was a man- 
child, than' now in firft feeing he had proved him- 
ielf a man. 

Vir. But had he died in the buiinefs, madam ? how 
then ? 

Vol. Then his good report mould have been my 
fon ; I therein would have found iffue. Hear me 
profefs fincerely : Had I a dozen fons, each in my 
love alike, and none lefs dear than thine and my good 

a lro-MS lound ivith oak :] The crown given by the Romans to 
Mm that faved the life of a citizen, which was accounted more 
honourable than any other. JOHNSON. 


Marcius, I had rather had eleven die nobly for their 
country, than one voluptuoufly forfeit out of action. 

Enter a Gentlewoman. 

Gent. Madam, the lady Valeria is come to vifit you. 

Vir. 'Befeech you, give me leave to retire myfelf. 

Vol. Indeed, you lhall not. 
Methinks, I hither hear your hufband's drum; 
See him pluck down Aufidius by the hair ; 
As children from a bear, the Voices ihunning him : 

Methinks, I fee him {tamp thus, and call thus, 

Come on you cowards ; you were got in fear, 
Though you were born in Rome : His bloody brow 
With his mail'd hand then wiping, forth he goes ; 
Like to a harveft-man, that's taik'd to mow 
Or all, or lofe his hire. 

Vir. His bloody brow ! O, Jupiter, no blood ! 

Vol. Away, you fool ! it more becomes a man, 
3 Than gilt his trophy : The breafls of Hecuba, 
When fhe did fuckle Hector, look'd not lovelier 
Than Hector's forehead, when it fpit forth blood 
At Grecian fwords' contending. Tell Valeria 4 , 
We are fit to bid her welcome, [Exit Gcni. 

Vir. Heavens blefs my lord from fell Aufidius ! 

Vol. He'll beat Aufidius' head below his knee, 
And tread upon his neck. 

3 Than gilt bis trophy. ] Gilt means a fuperficial difplay 

of gold, a word now obfolete. So, in Hen. V : 

Our gaynefs and our gilt, are all befmirch'd. 


* At Grecian f-Mords contending. Tell Valeria^} The accuracy 
of the editors of the firft folio may be known from the manner in 
which they have given this line : 

4* Grecian fword. Ccntenning, tell Valeria. STEEVENS. 



Enter Valeria, with an Ufher, and a Gentlewoman. 

Val. My ladies both,, good day to you. ' 

Vol. Sweet madam, 

Vir. I am glad to fee your lady (hip. 

Val. How do you both ? you are manifefl houfe- 
keepers. What, are you fewing here ? A fine fpot, in 
good faith. How does your little fon ? 

Vir. I thank your ladyftiip ; well, good madam. 

Vol. He had rather fee the fvvords, and hear a drum, 
Than look upon his fchool-mafter. 

VaL O' my word, the father's fon : I'll fwear, 'tis 
a very pretty boy. O' my troth, I lock'd upon him o* 
wednefday half an hour together : he has fuch acon- 
firm'd countenance. I faw him run after a gilded 
butterfly ; 'and when he caught it, he let it go again ; 
and after it again ; and over and over he comes, and 
up again ; catch'd it again : or whether his fall en- 
rag'd him, or how 'twas, he did fo fet his teeth, and 
tear it ; O, I warrant, how he mammock'd it 5 ! 

Vol. One of his father's moods. 

Vol. Indeed la, 'tis a noble child. 

Vir. A crack, madam 6 . 


5 mammock'd *>.] To mammock is to cut in pieces, or to tear, 
So, in The Devil's Charier, 1607 : 

" That he were chop'd in mammocks, I could eat him." 


6 A crack, madam.} Thus in Cynthia s Revels by Ben J onion : 

" Since \7e are turn'd cracks, let's iludy to be like 

cracks, acl freely, careleily, and capricioully." 
Again, in the Four Prentices of London, 163 2 : 
" A nbtable, diffembling lad, a crack." 

Crack fignifies a lay child. See Mr. Tyrvvhitt's note on the firil 
of" the following paflages quoted by Mr. Malone. STEEVENS. 
This word is ufed in the 2d part of K. Hen. IV : " I law him 
break Skogan's head at the court gate when he was a crack, not 
this high." 


C O R I O L A N U S. 549 

Vol. Come, lay afide your ftitchery ; I muft have 
you play the idle hufvvife with me this afternoon. 

Vir. No, good madam ; I will no.t out of doors. 

Val. Not out of doors ! 

Vol. She (hall, flie fliall. 

Vir. Indeed, no, by your patience : I will not over 
the threftioid, 'till my lord return from the wars. 

Vol. Fie, you confine yourfelf moft unreafonably : 
Come, you muft go vifit the good lady that; lies in. 

Vir. I will wilh her fpeedy flrength, and vifit her 
with my prayers ; but I cannot go thither. 

Vol. Why, I pray you ? 

Vir. 'Tis not to fave labour, nor that I want love. 

Val. You would be another Penelope : yet, the/ 
fay, nil the yarn, ihe fpun in Ulyfles* abfence, did 
but fill Ithaca full of moths. Come ; I would, your 
cambrick were feniible as your finger, that you might 
leave pricking it for pity. Come, you fliall go with 

Vir. No, good madam, 'pardon me ; indeed, I 
will not forth. 

Val. In truth la, go with me ; , and I'll tell you ex- 
cellent news of your hulband. 
Vir. O, good madam, there can be none yet. 

Val. Verily, I do not jeft with you ; there came 
news from him laft night. 

Vir. Indeed, madam ? 

Val. In earneft, it's true ; I heard a fenator fpeak 
it. Thus it is : The Voices have an army forth ; 
again!! whom Cominius the general is-gone, with one 
part of our Roman power : your lord, and Titus 
Lartius, are fet down before their city Corioli ; they 
nothing doubt prevailing, and to make it brief wars. 

Again, in May-Day, a comedy by Chapman, 161 1 : 

" Lor. The page hath perl'uaded himfmce, that it was but 

a gullcry. 
" An*. 'Tis a notable crack." MALONE. 

' This 

350 C O R I O L A N U S. 

This Is true, on mine honour ; and fo, I pray, go 
with us. 

fir. Give me excufe, good madam ; I will obey 
you in every thing hereafter. 

Vol. Let her alone, lady ; as Ihe is now, ftie will 
but difeafe our better mirth. 

Vol. In troth, I think, Ihe would : Fare you well 
then. Come, good fweet lady. Pry'thee, Virgilia, 
turn thy folemnnefs out o' door, and go along with us. 

Vlr. No : at a word, madam ; indeed, I muft not. 
I wiih you much mirth. 

Val. Well, then farewel. [Exeunt* 

S C E.N E IV. 

Before Corioli. 

Enter Marcius, Titus Lartius, with Drum and Colours, 
Captains and Soldiers* To them a MeJJenger. 

Mar. Yonder comes news : A wager, they have 

Lart. My horfe to yours, no. 

Mar. 'Tis done, 

Lart. Agreed. 

Mar. Say, has our general met the enemy ? 

Mef. They lie in view ; but have not fpoke as yet. 

Lart. So, the good horfe is mine. 

Mar. I'll buy him of you. 

Lart. No, I'll not fell, nor give him : lend you 

him, I will, 
For half a hundred years. Summon the town. 

Mar. How far off lie thefe armies ? 

Mef. Within this mile and half. 

Mar. Then fhall we hear their 'larum, and they ours* 
Now, Mars, I pr'ythee, make us quick in work ; 
That we with fmoking fwords may march from hence, 
To help our fielded friends ! Come, blow thy blaft. 




hey found a parley* Enter Senators, zvilb others, on tbe 


Tullus Aufidius, is he within your walls ? 

i Sen. No, 7 nor a man that fears you lefs than he, 
That's leffer than a little. Hark, our drums 

[Drum afar off. 

Are bringing forth our youth : We'll break our walls, 
Rather than they lhall pound us up : our gates, 
Which yet feem fhutywe have but pinn'd with rufhes ; 
They'll open of themfelves. Hark you, far off; 

[Alarum, far of. 

There is Aufidius : lift, what work he makes 
Amongft your cloven army. 

Mar. O, they are at it ! 

Lart. Their noife be our inftrudtion. Ladders, ho ! 

Enter tie Pokes. . 

Mar. They fear us not, but iffue forth their city. 
Now put your ihields before your hearts, and fight 
With hearts more proof than Ihields. Advance, 

brave Titus : 

They do difdain us much beyond our thoughts, 
Which makes me fweat with wrath. Come, on my 

fellows ; 

He that retires, I'll take him for a Voice, 
And he lhall feel mine edge. 

[Alarum ; the Romans beat back to their trenchesl 

7 nor a man that fears you lefs than be y 

That's lejjer than a little. ] 

The fenfe requires it to be read : 

nor a man that fears you more than be ; 

Or, mare probably : 

-nor a man but fears you lefs than be> 

That's lejjer than a little. JOHNSON. 


352. C O R I O L A N U S. 

Re-enter Marcius *. 

Mar. All the contagion of the fouth light on you, 
You fliames of Rome, you ! Herds of boils and 


Flatter you o'er ; that you may be abhorr'd 
Farther than feen, and one infedt another 
Againft the wind a mile ! You fouls of geefe, 
That bear the lhapes of men, how have you run 
From Haves that apes would beat ? Pluto and hell ! 
All hurt behind ; backs red, and faces pale 
With flight and agued fear ! Mend, and charge 


Or, by the fires of heaven, I'll leave the foe, 
And make my wars on you : look to't : Come on ; 
If you'll ftand faft, well beat them to their wives, 
As they us to our trenches followed. 

Another Alarum , and Marcius follows them to the gates. 

So, now the gates are ope : Now prove good feconds : 
'Tis for the followers fortune widens them, 
Not for the fliers : Mark me, and do the like. 

[He enters the gates. 

1 SoL Fool hardinefs ; not I. 

2 Sol. Norl. 

3 Sol. See, they have fliut him in. 

[Alarum continues. 
All. To the pot, I warrant him. 

Enter I'itus Lartius. 

Lart. What is become of Marcius ? 
AH. Slain, fir, doubtlefs. 
i Sol. Following the fliers at the very heels, 
With them he enters : who, upon the fudden, 

* Re-Enter Mardui,~\ The old copy reads Enter Marciui 
cnrjing. STEEVENS. 


C 6 R I O L A N U Si 353 

Clapt to their gates ; he is himfelf alone, 
To anfwer all the city. 

Lor?* O noble fellow ! 

8 Who, fenfible, out-dares his fenfelefs fword, 
And, when it bows, Hands up ! Thou art left, Mar* 

cius : 

A carbuncle entire, as big as thou art, 
"Were not fo rich a jewel. Thou waft a foldier 
Even to 9 Cato's wifh : not fierce and terrible 
Only in (trokcs ; but, with thy grim looks, and 
The thunder-like percufiion of thy founds, 
Thou mad'ii thine enemies fhake, as if the world 
Were feverous, and did tremble. 

Re-enter Mar cm bleeding, ajfaultul by tks enemy '. 

i Sol. Look, fir. 
Lart. O, 'tis Marcius : 
Let's fetch him off, or l make remain alike. 

[They fight) and all enter the city; 

8 Who, fenfible) cut-fares ] The old editions read : 

Who fenlibly out-darts 
Thlrlby reads : 

IVljo^ fenfible, outdoes bis fenfelefs fiuord. 

He is followed by the later editors, but I have taken only half his 
correction. JOHNSON. 

The thought feems to have been adopted from Sidney's Arcadia^ 
edit. 1633, p. 293 : 

" Their very armour by piece-meale fell away from them : 
and yet their flcfu abode the wounds conftaatly, as though it were 
lefle fenfible of fmart than the fenfelefie armour, c." 


9 Cato's vjijb: ] In the old editions it was : 

Calvus' -Mijb : 

Plutarch, in the Life of Coriclanus, relates this as the opinion of 
Cato the Elder, that a great foldier fhould carry te'rrour in his 
looks and tone of voice ; and the poet, hereby following the hif- 
torian, is fallen into a great chronological impropriety. 


1 make remain ] Is an old manner of fpeaking f which 

means no more than remain, HANMER, 


354 C O R I O L A N U S, 


Within the to^n. 
Enter certain R.omans, with fpolls. 

1 Ren:. This will I carry to Rome. 

2 Rcm. And I this. 

3 Rom. A murrain on't ! I took this for filver. 

\_Alart;m continues fiill afar off. 

Enter Marcius^ and Titm Lartius, with a trumpet. 

Mar. See here thefe movers, that do * prize their 


At a crack'd drachm ! Cushions,, leaden fpoons, 
Irons of a doit, doublets that hangmen would 
Bury with thofe that wore them, thefe bafe Haves, 
Ere yet the fight be done, pack up : Down with 

And hark, what noile the general makes ! To 

him : 

There is the man of my foul's hate, Aufidius, 
Piercing our Romans : Then, valiant Titus, take 
Convenient numbers to make good the city ; 
Whilft I, with thofe that have the fpirit, will hafte 
To help Cominius. 

Lart. Worthy fir, thou blcedTt ; 

a - i prize their honours] In the firil edition it is, 

prize their hours. 

I know not who corre&eu it. A modern editor, who had made 
fuch an improvement, would have fpent half a page in oilenta- 
tion of his fagacity. JOHNSON. 

Yet the old reading is perhaps right, and may bear this fenfe. 
Coriolanus blames the Roman foldiers only for wailing their 
time in packing up trifles of fuch fmall value. 
So, in fir Tho. North's Tmnflatioa O f Plutarch ; 

he cried, it was 110 time now to looke after fpoil, &c." 



C O R I O L A N U 8. 355 

Thy exercife hath been too violent for 
A fecond courie of fight. 

Mar. Sir, praife me not : 

My work hath yet not warm'd me : Fare you well* 
The blood I drop is rather phyfical 
Than dangerous to me : To Aufidius thus 
I will appear, and fight, 

Lart. Now the fair goddefs, Fortune, 
Fall deep in love with thee ; and her great charms 
Mifguide thy oppofers' fwords ! Bold gentleman, 
Prosperity be thy page ! 

Mar. Thy friend no lefs 
Than thofe fhe places higheft ! So, farewel. 

Lart. Thou worthieft Marcius I- 
Go, found thy trumpet in the market-place j 
(Tall thither. all the officers of the town, 
Where they lhall know our mind : Away. [Exeunt, 


The Roman Camp* 
Enter Cominius retreating, with foldiers. 

Com. Breathe you, my friends ; well fought : 

we are come off 

Like Romans, neither foolifh in our {lands, 
Nor cowardly in retire : believe me, firs, 
We lhall be charg'd again. Whiles we have ftruck, 
By interims, and conveying gufts, we have heard 
The charges of our friends : J Ye Roman gods, 
Lead their fuccefles as we wilh our own ; 

* The Roman gods, &c. 
That both our powers 

May give you thankful facrifice I ] 

This is an addrefs and invocation to them, therefore we fhould 

' -Ye Rman gods. WARBURTON. 

A a 2 That 

356 C O R I O L A N U S. 

That both our powers, with fmiling fronts encoun* 

Enter a MeJJenger* 

May give you thankful facrifice ! Thy news ? 

Mef. The citizens of Corioli have iflued, 
And given to Lartius and to Marcius battle : 
I faw our party to the trenches driven, 
And then I came away. 

Com. Though thou fpeak'fl truth, 
Mctliinks, thou fpeak'il not well. How long is't 
fince ? 

Mef. Above an hour, my lord. 

Com. 'Tis not a mile ; briefly we heard their 

drums : 

How could'ft thou in a mile confound an hour *, 
And bring thy news fo late ? 

Mef. Spies of the Voices 
Held me in chafe, that I was forc'd to wheel 
Three or four miles about ; clfe had I, fir, 
Half an hour fince brought my report. 

Enter Marcius. 

Com. Who's yonder, 

That does appear as he were flead ? O gods ! 
He has the ftamp of Marcius ; and I have 
Before-time feen him thus. 

Mar. Come I too late ? 

Com, The ihepherd knows not thunder from a 

3 Confound an bour,~\ Confounds here ufed not in its common 
acceptation, but in the fenfe of to expend. Conterere tempus. 

So, m K. Henry IV. Part I. a I. fc. iii : 

He did confound the' beft part of an hour, &c. 



C O R I O L A N U S. 357 

More than I know the found of Marcius* tongue 
From every meaner man's. 

Mar. Come I too late ? 

Com. Ay, if you come not in the blood of others, 
But mantled in your own. 

Mar. O ! let me clip yon 
In arms as found, as when I woo'd ; in heart 
As merry, as when our nuptial day was done, 
And tapers burnt to bedward 4 . 

Com. Flower of warriors, 
How is't with Titus Lartius ? 

Mar. As with a man bufied about decrees : 
Condemning fome to death, and fome to exile ; 
5 Ranfoming him, or pitying, threatening the other ; 
Holding Corioli in the name of Rome, 
Even like a fawning greyhound in the learn, 
To let him flip at will. 

Com. Where is that flave, 

Which told me they had beat you to your trenches ? 
Where is he ? Call him hither. 

Mar. Let him alone, 

He did inform the truth : But for our gentlemen, 
The common file, (A plague ! Tribunes for them !) 
The moufe ne'er Ihunn'd the cat, as 'they did budge 
From rafcals worfe than they. 

Com. But how prevail'd you ? 

Mar. Will the time ferve to tell ? I do not think 
Where is the enemy ? Are you lords o' the field ? 
If not, why ceafe you 'till you are fo ? 

Com. Marcius, we have at difadvantage fought, 
And did retire, to win our purpofe. 

Mar. How lies their battle ? Know you on what 
fide 6 


* to bedward.] So, in Allumazar, 1610: 

" Sweats hourly for a diy brown cruft to ledward" 


3 Ranfomivg him, or pitying, ] i. e. remitting bis ranfom. 


* __ CM. i'.' ! <<;t f.Je Sec.] So, in the old tranflation of Plutarch ; 

A a 3 " Mar. 

35S C O R I O L A N U S. 

They have plac'd their men of truft ? 

Com. As I guefs, Marcius, 
Their bands i' the vaward are the Antiates 7 , 
Of their beft trufl : o'er them Aufidius, 
Their very heart of hope. 

Mar. I do befeech you, 
By all the battles wherein we have fought, 
By the blood we have fhed together, by the vows 
We have made to endure friends, that you diredtly 
Set me againft Aufidius, and his Antiates : 
* And that you not delay the prefent ; but, 
Filling the air with 9 fwords advanc'd, and darts 4 
We prove this very hour. 

Com. Though I could wifh 
You were conducted to a gentle bath, 
And balms applied to you, yet dare I never 
Deny your asking ; take your choice of thofe 
That beft can aid your adtion. 

Mar, Thofe are they 

That moft are willing : If any fuch be here, 
(As it were fin to doubt) that love this painting 
Wherein you fee me fmear'd ; if any fear 

" Martius alked him howe the order of their enemies battcll 
was, and on which fide they had placed their bed fighting men. 
The conful made him aunfwer that he thought the bandes which, 
were in the vaward of their battell, were thofe of the Antiates, 
whom they efteerned to be the warlikeft men, and which for va- 
liant corage would geve no place to any of the hofte of their 
enemies. Then prayed Martins to be let directly againft them. 
The couful graunted him, greatly pray ring his corage." 


7 Antiates] The old copy reads A?itients, which might 

mean veterans ; but a fallowing line, as well as the previous quo- 
tation, feems to prove Antiates to be the proper reading. " Set 
ime againft Aufidius and his Antiatcs" STEEVENS. 

8 And that you not delay the prefent % -j ] Delay, for let flip. 


advanc'J) ] That is, fwords lifted high. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 3 j9 

Lefler his pcrfon than an ill report ' ; 
If any think, brave death outweighs bad life, 
And that his country's dearer than himfelf; 
Let him, alone, or fo many, fo minded, 

avcthus, to exprefs his difpofuion, 

' follow Marcius. \jydvlng his band. 

[fTbey all Jhcut, and. "Jvave their fwords, take him 

tip in tbcir arms, and raft v.p their caps* 
,O me, alone ! Make you a fw.orcl of me ? 
If thefc fhe;vs be not outward, xvhich of you 
But is four Voices ? None of- you, but is 
Able to bear againft the great Aufidius 
A fhield as hard as his. A certain number, 
Though ftafcks to all, muft I feled from all : 
The reft fhall bear the bufinefs in fome other fight, 
As caufe will be obey'd, * Pkafe you to march ; 


1 Lef]; ty ; per/on than an ill report;] The old copy has leffe*,-, 
1 fufpecl the authour wrote : 

Lefs /*his perfon than in ill report. MALONE. 
a P leaf e you to march, 

And tourjball quickly dravi out my command^ 

Which men arc btft indind.~\ 

I cannot but fufpeft this paflage of corruption. Why flioulJ they 
march, that four might felecl thofe that were beft inclined f How 
would their inclinations be known f Who were the four that 
fhould (ele& them ? Perhaps, we may read : 

Pkafc you to march*. 

And tezrjball quickly dravj out of my command \ 

ll-'hich men are leaft ia.clin'd. 

It is cafy to conceive that, by a little negligence, fear might be 
changed to/0#r, and leaft to heft. Let us march, and that fear 
which incites defertion will free my army from cowards. 

The author of the Me-vifal thinks the poet wrote : 

" And fo I thall quickly draw out." &c. 

Some fenfe, however, may be extorted from the ancient reading. 
Coriclanus may mean that as all the foldiers have offered to at- 
tend him on this expedition, and he wants only a part of them, 
he will fubmit the feleclion to four indifferent perfons, that he 
fcinifelf may efcape the charge of partiality. If this be the drift 
A a 4 of 


And four Ihall quickly draw out my command, 
Which men are beft inclin'd. 

Com. March on, my fellows : 
Make good this oftentation, and you fhall 
Pivide in all with us. [Exeunt 


The Gates of Goriolu 

Tfittts Lartius, laving fet a guard upon Corioli, going 
with a drum and trumpet toward Cominius and Cams 
Martins, enters with a lieutenant, other foldiers, and 
a fcout. 

Lart. So, let the ports J be guarded : Keep your 


As I have fet them down. If I do fend, rlifpatch 
Thofe centuries to our aid ; the reft will ferve 
For a fhort holding : if we lofe the field, 
"We cannot keep the town, 

Lieu. Fear not our care, fir. 

Lart. Hence, and Ihut your gates upon us. 
Our guidcr, come ; to the Roman camp conduft us. 


of Shakcfpeare, he has exprefTed it with uncommon obfcurity. 
The old tranflation of Plutarch only fays, " Wherefore, with 
thofe that willingly offered themfelves to followe him, he went 
out of thecittie." STEEVENS. 

If we Ihould read forth inftead of four, forth cannot fignify 
forthwith, but advancing forward. 

Something like this expreffion occurs in K. Richard HI : 
Are you drawn forth from out a world of men. 


3 7- the ports] i. e. th^ gates. STEEVENS, 




Ti:e Field of P. 
Alarum. Enter Mareit:s 9 end Aitfidius. ' 

Mar. I'll fight with none but thec ; for I do hate 

Worfe than a promife-brcaker. 

Auf. We hate alike ; 
Not Africk owns a ferpent, I abhor 
More than thy fame and envy : Fix thy foot. 

.Mzr. Let the firft budger die the other's Have, 
And the gods doom him after ! 

Auf. If I fly, Marcius, 
Halloo me like a hare. 

Mar. Within thefe three hours, Tullus, 
Alone I fought in your Corioli walls, 
And made what work I pieas'd : 'Tis not my bloody 
Wherein thou feeft me maik'd ; for thy revenue, 
Wrench up thy power to the higheft. 

Auf. 4 Wen thou the Hedtor, 
That was the whip of your bragg'd progeny, 
Thou ihould'ft not fcape me here. 

[Here tbey fight, and certain Voices come ta 
the aid of Aufidius. Marcius figbts till tbey 
be driven in bredtklefs* 

* Wert tlou the HeRor, 

That ^'as the whip of your bragged progeny,"] 
The Romans boafted themielves defcended from the Trojans; how 
then vfras Hector the ivbip of their progeny ? It muft mean the whip 
;vith which the Trojans Icourged the Greeks, which cannot be 
but by a very unufual conftruclion, or the authour muft have for- 
gotten the original of the Romans j unlels ^ii-bip has fome mean- 
;ng which includes advantage or fnperlority, as we fay, he has the 
whip hand, for be has the advantage. JOHNSON. 
Schoolboys at this day ufe a fimilar expreffion : 

" He is the crack of the fchool." MALONE. 



Officious, and not valiant ! * you have fham'd me 
In your condemned feconds. [Exeunt fighting. 


The Roman Camp. 

Alarum. A retreat is founded. Enter at 'one 
door, Cominius with the Romans ; at another door, 
Marcius, with his arm in a fcarf, &c. 

Com. If I fhould tell thee'o'er this thy day's work, 
Thou'lt not believe thy deeds : but I'll report it, 

s you bavejham'j me 

In your condemned fcconds.~\ 

For condemned, we may read contemned. You have,, to my fhame, 
fent me help which I defpifc. JOHNSON. 

Why may we not as well be contented with the old reading, 
and explain it, Tou have, to my fiame, fent me help, which I mujl 
condemn as intrujive, in/lead of applauding it as nccejjary ? 


* If I jhould tell tbce &C.] So, in the old tranflation of Plu- 
tarch: " There the conful Cominius going vp to his chayer of 
Hate, in the prefence of the whole armie, gaue thankes to the 
goddes for fo great, glorious, and profperous a vi&orie : then he 
fyake to Martius, whofe valliantnes he commended beyond the 
inoone, both for that he him felfe fawe him doe with his eyes, 
as alfo for that Martius had reported vnto him. So in the ende 
he willed Martius, he fhould choofe out of all the horfes they had 
taken of their enemies, and of all the goodes they had wonne 
(whereof there was great ilore) tenne of euery forte which he 
liked beft, before any diftribution fhould be made to other. Be- 
fides this great honorable offer he had made him, he gaue him 
in teftimonie that he had wonne that daye the price of prowes a- 
boue all other, a goodly horfe with a capparifon, and all furni- 
ture to him : which the whole armie beholding, dyd marveloully 
praife and commend. But Martius flopping forth, told the con- 
ful, he moft thar.ckefully accepted the giite of his horfe, and 
was a glad man belides, that his feruice had deferred his generalls 
commendation : and as for his other offer, which was rather a 
mercenary reward, than an honourable rcccmpcnce, he would 
none of it, but was contented to haue his equall parte with other 
fouldiers." BTEEVENS. 



Where fenators fhall mingle tears with fnailes ; 
Where great patricians fhall attend, and fhrug, 
I* the end, admire ; where ladies fhall be frighted, 

7 And, gladly quak'd, hear more ; where the dull Tri- 


That, with the fufty plebeians, hate thine honours, 
Shall fay, againft their hearts, We thank the gods^ 
Our Rome hatb fuch a foldier / 
Yet canvft thou to a morfel of this feaft, 
Having fully din'd before. 

Enter Tiius Lartius, with its power, from tie purfmt. ' 

Lart. O general, 

8 Here is the fleed, we the caparifons ! 
Had'ft thou beheld 

Mar. Pray nov/, no more : my mother, 
Who has 9 a charter to extol her blood, 
When fhe docs praife me, grieves me. 
3 have done as you have done ; that's, what I can : 
Induc'd, as you have been ; that's for my country : 
He, that has but effedted his good will, 
Hath overta'en mine aft. 

Com. You fhall not be 

The grave of your defcrving ; Rome mufl know 
The value of her own : 'twere a concealment 
Worfe than a theft, no lefs than a traducement, 
To hide your doings ; and to filence that, 

7 And, gladly quatfd, ] i.e. thrown into grateful trepida- 

To quake is ufed likewife as a verb a&ive by T. Heyvvood, in 
his Silver Age, 1613 : 

" We'll quake them at that bar 

" Where all fouls wait for fentence." STEF.VENS. 

8 Here is the fteed, ive the caparifons /] This is an odd enco- 
mium. The meaning is, this man performed the afHon t and we 
fitly filled up the fooiv . JOHNSON. 

9 a charter to extol ] A privilege to praife her own fon, 



364 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Which, to the fpire and top of praifes vouch'd, 
Would feem but modeft : Therefore, I befeech you, 
(In iign of what you are, not to reward 
What you have done) before our army hear me. 

Mxr. I have fome wounds upon me, and they fmart 
To hear themfelves remembered. 

Com. l Should they not, 
Well might they fefter 'gainft ingratitude, 
And tent themfelves with death. Of all the horfes, 
(Whereof we have ta'en good, and good {tore) of all 
The treafure, in the field atchiev'd, and city, 
We render you the tenth ; to be ta'en forth, 
Befpre the common diftribution, at 
Your only choice. 

Mar. I thank you, general ; 
But cannot make my heart confent to take 
A bribe, to pay my fword : I do refufe it ; 
And fland upon my common part with thofe 
That have beheld the doing. 

\_A long flourijb, 'They all cry., Marc his ! Marcius ! 
caft up their caps and lances : Comimus, and Lar* 
tiuSj fland bars. 

Mar. May thefe fame infiruments, which you pro- 

Never found more ! * When drums and trumpets fhall 


1 Should they nol^\ That is, not be remembered. JOHNSON. 
W~h:~ drums and trumpets Jball &c.] In the old copy : 

_. when drums and trumpets foal!, 

F the field, prove flatterers, let courts and cities 

Be made all of falfe-fac'd foothing. 

When ficcl grows foft as we partffite s.Jttk, 

Let him le made an overture for the wars : 

All here is miferably corrupt and disjointed. \Ve (hould read the 
whole thus : 

. when drums and trumpets flail, 

T th* field prove flatterers, let camps, as cities, 

Be made of falfe-fac\l fettling '. When ficcl grows 

Soft as the parajite'sjllk, let hymns le made 

rfn overture fcr the v:ars ,' 



I* the field prove flatterers, let courts and cities be 

Made all of falfe-fac'd foothing ! When fleel gro\vs 

Soft as the parafite's filk, let him be made 

A coverture for the v/ars ! No more, I fay ; 

For that I have not wafh'd my nofe that bled, 

Or foil'd fome debile wretch, which, without note, 

Here's many elfe have done, you ftiout me forth 

In acclamations hyperbolical ; 

As if I lov'd my little fliould be dieted 

In praifes fauc'd with lyes. 

Com. Too inodcfl are you ; 
More cruel to your good report, than grateful 
To us that give you truly : by your patience, 

The thought is this, If one thing changes its ufual nature to a, 
thing moft oppolite, there is no reafon but that all the reft which 
depend on it fhouiu clo fo too. [If drums and trumpets prove 
flattere^, let the camp bear, the falle face of the city.] And if 
another changes its utiutl nature, that its oppofite fliould do fo too. 
When fteel foftens to the condition of the parafite's filk, the 
peaceful hymns of devotion fhould be employed to excite to the 
charge.] Now, in the firft inftance, the thought, in the com- 
mon reading was entirely loft -by putting in courts for camps: and 
the latter miferably involved iu uonfenfe by blundering hymns into 
him. WAR EUR TON. 

The firft part of the paflage has been altered, in my opinion, 
unneceffarily by Dr. Warbui ton ; and the latter not fo happily, I 
think, as he often conjectures. In the latter part, which only I 
mean to confider, inftead of, him, (an evident corruption) he 
fubftitutes hymns; which perhaps may palliate, but certainly has 
not cured, the wounds of the lentence. I would propofe an al- 
teration of two words : 

" when fteel grows 

" Soft as the parafite's filk, let this [i. e. filk] be made 
" A coverture for the wars !" 

The fenfe will then be apt and complete. Wlxn fteel grows foft 
as filk, let armour le made of filk hi/lead of fteel. TYRWHITT. 

It fhould be remembered, that the perfonal him, is not unfre- 
quently ufed by our author, and other writers of his age, inftead 
of it, the neuter; and that overture, in its mufical fenfe, is not 
fo ancient as the age of Shakefpeare. What Martial has faid of 
Mutius Scsevola, may however be applied to Dr. Warburton's 
propofed emendation : 

Si non erraffet, fecerat ilk minus. STEEVENS, 



If 'gainfl yourfelf you be incens'd, we'll put you 
(Like one that means his proper harm) in manacles, 
The_n reafon fafely with you. Therefore, be it 


As to us, to all the world, that Caius Marcius 
"Wears this war's garland : in token of the which, 
My noble fteed, known to the camp, I give him, 
With all his trim belonging ; and, from this time, 
For what he did J before Corioli, call him, 
With all the applaufe and clamour of the hofl, 
Cains Marcius Coriolanus 4 . 
Bear the addition nobly ever! 

[Fkffrijh, Trumpets found, and drums. 

Omnes. Caius Marcius Coriolanus ! 

Car. I will go walh ; 

And when my face is fair, you ihall perceive 
Whether 1 blufh, or no : Howbeit, I thank ypu : 
I mean to ftride your fteed ; and, at all times, 

5 To undercreft your good addition, 

6 To the fairnefs of my power. 

Com. So, to our tent : 
Where, ere we do repofe us, we will write 

3 For what be did &c.] So, in the old tranflation of Plutarch; 
" After this fhowte and noyfe of the aflembly was fomewhat ap- 
peafed, the conful Cominius beganne to fpeake in this forte. 
We cannot compell Martius to take thefe giftes we offer him, if 
he will not receaue them : but we will geue him ftiche a rewarde 
for the noble feruice he hath done, as he cannot refufe. There- 
fore we doe order and decree, that henceforth he be called Corio- 
lanus, onles his valliant a&s haue wonne him that name before 
our nomination." STEEVENS. 

4 The folio Marcus Caius Coriolanus. STEEVENS. 

5 To undercreft y oar good addition,] A phrafe from heraldry, 
fignifying, that he would endeavour to fupport his good opinion 
of him. WAR BURTON. 

6 To the fairnefs of my power.] Fairnefs , for utmofl. 


I know not how fairnefs can mean utmvft. When two engage- 
on equal terms, we fay it is fair ; fairnefs may therefore be equality j 
in proportion equal to my power. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 367 

To Rome of our fuccefs. You, Titus Lartius, 
Muft to Corioli back : fend us to Rome 
7 The belt, with whom we may articulate 3 , 
For their own good, and ours. 

Lart. I mail, my lord. 

Cor. The gods begin to mock me. I that now 
Refus'd molt princely gifts, am bound to beg 
Of my lord general. 

Com. Take it : 'tis yours. What is't ? 

Cor. I fometime lay, here in Corioli, 
At a poor man's houfe 9 ; he us'd me kindly : 
He cry'd to me ; I faw him prifoner ; 
But then Aufidius was within my view, 
And wrath o'erwhelm'd my pity : I requefl you 
To give my poor hoft freedom. 

Com. O, well begg'd ! 
Were he the butcher of my fon, he mould 
Be free, as is the wind. Deliver him, Titus. 

Lart. Marcius, his name? 

Cor. By Jupiter, forgot : 
I am weary ; yea, my memory is tir'd. 
Have we no wine here ? 

Com. Go we to our tent : 

7 The beft - ] The chief men of Gorioli. JOHNSON. 

8 - with whom ive may articulate,] i. e. enter into arlLus, 
This word occurs again inJfen. IV: 

" Indeed thefe things you have articulated" 

i. e. fct down article ly article. So, in Holinfhed's Chronicles of 
Ireland, p. 163 : " The carl of Defmond's treafons articulated" 


9 At a por marts houfe ;] So, in the old translation of Plu- 
tarch : " Only this grace (faid he) I traue, and befeeche you to 
grant me. Among the Volfces there s an olde friende and hofle 
of mine, an honeft wealthie man, and now a prifoner, who liuing 
before in great wealth in his owne countrie, liueth now a poore 
prifoner in the handes of his enemies : and yet notwithftanding all 
this his miferie and misfortune, it wou.d doe me great pleafu re if 
I could faue him from this one daungcr : to keepe him from being 
(bide as a Jlaue." STEEVENS 


The blood upon your vifage dries ; 'tis time 

It Ihould he look'd to : come. [Exeunt 



The Camp of tie Voices. 

Aflourtjh. Cornels. Enter Tullus Aufidlus bloody, with 
two or three foldiers. 

Ai'.f. The town is ta'en ! 

Sol. 'Twill be deliver'd back on good condition. 

Auf. Condition ! 

I would, I were a Roman ; for I cannot, 

II Being a Voice, be that I am. Condition ! 
What good condition can a treaty find 

I' the part that is at mercy ? Fives times, Marcius^ 

I have fought with thee ; fo often had thou beat me $ 

And would'ft do fo, I think, fhould we encounter 

As often as we eat, By the elements, 

If e'er again I meet him beard to beard, 

He is mine, or I am his : Mine emulation 

Hath not that honour in't, it had ; for where 

I thought to crufh him in an equal force, 

True fword to fword, * I'll potch at him fome way 

Or wrath, or craft, may get him. 

1 Being a Volcinn, &c.] It may be nift obferved, that Shake-* 
fpeare calls the Fold, Voices, which 'the modern editors have 
changed to the modern termination. I mention it here, becaufe 
here the change has fpoilsd the mcafure : 

Being a Voice, lethat I an. Conation! JOHNSON*. 
The Folci are called Vdces in fir Tho. North's Plutarch, and 
fo I have printed the wore throughout this tragedy. STEEVEXS. 

2 /'//potch at bimjvme ivay ;] The Rev-fal reads poach ; 

but patch, to which the objection is made as no Englilh word, is 
wfed in the midland counts for a rough, violent pufo. STEEVENS. 

In Carew's Survey of Ctrn-Mall, the word patJj is ufed in nl- 
mofl the fame fenfe, p. 31 : " They tife alfo to poche them (fifli) 
with an inftrument fomewhat like a falmon-fpearc," TOLLET. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 369 

Sol. He's the devil. 

Auf. Bolder, though not fo fubtle : My valour's poi- 

fon'd , 

With only fuflfering flain by him ; * for him 
Shall flie out of itfelf : f nor fieep, nor fan&uary, 
Being naked, fick ; nor fane, nor Capitol, 
The prayers of priefts, nor times of facrifice, 
Embarquements all of fury, lhall lift up 

3 My valour's foi/0ttJ t ~\ The conftrudtion of this paffage would 
be clearer, if it were written thus : 

my valour, poiforid 

With only fuffer ing fialn by him, for him 
Shall Jlic out of itfelf . TYRWH'ITT. 

4 for him 

Shall file out of itfelf: ] 

To mifchief him, ray valour fhould deviate from its own native 
generality. JOHNSON. 

5 norjleep nor fanftuary , &c. 

Embarquements all of fury, &c.] 

The dramatick art of this fpeech is great. For after Aufidius had fo 
generoufly received Coriolanus in exile, nothing but the memory 
of this fpeech, which lets one fo well .into Aufidius's nature, 
could make his after-perfidy and bafenefs at all probable. But 
the fecond line of this impious rant is corrupt. For though, in- 
deed, he might call the ajjaulting Marcius at any of thofe facred 
feafons and places an embarkntent of fury ; yet he could not call 
\\azfeafons and places themfelves, fo. We may believe therefore 
that Shakefpeare wrote : 

Embarrments all of fury, &c. 

i. e. obftacles. Though thofe feafons and places are all obflaclea 
to my fur)', yet, &c. The Oxford editor has, in his ufual way, 
refined upon this emendation, in order to make it his own ; and 
fo reads, embankments, not confidering how ill this metaphor a- 
grees with what is faid juft after of their lifting up their rotten 
privilege, which evidently refers to a wooden bar, not to an 
earthen bank. Thefe two generals are drawn equally covetous of 
glory : But the Volfcian not fcrupulous about the means. And 
his immediate repentance, after the aflaffinate, well agrees with 
fuch a character. WAREUKTOX. 

The conteited word, in the old copy, is fpelt embarquements y 
and, as Cotgrave fays, meant not only an embarkation, but an 
embargoing. The rotten privilege and cujlom that follow, feem to 
favour this explanation, and therefore the old reading may well 
enough ftand, as an tixtarga is undoubtedly an impediment. 

VOL. VII. B b Their 

370 C O R I O L A N U S, 

Their rotten privilege and cuftom 'gainft 

My hate to Marcius : where I find him, were it 

6 At home, upon my brother's guard, even there, 

Againft the hofpitable canon, would I 

Walh my fierce hand in his heart. Go you to the 

city ; 

Learn, how 'tis held ; and what they are, that muft 
Be hoftages for Rome. 

Sol. Will not you go ? 

Auf. I am attended at the cyprefs grove : 
I pray you, 

('Tis fouth the city mills 7 ) bring me word thither 
How the world goes ; that to the pace of it 
I may fpur on my journey. 

SoL I Ihall, fir. {Exeunt. 

A C T II. S C E N E I. 

Enter Menenhts, iritb Siciiiiv.s, and Brutus. 

Men. The augurer tells me, we fhall have news to 

* At h*me, upon my brother's guard, ] In my own houfe, 
with my brother pofted to protect him. JOHNSON. 

7 ('Tisfoutbtbc city mills)] But where could Shakefpeare have 
heard of thefe mills at Antium ? I believe \ve ftiould read : 

('Tisfoutb the city a mile.) 
The old edition reads mils. TYRWHITT. 

Shakefpeaie is feldom careful about fuch little improprie- 

Coriolanvs fpeaks of our divines, and Menenius of gravrs in the 
holy churchyard. It is fuid afterwards, thutCoriolanus talks like a 
knell \ and drums, and Hob and Z>Ai, arc with as little attention 
to time or place, introduced in this tragedy. STEEVENS. 

Bru. Good, or bad ? 

Men. Not according to the prayer of the people, 
for they love not Marcius. 

Sic. Nature teaches beafts to know their friends. 

Mvn * Pray you, who does the wolf love ? 

'Sic. The lamb. 

Men. Ay, to devour him ; as the hungry plebeians 
would the noble Marcius. 

Brit. He's a lamb indeed, that baes like a bear. 

Men. He's a bear, indeed, that lives like a lamb* 
You two are old men ; tell me one thing that I fhall 
alk you. 

Both. Well, fir. 

Men. In what enormity is Marcius poor, that you 
two have not in abundance ? 

Bru. He's poor in nb one fault, but ftor'd with all. 

Sic. Efpecially, in pride. 

Bru. And topping all others in boafling. 

Men. This is ftrange now : Do you two know 
how you are cenfur'd here in the city, I mean of us 
o' the right hand file ? Do you ? 

Bru. Why, how are we cenfur'd ? 

Men. Becaufe you talk of pride now, Will you 
not be angry ? 

Both* Well, well, fir, well. 

Men. Why, 'tis no great matter ; for a very little 
thief of occafion will rob you of a great deal of pa- 
tience ; give yourdifpofitions the reins, and be angry 
at your pleafures ; at the leaft, if you take it as a 
pleafure to you, in being fo. You blame 'Marcius 
for being proud ? 

Bru. We do it not alone, fir. 

Men. I know, you can do very little alone ; >r 

v ' Pray you, &c.] When the tribune, in reply to Menenius's 
remark, on the people's hate of Coriolanus, had obierved that 
even beafts know their friends, Meneaius alk:, <wbm docs the wolf 
love ? implying that there are beafts which love nobody, and that 
among thofe beafts are the people. JOHNSON. 

B b 2 your 


your helps are many ; or elfe your actions would groW 
wondrous fingle : your abilities are too infant-like, 
for doing much alone. You talk of pride : Oh, that 
you could turn your eyes * towards the napes of your 
necks, and make but an interior furvey of your good 
felves ! O, that you could ! 

Bru. What then, fir ? 

Men. Why, then you mould difcover a brace of as 
unmeriting, proud, violent, tefty magiftrates, (alias, 
fools) as any in Rome. 

Sic. Menenius, you are known well enough too. 

Men. I am known to be a humorous patrician, and 
one that loves a cup of hot wine with not a drop of 
allaying Tiber in't : faid to be fomething imperfect, 
in favouring the firft complaint ; hafty, and tinder- 
like, upon too trivial motion : 9 one that converfes 
more with the buttock of the night, than with the fore- 
head of the morning. What I think, I utter ; and fpend 
my malice in my breath : Meeting two fuch weals- 
men as you are, (I cannot call you LycurgufTes) if the 
drink you give me, touch my palate adverily, I make 
a crooked face at it. I can't fay, your wormips have 
deliver'd the matter well, when I find the afs in com- 
pound with the major part of your fyllables : and 
though I muft be content to bear with thofe that fay 
you are reverend grave men ; yet they lye deadly, that 
tell you you have good faces. If you fee this in the 
map of my microcofm, follows it, that I am known 
\vell enough too ? What harm can your ' biffon con- 
fpectuities glean out of this character, if I be known 
well enough too ? 

* towards tlie napes of your necks,"] With allufion to the fable, 
which fays, that every man has a bag hanging before him, in 
which he puts his neighbour's faults, and another behind him, in 
which he flows his own. JOHNSON. 

9 one that converfes more &c.] Rather a late Her down than an 
early rifer. JOKXSCN. 

1 billon confpcluities,~\ BiJJbn, blind, in the old copies, is lee- 
fome t reftored by Mr. Theobald. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 373 

ru. Come, fir, come, we know you well enough. 

Men. You know neither me,, nor any 
thing. You are ambitious for poor knaves' caps and 
legs : z you wear out a good wholefome forenoon, in 
hearing a caufe between an orange-wife and a foflet- 
i'eller ; and then rejourn the controverfy of three- 
pence to a fecond day of audience. When you are 
hearing a matter between party and party, if you 
chance to be pinch'd with the cholic, you make faces 
like mummers ; J fet up the bloody flag againft all 
patience, and, in roaring for a chamber-pot, difmifs 
the controverfy bleeding, the more entangled by your 
hearing : all the peace you make in their caufe, is, 
calling both the parties knaves : You are a pair of 
grange ones. 

Bru. Come, come, you are well underftood to be 
a perfedter giber for the table, than a neceflary 
bencher in the Capitol. 

Men. Our very priefls muft become mockers, if 
they lhall encounter fuch ridiculous fubje&s as you 
are. When you fpeak beft unto the purpofe, it is 
not worth the wagging of your beards ; and your 
beards deferve not fo honourable a grave, as to fluff 
a botcher's cufnion, or to beejitomb'd in an afs's pack- 
faddle. Yet you muft be faying, Marcius is proud ; 
who, in a cheap eilimation, is worth all your prede- 
cefTors, iince Deucalion ; though, perad venture, fome 
of the beft of them were hereditary hangmen. Good- 
e'en to your worfhips : more of your converfation 
would infed: my brain, being the 4 herdfmen of the 

* you wear out a good &c.] It appears from this whole fpeech 
that Shakefpeare mittook the office of prafeRus urbis for the tri- 
bune's office. WAR BUR TON. 

3 fet up the bloody flag againft all patience, ,] That is, declare war 
flgamtt patience. There is not wit enough in this fatire to re- 
compenfe its groflhefs. JOHNSON. 

. * herdfmen of plebeians. ,] As kings are called OTOJ^WJ *. 


B b 3 beaftly 

374 C O R I O L A N U S. 

bcaflly plebeians : I will be bold to tajce my leave 
of you. 

Enter Volumnia, Virgiha, and Valeria* 

How now, my fair as noble ladies, (and the moon, 
were fhe earthly, no nobler) whither do you follow 
your eyes fo faft ? 

Vol. Honourable Menenius, my boy Marcius ap- 
proaches ; for. the love of Juno, lets go. 

Men. Ha ! Marcius coming home ? 

Vol. Ay, worthy Menenius ; and with moft prof- 
perous approbation. 

Men. Take my cap, Jupiter, and I thank thee : 
Hoo ! Marcius coming home ! 

Both. Nay, ? tis true. 

Vol. Look, here's a letter from him ; the flate hath 
another, his wife another; and, I think, there's one 
at home for you. 

Men. I will make my very houfe reel to. night : ? 
A letter for me ? 

Vir. Yes, certain, there's a letter for you ; I fawit. 

Men. A letter for me ? It gives me an eftate of fe- 
ven years' health ; in which time, I will make a lip at 
the phyfician ; the moil fovereign prefcription in Ga-r 

* Take my cap, Jupiter \ an A 1 thank thee : ] Though Me- 
nenius is rrjade a prater and a boon companion, yet it was not the 
defign of the poet to have him prophane, and bid Jupiter tale 
his cap. Shakefpeare's thought is very different from what his 
pditors dreamed of. He wrote : 

Take nty cup, Jupiter,- .- 

j. e. J will go offer a tibation to thee, for this good news : which 
was the cuitcm of that time. There is a pleafantr^, indeed, iri 
his way of exprefling it, very agreeable to his convivial charac- 
ter, liut the editors, not knowing the ufe of this cup^ altered it 
( to cap. WAR BUR TON. 

Shakefpeare fo often mentions throwing up caps in this play, 
fhat Menenius may be \yell enough fuppofed to throw up his cap 
)n thanks to Jupiter. JOHNSON. 

C O R I O L A N U S. 375 

kn is but empiric % and, to this prefervative, of no 
better report than a horfe-drench. Is he not wound- 
ed ? he was wont to come home wounded. 

Vir. O, no, no, no. 

Vol. O, he is wounded, I thank the gods for'r. 

Men. So do I too, if it be not too much : Brings 
a' victory in his pocket ? The wounds become him. 

Vol. On's brows, Menenius ; he comes the third 
time home with the oaken garland. 

Men. Has he difciplin'd Aufidius foundly ? 

Vol. Titus Lartius writes, they fought together, 
but Aufidius got off. 

Men. And 'twas time for him too, I'll warrant him 
that : 'an he had ftaid by him, I would not have been 
fo fidius'd for all the chefts in Corioli, and the gold 
that's in them. Is the fenate 8 poflefs'd of this ? 

Vol. Good ladies, let's go : Yes, yes, yes : the fe- 
nate has letters from the general, wherein he gives my 
fon the whole name of the war : he hath in this ac- 
tion outdone his former deeds doubly. 

Val. In troth, there's wondrous things fpoke of 

Men. Wondrous ? ay, I warrant you, and not 
without his true purchafing. 

Vir. The gods grant them true ! 

Vol. True ? pow, wow. 

Men. True? I'll be fworn they are true : Where 
is he wounded ? God fave your good worships ! 
[To the Tribunes.~\ Marcius is coming home : he has 
more caufe to be proud. Where is he wounded ? 

Vol. F the fhouldcr, and i' the left arm : There will 
be large cicatrices to fhew the people, when he fliall 

7 - is lut empiric,] The old copy reads is but empirick 
e of which the reader muft make what he can. STEEVENS. 

8 poffiffdof&isl] Po/ffM, in ourauthour'i language, is fully 
iiiforraed, JOHNSON. 

B b ftand 

37 6 C O R I O L A N U S. 

ftand for his place. 9 He receiv'd in the repulfe of 
Tarquin, feven hurts i' the body. 

Men. One i' the neck, and one too i'the thigh ; 
There's nine that I know. 

Vol He had, before this laft expedition, twenty-five 
wounds upon him. 

Men. Now 'tis twenty-feven : every gafli was arj 
enemy's grave : Hark, the trumpets. 

[Ajhout, and fiourljh. 

Vol. Thefe are the ulhers of Marcius : before him 
he carries naife, and behind him he leaves tears ; 
Death, that dark fpirit, in's nervy army doth lie ; 
* Which being advanc'd, declines, and then men die, 

A Sennet. Trumpets found. Enter Com'tnius the general, 
and Titus Lartius ; between them, Coriolanus, crown d 
with an oaken garland ; with captains and foldiers, and 
a herald. 

Her. Know, Rome, that all alone Marcius did fight 
Within Corioli' gates : where he hath^won, 
With fame, a name to Caius Marcius ; thefe 
In honour follows, Coriolanus z : 

9 He receiv'd in the repulfe of T'arquin, feven hurts i'the body. 
Men. One i' the neck, and two i the thigh : there's nine that I 
tnow.'] Seven, one, and two, and thefe make but nine ? Surely, 
we may fafely affift Menenius in his arithmetick. This is a itupid 
blunder ; but wherever we can account by a probable reafon for 
the caufe of it, that directs the emendation. Here it was eafy for 
a negligent tranfcriber to omit the fecond one, as a needlefs repe- 
tition of the firft, and to make a numeral word of too. 


The old man, agreeable to his character, is minutely particular : 
Seven wounds ? let me fee ; one in the neck, tivo in tht thivh Nay 
lamfure there are more ; there are nine that I know of. UPTON. 

1 Which being aJvanc'd^ declines, Volumnia, in her 

boafting ftrain, fays, that her fon to kill his enemy, has nothing 
to do but to lift his hand up and let it fall. JOHNSON. 

* Coriolanus.} The old copy. Martins Caius Coriolanus. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 377 

Welcome to Rome, renown'd Coriolanus ! 

[Sound. Fkurifo. 

All. Welcome to Rome, renown'd Coriolanus ! 

Cor. No more of this, it does offend my heart ; 
Pray now, no more. 

Com. Look, fir, your mother, 

Cor. O! 

You have, I know, petition'd all the gods 
For my profperity. [Kneels. 

Vol. Nay, my good foldier, up; 
My gentle Marcius, worthy Caius, and 
By deed-atchieving honour newly nam'd, 
What is it ? Coriolanus, muft I call thee ? 
But O, thy wife 

Cor. 5 My gracious filence, hail ! 


3 My gracious filence, hail !~\ The epithet to filence fhews it not 
to proceed from referve or fullennefs, but to be the effeft of a vir- 
tuous mind pofieffing itfelf in peace. The expreffion is extremely 
fublime ; and the fenfe of it conveys the fineft praife that can be 
given to a good woman. WAR BUR TON. 

By my gracious Jjlence, I believe, the poet meant, tbou ivbofe 
Jilent tears are more eloquent and grateful to me, than the clamorous 
applaufc of the rejl ! So, Crafhaw : 

" Sententious Jbwfrs ! O! let them fall ! 

*' Their cadence is rhetorical," 
Again, in the Martial Maid of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" A lady's tears are filent orators, 

** Or Jbould befo at leafi, to move beyond 

" The honey-tongued rhetorician.'" 
Again, in Daniel's Complaint of Rofamond; 1 599 : 

" Ab beauty, Jyren, fair enchanting good ! 

" Swce / file nt r.hetorick of fcrfuading eyes ! 

** Dumb eloquence, w/joje power doth move the Hood, 

** More than the ivords, or c wifdom of the wife /" 
Again, in Every Man out of his Humour : 

' ' You fliall fee fweet^ifc nt rhetor ick, and dumb eloquence fpeak 

ing in her eye." STEEVENS. 

I believe the meaning of my gracious filence is only tbou vjbofe 
filcHce isfo graceful and becoming. Gracious leems to have had the 
fame meaning formerly that graceful has at this day. So, in the 
^tcrcbant cf Venice : 

" But being feafon'd with a gracious voice." 



Would'ft thou have laugh'd, had I come coffm'd 


That weep'ft to fee me triumph ? Ah, my dear, 
Such eyes the widows in Corioli wear, 
And mothers that lack fons. 

Men. Now the gods crown thee ! 

Cor. And live you yet ? O my fwect lady, pardon. 

[To Valeria. 

Vol. I know not where to turn : O welcome home; 
And welcome, general; And you are welcome all. 

Men. A hundred thoufand welcomes : I could 


And I could laugh ; I am light, and heavy. Wel- 
come : 

A curfe begin at very root of's heart, 
That is not glad to fee thee ! You are three, 
That Rome mould dote on : yet, by the faith of men, 
We have fome old crab-trees here at home, that 

will not 

e grafted to your relifh. Yet welcome, warriors : 
We call a nettle, but a nettle ; a.nd 
The faults of fools, but folly. 

Com. Ever right 4 . 

Cor. Menenius, ever, ever. 

Her. Give way there, and go on. 

Again, in Titus Andronicus : 

" 'Tis not the difference of a year or two 

" Makes me lefs gracious, or thee more fortunate.' 1 
.Again, in King John: 

" There was not fuch a. gracious creature born." 
Again, in Marfton's Antonio and Mettida, Part II : 

" Live gracious youth to clofe thy mother's eyes." 
Again, in Lingua, 1607 : 

" But all their fpeeches were fo equal wrought, 

" And alike gracious" MALONE. 
4 Com. Ever right. 

Cor. Menenius, ever, ever.'] 
Jlather, I think : 

Com . Ever right Menenius. 

Cor. Ever, ever. TYRWHITT, 

C O R I O L A N U S. 379 

Cor. Your hand, and yours : 

[To his wife and mother. 
Ere in our own houfe I do lhade my head, 
The good patricians muft be vifited ; 
From whom I have rcceiv'd not only greetings^ 
5 Bur with them change of honours. 

Vol. I have liv'd 

To fee inherited my very wifhes, 
And the buildings of my fancy : 
Only there's one thing wanting, which I doubt not, 
But our Rome will caft upon thee. 

Cor. Know, good mother, 
I had rather be their fervant in my way, 
Than fway with them in theirs. 

Com. On, to the Capitol. [Flourifb. Cornets. 

[Exeunt in Jlate y as before. 

Brutus and Stcinius come forward. 

Bru. All tongues fpeak of him, and the bleared 


Are fpedtacled to fee him : Your pratling nurfe 
* Into a rapture lets her baby cry, 
While Ihe chats him : the kitchen malkin 7 pins 


5 But, with them, change of honours.] So all the editions read. 
But Mr. Theobald has ventured (as he exprefles it) to fabftitvte* 
charge. For change, he thinks, is a ve ry poor exprcjfion, and covi- 
municates but a very poor idea. He had better have told the plain 
truth, and confefled that it communicated none at all to him : 
However it has a very good one in itfelf ; and fignifies variety of 
honours ; as change of rayment, among the yvriters of that time, 
Signified variety of rayment, WARBURTON. 

6 Into a rapture* ] Rapture, a common term at that time 
yfed tor a fit, limply. So, to be rap'J, fignified, to be in a jit. 


? A maukin or malkin] A kind of mop made of clouts for the 
ufe of fweeping ovens : thence a frightful figure of clouts drefled 
up : thence a dirty wench. Maukin in fome parts of England 
fignifies a figure of clouts fet up to fright birds in gardens, a 
fcarecrow. F, 


380 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Her richefl lockram 8 'bout her reechy neck, 
Clambering the walls to eye him : Stalls, bulks, win-> 


Are fmother'd up, leads fill'd, and ridges hors'd 
"With variable complexions ; all agreeing 
In earneftnefs to fee him : 9 feld-fnown flamens 
Do prefs among the popular throngs, and puff 
To win a vulgar ftation : our veil'd dames 
1 Commit the war of white and darri'afk, in 


So, in the Bride, a comedy by Nabbes, 1640: 

44 you malkin of fuburb authority, fet up only to fright 

crows from the carrion of the commonwealth." 
After the morris-dance degenerated into a piece of coarfe buf- 
foonery, and Maid Marian was perfonated by a clown, this once 
elegant queen of May obtained the name of Malkin, To this 
JJeaumont and Fletcher allude in "MonjUur Thomas : 
" Put on the fhape of order and humanity, 
*^ Or you muft marry Malkyn the May-Lady ." 


8 Her ricbejl lockram, -&c.] Lockram was fome kind of cheap 
linen. Greene, in his Vijion, defcribing the dreis ot a man, fays : 

*' His ruffe was of fine lockeram, ftitched very faire with 

Coventry blue." 

Again, in the 'Spanijb Curate of Beaumont and Fletcher, Diego 
fays : 

" I give per annum two hundred ells of lockram, 

" That there be no {trait dealings in their linnens." 
Again, in Glapthorne's IVit in a Coiiftabk, 1639: 

" Thou thought'ft, becaufe I did wear lockram fhirts, 

** I had no wit." 
Again, in the Northern Lafs, by Brome, 1633 : 

*' let all the good you intended me, be a lockram coif, 

a blue gown, and a clean whip." STEEVEXS. 

9 -feld-Jhonun flamtni\ i. e. priefts who feldom exhibit them- 
; felves to public view. The word is ufed in Humour out of Breath^ 

a comedy, by John Day, 1607 : 

** O feLi-feeii metamorphofis." 
The fame adverb occurs in the old play of Hieronimo : 

** Why is not this a ftrange and_/77^/-leen thing ? 
Seld is often ufed by antient writers lor fcLlom. So, in Kyd's 
Cornelia, 1 595 : 

" So that \\-efiU Mefecn aswifdom \vould." STEEVENS. 
1 Commit the \var of -white and damafk, in 

Iheir nicely gadded cheeky ] 


C O R I O L A N U S, 381 

Tncir nicely gawded cheeks, to the wanton fpoil 
Of Phoebus' burning kifles : fich a pother, 
1 As if that whatfoever god, who leads him, 
Were flily crept into his human po\vers> 
And gave him graceful pofture. 

Sic. On the fudden, 
I warrant him conful. 

Bru. Then our office may, 
During his power, go ileep. 

Sic. He cannot temperately tranfport his honour* 
3 From where he fhould begin, and end ; but will 
Lofe thofe he hath won. 

Bru. In that there's comfort. 

This commixture of white and red could not, by any figure of 
fpeech be called a war, becaufe it is the agreement and union of 
the colours that make the beauty. We Ihould read : 

the ware of white and damajk 

i.e. the commodity, the merchandize. WAR BUR TON. 

Has the commentator never heard of rofes contending with liliea 
for the empire of a lady's cheek? The oppofition of colours, 
though not the commixture^ may be called a war. JOHNSON. 
So, in Shakefpeare's Tanjuin and Lvcrece : 

lt The lilent war ot lilies and of rofes, 

" Which Tarquin view'd in her fair face's field." 
Again, in the Taming of the Shrew : 

** Such war of white and red, &c." 
Again, in Chaucer's Knight's Ta/e^ late edit. v. 1040: 

" For with the rofe colour Jlrof hire hewe." 

Again, in Damcstas* Madrigal in Praifeefhis Daphnis, by J. WooN 
ton; published in England's Helicon, 1614.: 

* Amidft her cheek the rofe and \\\\y Jtrive." 
Again, in Mallmger's Great Duke of Florence : 

" the lillies 

" Contending with the rofes in her cheek." STEEVENS* 
Cli3~>e1and introduces this, according to his quaint manner : 

" her cheeks, 

" Where rofes mix : no civill war 

" Between her York and Lancafter." FARMER. 

a As if that whatfiever god, ] That is, as if that god wh# 

leads him, whatfoever gcd he be. JOH.VSON. 

3 From where he Jbcidd begin, and end; ] Perhaps it 

fhould be read : 

From where he JboidJ begin t'an end. JOHNSON. 



Sic. Doubt not, 

The commoners, for whom we ftand, but they^ 
Upon their ancient malice, will forget, 
With the leaft caufe, thefe his new honours ; which 
That he will give them, make I as little queftion 
* As he is proud to do't. 

Bru. I heard him fwear, 
Were he to ftand for conful, never would he 
Appear i'the market-place, nor on him put 
The naplefs vefture s of humility ; 
Nor, fhewing (as the manner is) his wounds 
To the people, beg their (linking breaths. 

Sic. 'Tis right. 

Bru. It was his word : O, he would mifs it, rather 
Than carry it, but by the fuit o' the gentry to him, 
And the defire of the nobles. 

Sic. I wifli no better, 

Than have him hold that purpofe, and to put it 
In execution. 

Bru. 'Tis mod like, he will. 

Sic. It Ihall be to him then, as our good will's % 
A fure deftru&ion. 

Bru. So it muft fall out 
To him, or our authorities. For an end, 
We muft fuggeft the people, in what hatred 
He ftill hath held them ; that, to his power, he 


Have made them mules, filenc'd their pleaders,' and 
Difproperty'd their freedoms : holding them, 

4 As be is proud to dt?t.~\ I fliould rather think the author wrote 
front: becauie the common reading is fcarce fenfe or Englifh. 


Proud to Jo, is the fame as, proud of doing, very plain fcnfe, 
and very common Englifh. JOHNSON. 

5 The naplefs vefture} The players read the Naples, 

6 Itjbaule to him then, as our good wills, 

A fure deftriiftion.] 
This fhould be written will's for w//7 is. TYR WHITT 



In human adtion and capacity, 

Of no more foul, nor fitnefs for the world, 

Than camels in their war ; who have their provand 7 

Only for bearing burdens, and fore blows 

For linking undr them. 

Sic. This, as you fay, fuggefled 
At fome time when his foaring infolence 
Shall reach the people, (which time lhall not want, 
If he be put upon't ; and that's as eafy, 
As to fet dogs on fheep) will be the fire * 
To kindle their dry flubble ; and their blaze 
Shall darken him for ever. 

Enter a Mejfcnger. 

ri(. What's the matter ? 

Mef. You are fent for to the Capitol. Tis thought, 
That Marcius lhall be conful : I have feen 
The dumb men throng to fee him, and the blind 
To hear him fpeak : Matrons flung gloves, 
Ladies and maids their fcarfs and handkerchiefs, 
Upon him as he pafs'd : the nobles bended, 

7 their provand] So the old copy, and rightly, though 
all the modern editors read provender. The following inftances 
may ferve to eftablifh the ancient reading. Thus, in Stowe's 

Chronicle, edit. 1615, p. 737: ** the provaunte was cut oft", 

and every foldier had half a crowne a weeke." Again : " The 
horfmenne had foure Ihillings the weeke bane, to find them and 
their horfe, which was better than the provaunt." Again, in 
Sir Walter Raleigh's Works, 1751, Vol. II. p. 229. Again, in 
Hakevil on the Providence of God, p. 1 1 8, or Lib. II. c. vii. fec"h 

I' " At the fiege of Luxenburge, 1543, the weather was 

fo cold, that the provant wine, ordained for the army, being 
frozen, was divided with hatchets, &c." Again, in Aj/jrs/W 
"Nigbtcap, &c. 1623 : 

" Sometimes feeks change of pafture and provant^ 
" Becaufe her commons be at home fo fcant." 
The word appears to be derived from the French, provende t pro- 
vender. STEEVENS. 

the fire.] The folio reads /V fire Perha^w we feould 

read as fire. MALONE. 



As to Jove's ftatue ; and the commons made 

A fhower, and thunder, with their caps, and iliouts i 

I never faw the like. 

Bru. Let's to the Capitol ; 
And 9 carry with us ears and eyes for the. time, 
But hearts for .the event. 

Sic. Have with you. [Exeunt* 


The Capitol. 
Enter two Officers, to lay cujhions '. 

i Off. Come come, they are almoft here : How 
many (land for conmlfhips ? 

2, Of. Three, they fay : but 'tis thought of every 
one, Coriolanus will . carry it. 

1 Off. That's a brave fellow ; but he's vengeance 
proud, and loves not the common people. 

2 Of. 'Faith, there have been many great men that 
have flatter'd the people, who ne'er lov'd them ; and 
there be many that they have lov'd, they know not 
wherefore : fo that, if they love they know not why, 
they hate upon no better a ground : Therefore, for 
Coriolanus neither to care whether they love, or hate 
him, manifefts the true knowledge he has in their dif- 
pofition ; and, out of his noble careleffnefs, lets them 
plainly fee't. 

i Off, If he did not care whether he had their love, 
or no, * he wav'd indifferently 'twixt doing them 
neither good, nor harm ; but he feeks their hate with 

9 carry with us ears and eyes, &c.] That is, let us ob- 

ferve what palles, but keep our hearts fixed on our defign of 
ci'Uihir.g Coriolanus. JOHNSON. 

1 Enter tvjo officers, &c.] The old copy reads: " Enter two 
officers to lay cufhions, as it were, in the capitoll." STEEVENS. 

* be w<K/V] That is, he would wave Indijferently. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 385 

greater devotion than they can render it him ; and 
leaves nothing undone, that may fully difcover him 
their oppofite. Now, to feem to affefr. the malice 
and difplcafure of the people, is as bad as that which 
he diflikes, to flatter them for their love. 

2 Off. He hath deferred worthily of his country : 
And his afcent is not by fuch eafy degrees as thofc, 
who have been } fupple and courteous to the people $ 
bonnetted, without any further deed to heave them 
at all into their estimation and report : but he hath 
fo planted his honours in their eyes, and his actions 
in their hearts, that for their tongues to be filent, and 
not confefs fo much, were a kind of ingrateful in- 
jury ; to report otherwife, were a malice, that, giv- 
ing itfelf the lye, would pluck reproof and rebuke 
from every ear that heard it. 

i Offi. No more of him ; he is a worthy man : Make 
way, they are coming. 

A Sennet. Enter the Patricians, and the Tribunes of the 
people^ Lifiors before them ; Coriolanus, Menenius, Co- 
minius the Conful: Sicinius and Brutus, as Tribunes, take 
their plates by tbemfelves. 

Men. Having determin'd of the Voices, and 
To fend for Titus Lartius, it remains, 
As the main point of this our after-meeting, 
To gratify his noble fervice, that 
Hath thus flood for his country : Therefore, plcafe 

Moft reverend and grave elders, to defire 

3 fupple and courteous to the people ; bonr.etted,'] The fenfe, I think, 
requires that we fliould read, unbonnetted. Who have rifen only 
by pulling off their bats to the people. Eonnetted may relate to 
people^ but not without harlhnefs. JOHNSON. 

Bonntter, Fr. is to pull off one's cap, therefore there is no occa- 
fion t read \\nbonncttcd. See Cotgrave. 
The old copy reads who-fjaviag been STEEVENS. 

VOL. VII. C c The 

3 86 C O R I O L A N U S. 

The prcfent ccnful, and lafl general 

In our well-found fucceflcs, to report 

A little of that worthy work perform'd 

By Caius Marcius Coriolanus ; whom 

We meet here, both to thank, and to remember 

With honours like himfelf. 

i Sen. Speak, good Cominius : 
Leave nothing out for length ; and make us think, 
Rather our ftate's defective for requital, 
Than we to flretch it out. Matters o' the people, 
We do requeft your kindeft ear ; and, after, 

4 Your loving motion toward the common body, 
To yield what palfes here. 

Sic. We are convented 
Upon a pleafing treaty ; and have hearts 
Inclinable to honour and advance 

5 The theme of our afiembly. 

Bru. Which the rather 
We fhall be blefl to do, if he remember 
A kinder value of the people, than 
He hath hereto priz*d them at. 

Men. 6 That's off, that's off; 

* Tour loving motion toward the common body ,~\ Your kind In- 
terpofition with the common people. JOHNSON. 

5 The theme of our ajfimbly.'] Here is a fault in the expreffion : 
And had it affected our author's knowledge of nature, I fiiould 
have adjudged it to his tranfcribers or editors ; but as it affcfts 
only his knowledge in hiitory, I fuppofe it to be his own. He 
fliould have laid your afiembly. For till the Lex Attinia, (the au- 
thor or" which is fuppofed by Sigonius, \Dc veicrc Italic Jure] 
to have been contemporary with Quintus Metellus Macedonicus) 
the tribunes had not the privilege of entering the fenate, but had 
feats placed for them near the door on the outfide of the houfe. 


Had.Shakefpe.nre been as learned as his commentator, he could 
not have conducted this fcene otherwife than as it liands. 
-The prefence of .Brutus and Sicinius was necetfary ; and how 
was our author to have exhibited the outfide and infide of the 
fenate houfe at one and the fame inilant ? S TEEVEXS. 

6 Mat's off, that's off - t \ Tlut is, that is nothing to thepurpofe. 


I would 


I would you rather had been filent : Pleafe you 
To hear Cominius fpeak ? 

Bru. Moft willingly : ' 
But yet my caution was more pertinent. 
Than the rebuke you give it. 

Men. He loves your people ; 
But tye him not to be their bed-fellow. 
Worthy Cominius, fpeak. Nay, keep your place. 

[Coriolanus rifes^ and offers to go aivay 
t Sen. Sit, Coriolanus ; never fliame to hear 
What you have nobly done. 

Cor. Your honours' pardon ; 
I had rather have my wounds to heal again, 
Than hear fay how I got them. 

Bru. Sir, I hope, ' 
My words dif-bench'd you not ? 

Cor. No, fir : yet oft, 

When blows have made me ftayj I fled from words. 
You footh'd not, therefore hurt not 7 : But, your 


1 love them as they weigh. 
Men. Pray now, fit down. 
Cor. I had rather have one fcratch my head i' the 


When the alarum were ftruck, than idly fit 
To hear my nothings monfter'd. [Exit Coriolanus* 

Men. Matters o* the people, 
Your multiplying fpawn 8 how can he flatter, 
(That's thoufand to one good cne) when you now 

7 Tou footh not, therefore hurt not.] The old copy reads : 

Ton footh'd not 

I think rightly. You did not flatter me, and therefore did not 
offend me. Hurt is commonly ufed by our author tor buried* 


how can be flatter S\ The reafoning of Menenius is 

this : How can he be expe&ed to pra&ife flattery to others, who 
abhors it fo much, that he cannot hear it even when offered to 
himfelf? JOHNSON. 

C c 2 He 

5 88 C O R I O L A N U S. 

He had rather venture all his limbs for honour, 
Than one of his ears to hear it ? Proceed, Comi- 


' Com. I fnall lack voice : the deeds of Coriolanus 
Should not be utter'd feebly. It is held, 
That valour is the chiefefl virtue, and 
Molt dignifies the haver : if it be, 
The man I fpeak of cannot in the world 
Be fingly counterpois'd. At fixteen years, 
9 When Tarquin made a head for Rome, he fought 
Beyond the mark of others : our then dictator, 
Whom with all praife I point at, faw him fight, 
When with his Amazonian chin ' he drove 
The briftled lips before him : he beftrid 
An o'er-preft Roman, and i' the confuTs view 
Slew three oppofers ; Tarquin's felf he met, 
And itruck him on his knee : in that day's feats, 
When he might aft the woman in the fcene % 
He prov'd beft man i' the field, and for his meed 
Was brow-bound with the oak. His pupil age 
Man-enter'd thus, he waxed like a fea ; 
And, in the brunt of feventeen battles fince, 
He lurched all fwords o'the garland '. For this la ft. 
Before and in Corioli, let me fay, 
I cannot fpeak him home : He ftopt the fliers ; 
And, by his rare example, made the coward 
Turn terror into fport : as waves before 

* Wljcn Tarquin made a head far Rome, ] When Tarqui 

who had been expelled, raifui a po-iver to recover Rome. 


* . hi* Amazonian din* ] i.e. his chin on which 

there was no teard. The players read, Jbin tic. STEEVENS. 

* When he might aft the woman in thefcene,~\ It has been more 
than once mentioned, that the parts of women were, in Shake- 
fpeare's time, reprefented by the moft fmooth-fuoed young men 
io be found among the players. STEEVENS. 

3 He lurched all fiuordi <? the garland.} Ben Jonfon has the 
fame exprelfiou iu the Silent Woman: " you have lurJSd your 
friend's of the butter half of the garland " STEEVENS. 

A VCf- 

C O R I O L A N U S. 389 

A vcffel under fail, fo men obey'd, 

And fell below his item 4 : his fword (death's 

ftamp 5 ) 

Where it did mark, it took ; from face to foot 
He was a thing of blood, whofe 6 every motion 
Was tim'd with dying cries : alone he enter'd 
7 The mortal gate o l the city, which he painted 
With fhunlefs deftiny 8 ; aidlefs came off, 
And with a fudden re-inforcement ftruck 
Corioli, like a planet : Now all's his : 
When by and by the din of war 'gan pierce 
His ready fenfe : then flraight his doubled fpirit 
Re-quicken'd what in fiefh was fatigate, 
And to the battle came he ; where he did 
Run reeking o'er the lives of men, as if 

4 And 'fill lelovj hit ftern. ] We fiiould read, according to 
the old copy : 

Thtjtem is that end of the fhip which leads, fromjlem to fern 
is an expreffion ufed by Dryden in his tranllation of Virgil: 

" Orontes' bark 

** fromjiem tojlern by waves was over-borne." 

* Hit faord, death* s ftamp, 

Wl>crc it did mark, it took from face to foot. 

He "Mas a thing of Hood, ivhofe every motion 

Was tim'd with dying cries.] 
This paflage fliould be pointed thus : 

His fword (death's ftamp) 

Where it did mark, it took; from face to foot 

He was a thing of blood, &c. TYRWHITT. 
I have followed the punctuation recommended. STEEVENS. 
6 every motion 

ffas tim'd with dying cries. ] 

The cries of the flaughter'd regularly followed his motions, as 
mutick and a dancer accompany each other. JOHNSON. 

7 The mortal gate ] The gate that was made the fcene of 

death. JOHNS.O.V. 

8 IVitb Jkunlcfs deftiny :] The fecond folio reads, whether by 
accident or choice : 

With ftiunlefs Jefamy. 
Dcfawle is an old French word fignifying infar.j. TYRWHITT. 

C c 3 'Twcre 


Twere a perpetual fpoil : and, 'till we call'd 
Both field and city ours, he never flood 
TO cafe his breaft with panting. 

Men. Worthy man ! 

i Sen. 9 He cannot but with meafure fit the ho- 
Which we devife him. 

Com. Our fpoils he kick'd at ; 
And look'd upon things precious., as they were 
The common muck o ? the world : he covets lefs 
J Than mifery itfelf would give ; rewards 
His deeds with doing them ; * and is content 
To fpend his time, to end it. 

Men. He's right noble ; 
Let him be call'd for. 

9 He cannot but ivitb meafurejit tbe honours,] That is ? no ho- 
pour will be too great for him ; he will fhew a mind equal to any 
elevation. JOHNSON. 

1 Than mi iery itfelf would give ', ] Mifery for avarice ; be* 
caufe a mifer fignifies an avaricious. WAR BUR TON. 

2 Corn. and is content 

To fpend bis time to end it. 

Men. He's right noble. 

The laft words of Cominius's fpeech are altogether unintelligible, 
Shakefpeare, I fuppofe, wrote the paflage thus : 

and is content 

To fpend bis time - " ' 

Men. To end it, be's rigbt nolle. 

Pominius, in his laft words, was ente.ring upon a new topic in 
praife of Coriolanus ; when his warm friend Menenius, impa- 
tient to come to the lubjetl of the honours defigned him, inter- 
rupts Cominius, and takes him fhort with, to endit^ \. e. to end 
this long difcourle in one word, he's rigbt nolle. Let bhn be called 
for. This is exactly in character, and reltores the paflage to fenfe. 


I know not whether my conceit will be approved, but I cannot 
forbear to think that our authour wrote thus : 

he rewards 

His deeds ivitb doing thetn t and is content 
Tt> fpend bis time, to fpend it. 

To do great a&s, for the fake of doing them ; to fpen4 his life, 
for thp fajce of fpending it. JOHNSON, 

I Sen, 


I Sen, Call Coriolanus. 
Of. He doth appear. 

Re-enter Coriolanus. 

Men. The fenate, Coriolanus, arc 'well pleas'd 
To make thee con-fuk 

Cor. I do owe them ftill 
My life, and fervices. 

Men. J It then remains, 
That you do fpeak to the people. 

Cor. I do befeech you, 
Let me o'er-leap that cuftom ; for I cannot 
Put on the gown, (land naked, and entreat them, 
For my wounds' fake, to give their fuffrage : plcafe 

That I may pafs this doing. 

Sic. Sir, the people 

Mud have their voices ; neither will they bate 
One jot of ceremony. 

Men. Put them not to*t : 
Pray you, go fit you fro the cuftom ; and 
Take to you, as your predeceflbrs have, 
Your honour with your form. 

3 It then remains. 

That you do fpeak to the people,] 

Coriolanus was baniflied U. C. 262. But till the time of Man- 
lius Torquatus, U. C. 393, the fenate chofe loth the confuls : 
And then the people, afliited by the feditious temper of the tri- 
bunes, got the choice of one. But it he makes Rome a democracy, 
which at this time was a perfect ariftocracy ; he fets the balance 
even in his TtmoK, and turns Athens, which was a perfecl demo- 
cracy, into an ariitocracy. But it would be unjuit to attribute 
this entirely to his ignorance ; it fometimes proceeded from the 
too powerful blaze of his imagination, which when once lighted 
tip, made all acquired knowledge fade and difappear before it. 
For fometimes again we find him, when occafion ferves, not only 
writing up to the truth of hiftory, but fitting his fentiments to 
the niceil manners of his peculiar fubject, as well to the dignity o 
IMS charaders, or the diftatcs of nature in general. 


C c 4 Cor, 


Cor. It is a part 

That I fhall blufh in acting, and might well 
Be taken from the people. 

Brit. Mark you that ? 

Car. To brag unto them, Thus I did, and thus; 
Shew them the unaking fears, which I fhould hide, 
As if I bad receiv'd them for the hire 
Of their breath only : 

Men, Do not Hand upon't. 
We recommend to you, tribunes of the people, 
Our purpofe to them ; and to our noble conful 
Wifh we all joy and honour. 

Sen. To Coriolanus come all joy and honour ! 

[Flouri/h cornets. 'Then Exeunt. 

Manent Sicinius, and Brutus. 

Bru. You fee how he intends to life the people. 

Sir. May they perceive his intent ! He will require 


As if he did contemn what he requefted 
Should be in them to give. 

Bru. Come, we'll inform them 
Of our proceedings here : on the market place, 
I know, they do attend us. [Exeunt. 


The Forum. 

Enter feven or eight Citizens. 

i Cit. * Once, if he do require our voices, we 
ought not to deny him. 

4 Once t ~\ Once here means the fame as when we fay, once for 
all. WAR BUR TON. 

This ufe of the word once is found in the Suppofes by Gaf- 
coigne : 

" Once, twenty-four ducattes he cofl me." FARMER. 

2 Cit. 

C O R I O L A N U S. 393 

2 Cit. We may, fir, if we will. 

3 Cit. * We have power in ourfelves to do it, but 
it is a power that we have no power to do : for if he 
fhew us his wounds, and tell us his deeds, we are to 
put our tongues into thofe wounds, and fpeak for 
them ; fo, if he tell us his noble deeds, we muit alfo 
tell him our noble acceptance of them. Ingratitude 
is monftrous : and for the multitude to be ingrateful, 
were to make a monfter of the multitude ; of the 
which, we being members, fhould bring ourfelves to 
be monftrous members. 

i Cit. A-nd to make us no better thought of, a little 
help will ferve : for once, when we flood up about 
the corn, he himfelf ftuck not to call us the many- 
headed multitude. 

3 Cit. We have been call'd fo of many ; not that 
our heads are fome brown, fome black, fome au- 
burn 7 , fome bald, but that our wits are fo diverfly 
coloui'd : and truly, I think, * if all our wits were 


5 We have power in ourfelves to Jo it, lut it is a power that we 
have no power to do :] I am perfuaded this was intended as a ridi- 
cule on the AugufHne manner of defining free-will at that time 
in the fchools. WAR BUR TON. 

A ridicule may be intended, but the fenfe is clear enough. 
Power firit fignifies natural power or force, and then moral power 
or right. Davies has uied the fame word with great variety of 
meaning : 

Ufe all thy powers that heavenly power to pra!fe y 
1 hat gave thee po.ver to do. JOHNSON. 
Shakefpeare could not mean to ridicule a circumftance of which 
it was hardly poffible for him to have the leair, knowledge. He 
fpent his time better than in reading fcholaftic trafli. See the JRe- 
vifal) p. 4',-6. STEEVENS. 

6 many -headed multitude.] Hanmer reads, many-headed monfter, 
but without necelfity. To be many-headed includes monftroufnefs* 


7 fame auburn,] The folio reads, fome Abram. I fhould un- 
willingly fuppofe this to be the true reading ; but we have already 
heard of Cain and ^^ram-coloured beards. STEEVFNS. 

8 if all our wits were to ijfuc out of one fcul!, &c.] Meaning, 
though our having but one intereft was moil apparent, yet our 
tyilhes and projects would be infinitely discordant. This me:.n- 



to ifTue out of one fcull, they would fly eafl, weft, 
trorth, fouth ; and their content of one direct way 
ihould be at once to all the points o' the compafs. 

2 Cit. Think you fo ? Which way, do you judge, 
my vf it would fly ? 

3 Cit. Nay, your wit will not fo loon out as an- 
other man's will, 'tis ftrongly wedg'd up jn ablock- 
hc,ad : but if it were at liberty, 'twould, fure, fouth- 

2 Cit. Why that way ? 

3 Cit. To lofe itfelf in a fog ; where being three 
parts melted away with rotten dews, 9 the fourth 
would return for confcience fake, to help to get thee 
a wife. 

2 Cit. You are never without your tricks : You 
fnay, you may. 

3 Cit. Are you all refolv'd to give your voices ? 
But that's no matter, the greater part carries it. I 
fay, if he xvould incline to the people, there was 
never a worthier man. 

Eater Coriolams, and Menenius. 

Here he comes, and in the gown of humility ; mark 
his behaviour. We are not to flay all togecher, but 
to come by him where he flands, by ones, by twos, 
and by threes. He's to make his requefts by particu- 
lars ; wherein every one of us has a fingle honour, in 
giving him our own voices with our own tongues : 
therefore follow me, and I'll dircdt you how you 
ihall go by him. 

ing the Oxford editor has totally difcharged, by changing the 

text thus, [ff'ut- out of ourjlul/s, WAR BURTON. 

9 the fourth would return for confcience fake, to help to get thee a 
M.v/f.] A fly fatirical infinuation how fmall a capacity of wit is 
necefiary for that purpofe. But eveiy day's experience of the 
fex's prudent difpofal of themfelves, may be fufficient to inform 
us how unjuft it is. WARBURTON. 

C O R I O L A N U S. 395 

All. Contcnr, content. 

Men. O fir, you are not right ; Have you not 


The worthieft men have done't ? 
4 Cor. What muft I fay ? 

I pray, fir, Plague upon't ! I cannot bring 

My tongue to fuch a pace : Look, fir ; ray 

wounds ; 

I got them in my country's fervice, when 
Some certain of your brethren roar'd, -and ran 
From the noife of our own drums. 

Men O me, the gods ! 

You mull not {peak of that ; you mufl defire them 
To think upon you. 

Cor. Think upon me ? Hang 'em ! fc 
I would they would forget me, like the virtues 
Wnich our divines lofe by 'em. 

Men. You'll mar all ; 

I'll leave you : Pray you, fpeak to 'em, I pray you, 
Jn wfrolefome marmer. [Exit. 

Citizens approach. 

Cor. Bid them wafh their faces, 
And keep their teeth clean. So, here comes a brace. 
You know the caufe, firs, of my (landing here. 

I Cit. We do, fir ; tell us what hath brought you 

Cor. Mine own defert. 

2. Cit. Your own defert ? 

Cor. Ay, not mine own defire f . 

i Cit. How ! not your own defire ? 

Cor. No, fir : 'Twas never my defire yet 
To trouble the poor with begging. 

1 not mine own defire."] The old copy lut mine own defire. If 
lut be the true reading, it mult fignify, as in the North without. 


I Cit. 

396 C O R I O L A N U S. 

i Cit. You muft think, if we give you any thing, 
we hope to gain by you. 

Cor. Well then, I pray, your price o'the conful- 


I Cit. The price is, to afk it kindly. 
. Cor. Kindly ? 

Sir, I pray, let me ha't : I have wounds to mew you, 
Which fliall be yours in private. Your good voice, 

What fay you ? 

Both Cit. You fhall have it, worthy fir. 

'Cor. A match, fir : There's in all two worthy 

voices bcgg'd : 
I have your alms ; adieu. 

1 Cit. But this is fomething odd. 

2 Cit. An 'twere to give again, But 'tis no matter. 


Enter two other Citizens. 

Cor. Pray you now, if it may {land with the tune 
of your voices, that I may be conful, I have here 
the cuftomary gown. 

i Cit. You have deferv'd nobly of your country, 
and you have not deferv'd nobly. 

Cor. Your amigma ? 

i Cit. You have been a fcourge to her enemies, 
you have been a rod to her friends; you have not, 
indeed, loved the common people. 

Cor. You Ihould account me the more virtuous, 
that I have not been common in my love. I will, 
fir, flatter my fworn brother the people, to earn a 
dearer eftimation of them ; *tis a condition they ac- 
count gentle : and fince the wifdom of their choice is 
rather to have my hat than my heart, I will practife 
the infinuating nod, and be off to them moft counter- 
feitly ; that is, fir, I will counterfeit the bewitch-* 
ment of fome popular man, and give it bountifully 


C O R I O L A N U S. 397 

to the defirers. Therefore, befeech you, I may be 


2 Cif. We hope to find you our friend ; and there- 
fore give you our voices heartily. 

i Cit. You have received many wounds for your 

Cor. * I will not feal your knowledge with mewing 
them. I will make much of your voices, and fo 
trouble you no further. 

Both. The gods give you joy, fir, heartily ! 


Cor. Moft fweet voices ! 
Better it is to die, better to ftarve, 
Than crave the hire which firfl we do deferve. 
J Why in this, woolvifh. gown mould I ftand here, 


* I will not feal_y0ar k%*&jUJgi\ I will not ftrengthen or com- 
pleat your knowledge. The leal is that which gives authenticity 
to a writing. JOHNSON. 

3 jyiy Jbould I fiand here, 

To beg of Hob and Dicky that do appear , 

Their needlefs voucher ? ] 

Why ftand I here in this ragged apparel to beg of Hob rmd-Dick, 
and fuch others as make their appearance here, their unaccejary 
votes. I rather think we fhould read : 

Their ntedlefs vouches. 

But voucher may ferve, as it may perhaps fignify either the al 
or the agent. JOHNSON. 
The old copy reads : 

Their needlcfs vouches. STEEVENS. 

thh woolvijb gown] Signifies this rough hirfute gown. 


I own I was furprized, on confulting the old copy, to find the 
paflage printed thus : . 

" Why in this woolvifh tongue" 

Mr. Rowe received gown from the fecond folio, and has beea 
followed (perhaps without necelluy) by all the editors. 

The white robe worn by a candidate was made, I think, of 
white lamb Ikins. How comes it then to be called woDfaiJh, unlefs 
in allufion to the fable of the wolf injheep'i cloathing ? Perhaps 
the p6et meant only, IVly do TJand with a tongue deceitful as that 
of the wolf, andfeem to flatter thrift whom I could wljh to treat with 
rny ufual ferocity ? We may perhaps more diitin&ly read : 


To beg of Hob, and Dick, that does appear, 
Their needlcfs vouches ? CuiTom calls me to't : 
What cuftom wills, in all things ihould we do't, 
The duft on antique time would lie unfwept, 
And mountainous error be too highly heap'd 
For truth to over-peer. Rather than fool it fo, 
Let the high office and the honour go 
To one that would do thus. I am half through ' r 
The one part fuiFer'd, the other will I do. 

TLiiter three Citizens more. 

Here come more voices. 
Your voices : for your voices I have fought ; 
Watch'd for your voices ; for your voices, bear 
Of wounds two dozen odd ; battles thrice fix 4 

I haver 

with this woolvifh tongue, 

unlefs tongue be ufed for tone or accent. 7'ongv.c might, indeed, 
be only a typographical miitake, and the word designed be togc t 
which is uled in Othello. Shakefpeare, however, does not appear 
to have known what the toga hirfuta was, becaufe he has juft be- 
fore called it the naplcfs gown of humility. 

Since the foregoing note was written, I met with the following 
pafluge in " A Merye Jeft of a Man called HowitgZSu," bl. 1. na 
date. Howlcglas hired himfelf to a taylor, who " cafte unto 
him a hufbande mans govvne, and bad him take a ivolfe, and make 
it up. Than cut Hovjlcglas the hufbandmans gowne and made 
thereof a vjoulfc with the head and feete, &c. Then fayd the 
irniiiter, I ment that you fhould have made up the ruffet gown, 
for a hulbandman's gowne is here called a ivolfc." By a wol'vijb 
gown, therefore, (if 0wbe the true reading) Shakefpeare might 
have meant Coriolanus to compare the drefs of a Roman candidate 
to the coarfe frock of a ploughman, who cxpoled himfelf to folicic 
the votes of his fellow rufticks. STEEVENS. 

Why in this ivolviJJj tongue.] The old copy's reading in. and 
not ivitb fhews that tongue was, as Mr. Steevens conjeitures, i\n 
errour of the prefs for toge. The very fame miilakc has happen- 
ed in Othello, where we meet " the tongucd confuls," inftead of 
toged confuls. MALONE. 

4 Coriolanus feems now, in earnelt, to petition for the confulate i 
perhaps we may better read ; 



I have feen, and heard of; for your voices, have 
Done many things, fome lefs, feme more : your 

voices : 
Indeed, I would be conful. 

1 Cit. He has done nobly, and cannot go without 
any honefl man's voice. 

2 Cit. Therefore let him be conful : The gods 
give him joy, and make him good friend to the 
people ! 

AIL Amen, amen. God favc thee, noble conful ! 

Cor. Worthy voices ! 

Enter Menenius, with Brutus, and Sicinins. 

Men. You have flood your limitation; and the 


Endue you with the people's voice : Remains, 
That, in the official marks invefted, you 
Anon do meet the fenate. 

Cor. Is this done ? 

Sic. The cultom of requeft you have difcharg'd : 
The people do admit you ; and are fummon'd 
To meet anon, upon your approbation. 

Cor. Where ? at the fenate-houfe ? 

Sic. There, Coriolanus. 

Cor. May I change thefe garments ? 

Sic. You may, fir. 

Cor. That I'll ftraight do ; and, knowing myfelf 

Repair to the fenate-houfe. 

Men. I'll keep you company. Will you along ? 

Bru. We flay here for the people. 

Sic. Fare you well. [Exeunt Coriol. and Men. 

battles thrice fix 

r<veffn, and you have heard of; for your voices 
Done many things, &c. FARMSR. 



He has it now ; and by his looks, methinks, 
'Tis warm at his heart. 

Bru. With a proud heart he wore 
His humble weeds : Will you difmifs the people ? 

Re-enter Citizens. 

Sic. How now, my mailers ? have you chofe this 

man ? 

i Cif. He has our voices, fir. 
Bru. We pray the gods, he may deferve your loves. 
i Cif. Amen, fir : To my poor unworthy notice, 
He mock'd us, when he begg'd our voices. 
3 Cit. Certainly, he flouted us down-right. 

1 Cit. No, 'tis his kind of fpeech, he did not mock 


2 Cit. Not one amongft us, fave yourfelf, but fays, 
He us'd us fcornfully : he fhould have fhew'd us 
His marks of merit, wounds receiv'd for his country. 

Sic. Why, fo he did, I am fure. 
AIL No, no man faw 'em. 
' 3 Cit. He faid, he had wounds, which he coulc! 

Ihew in private ; 

And with his hat, thus waving it in fcorn, 
I would be conful, fays he : 4 aged citftom, 
But by your voices, will not fo permit me ; 
Tour voices therefore : When we granted that, 
Here was, / thank you for your voices, t bank you, 
Tour moft fa'rtt voices : now you have left your voices, 
I have nothing further with you : Was not this mock- 
ery 3 
Sic. Why, either, were you J ignorant to fee't ? 


4 agej cufiom,} This was a ftrange inattention. The 

Romans at this time had but lately changed the regal for the con- 
fular government : for Coriolanus was baniflied the eighteenth 
year after the expulfion of the kings. WARBITRTON. 

5 . ignorant to/eft ?] The Oxford editor alters ^lorant 


C O R I O L A N U S. 4 o, 

Or, feeing it, of fuch childifh friendlinefs 
To yield your voices ? 

Bru. Could you not have told him, 
As you were Leffbn'd, When he had no power, 
But was a petty fervant to the flate, 
He was your enemy ; ever fpake againft 
Your liberties, and the charters that you bear 
F the body of the weal : and now, arriving 6 
A place of potency, and fway o' the Hate, 
If he iliould flill malignantly remain 
Fait foe to the plebeii, your voices might 
Be curfes to yourfelves : You fliould have faid, 
That, as his worthy deeds did claim no lefs 
Than what he flood for ; fo his gracious nature 
Would think upon you for your voices, and 
Translate his malice towards you into love, 
Standing your friendly lord. 

Sic. Thus to have faid, 

As you were fore-advis'd, had touch'd his fpirit, 
And try'd his inclination ; from him pluck'd 
Either his gracious promife, which you might, 
As caufe had call'd you up, have held him to ; 
Or elfe it would have gall'd his furly nature, 
Which eafily endures not article, 
Tying him to aught ; fo, putting him to rage, 
You fhould have ta'en the advantage of his choler, 
And pafs'd him unelecled, 

to impotent^ not knowing that ignorant at that time fignified impo- 
tent. WAR BUR TON. 

That ignorant at any time has, otherwife than confequentially, 
the fame meaning with impotent, I do not know. It has no fuch 
meaning in this place. Were you ignorant to fee it, is, did you 
want knowledge to i.-fcern it. JOHNSON. 
6 arriving 

A place of potency, 

Thus the old copy, and rightly. So in the third part of K. Henry 
VI. aft V. fc. iii : 

* thofe powers that the queen 

" Hath rais'd in Gallia, have arriv V our coaft. 


VOL. VII. D d Bru, 


Bru. Did you perceive, 
He did folicit you in 7 free contempt, 
When he did need your loves ; and do you think, 
This his contempt {hall not be bruiting to you, 
When he hath power to crufti ? Why, had your 


No heart among you ? Or had you tongues, to cry 
Againft the redorfhip of judgment ? 

Sic. Have you, 

Ere now, deny'd the afker ? and, now again, 
On him, that did not afk, but mock, bellow 
Your fu'd-for tongues 8 ? 

3 Cit. He's not confirm'd, we may deny him yet. 

2 Cit. And will deny him : 
I'll have five hundred voices of that found. 

i Cit. I twice five hundred, and their friends to 
piece 'em. 

Bru. Get you hence inflantly ; and tell thofe 


They have chofe a conful, that will from them take 
Their liberties ; make them of no more voice 
Than dogs, that are as often beat for barking,. 
As therefore kept to do fo. 

Sic. Let them affemble ; 
And, on a fafer judgment, all revoke 
Your ignorant election : 9 Enforce his pride, 
And his old hate unto you : befides, forget not 
With what contempt he wore the humble weed ; 
How in his full he fcorn'd you : but your loves, 
Thinking upon his fcrvices, took from you 
The apprehenfion of his prefent portance ', 

7 free contempt,] That is, with contempt open and unre- 

jftrained. JOHNSON. 

8 Your ft* d- for tongues f\ Your tongues that have been hitherto 
foliated. STEEVENS. 

Enforce his pride,] Objeft his pride, and enforce the 

objection. JOHNSON. 

* bin prefent portance.] i.e. carriage. So, in Othello : 

" And portance in my travels' hiltory." STEEVENS. 


C O R I 6 L A N U S. 403 

Which moft gibingly, urigravely, he did fa'fhion 
After the inveterate hate he bears you: 

Bru. Lay 

A fault on us^ your tribunes ; that we labour'dj 
(No impediment between) but that you muft 
Caft your eledtion on him. 

Sic. Say, you chofe him 
More after our commandment, than as guided 
By your own true affedtions : and that, your minds 
Pre-occupy'd with what you rather muft do 
Than what you ihould, made you againft the grain 
To voice him conful : Lay the fault on us. 

Bru. Ay, fpare us not. Say, we read lectures t5 


How youngly he began to ferve his country, 
How long continued : and what flock he fprings of, 
The noble houfe o' the Marcians ,* from whence 


That Ancus Marcius, Numa's daughter's fon, 
Who, after great Hoftilius, here was king : 
Of the fame houfe Publius and Quintus were$ 
That our befl water brought by conduits hither ; 
* And Cenforinus, darling of the people, 
And nobly nam'd fo, twice being cenfor^ 
3 Was his great anceftor* 


* And Cenforinus^ darling of the people ', ] This verfe I have fup- 
plied ; a line having been certainly left out in this place, as will 
appear to any one who confults the beginning of Plutarch's Life 
if Coriolanus, from whence this paflage is diredly tranllated. 


3 And Cenforinus 

Was his great anceftor.~] 

Now the firft cenfor was created U. C. 314, and Coriolanus was 
banifhed U. C. 262. The truth is this, the paflage, as Mr. Pope 
obferves above, was taken from Plutarch's Life of Coriolanus ; 
who, fpeaking of the houfe of Coriolanus, takes notice both of 
his ancejiors and of his/0^r//y, which our author's haile not giv- 
ing him leave to obferve, has here confounded one with the other. 
Another inftance of his inadvertency, from the fame caufe, we 
D d 4 have 

404 C O R. I O L A N U S. 

Sic. One thus defccnded, 
That hath befide well in his perfon wrought 
To be fee high in place, we did commend 
To your remembrances : but you have found, 
* Scaling his prefent bearing with his paft, 
That he's your fixed enemy, and revoke 
Your fudden approbation. 

Bru. Say, you ne'er had don't, 
(Harp on that ftill) but by our putting on : 
And prefently, when you have drawn your number, 
Repair to the Capitol. 

All. We will fo : almoft all 
Repent in their election. \JLmmt Citizens. 

Bru. Let them go on ; 
This mutiny were better put in hazard, 
Than ftay, paft doubt, for greater : 
If, as his nature is, he fall in rage 
With their rcfufal, both 5 obferve and anfwcr 
The vantage of his anger. 

Sic. To the Capitol, come ; 

We -Will be there before the ftream o' the people ; 
And this Ihall fecm, as partly 'tis, their own, 
Which we have goaded onward. [Exeunt. 

have in the firft part of Henry IV. where an account is given of 
the prifoners took on the plains ot Holmedon : 

Mordake the carl of Fife, and eldeft fan 

To beaten Douglas 

But the carl of Fife was not Ion to Douglas, but to Robert duke 
of Albany, governor ot Scotland. He took his account from //<>- 
lirifhed, whofe words are, And of pr [fan en uS&tigft others <nvr<- 
tr.<i'?, Mordack eai'l #f -/'V/''> J tm to the governor Arkimbald, carl 
Doi>*las, &c. And he imagined that the governor and earl Doug- 
las were one and the fame perfon. \\ 'ARBUK TON-. 

4 Scaling bis prefent bearing ivitb InspftJJ^ TJiat is, <wtigbing\JA& 
paft and prefent behaviour. JOHN-SON. 
s obferve und an fiver 

Ibc vantage <'f bis anger,] 

Mark, catch, and improve the opportunity, which his haiiy 
nnger will afford us. JOHNSO.V. 





A Street, 

Cornets. Enter Coriolanus, Menenius, Committs, 'Titus 
Lartius, and other Senators. 

Cor. Tullus Aufidius then had made new head ? 

Lart. He had, my lord ; and that it was, which 

Our fwifter competition. 

Cor. So then the Voices (land but as at firft ; 
Ready, when time lhall prompt them, to make road 
Upon us again. 

Com. They are worn, lord conful, fo, 
That we lhall hardly in our ages fee 
Their banners wave again. 

Cor. Saw you Aufidius ? 

Lart. On fafe-guard he came to me ; and did curfc 
Againft the Voices, for they had fo vilely 
Yielded the town : he is retir'd to Antium. 

Cor. Spoke he of me ? 

Lart. He did, my lord. 

Cor. How? what? 

Lart. How often he had met you, fword to fword : 
That, of all things upon the earth, he hated 
Your perfon moft : that he would pawn his fortunes 
To hopelefs reftitution, fo he 'might 
Be call'd your vanquisher. 

Cor. At Antium lives he ? 

Lart. At Antium. 

Cor. I wim I had a caufe to feek him there, 
To oppofe his hatred fully. Welcome home. 

t i- ^ 

[To Lartms* 
D d 3 Enter 


Enter Sicimus y and Brutus. 

Behold ! tbefe are the tribunes of the people, 
The tongues o'the common mouth. 1 do defpife 

them ; 

For they do 6 prank them in authority, 
Againft all noble fufferance. 
Sic. Pafs no further. 
Cor. Ha ! what is that ? 

Bru. It will be dangerous to go on : no further. 
Cor. What makes this change ? 
Men. The matter ? 
Com. Hath he not pafs'd the nobles, and the com-: 

mons ? 

Bru. Cominius, no. 
Cor. Have I had children's voices ? 
Sen* Tribunes, give way ; he fhall to the market- 


Bru. The people are incens'd againfl him.. 
Sic. Stop, 
Or all will fall in broil. 

Cor. Are thefe your herd ? 
Muft thefe have voices, that can yield them now, 
And ftraight difclaim their tongues ? What are 

your offices ? 
ITqu being their mouths, 7 wh.y rqle you not their 

teeth ? 

Have you not fet them on ? 
Men. Be calm, tie calm. 
Cor. It is a purpos'd thing, and grows by plot, 
To curb the will of the pobility : 

. , -pranlc them in authority,] Plu^if^ Jeck^ dignify them^ 
felves. JOHNSON. 

7 - cwfay rv jg y ou no t fj-ffif teeth ?] The metaphor is 
from men's fetting a bull-dog 01 mafliff upcn any one. 



C O R I O L A N U S. 40? 

Suffer't, and live with fuch as cannot rule, 
Nor ever will be rul'd. 

Bru. CalFt not a plot : 

The people cry, you mock'd them ; and, of late, 
When corn was given them gratis, you repin'd ; 
Scandal'd the fuppliants for the people ; callM them 
Time-plcafers, flatterers, foes to noblenefs. 

Cor. Why, this was known before. 

Bru. Not to them all. 

Cor. Have you inform'd them iince 8 ? 

Bru. How ! I inform them ! 

Cor. You are like to do fuch bufinefs* 

Bru. 9 Not unlike, 
Each way, to better yours. 

Cor. Why then fhould I be conful ? By yon clouds, 
Let me deferve fo ill as you, and make me 
Your fellow tribune. 

Sic. You (hew too much of that, 
Far which the people ftir : If you will pafs 
To where you are bound, you muft enquire your way, 
Which you are out of, with a gentler fpirit ; 
Or never be fo noble as a conful, 
Nor yoke with him for tribune. 

Men. Let's be calm. 

Com. The people are abusM: Set on. 1 This pal- 

Becomes not Rome ; nor has Coriolanus 


8 Jtace."] The old copy fithcnce. STEEVENS. 

9 Not unlike, 

Each way, to better yours.] 

/. e . likely to provide better for the fecurity of the commonwealth 
than you (whofe bufnefs it is) will do. To which the reply is 
pertinent : 

H7y tbenjboM I be conful f 

Yet the reftlefs humour of reformation in the Oxford editor dik 
turbs the text to, 

better you. WARBUR.TQN. 

1 This paltering 

Becomes not Rome ;< > ] 
That is, this trick of diffimulation, 
D d 4 


Deferv'd this fo difhonour'd rub, laid J fairly 
I' the plain way of his medt. 

Cor. Tell me of corn ! 
This was my fpeech, and I will fpeak't again ; 

Men. Not now, not now. 

Sen. Not in this heat, fir, now. 

Cor. Now, as I live, I will. My nobler friends, 
I crave their pardons : 

For the mutable, rank-fcentcd many, let them * 
Regard me as I do not flatter, and 
Therein behold themfelves : I fay again, 
In foothing them, we nourifh 'gainil our fenate 
5 The cockle of rebellion, iniulence, fedition, 
Which we ourfelves have plough'd for, fow'd and fcat- 


By" mingling che^m with us, the honour'd number; 
Who lack not virtue, no, nor power, but that 
Which they have given to beggars. 

Men. Well, no more. 

Sen. No more words, we befeech you. 

Cor. How ! no more ? 
As for my country I have Ihed my blood, 
Not fearing outward force, fo fhall my lungs 
Coin words 'till their decay, againft thofe meazels *, 

And Ic tbefc }ttglbig fiends no nwre believed. 

That palter with us i;i a double fcnfe. Macbeth. JOHNSON* 

3 laid f(t[fly~\ Falfiy for treacheroujly. JoHNSON', 

4 let them 

Regard me as I do not flatter, and 

Therein behold thenif elves : ] 

t/et them look in the mirror which I hold up to them, a mirrot 
which dees not flatter, and fee themfelves. JOHNSON. 

s The cockle of rebellion, ] Cockle is a weed which grows up 

with the corn. The thought is from fir Tho. North's tranf- 
lation of Plutarch^ where it is given as follows : " Moreover, 
he faid, that they nourifhed againft themfelves the naughty feed 
and cockle of iniblency and fedition, which had been fowed and 
fe'attered abroad among the people, &c." STEEVENS. 

* weazds^\ Meft-llis ufed in Pierce. Plowman's Vijion for 

a leper * The fame word frequently occurs in the London Pro- 
flfFal, STEEVENS. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 4 o 9 

Which we difdain fhould tetter us, yet fought 
The very way to catch them. 

Bnt. You fpeak o' the people, 
As if you were a god to punilh, not 
A man of their infirmity. 

Sic* Twere well, 
We let the people know't. 

Men. What, what ? his choler ? 

Cor. Choler! 

Were I as patient as the midnight flcep, 
By Jove, 'twould be my mind. 

Sic. It is a mind 

That fhali remain a poifon where it is, 
Not poifon any further. 

Cor. Shall remain ! 

Hear you this Triton of the 6 minnows ? mark vou 
His abfolute /;///> 

Com. 7 'Twas from the canon. 

Cor. SMI! 

O gods ! But moft unwife patricians, why, 
You grave 8 , but recklefs fenators, have you thus 
Given Hydra here to choofe an offices, 
That with his peremptory flail, being but 
' The horn and noife o'the monfters, wants not fpirit 
To fay, he'll turn your current in a ditch, 
And make your channel his ? If he have power, 

6 minnows?] i.e. fmall fry. WAS BUR TON. 

A minnow is one of the fmalleft river fifh, called in fome coun- 
ties a //.. JOHNSON. 

7 "Tkxasfrom the canon.] Was contrary to the eftabliflied rule; 
it was a form of fpeech to which he has no right. JOHNSON. 

8 O gods ! but moft vn-ivife patricians, ivby 

Tou grave ) &c.] 
Thus the old copy. Succeeding editors had altered it : 

O good, but moft utr.vlff, &C. 

When the only authentic copy affords fenfe, why fhould we de- 
part from it ? STEKVENS. 

9 The born and noife ] Alluding to his having called him 

Triton before. WARBURTON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 

1 Then vail your ignorance : if none, awake 

Your dangerous lenity. If you are learned, 

Be not as common fools ; if you are not, 

Let them have cuihions by you. * You are plebeians, 

If they be fenators : and they are no lefs, 

When, both your voices blended, the greateft tafte 

Moft palates theirs. They choofe their magiftrate ; 

And fuch a one as he, who puts hhjhall, 

His popular^//, againft a graver bench 

Than ever frown' d in Greece ! By Jove himfelf, 

It makes the confuls bafe : 3 and my foul akes, 

1 Tfjen vail your ignorance j ] Ignorance for impotence ; 
becaufe it makes impotent. The Oxford editor not underftanding 
this, tranfpofes the whole fentence according to what in his fancy 
is accuracy. WAR BUR TON. 

Hanmer's tranfpofition deferves notice. 

If they have power ) 

Let them have cujhions by you ; if none, awake 
your dangerous lenity ; if you are learned, 
Be not as common fools ; if you are not, 
TJxn vail your ignorance. You are Plebeians, &c. 
I neither think the tranfpofition of one editor right, nor the in- 
terpretation of the other. The fenfe is plain, enough without 
fuppofing ignorance to have any remote or confequential lenfe. If 
this man has power, let the ignorance that gave it him vail or bow 
down before him. JOHNSOX. 
1 You are plebeians, 

If they be fenators ; and they are no lefs, 

Wl;en, both your voices blended, the greateft tajle 

Moji palatts theirs. ] 

Thefe lines may, I think, be made more intelligible by a very 
flight corre&ion : 

they no lefs [than fenators'] 

When, both your voices blended, the greatcfl tajle 
Muft palate theirs. 

When the tajle of the great, the patricians, muft palate, muft 
pleafe [or muft try] that of the plebeians. JOHNSON. 

The plain meaning is, that fenators and plebeians arc equal, wLett 
the higbejl tajle is bejl pleafed with that which pleafe s the lonvcft. 


3 and my foul akei\ The mifchief and abiurdity of 

^hat is called in$crium in imperio, is here finely expreiied. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 411 

To know, when two authorities are op, 
Neither fupreme, how foon confufion 
May enter 'rwlxt the gap of both, and take 
The one by the other. 

Com. Well, on to the market-place. 

Cor. Whoever gave that counfel *, to give forth 
The corn o'the ftore-houfe gratis, as 'twas us'd 
Sometime in Greece, 

Mgn. Well, well, no more of that. 

Cor. (Though there the people had more abfolute 


I fay, they nouriih'd difobedience, fed 
The ruin of the ftate. 

Brit. Why, mall the people give 
One, that fpeaks thus, their voice ? 

Cor. I'll give my reafons, 

* WTjoever gave that counfel* &c.] So, in the old tranflation of 
Plutarch : " Therefore iayed he, they that gauc counfell, and per- 
fuadec 'iiat the come fhould be giuen out to the common people 
grati^ ': they vfed to doe in citties of G-jece, where the people 
had more abfoiun power; dyd but only nourilhe their dilbbedi- 
ence, which would bveake put in the code, to the vtter ruine and 
oucrthrowe of the whole ftate. For they will not thincke it is 
done in recompenfe of their feruice paft, fithence they know well 
enough they haue fo ofte refufed to go to the warres, when they 
were commaunded : neither for their mutinies when they went 
with vs, whereby they haue rebelled and forfaken their countne : 
neither for their accufations which their flatterers haue preferred 
vnto them, and they haue recevued, and made good againlt the 
fenate : but they will rather iudge we geue and graunt them this, 
as abafing our felues, and {landing in feare of them, and glad to 
flatter them euery way. By this meanes, their difobedience will 
{till growe worfe and worfe : and they will neuer leave to prac- 
tife newe fedition, and vprores. Therefore it were a great follie 
for vs, me thinckes to do it : yea, (hall I faye more ? we fhould 
if we were wife, take from them their tribunelhippe, which moll 
rnanifeftly is the embaling of the confulfliippe, and the caufe of 
the diuifion of the cittie. The flate whereof as it ftandeth, is 
not now as it was wont to be, but becommeth difmembred in, 
two factions, which mainteines allwayes ciuill dilFention and dif- 
corde betwene vs, and will neuer fuffer vs againe to be vnited into 
j)ne bodie." STEEVENS. 


4 i2 C O R I O L A N U S. 

More worthier than their voices. They know, the corn 

Was not our recompence ; refting well affur'd 

They ne'er did fervice for't : Being ^ -.fs'd to the war, 

Even when the navel of the ftate was touch'd, 

5 They would not thread the gates : this kind of fervice 

Did not deferve corn gratis : Being i' the war, 

Their mutinies and revolts, wherein they fnew'd 

Molt valour, fpoke not for them : The accufation 

Which they have often made againfl the fenate, 

All caufe unborn, 6 could never be the native 

Of our fo frank donation. Well, what then ? 

How (hall this bofom multiplied digeft 

The fenate's courtefy ? Let deeds exprefs 

What's like to be their words : We did reqvejl //; 

We are the greater poll, and in true fear 

They gave us our demands : Thus we debafe 

The nature of our feats, and make the rabble 

Call our cares, fears : which will in time break ope 

The locks o' the fenate, and bring in the cro\vs 

To peck the eagles 

Men, Come, enough. 

Bru. Enough, with over-meafure. 

Cor. 7 No, take more : 


5 They "Mould not thread the gates ; ] That is, pafs them. 

We yet fay, to thread an alley. JOHNSON. 

6 could never be the native] Native for natural birth. 


Native is here not natural birth, but natural parent, or caufe of 
forth. But I would read motive, which, without any diftortioa 
of its meaning, fuits the fpeaker's purpofe. JOHNSON. 
7 No, take more : 

Wl.iat may be fivorn by, both divine and human, 
Seal iv hat I end withal ! ] 

The falfe pointing hath made this unintelligible. It fhould be 
read and pointed thus : 
No, take more ; 
What may bcfworn by. Both divine and human, 

Seal what I end withal ! 

i. e. No, I will Hill proceed, and the truth of what I fhall fay may 


C O R I O L A N U S. 413 

What may be fworn by, both divine and human, 
Seal what I end withal ! This double worfhip, 
Where one part does difdain with caufe, the other 
Infult without all reafon ; where gentry, title, wifdom 
Cannot conclude, but by the yea and no 
Of general ignorance, it muft omit 
Real neceffities, and give way the while 
To unftable ilightnefs : 8 purpofe fobarr'd, it follows, 
Nothing is done to purpofe : Therefore, befeech 


You that will be lefs fearful than difcrcet ; 
9 That love the fundamental part of flate, 
More than you doubt the change oft ; that prefer 
A noble life before a long, and wifh 
To jump a body ' with a dangerous phyfic, 


be fworn to. And may both divine and human powers, [i. e. the 
gods of Rome and the fenate] confirm audfupport my conclufion. 


purpofe fo barr'J, it follows , 

Nothing is done to purpofe, - ] 

This is fo like Polonius's eloquence, and fo much unlike the reft 
of Coriolanus's language, that I am apt to think it fpurious, 

Tlat love the fundamental part of fiate^ 

More than you ilonbt the change of 't ; - ~\ 

\. e. Who are fo wedded to accuitomed forms in the adminiura- 
tion, that in your care for the prefervation of thofe, you overlook 
the danger the conititution incurs by ftri<5tly adhering to them. 
This the fpeaker, in vindication of his conduct, artfully reprefents 
to be his cafe ; yet this pertinent obfervation, the Oxford editor, 
with one happy dafh of his pen, in amending doubt to //<?, entirely 
abolifhes. WAR BUR TON. 

To tloubt is to fear. The meaning is, You whofe zeal predo- 
minates over your terrours ; you who do not fo much fear the dan- 
ger of violent meafures, as wifh the good to which they are necef- 
fary, the prefervation of the original conftitution of our govern- 
ment. JOHNSON, 

1 To jump a body ] Thus the old copy. Modern editors read : 

To vamp -- 

TojuMf anciently lignified toyV/, to give a rude concuffion to 
any thing. To jump a body may therefore mean, to put it into a 
violent agitation or ieii;mo!iou t 



That's fure of death without it, at once pluck but 
The multitudinous tongue, let them not lick 
The fvveet which i.s their poifon : Your diihonour 
* Mangles true judgment, and bereaves the ftate 
Of that integrity ? which fhould become it ; 
Not having power to do the good it would, 
For the ill which doth controul it. 

Bru. He has faid enough. 

Sic. He has fpoken like a traitor, and fhall anfwer 
As traitors do. 

Cor. Thou wretch ! defpight overwhelm thee ! 
What fhould the people do with thefe bald tribunes ? 
On whom depending, their obedience fails 
To the greater bench : In a rebellion, 
When what's not meet, but what muft be, was law, 
Then were they chofen ; in a better hour, 
Let what is meet, be faid, 4 it muft be meet, 
And throw their power i' the dufl. 

Bru. Manifeft treafon. 

Sic. This a conful ? no. 

Bru. The zediles, ho !-~Let him be apprehended. 

So, in Phil. Holland's tranflation of Pliny's Nat. Hift. B. XXV, 
ch. v. p. 219: " If we looke for good fuccelfe in our cure by 
miniftring ellebore, &c. for certainly it putteth the patient to a 
jttmpe y or great hazard." STEEVENS. 

a Manglts true judgment, ] Judgment for government* 


'Judgment is judgment in its common fenfe, or the faculty by 
which right is diflinguiflied from wrong. JOHNSONS 

3 ivbich Jhottid become it j] Become, for adorn. 


Integrity is in this place foundnefs, uniformity, confiftency, in 
he fame fenfe as Dr. Warburton often ufes it, when he mentions 
the integrity of a metaphor. To become, is lofuit, to bejit. 


4 it muft be met*,] Hanmer reads : 

// ntuft be law. 

And Dr. Warburton follows him, furely without neceffity. 



C O R I O L A N U S. 4I ^ 

Sk. Go, call the people: [Exit Brutus.] in whofe 

name, myfelf 

Attach thee, as a traiterous innovator, 
A foe to the publick weal : Obey, I charge thee, 
And follow to thine anfwer. 

Cor. Hence, old goat ! 

All. We'll furety him. 

Com. Aged fir, hands off. 

Cer. Hence, rorten thing, or I fliall lhake thy bones 
Out of thy garments 5 . 

Sic. Help me, citizens. 

Re-enter Brutus, with a rabble of Citizens, with ibt 

Men. On both fides more refpect. 

Sic. Here's he, that would 
Take from you all your power. 

Bru. Seize him, sediles. 

AIL Down with him, down with him ! 

2, Sen. Weapons, weapons, weapons ! 

[They all bvjlle about Cor'tolanxs. 
Tribunes, patricians, citizens ! what ho !-r 
Sicinius, Brutus, Coriolanus, citizens ! 

All. Peace, peace, peace ; ftay, hold, peace ! 

Men. What is about to be ? I am out of breath ; 
Confufion's near ; I canndt fpeak : You, tribunes 
To the people 6 , Coriolanus, patience : 
Speak, good Sicinius. 

5 flake thy loncs 

Out of thy garment *.~\ 
So, in K. John : 

" here's a % 

** That fiakes the rotten carcafe of old death 
" Out of his rags .'" STEEVE\S. 

* To theptople, Coriolanus, patience ;] I would read; 
Speak to the people. Coriolanus, patience : 
good Sicinius. TyRWHITT. 



Sic. Hear me, people ; Peace. 

All. Let's hear our tribune : Peace. Speak, 

fpeak, fpeak. 

Sic. You are at point to lofe your liberties ; 
Marcius would have all from you ; Marcius, 
Whom late you nam'd for conful. 

Men. Fie, fie, fie ! 
This is the way to kindle, not to quench. 

i Sen. To unbuild the city, and to lay all flat. 
Sic. What is the city, but the people ? 
AIL True, 
The people are the city. 

Bru. By the confent of all, we were eftablilh'd 
The people's magiftrates. 
All. You fo remain. 
Men. And fo are like to do. 
Cor. That is the way' to lay the city flat ; 
To bring the roof to the foundation ; 
And bury all, which yet diftindtly ranges, 
In heaps and piles of ruin. 
Sic. This deferves death. 
Brit. Or let us (land to our authority, 
Or lettis lofe it : We do here pronounce, 
Upon the part o* the people, in whofe power 
We were elected theirs, Marcius is worthy 
Of prefent death. 

Sic. Therefore,- lay hold of him ; 
Bear him- to the rock Tarpcian, and from thence 
Into deftruftion caft him. 
Bru. JEdilcs, feize him. 
All. Yield, Marcius, yield. 
'Men. Hear me one word. 
Befcech yon, tribunes, hear me but a word* 
JEdiles. Peace, peace. 

Men. Be that you feem, truly your country's friend, 
And temperately proceed to what you would 
Thus violently rcdrc'fs. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 417 

Bru. Sir, thofe cold ways, 

That feem like prudent helps, are 7 very poifonous 
Where the difeafe is violent : Lay hands upon him, 
And bear him to the rock. 

[Coriolanus draws his fword. 
Cor. No ; I'll die here. 

There's fome among you have beheld me fighting ; 
Come, try upon yourfelves what you have feen me. 
Men. Down with that fword ; Tribunes, with- 
draw a while. 

Eru. Lay hands upon him. 
Men. Help, Marcius ! help, 
You that be noble ; help him, young, and old ! 
Ml. Down with him, down with him ! [Exeunt* 
[In this mutiny, the Tribunes, the /Ediles, and the 

people are beat in. 

Men. Go, get you to your houfe ; be gone, away^ 
All will be naught elfe. 
2 Sen. Get you gone. 
8 Cor. Stand faft ; 

We have as many friends as enemies. 
Men. Shall it be put to that ? 
i Sen. The gods forbid ! 
I pr'ythee, noble friend, home to thy houfc ; 
Leave us to cure this caufe. 

Men. For 'tis a fore upon us, 
You cannot tent yourfelf : Be gone, 'befeech you. 
Com. Come, fir, along with us. 
Cor. I would they were barbarians, (as they are 
Though in Rome litter'd ;) not Romans, (as they are 

7 very poifonous,'] I read : 

-are very poiibns. JOHNSON. 

* Com. Stand faft, &c.] This fpeech certainly fliould be given 
to Coriolanus ; for all his friends perfuade him to retire. So, 
Cominius prefently after : 

Come, fir, along with vs. WAR BUR TON. 

VOL. VII. E e Though 

4 i8 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Though calv'd i' the porch o' the Capitol.) Be 
gone 9 . 

Men. Put not your worthy rage into your tongue ; 
* One time will owe another. 

Cor. On fair ground, 
I could beat forty of them. 

Men. I could myfelf 

Take up a brace of the beft of them ; yea, the two 

Com. But now 'tis odds beyond arithmetick ; 
And manhood is call'd foolery, when it Hands 
Againft a falling fabrick. Will you hence, 
Before the tag return 1 ? whofe rage doth rend 
Like interrupted waters, and o'crbear 
What they are us'd to bear. 

Men. Pray you, be gone : 
I'll try whether my old wit be in requeft 
With thofe that have but little ; this muft be patch'd 
With cloth of any colour. 

Com. Nay, come away. 

[Exeunt Coriolanvs, and Com'mius. 

i Sen. This man has marr'd his fortune. 

Men. His nature is too noble for the world : 

9 Men.] / would they IK ere barbarians (as they are 

Though in Rome litter'd;) not Romans (as they are not, 
T'/JO' calnfd? the porch o 1 the capital.) Brjoae, &c. 
The beginning of this Ipeech, I am periuaded, ihould be given 
to Coriolanus. The latrer part only, belongs to Menenius : 

Put not your worthy rage, &c. TYRWHITT. 
I have divided this fpeech according to Mr. Tyrvvhitt's direction. 


1 One time will owe another. "\ I know not whether to owe in 
this place means to pojfifs by right, or to be inJubted. Either fenfe 
may be admitted. Otie time, in which the people are ieditious, 
will %lve us power in fome other time: or, this time of the people's 
predominance will run them in debt : that is, will lay them open 
to the law, and expofe them hereafter to more fervilc fubjection. 


a Before the tag re turn, ] The loweft and moft defpicablc 
of the populace are {till denominated by thofe a little above them, 
T/fg, r0gt aniiboltail. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 4 j 9 

He would not flatter Neptune for his trident, 

Or Jove for his power to thunder. His heart's his 

mouth : 

What his bread forges, that his tongue mutt vent j 
And, being angry, doth forget that ever 
He heard the name of death. [A nolfe within* 

Here's goodly work ! 

2 Sen. I would they were a-bed ! 

Men. 1 would they were in Tiber ! What, the 

Could he not fpeak 'em fair ? 

Enter Brutus } and Sicmius, with the rabbk again* 

Sic. Where is this viper, 
That will depopulate the city, and 
Be every man himfelf ? 

Men. You worthy tribunes, 

Sic. He fhall be thrown down the Tarpeian rocl; 
With rigorous hands ; he hath refilled law, 
And therefore law fhall fcorn him further trial 
Than the feverity of publick power, 
Which he fo fets at nought. 

i Cif. He lhall well know, 
The noble tribunes are the people's mouths, 
And we their hands. 

All. He lhall fure out. 

Men. Sir, lir, 

Sic. Peace. 

Men.. ' Do not cry, havock, where you Ihould but 


3 Do not ay havock, ] i. e. Do not give the iignal for un- 
limited Slaughter, &c. STEEVENS. 

Do not cry bavocli, where you Jhould but hunt 
With mode/I warrant.] 

To cry havock, was, I believe, originally a fporting phrafe, from 
kafoc, which in Saxon fignifies a hawk. It was afterwards ulec} 
in war. So, in K. John : 

E e 2 " -Cry 

420 C O R I O L A N U S. 

With modeft warrant. 

Sic. Sir, how comes it, that you 
Have holp to make this refcue ? 

Men. Hear me fpeak : 
As I do know the conful's worthinefs, 
So can I name his faults : 

Sic. Conful I what conful ? 

Men. The conful Coriolanus. 

Bru. He conful ! 

AIL No, no, no, no, no. 

Men. If, by the tribunes* leave, and yours, good 


I may be heard, I'd crave a word or two ; 
The which fhall turn you to no further harm, 
Than fo much lofs of time. 

Sic. Speak briefly then ; 
For we are peremptory, to cifpatch 
This viperous traitor : to ejedt him hence, 
"Were but one danger ; and, to keep him here, 
Our certain death ; therefore, it is decreed, 
He dies to-night. 

Men. Now the good gods forbid, 
That our renowned Rome, whofe gratitude 
Towards her deferved children is enrol I'd 
In Jove's own book, like an unnatural dam 
Should now eat up her own f 

I " Cry bavock, kings." 

AM in Julius Ctefar : 

" Cry bavock, and let flip the dogs of war.'* 
It feems to have been the fignal for general flaug-hter, and is cx- 
prefsly forbid in the Ordinances Jes Bctailk*, 9 R. ii. art. 10 : 

" Item, c]ue nul foil fi hardy de crier bavok fur peine d'avoir 
la teft coupe." 

The fecond article of the fame Ordinances feems to have been 
fatal to Bardolph. It was death even to touch the fix of little 

** Item qe nul foit fi hardy de toucher le corps de noftre Seig- 
neur, n! If vejjfl en quel il eft, fur peyne d'eltre trainez & pendu, 
et le teiie avoir coupe." M.S. Cotton. Nero D. VI. 



C O R I O L A N U S. 421 

Sic. He's a difeafe, that mufl be cut away. 

Men. O, he's a limb, that has but a difeafe; 
Mortal, to cut it off; to cure it, eafy. 
What has he done to Rome, that's worthy death ? 
Killing our enemies ? The blood he hath loft, 
(Which, I dare vouch, is more than that he hath, 
By many an ounce) he dropp'd it for his country : 
And, what is left, to lofe it by his country, 
Were to us all, that do't, and fuffer it, 
A brand to the end o' the world. 

Sic. 4 This is clean kam. 

Eru. Meerly awry : When he did love his country, 
It honour'd him. 

5 Men. The fervice of the foot 
Being once gangren'd, is not then refpcdted 
For what before it was ? 

Bru. WV11 hear no more : 
Purfue him to his houfe, and pluck him thence ; 
Left his infection, being of catching nature, 
Spread further. 

4 This is clean kam.] i.e. Awry. So Cotgrave interprets, 
Tout va a contrcpoil. All goes clean kam. Hence a kanibrel for a 
crooked ftick, or the bend in a horfe's hinder leg. 


The Welch word for crooked is kam\ and in Lylly's E.nJymion, 
1591, is the following paflage : *' But timely, madam, crooks 
that tree that will be a camack^ and young it pricks that will be 
a thorn." 
Again, \R.$4f/pbo and Phao, 1591 : 

" Camocks maft be bowed with Height not ilrength." 
Vulgar pronunciation has corrupted clean kam into klm hew, and 
this corruption is preferved in that great repoiitory ot ancient 
vulgarsfms, Stanyhurft's tranflation of Virgil, 1:582: 
" 'Sdnditur incertum Jludia in contraria vulgus." 
" The wavering commons in kym kam lettes are haled." 


5 Men. The fervice of the foot &c.~\ 

Nothing can be more evident, than that this could never be faici 
by Coriolanus's apologifl, and that it was faid by one of the tii- 
bunes ; I hax'e therefore given it to Sicinius. WAR BUR TON. 

I have refior'd it to Menenius, placing an interrcg::tion point at 
the conclulion of the fpeech. STEEVENS. 

E e 3 Men. 

412 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Men. One word more, one word. 
This tyger-footed rage, when it fhall find 
The harm of unfcann'd fwiftnefs, will, too late, 
Tie leaden pounds to his heels. Proceed by procefs ', 
Left parties (as he is belov'd) break out, 
And fack great Rome with Romans. 

Bn>. If it were fo 

Sic. What do ye talk ? 
Have we not had a tafte of his obedience ? 
Our diles fmote ? ourfelves refitted ? Come 

Men. Confider this; He hath been bred i' the wars 
Since he could draw a fword, and is ill fchool'd 
In boulted language ; meal and bran together 
He throws without diftinction. Give me leave, 
I'll go to him, and undertake to bring him 
Where he lhall anfwer, by a lawful form, 
(In peace) to his utmoft peril. 

i Sen. Noble tribunes, 
It is the humane way : the other courfe 
Will prove too bloody ; and the end of it 
Unknown to the beginning 6 . 

Sic. Noble Menenius, 
Be you then as the people's officer : 
Mafters, lay down your weapons. 

Bru. Go not home. 

Sic. Meet on the market-place : We'll attend you 

there : 

Where, if you bring not Marcius, we'll proceed 
In our firft way. 

Men. I'll bring him to you : 
Let me defire your company. [_To tie Senators.^ He 

muft come, 
Or what is worft will follow. 

i Sen. Pray you, let's to him. [Exeunt. 

* < - the end of it 

Unknown to the beginning.] 
"So, in the Tcmpeft, afr II. ic. i : 

" The latter end of his commonwealth forgets its begin- 
ning." STEVENS. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 423 


Coriolanus's Honfe. 
"Enter Coriolanus, with Patricians* 

Cor. Let them pull all about mine ears ; prefent 


Death on the wheel, or at wild horfes* heels ; 
Or pile ten hills on theTarpeian rock, 
That the precipitation might down ftretch 
Below the beam of fight, yet will I ftill 
Be thus to them. 

Enter Volumnia* 

Pat. You do the nobler. 

Cor. 7 1 mufe, my mother 
Does not approve me further, who was wont 
To call them woollen vaffals, things created . 
To buy or fell with groats ; to mew bare heads 
In congregations, to yawn, be ftill, and wonder, 
When one but of 8 my ordinance flood up 
To fpeak of peace, or war. [To Vol.'] I talk of you ; 
Why did you wifli me milder ? Would you have me 
Falfe to my nature ? Rather fay, I play 
The man I am. 

Vol. O, fir, fir, fir, 

I \vould have had you put your power well on, 
Before you had worn it out. 

Cor. Let go. 

Vol. You might have been enough the man you are, 
With flriving lets to be fo : Lefler had been 

7 I mj.ff, ] That is, I zander , lam at a lofs. JOHNSON. 

8 my ordliuiuce ] My rank. JOHNSON. 

E e 4 The 

424 C O R I O L A N U S. 

The thwartings of your difpofitions 9 , if 

You had not Ihew'd them how you were difpos'd 

Ere they lack'd power to crofs you. 

Cor. Let them hang. 

Vol. Ay, and burn too. 

Enter Menenius, with the Senators. 

Men. Come, come, you have been too rough, 

fomething too rough ; 
You muft return, and mend it. 

Sen. There's no remedy ; 
Unlefs, by not fo doing, our good city 
Cleave in the midft, and perilh. 

Vol. Pray, be counfel'd : 
I have a heart as little apt as yours, 
But yet a brain, that leads my ufe of anger, 
To better vantage. 

Mm. Well faid, noble woman : 
1 Before he fhould thus ftoop to the herd, but that 
The violent fit o' the time craves it as phyfick 
For the whole ftate, I would put mine armour on, 
Which I can fcarcely bear. 

Cor. What muft I do ? 

Men. Return to the tribunes. 

Cor. Well, what then ?. what then ? 

Men. Repent what you have fpoke. 

Cor. For them ? I cannot do it to the gods ; 
I then do't to them ? 

Vol. You are too abfolute ; 

The thwartings of your difpcjrticns, ] The folio reads : 

The things of your d'ifpofiticns, 

Mr. Rowe made the alteration, which I have followed, as my 
predeceflbrs had done, though without diftinguifliiug it to the 
reader. S TEE YENS. 

* Before he Jhould thus Jloop to the heart-] This nonfenfe 
fliould be reformed thus : 

Before he Jhould thus Jloop to the herd, 
i, e, the people, WARBURTON, 


C O R I O L A N U S. 425 

Though therein you can never be too noble. 

But when extremities fpeak*, I have heard you fay, 

Honour and policy, like unfever'd friends, 

I* the war do grow together : Grant that, and tell me, 

In peace, what each of them by the other lofe, 

That they combine not there ? 

Cor. Tufh, tufh! 

Men. A good demand. 

Vol. If it be honour, in your wars, to feem 
The fame you are not, (which, for your belt ends, 
You adopt your policy) how is it lefs, or worfe, 
That it fhall hold companionfhip in peace 
With honour, as in war ; fince that to both 
It {lands in like requeft ? 

Cor. ? Why force you this ? 

Vol. Becaufe, 

That now it lies you on to fpeak to the people : 
Not by your own inftruction, nor by the matter 
Which your heart prompts you to ; but with fuch 

That are but roated in your tongue, but 4 baftards, 

and fyllables 

Of no allowance, to your bofom's truth. 
Now, this no more dilhonours you at all, 
Than to take in a town with gentle words, 

* But ivben extremities fpeak. I have beard, &c.] Should not 
this paffage be pointed thus ? 

, You can never le too nolle. 

But when extremities fpeak, I have beard, &c. MALONE. 

3 VWy force you ] Why urge you. JOHNSON. 

4 bajlards, and fyllables 

Of no allowance, to your bofonfs truth.~\ 
I read : 

Of no alliance, 

therefore baJJarJs. Yet allowance may well enough fland, as menn- 
ing legal right, ejlablijbed rank, or fettled authority. JOHNSON. 
The old copy reads Though but baftards, &c. 
Allowance is certainly right. So, in Othello, aft II. fc. i : 

" his pilot 

*' Qf very expert and approv'd a/loivance. 1 ' STEEVENS. 



Which elfe would put you to your fortune, and 

The hazard of much blood. 

I would difTcmble with my nature, where 
My fortunes, and my friends, at flake, requir'd, 
I fhould do fo in honour : 5 I am in this, 
Your wife, your fon, thefe fenators, the nobles ; 
And you will rather fliew 6 our general lowts 
How you can frown, than fpend a fawn upon 'em, 
For the inheritance of their loves, and fafeguard 
Of what 7 that want might ruin. 

Men. Noble lady ! 

Come, go with us ; fpeak fair : you may falve fo, 
8 Not what is dangerous prefent, but the lofs 
Of what is paft. 

Vol. I pr'ythee now, my fon, 
Go to them, with this bonnet in thy hand ; 
And thus far having ftretch'd it, (here be with them) 
Thy knee buffing the ftoncs, (for in fuch bufinefs 
Aclion is eloquence, and the eyes of the ignorant 
More learned than the ears) 9 waving thy head, 


zu this 

Tour wife, your fon : tbcfcnators, tbc nobles. 

Andyou,^ &c.] 

The pointing of the printed copies makes ftark nonfenfe of this 
paffage. Volumnia is perfuading Coriolanus that he ought to 
flatter the people, as the general 'fortune was at flake ; and fays, 
that in this advice, flic fpeaks as his wire, as his fon ; as the fe- 
nate. and body of the patricians ; who were in fome meafure 
link'd to his conduct. WARBURTON. 

I rather think the meaning is, I am in their condition, lam at 
fiakc, together wkhjww mr/V, your Jon. JOHNSON. 

6 our general lowts,~\ Our common clowns. JOHNSON. 

7 that want ] The want of their loves. JOHNSON. 

8 Not -jakat ] In this place not feems to fignify not only. 


a waving thy head, 

Which often, thus, corrc fling thy flout heart, "\ 
But do any of the ancient or modern matters of elocution prefcrihe 
the wai-in% tbc head, when they treat of aclion ? Or how does the 
waving the head correct the iloutnefs of the heart, or evidence hu- 
mility ? Or, lailly, where is the fenfe or grammar of thefe words, 



With often, thus, correcting thy flout heart, 

Now humble as the ripeft mulberry % 

That will not hold the handling : Or, fay to them, 

Thou art their foldier, and being bred in broils, 

Haft not the fofc way, which, thou doft confefs, 

Were fit for thee to ufe, as they to claim, 

In afking their good loves ; but thou wilt frame 

Thyfelf, forfooth, hereafter theirs, ib far 

As thou haft power, and perfon. 

Men. This but done, 
Even as Ihe fpeaks, why, their hearts were yours : 

Wicb often thus, &c ? Thefe queftions are fufficient to fhew that 
the lines are corrupt. I would read therefore : 

iv ay ing thy hand, 

Which {"often thus, correcting thy Jl out heart. 

This is a very proper precept of aclion fuiting the occafion : 
Wave thy hand, lays fhe, and foften the action ot it thus, then 
ftrike upon thy breaft, and by that adlion fhew the people thou 
haft corrected thy flout heart. All here is fine and proper. 


The correction is ingenious, yet I think it not right. Head or 
hand is indifferent. The hand is waved to gain attention ; the 
head is fhaken in token of forrovv. The word ivave fuits better 
to the hand, but in confidering the authour's language, too much 
ftrefs muft not be laid on propriety, againft the copies. I would 
read thus: 

waving thy head, 

With often, thus, correfting tfyjlout heart. 

That is, flaking thy head, xaAJtr iking thy breaft. The alteration 
is llighr, and the gefture recommended not improper. JOHNSON. 
Shakefpeare ufes the fame expreifion in Hamlet : 

" And thrice his head waving thus, up and do-wi" 


I have fometimes thought that this paflage might originally have 
food thus : 

waving thy head, 

(Which humble thus ;) correcting thy ftout heart, 
Nowy^/toVas the ripeft mulberry. TYRWHITT. 
1 humble as the riffft mulberry,"] This fruit, when thoroughly 
.ripe, drops from the tree. STEEVENS. 

./Efchylus (as appears from a fragment of his 4>PYrES >j FK- 
TOPOE AYTPA, preierved by Athenaeus, lib. ii.) lays of Hcdtor 
that he was fofter thnn mulberries. 



428 C O R I O L A N U S. 

For they Have pardons, being afk'd, as free 
As words to little purpofe. 

Vol. Pr'ythee now, 
Go, and be rul'd : although, I know, thou had'ft 


Follow thine enemy in a fiery gulf, 
Than flatter him in a bower. Here is Cominius. 

Enter Cominius. 

Com. I have been i' the market-place : and, fir, 

'tis fit 

You make ftrong party, or defend yourfelf 
By calmnefs, or by abfence ; all's in anger. 
Men. Only fair Ipeech. 
Com. I think, 'twill ferve, if he 
Can thereto frame his fpirit. 

Vol. He muft, and will : 
Pr'ythee, now, fay, you will, and go about it. 
GOT. Muft I go fhew them * my unbarb'd fconce ? 


* my unbarVd fconce ? ] The fuppliants of the po- 

plc ufed to prefent themfelves to them in fordid and neglected 
drefles. JOHNSON. 

Unvaried, bare, uncover'd. In the times of chivalry when a 
horfe was fully armed and accoutered for the encounter, he was 
faid to be larled; probably from the old word barbe which 
Chaucer ufes for a veil or covering. HAWKINS. 

Unbarled fconce is untrimrrfd or unjlicfven head. To larb a man, 
was to (have him. So, in Promos and Cnjfandra, 1578: 

*' Grim, you are fo clean a young man. 

*' Row. And who larbes you, Grimball ? 

" Grim. A dapper knave, one Rolco. 

" Row. I know him not, is he a deaft barber V* 
To barle the field was to cut the corn. 
So, in Drayton's Polyollnon, Song XIII : 

" The lab'ring hunter tufts the thick unbarled grounds." 
Again, in the Malcontent, by Marfton : 

" The {looping fcytheman that doth larle the field." 
Unvaried may, however, bear the lignification which the late 


C O R I O L A N U S. 429 

With my bafe tongue, give to my noble heart 
A lie, that it muft bear ? Well, I will do't : 
Yet were there but this J Tingle plot to lofe, 
This mould of Marcius, they to duft fhould grind it v 
And throw it againft the wind. To the market- 
place : 

You have put me now to fuch a part, which never 
1 lhall difcharge to the life. 

Com* Come, come, we'll prompt you. 

VoL I pr'ythee now, fweet fon ; as thou haft 


My praifes made thee firft a foldier, fo, 
To have my praife for this, perform a part 
Thou haft not done before. 

Cor. Well, I muft do't : 

Away, my difpofition, and poflefs me 

Some harlot's fpirit ! My throat of, war be turn'd, 

4 Which quired with my drum, into a pipe 
Small as an eunuch, or the virgin voice 

That babies lulls afleep ! The fmiles of knaves 

5 Tent in my cheeks ; and fchool-boys' tears take up 
The glafles of my fight ! A beggar's tongue 
Make motion through my lips ; and my arm'd knees. 
Who bow'd but in my ftirrop, bend like his 
That hath receiv'd an alms ! I will not do't ; 
Left I furceafe 6 to honour mine own truth, 

Mr. Hawkins would affix to it. So, in Magnificence, an inter- 
lude by Skelton, Fancy fpeaking of a hooded hawk, fays : 

" Barlyd like a nonne, for burnynge of the fonne." 


3 Jiugle plot ] i.e. piece, portion; applied to a 
piece of earth, and here elegantly transferred to the body, car- 

4 Which quired ivitb my drum, ] Which played in concert 

with my drum. JOHNSON. 

5 Tent in my cheeks ; ] To tent is to take up rejidence. 


6 to honour mine otvn truth,"\ 

^i/no e-atrrw. Pythagoras. JOHNSOW. 



And, by my body's action, teach my mind 
A mod inherent bafenefs. 

Vol. At thy choice then : 
To beg of thee, it is my more dishonour, 
Than thou of them. Come all to ruin ; 7 let 
Thy mother rather feel thy pride, than fear 
Thy dangerous jftoutnefs : for I mock at death 
With as big heart as thou. Do as thon lift. 
Thy valiantnefs was mine, thou fuck'dft it from me ; 
But own thy pride thyfelf. 

Cor. Pray, be content ; 
Mother, I am going to the market-place ; 
Chide me no more. I'll mountebank their loves, 
Cog their hearts from them, and come home belov'd 
Of all the trades in Rome. Look, I am going : 
Commend me to my wife. I'll return conful ; 
Or never truft to what my tongue can do 
1* the way of flattery, further. 

Vol. Do your will. [Exit Volumnia, 

Com. Away, the tribunes do attend you : arm 


To anfwer mildly ; for they are prepar'd 
With accufations, as I hear, more ttrong 
Than are upon you yet. 

Cor. The word is, mildly : Pray you, let us go : 
Let them accufe me by invention, I 
Will anfwer in mine honour. 

Men. Ay, but mildly. 

Cor. Well, mildly be it then ; mildly. [Exeunt* 

Thy mother rather feel thy pride, than fear 

Thy dangerous jloutncfs ; ] 

This is obfcure. Perhaps, flie means, Go, do thy worft ; let me 
rather feel the utmotf extremity that thy pride can bring upon us, than 
live thus in fear of thy dangerous obftinacy. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 431 


The Forum. 
Enter Sicihius, and Brutus. 

Brit. In this point charge him home, that he aflfe&s 
Tyrannical power : If he evade us there, 
Inforce him with his envy to the people ; 
And that the fpoil, got on the Antiatcs, 
Was ne'er diftributed. What, will he come ? 

Enter an jEdile. 

<Ld. He's coming. 

Bru. How accompanied ? 

JEd. With old Mcnenius, and thofe fenators 
That always favour'd him. 

Sic. Have you a catalogue 
Of all the voices that we have procur'd, 
Set down by the poll ? 

Md, I have ; 'tis ready. 

Sic. Have you collected them by tribes ? 

JEd. I have. 

Sic. Aflemble prefently the people hither : 
And when they hear me fay, Itjhall be fo, 
r the right andftrength o the commons, be it either 
For death, for fine, or banimment, then let them, 
If I fay, fine, cry fine ; if death, cry death ; 
Infilling on the old prerogative 
And power 8 i' the truth o' the caufe. 

JILd. I lhall inform them. 

Bru. And when fuch time they have begun to cry, 

8 z* the truth <? tie caufe.~\ This is not very ealily under* 

flood. We might read : 

o'er the truth o' the caufe. JOHNSON. 



Let them not ceafe, but with a din confus'd 
Inforce the prefent execution 
Of what we chance to fentence. 

Md. Very well. 

Sic. Make them be ftrong, and ready for this hint, 
When we fhall hap to give't them. 

Bru. Go about it. [Exit JRdile. 

Put him to choler ftraight : He hath been us'd 
Ever to conquer,- 9 and to have his worth ' 
Of contradiction : Being once chaf'd, he cannot 
Be rein'd again to temperance * ; then he fpeaks 
What's in his heart; and that is there, } which looks 
With us to break his neck. 


9 i and to have bis word 

Of contradiction ] 

The fenfe here falls miferably. He hath lecn ufed, fays the 
ipeaker, ever to conquer And what then ? and to contradict, 
We fhould read and point it thus : 

and to have his word, 

Off contradiction.* 

i. e. to have his opinion- carry it without contradiction. Here the 
fenfe rifes elegantly. He ufed ever to conquer j nay, to conquer 
without oppojit ion. WARBURTON. 

To have his word of contradiction is no more than, be is ufed to 
contradifi; and to have his word, that is, not to le oppofcd. We 
ftill lay of an obflinate difputant, be will have the loft word. 

1 and to have his worth 

Of contradiction : ] 

The modern editors fubftituted word ; but the old copy reada 
not word, but worth, which, I apprehend, is right. He has 
been ufed to have his worth, or (as we fliould now fay) his 
pennyworth of contradiction ; his full quota or proportion. 


* Se rein'd again to temperance;] Our poet feems to have 
taken feveral of his images from the old pageants. In the new 
edition of Lehnd's CoUeCtanea, Vol. IV. p. 190, the virtue tem- 
perance ii reprefented " holdyng in hyr haund a litt of an horfe." 


3 which looks 

With us to break his neck."} 

A familiar phrafe of that time, fignifymg works with us. But the 


C O R I O L A N U S. 433 

Enter Coriolanus, Mcnenius, and Comimus, with often* 

Sic. Well, here he comes. 

Men. Calmly, I do befeech you. 

Cor. Ay, as an oftler, that for the pooreft piece 
Will bear the knave by the volume 4 . The honour'd 


Keep Rome in fafety, and the chairs of juftice 
Supply'd with worthy men ! * plant love among us ! 
Throng our large temples with the Ihews of peace, 
And not our flreets with war ! 

i Sen. Amen, amen ! 

Men. A noble wifh. 

Re-enter the MdV.e, with the Plebeians. 

Sic. Draw near, ye people. 

jEJ. Lift to your tribunes ; audience : Peace, I 

Cor. Firft, hear me fpeak. 

Both Tri. Well, fay. Peace, ho. 

Cor. Shall I be charg'd no farther than this prefent ? 
Mult all determine here ? 

Sic. I do demand, 
If you fubmit you to the people's voices, 

Oxford editor, underfhnding the fenfe better than the expreffion, 
gives us here Shakefpeare's meaning in his own words. 


To holt is to wait or exfcft. 1 he fenfe I believe is, H'ht l.e 
has in bis heart is waiting there to help us to Ircak his neck. 


4 Will Icc.r the knave ly :ie volum.\~\ i, e. would bear being 
called a knave as often as \vou!d fill out a volume. STEEVENS. 
s --- lant lavj (t:r.o, us ! 

Through our large tea.ples with tbeJbfOJS of peace , 

And fat ourjir^ts with ivar.'] 
\Ve fliould rcau : 

Throng cur large temples 
The other is rank nonfenfe. WAREUK.TON. 

VOL. VII. F f Allow 


Allow their officers, and are content 
To fufTer lawful cenfnre for fuch faults 
As ihall be prov'd upon you ? 

Cor. I am content. 

Men. I.o, citizens, he fays, he is content : 
The warlike fervice he has done, confider ; think 
Upon the wounds his body bears, which ihew 
Like graves i' the holy church-yard. 

Cor. Scratches with briars, fears to move laughter 

Men. Confider further, 
That when he fpeaks not like a citizen, 
You find him like a foldier : Do not take 
His rougher accents 6 for malicious founds ; 
But, as I fay, fuch as become a foldier, 
Rather than 7 envy you. 

Com. Well," well, no more. 

Cor. What is the matter, 
That being paft for conful with full voice, 
I am fo difconour'd, that the very hour 
You take it off again ? 

SU: Anfwer to us. 

Cor. Say then : 'tis true, I ought fo. 

Sic: We charge you, that you have contriv'd to take 
From Rome all 8 icafon'd office, and to wind 
Yourfeif into a power tyrannical ; 
For which, you are a traitor to the people. 

Cor. HQW ! Traitor ? 

Men. Nay ; temperately : Your promife. 

Cor. The fires i'theloweft hell fold in the people ! 
Call me their traitor ! Thou injurious tribune ! 
Within thine eyes fat twenty thoufand deaths, 

6 H. ; s milker accents] The old copy reads atf/otis. Theobald 
made the ch.ingc. STEEVKNS. 

7 Ratbcr than envy you.'} Envy is here taken at large for ma- 
lignity or ill intention. JOHNSON* 

8 feafondiiffice) ]' All office fftabliflj.-j nnd fettled by time, 

and made familiar to the people by long uie. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 435 

In thy hands clutch'd as many millions, in 
Thy lying tongue both numbers, I would fay, 
Thou lieft, unto thee, with a voice as free 
As I do pray the gods. 

Sic. Mark you this, people ? 

All. To the rock with him ! to the rock with him ! 

Sic. Peace. 

We need not lay new matter to his charge : 
What you have feen him do, and heard him fpeak, 
Beating your officers, curling yourfelves, 
Oppofing laws with flrokes, and here defying 
Thofe whofe great power muft try him ; even this, 
So criminal, and in fuch capital kind, 
Deferves the extreameft death. 

Eru. But fince he hath 
Serv'd well for Rome, 

Cor. What do you prate of fervice ? 

Bru. I talk of that, that know it. 

Cor. You ? 

Men. Is this the promife that you made your mo- 
ther ? 

Com. Know, I pray you 

Cor. I'll know no further : 
Let them pronounce the deep Tarpeian death, 
Vagabond exile, fleaing : Pent to linger 
But with a grain a day, I would not buy 
Their mercy at the price of one fair word ; 
Nor check my courage for what they can give, 
To have't with faying, Good morrow. 

Sic. For that he has 

(As much as in him lies) from time to time 
Envy'd againil the people 9 , feeking means 
To pluck away their power ; ' as now at laft 


9 Emy'dzgaai&.tbepeoplt.'} i.e. behaved with figus of hatred 
to the people. STEEVENS. 

1 as no-iu at laft^\ Read rather : 

has n<Kv at laft. JOHNSON-. 

' F f 2 I am 

436 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Given hcftile ftrokes, and that * not in the prefence 

Of dreaded juftice, but on the minifters 

That do diftribme it ; In the name o' the people, 

And in the power cf us the tribunes, we, 

Even from this inftant, baniih. him our city ; 

In peril of precipitation 

From off the rock Tarpcian, never more 

To enter our Rome gates : F the peopled name, 

I fay, itlhallbe fo. 

All. It fhall be fo, it fhall be fo ; let him away : 
He's banifh'd, and it fhall be fo. 

Com. Hear me, my mailers, and my common 
friends ;- 

Sic. He's fentenc'd : no more hearing. 

Com. Let me fpeak : 

I have been conful, and can mew from Rome, 
Her enemies' marks upon me. I do love 
My country's good, with a refpect more tender, 
More holy, and profound, than mine own life, 
3 My dear wife's eftimate, her womb's increafe, 
And trcafure of my loins : then if I would 
Speak that 

Sic. We know your drift : Speak what ? 

Bru. There's no more to be faid, but he is banifh'd, 
As enemy to the people, and his country : 
It lhall be fo. 

All. It lhall be fo, it lhall be fo. 

Cor. You common cry of curs ! whofe breath I hate 
As reek o s the rotten fens, whofe loves I prize 

I am not certain but that as in this inftance, has the power of 
as well as. The fame mode of expreffion I have met with among 
our ancient writers. STEEVENS. 

a not In the prefiiu-e] Not {lands again for not only. 

It is thus ufed in the New Teftament, i ThefT. iv. 8. 

" He therefore that defplfeth, defpifeth not man but God, &c." 


3 My dear wife's eftimatc, ] I love my country beyond the 

fate at which I i\ilue my dear ivife. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 437 

As the dead carcafles of nnburied men 
That do corrupt my air, I banifh you ; 
And here remain with your uncertainty ! 
Let every feeble rumour fhake your hearts ! 
Your enemies, with nodding of their plumes, 
Fan you into defpair ! 4 Have the power flill 
To banifh your defenders : 'till, at length, 
Your ignorance (which finds not, 'till it feels ; 
Making but refervation of yourfelves, 
Still your own foes) deliver you, as moft 
Abated captives s , to fome nation 
That won you without blows ! Defpifing, 
For you, the city, thus I turn my back : 
There is a world elfewhere. 

[Exeunt Coriolanus, Commit* s t and others. The 
people Jhout, and throw up their caps. 

&d. The people's enemy is gone, is gone ! 

AIL Our enemy is banifh'd ! he is gone ! Hoo ! 
hoo ! 

Sic. Go, fee him out at gates, and follow him, 

4 Have the power Ji ill 

To banijh your defenders ; till, at length, 
Your ignorance, (which finds not, till it feels, &C.J 
Still retain the power of banijhing your defenders, till your undifcern- 
ing folly, which can forcfee no confluences, leave none in the city 
but yourfelves, who are always labouring your own dejiruflion. 

It is remarkable, that, among the political maxims of the fpe- 
culative Harrington, there is one which he might have borrowed 
from this fpeech. The people, fays he, cannot fee, but they can feel. 
It is not much to the honour of the people, that they have the 
fame character of ftupidity from their enemy and their friend. 
Such was the power of our authour's mind, that he looked through 
life in all its relations private and civil. JOHNSON-. 

5 Abated captives.'] Abated is dejefted, fubduecl, deprefied iq 
fpirits. So, in the tragedy of Darius by lord Sterline, 1603 ; 
" Star-boafting Babylon, bluih to behold 
" One call'd thy king, furmounted and abated" 
Abated has the fame power as the French abattu. 
Again, in Crcefus, 1604, by the fame author: 

" To advance the humble, and abate the proud." i. e t 
Parctt-ffitbjcflis et debellare fnpv -los. STEEVENS. 

F f As 

438 C O R I O L A N U S. 

As he hath follow'd you, with all defpight ; 
Give him deferv'd vexation. Let a guard 
Attend us through the city. 

AIL Come, come, let us fee him out at gates ; 

come : 
The gods prefcrve our noble tribunes ! Come. 


A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

Before the Gates .of 'Rome. 

Enter Cor'wlani'.s, Folumnia, Hrgilia, Mencnhis, Cominius, 
ivith tke young Nobility of Rome. 

Cor. Come, leave your tears ; a brief farewel : 

the beaft 

With many heads butts me away. Nay, mother, 1 
Where is your ancient courage ? You were us'd 
To fay, extremity was the trier of fpirits; 
That common chances common men could bear ; 
That, when the fea was calm, all boats alike 
Shew'd mafterfhip in floating : 6 fortune's blows, 


fortune' 's 

Ml/en moft Jlruck borne ^ being 'gentle wounded, craves 
A noble cunning.] 

This is the ancient and authentick reading. The modern edi- 
tors have, for gentle wounded, filently fubftituted gently warded, 
and Dr. Warburton has explained gently by ?:o!>lv. It is good to 
be lure of our authour's words before we go about to explain their 

The fenfe is, When Fortune ftrikes her hardeft blows, to be 
wounded, and yet continue calm, requires a generous policy. 
He calls this calmnefs cunning, becaufe it is the effedt of reflection 
and philofophy. Perhaps the firit emotions of nature are nearly 



When moft ftruck home, being gentle wounded* 


A noble cunning : you were us'd to load me 
With precepts, that would make invincible 
The heart that conn'd them. 

Vir. O heavens ! O heavens ! 

Cor. Nay, I pr'ythee, woman, 

Vol. Now the redpeftilence flrike all trades in Rome, 
And occupations perifh ! 

Cor. What, what, what! 

I fhall be lov'd, when I am lack'd. Nay, mother, 
Refume that fpirit, when you were wont to fay, 
If you had been the wife of Hercules, 
Six of his labours you'd have done, and fav'd 
Your hufband fo much fweat. Cominius, 
Droop not ; adieu : Farewel, my wife ! my mother ! 
I'll do well yet. Thou old and true Menerius, 
Thy tears are falter than a younger man's, 
And venomous to thine t?yes. My fometimc go; 
I have feen r.hee ftern, and thou haft oft beheld 
Heart-hard'riing fpectacles ; tell thefc fad women, 
7 'Tis fond to \vail inevitable ftrokes, 
As 'tis to laugh at them. My mother, you wot well, 
My hazards ilill have been your folace : and 
Believe't not lightly, (though I go alone, 
Like to a lonely dragon, that his fen 
Makes fear'd, and talk'd of more than feen) your fon 
Will, or exceed the common, or be caught 
With 8 cautelous baits and practice. 

Vol. 9 My firft fon, 


uniform, and one man differs from another in the power of en- 
durance, as he is better regulated by precept and instruction. 
They lore as heroes, lut they felt as men. JOHNSON. 

7 *Tu fond ] i.e. 'tis fool'ifli. STEEVENS. 

8 cautelous baits and praflice.] By artful and falfe tricks, 

and treafon. JOHNSOX. 

9 My firft yi,] Firft, i.e. nobleft, and moft eminent of men. 

F f 4 The 

440 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Whither wilt thou go ? Take good Cominius 
With thee a while : Determine on fome courfe, 
More than a wild expoftureto each chance 
That ftarts i' the way before thee. 

Cor. O the gods ! 

Com. I'll follow thee a month, devife with thee 
Where thou fhalt reft, that thou may'ft hear of us, 
.And we of thee : fo, if the time thruft forth, 
A caufe for thy repeal, we ihall not fend 
O'er the vaft world, to feek a fingle man ; 
And lofe advantage, which doth ever cool 
I' the abfence of the needcr. 

Cor. Fare ye well : 

Thou haft years upon thee ; and thou art too full 
Of the war's furfeits, to go rove with one 
That's yet unbruis'd : bring me but out at gate. 
Come, my fweet wife, my dearcft morhcr, and 
1 My friends of- noble touch : when I am forth, 
Bid me farewel, and fmile. I pray you, come. 
While I remain above the ground, you ihall 
Hear from me ftill ; and never of me aught 
But what is like me formerly. 

Men. That's worthily 

As any ear can hear. Come, let's not weep. 
If I could fhake off but one feven years 
From thefe old arms and legs, by the good gods, 
I'd with thee every foot. 

Cor. Give me thy hand : Come. \_Exenn!. 

The author of the Rcvifal would read : 
My fierce fon. STEEVF.NS. 

1 "My friends of noble touch: ] i.e. of true metal un- 

allay'd. Metaphor taken troin trying gold on ti-e touchftpne. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 44I 


A Street. 
Enter Sicimus, and Brutus, with an JEdile. 

Sic. Bid them all home ; he's gone, and we'll no 


The nobility are vex'd, who, we fee, have fided 
In his behalf. 

Bru. Now we have Ihewn our power, 
Let us feem humbler after it is done, 
Than when it was a doing. 

Sic. Bid them home : 
Say, their great enemy is gone, and they 
Stand in their ancient ftrength. 

Bru. Difmifs them home. [Exit JEdilc. 

Enter Polumma, Virgdia, and Menemus. 

Here comes his mother. 
Sic. Let's not meet her. 
Bru. Why ? 

Sic. They fay, (he's mad. 
Bru. They have ta'en note of us : 
Keep on your way. 

Vol. O, you're well met : The hoarded plague 

o'the gods 
Requite your love ! 

Men. Peace, peace ; be not fo loud. 

Vol. If that I could for weeping, you Ihould 

hear ; 

Nay, and you lhall hear fome. Will you be gone ? 

[To Brutus. 
Vir. [To Sidn.] You lhall ftay too : I would, I had 

the power 
To fay fo to my hulband. 



a Sic. Are you mankind ? 

Vol. Ay, foci ; Is that a lhame ? Note but thi^ 


Was not a man my father ? 3 Hadlt thou foxfhip 
To banim him that {truck more blows for Rome, 
Than thou haft fpoken words ? 

Sic. O Wetted heavens ! 

Vol. More noble blows, than ever thou wife words ; 
And for Rome's good. I'll tell thee what ; Yet 


Nay, but thou ihalt ftay too : - 1 would my fon 
Were in Arabia, and thy tribe before him, 
His good fword in his hand. 

Sic. What then ? 

Virg. What then ? 
He'd make an end of thy pofterity. 

Vol. Baftards, and all. 
Good man, the wounds that he does bear for Rome ! 

Men. Come, come, peace. 

Sic. I would he had continu'd to his country, 

- Sic. Are you mankind ? 

Vol. Wy, fool; I 3 that a fbamc ? Note but this fool. 

Was not a man my father ? - ] 

The word mankind is ufed nialicioufly by the firft fpeaker, and 
taken perverfely by the fecond. A mankind woman is a woman 
with the roughnefs of a man, and, in an aggravated fenfe, a wo- 
man ferocious, violent, and eager to flied blood. In this / fenfe 
Sicinius alks Volumnia, if fhe be mankind. She takes mankind 
for a human creature, and accordingly cries out : 

Note but this fool. 

Wai not a man my father ? JOHNSON. 
So, Jonfon, in the Silent Woman: 

" O mankind generation !" 
Shakefpeare himfelf, in the Winter 's Tale : 

" a mankind witch." 
Fairfax, in his transition of Taflo : 

" See, fee this mankind ilrumpet ; fee, ilie cry'd, 

" This fliamelefs whore." 
So, Ben Jonfon : 

" Pallas, nor thee I call on, iwtffe$/W maid." STEEVENS. 
3 Hadft thou fox/Jnp\ Hadft thou, fool as thou art, mean cun- 
ning enough to banifn Coriolanus ? JOHNSON, 


C O R I O L A N U S. 443 

As he began ; and not unknit himfelf 
The noble knot he made. 

Eru. I would he had. 

Pol. I would he had ? 'Twas you incens'd the 

rabble : 

Cats, that can judge as fitly of his worth, 
As I can of thofe myfteries which heaven 
Will not have earth to knov, r . 

Eru. Pray, let us go. 

Vol. Now, pray, fir, get you gone : 
You have done a brave deed. Ere you go, hear this : 
As far as doth the Capitol exceed 
The meaneft houfe in Rome ; fo far, my fon, 
(This lady's hufband here, this, do you lee) 
Whom yon have banifh'd, does exceed you all. 

Eru. Well, well, we'll leave you. 

Sic. Why ftay we to be baited 
With one that wants her wits ? 

Vol. Take my prayers with you. 
I would the gods had nothing elfe to do, 

[Exeunt Tribunes. 

But to confirm my curfes ! Could I meet 'em 
But once a day, it would unclog my heart 
Of what lies heavy to't. 

Men. You have told them home., 
And, by my troth, you have caufe. You'll fup 
with me ? 

Vol. Anger's my meat ; I fup upon myfelf, 
And fo mall ftarve with feeding. Come, let's go : 
Leave this faint puling, and lament as I do, 
In anger, Juno-like. Come, come, come. 

Men. Fie, fie, fie ! [Exeunt. 



Between Rome and Antlum. 
'Enter a Roman, and a Voice. 

Rom. I know you well, fir, and you know .me: 
your name, I think, is Adrian. 

Vol. It is fo, fir : truly, I have forgot you. 

Rom. I am a Roman ; and my fervices are, as you 
are, againft 'em : Know you me yet ? 

Vol. Nicanor ? No. 

Rom. The fame, fir. 

Vol. You had more beard, when I laft faw you ; 
3 but your favour is well appcar'd by your tongue. 
What's the news in Rome ? I have a note from the 
Volcian ftate, to find you out there : You have well 
faved me a day's journey. 

Rom. There hath been in Rome ftrange infurrec- 
tion : the people againfl the fenators, patricians, 
and nobles. 

Vol. Hath been ! Is it ended then ? Our ftate thinks 

3 lut your favour Is i:\"tl appear'd by your tongue."} This is 
flrange nonlenfe. We fliould read : 

is ivell appeal 'd, 

i.e. brought into remembrance. WASEURTOX. 
I ftiould read : 

is well affear'd. 
That is, ftrengtlened, attpfted, a word ufed by our authour. 

" My title is aftear'd." Macbeth. 

To repeal may be to bring to remembrance, but appeal has another 
meaning. JOHNSON. 
I would read : 

Tour favour is ive/l approv'd ly your tongue, 
i. e. your tongue ftrengthens the evidence of your face. 
So, in Hamlet, fc. i : 

** That if again this apparition come, 

** He may approve our eyes, and fpeak to it." 



C O R I O L A N U S. 445 

not fo ; they are in a mcft warlike preparation, and 
hope to come upon them in the heat of their divifion. 

Rom. The main blaze of it is paft, but a fmall thing 
would make it flame again. For the nobles receive 
fo to heart the banifhment of that worthy Coriolanus, 
that they are in a ripe aptnefs, to take ail power from 
the people, and to pluck from them their tribunes 
for ever. This lies glowing, I can tell you, and is 
almoft mature for the violent breaking out. 

Vol. Coriolanus banifh'd ? 

Rom. Baniih'd, fir. 

Vol. You will be welcome with this intelligence, 

Rom. The day ferves well for them now. I have 
heard it faid, The fitted time to corrupt a man's wife, 
is when fhe's fallen out with her hufband. Your no- 
ble Tullus Aufidius will appear well in thefe wars, 
his great oppofer Coriolanus being now in no re- 
queft of his country. 

Vol. He cannot choofe. I am moft fortunate, thus 
accidentally to encounter you : You have ended my 
bufinefs, and I will merrily accompany you home. 

Rom. I fhall, between this and fupper, tell you 
moft flrange things from Rome ; all tending to the 
good of their advcrfaries. Have you an army ready, 
lay you ? 

Vol. A moft royal one : the centurions, and their 
charges, diftindily billeted, 4 already in the entertain- 
ment, and to be on foot at an hour's warning. 

Rom. I am joyful to hear of their readinefs, and 
am the man, I think, that fhall fet them in prefcnt 
adion. So, fir, heartily well met, and molt glad 
of your company. 

4 already in tie entertainment,] That is, though not aftually 
encamped, yet already in pay. To entertain a:: army is to take 
them into pay. JOHNSON. 



Vol. You take my part from me, fir ; I have the 
mod caufe to be glad of yours. 

Rom. Well, let us go together. [Exeunt. 



Before Aufidiuss Houfe. 
Enter Coiiolani'.s, In mean apparel, difguifd^ and miffled. 

Cor. A goodly city is this Antium : City, 
'Tis I that made thy widows ; many an heir J 
Of thefe fair edifices for my wars 
Have I heard groan, and drop : then know me not ; 
Leit that thy wives with fpits, and boys with flones, 

Enter a Citizen. 

In puny battle flay me. Save you, fir. 

Citt And yon. 

Cor. Dire<ft me, if it be your will, 
Where great Anfidius lies : Is he in Antium ? 

Cit. He is, and feafts the nobles of the ftate, 
At his houfe this night. 

5 many an heir, Sec.] Heir Is, probably, here ufed in its ob- 
vious and ordinary fenie, ivKprefumpti'vefuccejjor; the younger 
part of the inhabitants of Antium being moft likely to have 
been engaged in battle. However, the words many an heir may 
iignify the aftual owners, or pcffejjbrs ; for to inherit, and to pof- 
Jlfs, ate ufed by our author as fynonimous terms. So, in Romeo 
and JK. ct : 

fuch delight. 

Among fr.fli female buds, fliall you this night 

'Inherit at my houfe." 
A;;';: in in Tifus AnJronicus : 

To bury fo much gold under a tree, 

And ne'^cr alter to inherit it." MALONE. 

G O R I O L ANUS. 457 

Cor. Which is his houfe, 'befeech you ? 

Cit. This, here, before you. 

Cor. Thank you, fir ; farewel. [Exit Citizen. 

6 Q, world, thy flippery turns ! Friends now faft 

fworn, - 

Whofe double bofoms fcem to wear one heart, 
Whofe hours, whofe bed, whofe meal, and exercife^ 
Are flill together, who twin, as 'twere, in love 
Unfeparable, mall within this hour, 
On a diflention of a doit, break out 
To bittereft enmity : So, felleft foes, 
Whofe paffions and whofe plots have broke their 


To take the one the other, by fome chance, 
Some trick not worth an egg, lhall grow dear friends, 

And interjoin their ifiues. 7 So with me : 


6 O, war///, tbyjlippcry turns ! &c.] This fine picture of com- 
mon friendfhips, is an artful introduction to the fuclden league, 
which the poet made him enter into with Aufidius, and no lei's 
artful an apology for his commencing enemy to Rome. 


7 So with me : 

My country havp I and my lovers left ; 
This enemy's to-vti Pll enter \ if be Jlay me, &c. 
He who reads this would think that he was reading the lines of 
Shakefpeare : except that Coriolanus, being already in the town, 
lays, he ivill enter it. Yet the old edition exhibits it thus : 

So -ivith me y 

My birth -place have 7, and my loves upon 
7 his enemic towne : I II enter if be Jlay me, &c. 
The intermediate line feems to be loft, in which, conformably to 
his former obfervatjons, he fays, that he has loft his birth-place, 
and his loves upon a petty difpute, and is trying his chance in this 
enemy town : he then ' cries, turning to the houfe of Aufidius, /'// 
enter if be Jlay me. 

I have preferved the common reading, becaufe it is, though 
faulty, yet intelligible, and the original paflage, for want of co- 
pies, cannot be reftored. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps the alteration of a fingle letter may recover fufficient 
fcnfe. I read ; 


448 C O R I O t A N U S. 

My birth-place hate I, and my love's upon 

This enemy town. I'll enter : if he flay me, 

He does fair juflice ; if he give me way, 

I'll do his country fervicc. [Exit. 


A Hall in Aitfidius's Houfe. 
Mufick plays. Enter a Serving-man. 

1 Serv. Wine, wine, wine ! What fervice is here ! 
I think our fellows are afleep. [Exit.' 

Enter another Serving-man. 

2 Ser. Where's Cotus ? my mafler calls for him. 
Cotus ! [Exit. 

Enter Coriolanus. 

Cor. A goodly houfe : The feaft fmells well : but I 
Appear not like a gucft. 

Re-enter thefirjl Serving-man. 

1 Serv. What would you have, friend ? Whence 
, are you ? Here's no place for you : Pray, go to the 

door. [Exit. 

Cor. I have deferv'd no better entertainment, 
In being Coriolanus. 

Re-entsr Second Servant. 

2 Serv. Whence are you, fir ? Has the porter his 

My llrtb-placc hate 7, and my love's upon 
This enemy town. I'll enter : if bejlay me, 
He docs^ &c. 

This alteration, on account of its fiightnefs, may be admitted in 
preference to the former one made by Mr. Rowe. STEEVENS. 


C O R I O L A N U S 449 

eyes in his head, that he gives entrance to fuch com- 
panions 8 ? Pray, get you out. 

Cor. Away ! 

2 Serv. Away ? Get you away. 

Cor. Now thou art troublefome. 

2 Serv. Are you fo brave ? I'll have you talk'd with 

Enter a third Servant. The firft meets him. 

3 Serv. What fellow's this ? 

i Serv. A flrange one as ever I look'd on : I can- 
not get him out o' the houfe : Pr'ythee, call my maf- 
ter to him. 

3 Serv. What have you to do here, fellow ? Pray 
you, avoid the houfe. 

Cor. Let me but (land ; I will not hurt your hearth* 

3 Serv. What are you ? 

Cor. A gentleman. 

3 Serv. A marvellous poor one. 

Cor. True, fo I am. 

3 Serv. Pray you, poor gentleman, take up fome 
other ftation : here's no place for you ; pray you, 
avoid : come. 

Cor. Follow your function, go, 
And batten on cold bits. [Pitfhes him away* 

3 Serv. What, will you not ? Pr'ythee, tell my mat- 
ter what a ftrange gucft he has here. 

2 Serv. And I lhall. , [*// 

3 Serv. Where dwell'ft thou ? 
Cor. Under the canopy. 

3 Serv. Under the canopy ? 

Cor. Ay. 

3 Serv. Where's that ? 

Cor. I'the city of kites and crows. 

*Ybat be gives entrance to fuch companions?] Companion was 
formerly uied in the fame fenfe as we novr ufe the word/dSfow. 


VOL. VII. G g 3 Ser. 


3 Serv. I'the city of kites and crows? What 
an afs it is ! Then thou dwell'ft with daws too ? 

Cor. No, I ferve not thy mafter. 

3 Serv. How, fir ! Do you meddle with my mafter ? 

Cor. Ay ; 'tis an honefler fervice, than to meddle 
with thy miftrefs : 

Thou prat'ft, and prat'ft ; ferve with thy trencher, 
hence ! [Beats him away. 

Enter Avfidius, with the ficond Serving-man* 

Auf. Where is this fellow ? 
2 Sew. Here, fir ; I'd have beaten him like a dog, 
tut for diflurbing the lords within. 

Auf. Whence comeft thou ? what wouldeft thou ? 

Thy name ? 

Why fpeak'ft not? Speak, man : What's thy name ? 
Cor. If, Tullus 9 , 


9 If TuUus, &c.] Thefe fpeeches are taken from the following 
jn fir Thomas North's tranflation of Plutarch : 

" If thou Tcnowefl me not yet, Tullus, and feeing me, doft 
not perhappes beleeue me to be the man I am in dede, I muft of 
neceflitie bewraye my felfe to be that I am. I am Cains Mar- 
tiufi, who hath done to thy felf particularly, and to all the Voices 
generally, great hurte and mifchief, which I cannot denie for my 
furuame of Coriolanus that I beare. For I neiier had other bene- 
fit nor recompence, of all the true and paynefuli feruice I hatie 
<kme> and the extreme daungers I haue beoe in, but this only 
furname : a good meraorie and witnes of the malice and difpleafure 
thou ftiouldcft bear me. In deede the name only reinaincth with 
me: for the reft, the enuie and crueltie of the people of' Rorre 
haue taken from me, by the fufferance of the darlhn dly nobSiitie 
and magiftrates, who haue forlaken me, and let me be banilhed 
by the people. This extremitie hath now driven rne to come a 
a poore luter, to take thy chimney harthe^ not oi any hope I haue 
to faue my life thereby. For if I had feared death, I would not 
haue come hither to haue put my life in hazard : but prickt for- 
ward with fpite and detire I have to be reuenged of them that 
thus haue banifned me, whom now I beginne to be auenged oo, 
putting my perfone betweene thy enemies. Wherefore, if thou 
haft any harte to be wrecked of the injuries thy enemies haue done 


C O R I O L A N U S, 451 

Not yet thou know'ft me, and feeing me, doft not 
Think me for the man I am, nccefiity 
Commands me name myfelf. 

Auf. What is thy name ? 

Cor. A name unmufical to the Voices' ears, 
And harm in found to thine. 

Auf. Say, what's thy name ? 
Thou haft a grim appearance, and thy face 
Bears a command in't ; though thy tackle's torn, 
Thou mew'ft a noble veflel : What's thy name ? 

Cor. Prepare thy brow to frown : Know'ft thou 
me yet ? 

Auf. I know thee not : Thy name ? 

Cor. My name is Caius Marcius, who hath done 
To thee particularly, and to all the Voices, 
Great hurt and mifchief ; thereto witnefs may 
My furname, Coriolanus : The painful fervice, 
The extream dangers, and the drops of blood 
Shed for my thanklefs country, are requited 
But with that furname ; ' a good memory^ 
And witnefs of the malice and difpleafure 
Which thou mouldft bear me, only that name re 

mains : 

The cruelty and envy of the people, 
Permitted by our daftard nobles, who 
Have all forfoolc me, hath devour'd the reft ; 

thee, fpede thee now. and let my miferie ferue thy turne, and fo 
vfe it, as my feruice maye be a benefit to the Voices : promifing 
thee, that I will fight with better good will for all you, than euer 
I dyd when I was againft you, knowing that they fight more val- 
liantly, who knowe the force of their enemie, then fuch as haue 
neuer proued it. And if it be fo that thou dare not, and that 
thou art wearye to proue fortune any more : then arn I alfo weary 
to liue any longer. And it were no wifedome in thee, to faue the 
life of him, who hath bene heretofore thy mortall enemie, an4 
whofe feruice now can nothing helpe nor pleafure thee." 


* a good memory,] The Oxford editor, not knowing 

tliat memory was ufed at that time for memorial, alters it to memorial. 


G g 2 An4 

4^2 C O R I O L A N U S. 

And fufferVl me by the voice of Haves to be 

Whoop'd out Rome. Now, this extremity 

Hath brought me to thy hearth ; Not out of hope 7 

Miftake me not, to fave my life ; for if 

I had fear'd death, of all the men i' the world 

I would have 'voided thee : but in mere fpite, 

To be full quit of thofe my banifners, 

Stand I before thee here. Then if thou haft 

z A heart of wreak in thee, that wilt revenge 

Thine own particular wrongs, and Hop thofe s maims 

Of fliame fcen through thy country, fpeed thee 


Arrd make my mifery ferve thy turn ; fo ufe it, 
That my revengeful fervices may prove 
As benefits to thee ; for I will fight 
Againft my canker'd country with the fpleen 
Of all the under fiends. But if fo be 
Thou dar'ft not this, and that to prove more fortunes 
Thou art tir'd, then, in a word, I alfo am 
Longer to live moft weary, and prefent 
My throat to thee, and to thy ancient malice : 
Which not to cut, would fhew thee but a fool ; 
Since I have ever follow'd thee with hate, 
Drawn tuns of blood out of thy country's breaft,. 
And cannot live but to thy mame, unlefs 
It be to do thee fervice. 

.Auf. O Marcius, Marcius, 
Each word thou haft fpoke hath weeded from my 


2 A heart of wreak in thee, -.. ] A heart of refentment. 

Wreak is an ancient term for revenge. So, in Titvs Andronieus : 

" Take weak on Rome' for this ingratitude." 
Again, in Gower, De ConfeJJiaue Amantis, Lib. V. fol. 83 : 
" She faith that hir'fcife flie fliolde 
" Do wrecbf with hir owne honde." STEEVENS. 

3 maims 

Of flame ] 

That is, difgruceful diminutions of territory, JOHNSON. 

A root 

C O R I O L A N U S. 453 

A root of ancient envy, If Jupiter 
Should from yon cloud fpeak divine things, and fay, 
"Tis true ; I'd not believe them more than thee, 
All noble Marcius. Let me twine 
Mine arms about that body, where againfl 
My grained am an hundred times hath broke, 
And fcar'd the moon with fplinters 4 ! Here I clip 
The anvil of my fvvord ; and do conteft 
As hotly and as nobly with thy love, 
As ever in ambitious ftrength I did 
Contend againft thy valour. Know thou firft, 
I lov'd the maid I marry M ; never man 
Sigh'd truer breath ; but that I fee thee here, 
Thou noble thing ! more dances my rapt heart, 
Than when I firft my wedded miftrefs faw 
Beftride my threfhold. Why, thou Mars ! I tell thee, 
We have a power on foot ; and I had purpofe 
Once more to hew thy target from thy brawn, 
Or lofe mine arm for't : Thou haft beat me out 
Twelve feveral times-, and I have nightly fnice 
Dreamt of encounters 'twixt thyfelf and me ; 
We have been down together in my ileep, 
Unbuckling helms, fitting each other's throat, 
And wak'd half dead with nothing. Worthy Mar- 

Had we no quarrel elfe to Rome, but that 
Thou art thence banifh'd, we would mufter all 
From twelve to fevcnty ; and, pouring war 
Into the bowels of ungrateful Rome, 
Like a bold flood o'er-beat. O, come, go in, 
And take our friendly fenators by the hands; 
Who now are here, taking their leaves of me, 
W T ho am prepar'd againft your territories, 
Though not for Rome itfelf. 

* And fcar'd the moon.'] Folio fiarr'J. Perhaps rightly, to 
diftinguifh it horn feared or frightened : yet it fhould not be con. 
cealed that in King Rich. III. we meet: 

' Amaze the welkin with your broken Haves." MALONE, 
G g 3 Cor. 


Cor. You blefs me, Gods ! 

Av-f. Therefore, moft abfolute fir, if thou wile 


'The leading of thine own revenges, take 
The one half of my commiffion ; and fet down,* 
As beft thou art experienced, fince thou know'il 
Thy country's ftrength and weaknefs, thine own 

ways : 

Whether to knock againft the gates of Rome, 
Or rudely viiit them in parts remote, 
To fright them, ere deflroy. But come in : 
Let me commend thee firft to thofe> that fhall 
Say, yea, to thy defires. A thoufand welcomes ! 
And more a friend than e'er an enemy ; 
Yet, Marcius, that was much. Your hand : Moft 

welcome ! [Exeunt, 

1 Serv. Here's a ftrange alteration ! 

2 Serv. By my hand, I had thought to have flrucken 
him with a cudgel ; and yet my mind gave me, his 
clothes made a falfe report of him. 

1 Serv. What an arm he has ! He turned me about 
with his finger and his thumb, as one would fet up a 

2 Serv. Nay, I knew by his face that there was 
fomething in him : He had, fir, a kind of face, me- 
thought, I cannot tell how to term it. 

1 Serv. He had fo ; looking, as it were, 'Would I 
were hang'd, but I thought there was more in him 
than I could think. 

2 Strv. So did I, I'll be fworn : He is fimply the 
rareil man i' the world. 

j Serv. I think, he is : but a greater foldier than he, 
you wot one. 

2 Sen). Who ? my mafter ? 

1 Serv. Nay, it's no matter for that. 

2 Serv. Worth fix of him. 

i Serv. Nay, not fo neither : but I take him to be 
the greater foldier. 

C O R I O L A N U S. 45- 

2, Serv. 'Faith, look you, one cannot tell how to fay 
that : for the defence of a town, our general is excel- 

i Serv. Ay, and for an afiault too. 

Enter a third Servant. 

3 Serv. O, flaves, I can tell you news ; news, you 

Both. What, what, what ? let's partake. 

3 Serv. I would not be a Roman, of all nations ; I 
had as lieve be a condemn'd man. 

Both. Wherefore ? wherefore ? 

5 Serv. Why, here's he that was wont to thwack 
our general, Caius Marcius. 

1 Serv. Why do you fay, thwack our general ? 

3 Serv. I do not fay, thwack our general ; but he 
was always good enough for him. 

2 Serv. Come, we are fellows, and friends : he was 
ever too hard for him ; I have heard him fay fo him- 

1 Serv. He was too hard for him directly, ro fay the 
troth on't : before Corioli, he fcotch'd him and 
notch'd him like a carbonado. 

2 Serv. An he had been cannibally given, he might 
have broii'd and eaten him too. 

i Serv. But, more of thy news ? 

3 Serv. Why, he is fo made on here within, as if he 
were fon and heir to Mars : fet at upper end o* the 
table : no queftion aik'd him by any of the fenators, 
but they ftand bald before him : Our general himfelf 
makes a miftrefs of him ; J fanclifies himfelf with's 
ha-nd, and turns up the white o'the eye to his dif- 
courfe. But the bottom of the news is, our general 
is cut i'the middle, and but one half of what he was 

* fanftijies himfelf ivith's ban.d,'] Alluding, improperly, to the 
aft oi crojfing upon any ftrange event. JOMNION. 

g 4 


45 6 C O R I O L A N U S. 

yefterday : for the other has half, by the intreaty and 
grant of the whole table. 6 He will go, he fays, and 
fowle the porter of Rome gates by the ears : He will 
mow down all before him, and leave 7 his paflagc 

2 Serv. And he's as like to do't, as any man I can 

3 Serv. Do't? he will do't: For, look you, fir, he has 
as many friends as enemies ; which friends, fir, (as 
it were) durfl not (look you, fir) Ihew themfelves 
(as we term it) his friends, whilft he's in direditude. 

i Serv. Direditude ! What's that ? 
3 Serv. But when they lhall fee, fir, his creft up 
again, and the man in blood, they will out of their 

6 He will fowle the porter of Rome gates by tU ears.'} That 
4s, I fuppofe, drag him down by the ears into the dirt. Souil- 
ler, Fr. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnion's fuppofition, though not his derivation, is juft. 
Skinner fays the word is derived fromfow, i. e. to take hold of 
a pcrfori by the ears, as a dogfeizes one of tbefe animals . So, Hey- 
wood, in a comedy called Love's Mijlrefs, 1636 : 

" Venus will fowls me by the ears for this." 
Perhaps Shakefpeare's allufion is to Hercules dragging out Cerberus. 


Whatever the etymology of fowle may be, it appears to have 
,baen a familiar word in the laft century. Lord StrafFord's cor* 
respondent, Mr. Garrard, ufes it as Shakcfpeare does. Straff. Lett. 
Vol.11, p. 149- " A lieutenantyflW him well by the ears, and 
drew him by the hair about the room." Lord Stratford himfelf 
ufes it in another fenfe, Vol. II. p. 158. " It is ever a hopeful 
throw, where the caller felcs his bowl well." In this paflage to 
fole feems to fignify what, I believe, is ulually called to ground -A 
bowl. TYRWHITT. 

7 his pajjage poird.~\ That is, bared, cleared. JoHNSON. 
To poll a perlbn anciently meant to cut off his hair. So, in 
Damatas' Madrigal! in praife of bis Dapbttis, by J. Wootton, pub- 
liflied in England' s-Hc!:caK, 1614 : 

" Like Nifus golden hair that Scilla/fl/V." 
Jt likcwife fignify'd to cut off the head. So, in the ancient me- 
trical hiftory of the battle of Fhddon Field: 

** But now.we will withiland his grace, 

" Or thoufnnJ heads fkall there be foiled." STEEVENS. 

' bur- 


C O R I O L A N U S. 457 

burrows, like conies after rain, and revel all with 

1 Serv. But when goes this forward ? 

3 Serv. To-morrow ; to-day ; prefently. You (hall 
have the drum flruck up this afternoon : 'tis, as it 
were, a parcel of their feaft, and to be executed ere 
they wipe their lips. 

2 Serv. Why, then we fliall have a ftirring world 
again. This peace is nothing 8 , but to ruft iron, en- 
creafe tailors, and breed ballad-makers. 

1 Serv. Let me have war, fay I ; it exceeds peace, 
a^ far as day does night ; it's fprightly, waking, au- 
dible, and 9 full of vent. Peace is a very apoplexy, 
lethargy ; mull'd ', deaf, fleepy, infenfible ; a getter 
of more baftard children, than war's a deilroyer of 

2 Serv. 'Tis fo : and as war, in fome fort, may be 
faid to be a ravifher ; fo it cannot be denied, but 
peace is a great maker of cuckolds. 

i Serv. Ay, and it makes men hate one another. 

3 Serv. Reafon ; 2 becaufe they then lefs need one 
another. The wars, for my money. I hope to fee 
Romans as cheap as Voices. They are riling, they 
are rifing. 

All. In, in, in, in. [Exeunt. 

8 This peace is nothing but to rvjt, &c.] I believe a word or two 
have been loft : 

This peace is good for nothing but, &c. MALONE. 

9 full of vent.'] Full of rumour, full of materials for difcouife. 


midTd, ] i. e.foften'd and difpirited, as wine is when 

burnt and fweeten'd. Lat. Mollitus. HANMER. 

lecavfe they then lefs need one another .-] bhakefpeare, when he 
choofes to give us fome weighty obfervation upon human nature, 
not much to the credit of it, generally (as the intelligent reader 
may obferve) puts it into the mouth et fome low buffoon charafter. 



458 C O R I O L A N U S, 

A publick Place in Rome. 
Enter Sicinius, and Brutus* 

Sic. We hear not of him, neither need we fear him j 
3 His remedies are tame i' the prefent peace 
And quietnefs o* the people, which before 
Were in wild hurry. Here do we make his friends 
Blulh, that the world goes well ; who rather had, 
Though they themfelves did fuffer by't, behold 
Diflentious numbers peftering ftreets, than fee 
Our tradefmen ringing in their Ihops, and going 
About their functions friendly. 

Enter Menenius. 

Bru. We flood to't in good time. Is this Menenius ? 
Sic. 'Tis he, 'tis he : O, he is grown mofl kind 
Of late. Hail, fir ! 
Men. Hail to you both ! 
Sic. Your Coriolanus is not much mifs'd, 

3 His remedies are tame i the prefent peace ^\ The old reading is, 

His remedies are tame, the prefent peace. 

I do not underftand either line, but fancy it fhould be read thus : 
neither need ivc fear him ; 

His remedies are ta'en, the prefent peace ^ 

And quiet nefs o* the people , 

The meaning, fomewhat harfhly exprefled, according to our au- 
thour's cuftom, is this : ll r c need not fear him, the proper remedies 
againft him are taken, by re&oring peace and quittnefe. JOHNSON. 
I rather fuppofe the meaning of Sicinius to be this : 

His remedies are tame, 

\. e. ineffectual in times of peace like thefe. When the people 
were in commotion, his friends might have it rove to remedy his 
difgrace by tampering with them ; but now, neither wanting to 
employ his bravery, nor remembering his former actions, they 
are unfit fubjedts for the factious to work upon, STEEYENS. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 459 

But with his friends : the common-wealth doth ftand ; 
And fo would do, were he more angry at it. 

Men. All's well ; and might have been much bet- 
ter, if 

He could have temporiz'd. 
Sic. Where is he, hear you ? 
Men. Nay, I hear nothing ; his mother and his 

Hear nothing from him. 

Enter three or four Citizens. 

All. The gods preferve you both ! 

Sic. Good-e'en, our neighbours. 

Bru. Good-e'en to you all, good-e'en to you all. 

i Cit. Ourfelves, our wives, and children, on our 
' V ^ knees, 
Are bound to pray for you both. 

Sic. Live, and thrive ! 

Bru. Farewel, kind neighbours : We wifh'd Co- 

Had lov'd you as we did. 

AIL Now the gods keep you ! 

Both "Tri. Farewel, farewel. \Exeunt Citizens. 

Sic. This is a happier and more comely time, 
Than when thefe fellows ran about the ftreets, 
Crying, Confufion. 

Bru. Caius Marcius was 
A worthy officer i* the war ; but infolent, 
O'ercome with pride, ambitious paft all thinking, 

Sic. And 4 affecting one fole throne, 
Wkhout affiftance. 

Men. I think nor fo. 

4 - offering one fole tlrone, 

Without ajiftance. 
That is, without afffj/brs; withput any other fuffrage. JOHNSOK. 


460 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Sic. We had by this, to all our lamentation, 
If he had gone forth conful, found it fo. 

Bru. The gods have well prevented it, and Pvomc 
Sits fafe and flill without him. 

Enter Mdlle. 

Mdlle. Worthy tribunes, 

There is a flave, whom we have put in prifon, 
Reports, the Voices with two feveral powers 
Are enter'd in the Roman territories ; 
And with the deepeft malice of the war 
Deftroy what lies before 'em. 

Men. 'Tis Aufidius, 

Who, hearing of our Marcius' banimment, 
Thrufts forth his horns again into the world ; 
Which were in-fhell'cl, when Marcius flood for Rome, 
And durft not once peep out. 

Sic. Come, what talk you of Marcius ? 

Bru. Go fee this rumourer whipp'd. It cannot be, 
The Voices dare break with us. 

Men. Cannot be ! 

We have record, that very well it can ; 
And three examples of the like have been 
Within my age. But 5 reafon with the fellow, 
Before you punim him, where he heard this ; 
Left you fhall chance to whip your information, 
And beat the mefienger who bids beware 
Of what is to be dreaded. 

Sic. Tell not me : 
I know, this cannot be. 

Bru. Not poffible. 

s reafon with the fellow] That is, have fome talk with 
him. In this fenfe Shakefpeare often ufcs the word. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 4 6i 

Enter a Mejjenger. 

Mejf. The nobles, in great earncftnefs, are going 
All to the fenate-houfe : fome news is come, 
That turns their countenances. 

Sic. 'Tis this Have ; 

Go whip him 'fore the people's eyes : his railing ! 
Nothing but his report ! 

Mejf. Yes, worthy fir, 
The Have's report is feconded ; and more, 
More fearful, is deliver'd. 

Sic. What more fearful ? 

Mef. It is fpoke freely out of many mouths, 
(How probable, I do not know) that Marcius, 
Join'd with Aufidius, leads a power 'gainft Rome ; 
And vows revenge as fpacious, as between 
The young'ft and oldeft thing. 

Sic. This is moft likely ! 

Bru. Rais'd only, that the weaker fort may wifh 
Good Marcius home again. 

Sic. The very trick on't. 

Men. This is unlikely : 
He and Aufidius 6 can no more atone, 
Than violentcil contrariety. 

Enter another Me/finger. 

Mef. You are fent for to the fenate : 
A fearful army, led by Caius Marcius, 

6 can no more atone,] This is a very elegant erpref- 

fion, and taken from unifon ftrings giving the fame or found. 


Dr. Warburton's etymology is not juft. Atone feems to be de- 
rived from at and one to reconcile to, or, to be at, onion. 


To atone, in the acYive fenfe, is to reconcile, and is fo ufed by 
our authour. To atone here, is, in the neutral fenfe, to come to 
reconciliation. To atone is to unite. JOHNSON. 


461 C O R I O L A N U S. 

AfTociared with Aufidius, rages 
Upon our territories ; and have already 
O'er-borne their way, confum'd with fire, and took 
What lay before them. 

Enter Comlnlus. 

Com. O, you have made good work ! 

Men. What news ? what nexvs ? 

Com. You have holp to ravifti your own daughters, 


To melt the city leads upon your pates ; 
To fee your wives dilhonour'd to your nofes ; 

Men. What's the news ? what's the news ? 

Com. Your temples 7 burned in their cement ; and 
Your franchifes, whereon you flood, confm'd 
Into an augre's bore. 

Men. Pray now, the news ? 
You have made fair work, I fear me : Pray, your 

news ? 
If Marcius Ihould be joined with the Voices, r 

Com. If! 

He is their god ; he leads them like a thing 
Made by fome other deity than nature, 
That lhapes man better : and they follow him, 
Againft us brats, with np leis confidence, 
Than boys purfuing fumnier butter-flies, 
Or butchers killing flies. 

Men. You have made good work, 
You, and your apron-men ; you that flood fo much 
Upon the voice of occupation 8 , and 

7 burned in their cement, ] Cement, for clnfture or 

inclofure ; becaufe both have the idea of holding together. 

Cement has here its common fignification. JOHNSON. 

8 Upon the 'voice of occupation.] Occupation is here ufed for 
mecbanicks, men occupied \n daily bufinefs. So, Horace ufes artes 
for artifices. 

" Urit enim fulgore fuo qiti prtegravat artes 
li Infra fe pojitas." MAX ONE. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 463 

J The breath of garlick-eaters ! 

Com. He'll fliake your Rome about your ears. 

Men. As Hercules did make down mellow fruit 1 . 
You have made fair work ! 

Bru. But is this true, fir ? 

Com. Ay ; and you'll look pale 
Before you find it other. All the regions 
Do fmilingly revolt * ; and, who refift, 
Are mock'd for valiant ignorance, 
And perim conflant fools. Who is't can blame him ? 
Your enemies, and his, find fomething in him. 

Men. We are all undone, unlefs 
The noble man have mercy. 

Com. Who mall aft. it ? 

The tribunes cannot do't for mame ; the people 
Deferve fuch pity of him, as the wolf 
Does of the fhepherds : for his befl friends, if they 

9 The breath of garlick- eaters !~\ To fmell of garlick was once 
fuch a brand of vulgarity, that garlick 'was a food forbidden to 
an ancient order of Spanifh knights, mentioned by Guevara. 


To fmell of leeks was no lefs a mark of vulgarity among the 
Roman people in the time of Juvenal. Sat. iii : 
** yuu tecum JeHile porrum 

" Sutor, et elixi vervech lair a come Jit ?" 

And from the following paflage in Decker's If this le not a good 
flay the Devil is in it, 1612, it fhould -appear that garlick was 
once much ufed in England, and after.vards as much out of 

".Fortune favours nobody but garlick, nor garlick- neither 
flow ; yet (he has ftrong reafon to love it : for though garlick 
made her fmell abominably in the ncftrils of the gallants, yet flie 
bad fmelt and ftunk worfe but for garlick." 

Hence, perhaps, the cant denomination Pil-garlick for a de- 
ferted fellow, a perfon left to fufter without friends to affift him. 


1 As Hercules i &c.j An alluvion to the apples of the Hefperides. 


* Do fmilingly revolt ; ] Smilingly is the word in the 

old copy, for which feemingfy has been printed in late editions. 

To revolt fmilirtgly is to revolt with figns of pleafure, or with 
marks of contempt. STEEVENS. 



Should fay, Be good to Rome, 5 they charg'd him even 
As thofe ihould do that had deferv'd his hate, 
And therein Ihew'd like enemies. 

Men. 'Tis true : 

If he were putting to my houfe the brand 
That fhould confume it, I have not the face 
To fay, 'Befeech you, ceafe. You have made fair hands. 
You, and your crafts ! you have crafted fair ! 

Com. You have brought 
A trembling upon Rome, fuch as was never 
So incapable of help. 

Tri. Say not, we brought it. 

Men. How ! Was it we ? We lov'd him ; but, 

like beafls, 

And cowardly nobles, gave way to your clufters, 
Who did hoot him out o' the city. 

Com. But, I fear, 

4 They '11 roar him in again. Tullus Aufidius, 
The fecond name of men, obeys his points 
As if he were his officer : Defperation 
Is all the policy, ftrength, and defence, 
That Rome can make againft them. 

Enter a troop of Citizens. 
Men. Here come the clufters. 
And is Aufidius with him ? You are they 

3 they charge him, &c.] Their charge or injun&ion would 
fliew them infenfible of his wrongs, and make them fie-vj like ene- 
mies. I read^m?, notjhe-ived, Ufa enemies. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnfon propofes to read : 

And therein fhew : 

The old copy has chargd and. Jbewfd. If one is changed, fo 
ought the other. I read : 

7"Zvy'd charge him 

and therein fliew. M.A.LONE. T 

The old reading, which I have reftor'd, is undoubtedly the true 

4 they'll roar him in again. ] As they Looted at his de 

parture, they will roar at his return ; as he went out with feoffs, 
he will come back with lamentations. JOHNSOX. 



*That made the air unwholefome, when you caft 
Your ftinking, greafy caps, in hooting at 
Coriolanus' exile. Now he's coming ; 
And not a hair upon a foldier's head, 
Which will not prove a whip ; as many coxcombs, 
As you threw caps up, will he tumble down, 
And pay you for your voices^ 'Tis no matter ; 
If he could burn us all into one coal, 
We have deferv'd it. 

Omnes. 'Faith, we hear fearful news. 

1 Cit. For mine own part, 

When I faid, banifli him, I faid, 'twas pity. 

2 Cit. And fo did I. 

3 Cit. And fo did I ; and, to fay the truth i fo did 
very many of us : That we did, we did for the beft ; 
and though we willingly confented to his banifhmenr, 
yet it was agairift our will. 

Com. You are goodly things, you voices ! 

Men. You have made you 

Good work, you and your cry s ! Shall us to the Ca- 
pitol ? 

Com. O, ay ; what elfe ? [Exit Com. and Men. 

Sic. Go, matters, get you home, be not difmay'd ; 
Thefe are a fide, that would be glad to have 
This true, which they fo feem to fear. Go home, 
And Ihew no fign of fear. 

1 Cit. The gods be good to us ! Come, matters, 
let's home. I ever faid, we were i' the wrong, when 
we banifli 'd him. 

2 Cit. So did we all. But come, let's home. 

[Exeunt Citizens. 
Bru. I do not like this news. 
Sic. Nor I. 

Bru. Let's to the Capitol : Would, half my 

5 You and your cry !] Alluding to a pack of hounds. So, in 
Hamlet y a company of players are contemptuoufly called a cry of 
players. STEEVENS. 

VOL. VII. H h Would 

466 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Would buy this for a lie ! 

Sic. Pray, let us go. [Exeunt Tribunes. 


A Camp ; at a fmall dijlance from Rome. 
Enter Avfidius, with his Lieutenant. 

Auf. Do they (till fly to the Roman ? 

Lieu. I do not know what witchcraft's in him ; bus 
Your foldiers ufe him as the grace 'fore meat, 
Their talk at table, and their thanks at end ; 
And you are darken'd in this action, fir, 
Even by your own. 

Auf. I cannot help it now ; 
Unlcfs, by uiing means, I lame the foot 
Of our defign. He bears himfelf more proudly 
Even to my perfon, than I thought he would, 
When firft I did embrace him : Yet his nature 
In that's no changeling ; and I muft excufe 
What cannot be amended. 

Lieu. Yet I wrfh, fir, 

(I mean, for your particular) you had not 
Join'd in commiffion with him : but either borne 
The action of yourfelf, or elfe to him 
Had left it folely. 

Auf. I understand thee well ; and be thou fure, 
When he fhall come to his account, he knows not 
What 1 can ur,ge againft him. Although it feems, 
And fo he thinks, and is no lefs apparent 
To the vulgar eye, that he bears all things fairly, 
And fliews good tnifbandry for the Volcian itate ; 
Fights dragon-like, and does atchieve as foon 
As draw his fword : yet he hath left undone 
That, which fliall break his neck, or hazard mine,, 
Whene'er we come to our account. 



Lieu. Sir, I befeech you, think you he'll carry 
Rome ? 

Anf* All places yield to him ere he fits down ; 
And the nobility of Rome are his : 
The fenators, and patricians, love him too : 
The tribunes are no foldiers ; and their people 
Will be as rafh in the repeal, as hafty 
To expel him thence. I think, he'll be to Rome 
6 As is the ofprey to the nfh. who takes it 
By fovereignty of nature; Firfl he was 
A noble fervant to them ; but he could not 
Carry his honours even : [ whether 'twas pride, 

6 As is the ofprey ] Ofprey, a kind of eagle, ojjifraga. 


We find in Michael Drayton's P olyollioii, Song xxv. a full ac- 
count of the efpnj, which "fhews the juiluefs and beauty of the 
iimile : 

" The ofprey, oft here feen, though feldom here it breeds, 
*' Which over them ihejifh no fooner do cfuv, 
" But, betwixt him and them by an antipathy, 
*' Turning their bellies up, as though their death they faw, 
" They at his pleafure lie, to fluff his gluttonous maw." 

So, in the Battle of Alcazar ^ \ 594 : 

" I will provide thee with a princely ofprey, 
" That as fhe flyeth over fifh in pools, 
" The fifli flinll turn their glitt'ring bellies up, 
" And thou flialt take thy liberal choice of all." 
Such is the fabulous hiflory of the ofprey. I learn, however, 
from Mr. Lambe's notes to the ancient metrical legend of the 
Battle of Floddon, that the ofprey is a " rare, large, blackifh 
hawk, with a long neck, and blue legs. Its prey is fifh, and it 
is fometimes feen hovering over the Tweed." STEEVENS. 

7 - whether >c ivai pride ^ 

Which out of daily fortune ever taints 
The happy man ; ivhetber ] 

Aufidius affigns three probable reafons of the mifcarriage of Co- 
riolanus ; pride, which eafily fallows an uninterrupted train of 
fuccefs ; unikilrulnefs to regulate the confequences of his own 
Yi&ories ; a ftubborn unirbrmity of nature, which could not 
make the proper tranfition from the cafque or hdmct to the cujtion 
or chair of civil authority ; bu: scled with the fame defpotifm in 
peace as in war. JOHNSON. 

H h 2 Which 

468 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Which out of daily fortune ever taints 

The happy man ; whether defeat of judgment^ 

To fail in the difpofing of thofe chances 

Which he was lord of ; or whether nature, 

Not to be other than one thing, not moving 

From the cafque to the cufhion, but commanding 


Even with the fame aufterity and garb 
As he controll'd the war : but, one of thefe, 
(As he hath fpices of them all, not all, 
For I dare fo far free him) made him fear'd, 
So hated, and fo baniih'd : But 8 he has a merit, 
To choak it in the utterance. So our virtues 
Lie in the interpretation of the time : 
9 And power, unto itfelf moft commendable, 
Hath not a tomb fo evident as a chair 
To extol what it hath done. 
One 'fire drives out one fire ; one nail, one nail ; 
1 Right's by right fouler, flrengths by ftrength do fail. 


8 be has a merit 

To choak it in the utterance . ... ] 

He has a merit, for no other purpofe than to deitroy it by boaft- 
ing it. JOHNSON. 

9 And power, unto itfelf moft commendable, 
Hath not a tomb fo evident as a chair 
To extol --i<:hat it hath done.] 

This is a common thought, but miferably ill exprefled. The 
fenfe is, The virtue which delights to commend itfelf, will find 
: the fureft tomb in that chair wherein it holds forth its own com- 
mendations : 

. *. unto itfelf mojl commendable. 

i. e. which hath a very high opinion of itfelf. WAR EUR TON. 

1 Right's ly right fouler,] This has no manner of feufa. 
We fiiould read : 

Right's by right fouled, 

Or, as it is commonly written in Englifh, foiled, from the French, 
' fouler, to tread or trample under foot. WAR BURTON. 

I believe rights, like Jlrengths, is a plural noun. I read : 
Rights by rights founder, Jlrengths ly Jlrengths do fail. 
That is, by the exertion of one right another right is lamed. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 4 6 9 

Come, let's away. When, Caius, Rome is thine, 
Thou art poor'fl of all ; then fliortly art thou mine.' 



A public Place in Rome. 

Enter Menenius, Cominius, Sicinius y and Brutus, with 

Men. No, I'll not go : you hear, what he hath 


Which was fometime his general ; who lov'd him 
In a moft dear particular. He call'd me, father : 
But what o'that ? Go, you that baniih'd him, 
A mile before his tent fall down, and knee 
The way into his mercy : Nay, if he coy'd 
To hear Cominius fpeak, I'll keep at home. 

Com. He would not feem to know me. 

Men. Do yon hear ? 

Com. Yet one time he did call me by my name : 
I urg'd our old acquaintance, and the drops 
That we have bled together. Coriolanus 

Right's ly right fouler, ] 

i. e. What is already right, and is received as fuch, becomes 
lefs clear when fupported by fupernumerary proofs. Such ap- 
pears to me to be the meaning of this pafTage, which may be ap- 
plied with too much jultice to many of my own comments on 

Fouled, however, is certainly an Englifh word, and is ufed in 
Sidney's Arcadia, edit. 1633, p. 441 : 

" Thy all-beholding eye foufd with the fight." 
There is likewife the following proverb York doth foul Sutton 
I, e. exceeds it on comparifon> and makes it appear mean and poor. 


H h 3 . He 


He would not anfwer to : forbad all names ; 
He was a kind of nothing, titlelefs, 
*Till he had. forg ? d himfelf a name i' the fire 
Of burning Rome. 

Men. Why, -fo ; you have made good work : 
A pair of tribunes, * that have rack*d for Rome, 
To make coals cheap : A noble memory 5 ! 

Com. I minded him, how royal 'twas to pardon 
When leaft it was expected : He reply'd, 
* }t was a bare petition of a ftate, 
To one whom they had punilh ? d. 

Men. Very well : 
Could he fay lefs ? 

Com. I offer'd to awaken his regard 
For his private friends : His anfwer to me was, 
He could not ftay to pick them in a pile 
Of noifome ; mufty chaff : He faid, 'twas folly, 

* -that have'd/or Rome,] We fhould 

i.e. been, provident for. In this infinuation of their 
pnly minding trifles, he fatirizes them for their inju&ce to Co- 
jtolanus; which was like to end ip the ruin of their country. The 
Oxford ed'itor, feeing nothing of this, reads : 

- have fack'd fair Rome. WARBURTON. 
Ractid for Rome is furely the right reading. To rack means 
to harrafs by exaftions, and in this fenfe the poet ufes it in other 
places : 

\\ The commons haft thou racltd; the clergy's bags 
?' Are lank and lean with thy extortions." 

I believe it here means in general, You that have been fuch good 
Rewards for the Roman people, as to get their houfes burned 
over their heads, to lave them the expence of coals. STEEVENS, 
3. - memory for memorial. So, in ds Ton Like It ; 
", - O, you memory 
" Of old fir Rowland ! - " STEEVENS. 
4 // Tjcas a bare petition - ] Bare, for mean, beggarly. 


I believe rather, a petition unfupported, unaided by names that 
might give it influence. JOHNSON. 

A bare petition, I believe, means only a mere petition. Corio- 
Janus weighs the confequence of verbal fupplication againfl that 
gf adtual punifhment, STEEVENS, 


C O R I O L A N U S. 471 

For one poor grain or two, to leave unburnt, 
And ftill to nofe the offence. 

Men. For one poor grain or two ? 
I am one of thofe ; his mother, wife, his child, 
And this brave fellow too, we are the grains : 
You are the mufly chaff; and you are fmelt 
Afcovc the moon : We mult be burnt for you. 

Sk. Nay, pray, be patient : If you refufe your aid 
In this fo never-needed help, yet do not 
Upbraid us with our diftrefs. But, fure, if you 
Wpuld be your country's pleader, your good tongue, 
More than the inftant army we can make, 
Might flop our countryman. 

Men. No ; I'll not meddle. 

Sk. Pray you, go to him. 

Men. What Ihould I do > 

Eru. Only make trial what your love can do 
For Rome, towards Marcius. 

Men. Well, and fay that Marcius 
Return me, as Cominius is returned, 
Unheard ; what then ? 
But as a difcontented friend, gnef-fhot 
With his unkindnefs ? Say't be fo ? 

Sic. Yet your good will 

Muft have that thanks from Rome, after the meafure 
As you intended well. 

Men. I'll undertake it : 
I think, he'll hear me. Yet to bite his lip, 
And hum at good Cominius, much unhearts me, 
5 He was not taken well ; he had not din'd : 
The veins unfiU'd, our blood is cold, and then 
We pout upon the morning, are unapt 
To give or to forgive ; but when we have ftufFd 

5 He ivas not taken -veil', be bad not dix'J, &c.] This obferva- 
*ion is not only from nature, and finely exprefled, but admirably 
befits the mouth of one, who in the beginning of the play had 
{old us, that he loved convivial doings. WAR BUR TON. 

H h Thefe 


Thefe pipes, and thefe conveyances of our blood 
With wine and feeding, we have fuppler fouls 
Than in our prieft-like falls : therefore I'll watch 


'Till he be dieted to my requeft, 
And then I'll fet upon him. 

Bru. Yon know the very road into his kindnefs, 
And cannot lofe your way. 

Men. Good faith, I'll prove him, 
Speed how it will. ' I {hall ere long have knowledge 
Of my fuccefs. [Exit. 

Com. He'll never hear him. 
Sic. Not ? 

Com. 6 1 tell yon, he does fit in gold, his eye 
Red as 'twould burn Rome : and his injury 
The goaler to his pity. I knecl'd before him : 
'Twas very faintly he faid, Rife ; difmifs'd me 
Thus, with his fpeechiefs hand : What he would do, 
J-Ie fent in writing after me ; what he would not, 
* Bound with an oath, to yield to his conditions : 


6 I tell you, he docs jit in gold', ] He is inthroned in all the 

pomp and pride of imperial fplendour. 

Xgwrofif'oi'' "HJ Horn. JOHNSON. 

So, in the old tranflation of Plutarch: " he xvas fet in his 

chaire of tfate, with a marvelous and unfpeakable majeftie." 
Shakefpeare has a fomevvhat fimilar idea in K. Henry VIII. aft I. 
fc. i ; 

f< All clinquant, all in grid, like heathen gods." STEEVENS. 
* Bound with an oath to yield to his conditions:] This is appa- 
rently wrong. Sir T. Hanmer, and Dr. Warburton after hirrij 
read : 

"Bound yvitb an oath not to yield to new conditions, 
They might have read more fmoothly : 

to yield no new conditions. 

But the whole fpeech is in confufion, and I fufpeft fomething 
left out. 1 ftiould read : 

What he would do^ 

He fen f in writing after ; vjbat he would not, 

Bound *0)ltk an oat}}. To yield to his conditions. 
Here is, I think, a chafin. T;hc fpeaker's purpofe feems to be 

C O R I O L A N U S. 473 

* So that all hope is vain ; 

Unlefs his noble mother, and his wife, 

Who, as I hear, mean to ibliclt him 

For mercy to his country Therefore, let's hence, 

And with our fair entreaties hafte the.n on. [Exeunt, 


Tbe Vokian Camp. 
Enter Menenlus to the Watch, or Guard. 

1 Watch. Stay : Whence are you ? 

2 Watch. Stand, and go back. 

Men. You guard like men ; 'tis well :' But, by 
your leave, 

this : To yield to b's conditions is ruin, and better cannot be ob- 
tained, Jo that all hope .-'.. vain. JOHNSON. 

I fuppofe, Coriolanus means, that he had fworn to give way to 
the conditions, into which the ingratitude of his country ha4 
forced him. FARMER. 

3 So that ail hope is vain ', 

Unlefs bis noble mother, and his ivtff t 

Who, as I hear, mean tofolicit him 

for mercy to bis country ] 

Unlefs bis mother and wife do what ( The fentence is imperfect, 1 
We fhould read : 

Force mercy to his country. 
and then all is right. WAR BUR TON. 

Dr. Warburton's emendation is furely harfh, and may be ren- 
dered unneceflary by printing the paflage thus : 

mean to follicit him 

For mercy to bis country Therefore, &c. 

This liberty is the more juflifiable, becaufe, as foon as the re- 
maining hope crofles the imagination of Menenius, he might fup- 
prefs what he was going to add, through hafte to try the fuccefr 
pf a laft expedient. 

It has been propofed to me to read ; 

So that all hope is -vain, 

Unlefs in his nolle mother and his wife, &c. 
In bis, abbreviated in\ might have been eafiJy miftaken by fuch 
inaccurate printers. STEEVENS, 

I am 

474 C O R I O L 

I am an officer of ftate, and come 
To fpeak with Coriolanus. 

i Watch. From whence ? 

Men. From Rome. 

1 fPatcb. You may not pafs, you mufl return j 

our general 
Will no more hear from thence. 

2 Watch. You'll fee your Rome embrac'd with fire, 

You'll fpeak with Coriolanus. 

Men. Good my friends, 

If you have heard your general talk of Rome, 
And of his friends there, it is 9 lots to blanks, 
My name hath touch'd your ears : it is, Menenius. 

i Watch. Be it fo ; go back : the virtue of your 

Is not here paflable. 

Men. I tell thee, fellow, 
Thy general is my lover : I have been 
The book of his good a<fts, whence men have read 
His fame unparallel'd, hapily, amplified ; 
1 For I have ever verify'd my friends, 


-lots to Hanks,"} A lot here is a prize. JOHNSON. 

c * For I have ever verified my frit-nth 

fultb all tbejize that verity, &c.] 

Shakefpe.ire's mighty talent in painting the manners is efpecially 
remarkable in this place. Menenius here, and Polonius in Ham- 
let, have much of the fame natural character. The difference is 
only accidental. The one was a fenator in a free ftate ; and the 
other a courtier and minifter to a king ; which two circumftances 
afforded matter for that inimitable ridicule thrown over the cha- 
racter of Polonius. For the reft, there is an equal complaifance 
for thofe they follow ; the fame difpofition to be a creature ; the 
fame love of prate ; the fame affectation of wifdom, and forward-* 
nefs to be in bufmefs. But we mufl never believe Shakefpeare 
could make either of them fay, / have verified my friends ivitb all 
the Jlze of verity ; nay, what is more extraordinary, vtrljied t/jetx 
beyond vcr'ty. Without doubt he wrote : 

For I have ever narrified my friends: 
i. . made their encomium. This too agreeg with the foregoing 

C O R I O L A N U 5: 

(Of whom he's chief) with all the fize that verity 
Would without lapfing fuffer : nay, fometimes, 
Like to a bowl upon a fubtle ground *, 
I have tumbled paft the throw ; and in his praife 
Have, almoft, ftamp'd the leafing : Therefore, fellow, 
I muft have leave to pafs. 

i Watch. 'Faith, 'fir, if you had told as many lies 
in his behalf, as you have utter'd words in your own, 
you Ihould not pafs here : no, though it were as vir- 
\ uous to lie, as to live chaftly. Therefore, go back. 

Men. Pr'ythee, fellow, remember my name is 

metaphors of look, read, and conftitutes an uniformity amongft 
them. From whence the Oxford editor took occafion to read 
magnified: which makes the abfurdity much worfe than he found 
it : for, to magnify fignifies to exceed the truth ; fo that this cri- 
tic makes him fay, he magnified his friend within the fize of ve- 
rity : i. e. he exceeded truth, even while he kept within it. 


If the commentator had given any example of the word narrify^ 
the correction would have been not only received, but applauded. 
Now, fince the new word Hands without authority, we mull try 
what fenfe the old one will afford. To verify is to efiablljb by 
tefilmony. One may fay with propriety, be brought falfe ivitneffes 
to verify his title. Shakefpeare confidered the word with his ufual 
laxity, as importing rather tejlimony than ///, and only meant 
to fay, / bore witnefs to my friends with all the fize that verity 
would fuffer. 

I muffremark, that to magnify fignifies to exalt or enlarge, but 
not neceflarily to enlarge beyond the truth. JOHNSON. 

Mr. Edwards would read varnijlied ; but Dr. Johnfon's expla- 
nation of the old word renders all change unneceflary. 

To verify may, however, lignify to difplay. Thus in an an- 
cient metrical pedigree in poffeffion of the late dutchefs of North- 
umberland, and quoted by Dr. Percy in the Rcliques of ancient 
EngUJb Poetry , Vol.1, p. 279. 3d edit : 

" In hys fcheld did fchyne a mone vcryfying her light." 


* upon a fubtle ground,] Subtle means/moot!?, level. So, 

Jonfon, in one of his mafques : 

** Tityus's breaft is counted the fubtleji bowling ground in 
all Tartarus." 

Subtle , however, may mean artificially unlevel^ as many bowl- 
jng-greens are. STEEVENS. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 

Mencnius, always factionary on the party of your 
general . 

2 Watch. Hoivfoever you have been his liar, (as 
you fay, you have) I am one that, telling true under 
jiim, nruft fay, you cannot pafs. Therefore, go back. 

Men. Has he din'd, can'il thou tell ? for I vyould 
not fpeak with him 'till after dinner. 

i Watch. You are a Roman, are you ? 

Men. I am as thy general is. 

i {Patch. Then you Ihould hate Rome, as he does. 
Can you. when you havepulh'd out of your gates the 
very defender of them, and, in a violent popular 
ignorance, given your -enemy your fhield, think to 
front his revenges with the eafy groans of old wo- 
jnen, 3 the virginal palms of your daughters, or with 


* the virginal palms of your daughters , ] By virginal pains may 
be indeed underilood the holding up the hands in fupplication. 
Therefore I have altered nothing. But as this fenfe is cold, and 
gives us even a ridiculous idea ; and as the paffions of the fevera! 
interceifors feem intended to be here reprefented, I fufpect Shake- 
fpeare might \\r\tGpafmes or panes, i. e. fwooning fits, from the 
French pafmer or pamer. I have frequently uied the liberty to 
give fenfe to an unftieamng paflage by the introduction of a 
French word of the fame found, which I fuppofe to be of Shake- 
fpeare's own coining. And I am certainly to be juflified in fo 
doing, by the great number of fuch fort of 'words to be found in 
the common text. But for a further j unification of this liberty, 
take the following inftance ; where all muit agree, that the com- 
mon reading is corrupt by the editors inferring an Englilh word 
they underftood, inftead of one coined by Shakefpeare out of the 
French, which they underftood not. It is in his Tarquln a>. t l 
Lucrece, where he is fpeaking of the office and empire of Time, 
and the effefts it produces in the world : 

Tine's glory is 

To fill v~'!tb ~j?orm-holes jlatcly monuments^ 

To feed oblivion with dec cy of things ; 
To blot old books and alter their contents ; 

To pluck tie quills from ancient ra-vcin wing; 

Tf> dry the old oatfsfap, and cherifh fprings. 

The two latl words, if they make any fenfe, it is fuch as is direct- 
ly contrary to the fentiments here advanced ; which is concerning 
ihe decays , not the repairs or time. The poet certainly wrote : 

C O R I O L A N U S. 477 

the pnlfy'd interceffion of fuch a decay'd dotant 4 as 
you feem to be ? Can you think to blow out the in- 


To dry the old oaVsfap, and tarifh Jfirings. 

i. c. to dry up fprings, from the French tarir or tarijjcnu/it, exarc- 
faccre, cxjiccatio : thefe words being peculiarly applied to fprings 
or rivers. WARBURTON. 

I have inferred this note, becaufe it contains an apology for 
many others. It is not denied that many French words were min- 
gled in the time of Elizabeth with our language, which have fince 
been ejeSed, and that any which' are known to have been then in 
ufe may be properly recalled when they will help the fenfe. But 
when a word is to be admitted, the firft quellion fliould be, by 
whom was it ever received ? In what book can it be {hewn ? If it 
cannot be proved to have been in ufe, the reafons which can juili- 
fy its reception rrmft be ftronger than any critick will often have 
to bring. Even in this certain emendation, the new word is very 
liable to contefl. I fiiould read : 

- an 

The \vcrdpcrifi.' is commonly neutral, but in converfation is of- 
ten ufed actively, and why not in the works of a writer negligent 
beyond all others of grammatical niceties ? JOHNSON. 

After all, I believe the former reading of the paffage in Tar- 
qu:n and Lucrece to be the true one. Shakefpeare's meaning is, 
that Time was varioufly employed, both in defraying old things, 
and in railing up young ones. The next ftanza fufttciently 
proves it : 

* To fliew the beldame daughters of her daughter, 

*' To make the child a man, the man a child; 

" To chear the ploughman with encreafeful crops, 

" And wiifte huge ftones with little water-drops. 

" To dry the old oak's fap, and cberi/h^fyrings;" 
i. e. to dry up the old oak's fap, and confequently to deflroy it ; 
and Hkewife to cberifo fprings, i.e. to raite up or nourish the 
(hoots of coppice-wood, or of young trees, groves, and planta- 
tions. The word, fprings is ufed in this fenfe by Chaucer, Spcn- 
fer, Fairfax, Drayton, Donne, and Milton, as well as by the 
old writers on hufbandry, Fitzherbert, Tufler, Markham, and by 
Shakefpcare himfelf in the ComeJy of Errors .- 

" - (hall, Antipholus, 

" Even in the Jpring of love, thy \ove-fyrings rot ?" 
Again, in Holinfiied's Defcriptlon of England^ both the contefted 
words in the latter part of the verfe, occur. " We have manic 
woods, forrefts, ar.d parks which cberijb trees abundantlie, befide 
infinit numbers ot hedge rovve's, groves, and fprings, that are 
niainteined &c." Thus far Mr. Toilet. 

Dr. Warburton is furely unfortunate in the afibrtnaem of French 



tended fire your city is ready to fiame in, with fuck 
weak breath as this? No, you are deceiv'd ; therefore, 
back to Rome, and prepare for your execution : you 
are condemn'd, our general has fworn you out of re- 
prieve and pardon. 

Men. Sirrah, if thy captain knew I were here, he' 
would ufe me with eftimation. 

2 Watch. Come, my captain knows you not. 

Men. I mean, thy general. 

i Watch. My general cares not for you. 5 Back, 
I fay, go, left I let forth your half pint of blood ; 
back, that's the utmoft of your having : back. 

Men. Nay, but fellow, fellow, 

words exhibited on the prefent occafion, fince the firjl never was 
admitted as a noun into the French language, nor can the latter 
poffibly be claimed by any language at all. The attempt to in- 
troduce pafines inftead or" palms ridicules itfelf. 

The adjective virginal is ufed in Woman is a Weathercock, 1612: 

" Lav'd in a bath of contrite virginal tears." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faerie Queen, B. II. c. ix : 

*' She to them made with mildnefs virginal.' 1 STEEVENTS. 
Whether the word perijb be right or not in this place, Dr. John-- 
fon truly obferves, that it is fometimes ufcd adtively. In the 
Maid's Tragedy : 

" Let not my fins," fays Evadne to Amintor, 

" Perijb your noble youth." FARMER. 
Again, in the Second Eclogue of Drayton : 

" And hath for ever per ijbtd my fale." 
Again, in the Hone/? Man's Fortune, by B. and Fletcher : 

" his wants 

" And miferies have perffid his good face." STEEVESS. 

4 a decay* d dotant\ Thus the old copy. Modern editors read 
dotard. STEEVENS. 

5 Back) I fay, go; left T let forth your half pint of blood. B-ack r 
that's the utmoft of your having, backJ\ As theie words are read and 
pointed, the fentence [that's the utmoft of your having\ ilgnifies, 
you are like to get no further. Whereas the author evidently in- 
tended it to refer to the half pint of blood he fpeaks of, and to 
mean, that that was all he had in his veins. The thought is hu- 
mourous ; and to difembarnts it from the corrupt expreffion, we 
Ihould read and point it thus, Left I let forth your half pint of blood : 
that's the ut moft of your having. Eatli, back. WARBURTOX. 

I believe the meaning never was miilaken, and- therefore do not 
chwige the reading. JOHNSON'. 




Enter Corlolanus, with 

Cor. What's the matter '? 

Men. Now, you companion, I'll fay an errand for 
you ; you fhall know now, that I am in eftknation ; 
you fnall perceive that a Jack guardant cannot office 
me from my fon Coriolanus : 6 guefs, by my enter- 
tainment with him, if thou fland'ft not i' the ftate of 
hanging, or of fome death more long in fpedlatorfhip, 
and crueller in fuffering ; behold now prefently, and 
iwoon for what's to come upon thee. The glorious 
gods fit in hourly fynod about thy particular profpe- 
rity, and love thee no worfe than thy old father Me- 
nenius does ! O, my fon, my fon ! thou art preparing 
fire for us ; look thee, here's water to quench it. 1 
was hardly moved to come to thee : but being aflured, 
none but myfelf could move thee, I have been blown 
out of your gates with lighs ; and conjure thee to par- 
don Rome, and thy petitionary countrymen. Thq 
good gods afiwage thy wrath, and turn the dregs of 
it upon this varlet here ; this, who, like a block, hath 
denied my accefs to thee. 

Cor. Away ! 

Men. How ! away ? 

Cor. Wife, mother, child, I know not. My affairs 
Are fervanted to others : 7 Though I owe 
My revenge properly, my remiffion lyes 
In Volcian breafts. 'That we have been familiar, 
Ingrate forgetfulnefs lhall poifon, rather 

6 g" f f s but "y entertainment with him ;] I read, Guefs by ay 
entertainment witJj him, if tbouftandtft not i the ftate of hanging. 


Mr. Edwards had propofed the fame emendation in his MS. 
notes already mentioned. STEEVENS, 

7 : Though I ow>e 

My revenge properly, 1 

Though I have a. peculiar right in revenge, in the power of for* 
giveneis the Volcians are conjoined. JOHNSON 

480 C O R I O L A N U S. 

Than -pity note how much. Therefore, be gone* 
Mine ears againft your fuits are flronger, than 
Your gates agaihft my force. Yet, for I lov'd thee^ 
Take this along ; I writ it for thy fake, 

[Gives him a letter < 

And would have fent it. Another word, Menenius, 
I will not hear thee fpeak. This man, Aufidius, 
Was my belov'd in Rome : yet thou behold'ft 
Auf. You keep a conflant temper. [Exeunt. 

Manent the Guard, and Menenius. 

1 Watch. Now, fir, is your name Menenius. 

2 Watch. 'Tis a fpell, you fee, of much power : 
You know the way home again. 

1 Watch. Do you hear how we are 8 Ihent for keep- 
ing your greatnefs back ? 

2 Watch. What caufe, do you think, I have to 
fwoon ? 

Men. I neither care for the world, nor your gene- 
ral : for fuch things as you, I can fcarce think there's 
any, you are fo flight. He that hath a will to die by 
himfelf, fears it not from another. Let your general 
do his worft. For you, be that you are, long ; and 
your mifery increafe with your age ! I fay to you, as 
I was faid to, Away ! [Exit* 

1 Watch. A noble fellow, I warrant him. 

2 Watch. The worthy fellow is our general : He is 
the rock, the oak not to be wind-fhaken. [Exeunt. 

8 - bow zve arc ment] Shent is Irougbt todejlruftion. JOHNSON. 
Shent does not mean Irougbt to Jejintftion, butjbamed, di/graced, 
made ajhamed of himfelf. See the old ballad of the Heir of Linne, 
itt the fecond volume of Rdiques of Ancient Englij% Poetry ; 
" Sorely foent with this rebuke 

" Sorely Jbent was the heir of Linne ; 
* { His heart, I vvis, was near-to braft 

" With guilt and farrow, fhame and iinnc." PERCY. 




A Tent* 
Enter Corioianus and Aufidius. 

Cor. We will before the walls of Rome to morrow 
Set down our holt. My partner in this action, 
You muft report to the Voleian lords, 9 how plainly 
I have borne this bufinefs. 

Auf. Only their ends 

You have refpedted ; ftopp'd your ears againft 
The general fuit of Rome ; never admitted 
A private whifper, no, not with fuch friends 
That thought them fure of you. 

Cor. This laft old man, 

Whom with a crack'd heart I have fent to Rome, 
Lov'd me above the meafure of a father ; 
Nay, godded me, indeed. Their latefl -refuge 
Was to fend him : for whofe old love, I have 
(Though I fhew'd fourly to him) once more offer'd 
The firft conditions, which they did refufe, 
And cannot now accept, to grace him only, 
That thought he could do more ; a very little 
I have yielded too : Frelh embaflies, and fuits, 
Nor from the flate, nor private friends, hereafter 
Will I lend ear to. Ha ! what Ihout is this ? 

[Shout wit hi tii 

Shall I be tempted to infringe my vow 
In the fame time 'tis made ? I will not. 

Enter tlrgilia, Volumnia, Valeria, young Marcius, with 
Attendants^ all in mourning. 

My wife comes foremoft ; then the honour'd mold 

9 ' bow plainly 

I have borne this bufinefs."] 

That is, bow openly, b<nu remotely from artifice or concealment.. 


VOL. VII, I i Wherein 

482, C O R I O L A N U S. 

Wherein this trunk was fram'd, and in her hand 

The grandchild to her blood. But, out, affe&ion ! 

All bond and privilege of nature, break ! 

Let it be virtuous, to be obftinate. 

What is that curt'fy worth ? or thofe dove's eyes, 

Which can make gods forfworn ? I melt, and am 


Of flronger earth than others. My mother bows ; 
As if Olympus to a mole-hill mould 
In fupplication nod : and my young boy 
Hath an afped: of interceflion, which 
Great nature cries, Deny not. Let the Voices 
Plough Rome, and harrow Italy ; I'll never 
Be fuch a gofling to obey inftinct ; but ftand, 
As if a man were author of himfelf, 
And knew no other kin. 

Virg. My lord and hufband ! 

Cor. Thefe eyes are not the fame I wore in Rome. 

Vlrg. The forrow, that delivers us thus chang'd, 
Makes you think fo 9 . 

Cor. Like a -dull actor now, 
I have forgot my part, and I am out, 
Even to a full difgrace. Beft of my flefh, 
Forgive my tyranny ; but do not fay, 
For that, Forgive our Romans. O, a kifs 
Long as my exilej fweet as my revenge ! 
1 Now by the jealous queen of heaven, that kifs 
I carried from thee, dear ; and my true lip 

5 The forrow, that delivers us thus changed, 

Makes you think fo.~\ 

Virgilia makes a voluntary mifinterpretation of her hufband's 
words. He fays, Thefe eyes are not the fame, meaning, that he 
faw things with other eyes, or other difpofitions. She lays hold on 
the word eyes, to turn his attention on their prefent appearance. 


1 Now ly the jealous queen of heaven, - ] That is, ly Juno, 
the guardian of marriage, and confefjuently the avenger 01 con- 
nubial perfidy. JOHNSON-. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 483 

Hath virgin'd it e'er fmce. You gods ! I prate % 
And the fnofl noble mother of the world 
Leave unfaluted : Sink, my knee, i' the earth ; 


Of thy deep duty more impreflion fhew 
Than that of common fons. 

Vol. O, Hand up bleft ! 
Whilft, with no fofter cufhion than the flint, 
I kneel before thee ; and un properly 
Shew duty, as miftaken all the while [Kneels. 

Between the child and parent. 

Cor. What is this ? 

Your knees to me ? to your corrected fon ? 
Then let the pebbles on the hungry beach 
Fillop the ftars : then let the mutinous winds 
Strike the proud cedars 'gainft the fiery fun ; 
Murd'ring impoffibility, to make 
What cannot be, flight work. 

Vol. Thou art my warrior ; 
I holp to frame thee. Do you know this lady ? 

[Pointing to Valeria. 

Cor. 3 The noble fitter of Publicola,' 
The moon of Rome ; chafle as the ificle * 


* /prate.] The old copy I fray. The merit of the al- 
teration is Theobald's. STEEVENS. 

3 The noble fifler of Pttblicola,'] Valeria, methinks, fhould not 
have been brought only to fill up the procelfion without fpeaking. 


It is not improbable, but that tlie poet defigned the following 
words of Volumnia for Valeria. Names are not unfrequently 
confounded by the player-editors ; and the lines that compofe this 
fpeech might be given to the fitter of Publicola without impropriety. 
It may be added, that though the fcheme to folicit Coriolanus was 
originally propofed by Valeria, yet Plutarch has allotted her no 
addrefs when (he comes with his wife and mother on this occa- 
fion. STEEVENS. 

* chafle as the ificle, sV.] I cannot forbear to quote the fol- 
lowing beautiful paflage from Shirley's Gentleman of Venict^ in 
which the praife of a lady's cbaftity is likewife attempted : 

I i a tlx>* 

484 C O R I O L A N U S. 

That's curdled by the froft from pureft mo\v, 
And hangs on Dian's temple : Dear Valeria ! 

Vol. This is a poor s epitome of yours, 

[Shewing young Marc'iitf. 
Which by the interpretation of full time 
May fliew like all yourfelf. 

Cor. The god of foldiers, 
6 With the confent of fupreme Jove, inform 
Thy thoughts with noblenefs ; that thou may 'ft 


To lhame invulnerable, and flick i'the wars 
Like a great fea-mark, {landing 7 every flaw, 
And faving thofe that eye thee ! 

VoL Your knee, firrah. 

Cor. That's my brave boy. 

VoL Even he, your wife, this lady, and myfelf, 
Are fuitors to you. 

Cor. I befeech you, peace : 
Or, if you'd alk, remember this before ; 
The things, I have forfworn to grant, may never 
Be held by you denials. Do not bid me 
Difmifs my foldiers, or capitulate 
Again xvith Rome's mechanics : Tell me not 
\V herein I feem unnatural : Defire not 

- 'tbouartcbajle 

" As the white down of heaven, whofe feathers play 

* ' Upon tbe wings of a cold winter's gale, 

*' Trembling with fear to touch tW impurcr earth" 

s i epitome of yours, ] I read : 

epitome of you. 

An epitome of you, which, enlarged ly the commentaries of time t 
may equal you in magnitude. JOHNSON. 

* With the confent of fupreme Jove, ] This is inferted 

with great decorum. Jupiter was the tutelary God of Rome. 

evcry flaw,] That is, every /?, every farm. 




To allay my rages and revenges, with 
Your colder reafons. 

VoL Oh, no more, no more ! 
You have faid, you will not grant us any thing ; 
For we have nothing e!fe to afk, but that 
Which you deny already : Yet we will alk ; 
That, if we fail in our requeft, the blame 
May hang upon your hardnefs : therefore hear us. 

Cor. Aufidius, and you Voices, mark ; for we'll 
Hear nought from Rome in private. Your requeft ? 

VoL Should we be filent and not fpeak, our rai- 
ment 3 


8 Should we le filent and not f peak, our raiment, &c.] " The 
fpeeches copied from Plutarch in Coriolanns may (fays Mr. Pope) 
be as well made an inibnce of the learning of Shakefpeare, as 
thole copied from Cicero,, in Catallne, of Ben Jonfon's." Let 
us inquire into this matter, and tranfcribe ^.fpcech for a fpecimen. 
Take the famous one of Volumnia ; for our author has done little 
more, than thrown the very words of North into blank verfe. 

" If we helde our peace (my fonne) and determined not to 
fpeake, the ftate of our poore bodies, and prefent light of our ray-- 
ment, would eafely bewray to thee what life we haue led at home, 
fince thy exile and abode abroad. But thinke now with thy felfe, 
howe much more unfortunately, then all the women liuinge we 
are come hether, confidering that the light which Ihould be moft 
pleafaunt to all other to beholde, fpirefull fortune hath made moft 
fearfull to us : making my felfe to fee my fonne, and my daugh- 
ter here, her hulband, belieging the walles of his natiue countrie. 
So as that which is the only comfort to all other in their advenine 
and miierie, to pray unto the gpddes, and to call to them for aide, 
is the onely thinge which plongeth us into moft deep perplexitie. 
For we cannot (alas) together pray, both for vi&orie, for our 
countrie, and for fafety of thy life alfo : but a worlde of grievou* 
curfes, yea more then any mortall enemie can heape uppon us, 
arc forcibly wrapt up in our prayers. For the bitter foppe of moft 
harde choyce is offered thy wife and children, to foregoe the one 
of the two : either to lofe the perfone of thy felfe, or the nurfe 
of their natiue contrie. For my felfe (my foniie) I am deter- 
mined not to tarrie, till fortune in my life time doe make an cnde 
of this warre. For if I cannot perfuade thee, rather to doe good 
unto both parties, then to ouerthrowe and deflroye the one, pre- 
I i 3 fcrring 

4 86 C O R I O L A N U S. 

And ftate of bodies would bewray what life 
We have led fince thy exile. Think with thyfelf, 
How more unfortunate than all living women 
Are we come hither : fmce that thy fight, which 

Make our eyes flow with joy, hearts dance with com- 

* Conftrains them weep, and ihake with fear and for- 

row ; 

Making the mother, wife, and child, to fee 
The fon, the hufband, and the father, tearing 
His country's bowels our. And to poor we, 
Thine enmity's moft capital : thou barr'ft us 
Our prayers to the gods, which is a comfort 
That all but we enjoy : For hoiv. can we, 
Alas ! how can we for our country pray, 
Whereto we are bound ; together with thy victory^ 
Whereto we are bound ? Alack ! or we muft lofe 
The country, our dear nurfe ; or elfe thy perfon, 
Our comfort in the country. We muft find 
An evident calamity, though we had 
Our wifh, which fide Ihould win : for either thou 
Muft, as a foreign recreant, be led 
With manacles thorough our ftreets ; or elfe 
Triumphantly tread on thy country's ruin ; 
And bear the palm, for having bravely fhed 
Thy wife and children's blood. For myfelf, fon, 
I purpofe not to wait on fortune, 'till 
Thefe wars determine : if I cannot perfuade thee 
Rather to Ihew a noble grace to both parts, 
Than feek the end of one, thou ihalt no fooner 

ferring loue and nature before the malice and calamitie of warres ; 
thou (halt fee, my tonne, and truft unto it, thou fhalt no foner 
marchs forward to aflault thy countrie, but thy foote fnall tread 
upon thy mother's wombe, that brought thee firit into this world." 


9 Conftrains them weep, atfd Jbake- ] That is, conftrains 
the eye to vjerf t and the heart tofoakc. JOHNSON, 


C O R I O L A N U S. 487 

March to aflault thy country, than to. tread 
(Truft to't, thou ihalt not) on thy mother's womb, 
That brought thee to this world. 

Virg. Ay, and mine, 

That brought you forth this boy, to keep your name 
Living to time. 

Boy. He mall not tread on me ; 
I'll run away 'till I am bigger, but then I'll fight. 

Cor. Not of a woman's tendernefs to be, 
Requires nor child nor woman's face to fee. 
I have fat too long. 

Vol. Nay, go not from us thus. 
If it were fo, that our requeft did tend 
To fave the Romans, thereby to deftroy 
The Voices whom you ferve, you might condemn 


As poifonous of your honour : No ; our fuit 
Is, that you reconcile them : while the Voices 
May fay, This mercy we have fliew'd ; the Romans, 
This we receh'd ; and each in either fide 
Give the all-hail to thee, and cry, Be bleft 
For making up this peace ! Thou know'ft, great fon, 
The end of war's uncertain ; bur this certain, 
That, if thou conquer Rome, the benefit 
Which thou Ihalt thereby reap, is fuch a name, 
Whofe repetition will be dogg'd with curfes ; 
Whofe chronicle thus writ, 'The man was noble, 
&;t with his laft attempt he wip'd it out ; 
Deftrofd his country, and his name remains 
To the enfuing age, abhorred. Speak to me, fon : 
Thou haft affedted ' the fine ftrains of honour, 
To imitate the graces of the gods ; 
To tear with thunder the wide cheeks o'the air, 
1 And yet to charge thy fulphur with a bolt 


the fine Jlralns ] The niceties, the refinements. 


* Andyct to chzngp (lyfulpbar ] We flwuld read charge. 

I i 4 The 

488 C O R I O L A N U S. 

That fhould but rive an oak. Why doft not fpeak ? 
Think'ft thou it honourable for a noble man 
Still to remember wrongs ? Daughter, fpeak you : 
He cares not for your weeping. Speak thou, boy ; 
Perhaps, thy childilhnefs will move him more 
Than can our reafons, There is no man in the 

More bound to his mother ; yet here he lets me prate, 

3 Like one i' the (locks. Thou haft never in thy life 
Shew'd thy dear mother any courtefy ; 

When fhe, (poor hen !) fond of no fecond brood, 
Has cluck'd thee to the wars, and fafely home, 
Loaden with honour. Say, my requeft's unjuft, 
And fpurn me back : But, if it be not fo, 
Thou art not honeft ; and the gods will plague thee, 
That thou reftrain'ft from me the duty, which 
To a mother's part belongs. He turns away ; 
Down, ladies ; let us lhame him with our knees, 
To his furname Coriolanus 'longs more pride, 
Than pity to our prayers. Down : An end ; 
This is the laft : So we will home to Rome, 
And die among our neighbours. Nay, behold us : 
This boy, that cannot tell what he would have ?j 
But kneels, and holds up hands, for fellowmip, 

4 Does reafon our petition with more ftrength 
Than thou haft to deny't.- Come, let us go : 
This fellow had a Voice unto his mother ; 
His wife is in Corioli, and this child 

Like him by chance : Yet give us our difpatch j 
I am hufii'd until our city be afire, 
And then I'll fpeak a little, 

The meaning of the paflage is, To threaten much, and yet be 
jnercitul. WAR BURTON. 

3 Like one ? the flocks. ] Keep me in a fhte of ignominy 
falking to no purpoie. JOHNSON. 

4 Decs rnifon cur petition . ] Does argue for us andouj: 

C O R I O L A N U S. 489 

Cor. Mother, mother s I 

[Holds her by the hands^ fiknt. 

What have you done ? Behold, the heavens do ope,, 
The gods look down, and this unnatural fcene 
They laugh at. O my mother, mother ! O ! 
You have won a happy victory to Rome : 
But, for your fon, believe it, O, believe it, 
Moft dangeroufly you have with him prevail'd, 
If not molt mortal to him. But, let it come : 
Aufidius, though I cannot make true wars, 
I'll frame convenient peace. Now, good Aufidius, 
Were you in my ftead, fay, would you have heard 
A mother lefs ? or granted lefs, Aufidius ? 

Auf. I was mov'd withal. 

Cor. I dare be fworn, you were : 
And, fir, it is no little thing, to make 
Mine eyes to fweat companion. But, good fir, 
What peace you'll make, advife me : For my part, 
I'll not to Rome, I'll back with you : and pray you, 
Stand to me in this caufe. O mother ! wife ! 

Auf. I am glad, thou haft fet thy mercy and thy 


At difference in thee : out of that 6 I'll work 
Myfelf a former fortune. [AJide. 

\Tihe Ladles make figns to Coriolanus, 

Cor. Ay, by and by ; 
But we will drink together ; and you fhall bear 

[To Volumnia, Virgilia^ &V. 
A better witnefs back than words, which we, 

5 Mother, mother ! ] So, in the old tranflation of Plutarch : 
'* Oh mother, what have you done to me ? And holding her 
harde by the right hande, oh mother, fayed he, you have wonne 
a happy victorie for your countrie, but mortall and unhappy for 
your fonne : for I fee myfelf vanquifhed by you alone." 


6 P II work 

j\fyfe/f a former fortune.} 

I will take advantage of this conceffion to reftore myfelf to my 
former credit and power. JOHNSON, 


490 C O R I O L A N U S. 

On like conditions, will have counter-feal'd. 

7 Come, enter with us. Ladies, you deferve 

To have a temple built you 8 : all the fwords 

In Italy, and her confederate arms, 

Could not have made this peace. [Exeunt. 


The Forum, in Rome. 
Enter Menenius, and Sicinius. 

Men, See you yon coign o* the Capitol ; yon cor- 
ner-ftone ? 

Sic. Why, what of that ? 

Men. If it be poffible for you to difplace it with 
your little finger, there is fome hope the ladies of 
Rome, efpecially his mother, may prevail with him. 

7 Cor. Come enter <voith us ; Ladies, you Jefer<ve,-&c,] This 
fpeech, beginning at Ladies yau deferve which is abfurdly given 
to Coriolanus, belongs to Aufidius. For it cannot be fuppofed 
that the other, amidft all the diibrder of violent and contrary pai- 
iioqs, could be calm and difengaged enough to make fo gallant a 
compliment to the ladies. Let us farther oWerve from this fpeech, 
where he fays : 

all the fworJs 

In Italy> and her confederate arms. 
And from that a little before : 

Let the Folc^s 

Plough Rome, and hdrrovj Italy ; 

That the poet's head was running on the later grandeur of Rome, 
when as at this time her dominion extended only a few miles round 
the city. WAR EUR TON. 

The fpeech fails Aufidlus juftly enough, if it had been written 
for him ; but it may, without impropriety, be fpoken by Corio- 
Innus : and fince the copies give it to him, why mould we dif- 
poflefs him ? JOHNSQN. 

8 To have a temple built you.] Plutarch informs us, that a tem- 
ple dedicated to the Fortune of the Ladies^ was built on this occa- 
iiom by order of the fenate. ST^EVEN-. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 49 , 

But, I fay, there is no hope in't ; our throats are fen- 
tenc'd, and ftay upon execution. 

Sic. Is't poffible, that fo fhort a time can alter the 
condition of a man ? 

Men. There is difference between a grub, and a 
butterfly ; yet your butterfly was a grub. This Mar- 
cins is grown from man to dragon : he has wings ; 
he's more than a creeping thing. 

Sic. He lov'd his mother dearly. 

Men. So did he me : and he no more remembers 
his mother now, than ' an eight year old horfe. The 
tartnefs of his face fours ripe grapes. When he walks, 
he moves like an engine, and the ground fhrinks be- 
fore his treading. He is able to pierce a corflet with 
his eye ; talks like a knell, and his hum is a battery. 
1 He fifs in his ftate, as a thing made for Alexander. 
What he bids be done, is finilh'd with his bidding. 
He wants nothing of a god, but eternity, and a hea- 
yen to throne in. 

Sic. Yes, mercy, if you report him truly. 

Men. I paint him in the character. Mark what 
mercy his mother (hall bring from him : There is no 
more mercy in him, than there is milk in a male ty- 
ger ; and that lhall our poor city find : and all this is 
'long of you. 

Sic. The gods be good unto us 

Men. No, in fuch a cafe the gods will not be good 
unto us. When we baniih'd him, we refpecled not 
them : and, he returning to break our necks, they 
refpeft not us. 

s th an an eight year oldborfe.] Subintelligitur remcmlersbisjatn. 


1 He fit sin hiijlati] In a foregoing note he was faid to // in gold. 
The phrafe, as a thing made for Altxander, means, as one made to 
refemblt Alexandtr, J o UN SON. 


49* C O R I O L A N U S. 

Enter a Mejfenger. 

Mef. Sir, if you'd fave your life, fly to your houfe : 
The plebeians have got your fellow-tribune, 
And hale him up and down ; all fwearing, if 
s The Roman ladies bring not comfort home, 
They'll give him death by inches. 

Enter another Me/finger. 

Sic. What's the news ? 

Mef. Good news, good news ; The ladies have 


The Voices are diflodg'd, -and Marcius gone ; 
A merrier day did never yet greet Rome, 
No, not the expulfion of the Tarquins. 

Sic. Friend, 
Art thou certain, this is true ? is it moft certain ? 

Mef. As certain, as I know the fun is fire : 
'Where have you lurk'd, that you make doubt of it ? 
Ne'er through an arch fo hurry'd the blown tide, 
As the recomforted through the gates. Why, hark 
you ; 

[Trumpets, hautboy s^ drums beat, all together. 
The trumpets, fackbuts, pfalteries, and fifes, 
Tabors, and cymbals, and the Ihouting Romans, 
Make the fun dance. Hark you ! \_Ajhout within* 

Men. This is good news : 
I will go meet the ladies. This Volumnia 
Is worth of confuls, fenators, patricians, 
A city full ; of tribunes, fuch as you, 
A fea and land full : You have pray'd well to-day ; 
This morning, for ten thoufand of your throats 
I'd not have given a doit. -Hark, how they joy ! 

\_SoundJlilly with the flouts, 

Sic. Firft, the gods blefs you for your tidings : next, 
Accept my thankfulnefs. 

C O R I O L A N U S. 493 

Mef. Sir, we have all great caufe to give great 


Sic. They are near the city ? 
Mef. Almoft at point to enter. 
Sic. We*!! meet them, and help the joy. [Exeunt. 

Enter two Senators, with the Ladies, paffing over ibt 
ftage, fcfc. &fc. 

Sen. Behold our patronefs, the life of Rome : 
Call all your tribes together, praife the gods, 
And make triumphant fires; ftrew flowers before 

them : 

Unfhout the noife that banifh'd Marcius, 
Repeal him with the welcome of his mother : 

Cry,, Welcome, ladies, welcome ! 

All. Welcome, ladies, welcome! 

[_A flour ijh with drums and trumpets. Exeunt* 


A publick place in Antlum. 
Enter Tuttus Aufidius, with Attendants. 

Auf. Go tell the lords of the city, I am here : 
Deliver them this paper : having read it, 
Bid them repair to the market-place ; where I, 
Even in theirs and in the commons' ears, 
Will vouch the truth of it. He I accufe, 
The city ports by this hath enter'd, and 
Intends to appear before the people, hoping 

To purge himfelf with words : Difpatch. Moft 

welcome ! 

Enter three or four Confplrators of Aufidtu? faSlion. 

i Con. How is it with our general ? 
Auf. Even fo, 



As with a man by his own alms impoifon'd, 
And with his charity flain. 

2 Con. Moft noble fir, 

If you do hold the fame intent wherein 
You wifh'd us parties, we'll deliver you 
Of your great danger. 

Auf. Sir, I cannot tell ; 
We mufl proceed, as we do find the people. 

3 Con. The people will remain uncertain, whilft 
'Twixt you there's difference ; but the fall of either 
Makes the furvivor heir of all. 

Auf. I know it ; 

And my pretext to ftrike at him admits 
A good conftru&ion. I rais'd him, and I pawn'd 
Mine honour for his truth : Who being fo heighten'd, 
He water'd his new plants with dews of flattery, 
Seducing fo my friends : and, to this end, 
He bow'd his nature, never known before 
But to be rough, unfwayable, and free. 

3 Con. Sir, his ftoutnefs, 
When he did ftand for conful, which he loft 
By lack of {looping, 

Auf. That I woul$ have fpoke of : 
Being banilh'd for't, he came unto my hearth ; 
Prefented to my knife his throat : I took him ; 
Made him joint fervant with me ; gave him way 
In all his own defires ; nay, let him choofe. 
Out of my files, his projects to accomplish, 
My beft and freiheft men ; ferv'd his defignments 
In mine own perion ; holp to reap the tame, 
Which he did end all his ; and took fome pride 
To do myfeU" this \vrong : 'till, at the laft, 
I feem'd his follower, not partner ; and 
* He wag'd me with his countenance, as if 
I had beeri mercenary. 

i Con. 

* He wag'd tne with his countenance, ] This is obfcure. The 
, I think, is, he frefcribed to me with an air of author- 


i Con. So he did, my lord : 
The army marvell'd at it. And, in the laft, 
When he had carried Rome ; and that we look'd 
For no lefs fpoil, than glory, 

Auf. There was it; 

' For which my finews mall be ftretch'd upon him. 
At a few drops of "women's rheum, which are 
As cheap as lies, he fold the blood and labour 
Of our great action ; Therefore fliall he die, 
And I'll renew me in his fall. But, hark ! 

[Drums and trumpets found, with great foouts 
of the people. 

1 Con. Your native town you enter'd like a poft, 
And had no welcomes home ; but he returns, 
Splitting the air with noife. 

2 Con. And patient fools, 

ity, and gave me his countenance for my wages ; thought me fuflj- 
ciently rewarded with good looks. JOHNSON. 

The verb, to wage, is ufed in this fenfe in the Wife Woman of 
Hogfden, by Hey wood, 1638 : 

" 1 receive thee gladly to my houfe, 

" And wage thy (lay. " 

Again, in Greene's Mamillia, 1^93 : " by cuftom common 

to all that could wage her honefty with the appointed price." 

To wage a tajk was, anciently, to undertake a tafk for waget. 
So, in -Geo. Wither's ferfes prefixed to Drayton's Polyolblon : 

" Good fpeed befall thee who haft wag* el a toft, 

11 That better cenfures, and rewards doth afk." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Qiiecn, B. II. c. vii : 

" muft wage 

** Thy works for wealth, and life for gold engage." 
Again, in lord Surry's tranllation of the Second Book otVirgiTs 
^Eaeis : 

" what Dolopes ? 

" What ftern Ulyfles* waged foldier ?" 

Again, in Holinlhed's Reign of K. John, p. 168: the 

fumme of 28 thoufand markes to levie and wage thirtie thoufand 
men." Again, fpeaking of K. Hen. IV. p. 524: " the kbg 
wanted money for that enterprise, and to wage his foldiers." 


3 For ivbick my finmsfiallleftretcWd ] This is the point oa 
which I will attack him with my utmoft abilities. JOHNSON. 



Whofe children he hath flain, their bafe throats tear 
With giving him glory. 

3 Con. Therefore, at your vantage, 
Ere he exprefs himielf, or move the people 
With what he would fay, let him feel your fword, 
Which we will fecond. When he lies along, 
After your way his tale pronounc'd fliall bury 
His reafons with his body'. 

Auf. Say no more ; 
Here come the lords. 

Enter the Lords of the city. 

Lords* You are moft welcome home. 

Auf. I have not deferv'd it. 
But, worthy lords, have you with heed perus'd 
What I have written to you ? 

Lords. We have. 

i Lord. And grieve to hear it. 
What faults he made before the laft, I think, 
Might have found eafy fines : but there to end, 
Where he was to begin : and give away 
The benefit of our levies, 4 anfwering us 
With our own charge ; making a treaty, where 
There was a yielding ; This admits no excufe. 

Auf. He approaches, you fhall hear him. 

Enter Coriolanus, with drums and colours ; the Commom 

being with him. 

Cor. Hail, lords ! I am return'd your foldier ; 
No more inferred with my country's love, 
Than when I parted hence, but ftill fubfiiting 
Under your great command. You are to know, 

* ttn/kveriKg us 

With our own ch&gf ; ] 

Thnt is, rewarding us tyit> our own cxpences ; making the coft or 
the war its recompence. JOHNSON. 


C O R I O L A N U S. 497 

That profperoufly I have attempted, and 

With bloody paflage led your wars, even to 

The gates of Rome. Our fpoil, we have brought 


Doth more than counterpoife, a full third part, 
The charges of the adion. We have made peace, 
With no lefs honour to the Antiates, 
Than fhame to the Romans : And we here deliver, 
Subfcrib'd by the confuls and patricians, 
Together with the feal o'the fenate, what 
We have compounded on. 

Auf. Read it not, noble lords ; 
But tell the traitor, in the higheft degree 
He hath abus'd your powers. 

Cor. Traitor ! How now ? 

Auf. Ay, traitor, Marcius. 

Cor. Marcius ! 

Auf. Ay, Marcius, Caius Marcius; Doft thou think 
I'll grace thee with that robbery, thy ftol'n name 

Coriohnus in Corioli ? 

You lords and heads of the ftate, perfidioufly 
He has betray'd your buiinefs, and given up, 
For certain drops of fait, your city Rome 
(I fay, your city) to his wife and mother : 
Breaking his oath and refolwtion, like 
A twift of rotten filk ; never admitting 
Counfel o' the war ; but at his nurfe's tears 
He whin'd and roar'd away your victory ; 
That pages blulh'd at him, and men of heart 
Look'd wondering each at other. 

Cor. Hear'ft thou, Mars ? 

Auf. Name not the god, thou boy of tears, 

Cor. Ha! 

Auf. No more 5 . 

* Auf. No more.'] This fliould rather be given to the 'firft lord. 
It was not the builnefs of Auf-.ilui to put a itop to the alterca- 
tion. TYRWHITT, 

VOL. VII. K k Cor. 


Cor. Meafurelefs liar, thou haft made my heart 
Too great for what contains it. Boy ! O flave ! 
Pardon me, lords, 'tis the firft time that ever 
I was forc'd to fcold. Your judgments, my grave lords^ 
Muft give this cur the lie : and his own notion, 
(Who wears my ftripes impreft upon him ; that 
Muft bear my beating to his grave) fhall join 
To thruft the lie unto him. 

1 Lord. Peace, both, and hear me fpeak. 
Cor. Cut me to pieces, Voices, men and lads, 

Stain all your edges in me. Boy ! Falfe hound J 
If you have writ your annals true, 'tis there, 
That, like an eagle on a dove-cote, I 
Flutter'd your Voices in Corioli : 
Alone I did it Boy ! 

Auf. Why, noble lords, 

Will you be put in mind of his blind fortune, 
Which was your ihame, by this unholy braggart, 
'Fore your own eyes and. ears ? 

All Con. Let him die for't. 

All People. Tear him to pieces, do it prefently. 

\_The Croud fpeak promifcuovjly. 
He kill'd my fon, My daughter, He kill'd my 

coufin Marcus. 
He kill'd my father. 

2 Lord. Peace, ho ; no outrage ; peace. 
The man is noble, and 6 his fame folds in 
This orb o' the earth : His laft offences to us 
Shall ;have judicious hearing. Stand, Aufidius^ 
And trouble not the peace. 

Cor. O, that I had him, 
With fix Aufidiufes, or more, his tribe, 
To ufe my lawful fword ! 

Auf. Infolent villain ! 

6 i his fame folds in 

77jis orb o* the earth : ] 

Jrlis fame overfpreads the world. JOHNSON. 



AUCon. Kill, kill, kill, kill, kill him. 

[Aufidius and the Confpirators draw, and kill Mar* 
cius, who falls, and Aufidius Jlands on bini, "' 
Lords. Hold, hold, hold, hold. 
Auf. My noble mailers, hear me fpeak. 

1 Lord. O Tullus, 

2 Lord. Thou haft done a deed, whereat 
Valour will weep. 

3 Lord. Tread not upon him. Mailers all, be quiet; 
Put up your fwords. 

Auf. My lords, when you fhall know, (as in this rage, 
Provok'd by him, you cannot) the great danger 
Which this man's life did owe you, you'll rejoice 
That he is thus cut off. Pleafe it your honours 
To call me to your fenate, Til deliver 
Myfelf your loyal fervant, or endure 
Your heaviefl cenfure. 

1 Lord. Bear from hence his body, 

And mourn you for him : let him be regarded 
As the moft noble corfe, that ever herald 
Did follow to his urn. 

2 Lord. His own impatience 

Takes from Aufidius a great part of blame. 
Let's make the beft of it. 
Auf. My rage is gone, 

And I am ftruck with forrow. Take him up : 
Help, three o' the chiefeft foldiers ; I'll be one. 
Beat thou the drum, that it fpeak mournfully : 
Trail your fteel pikes. Though in this city he 
Hath widow'd and unchilded many a one, 
Which to this hour bewail the injury, 
Yet he fliall have a noble memory 7 . 

[Exeunt, bearing the body of Marcius. A dead 
march founded. 

7 a nolle memory.] Memory for Memorial.'} So, in As you 

Like It; 

O, you 

5 oo C O R I O L A N U S* 

. - O, you* Memory 

Of old fir 'Rowland ! STEEVEXS. 

THE tragedy of Corlolanm is one of the moft amufing of our 
author's performances. The old man's merriment in Menenhis ; 
the lofty lady's dignity in Volumnia ; the bridal modefty in Vir- 
gilia ; the patrician and military haughtinefs in Coriolanus ; the 
plebeian malignity and tribunitian infolence in Brutus and Sicinius, 
make a very plcaiing and interefting variety : and the various re- 
volutions of the hero's fortune fill the mind with anxious curioftty* 
There is, perhaps, too much buiUe in the firft aft, and too little 
in the laft. JOHNSON. 



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