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T H E A-:y- 


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Printed for C. Bathurft, W. Strahan, J. F. and C. Rivington, 
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T. Cadell, H. L. Gardner, J. Nichols, J. Bew, J. Beecroft, 
W. Stuart, T. Lowndes, J. Robfon, T. Payne, T. Becket, 
F. Newbery, G. Robinfon, R. Baldwin, J. Williams, J.Ridley, 
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Perfons Reprefented. 

Julius Caefar, 

OaaviusCaefar, , rriumvirs, after the Death of 

M. Antomus, \ T ,. J f 

M. JEmil. Lepidus. J Juhl 

Cicero, Publius, Popilius Lena, Senators. 


Julius Caefar, 

Decius Brutus, 

Metellus Cimber, 


Flavius, and Marullus, Tribunes. 

Artemidorus, a Sopb'ift of Cnidos. 

A Soothfayer. 

Cinna, a Poet : Another Poet. 

Lucilius, Titinius, Meflala, Toung Cato, and Vo- 

lumnius. Friends to Brutus and Caffius. 
Varro, Clitus, Claudius, Strato, Lucius, Dardanius ; 

Servants to Brutus. 
Pindarus, Servant to Caffius. 

Calphurnia, Wife to Czefar. 
Portia, Wife to Brutus. 

Plebeians, Senators, Guards, Attendants, 

SCENE, for the three frjl Atts, at Rome : after- 
wards at an Ifland near Mutina ; at Sardis ; and near 



R M E. 

A Street. 
Enter Flavius> * Marullus, and certain Commoner s 

Flav. Hence j home, you idle creatures, get you 

home : 
Is this a holiday ? What ! know you not, 


1 Julius Csefar.] It appears from Peck's Collection of divers cu- 
rious Hiftorical Pieces, &c. (appended to his Memoirs, &c. of 
Oliver Cromwell,) p. 14, that a Latin play on this fubjeft had 
been written. ' Epilogus Caefaris interfecli, quomodo in fcenam 
prodiit ea res, ada in Ecclefia Chriili, Oxon. Qui Epilogus a 
magiftro Ricardo Eedes et fcriptus et in profcenio ibidem diclus 
fuit, A. D. 1582." Meres, whofe Wit's Commonwealth was pub- 
limed in 1598, enumerates Dr. Eedcs among the beft tragic wri- 
ters of that time. STEEVENS. 

William Alexander, afterwards earl of Sterline, wrote a tra- 
gedy on the flory and with the title of Julius Cafar. It may be 
prefumed that Shakefpeare's play was pofterior to his ; for 'lord 
Sterline, when he compofed his Julius Cafar was a very young 
author, and would hardly have ventured into that circle, within 
which the moil eminent dramatic writer of England had already 
\valked. The death of Caefar, which is not exhibited but related 
to the audience, forms the cataftrophe of his piece. In the two 
plays many parallel paflages are found, which might, perhaps, 
have proceeded only from the two authors drawing from the fame 
fource. However, there are fome reafons for thinking the coinci- 
dence more than accidental. 

Mr. Steevens has produced from Darius, another play of this 
writer's, fome lines fo like a celebrated paflage of Shakefpeare ia 
the Tempejl, aft III. that the one muft, I apprehend, have been 
copied from the other. Lord Sterline's Darius was printed at 
JEdinburgh in 1603, and his J*H*s Cafar in 1607, at a time when 

VOL. VIII, B z b 


Being mechanical, you ought not walk, 
Upon a labouring day, without the fign 
Of your profeffion ? Speak, what trade art thou ? 

Car. Why, fir, a carpenter. 

Mar. Where is thy leather apron, and thy rule ? 
"What doft thou with thy belt apparel on ?- 
You, fir ; what trade are you ? 

Cob. Truly, fir, in refpedt of a fine workman, J 
am but, as you would fay, a cbbler. 

Mar. But what trade art thou ? Anfwer me di- 

Cob. A trade, fir, that, I hope, I may ufe with a 
fafe confcience ; which is, indeed, fir, a mender of 
bad foals. 

he was but little acquainted with Englifh writers ; for they abound 
tvith Scoticifms, which, in the fubfequent folio edition, 1637, he 
corrected. But neither the Tempeft^ nor the Julius Ccrfar of our 
author, was printed till 1623. 

It muft be alfb remembered, that our author has feveral plays, 
founded on fubjecb which had been unfuccefsrully treated fey 
others. Of this kind are King John, King Henry V. King Lear , 
Meafure for ^leafure, the Taming of the Shrew, jjntony and Cleo~ 
patra, the Merchant of Venice, and perhaps Macbeth * : whereas no 
proof has hitherto been produced, that any contemporary wri- 
ter ever prefumed to new model a ftory that had already employ- 
ed the pen of Shcikefpeare. On all thefe grounds it appears 
more probable, that Shakefpeare was indebted to lord Sterline, 
than that lord Sterline borrowed from Shakefpeare. If this rea- 
foning be juft, this play could not have appeared before the year 

The real length of time in Julius Cafar, Mr. Upton obferves, 
is as follows : About the middle of February A. U. C. 709, the 
feftival of Luperci was held in honour of Caefar, when the regal 
crown was offered to him by Antony. On the i th of March in 
the fame year, he was killed. Nov. 27, A. U. C. 710, the 
triumvirs met at a fmalHiland,' formed by the river Rhenus, near 
Bononia, and there adjufted their favage profcription. 
A. U. C. 711. Brutus and Caffms were defeated near Philippi. 


* MureJlus."] I have, upon the authority of Plutarch, fyc* 
^iven to this tribune, his right name Marullus. THEOBALD. ' 
See Dr. Farmer's note at the end of Macbeth. 


Flav. What trade, thou knave ? thou naughty 
knave, what trade ? 

Cob. Nay, I befeech you, fir, be not out with me 
Yet, if you be out, fir, I can mend you. 

J Mar. What meaneft thou by that ? Mend me, 
thou faucy fellow ? 

Cob. Why, fir, cobble you. 

Flav. Thou art a cobler, art thou ? 

Cob. Truly, fir, all that I live by is, with the awl : I 
meddle with no trade, man's matters, nor woman's 
matters, but with awl 4 . I am, indeed, fir, a furgeon 
to old fhoes ; when they are in great danger, I re- 
cover them. As proper men as ever trod upon neats- 
leather, have gone upon my handy-work. 

Flav. But wherefore art not in thy fhop to-day ? 
Why doft thou lead thefe men about the itreets ? 

Cob. Truly, fir, to wear out their fhoes, to get 
myfelf into more work. But, indeed, fir, we make 
holiday, to fee Caviar, and to rejoice in his triumph. 

Mar. Wherefore rejoice ? What conquefl brings 

he home ? 

What tributaries follow him to Rome, 
To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels ? 
You blocks, you flones, you worfe than fenfelefs 

things ! 

O, you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome, 
Knew you not Pompey ? Many a time and oft 
Have you climb'd up to walls and battlements, 
To towers and windows, yea, to chimney-tops, 

3 Mar. Wljat mean'ft tbou l>y that ?] As the Colic;; in the pre- 
ceding fpeech, replies to Flavins, not to Marullus ; 'tis plain, I 
think, this fpeech muft be given to Flavins. THEOSALD. 

I have replaced Marullus^ who might properly enough reply to 
a faucy fentence directed to his colleague, and to whom the 
fpeech was probably given, that he might not fland too long un- 
employed upon the ftage. JOHNSON. 

4 / me tidlc with no tradefman's matters, nor woman's matters^ 
lut with all.] This fhould be, I meddle with no trade, man's 
matters, nor woman's matters, but with <r.v/," FARMER. 

B 3 Your 


Your infants in your arms, and there have fat 
The live-long day, with patient expectation, 
To fee great Pompey pals the ilreets of Rome : 
And when you faw his chariot but appear, 
Have you not made an univerfal fliout, 
That Tyber trembled underneath his banks % 
To hear the replication of your founds, 
Made in his concave Ihores ? 
And do you now put on your belt attire ? 
And do you now cull out a holiday ? 
And do you now ftrew flowers in his way, 
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood ? 
Be gone ; 

Run to your houfes, fall upon you knees, 
Pray to the gods to intermit the plague 
That needs muft light on this ingratitude. 

Flav. Go, go, good countrymen, and, for this 


Affemble all the poor men of your fort ; 
Draw them to Tyber banks, and weep your tears 
Into the channel, 'till the lowed ftream 
Do kifs the moil exalted fhores of all. 

[Exeunt Commoners* 

See, whe'r 6 their bafeft metal be not mov'd ; 
They vanifh tongue-ty'd in their guiltinefs. 
Go you down that way towards the Capitol ; 
This way will I : Difrobe the images, 
If you do find them 7 deck'd with ceremonies. 


5 bis banks,] The old copy reads Icr banks. As Tyler 
is always reprefented by the figure of a man, the feminine gen- 
der is improper. Milton fays, that 

" the river of blifs 

" Rolls o'er Elyfian flowers her amber ftream ; 
but he is fpeaking of the water, and not of its prefiding power or 
genius. STEEVEKS. 

' See, \vhe'r] Whether, thus abbreviated, is ufed by Ben 
Jonfon. STEEVEXS. 

1 dectfd with ceremonies.] Ceremonies, for religious orna- 


Mar. May we do fo ? 
You know, it is the feaft of Lupercal. 

Flav. It is no matter ; let no images 
Be hung with Czefar's trophies. I'll about, 
And drive away the vulgar from the ftreets : 
So do you too, where you perceive them thick. 
Thefe growing feathers pluck'd from Caefar's wing, 
Will make him fly an ordinary pitch ; 
Who elfe would ibar above the view of men, 
And keep us all in fervile fearfulnefs. 



'the fame. 

Enter Ctefar ; Antony, for the courfe ; Calplourriia, 
Portia^ 8 Deans, Cicero, Brutus^ CaJJius, Cafca, 
a Soothfayer, &V. 

Caf. Calphurnia, 

fafca. Peace, ho ! C^far fpeaks. 


ments. Thus afterwards he explains them by Cafar's treaties ; 
i. e. fuch as he had dedicated to the gods. WAR BUR TON. 

Caefar's trofhies^ are, I believe, the crowns which were placed 
on his flatues. So, in fir Tho. Norf/Ss tranilation. " There 
were fet up images of Casfar in the city with diadems on their 
heads like kings. Thofe the two tribunes went and pulled 
down." STEEVENS. 

8 This perfon was not Decius, but Decimus Brutus. The poet 
(as Voltaire has done fince) confounds the characters of Marcus 
and Decimus. Decimus Brutus was the moft cherilhed by Cafar 
of all his friends, while Marcus kept aloof, and declined fo large 
a fnare of his favours and honours, as the other had conftantly 
accepted. Yelleius Paterculus, fpeaking of Decimus Brutus, fays, 
"hb iis quos miferat Antonim, jugulatus efl, juftiffimafque op- 
time de fe merito, C. Cslari pocnas dedit, cujus cum primus om- 
nium amicorum fuiifet, jnterfefror fuit, et fortuna? ex qua frucftum 
tulerat, invidiam in auaortm relc.eabat, cenfebatque aequum quz 
r.cceperat a Cxfare retinere, Csfurem oui ilia dederat periifle." 
Lib. ii. c. 64. 

B 4 Jun- 


C<ff. Calphurnia, 

Calp. Here, my lord. 

C<ef. Stand you dire&ly in Antonius' 9 way, 
When he doth run his courfe.- Antonius. 

Ant. Casfar, my lord. 

Caf. Forget not, in your fpeed, Antonius, 
To touch Calphurnia : for our elders fay, 
The barren, touched in this holy chafe, 
Shake off their fleril curfe. 

Ant. I fhall remember : 
When Csefar fays, Do this, it is perform'd. 

Caf. Set on ; and leave no ceremony out. 

Sooth. Casfar. 

C*f. Ha ! Who calls ? 

Cafea. Bid every noife be ftill : Peace yet again. 

Ctef. Who is it in the prefs, that calls on me ? 
I hear a tongue, fhriller than all the mufick, 
Cry, Gsefar : Speak ; Casfar is turn'd to hear. 

Sooth. Beware the ides of March. 

jCr/I What man is that ? 

Bru. A foothfayer, bids you beware the ides of 

Set him before me, let me fee his face. 

*' Jungitur his Dccimus, notiffimus inter amicos 

" Caefaris, ingratus, cui trans-Alpina fuiflct 

" Gallia Caefareo nuper commiiTa favore. 

** Non ilium conjun&a fides, non nomen amici 

Deterrere poteft." 

*' Ante alios Dccimus^ cui fallere, nomen amici 

" Przecipuc dederat, duclorem faepe morantem 

*' Incifat. Supplem.Lucani" STEEVENS. 

Shakefpeare's miftake of Deciits for Decimus, arofe from the 
pld trandation of Plutarch. FARMER. 

Lord Sterline has committed the fame miftake in his Julius 
Ctffar. MALON-E. 

9 - - in Antonius' way.'] The old copy generally reads An* 
tonio, Oflavio, Flavio. The players were more accuftomed to 
Italian than Roman terminations, on account of the many ver- 
ifions frcm Italian novels, and the many Italian characters in dra- 
matic meces formed on the fame originals. $TEEYENS, 



Caf. Fellow, come from the throng : Look upon 

Caf. What fay'ft thou to me now ? Speak once 

Sooth. Beware the ides of March. 

Caf. He is a dreamer ; let us leave him : pafs. 
[' Sennet. Exeunt Ctffar, and Train, 

Caf. Will you go fee the order of the courfe ? 

Bru. Not I. 

Caf. I pray you, do. 

Bru. I am not gamefome ; I do lack fomc part 
Of that quick fpirit that is in Antony. 
Let me not hinder, Caffius, your defires ; 
I'll leave you. 

Caf. Brutus, I do obferve you now of late : 
I have not from your eyes that gentlenefs, 
And fhew of love, as I was wont to have : 
You bear too ftubborn and too * ftrange a hand 
Over your friend that loves you. 

Bru. Caffius, 

1 Sennet."] I have here inferred the word Sennet, from the original 
edition, that I may have an opportunity of retracing a hafty con- 
jeclure in one of the marginal directions in Henry VIII. Sennet 
appears to be a particular tune or mode of martial mufick. 


I have been informed that fennet is derived from fennejie, an 
antiquated French tune formerly ufed in the army ; but the Dic- 
tionaries which I have confulte'd exhibit no fuch word. 

In Decker's Satiromaftix, 1602 : 

'* Trumpets found a flourifli, and then afenxet." 
In the Dumb Show preceding the firftpart of Hieronlmo, 1605, ** 

*' Sound ajignate and pafs over the ftage." 
In Antonio's Revenge, 1602 : " Cornets found a cynet." 
In Look about You, 1600: " Enter zjinet." 
In a play called Alarum for London, &c. 1 602 : " b-Jignet founded." 
In B. and Fletcher's Knight of Malta, a fynnet is called a flourijb 
ef trumpets, but I kn6w not on what authority. See a note oa 
K. Henry VIII. ad II. fc. iv. 
Sennet may be a corruption fromfonata, Ital. STEEVENS. 

* ftrange a hand] Strange, is alien, unfamiliar, fuch as 

might become a itranger. JOHNSON, 


io J U L I U S C & S A R. 

Be not deceiv'd : If I have veil'd my look, 

I turn the trouble of my countenance 

Merely upon myfelf. Vexed I am, 

Of late, with J paffions of fome difference, 

Conceptions only proper to myfelf, 

Which give fome foil, perhaps, to my behaviours : 

But let not therefore my good friends be griev'd ; 

(Among which number, Caffius, be you one) 

Nor conftrue any further my negledt, 

Than that poor Brutus, with himfelf at war, 

Forgets the fhews of love to other men. 

Caf. Then, Brutus, I have much miflook your 

paflion ; 

By means whereof, this breaft of mine hath bury'd 
Thoughts of great value, worthy cogitations. 
Tell me, good Brutus, can you fee your face ? 

Eru. No, Caffius : for the eye fees not itfelf *, 
But by reflection, by fome other things. 

Caf. Tisjuft: 

And it is very much lamented, Brutus, 
That you have no fuch mirrors, as will turn 
Your hidden worth inefs into your eye, 
That you might fee your lhadow. I have heard, 
Where many of the bell refpect in Rome, 
(Except immortal Csefar) fpeaking of Brutus, 

3 pajfions of fome difference,] With a flu&uation of dif- 

cordant opinions and defires. JOHNSON. 
So, in Coriolanus, aft V. fc. iii : 

*' thou haft fet thy mercy and thy honour 

" At difference in thee." STEEVENS. 

* The eye fees not if/elf.] So, fir John Davies in his poem on 
The Immortality of the Soul : 

Is it becattfe the mind is like the eye, 

Through which it gathers knowledge by degrees ; 
Whofe rays reflcft not, butfpread outwardly ; 
Notfee.'ng itfelf, when other things it fees ? 
Again, in Mariton's comedy of the Fawne, 1606 : 

" Thus few ftrike fail until they run on flielf ; 

41 The e\-e fees all things but its proper fclf." STEEVENS. 



And groaning underneath this age's yoke, 
Have wifh'd that noble Brutus had his eyes. 

Bru. Into what dangers would you lead me, Caffius, 
That you would have me feek into myfelf 
For that which is not in me ? 

Caf. Therefore, good Brutus, be prepar'd to hear : 
And, fince you know you cannot fee yourfelf 
So well as by reflection, I, your glafs, 
Will modeftly difcover to yourfelf 
That of yourfelf which yet you know not of. 
And be not jealous of me, gentle Brutus : 
Were I a common laugher, or did ufe 
* To ftale with ordinary oaths my love 
To every new protefler ; if you know 
That I do fawn on men, and hug them hard, 
And after fcandal them ; or if you know 
That I profefs myfelf in banqueting 
To all the rout, then hold me dangerous. 

[Flour i/hj and /bout. 

Bru. What means this "(houting ? I do fear, the 

Choofe Csefar for their king. 

Caf. Ay, do you fear it ? 
Then muft I think you woi ild not have it fo. 

Bru. I would not, Caffiu s ; yet I love him well : 
But wherefore do you, hold me here fo long ? 
What is it that you would impart to me ? 
If it be ought toxvard the { general good, 
Set honour in one eye, and death i' the other, 
4 And I will look on both ii idiffcrently : 

5 To Jiak with ordinary oaths . vy love, &c.] To invite every 
new protefler to my affection by the -Jlale or allurement of cujiomary 
oaths. JOHNSON. 

6 And I will lonk on loth indiffer tntly j] Dr. Warburton has a 
long note on this occafion, which is very trifling. When Brutus 
firft names honour and death Y he c: Jmly declares them indifferent j 
but as the image kindles in his mi ad, 'he fets honour above life. 
Is not this natural ? JOHNSON. 



For, let the gods fa fpeed me, as I love 
The name of honour more than I fear death. 

Caf. I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, 
As well ss I do know your outward favour. 
Well, honour is the fubject of my (lory, - 
I cannot tell, what you and other men 
Think of this life ; but, for my iingle felf, 
I had as lief not be, as live to be 
In awe of fuch a thing as I my felf. 
I W2S born free as Casfar ; fo were you : 
We both have fed as well ; and we can both 
Endure the winter's cold, as well as he. 
For once, upon a raw and gully day, 
The troubled Tyber chafing with his fhores, 
Csfar faid to me, Dar'Jl thou, Cajfius, now 
Leap in with me into this angry flood, 
Andfzuim to yonder point ? Upon the word, 
Accoutred as I was, I plunged in, 
And bade him follow : fo, indeed, he did. 
The torrent roar'd ; and we did buffet it 
With lufly finews ; throwing it afide, 
And ftemming it with hearts of controverfy. 
But ere w could arrive the point propos'd 7 , 
C.sefar cry'd, Help me, Caffius, or I fink. 
I, as j3ineas, our great anceflor, 
Did from the flames of Troy upon his fhoulder 
The old Anchifes bear, fo, from the waves of Tyber 
Did I the tired Csefar : And this man 
Is now become a god ; and Caffius is 
A wretched creature, and mud bend his body, 
If C*efar carelefsly but nod on him. 

7 But ere wf could arrive the point propos'd, ] The verb arrive 
k ufed, without the prepolitiou at, by Milton in the fecond book 
of Paradifc Loft, as well as by Shakefpeare in the Third Part of 
K. Henry VI. aft V. fc. iii : 

" thofe powers that the queen 

14 Hath rais'd in Gallja, have arrived our coaft." 




He had a fever when he was in Spain, 

And, when the fit was on him, I did mark 

How he did ftiake : 'tis true, this god did fhakc : 

* His coward lips did from their colour fly ; 

And that fame eye, whofe bend doth awe the world, 

Did lofe his luftre : I did hear him groan : 

Ay, and that tongue of his, that bade the Romans 

Mark him, and write his fpeeches in their books, 

Alas ! it cry'd, Give me foms drink, Titiniw, 

As a iick girl. Ye gods, it doth amaze me, 

A man of fuch a feeble temper fhould 

So 9 get the ftart of the majcftick world, 

And bear the palm alone. [Shout. Flourrjb. 

Bru. Another general ihout ! 
I do believe, that thefe applaufes are 
For fome new honours that are heap'd on Csefar. 

Caf. Why, man, he doth beilride the narrow world, 
Like a Coloffus ; and we petty men 
Walk under his huge legs, and peep about 
To find ourfelves dishonourable graves. 
Men at fome time are matters of their fates : 
The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our ftars, 
But in ourfelves, that we are underlings. 
Brutus, and Csefar : What Ihould be in that Ca^far ? 
Why fliould that name be founded more than yours < 
Write them together, yours is as fair a name ; 

8 His coward lips dlil from their colour fly ;] A plain man would 
have faid, the colour Jlcd from his lips, and not his lips from their 
colour. But the falfe expreflion was for the fake of as falfe a piece 
of wit : a poor quibble, alluding to a coward flying from his 
colours. WAR BUR TON. 

9 - ' -get thejlart of the majcftick world^ &c.] This innate is 
extremely noble : it is taken from the Olympic games. The ma- 
jeftick world is a fine periphraiis tor the Roman empire ; their citi- 
zens fet themfelves on a footing with kings, and they called their 
dominion Orbis Ro?nanus. But the particular allufion feems to 
be to the known ftory of Caefar's great pattern Alexander, who 
being afked, Whether he would run the courfe at the Olympic 
games, replied, Tes t if the racers wire Kivgs. WARBURTON. 



Sound them, it doth become the mouth as well T ; 
Weigh them, it is as heavy ; conjure with them, 
Brutus will ftart a fpirit as foon as Caefar. 
Now in the names of all the gods at once, 
Upon what meat doth this our Casfar feed, 
That he is grown fo great ? Age, thou art fham'd : 
Rome, thou haft loft the breed of noble bloods ! 
When went there by an age, fmce the great flood, 
But it was fam'd with more than with one man ? 
When could they fay, 'till now, that talk'dofRome, 
That her wide walls * incompafs'd but one man ? 
Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough, 
When there is in it but one only man. 

! you and I have heard our fathers fay, 

3 . There was a Brutus once, that would have brook'd 
The 4 eternal devil to keep his ftate in Rome, 
As eafily as a king. 

Bru. That you do love me, I am nothing jealous; 
What you would work me to, I have fome aim : 
How I have thought of this, and of thefe times, 

1 fhall recount hereafter ; for this prefent, 

I would not, fo with love I might intreat you, 
Be any further mov'd. What you have faid, 
I will confider; what you have to fay, 
I will with patience hear ; and find a time 

f Sound them, it doth become the mouth as we!/.] A fimilar thought 
occurs in Heywood's Rape of Lucrccc, 1614: 

** What diapafon's more in Tarquin's name 

" Than in a fubjeft's ? or what's Tullia 

** More in the found, than fhould become the name 

" Of a poor maid ?" STEEVENS. 

2 That her wide walls] The old copy reads walks, which may 
be right. STEEVENS. 

3 Tlxre was a Brutus once , i.e. Lucius Junius Brutus. 


4 eternal devil ] I fhould think that our author wrote 

rather, infernal de-jil. JOHNSON. 

I would continue to read eternal devil. L. J. Brut as (fays Caf~ 
Jius) would as foon have fubmitted to the perpetual dominion of a 
ai to the lajling government of a king. STEEVENS. 



Both meet to hear, and anfwer, fuch high things. 

'Till then, my noble friend, 5 chew upon this ; 

Brutus had rather be a villager, 

Than to repute himfelf a fon of Rome 

Under fuch hard 6 conditions as this time 

Is like to lay upon us. 

Caf. 1 am glad, that my weak words 
Have ftruck but thus much fhew of fire from Brutus. 

Re-enter Gefar, and his train. 

Bru. The games are done, and Ca^far is returning. 

Caf. As they pafs by, pluck Cafca by the fleeve ; 
And he will, after his four fafhion, tell you 
What hath proceeded, worthy note, to-day. 

Bru. I will do fo : But, look you, Caffius, 
The angry fpot doth glow on Csefar's brow, 
And all the reft look like a chidden train : 
Calphurnia's cheek is pale ; and Cicero 
Looks with fuch 7 ferret and fuch fiery eyes, 
As we have feen him in the Capitol, 
Being crofs'd in conference by fome fenators. 

Caf. Cafca will tell us what the matter is. 

Caf. Antonius. 

Ant. Csefar. 

Caf. Let me have men about me, that are fat ; 
Sleek-headed men, and fuch as fleep o'nights 8 : 


5 chew upon tins ; ] Confider this at leifure ; ruminate on this, 

* Under fuch kard~\ The old copy reads, tbefe hard 


7 ferret ] A ferret has red eyes. JOHNSON. 

8 -Sleek-headed mm, &c.] " So, in lir Thomus North's tranfla- 
tion of Plutarch, 1579. " When Ca?f*r's friends complained unto, 
him of Antonius and Dolabella, that they pretended fome mif- 
chief towards him ; he aiifvvered, as for thole fat men and fmoc^h- 
combed heads, (quoth he) I never reckon of them : but thofe 



Yon Caffius has a lean and hungry look ; 

He thinks too much : fuch men are dangerous. 

Ant. Fear him not, Caefar, he's not dangerous ; 
He is a noble Roman, and well given. 

C<ef. 9 'Would he were fatter : But I fear him not s 
Yet if my name were liable to fear, 
I do not know the man I Ihould avoid 
So foon as that fpare Caffius. He reads much ; 
TJe is a great obferver, and he looks 
Quite through the deeds of men : he loves no plays, 
As thou deft, Antony ; he hears no mufick : 
Seldom he fmiles ; and fmiles in fuch a fort, 
As if he mock'd himfelf, and fcorn'd his fpirit 
That could be mov'd to fmile at any thing. 
Such men as he be never at heart's eafe, 
Whiles they behold a greater than themfelves ; 
And therefore are they very dangerous. 
I rather tell thee what is to be fear'd, 
Than what I fear; for always I am Czefar. 
Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf, 
And tell me truly what thou think'ft of him. 

[Exeunt Cafar, and bis train* 

Manent Brutus and Cajfius : Cafca to them. 

Cafca. You pull'd me by the cloak ; Would you 

fpeak with me ? 

Eru. Ay, Cafca ; tell us what hath chanc'd to-day, 
That Ca?far looks fo fad. 

pale-vifaged and carri 
Brutus and Caffius." 

carrion-lean people, I fear them moft, meaning 

And again: 

** Czefar had Caffius in great jealoufy, and fufpe&ed him much ; 
whereupon he faid on a time, to his friends, what will Caffius 
do, think you ? I like not his pale looks." STEEVENS. 

9 'Would he were fatter : ] Jonfon in his Bartholomew-fair, 
1614, unjuftly fneers at this paflage, in Knockham's fpeech to 
the Pig- woman. ** Come^ there 's no malice in fat folks ; I never fear 
tkee, an I can fape tbj Uan moon-calf thtre" \VARBURTON> 



Cafca. Why you were with him, were you not ? 

Bru. I fhould not then afk Cafca what had chanc'd. 

Cafca. Why, there was a crown offer'd him : and 
being offer'd him, he put it by with the back of his 
hand, thus ; and then the people fell a' (homing. 

Bru. What was the iecond noife for ? 

Cafca. Why for that too. 

Caf. They fhouted thrice ; What was the laft cry 

Cafca. Why for that too. 

Bru. Was the crown offer'd him thrice ? 

Cafca. Ay, marry, was't, and he put it by thrice, 
every time gentler than other ; and at every putting 
by, mine honeft neighbours fhouted. 

Caf. Who offer'd him the crown ? 

Cafca. Why, Antony. 

Bru. Tell us the manner of it, gentle Cafca. 

Cafca. I can as well be hang'd, as tell the manner 
of it : it was nicer foolery, I did not mark it. I faw 

Mark Antony offer him a crown; yet 'twas not 

a crown neither, 'twas one of thefe coronets l ; and, 
as I told you, he put it by once : but, for all that, to 
my thinking, he would fain have had it. Then he 
offer'd it to him again ; then he put it by again : but, 
to my thinking, he was very loth to lay his fingers 
off it. And then he offer'd it the third time ; he put 
it the third time by : and ftill as he refus'd it, the 
rabblement hooted, and clapp'd their chopt hands, 
and threw up their fweaty night-caps, and ntter'd 
fuch a deal of (linking breath becaufe Casfar refus'd 
the crown, that it had almofl choak'd Caefar ; for 
he fwooned, and fell down at it : And for mine own 
part, I durft not laugh, for fear of opening my lips, 
and receiving the bad air. 

1 one of tbcfe coronets ;] So, in the old tranflation of 

Plutarch: " - . ..he came to Cztar, and prefented him a diadem 
wreathed about with laurel." STEEVENS. 

VOL. VIII, C Caf. 

i8 J U L I U S C JE S A R. 

Ciif. But, foft, I pray you : What ? did Cafar 

f \voon ? 

. Cafca. He fell down in the market-place, and 
foam'd at mouth, and was fpecchlefs. 

Bru. Tis very like ; he hath the falling-ficknefs. 

Caf. No, Casfar hath it not ; but you, and I, 
And honeft Cafca, we have the falling-ficknefs. 

Cafca. I know not what you mean by that ; but, I 
am lure, Gsefar fell down. If the tag-rag people did 
not clap him, and hifshim, according as he pleas'd, 
and difpleas'd them, as they ufe to do the players 
in the theatre, I am no true man. 

Bru. What faid he, when he came unto himfelf ? 

Cafca. Marry, before he fell down, when he per- 
ceiv'd the common herd was* glad he refus'd the 
crown, he pluck'd me ope his doublet, and offer'd 
them his throat to cut. An I had been a * man of 
any occupation, if I would not have taken him at a 
word, I would I might go to hell among the rogues: 
and fo he fell. When he came to himfelf again, he 
faid, If he had done, or faid, any thing amifs, he de- 
iir'cl their worships to think it was his infirmity. Three 
or four wenches, where I flood, cry'd, Alas, good 
foul! and forgave him with all their hearts : But 
there's no heed to be taken of them ; if Ca^far 
had ftabb'd their mothers, they would have done no 

Bru. .And after that, he came, thus fad, away ? 

Cafca. Ay. 

Caf. Did Cicero fay any thing ? 

Ctifca. Ay, he fpoke Greek. 

Caf. To what cffcQ. ? 

Cafca. Nay, an I tell you that, I'll ne'er look you 
F the face again : But thole, that understood him, 
i'mil'd at one another, and fhook their heads : but, for 

1 a man of any occupation,] Had I been a mechanick, one 
of the Plebeians to whom he offered his throat. JOHNSON. 



mine own part, it was Greek to me. I conld tell 
you more news too : Marullus and Flavius, for pull- 
ing fcarfs off' Csfar's images, are put to filence. 
Fare you well. There was more foolery yet, if I 
could remember it. 

Caf. Will you fup with me to-night, Cafca ? 
Cafca. No, I am promis'd forth. 
Caf. Will you dine with me. to-morrow ? 
Cafca.. Ay, if I be alive, and your mind hold, and 
your dinner worth the eating. 
Caf. Good ; I will exped: you. 
Cafca. Do fo : Fare wel both. [Exit. 

Bru. What a blunt fellow is this grown to be ? 
He was quick mettle, when he went to fchool. 

Caf. So is he now, in execution 
Of any bold or noble enterprize, 
However he puts on this tardy form. 
This rudenefs is a fauce to his good wit, 
Which gives men ftomach to digeft his words 
With better appetite. 

Bru. And fo it is. For this time I will leave you ; 
To morrow, if you pleafe to fpeak with me, 
I will come home to you ; or, if you will, 
Come home to me, and I will wait for you. 

Caf. I will do fo : 'till then, think of the world. 

[Exit Brutus* 

Well, Brutus, thou art noble : yet, I fee, 
J Thy honourable metal may be wrought 
From that it is difpos'd : Therefore 'tis meet 
That noble minds keep ever with their likes : 
For who fo firm, that cannot be feduc'd ? 
Csefar doth bear me hard ; but he loves Brutus : 

1 3 Thy honourable metal may be wrought 

From ivbaf it is d'fpoi 1 d :] 

The beft metal or temper may be worked into qualities contrary t 
its original confutation. JOHNSON. 

C 2 Jf 

20 J U L I U S C J S A R. 

4 If I were Brutus now, and he were Caffius, 

He ihould not humour me. I will this night, 

In feveral hands, in at his windows throw, 

As if they came from feveral citizens, 

Writings, all tending to the great opinion 

That Rome holds of his name ; wherein obfcurely 

Czefar's ambition fhall be glanced at : 

And, after this, let Csefar feat him fure ; 

For we will fhake him, or worfe days endure. [Exit. 


A Street. 

'Thunder and lightning. Enter Cafca^ bis fword drawn ; 
and Cicero, meeting him. 

Cic. Good even, Cafca : J Brought you Caefar 

home ? 

Why are you breathleis ? and why flare you fo ? 
Cafca. Are you not mov'd, when all the 3 fway of 

Shakes, like a thing unfirm ? O Cicero, 

+ If I r.vrr Brutus ntnv, and be were Cajpus, 

He fiould not humour me.] 

This is a reflection on Brutus's ingratitude ; which concludes, as 
is nfual on fuch occafions, in an encomium on his own better 
conditions. If I were Brutus (fays he) and Brutus, Caji:is, he 
Joould not cajole me as I Jo him. To humour liquifies here to turn 
and wind him, by inflaming his pallions. The Oxford editor al- 
ters the laft line to 

Cafar fiould not lave me. 
What he means by it, is not worth inquiring. WAR BURTON*. 

The meaning, I think, is this, CaJ'ar lovus Brutus, but if Bru- 
tus and I ivere tit change plnces^ hh iovc ^(hould not humour arr, 
fiiould not take hold of my affection, fo as to make me forget my 
principles. JOHNSON. 

* Brought y an L\ifjr home?] Did you attend Csefar home ? 


* fway of earth] The whole weight or momentum of this globe. 


I have 


I have feen tempefts, when the fcolding winds 
Have riv'd the knotty oaks ; and I have feen 
The ambitious ocean fwell, and rage, and foam, 
To be exalted with the threatning clouds : 
But never 'till to-night, never 'till now, 
Did I go through a tempeft dropping fire. 
Either there is a civil ftrife in heaven ; 
Or elfe the world, too faucy with the gods, 
Incenfes them to fend deftrudtion. 

Clc. Why, faw you any thing more wonderful ? 

Cafca. A common flave 7 (you know him well by 


Held up his left hand, which did flame, and burn, 
Like twenty torches join'd ; and yet his hand, 
Not fenfible of fire, remained unfcorch'd. 
Befidcs, (I have not fince put up my fvvord) 
Againft the Capitol I met a lion, 
8 Who glar'd upon me, and went furly by, 
Without annoying me : And there were drawn 
Upon a heap a hundred ghaftly women, 
Transformed with their fear ; who fwqre, they faw 
Men, all in fire, walk up and down the flreets. 
And, yelterday, the bird of night did fit, 
Even at noon-day, upon the market-place, 
Hooting, and fhrieking. When thele prodigies 
Do fo conjointly meet, let not men fay, 

7 A common Jtave , &c.] So, in the eld tranflation of Plutarc b : 

*' a Jlave of the fouldiers that did caft a marvelous burning 

flame out of his hande, infomuch as they that faw it, thought he 
had bene burnt ; but when the fire was out, it was found he had 
no hurt." STEEVENS. 

8 Who glar'd upon me, ] The firfl edition reads : 

ll'bo glaz'd upon me, 

Perhaps, Who gaz'd upon me. JOHNSON. 

Glar'd is certainly right. To gaze is only to look fledfaftly, or 
with admiration. Glar'd has a fmgular propriety, as it expreUes 
the furious fcintillation of a lion's eyes : and, that a lion ftiould 
appear full of fury, and yet attempt no violence, augments the 
prodigy. STEEVENS. 

C 3 Theft 


Tbefe are their reafons, ttey are natural ; 
For, I believe, the" are portentous things 
Unto the climate that they point upon. 

Cic. Indeed, it is a ftrange-difpofed time : 
But men may conftrue things after their fafhion, 
Clean from the purpofe of the things themfelves. 
Comes Czefar to the Capitol to-morrow ? 

Cafca. He doth ; for he did bid Antonius 
Send word to you, he would be there to-morrow. 

Cic. Good night then, Cafca : this difturbed iky 
Is not to walk in. 

Cafca. Farewel, Cicero. [Exit Cicero. 

Enter Cqffius. 

Caf. Who's there ? 

Cafca. A Roman. 

Caf. Cafca, by your voice. 

Cafca. Your ear is good. Caffius, what night is 
this ? 

Caf. A very pleafing night to honeft men. 

Cafca. Who ever knew the heavens menace fo ? 

Caf. Thofe, that have known the earth fo full of 


For my part, I have walk'd about the ftreets, 
Submitting me unto the perilous, night ; 
And, thus unbraced, Cafca, as you fee, 
Have bar'd my bofom to the thunder-ftone : 
And, when the crofs blue lightning feem'd to open 
The breaft of heaven, I did prefent myfelf 
Even in the aim and very flaih of it. 

Cafca. Bbt wherefore did you fo much tempt the 

heavens ? 

It is the part of men to fear and tremble, 
When the moil mighty gods, by tokens, fend 
Such dreadful heralds to aftonifh us. 

Caf. You are dull, Cafca; and thofe fparks of life 
That fhould be in a Roman, you do want, 



Or elfe you ufe not : You look pale, and gaze, 

And put on fear, and caft yourfelf in wonder, 

To fee the ftrange impatience of the heavens : 

But if you would confider the true caufe, 

Why all thefe fires, why all thefe gliding ghofts, 

9 Why birds, and beafts, from quality and kind ; 

Why old men fools, ' and children calculate; 

Why ajl thefe things change, from their ordinance, 

Their natures, and pre-formed faculties, 

To monftrous quality ; why, you fhall find, 

That heaven hath infus'd them with thefe fpirits, 

To make them inftruments of fear, and warning, 

Unto fome monftrous ftate. 

Now could I, Cafca, name to thee a man 

Moft like this dreadful night ; 

That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars 

As doth the lion in the Capitol : 

A man no mightie'r than thyfelf, or me, 

In perfonal adtion ; yet prodigious grown *, 

And fearful, as thefe ftrange eruptions are. 

Cafca. 'Tis Casfar that you mean : Is it nor, Cafllus ? 

Caf. Let it be who it is : for Romans now 
J Have thews and limbs like to their anceftors ; 


9 lFl.y birds, and leafts, from quality and kind ;~\ That is, Whv 
they deviate from quality and nature. This line might perhaps 
be more properly placed after the next line : 

Why birds, and beajls, from quality and kind ; 
Why all thefe things change from their ordinance. JOHNSON. 
1 and children calculate ;] Calculate here fignifies to tbretel 
or prophefy : for the cuftom of foretelling fortunes by judicial 
aftrology (which was at that time much in vogue) being performed 
by a long tedious calculation, Shakefpeare, with his ufual liberty, 
employs the fpecies [calculate] for the genus [foretel]. 


Shakefpeare found the liberty eftabliftied. To copulate a nati- 
vity, is the technical term. JOHNSON. 

* prodigious grown,] Prodigious is portentous. STEEYENS. 
3 Have thewes and limbs J Tbf-ices is an obfolete word im- 
plying nerves or mufcular Jlrengtb. It is ufed by Falftafif in the 
fcecond Fart of Hen, IV. and in Hamlet : 

C 4 For 

24 J U L I U S C M S A R. 

But, woe the while ! our fathers' minds are dead, 
And we are govern'd with our mothers' fpirits ; 
Our yoke and fufferance {hew us womanifh. 

Cafca. Indeed, they fay, the fenators to-morrow 
Mean to eftablifh Czcfar as a king : 
And he {hall wear his crown, by fea, and land, 
In every place, fave here in Italy. 

Caf. I know where I will wear this dagger then ; 
Caflius from bondage will deliver Caffius : 
Therein, ye gods, you make the weak moft ftrong - s 
Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat ; 
Nor ftony tower, nor walls of beaten brafs, 
Nor airlefs dungeon, nor ftrong links of iron, 
Can be retentive to the ftrength of fpirit ; 
But life, being weary of thefe worldly bars, 
Never lacks power to difmifs itfclf. 
If I know this, know all the world befides, 
That part of tyranny, that I do bear, 
I can {hake off at pleafure. 

Cafca. So can I : 

So every bondman in his own hand bears 
The power to cancel his captivity. 

Caf. And why {hould Csefar be a tyrant then ? 
Poor man ! I know, he would not be a wolf, 
But that he fees, the Romans are but fheep : 
He were no lion, were not Romans hinds. 
Thofe that with hafte will make a mighty fire, 
Begin it with weak ftraws : What tralh is Rome, 
What rubbifh, and what offal, when it ferves 
For the bafe matter to illuminate 
So vile a thing as Czefar ? But, O, grief ! 
W T hcre haft thou led me ? I, perhaps, fpeak this 
Before a willing bondman : then I know 

" For nature, crefcent, does not grow alone 
" In thc<wcs and bulk." 

The two laft folios, in which fome words are injudicioufly rao - 



* My anfwer muft be made : But I am arm'd, 
And clangers are to me indifferent. 

Cafca. You fpeak to Cafca : and to fuch a man. 
That is no fl taring tell-tale. 5 Hold my hand : 

6 Be factious for redrefs of all thefe griefs ; 
And 1 will fet this foot of mine as far, 

As who goes fartheft. 

Cof. There's a bargain made. 
Now know you, Cafca, I have mov'd already 
Some certain of the nobleft-minded Romans, 
To undergo, with me, an enterprize 
Of honourable-dangerous confeqnence ; 
And I do know, by this, they itay for me 
In Pompey's porch : For now, this fearful night, 
There is no ftir, or walking in the ftreets; 
And the complexion of the element, 

7 It favours like the work we have in hand, 
Moil bloody, fiery, and moft terrible. 

Enter Cinna. 

Cafca. Stand clofe awhile, for here comes one in 

* My anfwer mujl le made.~\ I fliall be called to account, and 
muft anfacr as for ieditious words. JOHNSON. 

5 -Hold my hand:'} Is the fame as, Here's my band. 


6 Be factious /or redrefs ] Fatfious feems here to mean aftive. 


7 L fev'rous, like the work ] The old edition reads : 

Is favors, like the work 

I think we fhould r.ead : 

In favour'.? like the work ivc have in band, 
Moft bloody, fory-, ad mojl terrible. 
Favour is look, countenance, appearance, JOHNSON, 

To favour is to rcfemlle. Thus Stattyhurft in his tranflation of 
the Third Book of Virgil's Mneid, 1582: 

" With the petit town gates favoring the principal old 


We may read // favours, or Is favoured \. e. is in appear- 
ance or countenance like, &c. STEEVENS. 



Caf. 'Tis Cinna, I do know him by his gait ; 
He is a friend. Cinna, where hafte you fo ? 

Cin. To find out you : Who's that ? Metellus 
Cim'oer ? 

Caf. No, it is Cafca ; one incorporate 
To our attempts. Am I not {laid for, Cinna ? 

Cin. I am glad on't. What a fearful night is this ? 
There's two or three of us have feen ftrange fights. 

Caf. Am I not ftaid for ? Tell me. 

Cin. Yes, 

You are. O, Caffius, if you could but win 
The noble Brutus to our party 

Caf. Be you content : Good Cinna, take this paper, 
^nd look you lay it in the pnetor's chair, 
W T here Brutus may but find it ; and throw this 
In at his window ; fet this up with wax 
Upon old Brutus' ftatue : all this done, 
Repair to Pompey's porch, where you fhall find us. 
Is Decius Brutus, and Trebonius, there ? 

Cin. All but Metellus Cimber ; and he's gone 
To feek you at your houfe. Well, I will hie, 
And fo beftow thefe papers as you bade me. 

Caf. That done, repair to Pompey's theatre. 

[Exit Cinna. 

Come, Cafca, you and I will, yet, ere day, 
See Brutus at his houfe : three parts of him 
Is ours already ; and the man entire 
Upon the next encounter, yields him ours. 

Caf. O, he fits high in all the people's hearts : 
And that, which would appear offence in us, 
His countenance, like riched: alchymy, 
Will change to virtue, and to worthinefs. 

Caf. Him, and his worth, and our great need of 


You have right well conceited. Let us go, 
For it is after midnight ; and, ere day, 
We will awake him, and be fure of him. [Exeunt, 




Enter Brutus, in Ins Orchard 8 . 

Bru. What, Lucius ! ho ! 
I cannot, by the progrefs of the ftars, 

Give guefs how near to day. Lucius, I fay ! 

I would it were my fault to fleep fo foundly. 
When, Lucius, when ? Awake, I fay : What, Lu- 
cius ! 

Enter Lucius. 

Luc. Call'd you, my lord ? 

Bru. Get me a taper in my ftudy, Lucius : 
When it is lighted, come and call me here. 

Luc. I will, my lord. [Exit. 

Bru. It muft be by his death : and, for my part, 
I know no perfonal caufe to fpurn at him, 
But for the general. He would be crown'd : 
How that might change his nature, there's the quet 


It is the bright day, that brings forth the adder ; 
And that craves wary walking. Crown him ? 

That ; 

And then, I grant, we put a fting in him, 
That at his will he may do danger with. 
The abufe of greatnefs is, when it disjoins 
9 Remorfe from power : And, to fpeak truth of Caefar, 

I have 

8 - in fjis orchard.] The modern editors read garden, but 
orchard feems anciently to have had the fame meaning. STEEVENS. 

9 Remorfe from power :~] Remorfe, for mercy. WARBURTON. 
Remorfe (fay3 the author of the Rev/fal) fignifies the confcious 

uneafinefs arifmg from a fenfe of having done wrong ; to extin- 
guifli which feeling, nothing hath fo great a tendency as abfolute 
uncontroulcd power. 

I think 

2 8 J U L I U S C JE, S A R; 

I have not known when his affections fway'd 
More than his reafon. But 'tis a ' common proof. 
That lowlinefs is young ambition's ladder, 
Whereto the climber-upward turns his face : 
But when he once attains the upmofl round % 
He then unto the ladder turns his back ; 
Looks in the clouds, fcorning the ! bafe degrees 
By which he did alcend : So Ctefar may ; 
Then, left he may, prevent. And, fince the quarrel 
Will bear no colour for the thing he is, 
Fafhion it thus ; that what he is, augmented, 
Would run to thefe, and theie extremities : 
And therefore think him as a ferpent's egg, 
Which, hatch'd, would, 4 as his kind, grow mif- 

chievous ; 
And kill him in the fhell. 

Re-enter Lucius. 

Luc. The taper burneth in your clofet, fir. 
Searching the window for a flint, I found 
This paper, thus feal'd up; and, I am fure, 
It did not lie there, when I went to bed. 

Bru. Get you to bed again, it is not day. 

I think Warburton right. JOHNSON. 

Remorfe is pity, and has twice occurred in that fenfe in Mca- 
furefor Mcafure, act II. and acl: V. Many more inftances of this 
ufe of the word are given in Othello, Act III. fc. iii. STEEVEXS. 

1 common pro flf^\ Common experiment. JOHNSON. 

* But luben be once atta-us the upmofl round, 

He then unto the ladder turns his back ; &c.] 
So, in Daniel's Civil Wars, 160: : 

*' The afpirer once attain'd unto the top, 
" Cuts oft" thole means by which himfelr got up : 
'* And with a harder hand, and ftraighter rein, 

" Doth curb that loofenefs he did find before ; 
" Doubting the occafion like might fervc again : 
" His own example makes him fear the more." 


3 'lafc dc^reei\ Low fteps. JOHNSON. 

* - at his kim! t - - - ] According to his nature. JOHNSON. 



/ Is not to-morrow, boy, the ides of March ! 

Luc. I know not, fir. 

Bru. Look in the kalendar, and bring me word. 

Luc. I will, fir. [Exit. 

Bru. The exhalations, whizzing in the air, 
Give fo much light, that I may read by them. 

[Opens the letter, and reads. 
Brutus, tlou Jleep'Jl ; awake, and fee thyfelf. 

Shall Rome Speak, ftrike, redrefe ! 

Brutus, thou Jleep'Jl ; azvake, 

Such inftigations have been often dropp'd 

Where I have took them up. 

Shall Rome Thus muft 1 piece it out ; 

Shall Rome {land under one man'sawe? What! Rome? 

My anceftors did from the ilreets of Rome 

The Tarquin drive, when he was call'd a king. 

Speak, ftrike, redrefs ! Am I entreated 

To fpeakj and ftrike ? O Rome ! I make thee promife, 

If the redrefs will follow 7 , thou receiveft 

Thy full petition at the hand of Brutus ! 

Re-enter Lucius. 

Luc. 6 Sir, March is walled fourteen days. 

[Knocks within. 

Bru. 'Tis good. Go to the gate ; fomebody 
knocks. [Exit Lucius. 

5 1$ not to-morrow, boy, tie firft of March r] We fliould read 
ides : for we can never fuppofe the fpeaker to have loft fourteen 
days in his account. He is here plainly ruminating on what the 
Ibothfayer told Caefar [A<ft I. fc. ii.J in his prefence. [ Beware 
the ides of March.} The boy comes back and fays, Sir, March is 
ivajlcd fourteen Jays. So that the rnnrro^.v ivas the ides of March, 
as he fuppofed. For March, May, July, and October, had fix nones 
each, fo that the fifteenth of March was the ides of that month. 


6 In former editions : 

5/V, March is Drafted fifteen days. 

The editors are ilightly miftaken : it was wafted but fourteen days: 
this was the dawn of the i5th, when the boy makes his report. 



Since Caffius firfl did whet me againft Csefar, 
1 have not flept. 

7 Between the adting of a dreadful thing, 
And the firfl motion, all the interim is 
Like a phantafma, or a hideous dream : 


7 Between the afling of a dreadful thing. 

And the firjl motion, &c.] That nice critic, Dionyfius of Hali- 
carnaflus, complains, that of all kind of beauties, thofe great 
ftrokes, which he calls the terrible graces, and which are fo fre- 
quent in Homer, are the rareft to be found in the following wri- 
ters. Amongfl our countrymen, it feems to be as much confined 
to the Britifh Homer. This defcription of the condition of con- 
fpirators, before the execution of their defign, has a pomp and 
terror in it that perfectly aftonifhes. The excellent Mr. Addifon, 
whofe modefty made him fometimes diftident of his own genius, 
but whofe true judgment always led him to the fafeft guides (as 
we may fee by thole fine ftrokes in his Cato borrowed from the 
Philippics of Cicero) has paraphrafed this fine defcription ; but 
we are no longer to expect thoie terrible graces which animate his 
original * 

*' O think, ivhat anxious moments fafi between 

" The birth of plots, and their lajt fatal periods. 

" Oh, 'tis a dreadful interval of time, 

" Fiirdup with horror all, and big with death." Cato. 

I fliall make two remarks on this fine imitation. The firft is, that 
the fubje6ts of the two confpiracies being fo very different (the 
fortunes of Csefar and the Roman empire being concerned in the 
one ; and thnt of a few auxiliary troops only in the other) Mr. 
Addifon could not, with propriety, bring in that magnificent cir- 
cumftance which gives one of the terrible graces of Shakefpeare!s 
defcription ; 

The genius and the mortal injtruments 

Are then in council 

For kingdoms, in the Pagan Theology, belides their good, had their 
evil genius's, likewife ; reprefented here, with the moft daring 
Itretch of fancy, as fitting in confultation with the confpirators, 
whom he calls their mortal injlrumcnts. But this, as we fay, 
would have been too pompous an apparatus to the rape and de- 
fertion of Syphax and Sempronius. The other thing obiervable 
is, thnt Mr. Addifon was fo ftruck and mTected with rhefe terrible 
graces in his original, that inftead of imitating his author's fenti- 
ments, he hath, before he was aware, given us only the copy of 
his own impreffions made by them. For, 



Thc genius, and the mortal inftruments, 
Are then in council ; and the ftate of man, 


Oh, 'tis a dreadful interval of time, 

FiWd up with horror all, and big with death. 
are but the affe&ions railed by fuch forcible images as thefe : 

All the in f rim is 

Like a phantafma, or a hideous dream* 

the Jlate of man, 

Like to a little kingdom, /offers then 

The nature of an injurrcfliori, 

Comparing the troubled mind of a confpirator to a date of anar- 
chy, is juft and beautiful ; but the interim, or interval, to an hi- 
deous vifion, or a frightful dream, holds fomething fo wonderfully 
of truth, and lays the foul fo open, that one can hardly think it 
poffible for any man, who had not fome time or other been en- 
gaged in a confpiracy, to give fuch force of colouring to nature. 


The knot of the Greek critics does not, I think, mean fenti- 
ments which raife fear, more than -Bonder, or any other of the 
tumultuous paffions : TO &;*o is that which [ftrikes, which aftonifoes 
with the idea either of fome great fubjecl, or of the author's 

Dr. Warburton's pompous criticifm might well have been fliott- 
ened. The genius is not the genius of a kingdom, nor are the in- 
ftruments, confpirators. Shakefpeare is defcribing what pafles in a 
fingle bofom, the infurreSlion which a confpirator feels agitating 
the little kingdom of his own mind ; when the genius, or power that 
watches for his protection, and the morta 1 inftruments, the paffions, 
which excite him to a deed of honour and danger, are in council 
and debate ; when the defire of action and the care of fafety, 
keep the mind in continual fluctuation and difturbance. JOHNSON. 
The foregoing was perhaps among the earlieft notes written by 
Dr. Warburton on Shakefpeare. Though it was not inferted by 
him in Theobald's editions, 1732 and 1740, (but was referred 
for his own in 1747), yet he had previoufly communicated it, 
with little variation, in a letter to Matthew Concanen in the year 
1726. See a note ou Dr. Akinfide's Ode to Mr. E iv/ards. 


Inftead of injlruments, it fhould, I think, be injlruinent, and 
explained thus : 

The gen: us, i. e. the foul or fpirit, which fliould govern ; and 
the mortal inftrument, i.e. the man, with all his bodily, that is, 
earthly paffions, fuch as envy, pride, malice, and ambition, are 
then in council, i.e. debating upon the horrid action that is to be 
done, the foul and rational powers difluading, and the mortal in- 

3 2 J U L I U S C & S A R. 

Like to a little kingdom, fuffcrs then 
The nature of an infurrection. 

Re-enter Lucius. 

Luc. Sir, 'tis your brother ' Caffius at the door, 
Who doth defire to fee you. 

Bru. Is he alone ? 

Luc. No, fir, there are more with him. 

Bru. Do you know them ? 

Lite. No, fir ; their hats are pluck'd about their 


And half their faces bury'd in their cloaks, 
That by no means I may difcover them 
By any mark 9 of favour. 

Bru. Let them enter. [Exit Lucius. 

They are the faction. O confpiracy ! 
Sham'fl thou to Ihew thy dangerous brow by night, 
When evils are mofl free ? O, then, by day, 
Where wilt thou find a cavern dark enough, 
To maik thy monflrous vifage ? Seek none, confpi- 
racy ; 

Hide it in fmiles, and affability : 
* For if thou path, thy native femblance on, 


ftrument* man, with his bodily paflions, prompting and pufhing 
on to the horrid deed, whereby the ftate of man, like to a little 
kingdom, fufFers then the nature of an infurrecYion, the inferior 
powers riling and rebelling againft the fuperior. See this exem- 
plified in Macbeth' s foliloquy, and alfo by what King John fays, 
aft IV: 

" Nay, in the body of tl':sjlejl<ly lanJ, 

*' Tb;s kingdom, this confine of blood and breath , 

" Hoftility and civil tumult reigns 

'* Between my confidence and my conjin's death." SMITH. 

8 -your brother Coffins ] Cafius married Junta, Brutus' 
fifter. STEEVENS. 

9 of favour.] Any diftinftion of countenance. JOHNSON. 
1 For ift/jou path thy native ftmblance on,] If thou walk in thy 

true form. JOHNSON. 



Not Erebus itfelf were dim enough 
To hide thee from prevention. 

Enter Cqjfius, Cafca, Decius^ Cinna, MetelluS) and Tre* 

Caf. I think, we are too bold upon your reft : 
Good morrow, Brutus ; Do we trouble you ? 

Bru. I have been up this hour ; awake, all night. 
Know I thefe men, that come along with you ? 

Caf. Yes, every man of them ; and no man here, 
But honours you : and every one doth wifh, 
You had but that opinion of yourfelf, 
Which every noble Roman bears of you. 
This is Trebonius. 

Bru. He is welcome hither. 

Caf. This, Decius Brutus. 

Bru. He is welcome too. 

Caf. This, Cafca ; this, Cinna ; 
And this, Metellus Cimber. 

Bru. They are all welcome. 
What watchful cares do interpofe themfeK T es 
Betwixt your eyes and night ? 

Caf. Shall I entreat a word ? [They ivhifper. 

Dec. Here lies the eaft : Doth not the day break 
here ? 

Cafca. No. 

Cin. O, pardon, fir, it doth ; and yon grey lines, 
That fret the clouds, are meffengers of day. 

Cafca. You ihall confefs, that you are both de- 


Here, as I point my fword, the fun arifes ; 
Which is a great way growing on the fouth, 

The fame verb is ufed by Drayton in his Polyolbion, Song II : 
" Where, from the neighbouring hills, her paflage Wey 

Again, in his Epiille from Duke Humphrey to Elinor Colbam: 

" Patbing young Henry's unadviied ways." STEEVENS. 

VOL. VIII. D Weigh- 


Weighing the youthful feafon of the year. 

Some two months hence, up higher toward the north 

He firft prelents his fire ; and the high eaft 

Stands, as the Capitol, directly here. 

Bru. Give me your hands all over, one by one. 
Caf. And let us fwear our reiblution. 
Bru. * No, not an oath ' : If not the face of men, 
The fufierance of our fouls, the time's abufe, 
If thefe be motives weak, break off betimes, 
And every man hence to his idle bed ; 
So let high-lighted tyranny range on, 
* 'Till each man drop by lottery. But if thefe, 
As I am fure they do, bear fire enough 
To kindle cowards, and to fteel with valour 
The melting fpirits of women ; then, countrymen, 
What need we any fpur, but our own caufe, 
To prick us to redrefs ? what other bond, 
Than fecret Romans, that have fpoke the word, 

"* No, not an call. If that the face of ir.en, &c.] Dr. War- 
burton would read fate of men; but his elaborate emendation is, 
I think, erroneous. The face of men is the countenance, the_re- 
garj, the efteem cf the publick ; in other terms, honour and re- 
putation; or the face of men may mean the dejc&ed look or the 

He reads, with the other modern editions : 

if that the face of men : 

but the old reading is, 

'/not the face, &rc. JOHNSON. 

So, Tully in Catilinam Nibil borum ora vultufqrte mvjerunt ? 


3 No, not an oatl. ] Shakefpeare form'd this fpeech on the 

following paflage in fir T. North's tranilation of Plutarch : 

" The confpirators having never taken oaths together, nor taken 
or given any caution or allurance, nor binding themielves one to 
another by any religious oaths, they kept the matter ib fecret to 
themfelves," &c. STEEVENS. 

4 'Till each man drop by lottery, .] Perhaps the poet alluded to 
the cuftom of decimation, i. e. the lelecnon by lot of every tenth 
foldier, in a general mutiny, for punifhment." 

He fpeaks of this in Coriolanus : 

y Jfdmatlon, and a tytled deaf % 
akt tboK thy fate." STFBVFNS. 

A. a 


' Tak. 


And will not palter ? and what other oath, 

Than honefly to honefty engag'd, 

That this fhall be, or we will fall for it ? 

5 Swear priefts, and cowards, and men cautelous 6 9 

Okl feeble carrions, and fuch fuffering fouls 

That welcome wrongs ; unto bad caufes fwear 

Such creatures as men doubt : but do not ftain 

The even virtue of our enterprize, 

Nor the infupprefiive mettle of our fpirits, 

To think, that, or our caufe, or our performance, 

Did need an oath ; when every drop of blood, 

That every Roman bears, and nobly bears, 

Is guilty of a feveral baftardy, 

If he do break the fmalleft particle 

Of any promife that hath pail from him. 

Caf. But what of Cicero ? Shall we found him ? 
I think, he will fland very ftrong with us. 

Cafca. Let us not leave him out. 

Cm. No, by no means. 

Met. O, let us have him ; for his filver hairs 
Will purchafe us a good opinion, 
And buy men's voices to commend our deeds : 
It fhall be faid, his judgment rul'd our hands ; 
Our youths, and wildnefs, fhall no whit appear, 
But all be bury'd in his gravity. 

5 Swear priefts &c.] This is imitated by Owtay : 

" When you ivould bind me, is there need of oaths ?" &C. 

Venice Preferred. 

* -cauteloui] Is here cautious, fometimes infiJious. 
So, in Woman is a Weathercock, 1612: " Yet warn you 
be as cautelous not to wound my integrity." 

Again, in Drayton's MiJ'eries of Queen Margaret : 

" Witty, well-lpcken, cautelous, though young." 
Again, in the fecond of thefe two fenfes in the romance of ' Ky>>ge 
Appolyn of Tfyrr, 1610 : 

" a fallacious polycy and cautelous <vjyle.^ 
Again, in Holinjhed, p. 9^? : "the emperor's councell thought 
by a cautell to have brought the king in mind to fue fur a licence 
from the pope." STEVE.NS. 

D 2 Bru. 


Bru. O, name him not : let us not break with him ; 
For he will never follow any thing 
That other men begin. 

Caf. Then leave him out. 

Cafca. Indeed, he is not fit. 

Dec. Shall no man elfe be touch'd, but only Casfar ? 

Caf. Decius, well urg'd : I think, it is not meet, 
Mark Antony, fo well belov'd of Casfar, 
Should out-live Caejar : We (hall find of him 
A Ihrewd contriver ; and, you know, his means, 
If he improve them, may well flretch fo far, 
As to annoy us all : which to prevent, 
Let Antony, and Csefaf, fall together. 

Bru. Our courfe will feem too bloody, CaiusCaffius, 
To cut the head off, and then hack the limbs ; 
Like wrath in death, and envy afterwards : 
For Antony is but a limb of Casfar. 
Let us be facrificers, but not butchers, Caius. 
We all ftand up againfl the fpirit of Csefar ; 
And in the fpirit of men there is no blood : 
O, that we then could come by Ca^far's fpirit 7 , 
And not difmember Caefar ! But, alas, 
Czefar muft bleed for it ! And, gentle friends, 
Let's kill him boldly, but not wrathful ly ; 
Let's carve him as a difti fit for the gods % 
Not hew him as a carcafe fit for hounds : 
And let our hearts, as fubtle matters do, 

7 O, that we then could com? by C iff a^s fpirit, &c.] Lord Ster- 
line has the fame thought ; Brutus rcmonltrating againfl the tak- 
ing off of Anthony, fays : 

" Ah ! ah ! we muft but too much murder fee, 

" That without doing evil cannot do good ; 
4t And would the gods that Rome could be made free, 
*' Without the ffufioh ot one drop of blocd !" 


' as a di lj fit fur the goJi, &c.] 

(jradive, dediui, 

*' Ne qua manus vatem, ne quid morralia bello 
*' Lzcdeie tela queant, fanftum et venerabile Diti 
" Funus, erut." Stat. T&ct. VII. 1. 696. STEEVENS. 



Stir up their fervants to an act of rage, 
And after feem to chide them. This lhall make 
Our purpofe necefTary, and not envious : 
Which fo appearing to the common eyes, 
We fhall be call'd purgers, not murderers. 
And for Mark Antony, think not of him , 
For he can do no more than Casfar's arm, 
When Ca^far's head is off. 

Caf. Yet I fear him : 
For in the ingrafted love he bears to Casfar, 

Bru. Alas, good Caflius, do not think of him : 
If he love Caefar, all that he can do 
Is to himfelf ; 9 take thought, and die for Casfar : 
And that were much he fhould ; for he is given 
To fports, to wildnefs, and much company. 

Treb. There is no fear in him ; let him not die ; 
For he will live, and laugh at this hereafter. 

{Clock Jlrikes. 

Bru. Peace, count the clock. 

Caf. The clock hath ftruckcn three. 

Treb. 'Tis time to part. 

Caf. But it is doubtful yet, 
Whe'r Casfar will come forth to-day, or no : 
For he is fuperftiticus grown of late ; 
Quite from the main opinion ' he held once 


take tbnvght, ] That is, turn melancholy. JOHNSON. 

So, in Antony and Cleopatra : 

'* What (hall we do, vEnobarbus ? 

" Think and die." 

Again, in Holinfaed^ p. 833 : " -now they were without 

fervice, which caufed them to take thought^ infomuch that fome 
died by the way, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 For he hfuperftltlous grown of late ; 

Quite from the main opinion be held once 

Of fantafy, of dreami and ceremonies :] 

Cazfar, as well as Caffius, was an Epicurean. By main op'nion 
Caflius intends a compliment to his iect, and means folid, funda- 
mental opinion, grounded in truth and nature : as by fautafy i 
meant ominous forebodings ; and by ceremonies, atunemems of 
D 3 the 

38 J U L I U S C JE, S A R. 

Of fantafy, of dreams, and ceremonies : 
It may be, thefe apparent prodigies, 
The unaccuftom'd terror of this night, 
And the perfuafion of his augurers, 
May hold him from the Capitol to-day. 

Dec. Never fear that : If he be fo refolv'd, 
I can o'erfway him : * for he loves to hear, 
3 That unicorns may be betray'd with trees, 


the gods by means of religious rites and facrifices. A little after, 
where Calphurnia fays : 

Cafar t I never food on ceremonies, 
TTc t na-ju they fright me : 

The poet ufes ceremonies in a quite different fenfe, namely, the 
turning accidents to omens, a principal fuperitition of antiquity. 


Main opinion, is nothing more than leading, fixed, predominant 
opinion. Jo HNS OK. 

z for he loves to hear, &c.] It was finely imagined by the 

poet, to make Caefar delight in this fort of converfation. The 
author of St. EvremonJ's Life tells us, that the great prince of 
Conde took much pleafure in remarking on the foible and ridicule 
of characters. WARBURTON. 

3 That unicorns way be betray'd by trees, 

And bears with giajjes, elephants with holes. ~\ 

Unicorns are faid to have been taken by one who, running be- 
hind a tree, eluded the violent pufh the animal was making at him, 
fo that his horn fpent its force on the trunk, and ftuck fail, de- 
taining the beaft till he was difpatched by the hunter. 
So, in Spenfer's Fae>y Queen, B. II. c. 5 : 
** Like as a lyon \vhofe imperiall powre 
** A prowd rebellious unicorne defies ; 
" T'avoid the rafh aflault and wrathfull ftowre 
" Of his fiers foe, him to a tree applies : 
'* And when him running in full courfe he fpies, 
** He flips afide ; the whiles the furious beaft 
** His precious home, fought of his enemies, 
* Strikes in the ftocke, ne thence can be releaft, 
" But to the mighty viclor yields a bounteou feaft." 
Again, in Bujfy D'Ambois, 1641 : 

'* An angry unicorne in his full career 

*' Charge with too fwitt a foot a jeweller 

* That watch'd him for the treafure of his bro;v, 

" And 


And bears with glafles, elephants with holes, 
Lions with toils, and men with flatterers : 
But, when I tcil him, he hates flatterers, 
He fays, he does ; being then moft flattered. 
Let me work : 

For I can give his humour the true bent ; 
And I will bring him to the Capitol. 

Caf. Nay, we will all of us be there to fetch him, 

Bru. By the eighth hour : Is that the uttermoft ? 

Cm. Be that the uttermoft, and fail not then. 

Met. Caius Li Darius cloth bear C as far hard 4 , 
Who rated him for fpeaking well of Pompey ; 
I wonder, none of you have thought of him. 

Bru. Now, good Metellus, go along to him : 
He loves me well, and I have given him reafons ; 
Send him but hither, and I'll falhion him. 

Caf. The morning comes upon us : We'll leave 

you, Brutus : 

And, friends, diiperfe yourfelves : but all remember 
What you have faid, and (hew yourfelves true Ro- 

Bru. Good gentlemen, look frefh and merrily ; 
* Let not our looks put on our purpofcs j 

" And e'er he could get (belter of a trce y 
" Nail him with his rich antler to the earth." 
Sean are reported to have been furprifed by means of a mir- 
rcr, which they would gaze on, affording their purfuers an op- 
portunity of taking the iurer aim. This circumftance, I think, 
is mentioned by Ciaudian. Eltpbanti were (educed into piifalls, 
lightly covered with hurdles and turf, on which a proper bait to 
tempt them, was expofed. See Pliny's Nat. Hijl. B. VIII. 


* bear Ccefur bard.'] Thus the old copy, but Rowe, Pope, 

and Hanmer, on the authority of the latter folios rend bahrJ, 
though the fame exprelllon appears again in the firlt fcene of the 

following acr : " 1 do befeech you, if you bear me hard;" 

:uul has already occurr'd in a former one : 

" Cffifar doth bear me hard, but he loves Brutus." 


5 Let not orf looks ] Let not our faces put on, that is, kvcqr 
our dcligns. JOHNSON. 

D 4 But 


But bear it as our Roman aftors do, 

With untir'd fpirits, and formal conftancy : 

And fo, good-morrow to you every one. ' [Exeunt. 

Manet Brutus. 

Boy ! Lucius ! Fad afleep ? It is no matter ; 
Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of flumber: 
Thou haft no figures, nor no fantafies, 
Which bufy care draws in the brains of men ; 
Therefore thou fleep'ft fo found. 

Enter Portia. 

Tor. Brutus, my lord ! 

Eru. Portia, what mean you ? Wherefore rife you 

now ? 

It is not for your health, thus to commit 
Your weak condition to the raw cold morning. 

Por. Nor for yours neither. You have ungently, 


Stole from my bed : And yefternight, at fupper, 
You fuddenly arofe, and walk'd about, 
Mufing, and fighing, with your arms acrofs : 
And when I afk'd you what the matter was, 
You ftar'd upon me with ungentle looks ; 
I urg'd you further ; then you fcratch'd you head, 
And too impatiently ftamp'd with your foot : 
Yet I infifted, yet you aniwer'd not ; 
But, with an angry wafture of your hand, 
Gave fign for me to leave you : So I dui ; 
Fearing to ftrengthen that impatience, 
Which feem'd too much enkindled ; and, withal, 
Hoping it was but an effect of humour, 
Which fometime hath his hour with every man. 
It will not let you eat, nor talk, nor fleep ; 
And, could it work fo much upon your fhupe, 
AS it hath much prevail'd qn yoqr condition, 

I fhould 


I ihould not know you, Brutus. Dear my lord, 
Make me acquainted with your caufe of grief. 

Bru. I am not well in health, and that is all. 

For. Brutus is wife, and, were he not in health, 
He would embrace the means to come by it. 

Bru. Why, fo I do : Good Portia, go to bed, 

Por. Is Brutus fick ? and is it phyfical 
To walk, unbraced, and fuck up the humours 
Of the dank morning ? What, is Brutus fick ; 
And will he fteal out of his wholefome bed, 
To dare the vile contagion of the night ? 
And tempt the rheumy and unpurgcd air 
To add unto his ficknefs ? No, my Brutus ; 
You have fome fick offence within your mind, 
Which, by the right and virtue of my place, 
I ought to know of : And, upon my knees, 
I ch'arm you 4 , by my once commended beauty 
By all your vows of love, and that great vow 
Which did incorporate and make us one, 
That you unfold to me, yourfelf, your half, 
Why you are heavy : and what men to-night 
Have had refort to you : for here have been 
Some fix or feven, who did hide their faces 
Even from darknefs. 

Bru. Kneel not, gentle Portia, 

Por. I Ihould not need, if you wexe gentle Brutus. 
Within the bond of marriage, tell me, Brutus, 
Is it excepted, I Ihould know no fecrets 
That appertain to you ? Am I yourfelf, 
But, as it were, in fort, or limitation ; 
To keep with you at meals *, comfort your bed 6 , 


5 7 charm you ] Thus the old copy. Pope and Hanmer 

read charge, but unneceflTarily. So, in Cj'mbeline : 

" 'tis your graces 

4 That from my imiteft confcience to my tongue 
** Charms this report out." STEEVENS. 
To keep with you at mcah, &c. 

" I being, O Brutus, (fayed (he) the daughter of Cato, wns 



And talk to you fometimes ? Dwell I but in the 
fuburbs 7 

marled vnto thee, not to be thy beddefellowe and companion in 
bedde and at horde onelie, like a harlot : but to be partaker alib 
with thee, of thy good and euill fortune. Nowe for thy- 
felfe, I can finde no caufe of raulte in thee touchinge our matche : 
but for my parte, how may I fhovve my duetie towardes thee, and 
how muche I woulde doe for thy fake, if I can not conitantlie 
beafe a fecret mifchaunce or griefe with thee, which requireth 
fecrecy and fidelitie ? I confefle, that a womans wit commonly 
is too weake to keepe a fecret fafely : but yet, Brutus, good edu- 
cation, and the companie of vertuous men, haue fome power to 
reforme the deleft of nature. And for my felfe, I haue this be- 
nefit moreouer : that I am the daughter of Cato, and wife of 
Brutus. This notwithftanding, I did not truft to any of thefe 
thing? before : vntil that now I have found by experience, that 
no paine nor griefe whatfoeuer can ouercome me. With thofe 
wordes fhe (hewed him her \vcunde on her thigh, and tolde him 
what fhe had dor.e re proue her felfe." 

Sir Tbo. NcrftS- T:~x/lat. of Plutarch. SrEEVENS. 
Here alfo v~ i d lord Sterline walking over the 

fame ground : 

" I was not, Brutus, match'd with thee, to be 

" A partner only of thy board and bed, 
** Each fervile whoie in thofe might equal me, 

'* That did heriV it but pleafure wed. 

No Portia ij- jib a mind t' abide 

'* Thy fe'.lc.v in <:!! fortunes good or ill ; 
*' With cr-..iins of mutual love together ty'd 
" As thofe that have avo breafts, one heart, two fouls, 
one will." Lord Steriine's Julius CaJ'ar. 


' comfort your led,] " is but an odd phrafe, and gives as 
odd an idea," fays Mr. Theobald. He the' o fubftitutes, con- 
fort. But this good old word, however dilV.-jii through modern 
refinement, was not fo difcarded by Shakefpeare. Henry VIII. 
as we read in Cavendifh's Life of Wdfiy, in commendation of 
queen Katharine, in public faid, " She hath beene to me a true 
obedient wife, and as comfortable as I could wifli." UPTON. 

In the books of entries at Stationers' Hall, I meet with the 
following : i ^98. " A Converfation betiuecn a careful li'yfe and her 
comfortable Hujland" STEEVENS. 

In our marriage ceremony, the hufband promifes to comfort his 
wife; and Barrett's, ^hearie^ or Quadruple Dictionary, 1582, 
fays, that to comfort is, ** to recreate, to folace, to make paf- 
time." COLLINS. 


J U L I U S C M S A R. 43 

Of your good pleafure ? If it be no more, 
Portia is Brutus' harlot, not his wife. 

Bru. You are my true and honourable wife; 
As dear to me, as are the ruddy drops 
That vifit my fad heart. 

For. If this were true, then mould I know this 


I grant, I am a woman 8 ; but, withal, 
A woman that lord Brutus took to wife : 
I grant, I am a woman ; but, withal, 
9 A woman well-reputed ; Cato's daughter. 
Think you, I am no ftronger than my fex, 
Being fo father'd, and fo huibanded ? 
Tell me your counfels, I will not difclofe them : 

7 in the fuburbs.] Perhaps here is an allufion to the 

place in which the harlots of Shake fpeare's age refided. So, ia 
B. and Fletcher's Monjteur Thomas : 
** Get a new miftrefs, 

" Somtful>urb faint, that fixpcnce, and forne oaths 
*' Will draw to parley. STEEVENS. 
* I grant I am a woman , &c.] So, lord Sterline : 
*' And though our fex too talkative be deem'd 

*' As thole whofe tongues import our greateit povv'rs, 
" For fecrets full bad treafurers efteemM, 
*' Of others greedy, prodigal of ours ; 
** Good education may reform defects, 

" And I this vantage have to a vertuous life, 

" Which others minds do want and mine refpecls, 

" /'//; Cato's daughter , and I'm Brutus' wife." 


9 A woman well-reputed; Cato's daughter.] This falfe pointing 
fhould be corrected thus : 

A woman well reputed Cato's daughter. 

\. e. worthy of my birth, and the relation I bear to Cato. This 
indeed was a good reafon why fhe fliould be intrufted with the 
fecret. But the falfe pointing, which gives a fenfe only imply- 
ing that fhe was a woman ot a good charadler, and that (he wa 
Cato's daughter, gives no good reafon : for (lie might be Cato's 
daughter, and yet not inherit his f.rmnefs ; and fhe might be a 
woman well-reputed, and yet not the beft at a fecret. But if fhe 
was ivctt-repHttd Cato's daughter, that is, worthy of her birth, 
fije could neither want her father's love to her country, nor his 
refolution to engage in its deliverance. WARBURTON." 

I have 

44 . JULIUS C JE, S A R. 

I have made flrong proof of my conftancy, 
Giving myfelf a volunrary wound 
Here, in the thigh : Can I bear that with patience, 
And not my hufband's fecrets ? 

Bru. O yc gods, 

Render me worthy of this noble wife ! [Knock. 

Hark, hark ! one knocks : Portia, go in a while ; 
And by and by thy bofom mall partake 
The fecrets of my heart. 
All my engagements I will conftrue to thee, 
All the chara&ery ' of my fad brows : 
Leave me with hafte. [Exit Portia. 

Enter Lucius, and Llgarius. 

Lucius, who is that knocks ? 

Luc. Here is a fick man, that would fpeak with 

Brit. Caius Ligarius, that Metellus fpake of. 
Boy, ftand afide. Caius Ligarius ! how ? 
JLig. Vouch fafe good ni or row from a feeble tongue. 

Bru. O, what a time have you chofe out, brave 

To wear a kerchief ? 'Would you were not fick * ! 

Ij.g. I am not fick, if Brutus have in hand 
Any exploit worthy the name of honour. 

1 all tie charaftery ] i.e. all that is character* don, &c. 

The word has already cccurr'd in the Merry fflves of Wind/or. 


a Would 'you were Not fick ! &c.] So, lord Sterline : 
*' By licknefs beinjj imprifon'd in his bed 

" Whilfl I Ligarius 1'pied, whom pnins did prick 
*' When I had laid with words that anguifh bred, 

" Iii 'C^bat a time Ligarius art ibau Jick ? 
" He an'Aver'd flraighr, as I had phyiick brought, 
" Or that he had imagin'd my 

or tnat r imagm u my acugn, 

*' If ivortly of tlyfelf tbau ivould'fi do ought, 
* Tbtn JJ rat us 7 am whole , and wholly tbine? 



Bru. Such an exploit have I in hand, Ligarius, 
Had you a healthful ear to hear of it. 

Lig. By all the gods that Romans bow before, 
I here difcard my ficknefs. Scul of Rome I 
Brave fon, deriv'd from honourable loins ! 
Thou, like an exorcift, haft conjur'd up 
My mortified fpirit. Now bid me run, 
And I will ftrive with things impoffible ; 
Yea, get the better of them. What's to do ? 

Bru. A piece of work, that will make tick men 

L/V. But are not fome whole, that we muft make 
fick ? 

Bru. That muft we alfo. What it is, my Caius, 
I fhall unfold to thee, as we are going 
To whom it muft be done. 

Lig. Set on your foot ; 
And, with a heart new-fir'd, I follow you, 
To do I know not what : but it fufficeth, 
That Brutus leads me on. 

Bru. Follow me then. [Exeunt. 

Gefar>s Palace. 

Thunder and lightning. Enter C<tfar, in his Night- 

C<ef. Nor heaven, nor earth, have been at peace 

to-night : 

Thrice hath Calphurnia in her fleep cry'd out, 
Help, ho ! Tbcy murder Cajar. Who's within ? 



Enter a Servant* 

Sera. My lord ? 

O/. Go bid the priefts do prefcnt facrificc, 
And bring me their opinions of fucccfs. 
Serv. I will, my lord. 

Enter Calphurnia. 

Cat. What mean you, Czefar ? Think you to walk 

forth ? 
You fhall not flir out of your houfe to-day. 

Caf. Csefar fliall forth : The things, that threat- 

en'd me, 

Ne'er look'd but on my back ; when they fhall fee 
The face of Casfar, they are vaniihed. 

Cat. Czefar, I never ftood on ceremonies ', 
Yet now they fright me. There is one xvithin, 
Befides the things that we have heard and feen, 
Recounts mod horrid lights feen by the watch. 
A lionefs hath whelped in the flreets ; 
And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up their dead : 
Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, 
In ranks, and fquadrons, and right form of war, 
Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol : 
The noife of battle hurtled in the air *, 


3 Cafar, I never flood on ceremonies.] i. e. I never paid a cere- 
monious or fuperftitious regard to prodigies or omens. 

The adjective is ufed in the fame fenfe in the D*wTs Charter, 
1607 : 

*' The devil hath provided in his covenant, 
* 4 I (hould not crois myfelf at any time : 
*' I never was fo ceremonious," 

The original thought is in the old tranflation of Pltftarcb :. 
*' Calphurnia, until that time, was never given to any fear or 
fuperftition." STEEVENS. 

4 The noift of baltlt hurtled in the air.] To lurtle is, I fuppofe, 


Horfes did neigh, and dying men did groan ; 
And ghofts did fhriek, and fqueal about the flreets. 
O Cafar ! thefe things are beyond all ufe, 
And I do fear them. 

Caf* What can be avoided, 
Whole end is purposed by the mighty gods ? 
Yet Csefar fhall go forth : for thefe predictions 
Are to the world in general, as to Casfar. 

Cal. When beggars die, there are no comets feen ; 
The heavens themfelves blaze forth the death of 

Cef. Cowards die many times before their deaths y ; 
The valiant never tafte of death but once. 
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard 6 , 


to claft, or move with violence and noife. So, in Selimus Emperor 
of the Turks , 1638 : 

" Here the Polonian he comes hurtling in, 

** Under the conduit of fome foreign prince." 
Shakefpeare ufes the word again in As Tou Like It : 

" in which hurtling, 

" From miferable llumber I awak'd." 
Again, in Sclimus, &c. 

" To tofs the fpear, and in a warlike gyre 

" To hurtle my {harp fword about my head." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery %ueen^ B. II. c. 7 : 

** His harmful club he gan to hurtle high." STEEVENS. 

5 Cowards die many times before their deaths,} So in Marflon's 
Infatiate Countefs, 1 603 : 

" Fear is my vafTal ; when I frown, he flies, 
'* A hundred times in life a covjard Ji'es," 
The firft known edition of Julius Cafar is that of 1623 : 

Lord Eflex, probably before any of thefe writers, made the 
fame remark. In a letter to lord Rutland, he obferves, " that 
as he which dieth nobly, doth live for ever, fo be that dotb Uvt 
in fear, dotb die continually" MALONE. 

" When forne of his friends did counfel him to have a guard 
for the fafety of his peribn ; he woud never conlent to it, but 
faid, it was better to die once, than always to be aifrayed of 
death." Sir Th. North's Tranjl. of Plutarch. STEEVENS. 

6 that I yet have heard^\ This fentiment appears to have 

been imitated by Dr, Young in his tragedy of Bujiris king of 


It feems to me mofl ftrange that men Ihould fear ; 
Seeing that 7 death, a necefTary end, 
Will come, when it will come. 

Re-enter a Servant. 

What fay the augurers ? 

Serv. They would not have you to ftir forth to-day. 
Plucking the entrails of an offering forth, 
TJhey could not find a heart within the beaft. 

C<J\ The gods do this 8 in mame of cowardice : 
Caefar fhould be a beaft without a heart, 
If he mould flay at home to-day for fear. 
No, Caefar lhall not : Danger knows full well, 
That Casfar is more dangerous than he. 
9 We were two lions litter'd in one day, 

" DiJft tbou e'er fear f 

" Sure 'tis an art ; I knotv not how to fear 
" '7/j one of the few things beyond my power ; 
" And If death muft be fear* d before 'tis felt, 

* Thy mafier is immortal" STEEVENS. 

7 death, a necejjary end y &c.] This is a fentence derived 
from the ftoical doctrine of predestination, and is therefore im- 
proper in the mouth of Caefar. JOHNSON. 

B injbame of cowardice :] The ancients did not place 

courage but wifdom in the heart. JOHNSON. 
9 We were &c.] In old editions : 

We heard two lions The firft folio : 

The copies have been all corrupt, and the paflage, of courfe, un- 
intelligible. But the flight alteration, 1 have made, reitores fenfc 
to the whole ; and the lentiment will neither be unworthy of 
Shakefpeare, nor the boail too extravagant tor Cajfar in a vein of 
vanity to utter : that he and Danger were two twin-whelps of a 
lion, and he the elder, and more terrible of the two. 

Upton would read : 

We are 

This refembles the boaft of Otho : 

invicem fumus, Rgo et Fortuna. Tacitus. 



J U L I U S C IE S A R. 49 

And I the elder and more terrible ; 
And Csefar fliall go forth. 

CaL Alas, my lord, 

Your wifdom is confum'd in confidence. 
Do not go forth to-day : Call it my fear, 
That keeps yon in the houfe, and not your owri* 
We'll fend Mark Antony to the fenate-houfe ; 
And he fliall lay, you are not well to-day : 
Let me, upon my knee, prevail in this. 

Ctff. Mark Antony fliall fay, I am not well ; 
And, for thy humour, I will flay at home. 

Enter Decius. 

Here's Dccins Brutus, he fhall tell them fo. 

Dec. Casfar, all hail ! Good morrow, \vorthy 

Csefar : 
I come to fetch you to the fenate-houfe. 

Caf. And you are come in very happy time, 
To bear my greeting to the fenators, 
And tell them, that I will not come to-day : 
Cannot, is falfe; and that I dare not, falfer ; 
I will not come to day : Tell them fo, Decius, 

CaL Say, he is fick. 

Gf/1 Shall Caefar fend a lye ? 
Have I in conqueft ftretchM mine arm fo farj 
To be afeard to tell grey-beards the truth ? 
Decius, go tell them, Qefar will not come. 

Dec. Moft mighty Csefar, let me know fome caufe, 
Left I be laugh'd at, when I tell them fo. 

Ctef. The caufe is in my will, I will not come ; 
That is enough to fatisfy the fenate. 
But, for your private fatisfadtion, 
Bccaufe I love you, I will let you know. 
Calphurnia here, my wife, flays me at home : 
She dreamt to-night fhe faw my flatue, 
Which, like a fountain, with a hundred fpouts, 
Did run pure blood ; and many lufly Romans 

VOL. VIII. E Came 


Came fmiling, and did bathe their hands in it. 
1 And thefe does Ihe apply for warnings, and portents, 
And evils imminent ; and on her knee 
H;ith begg'd, that I will ftay at home to-day. 
Dec. This dream is all amifs interpreted ; 
It was a vifion, fair and fortunate : 
Your uatue fpouting blood in many pipes, 
In which fo many mailing Romans bath'd, 
Signifies, that from you great Rome mall fuck 
Reviving blood ; * and that great men mall prefs 


* And thefe Jbe dot 's apply for warnings and portents, 
And evils imminent* 

The late Mr. Edwards \vas of opinion that we fliould read : 
- warnings and portents 

Of evils imminent. STEEVENS. 

* and that great men jb all prefs 

For tinftures, flams, relicks, ami cognizance.] 
That this dream of the ftatue's fpouting blood fliould fignify, the 
increnfe or' power and empire to Rome from the influence of Cae- 
far's arts and arms, and wealth and honour to the noble Romans 
through his beneficence, exprefied by the words, from you great 
Rome Jl all fuck reviving Hood, is intelligible enough. But how 
thefe great men fhould literally prefs for tinSiures^ ftains, relicks, 
and cogmfance, when the fpouting blood was only a fymbolical 
vifion, I am at a lofs to apprehend. Here the circumftances of 
the dream, and the interpretation of it, are confounded with one 
another. This line therefore, 

For tinRures, ftains, relicki, and c ognifance , 

muft needs be in way of fimilitude only ; and if fo, it appears that 
fome lines are wanting between this and the preceding ; which 
\vant fliould, for the future, be marked with afteriflcs. The fenfe 
of them is not difficult to recover, and, with it, the propriety of 
the line in queftion. The fpeaker had faid, the ftatue fignified, 
that by Caefar's influence Rome (hould flouriih -and increafe in 
empire, and that great men fliould prefs to him to partake of his 
good fortune, juft as men run with handkerchiefs, &c. to dip 
them in the blood of martyrs, that they may partake of their me- 
rit. It is true, the thought is from the Chriftian hiftory ; but fo 
fmall an anachronifm is nothing with our poet. Befides, it is not 
my interpretation which introduces it, it was there before : for 
the line in queftion can bear no other fenfe than as an allulion to 
the blood of the martyrs, and the fuperftition oi fome churches 
with regard to it. WAR BURTON. 

I am 

j U L I U S C JE S A R. 51 

For tinctures, ftains, relicks, and cognifance. 
This by Calphurnia's dream is fignify'd. 

C<ef. And this way have you well expounded it. 

Dec. I have, when you have heard what I can fay : 
And know it now ; The fenate have concluded 
To give, this day, a crown to mighty Czefar. 
If you (hall fend them word, you will not come, 
Their minds may change. Befides, it were a mock 
Apt to be rendered, for feme one to fay, 
Break vp the fenate 'till another time, 
When. Ctejlir's wife Jhall meet 'With better dreams ', 
If Cjefar hide himielf, mall they not whifper^ 
Lo, Caejar is afraid'? 

Pardon me, C^efar ; for my dear, dear love 
To your proceeding bids me tell you this ; 
4 And reafon to my love is liable. 

Ctffi How foolifh do your fears feem now, Cal- 

phurnia ? 

I am afhamed I did yield to them.- 
Give me my robe, for I will go : 

I am not of opinion that any thing is loft, and have therefore 
marked no omilfion. This fpeech, which is intentionally pom- 
pous, is fomewhat con filled. There are two allufions ; one to 
coats armorial, to which princes make additions, or give new 
tinfiures, and new marks of cognifance ; the other to martyrs, 
uhofe reliques are preferved with veneration. The Romans, fays 
Decius, all come to you as to a faint, for reliques, as to a prince, 
for honours. JOHNSON. 

3 Men Cafar's ivifejball meet cwVA letter dreams.] So, in lord 
Sterline's Julius C^cfar : 

'* How can we iatisfy the world's conceit j 

*' Whofe tongues ilill in all ears your praife proclaims ? 

" Or fliall we bid them leave to deal in ftate, 

** Till that Calfhuntia firft have better dreams ?" 


4 And reafon^ &c.] And reafon, or propriety of conduct and 
language, is fubordinate to my love, JOHNSON. 

E 2 ntet 

52 . JULIUS C JE S A R. 

Enter Publius, Brutus, Llgarlns, Mstettus, Cafca, Trc- 
bomus, and Ci;:/:.L 

And look where Publius is come to fetch me. 

Pub. Good morrow, Czefar. 

Caf. Welcome, Publius. 
What, Brutus, are you ftirr'd fo early too ? 
Good-morrow, Cafca. Caius Ligarius, 
Cxfar was ne'er fo much your enemy, 
As that fame ague which hath made you lean. 
What is't o'clock ? 

Bn<. Ca^far, 'tis ftrucken eight. 

Caf. I thank you for your pains and courtefy. 

Enter Antony. 

'c ! Antony, that revels long o'nights, 
Is not with Handing up : Good morrow, Antony. 

Ant. So to moil noble C<cfar. 

Caf. Bid them prepare within : 
I am to blame to be thus waited for. 
Now, China : Now, Metellus :r What, Trebonius ! 
I have an hour's talk in ftore for you ; 
Remember that you call on me to-day : 
Be near me, that I may remember you. 

Yreb. Cgefar, I will : and fo near will I be, 

That your befl friends ihall wifii I had been further. 

C<ef. Good friends, go in, and tafle fome wine with 

me ; 
And we, like friends, will ftraightway go together. 

Eru. That every like is not the fame, O Csefar, 
The heart of Brutus ycrns to think upon ! [Exeuat. 




Ajlreet n:ar the Capitol. 
Enter ArtemidoruSf reading a paper, 

r, beware of Brutus ; take heed of Cqjjius ; come 
not near Cafca ; have an eye to Clnna ; trujl not "Trebo- 
n'ms ; mark well Metellus . C'tmber : Dccius Brutus loves 
thee not; thou hajl wrong d Calm Ligarius. There is 
but one mind in all thefe men* and it is bent againft Ctefar. 
If thou be'Jl not immortal, look about you : Security gives 
way to cotifpiracy. The mighty gods defend thee ! 

Thy lover, 


Here will I ftand, 'till Cscfar pafs along, 

And as a fuitor will I give him this. 

My heart laments, that virtue cannot live 

Out of the teeth of emulation. 

If thou read this, O Ccefar, thou may'fl live ; 

If not, 4 the fates with traitors do contrive. [Exif. 


Mother part of the fame ftreet. 
Enter Portia, and Lucius. 

Par. I pr'ythee, boy, run to the fenate-houfe ; 
Stay not to anfwer me, but get thee gone : 
Why doft thou flay 5 ? 


4 ^ the fates ivith traitors do contrive.] The fates join I'ciifj 
traitors in contriving thy dellrudion. JOHNSON. 

5 Why dojl th(.ujflayf &c.] Shake, peare has exprefled the per- 
turbation of A". Richard the tuird's mind by the fame incident : 

3 " Dull 

5-4 J U L I U S C M S A R. 

Luc. To know my errand, madam. 
For. I would have had thec there, and here again. 
Ere I can tell thee what thou fhould'ft do there. 

constancy, be ftrong upon my fide ! 

Set a huge mountain 'tween my heart and tongue ! 
J have a man's mind, but a woman's might. 
How hard it is for women to keep counfel ! 
Art thou here yet ? 

Luc. Madam, what fhould I do ? 
Run to the Capitol, and nothing elfe ? 
And fo return to you, and nothing elie ? 

Por. Yes, bring me word, boy, if thy lord look 


For he went fkkly forth : And take good note, 
What Casfar doth, what fuitors prefs to him. 
Hark, boy ! what noife is that ? 

Luc. I hear none, madam. 

Por. Pr'ythee, liften well; 

1 heard a buttling rumour, like a fray, 
And the wind brings it from the Capitol. 

Luc. Soothj madam, I hear nothing, 

Enter Sootbfcyer. 

Por. Come hither, fellow : Which way haft thou 

been ? 

Sooth. At mine own houfc, good lady. 
Por. What is't o'clock ? 
Sooth. About the ninth hour, lady. 
Por. Is Caefar yet gone to the Capitol ? 
Sooth. Madam, not yet ; I go to take my ftand, 
To fee him pafs on to the Capitol. 
,Por. Thou haft fpme fuit to Caifar, haft thou not? 

" Dull, unmindful villain ! 

" Why ftay'it thou here, and go'it not to the duke? 
f* Cat. Firlt, mighty liege, tell me your highneis' pleafure, 
't Y^'hat from your grace I fhall deliver to him." 


J U L I U S C JE S A R. 55 

Sooth. That I have, lady, if it will pleafe Cafar 
To be fo good to Casfar, as to hear me : 
I fhall befeech him to befriend himfelf. 

For. Why, know'fl thou any harm's intended to- 
wards him ? 

Sooth, None that I know will be, much that I fear 

may chance. 

Good morrow to you. Here the ftreet is narrow : 
The throng that follows Casftr at the heels, 
Of fenators, of przetors, common fuitors, 
Will crowd a feeble man almofr to death : 
I'll get me to a place more void, and there 
Speak to great Casfar as he comes along. [Exit. 

Por.' 1 muft go in. Ay me ! how weak a thing 
The heart of woman is ! O Brutus ! 
The heavens fpeed thee in thine enterprize ! 
Sure, the boy heard me : Brutus hath a fuit, 
That Csfar will not grant. O, I grow faint : 
Run, Lucius, and commend me to my lord ; 
Say, I am merry : come to me again, 
And bring me word what he doth fay to thee. 



i:c Street, and then 
7'ke Capitol; the Senate fitting. 

Fhtort/o, E.-ifcr Ctffar, Brutus, Cajfius, Gjjia,. Deejay 
1 !:tellus y < Trebonius 9 China, Antony, Lepidus, Artcwi- 
dorus, Pr.pilius, Publlus, and the Sooihfayer. 

C<ef. The ides of March are come. 
Stiotl;. A}', Cxfar ; but not gone. 

E 4 Art. 

56 J U L I U S C J S A R, 

Art. Hail, Csefar ! Read this fchedule. 

Dec. Trebonius doth defire you to o'er- read, 
At your beft leifure, this his humble fuit. 

Art. O, Casfar, read mine firft ; for mine's a fuit 
That touches Casfnr nearer : Read it, great Casfar. 

(>/ What touches us ourfelf, fhall be laft ferv'fl. 

Art. Delay not, Casfar ; read it inftantly. 

C<ef. "What, is the fellov/ mad ? 

Pub. Sirrah, give place. 

Caf. What, urge you your petitions in the ftrect ? 
Come to the Capitol, 

[C<efnr enters the Capitol, the reft following."] 

Pop. I wifh, your enterprize to-day may thrive. 

Caf. What enterprize, Popilius ? 

Pop. Fare you well. 

Bru. What faid Popilius Lena ? 

Caf. He wifh'd, to-day our enterprize might thrive. 
I fear, our purpole is difcovered. 

Bru. Look, how he makes to Ceefar : Mark him. 

Caf. CaiTca, be fudden, for we fear prevention. 
Brutus, what mall be done ? If this be known, 
Caflius, or Caefar, never mail turn back, 
For I will ilay myfelf. 

Bru. Caflius, bp conflant : 
Popilius Lena fpeaks not of our purpofes ; 
For, look, he fmiles, and Cseiar doth not change. 

Cdf. Trebonius knows his time ; for, look you^ 

He draws IVIark Antony out of the way. 

Exeunt Ant. and Treb+ 

Dec. Where is Mctcllns Cimber ? Let him go, 
And prefemly pv-efer his fuit to Ciefar. 

Em. He is addrelt 6 : prefs near, and fecond him. 

* He is ad .^ reft :] I. e. he is ready. So, in As Ton Like //,* 

' Addrtffd* rni^hty power, which was on foot." 
We are new to fuppcfe the fenate is fcated, STEEVENS, 


Cin. Cafca, you are the firft that rear your hand 7 . 

Caf. Are \ve all ready ? What is now amifs, 
That Casfar, and his fcnate, mufl redrcfs ? 

Afc/. Moft high, moft mighty, and moft puiflant 


Metellus Cimber throws before thy feat [Kneeling. 
An humble heart : 

C<ef. I mufl prevent thec, Cimber. 
Thele couchings, and thefe lowly courtefies, 
Might fire the blood of ordinary men ; 

8 And turn pre-ordinance, and firft decree, 

9 Into the lane of children. Be not fond, 
To think that Csefar bears fuch rebel blood a 
That will be thaw'd from the true quality 

With that which melteth fpols ; I mean, fweet words, 

7 you are the fir Jl that rear your hand.~\ This, I think, Is 

not Englifh. The firft folio has reares, which is not much bet- 
ter. To reduce the pafTage to the rules of grammar, we fhould 
read Tou are the firjl that rears his band. T Y R w H I T T. 

8 And turn pre-ordinance ] P re-ordinance, for ordinance al- 
ready eftablifhed. WAR.BURTON. 

9 Into the lane of children.] I do not well underfbmd what is 
meant by the lane of children. I fliould read, the lavj of chil- 
dren. That is, change pre-ordinance and decree into the law of chil- 
dren ; into fuch flight determinations as every {tart of will would 
alter. Lane and /awe in fome manufcripts are not eafily diftin- 
guifhed. JOHNSON. 

If the lane of children be the true reading, it may poffibly re- 
ceive illuftration from the following paflage in Ben Jonfon's Staple 
of News : 

*' A narrow-minded man ! my thoughts do dwell 

" All in a lane." 

The lane of children will then mean the narrow conceits of chil- 
dren, which rnuil change as their minds grow more enlarg'd. 
>o, in Hamlet: 

*' For nature, crefcent, does not grow alone 

" In thewes and bulk ; but as this temple waxes, 

1 * The inward fervice of the mind and 'foul ', 

" Grows wide withal" 

But even this explanation is harfh and violent. Perhaps the poet 
wrote: " in the line of children," i.e. after the method or 
manner of children. In Troilus and Crejpda, he ufes line for me 
|hod, cr.uric : 

** in all//f of order," STEEYENS, 


5 S J U L I U S C 'JR S A R. 

Low-crooked curt'fies, and bafe fpaniel fawning. 
Thy brother by decree is banhhed ; 
If thou doft bend, and pray, and fawn, for him, 
I fpurn thce like a cur out of my way. 
Know, Csefar doth not wrong ; nor without caufe 
Will he be fatisfied ' ? 

Met. Is there no voice more worthy than my own, 
To found more fwcetly in great C^far's ear, 
For the repealing of my baniih'd brother ? 

Bru. 1 kifs thy hand, but not in flattery, Gefar ; 
Defiring thee, that Publius Cimber may 
Have an immediate freedom of repeal. 

Cef, What, Brutus! 

1 A'<KI, Cecfar doth not ivrong ; nor without caufe 

mil he be fatisfied.} 

Ben Jonfon quotes this line unfaithfully among his Difcoveriej y 
and ridicules it again in the Introduction to his Staple of News. 
'* Cry you mercy ; you never did wrong, but vtitbjuft caufe ?" 


It may be doubted, I think, whether Jonfon has quoted this 
line unfaithfully. The turn of the fentence, and the defect in the 
metre (according to the prefent reading), rather incline me to 
believe that the paflage flood originally thus : 

Aw<nv, Cafar doth not -wrong , but with juft caufe j 
Nor without caufe ivitt he be fati sjled. 

We may fuppofe that Ben ftarted this formidable criticifm at one 
of the earlieit reprefentations of the play, and that the players, 
or perhaps Shakefpeare himfelf, over-awed by ib great an author- 
ity, withdrew the words in queftion ; though, in my opinion, it 
would have been better to have told the captious ceniurer that his 
criticilrn was ill-tounded ; that ivroxp is not always a fynonymous 
term for injury ; that, in poetical language efpecially, it may be 
very well underftcod to mean only harm, or hurt, what the law 
calls damnumfins injuria \ and that, in this fenfe, there is no- 
thing abiurd in Caefar's faying, that he doth not wrong (i. e. doth 
not inflict any evil, or punifhment) but with jujl caufe. But, 
luppofmg this pafTage to have been really cenfurable^ and to have 

'.vrittca by Shakefpeare, the exceptionable words were un- 
doubtedly left out when the play was printed in 1623 ; and there- 
tore what are we to think of the malignant pleafure with which 
Jonfon continued to ridicule his deceafed friend for a flip, of 
which poilerity, without his information, would have been to- 
tally ignouiur TYKWHITT. 



Caf. Pardon, Cxfar ; Csefar, pardon : 
AS low as to thy foot doth Caffius fall, 
To beg enfranchifcment for Publius Cimber. 

Caf. I could be well mov'd, if I were as you ; 
If I could pray to move, prayers would move me ; 
But I am conftant as the northern ftar, 
Of whofe true-fixt, and refting quality, 
There is no fellow in the firmament. 
The Ikies are painted with unnumbred fparks, 
They are all fire, and every one doth fhine ; 
But there's but one in all doth hold his place : 
So, in the world ; 'Tis furnifh'd well with men, 
And men are flelh and blood, and 2 apprehenfive; 
Yet, in the number, I do know 3 but one 
That unavailable 4 holds on his rank, 
Unfhak'd of motion : and, that I am he, 
Let me a little ihew it, even in this ; 
That I was conftant Cimber Ihould be banifh'd, 
And conftant do remain to keep him fo. 

Cm. O Caefar, 

C*f. Hence ! Wilt thou lift up Olympus ? 

Dec. Great Csefar, 

C#f. s Doth not Brutus bootlefs kneel ? 


* 'apprehenjivc ;] Sufceptible of fear, or other paflions. 


So, in K. Hen. IV. P. II. Aft IV. fc. Hi : makes it aftrc- 
henfivi) quick, forgetive, &c." STEEVENS. 

3 but one'} One and only one. JOHNSON. 

4 . holds on bis rank,] Perhaps, holds on bis race ; continues 
his courfe. We commonly fay. To bold a. rank> and To hold on 
a courfe or <way. JOHNSON. 

5 Doth not Brut its bootlefs kneel ?] I would read : 

Do not Brutus bootlefe kneel ! JOHNSON. 

I cannot tub fcri be to Dr. Johnfon's opinion. Cajfar, as fome 
of the conlpirators are preffing round him, anfwers their impor- 
tunity properly : See you not my own Brutus kneeling in vain f 
What fuccefs canyon cxpcft to your felicitations, when, his are in- 
effcttual? This might have put my learned coadjutor in mind 
of the paflage or" Homer, which he has fo elegantly introduced 
in his preface. Thou? (faid Achilles to his captive) when fo great 


Caka. Speak, hands, for rnc. [Tbyjlab Cafir. 

CJf. Et tu, Brute ? Then fall,"Olar ! [Dies. 

Chi. Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead ! 

Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the flreets. 

Caf. Some to the common pulpits, and cry out, 
Uberty y freedom, and cnfrancJoifimcnt ! 

Bru. People, and fenators ! be not affrighted ; 
Fly not ; (land ftill : ambition's debt is paid. 

Cafca, Go to the pulpit, Brutus & . 

Dec. And Caffius too. 

Bru* Where's Publius ? 

Cm. Here, quite confounded with this mutiny. 

Mtt. Stand faft together, left fome friend of 

Should chance 

Bru. Talk not of ftanding : Publius, good cheer ; 
There; is no harm intended to your perfon, 
Nor to no Roman elfe 7 : fo tell them, Publius. 

Caf. And leave us, Publius ; left that the people, 
Rufhing on us, fhould do your age fome mifchief. 

Bru. Do fo ; and let no man abide this deed, 
But we the doers. 

Re-enter Trebonius. 

Caf. Where is Antony ? 

2;r. Fled to his houfe amaz'd ; 

man as Patroclus has fallen before thce, doft tbou complain of the 
common lot of mortality f STEEVENS. 

6 Go to the pulpit^ Brutus'] We have now taken 
kave of Cafca. Shakefpeare for once knew that he had a fuffi- 
cient number of heroes on his hands, and was glad to lofe an in- 
dividual in the croud. It may be added, that the fingularity of 
Cafca's manners would have appeared to little advantage amidft 
the fucceeding varieties of tumult and war. STEEVENS. 

7 Nor to no Roman clfe.~\ This ufe of two negatives, not to 
make an affirmative, but to deny more flrongly, is common to 
Chaucer, Spenfer, and other of our ancient writers. Hickes 
obferves, that in the Saxon, even four negatives are fometimes 
conjoined, rnd full preferve a negative fignification. STEEVENS. 


J U L I U S C JE S A R. 61 

Men, wives, and children, flare, cry out,, and run, 
As it were dooms-day. 

Bru. Fates ! we will know your pleafures : 
That we fhall die, we know ; 'tis but the time, 
And drawing days out, that men ftand upon. 

Caf. Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life, 
Cuts oiffo many years of fearing death. 

/?;-/. Grant that, and then is death a benefit : 
So are we Csefar's friends, that have abridg'd 
His time of fearing death. 8 Stoop, Romans, fioop, 
And' let us bathe our hands in Caefer's blood 
Up to the elbows, and befmear our fwords : 
Then walk we forth, even to the market-place ; 
And, waving our red weapons o'er our heads, 
Let's all cry, Peace ! Freedom ! and Liberty ! 

Caf. Stoop then, and waih. How many ages 


Shall this our lofty fcene be aclred over, 
In ftates unborn, and accents yet unknown ? 

Bru. How many times lhall Czefar bleed in fport, 

8 Stoop, Romans, fioop, &c.] In all the editions this fpeech is 
afcribed to Brutus, than which nothing is more inconliftent with 
his mild and philofophical character. But (as I often find 
fpeecbes in the later editions put into wrong mouths, different 
from the firft published by the author) I think this liberty not 
unreafonable. POI>E. 

Stoop, Romans, Jloop ; ] Mr. Pope has arbitrarily taken away 
the remainder of this Ipeech from Brutus, and placed it to Cafca ; 
becaufe he thinks nothing is more inconfiftent with Brutus's mild 
and philofophical character. I have made bold to reflore th 
fpeech to its right owner. Brutus eiieem'd the death of Caefar a 
facrifice to liberty : and, as fuch, gloried in his heading the en- 

houfe to the Capitol, with their dravin fivords, with an air of 
confidence and aflurauce." And in the Life of Brutus, " Bru- 
tub and his party betook ihemfelves to the Capitol, and in their 
way, Jbewing their bands all bloody, and their naked fwords, pro- 
claim* d liberty to the people." THEOBALD. 
Dr. Warburton follows Pope. JOHNSON. 


62 J U L I U S C m S A &< 

That now on Pompey's bafis lies along, 
No worthier than the duft ? 

Caf. So oft as that fhall be, 
So often lhall the knot of us be call'd 
The men that gave their country liberty.; 

Dec. What, fhall we forth ? 

Caf. Ay, every man away : 
Brutus fhall lead ; and we will grace his heels 
With the mod boldeft and beft hearts of Rome* 

Enter a Servant. 

Bru. Soft, who comes here ? A friend of Antony's. 

Serv. Thus, Brutus, did my matter bid me kneel ; 
Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down ; 
And, being proftratc, thus he bade me fay. 
Bru: us is noble, wife, valiant, and honeft ; 
Casfar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving : 
Say, I love Brutus, and I honour him ; 
Say, I fear'd Csefar, honour'd him, and lov'd him. 
If Brutus will vouchfafe, that Antony 
May fafely come to him, and be refolv'd 
How CaMar hath deferv'd to lie in death, 
Mark Antony fhall not love Csefar dead 
So well as Brutus living ; but will follow 
The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus, 
Thorough the hazards of this untrod ftate, 
With all true faith. So fays my mailer Antony. 

Bru. Thy mafter is a wife and valiant Roman ; 
I never thought him worfe. 
Tell him, fo pleafe him come unto this place, 
Ke fhall be fatisfied ; and, by my honour, 
Depart untouch'd. 

Serv. I'll fetch him prefently, - [Exit Servant* 

Bru. I know, that we fhall have him well to friend. 

Caf. I wifh, we may : but yet have I a mind, 
That fears him much ; and my mifgiving Hill 
Falls Ihrewdly to the purpofe. 



Bru. But here comes Antony. Welcome, Mark 

Ant. O mighty Czefar ! Doft thou lie fo low ? 
Are all thy conquefts, glories, triumphs, fpoils, 
Shrunk to this little meafure ? Fare thee well. 
I know not, gentlemen, what you intend, 
Who elfe muft be let blood, 9 who elfe is rank : 
If I myfelf, there is no hour fo fit 
As Qefar's death's hour ; nor no inftrument 
Of half that worth, as thofe your f words, made rich 
With the moft noble blood of all this world. 
I do befeech ye, if you bear me hard, 
Now, whilft your purpled hands do reek and fmoke, 
Fulfil your pleafure. Live a thoufand years, 
I (hall not find myfelf fo apt to die : 
No place will pleafe me fo, no mean of death, 
As here by Caifar, and by you cut off, 
The choice and matter fpirits of this age. 

Bru. O Antony ! beg not your death of us. 
Though now we muft appear bloody and cruel, 
As, by our hands, and this our prefent adt, 
You fee we do ; yet fee you but our hands, 
And this the bleeding bufinefs they have done : 
Our hearts you fee not, they are pitiful ; 
And pity to the general wrong of Rome 
(As fire drives out fire, fo pity, pity) 
Hath done this deed on Casfar. For your part, 
To you our fwords have leaden points, Mark 

Antony : 

1 Our arms, in ftrength of malice, and our hearts, 


9 - ivbo elfe is rank ; ] Who elfe may be fuppofed to have 
overtopped his equate, and grown too high for the public fafety. 


1 Our arm: exempt from malice,] This is the reading only of 


64 JULIUS C jfc S A R^ 

Of brothers' temper, do receive you in 

With all Jdnd love, good thoughts, and reverence.- 

Caf. Your voice ihall be as itrong as any man's., 
In the difpofing of new dignities. 

Bru. Only be patient, 'till we have appeas'd 
The multitude, befide themfelves with fear, 
And then we will deliver you the caufe, 
Why I, that did love Casfar when I {truck him, 
Have thus proceeded. 

Ant. I doubt not of your wifdom. 
Let each man render me his bloody hand : 
Firfl, Marcus Brutus, will I fliake with you; 
Next, Caius Caffius, do I take your hand ; 

Now, Decius Brutus, yours; now yours, Me- 

tellus ; 

Yours, Cinna ;< and, my valiant Cafca, yours ; 
Though laft, not leaft in love, yours, good Trebonius. 
Gentlemen all, alas ! what Ihall I fay ? 
My credit now (lands on fuch ilippery ground, 
That one of two bad ways you mufl conceit me, 

Either a coward, or a flatterer. 

That I did love thee, Czefar, O, 'tis true : 

If then thy fpirit look upon us now, 

Shall it not grieve thce, dearer than thy death, 

the modern editions, yet perhaps the true reading. The old 
copy has : 

Our arms in flrength of malice. JOHNSON. 
The old reading I believe to have been what the author defign'd ; 
and Dr. Johnfon feems to have given a fanftiou to the alteration 
of his predeceflbrs, without confidering the context. 

To you i (fays Brutus) our Pwords have leaden points : our arniSy, 
Jfaong in the deed of malice they have jiift performed, and our hearts 
united like thofe of brothers in the a&ion^ are yet open to receive you. 
ivitb all poffible affection. The fuppofition that Brutus meant, 
their hearts were of brothers' temper in rcfpe ft of Antony, feems to 
have mifled thofe who have commented on this paflage before. I 
have replaced the old reading. Mr. Pope firit fubftitutcd the words 
exempt front) in its place. If alteration were neceflary, it would 
be eafier to read : 

Our arms \\vftrtngth of malic r, " STEEVEXS. 


J U L I U S C A S A R. 6$ 

To fee thy Antony making his peace, 

Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes, 

Mofl noble ! in the prefence of thy corfe ? 

Had I as many eyes as thou haft wounds, 

Weeping as faft as they flream forth thy bloodj 

It would become me better, than to clofc 

In terms of friendfhip with thine enemies. 

Pardon me, Julius ! Here waft thou bay'd, brave 


Here didft thou fall ; and here thy hunters ftand, 
Sign'd in thy fpoil, and * crimfon'd in thy lethe. 
O world ! thou waft the foreft to this hart ; 
And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee.^- 
How like a deer, ftrucken by many princes, 
Doft thou here lie ? 

Caf. Mark Antony, 

Ant. Pardon me, Caius Caffius : 
The enemies of Czefar lhall fay this ; 
Theft, in a friend, it is cold modefty. 

Caf. I blame you not for praifing Ca?far fo ; 
But what compact mean you to have with us ? 
Will you be prick'd in number of our friends ; 
Or lhall we on, and not depend on you ? 

Ant. Therefore I took your hands ; but was, in- 
Sway'd from the point, by looking down on Cjefar; 

3 crimfon'd in thy lethe.] Mr. Theobald fays, The diftion- 

aries acknowledge no fuch word as lethe ; yet he is not without fup* 
pojition, that Shabefpeare coined the <vjord ; and yet, for all that^ 
the 1 might le a d imperfeftly wrote, therefore he ivill have death 
injlead of it. After all this pother, lethe was a common French 
word, fignifying death or dcjlruclion^ from the Latin lethum. 


Lethe is ufed by many of the old tranflators of novels, for 
ileath ; and in Hey wood's Iron Age, Part II. 1632 : 
' The proudeft nation that great Alia nurs'd, 
" Is now extinft in lethe." 
Again, \KCupifsWlirHffig, 1616: 

*' For vengeance'' wings bring on thy lethal day." 


VOL. VIII. F Friends 

66 J U L I U S C JE, S A R. 

Friends am I with you all, and love you all ; 
Upon this hope, that you fhall give me reafons, 
Why, and wherein, Caefar was dangerous. 

Brit. Or elie were this a favage fpectacle : 
Our reafons are ib full of good regard, 
That were you, Antony, the fon of Caefar, 
You fhould be fatisfied. 

Ant. That's all I feek : 
And am moreover fuitor, that I may 
Produce his body to the market-place ; 
And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend, 
Speak in the order of his funeral. 

Em* You fhall, Mark Antony. 

Caf. Brutus, a word with you. 

You know not what you do ; Do not confent, 
That Antony fpeak in his funeral : 
Know you how much the people maybe mov'd 
By that which he will utter ? 

ji'---!f. By your pardon ; 
I \\iil myieif into the pulpit firft, 
And Ihew the reafon of our Casfar's death : 
What Antony fhall fpeak, I will proteft 
He fpeaks by leave and by permillion ; 
And that we are contented, Casfar fhall 
Have all true rites, and lawful ceremonies. 
It fhall advantage more, than do us wrong. 

Caf. I know not what may fall ; I like it not. 

Bru. Mark Antony, here, take you Csfar's body. 
You fhall not in your funeral fpeech blame us, 
But fpeak" all good you can devife of Csefar ; 
And fay, you do't by our permiffion ; 
Elfe fhall you not have any hand at nil 
About his funeral : And you fhall fpeak 
In the fame pulpit whereto I am going, 
After my fpeech is ended. 

Ant. Be it ib; 
I do dcfire no more. 


JULIUS C J2 S A R. 67 

Brit. Prepare the body then, and follow us. 

[Exeunt Confpirators. 

Manet Antony. 

Ant. O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth^ 
That I am meek and gentle with thefe butchers ! 
Thou art the ruins of the nobleft man, 
That ever lived 4 in the tide of times. 
Woe to the hand that ihcd this coftly blood ! 
Over thy wounds now do I prophefy J , 
Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips, 
To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue ; 
A curfe fhall light 6 upon the limbs of men ; 
Domeftick fury, and fierce civil ftrife, 
Shall cumber ail the parts of Italy : 

* . . in the tide of times.'] That is, in the courfe of times; 

5 Over fly wounds now do I pfopbcfj, 

WJjicb like dumb mouthy &e.] 

Shakefpeare, perhaps, in his thoughts had art old play, called, 
A Warning for fair e Women, 1599. It was once very popular, 
and appears to have been written ibme years before it was printed : 

*' 1 gave him fifteen wounds, 

" Which no\v be fifteen mouths that do accufe me : 

** In every wound there is a bloody tongue 

Which will all fpeak although he hold his peace." 


* upon the limbs of men ;] We fhould read : 

Jine of men ; 

i. e. human race. WAREURTOX. 
Hanmer reads : 

kind of men ; 

I rather think it (hould'be, 

the lives of men ; 

unlefs we read : 

thefe lymms of men ; 

That is, theft bloodhounds of men. The uncommonnefs of the 
word lymm eafily made the change. JOHNSON. 

I think the old reading may very well ftand. Antony means 
only, that a .future curfe fhall commence in diftempers feizing 
on the limbs of men, and be fucceeded by commotion, cruelty, 
and defolation over all Italy. STEEVENS. 

F 2 Blood 

68 J U L I U S C JE S A R. 

Blood and deftrucYion lhall be fo in ufe, 
And dreadful objects fo familiar, 
Thar mothers fhsll but fmile, when they behold 
Their infants ouarter'd with the hands of war ; 
Ail pity choak'd with cuftom of fell deeds : 
And Csefar's fpirit 7 , ranging for revenge, 
With Ate by his fide, come hot from hell, 
Shall in thefe confines, with a monarch's voice, 
8 Cry Havock, and let flip the dogs of war ; 
That this foul deed ftiall fmell above the earth 
With carrion men, groaning for burial. 

Enter a Servant. 

You ferve Odfcavius Casfar, do you not ? 
Sm. I do, Mark Antony. 
Ant.- Csfar did write for him, to come to Rome. 

7 ,/.../ ^'./.".'. r y'". : ;.'V, ranging for revenge, &c.] 

un.braque erraret Craffus inulta." Ltican^ lib. I. 
Fatalem populis ultro pofcentibus horam 
Admovet atra dies ; Stygiifque emifla tenebris 
Mors fniitur coelo, bellatoremque volando 
Catnpum operit, nigroque viros invitat hiatu." 

Stat. Tbcl. VIII. 
" Furire rapuerunt licia Parcis." Ibid. STKKVENS. 

8 Cry Havock, ] A learned correfpondent has informed me, 
th?t, in the military operations of old times, bavock was the word 
by which declaration was made; that no quarter fliould be given. 

In a trad imitled, The Office of tl-e Conftablc a;:d Marcfcball in 
tl"c Ty-'Jic ofto'errc, contained in the Black Book of the Admiralty, 
there is the following chapter : 

" The pcyne of hym that crieth bavock and of them that fol- 
loweth hvm, etit. v." 

" Item Si quis inventus fuerit (jui clamorem inceperit qui vo- 
cattir Ilavok.' 1 

*' Alfo that no man be fo. hardy to crye Havok upon peync 
th t lie tr;r : e decde therefore : & the remanent 

that dco the fame or folmv, {hall lofe their horfe &; harneis : and 
the j>ei Tones of i'uch as foloweth &c elcrien fhnl be under ar- 
rell or the Concuahle and Murcichall warde unto tyme that they 
have made tvn ; und tounde furctic no morr to offeade j and his 
body in prifon at the Kyng \v) il. " JOHNSON. 


J U L I U S C JE S A R. 69 

Serv. He did receive his letters, and is coming : 
And bid me fay to you by word of mouth, 
O Casfar ! [Seeing the body. 

Ant. Thy heart is big ; get thee apart and weep. 
Paffion, I fee, is catching ; for mine eyes, 
Seeing thofe beads of forrow ftand in thine, 
Began to water. Is thy matter coming ? 

Serv. He lies to-night within feven leagues of 

Ant. Poft back with fpeed, and tell him what hath 

chanc'd : 

Here is a mourning Rome, a dangerous Rome, 
No Rome of fafety for O&avius yet 9 ; 
Hie 'hence, and tell him fo. Yet, ftay a while ; 
Thou ihalt not back, 'till I have borne this corfe 
Into the market-place : there ftiall I try, 
In my oration, how the people take 
The cruel ifiue of thefe bloody men ; 
According to the which, thou Ihalt difcourfc 
To young Odtavius of the ftate of things. 
Lend me your hand. [Exeunt, with CtffaSs body, 


The Forum. 
Enter Brutus, and Caflius, with the Plebeians. 

Pkb. We will be fatisfied ; let us be fatisfied. 
Eru. Then follow me, and give me audience, 

9 No Rome of fafety ) &c.] If Shakefpeare meant to quibble on 
the words Rome and room, in this and a former paflage, he is at 
kaft countenanced in it by other authors : 
So, in Hey wood's Rape of Lncrcce, 1638 : 
" - You fhall have my room, 
<{ My Rome indeed, for what I feem to be, 
'* Brutus is not, but born great Rom? to free." STEEVENS. 

F Caflius 

70 J U L I U S C JE, S A R. 

Caffins, go you into the other flrect, 

And part the numbers. 

Thole that will hear me fpeak, let them ftay here ; 

Thofe that will follow Caffius, go with him ; 

And publick reafons fhall be rendered 

Of Ca?far's death. 

1 pleb. I will hear Brutus fpeak. 

2 Plcb. I will hear Caffius ; and compare their rea- 

When feverally we hear them rendered. 

[Exit CaJJius, with fome of the Plebeians: 
Brutus goes into the roftrutu. 

3 Pleb. The noble Brutus is afcended : Silence ! 
Sru. Be patient 'till the laft. 

Romans, 7 countrymen, and lovers ! hear me for 
iny caufe ; and be iilent, that you may hear : believe 
me for mine honour ; and have refpcft to mine ho- 
nour, that you may believe : ccnfure me in your 
wifdom ; and awake your fenfes, that you may the 
better judge. If there be any in this aflembly, any 
dear friend of Ciefar's, to him I fay, that Brutus* 
love to Csfar was no lefs than his. If then that 
.friend demand, why Brutus rofe againit Ctefar, this 

1 countrymen, and lovers ! c.] There is no where, in all Shake- 
fpeare's works a ftrcnger proof of his not being what we call a 
fcholar than this ; or of his not knowing any thing of the genius 
cf learned antiquity. This Ipeech of Brutus is wrote in imitation 
or hit. tamed laconic brevity, and is very fine in its kind; but no 
nv .!-c like that brevity, than his times were like Brutus'?. The an- 
cient laconic brevity was fimple, natural, and eafy : this is quaint, 
yrtlfkial, jingling, and abounding with forced antithefes. Jn a 
word, a brevity, that for its falfe eloquence would have fuitedany 
chariuler, und lor its good fenfe would have become the greatefl 
of <.ur author's time; but yet, in a ilile of declaiming, that iits 
as ill upca P?vi!tu3 as our author's trowfers or collar-band would 
hnvc <'''ne. W"ASBURTON. artificial g'Dglc of fliort fentences was affeftcd by moft of 
|hc orators in Snakefpeare's time, whether in the pulpit or at the 
par. 'i iie fpeech of Brutus may therefore be regarded -rather as 
an';n of the falle eloquence then in vogue, than, *is a fpe- 
pineu of hcoaic brevity. STEKVENS, 


J U L I U S C j S A R. 71 

is my anfvver, Not that I lov'd Csefar lefs, but that 
I lov'd Rome more. Had you rather Ceefar were 
living, and dye all flaves ; than that Csefar were 
dead, to live all free men ? As Csefar lov'cl me, I 
weep for him ; as he was fortunate, 1 rejoice at it ; 
as he was valiant, I honour him : butj as he was am- 
bitious, I flew him : There are tears, for his love ; joy, 
for his fortune ; honour, for his valour ; and death, 
for his ambition. Who is here fo bafc, that would 
be a bond-man ? If any, fpeak ; for him have I of- 
fended. Who is here fo rude, that would not be a 
Roman ? If any, fpeak ; for him have I offended. 
Who is here fo vile, that will not love his country ? 
If any, fpeak ; for him have I offended. I paufe for 
a reply. 

All. None, Brutus, none. 

Bru. Then none have I offended. I have done 
no more to Casfar, than you mall do to Brutus. The 
queflion of his death is enroll'd in theCr.pitol : his 
glory not extenuated, wherein he was worthy ; nor 
his offences enforc'd, for which he fuffcred death. 

Enter Mark Antony, &V. with C<efar's body. 

Here comes his body, mourn'd by Mark Antony : 
who,. though he had no hand in his death, fhall re- 
ceive the benefit of his dying, a place in the com- 
monwealth ; As which of you fhall not ? With this 
I depart ; That, as I flew my beil lover for the good 
of Rome, I have the fame dagger for myfelf, when 
it fhall pleafe my country to need my death. 
AIL Live, Brutus, live ! live ! 

1 Pkb. Bring him with triumph home unto his 


2 Pkb. Give him a ftatue with his anceflors. 

3 Pleb. Let him be C-jefar. 

4 Pleb. Csefar's better parts 
Shall be crowned in Brutus. 

F 4 I 


j Pleb. We'll bring him to his houfe with fhouts 
and clamours. 

Bru. My countrymen, 

a Pleb. Peace ; filence ! Brutus fpeaks. 

i Pleb. Peace, ho ! 

Bru. Good countrymen, let me depart alone, 
And, for my fake, ftay here with Antony : 
Do grace to Casfar's corpfe, and grace his fpeech 
Tending to Csfar's glories ; which Mark Antony 
By our permiffion is allow 'd to make. 
I do intreat you, not a man depart, 
Save I alone, 'till Antony have fpoke. [Exit. 

i Pleb. Stay, ho ! and let us hear Mark Antony. 

3 Pleb. Let him go up into the public, chair; 
We'll hear him : Noble Antony, go up. 

Ant. For Brutus' fake, I am beholden to you. 

4 Pleb. What does he fay of Brutus ? 

3 Pleb. He fays, for Brutus' fake, 
3e finds 'himfelf beholden to us all *. 

4 Pleb. 'Twere beft he fpeak no harm of Brutus 


1 Pleb. This Caefar was a tyrant. 
3 Pleb. Nay, that's certain : 

We nrc bleft, that Rome is rid of him. 

2 Pick. Peace ;, let us hear what Antony can fay. 
..V.Y. You gentle Romans, 

All. Peace, ho ! let us hear him. 

Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your 

s ; 

I come to buiy Caefar, not to praife him. 
The evil, that men do, lives after them ; 
The good is oft interred with their bones ; 
- it be with Cafar ! The noble Brutus 
Hath told yon, Czefar was ambitious : 

beholden to us all.] Throughout the old copies of 

many other 'ancient authors, t0A/r*'i8Qorrapt- 

pelt beholding. STEEVEKS. 



If it were fo, it was a grievous fault ; 

And grievouiiy hath Caefar anfwer'd it. 

Here, under leave of Brutus, and the reft, 

(For Brutus is an honourable man ; 

So are they all, all honourable men) 

Come I to fpeak in Caefar's funeral. 

He was my friend, faithful and juft to me : 

]3ut Brutus fays, he was ambitious ; 

And Brutus is an honourable man. 

He hath brought many captives home to Rome, 

Whofe ranfdms did the general coffers fill : 

Did this in Ca^far feem ambitious ? 

When that the poor have cry'd, Czefar hath wept : 

Ambition mould be made of fterner fluff: 

Yet Brutus fays, he was ambitious ; 

And Brutus is an honourable man. 

You all did fee, that, on the Lupercal, 

I thrice prefented him a kingly crown, 

Which he did thrice refufe. Was this ambition ? 

Yet Brutus fays, he was ambitious ; 

And, fure, he is an honourable man. 

I fpeak not to difprove what Brutus fpoke, 

But here I am to fpeak what I do know. 

You all did love him once, not without caufe ; 

What caufe with-holds you then to mourn for him ? 

O judgment, thou art fled to brutifh beads, 

And men have loft their reafon ! Bear with me ; 

My heart is in the coffin there with Casfar, 

And I muft paufe 'till it come back to me. 

1 Pleb. Methinks, there is much reafon in his fay- 


2 Pkb. If thou confider rightly of the matter, 
8 Czefar has had great wrong. 

3 Pleb. 

3 Crtfar has lad great wrong. 3 Pleb. Ccefar bad never wrong 
lut with juft caufe.} If ever there was fuch a line written by Shakc- 
fpeare, I fhould fancy it might have its place here, and very hu- 
Diouroufly in the character of a plebeian. One might believe 

74 J U L I U S C ^E S A R. 

3 Pkb. Has he, mailers ? 

I fear, there will a worfe come in his place. 

4 P&. Mark'd ye his words ? He would not take 

the. crown ; 
Therefore, 'tis certain, he was not ambitious. 

1 Pleb. If it be found fo, fome will dear abide it. 

2 Pleb. Poor foul ! his eyes are red as fire with 


3 Pleb. There's not a nobler man in Rome, than 


4 Pleb. Now mark him, he begins again to fpcak. 
.Ant. But yefterday the word of Casfar might 

Have flood againft the world : now lies he there, 
* And none fo poor to do him reverence. 

mailers ! if I were difpos'd to ftir 
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, 

1 ihould do Brutus wrong, and Caflius wrong, 
\Yho, you all know, are honourable men : 

I \viii not do them wrong; I rather choofe 

To wrong the dead, to wrong myfelf, and you, 

Than I will wrong fuch honourable men. 

But here's a parchment, with the feal of Caeilir, 

I found it in his clofet, 'tis his will : 

Let but the commons hear this tefhment, 

(Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read) 

Ben Jcnfon's remark was made upon r.o better credit than fome 
blunder of an actor in fpeaking that vcrie near the beginning of 
the third adl ; 

KKC-J;, C^cfar doth not wrong ; nor iv:i-bout caufe 

Will he be fatlsfied 

But the verfe, as cited by Ben Jonfon, does not connect with, 
Will be oefatisfied. Perhaps this play was never printed in lien 
J onion's time, and fo he had nothing to judge bv, but as the ac- 
tor pleafed to fpeak it. POPE. 

lyh.vye infened this note, becaufe it is Pope's, for it is cther- 
\v:fe or" r.o v;ilue. It is^e thut he ft.ould fo much forget the 
date of the copy before hi:r., as to think-it not printed in Joaiou's 
time. JOHNSON. 

* And none fo poor ~j The meaneft rnnn is no\v too high to 
do reverence ic Ctefar. JOHNSON. 

J U L I U S C JE S A R. 75 

And they would go and kifs dead Casfar's wounds, 
And dip their napkins J in his facred blood; 
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory, 
And, dying, mention it within their wills, 
Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy, 
Unto their iflue. 

4 Pkb. We'll hear the will : Read it, Mark An- 

AIL The will, the will; we will hear Casfar's will. 

Ant. Have patience, gentle friends, I mult not 

read it ; 

It is not meet you know how Casfar lov'd you. 
You are not wood, you are not ftones, but men ; 
And, being men, hearing the will of Casfar, 
It will inflame you, it will make you mad : 
'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs ; 
For if yoij ihould, O, what would come of it ! 

4 Pkb. Read the will; we will hear it, Antony; 
You fhall read us the will ; Qatar's will. 

Ant. Will you be patient ? Will you flay a while? 
I have p'er-fhot myfelf, to tell you of it. 
J fear, I wrong the honourable men, 
Whofe daggers have flabb'd Caefar : I do fear it. 

4 Pleb. They were traitors : Honourable men ! 

All. The will ! the teftament ! 

2 Pleb. They were villains, murderers : The will ! 
read the will ! 

Ant. You will compel me then to read the will ? 
Then make a ring about the corpfe of Caefar, 
And let me fhew you him that made the will. 
Shall I defcend ? And will you give me leave ? 

All. Come down. 

2 Pleb. Defcend. [He comes down from the pulpit. 

3 Pleb. You mail have leave. 

4 Pkb. A ring; fland round. 

s their napkins.] i. e. their handkerchiefs. Naffiy was 

the ancient term tor all kinds of linen. STEEVENS, 

I Pkb. 

76~ J U L I U S C & S A R. 

i Pkb. Stand from the hearfe, fland from the body. 

zPkb, Room for Antony; moil noble Antony. 

Ant. Nay, prefs not fo upon me ; fland far off. 

All. Stand back ! room ! bear back \ 

Ant. If you have tears, prepare to fhed them now. 
You all do know this mantle : I remember 
The firfl time ever Caefar put it on ; 
'Twas on a fummer's evening, in his tent; 
That day he overcame the Nervii : 
Look ! in this place, ran Caffius' dagger through : 
See, what a rent the envious Cafca made : 
Through this, the well-beloved Brutus flabb'd; 
And, as he pluck'd his curfed ilcel away, 
Mark how the blood of Csefar follow'd it ; 
As rufhing out of doors, to be refolv'd 
If Brutus fo unkindly knock'd, or no ; 
For Brutus, as you know, was Csefar's angel 6 : 
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Csefar lov'd him ! 
This was the mofl unkindeft cut of all : 
For when the noble Caviar faw him flab, 
Ingratitude, more ilrong than traitors' arms, 
Quite vanquifh'd him : then burft his mighty heart; 
7 And, in his mantle muffling up his face, 


* For Brut us i as you know t ivas Cajfar's angel :] This title of 
endearment is more than once introduced in Sidney's Arcadia. 


7 And) In Jrii mantle, &c.] Read the lines thus : 
^nd, in his mantle muffling up his face 
Which all the. ivhile ran flood, great C afar fell t 
Even, at the bafc of Pompcy'sjtatue. 

Plutarch tells us, that Ca?far received many wounds in the face 
on this occafion, fo that it might be faid to run blood. But, in- 
tfead of that, the ftatue, in this reading, and not the face, is faid 
to do fo ; it is plain thefe two lines fhould be tranfpofed : And 
then the reflection, which follows : 

O i i -;bat a fall ivas there 

is natural, lamenting the difgrace of being at laft fubdued in that 
quarrel in which he had been compleat vidtor. WAR'BURTON. 

The image feems to be, that the blood of Cjefar flew upon the 
fhtue, and trickled down it. And the exclamation ; 


Even at the bafe of Pompey's ftatue, 

Which all the while ran blood, great Csefar fell. 

O, what a fall was there, my countrymen ! 

Then I, and you, and all of us fell down, 

\Vhilft bloody treafon fiourifh'd over us. 

O, now you weep ; and, I perceive, you feel 

The dint of pity $ : thefe are gracious drops. 

Kind fouls, what, weep you, when you but behold 

Our Czefar's vefture wounded ? Look you here ! 

Here is himfelf, marr'd, as you fee, with traitors. 

1 Pkb. O piteous fpectacle ! 

2 Pkb. O noble Casfar ! 

3 Pleb. O woeful day ! , 

4 Pleb. O traitors, villains ! 

i Pleb. O moft bloody fight ! 
2, Pleb. We will be reveng'd : Revenge : About, 
Seek, burn, fire, kill, flay ! let not a traitor 

Ant. Stay, countrymen. 

O what a fall ivas there 
follows better after 

great Cafar felly 

than with a line interpofed. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Shakefpeare meant that the very ftatue of Pompey la- 
mented the fate of Caefar in tears of blood. Such poetical hyper- 
boles are not uncommon. Pope, in his Eloifa, talks of 
pity 'ing faints , iubo/ej?atues learn, to weep. 
Shakefpeare has enumerated deius of l/looa 1 among the prodigies ou 
the preceding day ; and, as I have fince difcovered, took thefe very 
words from fir Thomas North's Tranflation of Plutarch .- 
* 4 againft the very bafe whereon Pompey's image flood, 
ivJjicb ran all a gore llood^ till he was flain." STEEVENS. 
8 The dint of ' pity] is the impreffion of pity. 
The word is in common ufe among our ancient writers. So, 
in Prefton's Camlyfes : 

*' Your grace therein may hap receive, with others for your 


" The dent of death, &c." 
Again, Ibid: 

" He lhall dye by dtnt of fwoid, or els by choking rope." 


yS J U L I U S C JE S A R. 

1 P/?. Peace there : Hear the noble Antony. 

2 Pleb. We'll hear him, we'll follow him, we'll 
die with him. 

Ant. Good friends, fweet friends, let me not ftir 

you up 

To fuch a fudden flood of mutiny. 
They, that have done this deed, are honourable ; 
What private griefs they have, alas, I know not, 
That made them do it ; they are wife, and honour- 

And will, no doubt, with reafons anftver you. 
I come not, friends, to fteal away your hearts ; 
I am no orator, as Brutus is : 
But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man, 
That love my friend ; and that they know full well 
That gave me publick leave to fpeak of him. 
4 For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth, 
Aclion, nor utterance, nor the power of fpeech, 
To fiir men's blood : I only fpeak right on ; 
I tell you that, which you yourfelves do know ; 
Shew you fwect Ca^far's wounds, poor, poor dumb 

mouths ! 

And bid them fpeak for me : But were I Brutus, 
And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony- 
Would ruffle up your fpirits, and put a tongue 
In every wound of Csefar, that fnould move 
The ftones of Rome to rife and mutiny. 

4& We'll mutiny. 

i Pleb. We'll burn the houfe of Brutus. 

3 Plev. Away then, come, feek the confpirators. 

Ant* Yet hear me, countrymen ; yet hear me 

All. Peace, ho ! Hear Antony, moft noble Antony. 

9 For I have neither wit, ] The old copy reads : 

For I have neither writ, nor ivords^ 

'.vhich may mean, I have no penned and premeditated oration. 

The fecond folio reads iwV. STEEVEXS. 



'Ant. Why, friends, you go to do you know not 

what : 

Wherein hath Casfar thus deferv'd your loves ? 
Alas, you know not : I mult tell you then : 
You have forgot the will I told you of. 

All. Molt true ; the will ; let's ftay, and hear 
the will. 

Ant. Here is the will, and under Casfar's feal. 
To every Roman citizen he gives, 
To every feveral man, feventy five drachmas r . 

2 Pleb. Moft noble Csefar ! We'll revenge his 


3 Pleb. O royal C<efar ! 
Ant. Hear me with patience. 
AIL Peace, ho ! 

Ant. Moreover, he hath left you all his walks, 
His private arbours, and new-planted orchards, 
a On this fide Tiber ; he hath left them you, 
And to your heirs for ever ; common pleafures, 
To walk abroad, and recreate yourfelves. 
Here was a Casiar : When comes fuch another ? 

1 - feventy '-five drachmas.] A drachma was a Greek coin, 
the fame as the R.oman denier, of the value of four fefterces, 
7<1. ob. STEE.VENS. 

* On this/d? Tiber.'] The fcene is here in the Forum near the 
Capitol, and in the moil frequented part of the city ; but Caefar's 
gardens were very remote from that quarter : 

Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Caefaris hortos, 
fays Horace : and both the Naumachia and gardens of Casfar were 
feparated from the main city by the river ; and lay out wide, on a 
tine with Mount Janiculum. Our author therefore certainly wrote, 

On that fide Tyler ; 

and Plutarch, whom Shakefpeare very diligently fhidied, in the 
Life of Marcus Brutus, fpeaking of Ciefar's will, exprcfsly fays, 
That he left to the public his gardens, and walks, beyond the 

This emendation has been adopted by the fubfequent editors ; 
but hear the old tranflation, where Sbakcfpeare 's Jludy lay. " He 
bequeathed unto every citizen of Rome feventy five drachmas a 
man, and he left his gardens and arbours unto the people, which 
he had on this fide of the river Tiber." FARMER, 

i Pkb. 


1 Pleb. Never, never : Come, away, away ; 
We'll burn his body in the holy place, 

And with the brands fire the traitors' houfes ? . 
Take up the body. 

2 Pleb. Go, fetch fire. 

3 Pleb. Pluck down benches. 

4 Pleb. Pluck down forms, windows, any thing. 

[Exeunt Plebeians, with the body, 
Ant. Now let it work : Mifchief, thou art afoot, 

Take thou what courfe thou wilt ! How now, 

fellow > 

Enter a Servant. 

Serv. Sir, O&avius is already come to Rome* 

Ant. Where is he ? 

Serv. He and Lepidus are at Casfar's houfe. 

Ant. And thither will I ftraight to vifit him : 
He comes upon a wifli. Fortune is merry, 
And in this mood will give us any thing. 

Serv. I heard him fay, Brutus and Caffius 
Are rid like madmen through the gates of Rome. 

Ant. Belike, they had fome notice of the people, 
How I had mov'd them. Bring me to O&avius. 



A Street. 
Enter Cinna the Poet, and after him, the Plebeians. 

Cin. I dreamt to-night, that I did feafl with Caefar, 
And things unluckily charge my fantafy : 

3 fire tie traitor*? houfes.] Thus the old copy. The more 
modern editors read fire all the traitor's houfes ; but fire was 
then pronounced, as it was fometimes written, fier. So, in Hu- 
tvers Ordinary , a collection of Epigrams : 

" Oh rare compound, a dying horfe to choke, 
" Of Englifli #r and of Indian fmoke !" STEEVEKS. 
* Scene ///.] The fubject of this fcene is taken from Plutarch. 

I have 


lave no will to wander forth of doors, 
Yet fomething leads me forth. 

1 Pleb. What is your name ? 

2 Pleb. Whither are you going ? 

3 Pleb. Where do you dwell ? 

4 Pleb. Are you a married man, or a bachelor ? 

2 P/<?. Anfwer every man diredtly. 

1 Pleb. Ay, and briefly. 
4 P/^. Ay, and wifely. 

3 Pleb. Ay, and truly, you were bed. 

Cin. What is my name ? Whither am I going ? 
Where do I dwell ? Am I a married man, or a ba- 
chelor ? Then to anfwer every man diredtly, and 
briefly, wifely, and truly. Wifely I fay, I am a 

2 Pkb. That's as much as to fay, they are fools 
that marry : You'll bear me a bang for that, I fear. 
Proceed ; diredtly. 

Cin. Diredtly, I am going to Ctefar's funeral. 

1 Pleb. As a friend, or an enemy ? 
Cin. As a friend. 

2 Pkb. That matter is anfwer'd diredtly. 

4 Pleb. For your dwelling, briefly. 
Cin. Briefly, I dwell by the Capitol. 

3 Pleb. Your name, fir, truly. 
Cin. Truly, my name is Cinna. 

i Pkb. Tear him to pieces, he's a confpirator. 
Cin. I am Cinna the poet, I am Cinna the poet. 

4 Pkb. Tear him for his bad verfes, tear him for 
his bad verfes. 

Cin. 1 am not Cinna the confpirator. 

4 Pkb. It is no matter, his name's Cinna ; pluck 
but his name out of his heart, and turn him going. 

3 Pkb. Tear him, tear him. Come, brands, ho! 
firebrands. To Brutus' and to Caflius', burn all. 
Some to Decius' houfe, and fome to Cafca's, fome 
to Ligarius' : away ; go. \_Exeunf. 



A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

On * a fmall Ifland near Mutlna. 
Enter Antony ', Oftavius, and Lepidus. 

Ant. Thefe many then fhall die ; their names arc 

Ofta. Your brother too muft die ; Confent you., 

Lepidus ? 
Lep. I dd*confent. 
Ofta. Prick him down, Antony. 
Lep. 6 Upon condition Publius fhall not live, 


5 A fmall ijland] Mr. Rovve, and Mr. Pope after him, have 
ronrk'd the fcene here to be at Rome. The old copies fay nothing 
of the place. Shakefpeare, I dare lay, knew from Plularcb, that 
thefe triumvirs met, upon the profcription, in a little ifland ; 
which Appian, who is more particular, lays, lay near Mutina, 
upon the river Lnvinius. THEOBALD. 

A fmall illand in the little river Rhenus near Bononia. 


So, in the old tranflation of Plutarch : " Thereuppon all three 
met together (to wete, Casfar, Antonius, & Lepidus) in an iland 
enuyroned round about with a little riuer, & there remayned 
three dayes together. Now as touching all other matters, thev 
were eafily agreed, & did deuide all the empire of Rome betwene 
them, as if it had bene their ovvne inheritance. But yet they 
could hardly agree whom they would put to death : for euery one 
of them would kill their enemies, and faue their kinfmen and 
friends. Yet at length, giving place to their greedy defire to be 
reuenged of their enemies, they fpurned all reuerence of blood, 
and holines of friendfhip at their feete. For Caefar left Cicero to 
Antonius will, Antonius alfo forfooke Lucius Caefar, who was his 
vncle by his mother : and both of them together fuffred Lepidus 
to kill his owne brother Paulus." That Shakefpeare, however, meant 
the fcene to be at Rome, may be inferred from what almoft im- 
mediately follows : 

" Lep. What, fliall I find you here ? 

" Caf. Or here, or at the Capitol." STEEVENS. 

6 Upon condition, Publius Jball not live.] Mr. Upton has fuffi- 
clently proved that the poet maiie a miitake^as to this charac- 


Who is your fitter's fon, Mark Antony. 

Ant. He fliall not live ; look, with a fpot I damn 

him 7 . 

But, Lepidus, go you to Csefar's houfe ; 
Fetch the will hither, and we ihall determine 
How to cut off fome charge in legacies. 

Lep. What, ihall I find you here ? 

Ocia. Or here, or at the Capitol. [Exit Lepidus. 

Ant. This is a flight unmeritable man, 
Meet to be fent on errands : Is it fir, 
The three-fold world divided, he Ihoukl fland 
One of the three to fhare it ? 

Ofla. So you thought him ; 
And took his voice who fliould be prick'd to die, 
In our black fentcnce and profcription. 

Ant. Odtavius, I have fecn more days than you : 
And though we luy thefe honours on this man, 
To eafe ourfelves of divers flanderous loads, 
He fhall but bear them as the afs bears gold % 
To groan and fweat under the bufmefs, 
Either led or driven, as we point the way ; 
And having brought our treafure where we will, 
Then take we down his load, and turn him off, 

ter mentioned by Lepidus. Lucius, not Publius, was the perfbn 
meanr, who was uncle by the mother's fide to Mark Antony : and 
in coniequence of this, he concludes, that Shakefpeare wrote: 

You are bis lifter's fon, Mark Antony. 

The miftake, however, is more like the miftake of the author, 
than of his tranfcriber or printer. STEEYENS. 

7 damn bint.'} i.e. condemn him. So, in Promos and Caf- 

fandra^ 1578: 

" Vouchfafe to give my damned\tf&auA life." 
Again, in Chaucer's Knigbfcs Tale, v. 1747. 

,' by your confeffion 

*' Hath Jarred you, and I wol it recorde." STEEVENS. 

8 -as the afs bears gold,'} This image had occurr'd before 
:n Meafurefar Mcafnrc, Aftlll. fc. i : 

" like an afs \vhofe back with ingots bows, 

'* Thou bcnr'ft thy heavy riches but a journey, 
'* Till death unloads thee." STEEVEXS. 

G 2 Like 


Like to the empty afs, to fhake his ears, 
And graze in commons. 

Ofta. You may do your will ; 
But he's a try'd and valiant foldier. 

Ant* So is my horfe, O&avius ; and, for that a 
I do appoint him ftore of provender. 
It is a creature that I teach to fight, 
To wind, to flop, to run directly on ; 
His corporal motion govern'd by my fpirit. 
And, in fome tafte, is Lepidus but fo ; 
He muft be taught, and train'd, and bid go forth : 
1 A barren-fpirited fellow ; one that feeds 
On objects, arts, and imitations ; 
Which, out of ufe, and ftal'd by other men, 

1 In the old editions : 

<A barren-fpirittd fellow , one that feeds 
On objefts, arts, and imitations, &c. 

'Tis hard to conceive, why he mould be call'd a larren-fpiriteJ 
fellow that could feed either on objects or arts: that is, as I pre- 
fume, form his ideas and judgment upon them : jtale and obfolcte 
imitation, indeed, fixes fuch a character. I am perfuaded, to 
make the poet confonant to himfelf, we muft read, as I have re- 
ftored the text : 

On abject orfs,- 

i. e. on thejlraps and fragments of things rejected and defpifed\yf 
others. THEOBALD. 

It is furely eafy to find a reafon why that devotee to pleafure 
and ambition, Antony, fhould call him barren-fp'.rited who could 
be content to feed his mind with 03/V&, i. t. fpcculativt knowledge, 
or arts, 5. e. mechanic operations. I have therefore taken the li- 
berty of bringing back the old reading to its place, though Mr. 
Theobald's emendation is ftill left before the reader. Lepidus, in 
the tragedy of Antony and Cleopatra, is reprefented as inquifitive 
about the ftru&ures of Egypt", and that too when he is almoil in 
a ftate of intoxication. Antony, as at prefenr, makes a jefl of 
him, and returns him unintelligible aniwers to very rcaibnablc 

Oi>jeft?, however, may mean things oljcftcJ or thrown out to 
him. In this lenle Shakefpeare ufes the verb to objcfi in another 
play, where I have given an initance of its being em ploy 'd by 
Chapman on the fame occafion. A man who can avail himf \\ 
of neglefted hints thrown out by others, though without o: 
ideas of his own, is no uncommon character. SiEF.vrNs. 


J U L I U S C & S A R. 85 

Begin his fafliion : Do not talk of him, 
But as a property. And now, Odtavius, 

Liflen great things. Brutus and Caflius 

Are levying powers : we muft flraight make head : 

Therefore let our alliance be combin'd, 

Our beft friends made, and our belt means ftretch'd 


And let us prefently go fit in council, 
How covert matters may be beft difclos'd. 
And open perils fureft anfweted. 

Ofta. Let us do fo : for we are at the flake % 
And bay'd about with many enemies ; 
And fome, that fmile, have in their hearts, I fear, 
^Millions of mifchief. [Exeunt. 


Before Brutus' tent, in the camp mar Sardis. 

Drum. Enter Brutus, Ludllus, and Soldiers : 27//>;;^; 
and Pindar us meeting tbern. 

Bru. Stand, ho ! 

Luc. Give the word, ho ! and (land. 

Bru. What now, Lucilius ? is Caflius near ? 

Luc, He is at hand ; and Pindarus is come 
To do you falutation from his mafter. 

Bru. He greets me well. Your mafter, Pindarus, 
8 In his own change, or by ill officers, 


7 at tbcjiake.] An allufion to bear-baiting. So, in Mac- 

l;:b, aft V : ' 

" They have chain'd me to njtake, I cr.nnot fly, 

" But bear-like I muft fight the courfe." STEEVE.VS. 

8 In bii own change, or by ill officer ^,] The fenfe of wHch is 
this, Either your majlcr, ly the change 'of bis virtuous nat:; . or 
by bis officers abujing the po-iver be bad intrufied to them^ bath dene 
fame thing* I could "-':ijh undone. This implies a doubt which of 

the two was the cafe. Yet, immediately after, on Pindarus's fay- 
ing, His mafier was full of regard and honour, he replies, He it 
not dorticd. To reconcile this we fliould read ; 

G 3 / 

86 J U L I U S C JE S A R. 

Hath given me fome worthy caufe to wifli 
Things done, undone : but, if he be at hand, 
I fliall be fatisfied. 

Pin. I do not doubt, 
But that my noble matter will appear 
Such as he is, full of regard, and honour. 

Bru. He is not doubted. A word, Lucilius ; * 
How he received you, let me be refolv'd. 

Luc. With courtefy, and with refpedt enough ; 
But not with fuch familiar inftances, 
Nor with fuch free and friendly conference, 
As he hath us'd of old. 

Bru. Thou haft defcrib'd 
A hot friend cooling : Ever note, Lucilius, 
When love begins to iicken and decay, 
Jt.ufeth an enforced ceremony. 
There are no tricks in plain and fimple faith : 
But hollow men, like horfes hot at hand, 
Make gallant fliew and promife of their mettle ; 
Bat when they ftiould endure the bloody fpur, 
They fall their crefts, and, like deceitful jades, 
Sink in the trial. Comes Ijis army on ? 

In bis own charge, or ly ill officer 'S, 

i.e. EltLer by tbofe unJer-bis immediate command, or under tbc com- 
TKand of bis lieutenants, c iv/jo had aluftd their tntft. Charge is fo 
ufual a word in Shakefpeare, to fignify the forces committed to 
the truit cf a commander, that I think it needlefs to give any 
inftances. WARBURTON. 

The arguments tor the change propofed are infufficient. Brutus 
could not but know whether the wrongs committed were done by 
thofe who were immediately under the command of Gaffius, or 
thofe under his officers. The an fiver of Brutus to the fervant is 
only an aft of artful civility ; his queftion to Lucilius proves, 
that his fufpicion {till continued. Yet I cannot but fufpeft a cor- 
ruption, and would read : 

In bis own change, or ly ill offices. 

That is, either changing his inclination of bimfelf, or ly the ill- 
offices and bad influences of others. JOHNSON.. 

Surely alteration is unneceflary. In the fubfequent conference 
Brutus charges both Callius and his officer Lucius Pella, with 
Corruption. STEEVENS. 



Luc. They mean this night in Sardis to be quar- 

ter'd ; 

The greater part, the horfe in general, 
Are come with Caflius. [March within. 

Bru. Hark, he is arrived: 
March gently on to meet him. 

Enter Cajjius, and Soldiers. 

Caf. Stand, ho! 

Bru. Stand, ho! Speak the word along. 

Within. Stand. 

Within. Stand. 

Within. Stand. 

Caf. Moil noble brother, you have done me 

Bru. Judge me, you gods ! Wrong I mine ene- 
mies ? 
And, if not fo, how fhould I wrong a brother ? 

Caf. Brutus, this fober form of yours hides wrongs ; 
And when you do them 

Bru. Caffius, be content, 

Speak your griefs foftly, I do know you well : 
Before the eyes of both our armies here, 
Which fhould perceive nothing but love from us, 
Let us not wrangle : Bid them move away.; 
Then in my tent, Caffius, enlarge your griefs, 
And I will give you audience. 

Caf. Pindarus, 

Bid our commanders lead their charges off 
A little from this ground. 

Bru. Lucilius, do you the like ; and let no man 
Come to our tent, 'till we have done our conference. 
Let Lucius and Titinius guard our door. [Exeunt* 


38 J U L I U S C M S A R, 


The infide of Brutus' tent. 
Enter Brutus, and Co/pus. 

Caf. That you have wrong'd me, doth appear; 

in this : 

You have condemn'd and noted Lucius Pella, 
For taking bribes here of the Sardians ; 
Wherein, my letter, praying on his fide, 
Becaufe I knew the man, was flighted off. 

Bru. You wrong'd yourfelf, to write in fuch a cafe, 

Caf. In fuch a time as this, it is not meet 
That 9 every nice offence fhonld bear his comment. 

Bru. Let me tell you, Caffius, you yourfelf 
Are much condemn'd to have an itching palm ; 
To fell and mart your offices for gold, 
To undefervers. 

Caf- I an itching palm ? 

You know, that you are Brutus that fpeak this, 
Or, by the gods, this fpeech were elfe your laft. 

Bru. The name of Caffius honours this corruption, 
And chaftifement doth therefore hide his head. 

Caf. Chaftifement ! 

Bru. Remember March, the ides of March re- 
member ! 

Did not great Julius bleed for juftice' fake ? 
What villain touch'd his body, that did flab, 
And not for juftice ? What, fhall one of us, 
That ftruck the foremoft man of all this world, 
But for fupporting robbers ; lhall we now 

9 every nice offence ] i. e. fmall trifling offcnce. 

So, in Romeo and Juliet, n& V : 

'* The letter was not nice, but full of charge 
" Of dear import." STEEVJINS. 


J U L I U S C IE S A R. r j} 

Contaminate our fingers with bafe bribes ? 
And fell the mighty fpace of our large honours, 
For fo much trafh, as may be grafped thus ? - 
1 1 had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, 
Than fuch a Roman. 

Caf. Brutus, bay not me, 
I'll not endure it : you forget yourfelf, 
* To hedge me in ; I am a foldier, I } , 

1 / bad rather le a dog, and bay the moon, 

Than fuch a. Roman.} 

The poets and common people, who generally think and {peak 
alike, fuppofe the dog bays the moon out of envy to its bright- 
nefs ; an allufion to this notion makes the beauty of the paflage 
in queftion : Brutus hereby infinuates a covert accufation againft 
his friend, that it was only envy at Catfar's glory which fet Caf- 
fius on confpiring againft him ; and ancient hiftory feems to 
countenance fuch a charge. Caffius underilood him in this fenfe, 
and with much confcious pride retorts the charge by a like infi- 
nuation : 

Brutus, bayo/me. WARBURTOX. 

The old copy reads bait not me ; but Dr. Warburton's emen- 
dation is ftrcngthened by Shakefpeare's having ufed the word lay 
in other places, and in the fenie here required. So, in Troilvs 
and Creffida, aft II. fc. iii : 

** Whiir moves Ajax thus to lay at him ?" 
Again, in the Second Part of K. Henry IV. act I. fc. iii : 

* the French and Welfli 

** Baying him at the heels." 
Again, in Cymbeliiie : 

" Set the dogs of the ilreet 

" To lay me-" 

The old reading, however, may be countenanced by the following 
paflage in a Plcafant conceited comedy hovj to cbuft a good Wife front 
a lad) 16^4 : 

" Do I come home fo feldom, and that feldom, 

" Am I thus baited?" MALONE. 

* To hedge me in ; ] That is, to limit my authority by your 

direction or cenfure. JOHNSON. 
3 " 1 am a foldier, I, 

Older inprafticc, &C.] 

Thus the ancient copies ; but the modern editors, infiead of 7, have 
read ay, becaufe the vowel /femetimes fbmds for ay the affirma- 
tive adverb. I have replaced the old reading, on the authority of 
th following line : 

And I am JRrvtus ; Marcus Brutus I. STEEVENS. 


9 o J' U L I U S C -ffi S A R. 

Older in pra.&ice, abler than yoiirfelf 
* To make conditions. 

Bru. Go to ; you are not, Cafiius. 

Caf. I am. 

Bru. I fay, you are not. 

Caf. Urge me no more, I fhall forget myfelf 
Have mind upon your health, tempt me no further. 

Bru. Away, flight man ! 

Caf. Is't poffible ? 

Bru. Hear me, for I will fpeak. 
Muft I give way and room to your rafh choler ? 
Shall I be frighted, when a madman (lares ? 

Caf. O ye gods ! ye gods ! Mud I endure all this ? 

Bru. All this ? ay, more : Fret, 'till your proud 

heart break ; 

Go, fhew your Haves how cholerick you are, 
And make your bondmen tremble. Mud I budge ? 
Muft I obferve you ? Muft I ftand and crouch 
Under your tefty humour ? By the gods, 
You fhall digeft the venom of your fplecn, 
Though it do fplit you : for, from -his day forth, 
I'll ule you for my mirth, yea, lor my laughter,. 
When you are wafpifh. 

Caf. Is it come to this ? 

Bru. You fay, you are a better foldier : 
Let it appear fo ; make your vaunting true, 
And it mail pleafe me well : For mine own part, 
J lhall be glad to learn of noble men. 

Caf. You wrong me every way, you wrong me, 

Brutus ; 

I faid, an elder foldier, not a better : 
Pid I fay, better ? 

Bru. If you did, I care not. 

Caf. When Caefar liv'd, he durft not thus have 
mov'd me. 

4 To make conditions.] That is, to know on what terms it is fit 
confer the offices which are at my difpofal. JOHNSON. 


Bra. Peace, peace; you durft not fo have tempted 

Caf. I durft not ? 

Bru. No. 

Caf. What ? durft not tempt him ? 

Bru. For your life you durft not. 

Caf. Do not prefume too much upon my love, 
I may do that I lhall be forry for. 

Bru. You have done that you ihould be forry for, 
There is no terror, Caffius, in your threats; 
For I am arm'd fo ftrong in honcfty, 
That they pafs by me, as the idle wind, 
Which I refpedt not. I did fend to you 
For certain fums of gold, which you deny'd me ; 5 
For I can raife no money by vile means : 
By heaven, I had rather coin my heart, 
And drop my blood for drachmas, $ than to wring 
From the hard hands of peafants their vile trafh, 
By any indirection. I did fend 
To you for gold to pay my legions, 
Which you deny'd me : Was that done like Caffius ? 
Should I have anfwer'd Caius Caffius fo ? 
When Marcus Brutus grows fo covetous, 
To lock fuch rafcal counters from his friends, 
Be ready, gods, with all your thunderbolts, 
Dafh him to pieces ! 

Caf. I deny'd you not. 

Bru. You did. 

Caf. I did not : he was but a fool, 

That brought my anfwer back. Brutus hath riv'd 
my heart : 

5 than to wring 

^ From the hard bands of peafants their file trajh,'} 
This is a noble fentiment, altogether in character, and exprefTed 
in a manner inimitably happy. For to wring, implies both to 
get unjujily, and to ufe force in getting : and bard hands fignify 
J30th the peafam's great labour and pains in acquiring, and his 
great unwiltingnefs to quit his hold. WARBURTON. 

A friend 


A friend fhould bear his friend's infirmities, 
But Brutus makes mine greater than they are. 

6 Bru. I do not, 'till you practife them on me 
Caf. You love me not. 

Bru. I do not like your faults. 

Caf. A friendly eye could never fee fuch faults. 

Bru. A flatterer's would not, though they do appear 
As huge as high Olympus. 

Caf. Come, Antony, and young Odtavius, come, 
Revenge yourfelves alone on Caffius, 
For Caffius is aweary of the world : 
Hated by one he loves ; brav'd by his brother ; 
Check'd like a bondman ; all his faults obferv'd, 
Set in a note-book, learn'd, and conn'd by rote, 
To caft into my teeth. ' O, I could weep 

My fpirit from mine eyes ! There is my dagger, 

And here my naked breaft ; within, a heart 
Dearer than Plutus' mine, richer than gold : 
I If that thou be'ft a Roman, take it forth j 

I, that 

* Bru. / do not, till you praflife them on me.~\ But was this 
talking like Brutus ? Caffius complained that his friend made his 
infirmities greater than they were. To which Brutus replies, not 
till thofe infirmities were injurioufly turned upon me. But was 
this any excufe for aggravating his friend's failings ? Shakefpeare 
knew better what was fit for his hero to fay, and certainly wrote 
and pointed the line thus : 

/ do not. Still yon pra&ife them on me. 
i. e. I deny your charge, and this is a frefii injury done me. 


The meaning is this : I do not look for your faults, I only fee 
them, and mention them with vehemence, when you force them 
into my notice, ly pra&jing the';: on me. JOHNSON*. 

7 If that tbou be'ft a Roman, take it fortl, &c.] But why is 
he bid to rip out his heart, if he were a Roman ? There is no 
other fenfe but this, If you have the courage of a Roman. But 
this is fo poor, and ib little to the purpoie/thjt the -eading may 
be iuftly fufpedcd. The occafion of this quarrel was Calfius's re- 
fu(al to fupply the neceHlties of his friend, whu charges it on him 
as a difhonour and crime, with great alperity of language. Caf. 
lius, to (hew him the injuftice of accufing him ot avarice, tells 
him, he was ready to expofe his life in his icrvicc ; but at the 



1, that deny'd thee gold, will give my heart : 
Strike, as thou didft at Csefar ; for, I know, 
When thou didft hate him worft, thou lov'dft him. 

Than ever thou lov'dft CalEus. 

Eru. Sheath your dagger : 
Be angry when you will, it fliall have fcope ; 
Do what you will, difhonour fhall be humour. 
O Caffius, you are yoked with a lamb, 
That carries anger, as the flint bears fire, 
Who, much enforced, fhews a hafty fpark, 
And ftraight is cold again. 

Caf. Hath Caffius liv'd 

To be but mirth and laughter to his Brutus, 
When grief, and blood ill-temper'd, vexeth him ? 

Bra. When I fpoke that, I was ill-temper'd too. 

Caf. Do you confefs fo much ? Give me your hand. 

Bru. And my heart too. 

Caf. O Brutus ! 

fine. What's the matter ? 

Caf. Have not you love enough to bear with me, 
When that raih humour, which my mother gave me, 
Makes me forgetful ? 

fame time, provoked a: d exafperated at the other's reproaches, 
he upbraids him with the feverity of his temper, that would 
pardon nothing, but always aimed at the life of the offender ; and 
delighted in his blood, though a Roman, and attached to him by 
the ftrongeft bonds of alliance : hereby obliquely infinuating the 
cafe of Casfar. The fer.fe being thus explained, it is evident we 
fhould read : 

If that thou needft a RomanV, tah it forth. 
i. e. if nothing but another Roman's death can fatisfy the unre- 
lenting feverity of your temper, take my life as you did Csefar's. 


I am not fatisfied with the change propofed, yet cannot deny, 
that the words, as they now iland\ require fome interpretation. 
I think he means only, that he is fo far frcm avarice, when the 
caufe of his country requires liberaliry, that if any man fhould. 
wifh for his heart, he would not need enforce his delire any other- 
wife, than by (hewing that he was a Roman. JOHNSON, 

94 J U L I U S C M S A II. 

Bru. Yes, Caffius ; and, from henceforth, 
When you are over-earneft with your Brutus, 
He'll think your mother chides, and leave you fo. 

\_A wife within* 

Poet, [within.'] Let me go in to fee the generals ; 
There is fome grudge between them, 'tis not meet 
They be alone. 

Luc. [within."] You lhall not come to them. 

Poet, [within.] Nothing but death fhall flay me. 

Enter Poet 8 . 

Caf. How now ? WhaVs the matter ? 

Poet. For fhame, you generals ; What do you mean ? 
9 Love, and be friends, as two fuch men fliould be ; 
For I have feen more years, I am fure, than ye. 

Caf. Ha, ha ; how vilely doth this cynic rhime ! 

Bru. Get you hence, firrah ; faucy fellow, hence, 

Caf. Bear with him, Brutus ; 'tis his fafhion. 

Bru. I'll know his humour, when he knows his 

time : 

What Ihould the wars do with thefe jigging fools ? 
Companion ', hence. , 

Caf. Away, away, be gone. [Exit Poet. 

8 Enter Poet.'] Shakefpeare found the prefent incident in Plu- 
tarch. The intruder, however, was Marcus Phaonius who had 
been a friend and follower of Cato ; not a poet, but one who af- 
fumed the character of a cynic philofopher. STEEVENS. 
9 Love, and le friends^ as two fuch men fyonld be \ 

For I have feen more years^ Pmftirc, than ye. 
This paflage is a tranllation from the following one in the firft 
book of Homer : m 

which is thus given in fir Thomas North's Plutarch: 
" My lords, I pray you hearken both to me, 
*' For I have feen more years than fuch ye three." 


* Companion, hence.~\ Companion is ufed as a term of reproach 
in many of the old plays ; as we fay at preient fellow. So, in 
A". Henry IV. Part II. Dol Tearflieet fays to Piftol : 

" - 1 fcorn you, fcurvy companion, &c." STEEVENS. 


J U L I U S C JE S A R. 95 

Enter Lucilius, and Titinius. 

Bru. Lucilius and Titinius, bid the commanders 
Prepare to lodge their companies to-night. 

Caf. And come yourfelves, and bring MefTala with 

Immediately to us. [Exeunt Luciliv.s, and Tttinius* 

Bru. Lucius, a bowl of wine. 

Caf. I did not think, you could have been To angry. 

Bru. O Caffius, I am iick of many griefs. 

Caf. Of your philofophy you make no ufe, 
If you give place to accidental evils. 

Bru. No man bears forrow better : Portia is dead. 

Caf. Ha ! Portia ? 

Bru. She is dead. 

Caf. How fcap'd I killing, when I crofs'd you 


O infupportable and touching lofs ! 
Upon what ficknefs ? 

Bru. Impatient of my abfence ; 
And grief, that young Oclavius with Mark Antony 
Have made themfelves fo ftrong; for with her death 
That tidings came; With this fhe fell diffract, 
And, her attendants abfent, fwallow'd fire *. 

Ctif. And dy'd fo? 

Bru. Even fo. 

Caf. O ye immortal gods ! 

* And, her attendants abftnt,faallcvJ'3 firf."} This circumftance 
is taken from Plutarch. It is alfo mentioned by Vol. Maximum. 

It may not, however, be amifs to remark, that the death of 
Portia wants that foundation which has hitherto entitled her to a 
place in poetry, as a pattern of Roman fortitude. She is reported, 
by Pliny, I think, to have died at Rome of a lingering illnefs 
while Brutus was nbroad ; but fome writers feem to look on a na- 
tural death as a derogation from a diftinguifhed character. 




Enter Lucius, with wlne t and tapers. 

ru. Speak no more of her. Give me a bowl of 

wine : 
In this I bury all unkindnefs, Caffius. [Drinks* 

Caf. My heart is thirfty for that noble pledge : 
Fill, Lucius, 'till the wine o'er-fwell the cup ; 
I cannot drink too much of Brutus' love. 

Re-enter Titinius, and MeJ/ala. 

ru. Come in, Titinius : Welcome, good 


Now fit we clofe about this taper here, 
And call in queftion our neceffities. 

Caf. Portia ! art thou gone ? 

Bru. No more, I pray you. 

Meflala, I have here received letters, 
That young Odtavius, and Mark Antony, 
Come down upon us with a mighty power, 
Bending their expedition towards Phiiippi. 

Mef. Myfelf have letters of the felf-fame tenour. 

Bru. With what addition ? 

Mef. That by profcription, and bills of outlawry, 
Odtavius, Antony, and Lepidus, 
Have put to death a hundred fenators. 

Bru. Therein our letters do not well agree ; 
Mine fpeak of feventy fenators, that dy'd 
By their prescriptions, Cicero being one. 

Caf. Cicero one ? 

Mef. Cicero is dead, 
And by that order of profcription. 
Had you your letters from your wife, my lord ? 

Bru. No, Meflala. 

Mef. Nor nothing in your letters writ of her ? 

Bra. Nothing, Meflala. 

Mef. Thar, methinks, is ftrangc. 


Bru. Why afk you ? Hear you ought of her in 
yours ? 

Mef. No, my lord. 

Bru. Now, as you are a Roman, tell me true. 

Mef. Then like a Roman bear the truth I tell : 
For certain fhe is dead, and by ftrange manner. 

Bru. Why, farewel, Portia. We muft die, Tylef- 

fala : 

With meditating that flie mufl die once, 
I have the patience to endure it now. 

Mef. Even fo great men great loflcs fhould endure. 

Caf. I have as much of this in art as you, 
But yet my nature could not bear it fo. 

Bru. Well, to our work alive. What do you 

Of marching to Philippi prefently ? 

Caf. I do not think it good. 

Bru. Your reafon ? 

Caf. This it is : 

'Tis better, that the enemy feek us : 
So Ihall he wafte his means, weary his foldiers, 
Doing himfelf offence ; wbilft we, lying (till, 
Are full of reft, defence, and nimblenefs. 

Bru. Good reafons muft, of force, give place to 


The people, 'twixt Philippi and this ground, 
Do ftand but in a forc'd affection ; 
For they have grudg'd us contribution : 
The enemy, marching along by them, 
By them fhall make a fuller number up, 
Come on refreftYd, new-added, and encourag'd ; 
From which advantage Ihall we cut him off, 
If at Philippi we do face him there, 
Thefe people at our back. 

Caf. Hear me, good brother. 

Bru. Under your pardon. You muft note befide, 
That we have try'd the utmoft of our friends, 



Our legions are brim full, our caufe is ripe : 

The enemy increafeth every day, 

We, at the height, are ready to decline. 

There is a tide in the affairs of men 5 , 

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; 

Omitted, all the voyage of their life 

Is bound in {hallows, and in miferies. 

On fuch a full /ea are we now afloat ; 

And we mufl take the current when it ferves, 

Or lofe our ventures. 

Caf. Then, with your will, go on ; we will along 
Ourfelves, and meet them at Philippi. 

Bru. The deep of night is crept upon our talk, 
And nature muft obey neceffity ; 
Which we will niggard with a little reft. 
There is no more to fay ? 

Caf. No more. Good night : 
Early to-morfow will we rife, and hence. 

Bru. Lucius, my gown. [Exit Luc.~\ Farewel, 

good MefTala ; 

Good night, Titinius : Noble, noble Caflius, 
Good night, and good repofe. 

Caf. O my dear brother ! 
This was an ill beginning of the night : 
Never come fuch divifion 'tween our fouls ! 
Let it not, Brutus. 

Bru. Every thing is well. 
. Caf. Good night, my lord. 

Bru. Good night, good brother. 

Tit. Mcf. Good night, lord Brutus. 

Bru. Farewel, every one. [Exeunt. 

5 Tlicrc is a tide, &c.] This paflage is poorly imitated by B. 
and Fletcher, in the Cujlom of the Country : 

*' There is an hour in each man's life appointed 

4 * T make bis bappinefs, if then be fcizc it, &c. 




Re-enter Lucius, with the gown. 

Give me the gown. Where is thy inflrument > 

Luc. Here in the tent. 

Bru. What, thou fpeak'ft drowfily ? 
Poor knave, I blame thee not ; thou art o'er- watch'd. 
Call Claudius, and fome other of my men ; 
I'll have them fleep on cufhions in my tent. 

Luc. Varro, and Claudius ! 

Enter Varro t and Claudius. 

Var. Calls my lord ? 

Bru. I pray you, firs, lie in my tent, and fleep ; 
It may be, I fhall raife you by and by 
On bufinefs to my brother Caffius. 

Far. So pleafe you, we will ftand, and watch your 

Bru. I will not have it fo : lie down, good firs ; 
It maybe, I ihall otherwife bethink me. 
Look, Lucius, here's the book I fought for fo ; 
I put it in the pocket of my gown. 

Luc. I was fure, your lordihip did not give it me. 

Bru. Bear with me, good boy, I am much for- 

Can'ft thou hold up thy heavy eyes a while, 
And touch thy inftrument a ftrain or two ? 

Luc. Ay, my lord, an't pleafe you. 

Bru. It does, my boy : 
I trouble thee too much, but thou art willing. 

Luc. It is my duty, fir. 

Bru. I fhould not urge thy duty paft thy might ; 
I know, young bloods look for a time of reft. 

Luc. I have flept, my lord, already. 

Bru. It was well done ; and thou fhalt fleep again ; 
I will not hold thee long : if I do live, 
I will be good to thee. \Mufick> andafong. 

This is a ileepy tune : O murd'rous flumber ! 

H 2 Lay'ft 

TOO J U L I U S C j S A R. 

LayTi thou thy leaden mace 6 upon my boy, 
That plays thee mufick ? Gentle knave, good night; 
I will not do thee fo much wrong to wake thee. 
If thou doft nod, thou break'ft thy inftrument ; 
I'll take it from thee ; and, good boy, good night. 
Let me fee, let me fee ; Is not the leaf turn'd 

Where I left reading r Here it is, I think. 

[He fits down to read. 

Enter the Ghjl of C<efar. 

How ill this taper burns ! Ha ! who comes here ? 

I think, it is the weaknefs of mine eyes, 

That fhapes this monftrous apparition. 

It comes upon me : Art thou any thing ? 

Art thou fome god, fome angel, or fome devil, 

That mak'ft my blood cold, and my hair to flare ? 

Speak to me, what thou art. 

Ghoft. Thy evil fpirit, Brutus. 

Eru. Why com'ft thou ? 

Ghoft. -To tell thee, thou lhalt fee me at Philippi. 

ru. Well ; Then I ihall fee thee again 7 ? 


6 ~,tty. leaden mace.] A mace is the ancient term for a fcep- 
ter. So, in th e Arraignment of Paris, I s 84 : 

' look upon my Irately grace, 

-" Becau fe the pomp that.longs to Juno's mace t &c." 
Again : 

- _ becaufe he knew no more 

" Fair Ve nus ' Cefton, than dame Juno's mace" 
Again, in Marias and SyUa y 1594=, 

proud Tarquinius 

" Rooted ft om Rome the fvvay of kingly mace." 
A^ain, in Spenfer s . 'Faery S>uecn, B. I. c. x : 

" \Vho mighv "'-^y upheld that royal mace" STEEVENS. 

7 JJ'ell; tbenlfic.'} I, ~'f tbee again.] Shakelpeare has on this occa- 
fion deferted his origin; ^- It does " ct appear from Plutarch that 

of Ceefar apjie. *red to Brutus, but " a \voaderfulftraunge 


Gbojl. Ay, at Philippi. [Exit Ghoft* 

Era. Why, I will fee thee at Philippi then. 
Now I have taken heart, thou vanifhell : 
111 fpirit, I would hold more talk with thee. 
Boy ! Lucius ! Varro ! Claudius ! Sirs, awake ! 
Claudius ! 
"Luc. The firings, my lord, are falfe. 

Brit. He thinks, he itill is at his inftrument. 
Lucius, awake. 

Luc. My lord ! 

ru. Didfl thou dream, Lucius, that thou fo 
cry'dft out ? 

LUC. My lord, I do not know that I did cry. 

Bru. Yes, that thou didft : Didft thou fee any 
thing ? 

Luc. Nothing, my lord. 

Bru, Sleep again, Lucius. Sirrah, Claudius ! 
Fellow s thou ! awake. 

Far. My lord. 

Clau. My lord. 

Bru. Why did you fo cry out, firs, in your fleep ? 

Both. Did we, my lord ? 

Bru. Ay ; Saw you any thing ? 

Far. No, my lord, I faw nothing. 

and momlruous fhape of a body." This apparition could not be 
at once the/Wf of Cafar, and the evil genius of Brutus. 

" Brutus boldly alked what he was, a god, or a man, and 
what caufe brought him thither. The fpirit aunfwered him, I 
am thy euill fpirit, Brutus : and thou (halt fee me by the citie of 
Philippes. Brutus bc-eing no otherwife affray d, replyed againe 
vnto it : well, then I (hall fee thee agayne. The fpirit prelently 
vanifhed awiiy : and Brutus called his rnen vnto him,, vvno tolde 
him that they heard no noyfe, nor fawe any thinge at all." 

See the ttory of Cajfius Parmenjis in Valerius Maximus, Lib. I. 
c. 7. STEEVENS. 

8 Tbou ! awake.] The accent is fo unraufical and harfli, 'tis 
impoffible the poet could bc>;in his verfe thus. Brutus certainly 
was intended to fpeak to both his other men ; who both awake, 
and anfwer, at r.n inftant. I read : 

farro await! WARBURTON. 

H Clau. 

102, JULIUS C M S A R. 

Clan. Nor I, my lord. 

Bru. Go, and commend me to my brother Cafliusj 
Bid him fet on his powers betimes before, 
And we will follow. 

Botb. It lhall be done, my lord. [Exeunt. 


TM Plains of Pbilippi. 
Enter Oftavius, Antony, and their Army.. 

Offa. Now, Antony, onr hopes are anfwered : 
You faid, the enemy would not come down, 
But keep the hills and upper regions ; 
It proves not fo : their battles are at hand ; 
They mean to 9 warn us at Philippi here, 
Anfwering before we do demand of them. 

Ant. Tut, I am in their boibms, and I know 
Wherefore they do it : they could be content 

9 warn us ] To war?/, feems to mean here the fame 

as to alarm, Hanmer reads : 

They mean to wage .r. JOHNSON. 

I know not the exaft fignification of this verb. It may, how- 
ever, mean to f.op, or to oppofc. So, in the ancient metrical ro- 
mance of'Syr Guy Earl of Jrarwrck, bl. 1. no date : 

" For whofo warned him the gate, 

" He fmote him fore upon the pate." 

To warn him the gate from the context muft mean to impede his 
paflage through the gate. In K. John, to ivarn is undoubtedly 
to fummon : 

" \\'ho is it that hath siwaV us to the walls r" 
Shakefpeare ufes the word yet more intelligibly in K. Rich. Ill : 

** And fent to warn them to his royal prefence. 



JULIUS C M S A R. 103 

To vifit other places ; and come down 
With fearful bravery, thinking, by this face, 
To faften in our thoughts that they have courage j 
But 'tis not fo. 

Enter a MeJJenger. 

Mef. Prepare you, generals : 
The enemy comes on in gallant fhew ; 
Their bloody fign of battle is hung out, 
And fomething to be done immediately. 

Ant. Ocliavius, lead your battle foftly on, 
Upon the left hand of the even field. 

Ocia. Upon the right hand I, keep thou the left. 

Ant. Why do you crofs me in this exigent ? 

Otla. I do not crofs you ; but I will do fo. [March. 

Drum. Enter Brutus, Coffins, and their Army ; Lucl- 
liuSi TttittittS, Meffala, &c. 

Bru. They Hand, and would have parley. 

Caf. Stand fait, Titinius : We muft out and talk. 

Oha. Mark Antony, lhall we give fign of battle ? 

Ant. No, Casfar, we will anfwer on their charge. 
Make forth, the generals would have fome words. 

Ofta. Stir not until the fignal. 

Bru. Words before blows : Is it fo, countrymen ? 

Ofta. Not that we love words better, as you do. 

Bru. Good words are better than bad flrokes, Oc- 

Ant. In your bad flrokes, Brutus, you give good 

words : 

Wjtnefs the hole you made in Casfar's heart, 
Crying, Long live I hail, Oefar ! 

Caf. Antony, 

The poflure of your blows are yet unknown ; 
But for your words, they rob the Hybla bees, 
And leave them honeylefs. 

4'iit. Not flinglefs too. 

H 4 Bru. 


Bru. O, yes, and foundlefs too ; 
For you have ftol'n their buzzing, Antony, 
And, very wifely, threat before you fling. 

Ant. Villains, you did not fo, when your vi!c 


Hack'd one another in the fides of Csefar : 
You fhew'd your teeth like apes, and fawn'd like 


And bow'd like bondmen, kifling Csefar's feet ; 
Whilft damned ' Cafca, like a cur, behind, 
Struck Casfar on the neck. O you flatterers ! 

Caf. Flatterers! Now, Brutus, thank yourfelf : 
This tongue had not offended fo to-day, 
If Caflius might have rul'd. 

Ofla. Come, come, the caufe : If arguing make 

us fweat, 

The proof of it will turn to redder drops. 
Look, I draw a fword againft confpirators ; 
When think you that the fword goes up again ? 
Never, 'till Csefar's a three and twenty wounds 
Be well aveng'd ; or 'till another Casfar 
Have added ilaughter to the fword of traitors. 

Bru. Ca^far, thou can'fl not die by traitors' hands, 
Unlefs thou bring'ft them with thee. 

ORa. So I hope ; 
I was not born to die on BruUis' fxvord. 

Bru. O, if thoirwert the noblefl of thy ftrain, 
Young man, thou could'ft not die more honourable. 

Caf. A peevifh fchool-boy, worthlefs of fuch ho- 
Join'd with a mafker and a reveller. 

1 Cafca ] Cafca (truck Cxfar on the neck, coming 

lite a degenerate cur behind him. JOHNSON. 

* three and thirty i\:ojindi\ Thus all the editions impli- 
citly ; but I have ventured to reduce this number to three and 
fivenfy from the joint authorities of Applan, Plutarch, and Sueto- 
nius : and I am perfu&ded, the error was not from the poet but tranfcribers. THEOBALD. 



'Ant. Old Caflius dill ! 

Gfta. Come, Antony ; away.- 
Defiance, traitors, hurl we in your teeth : 
If you dare fight to-day, come to the field ; 
If not, when you have ftomachs. 

[Exeunt Oftavius, Antony, and army* 

Caf. Why now, blow, wind ; fwell, billow ; and 

fwim, bark ! 
The jftorm is up, and all is on the hazard. 

Bru. Ho, Lucilius ; hark, a word with you. 

[Lucilius, and Mejfula, Jiand forth. 

Luc. My lord. [Brutus [peaks apart to Lucilius. 

Caf. Meflala.' 

Mef. What fays my general ? 

Cfif. Meffala 3 , 

This is my birth-day ; as this very day 
Was Caflius born. Give me thy hand, Meffala : 
Be thou my witnefs, that, again A my will, 
As Pompey was, am' I compell'd to let 
Upon one battle ali our liberties. 
You know, that I held Epicurus ftrong, 
And his opinion : now I change my mind, 
And partly credit things that do prefage. 

3 Mejjala, &c.] Almofc every circumftance in this fpeech is 
taken from 'fir Thomas North's Tranilation of Plutarch. 

*' But touching Caffius, Meflala reporteth that he fupped by 
him felfe in Us tent with a few of his friendes, and that all fup- 
per tyme he looked very ladly, and was full of thoughts, although 
it was again ft his nature : and that after fupper he tooke him by 
the hande, and holding him fa ft (in token of kindnes as his man- 
ner was) told him in Greeke : Meffala, I proteft vnto thee, and 
make thee my witnes, that I am compelled againft my minde and 
will (as Pompey the Great was) to Jeopard the libertie of our 
contry, to the hazard of a battel. And yet we muft be liuely, 
and of good corage, conlidering our good fortune, whom we 
fiioulde wronge too muche to miilrull: her, although we tollowe 
euill counfell. Meflala writcth, that Callius hiuiing fpoken thcfe 
laft.wordes vnto him, he bad him farewell, and willed him to 
t-ome to fupper to him the next night following, bicaufe it was 
his birth-day. STEVENS. 


io6 JULIUS C M S A R. 

Coming from Sardis, on our foremoft enfign * 

Two mighty eagles fell ; and there they perch'd, 

Gorging and feeding trom our foldiers' hands ; 

Who to Philippi here conforted us : 

This morning are they fled away, and gone ; 

And, in their (leads, do ravens, crows, and kites. 

Fly o'er our heads, and downward look on us, 

As we were fickly prey ; their fhadows feeni 

A canopy moft fatal, under which 

Our army lies, ready to give up the ghofl. 

Mef. Believe not fo. 

Caf. 1 but believe it partly ; 
For I am frelh of fpirit, and refolv'd 
To meet all perils very conftantly. 

Bru. Even fo, Lucilius. 

Caf. Now, moft noble Brutus, 
The gods to-day Hand friendly ; that we may, 
Lovers, in peace, lead on our days to age ! 
But fince the affairs of men reft ftill uncertain, 
Let's reafon with the vvorft that may befall. 
If we do lofe this battle, then is this 
5 The very laft time we ihall fpeak together : 
What are you then determined to do ? 

Bru. Even by the rule of that philofophy % 


* our foremoft enftgn.'} The old copy reads former, which may 
be right, as Shakefpeare fometimes ufes the comparative imtead pf 
the pojitive and fuperlative. See K. Lear, a<ft IV. fc. iii. Either 
word has the fame origin ; nor do I perceive \\hyformer fhould be 
lei's applicable to place than time. STEEVENS. 
5 The very lajl time "Me Jb all fpeak together : 

Jf%at are you then determined to do?~\ 

\. e. I am refolved in fuch a cafe to kill myfelf. What are you 
determined of? WARBURTON. 

6 of that pbilofop/y,'} There is an apparent contradiction 
between the fentiments contained in this and the following fpeech 
which Shakefpeare has put into the mouth of Brutus. In this, 
Bi utus declares his refolution to wait patiently for the determina- 
tions of Providence ; and in the next, he intimates, that though 
he (hould furvive the battle, he would never fubinit to be led in 
chaint t.o Rome. Thib fentence in fir Thomas North's Tranjca- 


)By which I did blame Cato for the death 
Which he did give himfelf ; I know not how, 
But I do find it cowardly and vile, 
]For fear of what might fall, fo to prevent 
The time of life : 7 arming myfelf with patience, 
To flay the providence of fame high powers, 
That govern us below. 

Ctif. Then, if we lofc this battle, ' 
You are contented to be led in triumph 
Thorough the ftreets of Rome ? 

Bru. No,Caffius, no : think not, thou noble Roman, 
That ever Brutus will go bound to Rome; 

*io. is perplexed, and might be eafily mifunderftood. Shake - 
fpeare, in the firft fpeech, makes that to be the prefent opinion 
of Brutus, which in Plutarch, is mentioned only as one he for- 
merly entertained, though now he condemned it. 

So, in fir Thomas North : " There Caffius beganjie to 
fj.take firft, and fayd : the gods graunt vs, O Brutus, that this 
day we may winne the field, and euer after to liue all the reft of 
our life quietly, one with another. But fith the gods haue fp 
ordeyned it, that the greateit & chiefeft things amongeft men are 
moft vncertaine, and that if the battell fall out otherwife to daye 
then we wifhe or looke for, we (hall hardely meete againe : what 
art thou then determined to doe, to fly, or dye ? Brutus aun- 
fwered him, being yet but a young man, and not ouergrently ex- 
perienced in the world : I truft, (I know not how) a certaine rule 
of philofophie, by the which I did greatly blame and reproue 
Cato for killing of him felfe, as being no lawfall nor godly acle, 
touching the gods, nor concerning men, valliant, not to glue 
place and yeld to diuine prouidence, and not conftantly and pa- 
ciently to take whatsoever it pleaieth him to lend vs, but to drawe 
backe, and flie : but being nowe in the middeft of the daunger, 
I am of a contrarie mind. For if it be not the will of God, that 
this battell fall out fortunate for vs : I will looke no more for 
hope, neither feeke to make any new fupply for war againe, but 
will rid me of this miferable world, and content me with my fqr- 
tune. For, I gaue vp my life for my contry in the ides of 
Marche, for the which I (hall liue in another more glorious 
worlde." STEEVENS. 

7 arming myfelf with patience, &c.] Dr. Warburton thinks, 

that in this fpeech fomething is loft, but there needed only a pa- 
renfhcfis to clear it. The construction is this ; I am determined 
to ad according to that philoibphy which directed me to blame 
the fuicide of Cato, arming myfelf with patience. JOHNSON. 


io$ JULIUS C & S A R. 

He bears too great a mind. But this fame day 
Muft end that work, the ides of March begun; 
And whether we ilia 11 meet again, I know not. 
Therefore our everlafting farexv^l take :^- 
For ever, and for ever, farewel, Caffius ! 
If we do meet again, why we fliall fmile ; 
If not, why then this parting was well made. 

Caf. For ever, and for ever, farewel, Brutus I 
If we do meet again, we'll fmile indeed ; 
If not, 'tis true, this parting was wdi made. 

Bru. Why then, lead on. O, .that a man mightknpvv 
The end of this day's bufinefs, ere it come ! 
But it fufficeth, that the day will end, 
And then the end is known. Some, ho ! away ! 



Alarum. Enter Brutus, and Meffala. 

Bru. Ride, ride, MefTala, ride, and give thefe bill's * 
Unto the legions on the other iide : [Loud alarm* 

Let them fet on at once ; for I perceive 
But cold demeanor in Odtavius' wing. 
And iudden pufh gives them the overthrow. 
Ride^ ride, Meffala ; let them all come down. 


Alarum. Enter Caffius, and T'itinius. 

Caf. O, look, Titinius, look, the villains fly ! 
Myfelf have to mine own tnrn'd enemy : 
This enfign here of mine was turning back ; 
I flew the coward, and did take it from him. 

8 " -give tkcfe bills] So, in the old tranfiation of Plutarch ;. 
*' In the mcane tyme Brutus that led the right winge, fent litle 
lilies to the collonels and captaines of private bandes, in which 
he wrote the worde of the battell, &c." S TEE YENS. 


J U L I U S C JE S A R. 109 

Tit. O Caffius, Brutus gave the word too early : 
Who, having fome advantage on Odtavius, 
Took it too eagerly ; his foldiers fell to fpoil, 
Whilft we by Antony are all enclos'd. 

Enter Pindarus. 

Pin. Fly further off, my lord, fly further off; 
Mark Antony is in your tents, my lord : 
Fly therefore, noble Caffius, fly far off. 

Caf. This hill is far enough 9 . Look, look, 

Titinius ; 
Are thofe my tents, where I perceive the fire ? 

27/. They are, my lord. 

9 77>is kill is far enough, &c.] Thus, in the old translation of 
Plutarch: " So, Caffius him felfe was at length compelled to flic, 
with a few about him, vnto a little hill, from whence they might 
eafely fee what was done in all the plainc : hovvbeit Caffius him 
felf fawe nothing, for his fight was verie bad, fauing that he faw 
(and yet with much a doe) how the enemies fpoiled his campe 
before his eyes. He fawe alfo a great troupe of horfemen, 
whom Brutus fent to aide him, and thought that they were his 
enemies that followed him : but yet he fent Titinnius, one of 
them that was with him, to goe and know what they were. Bru- 
tus horfemen fawe him comming a farre of, whom when they 
knewe that he was one of Caffius chiefeft frendes, they fhowted 
out for ioy : and they that were familiarly acquainted with him, 
lighted from their horfes, and went and imbraced him. The 
reft compared him in rounde about a horfebacke, with fongs of 
vidtorie and great rufhing of their harnes, fo that they made all 
the field ring againe for ioy. But this marred all. For CaiHus 
thinking in deede that Titinnius was taken of the enemies, he 
then fpake thefe worcles : Defiring too much to Hue, 1 haue liued 
to fee one of my beft frendes taken, for my fake, before my face. 
After that, he gotte into a tenrt where no bodie was, and tooke 
Pyndarus with him, one of his freed bondmen, whom he referued 
ever for fuche a pinche, fmce the curfed battell of the Parrhians, 
where Craflus was flaine, though he notwithstanding fcaped from 
that ouerthrow : but then cafting his cloke ouer his head, & hold- 
ing out his bare neck vnto Pyndarus, he gaue him his head to 
be ftriken of. So the head was found feuered fru;n the bodie : 
but after that time Pyndaru. was ncucr icene more." 


no J U L I U S C JE S A R< 

Caf. Titinius, if thou lov'fl me, 
Mount thou my horfe, and hide thy fpurs in him, 
'Till he have brought thee up to yonder troops, 
And here again ; that I may reft aflur'd, 
Whether yon troops are friend or enemy. 

Tit. I will be here again, even with a thought. 

1 Caf. Go, Pindarus, get thither on that hill ; 
My fight was ever thick ; regard Titinius, 
And tell me what thou not'ft about the field. 

[Exit Pindarus* 

This day I breathed firft : time is come round *, 
And, where I did begin, there Ihall I end ; 
My life is run his compafs. Sirrah, what news ? 

Pind. [above.~\ O my lord ! 

Caf. What news ? 

Pind. Titinius is enclofed round about 
With horfemen, that make to him on the fpur; 
Yet he fpurs on. Now they are almoft on him ; now, 
Titinius! Nowfome 'light : O, he 'lights too : 
He's ta'en ; and, hark, they fhout for joy. ~\_SJ:ov.t* 

Cnf. Come down, behold no more. 
O, coward that I am, to live fo long, 
To fee my befl friend ta'en before my face ! 

Re-enter Pindarus. 

Come hither, firrah : 

In Parthia did I take thee prifoner; 

And then I fwore thee, faving of thy life, 

That whatfoever I did bid thee do, 

Thou fhould'ft attempt it. Come now, keep thine 

oath ; 
Now be a freeman ; and, with this good fword, 

1 Go, Pindarus] This dialogue between Caflius and Pindarus, 
is beautifully imitated bv B. and Fletcher in their tragedy of Bon- 
duca, Aft III. fc. v. STEEVKNS. 

* time is come round.} So, in A". Lear, the Baftard, dying fays : 
" The w^/is come full circle," STEEVENS. 



That ran through Cafar's bowels, fearch this bofom. 
Stand not to anfwer : Here, take thou the hilts ; 
And, when my face is cover'd, as 'tis now, 
Guide thou the fword. Csefar, thou artreveng'd, 
Even with the fword that kill'd thee. [Dies. 

Pin. So, I am free ; yet would not fo have been, 
Durft I have done my will. O Caflius ! 
Far from this country Pindarus fhall run, 
Where never Roman mall take note of him. [Exit. 

Re-enter Titinius, with Me/Jala. 

M-f. It is but change, Titinius ; for Odavius 
Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power, 
As Caffius' legions are by Antony. 

Tit. Thefe tidings will well comfort Caffius. 

Mef. Where did you leave him ? 

Tit. All difconfolate, 
With Pindarus his bondman, on this hill. 

Mef. Is not that he, that lies upon the ground ? 

Tit. He lies not like the living. O my heart ! 

Mef. Is not that he ? 

Tit. No, this was he, MefTala, 
But Caffius is no more. O letting fun .' 
As in thy red rays thou doft fink to night, 
So in his red blood Caffius' day is fet ; 
The fun of Rome is fet ! Our day is gone ; 
Clouds, dews, and dangers come; our deeds are 

done ! 
Miftruft of my fuccefs hath done this deed. 

Mef. Miftruft of good fuccefs hath done this deed, 
O hateful error, melancholy's child ! 
Why doft thou Ihew to the apt thoughts of men 
The things that are not ? O error, foon conceiv'd, 
Thou never com'ft unto a happy birth, 
But kill'ft the mother that engendered thee. 

Tit. What, Pindarus ! Where art thou, Pindarus ? 

Mef. Seek him, Titinius; whilft I go to meet 


112 JULIUS C & S A R. 

The noble 'Brutus, thruiting this report 
Into his ears : I may fay, thrufling it ; 
For piercing fteei, and darts envenomed, 
Shall be as welcome to the ears of Brutus, 
As tidings of this fight. 

Ttt. Hie you, Mefiala, 

And 1 will feek for Pindarus the while. \_ExltMef. 
Why didft thou fend me forth, brave. Caffius? 
Did I not meet thy friends ? and did not they 
Put on my brows this wreath of victory, 
And bid me give it thee P^Didft thou not hear their 

Ihouts ? 

Alas, thou haft mifconftrued every thing. 
But hold thee, take this garland on thy brow; 
Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I 
"Will do his bidding. Brutus, come apace, 
And fee how I regarded Caius Caffius. 
By your leave, gods : This is a Roman's part; 
Come, Caffius' fword, and find Titinius' heart. [Dies* 

Alarum. Enter Brutus, Meflala, young Cato, Strato y 
S) and Lucilius. 

Bru. Where, where, Meflala, doth his body lie ? 

Mef. Lo, yonder ; and Titinius mourning it. 

Bru. Titinius' face is upward. 

Cato. He is ilain. 

Bru. Oh Julius Czefar, thou art mighty yet ! 
Thy fpirit walks abroad, and turns our fwords 
In our own proper entrails. [Low alarums* 

Cato. Brave Titinius ! 
Look, whe'r he have not crown'd dead Caffius ! 

Bru. Are yet two Romans living fuch as thefe ? 
Thou laft of all the Romans, * fare thee well ! 

* Thou loft of all the Ramans.'] Obje&um eft Hiftorico (Ore- 
mut'io Cordo. Tacit. Ann. 1. iv. 34.) qucd Brtuum Cailiumque 
ultimos RomancrL-m dixiflet, Suet. Tiber. Lib. III. c. 61. 


J U L I U S C JE S A R. i 3 t 

It is impoffible, that ever Rome 

Should breed thy fellow. Friends, I owe more tears 

To this dead man, than you fhall fee me pay. 

I fhall find time, Caflius, I fhall find time. 

Come, therefore, ' and to Thaflbs fend his body ; 

His funeral fhall not be in our camp, 

Left it difcomfort us. Lucilius, come ; 

And come, young Cato ; let us to the field. 

Labeo, and Flavius, fet 1 our battles on : 

'Tis three o'clock ; and, Romans, yet ere night 

We lhall try fortune in a fecond fight. [Exeunt. 

S C E N E IV. 
Another Part of the Field. 

Alarum. Enter Brutus, Cato, Lucilius, and others. 
Bru. Yet, countrymen, O, yet, hold up your 

heads ! 
Cato. What baftard doth not ? Who will go witk 


I will proclaim my name about the field : 
I am the fon of Marcus Cato, ho ! 
A foe to tyrants, and my country's friend ; 
I am the fon of Marcus Cato, ho * ! 

Enter Soldiers, and fight. 

Bru. And I am Brutus, Marcus Brutus, I ; 
Brutus, my country's friend ; know me for Brutus. 


Luc. O young and noble Cato, art thou down ? 
Why, now thou dy'ft as bravely as Titinius ; 

3 ami to Tharfus fend his lody :] Thus all the editions hitherto 
very ignorantly. But the whole tenor of hiitory warrants us to 
write, as I have reltored the text, Thtffis. THEOBALD. 

It is Tbqflbs in iir Tho. North's Tranjlation* STEEVEXS. 

* / am the fan of Marcus Cato } So, in the old tranflation of 
Plutateh: '* There was the fonne of Marcus Cato flaise v.iliantiy 
fighting, &c. telling aloud his flame an.d bisfatfxr's nam-', &c." 


ii4 J U L I U S C JE, S A R. 

And may 'ft be honoured 5 being Cato's fon. 
i Sold* Yield, or thou dieft. 

6 Luc* Only I yield to die : 

There is ib much, that thou wilt kill me ftraight ; 

[Offering money. 
Kill Brutus, and be honoured in his death. 

1 Sold. We mull not. A noble prifoner \ 

2 Sold. Room, ho ! Tell Antony, Brutus is ta'en. 
i Sold. 7 I'll tell the news. Here comes the gene- 
ral : 

Enter Antony, 

Brutus is ta'en, Brutus is ta'en, my lord. 
Ant. Where is he ? 
Luc. Safe, Antony s ; Brutus is fafe enough : 

I dare 

5 Icing Califs fon.~\ i.e. worthy of him. WARBURTOX. 

6 Luc. Only I yield to die : 

There :3j'o viucb, that than wilt kill me ftraight ; ] 
Dr. Warburton has been much inclined to find lacuna, or paflagei 
broken by omiffion, throughout this play. I think he has been 
always miihtken. The foldier here fays, Yield, or tbou dieji. 
Lucilius replies, I yield only on this condition, that I may die ; 
here is fo much gold as thou let It in my hand, which I offer thee 
is a reward tor Ipee-iv death. What now is there wanting ? 


7 /'// tell the ;;<-. r..] The old copy reads : 

7Y//r//rhee r;-:-.v. JOHNSON. 

* Safe, Antony,"} So in the eld tranflation of Pfutarcfc: " In 
the mean time Lucilius was brought to him, who ftowtly with a 
bold countenaunce fayd, Anton; ;., I dare aluire thee, that no 
euemie hath taken, nor ihali r:.:-.e Marcus Brutus aliue : and I 
befeech, God keepe him from that tuitune. For wherefoeuer he 
be found, allue or dead, he will be founde like him iehc. And 
nowe rcr iny ieire, I am come vnto thee, hauing decciued thefe 
men of armes here, bearing them that I was Brutus : and 
doe not rcfufe to fuffer any torment thou wilt put me to. Luci- 
li'js wordes made them all amazed that heard him. Antonius on 
the other lide, looking vpon all them that had brought him, 
fayd vnto them : my companions, I thinke ye are forie you haus 
'failed of your purpofc, & th::t you thinke this man hath done 
great wrong : but I doe failure you, yea have taken a better 


j U L I U S C & S A R. 113 

1 dare allure thee, that no enemy- 
Shall ever take alive the noble Brutus : 
The gods defend him from fo great a fhame ! 
When you do find him, or alive, or dead, 
He will be found like Brutus, like himfelf. 

Ant. This is not Brutus, friend ; but, I allure you, 
A prize no lefs in worth : keep this man fafe, 
Give him all kindnefs : I had rather have 
Such men my friends, than enemies. Go on, 
.And fee whe'r Brutus be alive, or dead : 
And bring us word, unto O&avius' tent, 
How every thing is chanc'd. [Excttnt, 


Another part of the field. 

Enter Brutus, Dardanius, Clitus 9 Strato, and Volum- 

Bru. Come, poor remains of friends, reft on this 

Cli. Statilius Ihew'd the torch-light 9 ; but, my 



bootie, then that you followed. For, inftead of an enemie, you 
have brought me a frend, &c." STEEVENS. 

9 Sfatt/:us fiew'tl the torch-light, &c.] So, in the old tranfla- 
tion of Plutarch: " Furthermore, Brutus thought that there was 
no great number of men flaine in battell, and to know the trueth 
of it, there was one called Statilius, that promifed to goe through 
his enemies (for otherwife it was impoffible to goe fee their campe) 
and from thence if all were well, that he woulde lift vp a torch 
light in the ayer, and then returne againe with fpeede to him. 
The torche-light was lift vp as he had prcmifed, for Statilius went 
thither. Nowe Brutus feeing; Statilius tarie long after that, and 
that he came not again, he fayd : if Statilius be aliue, he will 
come againe. But his euill fortune was luche, that as he came 
backe, he lighted in his enemies hands, and was flnine. Now, 
the night being farre fpent, Brutus as he fate, bowed towards Cli- 
tus one of his meu, and told him fomwhat iu his eare, the other 
I 2 aim- 


He came not back, he is or ta'en, or flain. 

Eru. -Sit thee down, Clitus : Slaying is the word ; 
It is a deed in falhion. Hark thee, Ciitus 


Cli. What, I, my lord ? No, not for all the world. 

Bru. Peace then, no words. 

Cli. I'll rather kill myfelf. 

Bru. Hark thee, Dardanius ! 

Dar. Shall I do fuch a deed ? 

Cli. O, Dardanius ! 

Dar. O, Clitus ! 

Cli. What ill requeft did Brutus make to thee > 

Dar. To kill him, Clitus : Look, he meditates. 

Cli. Now is that noble veflel full of grief, 
That it runs over even at his eyes. 

Bru. Come hither, good Volumnius ; lift a word. 

VoL What fays my lord ? 

Bru. Why, this, Volumnius : 
The ghoft of Cseiar hath appear'd to me 

jt-.infwcred him not, but fell a weeping. Thereupon he proucd 
Dardanus, and fayd fomwhat alfo to him: at length he came to 
Vclumnius him felfe, and fpeaking to him in Gneke, prayed 
him for the ftudies fake which brought them acquainted together, 
that he woulde helpe him to put his hande to his fword, to thruft 
it in him to kill him. Volumnius denied his requeft, and fo did 
many others : and amongeit the reft, one of them fayd, there 
was no tarying for them there, but that they muir, needes flie. 
Then Brutus rifing vp, we muil flie in deede fayd he, but it 
mult be *.vith our hands, not with our feete. Then taking euery 
man by the hand, he fayd thefe words vnto them with a cheere- 
full countenance. It reioyceth my hart that not one of my frends 
hath failed me at my neede, and I do not complaine of my for- 
tune, but only for* my contries fake : for, as for me, I thinke 
my ielfe happier than they that haue ouercome, confidering that 
I leaue a perpetuall fume of our corage and manhoode, the which 
our enemies the conquerors fhall neuer attaine vnto by force nor 
money, neither can let their pofteritie to fay, that they being 
naughtic and uniuft men, haue fiaine good men, to vfurpe tyran- 
nical power not pertaining to them. Hauing fayd fo, he prayed 
euery man to fliit't for them felues, and then he went a litle and 

&C." STEEVfc.VS. ' 


JULIUS C J& S A R. 117 

Two feveral times by night : at Sardis, once ; 
And, this laft nighr, here in Philippi' fields. 
I know, my hour is come. 
Vol. Not fo, my lord. 
Bru. Nay, I am fure it is, Volumnius. 
Thou fee'ft the world, Volumnius, haw it goes ; 
Our enemies have beat us to the pit : [Alarum. 
It is more worthy, to leap in ourfelves, 
Than tarry 'till they pufh us. Good Volumnius, 
Thou know'ft, that we two went to fchool together; 
Even for that our love of old, I pray thee, 
Hold thau my fword's hilt, whilft I run on it. 
Vol. That's not an office for a friend, my lord. 

\Alarw Jllll. 

Cli. Fly, fly, my lord ; there is no tarrying here. 
Bru. Farewel to you ; and you ; and you, Vo- 


Strato, thou haft been all this while afleep ; 
1 Farewel to thee too, Strato. - Countrymen, 
My heart doth joy, that yet, in all my life, 
I found no man, but he was true to me. 
I fhall have giory by this lofing day, 
More than Octavius, and Mark Antony, 
By this vile conqueft lhall attain unto. 
So, fare you well at once ; for Brutus' tohguc 
Hath almoft ended his life's hiftory : 
Night hangs upon mine eyes ; my bones would reft, 
That have but labour'd to attain this hour. 

[Alarum. Cry within. Fly, fly, fly. 
Cl;. Fly, my lord, fly. [Exeunt Clitus 3 Dar.andVol. 
Bru. Hence ; I will follow. 
I pr'ythee, Strato, ftay thou by thy lord : 
Thou art a fellow of a good refpedt ; 
Thy life hath had fome fmack of honour in it : 

ee too, Strata.] Thus the modern editions. I 
think, rightly. The old folio reads : 

Farewell to thee y to Strato, countrymen. JOHNSON. 

I , Hold 

iiS I U L I U S C M S A R. 

Hold then my fword, and turn away thy face. 
While I do run upon it. Wilt thou, Strato ? 
Stra. Give me your hand firft : Fare you well, my 


Bru. Farewel, good Strato. Csefar, now be flill; 
I kill'd not thee with half fo good a will. 

[He rum on his fword, and dies* 

Alarum. Retreat. Enter Ottavius, Antony, MeJJala t 
Lucilius, and the army. 

Ofla. What man is that ? 

Mef. My matter's man, Strato, where is thy 
matter ? 

Stra. Free from the bondage you are in, Meffala j 
The conquerors can but make a fire of him : 
For Brutus only overcame himfelf, 
And no man elfe hath honour by his death. 

Luc, So Brutus fhould be found. I thank thee, 

That thou haft prov'd Lucilius' faying true. 

Ofta. All that ferv'd Brutus, I will entertain them,: 
Fellow, will thou bellow thy time with me ? 

Stra. Ay, if McfTala will prefer me to you. 

Ofta. Do fo, good Meffala. 

Mef. How died my mafler, Strato ? 

Stra. I held the fword, and he did run on it. 

Mef. O&avius, then take him to follow thee, 
That did the lateft fervice to my mafler. 

Ant. This was the nobleft Roman of them all ; 
All the confpirators, fave only he % 

* fave only he, feV.] So, in the old tranflation of Plu- 
tarch : " For, it was fayd that Antonius fpake it openly diners 
tymes, that he thought, that of all them that had flayne 
Caefar, there was none but Brutus only that was moued to do it, 
as thinking the acle commendable of it felfe : but that all the 
other confpirators did confpire his death, for fome priuate malice 
or enuy, that they othenvife did beare vnto him." STEEVENS. 


J U L I U S C & S A R. 119 

Did that they did in envy of great Csefar; 

He, only, in a general honeft thought, 

And common good to all, made one of them. 

His life was gentle; and the elements 5 

So mix'd in him, that nature might fland up, 

And fay to all the world, 'This was a man ! 

Ofta. According to his virtue let us ufe him, 
With all refpedt, and rites of buml. 
Within my tent his bones to-night fhall lie, 
Mod like a foldier, order'd honourably. 
So, call the field to reft : and let's away, 
To part the glories of this happy day. 

' 3 \ - the elements 

So ttiix'd in him, that Nature might fiand up 
Anctfay to all the world, This ivas a man.~\ 
So, in the oifrtnf Wars, by Dray ton, Canto III : 
He was a man (then boldly dare to fay) 
In whofe rich foul the virtues well did luit ; 
In whom fo mix*d the element 3 all lay, 
That none to one could fov'reignty impute ; 
As all did govern, fo did all obey : 
He of a temper was fo abfolute, 
/ "As that it feem'd, when nature him began, 

** She meant to fhew all that might le in man." 
This poem was publifhed in the year 1 598.. The play of our 
author did not appear before 1623. STEEVENS. 

Of this tragedy many particular paflages deferve regard, and 
the contention and reconcilement of Brutus and Caflius is univer- 
fally celebrated ; but I have never been ftrongly agitated in per- 
ufing it, and think it fomewhat cold and unaftefting, compared 
with fpme other of Shakefpeare's plays ; his adherence to the real 
{lory, and to Roman manners, feems to have impeded the natural 
vigour of his genius. JOHNSON. 





Perfcns Reprefented. 

"ar, ] Tr 
>idus, J 

M. Antony, 

O&avius Czefar 

jEmilius Lepid 

Sextus Pompeius. 

Domitius Enobarbus, 













Friends of Antony, 

Friends ofCxhr. 




Menecrates, \ Friends o/Pompey. 

Varrius, J 

Silius, an Officer in Ventidius's army. 

Taurus, Lieutenant-General to Csefar. 


^eleucu S ; Servants to 


ASootkfayer: A Clown. 

Cleopatra, ^ueen of Mgypt. 

Odtavia, Sifter to Casfar, and Wife to Antony, 

Charmian, 7^7, /-,, 

Iras \ dltenaaifts on Cleopatra. 

rs from Antony to Gefar, Captains, Soldiers^ 
Sy and other Attendants. 

The SCENE is difperfed in fever a I p arts of tie Roman 





Cleopatra's Palace at Alexandria. 

Enter Demetrius, and P1:ilo. 

Phil. Nay, but this dotage of our general's 
O'erflows the meafure : thofe his goodly eyes, 
That o'er the files and mufters of the war 
Have glow'd like plated Mars, now bend, now turn, 
The office and devotion of their view 
Upon a tawny front : his captain's heart, 
Which in the fcuffles of great fights hath burft 
The buckles on his breait, z reneges all temper ; 


1 Among the entries in the books of the Stationers' Company, 
Oftober 19, 1593, I find " A Booke emituied the Tragedie of 
Cleopatra." It is entered by Symon Waterfon, for whom fome 
or Daniel's works were printed j and therefore it is probably by 
that author, of whole Cleopatra there are feveral editions. 

In the fame volumes, May 2, 1608, Edward Blount entered 
" A Booke called Anthony and Cleopatra" This is the tiril no- 
tice I have met with concerning any edition oi this play more an- 
cient than the folio, 1623. STEEVEXS. 

* reneges- ] Renounces. TOPE. 



J And is become the bellows, and the fan, 

To cool a 4 gypfy's luft. Look, where they come ! 

Flourifh. Enter Antony and Cleopatra? with their trains; 
Eunuchs fanning her. 

Take but good note, and you fliall fee in him 
5 The triple pillar of the world transform'd 
Into a (trumpet's fool : behold and fee. 

Cko. If it be love indeed, tell me how. much. 

So, in K. Lear : " Renege, affirm &c." This word is likewife 
ufed by Stanyhurft in his \erlion of the fecond book of Virgil's 
jEneid : 

" To live now longer, Troy burnt, he flatly reneagetb." 

3 And is lecome the W7W, and the fan, 

> Tocoolagypfj\luft. ] 

In this paffage fomething feems to be wanting. The bellows and 
fan being commonly ufed tor contrary purpofes, were probably 
oppofed by the author, who might perhaps have written : 

is become the bellows, and the fan, 
To kindle and to cool a gypjy's lujl, JOHNSON. 
In Lylly's Midas, i$Q2 the lellirws is ufed both to cool and 
to kindle : " Me thinks Venus and Nature itand with each of than 
a. pair of bello- vr, one cooling my low birth, the other kindling my 
lofty affections." STEEVENS. 

I do not fee any necefliry for fuppofing a word loft. The l>el- 
lows, as well sis the^/Jar-v, cools the air by ventilation ; and Shake- 
fpeare probably considered it in that light only. We meet a fimi- 
lar phrafeology in his Venus and Adonis, \ 593 : 

" Then with her -windy fighs and golden hair 
*' To fan and blow them dry again, (lie feeks." 


* gyff/ys luft. ] Gypfy is here ufed both in the origi- 
nal meaning for an Egyptian, and in its accidental lenfe for a lad 
woman. JOHNSON. 

5 The triple pillar ] Triple is here ufed improperly for tbirj, 
or one of three. One of the triumvirs, one of the three matters of 
the world. WAR BURTON. 



Ant. There's beggary in the love that can be rec- 

kon'd 6 . 

Cko. I'll fet a 7 bourn how far to be belov'd. 
Ant. 8 Then muft thou needs find out new heaven, 

new eartru 

Enter a Meflenger. 

Mef. News, my good lord, from Rome. 

Ant. Grates me : The fum 9 . 

Cleo. Nay, hear them, Antony : 
Fulvia, perchance, is angry ; Or, who knows 
If the fcarce-bearded Casfar have not fent 
His powerful mandate to you, Do this, or this; 
Take in that kingdom, and enfranchife that ; 
Perform* t, or elje we damn ibee. 

Ant. How, my love ! 

Cleo. Perchance, nay, and moft like, 
You muft not ftay here longer, your difmiflkm 
Is come from Casfar ; therefore hear it, Antony. 
Where's Fulvia's procefs ? Caspar's, I would fay ? 

Both ? 

Call in the meflengers. As I am JE^ypt's queen, 
Thou blufhcft, Antony ; and ih:it blood of thine 
Is Caefar's homager : clle fo thy cheek pays Ihame, 
When ihrill-tongu'd Fulvia fcclds. The meflen- 

6 There s beggary in the love that can le reckon'd.] 
So, in Ron:-? mid ft 

" They are but beggars that can count their worth." 

*' Bajiapauca Lubit, qui numcrare poteft." 

Mnrt. 1. vi. ep. 36. STEEVENS. 

7 lourn ] Bound or limit. POPE. 

8 Then tntijl thcu needs find out ne*vj /v.'<cv;;, &c.] Thou muft fet 
the boundary ot my love at a greater dilbnce than die preterit vi- 
lible univerie affords. JOHNSON. 

* - The j'*m.] Be brief, fum thy buimefs in a few words. 




Ant. Let Rome in Tyber melt ! * and the wide 


Of the rang'd empire fall ! Here is my fpace ; 
'""Kingdoms are clay : our dungy earth alike 
Feeds beaft as man : the noblenefs of life 
Is, to do thus ; when fuch a mutual pair, [Embracing* 
And fuch a twain can do't ; in which, I bind 
On pain of punifhment, the world * to weet, 
"We ftand up peerlefs. 

Cleo. Excellent falfhood ! 

Why did he marry Fulvia, and not love her ? - i - 
ril feem the fool I am not ; J Antony 
Will be himielf. 

Ant. But iVirr'd by Cleopatra 
Now, for the love of love, and his foft hours, 
Let's not confound the time with conference harfh : 
There's not a minute of our lives mould ftretch 
Without fome pleafure now : What fport to-night > 

Cleo. Hear the embaffadors. 

1 and the ivUe arch 

Of the rang'd empire fall ! ] 

Taken from the Roman cuftom of raifing triumphal arches to per- 
petuate their victories. Extremely noble. WARKURTON. 

I am in doubt whether Shakefpeare had any idea but of a fabrick 
Handing on pillars. The later editions have all printed the raifed 
empire, for the ranged empire, as it was firft given. JOHNSON. 

The rang d empire is certainly right. Shakefpeare ufes the fame 
expreffion in Coriolanus : 

" bury all which yet diftin&ly ranges^ 

" In heaps and piles of ruin." 

Again, in Much a Jo about Nothing, aft II. fc. ii : " V/hatfoevcr 
comes athwart his attention, ranges evenly with mine." 

* .. -fowftt,] To know. POPE. 

3 Antony. 

mil le himfflf. 

Ant. Rui'ftir'd ly Ckcpatra. ] 

"Rut, in this pallage, feems to have the old Saxon Pgnification of 
without, ttnltfi, except. Anicny, fays the queen, will rccolleft hit 
thoughts. Unlefs kept^ he replies, in commotion by Clenpatra. 




Ant. Fye, wrangling queen ! 
Whom every thing becomes, to chide, to laugh, 
To weep ; whofe every paffion fully ftrives 
To make itfelf, in thee, fair and admir'd ! 
No meffenger, but thine ; And all alone, 
To-night, we'll wander through the flreets, and note 
The qualities of people +. Come, my queen ; 
Laft night you did delire it : Speak not to us. 

[Exeunt Ant. and Cleop, with their train* 

Dem. Is Czefar with Antonius priz'd fo flight ? 

Phil. Sir, fometimes, when he is not Antony, 
He comes too ihort of that great property 
Which ftill fhould go with Antony. 

Dem. I am full forry, 
That he approves the common liar 5 , who 
Thus fpeaks of him at Rome : But I will hope 
Of better deeds to-morrow. Reft you happy ! 


* Tff^nfgit we'll wander through the Jlreets, &c.] So, in fir 
Thomas North's Tranjlation of the Life of Antonius : " Some- 
time alfo when he would goe up and downe thecitie difguifed like 
a Have in the night, and would peere into poore mens' windowes 
and their (hops, and (cold and brawl with them within the houfe ; 
Cleopatra would be alfo in a chamber maides array, and ambie up 
and down the ftreets with him, &c." STEEVENS. 

5 That he approves the common liar, ] Fame. That he f roves 
the common lyar, fame, in his cafe to be a true reporter. 





Another part of the palace* 
Enter Charmian, Iras, Alexas, and a Soothfayer*. 

Char. Lord Alexas, fweet Alexas, moft any thing 
Alexas, almoft moft abfolute Alexas, where's the 
foothfayer that you prais'd fo to the queen ? O ! 
that I knew this hufband, which, you fay, muft 
7 change his horns with garlands. 

Alex. Soothlayer. 

Sooth. Your will ? 

6 Enter Cbarmian, Iras, Alexas, and a. Soothfayer.*\ The old 
copy read? : " Enter Enobarbus, Lamprius, aSouthfayer, Ran- 
iiius, LuciUius, Charmian, Iras, Mardian the Eunuch, and 

Plutarch mentions his grandfather Lamprias, as his author for 
fome of the ftories he relates of the profuienefs and luxury of An- 
tony's entertainments at Alexandria. Shakefpeare appears to have 
been very anxious in this play to introduce every incident and 
every perfonage he met with in his hiftorian. In the multitude 
of his characters, however, Lamprias is entirely overlook'd, to- 
gether with the others whofe names we find in this ftage-diredlion. 


7 change bis horns ivitb garland*.] This is corrupt; the 

true reading evidently is : mujl charge bis horns with garlands, 

i. e. make him a rich and honourable cuckold, having his horns 
hung about with garlands. WARBURTON. 

Sir Thomas Hanmer reads, not improbably, change for horns 
his garlands, I am in doubt, whether to change is not merely to 
drefs^ or to drefi -ir///> changes <y garlands. JOHNSON. 

bo, Taylor the water-poet, deicribing the habit of a coachman : 

'* with a cloak or iome py'd colour, with two or three 

change of laces about." Change of clothes in the time of Shake* 
fpearc fignillcd variety of them. Coriclatius lays that he has re- 
.: " change of honours" from the Patricians. Act II. fc. i. 




Char. Is this the man ? Is't you, fir, that know 

things ? 

Sooth. In nature's infinite book of fecrecy, 
A little I can read. 
Alex. Shew him your hand* 

Enter Enpbarbus. 

Eno. Bring in the banquet quickly ; wine enough, 
Cleopatra's health to drink. 

Char. Good fir, give me good fortune. 

Sooth. I make not, but forefee. 

Char. Pray then, forefee me one. 

Sooth. You fliall be yet far fairer than yon are. 

Char. He means, in flefh. 

Iras. No, you lhall paint when you are old. 

Char. Wrinkles forbid ! 

Alex. Vex not his prefcience ; be attentive. 

Char. Hufli ! 

Sooth. You lhall be more beloving, than belov'd. 

8 Char. I had rather heat my liver with drinking. 

Alex. Nay hear him. 

Char. Good now, fome excellent fortune ! Let me 
be married to three kings in a forenoon, and widow 
them all ! let me have a child at fifty, 9 to whom 


8 / bad rather beat my liver-] To know why the lady is fo 
averfe from heating her liver, it muft be remembered, that a heat- 
ed liver is fuppofed to make a pimpled face. JOHNSON. 

9 to whom Herod of Jewry may do homage ! ] Herod pajd 

homage to the Romans, to procure the grant of the kingdom of 
Judea ; but I believe there is an allufion here to the theatrical 
character of this monarch, and to a proverbial expreffion founded 
on it. Herod was always one of the perfonages in the myfteries of 
our early ftage, on which he was conflantly reprefented as a fierce, 
haughty, bluftering tyrant, fo that Herod of Jewry became a 
common proverb, expreflive of turbulence and rage. Thus, Hamlet 
lays of a ranting player, that he " out-herods Herod." And in 
this tragedy Alexas tells Cleopatra that " not even Herod of Jewry 
dare look upon her when ftie. is angry ;" i.e. not even a man as 
erce as Herod. According to this explanation, the fenfe of the 

VOL. VIII. K prefent 


Herod of Jewry may do homage ! find me to marry 
with O&avius Ccefar, and companion me with my 
miftrefs ! 

Sooth. You fhall out-live the lady whom you ferve. 

Char. O excellent ! I love Iqng life better than 
figs 1 . 

Sooth. You have feen and prov'd a fairer former 

Than that which is to approach. 

Cbar. z Then, belike, my children mall have no 
names : Pr'ythee, how many boys and wenches muft 
I have ? 

Sooth. 3 If every of your wifhes had a womb, 

prefent pafiage will be Charmian wiflies for a fon who may ar- 
rive to luch power and dominion that the proudeft and fierceft 
monarchs of the earth may be brought under his yoke. 


1 I love long life letter than fgsC\ This is a proverbial ex- 

preffion. STE EVENS. 

* Then, belike, my children jball have no names : ] If I have 
already had the belt of my fortune, then I fuppofe / Jhall never 
name children, that is, I am never to be married. However, tell 
me the truth, tell me, IJ<KV many boys and ivencbes ? JOHNSON. 

A fairer fortune , I believe, means a more reputable one. Her 
ar.fwcr then implies, that belike all her children will be baftards, 
who have no right to the name of their father's family. Thus fays 
Launce in the third aft of the Tkvo Gentlemen of Verona : *' That's 
as much as to fay laftard virtues, that indeed know not their fa- 
thers, and therefore have no names" STEEVENS. 
3 If every of your ivijbes bad a ivoml, 
And tore told every vjijb a million.] 
This nonfenfe fhould be reformed thus : 

If ev'iy of your ii'Jj'cs bad a womb, 

And fertil ev'ry -iu//Z', .] WA R BUR TON. 

TorfiH-etel, in ancient editions, the later copies have foretold. 
Foretf'l favours the emendation, which is made with great acute- 
nels ; yet the original reading may, I think, fraud. If you bad 
as many IVOM&J as you will Ixive wijlxs, and I fliould foretel all 
tbofe iviflitSy I Jhouldfordcl a million of children. It is an ellipfis 
very frequent in convcriation ; I jLouldJbame you, and tell all; that 
is, and if I Jbould tell all. And is for and if, which was anciently, 
and is Hill provincially ufed for //. JOHNSON. 



And forercl every wifh, a million. 

Char. Out, fool ! I forgive thee for a witch. 

Alex. You think, none but your flieets are privy to 
your wifhes. 

Char. Nay, come, tell Iras hers. 

Alex. We'll know all our fortunes. 

Eno. Mine, and moft of our fortunes, to night, 
fhall be drunk to bed. 

Iras. There's a palm prefages chaftity, if nothing 

Char. Even as the o'erflowing Nilus prefageth fa- 

Iras. Go, you wild bedfellow, you cannot foothfay. 

Char. Nay, if an oily palm be not a fruitful prog- 
noftication, I cannot fcratch mine ear. Prithee, tell 
her but a worky-day fortune. 

Sooth. Your fortunes are alike. 

Iras. But how, but how ? give me particulars. 

Sooth. I have laid. 

Iras. Am I not an inch of fortune better than fhe ? 

Char. Well, if you were but an inch of fortune 
better than I, where would you choofe it? 

Iras. Not in my hufband's nofe. 

4 Char. Our worfer thoughts heavens mend ! Alex- 

* Chaf. Our worfer thoughts kcav'ns mend. 

Alex. Come, bis fortune, bis fortune. O, let him marry a woman, 
&c.] Whole fortune does Alexas call out to have told ? But, in 
(hort, this I dare pronounce to be fo palpable and fignal a tranf- 
polition, that I cannot but wonder it ihould have llipt the obfer- 
vation of all the editors ; efpccially of the fagacious Mr. Pope, 
who has made this declaration, That if, throughout the plays, had 
all the fpeeches been printed without the very names of the perfons, 
he believes one might have applied them with certainty to every 
fpeaker. But in how many inl>ances has Mr. Pope's want of judg- 
ment falfified this opinion ? The fadl is evidently this ; Aiexoi 
brings a fortune-teller to Iras and Charmian, and lays himfelf, 
We'll know all our fortunes. Well j the foothfayer begins with 
the women ; and fome jokes pafs upon the fubjecl of hufluiuls and 
chaility : after which, the women hoping for the facisfacHon of 
K 2 having 


as, come, his fortune, his fortune. O, let him 
marry a woman that cannot go, fweet Ifis, I befeech 
thec ! And let her die too, and give him a worfe ! 
and let worfe follow worfc, 'till the worft of all fol- 
low him laughing to his grave, fifty-fold a cuckold ! 
Good Ifis, hear me this prayer, though thou deny 
me a matter of more weight ; good Ifis, I befeech 
thee ! 

Iras. Amen. Dear goddefs, hear that prayer of 
the people ! for, as it is a heart-breaking to fee a hand- 
fome man loofe-wiv'd, fo it is a deadly forrow to be- 
hold a foul knave uncuckolded ; Therefore, dear Ifis, 
keep decorum, and fortune him accordingly ! 

Cbar. Amen. 

Alex. Lo, now ! if it lay in their hands to make 
me a cuckold, they would make themfelves whores*, 
but they'd do't. 

Eno. Hufh ! here comes Antony. 

Char. Not he, the queen. 

Enter Cleopatra. 

Cleo. Saw you my lord ? 
Eno. No, lady. 
Cko. Was he not here ? 
Char. No, madam. 

Cleo. He was difpos'd to mirth ; but on the fudden 
A Roman thought hath ftruck him. Enobarbus, 
EM. Madam. 

Cleo. Seek him, and bring him hither. Where's 
Alexas ? 

having fometlungto laugh at in Alexas*s fortune, call him to hold 
out his hand, and wifh heartily that he may have the prognoftica- 
tion of cuckoldom upon him. The whole fpeech, therefore, 
muft be placed to Charmian. There needs no ftrouger proof of 
this being a true corre&ion, than the obfervation which Alexas 
immediately fubjoins on their wilhes and zeal to hear him abuied. 



Alex. Here, at your fervice. My lord approaches. 

Enter Antony ', with a Meflenger, and Attendants. 

Cleo. We will not look upon him : Go with us. 


Mef. Fulvia thy wife firft came into the field. 

Ant. Againft my brother Lucius ? 

Mef. Ay: 

But foon that war had end, and the time's flate 
Made friends of them, jointing their force 'gainft 


Whofe better iffue in the war, from Italy, 
Upon the firft encounter, drave them. 

Ant. Well, whatworft? 

Mef. The nature of bad news infects the teller. 

Ant. When it concerns the fool, or coward. On : 
Things, that are paft, are done, with me. 'Tis thus ; 
Who tells me true, though in his tale lie death, 
I hear him as he flatter'd. 

Mef. Labienus (this is ftiff news) 
Hath, with his Parthian force, 5 extended Afia, 


5 tK tended -.-ffir, ] i.e. widened or extended the bounds 

of the Lefler Afia. WAR BUR TON. 

To extend, is a term uied tor to faze; I know not whether that 
be not the lenfe here. JOHNSON. 

I believe Dr. Johnfon's explanation right. So, in Selimus Em- 
peror of the Turks, by T. Gott", 1638 : 

" Ay, though on all the world we male extent 

" From the Ibuth pole unto the northern bear.'* 
Again, in Jvoefftb fright : 

" this uncivil and unjuft extent 

*' Againit thy peace." 

Again, in Maffinger's AViu W r ay to pay old Debts, the Extortioner 

" This manor is extended to my ufe," 

Mr. Toilet has likew ile no doubt but that Dr. Johnfcn's explanation 
is juft ; ** for (fays he) Plutarch iniorms us that Labienus was by 
the Parthian king made general of his troops, and had over-run 
Afia from Euphrates and Syria to Lydia and Ionia" To extend is 
a law term uied tor to feize lands and tenements. In lupport of 
his aflertion he adds the following inilance : " Thofe waftcful 
companions had nei;her lands to extend nor goods to be iei/.cJ. 
K 3 S*i>tiS> 


From Euphrates his conquering banner fhook, 
From Syria, to Lydia, and to Ionia; 

Ant. Anton}', thou wouldft fay, 

Mef. O my lord ! 

Ant. Speak to me home, mince not the general 

tongue ; 

Name Cleopatra as (he's call'd in Rome : 
Rail thou in Fulvia's phrafe ; and taunt my faults 
With fuch full licence, as both truth and malice 
Have power to utter. O, then we bring forth 


6 When our quick winds lie ftill ; and our ills told us, 
Is as our earing. Fare thee well a while. 

Mef. At your noble pleafure. [Exit. 

Ant. From Sicyon how the news ? Speak there. 

1 Att. The man from Sicyon. Is there fuch an 


2 Att. He flays upon your will. 
Ant. Let him appear. 

Thefe ftrong ^Egyptian fetters I muft break, 

Enter a fecond MeJJenger. 

Or lofe myfelf in dotage. What are you ? 
2 Mef. Fufaia thy wife is dead. 
Ant. Where died Ihe ? 

Savile's Tranjlation of Tacitus, dedicated to j^. Elizabeth :" and then 
obferves, that " Shakefpeare knew the legal iignificatio* of the 
term, as appears 'from a paflage in As you like it: 
*' And let my officers of fuch a nature 
44 Make an extent upon his houfe and lands." STEEVENS. 
* When our quick winds liejlill; ] The fenfe is, that 

man, not agitated by cenfure, like foil not ventilated by quick 
ivinds, produces more evil than good. JOHN so v. 

The Tragedy of Crafus, 1604, feems to contain afimilar allufion : 

44 Whofe knowledge clouded is with profprous winds." 
Some one, I forget who, has propofed to read minds. It is at 
leaft a conjedture thac ceferves to be mentioned, STESVENS. 

2 Mef. 


2 Mcf. In Sicyon : 

Her length" of fieknefs, with what elfe more ferious 
Imporuth thee to know, this bears. [Gives a Letter. 

Ant. Forbear me. [Ex if Monger* 

There's a great fpiritgone ! Thus did i clcfirc it : 
What our contempts do often hurl from us, 
We wilh it ours again ; 7 the prefent pleafure, 
By revolution lowering, does become 
The oppofite of itielf : file's good, being gone ; 
8 The hand could pluck her back, thatfhov'd her on. 
I muft from this enchanting queen break off; 
Ten thoufand harms, more than the ills I know, 
My idienefs doth hatch. How now ! Enobarbus ! 

7 the prefen t pleafure, 

By revolution lowering, Joes become 
The oppofite ofitfelf; - ] 

The allufion is to the fun's diurnal cotirfe ; vvh : ch rifmg in the 
toft, and by revolution lowering, or letting in the <rw/r, become* 
the oppofite of iff elf. W A R B u R r < < \ . 

This is an obfcure paflage. The explanation which Dr. War- 
burton has offer'd is fuch, that I can add nothing to it ; yet per- 
haps Shakefpeare, who was lefs learned than his commentator, 
meant only, that our pleafures, as they are revolved in the mind, 
turn to pain. JOHNSON. 

I rather understand the paflage thus : *' IWat we often caft 
from us in contempt we wijh again for, and what is at prefent our 
greatejl pleafure, lowers in our ejlimation by the rev tint I on rf time ; or 
by a frequent return of poffejjion becomes undefireable and JtfagrceabU, 


I believe revolution means change of circumltances. This fenfe 
appears to remove every difficulty from the. paflage. 'J he pleafure 
of to-day, by revolution of events and change of circumjlances, often. 
lofes all its value to us, and becomes, to-morrmv a pain. SrEtvENs. 

8 The hand could pluck her back, &C.J The verb could has a pe- 
culiar fignification in this place , % it does not denote po^ver but in- 
clination. The fenfe is, the hand that drove her off would now i\:il- 
lingly piuck her back again . R E V I s A L , 

', wouLl zndj/;cu!d, are a thoufand times indifcriminately: 
ufed in the old plays, and yet appear to have been fo employed 
rather by choice than by chance. STEEVENS* 



Enter Enobarbus. 

Eno. What's your pleafure, fir ? 

Ant. I mufl with hafte from hence. 

Eno. Why, then we kill all our women : We fee 
how mortal an unkindnefs is to them ; if they fuffer 
our departure, death's the word. 

Ant. I muft be gone. 

Eno. Under a compelling occafion, let women die : 
It were pity to caft them away for nothing ; though, 
between them and a great caufe, they fhould be 
eflecm'd nothing. Cleopatra, catching but the leaft 
noiie of this, dies inflantly ; I have feen her die twen- 
ty times upon far 9 poorer moment : I do think, 
there is mettle in death, which commits fome loving 
at upon her, Ihe hath fuch a celerity in dying. 

Ant. She is cunning paft man's thought. 

Eno. Alack, fir, no ; her paflions are made of 
nothing but the fined part of pure love : We cannot 
call her winds and waters, fighs and tears ; they arc 
greater ftorms and tempeib than almanacks can re- 
port : this cannot be cunning in her ; if it be, Ihe, 
makes a Ihower of rain as well as Jove. 

Ant. 'Would I had never feen her ! 

Eno. O, fir, you had then left unfeen a wonder- 
ful piece of work ; which not to have been bleft 
withal, would have difcredited your travel. 

Ant. Fulvia is dead. 

Eno. Sir? 

Ant. Fulvia is dead. 
Eno. Fulvia? 
Ant. Dead. 

Eno. Why, fir, give the gods a thankful facrifice. 
When it pleafeth their deities to take the wife of a 

9 poorer memcnt; ] For lefs reafon ; upon meaner motives. 




man from him, 1 it fhews to man the tailors of the 
earth ; comforting therein, that when old robes arc 
worn out, there are members to make new. If there 
were no more women but Fulvia, then had you in- 
deed a cut, and the cafe to be lamented : this grief 
is crown'd with confolation ; your old fmock brings 
forth a new petticoat : and, indeed, the tears live 
in an onion, that ftiould water this forrow *. 

Ant. The bufinefs Ihe hath broached in the ftate, 
Cannot endure my abfencc. 

Eno. And the bufinefs you have broach'd here 
cannot be without you ; efpecially that of Cleopatra's, 
which wholly depends on your abode. 

Ant. No more light anfwers. Let our officers 
Have notice what we purpofe : I fhall break 
3 The caufe of our expedience to the queen, 
And get her love to part. For not alone 
The death of Fulvia, with 4 more urgent touches, 
Do ftrongly fpeak to us ; but the letters too 
Of many our contriving friends in Rome 

1 it Jbews to man the tailors of the earth, comforting therein^ 
&c.] I have printed this after the original, which, though harlh 
and obfcure, 1 know not ho\v to amend. Sir. Tho. Hanmer reads, 
They {hew to man the tailors of the earth comforting him therein. 
I think the paflage, with fomewhat lefs alteration, for alteration 
js always dangerous, may fland thus ; It Jhews to men the tailors 
'cf the earth, comforting them, feV. JOHNSON. 

The meaning is this. As the gods have beenpleafcd to take away 
your wife Fulvia, fo they have provided you with a ne^jjone in Cleo- 
patra ; in like manner as the tailors of the earth, when your old gar- 
ments are worn out, accommodate you with new ones. ANONYMOUS. 

1 the tears live in an onion &c.] So, in The noble Soldier ', 

1634 : " So much water as you might fqueeze out of an onion ha<J 
been tears enough &c." STEEVENS. 

5 The caufe of our expedience ] Expedience for expedition. 


* more urgent touches,] Things that touch me more fen- 

Jibly, more preffing motives. JOHNSON. 



5 Petition us at home : Sextus Pompeius 
Hath given the dare to Csefar, and commands 
The empire of the fea : our flippery people 
(Whofe love is never link'd to the deferver, 
'Till his deferts are paft) begin to throw 
Pompey the great, and all his dignities 
Upon his fon ; who, high in name and power, 
Higher than both in blood and life, {lands up 
For the main foldier ; whofe quality, going on, 
The fides o' the world may danger : Much is breeding, 
Which, like the 6 courfer's hair, hath yet but life, 
And not a ferpent's poifon. 7 Say, our pleafure, 

* Petition us at borne : ] Wifh us at home ; call for us to re- 
Jide at home. JOHNSON. 

* the courfcr's hair, &c.] Alludes to an old idle notion 
that the hair of a horfe dropt into corrupted water, will turn to an 
animal. POPE. 

So, in Holinfhed's Defcription of England, p. 224 : " A 
t>orfe-baire laid in a pale full of the like water will in a fhort time 
itirre and become a living creature. But fith the certaintie of thefe 
things is rather proved by few &c." STEEVENS. 

Dr. Lifter, in the Philosophical TranfaRions, ftiowed that wha 
were vulgarly thought animated horfe-hairs, are real infecls. I 
was alfo affirmed, that they moved like ferpents, and were poifor 
ous to fwallow. TOLLET. 

' 'Say y our pleafure 

To fuck whofe places under us require 
Our quick remove from hence. ~\ 

Such is this pafiage in the firft copy. The late editors have all 
altered it, or received it altered in filence thus : 

Say, our pleafure j 

Tofucb ivhofe place is under us, requires 
Our quick remove from hence. 
This is hardly fenfe. I believe we (hould read : 

Their quick remove from hence. 

Tell our defign of going away to thofe, who being by their places 
obliged to attend us, muft remove in hafte. JOHNSON. 

Surely the old reading with the flight amendment made by fome 

former editor wbofi place is affords perfect fenfe. " Say to 

fuch whofe place is under us, i. e. to our attendants, that our 
pleafure requires our quick remove from hence." MALONE. 



To fuch whofe place is under us, requires 
Our quick remove from hence. 
Eno. I Ihall do't. [Exeunt. 


Enter Cleopatra, Charmian, Iras, and Alexas* 

Cko. Where is he ? 

Char. I did not fee him fince. 

Cko. See where he is, who's with him, what he 

does : 

* I did not fend you ; If you find him fad, 
Say, I am dancing ; if in mirth, report 
That I am fudden fick : Quick, and return. \ExitAlex. 
Char. Madam, methinks, if you did love him 


You do not hold the method to enforce 
The like from him. 

Cko. What fhould I do, I do not ? 

Char. In each thing give him way, crofs him in 

Cko. Thou teacheft like a fool : the way to lofc 


Char. Tempt him not fo too far : I wifh, forbear; 
In time we hate that which we often fear. 

Enter Antony. 

But here comes Antony. 
Cko. I am fick, and fullen, 

Ant. I am forry to give breathing to my purpofe. 
Cko. Help me away, dear Charmian, I ihall fall ; 

It cannot be thus long, the fides of nature 

Will not fuftain it, 

8 I did not fend you ; ] You muft go as if you came without 
fuy order or knowledge. JOHNSON. 



Ant. Noxv, my cleared queen, 

Cko. Pray you, ftand farther from me. 

Ant. What's the matter > 

Cko, 1 know, by that fame eye, there's fome good 


What fays the marry'd woman ? You may go ; 
'Would, fhe had never given you lei:ve to come ! 
Let her not fay, 'tis I that keep you here, 
I have no power upon you ; hers you are. 

At. The gods beft know, 

Cleo. O, never was there queen 
So mightily betray'd ! Yet, at the firfl, 
I faw the treafons planted. 

Ant. Cleopatra, 

Clea. Why ihould I think, you can be mine, and 


Though you in fwearing fhake the throned gods, 
Who have been falfe to Fulvia ? Riotous madnefs, 
To be entangled with thofe mouth-made vows, 
Which break themfelves in fwearing ! 

Ant. Mofl fweet queen, 

Cleo. Nay, pray you, feek no colour for your 


But bid farewel, and go : when you fu'd flaying, 
Then was the time for words : No going then ; 
Eternity was in our lips, and eyes ; 
Blifs in our brows' bent 9 ; none our parts fo poor, 
But was * a race of heaven : They are fo ftill, 
Or thou, the greateft foldier of the world, 
Art turn'd the greateft liar. 

Ant. How now, lady ! 

in our brows* bent ; ] i. e. in the arch of our eye- 
brows. STEEVENS. 

1 a race of heaven : ] i. e. had a fmack or flavour of 

heaven. WARBURTON-. 

This word is well explained by Dr. Warburton ; the race of 
wine is the tafte of the foil. Sir T. Hanmer, not underftanding 
the word, reads, ray. JOHNSON. 



Cleo. I would, I had thy inches; thou fhould'fl know, 
There were a heart in jEgypt. 

Ant, Hear me, queen : 
The ftrong neceffity of time commands 
Our fcrvices a while ; but my full heart 
* Remains in ufe with you. Our Italy 
Shines o'er with civil fwords : Sextus Pompeius 
Makes his approaches to the port of Rome : 
Equality of two domeflic powers 
Breeds fcrupulous faction : The hated, grown to 


Are newly grown to love : the condemn'd Pompey, 
Rich in his father's honour, creeps apace 
Into the hearts of fuch as have not thriv'd 
Upon the prefent ftate, w.hofe numbers threaten ; 
And quietnefs, grown fick of reft, would purge 
By any defperate change : J My more particular, 
And that which moll with you fhould fafe my going, 
Is Fulvia's death. 

Cleo. Though age from folly could not give me 

* Remains in ufe ] The poet feems to allude to the legal 

diltin&ion between the ufe and abfolutc poffeflion* JOHNSON. 
3 My more particular, 

And that which mojl with you Jhould fave my going y 

Is Fulvia's death. ] 

Thus all the more modern editions ; the firft and fecond folios 
read fafe : All corruptedly. Antony is giving feveral reafons to 
Cleopatra, which make his departure from JEgypt neceflary ; moft 
of them, reafons of ftate ; but the death of Fulvia, his wife, was 
a particular and private call. Cleopatra is jealous of Antony, and 
fufpicious that he is feeking colours for his going. Antony re- 
plies to her doubts, with the reafons that obliged him to be abfent 
for a time ; and tells her, that, as his wife Fulvia is dead, and fo 
ilie has no rival to be jealous of, that circumftance ihould be his 
beft plea and excufe, and have the greateft weight with her for 
his going. Who does not fee now, that it ought to be read ; 
y going. THEOBALD, 

Mr. Upton reads, I think rightly : 

fafe my going. JOHNSON. 



It does from childifhnefs : Can Fulvia die 4 ? 

Ant. She's dead, my queen : 
Look here, and, at thy fovereign lei fare, read 
The garboils ftie awak'd 5 ; at the laft, beft : 
See, when, and where Ihe died. 

Cleo. 6 O moft falfe love ! 
Where be the facred vials thou fhouldft fill 
With forrowful water ? Now I fee, I fee, 
In Fulvia's death, how mine receiv'd lhall be. 

Ant. Quarrel no more, but be prepar'd to know 
The purpofes I bear; which are, or ceafe, 
As you fnall give the advice : By the fire, 
That quickens Nilus' flime, I go from hence, 

* Can Fulvia die ?] That Fulvia was mortal, Cleopatra 

could have no reafon to doubt ; the meaning therefore of her quef- 
tion feems to be : Will there ever be an end of your excufes ? As of- 
ten as you want to leave me, iviH not fame Fuli'ia, fame new pretext 
le found for your departure? She has already faid that though age 
could not exempt her from fome follies, at leatt it frees her from, 
a childiih belief in all he fays. STEEVENS. 

5 The garboils Jbeawak'd; ] i.e. the commotion fhe occa- 

fioned. The word is ufed by Heywood in the Rape of Lucrcce, 

" thou Tarquin, doll alrne furvive, 

* The head of all thok gartailcs." 
Again, by Stanyhurft in his tranilation of the four firft books of 

nriir*jfuj> 1582: 

*' Now manhood and garloih I chaunt and martial hor- 

Again, in Jarris Markham's EngliJJj Arcadia, 1607 : " Days of 
mourning by continuall garloiles were, however, numbered and 
encreafed." The word is derived from the old French garbouil t 
which Cotgrave explains by huriyburly, great flir. STEEVENS. 
6 O moft falfe love ! 

Where be the facred vials tbou Jbouldjl fill 

inthforrtKufuI water ? ] 

Alluding to the lachrymatory vials, or bottles of tears, which the 
Romans iometimes put into the urn or" a friend. JOHNSON. 

So, in the firft act of The Two Noble Klnpnen, written by B. and 
Fletcher in conjunction with Shakefpeare : 

" Balms and gums, and heavy cheers, 

" Sacred vials fill' d with tean" STSEVENS. 



Thy folclier, fervant ; making peace, or war, 
As thou affecTft. 

Cleo. Cut my lace, Charmian, come; 

But 'let it be. I am quickly ill, and well : 
So Antony loves 7 . 

Ant. My precious queen, forbear ; 
And give true evidence to his love, which flands 
An honourable trial. 

Cleo. So Fulvia told me. 
I pr'y thee, turn afide, and weep for her ; 
Then bid adieu to me, and fay, the tears 
Belong 8 to Egypt : Good now, play one fcene 
Of excellent diffembling ; and let it look 
Like perfect honour. 

Ant. You'll heat my blood ; no more. 

Cleo. You can do better yet ; but this is meetly. 

Ant. Now, by my fword, 

Cleo. And target, Still he mends ; 
But this is not the beft : Look, pr'ythee, Charmian, 
How this Herculean Roman 9 does become 
The carriage of his chafe. 

Ant. I'll leave you, lady. 

Cleo. Courteous lord, one word. 
Sir, you and I muft part, but that's not it : 
Sir, you and I have lov'd, but there's not it ; 
That you know well : Something it is I would, 
1 O, my oblivion is a very Antony, 


7 So Antony laves.] i. e. uncertain as the ftateof my health is 
the love of Antony. STEEVENS. 

8 to Egypt : ] Tome, the queen of Egypt. JOHNSON. 

9 Herculean Roman ] Antony traced his defcent from^s- 
ton a fon of Hercules. STEEVENS. 

1 O, my oblivion is a very Antony ^ 

And I am all forgotten.} 

The plain meaning is, My forgctfulnrfs mates me forget myfelf. 
But fhe exprefles it by calling forgetfulncfs Antony ; becaufe/0rgr/- 
fulnefs had forgot her, as Antony had done. For want of appre- 
hending this quaintnefs of exprelfion, the Oxford editor is forced 



And 1 am all-forgotten. 
Ant. * But that your royalty 


to tell uS news, That all forgotten is an old way off peaking, for apt 
to forget every thing. WARBURTON. 

I cannot underiVand the learned critic's explanation. It ap- 
pears to me, that (he fhould rather have faid : 

O my remembrance is a very Antony, 

And I am all forgotten* 

It was her memory, not her oblivion, that, like Antony, was 
forgetting and deferting her. I think a flight change will reilore 
the paflage. The queen, having fomething to fay, which file is 
not able, or would not leem able to recolledt, cries out : 

O my oblivion ! 'Tis a very Antony. 

The thought of which I was in queft is a very Antony, is treache- 
rous and fugitive, and has irrevocably left me : 

And I am all forgotten. 

If this reading ftand, 1 think the explanation of Hanmer muft be 
received. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Warburton's explanation is certainly juft, but I cannot per- 
ceive any need of change. Cleopatra has fomething to fay, which 
feems to be fupprefs'd by forrow, and after many attempts to pro- 
duce her meaning, flie cries out : O, this oblivious memory of 
mine is asfalfe and treacherous to me as Antony is, and I forget every 
thing. Oblivion, I believe, is boldly ufed for a memory aft to be 

If too great a latitude be taken in this explanation, we might 
with little violence read, as Mr. Edwards has propofed in his MS. 
notes : 

Oh me! oblivion is a very Antony ^ &c. STEEVENS. 
* But that your royally 

Holds idlcnefsyour fubjeft, IJbould take you 

For idlenefs itfelf.'] 

I. e. B 'ut that your charms hold me, vjJjo am tie greateftyW on earthy 
in chains, IJhouldhave adjudged you to be the greatelt. That this 
is the fenfe is (hewn by her anfwer : 

' TisfiMcating labour, 

To bear fuch idlenefs fo near the heart, 

As Cleopatra, this. WARBURTON. 

The fenfe may be : But that yo:ir qucenjbip chafes idlenefs for 
the fubjeSl of your converfation, I fiould take you for idlenefs itfelf. 
So Webfter (who was often a very dole imitator of Shakefpeare) 
in his yittoria Corombona, 1612: 

" how idle am I 

*' To ^uejlion my owa idlencf> /" 



Holds idlenefs your fubjcdt, I fhould take you 
For idlenefs itfelf. 

Cleo. 'Tis fvveating labour, 
To bear fnch idlenefs fo near the heart 
As Cleopatra this. But, fir, forgive me ; 
Since my becomings kill me J , when they do not 
Eye well to you : Your honour calls you hence ; 
Therefore be deaf to my unpitied folly, 
And all the gods go with you ! Upoa your fword 
Sit laurell'd victory ! and fmooth fuccefs 
Be flrew'd before your feet ! 

Ant. Let us go. Come ; 
Our feparation fo abides, and flies, 
That thou, refiding here, go'ft yet with me, 
And I, hence fleeting, here remain with thee. 
Away. [Exeunt. 


Ctffars palace in Rome. 
Enter Ottavius C<efar, Lepidus, and Attendants. 

C<ef. You may fee, Lepidus, and henceforth know, 
It is not Casfar's natural vice to hate 
4 One great competitor : From Alexandria 
This is the news; He fifties, drinks, and waftes 

Or an antithefis may be defigned between royalty 
f>ut that I knovjyou to be a qne<:n, and that your royalty holds I 
nefs infubjcRiontoyou, exalting you far above its influence, I Jkould 
fuppofe you to be the very genius of idlenefs itfelf. STEEVENS. 

3 Since my becomings kill me, - ] There is fomewhat of 
obfcurity in this expreifion. In the firft fceneof the play Antony 
had called her : 

" - wrangling queen, 
" Whom every thing Itcoma" 
It is to this, perhaps, that Ihe alludes. STEEVENS. 

4 One ^eat competitor : - ] Perhaps, Our great competitor. 




The lamps of night in revel : is not more manlike 
Than Cleopatra ; nor the queen of Ptolemy 
More womanly than he : hardly gave audience, or 
VouchfaPd to think he had partners : You fliall find 


A man, who is the abflradt of all faults 
That all men follow. 

Lep. I mult not think, there are 
Evils enough to darken all his goodnefs : 
His faults, in him, feem 5 as the fpots of heaven, 
More fiery by night's blacknefs ; hereditary, 
Rather than 6 purchas'd ; what he cannot change, 
Than what he choofes. 

5 as the fpots of.beav'n, 

More fiery by night's blacknefs ; ] 

If by fpots are meant liars, as night has no other fiery fpots, the 
comparifon is forced and harfii, ftars having been always fuppofed 
to beautify the night ; nor do I comprehend what there is in the 
counter-part of this fimile, which anfwers to night's blaeknefs. 
Hanmer reads : 

fpots on ermine, 

Or fires, by night's blacknefs. JoHNSOK. 

The meaning feem s to be As tbejlars or fpots of heaven are 
not obfcured, but rather rendered more bright by the blacknefs of the 
night, fo neither is the goodnefs of Antony eclipfed by his evil qualities, 
but, on the contrary, his faults feem enlarged and aggravated by bis 

That which anfwers to the blacknefs of the night, in the counter- 
part of the fimile, is Antony's goodnefs. His goodnefs is a ground 
which gives a relief to his faults, nnd makes them ftand out more 
prominent and confpicuous. 

It is objected, that liars rather beautify rhan deform the night. 
But the poet confiders them here only with reipeft to their promi- 
nence andfplendour. It is iufficient for him that their fcintillations 
appear itronger in confequence of davknefs, as jewels are more re- 
fplendent on a black ground than on any other. That the promi- 
nence and fflexdour of the liars were alone in Shakefpeare's contem- 
plation, appears from a paflage in Hamlet, where the fame thought 
is lefs equivocally exprefs'd : 

" Your (kill fliall, like a ftar i' the darkeft night, 

* ' Stick fiery off i ndeed. " MA LONE. 

* . purcbasd;] Procur'd by his own fault or endeavour. 



l You arc too indulgent : Let us grant, it is not 
A mils to tumble on the bed of Ptolemy ; 
To give a kingdom for a mirth ; to fit 
And keep the turn of tipling with a flave ; 
To reel the ftreets at noon, and Hand the buffet 
With knaves that fmell of fweat : 7 fay, this becomes 


(As his compofure muft be rare indeed, 
Whom thefe things cannot blemifh) yetmuft Antony 
No way excufe his foils, when we do bear 

8 So great weight in his lightnefs : If he fill'd 
His vacancy with his voluptuoufnefs, 

Full forfeits, and the drynefs of his bones, 

9 Call on him for't : but, to confourld fuch time, i 
That drums him from his fport, and fpeaks as loud 
As his own ftatc, and ours, 'tis to be chid 

As we rate ' boys ; who, being mature in knowledge, 
Pawn their experience to their prefent pleafure, 
And fo rebel to judgment. 

7 fay, ibis becomes him ; 

As bis compofure mujl be rare, indeed, 

Wljom tbefc things cannot blcmiJJj ; < ] 

This feems inconiequent. I read : 

And bis compofure, &c. 

Grant tbat tbis becomes him, and if it can become bitn, be mujl bave 
in him fomctbing -very uncommon ; yet, ffr. JOHNSON. 

3 So great weight in bis ligbtnefs : ] The word light is one 

of Shakefpeare's favourite play-things. The fenfe is, His trifling 
levity throws fo much burden upon us. JOHNSON. 

9 Call on bim for 1 1: J Call on bim, is, vijltbim. Says 

Casfar, If Antony followed bis debaucheries at a time of Icifure, I 
J]}ould leave bim to be punijked by tbeir natural confequences, by fur- 
feits and dry bones. JOHNSON. 

1 boys ; <ivb(>, being mature in Jcno*ivled'ge,~\ For this Hanmer, 

who thought the maturity of a boy an inconfillent idea, has put : 

iv bo, immature in knowledge: 

but the words experience and judgment require that we rt^A mature: 
though Dr. Warburton has received the emendation. By boys ma- 
tr.-re hi kno-.vkagc, are meant, boys old enough to know tbeir duty. 


L 2 Enter 


Enter a Meflenger. 

Lep. Here's more news. 

Mef. Thy biddings have been done ; and every 


Molt noble Ca?far, fhalt thou have report 
How 'tis abroad. Pompey is ftrong at fea ; 
And it appears, he is belov'd of thofe 
1 That only have fear'd Csefar : to the ports 
The difcontents repair, and mens' reports 
Give him much wrong'd. 

Gef. I fhould have known no'lefs : 
It hath been taught us from the primal ftate, 
That 3 he, which is, was wiih'd, until he were ; 
And the ebb'd man, ne'er lov'd, 'rill ne'er worth love. 
Comes dear'd, by being lack'd. This common body,. 
Like to a vagabond flag upon the ftream, 
4 Goes to, and back, lackying the varying tide, 


* That only have feared Cafar : } Thofe whom not love but 
fear made adherents to Caefar, now Ihew their affection for Pom- 
pey. JOHNSON. 

3 be, ivbicb is, ivas ivlflfd, until he were ; 

And the cltfd man , ne'er lov'd, 'till ne'er worth love. 
Comes fear'd,. by being lack'd. ] 

Let us examine the fenfe of this in plain profe. The earliejl hif- 
tories inform us, that the man mfitprerat command ivas always ivijb'd 
to gain that command, 'till he had obtain d it. And be, <vjhom the 
multituJe has contentedly fctn in a low condition, tv/jen he begins to be 
wanted by them, becomes to le fear d by them. Bat do the multitude 
fear a man, becaufe they want him ? Certainly, we muft read : 

Comes dear'd, by being lack'J. 

i. e. endear'd, a ravourite to them. Betides, the context requires 
this reading; for it was not fear, but love, that made the people 
flock to young Pompey, and what occafion'd this reflection. So, 
in Coriolanus : 

" I mall be lov'J, when I am lack'd." WARBURTONV 

4 Goes to, and back, laming the varying tide t 
To rot itfclfivith motion.} 

How can a flag, or rufli, floating upon a flream, and that has no 
motion but what the fluctuation ot the water gives it, be faidto lam 



To rot itfelf with motion f . 

Mef. Casfar, I bring thee word, 
Menccrates and Menas, famous pirates, 
Make the Tea ferve them; 6 which they ear and wound 
With keels of every kind : Many hot inroads 
They make in Italy ; the borders maritime 
7 Lack blood to think on't, and flufh youth 8 revolt : 
No veflel can peep forth, but 'tis as foon 
Taken as feen ; for Pompey's name flrikes more, 

the tide ? This is making a fcourge of a weak ineffective thing, and 
giving it an active violence in its own power. All the old editions 
read lacking. 'Tis true, there is no fenfe in that reading ; but 
the addition of a fingle letter will not only give us good fenie, but 
the genuine word of our author into the bargain. 

Lacquing the -varying tide, 

i, e. floating backwards and forwards with the variation of the tide, 
like a page, or lacquey, at his matter's heels. THEOBALD. 

Theobald's conjecture may be fupported by a pailage in the fifth 
book of Chapman's tranflation of Homer's Odyjfiy : 

" who would willingly 

" Lacky along fo vail a lake of brine ?" 
Again, in his verfionof the 24th Iliad: 

" My guide to Argos either fliip'd orlacfyirrg by thy fide." 
Again, in the Prologue to the lecond part of Antonio and Mellida t 

" O that our power 

" Could lack)' or keep pace with our defires !"'STEEVENS. 

5 Perhaps another mtffingcr flhould be noted here, as entering 
with frefh news. STEEVENS. 

6 t-ivbicb they car -] To gar, is to plow ; a common 

metaphor. JOHNSON. 

To tar, is not, however, nt this time, a common word. I meet 
with it in Turbervile's Falconry, 1575 : 

" becaufe I have a larger field to ear" 

Again, in Drayton's Legend of Robert Dukecf Normandy : 

" So Troy, thought I, her tfatcly head did rear, 

" \V hofe crazed ribs the furrowing plough doth far." 
Again, in Gower x DcConfffJione Amanth, b. i. fol. 26 : 

" And ercn it with Itrength of plough." STEEVENS. 

7 Lack blood to think on' '/, ] Turn pale at the thought of it. 


8 and flufh youth ] Flujh youth is youth ripened to manhood; 
ycvtb whofe blood is at the flow. STEEVENS. 

L Than 


Than could his war refitted. 

Caf. Antony, 

Leave thy lafcivious waflels 9 . When thou once 
Waft beaten from Modena, where thou ilew'ft 
Hirtius and Panfa, confuls, at thy heel 
Did famine follow ; whom thou fought'ft againft, 
Though daintily brought up, with patience more 
Than favages could fuffer : Thou didft drink 
The ftale of horfes ', and the gilded puddle 
Which beafts would cough at : thy palate then did 


The rougheft berry on the rudeft hedge ; 
Yea, like the flag, when fnow the pafture fheets, 
The barks of trees thou browfed'tl : on the Alps, 
It is reported, thou did'ft eat ftrange flelh, 
Which fome did die to look on : And all this 
(It wounds thine honour, that I fpeak it now) 
Was borne fo like a foldier, that thy cheek 
So much as lank'd not. 

Lep. It is pity of him. 

Caf. Let his ihames quickly 
Drive him to Rome : Time is it, that we twain 
Did fhew ourfelves i' the field ; and, to that end^ 
Affemble me immediate council : Pompey 
Thrives in our idlcnefs. 

Lep. To-morrow, Caefar, 
I lhall be furnifh'd to inform you rightly 
Both what by fea and land I can be able, 
To 'front this prefent time. 

9 thy lafcivious waflels.] Waffel is here put for in- 
temperance in general. So, in Love's Labour's Loft : 

" At wakes and wajfih, meetings, markets, fairs." 
For a more particular account or" the word, lee 'Macbeth, ad I. fc. 
lilt. The old copy, however, reads vajjailcs. STEEVENS. 

1 Thou didft drink 

Tbejlak ofborfes, ^ 

All thefe circumftances of Antony's diflrefs, are taken literlly 
from Plutarch. STEEVENS. 



Caf. 'Till which encounter, 
It is my bufmefs too. Farewel. 

Lep. Farewel, my lord : What you fhall know 

mean time 

Of ftirs abroad, I fhall befccch you, fir, 
To let me be partaker. 

C*f. Doubt it not, fir; I knew it for my bond. 



Tbe Palace in Alexandria. 
Enter Cleopatra* Cbarmian, Iras, and Mardlan. 

Cleo. Charmian, 
Char. Madam. 

Cleo. Ha, ha, Give me to drink z mandragora. 
Char. Why, madam ? 

Cleo. That I might fleep out this great gap of time, 
My Antony is away. 

Char, You think of him too much. 

* mandrc!gora.~\ A plant of which the infufion was fuppofed 
to procure fleep. Shakefpeai e mentions it in Othello ; 
" Not poppy, nor maJragera t 

*' Can ever med'cine thee to that fweet fleep." JOHNSON. 
So, in Webfter's Dutcbefs of Malfy,> 1623 : 

" Come violent death, 
" Serve for mandragora^ and make me fleep " 


to drink mandragora.] Gerard, in his Herbal, fays of the 

mandragoras '. " Diofcorides doth particularly fet downe many fa- 
culties hereof, of which no.twith Handing there be none proper un- 
to it, fave thofc that depend upon the drowlie and fleeping power 

In Adlington's Apulci us (of which the epWHe is dated 1566) re- 
printed 1639, 4 to bl.l. p. 187, lib. ro : "I gave him no poy- 
ibn, ^but^a doling drink of mamlragoras, which is of fuch force, 
that it will caufe any man to fleepe, as though he were dead." 


L 4 Cleo. 


Cleo. O, 'tis treafon ! 

Char. Madam, I trull, not fo. 

Cleo. Thou, eunuch ! Mardian ! 

Mar. What's your highnefs' pleafure ? 

Cleo. Not now to hear thee fmg ; I take no pleafure 
In aught an eunuch has : 'Tis \vell for thee, 
That, being unfeminar'd. thy freer thoughts 
May not fly forth of ^Egypt. Haft thou affedions ? 

Mar. Yes, gracious madam. 

Cleo. Indeed? 

Mar. Not in deed, madam ; for I can do nothing 
But what in deed is honeft to be done : 
Yet have I fierce affedions, and think, 
What Venus did with Mars. 

Cleo. O Charmian ! 

Where think'ft thou he is now ? Stands he, or fits he ? 
Or does he walk ? or is he on his horfe ? 
O happy horfe, to bear the weight of Antony ! 
Do bravely, horfe ! for wot'ft thou whom thou 

mov'ft ? 

The demy Atlas of this earth, the arm 
3 And burgonetof man. He's fpeaking now, 
Or murmuring, Where's my ferpent of old Nile ? 
For fo he calls me ; Now I feed myfelf 
With moft delicious poifon : Think on me, 
That am with Phoebus' amorous pinches black, 
And wrinkled deep in time ? 4 Broad-fronted Caefar, 
When thou waft here above the ground, I was 
A morfel for a monarch : and great Pompey 

3 And burgonet of man. ] A. burgonet \s a kinder" helmet* 

So, in Hen. VI : 

" This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet." 
So, in Hey wood's I, en Agc> 1632: 

" I'll hammer on thy proof- fteel'd burgoaet." 
Again, in the Birth of Merlin^ 1662: 

" This, by the gods and my good.fword, I'll fet 
*' In bloody lines upon thy burgonet." STEEVENS. 

* Broad-fronted Cafar t ~\ Mr. beyward is of opinion, that 

the poet wrote bald-fronted Cafar, STEEVENS. 



Would {land, and make his eyes grow in my brow ; 
There would he anchor his afpedt, and die 
With looking on his life. 

Enter Akxas. 

Alex. Sovereign of ./Egypt, hail ! 

Cleo. How much unlike art thou Mark Antony ! 
Yet, coming from him, 5 that-great medicine hath 
With his tincl: gilded thee. 
How goes it with my brave Mark Antony ? 

Alex. Laft thing he did, dear queen, 
He kifs'd, the laft of many doubled kifles, 
This orient pearl ; His fpeech flicks in my heart. 

Cleo. Mine car muft pluck it thence. 

Akx. Good friend, quoth he, 
Say, the firm Roman to great M^ypt fends 
This treafure of an oyjler : at whoje foot, 
To mend the petty prefent, I will piece 
Her opulent throne with kingdoms ; All the eafi, 
Say thou, Jhall call her miftrefs. So he nodded, 
And ibberly did mount an 6 arm-gaunt fleed, 


5 that great medicine hath with bis tinft gilded tbee.~\ Al- 
luding to the philofopher's ftone, which, by its touch, converts 
bafe metal into gold. The alchemiib call the matter, whatever it 
be, by which they perform tranfmutation, a medicine. JOHNSON. 
Thus Chapman, in \\\% Shadow of Night ^ 1594 , 

" O then, thou great elixir of all treafures." 
And on this paflage he has the following note : ** The philofo- 
pher's flone, or pbilofoplica medicina is called the great Elixir, to 
which he here alludes." Thus, in the Chanones Temannes Tale 
of Chaucer, late edit. v. 16330: 

" the philofophre's {tone, 

" Elixir cleped, we feken faft eche on." STEEVENS. 

* arm-gaunt fiecd,1 i.e. his fteed worn lean and thin by 

much fervice in war. So, Fairfax : 

" His Jiall worn fteed the champion flout beftrode." 


On this note Mr. Edwards has been very lavifli of his pleafantiy, 
and indeed has juftly cenlured the miiquotction of flail-worn, for 
J}qU-<wortb t which means^ro^g-, but makes no atieinptto explain 



Who neigh'd fo high, that what I would have fpok^ 
7 Was beaftly dumb'd by him. 

Cleo. What, was he fad, or merry ? 

Alex. Like to the time o' the year between the 

Of hot and cold ; he was nor fad, nor merry. 

Cleo. O well-divided difpolition ! Note him, 
Note him, good Charmian, 'tis the man ; but note 

him : 

He was not fad ; for he would Ihine on thofe 
That make their looks by his : he was not merry ; 
Which feem'd to tell them, his remembrance Jay 

the word in the play. Mr. Seyward, in his preface to Beaumont, 
has very elaborately endeavoured to prove, that an arm-gaunt : fteed 
is a fteed with lean Jboulders. Arm is the Teutonic word for ivant 9 
.or poverty. Arm-gaunt may be therefore an old word, fignifying, 
lean for <uwz/, ill fed. Edwards's oblervation, that a worn-out 
horfe is not proper for Atlas to mount in battle, is impertinent ; 
the horie here mentioned feems to be a poft-horfe, rather than a 
war horfe. Yet as arm-gaunt feems not intended to imply any de- 
fect, it perhaps means, a 'horie fo {lender that a man might clafp 
Jlim, and therefore formed for expedition. Hanmer reads : 
arm-v\rtjieeil. JOHNSON". 

The following compound word which I find in Chaucer's de- 
fcription of a king of Thrace in the Knight's Tale, may fupport 
Pr. Johnfon's explanation . 

" A wreth of gold arm-gret, of huge weight 
*' Upon his hed &c." late edit. v. 2147. 
cte is as big as the arm, and arm-gaunt may mean as Jlendtr 

the arm. We Itili fay, in vulgar companion, as long as my arm, 
as thick as r.'.y leg, &c. Again, in the Eooke of Fyjling, &c. bl. 1. 
no date: " - cut between Michelmas and Candellmas a fay re 
flaffof afadome and a half longe and arm-great, of hafyll, &c." 
Again, in Lidgate : " - Line-right" i. e. as Itrait as a line. 


7 WasbcaJHy dumb ly him."] Mr. Theobald reads dtiml'd, put to 
filence. " Alexas means, (fays he) the horfe made fuch a neigh- 
ing, that if he had fpoke he could not have been heard." 


The verb which Theobald would introduce, is found in Pericles 
Priace of Tyre, 1 609 : 

" i)eep clerks Hie dumbs &c," STEEVENS. 




In jflLgypt with his joy : but between both : 

heavenly mingle ! Be'rt thou fad, or merry, 
The violence of either thee becomes ; 

So does it no man elfe. Met'ft thou my pofts ? 

Alex. Ay, madam, twenty feveral mefiengers : 
Why do you fend fo thick? 

Cleo. Who's born that day 
When I forget to fend to Antony, 

Shall die a beggar. Ink and paper, Charmian - 

Welcome, my good Alexas. Did I, Charmian, 
Ever love Csefar fo ? 

Char. O that brave Csefar ! 

Cleo. Be choak'd with fuch another emphafis \ 
Say, the brave Antony. 

'Char. The valiant Casfar ! 

Cleo. By Ifis, I will give thee bloody teeth, 
If thou with Casfar paragon again 
My man of men. 

Char. By your mofl grapiqus pardon, 

1 fing but after you. 

Cleo. 8 My fallad days ! 


8 My fallad days ! 

Wlien I ivas green in judgment, cold in Mood! 

To fay, as Ifaid then! ] 

This puzzles the late editor, Mr. Theobald. He fays : " Cleo. 
patra may fpeak very naturally here with contempt of her judg- 
ment at that period : but how truly with regard to the coldnefs of' 
her blood may admit fome quefUon :" and then employs his learn- 
ing to prove, that at this cold feafon of her blood, (he had feen 
twenty good years. But yet he thinks his author may bejuftified, 
becaufe Plutarch calls Cleopatra at thofe years, KO^JJ, which by ill 
luck proves juft the contrary ; for that ftate which the Greeks de- 
figncd by KO'^JJ, was the very height of blood. But Shakefpeare's 
belt j unification is reftoring his ownfenfe, which is done merely by 
a different pointing : 

My fallad days ; 

When I ivas green in judgment. Cold in Hood! 

To fay as Ifaid then. 

Cold in blood, is an upbraiding expoftulation to her maid. Tlofe^ 



When I was green in judgment : Cold in blood, 
To fay, as I faid then ! But, come, away ; 
Get me ink and paper : he fhall have every day 
A feveral greeting, or I'll 9 unpeople ^igypr. 


A C T IL S C E N E I. 

MeJJina, Pampers Houfe, 

Enter ' Pompey, Menecrates, andMenas. 

Pomp. If the great gods be juft, they ftiall affift 
The deeds of jufteft men. 

Men. Know, worthy Pompey, 
That what they do delay, they not deny. 

Pomp. * Whiles we are fuitors to their throne, 

The thing we fue for. 


fays fhe, were tny fallad Jays t ixhen I =iva s green in judgment ; tut 
yot^r Hood is as cold as my judgment, if you have the fame opinion of 
things now as I bad then . W A R B u R T o N . 

9 - unpeople Mgypt."] By lending out meflengers. JOHNSON. 
1 The perfons are Ib named in the firft edition ; but I know 
not why Menecrates appears ; Menas can do all without him. 

* Whiles we are fuitors tj tbeir throne^ decays 

*The thing nuefuefor^} 
This nonfenfe fhould be read thus : 

fP7ji/cs ive are fuitors to their throne^ delay's 
The thing we fue for. 

Menecrates had faid, The gods do not deny that ivbich they delav. 
The other turns his words to a different meaning, and replies, 
Dfhy is the very thing ive beg of^tbem, i. e. the delay of our ene- 
jriies in making preparation againft us ; which he explains after- 



Men. We, ignorant of ourfelves, 
Beg often our own harms, which the wife powers 
Deny us for our good : fo find we profit, 
By lofmg of our prayers. 

Pomp. I fhall do well : 
The people love me, and the fea is mine ; 
3 My power's a crefcent, and my auguring hope 
Says, it will come to the full. Mark Antony 
In ./Egypt fits at dinner, and will make 
No wars without doors : Czefar gets money, where 
He lofes hearts : Lepidus flatters both, 
Of both is flatter'd ; but he neither loves, 
Nor either cares for him. 

Men. Czefar and Lepidus are in the field ; 
A mighty flrength they carry. 

Pomp. Where have you this ? 'tis falfe. 

Men, From Silvius, fir. 

l j c,nip. He dreams ; I know, they are in Rome to 

Looking for Antony : But all the charms of love, 

wards, by faying, Mark Antony was tied up by luft in 

Ca?far by avarice at Rome ; and Lepidus employed in keeping well 

with both. WARBURTON. 

It is not always prudent to be too hafly in exclamation ; the 
reading which Dr. \\arburton rejects as nonfenfe, is in my opinion 
right ; if delay be what they fue for, they have it, and the confo- 
lation offered becomes fuperfluous. The meaning is, While vit 
are praying, the thing for which we fray is lofing its value. 

3 In old editions, 

My powers are cnfient, avd my auguring hope 
Says it will come to tW full.] 

What does the relative // belong to ? It cannot \nfenfe relate ta 
hope, nor in concord 'to powers. The poet's allufion is to the moon ; 
and Pompey would fay, he is yet but a half moon, or crefcent ; but 
his hopes tell him, that creicent will come to a/W/orb. 




Salt Cleopatra, foften 4 thy wan lip ! 

Let witchcraft join with beauty, lull with both ! 

Tie up the libertine in a field of feafts, 

Keep his brain fuming ; Epicurean cooks, 

Sharpen with cloyleis fauce his appetite ; 

That fleep and feeding may prorogue his honour, 

Even 'till a Lethe'd dulnefs How now Varrius ? 

Enter Varrius. 
Far* This is moft certain that I lhall deliver : 

* tby i vafl Up /] J n the old edition it is 

thy wand Up! 

Perhaps, for fond Yi^, or tuonfr lip, fays Dr. John fon. Wand^^l 
it iland, is either a corruption of wan, the adjeftive, or a con- 
traction of wanned, or made wan, a participle. So, in Hamlet: 

" That, from her working, all his vifage wan'd." 
Again, in Marfton's Antonio and Mellida : 

" a cheek 

" Not as yet wan'd." 

Or perhaps waned lip, i. e. decreafed, like the moon, in its beau- 
ty. So, in the Tragedy of Mariam, 1613 : 

" And Cleopatra then to feek had been 

" So firm a lover of her vjained face." 

Again, in the Skynner's Play, among the Cheiter colle&ion of Myf- 
terics, MS. Harl. rot', p. 152: 

" O blefled be thou ever and aye 

*' Now ivayned is all my woo." 

Yet this expreffion of Pompey's perhaps, after all, implies a wifh 
only, that every charm of love may confer additional foftnefs ort 
the lips of Cleopatra : i. e. that her beauty may improve to the 
ruin of her lover. The epithet wan might have been added, only 
to fliew the fpeaker's private contempt of it. Jt may be remarked, 
that the lips of Africans and Afiatics are paler than thofe of Eu- 
ropean nations. STEEVENS. 

Shakefpeare's orthography often adds a d at the end of a word. 
Thus, vile is (in the old editions) every where fpeltw/c/. Launtl 
is given inftead of lawn : why not therefore wau\l for wan 
here ? 

Jf this however fliould not be accepted, fuppofc we read with 
the addition only of an apoitrophe, tivaraV; i.e. waned, declined, 
gone off from irs perfection ; comparing Cleopatra's beauty to the 
moon paft the full. P*RCY. 



Mark Antony is every hour in Rome 
Expected ; fince he went from JEgpyt, 'tis 
A fpace for farther travel y . 

Pomp. I could have given lefs matter 
A better ear. Menas, I did not think, 
This amorous furfeiter would have don'd his helm 6 
For fuch a petty war : his foldiedhip 
Is twice the other twain : 7 But let us rear 
The higher our opinion, that our ttirring 
Can from the lap of Egypt's widow pluck 
The ne'er luft-wearied Antony. 

3 Jittce be went from sEgypt^ '//J 

A j pace for farther travel.] 

i.e. fince he quitted Egypt, a fpace of time has clapfed in which 
a longer journey might have been performed than from Egypt to 

tufuldbavt don'd hh helm] To don is to Jo on, to put 

on. So, in Webfter's Dutchefs ofMalfy, 1623: 

" Call upon our dame aloud, 

Bid her quickly don her fhrowd." STEEVENS. 
7 But let us rear 

The higher our opinion, that ourflirritig 

Can from the lap of Egyfe'svjidow pluck 

The near htft-ivearied Antony.'] 

Sextus Pompeius, upon hearing that Antony is every hour ex- 
pecled in Rome, does not much relifh the news. He is twice the 
ibldier, (fays he) that Odlavius and Lepidus are; and I did not 
think, the petty war, which I am railing, would rouze him from 

his amours in ^Egypt. But why mould Ponvpey hold a higher 

opinion of his own expedition, becaufe it awaked Antony to arms, 
who was near weary, almoji furfeited, of lafcivious pleafures ? In- 
dolent and ftupid editors, that can difpenfe with words without 
ever weighing the reafon of them ! How eafy is the change to the 
true reading ? 

The nc'er-luft-wearitJ Antony. 

If Antony, though never tired of luxury, yet moved from that 
charm, upon Pompey's ftirring, it was a reafon for Pompey to 
pride himfelf upon being of fuch confequence. THEOBALD. 

Could it be imagined, after this {"welling exultation, that the 
firlt edition ftands literally thus ? 

The neere lujl ^jearied Antony. JOHNSON. 



Men. I cannot hope 8 , 
Caefar and Antony fhall well greet together : 
His wife, that's dead, did trefpafles to Csefar ; 
His brother warr'd upon him 9 ; although, I think, 
Not mov'd by Antony. 

Pomp. I know not, Menas, 
How lefler enmities may give way to greater. 
Were't not that we Hand up againft them all, 
Twere pregnant they Ihould ! fquare between them- 

felves ; 

For they have entertained caufe enough 
To draw their fwords : but how the fear of us 
May cement their divifions, and bind up 
The petty difference, we yet not know. 
Be it as our gods will have it ! It only Hands 
* Our lives upon, to ufe our flrongeft hands. 
Come, Menas. [Exeunt. 

8 / cannot hope, &c.] The judicious editor of the Canterbury 
Tales of Chaucer in four vols 8vo, 1775, obferves that to hope on 
this occalion means to expeft. So, in the Rene's Tale, v. 4027 : 
" Our manciple I hope he wol be ded." STEEVENS. 

9 warr'd upon him ; ] Thus the fecond folio ; the firft 

:wrV. MALONE. 

1 fquare ] That is, quarrel. So, in the Shoemaker'* 

Holiday, or the gentle Craft , 1600: 

" What ? fquare\\\ey > matter Scott ? 

" Sir, no doubt : 

" Lovers are quickly in and quickly out." 

The fame word is ufed both in the Midfummer Night's Dream , 
Titus Andronicui, and in this play, aft III. ic. xi: 

" Mine honefty and I begin lofquare.^ STEEVENS. 

a Our lives upon, ] This play is not divided into acls 

by the authour or firft editors, and theretore the prefent diviiion 
may be altered at pleafure. I think the firit at may be commodi- 
oufly continued to this place, and the fecond a& opened with the 
interview of the chief perfcns, and a change of the iiite of action. 
Yet it muft be confefled, that it is of fmall importance, where 
thele unconnected and defultor}' fcenes are interrupted. 





Enter Enobarbus, and Lepidus. 

Lep. Good Enobarbus, 'tis a worthy deed, 
And fhall become you well, to entreat your captai^ 
To foft and gentle fpeech. 

Eno. I fhall entreat him 
To anfwer like himfelf : if C^far move him, 
Let Antony look over Csefar's head, 
And fpeak as loud as Mars. By Jupiter, 
3 Were I the wearer of Antonius' beard, 
I would not lhav't to-day. 

Lep. J Tis not a time for private ftomaching. 

Eno. Every time 
Serves for the matter that is then born in it. 

Lep. But fmall to greater matters muft give way, 

Eno. Not if the fmall come firft. 

Lep. Your fpeech is pailion : 
But, pray you, ftir no embers up. Here comei 
The noble Antony. 

Enter Antony 3 and Ventidius* 
Eno. And yonder, Casfar. 

Enter C<cfar, Mec<enas, and Jlgr'ippa. 

Ant. If we compofe well here, to Parthia ; 
Hark you, Ventidius. 

3 Were I the wearer of Anlonlu? ledrd, 

I VOffttUnotJbcnft to-day.] 
Alluding to the phrafc, I will beard him. WAR BUR TON. 

I believe he means, I would meet him undreffcd^ without faiv of 
refpeft. JOHNSON. 



C<ef. I do not know, 
Mecasnas ; afk Agrippa. 

Lep. Noble friends, 

That which combin'd us was moft great, and let not 
A leaner action rend us. What's amifs, 
May it be gently heard : When we debate 
Our trivial difference loud, we do commit 
Murder in healing wounds : Then, noble partners,. 
(The rather, for I earneftly befeech) 
Touch you the foureft points with fweeteft terms, 
4 Nor curftnefs grow to the matter. 

Ant. 'Tis fpokcn well : 
Were we before our armies, and to fight, 
I fhould do thus. 

Caf. W r e!come to Rome. 

Ant. Thank you. 

C*f. Sit'. 

Ant. Sit, fir! 

Caf. Nay, then 

Ant. I learn, you take things ill, which are not fo ; 
Or, being, concern you not. 

4 Nor curfr.cfs grow to the matter.'] Let not ill-humour be added 
to the nzzlfubjeft of our difference. JOHNSON. 
s Csef. Sit. 
Ant. Sit t jir!\ 

Antony appears to be jealous of a circumftance which feemed to 
indicate a confcioufnefs of fuperiority in his too fuccefsful partner 
in power ; and accordingly refents the invitation of Casfar to be 

feated : Ca?far anfwers, Nay then i. e. if you are fo ready to 

refent what I meant an a6l of civility, there can be no reafon to 
fuppofe you have temper enough for the bufinefs on which at pre- 
fent we are met. The former editors leave a full point at the end 
of this as well as the prececding fpeech. STEEVENS. 

The following circumftance may ferve to ftrengthen Mr. Stee- 
jens's opinion : When the fictitious SebafKan made his appear- 
ance in Europe, he came to a conference with the Conde de Le- 
inos ; to whom, after the firft exchange of civilities, he faid, 
Confa dc Lemos, be covered. And being nfked by that nobleman, 
by what pretences he laid claim to the fuperiority exprefled by 
i ch permifiion, he replied, I do it by right of my birth ; I am 


Caf. I mull be laugh 'd at, 
If, or for nothing, or a little, I 
Should fay myfelf offended ; and with you 
Chiefly i' the world : more laugh 'd at, that I mould 
Once name you derogately, when to found your 

It not concern'd me. 

Ant. My being in Egypt, Csefar, 
What was't to you ? 

C*f. No more than my refiding here at Rome 
Might be to you in -#gypt : Yet> if you there 
Did practife on my ftate 6 , your being in Egypt 
Might be my queflion 7 . 

Ant. How intend you, practis'd ? 

C*ef. You may be pleas'd to catch at mine intent, 
By what did here befal me. Your wife, and brother, 
Made wars upon me ; and 8 their contention 


* Z)/V/praHfe on myjlate, < ] To praftife means to employ 
unwarrantable arts or rtratagems. So^ in the Tragcdie of Antonie^ 
done into Englifh by thecountefs of Pembroke, 1595 : 

*' nothing kills me fo 

" As that I fo my Cleopatra fee 

" Praftife with Csefar." STEEVENS. 

7 qucftionC\ i. e. My theme or fubjecl of converfation. 

So before : 

** Out of our quejiioii wipe him." 

See a note on Hamlet, al I : " Thou com'ft infuch a ^ncjlion- 
ble fliape, &c." MALONE. 

8 their contejlation 

Was theamyir^o^, you were the ivord of war."] 
The only meaning of this can be, that the war, which Antony's 
wife and brother made upon Caefar, was theam for Antony too to 
make war ; or was the occafion why he did make war. But this is 
directly contrary to the context, which (liews, Antony did neither 
encourage them to it, nor fecond them in it. We cannot doubt 
then, but the poet wrote : 

' and their contejlation. 

Was theam'd for you. 

\. e. The pretence of the war was on your account, they took up 
arms in your name, and you were made the theme and fubject of 
their inlurre&ion. WARBURTON. 

Ms lam 


Was theme for you, you were the word of war. 
Ant. You do miftake your bufmefs ; 9 my brothcf 


Did urge me in his aft : I did enquire it ; 
And have my learning from fometrue reports T , 
That drew their fwords with you. Did he not rather 
Difcrcdit my authority with yours; 
And make the wars alike againft my ftomach, 
* Having alike your caufe ? Of this, my letters 


1 am neither fatisfied vvirh the reading nor the emendation ? 
theam'd is, I think, a word unauthorifed, and very harfli. Per- 
haps we may read : 

their contcjlation 

Had theme fromjeu, you tvcre the word of <war. 
jTbe difpute derived its fubjett from you. It may be corrected by 
mere tranfpofiticn : 

tlelr contejlation 

You were theme for, you were the word JOHNSOX. 
Was theatn for you, I believe means only, was prcpofed as art 
example for yo^ to follow on ajct more c.\ tcnjive plan ; as themes are 
given for a writer to dilate upon. Shakeipeare, however, may 
prove the bell commentator on himteif. Thus, in Coriolanusy 
ad I. fc. i : 

** throw forth greater themes 
*' For infurreftion's arguing." 
Sicinius calls Coriolanus, " - the theme of our aflembly." 


Was theam &c.] I cannot help thinking Dr. Warburton's con- 
jecture right. Titani'dis fuch a word as Shakefpeare would not 
fcruple to ufe. In almoft every one of his plays we meet Cub- 
ftantives uled as verbs. I read : 

Was theam'd fromj'0w, MALOKE. 

9 my brother never 

Did urge me in his aft : ] 

i. e. Never did make ufe of my name as a pretence for the \yar. 


1 true reports,] Reports for reporters. Mr. Toilet cbfcrve* 

that Holinfhed, p. uSi, ufes records for vouchers. STKEVKN-S. 

* Having alike your caufe ? ] The meaning feems to be, L\rj- 
ing the fame caufe as yon to be offended ivith me. But why, becaufe 
he was offended with Antony, fliould he make war upon Caiikr ? 
i\Iay it not be read thus : 

' ' Did he not rather 


Before did fatisfy yon. If you'll patch a quarrel, 
3 As matter whole you have not to make it with, 
It muft not be with this. 

C<ef. You praife yourfelf, 
By laying defeats of judgment to me ; but 
You patch'd up your .excufcs. 

Ant. Not fo, not fo : 

I know you could not lack, I am certain on't, 
Very neceffity of this thought, that I, 
Your partner in thecaufe 'gainfl which he fought, 
Could not with graceful eyes 4 attend thole wars 
Which 5 fronted mine own peace. As for my wife, 
I would you had her fpirit in fuch another c 
The third o' the world is yours ; which with a fnafflc 
YoiT may pace eafy, but not fuch a wife. 

Eno. 'Would, we had all fuch wives, that the men 
might go to wars with the women ! 

Ant. So much uncurbable, her garboils, Caefar, 
Made out of her impatience, (which not wanted 
Shrewdnefs of policy too) I grieving grant, 

Dif credit my authority -with yours, 
And make the wars alike again/I myjlomach^ 
Hating alike, our caufe ? JOHNSON. 

The old reading is immediately explained by Antony's being the 
partner with Octavius in the caufe againft which his brother fought. 


3 As matter whole you have not to make it with^\ The original 
copy reads : 

As matter whole you have to make it with. 

Without doubt erroneoully ; I therefore only obferve it, that the 
reader may more readily admit the liberties which the editors of 
this authour's works have neceflarily taken. JOHNSON. 

The old reading may be right. It feems to allude to Antony's 
acknowledged neglect in aiding Caefar ; but yet Antony does not 
nllow himfelf to be faulty upon the prefent caufe alledged againft 

4 ivitb graceful eyes ] Thus the old copy reads, and 

I believe, rightly. We^itill fay, I could not look handfomely on 
fuch or fuch a proceeding. The modern editors read grateful. 

' -fronted ] J. e, Oppofed. JOHNSON. 

M 3 Did 


Did you too much difquict : for that, you muft 
But fay, I could not help it. 

Csf. I wrote to you, 
When rioting in Alexandria ; you 
Did pocket up my letters, and with taunts 
Did gibe my miffive out of audience. 

Ant. Sir, he fell on me, ere admitted ; then 
Three kings I had newly feafted, and did want 
Of what I was i' the morning : but, next day, 
6 1 told him of myfelf ; which was as much 
As to have afk'd him pardon : Let this fellow 
$e nothing of our flrife ; if we contend, 
Out of our queftion wipe him. 

Cef. You have broken 

The article of your oath ; which you mall never 
Have tongue to charge me with. 

Lep. Soft, Csefar. 

Ant. No, Lepidus, let him fpeak ; 
y The honour is facred which he talks on now, 
Snppofing that I lack'd it : But on, Caefar; 
The article of my oath, 

6 I told himofmyfilf; ] i.e. Told him the condition I was 
jp, when he had his lair, audience. WARBURTOTJ. 

7 1 be honour Is facred ] Sacred, for unbroken, unviolated. 


Dr. Warburton feems to underftand this pafiage thus ; The ho- 
Kour which he talks of me as lacking, is unviolated, I never lacked 
it. This may perhaps be the true meaning, but before I read the 
note, I underrtood it thus : Lepidus interrupts Ca?far, on the fup- 
pofuion that what he is about to fay will be too harfh to be endur- 
ed by Antony ; to which Antony replies, Na, Ltpidus, let him. 
fprak ; the fecurlty of honour on which he now fpeaks, on which this 
:nce is held nov.^ is facred, even fuppofing that I lacked ho- 
$aur before. JOHNSON. 

1 do not entirely agree with either of the learned commentators 
on this paiTage. Antony, in my opinion, means to fay : " The 
theme of honour which he now fpeaks or, namely the religion of 
an oath, for which he fuppofes me not to have a due regard, is 
facred ; it is a tender point, and touches my character nearly. 
Let him therefore urge his charge, that I may vindicate myfelfV' 



To lend me arms, and aid, when I requir'd 

them ; 
The which you both deny'd. 

Ant, Neglected, rather ; 

And then, when poifon'd hours had bound me up 
From mine own knowledge. As nearly as I may, 
I'll play the penitent to you : but mine honefty 
Shall not make poor my greatnefs, nor my power 
Work without it : Truth is, that Fulvia, 
To have me out of ^Egypt, made wars here ; 
For which myfelf, the ignorant motive, do 
So far afk pardon, as befits mine honour 
To ftoop in fuch a cafe. 

Lep. 'Tis nobly fpoken. 

Mec. If it might pleafe you, to enforce no further 
The griefs between you : to forget them quite, 
Were to remember that the prefent need 
Speaks to atone you. 

Lep. Worthily fpoken, Mecsenas. 

Eno. Or, if you borrow one another's love for the 
inftant, you may, when you hear no more words of 
Pompey, return it again : you ihall have time to 
wrangle in, when you have nothing elfe to do. 

Ant. Thou art a foldier only ; fpeak no more. 

Eno. That truth ihould be filent, I had almoft 

Ant. You wrong this prefence, therefore fpeak no 

Eno. Go to then ; 8 your confederate flone. 


8 jour confederate Jlone.~\ This line is pafled by all the edi- 
tors, as it they underlined it, and believed it univerfally intelli- 
gible. I cannot find in it any very obvious, and hardly any pof- 
iible meaning. I would therefore read r 

Go to then, you confederate ones. 

You who diflike my franknefs r.nd temerity of fpeech, and are fo 
conjlilerate and difcreet, go /0, do your own bufinefs. JOHNSOW. 
I believe, Go to then, your confederate ftone, means only this : If 
chidden^ henceforward I will la mute as 4 marbk fiatue % 
M 4 wbieb 


O/. 9 1 do- not much diilike the matter, but 
The manner of his fpeech : for it cannot be, 
We fhali remain in friencllhip, our conditions 
So differing in their adls. Yet, if I knew 
What hoop fhould hold us ftaunch, from edge to edge 
O' the world I would purfue it. 

Agr. Give me leave, Casfar, 

Caf. Speak, Agrippa. 

Agr. Thou haft a fifter by the mother's fide, 
Admir'd Oftavia : great Mark Antony 
Is now a widower. 

Caf. Say not fo, Agrippa ; 
If Cleopatra heard you, ' your reproof 


which feems to think ^ though it can fay nothing. Asjlknt as ajlont^ 
however, might have been once .a common phrafe. So, in the 
Interlude of Jacob and Ej~au, >i 558 : 

** Bring thou in thine, Mido, and fee thou be ajlone. 
' Mido.] AJlone! how (hould that be &c. 
" Rebecca.] I meant thou Jboulffi, nothing fay" 
Again, in the old metrica.1 romance of Syr Guy of Warwick^ bl. ! f 
no date : 

" Guy let it pafie asftitt asfione, 
" And to the fteward word fpake none." 
Again, in GtftOfT, De Confejjione Amantis^ b. i. fol. 17: 

" But he lay Jlill as anyjlone" 
Again, in Titus Andronicus^ aft III. fc. i: 

" hjlone isjllent and ofFendeth not." 
Again, Chaucer : 

" To riden by the way, domle as thcftone" 
Mr. Toilet explains the paflage in queftion, thus : " \ will 
henceforth feem fcnfelefs as a ilone, however I may obferve and 
confider your words and actions. " STEEVENS. 
9 / do not much drflike the matter, but 

The manner of his fpeech : -j 

I do not, fays Caefar, think the man wrong, but too freeof his in- 
terpolition ; fcr't cannot be, ivfjhall remain in frie a/hip: jet If it 
were pojjible, / would endeavour it, JOHNSON. 
1 ycur reproof 

Were well deferv'd ] 

In the old edition : 

your proof 




Were well deferv'd of raflinefs. 

Ant. I am not married, Csefar : let me hear 
Agrippa further fpeak. 

Agr. To hold you in perpetual amity, 
To make you brothers, and to knit your hearts 
With an unflipping knot, take Antony 
Octavia to his wife : whole beauty claims 
No worfe a hu(band than the beft of men ; 
Whofe virtue, and whofe general graces, fpeak 
That which none elfe can utter. By this marriage, 
All little jealoufies, which now feem great, 
And all great fears, which now import their dangers, 
Would then be nothing^ truths would be tales, 
Where now half tales be trutjis : her love to both 
Would, each toother, and all loves to both, 
Draw after her. Pardon what I have fpoke; 
For 'tis a ftudied, not a prefent thought, 
By duty ruminated. 

Ant. Will C*far fpeak ? 

Caf. Not 'till he hears how Antony is touch'4 
With what is fpoke already. 

Ant. What power is in Agrippa, 
If I would fay, Agrippa^ be it fo, 
To make this good ? 

Caf. The power of Czefar, and 
His power unto Octavia. 
1 Ant. May I never 

To this good purpofe, thatfo fairly mews, 
Dream of impediment ! Let me have thy hand ; 
Further this act of grace ; and, from this hour, 
The heart of brothers govern in our loves, 
And fway our great deligns ! 

C*f. There is my hand. 

Which Mr. Theobald, with his ufual triumph, changes to at>- 
proof, which he explains, allowance. Dr. Warburton inferred re- 
properly into Hanmer's edition, but forgot it in his own. 


A fitter 


A fitter I bequeath you, whom no brother 

Did ever love fo dearly : Let her live 

To join our kingdoms, and our hearts; and never 

Fly off our loves again ! 

Lep. Happily, amen ! 

Ant. I did not think to draw my fword 'gainft 

Pompey ; 

For he hath laid flrange courtefies, and great, 
Of late upon me : I mutt thank him only, 
a Left 'my remembrance iuffer ill report ; 
At heel of that, defy him. 

Lep. Time calls upon us : 
Of us mufl Pompey prefently be fought, 
Or elfe he feeks out us. 

Ant. Where lies he ? 

Caf. About the mount Mifenum. 

Ant. What is his flrength by land ? 

Caf. Great, and increafing : but by fea 
He is an abfolute matter. 

Ant. So is the fame. 

'Would, we had fpoke together! Hafte we for it i 
Yet, ere we put ourfelves in arms, difpatch we 
The bufmefs we have talk'd of. 

O/. With moft gladnefs ; 
And do invite you to my fitter's view, 
Whither ftraight I will lead you. 

Ant. Let us, Lepidus, 
Not lack your company. 

Lep. Noble Antony, 
Not ficknefs fhould detain me. 

[Fktortfb. Exeunt C*far 9 Antony, and Lepidus. 

Mec. Welcome from ^Egypt, fir. 

Eno. Half the heart of Gefar, worthy Mecanas! 
my honourable friend, Agrippa ! 

* Lcjl my remembrance fujfcr illrcport ;] Left I be thought too 
willing to tbrgct benefits, I mult barely return him thanks, and 
then I will defy him, JOHNSON. 


Agr. Good Enobarbus ! 

Mec. We have caufe to be glad, that matters are 
fo well digefted. You ftay'd well by it in ^Egypt. 

Eno. Ay, fir ; we did fleep day out of countenance, 
and made the night light with drinking. 

Mec. Eight wild boars roafted whole at a breakfaft, 
and but twelve perfons there ; Is this true ? 

Eno. This was but as a fly by an eagle : we had 
much more monftrous matter of feafl, which wor- 
thily deferved noting. 

Mec. She's a moft triumphant lady, if report be 
fquare to her J . 

Eno. When fhe firfl met Mark Antony, flie purs'd 
up his heart, upon the river of Cydnus. 

Agr. There flie appear'd indeed ; or my reporter 
Devis'd well for her. 

Eno. I will tell you : 

The barge flie fat in, like a burnifli'd throne, 
Burnt on the water : the poop was beaten gold ; 
Purple the fails, and fo perfumed, that 
The winds were love-lick with them : the oars were 

filver ; 

Which to the tune of flutes kept ftroke, and made 
The water, which they beat, to follow fafter, 
As amorous of their ftrokes. For her own perfon, 
It beggar'd all defcription : fhe did lie 
In her pavilion, (cloth of gold, of tiflue) 
4 O'er-pidturing that Venus, where we fee 
The fancy out-work nature : on each fide her, 
Stood pretty dimpled boys, like fmiling Cupids, 
With divers-colour'd fans, whofe wind did feem 
To glow the delicate cheeks which they did cool, 

3 le fquare to her,"] I. e. if report quadrates with her, or fuit 
With her merits. ST BE YENS. 

4 O'er-pifluring that Venus, where lue fee, &c.] Meaning the 
Venus of Protogenes mentioned by Pliny, 1.35- c. 10. 

WAR BUR toy. 



5 And what they undid, did. 

Agr. O, rare for Antony ! 

Eno. Her gentlewomen, like the Nereides, 
So many mermaids, 6 tended her i' the eyes, 
y And made their bends adornings : at the helm 


9 And ivkat they unci'd, d'ul.'} It might be read lefs harfhly : 
And what ihey did, undid. JOHNSON. 

6 - ' tended her /' t/j* ryrs.] Perhaps tended her by t\f eyes, difr 
covered her will by her eyes. JOHNSON. 

7 And made their bends adornings: ] This is fenfe indeed, 

and may be undcrftood thus ; her maids bowed with Ib good an 
air, that it added new graces to them. But this is not what Shaker 
Ipeare 'would lay: Clecpa.tra, in this famous fcene, perfonated 
Venus jiift fifing from the waves : at which time the Mythologies 
tell us, the Sea-deities furrouuded the Goddefs to adore, and pay 
her homage. Agreeably to this fable Cleopatra had drefled her 
maids, the poet tells us, like Nereids. To make the whole 
therefore conformable to the ftory reprefented, we may be aflured, 
Shakelpeaie wro,e : 

And made their lends ado rings. 

They did her obfervance in the poiture of adoration, as if {he 
had been Venus. WARBURTOM. 

That .Cleopatra perfonated Venus, we know ; but that Shake- 
fpeare was acquainted with the circumjita"nce of homage being paid 
her by the Deities of the fea, is by no means as certain. The old 
term will probably appear the more "elegant of the two to mo- 
dern readers, who have heard fo much about the line of beauty. 
The whole paflage is taken from the following in fir Thomas 
North's translation of Plutarch : " She difdained to let forward 
otherwife, but to take her barge in the riuer of Cydnus, the poope 
whereof was of gold, the failes of purple, and the owers of liluer, 
which kept ilroke in rowing after the founde of the muficke of 
flutes, howboyes, citherns, vioils, and fuch other inftruments as 
they played vpon in the barge. And now for the perfon of her 
felfe.; fhe was iayed vnder a pauillion of cloth of gold of tilTue, 
apparelled and attired like the Goddefle Venus, commonly drawn 
in picture ; and hard by her, on either hand of her, pretie faire 
boyes apparelled as painters do fet forth God Cupide, with little 
fannes in their hands, with the which they fanned wind vpon her. 
Her ladies and gentlewomen allb, the faireil of them were ap- 
parelled like the nymphes Nereides (which are the mermaidcs of 
the waters) and like the Graces, fome flearing the helme, others 
tending the tackle and ropes of the barge, out of the which there 
ca^iie a wondcrfull palling ftveete fauor of perfumes, that perfum- 


A feeming mermaid fleers ; the filken tackles 
Swell with the touches of thofe fiower-foft hands, 
That yarely frame the office. From the barge 


ed the wharfes fide, peftered with innumerable multitudes of peo- 
ple. Some of them followed the barge all alongit the riuer's lide : 
others alfo ranne out of the citie to lee her coming in. So that 
in thend, there ranne fuch multitudes of people one after an- 
other to fee her, that Antonius was left poft alone in the market 
place, in his imperiall feate to geve audience :" c. 

Had Shakefpeare written adore inftead of adorn, it has been 
obferved that they were once fynonymouCy ufed. So, in Speufer's 
Faery ^uccn, b. iv. c. r i : 

" Congealed little drops which do the morn adore" 
Again, in the Elder Brother of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" And thofe true tear?, falling on your pure chryftals, 
" Should turn to armlets for great queens to adore" 


I think lends or lands'^ the fame word, and means in this place 
the feveral companies of Nereids, that waited on Cleopatra. It is 
faid in Spenler's Shepherd's Calendar for May : ** A frefii lend vi 
lovely nymphs did attend on lady Flora." It is eafy to conceive 
how thefe attendants being happily difpofed in groups, mi^hr add 
new graces to the appearance of their miu.efs. So, in Titus An - 
dro?<!ciis, aft II. fc. Hi : '* Whom have we here > Rome's rjyal 
emperefs ? UnturninYd of her luell-befeervittg troop ?" TOLLET. 

Mr. Toilet may be right. So, in Tho. Drant's tranllation of 
the third epiflle ot Horace, 1^67 : 

" Quid ftudiofa cohort opcrum ftruit ?" 
' What doth our bufye bende of clarkes ?" 

Again, in Hall's Chronicle, K. Henry VJ1I. p. 7; : " fhould 
be fet in the brefte of the battaill or lend of footmen.", 
*' . - moll goodly battaill or lead uf footmen." STEEVENS. 

And made their bends adornixgs : ] Their lends, I apprehend, 
refers to Cleopatra's eyes, and not to her gentlewomen. Her at- 
tendants in order to. learn their mtjiref's c'.vV/, v;atched the motion of 
her eyes t the bends or movements of which added ?te*iv litftre to her 

In our author we frequently find the word lend applied to the 
eye. Thus, in the firil adl of this play : 
*' Thofe his goodly eyes 
-- Bow?8) new turn, &c." 

Eternity was in our lips and eyes, 



A ftrange invifible perfume hits the fenfe 
Of the adjacent wharfs. The city caft 
Her people out upon her : and Antony, 
Enthron'd i' the market-place, did fit alone, 
Whittling to the air ; 8 which, but for vacancy, 
Had gone to gaze on Cleopatra too, 
And made a gap in nature. 

jjgr. Rare ^Egyptian ! 

Eno. Upon her landing, Antony fent to her, 
Invited her to fupper : Ihe reply'd, 
It fhould be better, he became her gueft ; 
Which Ihe intrcated : Our courteous Antony, 
Whom ne'er the word of no woman heard fpeak, 
Being barber'd ten times o'er, goes to the feaft ; 
And, for his ordinary, pays his heart, 
For what his eyes eat only. 

Agr. Royal wench ! 

She made great Casfar lay his fword to bed ; 
He plough'd her, and Ihe cropt. 

Eno. I faw her once 

Hop forty paces through the publick flreet : 
And having loft her breath, fhe fpoke, and panted, 
That fhe did make defedt, perfection, 
And, breathlefs, power breathe forth. 

Mec. Now Antony muft leave her utterly. 

Eno. Never ; he will not : 

Again, in Cymlellne : 

" Although they wear their faces to the lent 

" Of the king's looks." 
Again, in Troilus and Crejjtaa : 

" All gaze and lent of amorous view." 

And laftly, in Julius Cafar, which affords an infhmce exa&Iy 
appofite : 

" And that fame tye whofe Jm/doth awe the world." 


lut for vacancy r , 

Had gone 3 

Alluding to an axiom in the peripatetic philofophy then in rogue, 
that Nature abhors a vawmn, WARBUR.TON. 


Age cannot wither her, nor cuftom flale 9 
Her infinite variety : Other women cloy * 
The appetites they feed ; but fhe makes hungry, 
Where moft fhe fatisfies. For vileft things 
Become themfelves in her ; that the holy priefls 
Blefs her, when fhe is riggifh*. 

Mec. If beauty, wifdom, modefly, can fettle 
The heart of Antony, Odavia is \ 
A blefied lottery to him. 

Agr. Let us go. 

Good Enobarbus, make yourfelf my gueft, 
Whilft you abide here. 

Eno. Humbly, fir, I thank you. [Exeunt. 

9 , , nor cuftom flale] This verb is ufed by Heywood in the 
Iron Age, 1632: " One that hath^/V his courtly tricks at home." 

1 Other women clay 

The appetites they feed ; lut foe makes hungry, 

Where mojl Jhc fatisfes.- ] 

Almoft the fame thought, cloathed nearly in the fameexpreflions, 
is found in the old piny of Pericles : " Whofforves the ears (ha 
feeds, and makes them hungry the more flie gives them fpeech." 


* when fie is riggifli.] Riggis an ancient word meaning a 
ftrumpet. So, in "V\ 'hetilone's Caftle of Delight, 1576: 

* Then loath they will both luft and wanton love, 
*' Or elfe be fure fuch ryggs my care lhall prove." 
Again : 

" Immodeft rigg, I Ovid's counfel ufde." STEEVENS. 

3 OSlctvia is 

A blefled lottery to him.'} 

Dr. Warburton fays, the poet wrote allottery : but there is no rea- 
fon for this aflertion. The ghoft of Andrea in the SpaniJJj Tra- 
gedy, fays : 

** Minos in graven leaves of lottery 

" Drew forth the manner of my life and death." 

So, in Stanyhurft's tranflation of Virgil, 1582 : 

** By this hap efcaping the filth of lottarye carnal." 
Again, in the Honeji Man's Fortune, by B. and Fletcher : 

u fainting under 

** Fortune's falfe lottery." STEEVENS. 



S C E ft E III. 

Enter Gefar, Antony^ O&avia between them ; Attendants, 
and a Sootkfaycr. 

Ant; The world, and my great office, will fome- 

Divide me from your bofom. 

Ofta. All which time, 

Before the gods my knee fhall bow in prayers* 
To them for you. 

Ant. Good night, fir. My Odtavia, 
Read not my blemifhes In the world's report : 
I have not kept my fquare ; but that to come 
Shall all be done by the rule. Good night, dear 

Q&a. Good night, fir. 

C&f. Goodnight. {Exeunt C*efar, and Oftavia. 

Ant. Now, firrah ! you do wifh yourfelf in ^Egypt ? 

Sooth. 'Would I had never come from thence, nor 

Thither ! 

Ant. If you can, your reafon ? 

Sooth. * I fee it in 


4 Jball IO-M in prayers] The old copy reads : 

- Jliall bow my prayers 

which I believe to be the true reading. The fame conftruction it 
in CoriolamiS) acll. fc. i : 

" Shouting their emulation." 
Again, in K. Lear, act II. fc. ii : 

" Smile you my fpeeches ?" STEEVENS. 
s I fee it In 

My motion, have it not in my tongue : ] 

What motion ? I can trace no fenfe in this word here, unlefs the 
author were alluding to that agitation of the divinity, which di- 
viners pretend to when the fit of foretelling is upon them ; but 
then, I think verily, he would have wrote, emotion. 1 am per- 
fuaded, Sh.akefpeaj-e meant that the Soothfayer fhould fay r he faw 



My motion, have it not in my tongue : But yet 
Hie you again to JEgypt. 

Ant. Say to me, 
Whofe fortunes ihall rife higher, Cxfar's, or mine ? 

Sooth. Csefar's. 

Therefore, O Antony, flay not by his fide : 
Thy dxmon, that's thy fpirit which keeps thee, is 
Noble, courageous, high, unmatchable, 
Where Casfar's is not; but, near him, thy angel 
6 Becomes a Fear, as being o'erpo\ver'd ; therefore 

a reafon in his thought or opinion, though he gave that thought or 
opinion no utterance. Notion is a word which our author fre- 
quently chufes to exprefs the mental faculties. See K. Lear, Co- 
riolanvs, Macbeth, and Othello. THEOBALD. 
I fee It in 

My motion, ~\ 
i. e. the divinitory agitation. WAREURTOX. 

6 Becomes a Fear, - ] i.e. a fearful thing. The abftraft for 
the concrete. WARBURTON. 
Mr. Upton reads : 

Become* afear'd, - 
The common reading is more poetical. JOHNSON. 

A Fear was a perlbnagein fome of the old moralities Fletcher 
alludes to it in the Maid's Tragedy, where Afpafia is intruding 
her fervants how to delcribe her iituation in needle-work ; 
" - and then a Fear : 
" Do that Fear bravely, wench." - 
Spenfer had likewife perfonified Fear, in the i zth canto of the 
third book of his Faery Queen. In the facred writings Fear is 
aifo a perfon : " I will put a Fear in the land of Egypt." 

The whole thought is borrowed from fir T. North's trannation 
of Plutarch ; " With Antonius there was a foothfayer or aftrono- 
jner of Egypt, that coulde cuft a figure, and iudge of mens natiui- 
ties, to tell them what fiiould happen to them. He, either to 
pleafe Cleopatra, or elfe for that he founde it fo by his art, told 
Antonius plainly, that his fortune (which of it felfewas excellent 
good, and very great) was altogether bleamifhed, and obfcured by 
Caefars fortune : and therefore he counfelled him vtterly to leaue 
his company, and to get him as farre from him as he could. For 
thy Demon faid he, (that is to fay, the good angell and fpirit that 
keepeth thee) is aftraied of his : and being coragious and high when 
he is alone, becometh fearefull and timerous when he commeih 
ueere vnto the other." SrstvENs. 

VOL. VIII.' N Make 


Make fpace enough between you. 

Ant. Speak this no more. 

Sooth. To none but thee ; no more, but when to 


If thou doft play with him at any game, 
Thou art- Cure to lofe ; and, of that natural luck, 
He beats thee 'gainft the odds ; thy luftre thickens, 
When he fhines by ; I fey again, thy fpirit 
Is all afraid to govern thee near him ; 
But, he away, 'tis noble. 

Ant. Get thee gone : 
Say to Ventidius, I would fpcak with him : 

[Exit Sootbfayer. 

He fhall to Parthia. Be it art, or hap, 
He hath fpoken true : The very dice obey him ; 
And, in our fports, my better cunning faints 
Under his chance : if we draw lots, he fpeeds : 
His cocks do win the battle (till of mine, 
When it is all to nought ; and 7 his quails ever 
Beat mine, 8 inhoop'd, at odds. I will to JEgypt : 
And though I make this marriage for my peace, 

T . bis quaih ] The ancients ufed to match quails as we 

match cocks. JOHNSON. 

So, in the old tranilation of Plutarch : '* For, it is laid, that 
as often as they two drew cuts for pallime, who fhould haue any 
thing, or whether they plaied at dice, Antonius alway loft. Of- 
tentimes when they were difpofed to lee cockefight, orquailes that 
were taught to fight one with an other : Cacfurs cockes or quailes 
did euer ouercome." STEEVENS. 

8 iuboop*d) at odds. } Thus the old copy. Inhoop'tl'n 

indofedy confined, that they may fight. The modern editions read : 
Eeatinlne^ in whoop'd-at odds. JOHNSON. 

Shakefpeare gives us the practice of his own time : and there k 
no occalion for in whoop 1 d at t or any other alteration. John Da- 
vies begins one of his epigrams upon frwtrbs ; 

'* He fets cocke on the hoope," in, you would fay ; 

'* For cocking I'M ho opes is now all the play." FARMER. 

The attempt at emendation, however, deferves fome refpect ; 

as in At \u like ;'/, Celia lays : " and after that out of all 

whooping*"' STEBVBNS. 



Enter fcntidit<s. 

I* the eaft my pleafure lies. O, come, Ventidius, 
You muft to Parthia ; your commiffion's ready : 
Follow me, and receive it. [Exeunt. 


We fame ; a Street. 

Enter Lepidus, Mecanas^ and Agrippa. 

Lep. Trouble yourfelves no farther: pray you, 

Your generals afte'r. 

Agr. Sir, Mark Antony 
Will e'en but kifs Odtavia, and we'll follow* 
Lep. Till I lhall fee you in your foldiers' drefs, 
Which will become you both, farewel. 

Mec. We lhall, 

As I conceive the journey, be at mount * 
Before you, Lepidns. 

Lep> Your flay is Ihorter, 
My purpofes do draw me much about ; 
You'll win two days upon me. 

Both. Sir, good fuccefs ! 

Lep. Farewel. [Exeunt. 


The Palace in Alexandria. 

Enter Ckopatra, Charmian, Iras, and Abxas. 

Cleo. Give me fome mufick ; 9 mufick, moody food 


* at mount'} i.e. Mount Mlfenum. STEKVKNS. 
9 mujick) moody food] The mood is the mind, or mental dif- 
pofitioii. Van Haaren's panegyrick on the Englilh begins, Groot' 


Of us that trade in love. 
Omaes. The mufick, ho ! 

Enter Mardian. 

Cleo. tet it alone; let us to billiards : come, 
Charm ian. 

Char. My .arm is fore, beft play with Mardian. 

Cleo. As well a woman with an eunuch play'd, 
As with a woman : Come, you'll play.with me, fir? 

Afar. As well as I can, madam. 

Cleo. And when-good will is fhew'd, though it come 

too fhort, 

The actor may plead pardon. I'll none now : 
Give me mine angle, We'll to the river : there, 
My muiick playing far off, I will betray 
1 Tawny-finn'd fifties : my bended hook fliall pierce 
Their flimy jaws ; and, as I draw them up, 
I'll think them every one an Antony, 
And fay, Ah, ha ! you're-caught. 

Char. 'Twas merry, when 
You wager'd on your angling ; when your diver 
Did hang a falt-fifn on his hook % which he 
With fervency drew up.. , 

Cleo. That time ! O times ! 

I laugh 'd him out of patience ; and that night 
I laugh'd him into patience : and next morn, 
Ere the ninth hour, I drank him to his bed ; 

moedig Volk) [great-minded nation.} Perhaps here is a poor jeft 

intended between wed the mind and moods of in u fick . JOHNSON. 

Moody ' 7 in this inftance, means melancholy . Cotgrave explains 

by the French words, morne and trifle. STEEVENS. 
1 Tarj:ny-findfij!:es; ] The firft copy reads : 

Ta : y ney fine fifo. JOHNSON. 

* "Did bang afah-fijb &c.] This circumftance is likewife taken 
from fir Tho. North's tracflation of the life of Antony in Plutarch. 




Then put my tires and mantles on him, 3 whilft 
I wore his fvvord Philippan. O! from Italy; 

Enter a Mejfenger. 

Ram thou thy fruitful tidings *in mine ears, 
That long time have been barren. 

Mef. Madam, madam, 

Cleo. Antony's dead ? 

If thou fay fo, villain, thou kill'ft thy miftrefs : 
But well and free 5 , 

It" fo thou yield him, there is gold, and here 
My blueft veins to kifs ; a hand, that kings 
Have lipp'd, and trembled kiffing. 

Mef. Firft, madam, he is well. 


I ware bisf-jcord Philippan. ] 

We are not to fuppofe, nor is there any warrant from hiftory, 
that Antony had any particular fword fo called. The dignifying 
weapons, in this fort, is a cuftom of much more recent date. 
This therefore feems a compliment a pofteriori. We find An- 
tony, afterwards, in this play, boafting of his own prowefs at 

Ant. 2>j, my lord, yes ; be at Philippi kept 
Hisfivord e'en like a dancer ; while IJtruck 
*3 be lean and winkled Cajjlus ; (sV. 

That was the greateft aclion of Antony's life ; and therefore this 
feems a fine piece of flatter)', intimating, that his fword ought to 
be denominated from that illuftrious battle, in the fame manner 
as modern heroes in romance are made to give their iworda pom- 
pous names. THEOBALD. 

4 Ram thou t>y fruitful tidings ] Shakefpeare probably \vrote, 
(as fir T. Hanmer observes) Rain thou &c. Rain agrees better 
with the epithets fruitful and barren. So, \nTimon; 

" Rain facrificial whifp'rings in his ear." 
Again; in the Tempejl : 

" ^-Heavens rain grace !" STEEVEN-S. 

5 But well andfree, &c.] This fpeech is but coldly imitated by" 
B. and Fletcher in The Faffe One : 

*' Cleop. What of him? Speak: if ill, Apollodorus, 
" It is my happinefs : and for thy news 
" Receive a favour kings l:ave knecl'd in vain for, 
" And kifs my hand." STHEVENS. 

" N 7 C/.V7. 


Cleo. Why, there's more gold. But, firrah, mark j 

\\ e ufe 

To fay, the dead are well : bring it to that, 
The gold I give thce, will I melt, and pour 
"Down thy ill-uttering throat. 

Msf. Good madam, hear me. 

Clso. Well, go to, I will ; 
But there's no goodncfs in thy face : If Antony 
Be free, and healthful, fotart a favour 
To trumpet fuch good tidings ? If not well, 
Thou fhouldft come like a fury crown'd with makes, 
* Not like a formal man. 

Mef. Will't pleafe you hear me ? 

Cleo. I have a mind to ftrike thee, ere thou fpeak'ft : 
Yet, if thou fay, Antony lives, is well 7 , 
Or friends with Casfar, or not captive to him, 
8 I'll fet thee in a Ihower of gold, and hail 


.* NV like a formal man."} Formal, for ordinary. 


Rather decent, regular. JOHNSON. 

By a formal man, Shakefpeare means, a man in bisfenfes. la- 
formal women, in Mtafurefor Meafure, is ufed for women be/Me 
'them) "elves. STEEVENS. 

Formal man,}, believe, only means a man inform, i. e. Jhape. 
You ihall come in the form of a fury, and not in the form or ^ 
man. So, in A mail World my Maflcrs t by Middleton, 1640: 

" The very ctpvil aflum'd thee formally." 
5. c. aflumed thy rorm. MALONE. 

7 / have a mind tojtrikethfe ere tbou fpeak'jl ; 
Tet, if thou fay, Aflioity /;:, 'tis well, 
Or friends =ivitb Ctefar, or not captive to bim, 
r II fet tbcc in ajhowtr of gold, and baif 

Ricb pearls upon thee. ] 

We furely fhould read is zvett. The meflenger is to have hisre 
v-ard, if )ie fays, that Antony is 'alive, in health, and either friends 
wid> Ceffar, or not captive to him. TYRWHITT. 

I have adopted this reading, being thoroughly Convinced of its 
probability and propriety. STEEVENS. 

8 r II fet thee in a Jho-iuer of gold, and hail 
Rich 1>ear 

pearls upon tbee.] 
I will give thee a kingdom: it being the eaflern cere- 


Rich pearls upon thec. 

Mef. Madam, he's well. 

Cko. Well faid. 

Mef. And friends with Csefar. 

Cko. Thou art an honeft man. 

Mef. Casfar and he are greater friends than ever. 

Cko. Make thee a fortune from me. 

Mef. But yet, madam, 

Cko, I do not lake but yel ', it does allay 
The good precedence; fye upon but yet : 
But yet is as a jailor to bring forth 
Some monftrous malefactor. Pr'ythec, friend, 
Pour out the pack of matter to mine ear, 
The good and bad together : He's friends with Csefar ; 
In ftate of health, thoufay'ft; and, thou fay'ft, free. 

Mef. Free, madam ! no ; I made no fuch report : 
He's bound unto Octavia. 

Cko. For what good turn ? 

Mef. For the beft turn i' the bed. 

Cleo. I am pale, Charm ian. 

Mef. Madam, he's married to Oclam. 

Cko. Tie moft infectious peftilcnce upon thee ! 

fftri&j him dawn. 

Mef. Good madam, patience. 

Cleo* What fay you ? Hence, [Strikes him again. 
Horrible villain J or I'll fpurn thine eyes 
Like balls before me; I'll unhair thy head ; 

[She hales him up and Joivn. 
Thou flialt be whrpt with wire, and flewM in brine, 

roony, at the coronation of their kings, to powder them with *old~ 
iltift lAX&J'ccd-pcarl; fo Milton : 

44 the gorgeous eaft with liberal hand 

" Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold" 
In the Life of Timur-bcc or Tamerlane, written by a Perfian con- 
temporary author, are the following words, as tranllated by Monf. 
Petit de la Croix, in the account there given of his coronation, 
book ii. chap, i, ** Les princes duffing royal fe" Ics emir* rebunAirent 
a pleines jnahisfurfa tcte quantiti d'or& at f\crre r:'ei felon la coii- 

N 4 Smarting 


Smarting in lingring pickle. 

Mef. Gracious madam, 
I, that do bring the news, made not the match. 

Cko. Say, 'tis not fo, a province I will give thee, 
And make thy fortunes proud : the blow, thou hadft, 
Shall make thy peace, for moving me to rage; 
And I will boot thee with what gift befide 
Thy modefty can beg. 

Mef. He's married, madam. 

Cko. Rogue, thou haft liv'd too long. 

[Draws a dagger 9 

Mef. Nay, then I'll run : 
V/hat mean you, madam ? I have made no fault. 


Char. Good madam, keep yourfelf within yourfelf j 
The man is innocent. 

Cleo. Some innocents 'fcape not the thunderbolt.. 
Melt ^Egypt into Nile ' ! and kindly creatures 
Turn all to ferpents ICall the Have again ; 
Though I am mad, 1 will not bite him : Call. 

Char. He is afeard to come. 

Cko. I will not hurt him : 
* Thefe hands do lack nobility, that they flrike 

* Draws a dagger.] The old copy Draw a knife. 


1 Melt JEgypt into Nile ! ] So, in the firft fcene of this 

play : 

" Let Rome in Tyber ?*//, &c." STEEVENS. 
* Tbffe haxifs do tack nobility ^ that tley Jlrike 

A meaner tlan myfelf; J 

This thought feems to be borrowed from the laws of chivalry, 
ii-hich forbad a knight to engage with his interior. So, in Albu* 
mazar : 

Stay ; underftand'it thou well the points of duel ? 
Art born of gentle blood, and pure defcent? 
Was none of all thy lineage hang'd, or cuckold } 
Baftard, or baftinado'd ? is thy pedigree 
As long and wide as mine ? for othenvife 
Thou wert moft unworthy, and 'twere lofj of honour 
*? In me to fight," STEEVSNS. 

A meaner 


A meaner than myfelf ; fmce I myfelf 

Have given myfelf the caufe. Come hither, fir. 

Re-enter Mejfenger. 

Though it be honeft, it is never good 
To bring bad news : Give to a gracious niefTage 
An hoft of tongues ; but let ill tidings tell 
Themfelvcs, when they be felt. 

Mef. I have done my duty. 

Cleo. Is he married ? 
I cannot hate thee worfer than I do, 
If thou again fay, Yes. 

Afef. He is married, madam. 

Cleo. The gods confound thec ! doft thou hold 
there ftill ? 

Mef. Should I lye, madam ? 

Cleo. O, I would, thou didft ; 
So half my ^Egypt were fubmerg'd J , and made 
A ciflern for fcal'd makes ! Go, get thee hence ; 
Hadft thou Narciffus in thy face, to me 
Thou wouldft appear moil ugly. He is married f 

Afef. I crave your highneiV pardon. 

Cleo. He is married ? 

Mef. Take no offence, that I would not offend you : 
To punifh me for what you make me do, 
Seems much unequal : He is married to O&avia. 

Cleo. O, that his fault mould make a knave of 


4 That art not what thou'rt fure of ! Get thee hence : 


3 -were fubmerg'd, } Suljntrg*J\& whelm'd under wa- 
ter, So, in the Martial Maid, by B. and Fletcher: 

* 4 fpoil'd, loft, andjulvnfrg'd in the inundation &c." 


4 That art not what tbourtjurc off'] For this, which is not 
pafily underftood, fir Thomas Hanmerhas given; 

That fay'il but ivtat thou'rt fare of. 1 

I am 


The merchandife, which thou haft brought from 


Are all too dear for me ; Lye they upon thy hand, 
And be undone by 'em ! [Exit Mejjengcr. 

Char. Good your highnefs, patience. 

Cleo. In praifing Antony, I have dilprais'd Czefar. 

Char. Many times, madam. 

Cleo. I am paid for it now. Lead me from hence, 
I faint; O Iras, Charmian, 'Tis no matter : 
Go to the fellow, good Alexas ; bid him 
Report the feature of Oftavia J , her years, 

I am not fatisfied with the change, which, though it affords fenfe, 
exhibits little fpirit. I fancy the line coniiits only of abrupt ftarts. 

O that this fault Jhould make a knave of thee^ 

That art not what ? Thou'rt fure on't. Get thee hence : 
hat bis fault jbould make a knave of thee that art but \v\\mjball I 
fay thou art not ? Thou art then fure of this marriage. Get thee 

Dr. Warburton has received fir T. Hanmer's emendation. 


In Meafure for Mcafure> act II. fc. ii. is a paflage lo much re- 
ferobling this, that 1 cannot help pointing it out for the ufe of. 
fome future commentator, though I am unable to apply it with 
fuccefs to the very difficult line before us : 

" Drert in a little brief authority, 

** Mojl ignorant of what he's mofl affur'J, 

" His glafly eflence." STEEVENS. 

Thoit art not what thou'rt fure of! ] i. e. Thou art not an 

honeft man, of which thou art thyfelf aflured, but thou art in my 
opinion a knave by thy matter's fault alone. TOLLET. 

s the feature of Oflavia, J By feature feems to be 

meant the cafl and make of her face. Feature, bo-ivever, ancient- 
ly appears to have fignified beauty in general. So, in Greene's 

Farewcl to Folly, 1617: " rich thou art, featured thou art, 

feared thou art." Sfenfer ufes feature for the whole turn of the 
fcody. Faery S>ueen, b. i. c. 8 : 

" Thus when they had the witch difrobed quite, 

" And all her filthy feature open fhown." 
Again, in b. iii. c. o : 

** She alfo doft her heavy haberjeon 

* Which the fox feature of her limbi did hide." 




Her inclination, let him not leave out 

The colour of her hair : bring me word quickly.* 

[Exit dkxas. 

* Let him for ever go : Let him not, Charmian; 
Though he be painted one way like a Gorgon, 
The other way he is a 7 Mars : Bid you Alexas 

[7b Martian, 

Bring me word, how tall me is. Pity me, Char- 

But do not fpeak to me. Lead me to my chamber. 



Near Mifenum. 

Enter Pompey, and Menas, at one door, with drum and 
trumpet : at another , C<efar y Lepldus, Antony ', Enobar- 
bus, Meaenas, with foldiers marching. 

Pomp. Your hoftages I have, fo have you mine ; 
And we fhall talk before we fight. 

Of/ Moil meet, 

That firft we come to words ; and therefore have we 
Our written purpofes before us fent : 
Which, if thou haft confider'd, let us know 
If 'twill tie up thy difcontented fword ; 
And carry back to Sicily much tall youth, 
That elfe muft pcrifh here. 

* Let him for ever go. ] She is now talking in broken fea- 

tences, not of the melienger, but Antony. JOHNSON. 

7 The other way's a Mars-. ] In this paflage the fenfe is clear 
but, I think, may be much improved by a very little alteration. 

Cleopatra, in her paffion upon the news of Antony's marriage, 
fays : 

Let him for ever go Let him not Charmian, 
Though he be painted or.e way like a Gorgon , 
The other ivay he's a Mars. 
"JThi?, I think, would be more fpirited thus : 

Let him for ever go let him no, Charmian ; 
Though he be painted \ &c. T Y R w H i T T . 


Pomp. To you all three, 
The fenators alone of this great world, 
Chief faftors for the gods, I do not know, 
Wherefore my father fhould revengers want, 
Having a fon, and friends; fince Julius C*efar, 
Who at Philippi the good Brutus ghofted, 
There faw you labouring for him. What was it, 
That mov'd pale Caffius to confpire ? And 
What made, all-honour'd, hoheft, Roman Brutus, 
With the arm'd reft, courtiers of beauteous freedom, 
To drench the' Capitol ; but that they would 
Have one man but a man ? And that is it, 
Hath made me rig my navy ; at \\hofe burden 
The anger'd ocean foams ; with which I meant 
To fcourge the ingratitude that defpightful Rome 
Caft on my noble father. 

Caf. Take your time. 

Ant. 8 Thou canft not fear us, Pompey, with thy 


We'll fpeak with thee at fea : at land, thou knowM 
How much we doo'er-count thee. 

Pomp. At land, indeed, 

Thou doft o'er-count me of my father's houfe : 
9 But, fince the cuckow builds not for himfelf, 
Remain in't, as thou may'rt. 

Lep. Be pleas'd to tell us, 
(For this is from the prefent) how you take 
The offers we have fent you. 

Caf. There's the point. 

Ant. Which do not be intreated to, but weigh 

z Trru canft not fear us ] Thou canlt not affright us with thy 
numerous navy. JOHNSON. 

9 Rut fince the cuckow builds not for Lim/lif^] Since, like the 
cuckow, that feizes the neits of other birds, you have invaded a 
hcufe which you could not build, keep it while you can. 

So, in P. Holland's tranfiation of Pliny , b. x. ch. 9 : 

' Theie (cuckows) lay alwaies ui other birds' nefts." 




What it is worth embrac'd. 

C<ef. And what may follow, 
To try a larger fortune. 

Pomp. You have made me offer 
Of Sicily, Sardinia; and I muft 
Rid all the feaof pirates : then, to fend ; 
Meafures of wheat to Rome : This 'greed upon,. . 
To part with unhack'd edges, and bear back ; 
Our targes nndinted. 
Omnes. That's our offer. 
Pomp. Know then, 

I came before you here, a man prepar'd 
To take this offer : But Mark Antony 
Put me to fomc impatience : Though I lofe 
The praife of it by telling, You muft know, 
When Caefar and your brother were at blows, 
Your mother came to Sicily, and did find 
Her welcome friendly. 

Ant. I have heard it, Pompey ; 
And am well jftudied for a liberal thanks, 
Which I do owe you. 

Pomp. Let me have your hand : 
I did not think, fir, to have met you here. 

Ant. The beds i' the eaft are foft; and thanks to you 
That call'd me, timelier than my purpofe, hither; 
For I have gain'd by it. 

Gef. Since I faw you lafl, 
There is a change upon you. 
Pomp. Well, I know not, 
1 What counts harm fortune cafls upon my face; 
But in my bofom lhall file never -come, 
To make my heart her vaffal. 
Lep. Well met here. . 
Pomp* I hope fo, Lepidus. Thus we are agreed : 

1 What couots bard fortune cafts, &c,]r Metaphor from making 
marks or lines in calling accounts in arithmetick. WAR BURTON'. 

I crave, 


I crave, our compofition may be written, 
And feaFd between us. 

C<ef. That's the next to da. 

Pomp. We'll feaft each other, ere we part; arid let u 
Draw lots, who fhall begin. 

Ant. That will I, Periipey. 

Pomp. No, Antony, take the lot : but, firtf, 
Or laft, your fine ./Egyptian cookery 
Shall have the fame. I have heard, that Julius Ca?far 
Grew* fat with feafting there. 

Ant. You have heard much. 

Pomp. I have fair meaning, fir. 

Ant. And fair words to them. 

Pomp. Then fo much have I heard ; * 
And I have heard, Apollodorus carried 

Eno. No more of that : He did fo. , 

Pomp. What, I pray you ? 

Eno. A certain queen to Csefar * in a mattrefs. 

Pomp. I know thee now ; How far'lt thou, foldier ? 

Eno. Weli; 

And well am like to do ; for, I perceive, 
Four feafts are toward. 

Pomp. Let me make thy hand ; 
I never hated thee : I have feen thee fight, 
When I have envied thy behaviour. 

Eno. Sir, 

I never lov'd you much ; but I have prais'd you, 
When you have well deferv'd ten times as much 
As I have faid you did. i 

Pomp. Enjoy thy plainnefs, 
It nothing ill becomes thee. 
Aboard my galley I invite you all : 
Will you lead, lords ? 

AH. Shew us the way, fir. 

Pomp. Come. [Exeunt. Manent Enob. and Menas. 

* toC<tfar'\ i.e. To Julius Caefar. STEEVENS. 



Men. [Ajide.'] Thy father, Pompey, would ne'er 

have made this treaty. 
You and I have known, fir. 

Eno. At fea, I think. 

Men. We have, fir. 

Eno. You have done well by water. 

Men. And you by land. 

Eno. J I will praife any man that will praife me : 
though it cannot be denied what I have done by land. 

Men. Nor what I have done by water. 

Eno. Yes, fomething you can deny for your own 
fafety : you have been a great thief by fea. 

Mm. And you by land. 

Eno. There 1 deny my land fervice. But give me 
your hand, Menas : If our eyes had authority, here 
they might take two thieves kiffing. 

Men. All men's faces are true, whatfoe'er their 
hands are. 

Eno. But there is never a fair woman has a true 

Men. No (lander ; they fleal hearts. 

Eno. We came hither to fight with you. 

Men. For my part, I am forry it is turn'd to a 
drinking. Pompey doth this day laugh away his for- 

Eno. If he do, fure, he cannot weep it back again. 

Men. You have faid, fir. We look'd not for Mark 
Antony here ; Pray you, is he married to Cleopatra ? 

Eno. Czefar's filter is call'd 

3 I -iu III praife any man that will praife me, ~\ The poet's art in 
delivering this humourous fentiment (which gives us fo very true 
and natural a pi6ture of the commerce of the world) can never be 
lufficiently admired. The confeffion could come from hone but ^ 
irank and rough charter like the fpeaker's : and the moral leflbn 
iniinuated under it, thac flattery can make its jway through the 
nioft ftubbom manners, defcrvep our ferious reflexion. 




Men. True, fir ; fhe was the wife of Caius Mar- 

Eno. But now ihe is the wife of Marcus Antonius* 

Men. Pray you, fir ? 

Eno. 'Tis true. 

Men. Then is Casfar, and he, for ever knit together* 

Eno. If I were bound to divine of this unity, I 
would not prophefy fo. 

Men. I think, the'policy of that purpofe made more" 
in the marriage, than the love of the parties. 

Eno. I think fo too. But you lhall find, the band^ 
that feems to tie their friendfhip together, will be the 
very flrangler of their amity : Gftavia is of a holy, 
cold, and flill converfation, 

Men. Who would not have his wife fo ? 
Eno. Not he, that himfelf is not fo ; which is Mark 
Antony. He will' to his Egyptian diih again': then 
lhall the fighs of Octavia blow the fire up in Casfar ; 
and, as I faid before, that which is the ftrength of 
their amity, fhall prove the immediate author of 
their variance. /Antony will ufe his affection where 
it is ; he marry'd but his occafion here. 

Men. And thus it may be. Come, fir, will you 

aboard ? 
I have a health for you. 

Eno. I lhall take it, fir :' we have us'd our throats 
in. Egypt. 
Men. Come ; let's away. [Exeunt. 




Near mount Mifenum. 
On beard Pompey's Galley < 

Mufick plays. Enter two or three Servants ivitb a ban- 

1 Serv. Here they'll be, man : 4 Some o' their plants 
are ill-rooted already, the leafl wind i' the world will 
blow them down. 

2 Serv. Lepidus is high-colour'd. 

1 Serv. s They have made him drink alms-drink. 

2 Serv. 6 As they pinch one another by the difpo- 
fition, he cries out, no more; reconciles them to his 
entreaty, and himfelf to the drink. 

1 Serv. But it raifes the greater war between him 
and his difcretion. 

2 Serv. Why, this it is to have a name in great 
men's fellowfhip : I had as lief have a reed that will 
do me no fervice, as 7 a partizan I could not heave. 

i Serv. 8 To be call'd into a huge fphere, and not 


* Some o 1 their plants ] Plants, befides its common meaning, 
is here ufed for the foot, from the Latin. JOHNSON. 

5 They have made him drink alms-drink.] A phrafe, amongft 
good fellows, to fignify that liquor of another's (hare which his 
companion drinks to eafe him. But it fatirically alludes to Caefar 
and Antony's admitting him into the triumvirate, in order to take 
off from themfelves the load of envy. WAR BURTON. 

6 As they pinch one another by the difpofition, ] A phrafe 

equivalent to that now in uie, of Touching one in ajore place, 


7 a partizan ] A pike. JOHNSON. 

8 To be call'd into a huge fphere, and not to be feen to move /"'/, 
are the holes where cycsjhould be, 'which pitifully d:f after the cketks.] 
This fpeech feems to be mutilated ; to fupply the deficiencies is 
impoflible, but perhaps the fenfe was originally approaching to this. 

To be called into a hngefphere^ and not to bejeea to move in //, is a 
VOL. VIII. O very 


to be feen to move in't, are the holes where eyes 
Ihould be, which pitifully difafter the cheeks. 

A fennel founded. Enter C<?far, Antony , Pompey, Le- 
ptdus, Agnppa, Mecxnas, Enobaybus, Menus, with 
olber Captains. 

Ant. Thus do they, fir : They take the flow o' the- 


By certain fcales i* the pyramid ; they know, 
By the height, the lownefs, or the mean 9 , if dearth, 
Or foizon, follow ' : The higher Nilus fwells, 
The more it promifes : as it ebbs, the feedfman 
Upon the (lime and ooze fcatters his grain, 
And fhortly comes to harveft. 

Lcp. You have ftrange ferpents there. 

Ant. Ay, Lepidus. 

Lcp. Your fcrpcnt of JEgypt is bred now of your 
mud by the operation of your fun : fo is your croco- 

Ant. They are fo. 

very ignominious ftate ; great offices are the holei where ryesjhould 
be, '<vbiJj, if eyes be wanting, pitifully difafter the cheeks. 


In the eighth book of the Civil IFars, by Daniel, ft. 103, is a 
pafiage which refembles this, though it will hardly ferve to explain 
it. The earl of Warwick fays to his confeflbr : 
I know that I VCRJVfJ unto a /f here 
That is ordain (I to move. It is the place 
My fate appoints me ; and the region where 
I muft, whatever happens there embrace. 
Difturbance, travail, labour, hope and fear, 
Are of that clime, ingender'd in that place : 
And aftion beft, I fee, becomes the bed : 
The ftars that have molt glory, have no reft.'* 

9 the mean, ] i.e. the middle. STFEVENS. 

1 Or iwLQ\\ follow : ] Foizon is a French word fignifying 

plenty, abundance. I am told that it is ftill in common ui'e in the 


Pomp. Sit, and fome wine. A health to Lepi- 

Lap. I am not fo well as I fhould be, but I'll ne'er 

Eno. Not 'till you have flcpt ; I fear me, you'll be 
in, 'till then. 

Lep. Nay, certainly, I have heard, the Ptolemies' 
Pyramifes are very goodly things ; without contra- 
diction, I have heard that. 

Men. Pompey, a word. [A/ide* 

Pomp. Say in mine ear : What is't? 

Men. Forfake thy feat, I do befeech thee, captain, 

And hear me fpeak a word. 

Pomp. Forbear me 'till anon. This wine for Le- 

Lep. What manner o' thing is your crocodile ? 

Ant. It is fhap'd, fir, like it felf ; and it is as broad 
as it hath breadth : it is juft fo high as it is, and 
moves with its own organs : it lives by that which 
nouriiheth it ; and the elements once out of it, ic 

Lep. What colour is it of? 

Ant. Of its own colour too. 

Lep. 'Tis a itrange ferpent. 

Ant. 'Tis fo. And the tears of it are wet, 

C#f. Will this defcription fatisfy him ? 

Ant. W T ith the health that Pompey gives him, elfe 
he is a very epicure. 

Pomp. [To Menas afidcJ} Go, hang, fir, hang ! Tell 

me of that ? away ! 
Do as I bid you. Where's the cup I call'd for ? 

Men. If for the fake of merit thou wilt hear me, 
Rife from thy ftool. 

Pomp. [Rifes, and walks afide.~] I think, thou'rt mad, 
The matter ? 

Mtn. I have ever held my cap off to thy fortunes. 
O 2 


Pomp. [To Menas.~] Thou haft ferv'd me with much 

faith : What's elfe to fay ? 
Be jolly, lords. 

Ant. Thefe quick-fands, Lepidus, 
Keep off them, for you fink. 

Men. Wilt thou be lord of all the world ? 

Pomp. What fay 'ft thou ? 

Men. Wilt thou be lord of the whole world ? That's 

Pomp. How (hall that be ? 

Men. But entertain it, 

And, though you think me poor, I am the man 
Will give thee all the world. 

Pomp. Haft thou drunk well ? 

Men. No, Pompey, I have kept me from the cup. 
Thou art, if thou dar'il be, the earthly Jove : 
Whate'er the ocean pales, or iky inclips 1 , 
Is thine, if thou wilt have it. 

Pomp. Shew me which way. 

Men. Thefe three world-fliarers, thefe competitors, 
Are in thy veffel : Let me cut the cable l ; 
And, when we are put off, fall to their throats : 
All then is thine 4 . 

Pomp. Ah, this thou ihould'ft have done, 

* "crjky Inclips,] i.e. embraces. STEEVEXS. 

3 . Let me cut the cable ;] So, in the old tnmilation of Plu- 
tarch: " Now in the middeft ot the feail, when they fell to be 
merie v.'ith Antonius loue vnto Cleopatra : Menas the pirate came 
to Pompey, and whifpering in his eare, faid unto him : fhall I cut 
the gables of the ankers, and make thee Lord not only of Sicile 
and Sardinia, but of the whole empire of Rome beiides ? Pompey 
hauing pawled a while vpon it, at length auniwered him : thou 
fhouldeft haue done it, and neuer haue told it me, but now we 
muft content vs with that we haue. As for my felfe, I was ne- 
uer taught to breake my faith, nor to be counted a traitor." 


* All then It thine.'} The old copy reads ; All there is thine. 
If alteration be necellary, we might as well give : All theirs is 
thine. All there, however, may mean ail in. the vfjJeL. STEEVENS. 



And not have fpoke of it ! In me, 'tis villany ; 
In thee, it had been good fervice. Thou muft know, 
'Tis not my profit that does lead mine honour ; 
Mine honour, it. Repent, that e'er thy tongue 
Hath fo betray'd thine act : Being done unknown, 
I fhould have found it afterwards well done ; 
But muft condemn it now. Defift, and drink. 

Men. For this, 

I'll never follow 5 thy pall'd fortunes more. 
Who feeks, and will not take, when once 'tis offer'd, 
Shall never find it more. 

Pomp. This health to Lepidus. 

Ant. Bear him aihore. I'll pledge it for him, 

Eno. Here's to thee, Menas. 

Men. Enobarbus, welcome. 

Pomp. Fill, 'till the cup be hid. 

Eno. There's a ftrong fellow, Menas. 

[Pointing to the attendant who carries off Lepidus. 

Men. Why? 

Eno. He bears 
The third part of the world, man ; See'ft not ? 

Men. The third part then he is drunk : 'Would it 

were all, 
That it might go on wheels ! 

Eno. Drink thou ; encreafe the reels. 

Men. Come. 

Pomp. This is not yet an Alexandrian feaft. 

Ant. It ripens towards it. 6 Strike the veffels, ho ! 


s tJ.y pall'd fortunes ] Pallet!, is vapid, paft its time of 
excellence ; palled wine, is wine that has loft its original fpriteli- 
r.efs. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Hift. ofCly onion Knight of the Golden Shield, &c. 

" Can comfort more the careful corps and over-palled 
ipiight." STEEVENS. 

* Strike the vtjjcb, ] Try whether the calks found as 

empty. JOHNSON. 

O 3 


Here is to Csefar. 

Caf. I could well forbear it. 
It's ijionftrous labour, when I walh my brain, 
And it grows fouler. 

Ant. Be a child o' the time. 

Caf. Poffefs it, 

I will make anfwer : but I had rather faft 
From all, four days, than drink fo much in one. 

Eno. Ha, my brave emperor ! [To Ant. 

Shall we dance now the Egyptian Bacchanals, 
And celebrate our drink. 

Pomp. Let's ha't, good foldier. 

Ant. Come, let's 'all take hands ; 
'Till that the conquering wine hath fteep'd our fenfc 
In foft and delicate lethe. 

Eno. All take hands. 

Make battery to our ears with the loud muiic : 
The while, I'll place you : Then the boy mall fing; 
7 The holding every man fhall bear, as loud 
As his ftrong fides can volly. 

[Mvjick plays. Enobarbus places them band in hand. 

I believe, ftrikt the vtfleh means no more than chink thcvejjels one 
Rgainjl the other, as a mark of our unanimity in drinking as we DOW 
faj, chink glajfes. SrEEVENS. 
7 In old editions : 

The holding every man Jkall beat, 

The company were to join in the burden, which the poet ftiles, 
the Holding. But how were they to beat this with thtirjides ? I 
am perfuaded, the poet wrote: 

The holding r~''ry manjball bear, as loud 
As his Jlrong Jides can volly. 

The breaft zndjia'es are immediately concerned in draining to fing 
as loud and forcibly as a man can. THEOBALD. 

Mr. Theobald's emendation is very plaufible ; and yet beat I 
believe to have been the poet's word, however harfti it may ap- 
pear at prefent. In Hen. VIII. we find a fimilar exprellion : 

" let the mufic knock it." STEEVEKS. 

The holding every man Jkall beat, ] Every man (hall accom- 
pany the chorus by drumming on his fides, in token of concur- 
pence and applaufe. JOHNSON. 




Come, thou monarch of the vine, 
P lumpy Bacchus, with pink eyne 8 : 
In thy vats our cares be drown* d ; 
With thy grapes our hairs be crown'd; 
Cup us 'till the world %o round ; 
Cup us, *till the world go round! 

. What would you more? Pompey, goodnight. 

Good brother, 
Let me requeft you off: our graver bufinefs 
Frowns at this levity. Gentle lords, let's part; 
You fee, we have burnt our chee-ks : ilrong knobarbe 
Is weaker than the wine ; and mine own tongue 
Splits what it fpeaks : the wild difguife hath almoft 
Antick'd us all. What needs more words ? Good 

Good Antony, your hand. 

Pomp. I'll try you on the fhore. 
Ant. And mall, fir : give's your hand. 
Pomp. 9 O, Antony, you have my father's houfe, 


8 ivitb pink ey ne :"} Dr. Johnfon, in his Dictionary favs a 
pink eye is a fmall eye, and quotes this pafTage for his authority. 
Phikeyue, however, may be red eyes : eyes inflamed with drinking, 
are very well appropriated to Bacchus. So, in Julius Co-far : 

" fuch jfrm-/ and fuch fiery eyes." 

So, Greene, in his Defence of Coney-catd/ing, 11592: " like a 
phik-cy'd ferret." Again, in a fong fung by a drunken Clown iu 
Marius and SyUa, \ 594 : 

" Thou mr.keft fome to ftumble, and many mo to fumble, 
" And me have//'-fy eyne, moil brave and jolly wine !" 


9 O, Antony, you have my fatbe r'j bou/c, ] The hillorian Patcr- 
culus fays : " Cum Pompcia ijunqm circa M'fenum pax in/fa : $>jii 
L :i <.J abj'urde cum in navi Crtfarcmque et Antcnium i\tna cx;ipcr(t, 
ill^it : In Carinis fitis fe cccnam dare : referetts hoc diclum ad loci 
nomen in quo paier na dom us ab Antonio pojjuiebaiiir" Our author, 
though he loft the joke, yet feems willing to commemorate the 
fiory . \ V A u B u R T o N . 

O 4 The 


But what ? we are friends : Come, down into the boat, 

Eno. Take heed you fall not. 
iMenas I'll not on Ihore. 

Men. No, to my cabin. 

Thefe drums ! rhefe trumpets, flutes ! what I- 
Let Neptune hear w.ebid a loud farewel 
To thefe great fellows : Sound, and be hang'd, found 
out. [Sound aflouri/h, with drums. 

Eno. Ho, fays 'a ! There's my cap. 

Men. Ho ! noble captain ! Come ! [Exeunt. 


A Plain in Syria. 

fnter Ventidius, as after conqueft ; with Silius and other 
Romans, and the dead body of Pacorus borne before him. 

Yen. Now, darting Parthia, art thou 'ftruck; and 


Pleas'd fortune does of Marcus Craflus' death 
Make me revenger. Bear the king's fon's body 
Before our army : Thy Pacorus, Orodes * ! 
Pays this for Marcus praffus. 

SiL Noble Ventidius, 

Whilft yet with Parthian blood thy fword is warm, 
The fugitive Parthians follow ; fpur through Media, 

The joke of which the learned editor feems to lament the lofs, is 
tiot preserved in the old tranflation of Plutarch, and Shakefpeare 
looked no further. STEEVENS. 

* Struck] alludes to darting. Thou whofe darts have fo often 
ftruck others, art ftruck now thyfelf. JOHNSON. 

a Thy Pacorus, Orodes /] Pacorui was the fon of OroJes, king 
of Parthia. STEEVENS, 



Mefopotamia, and the flickers whither 
The routed fly : fo thy grand captain Antony 
Shall fet thee on triumphant chariots, and 
Put garlands on thy head. 

Ven. O Silius, Silius, 

I have done enough : A lower place, note well, 
May make too great an act : For learn this, Silius ; 
Better to leave undone, than by our deed 
Acquire too high a fame, when he we ferve's away. 
Casfar, and Antony, have ever won 
More in their officer, than perfon : Soflius, 
One of my place in Syria, his lieutenant, 
For quick accumulation of renown, 
Which he atchiev'd by the minute, loft his favour. 
Who does i' the wars more than his captain can, 
Becomes his captain's captain : and ambition, 
The foldier's virtue, rather makes choice of lofs, 
Than gain, xvhich darkens him. 
I could do more to do Antonius good, 
But 'twould offend him ; and in his offence 
Should my performance perifh. 

Sll Thou haft, Ventidius, ' that, 
Without the which a foldier, and his fword, 
Grants fcarce diftindrion, Thou wilt write to 
Antony ? 

Ven. I'll humbly iignify what in his name, 
That magical word of war, we have effected ; 
How, with his banners, and his well-paid ranks, 
The ne'er-yet-beaten horfe of Parthia 
We have jaded out o' the field. 

1 that, without the which 

A foldier, and his fi'.'ord, grants fcarce diftinftion :~\ 
Grant, for afford. It is badly and obfcurely exprefled : but the 
fenfe is this, Thou hjjt that^ Ventidim, which if thou didjl want, 
there would be no diftinflionbetwcen thce and thy fword. Tou would 
le loth equally cutting andftnfelefs. This was wifdom or knowledge 
pt the world. Ventidius had told him the reafons why he did not 
purfue bis advantages : and his friend, by this compliment, ac- 
jtnow ledges them to be of weight. WAR BUR TON. 



Sil, Where is he now ? 

Ven. He purpofeth to Athens : whither with what 


The weight we muft convey with us will permit, 
We lhall appear before him. On, there ; pafs along. 




C<efar's Houfe. 
Enter Agrippa at one door, Enobarbus at another. 

Agr. What, are the brothers parted ? 

Eno. They have difpatch'd with Pompey, he is 

gone ; 

The other three are fealing. O&avia weeps 
To part from Rome : Caefar is fad ; and Lepidns, 
Since Pompey's feaft, as Menas fays, is troubled 
With the green ficknefs, 
Agr. 'Tis a nobie Lepidus. 
Eno. A very fine one : O, how he loves C^fur ! 
Agr. Nay, but how dearly he adores Mark Antony ! 
Eno, Caefar ? Why, he's the Jupiter of men. 
Agr. What's Antony ? The god of Jupiter. 
Eno. Spake you of Casfar ? How ? the nonpareil ! 
Agr. O Antony ! O thou * Arabian bird ! 
Eno. Would you praife Ca3 far, fay, Ca:far; go 

no further. 
Agr. Indeed, he plied them both with excellent 

Eno. But he loves Casfar belt ; Yet he loves 

Antony : 

Ho ! hearts, tongues, figures, fcribes, '* bards, poets, 


* Arabian llrJf\ The phoenix. JOHNSON. 

3 lards t poets , ] Not only the tautology of bards and poets, 
but the want of a correfpondent action for thepoet, whofe buiiuefs 



Think, fpeak, caft, write, fing, number, ho, his love 
To Antony. But as for Csefar, kneel, 
Kneel down, kneel down, and wonder. 

Agr. Both he loves. 

Eno. They are h is fhards, and he their beetle 4 . So,- 
This is to horfe. Adieu, noble Agrippa. [Trumpets. 

Agr. Good fortune, worthy foldier ; and farewel. 

Enter Ctffar, Antony, Lepidus, and Ottav'ia* 
Ant. No further, fir. 

in the next line is only to number, makes me fufpeft fome fault In 
this pnflage, which I know not how to mend. JOHNSON. 

I fufpeft no fault. The ancient lard fung his compofitions to 
the harp ; the poet only commits them to paper. Verfes are often 
called numbers, and to number, a verb (in this fenfe) of Shake- 
fpeare's coining, is to make verfes. 

This puerile arrangement of words was much fludied in the age 
of Shakefpeare, even by the firft writers. 

So in An excellent Sonnet of a Nymph, by Sir P. Sidney ; printed 
in E gland's Helicon, 1614 : 

* Vertue, beautie, and fpeech, did ftrike, wound, charme, 
' My heart, eyes, eares, with wonder, love, delight : 

' Firft, fecond, lait, did binde, enforce, and arme, 

' His works, fhowes, futes, with wit, grace, and vowes-might: 

' Thus honour, liking, truft, much, farre, and deepe, 

* Held, pearft, pofleii, my judgment, fence, and will; 

' Till wrongs, contempt, deceite, did grow, fteale, creepe, 

* Bands, favour, hiith, to breake, defile, and kill. 

' Then gricfe, unkindnes, proofe, tooke, kindled, taught, 
' Well grounded, noble, due, ipite, rage, difdaine : 
' But ah, alas (in vaine) my mind, fight, thought, 
' Doth him, his face, his words, leave, fhunne, refraine : 

' For nothing, time, norplace, can loofe, quench, eafc, 
" Mine own, embraced, fought, knot, fire, difeafe." 


* They are bis fliards, andbe their beetle. ] i. e. They are the 
wings that raife this hcaiy lumpijb infetf from the ground. 
So in Macleth, 

" the Jbard-l>ornc beetle." STEEVENS. 



You take from me a great part of myfelf J ; 
Ufe me well in it. Sifter, prove fuch a wife 
As my thoughts make thee, and 6 as my furtheft 


Shall pafs on thy approof. Moft noble Antony, 
Let not the piece of virtue, which is fet 
Betwixt us, as the cement of our love, 
To keep it builded, be the ram, to batter 
The fortrefs of it : for better might we 
Have lov'd without this mean, if on both parts 
This be not cherifh'd. 

Ant. Make me not offended 
In your didruft. 

C*f. I have faid. 

Ant. You lhall not find, 

Though you be therein curious *, the leaf! caufe 
For what you feem to fear : So, the gods keep you, 
And make the hearts of Romans ferve your ends ! 
We will here part. 

Off. Farewel, my deareft fifter, fare thee well ; 
* The elements be kind to thee, and make 


5 You take from me a great part of myfelf ; ] 
So in the Tempcfi : 

" I have given you here a third of my own life." 


6 <as my furtheft land~\ As I will venture the greateft 
pledge of fecurity, on the trial of thy conduit. JOHNSON. 

' - therein curious,] i. e. fcrupulous. So in the Taming 
of a Shrew : 

" For curious I cannot be with you." STEEVENS. 
8 The elements lie kind, &c.] This is obfcure. It feems to 
mean, May the different elements of the body, or principles of life t 
maintain fuch proportion and harmony as may keep you cheerful. 


The elements le kind, &c. I believe means only, May the four elt- 
tnents, of which this ivorldis compofeJ t unite their injluenccs to make 
thee cheerful. 

There is, however, a thought which feems to favour Dr. John- 
fon's explanation in The two noble Kinfmen by Beaumont, Fletcher, 
and Shakefpeare : 

- My 


Thy fpirits all of comfort ! fare thee well. 

Otta. My noble brother ! 

Ant. The April's in her eyes ; It is love's fpring, 
And thefe the Ihowers to bring it on : Be cheerful. 

Otta. Sir, look well to my huiband's houfe ; and 

C*f. What, Odavia? 

O&a. I'll tell you in your ear. 

Ant. Her tongue will not obey her heart, nor can 
Her heart inform her tongue : the fwan's down feather, 
That ftands upon the fwell at full of tide, 
And neither way inclines. 

Eno. Will Cffifar weep ? 

Agr. He has a cloud in his face. 

Eno. He were the worfe for that were he a horfe 9 ; 
So is he, being a man. 

Agr. W T hy, Enobarbus ? 
When Antony found Julius Csefar dead, 
He cried almoft to roaring : and he wept, 
When at Philippi he found Brutus flain. 

44 My precious maid, 

" Thofe beft affedions that the heavens infufe 

" In their beft temper'd pieces, keep enthron'd 

" In your dear heart !" 
Again, in Twelfth Night : 

** Does not our life confift of the four elements f Faith, fo 
they fay." 
And another, which may ferve in fupport of mine, 

** " the elements ^ 

" That know not what nor why, yet do effect 

" Rare i flues by their operance." 

Thefe parting words of Casfar to his fitter, may indeed mean no 
more than the common compliment which the occafion of her 
voyage very naturally required. He wifhes that ferene weather 
and profperous winds may keep her fpirits free from every apprehenfio* 
that might difturb or alarm them. STEEVENS. 

9 were he a horfe ;] A horfe is faid to have a cloud in his face, 
when he has a black or dark-coloured fpot in his forehead between 
his eyes. This gives him a four look, and being fuppofed to in- 
dicate an ill-temper, is of courfe regarded as a great blemifh. 




Eno. That year, indeed, he was troubled with a 

rheum ; 

What willingly he did confound, he waird : 
1 Believe it, 'till I weep too. 

Off. No, fwect Odlavia 

You fhall hear from me dill ; the time fhall not 
Out-go my thinking on you. 

Ant. Come, fir, come; 
1*11 wreftle with you in my ftrength of love : 
Look, here I have you; thus I let you go, 
And give you to the gods. 

Ctff. Adieu ; be happy ! 

Lep. Let all the number of the ftars give light 
To thy fair way ! 

C<ef. Farewel, farewel ! [Rifles ORavia. 

Ant. Farewel! [Trumpets foundi Exeunt* 

S .C E N E III. 

fhe palace in Alexandria. 
Enter Cleopatra, Cbarmiatt, Iras t and Alexas. 

Cleo. Where is the fellow ? 

Alex. Half afeard to come. 

Cleo. Go to, go to : Come hither, fir. 

Enter Meffenger. 
Alex. Good majefty, 
Herod of Jewry dare not look upon you, 
But when you are well pleas'd. 

1 Believe it y till I weep too.'] I have ventur'd to alter the tenfe 
of the verb here, againft the authority of all the copies. There 
was no fenfe in it, I think, as it ftood before. THEOBALD. 

I am afraid there was better fenfe in this paflage as it ftood be- 
fore, than Mr. Theobald's alteration will afford us. Believe />, 
(fays Enobarbus) that Antony didfo, i.e. that be wept over fuch 
an event) till you fee me weeping on the fame occafon, vjhen I Jhall be 
oW'^ed to you for putting fucb a conftruftion on my tears, which , in, 
reality ', (like ibis) will be tears of joy. I have replaced the old 
reading. Theobald reads, "//'/// wept too," STEEVENS. 


Cleo. That Herod's head 
I'll have : But how ? when Antony is gone, 
Through whom I might command it. Come thou 

Mef. Moft gracious majefty, 

Cleo. Didft thou behold 
Oftavia ? 

Mef. Ay, dread queen. 

Cleo. Where? 

Mef. Madam, in Rome 
I look'd her in the face ; and faw her led 
Between her brother and Mark Antony. 

Cleo. Is fhe as tall as me a ? 

Mef. She is not, madam. 

Cleo. Didft hear her fpeak ? Is fhe fhrill-tongu'd, 
or low ? 

Mef. Madam, I heard her fpeak ; fhe is low-voic'd. 

Cleo. That's not fo good : he cannot like her long. 

Char. Like her ? O Ifis ! 'tis impoffible. 

Cleo. I think fo, Charmian: Dull of tongue, and 

dwarfifh ! 

What majefty is in her gait ? Remember, 
If e'er thou look'dft on majefty. 

Mef. She creeps ; 

Her motion and her ftation J are as one : 
She fhews a body rather than a life ; 
A ftatue, than a breather. 

Cleo. Is this certain ? 

Mef. Or I have no obfervance. 

* Isjbcastall as we? &c. &c. &c.] Thisfcene (fays Dr. Gray) 
is a manifeft allufion to the queftions put by queen Elizabeth to 
fir James Melvil, concerning his miftrefs, the queen of Scots. 
Whoever will give himfelf the trouble to confult his Memoirs, 
will probably fuppofe the refemblance to be more than accidental. 


3 - her Nation] Station, in this inftance, means the aft of 
Jlandlng. So \\\ Hamlet : 

" Aviation like the herald Mercury." STEEVENS, 

2, Char. 


Char. Three in JEgypt 
Cannot make better note. 

Cleo. He's very knowing, 

I do perceive't: There's nothing in her yet : 
The fellow has good judgment. 

Char. Excellent. 

Cleo. Guefs at her years, I pr'ythec. 

Mef. Madam, fhe was a widow. 

Cleo. Widow ? Charmian, hark. 

Mef. And I do think, (he's thirty. 

Cleo. Bear'fl thou her face in mind ? is it long, or 
round ? 

Mef. Round even to faultinefs. 

Cleo. For the molt part too, 
They are foolim that are fo. Her hair, what colour ? 

Mef. Brown, madam : And her forehead 
As low as fhe would wifh it. 

Cleo. There's gold for thee. 
Thou muft not take my former fharpnefs ill : 
I will employ thee back again ; I find thee 
Moft fit for bufinefs : Go, make thee ready ; 
Our letters are prepar'd. 

Char. A proper marl. 

Cleo. Indeed, he is fo : I repent me much, 
That I fo harry'd him 4 . Why, methinks, by him, 
This creature's no fuch thing. 

Char. Nothing, madam. 

Cleo. The man hath feen fome majefly, and fhould 

* fo harry'd him. ] To harry, is to ufe roughly. I meet 

with the word in The Revenger's Tragedy ', 1607 : 

" He harried her, and midtt a throng, &c." 
Again, in The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntin*ton, 1601, 

** Will harry me about inftead of her." 

Holinfhed, p. 735, fpeaking of the body of Rich. III. fays, it wa 
*' harried on horfeback, dead." 

The fame expreffion had been ufed by Harding in his Chro- 
nicle. Again, Nafh ui his Lenten Stuff, 1599, " as if he 
were harrying and chafing hi enemies." STEEVENS. 



Char. Hath he feen majctfy ? Ifis elfe defend, 
And ferving you fo long ! 

Cleo. I have one thing more to afk him yet, good 

Charmian : 

But 'tis no matter ; thou fhalt bring him to me 
Where I will write: All may be well enough. 

Cbar. I warrant you, madam. [Exeunt. 


Antony's boufe at Athens. 
Enter Antony, and Oclavia. 

Ant. Nay, nay, Odtavia, not only that, 
That were excufable, that, and thoufands more 
Of femblable import, but he hath wag'd 
New wars 'gainft Pompcy ; made his will, and read it 
To public ear : 

Spoke fcantily of me : when perforce he could not 
But pay me terms of honour, cold and fickly 
He vented them ; moft narrow nieafure lent me : 
5 When the beft hint was given him, he not took it, 
Or did it from his teeth. 

Ofia. O my good lord, 
Believe not all ; or, if you mufl believe, 
Stomach not all. A more unhappy lady, 
If this divifion chance, ne'er flood between, 
Praying for both parts ; The good gods will mock 

me prefently 

When I {hall pray, O, bkfs my lord and bujband! 
Undo that prayer, by crying out as loud, 
Of blefs my brother ! Huiband win, win brother, 
Prays, and deftroys the prayer ; no midway 
'Twixt thcfe extremes at all. 

5 When the left lint was given L!m t /?> o'erlook'd. 

Or did it from his teeth.'] 

The firft folio reads, not look'd. Dr. Thirlhy ndvis'd the emen- 
dation which I have inferred in the text. TKSOBAJLD. 

VOL. VIII. 1> Ant. 


A:t. Gentle Odavia, 

Let your belt love draw to that point, which feeks 
Be ft to preferve it : If I lofe mine honour, 
I lofe myfelf : better I were not yours, 
Than yours fo branchlefs. But, as you requested, 
Yourfclf lhall go between us : 6 The mean time, lady, 
J'll raifc the preparation of a war 
Shall ftain your brother : Make your fooneft hafte ; 
So your deiires are yours. 

Ofta. Thanks to my lord. 

The Jove of power make me mofl weak, moft weak, 
Your reconciler ! 7 Wars 'twixt you twain would be 
As if the world ihould cleave, and that flain men 
Should folder up the rift. 

Ant. When it appears to you where this begins, 
Turn your difpleafure that way ; for our faults 
Can never be fo equal, that your love 
Can equally move with them. Provide your going ; 
Choofe your own company, and command what coft 
Your heart has mind to. [Exeunt. 

* the mean time, lady, 

I'll ralj'e the preparation of a "Mar 

Shall ftain your brother ; ] 

Thus the printed copies. But, fure, Antony, whofe bufincfs 
here is to mollify Odtavia, does it with a very ill grace : and 'tis 
a very odd way of* fatisfying her, to tell her the war, he raifes, 
(hall J'tain, i. e. caft an odium upon her trjther. I have no 
doubt, but we muft read, with the addition only of a fingte 

Shall ftrain jwzr brother ; 

i. e. (hall lay him under conftraints; fliall put him to fnch fliifrs, 
that he (hall neither be able to make a progrefs againrt, or to pre- 
judice me. Plutarch fays, that O&avius, underfhnJing the Cud- 
den and wonderful preparations of Antony, was alionifh'd at it ; 
for he himfelf was in many wants ; and the people were forely op- 
preflcdwith grievous exactions. THEOBALD. 

I do not fee but ftain may be allowed to remain unaltered, 
meaning no more tianjbamc or difgrace. JOHNSON. 

7 wars 'twixt you twain would Ic, &c.] The fenfe is, that 
warbetween Cscfar and Antony would engage the world between 
them, aud that the (laughter would be great in fo extenlive a 
commotion. JOHNSON. 




The fame. 
Enter Enobarbus, and Eros. 

Eno. How now, friend Eros ? 

Eros. There's flrange news come, fir. 

Eno. What, man ? 

Eros. Cefar and Lepidus have made wars upon 

Eno. This is old ; What is the fuccefs ? 

Eros. Caefar, having made ufe of him in the wars 
'gainft Pompey, prefently denied him * rivality ; 
would not let him partake in the glory of the action : 
and not refling here, accufes him of letters he had 
formerly wrote to Pompey ; 9 upon his own appeal, 
feizes him : So the poor third is up, 'till death en- 
large his confine. 

Eno. l Then 'would thou had'fl a pair of chaps, no 

more ; 

And throw between them all the food thou haft, 
They'll grind the other. Where is Antony ? 

Eros. He's walking in the garden thus ; andfpurns 
The rum that lies before him : cries, Fool, Lepidus! 
And threats the throat of that his officer, 
That murder'd Pompey., 

* rivalify.] Equal rank. JOHNSON. 

9 Upon his tnvn appeal,~\ To appeal, in Shakefpeare, is to accufei 
Caefar feized Lepidus without any other proof than Caefar's ao 
cufation. JOHNSON. 

1 Then Vw/A/ tbou bacTft a pair of chaps , no more", and throw 
let-iveen them all the food thou haft, they'll grind the other. Where's 
Antony ?] This is obfcure, I read it thus, 

Then, world, thou haft a pair of chaps, no more t 
And fhro'iv between them all the food thou hajl, 
They'll grind the one the other. Where's Antony ? 
Csefar and Antony will make war on each other, though they 
iwvc the world to prey upon between them. 
P 2, 


Eno. Our great navy's rigg'd. 

Eros.' For Italy, and Czefar. 2 More, Domitius ; 
My lord dcfires you'prefently : my news 
I might have told hereafter. 

Eno. 'Twill be naught : 
But let it be. Bring me to Antony. 

Eros. Come, fir. [Exeitni. 

S C E, N E VI. 

Rome. C^far's loufe. 
Enter Co-far, dgrippa, and Macaias. 

Ccf. Contemning Rome, he has done all this : And 

more ; 

In Alexandria, here's the manner of it, 
T the market-place J , on a tribunal filver'd, 
Cleopatra and himfelf in chairs of gold 
Were publickly enthron'd : at the feet, fat 
Czefarion, whom they call my father's fon ; 
And all the unlawful iiiue, that their luft 
Since then hath made between them. Unto her 

* jl/fln-, Domitius ;~\ I have fomething more to tell you, 
which I might have told at firft, and delayed my news. Antony 
requires your pretence. JOHNSON. 

3 /' tie market-place, ] So in the old tranflation of Plutarch. 
' For he aifembled all the people in the ihovv place, where younge 
men doe exercile them felues, and there vpon a high tribunal? 
filuered, he fet two chayres of gold, the one tor him felfe, and 
the other for Clecpatra, and lower chaires for his children : then- 
he openly published before the affembly, that firft of nil he did 
eftablifn Clecpatra queene of Egypt, of Cyprvs, of Lyuia, and of 
the lower Syria, and at that time alfo, Caefarion king of the fame 
realmes. This Csefarion was iuppofed to be the Ibnne of Julius 
Csefar, who had left Cleopatra great with child. Secondly, he 
called the fonnes he. had by her, the kings of kings, -and gaue 
Alexander for his portion, Armenia, Media, and Parthia, when 
he had conquered the contry : and vnto Ptolemy for his portion, 
Phcnicia, Syria, and Cilicia." STEEVENS. 



He gave the 'flablifhment of JEgypt ; made her 
Of lower Syria, Cyprus, 4 Lydia, 
Abfolute queen. 

Mac. This in the public eye? 

C*f. Pthe common mew-place, where they ex- 


His fons he there proclaim'd, The kings o f k ngs : 
Great Media, Parthia, and Armenia, 
He gave to Alexander ; to Ptolemy he aflign'd 
Syria, Cilicia, and Phoenicia : She 
In the habiliments of the goddefs Ifis 5 
That day appear'd ; and ott before gave audience, 
As 'tis reported, fo. 

Mec. Let Rome be thus 

Agr. Who, queafy with his infolence 
Already, will their good thoughts call from him. 

C#f. The people kno'.v it ; and have now received 
His accufations. 

Avr. Whom docs he accufe ? 

C<zf. C^far : and that, having in Sicily 
Sextus Pcmpeius fpoil'd, we had not rated him 
His part o' the ifle : then does he fay, he lent me 
Some Shipping unreflor'd : laftly, he frets, 

* For LyJia, Mr. Upton, from Plutarch, has reilored Lylia. 


In the tranflation from the French of Ainyot, by Tho. North, 
in ioiio, 1^9-'', \\illbefeenatoncetheoriginofthianv . 
"' Firil of all he tlid eftablifli Cleopatra queen of JEgypt, of Cy- 
prus, ot LyJ:a y and the lower Syria." FARMER. 

5 the gos/tfffs 7/fj] So in the old trantlution of Plutarch. 

" Now f >r Cleopatra, ihe cid not onely weare at that time (but 
nt all other times els when Ihe came abroad^ rhe apparell of the 
godddSe Ills, and fo gaue audience vnto all her fubje<fts, as u new 

I fiird the charafter of this work pretty early delineated : 
" ' Twns Greek at niit, tl^' Greek was Latin made, 
That L-nin French, that French to English ftraid : 
'J'hus 'twixt OHC Plutarch there'* mere <iifference, 
.Than i' th* fame Englilhajan rtrui n'd from Fiance.** 


P ; That 


That Lepidus of the triumvirate 

Should be depos'd ; and, being, that we detain 

-All his revenue. 

Agr. Sir, this fliould be anfwer'd. 

Caf. 'Tis done already, and the meflenger gone* 
I have told him, Lepidus was grown too cruel ; 
That he his high authority abus'd, 
And did deferve his change : for what I have con- 

. quer'd, 

I grant him part ; but then, in his Armenia, 
And other of his conquer'd kingdoms, I 
Demand the like. 

Msc. He'll never yield to that. 

Gef. Nor mull not then be yielded to in this. 

Enter Oftavia. 
Ofta. Hail, Casfar, and my lord ! hail, moft dear 

C<ef. That ever I fhould call thee, caft-away ! 

Ofla. You have not call'd me fo, nor have yoq, 

Qef. Why have you ftol'n upon us thus ? You 

come not 

Like Csefar's filler : The wife of Antony 
Should have an army for an ufher, and 
The neighs of horfe to tell of her approach, 
Long ere fhe did appear : the trees by the way, 
Should have borne men ; and expectation fainted, 
Longing for what it had not : nay, the duft 
Should have afcended to the roof of heaven, 
Rais'd by your populous troops : But you are come 
A market-maid to Rome; and have prevented 
The orientation of our love, which, left unihewn^ 
Is often left unlov'd : we fhould have met you 
By fea, and land ; fupplying every ilage 
With an augmented greeting. 


Oft a. Good my lord, 

To come thus was I not conftrain'd, but did it 
On my free will. My lord, Mark Antony, 
Hearing that you prepar'd for war, acquainted 
My grieved ear withal ; whereon, I begg'd 
His pardon for return. 

Caf f 6 Which foon he granted, 
Being an obftrudt 'tween his lull and him. 

Ofta. Do not fay fo, my lord. 

Caf. I have eyes upon him, 
And his affairs come to me on the wind* 
Where is he now ? 

Ofta. My lord, in Athens. 

Caf. No, my mod wronged fitter ; Cleopatra 
Hath nodded him to her. He hath given his empire 
Up to a whore ; who now are levying 
7 The kings o' the earth for war : He hath aiTcmblcd 
Bocchns, the king of Libya ; Archelaus, 
Of Cappadocia ; Philadelphos, king 
Of Paphlagonia ; the Thracian king, Adallas ; 
King Malchus of Arabia ; king of Pont ; 
Herod of Jewry ; Mithridates, king 
Of Comagene ; Polemon and Amintas, 
fhe kings of Mede, and Lycaonia, 
With a more larger lift of fcepters. 

* IVhicb foon be granted, 

Being an abftradt 'tween hhluft and him. ,] 

Antony very foon comply M to let O&avia go at her requeft, fays 
Caefar ; and why ? Becaufe flie was an abftratt between his inor- 
dinate paflion and him ; this is abfurd. We mud read, 

Being an obftrut 'tween his lujl and him, 

i. e. his wife being an obitru&ion, a bar to the profecutlon of his 
wanton pleafures with Cleopatra. WAR BURTON. 

7 Mr. Upton remarks, that there are fome errours in this enu- 
meration of the auxiliary kings : but it is probable that the au- 
thour did not much wifli to be accurate. JOHNSON. 
Mr. Upton propofes to read : 

** Polemon and Amintas 

" Of Lycnonia ; and the king of Mede." 
And {his obviates all impropriety. STEEVENS. 

P 4 Off A 


Qfta. Ay me, moil wretched, 
That have my heart parted betwixt two friends, 
That do afflid: each other ! 

Caf. Welcome hither : 

Your letters did withhold our breaking forth ; 
'Till we perceived, both how you were wrong led, 
And we in negligent danger. Cheer your heart : 
Be you not troubled with the time, which drives 
O'er your content thefe ftrong ncceffities ; 
But let determin'd things to de'Ji'ny 
Hold unbewail'd their way. Welcome to Rome ; 
Nothing more dear to me. You are abus'd 
Beyond the mark of thought : and the high gods, 
To do you juftice, make their minifters 
Of us, and thole that love you. Be of comfort 8 $ 
And ever welcome to us. 

Agr. Welcome, lady. 

Mec. Welcome, dear madam* 
Each heart in Rome does love and pity you ; 
Only the adulterous Antony, moft large 
In his abominations, turns you off; 
And gives his 9 potent regiment to a trull, 
That noifes it againft us. 

8 Be of comfort.'] The old ooyyBcft of comfort. STEEVENS, 

9 potent regiment ] Regiment, is, government, authority ; he 
puts \\\s power and his empire into the hands of a falfe woman. 

It may be obferved, that trull \vas not, in our author's time, a 
term of mere infamy, but a word of flight contempt, as wench is 
now. JOHNSON. 

Regiment is ufed for regimen or government by moil of our an- 
cient writers. The old tranflatioa of the Scbela Salcrnitana t ij 
called the Rcgin:cnt of He/to. 
Again, in Lylly's Ji'owi in the IToon, i 597 : 

" Or Hn\.tr in I^luto's regiment." 
Again, in S; enicr's F, , B. II. c. x : 

*' So ;v'-n he ha>: rcli/n'd his regiment" 

Trull is not employed in an unfavourable feme by G. Peele in the 
Song or Ccridon and Mel.nt'pus, pubiifned in England's Helicon: 
" When fwaines fwect pipes are putt, and truh arc \varme." 



Ocia. Is it fo, fir ? 

Ctf. Moil certain-. Sifter, welcome : Pray you, 
e ever known to patience : My deareft lifter ! 



/Intones camp t near the promontory of Aftium. 
Enter Cleopatra, and Enobarbus. 

Cleo. I will be even with thee, doubt It not. 

Eno. But why, why, why ? 

Cleo. Thou haft * forfpoke my being in thefg 

wars ; 

And fay 'ft, it is not fit. 
Eno. Well, is it, is it ? 

Again, in Damtetas's Jigge in praife of his love, by John WooN 
ton ; printed in the fame collection : 

' be thy mirth feene ; 

** Heard to each hvaine, feene to each /;#//." STEEVENS. 

1 forfpcke my being ] To forfpealt^ is to contrad'tR^ to 

fpcak agauift, as forbid is to order negatively. JOHNSON. 
Thus, in the Arraignment of Paris, 1580: 

_thy \\feforfpoJte by love." 

To for/peak like\vife fignifieJ to curfe. So in Drayton's Ep'-Jlle 
from Elinor Cobham to Duke Humphrey : 

" Or toferfotak whole flocks as they did feed." 
foforfpeaJt, in the laft initance, has the fame power as to forbid 
in MaL-5ftb : 

" He faall live a man forW 
So to for think meant anciently to repent, 

" Thertore of it be not to boolde, 

' Lelt ti\ou for think it when thou art olde." 

Interlude ofToutb, bl. 1. no date. 

And in Gower, De Confcjjione Amantis^ b. i. to forjhape is to 

" Out of a man into a ftone 

' Fnrfbape, &-c." 
Toforfyeak has genernlly reference to the mifchiefs effected by 

enchantment. So in Ben Jonfon's Staple of Nt^vs^ '" a 

\vitcii, golUp to fcrjj. :-ak the mutter thus.'' In SLukefpeare it is 

j lite of bfftca':, ii T E V E K S. 



Cko. Is't not denounc'd againft us ? Why Ihould 

not we 
Be there in perfon * ? 

Eno. [4fide.~] Well, I could reply : 

If we iliould ferve with horfe and mares together, 
The horfe were merely loft ; the mares would bear 
A foldier, and his horfe. 

Cko. What is't you fay ? 

Eno. Your prefence needs muft puzzle Antony ; 
Take from his heart, take from his brain, from his 


What fliould not then be fpar'd. He is already 
Traduc'd for levity ; and 'tis faid in Rome, 
That Photinus an eunuch, and your maids, 
Manage this war. 

Cleo. Sink Rome; and their tongues rot, 
That fpeak againft us ? A charge we bear i' the war, 
And, as the prefident of my kingdom, will 
Appear there for a man. Speak not againft it ; 
I will not ftay behind. 

Eno. Nay, I have done : Here conies the em- 

Enter .Antony, and Camdius. 

Ant. Is it not ftrange, Canidius, 
That from Tarentum, and Brundufium, 
He could fo quickly cut the Ionian fea, 
And take in Toryne 8 ? You have heard on't, Aveet? 


* /// not denounc'd again/I us ? &c.] I would read : 

** Is't not ? Denounce againft us, why fhould not we 
*' Be there in perfon ?" TYRWHITT. 

1 y?tf*/takc in Toryne.~\ To take in is to gain by conqueft, 
So in the 1 8th Song of Drayton's Polyolbion : 

" He took ftrong I very /', &c." 
Again, in Knolles's Hi//, of the Turks : 

*' He lent, &c. to take in the other cities of Tunis." 


CUo. Celerity is never more admir'd, 
Than by the negligent. 

Ant. A good rebuke, 

Which might have well becom'd the beft of men, 
To taunt at flacknefs. Canidius, we 
Will fight with him by Tea. 

Cleo. By fea ! What elfe ? 

Can. Why will my lord do fo ? 

Ant. For that he dares us to't. 

Eno. So hath my lord dar'd him to (ingle fight. 

Can. Ay, and to wage this battle at Pharfalia, 
Where Casfar fought with Pompey : But thefe offers, 
Which ferve not for his vantage, he lhakes off; 
And fo fhould you. 

Eno. Your Ihips are not well mann'd : 
Your mariners are muleteers *, reapers, people 
Ingroft by fwift imprefs ; in Casfar's fleet 
Are thofe, that often have 'gainfl Pompey fought : 
Their fiiips are yare ; yours, heavy 5 : No difgrace 
Shall fall you for refufing him at fea, 
Being prepar'd for land. 

Ant. By fea, by fea. 

Eno. Moft worthy fir, you therein throw away 
The abfolute foldierfnip you have by land ; 
Diftract your army, which doth molt confift 
Of war-mark'd footmen ; leave unexecuted 
Your own renowned knowledge ; quite forego 

Again, in the Poly oil ion, Song I : 

" Where tak<g in the towns pretended to belong 
*' Unto that Grecian lord, &c." 
Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, chap. 3 : 

. *' He therefore, landing took in Crete, &c." STEETEICS. 
* muleteers, ] The old cpv reads mditen. MA LOME. 

5 Their fops arc yare; years heavy; ] So in fir Tho. 

North's Plntarcb. " Casfar's fliips were not b'.iilt for pomp, 
hifi[h and great, &c. but they were light ofyarage," Tare gene- 
Hilly fijjnifies, Jrxtrou*, manageable. 
in Goxver, DtCtitftjioileAmantls, lib. v. fol. loi.b. 

*' The wiuUc was good, the. fhip was var*.' J STEEVEVS. 



The way which promifes afTurance ; and 
Give up yourfelf merely to chance and hazard, 
From firm fecurity. 

Ant. I'll fight at fea. 

Cleo. I have fixty fails, Carfar none better. 

Ant. Our overplus of fliipping will we burn ; 
And, with the refc full-mann'd, from the head of 


Beat the approaching C^far. But if we fail, 
We then can do't at land. Thy bufinefs ? 

Enter a Mejfenger. 

Mef. The news is true, my lord ; he is defcried ; 
Casfar has taken Toryne. 

Ant. Can he be there in perfon ? 'tis impoflible ; 
Strange, that his power Ihouid be. Canidius, 
Our nineteen legions thou ihalt hold by kind, 

our twelve thoufand horfe : We'll to our fhip j 
, my Thetis * ! How now, worthy foldicr ? 

Enter a Soldier. 

Sold. O noble emperor 6 , do not fight by fea ; 
Truft not to rotten planks : Do you mifdoubt 
This fvvord, and thefe my wounds ? Let the ^Egyp- 

* my Thetis ! ] Antony addrefles Cleopatra by the name 

of tliis fea-nymph, becaufe fhe had jult promifcd him alFiilance in 
his naval expedition. STEEVENS. 

* O nolle emperor, feV.] So in the old tranflation of Plutarch. 
11 Now, as he was fettinghis men in order of battcl, there was a 
captaine, & a valliant man, that had ferued Antonius in many 
battels 8c conflicts, &c had all his body hacked & cut .- who as An- 
tonius pafled by him, cryed out vnto him, & fnyd : O, noble 
emperor, how commeth it to pafie that you truft to there vile 
brittle (hippes ? wh^t, doe you miiiruft thefe woundes of myne, 
and this iword ? let the jEgyptia:;s and Phaenicians fight by fea, 
and fet vs on the mnine land, where we vfe to cor/jr-er, or to be 
fl'.iyne on our feete. Antonius pafled by him, ano fayd nciicr a 
word, but only beckoned to him with his hand and head, as 
though he willed him to be of good cor::ge, although indeede he 
had no great corage himfeife." STEEVENS. 



And the Phoenicians, go a ducking; we 
Have us'd to conquer, {landing on the earth, 
And fighting foot to foot. 

Ant. Well, well, away. 

[Exeunt Antor.y, Cleopatra, and Enobarbus. 

Sold. 9 By Hercules, I think, I am i' the right. 

Can. Soldier, thou art : but his whole action grows 
Not in the power on't : So our leader's led, 
And we are women's men. 

Sold. You keep by land 
The legions and the horfe whole, do you not ? 

Can. Marcus Odavius, Marcus Jufteius, 
Publicola, and Qelius, are for fea : 
F)Ut we keep whole by land. This fpecd of Cgefar'a 
Carries beyond belief. 

Sold. While he was yet in Rome, 
His power went out in fuch ' diitradtions, as 
Beguil'cl all fpies. 

Can. Who's his lieutenant, hear you ? 

Sold. They fay, one Taurus. 

Can. Well I know the man. 

Efi/cr a Mejjenger. 

Mef. The emperor calls Canidius. 

Can. With news the time's with labour ; and throws 

Each minute, fome. [Exeunt. 

9 By Hercules, I* think, lam ? the right. 

Can. Soldier, theu art ; but his whole aftion grows 

Not in the power on't : ] 

That is, his whole conduct becomes, ungoverned by the right, or 
by reafon. JOHNSON". 

* diftraflions ] Detachments; feparate bodies. JOHNSON. 
The word is thus ufed by fir Paul Rycaut in his Maxims of 

Turk'Jb Polity : " and not fuffer his afie6lions to \vander on 

other wives, Haves, or diJiraflioHs of his love." STEKVUNS. 



Defame. A Plain. 

Enter Cafar, Taurus, Officers, 6ft*. 

C<ef. Taurus. 

Taur. My lord. 

O/ Strike not by land ; keep whole : provoke not 


'Till we have done at fea. Do not exceed 
The prefcript of this fcrowl : Our fortune lies 
Upon this jump. [Exeunt. 

Enter Antony, and Enobarbus. 

Ant. Set we our fquadrons on yon' fide o' the hill. 
In eye of Casfar's battle ; from which place 
We may the number of the Ihips behold, 
And fo proceed accordingly. [Exeunt. 

Enter Canidius, marching witb his land army one way over - 
the ft age ; and Taurus, the lieutenant of C<Jar, the other 
way. After their going in, is heard the noife ofafea- 
fght. Alarum. Enter Enobarbus. 

Eno. Naught, naught, all naught ! I can behold no 

longer : 

2 The Antoniad, the ^Egyptian admiral, 
With all their fixty, fly, and turn the rudder ; 
To fee't, mine eyes are blafted. 

Enter Scarus. 

Scar. Gods, and goddefles, 
All the whole fynod of them ! 

* 77* Ar.toniaJ, &c.] Which Plutarch fays, was the name of 
Cleopatra's fhip. POPE. 



Eno. What's thy paffion ? 

Scar. 5 The greater cantle of the world is loft 
\V"ith very ignorance ; we have kifs'd away 
Kingdoms and provinces. 

JLno. How appears the fight ? 

Scar. On our fide like the 4 token'd peftilence, 
Where death is lure. Yon' s ribald nag of ^Egypt, 


3 The greater cantle "] A piece or lump. POPE. 
Cantle is rather a corner. Czfar in this play mentions the three- 
*0dtVwr& Of this triangular world every triumvir had a cor- 
ner. JOHNSON. 

The word is ufed by Chaucer in the Knight's Tale, late edit, 
v. 5010 : 

" Of no partie necantelof a thing." STEEVENS. 

* taken* d ] Spotted. JOHNSON. 

The death of thofe viiited by the plague was certain when par- 
ticular eruptions appeared on the Ikin ; and thefe were called GoJ's 
tokens. So, in the comedy of T--VO ivife Men and all the reft Fools, 
in feven adts, 1619 : " A will and a tolling bell are as prefent 
death as Goers tokens." Again, in Herod and Antipater, 1622: 
** His ficknefs, madam, rage ill like a plague 
** Once fpotted, never cur'd." 
Again, in 'love's Labour's Lofl : 

" For the Lord's tokens on you both I fee." STEEVENS. 

5 ribald ] A luxurious f^uanderer. POPE. 

The word is in the old edition ribaudrtd, which I do not under- 
fland, but mention it, in hopes others may raife fome happy con- 
jecture. JOHNSON. 

A ribald is a lewd fellow. So, in Aracn r.f Fc--jcrjbam % \ 592 : 
*' ... . i. that injurious riball that attempts 
** To vyolate my dear wyve's chaltity." 
Again : 

'* Injurious ftrumpet and thou ribald knave." 
Rilaudrcd, the old reading, is, I believe, no more than a cor- 
ruption. Shakefpeare, who is not always very nic about his ver- 
iitication, might have written : 

Ton ribald-rid nag of Egypt, 

i. e. Yon ftrumpet who is common to every wanton fellow. It 
appears however from Barrett's Alvcaric, i;8c, that the word 
was fometimes written ri&amArotts. STEEVENS. 

'Ton ribahl nzg of jJLgypt,} I believe we fliQuld read bag* 

What follows feems to prove it : 

" She once being looft, 

*' The noble ruin of her magic, Anton jf, 

" Clapiou his fei-wing.- TVIIWHITT. 



horn leprofy o'crtake ! i' the midft o' the fight^ * 
When vantage like a pair of twins appear'd, 
Both a> the lame, or rather ours the elder, 
The brize upon her 7 , like a cow in June, 
Hoifts fails, and flies. 

Ena. That 1 beheld : 

Mine eyes did ficken at the fight, and could not 
Endure a further view. 

Scar. She once being looft 8 , 
The noble ruin of her magic, Antony, 
Claps on his fea-wing, and, like a doating mallard. 
Leaving the fight in he ; ght, flies after her: 
I never law an action of fuch fhame ; 
Experience, manhood, honour, ne'er before 
Did violate fo itfelf. 

Eno. Alack, alack! 

Enter Canidius. 

Can. Our fortune on the fea is out of breath, 
And finks moft lamentably. Had our general 

The brieze, or ceftrum, the fly that flings cattle, proves that 
nag is the right word. JOHNSON. 

6 Whom leprojy overtake ! ] Leprrfy, an epidemical diftemper 
of the ^Egyptians ; to which Horace probably alludes in the con- 
troverted line : 

* ' Contaminato cum grege turplum 

*' Morbo virorttm." JOHNSON. 

Leprojy was one of the various names by which the Lues vene- 
rea was uiftinguiihed. So, in Greene's Difputation between a He 
Concycatcbcr and a She Coney catcher ^ 1592: " Into what jeopardy 
a man will thruit himfelf for her that he loves, altho' for his fvveete 
villanie he be brought to loathfbine leprofie.^ STEEVENS. 

7 The brize upon her, ] The Iri^e is the. gad-Jiy. So, in 

Spenfer : 

" a Irize, a fcorned little creature, 

*' Through his fair hide his angry iting did threaten." 


8 lelng looft,] To Jonf is to bring a (hip clofe to the wind. 

This expreflion is in the old tranflation of riutarch. STEEVENS. 



Been what he knew himfelf, it had gone well : 
O, he has given example for our flight, 
Moft grofsly, by his own. 

Eno. Ay, are you thereabouts ? Why then, good 


Can. Towards Peloponnefus are they fled. 

Scar. 'Tis cafy to't; and there will I attend 
What further comes. 

Can. To Csefar will I render 
My legions, and my horfc ; fix kings already 
Shew me the way of yielding. 

Eno* I'll yet follow 

The wounded chance of Antony 9 , though my reafon 
Sits in the wind againft me. [Exeunt. 


tfhe palace in Alexandria, 

Enter Antony, with Eros, and other attendants. 

Ant. Hark, the land bids me tread no more upon't, 
It is afham'd to bear me ! Friends, come hither ; 
I am fo ' lated in the world, that I 
Have lofl my way for ever : I have a ihip 

The wounded chance of Antony, ] I know not whether the au- 
thor, who loves to draw his images from the fports of the field, 
might not have written : 

The wounded chafe of Antony, - 

The allulion is to a deer wounded and chafed, whom all other 
deer avoid. I will, fays Enobarbus, follow Antony, though chafed 

The common reading, however, may very well ftand. 


1 .- ..... ~fo lated in the war/*/, ] Alluding to a benighted 
traveller. JOHNSON. 
So, in Macbeth, aft III : 

* Now fpurs the lated traveller apace." STEEYENS, 

VOL. VIII. O Laden 


Laden with gold ; take that, divide it ; fly, 
And make your peace with Casfar. 

Omnes. Fly ! not we. 

Ant. I have fled myfelf ; and have inftru&ed cowards 
To run, and lhc\v their ftioulders. Friends, be gone : 
I have myfelf refolv'd upon a courfe, 
Which has no need of you ; be gone : 
My treafure's in the harbour, take it. O, 
I follow'd that I blufh to look upon : 
My very hairs do mutiny ; for the white 
Reprove the brown for rafhnefs, and they them 
For fear and doating. Friends, be gone ; you fhall 
Have letters from me to fome friends, that will 
Sweep your way for you. Pray you, look not fad, 
Nor make replies of lothnefs : take the hint 
Which my defpair proclaims ; let that be left 
Which leaves itfelf : to the fea fide ftraightway : 
I will poflefs you of that fliip and treafure. 
Leave me, I pray, a little : pray you now : 
Nay, dofo; for, indeed, * I have loft command, 
Therefore I pray you : I'll fee you by and by. 

Enter Eros, and Cleopatra, led ly Charm'ian and Iras. 

Eros. Nay, gentle madam, to him : Comfort him. 

Iras. Do, moil dear queen. 

Char. Do ! Why, what elfe ? 

Cleo. Let me fit down. O Juno ! 

Ant. No, no, no, no, no. 

Eros. See you here, fir ? 

Ant. O fye, fye, fye. 

Char. Madam, 

Iras. Madam ; O good emprefs ! 
Eros. Sir, fir, 

*" I've lofl command^] I am not maker of my own emotions. 


Surely, he rather means, I intreat you to leave me, becaufe 
J have Icil ;:I1 power to cttmiMnd your abfence. STEEVENS. 



Ant. Yes, my lord, yes; 'He, at Philippi, kept 
His fword even like a dancer; while I ftruck 
The lean and wrinkled Caffius ; 4 and 'twas I, 
That the mad Brutus ended : 5 he alone 


3 He, at Philippi, kept 

Hisfvjord even like a dancer , ] 

[n the Morifco, and perhaps anciently in the Pyrrhick dance, the 
iancers held fvvords in their hands with the points upward. 

JOHN so v. 

I am told that the peafants in Northumberland have a fiuorj- 
dance which they always praftife at Chriftmas. STEEVENS. 

The Goths in one of their dances held fwords in their hands with 
the points upwards, fhcathed and unfheathed. Might not the 
Moors in Spain borrow this cuftom of the Goths who intermixed 
viththem? TOLLET. 

I believe it means that Csefar never offered to draw his fword, 
>ut kept it in the fcabbard, like one who dances with a fword on, 
.vhich was formerly the cuftom in England. There is a fimilar 
illufion in Titus Andromcus, act II. fc. i : 

** our mother, unadvis'd, 

" Gave you a dancing rapier by your fide." STE EVENS. 
* and 'hvas /, 

That the mad Brutus ended:-- ] 

Nothing can be more in character, than for an infamous debauch- 
:d tyrant to call the heroic love of one's country and publick li- 
)erty, madnefs. WAR BUR TON. 
s he alone 

Dealt on lieutenant^,] 

[ know not whether the meaning is, that Cajfar acted only as 
ieutenant at Philippi, or that he made his attempts only on lieu- 
:enants, and left the generals to Antony. JOHNSON. 

Dealt on lieutenantry , I believe, means only, fought ly proxy, 
"nade war by his lieutenants, or, on the ftrength of his lieutenants. 
3o, in the countefs of Pembroke's Antonie, 1 595 : 

" > CaiTms and Brutus ill betid, 

" March'd againft us, by us twice put to flight, 
" But by my fole condu<5l ; for all the time, 
" Cxfar' heart-lick with fear and leaver lay." 
To deal on any thing, is an exprelTion often ufed in the old 
plays. So, \ntheRoaringGtrI, 1611: 

14 You vvill deal upon men's wives no more." 
rhe prepofitions ox and upon are fometimes oddly employed by our 
ancient writers. So, in Drayton's Mife ries of %. Margaret ; 
" That it amaz'd the marchers, to behold 
" Men fo ill arm'd upon their bows fo bold." 

Q 2 Upon 


Dealt on lieutenantry, and no practice had 

In the brave fquares of war : Yet now No matter. 

Cleo. Ah, ftand by. 

Eros. The queen, my lord, the queen. 

Iras. Go to him, madam, fpeak to him ; 
He is unquality'd with very fhame. 

Cleo. Well then, Suftain me : O ! 

Eros. Moft noble fir, arife ; the queen approaches; 
Her head's declin'd, and 6 death will feize her ; but 
Your comfort makes the refcue. 

'Ant. I have offended reputation; 
A moft unnoble fwerving. 

Eros. Sir, the queen. 

Ant. O, whither haft thou led me, ^Egypt ? See, 
7 How I convey my fhame out of thine eyes, 
By looking back on what I have left behind 
'Stroy'd in difhonour. 

Cleo. O my lord, my lord ! 
Forgive my fearful fails ! I little thought, 
You would have follow'd. 

Ant.. -/Egypt, thou knew'ft too well, 
My heart was to thy rudder 8 ty'd by the firings, 

Upon their bows muft here mean on tlefirength of their faw re* 
lying on their bows. Again, in Have with you to Saffron Walden 
&c. by Naflie, 1596 : "At Wolfe's he is billeted, fweating and 
dealing upon it molt intentively." Again, in Othello: 
" Upon malicious bravery doft thou come 
*' To ftart my quiet." 
Again, in K. Richard III : 

" - are they that I would have thee deal upon." 


Jeath ixillfcize her, but 
Tour comfort, &c.] 

But has here, as once before in this play, the force of except or 
jttilefi. JOHNSON. 

\ How I convey tnyjbame-*] How, by looking another way, 
X withdraw my ignominy from your fight. JOHNSON. 

~/yV by the firings} That is, by the heart-firing. JOHNSOIT. 
So, m the Tragcdie of Antonie, done into Englifli by the coun- 
ters of Pembroke, 1595; 



And thou fhould'fl tow me after : O'er my fpirit 
Thy full fupremacy thou knevv'ft ; and that 
Thy beck might from the bidding of the gods 
Command me. 

Cleo. O, my pardon. 

Ant. Now I muft 

To the young man fend humble treaties, dodge 
And palter in the fhifts of lownefs ; who 
With half the bulk o' the world play'd as I pleas'd, 
Making, and marring fortunes. You did know. 
How much you were my conqueror ; and that 
My fword, made weak by my affedtion, would 
Obey it on all caufe. 

Cleo. Pardon, pardon. 

Ant. Fall not a tear, I fay ; one of them rates 
All that is won and loft : Give me a kifs ; 
Even this repays me. We fent our fchool-mafter, 
Is he come back ? Love, I am full of lead : 

Some wine, there, and our viands : Fortune 

We fcorn her mod, when moft fhe offers blows. 



C<efar's camp, in Egypt. 
Enter Cafar, Dolabella, Thyreus'*, with others. 

O/. Let him appear that's come from Antony. 
Know you him ? 
^ Dol. Czefar, 'tis his fchoolmafter ' : 

" asifhisfoule 

' Unto his ladies foule had been enchained^ 

" He left his men &c." STEEVENS. 

9 Ttyreus, ] In the old copy always Tbldias. STEEVEXS. 
1 bisfiboolmafter ;] The name of this perfon was Eupbronius* 


0.3 A 


An argument that he is pluck'd, when hither 
He fends fo poor a pinion of his wing, 
Which had fuperflnous kings for mefiengers, 
Not many moons gone by. 

Enter Ambajfador from Antony. 

Caf. Approach, and fpcak. 

Slmb. Such ai I am, I come from Antony : 
I was of late as petty to his ends, 
AS is the morn-dew on the myrtle leaf 1 
To his grand fea. 

C*f. "Be it fo ; Declare thine office. 

Amb. Lord of his fortunes he falutes thee, and 
Requires to live in ./Egypt : which not granted, 
He leffens his requefts ; and to thee lues 

* . as petty to his ends, 

As is the morn-dew on. the myrtle leaf 

To \\\s grand fea."] 

Thus the old copy. To ivhofe grand fea ? I know not. Perhaps 
\ve fhould read : 

To this grand feet, 

\Ve may fuppole that the fea was within view of Cn-far's camp, 
ar.d at no great diftance. TYRWH-ITT. 

The modern editors arbitrarily read -.the grand fea. 
I believe the old reading is the true one. His grand fea may 
mean his full tiJe of proj'perity. So, in The t-ivo Noble Kinfincn 
by B. and Fletcher ; 

** though T know 

" His ocean needs not my poor drops, yet they 

*' Muil yield their tribute here." 

There is a play-houfe tradition that the lirft act of this play was 
written by Shakefpeare. Mr. Toilet offers a further explanation of 
the change propoied by Mr. Tyrwhitt : "Alexandria, towards which 
Cajfar was marching, is fituatedon the coait of the Mediterranean 
fea, which is fometimes called mare magnum. Pliny terms it, " im- 
vtcufa tcquorum i-ajiitas." I may add, that lit John Mandevile, 
p. 8.), calls that part of the Mediterranean which waflies the coaft 
ot Paleftine, *' thegretcfec" The paflage, however, is capable 
ot yet another explanation. His grand/?-// may mean the fea from 
which the dew-drop is exhaled. Sliaktfpeare might have con- 
fidered the iea as the fource of dews as well as rain, His is ufed. 
ii> Head of its. ST&EVE.NS. 



To let him breathe between the heavens and earth, 
A private man in Athens : This for him. 
Next, Cleopatra does confefs thy greatnefs ; 
Submits her to thy might ; and of thee craves 
3 The circle of the Ptolemies for her heirs, 
Now hazarded to thy grace. 

Caf. For Antony, 

I have no ears to his requeft. The queen 
Of audience, nor defire, fhall fail ; fo fhe 
From ^Egypt drive her all-difgraced friend, 
Or take his life there : This if ihe perform, 
She fhall not fue unheard. So to them both. 

Am]j. Fortune pnrfue thee ! 

Caf. Bring him through the bands. 

[Exit Ambaffador. 

To try th>y eloquence, now 'tis time : Difpatch ; 
From Antony win Cleopatra : promife, [70 T/yreiis. 
And in our name, what fhe requires ; add more, 
From thine invention, offers : Women are not, 
In their belt fortunes, itrong ; but want will perjure 
The ne'er-touch'd veftal : Try thy cunning, Thyreus; 
Make thine own edict for thy pains, which we 
Will anfwer as a law. 

Vhyr. Casfar, I go. 

C*f. Obferve 4 how Antony becomes his flaw ; 
And what thou think'ft his very action fpeaks 
In every power that moves. 

Csefar, I fhall. [Exeunt. 

3 The circle of tie Ptolemies ..... ] The diadem ; the enfign of 
royalty. JOHNSON. 

4 bow Antony becomes bis Jlaiv ;"] That is, how Antony con- 
forms himfclf to this breach of his fortune, JOHNSON. 




The palace in Alexandria. 
Enter Cleopatra, Enolarbus^ Ckarmian, and Iras. 

Cleo. What (hall we do, Enobarbus ? 
Eno. s Think, and die. 


' Think, and die.} Read: 

Drink, and die. 

This reply of Enobarbus feems grounded upon a peculiarity in the 
conduct of Antony and Cleopatra, which is related by Plutarch : 
that, after their defeat at Aftium, they inilituted a fociety of 
friends, who entered into engagement to die with them, not 
abating, in the mean time, any part of their luxury, excefs, and 
riot, in which they had liv'd before. HANMER. 

This reading, offered by fir T. Hanmer, is received by Dr. 
Warburton and Mr. Upton, but I have not advanced it into the 
page, not being convinced that it is neceflary. Think, and die ; 
that is, Rejleft onyour folly, and leave the world, is a natural an- 
fwer. JOHNSON. 

Sir T. Hanmer reads : 

Drink, and die. 

And his emendation has been approved, it feems, by Dr. War- 
burton and Mr. Upton. Dr. Johnfon, however, " has not ad- 

cording to this explanation, a very proper anfwer from a moralift or 
a divine ; but Enobarbus, I doubt, was neither the one nor the 
other. He is drawn as a flain, blunt foldier ; not likely, however, 
to offend fo grofsly in point of delicacy as fir T. Hanmer's altera- 
tion would make him. I believe the true reading is : 

Wink, and die. 

When the ftiip is going to be caft away, in the Sea-voyage of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, (aft I. fc. i.) and Aminta is lamenting, Ti- 
balt fays to her : 

" Go, take your gilt 

** Prayer-book, and to your bufinefs ; ivink, and die:" 
infinuating plainly, that (he was afraid to meet death with her eyes 
open. And the lame infinuaticn, I think, Enobarbus might very 
naturally convey in h'is return to Cleopatra's defpcnding queftion. 




Cleo. Is Antony, or we, in fault for this ? 

Eno. Antony only, that would make his will 
Lord of his reafon. What though you fled 
From that great face of war, whofe feveral ranges 
Frighted each other ? why fhould he follow ? 
The itch of his affedtion fhould not then 
Have nick'd his captainfhip ; at fuch a point, 
When half to half the world oppos'd, 6 he being 


I adhere to the old reading, which may be fupported by the 
following paffage in Julius Cafar : 

** all that he can do 

" Is to himfelf ; take thought, and die for Casfar." 
Mr. Toilet obferves that the expreffion of taking thought, in our 
old Englifti writers is equivalent to the being anxious or felicitous, of 
laying a thing much to heart. So, fays he, it is ufed in our tranfla- 
tions of the New Teftament. Matthew vi. 25, &c. So, in Ho- 

linfhed, vol. III. p. 50, or anno 1 140 : " taking thought for 

the lofle of his houfesand money, he pined away and died." In 
the margin thus : " The bifhop of Salilburie dietb of thought" 
Again, in p. 833. Again, in Stowe's Chronicle, anno 1508: 
" Chriftopher Hawis fhortened his life by thought-taking" Again, 
in p. 546, edit. 1614. Again, in Leland's Collectanea, vol. I. 
p. 234 : " their mother died for thought" Mr. Tyrwhitt 
might have given additional fupport to the reading which he of- 
fers, from a paflage in the fecond part of K. Hen, IV : 

" led his powers to death, 

" And winking leapt into deftruclion." STEEVENS. 
After all that has been written upon this paflage, I believe the 
old reading is right ; but then we muft underftand think and die to 
mean the fame as die of thought, or melancholy, in this fenfe is 
thought ufed below, a<St IV. ic. vi. and by Holinfhed, Chron. of 
Ireland, p. 97. " His father ll'ved in the tower where for thought 
of tlie young man hisfollie he died." There is a paflage almoft ex- 
aclly fimilar in the Beggar's Bujh of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
vol. II. p. 423 : 

Can I not think away myfelf and die ?" TYRWHITT. 

6 he ben 


The meered quejiion : ] 

The meered queftion is a term I do not underftand. I know not 
what to offer, except : 

The mooted quejiion. 

That is, the diluted point, the fubjecl of debate. Mere is indeed 

a loun- 


The meered queftion : 'Twas a lhame no lefs 
Than was his lofs, to courfc your flying flags, 
And leave his navy gazing. 
Cko* Pr'ythee, peace. 

Enter Antony, with the AmbaJJador, 

Ant. Is that his anfwer ? 

Amb. Ay, my lord. 

Ant. The queen {hall then have courtefy, 
So llie will yield us up. 

Amb. He fays fo. 

Ant. Let her know it. 
To the boy Casfar fend this grizled head, 
And he will fill thy wilhes to the brim 
With principalities. 

Cleo. That head, my lord ? 

Ant, To him again ; Tell him, he wears the rofe 
Of youth upon him ; from which, the world Ihould 


Something particular : his coin, {hips, legions, 
May be a coward's ; whofe miniflers would prevail 
Under the fervice of a child, as foon 
As i' the command of Czefar : I dare him therefore 
To lay 7 his gay comparifons apart, 


a boundary ^ and the meered quejlion, if it can mean any thing, may, 
with lome violence of language, mean, the d/fputed boundary. 

So, in Stanyhu rft's translation of Virgil, b. iii. 1582: 

4i Whereto joinetlye mearing a cantel of Italye neereth." 
Barrett in his Alvcarie or Quadruple Dittionary, 1580, interprets 
a mttrf-Qooc by lapis terminal:!. .Queftion is certainly the true 
jreading. So, in Hamlet, a6t I. fc. i : 

" the king 

*' That was and is the queftion of thefe wars." 

7 Ins gay companions apart, 

And anfvscr me dedin'd, ] 

I require of Ca;far not to depend on that Aipcri. r'ry which tke 


And anfvver me declin'd, fword againft fvvord, 
Ourfelves alone : Til write it ; follow me. 

[Exeunt Antony and Amb. 

Eno. Yes, like enough, high-battled Cafar will 
Unftate his happinefs, and be ftag'd to the fhew * 
Againft a fworder. I fee, men's judgments are 
A parcel of their fortunes ; and things outward 
Do draw the inward quality after them, 
To fuffer all alike. That he ihould dream, 
Knowing all meafures, the full Csefar will 
Anfwer his emptinefs ! Csefar, thou haft fubdu'd 
His judgment too. 

Enter an Attendant. 

Attend. A meflenger from Ca^far. 

Cleo. What, no more ceremony? See,my women! 
Againft the blown rofe may they ftop their nofe, 
That kneel'd unto the buds. Admit him, fir. 

comparifon of our different fortunes may exhibit to him, but to an- 
i\ver me man to man, in this decline ot my age or power. 

To lay bis gay comparifons apart,] I fufpeft Shakefpeare wrote, 

his gay cafarifons. 

Let him divert himfelf of the fplendid trappings of power, bis 
coin, Jbips, legions, &c. and meet me in fingle combat. 

C'aparifon is frequently ufed by our author and his contempo- 
raries, for an ornamental drefs. 
So in As yon Like it, act III. fc. 2 : 

" Though I am caparifon'dVike a man" 
Again, in The Winter's Tale, aft IV. fc. 2 : 

" With die and drab I purchas'd this cafarifou" 
The old reading is however fuppor ted by a paflhge in Macletb: 
*' 'Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapt in proof, 
" Confronted him Vi\\.\\.felf-comparifons, 
" Point againft point, rebellious." 

Dr. Johnfon's explanation of declin'd is certainly right. So in 
Timon : 

" Not one accompanying his declining foot." MALONE, 

8 bcfagtitojbevj ] 

So Goff, in his Raging Turk, 163 1 : 

' ' as i f he Jlagd 

The wounded Friam ," STEEVENS. 



Eno. Mine honefty, and f, begin to fqnare. [AJlde. 
9 The loyalty, well held to fools, does make 
Our faith meer folly : Yet, he, that can endure 
To follow with allegiance a fallen lord, 
Does conquer him that did his mailer conquer, 
And earns a place i' the flory. 

Enter e flyrettSm 

Cleo. Csefar's will ? 

fbyr. Hear it apart. 

Cleo. None but friends ; fay boldly. 

I'hyr. So, haply, are they friends to Antony.' 

Eno. He needs as many, fir, as Casfar has ; 
Or needs not us. If Cseiar pleafe, our matter 
Will leap to be his friend : For us, you know, 
Whofe he is, we are ; and that is, C^far's. 

27*yr. So. 

Thus then, thou mod renown'd ; ' Caefar intreats, 
Not to confider in what cafe thou itand'ft 
Further than he is Csefar. 

Cleo. Go on : Right royal. 

* The loyalty, well held to fools, &c.] After Enobarbus has faid, 
that his honeity and he begin to quarrel, he immediately falls into 
this generous reflexion : ** Though loyalty, ftubbornly preferv'd 
to a mailer in his declin'd fortunes, feems folly in the eyes of fools ; 
yet he, who can be fo obftinately loyal, will make as great a figure 
on record, as the conqueror." I therefore read, 

Though loyalty, vjell held, to fools does make 

Our faith mcer folly THEOBALD. 

I have preferved the old reading : Enobarbus is deliberating 
upon defeition, and finding it is more prudent to forfake a fool, 
and more reputable to be faithful to him, makes no pofuive con- 
clufion. Sir T. Hanmer follows Theobald j Dr. Warburton re- 
tains the old reading. JOHNSON. 

1 C(ffar intreats, 

Not to confider in what cafe thoujland*ft 
Further than be is Ct?far.~\ 

i. C. Ctffar intreats, that at the fame time you conjtdcr your defpfrate 
fortunes, you ivou'd conf.der he is Cafar : That is, generous and 
forgiving, able and willing to reitore them. WARSURTON. 



*Tkyr. He knows, that you embrace not Antony 
As you did love, but as you fear'd him. 

Cleo. O ! 

y/?yr. The fears upon your honour, therefore, he 
Does pity, as conftrained blemifties, 
Not as deferv'd. 

Cleo. He is a god, and knows 
What is moft right : Mine honour was not yielded, 
But conquer'd merely. 

Eno. To be fure of that, [AJide. 

I will afk Antony. Sir, fir, thou art fo leaky, 
That we muft leave thee to thy linking, for 
Thy dearcft quit thee. [Exit Enobarbus. 

%r. Shall I fay to Czefar 
What you require of him ? for he partly begs 
To be defir'd to give. It much would pleafe him, 
That of his fortunes you would make a ftaff 
To lean upon : but it would warm his fpirits, 
To hear from me you had left Antony, 
And put yourfelf under his fhrowd, 
The univerfal landlord. 

Cleo. What's your name ? 

Thyr. My name is Thyreus. 

Cleo* * Moft kind meffenger, 


* Mojl kind mcflenger. 

Say to great Cafar this in difputation, 

1 kifs bis conquering band: ] 

The poet certainly wrote, 
Moft kind mcffcnger, 
Say to great Cafar this ; in deputation 
/ kifs his conquering hand : 

i. e. by proxy ; I depute you to pay him that duty in my name. 


I am not certain that this change is neceffarjr. / kifs his hand 

in difputation may mean, I own he has the better in the contro- 

verfy. 1 contefs my inability to difpute or contend with him. To 

difpute may have no immediate reference to words or language by 
which controverfies are agitated. So in Macbeth, " Difpute it 
like a man ;" and Macduff, to whom this Ihort fpeech isaddrefled, 
ng or contending with hiiniclf only. Again, in Twelfth 



Say to great Casfar this, In difputation 
I kifs his conquering hand : tell him, I am prompt 
To lay my crown at his feet, and there to kneel : 
3 Tell him, from his all-obeying breath I hear 
The doom of JEgypt. 

T/.yr. 'Tis your nobleft courfe. 
Wifdom and fortune combating together, 
If that the former dare but what it can, 
No chance may fhake it. 4 Give me grace to lay 
My duty on your hand. 

Cleo. Your Csefar's father oft, 
When he hath mus'd of taking kingdoms in, 
Beftow'd his lips on that unworthy place, 
As it rain'd kiffes. 

Re-enter Antony t and Enobarbus. 

A lit. Favours, by Jove that thunders ! 
What art thou fellow ? 

T/.yr. One, that but performs 
The bidding of the fulleft man, and worthieft 
To have command obey'd. 

Eno. You will be whipp'd. 

Night. " For though my foul tlifputes well with my fenfe." 

If Dr. Warburton's change be adopted, we (houldread by 

deputation " STKEVEXS. 

3 Tell him, that from bis all-obeying breath, &c. J Doom is de- 
clared rather by an all-cn;n;nanding, than an all-obeying breath. I 
fuppoie we ought to read, 

////-obeyed breath. JOHNSON-. 

Perhaps there is no need ot change. In the Gentlemen of Vcrona y 
Shakelpeare ufes longing, a participle aflii'e y with a pajjivc ligni- 
fication : 

" To furnifh me upon my longing journey," 
i. e. my journey longd for. 

In the Unnatural Coinbat, by Maflinger, the a6livc parriciple is 
yet more irregularly employed: 

" For the recovery of zjlran^ing ktijband." 
\. e. one that -ivas to Ic ilrangled. STEEVENS. 

* Give me grate ] Grant me the favour. Jonxsox. 


Ant. Approach, there : Ah, you kite ! Now, 

gods and devils ! 
Authority melts from me : Of late, when I cry'd, 


5 Like boys unto a mufs, kings would ftart forth, 
And cry, Tour will? Have you no ears ? I am 

Enter Attendants. 

Antony yet. Take hence this Jack, and whip him. 

Eno. 'Tis better playing with a lion's whelp, 
Than with an old one dying. 

Ant. Moon and ftars I- 
Whip him : Were't twenty of the greatefl tri- 

That do acknowledge Czefar, fhould I find them 
So faucy with the hand of flie here, (What's her 


Since ilie was Cleopatra ?) Whip him, fellows, 
'Till, like a boy, you fee him cringe his face, 
And whine aloud for mercy : Take him hence. 

T/yr. Mark Antony, 

Ant. Tug him away : being whipp'd, 
Bring him again : This Jack of C^far's fhall 
Bear us an errand to him. [Exeunt Att. with Tlyreus. 
You were half blafted ere I knew you : Ha ! 
Have I my pillow left unpreft in Rome, 

5 Like lays unto a mufs, ] i, e. a fcramble. POPE. 

So ufed by Ben Jonfon in his Magnetic Lady: 

** nor are they tl-irown 

" To make a mufs among the gamefome fuitors.'* 
And again in his Bartholomew Fair; 

** God's fo, a mufs, a mufs, a. mufs, a mufs f 
Again, in Middleton's comedy of A mad World my Ma/ten, 1608 : 
" I would you could make fuch another mufs. 
" Do'ft call it a mufs f n 

Again, in the Spanijb Gipfie, by Middleton and Rowley, 1653: 
" To fee if thou be'ft Alcumy or no, 
^ They'll throw down gold in mujfis." STEEVENS. 



Forborne the getting of a lawful race, 
And by a gem of women, to be abus'd 
6 By one that looks on feeders ? 

Qco. Good my lord, 

Ant. You have been a boggier ever : 
But when we in our vicioufnefs grow hai'd, 
(O mifery on't !) the wife gods feel our eyes 7 ; 
In our own filth drop our clear judgments ; make us 
Adore our errors ; laugh at us, while we flrut 
To our confufion. 

Cleo. O, is it come to this ? 

Ant. I found you as a morfel, cold upon 
Dead Czefar's trencher : nay, you were a fragment 
Of Cneius Pompey's ; betides what hotter hours, 
Unregifter'd in vulgar fame, you have 
Luxuriouily pick'd out : For, I am fure, 
Though you can guefs what temperance fhould be, 
You know not what it is. 

Cleo. Wherefore is this ? 
Ant. To let a fellow that will take rewards, 
And fay, God quit you ! be familiar with 
My play-fellow, your hand ; this kingly feal, 
And plighter of high hearts ! O, that I were 
Upon the hill of Bafan, to out-roar 

6 By one that looks on feeders ?] One that waits at the table while 
others are eating. JOHNSON. 

A feeder, or an eater, was anciently the term of reproach for afer- 
t'ant. So in Ben Jonfon's Silent Woman : " Bar my doors. Where 
are all my eaters ? My mouths now ? bar up my doors, my varlets." 
One --Mho looks on fee Jen, is one who throws away her regard onfer- 
va.vts, fuch as Antony would reprefent Thyreus to be. Thus in 
Cymbeline : 

" that bafe wretch, 

" One bred of alms, and fofter'd with cold difhes, 

*' The very fcraps o' the court." STEEVEXS. 

7 feel our eyes'] This paflage fliould rather be pointed thus : 

feel our eyes ; In our own filth drop our clear judgments. 

1 have adopted this punctuation. Formerly, 

feel our eyes 

In our own filth ; &c. STEEVENS. 



1 The horned herd ! for I have favage caufe ; 
And to proclaim it civiliy, were like 
A halter'd neck, which does the hangman thank 
For being yare about him. Is he whipp'd ? 

Re-enter Attendants, with T/yreus. 

Attend. Soundly, my lord. 

Ant. Cry'd he ? and begg'd he pardon ? 

Attend. He did afk favour. 

Ant. If that thy father live, let him repent 
Thou waft not made his daughter ; and be thou forry 
To follow Cicfar in his triumph, fmce 
Thou haft been whipp'd for following him : hence- 

The white hand of a lady fever thee, 
Shake thou to look on't. Get thee back to Csbfar, 
Tell him thy entertainment : Look, thou fay 9 , 
He makes me angry with him : for he feems 
Proud and difdainful ; harping on what I am, 
Not what he knew I was : He makes me angry ; 
And at this time moft eafy 'tis to do't ; 
When my good ftars, that were my former guides, 
Have empty left their orbs, and fhot their fires 
Into the abifm of hell. If he miflike 

8 The horned herd, ] It is not without pity and indignation 

that the reader of this great pcet meets fo often with this low jeft, 
which is too much a favourite to be left out of either mirth or fury. 


tboufay, &c.] Thus in the old tranflation of Plutarch. 

" Whereupon Antonius caufed him to be taken and well fauoredly 
whipped, and fo fent him vnto Csefar : and bad him tell him that 
he made him angrie with him, bicaufe he fliewcd him felf prowde 
and difdainfull towards him, and now fpecially when he was eafie 
to be angered, by reafon of his prefent miferie. To be fliort, if 
this miilike thee faid he, thou huft Hipparchus one of my intran- 
chifed bondmen with thee : hang him if thou wilt, or whippe 
Jiim at thy pleafure, that we may eric quittaunce." STEEVENS. 



My fpeech, 'and what is done ; tell him, he has 
Hipparchus, my enfranchis'd bondman, whom 
He may at pleafure whip, or hang, or torture, 
As he iliall like, * to quit me : Urge it thou : 
Hence with thy itripes, begone. [Exit Tbyreus. 

Cleo. Have you done yet? 

Ant. Alack, our terrene moon 
Is no;v eciips'd ; and it portends alone 
The fall of Antony ! 

Cleo. I muft flay his time. 

Ant. To flatter Caefar, would you mingle eyes 
With one that ties his points ? 

Cleo. Not know me yet ? 

Ant. Cold-hearted toward me ? 

Cleo. Ah, dear, if I be fo, 
From my cold heart let heaven ingender hail, 
And poifon it in the fource ; and the firft ftonc 
Drop in my neck : as it determines, fo 
Diflblve my life ! * The next Casfarion fmite ! 
Till, by degrees, the memory of my womb, 
Together with my brave jiEgyptians all, 
s By the difcandying of this pelleted ftorm, 
Lie gravelefs ; 'till the flies and gnats of Nile 
Have buried them for prey ! 

Ant. I am fatisfy'd : 
Casfar fits down in Alexandria ; where 
I will oppofe his fate. Our force by land 
Hath nobly held ; our fever'd navy too 

1 to quit met" ] To repay me this infulr ; to requite me. 


* the next Cafarion finite !] Czfarion was Cleopatra's fon by 
Julius Csefar. .STEEVENS. 

* JRy the difcattering of this pelleted flarm,] This reading we 
owe firft, I prefume, to Mr. Rowe : and Mr. Pope has very faith- 
fully fallen into it. The old folios read, difcandcring': from 
which corruption both Dr. Thirlby and I faw, we muft retrieve 
the word with which I have reform '"d the text. THEOBALD. 



Have knit again, 4 and fleet, threat'ning moft fea-like. 
Where haft thou been, my heart ? Doft thou hear, 

lady ? 

If from the field I ftiould return once more 
To kifs thefe lips, I will appear in blood ; 
I and my fword will earn my chronicle ; 
There is hope in it yet. 

Cleo. That's my brave lord ! 
Ant. I will be treble-fmew'd, hearted, breath'd, 
And fight malicioufly : for when mine hours 
5 Were nice and lucky, men did ranfom lives 
Of me for jefls ; but now, I'll fet my teeth, 
And fend to darknefs all that flop me. Come, 

+ and float, ] This is a modern emendation, perhapa 

right. The old reading is, 

and fleet, JOHNSON. 

I have replaced the old reading. So in the tragedy of Edwardll* 
by Marlow, 1622 : 

" This ifle (hz\\J?eet upon the ocean." 
Again, in Tmmhtfkuue^ i 590 : 

" Shall meet thofe Chriftians^////^- with the tide." 
Again, in the Coblcr's Prophecy, 159-1- : 

" And envious fnakes among i\\e Jleetiag fifh." 
Again, in Spenier's Faery S>ueen, b. ii. c. 7 : 

" And in frayle wood on Adrian gulte dothjkftt 
Again, in Har dingus Chronicle , i 543 : 

The bodies Jlete amonge our fhippes eche daye." 
Mr. Toilet has fince furniflied me with inilances in fupport of thia 
old reading, from Verftegan's Rtftitutio* of decay 1 d Intelligence^ 
Holinfhed's Defcription of Scotland, and Spenfer's Colin Clout's 
come home again. STEEVENS. 

The old reading (hould certainly be rertored. Fleet is the old 
word for float. See Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, ,1958, 2399,4883. 


5 Were ri\cz and lucky, ] Nice, for delicate, courtly, flowing 
in peace. . WAR BUR TON. 

Nice rather feems to be, juft ft for my purpofe, agreeable to my 
viljh. So we vulgarly fay of any thing that is done better than 
was expected, itis;V?. JOHNSON. 
. Nice is trifling. So in Romeo and Jul!tt, ad V. fc ii : 

" The letter was not nice, but full of charge." 
See a note on this pafiage. STEEVENS. 

R 2 Let'* 


Let's have one other gaudy night 6 : call to me 
All my fad captains, fill our bowls ; once more 
Let's mock the midnight bell. 

Clco. It is my birth-day : 
I had thought, to have held it poor ; but, fince my 

Is Antony again, I will be Cleopatra. 

Ant. We'll yet do well. 

Cko. Call all his noble captains to my lord. 

Ant. Do fo, we'll fpeak to them ; and to-night I'll 

The wine peep through their fears. Come on, my 

queen ; 

There's fap in't yet. The next time I do fight, 
I'll make death love me ; for I will contend 
Even with his peftilent fcythe. [Exeunt Ant. andCleo. 

Eno. Now he'll out-flare the lightning. To be 


Is, to be frighted out of fear : and in that mood, 
The dove will peck the eltridge ; and I fee ftill, 
A diminution in our captain's brain 
Reftores his heart : When valour preys on reafon, 
It eats the f-.vord it fights with. I will feck 
Some way to leave him. [Exit. 

A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

CsfaSs Camp at Alexandria. 

Enter C#Jlir, reading a kticr ; dgrippa, M-:c<enas 9 &c. 

Caf. He calls me boy; and chides, as he had 

To beat me out of JEgypt : my meflenger 

6 gaudy night."} This is ftill an epithet beftow'd on feaft 
days in the colleges of either univerfity. STEEVENS. 

8 He 


He hath whipp'd with rods ; dares me to perfonal 


Csefar to Antony : Let the old ruffian know, 
7 I have many other ways to die ; mean time, 
Langh at his challenge. 

Mec. Casfar mutt think, 

When one fo great begins to rage, he's hunted 
Even to falling. Give him no breath, but now 
Make boot * of his diftraclion : Never anger 
Made good guard for itfelf. 

Gef. Let our beft heads 

Know, that to-morrow the laftof many battles 
We mean to fight : Within our files there are 
Of thofe that ferv'd Mark Antony but late, 
Enough to fetch him in. See it done ; 
And feaft the army : we have ftore to do't, 
And they have earn'd the waile. Poor Antony ! 


7 I have many other ways to die: ] What a reply is this to 

Antony's challenge t 'tis acknowledging that he fliould die under 
the unequal combat ; but if we read, 

He hath many other ways to die : mean time t 
I "laugh at bis challenge, 

In this reading we have poignancy, and the very repartee of Cae- 
far. Let's hear Plutarch. After thh, Antony fent a challenge to 
Ceefar^ to Jight bint hand to hand^ and received for anfkuer^ that he 
might find leveral otherways to end his life. UPTON. 

I think this emendation deferves to be received. It had, be- 
fore Mr. Upton's book appeared, been made by fir T. Hanmer. 


Moft indifputably this is the fenfe of Plutarch, and given fo in 
the modern tranfiations ; but Shakefpeare was milled by the am- 
biguity of the old one. '* Antonius lent again to challenge Caefar 
to fight him : Caefar anfvvered, that he had many other ways to 
die, than fo." FARMER. 

8 Make hoot of ] Take advantage of. JOHNSON. 



The palace at Alexandria. 

Enter Antony y and Cleopatra^ Enobarbus, Charmian y Iras y 
siiexas, with others. 

Ant. He will not fight with me, Domitius. 

Eno. No. 

Ant. Why fhould he not ? 

Eno. He thinks, being twenty times of better for- 
He is twenty men to one. 

Ant. To-morrow, foldier, 
By fea and land I'll fight : or I will live, 
Or bathe my dying honour in the blood 
Shall make it live again. Woo't thou fight well ? 

Eno. Pllftrike; and cry, <> Take all. 

Ant. Well faid ; come on. 
Call forth my houlhold fervants ; let's to-night 

Enter Servants. 

Be bounteous at our meal. Give me thy hand, 
Thou haft been rightly honeft ; fo haft thou ; 
And thou ;< and thou ; and thou : you have 

ferv'd me well, 

And kings have been your fellows. 
Cleo. What means this ? 
Eno. [_/Jide.~] 'Tis ' one of thofe odd tricks, which 

forrow (hoots 
Out of the mind. 

9 /a&all.] Let the fumvor take all. Nocompofition, 

vi&ory or death. JOHNSON. 

* one of tljvfe odd tricks j~\ I know not what obfcuritv the 
editors find in this paflage. Trick is here ufed in the fenfe in 
which it is uttered every day by every mouth, elegant and vul- 
gar : yet fir T. Hanmer changes it tofmah, and Dr. Warburton, 
in his rage of Gallicifm, to traits. JOHNSON. 



Ant. And thou art honcfc too. 
I wifh, I could be made fo many men; 
And all of you clapt up together in 
An Antony ; that I might do you fervice, 
So good as you have done. 

Omnes. The gods forbid ! 

Ant. Well, my good fellows, wait on me to- 
night : 

Scant not my cups ; and make as much of me, 
As when mine empire was your fellow too, 
And fuffer'd my command. 

Cleo. What does he mean ? 

Eno. To make his followers weep. 

Ant. Tend me to-night ; 
May be, it is the period of your duty : 
Haply, you (hall not fee me more ; * or if, 
A mangled lhadow : perchance, to-morrow 
You'll ferve another mafler. I look on you, 
As one that takes his leave. Mine honeft friends, 
I turn you not away ; but, like a matter 
Married to your good fervice, flay 'till death : 

* or if, 

A manghdj]}3do c i\!.'\ 

Or //you fee me more, you will fee me a mangled fiadtr-M^ only 
the external form of what I was. JOHNSON. 

A mangled ji.'tidi)~jc. ] 

The thought is, as ufual, taken from fir Thomas North's tranf- 
lation of Plutarch: " So being at fupper, (as it is reported) he 
commaunded his officers and houfehold feruauntes that waited on 
him at his bord, that they fliould fill his cuppes full, and make as 
much of him as they could : for faid he, you know not whether 
you (hall doe fo much for me to morrow or nor, or whether you 
ihall ferue an other maifter : and it may be you fliall fee me no 
more, but a dead bodie. This notwithltanding, perceiuing that 
his frends and men fell a weeping to heare him fay fo : to falne 
that he had fpokcn, he added this more vnto it, that he would 
not le.tde them to battell, where he thought not rather fafely to 
rctunie with victoric, than valliantly to dye with honor." 


R 4 Tend 


Tend me to-night two hours, I afk no more, 
And the gods yield you for't 3 ? 

Eno. What mean you, fir, 

To give them this difcomfort ? Look, they weep ; 
And I, an afs, am 4 onion-ey'd : for lhame, 
Transform us not to women. 

Ant. Ho, ho, ho ! 

Now the witch take me, if I meant it thus ! 
Grace grow where thole drops fall 5 ! My hearty 


You take me in too dolorous a fenfe : 
For I fpake to you for your comfort ; did defire you 
To burn this night with torches : Know, my hearts, 
I hope well of to-morrow ; and will lead you, 
Where rather I'll expect victorious life, 
Than 6 death and honour. Let's to fupper; come, 
And drown conlideration. [Exeunt.. 


Before the Palace. . 

Enter a Company of Soldiers. 

i Sold. Brother, goodnight: to-morrow is the day. 
i Sold. It will determine one way : fare you well. 
Heard you of nothing ftrange about the ftreets ? 

3 Andtke gfith yield you for't ?] i.e. re-u'ard you. See a note 
on Macbeth^ a5t I. ic. vi. and another on As you like it, adl V. fc. iv. 


4 onion-ry'-tl ] I have my eyes as full of tears as if they 

had been fretted by onions. JOHNSON.' 
So in the Birth <<f Merlin, 1662 : 

" I foe ibmcthing like a pcel'd onion ; 
' It imkis me weep again." STEEVENS. 

5 Grace grov; ivki ;v tbffc drcp j\:U !] So in A'. R!cf.'f>;l II : 
" Here Jlil foe drap a tear ; here, in this place, 
" I'll fct a bank of rue, four herb of :-racc " STERVENS. 

* dfatb atul honour.* ...] That is, an. honourable death. 


i Sold. 


1 Sold. Nothing : What news ? 

2 Sold, Belike, 'tis but a rumour : Good night to 


1 Sold. Well, fir, good night. 

[They meet with other foldiers. 

2 Sold. Soldiers, have careful watch. 

1 Sold. And you : Good night, good night. 

[They place themfehes on every corner of thejlage. 

2 Sold. Here we : and if to-morrow 
Our navy thrive, I have an abfolutc hope 
Our landmen will ftand up. 

i Sold. 'Tis a brave army, and full of purpofc. 

[Mvjick of hautboys under thejlage. 
2, Sold. Peace, what noife 7 ? 

1 Sold. Lift, lift ! 

2 Sold. Hark ! 

i Sold. Mufick i' the air. 

3 Sold. Under the earth. 

4 Sold. It figns well, 8 does it not ? 
3 Sold. No. 

1 Sold. Peace, I fay. What fhould this mean ? 

2 Sold. 'Tis the god Hercules, whom Antony lov'd, 
Now leaves him. 

i Sold. Walk ; let's fee if other watchmen 
Do hear what we do. 

7 Peace, what noife f] So in the old tranflation of Plutarch. 
" Furthermore, the felfe fame night within litle or" midnight, 
when all the citie was quiet, full of feare, and forrowe, thinking 
what would be theiffue and ende of this warre : it is faid that Ib- 
dainly they heard a maruelous fweete harmonic of fundrie fortes of 
inftrumentesof mulicke, with the crieof a multitude of people, as 
they had bene dauncir.g, and had fong as they vfe in Bacchus 
lealles, with mouinges and turnings after the maner of the fatyres ? 
& it feemed that this daunce went through the city vnto the gate 
that opened to the enemies, & that all the troupe that made this 
noife they heard, went out of the city at that gate. Now, fuch as 
in reafon fought the depth of the interpretacion of this wonder, 
thought that it was the god vnto whom Aiuonius bare lingular 
deuotion to counterfeate and refemblehim, that did forfake them." 


* Itjrgm ivt.'I, c.] i, e. it bodes well, 8cc. STEEVENS. 

2 Sold. 


2 Sold. How now, matters ? [Speak together. 
Omnes. How now ? how now ? do yotr liear this ? 
i Sold. Ay ; Is't not ftrange ? 

3 Sold. Do you hear, matters ? do you hear ? 

i Sold. Follow the noife fo far as we have quarter; 
Let's fee how it will give off. 

Omnes. Content : 'Tis ttrange. [Exeunf. 


Cleopatra s palace. 
Enter Antony, and Cleopatra, with Charmia/i, and others. 

Ant. Eros ! mine armour, Eros ! 
Cleo. Sleep a little. 

Ant. JS'o, my chuck. Eros, come ; mine armour, 
Eros ! 

Enter Eros, with armour. 

Come, good fellow, put thine 9 iron on : 
If fortune be not ours to-day, it is 
Becaufe we brave her. Come. 

Cleo. ' Nay, I'll help too. 

Ant. What's this for ? Ah, let be, let be ! thou 

The armourer of my heart : Falfe, falfe; this, this. 

Cleo. Sooth, la, I'll help : Thus it mutt be. 

Ant. Well, well ; 

W T e mall thrive now. Seeft thou, my good fellow ? 
Go, put on thy defences. 

thine iron ] I think it fhould be rather, 

mine iron JOHNSON". 

1 Nay, rUMptoo."] Thefe three little fpeeches, which in the 
other editions are only one, and given to Cleopatra, were hap- 
pily diientangled by fir T. Haarner. JOHNSON. 



Eros. 9 Briefly, fir. 

Cleo. Is not this buckled well ? 

Ant. Rarely, rarely : 

He that unbuckles this, 'till we do pleafe 
To doff it ' for our repofe, fhall hear a ftorm. 
Thou fumbleft, Eros ; and my queen's a fquire 
More tight at this, than thou : Difpatch. O love, 
That thou could'ft iee my wars to-day, and knew'ft 
The royal occupation ! thou ihould'ft lee 

Enter an Officer, armed. 

A workman in't. Good morrow to thee ; welcome : 
Thou look'ft like him that knows a warlike charge: 
To bufineis that we love, we rife betime, 
And go to it with delight. 

Off. A thoufand, fir, 

Early though it be, have on their rivetted trim, 
And at the port expect you. [Shout. Trumpets Jlourl/h* 

Enter other Officer -j, and Soldiers. 

Cap. The morn is fair. Good morrow, general *! 

AIL Good morrow, general ! 

Ant. 'Tis well blown, lads. 
This morning, like the fpirit of a youth 
That means to be of note, begins betimes. 
So, fo ; come, give me that : this way; well faid. 
Fare thee well, dame, whate'er becomes of me : 
This is a foldier's kifs : rebukeable, [Kiffes her. 

And worthy fhameful check it were, to Hand 
On more mechanic compliment ; I'll leave thee 

9 Briefly, fir.] That is, quickly, fir. JOHNSON. 

1 To doff it ] To doff is to do off, to put oft'. So, in Mac- 
letb : 

" To d^" their dire diftrefles." STEEVENS. 

a The morn is fair. Goad morro-yj, general .'] This fpeech. in 
the old copy, is erroneoufly given to Alexas. STEEVENS. 



Now, like a man of fteel. You,, that will fight, 
Follow me clofe ; I'll bring you to't. Adieu. 

[Exeunt Ant. Officers, &V. 

Cl\r,\ Pleafe you, retire to your chamber? 

Cleo. Lead me. 

He goes forth gallantly. That he and Ca?far might 
Determine this great war in tingle fight ! 
Then, Antony, But now, Well, on. [Exeunt. 



Trumpets found. Enter Antony, and Eros ; a foldier 
meeting them. 

3 Sold. The gods make this a happy day to Antony ! 

Ant. 'Would, thou and thole thy fears had once 

To make me fight at land ! 

Eros. Hadft thou done fo, 
The kings that have revolted, and the foldier 
That has this morning left thee, would have flill 
Follow'd thy heels. 

/int. Who's gone this morning ? 

Eros. Who? 

One ever near thee : Call for Enobarbus, 
He Ihall not hear thee ; or from Czefar's camp 
Say, / am none of thine. 

Jnt. What fay 'ft thou ? 

Sold. Sir, 
He is with Caefar. 

3 Eros. The gods make this a happy day to Antony /] 'Tis evident, 
as Dr. Thiriby iikewife conjectured, by what Antony immediately 
replies, that this line ihould not be placed to Eros, but to the fol- 
dier, who, before tlie b.ittlc of Aftium, ad. v! fed Antony to try his 
faie at land . T u EC r A L r- , 



Eros. Sir, his chefts and treafure 
He has not with him. 

Ant. Is he gone ? 

Sold. Moll certain. 

Ant. Go, Eros, fend his treafure after ; do it ; 
Detain no jot, I charge thee : write to him 
(I will fubfcribe) gentle adieus, and greetings : 
Say, that I wilh he never find more caufe 
To change a matter. O, mv fortunes have 
Corrupted honefl men ! * Difpatch. Enobarbus ! 



Ctefars camp. 
Enter Gefar, ' Agnppa, with Enobarbus, and others. 

C*f. Go forth, Agrippa, and begin the fight : 
5 Our will is, Antony be took alive ; 
Make it fo known. 

Agr. Csefar, I fliall. [Exit Agrippa. 

Caf. The time of univerfal peace is near : 
Prove this a profperous day, the three-nook'd world 

* 'Dffiatcb, my Eros.] Thus the modern editors. The old 

edition reads : t 

Difpatch Enolarlus. 

Perhaps, it (hould be : 

Difpatch! To Enelarlus ! JOHNSON. 

5 Our 'Mill is, 'Antony be took alive ;] It is obfervable with what 
judgment Shakefpeare draws the character of O6tavius. Antony 
was his hero ; fo the other was not to fhine : yet being an hifto- 
rical character, there was a neceffity to draw him like. But the an- 
cient hifforians, his flatterers, had delivered him down fo fair, 
that he feems ready cut and dried for a hero. Amidft thefe diffi- 
culties Shakefpeare has extricated himfelf with great addrefs. He 
has admited all thofe great ftrokes of his chara^er as he found 
them, and yet has made him a very unamiable character, deceit- 
ful, mean-fpirited, narrow-minded, proud, and revengeful. 




* Shall bear the olive freely, 

Enter a Mejfcnger^ 

Is come into the field. 

C<zf. Go, charge Agrippa 
Plant thofe that have revolted in the vant, 
That Antony may feem to fpend his fury 
Upon himfelf. [Exeunt C<efar, &V. 

Eno. Alexas did revolt ; and went to Jewry, on 
Affairs of Antony ; there did 7 perfuade 
Great Herod to incline himfelf to Ccefar, 
And leave his matter Antony : for this pains, 
Csfar hath hang'd him. Canidius, and the reft 
That fell away, have entertainment, but 
No honourable truft. I have done ill ; 
Of which I do accufe myfelf fo forely, 
That I will joy no more. 

Enter a Soldier of C<efar's. 

Sold. Enobarbus, Antony 
Hath after thee fent all thy treafure % with 
His bounty over-plus : The meffenger 
Came on my guard ; and at thy tent is now, 
Unloading of his mules. 

Eno. I give it you. 

6 Shall bear the olive freely ,] i. e. (hall fpring up every where 
fpontaneoufly and without culture. WAR BURTON. 

7 - perfuade} The old copy has dijjuade^ perhaps rightly. 


8 Hath after theefent all thy treafure, &c.] So, in the old tranf- 
lation of Plutarch : " Furthermore, he delt very friendly and 
courteoufly with Domitius, and againft Cleopatraes mynde. For, 
he being ficke of an agewe when he went, and tooke a little boate 
to go to Csefar's campe, Antonius was very fory for it, but yet he 
lent after him all his caryage, trayne, and men : and the fame 
Domitius, as though he gaue him to vnderftand that he repented 
his open treafon, he died immediately after." STEEYENS. 

i Sold. 


Sold. Mock not, Enobarbus, 
I tell you true : Beft you fafed the bringer 
Out of the hoft ; I muft attend mine office, 
Or would have done't myfclf. Your emperor 
Continues ftill a Jove. [Exit. 

Eno. 1 am alone the villain of the earth, 
And feel I am fo moil. O Antony, 
Thou mine of bounty, how would'il thou have paid 
My better fervicc, when my turpitude 
Thou doft fo crown with gold! 9 This blows my 

heart : 

If fwift thought break it not, a fwifter mean 
Shall out-ftrike thought; but thought will do't, I 

I fight againft thee ! No : I will go feek 

Some ditch, wherein to die; the foul'it belt fits 
My latter part of life. [Exit. 


Before the Walls of Alexandria. 
Alarum. Drums and Trumpets. Enter Agrippa, and others. 

Agr. Retire, we have engag'd ourfelves too far : 
Casfar himfelf has work, ' and our oppreffion 

9 This blows my heart:} All the Intter editions have : 

This bows my heart: 

I have given the original word again the place from which I think 
it unjuftly excluded. This genemfty, (fays Enobarbus) fweils my 
heart, ib that it will quickly break, if thought break it not, a 

ntan. JoHNSO;\. 

The reading of the old copy is fupported by another paflage in 
this play, where the word blow is uled in the fame fenfe: 

*' Here on her breall 

" There is a vent of hlood, and fomething llo*wn" 


1 and our oppreilion] Opprejjion for oppofition. 

Sir T. Hanmer has received oppofition. Perhaps rightly. 




Exceeds what we expected. [Exeunt. 

Alarum, Enter Antony, and Scants, wounded. 

Scar. O my brave emperor, this is fought indeed ! 
Had we done ib at firft, we had driven them home 
With clouts about their heads. 

Ant: Thou bleed 'il apace. 

Scar. I had a wound here that was like a T, 
But now 'tis made an H. 

Ant. They do retire. 

Scar. We'll beat 'em into bench-holes ; I have yet 
Room for fix fcotches more. 

Enter Eros. 

Eros. They are beaten, fir; and our advantage 

For a fair victory. 

Scar. Let us fcore their backs, 
And fnatch 'em up, as we take hares, behind ; 
'Tis fport to maul a runner. 

Ant. I will reward thee 

Once for thy fp rightly comfort, and ten-fold 
For thy sjood valour. Come thee on. 

Scar. 1'il halt after. [Exeunt. 


Under tbe walls of Alexandria. 

Alarum. Enter Antony again in a inarch. Scarus, with 

Ant. We have beat him to his camp : z Run one 


* run one 

And hi the queen bio\ of cur guefo. - ] 

What gueus was the queen to know of? Antony was to fight again 



And let the queen know of ourguefts. To-morrow, 
Before the fun lhall fee us, we'll fpill the blood 
That has to-day efcap'd. I thank you all ; 
For doughty-handed are you ; and have fought 
Not as you ferv'd the caufe, but as it had been 
Each man's like mine ; you have ftiewn all He&ors. 
Enter the city, clip your wives ', your friends, 
Tell them your feats ; whilft they with joyful tears, 
Wafh the congealment from your wounds, and kifs 
The honour'd gaflies whole. Give me thy hand; 

[To Scarus. 

Enter Cleopatra. 

4 To this great fairy I'll commend thy a&s, 
Make her thanks blefs thee. Othou day o' the world, 
Chain mine arm'd neck ; leap thou, attire and all, 
Through proof of harnefs * to my heart, and there 
Ride on the pants triumphing. 

Cleo. Lord of lords ! 

O infinite virtue ! com'il thou fmiling from 
The world's great fnare uncaught ? 

on the morrow ; and he had not yet faid a word of marching to 
Alexandria, and treating his officers in t lit palace. We mult read: 

.Ami let the queen knovj of our gefts. 

i. c. res gcjlce: our feats, our glorious actions. A term then in 
common ufe. WAR BUR TON. 

This paliage needs, neither correftion nor explanation. Antony 
after his fuccefs intends to bring his officers to fup with Cleopatra, 
and orders notice to be given her of their gxsjls. JOHNSON. 

3 < c\\y ycur *--s:-~-cs, ] To clip is to eiabrace. So, 

Shakcfpeare, in another play : 

" Neptune's arms, who, clippetb thec about." 


4 T:> .'':'< ycat fairy ] Mr. Upton has well oblerved, that 

fiiiry, which Dr. \Vurburton and iir T. Hanmer explain by In- 
cbantrefs, compriies the idea of power and beauty. JOHNSON'. 

5 proof of harnefs, J i. e. armour ot proof. So, in 


' At leaft we'll die with harnefs on our back." 
Harriots^ French. Arntfe, Ital. JJTEEVNS. 

VOL. VIII. S Ant. 


Ant. My nightingale, 
We have beat them to their beds. What, girl ? 

though grey 
Do fojnething mingle with our younger brown ; yet 

have we 

A brain that nourifhes our nerves, and can 
6 Get goal for goal of youth. Behold this man ; 
Commend unto his lips thy favouring hand ; 
K,-ils -it, my warriour : He hath fought to-day, 
As, if a god, in hate of mankind, had 
Deftroy'd in fuch a fhape. 

Cleo. I'll give thee, friend, 
An armour all of gold ; it was a king's 7 . 

Ar.i. He has deferv'd it, were it carbuncled 
Like holy Phoebus' car. Give me thy hand ; 
Through Alexandria make a jolly march ; 
? Bear our hack'd targets like the men that owe them : 
Had our great palace the capacity 

6 Get goal for goal of youtb. ] At all plays of barriers, the. 

boundary is called a.gnal; to vciu a goal, is to bea fuperiour in a 
contcii of activity. JOHNSON. 

7 itivas a king's.] So, in fir T. North's tranflation of Plu- 
tarch : ^ Then came Antony again to the palace greatly boafting 
of this victory, and fweetly kitted Cleopatra, armed as he was when 
he came from the fight, recommending one of his men of arms 
unto her, that had valiantly fought in this flcirmifh. Cleopatra, 
to reward his miinlir.efs, gave him an armour and head-piece of 
clean gold." STF EVENS. 

8 Bear our hack'd targets like the men that o\ve them :] i.e. hack'd 
as much as the men to whom they belong. WAR BURTON. 

Why not rather, Bear our hack'd targets with fpirit and exulta- 
tion, fuch as becomes the brave warriors that o-iva them ? 


So, in Decker's If this be not a good Plaj t the Devil is in /'/ 
1612 : 

" fix days; the feventh 

" Be his that o--:\~s it." 

Again, \nAflrofbeHbisfongtoPbiHiJaantiCoriJon^ published in 
England 's Helico n, 1614: 

" Poor Coridon doth keepe the fields 
Though Phillida be ihe that owes them." Sf EEVENS. 



To camp this hoft, we xvould all fup together ; 
And drink caroufcs to the next day's fate, 
Which promifcs royal peril. Trumpeters, 
With brazen din blaft you the city's ear ; 
Make mingle with our rattling tabourines 9 ; 
That heaven and earth may flrike their founds to- 
Applauding our approach. [Exeunt* 


Ctefafs camp* 
Enter a Centinel, and his company. Enobarbus folbws. 

Cent. If we be not reliev'd within this hour, 
We muft return to the court of guard J : The night 
Is fhiny ; and, they fay, we fhall embattle 
By the fecond hour i' the morn. 

j Sold. This laft day was a fhrewd one to us. 

Eno. O, bear me vvitnefs, night ! 

2 Sold. What man is this ? 

i Sold. Stand clofe, and lift him. 

Eno. Be witnefs to me, O thou blefled moon, 
When men revolted ihall upon record 
Bear hateful memory, poor Enobarbus did 
Before thy face repent ! 

Cent. Enobarbus ! 

3 Sold. Peace ; hark further. 

Eno. O fovereign miftrefs of true melancholy, 
The poifonous damp of night difpunge upon me ; 

9 'tdb(rurines;~\ A tabourin was a fmall drum. It is often 

mentioned in our ancient romances. So, in the Hijlory of Helyas 
Knight of the Sivanne, bl. 1. no date ; ** Trum petes, clerons, ta 
lourins, and other minltrelly." STEEVENS. 

the court of guardi ] i. e. the guard-room, the place 

the guard muiters. The exprelfion occurs again in Othello. 


S z That 


That life, a very rebel to my will, 

May hang no longer on me : * Throw my heart 

Againft the flint and hardnefs of my fault ; 

Which, being dried with grief, will break to powder, 

And finifh all foul thoughts. O Antony, 

Nobler than my revolt is infamous, 

Forgive me in thine own particular; 

But let the world rank me in regifter 

A matter-leaver, and a fugitive : 

O Antony ! O Antony ! " [Dies. 

1 Sold. Let's fpeak to him. 

Cent. Let's hear him, for the things he fpeaks 
May concern Caifar. 

2 Sold. Let's do fo. But he fleeps. 

Cent. . Swoons rather; for fo bad a prayer as his 
Was never yet for ileep. 

1 Sold. Go we to him. 

2 Sold. Awake, fir, awake; fpeak to us. 
i SokL ( Hear you, fir ? 

Cent. The hand of death hath raught him \ 

[Drums flfor'of. 

*Hark, how the drums demurely wake the fleepers : 
Let's bear him to the court of guard ; he is 
Of note : our hour is fully out. 

* TJjrir'j my leart\ The pathetick of Shakefpeare too 

often ends in the ridiculous. It is painful to find the gloomy dig- 
nity of this nohie fcene dciTroyed by the intrufion df a conceit ib 
far-fetched and unaffedting. JOHNSON. 

3 The' band of death hath raught him.] Rau^bt is the ancient 
preterite of the verb to reach. So, in 'Tanked and Guifniund, 

" flie rangbt the cane, 

** And with her own iweet hand did give it me." 
A^ain : 

** Therewith flie Taught from her alluring locks 
" This golden treis." STEEVENS. 

4 Hark, /M-IV the drums demurely -] Demurely for fQlemnly. 


6 2 Sold. 


2 Sold. Come on then ; 
He may recover yet. [Exeunt, with the body. 


Between the two Camps. 

Enter Antony, and Scarus, with their army* 

Ant. Their preparation is to-day by fea ; 
We pleafe them not by land. 

Scar. For both, my lord. 

Ant. I would, they'd fight i* the fire, or in the air; 
We'd fight there too. But this it is ; Our foot 
Upon the hills adjoining to the city, 
Shall flay with us : order for fea is given ; 

5 They have put forth the haven, 

6 Where their appointment we may belt difcover, 
And look on their endeavour. [Exeunt. 

Enter C<efar, and his army. 

Off. 7 But being charg'd, we will be flill by. land, 


5 They have put forth the haven. Further on.] Thefe words, 
further on, though not neceflary, have been inferted in the later 
editions, and are not in the firft. JOHNSON. 

6 Wl:ere their appointment ive may beft difcover^ 
And look on their endeavour.] 

i. e. where we may beft difcover their numbers, and fee their mo' 
tions. WAREURTOV. 

7 But being chargd, ive will bejlill by land, 

Mich, as I take' t, ivcjhall- ] 

i. e. unlefs we be charged we will remain quiet at land, which 
quiet I fuppofe we fhall keep. Bat being charged was a phrafe of 
that time, equivalent to /</} ^ve !>e, which the Oxford editor not 
underftanding, he has alter'd the line thus : 

Not being charged, we I'.-ill be Jlill by land, 
Which as I takft ^e jball not. WA RBURTOK. 
" But (fays Mr. Lambe in bis notes on the ancient metrical 
hiftory of the Battle of Floddon) fignifies without? in which fenfc 
it is often ufed in the North. ** Boots but I'sun" Viilg. 

Je Sic 


Which, as I take it, we fliall ; for his beft force 

Is forth to man his gallies. To the vales, 

And hold bur beft advantage. [Exeunt. 

Re-enter Antony, and Scants. 

Ant. Yet they're not join'd : Where yonder pine 

does fland, 

I lhall difcover all : I'll bring thee word 
Straight^how 'tis like to go. [Exit. 

Scar. Swallows have built 
In Cleopatra's fails their nefts : the augurers 8 
Say, they know not/ they cannot tell; look 


And dare not fp.eak their knowledge. Antony 
Isvalianti and deje&ed ; and, by ftarts, 
His fretted fortunes give him hope, and fear, 
Of what he has, and has not. [Exit. 

Alarum afar off, as at afea-fgkt. 

Re-enter Antony. 
Ant. All is loft ; 

*' Sic nonfenfe ! love tak root but tocher-good, 

" Tvveen a herd's bairn, and ane of gentle blood." 

Gent. SbcpherJ. 

Again, in Kelly's Colle&ion of Scots proverbs : " He could 

eat me but fait." Again : "He gave me whitings but bones." 
Again,, in Chauer's Perfines Tale, late edit. " Ful oft time I - 
rede, that no man truft in his owen perfection, lut he be ftronger 
than Sampfon, or holier than David, or wifer than Solomon." 
But is from the Saxon Butan. Thus butan leas; abfque falfo, 
without a lye. Again, in the fintner's Play in the Chefter col- 
lection. Brit. Muf. MS. Harl. 2013. p. 29 : 

'* Abraham. Oh comely creature but I thee kill 

" I greeve my God and that full ill." 
See alfo Ray's North Country l} r ords. STEEVENS. 
' * ' the augureri\ The old copy has auguries. This leads US 

to what feems molt likely to be the true readmg augurers, which 
word is uled in the laft aft : 

" You are too fure an augurer." MALONE, 

8 This 


This foul ./Egyptian hath betrayed inc : 
My fleet hath yielded to the foe ; and yonder 
They cafl their caps up, and caroufe together 
Like friends long loft. 9 Triple-turn'd whore ! 'dS 


'Haft fold me to this novice ; and my heart 
Makes only wars on thee. Bid them all fly ; 
For when I am reveng'd upon my charm, 
I have done all : Bid them all fly, be gone* 

fun, thy upriie fliall I fee no more : 
Fortune and Antony part here ; even here 

Do we lhake hands. All come to this ? The hearts 

1 That fpaniel'd me at heels, to whom I gave 

9 Trifle-tint* J whore ! ] She, ..s firft for Antony, then 

was fuppofed by him to have turned to Cosfar, when he found his 
meflenger killing her hand ; then flic turned again to Antony, and 
now has turned to Ca:iUr. Shall I mention what has dropped in- 
to my imagination, that our author might perhaps have written 
triple-tongued? Double-tongued is a common term of reproach, 
which rage might improve to triple -tongue d. But the prefent read- 
ing may (land. JOHNSON. 

She was firft for Julius Caefar, then for Pompey the great, and 
afterwards for Antony. TOLLET. 

1 <Tbat fpaniel'd me at heeh, ] All the editions read : 

That pannell'd me at heels, 

Sir T. Hanmer fubftituted^/WV by an emendation, with which 
it was reafonable to expert that even rival commentators would be 
fatisfied ; yet Dr. Warburton propofes pantler\d, in a. note, of 
which he is not injur'd by thefupprefiion ; and Mr. Upton having 
in his firft edition propoled plauiibly enough : 

That paged me at heels, 

in the fecond edition retraces his alteration, arid maintains pannelFd 
to be the right reading, being a metaphor taken, he fays, from a 
pannel of wainfcot. JOHNSON. 

Spaniel* d is fo happy a conjecture, that I think we ought to ac- 
tjuiefce in it. It is of fome weight with me that fpanlel was often 
formerly written JpaawL Hence there is only the omilfion of_the 
firft letter, which has happened eliewhere in our poet, as in the 
word chear &c. To dag them at the heels is not an uncommon 
expreffion in Shakefpeare ; and in the MUfmnmer Night's Dreamy 
act II. fc. ii. Helena lays to Demetrius : 

" I am your fpaniel only give me leave, 

' Unworthy as I am, tafoUavijou." TOLLET. 

S 4 Their 


Their wifhes, do difcandy, melt their fweets 

On bloffoming Caefar ; and this pine is bark'd, 

That over-topp'd them all. Betray 'd I am : 

O this falfe ibul of ^Egypt ! * this grave-charm, 

Whofe eye beck'd forth my wars, and call'd them 

home ; 

Whofe bofom was my crownet *, my chief end, 
Like a -right gipfy '-, hath, at faft and loofe, 

. Be- 

4 this grave charm, - ] I know not by what authority, 
fcor for what reafon, this grave charm, which the firft, the only 
original copy exhibits h.\s been through all the modern editions 
changed to this gay *, //,, By this grave charm, is meant, this 
/Mime, this majrftic b&k, y.' JOHNS ON . 

I believe grave charm means only deadly, or ekjlrufli'u'e piece of 
witchcraft. In this fenfe the epiihet'gravt is often iifed by Chap- 
' man in his tranflation of Homer. So, in the igth book : 
but not far hence the fatal minutes are 

It feem to be employed in the fenfe of the Latin word gravis. 


s ' ii'as my crownet, my cliirf cr.d,-~~\ Dr. Johnfon fup- 
pofes that crcnvt/rt means iail purpofe, probably from finis coronat 
opus. Chapman, in his tranflation of the fecond book of Ho- 
mer, ufes crown in the fenfe which my learned coadjutor would re- 
commend : 

'* - all things have their crowe." 
Again, in our author's Cvmbiliiie,: 

" My fupreme rrriivf of grief." STFEV ; r. 
* Like a right gipfy, hath at fall and loofe, 

There is a kind of pun in this pafTage, nrifing from the coi rup- 
tion of the word Egyptian into ^/r AT. The old law-hooks term 
fuch perfons as ramble about the o-untry, anu pretend (kill in 
palmiftry and fortune telling;, ] E?yptibiK. Fuji find loofe is a term 
to fignify a cheating game, "of which the following is adefcriptiou. 
A leathern belt is made up into a number ot intricate tolds, and 
placed edgewife upon a tahlf. Oneof ihe iolJ. is n,ade to refem- 
ble the middle of the girdle, fo that whoever fhould thruft a Ikewer 
Into it would think he l.eld it full to the t-ible ; whereas, when he 
has fo done, the perfon with whom he plays may take holdot both 
ends and draw it away. This trick is now known to the common 
people, by the name of ' pricking at the belt or giriUe, and perhaps 
was pradifed by the Gyplies in the time of Shakefpeare. 




Beguil'd me 5 to the very heart of lofs.- 
What, Eros, Eros! 

Enter Cleopatra. 

Ah, thou fpell ! A vaunt. 

Cleo. Why is my lord enrag'd againft his love ? 

Ant. Vanifh ; or I ihall give thee thy deferving, 
And blemilh Co}far*s triumph. Let him take thee, 
And hoift thee up to the fronting Plebeians : 
Follow his chariot, like the greateft fpot 
Of all thy fex ; 6 moil monfter-like, be Ihewn 


Sir John Hawkins's fuppofmon is confirm'd by the following 
Epigram in an anciemyfjiledion called Run and a great Ca/t, by 
Tho. Freeman, 1614: 

In jEgyptum fufpenfum. Epig. 9J. 

Charles the uSgyjbtlaa^ who by jugling could 
Make/rt/? or loofe, or whatfoere he would; 
Surely it feem'd he was not his craft's matter, 
* Striving to loofe what ftruggling he made fafter : 
The hangman was more cunning of the twaine, 
Who knit what he could not unknit againe. 
You countrymen. ^Egyptian!, make fuch fots, 
Seeming to loofe indiilbluble knots : 
Had you been there, but to fee the caft, 
You would have won, had you but laid 'tis fail." 


to tie very heart of lofs. ] To the utmoft lois poffible. 

mojl mnnfter-like, be Jbe^iun 

For poor Jl diminutives^ for dolts ;< ] 

As the allufion here is to mongers carried about in fliews, it is 
plain, that the words, for poorejl diminutives, muft mean for the 
leait piece of money ;' we" mull therefore read the next word : 

i. e. farthings, which (hews what he means by poorejl diminutives. 


There was furely no occafion for the poet to foe ivbat he meant 
by poorejl diminutives. The exprellion is clear enough, and cer- 
tainly requires no additional force from the explanation. I rather 
believe we fliould read : 

For pooreft dijninuti r ves t TO DOITS; 



For noor'ft diminutives to dolts ; and let 
Patient Odtavia plough thy vifage up 

7 With her prepared nails. 'Tis well thou'rt gone, 

[Exit Cleopatra. 

If it be well to live : But better 'twere, 
Thou fell'ft into my fury ; for one death 

Might have prevented many. Eros, ho ! 

The fhirt of Neffus is upon me : Teach me, ' 
Alcides, thou mine anceftor, thy rage : 

8 Let me lodge Lichas on the horns o' the moon ; 
And with thofe hands, that grafp'd the heavieft club, 
Subdue my worthieft felf. The witch lhall die ; 

To the young Roman boy fhe hath fold me, and I fall 

Under this plot : ftie dies for't. Eros, ho ! [Exit. 


This aggravates the contempt of her fuppofed fituation ; to be 
fhewn, as monfters are, not only for the fmaileft pieces of money ^ but 
to the mojl Jtupid and vulgar fpefiators. TYRWHITT. 

I have adopted this truly ieniible emendation. STE EVENS. 

7 With her prepared nails. ] i. e. with nails which (lie fuf- 

fered to grow for this purpofe. WAR BUR TON. 

8 Let me lodge Lichas ] Sir T. Han.mer reads thus : 

thy rage 

Led thee lodge Lichas and 

Subdue thy worthieft felf. 

This reading, harfh as it is, Dr. Warburton has received, after 
having rejected many better. The meaning is, Let me do fome- 
thing in my rage, becoming the fucceflbr of Hercules. 


Let me lodge Lichas on the horns o 1 t/S moon,} This image our 
poet feems to have taken from Seneca's Hercules, who fays Lichas 
being launched into the air, fprinkled the clouds with his blood. 
Sophocles, on the fame occafion, talks at a much foberer rate. 


Shakefpeare might have taken part of this imagery from Hey- 
wood's Silver Age, 1613: 

" To fee this wanton, with her baftard, blown 
*' And hang'd ufati the high horns of the moos" 




S C E N E XI. 

Ckopatras Palace. 

Enter Cleopatra, Clwm'um, Ins, and Mar Man. 

Cleo. Help me, my women ! O, he is more mad 
Than Telamon for his fliield 9 ; the boar of Theffaly 
Was never fo embofs'd '. 

Char. To the monumen* ; 

There lock yourfelf, and fend him word you are dead. 
The fool and body rive not more at parting, 
Than greatnefs going off. 

Cleo. To the monument : 
Mardian, go tell him I have ilain myfelf ; 
Say, that the laft I fpoke was, Antony, 
And word it, pr'ythee, piteoufly : Hence, Mardian ; 
And bring me how he takes my death. To the mo- 
nument. [Exeunt. 


The fame. 
Enter Antony, and Eros. 

Ant. Eros, thon yet behold'fl me ? 
Eros. Ay, noble lord. 

Ant. * Sometime, we fee a cloud that's dragonifh ; 


9 TJjan Telansnfor bis flrield ; - ] i.e. than Ajax Telamon. 
for the armour of Acbillts, the moft valuable part of which was the 
ihield. The boar of Tbejjaly was the boar killed by Meleaggr. 


1 Was never fo embofs'd.] A hunting term : when a deer is hard 
run and 'foams at the mouth, he is faid to be imboft. A dog alfo, 
when he is drained with hard running, will have his knees fwelfed, 
and then he is faid to be imbojl, from the French word bajjc, which 
lijgnifies a tumour. HANMER. 

' a Sometime, ive fee a cloud that's dragonijb, &c.] So, Arifto- 
phanes, Nulei, v. 4^ : 

"H wapi?a, i? Xvx, vreiVfUi Sir W. RAWLIN5ON. 



A vapour, fometime, like a bear, or lion, 

A tower'd citadel, a pendant rock, 

A forked mountain, or blue promontory 

With trees upon't, that nod unto the world, 

And mock our eyes with air : Thou haft feen thefc 

figns ; 
They are black vefper's pageants. 

Eros. Ay, my lord. 

Ant. That, which is now a horfe, even with a 


s The rack diflimns ; and makes it indiftincl:, 
As water is in water. 

Eros. It does, my lord. 

Ant. My good knave, Eros 4 , now thy captain is 
Even fuch a body : here I am Antony ; 
Yet cannot hold this vifible lhape, my knave. 
I made thefe wars for ^Egypt ; and the queen, 
Whofe heart, I thought, I had, for fhe had mine ; 
Which, whilft it was mine, had annex'd unto't 
A million more, now loft, fhe, Eros, has 

Perhaps Shakefpeare received the thought from P. Holla nd'stranf- 

lation of Pliny's Nat. Hift. b. ii. c. 3 : " our eiefighttef- 

tifieth the fame, whiles in one place there appeareth the refem- 
blanceof a waine.or. chariot, in another of a bearc, the figure of a 
bull in this part, &c." or from Chapman's Monfieur D'Olive, 

" Like to a mafs of clouds that now feem like 
" An elephant, and ftraJghuvays like an ox, 
" And then a moufe &c." STEEVENS. 

3 The rack tUJlimns ; ] i. e. The fleeting away of the clouds 
cleftroys the picture. STEEVEI^S. 

4 My good knave, Eros, ] Knave is fervant. So, in A 

Mery Gefte of Rolyn HonSe, bl. 1. no date : 

" I fliall thee lencle lyttle John my man, 

" For he fhali be thy knave.'' 

Again, in the okl n-.ctrica! roivmnce of ~SyrDigorc 9 bl. 1. no date: 
" He fent the chylde tu her :\iii rathe 
*' With much money by his 'knave." STEEVENS. 



5 Pack'd cards with Csefar, and falfe play'd my glory 
Unto an enemy's triumph. 
Nay, weep not, gentle Eros ; there is left us 
Ourielves to end ourfelves. O, thy vile lady ! 

Enter Mardian. 

She has robb'd me of my fword. 

Mar. No, Antony; 

My miftrefs lov'd thee, and her fortunes mingled 
"With thine entirely. 

Ant. Hence, faucy eunuch ; peace ; 
'She hath betray'd me, and fhall die the death. 

Mar. Death of one perfon can be paid but once ; 
And that fhe hath difcharg'd : What thou would'ftdo, 
Is done unto thy hand ; the laft fhe fpake 
Was, Antony ! moft noble Antony ! 
Then in the midft a tearing groan did break 
The name of Antony ; it was divided 
Between her heart and lips : Ihe rendered life, 
The name ib buried in her. 

Ant. Dead then ? 

5 Pack'd cards with C<?/ar, and falfe play'd my glory 

Unto an enemy's triumph. ] 

Shakefpeare has here, as ufual, taken his metaphor from a low 
trivial lubjeft ; but has enobled it with much art, by fo contriv- 
ing that the principal term in the fubjecl from whence the meta- 
phor was taken, fhould belong to, and fuit the dignity of the fub- 
ject to which the netaphor is transferred ': thereby providing at 
once for the integrity of the figure, and the noblenefs of the 
thought. And this by the word triumph, which either fignifies 
OStavius's conqueft, or what we now call, contra&edly, the trump 
at cards, then called the triumph or the triumphing fort. 


This explanation is very juft, the thought did not deferve fo 
good an annotation. JOHNSON. 

A'paflage in Ben Jonfon's Fortunate IJles, a mafque, I think fuf- 
ficicntly lupports Dr. Warburton's etymology : 

' ' The kings and queens that triumph in the cards." 
This ufeof the word comes to us from the French, who at this 
day call the trump at cards, k triompbe. STEEVENS. 



- 'Mar. Dead. 

Ant. Unarm, Eros; the long day's tafk is done, 
And we muft fleep : That thou depart'ft hence fare, 
Does pay thy labour richly ; Go. Off, pluck off ; 

\_Exit Mardlan. 

The feven-fold ftiield of Ajax cannot keep 
6 The battery from my heart. , O, cleave, my fides ! 
Heart, once be ftronger than thy continent 7 , 
Crack thy frail cafe ! Apace,' Eros, apace. 
No more a foldier : Bruifed pieces, go ; 
You have been nobly borne. From me a while.- 

{Exit Eros. 

I will o'ertake thee, Cleopatra, -end 
JVVeep for my pardon. So it muft be, for no'.v- 
All length is torture : Since the torch is out, 
Lie down, and ftray no further: No*.v all labour 
Marrs what it does; yea, very force entangles 
Itfelf with ftrength : 8 Seal then, and all is done. 
Eros ! I come, my queen : Eros ! Stay for me : 
Where fouls do couch on flowers, we'll hand in hand, 
And with our fprightly port make the ghofts gaze : 
Dido and her Aneas lhali want troops, 

* The lattery from my heart. ] I would read : 

This lattery from my heart. JOHNSON. 

7 , t ly continent,} i.e. the thing that contains thee. So, 

in another of our author's plays : " You (hall find in him the con- 
tinent of what part a gentleman would fee. STEEVENS. 

* . . . Seal -then, and all is done. ] Metaphor taken from 

civil contracts, where, when all is agreed on, thefealing eompleats 
the contract ; fo he hath determined to die, and nothing remain'd 
but to give the ftroke. The Oxford editor not apprehending this, 
alters it to' 

deep then, - ] WARBURTON. 

I believe the reading is : 

feel t'jcy and all is done. 

To feel ha-vks, is to clofe their eyes. The meaning will be : 

face the torch is out, 

Lie do'-'.'n, and fir ay no further. ~N o<vj all labour 

Marrs what it does. Seel flicn, and all is done. 

Clofe thine eyes far ever, and be quiet, JOHKSON. 



And all the haunt be ours. Come, Eros, Eros! 

Re-enter Eros. 

Eros. What would my lord ? 

Ant. Since Cleopatra dy'd, 
I have liv'd in men difhonour, that the gods 
Deteft my bafenek. I, that with my Avord 
Quarter'd the world, and o'er green Neptune's back 
With Ihips made cities, condemn my fc-f, to lack 
The courage of a woman, lefs noble mind 
Than Ihe, which, by her death, our Cselar tells, 
Iqm conqueror of my/elf . Thou art fworn, Eros, 
That, when the exigent fhould come, (-vhich now 
Is come, indeed) when I fhould fee behind me 
The inevitable profecution of 
Difgrace and horror, that, on my command, 
Thou then would'ft kill me : do't, the time is come : 
Thou ftrik'ft not me, 'tis Casfar thou defeat'il. 
Put colour iruthy cheek. 

Eros. The gods withhold me ! 
Shall I do that, which all the Parthian darts, 
Though enemy, loft aim, and could riv>t ? 

A/it. Eros, 

Would'ft thou bewindow'd in great Roma, and fee 
Thy mailer thus - with pleach'd arms, bending down 
His corrigible neck ', his face fubdu'd 

s pleached arms, ] Arms folded in each other. 


Apaflage very like this occurs in Thomas Ryd's tranilation of 
Robert Gamier' s Cornelia, publiflied in 159,: 

" Now (halt tuou march (thy hanus raft bound behind 


" Thy head hung down, ;hy cheeks with tears befprent, 
*' Be to re tht victor ; while rhy relx jn 
" VVitii crowned front triumphing lol 1 AS thee " 


1 His corrigible neck, ] Cor ,; ' le for corrected, and 

afterwards penetrative for penetrnting. -~>J \ r 'i"Ji'i ' 1! ^s " penetraliU 
frigus" for " penctrans frigus," m his Georg^cks. STEEYENS. 



To penetrative lhame ; whilft the wheel'd feat 
Of fortunate Ca^far, drawn before him, branded 
* His bafenefs that enfued ? 

Eros. 1 would not fee't. 

Ant. Come then; for with a wound I miift be cur'd. 
Draw that thy honeft fword, which thou haft worn 
Moft ufeful for thy country. 

Eros. O, fir, pardon me. 

Ant. When I did make thee free ? , fwor'ft thou not 


To do this when I bade thee ? Do it at once ; 
Or thy precedent feryices are all 
But accidents unpurpos'd. Draw, and come. 

Eros. Turn from me then that nobie countenance, 
Wherein 4 the worfhip of the whole world lies. 

Ant. Lo thee. [Turning from him. 

* His bafcncfs that enfued ?] The poor conquered wretch that 
followed. JOHNSON. 

3 When I did make thee free, &c.] So, in the old tranflation of 
Plutarch : " Now he had a man of his called^Eros, whom he 
loued and trufted much, and whom he had long before caufed to 
fweare vijto him, thathefhould kill him when, he did commaunde 
him : an.l then he willed him to keepe his promife. His man 
drawing his fworde, lift it vp as though he'had ment to haue ftri- 
ken h s maifter : but turning, his head at one fide, he thruft his 
fword into him felfe, and fell downe dead at his maiiter's foote. 
Then faid Antonius, O noble Eros, I tlranke thee for this, and 
it is valliantly done of thee, to fhew me what I fhculd do to my 
felfe, which thou couldelt not doe for me. Therewithal' he 
tooke his fword, and thruft it into his bellie, and fo fell downe 
vpon a'litlebed. The wounds he had, killed him not 'prefently, 

for the blood itinted a litle when he was layed : and when he came 
fomwhat to him felfe againe, he praied them that were about him 
to difpatch him. But they all fled out of the chamber, and left 
him crying out and tormenting him felfe : vntill at lart there came 
a fecretarie vnto him called Diomedes, who \\as commaunded to 
bring him into the tombe or monument where Cleopatra was. 
When he heard that (lie was aliue, he verie earneftlie prayed his 
men to cane his bodie thither, and fo he was caried in his men's 
ames into the entry of the monument." STEEVENS. 

4 tbeworjlrip of the whole world ] The worjbip, is the 

dignity , the authority. JOHNSON. 



Eros. My fword is drawn. 

Ant. Then let it do at once 
The thing why thou haft drawn it. 

Eros. My dear matter, 
My captain, and my emperor ! let me fay, 
Before I ftrike this bloody ftroke, farewel. 

Ant. 'Tis faid, man ; and farewel. 

Eros. Farewel, great chief. Shall I ftrike now ? 

Ant. Now, Eros. 

Eros. Why, there then : Thus do I efcape the 

forrow [Eros kills himfelf. 

Of Antony's death. [vits* 

Ant. Thrice nobler than myfelf ! 
Thou teacheft me, O valiant Eros, what 
I fhould, and thou could'ft not. My queen and Eros 
Have, by their brave inftrudtion, got upon me 
A noblenefs in record : ' But I will be 
A bridegroom in my death, and run into't 
As to a lover's bed. Come then ; and, Eros, 
Thy mailer dies thy fcholar ; to do thus 

[Falling on his fword. 

I learn'd of thee. How ! not dead ? not dead ? 
The guard ? how ! O, difpatch me. 

Enter Dercetas^ and Guards. 

1 Guard. What's the noife ? 

Ant. I have done my work ill, friends ; O, make an 

Of what I have begun. 

2 Guard. The ftar is fallen. 

i Guard. And time is at his period. 
All. Alas, and woe ! 

But I will 1>e 

A bridegroom in my death, &c.] 

This thought has occurred before in Mcafurefor Mcafurt 
I will encounter darkncfs as a bride, 
And bug it In my armt. STEEVENS. 



Ant. 'Let him that loves me, ftrike me dead. 

1 Guard. Not I. 

2 Guard. Nor I. 

3 Guard. Nor any one. [Exeunt. 
Do: Thy death and fortunes bid thy followers fly 

This fword but fliewn to Csefar, with' this tidings/ 
bhall enter me with him. 

Enter Diomedes, 
Dio. Where's Antony ? 
Der. There, Diomed, there. 
Dio. Lives he ? Wilt thou not anfwer, man ? 

[Exit Dercetas. 
Ant. Art thou there, Diomed ? Draw thy fword 

and give me 

Sufficing ftrokes for death. 
Dio.. Moft abfolute lord, 
My miftrefs Cleopatra fent me to thee. 

Ant. V,- hen did fhe lend thee ? 
- Dio. ,N.Q\Y, my lord. 
Ant. Where is me ? 
Dio. Lock'd in her monument. She had a pro- 

phefying fear 

Of what hath come to pafs : for when fhe faw 
(Which never {hall be found) you did fufpedt 
She had difpos'd * with Caefar, and that your rage 
Would not be purg'd,, fhe fent you word fhe was 

dead ; 

But, tearing fjnce how it might work, hath fent 
Me to proclaim the truth ; and I am come, 
I dread, too late. 

Ant. Too late, good Diomed .-Call my guard I 

Dio. What, ho ! the emperor's guard ! The 

guard, what, ho! 
Come, your lord calls. 

* Sbtba* difpos'd r,:VA C^far.1 To ,/#,/,, in this inlhncc, 
perhaps hgmfaea to //;.;. ,' t r/.yy, toji-tilt matters. STEEYSNS. 



Enter a Guard. 

Ant. Bear me, good friends^ where Cleopatra ; 
'Tis the laft lervice that I lhall command you. 

i Guard. Woe, woe, are we, fir, you may net live 

to wear 

All your true followers out. 
All. Moft heavy day ! 
Ant. Nay, good my fellows, do not pleafe marp 


To grace it with your fcrrows : bid that welcome 
Which' comes to punifh us, and we punim it 
Seeming to bear it lightly. Take me up : 
I have led you oft ; carry me now, good friends, 
And have my thanks for all. 

[Exeunt, bearing Antony* 


A Monument. 
Enter Cleopatra, Cbarmlan, and Iras, above. 

Cleo. O Charmian, I will never go from hence, 

Char. Be comforted, dear madam. 

Cleo. No, I will not : 

All ftrange and terrible events are welcome, 
But comforts we defpife ; our fizeof forrow, 
Proportion'd to our caufe, muft be as great 

Enter Diomedes. 

As that which makes it. How. now ? is he dead? 

Dio. His death's upon him, but not dead. 
Look out o' the other fide your monument, 
His guard have brought him thither. 

T i Enter 


Enter Antony, borne by the guard. 

Cleo. J O fun, 
Burn the great fphere thou mov'fl in .'darkling 4 


The varying fliore o' the world ! O Antony ! 
Antony, Antony ! 

Help, Charmian, help ; Iras, help ; help, friends 
Below ; let's draw him hither. 

Ant. Peace : 

Not Csefar's valour hath o'erthrown Antony, 
But Antony's hath triumph'd on itfelf. 

Cleo. So it fliould be, that none but Antony 
Should conquer Antony ; but woe 'tis fo ! 

Ant. I am dying, ./Egypt, dying ; only 
5 1 here importune death a while, until 



Burn the great fphere thou mov'jl in ! darkling./?*// 
J7je vzryingjhorc o' tlj 1 ivorld ! - ] 

T7jt varying fiorc a' t/S -world! i. e. of the earth, where light 
and darknefs make an inceflant variation. But then, if the fun 
fhould fet on fire the whole fphere, in which he was fuppofed to 
move, how could the earth_/r } ad darkling? On the contrary it 
would be in perpetual light. Therefore, if we allow CJeopatra 
not to be quite mad, we muft believe flie faid, 

Turn trom tb^ great fphere 

i. e. forfake it, fly off from it : and then indeed the confequence 
would be, that the varying Jkore would become invariably dark. 


She defires the fun to lum his own orb, the vehicle of light, 
and then the earth will be dark. JOHNSONS 

4 darkling 1 i. e. without light. So in the Two angry Wo 
men of Abington^ 1599 : 

" my mother hath a torch, your wife 

** Goes darkling up and down." STEEVENS. 

5 I here importune death ] I folicit denth to delay; or. I 

trouble death by keeping him in waiting. JOH.NSOM. 

/ here importune death a ci'/}//V, until 
Of many thoufatid kijjes the poor hijl 
Hay upon thy l:ps. Cane down. 



Of many thoufand kiffcs the poor laft 
I lay upon thy lips. 

Cko. I dare not, 

Dear, dear, my lord, pardon ; I dare not, 
Left I be taken : not the imperious ftiew 
Of the full-fortun'd Ca?far ever (hall 
Be brooch'd with me 6 ; if knife, drugs, ferpents, 


Cleo. / dare not, 

Dear, dear, my lord, your pw Jon ; that / dare not, 

Left I be taken. 

What curious hobbling verlification do we encounter here in the 
laft line but one ? Belides, how inconfiftently is the lady made to 
reply ? Antony fays, he only holds life, till he can give her one 
laft kifs : and flie cries, flie dares not : What dares fhe not do ? 
kifs Antony ? But how ihould flie ? fhe was above, lock'd in her 
monument ; and he below, on the outfide of it. With a very 
flight addition, I think, I can cure the whole ; and have a war- 
rant from Plutarch for it into the bargain. 

Now Plutarch fays, that " Antony was carried in his men's 
arms into the entry of the monument : Notwithftanding, Cleopatra 
would not open the gates, but came to the high windows, and call out 
certain chains and ropes, &c." So that Antony might very rea- 
fonably delire her to come down, and (he as reafonably excufe 
herfelr for fear of being infnared by Cajfar. THEOBALD. 

Mr. Theobald's emendation is received by the fucceeding edi- 
tors ; but it feems not neceflary that a dialogue fo diftrefsful 
fhould be nicely regular. I have therefore preferved the original 
reading in the text, and the emendation below. JOHNSON. 

6 Be brooch'd v:ith me.] Be brooch' d, i.e. adorn* d. A brooch 
was an ornament formerly worn in the hat. So in Ben Jonfon's 
Poetajlcr, " Honour's a good brooch to wear in a man's hat at all 
times." Again, in his Staple of News : 

" The very broch o' the bench, gem of the city." 
Again, in the Magnetic Lady : 

" The brooch to any true ftate cap in Europe." 
The Rev. Mr. Lambe obfervcs in his notes on the ancient metrical 
Hijlcry of Floddon Field, t\\M brooches in the North are buckies let 
with ilones, fuch as thofe with which fhirt-bofoms and handker- 
chiefs are clafped. STEEVENS. 

be brooch* d with me. 

Brooch is properly a bodkin, or fome fuch inflrjmcnt (originally a 

fpit) and ladies' bodkins being headed with gems, it fometimes 

ftaods for an ornamental trinket or jewel in general, in whic.i 

T 3 leaf.- 


Edge, fling, or operation *, I am .fafe. 
Your wife Octavia, with her modeit eyes, 
And * flill conclufion, mall acquire no honour 
Demuring upon me. - But come, come, Antony, 
Help me, my women, we muft draw thee up ; 
Aflift, good friends. O,, quick, or I am gone, 

Cko. 9 Here's fport, indeed ! How heavy weighs 

my lord ! 

Our flrength is all gone into heavinefs, 
That makes the weight : Had I great Juno's power, 
The ilrong-wing'd Mercury Ihould fetch thee up, 
And fet thee by Jove's fide. Yet come a little, 
Wilhers were ever fools ; O, come, come, come ; 
\*fbey drazv Antony up to Cleopatra. 
Arid welcome, welcome ! die, where thou haft liv'd : 
1 Quicken with kifling; had my lips that power, 
Thus would I wear them out. 

fenfe it is perhaps ufed at prefent, or as probably in its original 
one, for pinned up, as we now fay pin up the lafket ; brooch* d with 
me, i. e. pinned up, compleated with having me to adorn his 
triumph. PERCY. 

7 if knife, drugs, ferpents, have 

E (foe. fling, or operation, ~\ 

Here is the fame irregular pofiticn of the words, that Mr. War- 
ner would avoid or amend in Hamlet : and yet Shakefpeare feems 
to have attended to this matter in the very play before us, act III. 
fc. ii. TOLLET. 

This thought occurs in Permits Prince of Tyre : 

" If fires be hot, knives fliarp, or waters deep, 
" Unty'd I ftill rny virgin knot will keepe." 


8 ftill condition, ] Sedate determination ; filent cool- 

nefs of refolution. JOHNSON. 

9 Here'sfport, indeed! ] I fuppofe the meaning of thefc \vords is, here's trifling, you do not work in carnejl. 


1 >aicken with ki fling ] That is, Revive ly ny k:fs. 


So .in Hey wood's Rcysl King &c, 1637 : 

" AuJ quickens moft where he wculd mcft deftroy." 




'All A heavy fight ! 

Ant. I am dying, JEgynt, dying : 
Give me fonic wine, and let me fpeak a little. 8 . 

Clea. No, let me (peak ; and let me rail ib i/i.^li, 
That the falfe 5 hufwifc Fortune break her wheel, 
Provok'd by my offence. 
' Ant. One word, Aycct queen : 
Of Ciefar feek your honour, with your fafety. O ! 

Cko. They do not go together. 

Ant. Gentle, hear me : 

None about Crefar trull, but Prcculeius. 

Cko. My refolution, and my hands, i'll-tr. 
None about Ca?far. 

Ant. The mifcrablc change. no\v at mv end *-, 
Lament nor forrow at : but pleafe your thoughts 
In feeding them with thofe my former fortunes 
Wherein I liv'd, the greatcli prince o' the world, 
The noble'il : and do now not bafely die, 
Nor cowardly ; put off my helmet to 
My country mar,, a Romany by a Roman 
Valiantly vanquiih'd. Now, my fpirit is going ; 
I can no more. [Antony dies. 

* Gi"jemcfcr:c--S>;ic, &:c.] This circumftance, like almbft every 
other, Shakefpeare adopted from Plutarch. Sir Tho. North, in 
his tranflation, fays, " Antony made her ceafe from lamenting, 
and called for wine, either becaufe he was athirft, or elfe for that 
thereby to haften his death. When he had dronke, he earneltly 
prayed her, and perfuaded that flie would feeke to fuvc her life, if 
fhe could poffible, without reproache and difhonor : and that flie 
fhould chiefly truft Proculeius abpve any man elfe about Cajfar." 


3 bujkvife Fortune ] This defpicable line has occurred 

before. JOHNSON- . 

4 The mifirable change, &c.] This fpeech ftands thus in fir Tho. 
North's tranflation of Plutarch. " As for himfelf, flie fhould 
not lament nor forrow for the niiferable change of his fortune at 
the end of his days ; but rather, that (he fhould think him the. 
more fortunate, for the former triumphs and honours he hail re- 
ceived, confidering that while he lived, he was the noblefl and 
greateli: prince of the vvcricl, and that now he was overccir.e, not 
cowardly, but valiantly, a Roman, by another Roman." 


T 4 Qco* 


Cleo. Nobleft of men, woo't die ? 
Haft thou no care of me ? lhall I abide 
In this dull world, which in thy abfence is 
No better than a ftye ? O, fee, my women, 
The crown o' the earth doth melt : My lord ! 
O, wither'd is the garland of the war, 
5 The foldier's pole is fallen ; young boys, and girls, 
Are level now with men : the odds is gone, 
And there is nothing left remarkable 
Beneath the vifiting moon. [She faints* 

Char. O, quietnefs, lady ! 

Iras. She is dead too, our fovereign. 

Cf}ar. Lady ! 

Iras. Madam ! 

Char. O madam, madam, madam,. 

Iras. Royal ^Egypt ! emprefs ! 

Ckar. 6 Peace, peace, Iras. 


5 Tic folder's pole ] He at whom the foMiers pointed, as 

at a pageant held high forobfcrvation. JOHNSON. 

6 The common copies, 

Peace, peace, Iras. 

Cleo. No mere but a meer ivoman, - 

Cleopatra is fallen into a fwoon ; .her maids endeavour to recover 
her by invoking her by her feveral titles. At length, Charm i;.n 
fays to the other, Pence, peace, Iras ; on which Cleopatra conies 
to herfelf, and replies to thele laft words, No, you are <;/lake:i. 
/ am a mere woman like yourf elf. Thus (lands this fenfelefs dia- 
logue. But Shakefpeare never wrote it fo : we muft obferve 
then, that the two women call her by feveral titles, to fee which 
beft pleafed her ; and this was highly in character : the ancients 
thought that not only men, but gods too, had fume names, which 
above others they much delighted in, and would iboneft anfwer 
to ; as we may lee by the hymns of Orpheu;, Homer, and Calli- 
machus. The poet, conforming to this notion, makes the maids 
fay, Sovereign tads, madam, rrynl j&gypt, emprefs. And now \ve 
come to the place in queftion : Charmian, when flic faw none of 
thefe titles had their effect, invokes her by a (till more flattering 
one ; 

Peace, peace, Is is! 

for fo it fhould be read and pointed : i. e. Peace, we can never 
jnove her by thefe titles : let us give her her favourite name <*' 



Cko. No more but e'en a woman ; and com- 

the goddefs Is is. And now Cleopatra's anfwer becomes pertinent 
and fine : 

No more but a mere woman ; and commanded 
By fucb poor pajfion as the maid that milks 

i, e. I now fee the tolly of afluming to myfelf thefe flattering title* 
of divinity. My misfortunes, and my impotence in hearing them, 
convince me I am a mere woman, and lubjecito all the paifions of 
the meaneil of my fpecies. Here the poet has followed hiftory 
exactly, and, what is more, his author Plutarch in Antonio ; who 
fays that Cleopatra aflumed the habit and attributes of that god- 
defs, and gave judgments or rather oracles to her people under 

the quality of the NEW ISIS. K^toiraiffa. /M.W y% KOU T3Tt y.ctl 


Of this note it may be truly faid, that it at leaft deferves to be 
right, nor can he, that fljall queftion the juitnefs of the emen- 
dation, refufe his efteem to the ingenuity and learning with which 
it is propofed. 

Hamner had propofed another emendation, not injudicioufly. 
He reads thus : 

Iras. Royal JEgypt ! emprcfi ! 

Cleo. Peace, feme, Iras. 

No more but a mere woman, &c. 
That is, no more an cmprefs, but a mere woman* 

It is fomewhat unfortunate that the words, mere woman, which 
fo much ftrengthen the oppofition to either emfrefs or Ifa, are net 
in the original edition, which Ihmds thus : 

No more but in a woman ^ &c. 

Mere woman was probably the arbitrary reading of Rowe. I fup- 
pofe, however, that we may juitly change the ancient copy thus : 

No more, but e'en a woman, 
which will enough accommodate either of the editors. 

I am inclined to think that Ihe fpeaks abruptly, not anfwering 
her woman, but difcourfing with her own thoughts; 

No more - but e'en a woman, 

I bave no more of my wonted greatmfs, but am even a woman, on 
the level with other women ; were I what I once was, 

- It were for me 

To throw my fcepter, l ^fc. 

If this fimple explanation be admitted, how much labour has 
been thrown away. Peace, peace, Iras, is faid by Charmian, 
when fl-,e fees the queen recovering, aud thinks fpeech trouble- 
ibiue. JOHNSON, 



By fucii poor pamon as the maid that milks, 
And does the meaneft chares 7 . It \vcre for me 
To throw my fcepter at the injurious gods ; 
To tell them, that this world did equal theirs, 
'Till they had ilolen our jewel. . All's but naught ; 
Patience is fotti*h ; and impatience does 
Become a dog that's mad : Then is it fin, 
To rnfh into "the ibcret houfe of death, 
Ere death dare' come to us ? How do you, women ? 
What, what ? good cheer! Why* how now, Char- 

mian r 

My noble girls ! Ah, women, women ! look, 
Our lamp is fpent, it's cut : Good firs, take heart : 
I bury him : and then, what's brave, what's 


Let's do it after the high Roman fufhion, 
And make death proird to take us. Come, away : 
This cafe of tha.t huge .fpirit now is cold. 
Ah, women, women ! come ; we have no friend 
But refolution, and the briefeft end. 

, bearing off Antonfs body* 

T - tig meanejl chares -- ] i.e. talk-work. Hence our 
term cbare-ivoman. So in. Hey wood's Tarquinand Lucrece^ 1630 : 
" She, like a good wife, is teaching her iervants fuudiy ckarcs." 
Again, in Hevwcod's Brazen A^e^ 1613: 
' * ' * -- ipins, 
** Cards, and does chare-work," 

*' Augment my talk into a treble chare.''* 
Again, in Promos and Cajjandra, 1 578 : 

" Well I rr.uft trudge to do a certain chare" 





Ctcfar's Camp. 

* Enter C*far, Agrippa* Dolabella, Mectnas, Callus, 
Procuk'ius, and train. 

C<ef. Go to him, Dolabella, bid him yield ; 
Being fo fruftrated, tell him, he mocks 
The paufes that he makes 9 . 

1 Dol. Cafar, I fliall. [Exit Dolabella. 


8 Enter Cafar, Agrippa, Dolabclla, and Menas.] But Menas 
and Menecrates, we may remember, were two famous pirates, 
linked with Sextus Pompeius, and who affifted him to infeft the 
Italian coaft. We no where learn, exprefsly in the play, that Me- 
nas ever attached himfelf to Octavius's party. Notwithstanding 
the old folios concur in marking the entrance thus, yet in the 
two places in the fcene, where this character is made to fpeak, 
they have marked in the margin, Mcc. fo that, as Dr. Thirlby 
fagacioufly conjectured, we muft cafliier Menas, and fubilitute 
Mecacnas in his room. Menus, indeed, deferted to Csefar no lefs 
than twice, and was preferred by him. But then we are to con- 
fider, Alexandria was taken, and Antony kill'd himfelf, anno 
U. C. 723. Menns made the fecond revolt over to Auguftus, 
U. C. 7 1 7 ; and the next year was flain at the liege of Belgrade 
in Pannonia, five years before the death of Antony. 


* He mocks tbepaufestbat be makes.'] i.e. he plays wantonly with the 
intervals of time which he fhould improve to his own prefervation. 
Or the meaning may be being thus defeated in all his efforts, 
and left without refource, tell him that thele affe&ed paufes and 
delays of his ; n yielding himfelf up to me, are mere idle mockery. 
He mocks tbepaufe^ may be a licentious mode of expreflion for 
be makes a mockery of us, ly thefe paufes j i. e. he trifles with us. 


1 Dol. C<rfar, I flail.] I make no doubt but it fliould be 

maiked here, that Dolabella goes out. 'Tis reafonable to ima- 

gine he flicuid prefeutly depart upon Caefar's command ; fo that 

the fpceches, placed to him in the fequel of this fccne, muft be 

8 trans- 


Enter Dercetas, with the fword of Antony. 

C<ef. Wherefore is that ? and what art thou, that 

Appear thus to us ? 

Der. I am call'd Dercetas ; 
Mark Antony I ferv'd, who beft was worthy 
Beft to be ferv'd : whilft he flood up, and fpoke, 
He was my matter ; and I wore my life, 
To fpend upon his haters : If thou pleafe 
To take me to thee, as I was to him 
I'll be to Ceefar ; if thou pleafefl not, 
1 yield thee up my life. 

Caf. What is't thou fay 'ft ? 

Der. I fay, O Csefar, Antony is dead. 

Caf. The breaking of fo great a thing fhould make 
A greater crack : * The round world 


transferred to Agrippa, or he is introduced as a mute. EefiJes, 
that Dolabella fhouia be gone out, appears from this, that when 
Caefar aflts for him, he recollects that he had fent him on bufinefs. 


~ Tljc round world Jhould hemejbook 

Lions into civiljireets, &c.] 

I think here is a line loll, after which it is in vain to go in queft. 
The fenle feems to have been this : The round world Jhonid have 
JJjook, and this great alteration of the fyftem of things {hould lend 
lions into greets ^ and citizens into dens. There is fenfe itill, but it 
is harfh and violent. JOHNSON'. 

I believe we {hould re;;d The rttitid world, i.e. the general 
difruption of elements {hould have^^-, &c. Shakefpeare feems 
to mean that the death of fo great a man ought to have produced 
effects fimilar to thofe which might be expected from the difib- 
lution of the univerfe, when all difti notions fhall be loll. To 
Jhalte any thing out, is a phrafe in common ufe among our an- 
cient writers. So Hoiinflied, p. 743 : " God's providence 

Jhakiag men out of their fliifts of luppofed fafctie, &c." 

Perhaps, however, Shakefpeare might mean nothing more here 
than merely an earthquake, in which the making of the round 
v.-cr'.d was to be fo violent as to tofs the inhabitants of woods into 
cities, and the inhabitants of cities into woods. 


Should have Ihook lions into civil (Ireets, 

And citizens to their dens : The death of Antony 

Is not a fingle doom ; in the name lay 

A moiety of the world. 

Der. He is dead, Czefar ; 
Not by a publick minifter of juftice, 
Nor by a hired knife; but that felf hand, 
Which writ his honour in the a&s it did, 
Hath, with the courage which the heart did lend it, 
Splitted the heart. This is his fword, 
I robb'd his wound of it ; behold it ftain'd 
With his molt noble blood. 

C<ef* Look you fad, friends ? 
The gods rebuke me, ' but it is a tidings 
To waih the eyes of kings. 

Agr. And ftrange it is, 
That nature muft compel us to lament 
Our moft perfifted deeds. 

Mec. His taints and honours 
* Waged equal with him. 


The round world ] The defective metre of this line ftrongly 
fupports Dr. Johnfon's conjecture, that fomething is loft. 1 believe 
only two words are wanting. Perhaps the paflage originally flood 
thus : 

A greater crack. The round world fyould bavcjbooky 
Thrown raging lions into civil Jireets, 

And citizens to their dens. MALONE. 

The fenfe, I think, is complete and plain, if we confider./Wfc 
(more properly foaken} as the participle part of a verb atfive. The 
metre would be improved if the lines were diftributed thus : 

The round world Jkould havejbook 

Lions into civil jlreets, and citizens 
Into their dens. TYRWHITT. 

1 but /'/ is a tidings 

To wo/I} the eyes of kings. ] 

That is, May the gods rebuke we, if this be not tidings to make king* 

But, again, for if not. JOHNSON. 

* Waged equal with him,'} For waged, the modern editions have 
fVfigbfd, JOHNSON. 



Agr. A rarer fpirit never 

Did fteer humanity : but you, gods, will give us 
Some faults to make us men. C^far is touch'd. 

Mec. When fuch a fpacious mirror's fet before him, 
He needs muft fee himfelf. 

O/ O Antony ! 

I have follow'd thee to this ; But we do lance 
Difeafes in our bodies *. I muft perforce 
Have fhewn to thee fuch a declining day, 
Or look on thine ; we could not ftall together 
> In the whole world : But yet let me lament, 
With tears as fovereign as the blood of hearts, 
That thou, my brother, my competitor 
In top of all defign, my mate in empire, 
Friend and companion in the front of war, 
The arm of mine own body, and the heart 
Where mine his thoughts did kindle, that our flars, 
Unreconciliable, 4 fhould divide 
Our equalnefs to this. Hear me, good friends, 
But I will tell you at fome meeter feafon ; 

It is not eafy to determine the precife meaning of the word 
wage. In Othello it occurs again : 

" To wake and wage a danger profitlefs." 

It may lignify to oppofe. The fenfe will then be, bis taints and 
honours were an equal match ; i. e. were oppofed to each other 
in juft proportions, like the counterparts of a wager. S TEEVENS. 
3 But ive do lance 

D'Jeafes in our bodies, ~\ 

The old copy reads : 

But we do launch, 

Difeafes in our bodies. 

Perhaps rightly and the meaning may be : "I have followed 
thee to the death. But why do I lament thy fall ? We are all 
mortal Our fate is predeftin'd at our birth ; and when we launch 
on the fea of life, the principles of decay are interwoven with our 
conftitution." MALONE. 
* fyould divide 

Our equalnefs to this. ] 

That is, fiould have made us, in our equality of fortune, difagree 
to a pitch like this, that one of us muft die, JOHNSON. 


The bufinefs of this man looks out of him, 
We'll hear him what he fays. Whence are you ? 
j&gypt. s A poor ^Egyptian yet : The queen my 


Confin'd in all fhe has, her monument, 
Of thy intents defines inftrudion ; 
That ihe preparedly may frame hcrfelf 
To the way fhe's forc'd to. 
Caf. Bid her have good heart ; 
She loon fhall know of us, by fome of ours, 
How honourably and how kindly we 
Determine for her : for Czefar cannot live 
To be ungentle. 

So the gods preferve thee ! [Exit. 

C*f. Come hither, Proculeius ; Go, and fay, 
We purpoie her no lhame : give her what comforts, 
The quality of her paffion lhall require ; 
Left, in her greatnefs, by fome mortal flroke, 
She do defeat us : for 6 her life in Rome 
Would be eternal in our triumph : Go, 
And, with your fpeediefl, bring us what ihe fays, 
And how you find of her. 

5 A poor ^Egyptian yet ; the queen my mijlrefs, &c.j If this punc- 
tuation be right, the man means to fay, that he h yet an ^Egyptian, 
that is, yet a few ant of the queen of jEgypt, though foon to become 
a fubject of Rome. JOHNSON. 
<s -- her life in Rom* 

Would be our triumph : ] 
Haniner reads iudicioully enough, but without neceffity: 

Vl'oulA t'f eternnlling-flar triumph : 

The fenfe is, If Jh dies here, fie iviL' be forgotten, lut if I fend bet 
In triumph to Rome, her memory and my glory will be eternal. 


The following pafTa^e in the Scourge of Vcnus^ &c. a poem, 
2614, will futticiently fupport the old reading : 

" If fome foule-fwelling ebon cloud would fall, 
" For her to hide herfelf eternal in " STEEVENS. 



Pro. Caefar, I (hall. [Exit Proculeitts. 

C*?/ Gallus, go you along Where's Dolabella, 
To fecond Proculeius ? [Exit Gallus. 

All. Dolabella! 

Gef. Let him alone, for I remember now 
How he's employ'd ; he lhall in time be ready. 
Go with me to my tent ; where you lhall fee 
How hardly I was drawn into this war; 
How calm and gentle I proceeded flill 
In all my writings : Go with me, and fee 
What I can fhew in this. \JLxeunt. 


The Monument. 
Enter Ckopatra, Charmian, and Iras. 

Cleo. My defolation does begin to make 
A better life : 'Tis paltry to be Casfar ; 

Not being fortune, he's but 7 fortune's knave, 
A minifter of her will ; And it is great 8 


i fortune's knave,] Thefcrvaxt of fortune. JOHNSON. 
* and it is great 

To Jo that thing, that ends all other deeds ; 

Which Jhackles accidents, and bolts up change ; 

Which Jlceps, and never palates more the dung : 

The beggar's nurfe and Cafar's. ] 

The action of luicide is here faid, to jhackle accidents ; to bolt up 
change ; to be tl>e beggar's nurfe, and Cafar's. So tar the defcrip- 
tion is intelligible. But when it is faid, that /'/ Jlteps, and never 
palates more the dung, we find neither fenfe nor propriety ; which 
is occaiioned by the iofs of a whole line between the third and 
fourth, and the corrupt reading of the laft word in the fourth. 
We ftiould read the p.iliage thus : 
and it is %reat 

To Jo that thing, that ends all other deeds ; 

Which Jbacltles accidents, and baits up change ; 

[Lulls wearied nature to a found repofe] 

(Which Jlreps, and never palates more the dugg :) 

The beggar's nrfe t and Cajai'*. 



To do that thing that ends all other deeds ; 
Which {hackles accidents, and bolts up change $ 
Which flceps, and never palates more the dung, 
The beggar's nuric and Casfar's. 

Enter, Iclow^ Procttkius, Gdlus, &c. 

Pro. Csefar fends greeting to the queen of ^Egypt; 
And bids thce iludy on what fair demands 

That this line in hooks was the fubftance of that loft, is evident 
from its making fenfe of rill the reit : which are to this eiFer, It 
is great to do that v:hich frees us from all the accidents of humanity t 
luils forever-wearied nature to rrpnfe, (which now jbep's^ and has no 
ftim-e appetite for ^McrliUy enjoyments,'} and is equally the nurfe of Co-fat' 
and the bc-.^ar. V.'A u F, i K -i o : : . 

I ct'nnoi perceive the lofs of a line, or the need of an emenda- 
tion. The com;nentat(/r feetns to have entangled his own ideas } 
his fuppofition thatyivV///i' is called the beggar's m /f fc and C.-r/xr's t 
and his concern that the pofition is lntc:i : gl?>!f, fhrr.v, I think, a 
mind not intent upon the bulinels before it. The a 
paflage, if any difficulty there be, arifes only froin this, that th 
aft of fuicide, and the llate which is the effect of fuicide ~re con- 
founded. Voluntary death, fays fhe, is an acl: which bolts up 
change ; it produces a (late, 

Wbicb Jltsps, and never palates more the du'g > 
The beggar's nurfe, and Cjefdrs. 

Which has no 'longer need of the grofs and terene fallenance, m 
the ufe of which Casfar and the beggar are on a level. 

The fpeech is abrupt, but perturbation in iuch z ibte is fureljr 
natural. JOHNSON. 

It has been already f:dd in this play, that 

" our dunvy earth, alike 

<* Feeds man as beaft." 

rmd Mr. Toilet obferVes, *' that in Herodotus, book iii. the ./Ethi- 
opian king, upon hearing a delcription of the nature ot wheat, 
replied, that he was not at all furprized, if men, who cat nothing 
but dung, did not attain a longer life." Shake fpeare has the fame 
epithet in the Winter"** Tale : 

t'ne face to fweeten 

Of the whole dungy earth." 
in Timon: 

the earth's a thief 

That leeds and breeds by a compofture {lolcn 
From general excrement" STEEYENS, 

VOL. VIII. U Thou 


Thou mean'fl to have him grant thee. 

Cleo. What's thy name ? 

Pro. My name is Proculeius. 

Cleo. Antony 

Did tell me of yon, bade me truft you ; but 
I do not grently care to be deceiv'd, 
That have no ufe for trufting. If your mafler 
Would have a queen his beggar, you mufl tell him> 
That majefty, to keep decorum, muft 
No lefs beg than a kingdom : if he pleafe 
To give me conqucr'd ^Egypt for my fon, 
He gives me fo much of mine own, as I 
Will kneel to hirrxwith thanks. 

Pro. Be of good cheer ; 

You are fallen into a princely hand, fear nothing : 
Make your full reference freely to my lord, 
Who is fo full of grace, that it flows over 
On all that need : Let me report to him 
Your Avcet dependancy ; and you lhall find 
A conqueror, v that will pray in aid for kindnefs, 
Where he for grace is kneel'd to. 

Cleo. Pray you, tell him 
I am his fortune's vaflal, and I ' fend him 
The greatnefs he has got. I hourly learn 
A doctrine of obedience ; and would gladly 
Look him i' the face. 

Pro. This I'll report, dear lady. 
Have comfort ; for, I know, your plight is pity'd 
Of him that caus'd it. 

9 that will pray in aid far JciaJncfs^] Praying In aid is a lav* 

Jerm, ufedfor a petition made in acourtofjuftice for the calling in 
of help from another that luith an intereft in the caufe in queilion. 


1 fend him 

The greatnrfs be has got. ] 

I allow him to be my conqueror ; I own his fuperiority with com- 
f letQ fubmilliou. JQHNSCN. 


[Aj1de.~] l You fee how eafily Ihe may be furpriz'd ; 
[Here Gallus a/id guard afcend tht 

monument, and enter behind. 

Guard her, 'till Caefar come. [Exit. 

Iras. Royal queen ! 

Cbar. O Cleopatra! thou art taken, queen! 
Cleo. Quick, quick, good hands. 

[Drawing a dagger* 

Proculcius rifles in, and dlfiirms tke queen, 

Pro. Hold, worthy lady, hold : 
Do not vourfdf luch wrong, l who are in this 


* Char.- 2*0* fee bow eajily fie may lefurprlz'J.'} HereCharmian, 
who is fo faithful as to die with her miftrefs, by the flupidity of 
the editors is made to countenance and give directions for her be- 
ing furprized by Cnsiar's meflengers. But thi; bhv/.ticr is for want 
of^knou-ing, orobferving, the hiftorical fact. When Cafcfar feat 
Proculeius to the queen, 'he lent Gallus after him with new inilri:.-- 
tions : and while one amufed Cleopatra with propofitions front 
Ctelar, through the crannies of the monument, the other fcaled it 
by a ladder, entered it at a window backward, and made Cleopa- 
tra, and thofe with her, prifcncrs. I have reformed the paflage 
therefore, (as, lam perfuaded, the author defigaed it;) from 
the authority of Plutarch. THEOBALD. 

This line" in the ririt edition is given not to Charmian, but to. 
Proculeius ; and to him it certainly belongs, though perhaps mif- 
placed. I would put it at the end of his foregoing Ipeech : 
Where he for grace is loutfd to. 

[Afide to Gallus.] Toufte^ how eaftly fie may faforprix d t 
Then while Cleopatra makes a formal aritwer, Gallus, upon the 
hint given, feizes her, and Proculeius, interrupting the civility of 
his anfwer : 

your flight is 

Of him that caufil it* 
Cries out : 

Guard her 'till Cafar come. JOHNSON* 
3 who are in this 

Reliev'd, but not letrafJ.~\ 

As plaufible as this reading is,' it is corrupt. Had Shalcefpeare ufed 

the word rdlcifd, he would have added, and not betray'd. But 

hat he ufcd another word the reply thews : Wbt of death too f 

U a 


Reliev'd, but not betray'd. 

Clco. What, of death too, that rids our dogs of 
4 languid? 

Pro. Cleopatra, 

Do not abufe our mailer's bounty, by 
The undoing of yourfclf : let the world fee 
His noblenefs well acled, which your death 
Will never let come forth. 

Cleo. Where art thou, death ? 

Come hither, come ! come, come, and take a queen 
5 Worth many babes and beggars ! 

Pro. O, temperance, lady ! 

Cleo. Sir, I will eat no, meat, I'll not drink, fir ; 
* If idle talk will once be neceilary, 


which will not agree with relieved; but will direft us to the genu- 
ine \voi\l, v. hich is: , 

Bereaved, but not "betrayed. 

5. e. &ir<aved oi i!c:uh, or of the means of deftroying yourfelf, bul 
r.ot lc'.rc.)-d to j'c'j.r deuruftion. By the particle too, in her reply, 
flic alK:.;,js to her being before bereaved oi Antony. And thus his 
fpeech becomes correct, and her reply pertinent. WAREUKTON-. 

I do not think the emendation neceflary, lince the fenle is not 
made better by it, and the abruptnefs in Cleopatra's anfweris more 
forcible in the old reading. JOHNSON. 

* Lingxijb'] For langiiijl}, I think we may read, anw.ijb. 

JOHN'SO.N 1 . 

I*anHlj f ij is the true reading. So, in Romeo and Juliet, acl: I. 
fc. ii : 

" One defperate grief cure with another's languijh" 


5 Worth many laid and beggars!} Why, death, wilt thou not 
rather feize a queen, than employ thy force upon bales and lergars. 


6 If idle talk will once le aecpffary^ This nonfenfe fliould be re- 
formed thus : 

If idle time cv '// once le Keceffary. 
i. e. if reppje be neceiiary to chsriih life, I will not deep. 


1 do not fee that the nonfenfe is made fenfe by the change. Sir 
T. Hanmer reads : 

1 If Idle txik "Jjlll once le acccfiary ; 

^either is this better. 1 know not what to offer better than an 



I'll not flecp neither : This mortal houfc I'll ruin, 
Do Casfar what he can. Know, fir, that I 
Will not wait pinion'd at your mailer's court ; 
Nor once be chaflis'd with the ibber eye 
Of dull Oclavia. Shall they hoill me up, 
And {hew me to the fhouting varletry 
Of ccnluring Rome ? Rather a ditch in ^Egypt 
Be gentle grave unto me ! rather on Nilus' mud 
Lay me ftark naked, and let the water-flies 
Blow me into abhorring ! rather make 
My country's high pyramides my gibbet 7 , 
And hang me up in chains ! 

cafy explanation. Thar is, I will not cat ', and//"// cu/77 1 e necff- 
fary now for once to wafte a moment in idle talk of my purpofe, / 
will not fteep neither. In common converfation we often ule will 
le, with as little relation to futurity. As, Now I am going, it 
cu/7/ le fit for me to dine tirft. JoHHSOK. 

Once may meanjometimcs. Of this ufe of the word I have already 
given inllances, both in the Merry Wives of Wiiul/br t and A". 
Hen. VIII. The meaning of Cleopatra feems to be this. If Idle 
talking be fometimes neceflary to the prolongation of life, why I 
will not f /Ii\j> for fear of talking idly in myfieep. 

The fente defigned, however, may be If it be neceflary to 
talk of performing impofiibilities, why, I'll not lleep neither. 


If idle talk cv/// once be necejjary t 

I'll not lleep neither ' ] 
I fufpeft our author wrote : 

PR not fpeak neither. MA LONE. 

7 My country s high pyramides my gibbet,} The poet feems to have 
defigned we Ihould read pyramides, Lat. inftead l pyramids, and 
fo the folio reads. The verle will otherwiie be defective. Thus, 
in Dr., 1604: 

" Belidcs the gates and high pyramides 

" That Julius Caeiar brought from Africa." 
Again, in Tamburlaine, 1590: 

** Like to the fhadows of Pyramides* n 
Again, in Warner's Atlioiis England, 1602. b. xii. c. 75 : 

" The theaters, pyramides, the hilis of half a mile." 
Mr. Toilet obferves, " that Sandys in his Travels, as well as Dray- 
ton in the 26th fang of his Polyoibicn, \ifes pyramids as a qu;ulri- 
fyllable, STKEYENS. 

U 7 Pro. 


Pro. You do extend 

Thefe thoughts of horror further than you lhall 
Find cauie in C<eiar, 

Enter DolabeUa. 

Dol. Proculeius, 

What thou haft done thy mailer Czefar knows, 
And he hath fent for thee : as for the queen, 
I'll take her to my guard, 

Pro. So, Dolabella, 

It lhall content me belt : be gentle to her.- 
To Ca^far I will fpeak what you lhall pleafe, 

[To Cleopatra. 
If you'll employ me to him. 

Clco. Say, I would die. [Exit Proculeius. 

Dot. Mofc noble emprefs, you have heard of me ? 

Clco. I cannot tell. 

Dol. Afluredly, you know me. 

Clco. No matter, fir, what I have heard, or known. 
You laugh, when boys, or women, tell their dreams; 
Is't not your trick ? 

Dol I underftand not, madam. 

Clto. I ciream'd, there was an emperor Antony; 
O, fuch another fleep, that I might fee 
But fuch another man ! 

Dol. If it might pleafe you, 

Cleo. His face was as the heavens ; and therein ftuck 
* A fun, and moon ; which kept their courfe, and 


1 A fun ar.d mcoy, T'.v'iA/' kept tveir courfe^ and lighted 
?/jf little (? the earth. 

Dol. Mxftfoi-crc-gn creature! ] 

\V!nt a blefied limping verie thefe bemifticbi give us ! Had none 
ot rb.e editors an car to find the hitch in its pace ? There is but a 
fythbie wanting, and that, i believe verily, was but of a 
letter. I reftore : 

1i:i little O o tV earth. 



The little O, the earth. 

Dol. Moil fovereign creature, 

Cleo. His legs beftrid the ocean ; his rear'd arm 
Crefted the world : his voice was property 'd 
As all the tuned fpheres, and that to friends 9 ; 
But when he meant to quail and fhake the orb, 
He was as rattling thunder. ' For his bounty, 
There was no winter in't ; an autumn 'twas, 
That grew the more by reaping : His delights 
Were dolphin-like ; they fhevv'd his back above 
The element they liv'd in : In his livery 
Walk'd crowns, and crownets; realms and iflands 

As plates * dropt from his pocket, 


5. e. the little orb or circle. Our poet in other pafiages chufes to 
exprefs himfelf thus. THEOBALD. 

9 and that to friends ;] Thus the old copy. The modern 

editors read, with no lefs obfcurity : 

w h en that to friends. STEEVENS. 

1 For his bounty, 

There tvas no winter in't ; an Antony // was, 
1 hat grew the more liy reaping : " ' ] 

There was certainly a contrait both in the thought and terms, de- 
lign'd here, which Is loft in an accidental corruption. How could 
an Antony grow the more by reaping ; I'll venture, by a very 
eafy change, to reliore an exquifite fine allufion ; which carries its 
reafon.with it too, why there was no winter in his bounty. 

For his bounty ) 

There xvtfj no winter int ; an autumn VEIVM, 
That grc r jj the more by reaping* 

I ought to take notice, that the ingenious Dr. Thirlby likewife 
ftarted-this very emendation, and had mark'd it in the margin of 
his book. THEOBALD. 

I cannot reiift the temptation to quote the following beautiful 
paflage from B. Jonfon's Nev: Inn, on the fubjecft of liberality. 
' He gave me my firft breeding, I acknowledge ; 
' Then fliowr'd his bounties on me, like the hours 
* That open-handed fit upon the clouds, 
' And prefs the liberality of heaven 
' Down to the laps of thankful men." STEEVENS. 

* As plates ] Plates mean, I believe, Jilvcr money. So, in 

JMarlow's JcvJ of Malta, 1633 : 

V 4 " Waft 


Dol. Cleopatra, 

Cleo. Tliink yon, there Was, or might be, fuch a 

As this I dream'd of? 

Dc>L Gentle madam, no. 

< ,9. Yon-lye, up to the hearing of the gods. 
But, if there be, or ever were one fuch, 
It's pail the fize of dreaming : Nature wants fluff 
To vie ftrange forms with fancy ; * yet, to imagine 
An Antony, were nature's piece 'gainft fancy, 
Condemning (hadows quite. 

Dol. Hear me, good madam : 

* What" 3 tie price of this Jlave 200 CTOVJXS ? 
" And if he has, he's worth 300 plates" 
Again : 

" Rat'ft thou this Moor but at 200 plates?" STEEVENS. 

3 yd to imagine 

An Antony ivtrc nature's piece y g ainfl fancy j 
Condemning JeaJews quite. 

This is a fine fentimeni ; but by the falfe reading and pointing be- 
comes unintelligible. Though when ftt right, obfcure enough to 
deierve a comment. Shakefpeare wrote : 
- yet to imagine 

A* Antony, tvfi-c nature's prize * *ainft fancy ^ 
Co ndem a 'tig Jbadff-TVSIgti h' c . 

The fenle of whicti is this, Nature, in general, has not materials 
enough to fumijk out real forms, for t<vc,y model that the bounJlefs 
power of tic ln:^ii:aticn canftetch out: [Nature wants matter to 
v'e flrunge forms wilh fancy.] But though this bf true in general^ 
that nature is more poor, nanwj, and coxji-.icd than fancy, yet it 
muji be fl'ivued, that ivben nature iirefents an Antony to us t jhe then 
gets the better tf/ 1 Fancy, and makes (vcn the imagination appear poor 
and narro~M : or in our author's phrafe, [condemns Jbad^-'MS quite ^\ 
The worJ^r/^f, which I have reflored, is very pretty, as figuring 
a contention between Nature and Imagination about the larger ex- 
tent of their powers ; and Nature gaining the prize by producing 
Antony. \V AH L UR TON. 

In this paOage I cannot diiVovcr c:ny temptation to critical ex- 
per : . e word piece, is a term appropriated to works of 

art. Here Nature and Fancy produce each their piece, and the 
piece uouc by Nature had the preference! Antony was in reality 
p-:tji :/-cj:ze tf dreaming he was more by Nature than Fancy could 
prefciit in ileep. JOHNSON. 

To inc was a term at cards. See a note on the Taming of tie 

p. 451. SiEEVLNS. 



Your lofs is as yourfclf, great ; and you bear it 

As anfwcring to the weight : 'Would I might never 

O'ertake puriu'd fuccefs, but I do feel, 

By the rebound of yours, a grief that Ihoots 4 

My very heart at root. 

Clco. I thank you, fir. 
Know you, what Casfar means to do with me ? 

Dot. I am loth to tell you what I would you knew. 

Cleo. Nay, pray you, fir, 

Dot. Though he be honourable, 

Cleo. He'll lead me then in triumph ? 

Dot. Madam, he will ; I know it. 

AIL Make way there, Casfar. 

Enter C<efar, Callus, Mec<enas, Proculeius, and Atten- 

Cef. Which is the queen of ^gypt ? 

Dot. It is the emperor, madam. [Cleo. kneels* 

Caf. Arife, you lhall not kneel : 
I pray you, rife ; rife, ^Egypt. 

Cleo. Sir, the gods 

Will have it thus , my mafter and my lord 
I mu ft obey. 

Caf. Take to you no hard thoughts : 
The record of what injuries you did us, 
Though written in our flelh, we lhall remember 
As things but done by chance. 

Cleo. Sole fir o' the world, 
5 1 cannot project mine own caufe fo well 


* floats] The old copy reads fuites. STEEVENS. 

5 / cannot project mine ovon caufe fo iw//] Projcft fignifies to in- 
vent :i caufe, nottojWWitj which is the fenfe here required. It 
is plain that we fhould read : 

/ cannot prodter my own caufe fo ivcll. 

The technical term, to plead by an advocate, WARBURTON. 
i>ir T. Hanmer reads : 

I cannot parget my own caufe 

meaning, I cannot <wbitnw/b t varnifl t or glofs my caufe. I be- 


To make it clear ; but do confefs, I have 
Been laden with like frailties, which before 
Have often ftam'd our fex. 

Gff. Cleopatra, know, 
We will extenuate rather than enforce : 
If you apply yourfelf to our intents, 
(\Vhich towards you are moft gentle) you fhall find 
A benefit in this change : but if you feek 
To lay on me a cruelty, by taking 
Antony's courfe, you lhall bereave yonrfclf 
Of my good purpofes, and put your children 
To that deitrudtion which I'll guard them from, 
If thereon you rely. I'll take my leave. 

Cleo. And may, through all the world : 'tis yours ; 

and we 

Your 'fcutcheons, and your figns of conqueft, fhall 
Hang in what place you pleafe. Here, my good lord. 

C*f. You ihall ad vile me in all for Cleopatra. 

Cleo. This is the brief of money, plate, and jewels, 
I am pofiefs'd of : 6 'tis exactly valued ; 


lieve the prefent reading to be right. To project a cavfe is to re- 
frtfent a caufe ; to project it iu7/, is to flan or contrive z fchemeof 
defence. JOHNSON. 

The old reading may be the true one. Sir John Harington in 
his Mtlamorpbofoof Ajax, 1596, p. 79, lays: "I have chofen 
Aiax tor ti\z projcft of this difcourfe." Yet Hanmer's conjecture 
may be likewiie countenanced ; for the word hewiflies to bring in, 
is ulied in the 4th eclogue of Drayton : 

" Scorn'd paintings, pargit, and the borrowed hair." 
And feveral times by Ben Jonfon. So, in the Silent W'oman : 

* k flic's iibove fifty too, lad ftrgettS* STEEVEXS. 

* '/ exactly valued. 

Not prtty tbi.'.gs admitted. ] 

Sagacious eoitors ! Cleopatra gives in a lift of her wealth, fays, 
'tis exactly valued, but that petty things are not admitted va. this 
lift : and then fne appeals to her treasurer, that flie has reierved 
nothing to herfelf. And when he betrays her, flie is reduced to 
the fiiitt of exclaiming the ingratitude of fervants, and of 
makmg apologies for having fccreted certain triCes. Who does not 
fee, that we ought to read : 

Nef/c.-y !';:i:^ omitted ? 



Not petty things admitted. Where's Seleucus ? 

Sel. Here, madam. 

Cleo. This is my treafurer ; let him fpeak, my lord, 
Upon his peril, that I have referv'd 
To my felf nothing. Speak the truth, Seleucus. 

SeL Madam, 

I had rather feel my lips 7 , than, to my peril, 
Speak that which is not. 

Cleo. What have 1 kept back ? 

Sel. Enough to purchafe what you have made 

Cef. Nay, blufli not, Cleopatra; I approve 
Your \vifdom in the deed. 

Cleo. See, Caefar! O, behold, 
How pomp is follow'd ! mine will now be yours ; 
And, Ihould we fhift eflates, yours would be mine. 
The ingratitude of this Seleucus does 
Even make me wild : O flave, of no more tmft 
Than love that's hir'd ! What, goefl thou back ? 

thou ftialt 

Go back, I warrant thee ; but I'll catch thine eyes, 
Though they had wings : Slave, foul-lefs villain, dog ! 
O rarely bale 8 ! 

Caf. Good queen, let us intreat you. 

Cleo. O Casfar, what a wounding fhame is this 9 ; 


For this declaration lays open her faUhood ; and makes her angry 
when her treafurer detects her in a direct lie. THEOBALD. 

Notwithftanding the wrath of Mr. Theobald, I have reflored 
the old reading. She is angry afterwards, that fhe is accufed of 
having referved more than petty things. Dr. Warburton and fir 
T. Hanmer follow Theobald. JOHNSON. 

7 feel my /z/u, ] Sew up my mouth. JOHNSON. 

It means, dole up my lips as effectually as the eyes of a hawk 
are clofed. To feel hawks was the technical term. STEEVENS. 

8 O rarely bafe .'] i. e. bafe in an uncommon degree. 


9 O Cfffar, &;c.] This fpeech of Cleopatra is taken from fir 
Thomas North's tranflation of Plutarch, where it ftands as follows. 
*' O Caefar, is not this great ftiame and reproach, that thou hav- 


That thou, vouchfafing here to vifit me, 

Doing the honour of thy lordlinefs 

To one fo meek, that mine own fervant mould 

1 Parcel the fum of my difgraces by 

Addition of his envy ! Say, good Casfar, 

That I fome lady trifles had reierv'd, 

Immoment toys, things of fuch dignity 

As we greet modern friends withal ; and fay, 

Some nobler token I have kept apart 

For Livia, and Octavia, to induce 

Their mediation ; mud I be unfolded 

With one that I have bred ? The gods ! Itfmites me 

Beneath the fall I have. Pr'ythee, go hence ; 

[2~b Scleucus* 

Or I mall mew the cinders of my fpirits 
* Through the ames of my chance : Wert thou a 


ing vouchfafed to take the pains to come unto me, and haft done 
me this honour, poor wretch and caitiff creature, brought into this 
pitiful and rniferable eflate, and that mine own fervants fliould 
come now to accufe me. Though it may be that I have referred 
fome jewels and trifles meet for women, but not for me (poor foul) 
to fet out myfelf withal ; but meaning to give fome pretty prefents 
unto O&avia and Livia, that they making means and interceiHon 
for me to thee, thou mighteft yet extend thy favour and mercy 
upon me, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 Parcel the fum of my difgraces ly~\ To parcel her difgraces^ 
might be expreifed in vulgar language, to bundle up her calamities. 


* Through the ajbes of my chance : ] Or fortune. The mean- 
ing is, Begone, or I fhall exert that royal fpirit which I had in my 
profperity, in fpite of the imbecillity of my prefeut weak condi- 
tion. This taught the Oxford editor to alter it to mifchance* 


Or Ifrallfonv the cinders t/f *y fyiritt 

Through the aflies of ' fny chance : ] 

Thus Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales, late edit. v. 3 180 : 

** Yet in our aflicn cold is fire yreken." 

And thus (ns the learned editor of the Cant. Talcs has obferred) 
Mr. Gray in his Cburcb-yard Elegy : 

* Even In our ajies live their wonted fires." 



Thou woulcTft have mercy on me. 

Cf/i Forbear, Seleucus. [Exit Sdeucus. 

Cleo. 9 Be it known, that we, the greateft, aremif- 


Mr. Gray refers to the following paflagc in the 169 (171) fonnet 
of Petrarch, as his original : 

" CiSi veggie nel penjier, dolce mio foco, 

** Fredda una lingua, e due legli occhi chinjl 

" Rimaner dopo noi pien ilifavillc" Edit. 1564. p. 771. 


9 Be it kn(, that we the grcatcjl arc mis-thought 
For things that others do ; and when we fall \ 
We anfwer other* merits, in our nai>ns 
Are therefore to le pitied.~\ 

This falfe pointing has rendered the fentiment, which was not 
very eafy at beft, altogether unintelligible. The lines fliould be 
pointed thus : 

Bf'tksown, that we, the greateft, arc mi thought 
For things that others Jo. And -when <we fall 
We anfwer. Others' merits, in our names 
Are therefore to le pitied. 

i.e. We monarchs, while in pew cr, arc accufed and llamed for the 
mifcarriagcs of our minijlers ; and when any misfortune hathfxh- 
jecied us to the power of our enemies, we are fure to Ic punijhcd for 
thofe faults. As this is the cafe, it is but rcafonalle that we Jlculd 
have the merit ofourminijlers'goodaRioKS, as w:!las bear the blame 
of their bad. But fhe foftens the word merit into^>//y. The rea- 
fon or" her making the reflexion was this : her former conduct 
was liable to much cenfure from O&avius, which ihe would 
hereby artfully infinuate was owing to her evil minifters. And 
as her prcfent conduct, in concealing her treafures, appeared to 
be her own aft, ftie being detefted by her miuifler; flie begs, that 
as fhe now anivvers for her former minifter's mifcarriages, fo her 
prefent minifter's merit in this difcovery might likewife be placed 
to her account : which fhe thinks but reasonable. The Oxford 
editor is here again at his old work of altering what he did not un- 
tlerftand, and ib transforms the paflfage thus : 
. . . and ivbi'ii we fall, 

We pander others merits with our names ; 
And therefore to be pitied. WAR EUR TON. 

I do not think that either of the criticks have reached the 
fenfe of the author, which may be very commodioufly explained 
thus : 

We fuffer at our higheft ftate of elevation in the thoughts of 
mankind for that which others do ; and when ivefall t thole that 



For things that others do ; and, when we fall, 
We anfvver others' merits in our names, 
Are therefore to be pitied. 

C<ef. Cleopatra, 

Not what you have referv'd, nor what acknowledg'd, 
Put we i' the roll of conqueft : ftill be it yours, 
Beftow it at your pleafure; and believe, 
Czefar's no merchant, to make prize with you 
Of things that merchants fold. Therefore be cheer'd ; 
1 Make not your thoughts your prifons : no, dear 

queen ; 

For we intend fo to difpofe you, as 
Yourfelf fhall give us counfel. Feed, and fleep : 
Our care and pity is fo much upon you, 
That we remain your friend ; And fo, adieu. 

Cleo. My rnafter, and my lord ! 

Caf. Not fo : Adieu. [Exeunt C<tfar, and his train. 

Cleo. He words me, girls, he words me, that I 

fliould not 
Be noble. to myfelf : But hark thee, Charmian. 

\_lVhifpers Cbarmian. 

Iras. Finiih, good lady ; the bright day is done, 
And \ve are for the dark. 

Cleo. Hie thee again : 
I have fpoke already, and it is provided ; 
Go put it to the hafte. 

Char. Madam, I will. 

contented themfelves only to think ill before, call us to anfivtr 
in our own names for the merits of others. We are therefore to be 
fitted. Merits is in this place taken in an ill fenfe, for actions 
meriting cenfure. 

If any alteration be neceiTary, I fhould only propofe, 

Bc't known, that -ivr -At great eft, &c. JoHNSOV. 

1 Make not your thoughts your prifons ; ] I once wiihed to read, 

Make not your thoughts your poifon : 

Do not deftroy yourfelf by muling on your misfortune. Yet I 
would change nothing, as the old reading prefents a very propet 
feiife. Be not aprlfoner in imagination^ Wbfn in reality you arc free* 



Re-enter DoLibella. 

DoL Where is the queen ? 

Cbar. Behold, fir. \ILxit Charmian. 

Cleo. Dolabelia? 

Dot. Madam, as thereto fworn by your command, 
Which my love makes religion to obey, 
I tell you this : Cxfar through Syria 
Intends his journey ; and, within three days, 
You with your children will he fend before : 
Make your beft ufe of this : I have perform'd 
Your pleafure, and my promife. 

Cleo. Dolabella, 
I fhall remain your debtor. 

DoL I your fervant. 
Adieu, good queen ; I muft attend on Csefar. [Exit. 

Cleo. Farewel, and thanks. Now, Iras, what 

think'fl thou ? 

Thou, an ^Egyptian puppet, flialt be Ihewn 
In Rome, as well as I : mechanic Haves 
With greafy aprons, rules, and hammers, lhall 
Uplift us to the view ; in their thick breaths, 
Rank of grofs diet, fnall we be enclouded, 
And forc'd to drink their vapour. 

Iras. The* gods forbid ! 

Cleo. Nay, 'tis mod certain, Iras : Saucy lictors 
Will catch at us, like ftrumpets ; and "~ fcald rhijners 
Ballad us out o' tune : the 3 quick comedians 
Extemporally will ftage us, and prefent 
Our Alexandrian revels ; Antony 
Shall be brought drunken forth, and I lhall fee 

* fcald rbhneri] Sir T. Hanmer reads, 

itall'd rbimers. 

ScaU Vas a word of contempr, implying poverty, difeafe, and 
filth. JOHNSON. 

3 fjuifk corns diant\ The gay inventive players. JOHNSON, 



Some fqueaking Cleopatra 4 boy my greatnafs 
1' the pofture of a whore. 

Iras. O the good gods ! 

Cko. Nay. that's certain. 

Iras. I'll never Ice it ; for, I am fure, my nails 
Are ftronger than mine eyes. 

Cko. Whv, that's the way 
To fool their preparation, and to conquer 
5 Their moil abiurd intents. Nov.', Charmian ? 

Enter CL\ir;nlan. 

Shew me, my women, like a queen ; Go fetch 
My beft attires ; I am again for Cydnus, 

To meet Mark Antony : Sirrah, Iras, go. 

Now, noble Charmian, we'll difpatch indeed : 
And, when thou haft done this chare, I'll give thee 


To play 'till dooms-day. Bring our crown and all. 
V/herefore's this nolle ? [A ;:o>fe within. 

4 lay y grcatnrfi,] The parts of women were acted on the 
fiage by boys . H A N M E R . 

Nafh, in Pierce Pennylcfie his Supplication, Sec. i.p<j, fcys, 
*' Our players are not as the players beyond iea, a fort ot l^uirr- 
ing bawdy comedians, that h-.Lve whore; :ir.d common courteians ro 
play women's parts, &c." To obviate this impropriety of men 
reprefenting women, T. GofF, in his tragedy of the Racing Turk, 
1631, has no female character. STEF.VENS. 

5 Their moft abfiird intents. ] Why Ihould Cleopatra call Cz- 
far's defigns abfurd? She could not think his intent of carrying 
her in triumph, i'uch, with regard to his own glory : r.n.1 her rind- 
ing an expedient to disappoint him, could not bring it under that 
predicament. I much rather think the poet wrote, 

Their mojl affur'd Intents 

i. e. the purpofes, which they make themfelves mod; fure of ac- 
complithing. THEOBALD. 

I have prefers ed the old reading. The defign certainly appeared 
alfurd enough to Cleopatra, both as fhe thought it unreasonable 
in itfelf, and as ftie knew it would fail. JOHNSON. 


Enter one of the Guard. 

Guard. Here is a rural fellow, 
That will not be deny'd your highnefs* prefcnce ; 
He brings you figs. 

; Clco. Let him come in. What a poor inftrument 

[Exit Guard* 

May do a noble deed ! he brings me liberty. 
Mv refolution's plac'd, and i have nothing 
Of woman in me : Now from head to foot 
I am marble-ccnitant : 6 now the fleeting moon 
No planet is of mine. 

Re-enter Guard, with a Cloivn bringing a bajket. 

Guard. This is the man. 

Cleo. Avoid, and leave him. [Exit Guard. 

Haft thou 7 the pretty worm of Nilus there, 


6 noiv the fleeting moon 

No planet is of mine.] 

Alluding to the ./Egyptian devotion paid to the moon under the 
name of ffis. WAR BUR TON. 

I really believe that our poet was not at all acquainted with the 
devotion that the /Egyptians paid to this planet under the name of 
liis ; but that Cleopatra having faid, / have nothing of woman in 
me, added, by way of amplification, that (he had not even the 
changes of d'fpojttion pecul'ar to the fex, and which fometlme s happeii 
as frequently as thofe of the moon ; or that Ihe was nor, like the fea, 
governed by the moon. So, in Rlchard\\\ : " I being govern'd 
by the watry moon, &c." Why mould Ihe fay on this occafion 
that (he no longer made ufe of the forms of worihip peculiar to 
her country ? 

Fleeting is incrmftant. So in Greene's Never too late, 1616: 
*' If thou bee'it daunted on thy marriage day, thou wilt \>z fleeting 

hereafter." Again, in Green's Mftamorphofts^ 1617: "to 

fliew the world fue was not flct ting." SrEtv t vs. 

7 the pretty worm of Nilus ] Worm is the Teutonick word 
for ferpent ; we have the blind-worm and Jlovj. worm Hill in our 
language, and the Norwegians call an enormous monfter, feen 
fometimes in the northern ocean, thcfea-'Morm. JOHNSON. 



That kills and pains not ? 

Clown. Truly I have him : but I would not be 
'the party that frioukl dcfire you to touch him, for 
his biting is immortal ; thofe, that do die of it, do 
feldom or never recover. 

Cko. Remember'it thou any that have dy'd on't ? 

Clown. Very many, men and women too. I heard 
of one of them no longer than yeiterday : a very ho- 
ned woman, but fomething given to lye ; as a wo- 
man fhould not do, but in the way of honefty : how 
ihe dy'd of the biting of it, what pain fhe felt, Truly, 
ihe makes a very good report o* the worm : 8 But 
he that will believe all that they fay, fliall never be 
faved by half that they do : But this is moft fallible^ 
the worm's an odd worm. 

Cleo. Get thee hence ; farewel. 

'down. I wifh you all joy of the worm. 

So, in the Dumb Kn ; gbt, 1633 : > 

*' Thofe coals the Roman Portia did devour, 
'* Are not burnt out, nor have th' ./Egyptian worm 
" Yet loft their ftings." 
Aoain, in the Tragedy of Hoffman, 1631 : 

< I'll watch for fear 

Of venomous worms." STEEVENS. 

In the Northern counties, the word worm is dill given to the ler- 
pent fpecies in general. I have feen a Northumberland ballad, 
entituled, TbelaidlyWormcfSpincUeftonUcitgbs, i.e. Theloath- 
fome or foul ferpent of Spindlefton Craggs ; certain rocks fo called, 
ner.r Bamburgh Cattle. 

Shakefpeare ufes worm again in the fame fenfe. See theSecon<t 
part of King Henry VI. 

" The mortal warm might make the flecp eternal. 


Afain, in the old verlion of the NC~M Tcj1a;n-nt^ Ads xxviii. 
' Now when the barbarians fawe the worme hang on his hand,&c." 


8 But he that ivitt believe all that they fay, fiallncvcrbefavedlf 
half that they do:'} Shakefpeare's clowns are always jokers, and 
deal in fly fa tire. It is plain this mull be read the contrary way, 
and all and //" change places. WAR BURTON. 

Probably Shakelpeare defigned that confufion which the critidc 
would difentangle. STEEVENS. , 

i Qm 


Cleo. Farevvel. 

Clown. You muft think this, look you, that the 
worm 9 will do his kind. 

Cleo. Ay, ay ; farewel. 

Clown. Look you, the worm is not to be trufted, 
but in the keeping of wife people ; for, indeed, there 
is no goodnefs in the worm. 

Cleo. Take thou no care ; it fhall be heeded. 

Clffivn. Very good : give it nothing, I pray you, 
for it is not worth the feeding. 
Cleo. Will it cat me ? 

Qffiva. You muft not think I am fb fimple, but I 
know, the devil himfelf will not eat a woman : I 
know, that a woman is a difli for the gods, if the 
devil drefs her not. But, truly, thefe fame whore- 
fon devils do the gods great harm in their women ; 
for in every ten that they make, the devils mar 

Cleo. Well, get thee gone ; farewel. 

Ctoqn* Yes, forfooth ; J wilh you joy o' the worm. 


Cleo. Give me my robe, put on my crov/n ; I have 
Immortal longings in me : Now no more 
The juice of Egypt's grape ftiall moid this lip : 

Tare, yare ', good Iras ; quick Methinks, I 



' will do bis linJ.~\ The ferpent will acl according to his na- 
ture. JOHNSON. 

So in Heywood's If you know not Me you know Nobody, 1633 ' 

" Good girls, they do their kind." 

Again, in the ancient black letter romance of Syr Tryamoure t no 
date : 

" He dyd full gentylly his kinde" STEEVENS. 

1 Tare, yare, ] i. e make hafte, be nimble, be ready. Many 
inftances of the ufe of the word have been already given. So 
in the oldbl. romance of Syr Eglamoure cf Artoys ; 
*' Ryght foone he made him^ar*." 

X 2 Again, 


Antony call ; I fee him roufe himfelf 
To praife my noble act ; I hear him mock 
The luck of Casfar, which the gods give men 
To excufe their after wrath : Hufband, I come : 
Now to that name my courage prove my title ! 
I am fire, and air ; my other elements 
I give to bafer life. So, have you done ? 
Come then, and take the laft warmth of my lips. 
Farewel, kind Charmian; Iras, long farewel. 

{applying the afp. 

Have I the afpick in my lips ? Doft fall * ? [To Iras. 
If thou and nature can fo gently part, 
The ftroke of death is as a lover's pinch, 
Which hurts, and is defir'd. Doft thou lye dill ? 
If thus thou vaniflieft, thou tell'ft the world 
It is not worth leave-taking. [Iras dies. 

Char. Diffolve, thick cloud, and rain; that I 

may fay, 
The gods themfelves do weep ! 

Cleo. This proves me bafe : 
If fhe firft meet the curled Antony, 
5 He'll make demand of her ; and fpend that kifs, 
Which is my heaven to have. Come, thou mortal 

With thy fharp teeth this knot intdnficate 

[To the afp. 

Of life at once untie : poor venomous fool, 
Be angry, and difpatch. O, could ft thou fpeak ! 


u To hym fhe went full jw?, 
" Syr, ftie fayde, how do you fare ?" 

" They bulked and made themjwv." STEEVENS. 
* Drft fall?] Iras muft be fuppofed to have applied an afp 
to her arm while her miilrefs was fettling her drefs, or I kno\v not 
why fhe fliould tail fo foon. STEEVENS. 

3 HSl! ma\c demand of her.'] He will enquire of her concerning 
Mie, and kifs her forgiving him intelligence. JOHNSON. 

8 That 


That I might hear thec call great Csefar, afs 
Unpolicy'd 4 ! 

Char. O caftern fiar ! 

Cleo. Peace, peace ! 

Doft thou not fee my baby at my breaft, 
That fucks the nurfe aflecp 5 ? 

Ckar. O, break ! O, break ! 

Cleo. As fweet as balm, as foft as air, as gentle, 

6 O Antony ! Nay, I will take thee too : 

\_Applying another afp to her arm. 
What ihould I flay [Dies. 


Unpolicy'd !] 

i. e. an afs without more policy than to leave the means of death 
within my reach, and thereby deprive his triumph of its nobleit 
decoration. STEEVENS. 

s That fucks the nurfe ajleep?~\ Before the publication of this 
piece, The Tragedy of Cleopatra, by Daniel, 1599, had made its 
appearance ; but Dryden is more indebted to it than Shakefpeare. 
Daniel has the following lines : 

" Better than death death's office thou difchargeft, 

" That with one gentle touch can free our breath ; 
*' And in a pleating ileep our foul enlargeft, 

" Making ourfelves not privy to our death. 
*' Therefore come thou, of wonders wonder chief, 

" That open canft with fuch an eafy key 
*' The door of life ; come gentle, cunning thief, 

" That from ourfelves fo fteal'ft ourfelves away.*' 
Dryden fays on the fame occafion : 

Welcome thou kind deceiver ! 

Thou bell of thieves ; who with an eafy key 
Doll open life, and, unperceiv'd by us, 
Even fteal us from ourfelves : Difcharging fo 
Death's dreadful office better than himfelf, 
Touching our limbs fo gently into [lumber, 
That death Hands by, deceiv'd by his own image, 
And thinks himfelf but ileep." STEEVENS. 

6 O Antony! nay, Iivilltakc thee too.] As there has been hi- 
therto no break in this verfe, nor any marginal direction, thee ne- 
ceflarily muft feem to refer to Antony. But Cleopatra is here 
defigned to apply one afpick to her arm, as fhe had betore clapp'd 
one to her breafh And the laft fpeech of Dolabella in the play is 
a confirmation of this. 

The like is on Ler arm. THEOBALD. 

X 3 Char- 


Char. In this wild world 7 ? So, fare thee well. 
Now boaft thee, death ! in thy pofleffion lies 
A lafs unparallel'd. Downy windows, clofe ; 
And golden Phoebus never be beheld 
Of eyes again fo royal ! 8 Your crown's awry ; 
I'll mend it, and then play. 

Enter the Guard, ru/Jring in. 

i Guard. Where is the queen ? 
Char. Speak foftly, wake her not. 
i Guard. Csfar hath fent 
Char. Too flow a meffenger. 

[Charmian applies the afp. 
O, come ; apace, difpatch : I partly feel thee. 

1 Guard. Approach, ho ! All's not well : Caefar's 


2 Guard.^ There's Dolabella fent from Catfar; call 

i Guard. What work is here ? Charmian, is this., 

well done ? 

Char. It is well done, and fitting for a princefs 
Defcended of fo many royal kings 9 . 
Ah, foldier ! [Charmian dies. 


7 In this wild world?] Thus the old copy. I fuppofe fhe means 
by this wild world, this world which by the death of Antony is 
become a defert to her. A wild is a defert. Our author, how* 
ever, might have written wild (i. e. <vilc according to ancient fpell- 
ing) for worthlefs. STEEVENS. 

8 Your crown's awry ;] This is well amended by the edi- 
tors. The old editions had, 

~ Tour cro-ivn's away. JOHNSON'. 

So, in Daniel's Tragedy of Cleopatra > 1599: 

And fenfelels, in her (inking down, {he ivryes 
The diadem which on her head fhe wore ; 
Which Charmian (poor weak feeble maid) efpyes, 
And haftes to right it as it was before ; 
For Eras now was dead." STEEVENS. 
pefcended of fo many royal kings.] Almoil thefe very Word* 
are found in fir T. North's tranflation of Plutarch ; and in Daniel's 



Enter Dolabella. 

Dot. How goes it here ? 

2 Guard. All dead. 

Dot. Ccefar, thy thoughts 

Touch their effects in this : Thyfelf art coming 
To fee perform'd the dreaded a<ft, which thou 
So fought'ft to hinder. 

Enter Co-far, and Attendants. 

IVitkin. A way there, a way for Czefar ! 

Dol. O, fir, you are too fure an augurer ; 
That you did fear, is done. 

Ceef. Bravefl at the laft : 

She levelled at our purpofes, and, being royal, 
Took her own way. The manner of their deaths ? 
I do not fee them bleed. 

Dol. Who was laft with them ? 

i Guard. A fimple countryman, that brought her 

This was his bafket. 

C*f. Poifon'd then. 

I Guard. O Csefar, 

This Charmian liv'd but now ; ihe flood, and fpake : 
I found her trimming up the diadem 
On her dead miftrefs ; tremblingly (lie flood, 
And on the fudden drop'd. 

C<ef. O noble weaknefs ! 
If they had fwallow'd poifon, 'twould appear 
By external fvvelling : but fhe looks like fleep, 
As fhe would catch another Antony 
In her ftrong toil of grace. 

play on the fame fubjeih The former book is not uncommon, 
and therefore it would be impertinent to crowd the page with every 
circumftance which Shakefpeare has borrowed from the lame 
original. STEEVENS, 

X 4 DoL 


DoL Here, on her breaft 

There is a vent of blood, and ' fomething blown : 
The like is on her arm. 

i GuariL This is an afpick's trail ; and thefe fig- 

Have flime upon them, fuch as the afpick leaves 
Upon the caves of Nile. 

C*f. Moft probable, 

That Ib Ihe dy'd ; tor her phyfician tells me, 
She hath purfu'd conclufions infinite 
Of eafy- ways to die. Take up her bed ; 
And bear her women from the monument : 
She lhall be buried by her Antony : 
No grave upon the earth lhall clip in it 
A pair fo famous. High events as thefe 
Strike thofe that make them : and their ftory is 
No lefs in pity, than his glory, which 
Brought them to be lamented. Our army fhall, 
In folcmn Ihew, attend this funeral ; 
And then to Rome. Come, Dolabella, fee 
High order in this great folemnity. [Exeunt omnes. 

1 fomeihlng blown ;] The flefti is fcmewhat/o^Jv/or/uWw. 


So, in the ancient metrical romance of Syr Betys of Hampton, 
bl. 1. no date : 

That with venim upon him throwen, 
The knight lay then lo-wnanr.** 

n the romance of Syr Ifenbras, bl. 1. no date : 
With adders all your belles ben ilaine, 



THIS play keeps curiofity always bufy, and the paflions always 
interefted. The continual hurry of the action, the variety of in- 
cidents, and the quick fuccefficn of one perlbnage to another, 
pall the mind forward without intermiffion from the firfl aft to the 


With venymeare they blovce." 
L Ben Jonfon's Magnetic Lady : 

What is Ih^-K. puft ? fpeak Englifh. . 

Tainted an' pleafe you, fome do call it. 

fo/L'c//f, &c." STE EVENS. 


laft/ But the power of delighting is derived principally from the 
frequent changes of the fcene ; for, except the feminine arts, 
fome of which are too low, which diftinguilh Cleopatra, no cha- 
racter is very ftrongly di (criminated. Upton, who did not eafily 
mifs what he defired to find, has discovered that the language of 
Antony is, with great fkill and learning, made pompous and fu- 
perb, according to his real practice. But I think his diction not 
diftinguifhable from that of others : the moft tumid fpeech in the 
play is that which Caefar makes to Octavia. 

The events, of which the principal are defcribed according to 
hiftory, are produced without any art of connexion or care of dif- 
pofuion. JOHNSON. 

T I M O N OF A T H E N S. 

Perfons Reprefented. 

ius, J 

Timon, A noble Athenian. 


Lucullus, \ Lords. 


Apemantus, a Phikfopher. 


Flavius, Steward to Timon. 

Flaminius, "i 

JLucilius, \ Titnon's Servants. 

Servilius, J 

Caphis, 1 


Philo, \ 

/ Servants* 
Titus, ( 



Ventidius, one o/Timon'j Friends. 

Cupid and Majkers* 


T!dr.,} ^-/'" Alcibiades. 

'Thieves, Senators, Poet, Painter, Jeweller, and Mer- 
chant ; with Servants and Attendants. 

SCENE, Athens ; and the Woods not far from it. 



A Hall in Timon's Houfe. 

Enter Poet, Painter, Jeweller, and Merchant) * at ft* 
veral doors. 

Poet. Good day, fir *. 

Pain. I am glad you are well. 


1 Timon of Athens."] The fbry of the Mifanthrope is told in al- 
moft every collection of the time, and particularly in two books, 
with which Shakefpeare was intimately acquainted ; the Palace of 
Pleafure, and the Englijh Plutarch. Indeed from a paflage in an 
old play, called Jack Drum's Entertainment, I conjecture that he 
had before made his appearance on the ftage. FARMER. 

The paflage in Jack Drum's Entertainment or Pafquil and Ka- 
therine, 1601, is this : 

" Come, I'll be as fociableas Timon of Athens." 

But theHdlufion is fo flight, that it might as well have been bor- 
rowed from Plutarch or the Novel. 

Mr. Strutt the engraver, to whom our antiquaries are under no 
inconfiderable obligations, has in his poffeffion a MS. play on this 


* In the old copy : Enter, &c. Merchant and Mercer, sV . 


3 Poet. Good Jay, fir.~\ It would be lefs abrupt, to begin the 
flay thus : 

Poet. Good day* 

Pain. Good day, fir : I am glad you're well. FARMER. 


Poet. I have not feen you long ,* How goes the 

world ? 

Pain. It wears, fir, as it grows. 
Poet. Ay, that's well known : 
4 But what particular rarity ? what ftrange, 


fubje&. It appears to have been written, or tranfcribed, about 
the year 1 6co. There is a fcene in it refembling Shakefpeare's 
t>anquet given by Timon to his flatterers. Inftead of warm water 
he fets before them Jtones painted like artichokes, and afterwards 
beats them out of the room. He then retires to the woods attend- 
ed by his faithful fteward, who (like Kent in K. Lear} has dif- 
guifed himfelf to continue his fervices to his mailer. Timon, io 
the laft aft is followed by his fickle miftrefs, &c. after he was re- 
ported to have difcovered a hidden treafure by digging. The 
piece itfelf (though it appears to be the work of an academlck) is 
a wretched one. The perfonae dramatis are as follows. 

The aftors names. 

Laches, his faithful fervant. 
Eutrapelus, a diflblute young man. 
Gelafimus, a cittie hevre. 
Pfeudocheus, a lying travailer. 

Demeas, an orator. . , 1 

Philargurus, a covetous churlifh ould man. 
Hermogenes, a fidler. 
Abyffus, a ufurer. 
Lollio, a cuntrey clowne, Philargurus fonne. 

i^, } Two lying phWophen, 

Grunnio, a lean fervant of Philarguru*. 

Obba, Tymon's butler. 

Pcedio, Gelafimus page. 

Two ferjeants. 

A failor. 

Callimela, Philargurus daughter. 

JJlatte, her prattling nurfe. 


* But what particular rarity , &c.] Our author, it is oblervable, 
has made his poet in this play a knave. But that it might not re- 
fleft upon the profejfion he has made him only a pretender to it, as. 
appears from his having drawn him, all the way, with a falfe taft 
and judgment. One infallible mark of which is, a fondnefs for 
every thing ilrange, furprizing, and porteutouj ; and, a difregard 



Which manifold record not matches ? See, 
Magick of bounty ! all thefe fpirits thy power 
Hath conjur'd to attend. I know the merchant. 

Pain. I know them both ; the other's a jewellery 

Mer. O, 'tis a worthy lord ! 

Jew. Nay, that's mod fix'd. 

Mer. A moft incomparable man ; 'breath'd; asip 


To an untirable and continuate goodnefs : 
Hepaffes 6 . 

Jew. I have a jewel here. 

Mer. O, pray, let's .fee't : For the lord Timon. 

for whatever is common, or in nature. Shakefpeare therefore ha 
with great delicacy of judgment put his poetafter upon this inquiry. 


The learned commentator's note muft ftiift for itfelf. I cannot 
but think that this patfage is at prefent in confulion. The poet 
alks a queition, and flays not for an anfwer, nor has his queftion 
any apparent drift or confequente. I would range the paflage 
thus : 

Poet. Ay, that's well known. 
But what particular rarity? i whatfoj}ran^e l 
That manifold record not matches ? 
Pain. See! 

Poet. Magick of bounty, &c. 

It may not be improperly obfenred here, that as there is onlf 
one copy of this play, no help can be had from collation, and more 
liberty muft be allowed to conjecture. JoHxsorf. 

5 treat)? d as it =ivere 

To an untirable and continuate goodnefs,] 

Breathed is inured by conjiant practice ; fo trained as not to be wea- 
ried. To breathe a horie, is to exercife him for the courfe. 


<contintiate ] This word is ufed by many ancient En- 

glith writers. Thus, by Chapman in his verfion of the 4th book 
of the OtfyJTy : 

" Her handmaids join'd in a continuate yell." STEEVENS. 
6 He pafTes.] i. e. he exceeds, goes beyond common bounds. 
So, in the Merry Wives of Windfor : 

" Why this faffes, mailer Ford." STEEVENS. 


Jew* If he will 7 touch the eftimate : But, for 
. that 

Poet. 8 When we for recompence have prats' d tie vile, 
It Jlains the glory in that happy verfe 
Which aptly fings the geod. 

Mer. 'Tis a good form. [Looking on the jewel. 

Jeiu. And rich : here is a water, look you. 

Pain. You are rapt, fir, in fo'me work, fome de- 
To the great lord. 

Poet. A thing flipt idly from me. 
Our poefy is as a gum, 9 which oozes 
Prom whence 'tis nourifhed : The fire i' the flint 
Shews not, "till it be ftruck ; our gentle flame 
Provokes itfelf, ' and, like the current, flies 


7 touch tie eftimate : ] Come up to the price. 


8 Wen we for recompence &c.] We muft here fuppofe the poet 
bufy in reading his own. work ; and that thefe three lines are the 
introduction of the poem addrefled to Timor., which he afterwards 
gives the painter an account of. WAR EUR TON. 

9 which oozes] The folio copy reads, which ufes. Th 

modern editors have given it, which iffues. JOHNSOV. 

The only ancient copy reads : Our poejie is as a gowne which 
ufes. STEEVENS. 

1 and, like the current files 

Each bound it chafes. ] 

Thus the folio reads, and rightly. In later editions r.7/?;. 


This fpeech of the poet is very obfcure. He feems to boaft the 
copioufnefs and facility or his vein, by declaring that verfes drop 
from a poet as gums from odoriferous trees, and that his flame 
kindles itfelf without the violence neccflary to elicit fparkles from 
the flint. What follows next ? that it, like a current, Jlies each 
bound it chafes. This may mean, that it expands itfelf notwith- 
ftanding all obftruftions : but the images in the comparifon are fo 
ill-forted, and the effect fo obfcurely exprefled, that I cannot but 
think Ibmething omitted that connected the bft fentence with the 
former. It is well known that the players often fliorten fpeeches 
to quicken the reprefentation : and it may be fufpecled, that they 



Each bound it chafes. What have you there ? 

Pain. A piflure, fir. When comes your book 
forth ? 

Poet. * Upon the heels of my prefentment J , fir. 
Let's fee your piece. 

Pain. 'Tis a good piece. 

Poet. So 'tis : 4 this comes off well and excellent* 

Pain. Indifferent. 

Poet. Admirable : * How this grace 


fometimes performed their amputations with more hafle than 
judgment. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps the fenfe is, that having touched on one ft&jctf, it flies 
effimiueft of another. The old copy feems to read : 

Each bound it chafes. 

The letters / and / are not always to be diftinguifted from each 
other, efpecially when the types have been much worn, as in the 
firft folio. If chafes be the true reading, it is beft explained by 

the " -fe fequiturque fugitq ue " of the Roman poet. 


* Upon the heels &c.] As foon as my book has been preferred 
to lord Timon. JOHNSON. 

s preferment, ] The patrons of Shakefpeare's age do 

not appear to have been all Timons. 

" I did determine not to have dedicated my play to any body, 
becaufe forty fallings I care not for, and above, few or none will 
beftow on thefe matters." Preface to a Woman is a Weathercock^ 
by N. Field, 1612. STEEVENS. 

4 this comes off well and excellent."] By this we are to under- 
fland what the painters call the goings- of of a pifture, which re- 
quires the niceft execution. WARBURTON. 

The note I underftand lefs than the text. The meaning is : 
The figure rifes well from the canvas. C\Jl ken relevt. 


What is meant by this term of applaufe I do not exadly know. 
It occurs again in the Widow, by B. Jonfon, Fletcher, and Mid 
dleton : 

" It comes of very fair yet." 

Again, in A Trick to catch the old One, 1616 : <{ Put a good tale 
in his ear, fo that it comes of cleanly, and there's a horfe and man 
for us, I warrant thee." STEEVENS. 
5 ' biKv this grace 

Sfeaks its own rtanding ? ] 

This relates to the attitude of the figure j and mean* that it (tends 

VOL. VIII. Y -judicioufly 


Speaks his own (landing ? what a mental power 
This eye fhoots forth ? how big imagination 
Moves in this lip ? to the dumbnefs of the gefture 
One might interpret. 

Pain. It is a pretty mocking of the life. 
Here is a touch ; Is't good ? 

Poet. I'll fay of it, 
It tutors nature : 6 artificial flrife 


judicioufly on its own centre. And not only fo, but that it has a 
graceful ftanding likewife. Of which the poet in Hamlet, fpeak- 
ing of another picture, fays : 

'* A Station like the Herald, Mercury, 

<c New-lighted on a heav'n-kiffing hill." 

which lines Milton feems to have had in view, where he fays of 
Raphael : 

" At once on th' eaftern d>ff of Paradife 

" He lights, and to his proper fhape returns. 

*' Like Maia'sfon hejlood." WARBURTON. 
This fentence feems to meobfcure, and, however explained, not 
very forcible. This grace fpeaks his own ftanding^ is only, The 
gracefulncfs of this figure fyews h<nv it ftands. I am inclined to 
think fomething corrupted. It would be more natural and clear 

hffw this Handing 
Speaks his own graces ? 

Ho*iv this poflure difplays its own gracefulnefs. But I will indulge 
conjecture further, and propofe to read : 

how this grace 

Speaks undemanding ?. ichat a mental power 

This eye Jhools forth f JOHNSON. 

The paflage, to my apprehenfion at \QZ&^ fpeaks its own meaning, 
which is, how the graceful attitude of this figure proclaims that 
it {lands firm on its centre, or gives evidence in favour of its owrf 
fixure. Grace is introduced as bearing wirnefs to propriety. A fi- 
milar expreflion occurs in Cymocline^ act II. fc. iv : 

*' never faxv I figures 

** So likely to report thenifelves" STEEVENS. 
6 artijlciai ftrifej Strife tor action or motion. 

Strife is either the conteft or act with nature. 

** Hie itte eft Raphael, timuit y quofofpite vinci 
" Rerum magna far ens ^ 13 moriente mori." 
Or it is the contrail of forms or oppofitiou of colours. JOHNSON-. 


Lives in thefe touches, livelier than life. 

Enter certain Senators* 

Pain. How this lord is follow'd ! 

Poet. The fenators of Athens ; Happy men 7 ! 

Pain. Look, more ! 

Poet. You fee 8 this confluence, this great flood of 


I have, in this rough work, fhap'd out a man, 
Whom this beneath world doth embrace and hug 
With ampleft entertainment : My free drift 
9 Halts not particularly, but moves itfelf 
1 In a wide fea of wax : * no levelled malice 
Infects one comma in the courfe I hold ; 
But flies an eagle flight, bold, and forth on, 
Leaving no tract behind. 

So, in fome lines under one of Faithorne's heads : 
" Faithorne, with nature at a noble_/?r//>, 
" Hath paid the author a great (hare of life, &c." 


' Happy men !] I think we had better read : Happy 

man ! It is the happinefs of Timon, and not of the fenators, upon 
which the Poet means to exclaim. STEEVENS. 

b This confluence, this great flood of vifitors.~\ 

" Mane falutantum totis vomit tedihus undam. n JOHIckOir. 

9 Halts not particularly, ] My defign does not flop at any 

fmgle charaders. JOHNSOM. 

' In a wide fea. of wax : ] Anciently they wrote upon waxen 
tables with an iron itile. HANMER. 

* no levell'd malice'] Why this epithet to malice ? which 

belongs to all actions whatlbever, which have their aim or level. 
Shakelpeare wrote : 

no leven'd malice, 

which is not only a proper epithet for the acidity of that paflion, 
but anfwers well to the next words infefls, and leaving no tral be- 
hind, as any thing fermenting or corrofive does. WAR BUR TON. 
To level is to aim, to point the fliot at a mark. Shakeipeare's 
meaning is, my poem is not a latire written with any particular 
view, or It-veiled at any angle perfon ; I fly like an eagle into the 
general expanfe ot life, and leave not, by any private miichiei, 
the trace of my paflage. JOHNSON. 

Y 2 


Pain. How fhall I underftand you ? 

Poet. 3 I'll unbolt to you. 
You fee, how all conditions, how all minds, 
(As well of * glib and ilippery creatures, as 
Of grave and auftere quality) tender down 
Their fervices to lord Timon : his large fortune, 
Upon his good and gracious nature hanging, 
Subdues and properties to his love and tendance 
All forts of hearts ; yea, from the 5 glafs-fac'd flatterer 
To Apemantus, that few things loves better 
Than to abhor himfelf; 6 even he drops down 
The knee before him, and returns in .peace 
Moft rich in Timon's nod. 

Pain. I faw them fpeak together. 

Poet. Sir, I have upon a high and pleafant hill 
Feign'd Fortune to be thron'd : The bafe o' the mount 
Is 7 rank'd with all deferts, all kind of natures, 
That labour on the bofom of this fphere 
8 To propagate their ftates : amongfl them all, 
Whofe eyes are on this fovereign lady fix'd, 
One do I perfonate of Timon's frame, 
. Whom Fortune with her ivory hand wafts to her ; 

3 m unbolt ] I'll open, I'll explain. JOHNSON. 

* glib andjlipp'ry creatures, ] Hanmer, and Warbur- 

ton after him, read, natures. Slippery isjinooth, unrefifting. 


s glap-fac d flat? rer"\ That (hows in his own look, as by 

reflection, the looks of his patron. JOHNSON. 

* even he drops down &c.J Either Shakefpeare meant to put 

a falfhood into the mouth of his poet, or had not yet thoroughly 
planned the character of Apemantus ; for in the cnfuing Icenes, 
his behaviour is as cynical to Timon as to his followers. 


7 rank'd with all dffcrts, ] Covered with ranks of all 
kinds of men. JOHNSON. 

* fo propagate their Jlatei:] To propagate, for to make. 

To advance or improve their various conditions of life. 




Whofe prefent grace to prefent flaves and fervanrs 
Translates his rivals. 

Pain. ' Tis 9 conceiv'd to fcope. 
This throne, this Fortune, and this hill, methinks, 
With one man beckon'd from the reft below, 
Bowing his head againft the lleepy mount 
To climb his happinefsi would be well exprefs'd 
1 In our condition. 

Poet. Nay, fir, but hear me on : 
All thofe which were his fellows but of late, 
(Some better than his value) on the moment 
Follow his {hides, his lobbies fill with tendance, 
* Rain facrificial whifperings in his ear, 
Make facred even his ftirrop, and J through him 
Drink the free air. 

Pain. Ay, marry, what of thefe ? 

Poet When Fortune, in her fhift and change of 


Spurns down her late belov'd, all his dependants, 
Which labour'd after him to the mountain's top, 
Even on their knees and hands, let him flip down 4 , 
Not one accompanying his declining foot. 

9 > conceived to fcope.] Properly imagined, appoGtely, to 

the purpofe. JOHNSON. 

1 In our condition.] Condition, for art. WARETJRTON. 

a Rain facrificial vidrijy rings in bis ear,] The fenfe is obvious, 
and means, in general, flattering him. The particular kind of 
flattery may be collected from the circumftance of its being of- 
tered up in ivbifpers : which (hews it was the calumniating thofe 
whom Timon hated or envied, or whofe vices were oppofite to hi 
own. This offering up, to the perfon flattered, the murdered re- 
putation of others, Shakefpeare, with the utmofl beauty of 
thought and expreffion, calls facrifcial <wbi/]>'rings t alluding to 
the victims offered up to idols. WARBURTON, 

3 through him 

Drink the free air.'] 
That is, catch his breath in affected fondnefs. JOHNSON, 

* let him flip down,] The old copy reads : 

let him fit down : 

Xfce emendation was made by Mr. Rowe. STEEVENS^ 


Pain. *Tis common : 
A thoufand moral paintings I can mew J , 
That fhall demontfrate thcfe quick blows of fortune . 
More pregnantly than words. Yet you do well, 
To fhew lord Timon, that mean eyes 6 have feen 
The foot above the head. 

'Trumpets found. Enter Timon , addr effing himfdf courte- 
to eveiy fuitor. 

Tim. Imprifon'd is he, fay you ? [To a mcffenger. 

Mef. Ay, my good lord : five talents is his debt ; 
His means moft fhort, his creditors moft flrait : 
Your honourable letter he defires 
To thofe have fhut him up ; which failing him, 
7 Periods his comfort. 

Tim. Noble Ventidius ! Well ; 
I am not of that feather, to fhake off 
My friend when he muft need rne. I do know him 
A gentleman, that well deferves a help, 
Which he fhall have : I'll pay the debt, and free him. 

Mef. Your lordfhip ever binds him. 

Tim. Commend me to him : I will fend his ranfom; 

s A toon Tand moral la'ait'ings Icanficv:^ Shakefpeare feems to 
intend in this dialogue to exprefs fome competition between the 
two great arts of imitation. Whatever the poet declares himfelf 
.to have fliewn, the painter thinks he could have {hewn better. 


. 6 - mean ()/ ] i.e. inferior fpe&atcrs. So, in Jf'c>: C ::'s 
Letter to Bacon, dated March the laft, 1613: " Before their ina- 
ieities, and almoft as many other meaner eyes, &c." . TOLLET. * 
7 Periods hh comfort. "\ Topcricd is, perhaps, a verb or'Shake- 
fp^are's introduction into the Englifh language. I find it however 
\ifed by Hey wood, after him, va. A Maidenhead wll Loft ^ 1634.: 

" How eafy could I feriodzM my care.'* 
Again, in the Country Gir!, by T. B. 1647 : 

" To period our vain grievings." 

Again, in The Aclno-jjleJgement t a poem by Barton Holyday : 
' 'Tis fome poor comfort that this mortal fcope 

6 And, 


And, being enfranchis'd, bid him come to me : 
8 'Tis not enough to help the feeble up, 
But to fupport him after. Fare you well. 

Mef. All happinefs to your honour 9 ! [Exit. 

Enter an old Athenian. 

Old Ath. Lord Timon, hear me fpeak. 

"Tim. Freely, good father, 

Old Ath. Thou haft a fervant nam'd Lucilius. 

Tim. I have fo : What of him ? 

Old Ath. Moft noble Timon, call the man before 

Tim. Attends he here, or no ? Lucilius ! 

Enter Lucilius. 

Luc. Here, at your lordfhip's fervice. 

Old Ath. This fellow here, lord Timon, this thy 


By night frequents my houfe. I am a man 
That from my firft have been inclin'd to thrift; 
And my eftate deferves an heir more rais'd, 
Than one which holds a trencher. 

Tim. Well ; what further ? 

Old Ath. One only daughter have I, no kin elfe, 
On whom I may confer what I have got : 
The maid is fair, o' the yonngeft for a bride, 
And I have bred her at my deareft coft, 
In qualities of the beft. This man of thine 
Attempts her love : I pr'ythee, noble lord, 

8 "T/V not enough &c.] This thought is better exprefled by Dr. 
Madden in his Elegy on archbifliop Boulter : 

" He thought it mean 

" Only to help the poor to beg again." JOHNSON. 

9 your honour!] The common addrefs to a lord in our au- 
thor's time, was your honour, which was indifferently ufed with 
your lordfhip. See any old letter, or dedication of that age. 


Y 4 Join 


Join with me to forbid him her refort ; 
Myfelf have fpoke in vain. 

'Tim. The man is honed. 

OLiAtb. ' Therefore he will be, Timon : 
His honefty rewards him in itfelf, 
It muft not bear my daughter. 

Tim. Does fhe love him ? 

Old Ath. She is young, and apt : 
Our own precedent paffions do inftrucl us 
What levity is in youth. 

Tim. [70 Lucil.~^ Love you the maid ? 

Luc. Ay, my good lord, and flie accepts of it. 

Old Aih. If in her marriage my confent be miffing, 
I call the gods to witnefs, I will choofe 
Mine heir from forth the beggars of the world, 
And difpoflefs her all. 

%im. How fhali Ihe be endow'd 
If ihe be mated with an equal hufband ? 

Qld Atb. Three talents, on the prefent ; in future, 

2l#. This gentleman of mine hath ferv'd me long; 
To build his fortune, I will drain a little, 
For 'tis a bond in men. Give him thy daughter : 

1 Therefore be willle, Timon:] The thought is clofely ex 
prefled, and obfcure : but this feems the meaning : If the man be 
bontft) my lord^ for that reafon be will befo hi this ; and not endea- 
votr at the injujlice of gaining my daughter without my confent. 


1 rather think an emendation neceflhry, and read : 

Therefore well be him, Timon : 
His honejry rewards him in itfelf. 
That is, If he is bonc(l, bene fit iili, I wijh him the proper 

tf an honrft man, but his honejly gives him no claim to my daughter. 

The firft transcriber probably wrote wilt be him, which the next, 

not underftanding, changed to, he will be. JOHNSON. 

I think Dr. Warburton's explanation is beft, becaufe it exa&S 

mo change. So, in K. Hen. VIII : 
*' May he continue 

* Long in his highnefs' favour ; and do jiifticc 
*' For truth's fake and h'u conscience" STEEVENS* 



What you beftow, in him I'll counterpoife, 
And make him weigh with her. 

OldAtb. Moil noble lord, 
Pawn me to this your honour, ihe is his. 
' Tim. My hand to thee ; mine honour on my pro- 

Luc. Humbly I thank your lordfhip : z Never may 
That ftate or fortune fall into my keeping, 
Which is not ow'd to you ! [Exit. LuciL and old Ath. 

Poet. Vouch fafe my labour, and long live your 
lordihip ! 

Tim. I thank you ; you mall hear from me anon : 
Go not away. What have you there, my friend t 

Pain. A piece of painting ; which I do bcfeech 
Your lordihip to accept, 

Tim. Painting is welcome. 
The painting is almoft the natural man ; 
For lince diihonour trafficks with man's nature, 
He is but outiide : Tbefe J pencil'd figures are 
Even fuch as they give out. I like your work ; 
And you ihall find, I like it : wait attendance 
'Till you hear further from me. 

Pain. The gods preferve you ! 

fim. Well fare you, gentleman : Give me your 

a "never may 

Tbatjiate, or fortune, fall into my keeping^ 
Which is not ow'd toyou /] 

i. e. may I never have any acceffion of fortune which you are not 
the author of. An odd itrain of complaifance. We fliould read : 

Which is not own'd to yon. 

i. e. which I will not acknowledge you laid the foundation of in 
this generous a6t. WAR BUR TON. 

The meaning is, let me never henceforth confider any thing 
that I poflefs, but as owed or due to you -, held for your fervice, 
and at your difpofal,' JOHNSON. 
3 - penciled figures are 

Even fuch as they give out. ] 

Pictures have no hypocrily j they are what they profefs ro be. 


4 We 


We mud needs dine together. Sir, your jewel 
Hath fuffer'd under praife. 

Jew. What, my lord? difpraife? 

Tim. A meer fatiety of commendations. 
If I fhould pay you for't as 'tis extoll'd, 
It would 4 unclew me quite. 

Jew. My lord, 'tis rated 

As thofe, which fell, would give : But you well know, 
Things of like value, differing in the owners, 
5 Are prized by their matters : believe it, dear lord, 
You mend the jewel by the wearing it. 
. Tim. Well mock'd. 

Mr. No, my good lord ; he fpeaks the common 

Which all men fpeak with him. 

Tim. Look, who comes here. Will you be chid ? 

* Enter dpemantus. 

Jt. We will bear, with your lordfhip. 
Mer. He'll fpare none. 

7 Tim. Good morrow to thee, gentle Apemantus ! 
Apem. Till I be gentle, flay for thy good morrow; 


* unclew me quite.'] To unclew, is to unwind* ball of thread. 
To uncle- a man, is to draw out the whole mafs of his fortunes. 


5 Are prized ly their mafte rs : ] Are rated according to the 

efteem in which their pofleflbr is held. JOHNSON. 

6 Enter Apemantus.~\ See this character of a cynic finely drawn 
by Lucian, in his Aufiion of the Pbilofofbers ; and how well Shake- 
fpeare has copied it. WAR BUR TON. 

7 Tim, Good morrow to thee, gentle Apemantus ! 

Apem . 'TV// / le gentle, Jiay for tby good morrw 

JPbcn tbou art Timon's dog, and thefe knaves bone/1, ] 

The firft line of Apemantus's anfwer is to the purpole ; the fe- 
cond abfurd anu nonfeallcal ; which proceeds from the lois of a 
ipecch drppt from between them, that (hould be thus reftored : 



When thou art Timon's dog, 8 and thefe knaves 

Tim. Why doft thou call them knaves ? thou 

know'ft them not. 
Apem. Are they not Athenians ? 
Tim. Yes. 

Apem. Then I repent not. 
Jew. You know me, Apemantus. 
Apem. Thou know'ft, I do ; I call'd thee by thy 


Tim. Thou art proud, Apemantus. 
Apem. Of nothing fo much, as that I am not like 


Tim. Whither art going? 

Apem. To knock out an honeft Athenian's brains. 
Tim. That's a deed thou'lt die for. 
Apem. Right, if doing nothing be death by the law. 
Tim. How lik'ft thou this picture, Apemantus ? 
Apem. The beft, for the innocence. 
Tim. Wrought he not well, that painted it ? 
Apem. He wrought better, that made the painter ; 
and yet he's but a filthy piece of work. 
Poet. You are a dog. 

Apem. Thy mother's of my generation ; What's flic,' 
if I be a dog ? 

Tim. Good morrow to tbee, gentle Apemantus ; 

Apem. 'Till I be gentle, Jlay for thy good morrow. 

[Poet. Whni mill that be?] 

Apem. When tbou art Timon 3 dog, and tbefe knaves bonejl, 


I think my pun&uation may clear the paflage without any 
greater effort. JOHNSON. 

8 When thou art Timon s dog, ] When thou haft gotten a 

better character, and inftead of being Timon, as thou art, flialt be 
changed to Timon's dog, and become more worthy of kindnefs and 
falutation. JOHNSON. 

Wlw n thou art Timon s dog, ] This is fpoken <Jijcnxo^, as 
Mr. Upton fays fomewhere : finking his hand on his brealt. 

' Wot you who named me firft the kinge's dogge ?" fays Ari- 
flippus in Damon and Pythiai. FAR MER. 



Tim. Wilt dine with me, Apemantus? 

Apem. No ; I cat not lords. 

Tim. An thou fhould'ft, thou'dft ange-r ladies. 

Apem. O, they eat lords ; fo they come by great 

'Tim. That's a lafcivious apprehenfion. 

Apem. So thou apprehend'ft it : Take it for thy 

Tim. How doft thou like this jewel, Apemantus ? 

Apem. Not fo well as plain-dealing 9 , which will not 
coft a man a doit. 

Tim. What dofl thou think 'tis worth ? 

Apem. Not worth my thinking. Ho'.v now, 

poet ? 

Poet. How now, philofopher ? 

Apem. Thou Heft. 

Poet. Art not one ? 

Apem. Yes. 

Poet. 1 hen I lie not. 

Apem. Art not a poet * 

Poet. Yes. 

Apem. Then thou Heft: look in thy laft work, 
where thou haft feign'd him a worthy fellow. 

Poet. That's not feign'd, he is fo. 

Apem. Yes, he is worthy of thee, and to pay thee 
for thy labour : He, that loves to be flatter'd, is wor- 
thy o* the flatterer. Heavens, that I were a lord ! 
Tim. What would'ft do then, Apemantus ? 
Apem. Even as Apemantus does now, hate a lord 
with my heart. 

Tim. What, thyfelf > 

Apem. Ay. 

Tim. Wherefore? 

* Not fo well as plain-dealing, ] Alluding to the proverb : 
44 Plain dealing is a jewel) but they that ufe it die beggars." 




dp:m. ' That I had no angry wit to be a lord. 
Art thou not a merchant ? 
Mer. Ay, Apemantus. 

Apem. Traffick confound thee, if the gods will not! 
Mer. If traffick do it, the gods do it. 
dpem. Traffick's thy god, and thy god confound 
thee ! 

trumpets found. Enter a Mejenger. 

1"im. What trumpet's that ? 

Mef. Tis Alcibiacies, and fome twenty horfe, 
All of companionfhip *. 

'Tim. Fray, entertain them ; give them guide to us. 
You muft needs dine with me : Go not you hence, 
'Till I havethank'd you; and, when dinner's done, 
Shew me this piece. I am joyful of your fights. 

1 That I had no angry w!t t to le a lord. < ] This reading it 
abfurd, and unintelligible. But, as I have reftored the text, that 
I bad fo hungry a wit, to be a lord, it is fatirical enough of con- 
fcience, viz. I would hate myfelf, for having no more wit than to 
covet fo infignificant a title. In the fame fenfe, Shakefpeare ufei 
lean-witted in his Richard II. 

" And thou a lunatick, lean-fitted^ fool." 


The meaning may be, I fhould hate myfelf impatiently enduring 
to le a lord. This is ill enough exprefled. Perhaps fome happy- 
change may fet it right. I have tried, and can do nothing, yet I 
cannot heartily concur with Dr. Warburton. JOHNSON. 

] f 1 hazard one conjecture, it is with the fmalleft degree of con- 
fidence. By an angry wit Apemantus may mean the poet, who hag 
been provoking him. The fenfe will then be this : 1 Jhould hate 
myfelf, becaufe I could prevail on no^captious wit (like him) to take 
the title in my Jiead. The Revifal reads : 

That Ihadfo wrong'd my wit to le a lord. S TEE YENS. 

4 All of companion/hip.^ This expreffion does not mean barely 
that they all belong to one company, but that they are all fuch as 
Alcibiailes honours with his acquaintance ^ and fets on a level with 



Enter Alcibiades, with the reft. 

Moft welcome, fir ! 

Apem. So, fo; there! 

Aches contract and flarve your fupple joints ! 
That there Ihould be fmall love 'mongft thefe fweet 


And all this courtefy ! 3 The ftrain of man's bred out 
Into baboon and monkey. 

Ale. Sir, you have fav'd my longing, and I feed 
Moft hungrily on your fight. 

fim. Right welcome, fir : 
* Ere we depart, we'll fliare a bounteous time 
In different pleafures. Pray you, let us in. 

Enter two Lords. 

i Lord. What time a day is't, Apemantus ? 
Apem. Time to be honeft. 

1 Lord. That time ferves flill. 

Apem. The moft accurfed thou, that ftillomit'ft it. 

2 Lord. Thou art going to lord Timon's feaft ? 
Apem. Ay ; to fee meat fill knaves, and wine heat 


3 Tbeftrain of man 3 IreJ out 

Into baboon and monkf\. ] 

Man is exhaufted and degenerated ; his Jlrain or lineage is worn 
down into monkey. JOKNSOK. 

4 Ere ive depart, ] Who depart? Though Alcibiades was 

to leave Timoii, Timon was not to depart. Common fenfe favours 
my emendation. THEOBALD, 

Theobald propoies do part. Common fcnfe may favour it, but 
an acquaintance with the language of Shakefpeare would not have 
been quite fo propitious to his emendation. Depart and/ar/ have 
the fame meaning. ' 

" Hath willingly Jepartcvnth part." K. John. 
\. e. Hath willingly pen-ted with a part of the thing in queftion. 
Again, Spcnfer; 

" And to depart them, if that fo he may." STEEVHNS. 

2 Lord. 


2 Lord. Fare thee well, fare thee well. 
Apem. Thou art a fool, to bid me farewel twice. 
2 Lord. Why, Apemantus ? 
Apem. Should'ft have kept one to thyfelf, for. I 
mean to give thee none. 

1 Lord. Hang thyfelf. 

Apem. No, I will do nothing at thy bidding : make 
thy requefts to thy friend. 

2 Lord. Away, unpeaceable dog, or I'll fpurn 
thee hence. 

Apem. I will fly, like a dog, the heels of the afs. 

1 Lord. He's oppoiite to humanity. Come, lhall 

we in, 

And tafle lord Timon's bounty ? he out-goes 
The very heart of kindnefs. 

2 Lord. He pours it out ; Plutus, the god of gold, 
Is but his fteward : no meed *, but he repays 
Sevenfold above itfelf ; no gift to him, 

But breeds the giver a return exceeding 
6 All ufe of quittance. 

1 Lord'; The nobleft mind he carries, 
That ever govern'd man. 

2 Lord. Long may he live in fortunes ! Shall we in ? 
i Lord. I'll keep you company. [Exeunt. 

* no meed,] Meed, which in general fignifies reward or 

recompence, in this place feems to mean defert. So, in Hey- 
wood's Silver Age, 1613: 

" And yet thy body meeds a better grave." 
i.e. deferves. Again, in a comedy called Look about you , 1600: 
" Thou rtialtbe rich in honour, full of fpeed ; 
" Thou fhalt win foes by fear, and friends by meed." 


6 All ufe of quittance.] i. e. All the cuftomary returns made in 
iifcharge of obligations. WARBURTON. 




Another apartment in Timon's houfe. 

Hautboys playing loud mufiik. A great banquet ferv'd in ; 
and then enter Timon, Alcibiades, Lucius, Luculliis, 
Sempronius, and other Athenian Senators, with Ventl- 
di:is. "Then comes, dropping after all, Apemantus dif- 
contentedly, like himfelf. 

Fen. Mofl honour'd Timon, it hath pleas'd the 

gods to remember 

My father's age, and call him to long peace. 
He is gone happy, and has left me rich : 
Then, as in grateful virtue I am bound 
To your free heart, I do return thofe talents, 
Doubled, with thanks, and fervice, from whofe help 
I deriv'd liberty. 

'Tim. O, by no means, 
Honeft Ventidius : you miftake my love ; 
I gave it freely ever ; and there's none 
Can truly fay, he gives, if he receives : 
7 If our betters play at that game, we muft not dare 
To imitate them ; Faults that are rich, are fair. 


7 If our letters play at that game, ive muji not dare^ 

o imitate them ; Faulti that are rich arc fair.] 
Thefe two lines are abfurdly given to Timon. They fliould be 
read thus : 

Tim. If our letters play at that game, we mufl not. ' 
Apem. Dare to imitate them. Faults that are rich are fair. 
This is faid fatirically and iu charafter. It was a fober refledion 
in Timon ; who by our betters meant the gods, which require to 
be repaid for benefits received ; but it would be impiety in men 
to expedl the fame obfervance for the trifling good they do. Ape- 
mantus, agreeably to his character, perverts this fentiment j as if 
Timon had fpoke of earthly grandeur and potentates, who expeft 
largeft returns for their favours ; and therefore, ironically replies 
as above. WARJSURTON. 



Ven. A noble fpirit. 

[They alljland ceremoriioi'jly looking on Timon, 

"Tim. Nay, my lords, ceremony 
Was but devis'd at firft 

To let a g^ofs on faint deeds, hollow wekomes, 
Recanting goodncfs, fdrry ere 'tis ihown ; 
But where there is true friendfhip, there needs none. 
Pray, fit ; more welcome are ye to my fortunes, 
Than they to me. [They Jit* 

i Lord. My. lord, we always have confeft it. 

Apem. Ho, ho, confeft it? hang'd it, have you not ? 

Tim. O, Apemantus ! you are welcome. 

Apem. No ; you ihall not make me welcome : 
I come to have thee thruft me out of doors. 

Tim. Fye, thou art a churl ; you have got a humour 


Does not become a man, 'tis much to blame : 
They fay, my lords, tra furor brevis e/}> 
But yonder man is ever angry. 
Go, let him have a table by himfelf ; 
For he does neither affec?c companyj 
Nor is he fit for it, indeed. 

Apem. Let me ftay at thine own peril, Timon ; 
I come to obferve ; I give thee warning oir r. 

Tim. I take no heed of thee ; thou art an Athenian, 
Therefore welcome: 8 1 myfclf would have no power : 

I pr'y- 

I cannot fee that thefe lines are more proper in any other mouth 
than Timon's, to \vhofe character of generality and condeicenfion 
they are very fuituble. To fuppofe that by ow betters are meant 
ilie gods, is very harili, hocaule to imitate the gods has been 
hitherto reckoned the higheit pitch of human virtue. The whole 
is a trite and obvious thought, uttered by Timon with 3 kind or 
affedled modefty. If I would make any alteration, it fhouid he 
only to reform the numbers thus : 

Our betters play that gaatf ; ice fnujl not dare 
T' iriiitatc them :' faults that are rich are fair. 


* / nyfilf would have no flower.] If this be the true reading, 

the fenfe is, all ditcnlans are -welcome tofiare nyfjrtu.:e : I would 

Voz.. VIII. Z nwfclf 


I pr'ythee, let my meat make thee Client. 

Apem. 9 1 fcorn thy meat; 'twould choak me, fo^ 

I fhould 

Ne'er flatter thee. O you gods ! what a number 
Of men eat Timon, and he fees them not ! 
It grieves me, to fee ' fo many dip their meat 
In one man's blood ; and all the madnefs is, 
He cheers them np too. 

I wonder, men dare truft themfelves with men : 
Methinks, they Ihould invite them without knives; 
Good for-their meat, and fafer for their lives. 
There's much example for't ; the fellow, that 

my felf have no exclufive right or power in this boufe. Perhaps we 
might read, / myfclf would have no poor. I would have every 
Athenian confider himfelf as joint poireflbr of my fortune. 


I (hould think, I my felf would have no power ^ referred to the 
fubfequent rather than to the preceding words / claim no extra- 
ordinary power in right of my leing majier of the boufe : I wijh not 
by niy commands to impofe filence on any one : but though I my felf do 
not enjoinyou tojilcncc^ let my meat flop your mouth. MALONE. 

I understand Timon's meaning to be : / myfelf would have no 

power to make thee lilent, but I wifh thou would'Jt let my meat 

make theejilent. Timon, like a polite landlord, difclaimsrf//^Mtvr 

over the meanelt or moil troublelbme of his guefts. TYRWHITT. 

9 I fcorn thy meat ; 'twould choak me t for Ijhould 

Ne'er flatter thee ] 

A very pretty reafon why his meat would choak him, becaufe he 
fhould never flatter him. We fhould read and point this nonfcnfe 

I fcorn thy meat ; *twould choak me 'fore 
Ifoould e'er flatter thee. 
\. e. before I fhould ever flatter thee. WAR BURTON. 

Of this emendation there is little need. The meaning is, I 
could not fwallow thy meat, for I could not pay for it with flat- 
tery ; and what was given me with an ill will would fKck in my 
throat. JOHNSON. 

* fo many dip their meat 

In one man's llood' y ] 

The allufion is to a pack of hounds trained to purfuit by being 
gratified with the blood of an animal which they kill, and the 
wonder is that the animal on which they are feeding cheers thtn* 
to the chafe, JOHNSON. 


Sits nest him now, parts bread with him, pledges 
The breath of him in a divided draught, 
Is the readied man to kill him : it has been prov'd. 
If I were a huge man, I fhould fear to drink at 


Left they Ihould fpy my * wind-pipe'sdangerons notes : 
Great men flionld drink with harnefs on their throats. 

Tim. J My lord, in heart ; and let the health go 

2 Lord. Let it flow this way, my good lord. 

Apem. Flow this way ! 

A brave fellow ! he keeps his tides well. Timon, 
Thofe healths will make thee, and thy ftate, look ill. 
Here's that, which is too weak to be a finner, 
Honeft water, which ne'er left man V the mire : 
This, and my food, arc equals ; there's no odds. 
Feafts are too proud to give thanks to the gods. 

* wind-pipe's dangerous notes :] The notes of the wind-pipe 

feem to be only the indications which fliew where the wind-pipe is. 


Shakefpeare is very fond of making ufe of mufical terms, when 
he is fpeaking of the human body, and wind-pipe, and notes iavour 
ftrongly of a quibble. STEEVENS. 

3 My lord, in heart ; ] That is, my lord's health witbjiuccritjt 
An emendation has been propofcd thus : 

My love in heart ; - 

but it is not neceflary. JOHNSON-. 

So, in the Queen of ' Corinth, by B. and Fletcher : 

" I will be never more in heart to you." 
Again, in Lov c's Labour's Loft : 

** By heart, and in heart, boy." 
Again, in K. Henry IV. p. I. art IV. fc." i : 

*' in heart defiring Itill 

" You may behold, &c." 
Again, in "Love's Labour's Loft, acVV. fc. ii : 
" Dclt thou not wifli in heart, 
" The chain were longer, and the lerter fhort ?*' 


Z 2 APE- 



Immortal gods, I crave no pelf ; 
I pray for no man but myfelf: 
Grant I may never prove fo fond, 
To truft man on his oath, or bond ; 
Or a harlot, for her weeping ; 
Or a dog, that feems ajleeping ; 
Or a keeper with my freedom ; 
Or my friends, if IJhould need 'em. 
Amen. So fall to't : 
Rich men Jin, and I eat root* 

[Eats and drinks t 

Much good dich thy good heart; Apemantus ! 

Tim. Captain Alcibiades, your heart's in the field 

Ale. My heart is ever at your fervice, my lord. 

Tim. You had rather be at- a breakfaft of ene- 
mies, than a dinner of friends. 

Ale. So they were bleeding new, my lord, there's 
no meat like 'em ; I could wifh my beft friend at 
fuch a feaft. 

Apem. 'Would all thofe flatterers were thine ene- 
mies then ; that thou might'il kill 'em, and bid me 
to 'em. 

i Lord. Might we but have that happinefs, my lord, 
that you would once ufe our hearts, whereby we might 
exprefs fome part of our zeals, we iliould think our- 
felves 4 for ever perfect. 

Tim. O, no doubt, my good friends, but the gods 
themfelves have provided that I lhall have much 
help from you : s How had you been my friends elfe ? 


* for ever perftft~\ That is, arrived at the perfe&ion of happi- 
aefs. JOHNSON. 

5 How had you been my friends elfe ? w!y have you that charitable 
ti th from thoufamk,'] The Oxford editor alters char italic title to 


why have you that charitable title from thoufands, 
* did not you chiefly belong to my heart ? I have 
told more of you to myfelf, than you can with mo- 
defty fpeak in your behalf ; and thus far 7 1 confirm 
you. O, you gods, think I, what need we have 
any friends, if we fhould never have need of them ? 
they were the moft needlefs creatures living, ihould 
we ne'er have ufe for them : and * would moft re- 
femble fvveet inflruments hung up in cafes, that keep 
their founds to themfelves. Why, I have often 

charafter and title. He did not know that charitable fignifies, 
dear, endearing ; nor confequently underilood what Milton 
meant by, 

** Relations dear, and all the charities 

" Of father, Con, and brother " 

Alms, in Englifh, are called charities, and from thence we may 
collect that our nnceilors knew well in what the virtue of alms- 
giving conflicted j not in the atf, but the difpofition. 


6 did not you chiefly belong to my heart .?] I think it ihould be in- 
verted thus : did I not chiefly belong to your hearts. Lucius vviflies 
that Timon would give him and the reft an opportunity of exprejj"- 
ing fame part of their zeals. Timon anfwers that, doubtlefs the 
gods have provided that I Jhould have help from you ; hovj elfe arc 
you my friends f why are you ftiled my friends, if what ? tf I do 
not love you. Such is the prefent reading ; but the confequence 
is not very clear : the proper clofe mult be, if you do not love me, 
and to this my alteration reftores it. But, perhaps, the old read- 
ing may ftand. JOHNSON'. 

ff7jy have you that charitable title from thoufar.ds, did not yau 
chiefly belong to my heart f] I believe Shakefpeare wrote, " \\ hy 
have you not that charitable title from thoufands, did you not 
chiefly belong to my heart ?" i. e. Why do not thoufands more give 
\ou that charitable title of friends, if it ivcre not that my heart hiith a, 
peculiar and principal claim to your friendjhip? REVISAL. 

Wljy have you, &c.] The meaning is probably this. Why are 
you diftinguilhed from thousands by that title ot endearment, wns 
there not a particular conaedtion and intercourfe of tendernefs be- 
tween you and me. JOHNSON. 

7 I confirm you.~\ I rix your characters firmly in my o;vn mind. 


8 they futrc the moft needlcfe creature! living, Jliculdvoe ne'er have 
nfc for them; and ] This pafiage I have veilored from the old 
copy, STEEVENS. 

Z 3 wilh'd 


wifli'd myfelf poorer, that I might come nearer to 
you. We are born to do benefits : and what better 
or properer can we call our own, than the riches of. 
our friends ? O, what a precious comfort 'tis, to 
have fo many, like brothers, commanding one an- 
other's fortunes ! 9 Ojoy, e'en made away ere it 
can be born ! ' Mine eyes cannot hold water, me- 
thinks : to forget their faults, I drink to you. 
jipem. Thou weep'lt * to make them drink, Timon. 

2 Lord. Joy had the like conception in our eyes, 
And, at that inftant, J like a babe fprung up. 


9 O joy, cen made aivay ere it can be born / j For this Hanmer 
writes, O joy, e'en made a joy erc't can be born ; and is followed by 
Dr. Warburton. I am always inclinable to think well of that 
which is approved hv ib much learning and ftgacity, yet cannot 
receive this alteration. Tears being the effect both of joy and 
grief, fupplied our author with an opportunity of conceit, which 
he feldom fails to indulge. Timou, weeping with a kind of ten- 
der pleafurc, cries out, O joy, e'en made away, deftroyed, turned 
to tears, before it can be lorn, before it can be fully poflefled. 


* $line eyes, &c..] In the original edition the words ftand thus : 
Mine eyes cannot laid out -uvz/rr, met kink?. 7 o forget their faults, I 
drink to you. Perhaps the true reading is this, Mine eya cannot 
holdout; they ^vater. Metbinks, to forget their faults, f<will4rink 
toyou. Or it may be explained without any change. Mine eyes 
cannot hold out water, that is, cannot keep water from breaking 
in upon them. JOHNSON. 

* ' to make them drink, ] Ilanmer reads, 

to make them drink thee : 

and is again followed by Dr. Warbuiton, I ihink without fufficient 
reafon. The covert fenfe of Apemantus is, ivbat tbou lofcft, they 
get. JOHNSON. 

3 like a bale ] That !s a weeding babe. JOHNSON-. 

I queflion if Shakefpeare meant the propriety of allution to be 
carried quite fo far. To look for babies in the eyes of another, is 
110 uncommon expreffion. 
So, in Love's Miftrcfs, by Hey wood, 1636 : 

" Joy'd in his looks, look'd babies in his eyes." 
Again, in T^c Chriftian turn V Turk, 1612: 

" She makes him fing fongs to her, looks fortunes in his 
fills, and^A-j in his eyes." 



'jtpcm. Ho, ho ! I laugh to think that babe a baftard. 
3 Lord. I promife you, my lord, you mov'd me 

Apem. Much. 

Sound Bucket. 

Tim. What means that trump ? How now ? 
Enter a Servant. 

Serv. Pleafe you, my lord, there are certain ladies 
moft defirous of admittance. 

'Tim. Ladies ? What are their wills ? 

Serv. There comes with them a fore-runner, my 
Jord, which bears that office, to fignify their pleafures. 

Twi. I pray, let them be admitted. 

Enter Cupid. 

Cup. Hail to thee, worthy Timon , and to all 
That of his bounties taite ! The five bed fenfes 
Acknowledge thee their patron ; and come freely 
To gratulatc thy plenteous bofom : 
? The ear, tafte, touch, fmell, pleas'd from thy 
table rife ; 


Again, in Dray ton's Pofyolbhn, Song the nth : 

" Whiiit in their chryltal eyes he doth for Ctipub look." 
Again, in the Loyal Subject, by B. and Fletcher : 

" Can you look babies, filter, 

" In the young gallant's eyes f" STEEVENS. 

Does not Lucullus dwell onTimon's metaphor by referring to 
circumllances preceding the birth, and means joy uas conceived 
in their eyes, and fprung up there, like the motion oi a babe in 
the womb ? TOLLET. 
3 In former copies : 

There tajie, touch, all pica ^J from tJ.y table rife, 

They o>,ly JUKV ] 

The jive fenfes are talked of by Cupid, but three of them only 
are made out ; and thofe only in a very heavy unintelligible man- 
ner. It is plain therefore we fliould read, 

Th'ear, tajie, touch, fmell, fleai'ii from tly talk rife, 

Thefe onlj /.<?w, &c. 

Z 4 i. e. 


They only now come but to feaft thine eyes. 

c Tim. They are welcome all ; let 'em have kind ad- 
mittance : 
Mufick, make their welcome. {Exit Cupid. 

i Lord. Ycufee,my lord,howampleyouarebelov'd. 

Re-enter Cupid, with a mafque of Ladies as 
Amazons, with lutes in their hands, dancing, and 


Apem. Heyday ! what a fweep of vanity comes this 

way \ 
* They danc6 ! 6 they are mad women. 


7. e. the five fenfes, Timon, acknowledge thee their patron ; 
four of them, viz. the hearing, tajlc, touch, andy///<>//, are all 
feafled at thy board ; and thefe ladies come with me to entertain 
your Jigbt in a mafque. ' Mallinger, in his Duke of Millahic, co- 
pied the pafTage from Shakefpeare ; and apparently before it was 
thus corrupted ; where, fpeaking of a banquet, he fays ; 

-' All that may le bad 
To pleafc the eye, /A? ear, tafte, touch, or fmell, 

Are carefully provided. WAR EUR TON. 

5 They dance .' Tbcy are mad women. 
Like madnefs, is the glo/'v of this life ; 
As this pomp J}jc~vs to a little oil and rootJ\ 

This is Apemantus's reflection on the mafque of ladies : and for 
its obfcurity, would become any Pagan philofopher. The firft 
line is a complete fentence : \\\zfecnnd is the beginning of a new 
reflection ; and the third, the cor.diifion of it by a fimilitude. 
Hence it aupnrs, that fome lines are dropt out and loft from be- 
tween theieconu and third verfes. I conjeclure the fenfeofthe 
\^-hole might be this, The glory of human life is like the madnefs of 
this mafk ; it is a lalie aim at happinels, which is to be obtained 
only by ibbrtety and temperance ip a private and retired life. 
But fuperficial judges will always prefer pomp and glory ; becaufe 
in outward appearance it has fo much the advantage : as great as 
this/>0OT/i>#r i upper. appears to have above my oil end root. This, 
in my opinion, was the fcntimcnt that connected the fecond and 
lines: together : which for the future mould be read with 
tfterilks between them. WARBI;RTON. 

When I read this paflage, I was atfirir. of the fame opinion with 
iliis learned man ; but, upon longer confideration, I grew lefs 
corvfident, becaufe I think the prefent reading fafceptible of ex- 


Like madnefs is the glory of this life, 

As this pomp fhews to a little oil, and root. 

We make ourfelves fools, to difport ourfelves ; 

And fpend our flatteries, to drink thofe men, 

Upon whole age we void it up again, 

With poifonous fpite, and envy. Who lives, that's 


Depraved, or depraves ? who dies, that bears 
Not one fpurn to their graves of their friends' gift 7 ? 
I fhould fear, thofe, that dance before me now, 
Would one day (lamp upon me : It has been done ; 
Men fliut their doors againft a fetting fun. 

1'he Lords rife from table, vvith much adoring of Timon ; 
ana\ tofoew their loves, each Jingles out an Amazon, 
and all dance, men with women ; a lofty Jlrain or two 
to the hautboys, and ceafe. 

Tim. You have done our pleafures much grace, 

fair ladies, 

Set a fair faihion on cur entertainment, 
Which was not half fo beautiful and kind ; 
You have added worth unto't, and lively luflre, 
And entertain'd me with 8 mine own device ; 
J am to thank you for it. 

planation, with no more violence to language than is frequently 
found in our author. The glory of this Irfe is very near to madnefs^ 
as may be made appear from tbiipomp, exhibited in a place where 
a philofopher is feeding on oil and roots. When we fee by example 
how few are the neceflaries of life, we learn what madnefs there 
is in fo much fuperfluity. JOHNSON. 

6 They dance ! ] I believe They dance to be a marginal note 

only ; and perhaps we (hould read, 

Thefe are mad vjomen. TYRWHITT. 

7 Of their friend? gift?] That is, given them by their friends. 


8 mine own device:"] The mafk appears to have been de- 

Jign'd by Timon to furprile his guefls. JOHNSON. 

I Lady. 


i Lady* 8 My lord, you take us even at the befl f , 

Apem. 'Faith, for the worfl is filthy ; and would 

not hold 
Taking, I doubt me. 

Tim. Ladies, there is an idle banquet attends you, 
Pleafe you to difpofe yourfelves. 

All Lad. Moll thankfully, my lord. [Exeunt. 

y/ffj. Flavius, 

Ftav. My lord. 

Tim. The little cafket bring me hither. 

Flav. Yes, my lord More jewels yet ! 
There is no crofting him in his humour ; [Afide. 
Elfe I mould tell him, Well, i'faith, I mould, 
\Vhcn all's fpent, ' he'd be crofs'd then, an he could, 
'Tis pity, bounty had not * eyes behind; 

8 My lord> ] This anfwer feems rather to belong to one 
of the ladies. It was probably only mark'd L in the copy. 


In the old copy this fpeech is given to the i Lord. I have ven- 
tured to change it to the i La<fy, as the author of the Revifal, and 
Mr. Edwards, as well as Dr. Johnfon, concur in the emendation. 
There may not, however, be fufficient reaibn for the change; 
efpecially if the preceding line, " I km to thank you for it," be 
addrefled to the lords by whom this mafque appears to have been 
contrived. STEEVENS. 

9 even at the bffi.~\ Perhaps we fhould read, 

ever at the befi. 

So, aftlU., 

Ever r.t tie left. TYRWHITT. 

Take us cve-i at the brfi, I believe, means, you have feen the 
belt we can do. They ure fuppoled to be hired dancers, and there- 
fore there is no impropriety in fuch a confellion. STEEVENS. 

1 . . 1-" lg crofi'd then, if he could :~\ The poet does not 
mean here, that he would be crofs'J in humour, but that he 
would h~ve hii hand crcf'd with money, if he could. He is 
playing on the word, and alluding to our old filver penny, uied 
berore K. Edward the firft's time, which had a croft o\\ the reverie 
with a creafe, that it might be more easily broke into halves and 
quarters, half-pence and farthings. From this penny, and other 
.pieces, was our common exprefiion derived, / have not a crofs 
alout me ; i. e. not a piece of money. THEOBALD. 

* eyeibebirttt;] To fee the mifeiies that are following 

her. TOHXSOK. 



That man might ne'er be wretched J for his mind. 
[E.V/V, and returns with the cajket, 

1 Lord. Where be our men ? 
Serv. Here, my lord, in readinefs. 

2 Lord. Our horfes. 

1"i/'fi. O my friends, I have one word 
To fay to you : Look, you, my good lord, I mull 
Intreat you, honour me fo much, as 4 to 
Advance this jewel; accept, and wear it, kind my 

1 Lord. I am fo far already in your gifts, 
Att So are we all. 

Enter a Servant. 

Serv. My lord, there are certain nobles of the 

Newly alighted, and come to vifit you. 

Tim. They are fairly welcome. 

Flav. I befeech your honour, 
Vouchfafe me a word ; it does concern you near. 

Tim. Near ? why then another time I'll hearthee : 
I pr'ythee, let us be provided 
To ihew them entertainment. 

Flav. \_Afide.~\ I fcarce know how. 

Enter another Servant. 

2 Serv. May it pleafe your honour, lord Lucius, 
Out of his free love, hath prefented to you 
Four milk-white horfes, trapt in filver. 

Tim. I ihall accept them fairly : let the prefents 
Be worthily entertained. How now ? what news ? 

3 for bis mitut] For noblenefs of foul. JOHNSON. 

Advance this jewel; > 
To prefer it ; to rcife it to honour by wearing it. JOHNSON. 



Enter a third Servant. 

3 Serv. Pleafe you, my lord, that honourable gen. 
tleman, lord Lucullus, entreats your company to- 
morrow to hunt with him ; and has fent your honour 
two brace of greyhounds. 

Tim. Pll hunt with him ; And let them be receiv'd, 
Not without fair reward. 

Flav. [_Ajide.~] What will this come to ? 
He commands us to provide, and give great giftSj 
And all out of an empty coffer. 
Isfor will he know his purfe ; or yield me this, 
To fhew him what a beggar his heart is, 
Being of no power to make his wiihes good : 
His promifes fly fo beyond his (late, 
.That what he fpeaks is all in debt, he owes 
For every word ; he is fo kind, that he now 
Pays intcreft for't ; his land's put to their books, 
Well, 'would I were gently put out of office, 
Before I were forc'd out ! 
Happier is he that has no friend to feed, 
Than fuch that do even enemies exceed. 
J bleed inwardly for my lord. [Exit. 

Tim. You do yourfelves much wrong, you bate 

too much" 

Of your own merits : Here, my lord ; a trifle of 
our love. 

2 Lord. With more than common thanks I will 
receive it. 

3 Lord. O, he is the very foul of bounty ! 
Tim. And now I remember, my lord, you gave 

Good words the other day of a bay courfer 
I rode on : it is yours, becaufe you lik'd it. 

2 Lord. O, I befeech you, pardon me, my lord, 
In that. 

Tim. You may take my word, my lord; I know, 

no man 
Can jullly praife, but xvhat he does affect : 

I weigh 


I weigh my friend's affedliori with mine own ; 
* I tell you true. I'll call on you. 

All Lords. O, none fo welcome. 

Vim. I take all and your feveral violations 
So kind to heart, ' 'tis not enough to give ; 
Methinks, 1 could deal kingdoms to my friends, 
And ne'er be weary. Aicibiades, 
Thou art a foldier, therefore feldom rich, 
It comes in chtirity to thee : for all thy living 
Is 'mongft the dead ; and all the lands thou haft 
Lie in a pitch'd field. 

Ale. * In defiled land, my lord. 

i Lord. We are fo virtuoufly bound, 

Vim. And fo am I to you. 

2, Lord. So infinite endear'd, 

Tim. All to you '. Lights ! more lights. 

i Lord. The belt of happinefs, 

Honour, and fortunes, keep with you, lord Ti- 
mon ! 

Tim. Ready for his friends. 

[Exeunt Aicibiades, Lords, csfr. 

* / tellyou true. ] The other modem editions : 

I'll tell you. JOHNSON. 

' i 'tis not enough to give ; 

Methinks, / could deal k!ngdo?ijs 3 

Thus the palfage flood in all editions before Hanmer's, who re- 
ftored my thanks* JOHNSON. 

I have difplaced the words inferted by fir T. Hanmer. What 
I have already given, fays Timon, is net fufficient on the occa- 
fion : Methinks I could deal kingdoms, 5. e. I coald difpenfe 
them on every fide with an ungrudging distribution, like that with 
which I could deal out cards. STEEVENS. 

1 r defiled land, ] This is the old reading, which appa- 

rntly depends on a very low quibble. Aicibiades is told, that 
hit ejlate lies in a pitch'd field. Now^//c6, as Falftafffays, doth 
defile. Aicibiades therefore replies, that his eftate lies in defiled 
land. This, as it happened, was not underflood, and all the edi- 
tors published : 

/ ilffy land, JOHNSON. 

3 All to you. ] i. e. all good wifhes, or all happinefs to you. 

So, Macbeth: 

** All to all." STEEVENS. 


Jpem. What a coil's here ! 
4 Serving of becks, and jutting out of bums ! 
5 1 doubt, whether their legs be worth the fums 
That are given for 'em. Friendship's full of dregs J 
Methinks, falfe hearts Ihoukl never have found legs, 

* Serving of lech, -] This nonfenfe fhould be read: 

Serring of becks , 

from the Frenchymvr, to join clofe together. A metaphor taken 
from the billing of pigeons. WAR BUR TON. 

The commentator conceives beck to mean the mouth or the head* 
after the French j bee, whereas it means a falutation made with the 
head. So Milton : 

" ftodf and becks, and wreathed fmiles." 
Toferve a beck, is to offer a falutation. JOHNSON. 

To/erve a beck, means, I believe, to pay a courtly obedience to a 
nod. Thus, in The Death of Robert Earl of ' Huntington % 1601 : 

** And with a low beck 

" Prevent a fharp check." 
Again, in The Play of the Four P's, 1569 : 

" Then I to every foul again, 

" Did give a leek them to retain." 
In Merry Trices or Ram-alley, 1611, I find the fame word : 

** I had my winks, my leeks, treads on the toe." 
Again, in Hey wood's Rape of Lucrece, 1630 : 

" -wanton looks, 

" And privy becks, favouring incontinence." 
Again, in Lylly's Woman in the Moon, 1597 : 

" And he that with a leek controuls the heavens." 
It happens then that the word leek has no lefs than four diftinft fig- 
nifications. In Drayton's Polyollion, it is enumerated among the 
appellations of /mail Jf reams of Water. In Shakefpeare's Antony 
and Cleopatra, it has its common meaning a Jign of invitation 
made by the hand. In Timon, it appears to denote a pfw* and in 
Lylly's play, a nod of dignity or command, as well as in Marius 
and Sylla, 1 594 : 

" Yea Sylla with a beck could break thy neck." 
Again, in the interlude of Jacob and Efau, i 568 : 

** For what, O Lord, is fo poffible to man's judgment 

" Which thou canft not with a beck perform incontinent r n 

.See Surrey's Poems, p. 29 : 

" And with a becke full lowe he bowed at her feete." 


5 I doubt, whether their legs &c.] He plays upon the word /<, 
as it fignifies a 'limb and a low or aft of obeifance, JOHNSON. 



Thus honeft fools lay out their wealth on court'fies. 

Tim. Now, Apemantus, if thou wert not fallen, 
I would be good to thee. 

Apem. No, I'll nothing : for, 
If I Ihould be bribed too, there would be none left 
To rail upon thee ; and then thou would'ft fin the 


Thou giv'ft fo long, Timon, 6 1 fear me, thou 
Wilt give away thyfelf in paper fhortly : 
What needthefe feafts, pomps, and vain-glories? 

Tim. Nay, 

If you begin to rail once on fociety, 
I am fworn, not to give regard to you. 
Farewel ; and come with better mufick. [Exit. 

Apem. So; 
Thou wilt not hear me now, thou fhalt not then, I'll 

7 Thy heaven from thee. O, that men's ears ihould 

To counfel deaf, but not to flattery ! [Exit. 

* .- I fear me, thou 

Wilt give arxay thy f elf in paperj#w/r;] 

5. e. be ruined by his fecurities entered into. But this fenfeis flat, 
and relifhes very little of the fait in Apemantus's other refle&ions. 
We fhould read : 

give away tlyfclfjn proper Jhortly. 

i. e. in perfon ; thy proper felf. This latter is an expreflion of 
our author's in the Yemptft : 

" And ev'n with fuch like vnlour men hang and drotfft,' 
" Their proper ffhes." WAR EUR TON 
Hanmer reads very plaufibly : 


Wilt give away t/.yfelf'in perpetimm. JOHNSON. 
I am fatisfied with Dr. Warburton's explanation of the text, 
but cannot concur in his emendation. STEEVENS, 

7 7~y heaven] The pleafure of being flattered. JOHNSON. 






A publlck place in ihs city. 
Enter a Senator. 

Sen. And late, five thoufand to Varro ; and to 


He owes nine thoufand; befides my former fum, 
Which makes it five and twenty. Still in motion 
Of raging wafte ? It cannot hold ; it will not. 
If I want gold, fteal but a beggar's dog, 
And give it Timon, why, the dog coins gold : 
If I would fell my horfe, and buy twenty more 
Better than he, why, give my horfe to Timon, 
* Afk nothing, give it him, it foals me, ftraight, 
And able horfes : 9 No porter at his gate ; 


* In old editions : 

AJk nothing, give it him, it foals meftraigbt 

An able horfe. ] 

*' If I want gold (fays the fenator) let me fteal a beggar's dog, and 
give it Timon, the dog coins me. gold. If I would fell my bo*fe t 
and had a mind to buy ten better inftead-of him ; why, I need but 
give my horfe to Timon, to gain this point ; and it preiently retches 
me an hor/i." But is that gaining the point prop .s'd ? TUc firf! 
folio reads, lefs corruptly than the modern impreffions : 

And able horfes. 

Which reading, joined to the reafoning of the paffage, gave me 
the hint for this emendation. THEOBALD. 

Inftead of ten horfes the old copy reads twenty. The paflage 
which Theobald would alter, means only this. If I give my horfe 
to Timon, it immediately foals, and not only produces more, but able 
lorfes. The fame conftrudion occurs in Much ado about Nothing 
" -'-and men are only turned into tongue, and trim ones too." 

9 No porter at bis gate ; 

But rather one that fmiles, andjlill invites'] 
I imagine that a line is loft here, in which the behaviour of a furly 
porter was defcribcd. JOHNSON. 



But rather one that fmiles, and ftill invites 
All that pafs by. It cannot hold ; ' no reafon 
Can found his date in fafcty. Caphis, ho ! 
Caphis, I fay ! 

Enter Cup 1 : is. 

Caph. Here, fir ; What is your pleafure ? 

Sea. Get on your cloak, and hafte you to lord 

Timon ; 

Importune him for my monies ; be not ceas'd * 
With flight denial ; nor then filenc'd J , when 
Commend me to yov.r wqfter and the cap 
Plays in the right hand, thus : but tell him, firrah, 

There is no occafion to fuppofe the lofs of a line. Sternncfs was 
the charadteriftic of a porter. There appeared at Kiilingworth 
caftle, "a/0r/*r, tall of parfon, big of lim, and Jlearn of counii- 
vauris." FARMER. 

1 - no reafon 

Can found hisjlate infafcty. ] 

The fuppofed meaning of this muft be, No reafon^ by founding^ 
fathoming, or trying, bisjlate, can find it fafe. But as the words 
itand, they imply, that no reafon can faic\y found bisjlate. I read, 
thus : 

no reafon 

Can found his flat e iitfafefy. 

Renfon cannot find his fortune to have any fafe or folid foundation. 
The types of the firit printer of this play were fo worn and de- 
faced, that/and/are no: always to be diftinguiflied. JOHNSOV. 

a le not ceas'd] i. e. ftopp'd. So, in Claudius Tileriui 

Nero, 1607 : 

* Why fhould Tiberius' liberty be ceafcd." 
Again, in the Faiiant Welcbman, 1615: 

" pity thy people's wrongs, 

*' And ceafe the clamours both of old and young." 
Again, in Warner's AlbioJi England, 1602, b. v. ch. 28: 

" By war the t\ueen that was, did ceafe her hufband's tra- 
gic reign." 

Again, in Holinfhed, p. 643 : *' The king defiring them to ceajt 
:ht-ir people." ST^.EVENS. 

nor theny//efV, ] The old copy reads when. 


VOL, VIII. A a My 


My ufes cry to me, I muft ferve my turn 

Out of mine own ; his days and times are paft,. 

And my reliances on his fnufted dates 

Has fmit my credit : I love, and honour him ; 

But muft not break my back, to heal his finger : 

Immediate are my needs ; and my relief 

Muft not be toft and turn'd to me in words, 

But find fupply immediate. Get you gone : 

Put on a moft importunate afpect, 

A vifage of demand ; for, I do fear, 

When every feather fticks in his own wing, 

Lord Timon will be left a naked gull 4 , 

5 Which fiafhes now a phoenix. Get you gone^ 

Capb. I go, fir. 

Sen. I go, fir? 6 take the bonds along with you, 
And have the dates in compt. 

Capb. I will, fir. 

Sen. Go. 

* a naked gull, ~\ A ' g:tll is a bird as renwrkable for the po- 
yerty of its feathers, as a phoenix is fuppoled to be for the rich- 
uefs of its plumage. STEEVEKS. 

5 Which Jla/hes &c.] Which, the pronoun relative, relating to 
things, is frequently ufed, as in this inftance, by Shakefj>eare, in- 
ftead of ivbo t the pronoun relative, applied to perfoni. The uia 
of the former inftead of the latter is ftill preferved in the Lord's 
prayer. STEEVENS. 

* take the bonds along with you, 

And have the dates in. Come.] 

Certainly, ever fince bonds were given, the date was put in when 
the bond was entered into : and thefe bonds Timon hud already 
given, and the time limited for their payment was lapfed. The 
Senator's charge to his fervant muft be to the tenour as I have- 
amended the text j Take good notice of the dates, for the bettei- 
computation of the intereft due upon them. THEOBALD. 

Theobald's emendation may be lupported by the following in- 
ffonce in Macbeth : 

" Have theirs, themfrlves, and what is theirs, in compt" 





' Timor? s ML 
Enter Flavins, ivlth many bills in bis kand. 

Flav. No care, no ftop ! fo fenfelefs of expence, 
That he will neither know how to maintain it, 
Nor ceafe his flow of riot ; Takes no account 
How things go from him ; nor refumes no care 
Of what is to continue ; 7 Never mind 
Was to be fo unwife, to be fo kind. 
What fhall be done ? He will not hear, 'till feel i 
I muft be round with him, now he comes from hunt* 

Enter Cuphis, with the fervants of Ifidore and farro. 

Fye, fye, fye* fye ! 

Capb. 8 Good even, Varro : What, 


7 Never mind 

Wai to befo zwviv/?', to It fo kind.~\ 

Nothing can be worfe, or more obfcurely expfefled : nnd all for 
the fake of a wretched rhime. To make it feni'e and grammar, it 
ihould be fupplied thus : 

Never mind 

Wai [made] to befo un^.-ife^ [in order] to Ic fo kind. 
i. c. Nature, in order to make a protufe mind, never betore en- 
dowed any Juan with fo large a ik:re of" folly. WAR BURTON. 

Of this mode of expreffion, converfation aftbrds ma::y examples : 
' I was always to be blamed, whatever happened. 1 ' " I am in 
the lottery, but I was always to draw blanks/' JOHNSON. 

* Good even, Varro: ] It is obfervable, that this gaod even- 

ingis before dinner ; for Timon tells Alcibiades, that they will go 
forth a^aln asfoon as dialer's done, which may prove that by ..' 
our author meant not the c&na of ancient times, but the mid-day's 
repair,. I do not fuppofe the pafiage corrupt: fuch inadvertencies 
neither author nor editorc;;n cfcape. 

There isaiiother remark to be made. Varro and Ihdore fink a 

few lines altenvards into tUe fervants of Varro lliJore. \Vlio- 

A a 2 ther 


You come for money ? 

far. Is't not your bufinefs too ? 

Capb. It is; And your's too, Ifidore ? 

Ifid. It is fo. 

Capb. 'Would \ve were all difcharg'd ! 

Var. I fear it. 

Capb. Here comes the lord. 

Enter Timon, dkibiades, &V. 

TV*. So foon as dinner's done, we'll forth attain, 
My Alcibiades. With me ? What is your will ? 

[_T bey prefent their bilk. 

Capb. My lord, here is a note of certain dues. 

77/. Dues ? Whence are you ? 

Capb. Of Athens here, my lord. 

57/7. Go to my ft e ward. 

Capb. Plcafe it your lordfhip, he hath put me off 
To the fucceffion of new days this month : 
My mafter is awak'd by great occafion, 
To call upon his own ; and humbly prays you, 

ther fervants, in our author's time, took the names of their m af- 
ters, I know not. Perhaps it is a flip of negligence. JOHNSON. 
In the old copy it ftands : Enter Capbh, JJiJore, and farro. 


" Good even, or, as it is fometimes lefs accurately written, Good 
Jen, was the ufual falutation from noon, the moment that Good 
morrow became improper. This appears plainly from the follow- 
ing pafTage. Romeo and "Juliet, a<ft II. fc. iv : 

" Nurfe. God ye good morrow, gentlemen. 

** Mcrcutlo. God ye good den, rair gentlewoman. 

* Nrtr. \s\tgoodticn? 

" 3/tv-f. 'Tis no lefs I tell you ; for the hand of the 

dial is now upon .... noon." 

So, in Hamlet's greeting to Marcellus. Al I. fcene 5. Sir T. 
Jianmer and Dr. Warburton, not being aware, I prefume, of this 
wide tenie ot Good even, have altered it to Good morning ; without 
any neceflky, as from the courle of the incidents, precedent and 
fiib&quent, the day may well be fuppofed to be turn'd of noon. 




That with your other noble parts you*ll fuit 9 , 
In giving him his right. 

'Tim. Mine honeft friend, 
I pr'y thee, but repair to me next morning. 

Caph. Nay, good my lord, - - 

Tim. Contain thy felt", good friend. 

Var. One Varro's fervant, my good lord, r 

IJid. From Ifidorc ; 
He humbly prays your fpeedy payment, 

Capb. If you did know, my lord, my mailer's 

Far. 'Twasdue on forfeiture, my lord, fix weeks, 
And paft. 

I/id. Your fteward puts me off, my lord ; and I 
Am fcnt exprefsly to your lordfhip. 

Tim. Give me breath : 
I do befeech you, good my lords, keep on ; 

[Exeunt Alcibiades, &c. 

I'll wait upon you inftantly. Come hither, pray you. 

[To Flav/us. 

How goes the world, that I am thus encounter'd, 
With clamorous demands of broken bonds ', 
And the detention of long-iince-due debts, 
A gain it my honour ? 

Flav. Plenfc you, gentlemen, 
The time is unagreeable to this bufinefs : 
Your importunacy ceafe, 'till after dinner; 
That I may make his lordfhip underftand 
Wherefore you are not paid. 

Tim. Do fo, my friends : See them well enter- 
tain'd. [Exit Timon. 

Flav. Pray draw near. [Exit klxv'w.s. 

9 That ivitbyour otbt'rnoMe parts you '// /?///,] i.e. that you will 
lifhave on this occnfion in a manner confident \vith our other no- 

- of broken bonds,] The firft folio reads : 
of debt; broken bonds. STEEVKNS. 

A a Enter 


" Enter Apemanti'.s, and a Fool. 

Cap!?. Stay, flay, here comes the fool with Ape- 

mantus ; 
Let's have fome fport xvith 'em. 

Yar. Hang him, he'll abufe us. 

'I/id. A plague upon him, clog! 

Far. How doft, fool ? 

Apem. Dofl dialogue with thy fhadow ? 

Var. I fpeak not to thee. 

Apem. No, 'tis to thyfelf. Come away. 

[To the Fool. 

Ifid. [To Far.~] There's the fool hangs on your 
>ack already. 

Apem. No, thou fland'fl fingle, thou art not on him 

Capk. Where's the fool now ? 

- Apem. He laft aik'd the queftion. ? Poor rogues, 
and ufurers' men ! bawds between gold and want ! 


"* Enter, and a Fool.'} I fufpeft fome fcene to be loft, 
in which the entrance! of the fool, and the page that follows him, 
was prepared by fome Introductory dialogue, in which the audience 
was informed that they were the fool and page of Phrynia, Ti- 
znnndra, or fome other courtefan, upon the knowledge of which 
depends the greater part of the enfuing jocularity. JOHXSO.V. 

3 Poor rcgu(S t atul v.furcr? men ! bawils, &c.] This is faid fo 
abruptly, that I am inclined to think it mifplaced, and would re- 
gulate the paflage thus : 

Caph. Where's tbe fool now? 

Apem. He laft cj^ei the queftion, 

All. Wkatarc<v; 

Apem. AJJcs. 

Apem. 11}at you ajk me ivbat you are, and do not 

yeurfelves. Poor rogues^ and ufurerJ men! bawds 

gold and want! Speak, &c. 

Thus every word will have its proper place. It is likely that 

:he paflage tranipoled was forgot in the copy, and inferted in the 

margin, perhaps a little befide the proper place, which the trnn- 



ML What are we, Apemantus ? 

Apem. Aflcs. 

All. Why? 

Apem. That you afk me, what yon are, and do not 
know yourfclvcs. Speak to 'em, fool. 

Fool. How do you, gentlemen ? 

All. Gramercies, good fool ; How does your mif- 
trefs ? 

Fool. * She's e'en fetting on water to fcald fuch 
chickens as you are. 5 'Would, we could fee you at 

Apem. Good! gramercy. 

Enter Page. ' 
Fool. Look you, here comes my matter's page 6 . 

fcriber wanting either fkill or care to obferve, wrote it where it 
now ftands. JOHNSOX. 

* She's e'en fitting on water to fcald &c.] The old name for the 
<difeafe got at Corinth was the braining, and a fenfe of fcalding is 
one of its firft fymptoms. JOH \so.v. 
The fame thought appears in the Old Law, by Maffinger : 

" look parboil'd 

" As if they came from Cupid's fcaldiag houfe." 


5 'JfouLl we could fee you at Corinth.] A cant name forabawdy- 
houfe, I iuppofe, froni the diflblutenefs of that ancient Greek 
city ; of which Alexander ab Alexandra has thefe words : " Co- 
R I N T H I fupe r mille profiitutte in tewplo Vcneris ajjiiiua dcgerc, fe" in - 

flammata llbidine qtueftni nicrctriclo operam dare, et vc/ut facrorunt 
' mintftree Dete famulnri folcbant." Milton, in his Apology far Since- 
lynumus, fays : " Or fearching for me at the Bordellos7 where, it 
may be, he'has loft himfelf, and raps up, without pity, the iage 
and rheumatic old prelatefs, with all her young Corinthian laity, 
to enquire for fuch a one. WAR BUR TON. 

6 /y matter's page.] In the firflpaflage the Fool fpeaks of 

his niajler, "in the fecond of his miflrefi. Jn the old copy it is maf- 
*tr in both places. Jt fhould rather, perhaps, be miftrefs'm both, 
as it is in a following and a preceding paflage : 

All. How does your miftn/H* 

c Fcol. INIy m'frefs "15 one, and I am her fool." 


A a 4 Page. 


Page. [To the Fool.'] Why, how now, captain ? 
ivhat do you in this wife company ? How doft thou, 
Apcmantus ? 

Apem. 'Would I had a red in my mouth that I 
might anfwer rhee profitably. 

Page. Pr'ythee, Apemantus, read me the fuper- 
fcription of thefe letters; I know not which is which. 

yjpe/n. Can'ft not read ? 

Page. No. 

Apem. There will little learning die then, that day 
thou art hang'd. This is to lord Timon ; this to 
Alcibiades. Go; thou waft born a baftard, and 
thou'it die a bawd. 

Page. Thou waft whelp'd a dog ; and thou fhalt 
famifh, a dog's death. Anfwer not, I am gone. 


Apem. Even fo, thou out-run'ft grace. 
Fool, I will go with you to lord Timon's. 

Fool. Will you leave me there ? 

Apem. If Timon (lay at home. You three ferye 
three ufurers ? 

Ml. Ay ; 'would they ferv'd us ! 

Apem. So would I, as good a trick as ever hang- 
man ferv'd thief. 

Fool. Are you three ufurers' men ? 

Ml. Ay, fool. 

Fool I think, no ufurer but has a fool to his fer- 
vant : My miftrefs is one, and 1 am her fool. When 
men come to borrow of your matters, they approach 
fadly, and go away merry ; but they enter my maf- 
ter's houfe merrily, and go away fadly : The reafon 
of this ? 

Var. I could render one. 

Apem. Do it then, that we may account thee a 
whore-mafter, and a knave ; which notwithftanding, 
thou fhalt be no lefs efteemed. 

Var. What is a whore-m after, fool ? 

Fool. A fooJ, in good clothes, and fomething like 



thee. 'Tis a fpirit : fometime, it appears like a lord ; 
fometime, like a lawyer ; fometime, like a philofo 
pher, with two (tones more than's 7 artificial one : 
He is very often like a knight; and, generally, in all 
lhapes, that man goes up and down in, from four- 
fcore to thirteen, this fpirit walks in. 

far. Thou art not altogether a fool. 

Fool. Nor thou altogether a wife man : as much 
foolery as 1 have, fo much wit thou lack'ft. 

Apem. That anfwer might have become Apemantus. 

All. Aiide, afide ; here comes lord Timon. 

Re-enter Timon, and Flavins. 

A'pem. Come with me, fool, come. 

Fool I do not always follow lover, elder brother, 
and woman ; fometime, the philofopher. 

Flav. Pray you, walk near ; I'll fpeak with you 
anon. [Exeunt dpemantus, and Fool, 

Tim. You make me marvel : Wherefore, ere this 


Had you not fully laid my flate before me ; 
Thar I might fo have rated my expence, 
As I had leave of means ? 

Flav. You would not hear me, 
At many leiiures I propos'd. 

Tim. Go to : 

Perchance, feme fingle vantages you took, 
When my indifpofition put you back ; 

7 his artificial one ; ] Meaning the celebrated philofopher> 
ftone, which w:is in thofe times much talked of. Sir Thomas 
Smith was one of thofe who loll confiderable fums in feeking of it. 


Sir Richard Steele was one of the lait eminent men who enter- 
tajned hopes of being fuccelsful in this purfuit. His laboratory 
was nt Poplar, a village near London, and is now converted into a 
garden houle. STEEVENS. 



And that .unaptnefs 8 made your minifler, 
Thus to excujfe yourfelf. 

Flav. O my good lord ? 
At many times I brought in my accounts, 
Laid them before you ; you would throw them off, 
And fay, you found them in mine honefty, 
\Vhen, for fome trifling prefent, you have bid me 
Return fo much, I have fhook my head, and wept ; 
Yea, 'gainfl the authority of manners, pray'd you 
To hold your hand more clofe : I did endure 
Not feldom, nor no flight checks ; when I have 
prompted you, in the ebb of your eftate, 
And your great flow of debts. My dear-lov'd lord, 
5 Though you hear now, yet now's too late a time; 
The greateit of your having lacks a half 
To pay your prefent debts. 

TV/;/. Let all my land be fold. 

Flav. 'Tis all cnga^'d, fome forfeited and gone; 
And what remains will hardly flop the mouth 
Of prefent dues : the future comes apace : 
What fhall defend the interim ? ' and at length 
How goes our reckoning ? 


* made your miijter~\ So the original. The later editions 

have all : 

. made you mini ft er J o H N s o x . 

The conllruction is : And made that unaplnrfi \ your ni'nifter. 


9 Tljov^Jj -;o'4 hear nova too late , yet HPIV'J a time ; ] i.e. Though 

\ r . he now too late to retrieve your former fortunes, yet it is nor too 

jcire to prevent by the alliilance of your friends, your future mife- 

. Had the Oxford editor underftood the lenfe he would not 

};:ive altered the text to, 

Tbottgl you hear me <KV, yet now's too late a time. 

I think Har.mer right, and have received his emendation. 


1 a>i<l at length 

Hc\v goes our reckoning ?~\ 

This fteu-ard talks very wildly. The lord indeed might have alked, 
what a lord feldorn knows : 


fbfi. To Lacedaemon did my land extend. 

Flav. * O my good lord, the world is but a word ; 
Were it all yours, to give it in a breath, 
How quickly were it gone ? 

Tim. You tell me true. 

Flav. If youfufpedtmy hufbandry, or falfhood, 
Call me before the exafteft auditors, 
And fet me on the proof. So the gods blefs me, 
When all our offices have been opprefl 
With riotous feeders J ; when our vaults have wept 
With drunken ipilth of wine ; when every room 
Hath blaz'd with lights, and bray'd with minftrelfy; 
I have retir'd me to 4 a waftcful cock, 


HO--M goes our reckoning f 

But the fteward was too well Yatisfied in that matter. I would read 
therefore : 

Hold good our reckoning f 

The Oxford editor would appropriate this emendation to himfelf, 
by altering it to make good, WARBURTON. 

It is common enough, and the commentator knows it is com- 
mon to propofe interrogatively, that of which neither the fpeaker 
nor the hearer has any doubt. The prefent reading may therefore 
Jiand. JOHNSON. 

* O my good lord, tie world is but a world ; ] The folio reads : 

but a word ; 

And this is the right. The meaning is, as the 'world itfelf may be 
compriled in a word, you might give it away in a breath. 


3 With riotous feeders; ] Feeders are fervants, whofe low 
debaucheries are pradifed in the offices of a houfe. See a note on 

Antony and Cleopatra, aft III. fc. xi : " one who looks on 

fieders." It appears that what we now call offices, were anciently 
called bovfes of office. So, in Chaucer's Clerkes Talc, late edit. 
y, 8140: 

" Hor/fes of office fluffed with plentee 

* Ther raayit thou lee of deinteous vittaille." 


4 a ivaffcful cock,] i. e. a cockloft, a garret. And ztva/ff- 

ful cock, lignifies a garret lying in wafte, neglected, put to no ufe. 


Hanmer's explanation is received by Dr. Warburton, yet I think 
them both apparently miftaken. A wajleful cock is a cock or pipe 



And fct mine eyes at flow. 

Tim. Pr'ythee, no more. 

Flav. Heavens, have I faid, the bounty of this 


How many prodigal bits have Haves, and peafants, 
This night englutted ! Who is not Timon's ? 
What heart, head, fword, force, means, but is lord 

Timon's ? 

Great Timon's, noble, worthy, royal Timon's ? 
Ah ! when the means are gone, that buy this praife, 
The breath is gone whereof this praife is made : 
Feafl-won, faft-loft ; one cloud of winter Ihowers, 
Thefe flies are couch'd. 

'Tim Come, fermon me no further : 
No villainous bounty yet hath pad my heart J ; 
Unwifely, not ignobly, have I given. 
Why doft thou weep ? Can'ft thou the confcienc^ 


To think I lhall lack friends ? Secure thy heart ; 
If I would broach the veflels of my love, 

with a turning ftoppie running to ivafle. In this fenfe, both the 
terms have their ulual meaning ; but 1 know not that cock is ever 
ufed for cockloft, or vcajicful tor lying in vcafte, or that lying in 
\vafte is at ail a phrafe. JOHNSON'. 

Whatever be the meaning of the prefent paflage, it is certain, 
that lying in iva'lc is rtill a very common phrafe. FARMER. 

A ivaffeful cock is what we now call a ifiafte pipe ; a pipe which 
is continually running, and thereby prevents the overflow ofcif- 
terns and other refervoirs, by carrying off their fuperfluous water. 
This circumfrance ferved to keep the idea of Timon's unceafing 
prodigality in the mind of the fteward, while its remotenefs from 
the fcenes of luxury within the houfe, was favourable to medita- 
tion. COLLINS. 

s No villainous bounty yet bath paft my heart ; 

Univifefy, not ignobly, have I given.] 

Every reader muft rejoice in this circumftance of comfort which 
prefents itfelf to Titnon, who, although beggar'd through want of 
prudence, confoles himfelf with rettecYion that his ruin was not 
brought on by the purfuit ot guilty pleafures. STEEVENS. 



* And try the argument of hearts by borrowing, 
Men, and men's fortunes, could I frankly ufe, 
As 1 can bid thee fpeak. 

Flav. Affurance blefs your thoughts ! 

Tim. And, in ibmc fort, thcfe wants of mine are 


That I account them bleffings ; for by thefe 
Shall I try friends : You mall perceive, how you 
Miftake my fortunes ; I am wealthy in my friends. 
Within there, Flaminius ! Servilius ! 

Enter Flaminius, Servilius, and other Servants. 

Serv. My lord, my lord, 

Tim. I will difpatch you feverally, You, to lord 


To lord Lucullus you ; I hunted with his 
Honour to-day, You, to Sempronius, 
Commend me to their loves ; and, I am proud, fay, 
That my occafions have found time to ufe them 
Toward, a fupply of money : let the requeft 
Be fifty talents. 

Vhm. As you have faid, my lord. 

Flav. Lord Lucius, and Lucullus ? hum ! 

Tim. Go you, fir, to the fenators, [To Flavius. 
(Of whom, even to the date's beft health, I have 
Deferv'd this hearing) bid 'em fend o' the inftant 
A thoufand talents to me. 

Flav. I have been bold, 
(For that 7 1 knew it the mod general way) 

6 And try the arguments ] Arguments for natures. 


How arguments fhould Hand for natures I do not fee. But the 
licentioufneis of our author forces us often upon far fetched expo- 
iitions. Arguments may mean contents, as the arguments of a book j 
or tor evidences and proofs. JOHNSON. 

/ kneiv it the moft gen'ral ivoy] General is not fpeedy, but 
the way to try many at a time. JOHNSON. 



To them to ufe your figner, and your name ; 
But they do lhake their heads, and I am here 
No richer in return. 

Vim. Is't true ? can't be ? 

Flav. They anfwer, in a joint and corporate voice, 
That now they are at fall, want treafure, cannot 
Do what they would ; are fony you are honour- 

But yet they could have wifh'd they know not 
Something hath been amifs a noble nature 
May catch a wrench would all were well 't\i 


And fo, 8 intending other ferious matters, 
After diftafteful looks, 9 and thefe hard fractions, 
With certain r half-caps, and r cold-moving nods, 
They froze me into filence. 

8 Intending is regarding, turning their notict to other things. 


To intend and to attend had anciently the fame meaning. So 
:n the Spanijh Curate of Beaumont and Fletcher: 

** Good fir, intend this bufinefs." STEEVENS. 
So, vc\Wits, Fits, and Fancies, &c. 1595: 

*' Tell this man that I am going to dinner to my lord inaior, 
and that I can not now intend his tittle-tattle." 
Again, in Pafquil's Night-Cap, a poem, 1623 : 
** For \ve hare many lecret ways to fpend, 
' Which are not fit our hufbands fliould intend" 


9 and tbcfe hard fractions,] An equivocal allufion to tractions 
in decimal arithmetic. So Flavius had, like Littlewit, in Bartho- 
lomew-Fair, a conceit left in bis mifcry. WAR BURTON. 

This is, I think, no conceit in the head of Flavins, rdio, by 
fraftions, means Iroken hints, interrupted fentences, abrupt rein arks* 


1 half-caps, ] A half-cap is a cap (lightly moved, nof 

put off. JOHNSON. 

1 cold-moving nods,] All the editions exhibit thefe as w> 

diftinft adjectives, to the prejudice of the author's meaning ; but 
they muft be joined by a hyphen, and make a compound adjec- 
tive out of a fubftantivc and a particle, and then we have the true 
fenfe of the place ; cold-moving, cold-provoking ; nods fo difcou- 
raging, that they chilled the very ardor of our petition, and froze 
itf into (iknctt THEOBALD. 

Tim . 


ftm. You gods reward them ! 
i pr'ythee, man, look cheerly : Thefe old fellows 
3 Have their ingratitude in them hereditary : 
Their blood is cak'd, 'tis cold, it feldom flows ; 
'Tis lack of kindly warmth, they are not kind ; 
And nature, as it grows again toward earth, 
Is faftiion'd for the journey, dull, and heavy 4 , 
Go to Ventidius, Pr'ythee, be not lad, 
Thou art true, and honeft ; ingennoufly I fpeak, 
No blame belongs to thee : Ventidius lately 
Bury'd his father ; by whole death, he's fteppM 
Into a great eftate : when he was poor, 
Imprifon'd, and in fcarcity of friends, 
I clear'd him with five talents : Greet him from me 
Bid him fuppofe, fome good neccflity 
Touches his friend, which craves to be rememberM 
With thofe five talents : that had, give it thefe 


To whom 'tis infiant due. Ne'er fpeak, or think, 
That Timon's fortunes 'mong his friends can fink. 
FUrj. s 1 would, I could no: think it: ; That 

thought is bounty's foe ; 
Being 6 free itfelf, it thinks ail others fo. [Exeunt, 

3 Have tklr fngfafitatft In tl-en Hereditary :] /AvY./.Vurv, for by 
natural conltitution. But foine diuempers of natural cunititutk'tv 
being called btreditary^ he calls their ingratitude fo, ' 

4 And nature , as it ?ro-\vs again to-ivar<? tart!', 
Is fajbiond for the journey, dull and /jca-vv. - ] 

The fame thought occurs in Tot Wife for a Mct:tb of Beaumont 

and Fletcher : 

" Rejide, the fair frufs ol:l toe t :'( gririvs covetous y 

*' Irbicbjbffvjs all honour is departed ftdin us t 

" jAJ *are are earth again." STEEVEXS. 

. . 

- 'Would I coitMnot: - ] The original edition has, 

I would) I could not think i^ that thought) &c. 
It has been changed, to mend the numbers, without authority., 


* Fffe, ] is liberal, not p.irfimonious. TOHNSOK. 



Lucullus's bovfe in Athens. 
rur//i!nlus waiting* Enter a Servant to him. 

Serv. I have told my lord of yon, he is coming 
down to you. 

Flam. I thank you, fir. 

Enter Lucullus. 

Serv. Here's my lord. 

Li'.cul. \_Afide.~] One of lord Timon's men ? a gift, 
I warrant. Why, this hits right ; I dreamt of a 
fiiver bafon and ewer to-night. Flaminius, honeft 
Flaminius ; you are very rcipedtively 7 welcome, fir. 
Fill me fome wine.- And how does that honour* 
able, complete, free-hearted gentleman of Athens, 
thy very bountiful good lord and matter ? 

Flam. His health is well, fir. 

Lucul. I am right glad that his health is well, fir: 
And what haft thou there under thy cloak, pretty 
Flaminius ? 

Flam. 'Faith, nothing but an empty box, fir ; 
which, in my lord's behalf, I come to entreat your 
honour to fupply ; who, having great and inftant 
occafion to ufe fifty talents, hath fent to your lord- 
Ihip to furnifh him ; nothing doubting your p relent 
afii ftance therein. 

Lticul, La, la, la, la, nothing doubting fays he? 
alas, good lord ! a noble gentleman 'tis, if he 
would not keep fo good a houfe. Many a time and 

-"-:-.-;^refpcft:vely-.iv/Vr/.f( .&c.] i.e. rcfpeftfuily, n\r.K.Jobn t 

1 BeGcb . "::=''>,'''<''..'. 5:'-." STESVF.NS, 



often I ha' din'd with him, and told him on't ; and 
come again to fupper to him, of purpofe to have him 
fpend lefs : and yet he would embrace no counfel, 
take no warning by my coming. Every man has 
his fault, and honefty is his ; I ha' told him on'tj 
but I could never get him from't. 

Re-enter fervant, with wine. 

Serv. Pleafe your lordfhip, here is the wine. 

Lucid. Flaminius, I have noted thee always wife.' 
Here's to thee. 

Flam. Your lordfhip fpeaks your pleafure. 

Lucul. I have obferv'd thee always for a towardly 
prompt fpirit, give thee thy due, and one that 
knows what belongs to reafon ; and canft ufe the 
time well, if the time ufe thee well : good parts in 
thee. Get you gone firrah. [50 the Servant, who 
goes out.~\-~ Draw nearer, honeft Flaminius. Thy 
lord's a bountiful gentleman : but thou art wife ; 
and thou know'ft well enough, although thou 
com'ft to me, that this is no time to lend money ; 
efpecially upon bare friendfhip, without fecurity. 
Here's three folidares ' for thee ; good boy, wink 
at me, and fay, thou faw'ft me not. Fare thee 

Flam. Is't poffible, the world fhould fo much differ ; 
* And we alive, that liv'd ? Fly, damned bafenefs, 
To him that worftiips thee. [Throwing the money away. 

Lucul. Ha ! Now I fee, thou art a fool, and fit for 
thy matter. [Exit Lucullus. 

Flam. May thefe add to the number that may 
fcald thee ! 

1 tlree folidares ] I believe this coin is from the mint of 
the poet. STEEVENS. 

* And we alive, that liv'd f ] i. e. And we who were alive 

then, alive now. As much as to fay, info Jbort a time. 




Let molten coin be thy damnation % 

Thou difeafe of a friend, and not himfelf ! 

Has friendlhip fuch a faint and milky heart, 

4 It turns in lefs than two nights ? O you gods, 

I feel my mailer's paffion ! This flave, 

Unto his honour s , has my lord's meat in him : 

Why Ihould it thrive, and turn to nutriment, 

When he is turn'd to poifon ? 

O, may difeafes only work upon't ! 

And, when he's fkk to death, let not that part of 

6 nature 

Which my lord paid for, be of any power 
To expel ficknefs, but prolong his hour ! [Exit., 


A ptiblick Jireet. 
Enter Lucius, with three Jlrangers. 

Luc. Who, the lord Timon ? he is my very good 
friend, and an honourable gentleman. 

3 Let molten coin le thy damnation,] Perhaps the poet allude* 
to the punifhment infli&ed on M. Aquilius by Mithridates. In 
the Shepherd's Calendar, however, Lazarus declares himfelf to 
have feen in hell " a great number of wide cauldrons and kettles, 
full of boy ling lead and oyle, with other hot metals molten, in the 
which were plunged and dipped the covetous men and women, 
for to fullfill and replenifh them of their infatiate covetife." 

ST F. E v E N s . 

4 It turns in lefs than two nights? ] Alluuing to the turning or 
acefcence of milk. JOHNSON. 

5 Unto his honour ] Thus the old copy. What Flaminius feems 
to mean is, This flave (to the honour of his character) has, &c. 
The modern editors read, unto this hour) which may be right. 


6 of nurture] The common copies read nature. The emenr 
elation is fir T. Hanmer's. JOHNSON. 

Of nature is furely the molt expreffive reading. Flaminius con- 
iiders that nutriment which Lucullu? had for a length of time 
received at Timon's table, as conititu'ang a great part of his ani- 
mal fyftem. STEEVENS. 

i Stran. 


1 Stran. 7 We know him for no lefs, though we 
are but ftrangers to him. But I can tell you one 
thing, my lord, and which I hear from common ru- 
mours, now lord Timon's happy hours are done and 
pad, and his eftate (hrinks from him. 

Luc. Fye, no, do not believe it ; he cannot want 
for money. f 

2 Si ran. But believe you this, my lord, that, not 
long ago, one of his men was with the lord Lucullus, 
to borrow fo many talents 8 ; nay, urg'd extremely 
for't, and fhew'd what neceffity belong'd to't, and 
yet was deny'd. 

Luc. How ? 

2 Stran. I tell you, deny'd, my lord. 

Luc. What a ftrange cafe was that ? now, be r ore 
the gods, I am afliam'd on't. Deny'd that honour- 
able man ? there was very little honour fhew'd in't. 
For my own part, I muft needs confefs, I have re- 
ceiv'd fome fmall kindnefles from him, as money, 
plate, jewels, and fuch like trifles, nothing com- 
paring to his ; 9 yet, had he miitook him, and fent 

i We knew him for no Iff*,] That is, "Me know him by rep ort 
to be no lefs than you reprefent him, though we are ftrangers to hi 
perfon. JOHNSON. 

5 to borrow fo many talents ; ] 'Such is the reading of the 
old copy. The modern editors read arbitrarily, fifty talents. So 
many is not an uncommon colloquial expreffion for an indefinite 
number. The ftranger might not know the exadt fum. 


9 yet bad be miftook him, and fent to me, ] We (hould 


i miflook'd him, 

\. e. overlooked, ne<;le6ted to fend to him. WARBTJRTON. 

I rather read, yet had be not miftook him, and fent to me. 

JoHr SON. 

Mr. Edwards propofes to read, yet bad be miffed him. Lueiui 
has juft declared that he had had fewer prefects trom Timori, 
than Lucullus had received, who therefore ought to have been 
the firft to aflift him. Yer, lays he, had Timon mijlook blm, or 
overlooked that circumftance, and lent to me, I fhouid not have 
denied. &c. STEEVENS. 

Bbi to 


to me, I Ihould ne'er have deny'd his occafion fo 
many talents. 

Enter Servllius. 

Ser. See, by good hap, yonder's my lord ; I have 
fvveat to fee his honour. My honour'd lord, 

[To Lucius. 

Luc. Servilius ! you are kindly met, fir. Fare 
thee well : Commend me to thy honourable-vir- 
tuous lord, my very exquilite friend. 

Scr. May it pleafe your honour, my lord hath 

Luc. Ha ! what hath he fent ? I am fo much en- 
dear'd to that lord ; he's ever fending ; How fhall 
I thank him, think'ft thou ? And what has he fent 
now ? 

Ser. He has only fent his prefent occafion now, 
my lord ; requefting your lordfhip to fupply his in- 
fant ufe with fo many talents '. 

Luc. I know, his lordfhip is but merry with me ; 
He cannot want fifty-five hundred talents. 

Ser. But in the mean time he wants lefs, my lord. 
4 If his occafion were not virtuous, 

* -"-V'ltlfo many talents.'} Such again is the reading with 

which the old copy fupplies us. Probably the exacl: number of 
the talent j waateJwas not exprefsly fet down by Shakefpeare. If 
this was the cafe, the player who reprefented the character fpoke 
of the firft number that was uppermoft in his mind ; and the 
printer, who copied from the playhoufe books, put down an in- 
definite for the definite lum, which remained unfpecified. The 
modern editors read again in this inftance, fffy talents. Perhap* 
the fervant brought a note with him which he tender'd to Lu- 
cullus. STEEVENS. 

1 If his occafion were not virtuous,] Virtuous ^ for'ftrong, forc- 
ible,, prefling. WAREVRTOV. 

The meaning may more naturally be ; If he did not want it 
far a good ufe. J o H .\ s o v . 

Dr Johnfon's explication is certainly right We had before : 

'* Some good nccejf.ty touches his friend." MALONE. 

8 I Ihould 


I fliould not urge it * half fo faithfully. 

Luc. Doft thou fpeak ferioufly, Servilius ? 

Set: Upon my foul, 'tis true, fir. 

Luc. What a wicked bead was I, to disfurnifh 
myfelf againft fuch a good time, when I might 
have ihewn myfelf honourable ? how unluckily it 
happen'd, 4 that I fhould purchafe the day before 
for a little part, and undo a great deal of honour ? 
Servilius, now before the gods, I am not able to 
do't; the more beaft, I fay : I was fending to ufe 
lord Timon myfelf, thefe gentlemen can witnefs; 
but I would not, for the wealth of Athens, I had now. Commend me bountifully to his good 
lordfhip ; and, I hope, his honour will conceive 
the faireft of me, becaufe I have no power to be 
kind : And tell him this from me, I count it one 
of my greateft afflictions, fay, that I cannot plea- 
fure fuch an honourable gentleman. Good Servilius, 
will you befriend me fo far, as to ufe my own words 
to him ? 

3 lalffo faithfully.] Faithfully, for fervently* Therefore, 
without more ado, the Oxford editor alters the text to fcrvcntl\. 
But he might have feen, that Shakefpeare ufed faithfully for fer- 
vently, as in the former part of the fentence he had ufed vir- 
tuous for forcible. WARBURTON. 

* that I Jhould purchafe the (fay before for a little p^rt, and 

undo a great deal of honour ? ] Though there is a feeming plau- 
lible antithefis in the terms, I am very well aflured they are cor- 
rupt at the bottom. For a little part of what ? Honour is the only 
fubitantive that follows in the fentence. How much is the an- 
tithefis improved by the fenfe which my emendation gives ? 
" That I fliould purchafe for a little <//;/, and undo a great cLal 
of honour!" THEOBALD. 

This emendation is received, like all others, by fir T. Han- 
mer, but neglected by Dr. Warburton. I think Theobald right 
in fufpecling a corruption ; nor is his emendation injudicious, 
though perhaps we may better read, purchafe the day before for a 
little park. JOHNSON. 

I am fatisfied with the old reading, which is fufficiently in our 
author's manner. By purchafing what brought me but little ho- 
nour, I have loft the more honourable opportunity ot uinplying 
the wants of my friend. STEEVENS. 

B b 3 Ser. 


Ser. Yes, fir, I fhall. 

Luc. I'll look you out a good turn, Servilius.-- 

[Exit Servilius. 

True, as you faid, Timon is fhrunk, indeed ; 
And he, that's once deny'd, will hardly fpeed. 


1 Stran. Do you obferve this, Hoftilius > 

2 Stran. Ay, too well. 

i Stran. Why, this is the world's fport ; 
And juft of the fame piece is every 5 flatterer's foul. 
Who can call him his friend, 
That dips in the fame dilh ? for, in my knowing, 
Timon has been this lord's father, 
And kept his credit with his purfe ; 
Supported his eihte ; nay, Timon's money 
Has paid his men their wages : He ne'er drinks, 
But Timon's filver treads upon his lip; 
And yet, (O, fee the monftn ufnefs of man, 
When he looks out in an ungrateful lhape !) 
He does deny him, 6 in refpecft of his, 
What charitable men afford to beggars. 

s m-Jlattercr* s fpirit.] This is Dr. Warburton's emendation. 
The other editions read, 

Why ibis is the world's foul ; 
Of the f'i','1, piece is every flatterer's fport. 

Mr. Upton has not unluckily tranfpofed the two final words, thus : 
WLy> this is the world's fport : 
Of the fame pi fee is erf ry flatterer's foul. 

The paifrge is not fo obfcure as to provoke fo much enquiry. 
77 .'.f, fays he. is the foul or fpirit of the world: every flatterer 
plays the fame game, makes fport with the confidence of his 
friend. JOHNSON." 

I have adopted Upton's tranfpofition rather than Ur. Warbur- 
ton's alteration. STEEVENS. 

6 in refpetl of his, ] i.e. confidering Timon's claim for what 
he afks. WAR BUB TON. 

* - in rfffefl of his,~\ That is, in rcfbcft of his fortune, what Lu- 
cius denies to Timon is in proportion to what Lucius poflelfes, 
lefs than the ufual alms given by good men to beggars. 


3 Stran. 


3 Stran. Religion groans at it. 

i Stran, For mine own part, 
I never tafted Timon in my life, 
Nor came any of his bounties over me, 
To mark me for his friend ; yet, I protefr, 
For his right noble mind, illuflrious virtue, 
And honourable carriage, 
Had his neceffity made ufe of me, 
7 I would have put my wealth into donation % 
And the beft half Ihould have returned to him, 
So much I love his heart : But, I perceive, 
Men mud learn now with pity to difpenfe ; 
For policy fits above confcience. [Exeunt. 

7 I would have put my ivealf/j into donation, 

And the left half Jbould have return 'd to bim^\ 
Hanmer reads, 

I would have put myiveahb into partition, 

And the left half Jbould have attorn 'd to him. 

Dr. Warburton receives attorn* J. The only difficulty is in the 
word returned, which, fince he had received nothing from him, 
cannot be ufed but in a very low and licentious meaning. 


8 Had bis neceffity made ufe of me, I would ban>e put my fortune 
into a condition to be alienated^ and the bejl balfofivbat I bad gained 
niyfelf) or received from others^ Jbould /.'-awe found its ivay to him, 
Hither fuch licentious expofition muft be allowed, or the paflage 
remain in obfcurity, as fome readers may not chufe to receive 
Hanmer's emendation. 

There is, however, fuch a word as attorned. See Holinfhed's 

Reign of K. Richard II. p. 481 : " they plainly told him 

they would not atturne to him, nor be under his juriidiction, &c." 
The following lines in Hamlet, aft II. fc. ii. perfuade me that 
my explanation of put my wealth into donation is very doubt- 
ful : 

*' Put your dread pleafures more into command 

" Than to entreaty." 
Again, in Cymbeliue^ act III. fc. iv : 

" And mad'lt me put into contempt the fuits 

" Of princely fellows, &c." 

Perhaps the ftnmger means to fay, I would have treated my wealth 
as a prefent originally received "trom him, and on this ojcaiion 
have return'd him the half of that whole for v hich I fuppjfed my- 
fclf to be indebted to his bounty. STEEVEXS. 

B b 4 SCENE 



Sempronius's Houfe. 
Enter Sempronlus, with a Servant of Timorfs. 

Sem. Muft he needs trouble me in't ? Hum ! 'Bove 

all others ? 

He might have try'd lord Lucius,, or Lucullus ; 
And now Ventidius is wealthy too, 
Whom he redeem'd from prifon : All thefe 
Owe their eftates unto him. 

Serv. My lord, 
9 They have all been touch'd, and found bafe me-. 

tal; for 
They have all deny'd him ? 

Sem. How ! have they deny'd him ? 
Has Ventidius and Lucullus deny'd him ? 
And does he fend to me ? Three ? hum ! 
It (hews but little love or judgment in him. 
Muft I be his laft refuge ? ' His friends, like phy- 


Thrive, give him over ; Muft I take the cure upon 
me ? 


9 They have all leen touch'd, ] That is, tried, alluding to th? 
tonc/i/lone. JOHNSOX. 

1 bis friends like phyjlciam 

Thriv'd, give him over?~\ 

I have reflored this old reading, only amending the pointing, 
which was faulty. Mr. Pope, lufpecling the phrafe, has fubfti- 
tuted three in the room of thrived, and fo difarmed the poet's fa- 
tire. Phyficians thrived is no more than phyficians grown rich : 
Only the adjective paffive of this verb, indeed, is not fo common 
in u-!e; and yet it is a familiar expreffion, to this day, to fay, Such 
(i one is well thriven on his trade. THEOBALD. 
The original reading is, 

his friends, (Uke 

Thrive, give him O-T 
which Theobald has mifreprefented. Hanmer reads, /ryV, plau 
fibly enough. Inftead of three propofed by Mr. Pope, I fliould 
jrcad thrice. But perhaps the old reading is the true. JOHNSON. 



He has much difgrac'd me in't; I am angry at him, 

That might have known my place : I fee no fenfe for't, 

But his occafions might have woo'd me firft ; 

For, in my confcience, I was the firfl man 

That e'er receiv'd gift from him : 

And does he think fo backwardly of me now, 

That I'll requite it laft ? No : 

So it may prove an argument of laughter 

To the reft, and I 'mongft lords be thought a fool. 

I had rather than the worth of thrice the fum, 
He had fent to me firfl, but for my mind's fake ; 

I 1 had fuch a courage to do him good. But now 


And with their faint reply this anfwer join ; 
Who bates mine honour, lhall not know my coin. 

Serv. Excellent ! a Your lordfhip's a goodly vil- 

Perhaps we fliould read Jhriv'd. They give him over firin?d ; 
that is, prepared for immediate death by JJjrift. TYRWHITT. 

Perhaps the following paflage in Webfter's Dutcbefs of Maljy is 
the beft comment after all : 

" Phyficians thus 

*' With their hands full of money, ufe to give o'er 
" Their patients." 

The paflage will then mean : " His friends, like phyficians, 
thrive by his bounty and fees, and either relinquifi, and forfake 
him, or give his cafe up as defperate." To give over in the Tam- 
ing of the Shrew has no reference to the irremediable condition of a 
patient, but limply means to leave, to forfake, to quit : 
" And therefore let me be thus bold with you 
'* To give you over at this firft encounter, 
" Unlefs you will accompany me thither." STEEVENS. 
1 / had fuch a courage ] Such an ardour, fuch an eager defire. 


a Excellent, &c.] I fuppofe the former part of this fpeech to 
have been originally written in verfe, as well as the latter ; though 
the players having printed it as profe (omitting feveral fyl- 
lables neceflary to the metre) it cannot now be reftored without 
fuch additions as no editor is at liberty to infert in the text. 




lain. J The devil knew not what he did, when he 
made man politick ; he crofs'd himfelf by't : and I 
cannot think, but, in the end, the villainies of man 4 
will fet him clear. How fairly this lord ftrives to ap- 
pear foul ? 5 takes virtuous copies to be wicked ; 

3 77v devil knew not what be d':d, ~] I cannot but think 

that the negative not has intruded into this paflage, and the reader 
will think Ib too, when he reads Dr. Warburton's explanation of 
the next words. JOHNSON. 

* 'Mill fet him clear. ] Set him clear does not mean acquit 

liim befo/e heaven ; for then the devil muft be fuppofed to know 
what he did : but it fignifies puzzle him, outdo ham at his own 
weapons. WAR BURTON. 

How the devil, or any other being, fhould be fit dear by be- 
ing puzzled and outdone, the commentator has not explained. 
When in a crowd we would have an opening made, we fay, Starul 
clear, that is, out of the ivay of danger. With fome affinity to this 
life, though not without great harfhnefs, to fit clear, may be to 
fet afiJe. But I believe the original corruption is the infertion or" 
the negative, which was obtruded by fome tranfcriber, who fup- 
pofed crojjed to mean thwarted, when it meant, exempted from evil. 
The ufe of crojjitig, by way of protection or purification, was pro- 
bably not worn out in Shakefpeare's time. The fenfe of fet clear 
is now eafy ; he has no longer the guilt of tempting man. To 
crofs himfelf may mean, in a very familiar fenfe, to dear hisfeore, 
to get out of chit, to quit his reckoning. He knew not -what he diJ, 
may mean, he knew not how much good he was doing himfelf. 
There is then no need of emendation. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Dr. Warburton's explanation is the true one. Clear 1$ 
an adverb, or fo u.ed ; and Dr. Johnibn's Dictionary obferves that 
to fet means, in Addiion, to embarrafs, to diftrefs, to perplex.- 
If then the devil made men politic, he has thwarted his own inte- 
reft, becaufe the fuperior cunning of man will at lai\ puzzle him, 
or be above the reach of his temptations. TOLLET. 

5 takes virtuous copies to be wicked \ like thofe &c.] This is a 
reflection on the puritans of that time. Thefe people were then 
fet upon a project of new modelling the ecclefiaitical and civil go- 
vernment according to fcripture ruies and examples ; which makes 
him fay, that under zcat for the word of God, they wotuJJetwMt 
realms on fire. So Sempronius pretended to that warm affection 
and generous jealoufy of friendfliip, that is affronted, if any other 
be applied to before it. At belt the fimilirude is an auk'.vard 
one : but it fitted the audience^ though not shzfpeaker. 




like tbofe thr, under hot ardent zeal, would fet 

whole realms on fire 

Of fuch a natare is his politick love. 

This was my lord's bcft hope ; now a'l are fled, 

Save only the gods : No : .v his friends are dend, 

Doors, that were ne'er acquainted with their wards 

Many a bounteous year, mutt be employ'd 

Now to guard fure their matter. 

And this is a',1 a liberal courfe allows; 

Who cannot keep his wealth, muft 6 keep his houfe. 


Timotfs hall. 

Enter Varro, 'fit us, Hortenfius, ''Lucius, and other fer- 
vantsoflimon's creditors, who wait for his coming out. 

Var. Well met; good morrow, Titus, andJHor- 

Tit. The like to you, kind Varro. 

Hor. Lucius ? 
What, do we meet together ? 

IMC. Ay, and, I think, 
One bufinefs does command us all ; for mine 
Is money. 

Tit. So is theirs, and ours. 

Enter Phllotus. 

Luc. And fir Philotus too ! 
Phi. Good day at once. 

6 keep bh bovfe.] i.e. keeg within doors for fear of duns. 


7 - Luc /?,.] Lucius is here again for the fervant of Lu- 
cius. JOHNSON. 



Luc. Welcome, good brother. What do you think 
the hour ? 

Phi. Labouring for nine. 

Luc. So much ? 

Phi. Is not my lord feen yet ? 

Luc. Not yet. 

PH. I wonder on't; he was wont to fhine at fcvcn. 

Luc. Ay, but the days are waxed fhorter with him : 
You mult confider, that * a prodigal's courfe 
Is like the fun's ; but not, like his, recoverable. 
I fear, 

> Pis deepeft winter in lord Timon's purfe; 
That is, one may reach deep enough, and yet 
Find little. 

Phi. I am of your fear for that. 

Tit. I'll fhew you how to obferve a ftrange event. 
Your lord fends now for money. 

Hor. Moft true, he does. 

7//. And he wears jewels now of Timon's gift, 
For which I wait for money. 

Hor. It is againft my heart. 

Luc. Mark, how flrange it Ihows, 
Timon in this ihould pay more than he owes : 
And e'en as if your lord mould wear rich jewels, 
And fend for money for 'em. 

Hor. 9 1 am weary of this charge, the gods can 

witnefs : 

I know, my lord hath fpent of Timon's wealth, 
And now ingratitude makes it worfe than Health. 

Tar. Yes, mine's three thqufand crowns : What's 
yours ? 

Luc. Five thoufand mine, 

8 a prodigal's ccurfe 

L like tic fun* 3 ; . ] 

That is, like him in blaze and fplendour. 

" Soles eccitiere et redlre poflunt" Cntul. JOHNSON'. 
9 I am weary of this charge ^ ] That is, of this ccmmijjioH t 

of this employment. JOHNSON. 



Var. Tis much deep : and it fhould feetn by the 


Your matter's confidence was above mine ; 
1 Elfe, furely, his had equall'd. 

Enter Flamlnius. 

fit. One of lord Timon's men. 

Luc. Flaminius ! fir, a word : Pray, is my lord 
Ready to come forth ?. 

Flam. No, indeed, he is not. 

Tit. We attend his lordfhip ; pray, fignify fo much. 

Flam. I need not tell him that ; he knows, you 
are too diligent. [Exit Flaminius. 

Enter Flavius in a cloak, miffled. 

Luc. Ha ! is not that his fteward muffled fo ? 
He goes away in a cloud : call him, call him. 
Tit. Do you hear, fir ? 

Var. By your leave, fir, 

Flav. What do you alk of me, my friend ? 
Tit. We wait for certain money here, fir. 

' Elfe,furcly, bis bad equal? d.] Should it not be, /fe, /#/?/>, 
mine bad equali d. JOHNSON. 

The meaning, I think is : The confidence repofed in your 
matter was greater than that repofed in mine, elfe, furely, the 
fum demanded from him, i. e. from your mailer, would have been 
equal to that demanded from mine : which equality would have 
been produced by the demand on my mailer being raifed from three 
thoufand crowns to five thoufand. 

A large fum may be equalized to a fmall one as well by addi- 
tion to the'fmaller, as by fubitradion from the greater. The 
words mean the fame as if Varro's fen-ant had faid : elfe furely the 
t-wo demands bad been equal, 

The paflage however may be explained thus His may refer to 
mine ; as if he had faid : Your matter's confidence was above my 
maficr'i ; elfe furely bl^ \. e. the fum demanded from my matter 
<for that is the laft antecedent) had been equal to the film demand- 
ed from yours. MAIONE. 



Flav. Ay, if money were as certain as your wait- 

'Twere fure enough. 

Why then preferr'd you not your fums and bills, 
"When your falfe matters eat of my lord's meat ? 
Then they would fmile, and fawn upon his debts, 
And take down the intereft in their gluttonous maws ; 
You do yourfelves but wrong, to ftir me up ; 
Let me pafs quietly : 

Believe't, my lord and I have made an end ; 
I have no more to reckon, he to fpend. 

Luc. Ay, but this anfwer will not ferve. 

Flav. If 'twill not ferve, 'tis not fo bafe as you ; 
For you ferve knaves. [Exit* 

Var. How ! what does his caftrier'd worihip mutter? 

Tit. No matter what ; he's poor, 
And that's revenge enough. Who can fpeak broader 
Than he that has no houfe to put his head in ? 
Such may rail 'gainft great buildings. 

- Enter Servilius. 

Tit. O, here's Servilius ; now we fliall know 
Some anfwer. 

Serv. If I might befeech you, gentlemen, 
To repair fome other hour, I fliould 
Derive much from it : for, take it on my foul, 
My lord leans wond'rouily to difcontent : 
His comfortable temper has forfook him ; 
He is much out of health, and keeps his chamber. 

Luc. Many do keep their chambers, are not fick : 
And, if he be fo far beyond his health, 
Methinks, he fhould the fooner pay his debts, 
And make ; a clear way to the gods. 

Ser. Good gods ! 

* Enter Scrvillus.'} It may be obferved that Shakefpeare hasun- 
ikilfully filled his Greek ftory with Roman names. JOHNSON. 



Tit. We cannot take this for anfwer, fir. 
Flam. \W"ithin.~\ Servilius, help ! my lord ! my 
lord! ' 

Enter Timon, In a rage. 

Vim. What, are my doors oppos'd againft my paf- 

fage ? 

Have I been ever free, and muft my houfe 
Be my retentive enemy, my jail ? 
The place, which I have feafted, does it now, 
Like all mankind, Ihew me an iron heart ? 

Luc. Put in now, Titus. 

Tit. My lord, here is my bill 

Luc. Here's mine. 

Var. And mine, my lord. 

Caph. And ours, my lord. 

Phi. All our bills. 

Tim. Knock me down with 'em J , cleave me to the 

Luc. Alas ! my lord, 

Tim. Cut my heart in fums. 

Tit. Mine, fifty talents. 

Tun. Tell out my blood. 

Lite. Five thoufand crowns, my lord. 

'Tim. Five thoufand drops pays that. 
What yours ? and yours ? 

3 Knock me down -^ItJj 'tm : ] Timon quibbles. Theypre- 

fent their written bills ; he catches at the word, and alludes to the 
tills, or battle-axes, which the ancient foldiery carried, and were 
ftill ufed by the watch in Shakefpeare's time. See the fcene be- 
tween Dogberry &c. in Much ado about Nothing ; and Heywood's 
Fair Maid of tie Weft, 16:5: 

*' write them a lill. 

" I'll watch them for that, 'tis no time of night to ufe our bilk" 

Again, in Heywood's If you know not Me you know Noboefy t 
1 63 3, fecond Pan, fir John Grefham fays to his creditors: " Friends, 
you cannot beat me down with your bills" Again, in Deckar's 
Giih Hornbook, 1609: * they durltnot^/7/krffcw* their cuf- 
tomers witfc large bilh" STEEVENS. 

i Par, 


1 Far. My lord, 

2 Far. My lord, 

2". Tear me, take me, and the gods fall upon you ! 


Hor. Taith, I perceive, our matters may throw 
their caps at their money ; thefe debts may be well 
called defperate ones, for a madman owes 'em. 


Re-enter Timon^ and Flavins. 

Tim* They have e'en put my breath from me, the 

Haves : 
Creditors ! devils. 

Flav. My dear lord, 

'Tim. What if it fhould be fo ? 

Flav. My lord, 

3'im. I'll have it fo : My fleward ! 

Flav. Here, my lord. 

T'im. So fitly ? Go, bid all my friends again, 
Lucius, Lucullus, and Sempronius*, all; 
I'll once more feaft the rafcals. 

Flav. O my lord, 

You only fpeak from your diffracted foul ; 
There is not fo much left, to furnilh out 
A moderate table. 

2Vw. Be it not in thy care ; go, 
I charge thee, invite them all : let in the tide 
Of knaves once more ; my cook and I'll provide. 


* Lucius, Lucullus, &c.] The old copy reads : Lucius, Lucul* 
/w, and Semproniui Fllorxa ; all. StEEVENS. 




?he Senate-Jo oufe. 
Senators, and Alcibiades. 

i Sen. My lord, you have my voice to't; the 

fault's bloody ; 
"Tis neceflary, he fhould die : 
Nothing emboldens fin fo much as mercy. 

2, Sen. Moft true ; the law lhall bruife 'em. 

Ale. Honour, health, and companion to the fenate J 

i Sen. Now, captain ? 

Ale. I am an humble fuitor to your virtues; 
For pity is the virtue of the law, 
And none but tyrants ufe it cruelly. 
It pleafes time, and fortune, to lie heavy 
Upon a friend of mine, who, in hot blood, 
Hath ftept into the law, which is part depth 
To thofe that, without heed, do plunge into it. 
5 He is a man, 6 fetting his fate afide, 
Of comely virtues : 

Nor did he foil the fact with cowardife ; 
(An honour in him, which buys out his fault) 
But, with a noble fury, and fair fpirit, 
Seeing his reputation touch'd to death, 

5 He is a man, &c.] I have printed thefe*lines after the original 
copy, except that, for an honour, it is there, and honour. All the 
latter editions deviate unwarrantably from the original, and give 
the lines thus : 

He is a man, fetting his fault ajicle, 

Of virtuous honour, which buys out his fault j 

Nor did he foil, Si c . JOHNSON. 

6 fitting hisfaah ajti'f,'} 

\Vc muft read : 

this/*//. WARBURTON. 

The reading of the old copy is, -fetting his fate afidf, i. e. put- 
ting this acYion of his, which was pre-detennined by fate, out of 
the queilion. STEEVENS. 

VOL. VIII. C c He 


He did oppofe his foe : 
And with fuch fober 7 and unnoted paffion 
8 He did behave his anger, ere 'twas fpent, 
As if he had but prov'd an argument. 

i Sen. 9 You undergo too ftridt a paradox, 
Striving to make an ugly deed look fair : 
Yourwords have took fuch pains, as if they laboured 
To bring man-flaughter into form, and fet quarrelling. 
Upon the head of valour ; which, indeed, 
Is valour mifbegot, and came into the world 
When fedts and factions were newly born : 

7 and unnoted pa//ion} Unnoted, for common, bounded. 


8 He did behave his anger, ] Behave, for curb, manage. 

But the Oxford editor equips the old poet with a more modern 
phrafe : 

He did behave in's anger, 
A paltry dipt jargon of modern fops, for behave himfelf. 


The original copy reads not behave but behoove. I do not well 
underfhmd the pallage in either reading. Shall we try a daring, 
conjecture ? 

iviffj fuch fiber and unnoted paffion 

He did behold his adverfary (hent, 

As if he had but prov'd an argument, 

He looked with fuch calmnefs on his (lain adv'erftry. I do not 
fuppofe that this is right, but put it down, for want of better. 


Cunffa prius tenianda. 
I would rather read : 

and unnoted pajfion 

He did behave, ere ivas his angtr fpent. 

Unnoted paffiaa. means, I believe, an uncommon command of hi 
paffion, fuch a one as has not hitherto been obferved. Behave bis 
linger may, however, be right. In fir W. Darenant's play of the- 
the Jujl Italian, 1630, behave is ufeJ in as fingulara mauuer : 

** How well my liars behave their influenced* 
Again : 

" You an Italian, fir, and thus 

" Behave the knowledge of difgrace !" 
In both thefe inftances, to behave is to manage- STEEVENS. 

9 Ton undergo tov Jlrift a paradox,} You undertake a paradox 
too hard. JOHNSON. 



He's truly valiant, that can wifely fufTer 

The worft that man can breathe ; ' and make his 

His outfides ; to wear them like his raiment, care- 


And ne'er prefer his injuries to his heart, 
To bring it into danger. 
If wrongs be evils, and enforce us kill, 
What folly 'tis, to hazard life for ill ? 

Ale. My lord, 

i Sen. You cannot make grofs fins look clear; 
To revenge is no valour, but to bear. 

Ak. My lords, then, under favour, pardon me, 
If I fpeak like a captain. 
Why do fond men expofe themfelves to battle, 
And not endure all threats ? fleep upon it, 
And let the foes quietly cut their throats, 
Without repugnancy ? If there be 
Such valour in the bearing, 2 what make we 
Abroad ? why then, women are more valiant, 
That flay at home, if bearing carry it ; 
* The afs, more captain than the lion ; and the fel- 


1 - and made "kh wrongs 

His outfides ; wear them like bis raiment carelejly ;] 
It fhould be read and pointed thus : 

'" and make his wrongs 
His ontfide wear ; bang like bis raiment, carelcftly. 

The prefent reading is better. JOHNSON. 

x what make ive 

Abroad? ] 

What do we, or what have we to Jo in the f eld. JOHNSON. 

3 The afs, more than tlx lion ; &c.] Here is another arbitrary 
regulation, the original reads thus : 

what make we 

Abroad? wJjy then, women are more valiant 

*Jbat Jlay at home, if I ear ing carry it : 

And tic afi mart captain than the lion, 

'7 be fellow, loaden witb irons, wifer :Lan ike ittdge t 

Ifwifdom 5cc. 

C c z I think 


Loaden with irons, wifer than the judge, 

If wifdom be in fuffering. O my lords, 

As you are great, be pitifully good : 

Who cannot condemn rafhnefs in cold blood ? 

To kill, I grant, is 4 fin's extreamell guft ; 

But, in defence, 5 by mercy, 'tis moftjuft. 

To be in anger, is impiety ; 

But who is man, that is not angry ? 

Weigh but the crime with this. 

2, Sen. You breathe in vain. 

Ale. In vain ? his fervice done 

I think it may be better adjufted thus : 
ivhat make \ve 

Abroad f ivhy then the women are more valiant 
Jliatjfay at home ; 
If bearing carry //, then is the ajs 
More captain than the lion, and the felon 
Leaden with irons i^'lfer, &c. JOHNSON. 

As the words more captain than the lion are found in the old 
copy, on what principle can they be changed, however harfh the 
phrafe may found to our ears ? That it was the author's, ap- 
pears, I think, not only from the introduction to this fpeech of 

Alcibiades : 

" My lord, then under favour pardon me 

" If I fpeak like a captain :"- 

but from Shakelpeare's 66th Sonnet, where the word captain it 
ufed with at lea (I as much bafffihefi as in the text : 
** And captive good attending captain ill." 
Again, in another of his Sonnets : 

** Like ftones of worth they thinly placed are 
" Or captain jewels in the curkanet." MALONE. 
**-~JtfitJrtreaa*$gfl\\ Gujl^ for aggravation. 


Guft is here in its common fenfe; the utmoft degree of appetite 
for fin. JOHNSON. 

I believe guft means rajhnffs. The allufion may be to a fuddep 
guft cf <avW. STF.EVENS. 

5 ly mercy, 'tis moft juji,] By mercy is meant equity. But 

we mult read : 

'tis madejuft. WAR EUR TON. 

Mercy is not put tor equity. If fuch explanation be allowed, 
what can be difficult f The meaning is, / call mere}' bcrfilfto wit^ 
nefs, that defentive violence is juft. " JOHNSON. 



At Lacedasmon, and Byzantium, 
Were a fufficient briber for his life. 

1 Sen. What's that ? 

Ak. Why, I fay, my lords, he has done fair fer- 


And flain in fight many of your enemies : 
How full of valour did he bear himfelf 
In the laft conflict, and made plenteous wounds ? 

2 Sen. He has made too much plenty 6 with 'em; he 
7 Is a fworn rioter : he has a fin 

That often drowns him, and rakes his valour prifoner: 

If there were no foes, that were enough 

To overcome him : in that beaftly fury 

He has been known to commit outrages, 

And cherifh factions : 'Tis inferr'd to us, 

His days are foul, and his drink dangerous. 

i Sen. He dies. 

Ale. Hard fate ! he might have died in war. 
My lords, if not for any parts in him, 
(Though his right arm might purchafe his own time, 
And be in debt to none) yet, more to move you, 
Take my deferts to his, and join 'em both : 
And, for I know, 8 your reverend ages love 
Security, I'll pawn my victories, all 
My honours to you, upon his good returns. 
If by this crime he owes the law his life, 
Why, let the war receive't in valiant gore ; 

* ivitb'em', ] The folio, <iu//him. JOHNSON. 

7 He's a fworn rioter ; be has a Jin 

That often drowns him, and takes valour prifoner.} 
What is a/'.w rioter? We fhould read : 

He's a fwol'n rioter, 

that is, given to all excefles, as he fays of another, in another 
place, fo furfeit-fajoln or fwell'd. WAR BURTON-. 

A fworn rioter is a man who pra&ilcs riot, as if he had by an 
oath made it his duty. JOHNSON. 
* your reverend ages love 

Security, - ] 
He charges them obliquely with being ufurers. JOHNSON. 

C c 2 For 


For law is ftrict, and war is nothing more. 

1 Sen. We are for law, . he dies ; urge it no more, 
On height of our difpleafure : Friend, or brother, 
He forfeits his own blood, that fpills another. 

Ak. Mufl it be fo ? it mult not be. My lords, 
I do befeech you, know me. 

2 Sen. How ? 

Ale. Call me to your remembrances. 

&. What? 

Ak. I cannot think, but your age has forgot me ; 
It could not elfe be, 9 1 fhould prove fo bafe, 
To fue, and be deny'd fuch common grace : 
My wounds ake at you. 

i Sen. 1 Do you dare our anger ? 
'Tis in few words, but fpacious in effedt; 
We banifh thee for ever. 

Ale. Banifh me ? 

Banifh your dotage ; banilh ufury, 
That makes the fenate ugly. 

i Sen. If, after tOvo days' fliine, Athens contain 


Attend our weightier judgment. 
* And, not to fwell our fpirit, 


9 1 ' fiould prove fo lafe,] Eafc^ for diflionour'd. 

1 Do you (fare our anger f 

'TV.) in fcvj words, but Jpacious in cffefl ;] 
This reading may pafs, but perhaps the author wrote : 
- our anger ? 

*-Tisfe-iv in ivords^ lut fpacious ineffcft. JOHNSON. 
* And (not tofwell our^>;V//)] What this nonfenfe was intend- 
ed to mean I don't know, but it is plain Shakelpeare wrote : 

And now to (well your fpirit : 
i. e. to provoke you Hill more. WAR BUR TON. 

Not to /'well our fpirit) I believe, means, not to put ourf elves intt 
any tumour of rage, take our definitive refolution. So. in K. Htn. 
VIII. ad III. fc. i : 

The hearts of princes kifs obedience, 



He fliall be executed prefently. [Exeunt Senate. 

Ale, Now the gods keep you old enough ; that 

you may live 

Only in bone, that none may look on yon ! 
I am xvorfe than mad : I have kept back their foes, 
While they have told their money, and let out 
Their coin upon large intereft ; I myfelf, 
Rich only in large hurts, All thofe, for this ? 
Is this the balfant, that the ufuring fenate 
Pours into captains' wounds ? Ha ! banifhment ? 
It comes not ill ; I hate not to be baniih'd ; 
It is a caufe worthy my fpleen and fury, 
That I may ftrike at Athens. I'll cheer up 
iMy difcontented troops, J and lay for hearts. 

So much they love it ; but, to ftubborn fpirits, 
Theyjkvell and grow as terrible as ftorms. 

s In former copies : 

i And lay for hearts, 
'57.$ honour with mo/i lands to Ic at odds ; 

But furely, even in a foldicr's fenfe of honour, there is very little 
in being at odds with all about him ; which (hews rather a quar- 
relfome difpoiition than a valiant one. Befides, this \v:is not Al- 
cibiades's cafe. He was only fallen out with the Athenians. A 
phrafe in the foregoing line will direct U9 to the right reading. E 
will lay, fays he, for hearts ; which is a metaphor taken from card- 
play, and fignifies to game deep and boldly. It is plain then the 
figure was continued in the following line, which fhould be read 
thus : 

'Th bvnour tultb mojl hands to If at odd* ; 

i. e. to fight upon odds, or at difadvantage; as he mult do againft 
the united ftrength of Athens : and this, byfoldiers, is accounted 
honourable. Shakefpeare ufes the fame metaphor on the fame oc- 
calion, in Coriolanus: 

" He lurched all fwords/' WARBURTON. 
I think haruh is very properly fubliituted for lands. In the 
foregoing line, tor, lay for hearts, I would read, play for hearts. 


I do not conceive that to Jay for hearts is a metaphor taken torn 

card-play, or that .lay (hould be changed into play. We fhould 

now fay to lay out for hearts, i. e. the affections of the people ; 

C c 4 but 


'Tis honour, with moft lands to be at odds ; 
Soldiers as little fhould brook wrongs, as gods. 



limotfs houfe. 
Enter divers Senators at fever al doors. 

1 Sen. The good time of day to you, fir. 

2 Sen. I alfo wilh it to you. I think, this honour- 
able lord did but try us this other day. 

1 Sen. 4 Upon that were my thoughts tiring, when 
we encounter'd : I hope, it is not fo low with him, 
as he made it feem in the trial of his fevcral friends. 

2 Sen. It Ihould not be, by the periuafion of his 
new feafting. 

1 Sen. I Ihould think fo : He hath fcnt me an car- 
neft inviting, which many my near occafions did urge 
me to put off; but he hath conjur'd me beyond 
them, and I muft needs appear. 

2 Sen. In like manner was I in debt to my impor- 
tunate biiufids, but he would not hear my excufc. 
I am forry, when he fent to borrow of me, that my 
provifion was out. 

i Sen* I am fick of that grief too, 'as I undcrftand 
how all things go. 

but lay is ufed fingly, as it is here, bv Jonfon, in Toe " is an 
jt/}, vol. IV. p. 33 : 

" Lay ior feme pretty principality." TYRV.HITT. 

4 Upon that were my thoughts tiring, ] A hawk, i think, is 

faid to tire, when fhe amufes herfelf with pecking a pheafant's 
wing, or any thing that puts her in mind of prey. To tire upon 
a thing, is therefore, to be idly employed upon it. JOHNSON. 
Sp, in Decker's Match me in London, 163 i : 

*' the vulture tires 

*' Upon the eagle's heart." STEEVEXS. 

i Sen. 


2, Sen. Every man here's fo. What would he have 
borrow'd of you ? 

1 Sen. A thoufand pieces. 

2 Sen. A thoufand pieces ! 
i Sen. What of you ? 

3 Sen. He fent to me, fir, Here he comes. 

Enter Tlmon, and Attendants. 

Tim. With all my heart, gentlemen both : And 
how fare you ? 

1 Sen. Ever at the beft, hearing well of your lord- 

2 Sen. The fwallow follows not fummer more wil- 
lingly, than we your lordihip. 

Tim. \_Ajide.~] Nor more willingly leaves winter ; 
fuch fummer-birds are men. Gentlemen, our dinner 
will not recompenfe this long flay : feaft your ears 
with the mufick awhile ; if they will fare fo harihly 
as on the trumpet's found : we mall to't prefently. 

1 Sen. I hope, it remains not unkindly with your 
lordfhip, that I return'd you an empty meffenger. 

Tim. O, fir, let it not trouble you. 

2 Sen. My noble lord, 

Tim* Ah, my good friend ! what cheer ? 

[The banquet brought in. 

z Sen. My mofl honourable lord, I ame'enfickof 
fhame, that, when your lordihip this other day fent 
to me, I was fo unfortunate a beggar. 

Tim. Think not on't, fir. 

2 Sen. If you had fent but two hours before, 

Tim. Let it not cumber your better remembrance. 
Come, bring in all together. 

2 Sen. All cover'd dimes ! 

i Sen. Royal cheer, I warrant you. 

3 Sen. Doubt not. that, if money, andthefeafon can 
yield it. 

i Sen. How do you ? What's the news ? 

6 3 Sen. 


3 Sen. Alcibiades is banifti'd : Hear you of it ? 
Moth. Alcibiades banilh'd ! 
3 Sen. 'Tis fo, be fure of it. 

1 Sen. How ? how ? 

2 Sen. I pray you, upon what ? 

Tim. My worthy friends, will you draw near ? 

3 Sen. I'll tell you more anon. Here's a noble feaft 

2 SV#. This is the old man ftill. 

3 Sen. Will't hold ? will't hold ? 

2 &. It does : but time will and fo 

3 Sen. I do conceive. 

5T/V. Each man to his (tool, with that fpur as he 
would to the lip of his miftrefs : your diet fhall be 
jn all places alike*. Make not a city feaft of it, to let 
the meat cool ere we can agree upon the firft place : 
Sit, fit. The gods require our thanks. 

You great benefaftors, fprinkle our fociety with thank* 
fulnefs. For your own gifts, make your j'elvespratid : but 
referveftill to give, left your deities be dejpifed. Lend to 
each man enough, that one need not lend to another : for, 
were your godheads to borrow of men, men would forfake 
the gods. Make the meat be beloved, more than the man that 
gives it. Let no affembly of twenty be without a fcore of 
'villains: If there fit twelve women at the table, let a dozen 
of them be as they are. 6 The reft of your fees, Ogods,- 
thefenators of Athens, together with the common lag of peo- 
ple, what is amifs in them, you gods, make fult able for de- 
jlruttion. For thefe my prej'ent friends, as they are to me 
nothing, fo in nothing blefs them, and to nothing are they 
Uncover, dogs, and lap. 

[Tke diflies uncovered are full of warm water. 

s your diet fnall be In all places alike. ] See a note on 

the Winter s Talc, ad I. fc. i. STEEVENS. 

* Tbt reft of your fees, ] We fhould read -foes. 



Somefpeak. What does his lordfhip mean ? 

Some other. 1 know not. 

Tim. May you a better feaft never behold, 
You knot of mouth-friends ! fmoke, and luke-warm 


7 Is your perfe&ion. This is Timon's lafl ; 
Who ftuck and fpangled 8 you with flatteries, 
Walhes it off, and fprinkles in your faces 

[Throwing water in their faces, 
Your reeking villainy. Live loath'd, and long 9 , 
Moft fmiling, fmooth, detefted paraiites, 
Courteous deftroyers, affable wolves, meek bears, 
You fools of fortune, trencher-friends, ' time's flies, 
Cap and knee flaves, vapours, and * minute-jacks ! 
Of man, and beaft, the 3 infinite malady 
Crufl you quite o'er ! What, doft thou go ? 
Soft, take thyphyfick firft, thou too, and thou; 
[Throws the di/hes at them. 

7 Is your perfe&ion. ] Pfrfeftion for exaft or perfecl: likenefs. 

Your perfection, is the higbejt of your excellence. JOHNSON. 

* and fpangled you with flatteries, ] We fhould certainly 
read : 

and fpangled with your flatteries. WARBURTON. 

The prefent reading is right. JOHNSON. 
9 Live loath* d) and long^\ This thought has occurred twice 
before : 

' let not that part 

' Of nature my lord paid for, be of power 
" To expel ficknefs, but prolong bis hour: 
Again : 

" Gods keep you old enough &c." STEEVEUS. 
1 time's flies j\ Flies of a feafon. JOHNSON. 

* minute-jacks !\ Hanmer thinks it means Jack-a-lantern^ 

which fliines and difappears in an inflant. What it was I know 
not ; but it was fomeching of quick motion, mentioned in 
Richard III. J o H N s o x . 

A minute -jack is what was called formerly a Jack of the clock- 
boufe; an image whofe office was the fame as one of thofe at St. 
Dunilan's church in Fleet-ftrcet. See Sir John Hawkins's note 
on a paflage in Ricbard III. vol. VII. STKEVENS. 

3 the infinite malady\ Every kind of diieafe incident to man 
and beaft. JOHNSON. 



Stay, I will lend thee money, borrow none. 
What, all in motion ? Henceforth be no feaft, 
Whereat a villain's not a welcome gueft. 
Burn, houfe; fink, Athens! henceforth hated be 
Of Timon, man, and all humanity ! [Exif* 

Re-enter tie Senators. 

1 Sen. How now, my lords ? 

2 Sen. Know you the quality of lord Timon's fury ?* 

3 Sen. Prfti ! did you fee my cap ? 

4 Sen. I have loft my gown. 

i Sen. He's but a mad lord, and nought but hu- 
mour fways him. He gave me a jewel the other day, 
and now he has beat it out of my hat: Did you fee 
my jewel ? 

2, Sen. Did you fee my cap ? 

3 Sen. Here 'tis. 

4 Sen. Here lies my gown. 
i Sen. Let's make no ftay^ 
2, Sen. Lord Timon's mad. 

3 Sen. I feel't upon my bones. 
4, Sen. One day he gives us diamonds, next day 
ftones* [Exeunt. 

A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

Without the walls of Athens. 
Enter Timon. 

Let me look back upon thee, O thou wall, 
That girdleft in thofe wolves ! Dive in the earth, 
And fence not Athens ! Matrons, turn incontinent ; 
Obedience fail in children ! flaves, and fools, 
Pluck the grave wrinkled fenate from the bench, 



And minifter in their {leads ! to general filths 
Convert o' the inftant, green virginity ! 
Do't in your parents' eyes ! bankrupts, hold faft ; 
Rather than render back, out with your knives, 
And cut your trufters' throats ! bound fervants, fteal ; 
Large-handed robbers your grave matters are, 
And pill by law ! maid, to thy matter's bed ; 
Thy miftrefs is * o' the brothel ! fon of fixteen, 
Pluck the lin'd crutch from thy old limping (ire, 
With it beat out his brains ! piety, and fear, 
Religion to the gods, peace, juftice, truth, 
Domeftick awe, night-reft, and neighbourhood, 
Inftrudtion, manners, myfteries, and trades, 
Degrees, obfervances, cuftoms, and laws, 
Decline to your confounding contraries, 
And * yet confufion live ! Plagues, incident to men, 
Your potent and infectious fevers heap 
On Athens, ripe for ftroke ! thou cold fciatica, 
Cripple our fenators, that their limbs may halt 
As lamely as their manners ! luft and liberty 
Creep in the minds and marrows of our youth ; 
That 'gainft the ftream of virtue they may ttrive, 
And drown themfelves in riot ! itches, blains, 
Sow all the Athenian bofoms ; and their crop 
Be general leprofy ! breath infedl breath ; 
That their fociety, as their friendmip, may 
Be meerly poifon ! Nothing I'll bear from thee, 
But nakednefs, thou deteftable town ! 
Take thou that too, with multiplying banns ! 
Timon will to the woods ; where he lhall find 

1 ? the brothel !] So Hamrer. The old copies read, o* th* 
brothel. JOHNSON. 

The old reading is the true one. The fenfe is, Go, maid, with 
Security to thy mailer's bed, for thy m'-Jlrefi is a ba-iud to thy amours. 


* -yet confujlon "] Hanmer reads, let confufion ; but the 
meaning may be, though by fucb confujlon all things feem to hafien 
to tlffilution, yet let not dljjblution ciinit' t but the mtjertet of con- 
fwliou continue. JOHNSON. 



The unkindeft bead more kinder than mankind. 
The gods confound (hear me, you good gods all) 
The Athenians both within and out that wall ! 
And grant, as Timon grows, his hate may grow 
To the whole race of mankind, high, and low ! 
Amen. [jc/V. 


Timor? s koafe. 
3 Enter Fkvius, with two or three fervants. 

i Serv. Hear you, mafler tteward, where is our 

matter ? 

Are we undone ? caft off? nothing remaining 3 
Flav. Alack, my fellows, what fhould I fay to 

you ? 

Let me be recorded by the righteous gods, 
I am as poor as you. 

1 Serv. Such a houfe broke ! 

So noble a matter fallen ! All gone ! and not 
One friend, to take his fortune by the arm, 
And go along with him ! 

2 Serv. As we do turn our backs 

From our companion, thrown into his grave ; 
So his familiars 4 from his buried fortunes 
Slink all away; leave their falfe vows' with him, 
Like empty purfes pick'd : and his poor felf, 
A dedicated beggar to the air, 

3 Enter Flavius,] Nothing contributes more to the exaltation 
of Timon's character than the zeal and fidelity of his fervants. 
Nothing but real virtue can be honoured by domefticks ; nothing 
but impartial kindnefs can gain affection from dependants. 


4 from hh buried fortunes] The old copies have to in ftead 
of from. The correction is Hanmer's ; but the old reading might. 
(land. JOHNSON. 

7 With 


With his difeafe of all-fhunn'd poverty, 

Walks, like contempt, alone. More of our fellows. 

Rnter other fervants. 

Flav. All broken implements of a ruin'd houfe. 

3 Serv. Yet do our hearts wear Timon's livery, 
That fee I by our faces ; we are fellows flill, 
Serving alike in forrovv : Leak'd is our bark ; 
And we, poor mates, ftand on the dying deck, 
Hearing the furges threat : we muft all part 
Into this feaof air. 

Flav. Good fellows all, 

The lateft of my wealth I'll mare amongfl you. 
Wherever we mall meet, for Timon's fake, 
Let's yet be fellows ; let's make our heads, and fay, 
As 'twere a knell unto our mailer's fortunes, 
We bavefeen better days. Let each take fome ; 

[Giving them money. 

Nay, put out all your hands. Not one word more : 
Thus part we rich in forrow, parting poor. 

[Exeunt Servants. 

5 O, the fierce wretchednefs that glory brings us ! 
Who would not wifh to be from wealth exempt, 
Since riches point to mifery and contempt ? 

5 (7, tie fierce ivretcbcdnefs -< ] I believe fierce is here ufeJ 
for hafty, precipitate. Perhaps it is employed in the fame fenfe by 
Ben Jonfon in his Poetajler: 

'* And Lupu? 7 for your fierce credulity, 

" One fit him with a larger pair of ears." 

In another play our author \\zsfieree 'vanities. In all inftances it 
may mean glaring, confpicuous, 'violent. So in Ben Jonfon's ar~ 
tholome^M Fair, the Puritan fays : 

" Thy hobby-horfe is an idol, a fierce and rank idol.** 
Again, in King John : 

** O vanity of {icknefs ! fierce extremes 

*' In their continuance will not feel themfelves." 
Again, in Love's Labour's Loft : 

** With all the farce endeavour of your wit." 




Who'd be fo mock'd with glory ? or to live 

But in a dream of friendlhip ? 

To have his pomp, and all what flate compounds, 

But only painted, like his varnifh'd friends ? 

Poor honefl lord, brought low by his own heart; 

Undone by goodnefs ! 6 Strange, unufual blood, 

When man's worft fin is, he does too much good ! 

Who then dares to be half fo kind again ? 

For bounty, that makes gods, does (till mar men. 

My deareft lor'd, bleft, to be moft accurs'd, 

Rich, only to be wretched; - thy great fortunes 

Are made thy chief afflictions. Alas, kind lord ! 

He's flung in rage from this ungrateful feat 

Of monftrous friends : nor has he with him to 

Supply his life, or that which can command it. 

I'll follow, and enquire him out : 

I'll ever ferve his mind with my befl will ; 

Whilft I have gold, I'll be his fteward Hill. [Exif. 

6 Strange, unufual blood,] Of this paflage, I fuppofe, every 
reader would wi(h for a correction : but the word, harlh as it is, 
Hands fortified by the rhyme, to which, perhaps, it owes its in- 
troduction. I know not what to propofe. Perhaps, 

- -Jlran^c itn;:fual mood, 

may, by fome, be thought better, and by others worfe. 


I mould fuppofe, that the fteward meant to apoftrophize Ti- 
rnon's ungrateful and unnatural friends, by calling them 

- Jlramee unufual brood ! 

who could treat excefs of liberality as they would have treated ex- 
cefs of guilt. 

The following paflage, however, is in the th book of Gower 
De Corifcjjione Amanth, tol. iii. b. 

' And thus of thiike unkinde llood 

*' Stant the memcrie unto this duie." 

Govyer is fpeaking of the ingratitude of one Adrian, a lord of 

In the Torkjhirc Tragrty, 1619, attributed to Shakefpeare, 
llnod feeins to be uied for ii^lln.itisn, propcnjity : 

" For 'tis our llood to love what we arc forbidden." 
Strange^ unufual blood^ may dieiciore mean, ilia:;ge unuiual drf- 




Tbe woods. 
Enter Timon. 

'Tim. 7 O blefTed breeding fun, draw from the 


Rotten humidity ; below 8 thy fitter's orb 
Infedt the air ! Twinn'd brothers of one womb, 
Whofe procreation, refidence, and birth, 
Scarce is dividant, touch them with feveral for- 
tunes ; 
The greater fcorns the lefler : 9 Not nature, 


7 O blefled breeding fun, ] The fenfe, as well as elegance 

ef the expreffion, requires that we fhould read, 

O blefs/Kg" -breeding fun,' 

i. e. Thou that before ufed to breed blellings, now breed curfe* 
and contagion ; as afterwards be fays, 

Thou fun that comforfft, burn. WAR BURTON. 

I do not fee that this emendation much ftrengthens the fenfe. 


8 dy JiftcSs orb] That is, the moon's, this fullunary 

world. JOHNSON. 

9 Not nature, 

To iv horn all fores lay fifge, 

He had faid the brother could not bear great fortune without de- 
fpifing his brother. He now goes further, and aflerts that even 
human nature cannot bear it, but with contempt of its common 
nature. The fentence is ambiguous, and, beudes that, othenvife 
obfcure. I am perfuaded, that our author had Alexander here 
principally in mind ; whofe uninterrupted courfe of fuccefies, at 
we learn from hiitory, turned his head, and made him fancy him- 
felfaG0//, and contemn his human origin. The poet fays, even 
nature, meaning nature in its greatefr. perfection : And Alexander 
is reprefented by the ancients as the mod accompliflied perfon that 
ever was, both for his qualities of mind and body, a kind cf ma- 
fler-piece of nature. He adds, 

To ivkom all fores lay Jiege, 

i. e. Although the imbecility of the human condition might eafily 

have informed him of his error. Here Shakefpeare feems to have 

had an eve to Plutarch, who, in his life of Alexander, tolls u 

VOL. VIII. D d that 


To whom all fores lay fiege, can bear great fortune, 

But by contempt of nature. 

1 Raife me this beggar, and denude that lord ; 

The fenator lhall bear contempt hereditary, 

The beggar native honour. 

that it \vas that which ftagger'd him in his fober moments concern- 
ing the belief of his divinity. *Eteyn 01 
TB xafiii^W xa (rvvician' fr'c Vo /xaj ify 
TO mow Kai TO v&pew. WAR EUR TON. 

I have preferved this note rather for the fake of the com- 
mentator than of the author. How nature, to whom att fores lay 
fiege, can fo emphatically exprefs nature in its grtateft pcrfe8ion y I 
fhall not endeavour to explain. The meaning I take to be this : 
Brother , ivben his fortune is enlarged, ivill fcorn brother ; for this 
is the general depravity of human nature, which, bejlegcd as it it 
by mifery, admonifhed as it is of want and imperfection, when ele- 
vated by fortune ^ will defpife beings of nature like its awn. 


1 Ralfe me this beggar ', and deny't that lord,~\ Where is the fenfe 
and Englilh of deny't that lord ? Deny him what ? What pre- 
ceding noun is there to which the pronoun // is to be referr'd? 
And it would be abfurd to think the poet meant, deny to raife 
that lord. The antithefis muft be, let fortune raife this beggar, 
and let \\erjlrip and dcfpoil that lord of all his pomp and orna- 
ments, &c. which fenfe is compleated by this flight alteration, 

and denude that lord. 

So lordjRea in his relation of M. Hamilton's plot, written in 1630 : 

" All thefe Hamiltons had denuded themfelves of their fortunes 

" and eftates." 
And Charles the Firft, in his meffage to the parliament, fays : 

" Denude ourfelves of all." Clar. vol. III. p. i 5. octavo edit. 


I believe the former reading to be the true one. Raife me that 
beggar, and deny a proportionable degree of elevation to that 
lord. A lord is not fo high a title in the fiate, but that a man. 
originally poor might be raifed to one above it. We might read 
Jfjeft that lord. Deveft is an Englifh law phrafe. Shakclpeare 
ufes the word in K. Lear : 

" Since now we will devcft us, both of rule, &c." 
The word which Dr. Warburton would introduce, is not, how- 
ever, uncommon. I find it in the Tragedie of Crcefus, 1604 : 
*' As one of all happinefs dituukd" ' iiTEBVENS. 



* It is the paftor lards the brother's fides, 
The want that makes him leave. Who dares, who 


* // is the pafture lards the beggar's fides,] This, as the editors 
have ordered it, is an idle repetition at the beft ; fuppofingit did, 
indeed, contain the fame fentiment as the foregoing lines. But 
Shakefpeare meant a quite different thing : and having, like a 
fenfible writer, made a Imart obfervation, he illustrates it by a 
fimilitude thus : 

// is the pafture lards /r \veather'j j&.r, 

'The want titat makes him lean. 

And the fimilitude is extremely beautiful, as conveying this fati- 
rical reflection ; there is no more difference between man and 
man in the efteem of fuperficial and corrupt judgments, than be- 
tween a fat flieep and a lean one. WAR BUR TON. 

This paflage is very obfcure, nor do I difcover any clear fenfe, 
even though we fhould admit the emendation. Let us infpedt tko 
text as I have given it from the original edition* 
It is the paftour lards the brother'.* Jides % 
The want that makes htm leave. 

Dr. Warburton found the paffage already changed thus : 
It is the pafture lards the beggar's fides, 
The want that makes him lean. 

And upon this reading of no authority, raifed another equally 

Alterations are never to be made without neceffity. Let us fee 
what fenfe the genuine reading will afford. Poverty, fays the 
poet, bears contempt hereditary, and wealth native honour. To il- 
luftrate this pofition, having already mentioned the cafe of a 
poor and rich brother, he remarks, that this preference is given 
to wealth by thofe whom it leaft becomes ; // is the paftour that 
greafes or flatters the rich brother, and will greafe him on till want 
make him leave. The poet then goes on to alk. Who dares to /of 
this man, this paftour, is a flatterer ; the crime is univerfal ; 
through all the world the learned pate, with allufion to the paf- 
tour, ducks to the golden fool. If it be objected, as it mayjuftly 
be, that the mention of a paftour is unfuitable, we mult re- 
member the mention of grace and cherulims in this play, and 
many fuch anachronifms in many others. I would therefore read 
thus : 

// is the paftour lards the brother's Jtdes t 
'Tis want that makes him leave. 

The obfcurity is ftill great. Perhaps a line is lofl. I have at leaft 
jiven the original reading. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Shakefpeare wrote pafterer^ for I meet with fuch a word 
P d a 2* 


In purity of manhood fiand upright, 
And fay, TLh man's a flatterer ? if one be, 
So are they all ; J for every grize of fortune 
Is fmooth'd by that below : the learned pate 
Ducks to the golden fool : All is oblique ; 
There's nothing level in our curfed natures, 
But dire<ft villainy. Therefore, be abhorr'd 
All feafts, focieties, and throngs of men ! 
His femblable, yea, himfelf, Timon difdains : 
Deftru&ion fang mankind 4 ! Earth, yield me 

roots ! [Digging the earth. 

Who feeks for better of thee, fauce his palate 
\Vith thy mofl operant poifon ! What is here ? 
Gold ? yellow, glittering, precious gold ? No, gods, 
I am no s idle votarift : Roots, you clear heavens 6 1 
Thus much of this, will make black, white ; foul, 

Wrong, right ; bafe, noble ; old, young ; coward, 


in Greene's Farewell to Follic, 1617, " Alexander before he fell 
into the Perlian delicacies, refufed thofe cooks and pafterers that 
Ada queen of Caria fent to him." There is likevvife a proverb 
among Ray's collection which feems to afford much the famt 
meaning as this paflage in Shakefpeare. " Every one balteth the. 
fat hog, while the lean one burneth." STEEVENS. 

3 for every grize of fortune] Grize for fiep or degree. 


4 fang mankind ! ] i. e. feize, gripe. This verb is ufed 

by Decker in his Match me at London^ 1631 : 

** bite any catchpole that fangs for you." 


5 no idle votarij!. ] No infmcere or inconftant iuppti- 
cant. Gold will not ferve me inlteadof roots. JOHNSON.- 

6 you clear heavens!] This may mean either ye cloud- 

lefsjkies, or ye deities exempt from guilt. Shakefpeare mention* 
the cltartft gods in K- I.ear ; and in Acolaftus a Comedy, 1^29, 
a ilranger is thus addrcfled. " Good ilranger or alyen, ckn geit, 
&c." Again, in the Rape of Lucrccc: 

" Then Collatine again by Lucrece fide, 
** In his clear bed might have repofed ftill." 
i, e. his Hcontaminated\>^ STVNS. 



Ha, you gods ! why this ? What this, you gods ? 

7 Why this 

Will lug your priefts and fervants from your Gdes ; 
1 Pluck ftout men's pillows from below their heads : 
This yellow Have 

Will knit and break religions; blefs the accurs'd ; 
Make the hoar leprofy 9 ador'd ; place thieves, 
And give them title, knee, and approbation, 
With fenators on the bench : this ii> it, 
1 That makes the wappen'd widow wed again ; 


T - Illy this 

Will lug your priefts and fervants from yourjides : ] 
Ariftophanes, in his Plutus, aft V. fc. ii. makes the priefl of 
Jupiter defect his fervice to live wirh Plutus. WARBURTON. 

6 Pluck (tout men's pillows from below their beads:} i.e. men 
who have ftrength yet remaining to ftruggle with their chftemper. 
This alludes " 

under the 
parture the 
nify healthy, 

This alludes to an old cuftom or" drawing away the pillow from 
under the heads of men in their laft agonies, to make their de- 
parture the eafier. But the Oxford editor, fuppofmg/<7/ to fig- 
nify healthy, alters it to/c/fr, and this he calls emending. 


9 _ the hoar leprofy - ] So in P. Holland's trantlation of 
Pliny's Nat. Hifi. b. xxviii. th. 12. - " the foul white leprle 
called elepbantiafis" STEEVENS. 

1 That makes the wappen'd widttv wd again ;] Wjtped orivaf- 
pen'd fignifies both forrowful and terrified, either for the lofs ot a 
good hufband, or by the treatment of a bad. But gold, he fays, 
can overcome both her affe&ion and her fears. WA RBU RTON. 

Of wappencd I have found no example, nor know any meaning. 
To avchape is ufed bySpenfer in his Hubberd's Tale, but I think 
not in either of the fenfes mentioned. I would read <wained, tor 
decayed ly time. So our author in Richard the Third : 

** A ^fla/y-waining and diflrejjed wiJfW.'* JOHNSON. 
In the comedy of the Roaring Girl, by Middleton and Decker, 
161 1, I meet with a word very like this, which the reader will 
afcly explain for himfelf, when he has ieen the following paflage : 
" Moll. And there you fliall ivap with me. 
* Sir B. Nay, Moll, what's that wap ? 
Moll. Wappcning and niggling is all one, the rogue my man 

can tell you." 

Again, in Ben Jcnfon's Mafque of Gy// Met amor phofed i 
** Boarded at Tappington, 
*' Bedded at /f^/ington." 

D d 3 Again, 


She, whom the fpital-houfe and ulcerous fores 
Would caft the gorge at, this embalms and fpices 
a To the April day again. Come, damned earth, 
Thou common whore of mankind, that put'il odds 
Among the rout of nations, I will make thee 

Again, In Martin Mark-alFs Apologie to the Bel-man of London ;, 
j&io. ** Niggling is company-keeping with a woman : this word 
is not ufed now, but Capping, and thereof comes the name capping- 
morts for whores." 

It muft not, however, be concealed, that Chaucer, in the Com- 
plaint of Annelida, line 217, ufes the word with the fenfe in which 
Dr. Warburton explains it : 

*' My fewertye in waped countenance/' 

JJ'appcned, according to the quotations I have already given, would 
mean The -widow vobofe curiofity andpajjions bad been already grati* 
ficd. So in Hamlet : 

" The inftances that fecond marriage move, 

" Are bafe refpeds of thrift ^ but none of love" 
And if the word defunfl, in Othello, be explained according to itt 
primitive meaning, the lame fentiment may be difcovered there 
There may, however, be lome corruption in the text. 


* To the April day again ] That is, to the wedding 

day, called by the poet, latirically, April day, or foots day. 


The April day does not relate to the widow, but 'to the other 
d'feafed female, who' is ,reprefented as the ovtcajlofan hofpltal. 
She it is whom gold embalms and fpices to the April day again: 
j. e. gold reitores her to all the frejbnefsandfivcctnefs of youth. 
Such is the power of gold, that it will 

" make black, white j foul, fair ; 

?< Wrong, right; &c." 

A quotation or two may perhaps fupport this interpretation. Sid- 
pey's Arcadia, p. 262, edit. 1633: " Do you fee how the fpring 
time is full of flowers, decking itfelf with them, and not afpinng 
fo the fruits of autumn ? What leflon is that unto you, but that 
in the April of your age you mould be like Afril* 
Again, in Stephens's Apology for Herodotus, 1007, "Heisayoung 
man, and in \ht April of bis age. Peacham's Complcat Gentleman^ 
chap. iii. callsyoutb " the April of man's life." Shakelpeare's 
Sonnet entitled Lovers Cruelty . has the fame thought : 

" Thou art thy mother's glais, and fhe in thee 

** Calls back the lovely April of her prime." 

Daniel's 31 it ionnet has, " :the April oi my years." Mailer 

fenton ?' fmells ^>r//and May." TOLLET. 

' Do 


* Do thy right nature. [March afar off.~] Ha ! a. 

drum ? * Thou'rt quick, 

But yet I'll bury thee : Thou'lt go, ftrong thief, 
When gouty keepers of thee cannot ftand : 
Nay, flay thou out for earnefl. [Keeping fome gold. 

Enter Akibiades, ivitb drum and fife, in warlike manner, 
and Pbrynia and Tytnandra. 

Ale. What art thou there ? fpeak. 

Tim. A beaft, as thou art. The canker gnaw thy 

For fhewing me again the eyes of man ! 

Ale. What is thy name ? Is man fo hateful to thee, 
That art thyfelf a man ? 

Tim. 1 am mifantbropos^ and hate mankind. 
For thy part, I do wifh thou wert a dog, 
That I might love thee fomething. 

Ale. I know thee well ; 
But in thy fortunes am unlearn'd and ftrange. 

'Tim. I know thee too ; and more, than that I 

know thee, 

I not defire to know. Follow thy drum ; 
With man's blood paint the ground, gules, gules : 
Religious cr.nons, civil laws are cruel ; 
Then what ihould war be ? This fell whore of thine 
Hath in her more deftruction than thy fword, 
For all her cherubin look. 

Phry. Thy lips rot off! 

3jm. 5 1 will not kifs thee ; then the rot returns 


s Do tJy right nature. ] Lie in the earth where nature laid 
thee. JOHNSON. 

4 Tbou'rt quick)"} Thou haft life and motion in thee. 


5 / will not kifs tbec, ] This alludes to an opinion in former 
times, generally prevalent, that the venereal infection tranfmittecf 
to another, left the infefter free. I will not, fays Timon, take 
the rot from thy lips by kifling thee. JOHNSON. 

D d 4. ' Thus 


To thine own lips again. 

Me. How came the noble Timon to this change ? 

Tim. As the moon 4pes, by wanting light to give : 
But then renew I could not, like the moon; 
There were no funs to borrow of. 

Ale. Noble Timon, 
What friendship may I do thee ? 

Tim. None, but to 
Maintain my opinion. 

Ak. What is it, Timon ? 

'Tim. Promife me friendfhip, but perform none : If 
6 Thou wilt not promife, the gods plague thee, for 
Thou art a man ! if thou dolt perform, confound 

For thou art a man ! 

Ale. I have heard in fome fort of thy miferies. 

Tim. Thou faw'ft them, when I had profperity. 

Ai~- I fee them now ; then was a blefled time. 

Tim. As thine is now, held with a brace of harlots. 

Tyman. Is this the Athenian minion, whom the 

Voic'd fo regardfully ? 

Tim. Art thou Tymandra ? 

Tyman. Yes. 

Tim. 7 Be a whore flill ! they love thee not, that 
ufe thee ; 


Thus the Humorous Lieutenant fays : 

*' He has fome wench, or fuch a toy to kifs over, 
" Before he go : 'would I had fuch another, 
"** To draw this foolijb pain down." STEEVEKS. 

6 If 

Thou wilt not promife ', &c.] 

That is, however thou may'lt adt, lince thou art man, hated man, 
I wifli thee evil. JOHNSON. 

9 Be a whore Jiill! They love thee not that ufe thee ; 
Give them fiifeafcs, leaving with thee their lujl ; 
Make ufe of thy fait hours, &c.] 
There is here a flight tranfpofuion. I would read : 
Ibey love thee ;:ot that vfe thee t 


Give them difeafes, leaving with thee their luft. 

Make uie of thy fait hours : feafon the Haves 

For tubs, and baths; bring down rofe-cheeked 

1 To the tub-fall, and the diet. 


Leaving *with thee their luft ; give them difeajes^ 
Make vfe of thy fait hour \j, feafon thejlaves 
For tubs and baths ; JOHNSON. 

1 To the fub-faft, and the diet. ~\ One might make a very long 
and vain fearch, yet not be able to meet with this prepoiLrous 
word fub-faji) which has notwithftanding pafled current with all 
the editors. We fliould read tub-fajl. The author is alluding to 
the lues venerea, and its efFecls. At that time the cure of it was 
performed either by guaiacum, or mercurial unclions : and in both 
cafes the patient was kept up very warm and clofe ; that in the 
firft application the fweat might be promoted ; and left, in the 
other, he ftiould take cold, which was fatal. " The regimen for 
the courfe of guaiacum (fays Dr. Freind in his HiJIory of Phyjick^ 
vol. II. p. 380.) was at firfl ftrangely circumftantial ; and ib ri- 
gorous, that the patient was put into a dungeon in order to make 
him fweat ; and in that manner, as Fallopius expreffes it, the bones, 
and the very man himfelf was macerated." Wifeman fays, in 
England they ufed a tub for this purpofe, as abroad, a cave, or 
oven, or dungeon. And as for the uncHoo, it was fometimes con- 
tinued for thirty-feven days (as he obferves, p. 37?.) and during 
this time there was neceflarily an extraordinary abjliuence required. 
Hence the term of the tub-fajl. WARBURTON. 
So, in Jafper Maine's City Match, 1639 : 

" You had better match a ruin'd bawd, 

" One ten times cur'd by fweating, and the tub." 

Again, in The Family of Love , 1608, a doctor fays : " O for 

one of the hoops of my Cornelius' tub, I fhall burft myfelf with 
laughing elfe." Again, in Monjicur D" 1 Olive, 1606: " Our em- 
baflage is into France^ there may be employment for thee : Haft 
thou a tub ?" 

The diet was likewife a cuftomary term for the regimen pre- 
fcribed in thefe cafes. So, in Springes to catch Woodcocks t a col- 
lection of Epigrams, 1606 : 

" Prifcus gave out See. 

" Prifcus had tane the diet all the while." 

Again, in another Collection of ancient Epigrams called the 
Mafiive, Sec : 

" She took not diet nor the fweat in feafon." 
So, in Beaumont ai:d Fletcher's Kn'-gbt of the Burning Pcftlc: 

* whom 


Tyman. Hang thee, monfter ! 

Ak. Pardon him, fweet Tymandra ; for his wit8 
Are drown'd and loft in his calamities. 
I have but little gold of late, brave Timon, 
The want whereof doth daily make revolt 
In my penurious band : I have heard, and griev'd, 
How curfed Athens, mindlefs of thy worth, 
Forgetting thy great deeds, when neighbour ftates, 
But for thy fword and fortune, trod upon them, 

Tim. I pr'ythee, beat thy drum, and get thee gone. 

Ak. I am thy friend, and pity thee, dear Timon. 

Tim. How dolt thou pity him, whom thou dofl 

trouble ? 
I had rather be alone. 

Ak. Why, fare thee well : 
Here is fome gold for thee. 

Tim. Keep it, I cannot eat it. 

Ale. When I have laid proud Athens on a heap, 

Tim. Warr'ft thou 'gainft Athens ? 

Ak. Ay, Timon, and have caufe. 

Tim. The gods confound them all in thy conqueft ; 

Thee after, when thou haft conquer'd ! 

Ak. Why me, Timon ? 

Tim. That, by killing of villains, thou waft bora 
To conquer my country. 

Put up thy gold ; Go on, here's gold, go on ; 
* Be as a planetary plague, when Jove 

" whom I in diet keep, 

*' Send lower down into the cave, 
" And in a tub that's heated imoaking hot, &c." 
Again, in the fame play : 

" caught us, and put us in a tub^ 

" Where we this two months fweat, &c. 

" This bread and water hath our diet been, &:c." 

* Be as a planetary plague^ ivbcn Jove 

Will o'er fome high-vie 1 d city bang bis poifott 
In thejick air: ] 

This is wonderfully fublime and pifturefciue. WARBURTOV. 



Will o'er fome high-vic'd city hang his poifon 
In the fick air : Let not thy fword ikip one : 
Pity not honour'd age for his white beard, 
He is an ufurer : Strike me the counterfeit matron, 
It is her habit only that is honeft, 
Herfelf's a bawd : Let not the virgin's cheek 
Make foft thy trenchant fword ; for thofe milk-paps, 
3 That through the window-bars bore at men's eyes, 


3 not through the window barne'] How the words come to 
be blundered into this flrange nonfenfe, is hard to conceive. But 
it is plain Shakefpeare wrote : 


i. e. lawn almoft as tranfparent as glafs windows. WAR BURTON. 

The reading is more probably : 

The virgin that fhevvs her bofom through the lattice of her cham- 
ber. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Johnfon's explanation is almoft confirmed by the following 
jpaflage in Cymbeline : 

" 'or let her beauty 

'* Look through a cafement to allure falfe hearts^ 

" And be falfe with them." 

Shakefpeare at the fame time might aim a llroke at this indecency 
in the women of his own time, which is animadverted on by feve- 
ral contemporary dramatics. So, in the ancient interlude of the 
Repentance of Marie Magdalene, \ 567 : 

ance of Marie Magdalene, 1 567 : 
* Your garments muft be worne alway, 

' That your white pappes may be feene if you may. 

* If young gentlemen may fee your white Jkin, 

* It will allure them to love, and foon bring them in. 

* Both damfels and wives ufe many fuch feates. 

* I know them that will lay out \\\z\\ faire teates." 
^nd all this is addreffed to Mary Magdalen. STEEVENS. 

I believe we fhould read nearly thus : 

- nor thofe milk-paps, 

That through the widow s barb lore at men's eyes t 

Are not within the leaf of pity writ." 

The ufe of the doubled negative is fo common in Shakefpeare, that 
it is unneceflary to fupport it by inftances. The barbe, I believe, 
was a kind of veil. Creffida, in Chaucer, who appears as a widow, it 
defcribed as wearing a larle, Troilus and Crejfida, b. II. v. 1 10. 
in which place Caxton's edition (as I learn from the Gloflary) 
yeads wimple, which certainly fignifies a veil, and was probably 
fubftituted as a fynonymous word for barle t the more antiquated 



Are not within the leaf of pity writ, 

Set them down horrible traitors : Spare not the babe, 

Whofe dimpled fmiles from fools 4 exhauft their 

mercy ; 

Think it a $ baftard, whom the oracle 
Hath doubtfully pronounc'd thy throat fhall cut, 
And mince it fans remorfe : Swear againft objeds 6 ; 
Put armour on thine ears, and on thine eyes ; 
Whofe proof, nor yells of mothers, maids, nor babes, 
Nor fight of priefts in holy veftments bleeding, 
Shall pierce a jot. There's gold to pay thy foldiers : 
Make large confufion ; and, thy fury ipent, 
Confounded be thyfelf ! Speak not, be gone. 

Me. Haft thou gold yet ? I'll take the gold thou 

giv'fl me, 
Not all thy counfcl. 

Tim. Doft thou, or doft thou not, heaven's curfc 

upon thee ! 
Plr. and Tym. Give us fome gold, good Timon : 

Halt thou more ? 

Tim. Enough to make a whore forfwear her trade, 
7 And to make whores, a bawd. Hold up, you fluts, 


reading of the manufcripts. Unvaried is ufed by Shnkefp'eare for 
uncovered, in Coriolamis, aft III. fc. v : 

" Muft I go Ihew them my unbarbed fconce ?" 
See alfo Leland's Collcflanca, vol. V. p. 317, new edit, where the 
ladfes, mourning at the funeral of Q^ Mary, are mentioned as 
having ibeir barbes above tbelr chlnnes. TYRWHITT. 

4 exbaujl tbelr mercy ;] For e xhauft, fir T. Hanmer, and 

after him Dr. Wavbuvton, read extort ; but exbaujt here iignifies 
literally to draw forth. JOHNSON. 

s baflard, ] An allufion to the tale of Oedipus. 


6 Swear againft o&/ctfs;] Sir Tho. Hanmer reads : 

'gain ft all objcfts: 

Perhaps objc&s is here ufed provincially for abjefts. FARMER. 

7 And to make whore a bawd. ] The power of gold, indeed, 
may be fuppofed great, that can make a whore forfake her trade ; 
but what mighty difficulty was there in making a whore turn 
bawd? Andyec, 'tis plain, here he is deicrib; ng the mighty pcwer 

.1 ef 


Your aprons mountant : You are not oathable, 
Although, I know, you'll fwear, terribly fwear, 
Into ftrong ftiudders, and to heavenly agues, 
The immortal gods that hear you % fpare your 


' I'll truft to your conditions : Be whores ftill ; 
And he whofe pious breath feeks to convert you, 
Be ftrong in whore, allure him, burn him up ; 
Let your clofe fire predominate his fmoke, 
And be no turn- coats : l Yet may your pains, fix 



of gold. He had before {hewn, how gold can perfuade to any 
villainy ; he now Ihews that it has ftill a greater force, and can 
even turn from vice to the practice, or at lead, the femblance ot 
virtue. We muft therefore read, to reftore fenfe to our author : 

And to make whole a hnatt 

\. e. not only make her quit her calling, but thereby reftore her to 
reputation. WAREURTON. 
The old edition reads : 

And to make whores a bawd. 

That is, e nougb to make a whore leave whoring, and a la-ivd ledve 
making whores. JOHNSON. 

* The immortal gods that bear you, ] The fame thought is 

found in Antony and Cleopatra, acl I. fc. Hi : 

** Though you with fwearing^wfo the throned gods," 
Again, in the Winter's Tale: 

" Though you would feek to unfphere the ftars with 
oaths." STEEVENS, 

9 /'// truft to your conditions : ] You need not fwear t 

continue whores, I will truft to your inclinations. JOHNSON. 

1 Tet may your pains, fix months, 

Be quite contrary : < > ] 

This is obfcure, partly from the ambiguity of the word pains, and 
partly from the generality of the expreffion. The meaning is this : 
he had laid before, follow constantly your trade of debauchery : 
that is (fays he) for fix months in the year. Let the other fix be 
employed in quite contrary pains and labour, namely, in the fe- 
vere d;fcipline neceflary for the repair of thole diforders that your 
debaucheries occafion, in order to fit you anew to the trade ; and 
thus Lt the whole year be fpent in thefe different occupations. 
On this account he goes on, and fays, Makefalfe hair, &c. But 
tor, pains Jix months, the Oxford editor reads pains exterior* What 
he means 1 know not. WAR BUR TON. 



Be quite contrary : And thatch your poor thin roofs * 
With burdens of the dead ; fome that were hang'd, 

The explanation is ingenious, but I think it very remote, and 
would willingly bring the author and his readers to meet on eafier 
terras. We may read : 

Yet may your pains fx months ', 

Be quite contraried. 

Timon is wifhing ill to mankind, but is afraid left the whores 
(hould imagine that he wifhes well to them ; to obviate which he lets 
them know, that he imprecates upon them influence enough to 
plague others, and difappointments enough to plague themielves. 
He wiflies that they may do all poffible mifchief, and yet take 
pains fix months of the year in vain. 

In this fenfe there is a connection of this line with the next* 
Finding^or/<z/;w contraried, try new expedients, thatch your thin 
roofs, and faint. 

To contrary is an old verb. Latymer relates, that when he went 
to court, he was advifed not to contrary the king. JOHNSON. 
Yet may your pains fix months 

Be quite contrary : ] 

I believe this means, Yet for half tie year at leafi, may you fuffef 
fiu~h punijbment as is inflicled on harlots in houfes of correction. 


a thatch your poor thin roofs, &c.] About the year 1 595, when 
the faftiion became general in England or wearing a greater quantity 
of hair than was ever the produce of a fingle head, it was danger- 
ous for any child to wander, as nothing was more common than for 
women to entice fuch as had fine locks into private places, and there 
to cut them off. I have this information from Stubbs's Anatomy of 
dbufes, which I have often quoted on the article of drefs. To 
this fafhion the writers of Shakefpeare's age do not appear to have 
been reconciled. So, in A Mad World my Makers, 1 608 : " to 
wear perriwigs made of another's hair, is not this againft kind:" 
Again, in Drayton's Mooncalf; 

" And with large fums they flick not to procure 
" Hair from the dead, yea, and the moft unclean ; 
*' To help their pride they nothing will difdain." 
Again, in Shakefpeare's obth Sonnet : 

*' Before the golden trefles of the dead, 
" The right of iepulchres, were {horn away, 
' To live a fecond life on fecond head, 
** Ere beau'y'- dead fleece made another gay." 
Warner, in his Albion 'j England, 1602, b. ix. c. 47, is likewife 
very levere on this tafljion. Sanve informs us, that " women's 
pcriivigs were firft brought into England about the time of the 
maflacre of Paris." STEEVEMS. 

8 No 


No matter : wear them, betray with them : whore 


Paint 'till a horfe may mire upon your face, 
A pox of wrinkles ! 

Phr. and lym. Well, more gold ; What then ? 
Believe't, that we'll do any thing for gold. 

Tim. Confumptions fow 

In hollow bones of man ; flrike their lharp fliins, 
And marr 3 men's fpurring. Crack the lawyer's voice, 
That he may never more falfe title plead, 
Nor found his quillets mrilly 4 : hoar the flamen J , 
That fcolds againft the quality of flefh, 
And not believes himfelf : down with the nofe, 
Down with it flat ; take the bridge quite away 
Of him, 6 that his particular to forefee, 


3 mem 1 fpurring. ] Hanmer reads -fparring, pro- 

perly enough, if there be any ancient example of the word. 


Spurring is certainly right. The difeafe that enfeebled their 
Jinn*) would have this effect. STEEVENS. 

+ Nor found his quillets Jbrilly : ] Quillets are fubtilties. So, 
in La-iv Tricks &c. 1608 : " -a quillet well applied !" 


s hoar the flamen ^\ Mr. Upton would read boarfe, i. e. 

make hoarfe ; for to be boary claims reverence. Add to this ('fays 
he) that hoarfe is here moft proper, as oppos'd tofcoUs. It mav, 
however, mean, Give the flamen the boary leprofy. So, in Web- 
fter's Dutcbefs ofMalfy, 1623 : 

" fliew like leprojy, 

" The whiter the fouler." 
And before, in this play : 

" Make the hoar leprofy ador'd." STEEVENS. 
6 *-tbat Ins particular to forefee] In this beautiful paflage 
there is a ftrange jumble of metaphors. Tofmell in order to fore- 
fee, is ufing the benefit of the fenfes in a very abfurd way. The 
fenfe too, is as bad as the expreffion : Men do not forfake and be- 
tray the public in order to forefee their own particular advantage, 
kut to provide for it. Forefeeing is not the confequenceof betray- 
ing, but one of the caufes of it. Without doubt we fhould read : 
Of him t that hh particular to forefend, 
Smtlhfrom the general weal, 



Smells from the general weal: make curl'd-^ate 

ruffians bald ; 

And let the unfcarr'd braggarts of the war 
Derive fome pain from you : Plague all ; 
That your adtivity may defeat and quell 
The fource of all eredtion. There's more gold : 
Do you damn others, and let this damn you. 
And ditches grave you all 7 ! 

Phr. and Tym. More counfel, with more money, 

bounteous Timon. 
Tim. More whore, more mifchief firft ; I have 

given you earneft. 

Ale* Strike up the drum towards Athens. Fare- 
wel, Timon ; 

i. e. provide for, fecure. Forefend has a great force and beauty 
in this place, as fignifyhig not barely tofecure, but to make 3. pre- 
vious provifion for fecuring. WARBURTON. 

The metaphor is apparently incongruous, but the fenfe is good. 
Toforcfee bis particular, is to provide for his private advantage, tor 
which be leaves the right fcent of publick good. In hunting, when 
hares have crofs'd one another, it is common for fome of the 
hounds to fmell from the general *iveal, andforefee their otvn particu- 
lar. Shakefpeare, who feems to have been a Ikilful fportfman, 
and has alluded often to falconry, perhaps, alludes, here to 

To the commentator's emendation it may be objected, that he 
ufed forefend in the wrong meaning. To forefend, is, I think, 
never to provide for, but to provide againft. The verbs compound- 
ed wither or fore have commonly either an evil or negative fenfe. 


" 4nd ditches grave you all!] To grave is to entomb. The 
word is now obfolete, though Ibmetimes ufed by Shakefpeare and 
his contemporary authors. So, in lord Surrey's Tranflation of the 
fourth book of Virgil's sEneid: 

" Cinders (think'ft thou) mind this ? or jrarW ghoftes ?" 
To ungravc was likewife to turn out of a grave. Thus, in Mar- 
lion's Sophonifoa: 

" and me, now dead, 

*' Deny a grave ; hurl us among the rocks 

" To ilanch beafts hunger : therefore, thus ungrat^J, 

I feek flow reft." STEEVSKS. 



If I thrive well, I'll vifit thce again. 

Tim. If I hope well, I'll never fee thee more* 

Ale. I never did thee harm. 

Tim. Yes, thou fpok'lt well of me. 

Ale. Call'ft thou that harm > 

Tim. Men daily find it. 
Get thee away, and take thy beagles with thee. 

Ale. We but offend him. Strike. 

[Drum beats. Exeunt Alciblactes t 
Phrynia, andTymandra. 

Tim. [Digging."] That nature, being Tick of man's 

Should yet be hungry ! Common mother, thou 

1 Whofe womb unmeafurable, and infinite breaft, 
Teems, and feeds all; whofe felf-fame mettle, 
Whereof thy proud child, arrogant man, is puft, 
Engenders the black toad, and adder blue, 
The gilded newt, and * eyelefs venom'd worm, 
With all the abhorred births ; below crifp heaven 

1 Wl}ofe womb unmeafurablc, and infinite breafi\ This image U 
taken from the ancient ftatues of Diana Ephefia Multimammia, 
called 7awXo; epvcn; Wm;x Mvnjp ; and is a very good comment on 
thofe extraordinary figures. See Montfaucon, fAntiqttiti expliquee, 
1. iii. c. 15. Heiiod, alluding to the fame reprefentations, calls 

Wbofe infinite breajl means no more than ivhofe boundlefi furface . 
Shakefpeare probably knew nothing of the ftatue to which the com- 
mentator alludes. STEEVENS. 

1 eyelefs *ve nom V ivorm ; ] The ferpent, which we, from the 

fmallnefs of his eyes, call the blind worm, and the Latins, ctecilia. 


3 lelow crifp leaven,'] We fliould read cript^ i. e. vaulted, 

from the Latin crypta, a vault. WARBURTON. 

Mr. Upton declares for cri/p, curled, bent, hollow. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps Shakefpeare means curfd, from the appearance of the 
clouds. In the Tempeft, Ariel talks of riding 

On the curVd clouds. 
Chaucer in his Houfe of Fame, fays, 

" Her here that was oundie and crips. 19 
i> e. ivaiy and curled. 
Again, in the Phihfopber's Satires, by Robert Anton. 

*' Her face as beauteous as the rr//jWmorn." STEEVEXS. 

VOL. VIII. E e Whereon 


Whereon Hyperion's quickening fire doth fhinc ^ 
Yield him, who all thy human fons doth hate, 
From forth thy plenteous bofom, one poor root! 
Enlear thy fertile and conceptions womb 4 , 
5 Let it no more bring out ingrateful man! 
Go great with tigers, dragons, wolves and bears; 
Teem with new monfters, whom thy upward face 
Hath to the marbled manfion all above 6 
Never prefented! O, a root, Dear thanks! 
7 Diy up thy marrows, vines, and plough-torn leas; 


* Efifcar thy fertile and conceptious womb.] So in K. Lear : 

"** Dry up in her the organs of encrcafe." STEEVENS. 

5 Let it no more bring out ungrateful man !] This is an abfurd 
reading. Shakefpeare wrote, 

Irii:^ out to ungrateful man ! 

i. e. fruits for his fuilena-nce and lupport; but let It rather teem 
with monfters to his definition. Nor is it to be pretended, that 
this alludes to the fable: for he isfpeaking of what the earth now 
brings forth ; which thought he repeats afterwards : 

Dry np tby barro-vj'd veins, and plow -torn leas, &c. 


It is plain that bring out is bring forth, with which the following 
lines correfpond fo plainly, that the commentator might be ful- 
pe&ed of writing his note without reading the whole palfage. 


6 the marbled manfion ] So Milton, B. iii. 1. 564 : 

" Through the pure marble air STEEVENS. 
* Dry np tby marrows, veins, and plow-torn leas;] The integri- 
ty of the metaphor abfolutely requires that we ihould read, 

Dry up tby harrow'd veins, and plow-torn leas. 
Mr. Theobald owns that this gives a new beauty to the verfe, yet, 
as untfuous morfels follows, marrows might have gone before, and 
mean the fat of the land. That is, becaufe there is a metaphor 
afterwards that fuits it, it may be admitted, though it violates the 
metaphor in the place it is ufed in. But this unhappy critic never 
confidered that men ought to earn this /rf/ before they eat it. 
From this emendation the Oxford editor has fprung another, and 

D>y up thy meadows, vineyards WAR BURTON. 

I cannot concur to cenfure Theobald as a critic very unhappy. 
He was weak, but he was cautious : finding but little power in 
his mind, he rarely ventured far under its conduct. This timidity 



Whereofingrateful man, with liquorifti draughts, 
And morfels unctuous, greafes his pure mind, 
That from it all confideration flips! 

Enter Apemantus. 

More man? Plague! plague! 

Apem. I was directed hither : Men report, 
Thou doft affect my manners, and doft ufe them* 

Tim. 'Tis then, becaufe thou doft not keep a dog 
Whom I would imitate: Consumption catch thee! 

Apem. This is in thee a nature but affected; 
A poor unmanly melancholy, fprung 
From change of fortune. Why this fpade? this place? 
This flave-like habit? and thefe looks of care ? 
Thy flatterers yet wear (ilk, drink wine, lie foft; 
Hug their difeas'd perfumes, and have forgot 
That ever Timon was. Shame not thefe woods, 
By putting on 8 the cunning of a carper. 

hindered him from daring conjectures, and fometimes hindered 
him happily. 

This palfage, among many others, may pafs without change. 
The genuine reading is not marrows, veins, but marrows, vines : 
the fenfe is this; O nature! ceafe to produce men, e nfear thy womb ; 
but if thou wilt continue to produce them, atleaft ceafe to pamper 
them ; dry up thy marrows, on which they fatten with unRuous mor- 
fels, thy 'vines, which give them liquorijlj draughts, and thy^/o-tu- 
torn leas. Here are effects correfponding with caufes, liquori/f? 
draughts with vines, and unfluous morfels with marrows, and the 
old reading literally preserved. JOHNSON. 

8 the cunning of a carper.] For the philofophy of a Cynic, 

of which feel Apemantus was; and therefore he concludes: 
Do not affume my likenefs. WAR BURTON. 

Cunning here feems to liguify counterfeit appearance. JOHNSON. 

The cunning of a carper, is the infidious art of a critic. Shame 
not thefe woods, fays Apemantus, by coming here to find fault. 
Maurice Kyffin in the preface to his tranflation of Terence's Andria, 
1588, fays; " Of the curious carper I look not to be favoured." 
Again Uifula fpeaking of the farcafms of Beatrice, obferves, 

" Why fure, fuch carping is not commendable." 
There is no apparent reafon why Apemantus (according to Dr. 
Warburton's explanation) (hould ridicule his own fedt. STEEVEXS. 
Eez Be 


Be thou a flatterer now, and feek to thrive 
By that which has undone thee : hinge thy knee^ 
And let his very breath, whom thou'lt obferve, 
Blow off thy cap ; praife his moft vicious drain, 
.And call it excellent: Thou waft told thus; 
Thou gav'ft thine ears, like tapfters, that bid welcome, 
To knaves, and all approaches : 'Tis moft juft, 
That thou turn rafcal; hadft thou wealth again, 
Rafcals fhould have't. Do not aflame my likenefs. 

Tim. Were I like thee, I'd throw away myfelf. 

Apem. Thou haft caft away thyfelf, being like 


A madman fo long, now a fool; What, think'ft 
That the bleak air, thy boifterous chamberlain, 
Will put thy ftiirt on warmV Will thefe 9 moift trees, 
That have out-liv'd the eagle 1 , page thy heels, 
And ikip when thou point'ft out? will the cold brook, 
Candied with ice, caudle thy morning tafte 
To cure thy o'er-night's furfeit? Ca.ll the creatures, 
Whofe naked natures live in all the fpight 
Of wreakful heaven; whofe bare unhoufed trunks, 
To the conflicting elements expos'd, 
Anfwer meer nature 1 , bid them flatter thee; 
O! thouflialt find 

Tim. A fool of thee : Depart. 

Apem. I love thee better now than e'er I did. 

Tim. I hate thee worfe. 

9 moift trees,] Hanmer reads very elegantly, 

mois 'd trees. JOHNSON. 

Shakefpeare ufes the fame epithet in As you like it, Aft IV. 

** Under an oak, whofe boughs were mcfid with age." 


1 outliv'ti the eagle, ] AquiL? Scneftus is a proverb. I 

learn from Turbervile's book of falconry 1575, that the great age 
of this bird has been afcertained from the circumftance of its al- 
ways building itsryr/V, or neit, in the fame place. STEEVENS. 

* Anf-jjer mere nature, ] So in K. Lear, Aft II. 

' And with prefented nakednefs outface 
*' The winds, See." STEEVENS. 


Apem. Why? 

'Tim. Thou flatter'ft mifery. 

Apem. I flatter not; but fay, thou art a caitiff. 

Tim. Why doft thou feek me out? 

Apem. To vex thee. 

J Tim. Always a villain's office, or a fool's. 
Poftpleafe thyfelf in't? 

Apem. Ay. 

Tim. What ! a knave too ? 

Apem. If thou didit put this four cold habit on 
To caftigate thy pride, 'twere well : but thou 
Doft it enforcedly; thou'dft courtier be again, 
Wertthou not beggar. Willing mifery 
Out-lives incertain pomp, 4 is crown'd before : 

* Tim. Akvay s a villain's office or a foo?f. 

Dojlpkafe tbyfelfint? 

Apem. Ay. 

Tim. What! a knave too?] 

Mr. Warburton propofes a correction here, which, though is 
oppofes the reading of all the printed copies, has great juitneis and 
propriety in it. He would read : 

IVbat! and know't too ? 

The reafoning of the text, as it ftands in the books is, in fome 
fort, concluding backward; or rather making a knave's and a 
villain's office different ; which, furely, is abfurd. The correction 
quite removes the abfurdity, and gives this fenfible rebuke. 
*' What ! Do'it \ko\\pleafe thyfelf in vexing me, and at the fame 
" time know it to be the office of a villain or fool?" THEOBALD. 
Such was Dr. Warburton's firit conjecture, but afterwards he 
adopted Sir T. Hanmer^s conjecture : 

What a knave thou ! 

but there is no need of alteration. Timon had juft called Apeman- 
tus /0o/, in confequence of what he had known ot him by for- 
mer acquaintance; but when Apemantus tells him, that he comes 
to vex him, Timon determines that to vex is either the office of a 
villain or a fool; that to vex ly dejign is villainy, to vex without 
dejign is folly. He then properly alks Apemantus whether he takes 
delight in vexing, and when he anfwers, yes, Tiraon replies, 
Wljat ! and knave too ? I before only knew thee to be zfool, but 
I now find thee likewife a knave. This feems to be fo clear as not 
to ftand in need of a comment. JOHNSON. 

* is crown' <t before:] Arrives fooner at high ivijb ; that is. 

at the completion of in ivijbes. JOHNSON. 

E e 3 The 


The one is filling ftill, never compleat ; 

The other, at high wifli : Beft ftate, contentlefs, 

Hath a diftra&ed and mofl wretched being, 

Worfethan the worft, content 5 . 

Thou fhould'ft defire to die, being miferable. 

Tim. Not 6 by his breath, that is more miferable. 
Thou art a Have, whom fortune's tender arm 
With favour never clafp'd; 7 but bred a dog. 
8 Hadft thou, like us, from our 9 firft fwath, pro- 


5 Worfe than the ivorjl, content.] This line, defective both in 
fenfe and metre, might be thus fupplied : 

44 Worfe than the luorft contented is mofl happy.'* 
*' I have repeated this conje&ure, in the words in which it v.'js 
fent to be -nferted in the laft edition, merely as it ferves to intro- 
duce the following explanation of the pafTage, being now con- 
vinced myfelf that no alteration fliould be attempted." 


Befl ftates contentlefs have a wretched being, a being worfe 
than that of the worit ilates that are content, This one would 
think too plain to have been miftaken. JOHNSON. 

6 by his breath , ] It means, I believe, by his counfel t 

by his direclion. JOHXSON, 

by his breath, I believe, is meant his fentence. To 

Ireathe is as licentioufly ufed by Shakefpeare in the following in- 
ftance from Hamlet : 

" Having ever feen, in the prenominate crimes, 

*' The youth you breathe of, guilty, &c." STEEVENS. 

7 but bred a dog.] Alluding to the word Cynic, of which 

fet Apemantus was. WARBURTON. 

8 HaJft thou, like us, ] There is in this fpeech a fullen 

haughtinefs, and malignant dignity, fuitable at once to the lord 
and the man-hater. The impatience with which he bears to have 
his luxury reproached by one that never had luxury within his 
reach, is natural and graceful. 

There is in a letter, written by the earl of Eflex, juft before his 
execution, to another nobleman, a pafTage fomewhat refembling 
this, with which, I believe every reader will be pleafed, though ic 
is 6> ferious and foleran that it can fcarcely be inferted without ir- 

" God grant your lordfliip may quickly feel the comfort I now 
enjoy in my unfeigned converfion, but that you may never feel 
the torments I have fuflfered for my long delaying it. I had none 



The fiveet degrees ' that this brief world affords 

To fuch as may the paffive drugs of it 

Frc-ely command, thou wouldft have plungM thyfclf 

In general riot; melted down thy youth 

In different beds of lufl; and never learn'd 

The icy z precepts of refped:, but follow'd 

The fugar'd game before thee. 3 But myfelf, 

Who had the world as my confectionary ; 

The mouths, the tongues, the eyes, and hearts of men 

but dectivers to call upon me, to whom I faid, if my ambition could 
have a: tend into their narrow breafts, they 'Mould not have been fo 
humble ; or if my delights had been once taftedby them, they would not 
have been Jo freeze. But your lordjhip hath one to call upon you, 
that knowetb what it is you now enjoy ; and what the greateft fruit 
and end is of all contentment that this world can afford. Think, 
therefore, dear earl, that I have flaked and buoyed all the ways of 
t>leafure unto you, and left them as fea-marks for you to keep the 
channel of religious virtue. For fliut your eyes never fo long, 
they muft be open at the laft, and then you mutt fay with me 
there is no peace to the ungodly . " JOHNSON. 

9 -firftfivath ] From infancy. Swath is the drefs of a new- 
born child. JOHNSON. 
So in Hey wood's Golden Age, 162 : 

,** No more their cradles fhallbe made their tombs, 
*' Nor their fohfivatbs become their winding fheets." 


* Tie fweet degrees ] Thus the folio. The modern edi- 
tors have, without authority, read Through, &c. but this negledt 
of the prepofition was common to many other writers of the age 
of Shakefpeare. STEEVENS. 

* preceptsofrefyetf, J Of obedience to laws. JOHNSOV. 

Rrfpefl, I believe, means the qtSen dira't on? the regard of 
Athens, that ftrongeft reftraint on licentioufnefs : the icy precepts, 
i. e. that cool hot blood. STEEVENS. 

3 But myfclf,~\ The connexion here requires fome at- 
tention. But is here ufed to denote oppofition ; but what imme- 
diately precedes is not oppofed to that which follows. The ad- 
verfative particle refers to the two firft lines. 

Thou artajlave, whom fortune's tender arm 
With favour never clafpt ; but bred a dog, 

But my f elf, 

Who bad the world as my confeftionary, &c. 

The intermediate lines are to be confidered as a parenthefis of 
pafllon. JOHNSON, 

E e 4 At 


At duty, more than I could frame employment, 
(That numberlefs upon me ftuck, as leaves 
Do on the oak, have with one winter's brufh 4 - 
Fell from their boughs, and left me open, bare 
For every ftorm that blows) I to bear this, 
" That never knew but better, is fome burden: 
Thy nature did commence in fufferance, time 
Hath made thee hard in't. Why fliould'ft thou hate 


They never flatter'd thee : What haft thou given ? 
If thou wilt curfe, thy father, s that poor rag, 
Muft be thy fubject; who in fpight, put (luff 
To fome fhe beggar, and compounded thee 
Poor rogue hereditary. Hence! begone! 
If thou hadfl not been born the worft of men, 
* Thou hadfl been a knave, and flatterer. 


* ivitb one winter's IruJJ?, &c.] So in Maflinger's Maid of 


O fummcr friendihip, 

Whofe flatt'ring leaves that Jhadow'd us in our 
Profperity, with the leaft guft drop off 
In the autumn of adverfky." STEEVENS. 

5 that poor rag,] If we read poor rogue, it will correfpond, 

father better to what follows. JOH NSOK. 

In Richard III. Margaret calls Glolter rag of honour ; and in 
the fame play, the overweening rags of France are mentioned. 
The old reading, 1 believe, Ihould ftand. STEEVENS. 

6 Thou hadft been knave and flatterer.] Dryden has quoted two 
verfes of Virgil to (hew how well he could have written fatircs, 
Shakefpeare has here given a fpccimen of the fame power by a 
line bitter beyond all bitternefs, in which Timon tells Apeman- 
tus, that he had not virtue enough for the vices which he con* 

Dr. Warburton explains worft by loweft, which fomewhat 
weakens the fenfe, and yet leaves it fufficiently vigorous. 

I have heard Mr, Burke commend the fubtilty of difcrimina- 
tion with which Shakefpeare diftinguimes the prefent character 
of Timon from that of Apemantus, whom to vulgar eyes he would 
now refemble. JOHNSON. 

Knave is here to be underftood of a man who endeavours to re- 
commend himfelfby a hypocritical appearance of attention, and 
iuperfluity of fawning officioufnefs ; fuch a one as is called in King 



Apem. Art thou proud yet ? 

Tim. Ay, that I am not thee. 

Apem. I, that I was no prodigal. 

"Tim. I, that I am one now : 
Were all the wealth I have, fhut up in thee, 
I'd give thee leave to hang it. Get thee gone, 
That the whole life of Athens were in this ! 
Thus would I eat it. \Eallng a root. 

Apem. Here; I will mend thy feaft. 

[Offering him fame thing. 

Tim. Firft mend my company, take away thyfelf 7 . 

Apem* So I fliall mend my own, by the lack of 

Tim. Tis not well mended fo, it is but botch'd; 
If not, I would it were. 

Apem. What wouldft thou have to Athens ? 

Tim. Thee thither in a whirlwind. If thou wilt, 
Tell them there I have gold ; look, fo I have. 

Apem. Here is no ufe for gold, 

Tim. The beft, and trueft : 
For here it fleeps, and does no hired harm. 

Apem. Where ly'ft o'nights, Timon ? 

Tim. Under that's above me. 
Where feed'ft thou o'days, Apemantus? 

Apem. Where my ftomach finds meat; or, rather, 
where I eat it. 

Tim. 'Would poifon were obedient, and knew my 
mind ! 

Apem. Where wouldft thou fend it? 

Tim. To fauce thy diihes. 

3. finical fuperfervicealle rogue. If he had had virtue enough 
to attain the profitable vices, he would have been profitably vicious. 


7 - take aivay thfilf-] This thought feems to have been 
adopted from Plutarch's life of Antony. It llands thus in Sir 
Tho. North's tranflation. " Apemantus faid unto the other; O, 
here is a trimine banket Timon. Timon aunfvvered againe, yea, 
^aid he, fo tbon wert not here" STEEVENS. 


Apem. The middle of humanity thou never kneweft, 
but the extremity of both ends : When thou waft in 
thy gilt, and thy perfume, they mock'd thee 8 for too 
much curiofity; in thy rags thou knoweft none, but 
art defpis'd for the contrary. There's a medlar for 
thee, eat it 

I'm. On xvhat I hate, I feed not. 

Apem. Doft hate a medlar? 

Tim. 9 Ay, though it look like thee. 

Apem* An thou hadft hated medlers fooner, thou 
ftiouldft have lov'd thyfelf better now. What man 
didft thou ever know unthrjft, that wasbclov'd after 
his means ? 

Tim. Who, without 'thofe means thou talk'fl of, 
didft thou ever know beloved ? 

Apem. Myfeif. 

Tim. I underftand thee; thou had'ft fome means to 
keep a dog. 

8 for too viucb curiofity ;] i. e. for too much finical delicacy. 
The Oxford editor alters it to courtejy. WARBURTON. 

Dr. Warburton has explained the word juftly. So in Jervas 
Markham's Engtijh Arcadia 1606. " for all thofe eye- 
charming graces, of which with fuch curiofity fhe had boafted." 
So in Hobby's tranflation of Caftiglione's Cortegiano, 1556, " A 
waiting gentlewoman fhould flee affeftion or curiojjty." Curiofity is 
here inferted as a fynonyme to affeSlion. which means affectation. 
Curiofity likewife feems to have meant capricioufncfs. So in Greene's 
Mamillia, 1593* " Pharicles hath fhewn me fome curtefy, and 
I have not altogether requited him with curiofity : he hath made 
fome (hew of love, and I have not wholly feemed to miflike." 


9 ^, though it look like tbee.'] Timon here fuppofes that an ob- 
jection againft hatred, which through the whole tenor of the con- 
verfation appears an argument for it. One would have expected, 
him to have anfwered, 

Yes, for it looks like thee. 

The old' edition, which always gives the pronoun iniiead of the 
affirmative particle, has it, 

7, though it look like thee. 
Perhaps we fhould read, 

/ thought /'/ look'd like thee. JOHNSON. 


Apem. What things in the world canft thou neareft 
compare to thy flatterers ? 

Tim. Women neareft ; but men, men are the 
things themfelvcs. What wouldft thou do with the 
world, Apemantus, if it lay in thy power ? 

dpcm. Give it the beafts, to be rid of the men. 

Tim. Wouldft thou have thyfelf fall in the confu- 
fion of men, and remain a beaft with the beafts ? 

Apem. Ay, Tirr.on. 

Tim. A bcaftly ambition, which the gods grant thee 
to attain to ! If thou wert the lion, the fox would be- 
guile thee : if thou wert the lamb, the fox would eat 
thee : if thou wert the fox, the lion would fufpect 
thee, when, perad venture, thou wert accus'd by the 
a is : if thou wert the afs, thy dulnefs would torment 
thee; and (till thou liv'dft but as a breakfaft to the 
wolf: if thou wert the wolf, thy greedinefs would 
afflidt thee, and oft thou fhouldft hazard thy life for 
thy dinner: wert thou the ' unicorn, pride and wrath 
would confound thee, and make thine own felf the 
conqueft of thy fury: wert thou a bear, thou wouldft 
be kill'd by the horfe; wert thou a horfe, thou wouldft 
be feiz'd by the leopard; wert thou a leopard, thou 
wert * german to the lion, and the fpots of thy kindred 
were jurors on thy life : all thy fafety were remo- 
tion'; and tfcy defence, ab fence. What beaft couldft 

1 the unicorn, &c.] The account given of the unicorn is this ; 
that he and the lion being enemies by nature, as foon as the lion 
fees the unicorn hebetates himfelf to a tree: the unicorn in his 
fury, and with all the fwiftnefs of his courfe, running at him, flicks 
his horn faft in the tree, and then the lion falls upon him and kills 
him. Gefner Hijl. Animal. H A N M E R . 

See a note on Julius Ctefar, Ai5t II. Sc. i. STEEVENS. 

* tbouwert german to the tion,~\ This feems to be an allufion to 
Turkifh policy : 

" Bears, like the Turk, no brother near the throne." Pope. 


3 were remotion ;] i. e. removal from place to place. 

'Jo in King Lear; 

"''Tis th.e remotion of the duke and her." STEEVENS. 



thou be, that were notfubject toabeafl? and what a 
beafl art thou already, and feeft not thy lois in trans- 
formation ? 

Apem. If thou couldft pleafe me with fpeaking to 
me, thou might'ft have hit upon it here : The com- 
monwealth of Athens js become a foreft of beafts. 

'Tim. How has the afs broke the wall, that thou art 
out of the city ? 

Apem. Yonder comes a poet, and a painter : The 
plague of company light upon thee! I will fear to 
catch it, and give way : When I know not what elfe 
to do, I'll fee thee again. 

Tim. When there is nothing living but thee, thou 
ihalt be welcome. I had rather be a beggar's dog, 
than Apemantus. 

Apem. 4 Thou art the cap of all the fools alive. 

Tim. 'Would thou wert clean enough to fpitupon. 
5 A plague on thee! 

Apem. Thou art too bad to curfe. 

Tim. All villains, that do ftand by thee, are pure. 

Apem. There is no Ieprofy 5 but what thou fpeak'ft. 

Tim* If 1 name thee. 
I'll beat thee, but I fhould infect my hands. 

Apem. I would my tongue could rot them off! 

Tim. Away, thou iflue of a mangy dog! 
Choler does kill me, that thou art alive; 
} fwoon to fee thee. 

Apem. 'Would thou wouldftburft! 

Tim. Away. 

* Tlou art the cap, &c.] i, e. the property, the bubble. 


I rather think, the/0^, ti\t principal. 
The remaining dialogue has more malignity than wit. 

5 A plague on tbee ! 
Apem. Ibou art ton lad to curfe.'] 

In the former editions, this whole verfe was placed to Apeman- 
tus : by which, abfurdly, he was made to curfe Timon, and imme- 
diately to fubjoin that he was too bad to curfe. Tn EOB ALD. 



Thou tedious rogue! I am forry, I fhall lofe 
A ftone by thee4 

Apem. Beaft ! 

Tim. Slave! 

Apem. Toad ! 

Tim. Rogue, rogue, rogue! 

[Apemantia retreats backward, as going. 
I am fick of this falfe world; and will love nought" 
But even the meer neceffities upon it. 
Then, Timon, prefently prepare thy grave ; 
Lie where the light foam of the fea may beat 
Thy grave- Hone daily : make thine epitaph, 
That death in me at others' lives may laugh. 
O thou fweet king-killer, and dear divorce 

[Looking on the gold* 

6 'Twixt natural fon and fire ! thou bright defiler 
Of Hymen's pureft bed! thou valiant Mars! 
Thou ever young, frefh, lov'd, and delicate wooer, 

7 Whofe blufh doth thaw the confecrated fnow 
That lies on Dian's lap! thou vifible god, 
That folder'ft clofe impoflibilities, 

And mak'ft them kifs ! that fpeak'fl with every 


To every purpofe ! O thou touch 8 of hearts ! 
Think, thy Have man rebels; and by thy virtue 

6 'Twixt natural fon and fire ! ] 

A;. TTO Kx a&A^o'i 

Ata rSro* a TO^;?<. Anac. JoHNSON. 

7 Wljofe llufh doth tha--M the confccra tedfnovi 
That lies on Dian's lap ! ] 

The imagery is here exquifitely beautiful and fublime. 


Dr. Warburton might have faid Here is a very elegant turn 
given to a thought more coarfely exprefled in King Lear : 

*' yon fimpering dame, 

" Whofe face let-wen her forks prefages fnow." 

* O thou touch of hearts!} 7Wr/>, for toucbjlone. 




Set them into confounding odds, that beafls 
May have the world in empire! 

Apem. 'Would 'twere fo ; 

But not 'till I am dead ! Til lay, thou haft gold: 
Thou wilt be throng'd to fhortly. 

Tim. Throng'd to? 

Apem. Ay. 

Tim. Thy back, I pr'ythee. 

Apem. Live, and love thy mifery ! 

Tim. Long live fo, and fo die ! I am quit. 

[Exit Apemantus. 

* More things like men ? Eat, Timon, and abhor 

Enter Thieves -. 

1 Thief. Where fhould he have this gold ? It is 
fome poor fragment, fome flender ore of his remain- 
der :. The meer want of gold, and the falling- from 
of his friends, drove him into this melancholy. 

2, Thief. It is nois'd, he hath a mafs of treafure* 
3 Thief. Let us make the aflay upon him ; if he 

care not for't, he will fupply us cafily ; If he covet- 

oufly referve it, how fhalPs get it ? 

2 Thief. True ; for he bears it not about him, 
'tis hid. 

1 Thief. Is not this he ? 
All. Where ? 

2 Thief. 'Tis his defcription. 

3 Thief. He ; I know him. 
All. Save thee, Timon. 
Tim. Now, thieves ? 

All. Soldiers, not thieves. 

Tim. Both too ; and women's fons. 

1 UTore things like men ? ] This line, in the old edition, 

is given to Apemantus, but it apparently belongs to Timon. 
Hanmer has tranfpoled the Foregoing dialogue according to his 
own mind, not untkilfully, but with unwarrantable licence. 


z Enter Thieves.'} The old copy reads, Enter the Banditti. 




All. We are not thieves, but men that much do want. 
Tim. Your greateft want is, J you want much of 


Why fhould you want? Behold *, the earth hath roots; 
Within this mile break forth an hundred fprings ; 
The oaks bear maftj the briars fcarlet hips ; 
The bounteous hufwife, nature, on each bufh 
Lays her full mefs before you. Want ? why want ? 
i Thief. We cannot live on grafs, on berries, water, 
As beafis, and birds, and fifties. 

Tim. Nor on the beafts themfelves, the birds, and 

3 - you want much <7/"meat.] Thus both the player and 
poetical editor have given us this paflage ; quite fand-blind, as 
honeft Launcelot fays, to our author's meaning. If thefe poor- 
thieves wanted meat, what greater want could they be curfed with, 
as they could not live on grafs, and berries, and water? but I 
dare warrant the poet wrote, 

' you much want of meet. 

5. e. Much or what you ought to be ; much of the qualities &e- 
fitting you as human creatures. THEOBALD. 

Such is Mr. Theobald's emendation, in which he is followed 
by Dr. Warburton. Sir T. Hanmer reads, 

you want much of men. 

They have been all bufy without neceflity. Obferve the feries of 
the converfation. The thieves tell him, that they are men that 
much do want. Here is an ambiguity between much want and 
want of much, Timon takes it on the wrong fide, and tells them 
that their greateft want is, that, like other men, they want much 
of meat ; then telling them where meat may be had, he alks, 
ffant? why want? JOHNSON. 

Perhaps we fhould read, your greateft want is that you want 
much ot me rejecting the two laft letters of the word. The 
fenfe will then be your greateft want is that you expect fupplie* 
of me from whom you can reafonably expect nothing. Your ne- 
ceffities are indeed defperate, when you apply for relief to one io 
'my fituation. STEEVENS. 

the earth hath roots, &cc.~\ 

Vile oluSy et (fun's hterentia mora rubetis 

Pugtiantis ftomacbi cotnpojuere famem : 


I do not fuppofe thefe to be imitations, but only to be fimilar 
thoughts on limilar occalions. JOHNSON. 



You mufl eat men. Yet thanks I muft you con ^ 
That you are thieves profeft ; that you work not 
In holier fhapes : for there is boundlefs theft 

* In limited profeffions. Rafcal thieves, 

Here's gold : Go, fuck the fubtle blood o' the grape^ 
'Till the high fever feeth your blood to froth, 
And fo 'fcape hanging : trull not the phyfician ; 
His antidotes are poilbn, and he flays 
More than -you rob : 7 take wealth and lives to- 
gether ; 

Do villainy, do, fince you profefs to do't, 
Like workmen : I'll example you with thievery. 
The fun's a thief, and with his great attraction 
Robs the vaft fea : the moon's an arrant thief, 
And her pale fire Ihe fnatches from the fun ; 

* The fea's a thief, vvhofe liquid furge refolves 


5 Yet thanks I mitft you con,} To con thanks is a very 

common expreffion among our old dramatic writers. So in the 
Story of King Darius, i ^65, an interlude : 

*' Yea and well faid, 1 con you no thanke." 

Again, in Pierce Pennilcfs his Supplication to the Devil, ly Nafli, 
1595 : " It is well done to pra&ife thy wit; but 1 believe our 
lord will con tbee little thanks for it." STE EVENS. 

6 In. limited proftjjiom. Limited, for legal. 


7 take wealth and life together.} Hanmer. The firft 

copy has, 

take wealth and lives together. 
The later editors gave it, 

take wealth and live together. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps we ihould read . 

. he flays 

More than you rob, takes wealth and lives together. 


8 The fea* s a thief, ivhofe liquid furge refolves 

The moon into fait tears. 

The fea melting the moon into tears, is, I believe, a fecret in phi- 
lofophy, which no body but Shakeipeare's deep editors ever 
dreamed of. There is another opinion, which, 'tis more reafon- 
able to believe that our author may allude to, viz. that the faltnefs 
of the fea is caufed by fsveral ranges, or moundi of rock-falt under 



The moon into fait tears ; the earth's a thief, 
That feeds and breeds by a compofture ' ftolen 


water, with which refolding liquid the fea was impregnated. This 
J think a fufficient authority tor changing modi into mounds. 


I am not willing to receive mounds, which would not be under- 
flood but by him that fuggefted it. The moon is fuppofed to be 
humid, and perhaps a iburce ot humidity, but cannot be refolded 
by the /urges of the fea. Yet I think moon is the true reading. 
Here is a circulation or thievery defcribed ; The fun, moon, and 
fea all rob, and are robbed. JOHNSON. 

Mounds is too far-tetch'd. He lays fimply, that the//;, the 
moon, and thcjea t rob one another by turns, but the earth robs 
them all : the leas, i. e. liquid /urge , by Supplying the moon with 
moifture, robs her in turn of the/aft tears or'^-zi; which the poets 
always fetch from this planet. Haft tor fait is an ealy change. 
In this fenfe Milton fpe:.ks of her ,noi/l continent, Par. Loft, b. V. 
1. 422. And, in Hamlet, Horatio fays : 

" theawj^ftar 

* Upon whole influence Neptune's empire (lands. 


The moon is the governefs of the floods, " but cannot be re- 
folved by the furges of the fea." This feems inconteftable, and 
therefore an alteration of the text appears to be necelTary. 1 pro- 
pofe to read : 

- tuhoje liquidfuryc rcfolves 

The main into fait tears ; - 

\. e. refolves the main land or the continent into fea. In Bacon, 
and alfo in Shakefpeare's King Lear, act. III. fc. i, main occurs 
in this fignification, and the earth is mentioned in the preceding 
line, as here it is in the fame verfe : 

" Bids the wind blow the earth into the fea, 

" Or fwell the curled waters 'bove .the mai/i." 
The thought is like that in Ovid's Metamorpbojls, lib. xv : 

" refolutaquc tellus 

" In liquidaS rorefcit aquas :" 
which Sandys thus tranilatcs : 

" Refolved earth to water rarifies." 

Earth melting to fea is not an uncommon idea in our poets* S& 
in Ben Jonfon, edit. 1756, vol. v. p. 381 : 

" Melt earth to fea, fea flow to air." 

So, in Shakefpeare's King Henry IV. part II. aft III. fc. i. 
" The continent melt itfelf into the lea." I might add that iii 
Chaucer, matte, which is very near to the traces of the old read- 
ing, leems to mean the globe oi the earth, or a map of it, front 
VOL. VIII. i the 


From general excrement : each thing's a thief ; 
The laws, your curb and whip, in their rough powef 


the French, monde, the world ; but I think main is the true read- 
ing here, and might eafily be miftaken for moon by a haity tran- 
fcriber, or a carelefs printer, who might have in their thoughts 
the moon, which is mentioned in a preceding line. TOLLET. 

I cannot fay lor a certainty whether Albumazar or this play was 
firft written, as Timor: made its earlieft appearance in the folio, 
1623. Between Albumazar and the Akbcmifi there has been 
iikewife a conteft for the right of elderihip. The original of 
Albumazar was an Italian comedy called Lo Af.rologo, written by 
Battiita Porta, the famous phyfiognomift of Naples, and printed 
at Venice in 1606. The trnnllator is laid to have been a Mr* 
Tomkins, a Fellow of Trinity College. The Aldymijl was 
brought on in 1-6 r o, which is four years before Albumazar was per- 
formed for the entertainment of King James ; and Ben Jonfon in 
his title-page boldly claims the merit of having introduced a new 
fuhjec"t and new characters on the ftage : 

- pet ere coronam 

JJnde prius nulli velar int tempora miife* 

The play of Allumazar was not entered on the books of the Sta- 
tioners' Company till April 28, i6i_f. In Albumazar, however, 
iuch examples of thievery likewife occur : 

7 "be Wffrtfs a theatre of theft : Great rivers 

Robfmaller brooks ; and them the ocean. 

And in this world of ours, this mieroccfm, 

Guts from thefton:acbj!cal\ and what ibey fpare 

*Tbe weferaicksjilcb, and lay't z' tie liver ; 

mere (left itjbonld be found) turned to red nefiar, 

9 Tis by a tboufand tbic'vijh veins conveyed, 

Andbid inflejb) nerve:, loncs, mufctes, 

In tendons, Jkin, find bair\ fo tbat the properly 
Thus alter' J, the theft can never be dlfcovcfd. 
NOVJ all tbefc pilfer ies, couctfd, and compos 'din order ', 
Frame tbee and me : Man's a quick mafs of tbie-very. 


Puttenham, in his Ai-teof Englijl) Porji?, 1589, quotes fome one 
of a " reafon able good facilitie in tranfl^tion, who finding certains 
of Anacreon's odes very well tranllated by Ronfard the French 
poet corjjes-dur minion, and tranflates the lame out of French 
into Englifh. :" and his itridures upon him evince the publica- 
tion. Now this identical ode is to be met with in Ronfard ! and 
as his works are in few hands, I will take the liberty of tranf- 
cribing it. 


Have uncheck'd thefr. Love not yourfelves ; away ; 
Rob one another. There's more gold : Cutthroats; 
All that you meet are thieves : To Athens, go, 
Break open Ihops ; nothing can you fteal, 
But thieves do lofe it : Steal not lefs, for this 
I give you ; and gold confound you howfoever ! 
Amen. [Exit. 

3 Thief. He has almoft charm' d me from my pro- 
feffion, by perfuading me to it. 

i Thief. l 'Tis in the malice of mankind, that he 
thus advifes us ; not to have us thrive in our myftery. 

2, Thief. I'll believe him as an enemy, and give 
over my trade. 

i Thief. 3 Let us firft fee peace in Athens : There 
is no time fo miferable, but a man may be true. 


'* La terre les eaux va boivantj 
L'arbre la boit par fa racine, 
La mer falee boit le vent, 
Et le foleil boit la marine. 
Le foleil eft beu de la lune, 
Tout boit foit en haut ou en bast 
Suivant cefte reigle commune, 
Pourcjuoy done ne boirons-nous pas ?" 

Edit. fol. p. 507. 
mi- i ly a compoflnre ] i. e. compofition, comport. 


a 'Tis in the malice of 'mankind, that he thus advifes us ; not to havf 
tis thrive in our my fiery. "\ i. e. 'Tis the common malice of mankind 
that makes one give fuch advice to another, as may prove to his 
detriment. One would think this eafy enough. But the Oxford 
editor reads, 'Tis in his malice to mankind, that he thus advifes us t 
not to have us thrive in our myjlery. Which is making compleat 
nonfenfe of the whole reflection : For if Timon gave this advice 
out of his malice to his fpecies, he was in earneft, and fo far from 
having any defign that they Jbould not thrive in their myjtery, that 
his utmoft wifhwas that they might. WAR BURTON. 

Hanmer's emendation, though not neceflary, is very probable, 
and very unjuftly charged with nonfenfe. The reafon of his ad- 
vice, fays the thief, is malice to mankind^ not any kindnefs to us, or 
defire to have MS thrive in our myftery. JOHNSON. 

3 Let us firft fee peace in Athens, &c.] This and the concluding 

little fpccch have in all the editions been placed to oue fpcaker : 

F f a But, 

A C T V. S C E N E I. 

ks tt'oofc, and Timotfs Cave. 
Enter Flavius. 

flav. O you gods ! 

Is yon defpis'd and ruinous man my lord ? 
Full of decay and failing ? O monument 
And wonder of good deeds evilly beftow'd ! 

4 \Vhat an alteration of honour has 
Defperate want made ! 

What viler thing upon the earth, than friends, 
\Vho can bring nobleft minds to bafeft ends ! 

5 How rarely does it meet with this time's guife, 

6 When man was wifh'd to lave his enemies : 

7 Grant, I may ever love, and rather woo 

Thofe that would mifchief me, than thole that do ! 


But, it is evident, the latter words ought to be put in the mouth 
of theylvtf.'jJ thier, who is repenting, and leaving off his trade. 


4 J?7jat change nf honour defperate want has made!] We fhould 

Hljat an alteration of humour WAR BUR TON*. 
The original copy has, 

// 'bat an alteration of honour has defter at a want made ! 
The prefect reading is certainly better, but it has no a-jthority. 
To change honour to humour is not necellary. An alteration of ho~ 
nour^ is an alteration or an honourable Jltite\& a irate 01 di'^race. 


I have replaced the oU reading. STEEVENS. 
5 HO--V rarely docs it meet ] Rarely for fitly ; not for L I 


When man was wifli'd ] We (hould read "jjiWd. He for- 
gets his 1'agan lyltem here again. WAR EUR TON. 
7 Grant, I may eve i~ love ^ andratherwoo 
Ybrfc that would mifchief me, than thofethat do !] 
But why fo ? Was there ever iuch an als, I mean, as the tranfcribci: ? 
Shakefpeare wrote it < 



He has caught me in his eye : I will prefent 
My honeft grief unto him ; and, as my lord, 
Still fcrvc him with my life. My deareft matter ! 

Timon comes forward from kh cave. 

Tim. Away ! what art thou ? 

Flav. Have you forgot me, fir ? 

2V;#. Why doit afk that ? I have forgot all 

men ; 

Then, if thou grant'ft thou art a man, I have 
Forgot thee. 

Flav. An honed poor fervant of yours. 

5T/V/7. Then I know thee not : 
I ne'er had honell man about me, I ; nil 
I kept were * knaves, to ferve in meat to villains. 

tl&Q* The gods are witnefs, 

Graaf t I mry c-.-cr !ovc t and rather too, 
Thcfe that would mifchief me, than tkJe that WOO ! 
The fteward, affected with his matter's misiortune and meditating 
on the caufe o. it, lays, What an excellent prcc.-p: is that of loving 
our enemies ; grant that I might love them tochule, rather than 
flatterers. Ail here is fenfible, and to the purpofe, and makes 
the whole coherent. But when once the transcriber:; had blundered 
too to ivoff in the fir ft line, they were obliged, in their own defence^ 
in the Second line, to alter ivoo to do. WAS! BUS. TON. 

In defiance of this criticifm, I have ventured to replace the for- 
mer reading, as more Suitable to the general ipiritof theSe fcenes, 
and as Iree from the absurdities charged upon it. It is plain, 
that in this whole Speech friends and cvanies are taken only for 
thofe who f-rpfcfs JrlendJJnp znA proftfs enmity; fot the friend 13 
Juppoied not to be more kind, but more dangerous than the enemy. 
In the emendation, tboj'e that would mifcbief are placed in oppo- 
lition to thoj't -two, but in the ipeaker's intention tbofe that --MOO 
are tboje that mijchiff molt. The fen fe is, Let me rather ivoo or 
carefs tlofe that would mifcbief^ that proieis to mean me mifchief, 
than thrfe that really do me mijlbief under falfe prof rjjiom of kindncfe. 
The Spaniards, I think, have this proverb ; Defend me front 
n:y friends, and from my enemies I will defend myfelf. This pro- 
verb is a iurh'cient comment on the paflage. JOHNSON. 

* Knave is here in the compound iente of a Jlrvant and a 
rafcal. JOHNSON. 

F f 3 Ne'er 


Ne'er did poor fteward wear a truer grief 
For his undone lord, than mine eyes for you. 

Tiff:. What, doll thou weep? Come nearer;--- 

then I love thee, 

Becaufe thou art a woman, and difclaim'ft 
Flinty mankind ; whofe eyes do never give, 
But thorough luft, and laughter. 9 Pity's fleeping : 
Strange times, that weep with laughing, not with 
weeping ! 

Flav. I beg of you to know me, good my lord, 
To accept my grief, and, whilft this poor wealth 

To entertain me as your fteward ftill. 

Tim. ' Had I a fteward 
So true, fo juft, and now fo comfortable ? 
1 It almoft turns my dangerous nature wild. 

9 Pity's fleeping :] I do not know that any correction is 
neceffaiy, but I think we might read : 

eyes do never give, 

But thorough luft and laughter, pityjlteping : 

Eyes never flow (to^/wis to diflblve as faline bodies in moifl 
weather) but by luft or laughter^ undifturbed by emotions of pity. 


1 // almoft turns my dangerous nature wild.] i. e. It almolt turns 
my dangerous nature to a dangerous nature ; for, by dangerous 
nature is meant veiUnefs, Skakefpeare wrote, 

// almojl turns my dangerous nature mild. 

i. e. It almolt reconciles me again to mankind. For fear of that, 
he puts in a caution immediately after, that he makes an excep- 
tion but for one man. To which the Oxford editor fays, refle. 


This emendation is fpccious, but even this may be controvert- 
ed. To turn wild is to di,ha?l. An appearance fo unexpected, 
fays Timon, almojt turns my favagcnefs to diilra&ion. Accord- 
ingly he examines with nicety left his phrenzy fliould deceive 

Let me behold tlyface. Surely this ma-t 
Was born of woman. 
And to this fufpected diforder of rnind he alludes': 

Perpetual-fober, gods! 

Ye powers whofe intellects are out of the reach of perturbation. 


8 Let 


Let me behold thy face. Surely, this man 

Was born of woman. 

Forgive my general and exceptlefs raflinefs, 

Perpetual-fobcr gods ! I do proclaim 

One honefl man, miftake me not, But one ; 

No more, I pray, and he is a fteward. 

How fain would I have hated all mankind, 

And thou redeem'ft thyfdf ; But all, fave thee, 

I fell with curfes. 

Methinks, thou art more honeft now, than wife; 

For, by oppreffing and betraying me, 

Thou might'fl have fooner got another fervice : 

For many fo arrive at fecond mailers, 

Upon their firth lord's neck. But tell me true, 

(For I mufl ever doubt, though ne'er fo fure) 

Is not thy kindnefs fubtle, covetous, 

1 If not a ufuring kindnefs ; and as rich men deal gifts, 

Expecting in return twenty for one ? 

Flav* No, my mod worthy matter, in whofe breaft 
Doubt and fufpccl, alas, are plac'd too late : 
You Ihould have fear'd falfe times > when you didfeaft : 
Sufpedt ftill comes where an eftate is lead. 
That which I mew, heaven knows, is merely love, 
Duty and zeal to your unmatched mind, 
Care of your food and living : and, believe it, 
My mod honoured lord, 
For any benefit that points to me, 
Either in hope, or prefent, I'd exchange it 
For this one wilh, That you had power and wealth 
To requite me, by making rich yourfelf. 

Tim. Look thee, 'tis fo ! Thou fingly honeft man, 
Here, take; the gods out of my mifery 
Have fent thee treaiure. Go, live rich, and happy : 

1 If KOI a ufuring ] If not feems to have flipt in here, by 
an error of the prefs, from the preceding line. Both the fenle and 
metre would be better without it. TYRWHITT. 

F f 4 But 


But thus condition'd ; Thou fhalt build * from men ; 
Hate all, curfe all : {hew charity to none ; 
But let the famifh'd flefhilide from the bone, 
Ere thou relieve the beggar : give to dogs 
What thou deny'ft to men ; let prifons fwallow 'em, 
3 Debts wither 'em to nothing : Be men like blafled 


And may difeafes lick up their falfe bloods ! 
And fo, farewel, and thrive. 

Flav. O, let me flay, and comfort you, my mailer. 

Tim. If thou hat 'ft curfes, 

Stay not ; but fly, whilfl thou art bleft and free : 
JvVer fee thou man, and let me ne'er fee thee. 

[Exeunt feveratly. 


The fame. 
* Enter Poet, and Painter, 

Pain. As I. took note of the place, it cannot be far 
\vhere he abides, 


* from men \~\ Away from human habitations. JOHNSON* 

3 Debts wither them.] Debts wither them to nothing. Folio. 


I have replaced the reading of the folio. STEEVENS. 

* Enter Poet and Painter, ] The Poet and the Painter were with- 
in view when Apemantus parted from Timon, and might then 
have feen Timon, fince Apemantus, ftanding by him could 
lee them : But the fcenes of the thieves and ileward have patted 
before their arrival, and yet patted, as the drama is now conduct- 
ed, within their view. It might be fufpefted that fome fcenes are 
tranfpofed, for all thefe difficulties would be removed by intrq- 
ducing the Poet and Painter firft, and the thieves in this place. 
Yet I am afraid the fcenes muft keep their prefent order ; for the 
Painter alludes to the thieves when he fays, he likewife enriched 
poor firaggling foldiers with great quantity. This impropriety is 
now heightened by placing the thieves in one aft, and the Poet 
and Painter in another : but it muft be remembered, that in the 
original edition this play is ftot divided into feparate acts,, fo that 



Poet. What's to be thought of him ? Does the ru- 
mour hold for true, that he is fo full of gold ? 

Pain. Certain : Alcibiades reports it ; Phrynia and 
Tymandrahad gold of him : he likewife enrich'd poor 
{haggling foldiers with great quantity : "Pis faid, he 
gave his fteward a mighty fum. 

Poet. Then this breaking of his has been but a try 
for his friends ? 

Pain. Nothing elfe : you fhall fee him a palm in 
Athens again, and flouriihwith the higheft. There- 
fore, 'tis not amifs, we tender our loves to him, in 
this fuppos'd diftrefs of his : it will fhew honeftly in 
us ; and is very likely to load our purpofes with what 
they travel for, if it be a juft and true report that goes 
of his having. 

Poet. What have you now to prefent unto him ? 

Pain. Nothing at this time but my vilitation : only 
I will promife him an excellent piece. 

Poet. I mult ferve him fo too ; tell him of an intent 
that's coming toward him. 

Pa'm, Good as the belt. Promifing is the very air 
o' the time ; it opens the eyes of expectation : per- 
formance is ever the duller for his adt ; and, but in 
the plainer and fimpler kind of people, 5 the deed of 
faying is quite out of ufe. To promife is molt court-- 

the prefent diftribution is arbitrary, and may be changed if any 
convenience can be gained, or impropriety obviated by alteration. 


s tic deed is ] In the old edition : the deed of faying is 

quite out of ufe. JOHNSON. 

The old copy has been, I apprehend unneceflarily, departed 
from. The deed of faying, though a harfh expreilion, is perfectly 

intelligible, and much in Shakefpeare's manner. The doing of 

that which we have faid we would e/a, the accomplijhment and per- 
formance of our promjfe, fs, cx:cpt among the lower claJJl'S of 
kind, quite out of ufe. So, in Hamlet : 

*' As he, in his peculiar art and force, 
" May give hisjayine deed." MAI.ONE. 
J have rcitored the old reading. STEEYENS. 


ly and fafhionabie : performance is a kind of will, or 
teftament, which argues a great ficknefs in his judg- 
ment that makes it. 

Re- enter Timon from bis cave, unfeen* 

< ?im. Excellent workman ! Thou canfl not paint a 
man ib bad as thyfelf. 

Poet. I am thinking, what I ihall fay I have provided 
for him : 6 It muft be a perfonating of himfelf : a 
latire againft the foftnefs of profperity ; with a dif- 
covery of the infinite flatteries, that follow youth and 

Ttm. Muft thou needs fland for a villain in thine 
own work ? Wilt thou whip thine own faults in other 
men ? Do fo, I have gold for thee. 

Poet. Nay, let's feek him : 
Then do we fin againft our own eftate, 
When we may profit meet, and come too late. 

Pain. True ; 

7 When the day ferves, before black-corner'd night, 


It muft be a perfonating of himfelf : ] Perfonating, for 

reprefenting fimply. For the fubjedt or this projected fatire was 
Timon's cafe , not l\\sfc>fon. WAR BURTON. 

7 Wljen the day fen es, before black-corner'd night,] We fiiould 

black cornette night. 

A cornette is a woman's head-drefs for the night. So, in another 
place he calls her black-brow' d night. WARBURTON. 

Black-corner* d night is probably corrupt, but black cornette can 
liardly be right, for it fhould be llack-cometted night. I cannot 
propofe any thing, but muft leave the place in its prefent (late. 


An anonymous correfpondent fent me this obfervation : "As 
the fhadowof the earth's body, which is round, muft be neceflari- 
ly conical over the hemifphere which is oppofite to the fun, fhould 
we not read Hack-coned? See ParaJife Loft^ book IV." 

To this obfervation I might add a fentence from Philemon Hol- 
land's tranflation of Pliny's Natural Hijlory, b. ii : " Neither is 
th night any thing elfe but the (hade of the earth. Now the fi- 


Find what them want'ft by free and offer'd light. 

Tim. I'll meet you at the turn. What a god's 


That he is worihipp'd in a bafer temple, 
Than where fwine feed ! 

'Tis thou that rigg'ft the bark, and plow'ft the foam; 
Settleft admired reverence in a flave : 
To thee be worlhip ! and thy faints for aye 
Be crown'd with plagues, that thee alone obey ! 
Fit I meet them. 

Poet. Hail ! worthy Timon. 

Pain. Our late noble matter. 

Tim. Have I once liv'd to fee two honefl men ? 

Poet. Sir, 

Having often of your open bounty tafted, 
Hearing you were retir'd, your friends fall'n off, 
Whofe thanklefs natures O abhorred fpirits ! 
Not all the whips of heaven are large enough 
What ! to you ! 

Whofe flar-like noblenefs gave life and influence 
To their whole being! I am rapt, and- cannot cover 
The monftrous bulk of this ingratitude 
With any fize of words. 

Tim. 8 Let it go naked, men may fee't the better : 
You, that are honeft, by being what you are, 
Make them belt feen, and known. 

gure of this lhadow refembleth a pyramis pointed forward, or a 
top turned upfide down." 

I believe, neverthelefs, that Shakefpeare, by this expreflion , 
meant only, Night which is as obfcure as a dark corner. In Mea* 
fure for Meafure , Lucio calls the Duke, " a duke of dark corners" 


8 Let It go naked, men mayfce'tthe better:] The humour of this 
reply is incomparable. It infinuates not only the higheft con- 
tempt of the flatterer in particular, but this ufeful leflbn in general, 
that the images of things are cleareft feen through a fimplicity of 
phrafe ; of which, in the words of the precept, and in thofe which 
occafion'd it, he has given us examples. WAR.BUR.TON. 


Pain. He, and myfelf, 

Have travell'd in the great fhower of your gifts, 
And fweetly felt it. 

Tim. Ay, you are honeft men. 

Pain. We are hither come to offer you our fervice. 

Tim. Moft honeft men ! Why, how lhall I requite 

you ? 
Can you eat roots, and drink cold water ? no. 

Both. What we can do, we'll do, to do you fer- 

Tim. You are honeft men : You have heard that 

I have gold ; 

I am fure, you have : fpeak truth : you are honeft 

Pain. So it is faid, my noble lord : but therefore 
Came not my friend, nor I. 

Tim. Good honeft men : Thou draw'ft a counter- 
feit s> 

Beft in all Athens : thou art, indeed, the beft; 
Thou counterfeit'!! moft lively. 

Pain. So, fo, my lord. 

Tim. Even fo, fir, as I fay : And, for thy fiftion, 

[To the Poet. 

Why, thy verfe fvvells with ftufffo fine and fmooth, 
That thou art even natural in thine art. 
But, for all this, my honeft-natur' d friends, 
I muft needs fay, you have a little fault: 
Marry, 'tis not monftrous in you; neither wifh I, 
You take much pains to mend. 

Both. Befeech your honour 
To make it known to us. 

Tim. You'll take it ill. 

9 ' a counterfeit] It has been already obferved, that afar* 
trait was fo called in our author's time. 

" What find I here r 

" Fair Portia's counterfeit!" Merchant of Venice. 




Both. Moft thankfully, my lord. 

Tim. Will you, indeed? 

Both. Doubt it not, worthy lord. 

'Tim. There's ne'er a one of you but trufls a knave, 
That mightily deceives you. 

Both. Do we, my lord ? 

'Tim. Ay, and you hear him cog, fee him difiemble, 
Know his grofs patchery, love him, feed him, 
Keep in your bolbm : yet remain affur'd, 
That he's a ' made-up villain. 

Pain. I know none fuch, my lord. 

Poet. Nor I. 

Tim. Look you, I love you well; I'll give you gold, 
Rid me thefe villains from your companies: 
Hang them, or ftab them, drown them * in a draught^ 
Confound them by fome conrfe, and come to me, 
I'll give you gold enough. 

Both. Name them, my lord, let's know them. 

'Tim. You that way, and you this. But two in 


villain.] That Is a villain that adopts qualities 
and chara&ers not properly belonging to him ; a hypocrite. 


* . in a draught,] That is, in the Jakes. JOHNSON. 

3 But tvco in company] This is an imperfeft fentcnce, 
and is to be fupplied thus, But two in company fpc Us all. WARE. 

This pafTagc is obfcure. I think the meaning is this : but two 
in company, that is, ftand apart, let only two be together for even 
when each ftands (ingle there are two, he himfelt and a villain. 


But, in the North, figmfies, without. See a note on Antony 
and Cleopatra, aft IV. 

This paflage may likewife receive fome illuftration from an- 
other in the Yivo Gentlemen of Verona. *' My mafter is a kind of 
knave ; but that's all one, if he be but one knave. The fenfe is, 
each man is a double villain, \. e. a villain with more than a fingle 
fhare of guilt. See Dr. Farnur's note on the third aft of the Two 
Gentlemen of 1'trona, &c. Again, in Pi amoi andCajJandra, 1578. 
'* Go, and a kna--e with thsc." Ag-in, in The btorye of King 
1565, an interlude' ; 

" - if 


Each man apart, all fmgle, and alone, 
Yet an arch-villain keeps him company. 
If, where thou art, two villains fhall not be, 

[To the Painter. 
Come not near him. If thou wouldft not refide 

[To the Poet. 

But where one villain is, then him abandon. 
Hence ! pack ! there's gold, ye came for gold, ye 

Haves : 

You have work for me, there is payment : Hence ! 
You are an alchymift, make gold of that : 
Out, rafcal dogs ! [Exit, beating and driving them out* 


Enter Flavius, and two Senators. 

Flav. It is in vain that you would fpeak with 

Timon ; 

For he is fet fo only to himfelf, 
That nothing, but himfelf, which looks like man, 
Is friendly with him. 

1 Sen. Bring us to his cave : 

It is our part, and promife to the Athenians, 
To fpeak xvith Timon. 

2 Sen. At all times alike 

Men are not dill the fame : 'Twas time, and griefs, 
That fram'd him thus : time, with his fairer hand, 
Offering the fortunes of his former days, 
The former man may make him : Bring us to him, 
And chance it as it may. 

Flav. Here is his cave. 
Peace and content be here ! Lord Timon ! Timon ! 

" if you needs will go away, 

" Take t-ivo knaves with you by my taye." 
There is a thought not unlike this in The Scornful Lady of Beau* 
Jnont and Fletcher." Take to your chamber when you pleale, 
there goes a btack one with you, lady." STEEYENS. 



Look out, and fpeak to friends : The Athenians, 
By two of their moft reverend fenate, greet thee: 
Speak to them, noble Timon. 

Enter Timon. 

Tim. Thou fun, that comfort'ft, burn! Speak, 

and be hang'd ! 

For each true word, ablifler, and each falfe 
Be as a cauterizing 4 to the root o* the tongue, 
Confuming it with fpeaking! 

1 Sen. Worthy Timon, 

Tim. Of none but fuch as you, and you of Timon. 

2 Sen. The fenators of Athens greet thee, Timon. 
Tim. I thank them; and would fend them back 

the plague, 
Could I but catch it for them. 

1 Sen. O, forget 

What we are forry for ourfelves in thee. 

The fenators, with one confent of love, 

Intreat thee back to Athens ; who have thought 

On fpecial dignities, which vacant lie 

For thy beft ufe and wearing. 

2 Sen. They confefs, 

Toward thee, forgetfulnefs too general, grofs : 

5 And now the publick body, which doth feldom 
Play the recanter, feeling in itfelf 

A lack of Timon's aid, hath fenfe withal 

6 Of its own fall, 7 reftraining aid to Timon; 


* a cauterizing] The old copy reads, cantoerizing\ the 
poet might have written, cancerizing. STEEVENS. 

5 And now ] So Hanmer. The old editions have, 

Which no-vj - JOHNSON. 

* Of its o-tvn fall. ] The Oxford editor alters fall to 

fault, not knowing that Shakeipeare ufes fall to fignify difhonour, 
not deftruftion. So in Hamlet, 

What a falling off was there ! WARBURTOV. 
The truth is, that neither fall means difgrace, nor Is fault a ne- 
ceflary emendation, falling ojf'm the quotation is not difgrace 



And fends forth us, to make their forrowed render s , 
Together with a recompence more fruitful 
9 Than their offence can weigh down by the dram ; 
Ay, even fuch heaps andfums of love and wealth, 
As mall to thee blot out what wrongs were theirs, 
And write in thee the figures of their love, 
Ever to read them thine. 

'Tim. You witch me in it; 
Surprize me to the very brink of tears : 
Lend me a fool's heart, and a woman's eyes^ 
And I'll beweep thefe comforts, worthy fenators. 

i Sen. Therefore, fo pleafe thee to return with us, 
And of our Athens (thine, and ours) to take 
The captainfhip, thou fhalt be met with thanks, 
* Allow'd with abfolute power, and thy good name 


but defection. The Athenians hadfcnfc, that is, felt the danger of 
their own fall, by the arms of Alcibiades. JOHNSON. 

7 retraining aid to Timon ; j I think it ftiould be re- 
fraining aid, that is, wkh-holding aid thatfhould have been given 
/oTimon. JOHNSOX. 

8 forrowed render,] Thus the old copy. Render is con* 

fejjion. So in Cymbeline, aft IV. fc. ir. 

** may drive us to a render 

" Where we have liv'd." 
The modern editors read tender. S TEE v ENS. 

9 Than their offence can iveigh down ly the dram ; ] This which 
was in the former editions can fcarcely be right, and yet I know 
not whether my reading will be thought to reftify it. I take the 
meaning to be, We will give thee a recompence that our offences 
cannot outweigh, heaps of wealth down by the dram, or delivered 
according to the exafteft meafure. A little diforder may per- 
haps have happened in tranlcribing, which may be reformed by 
reading : 

'Ay, cv 'n fuch heaps 
Andfums of love and wealth, dawn ly the dram, 

As fyall to thee JOHNSON. 

1 Allow'd with abfolute power, ] This is neither Englilk 

nor fenfe. We fhould read, 

Hallow'd with alfolute power, 

i. e. Thy perfon fhall be held/rt-m/. For abfolute power being 
an attribute of the Gods, the ancients thought that he who had it, 



Live with authority : fo foon (hall we drive back 
Of Alcibiades the approaches wild; 
Who, like a boar too favage, doth root up 
His country's peace. 

2 Sen. And makes his threat'ning fvvord 
Againfl the walls of Athens. 
i Sen. Therefore, Timon, 

Tim. Well, fir, I will; therefore I will, fir; Thus,. 
If Alcibiades kill my countrymen, 
Let Alcibiades know this of Timon, 
That Timon cares not. But if he fack fair Athens, 
And take our goodly aged men by the beards, 
Giving our holy virgins to the ftain 
Of contumelious, beaftly, mad-brain'd war; 
Then let him know, and, tell him, Timon fpeaks it, 
In pity of our aged, and our youth, 
I cannot choofe but tell him, that I care not, 
And let him take't at word ; for their knives care not, 
While you have throats to anfwer : for myfelf, 
There's not a whittle z in the unruly camp, 
But I do prize it at my love, before 
The reverend'ft throat in Athens. So I leave you 
To the protection of the profperous gods, 
As thieves to keepers. 

Flav. Stay not, all's in vain. 

Tim. Why, I was writing of my epitaph, 
It will be feen to-morrow ; 3 My long ficknefs 

in fociety was become facred, and his perfon inviolable : Ott 
which account the Romans called the tribunitial power of the em- 
perors, fac rofantta poteftas. WAR BUR TON. 

Allowed is liccnfed, privileged^ uncontrolled. So of a buffoon, in 
Love's Labour loft, it is faid, that he is allowed, that is, at liberty 
to fay what he will, a privileged fcoffer. JOHNSON. 

* There's not a whittle in tb' unruly car?p.~\ A whittle is (till 
in the midland counties the common name for a pocket clafp 
knife, fuch as children ufe. Chaucer fpeaks of a " Sheffield 
tbwittell." STEEVEN?. 

3 My long Jicknefs] The difeafe of life begins to promife 

me a period. JOHNSON. - 

VOL. VIII. G * Of 


Of health, and living, now begins to mend, 
And nothing brings me all things. Go, live flill ; 
Be Alcibiades your plague, you his, 
And laft fo long enough ! 

i Sen. We fpeak in vain. 

27/. But yet 1 love my country; and am not 
One that rejoices in the common wreck, 
As common bruit doth put it. 

i Sen. That's well fpoke. 

Tim. Commend me to my loving countrymen, 

1 Sen. Thefe words become your lips as they pafs 

through them. 

2 Sen. And enter in our ears, like great triumphers 
In their applauding gates. 

Tim. Commend me to them ; 
And tell them, that, to eafe them of their griefs, 
Their fears of hoftile ftrokes, their aches, lofles, 
Their pangs of love, with other incident throes 
That nature's fragil veflel doth- fuftain 
In life's uncertain voyage, I will fome kindnefs da 

them : 
I'll teach them to prevent wild Alcibiades' wrath. 

2 Sen. I like this well, he will return again. 

Tim. I have a tree 4 , which grows here in my clofe, 
That mine own ufe invites me to cut down, 
And fiiortly muft I fell it; Tell my friends, 
Tell Athens, * in the fequence of degree, 
From high to low throughout, thatwholo pleafc 
To flop affliction, let Him take his hafte, 
Come hither, ere my tree hath felt the axe, 
And hang himielf : I pray you, do my greeting. 

* / have a tree, &c.] Perhaps Shakefpeare was indebted to 
Chaucer's Wife of Bath'* prologue^ for this thought. He might 
however have found it in Painter's. Palace of Pkafure, Tom. I. 
Nov. 28. STE EVENS. 

i in tbefequfKcc of degree,] Methodically, from highcft to 
laweft. JOHBSQN. 


Plav. Trouble him no further, thus you ftill fhall 
find him. 

Tim. Come not to me again : but fay to Athens, 
Timon hath made his everlafting manfion 
Upon the beached verge of the fait flood, 
Which once a day with his embofled froth 6 
The turbulent furge fhall cover ; thither come,. 
And let my grave-ftone be your oracle. 
Lips, let four words go by^ and language end : 
What is amifs, plague and infection mend! 
Graves only be men's works; and death, their gain! 
Sun, hide thy beams ! Timon hath done his reign. 

[Exit Timon. 

1 Sen. His difcontents are unremoveably 
Coupled to nature. 

2 Sen. Our hope in him is dead : let us return, 
And ftrain what other means is left unto us 

7 In our dear peril. 

i Sen. It requires fwift foot. [Exeunt. 


The Walls of Athens. 

Enter two other Senators, with a Meffenger. 

i Sen. Thou haft painfully difcover'd ; are his 


* emlnJJeJ froth] When a deer was run hard and foamed at 

the month, he was faid to be embofs'd. See a note on the firfl 
fcene of the Taming of the Shrew. The thought is irom Painter's 
PalaceofPleafure, Tom. I. Nov. 28. STEEVENS. 

1 In our dear/fr/Y.] So the folios, and rightly. The Oxford 
editor alters dear to dread, not knowing that dear, in the language 
of that time, fignified dread, and is lo ufed by Shakefpeare in 
numberlefs places. WAR. BURTON. 

Dear may in thisinftance fi^nify immediate. It is an enforcing 
epithet with not always a dliHnft meaning. To enumerate the 
feemingly various fenfes in which it may be fuppoled to have been 
ilfed by our author, would at once fatigue the reader and myfelf. 


G g 2 As 


As full as thy report? 

Mef. I have fpoke the leaft : 
Befides, his expedition promifes 
Prefent approach. 

2 Sen. We ftand much hazard, if they bring not 


j\/. I met a courier*, one mine ancient friend 8 ; 
Who, though in general part we were oppos'd, 
Yet our old love made a particular force, 
And made us fpeak like friends: this man was 


From Alcibiades to Timon's cave, 
With letters of entreaty, which imported 
His fellowfhip i' the caufe againft your city, 
In part for his fake mov'd. 

Enter the other Senators* 
i Sen. Here come our brothers. 

3 Sen. No talk of Timon, nothing of him expect. 
The enemies' drum is heard, and fearful fcouring 
Doth choak the air with duft : In, and prepare; 
Ours is the fall, I fear, our foes the fnare. \_Exeunt. 

Changes to the woods. 

Enter a Soldier^ feeking Timon. 

Sol. By all defcription,this Ihould be the place^ 
Who's here ? fpeak, ho ! No anfwer? What is this? 
Timon is dead, who hath out-ftretch'd his fpan : 
' Some beaft read this; there does not live a man. 


* a courier, ] The players read a currier. STEEVENS. 

1 one mine ancient friend ;~\ Mr. Upton would read, 

once, mine ancient friend. STEEVEXS. 

' Some beaft read this ; here docs not live a man.'} Some beaft read 
irhat ? The foldier had yet only feea the rude pile of earth hea p'd 



Dead, fure; and this his grave. What's on this 

tomb ? 

I cannot read ; the character Til take with wax; 
Our captain hath in every figure fkill; 
An ag'd interpreter, though young in days : 
Before proud Athens he's fet down by this, 
Whofe fall the mark of his ambition is. [Exit. 


Before the walls of Athens, 
trumpets found. Enter Alcibiadcs, with his powers. 

Ale. Sound to this coward and lafcivious town 
Our terrible approach. 

[Sound a parley. The Senators appear upon the walls* 
'Till now you have gone on, and fill'd the time 
With all licentious meafure, making your wills 
The fcope of juilice; 'till now, myfelf, and fuch 
As flept within the fhadow of your power, 

up forTimon's grave, and not the hfcriptlon upon it. We fliould 

Some beajl rear'd this ; 

The foldier feeking, by order, for Timon, fees fuch an irregular 
mole, as he concludes muft have been the workmanlhip of Ibme 
beaft inhabiting the woods ; and fuch a cavity as muft either have 
been fo over-arched, or happened by the cafual falling in of the 
ground. WAR BUR TON. 

Notvvithftanding this remark, I believe the old reading to be 
the right. The foldier had only feen the rude heap of earth. He had 
evidently feen fomething that told him Timon was dead', and 
what could tell that but his tomb? The tomb he fees, and the- 
infcription upon it, which not being able to read, and finding 
none to read it for him, he exclaims peeviftily, fame beaft read 
this, for it muft be read, and in this place it cannot be read by 

There is fomething elaborately unfkillul in the contrivance of 
fending a foldier, who cannot read, to take the dpitaph in wax, 
nly that it may clofe the play by being read with more folemnity 
ia the laft fccne . JOHNSON. 

G g 3 Have 


Have wander'd with our f traverft arms, and breath'd 
Our fufferance vainly : Now * the time is flufh, 

3 When crouching marrow, in the bearer ftrong, 
Cries, of itfelf, No more: now breathlefs wrong 
Shall fit and pant in your great chairs of cafe; 
And purfy infolence fhall break his wind, 
With fear, and horrid flight. 

1 Sen. Noble, and young, 

When thy firft griefs were but a meer conceit, 
Ere thou hadft power, or we had caufe to fear, 
We fent to thee; to give thy rages balm, 
To wipe out our ingratitudes with loves 

4 Above their quantity. 

2 Stn. So did we woo * 
Transformed Timon to our city's love, 

By humble meffage, and by promis'd means ; 
We were not all unkind, nor all deferve 
The common ftroke of war. 

i Se i t. Thefe walls of ours 
Were not eredtcd by their hands, from whom 
You have receiv'd your griefs : nor are they fuch, 

1 traverjl arms ] Arms acrofs. JOHNSON. 

* the time is flufh.] A bird ujfufr when his feathers arc 

grown, and he can leave the neft. Flujb is mature. JOHNSON. 

">eit crouching marrow, in the bearer Jirong, 
Cries of itfelfi No more : ] 

The marrow was fuppoied to be the original of ftrength. The 
image is from a camel kneeling to take up his load, who rifes im- 
mediately when he finds he has as much laid on as he can bear. 

4 Above their quantity.'} Their refers to rages. WARBURTON. 

5 So did we woo 

Transformed Timon to our city's lot-e, 
Sy bumble meffage, and by promts '</ means ;] 

Pr:mis *d means muft import the recruiting his funk fortunes; but 
this is not all. The fenate had wooed him with humble meflage, 
and promise of general reparation. This feems included in the 
flight change which I have made 

and by promised mends. THEOBALD. 

Dr. Warburton agrees with Mr. Theobald, but the old reading 
may well (land. JOHNSON, 



That thcfc great towers, trophies, and fchools ftiould 

For private faults in them. 

2 Sen. Nor are they living, 
Who were the motives that you firft went out ; 
6 Shame, that they wanted cunning, in excefs 
Hath broke their hearts. March, noble lord, 
Into our city with thy banners fpread : 
By decimation, and a tithed death, 
(If thy revenges hunger for that food, 
Which nature loaths) take thou the deftin'd tenth ; 
And by the hazard of the fpotted die, 
Let die the fpotted. 

i Sen. All have not offended ; 
For thofe that were, it is * not fquare, to take, 
On thofe that are, revenges: crimes, like lands, 
Are not inherited. Then, dear countryman, 
Bring in thy ranks, but leave without thy rage : 
Spare thy Athenian cradle, and thofe kin, 
Which, in the blufter of thy wrath, muft fall 

6 Shame y that they wanted cunning in excefs. 

Hath broke their hearts. ] 

i. e. in other terms, Shame, that they were not the cunningeft 
men alive, hath been the caufe of their death. For cunning in cx- 
crfi muft mean this or nothing. O brave editors ! They had 
heard it faid, that too much wit in fome cafes might be dangerous, 
and why not an abfolute want of it? But had they the Ikill or 
courage to remove one perplexing comma, the eafy and genuine 
fenfe would immediately arife. " Shame in excefs (i. e. extremity 
*' of fhame) that they wanted cunning (i.e. that they were not 
*' wife enough not to banifti you) hath broke their hearts." 


I have no wim to difturb the manes of Theobald, yet think 
fome emendation may be offered that will make the conftru&iou 
lefs harfli, and the fentence more ferious. I read : 

Shame that they wanted, coming in excefs t 

Hath broke their hearts. 

Shame which they had fo long ivanfce?, at laft coming in its utmoji 
cxcefs. JOHNSON. 

7 - net fquare > ] Not regular, not equitable. 


G g 4 With 


With thofe that have offended: like a fhepherd, 
Approach the fold, and cull the infected forth, 
But kill not altogether. 

2 Sen. What thou wilt, 
Thou rather fhalt enforce it with thy fmile, 
Than hew to't with thyfword. 

j Sen. Set but thy foot 

Againft our rampir'd gates, and they fliall ope ; 
So thou wilt fend thy gentle heart before, 
To fay, thou'lt enter friendly. 

2 Stfi. Throw thy glove, 
Or any token of thine honour elfe, 
That thou wilt ufe the wars as thy redrefs, 
And not as our confufion, all thy powers 
Sh\ll make their harbour in our town, 'till we 
Have feal'd thy full defire. 

Ale. Then there's my glove; 
Defcend, and open your * uncharged ports : 
Thofe enemies of Timon's, and mine own, 
Whom you yourfelves fhall fet out for reproof, 
Fall, and no more : and, to atone your fears 
With my more noble meaning, 9 not a man 
Shall pafs his quarter, or offend the ftream 
Of reguhr juftice in your city's bounds, 
But fhall be remedy'd by your publick laws 
At heavieft anfwer. 

Both. 'Tis moft nobly fpoken. 

^ik. Defcend, and keep your words. 

Enter a Soldier. 

Sol, My noble general^ Timon is dead ; 
Entomb'd upon the very hem o' the fea : 

8 uncharged ports :] That is, unguarded gates, 


9 not a man 

Shall pafs his quarter, } 

N:>t a fohlier fhall quit his flation, or be let loofe upon you ; and, 
if any commits violence, he fhall anftver it regularly to the law. 



And, on his grave-ftone, this infculpture ; which 
With wax I brought away, whofe loft impreffion 
Interpreteth for my poor ignorance. 

[Alciblades reads the epitaph.'] 

Here lies a wretched corfe, of wretched foul bereft : 
Seek not my name: A plague confumeyou wicked caitiffs 

left ' ! 

Here lie I Timon; who, alive, all living men did hate: 
Pafsby, and curfe thy fill but pafs, and fay not here . 

thy gait. 

Thefe well cxprefs in thee thy latter fpirits: 
Though thou abhor'dft in us our human griefs, 
Scorn'dft * our brain's flow, and thofe our droplets 

From niggard nature fall. J yet rich conceit 


1 caitiffs left!} This epitaph is found in fir Tho. North's 

tranflation of Plutarch, with the difference of one word only, viz. 
wretches inftead of caitiff's. STEEVEXS. 

1 our brain's jfo-iu, ] Hamner and Dr. Warburton read, 

Our brain's Jlovj is our tears ; but we may read our brine's Jlovj 9 
eur fait tears. Either will ferve. JOHNSON. 

our brain's flow is right. So in fir Giles Gocfecap, 1606 : 

** I fhed not the tears of my brain" 
Again, inthe Mirac/esof Mofes, by Dray ton : 

" But he from rocks that fountains can command, 

" Cannot yet flay tie fountains of bis brain." STEEVENS* 

3 yet rich conceit 

^Taught tbce to make ^'aft Neptune weep for aye 

On thy low grave^ on faults forgiven. Dead 

Is noble Timon, of ivhofe memory 

Hereafter more. ] 

All the editors, in their learning and fagacity, hare fufFercd an 
unaccountable abfurdity to pafs them in this paflage. Why was 
Neptune to weep on Timon's faults forgiven ? Or, indeed, what 
faults had Timon committed, except againft his own fortune and 
happy fituation in lite? But the corruption of the text lies only 
in the bad pointing, which I have difengnged and rcflored to the 



Taught thee to make vafl Neptune weep for aye 

On thy low grave. On : Faults forgiven. 4 Dead 

Is noble Timon; of whofe memory 

Hereafter more. Bring me into your city, 

And I will ufe the olive with my fword : 

Make war breed peace; make peace flint war; make 


Prefcribe to other, as each other's leach 5 . 
Let our drums ilrike. [Exeunt. 

true meaning. Alcibiades's whole fpeech, as the editors might 
have obferved, is in breaks, betwixt his reflections on Timon's 
death and his addrefles to the Athenian fenators : and as foon as 
he has commented on the place of Timon's grave, he bids the fe- 
nate fet forward; tells 'em, he has forgiven their faults ; and pro- 
mifes to ufe them with mercy. THEOBALD. 

* On: Faults forgiven. ] I fufpecl that we ought to 


On thy low grave. One fault's forgiven. Dead 
Is noble Timon, &c. 

One fault (viz. the ingratitude of the Athenians to Timon) is 
forgiven, 5. e. exempted from punifhment by the death of the in- 
jured perfon. TVRWHITT. 

5 leach.~\ i. e. phyfician. STEEVENS. 

THE play of Timon is a domeftic tragedy, and therefore ftrong- 
ly fattens on the attention of the reader. In the plan there is not 
much art, but the incidents are natural, and the characters various 
and exadt. The cataibrophe affords a very powerful warning 
againft that oftentatious liberality, which fcntters bounty, but con- 
fers no benefits, and buys flattery, but not friendfliip. 

In this tragedy, are many paflages perplexed, obfcure, and pro- 
bably corrupt, which I have endeavoured to rectify, or explain, 
with due diligence ; but having only one copy, cannot promife 
myfelf that my endeavours fliall be much applauded. JOH NSON. 

This play was altered by Shadwell, and brought upon the ftage 
in 1678. In the modffl title-page he calls it Timon of Athens, or the 
Man-hater, as it is ailed at the Duke's Theatre, made into a play. 



Perfons Reprefented. 

Saturninus, Son to the late Emperor of Rome, and 'af- 

terwards declared Emperor himfeJf. 
Baffianus, Brother to Saturninus, in love 'with Lavinia. 
,Titus Andronicus, a noble Roman, General againjt the 

Marcus Andronicus, Tribune of the People, and Brother 

to Titus. 

Titus Andronicus. 


Young Lucius, a Boy, Son to Lucius. 

Publius, Son to Marcus the Tribune, and Nepheiv to 

Titus Andronicus. 
Alarbus, "\ 

Chiron, > Sons to Tamora. 
Demetrius, J 

Aaron, a Moor, belov'd by Tamora. 
Captain, from Titus's Camp. 
JEmilius, a Mejfenger. 
Goths, and Romans* 

Tamora, Queen of the Goths, and afterwards married t9 


Lavinia, Daughter to Titus Andronicus. 
Nurfe, with a Black-a-moor Child. 

Senators, Judges, Officers, Soldiers, and other Attendants. 
SCENE, Rome ; and the Country near it. 



Before the Capitol in Rome. 

Enter the Tribunes and Senators aloft, as in the fenate* 
Then enter Saturninus and his followers, at one door ; 
and BaJJianus and his followers, at the other ; with drum 
and colours. 

Sat. Noble patricians, patrons of my right, 
Defend the juftice of my caufe with arms ; 


r * Titus Andronicus.~\ It is obfervable, that this play is printed 
in the quarto of 161 1, with exaclnefs equal to that of the other 
books of thofe times. The firft edition was probably corrected by 
the author, fo that here is very little room for conjecture or emen- 
dation ; and accordingly none of the editors have much molefted 
this piece with officious criticifm. JOHNSON. 

There is an authority for afcribing this play to Shakefpeare, 
which I think a very ftrong one, though not made ufe of, as I re- 
member, by any of his commentators. It is given to him, among 
other plays, which are undoubtedly his, in a little book, called 
Palladia Tamia, or the Second Part of Wit's Commonwealth, writ- 
ten by Francis Meres, Maifter of arts, and printed- at London in 
i ^98. The other tragedies, enumerated as his in that book, are 
King John, Richard the Second, Henry the Fourth, Richard the 
third, and Romeo and Juliet. The comedies are, the Mldfummtr 
Night's Dream, the Gentlemen of Verona, the Errors, the Love's 
Labour's Loji, the Love's Labour JTon, and the Merchant offe- 
nce. I have given this Hit, as it fefves fo far to afcertain the date 
of thefe plays ; and alfo, as it contains a notice of a comedy of 
Shakefpeare, the Love's Labour Won, not included in any collec- 
tion of his works j nor, as far as I know, attributed to him by any 



And, countrymen, my loving followers, 
Plead my fucceffive title with your fwords : 

I am 

other authority. If there (hould be a play in being, with that 
title, though without Shakefpeare's name, I fhould be glad to fee 
it ; and I think the editor would be fure of the publick thanks, 
even if it fliould prove no better than the Love's Labour's Loft. 


The work of criticifm on the plays of this author, is, I believe, 
generally found to extend or contract itfelf in proportion to the 
value of the piece under confideration ; and we fhall always do 
little where we defire but little fliould be done. I know not that 
this piece ftands in need of much emendation ; though it might 
be treated as condemned criminals are in fome countries, any ex- 
periments might be juftifiably made on it. 

The author, whoever he was, might have borrowed the ftory, 
the names, the characters, &c. from an old ballad, which is en- 
tered in the Books of the Stationers' Company immediately after 
the play on the fame fubject. " John Danter] Feb. 6. 1 593. A 
book entitled A Noble Roman Hiftoric of Titus Andronicus" 

" Enter'd unto him alfo the ballad thereof." 

Entered again April 19. 1602, by Tho. Pavyer. 

The reader will find it in Dr. Percy's Reliques of ancient EngliJI; 
Poetry, vol. I. Dr. Percy adds that " there is reafon to conclude 
that this play was rather improved by Shakefpeare with a few fine 
touches of his pen, than originally writ by him ; for not to men- 
tion that the ftyle is lefs figurative than his others generally are, 
this tragedy is mentioned with difcredit in the induction to Ben 
Jonfon's Bartholomew Fair in 1614, as one that had then been 
exhibited " five and twenty or thirty years:" which, if we take 
the loweft number, throws it back to the year 1 589, at which time 
Shakefpeare was but 25 : an earlier date than can be found tor any 
other of his pieces, and if it does not clear him entirely of it, 
fliews at leaft it was a firft attempt." 

Though we are obliged to Dr. Percy for his attempt to clear 
our great dramatic writer from the imputation of having pro- 
duced this fanguinary performance, yet I cannot admit that 
the circumftance of its being difcreditably mentioned by Ben 
Jonfon, ought to have any weight ; for Ben has not very fparing- 
ly cenfured the 7'empeft, and other pieces which are undoubtedly 
among the moft finished works of Shakeipeare. The whole of Ben's 
Prologue to Every Man in bis Humour, is a malicious fneer on 

Sir W. Painter in his Palace of Pleafurc , torn. II. fpeaks of the 
$ory of Titus as well known, and particularly mentions the cruel- 



I am his firfl-born fon, that was the laft 
That ware the imperial diadem of Ronle ; 
Then let my father's honours live in me, 
Nor wrong mine age with this indignity. 

Eaf. Romans, friends, followers, favourers of 

my right, 

If ever Baffianus, Csefar's fon, 
Were gracious in the eyes of royal Rome, 
Keep then this paflage to the Capitol ; 
And fuffer not dilhonour to approach 
The imperial feat, to virtue confecrate, 
To juftice, continence, and nobility : 
But let defert in pure election Ihine ; 
And, Romans, fight for freedom in your choice. 

Enter Marcus Andronicus aloft, with the crown. 

Mar. Princes, that drive by factions, and by- 

Ambitioufly for rule and empery ! 
Know, that the people of Rome, for whom we (land 
A fpecial party, have, by common voice, 
In election for the Roman empery, 
Chofcn Andronicus, furnamed Pius 
For many good and great deferts to Rome ; 
A nobler man, a braver warrior, 

ty of Tamora : and in A Knack to know a Knave, 1594, is th* 
following allufion to it : 

" as welcome fiiall you be 

" To me, my daughter, and my ion in law, 
" As Titus was unto the Roman fenators, 
" When he had made a conqueft on the Goths" 
Whatever were the motives of Heming and Condell for admit- 
ting this tragedy among thofe of Shakefpeare, all it has gained by 
their favour is, to be delivered down to poiterity with repeated re- 
marks of contempt, a Therfites babbling among heroes, and in- 
troduced only to be derided. 

See the notes at the conclufion of this volume. STEEVENS. 



Lives not this day within the city walls : 
He by the fenate is accited home, 
From weary wars againft the barbarous Goths ; 
That, with his fons, a terror to our foes, 
Hath yok'd a nation ftrong, train'd up in arms. 
Ten years are fpent, fince firft he undertook 
This caufe of Rome, and chaftifed with arms 
Our enemies' pride : Five times he hath return'd 
Bleeding to Rome, bearing his valiant fons 

In coffins from the field ; 

And now at laft, laden with honour's fpoils, 
Returns the good Andronicus to Rome, 
Renowned Titus, flourifhing in arms. 
Let us intreat, By honour of his name, 
Whom, worthily, you would have now fucceed, 
And in the Capitol and fenate's right, 

Whom you pretend to honour and adore, 

That you withdraw you, and abate your flrength ; 
Difmifs your followers, and, as fuitors fhould, 
Plead your deferts in peace and humblenefs. 

Sat. How fair the tribune fpeaks to calm my 

thoughts ! 

Baf. Marcus Andronicus, fo I do aflfy 
In thy uprightnefs and integrity, 
And fo I love and honour thee, and thine, 
Thy noble brother Titus, and his fons, 
And her, to whom our thoughts are humbled all, 
Gracious Lavinia, Rome's rich ornament, 
That I will here difmifs my loving friends ; 
And to my fortunes, and the people's favour, 
Commit my caufe in ballance to be weigh'd. 

[Exeunt Soldiers. 
Sat. Friends, that have been thus forward in my 


I thank you all, and here difmifs you all ; ' 
And to the love and favour of my country 



Commit myfelf, my perfon, and the caufe ; 
Rome, be as juft and gracious unto me, 
As I am confident and kind to thce. 
Open the gates and let me in* 
Baf. Tribunes ! and me, a poor competitor. 

[They go up into the fenate-konfe* 


Enter a Captain. 

Capt. Romans, make way ; The good Andronicus, 
Patron of virtue, Rome's bcft champion, 
Succefsful in the battles that he fights, 
With honour and with fortune is return'd, 
From where he circumfcribed with his fword, 
And brought to yoke, the enemies of Rome. 

Sound drums and trumpets, and then enter Mutlus and 
Marcus : after them, two men bearing a coffin cover* d 
with black ; then Quintus and Lucius. After them > 
Titus Andronicus', and then Tamora, the queen of Goths, 
Alarbus, Chiron, and Demetrius, with Aaron the Moor, 
prifoners; foldiers, and other attendants. They fet 
dozun the coffin, and Titus fpeaks. 

Tit. 3 Hail, Rome, victorious in thy mourning 
weeds ! 


3 Hail, Rome, viftorious in thy mourning wteJs /] I fttfpedt that 
the poet wrote : 

in my mourning weeds! 

i.e. Titus would fay ; Thou, Rome, art vi&ofious, though I am 
a mourner for thofe fons which I have loft in obtaining that vic- 
tory. WAR BURTON. 

lly is as well as my. We mav fuppofe the Romans in a grate- 
ful ceremony, meeting the dead fons of Androuicus with mourn- 
ing habits. JOHNSON, 

Vot. VIII. H h Pi 


Lo, as the bark, that hath difcharg'd her fraught, 
Returns with precious lading to the bay, 
From whence at firfc fhe weigh'd her anchorage, 
Cometh Andronicus, bound with laurel boughs, 
vTo re-falute his country with his tears ; 
Tears of true joy for his return to Rome. 
4 Thou great defender of this Capitol, 
Stand gracious to the rites that we intend ! 
Romans, of five and twenty valiant fons, 
Half of the number that king Priam had, 
Behold the poor remains, alive, and dead ! 
Thefe, that furvive, let Rome reward with love ; 
Thefe, that I bring unto their lateft home, 
With burial among their anceftors : 
Here Goths have given me leave to fheath my 


Titus, unkind, and carelefs of thine own, 
Why fuffer'lt thou thy fons, unburied yet, 
To hover on the dreadful more of Styx ? 
Make way to lay them by their brethren. 

[They open the tomb* 

There greet in filence, as the dead were wont, 
And fleep in peace, flain in your country's wars ! 
O facred receptacle of my joys, 
Sweet cell of virtue and nobility, 
How many fons of mine haft thou in Itore, 
That thou wilt never render to me more ? 

Lv.c. Give us the proudeft prifoner of the Goths, 
That we may hew his limbs, and, on a pile, 
Ad manes fratrum facrifice his flefh, 
Before this earthly prifon of their bones ; 
That fo the iliadovvs be not unappeas'd, 

Or that they were in mourning for their emperor who was juft 
dead. STEEVENS. 

4 Thou great defender of this Capital^ Jupiter, to whom the Ca- 
pitol was facred. JOHNSON. 



Nor we difturb'd with prodigies on earth y . 

Tit. I give him you ; the noblcft that furvives, 
The eldeft foil of this diftrcfled queen. 

Tarn. Stay, Roman brethren, Gracious conqueror, 
Victorious Titus, rue the tears I filed, 
A mother's tears in pillion for her fon : 
And, if thy fons were ever dear to thee, 
O, think my fon to be as dear to me. 
Sufficeth not, that we are brought to Rome, 
To beautify thy triumphs, and return, 
Captive to thee, and to thy Roman yoke ? 
But muft my fons be iLiughter'd in the ftrcets, 
For valiant doings in their country's caufc ? 
O ! if to fight for king and common weal 
Were piety in thine, it is in thcfe; 
Andronicus, ftain not thy tomb with blood : 
"Wilt thou draw near the nature of the gods 6 ? 
Draw near them then in being merciful : 
Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge ; 
Thrice-noble Titus, fpnre my firit-born fon. 

Tit* Patient yourfelf 7 , madam, and pardon me.' 
Thefe are their brethren, whom you Goths behold 
Alive, and dead ; and for their brethren flain, 

5 Nor ivc dijlurVd ly prodigies on edrtl).~\ It was fuppofcd by the 
Ancients, that the ghults of unburicd people appeared to their 
friends and relations, to folicit the rites or funeral. STEEVENS. 
6 Wilt tbo'ti d far.' near the nature of the gcdi ? 

Draw near i^cni then In being merciful :~\ 

*' Homines enim ad deos nulla re propius accedunt, quam falutcm 
hominibus dando." C'^ pra Ligario. 

From this paflage Mr. \VhuUey infers the learning of Shake- 
fpeare. STEEVENS. 

7 Paticntjiw/r/r^, &c.] This verb is ufed by other dramatic 
writers. So, in Ardcn of Fcverftam, 15^2: 

*' Patient yourfelf, we cannot help it now." 
Again, in K. Eikvard I. i ^99 : 

" Patient your highnefs, 'tis but mother's love." 
Again, in \V"'s Albion's Rngland 1 , 1602, b. xi;. ch. 75 : 

*' Her, weeping rip?, he laughing, bids to patient her 
awhile." STEEVEH*. 

H h a Re- 


Religioufiy they aik a facrifice : 

To this your fon is mark'd ; and die he muft, 

To appeafe their groaning fhadows that are gone. 

Luc. Away with him ! and make a fire flraight ; 
And with our fvvords, upon a pile of wood, 
Let's hew his limbs, 'till they be clean confum'd. 

[Exeunt Mutlus, Marcus, Quintus, 
and Lucius, with ALarbus. 

Tarn. O cruel, irreligious piety ! 

Chi. Was ever Scythia half fo barbarous ? 

Dem. Oppofe not Scythia to ambitious Rome. 
Alarbus goes to reft ; and we furvive 
To tremble under Titus' threatening look. 
Then, madam, {land refolv'd ; but hope withal, 
* The felf-fame gods, that arm'd the queen of Troy, 
With opportunity of {harp revenge 
Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent, 
May favour Tamora, the queen of Goths, 
(When Goths were Goths, and Tamora was queen) 
To quit the bloody wrongs upon her foes. 

* The felf-fame gods, that armd tKe queen of Troy 

With opportunity ofjharp revenge 

Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent, &c.] 
1 read, againft the authority of all the copies : 

in her tent. 

\. e. in the tent where flie and the other Trojan captive women 
were kept: for thither Hecuba by a wile had decoyed Polymncftor, 
in order to perpetrate her revenge. This we may learn from Euri- 
pides's Hecuba ; the only author, that I can at prefent remember, 
from whom our writer mull have gleaned this circumftance. 


Mr. Theobald fhould firft have proved to us that our author un- 
derftood Greek, or clfe that this play of Euripides had been tranf- 
lated. In the mean time, becaufe neither of thefe particulars are 
verified, we may as well luppoie he took it from the old {lory-book 
of the Trojan War, or the old tranflation of Ovid. See Metam. 
xiii. The writer of rhe play, whoever he was, might have been, 
willed by the paiTage in Ovid: " vadit ad artifi^em" and there- 
fore took it for granted that ihe found him in bis tent. STEEVENS. 



Enter Mutius, Marcus, >uintus, and Lucius. 

Luc. See, lord and father, how we have perform'd 
Our Roman rites : Alarbus' limbs are lopp'd, 
And entrails feed the facrificing fire, 
Whofe fmoke, like incenfe, doth perfume the fky. 
Remaineth nought, but to inter our brethren, 
And with loud 'larums welcome them to Rome. 

Tit. Let it be fo ; and let Andronicus 
Make this his lateft farewel to their fouls. 

[Then found trumpets, and lay the coffins in the tomb. 
In peace and honour reft you here, my fons ; 
Rome's readieft champions, repofe you here, 
Secure from worldly chances and miihaps ! 
Here lurks no treafon, here no envy fwells, 
Here grow no damned grudges ; here no ftorm, 
No noife, but filcnce and eternal fleep : 

Enter Lavinia. 

In peace and honour reft you here my fons ! 

Lav. In peace and honour live lord Titus long j 
My noble lord and father, live in fame ! 
Lo! at this tomb my tributary tears 
I render, for my brethren's obfequies ; 
And at thy feet I kneel, with tears of joy 
Shed on the earth, for thy return to Rome : 
O, blefs me here with thy victorious hand, 
Whofe fortune Rome's beft citizens applaud. 

Tit. Kind Rome, that haft thus lovingly referv'd 
The cordial of mine age, to glad my heart ! 
Lavinia, live ; out-live thy father's days, 
9 And fame's eternal date, for virtue's praife ! 


5 And fame 3 eternal date, for virtue's praife /] This abfurd wiih 
is made fenfe of, by changing and into in. WARBURTON. 
To live in fame's date is, if an allowable, yet a harfb expreflion. 
H h 3 To 


Mar. Long live lord Titus, my beloved brother, 
Gracious triumpher in the eyes of Rome ! 

TV/. Thanks, gentle tribune, noble brother Mar- 

Mar. And welcome, nephews, from fucccfsful 


You that furvive, and you that fleep in fame. 
Fair lords, your fortunes are alike in all, 
That in your country's fervice drew your fwords : 
But fafer triumph is this funeral pomp, 
That hath afpir'd to Solon's happinefs, 
And triumphs over chance, in honour's bed. 
Titus Andronicus, the people of Rome, 
Whofe friend in juftice thou haft ever been, 
Send thee by me, their tribune, and their truft, 
This palliament of white and fpotlefs hue; 
And name thee in election for the empire, 
With thefe our late-deceafed emperor's fons : 
Be candidatus then, and put it on, 
And help to fet a head on headlefs Rome. 

??/. A better head her glorious body fits, 
Than his, that fhakes for age and feeblenefs : 
What ! mould I * don this robe, and trouble you ? 
Be chofe with proclamations to-day ; 
To-morrow, yield up rule, refign my life, 
And fet abroad new bufinefs for you all? 
Rome, 1 have been thy foldier forty years, 
And led my country's flrength fuccefsfully ; 
And buried one and twenty valiant fons, 
JCnighted in field, ilain manfully in arms, 
In right and fervice of their noble country ; 
Give me a ftaffof honour for mine age, 

To outll vc an e ternal date, 5s, though not philofophical, yet po- 
ptical fenfe. He wifhes that her lite may be longer than his, and 
her praife longer than fame. JOHNSON. 

1 don this robe) &c f ] i.e. do on this robe, put it on. So, 

n Hamlet : 

" Then up he rofe, and dond his clothes." STEEVENS. 



But not a fceprre to controll the world : 
Upright he held it, lords, that held it la ft. 

Mar. Titus, thou (halt obtain and afk the empery 1 . 

Sat. Proud and ambitious tribune, canft thou 
tell ? 

Tit. Patience, prince Saturninus. 

Sat. Romans, do me right; 

Patricians, draw your fwords, and fheath them not 
'Till Saturninus be Rome's emperor: 
Andronicus, 'would thou were ihip'd to hell, 
Rather than rob me of the people's hearts. 

Luc. Proud Saturninus ! interrupter of the good 
Thi'.t noble-minded Titus means to thee ! 

Tit. Content thee, prince; I will reftore to thee 
The people's hearts, and wean them from themfelves. 

Baf. Andronicus, I do not flatter thee, 
But honour thee, and will do 'till I die; 
My faction, if thou ftrengthen with thy friends, 
I will mod thankful be : and thanks, to men 
Of noble minds, is honourable meed. 

Tit. People of Rome, and people's tribunes here, 
I nik your voices, and your funrages ; 
Will you bsftow them friendly on Andronicus ? 

Mar. To gratify the good Andronicus, 
And gratulate his fafe return to Rome, 
The people will accept whom he admits. 

Tit. Tribunes, I thank you : and this fuit I make, 
That yon create your em per* Vs. eldeft fon, 
Lord Saturnine; whofe virtues will, I hope, 
Rciledr. on Rome, as Titan's rays on earth, 
And ripen juftice in this common-weal : 
Then if you will elecTt by my advice, 
Crown him, and fay, Long live our emperor ! 

Mar. With voices and apnlaufe of every fort, 
Patricians, and plebeians, we create 

1 Titus, thou. (halt oltaiu and afx the em per)'.] Here is ra- 
jhcr tco much of the i,>p' vrfin-m. ^STEEVENS. 

H h 4 Lord 

472 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S, 

Lord Saturninus, Rome's great emperor; 
An,d fay, Lang live our emperor Saturnine ! 

\_A loitgjftourijh, till tbey come 

Sat. Titus Andronicus, for thy favours done 
To us in our election this day, 
I give thee thanks in part of thy deferts, 
And will with deeds requite thy gentlenefs : 
And, for an onfet, Titus, to advance 
Thy name, and honourable family, 
Lavinia will I rpake my emperefs, 
Rome's royal miflrefs, miftrefs of my heart, 
And in the facred Pantheon her efpoufe : 
Tell me, Andronicus, doth this motion pleafe thee? 

fit. It doth, my worthy lord; and, in this match, 
I hold me highly honoured of your grace : 
And here, in fight of Rome, to Saturnine, 
King and commander of our common-weal, 
The wide world's emperor, do I confecrate 
My fword, my chariot and my prifoners ; 
Prefents well worthy Rome's imperial lord : 
Receive them then, the tribute that I owe, 
Mine honour's enfigns humbled at thy feet. 

Sat. Thanks, noble Titus, father of my life ! 
How proud I am oi thee, and of thy gifts, 
Rome fhall record ; and, when I do torget 
The lealt of thefc unfpeakable deferts, 
Romans, forget your fealty to me. 

lit. Now, madam, are you prifoner to an emperor ; 

[To amor a* 

To him, that for your honour and your ftate, 
Will ulc you nobly, and your followers. 

Sat. A goodly lady, trufl me; of the hue 
That I would choofe, were I to choofe anew. 
Clear up, fair queen, that cloudy countenance; 
Though chance of war hath wrought this change of 


Thou com'fl not to be made a fcorn in Rome : 
Princely fliall be thy uiagc every way. 



Reft on my word, and let not difcontent 
Daunt all your hopes : Madam, he comforts you, 
an make you greater than the queen of Goths. 
Lavinia, you are not difpleas'd with this? 

Lav. Not I, my lord 1 ; fith true nobility 
Warrants thefe words in princely courtefy. 

Sat. Thanks, fweet Lavinia. Romans, let us go: 
Ranfomlefs here we let our prifoners free : 
Proclaim our honours, lords, with trump and drum. 
Baf. Lord Titus, by your leave, this maid is mine. 

[Seizing Lavinia. 

Tit. How, fir ? Are you in earned then, my lord ? 
Baf. Ay, noble Titus; and refolv'd withal, 
To do mylelf this reafon and this right. 

[The Emperor courts T amor a in dumbjhew. 
Mar. Suum cuique is our Roman juftice : 
This prince in juftice feizeth but his own. 

Luc. And that he will, and fhall, if Lucius live. 
2V/. Traitors, avaunt ! Where is the emperor's 

guard ? 

Treafon, my lord ; Lavinia is furpriz'd. 
Sat. Surpriz'd ! By whom ? 
Baf. By him that juftly may 
Bear his betroth'd from all the world away. 

[Exit BaJJianus with Lavinia. 
Mut. Brothers, help to convey her hence away, 
And with my fword I'll keep this door fafe. 

5T/7. Follow, my lord, and I'll foon bring her 

a Lav. Not /, my lord; ] Tt was pity to part a couple who 

feem to have correfponded in difpofition fo exatlly as Saturninus 
and Lavinia. Saturninus, who has juft promifed to efpoufe her, 
already wifhes he were to choole again ; and {he who was engaged 
to Baffianus (whom (he afterwards marries) exprefles no reluctance 
when her rather gives her to Saturninus. Her fubfequent raillery 
to Tamora is of fo coarle a nature, that if her tongue had been all 
(he \vas condemned to lofe, perhaps the author, (whoever he was) 
would have efcaped cenfure on the fcore of poetic juftice. 




Mut. My lord, you pafs not here. 

SV/. What! villain boy, 
Barr'ft me my way in Rome ? [Titus kills Mutlus. 

Mut. Help, Lucius, help ! 

Luc. My lord, you are unjuft, and more than fo ; 
In wrongful quarrel you have flain your fon. 
; Tit. Nor thou, nor he, are any fons of mine; 
My fons would never fo difhonour me : 
^Traitor, reflore Lavinia to the emperor. 

Luc. Dead, if you will ; but not to be his wife, 
t That is another's lawful promis'd love. 

Sat. No, Titus, no; the emperor needs her not, 
Nor her, nor thee, nor any of thy flock : 
1*11 truft, by leifure, him that mocks me once; 
Thee never, nor thy traiterous haughty fons, 
Confederates all thus to difhonour me. 
"Was there none elie in Rome to make a flale of, 
But Saturnine ? Full well, Andronicus, 
Agree thefe deeds with that proud brag of thine, 
That faid'ft, I begg'd the empire at thy hands. 

Tit. O monftrous ! what reproachful words are 
thefe ? 

$at. But go thy ways; go, give that 3 changing 



TO him that ilouriiVd for her with his fvvord : 
A valiant fon-in-hw thou malt enjoy; 
One fit to bandy with thy lawlefs fons, 
To ruffle in the commonwealth of Rome 4 . 


5 - cbanging-piece,'] Spoken of Lavinia. Piece was then, 
as it is now, ufed perlbnally as a word of contempt. JOHNSON, 
So in Britannia's P after fit by Brown, 1613. 
her hufband, 

" Muft have his culiis mix'd with ambergreafe ; 
" Pheafant and partridge into jelly turn'd, 
*' Grated with gold." "STEEVENS. 

4 To ruffle in tie conunea-wtaltb of Rome.] A ruffler was a kind 
of cheating bully; and is fo called in a flatute made for the pu- 
nifhment of vagabonds in the zjih year of K. Henry VIII. See 



77/. Thefe words are razors to my wounded heart. 

Sat. And therefore, lovely Tamora, queen of 


fhat, like the {lately Phoebe 'mong her nymphs, 
Doft over-lhine the gallant'ft dames of Rome, 
If thou be pleas'd with this my fudden choice, 
Behold, I choofe thce, Tamora, for my bride, 
And will create thee emperefs of Rome. 
Speak, queen of Goths, doft thou applaud my choice? 
And here I fwear by all the Roman Gods, . 
Sith prieft and holy water are fo near, 
And tapers burn fo bright, and every thing 
In readincfs for Hymeneus ftands, 
I will not re-falute the ftreets of Rome, 
Or climb my palace, 'till from forth this place 
I lead efpous'd my bride along with me. 
- 1"am. And here, in fight of heaven to Rome I 


If Saturnine advance the queen of Goths, 
She will a handmaid be to his defires, 
A loving nurfe, a mother to his youth. 

Sat. Afcend, fair queen, Pantheon: Lords, ac- 


Your noble emperor, and his lovely bride, 
Sent by the heavens for prince Saturnine, 
Whofe wifdom hath her fortune conquered : 
There fhall we confummate our fpoufal rites. 

Manet Titus Andronicus. 

Tit. I am not bid to wait upon this bride;* 
Titus, when wertthou wont to walk alone, 
Diihonour'd thus, and challenged of wrongs? 

Greene's Groundwork of Coney-catching, '592. Hence, I fup- 
pofe, this fenfe of the verb, to raffle. Rnfflcrs are likevvife enu- 
merated among other vagabonds, by Ifolinlhed, vol. I. p. 183. 




Enler Marcus Andronicus, Lucius, Quint us 9 and Marcus. 

Mar. O, Titus, fee, O, fee, what thou haft 

done ! 
In a bad quarrel flain a virtuous fon. 

Tit. No, foolifli tribune, no; no fon of mine, 
Nor thou, nor thefe, confederates in the deed 
That hath diihonour'd all our family; 
Unworthy brother, and unworthy fons! 

Luc. But let us give him burial, as becomes; 
Give Mutius burial with our brethren. 

Tit. Traitors, away! he refts not in this tomb. 
This monument five hundred years hath flood, 
Which I have fumptuoufly re-edified ; 
Here none but foldiers, and Rome's fervitors, 
&epofe in fame ; none bafely flam in brawls : . 
Bury him where you can, he comes not here. 

Mar. My lord, this is impiety in you : 
My nephew Mutius' deeds do plead for him ; 
He muft be buried with his brethren. 

[Titus' fons fpeak. 

Sons. And fliall, or him we will accompany. 

Tit. And lhall? What villain was it fpoke that 
word? [Titus' fon fpeaks. 

^uin. He that would vouch't in any place but 

y//. What, would you bury him in my defpight ? 

Mar. No, noble Titus; but intreat of thee 
To pardon Mutius, and to bury him. 

Tit. Marcus, even thou haft llruckupon my creft, 
And, with thefe boys, mine honour thou haft 


My foes I do repute you every one ; 
So trouble me no more, but get you gone. 

Luc. He is not with himfelf; let us withdraw. 

$itin. Not I, till Mutius' bones be buried. 

[Tke brother and the fons kneel. 


Afar. Brother, for in that name doth nature plead. 

Quin. Father, and in that name doth nature fpeak. 

5T/7. Speak thou no more, if all the reft will fpeed. 

Mar. Renowned Titus, more than half my foul, 

Luc. Dear father, foul and fubflance of us all, 

Mar. Suffer thy brother Marcus to interr 
His noble nephew here in virtue's neft, 
That died in honour and Lavinia's caufe. 
Thou art a Roman, be not barbarous. 
The Greeks, upon advice, did bury Ajax s 
That flew himfelf ; and wife Laertes' fon 
Did gracioufly plead for his funerals : 
Let not young Mutius then, that was thy joy, 
Bebarr'd his entrance here. 

Tit. Rife, Marcus, rife : 
The difmall'fl day is this, that e'er I faw, 
To be difhonour'd by my fons in Rome ! 
Well, bury him, and bury me the next. 

[They put Mm in tie tomb. 

Luc. There lie thy bones, fweet Mutius, with thy 

'Till we with trophies do adorn thy tomb ! 

[They all kneel, and fay ; 
No man fried tears ' for noble Mutius ; 
He lives in fame, that dy'd in virtue's caufe. 

5 The Greeks, upon advice, did bury Ajax y 

Tbatjlew himfelf; and -vjife Laertfs' Jon 

Did gracioujly plead for his funerals.] 

This pafiage alone would fufliciently convince me, that the play 
before us was the work of one who was converfant with the Greek 
tragedies in their original language. We have here a plain allulion 
to the Ajax of Sophocles, of which no tranflation was extant in the 
time of Shakefpeare. In that piece, Agamemnon confents at laft 
to allow Ajax the rites of fepulture, and Ulyfles is the pleader, 
whofe arguments prevail in favour of his remains. STEEVENS. 

1 No man Jbed teartf be.] This is evidently a tranflation of the 
diftich of Ennius : 

Nemo me lacrumeis decoret : nee funera fletu 

Facfu. tjuur ? volito vivu* per ora viriim. STEEVENS. 

8 Mar. 


Mar. My lord, to ftep out of thefe dreary* 


How comes it, that the fubtle queen of Goths 
Is of a fudden thus advanc'd in Rome ? 

Tit. I know net, Marcus ; but, I know, it is j 
If by device, or no, the heavens can tell : 
Is ihe not then beholden to the man 
That brought her for this high good turn fo far ? 
Yes, and will nobly him remunerate. 

FlourifJ]. Re-enter the Emperor ? Tamora, Chiron, and 
Demetrius, with Aaron the Moor, at one door : At the 
other door, Bajfianus and Lavinia, with others* 

Sat. So, Baffianus, you have play 'd your prize ; 
God give you joy, fir, of your gallant bride. 

Baf. And you of yours, my lord : I fay no more, 
Nor wifh no lefs ; and fo I take my leave. 

Sat. Traitor, if Rome have law, or we have power, 
Thou and thy faction fhall repent this rape. 

Baf. Rape, call you it, my lord, to feize my own, 
My true betrothed love, and now my wife ? 
But let the laws of Rome determine all ; 
Mean while I am pofleft of that is mine. 

Sat. 'Tis good, fir : You arc very fhort with us j 
But, if we live, we'll be as fharp with you. 

Baf. My lord, what I have done, as belt I may, 
Anfwer I muft, and fhall do with my life. 
Only thus much I give your grace to kno\v, 
By all the duties which I owe to Rome, ' 
This noble gentleman, lord Titus here, 
Is in opinion, and in honour, wrong'd ; 
That, in the refcue of Lavinia, 
With his own hand did flay his youngeft fon, 
In zeal to you, and highly mov'd to wrath 
To be controul'd in that he frankly gave : 
Receive him then to favour, Saturnine ; 
That hath exprefs'd himfelf, in all his deeds, 

7 Af "~ 

TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 479 

A father, and a friend, to thee, and Rome. 

fit. Prince Baffianus, leave to plead my deeds ; 
'Tis thou, and thofe, that have difhonour'd me : 
Rome and the righteous heavens be my judge, 
Hoxv I have lov'd and honoui'd Saturnine ! 

Tarn. My worthy lord, if ever Tamora 
Were gracious in thofe princely eyes of thine, 
Then hear me fpeak, indifferently for all ; 
And at my fuit, fweet, pardon what is paft. 

Sat. What, madam ! be difhonour'd openly, 
And bafely put it up without revenge ? 

Tarn. Not fo, my lord ; The gods of Rome fore- 

I fhould be author to difhonour you ! 
But, on mine honour, dare I undertake 
For good lord Titus' innocence in all, 
Whofe fury, not diflembled, fpeaks his griefs : 
Then, at my fuit, look gracioufly on him ; 
Lofe not fo noble a friend on vain fuppofe, 

Nor with four looks affiidt his gentle heart. . 

My lord, be rul'd by me, be won at laft, > 
Diflemble all your griefs and difcontents : 
You are but newly planted in your throne ; 
Left then the people, and patricians too, 
Upon a juft furvey, take Titus' part; 
And fo fupplant us for ingratitude, 
(Which Rome reputes to be a heinous fin) 
Yield at intreats, and then let me alone : 
I'll find a day to maffacre them all, 
And raze their fadtion, and their family, 
The cruel father, and his traiterous fons, 
To whom I fued for my dear fon's life ; 
And make them know, what 'tis to let a 

Kneel in the flreets, and beg for grace in 


Come, come, fweet emperor, come, Andronicus, 


480 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 

Take up this good old man, and chear the heart 
That dies in tempeft of thy angry frown. 

Sat. Rile, Titus, rife; my emprefs hath prevail'd. 

77/. I thank your majefty, and her, my lord. 
Thefe words, thefe looks, infufe new life in me. 

Tarn. Titus, I am incorporate in Rome, 
A Roman now adopted happily, 
And muft advife the emperor for his good. 
This day all quarrels die, Andronicus ; 
And let it be mine honour, good my lord, 
That I have reconcil'd your friends and you. 
For you, prince Baffianus, I have paft 
My word and promife to the emperor, 
That you will be more mild and traceable. - 
And fear not, lords, and you, Lavinia ; 
By my advice, all humbled on your knees, 
You fhall afk pardon of his majefty. 

Luc. We do ; and vow to heaven, and to his 


That, what we did,- was mildly, as we might, 
Tend'ring our filter's honour, and our own. 

Mar. That on mine honour here I do proteft. 

Sat. Away, and talk not ; trouble us no more. > 

'Tarn. Nay, nay, fweet emperor, we mult all be 

friends : 

The tribune and his nephews kneel for grace ; 
I will not be denied. Sweet heart, look back. 

Sat. Marcus, for thy fake, and thy brother's here, 
Aad at my lovely Tamora's intreats, 
I do remit thefe young men's heinous faults. 
Stand up. 

Lavinia, though you left me like a churl, 
1 found a friend ; and fure as. death I fwore, 
I would not part a bachelor from the priefl. 
Come, if the emperor's court can feaft two brides, 
You are my guctf, Lavinia, and your friends : 
This day lhall be a love-day, Tamora. 


Tit. To-morrow, an it pleafe your majefty, 
To hunt the panther and the hart with me, 
With horn and hound, we'll give your grace bon-jour. 

Sat. Be it fo, Titus, and gramercy too. [Exeunt. 


Before the Palace* 

Enter Aaron alone. 

Aar. Now climbeth Tamora Olympus' top, 
Safe out of fortune's Ihot ; and fits aloft, 
Secure of thunder's crack, or lightning flafli j 
Advanc'd above pale envy's rhreatning reach* 
As when the golden fun falutes the morn, 
And, having gilt the ocean with his beams, 
Gallops the zodiack in his glittering coach, 
And over-looks the higheft-peering hills ; 
So Tamora. 

3 Upon her wit doth earthly honour wait, 
And virtue Hoops and trembles at her frown. 
Then, Aaron, arm thy heart, and fit thy thoughts, 
To mount aloft with thy imperial miftrefs, 
And mount her pitch ; whom thou in triumph long 
Haft prifoncr held, fetter'd in amorous chains; 
And fafter bound to Aaron's charming eyes, 
Than is Prometheus ty'd to Caucafus. 

* Iti the quarto, the dire&ion is, Manet Aaron, and he is before 
made to enter with Tamora, though he fays nothing. This fccne 
ought to continue the firft aft. JOHNSON. 

3 Upon her wit ] We fliould read, 

Upon her will WAR BUR TON. 

I think w//, for which Ihe is eminent in the drama, is right. 


VOL. VIII^ I i Away 

482 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S, 

A'.vay with fiavilh weeds, and idle thoughts ! 
I will be bright, and fhine in pearl and gold, 
To wait upon this new-made emperefs. 
To wait, faid I ? to wanton with this queen, 
This goddefs, this Semiramis ; this queen, 
This fyren, that will charm Rome's Saturnine, 
And fee his fliipwreck, and his common-weal's. 
Holla ! what ftorm is this ? 

"Enter Chiron, and Demetrius, braving. 

Dem. Chiron, thy years want wit, thy wit wants 


And manners, to intrude where I am grac'd ; 
And may, for aught thou know'ft, affedled be. 

Chi. Demetrius, thou doft over-ween in all ; 
And fo in this, to bear me down with braves. 
Tis not the difference of a year, or two, 
Makes me Id's gracious, or thee more fortunate : 
I am, and as fit, as thou, 
To ferve, and to deferve my miftrefs' grace; 
And that my fword upon thee {hall approve, 
And plead my paflions for Lavinia's love. 

Jar. Clubs, clubs ! Theie lovers will not keep 
the peace. 

T)em. Why, boy, although our mother, unadvis'd, 
Gave you a dancing rapier by your fide *, 
Are you fo delperate grown, to threat your friends ? 
Go to ; have your lath glu'd within your fheath, 
'Till ypu know better how to handle it. 

Q ; . Mean while, fir, with the little fkill I have, 
Full well {halt thou perceive how much I dare. 

Dem. Ay, boy, grow ye fo brave ? \bey draw, 

Aar. Why, how now, lords ? 

4 a dancing rapier ly your fide ^\ So in Atf* Well that Ends 

ae> II. ic. i. 

no/:iwv/ worn 

Biu one to dance with. STEKVENS. 



So near the emperor's palace dare you dra\v, 

And maintain fuch a quarrel openly ? 

Full well I wot the ground of all this grudge ; 

J would not for a million of gold, 

The caufe were known to them it moft concerns : 

Nor would your noble mother, for much more, 

Be fo dilhonour'd in the court of Rome. 

For fhame, put up. 

Chi. ' Not I ; 'till I have Iheath'd 
My rapier in his bofom, and, withal, 
Thruft thefe reproachful fpeeches down his throat, 
That he hath breath'd in my diihonour here. 

Dem. For that lam prepar'd and full refolv'd, 
Foul-fpoken coward ! that thunder'ft with thy tongue, 
And with thy weapon nothing dar'ft perform. 

Aar. Away, I fay. 

Now by the gods, that warlike Goths adore* 
This petty brabble will undo us all. 
Why, lords, and think you not how dange r ous 
It is to jut upon a prince's right ? 
What, is Lavinia then become fo loofe, 
Or Baffianus fo degenerate, 
That for her love fuch quarrels may be broach'd, 
Without controulment, juilice, or revenge ? 
Young lords, beware ! an Ihould the emperefs 

This difcord's ground, the mufick would not pleafe. 

Chi. I care not, I, knew fhe and all the world ; 
I love Lavinia more than all the world. 

Dem. Youngling, learn thou to make fome meaner 

choice : 
Lavinia is thine elder brother's hope. 

Aar. Why, are ye mad ? or know ye not, in Rome 
How furious and impatient they be, 

5 Not I, till I have Jbeatb\l, Sec.] This fpeech, which has been 
all along given to Demetrius, as the next to Chiron, were both 
given to the wrong fpeaker ; for it was Demetrius that had thrown 
ut the reproachful on the other. WARBUK.TON. 

1 i 2 And 

And cannot brook competitors in love ? 
I tell you, lords, you do but plot your deaths 
By this device. 

Cki* Aaron, a thoufcnd deaths would I propofe 6 , 
To atchieve her I do love. 

Aar. To atchieve her ! How ? 

Dem. Why mak'ft thou it fo ftrange ? 
She is a woman, therefore may be \voo'd ; 
She is a woman, therefore may be won ; 
She is Lavinia, therefore mull be lov'd. 
What, man ! more water glideth by the mill 7 
Than \vots the miller of ;' and cafy it is 
Oi" a cut loaf to (leal a fliive 3 , we know : 
Though Bafiianus be the emperor's brother, 
Better than he have yer worn Vulcan's badge. 

star. Ay, 2nd as good as Saturninus may. \_Afide. 

l)<m. Then why ihouicl he defpair, that knows to 

court it 

With words, fair looks, and liberality ? 
What, haft thou not full often (truck a doe 9 , 


6 a thoufand (tenths -ivanhJ I prcpcfe,] Whether Chiron 

means he would contrive a thoufand deaths for other?, or Imagine for himicif, I am unable to determine. 


7 more water glidctb !>y tie mill^ cj'c.] A Scots proverb. 

*' 3I:ckle water goes by the miiicr when he lleeps." 


8 to /teal a fV.ive.] AJ?:i?c is -\Jllce. So in the Tule of 

Argcnt'ilc and Cur.m in \V:irner's Albivns En^latul^ 1602 : 

' \fcce--'c of bre:;d :is bro\vne as r.ut." 
Demetrius is again indebted to a Scots proverb : 

" It is iafe taking njbivc of a cut loaf." STEEVENS. 

9 firnck a dee,] Mr. Molt is vvillir.t; to infer from this paf- 

fage that lit us Atu!rauicui was rot only the work of Shakefpeare, 
Tint one or his earlieft performances, betanfe the itratagems of his 
f")r:ner profefficn leem to h:ive been yet tYe!h in his mind. I had 
made the lame obfervation in A*. Henry VI. before I had teen his ; 
but when we oonilu'cr lunv many phrafes nre borrowed from the 
fpcns oi the iield, \vhich were more followed in our author's time, 
than any other amufement; I do not think there Is much in ei- 
ther h : ie-.aik or my own. Let me add, that we have here De- 


And born her cleanly by the keeper's nofe ? 

Aar. Why then, it feenis, fome certain fnatch or fo 
Would ferve your turns. 

Cbi. Ay, fo the turn were fcrv'd. 

D:m. Aaron, thou hail hit it. 

Aar. 'Would you had hit it too ; 
Then fhould not \ve be tir'd with this ado." 
Why, hark ye, hark ye, And are you fu<.h fools, 
To fquarc ' for this ? Would it offend you ihen 
That both fhould fpeed > 

Cbi. 'Faith, not me. 

Dem. Nor me, fo I were one. 

Aar. Forfhame, befriends; and join for that you 


'Tis policy and ftratagem muft do 
That you affect ; and fo mud you refolvc ; 
That what you cannot, as you would, atchlcvc, 
You muft perforce accomplifh as you may. 
Take this of me, Lucrece was not more chafle 
Than this Lavinia, Bafiianus' love. 
A fpeedier courfe than lingering languilhment * 

memus, the fonofa queen, demanding of his brother prince if 
he has not often been reduced to praftife the common artifices of 
a deer-ftealer : an abfurdity right worthy ot the reft ot the 
piece. STE EVENS. 

1 To fquare for this. ] Tojquarcis to quarrel. So in the 

Midj'umincr-'Nitrhfs Dream : 

they never meet, 

But they dojjjttori. 

Agiiin, in Drar.t's tranflation of Horace's Art of Poetry, 1/67 : 

" Let them n.-t fing twixt aft and aft, 

** What fquarcth from the reft." 

But tofquare, which in the laft inftance fignifies to differ ^ is now 
uied only in the verv oppofite fenfe, and means to agree. 


* Afoedicr courfe than lingering languljlmeni] The old copy 
reads : 

this I'.ngering, &c. 

which may mean, this coy languijbing dame , th!s />.> of relaxant 
fofliufi. SrSEVKNfc 

I i 3 Muft 


Muft we purfue, and I have found the path. 

My lords, a folemn hunting is in hand ; 

There will the lovely Roman ladies troop : 

The foreft walks are wide and fpacious ; 

And many unfrequented plots there are, 

Fitted 5 by kind for rape and villainy : 

Single you thither then this dainty doe, 

And ftrike her home by force, if not by words : 

This way, or not at all, (land you in hope. 

Come, come, our emprefs, with her facred wit, 

To villainy and vengeance confecrate, 

We will acquaint with all that we intend ; 

And fhe fliall file our engines with advice 4 , 

That will not fufFer you to fquare yourfelves, 

But to your wilhes' height advance you both. 

The emperor's court is like the houfe of fame, 

The palace full of tongues, of eyes, of 'ears : 

The woods are ruthlefs, dreadful, deaf, and dull ; 

There fpeak, and ftrike, brave boys, and take your 

turns : 

There ferve your luft, ihadow'd from heaven's eye, 
And revel in Lavinia's treafury. 

Chi. Thy counfel, lad, fmells of no cowardife. 

Dem. Sit fas aut nefas, 'till I find the ftream 
To cool this heat, a charm to calm thefe fits, 
Per Styga, per Manes vckor 5 . [Exeunt. 

3 ly kind ] That is, by nature, which is the old 

fignification ot kind. JOHNSON. 

4 file our engines with advice,] 5. e. remove all impediments 
from our defigns by advice. The allufion is to the operation of 
the file, which, by conferring fmoothnefs, facilitates the motiou 
of the wheels which compofe an engine or piece of machinery. 


s Per Styga, &c.] Thefe fcraps of Latin are, I believe, taken, 
though not exactly, from fome of Seneca's tragedies. STE EVENS. 



6 S C E N E II. 

Changes to a Fore/:. 

Enter Titus Andronims and his three Sons, with hounds 
and horns, and Marcus. 

Tit. The hunt is up, 7 the morn is bright and grey, 
The fields are fragrant, and the woods are green : 
Uncouple here, and let us make a bay, 
And wake the emperor, and his lovely bride, 
And roufe the prince ; and ring a hunter's peal, 
That all the court may echo with the noife. 
Sons, let it be your charge, as it is ours, 
To tend the emperor's perfon carefully : 
I have been troubled in my fleep this night, 
But dawning day new comfort hath infpir'd. 

Here a cry of hounds, and wind horns in a peal : then 
enter Siiturnim'.s, Tamora, BaJJianus, Lavinia, Chiron, 
Demetrius, and their attendants. 

Tit. Many good morrows to your majefty ; 
Madam, to you as many and as good ! 
I promifed your grace a hunter's peal. 

Sat. And you have rung itluftily, my lords, 
Somewhat too early for new-married ladies. 

Baf. Lavinia, how fay you ? 

* The divifion of this play into atfs, which was firft made by 
the editors in 1623, is improper. There is here an interval of 
a&ion, and here the fecond aft ought to have begun. JOHNSON. 

' the morn is bright and grey ,] i. e. bright and yet not 

red, which was a fign or' Ikirms and rain, but^r^, which foretold 
fair, weather. Yet the Oxford editor alters gray togay. 


Surely the Ox ford editor is in the right; unlefs we reafon like 
the Witches in Macbeth, and lay, 

" Fajrisibul, and foul is fair." STEEVENC. 

I i 4 Lav. 


Lav. I fay, no ; 
J have been broad awake two hours and more. 

Sat. Come on then, horfe and chariots let us have, 
And to our fport : Madam, now yc {hall fee 
Our Roman hunting. [To Tamora* 

Mar. I have dogs, my lord, 
Will roufe the proudeft panther in the chafe, 
And climb the higheft promontory top. 

Tif. And I have horfe will follow where the game 
Makes way, and run like fwallows o'er the plain. 

Dem. Chiron, we hunt not, we, with horfe nor 

But hope to pluck a dainty doe to ground. \JLx,eunt* 


A defart part of the foreft. 
Enter Aaron alone. 

Aar. He, that had wit, would think, that I had 


To bury fo rm'ich gold under a tree, 
And never after to inherit it. 
Let him, that thinks of me fo abjectly, 
Know, that this gold muft coin a ftratagem ; 
Which, cunningly effected, will beget 
A very excellent piece of villainy : 
And fo repofe, fvveet gold, for their unreft 8 , 
9 _ That have their alms out of the emprcfs' cheft. 

8 for their utireft,] UnreR, for J-fquiet^ is '3 word frc- 

quently ufed by the old v. liters. So in The Spaniji: Tragedy ', 1605, 

" Thus therefore will I reft me, in unrefi" 
Thus in ElioJloLilldinofo^ an ancient novel, by John Hinde, 1606; 

44 For the eafe of whol'e uare/'f, 

** Thus his furie was expreit." 

Again, in An excellent paftoral Dittie^ by Shep. Tonie ; publiflied 
m Ettgla>t(s Helicon, 1614: 

** With lute in hand did paint out her unreft," STEEVENS. 



Enter Tamora. 

'Tarn. MY lovely Aaron, wherefore look'ft thou 

fad 1 , 

When every thing doth make a gleeful boaft ? 
The birds chaunt melody on every buih ; 
The fnake lies rolled in the chearful fun ; 
The green leaves quiver with the cooling wind, 
And make a chequer'd lhado'v z on the ground : 
Under their fweetftiade, Aaron, let us (it, 
And whilft the babling echo mocks the hounds, 
Replying fhrilly to the well-tun'd horns, 
As if a double hunt were heard at once, 

9 That have their alms, &c.] This is obfcure. It feems to mean 
only, that they who are to come at this gold of the emprefs are to 
fufter by it. JOHNSON. 

1 My lovely Aaron, wherefore lootfft tbou fad?~\ In the courfe of 
the following notes feveral examples of the favage genius of 
Ravenfcroft, who altered this play in the reign of K. Charles II. 
are fet down for the entertainment ot the reader. The following 
is a fpecimen of his defcriptive talents. Inftead of the line with 
which this fpeech of Tamora begins, (he is made to fay : 
The emperor, with wine and luxury o'ercome, 
Is fallen ajkep in's pendant couch he's laid 
That hangs in yonder grotto rock'd by winds, 
Which rais'dby art do give it gentle motion: 
And troops of (laves ftand round with tans perfum'd, 
Made of the feathers pluck'd from Indian birds, 
And cool him into golden (lumbers 
This time I chole to come to thee, my Moor. 

My lovely Aaron, wherefore, &c. 

An emperor who has had too large a dofe of love and wine, 
and in confequence of fatiety in both, falls afleep on a bed which 
partakes of the nature of a failor's hammock and of a child's cradlej 
is a curiofity which only Ravenfcroft could have ventured to de~ 
fcribe on the ftage. I hope I may be excufed tor tranfplanting a 
few of his flowers into the barren dcfurt of our comments on thw 
tragedy. STEEVENS. 

1 a chequer'd Jbado--M ] Milton has the fame ex- 

j>refTion : 

'* many a maid 

44 Dancing in the <r^<rVfliade." STEEVENS.] 



Let us fit down, and mark their yelling noife : 
And after conflict, fuch as was fuppos'd 
The wandring prince and Dido once enjoy'd, 
When with a happy ftorm they were furpriz'd, 
And curtain'd with a counfel-kceping cave, 
We may, each wreathed in the other's arms, 
Our paflimes done, poflefs a golden flumber; 
Whilft hounds, and horns, and fweet melodious birds, 
Be unto us, as is a nurfe's fong 
Of lullaby, to bring her babe ufleep. 

Aar* Madam, though Venus govern your defircs, 
Saturn is dominator over mine J : 
What fignifies my deadly-ftanding eye, 
My filence, and my cloudy melancholy? 
My fleece of woolly hair, that now uncurls, 
Even as an adder, when fhe doth unroll 
To do fome fatal execution ? 
No, madam, thefe are no venereal figns ; 
Vengeance is in my heart, death in my hand, 
Blood and revenge are hammering in my head. 
Hark, Tamora, the emperefs of my foul, 
Which never hopes more heaven than refts in thee, 
This is the day of doom for Baffianus ; 
His Philomel muft lofe her tongue to-day; 
Thy fons make pillage of her chaility, 

3 though Venus govern your deforei, 

Saturn is dominator over mine. ] 

The meaning of this paflage may be illuftrated by the agronomi- 
cal defcription of Saturn, which Venus gives in Greene's Planeto- 
mackia, 1585. " The ftar of Saturn is efpecially cooling , and 
fomewhat drie, &c." 
Agpin, in the Sea Foyage. by B. and Fletcher. 

for your"afpet 

You're much inclin'dto melancholy, and that 

Tells me thej'u/len Saturn had predominance 

At your nativity, a malignant planet! 

And if not qualified by a fweet conjunction 

Of a foft ruddy wench, born under Venus, 

It may prove fatal." COLLINS. 



And wa(h their hands in Baflianus' blood. 
Seeft thou this letter ? take it up, -I pray thee, 
And give the king this fatal-plotted fcroll : 
Now queftion me no more, we are efpied, 
Here comes a parcel of our hopeful booty, 
Which dreads not yet their lives' deftrudtion. 

fam. Ah, my fweet Moor, fweeter to me than 

Aar. No more, great emprefs, Baflianus comes : 
Be crofs with him ; and I'll go fetch thy fons 
To back thy quarrels, whatfoe'er they be. [*//. 

Enter Baffianus, andLavinia. 

Baf. Whom have we here ? Rome's royal emperefs, 
Unfurnifli'd of her well-befeeming troop ? 
Or is it Dian, habited like her ; 
Who hath abandoned her holy groves, 
To fee the general hunting in this forefl ? 

'Tarn. Saucy controller of our private fleps ! 
Had I the power, that, fome fay, Dian had, 
Thy temples fhould be planted prefently 
With horns, as was A&eon's; and the hounds 
4 Should drive upon thy new-transformed limbs, 
Unmannerly intruder as thou art ! 

Lav. Under your patience, gentle emperefs, 
*Tis thought you have a goodly gift in horning ; 
And to be doubted, that your Moor and you 
Are fingled forth to try experiments : 
Jove Ihield your huiband from his hounds to-day ! 

4 Should drive upon thy new transformed limbs,] The author of 
the Revi/al fufpe&s that the poet wrote : 

Should thrive upon thy new transformed limit) 

as the former is an expreffion that fuggefts no image to the fancy. 
But drive, I think, may ftand, with this meaning : the bound* 
thouldpafs with impetuous hafte, &c. So in Hamlet; 

Pyrrhus at Priam drives, &c. 
j. e. flie with impetuofity at him. STEEVENS. 


492 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 

'Tis pity, they mould take him for a flag. 

Bflj. Believe me, queen, your * fwarth Cimme-* 


Doth make your honour of his body's hue, 
Spotted, detefted, and abominable. 
Why are you fequeftcr'd from all your train ? 
Difmounted from your fnow-white goodly ftecd, 
And wander'd hither to an obfcure plot, 
Accompanied with a barbarous Moor, 
If fouldefire had not conducted you? 

Lav. And, being intercepted in your fport, 
Great reafon that my noble lord be rated 
For faucinefs. I pray you, let us hence, 
And let her 'joy her raven-colour'd love ; 
This valley fits the purpofe paffing well. 

Baf. The king, my brother, fhall have note of 

Lav. Ay, for thefe flips have made him 6 noted 

Good king ! to be fo mightily abus'd ! 

Tarn. Why have I patience to endure all this ? 

Enter CHrOft, and Demetrius. 

Dem. How now, dear fovcreign, and our gracious 

Why does your highnefs look fopale and wan ? 

Tarn. Have I not reafon, think you, to look pale? 
Thefe two have 'tic'd me hither to this place, 
A barren and detefted vale, you fee, it is : 
The trees, though fummer, yet forlorn and lean, 
O'ercome with mofs, and baleful mifletoe. 

5 Jkxartb Cimmerian'} Swartb is black. The Moor is called 
Cimmerian, from theaffinity of blacknefs to darknefs. JOHNSON. 

6 ni-tcd loiig.] He had yet been married but one night. 




Here never fhines the fun 7 ; here nothing breeds, 

Unlefs the nightly owl, or fatal raven. 

And, when they fhew'd me this abhorred pit, 

They told me, here, at dead time of the night, 

A thoufand fiends, a thoufand luffing fnakes, 

Ten thoufand fwelling toads, as many urchins, 

Would make fiich fearful and confufed cries, 

As any mortal body, hearing it, 

8 Should flra'ght fall mad, or e'fe diefuddenly. 

No fooner had they told this hellifh tale. 

But flraight they told me, they would bind me here 

Unto the body of a difmal yew ; 

And leave me to this miferable death. 

And then they call'd me, foul adulterefs, 

Lafcivious Goth, and all the bittereft terms 

That ever ear did hear to fuch effect. 

And, had you not by wondrous fortune come, 

This vengeance on me had they executed : 

Revenge it, as you love your mother's life, 

Or be ye not from henceforth call'd my children. 

Dem. This is a witnefs that I am thy fon. 

[Stabs Bqfianus. 

Chi. And this for me, ftruck home to fhew my 
ilrength. [Stabbing bi^t likeivije. 

Lav. Ay come, Semiramis, nay, barbarous Ta- 

mora ! 
For no name fits thy nature but thy own ! 

7 Here never fiincs the fun, &c.j Mr. Rovve feems to hare 
thought on this pafinge in his Jane Shore : 

" This is the houie where the fun never dawns, 
" The bird of night fits fcreaming o'er its roof, 
*' Grim fpcftres Iweep along the horrid gloom, 
" Arid nought is heard but vvailings and lamentings." 


8 Should Jlraight fall mad, or c Ife dit fuddenly. ] This is faid in 
fabulous phyfiology, of thofe that hear the gioan of the mandrake 
torn up. JOHNSON. 

The fame thought and almoffc the fame expreffions occur in 
Romeo and Juliet. STEEVENS, 



yam. Give me thy poinard; you ftiall know, my 


Your mother's hand fliall right your mother's wrong. 
Dem. Stay, madam, here is more belongs to her; 
Firft, thrafh the corn, then after burn the ftraw : 
This.minion flood upon her chaftity, 
Upon her nuptial vow, her loyalty, 
9 And with that painted hope fhe braves your migh- 

tinefs : 
And fhall fhe carry this unto her grave? 

Chi. An if fhe do, i would I were an eunuch. 
Drag hence her hulband to fome fecret hole, 
And make his dead trunk pillow to our luft. 

Tayi. Bu.t when you have the.honey you defire, 
Let not this wafp out-live, us both to fling. 

Chi. I warrant you, madam; we will make that 


Come, miitrefs, noxv perforce we will enjoy 
That nice-prelerved honefty of yours. 

Lav. O Tamora ! thou bear'ft a woman's face, 
Tarn. I will not hear her fpeak ; a\vay with her. 
Lav. Sweet lords, intreat her hear me but a word. 
Dtrn. Liften, fair madam: Let it be your glory, 
To ice her tears ; but be your heart to them, 
As unrelenting flint to drops of rain. 

Lav. When did the tyger's young ones teach the 
dam ? 

* Attdiilth that painted \rnyz foe braves your mrgbfinefi ;] Lavi- 
nia ftands upon her chaility and nuptial vow : and upon the merit 
of thefe braves the queen. But why are thefe called a painted 
hope? Wefhould read, 

And with this painted cope 

i. e. with this gay covering. It is well expreflbd. Her reafons 
were of a religious nature ; and are therefore called a painted 
cope, which is a fplendid eccle(iaitic vcftment: It might be called 
pa.ntcd, likewiie, as infmuating that her virtue was only pretended. 


Painted brie r&Q\yJf>e&4ss hope, or ground of confidence more 
foliJ. JOHNSON. 


O, do not teach her wrath ; fhe taught it thee: 
The milk, thou fuck'dft from her, did turn to marble; 
Even at thy teat thou hadft thy tyranny. 
Yet every mother breeds not fons alike ; 
Do thou intreat her (hew a woman pity. [70 Chiron. 
Chi. What ! would'ft thou have me prove myfelf 

a baftard ? 

Lav. 'Tis true the raven doth not hatch a lark : 
Yet have I heard, (O could I find it now !) 
The lion, mov'd with pity, did endure 
To have his princely paws par'd all away. 
Some fay, that ravens fofter forlorn children, 
The whilft their own birds famifh in their nefts : 
O, be to me, though thy hard heart fay no, 
Nothing fo kind, butfomething pitiful! 

Fam. I know not what it means ; away with her. 

Lav. O, let me teach thee: for my father's fake, 

That gave thee life, when well he might have (lain 

Be not obdurate, open thy deaf ears. 

Tarn. Hadft thou in perfon ne'er offended me, 
Even for his fake am I now pitilefs : 
Remember, boys, I pour'd forth tears in vain, 
To lave your brother from the facrifice ; 
But fierce Andronicus would not relent : 
Therefore away with her, ufe her us you will ; 
The worfe to her, the better lov'd of me. 

Lav. O Tamora, be call'd a gentle queen, 
And with thine own hands kill me in this place : 
For 'tis not life, that I have begg'd fo long; 
Poor I was flain, when Baflianus dy'd. 

Tarn. What begg'ft thou then ? fond woman, let 

me go. 
Lav. 'Tis prefent death I beg ; and one thing 


That womanhood denies my tongue to tell : 
O, keep me from their worfe than killing luft, 
And tumble me into fome loathfome pit ; 



Where never man's eye may behold my body : 
Do this, and be a charitable murderer. 

Tarn. So ihould I rob my fvveet fons of their fee : 
No, let them fatisfy their Juft on thee. 

Den:. Away; for thou haft ftaid us here too long. 
Lav. No grace ? no womanhood ? Ah beaflly 

creature ! 
The blot and enemy to our general name ! 

Confufion fall 

Chi. Nay, then I'll flop your mouth, Bring thou 
her hufband ; [Dragging off Lavinia. 

This is the hole where Aaron bid us hide him. 

Tarn. Farewel, my fons : fee, that you make her 

fure : 

Ne'er let my heart know merry cheer indeed, 
'Till all the Andronici be made away. 
Now will I hence to feek my lovely Moor, 
And let my fpleenful fons this trull deflow'r. [Exit, 


Enter Aaron, with Quint its and Marcus* 

Ajr. Come on, my lords ; the better foot before : 
Straight will I bring you to the loathfome pit, 
Where I efpied the panther fafl afleep. 

$uln. My fight is very dull, whate'er it bodes. 
Mar. And mine, I promife you ; wer't not for 

ilia me, 
Well could I leave our fport to flecp a while. 

^Mawus falls into the pit. 
Qulri. What, art thou fallen ? What fubtle hole is 


Whofe mouth is cover'd with rude-growing briars ; 
Upon whofe leaves are drops of new-lhed blood, 
As frelh as morning's dew diftill'd on flowers ? 

A very 

TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 497 

A very fatal place it feems to me : 

Speak, brother, haft thou hurt thee with the fall ? 

Mar. O brother, with the difmalleft object 
That ever eye, with fight, made heart lament. 

Air. [_Ajide.~\ Now will I fetch the king to find 

them here ; 

That he thereby may have a likely guefs, 
How thefe were they, that made away his brother. 

[Exit Aaron. 

Mar. Why doft not comfort me and help me out 
From this unhallow'd and blood-ftained hole ? 

Quin. I am furprized with an uncouth fear : 
A chilling fweat o'er-runs my trembling joints ; 
Mine heart fufpcdts more than mine eye can fee. 

Mar. To prove thou haft a true-divining heart, 
Aaron and thou look down into this den, 
And fee a fearful fight of blood and death. 

Quin. Aaron is gone ; and my compaffionate heart 
Will not permit my eyes once to behold 
The thing, whereat it trembles by furmife : 
O, tell me how it is ; for ne'er 'rill now 
Was I a child, to fear I know not what. 

Mar. Lord Baffianus lies embrewed here, 
All on a heap, like to a flaughter'd lamb, 
In this detefted, dark, 'blood-drinking pit. 

Quin. If it be dark, how doft thou know 'tis he ? 

Mar. Upon his bloody finger he doth wear 
1 A precious ring, that lightens all the hole, 


1 A precious ring, ] There is fuppofed to be a gem called 

a carbuncle, which emits not reflected but native light. Mr. 
Boyle believes the reality of its exillence. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Gejta Romanorum, hirtory the Cxth : " He farther 
beheld and faw a carbuncle in the hall that lighted all the houfe." 
Again, in Lydgate's Defer ipt ion of king Priam's Palace, 1. 2 : 
" And for mojd chefe all dirkenefs to confound, 
" A carbuncle was let as kyng of rtones all, 
" To recomforte and gladden all the hall. 
VOL. VIII. K k " And 


Which, like a taper in feme monument, 
Doth fhine upon the dead man's earthy cheeks,- 
And Ihews-the ragged entrails of this pit : 
So pale did Ihine the moon on Pyramus, 
When he by night lay bath'd in maiden blood. 

brother, help me with thy fainting hand, 
If fear hath made thee faint, as me it hath, 
Out of this fell devouring receptacle, 

As hateful as Cocytus' miity mouth. 

<j>Kitt. Reach me thy hand, that I may help thee out;, 
Or, wanting flrength to do thee fo much good, 

1 may be pluck'd into the fwallowing womb 
Of this deep pit, poor Bafiianus' grave. 

I have no flrength to pluck thee to the brink. 

Mar. And I no flrength to climb without thy help, 
Qum. Thy hand once more ; I will not lofe again,. 
*Till thou art here aloft, or I below : 
Thou canfl not come to me, I come to thee. 

{Falls in,- 

Enter the Emperor, and Aaron. 

Sat. Along with me : I'll fee what hole is here. 
And what he is, that now is leap'd into it. 
Say, who art thou, that lately didil defcend 
Into this gaping hollow of the earth ? 

Mar. The unhappy fon of old Andronicus ; 


And it to enlumine in the black night 
With the frefhncs of his ruddy light." 
n the Mufe's Elyfium, by Dray ton : 
Is that admired, mighty ftone, 
The carbuncle that's named ; 

Which from it fuch a flaming light 

And radiancy eje&eth, 

That in the very darkeft night 

The eye to it direcleth." 
Chaucer, in the Romaunt of 'the Rofe, attributes the fame proper- 
ties to the carbuncle : 

" Soche light yfprang out of the ftone." STE EVENS. 



Brought hither in a moft unlucky hour, 
To find thy brother Baflianus dead. 

Sat. My brother dead? I know, thou doft but j eft: 
He and his lady both are at the lodge, 
Upon the north fide of this plcafant chafe ; 
'Tis not an hour fince I left him there. 

Mar. We know not where you left him all alive^ 
But, out alas ! here have we found him dead. 

Enter Tamora, with Attendants ; Andronlcus^ and Lucius^ 

Where is my lord, the king ? 
Sat. Here, Tamora ; though griev'd with killing 


Tarn. Where is thy brother Baflianus \ 
Sat. Now to the bottom doft thou fearch my wound; 
Poor Baffianus here lies murdered. 

Tarn. Then all too late I bring this fatal writ, 
The complot of this timelefs tragedy : 
And wonder greatly, that man's face can fold 
In pleafing fmiles fuch murderous tyranny. 

[_She.giveth Saturnlnus a letter\ 

Saturnlnus reads the letter. 

An if we mifs to meet him handfomely,~ 

Sweet hunt j man BaJJianus 'tis, zve mean, 

Do thou jo much as dig the grave for him ; 

Thou know'Jl our meaning : Look for thy reward 

Among the nettles at the elder tree, 

Which over-foades the mouth of that fame pit) 

PPbere we decreed to bury Bqljianus. 

Do this, and pttrchafe us thy lofting friends* 

O, Tamora! was ever heard the like .? 
This is the pit, and this the elder tree : 
Look, firs, if you can find the huntfman out, 
That fhould have murder'd Baflianus here. 

K k i Aar'. 

5oo TITUS A N D Pv O N I C U S. 

Aar. My gracious lord, here is the bag of g-^KI. 

[Skewing if. Two of thy whelps, fell curs of bloody kind, 

Have here bereft my brother of his life :- 

[To Titus, 

Sirs, dn?g them from the pit unto the prifon ; 
There let them bide, until we have devis'd 
Some never-heard-of torturing pain for them. 

'Tarn. What, are they in this pit? O wond'rons 

thing ! . 
How cafily murder is difcovered ? 

Tit. High emperor, upon my feeble knee 
I beg this boon, with tears not lightly (lied, 
That this fell f.^ult of mine accurfed fons, 
Accurfed, if the fault be provM in them 

Sdt. If it be prov'd ! you fee, it is apparent. 
Who found this letter ? Tamora, was it you ? 
^am. Andronicus himfelf did take it up. 
7V/. I did, iny lord : yet let me be their bail : 
For by my father's reverend tomb, I vow, 
They ihall be ready at your highnefs' will, 
To anfwer their fulpicion with their lives. 

Sat. Thou lhalt not bail them : fee, thou follow me. 
Some bring the murder'd body, fomethe murderers: 
Let them not fpeak a word, the guilt is plain ; 
For, by my foul, were" there worfe end than death, 
That eod upon them fV'uld be executed. 

Tarn. Andronicus, I will entreat the king; 
Fear not thy fons, they (hall do well enough. 

y/'/. Come, Lucius, come; flay n ->t to talk with 
them . [_Ext 


TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 501 


Enter Demetrius and Chiron, 'with Lavi'/iia. ravi/lfd; 
"her hands cut off, and her tongue cut out. 

Dem. So, now go tell, an if thy tongue can fpeak, 
Who 'twas that cut thy tongue, and ravinYd thce. 

Chi. Write clown thy mind, bewray thy meaning 

And, if thy flumps will let thee, play the fcribe. 

Dem. See how with figns and tokens Ihe can fcowl. 

Li-ji. Go home, call for fweet water, warn thy 

Dem. She has no tongue to call, nor hands to wafh; 
And fo let's leave her to her Client walks. 

Chi. An 'twere my cafe, I fhould go hang myfclC. 

Dem. If thou hadft hands to help thce knit the 
cord. ; [Ex cunt Demetrius and Chiron. 

Enter Marcus to Laviria. 

Mar. Who's this, my niece, that flies away Co 


Coufin, a word ; Where is your hufband ? 
* If 1 do dream, 'would all my wealth would wake me ! 
If 1 d<> wake, Come planet ftrike me down, 
That I may ilumber in -eternal deep ! 
Speak, gentle niece, what ftern ungentle hand 
Have lopp'd, and hew'd, and made thy body bare 
Of her two branches r thole fweet ornaments, 
Whofe circling fhadovvs kings have fought to fleep in; 
And might not gain Co great a happinels, 
As half thy love ? Why doit not fpeak to me ? 

9 If I do d'-eam, '''Mould all my wealth "Mould ivakt me /] If this 
be a dream, I would give all my pofleffions to be delivered from it 
by waking. JOHNSON. 

K k 3 Alas, 


Alas, a crimfon river of warm blood, 

Like to a bubbling fountain ftur'd with wind, 

Doth rife and fall between thy rofed lips, 

Coming and going with thy honey breath. 

But, fure, ibme Tereus hath defiow'red thee ; 

And, left thou fhould'ft detect him, cut thy tongue. 

Ah, now thou turn'ft away thy face for ihame ! 

And, notwithftanding all this lofs of blood, 

As from a conduit with their hilling fpouts, 

Yet do thy checks look red as Titan's face, 

Blufhing to be encountered with a cloud. 

Shall I fpeak for thee ? (hall I fay, 'tis fo ? 

O, that I knew thy heart ; and knew the bead, 

That I might rail at him to eafe my mind ! 

Sorrow concealed, like an oven ftopp'd, 

Doth burn the heart to cinders where it is. 

Fair Philomela, Ihe but loft her tongue, 

And in a tedious fampler few'd her mind : 

But, lovely niece, that mean is cut from thee j 

A craftier Tereus haft thou met withal, 

And he hath cut thofe pretty fingers off, 

That better could have fcw'd than Philomel. 

O, had the monfter feen thofe lily hands 

Tremble, like afpen leaves, upon a lute, 

And make the iilken firings delight to kifs them ; 

He would not then have touch'd them for his life. 

Or, had he heard the heavenly harmony, 

Which that fweet tongue hath made ; 

He would have dropp'd his knife, and fell afleep, 

As Cerberus at the Thracian' poet's feet. 

Come, let us go, and make thy father blind; 

For fuch a fight will blind a father's eye : 

One hour's dorm will drown the fragrant meads ; 

What will whole months of tears thy father's eyes ? 

PO not draw back, for we will mourn with thee ; 

? could our mourning eafe thy mifery ! [Exeunt^ 


TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 503 


A Jlreet In Rome. 

.Enter tie Judges and. Senators, K'itb Marcus and >umtits 
bound) paffing on tbejlage to the place of execution, and 
Ftfus going before, pleading. 

'Tit. Hear me, grave fathers { noble tribunes, ftay ! 
For pity of mine age, whole youth was fpent 
In dangerous wars, whilft you lecurely flept ; 
For all my blood in Rome's great quarrel fhed ; 
For all the frofty nights that 1 have watch'd ; 
And for thefe bitter tears, which you now fee 
Filling the aged wrinkles in my cheeks ; 
Be pitiful to my condemned fons, 
Whofe fouls are not corrupted as 'tis thought ! 
For two and twenty fons I never xvept, 
Becaufe they died in honour's lofty bed. 

['Andronhus lieth down, and the Judge spafs by him. 
For thefe, thefe, tribunes, in the duft I write 
My heart's deep languor, and my foul's fad tears. 
Let my tears ftanch the earth's dry appetite ; 
My fons' iweet blood will make it lhame and blufli. 
O earth ! I will befriend thee more with rain, 


Thatfliall diftil from thefe 3 two ancient urns, 
Than youthful April fhall with all his fhowers : 
In iummer's drought, I'll drop upon thee flill ; 
In winter, with warm tears I'll melt the fnow, 
And keep eternal fpring-time on thy face, 
So thou refufc to drink my dear fons' blood. 

3 Kvoancieninrn:,] Oxford editor. Vulg. two ancient ruins. 


K k 4 Enter 

504 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 

Enter Lucius^ with kis fzvord drawn. 

O, reverend tribunes ! gentle aged men ! 
Unbind my Tons, reverie the doom of death ; 
And let me fay, that never wept before, 
My tears are now prevailing orators. 

LUC. O, noble father, you lament in vain ; 
The tribunes hear you not, no man is by, 
And you recount your forrows to a ftone. 

Tit. Ah, Lucius, for thy brothers let me plead: 
Grave tribunes, once more I intreat of you. 

Luc. My gracious lord, no tribune hears you fpeak. 

Tit. Why, 'tis no matter, man : if they did hear, 
They would not mark me ; or, if they did mark, 
All bootlefs unto them, they would not pity me. 
Therefore I tell my forrows to the ftones ; 
Who, though they cannot anfwer my dittrefs, 
Yet in fome fort they're better than the tribunes, 
For that they will not intercept my tale : 
When I do weep, they humbly at my feet, 
Receive my tears, and feem to weep with me ; 
And, were they but attired in grave weeds, 
Rome could afford no tribune like to thefe. 
A (lone is foft as wax, tribunes more hard'than ftones : 
A ftone is filent, and offer, deth not; 
And tribunes with their tongues doom men to death. 
But wherefore ftand'ft thou with thy weapon drawn ? 

Lvc. To refcue my two brothers from their death : 
Fo 1 ' which attempt, the judges have pronounc'd 
My everlafting doom of baniihment. 

Tit. O happy man ! they have befriended thee. 
Why, foolifh Lucius, doit thou not perceive, 
Thn.t Rome is but a wildernefs of tygers ; 
Tygers muft prey ; and Rome affords no prey, 
But me and mine : How happy art thou then, 
From thefe devourers to be banifhed ? 
' But whip comes with our brother Marcus here ? 


TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 505 

Enter Marcus, and Lavinia. 

Mar. Titus, prepare thy noble eyes to weep ; 
Or, if not fo, thy noble heart to break; 
1 bring forrow to thine age. 

Tit. Will it confume me ? let me fee it then. 

MM. This was thy daughter. 

Tit. Why, Marcus, fo Ihe is. 

Luc. Ah me! this obj eft kills me'! 

Tit. Faint-hearted boy, arife, and look upon her: 
Speak, my Lavinia, what accurfed hand 
Hath made thee handlcfs 4 in thy father's fight? 
What fool hath added water to the fea ? 
Or brought a faggot to bright-burning Troy ? 
My grief was at the height, before thou cam'ft, 
And now, like Nilus, it difdaineth bounds. 
Give me a iword, I'll chop off my hands too 5 ; 
For they have fought for Rome, and all in vain ; 
And they have nurs'd this woe, in feeding life; 
In bootlefs prayer have they been held up, 
And they have ferv'd me to eftedtlefs ufe : 
Now, allthe fervice I require of them 
Is, that the one will help to cut the other.- 
'1 is well, Lavinia, that thou haft no hands ; 
For hands, to do Rome fervice, are but vain. 

Luc. Speak, gentle filter, who hath martyr'd thcc ? 

Mar. O, that delightful engine of her thoughts, 
That blab'd them with fuch pleafing eloquence, 
Is torn from forth that pretty hollow cage ; 
Where like a fweet melodious bird it fung 
Sweet vary'd notes, enchanting every ear ! 

* - in thy father's fight?] We fhould read 


* - I'll clop off my hands too,] Perhaps we fhould read : 

- or chop off, &c. 

It is not eafy to difcover how Titus, whea he had chopp'd off one 
of his hands, would have been able to have chopp'd off the other. 



r 6 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S, 

Lite. O, fay thou for her, who hath done this deed ? 

Mar. O, thus I found her, ftraying in the park, 
Seeking to hide herfelf ; as doth the deer, 
That hath receiv'd fome unrecuring wound. 

T/V. 6 It was my deer; and he, that wounded her, 
Hath hurt me more, than had he kill'd me dead : 
For now I ftand as one upon a rock, 
Environ'd with a wildernefs of fea ; 
Who marks the waxing tide grow wave by wave, 
Expedting ever when fome envious furge 
Will in his brinifh bowels fwallow him. 
This way to death my wretched fons are gone j 
Here {lands my other fbn, a baniih'd man ; 
And here my brother, weeping at my woes : 
But that, which gives my foul the greateft fpurn, 
Is dear Lavinia, dearer than my foul. 
Had I but feen thy picture in this plight, 
It .would have madded me ; What ihall I do, 
Now I behold thy lovely body fo ? 
Thou haft no hands, to wipe away thy tears ; 
Nor tongue, to tell me who hath martyr'd thee : 
Thy hufband he is dead; and, for his death, 
Thy brothers are condcmn'd, and dead by this :* 
Look, Marcus ! ah, fon Lucius, look on her ! 
When I did name her brothers, then frefh tears 
Stood on her cheeks ; as doth the honey dew 
Upon a gather'd lily almoft wither'd. 

Mar. Perchance, fhe weeps becaufe they kill'd her 

hufband : 
Perchance, becaufe fhe knows them innocent. 

Ttt. If they did kill thy hufband, then be joyful, 
Becaufe the law hath ta'en revenge on them. 
No, no, they would not do fo foul a deed ; 

6 // *LVOS my deer ; ] The play upon deer and dear has been 

fed by Waller, who calls a bdy's girdle, 

*/ The pale that held ray lovely Jeer. 1 " JOHNSON. 



Witnefs the forrow, that their fitter makes. 
Gentle Lavinis, let me kifs thy lips ; 
Or make fome figns how I may do thee eafe. 
Shall thy good uncle, and thy brother Lucius, 
And thou, and I, fit round about fome fountain ; 
Looking all downwards, to behold our cheeks 
How they are flain'd ; like meadows, yet not dry 
With miry flime left on them by a flood ? 
And in the fountain mall we gaze fo long, 
'Till the freih tafle be taken from that clearnefs, 
And made a brine-pit with our bitter tears ? 
Or mail we cut away our hands, like thine ? 
Or fhall we bite our tongues, and in dumb mows 
Pafs the remainder of our hateful days ? 
What mail we do ? let us, that have our tongues, 
Plot fome device of further mifery, 
To make us wonder'd at in time to come. 

Luc. Sweet father, ceafe your tears ; fdr, at your 

See, how my wretched fitter fobs and weeps. 

Mar. Patience, dear niece : good Titus, dry thine 

7/V. Ah, Marcus, Marcus ! brother, well I wot, 
Thy napkin cannot drink a tear of mine, 
For thou, poor man, halt drown'd it with thine own. 

Luc. Ah, my Lavinia, I will wipe thy cheeks. 

Tit. Mark, Marcus, mark! I underftand her figus : 
Had fhe a tongue to fpeak, now me would fay 
That to her brother which I faid to thee ; 
His napkin, with his true tears all bewet, 
Can do no fervice on her forrowful cheeks. 
O, what a fympathy of woe is this ! 
As far from help as limbo is from blifs. 

Enter Aaron. 

Aar. Titus Andronicus, my lord the emperor 
Sends thee this word, That if thou love thy fons, 



Let Marcus, Lucius, or thyfelf, old Titus, 
Or any one of you, chop off your hand, 
And lend it to the king : he for the fam.e, 
Will fend thee hither both thy fons alive ; 
And that lhall be the ranfom for their fault. 

'Tit. O, gracious emperor ! O, gentle Aaron ! 
Did ever raven fing fo like a lark, 
That gives fweet tidings of the fun's uprife ? 
\Vith all my heart, I'll fend the emperor my hand ; 
Good Aaron, wilt thou help to chop it off? 

Luc. Stay, father ; for that noble hand of thine, 
That hath thrown down fo many enemies, 
Shall not be fent : my hand will ferve the turn : 
My youth can better fpare my blood than you ; 
And therefore mine fhall fave my brothers' lives. 

Mar. Which of your hands hath not defended 


And rear'd aloft the bloody battle-ax, 
7 Writing defiruction on the enemies' caflle ? 


7 Writing deftruRion on the enemies' caflle f~\ Thus all the edi- 
tions. But Mr. Theobald, after ridiculing the fagacity of the for- 
mer editors at the expence of a great deal of aukward mirth, cor- 
rects it to cafque ; and this, he lays, he'll ftand by : And the Ox- 
ford editor, taking his fecurity, will fland by it too. But what a 
ilippery ground is critical confidence ! Nothing could bid fairer 
for a right conjecture ; yet 'tis all imaginary. A cloie helmet, 
which covered the whole head, was called a cq/llr, and, I fuppofe, 
for that very reafon. Don Quixote's barber, at leaft as good a 
critic as thefe editors, fays, (in Shelton's tranflation, 161.',) " I 
know what is a helmet, and what a morrion, and what a clofe 
caflle t and other things touching warfare." Lib. iv. cap. 18. 
And the original, celada d< encaxe, has fomething of fhe fame 
fignification. Shakefpeare ufes the word again in Troilus and 
Crtfda : 

" andDiomede 

" Stand faft, and wear a caflle on thy head." 


* Dr. Warburton's proof (fays the author of the Revifal) refls 
wholly on two miftakes, one of a printer, the other of his own. 
In Shelton's Don Quixote the word clofe cajlk is an error of the 



O, none of both but are of high defert : 
My hand hath been but idle ; let it ferve 
To ran torn my two nephews from their death ; 
Then have I kept it to a worthy end. 

Air. Nay, come, ngree, whofe hand fhallgo along, 
For fear they die before their pardon come. 

Mar. My hand lhall go. 

Luc. By heaven, it fhall not go. 

lit. Sirs, ftrive no more ; fuch wither'd herbs as 

Are meet for plucking up, and therefore mine. 

Luc. Sweet father, if I lhall be thought thy ion, 
Let me redeem my brothers both from death. 

Mar. And, for our father's fake, and mother's care, 
Now let me (hew a brother's love to thee. 

I'it. Agree between you; I will fpare my hand. 

Luc. Then I'll go fetch an axe. 

Mar. But I will ufe the axe. 

[Exeunt Lucius, and Marcus. 

Tit. Come hither, Aaron ; I'll deceive them both; 
Lend me thy hand, and I will give thee mine. 

Aar. If that be call'cl deceit, I will be honeft, 
And never, whilft I live, deceive men fo : 

prefs for a clofe cafque, which is the exaft interpretation of the 
Spanifh original, celaJa de tncaxe ; this Dr. Warburton mud have 
feen, if he had underftood Spanifh as well as he pretends to do. 
For the primitive caxa, from whence the word, encaxe, is de- 
rived, fignifies a box, or coffer; but never a cai.'le. His other 
proof is taken from this paflage in Troilu* and CreffiJa: 

" and Diomede 

" Stand fail, and wear a caftlc on thy bead" 
wherein Troilus doth not advife Diomede to wear a helmet on his 
head, for that would be poor indeed, as he always wore one in 
battle; but to guard his head with the moft impenetrable armour, 
to (hut it up even in a caftle, if it were poffible, or elfe his fword 
fhould reach it." 

After all this reafoning, however, it appears that a caflle did 
aftually fignify a clofe helmet. So, in Holinfhed, vol. II. p. 815 : 

" Then fuddenlie with great noife of trumpets entered fir 

Thomas Knevet in a cafiell of cole blacke, and over the caflett was 
written, The dolorous caflell, and fo he and the earle of Effer, 
&c. ran their courfes with the king &c," STSEVENS. 

* But 


But I'll deceive you in another fort, 
And that you'll fay, ere half an hour pafs. [Afide. 

{He cuts off Titufs band. 

Enter Lucius and Marcus again. 

Tit. Now, flay your ftrife; what fhall be, is dif- 
, patch'd. - 

Good Aaron, give his majetfy my hand : 
Tell him, it was a hand that warded him 
From thoufand dangers ; bid him bury it ; 
More hath it merited, that let it have. 
Asformyfons, fay, I account of them 
As jewels purchas'd at an eafy price ; 
And yet dear too, becaufe I bought mine own. 

Aar. I go, Andronicus : and for thy hand, 
Look by and by to have thy fons with thee : 
Their heads, I mean. O, how this villainy [Afide. 
Doth fat me with the very thought of it ! 
Let fools do good, and fair men call for grace, 
Aaron will have his foul black like his face. [Exit. 

Tit. O hear \ I lift this one hand up to heaven, 
And bow this feeble ruin to the earth : 
If any power pities wretched tears, 
To that I call : What, wilt thou kneel with me ? 

Do then, dear heart; for heaven fhall hear our prayers; 
Or with our fighs we'll breathe the welkin dim, 
And ftain the fun with fog, as fometime clouds, 
When they do hug him in their melting bofoms. 

Mar. O ! brother fpeak with poinbilities, 
And do not break into thele deep extremes *. 


8 And Ho not Iredk Into theft two extremes.] We fhould read, in- 
fLead of this nonfenfe : 

- woe-extremes. 

i. e. extremes caufed by exceffive forro\v. But Mr. Theobald, on 
his own authority, alcci j it to dccf, without notice given. 



//. Is not my forrovv deep, having no bottom ? 
Then be my pamons bottomlefs with them. 

Mar. But yet let reafon govern thy lament. 

Tit. If there were reafon for thefe miferies, 
Then into Hmits could I bind ray woes ; 
When heaven doth weep, doth not the earth o'erflow? 
If the winds rage, doth not the fea wax mad, 
Threat'ning the welkin with his big-fwoln face? ' 
And wilt thou have a reafon for this coil ? 
I am the fea ; hark, how her fighs do blow ! 
She is the weeping welkin, I the earth : 
Then muft my fea be moved with her fighs ; 
Then muft my earth with her continual tears 
Become a deluge, overflow 'd and dro.wn'd : 
For why ? my bowels cannot hide her woes, 
But like a drunkard muft I vomit them. 
Then give me leave; for lofers will have leave 
To eafe their ftomachs with t'heir bitrcr tongues. 

Enter a Meffenger, bringing in two bead* and a band. 

Me[[. Worthy Andronicus, ill art thou repay 'd 
For that good hand, thou lent'ft the emperor. 
Here are the heads of thy two noble fons ; 
And here's thy hand, in fcorn to thee lent back ; 
Thy griefs their fports, thy refolution mock'd : 
That woe is me to think upon thy woes, 
More than remembrance of my father's death. \_ Exit. 

Mar. Now let hot ^Etna cool in Sicily, 
And be my heart an ever-burning hell ! 
Thefe miferies are more than may be borne ! 
To weep with them that weep doth eafe fome deal,, 
But forrow flouted at is double death. 

Luc. Ah, that this fight Ihould make fo deep- a 

It is deep in the old quarto of 161 r, and the folio. 5. e. in all 
the old copies which have been hitherto fcen. JOHNSO.V. 



And yet derefted life not fhrink thereat ! 
That ever death fhould let life bear his name, 
Where life hath no more intereft but to breathe ! 

\_Lavinia kffes him. 

Mar. Alas, poor heart, that kifs is comfortlefs, 
As frozen water to a flarved fnake. 

lit. When will this fearful ilumber have an 

Mar. Now, farewel, flattery: Die, Andronicus; 
Thou doft not flumber : fee, thy two fons' heads ; 
Thy warlike hand ; thy mangled daughter here ; 
Thy other banifh'd fon, with this dear fight 
Struck pale and bloodlefs ; and thy brother, I, 
Even like a ftony image, cold and numb. 
Ah ! now no more will I controul thy griefs : 
Rent off thy filver hair, thy other hand 
Gnawing with thy teeth ; and be this difmal fight 
The doling up of your moft wretched eyes ! 
Is'ow is a time to ftorm, why art thou flill ? 

Tit. Ha, ha, ha ! 

Mar. Why doft thou laugh ! it fits not with this 

Tit. Why I have not another tear to flied : 
Befides, this forrow is an enemy, 
And would ufurp upon my watry eyes, 
And make them blind with tributary tears; 
Then which way lhall I find revenge's cave ? 
For thefe two heads do feem to fpeak to me ; 
And threat me, I fliall never come to blifs, 
'Till all thefe mifchiefs be return'd again, 
Even in their throats that have committed them. 
Come, let me fee what tafk I have to do. 
You heavy people, circle me about ; 
That I may turn me to each one of you, 
And fwear unto my foul to right your wrongs. 
The vow is made. Come, brother, take a head; 
And in this hand the other will I bear : 



Lavinia, thou fhalt be employed in thefe things ' ; 
Bear thou my hand, fweet wench, between thy teeth, 
As for thee, boy, go, get thee from my fight; 
Thou art an exile, and thou muft not flay : 
Hie to the Goths, and raiie an army there : 
And, if you love me, as I think you do, 
Let's kifs and part, for we have much to do. 


Manet Lucius. 

Luc. Farewel, Andronicus, my noble father; 
The woful'ft man that ever liv'd in Rome ! 
Farewel, proud Rome ! 'till Lucius comes again, 
He leaves his pledges dearer than his life. 
Farewel, Lavinia, my noble filter ; 
O, 'would thou wert as thou 'tofore haft been ! 
But now nor Lucius, nor Lavinia lives, 
But in oblivion, and hateful griefs. 
If Lucius live, he will requite your wrongs ; 
And make proud Saturninus and his empercfs 
Beg~at the gates, like Tarquin and his queen. 
Now will I to the Goths, and raife a power, 
To be reveng'd on Rome and Saturnine. 

[Exit Lucius. 

1 Lavinia, thoujhalt le employ* din theft things ;] Thus the fo- 
lio, 1623. The quarto 16 1 1 thus : 

And Lavinia thou (halt be employ'd in thefe arms. 





Aii apartment in Titus's kovfe. 

4. banquet. Enter Titus, M/JV//J, Lavinia, and young 
Lucius, a boy. 

Tit. So, fo ; now fit : and look, you eat no more 
Than will preferve juft fo much ftrength in us 
As Will revenge thefe bitter woes of ours. 
Marcus, unknit that forrow-wreathen knot ; 
Thy niece and I, poor creatures, want our hands, 
And cannot paffionate ; our ten-fold grief 
With folded arms. This poor right hand of mine 
Is left to tyrannize upon my breaft ; 
And when my heart, all mad with mifery, 
Beats in this hollow prifon of my flefh, 
Then thus I thump it down. 
Thou map of woe, that thus dofl talk in figns ! 

[To Lavhiia. 

When thy poor heart beats with outrageous beating, 
Thou canft not ftrike it thus to make it ilill. 
Wound it with fighing, girl, kill it with groans ; 
Or get fome little knife between thy teeth, 
And juft againft thy heart make thou a hole ; 
That all the tears that thy poor eyes let fall, 
May run into that fink, and foaking in, 
Drown the lamenting fool in fea-falt tears. 

* This fcene, which does not contribute any thing to tli* 
a6Hon, yet feems to have the fame author with the relr, it 
omitted in the quarto of 1611, but found in the folio of 1623. 


3 And cannot paflionate, 5V.] This obfolete verb is likewif* 
found in Spenfer : 

*' Great pleafure mix'd with pitiful regard, 
" That godly king arid queen did pajjionate" 




Mar. Fye, brother, fye ! teach her not thus to lay 
Such violent hands upon her tender life. 

fit. How now ! has fcrrow made thee doat al- 
ready ? 

"Why, Marcus, no man flioulJ be mad but I. 
*Wijat violent hands can flie lay on her life ? 
Ah, wherefore doft thou urge the name of hands ;-~ 
To bid ^Eneas tell the tale twice o'er, 
How Troy was burnt, and he made miferable ? 
O, handle not the theme, to talk of hands ; 
Left we remember ftill, that we have none. 
Fye, fye, how frantickly I fquare my talk 1 
As if we mould forget we had no hands, 
If Marcus did not name the word of hands ! 
Come, let's fall to; and, gentle girl, eat this : 
Here is no drink ! Hark, Marcus, what me fays ; 
I can interpret all her martyr'd figns ; 
She fays, me drinks no other drink but tears, 
Brew'd with her forrows, mefh'd upon her cheeks 4 : 
Spccchlefs complainer, I will learn thy thought j 
In thy dumb action will 1 be as perfect, 
As begging hermits in their holy prayers : 
Thou malt not figh, nor hold thy flumps to heaven^ 
Nor wink, nor nod, nor kneel, nor make a fign, 
But I, of thefe, will wreft an alphabet, 
And, s by ftill practice, learn to know the meaning. 

Boy. Good grandfirc, leave thefe bitter deep la- 
ments ; 
Make my aunt merry with fome pleafing tale. 

Mar. Alas, the tender boy, in paffion mov'd, 
Doth weep to fee his grandfire's heavinefs. 

Tit. Peace, tender iapling ; thou art made of tears, 

* mefli'd upon ber cheeks.] A very coarfe allufion to brew- 

* by Jiill praStict ] By cogent or continual pra&ice. 


L 1 a And 


And tears will quickly melt thy life away. 

[Marcus Jtrikes the di/h with a knife* 
What doft thou flrike at, Marcus, with thy knife ? 

Mar. At that that I have kill'd, my lord ; a fly. 

jT;>. Out on thee, murderer ! thou kiU'ft my heart ; 
Mine eyes are cloy'd with view of tyranny : 
A deed of death, done on the innocent, 
Becomes not Titus' brother ; Get thee gone; 
I fee, thou art not for my company. 

JV&r. Alas, my lord, I have but kill'd a fly. 

fit. But how, if that fly had a father and mother 6 ? 
How would he hang his flender gilded wings, 
7 And buz lamenting doings in the air ? 
Poor harmlefs fly ! 

That with his pretty buzzing melody, 
Came here to make us merry ; aud thou haft kill'd 

Mar. Pardon me, fir ; it was a black ill-favour'd fly, 
Like to the emperefs' Moor ; therefore I kill'd him. 

Tit. O, O, O, 

Then pardon me for reprehending thee, 
For thou halt done a charitable deed. 
Give me thy knife, I will infult on him ; 
Flattering myfelf, as if it were the Moor, 

* a father and mother ?] Mother perhaps fhould be omitted, 

as the following line fpeaks only in the fiiir ular number, and Ti- 
tus molt probably confines his thoughts to the futferings of a fa- 
ther. STEEVENS. 

7 And buz lamenting doings in the air.] Lamenting doings is a 
very idle expreflion, and conveys no idea. I read 


The alteration which I have made, though it Is but the addition 
of a tingle letter, is a great increafe to the fenfe ; and though, in- 
deed, there is Ibmewhatof a tautology in the epithet and fubitan- 
tive annexed to it, yet that's no new thing with our author. 


There is no need of change. Sad doings for any unfortunate 
event, is a common though no: an elegant expreflion. 




Come hither purpofely to poifon me. 

There's forthyfelf, and that's for Tamora. 

Ah, firrah ! yet I think we are not brought fo low, 

But that, between us, we can kill a fly, 

That conies in likenefs of a coal-black Moor. 

Mar. Alas, poor man ! grief has fo wrought on 

He takes falfe fhadows for true fubftances. 

Tit. Come, take away. Lavinia, go with me : 
I'll to thy clofet ; and go read with thee 
Sad ftories, chanced in the times of old. 
Come, boy, and go with me ; thy fight is young, 
And thou malt read, when mine begins to dazzle. 



Titufs koufe. 

Enter young Lucius, and Lavinia running after him ; and 
the boy fiies from her, ivith his books under bis arm. 
Enter Titus and Marcus. 

Boy. Help, grandfire, help ! my aunt Lavinia 
Follows me every where, I know not why : 
Good uncle Marcus, fee how fwift fhe comes ! 
Alas, fvveet aunt, I know not what you mean. 
Mar. Stand by me, Lucius ; do not fear thine 


Tit. She loves thee, boy, too well to do thee harm. 
Boy. Ay, when my father was in Rome, fhe did. 
Mar. What means my niece Lavinia by thefeiigns ? 
Tit. Fear her not, Lucius : Somewhat doth fhc 

mean : 
See, Lucius, fee, how much ftie makes of thee : 

L 1 3 Some- 


Somewhither would flic have thee go with her* 

Ah, boy, Cornelia never with more care 

Read to her ions, than Hie hath read to thee, 

Sweet poetry, and Tully's oratory 8 . 

Canft thou not guefs wherefore Ihe plies thee thus ? 

Soy, My lord, I know not, I, nor can I guefs, 
Unlefs fome fit of phrenzy do poflefs her : 
For I have heard my grandfire fay full oft, 
Extremity of griefs would make men mad ; 
And I have read, that Hecuba of Troy 
Kan mad through forrow ; That made me to fear ; 
Although, my lord, I know, my noble aunt 
Loves me as dear as e'er my mother did, 
And would not, but in fury, fright my youth : 
Which made me down to throw my books, and fly ; 
Caufelefs, perhaps : But pardon me, fweet aunt ; 
And, madam, if my uncle Marcus go, 
J will moft willingly attend your ladylhip. 
Mar. Lucius, I will. 
it. How now, Lavinia ? Marcus, what meant 

this ? 

Some book there is that Ihe defires to fee : 
Which is it, girl, of thefe ? Open them, boy, 
But thou art deeper read, and better Ikill'd ; 
Come, and take choice of all my library, 
And fo beguile thy forrow, 'till the heavens 
Reveal the damn'd contriver of this deed. 
Why lifts Ihe up her arms in fcquence thus ? 

Mar. I think, ihe means, that there was more 

than one 

Confederate in the fact ; Ay, more there was : 
Or elfe to heaven Ihe heaves them for revenge. 
Tit. Lucius, what book is that flie tofleth fo ? 

* Tutty 's oratory.] Thus the moderns. The old copie* 
lead Tally's oratour \ meaning perhaps, Tully De oratore. 



Soy. Grandfire, 'tis Ovid's Metamorphofis ; 
My mother gave it me. 

Mar. For love of her that's gone, 
Perhaps foe cull'd it from among the reft. 

Tit. Soft ! foft, how bufily fhe turns the leaves ! 
Help her : What would fhe find? Lavinia, fhall I 

read ? 

This is the tragic tale of Philomel, 
And treats of Tereus' treafon, and his rape ; 
And rape, I fear, was root of thine annoy. 

Mar. See, brother fee ; note, how fhe quotes the 

leaves 9 . 

TV/. Lavinia, were't thou thus furpriz'd, fweet girl, 
Ravim'd, and wrong'd, as Philomela was, 
Forc'd in the ruthlefs, vaft, and gloomy woods ? 

See, fee ! 

Ay, fuch a place there is, where we did hunt, 
(O, had we never, never, hunted there !) 
Pattern'd by that the poet here defcribes, 
By nature made for murders, and for rapes. 

Mar. O, why fhould nature build fo foul a den, 
Unlcfs the gods delight in tragedies ! 
37/. Give figns, fweet girl, for here are none but 


What Roman lord it was durft do the deed : 
Or flunk not Saturnine, as Tarquin erft, 
That left the camp to fin in Lucrece' bed ? 

Mar. Sit down, fweet niece ; brother, fit down 

by me. 

Apollo, Pallas, Jove, or Mercury, 
Infpire me, that I may this treafon find I- 
My lord, look here ; look here, Lavinia : 

[He writes bis name with hisftajf, and guides it 

zi'itb bis feet and mouth. 
Thisfandy plot is "plain; guide, if thou can'ft, 

9 bcwfif quotes tie leaves."] To quote U to obferre. Se 

a note op Hamlet* act II. fc. 2. STEEISMS. 

L 1 4 This 


This after me, when I have writ my name 
Without the help of any hand at all. 
Curs'd be that heart, that forc'd us to this Ihift ! 
Write thou, good niece ; and here difplay at laft, 
What God will have difcover'd for revenge : 
Heaven guide thy pen to print thy forrows plain, 
That we may know the traitors, and the truth! 

[She takes the faff in her mouthy and guides it 
with her flumps, and writes. 

Fit. O, do you read, my lord, what Ihe hath 

writ ? 
Sttiprum Chiron Demetrius. 

Mar. What, what! the luflful fons of Tamora 
Performers of this hateful bloody deed ? 

'Tit. Mxgne Dominator Poll ', 

Yam lentus audis feeler a ? tarn lentus vides ? 

Mar. O, calm thee, gentle lord ! although, I 


There is enough written upon this earth, 
To ftir a mutiny in the mildefl thoughts, 
And arm the minds of infants to exclaims. 
My lord, kneel down with me; Lavinia, kneel; 
And kneel, fweet boy, the Roman Hector's hope; 
And fwear with me, as with the woeful feere z , 


1 Magne Regnator Deum &c. is the exclamation of Hippelitus 
when frbtedra difcovers the fecret of her inceftuous pdaon in 
Seneca's tragedy. STEEVCNS. 

* And fwear with me, as with the woeful f cere, ~\ The old copies 
do not only affift us to find the true reading by conjecture. I will 
give an inftance, from the firft folio, of a reading (inconteftibly the 
true one) which has efcaped the laborious reieafches of the many 
moft diligent critics, who have favoured the world with editions of 
Shakefpeare. In Titus Andronicm, Aft iv. Scene i. Marcus fays, 
My lord, kneel down with me; Lai inia kneel'. 
And kneel, fweet boy, the Roman Heftor's hope ; 
Andfixear ivith me, as, with the wo^/K/peer, 
And father of that chafte dijhonourd dame, 
Lord jfunius Brutus Jkuare for Lucrece* rape 
What meaning has hitherto been annexed to the \vord/<w, in this 



And father, of that chafte difhonour'd dame, 
Lord Junius Brutus fware for Lucrece' rape, - 
That vvewillprofecute, by good advice, 
Mortal revenge upon thefe traiterous Goths, 
And fee their blood, or die with this reproach. 

7?/. 'Tis fure enough, an you knew how. 
But if you hurt thefe bear-whelps, then beware: 
The dam will wake; and, if fhe wind you once, 
She's with the lion deeply {lill in league, 
And lulls him while fhe playethon her back, 
And, when he fleeps, will fhe do what fhe lift. 
You're a young huntfman, Marcus ; let it alone ; 
And, come, I will go get a leaf of brafs, 
And with a gad of fteel will write thefe words, 
And lay it by : the angry northern wind 

paflage, I know not. The reading of the firft folio \sfeere, which 
Jignifies a companion, and here metaphorically a hujbanJ. The 
proceeding of Brutus, which is alluded to, is defcribed at length 
in our author's Rape of Lucrece, as putting an end to the la- 
mentations of Collatinus and Lucretius, the hufband and father of 
Lucretia. So, in Sir Eglamour ofArtoys, fig. A 4, 

'* Chriftabell, your daughter free 

" When fliall fhe have a fere?" i. e. a hufband. 
Sir Tho. More's Lamentation on the Death of 9. Elizabeth. Wife 

" Was I not a king's fere in marriage ?" 
And again : 

" Farewell my daughter Katherine, late the fere 

*' To prince Arthur." TYRWHITT. 

The word feere or pbeere very frequently occurs among the old 
dramatic writers and others. So, in Ben Jonfon's Silent Woman^ 
Morofe fays : 

" her that I mean to chufe for my led-pbeere" 
Again, in The noble Kinfmen, by Beaumont and Fletcher: 

" play-pheeres." 

And in Spenfer, F. ii. B. 5 : 

" fome fair fraimion, fit for fuch zpheerc" 

Again, in the tragedy of Soliman and Perfeda : 

" When didft thou with thy fampler in the fun 
^* Sit fewing with thy feres." 
Again in Hyde Scorner: 

* What Frewyll, mine own fere f" STEEVENS. 

6 Will 


Will blow thefe fands, like Sybil's leaves, abroad, 
And where's your leflbn then ? Boy, what fay you ? 

Boy. I fay, my lord, that if I were a man, 
Their mother's bed-chamber fliould not be fafe 
For thefe bad bond-men to the yoke of Rome. 

Mar. Ay, that's my boy ! thy father hath full oft 
For this ungrateful country done the like. 
Boy. And, uncle, fo will I, an if I live. 
Tit. Come, go with me into my armoury ; 
Lucius, I'll fit thee; and withal, my boy 
Shall carry from me to the emperefs* ions 
Prefents, that I intend to fend them both : 
Come, come; thou'lt do my meffage, wilt thou 

not ? 

Soy. Ay, with my dagger in their bofom, grand- 
TV/. No, no, boy, not fo ; I'll teach thee another 


Lavinia, come : Marcus, look to my houfe ; 
Lucius and I'll go brave it at the court; 
Ay, marry, will we, fir; and we'll be waited on. 


Mar. O heavens, can you hear a good man groan. 
And not relent, or not compam'onate him ? 
Marcus, attend him in his ecftafy ; 
That hath more fears of forrow in his heart, 
Than foe-men's marks upon his batter'd fhield: 
But yet fo juft, that he will not revenge : 
3 Revenge the heavens for old Andronicus ! [Exit. 

3 Revenge the heavens ] We fliould read : 

Reveuge thee, heavens! WAtBURTON. 

It fliould be : 

Revenge^ ye heaven* ! 
}"c was by the tranfcriber taken for y e , the. JOHNSON. 

believe the old reading is right, and fignifies may the I'tave;u 
revrnge &c. STEEVENS. 
I believe we fliould read 

Revenge then heavens. T YR \v H I T Tt 




Changes to the palace. 

Enter Aaron, Chiron, and Demetrius, at one door : and 
at another door, young Lucius and another, with A 
bundle of weapons, and verfes writ upon them. 

Chi. Demetrius, here's the fon of Lucius ; 
He hath fome meflage to deliver to us. 

Aar. Ay, fome mad meflage from his mad grand- 

Bey. My lords, with all the humblenefs I may, 
I greet your honours from Andronicus; 
And pray the Roman gods, confound you both. 

Dem. Gramercy 4 , lovely Lucius; What's the 

news ? 
Boy. That you are both decypher'd, that's the 

For villains mark'd with rape. \_Afide ^\ May it pleafe 


My grandfire, well-advis'd, hath fent by me 
The goodlieft weapons of his armoury, 
To gratify your honourable youth, 
The hope of Rome ; for fo he bade me fay ; 
And fo I do, and with his gifts prefent 
Your lordmips, that whenever you have need, 
You may be armed and appointed well : 
And fo I leave you both, \_Afide,~\ like bloody vil- 
lains. [Exit. 

Dem. What's here ? A fcroll ; and written round 

about ? 
Let's fee; 

* Grtmtrcji ] i. e. grand mtrei ; grtat thanks. 



Integer vit<e, fcelerifque purus, 
Non eget Mauri jacuLis nee arcu : 

Chi. O, 'tis a verfe in Horace; I know it well : 
I read it in the grammar long ago. 

Aar. Ay, juft; a verfe in Horace; right, you 

have it. 

Now, what a thing it is to be an afs ! 
Here's no fond jell : the old man hath found 

their guilt; 
And fends the weapons wrapp'd about with 


That wound, beyond their feeling, to the 



But were our witty emperefs well a-foot, 
She would applaud Andronicus' conceit. 
But let her reft in her unreft a while. 
And now, young lords, was't not a happy flar 
Led us to Rome, ftrangers, and, more than fo, 
Captives, to be advanced to this height ? 
It did me good, before the palace gate 
To brave the tribune in his brother's hearing. 

Dem. But me more good, to fee fo great a lord 
Bafely infinuate, and fend us gifts. 

Aar. Had he not reafon, lord Demetrius ? 
Did you not ufe his daughter very friendly ? 

Dem. I would, we had a thoufand Roman dames 
At fuch a bay, by turn to ferve our luft. 

Chi. A charitable wifh, and full of love. 

Aar. Here lacketh but your mother to fay amen. 

Chi. And that would ihe for twenty thoufand 

Dem. Come, let us go ; and pray to all the gods 
For our beloved mother in her pains. 

Aar. Pray to the devils; the gods have given us 
o'er. \_Afide. Flourf\ 

Dem. Why do the emperor's trumpets flourifh 
thus ? 

Cki* Belike, for joy the emperor hath a fon. 


Dem. Soft ; who comes here ? 

Enter Nurfe, with a Blad-a-moor Child. 

Nurfe. Good-morrow, lords: 
O, tell me, did you fee Aaron the Moor ? 

Aar. Well, more, orlefs, or ne'er a whit at all. 
Here Aaron is ,* and what with Aaron now? 

Nur. O gentle Aaron, we are all undone! 
Now help* or woe betide thee evermore ! 

Aar. Why, what a caterwauling doft thou keep? 
What doft thou wrap and fumble in thine arms? 

Nur, O, that which I would hide from heaven's eye, 
Our emperefs' fhame, and llately Rome's difgrace ; 
She is deliver'd, lords, fhe is deliver'd. 

Aar. To whom ? 

Nur. I mean, Ihe is brought to bed. 

Aar. Well, God 
Give her good reft! What hath he fent her? 

Nur. A devil. 

Aar. Why, then fhe is the devil's dam ; a joyful 

Nur. A joylefs, difmal, black, and forrowful iffue : 
Here is the babe, as loathfome as a toad 
Amongft the faireft breeders of our clime. 
The emperefs' fends it thee, thy ftamp, thy feal, 
And bids thee chriften it with thy dagger's point. 

Aar. Out, out, you whore! is black fo bafe a 

hue ? 
Sweet blowfe, you are a beauteous blofTom, fure.' 

Dem. Villain, what haft thou done ? 

Aar. That which thou 
Can'ft not undo. 

Chi. Thou haft undone our mother. 

Aar. Villain, I have done thy mother*. 

5 Fillain, J have done thy mother. ] To do is here ufcd obfcene- 
ly. So, in Taylor the water poet's charafter of a Projiitutt: 
" She's facile fieri (quickly \vonne) 
" Or, confi'ring truly, eafy to be JOM" COLLINS. 


Dem. And therein, hellifh dog, thou hafl undone* 
Woe to her chance, and damn'd her loathed choice I 
Accurs'd the offspring of fo foul a fiend! 

Chi. It fnall not live. 

Star. It ihall not die. 

Nur. Aaron, it muft; the mother wills it fo. 

Aar. What, muft it, nurfe? then let no man, but I, 
Do execution on my fiefh and blood. 

Dem. 6 I'll broach the tadpole on my rapier's 

point : 
Nurfe, give it me; my fvvord Ihall foon difpatch it. 

Aar. Sooner this fvvord {hall plough thy bowels up. 
Stay, murderous villains ! will you kill your brother? 
Now, by the, burning tapers of the iky, 
That (hone fo brightly when this boy was got, 
He dies upon my icymitar's lharp point, 
That touches this my firft-born fon and heir ! 
1 tell you, younglings, not Enceladus, 
With all his threatening band of Typhon's brood, 
Nor great Alcicle's, nor the god of war, 
Shall feize this prey, out of his father's hands. 
What, what; ye fanguine fhallow-hearted boys ! 
Ye white-lim'd walls! ye alehoufe painted figns! 
Coal-black is better than another hue, 
7 In that it fcorns to bear another hue : 
For all the water in the ocean 
Can never turn the fwan's black legs to white, 

6 m Iroacb the taJpok ] A Iroacbn ajjtit. V\\J}it the 

tadpole. JOHNSON. 

So, in Heywood's Rape ofLucrece, 1630: 

' ' I'll Iroacb thee on ray Heel." 

Again, in Greene's P leaf ant Difcovery of the Cofcnage of 'Colliers^ 
1 (j^2 : " with that flie caught 'a.fpit in her hand, and fworc if 
he offered to ftirre (he Ihould therewith broacb him." COLLINS. 

7 In that it fcems to lear another hue:~\ We may better read : 
In. that it fcorns to bear another hue. JOHNSON. 

Scorns is the reading of the firft folio, and fliould undoubtedly 
be inferred in the text. TYJR.WHITT, 


TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 527 

Although Hie lave them hourly in the flood. 
Tell the emperefs from me, I am of age 
To keep mine own; excufe it how flie can. 

Dem. Wilt thou betray thy noble miftrefs thus ? 
Aar. My miftrefs is my miftrefs; this, myfelf; 
The vigour, and the pidureof my youth: 
This, before all the world, do I prefer; 
This, maugre all the world, will I keep fafe, 
Or fome of you mall fmoke for it in Rome. 
Dem. By this our mother is for ever lham'd. 
Chi. Rome will defpife her for this foul efcape. 
Nur. The emperor, in his rage, will doom her 


Chit I biufh to think upon this ignomy. 
Aar. Why there's the privilege your beauty bears : 
Fye, treacherous hue ! that will betray with bhrihbg 
The clofc enacts and counfels of the heart! 
Here's a young lad fram'd of another leer 8 : 
Look, how the black flave fmiles upon the father; 
As who ihould fay, Old lad, I am tbine own. 
He is your brother, lords ; fehfjbly fed 
Of that felf-blood that firft gave life to you; 
And, from that womb, where you imprifon'd wer, 
He is infranchifed and come to light : 
Nay, he's your brother by the fureriide, 
Although my feal is ftamped in his face. 

Nur. Aaron, what lhall I fay unto the emperefs? 
Dem. Advife thee, Aaron, what is to be done, 
And we will all fubfcribe to thy advice ; 
Save you the child, fo we may all be fafe. 

8 .. another leer;] Leer is complexion, or hue. So, ia 

As you. like it: " a Rofalind of a better leer than you." See 

Mr. Toilet's note on ad IV. fc. i. In the notes on the Canterbury 
7a!es of Chaucer, late edit. vol. IV. p. 320. Lereis fuppofed to 
fc/tt. So, in Ifumlrcs^ MS. Cott. Cul. ij. fol. 129; 
" His lady is white as wales bone, 

" Here lere brygte to fe upon, 
" So faire as blofme on tre." 



Aar. Then fit we down, and let us all confulr. 
My fon and I will have the wind of you : 
Keep there : Now talk at pleafure of your fafety. 

[They fit on the ground. 

Dem. How many women faw this child of his ? 
Aar. Why, fo, brave lords; When we all join 

in league, 

I am a lamb : but if you brave the Moor, 
The chafed boar, the mountain lionefs, 
The ocean fwells not fo as Aaron ftorms. 
But, fay again, how many faw the child ? 
Nur. Cornelia the midwife, and myfelf, 
And no one elfe, but the deliver'd emperefs. 

Aar. The emperefs, the midwife, and yourfelf : 
Two may keep counfel, when the third's away 9 : 
Go to the emperefs \ tell her this I faid : 

[He kills her. 

Weke, weke ! fo cries a pig, prepar'd to the fpit. 
Dm. Whatmean'ft thou, Aaron? Wherefore didft 

thou this? 

'Aar. O lord, fir, 'tis a deed of policy : 
Shall (he live to betray this guilt of ours ? 
A Jong-tongu'd babbling goffip ? no, lords, no. 
And now be it known to you my full intent. 
Not far, one Muliteus lives, my countryman, 
His wife but yefternight was brought to- bed ; 
His child is like to her, fair as you are : 
* Go pack with him, and give the mother gold ? 
And tell them both the circumftance of all ; 

9 Two may keep counfel when the third's aiuay :] This proverb 
introduced hkewife in Romeo and Julitt t aft II. STEEVENS. 

1 Go pack with him, ] Pack here feems to have the mean- 
ing of make a bargain. Or it may mean, as in the phrafe of mo- 
dern gamefters, to aft colluiively. 

And mighty dukes pack knaves for half a crown. POPE. 
To pack is to contrive infidioufly. So, in K. Lear : 

" ihuft's and packings of the dukes." STEEVENS. 



And how by this their child fhall be advanc'd, 
And be received for the emperor's heir, 
And fubftituted in the place of mine, 
To calm this tempeft whirling in the court; 
And let the emperor dandle him for his own. 
Hark ye, my lords; ye fee, I have given herphyfick, 

[Pointing to~ the nurfe. 
And you mufl needs beftow her funeral ; 
The fields are near, and you are gallant grooms : 
This done, fee that you take no longer days, 
But fend the midwife prefently to me. 
The midwife, and the p.urfe, well made away, 
Then let the ladies tattle what they pleafe. 

Chi. Aaron, I fee, thou wilt not truft the air 
With fecrets. 

Dem. For this care of Tamora, 
Herfelf, and hers, are highly bound to thee. [Exeunt. 

Aar. Now to the Goths, as Iwift as fwallow flics ; 
There to difpofe this trcafure in my arms, 
And fccretly to greet the emperefs' friends. 
Come on, you thick-lip'd flave, I bear you hence ; 
For it is you that put us to our ihifts : ' 
I'll make you feed on berries, and on roots, 
And feed on curds and whey, and fuck the goat, 
And cabin in a cave; and bring you up 
To be a warrior, and command a camp. [.v/V. 


Ajlreet near the palace. 

Enter 'Titus, old Marcus, young Lucius, and other Gentle- 
men ivith bows; and Titus bears the arrows with letters 
on the ends of them. 

Tit. Come, Marcus, come; Kinfmen, this is the 

way : 
Sir boy, now let me fee your archery; 

VOL. VIII. M m Look 


Look, ye draw home enough, and 'tis there ftraight : 
Terras ^flrea.rellqi'.lt : be you remember'd Marcus. 
She's gone, fhc's ilecl. Sirs, take you to your tools. 
You, coufins, fnall go found the ocean, 
And caft your nets ; haply, you may find her in the 


Yet there's as littlejufVtce as at land : 
No ; Publius and Sempronius, you muft do it; 
Tis you muft dig with mattock, and with ipade, 
And pierce the inmoft centre of the earth ; 
Then, when you come to Pluto's region, 
I pray you, deliver him this petition : 
Tell him, it is for juftice, and for aid ; 
And that it comes from old Andronicus, 
Shaken withforrows in ungrateful Rome. 
Ah, Rome ! Well, well ; I made thee miferable* 
What time I threw the people's fuffrages 
On him that thus doth tyrannize o'er me. 
Go, get you gone; and pray be careful all, 
And leave you not a man of war unfearch'd; 
This wicked emperor may have Ihipp'd her hence, 
And, kinfmen, then we may go pipe for juftice. 

Mar. O, Publius, is not this a heavy cafe, 
To fee thy noble uncle thus diffract ? 

Pub. Therefore, my lord, it highly us concerns, 
By day and night to attend him carefully; 
And feed his humour kindly as we may, 
Till time beget fome careful remedy. 

Mar. Kinfmen his forrows are pall remedy. 
Join with the Goths; and with revengeful war 
Take wreak on Rome for this ingratitude, 
And vengeance on the traitor Saturnine. 

T//. Pubiius, how now ? how no;v, ;ny matters, 
What, have you met with her? 

Pub. No, my good lord; but Pluto fends you 


If you will have revenge from hell, youlhall : 
Marry, for juilice, fne is ib employ 'd, 



He thinks, with Jove in heaven, or fomewhere elfe, 
So that perforce you needs muft ftay a time. 

Tit. He doth me wrong, to feed me wi:h delays. 
Fll dive into the burning lake below, 
And pull her out of Acheron by the heels. 
Marcus, we are but fhrubs, no cedars we; 
No big-bon'd men, framM of the Cyclops* fize; 
But metal, Marcus, fteel to the very back; 
4 Yet wrung with wrongs, more than our backs can 

bear : 

And fith there is nojuftice in earth nor hell, 
We will folicit heaven ; and move the gods, 
To fend down juftice for to wreak our wrongs : 
Come, to this gear. You are a good archer, Marcus* 
[He gives them the arrows* 

Adjovem, that's for you : Here, &d Apolllnitni 
Ad Mar tern, that's for my felf; 
Here, boy, to Pallas : Here to Mercury : 
To Saturn, and to Coelus J ; not to Saturnine, 
You were as good to fhoot againft the wind. 
TO it, boy. Marcus, loofe when I bid: 
O* my word, I have written to effedt; 
There's not a god left unfolicited. 

Mar. Kinfmen, Ihoot all your fhafts into the court 4 i 

* Yet wrung tultb wrongs ^ ] To wring a horfe is to preft 

or ftrain his back. JOHNSON. 

3 To Saturn, and to Coelus, : ] The quarto and folio read : 

to Cains. Mr. Rowe firitfubttituted Calm in its room. 


4 JJ)oot all yotir Jbafts into tl: court :] In the ancient ballad 

of Titus Andron'u u?s Complaint, is the following pallage : 

" Then pail reliefe I upp and downe did goe, 
*' And with my tears wrote in the duft my woe : 
" IJbot my arrowcs towards heaven hie, 
" And for revenge to hell did often crye." 

On this Dr Percy has the following obiervation : " If the ballad 
was written before the play, I fliould fuppofe this to be only a me- 
taphorical expreffion, taken from the Pfalms : ** They Jboot out their 
arrows t even bitter <wordi, Pf. 64. 3." Re lique s of anc if nt Englijb 
Poetry^ vol. I. p. 228. third edit. STEEVENS. 

M m 2 We 


We will afflict the emperor in his pride. 

Tit. Now, matters, draw, [fkyj&oot,] O, well faid, 

Lucius ! 
Good boy, in Virgo's lap, give it to Pallas. 

Mar. My lord, I am a mile beyond the moon 5 ; 
Your letter is with Jupiter by this. 

Tit. Ha ! Publius, Publius, what haft thou done> 
See, fee, thou haft fhot offone of Taurus' horns. 

Mar. This was the fport, my lord ; when Publius 


The bull, being gall'd, gave Aries fuch a knock 
That down fell both the ram's horns in the court ; 
And who Ihould find them but the emperefs' villain ? 
She laugh'd, and told the Moor, he fhould not choofe 
But give them to his mafter for a prefcnt. 

Tit. Why, there it goes : God give your lordlhip 

Enter a Clown, with a bajket and two pigeons. 

News, news from heaven ! Marcus, the poft is come. 
Sirrah, what tidings ? have you any letters ? 
Shall I havejuftice ? what fays Jupiter ? 

Clown. Ho! the gibbet-maker ? he fays, that he 
hath taken them down again, for the man muft not be 
hang'd 'till the next week. 

Tit. Tut, what fays Jupiter, 1 afk thee ? 

Clown. Alas, fir, I know not Jupiter; I never drank 
with him in all my life. 

2V/. Why, villain, art not thou the carrier? 

5 /am a mile Icyond the moon',"} The folios 1623 and 1632, 
read : 

/ aym a mile ley on d the moon. 

To " caft beyond the moon," is an expreffion ufed in Hinde's 
Eliojlo Libidtnofo 1606. Again, in Mother Bombie, 1594: 
" Rifio hath gone beyond himfelt in cafiing beyond the moon." 
Again, in A Woman kilfd with Kindnrfs, 1617 : 
*' . -I talk of things impoffible, 
" And caft beyond the moon" STEEVENS. 



Clown. Ay, of my pigeons, fir; nothing elfe. 

Tit. Why, didft thou not come from heaven ? 

Clffivn. From heaven? alas, fir, I never came there: 
God forbid, I fhould be fo bold to prcfs to heaven 
in my young days. Why, I am going with my pi- 

feons to the tribunal plebs 6 , to take up a matter of 
rawl betwixt my uncle and one of the emperial's 

Mar. Why, fir, that is as fit as can be, to ferve for 
your oration; and let him deliver the pigeons to the 
emperor from you. 

Tit. Tell me, can you deliver an oration to the em- 
peror with a grace ? 

Clffzvn. Nay, truly, fir, I could never fay grace in 
all my life. 

Tit. Sirrah, come hither; make no more ado, 
But give your pigeons to the emperor: 
By me thou fhalt have juftice at his hands. 
Hold, hold; mean while, here's money for thy 


Give me a pen and ink. 
Sirrah, can you with a grace deliver a fupplication ? 

Clown. Ay, fir. 

Tit. Then here is a fupplication for you. And 
when you come to him, at the firft approach, you 
muft kneel; then kifs his foot ; then deliver up your 
pigeons; and then look for your reward. I'll be at 
hand, fir; fee you do it bravely. 

Cloii'n. I warrant you, fir; let me alone. 

Tit. Sirrah, haft thou a knife ? Come, let me fee it. 
Here, Marcus, fold it in the oration; 
For thou haft made it like an humble fuppliant: 

6 the tribunal plels, ] I fwppofe the Cloivn means to 

fay, Pierian tribune, i. e. tribune of the people ; for none could 
fill this office but fuch as were defcended from Plebeian ancc: 


M m 3 And 

534- TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 

And when thou haft given it the emperor, 
Knock at my door, and tell me what he fays. 

Clown. God be with you, fir; I will. 

2V/. Come, Marcus, let us go : Publius, follow 
me. [Exeunt. 

The palace. 

Enter Emperor , and Emperefs, and her two fons ; the 
Emperor brings the arrozvs in his hand, that Titus J/;ot. 

Sat. Why, lords, what wrongs are thefe ? Was 

ever Icen 

An emperor of Rome thus over-borne, 
Troubled, confronted thus ; and, for the extent 
Of egal juftice, us'd in fuch contempt ? 
My lords, you know, as do the mightful gods, 
However the difturbers of our peace 
Buz in the people's ears, there nought hath paft, 
But even with law, againft the wilful fons 
Of old Andronicus. And what an if 
His forrows have fo overwhelm'd his wits, 
Shall we be thus afflicted in his wreaks ', 
His fits, his phrenzy, and his bitternefs ? 
And now he writes to heaven for his redrefs ; 
See, here's to Jove, and this to Mercury; 
This to Apollo ; this to the god of war : 
Sweet fcrolls, to fly about the ft reets of Rome ! 
What's this, but libelling againft the fenate, 
And blazoning our injuftice every where ? 
A goodly humour, is it not, ray lords ? 
As who would fay, in Rome no juftice were. 
But, if I live, his feigned ecftafies 
Shall be no Ihelter to thefe outrages : 

f ^/V wreaks,] i.e. his revenges. STEEVENS. 



Buthc and his (hall know, thatjuftice liv<?s 
In Saturninus' health ; whom, if Ihe fleep, 
He'll fo awake, as fhe in fury fhall 
Cut off the proud'fl confpirator that lives. 

5tf. My gracious lord, mod lovely Saturnine, 
Lord of my life, commander of my thoughts, 
Calm thee, and bear the faults of Titus' age, 
The effects of forrow for his valiant fons, 
Whofe lofs hath pierc'd him deep and fcarr'd his 

heart ; 

And rather comfort his diftrefled plight, 
Than profecute the meaneft, or the bed, 
For thefe contempts. Why, thus it {hall become 


High-witted Tamora to gloze with all : 
But, Titus, I have towch'd thee to the quick, 
Thy life-blood out : if Aaron now be wife, 
Then is all fafe, the anchor's in the port. 

Enter Clown. 

How now, good fellow ? would ft thou fpeak with us ? 
Clown. Yes, forfooth, an your mifterlhip be ern- 


Tarn. Emperefs I am, but yonder fits the emperor. 
Clown. 'Tis he. God and faint Stephen, give you 

good den : 

I have brought you a letter, and a couple of pigeons 
here. \jThe Rmpcror reads the letter. 

Sat. Go, take him away, and hang him prefently. 
Clffwn. How much money muft I have ? 
Tarn. Come, firrah, you muft be hang'd. 
Clown. Hang'd ! By'r lady, then I have brought 
up a neck to a fair end. [_LL\it. 

Sat. Defpightful and intolerable wrongs ! 
Shall I endure this monftrous villainy ? 
I know from whence this fame device proceeds : 
May this be borne ? as if his traiterous fons, 

M m 4 That 

536 TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 

That dy'd by law for murder of our brother, 
Have by my means been butcher'd wrongfully r 
Go, drag the villain hither by the hair ; 
Nor age, nor honour, fliall fhape privilege : 
For this proud mock, I'll be thy flaughter-man ; 
Sly frantick wretch, that holp'ft to make me great, 
In hope thyfelf Jhouid govern Rome and me. 

* Enter 

Sat. What news with th?e, 

&mil. Arm, arm, my lords; Rome never had 

more caufe ! 

The Goths have gather'd head ; and with a power 
Of high-relblved men, bent to the fpoil, 
They hither march amain, under conduit 
Of Lucius, fon to old Andronicus ; 
Who threats, in courfe of his revenge, to do 
As much as ever Coriolanus did. 

Sat. Is warlike Lucius general of the Goths ? 
Thefe tid ngs nip me; and I hang the head 
As flowers with froft, or grafs beat down with florins. 
Ay, now begin our forrows to approach : 
'I'is he, the common people love fo much ; 
Myfelf have often over-heard them fay, 
(When I have walked like a private man) 
That Lucius' baniihment was wrongfully, 
And they have wifh'd that Lucius were their emperor. 

yam. Why ftiould you fear ? is not our city ftrong ? 

Sat. Ay, but the citizens favour Lucius; 

* Enter Nuntius ^Emiliui.'} Thus the old books have defcribed 
this character. In the author's manufcript, I prefume, it was writ, 
Enter Nuntius ; and they obferving, that he is immediately called 
yEmilius, thought proper to give him his whole title, andlb clap- 
ped in Lnter Nuntius jEmilius. - Mr. Pope has very critically 
followed them ; and ought, methinks, to have give his new-adopt- 
ed citizen Nuutius a place in the Dramatis Perfons. 




And will revolt from me, to fuccour him. 

Tarn. King, be thy thoughts imperious, like thy 


Is the fun dimm'd, that gnats do fly in it ? 
The eagle fuffers little birds to fing, 
And is not careful what they mean thereby ; 
Knowing, that with the fhadow of his wings, 
He can at pleafure flint their melody : 
Even fo may'ft thou the giddy men of Rome. 
Then cheer thy fpirit : for know, thou emperor, 
I will enchant the old Andronicus, 
With words more fweet, and yet more dangerous, 
Than baits to fifh, or 3 honey-flalks to Iheep ; 
When as the one is wounded with the bait, 
The other rotted with delicious feed. 

Sat. But he will not entreat his fon for us. 

1am. If Tamora entreat him, then he will : . 
For I can fmooth, and fill his aged ear 
With golden promifes ; that were his heart 
Almoft impregnable, his old ears deaf, 
Yet ftioukl both ear and heart obey my tongue. 
Go thou before, be our embafiador : [To^Eml'ms. 
Say, that the emperor requefts a parley 
Of warlike Lucius, and appoint the meeting. 

Siit. ^Emilius, do this meflage honourably : 
And if he ftand on hoftage for his fafety, 
Bid him demand what pledge will pleafe him belt. 

Mmll. Your bidding lhall I do effectually. [Exit. 

Taw. Now will I to that old Andronicus ; 
And temper him, with all the art I have, 
To pluck proud Lucius from the warlike Goths. 
And now, fweet emperor, be blith again, 
And bury all thy fear in my devices. 

1 ) loncy-jlall{itojljeep\\ Honty-Jlalks are clover-flowers, 
which contain a fweet juice. It is common tor cattle to over- 
charge themfelyes with clover, and die. JOHNSON. 


3 TITUS A N D P. O N I C U S. 

Sat. Then go fucccefsfully 4 , and plead to him. 



The camp, at a fmall diftance from Rome. 
Enter Lucius and Goths, with drum andfoldiers. 

Luc. Approved warriors, and my faithful friends, 
I have received letters from great Rome, 
Which fignify, what hate they bear their emperor, 
And how defirous of our fight they are. 
Therefore, great lords, be, as your titles witnefs, 
Imperious, and impitient of your wrongs ; 
And, wherein Rome hath done you any fcathe, 
Let him make treble fatisfaction. 

Goth. Brave flip, fprung from the great An- 


Whofe name was once our terror, now our comfort; 
Whofe high exploits, and honourable deeds, 
Ingrateful Rome requites with foul contempt, 
Be bold in us : we'll follow where thou lead'ft, 
Like flinging bees in hotted fummer's day, 
Led by their mafter to the fiower'd fields, 
And be aveng'd on curfed Tamora. 

Own. And, as he faith, fo fay we all with him. 

Lv.c. I humbly thank him, and I thnnk you all. 
But who comes here, led by a lufty Goth ? 

Enter a Goth, leading Aaron, with his child in his amis. 
Goih. Renowned Lucius, from our troops I ftray 'd, 

* fuccefifuKy, ] The old copies read ; 'fucceffantly. 




5 To gaze upon a ruinous monaftery ; 

And as I earneftly did fix mine eye 

Upon the wafted building, fuddenly 

I heard a child cry underneath a wall : 

I made unto the noife ; when foon I heard 

The crying babe controul'd with this difcourfe : 

Peace, tawny Jlave ; half me, and half thy dam. I 

Did not thy hue bewray wbofe brat tbon arf t 

Had nature lent thee but thy mother's look, 

Villain^ tkou mighfft have been an emperor : 

But wberc the bull and cow are both milk-white, 

They never do beget a coal-black calf. 

Peace, villain, peace! even thus he rates the babe, * 

For I mujl bear thee to a trufty Goth ; 

Who, when he knows thou art the emperefs* babe. 

Will hold thee dearly for thy mother 's fake. 

With this, my weapon drawn, I rufh'd upon him, 

Surpriz'd him fuddenly; and brought him hither, 

To ufe as you think needful of the man. 

Luc. O worthy Goth ! this is the incarnate devil, 
That robb'd Andronicus of his good hand : 
This is the pearl that pleas'd your emperefs' eye ; 
And here's the bafe fruit of his burning luft. 
Say, wall-ey'd flave, whither would'fl thou convey 
This growing image of thy fiend-like face ? 
Why doftnotfpeak? What! deaf? No! not a 

word ? 

A halter, foldiers ; hang him on this tree, 
And by his fide his fruit of baftardy. 

5 To gaze upon a ruinous monaflery.~\ Shakefpeare has fb perpetu- 
ally offended againft chronology in all his plays, that no very 
conclulive argument can be deduced from the particular abfurdity 
of thefe anachronifms, relative to the authenticity of Titus Andro- 
nicus. And yet the ruined monajtery, the popijb tricks, &c. that 
Aaron talks of, and efpecially the French lalutation from the 
mouth of Titus, are altogether fo very much out of place, that I 
cannot perfuade myfelf even our hafty poet could have been guilty 
of their infertion, or would have permitted them to remain, had 
he corrected the performance for another. STEEVENS. 



Aar. Touch not the boy, he is of royal blood. 

Luc. Too like the fire for ever being good. 
Firft, hang the child, that he may fee it fprawl ; 
A fight to vex the father's foul withal. 
* Get me a ladder. 

Aar. Lucius, fave the child ; 
And bear it from me to the emperefs. 
If thou do this, I'll Ihow thee wond'rous things, 
That highly may advantage thee to hear : 
If thou wilt not, befall what may befall, 
1*11 fpeak no more ; But vengeance rot you all ! 

Luc. Say on; and, if it pleafe me which thou 

Thy child lhall live, and I will fee it nourilh'd. 

Aar. An if it pleafe thee? why, allure thee, Lucius. 3 
'Twill vex thy foul to hear what I lhall fpeak ; 
For I muft talk of murders, rapes, and maflacres, 
A&s of black night, abominable deeds, 
Cotnplots of milchief, treafon ; villainies 
Ruthful to hear, yet pitcouily perform'd : 
And this lhall all be buried by my death, 
Unlefs thou fwear to me, my child lhall live. 

Luc. Tell on thy mind ; 1 fay, thy child lhall live. 
. Aar. Swear, that he ihall, and then I will begin. 

Luc. Who Ihould I fwear by ? thou bcliev'it no 

' god ; 
That granted, how can'fl thou believe an oath ? 

Aar. What if I do not ? as, indeed, I do not : 
Yet, for I know thou art religious, 
And haft a thing within thee, called confcience; 
With twenty popiih tricks and ceremonies, 
Which I have feen thee careful to obfervc, 
Therefore I urge thy oath ; For that, I know, 

6 Aar. Get me a ladder. Lucius, fave the child.] All the print- 
ed editions have given this whole verfe to Aaron. But why fhould 
the Moor here aik for a ladder, who earnestly wanted to have his 
child fuved ? THEOBALD 

Get me a ladder ^ may mean, hang me. STEEVENS. 



An ideot holds his bauble 9 for a god, 
And keeps the oath, which by that god he fwears ; 
To that I'll urge him : Therefore, thou fhalt vow 
By that fame god, what god foe'er it be, 

That thou ador'ft and hall in reverence, 

To fave my boy, nourifh, and bring him up ; 
Or elfe I will difcover nought to thee. 

Luc. Even by my god, I fwear to thee, I will. 
Aar. Firft, know thou, I begot him on the em- 


Luc. O moft infatiate, luxurious woman ! 
Aar. Tut, Lucius ! this was but a deed of charity, 
To that which thou ftialt hear of me anon. 
'Twas her two fons, that murder'd Baffianus : 
They cut thy fitter's tongue, and ravifh'd her, 
And cut her hands off; and trimm'd her as thou 

Luc. O, deteftable villain ! call'fl thou that 

trimming ? 
Aar. Why, fhe was wafn/d, and cut, and trimm'd ; 

and 'twas 

Trim fport for them that had the doing of it. 
Luc. O, barbarous beaftly villains, like thyfelf ! 
Aar. Indeed, I was the tutor to inftruct them : 
That codding fpirit ' had they from their mother, 
As fure a card as ever won the fet ; 
That bloody mind, I think, they learn'd of me, 
* As true a dog as ever fought at head. 


his bauble] See a note on AWs Well that ends Well, at IV. 
fc. 5. STEEVENS. 

1 That coddingy/5/r/V ] i.e. that love of led-fports. CWis 

a word ftill i-fed in York (hire for a/>///ow. See Lloyd's catalogue 
of local words at the end of Ray's Proverbs. COLLINS. 

* As true a dog as ever fought at head. ] An allufion to bull- 
dogs, whofe generofity and courage are always fhown by meeting 
the bull in tront, and feizing his nofe. JOHNSON. 



Well, let my deeds be witnefs of my worth. 
I train'd thy brethren to that guileful hole, 
Where the dead corps of Baffianus lay : 
I wrote the letter that thy father found, 
And hid the gold within the letter mention'd, 
Confederate with the queen, and her two fons : 
And what not done, that thou had caufeto rue, 
Wherein' I had no ftroke of mifchief in it ? 
I play'd the cheater for thy father's hand; 
And, when I had it, drew myfelf apart, 
And almoft broke my heart with extreme laughter. 
I pry'd me through the crevice of a wall, 

When, for his hand, he had his two fons' heads ; 
Beheld his tears, and laugh'd fo heartily, 

That both mine eyes were rainy like to his ; 

And when I told the emperefs of this fport, 

She fwooned almoft at my pleafing tale, 

And, for my tidings, gave me twenty kifies. 

Goi/j. What ! canft thou fay all this, and never 

blufh ? 

Aar. Ay, like a black dog, as the faying is. 
Luc. Art thou not forry for thefe heinous deeds ? 
Aar. Ay, that I had not done a thoufand more. 

Even now I curfe the day, (and yet, I think, 

Few come within the compafs of my curfe) 

Wherein I did not fome notorious ill : 

As kill a man, or elfe devife his death ; 

Ravilh a maid, or plot the way to do it ; 

Accufe fome innocent, and forfwear myfelf : 

Set deadly enmity between two friends ; 

Make poor men's cattle break their necks; 

Set fire on barns and hay-flacks in the night, 

And bid the owners quench them with their tears. 

So in a collection of Epigrams by J. D. and C. M. printed at 
Middleburgh, no date: 

" amongrt the dogs and beares he goes ; 

" Where, while he Hupping cries To head, to head, &c. M 




Oft have I digg'd up dead men from their graves, 
And fet them upright at their dear friends' doors, 
Even when the forrow almoft was forgot ; 
And on their Ikins, as on the bark of trees, 
Have with my knife carved in Roman letters, 
Let not your forrow die, though I am dead. 
Tut, I have done a thoufand dreadful things, 
As willingly as one would kill a fly ; 
And nothing grieves me heartily indeed, 
But that I cannot do ten thoufand more. 

Luc. Bring down the devil ; for he mud not die 
So fweet a death, as hanging prefently. 

Aar. If there be devils, 'would I were a devil, 
To live and burn in everlafting fire ; 
So I might have your company in hell, 
But to torment you with my bitter tongue ! 

Luc. Sirs, flop his mouth, and let him fpcak no 

Enter Mmilius. 

Goth. My lord, there is a meffenger from Rome, 
Defires to be admitted to your prefence. 

Luc. Let him come near. 
Welcome, ^Emilius, what's the news from Rome ? 

Mmll. Lord Lucius, and you princes of the 


The Roman emperor greets you all by me : 
And, for he underftands you are in arms, 
He craves a parley at your father's houfe ; 
Willing you to demand your hoftages, 
And they lhall be immediately deliver'd. 

Goth. What fays our general ? 

3 Bring down the devil; ] It appears, from thefe words, that 
the audience were entertained with part of the apparatus of an 
execution, and that Aaron was mounted on a ladder, as ready to 
be turned off. STEEYENS. 



Luc. ./Emilius, let the emperor give his pledges 
Unto my father and my uncle Marcus, 
And we will come. March a\vay. [Exeunt. 


Titus' *s palace in Rome. 

Enter Tamora, CMron, and Demetrius, difguifd. 

Tarn. Thus, in this ftrange and fad habiliment, 
I will encounter with Andronicus ; 
And fay, I am Revenge, fent from below, 
To join with him, and right his heinous wrongs. 
Knock at his ftudy, where, they fay, he keeps, 
To ruminate ftrange plots of dire revenge ; 
Tell him, Revenge is come to join with him, 
And work confufion on his enemies. 

[They knock, and Titus opens hisftudy door. 
Tit. Who doth moleft my contemplation ? 
Is it your trick to make me ope the door ; 
That fo my fad decrees may fly away, 
And all -my ftudy be to no effect > 
You are deceiv'd : for what I mean to do, 
See here, in bloody lines I have fet down ; 
And what is written Ihall be executed. 

Tarn. Titus, I am come to talk with thee. 
Tit. No ; not a word : How can I grace my talk, 
Wanting a hand to give it that accord ? 
Thou haft the odds of me, therefore no more. 
Tarn. If thou did'ft know me, thou wouldft talk 

with me. 

Tit. I am not mad ; I know thee well enough : 
Witnefs this wretched ftump, thefe crimfon lines ; 
Witnefs thefe trenches, made by grief and care j 
Witnefs the tiring day, and heavy night ; 
Witnefs all forrow, that I know thee well 
For our proud emperefs, mighty Tamora : 
Is not thy coming for my other hand ? 



Tarn. Know thou, fad man, I am not Tamora ; 
She is thy enemy, and I thy friend : ' 
I am Revenge ; fent from the infernal kingdom, 
To eafe the gnawing vulture of thy mind, 
By working wreakful vengeance on thy foes. 
Come down, and welcome me to this world's light; 
Confer with me of murder and of death : 
There's not a hollow cave, nor lurking-place, 
No vaft obfcurity, or mifty vale, 
Where bloody murder, or detefted rape, 
Can couch for fear, but I will find them out ; 
And in their ears tell them my dreadful name, 
Revenge, which makes the foul offenders quake. 

Tit. Art thou Revenge ? and art thou fent to mej 
To be a torment to mine enemies ? 

Tarn. I am ; therefore come down, and welcome 

Tit. Do me fome fervice, ere I come to thee. 
Lo, by thy fide where Rape, and Murder, (lands ; 
Now give fome 'furance that thou art Revenge, 
Stab them, or tear them on thy chariot wheels ; 
And then I'll come, and be thy waggoner, 
And whirl along with thee about the globes. 
Provide two proper palfries, black as jet, 
To hale thy vengeful waggon fwift away, 
And find out murderers in their guilty caves : 
And, when thy car is loaden with their heads, 
I will difmount, and by the waggon wheel 
Trot, like a fervile footman, all day long; 
Even from Hyperion's + rifing in the eaft, 
Until his very downfal in the fea. 
And day by day I'll do this heavy tafk, 
So thou deftroy Rapine and Murder there. 


4 Hyperions ] The folio reads Eftons; the quarto 

peon'$', and fo Ravenfcroft. STEEVBNS. 

5 So ibou deftroy Rapine and Murder there. .] I do not know of 
any intfance that caR be brought to prove that rapt and rapine were 

VOL. VIII. N n ever 

54<* TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 

Tarn. Thefe are my miniflers, and come with ma* 

7//. Are they thy minifters ? what are they call'd ? 

'Tarn. Rapine, and Murder : therefore called fo, 
'Caufe they take vengeance on fuch kind of men. 

lit. Good lord, how like the emperefs' fons they 

are ! 

And you, the emperefs ! But we worldly men 
Have miferable, mad, miftaking eyes. 

fwcer Revenge, now do I come to thee : 

And, if one arm's embracement will content thee,, 

1 will embrace thee in it by and by. 

[Exit Titus, from above, 

Tarn. This clofing with him fits his lunacy : 
Whate'er I forge, to feed his brain-lick fits, 
Do you uphold and maintain in your fpeechcs.. 
For now he firmly takes me for Revenge ; 
And, being credulous in this mad thought, 
I'll make him fend for Lucius, his fon ; 
And, whilft I at a banquet hold him fure, 
I'll find fome cunning practice out of hand, 
To fcatter and difperfe the giddy Goths, 
Or, at the leaft, make them his enemies. 
See, here he comes, and I muft ply my theme. 

Enter Fitus*. 

Tit. Long have I been forlorn, and all for thee : 
Welcome, dread fury, to my woeful houfe ; 
Rapine, and Murder, you are welcome too : 
How like the emperefs and her fons you are ! 

ever ufed as fynonymous terms. The word rapine has always been 
employed for a Itfi fatal kind of -plunder ^ and means the violent a6t 
of deprivation of any good, the honour here alluded to being always 
excepted. I have indeed fince difcovcr^d that Gower, De Cun- 
feffione Amanth, lib. V. fol. i i6.b. tiles ravine in the fame fenfe : 

" For if thou be of Cliche covine, 

" To get of love by ra-vyne 

** Thy luft, &c." ' STEEVENS. 

7 Well 

TITUS A N D R O N I C U S. 54/ 

Well are you fitted, had you but a Moor : 
Could not all hell afford you fuch a devil? 
For, well I wot, the emperefs never wags, 
But in her company there is a Moor ; 
And, would you reprefent our queen aright, 
It were convenient you had fuch a devil : 
But welcome, as you are. What fhall we do ? 

Tarn. What wouldft thou have us do, Andronicus ? 

]Jem. Shew me a murderer, I'll deal with him. 

Chi. Shew me a villain, that hath done a rape, 
And I am fent to be-rcveng'd on him. 

Tarn. Shew me a thoufand, that have done thee 

And I will be revenged on them all. 

Tit. Look round about the wicked ftreets of Rome; 
And when thou find'ft a man that's like thyfelf, 
Good Murder, (tab him ; he's a murderer. 
Go thou with him ; and, when it is thy hap, 
To find another that is like to thee, 
Good Rapine, ftab him ; he is a ravifher. 
Go thou with them ; and in the emperor's court 
There is a queen, attended by a Moor ; 
Well may'ft thou know her by thy own proportion, 
For up and down fhe doth refemble thee ; 
I pray thee, do on them fome violent death, 
They have been violent to me and mine. 

Tarn. Well haft thou leflbn'd us ; this fhall we do; 
But would it pleafe thee, good Andronicus, 
To fend for Lucius, thy thrice valiant fon, 
Who leads towards Rome a band of warlike Goths, 
And bid him come and banquet at thy houfe : 
When he is here, even at thy folemn feaft, 
I will bring in the cmpercfs and her fons, 
The emperor himfelf, and all thy foes ; 
And at thy mercy fliall they ftoop and kneel, 
And on them fhalt thou eafe thy angry heart. 
What fays Andronicus to this device ? 

Tit. Marcus, my brother ! 'tis fad Titus calls. 
N u 2 Enter 


Enter Marcus. 

Go, gentle Marcus, to thy nephew Lucius ; 
Thou fhalt enquire him out among the Goths : 
Bid him repair to me, and bring with him 
Some of the chiefeft princes of the Goths ; 
Bid him encamp his foldiers where they are : 
Tell him, the emperor and the emperefs too 
Feaft at my houfe ; and he fhall featt with them. 
This do thou for my love ; and fo let him, 
As he regards his aged father's life. 

Mar. This will I do, and foon return again. [Exit. 

Tarn. Now will I hence about thy bufinefs, 
And take my minilters along with me. 

Tit. Nay, nay, let Rape and Murder ftay with me; 
Or elfe Til call my brother back again, 
And cleave to no revenge but Lucius. 

'Tarn, \_toberfons.~] What fay you, boys ? will you 

abide with him, 

Whiles I go tell my lord the emperor, 
How I have govern'd our determin'd jcfl ? 
Yield to his humour, fmooth and fpeak him fair, 
And tarry with him 'till I come again. 

Tit. I know them all, though they fuppofe me 

mad ; 

And will o'er-reach them in their own devices, 
A pair of curfed hell-hounds, and their dam. [Afide. 

Dem. Madam, depart at pleafure, leave us here. 

Tom. Farewel, Andronicus : Revenge now goes 
To lay a complot to betray thy foes. [Exit Tamora. 

Tit. I know, thou doft; and, fweet Revenge, 

CFi, Tell us, old man, how fhall we be employ'd ? 

Tit. Tut, I have work enough for you to do. 
Publius, come hither, Caius, and Valentine ! 



Enter Publius, and Servants. 

Pub. What is your will ? 

Tit. Know you thefe two ? 

Pub. The emperefs' Tons, 
I take them, Chiron, and Demetrius. 

Tit. Fye, Publius, fye ! thou art too mi ch de- 

ceiv'd ; 

The one is Murder, Rape is the other's name : 
And therefore bind them, gentle Publius ; 
Caius, and Valentine, lay hands on them : 
Oft have you heard me wifh for fuch an hour, 
And now I find it : therefore bind them fure ; 
And flop their mouths, if they begin to cry. 

[Exit Titus. 

Chi. Villains, forbear ; we are the emperefs' fons. 

Pub. And therefore do we what we are com- 

Stop clofe their mouths, let them not fpeak a worcU 
Is he fure bound ? look, that you bind them faft. 

Re-enter Titus Andronicus with a knife, and Lavlnia with 
a bafon. 

Tit. Come, come, Lavinia ; look, thy foes ar 

bound : 

Sirs, flop their mouths, let them not fpeak to me j 
But let them hear what fearful words I utter. 
O villains, Chiron and Demetrius ! 
Here flands the fpring whom you have flain'd with 

mud ; 

This goodly fummer with your winter mix'd. 
You kill'd her hufband ; and, for that vile fault, 
Two of her brothers were condemn'd to death : 
My hand cut off, and made a merry jefl : 
Both her fvveet hands, her tongue, and that, more 

Than hands or tongue, her fpotlefs chaflity, 

N n 3 In- 


Inhuman traitors, yon conftrain'd and forc'd. 
What would you fay, if 1 fhould let you fpeak ? 
Villains, for fhame you could not beg for grace. 
Hark, wretches, how I mean to martyr you. 
This one hand yet is left to cut your throats ; 
Whilft that Lavinia 'twixt her flumps doth hold 
The bafon, that receives your guilty blood. 
You know, your mother means to feaft with me, 
And calls herfelf Revenge, and thinks me mad, 
Hark, villains ; I will grind your bones to duft, 
And with your blood and it I'll make a pafte ; 
6 And of the pafte a coffin will I rear, 
And make two parties of your ihameful heads ; 
And bid that ftrumpet, your unhallow'd dam, 
Like to the earth, fwallow her own increafe. 
This is the feaft that I have bid her to, 
And this the banquet flie fhall furfeit on ; 
For worfe than Philomel you us'd my daughter, 
And worfe than Progne I will be reveng'd : 
And now prepare your throats. Lavinia, come, 
Receive the blood : and, when that they are dead, 
Let me go grind their bones to powder fmall, 
And with this hateful liquor temper it ; 
And in that pafte let their vile heads be bak'd. 
Come, come, be every one officious 
To make this banquet; which I wilh might prove 
More ftern and bloody than the Centaur's feaft. 

\_He cuts their tl:ro^:, 

So, now bring them in, for I will play the cook, 
And fee them ready 'gainft their mother comes. 


6 And of the pafte a coffin ] A cflffin is the term of art for the 
cavity of a raifed pye. JOHNSON. 




Enter 'Lucius, Marcus, and Goths, with Aaron prifoner. 

Lac. Uncle Marcus, fmce It is my father's mind, 
That I repair to Rome, I am content. 

Gotk. And ours with thine, befall what fortune 

Lite. Good uncle, take you in this barbarous Moor, 
This ravenous tiger, this accurfed devil ; 
Let him receive no fuftenance, fetter him, 
'Till he be brought unto the emperor's face, 
For teftimony of thefe foul proceedings : 
And fee the ambulh of our friends be ftrong ; 
I fear, the emperor means no good to us. 

Aar. Some devil whifper curfes in mine ear, 
And prompt me, that my tongue may utter forth 
The venomous malice of my fwelling heart ! 

Luc. Away, inhuman dog ! unhallow'd flave ! 

[Exeunt Goths, with Aaron. 

Sirs, help our uncle to convey him in. [Fkurifi. 
The trumpets fhew, the emperor is at hand. 

Sound trumpets. Enter Saturninvs and femora, with 
Tribunes and others. 

Sat.. What, hath the firmament more funs than 

one ? 

Luc. What boots it thce to call thyfelf a fun ? 
Mar. Rome's emperor, and nephew, 7 break the 

parle ; 

Thefe quarrels muft be quietly debated. 
The feail is ready, which the careful Titus 

7 Ircak the park -,} That is, leg-* the parley. We yet fay, 
he breaks his mind. JOHNSON. 

N n 4 Hath 


Hath ordain'd to an honourable end, 

For peace, for love, for league, and good to Rome : 

Pleafe you, therefore, draw nigh, and take your 

Sat. Marcus, we will. {Hautboys. 

'A talk brought in. Enter Titus, like a cook, placing 
the meat on the table, and Lavinia, with a veil over 
her face. 

Tit. Welcome, my gracious lord ; welcome, dread 

queen ; 

Welcome, ye warlike Goths ; welcome, Lucius ; 
And welcome, all : although the cheer be poor, 
'Twill fill your ftomachs ; pleafe you eat of it. 
Sat. Why art thou thus attir'd, Andronicus ? 
Tit. Becaufe I would be fure to have all well, 
To entertain your highnefs, and your emperefs. 
Tarn. We are beholden to you, good Andronicus. 
Tit. An if your highnefs knew my heart, you 


My lord the emperor, refolve me this ; 
Was it well done of rafh Virginius, 
To flay his daughter with his own right hand, 
Becaufe Ihe was enforc'd, llain'd, and deflower'd ? 
Sat. It was, Andronicus. 
Tit. Your reafon, mighty lord ? 
Sat. Becaufe the girl fhould not furvive her 

And by her prefence {till renew his forrows. 

Tit. A reafon mighty, ftroncr, and effectual ; 
A pattern, precedent, and lively warrant, 
For me, moft wretched, to perform the like : 
Die, die, Lavinia, and thy lhame with thee ; 
And, with thy lhame, thy father's forrow die ! 

{lie kills her. 

Sat. What haft thou done, unnatural, and unkind ? 



Tit. Kill'd her, for whom my tears have made me 


I am as woeful as Virginius was : 
And have a thoufand times more caufe than he 
To do this outrage ; and it is now done. 

Sat. What, was Ihe ravilhed ? tell, who did the 

2V/. Will't pleafe you eat ? will't pleafe your high- 

nefs feed ? 

Tarn. Why haft thou flain thine only daughter thus ? 
lit.' Not I ; 'twas Chiron, and Demetrius: 
They ravilh'd her, and cut away her tongue, 
And they, 'twas they, that did her all this wrong. 
Sat. Go, fetch them hither to us prefently. 
Tit. Why, there they are both, baked in that pye ; 
Whereof their mother daintily hath fed, 
Eating the flcih that fhe herfelf hath bred 8 . 
'Tis true, 'tis true ; witnefs my knife's Iharp point. 

\_HeJiabs Tamora. 

Sat. Die, frantick wretch, for this accurfed deed. 

[Hejlabs Titus. 

Luc. Can the fon's eye behold his father bleed ? 
There's meed for meed, death for a deadly deed. 

\JLv.ciusJ}als Saturn inus. 
Mar. You fad-fac'd men, people and fons of 

By uproar fever'd, like a flight of fowl 

8 Eating thejlefb that Jbe herfclf bath bred.] The additions made 
by Ravenfcroft to thisfcenc, are fo much of a piece with it, that I 
cannot refill the temptation of {hewing the reader how he continues 
the Jpeech before us : 

" Thus crammM, thou'rt bravely fatten'd up for hell, 
*' And thus to Pluto I do ferve thee up :" 

[Stalls the emperefs. 

And then " A c urtain draivn dif covers the heath ami hands of 
r>ewetriiu and Chiron hanging up again/} tht ivall; their bctliei in 
fl-airs in llcodj linen" STEEVENI. 


554 TITUS A N D R O N I C U 5. 

Scatrer'd by winds and high tempeftuous gulls, 
O, let me teach you how to knit again 
This fcatter'd corn into one mutual fheaf, 
Thefe broken limbs again into one body. 

Gotb. 9 Let Rome herfelf be bane unto herfelf ; 
And fhe, whom mighty kingdoms curtfy to, 
Like a forlorn and defperate caft-away, 
Do lhameful execution on herfelf. 

Mar. But if my frofty figns and chaps of age, 
Grave witnefles of true experience, 
Cannot induce you to attend my words, 
Speak, Rome's dear friend ; as erft our anceftor, 

[To Lucius, 

When with his folemn tongue he did difcourfe, 
To love-fick Dido's fad attending ear, 
The ftory of that baleful burning night, 
When fubtle Greeks furpriz'd king Priam's Troy ; 
Tell us, what Sinon hath bewitch d our 'ears, 
Or who hath brought the fatal engine in, 
That gives our Troy, our Rome, the civil wound.. 
My heart is not compact of flint, nor fteel ; 
Nor can I utter all our bitter grief, 
But floods of tears will drown my oratory, 
And break my very utterance ; even in the time 
When it Ihould move you to attend me moft, 
Lending your kindcommiferation : 
Here is a captain, let him tell the tale ; 
Your hearts will throb and weep to hear him fpeak. 

Luc* Then, noble auditory, be it known to you, 
That curfed Chiron and Demetrius 

9 Goth.] Thisfpecch and the next, in the quarto 1611, are 
given to a Roman lord. Jn the folio they both belong to the Goth. 
I know not why they are feparated. I believe the whole belongs 
to Marcus ; who, when Lucius has gone through fuch a part of 
the narrative as concerns his own exile, claims his turn to fpeak 
again, and recommend Lucius to the empire. STEEVENS. 

Wer 9 


Were they that murdered our emperor's brother; 

And they it was, that ravifhed our filter : 

For their fell faults our brothers were beheaded ; 

Our father's tears defpis'd ; and bafcly cozen'd 

Of that true hand, that fought Rome's quarrel 


And fent her enemies unto the grave. 
Laftly, myfelf unkindly baniflied, 
The gates fhut on me, and turn'd weeping out, 
To beg relief among Rome's enemies ; 
Who drown'd their enmity in my true tears, 
And op'd their arms to embrace me as a friend : 
And I am the turn'd-forth, be it known to you, 
That have prefcrv'd her welfare in my blood ; 
And from her bofom took the enemy's point, 
Sheathing the fteel in my advent'rous body. 
Alas ! you know, I am no vaunter, I ; 
My fears can witnefs, dumb although they are, 
That my report is juft, and full of truth. 
But, foft, methinks, I do digrefs too much, 
Citing my worthlefs praife : O, pardon me ; 
For when no friends are by, men praife themfclvcs. 
Mur. Now is my turn tofpeak; Behold this 


Of this was Tamora delivered ; 
The iffue of an irreligious Moor, 
Chief architect and plotter of thefe woes; 
The villain is alive in Titus' houfe, 
And as he is, to witnefs this is true. 
Now judge, whatcaufe had Titus to revenge 
Thefe wrongs, unfpeakable, paft patience, 
Or more than any living man could bear. 
?ow you have heard the truth, what fay you, Ro- 
mans ? 

Have we done aught amifs ? Shew us wherein, 
And, from the place where you behold us now, 
Jhc poor remainder of Andronici 


Will, hand in hand, all headlong caftus down, 
And on the ragged itones beat forth our brains, 
And make a mutual clofure of our houfe. 
Speak, Romans, fpeak : and, if you fay, we ftiail, 
Lo, hand in hand, Lucius and I will fall. 

jEm. Come, come, thou reverend man af 


And bring our emperor gently in thy hand, 
Lucius our emperor ; for, well I know, 
The common voice do cry, it mall be fo. 

Mar. Lucius, all hail ; Rome's royal emperor ! 
Go, go into old Titus' Jorrowful houfe; 
And, hither hale that mifbelievmg Moor, 
To be adjudg'd fome direful ilaughtering death, 
As punimment for his moft wicked life, 
Lucius, all hail, Rome's gracious governor ! 

Luc. Thanks, gentle Romans ' ; May I govern fo, 
To heal Rome's harms, and wipe away her woe ! 
But, gentle people, give me aim a while, 
For nature puts me to a heavy tafk ; 
Stand all aloof ; but, uncle, draw you near, 
To Ihed obfequious tears upon this trunk : 
O, take this warm kifs on thy pale cold lips, 

[Kiffes Titus. 

Thefe forrowful drops upon thy blood-flain'd face, 
The lad true duties of thy noble fon ! 

Mar. Ay, tear for tear, and loving kifs for kifs, 
Thy brother Marcus tenders on thy lips : 
O, were the fum of thefe that I mould pay 
Countlefs and infinite, yet would I pay them ! 

Luc. Come hither, boy ; come, come, and learn 
of us 

1 Thanh, gentle Romans', ] It fliould feem from the begin- 
ning of this fpeech of Lucius, that the firft and laft lines of the 
preceding one ought to be given to the concourle of Romans v.'ho 
are fuppofed to be prelent. STEEVENS. 

6 To 


To melt in mowers : Thy grandfire lov'd thcc 

well : 

Many a time he danc'd thec on his knee, 
Sung thee afleep, his loving breaft thy pillow ; 
Many a matter hath he told to thee, 
Meet, and agreeing with thine infancy ; 
In that refpedt then, like a loving child, 
Shed yet fome fmall drops from thy tender fpring, 
Becaufe kind nature doth require it fo : 
Friends fliould affbciate friends in grief and woe : 
Bid him farewel ; commit him to the grave ; 
Do him that kindnefs, and take leave of him. 

Boy. O grandfire, grandfire ! even with all my 


'Would I were dead, fo you did live again ! 
O lord, I cannot fpeak to him for weeping ; 
My tears will choak me, if I ope my mouth. 

Enter Romans, with Aaron. 

Rom. You fad Andronici, have done with woes ; 
Give fentence on this execrable wretch, 
That hath been breeder of thefe dire events. 

Luc. Set him breaft- deep in earth, and famifli 

him ; 

There let him Hand, and rave and cry for food : 
If any one relieves or pities him, 
For the offence he dies. This is our doom : 
Some ftay, to fee him faften'd in the earth *. 

Aar. O, why Ihould wrath be mute, and fury 
dumb ? 

a to fee him f often* d in the earth.'] Thatyo/?/Vf and cookery may 
go hand in hand to the conclufion of this play, in Ravenfcroft's 
alteration of it, Aaron is at once rack'd and roajled on the Itage. 


I am 


I am no baby, I, that, with bafe prayers, 
I mould repent the evils I have done ; 
Ten thoufand, worfe than ever yet I did, 
Would I perform, if I might have my will : 
If one good deed in all my life I did, 
I do repent it from my very foul. 
Luc. Some loving friends convey the emperor 


And give him burial in his father's grave : 
My father, and Lavinia, ihall forthwith 
Be clofed in onr houfhold's monument. 
As for that heinous tyger, Tamora, 
No funeral rites, nor man in mournful weeds, 
No mournful bell Ihall ring her burial ; 
But throw her forth to beafts, and birds of prey : 
Her life was beaft-like, and devoid of pity ; 
And, being fo, Ihall have like want of pity. 
See juftice done on Aaron, that damn'd Moor, 
From whom our heavy haps had their beginning : 
Then, afterwards, to order well the ftate ; 
That like events may ne'er it ruinate. 

[Exeunt omnes. 

THIS is one of thofe plays which I have always thought, with 
the better judges, ought not to be acknowledged in the lift of 
Shakefpeare's genuine pieces. And, perhaps, I may give a proof 
to ftrengthen this opinion, that may put the matter out of quef- 
tion. Ben Jonfon, in the introduction to his Bartholomew-Pair j 
which made its firft appearance in the year 1614, couples Jeronymo 
and Andronicvs together in reputation, and fpeaks of rhem as plays 
then of twenty-five or thirty years Handing. Confequently An- 
dronicus mult have been on the Itnge before Shakefpeareleft War- 
wickfhire, to come and refide in London : and I never heard it fo 
much as intimated, that he had turned his genius to frage-writing 
before he alTociated with the players, and -became one of their 
body. However, that he afterwards introduced It a- new on the 
fiage, with the addition of his own mafterly touches, is incon- 
teftible, and thence, I prefume, grew his title to it. The diction 
in general, where he has not taken the pnins to raife it, is even 



beneath that of the Three Parts of Henry VI. The ftory \ve are to 
fuppofe merely fu'Yitious. Andronicus is a fur-name of pure Greek 
derivation. Tamora is neither mentioned by Ammianus Marccl- 
linus, nor any body elfethat I can find. Nor had Rome, in the 
time of her emperors, any wars with the Goths that I know of : 
not till after the tranflation of the empire, I mean to Byzantium. 
And yet the fcene of our play is laid at Rome, and Saturninus is 
elected to the empire at the capitol. THEOBALD. 

All the editors and critics agree with Mr. TheoViald in fup- 
pofir.g this play fpurious. I fee no reafon tor differing irom them ; 
for the colour of the ftile is wholly different from that of the other 
plays, and there is an attempt at regular verirfication, and artificial 
doles, not al.vays inelegant, yetfeldom plsafing. The barbarity 
of the fpctbcles, and the general maflhcrc, \vhich are here exhi- 
bited, can fcarcely be conceived tolerable to any audience ; yet 
ue arc told by J onion, that they were not only borne, butpraiic.1. 
That Shakefpeare wrote any part, though Theobald declares it 
incontejlille, I fee no reafon for believing. 

The teftimony produced at the beginning of this play, by 
which it is afcribed to Shakefpeare, is by no means equal to the 
argument againft its authenticity, arifing trcm the total difference 
of condudl, language, and fentiments, by which it itatids apart 
from all the re It. Meres had probably no other evidence than 
that of a title page, which, though in our time it be fufncient, 
was then of no great authority ; for all the plays which were re- 
jefted by the firft collectors of Shakefpeare's works, and -admitted 
in later editions, and again rejected by the critical editors, had 
Shakefpeare's name on the title, as we mull fuppofe, by the frau- 
dulence of the printers, who, while there were yet no gazettes, nor 
advertifements, nor any means of circulating literary intelligence, 
could ufurp at pleafure any celebrated name. Nor had Shake- 
fpeare any intereil in detecting the impofture, as none of his JUinc 
or profit was produced by the prefs. 

The chronology of this play dees net prove it not to be 
Shakefpeare's. If it had been written twenty-five years, in, 
1614, it might have been written when Shakefpeare was twenty- 
five years old. When he left Warwickfbire I know not, but at 
the age of twenty-five it was rather too late to fly for cieer- 

Ravenfcroft, who in the reign of Charles II. revifed this play, 
and reftored it to the Itage, tells us, in his preface, from a thea- 
trical tradition, I fuppofe, which in his time might be of fufficient 
Authority, that this phiy was touched in different parts by Stake- 
peare, but written by fome other poet. I do not find Shake- 
Ipeare's touches very difcernible, JOHNSON. 



There is every reafon to believe, that Sbakefpeare was not the 
author ot this play. I have already faid enough upon the fubjedt. 
Mr. Upton declares peremptorily, that it ought to be flung out 
of the lift of our author's works: yet Mr. Warner, with all his 
laudable zeal for the memory of his fibocl-fdlov:, when it may 
feem to fervehis purpofe, JifablesMv* friend's judgment ! 

Indeed, a ueiv argument has been produced ; it muft have been 
written by Shakefpeare, becaufe at that time other people wrote in 
\\izjame manner ! 

It is fcarcely worth obferving, that the original publifherj had 
nothing to do with any of the reft of Shakel'peare's works. Dr. 
Johnfon obferves the copy to be as correct, as other books of the 
time ; and probably reviled by the author himfelf ; but furely 
Shakefpeare would not have taken the greateft care about infinitely 
the ivor/t of his performances ! Nothing more can be faid, except 
that it is printed by Heminge and Condell in the frft folio : but 
not to infift, that it had been contrary to their intereft to have re- 
jected any play, ufually call'd Shakefpeare's, though they might 
&HO--JJ it to be fpnrious ; it does not appear, that their knowledge is 
at all to be depended upon ; for it is certain, that in the firft 
copies, they had intirely omitted the play ot Troilus and Crejjida. 
It has been faid, that this play was firft printed for G. Elves, 
1594.. I have feen in an old catalogue of talcs t &c. the hiftory 
of Titus Andronicus. FA R M E R . 

I have already given the reader a fpecimen of the changes made 
in this play by Ravenfcroft, who revived it with fuccefs in the 
year 1687 ; and may add, that when the emprefs ftabs her child, 
he has fupplied the Moor with the following lines : 

" She has out-done me, ev'n in mine own art, 

*' Out-done me in murder kill'd her own child 

" Give it me I'll eat it." 

It rarely happens that a dramatic piece is alter'd with the fame 
fpirit that it was written ; but "Titus Andronicus has undoubtedly 
fallen into the hands of one wliofe feelings were congenial with 
thofe of its original author. 

In the courfe of the notes on this performance, I have pointed 
out a paflage or two which, in my opinion, fufficiently prove it to 
have been the work of one who was acquainted both with Greek 
and Roman literature. It is likewife deficient in fuch internal 

\ The original owner of the copy was John Danter, who likewife 
printed the firft edition of Romeo and Juliet in 1597, and is intro- 
duced as a character in the Return from Parnffjfus, Sec. 1606. 




marks as diftinguifh the tragedies of Shakefpeare from tliofe of 
other writers ; I mean, that it prefents no ftrtiggles to introduce 
the vein of humour fo conftantly interwoven with the bufinefs of 
his ferious dramas. It can neither boaft of his Unking excellen- 
cies, nor his acknowledged defefts ; for it offers not a fingle intereft- 
ing fituation, a natural character, or a firing of quibbles, from the 
firft fcene to the laft. That Shakefpeare fhould have written with- 
out commanding our attention, moving our paffions, or fporting 
with words, appears to me as improbable, as that he fhould have 
iludioufly avoided diffyllable and triflyllable terminatious in this 
play, and in no other. 

Let it likewife be remembered that this piece was not published 
with the name of Shakefpeare, 'rill after his death. The quarto 
in 1611 is anonymous. 

Could the ufe of particular terms employed in no other of his 
pieces, be admitted as an argument that he was not its author, 
more than one of thefe might be found ; among which is pallia- 
mentfarrobe, aLatinifm which I have not met with elfewhere in any 
Englifh writer, whether ancient or modern ; though it muft have 
originated from the mint of a fcholar. I may add that Titus An- 
dronicus will be found on examination to contain a greater number 
of clallical allufions &c. than are fcattered over all the reft of the 
performances on which the feal of Shakefpeare is undubitably fix- 
ed. Not to write any more about and about this fufpecled thing , 
let me obferve that the glitter of a few paflages in it has perhaps 
mifled the judgment of thofe who ought to have known that both 
fentiment and defcription are more ealily produced than the inter- 
cfting fabrick of a tragedy. Without thefe advantages, many 
plays have fucceeded ; and many have failed, in which they have 
been dealt about with the moft lavifli profufion. It does not fol- 
low, that he who can carve a frieze with minutenefs, elegance, a:id 
eafe, has a conception equal to the extent, propriety, and gran- 
deur of a temple. STEEVENS. 

It muft prove a circumftance of confummate mortification to the 
living criticks on Shakefpeare, as well as a difgrace on the me- 
inory of thofe who have ceafed to comment and collate, when it 
fliall appear from the fentiments of one of their own fraternity 
(who cannot well be fufpected of aiinine taftelellhel's, or Gothic 
prepofleflions) that we have been all miftaken as to the merits and 
the author of this play. It is fcarce neceflary to obferve that the 
perfon exempted from thefe fufpicions is <#$. <Cfl$CH, who 
delivers his opinion concerning Titus Andronicus in the following 
words: " To the editor's eye [i. e. his own] Shakcfttare Jlands 
confefi'd: the third aft in particular may be read will admiration 
even by the moft delicate ; who, if they are not without feeling", 
VOL. VIII. O o niay 


may chance to find themfelvcs touch'd by it with fuch paffionsas 

tragedy mould excite, that is terror nnd pity." It were in- 

juftice not to remark that the grand and pathetic circumftances in 
this third aft, which \ve are told cannot fail to excite fuch vehe- 
ment emotions, are as follows. Titus lies down in the dirt. 

Aaron chops off his hand. Saturninus fends him the heads of his 
twofons and his own hand again, for a prefent. His heroic bro- 
ther Marcus kills a fly. 

2t^r CtlpCH may likewife claim the honour of having pro- 
duced the new argument which Dr. Farmer mentions in a pre- 
ceding note, MALOSJE. 


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