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Printed for C. Bathurft, W. Strahan, J. F. and C. Rivington, 
J. Hinton, L. Davis, W.Owen, T. Carton, E. Johnfon, S. Crowder, 
B. White, T. Longman, B. Law, E. and C. Dilly, C. Corbett, 
T. Cadell, H. L. Gardner, J. Nichols, J. Btw, J. Beecroft, 
W. Stuart, T. Lowndes, J. Robfbn, T. Pavne, T. Bucket, 
F. Newbery, G. Robinlbn. R. Baldwin, J. Williams, J.Ridley, 
T. Evans, W. Davies, W. Fox, and J. Murray, 



5 .. 



T R O I L U S 



VOL. IX. B fie* 

Preface to the quarto edition of this play, 1609. 
A never writer, to an ever reader. Newes. 

Eternall reader, you have heere a new play, never fhl'd with 
the ftage, never clapper-claw'd with the palmes of the vulger, and 
yet palling full of the palme comicall ; for it is a birth of your 
braine, that never under-tooke any thing commicall, vainely : and 
were but the vaine names of commedies changde for the titles of 
commodities, or of playes for pleas ; you ihould fee all thofe 
grand cenfors, that now ftile them fuch vanities, flock to them 
for the maine grace of their gravities : efpecially this authors com- 
jnediee, that are fo f ram'd to the life, that they ferve tor the moft 
ccunmon commentaries of all the actions of our lives, fhewing fuch 
a dexteritie and power of witte, that the moft difpleafed with 
playes, are pleasd with his commedies. And all fuch dull and 
lieavy witted worldlings, as were never capable of the witte of a 
commedie, ccmming by report of them to his reprefentations, 
liave found that witte there, that they never found in them-felves, 
and have parted better-wittied then they came : feeling an edge 
of witte fet upon them, more then ever they dreamd they had 
braine to grind it on. So much and fuch favored fait of witte is 
Sn his commedies, that they fceme (for their height of plea fu re) 
to be borne in that fea that brought forth Venus. Amongft all 
there is none more witty than this : and had I time I would com- 
jnent upon it, though I know it needs not, (for fo much as will 
make you think your tefterne well beftowd) but for fo much 
worth, as even poore I know to be ituft in it. It deferves fuch a 
labour, as well as the beft commedy in Terence or Plautus. And 
beleeve this, that when hee is gone, and his commedies out of 
fale, you will fcramble for them, and fet up a new Englifb, in- 
quifition. Take this for a warning, and at the perillof your plca- 
fures lofle, and judgements, refufe not, nor like this the lefle, 
for not being fullied with thefmoaky breath of the multitude; but 
thanke fortune for the fcape it hath made amongft you. Since by 
the grand poflcflbrs wills 1 believe you mould have prayd for them 
rather then beene prayd. And fo I leave all fuch to bee prayd for 
(for the Itates of their wits healths) that will not praifc it. 



TNTroy, there lies the fcene. From ijles of Greece 
* The princes ' wgillous, their high blood chafd, 
Have to the port of Athens fent their foips 
Fraught with the mini/krs and inftrvments 
Of cruel war : Sixty and nine, that wore 
Their crownets regal, from the Athenian bay 
Put forth tozvard Phrygia : and their I-QZV is made, 
'To ratifack Troy ; within whofe jirong immures. 
The raviftfd Helot, Menelaus* queen, 
With wanton Paris Jlccps ; And that's the quarrel. 
To Tenedos they come ; 

And the deep-drawing barks do there difgorge 
Their warlike fraught age : Now on Dardan plains 
The frejh and yet unbruifed Greeks do pitch 
Their brave pavilions : * Priam's fix-gated city 
( Dardan t and Thymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan, 
/Ind Ant e nor i das) with majjyjlaples, 


1 TJje princes orgillous, ] Orgillous, i. e. proud, difdain- 
ful. Orgueilleux, Fr. This word is uied in the ancient romance 
of Richard Cucur dc Lyon : 

" His atyre was orgulous." STEEVEKS. 

* Priam's fix-gated city ^ 

{Dardan and Timbria, Helias, Cbctas, Troiea, 

.And Antenonidus) v:ith ma 

And correfponjive and fulfilling bolts, 

Stirre up the fans of Troy* - ] This has been a moft mifer- 
ably mangled paflage through all the editions ; corrupted at once 
into falfe concord and falfe reafoning. Yifaak'ijb-gittiedcitjjlirrt 
up the fons of Troy ? Here's a verbf/ural governed of a nomi- 
native fingular. But that is eafily remedied. The next quefHon 
to be afked is, Jn what ienie a citv, having fix ftrong gates, and 
thole well barred and bolted, can be faid tojlir up its inhabitants ? 
uulefs they may be fuppofed to derive fome ipirit from the itrength 
ot their fortifications. But this could not be the poet's thought. 
He muft mean, I t:ike it, that- the Greeks had pitched their tents 
upon the plains before Troy ; and that the Trojans were Iccurely 
barricaded within the walls and gates of their city. This feme 
B 2 my 


And correfponfive and fulfilling bolts ', 

Sperrs up the fens of Troy. 


my correction reftores. To fperre, or /par, from the old Teuto- 
nic word Speren, fignifies to Jbut up, defend by bars, &c. 

So, in Spenfer's Faery .^ueen, b. 5. c. 10 : 

** The other that was entred, labour'd faft 
" To fperre the gate, &c." 
Again, in the romance of the Squhr of Itnve Degre : 

" Sperde with manie a dyvers pynne." 

And in the Vifions of P. Plowman it is faid that a blind man 
* unj^ "par ryd his cine." " 

Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, B. II. chap. 12 : 
*' When chafed home into his holdes, there fparred up in gates." 
Again, in the 2nd Part of Bale's Attcs of Eng. Votaryes : " The 
dore thereof oft tymes opened zndjpearcd agayne." STEEVENS. 
" Therto his cyte j compafled enuyrowne 
" Hadde gates VI to.entre into the towne : 
The firfteof all | and ftrengefteke with all, 
" Largeft alfo | and mofte pryncypall, 
Of myghty byldyng | alone perelefs, 
Was by the kinge called | Dardanydes ; 
And inflorye | lykeas it is founde, 
Tymbria | was named the feconde ; 
And the thyrde | called Helyas, 
The fourthe gate | hyghte alfo Cetheas ; 
The fyfthe Trojana, | the fyxth Anthonydei, 
Stronge and myghty | both in werre and pes." 

Lond. empr. by R. Pynfon, 1515, Fol. b. ii. ch. 1 1. 
The Troyejioke was fomewhat modernized, and reduced into 
regmlar ftanzas, about the beginning of the laft century, under the 
name of, The Life and Death of Hefior ivho fought a Hundred 
mayne Battailes in open Field againjl the Grecians ; ivhfrein there 
wcrefoine on both Sides Fourteene Hundred and Sixe Thoufand, 
Fourfcore and Sixe Men. Fol. no date. This work Dr. Ful- 
ler, and feveral other critics, have erroneoufly quoted as the origi- 
nal; andoblerve in confequence, that " if Chaucer's coin were of 
greater weight for deeper learning^ Lydgate's were of a more refined 
Jlandard tor purer language: fo^ that one might miilake him for a 
modern writer." FARMER. 

On ^ther occafions, in the courfe of this play, I fhall infcrt 
quotations from the Troye Bohe modernized, as being the mod in- 
telligible of the two. STEEVENS. 

a fulfilling bolts,'] Tofutf/t in th's pi. ce m:ans to fill till 



Now expectation, tickling Jkittijhfpirits, 
On one and other fide, Trojan and Greek, 
Sets all on hazard: And hither am I come 
4 A probgue arm'd, but not in confidence 
Of author's pen, or acJor's voice ; butfuited 
In like conditions as our argument, - 
To tell you, fair beholders, that our play 
Leaps o'er s the vaunt andfirftlings of thofe broils, 
'Ginning in the middle ; ftarting thence away 
To what may be digefted in a play. 
Like, or find fault; do asyourpleafures are ; 
Now goody or bad, 'tis but the chance of war. 

there be no room for more. In this fenfe it is now obfolete. So, 
in Govver, De Confeffionc Amantis, lib. V. fol. 114: 
" A luftie maide, a fobre, a meke, 

Again : 

" Fulfilledot all unkindfhip." STEEVENS. 

* A prologue arm'd, - ] I come here to fpeak the prologue, 
and come in armour ; not defying the audience, in confidence of 
either the author's or aftor's abilities, but merely in a character 
fuited to the fubjecl:, in a drefs of war, before a warlike play. 


the vaunt ] i. e. the avant, what went before. 


B 3 Perfons 

Perfons Reprefemed 






Helenus, / Trojans. 





Margarelon a baftard fon of Pn 





Ulyffes, \ Greeks. 





Helen, wife to Menelaus. 
Andromache, wife to Hcftor. 
Cafllindra, daughter to Priam, a propbcUj\> 
Creffida, daughter to Calchas. 

Alexander, Creflida's firvant. 

Eoy^ page to Troilm* 

Servant to Diomed. 

Trojan and Greek Soldiers^ 'with other attendants* 

SCENE, Troy, and the Grecian Camp before //, 



r R o r. 

Priam s palact. 
Enter Pandarus, and Troilus. 

Trot. Call here my varlet % I'll unarm again : 
Why fhould I war without the walls of Troy, 


' The ftory was originally written by Lollius, an old Lombard 
author, and fince by Chaucer. POPE. 

Mr. Pope (after Dryden) informs us, that the flory of Trails* 
andCreJjida was originally the work of one Lollius, a Lombard; 
(of whom Gafcoigne fpeaks mDan Bartbohieive bis firft Triumph ; 

" S'mce Lollius and Chaucer both, make doubt upon that glofe") 
but Dryden goes yet further. He declares it to have been written in 
Latin verfe, and that Chaucer tranflated it. Lollius was a hiftorio- 
grapher of Urbino in Italy. Shakefpeare received the greateft part 
of his materials for the itrudure of this play from the Troye Sake of 
Lydgate. Lydgate was not much more than a tranflator of Guido 
ofColumpna, who was of Meffina in Sicily, and wrote his Hifiory 
of Troy in Latin, after Didtys Cretenfis, and Dares Phrygius, in 
1287. On thefe, as Mr. Warton obferves, he engrafted many- 
new romantic inventions, which the taite of his age di&ated, and 
which the connection between Grecian and Gothic fiction eafily 
admitted ; at the fame time comprehending in his plan the The- 
ban and Argonautic itories from Ovid, Statius, and Valerius Flac- 
cus. Guide's work was publifhed at Cologne in 1477, again 
in 1480 : at Stra{burgh 1486, and ibidem 1489. It appears 
to have been tranflated by Raoul le Feure, at Cologne, into 
French, from whom Caxton rendered it into Engliih in 1471, 
under the title of his Rccuyel, &c. fothat there nruft have been yet 
feme eaflier edition of Guide's performance than I have hitherto 
feen or heard of, unlefs his firft tranflator had recourfc to a ma- 

Guido ofColumpna is referred to as an authority by our own 

chronicler Grafton, Chaucer had made the loves of Troilus and 

B Creffida 


That find fuch cruel battle here within ? 
Each Trojan, that is matter of his heart. 


Creflida famous, which very probably might have been Shake- 
Tpeare's inducement to try their fortune on the ftage. Lydgate's 

1602 : *' The booke of Troilus and Creflida, as it is acted by my 
L,o. Chamberlain's men." The nrft of thefe entries is in the name 
of Edward White, the fecond in that of M. Roberts. Again, 
Jan. 28, 1608, entered by Rich. Bonian and Hen. Whalley, 
" A booke called the hiilory of Troilus and Creflida." 


Troilus and Crejfida.'] Before this play of Troilus and Crefftda, 
printed in 1 609, is a bookfeller's preface, ftiewing that firit im- 
preflion to have been before the play had been acted, and that it 
\vas publiflied without Shakefpeare's knowledge, from a copy that 
had fallen into the bookfeller's hands. Mr. Dryden thinks this 
one of the firft of our author's plays : but, on the contrary, it may 
be judged from the fore-mentioned preface, that it was one of hi 
bft; and the great number of obfervations, both moral and poli- 
tic, with which this piece is crowded more than any other of his, 
fcems to confirm my opinion. POPE. 

We may rather learn from thrs preface, that the original pro- 
prietors of Shakefpeare's plays thought it their interelt to keep 
them unpr'mted. The author of it adds, at the conclulion, theie 
words : " Thank fortune tor the 'fcape it hath made among you, 
dice, by the grand poHeflbrs wills, I believe you fhould rather 
.have prayed for them, than have been prayed," 6cc. By the 
grand pojfejjon, I fuppofe, were meant . (.'ondell. It 

appears that the rival playhoules at that time made frequent de- 
predations on one another's copies. In the Induction to die Mal-- 
content, written by Webfter, and augmented by Marfbn, i6c6, 
is the following pull:.^ : 

" I wonder you would play it, another company having inte- 
reft in it." 

" Why not Malcvole in folio \vith 'mo in decimo 

fexto with them ? They taught us a name lor our play ; we call 
it Out far another." 

Again, T. Heywood, in his preface to the EvgliJI.' Traveller, 
1653 : " Others of than are dill retained in the hands of lome 
actors, who rhii-.k it againil their pcculkr profit to have them 
come in print." SrEKvtNb. 

It appears, however, that frauds were praoYifed by writers as 
well as Hdtors. It lluuds on record u^ainll Robert Grccn y the au- 


Let him to field ; Troilus, alas ! hath none. 

Pan. Will this geer ne'er be mended J ? 

Troi. The Greeks are ftrong, and fkilful to their 


Fierce to their fkill, and to their fiercenefs valiant ; 
But I am weaker than a woman's tear, 

thor of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, and Orlando Furiofo, 
1 594 and 1599, that he fold the laft ot thefe pieces to two dif- 
ferent theatres : * Matter R. G. would it not make you blufii, 
&c. if you fold nor Orlando Fur I of o to the Queen's players for 
twenty nobles, and when they were in the country, fold the fame 
play to the Lord Admiral's men for as much more t Was not 
this plain Coneycatching M. G. r" Defence of Contycatcbln^ 

This note was not merely inferred to expofe the craft of author - 
Jhip, but to fhow the price which was anciently 'paid for the copy 
of a play, and to afcertain the name of the writer of Orlando Fu- 
riofo, which was not hitherto known. Greene appears to have been 
the firft poet in England who fold the fame piece to different peo- 
ple, ydtairc is much belied, if he has not followed his example. 


Notwithftandingj what has been faid by a late editor, I have a 
copy of theory? folio, including Troilus and Crrjjlda. Indeed, as 
I have juft now oblerved, it was at rii ft either unknown or forgot- 
ten. It does not however appear in the lift of the plays, and is 
thruft in between the bijlorie* and the tragedies without any enume- 
ration of the pages ; except, I think, on one leaf only. It differs 
intirely from the copy in the fecoud folio. FARMER. 

I have confulted eleven copies of the firjl folio, and Troilus and 
Cr&da is not wanting in any one of them. S.T.EE VEKS. 

~ my varlet,] This word anciently fignified a fervant or 

footman to a knight or warrior. So, Holinfr.ed, fpeaking of the 
battle of Agincourt : " diverfe were releeved by their varlets, 
and conveied out of the field." Again, in an ancient epitaph, in 
the churchyard of faint Nicas at Arras : 
" ty gift Hakin et fun varlet, 
" Tout di-armi et tout di-prer, 
*' Avec fon efpe et falloche, &c." STEEVENS. 

3 Klilth'u ' gccr ne'er it tr.cnded?} There is fomewhat proverbial 
in this queilion, which I likewife meet with in the Interlude o/JC. 
J) arias, it; 6^ : 

" \Vyll not yet this gert le amende J^ 

*' Nor your unfui" acts corrected ?" STEEVENS. 



Tamer than flcep, 4 fonder than ignorance ; 
Lefs valiant than the virgin in the night, 
5 And fkill-lcfs as unprattis'd infancy. 

Pan. Well, I have told you enough of this : for 
my part, I'll not meddle nor make no further. He, 
that will have a cake out of the wheat, mufl tarry 
the grinding. 

Troi. Have I not tarry'd ? 

Pan. Ay, the grinding ; but you muft tarry the 

Troi. Have I not tarry'd ? 

Pan. Ay, the boulting ; but you muft tarry the 

Troi. Still have I tarry'd. 

Pan. Ay, to the leavening : but here's yet in the 
word hereafter, the kneading, the making of the 
cake, the heating of the oven, and the baking ; nay, 
you muft ftay the cooling too, or you may chance to 
burn your lips. 

Trot. Patience herfelf, what goddefs e'er fhc be, 
Doth lefler blench 6 at fuffe ranee than I do. 
At Priam's royal table do I fit ; 
And when fair Creffid comes into my thoughts, 
So, traitor ! when fhe comes ! When is Ihe thence? 

Pan. Well, Ihe look'd ycfter-night fairer than ever I 
faw her look; or anv woman elfe. 

* fender than ignorance j] fvtntrr, for more chiltiifli. 


5 And Jkill-lefi &c.] Mr, Drydcn, in his alteration of this p'.,v, 
has taken this fpeech as it ftands, except that he has changed fniil- 
lcfc to artlefi, not for the better, ,becaufe./fo7/-A/} refers to_/!f/7/ and 

Jkilful. JOHNSON. 

6 Doth lejfir blench ] To llcmh is to fhrink, fbrt, or fly 

off. So, in Han:'.' 

' if he but blench, 

" I know my courfe " 

Again, in the Pilgrim by B. and Fletcher: 

* 'men that will not totter, 

" Xor blench much at a bullet." STEEVEXS. 



9Vw. I was about to tell thee, When my heart, 
As wedged with a figh, would rive in twain ; 
Left Hector or my father fliould perceive me, 
I have (as when the fun doth light a ftorm) 
Bury'd this figh in wrinkle of a fmile : 
But forrow, that is couch'd in feeming gladnefs, 
Is like that mirth fate turns to fudden fadnefs. 

Pan. An her hair were not fomewhat darker than 
Helen's, (well, go to) there were no more comparifon 
between the women, But, for my part, ihe is my 
kinfwoman ; I would not, as they term it, praifc 
her, But I would fomebody had heard her talk yef- 
terday, as I did. I will not difpraife your fitter Caf- 
fandra's wit : but 

Trot. O Pandarus ! I tell thee, Pandarus, 
When I do tell thee, There my hopes lie drown'd^ 
Reply not in how many fathoms deep 
They lie indrench'd. I tell thee, I am mad' 
In Creffid's love : Thou anfwer'ft, She is fair; 
Pour'ft in the open ulcer of my heart 
Her eyes, her hair, her cheek, her gait ; her voice 
Handleft in thy difcourfe : O that her hand ! 
In whofe comparifon all whites are ink, 
Writing their own reproach ; to whofe foft feizurc 
The cygnet's down is harfh, 7 and fpirit of fenfe 
Hard as the palm of ploughman ! This thou tell'il me, 

7 - ' and fpirit of fenfe 

Hard as the palm of ploughman / ] In comparifon with 

Creffid'j band, fays he, fbeffir-t of fenfe, the utmoft degree, the 
moft exquifite power of fenfibility, which implies a foft hand, 
fince the fenfe of touching, as Scaliger fays in his ExerciiatioHS, 
reiides chiefly in the fingers, is hard as the callous and infenfible 
palm of the ploughman. Warburton reads ; 

fpite of fenfe : 


to th' fpirit of fenfe. 

It is not proper to make a lover profefs to praife his miftrefs in 
fpite of fenfe ; for though he often does it in fpite of the fenfe of 
others, his own fenfes are fubdued to his defires. JOHNSON. 



As true thou tell'fl me, when I fay I love her; 
But, faying thus, inftead of oil and balm, 
Thou lay'ft in every galh that love hath given me 
The knife that made it. 

Pan. I fpeak no more than truth. 

Troi. Thou doft not fpeak fo much. 

Pan. 'Faith, I'll not meddle in't. Let her be as flie 
is : if flie be fair, 'tis the better for her ; an flic be 
not, 8 Ihe has the mends in her own hands. 

fTra. Good Pandarus ! How now, Pandarus ? 

Pan. I have had my labour for my travel; ill- 
thought on of her, and ill-thought on of you : gone 
between and between, but fmall thanks for my labour. 

tfroi. What, art thou angry, Pandarus ? what, with 
me ? 

Pan. Becaufe Ihe is kin to me, therefore flic's not 
fo fair as Helen : an Ihe were not kin to me, flic 
would be as fair on friday, as Helen is on funday. 
But what care I ? I care not, an flie were a black-a- 
moor ; 'tis all one to me. 

Froi. Say I, fhe is not fair ? 

Pan. I do not care whether you do or no. She's a 
fool, to flay behind her father ; let her to the Greeks ; 
and fo I'll tell her, the next time I fee her : for my 
part, I'll meddle nor make no more in the matter. 

Trot. Pandarus, 

Pan. Not I. 

8 Jbe has tbc minds ] She may mend her complexion 
by the affiftanceof cofmetics. JOHNSON. 

I believe it rather means She may make tie left of a lad bar- 

So, in Woma)i 's a Weathercock, 1612 : 

*' I (hall fray here and have my head broke, and then I have 
the mends In my <p<vn LanJs." 

Again, in o. Goflbn's School ofAlufc, 1579 . ** turne him 

with hia back full or itripes, and bis bands lodfn with his oivn 

Again, in the J-niJ-Gocfe Cbace, by B. and Fletcher : 
" The tnendi are in miue o;vn bands, or the furgeon's," 



2V0/. Sweet Pandarns, 

Pan. Pray you, fpeak no more to me ; I will leave 
all as I found it, and there an end. [Exit Pandarus. 

[Sound alarum. 

Troi. Peace, you ungracious clamours ! peace, rude 

founds ! 

Fools on both fides ! Helen muft needs be fair, 
When with your blood you daily paint her thus. 
I cannot fight upon this argument ; 
It is too ftarv'd a fubject for my fword. 
But Pandarus O gods, how do you plague me ! 
I cannot come to Creffid, but by Pandar ; 
And he's as teachy to be woo'd to woo, 
As fhe is flubborn-chafte againfl all fuit. 
Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphne's love, 
What Creffid is, what Pandar, and what we ? 
Her bed is India ; there ihe lies, a pearl : 
Between our Ilium, and where me refides, 
Let it be call'd the wild and wandering flood ; 
Ourfelf, the merchant ; and this failing Pandar, 
Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark. 

[Alarum.] Enter Mneas. 

&ne. How now, prince Troilus ? wherefore not 
afield ? 

Trol. Becaufe not there; This woman's anfwer forts, 
For womanim it is to be from thence. 
What news, jEneas, from the field to-day ? 

jEue. That Paris is returned home, and hurt. 

Troi. By whom, ^Eneas ? 

J&ne. Troilus, by Menelaus. 

Troi. Let Paris bleed : 'tis but a fear to fcorn ; 
Paris is gor'd with Menelaus' horn. [Alarum. 

jEnc. Hark ! what good fport is out of town to- 
day ! 

T'roi. Better at home, if would I migbt, were may. 
But, to the fport abroad i Are you bound thither ? 


JRnc. In all fvvift hafte. 

$roi. Come, go we then together, [Exeunt: 


Enter Crcffida, and Alexander berfcrvant* 

Cre* Who were thofe went by ? 

Serv. Queen Hecuba, and Helen. 

Cre. And whither go they ? 

Serv. Up to the eaftcrn tower, 
Whofe height commands as fubject all the vale, 
To fee the battle. 9 Hector, whofc patience 
Is, as a virtue, fix'd, to-day was mov'd : 
He chid Andromache, and flruck his armourer j 
And, like as there were hufbandry in war, 
1 Before the fun rofe, he was harnefs'd light, 


* Hcflor, tvbofe patietice 

Jj, as a virtue, j*V, ] Patience fure was a virrue, nnd 
therefore cannot, in propriety of expreffion, be faid to be /;? one. 
We fhould read : 

Is as the virtue fix'd, 

i. e. his patience is as fixed as the goddefs Patience itfelf. So we 
find Troilus a little before faying : 

Patienct berfdf, what goddefs ere fhe be, 

Doth leflfer blench at fufterance than I do. 

It is remarkable that Dryden, when he altered this play, and 
found this falfc reading, altered it with judgment to : 

.. ' whofe patience 

Is fix'd like that of heaven. 

Which he would not have done had he feen the right reading here 
given, where his thought is fo much better and nobler cxprcfied. 


I think the prefent text may ftnnd. Hector's patience was as a 
virtue, not variable and accidental, but fixed and conftant. If I 
would alter it, it fliould be thus : 

Hector, whofe patience 

Is all a virtue fix'd, 

,^/7, in old Englifli, is the intcnfwc or enforcing particle. 


1 Btftre the fun rofi, be v:as barncffil light,] Doa the^poet 



And to the field goes he ; xvhere every flower 
Did, as a prophet, weep what it forefaw 
Jn Hector's wrath. 

Cre. What was his caufe of anger ? 

Serv. The noife goes, this : There is among the 

mean (fays Mr. Theobald) that Heflor had put on light armour T 
mean ! what elfe could be mean ? He goes to fight on foot ; and 
was not that the armour for his purpofe ? So, Fairfax, in TauVs 
Jerufalem : 

*' The other princes put on barncfs light 

" As footmen uie " 

Yet, as if this had been the higheft abfurdity, he goes on, Or 
docs he mean that Hcclor ivas fprigbtly in his arms even before fun- 
rife f or is a conundrum aimed at, in fun rofe and barncfe'd light ? Was 
any riling like it ? But to get out of this perplexity, he tells us, 
that a veryjligbt alteration makes all tbefe conjlruftiofts unnecejjary^ 
and fo changes it to barnefi-Jigbt. Yet indeed the very flighteft 
alteration will at any tjrae let the poet's fenfe through the critic's 
fingers : and the Oxford editor very contentedly takes up with 
what is left behind, and reads harnrfs-dight too, in order, as Mr. 
Theobald well expreffes it, to make all cotijiruftion unneccjjary. 


How does it appear that Hector was to fight on foot rather 
to-day, than on any other day ? It is to be remembered, that the 
ancient heroes never frought on horfeback ; nor does their manner 
of fighting in chariots ieem to require lefs activity than on foot. 


It is true that the heroes of Homer never fought on horfeback ; 
yet fuch of them as make a fecond appearance in the &nrij, 
like their antagonifts the Rutulians, had cavalry among their 
troops. Little can be interred from the manner in which 
Alcanius and the young nobility of Troy are introduced at the 
conclufion of the funeral games, as Virgil very probably, at the 
expence of an anachronifm, meant to pay a compliment to the 
military exercifes inftituted by Julius Cielar, and improved bv 
Auguflus. It appears from different pnl'hgcs in this plav, th.:c 
Hector fights on horfeback j and it fiiould be remembered, that 
Shakefpeare was indebted tor moft of his materials to a book 
which enumerates Efdras and Pythagoras among the bailaru chil- 
dren ot king Priamus. Shakefpeare might have been led into his 
rr.,irakc by the manner in which Chopnnui has tranflated Icvrral 
parts of the Iliad, where the heroes mount their chariots or de- 
icend from them. Thus B. 6. fpeaking of Glaucus and : 
" From borje then both defcend." STEEVEXS. 

A lord 


A lord of Trojan blood, nephew to Hector ; 
They call him, Ajax. 

Cre. Good ; And what of him ? 

Serv.' They fay he is a very man *perfe, 
And ftands alone. 

Cre. So do all men ; unlefs they are drunk, fick, 
or have no legs. 

Serv. This man, lady, hath robb'd many beafts of 
their particular additions ; he is as valiant as the lion, 
churliih as the bear, flow as the elephant : a man into 
whom nature hath fo crowded humours, J that his 
valour is crufhed into folly, his folly fauced with dif- 
cretion : there is no man hath a virtue, that he hath not 
a glimpfe of ; nor any man an attaint, but he carries 
fome ftain of it : he is melancholy without caufe, and 
merry againft the hair 4 - : He hath the joints of every 
thing ; but every thing fo out of joint, that he is a 
gouty Briareus,many hands and no ufe ; orpurblinded 
Argus, all eyes and no fight. 

Cre. But how fhould this man, that makes me 
fmile, make Hector angry ? 

Serv. They fay, he yefterday cop'd Hector in the 
battle, and ftruck him down ; the difdain and lhame 
whereof hath ever fince kept Hector falling and 

* ferfe, ] So in Chaucer's Tcftamcnt ofCreJJ'eide : 

" Offaire Crefleide the floure and a per ft 
ic Of Troie and Greece." 
Again, in the old comedy of Wily beguiled: 
" In faith, my fweet honeycomb, I'll love thee a per feat." 
Again, in Blurt 'Mafter Conftablt, 1602 : 

" That is the a per fe of all, the creame of all." 


3 ~that his valour is crufhed into folly, ] To be crujhedinto 
folly, is to be confufcd and mingled with/^//?, fo as that they 
make one mafs together. JOHNSON. 

a againft the hair:'] is a phrafe equivalent to another now 

hi ufe again/I the grain. The French fay a contrrpoil. 




Enter Pandarus. 

Cre. Who comes here ? 

Seru. Madam, your uncle Pandarus. 

Cre. Heftor's a gallant man. 

Serv. As may be in the world, lady. 

Pan. What's that ? what's that ? 

Cre. Good morrow, Uncle Pandarus. 

Pan. l Good morrow, coufin Creffid : What do 
you talk of? Good morrow, Alexander. How do 
you, coufin ? When were you at * Ilium ? 

Cre. This morning, uncle. 

Pan. What were you talking of, when I came ? 
Was Hedtor arm'd, and gone, ere ye came to Ilium ? 
Helen was not up, was Ihe ? 

Cre. Hedlor was gone ; but Helen was not up. 

Pan. E'en fo ; Hetor was ftirring early. 

Cre. That were we talking of, and of his anger. 

Pan. Was he angry ? 

Cre. So he fays here. 

* Good morro-'cj coufin, CreJJld : Wljat Jo you talk off Good 

mnrnoiv, Alexander. Hciv "do you, coufin ? ] Good morrow, 

Alexander, is added in all the editions, fays Mr. Pope, very ab- 
furdly, Paris not being on the ftage. Wonderful acutenefs ! 
But, with fubmiflion, this gentleman's note is much more ab- 
furd ; for ir falls out very unluckily for his remark, that though 
Paris is, for the generality, in Homer called Alexander; yet, 
in this play, by any one of the characters introduced, he is called 
nothing but Paris. The truth of the fa ft is th.js : Pandarus is of 
a bufy, impertinent, infinuating character : and it is natural for 
him, fo foon as he has given his coufin the good-morrow, to pay 
his civilities too to her attendant. This is pure - the 

grammarians call it ; and gives us an admirable touch of Pandarus's 
character. And why might not Alexander be the name or Cref- 
fid's man ? Paris had no patent, I fuppofe, for engrailing it to 
himielf. But the late editor, perhaps, becaufe we have had 
Alexander the Great, Pope' Alexander, and Alexander Pope, would 
not have fo eminent a name "proilituted to a common varlet. 


* Ilium?] Was the palace of Troy. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IX. C Pan. 


Pan. True, he was fo ; I know the caufe too ; he'H 
lay about him to-day, I can tell them that : and there's 
Troilus will not come far behind him ; let them take 
heed of Troilus ; I, can tell them that too. 

Cre. What, is he angry too ? 

Pan. Who, Troilus ? Troilus is the better man of 
the two. 

Cre. O, Jupiter ! there's no comparifon. 

Pan. What, not between Troilus and Hector ? Do 
you know a man, if you fee him ? 

Cre. Ay ; if I ever faw him before, and knew him. 

Pan. Well, I fay, Troilus is Troilus. 

Cre. Then you fay as I fay ; for, I am fure, he is 
not Hector. 

Pan. No, nor Hector is not Troilus, in feme de- 

Cre. 'Tis juft to each of them ; he is himfclf. 

Pan. Himfelf ? Alas, poor Troilus ! I would, he 

Ore. So he is. 

Pan. 'Condition, I had gone bare-foot to India* 

G-e. He is not Hector. 

Pan. Himfelf? no, he's not himfclf. 'Would 'a 
were himfclf! Well, the gods arc above ; Time muft 
friend, or end : Well, Troilus, well, I would, my 
heart were in her body [ No, Hector is not a better 
man than Troilus. 

Cre. Excufe me. 

Pan. He is elder. 

Cre. Pardon me, pardon me. 

Pan. The other's not come to't ; you lhall tell me 
another tale, when the other's come to't. Hector fliall 
not have his wit this year. 

Cre. He lhall not need it, if he have his own. 

Pan. ,Nor his qualities. 

Cre. No matter. 

Pan. Nor his beauty. 

Cre. 'Twould not become him, his ou n's b 


Pan. You have no judgment, niece : Helen her- 
felf fwore the other day, that Troilus, for a brown 
favour, (for fo 'tis, I mufl confefs) Not brown 

Cre. No, but brown. 

Pan. 'Faith, to fay truth, brown and not brown. 

Cre. To fay the truth, true and not true. 

Pan. She prais'd his complexion above Paris. 

Cre. Why, Paris hath colour enough. 

Pan. So he has. 

Cre. Then, Troilus Ihould have too much : if fhe 
prais'd him above, his complexion is higher than his ; 
he having colour enough, and the other higher, is too 
flaming a praife for a good complexion. I had as 
licve, Helen's golden tongue had commended Troi- 
lus for a copper nofe. 

Pan. I fwear to you, I think, Helen loves him 
better than Paris. 

Cre. Then ihe's a merry Greek ', indeed. 

Pan. Nay, I am fure me does. She came to him 
the other day into the 4 compafs'd window, and, you 
know, he has not paft three or four hairs on his chin. 

Cre. Indeed, a tapfter's arithmetic may foon bring 
his particulars therein to a total. 

Pan. Why, he is very young : and yet will he, 
within three pound, lift as much as his brother Heftor. 

Cre. Is he fo young a mari, and fo old a lifter s ? 


3 a merry Greet, ] Grtecarl among the Romans figni- 

fiecl to play the reveller. STEEVENS. 

4 comfaff'divinJovj, ] The compaf? d window is the fame 

as the bowivinJow. JOHNSON. 

' Jo old a lifter ?] The word lifter is ufed for a thief by 

Green, in his Art of Coney- catching, printed 1591 : on this the 
humour of the paflage may be fuppofed to turn. We Hill call a 
perfon who plunders (hops, ajbop-ltfter. Jon ion ufes the expref- 
iion in Cynthia's Revels : 

* One other peculiar virtue you pofiefs is, lifting." 

C 2 Agaio, 


Pan. But, to prove to you that Helen loves him ; 
fhe came, and puts me her white hand to his cloven 

Cre. Juno have mercy ! How came it cloven ? 

Pan. Why, you know, 'tis dimpled : I think, his 
fmiling becomes him better than any man in ail 

Cre. O, he fmiles valiantly. 

Pan. Does he not ? 

Cre. O, yes ; an 'twere a cloud in autumn. 

Pan. Why, go to then : But, to prove to you 

that Helen loves Troilus, 

Cre. Troilus will ftand to the proof, if you'll prove 
it fo. 

Pan. Troilus ? why, he efteems her no more than 
I eflcem an addle egg. 

Cre. If you love an addle egg as well as you love 
an idle head, you would eat chickens i* the Ihell. 

Piin. 1 cannot chufe but laugh, to think how fhe 
tickled his chin ; Indeed, fhe has a marvellous white 
hand, I mufl needs confefs. 

Cre. Without the rack. 

P,i'i. And flic takes upon her to fpy a white hair 
on his chin. 

Cre. Alas, poor chin ! many a wart is richer. 

Pan. But, there was fuch laughing; Queen Hecu- 
Ixi laugh'd, that her eyes- ran o'er. 

Cf'e. With mill-Hones. 

Pan. And Caflandra laugh'd. 

Cre. But there was more temperate fire under the 
pot of her eyes ; Did her eyes run o'er too ? 

Pan. And Hedtor laugh'd. 

Cfe. At what was all this laughing ? 

Again, in the Roaring Girl, 161 1 : 

" cheaters, lifters, nips, foifts, puggards, courbers." 

Again, in Holland's Leaguer, 1633: 

" Broker or pandar, cheater or lifter.'" STEEVENS. 



Pan. Marry, at the white hair that Helen fpied on 
Troilus* chin. 

Cre. A n't had been a green hair, I fhould have 
laugh'd too. 

Pan. They langh'd not fo much,at the hair, as at 
his pretty anfwcr. 

Cre. What was his anfwcr ? 

Pan. Quoth fhe, Here's but one and fifty hairs on your 
chin, and one of than is white. 

Cre. This is her queltion. 

Pan. That's true ; make no queftion of that. 6 One 
and f fly hairs, quoth he, and one white : That white L\ur 
is my father, and all the reft are his fans. Jupiter ! 
quoth fhe, which of thefe hairs is Paris, my hujland ? 
The forked one, quoth he ; pluck it out, and give it him. 
But, there was fuch laughing ! and Helen Ib blufh'd, 
and Paris fo chaf'd, and all the reft fo laugh'd, that 
it pafs'd. 

Cre. So let it now ; for it has been a great while 
going by. 

Pan. Well, coufin, I told you a thing yefterday ; 
think on't. 

Cre. So I do. 

Pan. I'll be fworn, 'tis true ; he will weep you, an 
'twere a man born in April. [Sound a retreat. 

Cre. And I'll fpring up in his tears, an 'twere a 
nettle againfl May. 

Pan. Hark, they are coming from the field : Shall 
we ftand up here, and fee them, as they pats toward 
Ilium ? good niece, do ; fweet niece Creffida. 

Cre. At your pleafure. 

Pan. Here, here, here's an excellent place ; here 
we may fee moil bravely : I'll tell you them all by 

5 Two and fifty hairs, ] I have ventured to fubftitute one 
and fifty, I think with fome' certainty. How elie can the num- 
ber make out friam and his fifty fons ? TUEOBALE. 

C 3 their 


their names, as they pafs by ; but mark Troilus above 
the reft. 

J&ieas pafles over fuge. 

Cre. Speak not fo loud. 

far.. That's ^ncas ; Is not that a brave man ? 
hf\ one of the flowers of Troy, I can tell you ; But 
mark Troilus; you mall lee anon. 

Cre. Who's that ? 

Antenor pafles over. 

Pan. 7 That's Antenor ; he has a ihrewd wit, I can 
tell you ; and he's a man good enough : he's one o' the 
founded: judgment in Troy, whofoever ; and a proper 
man of perfon : When comes Troilus? I'll fhew 
you Troilus anon -, if he fee me, you fhall fee him 
nod at me. 

Cre. Will he give you the nod.? 

Pan. You mail fee. 

Cre. If he do, 8 the rich fliall have more. 

" 7'kafs Antenor ; he has a J},re\vd ctvV, 
Anthenor was 

" Copious in words, and one that much time fpent 
** To jeft, when as he was in companie, 
" So dricly, that no man could it efpie ; 
" And therewith held his countenaunce fo well, 

*' That every man received great content 
" To hearc him fpeake, and pretty jefts to tell, 
" When he was pleafant, and in merriment : 
'* For tho' that he moft commonly was fad, 
** Yet hi his fpcech fome jeft he always had." 

Lulgate, p. 105. 


* .. ' -ike rich JImll have more.~\ To give one the nod, was a 
phrafe fignifying to give one a mark of folly. The reply turns 
upon this fenje, alluding to the expreffion give , and fhould be read 
thus : 

. tbs m\c\\ fiall have more. 

i. e. tHiicl. He that has much folly already fliall then have more. 
This was a proverbial fpeech, implying that benefits fall upon the 
rich. The O.\fr,rd editor alters it r<> : 

. " the rcll JJjall have none. WAR BUR TON, 

I wonder 


Heftor pajjes over. 

Pan. That's He&or, that, that, look you, that ; 
There's a fellow ! Go thy way, He&or; There's 
a brave man, niece. O brave Hector ! Look, how 
he looks ! there's a countenance : Is't not a brave 
x Cre. >, a brave man ! 

Pan. Is 'a not ? It does a man's heart good Look 
you, what hacks arc on his helmet? look you yon- 
der, do you ice? look you there ! There's nojefling: 
laying on ; takc't off who will, as they fay : there be 
hacks ! 

Cre. Be thofe with fwords ? 

Pans pajfes over. 

Pan. Swords ? any thing, he cares not : an the 
devil come to him, it's all one : By god's lid, it does 
one's heart good : Yonder comes Paris, yonder 
comes Paris : look ye yonder, niece ; Is't not a gal- 

I wonder why the commentator fliould think any emendation 
neceflary, fince his own fenfe is fully e^cprefled by the prefent 
reading. Hanmer appears not to have undertfood the paflage. 
That to give the nod fignifies to fet a mark of folly y I do not 
know ; the allufion is to the word noddy., which, as now, did, in 
our author's time, and long before, figniry a Jilly fellow * and may, 
by its etymology, figmfy likewife full of nods. Creffid means, 
rhat a noddy foall have more nods. Of i'uch remarks as thefe is a 
comment to conliit ? JPHNSON. 

To give the nod, was, I believe a term in the game at cards 
called Noddy. This game is perpetually alluded to in the old 

So,\to A Woman kiirj with KinJneft, 1617: Matter Frank- 
ford beft play at Noddy." Again, in the Infatiate Countrfs^ 1631 : 

" Be honeft now and not love's noddy, 

*' Turn'd up and play'd on whillt thou Keep'ft the flock." 
Again, in Hide-Park, by Shirley, 1637: 
" He is upon the matter then fifteen j 
** A game at nojJy." STEEVENS. 

C 4 lant 


lant man too, is't not? Why, this is brave now. 
Who faid, he came home hurt to-day ? he's not hurt : 
why, this will do Helen's heart good now. Ha ! 
'would I could fee Troilus now ! you lhall fee Troi- 
lus anon. 

Cre. Who's that ? 

Helenas pajfes over* 


Pan. That's Helenus, I marvel, where Troilus 
is: That's Helenus ; I think he went not forih 
to-day ; That's Helenus. 

Cre. Can Helenus fight, uncle ? 

Pan. Helenus ? no ; yes, he'll fight indifferent 
well : I marvel, 'where Troilus is ! Hark; do you 
not hear the people cry, Troilus ? Helenus is a 

Cre. What fneaking fellow comes yonder ? 

Troilus aes over. 

Pan. Where ? yonder ? that's Deiphobus : 'Tis 
Troilus ! 'there's a man, niece! - Hem! Brave 
Troilus ! the prince of chivalry ! 

Cre. Peace, for lhame, peace ! 

Pan. Mark him ; note him ; O brave Troilus ! 
loolc well upon him, niece ; look you, how his fword 
is bloody'd,and his helm more hack'd than Hector's 9 ; 
AnJ how he looks, and how he goes! O admirable 
youth ! he ne'er faw three and twenty. Go thy way, 
Troilus, go thy way ; had I a filler were a grace, or 
a daughter a goddefs, he fhould take his choice. O 
admirable man ! Paris ? Paris is dirt to him ; and, 

9 - bis helm more hacVd than Hcflor's ; ] So in Chaucer's 
and C> 'effeteic^ b. iii. 640: 
" His hclme to bcwin was in twenty places, &c." 


I war- 


I warrant, Helen, to change, would give ' an eye to 

Enter foldicrs, &c. 

Ore. Here come more. 

Pan. Afles, fools, dolts! chaff and bran, chaff and 
bran ! porridge after meat ! I could live and die 'i the 
eyes of Troilus. Ne'er look, ne'er look ; the eagles 
are gone ; crows and daws, crows and daws ! 1 had 
rather be fuch a man as Troilus, than Agamemnon 
and all Greece. 

Cre. There is among the Greeks, Achilles ; a bet- 
ter man than Troilus. 

Pan. Achilles ? a dray-man, a porter, a very camel. 

Cre. Well, well. 

Pan. Well, well ? Why, have you any difcretion ? 
have you any eyes ? Do you know what a man is ? Is 
not birth, beauty, good lhape, difcourfe, manhood, 
learning, gentlenefs, virtue, youth, liberality, and 
fuch like, the fpice and fait that feafon a man ? 

Cre. Ay, a minc'd man : and then to be bak'd 
with nod ate in the pye % for then the man's date is ' 

Pan. You are fuch a woman ! one knows not at 
what ward you lie. 

Cre. Upon my back, to defend my belly ; * upon 

1 an eye to loot.'} So the quarto. The folio, with lefs 

force, Give money to boot. JOHNSON-. 

* no date in tie j>ye, ] To account for the introduftion 

of this quibble, it ftsould be remembered that dates were an ingre- 
dient in ancient paltry of almoft every kind. So, in Romeo and 

" They call for dates and quinces in the paftry." 

Again, in AlFs well that ends well > aft I. 

" your daft is better in your pye and porridge than in your 

cheek." STEEVENS. 

3 upon my wit, to defend my wiles ; ] So read both the 

copies : yet perhaps the author wrote : 

Upon my wit to defend my will. 

The terms wit and will were, in the language of that time, put 
often in oppofuion. JOHNSO:;. 



my wit, to defend my wiles ; upon my fecrecy, to 
defend mine honefty ; my mafk, to defend my beau- 
ty ; and you, to defend all thefe : and at all thefc 
wards I lie, at a thoufand watches. 

Pan. Say one of your watches. 

Cre. Nay, I'll watch you for that; and that's one of 
the chiefeft of them too : if I cannot ward what I 
would not have hit, I can watch you for telling how 
I took the blow ; unlefs it fwell paft hiding, and then 
it is paft watching. 

Pan. You are fuch another ! 

Enter Troilus 1 Boy. 

Boy. Sir, my lord would inftantly fpeak with you, 

Pan. Where ? 

Boy. 4 At your own houfe ; there he unarms him. 

Pan. Good boy, tell him I come [Exit Boy~] : I 
doubt he be hurt. Fare ye well, good niece. 

Cre. Adieu, uncle. 

Pan. I'll be with you, niece, by and by. 

Cre. To bring, uncle, - 

Pan. Ay, a token from Troilus. 

Cre. By the fame token you area bawd. - 

[Exit Pandarits, 

Words, vows, gifts, tears, and love's full facrifice, 
He offers in another's enterprize : 
But more in Troilus thoufand fold I fee 
Than in the glafs of Pandar's praife may be ; 
Yet hold I off. Women are angels, wooing; 
Things won are done, 5 joy's foul lies in the doing i 

* At your own boufe ; there If unarms bim.~\ Thefc neceflary 
words are added from the quarto edition. POPE. 

The words added are only, there he unarms him. JOHNSOX. 
5 -joy's. foul lies in the doing :~\ So read both the old editions, 
for which the later editions have poorly given : 

the foul's joy lies in doing. JOHNSON. 



That Ihe belov'd knows nought, that knows not this, 
Men prize the thing ungain'd more than it is : 

6 That fhe was never yet, that ever knew 
Love got fo fweet, as when defire did fue : 

Therefore this maxim out of love I teach, 

Achievement is, command ; ungain'd, befcech : 

7 Then though 8 my heart's content firm love doth 

Nothing of that fhall from mine eyes appear. [Exeunt. 


The Grecian camp. 

Trumpets. Enter Agamemnon, Nejlor, Ulvffes, Menelaus, 
with others. 

Agam. Princes, 

What grief hath fet the jaundice on your cheeks ? 
The ample propofition, that hope makes 
Jn all defigns begun on earth below, 
Fails in the promis'd largenefs : checks and difaflers 
Grow in the veins of actions higheft rear'd; 
As knots, by the conflux of meeting fap, 
Infect the found pine, and divert his grain 
Tortive and errant from his courfe of growth. 
Nor, princes, is it matter new to us, 
That we come fliort of our fuppofe fo far, 
That, after feven years' fiege, yet Troy walls {land; 
Sith every action that hath gone before, 
Whereof we have record, trial did draw 
Bias and thwart, not anfwering the aim, 
And that unbodied figure of the thought 

6 Tljatfic ] Means, that woman. JOHNSON. 

7 Then though ] The quarto reads then ; the folio and the 

jnodern editions read improperly, that. JOHNSON. 

* my htart\ content ] Content, for capacity, WARBURTON. 



That gav't furmifed fhapc. Why thpn, you princes, 
Do you with checks abafh'd behold our works ; 
And think them lhames, which are, indeed, nought 


But the protradtive trials of great Jove, 
To find perfiftive conftancy in men ? 
The finenefs of which metal is not found 
In fortune's love : for then, the bold and coward, 
The wife and fool, the artiftand unread, 
The hard and foft, fe^m all affin'd and kin : 
But, in the wind and temped of her frown, 
^Diftindtion, with a 'broad and powerful fan, 
Puffing at all, winnows the light away ; 
And what hath mafs, or matter, by itfelf 
Lies, rich in virtue, and unmingled. 

Neft. ' With due obfervance of thy godlike feat, 
Great Agamemnon, 1 Neftor ihall apply 
Thy latefl words. In the reproof of chance 
Lies the true proof of men : The fea being fmooth, 
How many mallow bauble boats dare fail 
Upon her 5 patient brealt, making their way 

8 JBroa<f] So the quarto ; the folio reads loud. JOHNSON. 
1 Witbdue observance oftby goodly feat,] Goodly is an epithet that 
carries no very great compliment with it ; and Neftor feems here 
to be paying deference to Agamemnon's ibte and pre-eminence. 
The old books have it, to tby godly fiat : godlike, as I have re- 
formed the text, feems to me the epithet deligned ; and is very 
conformable to what jDncas afterwards fays of Agamemnon : 

Which is that god in office, guiding men f 
So godlike feat is here, (late fupreme above all other commanders. 


This emendation Theobald might have found in the i^umtu, 
which has : 

the godlike feat. Jo H N s o N . ' * 

* Neftor Jhall apply 

Thy latcjl words.] Neftor applies the words to another in- 
frince. JOHNSON. 

3 patient breajl,' ] The quarto not fo well : 

ancient brealt. JOHNSON. 



* With thofe of nobler bulk ? 

But let the ruffian Boreas once enrage 

The gentle Thetis, and, anon, behold 

The itrong-ribb'd bark through liquid mountains cut, 

Bounding between the two moid elements, 

Like Perfeus' horfc : Where's then the faucy boat, 

Whofe weak untimber'd fides but even now 

Co-rival'd greatnefs ? either to harbour fled, 

Or made a toaft for Neptune. Even fo 

Doth valour's ihew, and valour's worth, divide 

In ftorms of fortune : For, in her ray and brightnefs, 

The herd hath more annoyance by the brize s , 

Than by the tyger : but when fplitting winds 

Make flexible the knees of knotted oaks, 

And flies flee under ihade, Why, then, 6 the thing of 


As rowz'd with rage, with rage doth fympathizc, 
And with an accent tun'd in felf-fame key, 
7 Returns to chiding fortune. 

4 With tbofe of nobler lulk ?] Statins has the fame thought, 
though more diffufedly exprefs'd : 

*' Sic ubi magna novum Phario de littore puppis 
" Solvit iter, jamque innumeros utrinque rudentes 
*' Lataque veliferi porrexit brachia mali, 
" Invaiitque vias ; it eodem angv.ila phaielus 
" jEquore, et immenfi partem fibi vendicat auitri." 
Pope has imitated the paflage. STEEVENS. 

5 by the brize] The brize is the gad or borfe-Jty. So, in 
Monjieur Thomas , 1639 : 

" Have ye got the Irize there ? 

" Give me the holy fprinkle." 

Again, in Vittoria Corombona^ or the Hljite Devil, 1612 : 
" I will put br'iM in his tail, fet him a gadding prelently." 


6 the thing of cjurage^} It is faid of the tiger, that in 

ftorms and high winds he rages an3 roars moll furioully. 


7 Returns to chiding fortune.] For returns, Hanmer reads replies^ 
unnecelTarily, the ienie being the fame. The folio and quarto 
have retires^ corruptly. JOHNSOX. 


Uhff. Agamemnon, 

Thou great commander, nerve and bone of Greece, 
Heart of our numbers, foul and only fpirit, 
In whom the tempers and the minds of all 
Should be fhut up, hear what Ulyffes fpeaks. 
Befides the applaufe and approbation 
The which, moft mighty for thy place andfway, 

[To Agamemnon. 

And thou moft reverend for thy ftretcht-out life, 

[To Neftor. 

I give to both your 8 fpeeches, which were fuch, 


* fpeeches, which *werefucb 9 

As Agamemnon and the hand of Greece 

Should hold up high in brafs ; and fuch again , 

As venerable Nc/tor, hatched in Jtlvcr t 

Should knit all Greekijh ears 

To his experienced tongue: ] Ulyfles begins his oration 

with praifing thofe who had fpoken before him, and marks the 
chara&eriftic excellencies or their different eloquence, ftrength, 
and fweetnefs, which he expreffes by the different metals on which 
he recommends them to be engraven tor the inflruclion of pofte- 
rity. The fpeech of Agamemnon is fuch that it ought to be en- 
graven in brafs, and the tablet held up by him on the one fide, 
and Greece on the other, to fhew the union of their opinion. 
And Neftor ought to be exhibited in lilver, uniting all his au- 
dience in one mind by his loft and gentle elocution. Brafs is the 
common emblem of ftrength, and ulver of gentlenefs. We call 
a foft voice a fiver voice, and a perfuafive tongue a fiver 
tongue. I once read for hand, the band of Greece, but I think 
the text right. To batch is a term of art for a particular method 
of engraving. Hacber, to cut, Fr. JOHNSON. 

In the defcription of Agamemnon's fpeech, there is a plain al- 
lufion to the old cuftom ot engraving laws and public records in 
Irafi, and hanging up the tables in temples, and other places 01 
general refort. Our author has the fame alhifion in Meafurefor 
Mtafurt) aft V. fc. i. The )uke, fpeaking of the merit of An- 
gelo and Efcalus, lays, that 

" it deferves with chara&ers oflrafi 

'* A forted relidence, 'gain ft the tooth of time 

** And raxure of oblivion." 

So far therefore is clear. Why Neftor is faid to be batch* J in fil' 
ver, is much more obfcure. I once thought that we ought to 


As Agamemnon and the hand of Greece 
Should hold up high in brafs; and fuch again, 

read, thatch* d in fifoer, alluding to hisjtlver hair ; the fame me- 
taphor being ufed by Timon, aft IV. fc. iv. to Phryne and 
Timandra : 

** thatch your poor thin roofs 

" With burthens of the dead ." 

But I know not whether the prefent reading may not be under- 
flood to convey the fame allufion ; as I find, .that the fpecies of 
engraving, called hatching, was particularly ufed in the bikf of 
Jkvords. See Cotgrave in v. Hache ; hacked, &c. alfo, Hatched, at 
the hilt of afford: and in v. Hacher ; to hacke, &c. alfo, to hatch 
a hilt. Beaumont and Fletcher's Cuftom of the Country, vol. II. 
p. 90: 

" When thine own bloody fword cried out againft thee, 

Hatch' Jin the life of him. " 

As to what follows, if the reader fhould have no more concep 
tion than 1 have, of 

a t>ondof&\r, Jlrong as the axle-tree 

On ivhich the heavens ride ; 

he will perhaps excufe me for hazarding a conjecture, that the 
true reading may poffibly be : 

a bond of XfiZ. 

After all, the conitrudion of this paflage is very harfli and irre- 
gular ; but with that I meddle not, believing it was left fo by the 
author. TYRWHITT. 

Perhaps no alteration is neceflary ; hatclid in filver, may mean, 
whole white hair and beard make him look like a figure engraved 
on diver. 

The word is metaphorically ufed by Hey wood in the Iron Age^ 
1632 : 

" his face 

" Is hatched with impudency three-fold thick." 
And again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Humorous Lieutenant : 

** His weapon hatch* J\n. blood." 
Again, literally, in the Tivo Merry ]\lilkmaiJs t 1620: 

" Double and treble gilt, 

" Hatched and inlaid, not to be worn with time." 
Again, more appofitely, in Love in a Maze, 1632: 

" Thy hair is fine as gold, thy chin is hatch* d 

" Whbfhtr " 

The voice of Neftor, which on all occafions enforced attention, 
might be, I think, not unpoetically called, a hand of air, becaufe 
ita operations were vifible, though his voice, like the wind, was 
unfeen. STEEVS.N-S. 



As venerable Neftor, hatch'd in filver, 
Should with a bond of air (ftrong as the axle-tree 
On which heaven rides) knit all the Greekrfh ears 
To his experienc'd tongue, yet let it pleafe both, 
Thou great, and wife, to hear UlyfTes fpeak. 

9 j4gaw. Speak prince of Ithaca ; and be't of left 


That matter needlefs, of importlefs burden, 
Divide thy lips ; than we are confident, 
When rank Therfites opes his maftiff jaws, 
We fhall hear mufic, wit, and oracle. 

Ulyjf. Troy, yet upon her bafis, had been down, 
And the great Hector's fword had lack'd a matter, 
But for thefe inftances. 
1 The fpecialty of rule hath been neglected ; 
And, look, how many Grecian tents do ftand 
Hollow upon this plain, fo many hollow factions. 
1 When that the general is not like the hive, 
To whom the foragers fhall all repair, 
What honey is expected ? Degree being vizarded, 
The unworthieft Ihews as fairly in the mafk. 
3 The heavens themlelves, the planets, and this center, 

' Agam. Speak, &c.] This fpeech is not in the quarto. 


1 Tie fpecialty of rule ] The particular rights of fupreme 

authority. JOHNSON. 

1 When that the general is not like the hive,] The meaning is, 
When the general is not to the army like the hive to the bees, the 
repofitory of the flock of every individual, that to which each 
particular reforts with whatever he has collected for the good of 
the whole, ivhat honey is exbefted ? what hope of advantage ? 
The fenfe is clear, the expreffion is con fu led. JOHNSON. 

3 The heavens tbewfelva, ] This illuftration was probably 

derived from a pafiage in Hooker: " Ifceleflial fpheres fliould 
forget their wonted motion ; if the prince of the lights of heaven 
(hould begin to ftand ; if the moon Ihould wander from her beaten 
way ; and the feafons of the year biend themfelves ; what would 
become of man ?" 

The heavens themfelves, the planet;, and this center,] i. e. the 
center of the earth, which, according to the Ptolemaic fyltem, 
then in vogue, is the center of the folar iyflem. WARBURTOA. 



Obferve degree, priority, and place, 
Infifture, courfe, proportion, feafon, form, 
Office, and cuftom, in all line of order : 
And therefore is the glorious planet, Sol, 
In noble eminence enthron'd and fpher'd 
Amidft the other ; whofe med'cinable eye 
Corrects the ill afpecls of planets evil, 
And ports, like the commandment of a king', 
Sans check, to good and bad: 4 But, when the 

4 But, ivben the planets i 

In evil mixture, to diforder wander, &c.] I believe the poer, 
according to aftrological opinions, means, when the planets form 
malignant configurations, when their afpeds are evil towards one 
another. This he terms evil mixture. JOHNSON. 

The poet's meaning may be fomewhat explained by Spenfer, to 
whom he feems to be indebted for his prefent allufion : 
For who fo lift into the heavens looke, 
And fearch the courfes of the rowling fpheres, 
Shall find that from the point where they firft took* 
Their fetting forth, in thefe few thoufand yeares 
They all are ivandred much ; that plaine appeares. 
For that fame golden fleecy ram, which bore 
Phrixus and Helle from their ftepdames feares, 
Hath now forgot where he was plaft of yore, 
And fhouldred hath the bull which fayre Europa bore. > 

And eke the bull hath with his bow-bent home 
So hardly butted thofe two twinnes of Jove, 
That they have crufh'd the crab, and quite him borne 
Into the great Nemaean lion's grove. 
So now all range, and do at random rove 
Out of their proper places far away, 
And all this world with them amiffe doe move, 
And all his creatures from their courfe ailray, 
11 Till they arrive at their laft ruinous decay." 

Faery gueen, B. V. c. I. 


The apparent irregular motions of the planets were fuppoied 
to portend fome diiaiters to mankind ; indeed the planets them- 
felves were not thought formerly to be confined in any fixed orbits 
of their own, but to wander about ad libitum, as the etymology of 
their names demonltrate.. ANONYMOUS. 

VOL. IX. D In 


In evil mixture* to diforder wander, 

What plagues, and what portents ? what mutiny ? 

What raging of the fea ? fhaking of earth ? 

Commotion in the winds ? frights, changes, horrors, 

Divert and crack, rend and deracinate 

The unity and married calm of Hates 5 

Quite from their fixure ? 6 O, when degree is fhak'd, 

Which is the ladder to all high defigns, 

7 The enterprize is fick ! How could communities, 

Degrees in fchools, and 8 brotherhoods in cities, 

Peaceful commerce from dividable fliores, 

The primogenitive and due of birth, 

Prerogative of age, crowns, fcepters, laurels, 

But by degree, ftand in authentic place ? 

Take but degree away, untune that firing, 

And, hark, what difcord follows ! each thing meets 

In meer oppugnancy : The bounded waters 

Should lift their bofoms higher than the mores, 

And make a fop of all this folid globe : 

Strength mould be lord of imbecility, 

And the.rude fon fhould ftrike his father dead : 

Force Ihould be right ; or, rather, right and wrong 

(Between whofe endlefs jar juftice reiides) 

Should lofe their names, and fo fhould juftice tod. 

5 married calm ofjlates] The epithet married, which is 
ufed to denote an intimate union, is employed in the fame fenfe 
by Milton : 

" Lydian airs 

" Married to immortal verfe." 

** voice and verfe 

*' Wed your divine founds." 

Shakefpeare calls a harmony of features, married lineament^ in 
Romeo and Juliet. S T EE y E vs. 

6 . O, when degree is fyaPd,] I would read: 

So when degree ifj)jak\l. JOJIXSON. 

7 The enterprize ] Perhaps we fhould read : 

Then enterprize is Jlik ! JOHNSON. 

1 '- -brother hoods. in citia,'] Corporations, companies, con" 
fraternities. JOHNSON. 



Then every thing includes itfelf in power, 

Power into will, will into appetite; 

And appetite, an univerfal wolf, 

So doubly feconded with will and power, 

Muft make perforce an univerfal prey, 

And, laft, eat up himfelf. Great Agamemnon, 

This chaos, when degree is fuffocate, 

Follows the choaking. 

And this negleclion of degree it is, 

9 That by a pace goes backward, l with a purpofc 

It hath to climb : The general's difdain'd 

By him one (rep below ; he, by the next ; 

That next, by him beneath : fo every flep, 

Exampled by the firft pace that is lick 

Of his fuperior^ grows to an envious fever 

Of pale and * bloodlefs emulation : 

And 'tis this fever that keeps Troy on foot, 

Not her own finews. To end a tale of length, 

Troy in our weaknefs ftands, not in her ftrength. 

Ne/t. Mofl wifely hath UlyfTes here difcover'd 
The fever whereof all our power is fick* 

Again. The nature of the ficknefs found, Ulyfles, 
What is the remedy ? 

Uhf. The great Achilles, whom opinion crowns 
The finew and the forehand of our hofly 
Having his ear full of his airy fame, 
Grows dainty of his worth, and in his tent 
Lies mocking our defigns : With him, Patroclus, 
Upon a lazy bed, the livelong day 
Breaks fcurril jefts ; 
And with ridiculous and aukward adtiori 

*> That ly a pace ] That goes backward^/ ly/cp. JOHNSON". 

1 with a purpofe 

It hath to climb : ] With a defign in each man to ag- 

grnndiae himfeU", by flighting his immediate fuperior. JOHNSON. 

1 blood!r/"> emulation :] -An emulation not vigorous and ac- 
tive, but malignant and fluggifh. JOHNSON. 

D 2 (Which, 


(Which, flanderer, he imitation calls) 

He pageants us. Sometime, great Agamemnon^ 

3 Thy toplefs deputation he puts on ; 

And, like a flrutting player, whofe conceit 

Lies in his ham-firing, and doth think it rich 

To hear the wooden dialogue and found 

'Twixt his flretch'd footing and the fcaffoldage,- 

Such to-be-pitied and o'cr-refled feeming 

He acts thy greatnefs in : and when he fpeaks, 

'Tis like a chime a mending ; with terms unfquard, 

Which, from the tongue of roaring Typhon drop'd, 

Would feem hyperboles. At this fufly fluff, 

The large Achilles, on his prefs'd bed lolling, 

From his deep chefl laughs out a loud applaufe ; 

Cries Excellent ! 'tis Agamemnon juft. 

Nozv play me Neftor ; hem, andjhoke thy beard, 
As he> being* dr eft to fome oration. 

That's done ; 4 as near as the extremefl ends 

Of parallels ; as like as Vulcan and his wife : 

Yet good Achilles flill cries, Excellent ! 

'Tis Neftor fight ! Nozv play him me, Patroclus, 

Arming to anfivcr in a night alarm. 

And then, forlboth, the faint defects of age 

Mufl be the fcenc of mirth ; to cough, and'fpir, 

And with a palfy-fumbling 5 on his gorget, 

Shake in and out the rivet : and at this fporr, 

Sir Valour dies ; cries, / enough, Patroclus ; 

3 T'by toplefs deputation ] Toplefs is that which has nothing 
topping or overtopping it ; fupreme ; fovereign. JOHNSON. 
So, in Dotfor Faujlus, 1604 : 

** Was thisthtf face that launch'd a thoufand fliips, 
*' And burnt the toplefs towers of Ilium ?" 
Again, in the Blln d Eeggar of Alexandria^ 1598: 

44 And toplcfi honours be beftow'd on thce." STEEVENS. 
* as near AS tht extreme/I enJs y &c.] The parallels to which 

the allufion feems to be made, are the parallels on a map. As 
like as eaft to weft. JOHNSON. 

palfy fumbling ] This fliould be written pa\fy- 
i. e. paralytic fumbling. TYRWHITT. 



Or give me ribs ofjleel! IfoaUjplit all 
Inpleafure ofmyjpleen. And in this faftiion, 
6 All our abilities, gifts, natures, fhapes, 
Severals and generals of grace exact, 
Atchievements, plots, orders, preventions, 
Excitements to the field, or fpeech for truce, 
Succefs, or lofs, what is, or is not, ferves 
As fluff for thefe two 7 to make paradoxes. 

Nefi. And in the imitation of thefe twain 
(Whom, as Ulyfles fays, opinion crowns 
With an imperial voice) many are infect. 
Ajax is grown fclf-will'd ; and 8 bears his head 
In fuch a rein, in full as proud a place 
As broad Achilles : keeps his tent like him ; 
Makes factious feafls ; rails en our ftate of war, 
Bold as an oracle : and fets Therfites 
(A flave, vvhofe gall coins ilanders like a mint) 
To match us in comparifons with dirt; 
To weaken and difcredit our expofure, 
9 How rank foever rounded in with danger. 

Ulyff. They tax our policy, and call it cowardice ; 
Count wifdom as no member of the war ; 
Foreftall pre-fcience, and efteem no act 
But that of hand : the ftill and mental parts, 
That do contrive how many hands fhall flrike, 

6 All our abilities, gifts, natures, 
Se-verats and gene rah of grace exacl, 

Atchiei'ements, plots, &C.J All our good grace exafl) means 
our excellence irrepiebenfible. JOHNSON. 

7 - to make paradoxes.] Paradoxes may have a menning > 
but it is not clear and diflincl. I wiftj the copies had given : 

- to make parodies. JOHNSON. , 
* lean his .bead 

Jnfucb a rein, ] That is, holds up his head as haughti- 
ly. We ftill fay of a girl, Jhe Iridles. JOHNSON. 

9 Hinv rank foevtr rounded in luith danger. J A rank weed \a 
a high weed. The modern editions lilently read : 


D 3 When 


When fitnefs calls them on ; " and know, by meafure 
Of their obfervant toil, the enemies' weight, 
Why, this hath not a finger's dignity j 
They call this bed-work, 'mappery, clofet war : 
So that the ram, that batters down the wall, 
For the "great fwing and rudenefs of his poize, 
They place before his hand that made the engine , 
Or thofe, that with the fincnefs of their fouls 
By reafon guide his execution. 

Neft. Let this be granted, and Achilles' horfe 
Makes many Thetis' foqs. [Trumpet founds, 

Agam. What trumpet ? look, Menelaus. 

Men. From Troy, 

Enter sEneas, 

Aga. What would you 'fore our tent ? 

jEae. Is this great Agamemnon's tent, I pray you ? 

Aga. Even this. 

ALne. May one, that is a herald, and a prince, 
Do a fair meffage to his * kingly ears ? 

Aga. With furety ftronger than ? Achilles' arm 
'Fore all the Greekifh heads, which with one voice 
Call Agamemnon head and general. 

JfLne. Fair leave, and large fecurity. How may 
4 A flranger to thofe moil imperial looks 


* and know, ly meafure 

Of their obfervant toil, the enemies weight , ] I think it were 
better to read : 

and knovj the meafurr, 
By their olfervant toil, of tb* cnetnic s' weight. JOHNSON. 

* kingly ears ?] The quarto : 

kingly eyes. JOHNSON. 

3 Achilles' arm} So the copies. Perhaps the author 

wrote : 

AlciiU? arm. JoHNSOK . 

4 AJlrangtr to tbcfc mojl imperial looks\ And yet this was the fe- 
venth year of the war. Shakelpeare, who fo wonderfully prcferves 
chara<5er, ufually confounds the cultoms of all nations, and pro- 


Know them from eyes of other mortals ? 

Aga. How ? 

jEne. I afk, that I might waken reverence, 
And 5 bid the cheek be ready with a blufti 
Modeft as morning when Ihe coldly eyes 
The youthful Phoebus : 
Which is that god in office, guiding men ? 
Which is the high and mighty Agamemnon ? 

Aga. This Trojan fcorns us ; or the men of Troy 
Are ceremonious courtiers. 

JEne. Courtiers as free, as debonair, unarm'd, 
As bending angels ; that's their fame in peace : 
But when they would feem foldiers, they have galls, 
Good arms, ttrong joints, true fwords ; and, Jove's 


Nothing Ib full of heart. But peace, JEneas, 
Peace, Trojan ; lay thy finger on thy lips ! 
The worthinefs of praife diftains his worth, 
If that the prais'd himfelf bring the praife forth : 
]But what the repining enemy commends, 
That breath fame blows ; that praife, fole pure, 

Aga. Sir, you of Troy, call you yourfelf ^Eneas ? 

jEne. Ay, Greek, that is my name. 

Aga. What's your affair, I pray you ? 

bably fuppofed that the ancients (like the heroes of chivalry) 
fought with beavers to their helmets. So, in the fourth ad of this 
play, Nellor lays to HeiStor : 

'But this thy countenance, flill lock'J injleel^ 

Inevcrfa-iv till fio-iv, 

Shakefpeare might have adopted this error from the illuminators 
of manufcripts, who never feem to have entertained the leaft 
idea of habits, manners, or cuftoms more ancient than their own. 
There are books in the Britifh Mufeum of the age of king 
Henry VI ; and in thefe the heroes of ancient Greece are re- 
prefented in the very drefles worn at the time when the books re- 
ceived their decorations. STEEVENS. 

he check ] So the folio. The quarto has : 
on the cheek JOHNSON, 

D 4 


Mne. Sir, pardon ; 'tis for Agamemnon's ears. 

Aga. He hears nought privately, that comes from 

Mne. Nor I from Troy come not to whifper him : 
I bring a trumpet to awake his ear; 
To fet his fenfe on the attentive bent, 
And then to fpeak. 

Aga. Speak frankly as the wind ; 
Tt is not Agamemnon's Sleeping hour : 
That thou fhalt know, Trojan, he is awake, 
He tells thee fo himfelf. 

Mne. Trumpet:, blow loud, 

Send thy brafs voice through all thefe lazy tents ;- 
And every Greek of mettle, let him know, 
What Troy means fairly, lhall be fpoke aloud. 

Crumpets found. 

We have, great Agamemnon, here in Troy 
A prince call'd Hedor, Priam is his father, 
Who in this dull and 6 long-continu'd truce 
Is 7 rufty grown ; he bade me take a trumpet, 
And to this purpofe fpeak. Kings, princes, lords ! 
If there be one, among the fair'5 of Greece, 
That holds his honour higher than his eafe ; 
That feeks his praife more than he fears his peril ; 
That knows his valour, 'and knows not his fear; 
That loves his miftrefs 8 more than in confeffion, 
(With truant vows 9 to her own lips he loves) 
And dare avow her beauty, and her worth, 
In other arms than hers, to him this challenge. 
Hector, in view of Trojans and of Greeks, 
Shall make it good, or do his beft to do it, 

* loag-cmtinneS tntcf\ Of this long truce there has been 

BO notice taken ; in this very aft it is faid, that Ajax coped Hcflor 
yrficrday in tie battle. JOHNSON. 

1 ru/ty ] Quarto, rcjly. JOHNSON. 

* more than in confeffion,] Confejfwn^ farkrofejfon. 


9 tobtr<Kvnl:f>shclovei)} That is, confejpon. made ivitb idle 
9t*ivs to the lij>s of her whom bt loves, JOHNSON. 



He hath a lady, wifer, fairer, truer, 

Than ever Greek did compafs in his arms ; 

And will to-morrow with his trumpet call, 

Mid-way between your tents and walls of Troy, 

To roufe a Grecian that is true in love : 

If any come, Hector lhall honour him ; 

If none, he'll fay in Troy, when he retires, 

The Grecian dames are fun-burn'd, * and not worth 

The fplinter of a lance. Even fo much. 

Aga. This fhallbe told our lovers, lord j3neas; 
If none of them have foul in fuch a kind, 
We left them all at home : But we are foldiers ; 
And may that foldier a mere recreant prove, 
That means nor, hath not, or is not in love ! 
If then one is, or hath, or means to be, 
That one meets Hector; if none clfe, I am he. 

Neft. Tell him of Neftor, one that was a man 
When Hector's grandfire fuck'd : he is old now ; 
But, if there be not in our Grecian holl 
One noble man that hath one fpark of fire, 
To anfwer for his love, Tell him from me,- 
I'll hide my filver beard in a gold beaver, 
a And in my vantbrace put this wither'd brawn; 
And, meeting him, will tell him, That my lady 
"Was fairer than his grandame, and as chafte 
As may be in the world : His youth in flood, 
I'll pawn this truth with my three drops of blood. 

Aine. Now heavens forbid fuch fcarcity of youth ! 
. Amen. 

1 ..... and not <z vort/j 

The fplinter of a lance. - ] This is the language of romance. 
Such a challenge would better have iuhed Palmerin or Arnadis, 
than Hcdtor or\Ene:is. STEEVENS. 

~ And in my vantbrace J An armour for the arm, avantbra*. 

Milton ufes the word in his Sampfaa Agonljlcs^ and Hey wood in 
dge, 1632 : 

' -- perufe his armour, 
" The dint's Hill in the vaxtlraceS* S.TEEVENS. 


Aga. Fair lord ^Encas, let me touch your hand ; 
To our pavilion fhall I lead you, fir. 
Achilles fliall have word of this intent; 
So Ihall each lord of Greece, from tent to tent : 
Yourfelf fliall feaft with us before you go, 
And find the welcome of a noble foe. [Exeunt. 

Manent Ukffes, and Neftor. 


left. What fays Ulyffes? 

. I have a young conception in my brain, 
3 Be you my time to bring it to ibme fhape. 
Neft. What is't ? 
Ufyff. This 'tis : 

Blunt wedges rive hard knots : The feeded pride 4 
That hath to its maturity blown up 
In rank Achilles, mull or now be cropt, 
Or, Ihedding, breed a 5 nurfery of like evil, 
To over-bulk us all. 
Ncft. Well, and how ? 

Ufa//'. This challenge that the gallant Hodor fends, 
However it is fpread in general name, 
Relates in purpofe only to Achilles. 

NfjL 6 The purpoic is pcrfpicuous even as fubftance, 


3 fie you my time &c.] i. e. be you to my prefent purpofe what 
time is in refpeSt ot all other ichemes, viz. a ripener and bringer 
of them to maturity. STEEVENS. 

* the feeded pride, &c.] Shakefpeare might have taken this 

idea from Lyie's Herbal, 1578 and 1579. The Oleander tree or 
Nerium *' hath fcarce one good prppertie. It may be compared 
to a Pharifee, who maketh a glorious and beautiful fliou-, but in- 
wardly is of a corrupt and poilbned nature." " It is high time 

&c. to fupplant it (i. e. pharafaifm) tor it hath already floured, ib 
that I feare it will fliortlyy?c</<:, and fill this wholefome foyle full 
of wicked Nerium." TOLLET. 

5 nurfery ] Alluding to a plantation called a nurfery, 


6 The purpofe is pfrfplcuous even asfulftance, 

U">i>fe groffhcfi little cbarafters fu;n uj>:] That is, the purpofe 



Whofe groffnefs little characters fum up : 

7 And, in the publication, make no ftrain, 

But that Achilles, were his brain as barren 

As banks of Libya, though, Apollo knows, 

Tis dry enough, will with great fpeed of judgment, 

Ay, with celerity, find Hector's purpofe 

Pointing on him. 

Ufyffl And wake him to the anf'.ver, think you? 

ffeft. Yes, 'tis molt meet ; Whom may you elfe 


That can from Hector bring thofe honours off, 
If not Achilles ? Though't be a fportful combat, 
Yet in this trial much opinion dwells ; 
For here the Trojans tafte our dear'ft repute 
With their fin'ft palate : And truft to me, Ulyfles, 
Our imputation lhall be oddly pois'd 
In this wild action : for the fucccfs, 
Although particular, ihall give a * fcantling 
Of good or bad unto the general ; 

is as plain as body or fubftance ; and though I have collected this 
purpofe from many minute particulars, as a grofs body is made up 
of fmall infenfible parts, yet the refult is as clear and certain as a 
body thus made up is palpable and vifible. This is the thought, 
though a little obfcured in the concifenefs of the expreffion. 


Sulftance is eftate, the value of which is afcertained by the ufe 
of fmall cbaratfcn, i. e. numerals. So in the prologue to AT. 
Henry V : 

a crooked figure may 

Atteft, in little place, a million. 

The grofifum is a term ufed in the Merchant of Venice. Grof*~ 
jiefs has the fame meaning in this inftance. STEEVENS. 

7 And, in the publication, make no ftraln^\ Neftor goes on to 
fhv, make no difficulty, no doubt, when this duel comes to be 
proclaimed, but that Achilles, dull as he is, will difcover the 
drift of it. This is the meaning of the line. So afterwards, in 
this play, UlyfTes fays: 

/ do not ftrain at the pojltlon. 
i. e. I do not hefitate at, I make no difficulty of it. THEOBALD. 

s jtmntUns\ That is, a meafure, proportion. The carpen- 
ter cuts his wood to a certain fcantling. JOHNSON. 



And in fuch indexes, although 9 fmall pricks 

To their fubfequent volumes, there is feen 

The baby figure of the giant mafs 

Of things to come at large. It is fuppos'd, 

He, that meets Hector, iffues from our choice : 

And choice, being mutual act of all our fouls, 

Makes merit her election ; and doth boil, 

As 'twere from forth us all, a man diftill'd 

Out of our virtues ; Who mifcarrying, 

What heart receives from hence a conquering part, 

To fleel a ftrong opinion to themfelves ? 

1 Which entertain'd, limbs are in his- inflruments, 

In no lefs working, than are fwords and bows 

Directive by the limbs. 

Ulyjf. Give pardon to my fpeech ; 
Therefore 'tis meet, Achilles meet not Hector. 
Let us, like merchants, fhew our fouleft wares, 
And think, perchance, they'll fell ; if not, 
The luftre of the better lhall exceed, 
By Ihewing the worft firft. Do not confent, 
That ever Hector and Achilles meet ; 
For both our honour and our ihame, in this, 
Are dogg'd with t\vo ftrange followers. 

Nefl. I fee them not with my old eyes ; What arc 
they ? 

Ufyff. What glory our Achilles (hares from Hector, 
Were he not proud, we all fhould * fhare with him : 
But he already is too infolcnt ; 
And we were better parch in Africk fun, 
Than in the priJt, and fait fcorn of his eyes, 
Should he 'fcape Hector iV.ii- : If he were foil'd, 
Why, then we did our main opinion crufh 

* -finall prids} Small points compared with the volumes. 


Which entertain^, ] Thefe two lines are not in the quarto. 

' -Jbarc ] So the quarto. The folio, ivcar. JOHKSOX. 



In taint of our beft man. No, make a lottery ; 

And, by device, let blockilh Ajax $ draw 

The fort 4 to fight with Hedtor : Among ourfelves, 

Give him allowance as the better man, 

For that will phyfick the great Myrmidon, 

Who broils in loud applaufe ; and make him fall 

His creft, that prouder than blue Iris bends. 

If the dull brainlefs Ajax come fafe off, 

We'll drefs him up in voices : If he fail, 

Yet go we under our opinion (till, 

That we have better men. But, hit or mifs, 

Our project's life this ihape of fenfe aflumes, 

Ajax, employ'd, plucks down Achilles' plumes. 

Neft. Ulyffes, 

Now I begin to relifh thy advice ; 
And I will give a tafte of it forthwith 
To Agamemnon : go we to him flraight. 
Two curs fliall tame each other ; Pride alone 
f Muft tarre the maftiffs on, as 'twere their bone. 


3 llodifhAjax ] Shakefpeare on this occafion has de 

ferted Lidgate, who gives a very different chara&er of Ajax : 

" Another Ajax (furnamed Telamon) 
" There was, a man that learning did adore, &c." 
*' Who did fo much in eloquence abound, 
'* That in his time the like could not be found." 
Again : 

" And one that bated pride and flattery , &c." 
Our author appears to have drawn his portrait of the Grecian 
chief from the invecYives thrown out againfl him by Ulyfles in the 
thirteenth book of Ovid's Metamorphofis ; Or from the prologue 
to Harrington's Metamorpbojis of Ajax, 1596, in which he is re- 
prefented as " ftrong, heady, boifte^rous, and a terrible fighting 
fellow, but neither wife, learned, ftaide, nor polliticke." 


4 The fort ] i. e. the lot. STEEVEVS. 

5 Miift tarre the maftiffs on, ] Tarre ^ an old Englim word 

fignirying to provoke or urge on. See King John, a& IV. fc. i. 

like a dog 

" Snatch at his mailer that doth tar him on." POPE. 



A C T II. S C E N E I. 

The Grecian camp. 
Enter Ajax> and Therfaes* 

Ajax. Therfites, 

Ther, Agamemnon how if he had boils ? full, 
all over, generally ? 

Ajax. Therfites, 

Ther. And thofe boils did run ? Say fo, . 

did not the general run then ? were not that a botchy 
core ? 

Ajax. Dog, 

Ther. Then there would come fome matter from 
him ; I fee none now. 

Ajax. Thou bitch-wolPs fon, canft thou not hear ? 
Feel then. [Strikes him. 

Ther. 7 The plague of Greece upon thee, thou 
mungrel beef-witted lord 8 ! 

Ajax. 9 Speak then, thou unfalted leaven, fpeak : I 
will beat thee into handfomenefs. 


6 ACT II.] This play is not divided into acts in any of the 
original editions. JOHNSON. 

7 The plague of Greece ] Alluding perhaps to the plague 
fent by Apollo on the Grecian army. JOHNSON. 

beef-witted lord!} So in Twelfth-Night : 

" 1 am a great eater of beef, anil I believe that does harm 

to my wit." STEEVENS. 

* Speak then, tbou unfalted leaven, fpeak :] The reading ob- 
truded upon us by Mr. Pope, was unfalted leaven, that has no 
authority or countenance from any of the copies ; nor that 
approaches in any degree to the traces of the old reading, you 
ujbinitPJl leaven. This, it is true, is corrupted and unintelligi- 
ble; but the emendation, which I have coined out of it, gives us 
a fenfe apt and confonant to what Ajax would fay, Hitwiiutowfjl 



Tber. I fhall fooner rail thce into wit and holincfs : 
but, I think, thy horfe will fooner con an oration, 
than thou learn a prayer without book. Thou canfl 
ftrike, canft thou ? a red murrain o' thy jade's tricks ! 

Ajax* Toads-ftool, learn me the proclamation. 

Tber. Doit thou think, I have no fenfe, thou ftrik'ft 
me thus ? 

Ajax. The proclamation, 

Ther. Thou art proclaim'd a fool, I think. 

Ajax. Do not, porcupine, do not ; my fingers itch. 

fker. I would, thou didfl itch from head to foot, 
and I had the fcratching of thee ; I would make thee 
the loathfomeft fcab ' in Greece. When thou art 
forth in the incurlions, thou ftrikeft as flow as an- 

Ajax. I fay, the proclamation, 

Ther. Thou grumbled and railed every hour on 
Achilles; and thou art as full of envy at his greatnefs, 

leaven.* " Thou lump of four dough, kneaded up out of a 
flower unpurged and unfitted, with all the drofs and bran in it. " 


Speak then, thou whinid'ft leaven^ This is the reading of the 
old copies : it fhould be ivindyeft, i. e. moft windy ; leaven being 
made by a great fermentation. This epithet agrees well with 
Therfites' character. AVAR BURTON. 

Hanmer preferves wbhiitTJli the reading of the folio ; but 
does not explain it, nor do I underftand it. If the folio be fol- 
lowed, I read, f/wewV, that is mouldy leaven. Thou competition 
of mufti nejs and fourncfs. Theobald's aflertion, however confi- 
dent, is falfe. Uiifalted leaven is in the old quarto. It means 
four withoutyi//, malignity without wit. Shakefpeare wrote firft 
urifalted; but recollecYmg~that want of fait was no fault in leaven, 
changed it to vinnv'd. JOHNSON. 

Unfalted is the reading of both the quartos. Francis Beaumont, 
in his letter to Speght on his edition of Chaucer's works, 1602, 
lays : " Many of Chaucer's words are become as it were vinrvj d 
and hoarie with over long lying." STEEVENS. 

1 in Greece.] The quarto adds thefe words: ivben tbeu 

art forth in the itu'urfanf t thou Jlrlkfjl as Jlo-:v as another. 




as Cerberus is at Proferpina's beauty, * ay that thou 
bark'ft at him. 

Ajax. Miitrefs Therfites ! 

<Ther. Thou fhouldft ftrike him. 

A] ax. Cobloaf! 

Tker. He would 4 pun thee into Ihivers with his 
fift, as a Tailor breaks a bifket. 

Ajax. You whorefon cur ! [Beating him. 

Tber. Do, do. 

Ajax. s Thou ftool for a witch ! 

Tber. Ay, do, do ; thou fodden-witted lord ! thou 
haft no more brain than I have in my elbows ; 6 an 
afiinego may tutor thee : Thou fcurvy valiant afs ! 


* ay that tbou larlfft at him.'} I read, O that thou 

lari'JJi at him. JOHNSON. 

The old reading is 7, which, if changed at all, fliould have 
been changed into ay. T Y R w H i T T . 

3 Cobloaf!~\ A crufty uneven loaf is in fome counties called by 
this name. STEEVENS. 

4 pun thee intojhivcrs ] Pun is in the midland coun- 
ties the vulgarand colloquial word tor pound. JOHNSON. 

It is ufed by P. Holland in his translation of Pliny's Nat. Hill. 
b. xxviii. ch. 12 : " punned altogether and reduced into a li- 
niment." A^ain, b. xxix. ch. 4. " The gall of thcfe lizards 
punned ^and diflblved in water." STEEVEKS. 

5 Tbou Jlool for a witch! ] In one way of trying a ivitch they 
ufed to place her on a chair or ftool, with her legs tied acrofs, that 
all the weight of her body might reft upon her Teat ; and by that 
means, after fome time, the circulation of the blood would be 
much flopped, and her fitting would be as painful as the wooden 
liorfe. Dr. GRAY. 

' an affinego ] I am not very certain what the idea 

conveyed by this word was meant to be. Ajinalo is Italian, fayj 
Hanmer, for an aj\-<iriver : but in Mirza, a tragedy by Rob. 
Baron, a& III. the following pallage occurs, with a note annexed 
to it: 

' the ftout trufry blade, 

" That at one blow has cut ;ui afincgo 

" Afundcr like a thread." 

" This (fnys the author) is the ufual trial of thePerfian fliam- 
.fliecrs, or cemiten. which are crooked like a crelcent, of fo good 



ihou art here put to thrafh Trojans ; and thou art 
bought and fold among thofe of any wit, like a Bar- 
barian flave. If thou ufe to beat me, I will begin at 
thy heel, and tell what thou art by inches, thou 
thing of no bowels, thou ! 

Ajax. You dog ! 

fher. You fcurvy lord ! 

Ajax. You cur ! \Beating him, 

Ther. Mars his ideot ! do, rudenefs ; do, camel ; 
do, do. 

Enter Achilles, and Patroclus. 

Achil. Why, how now, Ajax ? wherefore do you 

How now, Therfites ?. what's the matter, man ? 

fiber. You fee him there, do you ? 

Achil. Ay ; What's the matter ? 

fher. Nay, look upon him. 

Achil. So I do ; What's the matter ? 

fher. Nay, but regard him well. 

Achil. Well, why I do fo. 

fher. But yet you look not well upon him : for^ 
whofoever you take him to be, he is Ajax. 

Achil. 1 know that, fool. 

'flier. Ay, but that fool knows not himfelf. 

Ajax. Therefore I beat thee, 

metal, that they prefer them before any other, and fo lharp as 
any razor." 

I hope, for the credit of the prince, that. the. experiment was 
rather made on an */}, than an afs-drlver. From the following 
paflage I mould fuppofe afinego to be merely a cant termfor a foolifti 
fellow, an ideot : " They apparell'd me as you fee, made a fool, 
or an a/inego of me." See The Antiquary ^ a comedy, by S. Mar- 
mion, 1641. Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful 
Lady : 

" all this would be forfworn, and I again an, a/imgo^ 39 
your filter left me." STEEVEN-S. 

Afincgo is Portuguefe for a little afi. 



T-her. Lo, lo, lo, lo, what modicums of xvit he 
utters ! his evafions have ears thus long. I have 
bobb'd his brain, more than, he has beat my bones : 
I will buy nine fparrows for a penny, and h\s pia ma- 
ter is not worth the ninth part of a fparrovv. This 
lord, Achilks, Ajax, who wears his wit in his belly, 

and his guts in his head, I'll tell you what 1 lay 

of him. 

AchiL What ? 

Tber I fay, this Ajax 

AchiL Nay, good Ajax. 

[Ajax off en to ftrike him, Achilles inter pojes. 

Tber. Has not fo much wit 

AchiL Nay, I muft hold you. 

Ther. As will Hop the eye of Helen** needle, for 
whom he comes to fight, 

Acbil. Peace, fool ! 

Tber. I would have peace and quietnefs, but the 
fool will not : he there ; that he ; look you there. 

Ajax. O thou damn'd cur ! I mall 

AcbiL Will you fet your wit to a fool's ? 

Tber. No, I warrant you ; for a fool's will fhamc it. 

Pair. Good words, Thcrfites. 

AchiL What's the quarrel ? 

Ajax. I bade the vile owl, go learn me the tenour 
of the proclamation, and he rails upon me. 

Tber. I ferve thee not. 

Ajax. Well, go to, go to. 

Tber. I ferve here voluntary. 

AchiL Your laft fervice was fufferance, 'twas not 
voluntary ; no man is beaten voluntary : Ajax was 
here the voluntary, and you as under an imprefs. 

Tber. Even fo ? a great deal of your wit too lies 
in your iinews,or elfe there be liars. Hector lhall have 
a great catch, if he knock out either of your brains ; 
*a were as good crack a fufty nut with no kernel. 

AchiL What, with me too, Therfites ? 



There's Ulyffes and old ' Neftor, whofe wit 
\vas mouldy ere your grandfires had nails on their 
toes, yoke you like draft oxen, and make you plough 
up the war. 

AbiL What, what? 

Ther. Yes, good footh j To, Achilles ! to, Ajax ! 
to ! 

Ajax. I mall cut out your tongue. 

Ther. 'Tis no matter ; I mall fpeak as much as 
thou, afterwards. 

Patr. No more words, Therfites ; peace. 

Tber. I will hold my peace * when Achilles' brach 
bids me, fliall I ? 

AcbiL There's for you, Patroclus. 

Ther. I will fee you hang'd, Jjke clotpoles, ere I 
come any more to your tents ; I will keep where 
there is wit ftirring, and leave the faction of fools. 


Patr. A good riddance. 

Acbil. Marry this, fir, is proclaimed through all 

our hoft : 

That Hector, by the fifth hour of the fun, 
Will, with a trumpet, 'twixt our tents and Troy, 

1 Neftor ivhofe ivit ivas mouldy ere their grand/ires bad 
'nails ] This is one of thefe editors' wife riddles. What! was 
Neftor's wit mouldy before his grandfires toes had any nails ? Pre- 
pofterous nonfenfe ! and yet fo eafy a change, as one poor pro- 
noun for another, lets all right and clear. THEOBALD. 

1 - when Afbillcs* brach lids me, - ] The folio and quarto 
read, Achilles' brooch, Brooch is anappendant ornament. The 
meaning may be, equivalent to one of Achilles' hangers-on. 


Brack I believe to be the true reading. He calls Patroclus, in 
contempt, Achilles' dog. STEEVENS. 

Brooch, which is the reading of all the old copies, had perhaps 
formerly feme meaning at prefent unknown. Jn the following 
paffige in Lodge's Rofalynde or Eupbuef Golden Legacie, 1592, 
it feems to fignify fomething very different from a pin or a bodkin : 
*' His bonnet was green, whereon Hood a copper brooch with tfie 
picture of St, Denis." MALONE. 

E 2 To-morrow 


To-morrow morning call fome knight to arms, 
That hath a ftomach ; and fuch a one, that dare 
Maintain I know not what ; 'tis train : Farewel. 

jijax. Farewel. Who fhall anfwer him ? 

Achil. I know not, it is put to lottery ; otherwife, 
He knew his man. 

Ajax. O, meaning you : I'll go learn more of it. 



r R o r. 

Priam's palace. 
Enter Priam, HeSfor, 'Troilus, Paris, and Helenus. 

Pri. After fo many hours, lives, fpeeches fpent, 
Thus once again fays Neftor from the Greeks ; 
Deliver Helen, and all damage elfe 
As honour, lofs of time, travel, expence, 
Wounds, friends, and zvhat elfe dear that is confum'd 
In hot digejlion of this cormorant war, 
Shall be Jlruck of: Hedor, what fay you to't ? 

Heel. Though no man lefler fears the Greeks than I, 
As far as toucheth my particular, yet, 
Dread Priam, 

There is no lady of more fofter bowels, 
More fpungy to fuck in the fenfe of fear, 
More ready to cry out Who knows what follows ? 
Than Heeler is : The wound of peace is furety, 
Surety fecure ; but modeft doubt is call'd 
The beacon of the wife, the tent that fearches 
To the bottom of the word. Let Helen go : 
Since the firftfword was drawn about this queftion, 
Every tithe foul, 'mongft J many thoufand difmes, 


3 many tboufand difmes,] Difmt, Fr. is the tithe, the 
tenth. So, m the prologue to Gower's Confejjlo Amantli, 1554: 
" The difme goeth to the battailc.' 5 " 


Hath been as dear as Helen ; I mean, of ours : 
If we have loft fo many tenths of ours, 
To guard a thing not ours ; not worth to us, 
Had it our name, the value of one ten ; 
What merit's in that reafon, which denies 
The yielding of her up ? 

Troi. Fie, fie, my brother ! 
Weigh you the worth and honour of a king, 
So great as our dread father, in a fcale 
Of common ounces ? will you with counters fum 

4 The paft-proportion of his infinite ? 
And buckle-in a waift moft fathomlefs, 
With fpans and inches fo diminutive 

As fears and reafons ? fie, for godly ihame ! 

Hel. No marvel, though you bite fo fharp at reafons, 
You are fo empty of them. Should not our father 
Bear the great fway of his affairs with reafons, 
Becaufe your fpeech hath none, that tells him fo ? 
2V0/'. You are for dreams and flumbers, brother 

You fur your gloves with reafon. Here are your 

reafons : 

You know, an enemy intends you harm ; 
You know, a fword employ'd is perilous, 
And reafon flies the object of all harm : 
Who marvels then, when Helenus beholds 
A Grecian and his fword, if he do fet 
The very wings of reafon to his heels ; 

5 And fly like chidden Mercury from Jove, 

Again, in Holinfhed's Reign of Rich. II : 

" fo that there was levied, what of the <ti/mt> and by the 

devotion of the people, &c." STEEVENS. 

* The Tpa&~proportion of his infinite ?] Thus read both the co- 
pies. The meaning is, that greatnrfs to vcbicb no tntafure Itar* emy 
proportion. The modern editors filently give : 
The vaft proportion JOHNSON. 

5 And fly lUecJbiaJn Mercury from Jove y 

Or like a Jlar dif-orVd? ] Thefe two lines arc mifphced 
in all the folio editions. POPE. 

E Or 


Or like a ftar dif-orb'd ? Nay, if we talk of reafon, 
Let's (hut our gates, and fleep : Manhood and honour 
Should have hare hearts, would they but fat their 


With this cramm'd reafon : reafon and refpect: 
Make livers pale, and luftyhood deject. 

Heft. Brother, Ihe is not worth whatfhe doth coft 
The holdiiv. 

Froi. What is aught, but as 'tis valu'd ? 

:?. -But value dwells not in particular will; 
It holds his eftimate and dignity 
As well wherein 'tis precious of itfelf, 
As in the prizer : 'tis mad idolatry, 
To make the fervice greater than the god ; 

6 And the will dotes, that is inclinable 
To what infectioufly itfelf affects, 

7 Without fome image of the affected merit. 

9roi. I take to-day a wife, and my election, 
. Is kd on in the conduct of my will ; 
My will enkindled by mine eyes and ears, 
Two traded pilots 'twixt the dangerous fhores 
Of will and judgment; How may I avoid, 
Although my will diftafte what it elected, 
The wife I chofe ? there can be no evafion 
To blench from this, r.nd to ftand firm by honour 5 
We turn not back the filks upon the merchant, 

6 And the will Jafes, that is inclinable] Old edition, not fo 
well, has it attri^tivt. POPE. 

By the old edition Mr. Pope means the old quarto. The folio 

has, as it (lands, inclinable. 1 think the firft reading better ; 

the zu/7/ dotes that attributes or gives tbe qualities ivhicb it affefls j 
that firft caufes excellence, and then admires it. JOHNSON. 

7 Without fome image of the affected we rit. ] We ihould read: 

the affeled's merit. 

i, e, without fome mark of merit in the thing affected. 


The prefent reading is right. The will affefis an objeft ifor 
fjjme fuppofed merit, which Hedlor fays is cenfurable, unlefs the 
&erit fo ajfe&ed be really there, JOHNSON, 



When we have 8 foil'd them ; nor the remainder 


We do not throw In 9 unrefpecYive fieve, 
Becaufe we now are full. It was thought meet, 
Paris fhould do feme vengeance on the Greeks: 
Your breath of full confent belly'd his fails ; 
The feas and winds (old wranglers} took a truce, 
And did him fervice : he touch'd the ports defir'd ; 
And, for an old aunt, whom the Greeks held captive, 
He brought a Grecian queen, whofe youth and frefh- 


Wrinkles Apollo's, and makes l pale the morning. 
W r hy keep we her ? the Grecians keep our aunt : 
Is ihe worth keeping ? why, fhe is a pearl, 
Whofe price hath launch'd above a thouiand fhips, 
And turn'd crown'd kings to merchants. 
If you'll avouch, 'twas wifdom Paris went, 
(As you muft needs, for you all cry'd Go, go) 
If you'll confefs; he brought home noble prize, 
(As you muft needs, for you all clapp'd your hands, 
And cr.y'd Ineftimable ! ) why do you now 
The ifiue of your proper wifdoms rate ; 
* And do a deed that fortune never did, 

8 foil'd tbtm; ] So reads the quarto, The folio 

fpoil'd them. JOHNSON. 

9 - unrefpcftinie iieve,] That is, into a common voider. 
Sieve is in the quarto. The folio reads, 

nnrcfpeElivc fame; 

for which the modern editions have {ilently printed, 

unrefpcSlive place. JOHNSON. 

1 pale the morning.'] So the quarto. The folio and mo- 
dern editors, 

ftnle the morning. JOHNSON. 

* And do a deed that fortune never did,] If I understand this 
pafiage, the meaning is : " Why do you, by cenfuring die de- 
termination of your own wifdoms, degrade Helen, whom fortune 
has not yet deprived of her value, or againft whom, as the wit 
of Paris, fortune has not in this war fo declared, as to make us 
yalue her lefs ?" This is very harih, and much itraineci. 


E 4 Beggar 


Beggar the eftimation which you priz'd 
Richer than fea and land ? O theft moft bafe ; 
That we have ftolen what we do fear to keep ! 
3 But, thieves, unworthy of a thing fo ftolen, 
That in their country did them that difgrace, 
We fear to warrant in our native place ! 

Caf. [within] Cry, Trojans, cry ! 

Pri. What noife ? what Ihriek is this ? 

?Vw. 'Tis our mad lifter, I do know her voice. 

Caf. [within] Cry, Trojans ! 

Heft. It is Caffandra. 

Enter Cajfandra, raving. 

Caf, Cry, Trojans, cry ! lend me ten thoufand eyes, 
And I will fill them with prophetic tears. 

Heft. Peace, lifter, peace. 

Caf. Virgins and boys, mid-age and wrinkled elders, 
Soft infancy, that nothing canft but cry, 
Add to my clamours ! let us pay betimes 
A moiety of that mafs of moan to come. 
Cry, Trojans, cry ! pradtife your eyes with tears ! 
Troy muft not be, nor goodly Ilion ftand; 
Our fire-brand brother, Paris, burns us all. 
Cry, Trojans, cry ! a Helen, and a woe : 
Cry, cry ! Troy burns, or elfe let Helen go. [Exit. 

Heft. Now, youthful Troilus, do not thefe high 


Of divination in our fifter work 
Some touches of remorfe ? or is your blood 
So madly hot, that no difcourfc of reafon, 
Nor fear of bad fuccefs in a bad caufe, 
Can qualify the fame ? 

Troi. Why, brother Hector, 
may not think the juftn'efs of each aft 

8 But thieve!^] Hanmer reads, Baft tb^ves,- 




Such and no other than event doth form it ; 
Nor once deject the courage of our minds, 
Becaufe Caffandra's mad ; her brain-fick raptures 
Cannot 4 diftafte the goodnefs of a quarrel, 
Which hath our feveral honours all engag'd 
To make it gracious. For my private part, 
I am no more touch 'd than all Priam's fons : 
And Jove forbid, there Ihould be done amongfl us 
Such things as would offend the weakeft fpleen 
To fight for and maintain ! 

Par. Elfe might the world convince of levity 
As well my undertakings, as your counfels : 
But I atteft the gods, your full confent 
Gave wings to my propeniion, and cut off 
All fears attending on fo dire a project. 
For what, alas, can thefe my fingle arms ? 
What propugnation is in one man's valour, 
To fland the pufh and enmity of thofe 
This quarrel would excite ? Yet, I proteft, 
Were I alone to pafs the difficulties, 
And had as ample power as I have will, 
Paris fhould ne'er retract what he hath done, 
Nor faint in the purfuit. 

Pri. Paris, you fpeak 
Like one befotted on your fweet delights : 
You have the honey flill, but thefe the gall ; 
So to be valiant, is no praife at all. 

Par. Sir, I propofe not merely to myfelf 
The pleafures fuch a beauty brings with it ; 
But I would have the foil of her fair rape 
Wip'd off, in honourable keeping her. 
What treafon were it to the ranfack'd queen, 
Difgrace to your great worths, and ihame to me, 
Now to deliver her poffeffion up, 
On terms of bafe compulfion ? can it be, 
That fo degenerate a {train as this, 

4~-diJlafts'\ Corrupt j change to a worfe ftate. JOHNSON. 



Should once fet footing in your generous bofoms ? 
There's not the meaneft fpirit on our party, 
Without a heart to dare, or fword to draw, 
When Helen is defended ; nor none fo noble, 
Whole life were ill beftow'd, or death unfam'd, 
Where Helen is the fubject : then, I fay, 
Well may we fight for her, whom, we know well, 
The world's large fpaces cannot parallel. 

Heft. Paris, and Troilus, you have both faid well ; 
And on the caufe and queftion now in hand 
Have gloz'd, but fuperficially ; not much 
Unlike young men, whom Arillotle 5 thought 
Unfit to hear moral philofophy : 
The reafons, you alledge, do more conduce 
To the hot paffion of diftemper'd blood, 
Than to make up a free determination 
'Twixt right and wrong ; For pleafure, and revenge, 
Have ears more deaf than adders to the voice 
Of any true decifion. Nature craves, 
All dues be rendered to their owners; Now 
What nearer debt in all humanity, 
Than wife is to the hufband ? if this law 
Of nature be corrupted through affection j 
And that great minds, of partial indulgence 
To their * benummed wills, refift the fame ; 
7 There is a law in each wcll-order'd nation, 
To curb thofe raging appetites that are 
Moft dilbbedicnt and refractory. 
Jf Helen then be wife to Sparta's king,' 

s Arijloth] Let it be rcmember'd as dften as Shake-, 

fpeare's anachronifms occur, that errors in computing time were 
very frequent in thofe ancient romances which fecra to have 
formed the greater part of his library. STE EVENS. 

bemimmtd wills, ] That is, inflexible, immoveable, no. 
longer obedient to fuperior direction. JOHNSON. 

1 There is a law ] What the law does in every nation 

between individuals, juftice ought to do between nations. 




As it is known flie is, thefe moral laws 

Of nature, and of nations, fpeak aloud 

To have her back return'd : Thus to perfift 

In doing wrong, extenuates not wroni:, 

But makes it much more heavy. Hector's opinion 

8 Is this, in way of truth : yet, ne'erthelefs, 

My fprightly brethren, I propend to you 

In resolution to keep Helen ftill ; 

For 'tis a cauie that hath no mean dependance 

Upon our joint and feveral dignities. 

Irol. Why,thereyou touch'd thelifeofour defign: 
Were it not glory that we more affected 
Than 9 the performance of our heaving fpleens, 
I would not wifh a drop of Trojan blood 
Spent more in her defence. But, worthy Hedtor, 
She is a theme of honour and renown ; 
A fpur to valiant and magnanimous deeds ; 
Whofe prefent courage may beat down our foes, 
And fame, in time to come, canonize us : 
For, I prefume, brave Hedior would not lofe 
So rich advantage of a promis'd glory, 
As fmiles upon the forehead of this acltion, 
For the wide world's revenue. 

Heft, I am yours, 

You valiant offspring of great Priarnus. 
I have a roiiiing challenge fent amongft 
The dull and factious nobles of the Greeks, 
Will ftrike amazement to their drowzy fpirits : 
I was advertis'd, their great general flept, 
Whilft ' emulation in the army crept ; 
This, I prefume, will wake him. \_Exeunt % 

8 Js this, in tivzy of truth: ] Though confidering truth and 

ffflict in this queftion, this is my opinion ; yet as a queftion of 
honour, I think on it as you. JOHNSON. 

9 the performance of our heaving /pleem,"} The execution of 
fi)iteand refentment. JOHNSON. 

--witlaticn ] That is, envy, fadious contention. JOHNSON, 




The Grecian. Camp. 
Achilles' tent. 

Enter fherfttes. 

How now, Therfites ? what, loft in the labyrinth 
of thy fury ? Shall the -elephant Ajax carry it thus ? 
he beats me, and I rail at him : O worthy fatisfaction ! 
'would, it were otherwifc, that I could beat him, 
whilil he rail'd at me : 'Sfoot, I'll learn to conjure 
and raife devils, but I'll fee fome iflue of my fpiteful 
execrations. Then there's Achilles, a rare engineer. 
If Troy be not taken 'till thefe two undermine it, the 
walls will ftand 'till they fall of themfelves. O thou 
great thunder-darter of Olympus, forget that thou 
art Jove the king of gods ; and, Mercury, lofe all 
the ferpentine craft of thy Caduceus ; if ye take not 
that little little lefs-than-little wit from them that 
they have ! which fhort-arm'd ignorance itfelf knows 
is fo abundant fcarce, it will not in circumvention 
deliver a fly from a fpider, * without drawing the 
mafly iron, and cutting the web. After this, the 
vengeance on the whole camp ! or, rather, the 3 bone- 
ache ! for that, methinks, is the curfe dependant on 
thofe that war for a placket. I have faid my prayers; 
and devil envy, fay Amen, What, ho ! my lord 
Achilles ! 

Enter Patroclus. 

Pair. Who's there ? Therfites ? Good Therfites, 
come in and rail. 

* without drawing the mafly iron, ] That is, without draw- 
ing their fvwrils to cut the web. They ufe no means but thofe oi 
violence. JOHNSON. 

3 the bone~acbe ! ] In the quarto, tht Neapolitan bone-ache* 



Tver. If I could have remember'd a gilt counter- 
feit, thon wouldft not have flipp'd out of my contem- 
plation : but it is no matter, Thyfelf upon thyfelf ! 
The common curfe of mankind, folly and ignorance, 
be thine in great revenue ! heaven blefs thee from a 
tutor, and diicipline come not near thee ! Let thy 
blood be thy direction 'till thy death ! then if flie, 
that lays thee out, fays thou art a fair corfe, I'll be 
fworn and (worn upon't, Ihe never fhrowded any but 
lazars. Amen. Where's Achilles ? 

Pair. What, art thou devout ? waft thou in prayer ? 

fker. Ay ; The heavens hear me ! 

Enter Achilles. 

AMI Who's there ? 

fair. Therfites, my lord. 

AchlL Where, where ? Art thou come ? Why, 
my cheefe, my digeftion, why haft thou not ferv'd 
thyfelf in to my table fo many meals ? Come ; what's 
Agamemnon ! 

Tber. Thy commander, Achilles ; Then tell me, 
Patroclus, what's Achilles ? 

Pair. Thy lord, Therfites ; Then tell me, I pray 
thee, what's thyfelf ? 

Ther. Thy knower, Patroclus ; Then tell me, Pa- 
troclus, what art thou ? 

Patr. Thou may'ft tell, that know'ft. 

Achil. O, tell, tell. 

Ther. I'll 4 decline the whole queftion. Agammem- 
non commands Achilles ; Achilles is my lord ; I am 
Patroclus' knower ; and s Patroclus is a fool. 

Patr. You rafcal 1 

* decline the -whole qiiejiion. ] Deduce the queftion from the 
firii cafe*to the hit. JOHNSON. 

5 Patroclus is a fool] The four next fpeeches are not in the 

quarto. JOHNSON. 



Jbcr. Peace, fool ; I have not done. 

Acbil. He is a privileg'd man. Proceed, Therfites. 

Iker. Agamemnon is a fool ; Achilles is a fool ; 
Therfites is a fool; and, as aforefaid, Patroclus is a 

Aclxl. Derive this ; come. 

Iker. Agamemnon is a fool to offer to command 
Achilles ; Achilles is a fool to be commanded of 
Agamemnon ; Therfites is a fool, to ferve fuch a fool ; 
and Parroclus is a fool pofitive. 

Pair. Why am I a fool ? 

Tber. Make that demand 6 of the proven It 

fuffices me, thou art. ' Look you, who comes 
here ? 

Enter Agamemnon, Ul}fes> Nejior, Diomedes, and Ajax. 

Acini. Patroclus, I'll fpeak with no body : Come 
in with me, Therfites. \_Exlt. 

Tber. Here is fuch patchery, fuch juggling, and 
fuch knavery ! all the argument is a cuckold, and 
a whore ; A good quarrel, to draw emulous factions, 
and bleed to death upon. 7 Now the dry ferpigo on 
the fubjed: ! and war, and lechery, confound all ! [Exit, 

Aga. Where is Achilles ? 

Pair. Within his tent; but ill-difpos'd, my lord. 

Aga. Let it be known to him, that we are here. 
J He fhent our meffengers ; and we lay by 


* of the prover.- ] So the quarto. JOHNSON. 

The folio profanely reads, of thy creator. STEEVENS. 

7 Now the dry, &c.] This is added in the folio. 

* He fent our meffengers ; ] This nonfenfe fhould be read : 

He ftient our meffengers ; i. e. rebuked, rated. 


This word is ufed in common by all our ancient writers. So> 
in Spenfer's Faery Queen, b. VI. c. vi. 

" Yet 


Our appertainments, vifiting of him : 
Let him be told fo ; left, perchance, he think 
We dare not move the queftion of our place, 
Or know not what we are, 

Pair. I ihall fo fay to him. [Exit, 

Uhf. We faw him at the opening of his tent; 
He is not fick. 

Ajax. Yes, lion-fick, fick of a proud heart : you 
may call it melancholy, if you will favour the man ; 
but, by my head, 'tis pride : But why, why ? let him 
ihew us a caufc. A word, my lord. 

['To Agamemnon. 

Nefi. What moves Ajax thus to bay at him ? 

L7v/7. Achilles hath inveigled his fool from him. 

N$. Who ? Theriites ? 

Ul\f. He. 

Neft, Then will Ajax lack matter, if he have loft 
his argument. 

Ulyjf. No ; you fee, he is his argument, that has 
his argument ; Achilles. 

Neft. All the better ; their fra&ion is more our wifh, 
than their fadtion : But it was a ftrong 9 compofure, a 
fool could difunitc. 

Ul)f. The amity, that wifdom knits not, folly may 
eafily untye. Here comes Patroclus. 

Re-enter Patroclus, 
Neft. No Achilles with him. 

" Yet for no bidding, not for being Jbent t 
" Would he reftrained be from his attendement." 
Again, ibid: 

" He for fuch bafenefs fliamefully him Jbetit" 


9 compofure, ] So reads the quarto very properly ; but 
the folio, which the moderns have followed, has, 
counfel. JOHN so K, 


Ulyjf. The elephant hath joints ', but none foi* 

courtefy ; 
His legs are for neceflity, not for flexure. 

Pair. Achilles bids me fay he is much forry, 
If any thing more than your fport and pleafure 
Did move your greatnefs, and this * noble flate, 
To call on him ; he hopes, it is no other, 
But, for your health and your digeftion fake, 
An after-dinner's breath. 

Agam. Hear you, Patroclus ; 

We are too well acquainted with thefe anfwers : 

But his evafion, wing'd thus fwift with fcorn, 

Can'.iot out-fly our apprehenfions. 

Much attribute he hath ; and much the reafon 

Why we afcribe it to him : yet all his virtues, - 

Not virtuoufly on his own part beheld, 

Do, in our eyes, begin to lofe their glofs ; 

Yea, like fair fruit in an unwholefome difh, 

Are like to rot untafted. Go and tell him, 

We come to fpeak to him : And you lhall not fin, 

If you do fay we think him over-proud, 

1 Tie elephant bath joints, &c.] So, in Alfsloji by Luft, 1633 : 

Is (he pliant? 

" Stubborn as an elephant's leg, no lending in her." 
Again, in All Fools, 1605 : 

44 1 hope you are no elephant, you have joints" 


* nolle fiate,] Perfon of high dignity ; fpoken of Aga- 

rtemnon. JOHNSON. 

Noble JIate rather means thf ftatcly train of attending nobles whom 
you bring ivithyou. STEEYENS. 

In fupport of Dr. Johnfon's expofition of this word, it may be 
obferved, that JIate was formerly applied to a fingle perfon. So, 
in J'Flts, Fits, ana 1 Fancies, 1595: " -- The archbifhop of 
Grenada faying to the archbithop of Toledo that he much marvell- 
ed, he being fo great aflafe, would vifit hofpitals .'* 
Again, in Harrington's tranflation of Ariofto : 

" The Greek demands her, whither flie was going, 
" And which of thefe two great e/tatet her keeps." 




And utider-honeft ; in felf-affumption greater, 
Than in the note of judgment ; and worthier than 


Here tend the favage flrangenefs he puts on ; 
Difguife the holy itrength of their command, 
And ' under-write in an obferving kind 
His humourous predominance ; yea, watch 
a His pettifh lunes, his ebbs, his flows, as if 
The paflage and whole carriage of this action 
Rode on his tide. Go, tell him this ; and add, 
That, if he over-hold his price fo much, 
We'll none of him ; but let him, like an engine 

Not portable, lie under this report 

Bring aftion hither, this cannot go to war : 
A flirring dwarf we do allowance give * 
Before a fleeping giant : Tell him fo. 

Patr. lihall; and bring his anfwer prefently. [Exit. 

Aga. In fecond voice we'll not be fatisfied, 
We come to fpeak with him. Ulyfles, enter you. 

[Exit Ufyfles. 

Ajax. What is he more than another ? 

Aga. No more than what he thinks he is. 

AjaXk Is he fo much ? Do you not thinkj he 

thinks himfelf 
A better man than I \ 

Aga. No queftion. 

Ajax. Will you fubfcribe his thought, and fay 
he is ? 

Aga* No, noble Ajax ; you are as ftrong, as valiant, 

, * vnder-wriie *\ To fubfcrile, in Shakefpeare, is to 

elcy. JOHNSON. 

1 Hisfettijb lunes) ] This is Hanmer's emendation of hi 

pettifh lines. The old quarto reads : 

His courfe and time. 

This fpeech is unfaithfully printed in modern editions. JOHNSON. 
3 > allowance five} Allowance is approbaiicn. So, in 

ff. y o J 4f 

fang JLear: 

- ; ' if your fweet fv\'ay 
Allow obedience," STEEVBNS. 



As wife, and no lefs noble, much more gentle, 
And altogether more tractable. 

Ajax. Why fhould a man be proud ? 
How doth pride grow ? I know not what pride is-. 1 

Aga. Your mind's the clearer, Ajax, and youf 


The fairer. He that's proud, eats up himfelf : . 
Pride is his own glafs, his own trumpet, his 
Own chronicle ; and whatever praifes itlelf 
But in the deed, devours the deed i* the praife. 

Ajax. I do hate a proud man, as I hate the engen* 
dering of toads *. 

Neft. [Ajide.] And yet he loves himfelf; Is it not 
ilrange ? 

Re-enter Utyfles. 

Uhjf. Achilles will not to the field to-morrow, 

Aga. What's his excufe ? 

Ulyff. He doth rely on none ; 
But carries on the ftream of his difpofe, 
Without obfervance or refpe<ft of any, 
In will peculiar and in felf admiffion. 

Aga. Why will he not, upon our fair requefr, 
Untent his perfon, and fliare the air with us ? 

Wjff* Things fmall as nothing, for requefl's fak 


He makes important : PofTeft he is with greatnefs ; 
And fpeaks not to himfelf, but with a pride 
That quarrels at felf breath : imagin*d worth 
Holds in his blood fuch fwoln and hot difcourfe, 
That, 'twixt his mental and his active parts, 
Kingdom'd Achilles in commotion rages, 
And batters down himfelf : What Ihould I fay ? 

* the engendering of toads.] Whoever wifhes to compre- 
hend the whole force of this allulion, may confult the late Dr. 
Goldfmith's Hiftory of tie World) and animated Nature ^ vol. VII. 
p. p. 92, 93. STEEVENS. 



He is fo plaguy proud, that the death tokens of it* 
Cry Nt> recovery. 

Aga. Let Ajax go to him. 
Dear lord, go vou and greet him in his tent : 
*ris faid, he holds you well ; and will be led, 
At your requeft, a little from himfelf. 

IJlyjf. O Agamemnon, let it not be fo ! 
We'll confecrate the fleps that Ajax makes, 
When they go from Achilles : Shall the proud lord a 
That baftes his arrogance 6 with his own feam ; 
And never fuffers matter of the world 
Enter his thoughts, fave fuch as do revolve 
And ruminate himfelf, fhall he be worfhipp'd 
Of that we hold an idol more than he ? 
No, this thrice-worthy and right-valiant lord 
Muft not fo ftale his palm, nobly acquir'd; 
Nor, by my will, affubjugate his merit, 
As amply titled as Achilles is, 
By going to Achilles : 
That were to enlard his fat-already pride ; 
And add more coals to Cancer, when he burns 
With entertaining great Hyperion. 
This lord go to him ! Jupiter forbid ; 
And fay in thunder Acbiiks, go to him. 

Neft. O, this is well ; he rubs the vein of him. 


Dio. And how his filence drinks up this applaufe ! 


Ajax. If I go to him, with my armed fift 
I'll pafh him o'er the face. 

5 /* death-tokens <j/V/] Alluding to trie ctecifire Ipotf 

appearing on thole infedled by the plague. So, in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Valentlnlan ; 

** Now like the fetrful tokens of the plague 
" Are mere fore-runners of their endal" STEEVSNS, 
* with bit own feam ;} Seam is greaft* STESVENS. 

F 2 Aga\ 


Aga. O, no, you (hall not go. 

Ajax. An he be proud with me, I'll 7 pheeze hi* 

pride : 
Let me go to him. 

Ulyjf. 8 Not for the worth that hangs upon our 

Ajax. A paltry infolent fellow, 

Nejl. How he defcribcs himfelf ! 

Ajax. Can he not be fociable ? 

Ulyff. The raven chides blacknefs. [A/ide. 

Ajax. I'll let his humours blood. 

Aga. He will be the phyfician, that Ihould be the 
patient. [AJidc. 

Ajax. An all men were o' my mind, 

UlyJJ'. Wit would be out of falhion. [AJidc. 

Ajax. He mould not bear it fo, 
He mould eat fwords firft : Shall pride carry it ? 

Ncft. An 'twould, you'd carry half. \_Afde. 

Uhf. He would have ten fliares. [Afide. 

9 Ajax. I will knead him, I'll make him fupple : 

Nejl. He's not yet thorough warm : ' force him 
with praifes : {Afids* 

Pour in, pour in ; his ambition is dry. 

Uhff: My lord, you feed too much on this diflike. 

[To Agamemnon. 

7 pheeze lit pride : ] Topbeeze is to coml or curry. 


8 Not for the worth ] Not for the value of all for which 
we are fighting. JOHNSON. 

Aja.x. I will knead him, 1 ivM make him ////<, he's not yet 

thorough warm. 

Neft. Force him <witb praifes, &c.] The latter part of Ajax's 
Speech is certainly got out ot place, and ought to be afligned to 
Neftor, as I have ventured to tranfpofe it. Ajax is feeding on his 
vanity, and boafting what he will do to Achilles ; he'll pafh him, 
o'er the face, he'll make him eat fwords, he'll knend him, he'll 
lupple him, &c. Neftor and Ulyfles llily labour to keep him up 
in this vein; and to this end Neftor craftily hints, that Ajax i& 
not warm yet, but muft be crammed with more flattery. 

* ; 'font bin* ] i.e. ftuffhira. Farcir, Fr. Sre EVENS. 



Our noble general, do not do fo. 

Dio. You muft prepare to fight without Achilles. 

Ulyjf* Why, 'tis this naming of him does him harm* 
Here is a man - But 'tis before his face ; 
I will be filent. 

Neft. Wherefore fhould you fo ? 
He is not emulous, as Achilles is. 

Ulyfr. Know the whole world, he is as valiant. 

Ajax. A whorefon dog, that lhall palter thus with 

'Would, he were a Trojan ! 

Neft. What a vice were it in Ajax now -- 

17/V//I If he were proud ? 

Dio. Or covetous of praife ? 

Vlyff. Ay, or furly borne ? 

Dio. Or ftrange, or felf-affedted ? 

UfyJP Thank the heavens, lord, thou art of /weet 

compofure ; 

Praife him that got thee, Ihc that gave thee fuck : 
Fam'd be thy tutor ; and thy parts of nature 
Thrice-fam'd, beyond beyond all erudition : 
But he that difciplin'd thy arms to fight, 
JLet Mars divide eternity in twain, 
.And give him half : and, for thy vigor, 
Bull-bearing Milo his addition yield 
To finewy Ajax. I will not praife thy wifdom, 
Which, like a bourn *, a pale, a fhore, confines 
Thy fpacious and dilated parts : Here's Neftor, 
Jnftrutted by the antiquary times, 
Vie muft, he is, he cannot but be wife ; 
But pardon, father Neftor, were your days 
As green as Ajax, and your brain fo temper'd, 
You Ihould-not have the eminence of him, 
But be as Ajax. 

* - like a bourn, ] A lourn is a boundary, and fometime*' 
g rivulet dividing one place .from another. So. in A', Lear., 
aft III. fc. vi : 

Come o'er the lourn, Befly, to me. 
.See the note on this paflage. STEEVENS. 


Ajax. Shall I call you father ? 

s Neft. Ay, my good ion. 

jD/0. Be rul'd by him, lord Ajax. 

Ulyff. There is no tarrying here ; the hart Achilles 
Keeps thicket. Pleafe it our great general 
To call together all his ftate of war ; 
Frefh kings are come to Troy : To-morrow, 
\Ve muft with all our main of power fhnd fad : 
And here's a lord, come knights from eaft to weft, 
And cull their flower, Ajax lhall cope the beft. 

A^a. Go we to council. Let Achilles fleep : 
JLight boats fail fwift, though greater hulks draw> 
deep. [Exeunt. 


r R o r. 

?he Palace. 
Enter Panctarus, and a Servant. [Mufuk within* 

"Pan. Friend ! you ! pray you, a word : Do no 
you follow the young lord Paris ? 

Serv. Ay, fir, when he goes before me, 

Pan. You do depend upon him, I mean ? 

Sew. Sir, I do depend upon the lord. 

Pan. You do de.pend upon a noble gentleman ; I 
muft needs praife him. 

Serv. The lord be praifed ! 

Pan. You know me, do you not ? 

3 Neft. dy, my good fa*^ In the folio and in the modern edi- 
tions Ajax deiires to give -the title of father to Ulyfles ; in tho 
quarto, more naturally, toNeilor. JOHNSON. 

Shall I call you father ?~\ Shakefpeare had a cuftom prevalent 
about his own time, in his thoughts. Ben Jonfon had many who 
.called themfelves his/^wj, STBEVBNS. 



Serv. 'Faith, fir, fuperficially. 

Pan. Friend, know me better ; I am the lord Pan* 

Serv* I hope, I fhall know your honour better. 

Pan. I do defire it. 

Serv. You are in the ftate of grace ? 

Pan. Grace ! not fo, friend ; honour and lordfhip 
are my titles : What muiick is this ? 

Serv. I do but partly know, fir ; it is mufick JB 

Pan. Know you the muficians ? 

Serv. Wholly, fir. 

Pan. Who play they to ? 

Serv. To the hearers, fir. 

Pan. At whofe pleafure, friend ? 

Serv. At mine, fir, and theirs that love rnufick, 

Pan. Command, I mean, friend. 

Serv. Who mall 1 command, fir ? 

Pan Friend, we underftand not one another ; I am 
too courtly, and thou art too cunning : At whofe re- 
queft do thefe men play ? 

Serv. That's to't, indeed, fir : Marry, fir, at the 
requefl of Paris my lord, who is there in perfon ; with 
him, the mortal Venus, the heart-blood of beauty, 
glove's invifible foul, - 

Pan. Who, my coufin Creffida ? 

Si'rv. No, fir, Helen ; Could you not find out thaf 
by her attributes ? 

Pan. It fliouVi feem, fellow, that thou haft not feen 
the lady Creflkia. I come to fpeak with Paris from 
the prince Troilus : I will make a complimental af- 
lault upon him, for my bufinefs feeths. 

Serv. Sodden bufinefs ! there's a ftew'd phrafe, in- 

4 - love's vifibleyW, .] So Hanmer. The other editiona 
tttve invijtik^ which perhaps may be right, and may mean thej 
foul of love invifible every where elfe. JOHNSON. 

F 4 Enter. 


Enter Paris, and Helen, attended. 

Pan. Fair be to yon, my lord, and to all this fair 
company ! fair defires, in all fair meafure, fairly guide 
them ! efpecially to you, fair queen ! fair thoughts 
be your fair pillow ! 

Helen. Dear lord, you are full of fair words. 

Pan. You fpeak your fair pleafure, fweet queen. 
Vair prince, here is good broken mufick. 

Par. You have broke it, coufin : and, by my life, 
you ihall make it whole again ; you lhall piece it out 
with a piece of your performance : Nell, he is full 
of harmony. 

Pan. Truly, lady, no. 

Helen. O, fir,- - 

Pan. Rude, in footh ; in good footh, very rude. 

Par. Well faid, my lord ! well, you fay fo * in fits. 

Pan. I have bulinefs to my lord, dear queen : My 
lord, will you vouchfafe me a word ? 

Helen. Nay, this lhall not hedge us out; we'll hear 
you ling, certainly. 

Pan. Well, fweet queen, you are pleafant with. 

me. But (marry) thus, my lord. My dear lord^ 

and moft eftecmed friend, your brother Troilus 

Helen. My lord Pandarus ; honey-fweet lord, 

Pan. Goto, fweet queen, goto ; commends him-r 
fclf rtioft affectionately to you. 

Helen. You lhall not bob us out of our melody ; If 
you do, our melancholy upon your head ! 

s 'in fits.] i. e. now and then, by fits ; or perhaps a 
quibble is intended. A fit was a part or divifion of a fong, fome- 
times a (train in mufic, and fometimes a meafure in dancing. The 
reader will find it fufficiently illuftrated in the two Former fenfc* 
by Dr. Percy, in the firft volume of his Rcliques of ancient Engli/& 
foetry : in the third of thefe fignifications it occurs in All for 
^foncy, a tragedy, by T. Lupton, 1^74: 
*' Satan. Vpon thefc chearful words 1 needs niuft dance zfitte." 




Pan. Sweet queen, fweet queen ; that's a fweet 
<queen, i'faith. 

Helen. And to make a fweet lady fad, is a four 

Pan. Nay, that fhall not ferve your turn; that 
fhall it not, in truth, la. Nay, I care not for fuch 
words ; no, no. * And, my lord, he defires you, that, 
if the king call for him at fupper, you will make his 

Helen. My lord Pandarus, - 

Pan. What fays my fweet queen ; my very very 
fweet queen ? 

Pan. What exploit's in hand ? where fups he to- 
night ? 

Helen. Nay, but my lord, -- 

Pan. What fays my fweet queen ? My coufin will 
fall out with you. 

Helen. You muft not know where he fups. 

Par. I'll lay my life, 7 with my difpofer Creffida. 

Pan. No, no, no fuch matter, you are wide ; come, 
difpofer is fick. 

6 And, my lord, he defires you, - ] Here I think the fpeech 
of Pandarus fhould begin, and the relr. of it fliould be added to 
that of Helen, but I have followed the copies. JOHNSON. 

7 - ivitb my difpofer Creffida.'} I think difpofer fhould, in 
thefe places, be read dlfpoufer j fhe that would feparate Helen 
from him. WAJH>URTON. 

I do not underfiand the word diftofer, nor know what to fublU- 
tute in its place. There is no variation in the copies. JOHNSON. 

I fufpet that, You muft not kno-jj where he fups, fliould be 
added to the fpeech ot Pandarus ; and that the following one of 
Paris fhould be given to Helen. That Creflida wanted to feparate 
Paris from Helen, or that tKe beauty of Creflida had any power 
over Paris, are circumltances not evident trom the play. The 
one is the opinion of Dr. Warburton, the oilier a conjecture 
by the 'author of The ' Revlfal. By giving, however, this 
line, Til lay my life, ivitb my difpofer Crejfida, to Helen, and by 
changing tne word difpofer into defofer, fome meaning may be ob- 
tained. She addrefles herfelf, I fuppofe, to Pandauis, and. by 
her depofer^ means fhe who thinks her beauty (or, whole beaucy 
you fuppofe) to be fuperior to mine. STEEVENS. 



Par. Well, I'll make excufe. 

Pan. Ay, good my lord. Why fhould you fay-^ 
Crcffida ? no, your poor difpofer's lick. 

Par. I fpy 8 . 

Pan. You fpy ! what do you fpy ? Come, give me 
en inftrument. Now, fweet queen. 

Helen. Why, this is kindly done. 

Pan. My niece is horribly in love with a thing you 
have, fweet queen. 

Hehi. She lhall have it, my lord, if it be not my 
lord Paris. 

Pan. He ! no, flie'll none of him ; they two are 

Helen. Falling in, after falling out 9 , may make 
them three. 

Pan. Come, come, I'll hear no more of this ; I'll 
f ng you a fong now. 

Helen. Ay, ay, pr'ythee now. By my troth, ' fweet 
lord, thou haft a fine forehead. 

Pan. Ay, you may, you may. 

Helen. Let thy fong be love : this love will und* 
us all. Oh, Cupid, Cupid, Cupid ! 

Pan. Love ! ay, that it mail, i'fahh. 

Par. Ay, good now, love, love, nothing but IOVGJ 

Pan. In good troth, it begins fo : 

e, love, nothing but love, fill more ! 

For, o, love's bow 

Shoots buck and doe : 
' Thejhaft confounds 

Not that it wounds * t 
But tickles Jiill the fore. 

* Par. I fpy.~\ This is the ufual exclamation at a 
game called Hie^fpy^ hie. STEFVENS. 

Falling in, after jailing out, &c.] i. e. The reconciliation au(| 
wanton dalliance of two lovers after a quarrel, may produce a child^ 
ami fo make three of two. TOLLET. 

/uvW/0/Y/, ] In the quarto fiwct lad. JOHNSON. 

* that it v;flW/,] i. c. that which it wounds. MUSGRAVE**, 



Ybefe lovers cry Oh ! oh ! they die ! 

3 Yet that which feems the wound to klll % 
Doth turn oh ! oh ! to ba ! ha ! he ! 

So dying love lives Jiill : 
Ob ! oh ! a while, but ha I ha f ha ! 
Oh I oh ! groans out for ha ! ha ! ha ! 

Hey ho! 

Helen. In love, i'faith, to the very tip of the nofe. 

Par. He eats nothing but doves, love ; and that 
breeds hot blood, and hot blood begets hot thoughts, 
and hot thoughts beget hot deeds, and hot deeds is 

Pan. Is this the generation of love? hot blood, hot 
thoughts, and hot deeds ? Why, they are vipers : 
Is 1< ve a generation of vipers? Sweet lord, who's 
a-field to-day ? 

Par. Hector, Deiphobus, Helenus, Antenor, and 
all the gallantry of Troy : I would fain have arm'd 
to-day, but my Nell would not have it fo. How 
chance my brother Troilus went not ? 

Helen. He hangs the lip at fomething ; you know 
all, lord Pandarus. 

Pan. Not I, honey-fweet queen. I long to hear 
how they fped to-day. You'll remember your bro- 
ther's excufe ? 

Par. To a hair. 

Pan. Farewel, fweet queen. 

Helen. Commend me to your niece. 

5 Tet that which feems the wound to ///,] To kill the wound \t 
fto very intelligible expreffion, nor is the meafure preferved. We 
inight read : 

Yhefe lovers cry, 
Ob! ob! they die! 
But that which fccms to kill t 

Doth turn, &c. 
So dying love lives Jiill. 

Yet as the wound to kill may mean the -wound tlat feems mortal^ ^ 
jilter no&ing. JOHNSON. 



Pan. I will, fweet queen, [Ex 1 //. Sound a retreat, 

far. They are come from field : let us to Priam's 


To greet the warriors. Sweet Helen, I mufl woo you 
To help unarm our Hedtor : his ftubborn buckles, 
With thefe your white enchanting fingers touch'd, 
Shall more obey, than to the edge of fleel, 
Or force of Greekifli finews ; you lhall do more 
Than all the ifland kings, clifarm great Hector. 

Helen. 'Twill make us proud to be his fervant, 


Yea, what he fhall receive of us in duty 
Gives us more palm in beauty than we have ; 
Yea, over-fhines ourfelf. 

Par. Sweet, above thought I love thce. [Exeunt* 


Pandarus* garden. 
Enter Pandarus, and e roilu man. 

Pan. How now ? where's thy matter ? at my cou- 
fin Creffida's * 

Serv. No, fir ; he ftays for you to conduft him 

Enter Trollus. 

Pan. O, here he comes. How now, how now ? 

Tro/. Sirrah, walk off. 

Pan. Have you feen my coufin ? 

Trol. No, Pandarus : I ftalk about her door, 
Like a ftrange foul upon the Stygian banks 
Staying for waftage. O, be thou my Charon, 
Aud give me fwift tranfportance to thofe fields, 
Where I may wallow in the lily beds 
Proposed for the deferver ! O gentle Pandarus. 



From Cupid's flioulder pluck his painted wings, 
And fly with me to Creffid ! 

Pan. Walk here i'the orchard, I will bring her 
ftraight. [Exit Pandarus* 

. 7r0/. I am giddy ; expectation whirls me round. 
The imaginary relifh is fo fweet 
That it enchants my fenfe ; What will it be, 
When that the watry palate taftes indeed 
Love's thrice-reputed nectar ? death, I fear me ; 
Swooning destruction ; or fome joy too fine, 
Too fubtle-potent, 4 tun'd too lharp in fweetnefs. 
For the capacity of my ruder powers : 
I fear it much ; and I do fear befides, 
That I fliall lofe diltindion in my joys ; 
As doth a battle, when they charge on heaps 
The enemy flying. 

Re-enter Pandarus. 

Pan. She's making her ready, fhe'll come tfraight: 
you muft be witty now. She does fo blufh, and 
fetches her wind fo fhorr, as if fhe were fray'd with a 
fprite : I'll fetch her. It is the prettiefl villain : Ihe 
fetches her breath as ftiort as a new-ta'en fparrow. 

[.v// Pandarus.- 

Froi. Even fuch a paffion doth embrace my bofom : 
My heart beats thicker than a feverous pulfe ; 
And all my powers do their beftowing lofe, 
Like vaflalage at unawares encountering 
The eye of majefty 5 . 


* and toofyarp infiueftnefi,~\ So the folio and all modern 

editions ; but the quarto more accurately :. 

tun'd too Jbarf ix/wtttat/s, JOHNSON. 

s Like vajjalage at unaivares encountering 

The eyt of majefty.] Rdwe feems to have imitated this paf- 
fc^e in his Ambitious Stepmother , a# I : 

" Welt 


Enter Pandarus, and Creffida. 

Pan. Come, come, what need you blufli ? fliame's 
a baby. Here fhe is now : fwt-i:r ;he oaths now to 
her, that yon have fworn to me. What, are you gone 
again ? you mufl be watch'd ere you be made tame % 
muft you ? Come your ways, come your ways ; an you 
draw backward, 7 we'll put you i'the files. Why do 
you notfpeak to her ? Come, draw this curtain, and 
Jet's fee your picture. Alas the day, how loath you 
are to offend day-light ! an 'twere dark, you'd clofe 
Iboner. So, fo ; rub on, and kifs the miftrefs. How 
now, a kifs in fee-farm ! build there, carpenter ; the 
air is fweet. Nay, you fhall fight your hearts out, 
ere I part you. 8 The faulcon as the tercel, for all 
the ducks i'the river : go to, go to. 

" Well may th'ignoble herd 
** Starr, if with heedleis iteps they unawares 
" Tread on the lion's walk : a prince's genius 
** Awes with fuperior greatneis all beneath him.** 


* ' "i you muft Ije watch'd ere you le made tame, ] Alluding 
CO the manner of taming hawks. So, in the faming of a Shrew ; 

to watch her as we watch thefe kites. STEEVENS. 

7 ive'llput you ? the files. ] Alluding to the cuftom of 

putting men iufpeded of cowardice in the middle places. 


* -TTje faulcon as tie tercel^ for all the Jucis ? tl? river: J 

Pandarus means, that he'll match his niece againft her lover for 
any bett. The tercel is the male hawk ; by the faulcon we gene 
rally underftand the female. THEOBALD. 

I think we fhould rather read : 

at the tercel, TYRWHITT. 

In Chaucer's Troiius and Crcffeide, 1. iv. 410. is the following 
ftanza, from which Shakefpeare may have caught a glimple of 
meaning, though he has not very clearly exprefled it. Pandarus 
is the fpenker : 

" what ? God forbid, alway that eche plefaunce 

" In o thing were, and in non othir wight ; 
'* If one can tinge, anothir can wel daunce, 
" If this begodely, flic is glad and light. 
" And this is faire, and that can gode aright,, 
** Eche for his venue holdin is full dere, 
44 Both bcroner and faucon for n<rm. : 'STEVENS. 



. You have bereft me of all words, lady. 

Pan. Words pay no debts, give her deeds : but 
ihe'll bereave you of the deeds too, if fhe call your 
activity in queftion. What, billing again ? here's 

In witnefs whereof the parties interchangeably Come 

in, come in ; I'll go get a fire. {Exit Pandarus. 

Cre. Will you walk in, my lord ? 

Troi. O Crefficla, how often have I wifh'd me thus? 

Ore. Wifti'd, my lord ? The gods grant ! O my 
lord ! 

Troi. What fhould they grant ? what makes this 
pretty abruption ? What too curious dreg efpies my 
fweet lady in the fountain of our love ? 

Ore. More dregs than water, if my fears have eyes. 

Troi. Fears make devils of cherubims ; they never 
fee truly. 

Cre. Blind fear, that feeing reafon leads, finds fafer 
footing than blind reafon tumbling without fear : To 
fear the worft, oft cures the worft. 

Troi. O, let my lady apprehend no fear : in all 
Cupid's pageant there is prefented no monflcr. 

Cre. Nor nothing montfrous neither ? 

Troi. Nothing, but our undertakings ; when we 
vow to weep feas, live in fire, eat rocks, tame tygers ; 
thinking it harder for our miftrefs to devife impofition 
enough, than for us to undergo any difficulty impofed. 
This is th'e monftruofity in love, lady, that the will 
is infinite, and the execution confined ; that the de- 
fire is boundlefs, and the act a flave to limit. 

Cre. They fay, all lovers f\vear more performance 
than they are able, and yet referve an ability that 
they never perform; vowing more than the perfection 
of ten, and difcharging lefs than the tenth part of 
one. They that have the voice of lions, and the act 
of hares, are they not monfters ? 

Troi. Are there fuch ? fuch are not we : Praife us 
as we are tailed, allow us as we prove ; our head fhall 



go bare, 'till merit crown it 9 : no perfe&ion in rever- 
fion fhall have a praife in prefent : we will not name 
defert, before his birth ; and, being born, ' his addi- 
tion fhall be humble. Few words to fair faith : Troi- 
lus lhall be fuch to Creffid, as what envy can fay 
worft, fhall be a mock for his truth ; and what truth 
can fpeak trueft, not truer than Troilus* 
Ore. Will you walk in, my lord ? 

Re-enter Pandarus. 

Pan. What, blufhing ftill ? have you not done 
talking yet ? 

Cre. Well, uncle, what folly I commit, I dedicate 
to you. 

Pan. I thank you for that ; if my lord get a boy 
of you, you'll give him me : Be true to my lord ; if 
he flinch, chide me for it. 

Troi. You know now your hoftages ; your uncle's 
word, and my firm faith. 

Pan. Nay, I'll give my word for her too; our 
kindred, though they be long ere they are woo'd, they 
are conftant, being won : they are burrs, I can tell 
you ; they'll flick where they are thrown *. 

Cre. Boldnefs comes to me now, and brings me 

heart : 

Prince Troilus, I have lov'd you night and day, 
For many weary months. 

9 our leadjkall go bare, ' 'till merit crown it : ] I cannot for- 
bear to obferve, that the quarto reads thus : Our bcadjhall go barc t 
'till merit louer part no affection, in re<verjion, &c. Had there 
been no other copy, how could this have been corrected? The 
true reading is in the folio. JOHNSON. 

bisaMitlonJbatt be bumble ] We will give him no 

high or pompous titles. JOHNSON. 

* they '// Jiick where they art thrown.] This allufion has 

already occur'd in Meafure for Meafurr : 

Nay, friar, I am a kind of turr t I (hall ftick. 


2V. Why was my Creffid then fo hard to win ? 

Vre. Hard to feem won ; but I was won, my lord, 

With the firft glance that ever Pardon me ; 

If I confefs much, you will play the tyrant. 
I love you now ; but not, 'till now, fo much 

But I might mafler it : in faith, I lye ; 

My thoughts were like unbridled children, grown 

Too headftrong for their mother : See, we fools ! 

Why have I blabb'd ? who lhall be true to us, 

When we are fo unfecret to ourfelves ? 

But, though I lov'd you well, I xvoo'd you not ; 

And yet, good faith, I wilh'd myfelf a man ; 

Or, that we women had men's privilege 

Of fpeaking firft. Sweet, bid me hold my tongue ; 

For, in this rapture, I lhall furely fpeak 

The thing I lhall repent. See, fee, your filence, 

Cunning in dumbnefs, from my weaknefs draws 

My very foul of counfel : Stop my mouth. 

FroL And lhall, albeit fweet mufick iffues thence. 

Pan. Pretty, i'faith. 

Cre. My lord, I do befeech you, pardon me; 
'Tvvas not my purpofe, thus to beg a kifs: 
I am alham'd ; O heavens ! what have I done ? - 
For this time will I take my leave, my lord. 

Tf-oi. Your leave, fweet Creffid ? 

Pan. Leave ! an you take leave 'till to-morrow 

Cre. Pray you, content you. 

Troi. What offends you, lady ? 

Cre. Sir, mine own company. 

Trot. You cannot Ihun yourfelf. 

Cre. Let me go and try : 
I have a kind of felf refides with you ; 
But an unkind felf, that itfelf will leave, 
To be another's fool. I would be gone ; 
Where is my wit ? I fpeak I know not \vhat. 

Trot. Well know they what they fpeak, that fpeak 
fo wifely. 



Cre. Perchance, my lord, I fhew more craft than 

love ; 

And fell fo roundly to a large confeflion, 
To angle for your thoughts : ' But you are wife ; 
Or elfe you love not; * For to be wie, and love, 
Exceeds man's might ; that dwells with gods above. 

Troi. O, that I thought it could be in a woman, 
(As, if it can, I will prefume in you) 
To feed for aye her lamp and flames of love ; 
To keep her conflancy in plight and youth, 
Out-living beauties outward, with a mind 
That doth renew fwifter than blood decays ! 
Or, that perfuafion could but thus convince me,- 
That my integrity and truth to you 
3 Might be affronted with the match and weight 
Of fuch a winnow'd purity in love ; 
How were I then uplifted ! but, alas, 
I am as true as truth's fimplicity, 

1 Sat you are wife, 

Or clfe you lov e not ; for to be wife and love, 
Exceeds man's might, &c.] I read : 

but we're not wife, 
Or elfe we love not ; to be wife and love, 

Exceeds man's might ; 

Creflida, in return to the praife given by Troilus to her vvifdorrr, 
replies : " That lovers are never wile ; that it is beyond the 
.power of man to bring love and wiidom to an union." JOHNSON. 

* to be wife and love, 

Exceeds man's might; ] This is from Spenfcr, Shep- 
herd's Cal. March : 

To be wife, and eke to love, 
' Is granted fcarcc to gods above." TYRWHITT. 
" Amare et fapere <vix a Deo conceditur" Pub. Syr. 
Spenfer, whom Shakefpeare followed, feems to have mifunder- 
ftood this proverb. Marfton, in the Dutch Courtezan, 1606, has 
the fame thought, and the line is printed as a quotation : 
" But raging Uift my fate all Itrong doth move, 
** The gojs themfelves cannot Ic ivife and love." MALONE. 
3 Might le affronted ivitb the match ] I wifli " my inte- 
grity might be met and matched with fuch equality and force of 
pure vmmingled love.*' JOHNSON. 



4 And fimpler than the infancy of truth. 

Cre. In that I'll war with you. 
Iroi. O virtuous fight, 
When right with right wars who fhall be moft right ! 

5 True fwains in love ihall, in the world come, 
Approve their truths by Troilus : when their rhymes, 
Full of proteft, of oath, and big compare, 

Want fimilies, truth tir'd with iteration, 
As true as fteel, as 6 plantage to the moon, 


4 And fimpler than the infancy of truth."} This is fine ; and 
jneans, " tre truth, to defend itlelf againft deceit in the com- 
merce of the world, had, out of neceffity, learned worldly policy." 


5 True fajains in lov e Jhall, in the world to come, ' 
Approve their truths by Troilus : when their rhymes t 
Full ofproteji, of oath, and big compare , 

Want jtmllies : truth, tir*d\ e with iteration, ] The metre, 
as well as the fenfe, of the laft verfe will be improved, I think, by 
reading : 

Wantjlmilies of truth , tir'Jvjitb iteration* 
So, a little lower in the fame fpeech : 

Yet after all comparifons of truth. TYR WHITT. 
' plantage to the moon,'] I formerly made a filly conjec- 

ture that the true reading was : 

planets to their moons. 

But I did not refleft that it was wrote before Galileo had difcorer- 
ed the Satellites of Jupiter : fo that plantage to the moon is right, 
and alludes to the common opinion of the influence the moon hai 
over what is planted or 1'own, which was therefore done in the in- 
creafe : 

" Rite Lntonae puerum canentes, 

" Rite crefcentem face noclilucam, 

** Proiperam frugum" ffor, lib. iv. od. 6. 


Plantage is not, I believe, a general term, but the herb which 
we now call plantain, in Latin, flantago, which was, I fuppofe, 
imagined to be under the peculiar influence of the moon. 


Plantage is the French word for a plantation, a planting, or 
fetting. See Boyer's and Cotgrave's Dictionaries. In the French 
tranilation of Dr. Agricola's Agriculture, Plantage a relours is fre- 
quently ufed for planting reverfc. TOLLET. 

Shakefpeare ipeaks of plantain by its common appellation in 
G 2 Ronuo 


As fnn to day, as turtle to her mate, 

As iron to adamant, as earth to the center^ 

Yet, after all comparifons of truth, 
7 As truth's authentic author to be cited, 
As true as Troilus ftiall crown up the verfc, 
And fanctify the numbers. 

Cre. Prophet may you be ! 
If I be falfe, or fwerve a hair from truth, 
When time is old and hath forgot itfelf, 
When water-drops have worn the {tones of Troy, 
And blind oblivion fwallow'd cities up, 
And mighty ftates chara&erlefs are grated 
To dufty nothing ; yet let memory, 
From falfe to falfe, among falfe maids in love, 
Upbraid my falfehood ! when they have faid as falfe 
As air, as water, wind, or fandy earth, 
As fox to lamb, as wolf to heifer's calf, 
Pard to the hind, or Hep-dame to her fon ; 

Romeo and Juliet ; and yet in Sapho and Plcto^ 1591, Mandrake 
is called Mandrage: 

" Sow next thy vines mandrage" 

From a book entitled The profitable Art of Gardening, &c. by 
Tho. Hill, Londoner, the third edition, printed in 1579, I 
learn, that neither fowing, planting, nor grafting, were ever un- 
dertaken without a fcrupulous attention to the.encreafe or waning 

of the moon. Dryden does not appear to have underftood the 

paflage, and has therefore altered it thus : 

Ai true as flowing tides are to the moon. 

As true asjfeelis an ancient proverbial fnnile. I find it in Lyd- 
gate's Troy Book where he fpeaks of Troilus, 1. ii. ch. 1 6 : 
*' Thereto in love tre-ive as anyflelt" STEEVENS. 

True as plant age to tie moon.] This may be fully illuftrated by 
a quotation from Scott's Dlfcwerle of Witchcraft : " The poore 
hufbandman perceiveth that the increafe of the moone maketh 
plants frutefull : fo as in the full moone they are in the bell 
flrength ; decaieing in the ivane; and in the conjunction, do utter- 
lie wither and vade." FARMER. 

7 As truth's authentic author to le cited y "] Troilus fliall crow*, 
the verje t as a man to lie cited as the authentic author of truth ; as 
one whofe protestations were true to a proverb. JOHNSON. 



Yea, let them fay, to flick the heart of falfhood, 
As falfc as Creflid. 

Pan. Go to, a bargain made : feal it, feal it ,* I'll 

be the witncfs. Here I hold your hand ; here, my 

coufin's. If ever you prove falfe to one another, 
fince I have taken fuch pains to bring you together, 
let all pitiful goers-between be called to the world's 
end after my name, call them all Pandars ; let 
all 8 inconftant men be Troilus's, all falfe women 
Creffids, and all brokers-between Pandars ! fay, 

fTro/. Amen. 

Cre. Amen. 

Pan. Amen. Whereupon I will {hew you a bed- 
chamber ; which bed, becaufe it fhall not fpeak of 
your pretty encounters, prefs it to death : away. 

And Cupid grant all tongue-ty'd maidens here, 

Bed, chamber, Pandar to provide this geer ! 


The Grecian Camp. 

Enter Agamemnon, Ulvffes, D'tomed, Neftor, Ajax y Me- 
nelaits, and Calchas* 

CaL Now, princes, for the fervice I have done you, 
The advantage of the time prompts me aloud 
To call for recompence. 9 Appear it to your mind, 


8 inconftant men] So Hanmer. In the copies it is con~ 

Jlant. JOHNSON. 

Though Hanmer's emendation be plaufible, I believe Shake- 
fpeare wrote conftant. He feems to have been lefs attentive to 
make Pandar talk confequentially, than to account for the ideas 
aftually annexed to the three names. Now it is certain, that, in 
his time, a Troilus was as clear an expreffion for a conftant /over t 
as a Creffida andtf Pandar were for a jilt and a pimp. TYRWHITT, 

9 Appear it to your mid y 

$ 7 bat, through the fight I bear in things to comf, 
I have daufatd frgy t ] This reafoning p;rplexei 

G 3 Mr. 


Thar, ' through the fight I bear in things, to Jove 
I have abandon'd Troy, left my pofieffions, 


Mr. Theobald ; " He forefaw his country was undone ; he ran 
over to the Greeks ; and this he makes a merit of (fays the editor). 
I own (continues he) the motives of his oratory feem to be fome- 
what perverfe and unnatural. Nor do J know how to reconcile it, 
unlefs our poet purpofely intended to make Calchas aft the part 
of a true prieft, and fo from motives of felf-intereft infinuate the 
merit of fervice." The editor did not know how to reconcile this. 
Nor I neither. For I do not know what he means by " the mo- 
tives of his oratory," or, "from motives of felf-intereft to infi- 
nuate merit." But if he would infinuate, that it was the poet's 
defign to make his prieft felf-interefted, and to reprefent to the 
Greeks that what he did for his own prefervation, was done for 
their fervice, he is miftaken. Shakefpeare thought of nothing fo 
filly, as it would be to draw his prieft a knave^ in order to make 
him talk like a fool. Though that be the fate which generally 
attends their abufers. But Shakefpeare was no fuch ; and confe- 
quently wanted not this cover for dulnefs. The perverfenefs is ajl 
the editor's own, who interprets, 

< through the fight I have in things to come, 

I have abandoned Troy 

to lignify, " by my power of prefcience finding my country muft 
be ruined, I have therefore abandoned it to feek refuge with you ;" 
whereas the true fenfe is, " Be it known unto you, that on ac- 
count of a gift or faculty I have of feeing things to come, which 
faculty I fuppofe would be efteemed by you as acceptable and ufe- 
ful, I have abandoned Troy my native country." That he could 
not mean what the editor fuppofes, appears from thefe confidera- 
tions : Firft, if he had reprefented himfelf as running from a 
falling city, he could never have faid : 

I have expos'd myfelf, 

From certain and poflefs'd conveniencies, 

To doubtful fortunes ; 

Secondly, the abfolute knowledge of the fall of Troy was a fecret 
hid from the inferior gods themfelves ; as appears from the poe- 
tical hiftory of that war. It depended on many contingencies, 
whofe exiftence they did not forefee. All that they knew was, 
that if fuch and iuch things happened, Troy would fall. And 
this fecret they communicated to Caflandra only, but along with, 
jt, the fate ntH to be believed. Several others knew each a feve- 
jal part of the fecret ; one, that Troy could not be taken unlefs 
Achilles went to the war ; another, that it could not fall while it 
had the palladium ; and fo on. But the fecret, that it was abfo- 
to fall, was known to none. ~The fenfe here given will 



Incurr'd a traitor's name ; expos'd myfelf, 

From certain and pofleft conveniences, 

To doubtful fortunes ; fequeftring from me all 

That time, acquaintance, cuftom, and condition, 

Made tame and mod familiar to my nature ; 

And here, to do you fervice, am become 

As new into the world, ftrange, unacquainted : 

I do befeech you, as in way of tafte, 

To give me now a little benefit, 

Out of thofe many regiftred in proniife, 

Which, you fay, live to come in my behalf. 

Aga. What wouldft thou of us, Trojan ? make 

Cal. You have a Trojan prifoner, call'd Antenor, 
Yefterday took ; Troy holds him very dear. 
Oft have you (often have you thanks therefore) 
Defir'd my Creffid in right great exchange, 
Whom Troy hath flill deny'd : But this Antenor, 

admit of no difpure amongft thofe who know how acceptable a 
feer was amongft the Greeks. So that this Calchas, like a true 
prieft, if it needs muft be fo, went where he could exercife his 
profeffion with moft advantage. For it being much lefs common 
amongft the Greeks than the Afiatics, there would be a greater 
demand for it. WAR BUR TON. 

I am afraid, that after all the learned commentator's efforts to 
clear the argument of Calchas, it will ftill appear liable to objec- 
tion ; nor do I difcover more to be urged in his defence, than 
that though his fkill in divination determined him to leave Troy, 
yet that heJ9ined himfelf to Agamemnon and his army by ur.con- 
itrained good-will ; and though he came as a fugitive efcaping 
from destruction, yet his fervices after his reception, being vo- 
luntary and important, deferved reward. This argument is not 
regularly and diftinctly deduced, but this is, I think, the beft ex- 
plication that it will yet admit. JOHNSON, 

1 through the fight I bear in things, to Jove] This paflage 

in all the modern editions is filently depraved, and printed thus : 

through thejight I bear in things to come. 

The word is fo printed that nothing but the fenfe can determine 
whether it be love or Jove. I believe that the editors read it us 
love, and therefore made the alteration to obtain fome meaning 


to //>cv, might mean to the confequences of Paria's lov 
for Helen. STEEYENS. 

04 I know, 


I know, is fuch a wreft in their affairs, 
That their negotiations all muft flack, 
Wanting his manage ; and they will almoft 
Give us a prince of blood, a fon of Priam, 
In change of him : let him be fent, great princes, 
And he mall buy my daughter ; and her prefence 
Shall quite ftrike off all fervice I have done, 
* In moft accepted pain. 

Aga. Let Diomedes bear him, 
And bring us Creflid hither ; Calchas fhall have 
What he requefls of us. Good Diomed, 
Furnilh you fairly for this enterchange : 
Withal, bring word if Hector will to-morrow 
Be anfwer'd in his challenge ; Ajax is ready. 

Diom. This fhall I undertake ; and 'tis a burden 
Which I am proud to bear. [Exit Diomed, and Calchas. 

Enter Achilles, and Patroclus, before their tent. 

Uhff. Achilles flands i'the entrance of his tent : 
Pleafe it our general to pafs ftrangely by him, 
As if he were forgot ; and, princes all, 
Lay negligent and loofe regard upon him : - . 
I will come laft : 'Tis like, he'll queftion me, 
Why fuch unplaufive eyes are bent, why turn'd on 

him : 

If fo, I have J derifion mcd'cinable, 
To ufe between your ftrangenefs and his pride, 

* In mojl accepted pain.] Sir T. Hanmer, and Dr. Warburton 
after him, read : 

In mojl accepted pay. 

They do not feem to underftand the conftru&ion of the paiTage. 
Her preface, fays Calchas, Jkall Jlrike off, or recompence tbtj'cr- 
rvite I have dor.e^ even in thefe labours which were moft accepted. 


3 derifion met? finable,] All the modern editions have dcci- 

jion. The old copies are apparently right. The folio in this 
place agrees with the quarto, fo that the corruption was at full 
merely accidental, JOHNSON. 



Which his own will mall have dcfire to drink ; 
It may do good: pride hath no other glafs 
To ftiew itfelf, but pride ; for fupple knees 
Feed arrogance, and are the proud man's fees. 

Aga. We'll execute your purpofe, and put on 

A form of ftrangenefs as we pafs along ; 

So do each lord ; and either greet him not, 

Or elfe difdainfully, which Ihall {hake him more 

Than if not look'd on. I will lead the way. 

Achil. What, comes the general to fpeak with me ? 
You know my mind, I'll fight no more 'gainft Troy. 

Aga. What fays Achilles? would he aught with us ? 

Nrjt. Would you, my lord, aught with the general? 

Achil. No. 

Neft. Nothing, my lord. 

Aga. The better. 

Achil. Good day, good day. 

Men. How do you ? how do you ? 

Achil. What, does the cuckold fcorn me ? 

Ajax. How now, Patroclus ? 

AdiL Good morrow, Ajax. 

Ajax. Ha ? 

Achil. Good morrow. 

Ajax. Ay, and good next day too. [Exeunt. 

Achil. What mean thefe fellows ? know they not 
Achilles ? 

Patr. They pafs by ftrangely : they were us'd to 


To fend their fmiles before them to Achilles; 
To come as humbly, as they us'd to creep 
To holy altars. 

Ackil. What, am I poor of late ? 
'Tis certain, Grcatnefs, once fallen out with fortune, 
Muft fall out with men too : What the declin'd is, 
He fhall as foon read in the eyes of others, 
As feel in his own fall : for men, like butterflies, 
Shew not their mealy wings, but to the furnmer; 
And not a man, for being limply man, 



Hath any honour ; but's honoured for thofe honours 
That are without him, as place, riches, favour, 
Prizes of accident as oft as merit : 
Which when they fall, as being flippery ftanders, 
The love that lean'd on them as flippery too, 
Doth one pluck down another, and together 
Die in the fall. But 'tis not fo with me : 
Fortune and I are friends ; I do enjoy 
At ample point all that I did poflefs, 
Save thefe men's looks ; who do, methinks, find out 
Something in me not worth that rich beholding 
As they have often given. Here is Ulyfles ; 
Til interrupt his reading. - How now, Ulyfles ? 

Ufyf. Now, great Thetis' fon ? 

Ach'il. What are you reading ? 

Ufyff. A ftrange fellow here 
Writes me, That man 4 how dearly ever parted, 
How much in having, or without, or in, - 
Cannot make boait to have that which he hath, 
Nor feels not what he owes, but by reflection ; 
As. when his virtues fliining upon others 
Heat them, and they retort that heat again 
To the firft giver. 

Ac.hil. This is not ftrange, Ulyfles. 
The beauty that is borne here in the face, ' 
The bearer knows not, but commends itfelf 
5 To others' eyes : nor doth the eye itfelf 6 , 

4 - I'o-u dearly ever parted,} i.e. how exquifitely foevrr 
Ills virtues be divided and balanced in him. So, in Romeo and 
Juliet: *' StufFd, as they fay, with honourable farts, proportioned 
as one's thoughts would wifli a man." WAR EUR TON. 

I do not think that in the word parted is included any idea of 
divijion ; it means, however excellently endowed, with however dear 
or precious parts enriched or adorned. JOHNSON. 

5 To others' eyes, &c. 

'.t mpjl pure Jj>lrit &c.] Thefe two lines are totally omit- 

ted in all the editions but the firftquarto. POPE. 
6 nor doth the eye itfelf } ] So, in Julius Crcfar : 



(That moft pure fpirit of fenfe) behold itfelf, 
Not going from itfelf ; but eye to eye oppos'd 
Salutes each other with each other's form. 
For fpeculation turns not to itfelf, 
'Till it hath travell'd, and is marry'd there 
"Where it may fee itfelf : this is not ftrange at all. 

Ulyff. I do not flrain at the pofition, 
It is familiar ; but at the author's drift : 
Who, 7 in his circumftance, exprefsly proves 
That no man is the lord of any thing, 
(Though in and of him there is much confifling) 
'Till he communicate his parts to others : 
Nor doth he of himfelf know them for aught 
'Till he behold them form'd in the applaufe 
Where they are extended ; which, like an arch, re- 

The voice again ; or like a gate of fleel 
Fronting the fun, receives and renders back 
His figure and his heat. I was much rapt in this ; 
And apprehended here immediately . 
8 The unknown Ajax. 

Heavens, what a man is there ! a very horfe ; 
That has he knows not what. Nature, what things 

there are, 

Moft abject in regard, and dear in ufe ! 
What things again moft dear in the efteem, 
And poor in worth ! Now ftiall we fee to-morrow 
An ad: that very chance doth throw upon him, 
Ajax renown'd. O heavens, what fome men do, 
While fome men leave to do ! 

NoCaflius ; for the eye fees not itfelf, 
J3ut by reflexion, by fome other things. 


7 in hii circumftance,~\ In the detail or circumdudtion 

of his argument. JOHNSOX. 

* The unknown Ajax.'} Ajax, who has abilities which were 
never brought into view or ufe. JCHKSON. 



9 How fome men creep in ikittifti fortune's hall, 
While others play the ideots in her eyes ! 
How one man eats into another's pride, 
While pride is ' feafling in his wantonnefs ! 
To feethefe Grecian lords! why, even already 
They clap the lubber Ajax on the fhoulder ; 
As if his foot were on brave Hector's bread, 
And great Troy fhrinking. 

Acloil. I do believe it : for they pafs'd by me, 
As mifers do by beggars ; neither gave to me 
Good word, nor look : What are my deeds forgot ? 

Ulyf. * Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back, 
Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 
A great-fiz'd monfter of ingratitudes : 
Thofe fcraps are good deeds pad ; which are devour'd 
As faft as they are made, forgot as foon 
As done : Perfeverance, dedr my lord, 
Keeps honour bright : To have done, is to hang 
Quite out of fafhion, like a rufty mail 
In monumental mockery. Take the inftant way ; 
For honour travels in a ftreight fo narrow, 
Where one but goes abreaft : keep then the path : 
For emulation hath a thoufand fons, 
That one by one purfue ; If you give way, 
Or hedge afide from the direct forthright, 
Like to an entred tide, they all rufh by, 
And leave you hindmoft '; 

e Howfomc men creep in JkittiJJj fortune's ball,] To creep is to 
keep out of fight from whatever motive. Some men keep out of no- 
tice in the hall of fortune, while others, though they but play the 
ideot, are always in her eye, in the way of diftin&ion. JOHNSON. 

1 ffafting ] Folio. The quarto has fafting. Either 

word may bear a good fenfe. JOHNSON. 

* Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his lack,] This fpeech is 
printed in all the modern editions with fuch deviations from the 
old copy, as exceed the lawful power of an editor. JOHNSON. 

s and there you lie :] Thefe words are not in the folio. 


Nor in any other copy that I have Teen. I have given the paf- 
fage as I found it in the folio. STEEVKNS, 



Or like a gallant horfe fallen in firft rank, 

Lie there for pavement 4 to the abjed rear, 

5 O'er run and trampled on : Then what they do in 


Though lefs than yours in paft, muft o'er-top yours : 
For time is like a fafhionable hoft, 
That (lightly ihakes his parting gueft by the hand ; 
And with his arms out-ftretch'd, as he would fly, 
Grafps-in the comer : Welcome ever fmiles, 
And farewel goes out fighing. O, let not virtue feek 
Remuneration for the thing it was ; 6 for beauty, wit, 
High birth, vigour of bone, defert in fervice, 
Love, friendftiip, charity, are fubjecTis all 
To envious and calumniating time. 
One touch of nature makes the whole world kin, 
That all, with one confent, praife new-born gawds, 
Though they are made and moulded of things paft ; 
I And fhew to duft, that is a little gilt, 


4 to the aljeft rear,] So Hanmer. All the editors be- 
fore him read : 

to the aljetf, near. JOHNSON-. 

5 O'er run &c.] The quarto wholly omits the fimllc of the 
horfe, and reads thus : 

And leave you hindmojl, then what they do at prrfent. 
The folio feems to have fome omiffion, for the fimile begins, 

Or, like a gallant horfe JOHNSON. 
" 6 The modern editors read : 

For beauty, wit, high birth, dcfcrt in fervice, &C. 
I do not deny but the changes produce a more eafy lapfe of num- 
bers, but they do not exhibit the work of Shakefpeare. JOHNSON. 
7 And go to duft, thai is a little gilt, 

. More laud than gilt o'er-dufied.] In this mangled condition do 
we find this truly fine obfervation tranfmitted in the old folios. 
Mr. Pope faw it was corrupt, and therefore, as I prefume, threw 
it out of the text ; becaufe he would not indulge his private fenfe 
in attempting to make fenfe of it. I owe the foundation of the 
amendment, which I have given to the text, to the fagacity of 
the ingenious Dr. Thirlby. I 'read : 

And give to duft, that is a little gilt, 

More laud than they will give to gold o'er-aufted. 




More laud than gilt o'er-dufted. 

The prefent eye praifes the prefent object : 

Then marvel not, thou great and complete man, 

That all the Greeks begin to worfhip Ajax ; 

Since things in motion fooner catch the eye, 

Than what not ftirs. The cry went once on thee, 

And ftill it might, and yet it may again, 

If thou wouldft not entomb thyfelf alive, 

And cafe thy reputation in thy tent ; 

Whofe glorious deeds, but in thefe fields of late, 

8 Made emulous miffions 'mongft the gods themfelves, 

And drave great Mars to faction. 
Achil. Of this my privacy 

I have ftrong reafons. 

Ulyjf. But 'gainft your privacy 

The reafons are more potent and hcroical : 

'Tis known, Achilles, that you are in love 

With one of Priam's daughters 9 . 
Achll. Ha ! known ? 
Ufyjf. Is that a wonder ? 

The providence that's in a watchful flate, 

This emendation has been adopted by the fucceeding editors, 
tut recedes too far from the copy. There is no other corruption 
than fuch as Shakefpeare's incorreclnefs often refembles. He 
has omitted the article to in the fecond line : he mould have 
written : 

More laud than to gilt o'er-diifted. JOHNSON. 

* Made emulous millions ] Mijfions for divijions^ i. e. goings 

out, on one fide and the other. WARBURTON. 

The meaning of miffion leems to be difjbatches of the gods from 
heaven about mortal bufinefs, fuch as often happened at the ficge 
of Troy. JOHNSON. 

It means the defcent of deities to combat on either fide ; an 
idea which Shakefpeare very probably adopted from Chapman's 
tranflation of Homer. In the fifth book Diomed wounds Mars, 
who on his return to heaven is rated by Jupiter for having inter- 
fered in the battle. This difobedience is the faflion which I 
fuppole Ulyfles would defcribe. STEEVENS. 

v one of Priam's daughters.] Polyxena, in the aft of mar- 
rying whom, he was afterwards killed by Paris. STEEVENS. 



* Knows almoft every grain of Pluto's gold ; 

Finds bottom in the uncomprehenfive deeps ; 

1 Keeps place with thought; and almoft, like the gods, 

Does thoughts unveil in their dumb cradles. 

There is a myftery ('with whom relation 

Durft never meddle) in the foul of ftate ; 

Which hath an operation more divine, 

Than breath, or pen, can give expreffure to : 

All the commerce that you have had with Troy, 

As perfectly is ours, as yours, my lord ; 

And better would it fit Achilles much, 

To throw down Hector, than Polyxena : 

But it muft grieve young Pyrrhus now at home, 

When fame mall in our iflands found her trump ; 

And all the Greekim girls fliall tripping fing, 

Great Heftor' s fifter did Achilles win ; 

But our great Ajax bravely beat down him. 

Farewell, my lord : I as your lover fpeak ; 

The fool Hides o'er the ice that you ftiould break. 


Patr. To this effect, Achilles, have I mov'd you ; 
A woman impudent and mannifh grown 
Is not more loath'd, than an effeminate man 
In time of adtion. I (land condemn'd for this ; 

1 Knows almojl&c.'] For this elegant line the quarto has only, 

Knows almoft every thing. JOHNSON. 

I think we fhould read, of Flutus' gold. So, Beaumont and Flet- 
cher's Pbilafter, ac~l IV : 

" 'Tis not the wealth of Pint us ^ nor the gold 

" Lock'd in the heart of earth" 

Itfliould be remember'd however, that mines of geld were an- 
ciently fuppofed to \>z guarded ly daemons. STEEVENS. 

* Keeps place with thought; ] i. e. there is in the provi- 
dence of a ftate, as in the providence of the univerie, a kind of 
ubiquity. The expreffion is exquifitely fine : yet the Oxford 
editor alters it to keeps pace, and fo deilroys all its beauty. 


1 ('Jjlth -ivbom relation 

Durft never meddle) ] There is a fecret adminiftra- 

tion of affairs, which no bljlory was ever able to diicover. 




They think, my little ftomach to the war, 
And your great love to me, reftrains you thus : 
Sweet, route yourfelf ; and the weak wanton Cupid 
Shall from your neck unloofe his amorous fold, 
And, like a dew-drop from the lion's mane, 
Be Ihook 4 to air. 

Mil Shall Ajax fight with Hector ? 

Patr. Ay ; and, perhaps, receive much honour by 

'AchiL I fee, my reputation is at flake ; 
My fame is fhrewdly gor'd. 

Patr. O, then beware ; 

Thofe wounds heal ill, that men do give themfelves: 
5 Omiflion to do what is neceflary 
Seals a commiffion to a blank of danger ; 
And danger, like an ague, fubtly taints 
Even then when we lit idly in the fun. 

Achil. Go call Therfites hither, fweet Patroclus : 
I'll fend the fool to Ajax, and defire him 
To invite the Trojan lords after the combat, 
To fee us here unarm'd : I have a woman's longing, 
An appetite that I am lick withal, 
To fee great Hedtor in his weeds of peace ; 
To talk with him, and to behold his vifage, 
Even to my full of view. A labour fav'd ! 

Enter tterftes. 

<Tber. A wonder ! 
Acbil. What? 

tttr. Ajax goes up and down the field, afking for 
AcW. Howfo? 

* to air.} So the quarto. The folio : 
. . to airy air. JOHNSON. 

5 OmiJJlon to do Sec.] By ncglefting our duty we commiflicn or 
enable that danger of diflionour, which could not reach us before, 
to lay hold upun us. JOHNSON. 


Ther. He muft fight fmgly to-morrow with Hector; 
and is fo prophetically proud of an heroical cudgel- 
ling, that he raves in faying nothing. 

Achil. How can that be ? 

Ther. Why, he ftalks up and down like a peacock, 
a ftride, and a Hand : ruminates, like an hoftefs, that 
hath no arithmetic but her brain to fet down her 
reckoning : bites his lip ' with a politic regard, as 
wholhould fay there were wit in this head, an 'twould 
out ; and fo there is; but it lies as coldly in him as 
fire in a flint, which will not Ihew without knocking. 
The man's undone for ever ; for if Hector break not 
his neck i'the combat, he'll break it himfelf in vain- 
glory. He knows not me : I faid, Good-morrow t 
Ajax; and he replies, Thanks* Agamemnon. What 
think you of this man, that takes me for the general? 
He's grown a very land-fiih, languagclefs, a monfter. 
A plague of opinion ! a man may wear it on both 
fides, like a leather jerkin. 

Achil. Thou muft be my embaffador to him, 

Ther, Who, I ? why, he'll anfwer no body ; he 
profeffes not anfwering ; fpeaking is for beggars ; he 
wears his tongue in his arms. I will put on his pre- 
fence ; let Patroclus make demands to me, you lhall 
fee the pageant of Ajax. 

Achil. To him, Patroclus: Tell him, I humbly 
defire the valiant Ajax, to invite the moft valorous 
Hector to come unarm'd to my tent ; and to procure 
fafe conduct for his perfon, of the magnanimous, and 
moft illuftrious, fix-or-feven-times-honour'd captain- 
general of the Grecian army, Agamemnon, &c. Do 

Pair. Jove blefs great Ajax ! 
' Tber. Hum! 

Pair. I come from the worthy Achilles. 

Tber. Ha! 

_ w // a politic r<gW, ] With a ffy look. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IX. H p atr . 


Pair. Who molt humbly defires you, to invite 
Hector to his tent. 

fher. Hum! 

Patr. And to procure fafe conduct from Aga- 

Ther. Agamemnon ? 

Patr. Ay, my lord. 

Mer. Ha ! 

Patr. What fay you to't ? 

Tber. God be wi'you, with all my heart. 

Patr. Your anfwer, fir. 

Yher. If to-morrow be a fair day, by eleven o'clock 
it will go one way or other ; howfocver, he lhall pay 
for me ere he has me. 

Patr. Your anfwer, fir. 

Ther. Fare you well, with all my heart. 

Acbil. Why, but he is not in this tune, is he ? 

her. No, but he's out o'tunc thus. What mufick 
will be in him when Hector has knock'd out his 
brains, I know not : But, I am fure, none ; unlefs the 
fidler Apollo get his finews to make catlings on f . 

jfrhil* Come, thou (halt bear a letter to him ftraight. 

ker. Let me bear another to his horfe ; for that's 
the more capable creature. 

Achil. My mind is troubled, like a fountain flirr'd; 
And I myfeif fee not the bottom of it. 

[Exeunt Admits, and Patrodus. 

Tker. 'Would the fountain of your mind were clear 
again, that I might water an afs at it ! I had rather 
be a tick in a iheep, than fuch a valiant ignorance. 


* . to make catlings on."] It lias been already obferved that 

a catling fignifies a fmall Jute-ftring made of catgut. One of the 
muficians ia Romeo and Juliet ig called Simon Catling. STEEVENS. 


A C T IV. S C E N E L 

A Jlreet in Trey. 

Enter at one door JEneas, and Servant, with a torch ; at 
another, Paris, Deiphobus, Antenor, and Diomed, &d 
with torches. 

Par. See, ho ! who is that there ? 

Dei. It is the lord ^Eneas. 

J&ne. Is the prince there in perfon ? 
Had I fo good occafion to lie long, 
As you, prince Paris, nought but heavenly bufinefs 
Should rob my bed-mate of my company. 

Dio. That's my mind too. - Good morrow, lord 

Par. A valiant Greek, ^Eneas ; take his hand : 
"VVitnefs the procefs of your fpeech, wherein 
You told how Diomed, a whole week by days, 
Did haunt you in the field. 

Mne. Health to you, valiant fir, 
* During all queflion of the gentle truce : 
But when I meet you arm'd, as black defiance, 
As heart can think, or courage execute. 

Dio. The one and other Diomed embraces. 
Our bloods are now in calm ; and, fo long, health : 
But when contention and occafion meet, 
By Jove, 1*11 play the hunter for thy life, 
With all my force, purfuit, and policy. 

JEne. * And thou ihalt hunt a lion, that will fly 


* During all queflion of the gentle truce: ~\ I once thought to 

During all quiet of the gentle truct. 

But I think queflion means intercourfe, interchange of converfa- 
tion. JOHNSON. 

3 And thou Jkalt bunt a lion, that will fly 

With hi f face back in humane gtntltnefi.~\ Thus Mr. Pope in 
H 2 hi 


With his face backward. In humane gentlencfs, 
Welcome to Troy ! now, by Anchifes' life, 
Welcome, indeed ! 4 By Venus' hand I fwear, 
No man alive can love, in fuch a fort, 
The thing he means to kill, more excellently. 

Dio. We fympathize : Jove, let JLneaslive, 

If to my fword his fate be not the glory, 
A thoufand complete courfes of the fun ! 
But, in mine emulous honour, let him die, 
With every joint a wound ; and that to-morrow T 

JEne. We know each other well. 

Dio. We do ; and long to know each other \vorfe. 

Par. This is the moft defpightful gentle greeting, 

The nobleft hateful love, that e'er I heard of. 

Whatbufinefs, lord, fo early ? 

jne. 1 was fent for to the king ; but why, I know 

Par. 5 His purpofe meets you ; 'Twas to bring this 

his great fagacity pointed this paflage in his firft edition, not de- 
viating from the error of the old copies. What conception he 
had to himfelf of a lion Jlying in humane gentlencfi, I will not pre- 
tend to affirm : I fuppofe he had the idea of as gently as a laml^ or, 
as what our vulgar call an Eflcx lion, a calf. If any other lion 
fly with his face. turned backward, it is fighting all the way as he 
retreats : and in this manner it is ^Eneas proteges that he lhall fly 
when he's hunted. But where then are the fymptoms of humane 
gentlenefs ? My correction of the pointing reltores good lenfc, 
and a proper behaviour in tineas. As foon as ever he has re- 
turned Diomedes' brave, he flops fhort, and corrects himfelf for 
e\-prening fo much fury in a time of truce; from the fierce fol- 
dier becomes the courtier at once ; and, remembering his enemy 
to be a gueft and an ainbaflador t welcomes him as fuch to the 
Trojan camp. THEOBALD. 

* By Fenus* hand I f:vear,"\ This oath was ufed to in- 

finuate his refentment lor Diomedes' wounding his mother in the 
hand. WAR BUR TON. 

I believe Sbakefpeare had no fuchallufion in his thoughts. He 
would hardly hare made yiineas civil and uncivil in the fame 
breath. STE EVENS. 

5 Hi f purpofe meets you ; ] I bring you his meaning and 
his orders. JoHi^soii. 



To Galenas' houfe ; and there to render him 
For the enfrccd Antenor, the fair Creffid : 
Let's have your company; or, if you pleafe, 
Hafte there before us : I conflantly do think, 
(Or, rather, call my 'thought a certain knowledge) 
My brother Troilus lodges there to-night ; 
Roufe him, and give him note of our approach, 
With the whole quality wherefore : I fear, 
We mall be much unwelcome. 

jEae. That I aflure you ; 
Troilus had rather Troy were borne to Greece, 
Than CreiTid borne from Troy. 

Par. There is no help ; 
The bitter difpofition of the time 
Will have it fo. On, lord ; we'll follow you. 

jEne. Good morrow, all. [/. 

Par. And tell me, noble Diomed ; 'faith, tell me 


Even in the foul of found good-fellowfhip, 
Who, in your thoughts, merits fair Helen beft, 
Myfelf, or Menelaus ? 

Dio. Both alike : 

He merits well to have Her, that doth feek her 
(Not making any fcruple of her foylure) 
With fuch a hell of pain, and world of charge ; 
And you as well to keep her, that defend her 
(Not palating the tafte of her diihonour) 
With fuch a coftly lofs of wealth and friends : 
He, like a puling cuckold, would drink up' 
The lees and dregs of 6 a flat tamed piece ; 
You, like a lecher, out of whorilh loins 
Are pleas'd to breed out your inheritors : 
7 Both merits pois'd, each weighs nor lefs nor more ; 
But he as he, the heavier for a whore. 


6 a flat tamed piece f\ i. e. a piece of wine out of which 
the fpirit is all flown. WAREURTON. 

7 Both merits pois'd, each weighs no lefs nor more ; 
Jlut be as be } which heavier for a where.] I read : 

H 3 But 


Par. You are too bitter to your country-woman. 

Dio. She's bitter to her country : Hear me, Paris, * 
For every falfe drop in her bawdy veins 
A Grecian's life hath funk ; for every fcruple 
Of her contaminated carrion weight, 
A Trojan hath been flam : fince fhe could fpeak, 
She hath not given fo many good words breath, 
As for her Greeks and Trojans fuffer'd death. 

Par. Fair Diomed, you do as chapmen do, 
Difpraife the thing that you defire to buy : 

But we in filence hold this virtue well, 

8 We'll not commend what we intend to fell. 

Here lies our way. . [Exeunt. 

S C E N E II. 

Pandarus* koufe. 
Enter Troilus, and Crejfida, 
J'rol. Dear, trouble notyourfelf ; the morn is cold. 

But he a? he, each heavier for a whore. 

Heavy is taken both for weighty , and for fad or mifcrabh. The 
quarto reads : 

But he as he, the heavier for a whore. 

I know not whether the thought is not that of a wager. It muft 
then be rend thus : 

But he as he. Which heavier for a whore ? 
That is; for a ivkore ftiked down, which is the heavier. 

As the quarto reads, 

the heavier for a whore. 

I think all new pointing or alteration unncceflhry. The fenfe ap- 
pears to be this : the merits of either are funk in value, becaufc 
tjie contefi bptween them is only for a ftrumpet. STEEVEN-S. 

* MVllnot commend what *ve intend to/-//.] I believe the mean- 
ing is only this : though you pradife the buyer's art, we will not 
pra&ifc tbc feller's. We intend to fell Helen dear, yet will not 
commend her. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Warburton would read, not fell. STEEVENS. 
The fenfe, I think, requires we fhould read condemn. 




Cre. Then, fweet my lord, I'll call my uncle do;vn ; 
He fhall unbolt the gates. 

Trot. Trouble him not ; 
To bed, to bed : 9 Sleep kill thofe pretty eyes, 
And give as foft attachment to thy fenfes, 
As infants' empty of all thought ! 

Cre. Good morrow then. 

Trot. I pr'ythee now, to bed. 

Cre. Are you aweary of me ? 

froi. O Creffida ! but that the bufy day, 
Wak'd by the lark, has rouz'd the ribald crows, 
And dreaming; night will hide our joys no longer, 
I would not from thee. 

Cre. Night hath been too brief. 

7ra. Befhrew the witch ! with venomous wights 

fhe ftays, 

1 As tedioufly as hell ; but flies the grafps of love, 
With wings more momentary-fwift than thought. 
You will catch cold, and curfe me. 

Cre. Pr'ythee, tarry ; you men will never tarry. 

foolifh Creffida ! I might have ftill held off,' 
And then you would have tarry'd. Hark ! there's 

one up. 

Pan. [within] What's all the doors open here ? 
Troi. It is your uncle. 

Enter Pandarus *. 

Cre. A peftilence on him ! now will he be mocking : 

1 lhall have fuch a life, 


9 Sleep kill ] So the old copies. The moderns have : 

Sleep feal JOHNSON. 

1 At icdioujly ] The folio has : 

As hideoutly as bell. JOHNSON. 

2 Enter Pandarus.] The hint for the following fhort converfa- 
tion between Pandarus and Creffida is taken from Chaucer's Troi- 
I'tsandCreJJeide, book 3. .'1561. 

H 4 " Pan- 


Pan. How now, how now ? how go maidenr 
heads ? Here, you maid ! where's my coufin Cref- 

Cre. Go hang you rfelf, you naughty mockinguncle ! 
You bring me to do J , and then you flout me too. 

Pan. To do what ? to do what ? let her fay what : 
What have I brought you to do ? 

Cre. Come, come; befhrew your heart! you'll 

ne'er be good, 
Nor fuffer others. 

Pan. Ha, ha 1 Alas, poor wretch ! * a poor capoc- 
chia ! haft not flept to-night ? would he not, a 
naughty man, let it fleep ? a bugbear take him ! 

[Ons knocks. 

Cre. Did not I tell you ? 'would he were knock'd 

o' the head! 
Who's that a: door ? good uncle, go and fee. - 

" Pandare, a morowe which that commin was 

" Unto his neci gan her faire to gvete, 
" And faied all this night fo rained it alas! 
" That all my drede is, that ye, nece fwetc, 
" Have little leifir had to flepe and mete, 

** All night (quod he) hath rain fo do me \vake ? 
" That forae of us I trowe ther hcddis ake. 

5' Crefleide anfwerde, nevir the bet for you, 
' *' Foxe that ye ben, God yeve your herte care * 

*' God helpe me fo, ye caulid all this fare, &c." 


3 to do, ] To do is here ufcd in a wanton fenfe. So, 

5n the Taming of a Shrew > Petruchio fays.- " I would fain be 
</<>/." Again, "in AWs -iv?//, &:c. Lafeu declares that he is pail 
doing. COLLINS. 

*. a itoor chipochia ! ] This word, I am afraid, has 

fuSered Under the ignorance of the editors ; for it is a word in no 
living language that I can find. Pandarus fays it to his niece, in a 
jeering fort ot tendernefs. He would fay, I think, in Englifii 
Poor innocent ! Poor fool ! hajt notJJept fo-n:ght ? Thefe appel- 
lations are very well anf'.vercd by the Italian word cafoccbio: tor 
capoccbio lignifies the thick K&d of a club ; and thence metapho- 
rically, a head of not much brain, a lot, dullard, heavy gull. 




My lord, come you again into my chamber : 

You fmile, and mock me, as if I meant naughtily. 

STVw. Ha, ha ! 

Cre. Come, you are deceivM, I think of no fuch 


How earnestly they knock ! pray you, come in; 

I would not for half Troy have you feen here.[.Exw;tf f 

Pan. Who's there ? what's the matter ? will you 
beat down the door ? How now ? what's the matter ? 

Enter JLneas, 

Jne. Good morrow, lord, good morrow. 

Pan. Who's there ? my lord ^Eneas ? By mv troth, 
I knew you not : What news with you fo early ? 

jEne. Is not prince Troilus here ? 

Pan. Here ! what fhould he do here ? 

Mne. Come, he is here, my lord, do not deny him ; 
Jt doth import him much, to fpeak with me. 

Pan. Is he here, fay you ? 'tis more than I know, 
I'll be fworn : For my own part, I came in late : 
What fhould he do here ? 

sEne. Who ! nay, then :--^ 

Come, come, you'll do him wrong ere you are 'ware : 

You'll be fo true to him, to be falfe to him : 

Do not you know of him, but yet fetch him hither ; 


As Pandarus is going out, enter Trottus* 

Tiroi, How now ? what's the matter ? 

JEne. My lord, I fcarce have Icifure to falute you, 
My 5 matter is fo rafli : There is at hand 
Paris your brother, and Deiphobus, 

5 matter is fo rafh : ] My bufinefs is fo hafiy and fo 

abrupt. JOHNSON. 

Sp, in K. Henry IV. p. II. 

or ralh gunpovjdtr. STEVENS, 



The Grecian Diomed, and our Antenor 
*Deliver'd to us; and for him forthwith, 
Ere thefirft facrifice, within this hour, 
We muft give up to Diomedes' hand 
The lady Crcflkh. 

Tro. Is it concluded fo ? 

j&ne. By Priam, and the general flate of Troy : 
They are at hand, end ready to effect it. 

Trot. How my achievements mock me.! 
I will go meet them : and, my lord ./Eneas, 
We met by chance; you did not find me here. 

Jne. Good, good, my lord ; 7 the fecrets of 

neighbour Pandar 
Have not more gift in taciturnity. 

\_Exeunt Troilus, and Aeneas. 

Pan. Is't poffible ? no fooner got, but loft ? The 
devil take Antenor ! the young prince will go mad. 
A plague upon Antenor! I would, they had brake's 

Enter Cre/ida. 

Cre. How now ? What is the matter ? Who was 
here ? 

* Delivered fo us ; &c ] So the folio. The quarto thus : 

Delivered to him, and forthwith. JOHNSON. 
7 the fecrets ot nature, 

Have not more gift in taciturnity .] This is the reading of 
both the elder folios : but the firft vcrfe manifeftly halts, and be- 
trays its being defective. Mr. Pope fubftitutes : 

the fecrfts of neighbour Pandar. 

If this be a reading codicum (as he profefTesall his various 
readings tube) it is founded on the credit offuch copies, as h has 
rot fortune to meet with. I have ventured to make out 
the verfe' thus t 

The fecret'ft things of nature, &c. 

i. r. the nrcann naiur^^ the myfteries of nature, of occult philo- 
fophy, or of religious ceremonies. Our poet has allufions of this 
fart in leveral other pailages; THEOBALD. 

Mr. I'^pe's reading is iu the old quarto. So great is theneoefiity 
pf collation. Jonr.'io.v. 


Pan. Ah, ah! 

Cre. Why figh you fo profoundly ? where's my 

lord ? gone ? 
Tell me, fvveet uncle, what's the matter ? 

Pan. 'Would I were as deep under the earth, as I 
am above ! 

Cre. O the gods ! what's the matter ? 

Pan. Pr'ythee, get thee in ; Would thou had'ft ne'er 
been born ! I knew, thou wouldft be his death : 

poor gentleman ! A plague upon Antenor ! 
Cre. Good uncle, I befeech you on my knees, 

1 befeech you, what's the matter ? 

Pan. Thou muft be gone, wench, thou muft be 
gone ; thou art chang'd for Antenor : thou muft to 
thy father, and be gone from Troilus ; 'twill be his 
death ; 'twill be his bane ; he cannot bear it. 

Cre. O you immortal gods ! I will not go. 

Pan. Thou muft. 

Cre. I will not, uncle : I have forgot my father ; 
I know no touch of confanguinity ; 
No kin, no love, no blood, no foul fo near me, 
As the fweet Troilus. O you gods divine ! 
Make Creffid's name the very crown of falfhood, 
If everfhe leave Troilus ! Time, force, and death, 
Do to this body what extremes you can ; 
But the ftrong bafe and building of my love 
Is as the very center of the earth, 
Drawing all things to it. I'll go in, and weep, 

Pan. Do, do. 

Cre. Tear my bright hair, and fcratch my praifed 

cheeks ; 

Crack my clear voice with fobs, and break my heart 
With founding Troilus. I will not go from Troy. 





Before Pandarus' koufe 
Enter Paris, Trollus, jEneas, Diomedes, csV. 

Par. It is great morning 8 ; and the hour prehVd 
Of her delivery to this valiant Greek 
Comes fail upon : Good my brother Troilus, 
Tell you the lady what Ihe is to do, 
And hafte her to the purpofc. 

Trot. Walk in to her houfe ; 
I'll bring her to the Grecian prefcntly : 
And to his hand when I deliver her, 
Think it an altar ; and thy brother Troilus 
A prieft, there offering to it his own heart. [Exit Troi. 

Par. I know what 'tis to love ; 
And 'would, as I fliall pity, I could help ! 
Pleafe you, walk in, my lords. [Exeunt, 


An apartment hi Pandarus 9 hottfe* 
Enter Pandarus, and Crejida* 

Pan. Be moderate, be moderate. 
Ore. 'Why tell you me of moderation ? 
9 The grief is fine, full, perfect, that I taftc, 


* great morning ; ] Grand jour ; a Gallicifm. 

. Tit grief tec."] The folio reads : 

ne grief ii fine ^ fullperfefl, that I ta/lc t 

And no lefs in aftnfe a> Jlrong 

As that which caufcth it. 

The quarto otherwife : 

7 'be grief is fine, full, prrfcfl, that I ttiflc^ 

And violenteth in afci/fe as Jlrong 

jif that ivbiib caufetb it. . 


And violenteth in a fenfe as flrong 

As that which caufeth it : How can I moderate k ? 

If I could temporize with my affection, 

Or brew it to a weak and colder palate, 

The like allayment could I give my grief: 

My love admits no qualifying drofs ; 

No more my grief, in fuch a precious lofs. 

Enter Troilus. 

Pan. Here, here, here he comes. Ah fwcet ducks ? 
Cre. O Troilus ! Troilus ! 

Pan. What a pair of fpcctacles is here ! Let me 
embrace too : heart, as the goodly faying is,- 

o heart, o heavy heart) 

IVkyfigUft thou without breaking ? 
where he anfwers again, 

Becaufe thou canft not eafe thy fmart, 

By friendjlrip) nor by fpeaking. 

There never was a truer rhyme. Let us call away 
nothing, for we may live to have need of fuch a verfe j 
we fee it, we fee it, How now, lambs ? 

Troi. Creffid, I love thee in fo ' ftrain'd a purity, 
That the bleft gods as angry with my fancy, 
More bright in zeal than the devotion which 
Cold lips blow to their deities take thee from me* 

ytolentetb is a word with which I am not acquainted, yet perhaps 
it may be right. The reading of the text is without authority. 


I have followed the quarto. Violencetb is ufed by Ben Jonfon 
in The Devil is an Afs : 

" Nor nature violencetb in both thefe." 

and Mr. Toilet has fince furnifted me with this verbasfpelt in the- 
play of Shakefpeare : " His former adverfaries violtnted ^any thing 
againft him." Fuller's W^ortbies^ in Anglefca* 
The modern reading was : 

And in its fenfe is no lefs Jlroxg, than that 

IVh-cb caufetb it. STEEVEKS. 

1 ftrain'd ] So the quarto. The folio and all the mo- 
derns have Jlrange. JOHNSON. 



Cre. Have the gods envy ? 

Pan. Ay, ay, ay, ay ; 'tis too plain a cafe. 

Cre. And is it true, that I muft go from Troy ? 

froi. A hateful truth. 

Cre. What, and from Troilus too ? 

Troi. From Troy, and Troilus. 

Cre. Is it poffible ? 

Irol. And fu'ddenly ; where injury of chance 
Puts back leave-taking, juflles roughly by 
All time of paufe, rudely beguiles our lips 
Of all rejoindure, forcibly prevents 
Our lock'd embrafures, ftrangles our dear vows 
Even in the birth of our own labouring breath : 
We two, that with fo many thoufand fighs 
Did buy each other, muft poorly fell ourfelves 
With the rude brevity and difcharge of one. 
Injurious time now, with a robber's hafte, 
Crams his rich thievery up, he knows not how : 
As many farewels as be flars in heaven, 
With diftincl: breath and confign'd kifTes to them, 
He fumbles up into a loofe adieu ; 
And fcants us with a fingle familh'd kifs, 
Diftafted with the fait of broken tears. 

Aeneas [within.'] My lord ! is the lady ready ? 

Troi. Hark ! you are call'd : Some fay, the Genius fo 
Cries, Come ! to him that inftantly muft die. 
Bid them have patience; Ihe lhall come anon. 

Pan. Where are my tears ? rain, to lay this wind, 
Or my heart will be blown up by the root. [Exit Pan. 

Cre. I muft then to the Grecians ? 

fra. No remedy. 

Cre. A woeful Creffid 'mongft the merry Greeks* ! 
When lhall we fee again ? 

* A woeful Creffid 'mongji the merry Greeks !] So, in A mad 
World my Mafters, 1640, a man gives the watchmen fome money, 
and when they have received it he fays : " the mtrry Greeks un- 
derftand me,'* STEEVEXS, 



Troi. Hear me, my love : Be thou but true of 

Cr-c. I true ! how now ? what wicked deem is this ? 

Troi.- Nay, we muft ufe expoftulation kindly, 

For it is parting from us : 

1 fpeak not, be thou true, as fearing thee ; 
3 For I will throw my glove to death himfclf, 
That there's no maculation in thy heart : 
But, be thou true, fay I, to fafhion in 
My fequent protection ; be thou true, 
And I will fee thee. 

Cre. O, you lhall be expos'd, my lord, to danger* 
As infinite as imminent ! but, I'll be true. 

Troi. And I'll grow friend with danger. Wear 
this fleeve. 

Cre. And you this glove. When mall I fee you ? 

Troi. I will corrupt the Grecian centinels, 
To give thee nightly vifitation. 
But yet, be true. 

Cre. O heavens ! be true, again ? 

Troi. Hear why I fpeak it, love : The Grecian 


Are well compos'd, with gifts of nature flowing, 
And fvveHing o'er with arts and exercife ; 
How novelties may move, and parts 4 with perfon, 
Alas, a kind of godly jealoufy 
(Which, I befeech you, call a virtuous fin) 
Makes me afeard. 

Cre. O heavens ! you love me not. 

Troi. Die I a villain then ! 
In this I do not call your faith in queftion, 
So mainly as my merit : I cannot ling, 

3 Far I will throw my glove to death ] That is, I wiil 

challenge death himfelf in defence of thy fidelity. JOHNSON. 

* with perfon^] Thus the folio. The quarto reads, 

with portion, STKEVENS. 



Nor heel the high lavolt 5 , nor fvveeten talk, 
Nor play at fubtle games ; fair virtues all, 
To which the Grecians are moft prompt and preg- 
nant : 

But I can tell, that in each grace of thefe 
There lurks a {till and dumb-difcourfive devil, 
That tempts moft cunningly : but be not tempted* 

Cre. Do you think, I will ? 

froi. No. 

But fomething may be done, that we will not : 
And fometimes we are devils to ourfelves, 
When we will tempt the frailty of our powers, 
Prefummg on their changeful potency. 

JEneas [within.'] Nay, good my lord, 

2V0/. Come, kifs ; and let us part. 

Paris [within.'] Brother Troilus ! 

froi. Good brother, come yon hither ; 
And bring ^Eneas, and the Grecian, with you. 

Cre. My lord, will you be true ? 

I'm. Who I ? alas, it is my vice, my fault : 
While others fifh with craft for great opinion, 
I with great truth 6 catch mere fimplicity ; 
Whilft ibme with cunning gild their copper crowns x 
With truth and plainnefs I do wear mine bare. 
Fear not my truth ; 7 the moral of my wit 
Is plain, and true, there's all the reach of it. 


the high lavolt,] The la-jolta was a dance. It is elfe- 

where mentioned, where feveral examples are given. STEEVENS. 

6 ... . catch mere fmplicity ; ] The meaning, I think, is, while 
others, by their art, gain high eftimation, I, by honeity, obtain 
a plain fimple approbation. JOHNSON. 

7 the moral of my wit 

Is plain, and true, ] That is, the governing principle of 

ny undemanding ; but I rather think we fhoulJ read : 
the motto of my ivit 

Is, plain and true JOHNSON. 

Surely moral in this inftance has the fame meaning as in Much 
Ado about Nothing, aft III. fc. iv. 

" Bene- 


Enter &neas, Paris, and Diomed. 

Welcome, fir Diomcd ! here is the lady* 
Whom for Antenor we deliver you : 
At the port ', lord, I'll give her to thy hand 
And, by the way, * poilefs thee what ihe is. 
Entreat her fair ; and, by my foul, fair Greek> 
If e'er thou ftand at mercy of my fword, 
Name Creffid, and thy life {hall be as fafe 
As Priam is in Ilion. 

Dio. Fair lady Creffid, 

So pleafe you, fave the thanks this prince expects J 
The Inflre in your eye, heaven in your cheek, 
Pleads your fair ufage; and to Diomed 
You fhall be miftrefs, and command him wholly. 

Srw". Grecian, thou doft not ufe me eourteoufly, 
3 To lhame the zeal of my petition to thee, 
In praifing her : I tell thee, lord of Greece, 
She is as far high-foaring o'er thy praifes, 
As thou unworthy to be call'd her fervant. 

" Benediftus ! why Benediftus ? you have fome moral in this 

Again, in the Taming of a Shrew, aft IV. fc. iv. 

" he has left me here behind to expound the meaning or 

moral rf his figns and tokens." TOLI.ET. 

1 At the port, ] The port is the gates. STEEVENS. 

1 poflefs tbee vjbat fuc is.} I will make thee fully under- 

Jtand. This fenfe of the word pojjefs is frequent in our author. 


3 T'ojbame the feal of my petition towards tbce, 

By fraijing her. ] To Jhame the feal of a petition 13 

nonfenfe. Shakefpeare wrote : 

Tojbame the zeal 

and the fenfe is this: Grecian, you ufe me difcourteoufly ; you fee 
I am a pajjionate lover by my petition to you ; and therefore you 
fhould not ftiame the zeal of it, by promising to do what I require 
of you, for the fake of her beauty: when, if you had good man- 
ners, or a fenfe of a lover's deficacy, you would have promifed 
to do it in compaffion to his fangs andfu-fferings. WAREURTOX. 

VOL. IX. I I charg* 


I charge thee, ufe her well, even for my charge; 
For, by the dreadful Pluto, if thou doft not, 
Though the great bulk Achilles be thy guard, 
I'll cut thy throat. 

Dio. O, be not mov'd, prince Troilus : 
Let me be privileg'd by my place, and meffage, 
To be a fpeaker free ; when I am hence, 
I'll anfwer to + my luft : And know you, lord, 
I'll nothing do on charge : to her own worth 
She lhall be priz'd ; but that you fay be't fo, 
I fpeak it in my fpirit and honour, no. 

Trot. Come, to the port. I'll tell thce, Diomed, 
This brave fhall oft make thee to hide thy head. 
Lady, give me your hand ; and, as we walk, 
To our own felves bend we our needful talk. 

[Exeunt Troilus and CreJJid. Sound trumpet. 

Par. Hark ! Hedtor's trumpet. 

jEne. How have we fpent this morning ! 
The prince muft think me tardy and remifs, 
That fwore to ride before him to the field. 

Par. 'Tis Troilus' fault : Come, come, to field 
with him. 

5 Dio. Let us-make ready ftraight. 

Mne. Yea, with a bridegroom's frefh alacrity, 
Let us addrefs to tend on Hector's heels : 
The glory of our Troy doth this day lie 
On his fair worth, and fingle chivalry. [Exeunt. 

*_ my lift : ] This I think is right, though both the old 

copies read luft. JOHNSON. 

What is the difference, in our old writers, between litft and lift ? 


$ Die."] Thefe five lines are not in the quarto, being pro- 
bably added at the revifion. JOHNSON. 




'The Grecian Camp. 

Enter Ajax arm'h Agamemnon, Achilles, Patrochs, Me- 
sy Ufyffes, Nejlor, &c. 

Aga. Here art thou in appointment frefh an<i fair, 
Anticipating time with ftarting courage. 
Give with thy trumpet a loud note to Troy, 
Thou dreadful Ajax ; that the appalled air 
May pierce the head of the great combatant, 
And hale him hither. 

Ajax. Thou, trumpet, there's my purfe. 
Now crack thy lungs, and fplit thy brazen pipe : 
Blow, villain, 'till thy fphered 6 bias cheek 
Out-fwell the cholic of pufFd Aquilon : 
Come, ftretch thy cheft, and let thy eyes fpout blood ; 
Thou blow'ft for He&or. 

Ulyjf. No trumpet anfwers. 

AchiL 'Tis but early days. 

Aga. Is not yon Diomed, with Calchas' daughter ? 

Ufyfi 'Tis he, I ken the manner of his gait; 
He riles on his toe ; that fpirit of his 
In afpiration lifts him from the earth. 

Enter Diomed, with Crejfida* 

Aga. Is this the lady Creflida ? 
Dio. Even Ihe. 

Ago* Moil dearly welcome to the Greeks, fweet 

6 lias cheek] Swelling out like the bias of a bowl. 

So, in Vittoria Coromlona, or the White Devil, 1612 : 

** - 'Faith his check 

" Has a moft excellent lias" - STSEVENS. 

I 2 -Nell. 


Neft. OUT general doth falute you with a kifs. 

Ulyfll Yet is the kindnefs but particular ; 
Twere better, fhe were kifs'd in general. 

Nejl. And very courtly counfel : Til begin. 

So much for Neftor. 

AcblL I'll take that winter from your lips, fair lady : 
Achilles bids you welcome. 

Men. I had good argument for kifling once. 

Patr. But that's no argument for kifling now : 
For thus popp'd Paris in his hardiment; 
And parted thus you and your argument. 

Ulvff. O deadly gall, and theme of all our fcorns ! 
For which we lofe our heads, to gild his horns. 

Patr. The firlt was Menelaus' kifs ; this, mine : 
Patroclus kifles you. 

Men. O, this is trim ! 

Patr. Paris, and I, kifs evermore for him. 

Men. I'll have my kifs, fir : Lady, by your 


Cre. In kifling, do you render, or receive ? 

Patr. 7 Both take and give. 

Cre. 8 I'll make my match to live, 
The kifs you take is better than you give; 
Therefore no kifs. 

Men. I'll give you boot, I'll give you three for one. 

Cre. You're an odd man ; give even, or give none. 

Men. An odd man, lady ? every man is odd. 

Cre. No, Paris is not ; for, you know, 'tis true, 
That you are odd, and he is even with you. 

Men. You fillip me o' the head. 

Cre. No, I'll be fworn. 

7 Both take antt give,] This fpeech ftvould rather be given to 
Menelaus. TY&WHITT. v 

* rilmakt my mau-h to live."] I will make fuch largalns as I may 
lire by,fucb at may bring me profit ^ therefore will not take a worfe 
kifs than I give, JOHNSON. 

J believe this only means/*// lay my life. TYRWHITT. 


Uhf. It were no match, your nail againft his horn. 
May I, fweet lady, beg a kifs of you ? 

Cre. You may. 

Ulyf. I do defire it. 

Cre. 9 Why, beg then. 

Ulvfl*. Why then, for Venus* fake, give me a kifs, 
When 'Helen is a maid again, and his. 

Cre. I am your debtor, claim it when 'tis due. 

Ufyjf. * Never's my day, and then a kifs of you. 

Dio. Lady, a word j I'll bring you to your father. 
[Diomed leads out Creffida. 

Nefl. A woman of quick fenfe. 

Ulyff. Fie, fie upon her ! 

There's language in her eye, her cheek, her lip, 
Nay, her foot fpeaks ; her wanton fpirits look, out 
At every joint and 2 motive of her body. 
O, thefe encounterers, fo glib of tongue, 
That give J a coafting welcome ere it comes, 
And wide unclafp the tables of their thoughts 
To every ticklifh reader ! fet them down 
For 4 fluttifh fpoils of opportunity, 

9 JlTy, leg tben.~\ For the fake of rhime we (hould read : 

Wljy beg two. 

If you think kifles worth begging, beg more thnn one. JOHXSON-. 
1 Never's my day, and then a klfe ofyou.~\ I once gave both thele 
lines to Creffida. She bids Ulyfles beg a kits j he aiks that he may 
have it : 

Wlien Helen is a maid again 

She teHs him that then he fhall have it : 
When Helen is a maid again 

Cre. I am your debtor, claim It ivben 'tis due ; 
Never's my day, andthtn a k : fs for you. 

But I rather think that Ulyfles means to ilight her, and that the 
prefent reading is right. JOHNSON. 

* motive of her loJy.] Motive for part that contributes to 

motion. JOHNSON. 

3 a coajling ] An amorous addrefs ; courtfhip. 


4 Jluttijb fpolh of opportunity,] Corrupt wenches, of whofe 
chaftity every opportunity may make a prey. JOHNSON. 

I 3 And 


And daughters of the game. [Trumpet within. 

AIL The Trojans' trumpet ! 
Aga. Yonder comes the troop. 

Enter Heffor, sEneas, Troilus, &c. with attendants. 

Mm. Hail, all the ftateof Greece ! What fliall be 

done to him 

That victory commands ? Or do you purpofe, 
A victor lhall be known ? will you, the knights 
Shall to the edge of all extremity 
Purfue each other ; or (hall they be divided 
By any voice or order of the field ? 
Hedtor bade afk. 

A%a Which way would Hector have it ? 

JEne* He cares not, he'll obey conditions. 

Aga* s 'Tis done like Hector ; but fecurely done, 

A little 

5 'Tis done like Hetfor ; lut fecurely done^\ In the fenfe of the 
Latin, fecurus fecurus admodum de hello, animi fccuri homo. A 
negligent fecurity arifing from a contempt of the object oppofed. 


Dr. Warburton truly obferves, that the word fecurely is here 
vifed in the Latin fenfe : and Mr. Warner, in his ingenious letter 
to Mr. Garrick, thinks this fenfe peculiar to Shakefpeare, " for, 
fays he, I have not been able to trace it elfewhere." This gentle- 
man has treated me with fo much civility, that I am bound in ho- 
nour to remove his difficulty. 

It is to be found in the lafl ait of the Spatujb Tragedy : 
" O damned devil ! \\o\v fe^ure he is." 

In my lord Bacon's Effay on Tumults, " neither let any prince 
or ftate be fccure concerning difcontents." And befides thefe, in 
Drayton, Fletcher, and the vulgar tranflation of the Bible. 

Mr. Warner had as little fuccefs in his refearches for the word 
religion in its Latin acceptation. I meet with it however in Hoby's 
tranflation of Cafiilio, 1561 : " Some be fo fcrupulous, as it were, 
with a religion of this their Tufcane tung." 

Ben Jonfon more than once ufes both thejitl/tarttivt and the ad- 
jeftive in this fenfe. 

As to the word Cavalero^ with the Spanifli termination, it is to 
be found in Heywood, Withers, Davies, Taylor, and many other 
writers. FARMER. 



A little proudly, and great deal mifprizing 
The knight oppos'd. 

Mne. If not Achilles, fir, 
What is your name ? 
Acbll. If not Achilles, nothing. 

Mm. Therefore Achilles : But, whatever, know 

this ; 

- In the extremity of great and little, 
6 Valour and pride excel themfelves in Hector; 
The one almoft as infinite as all, 
The other blank as nothing. Weigh him well, 
And that, which looks like pride, is courtefy. 
This Ajax is half made of Hector's blood ; 
In love whereof, half Hector ftays at home ; 
Half heart, half hand, half Hector comes to feek 
This blended knight, half Trojan, and half Greek. 

AckiL A maiden battle then ? O, I perceive you. 

Re-enter Diomed. 

Aga. Here is fir Diomed : Go, gentle knight, 
Stand by our Ajax : as you and lord jSneas 
Confent upon the order of their fight, 
So be it ; either to the uttcrmoft, 
pr elfe a breath : the combatants being kin, 

Aga. "Tis dnnc like Heflor, but fecurely done, ~\ It feems abfurd 
to me, that Agamemnon ihould make a remark to the difparage- 
jnent of Hettor for pride, and that jEneas (hould immediately 
fay, If not Achilles, Jtr t ivbat is your name? To Achilles I have 
ventured to place it; and confulting Mr. Dryden's alteration of 
this play, I was not a little pleated to find, that I had but ','econd- 
ed the opinion of that great man in this po ; nt. THEOBALD. 

As the old copies agree, I have made no change. JOHNSON. 

7 Valour and pride excel tbeK/cives i'i Hffior ; ] Shakefp^ 
thought is not exactly deduced." Nicety of expreffion is not'his 
character. The meaning is- pUyn : ** Valour (fays JEaeas) is in 
Hettor greater than valour in other men, and pride iu Hector 
is lei's than pride in other men. So that He<5lor is diftin- 
guilhed by the excellence of having pride lefs than^ride, 
and valour more than other valour." JOHNSON. 

I 4 Half 


Half flints their ftrife before their ftrokes begin. 

Uh[[. They are oppos'd already. 

Aga. WhatTrojan is that fame that looks fo heavy ? 

UJvf. The youngeft fon of Priam, a true knight ; 
Not yet mature, yet matchlefs ; firm of word ; 
Speaking in deeds, and deedlefs in his tongue ; 
Not foon provok'd,nor, being provok'd, foon calm'd : 
His heart and hand both open, and both free ; 
For what he has, he gives, what thinks, he fhews ; 
Yet gives he not 'till judgment guide his bounty. 
Nor dignifies 8 an impair thought with breath : 
Manly as Hedtor, but more dangerous ; 
For Hedtor, in his bhzc of wrath, 9 fubfcribes 
To tender objedts ; but he, in heat of action, 
Is more vindicative than jealous love : 
They call him Troilus ; and on him ercdl 
A fecond hope, as fairly built as Hedtor. 
Thus fays JEneas ; one that knows the youth 
Even to his inches, and, with private foul, 
Pid in great Ilicn ' thus translate him to me, 

[Alarum. Hcttor and Ajax fgkt^ 
. They are in adtion. 
L Now, Ajax, hold thine o\vn f 
A Htr.or, thou fleep'ft, awake thce ! 

Aga. His blows are well difpos'd : there, Ajax ! 

[Trumpets ceafe. 

* an impair thought ] A thought unfuitable to the 

dignity of his character. This word I fliould have changed to /'/- 
furc, were 1 not over-powered by the unanimity of the editors, 
and concurrence of the old copies. JOHNSON. 

So, in Chapman's preface to his tranilation of the Shield of Ho- 
mer ^ 1598 : ' nor is it more impairs to an honeft and abfo- 

Jute man, &c.'* STEEVENS. 

9 Hefior futyl-nbes 

To tender otyffls; ] That is, yields ^ gives way. JOHNSON. 

Bo, in K. Lear, fubfiriVd his power, i. e. fubmitted. 


| .I. tbui tranflatc him to we,] Thus explain his cbaratfer % 



Dio. You muft no more. 

sEne. Princes, enough, fo pleafe you. 

Ajax. I am not warm yet, let us fight again. 

jD/o. As He&or pleafes. 

HeSl. Why then, will I no more : 
Thou art, great lord, my father's filler's fon, 
A coufin-german to great Priam's feed ; 
The obligation of our blood forbids 
A gory emulation 'twixt us twain : 
Were thy commixtion Greek and Trojan fb, 
That thou could'ft fay This hand is Grecian all t 
And this is 'Trojan; the fviews of this leg 
All Greek, and this allTr \ ; my mother' 's bkod 
Runs mi the dexter cheek, and this finifter 
Bounds-in my father's ; by Jove multipotent, 
Thou ihouldrt not bear from me a Greekifh member 
Wherein my fword had n. t impreffure made 
Of our rank feud : But the juft gods gainfay, 
That any drop thou borrow'ft from thy mother, 
My facred aunt, Ihould by my mortal fword 
Be drain'd ! Let me embrace thee, Ajax : 
By him that thunders, thou halt lufty arms ; 
Hector would have them fall upon him. thus : 
Coufin, all honour to thee ! 

Ajax. I thank thee, Hector : 
Thou art too gentle, and too free a man : 
I came to kill thee, coufin, and bear hence 
A great addition earned in thy death. 

Heft. * Not Neoptolemus fo mirable 


* Not Ncoptolemps fo mirable 

(On whofe bright creft^ Fame, ivlth her loucPft O yes, 
Cries, This is he ;) could promife to bimfclf&ic.'} That is to fay, 
** Yoij, an old veteran warrior, threaten to kill me, when not 
the young fon of Achilles (who is yet to ferve his apprentifage in 
\var, under the Grecian generals, and on that account called 
No7rl^e/A-) dare himfelf entertain fuch a thought." But Shake- 
fpcare meant another fort of man, as is evident from, 
On wbofe bright err/?, &C, 


(On whofe bright creft Fame with her loud'ft O yes 
Cries, This is he) could promife to himfelf 

A thought 

which charadterifes one who 'goes foremoft and alone ; and can 
therefore fuit only one, which one was Achilles, as Shakefpeare 
himfelf has drawn him : 

The great Achilles, whom 'opinion crowns 

The finew and the forehand of our kojl. 
And, again : 

IPbefe glorious deeds but in thefe fields of late 

Made emulous miffions 'mongft the gods tbemfdvcs, 

And drove great Mars to faflion. 

And indeed the fenfe and fpirit of Hector's fpeech requires that 
the moft celebrated of his adverfaries fhould be picked out to be 
defied; and this was Achilles, with whom Hector had his final 
affair. We muft conclude then that Shakefpeare wrote : 

Not Neoptolemus's fire irafcible, 

On whofe bright creft 

'Jrafcllle is an old fchool term, and is an epithet fluting his cha- 
racter, and the circum fiances he was then in : 

" Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer." 

But our editor, Mr. Theobald, by his objlure diligence, had found 
out that Wynken de Worde, in the old chronicle of The three 
DeJlrucTions of Troy, introduces one Neoptolemus into the ten 
years. quarrel, a perfon diftindt from the fon of Achilles; and 
therefore will have it, that Shakefpeare here means no other than 
the Neoptolemus of this worthy chronicler. He was told, to no 
purpofe, that this fancy wr.s nbfurd. For firft, Wynken's Neopto- 
lemus is a common-rate warrior, and fo defcribed as not to fit the 
character here given. Secondly, it is not to be imagined that the 
poet {hould on this occafion make Hector refer to a character not 
in the play, and never fo much as mentioned on any other occa- 
fion. Thirdly, Wynken's Neoptolemus is a warrior on the Tro- 
jan fide, and flain by Achilles. But Hector muft needs mean by 
one " who could promife a thought of added honour torn from 
him," a warrior amongft his enemies on the Grecian fide. 


After all this contention, it is difficult to imagine that the critic 
believes mirable to have been changed to irafcible I fliould fooner 

Not Neoptolemus th' admirable ; 

as I know not whether m'tnilk can be found in any other pbce. 
The correction which the learned commentator gave to Hunuier : 

Not Ncoptolemuf lire fo mirable, 

as it was modeller than this, was preferable to it. But nothing 
is more remote from juftnefs of fentiment, than for Hector to cha- 



A thought of added honour torn from He6ror. 

Mm. There is expectance here from both the fides, 
What further you will do. 

Heft. * We'll anfwer it ; 
The iflue is embraccment : Ajax, farewel. 

Ajax. If I might in entreaties find fuccefs, 
(As feld I have the chance) I would defire 
My famous coufin to our Grecian tents. 

Dio. 'Tis Agamemnon's wilh ; and great Achilles 
Doth long to fee unarm'd the valiant Hector. 

Heft. Jineas, call my brother Troilus to me : 

ra&erife Achilles as the father of Neoptolemus, a youth that had 
not yet appeared in arms, and whole name was therefore much 
lei's known than his father's. My opinion is. that by Neoptole- 
mus the author meant Achilles himlelf ; and remembering rhat 
the fon was Pyrrhus Neoptolemus, confidered Neoptolemus as the 
nomcn gentilltium, and thought the father was likewiie Achilles 
Neoptolemus. JOHNSON. 

Shakefpeare might have ufed Neoptolemus for Achilles. Wil- 
fride Holme, the author of a poem called The Fall and evil Sue- 
cfffe of Rebellion, &c. 1537, had made the fame miftake before 
him, as the following flanza will fhew : 

" Alib the triumphant Troyans victorious, 
*' By Anthenor and jneas falle confcderacie, 

** Sending Polidamus to Neoptolemus, 
" Who was vanquished and fubdued by their confpiracie. 

" O dolorous fortune, and fatal miferie ! 
*' For multitude of people was there mortificate 

" With condigne Priamus, and all his prnaenie, 
" And flagrant Polixene, that lady delicate." 
In Lidgate, however, Achilles, Neoptolemus, and Pyrrhus, are 
diftincl: characters. Neoptolemus is enumerated ;imong the Gre- 
cian princes whofirft embarked to revenge the rape of Helen : 
" The valiant Grecian called Neoptolemus, 
** That had his haire as bl: eke as any jet, &c." p. 102. 
and Pyrrhus, very properly, is not heard or till after the death of his 
father : 

" Sith that debates in fuch traiterous wile 

" Is flaine, that we a meflengrr ihould lend 

" To fetch his fon yong Pynhut, to the end 

" He may revenge his fathers death, &c." p. 2-7. 

3 We'll anfvxr it ;] That is, anfwer the exfetfance. JOHNSON. 



And fignify this loving interview- 
To the expecters of our Trojan part ; 
Defire them home. Give me thy hand, my coufin ; 
I will go eat with thee, and fee 4 your knights. 

Ajax. Great Agamemnon comes to meet us here. 

hfft. The worthieft of them tell me name by 

name ; 

But for Achilles, my own fearching eyes 
Shall find him by his large and portly fize. 

Aga* s Worthy of arms ! as welcome as to one 
That would be rid of fuch an enemy ; 
But that's no welcome : Underftand more clear, 
"What's paft, and what's to come, is flrew'd with 


And formlefs ruin of oblivion ; 
But in this extant moment, faith and troth, 
Strain'd purely from all hollow bias-drawing, 
Bids thee, with moft divine integrity, 
From heart of very heart, great Hector, welcome. 

Hc8. I thank thee, moft imperious Agamemnon. 

Aga. My well-fam'd lord of Troy, no lefs to you. 

[70 Troilus. 

Men. Let me confirm my princely brother's greet- 
You brace of warlike brothers, welcome hither. 

Heft. Whom muft we anfwer ? 

Men. The noble Menelaus. 

* 'your knights.} The word knight y as often as it occurs, 
is fure to bring with it the idea of chivalry, and revives the me- 
mory of Amadis and his fantaftic followers, rather than that of 
the mighty confederates who fought on either fide in the Trojan 
war. I wifh that cque s and armiger could have been rendered by any 
ether words than knight and 'fqnire. Mr. Pope, in his tranllation 
of the Iliad, is very liberal of the latter. STKEVENS. 

5 Worthy of arms ! ] Folio. Worthy all arms ! Quarto. 

The quarto has only the, two firft, fecond, and the laft line of this 
jalutation; the intermediate verfes feem added on a revilion. 



He8. O, you, my lord ? by Mars his gauntkt, 

thanks ! 

fi Mock not, that I affeft the nntraded oath ; 
Your quondam wife fwears ftill by Venus' glove : 
She's well, but bade me not commend her to you. 

Men. Name her not now, fir ; fhe's a deadly theme. 

Heft. O, pardon ; I offend. 

Neft. 1 have, thou gallant Trojan, feen thee oft, 
Labouring for deftiny, make cruel way 
Through ranks of Greckifh youth : and I have feea 


As hot as Perfeus, fpur thy Phrygian fteed, 
7 Defpifing many forfeits and fubduements, 
When thou haft hung thy advanced fword i'the air, 
Not letting it decline on the declin'd ; 
That I have faid to fome my ftanders-by, 
Lo y Jupiter is yonder , dealing life ! 
And I have feen thee paufe, and take thy breath, 
When that a ring of Greeks have hemm'd thee in, 
Like an Olympian wreftling : This have I feen ; 
But this thy countenance, ftill lock'd in fteel, 
I never faw 'till now. I knew thy grandfire, 
And once fought with him : he was a foldier good 4 
But, by great Mars, the captain of us all, 
Never like thee : Let an old man embrace thee ; 
And, worthy warrior, welcome to our tents. 

dine. 'Tis the old Neftor. 

He8. Let me embrace thee, good old chronicle, 
That haft fo long walk'd hand in hand with time ; 
Moft reverend Neftor, I am glad to clafp thee. 

Ncft. I would, my arms could match thee in con- 

Mock not, &c.] The quarto has here a ftrange corruption : 
Mock not thy affeft, the untraded e arth. JOHNSOK. 

7 Deffijing many forfeits and fubduements,'] Thus the quarto* 
The folio reads : 

And feen thee fcorningyir/J-/// and fubdtcments* JOHNSOK. 



* As they contend with thee in courtefy. 

Heft. I would, they could. 

Neft. Ha ! by this white beard, I'd fight with thee 

Well, welcome, welcome ! I have feen the time 

Ulyff. I wonder now how yonder city ftands, 
When we have here her bafe and pillar by us. 

Heft. I know your favour, lord Ulyffes, well. 
Ah, fir, there's many a Greek and Trojan dead, 
Since firft I faw yourfelf and Diomed 
In Ilion, on your Greekifh embafTy. 

Ulyjf. Sir, I foretold you then what would enfue : 
My prophecy is but half his journey yet ; 
For yonder walls, that pertly front your town, 
Yon towers, whofe wanton tops do bufs the clouds, 
Muft kifs their own feet. 

Heft. Imuft not believe you: 
There they ftand yet ; and modeftly I think, 
The fall of every Phrygian ftone will coft 
A drop of Grecian blood : The end crowns all ; 
And that old common arbitrator, time, 
Will one day end it. 

Ulyjf. So to him we leave it. 
Moft gentle, and moft valiant Hector, welcome : 
After the general, I befeech you next 
To feaft with me, and fee me at my tent. 

AchiL 9 I ihall foreftall thee, lord Ulyffes, thou! 


* As they contend ' ] This line is not in the quarto. 


9 I Jkall f or eft al thee, lord Ulyjfes, thou! ] Should we not 
read though f Notwithftanding you have invited He6tor to your 
tent, I fhall draw him firft into mine. So, in Beaumont and Flet- 
cher's Cupids Revenge, v. ix. p. 460 : 

( Q diffembling woman, 

" Whom I muft reverence though. " TYRWHITT. 

The repetition of thou ! was anciently ufed by one who meant 

to infult another. So, in Twelfth Night ; " if thou thouji 

him fome thrice, it (hall not be amifsi" Again, in the Tcmpeft : 

" Thou 


1 Now, Hector, I have fed mine eyes on thee ; 
I have with exact view perus'dthee, Hector, 
And quoted joint by joint z . 

Heft. Is this Achilles ? 

Achll I am Achilles. 

Heft. Stand fair, I pray thee : let me look on thee. 

Acbil. Behold thy fill. 

Heft. Nay, I have done already. 

Acini. Thou art too brief; I will the fecond time, 
As I would buy thee, view thee limb by limb. 

Heft. O, like a book of fport thou'lt read me o'er; 
But there's more in me, than thou underftand'ft. 
Why doft thou fo opprefs me with thine eye ? 

Ackil. Tell me, you heavens, in which part of his 


Shall I deftroy him ? whether there, there, or there ? 
That I may give the local wound a name ; 
And make diftinct the very breach, whereout 
Hector's great fpirit flew : Anfwer me, heavens ! 

Heft. It would difcredit the bleft gods, proud man, 
To anfwer fuch a queftion : Stand again : 
Think'ft thou to catch my life fo pleafantly, 
As to prcnominate in nice conjecture, 
Where thou wilt hit me dead ? 

AMI I tell thee, yea. 

Hett. Wert thou an oracle to tell me fo, 
I'd not believe thee. Henceforth guard thee well ; 
For I'll not kill thee there, nor there, nor there; 

" Thouly'fl, thou jetting monkey, tbou! n 
Again, in the firft fcene of the fifth aft of this play of Troihs and 

Crejjida : " thou taflel of a prodigal's purfe, thou /" 


1 JVow, Heflnr, I have fed mine eyes on tbte;~\ The hint for 
this fcene of altercation between Achilles and Heftor, is taken from 
Lidgate. See page 178. STEEVENS. 

1 And quoted joint by joint.] To quote is to obferre. So, in 
Hamlet : 

I'm forry that with better heed and judgment 
I had not quoted him. STEEVENS. 



But, by the forge that ftithy'd Mars his helm, 

I'll kill thee every where, yea, o'er and o'er. 

You wifeft Grecians, pardon me this brag, 
His infolence draws folly from my lips ; 
But I'll endeavour deeds to match thefe words, 
Or may I never 

Ajax. Do not chafe thee, coufin ;- 

And you, Achilles, let thefe threats alone, 
'Till accident, or purpofe, bring you to't : 
You may have every day enough of Hector, 
If you have ftomach ; the general ftate, I fear, 
Can fcarce entreat you to be odd with him J . 

Heft. I pray you, let us fee you in the field ; 
We have had pelting wars, fince you refus'd 
The Grecians' caufe. 

AchlL Doft thou entreat me, Hector ? 
To-morrow do I meet thee, fell as death ; 
To-night, all friends. 

Heft. Thy hand upon that match. 

Aga. Firft, all you peers of Greece, go to my tent ; 
There in the full convive we 4 : afterwards, 
As Hector's leifure and your bounties ihall 
Concur together, feverally intreat him. 
$ Beat loud the tabourines, let the trumpets blow, 

3 the general Jlate, I fear, 

Can fcarce entreat you to be odd ivitb bim.~\ i. e. lam aware 
that the Greeks will not wifli you to meet him fingly ; Jnfinuat- 
ingthatit would be bad policy in them to defirethe man who had 
the greateft reputation for valour, to run fuch a hazard of being 
foiled. STEEVENS. 

4 convive ] To convive is to//?. This word is not pe- 
culiar to Shakefpeare. I find it feveral times ufed in the Hijiory of 
Helyas Knight oftbeSwanne, bl. 1. no date. STEEVENS. 

5 Beat loud the tabourine J, ] For this the quarto and the 

latter editions have, 

To tajle your bounties. 

The reading which I have given from the folio feenas chofen at 
the revifion, to avoid the repetition of the word bounties. 


Tabourines are fmall drums. The word occurs again in 
Antony and Cleopatra. STEEVENS. 



That this great foldier may his welcome know. 

[Exeunt * 
Manent Troiltts, and Uhffes. 

7m. My lord Ulyffcs, tell me, I befeech you, 
In what place of th-e field doth .Calchas keep ? 

UlyjJ- At Menelaus' tent, moft princely Troilus : 
There Diomed doth feaft with him to-night; 
Who neither looks on heaven, nor on the earth, 
But gives all gaze and bent of amorous view 
On the fair Creffid. 

T'rci. Shall I, fweet lord, be bound to you fo much, 
After we part from Agamemnon's tent, 
To bring me thither ? 

Ulyf. i'ou lhall command me, fir. 
As gentle tell me, of what honour was 
This Creffida in Troy ? Had ihe no lover there, 
That wails her abfence ? 

2V0/. O, fir, to fuch as boafling ihew their fears, 
A mock is due. Will you walk on, my lord ? 
She was belov'd, fhe lov'd; fhe is, and doth : 
But, ftill, fweet love is food for fortune's tooth. 



Aclille? tent. 
Enter Achilles, and Patrodus. 

AcliL I'll heat his blood with Grcekifh wine to- 

Which with my fcimitar I'll cool to-morrow. 
Patroclus, let us feaft him to the height. 
Pair. Here comes Therfites. 


Enter Therfites. 

AMI. How now, thou core of envy ? 
' Thou crufty batch of nature, what's the news ? 

fker. Why, thou pidure of what thou feemeft, and 
idol of ideot-worfhippers, here's a letter for thee. 

Achil. From whence, fragment? 

tfher. Why, thou full difli of fool, from Troy. 

Patr. Who keeps the tent now ? 

tter. 7 The furgeon's box, or the patient's wound. 
Patr. Well faid, adverfity ! and what need thefe 
tricks ? 

< Ther. Pr'ythee be filent, boy ; I profit not by thy 
talk : thou art thought to be Achilles' male varlet. 

Patr. 8 Male varlet, you rogue ? what's that ? 

6 Thou crufty batch of nature,- } Batch is changed by 
Theobald to botch, and the change is juftifted by a pompous 
note, which difcovers that he did not know the word bau/.<. 
What is more ftrange, Hanmer has followed him. Batch is any 
thing baked. JOHNSON. 

Batch does not fignify any thing baked, bur all that is baked 
at one time, without heating the oven airefli. So, Ben Joulbn, 
in his Catalluc : 

" Except he were of the fame meal and 

Again, in Decker's If this be not a good Play the Devil is in if, 
1612 : 

*' The beft is, there are but two batches of people moulded in 
this world." 
Again, in Summer* l Lajl Will and Tejlamcnt, 1600 : 

44 Haft thou made a %pv& batch? I pi ay th'ee give me a new 
Again, in Every Man in his Humour 1 : 

'" Is all the reft of this batch?" Therfites had already been 
called cobloaf. STEEVENS. 

7 The f urgent? s box, ] In this anfwer Therfites only quibble* 
upon the word tent. HANMER. 

* Male varh'i -, ] HANMER reads male harlot, plauiilly 

enough, except that it feema TOO plain to require the explanation 
which Patrockis demandj. JOHNSON. 

This exprcffiun is n:ct with in D.-ckcr's Hosujl U'kore; " This 
a male variety fine, my lord !" FAR MI. R. 


Ther. Why, his mafculine whore. Now the rotten 
difeafes of the fouth, the guts-griping, ruptures, 
catarrhs, loads o'gravel i' the back, lethargies, 9 cold 
palfies, raw eyes, dirt-rotten livers, wheezing lungs, 
bladders full of impoflhume, fciaticas, lime-kilns 
i' the palm, incurable bone-ach, and the rivell'd fee- 
iimple of the tetter, take and take again fuch pre- 
pofterous difcoveries ! 

Patr. Why, thou damnable box of envy, thou, 
what meaneft thou to curfe thus ? 

Vher. Do I curfe thee ? 

Patr. Why, no, ' you ruinous butt ; you whore- 
fon indiftinguifhable cur, no. 

Ther. No ? why art thou then exafperate, * thou 
idle immaterial fkein of fleive iilk, thou green farcenet 
flap for a fore eye, thou taflel of a prodigal's purfe, 
thou ? Ah, how the poor world is pefler'd with fuch 
water flies ; diminutives of nature ! 

Patr. J Ou^ gall ! 

coldpal/ies ] This catalogue of loathfome maladies 

ends in the folio at cold pal/ies. This paflage, as it ftands, is 
in the quarto : the retrenchment was in my opinion judicious. 
It may be remarked, though it proves nothing, that, of the 
few alterations made by Milton in the fecond edition of his 
wonderful poem, one was, an enlargement of the enumeration 
of difeafes. JOHNSON. 

1 * you ruinous &c.] Patroclus reproaches Therfitea 

with deformity, with having one part crowded into another. 


The fame idea occurs in the Second Part of King Henry If; 

Crowd us and cruJJ) us to this monjlrous form. SrEEVBNSi 

'* tbou idle immaterial Jkein of fleive Jilk y ] All the 

terms ufed by Therlites of Patroclus, are emblematically ex- 
preffive of flexibility, compliance, and mean officioufnefs. 


3 Oaf, gall /] Hannter reads nut-gall, which anfwers well 
enough to finch-egg ; it has already appeared, that our author 
thought the nut-gall the bitter gall. He is called ;;/, from 
the conglobation of his form; but both the copies read, Ottt t 
gall! JOHNSON. 

* K 2 


37w. 4 Finch egg ! 

Ackil. My fwcet Patroclus, I am thwarted quite 
From my p;reat purpofe in to-morrow*s battle. 
Here is a letter from queen Hecuba ; 
5 A token from her daughter, my fair love ; 
Both taxing me, and gaging me to keep 
An oath that I have fworn. I will not break it : 
Fall, Greeks; fail, fame; honour, or go, or flay ; 
My major vow lies here, this I'll obey. 
Come, come, Therfites, help to trim my tent ; 
This night in banquetting mult all be fpent. 
Away, Patroclus. [Exeunt. 

Ther. With too much blood, and too little brain, 
thefe two may run mad ; but if with too much brain, 
and too little blood, they do, 1*11 be a curer of mad- 
men. Here's Agamemnon, an honeft fellow enough^ 
and one that loves quails ; but he hath not fo much 
brain as- ear- wax : 6 And the goodly transformation of 


4 Finch-egg /] Of this reproach I do not know the exacT: 
meaning. 1 fuppofe he means to call him frying bird, as im- 
plying an ufelefs favourite, and yet more, fomething more 
\vorthlefs, a linging bird in the egg, or generally, a llight 
thing eafily crufhed. JOHNSON. 

A finch's egg is remarkably gaudy ; but of fuch terms of re- 
proach it is difficult to pronounce the ttuefignilication. STEEVENS. 

5 A token from ler daughter, &c.] This is a circumflancfr 
taken from the itory book of the three deftrucYions of Troy. 


6 And the gooiJJy transformation of Jupiter there, bis brother, tbn 
lull', the primitive ftatue, and OBLIOJJE memorial of cuckoLh ;"} 
He calls Mpfetaus the transformation of Jupiter, that is, as 
himfelf explains it, the bull, on account of his horns, which 
he had as a cuckold. This cuckold he calls the primitive Jlatue 
of cuckolds ; i. e, his ftory had made him, fo famous, that he 
ftood as the great archetype of his chancier. But how was he 
an oblique manorial of cuckolds ? can any thing be a more dired 
memorial of cuckolds, than a cuckold ? and fo the foregoing 
character of his being the primitive Jlatue of them plainly im- 
plies. To reconcile thefe two contradictory epithets therefore we 
ihould read : 

an OBELISCXUE memorial of cuckolds. 


Jupiter there, his brother, the bull, the primitive 
ftatue, and oblique memorial of cuckolds; a thrifty 
Ihooing-horn in a chain, hanging at his brother's leg, 
to what form, but that he is, flaould wit larded with 
malice, and malice 7 forced with wit, turn him ? To 
an afs, were nothing ; he is both afs and ox : to an 
ox were nothing ; he is both ox and afs. To be a dog, 
a mule, a cat, a fitchew, a toad, a lizard, an owl, a 

He is reprefented as one who would remain an etemal monu- 
ment of his wife's infidelity. And how could this be better done 
than by calling him an obelifque memorial? of all human edifices 
the molt durable. And the fentence rifes gradually, and proper- 
ly from a ftatue to an obelifque. To this the editor Mr. Theo- 
bald replies, that the bull is called the primitive ftatue: by which 
he only giveth us to underftand, that he knoweth not the diffe- 
rence between the Englifh articles a and the. But by the bull is 
meant Menelaus ; which title Therfites gives him again after- 
wards The cuckold and the cuckold-maker are at It THE BULL 

has the game But the Oxford editor makes quicker work with 

the term oblique, and alters it to antique, and fo all the difficulty's 
evaded. WAR BUR TON. 

The author of The Revifal obferves (after having controverted 
every part of Dr. Warburton's note, and juftified Theobald) 
that " the memorial is called oblique, becaule it was only indi- 
*' redly fuch, upon the common i'uppofition that both bulls and 
*' cuckolds were furnifhed with horns." STEEVENS. 

7 forced ivitbivit, ] Stuffed with wit. A "term of 

cookery. In this fpeech I do not well underftand what is meant 

by loving quaih. JOHNSON. 

By loving quails the poet may mean loving the company of har- 
lots. A quail is remarkably falacious. Mr. Upton _ fays that Xe 
nophon, in his memoirs of Socrates, has taken notice of this qua- 
lity in the bird. A fimilar allufion occurs in The Hollander^ a 
comedy by Glapthorne, 1640: 

" the hot defire of quails, 

" To yours is modeft appetite." STEEVENS. 

In old French callle was fynonimous \<o fille de jole. In the Ditf. 
Cowique par Le Rcux, under the article callle are thefe words : 

" Chaud co in me une caillc 

" G/Y<? coiffee Sobriquet qu'on donne aux femmes. 

Signifie femme eveille amoureufe." So, in Rabelais : " Cailles 
coiftees mignonnent chantans." which Motteux has thus rendered 
(probably from the old tranflation) cbatedftt/ft and laced mutton, 
waggiflily finging. MA LONE. 

K 3 put> 


puttock, or a herring without a roe, I would not care : 
but to be a Menelaus, I would confpire againft 
deftiny. Aik me not what I would be, if I were not 
Therfites ; for I care not to be the loufe of a lazar, 
fo I were not Menelaus. Hey-day ! 8 fpirits, 
and fires ! 

Enter Heffor, Troilus, Ajax, Agamemnon, 
Ne/tor, and Diomed, ivlth lights. 

'Aga. We go wrong, we go wrong. 
Ajax. No, yonder 'tis ; 
There, where we fee the light. 
Heft. I trouble you. 
Ajax. No, not a whit. 
Ulyf. Here comes himfelf to guide you, 

Enter Achilles. 

'Acini. Welcome, brave Hedor \ welcome, princes 

Aga. So now, fair prince of Troy, I bid good night. 
Ajax commands the guard to tend on you. 

Heft. Thanks, and good night, to the Greeks' 

Men. Good night, my lord. 

Heft. Good night, fweet lord Menelaus. 

Tber. Sweet draught : Sweet, quoth a ! fweet (ink, 
fweet fewer. 

AchlL Good night, and welcome, both at once, 

to thofe 
That go, or tarry. 

Aga. Good night. [Exeunt Agam. and Mend* 

Acbil. Old Neftor tarries ; and you too, Diomedj 
Hedtor company an hour or two. 

Dlo. I cannot, lord ; I have important bufinefs a 

Jfririts and fins /] This Therfites freaks upon th,e firfc. 
gght of the lights. JOHNSON, 



The tide whereof is now. Good night, great Hector. 

HeSt. Give me your hand. 

Uljff*. Follow his torch, he goes to Calchas' tent ; 
I'll keep you company. [T0 I'm IKS. 

Vroi. Sweet fir, you honour me. 

He&. And fo, good night. 

Acbil. Come, come, enter my tent. {Exeunt fever ally. 

Ther. That lame Diomed's a falfe-hearted rogue, a 
moft unjuft knave ; I will no more truft him when 
he leers, than I will a ferpent when he hifles : 9 he 
will fpend his mouth, and promife, like Brabler the 
hound ; but when he performs, aftronomers foretel 
it ; it is prodigious, there will come fome change ; 
the fun borrows of the moon, when Diomcd keeps 
his word. I will rather leave to fee Hector, than not 
to dog him : ' they fay, he keeps a Trojan drab, and 
ufcs the traitor Calchas his tent : I'll after. Nothing 
but lechery ! all incontinent varlets ! [Exit. 


Calckas* tent. 

Enter Diomed. 

D'w. What are you up here, ho ? fpeak. 
Ca!. Who calls? 
DJO. Diomed. - 

Calchas, I think. Where is your daughter ? 
CaL She comes to you. 

Enter Trollu^ and Ulyflesfat a dtftance ; after them Therfites. 
Stand where the torch may not difcover us. 

' - He will fpcnd bismouth, and promifc, like Brabler the 
bound; - J 1^ a hound gives bismoutb, and is not upon thefcent 
of the game, he is by fportfmen called a babler or b> abler. The 
proverb fays, Brabling cws never want fore ears, ANON. 

1 - they jay , he keeps a T'roj.n drab, - ] This character 
of Diomed is likewife taken from Lidgate. STEEVE^S. 

K 4 Enter 


Enter CreffiJa. 

tfroi. Creffid come forth to him ! 

Dio. How now, my charge ? 

Cre. Now, my fweet guardian ! Hark, 
A word with you. 

frdi. Yea, fo familiar ! 

Ulyf. She will fing any man at firft fight. 

Ther. And any man 
May fing her, if he can take * her cliff; fhe's noted. 

Dio. Will you remember ? 

Cre. Remember ? yes. 

Dlo. Nay, but do then ; 
And let your mind be coupled with your words. 

7/w. What Ihould Ihe remember ? 

Ulvf Lift! 

Cre. Sweet honey Greek, tempt me no more to folly. 

<Ther. Roguery ! 

Dlo. Nay, then, 

Cre. I'll tell you what. 

Dio. Pho ! pho ! come, tell a pin : You are, 
forfworn. - 

_ her cliff;] That is, her key. Clef, French. JOHNSON. 
CT-ff, \. e, 'a mark in mufick at the beginning of the lines of a 
fong ; and is the indication of the pitch, and befpeaks what kind 
of voiceas bafe, tenour, or treble, it is proper tor. 


So, in T'Jjc Chances, by Beaumont and Fletcher, where Antonio, 
employing mufical terms, fays, 

" Will none but my C. cUJfCervc your turn ?" 
Again, in The Lover's Melancholy, 1629: 
" -- that's a bird 

" Whom art had never taught cliffy moods, or notes." 
Again, in the Nolle Soldier, 1654: 

" No crotchets ; 'tis only the r//^~has made her mad." 
Again, in Middleton's More DiJJcmblcrs be/ides Women : 

" How many cliffs be there ? one cliff , fir. Do you know 
< but one cliff? No more indeed, fir, and at this time I know 
** too much of that." STEEVENS. 



Cre. In faith, I cannot : What would you have 
me do ? 

Ther. A jugglfrig trick, to be fecretly open. 

Dio. What did you fwear you would beftowon me 2 

Cre, I pr'ythee, do not hold me to mine oath ; 
Bid me do any thing but that, fweet Greek. 

Dio. Good night. 

frol. Hold, patience ! 

Ulyff. How ROW, Trojan ? 

'Cre. Diomed, 

Dio. No, no, good night : I'll be your fool no 

Troi. Thy better muft. 

Cre. Hark, one word in your ear. 

Troi. O plague and madnefs ! 

Ulyjf. You are mov'd, prince ; let us depart, I 

pray you, 

Left your difpleafure fhould enlarge itfelf 
To wrathful terms : this place is dangerous ; 
The time right deadly ; I befeech you, go. 

froi. Behold, I pray you ! 

Uhff. Now, good my lord, go off: 
I You flow to great diftradtion : come, my lord, 

Troi. I pr'ythee, ftay. 

Uly/. You have not patience ; come. 

Troi. I pray you, nay ; by hell, and by hcll*s 

I will not fpeak a word. 

3 You flew to great diftraftion : - ] So the moderns. The 
folio has : 

Youjfo-iv to great diftrattion. 
The quarto : 

You./?*? to great deftruflton. > 
I read : 

too great diftra&ion. - JOHNSON. 

I would adhere to the old reading. Youflovj to great deftruRion, 
or dljh-aflion^ means, the tide of your imagination will hurry you 
either to noble death from the hand of Diomed, or to the height of 
from the predominance of your own paffions, STEEVENS^ 



jD/0. And fo, good night. 

Cre. Nay, but you part in anger. 

Yro/. Doth that grieve thee ? 

withered truth ! 

Ufyff. Why, how now, lord ? 

STnw. By Jove, I will be patient. 

Cre. Guardian ! why, Greek ! 

jD/0. Pho, pho ! adieu ; you palter. 

Cre. In faith, I do not ; come hither once again. 

Ul}f. You fhake, my lord, at fomething; will 

you go ? 
You will break out. 

I'roi. She flrokes his cheek ! 

U!}ff. Come, come. 

Vroi. Nay, flay ; by Jove, I will not fpeaka word : 
There is between my will and all offences 
A guard of patience : (lay a little while. 

Ther. How the devil luxury, with his fat rump, and 

Eotatoe finger, tickles thefe together ! 4 Fry, lechery, 
y ! 

Dio. But will you then ? 
Cre. In faith, I will, la ; never truft me elfe. 
JD/0. Give me fome token for the furety of it. 
Cre. I'll fetch you one. 
Utyff* You have fworn patience. 
3Y0/. Fear me not, my lord ; 

1 will not be myfelf, nor have cognition 
Of what I feel ; I am all patience. 

Re-enter dfjjida. 
Ther. Now the pledge ; now, now, now ! 

* Hciv tie devil luxury ivifb his fat rump and potatoe fager, 
tickles tbefe together!] 

Potatoes were anciently regarded as provocatives. See Mr. Col- 
1'ms'snote, which, on account of its length, is given at the end 
f the play, STEEVEMS. 



Cre. Here, Diomed, s keep this fleeve. 
, Troi. O beauty ! 
Where is thy faith ? 

UfyJJ. My lord, 

'Troi. I will be patient; outwardly I will. 

Cre. You look upon that fleeve ; Behold it well.-i 
He lov'd me O falfe wench ! Give 't me again. 

Dio. Whofe was't ? 

Cre. It is no matter, now I have't again. 
I will not meet with you to-morrow night : 
I pr'ythee, Diomed, vilit me no more. 

Tber. Now {he fliarpens ; Well faid, whetflone^ 

Dio. I fliall have it. 

Cre. What, this? 

Dio. Ay, that. 

Cre. O, all you gods ! O pretty pretty pledge ! 
Thy matter now lies thinking in his bed 

5 keep this Jleeve."] The cuftom, of wearing a lady't 

Jleeve for a favour, is mentioned in Hairs Chronicle ; fol. 12 ; . 

*' One ware on his head-piece his hdy'ajleeve, and another bare 
*' on his helme the glove of his deareling." 

Again, in the fecond canto of the Barons' JVars by Drayton: 

44 A lady's fleeve high-fpirited Haftings wore." 
Again, in the MORTE ARTHUR, p. 3. ch. 1 19 : 
* 4 When queen Geneverwiil that Sir Launcelot beare the red 
Jleeve of the taire maide of Aftolat, (he was nigh out of her rainde 
for anger." Holinflied, p. 844, lays K. Henry VIII. " had 
on his head a ladiesjlceve rull of diainonds." The circumftance, 
however, was adopted by Shakefpeare from Chaucer. T. and C. 
J. 5. 1040: " She made him were a pencell of her JJeve." A 
pencell is a {mail fc nnon or ftreamer. STEEVENS. 

In an old play (in fix ads) called Hiftriomaft'-x, 1610, this in- 
cident feems to be burlefqued. Troyius and Crejjiiia. are introduced 
by way of interlude : and Crcjjlda breaks out : 
*' O Knight, with valour in thy face, 
" Here take my Qcreene, wear it for grace, 
'* Within thy helmet put the fame, 
" Therewith to make thine enemies lame." 

A little old book, The Hundred Kyftoryei of Trcye, tells us " Bry- 
Jeyde whom mailer Chaucer calleth CreffiyJe^ \vas a damolell of great 
beaute ; and yet was more quaynte, mutable, and full of vagaunt 
condyiions." FAP...-.LK.. 



Of thce, and roe ; and fighs, and takes my glove, 
And gives memorial dainty kifTes to it, 
6 As I kifs thee. Nay, do not match it from me j 
He, that takes that, muft take my heart withal. 

Dio. I had your heart before, this follows it. 
- Troi. I did fwear patience. 

L v. You {hall not have it, Diomed ; 'faith vou 

{hall not ; 
111 give you fomething elfc. 

Z)io. I will have this; Whofe was it? 
Cre. It is no matter. 
, jD/0. Come, tell me whole it was. 

Cre. 'Twas one's that lov'd me better than you will. 
But, now you have it, take it. 
Dio. Whofe was it? 

Cre. 7 By all Diana's waiting-women yonder, 
And by herfelf, I will not tell you whole. 

Dio. To-morrow will I wear it on my helm; 
And grieve his fpirit, that dares not challenge it. 
Troi. Wer't thou the devil, and wor'ft it on thy 

It flioukl be challcngM. 

Cre. Well, well, 'tis done, 'tis pall; And yet it 

is not; 
I will net keep my word. 

Did. Why then, farewel ; 
Thou never {halt mock Diomed again. 

Cre. You ihall not go : One cannot (peak a word, 
But it flraight Harts you. 

6 A* I kifs thce. ] In old editions, 

As I kifs thee 

Dio. Nay, do not fnatch it ironi me. 

Cre. He, that takes that, mult take inyhenrt withal. 
Dr. Thirlby thinks this (hould be all placed to Crelfida. She had 
the fleeve, and was kiflmg it rapturouily : and Diomed fnatchesit 
back from her. THEOBALD. 

7 Jiy all Dianas <v:ailing-<wcmcn yonder,} i.e. the flars which 
P.:c points to. WAELUUTOU. t 


DA). I do not like this fooling. 

T'ber, Nor I, by Pluto: but that that likes not you, 
Plcafes me bcft. 

Die,. What, fliall I come? the hour? 

Cre. Ay, come: OJove! 

Do, come: I ihall be plagu'd. 

Dlo. Farevvel 'till then. [Exit. 

Cre. Good night. I pr'ythee, come. 

8 Troilus, farewell one eye yet looks on thee ; 

9 Hut with my heart the other eye doth fee. 
Ah ! poor our fex ! this fault in us I find, 
The error of our eye directs our mind : 
What error leads, mult err; O then conclude, 
Minds, fway'd by eyes, are full of turpitude. [Exit. 

Ther. ' A proof of ftrength Ihe could not publilh 

Unlefs me fay, My mind is now turn'd whore. 

Ulvffl All's done, my lord, 

Trot. It is. 

Uhf. Why flay we then ? 

Troi. To make a recordation to my foul 
Of every fy 11 able that here was fpoke. 

* Troilus, farc'vel!] The characters of Crcffida and Pandarus are 
more immediately formed from Chaucer than from Lidgate; for 
though the latter mentions them both chara&eriftically, he does 
not diffidently dwell on either to have furniflied Shakeipeare with 
many circurriitances to be found in this tragedy. Litigate, fpeak- 
ing of Creffida, fays only : 

" She gave her heart and love to Diomede, 
" To flieiv whattruft there-is in woman kind ; 

*' For (lie of her new love no fooner fped, 
" But Troilus was clean out of her mind, 

*' As if {he never had him known or feen, 
** Wherein I cannot guefs \vhat Ihe did mean." 


9 But -with my heart, &c.] I think it fliould be read thus : 
But my heart with the other eye doth fee. JOHNSON. 
Perhaps, rather : 

But with the other eye my hsart doth fee. TYRWHITT. 
1 Aproofofftrengtbfye could not publijh more t ~\ She could not 
publifh a ilrcnger proof. JOHNSON. 



But, if I tell how thefe two did co-acft, 
Shall I not lye in publishing a truth ? 
Sith yet there is a credence in my heart, 
An efperance fo obftinately ftrong, 
* That doth invert the atteft of eyes and ears ; 
As if thofe organs had deceptious functions, 
Created only to calumniate. 
Was Creffid here ? 

Ufyff. J I cannot conjure, Trojan. 

Jrw. She was not, fure. 

Ul}f. Moft fure, fhe was. 

Froi. Why, my negation hath no tafte of madnefs. 

Ulyjf. Nor mine, my lord : Creffid was here but 

TVvM. Let it not be believ'd for womanhood ! 
Think, we had mothers ; do not give advantage 
To flubborn critics apt, without a theme, 
For depravation to fquare the general fex 
By Crcffid's rule : rather think this not Creffid. 

Ulyff. What hath fhe done, prince, that can foil 
our mothers ? 

*Troi. Nothing at all, unlefs that this were fhe. 

*Tber. Will he fwagger himfelf out on's own eyes ? 

Tra. This fhe ? no, this is Diomed's CrefHda : 
If beauty have a foul, this is not Ihe ; 
If fouls guide vows, if vows be fanttimony, 
If fandtimony be the gods' delight, 

* That eJotl invert that teft of c;es a;:J ears;] \\~uztteft? 
Troilus had been particularizing none in his foregoing words, to 
.govern or require the relative here. I rather think, the words 
are to be thus fplit : 

That doth invert the att-ft of eyes and ears. 

i. e. That turns the very tci:iniony of feeing and hearing agaiiui 
themfclvcs. THEOBALD. 

This is the rending of the quarto. JOHNSON. 

3 I cannot conjure, Trojan.'} That is, I cannot raifc fpirits lathe 
form of Creliida. JOHNSON. 

* If 


* If there be rule in unity itfelf. 
This is not (he. O madnefs of difcourfe, 
That caufe fets up with and againft itfelf ! 
5 Bi-fold authority ! 6 where reafon can revolt 
Without perdition, and lofs affume all reafon 
Without revolt ; this is, and is not, Creffid ! 
Within my foul there doth commence a fight 
Of this ftrange nature, that a thing infeparate 
Divides far wider than the fky and earth ; 
And yet the fpacious breadth of this divifion 
Admits no orifice for a point, as fubtle 
7 As Arachne's broken woof, to enter. 


* If there le rule in unity itfelf ,} I do not well understand what 
is meant by rule in unity. By rule our author, in this place as in 
others, intends virtuous rejlraint, regularity cf manners, command 
ofpajjions and appetites. In Macbeth : 

He cannot buckle his diitemper'd caufe 

Within the belt of rule. r- 

But I know not how to apply the word in this fenfe to unity. I 

If there be rule in purify itfelf, 
Or, If there be rule in verify itfelf. 

Such alterations would not offend the reader, who faw the ftare 
of the old editions, in which, for inftance, a few lines lower, the 
almighty fun is called the almighty fenne. Yet the words may at 
laft mean, If there be certainty in unity t if it be a ra&that one is 
one. JOHNSON. 

5 "Bi-fold authority! ] This is the reading of the 

quarto. The folio gives us : 

By foul authority ! ' 

There is -rnadnefs in that difju-jitiott in which a man reafons at 
once for and againft himfclf upon authority which he knows not t 
le valid. The quarto is right. JOHNSON. 

* . where reafon can revolt 

Without perdition^ and lofs ajjunie all reafon 

Without revolt; ] The words l$fs and perdition are ufed 

in their common fenfe, but they mean the loft or perdition of rea- 
fon. JOHNSON. 

> is Ara chne 1 s broken woof to enter. ~\ Thefyllable wanting in 



Inftance, O inftance ! ftrong as Pluto's gates ; 
Crcffid is mine, tied with the bonds of heaven : 
Inftance, O inftance ! ftrong as heaven itfelf ; 
The bonds of heaven are ilipp'd,diflblv'd, and loos'd $ 
And with another 8 knot, five-finger-tied, 
The fractions of her faith, orts of her love, 
The fragments, fcraps, the bits, and greafy reliques 
Of her 9 o'er-eaten faith, are bound to Diomed. 
Ulyjf. ' May worthy Troilus be half attach'd 
With that which here his paffion doth exprefs ? 

Ay, Greek ; and that lhall be divulged well 

atbna's. It is not impoffible that Shakefpeare might have written 
Ariadne's broken woof, having confounded the two names of 
the ftories, in his imagination ; or alluding to the clue of thread, 
by the affiftance of which Thefeus efcaped from the Cretan laby- 
rinth. I do not remember that Ariadne's loom is mentioned by any 
of the Greek or Roman poets, though I find an allulion to it in 
Humour out of Breath, a comedy, 1607 : 

" - inftead of thefe poor weeds, in robes 

** Richer than that which Ariadne wrought,' 

" Or Cytherea's airy-moving veft." 
Again : 

" - thy treffes, Ariadne's t-zvwcs, 

*< Wherewith my liberty thou halt furpriz'd." 

Spanijb Tragfdjt 
Again, in MuJeaJJcs the Turk, 1610 : 

*' Leads the defpairing wretch into a maze ; 

" But not an Ariadne in the world 

*' To lend a clew to lead us out of it, 

" The very maze of horror." 
Again, in Law Tricks, 1608 : 

tfc - come Ariadne's c /rtr, will you unwind ?" 
Again, in John Florio's tranflation of Montaigne : " He was to' 
me in this inextricable labyrinth like Ariadne's thread." 


* knot, five-finger-tied,] A knot tied by giving her 

hand to Diomed. JOHNSON. 

' o > er~eatenjaitb, - ] Vows which fhe has already 
fwallowed once over. We ftill fay of a faithlefsman, that he has" 
eaten his words. JOHNSON. 

1 May worthy Troilus - ] Can Troilus really feel on 
this occafion half of what he utters ? A qucition fuitable to the 
calm Ulyfles. JOHNSON, 



In characters as red as Mars his heart 
Inflam'd \vith Venus : never did young man fancy 
With fo eternal, and fo fix'd a foul. 
Hark, Greek; As much as I do Creffid love, 
So much by weight hate I her Diomed : 
That fleeve is mine, that he'll bear on his helm ; 
Were it a cafque composed by Vulcan's {kill, 
My fword fliould bite it : not the dreadful fpout, 
Which {hipmen do the hurricano call, 
Conftring'd in mafs by the almighty fun, 
Shall dizzy with more clamour Neptune's ear 
In his defcent, than {hall my prompted fword 
Falling on Diomed. 

Ther. He'll tickle it for his concupy. 

Troi. O Creffid! O falfe Creffid! falfe, falfe, falfe! 
Let all untruths ftand by thy (lained name, 
And they'll feem glorious. 

Ulyff. O, contain yourfelf ; 
Your paffion draws ears hither. 

Enter JEneas. 

Mne. I have been feeking you this hour, my lord : 
Hector, by this, is arming him in Troy; 
Ajax, your guard, ftays to conduct you home. 
Troi. Have with you, prince : My courteous lord, 

adieu : 

Farewel, revolted fair ! and, Diomed, 
Stand faft, * and wear a caflle on thy head ! 
I'll bring you to the gates. 

* and wear a caftle on thy bead!] i. e- defend thy head 
with armour of more than common fecurity. It appears from a 
paflage in Holinlhed, already quoted in a note on Titus Androni- 
cus, that by a caftle was meant a clofe helmet. 

So, in The little French Lawyer of Beaumont and Fletcher: 
" -- but ufe 
** That noble courage I have feen, and we 
" Shall fight as in a cajile" - STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. L Trot. 


Troi. Accept diftra&ed thanks. 

[Exeunt Trailus, Mneas, and Utvffes* 

Ther. 'Would, 1 could meet that rogue Diomed! 1 
would croak like a raven ; I would bode, I would 
bode. Patroclus will give me any thing for the in- 
telligence of this whore: the parrot will not do more- 
for an almond, than he for a commodious drab. 
Lechery, lechery; flill, wars and lechery; nothing 
elfe holds faihion : A burning devil take them ! 


The palace of Troy. 
Enter Heftor, and Anfcomache* 

And. When was my lord fo much ungently temper'd,. 
To flop his ears againft admonishment ? 
Unarm, unarm, and do not fight to-day. 

Heft. You train me to offend you ; get you in : 
By all the everlafling gods, I'll go. 

And. J My dreams will, fure, prove ominous to-day- 

Heel. No more, I fay. 

'Etiter CajTandra. 

Caf. Where is my brother Hector ? 

And. Here, fitter; arm'd, and bloody in intent: 

3 My dreams will, fure^ prove ominous to-day *~\ The hint for thia 
dream of Andromache, might be taken either from Lydgate, or 
the following paflage in Chaucer's Nounes Preflei Tale^ late edit. 
v. 15147. 

I>o hire Andrornacha, Heclorcs wif, 

That day that Hector lluilde leie his lif, 

She dreined on the lame night betoi ne, 

How that the lit" or" Hcftor ftutld be loine, 

If thilke day he went into battaille : 

She warned him, but it might not availle; 

He went forth for to lighten natheles, 

And was yflain anon ot Achilles." STEEVENS. 



fconfort with me in loud and dear petition, 
Purfue we him on knees ; for I have dreamt 
Of bloody turbulence, and this whole night 
Hath nothing been but fhapes arid forms of flaughter. 

Caf. O, it is true. 

Heft. Ho ! bid my trumpet found ! 

Caf. No notes of fallyj for the heavens, fweet 

Heft. Begone, I fay : the gods have, heard me fwear. 

Caf. The gods are deaf to hot and peevifh vows ; 
They are polluted offerings, more abhorr'd 
Than fpotted livers in the facrifice. 

And. O ! be perfuaded : Do not count it holy 
To hurt by being jufl : it is as lawful, 
4 For us to count we give what's gain'd by thefts, 
And rob in the behalf of charity. 

Caf. s It is the purpofe, that makes ftrong the vow j 
But vows, to every purpofe, muft not hold : 
Unarm, fweet Hedtor. 

Heft. Hold you ftill, I fay ; 
Mine honour keeps the weather of my fate : 
Life every man holds dear ; but the 6 dear man 
Holds honour far more precious-dear than life. 

* For us to count ] This is fo oddly confufed in the folio, 

that 1 tranfcribe it as a fpecimen of incotredtnefs : 

do not count it holy, 

To hurt by being juft; it is as lawful 

For ive would count give much to as violent thefts^ 

And rob in the behalf of charity. JOHNSON. 

I believe we fhould read For ive would give much, to ufe 

violent thefts, i. e. to ufe violent thefts, lecaufe we would give 
much. The word count had crept in from the lafl line but one. 


' 5 It is tie purpofe ] The mad prophetefs fpeaks here with 

all the coolnefs and judgment of a ikilful cafuift. ** The eflence 
*' of a lawful vow, is a lawful purpofe, and the vow of which the 
" end is wrong muft not be regarded as cogent." JOHNSON. 

* dear man\ Valuable man. The modern editions read, 

brave man. 

The repetition of the word is in our author's manner. JOHNSON. 

L 2 Entef 


Enter Tirollus. 

How now, young man ? mean'il thou to fight to- 
day ? 

And. Caflandra, call my father to perfuadc. 

[Exit Caffandra. 

Heft. No, 'faith, young Troilus ; doff thy harnefs, 

youth ; 

I am to-day i' the vein of chivalry : 
Let grow thy finews 'till their knots be ftrong, 
And tempt not yet the brumes of the war. 
Unarm thee, go ; and doubt thou not, brave boy, 
I'll fland, to-day, for thee, and me, and Troy. 

Trot. Brother, you have a vice of mercy in you, 
7 Which better fits a lion, than a man. 

Heel. What vice is that, good Troilus ? chide me 
for it. 

7V0/. When many times the captive Grecians fall, 
Even in the fan and wind of your fair fword, 
You bid them rife, and live. 

Heft. O, 'tis fair play. 

Troi. Fool's play, by heaven, Hector. 

Heft. How now ? how now ? 

fTroi. For the love of all the gods, 
Let's leave the hermit pity with our mother ; 
And when we have our armours buckled on, 
The venom'd vengeance ride upon our iwords; 
Spur them to ruthful work, rein them from ruth. 

Heft. Fie, favage, fie ! 

2V0/. Hector, then 'tis wars. 

Heft. Troilus, I would not have you fight to-day. 

1 Which better Jits a lion, ] The traditions and {lories of the 

darker ages abounded with examples of the lion's generolity. 
Upon, the fuppofition that thefe acls of clemency were true, Trol- 
lu reafons not improperly, that to fpare again fr. reafon, by mere 
mitinct of pity, became rather a gencroui beatt than a wife man. 



5r0/. Who fhould withhold me ? 
Not fate, obedience, nor the hand of Mars 
Beckoning with fiery truncheon my retire ; 
Not Priamus and Hecuba on knees, 
Their eyes o'er-galled 8 with recourfe of tears ; 
Nor you, my brother, with your true Avord drawn, 
Oppos'd to hinder me, fhould flop my way, 
But by my ruin. 

Re-enter CaJJandra, with Priam. 

-Caf. Lay hold upon him, Priam, hold him faft : 
He is thy crutch ; now if thou lofe thy flay, 
Thou on him leaning, and all Troy on thee, 
Fall all together. 

Priam. Come, Hector, come, go Ijack : 
Thy wife hath dreamt ; thy mother hath had viiions ; 
Caifandra doth forefee ; and I myfelf 
Am like a prophet fuddenly enrapt, . t *' 
To tell thee that this day is ominous.: 
Therefore, come back. 

Heft. ^Eneas is a-field ; 
And I do ftand engag'd to many Greeks, 
Even in the faith of valour, to appear 
This morning to them. 

Priam. But thou malt not go. 

'Heft. I muft not break my faith. 
You know me dutiful ; therefore, dear fir, 
Let me not fhame refpeft ; but give me leave 
To take that courfe by your content and voice, 
Which you do here forbid me, royal Priam. 

Caf. O Priam, yield not to him. 

And. Do not, dear father. 

Heft. Andromache, I am offended with you : 
jLJpon the love you bear me, get you in. 

[Exit Andromache. 

1 with reccurfe cf tears ;] i.e. tears that continue to 
courfe one another down the face. WARLVKTON. 
L 3 


Tro/. This foolifh, dreaming, fuperflitious girl 
Makes all thefe bpdements. 

Caf. 9 O farcwel, dear Hedtor. 
Look, how thou dy'ft ! look, how thy eye turns pale ! 
Look, how thy wounds do bleed at many vents ! 
Hark, how Troy roars ! how Hecuba cries out ! 
How poor Andromache fhrills her dolours forth ' ! 
Behold, diflradtion, frenzy, and amazement, 
Like witlefs anticks, one another meet, 
And all cryHector ! Hedtor's dead ! O Hedtor ! 

Troi. Away ! Away ! 

Caf. Farewel. Yet, fqft : Hedtor, I take rhy 

leave : 
Thou doft thyfelf and all our Troy deceive. [Exit. 

HeR. YOU are amaz'd, my liege, at her exclaim ; 
Go in, and cheer the town : we'll forth, and fight; 
Do deeds worth praife, and tell you them at night. 

Priam. Farevyel : The gods with fafety ftand 
about thee ! \_Rxit Priam. Alarums. 

Tro/.'They are at it; hark ! Proud Diomed, believe,, 
I come to lofe my arm, or win my fleeve 2 . 

9 Ofarrv:el, dear Heftor!] The interpofition and clamorous 
forrow of Caflandra were copied by our author from Lydgate. 


1 fhriils her dolours, &c.] So in Heywood's Silver Age^ 

1613 : 

''" Through all th' abyfs I have Jbriird thy daughter's lofs, 

th my concave trump." STEEVEXS. 

* According to the quartos 1609, this fcene is continued by the 
following dialogue between Pandarus and Troilus, which the poet 
certainly mcan.t to have been inferted at the end of the play, where 
the three concluding lines of it are repeated in the copies already 
mentioned. There can be no doubt but that the players fhuffled the 
the parts backward and forward, ad libitum ; tor the poet would 
hardly have given us ar> unnecellary repetition of the lame words, 
.nor have difmifled Pandarus twice in the fame manner. The con- 
cluiion of the piece will fully juftify the liberty which any future 
commentator may take in omitting the fccne here and placing i^ 
at the end, where at prefent only the few lines already mentioned, 
ire to be found. STEEVENS. 


Enter Pandarus. 

Tan. Do you hear, my lord ? de you hear ? 

'Trol. What now ? 

Pan. Here's a letter come from yon* poor girl. 

Yra. Let me read. 

Pan. A whorefon ptifick, a whorefon rafcally 
ptifick fo troubles me, and the foolifli fortuneof this 
girl ; and what one thing, what another, that I 
ihall leave you oneo' thefe days : And I have a rheurn 
in mine eyes too ; and fuch an ach in my bones, that, 
unlefs a man were curft, I cannot tell what to think 
on't. What fays Ihe there : ? 

Troi. Words, words, mere words, no matter from 
the heart ; [Fearing the letter. 

The effect doth operate another way. 
<jo, wind, to wind, there turn and change together. 
My love with words and errors flill Ihe feeds ; 
But edifies another with her deeds. 

Pan Why, but hear you 

Troi. J Hence, broker lacquey ! ignomjr and fhame 
jP.urfue thy life, and live aye with thy name ! [Exeunt. 


Bttween r<y and the camp. 
\_ALarv.m. ~^ Enter Therfttes. 

<Ther. Now they are clapper-clawing one another; 
I'll go look on. That diflembling abominable varlet, 
JDiomed, has got that fame fcurvy doting foolilh 
young knave's fleeve of Troy, there, in his helm : I 

3 Hence, brothel, lacquey ! ] For Irotkel, the folio reads 

Irotber, erroneoufly for broker, as it Hands at the end of the play 
where the lines are repeated. Of brother the following editors 

L 4 


would fain fee them meet ; that that fame young 
Trojan afs, that loves the whore there, might fend- 
that Greekifh whore-mafterly villain, with the fleeve, 
back to the dhTembling luxurious drab, of a lieevelefs 
errand. 4 O' the other fide, The policy of thofe crafty 
fwearing rafcals, that ftale old moufe-eaten dry 
cheefe, Neftor; and that fame dog-fox, Ulyfles, is 
not prov'd worth a black-berry : They fet me up, 
in policy, that mungril cur, Ajax, againft that dog 
of as bad a kind, Achilles : and now is the cur 
Ajax prouder than the cur Achilles, and will not 
aim to-day ; whereupon the Grecians begin 5 to pro- 
claim barbarifm, and policy grows into an ill opi- 
nion. Soft ! here comes fieeve, and t'other. 

Enter Diomed, and 'Trollus. 

Troi. Fly not ; for, ihouldfl thou take the river Styx 7 
I would fwim after. 

Dio. Thou doft mif-call retire : 
I do not fly ; but advantageous care 
Withdrew me from the odds of multitude : 
Have at thee ! [They go off fighting. 

Ther. Hold thy whore, Grecian ! now for thy 
whore, Trojan ! now the fleeve, now the ileeve ! 

Enter Heftor. 

HeR. What art thou, Greek ? art thou for Hector's 
match ? 

* O' tie ftbtr Jule^ ike policy of thnfe crafty fwearing rafcals^ &c.J 
But in what fenfe are Neilorand Ulyfles accufed of being pvjearing 
rafcals? What, or to whom, did they fwear? I am politive 
itter ing is the true reading. They had collogued with Ajax, 

and trimmed him up with inlmcere praifes, only in order to have 
fHrred Achilltes'j emulation. In tliis, they were the true fneer- 
crs ; betraying the fufl, to gain their ends on the latter by that ar- 
tifice. THEOBALD. 

5 - to procLilm larlarlfm, - ] To fet up the authority of 
ignorance, to declare that they will be governed by policy no 
longer. JOHNSON. 

6 Art 


6 Art thou of blood, and honour ? 

Tier. No, no : I am a rafcal ; a fcurvy railing 
Jcnave ; a very filthy rogue* 

Heft. I do believe thee ; live. [Exit. 

Ther. God-a-mercy, that thou wilt believe me ; But 
a plague break thy neck, for frighting me! What's 
become of the wenching rogues ? I. think, they have 
fwallow'd one ano'her : I would laugh at that miracle. 
Yet, in a fort, lechery eats itfelf. I'll feek them. . 


The fame. 
Enter Dlomed, and a Servant. 

Dlo. Go, go, my fervant, take thou Troilus' horfe 7 ; 
Prefent the fair fteed to my lady Creflid : 
Fellow, commend my fervice to her beauty; 
Tell her, I have chaftis'd the amorous Trojan, 
And am her knight by proof. 

Serv. I go, my lord. 

Enter Agamemnon. 

Aga. Renew, renew ! The fierce Polydamas 
Hath beat down Menon : 8 baftard Margarelon 


6 Art tbou of llood and honour ?] This is an idea taken from the 
nncient books of romantic chivalry, as is the following one in the 
ij>eech of Diomed : 

And am her knight by proof. STEEVENS. 

^ take tbou Troi/us* borfe."] So in Lydgute: 

*' That Troilus by maine and mighty torce 
*' At unawares, he caft down from his horfe. 
** And gave it to his fquire for to beare 
" 'I'o CreffUtti &c." STEEVENS. . 

8 la/lard Margarelon} The introduction of a baflafd fon 

of Priam, under the name of Margarelon, is one of the circum- 
f&nces taken from the itory book of The Tbre* Definitions oj'Jroy. 



Hath Doreus prifoner ; 
And frauds coloflus-wife, waving his beam, 
Upon the paflied corfes of the kings 
Epiitrophus and Cedius : Polixcnes is flain ; 
Amphimachus, and Thoas, deadly hurt; 
Patroclus ta'en, or flain ; and Palamedes 
Sore hurt and bruis'd : 9 the dreadful Sagittary 
Appals our numbers ; hafte we, Diomed, 
To reinforcement, or we perifh all. 

Enter Nejtor. 

Nefl. Go, bear Patroclus' body to Achilles; 

And bid the fnail-pac'd Ajax arm for fhame, 

fhere is a thoufand He&ors in the field : 
j^ow here he rights ' on Galathe his horfe, 


the dreadful Sagittary 

our numbers: J ** Beyonde the royalme of 

** Amafonne came an aunryent kynge, wyfe and dyfcreete, named 
" Epyftrophus, and brought a M . knyghtes, and a mervaylloufe 
** befte that was called SAGITTAYRE, that behynde the rayddcs 
" was an horfe, and to fore, a man : this befte was heery like an 
* horfe, and had his eyen rede as a cole, and (hotte well with a 
* ; bowe : this bffte made the Grekes fore aferde, andflnve many of 
* them with his bow." The Three Deftruflions of Troy, printed by 
Caxton. THEOBALD. 

. the dreadful Savittary} A very circumftantial account of 

this Sagittary is likewise to be found in Lydgate, page 174. 


1 on Qalathe hh horfe, 1 From The T/jrcc Dejirnfiions of 

Troy is taken this name given to Heeler's horfe THEOBALD. 
" Cal'd Gelatin (the which is faid to have been 
" The goodlieft horfe," &c. Lydgate, page 142. 
Again, page 175: 

" And fought, by all the means he could, to take 
" Galathe, Hedor's horfe," &c. 

HfywooJ, in his Iron Age 1632, has likevyifc continued the fame 
appellation to Hector's horfe ; 



And there lacks work ; anon, he's there afoot, 
And there they fly, or die, like * fcaled fculls 
Before the beldiing whale ; then is he yonder, 
And there J the ftrawy Greeks, ripe for his edge ? 
Fall down' before him, like the mower's fwath : 
Here, there, and every where, he leaves, and takes j 
Dexterity fo obeying appetite, 
That what he will, he does ; and does fo much, 
That proof is call'd impoffibility. 

Enter Ul}fes. 

Ukff". O } courage, courage, princes ! great Achille$ 
Is arming, weeping, curling, vowing vengeance : 

*' My armour, and my trufty Galatee." 

jfieyvjoodhns taken many circumilances in his play from Lyclgate. 
John Stevens, the author of Cinthia's Revenge, 1613, (a play com- 
mended by Sen Jonfon in fome lines prefixed to it) has mounted 
Heflor on an elephant. STEEVENS. 

z fcaled fculls] Sculls are great numbers offices fwim- 

rning together. The modern editors not being acquainted with 
the term, changed it \utojkoah. My knowledge of this word is 
derived from a little book called The Englijh Expcjitor, London, 
printed by John Legatt, 1616. The word likewife occurs in 
jLylly's Midas, I S9 2 ' 

*' He hath, by this, fiarted a covey of bucks, or roufed n/cutl 
pf pheafants." The humour of this fhort fpeech confifts in a mif- 
application of the appropriate terms of one amufement, to another* 
Again, in Milton : 

each bay 

" With fry innumerable fwarms, nnd flioals 
" Of fifh, that with their fins and fhining fcales 
'* Glide under the green wave, in fculls that oft 
* Bank the mid fea." 
jfVgain, in Warner's Alliorts England, 1602: 

" A knavifli /!//// of boys and girls, &c." 

Again,Jin the 2th long of Drayton's Polyolbion, it is faid of th<9 
cormorant : 

** from his wings at full, 
" As though he fliot himielf into the thicken'dyZ-a//, 
" He under water goes, &c," 
Again, in the z6th fong : 

" .My filver-fcaledyi-a/j about my ftreams do fweep." 


3 the ftrawy Greets, ] In the folio it is, 

- * the,/? eying Greeks,' JOHNSOK. 


Patroclus' wounds have rouz'd his drowfy blood, 

Together with his mangled Myrmidons, 

That nofelefs, handlefs, hack'd and chip'd, come to 


Crying on Hector. Ajax hath loft a friend, 
And foams at mouth, and he is arm'd ? and at it, 
Roaring for Troilus ; who hath done to-day 
Mad and fantaftic execution ; 
Engaging and redeeming of hirnfelf, 
With fuch a carelefs force, and forcelefs care, 
As if that luck, in very fpite of cunning, 
Bade him win all. 

JLnter Ajax. 

Ajax. Troilus ! thou coward Troilus ! [Exit* 

Dio. Ay, there, there. 

Neft. So, fo, we draw together. [Exeunt. 

Enter Achilles. 

'Achil. Where is this Hector ? 
Come, come, thou boy-queller, fhew thy face ; 
Know what it is to meet Achilles angry. 
Hector ! where's Hector ? I will none but Hector. 



Mother part of the field. 

Re-enter Ajax. 

Ajax. Troilus, thou coward Troilus, fhew thy 

Enter Dlomed. 

Dio. Troilus, I fay ! where's Troilus ? 
Ajax. What wouldfl thou ? 
.Dio. I would correct him. 
Ajax. Were I the general, thou fhouldft have my 


Ere that correction : Troilus, I fay ! what, Troilus ! 



Enter Troilus. 

Troi. O traitor Diomed ! turn thy falfe face, 

thou traitor, 

And pay thy life thou ov/ft me for my horfe ! 
Dio. Ha ! art thou there ? 

Ajax. I'll fight with him alone ; ftand, Diomed. 
Dio. He is my prize, I will not look upon. 
Trot. Come both, 4 you cogging Greeks ; have at 
you both. [Exeunt, fighting. 

Enter Hctfor. 

Heft. Yea, Troilus ? O, well fought, my youngeft 
brother ! 

Enter Achilles. 

AchlL Now do I fee thee : Ha ! Have at thec, 

Heft. Paufe, if thou wilt. [Figkt. 

Acbil. I do difdain thy courtefy, proud Trojan. 
Ee happy, that my arms are out of ufe : 
My reft and negligence befriend thee now, 
But thou anon lhalt hear of me again ; 
'Till when, go feek thy fortune. 

Heft. Fare thee well : 
I would have been much more a frefher man, 
Had I expected thee. 'How now, my brother? 

+ you cogging Greeks, ] This epithet has no particu- 
lar propriety in this place, but the author had heard of Gratia 
Mcmlax. JOHNSON. 

Surely the epithet had propriety in refpecl of Diomed at lead, 
who had defrauded him of .his miitrefs. Troilus bellows it on 
both, unius ob citlpam. A fraudulent man, as I am told, is {till 
called in the North a gainful Greek. Cicero bears witnefs to 
this charafter of the ancient Greeks. " Teftimoniorum religionem et 
jldfm nunqiiam ijlanatio cotuit" Again" Graecorum ingenia ad 
r "allemlum farttta font" STEEVENS. 




TrdL Ajax hath ta'en ^Eneas; Shall it be ? 
No, by the flame of yonder glorious heaven, 
He fhall not carry him ; I'll be taken too, 
Or bring him off: Fate, hear me what I fay ! 
I reck not though I end my life to-day. [Exifi 

Enter one in armour. 

Heft. Stand, (land, thou Greek ; thou art a goodly 

mark : 

No ? wilt thou not ? J I like thy armour well ; 
* I'll frulh it, and unlock the rivets all, 


5 / like thy armour <aW/;] This circumftance is taken 
from Lydgate's poem, page 196: 

" Guido in his hiftorie doth Ihevv 

" By worthy Hector's fall, who coveting 

'* To have the fumptuous armor of that king, &c. 

** So greedy was thereof, that when he had 
" The body up, and on his horfe it bare, 

'* To have the fpoil thereof fuch hafte he made 
" That he did hang his fhield without all care 
*' Behind him at his back, the eafier 
** To pull the armour off at his defire, 
'* And by that means his brcaft clean open lay," &rc. 
This furnifhed Shakefpeare with the hint for the following line : 
I am unarm'd ; forego this vantage, Greek. STEEVENS. 

* I'll frujb /, ] The word frujb I never found elfe- 

where, nor underftand it. Hanmcr explains it, to break or 
truife. JOHNSON. 

'Tofrufb a chicken, is a term in carving which I cannot ex- 
plain. I am indebted for this little knowledge of it to E. Smith's 
Complete Hufivife, published in 1741. The term is as ancient as 
Wynkyn de Worde's Book of Kervinge> 1508. Holinfhed, de- 
fcribing the foldiers of Richmond making themfelves ready, fays, 
*' they bent their bows, and frujbed their feathers ;" and (as 
Mr. Toilet has obferved) employs it again in his Defcription of Ire- 
land, p. ZQ : " When they are fore frufot with licknefs, or fo 
farre withered with age." Tofrtt/h t in this firft iuftance, fays 



But 111 be matter of it : Wilt thou not, beail, abide > 
Why then, fly on, I'll hunt thee for thy liide. [Exit, 


The fame. 
Enter AMks, with Myrmidons. 

AM. Come here about me, you my Myrmidons j 
Mark what I fay, Attend me where I wheel : 
Strike not a ftroke, but keep yourfelves in breath ; 
And when I have the bloody Hedor found, 
Empale him with your weapons round about ; 
In fellefl manner execute your arms 7 . 

he, fignifies to change the feathers from their natural fmooth and 
Hoping pofition, to a rough perpendicular one, whereby the arrow 

flies the fteadier to its mark, and whittles in the air. In the fe-i 
cond inftance, it means to diforder. The word feems to be fome- 
times ufed for any adlion of violence by which things arc feparated, 
dilordered, ordeitroyed. 
So, in Hinde's Elioflo Ltiidinofo, 1606 : 

*' High cedars are frujbed with tempelts, when lower flirub* arc 
not touched with the wind." 

Again, in Hans Beer-pot's Invifible Comedy, &c. 1618: 
" And with mine arm tofrvjh a fturdy lance." 
Again, in the Hijlory of Helyas Knight of the tfnMMt) bl. 1. no date: 

" fmote him fo courageouily with his fworde, that \Mfrujbed 
all his helm, wherewith the erle fell backward, &c." 
Again, in StaiiyhurlVs translation of the firft book of Virgil's 
jEneid, 1582 : 

' 4 All ihcfrujbe and leavings of Greeks, of wrathful Achillei .'* 

" . yf that knight jEntheous haplye 

*' \Verc frujbt, or remanent, &c." 

Again, in Sir John Mandevile ? s account of the magical entertain- 
ments exhibited before the Crete Chan, p. 285 : 

" And then they make knyghtes tojouften inarmes fulle luftyly ? 
" &c. and they frufchen togidere fulle fiercely." STEEVENS. 

7 execute your arms.] Thus all the copies; but furely 

we (hould read aims. STBEYENS. 



Follow me, firs, and my proceedings eye : 

It is decreed Hector the great muft die. {Exeunt* 


'The fame. 

Enter Therfites, Mcnelaus, and Pans. 
*Ther. The cuckold, and the cuckold-maker are at 
it: Now, bull ! now, dog ! 'Loo, Paris, 'loo ! now 
my double-hen'd fparrow ! 'loo, Paris, loo! The 
bull has the game : 'ware horns, ho ! 

[Exeunt Paris and Mcnelatis. 

Enter Margarelon. 

Mar, Turn, flave, and fight. 

Ther. What art thou ? 

Mar. A baftard fon of Priam's. 

Tber. I am a baftard too ; I love baftards : I am a 
baftard begot, baftard inftructed, baftard in mind, 
baftard in valour, in every thing illegitimate. One 
bear will not bite another, and wherefore ihould one 
baftard ? Take heed, the quarrel's moft ominous to 
us : if the fon of a whore fight for a whore, he 
tempts judgment : Farcwel, baftard. 

Mar. The devil take thee, coward ! [Exeunt, 


Another part of the f eld. 

Enter Heffor. 

HeB. Moft putrified core, fo fair without, 
Thy goodly armour thus hath coft thy life. 
Now is my day's work done ; I'll take good breath : 
Reft, fword ; thou haft thy fill of blood and death ! 

Enter Achilles, and his Myrmidons. 
Achil. Look, Hector, how the fun begins to fet ; 
How ugly night comes breathing at his heels : 



8 Even with the vail and darkening of the fun, 
To clofe the day up, Hector's life is done. 

Heft. 9 1 am unarm'd; forego this vantage, Greek. 

Achll. 'Strike, fellows, ftrike; this is the man I feek. 

\_Hettor falls. 

So, Ilion, fall thon next ! no\v, Troy, fink down ; 
Here lies thy heart, thy finews, and thy bone. 
On, Myrmidons ; and cry you all amain, 
Achilles hath the mighty Heftorjlain. 
Hark ! a retreat upon our Grecian part. 

Myr. The Trojan trumpets found the like, my lord. 

8 Even ivltb tie vail ] The vail is, I think, the faking 

of the fun ; not veil or cover. JOHNSON. 

9 / am unarmed ; forego ibis vantage, Greek. ] Heftor, in Lyd- 
gate's poem, falls by the hand of Achilles ; but it is Troilus who, 
having been inclofed round by the Myrmidons, is killed after his 
armour,had been hewn from his body, which was afterwards drawn 
through the field at the horfe's tail. The Oxford Editor, I be- 
lieve, was mifinformed ; for in the old ftory-book of T'he Three 
Dejlruftions of Troy y I find likewife the fame account given of 
the death of Troilus. Heywood, in his Rape of Lucrece, 1638, 
feems to have been indebted to fome fuch work as Hanmer men- 

" Had puiflant Heftorby Achilles' hand 
" Dy'd in a (ingle monomachie, Achilles 
" Had been the worthy ; but being flain by odds, 
*' The pooretl Myrmidon had as much honour 
" As faint Achilles, in the Trojan's death." 
It is not unpleafant to obferve with what vehemence Lydgatr, 
who in the grofleft manner has violated all the characters drawn 
by Homer, takes upon him to reprehend the Grecian poet as the 
original offender. Thus in his fourth book : 

" Oh thou, Homer, for fhame be now red, 

" And thee amafethat holdeft thy felfe fo \vyfe, 

*' On Achy lies to fet fuche great a pryfe 

*' In thy bokes tor his chyvalrye, 

" Above echone that doft hym magnyfye, 

** That was fo fleyghty and fo full of fraude, 

" Why geveft thou hym fo hye a prayie and laude?" 


* Strike, fellows, Jlrtke ; ] This particular of Achilles over- 
powering He&or by numbers, and without armour, is taken from 
the old ftory-book. HANMER. 



dcl/tl. The dragon wing of night o'erfpreads the 


* And, ftickler-like, the armies feparates. 
My half-fupt f\vord, that frankly would have fed, 
Pleas'd with this dainty bit, thus goes to bed. 
Come, tie his body to my horfe's tail ; 
Along the field I will the Trojan trail. [Exeunt. 

Sound retreat. Si:ont. 


he fame. 

Enter Agamemnon, Ajax, Menelaus, Neftor, Diomedes y 
and the reft, marcbing. 

Aga. Hark ! hark ! what fhout is that ? 

Neft. Peace, drums. 

Sol. Achilles ! Achilles! Hedtor'sflain ! Achilles ! 

Din. The bruit is Heclor's ilain, and by Achilles. 

. If it be ib, yet braglefs let it be ; 
Great Hedtor was as good a man as he. 

Aga. March patiently along : Let one be fcnt, 

To pray Achilles fee us at our tent. 

If in his death the gods have us befriended, 
Great Troy is ours, and our faarp wars are ended. 


* And, filckler-like, ] \JHckhr was one who flood by to 

part the combatants when vi&ory could be determined without 
bloodihed. The}- arc ot'ten mentioned by Sidney. " Anthony 
" (fays Sir Tbo. 'North in his tranflation of Plutarch) was himielf 
*' in perfon ajficklcr to part the young men when they had fought 
*' enough." They were called Jlicklers, from carrying Kicks or 
{hives in their hands, with which they interpoied between the 
duellilts: We now call theie Jlicklers -fukfrnen. So again, in 
a comedy called, Fortune ly L~and and Sea, by Heywood and 
Rowley : " 'tis not fit that every apprentice fliould with hisfliop- 
*' club play between us the^/cl'/fr." 
Again, in the tragedy of Faire Marlam, 1613 : 

" And was ihejiickler *twixt my heart and him." 
Again, in Fuimus Trees, 1603 : 

44 As Jlickler* in their nation's enmity." STEEVENS. 




Another part of the fidd. 

Enter &ncas, and Trcjans. 

Mne. Stand, ho ! yet are we matters of the field : 
1 Never go home; here ftarve we out the night. 

Enter Trollus. 

7ra. Hedtor is flain. 

All. Hedtor ? - the gods forbid ! 
froi. He's dead ; and at the murderer's horfe's tail, 
In beaftly fort, dragg'd through the ihameful field. 
Frown on, you heavens, effedt your rage with fpeed ! 
Sit, gods, upon your thrones, and fmile at Troy 4 ! 
I fay, at once ! let your brief plagues be mercy, 
And linger not our fure definitions on ! 

jEne. My lord, you do difcomfort all the hoft. 

3V0/. You underftand me not, that tell me fo : 
I do not fpeak of flight, of fear, of death ; 
But dare all imminence, that gods, and men, 
Addrefs their dangers in. Hedtor is gone ! 
Who mail tell Priam fo, or Hecuba ? 
Let him, that will a fcreech-owl aye be call'd, 
Go in to Troy, and fay there Hector's dead : 
There is a word will Priam turn to ftone ; 
Make wells and Niobes of the maids and wives, 
Cold fhtues of the youth ; and, in a word, 
Scare Troy out of itfelf. But, march, away: 
Hedtor is dead ; there is no more to fay. 
Stay yet ; You vile abominable tents, 

3 Never go home, &c.] This line is in the quarto given to 
Troilus. JOHNSON. 

4 - fmile at Try!] Thus the ancient copies ; but it would 
better agree with the reft of Troilus's wifh, were we to read : 

-- fmitc at Troy, 
I fay, at once ! STEEVENS. 

M 2 Thus 


Thus proudly pight upon our Phrygian plains, 

Let Titan rife as early as he dare, 

I'll through and through you ! And thou, great- 

fiz'd coward ! 

No fpace of earth fhall funder our two hates ; 
I'll haunt thee, like a wicked confcience ftill, 
That mouldeth goblins fwift as frenzy thoughts. 
Strike a free march to Troy ! with comfort go ; 
Hope of revenge fhall hide our inward woe. 

[Exeunt JEneas, &c. 

Enter Pandarus. 

Pan. Do you hear, my lord ; do you hear ? 
Trpi. 5 Hence, broker lacquey ! ignomy and fhame 
Purfue thy life, and live aye with thy name ! 

[Exit Troilus. 

Pan. A goodly med'cine for my aching bones I- 
Oh world ! world ! world ! thus is the poor agent 

defpis'd ! 

O traitors and bawds, how earneftly are you fet a* 
work, and how ill requited ! Why fhould our endea- 
vour be fo 6 lov'd, and the performance fo loath'd ? 
whatverfeforit? whatinftance fork? Let me fee : 
Full merrily the humble-bee doth fing, 
'Till he hath loft his honey, and his fling : 
But being once fubdu'd in armed tail, 
Sweet honey and fweet notes together fail. 
Good traders in the flefli,fet this in your painted cloths, 

As many as be here of pander's hall, 
Your eyes, half out, weep out at Pandar's fall : 
Or, if you cannot weep, yet give fome groans, 
Though not for me, yet for your aching bones. 
Brethren, and fitters, of the hold-door trade, 
Some two months hence my will fhall here be made : 

5 Hcnct* broker lacquey / ] So the quarto. The folio has 
brother. Jo UK SON. 

* lov'J, ] Quarto; <M/V, folio. JOHNSON. 



It fliould be now, but that my fear is this 
7 Some galled goofe of Winchefter would hifs : 
'Till then, I'll fweat, and feek about for eafes ; 
And, at that time, bequeath you my difeafes. [.r/V. 

7 Some galled goofe of Wincbefter - ] The public flews were 
anciently under the jurifdiction of the bifhop of Winchefter. 


Mr. Pope's explanation may be fupported by the following paf- 
fage in one of the old plays ofwhich my negligence has loft the title : 
'* Collier ! how came the goofe to be put upon you ? 
" I'll tell thee : The term lying at Winchejhr in Henry the 
Third's day's, and many French women coming out of the lile of 
Wight thither, &c. there were many punks in the town, &c." 

A particular fymptom in the lues venerea was called a Wincbefler 
goofe. So in Chapman's comedy of Monfieur D t Olive t l6c6 : 
" - the famous fchool of England call'd 
" Winchefter, famous I mean for ihs goofe," &c. 
Again, Ben Jonfon, in his poem called, An Execration on Vulcan : 
" - this a fparkle of that fire let loofe, 
*' That was lock'd up in the Wincbeftria* gofei 
*' Bred on the back in time of popery, 
" When Venus there maintain'd a myftery." 
In an ancient fatire called Cocke Lorelles Bate, bl. 1. printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde, no date, is the following lift of the different 
rcfidences of harlots : 

" There came fuch a wynde fro 
*' Thatblewe thefe women over the ryver, 
" In wherye as I wyll you tell : 
** Some at faynt Kateryns ftroke agrounde, 
' ' And many in Holbome were founde, 
" Some at faynt Gyles I trowe : 
*' Alfo in Avc Maria A!y } and at Wcftmcnfter \ 
" And fome in SborJycbe drewe theder, 
'* With grete lamentacyon ; 
*' And by caufe they have loft that fay re place, 
*' They wyll bylde at Co/man hedge 'in fpace, &c." 
Hence tlie old proverbial fimile, " As common as Coleman Hedge:" 
now Coleman-firtet. STEEVENS. 

There are more hard, bombaftical phrafes in the ferious part of 
this Play, than, I believe,, can be picked out of any other fix Plays 
of Sbakefpeare. Take the following fpecimens : - Tortive, 
ferfifti've^ protrafti've, importlefs, Injiftnre, deracinate, di- 
vulablc. And in the next Ml,paft-}.rc>portion,unrefpcfti've, 
propagation ifelf-ajfrimptlon^ fflf-aJmijjIon^ ajfuljugate^ king- 



THIS play is more correctly written than moil of Shakefpeare'a 
compofitions, but it is not one of thofe in which either the extent 
of his views or elevation of his fancy is fully difplayed. As the 
ftory abounded with materials, he has exerted little invention; 
but he has diverfified his characters with great variety, and pre- 
ferved them with great exa&nefs. His vicious characters fometimes 
difguft, but cannot corrupt, for both Creffida and Pandarus are de- 
tefted and contemned. The comic characters fecm to have been 
the favourites of the writer ; they are of the fuperficial kind, and 
exhibit more of manners than nature ; but they are copioufly fill- 
ed and powerfully imprefled. Shakefpeare has in his ftory follow- 
ed, for the greater part, the old book ofCaxton, which was then 
very popular; but the civara&er of Therfites, of which it makes 
no mention, is a proof that this play was written after Chapman 
had publiftied hisverlion of Homer. JOHIVSON. 

The firil feven bocks of Chapman's Homer were publifhed in 
the year 1596, and again in 159^. They were dedicated as fol- 
lows : To the moft honoured no-iv living inftance of the Achilleian vir- 
tues eternized ly divine Honicre, the Earle of Ejfexe, Earl Mar- 
Jhall, fsV; and an anonymous Interlude, called THERSYTES bis 
Humours and Conceits, had been publifhed in 1598, STEEVENS. 

How the devil luxury, with his fat rump and potatoe finger, 
t'u-kles thefc together.] 

Luxuria was the appropriate term ufed by the fchool divines, 
to exprefs the fin of incontinence, which accordingly is called 
luxury, in all our old Englifli writers. In the Summa Theologiat 
Compendium of Tho. Aquinas, P. 2. II. Quail. CL1V. is de Lux. 
ri<e Partllus, which the author diftributes under the heads of 
Simplex Fomicatio, Ada It cr hint, Inceftus, Stuprum, Raptus, &C. 
and Chaucer, in his Parfcn's Tale, delcanting on the feven dead* 
ly fins, treats of this under the title, De Luxuria. Hence in K. 
Lear, our author ufes the word in this peculiar fcnfe : 
" To't Luxury pell-mell, for I want foldiers." 
And Middleton, in his Game of Chefs, 1625. 

*' . in a room fill'd all with Arctine** pictures, 

*' (More than the twelve labours of Luxury) 

" Thou {halt not fo much as the chafte pummel fee 

Of Lacrecc* dagger." 

But why is luxury, or lafcivioufnefs,' faid to have a potatoe 
foger ? This root, which was in our author's timfc but newly 
imported from America, was confidered as a rare exotic, and ef. 
itemed a very firong provocative. As the plant is fo common 
now, it may entertain the reader to- fee uow it is defcribed by 
Gerard in his H-:rbal, 1597, p. 780. 

" This pbnt which is called ot fome Skyvrits of Peru, is gene- 
rally of us culled Po'atus, or Potatoes There is not any that 

hath written of this plant therefore^ I refer the delVription there- 


of unto thofe that (hall hereafter have further knowledge of 
the fame. Yet I have had in my garden divers roots (that 
I bought at the Exchange in London) where they flourim- 
ed until winter, at which time they perifhed and rotted. 
They are ufed to be eaten roafted in the afties. Some, when they 
be fo roafted, infule them and fop them in wine; and others, to 
give them the greater grace in eating, do boil them with prunes. 
Hovvfoever they be drafted, they comfort, nourifh, and ftrength- 
en the bodie, procure bodily hift, and that with greeJinefs*" 

Drayton, in the 2Oth long of his Polyolkion, introduces the 
fame idea concerning thefiirrct : 

" Theflirret, which, feme fay, in falletsy?/ the Hood" 
Shakelpeare alludes to this quality of potatoes, in the Merry 
Wives ofWindfor: 

** Let the fky rain potatoes, hail kifllng comfits, and 

fnow eringoes ; let a tcmpeft of provocation come." 

Ben Jonibn mentions potatoc pics in Every Man out of bis Hu- 
mour, among other good unfluous meats : 

So J. Heywood, in the Englijb Traveller, 1633 : 

" Caviare, fturgeon, anchovies, pickled oyfters; yes 
** And a. potato p<e: befides all thefe, 
" What thinkeit rare and coftly r" 
Again, in the Dumb Knigbt, 16,3 : 

** truly I think a marrow-bone pye, candied eringoes, pre- 
ferved dates, or marmalade of cantharides, were much better har- 
bingers j coi-k-fparro-ius ftew'd, dove's brains, or fvvan's pizzels, 
are very provocative ; ROASTED POTATOES, or boiled flcerrets, are 
your only lofty diflies." 
Again, in Decker's Honeft tt^bore, 1635 : 

** If (he be a woman, marrovy-bone-s and potatoe-pies keep me, 

Again, in ACbafte Maid of CbeapjiJe, by Middleton, 1620: 
" You might have fpar'd this banquet of eringoes, 
" Artichokes, potatoes, and your butter'd crab ; 
" They were fitter kept for your own wedding dinner." 
Again, in Chapman's May Day, 161 i : 

{k ** a banquet of oyffer-pies, Ikerret-roots, potatoes, eringoes, 

and divers other whetftones of venery." 

Again, in Decker's If this be not a good Play tbe Devil is in it, 1 6 1 z : 
" Potatoes eke, if you fliall lack, 
" To corroborate the back." 
Again, in Jack's Drum's Entertainment, 1601; 

" by Gor an me had know dis, me woode have eat fom po- 
tatos, or ringoe." 

Again, in fir W. D'Avenant's Love and Honour, \ 649 ; 
' You fliall find me a kind of fparrow, widow ; 
" A barley-corn goes as far as zpotatoe," 

M 4 Again, 


Again, \nYbe Gbofti 1640: 

" Then, the fine broths I daily had fent to me, 
" Potatoe parties, lufty marrow-pies, &c." 
Again, in Hiftriomaftix^ or tbe Player ~^bipt^ 1610: 

* Give your play-gull a llool, and my lady her fool, 

*' An'd her ufazr potatoes and marrow.". 

Nay, fo notorious were the virtues of this root, that W. W, 
the old tranflator of the Mencecbmi oiPlautus, 1 595, has introduced 
them into that comedy. When Menctchmus goes to the houie 
of his miftrefs Erotium to befpeak a dinner, he adds, " Harke ye, 
fomeoylters, a mary-bone pie or two, fome artichockes, and po- 
tato-roots ; let our other diflies be as you pleafe." 

Again, in Greene's Deputation between a Hec Conycatcber and 
a Sbee Conycatchcr, 1592 : " I pray you, how many badde prof- 
fittes againe growes from whoores. Bridewell woulde have verie 
fewe tenants, the hofpittall woulde wante patientes, and the fur-? 
gians much woorke : the apothecaries woulde have furphaling 
water and potato-roots lye deade on their handes." 
Again, in Cynthia s Revels, by Ben Jonfpn. 

" 'tis your only difii, above all your potatoes or oyfter-pies 
in the world." 
Again, in the Elder Erotber^ by B. and Fletcher : 

*' A banquet' well, potatoes and eringoes, 

** And as I take it, cantharides Excellent !" 
Again, in the LoyalSiibjcft y by the fame authors : 

" Will your lordfhip pleafe to tafte a hat potato? 

" 'Twill advance your wither'd ftate, 

*' Fill your honour full of noble itches, <kc." 
Again, in The Martini jlf^rzW, by B. and Fletcher : 

** Will your ladyfhip have a potatoe-pie? 'tis a good irrii> 
difli for an old lady after a long lent." 
Again, in the Sea t^oyage^ by the fame authors : 

<t oh, for fome eringoes, 

*' Potatoes^ or cantharides !" 

*' See provoking diflies, candied eringoes 

" hfr&potatoc -." 
Again, in The Pifturc, by MulTin-cr : 

t he hath got a pye 

" Of marrow-bones, potatoes and cringoes." 
Again, in Mallinger's Jfetv ll r ay to pay old Debti : 

*.* . 'tis the quinteflence 

*' Of five cocks of the game, ten dozen o " fparrjws, 

** Knuckles of veal, potatit-rooti and marrow, 

" Coral and ambergris, &c. 
Again, in the Guardian^ by the iame author ; 




Potatoes, marrow, caviare 

n the City Madam, by the fame : 

prefcribes my diet, and foretells 
My dreams when I eatpotatoes." 

Taylor ', the Water poet, likewife, in his character of 
afcribes the fame qualities to this genial root. 
Again, Decker in his GuFs Hornbook, 1609 : 

*' Potato-pies and cuitards flood like the finful fuburbs of cook- 
ery, &c." 
Again, in Mar/Ion's Satires, 1599: 

" camphireand letticechafte, 

** Are now cafhier'd now Sophi 'ringoes eate, 
" Candi'd potatoes are Athenians' meate." 
Again, in Holinfhed's Chronicle, Defcription of England, p. 167; 

" Oi the potato and fuch venerous roots, &c. I Ipeake not." 
Laftly, in fir John Harrington's Metamorphojis of Ajax, 1596 : 

" Perhaps you have been ufed to your dainties of potatoes, of 
caveare, ermgus, plums of Genowa, all which may well encreafc 
your appetite tofeverall evacuations." 

In the Good Hujkvives Jewell, a book of cookery publifned in 
1 596, I find the following receipt to make a tarte that is a courage 
to a man or woman : 

" Take two quinces and twoo or three burre rootes, and a PO- 
TATON ; and pare your POTATON and fcrapeyour roots and 
put them into aquarte of wine, and let them boyle till they bee 
tender and put in an ounce of dates, and when they be boiled ten- 
der, drawe them through a ftrainer, wine and all, and then put 
in the yolkes of eight egges, and the braynes of three or four cocke- 
fparrowes, and ftraine them into the other, and a little rofe-water, 
and leeth them all with fugar, cinnamon, and ginger, and cloves 
and mace ; and put in a little fvveet butter, and fet it upon a cha- 
fing-difh of coles between two platters, to let it boyle till it be 
fomething bigge." 

Gerard ellewhere obfcrves in his Herbal, that " potatoes may 
ferve as a ground or foundation whereon the cunning confe&ioner 
or fugar-baker may worke and frame many comfortable conferve$ 
and >fftorative fweetmeats." 

The fame venerable botanift likewife adds, that theftalk of dot- 
burre ** being eaten rawe with lalt and pepper, or boiled in the 
broth of fat meat, is pleafant to be eaten, andy2/V;v//& up venereal 
motions* It likewife flrengtheneth the back, &c." 

Speaking of dates, he fays, that *' thereof be made divers ex- 
cellent cordial comtortable and nourilhing medicines, and that pro- 
cure luft of the body very mightily" He alfo mentions quinces as 
having the fame virtues. 

We may likewife add, that Shakefpeare's own authority for 
$je efficacy of guinea and dates is not wanting. He has certainly 


ir troduced them both as proper to be employed in the wedding 
d:nner of Paris and Juliet : 

" They call for dates and quinces in the paftry." 

It appears from Dr. Campbell's Political Survey of Great Britain, 
that potatoes were brought into Ireland about the year 1610, and 
that they came firft from Ireland into Lancafhire. It was however 
forty years before they were much cultivated about London. At 
this time they were diftinguifhed from the Spanifh by the name of 
Virginia potatoes, or lattatas, which is the Indian denomination 
of the Spanifh fort. The Indians in Virginia called them openauk. 
Sir Yv T alter Raleigh was the firft who planted them in Ireland. 
Authors differ as to the nature of this vegetable, as well as in refpeft 
of the country from whence it originally came. Switzer calls it 
Sifarum Peruvianum, i. e. ihejkirret of Peru. Dr. Hill fays it is 
zfoianam t and another very rdpeclahle naturaliii conceives it to 
be a native of -Mexico. 

The accumulation of inftances in this note is to be regarded as 
s proof how often durk allufions might be cleared up, if coramea- 
tttors were diligent in their refcarches. COLLINS. 

C Y M B E L I N E 

Perfons Reprefented. 

Cymbcline, king of Britain. 
Cloten, fon to the queen by a former hujband, 
Leonatus Pofthumus, a gentleman married to theprincefs. 
Belarius, a banijhed lord, dlfeuifed under the name of 


Guiderius, i difguifed under the names of Poly dor e and 
Arviragusy j Cadival, fuppofedfons to Bdarius. 
PhilariOj an Italian, friend to Pojlhumus. 
lachimo, friend to Philario. 
Caius Lucius, ambaffador from Rome. 
Pifanio, fervant to Pofthumus. 
A French Gentle mail. 
Cornelius, a Phfician, 
wo Gentlemen. 

Queen, wife to Cymbelme. 

Imogen, daughter to Cymbeline by a former queen. 

Helen, woman to Imogen. 

Lords, Ladies, Roman Senators, a Tribune, Apparitions, 
a Soothfayer, Captains, Soldiers, Mffingers, and other 

SCENE, fometimes in Britain ; fometimes in Italy, 

-C Y M B E L I N E. 


Cymbdine's palace in Britain. 
Enter two Gentlemen. 

1 Gent. z You do not meet a man, but frowns : 

our bloods 

No more obey the heavens, than our courtiers', 
Still feem, as does the king's. 

2 Gent. But what's the matter ? 

i Gent. 

1 Mr. Pope fuppofed the ftory of this play to have been borrow'd 
from a novel of Boccnce ; but he was miftaken, as an imitation of 
it is found in an old ftory-book entitled, Wcfiwardfor Smelts. 
This imitation differs in as many particulars from the Italian no- 
velift, as from Shakefpeare, though they concur in the more con- 
fiderable parts of the fable. It was published in a quarto pamph- 
let 1603. This is the only copy of it which I have hitherto feen. 
There is a late entry of it in the books of the Stationers' Com- 
pany, Jan. 1619, where it is faid to have been written by Kittof 
Kingfton. STEEVENS. 

* Ton do not meet a man, but frowns: our BLOODS 
No more obey the heavens, than our courtiers 
S 'till feem, as docs the king's.] The thought is this: we are 
not now (as we were wont) influenced by the weather, but by the 
king's looks. We no more obey the heavens [the Iky] than our cour- 
tiers obey the heavens [God] . By which it appears that the read- 
ing our bloods, is wrong. For though the blood may be affe&ed 
with the weather, yet that afteftion is difcovered not by change 
of colour, but by change of countenance. And it is the outward 
not the inivard change that is here talked of, as appears from the 
word feem. We ihould read therefore : 

our BROWS 

No more obey the heavens, &c. 
Which is evident from the precedent words, 
You do not meet a man b\\i frowns. 


174 C Y M B E L I N E. 

i Gent. His daughter, and the heir of his kingdom, 


And from the following, 

But not a courtier, 

Altho' they wear their faces to the lent 

Of the king's look y but hath a heart that is 

Glad at the thing theyyr<ni'/ at. 
' The Oxford Editor improves upon this emendation, and reads, 

. " our looks 

No more obey the heart ev'n than our courtiers. 
But by venturing too far, atafecond emendation, he has ftript it 
of all thought and fentiment. WAREURTO.V. 

This paffage is fo difficult, that commentators may differ con- 
cerning it without animofity or fliame. Of the two emendations 
propofed, Hanmer's is the more licentious ; but he makes the 
fenfe clear, and leaves the reader an eafy paflage. Dr. Warburton 
has corrected with more caution, but lefs improvement: his rea- 
foning upon his own reading is fo obfcure and perplexed, that I 

fufped fome injury of the prefs. 1 am now to tell my opinion, 

which is, that the lines fland as they were originally written, and 
thnt a paraphrafe, fuch as the licentious and abrupt expreffions of 
our author too frequently require, will make emendation unnecef- 
fary. We do not meet a man but frowns ; our bloods our coun- 
tenances, which, in popular fpeech, are faid to be regulated by 
the temper of the blood, no more obey the laws of heaven, which 
direct us to appear what we really are, than onr courtier s\ that 
IB, than \heMoods of our courtiers; but our bloods, like theirs, 
flillfetm, as doth the king's. JOHNSOV. 

. In the Torkjhire Tragedy 1619, which has been attributed to 
Shakefpeare, blood appears to be ufed for inclination : 

** For 'tis our blood to love what we are forbidden.'* 
Again, in K. Lear, at IV. fc. ii. 

" Were it my fitnefs 

To let thefe hands obey my Hood." 
\*K. Henry Fill, ad III. fc. iv. is the fame thought : 

44 fubject to your countenance, glad, orforry, 

" As I faw it inclined." STBEVENS. 

I would propofe to make this pafTage clear by a very flight al- 
teration, only leaving out the laft letter : 

You do not meet a man but frowns : our bloods 

No more obey the heavens than our courtiers 

Still feem, as does the king. 

That is, Still look as tlx king does ; or, as he exprefles it a little 
differently afterwards : 

"Mtar their faces to the bent 

Of the king's look. TYRWHITT. 


C Y M B E L I N E. i 75 

He purpos'd to his wife's fole fon, (a widow, 

That late he married) hath referr'd herfelf 

Unto a poor, but worthy gentleman : She's wedded ; 

Her hulbund banifh'd ; Ihe imprifon'd : all 

Is outward forrow ; though, 1 think, the king 

Be touch 'd at very heart. 

2 Gent. None but the king ? 

1 Gent. He, that hath loft her, too : fo is the 


That moft defir'd the match : But not a courtier, 
Although they wear their faces to the bent 
Of the king's looks, hath a heart that is not 
Glad at the thing they fcowl at. 

2 Gent. And why fo ? 

1 Gent. He that hath mifsM the princefs, is a thing 
Too bad for bad report : and he that hath her, 

(I mean, that marry'd her, alack, good man ! 
And therefore banifh'd) is a creature fuch 
As, to feek through the regions of the earth 
For one his like, there would be fomething failing 
In him that fliould compare. I do not think, 
So fair an outward, and fuch fluff within, 
Endows a man but he. 

2 Gent. You fpeak him far. 

i Gent. 3 I do extend him, fir, within himfelf; 


The original reading was probably this : 

our bloods 

No more obey the heavens ; they arc courtiers: 

Still leem as does the king's. 

i. e. our countenances no longer depend on each Jkyey influence, 
by which in the ordinary courfe of things they are regulated ; they 
are become mere courtiers : ftill are dreft either in (miles or 
frowns, according to the bent of the king's look. MA LONE. 

3 / DO EXTEND him, Jtr^ within himfelf','] I extend him 
within himfelf : my praife, however extinfive, is ivithin his me- 
rit. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps this paflage may be fomewhat illuftrated by the fol- 
lowing lines in Troi/us and CreJJida, acl iii : 

*' - BO man is the lord of anv thing. 

176 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Crufli him together, rather than unfold 
His mealure duly. 

2 Gent. What's his name, and birth ? 

i Gent. I cannot delve him to the root : His father 
"Was call'd Sicilius, who did join his honour, 
Againft the Romans, \vith Caffibelan ; 
But had his titles by Tcnantius, whom 
He ferv'd with glory and admir'd fuccefs ; 
So gain'd the fur-addition, Leonatus : 
And had, befides this gentleman in queflion, 
Two other fons ; who, in the wars o'the time, 
Dy'd with their fvvords in hand : for which, their 


(Then old and fond of irTue) took fuch forrow, 
That he quit being; and his gentle lady, 
Big of this gentleman, our theme, deceas'd 
As he was born. The king, he takes the babe 
To his protection ; calls him Pofthumus ; 
Breeds him, and makes him of his bed-chamber : 
Puts to him all the learning that his time 
Could make him the receiver of; which he took, 
As we do air, fail as 'twas minifler'd; and 
In his fpring became a harveft: 4 Liv'd in court, 
(Which rare it is to do) moft prais'd, moft lov'd: 
A fample to the youngcrt; to the more mature, 
5 A glafs that feated them ; and to the graver, 

A child 

c< 'Till he communicate his parts to others : 
'* Nor doth he of hirnfelr know them ror aught, 
" 'Till he behold them rorm'd in the applaufe 
** Where they arc extended" &c. STEEVEMS. 
* i Irvtlintourt) 

(Jf'Tiu-fj rare it is to do) tnJl fra'.?J, rngJHorfd:] This en- 
comium is high and artful. To be at once in any great degree 
loved and praifid, is truly rare. Jo H N s o N . 

5 A glafs thai featur'd them ; j Such is the reading in all 

the modern editions, I know not by whom firft iubftituted, tor 

A glafs that feared them ; 

I have difplacedyJvz/arV, though it can plead long prefcription, 
becaufe I am inclined to think that t'cu^d has the better title. 


C Y M B .E L I N E. 177 

A child that guided dotards : to his miftrefs, 
For whom he now is bamfh'd, her own price 
Proclaims how {he efteem'd him and his virtue ; 
By her election may be truly read, 
What kind of man he is. 

2 Gent. I honour him 

Even out of your report. But, pray you, tell me, 
Is fhe fole child to the king ? 

i Gent. His only child. 

He had two fons, (if this be worth your hearing, 
Mark it) the eldeft of them at three years old, 
F the fwathing clothes the other, from their nurfery 
Were flolen ; and to this hour, no guefs in knowledge 
Which way they went. 

Mirrour was a favourite word in that age for an example, or a 
pattern, by noting which the manners were to be formed, as drefs 
is regulated by looking in a glais. When Don Bellianis is ftiled 
The Mirrour of Knighthood, the idea given is not that of a glafs in 
which every knight may behold his own refemblance, but an ex- 
ample to be viewed by knights as often as a glafs is looked upon 
by girls ; to be viewed, that they may know, not what they are, 
but what they ought to be. Such a glafs may fear the more mature , 
as difplaying excellencies which they have arrived at maturity 
without attaining. To fear, is here, as in other places, to fright. 

If feated be the right word, it mutt, I think, be explained 
thus : a glafs that formed them ; a model, by the contemplation 
and infpeclion of which they formed their manners. JOHN-SON. 

Feated 'is the old reading. 

This paflage may be \vell explained by another in the firft part 
of King Henry IV : 

He =ivas Indeed the glafs 

Whrrein the noble youths <//<? drefs themfelves* 

Again, Opnelia defer ibes Hamlet, as 

The glafs offajhion, and the mould of form. 
To drefs themfelves therefore may be to form themfelves. 

DreJJcr, in French', is to form. To drrfi a Spaniel is to break 
him in. 

Feat is nice, exafl. So in the Tempeft : 

look, boi'j iveil my garments jit upon me, 
Much feater than before. 

To feat therefore may be a verb meaning to render nice, exaSl: 
by the drefs dt Polthumus, even the more mature courtiers con- 
dcfcended to regulate their external appearance. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. N 2 Gent. 

iy8 C Y M B E L I N E. 

2 Gent. How long is this ago ? 

1 Gent. Some twenty years. 

2 Gent. That a king's children Ihould be fo con- 

vey 'd ! 

So Hackly guarded ! And the fearch fo flow, 
That could not trace them ! 

1 Gent. Howfoe'er 'tis flrange, 

Or that the negligence may well be laugh'd at, 
Yet is it true, fir. 

2 Gent. I do well believe yon. 

i Gent. We muft forbear : Here comes the gen- 

The queen, and princefs. [Exeunt. 


Enter ll:c Queen, Pofthumus, Imogen, and attendants. 

No, be affur'd, you fhall not find me, 

After the fhnder of moft ftep-mothers, 
Evil-ey'd unto you : you are my prilbner, but 
Your gaoler (hall deliver you the keys 
That lock up yonr reftraint. For you, Pofthumus, 
So foon as 1 can win the offended king, 
I will be known your advocate : marry, yet 
The fire of rage is in him ; and 'twere good, 
You lean'd unto his fentence, with what patience 
Your wifdom may inform you. 

Poft. Plcafe your highncls, 
I will from hence to-day. 

Qiieen. You know the peril : - 
I'll fetch a turn about the garden, pitying 
The pangs of barv'd affections ; though the king 
Hath chargM you fhould not fpeak together. [Exit. 

Imo. O dlflenabling courtefy ! How fine this tyrant 
Can tickle where Ihe wounds ! My deareft hufband, 
I fomething fear my father's wrath ; but nothing, 



(' Always referv'd my holy duty) what 
His rage can do on me : You muft be gone ; 
And I fhall here abide the hourly Ihot 
Of angry eyes ; not comforted to live, 
But that there is this jewel in the world, 
That I may fee again. 

Poft. My queen ! my miftrefs ! 
O, lady, weep no more ; left I give caufe 
To be fufpeded of more tendernefs 
Than doth become a man ! I will remain 
The loyal'ft hulband that did e'er plight troth. 
My refidence in Rome, at one Philario's ; 
Who to my father was a friend, to me 
Known but by letter : thither write, my queen, 
And with mine eyes I'll drink the words you fendj 
* Though ink be made of gall. 

Re-enter H(een. 

Queen. Be brief, I pray you : 
If the king come, I fhall incur I know not 
How much of his difpleafure : Yet I'll move him 

To walk this way : I never do him wrong, 

But he does buy my injuries, to be friends ; 

Pays dear for my offences. [Exit* 

Poft. Should we be taking leave 
As long a term as yet we have to live, 
The lothnefs to depart would grow : Adieu ! 

1 (Akvays referrf d my holy duty) ] I fay I do not fear rfty 
father, fo far as I may fay it without breach of duty. JOHNSON. 

1 Though ink be made of gall.] Shaketpeare, even in this poor 
conceit, has confounded the vegetable galls ufed in ink, with the 
animal <?//, fuppofed to be bitter. JOHNSON. 

The poet might mean either the vegetable or the animal galls 
with equal propriety, as the 'vegetable gall is bitter ; and I have 
feen an ancient receipt for making ink, beginning, " Take of the 
black juice or the gall of oxen two ounces," &c. STEEYENS. 

N 2 Imo. 

iSo C Y M B E L I N E. 

Imo. Nay, flay a little : 
Were you but riding forth to air yourfelf, 
Such parting were too petty. Look here, love ; 
This diamond was my mother's : take it, heart ; 
But keep it 'till you woo another wife, 
When Imogen is dead. 

Pqft. How ! how ! another ? 
You gentle gods, give me but this I have, 
And fear up ? my embracements from a next 
With bonds of death ! Remain, rcm: in thou here 

[Putting on tbe ri/i*. 

* While fenfe can keep it on ! And fvveeteft, faireft, 
As I my poor felt did exchange for you, 
To your fo infinite lofs ; fo, in our trifles 
I ftill win of you : For my fake, wear this ; 
It is a manacle of love ; 1*1,1 place it 

[Putting a bracelet on l:er arm. 
Upon this faireft prifoner. 

Imo. O, the gods ! 

When fhall we fee again ? 

Enter Cymbclinc, and Lords. 
Pojt. Alack, the king ! 

3 dnd fear up my embraccmcnts from a next 

With bonds of death! ] Shakefpeare may poetically call 

the cere-cloths in which, the dead are wrapp'd, the bonds of death. 
If fo, we fhould read cere inftead of fear. 

Why thy canonix'd hearfed in death 
Have burft their cerements? 

To fear iff, is properly to dofe up by burning; but in this 
puflage the poet may have dropp'd that idea, and ufeu the word 
limply for to ciofc up. STEEVENS. 

* While fenfe can keep thee on .' ] ( The folio (the only an- 
cient and authentic copy of this play) reads : 

// '/>;/> fenfe can keep it on ! 

which I believe to be right. The expreiTlcn means, while Jcnfe 
can maintain its operations ; while fenfe continues to have power. 



C Y M B E L I N E. 181 

Cym. Thou bafcfl thing, avoid ! hence, from my 

fight ! 

If, after this command, thou fraught the court 
With thy unworthinefs, thou dy'ft : Away ! 
Thou art poifon to my blood. 

Pojl. The gods protect you ! 
And blcfs the good remainders of the court ! 
I am gone. [.r/V. 

Lno. There cannot be a pinch in death 
More fharp than this is. 

Cym. O difloyal thing, 

That ihould'ft repair my youth; J thou heapefl 
A year's age on me ! 

Imo. I befeech you, fir, 
Harm not yourlelf with your vexation ; I 
Am fenfelefs of your wrath ; 6 a touch more rare 


5 tbou leapfft 

A year's age on me /] Dr. Warburton reads : 

A yare age on we. 

It feems to me, even from Skinner, whom he cites, ihztyare is 
ufed only as a perfonal quality. Nor is the authority of Skinner 
fufficient, without fome example, to juftify the alteration. Han- 
mer's reading is better, but rather too far from the original copy : 

tbtnt aeafeft many 

A year's age on me. 
I read : 

' tbou heap* ft 

Years, ages, on me. JOHNSON. 

I would receive Dr. Johnfon's emendation : he is however mif- 
raken when he fays that yare is ufed only as a perfonal quality. 
See Anton'; a>id Cleopatra : 

Their fliips are ya^e, yours heavy. 

Tare, however, will by no means apply to Dr. Warburton's fenfe. 


* a touch more rare 

Subdues all pangs, all fears,"] Rare is ufed often for eminently 
food; but I do not remember any paffage in which it ftands for 
tminently bad. May we read : 

a touch more near. 

*' Cura dtam propior luclufque dorneflicus ar.eit,*' Ovid. 
N 3 Shall 


Subdues all pangs, all fears. 

Cym. Paft grace ? obedience ? 

Imo. Paft hope, and in defpair ; that way, paft 

Cym. That might'ft have had the fole fon of my 
queen ! 

Imo. O bleft, that I might not ! I chofe an eagle, 
And did avoid a 7 puttock. 

Cym. Thou took'ft a beggar ; would'ft have made 

my throne 
A feat for bafenefs. 

Imo. No ; I rather added 
A luilre to it. 

Cym. O thou vile one ! 

Imo. Sir, 

It is your fault that I have lov'd Pofthumus : 
You bred him as my play-fellow ; and he is 

Shall we try again : 

a touch more rear. 

Crmlum inilnus. But ot this I know not any example. There la 
yet another interpretation, which perhaps will remove the diffi- 
culry. A touch more rare, may mean a nobler pajjion. JOHNSON, 
So, in Antony and Cleopatra, &&. I. fc. ii. 

The death of Fulvia, with more urgent touches, 
Do ftrongly fpeak to us. 
Again, in the Tempeft : 

Haft thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling 
Of their afflictions ? &c. 

A touch is not unrrequently ufed, by other ancient writers, in, 
this fenfe. So in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph, a maique, 1623 ; 
* You mud not, Phillis, be fo fenfible 
" Or theie fmall touches which your p.irlion makes." 
-Small touches, Lydia ! do you count them i'mall r" 

AS 3 ' : 

' When pleafure leaves a touch at laft 

" To fliewthat it was ill," 
Again, in Daniel's Cleopatra, 1599 : 

** So deep we feel imprefled in our blood 
" That touch which nature with our breath did give." 
A touch more rare is undoubtedly a more e.v^n'-Jite feeling afupt- 
fior fcnfation. SrEEVENS. 

? afutteck.1 A kite. JOHNSON, 

A man 

C Y M B E L I N E. ,83 

A man, worth any woman ; over-buys me 

Almofl the fum he pays. 

Cym. What ! art thou mad ? 

Imo. Almoft, fir : Heaven reflore me ! 'Would I 


A neat-herd's daughter ! and my Leonatus 
Our neighbour fhepherd's fon ! 

Re-enter Queen. 

Cym. Thou foolifh thing ! 
They were again together : you have done 

[To the queen* 

Not after our command. Away with her, 
And pen her up. 

)ueen. Befeech your patience : Peace, 
Dear lady daughter, peace ; Sweet fovereign, 
Leave us to ourfelves ; and make yourfelf fome com- 
Out of your bell advice. 

Cym. Nay, let her languilh 
A drop of blood a day ; and, being aged, 
Die of this folly ! [Exit. 

Enter Pifanio. 

Queen. Fie ! you muft give way : 
Here is your fervant. How now, fir ? What news ? 

Pif. My lord your fon drew on my mailer. 

Queen. Ha! 
No harm, I truft, is done ? 

Pif. There might have been, 
But that my mailer rather play'd than fought, 
And had no help of anger : they were parted 
By gentlemen at hand. 

^ueen. I am very glad on't. 

Imo. Your fon's my father's friend ; he takes his 

N 4 Jo 

184 C Y M B E L I N E. 

To draw upon an exile ! O brave fir ! 

J would they were in Africk both together ; 
Myfclf by with a needle, that I might prick 
The goer back. Why came you from your matter ? 

Pif. On his command : He would not furTer me 
To bring him to the haven : left thefe notes 
Of what commands I fhould be fubjecl: to, 
"When it pleas'd you to employ me. 

Queen. This hath been 

Your faithful fervant : I dare lay mine honour, 
He will remain fo. 

Pif. I humbly thank your highnefs. 

Queen. Pray, walk a while. 

Imo. About fome half hour hence, pray you, fpeak 

with me : 

You fliall, at leaft, go fee my lord aboard : 
for this time, leave me. [Exeunt. 


Enter Cloten, and two Lords. 

1 Lord. Sir, I would advife you to ihift a fhirt ; the 
violence of action hath made you reek as a facrifice : 
Where air comes out, air comes in : there's none 
abroad fo wholefome as that you vent. 

Clot. If my fhirt were bloody, then to Ihift it 

Have I hurt him ? 

2 Lard. No, faith ; not fo much as his patience. 


1 Lord. Hurt him ? his body's a paflable carcafs, 
if he be nqt hurt : it is a thorough-fare for fleel, if it 
be not hurt. 

2 Lord. His fleel was in debt; it went o' the back- 
fide the town. \_Afidc. 

Clot. The villain would not Ihnd me. 

2 Lord. 

C Y M B E L I N E. 185 

2 Lord. No ; but he fled forward {till, toward 
your face. \Afide. 

1 Lord. Stand you ! You have land enough of }our 
own : but he added to your having ; gave you fome 

2 Lord. As many inches as you have oceans : 
Puppies ! \_Afide. 

Clot. I would, they had not come between us. 

2 Lord. So would I, 'till you had meafur'd how 
long a fool you were upon the ground. [dfide. 

Clot. And that fhe mould love this fellow, and 
refufe me ! 

2 Lord If it be a fin to make a true election, fhe is 
damn'd. \_Afide. 

1 Lord. Sir, as I told you always, 8 her beauty and 
her brain go not together : 9 She's a good fign, but 
I have feen fmall reflection of her wit. 

2 Lord. She ihines not upon fools, left the reflection 
{hould hurt her. [A/ide. 

8 her leavty and her brain, &c.] I believe the lord means 

to fpeak a fentence, '* Sir, as I told you always, beauty and brain 
go not together." JOHNSON. 

9 She's a good f\gn, ] \ijign be the true reading, 

the poet means by it cancellation^ and by rejltflion is meant in- 
fluence. But I rather think, from the anfwer, that he wrote 
Jhine. So, in his Venus and Adonis: 

" As if", from thence, they borrowed all their Jhine" 


There is acutenefs enough in this note, yet I believe the poet 
meant nothing by Jign, but fair outward ftiew. JOHNSON. 

The fame allufion is common to other writers. So, in B. and 
Fletcher's Fair Maid of the Inn : 

" a common trull, 

*' A tempting Jign, and curiouily fet forth 
** To draw in riotous guefts." 
Again, in the Elder Brother^ by the fame authors : 

" Stand {till, thou^- of man. " 

To underftand the whole force of Shakefpeare's Idea, it 
Ihould be remember'd that anciently almoft every fign had a 
fuotto, or fome attempt at a witticifm, underneath it. STEEVENS. 


i86 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Clot. Come, I'll to my chamber : 'Would there 
had been tome hurt done ! 

2 Lord. I wilh not fo ; unlefs it had been the fall 
of an ais, which is no great hurt. \_Afide. 

Clot. You'll go with us ? 

1 Lord. PI I attend your lordfhip. 
Clot. Nay, come, let's go together. 

2 Lord. Well, my lord. [Exeunt. 


Imogen's apartments. 
Enter Imogen, and Pifanio. 

I/no. I would thou grew'fl unto the ftiores o' the 


And queftion'dft every fail : if he fhould write, 
And I not have it, ' 'twere a paper loll 
As offer'd mercy is. What was the laft 
That he fpake to thee ? 

Pif. y fwas, His queen, his queen ! 

i , , -- 'twere a paper loft 

As offer'd mercy is. < ] i. e. Should one of his letters 
roifcarry, the lofs would be as great as that of offer'd ruercy. 
But the Oxford Editor amends it thus : 
- 'twere a paper loir, 
With offer'd mercy in it. WAR BUR TO \ . 

I believe the poet's meaning is, that the lofs of that paper 
would prove as fatal to her, as the lolsor a pardon to a condemu'd 

A thought refembling this occurs in Alts well that ends 'well: 

" Like a remorfeful/Wo (lowly carried." 
Dr. Warburton's opinion may, however, be fupported from 
Milton's Paradij'e Loji, b. iii. 1. 18? : 

The reft fliall hear me call, and oft be warn'd 

" Their fmrul ftatc, and to appeaie betimes 
** Th* incenfed deiry, while <>fer ' 

'd gract 

C Y M B E L I N E. 187 

Imo. Then wav'd his handkerchief? 

PiJ\ And kifs'd it, madam. 

Imo. Senfelefs linen ! happier therein than I ! 
And that was all ? 

P/f. No, madam ; * for fo long 
As he could make me with this eye, or ear, 
Diftinguifh him from others, he did keep 
The deck, with glove, or hat, or handkerchief, 
Still waving, as the fits and ftirs of his mind 
Could beft exprefs how flow his foul fail'd on, 
How fwift his fhip. 

Imo. Thou ihouldfl have made him 
As little as a crow, or lefs, ere left 
To after-eye him. 

Pif. Madam, fo I did. 

Imo. I would have broke mine eye-ilrings ; crack'd 

them, but 

To look upon him ; * 'till the diminution 
Of fpace had pointed him fharp as my needle : 

* "forfo lon 
As be could make mcivith his eye or 


DiftinguiJJj him from others. - ] But how could Pofthumus 
make himfelf diftinguifhed by his ear to Pifanio ? By his tongue 
he might to the other's ear : and this was certainly Shakefpeare's 
intention. We muft therefore read : 

As he could make me with this eye or ear, 
Diftinguifh him from others. - 

The expreffion is &UCTXJ, as the Greeks term it : the party 
fpeaking points to that part fpoken of. WARBURTON. 
Sir T. Hanmer alters it thus : 
--- for Ib long 
As he could mark me with his eye, or / 
Diftinguifh -- 

The reafon ot Hanmer's reading was, that Pifanio defcribcs no ad- 
drefs made to the ear. JOHNSON. 
3 -- - '//// the diminution 

Of fpace had pointed bimjbarp as my needle ] The diminution of 
fpace, is the diminution of which fpace is the caufe. Trees are 
killed by a blaft of lightning, that is, by blajlinfr not blafted 
Jightning. JOHNSON. 



Nay, follow'd him, 'till he had melted from 
The fmallnefs of a gnat to air ; and then 
Have turn'd mine eye, and wept. But, good Pifanio, 
When mall we hear from him ? 

Pif. Be afTur'd, madam, 
With his 4 next vantage. 

Imo. I did not take my leave of him, but had 
Moft pretty things to fay : ere I could tell him, 
How I would think on him, at certain hours. 
Such thoughts, and fuch ; or I could make him 


The flic's of Italy mould not betray 
Mine intereft, and his honour ; or have charg'd him, 
At the fixth hour of morn, at noon, at midnight, 
To encounter me with orilbns, for then 
I am in heaven for him ; 5 or ere I could 
Give him that parting kifs, which I had fet 
Betwixt two charming words, comes in my father, 
And, like the tyrannous breathing of the north, 
* Shakes all our buds from growing. 


- next vantage. ] Nes t opportunity. Jo H N s o N , 
or ere I could 

Give him that parting /*//}, which I bad fct 
Bet-wixt two charming words ; ] Dr. Warburton pro- 
nounces as abfolutely as if he had been preient at their parting, 
that thefe two charming words were adieu Pojlbumui ; but as Mr. 
Edwards has obferved, fhe mult have underftood the language 
of love very little, if (he could find no tenderer expreffion of it, 
than the name by which every one called her hufband." 


6 Shakes all our buds from growing."] A bud, without any dif- 
tin<Tt idea, whether ot flower or fruit, is a natural representation of 
any thing incipient or immature ; and the buds of flowers, it 
flowers are meant, grow to flowers, as the buds of fruits grow to 
fruits. JOHNSON. 

the tyrannous breathing of tie north t 

Shakes all our buds from growing. 
A great critic propofes to read : 

Shuts all our buds from blowing ; 



Enter a Lady. 

Lady. The queen, madam, 
Dcfires your highnelV company. 

Imo. Thofe things 1 bid you do, get them dif- 

I will attend the queen. 

Pif. Madam, I lhall. [Exeunt. 

R O M E. 

An apartment in Pkilario's houfe. 

Enter Pbilario, lacbimo, and a Frenchman 7 , 

lack. Believe it, fir : I have feen him in Britain ; 
he was then of a crefcent note ; expected to prove fo 
worthy, as fince he has been allowed the name of : 
but I could then have look'd on him without the help* 
of admiration ; though the catalogue ofhisendow- 

and his emendation may in fome meafure be confirmed by thofe 
beautiful lines in the Tkvo Noble Kinfmcn, which I have no doubt 
were written by Shakefpeare. Emilia is fpeaking of a rofe : 
It is the very emblem of a maid. 
For when the ive/t wind courts her gentily, 
How modeftly fhe blows, and paints the fun 
With her chafte bluflies ? when the north comes near 


Rude and impatient, then like chanty, 
She Jhuts her beauties in her bud again, 
And leaves him to bafe briars." FARMER. 
I think the old reading may be fufficiently fupported by the 
following pnflage in the iSth Sonnet of our author : 

*' Rough winds tojhake the darling buds of May." 
Again, in the Taming of a Shrew : 

" Confounds thy fame, as whirlwinds Jbai-e fair lints.'* 


7 and a Frenchman.'] The old copy reads Frenchman, 
a. Dutchman^ and a Spaniard. STEEVENS. 



ments had been tabled by his fide, and I to perufe 
him by items. 

Phil. You fpeak of him when he was lefs furnifh'd, 
than now he is, with that which 8 makes him both 
without and within. 

French. I have feen him in France : we had very 
many there, could behold the fun with as firm eyes 
as he. 

lach. This matter of marrying his king's daughter, 
(wherein he muft be weigh'd rather by her value, 
than his own) 9 words him, I doubt not, a great deal 
from the matter. 

French. And then his banifhment. 

lack. Ay, and the approbations of thofe, that weep 
this lamentable divorce, ' under her colours, are 
wonderfully to extend him ; be it but to fortify her 
judgment, which elfe an eafy battery might lay flat, 
for taking a beggar * without more quality. But 
how comes it, he is to fojourn with you ? How creeps 
acquaintance ? 

Phil. His father and I were foldiers together ; to 
whom I have been often bound for no lefs than my 
life : 

Enter Pqfthumus. 

Here comes the Briton : Let him be fo entertained 
amongft you, as fuits, with gentlemen of your know- 
ing, to a ftrangerof his quality. I befeech you all, 

makes him ] In the fenfe in which we fay, This will 

make or mar you. JOHNSON. 

words him -a great deal from the matter.] Makes the 

defcription of him very diftant from the truth. JOHNSON. 

1 under her colours, ] Under her banner; by her in- 
fluence. JOHNSON. 

* . without more quality. ] The folio reads Itfs quality. 

Mr. Rowe firft made the alteration. STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 191 

be better known to this gentleman ; whom I com- 
mend to you, as a noble friend of mine : How worthy- 
he is, I will leave to appear hereafter, rather than 
ftory him in his own hearing. 

French. Sir, we have known together in Orleans. 

Pqft. Since when I have been debtor to you for 
conrtefies, which I will be ever to pay, and yet pay 

French. Sir, you o'er-rate my poor kindnefs: I was 
glad 3 I did atone my countryman and you ; it had 
been pity, you fhould have been put together with fo 
mortal a purpofe, as then each bore, upon impor- 
tance of fo flight and trivial a nature. 

Poft. By your pardon, fir, I was then a young tra- 
veller; 4 rather Ihunn'd to go even with what I heard, 
than in my every action to be guided by others' expe- 
riences: but, upon my mended judgment, (if I offend 
not to fay it is mended) my quarrel was not altoge- 
ther flight. 

French. 'Faith, yes, to be put to the arbitrement of 
fvvords ; and by fuch two, that would, by all likely- 
hood, have confounded one the other, or have fallen 

lack. Can we, with manners, afk what was the 
difference ? 

French. Safely, I think : 'twas a contention in 

s / did at one i &c.] To atone fignifies in this place to re- 
concile. So Ben. Jonfon, in The Silent Woman: 

" There had been fomehope to atone you." 
Again, in Hey wood's Englijh Traveller, 1633 : 

" The conftable is call'd to atone the broil." 

u Yet for thy fake I am atoned with all." STEEVENS. 

* ^ rather Jijunn'd to go even with ivbat I beard t &c.] This 

is exprefled with a kind ot fantaftical perplexity. He means, I 

was then willing to take for my direction the experience of others, 

more than fuch intelligence as I had gathered myfelf. JOHNSON. 



publick, 'which may, without contradiction, fuffer 
the report. It was much like an argument that fell 
out laft night, where each of us fell in praife of our 
country miftrefles : This gentleman at that time 
vouching, (and upon warrant of bloody affirmation) 
his to be more fair, virtuous, wife, chafte, conftant- 
qualified, and lefs attemptible, than any the rareil 
of our ladies in France. 

lack. That lady is not now living ; or this gentle- 
man's opinion, by this, worn out. 

Pqft. She holds her virtue ftill, and I my mind. 

loch. You muft not fo far prefer her 'fore ours of 

Pqft. Being fo far provok'd as I was in France, I 
\vould abate her nothing ; 6 though I profefs myfelf 
her adorer, not her friend. 

loch. As fair, and as good, (a kind of hand-in-hand 
comparifon)had been fometh ing too fair,and too good, 
for any lady in Britany. 7 If (he went before others I 


5 - -which may, without contradiction, ] Which, un- 
doubtedly, may be publickly told. JOHNSON. 

6 though I profcfs, &c.] Though 1 have not the commoa 
obligations of a lover to his miftrefs, and regard her not with 
the fondnefs of a friend, but the reverence of an adorer. 


7 -. . If foe went before others I have feen, as that diamond 
ef yours out-lujlres many I have beheld, I could not believe Jbe 

excelled many, ] What ? if flie uid really excel others, 

could he not believe flie did excel them ? Nonfenfe. We muft 
ftrike out the negative, and the fenfe will be this, " I can eafily 
believe your miftrefs excels many, tho' (he be not the moft ex- 
cellent ;'juft as I fee that diamond of yours is of more value than 
many I have beheld, though I know there are othei diamonds of 
much greater value." WARBURTON. 

The old reading, I think, may very well ftand ; and I have 
therefore replaced it. " If (fays Inchimo) your miltrefs went 
before fome others I have feen, only in the fame degree your 
diamond outluftres many I have likewife feen, I fliould not ad- 

C Y M B E L I N E. 193 

have feen, as that diamond of yours out-luftres many 
I have beheld, I could not believe Ihe excelled many : 
but I have not feen the mod precious diamond that 
is, nor you the lady. 

Pqft. I prais'd her, as I rated her : fo do I my 

lack. What do you efteem it at ? 

Pqft. More than the world enjoys. 

lack. Either your unparagon'd miftrefs is dead, or 
fhe's out-priz'd by a trifle. 

Pqft. You are miftaken : the one may be fold, or 
given; if there were wealth enough for the purchafe, 
or merit for the gift : the other is not a thing for 
fale, and only the gift of the gods. 

lack. Which the gods have given you ? 

Pqft. Which, by their graces, I will keep. 

lacb. You may wear her in title yours : but, you 
know, ftrange fowl light upon neighbouring ponds. 
Your ring may be ftolen too : fo, of your brace of 
unprizeable eftimations, the one is but frail, and the 
other cafual ; a cunning thief, or a that-way-accom- 
pliih'd courtier, would hazard the winning both of 
firft and laft. 

Pqft. Your Italy contains none fo accomplilh'd a 

mit on that account that fhe excelled many : but I ought not to 
make myfelf the judge of who is the faireft lady, or which is the 
brighteft diamond, till I have beheld the fineft of either kind 
which nature has hitherto produced." The paflage is not non- 
ienfe. It was the bufinefs of lachimo to appear on this occa- 
iion as an infidel to beauty, in order to fpint Pofthumus to lay 
the wager, and fherefore will not admit of her excellence on any 

The author of The Rcvifal would read : 

I could but believe. STEEVENS. 

I mould explain the fentence thus : " Though your lady ex- 
celled as much as your diamond, / could not believe Jbe excelled 
many ; that is, I too could yet' believe that there are many vjbom (he 
, did not excel." But I yet think Dr. Warburton right. 


VOL. IX. O courtier. 

i 9 4 C Y M B E L I N E. 

courtier, ' to convince the honour of my miftrefs ; if, 
in the holding or lofs of that, you term her frail. 
1 do nothing doubt, you haveftore of thieves ; not- 
withftanding, I fear not my ring. 

Phil. Let us leave here, gentlemen. 

Pqft. Sir, with all my heart. This worthy fignior, 
I thank him, makes no ftranger of me ; we are 
familiar at firft. 

lach. With five times fo much converfation, I 
fhould get ground of your fair miftrefs : make her 
go back, even to the yielding ; had I admittance, 
and opportunity to friend. 

Poft. No, no. 

lach. I dare, thereupon, pawn the moiety of my 
eftate to your ring ; which, in my opinion, o'er-values 
it fomething : But I make my wager rather againft 
; your confidence, than her reputation : and, to bar your 
offence herein too, I durft attempt it againft any lady 
in the world. 

Pqft. You are a great deal * abus'd in too bold a 
perfuafion; and I doubt not you fuftain what you're 
worthy of, by your attempt. 

lach. What's that ? 

Pqft. A repulfe: Though your attempt, as you 
call it, deferves more ; a punifhment too. 

Phil Gentlemen, enough of this : it came in too 
fuddenly ; let it die as it was born, and, I pray you, 
be better acquainted. 

lach. 'Would I had put my eftate, and my neigh- 
bour's, on the J approbation of what I have fpoke. 

to convince the honour of my miftrefi', ] Convince t 

for overcome. WAR BURTON. 

So, in Macbeth'. 

" their malady convinces 

* The great eflay of art." JOHNSON. 

* _.0jV ] Decew'J. JOHNSON. 

> ^-approbation ] Proof. JOHNSON. 


1 C Y M B E L I N E. 195 

Pqft. What lady would you chufe to aflail ? 

lad?. Yours; who inconftancy, you think, ftands 
fo fafe. I will lay you ten thoufand ducats to your 
ring, that, commend me to the court where your 
lady is, with no more advantage than the opportunity 
of a fecond conference, and I will bring from thence 
that honour of hers, which you imagine fo referv'd. 

Pqft. I will wage againft your gold, gold to it : 
my ring I hold dear as my finger ; 'tis part of it. 

Iad>. 4 You are a friend, and therein the wifer. If 
you buy ladies' flefh at a million a dram, you cannot 
preferve it from tainting : But, I fee, you have fome 
religion in you, that you fear. 

Pqft. 'This is but a cuftom in your tongue : you 
bear a graver purpofe, I hope. 

loch. I am the matter of my fpeeches ; and would 
undergo what's fpoken, I fwear. 

Pqft. Will you ? I lhall but lend my diamond 'till 
your return : Let there be covenants drawn between 
us : My mittrefs exceeds in goodnefs the hugenefs of 
your unworthy thinking : I dare you to this match : 
here's my ring. 

Phil. I will have it no lay. 

IaJ:. By the gods it is one : J If I bring you no 


* Tou are a friend, and therein the luifer. ] I corre6l it : 

l"ou arc afraid, and therein the wifer. 

What lachimo fays, in the clofe of his fpeech, determines this to 
have been our poet's reading : 

But, I lee you have fome religion in you, that you fear. 


Tou arc a friend to the lady, and therein the wrfer, as you will 
not expofe her to hazard j and that you fear, is a proof of your 
religious fidelity. JOHNSON. 

5 lach. If I bring you no fufficient teftimony that I have cn~ 

joy'd the dearefl bodily part of your miftrefs, my ten thoufand ducats are 
yours ; fo is your diamond too : if I come off", and leave her in fuch 
honour as you have truft in, Jhe your jewel, this jour jewt^ and my 
fold are yours, &c. 

VOL. IX. O 2 Poft. 

196 C Y M B E L I N E. 

fufficient teflimony that I have enjoy'd the deareft 
bodily part of your miftrefs, my ten thoufand ducats 
are yours ; fo is your diamond too : If I come off, and 
leave her in fuch honour as you have truft in, Ihe your 
jewel, this your jewel, and my gold are yours ; 
provided, I have your commendation, for my more 
free entertainment. 

Pqft. I embrace thefe conditions; let us have arti- 
cles betwixt us : only, thus far you fliall tnfwer. 
If you make your voyage upon her, and give me di- 
redtly to underftand you have prevail'd, I am no 
further your enemy, fhe is not worth our debate : 
if Ihe remain unfeduc'd, (you not making it appear 
otherwife) for your ill opinion, and the aflault you 
have made to her chaility, you lhall anfwer me with 
your fword. 

lack. Your hand; a covenant: We will have 
thefe things fet down by lawful counfel, and flraight 
away for Britain ; left the bargain Ihould catch cold, 

Poft. I embrace thefe conditions, &c.] This was a wager be- 
tween the two fpeakers. Jachimo declares the conditions of it ; 
and Pofthumus embraces them, as well he might ; for lachimo 
mentions only that of the two conditions which was favourable to 
Pofthumus, namely, that if his wife preferved her honour he 
Ihould win : concerning the other, in cafe (he preferved it not f 
lachimo, the accurate expounder of the wager, is filenr. To 
make him talk more in character, for we find him (harp enough 
in the profecution of his bet, we fhould ftrike out the negative, 
and read the reft thus : If I Ir ing you fufficient teftimony that I have 
enjoy'd, &c. my ten thoufand ducats are mine ; fo i s your diamond 
too. If I come off, and leave her in fuch honour, &c. Jhe your 
jewel, &c. and my gold are yours. WARBURTON. 

I once thought this emendation right, but am now of opinion, 
that Shakefpeare intended that lachimo, having gained his pur- 
pofe, ftiould delignedly drop the invidious and oftenfive part of 
the wager, and to flatter Pofthumus, dwell long upon the more 
j>leafing part of the reprcfentation. One condition of a wager 
implies the other, and there is no need to mention both. 



C Y M B E L I N E. 197 

and ftarve : I will fetch my gold, and have our t\vd 
wagers recorded. 

Poji. Agreed. [Exeunt Pojlhumus, and lachimo. 

French. Will this hold, think you ? 

Phil. Signior lachimo will not from it. Pray, let 
us follow 'em. [Exeunt. 


CymbeUnc's Palace. 
Enter Queen, Ladies, and Cornelius. 

Queen. Whiles yet the dew's on ground, gather 

thofe flowers ; 
Make hafte : Who has the note of them ? 

i Lady. I, madam. 

Queen. Difpatch. [Exeunt ladies. 

Now, matter doctor; have you brought thofe 
drugs ? 

Cor. Pleafeth your highnefs, ay : here they are, 

madam : 

But I befeech your grace, (without offence; 
My confcience bids me alk) wherefore you have 
Commanded of me thefe moll poifonous compounds, 
Which are the movers of a languifhing death ; 
But, though flow, deadly ? 

Queen. I wonder, doctor, 

Thou afk'ft me fuch a queftion : Have I not been 
Thy pupil long ? Haft thou not learn'd me how 
To make perfumes ? diftill ? preferve ? yea, ib, 
That our great king himfelf doth woo me oft 
For my confections ? Having thus far proceeded, 
(Unlefs thou think'ft me devilifh) is't not meet 
That I did amplify my judgment in 
6 Other conclulions ? I will try the forces 

6 Other conclusions f ] Other experiments, I commend^ (ays 

Wakon, an angler that tries conclufions, and improres his art. 


O 3 Of 

198 C Y M B E L I N E f 

Of thefe thy compounds on fuch creatures as 
We count not worth the hanging, (but none human) 
To try the vigour of them, and apply 
Allayments to their act ; and by them gather 
Their feveral virtues, and effects, 

Cor. 7 Your highnefs 

Shall from this practice but make hard your heart : 
Befides, the feeing thefe effects will be 
Both noifome and infectious. 

^ueen. O, content thee, 

Enter Pifanlo. 

Here comes a flattering rr.fcal ; upon him 
Will I firft work : he's for his mafler, 
And enemy to my fon. How now, Pifanio ? 
Doctor, your fervice for this time is ended ; 
Take your own way, 

Cor. I do fufpect you, madam ; 
But you lhall do no harm. 

uecn. Hark thee, a word. [To 

Cor. \_Ajidc.~\ 8 1 do not like her. She doth think, 
ihe has 


7 Your highnefs 

Shall from this praflice but make hard your heart :] There is 
in this paflage nothing that much requires a note, yet I cannot 
forbear to pufli it forward into obfervation. The thought would 
probably have been more amplified, had our author lived to be 
ihocked with fuch experiments as have been publiflied in later 
times, by a race of men that have pra&ifed tortures without pity, 
and related them without rtiame, and are yet flittered to erect their 
heads among human beings. 

Cape faxa manu, cape robora, paftor. JOHNSON. 

* I Jo not like her. ] This foliloquy is very inartificial. 

The fpeaker is under no ftrong preffure of thought ; he is nei- 
ther reiblving, repenting, fufpefting, nor deliberating, and yet 
nukes a long fpeech to tell hirafelf what himfelf knows. 



Strange lingering poifons : I do know her fpirit, 

And will not truil one of her malice with 

A drug of fuch damn'd nature : Thofe, ihe has, 

Will ftupify and dull the fenfe a while : 

Which firft, perchance, fhe'll prove on cats, and 


Then afterward up higher : but there is 
No danger in what mew of death it makes, 
More than the locking up the fpirits a time, 
To be more frefh, reviving. She is fool'd 
With a moft falfe effect ; and I the truer, 
So to be falfe with her. 

Queen. No further fervice, doctor, 
Until I fend for thee. 

Cor. I humbly take my leave. [Exit. 

Queen. Weeps Ihe ftill, fay'ft thou ? Doft thou 

think, in time 

She will not quench ; and let inftructions enter 
Where folly now poflefles ? Do thou work : 
When thou malt bring me word, me loves my fon, 
I'll tell thee, on the inftant, thou art then 
As great as is thy mailer : greater ; for 
His fortunes all lie fpeechlefs, and his name 
Is at laft gafp : Return he cannot, nor 
Continue where he is : 9 to fliift his being, 
Is to exchange one mifery with another"; 
And every day, that comes, comes to decay 
A day's work in him : What malt thou expect, 
To be depender on a thing ' .that leans ? 

I do not like her. ] This foliloquy, however inartificial 

in refpeit of the fpeaker, is yet neceflary to prevent that uneafi- 
nefs which would naturally arife in the mind of an audience on 
recollection that the queen had mifchievous ingredients in her 
}x>fleffion, unlefs they were undeceiv'd as to the quality of 
them ; and it is nolefs ufeful to prepare us for the return of Imo- 
gen to life. STEEVENS. 

* tojbift bis being,] To change his abode. JOHNSON. 

1 that bans ?] That inclines towards its fall. JOHNSON". 

O 4 Who 

zoo C Y M B E L I N E. 

Who cannot be new built ; nor has no'friends, 

[The Queen drops a phial : Pifan'w takes it up. 
So much as but to prop him ? Thou tak'ft up 
Thou know'ft not what ; but take it for thy labour : 
It is a thing I make, which hath the king 
Five times redeem'd from death ; I do not know 
What is more cordial : Nay, I pry'thee, take it; 
It is an earneft of a further good 
That I mean to thee. Tell thy miftrefs how 
The cafe ftands with her; do't, as from thyfelf. 
* Think \vhat a chance thou changeft on ; but think 
Thou haft thy miftrefs ftill ; to boot, my fon, 
Who lhall take notice of thee : I'll move the king 
To any lhape of thy preferment, fuch 
As thou'lt defire ; and then myfelf, I chiefly, 
That fet thee on .to this defert, am bound 
To load thy merit richly. Call my women : 

[Exit Pifaniot 

Think on my words. A fly, and conftant knave ; 
Not to be ihak'd : the agent for his matter ; 
And the remembrancer of her, to hold 
The hand faft to her lord. I have given him that, 
Which, if he take, lhall quite unpeople her 
3 Of leigers for her fweet ; and which Ihe, after, 
Except {he bend her humour, lhall be aflur'd 

* Think what a chance thou changeft on ; ] Such is the 

reading of the old copy, which by fucceeding editors has been 
altered into, 

Think what a chance thou chanccjl on ; 

and Think what a change thou chance/} on ; 

bat unneceflarily. The meaning is : *' think with what a fair 
profpeft of mending your fortunes you now change your prcfent 
fervice." STEEVENS. 

3 Of leigers for her fweet ; ] A leigcr ambaflador, is one 

thatrefides at a foreign court to promote his matter's intereft. 

So, \nMeafureforMeafure: 

" - Lord Angelo 

' Intends you for his fwift ambaflador ; 

** Where you fhall be an everlafting k. ; gcr." STEEVENS, 

C Y M B E L I N E. 201 

Re-enter Pifanio, and ladies. 

To tafte of too. So, fo ; well done, well done : 
The violets, cowflips, and the primrofes, 
Bear to my clofet : Fare thee well, Pifanio ; 
Think on my words. [Exeunt Queen, and Ladies* 

Pif. And fhall do : 

But when to my good lord I prove untrue, 
I'll choke myfelf : there's all I'll do for you. [Exit. 


Imogen's apartment* 

Enter Imogen. 


Imo. A father cruel, and a ftep-dame falfe ; 
A foolifh fuitor to a wedded lady, 
Thatirath herhufband banifh'd; O, that hufband ! 
My fupreme crown of grief ! and thofe repeated 
Vexations of it ! Had I been thief-ftolen, 
As my two brothers, happy ! 4 but moft miferable 
Is the defire that's glorious : s Bleffed be thofe, 


4 lut moft miferalle 

L the defire that's glorious ; ] Her hufband, (he fays, 

proves her fupreme griet. She had been happy had (he been 
ftolen as her brothers were, but now (he is miferable, as all thofe 
are who have a fenfe of worth and honour fuperior to the vulgar, 
which occafions them infinite vexations from the envious and 
worthlefs part of mankind. Had (he not fo refined a tafte as to be 
content only with the fuperior merit of Pofthumus, but could 
have taken up with Cloten, (he might have efcaped thefe perfecu- 
tions. This elegance of tafte, which always difcovers an excel- 
lence and chufes it, (he calls with great fublimity of expreffion, 
The defire that's glorious ; which the Oxford editor not underftand- 
ing, alters to, Tie degree that's glorious. WAR BUR TON. 
5 BleJJedbetbofe> 

HCTM mean foe 'er, that have their bonefi luitts^ 

f/Tljich fcafom comfort,'] The laft words are equivocal ; 


ioz C Y M B E L I N E. 

How mean foe'er, that have their honeft wills, 
Which fcafons comfort. Who may this be ? Fie ! 

Enter Pifanio, and lachimo. 

Plf. Madam, a noble gentleman of Rome, 
Comes from my lord with letters. 

loch. Change you, madam ? 
The worthy Leonatus is in fafety, 
And greets your highnefs dearly. [Gives aletter. 

Imo. Thanks, good fir ; 
You are kindly welcome. 

lack. All of her, that is out of door, moft rich ! 
If fhe be furnifh'd with a mind fo rare, [/ffide. 

She is alone the Arabian bird ; and I 
Have loft the wager. Boldnefs be my friend ! 
Arm me, audacity, from head to foot ! 
Or, like the Parthian, I fliall flying fight ; 
Rather, diredtly fly. 

but the meaning is this : Who are beholden only to the feafons 
for their fupport and nourifhment; fo that, if thofe be kindly, 
fuch have no more to care tor or defire. WARIURTON. 

I am willing to comply with any meaning that can be extorted 
from the preienf text, rather than, change it, yet will propofe, 
but with great diffidence, a flight alteration : 

Bid's 'd be thofe, 

How mean foe'er, that have their honeft wills, 
With reafons com fort. 

Who gratify their innocent wifhes with reafonable enjoyments. 


I (hall venture at another explanation, which, as the laft words 
are admitted to be equivocal, may bepropofed. " To be able to 
refine on calamity (fays fhe) is the miferable privilege of thofe who 
are educated with afp\ring thoughts and elegant defires. Blefled 
are they, however mean their condition, who have the power of 
gratifying their inclinations, which circum fiance be/lows an 
additional relijli en comfort itfelf." 

" You lack the/frt/0 of all natures, fleep." Macbeth. 
Again, in Albuma'zar, 1615: 

" the memory or misfortunes paft 

** Seafoas the welcome." . STEEVINS. 



Imogen reads, 

_. He is one of the nobleft note> to whofe kindnejfes 
1 am moft infinitely tied, Refleft upon him accordingly, 
as you value your trujt. 


So far I read aloud : 

But even the very middle of my heart 

Is warm'd by the reft, and takes it thankfully,-- 

You are as welcome, worthy fir, as I 

Have words to bid you ; and fhall find it fo, 

In all that I can do. 

loch. Thanks, faireft lady. 

What ! are men mad ? Hath nature given them 
eyes [Afide, 

To fee this vaulted arch, 6 and the rich crop 
Of fea and land, which can- diflinguifh 'twixt 
The fiery orbs above, 7 arid the twinn'd ftones 
Upon the numbered beach ? and can we not 
Partition make with fpe&acles fo precious 
'Twixt fair and foul ? Imo, 

* and the rich crop 

Of fea and land, ] He is here fpeaking of the covering 

of fea and land. Shakefpeare therefore wrote : 

and the rich cope. WARBURTON. 

Surely no emendation is neceffary. The vaulted arch is alike 
the cope or covering offea and land. When the poet had fpoken 
of it once, could he have thought this fecond introduction of it 
neceffary ? The crop of fea and land means only the productions 
of either element. STEEVENS. 
7 and the Kvinn'djlones 

Upon the number'd beach ? ] 1 have no idea in what fenfe 
the beach, orfhore, (hould be called number'd. I have ventured, 
againil all the copies, to fubftitute : 

Upon ttf unn umber 'd beach ? 

i.e. the infinite extenfive beach, if we are to underftand the epi- 
thet as coupled to that word. But, I rather think, the poet in- 
tended an hypallage, like that in the beginning of Ovid's Meta- 
morphofei : 

" (In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas 

" Corpora.)" And 

204 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Imo. What makes your admiration ? 
lack. It cannot be i' the eye ; for apes and mon- 

'Twixt two fuch fhe's, would chatter this way, and 
Contemn with mows the other : Nor i* the judg- 
ment ; 

For idiots, in this cafe of favour, would 
Be wifely definite : Nor i' the appetite ; 
Sluttery, to fuch neat excellence oppos'd, 
8 Should make defire vomit emptinefs, 
Not fo allur'd to feed. 


And then we are to underftand the paflage thus: and the infnitt 
number of tvjtnn* d Jiones upon the beach, THEOBALD. 

Upon ttf unnuinber'd beach ?] Senfe and the antithefis oblige 
us to read this nonfenfe thus : 

Upon the humbled beach ? 

i. e. becaufe daily infulted with the flow of the tide. 


I know not well how to regulate this paflage. Number'^ is 
perhaps numerous. Tivinn'd fanes I do not underltand. 7w/''/ 
Jhells, orpalrsoffoelh, are very common. For twintfd we might 
read tvrir?d\ that if, / vijled^ convolved: but this fenfe is more 
applicable to fhells than to ftones. JOHNSON. 

The pebbles on the lea fhore are fo much of the fame fize and 
fliape, that twinifd may mean as like as twins. So in the Maid 
of the Mill, by B and Fletcher : 

" But is it poffible that two faces 

" Should be fo twinn'Jin form, complexion, &c. 
Again in our author's Coriolanus, ad IV. fc. iv : 

Are ftill together, who twin as 'twere, in love. 
The author of The Revifal conjectures the poet might have 
written fpurrfd ftones. He might poffibly have written that or any 

other word. In Coriolanus a different epithet is beftowed on the 

beach : 

" Then let the pebbles on the hungry beach 

" Fillop the ftars " 

Dr. Warburron's conjecture may be countenanced by the follow- 
ing paflnge in Spenfer's Faery Queen, b. vi. c. 7. 

" But as he lay upon the humbled grafs." STEEVENS. 
I think \vemay read the umbcred, the Jkaded beach. This word 
iti met with in other places. . FARMER. 
8 Should makt dejtre vomit emptincf's^ 

Not fo allured to fecd.~\ i. e. that appetite, which is not al- 
lured to feed on fuch excellence, can have no ftomach at all ; but, 
though empty, mult naufeate every thing. WARBURTON. 

I ex* 

C Y M B E L I N E. 205 

IMO. What is the matter, trow ? 

hcb. The cloyed will, 
(That fatiate yet unfatisfy'd defire, 
That tub both fill'd and running) ravening firft 
The lamb, longs after for the garbage. 

Imo, What, dear fir, 
Thus raps you ? Are you well ? 

lacb. Thanks, madam ; well : 'Befeech you, fir, 

[fo P'fanio* 

Defire my man's abode where I did leave him : 
* He's ftrange, and peevifh. 


I explain this paflage in a fenfe almoft contrary. lachimo, in 
this counterfeited rapture, has (hewn how the eyes and the judg- 
ment would determine in favour of Imogen, comparing her with 
the prefent miftrefs of Pofthumus, and proceeds to fay, that ap- 
petite too would give the fame fuffrage. Defire, fays he, when it 
approached Jluttery, and conGdered it in comparifon with fu>. -b r.r&t 
excellence, would not only be not fo allured to feed, but, feized with 
a fit of loathing, viould vomit empt'mefs, would feel the convul- 
fions of difguft, though, being unfed, it had nothing to ejedt. 


Dr. Warburton and Dr. Johnfon have both taken the pains to 
give their different fenfes or this paflage ; but I am ftill unable to 
comprehend how defire, or any other thing, can be made to vomit 
empthiffs. I rather believe the paflage fhould be read thus : 
Sluttery, to fuch neat excellence oppos'd, 
Should make defire vomit, emptinels 
Not fo allure to feed. 

That is, Should not fo, [in fuch circumftances] allure [even] 
tmpthiffi to fad. TYRWHITT. 

This is not ill conceived ; but I think my own explanation 
right. To vomit emptimfs is, in the language of poetry, to feel 
the convulfions of eructation without plenitude JOHNSON. 

We might read vomit to emptinefs. The oddity and indelicacy 
of this pafiage may be kept in countenance by the following cir- 
cumftance in the tragedy of All for Money^ by T. Lupton, 1578 : 
" Now will I eflay to vomit if I can ; 
*' Let him hold your head, and I will hold your flomaeh, &c.** 

" Here money Jball make as though he would vomit." 
Again : ' Here pleafurcfia II make as though he would vomit." 


He's ftrange, and peevfo.] He is a foreigner, and eafify 
fretted. JOHNSON. 



Pif. I was going, fir, 
To give him welcome. 

Imo. Continues well my lord ? His health, 'befeech 
you ? 

lack. Well, madam* 

Imo. Is he difpos'd to mirth ? I hope, he is. 

lach. Exceeding pleafant ; none a flranger there 
So merry and fo gamefome : he is call'd 
The Briton reveller 1 . 

Imo. When he was here, 
He did incline to fadnefs ; and oft-times 
Not knowing why. 

lach. I never faw him fad. 
There is a Frenchman his companion, one 
An eminent monfieur, that, it feems, much loves 
A Gallian girl at home : he furnaces z 
The thick fighs from him ; whiles the jolly Briton 

Strange, I believe, fignifies Jhy or backward. So Holinfhed, 
P- 735 : " brake to him his mind in this mifchievous mat- 
ter, in which he found him nothing^raff^r." 

Pcevifl} anciently meant weak, filly. So in Lylly's Endymion, 
1591 : " Never was any fo peevifo to imagine the mbon either 
capable of affection, or lhape of a miftrefs." Again, in Lylly's 
Galatea, when a man has given a conceited anfwer to a plain 
queftion, Diana fays, " let him alone, he is buipeevijb." Again, 
in Love's Metamorphofis by Lylly, 1601 : ** In the heavens I faw 
an orderly courfe, in the earth nothing but diforderly love and 

Ci/bnefs." Again, in Goflbn's School of Alufe, 1579: " We 
; infinite poets and pipers, and fuchpcevijb cattel among us in 
Englande." Again, in the Comedy of Errors : 

** How now ! a madman ! why thou pecvijh (heep, 
*' No (hip of Epidamnom flays forme.'* STEEVENS. 

1 be is calfd 

The Briton reveller.] So, in Chaucer's Coke's Tale, late edit. 
v. 4369 : 

" That he was cleped Perkin revelour." STEEVENS. 
* - he furnaces 

The thick Jighs from him ; ] So in Chapman's preface to 

his tranilation of the Shield of Homer, 1598: " furnaceth the 

univerfall fighes and complaintes of this tranfpofed world." 



C Y M B E L I N E. 207 

(Your lord, I mean) laughs from's free lungs, 

cries, O I 

Can my fides bold, to think, that man, wJx> knows 
Bykijlory, report, or bis own proof , 
Wb$l woman is, yea, what Jhe cannot cbufe 
Bui muft he, will bis free hours languifb 
For aflur'd bondage ? 

Imo. Will my lord fay fo ? 

lacb. Ay, madam ; with his eyes in flood with 


It is a recreation to be by, 
And hear him mock the Frenchman : But, heavens 

Some men are much to blame. 

Imo. Not he, I hope. 

lack. Not he : But yet heaven's bounty towards 

him might 

Be us'd more thankfully. In himfelf, 'tis much ; 
In you, which I account his, beyond all talents, 
Whilft I am bound to wonder, I am bound 
To pity too. 

Imo. What do you pity, fir ? 

lack. Two creatures, heartily. 

Imo. Am I one, fir ? 

You look on me ; What wreck difcern you in me, 
Deferves your pity ? 

lack. Lamentable ! What ! 
To hide me from the radiant fun, and folacc 
F the dungeon by a fnuff ? 

Imo. I pray you, fir, 

Deliver with more opennefs your anfwers 
To my demands. Why do you pity me ? 

lacb. That others do, 

I was about to fay, enjoy your But 

It is an office of the gods to venge it, 
Not mine to fpeak on't. 

Imo. You do feem to knovv 



Something of me, or what concerns me ; Pray yotij 
(Since doubting things go ill, often hurts more 
Than to be fure they do : For certainties 
Either are paft remedies ; or, } timely knowing, 
The remedy then born) difcover to me 
4 What both you fpur and flop. 

lack. Had I this cheek 

To bathe my lips upon ; this hand, whofe touch 
Whofe every touch, would force the feeler's foul 
To the oath of loyalty ; this objedl, which 
Takes prifoner the wild motion of mine eye, 
Fixing it only here : Ihould I (damn'd then) 
Slaver with lips as common as the flairs s 
That mount the Capitol ; 6 join gripes with hands 
Made hard with hourly falfhood (falfhood, as 
With labour) then lie peeping in an eye, 


3 . timely knowing,] Rather timely k?iown. JOHNSON. 

* What both you fpur and Jlop] What it is that at once incites 
you to fpeak, and retrains you from it. JOHNSON. 

WTsat loth you fpur and flop.] I think Imogen means to en- 
quire what is that news, that intelligence, or information, you 
profefs to bring, and yet with-hold : at leaft I think Dr. Johnfon's 
explanation a miitaken one, for Imogen's requeft fuppoies lachi- 
mo an agent, not a patient. Sir J. HAWKINS. 

I think my explanation true. JOHNSON. 

* --as common as the flairs 

That mount the Capitol-, ] Shakefpeare has beftowed fome 
ornament on the proverbial phraie " as common as the high-way." 


* join gripes ivith bands, &c.] The old edition reads 

.. .. join gripes with hands 

Made hard with hourly falfhood ((falfl:ood as 

With labour) then by peeping in an eye, &c. 

I read, 

then lye peeping . 

The author of the prefent regulation of the text I do not know, 

but have fuffered it to ftand, though not right. Hard with 
faljbood is, hard by being often griped with frequent change of 

hands. JOHNSON. 

- join gripes with hands 
Made hourly hard by fa{fhod y as by labour ; 
Then glad nyfelf with peeping in an eye^\ Mr. Rowe firft 


C Y M B E L I N E. *o$ 

Bafe and unluftrous as the fmoky light 
That's fed with ftinking tallow ; it were fit, 
That all the plagues of hell fhould a; one time 
Encounter fuch revolt. 

Imo. My lord, I fear, 
Has forgot Britain. 

lacb. And himfelf. Not I, 
Inclined to this intelligence, pronounce 
The beggary of his change ; but 'tis your graces 
That, from my muteft confciencej to my tongue, 
Charms this report out. 

Imo. Let me hear no more. 

lack. O dearcft foul ! your caufe doth flrike my 


With pity, that doth make me fick. A lady 
So fair, and faften'd to an empery ', 
Would make the greatefl king double ! to be part-. 

With tomboys % 3 hir'd with that felf-exhibition 

' Which 

regulated the paflage thus, as it has been handed down by fuc- 
ceeding editors ; but the repetition which they wiflied to avoid, is 
now reftored, for if it be not abfolute nonfenle, why fhould we re- 
fufe to follow the old copy ? STEEVENS. 

* to an empery,] Empery is a word fignifying fovereigo 

command ; now obfolete. Shakefpeare ufes it in another play ; 

** Your right of birth, your empty, your own." 


* With tomboys,] We ftill call a mafculine, a forward girl, a 
tomboy. So in Middleton's Game at Chefs, 1625: 

" Made threefcore year a tomboy t a mere wanton. 1 * 
Again, in Lylly's Midas, 1592: If thou (hould'ft rige upan.d 
down in our jackets, thou wouldft be thought a very tomboy." 
Again, in Lady Alimony : 

" What humourous tomboys be thefe ? 
*' The only gallant Mefialinas of our age." 
It appears, from {everal of the old plays, that the ladies of 
pleafure, in the time of Shakefpeare, often went abroad in the; 
habits of young men. Verftegan, however, gives the following ety-r 
mologyoftheword/o/%. "Tumbe. To dance. Tumbod, danced j 
heeror'wee yet call a wench that fkippeth or leapeth lyke a boy, a 
tomboy : our name alfb of tumbling cometh from hence.'' 


2io C Y M B E L I N E. 

Which your own coffers yield! with difeas'd ventures, 

That play with all ; for ;;old 

Whicrv rottennefs can Icudaatare ! iuch boil'd fluff*, 

As well mip^.t poHbn poifon ! Be reveng'd; 

Or fne, that bcr: yot\ \vus no queen, and you 

Recoil from VCK, g ... iiock. 

Imo. Keveng'd ! 

How fhouU I be reveng'd ? If this be true, 
(As I have fuch a heart, that both mine ears 
A'uft not in hafte abufc) if it be true, 
Ko\v ihould I be reveng'd ? . 

lack. Should he make me 
Live like Diana's prieft, betwixt cold fheets ; 
Whiles he is vaulting variable ramps, 
In your defpight, upon your purfe ? Revenge it. 
I dedicate myfelf to yourfweet pleafure ; 
More noble than that runagate to your bed 
And will continue fait to your affection, 
Still clofe, as lure. 

Imo. What ho, Pifanio ! 

lack. Let me my fervice tender on your lips 4 . 

Imo. Away ! I do condemn mine ears, that have 
So long attended thee. If thou wert honourable, 
Thou would'ft have told this tale for virtue, not 
For fuch an end thou feek'ft ; as bafe, as ftrange. 
Thou wrong'it a gentleman, who is as far 
From thy report, as thou from honour ; and 
olicit'ft here a lady, that difdains 
Thee and the devil alike : What, ho, Pifanio ! 

3 hir'diviib that felf-exbibition} Grfifsf.rumpet^ hired 
with the very pcnjion which you allow your huikmd. JOHNSON. 

* fuch boil'd ftuff, ] bo in the Old Law by Maffinger : 

" \oo\i parboil' <t, 

* 4 As if they came from Cupid's fcalding-houfe." 


* Ltt me ny Service tender on your fifi.] Perhaps this is an allu- 
fion to the ancient cuftom of fwtaring iervants into noble families. 
So in Caltha Pottarum, &c. 1599 : 

'* fhc fkvcan him to his good abear'mg, 

' Whilil her faire fweet lips wer the books of fwearing." 




The king my father fhall be made acquainted 
Of thy atfault : if he Ihall think it fit, 
A faucy ftranger, in his court, to mart 
5 As in a Romilh ftew, and to expound 
His beaftly mind to us ; he hath a court 
He little cares for, and a daughter whom 
He not refpects at all. XVhat ho, Pifanio ! 

lack. O happy Leonatus ! I may fay ; 
The credit, that thy lady hath of thee, 
Deferves thy truft ; and thy moft perfect goodnefs 
Her affur'd credit ! BlefTed live you long ! 
A lady to the worthieft fir, that ever 
Country call'd his ! and you his miftrefs, only 
For the moft worthieft fit ! Give me your pardon. 
I have fpoke this, to knb'.v if your affiance 
Were deeply rooted ; and fhall make your lord, 
That which he is, new o'er : And he is one 
The trueft mannerd ; fuch a holy witch, 
That he enchants focieties unto him : 
Half all men's hearts are his. 

Imo. You make amends. 

lack. He fits 'mongft men, like a dcfcended god : 
He hath a kind of honour fets him off, 
More than a mortal feeming. Be not angry, 
Moll mighty princefs, that I have advcntur'd 
To try your taking of a falfe report -, which hath 

5 As in a Rom'tjh JTCW, ] The ftews of Rome are defervedly 
cenfured by the reformed. This ' is one of many inftances in 
which Shakefpeare has mingled the manners of difbmt ages in 
this play. JOHN-SOX. 

Romijb was in the time of Shakefpeare ufed inflead of Rowan* 
There were ftews at Rome in the time of Auguftus. The fume 
phrafe occurs in Claudius Tiberius Nero, 1607: 

" my mother deem'd me chung'd, 

** Poor woman ! in the loathfome^^OT/,^ ftewes :" 
and the author of this piece appears to have been a fcholar. 
Again in IPltin a ConftaUc, by Glapthorne, 1640 : 

" A RomiJI} cirque, or Grecian hippodrome." 
Again in Tho. Drant's tranllation of the firft epiitleof the fecond 
book of Horace, 1567 : 

" The Romijhe people wife in this, in this point only juft." 


P z Ho- 

2 i C Y M B E L I N E. 

Honoured with confirmation your great judgment 
In the election of a fir fo rare, 
Which you know, cannot err : The love I bear him 
Made me to fan you thus ; but the gods made you, 
Unlike all others, chafflefs. Pray, your pardon. 

Imo. All's well, fir : Take my power i' the court 
for yours. 

Jack. My humble thanks. I had almoft forgot 
To intreat your grace but in a fmall requeft, 
And yet of moment too, for it concerns 
Your lord ; myfelf, and other noble friends, 
Are partners in the bufinefs. 

Imo. Pray, what is't ? 

lack. Some dozen Romans of us, and your lord, 
(The beft feather of our wing) have mingled fums, 
To buy a prefent for the emperor ; 
Which I, the factor for the reft, have done 
In France : 'Tis plate, of rare device ; and jewels, 
Of rich and exquifite form ; their values great ; 
And I am fomething curious, 6 being ftrangc, 
To have them in fafe ftowage ; May it plcafe you 
To take them in protection ? 

Imo. Willingly ; 

And pawn mine honour for their fafcty : fince 
My lord hath intereft in them, I will keep them 
In my bed-chamber. 

loch. They are in a trunk, 
Attended by my men : I will make bold 
To fend them to you, only for this night ; 
I muft aboard to-morrow. 
, Imo. O, no, no. 

lack. Yes, I befeech ; or I lhall ihort my word, 
By lengthening my return. From Gallia 
I crofs'd the feas on purpofe, and on promife 
To fee your grace. 

Imo. I thank you for your pains ; 
But not away to-morrow ? 

lach. O, I muft, madam : 

* fai*g pranged i. c. being a firar.ger. STEETENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 213 

Therefore I fhall befeech you, if you pleafe 
To greet your lord with writing, do't to-night : 
I have out-ftood my time ; which is material 
To the tender of our prefent. 

Imo. I will write. 

Send your trunk to me ; it mail fafe be kept, 
And truly yielded you : You are very welcome. 


A C T II. S C E N E I. 

Cymbelinis palace. 
Enter Chten, and two Lords. 

Clot. Was there ever man had fuch luck ! when I 
7 kifs'd the jack upon an up-caft, to be hit away ! 
I had a hundred pound on't : And then a whore- 
fon jackanapes muft take me up for fvvearing ; as 
if I borrow'd my oaths of him, and might not fpend 
them at my pleafure. 

1 Lord. What got he by that ? You have broke 
his pate with your bowl. 

2 Lord. If his wit had been like him that broke it, 
it would have run all out. [A/ldc. 

7 kifi V the jack vpon an ttp-caft, ] He is defcribing 

his fate at bowls. The jack is the fmall bowl at which the others 
are aimed. He who is neareft to it wins. To kifi the jack is a ftate 
of great advantage. JOHNSON. 

This exprefiion frequently occurs in the old comedies. So, in 
A Woman never vtx'<i\ by Rowley, 1632 : 

" This ciry bowler has lift 43* miftrefs at the firft <,." 



C Y M B E L I N E. 

Clot. When a gentleman is difpos'd to fwear, it is 
not for any ftanders-by to curtail his oaths : Ha? 

2 Lord. 8 No, my lord; nor crop the ears of them. 


Clot. Whorefon dpg ! <! give him fatisfaction ? 
'Would, he 'had been one of my rank ! 

2 Lord. To have fmclt like a fool. [A/ide. 

Clot. I am not vex'd more at any thing in the earth, 
A pox on't ! I had rather not be fo noble as I am; 
they dare not fight with me, becauie of the queen my 
mother : every jack-Have hath his belly full of fight- 
ing, and I muft go up and down Jike a pock that no 
body can match. 

2 Lord. You are a cock and a capon too ; and you 
crow, cock, 9 with your comb on. \_Afulc. 

Clot. Sayeft thou ? 

1 Lord. It is not fit, your lordfhip mould undertake 
T every companion that you give offence to. 

! Clot. No, I know that : but it is fit, I fliould com- 
mit offence to my inferiors. 

2 Lord. Ay, it is fit for your lordfhip only. 
Clot. Why,' fo I fay. 

1 Lord. Did you hear of a flrangcr, that's come to 
court to-night ? 

' Clot. A ftranger ! and I not know on't ! 

2 Lord. He's a flrange fellow himfclf, and knows 
it nor. [Afide, 

i Lnrd. There's an Italian come; and, 'tis thought, 
one of Lconatus* friends. 

Clot. Lconatus ! abanifh'd rafcal ; and he's another, 
whatfoever he be, Who told you of this Granger? 

8 No, my lord ; &c. J This, I believe, ftiould ftund thus : 

1 LorJ. No, roy lord. 

2 Lord. Nor crop the ears of them. \_Ajide. JOHNSON. 
9 ~~vit/j your comb on.~\ The allulion is to a tool's cap, 

V/hich hath a comb like a cock's. JOHNSON. 

* '> every companion ] The ufe of companion \vas the fame 
gs titfello-jv novv. It was a word of contempt. JOHNSON. 

I Lord, 

C Y M B E L I N E. 215 

i Lord. One of your lordfliip's pages. 
Clot. Is it fit, I went to look upon him ? Is there 
no derogation in't ? 

1 Lord. You cannot derogate, my lord. 
Clot. Not eafily, I think. 

2 Lord. You arc a fool granted ; therefore your 
ifl'ues being foolifh, do not derogate. \_Ajide. 

Clot. Come, I'll go fee this Italian : What I have 
loft to-day at bowls, I'll win to-night of him. Come, 


2 Lord. I'll attend your lordlhip. 

[Exeunt Cloten, andfirft Lord* 
That fuch a crafty devil as his mother 
Should yield the world this afs ! a woman, that 
Bears all down with her brain ; and this her fon 
Cannot take two from twenty for his heart, 
And leave eighteen. Alas, poor princefs, 
Thou divine Imogen, what thou endur'ft ! 
Betwixt a father by thy ftep-damc govern'd ; 
A mother hourly coining plots ; a wooer, 
More hateful than the foul expulfion is 
Of thy dear hufband, than that horrid a<ft 
Of the divorce * he'd make ! The heavens hold firm 
The walls of thy dear honour ; keep unfhak'd 
That temple, thy fair mind ; that thou may'ft ftand, 
To enjoy thybanilh'd lord, and this great land ! 


A Bed-chamber ; in one part of it a 'Trunk. 
Imogen reading' in her bed ; a lady attending, 

Imo. Who's there? my woman Helen? 
Lady. Pleafe you, madam. 

* he'd make ! ] In the old editions ; 

hee'ld make ! 


hell made. 

Jn which he is lollowed by Dr. Warburton. JOHNSON. 

ii6 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Into. What hour is it ? 

Lady. Almoft midnight, madam. 

fmo. I have read three hours then : mine eyes are 

weak : 

Fold down the leaf where I have left : To bed : 
Take not away the taper, leave it burning ; 
And if thou canft awake by four o'the clock, 
Ipf'ythee, call me. Sleep hath feiz'd me wholly. 

[Exit lady. 

To ybur prote&ion I commend me, gods ! 
$Yom fairies 3 , and the tempters of the night, 
Guard me, befeech ye ! [Sleeps. 

\Iacloimo\ from the trunk, 
lack. The crickets fing, and man's o'er-labour'd 


Repairs itfelf by reft : * Our Tarquin thus 
* Did foftly prefs the rufhes, ere he waken'd 

* Front fair. : cs, &c.] In Macbeth is a prayer like this : 
Reftrain in me the curfed thoughts that nature 
Gives way to in repofe ! Sf EEVEXS. 

4 our Tarquin ] The fpeaker is an Italian. 


4 Did foftly prefs //^rufhes, ] It was the cuftom in the 

time of our author to ftrew chambers with ruflies, as \ve now cover 
them with carpets. The practice is mentioned in Caius Je Ephe- 
tnera Britannica. JOHNSON. 

So, \r\Ardinof 'Fever/bam^ 1^92: 

" his blood remains. 

" Why ftrew rujhes." 
Again : 

* For in his flip*d (hoe I did find fome rujbcs.* 
Again, in BuJTy D'Amboh^ 1641 : 

u Were not the king here, he (hould ftrew the chamber like a 

Shakefpeare has the fame circumftance in his Rape of Lucrecc : 

4c by the light he fpies 

" Lucretia's glove wherein her needle fticks ; 
He takes it from the rujbcs where it lies," &c. 
*f he Ancient Englifh l>age, as appears from more than one paflage 
in Decker's Gut's Hornbook, 1609, was ftrewn with rujhet: 
" Salute ail your gentle acquaintance that are fpred either on 
tVie i-ujbes or on ftooles about you, and drawe what iroope you cau 
from thej?rrr alter you*" STEEVENS. 



Thechaftity he wounded.- Cytherea, 
How bravely thou becom'ft thy bed ! frefh Hlly ! 
And \vhiter than the (heets ! That I might touch ! 
But kifs ; one kifs ! Rubies unparagon'd, 
How dearly they do't ! 'Tis her breathing that 
Perfumes the chamber thus : The flame o' the taper 
Bows toward her ; and would under-peep her lids, 
To fee the inclofed lights, now canopy'd 6 
Under thefe windows : 7 White and azure ! lac'd 
With blue of heaven's own tincr.. But my defign ? 

To note the chamber : 1 will write all down : 

Such, and luch pictures ; There the window : - 


The adornment of her bed ; The arras, figures ? 
Why, fuch, and fuch : And the contents o' the 


Ah, but fome natural notes about her body, 
(Above ten rhoufand meaner moveables 
Would teftify) to enrich mine inventory. 
O fleep, thou ape of death, lie dull upon her ! 
And be her fenle but as a monument, 

Thus in a chapel lying ! Come off, come off; 

[Taking off her bracelet. 

As flippery, as the Gordian knot was hard ! 
'Tis mine ; and this will witnefs outwardly, 
As ftrongly as the confcience does within, 
To the madding of her lord. On her left breaft 

* Ho-iv cantyy* d\ Shakefpeare has the fame expreffion in 

ucrece : 

'* Her eyes, like marigolds, had iheath'd their light, 
" And canopy 1 d in darknefs fweetly lay, 
" 'Till they might open to adorn the day." MALONE. 

7 -ivbite and azure ! lac'd- 

With blue of heavens own tintf. ] We fhould read : 

white with azure lac'd, 

The blue of heaven's own tindt. ] i.e. the white ikin 
laced -.vith blue reim. WAR BUR TON. 

A mole 

2iS C Y M B E L I N E. 

A mole cinque-fpotted, 8 like the crimfon drops 
I' the bottom of a cowflip : Here's a voucher, 
Stronger than ever law could make : this fecret 
Will force him think I have pick'd the lock, and 

The treafure of her honour. No more. To what 


Why fliould I write this down, that's riveted, 
Screw'd to my memory? She hath been reading late, 
The tale of Tereus ; here the leafs turn'd down, 

Where Philomel gave up 1 have enough : 

To the trunk again, and fhu.t the fpring of it. 
Swift, fwift, 9 you dragons of the night ! ' that 



8 - ' ' like the crimfon Uropi 

I* the bottom of a cowjlip .- ] This fimile contains the 
finalleft out of a thoufand proofs that Shakefpeare was a moll accu- 
rate obferver of nature. S T E E v E N s . 

9 -you dragons of the night ! ] The talk of drawing the 

chariot of night was atfigned to dragons, on account of their fup- 
pofed watch fulnefs. Mikon mentions the dragon yoke of night in 
// Pcnfcrofo ; and in his Mafquc at L.vdlo'W Caftlc : *' the dragon 
ivenilf of Stygian darknefs." It may be remarked that the whole 
tribe of ferpents lleep with their eyes open, and therefore appear 
to exert a conttant vigilance. STEEVEKS. 

* that daivning 

J/ity bear the raven's eye : ] Some copies read barr y or 

mctkt bare ; others ope. But the true reading Is tear, a term 
taken from heraldry, and very fublimely applied. The meaning 
is, that morning may aflume the colour of the raven's eye, which 
is %rcy. Hence it is fo commonly called the grey-ey'tl morning, 
And Romeo and Juliet : 

" I'll fay yon grey is not the morning's rjv." 
Had Shnkefpeare weant to bare or open the eye, that is, to awake, 
he-had inftanced rnther in the l.irk than raven, as the curlier riler. 
Befides, whether the morning bared or qtawof the raven's eye was 
of no advantage to the fpcaker, but it was of much advantage that 
it fnould bear it, that is, become light. Yet the Oxford editor 
jydiciotifly alters it to : 

May bare its raven-.eye. WARBURTOK. 

1 have received Hanmer's emendation. JOHNSON. 


?Vlay bare the raven's eye : I lodge in fear ; 
Though this a heavenly angel, hell is here. 

\_Ckck Jlrikcs. 
One, two, three : Time, time ! 

[Gees into the trunk : the fcenc clofes. 


.Another room In the palace. 
Enter Cloten, and Lords. 

I Lord. Your lordfhip is the moft patient man in 
lofs, the moll coldeft that ever turn'd up ace. 

Clot. It would make any man cold tolofe. 

I Lord. But not every man patient, after the noble 
temper of your Igrdfhip ; You are moft hot, and fu- 
rious, when you win. 

Clot. Winning will put any man into courage : If 
J could get this fooliih Imogen, I Ihould have gold 
enough : It's almoft morning, is't not ? 

i Lord. Day, my lord. 

Clot. I would this mufic would come : I am ad- 
.vis'd to give her mufic o' mornings ; they fay, it will 

Enter Mufictans, 

Come on ; tune : If you can penetrate her with your 
fingering, fo ; we'll try with tongue too : if none will 
do, let her remain ; but I'll never give o'er. Firft, a 
very excellent good-conceited thing; after, a wonder- 
ful fweet air, with admirable rich words to it, and 
then let her cpnfider. 

. that JffUfltiMg 

May bare the raven's eye ; ] The old reading is leare. The 
colour of the raven's eye is not grty^ but totally black. This I 
affirm on repeated infpedion : therefore the poet means no more 
than that the light might wake the raven j or, as it is poetically 
exprefied, bare his eye. STEEVENS. 




- Hark ! hark ! the lark at heaven's gate 

And Phoebus 'gifts arife, 
3 His Jleeds to water at thofe fprings 

On chalicd flowers that lies ', 

* Hark! hark! the lark at heaven's gate Jiitgs,~\ The fame hy- 
perbole occurs in Milton's Paradife Loft, book v : 

" ye birds 

" That finging up to heaven's gate aicend," 
Again, in Shakefpeare's zgth Sonnet : 

" Like to the lark at break of day ariiing 

*' From fallen earth, fags hymns at heaven's gate" 

3 His Jit fa's to "^atcr at thofe fprings 

On chalicd flowers that lies ;] i. e. the morning fun dries 
'up the dew which lies in the cups of flowers. ' WARBURTON. 
Hanmer reads : 

Each chaliSd flower fupplies ; 

to efcape a falfe concord : but corrednefs muft not be obtained by 
fuch licentious alterations. It may be noted, that the cup oV 
a flower is called calix, whence chalice. JOHNSON. 
thofe firings 

On chr.lic V flowers ^that lies.] It mny be obferved, with regard 
to this apparent falfe concord, that in very old Englilli, the third 
perfon plural of the prefent tenie endeth in <//;, as well as thefin- 
gular ; and often familiarly in r,-, as might be exemplified from 
Chaucer, &c. Nor was this antiquated idiom quite worn out in 
our author's time, as appears from the following paflage in Rome 
and Juliet : 

And cakes the elf-locks in foul fluttifh hairs, 
Which once untangled, much misfortune bodes : 
as well as from many others in the Rcliquesof ancient Engtijb Poetry. 


Dr. Percy might have added, that the third perfon plural of the 
Jtnglo-Saxon prefent tenfe ended in eth^ and ot the Dano-Saxon in 
rf, which feems to be the original of fuch very ancient Englifli 
idioms. TOLLET. 

Shakefpeare frequently offends in this manner againft the rulei 
of grammar. So, in Venus and Jlttoais : 

44 She lifts the coffer lids that clofe his eyes, 
" Where lo, tvjo lamps^ burnt out, in darknefs lies." 




And winking Mary-buds begin 

70 ope their golden eyes ; 
IVitb every thing that ''pretty bin : 

My lady fweet, anfe ; 

So, get you gone : If this penetrate, I will confidcr * 
your mufic the better : if it do not, it is a vice in 
her ears, which horfe-hairs, and cats-guts 6 , nor the 
voice of unpaved eunuch to boot, can never amend. 

[Exeunt Mufidam* 

Enter Cymbeline, and >ueeti. 

2 Lord. Here comes the king. 

Clot. I am glad, I was up fo late ; for that's the 
reafon I was up fo early : He cannot choofe but take 
this fervice I have done, fatherly. -- Good morrow 
to your majefty, and to my gracious mother. 

Cym. Attend you here the door of our ftern 

daughter ? 
Will ihe not forth ? 

* -- pretty bin,] is very properly reflored by Hanmer, for 
pretty is : but he too grammatically reads ; 

With all the things that pretty bin. JOHNSON. 
So, in Spenfer's Faery tyeen, book i. c. i. 
xt That which of them to take, in diverfe doubt they been" 
Again, in The Arraignment of Par -is , 1584: 
*' Sir, you may bosft your fiockes and herdes, that bin both 

frefh and fair." 
Again " As frefh as bin the flowers in May." Again, 

" Oenone, while we bin clifpofed to walk." 
Kirkman afcribes this piece to Shakefpeare. STEEVENS. 

5 -- / ci'//7 confider your mvjic the better: -- ] i. e. I will 
pay you more amply for it. So, in the Winter's Tale, aft IV : 

" -- being Cometh ing gently conf.der'd, I'll bring you, &c." 


6 cats-guts, ] The old copy reads calves-guts. 



222 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Clof. I have aflail'd her with mufics, but fhe vouch* 
fafes no notice. 

Gym. The exile of her minion is too new ; 
She hath not yet forgot him : fomc more time 
Mult wear the print of his remembrance out, 
And then ihe's yours. 

^ucen. You 'are moft bound to the king; 
Who lets go by no vantages, that may 
Prefer you to his daughter : Frame yourfelf 
To orderly folicits 7 ; and be friended 
With aptnefs of the feafon : make denials 
Encreafe your fervices : fo feem, as if 
You were infpir'd to do thofe duties which 
You tender to her ; that you in all obey her, 
Save when command to your difmiffion tends, 
And therein you are fenfelefs. 

Clot. Senfelefs ? not fo. 

Enter a Meffcngcr. 

Mef. So like you, fir, ambafladors from Rome ; 
The one is Caius Lucius. 

Cym. A worthy fellow, 
Albeit he comes on angry purpofe now ; 
But that's no fault of his : We muft receive him 
According to the honour of his fender ; 
And towards himfelf, 8 his goodnefs forefpent on us, 
We muft extend our notice. Our dear fon, 
When you have given good morning to your miflrcfs, 
Attend the queen, and us ; we {hall have need 
To employ you towards this Roman. Come, our 
queen. [Exeunt. 

Clot. If fhe be up, I'll fpeak with her ; if not, 

7 To orderly folicits ; ] i. e. regular courtfhip, courtfliip 

after the eftablifhed fafhion. STEEVENS. 

8 bis goodnefs forefpent on ;,] i. e. The good offices done 

by him to us heretofore. WARBURTON. 


C Y M B E L I N . 22- 

Let her lie dill, and dream. By your leave, ho ! 


I know her women are about her ; Wljat 
If I do line one of their hands ? 'Tis gold 
Which buys admittance ; oft it doth ; yea, and make* 
Diana's rangers falle themfelvcs 9 , yield up 
Their deer to the Hand o* the dealer : and 'tis gold 
Which makes the true man kill'd, and faves the thief; 
Nay, Ibmetime, hangs both thief and true man: What 
Can it not do, and undo ? I will make 
One of her women lawyer to me ; for 
I yet not underftand the cafe myfelf. 
By your leave. [Knocks. 

Enter a Lady. 

Lady. Who's there, that knocks ? 

Clot. A gentleman. 

Lady. No more ? 

Clot. Yes, and a gentlewoman's fon. 

Lady. That's more 

Than fome, whofe taylors are as dear as yours, 
Can juftly boaft of : What's your lordfhip's pleafure ? 

Clot. Your lady's perfon : Is file ready ? 

Lady. Ay, to keep her chamber. 

Clot. There's gold for you; fell me your good 

Lady. How ! my good name ? or to report of you 
What I lhall think is good ? The princefs 

Enter Imogen. 

Cot. Good-morrow, fairefl fitter : Your fweet 

9 falfe ttn^rfor f -*-T>~] Perhaps, in this inftance, falfi 

is not an adjctfivc, but a verb ; and as fuch I think is ufed in 
another of our author's plays. Spenfcr often has it : 

" Thou Jalfed haft thy faith with perjury." STEEVENS. 

24 C Y M B E L I N E. 

, Imo. Good-morrow, fir : You lay out too much 


For purchafing but trouble : the thanks I give, 
Is telling you that I am poor of thanks, 
And fcarce can fpare them. 

Clot. Still, I fwear, I love you. 

Imo. If you but faid fo, 'twere as deep with me : 
If you fwear ftill, your recompence is ftill 
That I regard it not. 

Clot. This is no anfwer. 

Imo. But that you lhall not fay I yield, being 


I would not fpeak. I pray you, fpare me : faith, 
I lhall unfold equal difcourtefy 
To your beft kindnefs : 'one of your great knowing 
Should learn, being taught, forbearance. 

Clot. * To leave you in your madncfs, 'twere my fin : 
I will not. 


* one of your great knowing 

Should learn, being taught, forbearance,] \. e. A man ruAtf 
is taught forlearance Jbould learn It. JOHNSON. 
1 To leave you in year madnefs, 'twere viy Jin. 
I will not. 

Imo. Fools are not mad folks. 

Clot. Do you call me fool? 

Imo. As I am mad, I do:~\ But does (he really call him 
fool ? The acuteft critic would be puzzled to find it out, as the 
text ftands. The reafoning is perplexed by a flight corruption, 
and we muft reftore it thus : 

Fools cure not mad folks. 

You are mad, lays, he, and it would be a crime in me to leave you 
to yourfelf. Nay, fays fhe, why fhould you ftay ? A fool never 
cured madnefs. Do you call me fool ? replies he, &c. All this 
is eafy and natural. And that cure was certainly the poet's word, 
J think is very evident from what Imogen immediately fub- 
joins : 

If you'll be patient, I'll no more be mad ; 

That cures us both. 

i. e. If you'll ceafe to torture me with your foolifti felicitations, 
I'll ceafe to (hew towards you any thing like madnefs; fo a dou- 
ble cure will be effected of your tolly, ujvi my fuppofed frenzy. 



C Y M B E L I ft E. 2*5 

Imo. Fools are not mad folks. 

Clot. Do you call me fool ? 

Imo. As I am mad, I do : 
If you'll be patient, I'll no more be mad; 
That cures us both. I am much forry, fir, 
You put me to forget a lady's manners, 
By being ' fo verbal : and learn now$ for all, 
That I, which know my heart, do here pronounce^ 
By the very truth of it, I care not for you ; 
And am fo near the lack of charity, 
(To accufe myfelf) I hate yon : which I had rather 
You felt, than make't my boafl. 

Clot. Yon fin againft 

Obedience, which you owe your father. For 
2 The contract you pretend with that bafe wretch, 
(One, bred of alms, and fofter'd with cold dimes, 
With fcraps o' the court) it is no contract, none : 
And though it be allow'd in meaner parties, 
(Yet who, than he, more mean ?) to knit their fouls 
(On whom there is no more dependency 
But brats and beggary) J in felf-figur'd knot; 


Fools are not mad folks.'} This, as Gloten very well under- 
ftands it, is a covert mode of calling him fool. The meaning im- 
plied is this : If I am mad, as you tell me, I am what you can 
never be, Fools are not mad folks. STEEVENS. 

' fo verbal:] Is, fo verbofe, fo full of talk. 


* The contrary &c.] Here Shakefpeare has not preferved, 
with his common nicety, the uniformity of character. The 
ipcech of Cloten is rough and harfli, but certainly not the talk of 

Who can't take two from twenty, for his heartj 

And leave eighteen. 

His argument is juil and well enforced, and its prevalence is al- 
lowed throughout all civil nations : as for rudenels, he feems not 
to be much undermatched. JOHNSON. 

3 in felf-figur'd knot;] This is nonfenfe. We fhould 

read : 

felf-finger'd knot ; 

VOL. IX. Q_ i- A 


Yet you are curb'd from that enlargement by 
The confequence o' the crown ; and muft not foil 
The precious note of it with a bafe Have, 
A hilding for a livery, a fquire's cloth, 
A pantler, not fo eminent. 

Imo. Prophane fellow ! 
\Vert thou the fon of Jupiter, and no more, 
But what thou art, befides, thou wert too bafe 
To be his groom : thou wert dignify'd enough, 
Even to the point of envy, if 'twere made 
Comparative for your virtues, to be flil'd 
The under-hangman of his kingdom ; and hated 
For being preferr'd fo well. 

Clot. The fouth-fog rot him ! 

Imo. He never can meet more mifchance,than come 
To be but nam'd of thee. His meaneft garment, 
That ever hath but clip'd his body, is dearer, 
In my refped, than all the hairs above thee, 
Were they all madefuch men. 4 How now, Pifanio? 

Enter Pifanio. 

Clot. His garment ? Now, the devil 

Imo. To Dorothy my woman hie thee prefently : 

Clot. His garment ? 

Imo. I am fprightcd with a fool s ; 

5. e. A knot folely of their own tying, without any regard to pa- 
rents, or other mere public considerations. WAR BURTON. 

But why nonfenfe ? A ftlf-fgurtd knot is a knot formed by 
yourlelf. JOHNSON-. 

* Were they all madefuch men. HO-VJ now, Pifanio ?] Sir T. 
Hanmer regulates this line thus : 
all made fufh nun. 

Clot. How now ? 
Imo. Pifanio! JOHNSON. 

5 lam fprighted lultb a fool;} i.e. I am haunted by a fool, 
as by a f prigbt. Ovrr-fprighted is a word that occurs in Laiu- 
triclkf, &c. iOo8. Again in our author's Antony and Cleopatra : 

Julius Cafar, 

Who at Phi'.ippi the ^ood Brutus ghofied. STEEVKXS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 227 

Frighted, and anger'd worfe : Go, bid my woman 

Search for 6 a jewel, that too cafually 

Hath left mine arm ; it was thy matter's : fhrew me, 

If I would lofe it for a revenue 

Of any king's in Europe. I do think, 

I faw't this morning : confident I am, 

Laft night 'twas on mine arm ; I kifTcd it : 

I hope, it be not gone, to tell my lord 

That I kifs aught but him. 

PiJ\ 'Twill not be loft. 

Imo. I hope fo : go, and fearch. [Exit Pifamo. 

Clot. You have abus'd me : 

His meaneft garment ? 

Imo. Ay ; I faid fo, fir : 
If you will make't an action, call witnefs to't. 

Clot. I will inform your father. 

Imo. Your mother too : 

She's my good lady ; and will conceive, I hope, 
But the worft of me, So I leave you, fir, 
To the worft of difcontent. [Exit* 

Clot. I'll be reveng'd : 
His meaneft garment ? Well. [Exit* 


An apartment in Philarlo's houfe, 

Enter Pqjlbumus, and Pbilario. 

Poft. Fear it not, fir : I would, I were fo fure 
To win the king, as I am bold, her honour 
Will remain hers. 

Phil. What means do you make to him ? 

Poft. Not any ; but abide the change of time ; 

* a jewel, that too cafually 

Hath left mine arm ; ] i. e. Too many chances of lofing it 
have ariien from my careleffnefs. WARBURTON, 



Quake in the prefent winter's ftate, and wifli 
That warmer days would come : In thefe fear'd hopes, 
I barely gratify your love ; they failing, 
I muft die much your debtor. 

Phil. Your very goodnefs, and your company, 
O'erpays all I can do. By this, your king 
Hath heard of great Auguftus : Caius Lucius 
Will do his commiffion throughly : And, I think, 
He'll grant the tribute, fend the arrearages, 
7 Or look upon our Romans, whofe remembrance 
Is yet frefh in their grief. 

Pojt: I do believe, 

(Statift 8 though I am none, nor like to be) 
That this will prove a. war ; and you {hall hear 
The legions, now in Gallia, fooner landed 
In our net-fearing Britain, than have tidings 
Cf any penny tribute paid. Our countrymen 
Are men more order'd, than when Julius Casfar 
Smil'd at their lack of fkill, but found their courage 
Worthy his frowning at : Their discipline 
(Now 9 mingled with their courages) will make known 
1 To their approvers, they are people, fuch 
That mend upon the world. 

7 Or look - ] This the modern editors had changed into 
FSer look. Or is ufed for e'er. So Douglas, in his tranllation of 

" -- fufferit he alfo. 

" Or he his goddes brocht in Latio." STEEVENS. 

* Statijl'] 5. P. Starefman. STEEVENS. 

9 - mingled with their courages - ] The old folio has this 
odd reading : 

-- Their difciplinc, 

(Now <wi?!g-led with their courages) will make known. 


- 77>eir difcipline, 

New wing-led w.-VA their courages] May incnn their difcipline 
borrowirg wings from their courage ; i. e. their military know- 
ledge' bring nr.iir.r.ted by their natural bravery. STKKVF.NS. 

' T their afprvwrr,- - ] i. e. To thoic wiu> try therrL. 



Enter lacblmo. 

Phil See ! lachimo ! 

Pqft. The fwi'fteft harts have pofted you by land ; 
And winds of all the corners kifs'dyour fails, 
To make your vcfTel nimble. 

Phil. Welcome, fir. 

Pqft. I hope, the briefncfs of your anfwer made 
The ipeedinefs of your return. 

loch. Your lady 
Is one of the faircft that I have look'd upon. 

Pqft. And, therewithal, the beft ; or let her beauty 
Look through a cafement to allure falfe hearts, 
And be falfe with them. 

lach. Here are letters for you. 

Pqft. Their tenour good, I truft. 

Jack. 'Tis very like. 

* Pqft. Was Caius Lucius in the Britain court, 
When you were there ? 

lack. He was expedted then, 
But not approach'd. 

Pqft. All is well yet 
Sparkles this ftone as it was wont ? or is't not 
Too dull for your good wearing ? 

lack. If I have loft it, 
I ihould have loft the worth of it in gold. 
I'll make a journey twice as far, to enjoy 
A fecond night of fuch fweet Ihortnefs, which 
Was mine in Britain ; for the ring is won. 

Pqft. The ftone's too .hard to come by. 

lach. Not a whit, 
Your lady being fo eafy, 

Pqft. Make not, fir, 

* Poft.] I think this fpeech fhould be given to Philario. Pofl- 
humus was employed in reading his letters. STEEVENS. 


230 C Y M B E L I N E, 

Your lofs your fport : I hope, you know that .we 
Mud not continue friends. 

lach. Good fir, we muft, 
If you keep covenant : Had I not brought 
The knowledge of your miftrefs home, I grant 
We were to queftion further : but I now 
Prcfefs myfelf the winner of her honour, 
Together witji your ring ; and not the wronger 
Of her, or you, having proceeded but 
By both your wills. 

Poft. If you can make it apparent 
That you have tailed her in bed, my hand, 
And ring, is yours : If not, the foul opinion 
You had of her pure honour, gains, or lofes, 
Your fword, or mine ; or mafterlefs leaves both 
To who mall find them. 

lach. Sir, my circumftances, 
Being fo near the truth, as I will make them, 
Muft firft induce you to believe : whofe ftrength 
I will confirm with oath ; which, I doubt not, 
You'll give me leave to fpare, when you fhall find 
You need it not. 

Poft. Proceed. 

lach. Firft, her bed-chamber, 
(Where, I confefs, I flept not ; but, profefs, 
Ha4 that was well worth watching) It was hang'd 
With tapeftry of filk and filver ; the ftory 
Proud Cleopatra, when Ihe met her Roman, 
J And Cydnus fwell'd above the banks, or for 
The prefs of boats, or pride : A piece of work 


5 And Cyelnui fwelfd above the banks > or for 

Tbe prefi of bcat^ or pride. ] This is an agreeable 

ridicule on poetical exaggeration, which gives human paflions 
to inanimate things : and particularly, upon what he himfelt 
pyrites in the foregoing play on this very fubjedt : 

" : And made 

" The water, which they beat, to follow faftct, 

* * As aworous of tkcirjtrcka" 


C Y M B E L I N E. 231 

So bravely done, fo rich, that it did ftrive 

In workmanlhip, and value ; which, I wonder'd, 

Could be fo rarely and exadtly wrought, 

Since the true life on't was > 

Po/t. This is true ; 

And this you might have heard of here, by me, 
Or by fome other. 

lack. More particulars 
Mud juftify my knowledge. 

Poft. So they muft, 
Or do your honour injury. 

lack. The chimney 

Is fouth the chamber ; and the chimney-piece, 
Chafte Dian, bathing : never faw I figures 

But the fatire is not only agreeably turned, but very artfully em- 
ployed ; as it is a plain indication, that the fpeaker is fecrctly 
mocking the credulity of his hearer, while he is endeavouring to 
perfuade him of his wife's falfhood. The very fame kind of fa- 
tire we have again, on much the fame occafion, in The Two Gen- 
tlemen of Verona, where the falfe Protheus fays to his friend, of his 
iriend's miftrefs : 

** and flie hath offer'd to the doom, 

** Which unrevers'd {lands in effe&ual force, 
*' A fea of melting pearl, which fome call tears." 
A certain gaiety of heart, which the fpeaker drives to conceal, 
breaking out under a fatire, by which he would infmuate to his 
friend the trifling worth of woman's tears. WAR BURTON. 

It is eafy to fit down and give our author meanings which he 
never had. Shakefpeare has no great right to cenfure poetical 
exaggeration, of which no poet is more frequently guilty. That 
he intended to ridicule his own lines is very uncertain, when there 
are no means of knowing which of the two plays was written firft. 
The commentator has contented himfelf to fuppofe, that the fore- 
going play in his book was the play of earlier compofition. Nor 
is the realbning better than the ailertion. If the language of la- 
chimo be fuch as (hews him to be mocking the credibility of his 
hearer, his language is very improper, when his bufinefs was to 
deceive. But the truth is, that his language is fuch as a Ikilful 
villain would naturally ufe, a mixture of airy triumph and ferious 
depofition. His gaiety (hews his ferioufnefs to be^vithout anxiety, 
ancj his ferioufnefs proves his gaiety to be without an. JOHNSON. 

0.4 SO 

3 * C Y M B E L I N E. 

4 So likely to report themfelves : the cutter 

5 Was as another nature, dumb ; out-went her, 
Morion and breath left out. 

Pa ft. This is a thing, 

Which you might from relation likewife reap ; 
Being, as it is, much fpoke of. 

lack.. The roof o' the chamber 
With golden cherubims is fretted : Her andiror;s 
(I had forgot them) were two winking Cupids 
Of filver, each on one foot {landing, nicely 
Depending on their brands 6 . 

Pojl. 7 This is her honour ! 

Let it be granted, you have feen all this, (and praiic 
Be given to your remembrance) the description 
Of what is in her chamber, nothing favcs 
The wager you have laid. 


* *o likely to report tlemf elves : ] So near to fpeech. The 

' Italians call a portrait, when the likenels is remarkable, zfpeaking 
piflurc. JOHNSON. 

5 Was as another nature, dumb; ] This nonfenfe fhould 

without read and pointed thus : 

Has as another nature done ; out-went her, 
Motion and breath left out. 

i. e. Has worked as eyquifitely, nay has exceeded her, if you will 
put motion and breath out of the queftion. WAP I;UKTON. 

This emendation I think needlels. The meaning is this : The 
fci/lptor was as nature, but as nature dumb ; he gave every thing 
that nature gives, but breath and notion. In Ircatb is included 
fpeech. JOHN so:;. 

Depending on their brands.] I am not fine that I underfland 
this ppitfage. Perhaps Shakefpeare meant that the figures of the 
Cupids \vete n-ctly poized on their inverted torches, one of the legs 
cf each being taken off the ground, which might render iuch a 
fupport nece"fT.irv. br ELVENS. 
7 This is /! lanrur ! 

7 i-t .'/ i:c :;.'.:...</ ;.'u ''.::; f,c;t all tb'n, &c.] lachimo impu- 
dently pretends to Vuve carried his point ; and, in confirmation, 
is veiy minute in defcribing to the hufband all the furniture and 
dor .intents of his wife's bed-chamber. But how is fine furniture 
JU^y ways a princefs's honour? It is an afyaratuf fuiuble to her 


C Y Is! B E L I N E. 235 

lack. Then, 8 if you can, [Putting out tie bracelet. 
Be pale ; I beg but leave to air this jewel : See !< 
And now 'tis up again : It mult be married 
To that your diamond ; I'll keep them. 

Pofl. Jove ! 

Once more let me behold it : Is it that 
Which I left with her ? 

lack. Sir, (I thank her) that : 
She ftripp'd it from her arm ; I fee her yet ; 
Her pretty action did outfell her gift, 
And yet enrich'd it too : flie gave it me, 
And laid, ihe priz'd it once. 

Pqft. May be, flie pluck'd it off, 
To fend it me. 

lack She writes fo to you ? doth fhe ? 

Poft. O, no, no, no ; 'tis true. Here, take this 
too ; [Gives the ring. 

It is a bafilifk unto mine eye, 
Kills me to look on't : Let there be no honour, 
Where there is beauty; truth, where femblance; 

dignity, but certainly makes no part of her character. It might 
have been called her lather's honour, that her allotments were 
proportioned to her rank and quality. I am perfuaded the poet 
intended Pofthumus fhould fay, "This particular defcription, 
which you make, cannot cpnvince me that I have loft my wa- 
ger : your memory is good ; and fome of thefe things you may 
have learned from a third hand, or feen yourfelf ; yet I expeft 
proofs more direct and authentic." I think there is little queilioa 
but we ought to reftore the place as I have done : 
What's this f her honour ? THEOBALD. 

This emendation has been followed by both the fucceeding 
editors, but I think it muft be rejected. The expreffion is iro- 
nical, lachimo relates many particulars, to which Pofthumus an- 
fwers with impatience, 

This is her honour ! 

That is, And the attainment of this knowledge is to pafs for 
the corruption of her honour. JOHNSON. 

* if you can y 

Be pale ; ] If you can forbear to $ufh your cheel^ 

yyith rage. JOHNSON. 



Where there's another man : 9 The vows of women 
Of no more bondage be, to where they are made, 
Than they are to their virtues ; which is nothing : 
O, above meafure falfe ! 

PkiL Have patience, fir, 
And take your ring again ; 'tis not yet won : 
It may be probable, fhe loft it ; or, 
Who knows if one of her women, being corrupted, 
Hath ftolen it from her. 

P<>'1. Very true ; 

And fo, I hope, he came by't : Back my ring ; 
Render to me fome corporal fign about her, 
More evident than this ; for this was ftolen. 

lack. By Jupiter, I had it from her arm. 

Poft. Hark you, he fwears ; by Jupiter he fwears. 
Tis true ; nay, keep the ring 'tis true : * I am 


She could not lofe it : her attendants are 
>Ui ivvorn, and honourable : They induc'd to Heal 


* The vows of women, &c.] The love vowed by v.'omen no 
more abides with him to whom it is vowed, than women adhere 
to their virtue. JOHNSON. 

* -- Prnfure 

o'.tld not lofe it : her attendants are 
d ho 

honourable. They indue* tl to Jleal it, 

And by ajlranger! 0, ] The abfurd conclufions of jea- 
loufy are here admirably painted and expofed. Pofthumus, on 
the credit of a bracelet, and an oath of the party concerned, 
judges agsinlt all appearances from the intimate knowledge of his 
wife's honour, that fl)e was falfe to his bed ; and grmmds that 
judgment, at laft, upon much lefs appearances of the honour of 
her attendants. WAR BUR r ON. 

Her attendants are all worn and honourable.] It was anciently 
the cuftom for the attendants on our nobility and other great per- 
fonages (as it is now for the fervants of the king) to take an oath 
of fidelity, on their entrance into office. In the houfhold book 
of the $th carl of Northumberland (compiled A. D. 1512.) it is 
exprefsly ordered [page 49] that " what perfon foever he be that 
corny th to my Lorces fcrvice, that incontynent after he be en- 


C Y M B E L I N E, 235 

And by a ftranger ? No; he hath enjoy'd her : 

? The cognizance of her incontinency 

Is this, fhe hath bought the name of whore thus 


There, take thy hire ; and all the fiends of hell 
Divide themfelves between you ! 

Phil. Sir, be patient : 
This is not flrong enough to be believ'd 
Of one perfuaded well of 

Poft. Never talk on't : 
She hath been colted by him. 

Inch. If you feek 

For further fatisfying, under her breaft, 
3 (Worthy the preffing) lies a mole, right proud 
Of that molt delicate lodging : By my life, 
I kifs'd it ; and it gave me prefent hunger 
To feed again, though full. You do remember 
This (tain upon her ? 

Poft. Ay, and it doth confirm 
Another (tain, as big as hell can hold, 
Were there no more but it. 

lack. Will you hear more ? 

Poft. Spare your arithmetick : never count the 

turns ; 
Once, and a million ! 

tered in the chequyrroull [check-roll] that he be fworn in the 
countyng hous by a gentillman-ufher or yeman-uflier in the pre- 
fence of the hede officers ; and on theire abfence before the clerkc 
of the kechynge either by fuch an oath as is in the Book ofOthes, 
yff any fuch [oath] be, or ells by fuch an oth as (hall feyme beftc 
to their difcrccion." 

Even now every furvant of the king's, at his firll appointment, 
js fworn in, before a gentleman uiher, at the lord chamberlain's 
office. PERCY. 

1 The cognizance ] The badge j the token ; the vifible 
proof. JOHNSON. 

3 (Worthy the preffing) ] Thus the modem editions. The 
old folio reads, 

(Worthy her preffing) - JOHNSON. 


236 C Y M B E L I N E. 

lacfj. I'll be fworn, 

Pcfl. No fwearing : 

If you will fwear you have not done't, you lye ; 
And I will kill thee, if thou doft deny 
Thou haft made me cuckold. 

lacb. I will deny nothing. 

Po/f. O, that I had her here, to tear her limb- 
meal ! 

I will go there, and do't ; i* the court ; before 
Her father : I'll do fomething [Exit. 

Phil. Quite bciides 

The government of patience ! You have won : 
Let's follow him, and pervert the prefent wrath 
Ke hath a gain ft himfelf. 

lacb. With all my heart. [Exeunt. 


Another room in Pkilar'ufs Tooufc. 

Enter Pojlbumus. 

Poft. l Is there no way for men to be, but women 
Muft be half-workers ? We are all baftards ; 
And that moft venerable man, which I 
Did call my father, was I know not where 
When I was ftamp'd ; fome coiner with his tools 
Made me a counterfeit : Yet my mother fcem'd 
The Dian of that time : fo doth my wife 
The non-pareil of this. Oh vengeance, vengeance ! 

1 Is there no way, &c.] Milton was very probably indebted to 
this fpeech for one of the femiments which he has given to Adam. 
fara&fe Loft, book x. 

O why did God, 

Creator wife, that peopled higheft heaven 

With fpirits mafculine, create at laft 

This novelty on earth, this fair deleft 

Of nature, imd not fill the world at once 

With men as angels without feminine, 

Qrf.ndfome otoer-tvay to generate 

Mankind?''' STEEVEKS. 


C Y M B E L I N K. - 7 

Me of my lawful plcafure lhe reftrain'd, 

And pray'd me, oft, forbearance : did it with 

A pudency to roiy, the fweet view on't 

Might well have warm'd old Saturn ; that I thought 

As chnfte as unfurin'd fnow : O, all the devils ! 

This yellow lachimo, in an hour, was't not r 

Or ids, at firfl : Perchance he fpoke not ; but, 

Like a full-acorn'd boar, a German one, 

Cry'd, oh ! and mounted : found no oppofition 

But what he look'd for Ihould oppofe, and Ihe 

Should from encounter guard. Could I find out 

The woman's part in me ! For there's no motion 

That tends to vice in man, but I affirm 

It is the woman's part : Be't lying, note it, 

The woman's ; flattering, hers ; deceiving, hers ; 

Luft and rank thoughts, hers, hers ; revenge 

Ambitions, coverings, change of prides, di&ain* 

Nice longings, flanclers, mutability * 

All faults that may be nain'd, nay, that hell knows, 

Why, hers, in parr, or all ; but, rather, all : 

For even to vice 

They are not conftant, but are changing ftill 

One vice, but of a minute old, for one 

Not half fo old as that. I'll write againft them, 

Deteft them, curfe them : Yet 'tis greater fkill 

In a true hate, to pray they have their will : 

The very devils cannot plague them better. [arir. 


z 3 8 CYMBELINE. s 


Cymbelinfs Palace. 

Enter , inflate, Cymbeline, Queen, Clot en, and Lords, at 
one door ; and at another, Cains Lucius, and Attendants. 

Cym. Now fay, what would Auguflus Csefar 
with us ' ? 

Luc. When Julius Csefar (whofe remembrance 


Lives in men's eyes ; and will to ears, and tongues, 
Be theme, and hearing ever) was in this Britain, 
And conquered it, Caflibelan, thine uncle, 
(Famous in Csefar's praifes, no whit lefs 
Than in his feats dcferving it) for him, 
And his fucceffion, granted Rome a tribute, 
Yearly three thoufand pounds ; which by thee lately 
It left untender'd. 

Queen. And, to kill the marvel, 
Shall be fo ever. 

Clot. There be many Catfars, 
Ere fuch another Julius. Britain is 
A world by itfelf ; and we will nothing pay 
For wearing our own nofes. 

Queen. That opportunity, 

Which then they had to take from us, to refume 
We have again. Remember, iir, my liege, 
The kings your anceftors ; together with 
The natural bravery of your ifle ; which (lands 
As Neptune's park, ribbed and paled in 

1 Now fay, what ivouU At'gHJlus Cfffar with us?] So in A". 

Xow fay, Chatillon, what would France with us ? 



C Y M B E L I N E. 239 

~ With rocks unfcaleable, and roaring waters ; 
With fands, that will not bear your enemies' boats, 
But fuck them up to the top-maft. A kind of con- 

queft . 

Casfar made here ; but made not here his brag 
Of, came, and Jlizv, and overcame : with lhame 
(The firit that ever touch'd him) he was carried 
From off our coa ft, twice beaten ; and his {hipping, 
3 (Poor ignorant baubles!) on our terrible feas, 
Like egg-{hells mov'd upon their furges, crack'd 
As cafily 'gainft our rocks : For joy whereof, 
The fam'd Caflibelan, who was once at point: 
(O, giglet fortune !) to matter Casfar's fword, 
Made Lud's town with rejoicing fires bright, 
And Britons ft rut with courage. 

Clot. Come, there's no more tribute to be pnul : 
Our kingdom is ftronger than it was at that time ; 
and, as I laid, there is no more fuch Csefars : othe* 
of them may have crook'd ncfes ; but, to own men 
{trait arms, none. 

Cym. Son, let your mother end. 

Clot. We have yet many among us can gripe as 
hard as Caffibelan : I do not fay, I am one ; but I 
have a hand. W^hy tribute? why {liould we pay 
tribute? If Cse far can hide the fun from us with a 
blanket, or put the moon in his pocket, we will pay 

* With rods itrtfcalealle, ] This reading is Hanmer's, 

The old editions have : 

With oaks unfcalable, JOHNSON. 
*' The ftrength of onr land confifts of our feamen in the>r 
\voodenfortsandcaftles; our rocks, flielves, and Jirtes, that lye 
along our coafts ; and our trayned bands." From chapter 109 
of Bariffe's Military DifcipUne^ 1639, feelingly from Tooke's 
Legend of Britomart. ToLLET. 

3 (Poor ignorant baubles !) ] Ignorant, for a^" no vfe, 


Rather, unac^tahited with the nature of our boifterous feas. 



240 C Y M B E L I N E. 

him tribute for light ; elfe, fir, no more tribute^ 
pray you now. 

Cym. You muft know, 
'Till the injurious Roman did extort 
This tribute from us, we were free : Csefar's am- 

(Which fwell'd ib much, that it did almofl ftretch 
The fides o' the world) 4 againft all colour, here 
Did put the yoke upon us ; which to lhake off, 
Becomes a warlike people, whom we reckon 
Ourfelves to be ; we do. Say then to Csefar, 
Our anceitor was that Mulmutius, which 
Ordain'd our laws ; whofe ufe the fword of Casfar 
Hath too much mangled ; whofe repair, and fran- 


Shall, by the power we hold, be our good deed, 
Though Rome be therefore angry. Mulmutius 

made our laws, 

Who was the firft of Britain, which did put 
His brows within a golden crown, and call'd 
Himfelf a king. 

Luc. I am lorry, Cymbeline, 
That I am to pronounce Auguftus Casfar 
(Cafiir, that hath more kings his fervants, than 
Thyfelf domeflic officers) thine enemy : 

Receive it from me then : War, and confufioD, 

In Ca^far's name pronounce I 'gainft thce : look 

For fury not to be refilled : Thus defy'd, 

I thank thce for myfelf. 

Cym. * Thou art welcome, Caius 


* agalnji all colour, ] Without any pretence of right. 


3 Tljou art <wtlcome, Caius* 
77y Ctcfar kitigbtedmt', my youth I/pent 

Much under lim : ] Some few hints for this part of the 

play are taken from Holinflied : 

" Kymbeline, fays he, (as fome write) was brought up at 
Rome, and there was made knight by Auguftus Casfar, undo 



Thy Ca^far knighted me ; my youth I (pent 
Much under him : of him I gather'd honour; 
Which he, to feck of me again, perforce, 
Behoves me 6 keep at utterance. 7 1 am perfedt, 
That the Pannonians and Dalmatians, for 
Their liberties, are now in arms : a precedent 
"Which, not to read, would fhew the Britons cold : 
So C^far fhall not find them. 

Luc. Let proof fpeak. 

Clot. His majefty bids you welcome. Makepaf- 
time with us a day, or two, or longer : If you feek 
us afterwards in other terms, you fhall find us in our 
Jalt-water girdle : if you beat us out of it, it is 
yours ; if you fall in the' adventure, our crows 
lhall fare the better for you ; and there's an end. 

Luc. So, fir. 

Cym. I know your matter's pleafure, and he mine: 
All the remain is, welcome. [Exeunt* 

whom he fervcd in the wars, r.nd was in fuch favour with him, 
that he was at liberty to pay his tribute or not." 

" Yet we find in the Roman writers, that after Julius 

Caefar's death, when Auguftus had taken upon him the rule of the 
empire, the Britains refined to pay that tribute." 

'* But whether the controverfy, which appeareth to fall 

forth betwixt the Britains and Auguftus, was occafioned by Kim- 
beline, I have not a vouch." 

" Kym be line reigned thirty-five years, leaving behind 
him two fons, Guiderius and Arviragus.*' STEEVENS. 

6 keep at utterance.'-* ] i. e. At extreme diftance. 


More properly, in a flate of hoftile defiance, and deadly oppo- 
iition. JOHNSON. 

At utterance means to keep at the extremity of defiance. Com- 
lat a entrance is a dciperate fight, that muft conclude with the life 
of one of the combatants. So in The Htfory of Hclyas Knight of 

the Swanne, bl. 1. no date: " Here is my gage to fuitaine 

it to tic utteraunce, and befight it to the death." STEEVENS. 

7 1 am perfect ^\ I am well informed. So, in Macbeth: 

" in your ftate of honour lam perfefl." JOHNSON. 




Another room. 
Enter Pifanlo. 

Tif. How ! of adultery ? Vv T herefore write you 


* What monfters her accufc ? Lconatus ! 
O, matter!' what a ftrange infection 
Is fallen into thy ear ? 9 What falfe Italian 
(As poiibnous tongu'd, as handed) hath prevail'^ 
On thy too ready hearing ? Difloyal ? No : 
She's punifh'd for her truth ; and undergoes, 
More goddefs-like than wife-like, fuch afiaults 
As would ' take in fome virtue. O my mafler ! 
Thy mind to her is now as low, as were 
Thy fortunes. How ! that I fhould murder her ? 
Upon the love, and truth, and vows, which I 
Have made to thy" command ? I, her ? her 

blood ? 

If it be fo to do good fervice, never 
I et me be counted ferviceable. How look I, 
That I fhould feem to lack humanity, 
So much as this fadt comes to ? Do't : The letter 


8 HTjat mongers her accufc f ] Might we not fafely read : 

What monjler's her accufer? SrEiiVtNS. 

9 Whatfalfe Italian, 

(As pots' 'nous tongudj as handed") ] About Skakefpenre's 

time the practice of poifoning was very common in Italy, and the 
fufpicion of Italian poifuns yet more common. JOHNSON. 

1 take \\\fame virtue. ] To take in a town, is to <:oi.- 

guer'it. JOHNSON. 

So in A, iioiy antl. Cleopatra : 

cut the Ionian feas, 

And takc'in Totyne SIEEVLNS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 243 

"That I havefent her, by her own command, 

Shall give thee opportunity: -O damn'd paper ! 

Black as the ink that's on thee !' Scnfelefs bauble ! 
Art thou a feodary for this act % and look'ft 
.So virgin-like without ? Lo, here Ihe comes. 

Enter Imogen. 

2 I am ignorant in what I am commanded. 
Lno. How now, Pilanio ? 
Pif. Madam, here is a letter from my lord. 
Imo. Who ? thy lord? "i'fi&t is my lord ? Leonatus ? 

4 O, learn'd indeed were that aftronomer, 
That knew the ftars, as I his characters ; 

He'd lay the future open. You good gods, 

Let what is here contain'd relifh of love, 

Of my lord's health, of his content, 'yet not, 
That we two are afunder, let that grieve him 5 ! 
(Some griefs are medicinable; that is one of them, 

5 For it doth phyiic love) of his content, 

* Art tbou a feodary for this afl ? ] A feodary is one who 
holds his efbue under the tenure of .iuit and fervice to a fuperior 
lord. HANMER. 

3 / am ignorant in what I am commanded^ i. e. I srn unprao 
tifed in the arts of murder. STEEVENS. 

* O, learn'd indeed 'Mere that ajlronomer, &c.] This was a very 
natural thought. She mull needs be fuppofed, in her circum- 
itances, to be extremely foiicitoiis about the future; and defiroua 
of coming to it by the alliilance of that fuperfiition. WARBURI ON. 

5 let that grieve him /] I fhould vvifh to read : 

Of my lord's health, of his content ; yet no; 
That we two are afunder, let that grieve him ! 


* For it dotb phyfic /<MV)] That is, grief for abience, 

keeps love in health and vigour. JOHNSON. 

So in ^Lifletb : 

The labour we delight in, pbyjics pain* STEEVEXS. 

R i AU 


All but in that ! Good wax, thy leave : 7 Blcft be r 
You bees, that make thefe locks of counfel ! Lovers, 
And men in dangerous bonds, pray not alike ; 
Though forfcitcrs you caft in prifon, yet 
You clafp youngCupid's tables. Good news, gods! 


Juflice, and your father's wrath, JJmdd he take ?nc in 
his dominion , could not be fo cruel to /nd, as you, the 
dear eft of creatures, would even renew me with your eyes. 
Tiike notice, that I am i'/^Cambria, at ]Milford-Haven : 
What your ffivn lave will, out of I his, tiih'fe you, follow. 
So, he wijhcs yon all happinefe, that reniains * loyal to his 
vow, and your, bicreajing in love, 

Leonatus Poflhumus. 
O, for a horfe with wings ! Hear'it thou, Pi- 

fan io ? 

He is at Milford- Haven : R.cad, and tell me 
How far 'tis thither. If one of mean affairs 
May plod it in a week, why may not I 
Glide thither in a day ? Then, true Pifanio, 
(Who long'ft, like me, to fee thy lord; who long'ft, - 
O, let me 'bate, but not like me :, yet long'ft, 
But in a fainter kind : O, not like me ; 

Tcu bees, that make thffe locks pfcounfel! Lovers, 
j4,ul nun in dangerous bonds, prav not alike ; 
Though forfe tters you caft in prifon, yet 

J'uu duty young Gtpif* tiilks. - ] The meaning of this, 
which had been obfcuied by printing forfeitures for forfeiters, i 
no more than that the bees are not bleit by the man who forfeiting 
a bond is lent to prifon, as they are by the lover for whom they 
perform the more plealing office ot'lealmg letters. STEEVENS. 
* - loyal to his c>tf-zw, and your ncreajig in love,] I read : 

Loyal to his vow and you, increasing in love. JOHNSON. 
Weflunild rather, I think, read thus : and your, increafeng in 
love, Leonatus Poilhumus. - To make it plain, that your is to 
be joined in con u ruction with Ltonatu*, and not with increajlng ; 
iiiiii thai, li.;, latter is a fartififlt prr/cat t ar.d not a noun. 



C Y M B E L I N E. 245 

For mine's beyond, beyond,) fay, and fpeak thick, 
(Love's counsellor fhould fill the bores of hearing, 
To the (mothering of the fenfe) how far it is 
To this fame bleficd Milford : And, by the way, 
Tell me how Wales was made fo happy, as 
To inherit fuch a haven : But, firft of all, 
How we may fleal from hence ; and, for the gap 
That wefhall make in time, from our hence-going 
'Till our return, to excufe : but firft, how get 

hence : 

Why fhould excufe be born or e'er begot ? 
We'll talk of that hereafter. Pry'thee, fpcak, 
How many fcore of miles may we well ride 
'Twixt hour and hour? 

Pif. One fcore, 'twixt fun and fun, 
Madam, 's enough for you ; and too much too. 

Imo. Why, one that rode to his execution, man, 
Could never go fo flow ; I have heard of riding 


Where horfes have been nimbler than the fands 
9 That rim i' the clock's behalf : But this is fool- 
ery : 

Go, bid my woman feign a ficknefs ; fay 
She'll home to her father: and provide me, prcfently, 
A riding fuit ; no coftlier than would fit 
1 A franklin's houfcwife. 

Pif. Madam, you're bcft confider. 

Imo. * I fee before me, man, nor here, nor here, 


9 7lat run i tic clocks lelalf: ] This fantaftical exprcf- 

fion means no more than fand in an hour-glafs, ufed to meafure 
time. WAR BUR TON. 

1 A franklin's bonfe-wife.] A franklin is literally a freeholder^ 
xvith a fmall eitate, neither villain nor vajfal. JOHNSON. 
* I fee before me t man^ nor here t nor bcre^ 
Nor tubat cnfues ; but have a fog in tbem^ 

That I cannot look thro.' ] Where is the fubftantive to 

which this relative plural, tbem, can pcffibly have any reference? 

There is none \ and the fenfe, as well as grammar, is defective. 

R 3 1 have 

246 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Nor what enfues ; but have a fog in them, 
That I cannot look through. Away, I pr'ythec ; 
Do as I bid thee : There's no more to fay ; 
Acceffible is none but Milfprd way. [-//;/. 


Changes, to a for eft, in Wales, with a cave. 

Enter Bclarius, Guiderius, and A/ viragus. 

Bel A goodly day not to keep houfe, with fuch 
Whofe roof's as low as ours ! x 5 Stoop, boys : This gate 


I have ventured to refbre, againft the authority -of the printed 
copies : 

but have a fcg in ken, 

That I cannot look thro'. 

Imogen would lay : " Don't talk of confidering, man; I neither 
fee prefent events, nor confequences ; but am in a mitt of for- 
tune, and refolved to proceed piuhe project determined." /// fan, 
means in profpect, within fight, before my eyes, THEOBALD. 

I fee before we,, man ; nor here nor there, 

.Norivhat euftics, but have a fog intb^m, 

That I cannot look through. ] Shakefpeare fays (he crm 

fee before her, yet on which fide 1'oever fhe looks there is a 
which Ihe cannot fee through. This nonfenfe is occafioned by 
the corrupt reading of but have a fog, for, that have a fcg ; an'd 
then all is plain. " I fee before me (fays me) for there is no fog 
on any fide of me which I cannot fee through." . Mr. Theobald 
object's to affg lit them, and alks for the fubjlanti-ve /<> vcbich tic 
relative plural (them) relates. The fubirantive is places, implied 
in the words here, thtre, and what enfues : for not to know that 
Shakefpeare perpetually takes thefe liberties of grammar, i 
knowing nothing or his author. So that there is no need for his 
flrange fluff or a fug In Ken. WAR BUR 'i o.v. 

This pafiage may, in my opinion, be very eafily underilood, 
\vithout any emendution. The lady fays : " I can fee neither 
one way nor other, before me nor behind me, but all the ways 
are covered with an impenetrable fog." There are objections in- 
fuperable to ail that I can propofr, and iince reafon can give m 
no counfel, I will reiblveat once to follow my inclination. 


3 Stoop lays: ] The old copy reads \-Jleep, boys:- 

from whence Hanmelr conjectured that the poet wrote -foop, 

bovs . 

C Y M B E L I N E. 247 

Inftructs you how to adore the heavens ; and bows you 
To morning's holy office : The gates of monarchs 
Are arch'd ib high, that giants may jet through 
And keep 4 their impious turbands on, without 
Good morrow to the fun. Hail, thou fair heaven ! 
We houfe i' the rock, yet life thee notfo hardly 
As prouder livers do. 

Guid. Hail, heaven ! 

ATJ. Hail, heaven ! 

Eel. Now for our mountain fport : Up to yon hill, 
Your legs are yovrg ; I'll tread thefe flats. Confider, 
When you above perceive me like a crow, 
That it is place,. which leflens, and lets off. 
And you may then revolve what talcs I have told you, 
Of courts, of princes, of the tricks in war : 
5 This fervice is not fervice, fo being done, 
But being fo allow'd : To apprehend thus, 
Draws us a profit from all things we fee : 
And often, tp our comfort, ihall we find 
6 The lharded beetle in a fafer hold 
Than is the full-wing'd eagle. O, this life 

boys - as that word affords a good introduction to what follows. 
Mr. Rowe reads " Sir boys ", which (as ufual) had beeafilent- 
ly copied. STEEVENS. 

4 tbeir imp-lews iurbands on, ] The idea of a giant was, 

nmong the readers of romances, who weredlmoft all the readers bt 
thofe times, always confounded with that of a Saracen. JOH N .SON. 

5 This fervice is not ftfuicr, &c.] In war it is not fufficient to 
do duty well ; the advantage rifes not from the a6l, but the ac- 
ceptance of the aft. JOHNSON. 

6 77> fharded Icctle ] i. e. the beetle whofe winf;s are en- 
clofed within t;vo dry btejks or fiards. So in Gower, De Confej'- 
jionc Amantls, lib. V. fol. 103. b. 

" That with his fwerd, and with his fpere, 
*' He might not the ferpent dere : 
" He was fo JkcrJc-ii :\\\ aboute, 
*' It held all edge toole withoute." 
Gower is here fpeaking of the dragon fubdued by Jafon. 


R 4 Is 

24-B C Y M B E L I N E. 

Is nobler, than attending for a check 7 ; 
Richer, 8 than doing nothing for a babe ; 
Prouder, than ruftling in unpaid^for filk : 
Such gain the cap of him, that makes them fine, 
Yet keeps his book uncrofs'd : no life to ours. 

7 - attending for a check;] Check may me:;n in this place 
a reproof '; but I rather think it lignifies command, contrcul. Thus 
in Troilus and Crcfida, the reftriftions of Ariftotle are called 
Ariftotle's checks. STEEVENS T 

* than doing nothing for a bauble ;] i. e. Vain titles of 

honour gained by an idle attendance at court. But the Oxford 
editor reads, for a bribe. WARBURTON. 

The Oxford editor knew the reafon of this alteration, though 
his ccnfurer knew it not. The old edition rends : 

Richer, than doing nothing for a babe. 

Of bale fome corrector made bauble ; and Hanmer thought him- 
filf equally authorifed to make bribe. I think babe can hardly he 
right. It fhould be remembered, however, that bauble was an- 
ciently fpelt ballt-j fo that Dr. vVarburton in reality has added 
but one letter. A bauble was part of the irsfignia of a fool. So 
in Air 3 well that ends ivell^ aft IV. fc. v. the clown fays : 

** I would give his wife my bauble, fir." 

It was a kind of truncheon, (fays fir John Hawkins) with a head 
cawed en it. To this Belarius may allude, and mean that ho- 
nourable poverty is more precious than a Jinecure at court, of 
ivbi^b the badge is a truncheon or a IK and. 

So, in Middleton's Game at Clr/s, 1623 : 

" Art thou fo cruel for an honour's table ?" 

As, however, it was once the cuftom in England for favourite* 
at court to beg the wardfliip of infants who were born to great 
riches, our author may allude to it on this occafion. Frequent 
complaints were made that neibi'ig ivas dene towards thp education 
of thefe unhappy orphans. STEE.VENS. 

I have always fufpe&ed that the right reading of this paflage 
is what I had nu in a former edition the confidence to pro- 
pole : 

Richer, than doing nothing for a brake. 

Rrabium is a b.udge of honour, or the enfign of r,n honoi\r, or any 
thing worn as a mark ot dignity. The woid was llrange to the 
editors, as it uill be to the reader; they therefore changed it to 
babe ; and I am forced to propofc it without the fupport of any 
authority. 'J>rabium is a word found in Holyoak's Dictionary, 
who terms it a reward. Cooper, in his Thrfanru^ defines it to 
i>cifrize t or reward- for axy game , JOHNSON. 


Guld. Out of your proof yoa fpeak : \vc, poqr 

Have never wing'd from view o' the neft ; nor know 


What air's from home. Haply, this life is beft, 
If quiet life be beft ; fweeter to you, 
That have a (harper known ; well correfponding 
With your ftiff age : but, unto us, it is 
A cell of ignorance ; travelling abed ; 
A priibn for a debtor, that not dares 
9 To ftride a limit. 

A'i'v. ' What Ihould we fpeak of, 
When we are as old as you ? when we fhall hear 
The rain and wind beat dark December, how, 
In this our pinching cave, Ihall we difcourfe 
The freezing hours away ? We have feen nothing ; 
We are bealtly ; fubtle as the fox, for prey ; 
Like warlike as the wolf, for what we eat : 
Our valour is, to chace what flies ; our page 
We make a quire, as doth the prifon'd bird, 
And fing our bondage freely. 

Eel. l How you fpeak ! 
Did you but know the city's ufuries, 
And felt them knowingly : the art o* the court, 
As hard to leave, as keep ; whofe top to climb 
Is certain falling, or fo flippery, that 
The fear's as bad as falling : the toil of the war, 
A pain that only feems to feek out danger 
I' the name of fame, and honour ; which dies i' the 
fearch j 

* Tojlride a limit. ~\ To overpafs his bound. JOHNSON. 

1 WhatfioM we fpeak of] This dread of an old age, unfup- 
plied with matter for difcourfe and meditation, is a fentiment na- 
tural and noble. No itate can be more deftitute than that of him, 
who, when the delights of fenfe forfake him, has no pleafures of 
the mind. JOHNSON. 

^Hovj you fpeak /] Otway feems to have taken many hints for 
the converfation that pafles between Acafto and his fons^ from the 
fcene before us. STEEVENS. 


250 C Y M B E L I N E. 

And hath as oft a flanderous epitaph, 
.As record of fair act ; nay, many times, 
Doth ill deferve by doing well ; what's worfe, 
Muft curt'fy at the cenfure : O, boys, this ftory 
The" world may read in me : My bodx's mark'd 
With Roman {words ; and my report was once 
Firft with the beft'Of" note : Cymbeline lov'd me ; 
And when a foldier" was the theme, my name 
M^as not far off: Then was I as a tree, 
Whofe boughs did bend with fruit : but, in one night, 
A florin, or robbery, .call it what you will, 
Shook down my mellow hangings, nay, my leaves, 
And left me bare to weather J . 
Guld. Uncertain favour ! 

JBeJ. My fault being nothing (as I have told you oft) 
"But that two villains, whofc falfe oaths prevail'd 
Before my perfect honour, fwore to Cymbeline, 
I was confederate with the Romans : fo, 
Foilow'd my bahilhment ; and, thefe twenty years, 
This rock, and thefe demefnes, have been my world : 
Where I have liv'd at honelt freedom ; pay'd 
More pious debts to heaven, than in all 
The.fore-end of my time. But, up to the mountains; 
This is not hunters' language : He, that ftrikes 
The venifon firft, ihall be the lord o' the feaft ; 
To him the other twofhall miniitxr ; 
And we will fear no poifon, which attends 
In place of greater irate. I'll meet you in the valleys. 

{ Exeunt Girid. and An\ 

How hard it is, to hide the fparks of nature ! 
Thefe boys know little, they are fons to the king ; 
Nor Cymbeline dreams that tin y arc aiive. > 

3 And left me lare to weather."] So in Timon : 
That numberlefs upon me ftuck, as leaves 
Do on the oak, have with one winter's brufli, 
Fallen from their boughs, and left me open, barc^ 
for every ftorm that ll^ws. STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 251 

They think, they are mine : and, though trained up 

thus meanly 

F the cave, wherein they bow, their thoughts do hit 
The roofs of palaces ; and nature prompts them, 

^ P tie cave, &c.] Mr. Pope reads : 

Here in the cave, wherein their thoughts do hit 

The roof of palaces ; 

but .the fentence breaks oft" imperfectly. The old editions read : 

I' the cave, whereon the bow their thoughts do hit, &c. 
Mr. Rowe faw this likcwife was faulty ; aiid therefore amended it 
thus : 

I' the cave, where, on the bow, their thoughts do hit, &c. 
I think it ihould be only with the alteration of one letter, and the 
addition. of another : 

1' the cave, there, on the brow, 

And fo the grammar and fyntax of the fentence is complete. Yfe 
call the arching of a cavern, or overhanging ot a hill, metaphori- 
cally, the brow, and in like manner the Greeks and Latins uicd 
ifyvs, and fupcrcilium. THEOBALD. 
tho* train* cl up thus meanly, 
V the cave, there on the brow, ] The old editions read : 

I' the cave whereon the bow ; ; 

which, though very corrupt, will direct us to the true reading; 
which, when rightly pointed, is thus : 

though train'd up thus meanly 

I' the cave wherein they bow. . 

I. e. Thus meanly brought up. Yet in this very cave, which is 
fo low that they muft bow or bend in entering it, yet are their 
thoughts fo exalted, &c. This is the antitheils. Belariui had 
fpoken before of the lownefs of this cave : 

A goodly day ! not to keep houfe, with fuch 

Whofe roofs as low as ours. See, boys ! this gate 

Inftrucls you how to adore the heavens ; and bows you 

To morning's holy office. WARBL-RTON. 
Hanmer reads : 

I' the cave, here in this brow. 

I think the reading is this : 

P the cave, wherein the bow, Sec. 

That is, they are trained up in the cave, where their thoughts in 
hitting the bow, or arch of their habitation, hit the roofs of pa- 
laces. In other words, though their condition is low, their 
thoughts are high. The fentence is at laft, as Theobald re- 
marks, abrupt, but perhaps no lefs fuitable to Shakefpeare. I know 
pot whether Dr. Warburton's conjecture be not better than mine. 



252 C Y M B E L I N E. 

In fimplc and low things, to prince it, much 

Beyond the trick of others. s This Polydore, 

The heir of Cymbeline and Britain, whom 

The king his father call'd Guiderius, Jove ! 

When on my three-foot ftool I fit, and tell 

The warlike feats I have done, his fpirits fly out 

Into my ftory : fay, Thus mine enemy fell; 

And thus I fet my foot on his neck ; even then 

The princely blood flows in his cheek, he fweats, 

Strains his young nerves, and puts himfcif in pofture 

That ads my words. The younger brother, Cadwal, 

(Once, Arviragus) in as like a figure, 

Strikes life into my fpeech, and (hews much more 

His own conceiving. Hark ! the game is rouz'd ! 

O Cymbeline ! heaven, and my conference, knows, 

Thou didft unjuftly banifh me : whereon, 

At three, and two years old, 6 I ftole thefe babes; 

Thinking to bar thee of fucceffion, as 

Thou reft' it me of my lands. Euriphile, 

Thou waft their nurfe ; they took thee for their 


And every day do honour to her grave : 
Myfelf, Belarius, that am Morgan call'd, 
They take for natural father. The game is up. [Exii. 

5 77'/.<r Polydorc, ] The old copy of the play (except 

here, where it may be only a blunder of the printer) calls the 
eldeft fan of Cymbeline Polidore, as often as the name occurs ; 
and yet there are fome who may alk whether it is not more likely 
that 'the printer fiiould have blundered in the other places, than 
that he fhould have hit upon fuch an uncommon name as 
PaLtiour'm this firft inftance. STEEVENS. 

6 1 Jtole tixfe talcs ;] Shakefpeare foems to intend Bcla- 

j-ius for a good character, yet he makes him forget the injury 
which he has done to the young princes, whom he has robbed of 

u kingdom only to rob their lathc-r of heirs. The latter part of 

this foiilcquy is very inartificial, there being no particular reafon 
'darius fhould now tell to himfeif what he 'could not know 
t-jticr !>y telling it. JOHNSON. 

S C E N E 

C Y M B E L I N E. 253 


Near Milford-Huven. 

Enter PifjmOj and Imogen* 

Imo, Thou told'ft me, when we came from horfe, 

the place 

Was near at hand : Ne'er long'd my mother fo 
To fee me rirft, as I have now : Pifanio ! Man ! 
7 Where is Poflhumus ? What is in thy mind, 
That makes thee itare thus ? Wherefore breaks that 


From the inward of thec ? One, but painted thus, 
Would be interpreted a thing perplex'd 
Beyond felf-explication : Put thyfeif 
Into a havionr of lefs fear s , ere wildnefs 
Vanquish my Itaider fenfes. What's the matter ? 
Why tender'il: thou that paper to me, with 
A look untender ? If it be fummer news, 
Smile to't before : if winterly, thou need'it 

7 Wlere is Poflhumus ? .] Shakefpeare's apparent ignorance 
of quantity is not the leaft among many proofs or his want ot 
learning. Throughout this play he calls Pojlhumus, Pofthumvs, 
and Ar-viragus, Arviragus. It may be faid that quantity in the 
age of our author did not appear to have been much regarded. 
In the tragedy of Darius^ by Alexander Menftrie (lord Steriine) 
1603, Darius is always called Darius , and Euphrates, Eu- 
pbrates : 

" The diadem that Darius erft had borne 

** The famous Euphrates to be your border " 

Again, in the 2 1 It Song of Drayton's Polyolbion : 

" That gliding go in itate like {welling Euphrates" 
Throughout fir Arthur Gorges* tranflation of Lucan, Euphra- 
tes \3 likewile given inftead of Euphrates. STEEVENS. 

s haviour ] This word, as often as it occurs in Shake- 

ipcare, (hould not be printed as an abbreviation of behaviour. 
Haviotir was a word commonly ufed in hi$ time. See Spenfer, 

Their ill bav-our garres men mi flay." STEEVENS. 


254 C Y M B E L I N E. 


But keep that countenance {till. My hufband's hand ! 

That 9 drug-damn'd Italy hath out-crafted him, 

And he's at fome hard point. Speak, man ; thy 


May take offlbme extremity, which to read 
Would be even mortal to me. 

Pif. Pleafe you, read ; 

And you fhall find me, wretched man, a thing 
The moft difdain'd of fortune. 

Imogen reads. 

Thy mi/lrefs, Pifdnio, hath playd the flrumpet in my 
bed ; the tejlimonies whereof He bleeding in me. I fpeak 
not out of weak furmifes ; but from proof as ftrong as my 
grief, and as certain as I escpeft my revenge. That part, 
thou, Pifanioy muft aft for me, if thy faith be not tainted 
with the breach of hers. Let thine own hands take away 
her life : I ft all give thee opportunity at Milford- Haven : 
foe hath my letter for the-purpofe : Where, if thou fear to 
Jtrike, and to make me certain it is done, thou art the pan- 
dar to her dijhonour, and equally to me difloyal. 

Pif. What fhall I need to draw my fword ? rlic 

Hath cut her throat already. No, 'tis flander; 

Whofe edge is fharper than the fword ; whofe tongue 
Out-venoms * all the worms of Nile ; whofe breath 
Rides on the porting winds, and doth belye 
All corners of the world : kings, queens, and 1 flates, 
Maids, matrons, nay, the fecrets of the grave 

o (Iruz-Jamn'J ] This is another ailufion to Italian 

poifons. JOHNSON. 

1 \vurmsofNiie; ] Serpents and dragons by the old 
writers were called worms. Of this, fevcral inftances are given in 
the laft aft of Antony and Cleopatra. STEEVENS. 

* Jlates,] Perfonsof higheft rank. JOHNSON. 



This viperous (lander enters. What cheer, madam ? 

Into. Falfe to his bed ! What is it, to be falfe ? 
To lie in watch there, and to think on him ? 
To weep 'twixt clock and clock ? if ileep charge 


To break it with a fearful dream of him, 
And cry myfclf awake ? that's falfe to his bed ? 
Is it ? 

Pif. Alas, good lady ! 

Into. I falfe ? Thy conscience witnefs : lachimo, 
Thou didft accufe him of incontinency ; 
Thou then look'dft like a villain ; now, mcthinks, 
Thy favour's good enough. J Some jay of Jraly, 
'* Whofe mother was her painting, hath betray'd him : 
.Poor I am ftale, a garment out of fafhion ; 
And, for I am richer than to hang by the walls, 
I muft be -ript : to pieces with me ! O, 
Men's vows are women's traitors ! All good feeming, 

3 Some jay of Italy,"] There is a pretrinefs in this expref- 

fion ; putta, in Italian, lignifying both a jay and a whore : 1 lup- 
pofe from the gay feathers of that bird. UARBURTON. 

So, in the Merry Wives, &c. " teach him to know turtles from 
jays" STEEVENS. 

4 Whofe mother was her painting, ~\ This puzzles Mr. 

Theobald much : he thinks it may fignify, wlo/'c mother CU<M a. 
lird of the fume feather ; or that it fhould be read, yibofe mother 
was her planting. What all this means I know not. In Mr. 
Howe's edition, the .frfin mother happening to be reverled at the 
prefs, it came out Wother. And what was very ridiculous, Gil- 
don employed himfelf (properly enough indeed) in finding a 
meaning for it. In fliort, the true word is meether, a north coun- 
try word, lignifying beauty. So that the fenfe of, her meetber was 
her fainting, is, that fhe had only an appearance of beauty, tor 
which (lie was beholden to her paint. WARBUR.TON. 

Seme jay of Italy, made by art the creature, not of nature, but 
of painting. In this lenfe painting may be not improperly term- 
ed \\zr.:otl;er. JOK.VSC.V. 

I met with a fimilar exprefficn in one of the old comedies, but 
forgot to note the date or name of the piece : 

a parcel of conceited feather-caps, tvbofe fathers 

" were tbc:r garments." STEEVENS. 


256 C Y M B E L I N E. 

By thy revolt, O, huiband, fhall be thought 
Put on for villainy ; not born, where't grows ; 
But worn, a bait for ladies. 

Pif. Good madam, hear me. 

Imo. True honeft men being heard, like falfe 

Were, in his time, thought falfe : and Sinon's weep- 


Did fcandal many a holy tear ; took pity 
From moft true wretchednefs : s So, thou, Poft- 


Wilt lay the leaven on all proper men ; 
Goodly, and gallant, lhall be falfe, and perjur'd, 
From thy great fail. Come, fellow, be thou honeft : 
Do thou thy matter's bidding : When thou fee'tt him, 
A little witnefs my obedience : Look ! 
I draw the fword myfelf : take it ; and hit 
The innocent manfion of my love, my heart : 
Fear not ; 'tis empty of all things, but grief : 
Thy matter is not there ; who was, indeed, 
The riches of it : Do his bidding ; ftrike. 
Thou may'tt be valiant in a better caufe; 
But now thou feem'tt a coward. 

s tSfl, tbott, Pojlhumus, 

Wilt lay the leaven on all proper men ;] When Pofthumus 
thought his wife falfe, he unjuftly fcandalized the whole iex. His 
wife here, under the fame impreilions of his infidelity, attended 
with more provoking circumftances, acquits his lex, and lays the 
fault where it was due. The poet paints from nature. This is 
life and manners. The man thinks it a diflionour to the lupe- 
riority of his underftanding to be jilted, and therefore flatters his 
vanity into a conceit that the difgracc was inevitable from the gene- 
ral infidelity of the fex. The woman, on the contrary, not imagin- 
ing her credit to be at all aflecled in the matter, never leeks out for 
fo extravagant a confolation ; but at once ealts her malice and her 
griet, by laying the crime and damage at the door of fome ob- 
noxious coquet. WARBURTON. 

Hanmer reads : 

- lay the level 
without any neceffity. JOHNSON. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 257 

P//*. Hence, vile inftrument ! 
Thou (halt not damn my hand. 

Imo. Why, I muft die ; 
And if I do not by thy hand, thou art 
No fervant of thy mailer's : Againil felf-flaughter 
There is a prohibition fo divine, 
That cravens my weak hand. Come, here's my 

heart ; - 

1 Something's afore't : Soft, foft; we'll no defence ; 
Obedient as the fcabbard. --- What is here ? 
z The fcriptures of the loyal Leonatus, 
All turn'd to herefy ? Away, away, 
Corrupters of my faith ! you fhall no more 
Be ftomachcrs to my heart ! Thus may poor fools 
Believe falfe teachers : Though thofe that are be- 

tray 'd 

Do feel the treafon fharply, yet the traitor 
Stands in worfe cafe of woe. 
And thou, Poithumus, that diddefl fet up 
My difobedience 'gainft the king my father, 
And mad'ft me put into contempt the fuits 
Of princely fellows, lhalt hereafter find 
It is no aft of common palTage, but 
A ftrain of rarenefs : and I grieve myfelf, 
To think, when thou lhalt be dif-edg'd by her 
3 That now thou tir'ft on, how thy memory 
Will then be pang'd by me. - Pr'ythee, difpatch ; 
The lamb entreats the butcher : Where's thy knife ? 
Thou art too flow to do thy mailer's bidding, 

1 Sftattk lag's afore't - ] The old copy reads : 
Something's a-foot -- JOHNSON 

* The fcriptures - ] So Ben Jonfon, in TbefaJSbt 
" The lover *s fcriptures, Heliodore's, or Tatius'." 
Shakefpeare, however, means in this place, an oppofition between 
fcripturc, in its common lignification, and herefy. STEEVENS. 

3 That now tbou tir'f: on, - ] A hawk is laid to tire upon 
that which he pecks j from tirer, French. JOHNSON. 

VOL. IX. S When 

258 C Y M B E L I N E. 

When I defire it too. 

Pif. O gracious lady ! 

Since I receiv'd command to do this bufinefs, 
I have not flept one-wink. 
Imo. Do't, and to bed then. 
Pif. 4 I'll wake mine eye-balls blind firft. 
Imo. Wherefore then 

Did'ft undertake it ? Why haft thou abus'd 
So many miles, with a pretence ? this place ? 
Mine action, and thine own ? ourhorfes' labour ? 
The time inviting thee ? the perturb'd court, 
For my being abfent ; whereunto I never 
Purpofe return ? Why haft thou gone fo far, 
5 To be unbent, when thou haft ta'en thy (land, 
The elected deer before thee ? 

Pif. But to win time 

To lofe fo bad employment : in the which 
I have confider'd of a courfe ; Good lady, 
Hear me with patience. 

Imo. Talk thy tongue weary ; fpcak : 
I have heard, I am a ftrumpet ; and mine ear, 
Therein falfe ftruck, can take no greater wound, 
Nor tent to bottom that. But fpeak. 

Pif. Then, madam, 
I thought you would not back again. 

Imo. Moft like ; 
Bringing me here to kill me. 

Pif. Not fo, neither : 
But if I were as wife as honeft, then 
My purpofe would prove well. It cannot be, 
But that my mafter is abus'd : 

* ril wake mine cye-laTls firft. 

Imo. men-fore then} This is the old reading. The 
modern editions for wake read break, and lupply the deficient fyl- 
lable by Ab\ wherefore. I read : 

I'll wake mine eye-balls out firft, or, Hind firft. JOHNSON. 

5 To be unbent^ ] To have thy bow unbent, alluding to a 

hunter, JOHNSON. 



Some villain, ay, and fingular in his art, 
Hath done you both this curfed injury. 
Imo. Some Roman courtezan. 
Pif. No, on my life. 

I'll give but notice you are dead, and fend him 
Some bloody fign of it ; for 'tis commanded 
I fhould do fo : You fhall be mifs'd at court, 
And that will well confirm it. 

Imo. Why, good fellow, 

What fliall I do the while ? Where bide ? How liver 
Or in my life what comfort, when I am 
Dead to my hufband ? 

Pif. If you'll back to the court, 

Imo. No court, no father ; nor no more ado 
With that harm, noble, fimple, nothing ; 
That Cloten, whofe love-fuit hath been to me 
As fearful as a fiege. v 
Pif. If not at. court, 
Then not in Britain muft you bide. 

Imo. Where then ? 

Hath Britain all the fun that fhines ? Day, night, 
Are they not but in Britain ? I* the world's volume 
Our Britain feems as of it, but net in it ; 
In a great pool, a f.van's neft : Fr'ythe,e, think 
There's livers out of Britain. 

Pif. I am moft glad 

You think of other place. The embaflador, 
Lucius the Roman, comes to Milford-Haven 
To-morrow : 6 Now, if you could wear a mind 


Now, {f you could wear a mind 

Dark as your fortune is ; ] What had the tlarlinrfs of her 

wind to do with the concealment of peiTon, which is here advis'd ? 
On the contrary, her mind w^s to continue unchang'd, ia order 
to fupport her change of fortune. Shakelpeare wrote : 

Now, if you could wearawf/*. 

Or, according to the French orthography, from whence I pre- 
lyino arofe rhe corruption: 

Now, if yuu could wear a mine, V/ARBVRToy. 

S a T 

*6o C Y M B B L I K E. 

Dark as your fortune is ; and but difguifc 
That, which, to appear itfelf, mud not yet be, 
But by felf-danger ; you ihould tread a courfe 
Pretty, and 7 full of view : yea, haply, near 
The refidence of Pofthumus ; fo nigh, at leaft, 
That though his actions were not vifible, yet 
Report ihould render him hourly to your ear, 
As truly as he moves. 

Imo. O, for fuch means ! 
* Though peril to my modefty, not death on'r 5 
I would adventure. 

Pif. Well, then here's the point : 
You muft forget to be a woman ; change 
Command into obedience ; fear, and nicenefs, 
(The handmaids of all women, or, more truly, 
Woman its pretty felf ) into a waggifli courage ; 
Ready in gybes, quick-anfwer'd, faucy, and 
As quarrellous as the weazel : 9 nay, you muft 
Forget that rareft treafure of your cheek, 
Expofing it (but, O, the harder heart ! 
Alack, no remedy) to the greedy touch 

To wear a dark mind, is to carry a mind impenetable to the 
fcarch of others. Detrknefs, applied to the mind, is fecrccy, ap- 
plied to the fortune, is ebfcnrity. The next lines are obfcure. 
Tots mitft, fays Pifanio, difguife that greatnefs, which, to appear 
hereafter in its proper form, cannot yet appear without great dan- 
ger to it/elf. JOHNSON. 

7 full of view : ] With opportunities of examining 

your affairs with your own eyes. JOHNSON'. 

* Though peril to my modefty, ] I read : 

Tljrough peril - 

/ ivould for fuch means adventure through peril of madefy ; I would 
rifque every thing but real dishonour. JOHNSON. 

a na y^ y u muft 

Forget that rareft treafure of your dvel ; 

Expojing it (but, oh, the harikr heart ! 

Alack, no remedy} I think jt very natural to reflect In this dif- 
trefs on the cruelty of Pofthumus. Dr. Warburton propofes to 

the harder Lap .' JOHNSON. 



Of common-kiffing Titan ; and forget 
Your labourfome and dainty trims, wherein 
You made great Juno angry. 

Into. Nay, be brief : 
I fee into thy end, and am almoft 
A man already. 

Pif. Firft, make yourfelf but like one. 
Fore-thinking this, I have already fit, 
('Tis in my cloak-bag) doublet, hat, hofe, all 
That anfwer to them : Would you in their ferving, 
And with what imitation you can borrow 
From youth of fuch a feafon, 'fore noble Lucius 
Prefent yourfelf, defire his fervice, tell him 
Wherein you are happy, ('which you'll make him 


If that his head have ear in mufic) doubtlefs, 
With joy he will embrace you ; for he's honourable, 
And, doubling that, moft holy. Your means abroad 
You have me, rich ; and I will never fail 
Beginning, nor fupplyment. 

Imo. Thou art all the comfort 
The gods will diet me with. Pr'ythee, away : 
There's more to be confider'd ; but z we'll even 
All that good time will give us : J This attempt 
I am foldier to, and will abide it with 

1 ivbicb you'll make him know,] This is Hanmer's read- 
ing. The common books have it : 

which iviff make him know. 

Mr. Theobald, in one of his long notes, endeavours to prove, 
that it Ihould be : 

which will make him fo. 
He is followed by Dr. Warburton. JOHNSON. 

All tbat good time will give us : ] We'll make our 
work even with our time ; we'll do what time will allow. 


3 ~ This attempt 

lam foldier to, ] i. e. I have inlifted and bound myfelf 


83 A prince's 

a<s 2 C Y M B E L I N E. 

A prince's courage. Away, I pr'ythee. 

Plf. Well, madam, we mult take a fliort farewel ; 
Left, being mifs'd, I be fufpected of 
Your carriage from the court. My noble miftrefs, 
Here is a box ; I had it from the queen ; 
What's in't is precious : if you are lick at fea, 
Or Itomach-qualm'd at land, a dram of this 

Will drive away diftemper. To fome lhade, 

And fit you to your manhood : May the gods 
Direct you to the bell ! 

Into. Amen : I thank thee. [Exeunt, 


The -palace of Cymbeline. 

Enter CymbeUne* Queen, Ckten, Lucius, and Lords> 

Cym. Thus far ; and fo farewel. 
Luc. Thanks, royal fir. 
My emperor hath wrote : I muft from hence ; 
And am right forry, that I muft report ye 
My matter's enemy. 

Cym. Our fubjects, fir, 
Will not endure his yoke ; and for ourfelf 
To ihew lefs fovereignty than they, mult needs 
Appear unkinglike. 

Luc. So, fir, I defire of you 

A conduct over land, to Milford-Haven. 

Madam, all joy befal your grace, and you ! 

Cym. My lords, you are appointed for that office j 

The due of honour in no point omit : 

So, farewel, noble Lucius. 

Luc. Your hand, my lord. 

Clot. Receive it friendly : but from this time forth 
J wear it as your enemy. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 2 6j 

Luc. Sir, the event 
Is yet to name the winner : Fare you well. 

Cym. Leave not the worthy Lucius, good my lords, 

'Till he have croft the Severn. Happinefs ! 

[Exit. Lucius, &c* 

Queen. He goes hence frowning : but it honours us, 
That we have given- him cauie. 

Clot. 'Tis all the better; 
Your valiant Britons have their wifhes in it. 

Cym. Lucius hath wrote already ro the emperor 
How it goes here. It firs us theref >re, ripely, 
Our chariots and our horfemen be in readinels : 
The powers that he already hath in GaUia. 
Will foon be drawn to head, from whence he moves 
His war for Britain. 

Queen. 'Tis not fleepy bufmefs ; 
But muft be look'd to fpeedily, and ftrongly. 

Cym. Our expectation that it ihould be thus, 
Hath made us forward. But, my gentle queen, 
Where is our daughter ? She hath not appear'd 
Before the Roman, nor to us hath tender'd 
The duty of the day : She looks us like 
A thing more made of malice than of duty ; 
We have noted it. Call her before us ; for 
We have been too light in fufferance. [Exit afervant. 

Queen. Royal fir, 

Since the exile of Pofthumus, moft retir'd 
Hath her life been ; the cure whereof, my lord, 
'Tis time muft do. 'Befeech your majefty, 
Forbear lharp fpeeches to her : She's a lady 
So tender of rebukes, that words are ftrokes, 
And ftrokes death to her. 

Re-enter tie Servant. 

Cym. Where is fhe, fir ? How 
Can her contempt be anfwer'd ? 
Strv. Pleafe you, fir, 

S 4 Her 

a6 4 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Her chambers are all lock'd ; and there's no anfvver 
That will be given to the loud of noife we make. 

Queen. My lord, when laft I went to vifit her, 
She pray'd me to excufe her keeping clofe; 
Whereto conftrain'd by her infirmity, 
She Ihould that duty leave unpaid to you, 
Which daily Ihe was bound to proffer : this 
She wiih'd me t'-> make known ; but our great court 
Made me to bla-me in memory. 

Cym. Her Joors lock'd? 

Not feen of late ? Grant, heavens, that, which I fear, 
Prove falfe ! [Exit. 

Queen. Son, I fay, follow the king. 

Clot. That man of hers, Pifanio her old fervant, 
I have not feen thefe two days. [Exit. 

Queen. Go, look after. 
Pifanio, thou that ftand'ft fo for Pofthumus ! 
He hath a drug of mine : I pray, his abfence 
Proceed by (wallowing that ; for he believes 
It is a thing moft precious. But for her, 
Where is fhe gone ? Haply, defpair hath feiz'd her ; 
Or, wing'd with fervour of her love, (he's flown 
To her defir'd Pofthumus' : Gone Ihe is 
To death, or to difhonour ; and my end 
Can make good ufe of either : She being down, 
I have the placing of the Britifh crown, 

Re-enter Ckten* 

How now, my fon ? 

Clot. Tis certain, ihe is fled : 
Go in, and cheer the king ; he rages, none 
Dare come about him. 

Qneen. All the better : May 
This night fore-ftall him of the coming day ! 

[Exit Quten. 

Clot. I love, and hate her : for file's fair and 


C Y M B E L I N E. 26$ 

4 And that ihe hath all courtly parts more exquifite 
Than lady, ladies, woman ; from every one 
The beft fhe hath, and Ihe, of all compounded, 
Outfells them all : I love her therefore ; But, 
Difdaining me, and throwing favours on 
The low Pofthumus, {landers fo her judgment, 
That what's elfe rare, is choak'd ; and, in that point, 
I will conclude to hate her, nay, indeed, 
To be reveng'd upon her. For, when fools 

Enter Pifanio. 

ShallWho is here ? What ! are you packing, 

firrah ? 

Come hither : Ah, you precious pandar ! Villain, 
Where is thy lady ? In a word ; or elfe 
Thou art ftraightway with the fiends. 

Pif. O, good my lord ! 

Got. W T here is thy lady ? or, by Jupiter, 
I will not afk again. Clofe villain, 
I'll have this fecret from thy heart, or rip 

* And thatjbe hath all courtly parts more cxquifite 
Than lady ladles woman ; from each one 

The left Jbe bath, ] The fecond line is intolerable 

nonfenfe. It fhould be read and pointed thus : 

Than lady ladies ; winning from each one. 

The fenfe of the whole is this, 1 love her becaufe flie has, in a 
more exquilite degree, all thofe courtly parts that ennoble \lady\ 
women of quality \ladiei\ winning from each of them the belief 
their good qualities, &c. Lady is a plural verb, and ladies a 
noun governed of it ; a quaint expreffion in Shakefpeare's way, 
and fuiting the folly of the charafter. WAR BURTON. 

I cannot perceive the fecond line to be intolerable, or to be 
nonfenfe. The fpeaker only rifes in his ideas. She has all courtly 
farts, fays he, more exquijitc than any lady, than all ladies, than 
all womankind. Is this nonfenfe ? JOHNSON. 

There is a fimilar paflage in Al?s well that ends well, a& II. 
fc, iii. To any count ; to all counts ; to what is man." 




Thy heart to find it. Is fhe with Pofthumus ? 
From whofe fo many weights of bafenefs cannot 
A dram of worth be drawn. 

Pif. Alas, my lord, 

How can flie be with him ? When was flie mifs'd ? 
He is in Rome. 

Clot Where is flie, fir ? Come nearer ; 
No further halting : fatisfy me home, 
What is become of her ? 

Pif. O, my all-worthy lord ! 

Clot. All-worthy villain ! 
Difcover where thy miftrefs is, at once, 
At the next word, - No more of worthy lord, 
Speak, or thy filence on the inftant is 
Thy condemnation and thy death. 

Pif. Then, fir, 

This paper is the hiftory of my knowledge 
Touching her flight. 

Clot. Let's fee't : I will purfue her 
Even to Auguflus' throne. 

Pif. 5 Or this, or perifh. 
She's far enough ; and what he learns by thi 


is, \ 

May prove his travel, not her danger. 
Clot. Humh ! 

Pif. I'll write to my lord, flic's dead. O, 

* Or tins, orperijb.} Thefe words, I think, belong to Cloten, 
who, requiring the paper, fays : 

Let 1 if eft: I will purfue her 

Even to Auguftu? throne. Or this, or per {/b. 
Then Pifanio giving the paper, fays to himfelf: 

She's far enough, &c. JOHNSON. 

I own I am of a different opinion. Or this, or pcrijh, properly 
belongs to Pifanio, who fays to himfelf, as he gives the paper into 
the hands of Cloten, / ;/? either give it him freely, or perijh in, 
my attempt to keep it : or elfe the words may be conlidcred as a re- 
ply to Cloten's boafl of following her to the throne of Auguflus, 
and are added flily: You will either Jo what you fay, or ferijh t 
which is the mort prolalle of the t-wo. STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E.' 267 

Safe may 'ft thou wander, fafe return again ! 
Clot. Sirrah, is this letter true ? 
Pif. Sir, as I think. 

Clot. It is Pofthumus hand ; I know't. -Sirrah, if 
thou wouldft not be a villain, but do me true fervice ; 
undergo thofe employments, wherein I mould have 
caufe to ufe thee, with a ferious induftry, that is, 
what villainy foe'er I bid thee do, to perform it, di- 
rectly and truly, I ivould think thee an honeft man : 
thou Ihould'ft neither want my means for thy relief, 
nor my voice for thy preferment. 
Pif. Well, my good lord. 

Clot. Wilt thou ferve me ? For fince patiently and 
constantly thou haft ftuck to the bai'e fortune of that 
beggar Pofthumus, thou can'ft not in the courfe of 
gratitude but be a diligent follower of mine. Wilt 
thou ferve me ? 
Pif. Sir, I will. 

Clot. Give me thy hand, here's my purfe. Haft 
any of thy late mafter's garments in thy poffeffion ? 

Pif. I have, my lord, at my lodging, the fame 
fuit he wore when he took leave of my lady and 

Clot. The firft fervice thou doft me, fetch that fuit 
hither : let it be thy firft fervice ; go. 

Pif. I fliall, my lord. [Exit. 

Clot. Meet thee at Mil ford-Haven : 1 forgot to 

aflt him one thing ; I'll remember't anon : Even 

there, thou villain Pofthumus, will I kill thee. I 
would, thefe garments were come. She laid upon a 
time, (the bitternefs of it I now belch from my heart) 
thatftie held the very garment of Pofthumus in more 
refpeft than my noble and natural perfon, together 
with the adornment of my qualities. < With that fuit 
upon my back, will I ravifh her : Firft kill him, and 
in her eyes ; there fliall fhe fee my valour, which 
will then be a torment to her contempt. 'He on the 
ground, my fpeech of infultrnent ended on his dead 


2 68 C Y M B E L I N E. 

body, and when my luft hath dined, (which, as I fay, 
to vex her, I will execute in the clothes that flie fo 
prais'd) to the court I'll knock her back, foot her 
home again. She hath defpis'd me rejoicingly, and 
I'll be merry in my revenge. 

Re-enter Pifanio, with the ckaths. 

Be thofe the garments ? 

Pif. Ay, my noble lord. 

Clot. How long is't fince ihe went to Milford- 
Haven ? 

Pif. She can fcarce be there yet. 

Clot. Bring this apparel to my chamber ; that is 
the fecond thing that I have commanded thee : the 
third is, that thou wilt be a voluntary mute to my 
defign. Be but duteous, and true preferment fhall 
tender itfelf tothee. My revenge is now atMilford ; 
Would I had wings to follow it ! Come, and be true. 


Pif. Thou bidd'ft me to my lofs : for, true to thee, 
Were to prove falfe, which I will never be, 
To him that is mod true. To Milford go, 
And find not her whom thou purfu'ft. Flow, flow, 
You heavenly bleffings, on her ! This fool's fpeed 
Be croft with flownefs ; labour be his meed ! [Exit* 


The forejl and cave. 

Enter Imogen, in boy's clothes. 

Imo. I fee, a man's life is a tedious one : 
I have tir'd myfelf ; and for two nights together 
Have made the ground my bed. I (hould be fick, 
But that my refolution- helps me, Milford, 


C Y M B E L I tf E. 269 

When from the mountain top Pifanio ihewM thee, 
Thou waft within a ken : O Jove ! I think, 
Foundations fly the wretched : fuch, I mean, 
Where they Ihould be reliev'd. Two beggars told m, 
I could not mifs my way : Will poor folk lye, 
That have afflictions on them ; knowing 'tis 
A punifhment, or trial ? Yes : no wonder, 
When rich ones fcarce tell true : To lapfe in fullnefs 
1 Is forer, than to lye for need ; and falfhood 
Is worfe in kings, than beggars. My dear lord ! 
Thou art one o' the falfe ones : Now I think on thee,' 
My hunger's gone ; but even before, I -was 
At point to link for food. But what is this ? 
Here is a path to it : 'Tis fome favage hold : 
I were beft not call ; I dare not call : yet famine,' 
Ere clean it o'erthrow nature, makes it valiant. 
Plenty, and peace, breeds cowards; hardnefs ever 
Of hardinefs is mother. Ho ! who's here ? 
* If any thing that's civil, fpeak ; if favage, 


* Is forer , ] Is a greater, or heavier crime. JOHNSON. 

a If any thing that's civil, . ] Civil ^ for human creature. 

If any thing that* i civil, fpeali ; if favage t 

Take, or lend. ] She is in doubt, whether this cave be 

the habitation of a man or beaft. If it be the former, flie bids 
Inmfpeak ; if the latter, that is, the den of a favage bealt, what 
then r Take or hnJ\\ r e Ihould read : 

Take 'or 't end. . 

i. e. Take my life ere famine end it. Or was commonly ufed br 
ere : this agrees to all that went before. But the Oxford editor 
cuts the knot : 

Take, or yield food, 

fays he ; as if it was poffible fo plain a fentence fhould ever have 
been blundered into Take or lend. WARBURTON. 

I fuppofe the emendation propofed will not eafily be received ; 
it is (trained and obfcure, and the objefrion againft Hanmer's 
reading is likevvife very flrong. I queftion whether, after the 
words, iffavap, a line be not loft. I can offer nothing better 
than to read ; 


C Y M B E L I N E. 

Take, or lend. Ho ! No anfvvcr ? then I'll entetv 
Belt draw my fvvord ; and if mine enemy 
But fear the fword like me, he'Jl fcarcely lookon't. 
Such a foe, good heavens ! [She goes into the cave. 

Enter Belarius, Guiderius, and Arviragus. 

BeL You, Polydore, have prov'd bed woodman, 


Are mafter of the feafl : Cadwal, and I, 
Will play the cook, and fervant ; 'tis our match : 
The fweat of induftry would dry, and die, 
But for the end it works to. Come ; our ftomachs 
Will make what's homely, favoury : Wearinefs 
Can fnore upon the flint, when refty floth 
Finds the down pillow hard. Now, peace be here, 
Poor houfe, that keep'ft thyfelf! 

Guld. I am throughly weary. 

Afi}. I am weak with toil, yet ftrong in appetite. 

Guid. There is cold meat i' the cave ; we'll brouze 
on that, 

Ho ! who's here ?- 

If any thing that's civil, take or lend % 

If favage, fpeak. 

If you are civilifed and peaceable, take a price for what I want, of 
lend it for a future recompence ; if you are rough inbofpitalle in- 
habitants of the mountain, fpeak, that I may know my ilate. 


Dr. Johnfon's interpretation of thefe words is confirmed by what 
Imogen fays afterwards 

** I call'd, and thought to have leggd or bought" MALOXE. 

If any thing that's civil, fpeak ; if favage, 

Take, or lend. Ho ! ] It is by no means neceflary to fup- 

pofe that favage-holci fignifies the habitation of a leaft. It may 
as well be uled for the cave of a favage, or wild man, who, in the 
romances of the time, were reprefented as rending in the woods, 
like the famous Orfon, Bremo in the play of MuceJorus, or the 
lavage in the feventh canto of the fourth book of Spenier's Fatry 
Queen, adthe6thB. 0.4, STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 271 

\Vhilftwhat we have kill'd be cook'd. 

Bel. Stay ; come not in : [Looking fa % 

But that it eats our vi&uals, I ihould think 
Here were a fairy. 

Guid. What's the matter, fir ? 

Eel. By Jupiter, an angel ! or, if not, 
An earthly paragon ! Behold divinenefs 
No elder than a boy ! 

Enter Imogen* 

Imo. Good matters, harm me not : 
Before I enter* d here, I call'd ; and thought 
To have begg'd, or bought, what I have took : Good 

I have ftolen nought ; nor would not, though I had 


Gold ftrew'd o* the floor. Here's money for my meat: 
I would have left it on the board, ib foon 
As I had made my meal ; and parted 
With prayers for the provider. 
Guid. Money, youth ? 
Arv. All gold and filver rather turn to dirt ! 
As 'tis no better reckon'd, but of thofe 
Who worfhip dirty gods. 

Imo. I fee, you are angry : 
Know, if you kill me for my fault, I Ihould 
Have dy'd, had I not made- it. 
Bel. Whither bound ? 
Imo. To Milford-Haven. 
Bel. What's your name ? 
Imo. Fidele, fir : I have a kinfman, who 
Is bound for Italy ; he embark'd at Milford ; 
To whom being going, almoft fpent with hunger, 
I am fallen in this offence. 

Bel. Pr'ythee, fair youth, 
Think us no churls ; nor meafure our good minds 


C Y M B E L I N E. 

By this rude place we live in. Well encounter'd ! 
'Tis almofl night : you fhall have better cheer 
Ere you depart ; and thanks, to ftay and eat it. 
Boys, bid him welcome. 

Guld. Were you a woman, youth, 
I fliould woo hard, but be your groom. In honefly 
3 1 bid for you, as I'd buy. 

Arv. I'll make't my comfort, 
He is a man ; I'll love him as my brother : 
And fuch a welcome as I'd give to him, 
After long abfence, fuch is yours : Moft welcome ! 
Be fprightly, for you fall 'mongft friends. 

Imo. 'Mong'ft friends ! 

If brothers ? 'Would it had been fo, that they" 
Had been my father's fons ! 4 then had my 


Been lefs ; and fo more equal ballafting 
To thee, Pofthumus. 

Eel. He wrings at fome diftrefs. 

Guld. 'Would, I could free't ! 

Arv. Or I ; whate'er it be, 
What pjain it coft, what danger ! Gods ! 

Bel Hark, boys. {Wlnfperlng. 

3 V&lidforyou) asTdluy.'} This is Hanmer's reading. The 
other copies, 

I bid for you, as I do buy. JOHNSON. 
I think this paflage might be better read thus : 

I Jbould woo bard, but be your groom. Iu honefty 
Ibid for y OH) as I'd buy. 

That is, I fliould woo hard, but I would be your bride-groom, 
[And when I fay that I would woo hard^ be allured that] in ho- 
uefty I bid for you, only at the rate at which I would purchafe you. 


I have adopted this pun&uation, which is undoubtedly the true 

* the n had my prize 

Keen lefs; and fo more equallallaftlng] Ilnnmer rcr.:'s plau- 
fibly, but without neceflity, price for prize, and balancing for bal- 
lafting. He is followed by Dr. Warburton. The meaning is, 
Had I been lefs a prize, I fhould not have been too heavy for Foft- 
humus. JOHNSON, 


C Y M B E L I N E. 273 

Imo. Great men, 

That had a court no bigger than this cave, 
That did attend themielves, and had the virtue 
Which their own confcience feal'd them, (laying by 
1 That nothing gift of differing multitudes) 
Could not out-peer thefe twain. Pardon me, gods ! 
I'd change my fex to be companion with them, 
Since Ltonatus falfe 

Bel. It mail be ib : 

Boys, we'll go drefs our hunt. Fair youth, come in : 
Difcourfe is heavy, fafting ; when we have iupp'd, 
We'll mannerly demand thee of thy ftory, 
So far a? thou wilt fpeak it. 

Guid. Pray, draw near. 

Arv. The night to the owl., and morn to the lark, 
lefs welcome. 

Imo. Thanks, fir. 

Arv. I pray, draw near. [Exeunt* 


Enter two Roman Senators, and Tribunes. 

i Sen. This is the tenor of the emperor's writ ; 
* That fince the common men are now in adtion. 

1 That nothing gift of differing multitudes)] The poet muft 
mean, that court, that obfequious adoration, which the fhifting 
vulgar pay to the great, is a tribute of no price or value. I am 
perfuaded therefore our poet coined this participle from the French 
verb, and wrote : 

That nothing gift of acfering multitudes : 

i.e. obfequious, paying deference. Deferer, Cedtr par refpel 

a quelcun, obeir, condefccndre, &c. Deferent, civil, refpefiueux^ 

&c. Richelet. THEOBALD. 

He is followed by fir T. Hanmer and Dr. Warburton ; but I 
do not fee why differing may not be a general epithet, and the ex- 
preffion equivalent to the many-headed rabble. JOHNSON, 

* Thatfnce the common men are no*OJ in aflion 
'Gainft the Pannonians and Dalmatians, 
Jndthat, Scc.J Thefe fafts are aiftorical. STEEVEXS. 


274- C Y M B E L I N , 

'Gainft the Pannonians and Dalmatians ; 
And that the legions now in Gallia are 
Full weak to undertake our wars againft 
The fallen-off Britons ; that we do incite 
The gentry to this bufinefs : He creates 
Lucius pro-conful : 3 and to you the tribunes, 
For this immediate levy, he commands 
His abfolute commimon. Long live Csfar ! 

7n. Is Lucius general of the forces ? 

2 Sen. Ay. 

Tri. Remaining now in Gallia ? 

i Sen. With thole legions 
Which I have fpoke of, whereunto your levy 
Muft be fupplyant : The words of your commifiion 
Will tie you to the numbers, and the time 
Of their difpatch. 

Tri. We will difcharge our duty. [Exeunt, 

A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

Thefwejl, near tfa cave. 

Enter Ckten. 

I am near to the place where they Ihould meet, if 
Pifanio have mapp'd it truly. How fit his gar- 

3 '" and to yon, the tribunes ^ 
For this immediate levy^ he commands 

His a'ffalute commijjion. ] Commands bit commijuon is 

fuch a phrafe as Shakefpeare would hardly have ufed. 1 have 
rfcntured to fubftitute : 

he commends 

His abfolute com million. 

i. e. He recommends the care of making this levy to you ; ami 
gives you 'an abfolute commiflion for fo doing. WAR BUR TON* 

The plain meaning is, he commands the commiffion to be given, 
to you. So we lay, 1 ordtred the materials to the workmen. 




ments ferve me ! Why fhould his miftrefs, who was 
made by him that made the taylor, not be fit too ? 
the rather (laving reverence of the word) for, 
'tis faid, a woman's fitnefs comes by fits. Therein I 
muft play the workman. I dare fpeak it to myfelf, 
(for it is not vain-glory, for a man and his glafs to 
confer; in his own chamber, I mean) the lines of 
my body are as well drawn as his ; no lefs young, 
more flrong, not beneath him in fortunes, beyond 
him in the advantage of the time, above him in 
birth, alike converfant in general fgrvices, and more 
remarkable in fingle oppositions : yet this 4 imperfe- 
verant thing loves him in my defpight. What mor- 
tality is ! Pofthumus, thy head, which is now grow- 
ing upon thy fhoulders, mall within this hour be off; 
thy miftrefs enforced ; thy garments cut to pieces * be- 
fore thy face : and all this done, fpurn her home to 
her father; who may, haply, be a little angry for 
my fo rough ufage : but my mother, having power 
of his teftinefs, fhall turn all into my commenda- 
tions. My horfe is ty'dupfafe: Out, fword, and 
to a fore purpofe ! Fortune, put them into my hand! 
This is the very defcription of their meeting-place ; 
and the fellow dares not deceive me. [Exit. 

4 imperfcverant ] Thus the former editions. Hanraer 

reads ill-ferfe r verant. JOHNSON. 

Imperfcvcrant may mean no more than perfeverant, like im- 
bofom'd, /'wpaffion'd, /Twmafk'd. STEEVENS. 

5 before \hy face : ] Pofthumus was to have his head 

ftruck oft, and then his garments cut to pieces before his face ; 
we fhould read, her face, i. e. Imogen's, done to defpite her, 
who had faid, fhe efteemed Pofthumus s garment above the perfoa 
ot Clotco, WARBURTO.V. 


276 C Y M B E L I N E. 


The Cave. 
Enter Belarbts, Guiderius, Arviwgus, and Imogen. 

Eel. You are not xvell : remain here in the cave ; 
We'll come to you after hunting. 

Aru. Brother, ftay here : [To Imogen. 

Are we not brothers ? 

Imo. So man and man fhould be ; 
But clay and clay differs in dignity, 
Whofe duft is both alike. I am very Tick. 

Quid. Go you to hunting, I'll abide with him. 

Imo. So fick I am not ; yet I am not well : 
But not fo citizen a wanton, as 
To feem to die, ere fick : So pleafe you, leave me ; 

6 Stick to your journal courfe : the breach of cultom 
Is breach of all. I am ill ; but your being by me 
Cannot amend me : Society is no comfort 

To one not fociable : I am not very fick, 
Since I can reaibn of it. Pray you, truft me here : 
I'll rob none but myfelf; and let me die, 
Stealing fo poorly. 

Guid. I love thee ; I have fpoke it : 

7 How much the quantity, the weight as much, 
As I do love my father. 

Bel. WJiat? 'how ? how ? 

Arv. If it be fin to fay fo, fir, I yoke me 
In my good brother's fault : I know not wh}^ 
I love this youth ; and I have heard you fay, 

' Stick to your journal courfe : the breach of cuflom 

It breach of all. ] Keep your daily courfe uninterrupted ; 
if the ftated plan of life is once broken, nothing follows but con- 
fufion. JOHNSON. 

7 HO--M much the quantity, ] I read : 

Ai much the quantity. JOHNSON. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 277 

Love's reafon's without reafon : the bier at door, 
And a demand who is't mall die, Fd fay, 
My father, not this youth. 
Bel. O noble drain ! 

worthinefs of nature ! breed of greatnefs ! 
Cowards father cowards, and bafe things fire bafe : 
Nature hath meal, and bran ; contempt, and grace. 

1 am not their father ; yet who this ftiould be, 
Doth miracle itfelf, lov'd before me. 

'Tis the ninth hour o' the morn. 

Arv. Brother, farewel. 

Imo. I wifh ye fport. 

Arv. You health. So pleafe you, fir 8 . 

Imo. \_Afide.~\ Thefe are kind creatures. Gods, 

what lies I have heard ! 
Our courtiers fay, all's favage, but at court : 
Experience, O, thou difprov'fl report ! 
The imperious feas breed monfters ; for the difh, 
Poor tributary rivers as fweet fifh. 
I am lick ftill ; heart-fick : Pifanio, 
I'll now tafte of thy drug. 

Guid. 9 1 could not ftir him : 
He faid, he was 'gentle, but unfortunate; 
Difhoneftly afflicted, but yet honeft. 

Arv. Thus did he anfwer me : yet faid, hereafter 
I might know more. 

Bel. To the field, to the field : 
We'll leave you for this time ; go in, and reft. 

Arv. We'll not be long away. 

Eel. Pray, be not fick, 
For you muft be our houfewife, 

8 So pleafe you, fir.\ I cannot relifti this courtly phrafe 
from the mouth of Arviragus. It fliould rather, 1 think, begin 
Imogen's fpeech. TYRWHITT. 

9 / could notjlir him :] Not move him to tell his llory. 


1 gentle, lut unfortunate ; ] Gentle, is well born, of birth 

the, vulgar. JOHNSON. 

T 3 Jim,' 

278 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Into. Well, or ill, 
I am bound to you. [Exit Imogen. 

Bel. And fhalt be ever. 

This youth, howe'er diflrefs'd, appears, he hath had 
Good anceftors. 

Arv. How angel-like he fings ! 

Quid. But his neat cookery ! 
He cut our roots in characters ; 
And fauc'd our broths, as Juno had been fick, 
And he her dieter. 

Jrv. Nobly he yokes 
A fmiling with a figh : as if the figh 
Was that it was, for not being fuch a fmile ; 
The fmile mocking the figh, "that it would fly 
From fo divine a temple, to commix 
With winds that failors rail at. 

Guid. I do note, 

That grief and patience, rooted in him both, 
* Mingle their fpurs together. 

Aru. Grow, patience ! 
And let the J ftinking elder, grief, untwine 
His perifhing root, with the increafing vine ! 

Bel. 4 It is great morning. Come ; away. 

Who's there ? 

Enter Clot en. 
Clot. I cannot find thofe runagates ; that villain 

* Mingle their fpurs together."] Spurs, an old word for the fibres 
of a tree. POPE. 

a Jlinking elder , ] Shakefpeare had only feen Englijb 

vines which grow againft walls, and therefore may be fometimes 
entangled with the elder. Perhaps we fhould read, untwine from 
thtvine. JOHNSON. 

Sir John Hawkins propofes to. read enfw-ve. He fays, " Let the 
flinking elder [Grief] entwine his root with the vine [Patience] 
nd in the end Patience muft outgrow Grief." STEEVENS. 

4 // is -great morning. ] A Gallicifm. Grand four. 



C Y M B E L I N E. 279 

Hath mock'd me : I am faint. 

Bel. Thofe runagates ! 
Means he not us ? I partly know him ; 'tis 
Cloten, the Ton o' the queen. I fear fome ambuih. 
I faw him not thefe many years, and yet 
I know 'tis he : We are held as outlaws : Hence. 

Guid. He is but one ; You and my brother fearch 
What companies are near : pray you, away ; 
Let me alone with him. 

{Exeunt Bdarius, and Arviragus. 

Clot. Soft ! What are you 
That fly me thus ? fome villain mountaineers ? 
I have heard of fuch. What Have art thou ? 

Guid. A thine; 

More flavifh did I ne'er, than anfwering 
A flave without a knock. 

Clot. Thou art a robber, 
A law-breaker, a villain : Yield thee, thief. 

Guid. To who ? to thee ? What art thou ? Have 

not I 

An arm as big as thine ? a heart as big ? 
Thy words, I grant, are bigger; for I wear not 
My dagger in my mouth. Say, what thou art ; 
Why I ihould yield to thee ? 

Clot. Thou villain bafe, 
Know'ft me not by my clothes ? 

Guid. No, nor thy taylor, rafcal, 
Who is thy grandfather ; he made thofe clothes, 
Which, as it feems, make thee 5 . 

Clot. Thou precious -varlet, 
My taylor made them nor. 

Guid. Hence then, and thank 

The man that gave them thee. Thou art fome fool ; 
I am loth to beat thee, 

5 No, nor thy taylor, rafcal, 
Who is tl.y grandfather ; Lc made tl>ofe clothes. 
Which) as it feems, make tbec.~\ See a note on a Cmilar paf- 
fcjgc in a former Iccne : 

" \\ hofc mother was her painting." STEEVENS. 

T 4 Clot. 

iSo C Y M B E L I N E. 

Clot. Thou injurious thief, 
Hear but my name, and tremble. 

Guid. What's thy name ? 

Clot. Cloten, thou villain. 

Guid. Cloten, thou double villain, be thy name, 
I cannot tremble at it ; were it toad, adder, fpider, 
'Twould move me Iboner. 

Clot, To thy further fear, 
Nay, to thy mere confuiion, thou lhalt know 
I am fon to the queen. 

Guid. 1 am ferry for't ; not feeming 
So worthy as thy birth. 

Clot. Art not afeard ? 

Guid. Thofe that I reverence, thofe I fear ; the 

wife : 
At fools I laugh, not fear them. 

Clot. Die the death : 

When I have flain thee with my proper hand, 
Til follow thofe that even now fled hence, 
And on the gates of Lud's town fet your heads : 
* Yield, ruftic mountaineer. [Fight, and exeunt. 


* Yield, ruftic mountaineer.."^ I believe, upon examination, the 
fharafter of Cloten will not prove a very confident one. Aft I. 
fceneiv. the lords who are converting with him on the fubjeft of 
his rencontre with Pofthumus, reprefent the latter as having nei- 
ther put forth his ftrength or courage, but ftill advancing for- 
wards to the prince, who retired before him ; yet ;it this his lafl 
appearance, we fee hjin fighting gallantly, and falling by the 
hand of Arviragus. The fame perfons afterwards fpeak of him 
as of a mere afs or idiot ; and yet, aft HI. fcene i. he returns one 
of the noblcft and moft reafonable anfvvers to the Roman envoy: 
and the reft of his converfation on the fame occafion, though // 
may lack farm a little, by no means refembles the language of tolly. 
He behaves with proper dignity and civility at parting with Lu- 
cius, and yet is ridiculous and brutal in his treatment of Imogen. 
Belarius delcribes him as not haying fcnfe enough to know what 
fear is (which he defines as being fometimes the effeft of judg- 
ment) ; nnd yet he forms very artful fchcmes for gaining the af- 
feftion of hi miftrefs, by means of her attendants ; to get her 
perfon into his power afterwards ; and fecms to be no lefs ac- 

C Y M B E L I N E. 281 

Enter Belarius, and Arviragus, 

Bel. No company's abroad. 

Arv. None in the world : You did miflake him, 

Bel. I cannot tell : Long is it fince I faw him, 
But time hath nothing blurr'd thofe lines of favour 
Which then he wore ; 7 the fnatches in his voice, 
And biirft of fpeaking, were as his : I am abfolute; 
'Twas very Cloten. 

Arv. In this place we left them : 
I wifti my brother make good time with him, 
You fay he is fo fell. 

Bel. 9 Being fcarce made up, 

I mean, 

quainted with the chara&er of his father, and the afcendancy the 
queen maintained over his uxorious weaknefs. We find Cloten, in, 
fhort, reprefented at once as brave and daftardly, civil and bru- 
tal, fagacious and foolifh, without that fubtilty of diftinftion, and 
thofe fliades of gradation between fenfe and folly, virtue and vice, 
which conftitute the excellence of fuch mixed characters as Polo- 
nius in Hamlet, and the Nurfe in Romeo and Juliet, STEEVENS. 

7 the fnatcbes in bis voice, 

Audlurjl offpealing, ] This is one of our authors 

ftrokes of obfervation. An abrupt and tumultuous utterance very 
frequently accompanies a confufed and cloudy understanding. 


8 In the old editions : 

Being fcarce made up, 

I mean, to man, he bad not apprehension 

Of roaring terrors : for defect of judgment 

Is oft tbe caufe of fear,- ] If I underftand this paflage, it 

it is niock reafoning as it ftands, and the text muft have been 
flightly corrupted. Belarius is giving a defcription of what Clo- 
ten formerly was; and in anfwer to what Arviragus fays of his &e~ 
ing fo fell. ** Ay, fays Belarius, he was fo fell; and being fcarce 
then at man's eftate, he had ho apprehenfion of roaring terrors, 
i.e. of any thing that could check him with fears." But then, 
how does the inference come in, built upon this ? For defect of 
judgment is oft the caufe of fear. I think the poet meant to have 
faid the mere contrary. Cloten was defective in judgment, and 
therefore did not fear. Apprehenfions of fear grow from a judg- 
ment in weighing dangers. And a very eafy change, from the 



I mean, to man, he had not apprehenfion 
Of roaring terrors : For the effed: of judgment 
Is oft the caufe of fear, But fee, thy brother. 

Re-enter Guiderius, with Cktetfs head. 

Guid. This Cloten was a fool ; an empty purfc, 
There was no money in't : not Hercules 
Could have knock'd out his brains, for he had none : 
Yet I not doing this, the fool had borne 
My head, as I do his. 

Bel What haft thou done ? 

Guid. 9 1 am perfedt, what : cut off one Cloten's 


Son to the queen, after his own report; 
Who caird me traitor, mountaineer ; and fwore, 
With his own tingle hand he'd f take us in, 
Difplace our heads, where thank the gods, they gro\v, 

traces of the letters, gives us this fenfe, and reconciles the reafon- 
ing of the whole pafiage : 

for tb* effefl of judgment 

Is oft the caufe of fear. THEOBALD. 

Hanmer reads, with equal juftnefs of feritiment : 
for 'defect of judgment 

Is oft the cure of fear. 

But, I think, the play of effcft and caufe more rcfembling the 
manner of our author. JOHNSON. 

If fear, as in other paflages of Shakefpeare, be underftood in 
an active fignification for what may caufe fear, it means that Clo- 
ten's defect of judgment caufed him to commit a6tions to the 
terror of others, without due confideration of his own danger 
therein. Thus in K. Henry IV. part 2. 

all thefe bold fears, 

Thou fee'ft with peril I have anfwered. TOLT.ET. 

9 I am perfeR, -what: ] I am well informed, what. So 

In this play : 

Ymperfefl, the Pannonians are in arms. JOHNSON. 

* take us /,] To take in, was the phrale in uie for to 

tpprckcnd ya. out-law, or to make him amenable to public juftice. 


To take in means, fimplyi, to conquer, to fubdue. So in An- 
tony and Cleopatra : 

cut the Ionian feas, 

And take in Toryne. STEEVENS. 


CYMBELINE. 2 ff 3 

And fet them on Lud's town. 

Bel. We are all undone. 

Quid. Why, worthy father, what have we to lofe, 
But, that he fwore to take, our lives ? The law 
Protects not us ; Then why Ihould we be tender, 
To let an arrogant piece of flefh threat us ? 
Play judge, and executioner, all himfelf ? 
For we do fear the law 4 ? What company 
Difcover you abroad ? 

Bel. Nofinglefoul 

Can we fet eye on, but, in all fafe reafon, 
He muft have fome attendants. 3 Though his honour 
Was nothing but mutation ; ay, and that 
From one bad thing to worfe ; not frenzy, not 
Abfolute madnefs could fo far have rav'd, 
To bring him here alone : Although, perhaps, 
It may be heard at court, that fuch as we 
Cave here, hunt here, are out-laws, and in time 

a For we do fear the law? ] For is here ufed in the fenfc 

of lecaufe. So in Marlowe's Jew of Malta, 1633 : 
" See the fimplicity of thete bnfe flaves ! 
" Who, for the villains have no faith themfelves, 
" Think me to be a fenfelefs lump of clay." 
So, in Othello : 

" And for I know thou art full of love and honefty. M 


3 Though his honour 

Was nothing lut mutation, &c.] What has h'i9 honour to do 
here, in his being changeable in this fort ? in his acting as a mad- 
man, or not ? I have ventured to fubftitute humour, againft the 
authority of the printed copies ; and the meaning feems plainly 
this : " Though he was always fickle to the laft degree, and go- 
verned by humour, not found fenfe; yet not madnefs itfelf could 
make him fo hardy to attempt an enterprize of this nature alone, 
and unfeconded." THEOBALD. 

Though his honour 

J-Fas nothing lut mutation; ] Mr. Theobald, as ufual, not 
underftanding this, turns honour to humour. But the text is right, 
and means, that the only notion he had of honour, was the ta- 
faion, which was perpetually changing. A fine ftroke of fatire, 
well e.xprefled ; yet the Oxford editor follows Mr. Theobald. 



284 C Y M B E L I N E. 

May make fomc ftronger head; the which he hearing, 

(As it is like him) might break our, and fwear 

He'd fetch us in ; yet is't not probable 

To come alone, either he fo undertaking, 

Or they fo fuffering : then on good ground we 


If we do fear this body hath a tail 
More perilous than the head. 

Arv. Let ordinance 

Come as the gods forefay it : howfoe'er, 
My brother hath done well. 

BsL I had no mind 

To hunt this day : the boy Fidcle's ficknefs 
4 Did make my way long forth. 

Gutd. With his own fword, 

Which he did wave againft my throat, I have ta'en 
His head from him : I'll throw it into the creek 
Behind our rock ; and let it to the fca, 
And tell the fifties, he's the queen's fon, Cloten : 
That's all I reck, [Exit. 

Eel. I fear, 'twill be reveng'd : 
Would, Polydore, thou had'ft not done't ! though 

Becomes thee well enough. 

Arv. 'Would I had donc'r, 
So the revenge alone purfu'd me ! Polydore, 
I love thce brotherly ; but envy much, 
T.houhaftrobb'd me of this deed : I would, 'revenges, 
That poffible ftrength might meet, would feek us 

And put us to our anfwer. 

BcL Well, 'tis done: 
We'll hunt no more to-day, nor feck for danger 

4 Did make my ivay Iongforth.~\ Fidele's ficknefs made my it'#/,( 
forth from the cave tedious. JOHNSON, 

5 revenges, 

That pojjible Jlrtngtb mlgl't meet, ] Such purfuit of ven- 

geance as fell within any poflibility of oppofition. JOHNSON. 



Where there's no profit. I pr'ythee, to our rock ; 
You and Fidele play the cooks : I'll flay 
'Till hafly Polydore return, and bring him 
To dinner prefently, 

Ai'v. Poor fick Fidele ! 
Fll willingly to him : To gain his colour, 
6 I'd let a parifh of fuch Clotcns blood, 
And praifcmyfelf for charity. FExit. 

Bel. O thou goddefs, 

Thou divine Nature, thou thyfelf thou blazon'ft 
In thefe two princely boys ! They are as gentle 
As zephyrs, blowing below the violet, 
Not wagging his fweet head ; and yet as rough, 
Their royal blood enchaf'd, as the rudeft wind, 
That by the top doth take the mountain pine, 
And make him ftoop to the vale. 'Tis wonderful, 
That an invifibte initinft fhould frame them 
To royalty unlearn'd ; honour untaught ; 
Civility not feen from other ; valour, 
That wildly grows in them, but yields a crop 
As if it had been fow'd ! Yet (till it's flrange, 
WhatCloten's being here to us portends j 
Or what his death will bring us. 

6 Pdlet a parifh of fuel Clotens Uood,~\ This nonfenfe fhould be 
corrected thus : 

I'd let a marijh of fuch Clotens blood : 

i. e. a marfii or lake. So Smith, in his account of Virginia, 
** Yea Venice, at this time the admiration or the earth, was at; 
firit but a marftjb) inhabited by poor fifhermen." In the firit book 
of ZjjLCirfot's, chap. is. ver. 24. the tranflators ufe the word in the 
lame fcnfe. WAREURTON. 

The learned commentator has dealt the reproach of nonfenfe 
very liberally through this play. Why this is nonfenfe, I cannot 
difcovcr. I would, lays the young prince, to recover Fidele, kul 
as many Clotens as would fill a par'tjb, JOHNSON. 

" His vifage, fays Fenner of a catcbpole, was almoft eaten 
through with pock-holes, ic that halt a parijh of children might 
have played at cherry -pit in his face," FARMER. 


a86 C Y M B E L I N E. ) 

Re-enter Guiderius. 

Guid. Where's my brother ? 
I have fent Cloten's clot-pole down the ftream, 
In embaffy to his mother ; his body's hoftage 
For hisreturn. [ Solemn mufic* 

Eel. My ingenious inftrument ! 
Hark, Polydore, it founds ! But what occafion 
Hath Cadwal now to give it motion ? Hark ! 

Guid. Is he at home ? 

Bel. He went hence even now. 

Guid. What does he mean ? fmcc death of my 

deareft mother 

It did not fpeak before. All folemn things 
Should anfwer folemn accidents. The matter ? 
Triumphs for nothing, and lamenting toys, 
Is jollity for apes, and grief for boys. 
Is Cadwal mad ? 

Re-enter Arviragus, with Imogen as dead, bearing far 
his arms. 

Bel Look, here he comes, 
And brings the dire occafion in his arms, 
Of what we blame him for ! 

Arv. The bird is dead, 

That we have made fo much on. I ha<jl rather 
Have fkipp'd from fixteen years of age to fixty, 
And turn'd my leaping time into a crutch, 
Than have feen this. 

Guid. Oh fweeteft, faireft lilly ! 
My brother wears thce not the one half fo well, 
As when thou grew'ft thyielf. 

Bel. 7 O, melancholy ! 


7 O, melancholy ! 

Who ever yet could found tly bottom f find 
The ooze, to flwj what cnajl tbyjluggffi crare 

Might eafiliejl harbour in ? ] The folio reads ; 

thy fluggifti care; 



Who ever yet could found thy bottom ? find 
The ooze, to Ihew what coaft thy fluggiih crare 
Alight eafilieft harbour in ? Thou blefled thing ! 
Jove knows what man thou might'ft have made ; 


Thou dy'dft, a moft rare boy, of melancholy ! 
How found you him ? 
Arv. Stark, as you fee ; 

which Dr. Warburton allows to be a plaufible reading, but fub- 
fiitutes carrack in its room ; and with this, Dr. Johnfon tacitly ac- 
quiefces, and inferts it in the text. Mr. Sympfon, in his notes 
on Beaumont and Fletcher, vol. vi. page 441, has retrieved the 
true reading, which is, 

thy fluggifh crare. 

See The Captain, page 10 : 

" lee him venture 

'* In fome decay 'd crare of his own." 

A crare, fays the author of Tbe Revlfal, is a fmall trading veflel, 
called in the Latin of the middle ages crcyera. The fame word, 
though fomewhat differently fpelt, occurs in Harrington's tranfla- 
tion of Aria/to, book 39, ftanza 28 : 

" A miracle it was to lee them grown 

" To (hips, and barks, withgallies, bulks and crayes> 

" Each veflel having tackling of her own, 

" With fails and oars to help at ail eflkys." 
Again, in Hey wood's Golden Age, 161 1 : 

" Behold a form to make your craers and barks." 
Again, in Dray ton's Mlferies of Queen Margaret; 

** After a long chafe took this little cray, 

" Which he luppos'd him fafely fhould convey." 
Again, in the 22d Song of Dray toil's Pojyollion: 

" iome (hell, or little crea, 

*' Hard labouring for the land on the high-working fea." 
Again, in Ain'mtasfor his Pbiilis, published in ng'aufFs Hell' 
con, 1614: 

" Till thus my foule doth pafle in Charon's crare." 
Mr. Toilet obferves that the word often occurs in Holinfhed, as 
twice, p. 906, vol. II. STEEVENS. 

The word is ufed in the llat. 2 Jac. I. c. 3 2. '* tie owner of every 
falp, vrffcl, or crayer." TYRWHITT. 

8 but /,] This is the reading of the firft folio, which later 

editors not underftanding, have changed into but ah ! The 
meaning of the paffage I take to be this : Jove knows, vdmt man 
thou might Ji have maiit^ but /know, thou dledjl^ &c. TYRWHITT. 


288 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Thus fmiling, as fome fly had tickled ilumber, 
Not as death's dart, being laugh'd at : his right 

Repofing on a cufhion. 

Guld. Where? 

Arv. O' the floor ; 
His arms thus leagu'd : I thought, he flept ; and 

My clouted brogues 9 from off my feet, whofe rude- 

Anfwer'd my fteps too loud. 

Guld. Why, he but fleeps ' : 
If he be gone, he'll make his grave a bed ; 
With female fairies will his tomb be haunted, 
And worms will not come to thee. 

Arv. With fafreft flowers, 
Whilft fummer lafts * , and I live here, Fidele, 
I'll fweeten thy fad grave : Thou fhalt not lack 
The flower, that's like thy face, pale primrofe ; nor 
The azur'd hare-bell, like thy veins ; no, nor 
The leaf of eglantine, whom not to ilander, 

9 clouted Irogves ] Are (hoes ftrengthened with clout or bob~ 
nails. In fome parts of England, thin plates of iron called clouts 
are likewile fixed to the flioes of ploughmen and other rufticks. 


1 Wby+bc lutjleeps:} I cannot forbear to introduce a paflage ibme- 
what like this, from Webfter's JWji:e Devi/, or fittoria Corombuna y 
on account of its fingular beauty. 

' Oh, thou foft natural death ! that art joint twin, 
*' To fweeteft flumber ! no rough-bearded comet 
** Stares on thy mild departure : the dulf owl 
*' {feats not againrt thy cafement : the hoarfe wolf 
44 Scents not thy carrion : pity winds thy corfe, 
" While horror waits on princes !" STEEVENS, 

* With fair -eft flowers 
W%lljt fummer lafts, &c.] So in Pericles Prince of Tyre : 

" No, I will rob Telltts of her weede 
" To ftrewe thy greene v/ith flowers ; the yellovves, blues^ 
" The purple violets and marygolds, 
* Shall as a carpet hang upon thy grave, 
" JWjile fummw Jayes data loft" SrtEYENS, 


C Y M B E L I N E. 289 

Out-fwecten'd not thy breath : 'the ruddock vvould^ 
.With charitable bill (O bill, fore-fhaming 
Thofe rich-left heirs, that let their fathers lie 
Without a monument !) bring thee all this ; 
Yea, and furr'd inofs bcfides, when flowers are none, 

1 The ruddock would, 

With charitable bill, bring thee all this J 
Yea, and furred moj} bcjiiles, ^:hcti floors are none. 
To winter-ground thy corfe. ] Here again, the metaphor is 
flrangely mangled. What fenfe is there in tinier-grounding a 
corfe with mcfs ? A corfe might indeed be fiiid to be ivintcr- 
grounded in good thick clay. But the epithet /a/rV to mof> dire&S 
us plainly to another reading, 

To \vinter-0-ii'tf thy corfe : 

i. e. thy fummer habit fhall be a light gown of Jlmven, thy winter 
habit a good warm furr *d gown of mofs. WAS BURTON". 

I have no doubt but that the rejected word was Shakefpeare*s, 
fince the protection of the dead, and not their ornament, was 
what he meant to exprefs. To winter -ground a plant, is to pro- 
tect it from the inclemency of the winter- feafon, by ftraw, dung, 
&c. laid over it. This precaution is commonly taken in refpect 
of tender trees or fiWers, fuch as Arviragus, who loved Fidele, 
reprefents her to be. 

The ruddock is the rcd~breaft, and is fo called by Chaucer and 

" The tame ruddock, and the coward kite." 
The office of covering the dead is likewife afcribed to the rud* 
dock, by Dray ton in his poem called The Owl: 
" Ccv'rmg with inofs the dead's unclofed eye, 
" The little reilbreajl teacheth charitie." STEEVEXS. 
the ruddock tvon/J, c.] Is this an allufion to the bales of 
the wood, or was the notion of the rcdbreaft covering dead bodies, 
general before the writing that ballad ? PERCY. 

This paflTage is imitated by WebUcr in his tragedy of The White 
Devil ; and in fuch a manner, as confirms the old reading: 
" The robin-red-breaft, and the wren, 
** With leaves and flowers do cover friendlefs bodies ; 
** The ant, the field moufe, and the mole 
" Shall raife him hillocks that fhall keep him warm, &c." 


Which of thefe two plays, was firft written, cannot now be de- 
termined. Webfter's play was publiflied in 1612, that of Shake- 
fpcaredid not appear in print till 1623. In the preface to the edi- 
tion of Webfter's play in 1631 (for it is wantingin my copy 1612) 
he thus fpeaks of Shakefpeare : *' And laftly (without wrong laft 
to be named) the right happy and copious iiidultry ofM. Shake- 
fpeare, &C." SrEEVEN'St 

VOL. IX. U To 

290 C Y M B E L I N E, 

To winter-ground thy corfe. 

Gttid. Pr'ythee, have done ; 
And do not play in wench-like words with that 
Which is fo ferious. Let us bury him, 
And not protract with admiration what 
Is now due debt. To the grave. 
Arv. Say, where {hall's lay him ? 
Guid. By good Euriphile, our mother. 
Arv. Be't fo: 

And let us, Polydore, though now our voices 
Have got the manniih crack, fing him to the ground, 
As once our mother ; ufe like note, and words, 
Save that Euriphile muft be Fidclc. 

Guid* Cadwal, 

I cannot fing : I'll weep, and word it with thee : 
For notes of forrow, out of tune, are worfe 
Than priefts and fanes that lie. 
Arv. We'll fpcak it then. 
Bel. Great griefs, I fee, medicine the lefs : for 


Is quite forgot. He was a queen's fon, boys ; 
And, though he came our enemy, remember, 
* He was paid for that : Though mean and mighty, 


Together, have one duft ; yet ' reverence, 
(That angel of the world) doth make diftinclion 
Of place 'twixt high and low. Our foe was princely; 
And though you took his life, as being our foe, 
Yet bury him as a prince. 

Guid. Pray you, fetch him hither. 

* He was paid for that : ] Hanmer reads : 

He has paid for thnt : 

rather plaufibly than rightly. PalJ is fotp**(fbtd. So Jonfon : 
*' Twenty things more, my friend, which you know due, 
*' For which, or pay me quickly, or I'll pay you." 

3 reference, 

(That angel of the world) ] Reverence, or due regard to 

fubordinntion, is the power that keeps peace and order in the 
world. JOHNSON. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 2 gi 

Therfites' body is as good as Ajax, 
When neither are alive. 

Arv. If you'll go fetch him, 
We'll fay our fong the whilft. Brother, begin. 

[Exit Belarius. 

Guid. Nay,Cadwal, wemuftlayhishead tothee^ft; 
My father hath a reafon for't. 

Arv. "Pis true. 

Guid. Come on then, and remove him. 

Arv. So, Begin. 


Guid. Fear no more the Jo eat o' the fun, 

Nor the furious winter's rages ; 
Thou thy worldly tqfk haft done, 

Home art gone, and ta'en thy wages .* 
Both golden lads and girls all muft, 
As chimney-Jweepers, come to duft. 

Arv. 4 Fear no more the frown o' the great) 

Thou art paft the tyrant's Jlroke ; 
Care no more to cloath, and eat ; 

To thee the reed is as the oak : 
5 Thefcepter, learning, phyfic, muft 
All follow this, and come to dvft. 

Guid. Fear no more the lightning-flaft, 
Arv. Nor the all-dreaded thunder-ftone ; 
Guid. 6 Fear naljlander, cenfure raft ' 
Arv. Thou haft fitiift'd joy and moan : 

* Fear no more, &c.] This is the topic ofconfoUtion that na- 
ture dichtes to all men on thefe occafions The lame farewell we 
have over the dead body in Lucian. Tmo aS^io* tixsT* \}/^crnv, 
j?*rn WH!;H, &c. WARBURTON. 

5 The fcepter, learning, &:c.] The poet's fentiment feems to have 
been this. All human excellence is equally fubjeit to the tfroke 
ot death : neither the potver of kings, nor the fcience of fcholars, 
r.or the art of thole whole immediate ftudy is the prolongation ot 
life, can protect them from the final deftiny of man. JOHNSON. 

6 Fear notjlandcr, &c.] Perhaps, 

Fear not (lander's cenfure ralh. JOHNSON. 

U 2 

29 i C Y M B E L I N E. 

Both. All lovers young, all lovers mift 
7 Confign to thee, and come to duft. 

Guid. No exorclfer barm thee ! 
Arv. Nor no witchcraft charm thee / 
Guid Ghoft unlaid forbear thee ! 
Arv. Nothing ill come near thee ! 
Both. Quiet confummation 8 have i 
And renowned be thy grave 9 .' 

Re-enter Belarius, with the body ofCloten. 

Guid. We have done our obfequies : Come, lay 

him down. 
Bel. Here's a few flowers ; but about midnight, 

more : 
The herbs, that have on them cold dew o' the 


Are {brewings fitt'ft far graves. Upon their faces I- 
You were as flowers, now xvither'd : even fo 
Thefe herb'lets fhall, which we upon you flrow. 
Come on, away : apart upon our knees. 

7 Confign to thee, ] Perhaps, 

Confign to this. 

And in the former ftanza, for all follow tbis, we might read, ll 
follow thee. JOHNSON. 

Confign to tbce, is right. So in Romeo arul Jail, : : 


A datelefs bargain to engroiling death. 

To conftgn to tbcc, is to fcal the fame cantraft with thee, i. e. add 
their names to thine upon the regiiler of death. STEEVENS. 

* >uiet confummation have ;] Confumtnation is ufed in the fame 
fenfe in K. Edwardlll. \ 599 : 

" My foul will yield this caflle of my flefh, 

" This mangled tribute, with all willingnefs, 

" To darknefsj confirmation^ duft and VTOrms." 


9 tly grave.] For the obfequies of Fidele, a fongwas written 
by my unhappy friend, Mr. William Collins of Chichefter, a 
man or uncommon learning and abilities. I fhall give it a place" 
at the end, in honour of his memory, JOHNSON. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 293 

The ground, that gave them firft, has them again : 
Their pleafure here is pad, fo is their pain. [Exeunf. 

Imogen, awaking. 

Imo. Yes, fir, to Milford-Haven ; Which is the 

way ? 

I thank you. By yon bufh ? Pray, how far 


* 'Ods pittikins ! can it be fix miles yet ? 

I have gone all night : 'Faith, I'll lie down and 


But, foft ! no bedfellow : O, gods and goddefies ! 

[Seeing the body. 

Thefe flowers are like the pleafures of the world ; 
This bloody man, the care on't. I hope, I dream ; 
For, fo, I thought I was a cave-keeper, 
And cook to honeft creatures ; But 'tis not fo ; 
'Tvvas but a bolt of nothing, fhot at nothing, 
Which the brain makes of fumes : Our very eyes 
Are fometimes like our judgments, blind. Good faith, 
I tremble flill with fear : But if there be 
Yet left in heaven as fmall a drop of pity 
As a wren's eye, fear'd gods, a part of it ! 
The dream's here flill : even when I wake, it is 
Without me, as within me; not imagin'd, felt. 

A headlefs man ! The garments of Potthumus ! 

I know the ihape of his leg : this is his hand ; 
His foot Mercurial ; his Martial thigh ; 

The brawns of Hercules : but * his Jovial face 


1 *Ods pittikins ! ] This diminutive adjuration is ufed by 
Decker and Webfter in }VeJlward Hoe, 1607 ; in the Shoemaker^ 
Holiday, or the Gf/itle Craft ^ 1600 : It is derived from God's my 
pity, which likewife occurs in Cymlcline. STEEVENS. 

* his Jovial face - ] Jovial face fignifies in this place, 

fuch a face as belongs to Jove. It is frequently ufed in the fame 
tl-nfe by other old dramatic writers. So Hcywood, in The Silver 


294 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Murder in heaven ? How ? Tis gone. Pifanio, 
All curfes madded Hecuba gave the Greeks, 
And mine to boot, be darted on thee ! Thou, 
3 Confpir'd with that irrcgulous devil, Cloten, 
Haft here cut off my lord. To write, and read, 

Be henceforth treacherous ! Darnn'd Pifanio 

Hath with his forged letters, clamn'd Pifanio 

From this moft braveil veffel of the world 
Struck the main-top ! O, Pofthumus ! alas, 
Where is thy head ? where!s that ? Ay me ! where's 

that ? 

Pifanio might have kill'd thee at the heart, 
And left this head on. How ihould this be ? 

Pifanio ? 

x Tis he, and Cloten : malice and lucre in them 
Have lay'd this woe here. O, 'tis pregnant, preg- 
nant ! 

The drug he gave me, which, he faid, was precious 
And cordial to me, have I not found it 
Murd'rous to the fenfes ? That confirms it home : 
This is Pifanio's deed, and Cloten's : O! 
Give colour to my pale cheek with thy blood, 
That we the horrider mny feem to thofe 
Which chance to find us : O, my lord ! my lord ! 

" Alcides Lere will {fond, 

'' To plague you all wirh his high jovial hand." 
Again, iq Jiey wood's Rape ofLucrcct^ 1630: 

" Thou Jovial hand hold up thy fcepter high." 
Again, in his Golden jfgr, 161 1, fpeaking of Jupiter ; 

" all that (land, 

*' Sink in the weight. of his high jovial hand." 

3 Confpir > <l'witb, &c.] The old copy reads thus : 

: thou, 

Confpir'd with that irregulous divel, Cloten. 
I fuppofe it fhould be, 

Confpir'd with tb* irreligious devil, Cloten. JOHNSON. 
Jrrcguleus (if there be fuch a \vord) muft mean lawlefs, licen- 
tious, out of rule, jura nrvans fil>i nata. In Reinolds's God's Rt-> 
.(///; r.o.ilnft Adultery ^ p. I2i, I meet with " irrigated \v&S f 


C Y M B E L I N E. 295 

Enter Lucius, Captains, &c. and a Sootlfayer. 

Cap. To them, the legions garrifon'd in Gallia^ 
After your will, havecrofs'd the lea ; attending 
You here at Milford-Haven, with your Ihips : 
They are in readinefs. 

Luc. But what from Rome ? 
Cap. The fenate hath ftirr'd up the confiners, 
And gentlemen of Italy ; moft willing fpirits, 
That promife noble fervice ; and they come 
Under the conduct of bold lachimo, 
Syenna's brother. 

Luc. When expect you them ? 
Cap,. With the next benefit o' the wind. 
Luc. This forward nefs 
Makes our hopes fair. Command, our prefcnt 


Be mufter'd ; bid the captains look to't. Now, fir, 
What have you dream'd, of late, of this war's pur- 

pofe ? 
Sooth. 4 La-ft night the very gods fhew'd me a 

vifion : 

(I faft, and pray'd, for their intelligence) Thus: 
I faw Jove's bird, the Roman eagle, wing'd 
From the fpungy fouth to this part of the weft, 
There vanifh'd in the fun-beams : which portends, 
(Unlefs my fins abufe my divination) 
Succefs to the Roman hoit. 

* Loft night the very gods Jtevfil me a vifion :] The i>ery gods 
may, indeed, fignify the gods themielves immediately, and not 
by the intervention ot other agents or initruments ; yet I am per- 
fuadcd the reading is corrupt, and that Shakefpeare wrote, 

Laft night, the "Marry gods 

Warcy here iigniiying animadverting, forewarning, ready to give 
notice : not, as in its more ulual meaning, cautious, referveei. 


Of this meaning I know not any example, nor do 1 fee any 
need of alteration. It was no common dream, but fent from the 
very oJj, or ihe gods themielves. JOHNSON. 

U 4 ' Luc* 

296 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Luc. Dream often fo, 

And never falfe. Soft, ho ! what trunk is here, 

Without his top ? The ruin fpeaks, that fometime 

It was a worthy building. How ! a page ! 

Or dead, or fleeping on him ? But dead, rather : 
For nature doth abhor to make his bed 
V/ith the defundt, or ileep upon the dead. 
Let's fee the boy's face. 

Cap. He is alive, my lord. 

Luc. He'll then inftrudt us of this body. Young 


Inform us of thy fortunes ; for, it feems, 
They crave to be demanded : Who is this, 
Thou mak'ft thy bloody pillow ? Or * who was he, 


5 who rj:as be, 

That, otherwife than noble nature did, 

Hath altered tbat good pifture? ] The editor, Mr. 

Theobald, cavils at this palFage. He fays, it is far from being 
Jlriiliy grammatical \ and, yet, what is itrange, he fubjoins a pa- 
raphrafe of his own, which {hews it to be Jlrittly grammatical. 
* For, fays he, the conftruftion of thefe words is this : who ' h 
alter'd that good pifture othenvife than nature alter'd it ?" 1 lup- 
pofe then this editor's meaning was, that the grammatical con- 
llruclion would not conform to the fenfe ; for a bad writer, like a 
bad man, generally fays one thing and means another. He fub- 
joining, " Shakefpeare deiigned to fny j_if the text be genuine) 
Who hath alter'd that good picture from what noble nature at firft 
made it r" Here again he is miitaken ; Shakefpeare meant, like 
a plain man, juft as bzfpoke; and as our editor firlt paraphrafed 
him, Who hath altered that good picture otherwife than nature 
altered it ? And the folution of the difficulty' in this fentiment, 
which fo much perplexed him, is this : the fpeakcr fees a young 
man without a head, and confequently much fhortcnd in ftature ; 
on which he breaks out into this exclamation : Who hath alter d 
this good form, by making it fhorter ; fo contrary to the practice 
of nature, which by yearly accellion of growth alters it by mak- 
ing it taller ? No occalion then for the editor to change did into 
//, with an allufion to the command againft murder; which theu 
Ihould have been forbid inftead of bid. WAR BUR TON-. 

Here are many words upon a very flight debate. The fenfe is 
not much cleared by either critic. The queftion is alked, not 
about a body* but zpiflure, which is not very apt to grow fhorter 
or longer. To do a picture, and a pidure is well done, are Hand- 


That, otherwife than noble nature did, 
Hath alter'd that good pifture ? What's thy intereft 
In this fad wreck ? How came it ? Who is it ? 
What art thou ? 

Into. I am nothing : or if not, 
Nothing to be were better. This was my matter, 
A very valiant Briton, and a good, 
That here by mountaineers lies (lain : Alas ! 
There are no more fuch mailers : I may wander 
From eaft to Occident, cry out for fervice, 
Try many, all good, ferve truly, never 
Find fuch another matter. 

Luc. 'Lack, good youth ! 

Thou mov'tt no lefs with thy complaining, than 
Thy matter in bleeding : Say his name, good friend. 

Imo. 6 Richard du Champ. If I do lye, and do 
No harm by it, though the gods hear, I hope \_dfide. 
They'll pardon it. Say you, fir ? 

Lite. Thy name ? 

Imo. Fidele, fir. 

Luc. Thou doft approve thyfelf the very fame : 
Thy name well firs thy faith ; thy faith, thy name. 
Wilt take thy chance wiih me ? I will not fay, 
Thou fhalt be fo well mafter'd ; but, be fure, 

ing phrafes ; the cjueflion therefore is, Who has altered this pic- 
ture, fo as to make it otherwife than nature did it. JOHNSON?. 

Olivia (peaking of her own beauty as of a piflnre, afks Viola if 
it '* is not well done ?" STEEVENS. 

6 Richard da Champ. ] Shakefpeare was indebted for his 

modern names (which fometimes are mixed with ancient ones) as 
well as his anachronifms, to the fafliionable novels of his time. 
In a collection of ftories, entitled A Petite Palace of Pcttie bis 
Pkafurc^ 1576, I find the following circumilances of ignorance 
and abfurdity. In the ftory of the Horatii and the Curiatii, the 
roaring of cannons is mentioned. Cephalus and Procris are faid to 
be of the court of Venice ; and " that her father wrought fo vjith 
the duke, that this Cephalus ivasfetit poft in ambaffage to the Turke. 

Eriphile, after the death of her hulband Amphiaraus, (the 

Thebau prophet) calling to mind the affei'tion wherein Don Infor- 
titnio '.vi'j drowned towards her," &c. Stc. STEEVENS. 


2,$)8 C Y M B E L I N E, 

No lefs belov'd. The Roman emperor's letters, 
Sent by a conful to me, Ihould not (boner 
'fhan thine own worth prefer thee : Go with me. 

Imo. I'll follow, fir. But, firft, an't pleafe the gods, 
I'll hide my matter from the flics, as deep 
As 7 thefe poor pick-axes can dig : and when 
With wild wood-leaves and weeds I have ftrew'd his 


And on it faid a century of prayers, 
Such as I can, twice o'er, I'll weep, and figh ; 
And, leaving fo his fervice, follow you, 
So pleafe you entertain me. 

Luc. Ay, good youth ; 
And rather father thee, than matter thee. 
My friends, 

The boy hath taught us manly duties : Let us 
Find out the prettieft daizy'd plot we can, 
And make Kim with our pikes and partizans 
A grave : Come, * arm him. Boy, he is preferr'd 
By thee to us ; and he fliall be interr'd, 
As foldiers can. Be chearful ; wipe thine eyes : 
Some falls are means the happier to arife. [Exeunt. 

5 C E N E III. 

9 CymbeUne's palace. 
Enter Cytnbeline, Lords, and Pifanio. 

Cym. Again ; and bring me word, how 'tis with 

A fever 

7 tbcfe poor pick-axes ] Meaning her fingers. 


* arm him. ] That is, Take him rip in your arms. 


Cymlcline's palace.] This fcene is omitted againit all autho- 
rity by fir T. Hanmer. It is indeed of no great ule m the progreis 
of the fable, yet it makes a regv.lar preparation for the next ad. 



C Y M B E L I N E. 299 

A fever with the abfence of her fon ; 

A madnefs, of which her life's in danger : 


How deeply you at once do touch me ! Imogen, 
The great part of my comfort, gone : my queen 
Upon a delperate bed ; and in a time 
When fearful wars point at me : her fon gone, 
So needful for this prefent : It ftrikes me, paft 
The hope of comfort. But for thce, fellow, 
Who needs mult know of her departure, and 
Doft feem fo ignorant, we'll enforce it from thec 
By a iharp torture. 

Pif. Sir, my life is yours, 

I humbly let it at your will : But, for my miftrefs, 
I nothing know where fhe remains, why gone, 
JV T or when Ihe purpofes return. ; Befeech your high- 

Hold me your loyal fervant. 

Lord. Good my liege, 
The day that fhe was milling, he was here : 
I dare be bound he's true, and fhall perform 
All parts of his fubjecYion loyally. For Cloten, 
There wants no diligence in feeking him, 
1 And will, no doubt, be found. 

fym. The time is troublefome ; 
We'll flip you for a fcafon; but * our jealoufy [To Plf. 
Does yet depend. 

The faft is, that fir Thomns Hanmer has inferred this fnppofed 
omiffion as the eighth fcene of aft III. The fcene which in Dr. 
Johufon's firit edition is the eighth of aft III. is printed in a (mail 
letter under it in Hanmer's, on a tion that itvvas fpurious. 
In this impreflion it is the 'third fcene of'aft IV. and that which in 
Johnfon is the eighth fcene of aft IV. is in this the feventh fcene. 


Anelvi\\\, ] I think it fhould be read : 

And /r'//, STEr.vENS. 

our jealo:ijy 

Dees yet defend.']- My fufpicion is yet undetermined ; if I do 
condemn you, I likewife have not acquitted you. We now 
the <au/r is depending, JOHNSON. 


3 oo C Y M B E L I N E. 

Lord. So pleafe your majefty, 
The Roman legions, all from Gallia drawn, 
Are landed on your coafl ; with a fupply 
Of Roman gentlemen, by the fenate lent. 

Cym. Now for the counfel of my fon, and queen ! 
I am amaz'd with matter J . 

Lord. Good my liege, 
5 Your preparation can affront no lefs 
Than what you hear of : come more, for more you're 

ready : 

The want is, but to put thefe powers in motion, 
That long to move. 

Cym. I thank you : Let's withdraw ; 
And meet the time, as it feeks us. We fear not 
What can from Italy annoy us ; but 
We grieve at chances here. Away. [Exeunt. 

Pif. s 1 heard no letter from my matter, fince 
I wrote him, Imogen was ilain : 'Tis ftrange : 
Nor hear I from my miflrefs, who did promife 
To yield me often tidings : Neither know I 
What is betid to Clctcn ; but remain 
Perplex'd in all. The heavens ftill muft work : 
Wherein I am falfe, I am honeft ; not true, to be true. 
Thefe prefent wars fliall find I love my country, 
Even 6 to the note o' the king, or I'll fall in them. 
All other doubts, by time let them be clear'd : 
Fortune brings in fome boats, that are not fleer'd. 


3 lam amazM ivitb matter.'] i.e. confounded by variety of 
bufinefs. STEEVENS. 

4 Tour preparation &c.] Your forces are able to face fuch an 
army as we hear the enemy will bring againll us. JOHN'SON. 

5 / heard no letter ] I fuppofe we fhould read with Hanmer, 

r*ue had no letter. STEEVENS. 

Perhaps, " I heard no later." MUSGRAVE. 

6 to tie note o' the king, ] I will fo diftinguifh myfelf, 

Ac king fliall remark my valour. JOHNSON. 




Before the cave. 
Enter Belarius, Guiderius, and Arviragus. 

Guid. The noife is round about us. 

Bel. Let us from it. 

Arv. What pleafure, fir, find we in life, to lock it 
From adtion and adventure ? 

Guid. Nay, what hope 

Have we in hiding us ? this way, the Romans 
Muft or for Britons flay us ; or receive us 
For barbarous and unnatural revolts 
During their ufe, and flay us after. 

Bel. Sons, 

We'll higher to the mountains ; there fecure us. 
To the king's party there's no going : newnefs 
Of Cloten's death (we being not known, nor mufter'd 
Among the bands) may drive us to 7 a render 
Where we have liv'd ; and fo extort from us that 
Which we have done, 8 whole anfvver would be death. 
Drawn on with torture. 

Guid. This is, fir, a doubt, 
In fuch a time, nothing becoming you, 
Nor fatisfying us. 

Arv. It is not likely, 

That when they hear the Roman horfes neigh, 
Behold 9 their quarter'd fires, have both their eyes 

7 . a render 

Where ive have li'v'd; ] An account of our place of 

abode. This dialogue is a juft reprefentation of the fuperfluota 
caution of an old man. JOHNSON. 

Render is ufed in a fimilar fenfe in Timox, ad V. 

" And fends us forth to make their forrow'd render. 9 * 


8 wbofe anfwer ] The retaliation of the death of Ciotea 

Would be death > &c. JOHNSON. 

9 tbtir quarter '& fires, ) Their fires regularly difpofed, 




And ears fo cloy'd importantly as now, 

That they will wafte their time upon oiir note, 

To know from whence we are. 

Bel. O, I am known 
Of many in the army : many years, 
Though Cloten then but young, you fee, not wore 


From my remembrance. And, befides, the king 
JHath not defcrv'd my fervicc, nor your loves ; 
Who find in my exile the want of breeding, 
The certainty of this hard life ; aye hopelefs 
To have the courtefy your cradle promis'd, 
But to be ftill hot fummer's tanlings, and 
The fhrinking Haves of winter. 

Guid. Than be fo, 

Better to ccafe to be. Pray, fir, to the army : 
I and my brother are not known ; yourfelf, 
So out of thought, and thereto fo o'er-grown* 
Cannot be queftion'd. 

Arv. By this fun that fliinrs, 
I'll thither : What thing is it, that I never 
Did fee man die ? fcarce ever look'd on blood, 
But that of coward hares, hot goats, and venifon ? 
Never bedrid a horfe, fave one, that had 
A rider like myfelf, who ne'er wore rowel 
Nor iron on his heel ? I am afham'd 
To look upon the holy fun, to have 
The benefit of his bleft beams, remaining 
So long a poor unknown. 

Guid. By heavens, I'll go : 
If you will blefs me, fir, and give me leave, 
I'll take the better care ; but if you will not, 
The hazard therefore due fall on me, by 
The hands of Romans ! 
Arv. So fay I ; Amen. 
Bel. No reafon I, fince of your lives you fet 
So flight a valuation, fliould refervc 
My crack'd one to more care. Have with you, boys : 

' If 


If in your country wars you chance to die, 
That is my bed too, lads, and there I'll lie : 
Lead, lead. The time feems long; their blood 
thinks fcorn, [Afide. 

'Till it fly out, and Ihcvv them princes born. 


A C T V. S C E N E I. 

A field, between tie Brltifo and Roman camps. 

Enter Pojlhumus, with a l bloody handkerchief* 

Pojl. 2 Yea, bloody cloth, I'll keep thee ; for I 

wifh'd ; 

Thou fhould'fl be colour'd thus. You married ones, 
If each of you would take this courfe, how many 
Mult murder wives much better than themfelves 

1 Moody handkerchief.] The bloody token of Imogen's 

death, which PSfanio in the foregoing a& determined to fend. 


a Tea, lloody cloth, &c.] This is a foliloquy of nature, utter- 
ed when the etfervefcence of a mind agitated and perturbed fpon- 
taueouily and inadvertently difcharges itfelf in words. The 
fpeech, throughout all its tenor, if the Lift conceit be excepted, 
icems to ifTue warm from the heart. lie firft condemns his own 
violence ; then tries to disburden himfelf, by imputing part of the 
crime to Pifanio ; he next fooths his mind to an artificial and mo- 
mentary tranquillity, by trying to think that he has been only an 
initrument of the gous for the happinefs of Imogen. He is now 
grown reafonable enough to determine, that having done fo much 
evil, he will do no more ; that he will not fight againft the coun- 
try which he has alieady injured ; but as life is not longer fup- 
portable, he will die in a juft caufe, and die with the oblcurity of 
a man who does not think hiinfelr worthy to be remembered. 

" / wj&V] The eld copy rvads I am ivijb'tl. 



304 C Y M B E L I N E. 

For wrying but a little 4 ? O, Pifanio ! 

Every good fervant does not all commands : 

No bond, but to do juft ones. Gods ! if you 

Should have ta'en vengeance on my faults, I nevcf 

Had liv'd 5 to put on this : fo had you faved 

The noble Imogen to repent ; and flruck 

Me, wretch, more worth your vengeance. But, alack, 

You fnatch fome hence for little faults ; that's love, 

To have them fall no more : you fome permit 

To fecond ills with ills, 6 each elder worfe ; 

7 And make them dread it, to the doers' thrift. 


* For wrying lut a little? ] This uncommon verb is like- 

wife ufed by Stanyhurft in the third book of his tranflation of Vir- 
gil, 1582: 

" the mayfters ivrye the veflels." 

Again, in Daniel's Cleopatra, 1599: 

" in her finking down, (he <wryes 

" The diadem. " STEEVENS. 

s to put on ] Is to incite, to inftigate. JOHNSON'. 

So, in Macbeth: " the powers above, 

" Put on their inftruments." 

* each elder <xorfc\\ For this reading all the later editors 

have contentedly taken, 

each worfe than other ; 

without enquiries whence they have received it. Yet they knew, 
or might know, that it has no authority. The original copy 

each elder worfe ; 

The laft deed is certainly not the oldeft, butShakefpeare calls the 
deed of an elder man an tlder deed. JOHNSON. 

each elder worfe ;] 5. e. where corruptions are, they grow with 
years, and the oldeft fmner is the greateft. You, Gods, permit 
fome to proceed in iniquity, and the older fuch are, the more 
their crime. TOLLET. 

7 And make them dread it, to tie docrt* thrift.] The diviniry- 
fchools have not furnifhed jufter obfervauons on the conduct of 
Providence, than Pofthumus gives us here in his private reflec- 
tions. You gods, fays he, aft in a different manner with your 
different creatures ; 

You fnatch fome hence for little faults ; that's love, 

To have them fall no more. 

Others, fays our poet, you permit to live on, to multiply and in- 
creafe in crimes ; 

And make them dread '.*'/, to the doers' thrift. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 3 o 5 

But Imogen is your own : ' Do your belt wills. 
And make me bleft to obey ! I am brought hither 
Among the Italian gentry, and to fight 
Againft my lady's kingdom : 'Tis enough 
That, Britain, I have kill'd thy miftrefs ; peace! 
I'll give no wound to chce. Therefore, good heavens, 
Hear patiently my purpoie : I'll difrobe me 
Of thefe Italian weeds, and fuit myfelf 

Here is a relative without an antecedent fubflantive; which is a 
breach of" grammar. We nuift certainly read : 

And make them dreaded, to the doers' thrift. 
i. e. others you permit to aggravate one crime with more ; which 
enormities not only make them revered and dreaded, but turn in 
other kinds to their advantage. Dignity, refpeft, and proiir, ac- 
crue to them from crimes committed with impunity. THEOBALD. 
This emendation is followed by Hanmer. Dr. Warburton 
reads, I know not whether by the printer's negligence, 

And make them dread, to the doers' thrift. 

There feems to be no very fatisfaclory fenfe yet offered. I read, 
but with helitation, 

And make them deeded, to the doers' thrift. 

The word deeded I know not indeed where to find ; but Shake- 
fpeare has, in another fenfe, undeeJed\n Macbeth: 

" my fvvord 

" I (heath again widetdcd" 
I will try again, and read thus : 

others you permit 

To feccr.d ills with ills, t-nch other -.vorie, 

And make them trade it, to the doers' thrift. 
TraJ: and thrift correfpond. Our author plays with trade, as it 
fiwniiies a lucrative vocation, or a frequent practice. So Ifabella 
fays : 

" Thy fin's, not accidental, but a traJc" JOHNSON. 

However ungrammatkal, 1 believe the old reading is the true 

one. To make them dread It is to make them pcrfevere in the com- 

7>; : '"on of dreadful aSllcns. Dr. Johnfon has obferved on a paiTage 

in Hamlet, that Pope and Rows have not refufed this mode of 

IpeSikiflg : " Tojinner it or/a/;./ //" ^ and " to coy //." 


1 Do your bell w/7/.f, 

i >naks me biejl /' cley ! ] So the copies. It was more 
in tlic manner of our nmlu,r to have written, 

- Do your blcjl wills, 

And make me bleft t' obev. JOHNSON", 

VOL. IX. X As 


As does a Briton peafant : fo I'll fight 

AgaLnfl the part 1 come with ; fo I'll die 

For thee, O Imogen, even for whom my life 

Is, every breath, a death : and thus, unknown, 

Pity'cl nor hated, to the face of peril 

Myfelf I'll dedicate. Let me make men know 

More valour in me than my habits fhow. . 

Gods, put the ilrength o'the Leonati in me ! 

To fhame the guife o'the world, I will begin 

The faihion, lefs without, and more within. [Erf/. 


Enter Lucius, lachimo, and the Roman army at one 
door ; and the Brltijh army at another ; Leonatus 
Pojlhumus following it like a poor foldier. They 
march over^ and go out. Then enter again inJkJrtntfb 
lachimo and Pqft humus : he vanquijheth and difarmeth 
and then leaves /.'/;/. . 

lach. The heavinefs, and guilt, within my boforn 
Takes off my manhood : I have bely'd a lady, 
The princcfs of this country, and the air on't 
Revengingly enfeebles me; Or could this carle ', 
A very drudge of nature's, have fubdu'd me, 
In my profeffion ? Knighthoods and honours, borne 
As I wear mine, are titles but of fcorn. 
If that thy gentry, Britain, go before 
This lout, as he exceeds our, lords, the odds 
Is, that we fcarce are men, and you arc gods. [Exit. 

* - tlh carle,] Carle is ufed by our old writers in oppo- 
lition to a penile >i:an. See the poem of John tie Kcc-re. 


Carlct is a word of the fame {ignincntion', and occurs in our au- 
thor's As you like 'it. Again, in an- nncient interhuit or me, . 
printed by Raficll, without title or date. 

" A carlys fonne, brought up of nought." 
The thought ftems to have bevn imitated in Pbllajlcr: 

" The gods take part cr/ninlt ine ; coukl this boor 
* Have held me thus die r" STLHVK.NS. 


*?ke battle continues ; the Britons fly ; Cymbeline is taken : 
then enter to bis refine, Belarius, Guiderius, and 

Bel. Stand, ftand ! We have the advantage of the 

ground ; 

The lane is guarded : nothing routs us, but 
The villainy of our fears. 

Guid. Arv. Stand, fland, and fight ! 

Enter Pojlbumus, and feconds the Britons. They refcut 

Cymbeline, and Exeunt. 
Then, enter Lucius, lacbimo, and Imogen. 

Luc. Away, boy, from the troops, and fave thy- 

felf : 

For friends kill friends, and the diforder's fuch 
As war were hood-wink'd. 

lack. 'Tis their frefh fupplies. 

Lnc. It is a day turn'd ftrangely : Or betimes 
Let's re-inforce, or fly. [Exeunt. 


Another part of tbe field. 

Enter Pojlbumus, and a Briti/li Lord. 

Lord. Cam'ft thou from where they made the (land ? 

Pojl. I did : 
Though you, it feems, come from the fliers. 

Lord. I did. 

PC/?. No blame be to you, fir ; for all was loft, 
But that the heavens fought : The king himfelf 
Of his wings deftitute, the army broken, 
And but the backs of Britons feen, all flying 
Through a ftrait lane ; the enemy full-hearted, 
Lolling the tongue with flaughterint>-, having work 
More plentiful than tools to do't, ftruck down 

X 2 Some 


Some mortally, fome flightly touch'd, feme falling; 
Merely through fear ; that the ftrait pafs was dammed 
With dead men, hurt behind, and cowards living 
To die with lengthen'd fhame. 

Lord. Where was this lane ? 

Poft. Clofeby the battle, ditch'd, and wall'd with 


Which gave advantage to an ancient foldier, 
An honeft one, I warrant ; who deferv'd 
So long a breeding, as his white beard came to, 
In doing this for his country ; athwart the lane, 
He, with two ftriplings, (lads more like to run 
4 The country bafe, than to commit fuch flaughter ; 
With faces fit for maiks, or rather fairer 
Than thofe s for prefer vaticn cas'd, or fhame) 


3 Clofe ly the lattk, S:c.] The flopping of the Roman army by 
three perfons, is an alkifion to the lioryof the Hays, as related by 
Holinftied in his Hljlory of Scotland, p. 155 : " There was neere 
to the place of the battell, a long lane fenied on the fides with 
ditches and walles made of turfe, through the which the Scots 
which fled were beaten downe by the enemies on heapes. 

" HereHaie with his fonnes fuppofing they might beft ftaie 
the fight, placed themlelves overthwart the lane, bea^t them backc 
whom they met fleeing, and fpared neither friend nor fo ; but 
d'y.vne they went all fuch as came within their reach, wherewith 
divers hardie perfonagcs cried unto their fellcwes to returne backe 
unto the buttell, &c." 

It appears from Peck's New Memoirs &c. article 88, that 
Milton intended to have written a play on this fubjeft. 

* fie country Infc^ - ] i. e. A rultic game called pr:fon-bars t 
vulgarly prifou-bafe. So, in the Tragedy ,\ 1632. 

" - I'll run a little courfe 
" At bafc or barley -break - " 
Again, in the Antipodes, 1638 : 

" - my men can run at lafe." 
Again, in the ^cth Song of Dray ton's Polyolbion : 

" At hood-wink, barley-brake, at tick, or prifon-bafe. 
Again, in Spenfcr's Fairy ^urcn^ B. 5. c. 8. 

** So ran they all as they had been at lace" STEEVENS. 
5 -- for preferi'atioH caSeJ, or fliame).] Sbctrr.c for mu- 
defiy . W A n u u R r o r: . 


C Y M B E L I N E. <p 9 

Made good the paflagc ; cry'd to thofe that fled, 

Our Britain's harts diefylng^ not our men : 

To darknefs fleet, fouls that fly backwards ! Stand ; 

Or we are Romans, and will give you that 

Like b softs, which you foun biaftly ; and -may (live, 

But to look back in frown : jland, jhnd. Thefe three, 

Three thoufand confident, in ad: as many, 

(For three performers are the file, when all 

The reft do nothing) with this word, ftand, fiand, 

Accommodated by the place, more charming 

With their own noblcnefs, (which could have turn'd 

A diftaffto a lance) gilded pale looks, 

Part, lhame, part, fpirit renew'd ; that fome, turn'd 


But by example (O, a (in in xvar, 
Damn'd in the firft beginners !) 'gan to look 
The way that they did, and to grin like lions 
Upon the pikes o' the hunters. Then began 
A flop i'the chafer, a retire ; anon, 
6 A rout, confufion thick : Forthwith, they fly 
Chickens, the way which they ftoop'd eagles; flaves, 
The ftrides they victors made : And now our cowards, 
(Like fragments in hard voyages, became 
The life o'the need) having found the back-door open 

Sir T. Hanmer reads the paflage thus : 
Than fome for preservation cas'd. 


Make good the fajjagf, cry'd to thofa that fled, 
Our Britain's harts die flying, &c. 
Theobald's reading is right. JOHNSON. 

6 A rout, confnjion thick : ] This is read as if it was a thick 

confufion, and o'nly another term for rout: whereas conftejion-tblck 
fliouid be read thus, with an hyphen, and is a very beautiful 
compound epithet to rout. But Shakefpeare's fine diction is not a 
little obicured throughout by thus disfiguring his compound ad- 
jeftives. WARBURTOV. 

1 do not fee what great addition is made to fine J'i8iM by this 
compound. Is it no.t as natural to enforce the principal event in 
a ftory by repetition, as to enlarge the principal figure in a pifture ? 


X 3 Of 

3io C Y M B E L I N E. 

Ot the unguarded hearts, Heavens, how they wound! 
Some, fiain before ; fome, dying ; fome, their friends 
O'cr-borne i' the former wave : ten, chac'd by one, 
Are now each one the {laughter-man of twenty : 
Thofe, that would die or ere refill, are grown 
The mortal 7 bugs o' the field. 

Lord. This was flrange chance : 
A narrow lane ! an old man,, and two boys ! 

Pqft. 8 Nay, do not wonder at it : You are made 
Rather to wonder at the things you hear, 
Than to work any. Will you rhime upon't, 
And vent it for a mockery ? Here is one : 
Two boys, an old man twice a boy, a lane-, 
Preferv'd the Britons, was the Romans'" bane. 

Lord. Nay, be not angry, fir. 

Pqft. 'Lack, to what end ? 
Who dares not {land his foe, I'll be his friend : 
For if he'll do, as he is made to do, 
I know, he'll quickly fly my friendfhip too. 
You have put me into rhime. 

Lord. Farewel ; you are angry. [Exit, 

7 lugs ] Terrors. JOHNSON. 

So in the The Spanifi Tragedy, 1605 : 

" Where nought but tunes', lugs, and tortures dwell." 
So in the Battle of Alcazar, i 1^94. : 
*' Is Amurath Bafla fuch a bug, 
" That he is mark'd to do this doughty deed ?" 
Again : 

" And (hall we be afraid of baffr.s, and of lugs ?" 
Again, in Sclimus Emperor of the Turks, 1638: 

*"' He brings with him that great Egyptian lug, 
" Strong Tonombey." STEEVENS. 

8 Nay, do not wonder at it: ] Sure, this is mock reafoning 

with a vengeance. What ! becauie he was made fitter to wonder 
at great actions, than to perform any, he is therefore forbid to 
xvondcr ? Not and but are perpetually miftaken for one another in 
the old editions. THEOBALD. 

There is no need of alteration. Poflhumns firft bids him not 
Bonder, then tells him in another mode of reproach, that wonder 
js all that he was made for. JOHNSON. 



Poft. Still going ? This is a lord ! O noble 

mifery ! 

To be i' the field, and afk, what news, of me ! 
To-day, how many would have given their honours 
To have fav'd their carcafles ? took heel to do't, . 
And yet died too ? 9 I, in mine own woe charm 'd, 
Could not find death, where I did hear him groan ; 
Nor feel him, where he ftruck : Being an ugly 


'Tis ftrange, he hides him in frefh cups, foft beds, 
Sweet words ; or hath more minifters than we 
That draw his knives i' the war. Well, I will find 

him : 

For, being now a l favourer to the Roman, 
No more a Briton, I have refum'd again 
The part I came in : Fight I will no more, 
But yield me to the verieft hind, that fhall 
Once touch my Ihoulder. Great the llaughter is 

9 ; - /, in mlxc-ffiivn ctw warm' (/,] Alluding to the com- 
mon luperltition ot charms bein powerful enough to keep men 
unhurt in battle. It was derived from our Saxon anceftors, and 
and fo is common to us with the Germans, who are above all 
other people given to this fuperftition ; which made Erafmus, 
where, in his Moria Encomium, he gives to each nation its pro- 
per charaderiftic, fay, *' Germani corporum proceritate &magiae 
cognitione fibi placent." And Prior, in his Alma: 
" North Britons hence have feccnd light ; 
" And Germans free from gux-Jhct fjjnt* WAR BTTR TON. 
See a note on Macbeth^ aft V. fc. ulr. . So in Drayton's 
ffymphidia : 

Their ficonds minlflcr an oath 
Which ivas Indifferent to them both, 
That, on their knightly faith and troth^ 

No mdgic them fiippUed', 
And fought them that they had no charms 
Wherewith to work each other's harms , 
But c.ime -ncith Jimple open arms 

To have their cdvfes tried. SrEEVENS. 

1 favourtr to the Roman,] The editions before Hanmer's 
for Roman read Briton j and Dr. Warburton reads Briton ftill. 


312 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Here made by the Roman ; * great the anfwer be 
Britons muil take : For me, my ranfom's death ; 
On either fide I come to fpend my breath ; 
Which neither here I'll keep, nor bear again, 
But end it by ibme means for Imogen. 

Enter two BritJjJj Captains, and Soldiers. 

1 Cap. Great Jupiter be prais'd ! Lucius is taken : 
'Tis thought, the old man and his fons were angels. 

2 Cap. There was a fourth man, in a filly habit 3 , 
f That gave the affront with them. 

i Cap. So 'tis reported ; 

But none of them can be found. Stand ! Who's 
there ? 

Poft. A Roman ; 

Who had not now been drooping here, if feconds 
Had anfwer'd him. 

2. Cap. Lay hands on him ; A dog ! 
A leg of Rome ihall not return to tell 
What crows have peck'd them here : He brags his 

As if he were of note : bring him to the king. 

* "great the anfwer le\ Anfixer^ as once in this play be- 
fore, is retaliation. JOHNSON. 

3 a iilly habit.] Silly is Jtmpk or rttftic. So in K. Lear : 

twenty Jilly ducking obfervants STEEVENS. 

* That gave the affront with them. That is, that turned their 
faces to the enemy. JOHNSON. 

So, in Ben Jonfon's Alcbymift : 

" To day thou flialt have ingots, and to-morrow 
" Give lords the affront" STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 313 

Enter Cymbeline, Belarius, Guiderhis, Arvlragus, Pifanio, 
and Roman captives. 'The captains prefent Pojlhumus 
to Cymbeline , who delivers him over to a gaoler 2 
after which, all go out. 


Enter Pojlhv.nms^ and t-vo Gaolers. 

1 Gaol. 5 You fhall not now be flolen, you have 

locks upon you ; 
So, graze, as you find patfure. 

2 Gaol Ay, or a ftomach. [Exeunt Gaolers. 
Poft. Moft welcome, bondage ! for thou art a way, 

I think, to liberty : Yet am I better 

Than one that's fide o' the gout ; fince he had rather 

Groan fo in perpetuity, than be cur'd 

By the fure phyfician, death ; who is the key 

To unbar thefe locks. My conference ! thou art 

More than my fhanks, and wrifls : You good gods, 

give me 

The penitent inftrument, to pick that bolt, 
Then, free for ever ! Is't enough, I am forry ? 
So children temporal fathers do appeafe ; 
Gods arc more full of mercy. Muft I repent ? 
I cannot do it better than in gyves, 
Defir'd, more than conftrain'd : 6 to fatisfy, 


5 Youfoallnot WK.V le Jlokn^ ] This wit of the goaler al- 

lodes to the cuftom of putting a lock on a horfc's leg, when he is 
turned to pafture. JOHNSON. 

6 tofatisfy, 

If of my freedom 'tis the main party take 

C Y M B E L I N E. 

If of my freedom 'tis the main part, take 

No ftriclcr render of me, than my all. 

I know, you are more clement than vile men, 

Who of their broken debtors take a third, 

A iixth, a tenth, letting them thrive again 

On their abatement; that's not my defirc : 

For Imogen's dear life, ta^e mine ; and though 

'Tis not ib dear, yet 'tis a life ; you coin'd it : 

'Tvveen man and man, they weigh not every'ftamp; 

Though light, take pieces for the figure's fake ; 

You rather mine, being yours : And ib, great powers, 

If you will-take this audit, take this life, 

And cancel thefe 7 cold bonds. O Imogen ! 

I'll fpeak to thee in iilence. [He Jlecps. 

"No Jirltffr render of me, than my all.] What we can difcover 
from the nonfenfe of theie lines is, that the fpeaker, in a fit of 
penitency, compares his circumftances with a debtor's, who is 
willing to furrender up all to appeafe his creditor. This being 
the fenfe in general, I may venture to fay, the true reading mult 
have been this : 

; to fatisfy, 

I d'ojfmy freedom ; 'tis the main part ; take 

No ftri&er render of me than my all. 

The verb d y off'\s too frequently ufed by our author to need any 
inflances ; and is here employed with peculiar elegance, 5. e. To 
give all the fatisfadtion I am able to your offended godheads, I 
voluntarily divert myfelf of my freedom : 'tis the only thing I 
have to atone with ; 

. take 

No ftricter render of me, than my all. WAR BUR TON. 
Pofthumus queftions whether contrition be fufficient atonement 
for guilt. Then, to fatisfy the offended gods, he defires them to 
take no more than his prefent all, that is, his life, if it is the 
main part, the chief point, or principal condition ot his freedom, 
i. e. of his freedom from future ptinifhment. This interpretation 
appears to be warranted by the former part of the fpeech. The 
Rerifal is juilly levere on the inconfiftency of Dr. VVarburton's 
correction. STEEVENS. 

7 cMbomh.- ] This equivocal ufe of bonds is another 

inftance of our author's infelicity in pathetic fpeeches. JOHNSON. 

* Solemn 

C Y M B E L I N E. 315 

* Solemn mufick. Enter, as In an apparition, Sicilius 
Leonatus, father to Pofthumus, an old man, attired 
like a warrior ; leading in his hand an ancient matron, 
his wife, and mother to Pofthumus, with mufick before 
them. Then, after other mufick, follow the two young 
Leonati, brothers to Pofthumus, with wounds as they 
died in the wars. They circle Poflhumus round, as be 

Sici. No more, thou thunder-mafter, fhew 

Thy fpite on mortal flies : 
With Mars fall out, with Juno chide, 

That thy adulteries 
Rates, and revenges. 
Hath my poor boy done ought but well, 

Whofe face I never faw ? 
I dy'd, whilft in the womb he ftay'd, 
Attending Nature's law, 

3 Solemn mujick,&.c.~\ Here follow a vlfon, a msfqiie, and a pro* 
fbcfy, which interrupt the fable without the leaft neceffity, and 
unmeafurably lengthen this aft. I think it plainly foiftcd in. 
afterwards for mere fhow, and apparently not of Shakefpeare. 


Every reader muft be of the fame opinion. The fubfequent 
narratives of Pofthumus, which render this rnafque, &c. unnecef- 
fary, (or perhaps the fcenical directions fupplieu by the poet hini- 
felf) feem to have excited fome manager of a theatce to difgrace 
the play by the prefent metrical interpolation. Shakefpeare, 
who has conducted his fifth aft with fuch matchlefs ikill, could 
never have defigned thevifion to be twice defcribed by Pofthumus, 
had this contemptible nonfenfe been previoufly delivered on the 
flage. The following pafikge from Dr. Farmer's Eftay will fliew that 
it was no unufual thing for the players to indulge themfelves iu 

making additions equally unjuilifiable. " Vv 7 e have a fufficient 

inftance of the liberties taken by the adlors, in an old pamphlet, 
by Nafh, called Lenten Stuffs, with the frayfc of the red Herring, 
410. 1599, where he aflures us, that in a play of his called The 
JJle of Dogs, foure atfs, without his con fen t, or the leaft guefs of 
|us drift or fcope, were fupplicd by th,e players." STEEVKXS. 


$i6 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Whofe father then (as men report, 

Thou orphan's father art) 
Thou fhould'it have been, and fhielded him 

From this earth-vexing fmart. 
Moth. Lucina lent not me her aid, 

But took me in my throes ; 
9 That from me was Pofthumus ripr, 
Came crying 'monglt his foes,. 
A thing of pity ! 
Sid. Great nature, like his anceftry, 

Mpulded the fluff fo fair, 
That he deferv'd the praife o' the world, 

As great SiciHus' heir, 
i Bro. When once he was mature for man, 

In Britain where was he 
That could ftand up his parallel ; 

Or fruitful object be 
JEn eye of Imogen, that beft 

Could deem his dignity ? 
Moth. With marriage wherefore was he mock'd, 

TO be e^il'd, and thrown 
prom Leonati' feat, and cafl 

From her his dcarcft one, 
Sweet Imogen ? 
Ski. Why did you fuffcr lachimo, 

Slight thing of^Italy, 
To taint his nobler heart and brain 

With needlefs jealoufy ; 

And to become the gcck and fcorn 

O' the other's villainy ? 

9 That from me my Pojt humus ript, ] The old copy reads : 

That from me was Pollhumus ript. 
Perhaps we fliould read, 

That from my womb Pofthumus ripr, 

Came crying 'mongft his foes. JOH Msor*. 
This circumftance is met with in the Devil's Charter, 1607. 
The play of Cymldine did not appear in print till 1623 : 
" What would 'ft thou run again into my womb ? 
'* If thou wert there, thou fhould'it he Pojlbumu^ 
** Aud ript out of my fides, &c." SIEBVENB. 

C Y M B E L I N E. 317 

2 Pro. For this, from fliller feats we came, 

Our parents, and us twain, 
That, ftriking in our country's caufe, 

Fell bravely, and were ilain ; 
Our fealty, and Tenantius' right, 

With honour to maintain. 

1 Bro. Like hardiment Pofthumus hath 
To Cymbeline perform'd : 

Then, Jupiter, thou king of gods, 
Why halt thou thus adjourn'd 
The graces for his merits due ; 

Being all to dolours turn'd ? 
Sici. Thy chryftal window ope j look out; 

No longer exercife, 
Upon a valiant race, thy harfh 

And potent injuries : 
Moth. Since, Jupiter, our fon is good, 

Take off his miferies. 
Sid. Peep through thy marble manfion ; help ! 

Or we poor ghofls will cry 
To the ihining fynod of the reft, 
Againft thy deity. 

2 Broth. Help, Jupiter ; or we appeal, 

And from thy juftice fly. 

Jupiter defcends l in thunder and lightning, Jilting upon an 
eagle : he throws a thunder -bolt. The ghqfts fall on 
their knees. 

1 Jupiter defcendi ] It nppears from Acolaftus, a comedy 

by T. Palfgrave, chaplain to K. Henry VIII. bl. 1. i ^29, that 
the defcent of deities was common to our ilage in its earlieft ftate. 
" Of whyche the lyke thyngis ufed to be fhewed now a days in 
ftage-plaies, when fome God or fome Saynt is made to appere 
forth of a cloude, and fuccoureth the panics which iemed to be 
towardes fome great danger, through the Soudan's crueltie." 
The author, for fear this clelcription fliould not be fuppofed to ex- 
tend itfelf to our theatres, adds in a marginal note, " the lyke 
jnaner ufed nowe at our thvs in fcage playes." S TEEVENS. 

3i8 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Jupit. No more, you petty fpirits of region low, 

Offend our hearing ; hufh! How dare you ghofts, 
Accufe the thunderer, whofe bolt you know, 

Sky-planted, batters all rebelling coafts ? 
Poor ihadows of Elyfium, hence ; and reft 

Upon your never-withering banks of flowers : 
Be not with mortal accidents oppreft ; 

No care of yours it is; you know, 'tis ours. 
Whom beft I love, I crofs ; to make my gift, 

The more delay'd, delighted. Be content ; 
Your low-laid ion our godhead will uplift ; 

His comforts thrive, his trials well are fpenr. 
Our Jovial ftar reign'cl at his birth, and in 

Our temple was he married. Rife, and fade ! 
He fhall be lord of lady Imogen, 

And happier much by his affliction made. 
This tablet lay upon his breaft ; wherein 

Our plealure his full fortune doch confine ; 
And fo, away : no farther with your din 

Exprefs impatience, left you ftir up mine.^- 

Mount eagle, to my palace chryftalline. \_Afcends. 

Sid. He came in thunder; his cclcftial breath 
Was fulphurons to fmell : the holy eagle 
Sroop'd, as to foot us : his afcenfion is 
More fweet than our bleft fields : his royal bird 
Prunes the immortal wing % and 3 cloys his beak, 
As when his god is pleas'd. 


"* Prunes the immortal ivlng^ - ] A birdisfaid to prune him- 
felf when he clears his feathers from fuperfluities. So in Dray- 
ton's Polyolbion, Song I. 

44 Some, fitting on the beach to prune their painted breafts." 


3 cloys bis leak,] Perhaps we fliould read, 

claws his beak. T Y R w H i T T . 

A cly is the fame with a daiv in old language. FARMER. 
So in Gower, De ConfcJJione Amantis, lib. iv. fol. 69 : 
" And as a catte wold etc fiflies 
44 Without wctynge of his dca" 


C Y M B E L I N E. 319 

All Thanks, Jupiter! 

Sid. The marble pavement clofes, he is enter'd 
His- radiant roof : Away ! and, to be bleft 
Let us with care perform his great beheft. [Vani/h. 

Poft. [waking.~\ Sleep, thou haft been a grandfire, 

and begot 

A father to me : and then haft created 
A mother, and two brothers : But (O fcorn !) 
Gone ! they went hence fo foon as they were born. 

And fo I am awake. Poor wretches, that depend 

On greatnefs' favour, dream as I have done ; 

Wake, and find nothing. But, alas, I fwerve : 

Many dream not to find, neither defervc, 

And yet are fteep'd in favours ; fo am 1, 

That have this golden chance, and know not why. 

What fairies haunt this ground ? A book ? O, rare 


Be not, as is our fangled world, ?. garment 
Nobler than that it covers : let thy effects 
So follow, to be mod unlike our courtiers, 
As good as pro mile-. 

[ Reads ] . 

li' as a lionsvjbelpfodl, to binfdj' unkiic^;,], ivltl- 
cut feeking find, and he embraced by a piece of tender air ; 
and zcbtii from a Jlciel; ..'/ le Icpt branches, 

Zi' frith, being i .ill after revive, be 

jointed to the old Jlock^ and fref,. ly grozv ; then Jhall Poft- 
bumus end his miferies, Britain be fortunate, andfaurijk 
in peace and plenty. 

Again, in Ben Jonfon's Underwoods: 

" from the feize 

" Of vulture death and thofe relentlefs cleys." 
Barrett, in his Ai-i-earie, 1580, fpeaks " of a difeafe in cat- 
tell betwixt the dees of their feete." And in the Eock of ' Hav:k- 
iftg, &c. hi 1. no date, under the article Pounces, it is laid, 
" The dels within the ibte ye (hall call aright her pounces." To 
cl&iv their beaks, is an accuitcmed adion \\ith hawks and eagles. 



320 C Y M B E L I N E. 

4 'Tis ftill a dream ; or elfe fuch fluff as madmen 
Tongue, and brain not: either both, or nothing: 
Or fenfelefs fpeaking, or a fpeaking fuch 
As fenfe cannot untie. Be what it is, 
The action of my life is like it, which 
I'll keep if but for fympathy. 

Re-enter Gaolers. 

Gaol. Come, fir, are you ready for death ? 

Pojl. Over-roaftcd rather : ready long ago. 

Gaol Hanging is the word, fir ; if you be ready 
for that, you are well cook'd. 

Pq/L So, if I prove a good repaft to the fpeclators, 
the difh pays the ihot. 

Gaol. A heavy reckoning for you, fir : But the 
comfort is, you lhall be call'd to no more payments, 
fear no more tavern bills ; which arc often the fadnefs 
of parting, as the procuring of mirth : you come in 
faint for want of meat, depart reeling with too much 
drink ; forry that you have paid too much, s and forrv 


4 ""Tisjlill a dream ; or elfe fuch Jlvjf as nuiamcn 
Tongue, and brain not do either both, or nothing > 
Or fenfelefs freaking, or a fpcaltiu-s 

j^s fenfe cannot untie. J The obfcurity of this paflage 

ar'ifes from part of it being fpoke 0/"the prophefy, and part to ir. 
This writing on the tablet (lays he) is lull a dream, or elfe the 
raving of madnefs. Do thou, O tablet, cither both or nothing ; 
either let thy words and fenfe go together, or be thy bofom a rafo 
tabula. As'the words now ftandthey arc nonfenfe, or at leaft in- 
volve in them a fenfe which I cannot develope. WARBURTON. 

The meaning, which is too thin to be ealily caught, I take to 
be this : 7 bis is a dream or madnefs, or both or nothing but whe- 
ther it be a fpeech without confcioufucj}, as in a ciream, or a fpeech 
unintelligible, as in madnefs, be it as it is, it is like my courfe of 
life. We might perhaps read, 

Whether both, or nothing JOHN-SON. 

The word Jo is inferted unneceflarily by Dr. Warburton, both 
in his text and his note. It is not in the old copy. STEEVEXS. 

s . a ml forry that you are paid too mvch ; ] Tavern bills, 

fays the goaler, are the fadnefs of parting, as the procuring of 
mirth you iff part reeling TV.-'/ 6 too mttck (!fink ; forry that you have 
paid too Hivcb, and what ? forry that you are paid too much. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 321 

that you are paid too much ; purfe and brain both 
empty : the brain the heavier, for being too light ; 
the purfe too light, being drawn ' of hcavinefs : O ! 
of this contradiction you fhall now be quit.- O, the 
charity of a penny cord ! it fums up thoufands in a 
trice : you have no true * debitor and creditor but it ; 
of what's paft, is, and to corne, the difcharge : 
Your neck, fir, is pen, book, and counters ; fo the 
acquittance follows. 

Poft. 1 am merrier to die, than thou art to live. 

Gaol. Indeed, fir, he that fleeps feels n9t the 
tooth-ach : But a man that were to fleep your fleep, 
and a hangman to help him to bed, I think, he would 
change places with his officer : for, look you, fir, 
you know not which way you fhall go. 

Poft. Yes, indeed, do I, fellow. 

Gaol. Your death has eyes in's head then ; I have 
not feen him fo pictur'd : you muft either be directed 
by fome that take upon them to know ; or take upon 
yourfelf that, which I am fure you do not know ; 

Where is the oppofition ? I read, jfnd merry that you are paid fo 
much. I take the fecond paid to be 'paid, for appaid, filled, fa* 
tiated. JOHNSON. 

forty that you have paid too much, andforry that you are paid 

too mmh; ] i. e. forry that you have paid too much out 

of your pocket, and forry that you are paid, orjubdued, too much 
by the liquor. So Falftaff; 

" feven of the eleven I payd." 

The fume conceit is in the and part of Decker's Htneji JFJjortj 

" You are /*/</? 
Yes, fir, 

" So fhall fome of us be anon, I fear." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's 7jd Epigram. 

" For which or pay me quickly, or Y\\ pay you." 
Again in the fifth fcene of the fourth adt of the Merry ff^-vts of 
Windfor. STEEVENS. 

1 -being drawn of heavinffi ;;] Drawn is embtKueWd, exen- 
terated. So in common language a fowl is laid to be drawn when 
its inteftines are taken out. STEEVENS. 

* debitor end creditor] For an accounting look. 


VOL. IX. Y or 


or 'jump the after-cnqviiry on your own peril: and 
how you (hall fpeed in your journey's end, I think, 
you'll never return to tell one. 

Pojl. I tell thee, fellow, there are none want eyes, 
to direct them the way I am going, but fuch as wink., 
and will not ufe them. 

Gaol. What an infinite mock is this, that a man 
fhould have the beft ufe of eyes, to fee the way of 
blindnefs ! I am fure, hanging's the way of winking, 

Enter a Meffenger. 

Mcf. Knock off his manacles ; bring your prifoncr 
to the king. 

Pojl. Thou bring'ft good news ; I am call'd to be 
made free. 

Gaol. I'll be hang'd then. 

Pojl. Thou flialt be then freer than a gaoler ; no 
bolts for the dead. [Exeunt Pofthumus y and Mcfjenger. 

Gaol. Unlefs a man would marry a gallows, and 
beget young gibbets, 4 I never faw one fo prone. 
Yet, on my conlcience, there are verier knaves dciire 
to live,, for all he be a Roman : and there be feme of 
them too, that die againft their wills \ fo mould I, if 
I were one. I would we were all of one mind, and 
one mind good ; O, there were defolation of gaolers, 
and gallowfes ! I fpeak againit my prefent profit ; but 
my wiih hath a preferment in't. [Exit. 

3 jump the after-enquiry ] That is, venture at it with- 
out thought. So Macbeth : 

" We'd jump the Hfe to come." JOHNSON. 

* 1 never faiu one Jo prone. ] i. e. forward. In this 

fenfe the word is ufed iu Wilfride Holme's poem, entitled The Fall 
4nd evil Succefs of Rebellion^ &e. 1537: 

" Thus lay they in Doncafter, with curtal and ferpentine, 
'* With bombard and baiilifk, with men prone and vigorous." 
Again in Sir A. Gorges' tranfiation of the fixth book of Lucan : 

" Theflalian fierie fteeds 

* * For ufe of war to prone and fit." STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N . 323 


Cynibellnes tent. 

Enter Cymbetine; "Belarius, Guiderius, drviragus, Pifanw^ 
and Lords. 

Cym. Stand by my fide, you, whom the gods have 


Prefervers of my throne. Woe is my heart, 
That the poor ibldier, that ib richly fought, 
Whofe rags ftiam'd gilded arms, whofe naked breaft 
Stept b'efore targe of proof, cannot be found : 
He fhall be happy that can find him, if 
Our grace can make him fo. 

Bel. I never faw 

Such noble fury in fo poor a thing ; 
Such precious deeds in 6 one that promis'd nought 


5 Scene V.] Let thofe who talk fo confidently about the fkill 
of Shakefpeare's contemporary, Jonfon, point out the conclufioil 
of any one of his plays which is wrought with more artifice, and 
yet a lefs degree of dramatic violence than this. In the fcene be- 
fore, us, all the furviving characters are aifembled ; and at the ex- 
pence of whatever incongruity the former events may have been 
produced, perhaps little can be difcovered on this occafion to of- 
fend the moft fcrupulous advocate for regularity : and, I think, 
as little is found wanting to fatisfy the fpectator by a catallrophe 
which is intricate without confufion, and not more rich in orna- 
ment than in nature. STEEVENS. 

6 onc that promifd nought 

But leggary and poor looks. But how can it be faid, that one, 
whofe poor looks promife beggary, promifed poor looks too ? It was 
not the poor look which was promifed ; that was vifible. We rauft 
read : 

But beggary and poor luck. 

This fets the matter right, and makes Belarius fpeak fenfe and to 
thepurpofe. For there was the extraordinary thing; he promifed 
nothing but feor luck : and yet performed all thefe wonders. 


Y* To 

3 24 C Y M B E L I N E. 

But beggary and poor looks. 

Gym. No tidings of him ? 

Pif. He hath been fearch'd among the dead and! 

But no trace of him. 

Cym. To my grief, I am 
The heir of his reward ; which I will add 
To you, the liver, heart, and brain of Britain, 

[To Belarius, Gulderius^ and Arviragus* 
By whom, I grant, flie lives : 'Tis now the time 
To afk of whence you are : report it. 

Bel. Sir, 

In Cambria are we born, and gentlemen : 
Further to boaft, were neither true nor modeft, 
Unlefs I add, we are honeft. 

Cym. Bow your knees : 
Arife my knights o' the battle 7 ; I create you 
Companions to our perfon, and will fit you 
With dignities becoming your eftates. 

Enter Cornelius, and Ladies. 

There's bufmefs in thefe faces : Why fo fadly 
Greet you our victory ? you look like Romans,, 
And not o' the court of Britain. t 

Cor. Hail, great king ! 
To four your happinefs, I muft report 
The queen is dead. 

Cym. Whom worfe than a phyfician 
Would this report become ? But I confider, 
By medicine life may be prolonged, yet death 
Will feize the doctor too. How ended flie ? 

To promife nothing but poor looks, may be, to give no promife 
of courageous behaviour. JOHNSON. 
So in K. Rub. II. 

** To look fo poorly and to fpeak fo fair." STEEVENS. 

7 knights o* the battle; } Thus in Stowe's Chronicle, 

p. 164, edit. 1615: *' Philip of France ir.ade Arthur Plantagenec 
knight of the felde." STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 325 

Cor. With horror, madly dying, like her life; 
Which, being cruel to the world, concluded 
Moft cruel to herfelf. What fhe confefs'd, 
I will report, fo pleafe you : Thefe her women 
Can trip me, if I err ; who, with wet cheeks, 
W^ere prefent when fhe finifh'd. 

Cym. Pr'ythee, fay. 

Cor. Firft, fhe confefs'd fhe never lov'd you ; only 
Affected greatnefs got by you, not you : 
Married your royalty, was wife to your place ; 
Abhorr'd your perfon. 

Cym. She alone knew this : 
And, but Ihe fpoke it dying, I would not 
Believe her lips in opening it. Proceed. 

Cor. Your daughter, whom {he bore in hand to love 
With fuch integrity, Ihe did confefs 
Was as a fcorpion to her fight ; whofe life, 
But that her flight prevented it, Ihe had 
Ta'en off by poifon. 

Cym. O mofl delicate fiend ! 
Who is't can read a woman ? Is there more ? 

Cor. More, fir, and worfe. She did confefs, fUe 


For you a mortal mineral ; which, being took. 
Should by the minute feed on life, and, ling'ring, 
By inches wafte you : In which time Ihe purpos'd, 
By watching, weeping, tendance, kiffing, to 
O'ercome you with her fhew : yes, and in time, 
(When ihe had fitted you with "her craft) to work 
Her fon into the adoption of the crown. 
But failing of her end by his flrange abfence, 
Grew fhamelefs-defperate ; open'd, in defpight 
Of heaven and men, her purpofes ; repented 
The ills Ihe hatch'd were not effected ; fo, 
Pefpairing, dy'd. 

Cym. Heard you all this, her women ? 

Lady. We did, fo pleafe your highnefs. 

Cym. Mine eyes 

Y 3 Were 

326 C Y M B E L I N E r 

Were not in fault, for ihe was beautiful ; 

Mine ears, that heard her flattery ; nor my heart, 

That thought her like her feeming ; it had been 


To have miftruiied her : yet, O my daughter ! 
That it was folly in me, thou may'ft fay, 
And prove it in thy feeling. Heaven mend all ! 

JLnter Lucius, lad'tmo, and other Roman +r fivers ; 
Pofthwnus behind, and //.<; 

Thou com'it not, Caius, now for tribute ; that 
The Britons have raz'ti out, though with the lofs 
Of many a bold one ; whofe kinfmcn have made fuir, 
That their good fouls may be appeas'd with (laughter 
Of you their captives, which ourfelf have granted : 
So, think of your eftate. 

Luc. Confider, fir, the chance of war : the day 
Was yours by accident ; had it gone with us, 
We fhould not, when the blood was cold, have 


Our prifoners with the fvvord. But fince the gods 
Will have it thus, that nothing but our lives 
May be call'd ranfom, let it come : fufliccth, 
A Roman with a Roman's heart can fuffer : 
Auguftus lives to think on't : And fo much 
For my peculiar care. This one thing only 
I will entreat ; My boy, a Briton born, 
Let him be ranfom'd : never matter had 
A page fo kind, fo duteous, diligent, 
So tender over his occafions, true, 
8 So feat, fo nurfe-like : let his virtue join 
With my requeft, which, I'll make bold, your high-, 

Cannot deny ; he hath done no Briton harm, 

9 Svfcat) 3 ^ reac ty 5 f dextrous in waiting. JOHNSON-. 



Though he have ferv'd a Roman : fave him, fir, 
And fpare no blood befide. 

Cym. I have furely feen him ; 
His 9 favour is familiar to me : Boy, 
Thou haft look'd thyfclf into my grace, and art 
Mine own. I know not why, wherefore, I fay, 
Live, boy : ne'er thank thy mafter ; live : 
And aik of Cymbeline what boon thou wilt, 
Fitting my bounty, and thy ftate, I'll give it; 
Yea, though thou do demand a prifoner, 
The nobleft ta'en. 

Imo. 1 humbly thank your highnefs. 

Luc. I do not bid thee beg my life, good lad ; 
And yet, I know, thou wilt. 

Imo. No, no ; alack, 
There's other work in hand ; I fee a thing 
Bitter to me as death : your life, good matter, 
Muft ftuiffle for itfelf. 

Luc. The boy difdains me, 
He leaves me, fcorns me : Briefly die their joys, 
That place them on the truth of girls and boys. 
Why ftands he fo perplex'd ? 

Cym. What would ft thou, boy ? 
I love thee more and more ; think more and more 
What's beft to afk. Know'ft him thou look'fl on ? 

Wilt have him live ? Is he thy kin ? thy friend ? 

Imo. He is a Romnn ; no more kin to me, 
Than I to your highnefs ; who, being born your 

Am fortieth ing nearer. 

Cym. Wherefore ey'ft him fo ? 

IMO. I'll tell you, fir, in private, if you pleale 
To give me hearing. 

9 ' favour is familiar] I am acquainted with his coun* 
tenance. JOHNSON. 

Y 4 Cym. 

C Y M B E L I N E. 

Cym. Ay, with all my heart, 
And lend my beft attention. What's thy name ? 

Imo. Fidele, fir. 

Cym. Thou art my good youth, my page; 
I'll be thy matter : Walk with me; fpeak freely. 

[Cymbeline and Imogen walk afide* 

Bel. Is not this boy reviv'd from death ? 

Arv* * One fand another 
Not more rcfembles : That fweet rofy lad, 
Who dy'd, and was Fidele What think you ? 

Gmd. The fame dead thing alive. 

"Bel. Peace, peace ! fee further ; he eyes us not ; 

forbear ; 

Creatures may be alike : were't he, I am fure 
He would have fpoke to us. 

Guld. But we faw him dead. 

Bel. Be filent ; let's fee further. 

Pif. It is my miftrefs : [Afide* 

Since me is living, let the time run on, 
To good, or bad. [Cymb. and Imogen come forward* 

Cym. Come, Hand thou by our fide ; 
Make thy demand aloud. Sir, flep you forth ; 

[20 lachimo, 

Give anfvver to this boy, and do it freely ; 
Or, by our greatnefs, and the grace of it, 
Which is our honour, bitter torture fhall 

Winnow the truth from falihood. On, fpeak to 


Imo. My boon is, that this gentleman may render 
Of whom he had this ring. 

Poft. What's that to him ? [Afide. 

* One fand another 

Not more refembles thatyw<v/ rofy lad,"\ A flight corruption 
has made nonfenfe of this paflage. One grain might refemble 
another, but none a human form. We mould read : 

Not more refembles, than he t/S ivveet r <fy lad. 


There was no great difficulty in the line, which, when proper- 
ty pointed, needs no alteration. JOHNSON. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 

Cym. That diamond upon your finger, fay, 
How came it yours ? 

loch. Thou'lt torture me to leave unfpoken that 
Which, to be fpoke, would torture thee. 

Cym. How ! me ? 

loch. I am glad to be conftrain'd to utter that 


Torments me to conceal. By villainy 
I got this ring ; 'twas Leonatus* jewel, 
Whom thou did ft banifh ; and (which more may 

grieve thee, 

As it doth me) a nobler fir ne'er liv'd 
'Twixt iky and ground. Wilt thou hear more, my 
lord ? 

Cym. All that belongs to this. 

loch. That paragon, thy daughter, 

For whom my heart drops blood, and my falfe fpirits 
* Quail to remember, Give me leave ; I faint. 

Cym. My daughter ! what of her ? Renew thy 

ftrength : 

J had rather thou fhouldft live while nature will, 
Than die ere I hear more : drive, man, and fpeak. 

lack. Upon a time, (unhappy was the clock . 
That ftruck the hour !) it was in Rome, (accurs'd 
The manfion where !) 'twas at a feaft, (O, 'would 

* Quail to remember, ] To quail is to fink into deje&ion. 
The word is common to many authors ; among the reft, to Stany- 
Jmrft, in his tranflation of the fecondbook of the y</.- 

" With nightly filence was I quail* d t and greatly with 

horror. " 
Again, in David and Betbfabe, 1599: 

** Can make us yield, or quail our courages." 
Again, in Mucedorus: 

" That fo doft quail a woman's mind." 
Again, in the Countefs of Pembroke's Antonius, 1590 : 
" One day there will come a day 

" Which (hall quail thy fortune's flowr." 
Again, in the Three LaJies of London, i 584 : 
^ She cannot quail me if Hie come in likenefs of the great Devil." 



530 C Y M B E L I N E. 

Our viands had been poifon'd ! or, at leaft, 

Thofe which I heav'd to head !) the good Pofl> 


(What tfiould I lay ? he was too good, to be 
Where ill men were ; and was the beft of all 
Amongft the rar'ft of good ones) fitting fadly, 
Hearing us praife our loves of Italy 
For beauty that made barren the iwell'd boaft 
Of him that beft could fpeak : 3 for feature, laming 


for feature, laming] Feature for proportion of parts, 

which Mr. Theobald not undemanding, would alter tojtature. 

for feature, laming 

The fhrine of Venus, or ftraight-pight Minerva, 

Pcftures beyond britf nature ; 

j. e. The ancient ftatues of Venus and Minerva, which exceeded, 
in beauty of e-nct proportion, any living bodies, the work of 
^riff nature; i.e. of hafty, unelaborate nature. He gives the 
fame character of the beauty of the antique in Antony aud Clco- 
j*tra : 

" O'er picturing that Venus where we fee 

** The fancy out-work nature" 

It appears, from a number of fuch pnflages as thefe, that our au- 
thor was not ignorant of the fine arts. A paflage in DC Piles' 
Ccvrs <k Feint are par Principe* will give great light to the beauty 

of the text. *' Pen de fentimem ont etc partagezfur la beaut e ife 

i*ant:que. Les gens d'efprit qui aiment fes beaux arts ont eftime 
Jans tous les terns ces merveilleux ouvrages. Nous voyons dans /,'s 
enciens auteun quantity de pajjages ou pour loiier les beautez vi- 
vantC3 on les comparoit aux itatues."' Ne vans imagines (c!it 
Maxime deTyr) dc powoirjamais trouver uncbcaute naturelle, qui 
le etifpxte aux jlatues. Ovid, ou il fait la defcription de Cyllart; , U 
flits t>ea de Ccntaures, dit, Qu'il avoit unc ii grande 1 vivacite dans 
le vifage, que le col, les epaules, les mains, & 1'eitomac en 
ctoient ii beaux qu'on pouvoit aflurer qu'en tout cequ'il avoit de 
1'homme c'etoit la meme beauteque 1'on remarque dansles ftatues 

les plus pnrfaites." Et Philoftrate, parlant de la beautc de 

Neopfoleme, & de la refemblance qu'il avoit avec fon pere 
Achille, dit: " Qu'en beaute fon pere avoit autant d'avantage 
fur lui que les flatues en ont fur les beaux hommes. Les au- 
teurs modernes ont fuivi ces memes fentimens fur la beaute de 

T Antique" Je reporterai feulment celui de Scaliger. " Le 

nloyen (dit il) que nous puiffions rien voir qui approchede la per- 
belles flatus's, puifquil efl permis i 1'art de choifir, de 

C Y M B E L I N E. 33I 

The (hrine of Venus, or ftraight-pight Minerva, 
Poflures beyond brief nature ; for condition, 
A fhop of all the qualities that man 
Loves woman for ; betides, that hook of wiving, 
Fairnefs, which ftrikes the eye : 

Cym. I (land on fire : ' 
Come to the matter. 

lack. All too foon I fhall, 
Unlcis thou wouldft grieve quickly. This Poft- 


(Moft like a noble lord in love, and one 
That had a royal lover) took his hint ; 
And, not difpraifing whom we prais'd, (therein 
He was as calm as virtue) he began 
His miftrefs' picture ; which by his tongue being 


And then a mind put in't, either our brags 
Were crack'd of kitchen trulls, or his description 
Prov'd us unfpecking lots. 

Cym. Nay, nay, to the purpofe. 

retrnncher, d'ajouter, dc diriger, & qu'au contraire, la nature 
s'eft toujours alteree depuis la creation du premier hommc en qui 
Dieu joignit la beaute de la forme a ceUe de 1'innocence." This 
laft quotation from Scaliger well explains what Shakefpeare meant 
by brief nature; i.e. inelaborate, hafty, and carelefs as to the 
ciccr.nce of form, in refpe6t of an, which uies the peculiar ad- 
creis, above explained, to arrive at perfection. A\ ? AREURTO>;. 

I cannot help adding, that patfages of this kind are but weak 
proofs that our poet was converfant with what we call at prelent 
the fine arts. The pantheons of his own age (feveral of which I 
have feen) afford a moll minute and particular account of the dif- 
ferent degrees of beauty imputed to the different deities ; and as 
^hakefpeare had at leaft an opportunity of reading Chapman's 
tranflation of Homer, the firft part of which was publifhed in i 596, 
with additions in 1598, and entire in 1611, he might have 
taken thefe ideas from thence, without being at all indebted to his 
o%vn particular obfervation, or acquaintance with flatuary and 
painting. It is furely more for his honour to remark how well 
he has employed the little knowledge he appears to have had of 
fculpture or mythology, than from his frequent allufions to them 
(o fuppofe he was intimately acquainted with either. STEEVENS. 


33* C Y M B E L I N E. 

lack. Your daughter's chaftity there it begins. 
He fpake of her, as Dlan had hot dreams, 
And flie alone were cold : Whereat, I, wretch ! 
Made fcruple of his praife ; and wager'd with him 
Pieces of gold, 'gainft this which then he wore 
Upon his honour'd finger, to attain 
In fuit the place of his bed, and win this ring 
By hers and mine adultery : he, true knight, 
No lefler of her honour confident 
Than I did truly find her, flakes this ring ; 
And would fo, had it been a carbuncle 4 
Of Phoebus' wheel ; and might fo fafely, had it 
Been all the worth of his car. Away to Britain 
Poft I in this defign : Well may you, fir, 
Remember me at court, where I was taught 
Of your chafle daughter the wide difference 
'Twixt amorous and villainous. Being thus quench'd 
Of hope, not longing, mine Italian brain 
'Gan in your duller Britain operate 
Moft vilely ; for my vantage, excellent ; 
And, to be brief, my practice fo prevail'd, 
That I return'd with iimular proof enough 
To make the noble Leonatus mad, 
By wounding his belief in her renown 
With tokens thus, and thus ; s averring notes 
Of chamber-hanging, pictures, this her bracelet, 
(O, cunning, howl got it!) nay, fome marks 
Of fecret on her perion, that he could not 
But think her bond of chaftity quite crack'd, 

I having ta'en the forfeit. Whereupon, 

Methinks, I fee him now, 

Poft. Ay, fo thou do'ft, [Coming forward^ 

Italian fiend ! Ah me, mod credulous fool, 

* a carbuncle ', &c.~\ So in Antony and Cleopatra ; 
*' He has deferv'd it, were it carbuncled 

" Like />&; car." STEEVENS. 

5 'averring notes'] Such marks of the chamber and 

pictures, as averred or confirmed my report. JOHNSON. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 333 

Egregious murderer, thief, any thing 

That's due to all the villains paft, in being, 

To come ! O, give me cord, or knife, or poifon, 

Some upright juilicer 6 ! Thou, king, fend out 

For torturers ingenious : it is I 

That all the abhorred things o' the earth amend, 

By being worfe than they. I am Pofthumus, 

That kill'd thy daughter : villain-like, I lie ; 

That caus'd a lefler villain than myfelf, 

A facrilegious thief, to do't : the temple 

Of virtue was fhe ; yea, 7 and Ihe herfelf. 

Spit, and throw (tones, caft mire upon me, fet 

The dogs o' the ftreet to bay me : every villain 

Be call'd, Pofthumus Leonatus ; and 

Be villainy lets than 'twas ! O Imogen ! 

My queen, my life, my wife ! O Imogen, 

Imogen, Imogen! 

Imo. Peace, my lord ; hear, hear 

Poft. Shall's have a play of this ? Thou fcornfui 

P a g e > 
There lie thy part. [Striking her, foe falls. 

Pif. O, gentlemen, help 

Mine, and your miilrefs O, my lord Pofthumus ! 
You ne'er kill'd Imogen 'till now : Help, help ! 
Mine honour'd lady ! 

Cym. Does the world go round ? 

Poft. How come 8 thefe ftaggers on me ? 

"Some upright jufticer !] I meet with this antiquated word in 
The Tragedy of Das'.us, 1603 : 

** this day, 

*' Th' eternal jufiicer fees through the liars." 
Again in Law Tricks, &c. 1608 : 

" No : we mult have an upright juftlcer" 
Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, book x. chap, 54. 
** Precelling his progenitors, a jufticer upright." 


7 ancljkc herfdf.'] That is, She was not only the temple of 
virtue^ but virtue herfelf. JOHNSON. 

8 thefe Jlaggers ] This wild and delirious perturbation. 

Staggers is the horle's apoplexy". JOHNSON. 

334 C Y M B E L I N . 

Pif. Wake, my miftrefs ! 

Cym. If this be fo, the gods do mean to ftrike m<? 
To death with mortal joy. 

Pif. How fares my miftrefs ? 

Imo. O, get thee from my fight ; 
Thou gav'ft me poifon : dangerous fellow, hence I 
Breathe not where princes are. 

Cym. The tune of Imogen ! 

Pif. Lady, the gods throw ftones of fulphur on 

rne, if 

That box I gave you was not thought by me 
A precious thing ; I had it from the queen. 

Cym. New matter ft ill ? 

Imo. It poifon'd me. 

Cor. O gods ! 

I left out one thing which the queen confefs'd, 
Which muft approve thee honeft : If Pifanio 
Have, faid ihe, given his miftrefs that confection 
Which I gave him for cordial, fhe is ferv'd 
As I would ferve a rat. 

Cym. What's this, Cornelius ? 

Cor. The queen, fir, very oft importun'd me 
To temper poifons for her ; ftill pretending 
The fatisfaclion of her knowledge, only 
In killing creatures vile, as cats and dogs, 
Of no efteem : I, dreading that her purpofe 
Was of more danger, did compound for her 
A certain fluff, which, being ta'en, would ceafe 
The prefent power of life ; but, in fliort time, 
All offices of nature Ihould again 
Do their due functions. Have you ta'en of it ? 

Imo. Moft like I did, for I was dead. 

Bel. My boys, 
There was our error. - 

Guid This is fure Fidele. 

Imo. Why did you throw your wedded lady from- 


C Y M B E L I N E. 335 

" Think, that you are upon a rock ; and now 
Throw me again. 

Pqft. Hang there like fruit, my foul, 
'Till the tree die ! 

Cym. How now, my flefh, my child ? 
What, mak'ft thou me a dullard ' in rhis act ? 
Wilt thou not fpeak to me ? 

I/no. Your bleffing, fir. 

Eel. Though you did love this youth, I blame you 

not ; 
You had a motive for't. [To Guidmus and Arviragus. 

Cym. My tears, that fall, 
Prove holy water on thee ! Imogen, 
Thy mother's dead. 

lino. I am forry for't, my lord. 

Cym. O, flie was naught; and long of her it was, 
That we meet here fo ftrangely : But herfon 
Is gone, we know not how, nor where. 

Pif. My lord, 

Now fear is from me, I'll fpeak troth. Lord Cloten, 
Upon my lady's miffing, came to me 

* Think, thai you are upon a rock ; ] In this fpeech, or In 

the anfwer, there is little meaning. I fuppofe, fhe would fay, 
Confider fuch nnother aft as equally fatal to me with precipitation 
from a rock, and now let me fee whether you will repeat it. 


Perhaps only a ftage direction is wanting to clear this paflage 
from obicurity. Imogen firft upbraids her hulband tor the vio- 
lent treatment Hie had juft experienced ; then confident of the re- 
turn of paffion which fhe knew muft fucceed to the difcovery of 
her innocence, the poet might have meant her to mfli into his 
arms, and while (he clung about him faft, to dare him to throw 
her oft" a fecond time, left that precipitation fhould prove as fatal 
to them both, as if the place where they flood had been a rock. 
To which he replies, bang there, i. e. round my neck, till the 
frame that now iopports you fhall decay. . STEEVENS. 

1 a dullard-] In this place means a perfon frupidly uncon- 
ccrn'd. So in Hijiriomaftix, or the Player ivbipt, 1610 : 

" What dullard! would'ft thou doat in nifty art ?" 

Again, Sunvhurft in his verfion of the firft book of Virgil, i;8z : 

'* We Moores, IVke dullards^ are not fo wytles abyding." 



35 6 C Y M B E L I N E. 

With his fword drawn ; foam'd at the mouth, and 


If I difcover'd not which way fhe was gone, 
It was my inftant death : By accident, 
I had a feigned letter of my mailer's 
Then in my pocket ; which direfted him 
To feek her on the mountains near to Milford ; 
Where, in a frenzy, in my matter's garments, 
Which he inforc'd from me, away he pofts 
With unchafte purpofe, and with oath to violate 
My lady's honour j what became of him, 
I further know not. 

Guid. Let me end the (lory : 
I flew him there. 

Cym. Marry, the gods forefend ! 
I would not thy good deeds mould from my lips 
Pluck a hard fentence : pr'ythee, valiant youth, 
Deny't again. 

Guid. I have fpoke it, and I did it. 

Cym. He was a prince. 

Guid. A moft incivil one : The wrongs he did me 
Were nothing prince-like ; for he did provoke me 
With language that would make me fpurn the fea, 
If it could fo roar to me : I cut ofFs head ; 
And am right glad, he is not ftanding here 
r f o tell this tale of mine. 

Cym. I am forry for thee : 

By thine own tongue thou art condemn'd, and muft 
Endure our law : Thou art dead. 

Imo. That headlefs man 
I thought had been my lord. 

Cym. Bind the offender, 
And take him from our prefence. 

Bel Stay, fir king : 

This man is better than the man he flew, 
As well descended as thyfelf; and hath 
More of thee merited, than a band of Clotens 


C V to B t 1 N . 337 

Had ever fear for. Let his arms alone ; 

[To the guard. 
They were not born for bondage. 

Cym. Why, old foldier, 
Wilt thou undo the worth thou art unpaid fory 

3 By tafting of our wrath ? How of defcent, 
As good as we ? 

Arv. In that he fpake too far. 

Cym. And thou fhalt die for't. 

Bel. We will die all three : 
But I will prove, that two of us are as good 
As I have given out him. My fons, I muft* 
For my own part, unfold a dangerous fpeech^ 
Though, haply, well for you. 

dr<v. Your danger's ours. 

Guid. And our good his. 

Bel Have at it then. 

By leave ; Thou had'ft, great king, a fubjedr., who 
Was call'd Belarius. 

Cym. What of him ? he is 
A banifti'd traitor. 

Bel He it is, that hath 

4 Affum'd this age : indeed, a baniih'd man ; 

I know 

3 By tafting of our wrath ? ] But how did Belarius undo 
or forfeit his merit by tafting or feeling the king's wrath ? We 
fhould read : 

By baft ing of our wrath ? 

i. e. by haftening, provoking ; and as fuch a provocation is un- 
dutiful, the demerit, confequently, undoes or makes void his 
former worth, and all pretenfions to reward. WARBURTON. 

There is no need of change; the confequence is taken for the 
whole action ; ly tafting is by forcing us to make thee tafte. 


* AflTum'd this age: ] 1 believe is the fame as reach* Jot 

attained this age. oTEE v N s. 

As there is no reafon to imagine that Belarius had afTumed the 
appearance of being older than he really was, I fufpe& that, in- 
ftead of age, we ought to read gage ; fo that he may be under- 
ftood to refer to the engagement, which he had entered into, a fevt 
lines before, in thefc words : 

VOL. IX. 2 We 

338 C Y M B E L I N E. 

I know not how, a traitor. 
. Take him hence ; 
The whole world fhall not fave him. 

Bel. Not too hot : 

JFirft pay me for the nurfing of thy fons ; 
And let it be confifcate all, fo foon 
As I have receiv'd it. 

Cym. Nurfing of my fons ? 

Bel. I am too blunt, and faucy : Here's my knee : 
Ere I arife, I will prefer my fons ; 
Then, fpare not the old father. Mighty fir, 
Thefe two young gentlemen, that eall me father, 
And think they are my fons, are none of mine ; 
They are the iflue of your loins, my liege, 
And blood of your begetting. 

C.v/n. How ! my iilue ? 

Bel. So fure as you your father's. I, old Morgan, 
Am that Belarius whom you fomctime banifh'd : 
J Your pleafure was my near offence, my punifliment 
Irfclf, and all my treafon ; that I fuftcr'd, 
Was all the harm I did. Thefe gentle princes 

" We will die all three : 

" Hut I will prove that two of us are as good 
" As I have given out him." TYRWHITT. 

T cur pleafure was ;isy near offence, ] I think this paflagc 

;rer be read thus : 

Your pleafure was my dear offence, my punifliment 
.11 my treafon; that I luffer'd, 

ail the harm I did. 

iil-nce wh'ch cod me fo dear \vas only your caprice. My 
futrcr.n^s have been all my crime. JOHNSON. 

; of the old copies, though corrupt, is generally 
jc to the truth than that of the ! , which, tor the 

:>:'.rr. adopt the orthngrnpliy of their reipecfive ages. An 
:.. Oi.vur; in the piny of Cynibelixcy in the lait fcene. Be- 

. fence, ir.y punifliment ;J1 r.iv tiealbn. 

I;.. } .)!,!: -on would rc;i'i i!t\ir In the folio it \~, r.ccrt ; 
which plainly points out to us the true rcadi . as the 

; iht:i Jpelt. T*;; \VHITT. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 339 

(For fuch, and fo they are) thefe twenty years 
Have I train'd up : thofe arts they have, as I 
Could put into them ; my breeding was, fir, as 
Your highnefs knows. Their nurfe, Euriphile, 
Whom for the theft I wedded, ftole thefe children 
Upon my banifhment : I mov'd her to't ; 
Having receiv'd the puniihment before, 
For that which I did then : Beaten for loyalty 
Excited me to treafon : Their dear lofs, 
The more of you 'twas felt, the more it map'd 
Unto my end of flealing them. But, gracious fir, 
Here are your fons again ; and I muft lofc 

Two of the fweet'ft companions in the world : 

The benediction of thefe covering heavens 

Fall on their heads like dew ! for they are worthy 

To inlay heaven with ftars. 

Cym. 6 Thou weep'ft, and fpeak'ft. 
The fervice, that you three have done, is more 
Unlike than this thou teH'ft : I loft my children ; 
If thefe be they, I know not how to wifti 
A pair of worthier fons. 

Bel. Be pleas'd a while. 
This gentleman, whom I call Polydore, 
Moft worthy prince, as yours, is true Guiderius : 
This gentleman, my Cadwal, Arviragus, 
Your younger princely fon ; he, fir, was lap'd 
In a moil curious mantle, wrought by the hand 
Of his queen mother, which, for more probation, 
I can with eafe produce. 

Cym. Guiderius had 
Upon his neck a mole, a fanguine ftar ; 
It was a mark of wonder. 

Bel. This is he ; 

* T/JOU weep* ft andfpeak^J}.'] " Thy tears give teftimony to the 
Cncerity ot thy relation ; and I have the lefs reafon to be incre- 
dulous, becaufe the aiSHons which you have done within my 
knowledge are more incredible than the ftory which you relate." 
The king reafons very juftly. JOHNSOX. 

Z 2 Who 

54 o C Y M B E L I N E. 

Who hath upon him Hill that natural flamp : 
It was wile nature's end in the donation, 
To be his evidence now. 

Cym. O, what am I 

A mother to the birth of three ? Ne'er mother 
Rejoic'd deliverance more : Bleft may you be % 
That, after this ftrange flatting from your orbs, 
You may reign in them now ! O Imogen, 
Thou haft loft by this a kingdom. 

Imo. No, my lord ; 

I have got two worlds by't. O my gentle bro- 

Have we thus met ? O never fay hereafter, 
Rut I am trueft fpeaker : you call'd me brother, 
When I was but your fitter ; I you brothers, 
* When you were fo indeed, 

Cym. Did you e'er meet ? 
.. Ay, my good lord. 

Quid. And at firft meeting lov'd ; 
Continued fo, until we thought he died. 

Cor. By the queen's dram flic fwallow'd. 

Cym. O rare inftinft ! 

When fhall I hear all through ? This 9 fierce abridg- 

Math to it circumftantial branches, which 
Diftinftion fhould be rich in. Where? how liv'd 

you ? 

And when came you to ferve our Roman captive ? 
How parted with your brothers ? how firft met them ? 

7 . mxy you <.] The old copy reads pray you be. STEEVENI. 
* Wb:n you iverefo, indeed.] The folio gives : 

When lue were fo, indeed. 
If this be right, we muft read : 
Imo. I, you brothers. 
Arv. When we were fo, indeed. JOHNSON. 

9 - fierce abridgment] Fierce^ is vehement, rapid. JOHNSON. 

Sy, in T.-moa of Athene : 

Oh, \\itfierce wretcheduefs that glory brings ! STEEVEKS. 


G Y M B E L I N E. 341 

1 Why fled you from the court ? and whither ? Thefe, 

And your three motives to the battle, with 

I know not how much more, ihould be demanded ; 

And all the other by-dependancies, 

From chance to chance ; but nor the time, nor place, 

Will ferve our long * interrogatories. See, 

Pofthumus anchors upon Imogen ; 

And fhe, like harmlefs lightning, throws her eye 

On him, her brothers, me, her matter ; hitting 

Each object with a joy : the counter-change 

Is feverally in all. Let's quit this ground, 

And fmoke the temple with our facrifices. 

Thou art my brother ; So we'll hold thee ever. 

[To Belarius. 

Imo. You are my father too ; and did relieve me, 
To fee this gracious feafon. 

Cynu All o'er-joy'd, 

Save thefe in bonds : let them be joyful too, 
For they fliall tafte our comfort. 

Imo. My good matter, 
I will yet do you fervice. 

Luc* Happy be you ! 

Cym. The forlorn foldier, that fo nobly fought, 
He would have well becom'd this place, and grac'd 
The thankings of a king. 

Poft. I am, fir, 

The foldier that did company thefe three 
In poor befeeming ; 'twas a fitment for 

1 Why fit 'd you from the court ', and whether thefe ?~\ It muft be 
re&ified thus : 

Why fled you from the court ? and whither f Thefe, &c. 
The king is afking his daughter, how fhe has lived ; why (he fled 
from the court, and to what place : and having enumerated fo 
many particulars, he flops ftiort. THEOBALD. 

* Will ferve our long} So the firft folio. Later editors' have 
omitted our, for the fake of the metre, I fuppofe ; but unnecef- 
farily ; as interrogatory is ufed by Shakefpeare as a qvadrijyllable. 
See the Merchant of Venice near the end, where in the old edi- 
tion it is written intergatory, TYKWHITT. 

Z 3 The 


The purpofe I then follow'd : That I was he, 
Speak, lachimo ; I had you down, and might 
Have made you fmifh. 

lack. I am down again : 

But now my heavy conference finks my knee, [Kneels. 
As then your force did. Take that life, 'befeech you, 
Which I fo often owe : but, your ring firft ; 
And here the bracelet of the truefl princefs, 
That ever fwore her faith. 

Pojl. Kneel not to me : 

The power that I have on you, is to fpare you ; 
The malice towards you, to forgive you : Live, 
And deal with others better. 

Cymb. Nob!y doom'd : 
We'll learn our freenefs of a fon-in-law; 
Pardon's the word to all. 

Arv. You holp us, fir, 
As you did mean indeed to be our brother ; 
Joy'd are we, that you are. 

Pqft. Your fervant, princes. Good my lord of 


Call forth your foothfayer : As I flcpt, methought, 
Great Jupiter, upon his eagle back'd, 
Appear'd to me, with other fprightly mews 9 
Of mine own kindred : when I wak'd, I found 
This label on my bofom ; whole containing 
Is fo from lenic in hardnefs, that I can 
Make no collection of it ' :' let him Ihevv 
His /kill in the conftruction. 

Luc. rhilarmonus, 

9 . fprightly Jhews ] Are ghoflly appearances. STEEVENS. 
1 Make no collection of it.] A collection is a corollary, a con- 
fequence deduced from premifes. So, in Sir John Davies's poem 
on The Immortality of the Soul : 

" Y/hen (lie, from fundry arts, one fkill doth draw ; 

" Gath'ring from divers fights, one adt of war ; 
** From many cafes like, one rule of law : 
'* Thefe her collejions t not the fenfes are." STEEVENS. 


C Y M B E L I N E. 343 

Sooth. Here, my good lord. 

Luc. Read, and declare the meaning. 

Soothfayer reads. 

When as a lion's whelp JJwtt, to himfelf unknown, with- 
out feeking find, and be embracd by a piece of tender air ; 
and when from a Jtately cedar Jhall be lopt branches, 
which, being dead many years, Jhall after revive, be joint- 
ed to the old ftock, and frefloly grow ; then Jhall Pqft- 
humus end his miferies^ Britain be fortunate, and flour;J}} 
in peace and plenty. 

Thou, Eeonatus, art the lion's whelp ; 
The fit and apt conft ruction of thy name, 
Being Leo-natus, doth import fo much. 
The piece of tender air, thy virtuous daughter, 

[To Cymbeline. 

Which we call mollis aer ; and mollis aer 
We term it mulier : which mulier, I divine, 
Is this mofl conftant wife ; \Jto Pojl.~^ who, even now, 
Anfwering the letter of the oracle, 
Unknown to you, unfought, were clip'd about 
With this mod tender air. 

Cym. This hath fome feeming. 

Sooth. The lofty cedar, royal Cymbeline, 
Perfonates thee : and thy lopt branches point 
Thy two fons forth : who, by Belarius ftolen, 
For many years thought dead, are now reviv'd, 
To the majeftick cedar join'd ; whofe iflue 
Promifes Britain peace and plenty. 

Cym. Well, 

1 My peace we will begin : And, Caius Lucius, 
Although the vidtor, we fubmit to Csefar, 
And to the Roman empire ; promifing 

My peace we will legin : ] I think it better to read : 

By peace we will begin. JOHNSON. 



To pay our wonted tribute, from the which 
We were diffuaded by our wicked queen ; 
On whom heaven's juftice, (both on her, and hers) 
Hath lay'd mott heavy hand. 

Sootb. The fingers of the powers above do tune 
The harmony of this peace. The viiion 
Which I made known to Lucius, ere the ftroke 
Of this yet fcarce-cold battle, at this inftant 
Is full accomplilh'd : For the Roman eagle, 
From fouth to weft on wing foaring aloft, 
LefTen'd herfelf, and in the beams o* the fun 
So vaninYd : which fore-fhew'd, our princely eagle, 
The imperial Csefar, fhould again unite 
His favour with the radiant Cymbeline, 
Which {nines here in the weft. 

Cym. Laud we the gods ; 

And let our crooked fmokes climb to their noflrili 
From our bleft altars ! Publilh we this peace 
To all our fubjedts. Set we forward ; Let 
A Roman and a Britifh enfign wave 
Friendly together : fo through Lud's town march ; 
And in the temple of great Jupiter 
Our peace we'll ratify ; feal it with feafls. 
Set on there : Never was a war did ceafe, 
Ere bloody hands were wafli'd, with fuch a peace. 

[Exeunt omnes. 

THIS play has many juft fenttments, Come natural dialogues, 
and fome pleafing fcenes, but they are obtained at the expence of 
much incongruity. To remark the folly of the fiction, the ab- 
furdity of the conduct, the confufion of the names, and man- 
' pers of different times, and the impoflibility of the events in any 
fyflem of life, were to vvafte criticifm upon unrefifting imbecility, 
upon faults too evident for detection, and too grofs for aggrava- 
tion. JplJNSQN, 




A SONG, Jung by Guiderius and Arviragus over 
Fidele, fuppofed to be dead. 


To fair Fidele's grafly tomb, 

Soft maids, and village hinds Jhall bring 
Each opening fweet, of earlieft bloom, 

And rifle all the breathing fpring. 


No wailing ghoft Jhall dare appear 

To vex with Jhrieks this quiet grove * 
But Jhepherd lads ajfemble here, 

And melting virgins own their love. 

No withered witch Jhall here be feen, 

No goblins lead their nightly crew : 
The female fays Jhall haunt the green, 

And drefs thy grave with pearly dew. 


The red~breaft oft at evening hour* 

Shall kindly lend his little aid, 
With hoary mofs, and gathered jlowers, 

To deck the ground where thou art laid. 


IVhen howling winds, and beating ram % 

In tempefts Jhake the Jylvan cell; 
Or midf, the chace on ev'ry plain, 

The lender thought on thee Jhall dwell 


346 C Y M B E L I N E. 


Each lonely fcene Jball tbee reft ore ; 

For thee the tsar be duly Jhed : 
Belov'd, 'fill life could charm no more ; 

And mourn' d "till pitfs felf be dead. 



Perfons Reprefented. 

Lear, King of Britain, 

King of France. 

Duke of Burgundy. 

Duke of Cornwall. 

Duke of Albany. 

Earl of Glofter. 

Earl of Kent. 

Edgar, Son to Glofter. 

Edmund, Baftard Son to Glofter. 

Curan, a Courtier. 



Ofwald, Steward to Goneril. 

A Captain, employed by Edmund. 

Gentleman^ attendant on Cordelia, 

A Herald. 

Old Man, Tenant to Glofter. 

Servants to Cornwall. 

Goneril, 'j 

Regan, I Daughters to Lear. 

Cordelia, J 

Knights attending on the King, Officers, Mejfengers> 
Soldiers, and Attendants. 

SCENE, Britain. 



King Lear 9 s Palace. 
Enter Kent, Gkjler, and Edmund. 

Kent. I thought, the king had more affe&ed the 
duke of Albany, than Cornwall. 


1 The (lory of this tragedy had found its way into many bal- 
lads and other metrical pieces ; yet Shakefpeare feems to have 
been more indebted to the True Chronicle Hiftory of King Leir 
and his Three Daughters, Gonorill, Ragan, and Cordelia, 1605, 
(which I have already publifhed at the end of a collection of the 
quarto copies) than to all the other performances together. It 
appears from the books at Stationers' Hall, that fome play on this 
fubje& was entered by Edward White, May 14, 1594. " A 
booke entituled, The mofte famous Chronicle Hyjlorie of Leir e King 
of England^ and his three Daughters" A piece with the fame 
title is enter'd again, May 8, 1605; and again Nov. 26, 1607, 
See the extracts from thefe Entries at the end of the Prefaces, 
&c. From TTx Mirror of Magijirates, 1586, Shakefpeare has, 
however, taken the hint for the behaviour of the Steward, and 
the reply of Cordelia to her father concerning her future marri- 
age. The epifode of Glofter and his fons muft have been bor 
rowed from Sidney's Arcadia, as I have not found the leaft trace 
of it in any other Work. I have referred to thefe pieces, when- 
ever our author feems more immediately to have followed them, 
in the courfe of my notes on the play. For the firft King Lear> 
lee likewife Six old Plays on -which Shakefpeare founded^ &C* 
publiflied for S. Leacroft, Charing-Crofs. 

The reader will alfo find the ftory of K. Lear, in the fecond 
book and loth canto of Spenfer's Faery $>ueen, and in the I5tb 
chapter of the third book of Warner's Albion's England^ 1602. 

The whole of this play, however, could not have been writ- 
ten till after 1603. Harfnet's pamphlet to which it contains fo 
many references, (as will appear in the notes) was not published 
till that year. STEEVENS. 

Camden, in his Remains, (p. 306. ed. 1674.) tells a fimilaf 
fiory to that of Leir or Ltar, of Ina king of the Weft Saxons ; 


350 K I N G L E A R. 

Glo. It did always feem fo to us : but now, * in 
the divifion of the kingdom, it appears not which 
of the dukes he values moft ; for J equalities are fo 
weigh'd, 4 that curiofity in neither can s make choice 
of cither's moiety. 

Kent. Is not this your fon, my lord ? 

Glo. His breeding, fir, hath been at my charge : I 
have fo often blufh'd to acknowledge him, that now 
I am braz'd to't. 

Kent. I cannot conceive you. 

Glo. Sir, this young fellow's mother could : where- 

which, if the thing ever happened, probably was the real origin 
of the fable. See under the head of Wife Speeches. PERCY. 

* . in the divijlon of the kingdom^ J There is fomething 

of obfcurity or inaccuracy in this preparatory fcene. The king 
has already divided his kingdom, and yet when he enters he exa- 
mines his daughters, to difcover in what proportions he fliould 
divide it. Perhaps Kent and Glofter only were privy to his de- 
fign, which he ftill kept in his own hands, to be changed or 
performed as fubfequent reafons fhould determine him. 


3 equalities, ] So, the firfl quartos ; the folio reads 

Qualities. JOHNSON. 

Either may ferve ; but of the former I find an inftance in the 
Floivcr of Friend/hip, 1568: " After this match made, and 
equalities confidered, &c." STEEVENS. 

* that curiofity in neither ] Curioftty, for exacleft fcrutiny. 
The fenfe of the whole lentence is, The qualities and properties 
of the feveral divifions are fo weighed and balanced againft one 
another, that the exa&eft fcrutiny could not determine in prefer- 
ring one (hare to the other. WARBURTON. 

Curiofity is fcrupuloufnefs, or captioufnefs. So, in the Taming 
of a Shrew, aft IV. fc. iv. 

** For curious I cannot be with you." STEEVENS. 

s -make choice of either* s moiety.] The ftrift fenfe of the 

word moiety is half, one of two equal parts -, but Shakefpeare com- 
monly ufes it for any part or divifion. 

Methinks my moiety north from Burton here, 
In quantity equals not one of yours : 
and here the aivijion was into three parts. STEEVENS. 
Hey wood likewifc ufc-s the word moiety as fynonymous to any part 
or portion. " I would unwillingly part with the greateft moiety. 
t my own means and fortunes." fllj}. of Women, 1^24. 




upon fhe'grew round -wombed ; and had, indeed, fir, 
a fon for her cradle, ere flie had a huiband for her bed. 
Do you fmell a fault ? 

Kent. I cannot wilh the fault undone, the iflue of 
it being fo proper. 

Glo. But I have, fir, a fon by order of law, 6 fomc 
year elder than this, who yet is no dearer in my ac- 
count, though this knave came fomewhat faucily 
into the world before he was fent for : yet was his 
mother fair ; there was good fport at his making, and 
the whorefon muft be acknowledged. Do you know 
this noble gentleman, Edmund ? 

Edm. No, my loid. 

Glo. My lord of Kent : remember him hereafter 
as my honourable friend. 

Edm. My fervices to your lordihip. 

Kent. I muft love you, and fue to know you better. 

Edm. Sir, I lhall ftudy deferving. 

Glo. He hath been out nine years, and away he 
ihall again : The king is coming. 

[Trumpets found witHn. 

Enter Lear, Cornwall, Albany, Goneril, Regan, Cordelia^ 
and attendants. 

Lear. Attend the lords of France and Burgundy, 


Glo. I ihall, my liege. [Exeunt Glofter, and Edmund. 
Lear. Mean time we Ihall 7 exprefs our darker 



* 'fame year cUer than this, ] The Oxford editor, not 

undemanding the common phrafe, alters year to years. He did 
not confider, the Bailard fays : 

For that I zmfome twelve or fourteen moon-fhines 

Lag of a brother. WAR BUR TON". 

Some year, is an expreffion ufed when we fpeak indefinitely. 


r express our darker pjirp^fe.'} Darker, for more fecret ; 
not ior indirect, oblique. WARECRTON*. 


35* K I N G L E A R. 

The map there. Know, that we have divided, 
In three, our kingdom : * and 'tis our faft intent 
To fhake all cares and bufmefs from our age ; 
Conferring them on younger ftrengths ', while we * 
Unburden'd crawl toward death. Our fon of Corn- 

And you, our no lefs loving fon of Albany, 
We have this hour a J conftant will to publifh 
Our daughters' feveral dowers, that future ftrife 
May be prevented now. The princes, France and 

This word may admit a further explication. We Jhall exprtfi 
eur darker purpofe : that is, we have already made known in 
forae meafure our defign of parting the kingdom ; we will now 
dtfcover what has not been told before, the reafons by which we 
fhall regulate the partition. This interpretation will juftify or 
palliate the exordial dialogue. JOHNSON. 

a and'tis our fait intent. \ This is an interpolation of 

Mr. Lewis Theobald, for want ot knowing the meaning of the 
old reading in the quarto of 1608, and firfl folio of 1623 ; where 
we find it, 

and 'tis wufrfl. intent ; 

which is as Shakefpeare wrote it ; who makes Lear declare his 
purpofe with a dignity becoming his character : that the firjl 
reafon of his abdication was the love ot his people, that they 
might be protected by fuch as were better able to difcharge the 
truft ; and his natural affection for his daughters, only thefrconJ. 


Fajl is the reading of the firfl folio, and, I think, the true 
reading. JOHNSON. 

from our age ;] The quartos read offourftate. 


1 Conferring them on younger ftrengths,] is the reading of the 
folio ; the quartos read, Confirming them on younger yean. 


wbilf we, &c.] From while we, down to prevented now t 
is omitted in the quartos. STEEVENS. 

3 conftant will teems a confirmation of faft intent. JOHNS. 
Conftant \sfirm, determined. Conftant will is the certa voluntas 
of Virgil. The fame epithet is ufed with the fame meaning in 
the Merchant of Venice : 

elfe nothing in the world 

Could turn fo much the constitution 
Of any conftant man. STEEVENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 353 

Great rivals in our youngeft daughter's love, 

Long in our court have made their amorous fojourn, 

And here are to be anfwer'd. Tell me, my daughters,, 

(Since now 4 we will diveft us, both of rule, 

Intereft of territory, cares of fiate,) 

Which of you, fhall we fay, doth love us moil ? 

That we our largeft bounty may extend 

5 Where nature doth with merit challenge. Goneril, 

Our eldeft-born, fpeak firft. 

Gon. Sir, I 

Do love you more than words can wield the matter, 
Dearer than eye-fight, fpace and liberty ; 
Beyond what can be valued, rich or rare ; 
No lefs than life, with grace, health, beauty, honour : 
As much as child e'er lov'd, or father found. 
A love that makes breath poor, and fpeech unable ; 
' Beyond all manner of fo much I love you. 

Cor. What ftiall Cordelia 7 do ? Love, and be filent. 


Lear. Of all thefe bounds, even from this line to 

With Ihadowy forefts and with 8 champains rich'd, 

4 Since now &c.] Thefe two lines are omitted in the quartos. 


5 Where nature aotb with merit challenge." ] Where the 

claim of merit is fuperadded to that of nature ; or where a fu- 
periour degree of natural filial affettion is joined to the claim of 
other merits. STEEVENS. 

6 Beyond all manner of fo much ] Beyond all affignable 

quantity. I love you beyond limits, and cannot fay it \sfo mucb t 
for how much foever I fliould name, it would yet be more. 


7 _<&?__] So the quarto ; the folio has fyeak. JOHNSON* 
* and with cbampains rich'd, 

With plenteous rivers 

Thefe words are omitted in the quartos. To rich is an obfolete 
verb. It is ufed by Tho. Drant in his translation of Horace'! 
/#/, 1567: 

** To ritch his country let his words lyke flowing watet 
fall." STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. A Witt! 

354 K I N G L E A R; 

With plenteous rivers and wide-fkirtcd meads, 
We make thee lady : To thine and Albany's iflue 
Be this perpetual. What fays our fecond daughter,, 
Our dearefl Regan, wife to Cornwall ? Speak. 

Reg. I am made of that felf metal as my fitter % 
And prize me * at her worth. In my true heart 
I find, fhe names my very deed of love ; 
Only fhe comes too Ihort : * that I profefs 
Myfelf an enemy to all other joys, 
3 Which the moft precious fquare of fenfe poflefics ; 
And find, I am alone felicitate 
In your dear highnefs* love. 

Cor. Then poor Cordelia ! [Afide. 

And yet not fo ; fince, I am fure, my love's 
* More pond'rous than my tongue. 


9 lam maaf, feV.] Thus the folio. The quarto reads, Sir, I 
am made of the J elf -fame metal that my Jtfter is. STEEVENS. 

1 And prize >ne\ I believe this paffage mould rather be pointed 

And prize me at her worth, in my true heart 
I find, Jbe names, &c. 

That is, And fo may you prize me at her worth, as in my true 
heart I fad, thatjbc names, &c. TYRWHITT. 

* - that I profffs'] T'hat feems to ihnd without relation, 
but is referred to find, the firtt conjunction being inaccurately 
fupprefled. I find that- fhe, names my deed, I find that I profefs, 
tec. JOHNSON. 

3 Which the moft precious fquare of fenfe poffcjjes ;] By fhe fquare 
of fenfe, we are, here, to underiland the four nobler fenfes, 
T'IZ. the fight, bearing, taftc, and fmcll. For a young lady could 
not, with decency, infinuate that (Vie knew of any pleafures 
which the fifth afforded. This is imagined and exprelfed with 
great propriety and delicacy. But the Oxford editor, tovfquarey 
reads j^/n'/. WAR BUR TON. 

This is acute ; but perhaps fat are means only compafs, coinpre* 
henfion. JOHNSON. 

So, in a Partfnefis to the Prince, by lord Sterline, 1604 : 
" 'rhcj'jvarc of rcatbu, and the mind's clear eye." 


* yiore pond'raxs than my tongue.~\ We fhould read, their 
tongue, meaning her filters. WARBUa-rox, 

I think 

K I N G L E A R. 355 

To thee, and thine, hereditary ever, 
Remain this ample third of our fair kingdom; 
5 No lefs in fpace, validity, and pleafure, 
Than that confirm'd 6 on Goneril. 7 Now, our joy, 
* Although the laft, not leaft ; to whole young love 
The vines of France, and milk of Burgundy, 
Strive to be interefs'd 9 ; what can you fay, ' to draw 
A third, more opulent than your fitters ? Speak. 

I think the prefent reading right. JOHNSOX. 
More pond'roua than my tongue.] Thus the folio : the quarto 
reads, more richer. STEEVENS. 

5 No lefs in fpace , tnlidiij. ] Validity, for worth, value; 
not tor integrity, or good title. WARBURTON. 

So, in the Denfft Charter, 1607 : 

" The countenance of your friend is of lefs value than his 
councel, yet both of very fmall 'validity." STEEVENS. 

6 confirm'd ] The folio reads, conferred. STEEVENS. 

7 Now our joy,] Here the true reading is picked out of 
two copies. Butter's quarto reads : 

But now our joy, 

Although the laft, not leaft in our dear love, 
What can you fay to win a third, &c. 
The folio : 

Now our joy, 

Although our laft, and leaft ; to vvhofe young love 

The vines of France, and milk of Burgundy, 

Strive to be int'refs'd. What can you fay &c. Joi;xso:*. 

8 Although our laji, not leaft, &c.] So, in the old anonymous 
play, King Leir fpeaking to Mum ford : 

< to thee laft of all ; 

" Not greeted laft, 'caufe thy defert was fmall. 


9 Strive to le interefs'd ;] So, in the Preface to Dray ton's I' V- 
nlbion : " there is fcarce any of the nobilitie, or gentry of this 
land, but he is fome way or other by his blood i^iffiJU the rein." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Sejanus : 

" Our facred laws andjuft authority 

" Are IntcreJJcd therein." 

To intereji and to interejje, are not, perhaps, different fpellings 
of the fame verb, but are two diftinct words though of the fame 
import ; the one being derived from the Latin, the other from 
the French intercffcr. STEEVENS. 

* to <//v-;v] The quarto reads what can you fay, to =:./. 


A a 2 Cor. 

356 K I N G L E A R. 

Cor. Nothing, my lord. 

Lear. * Nothing ? 

Cor. * Nothing. 

Lear. Nothing can come of nothing : fpeak again. 

Cor. Unhappy that I am, I cannot heave 
My heart into my mouth : I love your majefty 
According to my bond ; nor more, nor lefs. 

Lear. How, how, Cordelia ? J mend your fpeech 

a little, 
Left it may mar your fortunes. 

Cor. Good my lord, 

You have begot me, bred me, lov'd me : I 
Return thofe duties back as are right tit, 
Obey you, love you, and moft honour you. 
Why have my fifters hulbands, if they fay, 
They love you, all ? 4 Haply, when I mall wed, 
That lord, whofe hand mufl take my plight, fhall 


Half my love with him, half my care, and duty : 
Sure, I lhall never marry like my fifters, 
5 To love my father all. 

Lear. But goes thy heart with this ? 

Cor. Ay, my good lord. 

Lear. So young, and fo untender ? 

Cor. So young, my lord, and true. 

Lear. Let it be fo, Thy truth then be thy dower : 
For, by the facred radiance of the fun ; 

2 Thcfe two fpeeches are wanting in the quartos. STEEVENS. 
' Hoiv t how, Cordelia?] Thus the folio. The quarto reads 
Go to, go to. STEEVEVS. 

* Haply, when IJhall wed, &c.] So, in The Mirror ef 

ftlagijlrates, 1586, Cordila lays : 

** To love you as I ought, my father, well ; 
" Yet fhortly I may chance, if fortune will, 
** To find in heart to beare another more goodwill: 

" Thus much I faid of nuptial loves that meant." 


* To love ny father all. ] Thefe words are reftored from the 
firit edition, without which the lenie was not complete. POPE. 



The myfleries of Hecate, and the night ; 

By all the operations of the orbs, 

From whom we do exift, and ceafe to be ; 

Here I difclaim all my paternal care, 

Propinquity and property of blood, 

And as a ftranger to my heart and me 

6 Hold thee, from this, for ever. The barbarous 


Or he that makes his generation mefles 
To gorge his appetite, fhall to my bofom 
Be as well neighbour'd, pitied, and relieved, 
As thou my fometime daughter. 

Kent. Good my liege, 

Lear. Peace, Kent ! 

Come not between the dragon and his wrath : 
I lov'd her moft, and thought to fet my reft 
On her kind nurfery. Hence, and avoid my fight ! 

[To Cordelia \ 

So be my grave my peace, as here I give 
Her father's heart from her ! Call France ; Who 

Call Burgundy. Cornwall, and Albany, 

With my two daughters' dowers digcft this third : 
Let pride, which fhe calls plainnefs, marry her. 
I do inveft you jointly with my power, 
Preheminence, and all the large effects 
That troop with majefty. Ourfelf, by monthly courfe, 
With rcfervation of an hundred knights, 
By you to be fuftain'd, fhall our abode 
Make with you by due turns. 8 Only we fhall retain 


6 HoJJ tbce, from this, ' ] i. e. from this time. STEEVENS. 

7 [To Corildia.'] Rather, as the author of the Revifal obfcrves, 
to Kent. For in the next words Lear fends for France and Bur- 
gundy to offer Cordelia without a dowry. STEEVENS. 

* Only retain 

Jhe name, and all the additions to a king . 
f/jcfivay, revenue, execution, 
Beloved fan,!) le yours ; ' ' ' J 

A a 3 The 

358 K I N G L E A R. 

The name, and all the addition to a king ; 

The f\vay, revenue, execution of the reft, 

Beloved fons, be yours : which to confirm, 

This coronet part between you. [Giving the croi&t. 

Kent. Royal Lear, 

Whom I have ever honour'd as my king, 
Lov'd as my father, as my matter follow'd, 
As my great patron thought on in my prayers, 

Lear. The bow is bent and drawn, make from the 

Kent. Let it fall rather, though the fork invade 
The region of my heart: be Kent unmannerly, 
When Lear is mad. What would'it thou do, old man ? 
9 Thinii'il thou that duty fhall have dread to fpeak, 


The old books rend the lines thus ; 

The fvvay, revenue, execution of the reft, 

Beloved Ions, be yours. 

This is evidently corrupt; and the editors not knowing what to 

make of ef'tkerejl~-'i left it out. The true reading, \vi:h- 

out doubt, was : 

The ivvay, revenue, execution of tlS beft, 

ISeloved fons, be yours. 

Heft is an old word for regal command : To that the fenfe of the 
whole is, I will only retain the nate t tnA all the ceremonious ob- 
fcrvances that belong to a king ; the rjfcntlah, ns fvvay, revenue, 
AJnuniitration of the laws, be yours. \VARRUK TON. 

i execution of the rcft,\ I do not lee any great difficulty m 
the words, execution of the reft, which nre in both the old copies. 
'J he execution af the reft is, I fuppofc, all the rther lutjlntfs. Dr. 
V. aibui ton's own explanation ot his amendment confutes it; it 
f-cfl be a rrgal command, they were, by the grant of Lear, to 
have rather the beft than the execution, JOHNSON, 

9 TbinVft then, that duty flail have dread to ffeak^] I have 
given this paffage according to the old folio, from which the nio- 
riprn editions have (ilently departed, for the fake of better ivam- 
bers. with a degree of iniincerity, which, if not fometimes de- 
i .n.dand cenfiued, mull impair the credit of ancient books. 
<.)ne of the editors, and perhaps only one, knew how much mil- 
chief may be done by fuch clandeitine alterations. The quarto 
sigiccs with the folio, except that for rcfcrvc try Jlaie, it gives, 
r,-i'f I'c thy <,v.-/v, h;ss Jlonps, intend of fails to folly. The 
rneaning of atifcw my life vy judgment, is, I.ct >;:y I'fe l>c anj'iwr- 
al>l(for tryjuagmeat t or, / willjtake mj life on r,y opinion. The 

K I N G L E A R. 359 

When power to flattery bows ? To plainnefs honour's 


When majefty ftoops to folly. Reverfe thy doom; 
And, in thy beft confideration, check 
This hideous raihnefs : anfwer my life my judgment, 
Thy youngeft daughter does not love thee leaft ; 
Nor are thofe empty-hearted, whofe low found 
1 Reverbs no hollownefs. 

Lear. Kent, on thy life, no more. 

Kent. My life I never held but as * a pawn 
To wage againft thine enemies : nor fear to lofe it, 
Thy fafety being the motive. 

Lear. Out of my fight ! 

Kent. See better, Lear ; and let me flill remain 
3 The true blank of thine eye. 


reading which, without any right, has poflefled all the modern 
copies is this : 

to plainnefs honour 

Is bound, when majefty to folly falls. 

Referve thy ftate ; with better judgment check 

This hideous rafhnefs; with my life I anfwer, 

Thy youngeft daughter, &c. 
inclined to think tha 

I am inclined to think that reverfe fly doom was Shakefpeare's 
firft reading, as more appoiite to the prefent occafion, and that 
he changed it afterwards to referve t/jyj?ate, which cenduces more 
to the progrefs of the action. JOHNSON. 

1 Reverbs ] This is perhaps a word of the poet's own 

making, meaning the fame as reverberates. STEEVENS. 

To wage againft thine enemies ; ] 

i. e. I never regarded my life, as my own, but merely as a thing" 
of which I had the poffdlion not the property ; and which was 
entrufted to me as a fawn or pledge, to be employed in waging 
war againft your enemies. 

To ivage againft is an expreffion ufed in a letter from Guil. 
Webbe to Rcb 1 . Wilmot, prefixed to Tancred and GuifmunJ, 

1592: " you mail not be able to wage againjl me in the 

charges growing upon this action." STEEVENS. 

3 ne true blank of thine cye.~\ The blank is the ivbitc or exacl 
mark at which the arrow is mot. See better, fays Kent, and keep 
ziif aiivtyi inyour i>if\',; JOHNSON. 

A a 4 So, 

360 K I N G L E A B, 

Lear. Now, by Apollo, 

Kent. Now, by Apollo, king, 
Thou fwear'ft thy gads in vain. 

Lear. O, vaffal ! mifcreant ! 

[Laying his hand on his fword. 

Alb. Corn. Dear fir, forbear +. 

Kent. Do ; kill thy phyfician, and the fee bellow 
Upon the foul difeafe. Revoke thy gift 5 ; 
Or, whiift I can vent clamour from my throat, 
I'll tell thee, thou doft evil. 

Lear. Hear me, recreant ! 
On thine allegiance hear me I- 
Since thou haft fought to make us break our vow, 
(Which we durfl never yet,) and, with 6 ftrain'd pride, 
7 To come betwixt our fentence and our power, 
( 8 Which nor our nature nor our place can bear,) 


So, in the tragedy of C. T. Nero, 1607 : 

" He will climb, and aim at honour's white." 

Again, in the JJIe of Gulls, 1633 : 

" It cannot but cleavq the very white of our hopes." 


* Dear fir, forbear.] This fpeech is omitted in the quartos. 

5 thy gift."] The quartos read thy doom. STEEVENS. 

* . .1 'Jlraind pride'} The oldeft copy reads Jlraycd pride \ 
that is, pride exorbitant; pride pafling due bounds. JOHNSON. 

7 To come betwixt our fentence and our power ;\ Power, for ex- 
ecution of the fentence. WAR BURTON. 

Rather, as Mr. Edwards observes, our power to execute that 
fentence. STEEVENS. 

8 Which nor our nature, nor our place, can Isar, 

Our potency make good \ "] Mr. Theobald, bv putting the 
firft line into a parenthelis, aud altering make to made in the fe- 
cond line, had deftrCyed the fenfe or the whole ; which, as it 
flood before he corrupted the words, was this : ** You have en- 
deavouvpd, fays Lear, to make me break my oath ; you have 
prefumed to flop the execution of my fentence : the latter of 
thefe attempts neither my temper nor high ftation will fufier me 
to bear; and the other, had I yielded to it, ir.y power could 
not make good, or excuie." H'ku-b, in the firft line, refer- 
ring to both attempts : but the ambiguity of it, as it might re- 
fer only to the latter, has occasioned ail the oblcuihy of the paf- 
fage.' WAR BUR JON. 



Our potency made good, take thy reward. 
Five days we do allot thee, for provifion 
To fhield thee from difafters 9 of the world ; 
And, on the fixth, to turn thy hated back 
Upon our kingdom : if, on the tenth day following," 
Thy banifh'd trunk be found in our dominions, 
The moment is thy death : Away ! ' By Jupiter, 
This {hall not be revok'd. 

Kent. Why, fare thee well, king : fince thus thou 

wilt appear, 

1 Freedom lives hence, and banifliment is here. 
The gods to their dear fhelter 3 take thee, maid, 

[To Cordelia. 
That juflly think'ft, and haft moll rightly faid ! 

Theobald only inferted the parenthefis ; he found made good lit 
the beft copy of 1623: Dr. Warburton has very acutely ex- 
plained and defended the reading that he has choten, but I am 
not certain that he has chofen right. If we take the reading of 
the folio, our potency made good, the fenfe will be lefs profound 
indeed, but lefs intricate, and equally commodious. As thou. 
baft come with unreafonable pride between the fentence which I had 
faffed, and the power by which I foall execute it, take thy reward 
in another fentence which jball make good, JJjall efiablijb, Jhall 
maintain, that power. If Dr. Warburton's explanation be 
chofen, and every reader will wifli to choofe it, we may better 

Which nor our nature, nor our ftate can bear, 

Or potency make good. 

Mr. Davies thinks, that our potency made good, relates only to our 
place. Which our nature cannot bear, nor our place, without 
departure from the potency of that place. This is eafy and clear. 
Lear, who is characterized as hot, heady, and violent, is, 
with very juft obfervation of life, made to entangle himfelfwith 
vows, upon any fudden provocation to vow revenge, and then 
to plead the obligation of a vow in defence of implacability. 


9 Jifafters.'] The quartos read difeafes. STEEVENS. 

1 By Jupiter,] Shakefpeare makes his Lear too much a 

rnythologift : he had Hecate and Apollo before. JOHNSON. 

4 Freedom lives hence, ] So the folio : the quartos concuf 

in reading Friendjhlp lives hence. STEEVENS. 

3 dtarjk-clter ] The quartos read -proteftion. STEEVENS. 


362 K I N G L E A R. 

And your large fpeeches may your deeds approve, 

[To Re^an a,tJ. Goneril. 

That good effects may fpring from words of love. 
Thus Kent, O princes, bids you all adieu; 
4 He'll fliape his old courfe in a country new. [.v:/. 

Re-enter Glofler, with France, Burgundy, qnd at- 

Glo. Here's France and Burgundy, my noble lord. 

Lear. My lord of Burgundy, 
We firft addrefs towards you, who with this king 
Have rivall'd for our daughter ; What, in the leaft, 
Will you require in prelent dower with her, 
Or ceafe your queft of love 5 ? 

Bur. Moft royal majefty, 

I crave no more than hath your highnefs ofler'd, 
Nor will you tender lefs. 

Lear. Right noble Burgundy, 
When Ihe was dear to us, we did hold her fo ; 
Eut now her price is fall'n : Sir, there file {lands ; 
If aught within that little, 6 feeming fubftance, 
Or all of it, with our difpleafure piec'd, 
And nothing more, may fitly like your grace, 
She's there, and fhe is yours. 

Bur. I know no anfwer. 

4 Hfttjbapc his old courfe ] He will follow his old maxims ; 
he will continue to aft upon the fame principles. JOHNSON. 

* qucjl of love.] Qucjl of love is amorous expedition. The 

term originated from Romance. A quell was the expedition in 
which a 'knight was engaged. This phrafe is often to be met 
with in the Fairy <*uec>i. STEEVENS. 

* Seeming] \sbeautiful. JOHNSON. 

Seeming rather tttcsuujfaeioas. So, in the Merry J' r j-jes, &c. 

* 4 pluck the borrowed veil of modeity from the fo 

fecmlng miftrefs Page." 
Again, in Meafure for Meafurc : 

" hence fhall we fee, 

u If power change purpofe, what Qurfccwers be." 



K I N G L E A R. 363 

Lear. Sir, will you, with thofe infirmities flie 

7 owes, 

Unfriended, new-adopted to our hate, 
Dower'd with our curfe, and ftranger'd with our oath, 
Take her, or leave her ? 

Bur. Pardon me, royal fir ; 

8 Election makes not up on fuch conditions. 

Lear. Then leave her, fir ; for, by the power that 

made me, 
I tell you all her wealth. For you, great king, 

[To France. 

I would not from your love make fuch a ftray, 
To match you where I hate ; therefore befeech you 
To avert your liking a more worthier way, 
Than on a wretch whom nature is afhamM . 
Almoft to acknowledge hers. 

France. This is molt ftrange ! 
That fhe, who even but now was your bed object, 
The argument of your praife, balm of your age, 

9 The beft, the deareil ; ihould in this trice of time 
Commit a thing fo monftrous, to difmantle 

So many folds of favour ! Sure, her offence 
Mufl be of fuch unnatural degree, 
That monfters it ', z or your fore-vouch'd affection 


7 eKves,] 5. e. Is pofiefled of. STEEVENS. 

8 EJcftlon makes not up on fuch conditions.} To make up fignifies 
to complete, to conclude ; as, they made up the bargain ; but in 
this ienie it has, I think, always the fubject noun arter it. To 
make up, in familiar language, is neutrally, to come forward, to 
make advances, which, I think, is meant here. JOHNSON. 

9 The beft, the deare/l; ] Beft is added from the firit copy. 


There is no copy in which left is omitted. The quartos read 
Mojl left, mojl deartft. STEEVENS. 

1 That monfters ;'/.] This uncommon verb occurs again in Co- 
rlolanus, aft II. fc. ii : 

" To hear my nothings moiiftcr'd.'" STEEVE.NS, 
* The common books read : 

or your fore-vouch'd affeclion 

Fall'n into taint ; 


364 K I N G L E A R. 

Fall into taint : which to believe of her, 
Mull be a faith, that reafon without miracle 
Should never plant in me. 

Cor. I yet befeech your majefty, 
(If for I want that glib and oily art, 
To fpeak and purpofe not ; fince what I well intend, 

This line has no clear or ftrong fenfe, nor is this reading autho- 
rized by any copy, though it has crept into all the late editions. 
The early quarto reads : 

or you for vouch 'd affections 

Fall'ii into taint. 
The folio : 

- or your fore-vouch'd affection 

Fall into taint 

Taint is ufed for corruption and for difgrace. If therefore \ve take 
the oldeit reading it may be reformed thus : 

-- fure her offence 

Muft be of fuch unnatural degree, 

That monfters it ; or you for vouch'd affection 

Fall into taint. 

Her offence muft be prodigious, or you muft fall into reproach for 
.having vouched ajfcftion which you did not feel. It the reading 
of the folio be preferred, we may with a very flight change pro- 
duce the fame fenfe : 

'fure her offence 

Muft be of fuch unnatural degree, 

That monflers it, or your fore-vouch'd affeliou 

Falls into taint. - - 

That is, falls into reproach or ccnfurc. But there is another pof- 
fible fenfe. Or figpifies before, and or ever is before ever ; the 
meaning in the folio may therefore be, Sure her crime muft be 
mofiftrous before your affettion can be ajfeElcd with hatred. Let the 
reader determine. - As I am not much a friend to conjectural 
emendation, I fhould prefer the latter feafe, which requires no 
change of reading. JOHNSON-. 

Or, without the adjunct ever, fignifies before. So, in Mapkt's 
Nat. Hift. 1567 : ' The pyrites alib fparkkth ; and being hardly 
holden and prefled in any man's hand, burneth him fore or he 
perceiveth it. Again, Ibid: " perceiving I fhould be wet 
or I got home." COLLINS. 

Taint is a term belonging to falconry. So, in the Boole of 
Hautyng, &c. bl.l. no date: " A taint is a thing that goeth 
pverthwait the fethers, &c. like as it were eaten with wormes." 



1*11 do't before I fpeak) that you make known 

It is no vicious blot, murder, or foulnefs, 

No unchafle attion, or difhonbur'd ftep, 

That hath depriv'd me of your grace and favour : 

But even for want of that, for which I am richer ; 

A ftill-foliciting eye, and fuch a tongue 

That I am glad I have not, though, not to have it, 

Hath loft me in your liking. 

Lear. Better thou 

Hadft not been born, than not to have pleas'd me 
' better. 

France. Is it no more but this ? a tardinefs in 


Which often leaves the hiftory unfpoke, 
That it intends to do ? My lord of Burgundy, 
What fay you to the lady ? Love is not love, 
When it is mingled with regards, that Hand J 
Aloof 4 from the entire point. Will you have her ? 
She is herfelf a dowry J . 

Bur. 6 Royal Lear, 

Give but that portion which yourfelf proposed, 
And here I take Cordelia by the hand, 
Dutchefs of Burgundy. 

Lear. Nothing : I have fworn ; I am firm. 

Bur. I am forry then, you have fo loft a father, 
That you muft lofe a hufband. 

3 vaitfj regards that ftand.] The quarto reads : 
with reffefls that {land*. STEEVENS. 

4 from the entire point. ] Entire, for right, true. 


Rather, fingle, unmixed with other confiderations. JOHNSOW. 
Dr. Johnfon is right. The meaning of the paflage is, that 
his love wants fomething to mark its fincerity ; 

" Who fseks for aught in love but love alone." 


5 She is herfelf a dowry.] The quartos read : 

She is herfelf and dower, STEEVENS. 
' Royal Lear,] So, the quarto ; the folio has Royal king. 



; 3 <56 K I N G L E A R, 

Cor. Peace be with Burgundy ! 
Since that refpects of fortune are his love, 
I fhall not be his wife. 

France. Faireft Cordelia, that art moft rich, being 

poor ; 

Moft choice, forfaken ; and moft lov'd, defpis'd ! 
Thee and thy virtues here I feize upon : 
Be it lawful, I take up what's caft away. 
Gods, gods ! 'tis ftrange, that from their cold'ft 

My love ihould kindle to inflam'd refpedr.. 

Thy dowerlefs daughter, king, thrown to my chance, 
Is queen of us, of ours, and our fair France : 
Not all the dukes of wat'rifh Burgundy 
Shall buy rhis unpriz'd precious maid of me. 
Bid them farewel, Cordelia, though unkind : 
7 Thou lofeft here, a better where to find. 

Lear. Thou haft her, France : let her be thine; for we 
Have no fuch daughter, nor fhall ever fee 
That face of hers again : Therefore be gone, 

Without our grace, our love, our benizon. 

Come, noble Burgundy. 

\FlouriJh. Exeunt Lear, Burgundy, &fc. 

France. Bid farewel to your filters. 

Cor. The jewels of our father, with wafh'd eyes 
Cordelia leaves you : I know you what you are ; 
And, like a filter, am moft loth to call 
Your faults, as they are nam'd. Ufe well our father : 
To your profcffing bofoms 8 1 commit him : 
But yet, alas ! flood I within his grace, 

7 Thou lofeft here, ] Here and where have the power of 

nouns. Thou loleit this reiidence to find a better refidence in 
another place. JOHNSON. 

1 -profejjlng bofoms.] All the ancient editions read pro- 

fejjcd. The alteration is Mr. Pope's, but, perhaps, is unnecef- 
fary, as Shakefpeare often ufes one participle for the other ; 
longing for longed in the Gentlemen of Verona, and all-obeying 
for aU-olfjed in Antony and Cleopatra, STEEYSNS. 

I would 


I would prefer him to a better place. 
So farewel to you both. 

Reg. Prefcribe not us our duties. 

Gon. Let your ftudy 

Be, to content your lord ; who hath receiv'd you 
At fortune's alms : You have obedience fcanted, 
9 And well are worth the want that you have wanted. 

Cor. Timefhall unfold what ' plaited cunning hides, 
* Who cover faults, at laft fhame them derides. 
Well may you profpcr ! 

France. Come, my fair Cordelia. 

[Exeunt France, and Cordelia*. 

9 And well are ivnrtb the want that you have ivaitted.~\ This fa 
a very obfcure exprelfion, and muft be pieced out with an implied 
fenfe to be underftood. This I take to be the poet's meaning, 
ftript of the jingle which makes it dark : " You well deferve to 
meet with that want of love from your hufband, which you have 
protefled to want for our father." THEOBALD. 

AndvJtll are worth the want that you have wanted.] This noa- 
fenfe muft be corrected thus : 

And well are worth the want that you have vaunted. 
i. e. that diflierifon, which you fo much glory in, you deferve. 


I think the common reading very fuitable to the manner of our 
author, and well enough explained by Theobald. JOHNSON. 

I explain the paiTage thus : You are well dejerving of the 

want of dower that you are without. So, in the third part of 
K. HimyVl. ad IV. fc. i : " Though I want a kingdom," i.e. 
though I am without a kingdom. Again, in Stowe's Cfcomcle^ 
p. 137 : " Anfelm was expelled the realm, and wanted the whole 
profits of his biflioprick," i. e. he did not receive the profits, 


1 plaited cunning ] i.e. complicated, involved cunning. 


The word unfold, and the following lines in our author's J r emu 
end Adonis, fliew that plaited, or (as the quarto has it) pleated, is 
the true reading : 

" For that he colour'd with his high eftate, 
*' Hiding bafe fin in pleats of majeity." MALONE. 
* W~ho faults, &c.] The quartos read, 

Who covers faults, at h&J/jame them derides. 
This I have replaced. The former editors read with the folio : 
Y^ ho covers faults at laft with fhame derides. STEEVENS. 


368 K I N G L E A R. 

Con. Sifter, it is not a little I have to fay, of what 
moft nearly appertains to us both. I think, our fa- 
ther will hence to-night. 

Reg. That's moft certain, and with you ; next 
month with us. 

Gon. You fee how full of changes his age is ; the 
obfervation we have made of it hath not been little : 
he always lov'd our filler moft ; and with what poor 
judgment he hath now caft her off, appears too 

Reg. 'Tis the infirmity of his age : yet he hath ever 
but flenderly known himfelf. 

Con. The beft and foundeft of his time hath been 
but ram ; then muft we look to receive from his age, 
not alone the imperfections of long-engrafted con- 
dition, but, therewithal, the unruly waywardnefs 
that infirm and cholerick years bring with them. 

Reg. Such unconftant ftarts are we like to have 
from him, as this of Kent's banifhment. 

Gon. There is further compliment of leave-taking 
between France and him. Pray you, J let us hit 
together : If our father carry authority with fuch dif- 
pofitions as he bears, this laft furrender of his will 
but offend us. 

Reg. We fliall further think of it. 

Gon. We muft do fomething, and 4 i' the heat. 


3 Jet us hit ] So the old quarto. The folio, let us 

fit. JOHNSON. 

'"-'let us hit] i. e. agree. STEEVENS. 

* ' i' the h(at\ i. e. We mu&firitt while the iron's hot. 




S C E N E. IL 

A cajlle belonging to the earl of Gbfter, 
Enter Edmund, with a letter. 

Edm. s Thou, nature, art my goddefs ; to thy law 
My fervices are bound : Wherefore ihould I 
6 Stand in the plague of cuflom ; and permit 

5 Thou, nature, art my goddefs ; ] He makes his baftard 

an atheift. Italian atheiim had much infecled the Englifh court, 
as we learn from the beft writers of that time. But this was the 
general title thofe atheifts in their works gave to nature : thus 
Vanini calls one of his books, De admirandi$ Naturae Regina 
deaeque mortalium Arcanis. So that the title here is empha- 
tical. WAR BURTON. 

Dr. Warburton fays that Shakefpeare has made his lajlard an 
atbeift ; when it is very plain that Edmund only fpeaks of nature 
in oppofition to cuftom t and not (as he fuppofes) to the exigence 
of a God. Edmund means only, as he came not into the world 
as cuftom or la--,v had prefcribed, fo he had nothing to do but to 
follow nature and her laws, which make no difference between 
legitimacy and illegitimacy, between the eldeft and the youngeir. 

To contradict Dr. Warburton's aflertion yet more Itrongly, 
Edmund concludes this very fpeech by an invocation to heaven. 
" Now <?</.> ftand up for baftards !" STEEVENS. 

* Stand in the plague of cuflom, ] The word plague is in all 

the old copies : I can fcarcely think it right, nor can I yet re- 
concile myfelf to plage, the emendation propofed by Dr. Warbur- 
ton, though I have nothing better to offer. JOHNSON. 

The meaning is plain, though oddly exprefled. Wherefore 
fliould I acquielce, fubmit tamely to the plagues and injustice of 
cuftom ? 

Shakefpeare feems to mean by the plague of cuflom, Wherefore 
ihould 1 remain in a fituation where I (hall be plagued and tor- 
mented only in confequence of the contempt with which cuflom 
regards thofe who are not the iffue of a lawful bed ? Dr. War- 
burton defines plage to be the place, the country, the boundary of 
cuftom ; a word to be found only in Chaucer. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. Bb The 

37 o KING LEAR, 

7 The curiofity of nations 8 to deprive me, 
For that I am fome twelve or fourteen moon-fhine* 
9 Lag of a brother ? Why baftard ? Wherefore bale ? 
When my dimenfions are as well compact, 

7 77r courtefy of nations ] Mr. Pope reads nice'-:. The 

copies give, the curioiity of nations, ; but our author's word 
was, curtfjy. In our laws fome lands are held by the curK-jy of 
England. THEOBALD. 

Cnrinfjy, in the time of Shakefpeare, was a word that fiwni- 
r/iiitd an ever-nice fcrxpnloufnefs in manners, drefs, S:c. In this 
i'cnfe it is ufed in Timon. w When thon wait (lays 'Apemantus) 
in thy gilt and thy perfume, they rnock'd thee for too much t/.- 
riojity" Barrett in his Alvearie, or S>uadruplc Di8iona>y, 1580, 
interprets it r piked diligence : fomctbing too curious, or too much cif- 
fcSlatcd: and again in this play of A". Lear, Shake! pea re feems to 
ufe it in the fame fenfe, " which I have rather blamed as my own 
jealous curlofity" Curicjity is the old reading, which Mr. Theo- 
bald changed into courtcfy, though the former is uied by Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, with the meaning for which I contend. 

It is true, that Orlando, in A3 You Like It, fays: " The 
crurtffy of nations allows you my better;" but Orlando is not 
there inveighing againft the law of primogeniture, but only 
the unkind advantage his brother takes of it, and coitrttfy is a 
word that fully fuits the occafion. Edmund, on the contrary, is 
turning this law into ridicule ; and for fuch a purpofe, the curio- 
Jlty of nat:mn, (i. e. the idle, nice diftinrtions of the world) is a 
phrufe of contempt much more natural in his mouth, than the 
foftcr expreffion of courtrjy of nations. STLLX ENS. 

8 to Jeprivf ;/,] To deprive wns, in our author's timc T 
fvnonyinous to Jifiul>trit. The old Ji^tionnry renders cxhxrcjo 
by this word : and Holinflied fpeaks of the line -;/" Henry before 

Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, Rook III. ch.xvi. 
' To you, if whom ye have dcprlv 'd ye flwll reltore again.** 
Ag.iin, Ibid: 

" The one reftored, for his late depriving nothing mov'd." 


'* Isrg tf a brother ?~\ Edmund inveighs agninfl the tyranny 
of cuftom, in two imianco-. with rdp.^.: :<> younger brothers, 
and to batVards. In the former he mint not be underftood to 
riieaa hiinfelf. but tl;c argument beco; . by imply- 

ing more thau i> laid, ]l b.rej 'art jho:t!ii i ar .i,.v man. 



K I N G L E A R. yji 

My mind as generous, and my Ihape as true, 
As honeft madam's ifiue ? Why brand they us 
With bafe ? with bafenefs ? baftardy ? bafe, bafe ? 
1 Who, in the lufty flealth of nature, .take 
More compofmon and fierce quality, 
Than doth, within a dull, (tale, tired bed, 
Go to the creating of a whole tribe of fops, 
Got 'tween afleep and wake ? Well then, 
Legitimate Edgar, I muft have your land : 
Our father's love is to the baftard Edmund, 
As to the legitimate : Fine word, legitimate ! 
Well, my legitimate, if this letter fpeed, 
And my invention thrive, Edmund the bafe 
s Shall top the legitimate. I grow ; I profper : 


1 JWo, in the lufyficalth of nature, &c.] Thefe fine lines are 
an inftance of our author's admirable art in giving proper fenti- 
inents to his characters. The la/tarcf* is that of a confirmed 
atheift ; and his being made to ridicule judicial ajlrology was de- 
figned as one mark or" luch a character. For this impious juggle 
had a religious reverence paid to it at that time. And therefore 
the beft characters in this play acknowledge the force of the {tars' 
influence. But how much the lines following this, are in cha- 
racter, may be feen by that monftrous wifh of Vanini, the Ita- 
lian atheift, in his traftZV admirandi s Nature, &c. printed at Paris, 
1616. the very year our poet died. " O ntlnam extra legitimum 
fe" connubialem tborum effem procreatus ! Ita enim progcnitorcs met 
in venerem incaluiflent ardentius, ac cumulat'mi affatimque gene- 
rofa feinina contulilFent, e quibus ego form*? blanditiam et elegan- 
tianiy robuftas corporis vires, mentemque inmibiltm confeqtiuttts fuif- 
fem. At quia conjugatorum fum foboles, his orbatus lum bonis." 
Had the book been published but ten or twenty years fooner, who 
would not have believed that Shakefpeare alluded to this paiTage ? 
But the divinity of his genius foretold, as it were, what fuch an 
atheift as Vanini would fay, when he wrote upon fuch a fubjedr. 


* Shall be tie legitimate. ~] Here the Oxford editor would 

{hew us that he is as good at coining phrafes as his author, and 
fo alters the text thus : 

Shall toe th' legitimate.- 

i. e. fays he, fiand on even ground with him, as he would do with 
his author. WAR BUR TON. 

B b 2 Han- 

372 K I N G L E A R. 

J Now, gods, fland up for baftards ! 

Enter Glofter. 

Glo. Kent banifh'd thus ! And France in cholcr 

parted ! 

And the king gone to-night ! 4 fubfcrib'd his power ! 
Confin'd to 5 exhibition ! 6 All this done 
Upon the gad ! Edmund ! How now ? what news ? 

Hanmer's emendation will appear very plaufihle to him that 
{hall confult the original reading. Butter's quarto reads : 

Edmund the bafe 

Shall toot// legitimate. 

The folio, -Edmund the bafe 

Shall to ///legitimate. 

Hanmer, therefore, could hardly be charged with coining a 
word, though his explanation may be doubted. To toe him, is 
perhaps to kick him out, a phrafe yet in vulgar ufe ; or, to toe, 
may be literally tofupplant. The word be has no authority. 


Mr. Edwards would read, Shall top the legitimate. 
I have received this emendation, becaufe the fucceeding ex- 
preffion, I grow, feems to favour it. STEEVKXS. 

3 No-iu t gods, ftand up for baftards /] For what reafon ? He 
does not tell us ; but the poet alludes to the debaucheries of the 
Pagan gods, who made heroes of all their baftards. 


fubfcrib'd bit fHOtnf] SulfcrlVd, for transferred, 

alienated. W A R B u R T o N . 

To fubfcribe, is, to transfer by figning or fulfcriling a writing 
of teftimony. We now ufe the term, Hey ubftribcd iorty pounds 
to the new building. JOHNSON. 

The folio reads preferred. STEEVENS. 
5 . ^exhibition! ] Is allowance. The term is yet ufed 
in the univerfuies. JOHNSON. 

6 All this dene 

Upon the gad ! ] 

So the old copies : the later editions read : 

All is gone 

Upon the gad ! 

which, befides that it is unauthorized, is Icfs proper. To do up- 
on the gad, is, to act by the fudden ftimulation of caprice, as 
cattle run madding when they are ftung by the gad fly. 




Earn. So pleafe your lordfhip, none. 

[Putting up the letter. 

Glo. Why fo earneftly feek you to put up that 
letter ? 

Edm. I know no news, my lord. 

Glo. What paper were you reading ? 

Edm. Nothing, my lord. 

Glo. No? What needed then that terrible difpatch 
of it into your pocket ? the quality of nothing hath 
not fuch need to hide itfelf. Let's fee : Come, if it 
be nothing, I ihall not need fpedtacles. 

Edm. I befeech you, fir, pardon me : it is a letter 
from my brother, that I have not all o'er-read ; and 
for fo much as I have perus'd, I find it not fit for 
your over-looking. 

Glo. Give me the letter, fir. 

Edm. I Ihall offend, either to detain or give it. 
The contents, as in part I underftand them, are to 

Glo. Let's fee, let's fee. 

Edm. I hope, for my brother'sjuflification, he wrote 
this but as an eflay or 7 tafte of my virtue. 

Glo. reads.] s This policy, and reverence of age, makes 
the ivorld bitter to the bejl of our times ; keeps our for- 
tunes from us, 'till our oldnefs cannot relijh them. I begin 
to find an 9 idle and fond bondage in the npprejjion of aged 
tyranny -, who fways, not as it hath poiver, but as it is 

7 tafte of my virtue.'] Though tafte may ftand in this 

place, yet I believe we fhould read, ajjay or teft of my virtue : 
they are both metallurgical terms, and properly joined. So, in 
Hamlet : 

" Bring me to the tejl" JOHNSON. 

8 m* policy and reverence of ages- ] Age is the reading of 

both the copies of authority. Butter's quarto has, this policy of 
age \ the folio, this policy and reverence of age. JOHNSON. 

The two quartos published by Butter, concur with the folio in read- 
ing age. Pope's duodecimo is the only copy that has ages. 

P idle and fond ] Weak and foolifh. JOHNSON. 

Bb 3 fif. 

3 74 K I N G L E A R. 

Suffered. Come to me, that of ibis I may fpeak more. 
If our father would Jleep *//// / wak'd him, you foould 
enjoy half his revenue for ever, and live the beloved of 
your brother^ Edgar. Hum Confpiracy ! Sleep, 
3 fill I wak'd him,youjhould enjoy half his revenue. 
My fon Edgar ! Had he a hand to write this ? a 
heart and brain to breed it in ? When came this to 
you ? Who brought it ? 

Edm. It was not brought me, my lord, there's the 
cunning of it ; I found it thrown in at the cafement 
of my clofet. 

Gk* You know the character to be your brother's ? 

Edm. If the matter were good, my lord, I durft 
fwear it were his; but, in refpect of that, I would 
fain think it were not. 

Glo. It is his. 

Edm. It is his hand, my lord ; but, I hope, his 
heart is not in the contents. 

Glo. Hath he never heretofore founded you in this 
buiinefs ? 

Edm. Never, my lord : But I have often heard 
him maintain it to be fit, that, fons at perfect age, 
and fathers declining, the father Ihould be as ward 
to the fon, and the fon manage his revenue. 

Glo. O villain, villain ! His very opinion in the 

letter! Abhorred villain! Unnatural, detefted, 

brutifh villain ! worfe than brutilh ! Go, firrah, 
feek him ; I'll apprehend him : Abominable vil- 
lain ! W 7 here is he ? 

Edm. I do not well know, my lord. If it fhall 
pleafe you to fufpend your indignation againfl my 
brother, 'till you can derive from him better tcftimony 
of his intent, you fhould run a certain courfe ; where, 
if you violently proceed againfl him, miltaking his 
purpofe, it would make a grent gap in your own 
honour, andfhakein pieces the heart of his obedience. 
I dare pawn down my life for him, that he hath 


KING I, E A R. 375 

vvrit this to foel my affe&ion to your honour, and to 
no other ' pretence of danger. 

Gk. Think you fo ? 

Edm. If your honour judge it meet, I will place 
you where you fliall hear us confer of this, and bv an 
auricular afibrance have your fatisf;;ctk>n ; and that 
without any further delay than this very evening. 

Gk. He cannot be fuch a monftcr. 

EMU. z Nor is not, lure. 

Gk. To his father, that fo tenderly and entirely 
loves him. Heaven and earth ! Edmund, feek 
him out ; 3 wind me into him, I pray you : frame 
the bufinefs after your own wifdom : 4 I would un- 
ilate myfelf, to be in a due resolution. 


1 pretence ] Pretence is defign, purpofe. So, after- 
wards in this play. 

Pretence and purpofe of unkindnefs. JOHNSON. 
* //;//.] From Nor is, to heaven and earth ! are words omit- 
ted in the folio. STEEVKNS. 

* wind me into him, -] I once thought it fliould he 

read, you into him; but, perhaps, it is a familiar phrate, like 
do me this. JOHNSON. 

So, in Twelfth-Night : " challenge me the duke's youth 

to fight with him." Inflanccs of this phrafeology occur in the 
Mtrchant of Venice, K. Henry IV. Part I. and in OlMlo. 


4 1 ivculd unftate myfelf to be in a due rcfoh!>o>t.~\ i.e. I 

will throw afide all con fide rat ion of my relation to him, that I 
may at as jultice requires. WAREURTON. 

Such is this learned man's explanation. I take the meaning 
to be rather this, Do you frame the lu/!ncfi, who can act with lets 
emotion; I would vnjftatt tajfelf \ it would in me be a departure 
from the paternal character, to It in a due refolution, to be fet- 
tled and compofed on fuch an occaiion. The, words would and 
JJjould are in old language often confounded. JOHNSON. 
The fame word occurs in Antony and Cleopatra : 
11 Yes, like enough, high-battled Caefar will 
** Unjlate his happinefs, and be ilag'd to fliew 

** Againft a fworder." 

To unftatf, in both thefe inftances, feems to have the fame mean- 
ing. Edgar has been reprefented as wifliing to po fiefs his fa- 
ther's fortune, i.e. to vjlxtt him; and therefore his father fays 
B b 4 he 

376 K I N G L E A R. 

Edm. I will feek him, fir, prefcntly ; 5 convey 
the bufinefs as I ihall find means, and acquaint you 

Glo. Thefe late eclipfes in the fun and moon por- 
tend no good to us : Though 6 the wifdom of nature 
can reafon it thus and thus, yet nature finds itfelf 
fcourg'd by the fequent effects : love cools, friend- 
Jhip falls off, brothers divide : in cities, mutinies ; 
in countries, difcord ; in palaces, treafon ; and the 
bond crack'd 'twixt fon and father. 7 * This villain 
of mine comes under the prediction ; there's fon 
againfl father : the king falls from bias of nature ; 

he would unjlate himfelf to be fufficiently refolvcd to punifli 

To enjlate is to confer a fortune. So, in Menfitre for Mea- 
fure : 

- his pofleflions 

We do cnftate and widow you withal. STEEVEKS. 
It feems to me, that I ivoylj unftate myfelfin this paflage means 
iimply, fwJMtktgivt my eftate (including rank as well as fortune.) 


5 convey the lufinefs ] Convey ', for introduce : but 

convey is a fine word, as alluding to the practice of clandeftine 
conveying gocds, fo as not to be found upon the felon, 


To convey is rather to carry through thnn to introduce ; in this 
place it is to manage artfully: we lay of a juggler, that he has 
a clean conveyance. JOHNSON. 

So, in Mother Bombie, by Lilly, 1599 ; " Two, they fay, 
may keep counfel if one be away"; but to convey knavery two 
are too few, and four are too many," 
Again, in A mad IVorld my Mafters, by Middleton, 1640 : 

thus I've convey* el it ; 

" I'll counterfeit a fit of violent ficknefs." STEEVEKS. 
So, in lord Sterline's Julius Cafnr, 1607 : 

" A circumflance or an indifferent thing 

' Doth oft mar all, when not with care conveyed. 


' ,$/ vjifJom of nature ] That is, though natu- 
ral philofophy can give account of eclipfes, yet we feel their con- 
fequences. JOHNSON. 

7 This villain ] All from afleriflc to afkerilk is omitted in the 
rjuartos. STEEYEN.S, 


K I N G L E A R. 377 

there's father againfl child. We have feen the befl 
of our time : Machinations, hollownefs, treachery, 
and all ruinous diforders, follow us difquietly to. 

our graves ! * Find out this villain, Edmund ; 

it fhall lofe thee nothing ; do it carefully : And 

the noble and true-hearted Kent banifh'd ! his of- 
fence, honcfty ! Strange! ftrange ! . [Exit. 

' Edm. 8 This is the excellent foppery of the world ! 


8 This is the excellent foppery of tie world, &c.] In Shakefpeare's 
beft plays, befides the vices that arife from the fubjeft, there is 
generally fome peculiar prevailing folly, principally ridiculed, 
that runs through the whole piece. Thus, in The Tempeft, the 
lying difpofition of travellers, and, in As You Like It, the fan- 
taftic huifiour of courtiers, is expofed and fatirized with infinite 
pleafantry. in like manner, in this play of Lear, the dotages 
of judicial aftrology are feverely ridiculed. I iancy, was the 
date of its firft performance well confidered, it would be found 
that fomething or other happened at that time which gave a 
more than ordinary run to this deceit, as thefe words feem to in- 
timate ; / am thinking, brother, of a prediftion I read this other 
Jay, what JJjould follow thefe eclipfes. However this be, an im- 
pious cheat, which had fo little foundation in nature or reafon, 
fo deteftable an original, and fuch fatal cdhfequences on the 
manners of the people, who were at that time ftrangely belbtted 
with it, certainly deferved the fevereft lafli of fatire. It was a 
fundamental in this noble fcience, that whatever feeds of good 
difpofitions the infant unborn might be endowed with either from 
nature, or tradu<ftively from its parents, yet if, at the time of 
its birth, the delivery was by any cafualry fo accelerated or re- 
tarded, as to fall in with the predominancy of a malignant con- 
ftellation, that momentary influence would entirely change its 
nature, and bias it to all the contrary ill qualities : fo wretched 
and monftrous an opinion did it fet out with. But the Italians, 
to whom we owe this, as well as moft other unnatural crimes 
and follies of thefe latter ages, fomented its original im- 
piety to the moft deteftable height of extravagance. Petrus 
Aponenfis, an Italian phyfician of the i3th century, afiures us 
that thofe prayers which are made to God when the moon is in 
conjunction with Jupiter in the Dragon's tail, are infallibly 
heard. The great Milton, with a juit indignation of this im- 
piety, hath, in his Paradlfe Regained, fatirized it in a very 
beautiful manner, by putting thefe reveries into the mouth of 
the devil. Nor could the licentious Rabelais himfelf forbear to 


37 3 KING LEAR. 

that, when we are Tick in fortune, (often the furfeit of 
our own behaviour) we make guilty of our difafters, 
the fun, the moon, and the flars : as if we were 
villains by neceflity ; fools, by heavenly compulfion ; 
knaves, thieves, 9 and treachers, by fpherical predo- 
minance ; 

ridicule this impious dotage, which he does with exquifite ad- 
drefs and humour, where, in the fable which he fo agreeably 
tells from ^Efop, of the man who applied to Jupiter for the lofs 
of his hatchet, he makes thofe who, on the poor man's good fuc- 
cefs, had projected to trick Jupiter by the fame petition, a kind 
of aftrologic atheifts, who afcribed this good fortune,, that they 
imagined they were now all going to partake of, to the influence 
of fome rare conjunction and configuration of the liars. " Hen, 
hen, difent ils Et doncques, telle eft au temps prefent la re- 
volution des Cieulx, la conflellation des Ailres, & afpec"} dcs pla- 
netes, que quiconque coignee perdra, foubdain deviendv.i ainii 

riche ?" Nou. Prol. du IF. Livre. But to return to 

Shakefpeare. So blafphemous a delufion, therefore, it became 
the honeny of our poet to expofe. But it was a tender point, 
and required managing. For this impious juggle had in his time 
a kind of religious reverence paid to it. It was therefore to be 
done obliquely ; and the circumiiances of the fcene furniflied 
him with as good an opportunity as he could wifh. The pcrtbns 
in the drama are all^Pagans, fo that as, in compliance to cuitom, 
bis good characters were not to fpeak ill of judicial altrology, they 
could on account of their religion give no reputation to it. But 
in order to expofe it the more, he, with great judgment, makes 
thefe Pagans fatalifts ; as appears by thefe words of Lear : 

By all the operations of the orbs, 

From whom we do exift and ceafe to be. 

For the doctrine of fate is the true foundation of judicial aftro- 
logy. Having thus difcredited it by the very commendations 
given to it, he was in no danger of having his direcl fatire againit 
it miflaken, by its being put (as he was obliged, both in paying 
regard to cuftom, and in following nature) into the mouth ot the 
viuain and ctheiit, efpecially when he has added fuch force of 
reafoo to his ridicule, in the word* referred to in the beginning 
of the note. WAR BUR TON. 

9 and trfacf.n-rs, ] The modern editors read treacherous j 

but the reading of the firft copies, which I have reftored to the 
text, may be fupported from mofl of the old contemporary wri- 
ters. So, in DoSlor DodypoU, a comedy, 1600 : 

'* How fmooth the cunning trtafkf iook'd upon it!" 



minance; drunkards, lyars, and adulterers, by an in- 
fore M obedience of planetary influence ; and all that 
we are evil in, by a divine thrufting on : x An admi- 
rable evafion of whore-mafter man, to lay his goatifh. 
difpofition to the charge of a ftar ! * My father com- 
pounded with my mother under the dragon's tail; and 
my nativity was under urfa major', fo that it follows, 
I am rough and lecherous. Tut, I fliould have been 
that I am, had the maidenlieft ftar in the firmament 
twinkled on my baftardizing. Edgar 

Rnter Edgar. 

and 3 pat 4 he comes, like the cataftrophe of the 


Again, in Every Man in bis Humour : 

" Oh, you treachour /" 

Again, in Robert Earl of Huntingdon, 1 60 1 : 

** Hence, trecber as thou art !" 

Again, in the T>Uody Banquet, 1639 : 

" To poiibn the right ufe of fervice a trecber" 
Chaucer, in his Romaunt of tbe Rofe, mentions ** the falfe 
ireachcr," and Spenfer often ufes the fame word. STEEVENS. 
1 An admirable evafion to lay his difpojition on the charge 

fff a /far ! ] We fhould read, change of a Jlar ! 

which both the fenfe and grammar require. It was the opinion 
of aftrologers (fee what is laid juft above) that the momentary 
influence did ail ; and we do not fay, Lay a thing on tbe charge* 
but to tbe charge. Befides, change anfwering to evafion juil 
above, gives additional elegance to the expreffion. 


* of a Jlar.'} Both the quartos read to the charge of Jlar $. 


3 pat be comes ] The quartos read, 

--and out he comes. . STEEVENS. 

* becomes, like tbe catajlrcpbe of the old comedy : ] 

This we are to underftand, as a compliment intended by the 
author, on the natural winding up of the plot in the comedy of 
the ancients j which as it was owing to the artful and yet na- 
tural introduction of the perfons of the drama into the fcene, 
juft in the nick of time, or pat, as our author fays, makes the 
limilitude very proper. This, without doubt, is the fupreme 
beauty of comedy, confidered as an aflion. And as it depend* 
folely on a ftridl obfervance of the unities, it fhews that thefe 
in nature, and in the reafon of things, and not in a 


380 K ING LEA R. 

old comedy : My cue is villainous melancholy, 
with a figh like Tom o' Bedlam. O, thefe eclipfes 
do portend thefe divifions ! fa, fol, la, me 

Edg. How now, brother Edmund ? What ferious 
contemplation are you in ? 

Edm. I am thinking, brother, of a prediction I 

mere arbitrary invention of the Greeks, as fome of our own 
country critics, of a hxv mechanic genius, have, by their works, 
perfuaded our wits to believe. For common fenfe requiring that 
the fubject of one comedy (hould be one aftion, and that that action 
fhould be contained nearly within the period of time which the 
reprefentation of it takes up ; hence we have the unities of time 
and aftion ; and, from thefe, unavoidably arifes the third, which 
is that of place. For when the whole of one attion is included 
within a proportionable fmall fpace of time, there is no room to 
change thefcene, but all mud be done upon oncfpot of ground. 
Now from this laft unity (the neceflary iflue of the two other, 
which derive immediately from nature) proceeds all that beauty 
of the catajlropbf, or the winding up the plot in the ancient co- 
medy. For all the perfons of the drama being to appear and act 
on one limited fpot, and being by their feveral intereftb to em- 
barras, and at length to conduct the action to its deftin'd period, 
there is need of confummate (kill to bring them on, and take them 
off", naturally and neccjjarily ; for the grace of action requires the 
one, and the perfection of it the other. Which conduct of the 
action muft needs produce a beauty thn.t will give a judicious mind 
the higheft pleafure. On the other hand, when a comic writer 
has a whole country to range in, nothing is eafier than to find the 
perfons of the drama juft where he would have them ; and this 
requiring no art, the beauty we fpeak of is not to be found. 
Confequently a violation of the unities deprives the drama of one 
of its greatcft beauties ; which proves what I aflerted, that the 
three unities are no arbitrary, mechanic invention, but founded in 
reafon and the nature of things. The Tempeft of Shakefpeare fuf- 
ficiently proves him to be well acquainted with thefe unities ; and 
the paflage in queftion fliews him to have been ftruck with the 
beauty that refults from them. WARBURTON. 

This fuppofnion will not at all fuit with the character of Ed- 
mund, with the comic turn of his whole fpeech, nor with the 
general idea of Shakefpeare's want of learning ; fo that I am 
more apt to think the paflage /afire than p.meg yric, and intended 
to ridicule the very aukward conclufions ot our old comedies, 
where the perfons of thefcene make their entry inartificially, and 
juft when the poet wants them on the ftage. WARNER. 


KING LEAR. 3 8r 

read this other day, what fhould follow thefc 

Edg. Do you bufy yourfelf with that ? 

Edm. s I promife you, the effects he writes of, 
fucceed unhappily ; 6 * as of unnaturalnefs between the 
child and the parent ; death, dearth, diflblutions of 
ancient amities ; divifions in ftate, menaces and male- 
dictions againft king and nobles ; needlefs diffidences, 
banifhment of friends, diffipation of cohorts 7 , nup- 
tial breaches, and I know not what. 

Edg. 8 How long have you been a fectary aftro- 
nomical ? 

Edm. Come, come ; * when faw you my father laft.? 

Edg. Why, the night gone by. 

Edm. Spake you with him ? 

Edg. Ay, two hours together. 

Edm. Parted you in good terms ? Found you no 
difpleafnre in him, by word, or countenance ? 

Edy. None at all. 

Edm. Bethink yourfelf, wherein you may have 
offended him : and at my entreaty, forbear his pre- 
fence, until fome little time hath qualified the heat 
of his difpleaiure ; which at this inftant fo rageth in 

5 I promife you, ] The folio edition commonly differs from 

the firil quarto, by augmentations or infertions, but in this place 
it varies by omiffion, and by the omiffion of fomething which na- 
turally introduces the following dialogue. It is eafy to remark, 
that in this fpeech, which ought, I think, to be inferted as it 
now is in the text, Edmund, with the common craft of fortune- 
tellers, mingles the paft and future, and tells of the future only 
what he already foreknows by confederacy, or can attain by pro- 
bable conjecture. JOHNSON. 

6 a s of'] All from this afterifk to the next, is omitted in the 
folio. STEEVENS. 

7 diffipation of cohorts. ] Thus the old copy. Dr. Johnfon 
reads, of courts. STEEVENS. 

8 HQ-'M long have you ] This line I have reftored from 

the two eldeft quartos, and have regulated the following fpeech 
according to the fame copies. STEEVENS, 



him, ' that with the mifchiqf of your perfon it 
would fcarcely allay. 

Edg. Some villain hath done me wrong. 

Edm. That's my fear. * * I pray yon, have a 
continent forbearance, 'till the fpeed of his rage goes 
flower ; and, as I fay, retire with me to my lodg- 
ing, from whence:! will fitly bring you to hear my 
lord fpeak : Pray you, go; there's my key: If 
you do ftir abroad, go arm'd. 

Edg. Arm'd, brother ? * 

Edm. Brother, I advife you to the beft ; go arm'd ; 
I am no honeft man, if there be any good meaning 
towards you : 1 have told you what I have feen and 
heard, but faintly ; nothing like the image and hor- 
ror of it : Pray you, away. 

Edg. Shall I heap from you anon ? 

Eiiw. I do ferve you in this bufinefs. [Exit Edgar. 
A credulous father, and a brother noble, 
Whofe nature is fo far from doing harms, 
That he fufpecls none ; on whofe foolifh honefty 

My practices ride eafy ! I fee the bufinefs. . 

Let me, if not by birth, have lands by wit : 

All with me's meet, that I can fafhion fit. [Exit. 

* flat with the mfiliirf of your perfon ] This rending 

is in both copies; yet I believe the author gave it, that but 
u.\ib the mifchief of your perfon it would fcarce allay. 


I do not fee any need of alteration. He could not exprefs the 
violence of his father's difpleafure in ftronger terms than by fay- 
ing it was fo great that it would fcarcely be appeafed by the de~ 
fJiu<Ttio!i of his fon. MALONE. 

* V'iat's mvfcar.} All between this and the next afteriflc, is 
omitted in the quartos. STEEVENS. 




We duke of Albany's palace. 
Enter Goneril, and Steward. 

Co. Did my father ftrike my gentleman for 
chiding of his fool ? 

Stew. Ay, madam. 

Gon. By day and night ! he wrongs me ; every hour 
He flafhes into one grofs crime or other, 
That fets us all at odds : I'll not endure it : 
His knights grow riotous, and himfelf upbraids us 
On every trifle : When he returns from hunting, 

I will not fpeak with him ; fay, I am fick : 

If you come flack of former fervices, 

You Ihall do well ; the fault of it I'll anfwer. 

Stezv. He's coming, madam ; I hear him. 

[Horns within. 

Gon. Put on what weary negligence you pleafe, 
You and your fellows ; I'd have it come to queflion : 
If he diflike it, let him to my fifler, 
Whole mind and mine, I know, in that are one, 
* Not to be over-rul'd. * Idle old man, 
That ftill would manage thofe authorities, 
That he hath given away ! Now, by my life, 
4 Old fools are babes again ; and muft be us'd 


? . ' Me old man, "\ The lines from one afterifk to the other, 
as they are fine in themfelves, and very much in character for 
Goneril, I have reftored from the old quarto. The lait verfe, 
which I have ventured to amend, is there printed thus : 

With checks, like flatf ries when they are feen abus*d. 

4 Old fools are babes again ; and muft le u?d 

H r <th checks likeJZatt'nes ivben they are feen dbufd.] Thus the 
old qudrto reads thefe lines. It is plain they are corrupt. But 
they have been made vvorfe by a fruitlefs attempt to correct them. 
Andfirft, for 

Old fools are babes again ; 




With checks, as flatteries when they are feen abus'd *. 
Remember what I have faid, 

- Staff 9 

A proverbial exprelTion is here plainly alluded to ; but it is a 
ftrange proverb which only informs us that fools are innocents. 
We fhould read, 

Old folks are babes again ; 

Thus fpeaks the proveib, and with the ufual good fenfe of one. 
The next line is jumbled out of all meaning : 

With checks like flatt'ries when they're feen abus'd. 
Mr. Theobald reftores it thus, 

With checks like flattVf r$ when they're feen to abufe us. 
Let us confider the fenfe a little. Oldfoiks^ fays the fpeaker, are 
labes again ; well, and what then? \Vhy then they mult be ufed 
like flatterers. But when Shakefpeare quoted the proverb, we may 
be allured his purpofe was to draw fome inference from it, and 
not run rambling atter a fimilitude. And that inference was not 
difficult to find, had common fenfe been attended to, which tells 
us Shakefpeare -muft have wrote, 

Old folks are babes again ; and muft be us'd 

With checks, not fiat? ries when they're feen abus'd. 
i. e. Old folks being grown children again, they fhould be ufed as 
we ufe children, with checks, when we find that the little jlatfrics 
we employed to quiet them are abufed, by their becoming more 
peevifh and perverfe by indulgence. 

when they're feen abus'd. 

i. e. When we find that thofe flatt'ries are abus'd. 


Thefe lines hardly deferve a note, though Mr. Theobald thinks 
them very fine. Whether fools or folks fhould be read is not 
worth enquiry. The controverted line is yet in the old quarto, 
not as the editors reprefent it, but thus : 

With checks as flatteries when they are feen abus'd. 
I am in doubt whether there is any error of tranfcription. The 
fenfe feems to be this : Old men muft be treated with checks, when 
as they are feen to be deceived with fiatteries : or, ichen they are 
v:cak enough to be feen abufed by flatteries, they are then weak 
enough to be ufed with checks. There is a play of the words 
vftd and abufed. To abufe is, in our author, very frequently the 
fame as to deceive. This conftruclion is harfh and ungrammati- 
cal ; Shakefpeare perhaps thought it vicious, and chofe to throw 
away the lines rather than correct them, nor would now thank 
the officiou Chefs of his editors, who reftore what they do not un- 
derftand. JOHNSON. 


K I N G L E A R. 385 

Stew. Very well, madam. 

Go/i. And let his knights have colder looks among 


What grows of it, no matter ; advifc your fellows fo : 
I would breed from hence occafions, and I lhall, 
That I may fpeak : I'll write ftraight to my lifter, 
To hold my very courfe : Prepare for dinner. 


S C E N .E IV. 

An open place before the palace. 
Enter Kent, difguifed. 

Kent. s If but as well I other accents borrow, 
That can my fpeech difTuie, my good intent 


The plain meaning, I believe, is old fools muft be ufed with 
checks, as flatteries muft be check'd when they are made a bad 
ufe of. TOLLET. 

I underftand this paflage thus. Old fids mujl le vfcd with 
r/vr/'.f, as well as flatteries, when they \^\.c. flatteries] arc Jeen to 
be abnfcd. T Y R w H I T T . 

5 If lut as <wcll I other accents lorrovjy 

And can my fpeech difufe. ] 

Thus Rowe, Pope, and Johnfon, in contradiction to all the 
ancient copies. 

The firft folio reads the whole paflage as follows : 

If but as 'Mill I other accents borrow, 

That can my fpeech defuft, my good intent 

May carry through, &:c. 

We muft fuppofe that Kent advances locking en his difcnife. 
This circumftance very naturally leads to his fpeech, which, 
otherwife, would have no very apparent introduction. //' / can 
change my fpeech as ivcll as I have changed tny drefs. To dijfafi 
fpeech, lignirics to dlfordcr it, and fo to difguife it ; as in the 
Merry Wives of Windfor, aft IV. fc. vii : 

" rufli at once 

" With fome diffufid long." 

Again, in the Nice Valour , &c. by Beaumont and Fletcher, Cu- 
pid fays to the Pajjionate UTa/i, who appears difordered in his drefs : 

*' Go not fo dlffufedly ." Again, in our author's A'. JLary 

V: " (wearing, and ftern looks, d'.f'uid attire." 

VOL. IX. Cc Again, 


^May carry through itfelf to that full iffue 
For which I raz'd mylikcnefs. Now, banifli'd Kent, 
If thou can'rt icrve where thou doft {land condemn'd, 
(So may it conic !) thy matter, whom thou lov'ft, 
Shall find thcc full of labours. 

Horr.s :^'// />.';;. Enter Lcar^ Knights, and Attendants, 

Lear. Let me not Hay a jot for dinner ; go, get it 

How now, what art thou ? 

Kent. A man, fir. 

Lear. What doft thou profefs ? What would'ft thou 
with us ? 

Kent. I do profefs to be no Icfs than I feem ; to 
ferve him truly, that will put me in truft ; to love 
him that is honeft ; to converfe with 6 him that is 

Again, in a bock entitled, A Green Forejl, or A Natural 
Sac. by John Miplet, 1567 : " In this ftone is apparently feene 
verie often the verie forme of a tode, with befpotted and co- 
loured feete, but thofe uglye and dcfufciUy." - To dijfufe 
fpecch may, however, mean tofpeak oroad, with a clownifh accent. 
; The two eldeft quartos concur with the folio, except thac 
they read ivell inftead of <xlil. STEEVENS. 

Dijfrffd'fXXtvaAj meant, in our author's time, wild, irregular, 
heterogeneous. So, in Green's Farewell to Follie, 1617: 

" I have feen an Englifli gentleman fo defufedva. his fuits, his 
doublet being for the weare or Caltile, his hole for Venice, his 
hat for France, his cloak for Germany, that hec feemed no way 
to be an Englifhman but by the face." MALONE. 

6 -bi,n that it <t'.'-/!-, and fays little; - ] Though faying 
little may be the character of wifdom, it was not a quality to 
chufe a companion by for his converfation. We ftiould read, 
to fay little ; which was prudent when he chofe a will- companion 
to profit by. So that it WHS as much as to fay, I profefs tu talk 
little myfelf, that I ir...y profit the more by the converfation of 
the wife. \VARLVPTON. 

To converfe fignifies immediately and properly to lap company, 
not to difcourfe or talk. His meaning is, that he chutes for .his 
companions men of reforvc and caution ; men who are no tattlers 
nor tale-bearers. The old reading is the true. JOHNSON-. 

We ftill fay in the fame fenfehe had criminal converfation 
with her meaning commerce. MALONE. 



xvife, and fays little; to fear judgment; to fight, 
\vhcn I cannot choofe ; 7 and to eat no filh. 

Lear. What art thou ? 

Kent. A very honefl-hcarted fellow, and as poor as 
the king. 

Lear. If thou be as poor for a fubjedt, as he is 
for a king, thou art poor enough. What would'ft 
thou ? 

Kent. Service. 

Lear. Whom would'ft thou ferve ? 

Kent. You. 

Lear. Dofl thou know me, fellow ? 

Kent. No, fir; but you have that in your coun- 
tenance, which I would fain call matter. 

Lear. What's that ? 

Kent. Authority. 

Lear. What fervices can'ft thou do ? 

Kent. I can keep honed counfel, ride, run, rnara 
curious tale in telling it, and deliver a plain mcfiage 
bluntly : that which ordinary men are fit for, I am 
qualify *d in ; and the befl of -me is diligence. 

Lear. How. old art thou ? 

Kent. Not Ib young, fir, to love a woman for fing- 

7 and to cat no fjh.'\ In queen Elizabeth's time the 

Papifts were eftcemed, and with good reafon, enemies to the go- 
vernment. Hence the proverbial phrafe of, He's an boneft man, 
ami eats nofitt}\ to fignify he's a friend to the government and a 
Proteftant. The eating 'fiih, on a religious account, being then 
efteemed fuch a badge of popery, that when it was enjoin'd for 
a feafon by aft of parliament, for the encouragement of the fifh- 
towns, it was thought necelfary to declare the reafon ; hence it 
was called Cecil's fa/}. To "this difgraceful badge of popery 
Fletcher alludes in his Wcfaan-Jjater, who makes the courtezan 
fay, when Lazarillo, in fearch of the Umbrano's head, was 
feized at her houfe by the intelligencers for a traytor : " Gen- 
tlemen, I am glad you have difcovered him. He fliould not have 
eaten under my roof for twenty pounds. And fure I did not 
like him, when he called for fjb" And Marfton's Dutch Cour- 
tezan; " L truft I am none of the wicked that eat JjJJj afryjay.'* 


C c 2 ing; 


ing; nor fo old, to dote on her for anything: I 
have years on my back forty-eight. 

Lear. Follow me ; thou (halt ferve me ; if I like 
thee no worfe after dinner, I will not part from thee 
yet. Dinner, ho, dinner! Where's my knave ? my 
fool ? Go you, and call my fool hither : 

Enter Steward. 

You, you, firrah, where's my daughter ? 

Stew. So pleafe you, [Exit. 

Lear. What fays the fellow there ? Call the clot- 
pole back. Where's my fool, ho? 1 think the 

world's afleep. How now ? where's that mungrel ? 
Knight. He fays, my lord, your daughter is not well. 
Lear. Why came not the Have back to me, when I 
call'd him ? 

Knight. Sir, he anfwer'd me in the rounded man- 
ner, he would not. 
Lear. He would not ! 

Knight. My lord, I know not what the matter is ; 
but, to my judgment, yourhighnefsisnot entertain'd 
with that ceremonious affection as you were wont ; 
there's a great abatement of kindncfs appears, as 
well in the general dependants, as in the duke him- 
felf alfo, and your daughter. 
Lear. Ha ! fay 'ft thou fo ? 

Knight. I befeech you, pardon me, my, lord, if I 
be miftaken ; for my duty cannot be filcnt, when I 
think your highnefs is wrong'd. 

Lear. Thou but remember'ft me of mine own con- 
ception : I have perceived a moft faint negledt of 
late ; which I have rather blamed as mine own jealous 
curiofity, than as a very pretence 8 and purpofe of 

8 a very pretence.] Pretence in Shakefnc.;re generally fig- 

niiies defign. So, in a foregoing fcene in this play : " to 

no other pretence of danger." Again, in //W-'w/ZW, p. 648 : 
*' the prctenfed evill purpofe of the queene." STEEVENS. 



unkind nefs : I will look further into't. But where's 
my fool ? I have nut ken him thefe two days. 

Ktiigbt. Since my young lady's going into France, 
fir, the fool hath much pin'd away. 

Lear. No more of that; I have noted it well. 
Go you, and tell my daughter I would fpeak with 
her. Go you, call hither my fool. 

' Re-enter Steward. 

O, you fir, you fir, come you hither : Who am I, 
fir ? 

Stsw. My lady's father. 

Lear. My lady's father ! my lord's knave : you 
whorefon dog ! you Have ! you cur ! 

Stew. I am none of thefe, my lord ; I befeech you, 
pardon me. 

Lear. Do you bandy looks 9 with me, you rafcal ? 

[Striking him. 

l Sfc~v. I'll not be (truck, my lord. 

Kent. Nor tript neither ; you bafe foot-ball player. 

[Tripping up bis heels. 

Lear. I thank thec, fellow ; thou ferv'ft me, and 
I'll love thee. 

Kent. Come, fir, arife, away ; I'll teach you dif- 
ferences ; away, away : If you will meafure your 
lubber's length again, tarry : but away : go to ; 
Have you vvifdom ? fo. \_PvJbesthe Stewardout. 

Lear. Now, mv friendly knave, I thank thee : 
there's earneft of thy fervice. [Giving Kent money. 

9 - bandy looks - ] A metaphor from Tennis: 
* Come in, take this lanJy with the racket of patience.'* 

Decker's Satirowajlix. 
Again: " - buckle with them hand to hand, 

" And lantly blows as thick as halftones fall." 

Wly BeguiUJ. 

C c 

390 K I N G L E A R. 

Enter Fool. 

Fool. Let me hire him too ; Here's my coxcomb. 

[Giving Kent his cap. 

Lear. How now, my pretty knave ? how doft 
thou ? 

Fool. Sirrah, you were beft take my coxcomb. 

Kent. Why, fool ? 

Fool. Why ? For taking one's part that is out of 
favour : Nay, an thou can'il not fmile as the wind fits, 
thou'lt catch cold fhortly : There, * take my cox- 
comb : Why, this fellow has baniih'd two of his 
daughters, and did the third a bleffing againft his 
will ; if thou follow him, thou muft needs wear 
my coxcomb. How now, nuncle ? 'Would I had J 
two coxcombs, and two daughters ! 

Lear. Why, my boy ? 

Fool. If I gave them all my living, I'd keep my 
coxcombs myfelf : There's mine ; beg another of 
thy daughters. 

Lear. Take heed, firrah ; the whip. 

Fool. Truth's a dog that muft to kennel ; he mud 

1 #7;yfool?] The folio reads why, my fay? and gives this 
queftion to Lear. STEEVENS. 

* tale my coxcomb.} Meaning his cap, called fo, be- 

caufe on the top of the fool or jefter's cap was iewed a piece of 
red cloth, refembling the comb of a cock. The word, after- 
wards, was ufed to denote a vain, conceited, meddling fellow. 


See Fig. XII. in the plate at the end of the firft part of Kin? 
Henry IV. with Mr. Toilet's explanation, who has fince added, 
that Mir.fhew, in his Dictionary, jCi; fays, "Natural ideots and 
fools, have, and ftill do accultome theWelves to weare in their 
cappes cockes feathers, or a hat tivV/6 a necke and head of a cocke 
on the to/>, and a bell thereon, Sec." STEEVENS. 

3 tii-o coxcombs, ] Two fools caps, intended, as it 

feems, to mark double folly in the roan that gives all to his, 
daughters. JOHNSON. 


K I N G L E A R. 391 

be whipp'd out, when the * lady brach may (land by 
the fire and (link. 

Lear. A peftilent gall to me ! 

Fool. Sirrah, I'll teach thee a fpcech. [To Kent. 

Lear. Do. 

Fool. Mark it, nuncle : 

Have more than thou fhowefl, 
Speak It-is than thou knoweft, 

5 Lend lefs than thou owed, 
Ride more than thou goeft, 

6 Learn more than thou trowed, 
Set lefs than thou throweft ; 
Leave thy drink and thy whore, 
And keep in-a-door, 

And thou flialt have more 
Than two tens to a fcore. 

Kent. This is nothing, fool 7 . 

* lady track ] Brach is a bitch of the hunting kind. 

" Nos quidem hodie brach dicimus de cane fceminea, quozlepo- 
rem ex odore periequitur. Spelm. Gloff. in voce JJracco." 

Dr. Letherland, on the margin of Dr. Warburtca's edition, pro- 
pofed lady's brach, i. e. favoured animal. The third quarto has 
a much more unmannerly reading, which I would not wifti to 
eftablifh : but all the other editions concur in reading lady brach. 
Lady is ftill a common name for a hound. So Hotfpur : 

" I had rather hear lady, my brach, howl in Irifh." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Poem to a Friend, &c. 

Do all the tricks of a fait lady bitch." 

In the old black letter Booke of Huntyng, &c. no date, the lift 
of dogs concludes thus : " and fmall ladi popies that bere 
awai the fleas and divers fmall fautes." We might read " when 
lady the brack, &c." STEEVENS. 

s Lend lefs than thou <nw/#,] That is, do not lend all that thott 
haft. To o-jjc, in old Englifli, is to poJTefs. Ifoxwbe taken for 
to be in debt, the more prudent precept would be : 
Lend more than thou oweft. JOHNSON. 

6 Learn more than thou trowel!,] To trow, is an old word 
which fignifies to believe. The precept is admirable. 


7 7^/V is nothing^ fool.] The quartos give this ipeech to Lear* 


C C 4 Fool* 

39 2 KING LEAR. 

Fool. Then it is like the breath of an unfee'd 
lawyer ; you gave me nothing for't : Can you make 
no ufe of nothing, nuncle ? 

Lear, Why, no, boy; nothing can be made out 
of nothing. 

Fool. Pr'ythee, tell him, fo much the rent of his 
land comes to ; he will not believe a fool. [To Kent. 

Lear. A bitter fool ! 

Fool. Doft thou know the difference, my boy, be- 
tween a bitter fool and a fweet fool ? 

Lear. ? No, lad, teach me. 

Fool. That lord, that counfel'd thee 

To give away thy land, 
Come place him here by me, . 

Or do thou for him fiand : 
The fweet and bitter fool 

Will prefently appear j 
The one in motley here, 

The other found out there. 

Lear. Doft thou call me fool, boy ? 

Fool. All thy other titles thou haft given away ; 
that thou waft born with. 

Kent. This is not altogether fool, my lord. 

Fool. No, 'faith, lords and great men will not let 
me ; ' if I had a monopoly out, they would have 


* No, lad'\ This dialogue, from No, lad, teacbme, down'to, Give 
mt an egg, was reftored from the firfl edition by Mr. Theobald. It 
is omitted in the folio, perhaps for political reafons, as it feemed 
to cenfure monopolies. JOHNSON. 

9 if I bad a monopoly out, they would have apart on't : ] 
A fatire on the grofs abufes of monopolies at that time ; and the 
corruption and avarice of the courtiers, who commonly went 
flares with the patentee. WARBURTON. 
The modern editors, without authority, read 

a monopoly /?;/'/, 

onopolies were in Shakefpcare's time the common objects of 
So, in Decker's Match me in London, 163 r .- 



part on't : and ladies too, they will not let me have 

ajl fool to myfclf ; they'll be {hatching. -Give me 

an egg, nuncle, and I'll give thee two crowns. 
Lear. What two crowns fhall they be ? 
Fool Why, after I have cut the egg i' the middle, 
and eat up the meat, the two crowns of the egg. 
When thou cloveft thy crown i' the middle, and 
gavett away both parts, thou boreft thine afs on thy 
back over the dirt : Thou had'il little wit in thy bald 
crown, when thou gaveft thy golden one away. If 
I fpeak like myfelf in this, let him be whipp'd that 
firft finds it fo. 

10 Fools ne'er Toad ' lefs grace in a year ; [Singing. 

For wife men are grown foppi/b ; 
And, know not how their wits to wear, 
ybeir manners are fo apijh. 

Lear. When were you wont to be fo full of fongs, 
firrah ? 

Fool. I have ufed it, nuncle, ever fince thou mad'ft 
thy daughters thy mothers : for when thou gaveft 
them the rod, and put'ft dov/n thine own breeches, 

" Give him a court loaf, flop his mouth with a monopoly" 
Again, in Ram- Alky, or Merry Tricks, 1611 : 

" A knight, and never heard of imock-fees ! I would I had 
a monopoly of them, fo there was no impoit let on them." 
Again, in the Birth of Merlin t 1662 : 

" So foul a monfter would be a fair monopoly worth the 


In the books of the Stationers' Company, I meet with the fol- 
lowing entry. " John Charlewoode, Oft. 1587: lycenfed unto 
him by the whole content or the alliitants, the onlye ymprynting 
of all manner of billes tor plniers." Again, Nov. 6, 1615. The 
liberty of printing all billes lor fencing was granted to Mr. Pur- 
foot. STEEVENS. 

10 Fools ne'er had lefs grace in ayear,~\ There never was a time 
when fools were lets in tavour ; and the reafon is, that they 
\vere never fo little wanted, for wife men now fupply their place. 
Such I think ie the meaning. The old edition has <uvV for grace. 


1 Irfc grace ] So the folio. Both the quartos read - 

394 K I N G L E A R. 

Then they for fuddenjoy did weep % [Singing. 

And I for forrcnv fung, 
That fuck a kingfoould play bo-pcep, 

And go the fools among. 

Pr'ythee, nuncle, keep a fchool-mafter that can teach 
thy fool to lie ; I would fain learn to lie. 

Lear. If you lie, firrah, we'll have you whipt. 

Fool. I marvel, what kin thou and thy daughters 
are : they'll have me whipt for fpeaking true, thou'lt 
have me whipt for lying ; and, fometimes, I am whipt 
for holding my peace. I had rather be any kind of 
thing, than a fool : and yet I would not be thee, 
nuncle ; thou haft pared thy wito'both fides, and left 
nothing in the middle : Herecomes one o' the parings. 

Enter Goneril. 

Lear. How now, daughter? what makes 3 that 

frontlet en ? 
Methinks, you are too much of late i' the frown. 

* Then they for fudden joy did iveep, &c.] So, in the Rape of 
Lucrece, by'Heywood, 1630: 

< When Tarquin firft in court began, 

" And was approved king, 
*' So men for fuddenjoy did iverf t 
- But Iforforrowjing." 

I cannot afcertain in what year T. Heywood firft publilhed this 
play, as the copy in 1630, which I have ufcd, was the fourth 
impreffion. STEEVENS. 

3 that frontlet ] Lear alludes to the frontlet , which 

was anciently part of a woman's drefs. So, in the play called 
the Fours P's, 1569: 

*' Forfooth women have many lets, 
*' And they be mafked in many nctc : 
" As frontlets^ fillets, partlets, and bracelets : 
*' And then their bonets and their poinets.'* 
Again, in Lylly's MiJas> 1592 : 

** Hoods, frontlets, wires, cauls, curling-irons, perriwigj, 

bodkins, fillets, hair-laces, _ribbons, roles, knotitrings, glafles, &c." 




Fool. Thou waft a pretty fellow, when thou had'ft 
no need to care for her frowning ; now thou art an O 
without a figure : I am better than thou art now ; I 
am a fool, thou art nothing. Yes, forfooth, I will 
hold my tongue ; [To Goneril] fo your face bids me, 
though you fay nothing. Mum, mum, 

He that keeps nor cruft nor crum, 
Weary of all, lhall want fome. 
4 That's a iheal'd peafcod. [Pointing to Lear. 

GOH. Not only, lir, this your all-licens'd fool, 
But other of your infolent retinue 
Do hourly carp and quarrel ; breaking forth 
In rank and not-to-be-endured riots. Sir, 
I had thought, by making this well known unto you, 
To have found a fafe rcdrefs ; but now grow fearful, 
By what yourfelf too late have fpoke and done, 
That you protect this courfe, and 5 put it on 
By your allowance ; which if you fhould, the fault 
Would not 'fcape cenfure, nor the redrefles fleep ; 
Which, in the tender of a wholefome weal, 
Might in their working do you that offence, 
Which elfe were lhamc, that then neceffity 
Will call difcreet proceeding. 

Fool. For you trow, nuncle, 

The hed;.;e-fparrow fed the cuckoo fo long, 

That it had its head bit off by its young. 

4 That's afyeardpeafcod.~\ i. e. Now a mere huflc, which con- 
tains nothing. The outfide of a king remains, but all the in- 
trinfic parts of royalty are gone : he has nothing to give. 


That's ajbeardpeafcod.} The robing of Richard lid's effigy in 
Weftminiter-abbey is wrought with pea/cojs open, and the peas out ; 
perhaps in aliuuon to his being once in full pofleffion of fovereignty, 
but foon reduced to an empty title. See Camden's Remains, 1 674, 
p. 453, edit. 16^-, p. 340. TOLLET. 

5 put it oti] i. e. promote, pufh it forward. So, in Macbeth: 

*' .the pow'rs 

<f Put en their inilruments.". . .... ...... STEEVENS. 


39 6 KING LEAR. 

SD, out went the candle, and we 6 \vcre left dark' 


Lear. Are you our daughter ? 
Gon. Come, fir, 

I would, you would make ufe of that good \vifdom 
Whereof I know you arc fraught ; and put away 
Thefe difpofitions, which of late transform you 7 
From what you rightly are. 

Fool. May not an als know when the cart draws 
the horfe ? 8 Whoop, Jug ! I love thee. 

Lear. Does any here know me ? Why this is not 

Lear 9 :' 
Does Lear walk thus ? fpeak thus ? Where are his 

eyes ? 

Either his notion weakens, or his difcernings 
Are lethargy'd Ha ! waking? 'Tis not fo '. 
Who is it that can tell me who I am ? Lear's 
fliadow * ? 

c ivcre left darkling.] This word is ufed by Milton, 

faradlfe Loft, book i : 

as the wakeful bird 

Sings Jarkling." STEEVENS. 

7 transform yo\\."\ Thus the quartos. The folio reads 

tranft>ort you. STEEVENS. 

8 ^WT)oep\ Jug, &c.] There are in the fool's fpeeches 

feveral paflagcs which fccm to be proverbial aliufions, perhaps 
not now to be underftood. JOHNSON. 

.. Hljoopi Jugy I love t bee. 1 This, as I am informed, is a 
quotation from the burthen of an old long. STEEVENS. 

9 this is not Lear :] This paflage appears to have been 

imitated by Ben Jonfon in his Sad Shepherd : 

*' this is not Marian ! 

" Nor am I Robin Hood ! I pray you afk her ! 
" Afk her, good fliepherds ! alk her all for me : 
" Or rather alk yourfclves, if (he be fne ; 
" Or I be 1." STEEVENS. 

1 Ha! waking? Ta not fa.] Thus the folio. The quartos 
read : 

Jleeping or waking ; ha ! fure 'tis not fo. STEEVENS. 
* 'Lear'ffoadoku ?] The folio gives thele words to the Fool. 


I would 


I would learn that ; ' for by the marks 

Of fov'reignty, of knowledge, and of reafon, 

I fhould 

-for ly the 

Of forfreignty, of bwwleafcf, fin,l of reafon] 
His daughters prove fo unnatural, that, if he were only to judge 
by the reafon of things, he mufi conclude, they cannot he his 
daughters. This is the thought. But how does his kingfhip or 
fovereignty enable him to judge of this matter? The line, by be- 
ing falfe pointed, has loft its fenfe. We fhould read, 

Of fovereignty of knowledge. 

i. e. the underloading. He calls it, by an equally fine phrafe, 
in Hamlet^ Sovereignty of reafon. And it is remarkable that the 
editors had depraved it there too. See note, aft i. fcene 7. of that 
play. WAR BUR TON. 

The contested paff.ige is wanting in the folio. STEEVENS. 
The difficulty, which muft occur to every reader, is, to con- 
ceive how the marks of fovercignly, of knowledge ^ and of reafon^ 
fhould be of any uie to perfuade Lear that he bad, or had not, 
daughters. No logic, I apprehend, could draw fuch a con- 
clution from fuch premlfes. This difficulty, however, may be 
entirely removed, by only pointing the pafiuge thus :. 

for by the marks 

Of fov'reignty, of knowledge, and of reafon, 
I fhould be falfe perfuaded I had daughters. 
Your name, fair gentlewoman ? 

The chain'of Lear's fpeech being thus untangled, we can clearly 
trace the fucceflion and connection ot his idea.-;. The undutiful 
behaviour of his daughter fo dilconcerts him, that he doubts, by 
turns, whether (he is Goneril, and whether he him felt" is Lear. 
Upon her firft fpeech, he only exclaims, 

Are you our daughter ? 

Upon her going on in the fame fryle, he begins to queftion his 
own fanity ot mind, and even his pcrfooal identity. He appeals 
to the by-ftanders, 

Who is it that can tell me who I am ? 

I fliould be glad to be told. For (if I was to judge myfclf) by 
the mark^ of fovereignty ^ of knowledge) and of rcafon^ which once 
diftinguifhed Lear, (but which I have now loft) I jhould be falfe 
(againft my own confcioufnefs) perfuade J (that I am not Lear). 
He then Hides to the examination of another diftinguifhing mark 
of Lear : 

1 had daughters. 

But not able, as it fhould feem, to dwell upon fo tender a fub- 

jeft, he haftily recurs to his :vf: doubt concerning Goneril, 

Your name, fair gentlewoman. TYKWJUTI. 


398 K I N G L E A R. 

I fhould be falfe perfuaded I had daughters 4 . 
Your name, fair gentlewoman ? 

Gon. Come, fir ; 

This admiration is much o' the favour 
Of other your new pranks. I do bcfeech you 
To underfland my purpofes aright : 
As you are old and reverend, you fhould be wife : 
Here do you keep a hundred knights and fquires ; 
Men fo diforder'd, fo debauch'd, and bold, 
That this our court, infetted with their manners, 
Shews like a riotous inn : epicurifm and luft 
Make it more like a tavern, or a brothel, 
Than 5 a grac'd palace. The fhame itfelf doth fpeak 
For inftant remedy : Be then defir'd 
By her, that elfe will take the thing Ihe begs, 
6 A little to difquantity your train ; 


This note is written with confidence difproportionate to the 
conviction which it can bring. Lear might as well kno'w by the 
marks and tokens arifing from fovcreignty, knowledge, and rea- 
fon, that he had or had not daughters, as he could know by any 
thing elfe. But, fays he, if I judge by thefe tokens, I find the 
perfuafion falfe by which 1 long thought myfelf the father of 
daughters. JOHNSON. 

* 1 had Jaugbtcrs. ] Here the quarto interpofes the fol- 
lowing ftiort and uielefs fpeech of the fool : 

" Which they will make an obedient father." 
WT>icb> is en this occafion ufed with two deviations from prefent 
language. It is referred, contrary to the rules or" grammarians, 
to the pronoun 7, and is employed, according to a mode now ob- 
folete, for<iv<ta;//, the accufativecafeof-u^o. STEEVENS. 

5 a grac\{ palace. ~] A palace grac'd by the prefence of 

a fovereign. \\~AKBURTON. 

6 A little to Jifquantity your train ;] A little is the reading ; but 
it appears, from what Lear fays in the next icene, that this num- 
b er fifty vvas ^quired to be cut off, which (as the editions itood) 
is no where fpecified by Gxmeril. POPE. 

Of fifty to difquantity vour train ;] If Mr. Pope had examined 
the old copies as accurately as he pretended to have done, he 
would have found, in \hefirjl folio > that Lear had an exit marked 
for him after thcfe words 

To havt- H rhanklefs child. Away, away, 
and goes out while Albany and Goneiil have a fliort conference 



And the remainder, ' that lhall ftill depend, 
To be fuch men as may befort your age, 
And know themfelves and you. 

Lear. Darknefs and devils ! 

Saddle my horfes ; call my train together. 

Degenerate baftard ! I'll not trouble thee ; 
Yet have I left a daughter. 

Con. You ftrike my people ; and your diforder'd 

Make fervants of thoir betters'. 

Enter Albany. 

Lear. Woe, that too late repents, O, fir, arc 
you come ? 

Is it your will ? fpeak, fir. Prepare my horfes 

[To Many. 

Ingratitude ! thou marble-hearted fiend, 
More hideous, when thou ihew'ft thee in a child, 
* Than the fea-monfter ! 
Alb. Pray, fir, be patient 9 . 
Lear. Dctefted kite ! 'thou licft : [To GoneriL 

of two fpeeches ; and then returns in a ftill greater paflion, 
having been informed (as it ihould feem) of the exprefs number, 

What ? fifty of my followers at a clap ! 

This renders all change needlefs ; and aivqy, away, being re- 
ftored, prevents the repetition of go, go, my people j which, as 
the text ftood before this regulation, concluded both that and 
the foregoing fpeech. Goneril, with great art, is made to avoid 
mentioning the limited number j and leaves her father to be in- 
formed ot it by accident, which (he knew would be the cafe as 
foon as he left her prefencc. STEEVENS. 

7 that Jkall Jlill depend,] Depend, for continue in 

fervice. WARBURTO.V. 

8 Than the fea-monjter /] Mr. Upton obferves, that the fea-' 
monfter is the Hippopotamus, the hieroglyphical fymbol of im- 
piety and ingratitude. Sandys, in his travels, fays " that he 
" kiiieth his fire, and ravilheth. his own dam." STEEVENS. 

9 Pray, fir, It patient.'} The quartos omit this fpeech. 



400 K I N G L E A K. 

My train are men of choice and rarcfl parts, 
That all particulars of duty know ; 
And in the moft exact regard fup.port 
The worfhips of their name. O moft fmall fault, 
How ugly didft thou in Cordelia fhew ! 
Which, * like an engine, wrench'd my frame of na- 

From the fixt place ; drew from my heart all love, 
And added to the gall. O Lear, Lear, Lear ! 
Beat at this gate, that let thy folly in, [Striking J;is head. 
And thy dear judgment out ! Go, go, my people. 

Alb. My lord, I am guiltlefs, as I am ignorant 
Of what hath mov'd you J . 

Lear. It may be fo, my lord. 

Hear, nature ! hear ; dear goddefs, hear ! 
Sufpend thy purpofc, if thou didft intend 
To make this creature fruitful ! 
Into her womb convey flcrility ; 
Dry up in her the organs of increafe ; 
And 4 from her derogate body never fpring 
A babe to honour her ! If Ihc muft teem, 
Create her child of fpleen ; that it may live, 
And be a thwart diinatur'd 5 torment to her ! 

1 lih an engine, ] Mr. Edwards conjectures that by an en- 
gine is meant the ra:k. He is right. To engine is, in Chaucer, to 
Jirain upon the rack ; and in the following paflage from the 
Three Lords of London, 1590, engine feems to be ufed for the fame 
inftrument of torture. 

" From Spain they come with engine and intent 
'* To flay, fubduc, to triumph, and torment* 
Again, in the Nfgbt-H'~a/ittcr t by B. and Fletcher : 

" Ther fouls fhot through with adders, torn on r; 

3 Of what Imtl mev'dyou.] Omitted in the quartos. 


* I. i ... from her derogate body " ] Derogate for unnatural, 

P.r.ther, I think, degraded; llafted-. JOHKSOV. 

3 fii/'fiattf-'d} Dijnatur'd is wanting natural affection. So, 

Daniel in //y /><>/.; L 7;-/.v/,v// :> , 1623 : 

" I am no: fo d-fnatu re d a man." STEEVENS. 


k 1 ft G L E A R. 401 

Let it (lamp wrinkles in her brow of youth ; 

With 6 cadent teats fret channels in her cheeks ; 

Turn all her mother's pains, and benefits, 

To laughter and contempt ; that fhe may feel 

How fharper than a ferpent's tooth it is 

To have a thanklefs child ! Away, away ! \_Exlt. 

Alb. NOWJ gods, that we adore^ whereof comes 
this ? 

Gon. Never afflict yourfelf to know the caufe $ 
But let his difpofition have that fcope 
That dotage gives it. 

Re-enter Ledr. 

Lear* What, fifty of my followers, at a clap ! 
Within a fortnight ! 

Alb. What's the matter, fir ? 

Lear. I'll tell thee ;Life and death ! I am afham'd 
That thou haft power to ftiake my manhood thus : 

[To Goner II. 

7 Thatthefe hot tears, which break from me perforce, 
Should make thee worth them. Blafls and foga 

upon thee ! 

8 The untented woundings of a father's curfe 
Pierce every fenfe about thee ! Old fond eyes, 

6 cadent tears ] i.e. Falling tears. Dr. Warburton 

Would read candent. STEEVENS. 

7 I will tranfcribe this paflage from the firft edition, that it 
may appear to thofe who are unacquainted with old books, what 
is the difficulty of revilion, and what indulgence is due to thofe 

that endeavour to reftore corrupted partages. That thefe bet 

tears, that br cake from me perforce, Jhould make the worfi blajts and 
fogs upon the untettder <u:oundings of a father's curfe, perufe every 
fenfe about the old fond eyes, be-weef this caufe again, &c. 


* The untented woundlngf - ] Untented wounds, mean* 
wounds m their worft {late, not having a tent in them to digeft 
them ; and may poflibly fignify here fuch as will not admit of 
having a tent put into them for that purpofe. One of the quartog 
reads, untender. SxEfiYiNS. 

VOL. IX, D d Be- 

K I N G L E A R. 

Bevveep this caufe again, I'll pluck you out; 
And caft you, with the waters that you lofe 9 ' 9 
To temper clay. Ha ! is it come to this ? 
1 Let it be fo : Yet I have left a daughter, 
Who, I am fure, is kind and comfortable ; 
When Ihe ihall hear this of thee, with her nails 
She'll flea thy wolfifh vifage. Thou (halt find. 
That I'll refume the fhape which thou doft think 
I have caft off for ever ; thou fhalt, I warrant thec.- 
[Exeunt Lear, Kent, and attendants* 
Gon. Do you mark that, my lord .* 
Alb. I cannot be fo partial, Goneril, 

To the great love I bear you, 

Gon. Pray you, content. What, Ofwald, ho ! 
You, fir, more knave than fool, after your matter. 

[To the Foot. 

Fool. Nuncle Lear, nuncle Lear, tarry, and take 
the fool with thee. 

A fox, when one has caught her, 
And fuch a daughter, 
Should fure to the flaughter, 
If my cap- would buy a halter ; 
So the fool follows after. [Exit. 

** Gon. This man hath had good counfel : A hun- 
dred knights ! 

'Tis politic, and fafe, to let him keep 
, 3 At point, a hundred knights. Yes, that on every 

Each buz, each fancy, each complaint, diflike, 

tbatyon Tofe.] The quartos read that you make. 


* Lctitlefo, &c.] The reading is here gleaned up, part 
from the firft, and part from the fecond eJuion. JOHNSON. 
Let it be fo is omitted in the quartos. STEEVENS. 
* Gon. All from this afterilk to the next, is omitted in the 
quartos. STEEVENS. 

3 At point ,] I believe, means completely armed, and confe- 
quently ready at appointment or command un the flighteft notice-. 




He may enguard his dotage with their powers, 
And hold our lives at mercy. Ofwald, I fay ! 

AW. Well, you may fear too far. 

Con. Safer than truft too far : 
Let me ftill take away the harms I fear, 
Not fear ftill to be taken. I know his heart : 
What he hath utter'd, I have writ my fitter; 
If fhe fuftain him and his hundred knights, 
When I have Ihew'd the unfitnefs *, - How now, 
Ofwald 4 ? 

Enter Steward. 

What, have you writ that letter to my fifter ? 

Stew. Ay, madam. 

Gon. Take you fome company, and away to horfe : 
Inform her full of my particular fear ; 
And thereto add fuch reafons of your own, 
As may 5 compact it more. Get you gone ; 
And haflen your return. No, no, my lord, 

[Exit Steward* 

This milky gentlenefs, and couvfe of yours, 
Though I condemn it not, yet, under pardon, 
You are much 6 more at talk for want of wifdom, 
Than prais'd for harmful mildnefs. 

Alb. How far your eyes may pierce, I cannot tell ; 
Striving to better, oft we mar what's well. 

* How <KV, Ofv:alJf~\ The quartos read what OfojalJ) hot 
Ofvv. Here, Madam. 
Gon. What have you ivrlt this letter, &c. STEEVENS. 

5 - compact it more. -- ] Unite one circumilance v.'ith an- 
other, fo as to make a confident account. JOHNSON. 

6 more at talk - ] It is a common phrafe now with pa- 
rents and governeffes. F II take you to tajk, i.e. I <vsill reprehend 
and correcl you. To be at tajkj therefore, is to be liable to repre~ 
henfion and corrcElion. JOHNSON. 

Both the quartos inftead of at tajk read, alapt. A late editor 
of King Lear, fays, that the firft quarto reads attaJk'J; but un- 
lefs there be a third quarto which I have never feen or heard of, 
his aflertioii is erroneous. STEKVENS. 

D d 2 Gon. 

4 o 4 K I N G L E A K. 

Gon. Nay, then 

Alb.. Well,, well ; the event. [Exeunt. 


A coMt-yard before the duke of Albanfs palace. 
Enter Lear, Kent, and Fool. 

Lear. Go you before to Glofter with thefe letters : 
acquaint my daughter no further with any thing you 
know, than comes from her demand out of the let- 
ter : If your diligence be not fpeedy, I lhall be 7 
there before you. 

Kent. I will not fleepy my lord, 'till I have deli- 
vered your letter. [.v/V. 

Fool. If a man's brains were in his heels, wer't 
not in danger of kibes ? 

Lear. Ay, boy. 

Fool. Then, I pr'ythee, be merry ; thy wit fhall 
not go flip-ftiod., 

Lear. Ha, ha, ha ? 

Fool. Shalt fee, thy other daughter will ufe thee 
kindly : for though (he's as like this as a crab is like 
an apple, yet I- can* tell what I can tell.. 

Lear. Why what can'ft thou tell, boy ? 

Fool. She willtafte as like this, as a crab does to a 
crab. Thou can'ft tell, why one's nofe ilands i' the 
middle of one's face ? 

Lear. No. 

Fool. Why, to keep one's eyes on either fide one's 
nofe ; that what a man cannot fmell out, he may fpy 

Lear. 8 1 did her wrong : 

7 there before _yo.] He feems to intend to go to his 

daughter, but it appears afterwards that he is going to the houfe 
of Glofter. JOHN- SON. 

* I did her <jvro//j ] He is raufing on Cordelia. JOHNSON. 


K I N G L E A R. 405 

Fool. Can'ft tell how an oyfter makes his fhell ? 

Lear. No. 

Fool. Nor I neither ; but I can tell why a fnail has 
a hoiife. 

Lear. Why ? 

Fool. Why, to put his head in ; not to give it away 
to his daughters, and leave his horns without a cafe, 

Lear. I will forget my nature. So kind a father! 
Be my horfes ready ? 

Fool. Thy afles are gone about 'em. The reafoa 
why the feven ftars are no more than feven, is a pretty 

Lear. Becaufe they are not eight ? 

Fool. Yes, indeed : Thou would'ft make a good 

Lear. 9 To take it again perforce ! Monfler in- 
gratitude ! 

Fool. If thou wert my fool, nuncle, I'd have thec 
beaten for being old before thy time. 

Lear. How's that ? 

Fool. Thou fhould'fl not have been old, before 
thou hadft been wife. 

Lear. O, let me not be mad, not mad, fweet heaven ! 
Keep me in temper ; I would not be mad ! 

Enter Gentleman. 

How now ! Are the horfes ready ? 
Gent. Ready, my lord. 
Lear. Come, boy. 
Fool. She that's a maid now, and laughs at my 


Shall not be a maid long, unlefs things be cut 
fhorter. [Exeunt. 

9 To take it again perforce / ] He is meditating on the re- 
fumption of his royalty. JOHNSON. 

He is rather meditating on his daughter's having in fo violent a 
manner deprived him of thole privileges which before flic had 
agreed to grant him. STEEVENS. 

D d 3 ACT 

4o6 K I N G L E A R. 

A cqftle belonging to tie earl of Glofter. 
Enter Edmund, and Curan^ meeting. 

Edm. Save thee, Curan. 

Cur. And you, fir. I have been with your fa- 
ther ; and given him notice, that the duke of Corn- 
wall, and Regan his dutchefs, will be here with him 

EMI. How comes that ? 

Cur. Nay, I know not : You have heard of the 
news abroad ; I mean, the whifper'd ones, for they 
are yet but ' ear-kifling arguments ? 

Edm, Not I ; Pray you, what are they > 

* Cur. Have you heard, of no likely wars toward, 
'twixt the dukes of Cornwall and Albany ? 

Edm. Not a word. 

Cur. You may then, in time. Fare you well, fir. 


Edm, The duke be here to-night? The better! Beft! 
This weaves itielf perforce into my bufinefs ! 
My father hath fet guard to take my brother ; 
And I have one thing, of a J queazy queflion, 


* . ear-biffing arguments*"} Subjects. of difconrfe ; topics, 


Ear-kijpng arguments means that they are yet in reality only 
whif per* ti ones. SrEEVENS. 

a Cur. This and the following fpeech, are omitted in one of 
the quartos. STEEVENS. 

3 - queazy quejlion,'} Something of Kfufplcious, qutjlioiiallc, 
1ind uncertain nature. This is, I think, the meaning. JOHNSON. 
Stuea-y, I believe, rather means delicate, what requires to be 
Dandled nicely. So, Ben Jonfon, in St-janus : 

" Thofe times are fomevvhat t^utajy to be touch 'd. 
" Have you not feen or read part of his book ?" 



"Which I muft act : Briefncfs, and fortune, work! 
Brother, a word ; clefccnd : Brother, I fay ; 

Enter Edgar. 

My father watches : O fir, fly this place ; 
Intelligence is given where you are hid ; 
\ ou have now the good advantage of the night : 
I-iave you not fpoken 'gainft the duke of Cornwall? 
1, 's coming hither ; now, i* the night, 4 i' the hafle, 
A Regan with him ; 5 Have you nothing faid 
L is party 'gainft the duke of Albany? 

Advife yourfelf. 

Lag. I am fure on't, not a word. 

Edm. I hear my father coming, Pardon me : 
Ir, ^nning, I muft draw my fvvord upon you : 
D . : Seem to defend yourfelf : Now quit you well* 
Yield : come before my father; Light, ho, here! 
F , brother; Torches! torches! So, farewel. 

[Exit Edgar. 
Some blood drawn on me would beget opinion 

[Wounds bis arm. 

Of m\- more fierce endeavour : I have feen drunkards 
Do more than this in fport. Father! father! 
btop, flop ! No help ? 

So, in Ben Jonfon's "Nc\x Inn : 

" Notes of a -quea/y and fick ftomach, labouring 
" With want of a true injury." 
Again, in Mucb Ado about Nothing : 

" Delpight of his quick wit and queasy ftomach." 


4 /' the kafte,~\ I fhould fuppofe we ought to read only /a 

bajle ; z" the being repeated accidentally by the compofitor. 

5 have you nothing fetid 

Upon his party 'gain/i the duke of Albany ?] 

The meaning is, have you faid nothing upon the party formed ly 
him againft we duke of Albany ? HANMER. 

i cannot but think the line corrupted, and would read : 

dgainji his party, for the duke of Albany ? JOHNSOV. 

D d 4 Enhf 


Enter GkJIer, and Servants with torches. 

Glo. Now, Edmund, where's the villain ? 

Edm. Here flood he in the dark, his ftiarp fvvord 


6 Mumbling of wicked charms, conjuring the moon 
To ftand his aufpicious miftrefs : - 

Glo. But where is he ? 

Edm. Look, fir, I bleed. 

Glo. Where is the villain, Edmund ? 

Edm. Fled this way, fir. When by no means he 

Glo. Purfue him, ho ! Go after. By no 

means, what ? 

Edm. Perfuade me to the murder of your lordfhip ; 
But that I told him, the revenging gods 
'Gainft parricides did all 7 their thunders bend ; 
Spoke, with how manifold and ftrong a bond 

The child was bound to the father; Sir, in fine, 

Seeing how lothly oppofite I flood 

To his unnatural purpofe, in fell motion, 

With his prepared fword, he charges home 

My unprovided body, lanc'd mine arm : 

But when hp faw my befl alarum'd fpirits, 

Bold in the quarrel's right, rous'd to the encounter, 

Or whether " gafted by the noife I made, 

Full fuddenly he fled. 

* Mumbling of wided charms, conjuring the r?ioon\ This was a 
proper circumflance to urge to Glofter 5 who appears, by what 
pafied between him and his baftard fon i;i a foregoing fcene, to 
be very fuperiHtious with regard to this matter. WARBURTOK, 

The quartos read, iwarbling inftead of mumbling, STEWENS. 

7 tlcir (bunder: ' ] Firft quarto; the refl have it, 

tbe thunder, J p H N s p N T . 

* .. >"va]lc(l ] Frighted. JOHNSOX. 

So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit atfwcral Weapons : 

f* either the fight of the lady has /<</ him, or clfe 

he's drunk." STEEVENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 409 

Glo. Let him fly far : 

1 Not in this land fhall he remain uncaught ; 
And found Difpatch. The noble duke my mafter, 
My worthy * arch and patron, comes to-night : 
3y his authority I will proclaim it, 
That he, which finds him, fliall deferve our thanks, 
Bringing the J murderous coward to the flake ; 
He, that conceals him, death. 

Edm. When I diflvvaded him from his intent, 
4 And found him pight to do it, with curft fpeech 
I threaten'd to difcover him : He replied, 
^kou unpojfeffing baftard ! dijl thou think, 
If I would Jland againft tbee, s would the repofal 
Of any truft, virtue, or worth, in thee 
Make thy words faith' d ? No : what Ifioulddeny, 

1 Not in ibis landjhall be remain uncaught ; 

And found dif patch the nolle duke, Sic.] j 

This nonfenfe fliould be read and pointed thus : 

Not in this land fliall he remain uncaught ; 

And found, difpatch'd WAS. BURTON. 

I do not fee how this change mends the fenfe : I think it may 
be better regulated as in the page above. The fenfe is interrupt- 
ed. He fhall be caught and found, be Jball be puni/bed. Dif- 
patch. JOHNSON. 

1 arch ] i. e. Chief; a word now ufed only in com- 

pofition, as arch-angel, arch-duke. 

So, in Hey wood's If you know not me, you know Nobody, 1613 s 
*' Poole, that arch for truth and honefty." STEEVENS. 
3 tmirtberous coward } The firft edition reads, 

caitiff. JOHNSON. 

* And found him pight to do it, with curft Jjxecb'} Pight 19 
pitched, fixed, fettled. Curjl is fevere, harfh, vehemently angry. 


So, in the old morality of Lufly Juventus, 1561 ; 
' Therefore my heart is furely pyght 

* Of her alone to have a fight." 
Thus, n Troilus and CreJJida, : 

* tents 

' Thus proudly pight upon our Phrygian plains.'* 


f * would the repofal} i.e. Would any opinion that men 
have repofed in thy truft, virtue, &c. WARBURTON. 
The old cjuano reads, could the repofure, S TEE YENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 

( As this I would j ay, though thou didft product 

My very character) I'd turn it all 

fvttyjuggtftion, plot, and damned practice r 

And thou muft make a dullard of the world, 

If they not thought the profits of my death 

Were very pregnant and potential fpurs 

50 make theefeek it. [Trumpets within. 

Glo. O 6 ftrange, faftcn'd villain ! 
Would he deny his letter, faid he ? I never got him. 
Hark, the duke's trumpets ! I know not why he 

comes : 

All ports I'll bar ; the villain mall not fcape ; 
The duke muft grant me that : betides, his pidlure 
I will fend far and near, that all the kingdom 
May have due note of him : and of my land, 
Loyal and natural boy, I'll work the means 
To make thee capable 7 . 

Enter Cornwall, Regan, and attendants. 

Corn. How now, my noble friend ? fmcc I came 

(Which I can call but now) I have heard ftrange news. 

Reg. If it be true, all vengeance comes too fhort, 
Which can purfue the offender. How does my lord ? 

Glo. O, madam, my old heart is crack'd, is crack'd ! 

Reg. What, did my father's godlbn feek your life ? 
He whom my father nam'd ? your Edgar ? 

Glo. O, lady, lady, lhame would have it hid ! 

Reg. Was he not companion with the riotous 

That tend upon my father ? 

Glo. I know not, madam : 
It is too bad, too bad. 

6 Strange and, tfc.] Strong and fajlened. Quarto. JOHNSON. 

7 Capable of my land] i.e. capable of Succeeding to my 
land, nctwithitanding the legal bar of thy illegitimacy. 



Edm. Yes, madam, he was of that confort. 

Reg. No marvel then, though he were ill affedted j 
'Tis they have put him on the old man's death, 
To have the expence and wafte of his revenues. 
I have this prefent evening from my filter 
Been well inform'd of them ; and with fuch cautions, 
That, if they come to fojourn at my houfe, 
I'll not be there. 

Corn. Nor I, affure thee, Regan. 

Edmund, I hear that you have Ihewn your father 
A child-like office. 

Edm. 'Twas my duty, fir. 

Glo. 8 He did bewray his practice; and receiv'd 
This hurt you fee, ftriving to apprehend him. 

Corn. Is he purfu'd ? 

Glo. Ay, my good lord. 

Corn. If he be taken, he Ihall never more 
Be fear'd of doing harm : make your own purpofe, 
How in my ftrength you pleafe. For you, Edmund, 
Whole virtue and obedience doth this inftant 
So much commend itfelf, you lhall be ours ; 
Natures of fuch deep trull we fnall much needj 
You we firlt leize on 

Edm. I lhall ferve you, fir, 
Truly, however elfe. 

Glo. For him I thank your grace. 

Co? n. You know not why we came to vifit you, 

8 He did bewray bis prafllce ; ] i.e. D if cover, betray. So, 

in The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingtoxy 1601 : 

" \Ye were bewray* d t befet, and iorc'd to yield." 
Again, in The Devil's C barter , 1607 : 

'* Thy foiitary pallions fhould be^vray 

" Some diicontent." 

Praflice is always ufed by Shakefpeare for injidloui mifcbief. So," 
in Revenge for Honour, by Chapman : 

" Howe'er thou Icap'ic my frafiices with life." 
The quartos read betray. S'TEEVLNS. 

K I N G L E A R. 

Reg. Thus out of feafon ; 9 threading dark-ey'd 


* Occafions, noble Glofter, of fome prize, 
Wherein we muft have ufe of your advice : . 
Our father he hath writ, fo hath our fifter, 
Of differences, which I beft thought it fit 
To anfwer * from our home ; the feveral mefTengers 
From hence attend difpateh. Our good old friend, 
Lay comforts to your bofom ; and beflow 
Your needful counfel to our bufmefies, 
Which crave the inflant ufe. 

Glo. I ferve you, madam : 
Your graces are right welcome. [Exeunt. 


Enter Kent and Steward, feverally. 

Stew. Good even * to thee, friend : Art of this 

houfe ? 
Kent. Ay. 

9 threading Jar&-c/J xigbt.'] I have not ventured to dif- 

place this reading, though "I have great fufpicion that the poet 
wrote : 

treading dark-ey'd night, 

i. e. travelling in it. The other carries too obfcure and mean an 
allufion. It muft either be borrow'd from the cant phrafe of 
threading of alleys, i.e. going through bye paflages to avoid the 
high ftreets ; or to threading a needle in the dark, THEOBALD. 

The quarto reads : 

... threafning dark-ey'd night. JOHNSON-. 

Shakefpear ufes the former of thefe cxpreffions in Coriolanus : 

aft III : 

They would not thread the gates. STEEVENS. 
1 Occajions, noble Glojler, of fome prize,] We fhould read, 
foize, i.e. weight. WARBURTO'N. 
Prize, or price, for value. JOHNSON. 

* f ram our home : ] Not at home, but at fome other 

place. JOHNSON. 

3 Good even.'} Thus the quarto. The folio Good jfenMMKt 




S.Yw. Where may we fet our riorfes ? 
JC?*/. F th'mire. 

^tezo. Pr'ythee, if thoulove me, tell me. 
Kent. I love thee not. 
Stew. Why, then I care not for thee. 
Kent. If I had thee in 4 Lipfbury pinfold, I would 
make thee care for me. 


4 Lipjlury pinfold, ] The allufion which feems to be 

contained in this line I do not underfland. In the violent erup- 
tion of reproaches which burfb from Kent in this dialogue, there 
are fome epithets which the commentators have left unexpound- 
ed, and which I am not very able to make clear. Of a three- 
fuitcd knave I know not the meaning, unlefs it be that he has 
different drefles for different occupations. Lilly -liver^'d is cmn'- 
tirdly ; ivhitc-blooded and white-liver* d are flill in vulgar ufe. An 
onc-trunk-inheriting Jl&uc, I take tu be a wearer of old call-off 
deaths, an inheritor of torn breeches. JOHNSON. 

I do not find the name of Li/lury : it may be a cant phrafe, 
with fome corruption, taken from a plnce where the fines were 
arbitrary. Tbrec-f tilted ihould, I believe, be third-fuited, wearing 
cloaths at the third-band. Edgar, in his pride, had tfwec fuits 
only. FARMER. 

Lipjlury pinfold may be a cant expreffion importing the feme 23 
Lol>'t Pound. So, in Maffinger's Duke of Milan : 
44 To marry her, and fay he was the party 
** Found in Lob's Pound." 

A Pinfold is a pound. Thus in Gafcoigne's Dan Bartiwlextsvj 
of Bailie, 1587 : 

" In fuch a pin- foldv were his pleafures pent.*' 

Three fuifcd knave might mean, in an age of oilentatious finery 
like that of Shakefpeare, one who had no greater change of 
rayment than three fuits would furnifh him with ; fo, in Ben Jon- 
fon's Silent Woman: " wert a pitiful fellow, and hadft nothing 
but three fuits of apparel :" or it may fignify a fellow tbrice-fued 
at /aw, who has three fuits for debt ftanding out againft him. A 
one-trunk-inheriting Jlave may be ufed to fignify a fellow, the 
whole of whofe pofleffions are confined to one coffer, and that too 
inherited from his father, who was no better provided, or had 
nothing more to bequeath to his fuccejjbr in poverty ; a poor rogue 
hereditary, as Tinton calls Apemantus. A worftcd-ftocking knave is 
another reproach of the lame kind. The (lockings in Eng- 
land, in the reign of queen Elizabeth ( as I learn from 
Stubbs's Anatomic of Abufes, printed in 1 595 ) were remarkably 


4 i 4 K I N G L E A R. 

Stew. Why doft thou ufe me thus ? I know thee 

Kent. Fellow, I know thee. 

Stew. What doft thou know me for ? 

Kent. A knave, a rafcal, an eater of broken meats ; 
a bafe, proud, (hallow, beggarly, three-fuited, 'hun- 
dred-pound, filthy worfted-ftocking knave ; a lilly- 
liver'd, action -taking knave ; a whorfon, glafs-gazing, 
fuper-ferviceable, finical rogue ; one-trunk-inheriting 
Have ; one that would'ft be a bawd, in way of good 
fervice, and art nothing but the compofition of a 
knave, beggar, coward, pandar, and the fon and heir 
of a mungrel bitch : one whom I will beat into cla- 
morous whining, if thou deny'ft the leaft fyllable of 
thy addition 6 . 

Stew. Why, what a monftrous fellow art thou, thus 

expenfive, and fcarce any other kind than filk were worn, e%-en 
(as this author fays) by thofe who had not above forty fhillings a 
year wages. So, in an old comedy, called The Hog bath loft bis 
Pearl, 1611, by R.Taylor: 

" good parts are no more fet by in thefe times, than a 

good leg in a woollen ftocking" 
Again, in The Captain, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Green fickneffcs and ferving-men light on you, 
" With greafy breeches, and in topolkaftocliitgs. 
Again, in the Miferies of inforc'd Marriage, 1607: Two fober 
young men come to claim their portion from their elder brother 
who is a fpendthriit, and tel! him : " Our birthright, good brother : 
this town craves maintenance ; Jilk-ftockings mull be had, &c." 

Silk ftockings were not made in England till 1560, the fecond 
year of queen Elizabeth's reign. Of this extravagance Drayton 
takes notice in the i6th fong of his Polyolbion ; 

" Which our plain fathers erft would have accounted fin 
" Before the coftly coach and filkcnftock came in." 


5 i 'hundred-pound, ] A hundred-found gentleman is a term 

of reproach ufed in Midclleton's fhcenix, 1607. STEEVENS. 

addition.'} i.e. titles. The act i Hen. V. ch. v. which di- 
rects that in certain writs, a defcription ihould be added to the 
name of the defendant, exprellive of his eitate, myilcry, degree, 
&c, is called the ibtute of Additions. MALONE. 


K I N G L E A R. 415 

to rail on one, that is neither known of thee, nor 
knows thee? 

Kent. What a brazen-fac'd varlet art thou, to deny 
thou know'ft me ? Is it two days ago, fince I tript 
up thy heels, and beat thee, before the king ? Draw, 
you rogue : for, though it be night, yet the moon 
Ihines ; 7 I'll make a fop o' the moonihine of you : 
Draw you whorefon cullionly Sarbcr-monger, 8 draw. 

[Drawing his fword. 

Stew. Away ; I have nothing to do with thee. 

Kent. Draw, you rafcal : you come with letters 
againft the king ; and take '> vanity the puppet-'s parr, 
againft the royalty of her father : Draw, you rogue, 
or I'll fo carbonado your ihanks : draw, you rafcal ; 
come your ways. 

Stew. Help, ho ! murder ! help ! 

i . Til make a fop o* tie moon/bine of you. ] This Is 

equivalent to our modern phrafc of making the fun Jkine through 
any one. But, alluding to the natural philofophy of that time, 
it is obfcure. The Peripatetics thought, though falfely, that the 
rays of the moon were cold and moift. The ipeaker therefore 
fays, he would make a fop of his antagonift, which fhould abforb 
the humidity of the moon's rays, by letting them into his guts. 
For this reafon Shakefpeare, in Romeo and Juliet, fays: 

* . the moonfliine's watry beams." 

And, in the Midfummer Night's Dream : 

" Quench'd in the chart beams of the ivatry moon." 


r Til make a fop o' the moonfliine of you.'} Perhaps here an equi- 
voque was intended. In the Old Shepherd's Kahndar, among the 
difhes recommended for Prymetync, '* One is cgges in moncjhine" 


-larler-mongtr, ] Of this word I do not clearly fee 

the force. JOHNSON. 

Barber-monger may mean, dealer in the lower tradcfmen : a flur 
upon the fleward, as taking fees for a recommendation to the bu- 
finefs of the family, FARMER. 

9 vanity the puppet's ] Alluding to the myfteries or 

allegorical (hews, in which vanity, iniquity, and other vices, 
were perfonified, JOHNSON. 


4 i6 K I N G L A R, 

Kent. Strike, you Have ; fland, rogue, fland 
you * neat Have, ftrike. [Beating kirn* 

-Stew. Help ho ! murder ! murder ! 

Enter Edmund, Cornwall, Regan, Glofler, and Servants* 

Edm. How now ? What's the matter ? Part. 

Kent. With you, goodman boy, if youpleafe; come, 
I'll flefli you ; come on, young matter. 

Glo. Weapons ! arms ! What's the matter here ? 

Corn. Keep peace, upon your lives ; 
He dies, that ftrikes again : What is the matter? 

Reg. The meflengers from our fitter and the king. 

Corn. What is your difference ? fpeak. 

Stew. I am fcarce in breath, my lord. 

Kent. No marvel, you have fo beftirr'd your Valour. 
You cowardly rafcal, * nature difclaims in thee ; 
A tailor made thee. 

Corn. Thou art a ftrange fellow : 
A tailor make a man ? 

Kent. Ay, a tailor, fir : a flone-cutter, or a painter, 

neatjlave, ] You mere flave, you very flave. 


You ncatjlave, I believe, means no more than yau finical mf- 
ra/, you who are an afiemblage of foppery and poverty. Ben Jou- 
fon ufes the fame epithet in his Poetafter : 

" By thy leave, my neat fcoundrel." STEEVENS. 

* nature difclaims In tbee ;} So the quartos and the folio. 
The modern editors read, without authority : 

nature difclaims her Jbare in thee. 

The old reading is the true one. So, in R. Brome's Northern 
Lafs, 1633: 

" - I will dlfclaim in your favour hereafter." 
Again, in The Cafe is Alter* d, by Ben Jonfon, 1609 : 

Thus to difclaim in all th'efteds of pleafure." 
Again : 

" No, I difclaim in her, I fpit at her." 

Again, in Warner's Albion's England, 1602, B. III. chap, xvl : 
" Not thefe, my lords, make me d'rfdaim in it which 
all purfue." STEEVEX*. 


K I N G L E A R. 417 

could not have made him fo ill, though they ha4 
been but two hours at the trade. 

Corn. Speak yet, how grew your qu.irrcl ? 

Stew. This ancient ruftian, fir, whofe life I have 

At fuit of his grey beard, 

Kent. J Thou whorefon zed ! thou unneceffary let- 
ter ! My lord, if you will give me leave, I will tread 
4 this unbolted villain s into mortar, and daub the wall 
of a jakes with him. Spare my grey beard, you 
wagtail ? 


3 Thou ivborfon zed! tbou unneceffary letter I "\ I do not 

well underftand how a man is reproached by being called zed, nor 
how Z is an unnecejjary letter. Scarron compares his deformity 
to the fhape of Z, and it may be a proper word of infult to a 
crook-backed man ; but why (hould Goneril's iteward be crook- 
ed, unlefs the allufion be to his bending or cringing pofture in 
the prefcnce of his fuperiors. Perhaps it was written, tbou 
ivborefon C (for cuckold) tbou unnecejjary Utter. C is a letter 
unnecelfary in our alphabet, one ot its two founds being repre- 
fented by S, and one by K. But all the copies concur in the 
common reading. JOHNSON. , 

77" Y .-horefon zed! thott unnecrfTary letter ! ] Zed is here 

probably ufed as a term of contempt, becaufe it is the laft letter 
in the EngUfli alphabet, and as its place may be fupplied by S, 
and the Roman alphabet has it not ; neither is it read in my 
word originally Teutonic. In Barret's Alvearic, or Quadruple 
Dictionary, 1580, it is quite omitted, as the author affirms it to 
be rather a fy liable than a letter. C cannot be the unneceilary 
letter, as there are many words in which its place will not be iup- 
plied by any other, as charity, cbaf.ity, &c. STEEVENS. 

T7.'ou wborcfon zed! tbou unnecejjary letter. This is taken from 
the grammarians of the time. Mulcalter fays, " Z is much; 
harder amongft us, and fehlom feen : S is become its lieutenant 
general. It is lightlie expreffed in Englifh, faving in foren en- 
tranchifments." FARMER. 

* this unbolted villain ] i.e. unrefined by education, the 

bran yet in him. Metaphor from the bakehoufe. WAR BUR TON, 

5 into mortar^ ] This exprellion was much in ufe 

in our author's time. So, Maffinger, in his AV.u Way to pay old 
Debfs, aft I. fcene i : 

" 1, will help your memory, 

" And tread tbee Into mortar" STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. E c Uriah** 

4 x3 KING LEAR, 

Corn. Peace, firrah ! 
You beaftly knave, know you no reverence ? 

Kent. Yes, fir ; but anger hath a privilege. 

Corn. Why art thou angry ? 

Kent. That fuch a flave as this fhould wear a fword, 
Who wears no honefty. Such fmiling rogues as theic, 
* Like rats, oft bite the holy cords in twain 


Unbolted mortar is mortar made of unfifted lime, and therefore 
to break the lumps it is neceflary to tread it by men in wooden 
flioes. This unbolted villain is therefore this coarfe rafcal. 

6 Like rats, oft lite the hoJy cords atvvaine, 

Which are /' intrince, ' unloofe ; } 

Thus the firil editors blundered this paflage into unintelligible 
nonfenfe. Mr. Pope fo far has dilengaged it, as to give us plain 
lenfe ; but by throwing out the epithet holy, it is evident that he 
was not aware of the poet's fine meaning. I will firft eftablifh 
and prove the reading, then explain the allufion. Thus the poet 
gave it : 

Like rats, oft bite the holy cords in twain, 

Too Intrlnjlcate t' unloofe : 

This word again occurs in our author's Antony and Cleopatra^ 
where fhe is ipeaking to the Afpick : 

" Come, mortal wretch ; 

' With thy fliarp teeth this knot intrinficate 

" Of life at once untie." 

And we meet with it in Cynthia 3 Revels, by Ben Jonfon. 

Yet there are certain J>n?;f}H!os, or, as I may more nakedly injiiinalc 
them, certain intrinficate jlroka and worth, to which your (jfUvity 
ii not yet amounted, &c. It means inward, hidden, perplex r; 
as a knot, hard to be unravelled : it is derived from the Latin 
adverb intrinfecm ; from which the Italians have coined a very 
beautiful phrafe, intrhfaarft col une, i. e. to grow intimate with, 
to wind one felf into another. And now to our author's fenle. 
Kent is rating the fteward, as a paralite of Goneril's ; and 
fuppofes very juitly, that he has fomented the quarrel betwixt 
that princefs and her father : in which office he compares him to 
a facrilegious rat. : and bv a fine metaphor, as Mr. Warburtoti 
obferved to me, ftiles the union between parents and children 
the My cords. "THEOBALD. 

Like rats, oft brte the holy cords in twain 

Too intrinficate t* unloofe : ] 

By thefe holy cords the poet means the natural union between pa- 
rents and children. The metaphor is taken from the cords of th* 

K I N G L E A R. 

Too 'intrinficate t'unloofe : footh every paflion 
That in the nature of their lords rebels ; 
Bring oil to fire, fnow to their colder moods ; 
Renege, affirm, 7 and turn their halcyon beaks 
With every gale and vary of their mailers ; 
Knowing nought, like dogs, but following. 
A plague upon your * epileptic vifage ! 
Smile you my fpeeches, as I were a fool ? 
Goofe, if I had you upon Sarum plain, 
I'd drive ye cackling home to 9 Camelot. 

Com. What art thou mad, old fellow ? 

Glo. How fell you out ? fay that. 

fanRuary ; and the fomenters of family differences are compared 
to thefc {acrilegious rats. The expreffion is fine and noble. 

7 -and turn their halcyon beaks 

With ev'jy gale and vary of their mafters ; ] 

The halcyon is the bird otherwife called the king-ji/ber. The 
vulgar opinion was, that this bird, if hung up, would vary with 
the wind, and by that means fhew from what point it blew. 
So, in Marlow's Jew of Malta, 1633 : 
*' But how now Hands the wind ? 
* Into what corner peers my Halcyon's Ml?" 
Again, in Storer's Life and Death of Tho. Wolfey^ Cardinal^ :, 
poem, 1 599 : 

" Or as a halcyon with her turning breft, 
" Demonftrates wind from wind, and eaft from well." 


8 epileptic vifage!} The frighted countenance of a man 

ready to fall in a fit. JOHNSON. 

Camelot} Was the place where the romances fay 

king Arthur kept his court in the Weft ; fo this alludes to fome 
proverbial fpeech in thofe romances. WAR BUR. TON. 
So, in the Birth of Merlin, 1662 : 

** raife more powers 

" To man with ftrength the caftle Camelot'' 
Again, in Drayton's Polyolbion, Song III : 

" Like Camclot, what place was ever yet renown'd ? 
** Where, as at Carlion, oft he kept the table round." 


In Somerfetfhire, near Camelot, are many large moors, where 
are bred great quantities of geefe, fo that many other places are 
from hence fupplied with quills and feathers . HA N v. E R . 

E e 2 Kent. 

42o K I N G L E A R. 

Kent. No contraries hold more antipathy ', 
Than I and fuch a knave. 

Corn. Why dofl thou call him knave ? What's his 
offence ? 

Kent. His countenance likes me not *. 

Ccrft* No more, perchance, docs mine, or his, or 

Kent. Sir, 'tis my occupation to be plain ; 
I have feen better faces in my time, 
Than {land on any fhouldcr that I fee 
Before me at this inftant. 

Corn. This is fome fellow, 

Who, having been prais'd for bluntnefs, doth affedt 
A faucy roughnefs ; and ' conftrains the garb, 
Quite from hi-s nature : He cannot flatter, he ! 
An honeft mind and plain, he mult fpeak truth : 
An they \vill take it, fo; if not, he's plain. 
Thefe kind of knaves I know, which in this plainncfs 
Harbour more craft, and more corrupter ends, 
4 Than twenty filly ducking obfervants, 
That flretch their duties nicely. 


1 No contraries bold more antlpatly^ 

Than I andfuch a knave.] 
Hence Mr. Pope's expreflion : 

" The itrong antipathy of good to bad." TOLLET. 

"* likes me not.] \. e. pleafes me not. So, in Every Mar. 

tut of Ij'n Humour : 

" I did but cart an amorous eye, e'en now, 

" Upon a pair of gloves that fomewhat /;iV me." 


3 ' conftrains the garb 

Sbtitcfrom bit nature. ] 

Forces his outfiJe or his appearance to fomething totally ti'JTtrent 
from\ns natural dilpoiition. JOHNSON. 

4 Tl>an twenty filly ducking obfervants^} The epithet filly can- 
not be right, ift, Bccaufc Coiuwall, in this beautiful ipeech, 
is not talking of the different fuccrfs of thefe two kinds of para- 
iitcs, but of their dffircat corruptions of bean, ad, Becaufe he 
1-vs thefe ducking ubfcrvants know hovj to ftretch their duties 

I am perfuaded we fhould read : 
Than twenty 'f-P.-y ducking obfervants, 



Kent. Sir, in good (both, or in finccre verity, 
Under the allowance of your grand afpe(r, 
Whofe influence, like the wreath of radiant fire 
5 On flickering Phoebus' front, 

Cor. What mean'ft thou by this ? 

Kent. To go out of my dialed, which von difcom- 
mend Ib much. I know, fir, I am no flatterer: he 
that beguil'd you, in a plain accent, was a plain 
knave; which, for my part, I will not be, 6 though 

which not only alludes to the garb of a court fycophant, but ad- 
mirably well denotes the fmoothnefs of his cbarafler. But what is 
more, the poet generally gives them this epithet ia other places. 
So, in RicbarJ \\\. he calls them : 

" Silky, lly, inlinuating Jacks." 

And, in Coriolanus: 

*' when fteel grows 

" Soft as the 1 s filk" \\~ARSURTON'. 

The alteration is more ingenious than the arguments by which 
it is fupported. JOHNSON. 

Silly means only Jim pie, or ruftic. So, in Cymbdine, aft V. 
fc iii : 

" There was a fourth man in a filly habit," meaning Pofthu- 
mus in the drefs or" a peafant. Nicely isfoolijbly. Ninis. Fr. 


5 On flickering Pbcelu? front ] Dr. Johnfon in his Dictionary 
fays thts word means \.o flutter. I meet with it in The Hiflory of 
Clyomon, Knight of the Golden Shield, I 599 : 

" By fly ing 'force of flickering fame your grace fliall under- 

Again, in The Pilgrim of Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" fome caftrel 

" That hovers over her, and dares her daily ; 

" Sorne flicknng flave." 

Sir Thomas North, in his tranflation of Plutarch, talks of the 
flickering enticements of.Clenpatra Stunyhurft, in his traoflatioo 
of the fourth book of Virgil's JEncid, 1582, defcribes Iris, 

** From the fky down flickering, &c." 
And again in the old play, entitled, Fuimus Trees, 1603 : 

*' V/ith gaudy pennons flickering in the air." 
Again, in the Arraignment of Paris, i 584 : 

" Her turtles and her fwans unyoked be, 
u Andjftcfyr near her fide for company." STF.EVE\ T S. 
" though I Jbould win your difpkafure to intreat me /i)V.] 

Though I fliould win you, diipleafed as you now iire, to like me 
fb well as to intreat me to be a knave. JOHNSON. 

E e 3 I fhould 

422 K I N G L E A R. 

I fhould win your difpleafure to entreat me to if. 

Cor. What was the offence you gave him ? 

Stew.. I never gave him any : 
It pleas'd the king his mafler, very late, 
To flrike at me, upon his mifconftruclion ; 
When he, 7 conjunct, and flattering his difpleafure, 
Tript me behind ; being down, infulted, rail'd, 
And put upon him fuch a deal of man, that 
That worthy'd him, got praifes of the king 
For him attempting who was felf-fubdu'd ; 
And, in the fleflimentof this dread exploit, 
Drew on me here again. 

Kent. None of thefe rogues, and cowards, 
8 But Ajax is their fool. 

Corn. Fetch forth the flocks, ho ! 
You ftubborn ancient knave 5 , you reverend braggart, 
We'll teach you 

Kent. Sir, I am too old to learn : 
Call not your flocks for me : I ferve the king ; 
On whofe employment I was fent to you : 
You fhall do fmall refped:, Ihew too bold malice 
Againft the grace and perfon of my mailer. 
Stocking his meiTenger. 

Corn. Fetch forth the flocks : 
As I have life and honour, there fhall he fit 'till noon. 

Regan. 'Till noon ! 'till night, my lord ; and all 
night too. 

7 ConjunR is the reading of the old quartos : compal > of the 
folio. STEEVENS. 

8 But Ajax is their foo!.] Their fool means here, their <$*//, 
their laugh/ng-Jtock. Thefe finical puppies (fays Kent) thefe 
rogues and cowards t never meet with a man fuperior to themfelves, 
but they make him their jeft, like Ajax with Therfitts. Shake- 
fpeare's idea of Ajax may be feen in his Troilus and CrcJJiJa^ 
\vhere he is the fool of the play, and the conftant cbjed't ot Thcr- 

Jitei' ridicule, for a fcurvy valiant afs, Mars 1 ! ideot, &C. 


9 ancient knave."] Two of the quartos read mfircant 

knave, and one oi them vnrevcrent t initead of reverend. 



K I N G L E A R. 423 

Kent. Why, madam, if I were your father's dog> 
You fhould not life me fo. 

Reg. Sir, being his knave, I will. 

[Stocks brought out f . 

Corn. This is a fellow of the felf-fame colour * 
Our filter fpeaks of : Come, bring away the flocks, 

Glo. Let me befeech your grace not to do fo : 
3 * His fault is much, and the good king his mafter 
Will check him for't : your purpos'd low correction 
Is fuch, as bafefl and the meaneft 4 wretches, 
For pilferings and moft common trefpafies, 
Are punifh'd with * : the king mult take it ill, 
That he, fo flightly valu'd in his meflenger, 
Should have him thus reflrain'd. 

Corn. I'll anfwer that. . 

Reg. My filter may receive it much more worfe, 
To have her gentleman abus'd, aflaulted, 
For following her affairs. Put in his legs. 

[Kent is put in the flocks *. 
Come, my good lord ; away. 

[Exeunt Regan, and Cornwall. 

Glo. I am forry for thee, friend; 'tis the duke's 

Whofe difpofition, all the world well knows, 

1 -flocks] This is not the firft time that (locks had been intro- 
duced on the ftage. In Hick-fcorner, which was printed early in 
the reigu of K. Henry VIII. Pity is put into them and left there 
till he is freed by Perfe-veraunce and Contcniplacyon. STEEVENS. 

a colour. ~\ The quartos read, nature. STEEVENS. 

3 His fault ] All between the afterilks is omitted in the folio. 


4 tie meaneft ] This is a conjectural emendation by 

Mr. Pope. The quartos read and temneft, perhaps, for c-on- 
tcmnetfft. STEEVEXS. 

5 I know not whether this circumftance of putting Kent in the 
fiocks be not ridiculed in the punifhment of Numps, in jjen Jon- 
fon's Bartholomew-Fair. 

It fliould be remembered, that formerly in great houfes, as ftill 
in fome colleges, there were moveable 'foctx for the correction 
f the frvants. FARMER. 

E e 4 Will 


* Will not be rubb'd, nor ftopp'd : I'll entreat for thee, 
Kent. Pray, do not, fir : I have watch'd, and 

travell'd hard ; 

Some time I {hall ileep out, the reft I'll whittle. 
A good man's fortune may grow out at heels : 
Give you good morrow ! 

Glo. The duke's to blame in this; 'twill be ill taken, 

Kent. 7 Good king, that mud approve the common 

faw ! 

Thou out of heaven's benedidtion com'ft 
To rhe warm fun ! 
Approach, thou beacon to this under globe, 

'[Looking v.p lo the moon. 
That by thy comfortable beams I may 
Perufc this letter ! Nothing almoft fees miracles s ; 
But milery, 9 I know, 'tis from Cordelia ; 

[Reading the letter* 

6 Will not le rubVd, nor Jtofp'd. ] Metaphor from 

bowling. WAR BUR TON. 

' Good king, tbat n:ujl approve the common Jaw !\ That art 
now ro exemplify the common proverb, That out nf, &c. That 
chau & eft better for worfe, Hanmer obferves, that it is a pro- 
ve''bial faying, applied to thofe who are turned out of houfe and 
home to the open weather. It was perhaps firit uicd of men dif- 
mified from an hofpital, or houfe or" charity, fuch as was ei efted 
formerly in many places for travellers. Thofe houfes had 
names properly enough alluded to by heaven 's leucdiftion* 


The/rf<u> alluded to, is in Hey wood's Dialogues on Proverbs, 
book ii, chap. 5. 

" In your renning from him to me, ye runne 
" Out of God'* biffing into the ivarmc funne" 


* Nothing almoftftfs miracles,] Thus the folio. The quartos 
read Nothing alinoft fees my wrack. STEEVENS. 

9 / know *titfro9i Cordelia, &c. "] This paffage, which 

feme of the editors have degraded as fpurious, to the margin, 
and others have filently altered, I have faithfully printed ac- 
cording to the quarto, from which the folio difters only in punc- 
tuation. The paffage is very obfcure, if cot corrupt. Perhaps 
it may be read thus ; 


AVho hath mofl fortunately been inform'd 
Of my obfcured courfe ; ' and fiall find time 

From this enormous flat 'e, feeking to give 

Loffes their remedies ; All weary and o'er-watch'd, 
Take vantage, heavy eyes, not to behold 
This fhameful lodging. 

Fortune,good night; fmile once more; turnthywhecl! 



Apart of the heath. 

Enter Edgar. 

EJg. I heard myfelf proclaim'd ; 
And, by the happy hollow of a tree, 
Efcap'd the hunt. No port is free ; no place, 

Cordelia has been informed 

Of my obfcured courfe, and {hall find time 
From this enormous ftate-feeking, to give 

Lofles their remedies. 

Cordelia is informed of our affairs, and when the enormous care of 
fceking her fortune will allow her time, fhe will employ it in re- 
medying lofles. This is harfh ; perhaps fomething better may be 
found. I have at leaft fupplied the genuine reading of the old, 
copies. Enormous is unwonted, out of rule, out of the ordinary 
courfe of things. JOHNSON. 

So Holinmed, p. 647, " The maior perceiving this enormous 
doing, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 and Jb all find time 

From this enormous Jiate^ fceking to give 

Loffes their remedies, ] 

I confefs I do not underfland this paflage, unlefs it may be 
confidered as divided parts of Cordelia 's letter , which he is reading 
to himielf by moonlight : it certainly conveys the fenfe of what 
fhe would have faid. In reading a letter, it is natural enough to 
dwell on thofe circumltances in it that promile the change in our 
affairs which we moft wifli for" ; and Kent having read Cordelia's af- 
furances that fhe will find a time to free the injured from the enorm* 
ous mifrule of Regan, is willing to go to fleep with that pleafing 
reflexion uppermolt in his mind. But thi$ is mere conjecture. 



K I N G L E A R. 

That guard, and molt nnufual vigilance, 

Does not attend my taking. While I may fcape, 

I will preferve myfelf : and am bethought 

To take the bafeft and mod pooreft ihape, 

That ever penury, in contempt of man, 

Brought near to beaft : my face I'll grime with filth ; 

Blanket my loins ; * elf all my hair in knots ; 

And with prefented naked nefs out-face 

The winds, and perfecutions of the fky. 

The country gives me proof and precedent 

Of Bedlam beggars % who, with roaring voices, 

Strike in their numb'd and mortify'd bare arms 

Pins, wooden pricks 4 , nails, fpiigs of rofemary ; 

And with this horrible object from low farms J , 

* elf all my hair in knots ;~\ Hair thus knotted, was 

vulgarly fuppofed to be the work of elves and fairies in the night. 
So, in Romeo and Juliet : 

" plats the manes of horfes in the night, 

** And cakes the elf-locks in foul fluttifh hairs, 

" Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes." 


3 Of Realam beggars,"] In the Bell-man of London , by Decker, 
^th edit. 1640, is the following account of one of thefe charac- 
ters, under the title of an Abraham-Man. ** -he fwcares he 

hath been in Bedlam, and will talke frantickely of purpofe : you 
fee fifties ftuck in fundry places of his naked fiefh, efpccially in 
his arwcs, which paine he gladly puts himfelfe to, only to make 
you believe he is out of his wits. He calles himfelfe by the 
name of Poore Tom, and comming ' near any body cries eut, 
Poor Tom is a cold. Of thefe Ab'al am-men, Come be exceeding 
merry, and doe nothing but ling fongs rationed out of their owne 
braines : fome will dance, others will doe nothing but either 
laugh or wcepe : others are Logged, and fo fullen both in loke and 
fpeech, that fpying but a (mail company in a houfe, they boldly 
and bluntly enter, compelling the fervants through feare to give 
them what they demand." Tojtjaw Abraham, a cant term, itill 
in ufe among lailors and the vulgar, may have this origin. 


* wooden pricks,] i.e. fkewers. So, in 7!>r H'yll of the 

Druvll, bl. 1. no date. '* I give to the butchers, &c. pricks 
wough to fet up their thin meate, that it may appeare thicke and 
tveil fedcle." STKEVKNS. 

s >/ow farms,] The quartos read, low Jervicr. STEEVENS. 



* Poor pelting villages, flieep-cotes, and mills, 
Sometime with lunatic bans 7 , ibmetime with prayers, 
Inforce their charity. * Poor Turlygood ! poor Tom ! 
That's fomething yet ; 9 Edgar I nothing am. [Exit* 

6 Poor pelting villages, ] Pelting is ufed by Shakefpeare in 

the fenfe of beggarly : I fuppofe from pelt a Ikin. The poor 
being generally cloathed in leather. WARBURTON. 

Pelting is, I believe, only an accidental depravation of petty, 
Shakefpeare ufes it in the Midfummer '-Night's Dream of fmall 
brooks. JOHNSON. 

Beaumont and Fletcher often ufe the word in the fame fenfe 
as Shakefpeare. So in King and no King, a6t IV : 

" This pelt ing, prating peace is good for nothing." 

Spanijh Curate, aft II. fc. ult. " To learn the pelting law." 

Shakefpeare's MiJfummer Night's Dream, " every pelting Driver." 
Mcafurefor Meafure, aft II. fc. vii : 

" And every felting petty officer." 
Again, in Troilus and Crejfida, Heclor fays to Achilles : 
" We have had petting wars fince you refus'd 
" The Grecian caufe." 

From the firft of the two laft inftances it appears not to be a corrupt/ 'on. 
of petty, which is ufed the next word to it, but feems to be the 
fame as paltry ; and if it comes from pelt a fltin, as Dr. Warbur- 
ton fays, the poets have furnifhed villages, peace, law, rivers, 
officers of j uft ice and "Mars, all out ot one wardrobe. STEEVENS. 

7 lunatic bans,] To ban, is to curie. 

So, in Mother Bombie, 1594, a comedy by Lilly: 

" Well, be as be may is no banning" 
So, in ArJen of Fever/bam, 1592 : 

" Nay, if thofe ban, let me breathe curfes forth. 


1 poor Turlygood ! poor Tom /] We fliould read Tur- 

lupin. In the fourteenth century there was a new fpecies of gip- 
fies, called Turlupins, a fraternity of naked beggars, which ran up 
and down Europe. However, the church ot Rome hath digni- 
fied them with the name of heretics, and actually burned fome of 
them at Paris. But what fort of religionifls they were, appears 
from Genebrard's account of them. " Turlupin Cynicorum 
fectam fufcitantes, de nuditate pudendorum, & publico coitu.'* 
Plainly, nothing but a band of Tom-o* -Bedlams. WAR BURTON. 
Hanmer reads, poor Turlitru. It is probable the word Turfy- 
good WAS the common corrupt pronunciation. JOHNSON-. 

9 Edgar I nothing am.] As Edgar I am outlawed, dead in 

law ; I have no longer any pjlitical exiitence. JOHNSON. 


428 K I N G L E A R. 

S C E N E IV. 

1 Earl of Gkjler's cqftle. 

Enter Lear, Fool, and Gentleman. 

Lear. 'Tis ftrange, that they fhould fo depart from 

And not fend back my mefienger. 

Gent. As I learn'd, 

The night before there was no purpofe in them 
Of this remove. 

Kent. Kail to thee, noble matter ! 

Lear. How ! mak'tf thou this fliame thy paftime ? 

Kent. No, my lord *. 

FooL Ha, ha ; look ! } he wears cruel gaiters ! 


" Earl of Glower's co/tle.] It is not very clearly difcovered 
why Lear comes hither. In the foregoing part he lent a letter 
toGlofter; but no hint is given ot its content?. He lecms to 
have gone to vifit Glofter while Cornwall and Regan might pre- 
pare to entertain him. JOHNSON. 

It is plain, I think, that Lear comes to the earl of Gloceflers, 
in confequence of his having been at the duke ot Cornwall's, and 
having heard there, that his fon and daughter were gone to the 
carl of Glocefter's. His firft words {hew this : " 'Tis Jlraugc that 
they (Cornwall and Regan) Jbo^M fo depart from borne, and not 
fend back my meflenger (Kent)." It is clear alfo from Kent's 
ipeechin this fcene, that he went direttly from Lear to the duke 
of Cornwall's, and delivered his letters, but, inftead of being 
fent back with any anfwer, was ordered to follow the duke and 
dutchefs to the earl of Gloceftcr's. But what then is the meaning of 
Lear's order to Kent in the preceding a<ft, fcene v. Go you before 

-to Glocefter ivitb thtfe letters. The obvious meaning, and what 

will agree beft with the courfe of the fubfequent events, is, that 
the duke of Cornwall and his wife were then rcfiding at Glocefter. 
Why Shakefpeare fhould choofe to fuppofe them at Gloceller, ra- 
ther than at any other city, is a different queftion. Perhaps he 
might think, that Glocefter implied fuch a neighborhood to the 
carl of Glocefter's caftle, as his ftory required. TYRWHITT. 
* No, my loril.~\ Omitted in the quartos. STEEVKNS. 

3 he wears cruel garters. ] I believe a quibble was here 

intended. Crewel fignifies ivor/lcd t of which flocking?, garters, 



Horfcs arc ty'd by the heads; dogs, and bears, by 
the neck ; monkies by the loins, and men by the 
legs : when a man is over-lufty at legs, s then he 
wears wooden nether-flocks. 

night-caps, &c. are made ; and it is ufed in that fenfe in Beau* 
mont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady, a6t ii. 

** For who that had but half his wits about him 

" Would commit the counfel of a ferious fin 

*' To fuch a crewel night-cap" 

So again in the comedy of The Two angry Women of Abi*gton t 
printed 1 599 : 

** I'll warrant you, he'll have 

" His crutU garters cmb about the knee." 
So, in the Bird in a Cagt, 1633 .- 

" I fpeak the prologue to our filk and cruel 

" Gentlemen in the hangings." 
Again, in VFomans a Weathercock, 1612: 

" Wearing oijiik why art thoju ftill fo cruel*** 
Again, in Edmund Preftwich's Poem on a lady working a bed 
with crcwell : 

" Not m>t<,W/bed, but bed of cruelty" STEEVENS. 
* o-jer-'ufly in this place has a double fignification. Luftinefs 
anciently me*ntjauchuft. 
So, in Decker's If this le not a good Play the Devil is in it, 1612 : 

, -upon pain of being plagued for their lujlynefi*" 

Again, in Claudius Tiberius Nero, 1607 : 

" (he'll fnarl and bite, 

" And take up Nero for his luftintfs" 
Again, in fir Thomas North's tranilation of Plutarch : 

" Caffius' foldiers did ftiewe themielves rerie ftubborne and 
luftie'vA thecampe, &c." STEEVENS. 

s then he wears wooden nether-flocks.] Nether-flocks f* 

the old word for Jiockings. Breeches were at that time called 
" men's ovtrjiockes" as 1 learn from Barrett's Alvearit, or Qua- 
druple Dictionary, i^8c. Stubbs, in his Anatomic of Abitfcs, has 
a whole chapter on. The Z)/w/_yf//Vff/"Nether-Stockes -ivorne in Eng- 
land, 1595. Heywood among his Epigrams, 1562, has the fol- 
lowing : 

" Thy upper flocks, be they {tuft with filke or flocks, 

** Never become thee like a nether pair e of flocks" 
Again, in Reginald Scott's Difcovery of Witchcraft, 1^85: 

" to cover the pot with nay right nether/lock" 



430 K I N G L E A R. 

Lear. What's he, that hath fo much thy place 

To fet thee here ? 

Kent. It is both he and me, 
Your Ton and daughter. 

Lear. No. 

Kent. Yes. 

Lear. No, I fay. 

Kent. I fay, yea. 

Lear. 6 No, no ; they would not. 

Kent. Yes, they have. 

Lear. By Jupiter, I fwear, no. 

Kent. By Juno, I fwear, ay . 

Lear. They durft not do't ; 
They could not, would not do't; 'tis worfe than 


* To do upon refpeift fuch violent outrage : 
Refolve me, with all model! hafte, which way 
Thou might'fl deferve, or they impofe, this ufage, 
Coming from us. 

Kent. My lord, when at their home 
I did commend your highnefs' letters to them, 
Ere I was rifen from the place that fhew'd 
My duty kneeling, came there a reeking poft, 
Stew'd in his hafte, half breathlefs, panting forth 
From Goneril his miftrefs, falutations ; 
9 Deliver'd letters, Ipight of intermiffion, 


6 Lear.'} This and the next fpeech are omitted in the folio. 


7 By J tino > I fw r , a y> ] Omitted in the quartos. 


To do upon refpctf fucb violent outrage:] To violate the pub- 
lic and venerable charader of a mellenger from the king. 


9 D diver' J letters, ff'-^lt of intermiflion,] I*termlffion\ for an- 
other meflage which 'they had then before them, to confider 
of; called intermijfion, becaufe it came between their leifure and 
the Reward's meflagc. WARBURTON. 

K I N G L E A R. 43I 

Which prefently they read : on whofe contenst, 
1 They fummon'd up their meinv, flraight took horfe ; 
Commanded me to follow, and attend 
The leifure of their anfwer ; gave me cold looks : 
And meeting here the other meflenger, 
Whofe welcome, I perceiv'd, had poifon'd mine, 
(Being the very fellow which of late 
Difplay'd fo faucily againft your highnefs) 
Having more man than wit about me, I drew ; 
He rais'd the houfe with loud and coward cries : 
Your fon and daughter found this trefpafs worth 
The fhame which here it fuffers. 

Fool. * Winter's not gone yet, if the wild geefe fly 
that way. 

Fathers, that wear rags, 

Do make their children blind ; 

But fathers, that bear bags, 
Shall fee their children kind. 

Fortune, that arrant whore, 

Ne'er turns the key to the poor. 

Spight of intermljjwn is without faufe, without fuffering time ; 
intervene. So, in Macbeth : 

" . gentle heaven, 

* Cut ftiort all intcrmijjion, &c." SrEEVENS. 

1 They fummor? d up their ineiny, ] Meiny, i.e. people. 


Mef*f, a houfe. Mefnie, a family, Fr. 
So, in Monfieur D'Olive, 1 606 . 

jf ft ej or [ ier f a( j me iny^ 

" Be towards flecp, I'll wake them." 

Again, in the bl. 1. Romance of Syr JLglamoure of Art<ys t n 
date : 

" Of the emperoure took he leave ywys, 
** And of all the meiny that was there.'* 
Again : 

" Here coineth the king of Ifrael, 
** With a fay re meinye." STEEVENS. 

* Winter's not gone yet^ &c.] It this be their behaviour, thfl 
king's troubles are not yet at an end. JOHNSON. 
This fpeech i$ omitted in the quartos. STEEVEXS. 



But, for all this, thou lhalt have as many J dolours 
from thy dear daughters, as thou can'ft tell in a year* 

Lear. O, how this mother 4 fwells up toward my 

heart ! 

H}fterka pqflio ! down, thou climbing forrow, 
Thy element's below ! Where is this daughter ? 

Kent. With the earl, fir, here within. 

Lear. Follow me not ; flay here. [Exit* 

Gent. Made you no more offence than what you 
fpeak of ? 

Kent. None. 
How chance the king comes with fo fmall a train ? 

Fool. An thou hadft been fet i' the tfocks for that 
qucftion, thou hadft well deferv'd it. 

3 dolours.'} Quibble intended between dolours and 

dollars. HANMER. 

The fame quibble had occurred in the Tempcjl, and in Meafurt 
for Meafure. STEEVENS. 

* Oh, h<nv this mother, ffc.] Lear here affects to pafs off the 
fwelling of his heart ready to burft with grief and indignation, 
for the difeafe called the Mother, or Hyjlerica t'afio, which, in 
our author's time, was not thought peculiar to women only. In 
Harfnet's Declaration of Popijb Impojlu-ts, Richard Mainy, Gent, 
t/neof the pretended demoniacs, depofes, p. 263, that the firlt 
night that he came to Denham, the feat of Mr. Peckham, where 
thefe impofturcs were managed, he was fomewhat evill at eaie, 
and he grew worfe and worfe with an old difeafe that he had, 
and .which the priefts perfuaded him was from the potfellior. of 
the devil, viz. " The difeafe, I fpake of was a fpice of the 
Mother, wherewith i had bene troubled . . before my going into 
Fraunce : whether doe rightly term it the Mother <;r no, 1 knowe 
not . . . When I was (icke of this difeafe :n Fraunce, a cottifh 
doctor of phyfick then in Paris, called it, as I remember, Verti- 
ginem Capitts. It riteth . . . ; of a winde in the bottome of the 
belly, and proceeding with a great fwelling, caufeth a very pain- 
full collicke in the ftomack, and an extraordinary gidJines in the 

It is at leaft very probable, that Shakefpenrc would not have 
thought of making Lear aflfecl to have the Hy ft nick Pajfion, or 
Mother, if this palfage in Harfnet's pamphlet had not iuggelted 
it to him, when he was feleclinjr the other particulars from it, 
in order to furnifh out his chancier of Tom of Bedlam, to 
whom this demoniacal gibberifli is admirably adapted. PERCY. 


K I N G L E A R. 433 

fca/. Why, fool ? 

Foe/. We'll fet thee to fchool to ari ant, to teach 
thee there's no labouring in the winter. * All that fal- 
low their nofes are led by their eyes, but blind men ; 
and there's riot a nofe among twenty, but can frhell 
him that's (linking. Let go thy hold, when a great 
wheej runs down a hill, left it break thy neck with 
following it ; but the great one that goes up the 
hill, let him draw thee after. 6 When a wife man 
gives thee better counfel, give me mine again : I 
would have none but knaves follow it, fince a fool 
giVes ir. 

That, fir, which ferves and feeks for 
And follows but for form, 

* All thatfollo-iv their nofes are led by their eyes, liit Hind men J 
and there's not a nofe among twenty t but can fmell, &C;J There is 
in this fentence no clear leries of thought. If he that follows his 
nofe is led or guided by his eyes, he wants no information from his 
nofe. I perfuade myfelf, but know not whether I can perfuade 
others, that our author wrote thus : ** All men are led by their 
** e"yes, but blind men, and they follow their nofes : and there's 
44 not a nofe among twenty but can fmell him that's {Unking."* 
Here is a fucceffioh of reafoning. You afk, why the king has 
no more in his train ? why, becaufe men who are led by their 
eyes fee that he is ruined ; and if there were any blind amongj 
them, who, for want of eyes, followed their noies, they might 
by their nofes difcover that it was no longer fit to follow the king. 


The word twenty refers to the nofes of the III nd men, and not 
to the men in general. The paflag.?, thus confidered, bear* 
clearly the very lenfe which the above note endeavours to eftubltih 
by alteration. STEEVENS. 

6 When a iv iff man gives thee, &rc'.] One cannot too much 

eommend the caution which our moral poet ufes, on all occa- 
lions, to prevent his fentimcnts from being pervcrfcly t:iken. So 
here, having given an ironical precepr in commendation of per- 
fidy ;md bale defertion of the unfortunate, for fear it fliould be 
xmderllood fetioufly, though delivered by his buffoon orjclrcr, 
he has the precaution to add this beautiful corrective, full of fine 
Icnfe : ** I would have none but knaves follow it, fmce a fool 
gives it." WAP. BUR TON. 

VOL. IX. F f Will 

434 K I N G L E A R. 

Will pack, when it begins to rain, 

And leave thee in the florm. 
7 But I will tarry ; the fool will ftay, 

And let the wife man fly : 
The knave turns fool, that runs away; 

The fool no knave, perdy. 
Kent. Where learn'd you this, fool ? 
Fool. Not i' the flocks, fool. 

Re-enter Lear, with Glofter. 

Lear. Deny to fpeak with me ? They are lick ? 

they are weary ? 

They have travell'd hard to-night ? Mere fetches ; 
The images of revolt and flying off! 
Fetch me a better anfwer. 

Glo. My dear lord, 

You know the fiery quality of the duke ; 
How unremoveable and fixt he is 
In his own courfe. 

Lear. Vengeance ! plague ! death ! confufion ! 
Fiery ? what quality ? Why, Glofter, Glofter, 
I'd fpeak with the duke of Cornwall, and his wife/ 
Glo. 8 Well, my good lord, I have inform'd 

them fo. 

Lear. Inform'd them ! Doft thou underftand me. 
man ? 

7 Sut I w/// tarry ; tie fool willfiay, 

And let, &c.] 

I think this paflage erroneous, though both the copies concur. 
The fenfe will be mended if we read : 

But I will tarry ; the fool will flay, 

And let the wife man fly ; 

The fool turns knave, that runs away ; 

The knave no fool, 

That I flay with the king is a proof that I am a fool, the wife 
men are deferting him. There is knavery in this dcicrtion, but 
there is no folly. JOHNSON. 

8 G&.] This, with the following fpeech, is omitted in the 
quartos. STEEVF.NS. 



Glo. Ay, my good lord. 

Lear. The king would fpcak with Cornwall ; the 

dear father 
Would with his daughter fpcak, commands her 

fervice : 

Are they inform'd of this ? My breath and blood ! 
Fiery ? the fiery duke ? Tell the hot duke, that 9 

No, but not yet : may be, he is not well ; 

Infirmity doth ftill neglect all office, 
Whereto our health is bound ; we are not ourfelves, 
When nature, being opprefs'd, commands the mind 
To fuffer with the body : I'll forbear; 
And am fallen out with my more headier will, 
To take the indifpos'd and fickly fit 
For the found man. Death on my ftate ! wherefore 

[Looking on Kent. 

Should he fit here ? This aft perfuadcs me, 
That this remotion of the duke and her 
1 Is practice only. Give me my fervant forth : 
Go, tell the duke and his wife, I'd fpeak with them, 
Now, prefently ; bid them come forth and hear me, 
Or at their chamber door I'll beat the drum, 
'Till it cry, Sleep to death. 

Glo. 1 would have all well betwixt you. [Exit. 
Lear. O me, my heart, my riling heart! but, 


Fool. Cry to it, nuncle, as the cockney a did to 


9 Tell the hot dukc^ that ] The quartos read Tell the hot 

duke, that Lear STEEVENS. 

1 It practice only. ] Praftice is in Shakefpeare, and 

other old writers, ufed commonly in an ill fenfe for unlawful ar- 
tifice. JOHNSON. 

z the cockney] It is not eafy to determine the cxaft 
power of this term of contempt, which, as the editor of the Can- 
terbury Tales of Chaucer observes, might have been originally 
borrowed from the kitchen. From the ancient ballad of the 
T.urna7ncnt of Tottenham, publilhed by Dr. Percy in his fecond 
volume of Ancient Poctrv, p. 24, it fliould leem to figuify a cook : 
F i a " At 


3 the eels, when Ihe put them i' the pafte alive ; fhe 
rapt 'em o' the coxcombs with a flick, and cry'd, 
Down, wantons, down : 'Twas her brother, that, ia 
pure kindnefs to his horfe, butter'd his hay. 

Enter Cornwall, Regan, Ck/ier, and Servants. 

Lear. Good morrow to you both. 

Corn. Hail to your grace ! [Kent isfet at liberty. 

Reg. I am glad to fee your highnefs. 

Lear. Regan, I think you are ; I know what reafon 
1 have to think ib : if thou ihould'ft not be glad, 
I would divorce me from thy mother's tomb, 
Sepulch'ring an adultrefs 4 . O, are you free ? 

[To Kert. 

Some other time for that. Beloved Regan, 
Thy fitter's naught : O Regan, 5 fhe hath tied 
Sharp-tooth'd unkindncfs, like a vulture, here, -- 

[Points IQ bis heart. 

** At that feaft were they fcrved in rich army ; 

** Every five and five hr.d a ctkeny* 
i.e. a cool-, orjl'u!lioa y to attend them. 

Shakefpeare, however, in T^wlftb Nigt.'f, makes his Clown 
fay, ** I am afraid this grout lubber the world, will prove a cock- 
ney." In this place it feems to have a fignification not unlike 
that which it bears at prefent ; and, indeed, Chaucer in his 
Rcve's Tale, ver. 4; 05, appears to employ it with fuch a meaning : 

*' And whan this jape is raid another day, 

" I (hall be halden a dafte or a cokenay" 

See the notes on the Canterbury Tales of dancer, Vol. IV. p. 253, 
where the reader will meet with all the information to be had oa 
this fubjedl. STEEVENS. 

3 - tbt eels, when jbc put them ? tic paflc - ] Hinting that 
the eel and Lear are in the fame danger. JOHNSON. 

4 fi-piilcbring, &c.] This word is accented in the f.nne munue* 
by Fair fax and Milton: 

* As ir" his work fliould khfyalcfierbe," C. i. IK 25. 
** And foff/itdc/jir'd in fuch pomp doe lie." 

Milton orrSbaktfytare, Hncxv. 


5 f,,< bMi t'.td 

>, lilt a vulture here,"] 
ethctu. WAR auai o.v. 

I can 


Sharp-tooted nnk>ndn<:f>, lilt a vulture here,"] 
Alluding to the table or' Proinethctu. WAR auai o.v 


I can fcarce fpeak to thee ; thou'lt not believe, 
56 Of how deprav'd a quality O Regan ! 

Reg. I pray you, fir, take patience ; I have hope, 
You lefs know how to value her defert, 
7 Than fhe to fcant her duty. 

Lear. Say ? 8 How is that ? 

Reg. 1 cannot think, my fitter in the leaft 
Would fail her obligation ; If, fir, perchance, 
She have rcftrain'd the riots of your followers, 
'Tis on fuch ground, and to fuch wholefome end, 
As clears her from all blame. 

Lear. My curfes on her ! 

Reg. O, fir, you are old ; 
Nature in you ftands on the very verge 
Of her confine : you ihould be rul'd, and led 
By fome difcretion, that difcerns your Hate 
Better than you yourfelf : Therefore, 1 pray you, 
That to our filter you do make return ; 
Say, you have wrong'd her, fir. 

Lear. Afk her forgivenefs ? 

6 Of JJO-M depraved a quality .] Thus the quarto. The 
folio reads : 

Hit/.' how deprav'd a quality < JOHNSON. 

7 Ibanjbe to fcant her duty,~\ The ward fcant is direclly con- 
trary to the fenfe intended. The quarto reads : 

Jlack her duty, 

which is no better. May we not change it thus : 

You lefs know how to value her deiert, 

Than fhe lofcan her duty. 

To/. may be to meafure or proportion. Yet our author ufes his 
negatives with fuch liccntioufnefs, that it is hardly fare to make 

any alteration. Scant may mean to adapt , to fit, to proportion ; 

which fenfe feems flill to be retained in the mechanical term 
JcantUitg* Jo H N s o N . 

Hnniner had propofcd this change of 'fcant \Mofcan, but furely 
no alteration is neceflary. The other reading -Jlack would anfwer 
as well. You lefs know how to value her defert, than (lie 
(kmttvs) to fcant her duty, i.e. than flie can be capable of being 
wanting in her duty. STEEVE.VS. 

8 Say, &:c.] This, as well as the followirg fpee;h 5 is omitted 
?n the quartos. STEEVENS. 

F f 3 Do 


9 Do you but mark how this becomes the houfe ? 
Dear daughter, I confefs that I am old ; 
1 Age is unneceffary : on my knees I beg, ([Kneeling. 

That you'll voucv/bfi me raiment, bed, and food. 


9 Doyctt but mark bow this becomes the houfe r] This phrafe to 
roe is unintelligible, and feems to fay nothing to the purpofe : 
neither can it mean, how this becomes the order of families. 
Lear would certainly intend to reply, how does aflcing my daugh- 
ter's forgivenefs agree with common faihion, the eftablifned rule 
and cuftoin of nature ? No doubt, but the poet wrote, becomes 
the nfe, And that Shakefpeare employs nfe in this iigiiification, 
is too obvious to want a proof. THEOBALD. 

Do ynu but mark bo\u this becomes the houfe ?] Mr. Theobald 
fays, " This phrafe feems to fay little to the purpofe;" and 

therefore alters it to, becomes the ufe, which fignifies lefs. 

The Oxford Editor makes him frill more familiar becometh us. 
All th's chopping and changing proceeds from an utter ignorance 

of a great, a noble, and a muft cxprcllive phrafe, becomes 

the houfe; which fignifies the order of families, duties of 

relation. WARBURTON. 

With this mnji cxprrjjire pbrafc I believe no reader is fatisfied. 
I fufped that it has been written originally : 
Afk her forgivenefs ? 

Do you but mark how this becometh thus. 

Dear daughter, I confefs, &c. 

Becomes the bcufe, and bccomctb tbus, might be eaiily confounded 
by readers fo unfkilful as the origin:;! printers. JOHNSON. 
' Dr. Warburton's explanation may be fupported by the follow- 

ing pafTage in Milton on Divorce, book ii. ch. 12. ** the 

reftraint whereof, who is not too thick-righted, may fee how hurt- 
ful, how deftrutStive, it is to the houfe, the church, and common- 
wealth !" TOLLET. 

The old reading may likcwife receive additional fupport from 

the following p;;fiage in the Blind Brggar of Alexandria, 1598 : 

" Come un to ("upper ; it will become the houfe wonderful well." 

Mr. Toilet has tincc furnifhed me with the following extract 

from fir Thomas Smith's Commonweal! b of England, 410. 1601. 

chap. II. which has much the fame cxprelfion, and explains it. 

" I'hev two together [man and wire] ruleth the bonfe. The 

bottfi: I call here, the man, the woman, their children, their fer- 

vants, bond and free, &c." STEKVKNS. 

' s^cls uimeccflary : ] i. c. Old age has few wants. 


This ufage of the word unuecejjary is quite without example ; 
and I believe my learned coadjutor'h;is rather improved than ex- 


Rtg. Good fir, no more ; thefe are unfightly tricks : 
Return you to my fifter. 

Lear. Never, Regan : 
She hath abated me of half my train ; 
* Look'd black upon me ; ftruck me with her tongue, 

Mod ferpent-like, upon the very heart : 

All the ftor'd vengeances of heaven fall 

On her ingrateful top ! Strike her young bones, 

You taking airs, with lamenefs ! 

Corn. Fie, fir, fie ! 

Lear. You nimble lightnings, dart your blinding 


Into her fcornful eyes ! Infed: her beauty, 
You fen-fuck'd fogs, drawn by the powerful fun, 
3 To fall and blaft her pride ! 


plained the meaning of his author, who feems to have defigned 
to fay no more than that it feems itnneceffary to children that the 
lives of" their parents Jbould be prolonged. Age is unnecejjary, may 
mean, old people are ufelrfs. So, in The Old Laiv, by Mallinger : 

" your laws extend not to defert, 

*' But to unnecejjary years ; and, my lord, 
" His are not luch." STEEVENS. 

UnneceJJary in Lear's fpeech, I believe, means in ivant of neccf- 
faries unable to procure them. TYRWHITT. 

* Looked black upon me ; ] To look black, may eafily be ex- 

plain'd to look cloudy or gloomy. See JMilton : 

" So frown'd the mighty combatants, that hell 

*' Grew darker at their frown."- JOHNSON. 

So, Holinfhed, vol. iii. p. 1157: " The biihops thereat 

repined, and looked black." TOLLET. 

3 To fall, and blaft her pride /] Thus the quarto: the folio 
reads not fo well, to fall and bliftcr. I think there is ftill a fault, 
which may be eafily mended by changing a letter : 

Infect her beauty, 

You fen-fuck'd fogs, drawn by the powerful fun, 
Do, fall, and blaii her pride ! JOHNSON. 
Dr. Johnfon's alteration will appear unnecefTary, if we confider 
fall to be ufed here as an ative verb, fignifying to humble, to 
pull down. InftR her beauty, ye fen-fuck* d fogs, drawn by the fun 
for this end to fall and blaft, i.e. humble and 1 deftroy her fri de. 
Shakefpeare in other places ufes fall in an active fenfe. So, in 

F f 4 " Each 

440 K I N G L E A R. 

Reg. O the bleil gods ! 
So will you vvilh on me, 4 when the rafli mood is on. 

Lear. No, Reg.u., thou fhalt never have my curfe ; 
Thy 5 tender-hefted nature fhull not give 
ThKe o'er to harfhnefs ; her eyes are fierce, but thine 
Do comfort, and not burn : ' Tis not in thee 
To grudge mv pleafures, to cut off my train, 
To bandy haky words, 6 to fcnnt my s, 


M Each drop (befalls will prqve a crocodile.'* 
Again, in the Tempcft : 

" To fall it on Gonzalo. 
Again, in Troilus and Crr//iJa : 

f* -^ make him fall 

" His creft, that prouder than blue Iris bends." '}].* LO s. 

4 ivfjcn the rajh mood if on.] Thus the folio. The 

quartos read only, iv/jen the rajb mood perhaps leaving 

the ientence purpofely unfinifhed. STEEVENS. 

5 tender-hefted ] This word, though its general mean- 
ing be plain, I do not critically underitand. JOHNSON 

Thy tender- bef ted nature ] Hefted leems to mean the fame as 
/.YztY.: 7 . Tender-hefted, i. e. whofe boibm is agitated by tender 
paiiions. The formation of fuch a participle, I believe, cannot 
be grammatically accounted for. Shnkeipeare uies hefts for 
beamings in The H'lntcr's Tal<-, aft II. Both the quartos however 
*ead, " tendcr-/v,Cv\V nature;" which may mean a nature which 
is governed by gentle difpolitions. Heft is an old word fignifying 
command. So, i n The 11 ~ars of Cym." , c^c. 1594: 

" ]Muu yield to btft of others that be free. 5 ' 
Hefted is the reading ot the folio. STEEVEXS. 

6 i to f;ant my fize?,] To contract my allowances or pro- 
portions fettled. JOHNSON'. 

AJizcr is one of the loweft rank of {Indents at Cambridge, 
and lives on a fhted allowance. 

Sizes are certain portions of bread, beer, or other victuals, which 
in public focierics arc fct down to the account of particular pcr- 
fons : a word itill ufed in colleges. So, in the Return from Par- 
iiaJTus : 

" You are one of the devil's fellow-commoners ; one that 
Jixtl the devil's butteries." 

" Fidlc:s, fct it on my head; I ufe to far my mufic, or gp 
on the tcoie for ir." Return from ParnaJJus. 

Size fometimes means company. So, in Clmhias Rc-cfigr^ 
2615 ; 

" He 

KING LEAR. 44 i 

And, in conclufion, to oppofe the bolt 
Againfr my coming in : thou better know'fl 
The offices of nature, bond of childhood, 
EfTedts of courtefy, dues of gratitude ; 
Thy half o'the kingdom thou haft not forgot, 
Wherein I thee endow'd. 

Reg. Good fir, to the purpofe. [Trumpets "joitliin* 
Lear. Who put my man i' the flocks ? 
Com. What trumpet's that ? 

Enter Steward, 

Reg. I know't, my fitter's : this approves her letter, 
That fhe would foon be here. Is your lady come? 

Lear. This is a flave, whofe eafy-borrow'd pride 
Dwells in the fickle grace of her he follows : 
Out, varlet, from my fight ! 

Corn. What means your grace ? 

Lear. Who ftock'd my fervant ? Regan, I have 

good hope 

Thou did'ft not know on't. Who comes here ? O 

Enter Goaerll. 

7 If yon do love old men, if your fweet fway 
Allow obedience, if yourfelves are old, 


" He now attended with a 
" Of foher ftatefmen, &c." 

I fuppofe a barlalji~,e is a bearded company. SrEZVENS. 
See -\fizc in Minfliew's Diftionary. TOLI.ET. 
7 If y ou d I 0>ve M m "h if your facet fvsay 

Allow obedience, if yourfelves are old,~\ 
Mr. Upton has proved by.irrefiftible authority, that 
fignifies not only to permit, but to approve, and has defervedly 
replaced the old reading, which Dr. V\ arburton had changed into 
faulew) obedience, not recollefting the Icripture expreflion, The 
.Lord allowerh the righteous, Pfalm xi. ver. 6. So, in Greene's 
Nevir too Late, 1616 ; " fhe allows of thce for love, not or 


44* KING LEA R. 

Make it your caufe ; fend down, and take my part ! 
Art not afham'd to look upon this beard ? [To Gon. 
O, Regan, wilt thou take her by the hand ? 

Gon. Why not by the hand, fir ? How have I 

offended ? 

All's not offence, 8 that indifcretion finds, 
And dotage terms fo. 

Lear. O, fides, you are too tough ! 
Will you yet hold ? How came my man i' the 
flocks ? 

Corn. I fet him there, fir : but his own difordcrs 
Deferv'd 9 much lefs advancement. 
, Lear. You ! did you ? 

Reg. l I pray you, father, being weak, feem fo. 


luft." Again, in Greene's Farewell to Follie, 1617: " I allow 
thofe pleating poems of Guazzo, which V>egin, &c." Again, 
Sir 1*ho. North's tranfiation of Plutarch, concerning the reception 
with which the death of Csfar met : " they neither greatly re- 
proved, nor allowed the facl." Dr. Warburton might have found 
the emendation which he propofed, in Tare's alteration of King 
Lear, which was firlr, published in 1687. STEEVENS. 

8 that indifcretion finds,] Finds is here ufed in the fame 

fenfe as when a jury is laid to find a bill, to which it is an allu- 
fion. Our author again ufes the fame word in the fame fenfe in 
Hamlet, aft V. fc. i : 

" Why 'tis foundh." EDWARDS. 

To fad is little more than to think. The French ufe their 
word trouver in the fame fenfe ; and we ftill fay I find time te- 
dious, or I find company troublefome, without thinking on a jury. 


much lefs advancement] The word advancement is 

ironically ufed for confpicuoufnefs of punifhment ; as we now fay, 
<z man is advanced to the pillory. We mould read : 

but his own diforders 

Deferv'd much more advancement. JOHNSON. 

By lefs advancement is meant, a (till wcrfe or more difgraceful 
fituation : a fituaticn not fo reputable. PERCY. 

Cornwall certainly means, that Kent's dforders had entitled him 
even a port of lefs honour than the flocks. STEEVENS. 

1 / pray you, father, being iveak, feem fo.~\ This is a very 
odd req licit. She furely aflced Ibmcthing more reafonable. \Vc 
fhould read, 



If, 'till the expiration of your month, 
You will return and fojourn with my fitter, 
Difmiffing half your train, come then to me ; 
I am now from home, and out of that provifion 
Which fhall be needful for your entertainment. 

Lear. Return to her, and fifty men difmifs'd? 
* No, rather I abjure all roofs, and choofe 


-being weak, deem't fo. 

\. e. believe that my hufband tells you true, that Kent's diforders 
ilefci ved a more ignominious punifliment. WAR BURTON. 

The meaning is, fmceyou are iueak t be content to think your- 
felfweak. No change is needed. JOHNSON. 
z .A 7 *?, rather I abjure all roofs, and chuje 
To wage againft the enmity o 1 the air: 
To be a comrade with the ii'o/f 'and cr.vl, 

Neceffity'sfoarp pinch. ] 

Thus fhould thele lines (in the order they were read, in all the 
editions till Mr. Theobald's) be pointed : the want or which 
pointing contributed, perhaps, to rnillead him in tranfpofing the 
fecond and third lines ; on which imaginary regulation he thus de- 
; fcants. " The breach of the fenfe here is a manifeft proof that 
thefe lines were tranfpofed by the firit editors. Neither can there 
be any iyntax or grammatical coherence, unlefs we fuppoie (ne- 
ccjf.ty 's foarp pinch) to be the accufative to (wage)" But this is, 
fuppofing the verb wage, to want an accufative, which it does' 
not. Towage^ or nvager agalnjl one, was a common ex preflion; 
and, being a fpecies ot ading (namely, acting in oppolition) was 
as proper as to fay, afl againft any one. So, to wage againji the 
enmity o* the air, was to itrive or fight againft it. Necefify's fharf> 
finch, therefore, is not the accufative to tvage, but declarative of 
the condition of him who is a comrade of the vjolf and <KU/; in 
which the verb (is) is underftood. The confequence of all this 
is, that it was the loft editors, and not ihtjjrjt, who tranfpofed 
the lines from the order the poet gave them : for the Oxford edi- 
tor follows Mr. Theobald. WAR BUR TON. 

To wage is often uled absolutely without the word tear after it, 
and yet fu;nifies to make war, as before in this play: 
My life iTiever held but as a pawn 
To ttvror againft thine enemies. 

The fpirit of the following paflhge feems to be loft in the hands 
of both the commentators. It fliould, perhaps, be pointed thus : 
To be a comrade of the wolf and owl,- 
Necefliry's fliarp pinch ! 

Thcfe laft words appear to be the reflection of Lear on the 


444 K I N G L E A R. 

To wage againft the enmity o* the air ; 

To be a comrade with the wolf and owl, 

Neceffity's fharp pinch ! Return with her ? 

Why, the hot-blooded France, that dowerlefs took 
Our youngeft born, I could as well be brought 
To knee his throne, and, fquire-like, penfion beg 

To keep 3 bafe life afoot ; Return with her > 

Perfuade me rather to be flave 4 and fumpter 

To this detefted groom. [Looking on the Steward. 

Gon. At your choice, fir. 

Lear. Now I pr'ythee, daughter, do not make me 

mad ; 

I will not trouble thee, my child ; farewel : 
We'll no more meet, no more fee one another : 
But yet thou art my fleih, my blood, my daughter; 
Or, rather, a difeafe that's in my flcfh^ 
Which I muft needs call mine : thou art a bile, 
A plague-fore, an s embofled carbuncle, 
In my corrupted blood. But I'll not chide thee; 
Let fhame come when it will, I do not call it : 
I do not bid the thunder-bearer fhoot, 
Nor tell tales of thee to high-judging Jove : 
Mend, when thou canft ; be better, at thy leifurc : 
I can be patient ; I can ftay with Regan, 
I, and my hundred knights. 

Reg. Not altogether fo, fir; 

xvretched fort of exiftence he had defcribed in the preceding 
lines. STEEVENS. 

3 bafe life ] i.e. In zfervile ftate. JOHUSON'. 

* and fumpter'] Suwftcr is a horfe that carries neccflaries on a 
journey, though fometimes ufed for the cafe to carry them in. 
Vide B. and Fletcher's Noble Gentleman, Sey ward's edit. vol. viii. 
note 35 ; and Cupid's Revenge. 

*. I'll have a horfe to leap thee, 

' And thy bafe iflue (hall carry fumpter s" 
Again, in Webfter's Dutchefsof Malfy, 1623 : 
" He is indeed a guarded fumpter-clotb 
" Only for the remove o'the court." STEEVENS. 

s - 'cmloffcd carbuncle] Embojjcd is facHiag, protuberant* 


I look'd 

K I N G L E A R. 445 

1 look'd not for you yet, nor am provided 

For your fit welcome : Give ear, fir, to my fitter ; 

For thofe that mingle reafon with your paffion, 

Muft be content to think you old, and fo 

But ftie knows what ihe does. 
Lear. Is this well fpoken now ? 
Reg. I dare avouch it, fir : What, fifty followers ? 
Is it not well ? What fhould you need of more ? 
Yea, or fo ma'ny ? fith that both charge and danger 
Speak 'gainft fo great a number ? How, in one houfe, 
Should many people, under two commands, 
Hold amity ? 'Tis hard ; almoft impoffible. 

Gon. Why might not you, my lord, receive at- 

From thofe that fhe calls fervants, or from mine ? 
Reg. Why not, my lord ? If then they chanc'd to 

flack you, 

We could controul them : If you will come to me, 
(For now I fpy a danger) I intreat you 
To bring but five and twenty ; to no more 
Will I give place, or notice. 
Lear. I gave you all 
Reg. And in good time you gave it. 
Lear. Made you my guardians, my depofitaries ; 
But kept a refervation to be follow 'd 
With fuch a number : What, mull I come to you 
With five and twenty, Regan ? laid you fo ? 

Reg. And fpeak it again, my lord ; no more 

with me. 

Lear. 6 Thofe wicked creatures yet do look well- 
. favoured, 


* Tbofe wicked creatures yet da look tvett-faV6ttr t J t 

Jf7jen others are more wicked, ] 

Dr. Warburton would exchange the repeated epithet i<:ickttl 
"into winkled in both places. The commentator's only objection 
to the lines as they now ftand, is the difcrepancy of" the meta- 
phor, the want of oppofition between v.'ickeel rind well-favoured. 
ut he might have reraejiibered what he fays in his own preface 



When others are more wicked ; not being the worft, 
Stands in fome rank of praife : I'll go with thee ; 

[To Goneril. 

Thy fifty yet doth double five and twenty, 
And thou art twice her love. 

Gon, Hear me, my lord ; 
What need you five and twenty, ten, or five, 
To follow in a houfe, where twice fo many 
Have a command to tend you ? 

Reg- What need one ? 

Lear. O, reafon not the need : our bafeft beggars 
Are in the pooreft thing fupcrfluous : 
Allow not nature more than nature needs, 
Man's life is cheap as bead's : thou art a lady ; 
If only to go warm were gorgeous, 
Why, nature needs not what thou gorgeous wear'ft, 
Which fcarcely keeps thee warm. But, for true 


You heavens, give me that patience, patience I need ! 
You fee me here, you gods, a 7 poor old man, 
As full of grief as age ; wretched in both ! 
If it be you that flir thefe daughters' hearts 
Againfl their father, fool me not ib much 

concerning mixed modes. Shakcfpenre, vvhofe mind was more in- 
tent upon notions than words, had in his thoughts the pulchritude 
of virtue, and the deformity of wickednefs ; and though he had 
mentioned t Lvickednefs t made the correlative anfwer to deformity , 

A flmilar thought occurs in Cymld-.tie, at V. 

That all the abhorred things o'the earth amend, 
By being worle than they. STEEVENS. 
This paflage, I think, fhould be pointed thus : 

T/jofe ivicked creatures yet do look well-favour* J, , 
When others are more wicked', not being the luorjl 
Stands in fome rank of praife. 

That is, To lc not the worfl deferves fome praife. TyawHiTT. 
7 feor old man j} The quarto has, poor old fellow. 




To bear it tamely ; 8 touch me with noble anger ! 

O, let not women's weapons, water-drops, 

Stain my man's cheeks ! No, you unnatural hags, 

I will have fuch revenges on you both, 

That all the world flial!, I will do fuch things 9 ,. 

What they are, yet I know not ; but they fliall be 

The terrors of the earth. You think, I'll weep : 

No, I'll not weep : 

I have full caufe of weeping; but this heart 

Shall break into a hundred thoufand flaws, 

Or ere I'll weep : O, fool, I fhall go mad ! 

[Exeunt Lear, Glqfter, Kent, and Fool. 

Corn. Let us withdraw, 'twill be a ftorm. 

[Storm and tempeft heard. 

Reg. This houfe is little; the old man and his people 
Cannot be well beftow'd. 

Gon. 'Tis his own blame ; he hath put himfe.lf from 

1 touch me with nolle anger /] It would puzzle one at firft 

to find the fenfe, the dritt, and the coherence of this petition. For 
if the gods fent this evil for his punifliment, how could he ex- 
pct that they fhould defeat their own defign, and affift him to 
revenge his injuries ? The folution is, that Shakefpeare here 
makes his fpeaker allude to what the ancient poets tell us of the 
misfortunes of particular families : namely, that when the anger 
of the gods, for an at of impiety, was raifed againil an offend- 
ing houfe, their method of punifliment was, firft to inflame the 
breafts of the children to unnatural afts againft their parents ; 
and then, of the parents againir. their children, in order to de- 
flroy one another ; and that both thefe outrages were the in- 
ftigation of the gods. To confider Lear as alluding to this di- 
vinity, makes his prayer exceeding pertinent and fine. 


9 ... . / civ'// do fuck things 

irbattbey are , yet I know not ;] 

magnum eft quodcunque paravi, 

Quid fit, adhuc dubito. Ovid. Met. lib. vi. 

haud quid fit fcio, 

Sed grande quiddam elh Sencc<e Ttyefles. 
Let fuch as are unwilling to allow that copiers of nature muft 
occafionally ufe the fame thoughts and expreffions, remember, 
that of both thefe authors there were early tranflations. 



448 K I N G L E A R; 

And muft needs tafte his folly. 

Reg. For his particular, I'll receive him gladly, 
But not one follower. 

Gon. So am I purpos'd. 
Where is my lord of Glofler ? 

Re-enter Glofler. 

Corn. Follow'd the old man forth : he is return'd* 

Glo. The king is in high rage. 

Corn. Whither is he going ' ? 

Glo. He calls to horfe ; but will I know not 

Corn. J Tis beft to give him way ; he leads himfelf. 

Gon. My lord, entreat him by no means to flay. 

Glo. Alack, the night comes on, and the bleak 


* Do forely ruffle ; for many miles 'about 
There's fcarce a buih. 

Reg. O, fir, to wilful men, 
The injuries, that they themfelves procure, 
Muft be their fchool-maftcrs : Shut up your doors; 
He is attended with a defperate train; 
And what they may inccnfc him to, being apt 
To have his ear abus'd, wifdom bids fear. 

Corn. Shut up your doors, my lord ; 'tis a wild 

night ; 
My Regan couniels well : come out o' the florm. 


Glo. He call, tu btnfe- t ] 
Omitted in the quartos. STCEV; ->:;. 

* Do ford- vuHlc, ] Thus the folio. The quartos read, 
Do forely rujjil, \.c.ruj:k. ^ . 


& I N G L E A R. 44 <j 

A Heath. 

A florin is heard, with thunder and lightning. Enter 
Kent, and a Gentleman^ meeting. 

Kent. Who's there, betide foul weather ? 

Gent. One minded like the weather, mofl uiv 


Kent. I know you ; Where's the king ? 
Gent. Contending with the fretful element : 
Bids the wind blow the earth into the fea, 
Or fwell the curled waters 'bove the rhain ', 
That things might change, or ceafe : 4 tears his 

white hair; 

Which the impetuous blafts, with eyelefs rage, 
Catch in their fury, and make nothing of : 
Strives in his little world of man to out-fcorn 
The to-and- fro -conflicting wind and rain. 
4 This night, wherein the cub-drawn bear would 


3 Or/U.W7 the curled ivate r's 'love the main,] The main feems 
to fignify here the main land, the continent. So, in Bacon s War 
ivitb Spain: " In 1589, we turned challengers, and invaded the 
tnaln of Spain." 

This interpretation fets the two objcfts of Lear's defire in pro- 
per oppolition to each other. He wifties for the deftruction of 
the world, either by the winds blowing the land into the waters, 
or raifing the waters fo as to overwhelm the land. STEEVENS. 

4 tears bis ivblte lair;'] The fix following verfes were 

ofnitted in all the late editions : I have replaced them from the 
firft, for they are certainly Shakefpeare's. POPE. 

The firft folio ends the'fpeech at change or ceafe, and begins 
again at Kent's queftion, But ^\ibo is <v.':tb him? The whole 
fpeech is forcible, but too long for the occafion, and properly 
retrenched. JOHXSON. 

5 This H'gbt, wherein the cub-drawn a car wn&ld co:u~b,~\ Cut- 
frav:n has been explained to fignify a>-a-w ]y nature to itsyov? ; 

VOL, IX, G 'g whereas 

450 K I N G L E A R. 

The lion and the belly-pinched wolf 
Keep their fur dry, unbonneted he runs, 
And bids what will take all. 

Kent. But who is with him ? 

Gent. None but the fool ; who labours to out-jell 
His heart-ftruck injuries. 

Kent. Sir, I do know you ; 
And dare, upon the warrant of 6 my note, 
Commend a dear thing to you. There is divifion, 
Although as yet the face of it be cover'd 
With mutual cunning, 'twixt Albany and Corn- 

7 Who have (as who have not, that their great ftars 
Throne and fct high ?) fervants, who feem no lefs ; 
Which are to France the fpies and fpeculations 
Intelligent of our flate ; what hath been ieen % 

whereas it means, wbofe dugs are drawn dry ly its younq. For 
no animals leave their dens by night but for prey. So that the 
meaning is, " that even hunger, and the fupport of its young, 
would not force the bear to leave his den in fuch a night." 

Shakefpeare has the fame image in Asyou Like It : 

" A lionefs, ivith udders all draivn dry^ 

** Lay couching " 

Again, Ibidem : 

** Food to t\\e fuck* d and hungry lionefs." STEEVENS. 

6 my note,} My observation of your character. JOHNSON-. 

The quartos read : 

upon the warrant of my art : 

L e. on the ftrength of my Jkill\n philiognomy. STEEVENS. 

7 Who have (as who have not, ] The eight fublequent 

verfes were degraded by Mr. Pope, as unintelligible, and to no 
purpofe. For my part, I fee nothing in them but what is very 
eafy to be understood ; and the lines'Yeem abfolutely neceflary to 
clear up the motives xipon which France prepared his invafion : 
nor without them is the fenie' of the context complete. 

The quartos omit thefe lines. STEEVENS. 

* what hath leenfcen,] What follows, are the circumftances 
in the fhue of the kingdom, of which he fuppoles the fpies gave 
France the intelligence. STEEYENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 451 

9 Either in {huffs and packings of the dukes ; 
Or the hard rein which both of them have borne 
Againft the old kind king ; or fomething deeper, 
Whereof, perchance, thele ' are but furnilhings ; 
[ * But, true it is, 3 from France there comes a power 


9 Either in (huffs or packings - ] Snuffs are diflikes, 
tttgs underhand contrivances. 
So, in Henry IV. firft part : " Took it infou/";" and in King 
Edward III. 1599 : 

" T\\\s packing evH, we both (hall tremble for it.'* 
Again, in Stanyhurft's Virgil, 1582 : 

" With two goAs packing one woman filly to cozen. 
We ftill talk of packing juries, and Antony fays of Cleopatra, 
that fhe has ''packed cards with Cjefar." STEEVENS. 

1 - are but furnifhings.] Furnijlnngs are what we now cal 
colours, external pretences. JOHNSON. 

A furnijb anciently fignified a fample. So, in the Preface to 
Greene's Groatfwtb of W r it, 1621: "To lend the world" a 
furnijh of wit, fhe lays her own to pawn." STEEVENS. 

* But true it iis, &c.] In the old editions are the five following 
lines which I have inferted in the text, which feem neceflary to 
the plot, as a preparatory to the arrival of the French army with 
Cordelia in aft IV. How both thefe, and a whole fcene between 
Kent and this gentleman in the fourth aft, came to be left out 
in all the later editions, I cannot tell ; they depend upon each 
other, and very much contribute to clear that incident. POPE. 
3 from France there comes a po\.ver 

Into this fcatter'd kingdom ; who already , 

Wife in our negligence, havefecrct fea 

In fame of our bejl ports. ] 

Scattered kingdom, if it have any fenfe, gives us the idea of a 
kingdom fallen into an anarchy : but that was not the cafe. Ic 
fubmitted quietly to the government of Lear's two fons-5n-law. 
It was divided, indeed, by this means, and fo hurt, and weak- 
en'd. And this was what Shakefpeare meant to lay, who, with- 
out doubt, wrote : 

- fcatbed kingdom ; - 

i.e. hurt, wounded, impaired. And fo he frequently vksfcatb 
for hurt or damage. Again, vvliat a ftrange phrafe'is, having 
fea in a port, to fignify a fleet's lying at anchor ? which is all it 
can fignify. And what is fl ranger ftill, %. ferret fea, that is, lying 
incognito, like the army at Knight's Bridge in Tic Rebenrfjl, 
Without doubt the poet wrote : 

G g 2 have 

452 K I N G L E A R; 

Into this fcatter'd kingdom ; who already, 
Wife in our negligence, have fecret fee 
In fome of our belt ports, and are at point 

have fecretyi'/z<? 
In fome of our beft ports ; 

T. e. they are fecretly iecure or fome of the beft ports, by 
having a party in the garrifon ready to fecond any attempt of 
their friends, &c. The exaclnels of the expreffion is remark- 
able; he fifySfJecrct fei-ze in fome, not of fome. For the firit 
implies a confpiracy ready to feize a place on warning, the other, 
a place already feized . WA R n u R T o x . 

The true Hate of this fpeech cannot from all thefe notes be 
difcovered. As It now ftands it is collected from two editions : 
the eight lines, degraded by Mr. Pope, are found in the folio, 
not in the quarto ; the following lines inclofed in crotchets 
are in the quarto, not in the folio. So that if the fpeech be 
read with omiffion of the former, it will ftand according to the 
firft edition ; and if the former are read, and the lines that follow 
them omitted, it will then ftand according to the fecond. The 
fpeech is now tedious, becaufe it is formed by a coalition of 
both. The fecond edition is generally bert, and was probably 
neareft to Shakefpeare's laft copy, but in this paflage the firlt 
is preferable ; for in the folio, the meffenger is lent, he knows 
not why, he knows not whither. I fuppoie Shakefpeare thought 
his plot opened rather too early, and made the alteration to veil 
the event from the audience ; but trufting too much to himfelf, 
and full of a (ingle purpofe, he did not accommodate his new 
lines to the reft of the fcene. The lc?.vned critic's emendations 
are now to be examined. Scattered he has changed to fcatbed; 
\mfcattered, he fays, gives the idea of an anarchy, -which ivas 
not the cafe. It may be replied t\\ttfcatbcd gives the idea of ruin, 
wafte, and defolation, ivbicb was not tbe cafe. It is unworthy 
a. lover of truth, in queftions of great or little moment, to ex- 
aggerate or extenuate for mere convenience, or for vanity yet 
lefs than convenience. Scattered naturally means divided, unfft- 
tled, dlfunitcd. Next is offered with great pomp a change of fta. 
tofeixc ; but in the firft edition the word is fee, for hire, in the 
lenfe of having any one in fee, that is, at devotion for money. 
Fee is in the fecond quarto changed to/tv, from which one made 
fea and another feist: JOHNSON. 

One of the quartos (for there are two that differ from each other, 
though printed in the fame year, and for the fame printer) reads 
fecret feet. Perhaps the author wrote fecret foot, i. e. footing. 
So, in a following Icene : 

what confederacy have you with the traitors 
the kingdom ? STEEV&NS. 

K I N G L E A R. 453 

To fliew their open banner, Now to you : 

If on my credit you dare build fo far 

To make your fpeed to Dover, you fhall find 

Some that will thank you, making juft report 

Of how unnatural and bemadding forrow 

The king hath caufe to plain. 

I am a gentleman of blood and breeding, 

And from fome knowledge and aflurance, offer 

This office to you.] 

Gent. I will talk further with you. 

Kent. No, do not. 

For confirmation that I am much more 
Than my out wall, open this purfe, and take 
What it contains : If you fhall fee Cordelia, 
(As fear not but you fhall) Ihew her this ring; 
And fhe will tell you who your fellow is 
That yet you do not know. Fie on this Itorm ! 
I will go feek the king. 

Gent. Give me your hand : Have you no more to 

Kent. Few words, but, to effect, more than all yet ; 
That, when we have found 4 the king, (in which 

your pain 

That way ; I'll this,) he that firfl lights on him, 
Holla the other. \_Exeuntfeveralfy. 

4 the king. In which your pain, 

That iivry, /'// this : be that firji^ &c. 

Thus the folio. The late reading : 
- for which you take 
That way, I this, 

was not genuine. The quartos read : 

That when we have found the king, 

lie this way, you that, he that firit lights 

On him, hollow the other. STEEVENS. 




dnotker part of the heat}:. 
Storm JlllL Enter Lear> and Fool. 

Lear. Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks ! rage ! 


You cataracts, and hurricanoes, fpout 
'Till you have drench'd our fteeples, drown'd the 

cocks ! 

You fulphurous and 5 thought-executing fires, 
Vaunt-couriers 6 to oak-cleaving thunder-bolts, 
Singe my white head ! And thdu all-fhaking thunder, 
7 Strike flat the thick rotundity o' the world ! 
8 Crack nature's moulds; all germens fpill at once 9 , 
That make ingrateful man ! 

5 thought-executing ~\ Doing execution with rapidity 

equal to thought. JOHNSON. 

* F'aunt'couriers.'] Avant couriers, Fr. This phrafe is not un- 
familiar to other writers of Shakefpeare's time. It originally 
meant the foremoft fcouts of an army. So, in Jarvis Markham's 
Englijb Arcadia, 1 607 : 

" as Coon as the full: vancurrer encountered him face to face.'* 
Again, in The Tragedy of Mariam, 1613 : 

" Might to my death, but the vaunt-currier prove." 
Again, in Darius: 1603 : 

" Th* avant-ccrours, that came for to examine." 

7 Strikej^/, Sec.] The quarto reads, Smite flat. STEEVENS. 

* Crack nature's moulds, all germains^/// at once\ Thus all the 
editions have given us this paflage; and Mr. Pope has explained 
gcrmains to mean relations, or kindred elements. But the poet 
means here, " Crack nature's mould, and fpill all the feeds of 
matter, that are hoarded within it." To retrieve which fcnfe 
we mult write germins from germen. Our author not only ufes 
the fame thought again, but the word that afcertains my explica 
lion, in The Winter's Tale : 

" Let nature crufh the fides o' the earth together, 
" And mar the^w/.f within." THEOBALD. 
Theobald is right. So", in Macbeth ; 

" and the fum 

*' Of nature's germin* tumble altogether." STEEVENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 4 ^ 

Fool. O nunclc, court holy-water ' in a dry houfe 
is better than this rain-water out o' door. Good 
nuncle, in, and afk thy daughters bleffing ; here's a 
night pities neither wife men nor fools. 

Lear. Rumble thy belly full ! Spir, fire ! fpout, 

rain ! 

Nor rain, wind, thunder, fire, are my daughters : 
I tax not you, you elements, with unkindnefs, 
I never gave you kingdom, cali'd you children, 
* You owe me no fubfcription ; why then let fall 
Your horrible pleafure ; 3 here I {land, your flave, 
A poor, infirm, weak, and defpis'd old man : 
Rut yet I call you fervile minifters, 
That have with two pernicious daughters join'd 
Your high-engender'd battles, 'gainft a head 
So old and white as this. O ! O ! 4 'tis foul ! 

Fool. He that has a houfe to put's head in, has a 
good head-piece. 

9 fpill at once.'] Tofpittis to deftroy. So, in Govvcr De 

CofiffJ/ione Arnaults, lib. iv. fol. 67 : 

So as I (hail myfelf fpill. STEEVENS. 

1 court holy-water ] Ray, among his proverbial phrafes, 

p. 184, mentions court holy-wafer to mean fair words. The 
French have the fame phrafe. Ea't Icn'te de cour ; fair empty 
u r i>rds. Ckambaud* s Dictionary. STEEVENS. 

r_ You oive me no fubfcription ; ] Subfcription for obedience. 


3 Here I ft and your flave,] But why fo ? It is true, he 

lays, that they o~jjcd him no fubfcription ; yet fure he owed them 
none. We fhould read : 

Here I ftand your Iravc ; 

i.e. I defy your worlt rage, as he had faid juft before. What 
led the editors into this blunder was what fhould have kept them 
out of it, namely, the following line : 

A poor, infirm, weak, and defpis'd old man. 
And this was the wonder, that fuch a one mould brave them all. 


The meaning is plain enough, he was not their_/7flrw by right 
or compact, but by neceffity and compulfion. Why fliotilu a 
paiF.ige be darkened for the fake of changing it ? Befides, of 
triive in that fenfe I remember no example. JOHNSON. 
* 'tis foul.] Shameful ; difhonourable. JOHNSON. 

G g 4 77* 

45,6 K I N G L E A R; 

fbe cod-piece that will houfi, 

Before the head has any : 
The head and hefliall louje ; 
5 So beggars marry many. < 
tfhe man that makes his toe 

IVloat he his heart Jhould make, 
Shall of a corn cry, woe ! 

And turn hisjleep to wake. 

; for there was never yet fair wpman, but flie 
made mouths in a glafs. 

Enter Kent. 

Lear. 6 No, I will be the pattern of all patience, 
I will fay noihing. 

Kent. Who's there ? 

Fool. Marry, here's grace, and a cod-piece 7 $ 
that's a wife man, and a fool. 

Kent. Alas fir, * are you here ? things that love 

night, , 

Love not fuch nights as thefe ; the wrathful fkies 
9 Gallow the very wanderers of the dark, 
And make them keep their caves : Since I was man, 

5 So beggars marry ma fry.] i.e. A beggar marries a wife and 

6 No, I "Mill le the pattern of all patience, 

I "Mill fay nothing.] 

So Perillus, in the old anonymous play, fpeaking of Leir : 
" But he, the myrrour of mild patience', 
" Puts up all wrongs, and never gives reply. "STEEVENS, 
7 and a cod-piece, that's a -wife man and a fool.] Alluding 
perhaps to the faying of a contemporary wit \ that there is nodif- 
jrction bclo--M the girdle. STEEVENS. 

* are you here? The quartos read -fit you here ? 


9 Gallow the very wanderers of the dark,] Callow, a weft- 
country word, lignifies to fcare or frighten. WARBURTON. 

So, the Somerfetfliire proverb : '* The dunder do %ally the 
ieans." .Beans are vulgarly fuppofed to (hoot up faster after 
tjiundeirftorms. STEEVENS. 



Such fheets of fire, fuch burfts of horrid thunder, 
Such groans of roaring wind and rain, I never 
Remember to have heard : man's nature cannot carry 
The affliction, nor the ' fear. 

Lear. Let the great gods, 
That keep * this dreadful pother o'er our heads, 
Find out their enemies now. Tremble, thou wretch, 
That hail within thee undivulged crimes, 
Unwhipt of juftlce : Hide thee, thou bloody hand ; 
Thou perjur'd, and 3 thou fimular man of virtue 
That art inceituous : Caitiff, to pieces fhake, 
4 That under covert and.conveniejit feeming 
Haft practis'd on man's life ! Clofe pent-up guilts, 
Jlive your J concealing continents, 6 and cry 


* fear.~\ So the folio : the later editions read, with the 
quarto, force for fear, Icfs elegantly. JOHNSON. 

1 - -this dreadful pother ] Thus one of the quartos and 

the folio. The other quarto reads ibtbuTring. 

The reading in the text, however, is rfn expreffion commoa 
to others. So, in the Scornful Lady of B. and Fletcher: 

*' fain out with their meat, and kept a pudder" 


* thou Jinndar of virtue,] Shakefpeare has here kept ex- 
aftly to the Latin propriety of the term. 1 will only obferve, 
that our author feems to have imitated Skelton in making a fub- 
Jtantive pffintilar, as the other did of diffimular : 

" With other foure of theyr afFynyte, 

" Dyfdayne, ryotte, dijjymuler^ fubtylte." The Bouge 
of Ccnrtc. WAHBURTON. 

The quartos read fimular man, and therefore Dr. Warburton's 
pote might be fpared. STEEVENS. 

4 That under covert and convenienty^;.;/tf~,] Convenient needs 
not be underftood in any other than its ufual and proper icnle ; 
accommodate to the prefent purpofe ; fuitable to a defign. Con- 
venient feemhig is appearance fuch as may promote his purpofe to 
deltroy. JOHNSON. 

5 concealing continents,] Continent Hands for that which 
fontains or indofcs. JOHNSON. 

Thus in Antony and Cleopatra : 

Henrt, once be ftronger than thy continent ! 
Again, in Chapman's tranflation of the Xllth. Book of Homer's 

?* I to!4 

4 ^S K I N G L E A R. 

Thefe dreadful fummoners grace. I am a man 7 , 
More finn'd againft, than finning. 

Kent. Alack, bare-headed ! 
Gracious my lord, hard by here is a hovel ; 
Some friendlhip will it lend you 'gainft the tempeft ; 
Repofe you there : while I to this hard houfe, 
(More hard than is the ftone whereof 'tis rais'd ; 
Which even but now, demanding after you, 
Deny'd me to come in) return, and force 
Their fcanted courtefy. 

Lear. My wits begin to turn. 

Come on, my boy : How doft, my boy ? Art cold ? 
I am cold myfelf. Where is this ftraw, my fellow ? 
The art of our neceffities is ftrange, 
That can make vile things precious. Come, your 


Poor fool and knave, I have 8 one part in my heart 
That's forry yet for thee. 

Fool. 9 He that has a little tiny wit, 

With hslgh, ho, the wind and the rain 


*' I told our pilot that part other men 
*' He moft mull bear firm fpirits, fince he fway'd 
*' The continent that all our fpirits convey'd, &c." 
The quartos read, concealed centers. STEEVENS. 

6 ' and ay 

Ihefe dreadful fummoners grace. ] 

Snmmonen are here the officers that fummon offenders before a 
proper tribunal. STEEVENS. 

7 lama man,] Oedipus, in Sophocles, reprefents himfelf in 
the fame light. Oedip. Colon, v. 258. 

-ray e^a. ^ 

DtvevSbr' r ^taMoK f> W^*(UT*. TYRWHITT. 

1 one part in my heart &c.] Some editions read, 

thing in my heart ; 

from which Hanmer, and Dr. Warburton after him, have made 
firing, very unneceflarily ; both the copies have part. 

The old quartos read, 

That/>mMw yet for thee. STEEVENS. 

9 He that has a little t::y w/V, ] I fancy that the fecond 
liae of this ihnza had once a termination that rhymed with the 



Mujl make content with bis fortunes ft ; 

For the rain, it raineth every day. 
Lear. True, my good boy. Come, bring us to 
this hovel. [Exit. 

Fool. This is a brave nighf to cool a courtezan. 
1 I'll fpeak a prophecy ere I go : 


fourth ; but I can only fancy it ; for both the copies agree. It 
was once perhaps written, 

\\ith heigh ho, the wind and the rain in bis way. 
The meaning feems likewife to require this infertion. *' He 
that has wit, however fmall, and finds wind and rain in his way, 
muft content himfelf by thinking, that fomewhere or other it 
raineth every day, and others are therefore differing like himfelf." 
Yet I am afraid that all this is chimerical, for the burthen ap- 
pears again in the fong at the end ot Twelfth Night, and feems to 
have been an arbitrary fupplcment, without any reference to the 
fenfe or the fong. JOHNSON. 

1 /'// fpeak a prophecy ere I go : 

When priejis are more in -words than matter ; 
When brewers marr their malt with water j 
When nobles are their tailors 1 tutors ; 
No heretics lurrfd, T)ut wenches' fuitors j 
Jf T>c n every cafe in lavj is right ; 
No f quire in debt, nor no poor knight ; 
Whenjlanders do not live in tongues^ 
And cut purfes come not to throngs ; 
Wlien ufurers tell their gold ? the field, 
And bawds and whores do churchef bttllJ ' y 
7 'hen Jhall the realm of Albion 
Come to great confufion. 
Then comes the time, who lives to fee* t, 
That going fiall be us'd with feet.] 

The judicious reader will obferve through this heap of nonfenfe 
and confufion, that this is not one but two prophecies. The firfr, 
a fatyrical defcription of \hcprcfent manners as future: and the 
fecond, a fatyrical defcription of future manners, which the cor- 
ruption of the prefent would prevent from ever happening. Each 
of thele prophecies has its proper inference or deduction : yet, 
by an unaccountable ihipimry, the firll editors took the whole to 
be all one proyhecy, and fo juirblcd the two contrary inferences 
together. The whole then ihould be read as follows, only pre- 
mifmg that the firft line is corrupted by the lofs of a word or 
(re / r0, is not Englifli, and fliould be helped thus : 

i. I'll 

4*6 K I N G L E A R. 

When priefts are more in word than matter ; 

When brewers mar their malt with water ; 

* When nobles are their tailors' tutors ; 

s No heretics burn'd, but wenches' fuitors : 

Then comes the time, who lives to fee't, 

That going fhall be us'd with feet. 

When every cafe in law is right ; 

No fquire in debt, nor no poor knight; 

When flanders do not live in tongues ; 

Nor cut-purfes come not to throngs ; 

When ufurers tell their gold i' the field; 

And bawds, and whores, do churches build ; 

Then fhall the realm of Albion 

Come to great confufion. 

1. I'll fpeak a prophecy or two ere I go : 
When priefts are more in words than matter ; 
When brewers marr their malt with water ; 
When nobles are their tailors' tutors ; 

No heretics burnt, but wenches* -fuitors ; 
Then comes the time, who lives to fee't, 
That going fhall be us'd with feet. /. e. JVV.v. 

2. When every cafe in law is right ; 

No fquire in debt, and no poor knight ; 
When ilanders do not live in tongues, 
And cut-purfes come not to throngs ; 
When ufurers tell their gold i' the field, 
And bawds and whores do churches build ; 
Then fhall the realm of Albion 

Come to great confufion. i.e. Never. WAR EUR TON. 
The fagacity and acutenefs of Dr. Warburton are very confpi- 
cuous in this note. He has difentangled the confufion of the 
pafTage, and I have inferted his emendation in the text. Or 
e'er is proved by Mr. Upton to be good Englifli ; but the con- 
troverfy was not neceflhry, for or is not in the old copies. 


* Wlicn nobles arc their tailors' tutors;] i.e. Invent fafhions for 

3 No heretics buntd, but wenches' fuitors ; ] The difeafe to which 
wenches' fuitors are particularly expofed, was called in Shake - 
fpeare's time the brenning or burning. JOHNSON. 



4 This prophecy Merlin fliall make ; for I live before 
his time. [r//. 


An apartment in Glofter's caftle. 
"Enter Glojler, and Edmund. 

Glo. Alack, alack, Edmund, I like not this un- 
natural dealing : When I defir'd their leave that I 
might pity him, they took from me the ufe of mine 
own houfe ; charg'd me, on pain of their perpetual 
difpleafure, neither to fpeak of him, entreat for him, 
nor any way fuftain him. 

Edm. Moft favage, and unnatural ! 

Glo. Go to ; fay you nothing : There is divifion 
between the dukes ; and a worfe matter than that : I 
have received a letter this night; 'tis dangerous to 
be fpoken. I have lock'd the letter in my clofet : 
thefe injuries the king now bears will be revenged 
home ; there is part of a power already footed : 
we muft incline to the king. I will feek him, and 
privily relieve him : go you, and maintain talk 
with the duke, that my charity be not of him per- 
ceived : If he afk for me, 1 am ill, and gone to 
bed. If I die for it, as no lefs is threaten'd me, 
the king my old matter muft be relieved. There is 
fome ftrange thing toward, Edmund ; pray you, be 
careful. [Exit, 

* This prophecy ] This prophecy is not in the quartos. 
7benjball the realm of Albion 
Come to great con fit lion, ~\ 

Thefe lines arc taken i'rom Chaucer. Puttenham, in his Art of 
Ptctry, 1 589, quotes them as follows : 

\\ hen faith iaiis in prieftes faws, 

And lords hefts are holden for laws, 

And robbery is tane for purchafe, 

And letchery for Iblace, 

Thenjball the realm of Albion 

Be brsught tc grtat cwfnjion," STEEYENS. 


461 K I N G L E A R. 

Edm. This courtefy, forbid thee, fhall the duke 
Inftantly know ; and of that letter too : 
This feems a fair deferving, and muft draw me 
That which my father lofes ; no lefs than all : 
The younger rifes, when the old doth fall. [Exit. 


A part of the heath t with a hovel. 
Enter Lear, Kent, and Fool. 

Kent. Here is the place, my lord \ good my lord, 

enter : 

The tyranny of the open night's too rough 
For nature to endure. [Storm Jlill. 

Lear. Let me alone. 
Kent. Good my lord, enter here. 
Lear. Wilt break my heart ? 
Kent. I'd rather break mine own : Good my lord, 

Lear. Thou think'ft 'tis much, that this contentious 


Invades us to the fkin : fo 'tis to thee ; 
But where the greater malady is fix'd, 
The lefler is fcarce felt 5 . Thou'dft fhun a bear ; 
But if thy flight lay toward the 6 raging fea, 
Thou'dft meet the bear i' the mouth. When the 

mind's free, 
The body's delicate : the temped in my mind 

3 Rut where the greater malady is 

The L'JJer is fcarce felt.] 
So, in Spenier's Faery !$ueen, b. I. c. vi. 

" He lefier pangs can bear who hath endurM the chief." 


' " raging/M,] Such is the reading of that which ap- 
pears to be the elder of the two quartos. The other, with the 
folio, reads, roaring fca. STEEVEN 


K I N G L E A R. 463 

Doth from my fenfes take all feeling elfe, 
Save what beats there. Filial ingratitude ! 
Is it not as this mouth fhould tear this hand, 
For lifting food to't ? But I will punifli home : 
No, I will weep no more. In fuch a night 7 
To fhut me out ! Pour on ; I will endure : 
In fuch a night as this ! O Regan, Goneril ! 
Your old kind father, whofe frank heart gave you 

O, that way madnefs lies ; let me fhun that; 

No more of that, 

Kent. Good my lord, enter here. 

Lear. Pr'ythee, go in thyfelf ; feek thine own 

eafe ; 

This tempeft will not give me leave to ponder 
On things would hurt me more But I'll go in : 
In, boy ; go firfl. [To the Fool.'} You houfelefs 

Nay, get thee in. Til pray, and then I'll fleep. 

\_Fool goes in. 

Poor naked wretches, wherefoe'er you are, 
That bide the pelting of this pitilefs ftorm, 
How (hall your houfelefs heads, and unfed fides, 
Your loop'd and window'd raggednefs 9 , defend you 

7 ^Infucb a night 

Tofyut me out ! Pour on, Ituill endure . 
Omitted in the quartos. STEEVENS. 

8 /, bey; go firft. ] Thefe two lines were added in the 

author's reviiion, and are only in the folio. They are very ju- 
diciouily intended to reprefcnt that humility, or tendernels, or 
neglect of forms, which affliction forces on the mind. 


9 window'd raggednefs-^ 

So in the Amorous War^ 1648 : 

" fpare me a doublet which 

Hnth linings in't, and no glafs windows" 

This allufion is as old as the time of Plautus, in one of whofe 
plays it is found. 
Again, in tin- comedy already quoted : 

*' this jerkin 

" It wholly made of deon" STEEVENS. 


464 K I N G L E A R, 

From feafons fuch as thefe ? O, I have ta'eri 
Too little care of this ! Take phyfic, pomp ; 
Expofe thyfelf to feel what wretches feel ; 
That thou may 'ft {hake the fuperflux to them, 
And fhew the heavens more juft. 

Edg. [witloin.~] Fathom and half ', fathom and half? 
Poor Tom! 

Fool. Come not in here, nuncle, here's a fpirit. 
Help me, help me ! [The Fool runs out from the hovel. 

Kent. Give me thy hand. Who's there ? 

Fool. A fpirit, a fpirit ; he fays his name's poor 

Kent. What art thou that doft grumble there i' the 

flraw ? 
Come forth. 

Enter Edgar, difgv.ifed as a madman. 

Edg. Away ! the foul fiend follows me ! 
Through the iharp hawthorn blows the cold wind.* 
* Humph ! go to thy cold bed, and warm thee. 

Lear. Halt thou given all to thy two daughters J ? 
And art thou come to this ? 

Edg. Who gives any thing to poor Tom ? whom 
the foul fiend hath + led through fire and through 
ilarue, through ford and whirlpool, over bog and 

1 Fathom, &c.] This fpccch of Edj-nr is omitted in the quartos. 
He gives the lign ufed by thofe who are founding the depth 
at^fea. STELVEXS. 

a Humph ! go to tly letl ] So the folio. The quarto, 

Go to thy cold bed and warm thee. JOHNSON. 
So, in the introduction to the Taming of aSlre-iv, 6'/rfays, " gd 
to thy cold bed and \varm thee." A ridicule, I fuppofe, on fomc 
|>aflage in a play as abt'urd as the Span!j}> Tragedy. STEEVF.N-S. 

3 Haft thou given all to thy t-ivo daughters?] Thus the quartos. 
The folio reads, Duljl thou give all" to dy daughters ? 


* led through fire and through fiame, ] Alluding to the 

ignis fattau, fuppoied to be lights kindled bv mifchievous beings 
to lead travellers into deilruttioa. JOHNSON. 


K I N G L E A R. 4 6- 

rjuagmire; that hath 5 laid knives under his pillow, 
and halters in his pew ; fet ratibane by his porridge; 
made him proud of heart, to ride on a bay trotting 
horfe over four-inch'd bridges, to courfe his own 
fhadow for a traitor : 6 Blefs thy five wits ! Tom's 
a-cold. O, do de, do de, do de. Blefs thee from 

5 laid knives under bis pillow, ] He recounts the temp- 

tations by which he was prompted to fuicide ; the opportunities 
of deftroying himfelf, which often occurred to him in his melan- 
choly moods. JOHNSON. 

Shakefoeare found this charge againft the fiend, with many 
others of the fame nature, in Harfenet's Declaration, and has 
ufed the very words of it. The book was printed in 1603. Sec 
Dr. Warburton's note, aft IV. fc. i. 

Infernal fpirits are always reprefented as urging the wretched to 
felf-deftruftion. So, in Dr. Faujlus, 1604.: 

'* Swords, poifons, halters, and envenom'd fteel, 

" Are laid before me to difpatch myfelf." STEEVENS, 

6 blcfs thy five ivifs."] So the five fenfes were called by our' 

old writers. Thus in the very ancient interlude of The Fyve 
Elements, one of the characters is Senfual Appetite, who with great 
Simplicity thus introduces himfelf to the audience : 

" I am callyd fenfual apetyte, 

** All creatures in me delyte, 
" I comforte the vuyttys five ; 

** The taftyng fmelling and herynge 

" I refrefhe the fyghte and felynge 

** To all creaturs alyve." 

Sig. B. iij. PERCY. 

So again, in Every Man, a Morality : 

" Every man, thou arte made, thou haft thy ivyt&fyvc." 
Again, in Hycke Scorxcr : 

" I have fpent amys my v ivittes" 

Again, in the Interlude of the Four Elements, by John Raftell, 
1519 : 

" Brute beftis have memory and &t\ri\yttes-foe. n 
Again, in the firrt book of Gower De ConfeJJione Amantls : 

" As touchende of my wittesfive." STEEVENS. 
Shakefpeare, however, in hib 141^ Sonnet feems to have confi- 
dered the fve i\.-/ts, as diftinct from the fci'fcs : 

" But my five wifs, nor myfivcfenfes can 

** DilTiude one fooliih heart from ferving thee." MALOXE. 

VOL. IX. . H h whirl- 

4 <56 K I N G L E A R. 

\vhirlwinds, ftar-blafting, and 7 taking ! Do poor 
Tom fome chariiv, whom the foul fiend vexes : 
There could I have him now, and there, and 
there, and there again, and there. [Storm fill. 

Lear. What, have his daughters brought him to 

this pafs ? 

Could'ft thou fave nothing? Didftthou give them all? 
Fool. Nay, he referv'd a blanket, elfe we had been 
all fhamed. 

Lear. Now, all the plagues that in the pendulous air 
Hang fated o'er men's faults, light on thy daughters ! 
Kent. He hath no daughters, fir. 
Lear. Death, traitor ! nothing could have fub- 

du'd nature 

To fuch a lownefs, but his unkind daughters. 
Is it the fafhion, that difcarded fathers 
Should have thus little mercy on their ilelh ? 
Judicious puniftunent ! 'twas this fiefh begot 
Thofe 8 pelican daughters. 

Edg. Pillicock fat on pillicock-hill; 
Halloo, halloo, loo, loo ! 

Fool. This cold night will turn us all to fools and 

Edg. Take heed o' the foul fiend : Obey thy pa- 
rents ; keep thy wordjuftly; fwear not; commit 

7 taking! ] To take is to blaft, or flrike with malignant 

influence : 

flrike her young bones, 

Ye taking airs, with lamenefs. JOHNSON. 

* pelican daughters.} The young pelican is fabled to 

fuck the mother's blood. JOHNSON. 

So, in Decker's Honcft If'/jore, 1630, fecond part : 
*' Shall a filly bird pick her own breaft to nourifli her young 
ones? thefeh'cax does it, and fliall not I?** 
Again, in I,ovc in a Maze, 1632 : 

44 The pelican loves not her young fo well 

" That uigs upon her breait a hundred fprings." 




hot 9 with man's fworn fpoufe ; fet not thy fweet 
heart on proud array : Tom's a-cold. 

Lear. What haft thou been ? 

Edg. A ferving-man, proud in heart and mind ; 
that curl'd my hair, ' wore gloves in my cap, ferv'd the 
luftof my miftrefs's heart, and did the act of darknefa 
with her : fwore as many oaths as I fpake words, and 
broke them in the fweet face of heaven : one, thatfiept 
in the contriving of luft, and wak'd to do it : Wine 
lov'd I deeply ; dice dearly ; and in woman, out- 
paramour'd the Turk : Falfe of heart, * light of ear, 
bloody of hand ; J Hog in iloth, fox in Health, 


9 Commit not, &c.] The word commit is ufed in this fenfe by 
Middleton, in Women beware Women : 

" His weight is deadly who commits with (trumpets." 


1 < fjjore gloves in my cap, ] i.e. His miftrefs's favours : 
which was the rafhion of that time. So in the play called Cam- 
pafpe : " Thy men turned to women, thy foldiers to lovers, 
gloves worn in velvet caps, inftead or plumes in graven helmets." 


It was anciently the cuilom to wear gloves in the hat on three 
diftintt occalkms, viz. as the favour of a miftrefs, the memorial 
of a friend, and as a mark to be challenged by an enemy. Prince 
Henry boafts that he TV/// pluck a glave from the commoncfr crea- 
ture, and fix it his helmet ; and Tucca fays to iir Quintilian, ia 
Decker's Satiromajiix : 

* Thou fhalt wear her glove in thy worfhipful bat, like 

to a leather brooch :" and Pandora in Lylly's If^o.-nan in the 
Moon, i 597 : 

" he that firft prefents me with his head, 

" Shall wear my glove in favour of the deed." 
Portia, in her affumcd character, alks B:iflanio for his gloves^ 
which ihe fays flie will wear for his fake: and King Henry V. 
gives the pretenckd glove of Alen9oa to Fluellen, which after- 
wards occafions his quarrel with the Englifli foldicr. STEEVENS. 

1 light of car, ] i.e. Credulous. WAREURTON. 

Not merely credulous, but credulous of evil, ready to receive 
malicious reports. JOHNSC.V. 

3 Hoglnjloth, fox infiealtb, wolf in g*ed'.ntp, &c.] The 

Jefuits pretended to call the leven deiully i:Tis out of Ivlainy in 

the fliape of thofe animals that represented them ; auci before 

c^ch w*s call out, Mainy hy geftures adfcJ that particular lui ; 

H h a curl- 


wolf in grecclinefs, dog in madnefs, lion in prey, 
Let not the creaking of fhoes, nor the ruftling of 
filks, betray thy poor heart to women : Keep thy 
foot out of brothels, thy hand out of plackets *, 
thy pen from lenders' books s , and defy the foul 
fiend. Still through the hawthorn blows the cold 
wind : 6 Says fuum, mun, ha no nonny, dolphin 
my boy, boy, Seffy ; let him trot by. [Storm jtill. 


curllns; his hair to 0\&f? pride, vomiting for gluttony, gaping and 
fnoring for Jlotb, &c. Harfenet's book, pp. 279, 280, &c. 
To this probably our author alludes. STEEVENS 

4 thy hand out nf plackets.] It appeareth from the fbllovr- 

ing paflage in Any fhing for a quiet Life, a filly comedy, that 
placket doth not fignify the petticoat in general, but only the 
aperture therein : " between which is difcovered the open part 
which is now called the placket." Bayly in his Dictionary , giveth 
the lame account of the word. 

Yet perad venture, our poet hath fome deeper meaning in the 
Winter's Tah, where Aurolycus faith" You might have pinch'd 
a. placket, it was fenfelefs." AMNER. 

5 Thy pen from kitdcrf books.'] So, in All Fools, a comedy by 
Chapman, 1605 : 

*' If I but write my name In mercer? looks, 

*' I am as fure to have at fix months end 

" A rafcal at my elbow with his mace, &c." STEEVEKS. 

6 Says fuum, mun, nonny, &c.] Of this paflage I can 

make nothing. I believe it corrupt ; for wildnefs, not non- 
fenfe, is the efteft of a difordered imagination. The quarto 
reads, bay no on ny, dolphins, my boy, ceafe, let him trot by. Of 
interpreting this there is not much hope or much need. But 
any thing may be tried. The madman, now counterfeiting a 
proud fit, fuppoles himfelt met on the road by fome one that 
difputes the way, and cries Hey! No but altering his mind, 
condelcends to let him pafs, and calls to his boy Dolphin (Ro- 
dolph) not to contend with him. On Dolphin, my boy, ceafe. 
J.,ct him trot by. JOHNSON, 

The reading of the quarto is right. Hry no nonny is the 
burthen of a ballad in The Tivo "Nolle Kinfmen (faid to be written 
by Shakefpeare in conjunction with Fletcher) and was probably 
common to many others. The rolio introduces it into one ot 
Ophelia's longs. 

Dolphin, my loy, my boy, 
Ceafe, let him trot by ; 
It feemeth not that fuch a foe 
From me or you would fly. 



Lear. Why thou were better in thy grave, than 
to anfwer with thy uncover'd body this extremity of 
the fkies. Is man no more than this ? Confider him 
well: Thou oweft the worm no filk, the. bead no 
hide, the Iheep no wool, the cat no perfume : 
Ha ! here's three of us are fophifticated ! Thou 
art the thing itfelf : unaccommodated man is no 
more but fuch a poor, bare, forked animal as thou 
art. Off, off, you lendings : Come 8 ; unbutton 
here. [Tearing off his ck: 

Fool. Pr'ythee, nuncle, be contented ; this is a 
naughty night to fwim in. Now a little fire in a 
wild field, were like an old lecher's heart 9 ; a fmall 


This is a ftanza from a very old ballad written on fome battle 
fought in France, during which the king, unwilling to put the 
fufpe&ed valour of his fon the Dauphin, i e. Dolphin (fo called 
and fpelr at thole times) to the trial, is reprefented as defirous to 
reibain him from any attempt to elrablifli an opinion of his cou- 
rage on an adversary who wears the lenft appearance or itrength ; 
and at lair ailiits in propping up a dead body againil a tree for 
him to try his manhood upon. Therefore as different cham- 
pions are fuppofcd croffing the field, the king always difcovers 
Ibme objection to his attacking each of them, and repeats thefe 
two lines as every frefli perfonage is introduced. 
Dolphin, mv boy, mv boy, &c. 

The fong I h.ive never feen, but had this account from an 
old gentleman, who was only able to repeat part of it, and died 
before I could have fuppofed the dilcovery would have been of the 

lealt importance to me. As for the words, fayifuum, man, they 

are only to be found in the firft folio, and were probably added 
by the players, who, together with the competitors^ were likely 
enough to corrupt what they did not underrtand, or to add more 
of their own to what they already concluded to be nonfcnie. 

Cotes cries out in Bartholomew Fair : 

*' God's my life ! He (ball be Dattphin my ley /" FARMER. 

8 Come; unbutton here, ~\ Thus the rolio. One of the quartqa 
reads : 

.Come on, le trite. STEEVENS. 

9 an clj lecher's heart. ~\ This irgage appears to have been 

imitated by B. and Fletcher in the Humonroui Lieutenant: 

" an old mans loofe defire 

" Is like the glow-worm's light the aues fo womlerM at : 
H h 3 " Which 


fpark, and all the reft of his body cold. Look, here 
comes a walking fire. 

Edg This is the foul fiend ' Flibbertigibbet : he 
begins at curfew, and walks 'till the firft cock; he 
gives the * web and the pin, fquints the eye, and 
makes the hare-lip ; mildews the white wheat, and 
hurts the poor creature of earth. 

3 Saint Withold footed thrice the wold} 
He met the night-mar 'e, and her nine-fold ; 


" Which when they gather'd flicks, and laid upen't, 

" And blew and blewj turn'd tail, and went out prefently." 


1 Flibbertigibbet ; ] We are not much acquainted with 
this fiend. Latimer in his fermons mentions him ; and Hey- 
wood, among his tixte hundred of Epigrams, edit, 1576, has tho 
following, Of calling one Fielergibet : 

" Thou Flebcrgioet, Flebergibet, thou wretch ! 

" Wotteft thou whereto laft part of that word doth ftretch ? 

" Leave that word, or I'le baile thee with a libet ; 

" Of all woords I hate woords that end with gibet." 

** Frateretto, Flibcrd'gibet, Hoberdidance, Tocobatto, were 

four devils of the round or rnorice Thefe four had forty 

affilknts under them, as themlelves doe confeflc." Harjcuet^ 
p. 49. PERCY. 

* web and the pin, ] Difeafes of the eye, JOHNSON. 

So, in Every V/ui,^;'. In her Humour, 1600. One of the charac- 
ters is giving a ludicrous deicription of a lady's face, and when 
he comes to her eyes he fays, *' a pin and i'.w argent in hair du 
roy." STEEVE.XS. 

3 S-vjithold footed thrice the old ;] The old, my ingenious friend 
Mr. Bifhop fays, mult be wold, which fignifies a down, or ground, 
hiiiv and void of wood. THEOBALD. 

Saint Withold footed thrice the wold, 
He met the night-mare, and her nine -fold, 
Bid her alight, and her troth plight, 
And arrynt thee, ivltcb, aroynt thte !~\ 
We ftiould read it thus : 

Saint Withold footed thrice the wold, 
He met the night-mare, and her name toll, 
Bid her alight, and her troth plight, 
And aroynt thee, witch, aroynt thee right. 
\. t, 5$int Withold traverfing the wold or do-ivtu, met the night- 
mare ; 

K I N G I, E A R. 471 

Bid her alight, 
And her troth plight, 
And, Aroynt thee, witch, aroynt thee ! 

Kent. How fares your grace ? 


mare ; who having told her, he obliged her to alight from 
thole perlbns whom flie rides, and plight her troth to do no more 
mifchief. This ", j taken from a ftory of him in his legend. Hencfe 
he was invoked as the patron faint againft that diftemper. And 
thefe verfes were no other than a popular charm, or n'ght-fpell 
againft the Epialtes. The laft line is the formal execration or 
apoftrophe of the fpeaker of the charm to the witch, arcy.-t thee 
right, i. e. depart forthwith. Bedlams, giplies, and fuch like 
vagabonds, uled to fell thefe kinds of fpells or charms to the 
people. They were of various kinds for various diforders. We 
have another of them in the Monjievr Thomas of Fletcher, which 
he exprefsly calls a night-fpdl, and is in thefe words : 

" Saint George, Saint George, our lady's knight, 

*' He walks by day, fo he does by night ; 

** And when he had her found, 

** He her beat and her bound ; 

*' Until to him her troth Jin plight, 

** She would not ftir from him that night." 


This is likevvife one of the " magical cures" for the incubus, 
-quoted, with little variation, by Reginald S^ott in his Difcovery 
ef Witchcraft, 1584. STEEVENS. 

In the old quarto the corruption is fuch as may deferve to be 
noted. ** S.vithald footed thrice the olde anelthu night moorc 
and her nine told bid her, O light and her troth plighi aud 
arint thee, wiih arintthee," JOHNSON. 

Her nine f .d feems to be put (tor the fake of the rime) inftead 
of her rinc foals. I cannot find this adventure in the common le- 
gend ot St. Vitiilis, who, I fuppoie, is here called M. Withold. 


Shakefpeare might have met with St. Withold in the old fpu- 
rious play of King John, where this faint is invoked by a Fran- 
cifcan friar. The iaold I fuppofe to be the true reading. So in 
the Coventry Colteftion of Myfteries, Muf. Brit. Vefp. U. viii, 
p. 93, Herod fays to one of. his officers : 

** Seyward bolde, walke thou on aW//r, 
" And wyfely behold all abowte, &c." 

Dr. Hill's reading, the cold, is the reading of Mr. Tate in his al- 
teration of this play in 168 r. STEEVENS. 

H h 4 It 

47* K I N G L E A R. 

Enter Glqfter, with a torch. 

Lear. What's he ? 

Kent. Who's there ? What is't you feek ? 

Glo. What are you there ? Your names ? 

Edg. Poor Tom ; that eats the fwimming frog, 
the toad, the tadpole, the wall-newt, and the water- 
newt ; that in the fury of his heart, when the foul 
fiend rages, eats cow-dung for fallets ; fwallows the 
old rat, and the ditch-dog ; drinks the green mantle 
of the flanding pool ; who is 4 whipt from tything 
to tything, and ftock'd, punifti'd, and imprifon'd ; 
who hath had three fuits to his back, fix fliirts to his 
body, horfc to ride, and weapon to wear, 

It is pleafant to lee the various readings of this paflage. In a 
book called the After, which has been afcribed to Dr. Hill, it is 
quoted " Switbin footed thrice the cold" Mr. Colman has it in 
his alteration of Lear, 

" Switbin footed thrice the world." 

The ancient reading is the olds: which is pompoufly corrected by 
iVIr. Theobald, with the help of his friend Mr. Biftop, to the 
wolds : in fact it is the fame word. Spelman writes, Burton upon 
olds: the provincial pronunciation is nill thfe tffej"/ and that pro- 
bably was the vulgar orthography. Let us read then, 
St. Withold footed thrice the oles, 
He met the night-mare, and her nine files, &c." 


I was furprifed to fee in the Appendix to the laft edition of 
Shakefpeare, that my reading of this paflage was " Swithin footed 
thrice the ivorM." I have ever been averfe to capricious va- 
riations of the old text ; and, in the prefent inltance, the rhime, 
as well as the fenfe, would have induced me to abide by it. World 
was merely an error of the prefs. Wold is a word flill in ufe in the 
North of England ; fignifying a kind of down near the fea. A 
large tra&of country in the Eaft-Riding of Yorkftiire is called the 
Would*. COLMAN. 

* whipt from tything to tything, -] A iytllng is a di- 
vifion of a place, a diftrid ; the fame in the country, as a ward in 
the city. In, the Saxon times every hundred was divided into 


K I N G L E A R. 47 j 

But mice, and rats, andfttcb r fmall deer, 
Have been Tom' s food for fevcn long year. 

Beware my follower : Peace, Smolkin 6 ,* peace, 

thou fiend ! 

Glo. What, hath your grace no better company ? 
Edg. The prince of darknefs is a gentleman 7 ; 
' Modo he's call'd, and Mahu. 


s fmall deer] Sir Thomas Hanmer reads gecr, and \% 

followed by Dr. Warburton. But deer in old language is a ge- 
neral word for wild animals. JOHNSON". 

Mice and rats and fitch fmall deere 

Hai'e been Tom' s food for f even long year c."\ 

This diftich has excited the attention of the critics. Inftead of 
dccre. Dr. Warburton would read, gcer, and Dr. Grey cheer. 
The ancient reading is, however, eitabliihed by the old metrical 
romance of bir Bevis, which Shakei'pcare had probably oftea 
heard fung to the harp, and to which he elfewhere alludes, as iu 
the following inftances : 

" As Bevis of Southampton fell upon Afcapart" 

Htn. VI. Aft II. 

Again, Hen. VIII. Aft. I. 

" That Bei-:':\\c.s believ'd. 

This di! T "rh is part of a defcription there given of the hard- 
fl Jp5 fuftered by Bevis when confined for feven years in a duu- 
g/on : 

" Rattc: and myce and fuch final dcre 
** Was his mtate that feven yere." 
Sig. F. iij. PERCY. 

6 Peace, Smolkin, peace, ] " The names of other puuie 
fpirits caft out of Trayford were thefc : Hilco, Smoikiu, Hlilio, 
&c." Harfenet, p. 49. PERCY. 

7 7 he prince of darknefs is a gentleman ;] This is fpoken in re- 
fentment of what Glofter had juft laid '* Has your grace no 
tetter company ?" STEEVENS. 

8 Modo bes fd//V, and Mahu.~\ So in Harfcnct's Declaration^ 

was the chief devil that had pofTeflion ct Sarah Williams ; 
but another of the poflefled, named Richard !Mainy, was molefted 
by a ftill more conliderable fiend called Mcdu. hee the book al- 
ready mentioned, p. 268, where the laid Richard Mainy depofes : 
*' Furthermore it is pretended, that there rcmaineth iiill in mee 
the prince of all other devils, whofe name fhould be Modn ;" he 
is ellc'.vhcre called, " the prince Mcdit ;" fo, p. ^69, '- When 


474 K I N G L E A R. 

Glo. Our flefh and blood, my lord, is grown fo 

That it doth hate what gets it. 

Edg. Poor Tom's a-cold. 

Glo. Go in with me ; my duty cannot fuffer 
To obey in all your daughters' hard commands : 
Though their injunction be to bar my doors, 
And let this tyrannous night take hold upon you ; 
Yet have I ventur'd to come feek you out, 
And bring YOU where both fire and food is ready. 

Lear. Firft let me talk with thisphilofopher : 
What is the caufe of thunder ? 

Kent. My good lord, take his offer ; 
Go into the houfe. 

Lear. I'll talk a word with this fame learned 

Theban 9 : 
What is your ftudy ? 

Edg. How to prevent the fiend, and to kill vermin. 

Lear. Let me afk you one word in private. 

Kent. Importune him once more to go, my lord, 
His wits begin to unfettle. 

Glo. Canft thou blame him ? [Storm jl ill. 

His daughters feek his death : Ah, that good 

^Kent ! 

He faid, it would be thus : Poor banilh'd man ! 
Thou fay'O, the king grows mad; I'll tell thee, friend, 
1 am almoft mad myfelf : I had a fon, 
Now out-law'd from my bio .d ; he fought my life, 
But lately, very late ; I lov'd him, friend, 
Islo father his fon dearer : true to tell thee, 

the faid priefts had difpatched theire bnfinefs at Hackney (where 
they had been exorcifing Sara Williams) they then returned to- 
wards mee, uppon pretence to call the great prince Modu , . . out 
race." STEEVENS. 

* learned Theban, ,~\ Ben Jonfon in his Mafque of Pan's 

Annivcrfary , has introduced a Tinker whom he calls a learned 
.) perhaps in ridicule ot this paflkge. STEEVENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 475 

The grief hath craz'd my wits. What a night's this ! 
I do befeech your grace, 

Lear. O, cry you mercy, fir : 

Noble philofopher, your company. 

Rdg. Tom's a-cold. 

Glo. In, fellow, there, to the hovel : keep thee 

Lear* Come, let's in all. 

Kent. This way, my lord. 

Lear. With him ; 
I will keep ftill with my philofopher. 

Kent. Good my lord, footh him ; let him take the 

Glo. Take him you on. 

Kent. Sirrah, come on ; go along with us. 

Lear. Come, good Athenian. 

Glo. No words, no words ; hufh. 

Edg. ' Child Rowland to the dark terser came. 
His word was ft illy = Fie, fob, and f urn, 

I fmell the blood of a Britijh man. [Exeunt. 


* Child Rowland ] In the old times of chivalry, the 

noble youth who were candidates for knighthood, during the 
fealbn of their probation, were called Infans, Farlets, Damoyfeh t 
Bacbeliers. The moil noble of the youth particularly, Infam. 
Here a ftory is told, in fome old ballad, of the famous hero and 
giant-killer Roland, betore he was knighted, who is, therefore, 
called Infans ; which the ballad-maker trauikted, Child Roland. 


This word is in fome of our ballads. There is a fong of 
Child Walter, and a Lady. JOHNSON. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, in The Woman $ Prize, refer alfo to 
this : 

" . . a mere hobby-horfe 
" She made the Child Rowland." 

In Have with you to Saffron Waldeny or Gabriel Harvey's Hunt 
is Up y 1598. pan of thefe lines repeated by Edgar is quoted : 
" a pedant, who will find matter inough to dilate a whole 
daye of the firft invention of 

" Fy, fa, fum, 
" I fnell the blood of an Englifoman." 


476 KING L E ' A R, 


Glcfter's cafde, 
Enter Cornwall, and Edmund. 

Com. I will have my revenge, ere I depart his houfc t 

JLdm. How, my lord, I may be cenfur'd, that na- 
ture thus gives way to loyalty, fomething fears me 
to think of. 

Corn. I now perceive, it was not altogether your 
brother's evil difpofition made him feek his death ; 
* but a provoking merit, fet a-work by a reprovabie 
badnefs. in himfelf. 

Edm. How malicious is my fortune, that I mud 
repent to be juft ! This is the letter which he fpoke 

Spenfcr often ufes the word child, to fignify a prince, or a }"outh 
ful knight. So, in the Faerie S^ucen, Book V. c. xi. ft. 8. 
" - that fad fteel feiz'd not where it was hight 
" Upon the child, but fbmewhat fhort did fall." 
J5y the child is here meant Prince Arthur. Both the quartos read : 
- to the dark town come. STEEVENS. 

] The. word child (however it came to have 
this fenfe) is often applied to K'ngbts, &c. in old hiftorical fongs 
and romances; of this, l,e inftanccs occur in the Re- 

iiquts of ancient 1' <y. See particniaiiy in Vol. I. f. iv. 

v. 97, where in a defcrlption rf a bc.itlc between two knights, 
we ^nd thcic lines : 
. " The Eldridge knighte, he prickM' his flced ; 

I' Syr Cawline bofd^ abode: 
<i Then either flioolc his trufry fpcar, 
*' And the timber thcic two chUrcn, bare 

*' So foon in lur.dcr floJc." 

See in the fame volumes the ballads concerning the child of Rllr, 
child waters, child Mawuc [Vol. III. 1". .\x.J &c. The fame 
4 idk>m occurs in tya.ft-r's Faerie ^neen^ where the famous knight 
fir Triih-arn is m\i'..:cmly called C' . . . See F>. V. c. ii. 

ft. 8. 13. 15. VI. c. ii. "ft. 36. ibid. c. viii. fl. 15. PERCY. 

11 - Imt a provoking merit,"] 5. c. A merit which being neg- 
lefted by the father, \vas provoked to an extravagant a6h The 
Oxford editor, ut tofirovtfeJffirit. 



K I N G L E A R; 477 

of, which approves him an intelligent party to the 
advantages of France. O heavens ! that this trea- 
icn were not, or not I the detector ! 

Corn. Go with me to the dutchefs. 

Edm. If the matter of this paper be certain, you 
have mighty bufinefs in hand. 

Corn. True, or falfe, it hath made thee earl of 
Glofter. Seek out where thy father is, that he may 
be ready for our apprehenfion. 

Edm. \_Afide.~\_ If I find him J comforting the king, 
it will fluff his fufpicion more fully. I will perfeverc 
in my courfe of loyalty, though the conflict be fore 
between that and my blood. 

Corn. 1 will lay truft upon thee ; and thon lhalt 
find a dearer father in my love. [Exeunt. 


A chamber, in a Farm bottfe. 
Enter Gioftcr, Lear, Kent, Fool, and Edgar. 

Glo. Here is better than the open air ; take it 
thankfully : I will piece out the comfort with what 
addition I can : I will not be long from you. [*//. 

Kent. All the power of his wits has given way to 
his impatience : The gods reward your kindnefs ! 

Edg. Frateretto calls me ; and tells me, Nero is 
an angler in the lake of darknefs. Pray, innocent, 
and beware the foul fiend. 

Fool. Pr'ythee, nuncle, tell me, whether a mad- 
man be a gentleman, or a yeoman ? 

Lear. A king, a king ! 

Fool. 4 No ; he's a yeoman, that has a gentleman 

3 comforting : ] He ufes the word in the juridical 

fenfe tor fupporting, helping, according to its derivation ; falvia 
confortat nerves. Sckol. Sal. JOHXSO.V. 

* Fool.} Thisfpeech is omitted in the n-nitos. STEEVEXS. 


478 K I N G L E A R. 

to his Ton : for he's a mad yeoman, that fees his fon 
i gentleman before him. 

Lear. To have a thoufand with red burning fpits 
f Come hizzing in upon them : 
Edg. 6 The foul fiend bites my back. 
Fool. He's mad, that trufts in the tamenefs of a 
wolf, 7 a horfe's health, a boy's love, or a whore's 

Lear. It fhall be done, I will arraign them ftraight : - 
Come, lit thou here, mofl learned jufticer ; 

[To Edgar. 
Thou, fapient fir, fit here. [To the Fool.'] Now, you 

Ihe foxes ! 

Edg. Look, where he ftands and glares ! Wantefl 
thou eyes s at trial, madam ? 


5 Come hizzing in upon Vw. ] Then follow in the old 
edition feveral fpeeches in the mad way, which probably were 
left out by the players, or by Shakefpeare himielf : I fhall how- 
ever infert them here, and leave them to the reader's mercy. 


As Mr. Pope had begun to infert feveral fpeeches in the mad 
Way, in this fcene, from the old edition, I have ventured to re- 
place feveral others, which ftunJ upon the fame footing, and had 
an equal right or being reftored. THEOBALD. 

' Edgar.] This and the next fourteen fpeeches (which Dr. 
Johnfon had enclofed in crotchets) are only in the quartos. 


7 the health of a borfe, ] Without doubt we ihould read 
beck) i. e. to ftand behind him. WAR BUR TON. 

Shakefpeare is here fpeaking not of things malicioufly 
treacherous, but of things uncertain and not durable. A horfe is 
above all other animals fubje<5t to difeafes. JOHNSON. 

8 UFanttft) &c.] I am not confident that I underftand the mean- 
ing of this defultory fpeech. When Edgar fays, Look where be 
JlatiJs and glares ! he feeins to be fpeaking in the character of a 

mad man, who thinks he fees the fiend. W^antejl tbau eyes ar 
trial, madam ? is a qvieftion whic,h appears to beaddrcfledto the 
vifionary Goneril, or fome other abandon'd female, and may fig- 
uitv, Do you vjant to attratl r.dmlration, even while youjland at the 
Inr of juflice ? Mr. Sc.-y ward propoics to read, wanton Jl inilead of 

K I N G L E A R. 

9 Come o V the bourn, Befjy, to me .* 
Fool. Her boat hath a leak, 
And foe muft not fpeak 

dares not come over to thee* 

At trial, madam ?] It may be obferred that Edgar, being fup- 
pofed to be found by chance, and therefore to have no knovvbcge 
of the reft, conne&s not his idea* w.rh rhoie of Lear, but purlues 
his own train of delirious or rantatlic though .. To tLefe <> r or<it>, 
At trial, madam ? I think therefore thai rue '.ame f Le^r fao.ill 
be put. Theprocefsof the dialogue will lup^ort t-is conje ;re. 


9 Come o'er the broom, Bejjy, to me ;] As there is no reiu. 
tween broo?n and a boat, we may better read, 

Come o'er the brook, Belfy, tome. JOHNFON- 
At the beginning of A very mery andf.ythie commedic, called, 7bt 
longer thou Liveft, the more Fvole thou art, &c. Imprinted at Lon- 
don by Wyttyam How, &c. black letter, no date, " Entreth 
Moros, countervailing a vaine gefture and a foolifh countenance, 
fynging the foote of many fonge, as fooles were wont ;" and 
among them is this palfage, which Dr. Johnfon has veryjuftly* 
fufpcfted of corruption. 

" Com over the loorne Beflc 
*' My little pretie Li-Td- 
" Com over the boornc Befle to me." 

A lourn in the north fi^nifies a rivulet or brook. Hence the 
names of many of our vi.iages terminate in burn, as Milr f 
Sherr, &c. The former quotation, together with the follow- 
ing inftances, at once confirm the jullnefs or Dr. Johnfon's remark, 
and fupport the re.iuing. 
So in Drayton's Polyolbion, Song I : 

" The bourns, the brooks, the becks, the rills, the rivulets." 
Again, in Song xxviii. 

" But that the brooks and bournes fo hotly her purfue." 
Again, in Song the xxixth : 

" As petty bournes and becks I fcorn but once to call." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery S>ur?n, B. II. c. vi : 

" My little boat can laiely pafle this perilous bourne" 
Shakefpeare himlelf, in the Teixpcft, has dilcriminated bourn frooi 
bound of land in general : 

" Bcurn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard none." 
Again in the Pjjbn cf Pierce Plowman, line 8 : 

" Under a brode banke by bourne fyde." 

To this I may-pdd, that ceurn, a' boundary, is from the French 


480 K I N G L E A R. 

Edg. The foul fiend haunts poor Tom in the 
voice l of a nightingale. * Hopdance cries in Tom's 
belly for two white herring *. Croak not, black an- 
gel ; I have no food for thee. 

Kent. How do you, fir ? Stand you not fo amaz'd : 
Will you lie down and reft upon the cufhions ? 

- Lear. I'll fee their trial firft : Bring in the 


Thou robed man of juftice, take thy place ; 

[To Edgar. 

And thou, his yoke-fellow of equity, [To tbe Fool. 
Bench by his fide : You are of the commiffion, 
Sit you too. [To Kent. 

Rdg. Let us deal juftly. 

3 Sleepeft^ or wakeft thou, jottyjhepkerd ? 
Tbyjheep be in tbe corn ; 


lorne. Bourne, or (as it ought to be fpelt) burn, a rivulet, is 
from the German burn, or born, a well. STE EVENS. 

* in the voice of a nightingale.] Another deponent in 

Harfnet's book (p. 225, fays) that the miftrefs of the houfe kept 
a nightingale- in a cage, which being one night killed, and con- 
veyed away into the garden, it was pretended the devil had killed 
it in fpire. Eerhaps this paffage fuggefted to Shakefpeare the 
circumilance or Tom's being haunted in the voice of a nightingale. 


* Hopdance cries in Tom's belly ] In Harfenct's 

book, p. 194, 195, Sarah Williams (one of the pretended de* 
moniacs) depofeth, " that it at any time fhe did belch, as often 
times fhe did by reafon that fhee was troubled with a'wind in her 
irpmacke, the priefh would fay at fuch times, that then the fpirit 
began to rife in her .... and that the wind was the devil." And, 
'* as fhe faith, if they heard any croaking in her belly .... then 
they would make a wonderful matter ot that." HoberdLdance is 
mentioned before in Dr. Percy's note. STEEVENS. 

* white herring.~\ White herrings are pickled herrings. Seethe 
Northumberland Hottfchda'Btoki p. . STEEVENS. 

3 Slccpeft, or joahfr, &c.] This feems to be a ftanza of fomc 
paftoral long. A fiiepherd is defired to pipe, and the requeft is 
enforced by a promife, that though his flieep be in the corn, i. e. 
committing a trcfpafs by his negligence, implied in the quelKon, 
Stiepc/i tic a or ivakift ?' Yet a fmgle tune upon his pipe Hull ff 
'cure them from the pound. JOHXSO.V. 


And for one Uaft of thy minikin mouth, 
Thy Jheep JhaU take no barm. 

Purre ! the cat is grey. 

Lear. Arraign her firft ; 'tis Goneril. I here take 
my oath before this honourable afTembly, Ihe kick'd 
the poor king her father. 

Fool. Come hither, miftrefs; Is your name Goneril ? 

Lear. She cannot deny it. 

Fool. Cry you mercy, I took you for a joint- ftool 4 . 

Lear. And here's another, whofe warpt looks pro- 

What (lore her heart is made on. Stop her there ! 
Arms, arms, fvvord, fire ! Corruption in the place ! 
Falfe juflicer, why haft thou let her 'fcapc ? 

Edg. Blefs thy five wics ! 

Kent. O pity ! Sir, where is the patience no\v, 
That yon ib oft have boafted to retain ? 

Edg. My tears begin to take his part fo much, 
They'll mar my counterfeiting. [/$& 

Lear. The little dogs and all, 
Tray, Blanch, and Sweet-heart, fee, they bark at me y . 

Minikin was anciently a term of endearment. So, in the en- 
tcriude of the Repentance of Marie Magdalainc, 1567, the Vice 
fays, " What mynikin carnal concupilcence !" Barrett, in his 
Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, interprets feat, by 
* proper, well-faftiioned, minikin, handfome." In the Interlude 
of tbe Fcur Element!, &c. printed by Raftell, 1519, Ignorance a fong compofed of the fcraps of feveral others. Among 
them is the following line, on which Shakefpeare may have de- 
ligned a parody : 

" Sleepy ft thou, wakyft thou, Geffery Coke." 

4 Cry you mercy, Itnokyouforajoint-Jlool.] This is a prover- 
bial expreffion. STEEVENS. 

5 fee they bark at me,"] The hint for this clrcumflance 

might have been taken trom the pretended madnefs of one of 
the brothers in the tranflation of the Mcnccchmi of Plautus, 1 59; : 

*' Here's an old maftiff bitch Hands barking at me, &c." 


VOL. IX. J i 


Edg. Tom will throw his head at them : Avaimt, 

you curs ! 

Be thy mouth or black or white % 
Tooth that poifons if it bite ; 
Maltiff, grey-hound, mungril grim, 
Hound, or fpanicl, 7 brache, or lym ; 
Or bobtail tike % or trundle-tail 9 ; 
Tom will make him weep and wail : 


* Be thy mouth or black or white,]. To have the roof of the- 
mouth Hack is in fome dogs a proof that their breed is genuine. 


7 lr ache or hym, &c.] Names of particular forts of 

dogs. POPE. 

Sir T. Hanmer for by m reads Ijm. JOHNSON. 

In Ben Jonfon's Bartholomew Fair, Quarlous fays, " all the 
//;tf<r-hounds of the city fhpuld have drawn after you by the 

Icent." A limmtr or learner, a dog of the chaee, was fo called 

from the learn or leafti in which he was held till he was let flip. 

I have this information from Caius de Canilus Britannicls* 

So, in the book of Anticnt Tenures, by T. B. 1679, the words,' , _ 
*' canes domini regis lefus," are tranflated " Leafli hounds, fuch 
as draw after a hurt deer in a leajk, or Ham" 
Again, in the Mufes JLhfium, by Drayton : 

" My dog-hook at my belt, to which my lyains ty'd." 
Again : " My hound then in my lyam, Sic." 
Among the prefents fent from James I. to the king and queen 
cf Spain were, " A cupple of lymc-honnda of fingular qualities." 
Again, in MalHnger's }] t iJJjful Lover : 

" fmellout 

" Her footing like a lime-hound" 

The late Mr. Hawkins, in his notes to the Return from Par- 
itajjui, p. 237, fays, that a rache is a dog that hunts by fcent 
wild beads, birds, and even fillies, and that the female of it is 
called a. braibe : and in Magnificence, an ancient interlude or 
morality, by Skchon j printed by Railell, no date, is the fol- 
lowing line : 

" Here is a leyfhe o f rate/set to renne an hare." STEEVE.VS. 

\Vh:it is here laid of a rache might perhaps be taken by Mr. 
Hawkins, from Holinfhed's Dpftrifition of Scotland, p. 14, where 
the (Tcuthound means a bloodhound. The females of all doga 
were once called Iraches ; and Llitius upon Gratius <jbferves, 
** Racha Saxonibus canem fignificnbat unde Scoti hodie Rache 
pro dine fcemina habent, quod Anglis eft Bracbe". TOLLET. 

bobtail tike ] Tijk is the Runic word for a little, or 

worthicii dug : 


For, with throwing thus my head, 
Dogs leap the hatch, and all arc fled. 
'Do de, de de. ' Sefly, come, march to wakes and 


And market towns : Poor Tom, * thy horn is dry. 


l{ Are Mr. Robinfon's dogs turn'd tikes with a wanion r" 
Witches of Lancafter, 1634. STEEVENS. 

' trundle-tail.] This fort of dog is mentioned in A 

oman killed ivif/j Kindncfs, 1617: 

" your dogs are trundle-tails and curs." 

Again, in The Boolte of Huntyng, &c. bl. 1. no date : 

*' dunghill dogs, trindle-tails, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 Srjfiy, come, &c.] Here is fejfcy again, which I take to he 
the French word cejjez pronounced cefjey, which was, I fuppofe, 
like fome others in common ufe among us. It is an interjection 
enforcing ceflation of any action, like, be quiet, have done. It 
feems to have been gradually corrupted into, fo, fo. JOHNSON. 

This word is wanting in the quarto : in the folio it is printed 
fefe. It is difficult in this place to fay what is* meant by it. It 
fliould be remembered, that juft before, Edgar had been calling 
on BeJJy to come to him ; and he may now with equal propriety 
invite Sejjy (perhaps a female name corrupted from Cecilia) to 
attend him to wakes and fairs. Nor is it impoffible but that this 
may be a part of fome old fong, and originally flood thus : 
Sifly, come inarch to wakes, 

And fairs, and market towns. 

So, in Humor's Ordinarie t an ancient cclIedVion of fatires, no 
date : 

" To make Siffe in love withal." 

Again : " My heart's deare bleed, fweet Sffi is my caroufc." 
There is another line in the c}ia::i6ter ot Edgar which I am very 
confident I have feen in an old ballad, viz. 

Through the (harp haw-thorn blows the cold wind. 


* thy born is dry .] Men that begged under pretence 

of lunacy ufed formerly to carry a horn, and blow it through the 
ftreets. JOHNSON. 

A born is at this day employed in many places in the country 
as a cup for drinking, but anciently the ufe of it was much more 
general. Thy horn is dry, appears to be a proverbial expreffion, 
introduced when a man has nothing further to ofFer, when he has 
faid all he had to fay. Such a cne'i fife's out is a phrafe current 
in Ireland on the fame occalion. 

I fuppofe Edgar to fpeak theie words afidt. Being quite weary 
J i 2 of 

484 K I N G L E A R, 

Lear. Then let them anatomize Regan, fee What 
breeds about her heart : Is there anycaufein nature, 
that makes thefe hard hearts ? Von, fir, I entertain 
you for one of my hundred ; only, I do not like the 
fafhion of your garments : ' you will fay, they are 
Perfian attire ; but let them be chang'd. [To Edgar. 
Kent. Now, good my lord, lie here, and relt 

Lear* Make no noifc, make no noife ; draw the 

curtains : 
So, fo, fo : We'll go to fupper i' the morning : o, 

fo, fo. 
Fool. And I'll go to bed at noon 


Re-enter Gkftcr. 

do. Come hither, friend : Where is the ki 

my mailer ? 
Kent. Here, fir; but trouble him nor, his whs arc 

gone. ^ . 

do* Good friend, I pr'ythec take him in thy arms ; 
I have o'er-heard a plot of death upon him : 
There is a litter ready ; lay him in't, 
And drive toward Dover, friend, where thou (halt 


Both welcome and protection. Take np thy mailer : 
If thou fhould'il dally half an hour, his life, 

of his Tom o' Bedlam's part, and finding him ft if unable to fup- 
port it any longer, he fays privately, ' k I can no more : ail 
my materials for fuitaining the character of Poor Tom are now 
exhauiied;" my born is ttry : i.e. has nothing more in it; and 
accordingly we" have no more of his diilembled madnefs till he 
meets hid rather in the next ad, when he relumes it for a ipcech 
or two, bat not without exprcfTing the fame diflike of it that he 
expreflcs here, " : 1 cannot daub it further." STEKVKNS. 

-* Yo.n^aitt Ttty tbty are fcrjtan \ ] Alluding perhaps 

to Clytus refuting the Tertian robes offered him by Alexander. 

4 Jnd Vti o to ltd at noon.'] Omitted in the quartos. 




With thine, and all that offer to defend him, 
Stand in alTured lofs : Take up, take up * ; 
And follow me, that will to fome provifion 
Give thee quick conduct. 

[Kent. 6 Opprefled nature ileeps : 
This reft might yet have balm'd 7 thy broken fenfes, 
Which, if convenience will not allow, 
Stand in hard cure. Come, help to bear thy matter ; 
Thou muft not flay behind. [To the FcoL 

G!o. Come, come, away. 

[Exeunt, bearing off- the kin*. 

Manet .vir. 

Edg. When we our betters fee bearing our WQCS, 
We fcarcely think our miferies our foes. 
Who alone fuffcrs, fuffers mod i'the mind ; 
Leaving 8 free things, and hnppy (hows, behind : 
But then the mind much fulferance doth o'crikip, 
When grief hath mates, and bearing fellowfhip. 

5 Taieif, take up. "\ One of the quartos reads Take up tit 

king) &c. the other Take up to keep, &c. STEEVENS. 

OfprcfTeJ nature Jlcep*. ] Thefe t\vo concluding 

fpeeches by Kent and Kdgar, and which by no means ought to 
have been cut off, I have reitored from the old quarto. The fo- 
liloquy of Edgar is extremely fine ; and the fentiments of it are 
drawn equally from nature and the fubjecl. Betides, with regard 
to the ftage, it is abfolutely neceflary : for as Edgar is not de- 
iigned, in the conftitution of the play, to attend rhe king to 
Dover ; how abfurd would it look for a cha racier of his import- 
ance to quit the fccne without one word laid, or the leaft intima- 
tion what \vc are to expect from him ? THEOBALD. 

The lines inferted from the quarto are in crotchets. The 
omidion of them in the tolio is certainly faulty : yet I believe 
the folio is printed trcm Shakefpeare'a lait revilion, carelefsly and 
halVily performed, with more thought of fliortening the fcenes, 
than of continuing the aclion.- JOHNSON. 

7 tby broken fenfes,] The quarto, fwm whence this 

fpeech is taken, -reads, thy broken Jinpivs. Strifes is the con- 
jectural emendation of Theobald. STLEV^S. 

free thing!, ] States clear from diilrefs. JOHNSON. 

I i 2 How 

4 86 KING LEAR. 

How light and portable my pain feems now, 
When thar,which makes mebend, makes the kingbowj 

He childed, as I father'd ! Tom, away : 

9 Mark the high noifes ; and thyfelf bewray ', 
When falfe opinion, whofe wrong thought defiles thee, 
Jn thy juft proof, repeals, and reconciles thee. 
What will hap more to-night, fafe fcape the king ! 
Lurk, Lurk.] [Exit. 


GIqfter>s cajlk. 

Enter Cornwall, Regati, Goueril, Edmund, and Servants* 

Corn. Pod fpeedily to my lord your hufband ; fhew 
him this letter : the army of France is landed : 
Seek out the traitor Glofter, [Exeunt Jervdfits^ 

Reg. Hang him initantly. 

Gon. Pluck out his eyes. 

Corn. Leave him to my difpleafure. Edmund, 
keep you our fifler company ; the revenges we are 
bound to take upon your traitorous father, are not 
fit for your beholding. Advife the duke, when you 
are going, to a moft feflinate preparation ; we are 

9 Mark the high noifes ! ] Attend to the great events that 

are approaching, and make thyfelf' known when that/^//? opinion 
now prevailing againit thee fiiall, in con(equence of jujl proof 'or 
thy integrity, revoke its erroneous fentence, and recall thee to 
honour and reconciliation. JbHNsox. 

1 and thyfflf bewray,] Be-ivray which at prefent has only 

a dirty meaning, anciently iignitied to bctray 9 to difcover. In 
this fenfe it is ufed by Spenfer; and in Promos and Caffandra^ 
1578 : 

*' Well, to the king AndrwgiQ no\v \vill hyc, 

" Hap lyfe, hap death, his fafetie to bewray." 
Again, in the Span'Jh Tragedy : 

" With ink bewray what blood began in me." 
Again, in Lylly's E>ufym:on y 1591 : 

" left my head break, and fo I Iwivray my brains." 




bound to the li!<e. Our ports fhall be fwift, and 
intelligent betwixt us *. Farewel, dear filler ; 
farewel, J my lord of Glofter. 

Enter Steward. 

How now ? "Where's the king ? 

Stezc. My lord of Glofter hath conveyM him hence : 
Some five or fix and thirty of his knights, 

4 Hot qucftrifts after him, met him at gate ; 
Who, with fome other of the lord's dependants, 
Are gone with him towards Dover; where they boaft 
To have well-armed friends. 

Corn. Get horfes for your miftrefs. 
Gon. Farew&l, fweet lord, and fifter. 

[Exeunt Goner II, and Edmund. 

Corn. Edmund, farewel. Go, feek the traitor 

Pinion him like a thief, bring him before us : 

5 Though well we may not pals upon his life 


* ar.J intelligent iMcnfci tis.~] So, in a former fcene : 

. fpies and Speculations 

" InfcU'vait of our itate. STEEVENS. 

s r.iy lord of Glojlcr.] Meaning Edmund, newly inverted 
with his father's titles. The lleward, fpeaking immediately 
after, mentions the old earl by the fame title. JOHNSON. 

* Hot queftrirts after him, ] A qurjlrift is one who goes in 

fearch or ijnejl of another. Mr. Pope and fir T. Hanmer read 
quefters. STEEVENS. 

5 Though ivell we mf.y not pafs upon his life, 

yet cur~f>o-v'r 

6 1 /'.?// Jif a courtefy to our wrath. ] 

To Jo a ccnrtc/y is to gratify, to comply with. T"0faft % is to 
pafs a judicial fcntence. JOHNSON. 

The original of the expreffion, to pafs on any one may be traced 
from Magnet Chart a : 

** nccfnftr curt ibimus t nifi per legale judicium parium 


It is common to mcft of our early wrirers. So, in Acolaftus, 
a comedy, 1529 : I do not nowe cohfidcrthemyfchievous pa- 
geants he hath played ; I do not now ///> upon them." Again, 
11 isx 

4 83 KING LEAR. 

Without the form of juftice ; yet our power 
Shall do a courtefy to our wrath, which men 
May blame, but not controul. Who's there ? The 
traitor ? 

Enter Glojler, brought in by fcrvants. 

Reg. Ingrateful fox ! 'tis he. 

Corn. Bind faft his 6 corky arms. 

Glo. What mean your graces? Good my friends, 

You are my guefts : do me no foul play, friends. 

Corn. Bind him, I fay, [Jlhey bind him. 

Reg. Hard, hard : O filthy traitor ! 

Glo. Unmerciful lady as you are, I am none. 

Corn. To this chair bind him : Villain, thou lhalt 
find -- [Regan plucks his beard. 

Glo. 7 By the kind gods, 'tis mail ignobly done 
To pluck me by the beard. 

in If ttis be not a good Play, tic Devil is in //, 161 ?! : "A iury 
of brokers, impanel'd, and deeply fwcrn to fajfe on all villains iu 
hell." STEEVENS. 

6 corky arms.~\ Dry, wither'd, hu(ky arms. JoBNSON. 

As Shakefpeare appears from ether p adages of this play to 
have had in his eye BiJJjop Harfi net's Declaration of ' 

PopiJI) Impojlures, ike. ifco?, 410, ic is probable, that this very 
expreffive, but peculiar epithet, IWAV, was fuggetled to him by 
a paflage in that very curious pamphlet. " 1: would pole all 
the cunning exorciits, that are this day to be found, to teach au 
eld corkie woman to writhe, tumble, cr.rvt.-r, und fetch her n:d- 
rice gamboles, as Martha Breilier (one of the poflelled mentioned 
in the pamphlet) did." PERCY. 

7 7?v the jkind godi) - ] We are not to underhand by this 
the gods in general, who are beneficent and 1 kind to men ; bqt 
that particular fpecies of them called by the ancients dii bofpi- 
ttilcs, kind gods. So, Plautus in ro?;:u!o: 

44 Dcujnhajpitalcm-^ tefleram mecum k-ro." 
This was a beautiful exclaination, as thoie who infulted the 
fpcakcr were hllgtteflt, whom he had bcfpitullv received into his 
houfe. But to i'ay the truth, Shakefpeare never makes his people 
f.i'C;;r at random. Of his propriety iu ihis matter uke th tol- 



Reg. So white, and fuch a traitor ! 

Glo. Naughty lady, 

Thefe hairs, which thou doft ravifli from my chin> 
Will quicken, and accufe thce : I am your hoft ; 
With robbers' hands, 8 my hofpitable favours 
You mould not ruffle thu?. What will you do ? 

Cera. Come, fir, what letters had you late from 
France ? 

Reg. 9 Be fimple-anfwer'd, for we know the truth. 

Com. And what confederacy have you with the 

lowing inftance!!. In Trolltts and Crejjida, ^Eneas, in an expof- 
tulation with Diomede, 1 wears by the band of bis mother Venus ^ 
as a covert reproof for Diomede 's brutality in wounding the god- 
defs of beauty in the hand, and a fecret intimation that he would 
revenge her injuries. In Coriolanus, when that hero is exaf- 
Jpented at the fickle inconuant temper of the multitude, he 
Iwears by the clouds : and again, when he meets his wife after a 
long ablence, by the jealous queen of heaven ; for Juno was fup- 
pofed the aveng'refs of conjugal infidelity. In Ot bells ^ the dou- 
ble lago is made to fwcar by Janus. And in this very play of 
Lear., a Pagan, much given to judicial ailrology, very confo- 
nantly to his chr. racier, 1 wears : 

By all f'.-c iterations of the orbs^ . 

J}y ivho;n -r.v Jo exi/l, aa.i cc.ijc to be. WAR BUR TON, 

By the kit.J S W., ] Slv.tkefpeare hardly received any 

afiiltance from mythology to lurnifli out a proper oath for Glof- 
ter. Peopl-r a'-vavs invoke their deities as they would have them 
(hew themfdves :;t particular times in their favour ; and he ac- 
cordingly call* thofe kind gods whom he would wifh to find fo on 
this cccalion. He docs Ib yet a fecond time in this fcene. Our 
own liturgy will fufliciently evince the truth of my fuppofitirr. 


8 my bofpitable favours] It is nonfenfe to underiland it 

of gifts, kincfneflcs, &c. We Ihov-ld read favour, i.e. vilage. 
For they pluck* J him by the beard. WAR BUR TON. 

Favours means the Tame as features , i. e. the different parts of 
which a face is compofed. So, in Draytoa's epiftle from Matilda, 
to K. John : 

" Within the compajs of man's face we fee, 
*' How many forts of feveral favours be." 
Again, in David t5 Eetk/abe, \ 599 : 

" To &avtotfbtfervffitrs of his lovely face. STEEVEVS. 

' Be fimple-anfwer'd^ ] The old quarto reads, Jie flmf-Je 

^/j/r.'ivv/-. Either is good fenfe : ji'-'fk means plain. STEEVENS. 


49 o KING LEAR. 

Late footed in the kingdom ? 

Reg. To whofe hands have you fent the lunatic 

king ? 

Glo. I have a letter gueflingly fet down, 
Which came from one that's of a neutral heart, 
And not from one oppos'd. 

Corn. Cunning. 

Reg. And falfe. 

Corn. Where haft thou fent the king ? 

Glo. To Dover. 

Reg. Wherefore to Dover ? 

*\V?& I-VT^ not charg'd at peril 

, Corn* Wherefore to Dover ? Let him firft anfwcr 

Glo. 9 I'm ty'd to the flake, and I muft ftand 
1 the courfe. 

Reg. Wherefore to Dover ? 

Glo. Becaufe I would not fee thy cruel nails 
Pluck out his poor old eyes ; nor thy fierce fifter 
In his anointed flefli flick boarifh fangs r . 
The fea, with luich a ftorm as his bare head 
In hell-black night endur'd, would have buoy'd up, 
And quench'd the flelled fires : yet, poor old heart, 
He holp the heavens to rain '. 

' / am ty V to tbcjlakc, ] So, in Macbeth : 

" TbeylnrGehiuJJvttoaJfaifi I cannot fly, 

" Bur, bear-like, I mull ftand the courfe." STEEVENS. 

* ike courfe.] The running of the dogs upon me. JOHNSON. 

* -flick loarijh fangs."] The quartos read ra/h boarifli fangs. 
This verb occurs in Spenfer's Faery Quecn, B. IV. c. ii : 

" And fliields did fhare, and mailes did ra/b, and helmes 

did hew." 
Again, B. V. c. iii : 

" Rajhing off helmes, and ryving plates afunder." 


3 to rain.] Thus the folio. The quartos read to rage^ 



K I N G L E A R. 491 

If wolves had at thy gate howl'd 3 that ftern time, 
Thou fhould'ft have faid, Good porter, turn the key ; 
All cruels elfe 4 fubfcrib'd : But I ftiall fee 
The winged vengeance overtake fuch children. 

Corn. See it (halt thou never : Fellows, hold the 

chair : 

Upon thefe eyes of thine I'll fet my foot 5 . 

[Gkfter is held dawn, while Cornwall treads out 
one of his eyes. 

Glo. He, that will think to live 'till he be old, 
Give me fome help : O cruel ! O ye gods ! 

Reg. One fide will mock another; the other too, 

Corn. If you fee vengeance, 

Serv. Hold your hand, my lord : 
I have ferv'cl you ever fince I was a child ; 
But better fervice have I never done you, 
Than now to bid you hold. 

Reg. How now, you dog ? 

Serv. If you did wear a beard upon your chin, 

3 that ftern tlme,~\ Thus the folio. Both the quartos 

read, that (learn time. Dcarn is a north-country word, 

fignifying lonely, folitary, melancholy, far from neighbours. 
So, in the Valiant Scot: 

" Of all thy ioys the Jearne and difmal end." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery >ucen, B. II. c. i : 

' They heard a rueful voice that dearnly cride.'* 
Again, in Pericles Prince of Tyre, 1609 : 

" By many a dearnc and painful pearch." STEEVENS. 

* fulfcriVd: ] Yielded, fubmitted to the neceffity of 

the occafion. JOHNSON. 

5 Upon tbefe eyes, &c.j In Scllmus, Emperor of tie Turks, one 
of the fons of Bajazct pulls out the eyes of an aga on the ftage, 
and fays, 

** Yes thou (halt live, but never fee that day, 

" Wanting the tapers that fliould give thee light." 

[Pulls out bis cyrs. 

Immediately after, his hands are cut off. I have introduced this 
paflage to fhew that Shakefpeare's drama was not more fanguinary 
than that of his contemporaries. STEEVENS. 

In Marfton's Antonio and Melllda, p. ii, 1602. Piero's tongue 
is torn out on the flage. MALOXE. 


49* K I N G L E A R. 

I'd fhake it on this quarrel : What do you mean ? 
Corn. My villain 6 ! [Draws* and runs at him. 

Serv. Nay, then come on, and take the chance of 
anger. [Fight ; Cornwall is wounded. 

Reg. [To another fervant.'] Give me thy fword. A 
peafant fland up thus ! 

[Comes behind, and kills Lim. 
Serv. O, I am flain ! My lord, yet you have 

one eye left 

To fee fome mifchief on him : O ! [Dies. 

Corn. Left it fee more, prevent it : Out, vile 

jelly ! 

Where is thy luflre now ? [Treads the other out. 

Glo. All dark and comfortlefs. Where's my fon 

Edmund ? 

Edmund, enkindle all the fparks of nature, 
To quit this horrid aft. 

Reg. Out, treacherous villain ! 
Thou call'ft on him that hates thee : it was he 
That made the overture of thy treafons to us; 
Who is too good to pity thee. 

Glo. O my follies ! 
Then Edgar was abus'd. 
Kind gods, forgive me that, and profper him ! 

Reg. Go, thruft him out ar gates, and let him fmcll 
His way to Dover. How is't, my lord ? How look 

you ? 

' Corn. I havereceiv'd a hurt : Follow me, lady. 
Turn out that eyelcfs villain ; throw this flave 
Upon the dunghill. Regan, I bleed apace : 
Untimely comes this hurt : Give me your arm. 

[Exit Cornwall, led by Regan ; & wants lead 

Gkfter out. 
' ijl Serv. 7 I'll never care what wickedncfs I do, 


6 j!/y villain!] Villain is liere perhaps ufedin its original fenfe 
f one in fervitude. STEKVENS, 

1 2*1* never care what wideJitefi I tlo>] This ftiort dialogue I 



If this man come to good, 
id Serv. If ihe live long, 
And, in the end, meet the old courfe of death, 
Women will all turn monfters. 

ijl Scrv. Let's follow the old earl, and get the 


To lead him where he would ; his roguilh madnefs 
Allows itfelf to any thing. 

id Scrv. Go thou ; I'll fetch 8 fome flax, and 

whites of eggs, 

To apply to his bleeding face. Now, heaven help him ! 

[Exeunt feverally. 

A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

An open country. 
Enter Edgar. 

EJg. 9 Yet better thus, and known to be contemn'd 
Than {till contemn'd and ilatter'd. To be worlr, 


have inferted from the old quarto, becaufe I think it full of na- 
ture. Servants could hardly lee fiich a barbarity committed on 
their matter, without pity ; and the vengeance that they prefume 
muft overtake the a&ors or" it, is a fentiment and dottrine well 
worthy of the ftage. THEOEAI.U. 

It is not neceflary to fuppofe them the fcrvants of Glofter j 
for Cornwall was oppofed to extremity by his own fervant. 


8 fome flax, &c.] This pafiage is ridiculed by Ben 

Jonfon, in The Cafe is alter 1 'd, 1609. 

" go get a white of an egg, and a little flax, and 

clofe the breaches of the head, it is the moft conducible 
thing that can be." STEEVENS. 

Tl'f Cafe is altered was written before the end of the year 1599 ; 
but Ben Jonfon might have inlcrted this fneer at our author, be- 
tween the time of King Lear's appearance, and the publication 
of his own play in 1609. MALOtiE. 

* Tet better thus, end known to be <v.v&wiV,] The meaning 

494 K I N G L E A R. 

The lowed, and mofl dejcded thing of fortune^ 

Stands ftill in efperance, lives not in fear ' : 

The lamentable change is from the belt ; 

The worfl returns to laughter. * Welcome then* 

Thou unfubftantial air, that I embrace ! 

The wretch, that thou haft blown unto the worft, 

Owes nothing to thy blafts z . But who comes here ? 

Enter Glofter, led by an old man. 

My father, poorly led ? 5 World, world, O world i 
But that thy ftrange mutations make us hate thee, 
Life would not yield to age. 


is, '77* letter to be thus contemned^ and known to yourfelf to be 
contemned. Or perhaps there is an error, which may be rec- 
tified thus s 

Yet better thus tinknovsn to be contemn'd. 

When a man divefts himfelf of his real character he feels no pain 
from contempt, becaufe he fuppofes it incurred only by a volun- 
tary difguife which he can throw oft" at pleafure. i do not think 
any correction necefiary. JOHNSON. 

I cannot help thinking that this puflage mould be written 

Yet better thus unknown to be contemn'd, 
Than ftill contemn'd and llatter'd to be v:orfe. 
Theloweft, &c. 

The quarto edition has no flop after flattered. The firft folio, 
which has a comma there, has a colon at the end of the line. 

The expreffion in this fpeech ows nothing to thy Hafts (in 

a more learned writer) might feem to be copied from Virgil, 
./En. xi. 51: 

*' NosjuveKfK exanimum, et nil jam cceleiHbus ullis 

" Debentem, i>ano mcpfli comitamur bonore" TYRWHITT. 

1 lives not in fear.] So in Milton's Par. Reg. B. iii* 

*' For where no hope is left, is left no fear." STEEVENS* 
* Welcome then,] The neit two lines and a half are omitted 
in the quartos. STEEVENS. 

3 JForU t nvorU, O world ! 

But Wat toy ftrange mutations make z;i t.\itc !bce,~\ 
The reading of this paflage has been explained, but not fatis- 
faftorily. ^Iy explanation of the poci's fentiment was, " If the 
number of changes and viciilitudes, which happen in life, did not 
make us wait, and hope fur foinc turn oi fortune for the better, 

K I N G L E A R. 495 

Old Man. O my good lord, I have been your te- 
nant, and your father's tenant, thefe fourfcore years. 

Glo. Away, get thee away ; good friend, begone : 
Thy comforts can do me no good at all, 
Thee they may hurt. 

Old Mem. Alack, fir, you cannot fee your way. 

Glo. I have no way, and therefore want no eyes ; 
I ftumbled when I faw : Full oft 'tis feen, 
4 Our mean fecures us ; and our meer defects 


we could never fupport the thought of living to be old, on any 
other terms." And our duty, as human creatures, is piou fly in- 
culcated in this reflection of the author. I read therefore, make 
us v/ait tbce. THEOBALD. 

JBut that tby firange mutations make us hate tbee t 
Life ivoulil not yield to age-] 

The fenfe of this obfcure paflbge is, O world ! fo much are 
human minds captivated with thy pleafures, that were it net for 
thofe fucceffive miferies, each worfe than the other, which over- 
load the fcenes of life, we mould never be willing to fubmit to 
death, thoi'^h the infirmities of old age \vould teach us to chufe 
it as a proper afylum. Befides, by uninterrupted profperity, 
whiqh leaves the mind at eafe, the body would generally pre- 
ferve fuch a ftate of vigour as to bear up lung againft the de- 
cays of time. Thefe are the two reafons, I iuppofe, whv he 

Life would not yield to age. 

And how much the pleafures of the body pervert the mind's 
judgment, and the perturbations of the mind dilbrder the body's 
frame, is known to all. WARBURTON. 

2 "'././ to fignifies no more than give way to, fink under, in 
oppufuion to the firuggling ivitb, Itaring up againft the infirmities 
of age. HANMER. 

* Our mean fecures us ; ] i.e. Moderate, mediocre condi- 

Hanmer writes, by an eafy change, meannefs fecures us, The 
two original editions have : 

Our tK fanes fecures us. 

I do not remember that mean is ever ufed as a fubftantire for low- 
fortune, which is the fenfe here required, nor for mediocrity, 
except in the phrafe, the golden mean, I fu'p.dl the paflage of 
corruption, and would either read : 
Our means j'ednce us : 


496 K I N G L E A R, 

Prove our commodities. O, dear foil Edgar, 
The food of thy abnfed father's wrath ! 
Might I but live to fee thee in my touch 5 , 
I'd lay, I had eyes again ! 

Old Man. How now ? Who's there ? 

Edg. [4(iJe.~\ O gods ! 6 Who is't can fay, I am at 

'the wbrfi? 
I am worfe than e'er I was. 

Old Man. 'Tis poor mad Tom. 

Edg. [_dfide.~] And worfe I may be yet : The worffi 

is not, 
So long as we can fay, This is the worft. 

Old. Man. Fellow, where goeft? 

Glo. Is it a beggar-man ? 

Old Man. Madman and beggar too. 

Glo. He has fome reafon, die he could not beg. 

Our powers of body or fortune draw us into evils. Or, 

Our maims lecure us. 

That hurt or deprivation which makes us defcncelefs, proves our 
fafeguard. This is very proper in Gluiter, newly maimed by 
the evulfion of his eyes. JOHNSON*. 

There is furely no reafon for alteration. Mean is here a fub- 
fhntive, and fignifies a middle Jlate, as Dr. Warburton rightly in- 
terprets it. So again in the Miercbaatffftiace, "it is no mean 
happinefs therefore to be feated in the mean." See more inftauccs 
in Dr. Johnlbn'j Dittionary. STEEVENS. 

* tofeetbee in my touch.} So, in another fccne, I fee it 

feelingly. STEEVENS. 

iuho is't can fay , I am at the luorjl f 

. . 1 ' /Ac -~Morft is not t 

So long as ive can fay , Tbh is the wor/i.] 

i. e. While we live ; for while we yet continue to have a fenfe of 
feeling, fomcthing worfe than the prefent may flill happen. What 
occafioned this reiledtion was his raflily faying in the beginning of 
this fcene, 

To be worft, 

The loweft, moft de'iefted thing of fortune, &c. 
' The wretch, thut thou hall blown unto the worft, &:c. 



Jft I N G L E A R. 497 

I' the laft night's ftorm I fuch a fellow faw ; 
Which made me think a man a worm : My fon 
Came then into my mind ; and yet my mind 
Was then fcarce friends with him : I have heard 
more fince : 

7 As flies to wanton boys, are we to the gods ; 
They kill us for their fport. 

Edg. How Ihould this be ? 
Bad is the trade, that muft play the fool to forrow, 

8 Ang'ring itfelf and others. [_Afide.~\ -- -Blefs thee^ 

mafter ! 

Glo. Is that the naked fellow ? 

Old Man. Ay, my lord. 

Glo. Then, pr'y thee, get thee gone : If, for my fake, 
Thou wilt o'ertake us, hence a mile or twain, 
I' the way to Dover, do it for ancient love ; 
And bring fome covering for this naked foulj 
Whom I'll intreat to lead me. 

Old Man. Alack, fir, he is mad. 

Glo. 'Tis the times' plague, when madmen lead 

the blind : 

Do as I bid thee, or father do thy pleafure; 
Above the reft, be gone. 

Old Matt. I'll bring him the beft 'parrel that I have, 
Come on't what will. [Exit. 

Glo. Sirrah, naked fellow. 

Edg. Poor Tom's a-cOld. 9 I cannot daub it 

Glo. Come hither, fellow. 

7 As Jlifs to wanton loys, are we to 

They kill us for thcir'fport.~\ 
" Dii nos quafi pilas homines habent." Plaut. Captl-v. 
Prol. 1. 22. STEEVENS. 

8 AngJbiHg - ] Oxford editor and Dr. Warburton. Vulg. 
Angring) rightly. JOHNSON. 

v - / c<ar0f daub iY - ] i.e. Difguifc. V/A&EURTON. 
So, in King RicbarJ III : 

" So fmooth he dauVd his vice with (hew of virtue." 
The quartos read, I cannot dance it further. 

VL. IX* K k 

49 8 KING LEAR. 

Edg. [4We.~\ And yet I muft. 
ittefs thy {Wet eyes, they bleed. 

Glo. Know'ft thou the way to Dover ? 

Edg. Both itilc and gate, horfe-ivay and foot-path* 
Poor Tom hath been fcar'd out of his good wits : 
Blefs thee, good man's fon, from the foul fiend f 
[Five ' fiends have been in poor Tom at once; of 
luft, as ObidicKt ; Hbbididance, prince of dumbnefs : 
Mabu, of ftealing ; Modo, of murder ; and Flibber- 
tigibbet, of mopping and mowing ; who fince * pof- 


1 Five fiends, feV.] The reft of this fpeeeh is omitted in the 
folio. In Harfncfs Book, already quoted, p. 278, we have an 
extract from the account publifhed by the exorcifts themfelves, 
viz. " By commaundement of the exorcift ... the devil in Ma. 
Mainy confefled his name to be Modu, and that he had befides 
himfelf/iwrf other fpir its, and all of them captains, and of great 
fame." '* Then Edmundes (the exorciit) began ngaine with great 
eariieftnefs, and all the company cried out, &c. . . . fo as both 
th".t v.'vked i>r' ncs Modu and his company, might be caft out." 
This pa ii 4f v, ill account for five feuds having been in poor Tom 
at once. PiiRCY. 

a pvSjiJfe* cba;;;ler-mauls and vjalttng-vjomen.-'] Shake- 

fpenre has made Edgar, in his feigned diftraHon, frequently al- 
lude to a vile impolture of fome Englifh jefuits, at that time 
much the fubjeft of converfation ; the hiilory of it having been 
juil then compofed with great art and vigour of ilile and compo- 
lition by Dr. S. Harienet, afterwards archbifhop of York, by 
order or the privy-council, m a work intitled, A Declaration of 
'tg regions Popijb Impoftura to withdraw her Majejlys Sub'iefts from 
.their Allegiance, &c. pratf'ifed by Edmunds, alias Wcfton, a Je- 
fuif, and divers Rom<Jh fricfls his wicked AJJbciates : printed 
i6o}. The impolture ;vas in fubftance this. While the Spa- 
niards were preparing their annado againlt England, thejefuita 
\verehere buly at work to promote it, by making converts : one 
method they employed was to difpoflcfs pretended demoniacs, by 
which artifice they made feveral hundred converts amongft the 
common people. The principal fcenc of this farce was taid in 
the family of one Mr. Edmund Peckham, a Roman-catholic, 
where Marwood, a fcrvant of Anthony Babington's (who was 
afterwards executed for treafon) Trayford, an attendant upon 
Mr. Peckhum, and Sarah and Frifwood Williams, and Anne 
fcmith, three chambermaids in that family, came into the priefl'a 
hands for cure. But the difcipline of the patients was {b long 


K I N C L E A R. 499 

fefjfes chamber-maids and waiting-women. So, blefs 
thee, matter!] 

Glo. Here, take this purfe, thou whom the heaven's 


Have humbled to all flrokes : that I am wretched, . 
Makes thee the happier : Heavens, deal fo ftill ! 

3 Let the fuperfluous, and luft-dieted man, 

4 That flaves your ordinance, that will not fee 


and fevere, and the priefts fo elate and carelefs with their fuccefs, 
that the plot was difcovered on the confeffion of the parties con- 
cerned, and the contrivers of it defervedly puniflied. The five 
devils here mentioned, are the names of five of thofe who were 
made to acl in this iarce upon the chamber -maids and waiting- 
women ; and they were generally fo ridiculoufly nick-named, that 
Harfnet has one chapter on tbe ftrange names of their devils ; left, 
fays he, meeting them otherivife l/y chance^ you mifiake them for tLc 
names of tapfters or jugglers. WAR BUR TON. 

The paflage in crotchets is omitted in the folio, becaufe I fup- 
pofe as the ftory was forgotten, the jeft was loft. JOHNSON. 

3 Let tbcfuperjlnousf\ Lear has before uttered the fame fen- 
timent, which indeed cannot be too ftrongly imprefled, though 
it may be too often repeated. JOHNSON. 

4 That Haves your ordinance, ] Superfluous is here ufed for 

one living in abundance. But the next line is corrupt. The 
only fenie I know of, in which Jta-ves your ordinance can be un- 
derftood, is when men employ the form or femblance of reli- 
gion to compafs their ill dcfigns. But this will not do here* 
Glofter is fpeaking of fuch who by an uninterrupted courfe of 
profperity are grown wanton, and callous to the misfortunes of 
others ; fuch as thofe who fearing no reveife, flight and neglecl, 
and therefore may be laid to brave the ordinance of heaven : 
which is certainly the right reading. And this is the fecond time 
in which Jlaves has, in this play, been read for braves. 


The emendation is plaufible, yet I doubt whether it be right. 
The language of Shakefpeare is very licentious, and his words 
have often meanings remote from the proper and original ufe 
To JJave or le/lavc another is to treat him with terms of ind"ig? 
nlty : in a kindred fenfe,. \ojlave tbe ordinance, may be, to Jligbt 
or ridicule it. JOHNSON. 

Tofiave an ordinance^ is to treat it as ajtfave, to make it fub 
jeft to us, inftead of afting in obedience to it. 
So, in Hey wood's Brazen Jge, 1613 : 

K k 2 " nrne 


Becaufe he doth not feel, feel your power quickly 5 
So diftribution mould undo excefs, 
And each man have enough. Doft thou know 
Dover ? 

Edg. Ay, matter. 

Glo. There is a cliff, whofe high and bending head 
Looks fearfully on the confined deep : 
Bring me but to the very brim of it, 
And I'll repair the mifery thou doft bear, 
With fomething rich about me : from that place 
I fhall no leading need. 

Edg. Give me thy arm ; 
Poor Tom mall lead thee. \Exeuttt. 


The duke of Manfs palace. 

Enter Goner il, and Edmund. 

Con. Welcome, my lord : I marvel, s our mild 

Not met us on the way : Now, where's your matter? 

' none 

' CoMj7avf him like the Lydian Omphale." 
Again, in A Ne--v Way to pay old Debts, bv Maffinger : 

* thatjlaves me to his will." STEEVENS. 

Heywood, in his Plcafant Dialogue s and Dramas, 1637, ufes thij 
verb in the fame fenfe : 

" What (hall I do? my love I will not./fcro* 

" To an old king, though he my love Ihould crave.'* 
Again, in Marfton's Mahcontent, 1604 : 

** Oh powerful blood, how doit thoajfticr* their foul !'* 


s our m!U JuJbanJ] It mud be remembered that Albany, 

the hufband of Goneril, dilliked, in the end of the firit a<5r r 
the fchcme of oppreCiou and ingratitude, JOHNSON. 


K I N G L E A R. 501 

Enter Steward. 

Stew. Madam, within ; but never man fo chang'd: 
I told him of the army that was landed ; 
He fmil'd at it : I told him, you were coming; 
His anfwer was, The worfe : of Glofters treachery, 
And of the loyal fervice of his fon, 
When I informal him, then he call'd me fot ; 
And told me, I had turn'd the wrong fide out : 
What moil he fhould diilike, feems pleafant to him ; 
What like, offenfive. 

Gon. Then ihall you go no further. [To Edmund. 
It is the cowifh terror of his fpirit, 
That dares not undertake : he'll not feel wrongs, 
Which tie him to an anfwer : 6 Our wifhes,on the way, 
May prove effe&s. Back, Edmund, to my brother ; 
Haften his mufters, and condudt his powers : 
I muft change arms 7 at home, and give the diftaff 
Into my hufband's hands. This trufty fervant 
Shall pafs between us : ere long you are like to hear, 
If you dare venture in your own behalf, 
A miftreiTes command. Wear this ; fpare fpeech ; 

[Giving a favour. 

8 Decline your head : this kifs, if it durft fpeak, 
Would flretch thy fpirits up into the air ; 

6 - our wijhesj on the way, 

May prove cjfcfls. --- ] 

I believe the meaning of the paflage to be this : " What we 
wifli, before our inarch is at an end, may be brought to happen," 
\. e. the murder or difpatch of her huflvmd. On the ivay, how- 
ever, may be equivalent to the expreflion we now ufe, viz. By 
the ivay, or By the ly, i. e. enjxrffanf. STEEVENS. 

7 - 1 muft change arms, fsc.] Thus the quartos. The folio 
reads change names. STEEVENS. 

8 Decline your head : this //}, // it ditrftfpcak^ 

Would ftrctch thy fpirit 5 up Into the air."] 

She bids him decline his head, that (lie might give him a kifi 
(the fteward being prefent) and that it might appear only to him 
as a whifper. STEEVENS. 

K k 3 Con- 

5 o2 KING LEAR, 

Conceive, and fare thee well. 

Edm. Yours in the ranks of death. 

Gon. My moil dear Glofter ! [Exit Edmund* 

O, |:he difference of man, and man 9 ! 
To thee a woman's fervices are due ; 
* My fool ufurps my body, 

Stetv. Madam, here comes my lord. 

Enter Albany. 

Gon. * I have been worth the whittle. 

Alb. O Goneril ! 

You are not worth the duft which the rude wind 
Blows in your face. J I fear your difpofition : 
That nature, which contemns its origin, 

4 Cannot be border'd certain in itfelf ; 

5 She that herfelf will fliver and difbranch 


9 O t the dijf'e r(:icf of man and man!"} Omitted in the quartos. 


.* My fool tifurfs my body.] One of the quartos reads : 
My foot ufurps my head', the other, 
My foot ufurps my body. STEEVENS. 

* I have hen worth the wbiftk.'] This expreffion is a reproach 
to Albany for having negle&ed her ; though you difregard JHC 
thus, I have been worth the whittle, I have found one that thinks 

me worth calling. JOHNSON. 

This expreflion is a proverbial one. Heywood in one of his 
dialogues, confiding entirely of proverbs, fays : 

" It is a poor dog that is not worth the wbtftling" 

GoneriJ's meaning feems .to be There ivas a time ivhcn you 
would have thought me worth the calling to you ; reproaching him 
for not having lummon'd her to confult with on the prefent cri- 
tical occafion. STEEVENS. 

3 I fear your difpofition ;~\ Thefe and the fpeech en- 

fuing are in the edition of 1608, and are but ne.cefTary to explain 
the reafons of the delegation which Albany here exprefles to his 
wife. POPE. 

* Cannot be bordered certain'] Certain, for within the 
bounds that nature prefcribes. WAR BUR TON, 

^ She that herfelf will ft\\vev and dfiranch,] Thus all the edi- 
tbni, but the old quarto, that Kzfojlivcr^ \vhich is right. Shi, 

K I 'N G LEAR. 503 

6 From her maternal fap, perforce muft wither, 


vtr means to (hake or fly a-pieces into fplinters. As he faya 
afterwards : 

Thou'd'ft Jhi'ver'd like an egg. 
But./Ttc.vr fignifies to tear oiF or difbranch. So, in Macbeth : 

Hips of yew 

Sliver' d in the moon's eclipfe. WARBURTOK. 

* From her material fap, ] Thus the old quarto ; but 

material fap is a phrafe that I do not underfland. The mother- 
tree is the true technical term ; and confidering our author has 
faid but juft before, That nature, which contemns its origin, there 
is little room to queilion but he wrote : 

From her maternal fap. THEOBALD. 

From- her material fap, "] Thus all the editions till Mr. 

Theobald's, who alters material to maternal; and for thefe wife' 
reafons : Material fap (fays he) I ozvn is a phrafe that I do not 
vnderftand. The mother-tree is the true technical term, and cofifi-* 
dering our author had f aid jvft before, That nature, which con- 
temns its origin, there is no room to queftion but he wrote, From 
her maternal lap. And to prove that we may fay Maternal fap 9 
he gives _many authorities from the daffies, and fays he eould 
produce more, where words equivalent to maternal ftock are ufed j 
which is quite another thing, as we (hall now fee. In making 
his emendation, the editor did not conlider the difference be- 
tween material fap, and material body, or trunk or flock : the 
latter expreffion being indeed not fo well ; material being a pro- 
perer epithet for body. But the firft is right ; and we mould fay, 
material fap, not maternal. For material fap fignifies that where- 
by a branch is nourifhed, and increafes in bulk by frefti accef- 
fion of matter. On which account material is elegnnt. In- 
deedyl/^ when applied to the ivhole tret, might be called matfrnal t 
but could not be fo when applied to a branch only. For though 
fap might, in fome fenfe, ,be faid to be maternal to the tree, 
"yet it is the tree^ that is maternal to the branch, and not the fap : 
but here the epithet is applied to the branch. From all this we 
conclude that the old reading is the true. But what if, after all, 
material was ufed by the writers of thefe times in the very fenfe 
of maternal? It would feem fo by the title of an old Englifh 
tranflation of Froiflart's Chronicle, which runs in thefe words, 
Syr John Froijfart's Chronicle, tranjlated out of Frenche into our 
material Exgli/b Tongue by John Bouchier, printed i ; z 5 . 


I fuppofe no reader doubts but. the word fhould be maternal* 

"Dr. Warburton has taken great pains without much fuccefs, and 

indeed without much exaclnefs of attention, to prove that material 

K k 4 hM 


J And come to deadly ufe. 

Gon. No more; the text is foolifh. 

Alb. Wifdom and goodnefs to the vile feem vile : 
Filths favour but themfelves. What have you done ? 
Tygers, not daughters, what have you perform'd ? 
A father, and a gracious aged man, 
Whofe reverence the head-lugg'd bear would lick s , 
Moft barbarous, moft degenerate ! have you madded. 
Could my good brother fuffer you to do it ? 
9 A man, a prince, by him fo benefited ? 
If that the heavens do not their vifible fpirits 
Send quickly down to tame thefe vile offences, 
*Twill come, humanity muft perforce prey on 
1 Itfelf, like monfters of the deep. 

has a more proper fenfe than maternal, and yet feemed glad at 
laft to infer from an apparent error of another prefs that material 
and maternal meant the fame. JOHNSON. 

7 And come to deadly ufe.] Alluding to the ufe that witches 
and inchanters are faid to make o{ ivi t her* d branches in their charms. 
A fine infinuation in the fpeaker, that (lie was ready for the moft 
unnatural irnfchief, and a preparative of the poet to her plotting 
with the baftard againft her hufband's life. WAR BUR TON. 

8 would lick. ~] This line, which had been omitted by all 

my predcceflbrs, 1 h:ive reftored from the quartos. STHEVENS. 

9 A man, a prince by him fo benefited ?~\ After this line I fuf- 
peft a line or two to be wanting, which upbraids her for her lif- 
ter's cruelty to Glofter. And my reaion is, that in her anfwer 
we find thefe words : 

Fools do thefe villains pity, who are punifli'd 

Ere they have done their mifchief 

xvhich evidently allude to Glofter's cafe. Now I cannot conceive 
that flie would here apologize for what was not objected to her. 
But 1 fuppofe the players thought the fpcech too long ; which 
lias occalioned throughout, and more particularly in this play, 
the retrenchment of numerous lines mid Ipeeches ; manv of 
which have been reilored by the care and difcernment of Mr. 

Here is a pompous note to fupport a conjei^urc apparently 
erroneous, and confuted by the next fccnc, in whidi the account 
it given for the firil time to Albany ot Gloitei 's futierings. 


1 like xionfters of the decp.~\ Fifties are the only animals that 
arc known to prey upon their owu fpccics. JOHNSON. 



Gon. Milk-Hver'd man ! 

That bear'ft a cheek for blows, a head for wrongs ; 
Who haft not in thy brows an eye difcerning 
Thine honour from thy fuffering; ' that not know'ft, 
Fools do thofe villains pity, who are punifh'd 
Ere they have done their mifchief. Where's thy 

drum ? 

France fpreads his banners in our noifelefs land; 
With plumed helm thy flayer begins threats ; 
Whilft thou, a moral fool, fit'ft ftill, and cry'ft, 
Mack / why docs be jo ? 

Alb. Seethyfelf, devil! 
* Proper deformity feems not in the fiend 
So horrid, as in woman. 

Gon. O vain fool ! 

Alb. 3 Thou changed and felf-coVer'd thing, for 


Be-monfter not thy feature. Were it my fitnefs 
To let thefe hands obey my blood, 
They are apt enough to diflocate and tear 
Thy flefh and bones : Howe'er thou art a fiend, 
A woman's fhape doth Ihield thee. 

Gon. Marry, your manhood now ! 

Enter Mejfenger. 
Alb. What news ? 
Mef. O, my good lord, the duke of Cornwall's dead; 

that not, &c.] The reft of this fpecch is omitted in the 
folio. STEEVENS. 

a Proper deformity ] i.e. Diabolic qualities appear not fo 

horrid in the devil to whom they belong, as in woman who un- 
naturally afluines them. WARBURTON. 

3 Thou changed, and felf-cover'd thing, ] Of thefe lines there 
is but one copy, and the editors are forced upon conjecture. 
They have publifhed this line thus ; 

Thou changed, and fe/f -converted thing; 

but I cannot but think that by fclf-tover'd the author meant, thou 
that haft dijguifed nature by wickednefs ; thou that haft bid the 
jyoman under the fiend. JOHNSON. 

This apd the next fpeech are omitted in the folio. STEEVENS. 
' Slain 

5 o6 K I N G L E A R. 

Slain by his fervant, going to put out 
The other eye of Glofter. 

Alb. Glofter's eyes ! 

Mef. A fervant that he bred, thrill'd with remorfe, 
Oppos'd againft the act, bending his fword 
To his great mailer; who, thereat enrag'd, 
Flew on him, and amongft them fell'd him dead : 
But not without that harmful ftroke, which fincc 
Hath pluck'd him after. 

Alb. This ftiews you are above, 
You jufticers, that thefe our nether crimes 
So fpeedily can venge ! But, O poor Glofter ! 
Loft he his other eye ? 

Mef. Both, both, my lord. 

This letter, madam, craves a fpeedy anfwer ; 
'Tis from your lifter. 

Gon. \_Afide.'] * One way I like this well ; 
But being widow, and my Glofter with her, 
May all the building in my fancy pluck 
Upon my hateful life : Another way, 
The news is not fo tart. I'll read, and anfwer. 


Alb. Where was his fon, when they did take his 
eyes ? 

Mef. Come with my lady hither. 

Alb. He is not here. 

Mef. No, my good lord ; I met him back again. 

Alb. Knows he the wickednefs ? 

Mef. Ay, my good lord ; 'twas he inform'd againft 

him ; 

And quit the houfeon purpofe, that their punifhment 
Might have the freer courfe. 

Alb. Glofter, I live 
To thank thee for the love thou fliew'dft the king, 

* One <voay, I like this <uW/;] Goneril is well pleafed that 
Cornwall is deftroyed, who was preparing war againft her and 
her hulband, but is afraid of lofing Edmund to the widow. 



And to revenge thine eyes. Come hither, friend ; 
Tell me what more thou knoweft. [Exeunt. 

pS C E N E III. 

The French campy near Dover. 
Enter Kent^ and 6 a Gentleman. 

Kent. Why the king of France is fo fuddenly 

gone back 
Know you the reafon ? 

Gent. Something he left imperfect in the flate, 
Which fince his coming forth is thought of; which 
Imports to the kingdom fo much fear and danger, 
That his perfonal return was moft requir'd and ne- 

Kent. Who hath he left behind him general ? 

Gent. The marefchal of France, Monfieur le Fer. 

Kent. Did your letters pierce the queen 
To any demonstration of grief ? 

Gent. Ay, fir ; fhe took them, read them in my 

prefence ; 

And now and then an ample tear trill'd down 
Her delicate cheek : it feem'd, ftie was a queen 
Over her paffion ; who, moil rebel-like, 
Sought to be king o'er her. 

Kent. O, then it mov'd her. 

Gent. Not to a rage : patience and forrow flrove 

5 Scene III.] This fcene, left out in all the common books, is 
reftored from the old edition ; it being manifeftly of Shakefpeare's 
writing, and neceflary to continue the ilory of Cordelia, whofe 
behaviour is here moil beautifully painted. POPE. 

This fcene feems to have been left out only to fhorten the play, 
and is neceflary to continue the action. It is extant only in the 
quarto, being omitted in the firft folio. I have therefore put it 
becwcen crotchets. JOHNSON. 

6 ; a Gentleman.'] The gentleman whom he fent in the 
foregoing acl with letters to Cordelia. JOHNSON, 



Who fhould exprefs her goodlieft. You have feen 
Sunlhine and rain at once : 7 her fmiles and tears 
Were like a better day. Thofe happy fmiles % 
That play'd on her ripe lip, fcem'd not to know 
What guefts were in her eyes ; which parted thence, 

her Jrn 'lies and tears 

Were like a better day ] 

It Is plain, we fhould read, a wetter May. 

5. e. A fpring feafon wetter than ordinary. WAR BURTON. 

The thought is taken from Sidney's Arcadia, p. 244. " Her 
tears came dropping down like rain in funfliine." Cordelia's be- 
liaviour on this occafion is apparently copied from Pkilocka's. 
The fame book, in another place, fays, " that her tears fol- 
lowed one another like a precious rope of pearl." The quartos 
read, a letter way, which may, be an accidental invcrfion of 
the M. 

A letter day, however, is the left day, and the left day is a day 
moft favourable to the productions of the earth. Such are the 
days in which there is a due mixture of rain and funfhine. 

It muft be obferved that the comparative is ufed by Milton and 
others, inftead of \hspofitivc andfufertative, as well as by Shake - 
Ipeare himfelf, in the play before us : 

" Thefafer fenfe will ne'er accommodate 

*' Its malter thus." 
Again, in Macbeth : 

" it hath cow'd my letter part of man.'* 

" . Go not my horfe the letter." 

Mr. Pope makes no fcruple to fay of Achilles, that : 

** The Pelian javelin in his letter n&nd 

** Shot trembling rays, &c." 
3. e. his left hand, his right. STEEVEVS. 

Doth not Dr. Warburton's alteration infer that Cordelia's for- 
row was fuperior to her patience? But it feem'd that (he was a 
queen over her paffion ; and the. fmiles on her lip appeared not to 
know that tears were in her eyes. Her fmiles and tears were like 
a better day, or like a better May, may fignify that they were like 
i'uch a feafon where funfhine prevailed over rain. So in dll's <av// 
that ends Ifa/l, Act. V. Sc. iii. we fee in the king " fwijhine and 
hail at once, but to the brightelt beams di drafted clouds give way : 
fhe time is fair again, and he is like a day of feafon," i.e. a better 
day. TOI.LET. 

8 /Mites.] The quartos rc&d/mi'Iets. This may be u dimi- 
nutive of Shakefpeare's coinage. STEEVENS. 



As pearls from diamonds dropt 9 . In brief, forrow 
Would be a rarity mott belov'd, if all 
Could fo become it. 

Kent. ' Made Ihe no verbal qneftion ? 

Gent. Yes ; once, or twice, Ihe heav'd the name of 


Pantingly forth, as if it prefs'd her heart ; 
Cry'd, Sifters ! Jtfters / Shame of ladies ! Ji/lers / 
Kent I father ! Jl/lers ! mat ? i* the form ? ? the 

night ? 

- Let pity not be believed ! There fhe fhook 
The holy water from her heavenly eyes, 
3 And clamour moiften'd her : then away fhe ftarted 
To deal with grief alone. 


9 As pearls from diamonds dropt, ] A fimilar thought to thif 
of Shakefpeare, occurs in Middleton's Game at Chefs, 1625 ; 

" the holy dew lies like a pearl 

" Dropt from the opening eye-lids of the morn 
" Upon the baftUul rote." 
Milton has tranfplanted this image into his Lycia'as, 

** Under the opening eye-lids of the morn," SrEEVENS. 
1 Made Jhe no verbal queition ?] Dr. Wnrburton would fub- 
ftitute quejl, from the Latin queftvs, i. e complaint : becaufe, 
fays he, what kind of qucjiion could flie make but verbal ? 


I do not fee the impropriety of verbal queftlon : fuch plconafmi 
are common. So we fay, my cars have heard, my eyes have be- 
held. Befides, where is the wordt/ucft to be found ? JOHNSON. 

Made Jhe no verbal queiHon ?] Means only, Did fhe enter into 
no converfation with you ? In this fenfe our poet frequently ufes 
the word quejllon, and not fimply as the aft of interrogation. Did 
(lie give you to understand her meaning by vsords as well as by the 
foregoing external teftimonie? of forrow ? 
So in All's Well that ends ll'cll : 

" Hie told me 

** In a fweet verbal brief, &c." STEEVEKS. 
* Let pity not be bellev\i!~\ i. e. Let not fuch a thing as pity 
be fuppofed to exift ! Thus the old copies ; but the modern edi- 
tors have hitherto read, 

Let pity not believe it! STEEVENS. 

3 And damour-moijlend ] It is not impoflible but Shake- 
fpeare might have formed this fine picture of Cordelia's agony 


5 io KING LEAR. 

Kent. It is the ftars, 

The ftars above us, govern our conditions ; 
Elfe 4 one felf mate and mate could not beget 
Such different iffues. You fpoke not with herfince ? 

Gent. No. 

Kent. Was this before the king returned ? 

Gent. No, fince. 

Kent. Well, fir ; The poor diftrefied Lear is i' the 

town : 

Who fometimes, in his better tune, remembers 
What we are come about, and by no means 
Will yield to fee his daughter. 

Gent. Why, good fir ? 

Kent. A fovereign lhame fo elbows him : his own 


That ftripp'd her from his benediction, turn'd her 
To foreign cafualties, gave her dear rights 
To his dog-hearted daughters, s thefe things fling 
His mind fo venomoufly, that burning lhame 
Detains him from Cordelia. 

Gent. Alack, poor gentleman ! 

Kent. Of Albany's and Cornwall's powers you heard 
not ? 

Gent. 6 'Tis fo ; they are afoot. 

from holy writ, in the conduft of Jofeph ; who, being no longer 
able to rertrain the vehemence of his afteftion, commanded all his 
retinue from his prefence ; and then wept aloud % and difcovered 
himfelf to his brethren. THEOBALD. 

Clamour moijlen'd her ; ] that is, her out-cries were accompanied 
with tears. JOHNSON. 

4 onefe If mate and mate ] The fame hulband and the 

fame wife. JOHNSON. 

5 thefe things Ji ing hint 

So venomoujly, that burning jhamc\ 

The metaphor is here prefetved with great knowledge of na- 
ture. The <venom of poifonous animals being a high cauiVic lalt r 
that has all the effeft ot fire upon the part. \YARBURTON. 

6 'Tisfo they are a-foot.~\ Dr. Warburton thinks it neceflary to 
read, 'tisfaid- t but the fenfe is plain, So /f/jthat they arena foot. 



K I N O L E A R. 511 

Kent. Well, fir, I'll bring you to our matter Lear, 
And leave you to attend him : fome dear caufe 
Will in concealment wrap me up awhile ; 
When I am known aright, you ftiall not grieve 
Lending me this acquaintance. I pray you, go 
Along with me.] [Exeunt. 


A tent in the camp at Dover. 
Enter Cordelia, Phyfttian, and Soldiers. 

Cor. Alack, 'tis he ; why, he was met even now 
As mad as the vex'd fea : finging aloud ; 
Crown'd with rank fumiter, and furrow weeds, 
7 With harlocks, hemlock, nettles, cuckoo-flowers, 
Darnel 8 , and all the idle weeds that grow 
In our fuftaining corn. A century fend forth ; 
Search every acre in the high-grown field, 
And bring him to our eye. What can man's wif- 

dom do, 

In the reftoring his bereaved fenfe ? 
He, that helps him, take all my outward worth. 

Ply. There is means, madam : 
Our fofter nurfe of nature is repofe, 

7 With hardocks, hemlock, &c.] I do not remember any fuch. 
plant us a burdock, but one of the moft common weeds is a bur- 
Jock, which I believe fliould be read here ; and fo Hanmer reads. 


Hardccks fliould be harlocks. Thus Drayton in one or" hit 

** The honey -fuckle, the barbch. 
" The lilly, and the lady-fmocke, &c." FARMER. 
In Markham, of Horfe s, 1595, a burdock leaf is mentioned, 
u burdock or charlock may be uled." STEEVENS. 

8 Darnel, according to Gerard, is the moft hurtful of weeds 
among corn. It is mentioned in Ibe Witches of Lancq/hire. 1634 : 

*' That cockle, darnel, poppy wild, 

*' May choak his grain, &c." STEEVENS. 


5i K I N G L E A R. 

The which he lacks ; that to provoke in him, 
Are many fimples operative, whofe power 
Will clofe the eye of anguiih. 

Cor. All bleft fecrets, 
All you unpublifli'd virtues of the earth, 
Spring with my tears ! be aidant, and remediate, 
In the good man's diflrefs ! Seek, feek for him ; 
Left his ungovern'd rage diflblve the life 
That wants 9 the means to lead it. 

Enter a Mejfenger. 

Mef. News, madam ; 
The Britim powers are marching hitherward. 

Cor. 'Tis known before ; our preparation Hands 
In expectation of them. O dear father, 
It is thy bufmefs that I go about ; 
Therefore great France 

My mourning, and ' important tears, hath pitied. 
* No blown ambition doth our arms incite, 
But love, dear love, and our ag'd father's right : 
Soon may I hear, and fee him ! [Exeunt. 

9 tie means to lead it.] The reafon which (hould guide it. 


1 important - ] In other places of this author for 

importunate. JOHNSON'. 

The folio reads, importuned. STEEVENS. 

* No blown ambition. J No inflated, no fuelling pride. 

Beza on the Spanifli armada : 

" Quam hene te ambitio merfit vaniffima, ventus, 
" Et tumidos tumida; VMS fuperaftis aquse." JOHNSON*. 
In the Mad Lover of B. and Fletcher, the fame epithet is given 
to Ambition. 

Again, in the Little French Lawyer : 

" I corac with no ILii-sn fpirit to abufe you.' 



I N G L E A R. 513 


Regan's palace. 
Enter Regan, and Steward. 

tleg. But are my brother's powers fet forth ? 

Stew. Ay, madam. 

Reg. Himfelf in perfon there } 

Stew. Madam, with much ado : 
Your fitter is the better foldier. 

Reg. Lord Edmund fpake not with J your lady at 
home ? 

Stew. No, madam. 

Reg. What might import my filler's letter to him ? 

Stew. I know not, lady. 

Reg. 'Faith, he is polled hence on ferious matter, 
It was great ignorance, Gioiler's eyes being out> 
To let him live ; where he arrives, he moves 
All hearts againlt us : Edmund, I think, is gone, 
In pity of his mifery, to difpatch. 
4 His nigh ted life ; moreover, to defcry 
The flrength o' the enemy. 

Stew. I muft needs after him, madam, with my 

Reg. Our troops fet forth to-morrow ; flay with us ; 
The ways are dangerous. 

Sfezv. I may not, madam ; 
My lady charg'd my duty in this bufinefs. 

Reg. Why ihould flic write to Edmund ? Might 

not you 

Tranfport her purpofes by word ? Belike, 
Something I know not what 1*11 love thee much, 

3 your lady ] The folio reads, yoi^rlorA; butlady is 

the firft and better reading. JOHNSON. 

+ His nighted life;'} i.e. His lite made dark as night, by the 
extinction or his eye*, STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. L 1 Let 

$14 K I N G L E A R. 

5 Let me unfeal the letter. 

Stew. Madam, I had rather 

Reg, I know, your lady docs not love her hufband ; 
I am lure of that : and, at her late being here, 

6 She gave ftrange oeiliads, and mod fpeaking looks 
To noble Edmund : I know, you are of her bofom. 

Stew. I, madam ? 

Reg. I fpeak in underftanding ; you are, I know it : 
Therefore, 7 I do advife you, take this note : 


5 Let me vnfeal, &c.] I know not well why Shakefpeare gives 
the fteward, who is a mere iaftor of wickednefs, fo much fidelity. 
He now refufes the letter; and afterwards, when he is dying, 
thinks only how it mny be fafely delivered. JOHNSON. 

* She gave Jlrange azXtofej ] Oeillade, Fr. a caft, or fig- 

nificant glance of the eye. 

Greene, in his Deputation between a He and She Coney-catcher y 
1592 : fpeaks of " amorous glances, fmirkiug ociliadsi, &c." 


7 Ida fidvife, you, take this note : } Note means in this 

place not a letter ^ biit a remark. Therefore olferve what I am, 
faying. JOHNSON. 

Therefore, I da ad-i-ife you, take this note : 

Jb'fy lord is dead ; Edmund and I have taik'd f 

Jlnd more convenient is he for my hand^ 

Than for your lady's. Ton may gather more. 

If you da jind him t pray you give him this ; 

And when your miftrefs hears thus much from you t 

1 pray , defire her call her wifdom to bcr.~\ 

This paflage, by a word's being left out, and a word mifp'aceu, 
and a full Itop put where there ihould be but a comma, has led 
all our editors- into a very great miltake ; as will, I hope, appear > 
when we proceed a little iuither in the fame play. The emen- 
dation is as follows : 

Therefore I do advifc you, * take note of this ; 

My lord is dead, &c. 

If you fo find him, pray you give him this : 
\. e. This anfwer by word of mouth. The editors, not fo re- 
gardful of confiflency as they ought to have been, ran away with 
the thought that Regan delivered a letter to the Ik-ward ; whereas 
(he only defired him to give or deliver fo much by word of mouth. 

The like expreflbn, Twelfth Night, aft ii. fc. 4. " S'irToby. 
Challenge me the duke's youth, to light with him } hurt him m 
tlcr.n places } my niece fliall take note of it." 

K I Jit G LEAR. 

My lord is dead ; Edmund and I have talk'd ; 

And more convenient is he for my hand, 

Than for your lady's : 8 You may gather more. 

If you do find him* pray you, give him this ; 

And when your miftrefs hears .thus much from you f 

I pray, defire her call her wifdom to her. 

So, fare you well. 

If you do chance to hear of that blind traitorj 

Preferment falls on him that cuts him off. 

Stew. 'Would I could meet him, madam ! I would! 

* What party I do follow. 

Reg. Fare thee well. [Exeunt. 

And by this means another blunder as egregious as the former, 
and arifing out of it, prefents itfelf to view in the fame aft, 
icene ix. 

And give the letters, which thou find'ft about me, 

To Edmund earl of Glofter, &c. 
Edg. Let's fee thefe pockets : the letters, that he fpeaks of, 

May be my friends.- 

{Reads the letter.'] 

Dbferve, that here is but one letter produced and read, which la 
Goneril's. Had there been one or Regan's too, the audience 
no doubt fliould have heard it as well as Goneril's. But it \% 
plain, from what is amended and explained above, that the 
Steward had no letter from Regan, but only a meflage to be 
delivered by word of mouth to Sdmvnd carl of Glofter. So that 
it is not to be doubted, but the laft paflage fhould be read thus : 

And crive the letter, which thou find'ft about me, 

To Edmund carl of Glojler. 

Edg. Let's fee thefe pockets : the letter, that he fpeaks of, 

May be my friend. 

Thus the whole is connected, clear, and confident. GRAY. 

8 . Ton may gather more. ] You may inter more than J 

bave directly told you. JO.HNSON. 

9 Wlxtt party ] Quarto, Wat lady. JOHNSON. 

1 * SCENE 

516 K I N G L E A R. 


The country near Dover. 

Enter Glo/ler, and Edgar as a peafant. 

Glo. When ihall we come to the top of that fame 

hill ? 
Edg. You do climb up it now ; look, how we 


Glo. Methinks, the ground is evert. 
Edg. Horrible ftcep : 
Hark, do you hear the fea ? 
Glo. No, truly. 

Edg. Why, then your other fenfes grow imperfect 
By your eyes' anguifh. 

Glo. So may it be, indeed : 

Methinks, * thy voice is alter'd ; and thou fpeak'ft 
In better phrafc, and matter, than thou didit. 
Edg. You arc much deceiv'd ; in nothing am I 

But in my garments. 

Glo. Methinks, you are better fpoken. 
Edg. Come on, fir; here's the place: Hand Hill. 
J How fearful 


1 Scene VI.) This fcene, and the frratagem by which Glof- 
ter is cured of his defperation, are wholly borrowed from Sidney's 
Arcadia. JOHNSON. 

i * thy voice is alter' d, &c.) Edgar alters his voice in order 
to pafs afterwards for a malignant fpirit. JOHNSOW. 

3 How fearful 

And dizzy '/;'*, to caft one's yes fa low /) 

This defcription has been much admired fince the time of Addi- 
fon, who has remarked, with a poor attempt at plcafantry, that 
*' he who can read it without being giddy, has a- very gpod head* 
or a very bad one." The defcription is certainly nor mean, but 
I am far from thinking it wrought to the ut uoft excellence of 
poetry. He that looks from a^prccipfce finds himfclf aflailed by 


-K I N G L E A R. 517 

And dizzy 'tis, to cad one's eyes fo low ! 
The crows, and choughs, that wing the midway air, 
Shew fcarce fo grofs as beetles : Half way down 
,Hangs one that gathers famphire ; dreadful trade ! 
Methinks, he feems no bigger than his head : 
The fifhermen, that walk upon the beach, 
Appear like mice ; and yon* tall anchoring bark, 
Diminifh'd to + her cock ; her cock, a buoy 
Almoft too fmall for light : The murmuring furge, 
That on the unnumber'd idle pebbles chafes, 
Cannot be heard fo high : I'll look no more ; 
Left rny brain turn, and the deficient fight 
^Topple down headlong s . 

Glo. Set me where you ft and. 

Edg. Give me your hand : You are now within a 

Of the extreme verge : 6 for all beneath the moon 


one great ?nd dreadful image of irrefiftible deftrudYion. But this 
overwhelming idea is dirTipated and enfeebled from the inftant 
that the mind can reftore itfelf to the obfervation of particulars, 
and difiufe its attention to dilHixft objedls. The enumeration of 
th,e choughs and crows, the famphire-man, and the fifliers, coun- 
teracts the great 'effect of the profpecl, as it peoples the defert 
of intermediate vacuity, and itops the mind in the rapidity of 
its defcent through em'ptinefs and horror. JOHNSON. 

dre adful trade ! J *' Samphire grows in great plenty on moil 
of the fea-clifls in this country : it is terrible to fee how people 
gather it, hanging by a rope ieveral fathom from the top of the 
impending rocks as it were in the air." Smith's /////. of Water* 
ford, p. 315. edit. 1774. TOLLET. 

4 her cock; ] Her cock-boat. JOHNSON. 

So, in the Tragedy of Hoffman , 1637 : 

* 1 cauled my lord to leap into the cod; &c. at laft our 

cock and we were caft afl>ore." STEEVENS. 

5 Topple dovsn headlong.} To topple is to i untile. The word 
has been already ufed in Macbeth. So, in Nafli's Lcnten-Stuf^ 
&c. 1599: " fifty people toppled up their heels there." 

Again : *' he had thought tQ have toppled his burning car, 

fcc. into the fea." STEEVENS. 

* - for aU lerteath the moon 
Would I not leap upright.] 

L 1 Bat 

5 i8 KING LEAR. 

Would I not leap upright. 

Glo. Let go my hand. 

Here, friend, is another purfe ; in it, a jewel 
Well worth a poor man's taking : Fairies, and gods 4 
Profper it with thee ! Go thou further off; 
Bid me farewel, and let me hear thce going. 

JLdg. Now fare ye well, good fir. [Seems to go. 

Glo. With all my heart. 

Edg. Why do I trifle thus 7 with his defpair ? 
*Tis clone to cure it. 

Glo. O you, mighty gods ! 

This world I do renounce ; and, in your fights, 
Shake patiently my great affliction off: 
If I could bear it longer, and not fall 
To quarrel with your great oppofelefs wills, 
My fnuff, and loathed part of nature, fhould 
Burn itfelf out. If Edgar live, O, blefs him ! . 
Now, fello'.v, fare thee well. 

[He leaps, and falls along < 
But what danger is in leaping upwards or t/otv^-juar^s ? He \vrio 

leaps thus muft needs fall again on his feet upon the place from 
\vhence he rofe. We fhould read : 

Would I not leap outright ; 

j. e. fonvard : and then being on the verge of a precipice ho 
muft needs fall headlong. WARBCRTON. 

Dr. Warburton would not have written this note, had he ret 
collected a paflage in Tie Wife of Eatb't Prologue : 

*' Some let their lechour dight them all the night, 

" While that the cors lay on the flore upright." FARMER, 
So, in Chaucer's Monkes Tale, late edit. v. 14489 : 

" Judith, a woman, as he lay upright 

" Sleeping, his hed of fmote, &c." 
Again, v. 1 5048 : 

" And in this carte he lith, gaping upright" 
Again, in the Rom. of the Rofc : v, 1604 : 

" That made him fith to lie upright." 
Upright has the fame fenfe as the Latin/w//j. STEEVENS, 
7 Why do I trifle thui <vjith his Jcfpair ? 

'Tis done to cure it.~\ 
Perhaps the reading of the folio is better,* 

Why I do trifle thus with his defpair 

It done to cure it, 

K I N G L E A R. 519 

E^-. Gone, fir ? farewell *. 
And yet I know not how conceit may rob 
The trcafury of life, 9 when life itfelf 
Yields to the theft : Had he been where he thought, 
By this, had thought been pafl. Alive, or dead ? 
Ho, you, firi friend! Hear you, fir? fpeak ! 
1 Thus might he pafs, indeed : -Yet he revives. 
What are you, fir ? 

Glo. Away, and kt me die. 

Edg* * Hadft thou been aught but gofibmer, fea- 
thers, air, 

So many fathom down precipitating, 
Thou had'ft fhiver'd like an egg : but thou doft 

breathe ; 

Haft heavy fubilance; bleed'ft not; fpeajv'tl; art found. 
3 Ten mails at each make not the altitude, 
Which thou hail perpendicularly fallen ; 

8 Gone, Jtr? fare-wet.] Thus the quartos and folio. The mo- 
dern editors have been content to read Goodjir, &c. SVEEYEXS. 

ivbea life itfelf 

Yields to the theft. ] 

When lite is willing to be deftroyed. JOHNSON. 

1 Thus might he pafs, Indeed : ] Thus he might die in reality. 
We {till ufe the word pajjing bell. JOHNSON. 

* Haifft thou I fen aught but goflbmer, feathers, a':r,~\ GoJJamore, 
the white and cobweb-like exhalations that fly about in hot 
funny weather. Skinner fays, in a book called The Ft -end Gar- 
diner, it fignifieg the down of the fow-thiftle, which is driven to 
and fro by the wind : 

*' As fure fome wonder on the crmfe of thunder, 
" On ebb and flood, or\ goJTnmcr and mift, 
** And on all things, till that the caufeis will." Dr. GRAY. 
3 Ten mafts nt each make not the altitude, ~\ So Mr. Pope found 
it in the old editions ; and feeing it corrupt, judicioufly corrected 
it to attacht. But Mr. Theobald reftorcs again the old nonfenfe, 
at each. WAR BURTON. 

Mr. Pope's conjecture may ftand if the word which he ufes 
were known in our author's time, but I think it is of later Ln- 
troducYion. We may fay : 

Ten mafts en end JOHNSON. 

Perhaps we fliould read at reach, i. e. extent. 

Jo Mr. Rowe's edition it is, Ten mafts at leaft. STEEVEXS. 

L 1 4 Thy 


Thy life's a miracle : Speak yet again. 

Glo. But have 1 fallen, or no ? 

Edg. From the dread fummit of this 4 chalky 

bourn : 

Look up a-height ; the fhrill-gorg'd lark fo far 
Cannot be fccn or heard : do but look up. 

Glo. Alack, I have no eyes. 
Is wretchednefs depriv'd that benefit, 
To end itfelf by death ? 'Twas yet fome comfort, 
When mifery could beguile the tyrant's rage, 
And fruftrate his proud will. 

Edg. Give me your arm : 

Up : So ; How is't ? Feel you your legs? You 

Glo. Too well, too well. 

Edg. This is above all flrangenefs. 
Upon the crown o'the cliff, what thing was that 
Which parted from you ? 

Glo. A poor unfortunate beggar. 

Edg. As I flood here below, methought, his eyes 
Were two full moons ; he had athoufand nofes, 
Horns welk'd, and wav'd like the enridged fea * ; 
It was fome fiend : Therefore, th'ou happy father, 
Think that 6 the cleareft gods, who make them 

Of men's impoflibilities, have preferv'd thce. 

Glo. I do remember now : henceforth I'll bear 
Affliction, 'till it do cry out itfelf, 
Enough, enough, and, die. That thing you fpeak of, 
1 took it for a man ; often 'twould fay, 

* I. chatty bourn :] Bourn feems here to fignify a /&/,"'. Its 
common fignilication is a brook. Milton in Comus uies bnfiy 
tourn, in the lame fenfe perhaps with Shakefpeare. But in both 
authors it may mean only n boundary. JOHNSON. 

s __ - enraged {K&."\ Thus the 410. The folio enraged. 


* tie cleareft gods,* ] The pureft ; the moft free fron* 

fvil. JOHNSON. 

K I N G L E A R, 52; 

%*he fiend, the fiend: he led me to that place. 

Edg. 7 Bear free and patient thoughts. But 

who comes here ? 

Enter Lear, fantaficully drejt tip with flowers. 

* The fafer fenfe will ne'er accommodate 
His matter thus. 

Lear. No, they cannot touch me for coining ; I 
am the king himfelf. 

Edg. O thou fide-piercing fight ! 

Lear. Nature's above art in that refpecl. There's 
your prefs-money. 9 That fellow handles his bow- 

7 Rear free and patient thoughts.'] To be melancholy is to have 
the mind chained down to one painful idea ; there is therefpre 
great propriety in exhorting Gloiler to free thoughts^ to an eman- 
cipation cr his foul from grief and defpair. JOHNSON. 
8 Thr iafer fenfe will neer accommodate 

Hi -'i after thzs.] 
Without doubt Shakeipeare wrote : 

The/S&T fenfe, > 

j. e. vhile the underftanding is in a right frame It will never thus 
'accommodate its owner ; alluding to Lear's extravagant drefi. 
Thence he concludes him to be mad. WARBURTON. 
' J read rather: 

Thefaner fenfe will ne'er accommodate 

His mafter thus. 

* l Here is Lear, but he mud be mad : his found or fane fenfes 
would never fuffer him to be thus difguifed." JOHNSON. 

I have no doubt but that fafer was the poet's word. So, in 
tylcafure for Meafure : 

" Nor do I think the man of fafe difcretion 

*' That does affeft it." STEEVENS. 

s That fellow handles his b<nu like a crovj-kecper.~\ Mr. Pope in 
his laft edition reads cew-kttpfr. It is certain we muft read cro-iv- 
trepcr. In feveral counties to this day, they call a fluffed figure, 
reprefenting a man, r.nd armed with a bow and arrow, fet up to 
fright the crows from the fruit and corn, a cmv-keeper, as well 
as a [care-crow. THEOBALD. 

This crow-keeper was fo common in the author*s time, that it 
is one of the few peculiarities mentioned by Ortelius in his ac- 
count of our iflnnd. JOHNSON. 
v>o, m the 48th Idea of Dravton \ 


5 4* K I N G L E A R. 

like a crow-keeper : ' draw me a clothier's . 
JLook, look, a moufe ! Peace, peace ; this piece 
of toafled cheefe will do't. There's my gauntlet; 
I'll prove it on a giant. Bring up the brown bills *. 
3 O, well flown, bird ! i* the clout, i 1 the clout i 
hewgh ! 4 Give the word. 

" Or if thou'lt not thy archery forbear, 
** To fome bafe rutfick do thyfejf prefer; 
*' And when corn's fown, or grown into the ear, 
" PracYife thy quiver and turn crow-keeper" 
Mr. Toilet informs me, that Markham in his Farewell to Huf~ 
landry, fays, that fuch feryants are called field-keepers, or crow* 
teefcrs. STEEVENS. 

1 Draw me a clothier's yard."] Perhaps the poet had in his 
mind a ftanza of the old ballad of Chevy *Chace : 
" An arrow of a cloth-yard long, 
" Up to the head drew he," &c." STEEVENS. 

* . the brown bills.] A &?//waa a kind of battle-axe: 

" Which is the conttable's houfe ? 
*' At tfye fign of the brown bill." 

Blurt Mr. Conftablt) i6ci. 
Again, in Marlow's A". EJw. II. 1622 : 

** Lo, with a band of bowmen and of pikes, 
" Brnvnlittsi and targetiers, &c." STEEVE^fs. 
3 O, < MY//./?"-"r;:, bird!] Lear is here raving of archery, and 
{hooting at #/.?, as is plain by the words f-ibecloitt, that is, thd 
white mark they fct up and aim at : hence the phrafe, to hit the 
white. So that we muft read, O, weli-Jlown t barb ! i. e. the 
larlcd, or leardcd arrow. WAR BURTON. 
So, in the Two Maids of Morcdacke, 1609 : 
** Change your mark, fhoot at a white ; come {lick me in tli^j 
clout, fir." 
Again, in Tamburlalne, &c. 1 590 : 

** For kings are clouts that every man flio^ts at." 
Again, in How to cbufe a good Wife from a ladOne y 1630 : 

' , w ho could mifs the clout t 

Having fuch fteady aim ?" 

The author of The Revifal thinks there can be no impropriety 
in calling an arrow a bird) from the fwiftnefs of its flight, efpe- 
cially when immediately preceded by the words well-fiown : but 
it appears that well-flown bird was the falconers expreffion when 
the hawk was fuccefbful in her flight ; and is fo ufed in A Woman, 
liirdwith Kindacfi. STEEVENS. 

* Give the ward.] Lear fuppofes himfelf in a garrifon, 

aad before he lets Edgar pafs, requires the watch-word. JOHNSON. 

K I N G L E A R. 523 

Sweet marjoram. 

Lear. Pafs. 

G/<?. 1 know that voice. 

Lear. s Ha ! Goneril ! with a white beard ! I 
* They flatter'd me like a dog ; and told me, I had 
white hairs in my beard, ere the black ones were there. 
To fay ay, and no, to every thing I faid ! Ay and 
no too was no good divinity. 7 When the rain 
came to wet me once, and the wind to make me 
chatter ; when the thunder would not peace at my 
bidding ; there 1 found them, there I fmelt them 
out. Go to, they are not men o* their words : they 
told me I was every thing ; 'tis a lie ; I am not 

Glo. 8 The trick of that voice I do well remember ; 
Js't not the king ? 

Lear. Ay, every inch a king : 
When I do ftare, fee, how the fubject quakes. 
I pardon that man's life : What was the caufe ? 


Thou fhalt not die : Die for adultery ! No : 
The wren goes to't, and the fmall gilded fly 
Does lecher in my fight. 

Let copulation thrive, for Glofter's baflard fon 
Was kinder to his father, than my daughters 
Got 'tween the lawful fheets. 

5 Ha! Gonsrlll ivltb a wbite leardl ] So reads the 

folio, properly ; the quarto, whom the latter editors have fol- 
lowed, has, Ha f Goner Hi, hd ! Regan ! they fiatttred me, &cl 
which is not fo forcible. JOHNSON. 

* They flattered me like a dog\~~\ They played the fpaniel 
to me. JOHNSON. 

7 When the rain came to ivet me, &c.] This feems to be an 
allufion to king Canine's behaviour when his courtiers flattered 
jiim as lord of the fea. STEEVENS, 

* The tricK of dot vsice} Trick (fays fir Tho. Hanmer) is 
a word frequently ufed tor the air, or that peculiarity in a face, 
voife, orgcfture, vsbich diftinguijbe s it from others. \Ve Hill fay 
** he has a trick of winking with his eyes, of fpeaking loud, 

5<C." STEEYKN8. 


524 K I N G L E A R. 

To't, luxury ', pell-pell, for I lack foldiers, . 

Behold yon* fimpering dame, 

* Whofe face between her forks prefageth fnovv ; 
That minces virtue, and does fhake the head 
To hear of pleafure's name ; 

3 The fitchew, 4 nor the foyled horfe, goes to't 
With a more riotous appetite. 
Down from the waift they are centaurs J , 
Though women all above : 
Tjut to the girdle do the gods inherit, 
Beneath is all the fiends' ; there's hell, there's darkncfs, 


1 To't luxury, &V.] Luxury was the ancient appropriate tern) 
for incontinence. See Mr. Coliias's note on Troilus and Crejjl^^i, 
!3\<flV. Sc.ii. STEEVENS. 

1 Whofeface ^ttwetn her forks ] i. e. Her hand held before 
her face in lign of modefty, with the fingers fpread out, forky. 


| believe that thefor&s were two prominences of the ruff riling 
on each fide of the face. JOHNSON. 

The conduction is not " whofe face between her forks, &c.^' 
but " whofe face prefages 1'now between her forL." So in 
Ttmon, Ad IV. Sc.iii."- 

" Whole blufh docs tha-.vthe confecratcd fnow 
" That lies on Dian's lap." CC.KVIS of Criticifm. 

To preferve the modeity of Mr. Edwards's happy explanation, 
I can only hint a reference to the word fowhcure in Corgrave's 

Dift:onary. STEEVENS. 

3 tfajbcbw, ] A polecat. POPE. 

* nor the foyled terfi, ] I read, Jiallcd horfe. 


Soiled horfe is probably the fame as pampered horfe, chcval 
foul'c. JOHNSON. 

Soyled horfe is a term ufed for a horfe that has been fed with hay 
and corn in the liable during the winter, and ia turned out in th^ 
Ipring to take the firft flufli of grals, or has it cut and carried in 
to him. This at once cleanfes the animal, and fills him with 
blood. STEEVI-NS. 

5 Down to the waift they're centaur \f,] In the Malcontent , is a 
thought as fingular as this : 

" 'Tis now about the immodeft ivalfl of night." 


* Beneath is all the fiend? \\ According to Grecia'n fuperllition^ 
tverj' limb of us was configned to the charge of fome particular 



There is the fulphurous pit, burning, fcalding, flench, 

confumption ; Fie, fie, fie ! pah ! pah ! 
Give me an ounce of civet, good apothecary, 
To fweeten my imagination ! there's money for thcc. 

Glo. O, let me kifs that hand ! 

Lear. Let me wipe it firft; it fmells of mortality. 

Glo. O ruin'd piece of nature ! This great world 
Shall ib wear out to nought. Doft thou know me ? 

Lear. I remember thine eyes well enough. Doft 
thou fquiny at me ? No, do thy worft, blind Cupid ; 
I'll not love. Read thou this challenge ; mark but 
the penning of it. 

Glo. Were all the letters funs, I could not fee one. 

Edg. I would not take this from report ; it is, 
And my heart breaks at it. 

Lear. Read. 

Glo. What, with the cafe of eyes 7 ? 

Lear. O, ho, are you there with me ? No eyes 
in your head, nor no money in your purfe ? Your 
eyes are in a heavy cafe, your purfe in a light : Yet 
you fee how this world goes. 

Glo. I fee it feelingly. 

Lear. What, art mad ? A man may fee how this 

deity. Gowcr, Df ConfeJJione Amantis, enlarges much on it, and 
concludes by faying : 

* And Venus throughe the letcherie 

** For whiche thei hir deifie, 

* ' She kept all Jaunt the rcmcnant 

' To thilke office appertainant" CoLLINS. 

i What, <xitb the cafe of eyes ?] Mr. Rowe changed the into 
*/.f, but without neceffitv. I have retfored the old reading. The 
i-afe of eyes is \hefickct of either eye. Stauus in his firft Tbebaid^ 
has a fimilar expreffion. Speaking of Oedipus he fays : 

*' Tune vacua cries crudum ac mifcrabile vita? 

" Supplicium, oilentat coclo, manibufque cruejitis 

*' Pullat inane folum. 

ct Inane folum, \. e. vacsi oculorvm Ice:." 
Shakefpeare has the expreffion again in the If "inter' s Tale: 
'*- they feem'd almoft, with (taring oa cnc another, to tear 'tie 
cefis of 'their eyes." 

S z6 K I N G L E A R. 

>vorld goes, with no eyes. Look with thine ears : fee 
how yon' juftice rails upon yon' fimple thief. Hark, 
in thine ear : Change places ; and handy-dandy, 
which is the juftice, which is the thief ? Thoti 
haft feen a farmer's dog bark at a beggar ? 
Glo. Ay, fir. 

Lear. And the creature run from the cur ? There 
thou might'ft behold the great image of authority ; a 

dog's obey'd in office. 

Thou rafcal beadle, hold thy bloody hand : 

Why doft thou lafh that whore ? Strip thine own back 3. 

Thou hotly luft'ft to life her in that kind 

For which thou whipp'ft her. The ufurer hangs the 


Through tatter'd cloaths final 1 vices do appear ; 
* Robes, and furr'd gowns, hide all. Plate fin with 


And the ftrong lance of juftice hurtlefs breaks : 
Arm it in rags, a pigmy's ftraw doth pierce it. 
None does offend, none, I fay, none ; 9 I'll able 'cm : 
Take that of me, my friend, who have the power 
To feal the accuser's lips. Get thee glafs eyes ; 
And, like a fcurvy politician, feem 
To fee the things thou doft not. Now, now, notify 

now : 
Pull off my boots; harder, harder; fo. 

Edg. O, matter and impertinency mixt ! 
Reafon in madnefs ! 

Lear. If thou wilt weep my fortunes, take my eyes. 

8 Roles , and furr'd gowns, hide all. ] From bldt all to 
acc*ftr's lips, the whole paflage is wanting in the firft edition, be- 
ing added, I fuppofe, at his revifal. JOHNSON. 

9 P Halle 'em:] An old phrafe fignifying to qualify, of 

uphold them. SoScogan, contemporary with Chaucer, fays: 

*' Set all my lite after thyne ordinance, 

** And able me to mercie or thou deme." 
But the Oxford Editor alters it to abfolve. WARBURTOJT. 

So Chapman, in his comedy of The JWriovj's Tears, 1612. 
** Admitted! ay, into her heart, and Vllalk //." STEEVENS. 

I kao\f 


I khow thee well enough ; thy name is Glofter : 
Thou muft be patient ; we cume crying hither. 
1 Thou know' ft, the firittime that we fmell the air, 
We wawle, and cry : I u : . ''. ,:r::ach to thee; mark me. 
G/o. Alack, alack the day ! 
Lear. When we are born, we cry, that we are come 

To this great ftage of fools ; * This a good 

block f 


1 Thou knowjl, tbefirft time toot we fnull tie air, 

We luanvle and cry. ] 

*' Vagi tuque locum lugubri complet, utoequum eft 

" Cui tantum in vita reftat tranfire malorum." Lucretius. 


- Tikis a good block ?] I do not fee how this block corre- 
fponds either with his foregoing or following train of thoughts. 
Madmen think not wholly at random. I would read thus, a go4 
jlock. Flocks are wool moulded together. The fentence* thea 
follows properly : 

It were a delicate ftratagem to flioe 

A troop of horfe with felt ; 

i. e. vAihjlocks kneaded to a mafs, a praftice I believe fometiraes 
ufed in former ages, for it is mentioned in Ariofto : 
" Fece nel cader ftrepito quanto 
** AvefTe avuto fotto i piedi \\feliro." 

It is very common for madmen to catch an accidental hint, and 
ftrain it to the purpofe predominant in their minds. Lear picks 
vp a flock, and immediately thinks to furprize his enemies by a 
troop of horfe (hod \v\ti\jlocks or felt. Yet block may ftand, if we 
fuppofe that the fight of a block put him in mind of mounting his 
horfe. JOHNSON. 

Thh a good block ? ] Dr. Johnfon*s explanation 

of this paflage is very ingenious ; but, I believe, there is no oc- 
cafion to adopt it, as the fpeech itfelf, or at leaft the aclion that 
fliould accompany it, will furnifh all the connexion which he has 
fought from an extraneous circumfbnce. Upon the king's faying, 
I ivlll preach to tbee , the poet feems to have meant him to pull off 
his hat, and keep turning it and feeling it, in the attitude of one 
of the preachers of thofe times (whom 1 have feen fo reprefented in 
ancient prints) tUl^the idea of /!//, which the good bat or block was 
iriadc of, raifes the ftratagem in his brain of moeing a troop of 
horfe with a fubftance loft as that which he held and moulded 
between his hands. This makes him ilart from his preachment. 
Block anciently fignified the bead part of the hat, or the thing on 
*-.':b:cb a bat is formed, and fometunes the hat itfelf* See Mtub 
Ada alout Nothing ; 

" He 

$8 K I N G L E A R. 

Jt were a delicate flratagem, to fhoe 
A troop of horfe with felt : I'll put it in proof; 
And when I have ftolen upon thefe fons-in-law, 
Then kill, kill, kill, kill, kill, kill. 

Enter a Gentleman, with attendants. 

Gent. O, here he is ; lay hand upon him. Sir, 
Your moft dear daughter -- 

Lear. No refcue ? What, a prifoner ? I am even 

e< tic vveares his faith but as the fafliion of his bat \ it 

*' changes with the next Hock." 
Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit atfeveral Weapons: 

*' I am fo haunted with this broad-brim'd hat 

** Of the laft progrefs block, with the young hatband." 
Greene, in his Defence of Coney -catching, 1592, defcribing a neat 
companion, fays, " he wearetha hat of a high blocke, and a broad 
So in The Revenger's Yregetty, 1 608 : 

" His head will be made ferve a bigger block*" 
So in Decker's Hone/I Whore, 1635 : ( 

" -- we have blocks lor all heads." 
Again, in Green's Tu Quoquc, 1599 : 

* . - Where did you buy your yj-//? 

" Nay, never laugh, for you're in the fame Hod." 
Again, in La\v Tricks, &c. 1608 : "I cannot keep a block pri-* 
vate, but every citizen's fon thrufls his head into it." 

Again, \T\HiJtrht^ix, 1610: 

" Your hat is of a better block than mine." 
Again, in The Martial Maid vi Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Tho* now your block-head be cover'd with a Spaniflj 

Again, in the Two Merry Milkmaids, 1620 : 

*' - my haberdaflier has a new block, and will find me and 
all my generation in beavers, &c." 

Again, in Decker's Gul's Hornbook, 1609: " that cannot ob- 
ferve the time of his hatband, nor know what fafliion'd block is 
moft kin to his head ; for in my opinion, the braine that cannot 
chufe his/*-// well, &c." 

Again, in Run and a. great Caft, an ancient collection of Epn 
grams, 4to, without date. Epigram 46. In Scxtinum: 

'* A pretty blocke Sextinus names his hat ; 

" So much the fitter ibr his head by that." STEEVENS. 


KING LEAR. 5 z 9 

The natural fool of fortune *. Ufe me well ; 

You (hall have ranfom. Let me have a furgeon, 
I am cut to the brains. 

Gent. You fhall have any thing. 

Lear. No feconds ? All myfelf ? 
Why, this would make a man, $ a man of fait, 
To ufc his eyes for garden water-pots, 
Ay, and laying autumn's duft, 

Gent. Good fir, 4 

Lear. I will die bravely, like a bridegroom ; what ? 
I will be jovial ; come, come, I am a king, 
My matters, know you that ? 

Gent. You are a royal one, and we obey you. 

Lear. * Then there's life in it. Nay, come, an 

you get it, 
You fhall get it by running. Sa, fa, fa, fa. [Exit. 

Gent. A fight molt pitiful in the mcancft wretch ; 
Paft fpeaking of in a king ! Thou haft one daughter, 
Who redeems nature from the general curie 
Which twain have brought her to. 

Edg. Hail, gentle fir. 

Gent. Sir, fpeed you : What's your will ? 

Edg. Do you hear aught, fir, of a battle toward ? 

Gent. Moft fure, and vulgar : every one hears that, 
Which can diftinguifh found. 

1 We -natural fool of fortune."} So, in Romeo and Juliet : 
*' O, I am fortu ne 'j fool ! STEEVENS. 

3 a man of 'fait ,] Would make a man melt away like 

fait in wet weather. JOHNSON. 

I believe, a man of fait is a man made up of tears. In All's 
Well that Ends IVcU, we meet with your fait tears' head; and in 
Troilus and Creffida, the fait of broken tears. 
Again, in Coriolanus : 

" He has betray'd your bufinefs, and giv'n up, 

** For certain drops of fait, your city Rome." MALONE. 

* Gent. Good fir, ] Thefe words I have reitored from one 

of the quartos. In the other, they are omitted. The folio reads: 

a/mug bridegroom STEEVENS. 

5 Then there's life ;ViV, ] The cafe is not yet defperate. 


VOL. IX. M m Edg, 

53 o K I N G L E A R. 

Edg. But, by your favour, 
How near's the other army ? 

Gent. Near, and on fpeedy foot ; 7 the main defcry 
Stands on the hourly thought. 

Edg. I thank you, fir : that's all. 

Gent. Though that the queen on fpecial caufe is 

Her army is mov'd on. 

Edg. I thank you, fir. [Exit Gent. 

Glo. You ever -gentle gods, take my breath from me; 
Let not my worfer fpirit tempt me again 
To die before you pleafe ! 

Edg. Well pray you, father. 

Glo. Now, good fir, what are you ? 

A moft poor man, made tame to fortune's 

blows 8 ; 

9 Who, by the art of known and feeling forrows, 
Am pregnant to good pity. Give me your hand, 
I'll lead you to fome biding. 

Glo. Hearty thanks : 
The bounty and the benizon of heaven 
To boot, and boot ! 

Enter Steward. 

Stew. A proclaim'd prize ! Moft happy ! 
That eyelefs head of thine was firft fram'd flefli 
To raife my fortunes. Thou old unhappy traitor, 

7 the main defcry 

Stands on the hourly t bought. ~\ 

The main body is cxpcftedto be dcfcry'd every hour. The ex- 
preffion is haiih. JOHNSON. 

8 '-made tame to fortune's Mows.'] The quartos read : 

made lame by fortune's bjows. STEEVENS. 

9 W7.w, by the art of known and feeling forro-ivs,] i.e. Sorrows 
paft and prefent ; but the Oxford Editor lofes all this fenfe by 
altering it to, 

P- knowing and feeling. WAR BUR TON. 


K I N G L E A R, 531 

1 Briefly thyfelf remember : The fword is out 
That muft deftroy thee. 

Glo. Now let thy friendly hand 
Put ftrength enough to it. [Edgar oppofes. 

Stew. Wherefore, bold peafant, 
Dar'ft thou fupport a publifh'd traitor ? Hence ; 
Left that the infection of his fortune take 
Like hold on thee. Let go his arm. 

Edg. Chill not let go, zir, without vurther 'cafion. 

Stew. Let go, flave, or thou dy'ft. 

Edg. Good gentleman, * go your gait, and let 
poor volk pafs. And ch'ud ha' been zwagger'd out 
of my life, 'twould not ha' been zo long as 'tis by a 
vortnight. Nay, come not near the old man ; keep 
out, J che vor'ye, or ife try whether * your coftard 
or my bat 5 be the harder : Chi'll be plain with you. 

Stew. Out, dunghill ! 

Edg. Ch'ill pick your teeth, zir : Come ; 6 no mat- 
ter vor your foyns. [Edgar knocks him dawn. 

1 Briefly thyfelf remember."] i. e. Quickly recoiled the pad 
offences or thy life, and recommend thyfelf to heaven. 


a -go your gaity ] Gang your gate is a common er- 

preflion in the North. In the laft rebellion, when the Scotch 
foldiers had finifhed their exercife, inftead of our term of difmif- 
fion, their phrafe was, gang your gaits. STEEVENS. 

3 che vor'ye, ] / ivarn you. Edgar counterfeits the 

weftern dialed. JOHNSON. 

4 your coftard, ] Coftard, i.e. head. So, in K. Rich. Ill : 

" Take him over the cojlard with the hilt of thy fword." 


s wybat,] i.e. club. So, mSpenfer: 

* a handfome bat he held 

" On which he leaned, as one far in eld." 
So, in Mucedorus, 1 668 : 

" With this my lat I will beat out thy brains." 
Again, in the Pinner of Wakeficld, \ 599 : 

" let eveiy thing be ready, 

** And each of you a good bat on his neck." STEEVENS. 
* no matter vor your foins.J To foyn, is to make what we 

call a tbmjl in fencing. Shakefpeare often ales the word. 


M m 2 Stew. 


Stew. Slave, thou haft flain me : Villain, take 

my purfe ; 

If ever thou wilt thrive, bury my body ; 
And give the letters, which thou lind'ft about me, 
To Edmund earl of Glofter ; feek him out 

Upon the Englifh party : O, untimely death, 

death ! [Dies. 

Edg. I know thee well : A fcrviceable villain; 
As duteous to the vices of thy miftrefs, 
As badnefs would defire. 
Glo. What, is he dead ? 
Edg. Sit yofc down, father ; j'eft you. 
Let's fee his pockets : thefe letters, that he fpeaks of, 
May be my friends. He's dead; I am only lorry 

He had no other death's-man. Let us iee : 

Lenve, gentle wax, and, manners, blame us not : 
7 To know our enemies' minds, we'd rip their hearts ; 
Their papers are more lawful. 

Reads the letter. 

Let our reciprocal vows be remembered. You have many 
opportunities to cut him off : if your will want nof, time 
and place will be fruitfully offered. There is nothing 
done, if he return the conqueror : Then am I the pri- 
foner, and his bed my gaol; from the loath* d warmth 
.whereof deliver me, and jupply the place for your la- 
bour. 4 

Tour (wife, fo I would fay) affeftionate fervant*, 


7 To know our enemies' minds, ive rip their hearts ; 

Their papers are more lawful. j 

This is darkly exprefled : the meaning is, Our enemies are put 
upon the rack, and torn in pieces to extort confeflion of their fe- 
crets ; to tear open their letters is more lawful. WAR BURTON. 

The quarto reads, twV rip their hearts, and fo I have printed 

8 affetfionatcfcrvant.'] After fcrvant, one of the quartos 

has this ftrange continuation : " and for you her owne for 
venter^ Gonorill." STEEVEVS. 

O un- 


* O undiftinguifh'd fpace of woman's will ! 

A plot upon her virtuous huiband's life ; 

And the exchange, my brother ! Here, in the fands, 

1 Thee I'll rake up, the poft unfa edified 

Of murderous lechers : and, in the mature time, 

With this ungracious paper flrike the fight 

Of * the death-practis'd duke : For him" 'tis well, 

That of thy death and bufinefs I can tell. 

[JEr// Edgar, removing the body. 
Glo. The king is mad : How ftiff is my vile fenfe, 
That I (land up, 3 and have ingenious feeling 
Of my huge forrows ! Better I were diftraft : 
So fhould my thoughts be 4 fever'd from my griefs ; 
And woes, by wrong imaginations, lofe 
The knowledge of themfelves. 

Re-enter Edgar. 

Edg. Give me your hand : 
Far off, methinks, I hear the beaten drum. 
Come, father, I'll beftow you with a friend. [Exeunt. 

9 O undijling ttijb'd fpace of woman's wit ! ] So the firft quarto 
rends, but the firft folio better, ivill. I have no idea of the 
meaning of the firlt reading, but the other is extremely fatirical j 
the varium & mutabile fcmfter , of Virgil, more ftrongly and hap- 
pily exprefled. The mutability of a woman's w///, which is fo fud- 
den, that there is no fpace or diftance between the prefent -.:// 
and the next. Honeft Sancho explains this thought with infinite 
humour, JEntre el fi y cl no dc la mugcr, no me atreveriayo z po- 
ner una punta ffalfile r. Between a ivoman'syes OOlWatU 
7>et undertake to tbrujl a pin's point. WAR BUR TON. 

' Thee V 11 rake up , ] I'll cover thee. In StafFordfliire, to 

rake the fire, is to cover it with fuel for the night. JOHNSON. 

* the deatb-prafti? d duke:] The duke of Albany, whofe 
death is machinated by prafiice or treafon. JOHNSON. 

3 and have ingenious feeling] Ingenious fecling fignifies a 
feeling from an underftar.ding not dlfturbed or diforaered, but 
which, reprefenting things as they are, makes the fenfe of paia 
the more exquifitc. WAR BURTON. 

4 - fever* d' ] The quartos read fenced, STEEVENS. 

M m 3 SCENE 



A tent in the French camp. 
Enter Cordelia, Kent, and Pkyfician. 

Cor. O thou good Kent, how fhall I live, and 


To match thy goodnefs ? My life will be too Ihort, 
And 4 every meafure fail me. 

Kent. To be acknowledg'd, madam, is o'erpay'd. 
Ail my reports go with the modeft truth ; 
Nor more, nor clipt, but fo. 

Cor. s Be better fuited : 

6 Thefe weeds are memories of thofe worfer hours ; 
I pr'ythee, put them off. 

Kent. Pardon me, dear madam ; 
Yet to be known, 7 fhortens my made intent : 
My boon I make it, that you know me not, 
'Till time and I think meet. 

Cor. Then be it To, my good lord. - 
How does the king ? [To the Pfafician. 

4 every meafure fail me. ~\ All good which 1 fliall allot 
thee, or meafure out to thee, will be fcanty. JOHNSON. 

5 Be better fuited .-] i. e. Be better dreft, put on a better fuit 
of cloaths. STEEVENS. 

6 Thefe weeds are memories of tbnfe tvorfer hours ;] Memories^ 
\. c. Memorials, remembrancers. Shakefpearc ufes the word in 
the fame fenfe, As You Like It, aft II. fc. 5 : 

" O, my fweet matter ! O you memory 
Of old fir Rowland !" STEEVENS. 

So, in Stowc's Survey of London^ 1618: 

" A printed mcmorle hanging up in a table at the entrance into 

the church-door." MALONE. 

7 Jbortcns my made intent \\ There is a diflbnancy of 

terms in made intent ; one implying the idea of a thing done, 
the other, undone. I fuppole Shakcfpeare wrote laid intent^ 
i.e. projected. WAR BUR TON. 

An intent made, is an intent formed. So we fay in common 
language, to make a defi^n^ and to make a rrfolution. JOHNSON. 



Pfyf. Madam, fleeps ftill. 

Cor. O you kind gods, 
Cure this great breach in his abufed nature ! 
The untun'd and jarring fenfes, O, wind up 
8 Of this child-changed father ! 

Pfyf. So pleafe your majefty, 
That we may wake the king ? he hath flept long. 

Cor. Be govern'd by your knowledge, and proceed 
I* the fway of your own will. Is he array'd ? 

Lear is brought in in a chair. 

Gent. 9 Ay, madam ; in the heavinefs of his fleep, 
We put freih garments on him. 

Pfyf. Be by, good madam, when we do awake him ; 
I doubt not of his temperance. 

Cor. ' Very well. 

Pfyf. Pleafe you, draw near. Louder the mufic 
there ! 

Cor. O my dear father ! * Reftoration, hang 

* Of tins child-clanged father /] i.e. Changed to a child by 
his years and wrongs ; or perhaps, reduced to this condition by 
his children. STEEVENS. 

9 Ay, madanty &c.] The folio gives thefe four lines to a Gen- 
tlcman. One of the quartos (they were both printed in the fame 
year, and for the fame printer) gives the two firft to the DoSlor^ 
and the two next to Kent. The other quarto appropriates the 
two firft to the Dofior, and the two following ones to a Gentleman. 
I have given the tvvo firft, which beft belong to an attendant, 
to the Gentleman in waiting, and the other two to the Pbyjlcian^ 
on account of the caution contained in them, \vhich is more 
fuitable to his profeffion. STKEVENS. 

1 Very well.'] This and the following line I have reftored from 
the quartos. STEEYENS. 

* Reftoration, bang 

Tly medicine on my lips ; ] 

This is fine. She invokes the goddefs of health, Hygieia, un^er 
the name of Reftauration, to make her the miniftcf of her rites, 
in this holy office of recovering her father's loft fenfes. 


Reparation is no more than recovery perfouified. ST EVENS. 

M m 4 Thy 


Thy medicine on my lips; and let this kifs 
Repair thofe violent harms, that my two fillers 
Have in thy reverence made ! 

Kern. Kind and dear princcfs ! 
1 Cor. Had you not been their father, thefe white 


Had challeng'd pity of them. Was this a face 
To be expos'd againft the warring winds ? 
* J To ftand againft the deep dread-bolted thunder ? 
In the moft terrible and nimble ftroke 
Of quick, crcfs lightning ? 4 to watch (poor perdu !) 
\yith this thin helm * ? 5 Mine enemy's dog, 

3 The lines within the afterifks are omitted in the folio, 

* Yoivaich (poor perdue :) 

U'itb this thin helm f\ It ought to be read and pointed thus : 
To watch, poor perdu ! 

With this thin helm ? 

The allufion is to the forlorn-hope in an army, which are put 
upon defperate adventures, and called in French c nfnns perdus ; 
fl;e therefore calls her father, poor perdu ; perdue, which is the 
ccmmon reading, being the feminine. Thefe enfans per Jus be- 
ing always (lightly and badly armed, is the reafon that flie adds, 
With this thin helm ? i.e. bareheaded. WAR BUR TON. 

Dr. Warburton's explanation of the \vor& perdu is juft, though 
the latter part of his alfertion has not the leaft foundation. Psu- 
lus Jovius, fpeaking of the body of men who were anciently fent 
on this defperate adventure, fays, " Hos ab immoderura forti- 
tudine fcrJitcs voc;:nt, et in fummo honore atque a^.miratione 
habent." It is not likely that thofe who deferved fo well of their 
country for expofing themfelves to certain dange*-, fiiould be fent 
out, fumma admlrat : wc, and yet {lightly and hadly armed. 

The fame alluiion occurs in fir W. Durcnant's Love and Ho~. 
ncur, 1649: 

1 have emlur'J 

Another night would tire uperJu, 
More than a wee furrow and a great froil." 
Again, n Cartwright's Ordinary : 

c ciii' > choice fous'd fifli brought couchant in a diih 
Among fome fennel or fome other grafs, 
Shews how they lye i' th' field." STEHVENS. 
5 Mixe enemy's dog,\ Thus the folio. Both the quartos 
read, Mine Injurious dog. Poffibly the poet wrote, Mine iy'u- 
r*/'sdog. STEEVE.NS. 



Though he had bit me, Ihould have flood that night 

Againft my fire; And waft thou fain, poor father, 

To hovel thee with fwine, and rogues forlorn, 

In ihort and mufly ftraw ? Alack, alack ! 

'Tis wonder, that thy life and wits at once 

* Had not concluded all. He wakes ; fpeak to him. 

Pbyf. Madam, do you ; 'tis fitted. 

Cor. How does my royal lord ? How fares your 
majefty ? 

Lear. You do me wrong, to take me out o' the 

grave : 

Thou art a foul in blifs ; but I am bound 
Upon a wheel of fire, that mine own tears 
Do fcald like molten lead. 

Cor. Sir, do you know me ? 

Lmr. You are a fpirit, I know : When did you die ? 

Cor. Still, flill, far wide ! 

Pbyf: He's fcarce awake ; let him alone awhile. 

Lear. Where have I been ? Where am I ? Fair 

day-light ? 

7 1 am mightily abus'd. I Ihould even die with pity, 
To fee another thus. I know not what to fay, 
I will not fwear, thefe are my hands : let's fee; 
I feel this pin prick. 'Would I were affur'd 
Of my condition. 

Cor. O, look upon me, fir, 
And hold your hands in benediction o'er me ; 

6 Had not concluded all. ] All what? we fhould read and 

point it thus : 

Had not concluded. .Ah ! 
An exclamation on perccivirig her father wake. WARBURTON. 

The plain conftruclion is this : It is wonder that thy wits and 
life had not all ended. JOHNSON. 

Soj in Spenfer's Faery S>ueen, c. viii : 

" Ne fpared they to ftrip her naked all." 
Again, in Timon : 

" And difpoflefs her all." STEEVENS. 

7 I am mightily alui'd. ] I am ftrangely impofed on by 
appearances ; I am in a ftrange mift of uncertainty. JOHNSON. 


$ 3 8 KING LEAR. 

* No, fir, you mufl not kneel. 

Lear. Pray, do not mock me 9 : 
I am a very foolifli fond old man, 
Fourfcore and upward ; 
Not an hour more, nor lefs : and, to deal plainly, 

* I fear, I am not in my perfect mind. 
Methinks, I fliould know you, and know this man; 
Yet I am doubtful : for I am mainly ignorant, 
What place this is ; and all the fkill I have 
Remembers not thefe garments ; nor I know not 
Where I did lodge lafl night : Do not laugh at me ; 
For, as I am a man, I think this lady 

To be my child Cordelia. 

Cor. And fo I am, I am. 

Lear. Be your tears wet ? Yes, 'faith. I pray, 

weep not : 

If you have poifon for me, I will drink it. 
I know, you do not love me ; for your fitters 
Have, 'a* I do remember, done me wrong : 
You have fome caufe, they have not. 

Cor. No caufe, no caufe. 

Lear. Am I in France ? 

Kent. In your own kingdom, fir. 

Lear. Do not abufe me. 

Phyf. Be comforted, good madam : the great rage, 

* No, fir, you mujl not kneel.'] This circumftance I find in the 
old play on the fame fubjeft, apparently written by another hand, 
and publifhed before any edition of Shakefpeare's tragedy had 
made its appearance. As it is always difficult to fay whether 
thefe accidental refemblances proceed from imitation, or a fimi- 
larity of thinking on the fame occalion, I can only point out this 
to the reader, to whofe determination I leave the queftion. 


9 Pray do not mock me.] So, in the Winter* i> Tale, at V : 
" Let no man mock me, 
<( For I will kifs her." STEEVENS. 

* If tar, I am not in my perfeft mind.] The quarto reads : 

I fear, 1 am not perfect in my mind. JOHNSON. 
So one of the quartos. The other reads according to the pre- 
feut text, STEEVENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 539 

You fee, * is cur'd in him : [ * and yet it is danger 
4 To make him even o'er the time he has loft.J 
Defire him to go in ; trouble him no more, 
'Till further fettling. 

Cor. \ViH't pleafe your highnefs walk ? 

Lear. You muft bear with me : 
Pray you now, forget and forgive : I am old, and 

[Exeunt Lear, Cordelia, Phyfician, and Attendants* 

[Gent. 5 Holds it true, fir, 
That the duke of Cornwall was fo flam ? 

Kent. Moft certain, fir. 

Gent. Who is conductor of his people ? 

Kent. As it is faid, the baftard fon of Glofler. 

Gent. They fay, Edgar, 
His banrfh'd fon, is with the earl of Kent 
In Germany. 

Kent. Report is changeable. 

'Tis time to look about ; the powers o' the kingdom 
Approach apace. 

Gent. The arbitrement is like to be bloody. 
Fare you well, fir. [Exit* 

Kent. My point and period will be throughly 

Or well, or ill, as this day's battle's fought.] Exit. 

* is cur* d ] Thus the quartos. The folio reads, 

is ;Y/y. STEEVENS. 

3 Andytt, &c.] This is not in the folio. JOHNSON. 

4 To make him even o'tr the time ] i. e. To reconcile it to 

his apprehenlion. WARBURTON". 

5 What is printed in crotchets is not in the folio. It is at leaft 
proper if not neceflary ; and was omitted by the author, I fuppofe, 
for no other reafcn than to ihorten the reprefentation. JOHNSON. 


540 K I N G L E A R. 

The camp of the Britifh forces, near Dover. 

Enter, with drums and colours, Edmund, Regan, Gen- 
tlemen, and Soldiers. 

v Edm. Know of the duke, if his laftpurpofe hold ; 
Or whether fmce he is advis'd by aught 
To change the courfe : He's full 6 of alteration, 
And felf-reproving : bring. 7 his conftant pleafure. 

Reg. Our filter's man is certainly mifcarry'd. 

E^m. 'Tis to be doubted, madam. 

Reg. Now, fweet lord, 
You know the goodnefs I intend upon you : 
Tell me, but truly, but then fpcak the truth, 
Do you not love my filter ? 

Edm. In honour'd love. 

[Reg* 8 But have you never found my brother's way 
To the 9 fore-fended place ? 

v * .< ff alteration,] One of the quartos reads, 

" of abdication. STEEVENS. 

i his conftant pleafurc.'} His fettled refolution. 


* But have you never, sV.] Thtjirfl and Aj/?of thefe fpeeches, 
printed within crotchets, are inferted in Sir Thomas Hanmer's, 
Theobald's, and Dr. Warburton's editions ; the two intermediate 
ones, which were omitted in all others, I have rellored from the 
old quartos, 1608. Whether they were left out through negli- 
gence, or becauie the imagery contained in them might be 
thought too luxuriant, I cannot determine j but fure a material 
injury is done to the character of the Ba/lard by the omiflion ; 
for he is made to deny that flatly at firft, which the poet only 
meant to make him evade, or return flight anfwers to, till he is 
urged fo far as to be obliged to flicker himfelf under an imme- 
dir.rc falfnood. Qnery, however, whether Shnkefpeare meant us 
ro believe that Edinund had atlually found his way to the fore- 
fended place. STEEVENS. 

9 fore-fendcd/// ?] Fore-funded ^ means frohilited, for- 

liddt*. STEEVENS. 


Edm. That thought abufes you. 

Reg. I am- doubtful that you have been conjunct 
And ' bolbm'd with her, as far as we call hers. 

Edm. No, by mine honour, madam.] 

Reg. I never mall endure her : Dear my lord, 
Be not familiar with her. 

Edm. Fear me not : 
She, and the duke her hufband, 

Enter Albany, Goneril, and Soldiers. 

Gon. I had rather lofe the battle, than that fitter 
Should loofen him and me. \_Afule. 

Alb. Our very loving fitter, well be met. 
* Sir, this I hear, The king is come to his daughter, 


1 bofom'd with her, ] Bofonfd is ufed in this fcnfe by 

Hey wood, in The Fair Maid of the Jfeft, 1631 : 

' We'll crown our hopes and wifties with more pomp 
' And fumptuous coft, than Priam did his fon 
That night he lofonfd Helen." 

Agai i, in Hey wood's Silver Age, 1613 : 

* With fair Alcmena, {he that never bofonfd 

* Mortal, fave thee." STEEVENS. 

* Sir, this / hear, to-make oppofe, ] This is a very plain 
fpeech, and the meaning is, The king, and others whom we have 
oppofed are come to Cordelia. I could never be valiant but in a 
juft quarrel. We muft diftinguifh. ; it is juft in one fenfe and 
unjuft in another. As France invades our land I am concerned to 
repel him, but as he holds y entertains, and fupports the king, and 
others ichom I fear many juft and heavy caufes make, or compel, 
as it were, to oppofe us, I efteem it unjuft to engage againft them. 
This fpeech, thus interpreted according to the common reading, 
is likewife very neceflary : "for otherwife Albany, who is cha- 
rafterifed as a man of honour and obferver of juftice, gives no 
reafon for going to war with thofe, whom he owns had been much 
injured under the countenance of his power. Notwithftanding 
this, Mr. Theobald, by an unaccountable turn of thought, reads 
the fourth line thus, 

I never yet was valiant : 'fore this bufinefs, &c. 
1 puts the two lalt lines in a parenthefis, and then paraphrafes the 
whole in this manner. " Sir, it concerns me (though not the 
king and the difcontented party) to queftion about your intereft in 

54* K I N G L E A R. 

With others, whom the rigour of our flare 

Forc'd to cry out '. [Where I could not be honed, 

I never yet was valiant 4 : for this bufinefs, 

It toucheth us as France invades our land, 

5 Not bolds the king ; with others, whom, I fear, 

Moft juft and heavy caufes make oppofe. 

Edm. Sir, you fpeak nobly.] 

Reg. Why is this reafon'd ? 

Gon. Combine together 'gainft the enemy : 
e For thefe domeftic and particular broils 
7 Are not to queftion here. 

Mb. Let us then determine 
With the ancient of war on our proceedings. 

8 Edm. I lhall attend you prefently at your tent. 

Reg. Sifter, you'll go with us ? 

our lifter, and the event of the war.*' What he means by this I 
am not able to find out ; but he gives a reafon why his reading 
and fenfe fhould be preferred. And Regan and Goncril in their 
replies feem both apprehenjlve that thisfubjefl ivas coming into delate. 
Now all that we can colleft from their replies is, that they were 
apprehenfive he was going to blame their cruelty to Lear, Glof- 
ter, and others ; which it is plain from the common reading and 
the fenfe of the laft line, he was. 

Moft juft and heavy caufes make oppofe. WARBURTON. 
3 What is within, the crotchets is omitted in the folio. 


* Wiser e I could not be honeft, 

I never yet ivas valiant : ] 

This fentiment has already appear'd in Cymbeliae : 
Thou may 1 ft be valiant in a letter caufe y 
But fftf-iu thoufei-m'jl a co-uard. STEEVENS. 

5 Not bolds the khig ; ] The quartos read bolds, and this 

may be the true reading. This lujlnefs (fays Albany) touches us 
as France invades our land, not as it bolds the king, &c. i. e. em- 
boldens him to aHert his former title. Thus in the antient inter- 
lude of Hycke Corner, 

' Alas, that I had not one to bold me !" STEEVENS. 

6 For thffe domeftic and particular broils'} This is the reading of 
the folio. The quartos have it, 

For thefe domeftic doore particulars. STEEVENS. 

7 Are not to queftion here.] Thus the quartos. The tolio reads, 

Are not the queftion here. STEEVENS. 

<.///.] This fpeech 5s wanting in the folio." STEEVENS. 


K I N G L E A R. 545 

Gon. No. 

Reg. 'Tis moft convenient ; pray you, go with us. 

Gon. [Afide.~] O, ho, I know the riddle : I will go. 

As they are going out, enter Edgar difgulfed. 

Edg. If e'er your grace had fpeech with man fo 

Hear me one word. 

Alb. I'll overtake you. Speak. 

[Exeunt Edm. Reg. Gon. and Attendants. 

Edg. Before you fight the battle, ope this letter. 
If you have victory, let the trumpet found 
For him that brought it : wretched though I feem, 
I can produce a champion, that will prove 
What is avouched there : If you mifcarry, 
Your bufinefs of the world hath fo an end, 
And machination ceafes. Fortune love you ! 

Alb. Stay 'till I have read the letter. 

Edg. I was forbid it. 

When time lhall ferve, let but the herald cry, 
And I'll appear again. [Exit. 

Alb. Why, fare thee well ; I will o'erlook thy paper. 

Re-enter Edmund. 

Edm. The enemy's in view, draw up your powers. 
* Here is the guefs of their true ftrength and forces 
By diligent difcovery ; but your hafte 
Is now urg'd on you. 

Alb. * We wHl greet the time. [Exit. 

Edm. To both thefe filters have I fworn my love ; 
Each jealous of the other, as the flung 

9 Here is the gucfs, &c.] The modern editors read, Hard it 
the guefs. So the quartos. But had the difcovery been diligent, 
the guefs could not have proved fo difficult, I have given the 
true reading from the folio. STEEVENS. 

1 We -will greet the time.} We will be ready to meet the oc. 
cafion. JOHNSON. 


I N G L E A R. 

Are of the adder. Which of them fliall I take ? 
Both? one? or neither? Neither can be enjoy'd, 
If both remain alive : To take the widow, 
Exafperates, makes mad her fifler Goneril ; 
And hardly fhall I * carry out my fide, 
Her hufband being alive. Now then, we'll ufe 
His countenance for the battle ; which being done, 
Let her, who would be rid of him, devife 
His fpeedy taking off As for the mercy 
Which he intends to Lear, and to Cordelia, 
The battle done, and they within our power, 
Shall never fee his pardon : J for my ftate 
Stands on me to defend, not to debate. [Exit. 


A field between the two camps. 

Alarum within. Enter, with drum and colours, Lear, 
Cordelia^ and Soldiers over theftage ; and exeunt. 

4 Enter Edgar, and Gkjler. 

Edg. Here, father, take the fhadow of this tree 
For your good hoft ; pray that the right may thrive : 

* carry out my jidc.\ Bring my purpofe to a fuccefsful 

iflue, to completion. Side feems here to have the fenfe of the 
Trench word partic, inprendre partic, to take bis refolutlon. 

So in the Honcft Man's Fortune by B. and Fletcher : 

" and carry out 

" A world of evils with thy title." STEEVENS. 
3 for myftatc 

Stands on me, &c.] 

I do not think that for ftands in this place as a word of inference 
or caufality. The meaning is rather : Such is my determination 
concerning Lear ; as for my ftate it requires novj y not deliberation, 
but defence and fupport. JOHNSON. 

* The reader, who is curious to know how far Shakefpe,are 
was indebted to the Arcadia, will find a chapter entitled, 

'* The pitifull State and Storie of the Paphlagonian unkinde 
King, and his kindeSonne; firft related by the Sonne, then by 
the blind lather." P. 141. edit. 1590. quarto. STEETBNS. 

K I N G L E A R, 545 

If ever I return to you again. 
I'll bring you comfort. 

Glo. Grace go with you, fir ! [Exit Edgar. 

\_Alarum, and retreat within. 

. Re-enter Edgar. 

Edg. Away, old man, give me thy hand, away ; 
King Lear hath loft, he and his daughter ta'en : 
Give me thy hand, come on. 

Glo. No further, fir ; a man may rot even here. 

Edg. What, in ill thoughts again ? Men muft 


Their going hence, even as their coming hither : 
5 Ripenefs is all : Come on. 

Glo. And that's true too 6 . [Exeunt. 


Enter, in conquejl, with drum and colours, Edmund ; 
Lear, and Cordelia, as prifoners ; Soldiers, Captain. 

Edm. Some officers take them away : good guard j 
Until their greater pleafures firft be known 
That are to cenfure them. 

Cor. We are not the firft, 

Who, \vith beft meaning, have incurr'd the worft. 
For thee, opprefled king, am I caft down ; 
Myfelf could elfe out-frown falfe fortune's frown.- 
Shall we not fee thefe daughters, and thefe fifters ? 

Lear. No, no, no, no ! Come, let's away to prilbn ; 
We two alone will fing like birds i' the cage : 

5 Riprnefs is all. ] i. e, To be ready > prepared, is all. 
The fame fentiment occurs in Hamlet, fcene the laft : 

** if it be not now, yet it will come : the readinefi is 

all." STEEVEVS. 
' And that 1 i true too.] Omitted in the quarto. STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. N n When 

54 6 K I N G L E A R. 

When thou doft afk me bleffing, I'll kneel down, 

And aik of thee foigivenefs : So we'll live, 

And pray, and fing, and tell old tales, and laugh 

At gilded butterflies, and hear poor rogues 

Talk of court news ; and we'll talk with them too, 

\Vho lofes, and who wins ; who's in, who's out ; 

7 And take upon us the myftery of things, 

As if we were God's fpies : And we'll wear out, 

In a wall'd prifon, 8 packs and feels of great ones, 

That ebb and flow by the moon. 

Ear;:. Take them away. 

Lear. 9 Upon fuch facrifices, my Cordelia, 
The gods themfelves throw incenfe. Have I caught 

thee ? 

He, that parts us, fhall bring a brand from heaven, 
* And fire us hence, like foxes. Wipe thine eyes ; 

7 And take upon us the my fiery of things, 

As If =ive were Got? s fpies. ] 

As if we were angels commiffioned to furVey and report the lives 
of men, and were confequently endowed with the power of pry- 
ing info the original motives of action and the myfteries of con- 
dud. JOHNSON. 

8 pdAseudfcfh ] Packs is ufed for combinations or 

collection, as is a pack of cards. For fcSls, I think fcts might be 
more commodiouily read. So we lay, affairs are now managed 
by a new fet. Se8, however, may well itand. JOHNSON. 
9 Upon fucbfacrijiccsi my Cordelia, 

The gods themfelves throw incenfe." ] The thought is 
extremely noble, and expreffed in a fublime of imagery that 
Seneca fell fliort of on the like occafion. " Ecce fpeftaculum 
dignum ad quod refpiciat intentus open fuo deus : ecce par deo 
dignum, vir fortis cum mala fortuna compofitus." WARBURTON. 
1 And f re us hence, like foxes. ] I have been informed that it 
is ufual to fmoke foxes out of their holes. 

So, in Harrington's translation of Ariojlo, book xxvii. ftan. 17: 
' Ev'n as a foxe \v\\omfmoke and fire doth fright 
* So as he dare not in the ground remaine, 


g rc 

' Bolts out, and through tacjfafkt and fire he flieth 

Into the tarier's mouth and there he dieth." 
n Every Man out of bis Humour : 
my walk, and all, 

from, as if I were a/w." STEEVE.VS. 


K I N G L E A R. 447 

* The goujeers fhall devour them, J flefh, and fell, 
Erethey fhall makeusweep: we'll fee them ftarvcfirft. 
Come. [Exeunt Lear, and Cordelia, guarded. 

Edm. Come hither, captain ; hark. 
Take thou this note; go, follow them to prifon : 
One flep I have advanc'd thee ; if thou doft 
As this inftructs thee, thou doft make thy way 
To iioble fortunes : Know thou this, that ilien 
Are as the time is : to be tender-minded 
Does not become a fword : *Thy great employment 

' Will 

* Tie goujeers JhaJl devour them, - ] The goujeres, i.e. 
Aforbus Gallicus. Gouge, Fr. iignifies one of the common wo- 
men attending a camp ; and as that diieafe was firft difoerfed over 
Europe by the French army, and the women who followed it, 
the firft name it obtained among us was the gougerics, i. e the 
difeafe of the gouges. HANMER. 

The refolute John Florio has fadly miftaken thefe gonjccrs. He 
ires '* With a good yeare to thee !" and gives it in Italian, 
anno che dio ti dia." FARMER. 

Jlejb and fell,] Flefli and Ikin. JOHNSON-. 

-Aejb and felly] So, Skelton's works, p. 257. 
' Nakydafyde : 

" Neither flcjh nor/-//." 
Chaucer ufes/^/and loues iorftin and bones t 

** And faid that he and all his kinnc at once, 
" Were worthy to be brent with /t7/and fattei* 9 

Troilus and CreJJeiilc. Ga A Y. 

In the Dyafs Play y among the Chefter Collection of Myjlerie^ 
in the Mufeum, Antlchrlft fays : 

" I made thee man of JleJJj and^//." STEEVENS. 

* Thy great employment 

Will not bear qutjllon ; ^-] Mr. Theobald could not 

let this alone, but would alter it to 

li'Iy great employment, 

Becnufe (he fays) the perfon fpoken to was of no higher degree 
than a captain. But he miitakes the meaning of the words. By 
great employment was meant the commljfion given him for the mur- 
dr; and this, the Baftsrd tells us afterwards, was figned by 
Goneril and himfelf. Which was fufficient to make this cap- 
tain vnacceanta&U for the execution. A^AREURTON. 

The meaning, I apprehend, i?, r.ot that the captain wis not 

accountable for what he was about to do, biir, that the important 

buf:ncis he now had in hand, did rot admit of debate : he roult 

N n 2 inftatuly 

54 8 K I N G L E A R. 

Will not bear queftion ; either fay, thou'lt 
Or thrive by other means. 

Copt. I'll do't, my lord. 

Edm. About it; and write happy, whenthou haft 


Mark, I fay, inftantly ; and carry it fo, 
As I have fet it down. 

Copt. s I cannot draw a cart, nor eat dry'd oats ; 
If it be man's work, I will do it. [Exit Capt. 

Flourlfi. Enter Albany, Goneril, Regan, and Soldiers* 

Alb. Sir., you have fhewn to-day your valiant flrain. 
And fortune led you well ; You have the captives 
Who were the oppofites of this day's ftrife : 
We do require them of you ; fo to ufe them, 
As we lhall find their merits and OUT fafety 
May equally determine. 

Edm. Sir, I thought it fit 
To fend the old and mifcrable king 
To fome retention, and appointed guard ; 
Whole age has charms in it, whofe title more y 
To pluck the common bofom on his fide, 
6 And turn our impreft lances in our eyes 
Which do command them. With him I fent the 

queen ; 

My reafon ail the fame ; and they are ready 
To-morrow, or at a further fpacc, to appear 

inftantly refolve to do it, or not. Z^trfion, here, as in many 
other places in thefe plays, fignifies Jifcourfeconverfation. 

See Hamlet, a5t I : " Thou com'it in fuch a fiigjf*M0&ihape." 
and the note there. M ALONE. 

* I cannot draw, &c.J Thelc two lines I have reflored 'from 
the old quarto. STEEVENS. 

6 And turn our impreft lances in onreyet^] \. e. Turn thezc^ 
men which are prefid into our fervice, againit us. 

So, in Antony and Cleopatra, a<ft III. fc. vii : 

" people 

** Ingroft by fwift imprej?' STEEVENS. 


KING L E A , R. 549 

Where you ihall hold your feffion. [ 7 At this time, 
We fweat, and bleed : the friend hath loft his friend ; 
And the beft quarrels, in' the heat, are curs'd 

By thofe that feel their fharpnefs : 

The queftion of Cordelia, and her father, 

* Requires v a fitter place.] 

Alb. Sir, by your patience, 
I hold you but a fubjedt of this war, 
Not as a brother. 

Reg. That's as we lift to grace him. 
Methinks, our plea fu re might have been demanded, 
Ere you had fpoke lo far. He led our powers ; 
9 Bore the commiflion of my place and perfon ; 
1 The which immediacy may well ftand up, 
And call itfelf your brother. 

Con. Not fo hot : 

* In his own grace he doth exalt himfclf, 
More than in your advancement. 

Reg. In my rights, 
By me inverted, he compeers the beft. 

Alb. That were the moft, if he fhould huiband you. 

Reg. Jcfters do oft prove prophets. 

Gon. Holla, holla ! 
That eye, that told you fo, look'd but a-fquint *. 

7 At tbh time, &c.] This paflage, well worthy of reiteration, 
is omitted in the folio. JOHNSON. 

8 Requires a fitter place. ~\ i.e. The determination of the quef- 
tion what fnall be done with Cordelia and her rather, fhould be 
referred for greater privacy. STEEVENS. 

9 Bore the commiffion of ] Comm'JJion, for authority. 


1 T/JC ivZ>;V/> immediacy ] Immediacy, for reprefentation. 


Immediacy is rather fuprcmacy in oppofition to fubordination^ 
which has quiddam medium between iticlr" and power. JOHNSON. 

1 In bis <Kcn grace ] Grace here means accomplijbments, or 

honours. STEEVENS. 

3 The eye that told you fa, lootfd lut a-fqulnt."] Alluding to the 
proverb : " Love being jealous makes a good eye look af^uint" 
tJce Ray's Collcfticn. STEEVENS. . 

N n 3 Reg. 


Reg. Lady, I am not well ; elfe I mould anfwer 
From a full-flowing fibmach. General, 
Take thou my ibldiers, prifoners, patrimony ; 
Difpofe of them, 'of me ; 4 the walls are thine : 
Wirnefs the world, that I create thee here 
My lord and mailer. 

Gon. Mean you to enjoy him ? 

Ml. * The let alone lies not in your good will, 

Edm. Nor in thine, lord. 

Alb. Half-blooded fellow, yes. 

Reg. Let the drum ftrike, and prove my title thine. 

Alb. Stay yet ; hear reafon : Edmund, I arreft 


On capital treafon; and, in thy arreft 6 , [Pointing to Gon. 
This gilded ferpent : for your claim, fair filler, 
I bar it in the intereft of my wife ; 
'Tis me is fub- contracted to this lord, 
And I, her hulband, contradict your banes. 
If you will marry, make your love to me, 
My lady is befpoke. 

Gon. 7 An interlude J 

'Mb. Thou art arm'd^ Glofler : Let the trumpet 

found : 

If none appear to prove upon thy pcrfoa* 
Thy heinous, manifeft, and many treafons, 
fhere is my pledge \ I'll prove it on thy heart, 

* ' the walls are tkine ;~\ A metaphorical phrafc taken from 
the camp, and lignifying, to furrender at difirciion. But the 
P^ford Editor, for a plain reafon alters it to : 

. tlty all are thine. WAR BURTON. 

? The let alone lia not in your good will. ] Whether he ftiall not 
p; (hall depends not on your choice. JOHNSON-. 

6 tly arrcjl.'} The quartos read thine attaint. 


7 An interlude ! ] This fliort exclamation of Goneril is 

added in the folio edition, 1 fuppofe, only to break the fpeech 
of Albany, that the exhibition on the ftage might be more dif- 
jrir.'ft and intelligible. JOHN-SON. 

1 .? -dy perfon.] The quartos read thy btad. STEEVENS. 



Ere I tafte bread, thou art in nothing lefs 
Than I have here proclaim'd thee. 

Reg. Sick, O, fick ! 

Gon. If not, I'll ne'er truft 9 poifon. \_Afide. 

Edm. There's my exchange : what in the world 

he is 

That names me traitor, villain-like he lies : 
Call by thy trumpet : he that dares approach, 
On him, on you, (who not ?) I will maintain 
My truth and honour firmly. 

Alb. A 'herald, ho ! 

Edm. A herald, ho, a herald ' ! 

Rnter a Plerald. 

Alb. Trufl to thy iingle virtue ; for thy foldiers, 
All levied in my name, have in my name 
Took their difcharge. 

Reg. This ficknefs grows upon me. 

Alb. She is not well ; convey her to my tent. 

[Exit Regan, led. 

Come hither, herald, Let the trumpet found, 
And read out this. 

Copt. Sound trumpet 2 . [A trumpet founds. 

Herald reads. 

If any man of quality, or degree, J w';tin the lifts of 
tie army, will maintain upon Edmund, fuppofid earl of 
Glojler, that he is a manifold traitor, let him appear by 
the third found of the trumpet : He is bold in his defence. 

9 poifon.1 The folio reads medicine. STEEVEXS. 

_ a herald.] This fpeech I have reftored from the quartos, 

* Sound trumpet."] I have added this from the quartos. 


3 . within the lifts of the army, ] The quartos read : 

within the bojl of the army. STEEVENS. 

N n 4 Edm. 


. Sound. [i trumpet* 

Her. Again. [2 trumpet. 

H.r, Again. [3 trumpet* 

[Trumpet anfwers, within* 

Enter Edgar, armed. 

'Alb. Aik him his purpofes, why he appears 
Upon this call o' the trumpet. 

Her. What are you? 

Your name, your quality? and why you anfwer 
This prefent fummons ? 

Edg. Know, my name is loft ; 
By treafon's tooth bare-gnawn, and canker-bit : 
Yet am I noble % as the adverfary 
I come to cope withal, 

Alb. Which is that adverfary ? 

Edg. What's he, that fpeaks for Edmund earl of 
Glofter ? 

Etim. Himfelf ; What fay 'ft thou to him ? 

Edg. Draw thy fword ; 
That, if my fpeech offend a noble heart, 
Thy arm may do thee juilice : here is mine. 
. 3 Behold, it is the privilege of mine honours, 


ft Tct am I nolle, c.] One of the quartos reads : 
yet fire Imorft 

IVljcre is the adverfhrie I come to cope withal ? 
i are I moiSt, is, I fuppofe, a corruption of ere I move it, 

3 Behold, it is the privilege of mine boncurs^ 

My oath) and my profejjion. ] 

The charge he is here going to bring againft the Baftard, lie 
calls the privilege, &c. To underfland which phrafeelogy, \ve 
muft confider thut the old rites of knighthood are here alluded to ; 
whofe oath and profeffion required him to tlifcovcr all treafons, 
and whofe privilege it was to have his challenge accepted, or 
othenvife to have his charge taken pro confejjb. For if one who 
was no knight accufed another who was, that other was under no 
obligation to accept the challenge, On this account it was ne- 


K I N G L E A R. 553 

My oath, and my profeffion : I proteft, 
Maugre thy flrength, youth, place, and eminence, 
Befpight thy vidtor fword, and fire-new fortune, 
Thy valour, and thy heart, thou art a traitor : 
Falfe to thy gods, thy brother, and thy father ; 

4 Confpirant *gainft this high illuftrious prince; 
And, from the extremeft upward of thy head. 
To the defcent and dull beneath thy feet, 

A moll toad-fpotted traitor. Say thou, No 9 
This fword, this arm, and my beft fpirits, are bent 
To prove upon thy heart, whereto I fpeak, 
Thou Heft. 

Edm. In wifdom, I ihould afk thy name ; 
But, fince thy out-fide looks fo fair and warlike, 

5 And that thy tongue fome fay of breeding breathes, 
What fafe and nicely I might well delay 

cefftry, as Edgar came difguifed, to tell the Baltard he was a 
knight. WAR BUR TON. 

*l'he privilege of this oath means the privilege gained by tak- 
ing the oath adminitiered in the regular initiation of a knight 
profefled. JOHNSON. 

The quartos read, it is the privilege of my tongue. STEEVENS. 

* Confpirant 'gaitift ] The quartos read : 

Confpicuate 'gainft STKEVENS. 

5 An d that thy tongue "fame 'fay cf I reading breathes ; ] 'Say, for 
fjfy, fome ftew or probability. POPE. 
Pay is fample, a tafte. So, in Sidney : 
11 So good ^.fay invites the eye 

" A little downward to efpy " 

Again, in the Preface to Maurice Kyffin's tranfiation of the 
Andria of Terence, 1588 : 

' Some other like places I could recite, but thefe (hall fuf- 
fice for a/?y." 
Again, in Revenge for Henour y by Chapman : 

*' But pray do not 

" Take the i\r(\fay of her yourfelves " 

Again, in The Unnatural Combat, by Mallinger : 

*' or to take 

** Ay^ry of venifon or dale fowl " 

Again, in Holinjbe^ p. 847 : " He (C. Wolfe}-) made dulc 
SUid erles to ferve him of wine t with a//y taken, &c." 


554 K I N G L E A R. 

By rule of knighthood, I difdain and fpurn : 
Back do I tofs thefe treafons to thy head ; 
With the hell-hated lie overwhelm thy heart ; 
Which, (for they yet glance by, and fcarcely bruife) 
This fvvord of mine fhall give them inflant way, 
Where they fhall reft for ever. Trumpets, fpeak. 

[Alarm. Fight. Edmund falls. 
6 Alb. Save him, fave him ! 

Gon. This is mere practice, Glofter : 
By the law of arms, 7 thou waft not bound to anfwe? 
An unknown oppofite ; thou art not vanquiih'd, 
But cozen'd and beguil'd. 

Alb. Shut your mouth, dame, 
Or wjth this paper fhall I flop it : Hold, fir : 
Thou worfe than any name, read thine own evil : 
No tearing, lady ; I perceive, you know it, 

[Gives the letter to Edmund. 

Gon. Say, if I do ; the laws are mine, not thine ; 
Who lhall arraign me for't ? 

Alb. 8 Monfter, know'ft thou this paper ? 

Gon. Afk me not what I know. \Exit Gon, 

f Alb. Save him, fave him ! 

Gop. This is mere pra&ice, Glofter :] 

Thus all the copies ; but I have ventured to place the two he- 
miftichs to Goneril. 'Tis abfurd that Albany, who knew Ed- 
mund's treafons, and his own wife's paffion for him, fhould be 
folicitous to have his life faved. THEOBALD. 

He defired that Edmund's life might be fpared at prefent, 
only to obtain his confeflion, and to convict him openly by his 
own letter. JOHNSON. 

7 ttiffu waft not lound to anfivcr] One of the quartos reads ; 

thou art not bound to offer, &c. STEEVENS. 

Moajlcr, knovJ'ft jkou this paper?} So the quarto; but the 
folio : 

Moftmonftrous! O, know'ft thou, &c. JOHNSON. 
" Knoweft thou thefe letters?" fays Leir to Ragan, in the 
old anonymous play, when he (hews her both her own and 
her filter's letters, which were written to procure his death. 
Upon which (he {hatches the letters and tears them. 



Alb. Go after her ; fhe's defperate ; govern her. 

Edm. What you have charg'd me with, that I 

have done ; 

And more, much more : the time will bring it out ; 
'Tis paft, and fo am I : But what art thou, 
Tbat haft this fortune on me ? If thou art noble, 
I do forgive thee. 

dg. ' Let us exchange chanty. 
I am no lefs in blood than thou art, Edmund ; 
If more, the more thou haft wrong'd me. 
My name is Edgar, and thy father's fon. 
The gods are juft, and of our plealant vices 
Make inftruments z to fcourge us : 
The dark and vicious place where thee he got, 
Coft him his eyes. 

Edm. Thou haft fpoken right, Yis true ; 
The wheel is come $ full circle; I am here. 

Alb. Methought, thy very gait did prophefy 
A royal noblenefs : I muft embrace thee ; 
Let forrow fplit my heart, if ever I 
Did hate thee, or thy father ! 

Edg. Worthy prince, I know it. 

jttb. Where have you hid yourfelf? 
HOW have you known the miferies of your father ? 

Edg. By nurlingthem, my lord. Lift a brief tale; 
And, when 'tis told, O, that my heart would burft ! * 
The bloody proclamation to efcape, 
That follow'd me fo near, (O our lives' fwcetnefs ! 

1 Let us exchange charity. ] Our author by negligence gives his 
heathens the fentiments and practices or" chrillianity. In Ham- 
Jet there is the fame folemn aft of final reconciliation, but with 
exaft propriety, for the perfonages are Chriftians : 

*' Exchange forgivenefs with me, noble Hamlet, &c." 


* to fiourgr us:] Thus the quartos. The folio reads : 

-to jMgtrf a*. STEEVENS. 

' - full circle ; - ] Quarto, full circ 'led. JOHNSO.V, 


556 K I N G L E A R. 

* That we the pain of death would hourly bear, 
Rather than die at once !) taught me to fhift 
Into a mad-man's rags ; to aflame a femblance 
That very dogs difdain'd : and in this habit 
Met I my father with his bleeding rings, 
Their precious ftones new loft ; became his guide, 
Led him, begg'd for him, fav'd him from defpair j 
Never (O fault!) reveal'd myfelf unto him. 
Until fome half hour paft, when I was arm'd, 
Not fure, though hoping, of this good fuccefs, 
I afk/d his bleffing, and from firft to laft 
Told him my pilgrimage : But his flaw'd heart, 
(Alack, too weak the conflict to fupport !) 
'Twixt two extremes of paflion, joy and grief, 
Burft fmilingly. 

Edm. This fpeech of yours hath mov'd me, 
And {hall, perchance, do good : but fpeak you on \ 
You lopk as you had fomething more to fay. 

Alb. If there be more, more xvoeful, hold it in ; 
For I am almoft ready to diflblve, 
Hearing of this. 

[ $ Edg. 6 This would have fecm'd a period 


* 77v*/ iut the pain of, death "Mould hourly bear, 
Rather than die at cnce) ] 

The folio reads, 

That iue the pain of death would hourly /&V, 
Mr. Pope, whom I have followed, reads, 

would hourly Lear. 

The quartos give the paflTage thus : 

That with the pain of death would hourly dle % 

Rather than die at once) STEEVENS. 

5 Edg.] The lines between crotchets are not in the folio. 


* 7%/j ivould have fcen? d a period 
Tofuch as love not farrovj : but another, 

7"o amplify too much, would make much more, 

Aid top extremity ! 

The reader eafily lees that this reflection refers to the Badard's 
defiring to hear more j and to Albany's thinking he had faid 



To fuch as love not forrow ; but, another ; 
To amplify too-much, would make much more, 

And top extremity : 

Whilft I was big in clamour, came there in a man, 
Who having feen me in my worft eflate, 
Shunn'd my abhorr'd fociety ; but then, finding 
Who 'twas that fo endur'd, with his ftrong arms 
He faften'd on my neck, and bellow'd out 
As he'd burft heaven ; 7 threw him on my father ; 
Told the moft piteous tale of Lear and him, 
That ever ear receiv'd : which in recounting, 
His grief grew puiflant, and the firings of life 
Began to crack : Twice then the trumpet founded, 
And there I left him tranc'd. 

Alb. But who was this ? 

Edg. Kent, fir, the banifn'd Kent ; who in difguife 
Follow'd his enemy king, and did him fervice 
Improper for a flave.] 

enough. But it is corrupted into miferable nonfenfe. We fhoul<J 
read it thus : 

This would have feem'd a period. But fuch 

As love to -amplify another's forrow, 

To much, would make much more, and top extremity. 
i. e. This to a common humanity would have been thought the 
utmolt of my fufferings ; but fuch as love cruelty are always for 
adding much to more, till they reach the extremity of mifery. 


The fenfe may probably be this. This --.wu/J l>ave feemeJ a 
period to fucb as love not forro*iv ', but, another^ i.e. but I mulk 
add another, i. e. another period, another kind of conclufion to 
my ftorv, fuch as will increafe the horrors of what has been al- 
ready told. 
So in King Richard II: 

I play the torturer, by fmall and fmall, 

To lengthen out the worft- STEEVENS, 

7 threw him on my father ;] The quartos read, 

' ' threw me on my father." 

The modern editors have corrected the paflage, as it is nowr 
printed. STEEYENS. 


K I N (i LEAR. 

Enter a Gentleman baftily, with a bloody knife* 

Gent. Help! help! O help ! 

Edg. What kind of help ? 

Alb. Speak, man. 

Edg. What means this bloody knife ? 

Gent. 'Tis hot, it fmoaks ; 
It came even from the heart of O ! fhe's dead * ! 

Alb. Who, man ? fpeak '. 

Gent. Your lady, fir, your lady : and her fifter 
By her is poifon'd ; ihe hath confefs'd it. 

Edm. I was contracted to them both ; all three 
Now marry in an inflant. 

JLnter Kent. 

'Alb. Produce the bodies, be they alive or dead !-* 

[Goner il and Regan's bodies brought out. 

This judgment ' of the heavens, that makes us 

Touches us not with pity. 

Edg. * Here comes Kent, fir. 

Alb. O ! is this he ? The time will not allow 
The compliment which very manners urge. 

Kent. I am come 

To bid my king and mafter aye good night ; 
Is he not here ? 

Alb. Great thing of us forgot ! > 

8 O ! fo * Head !~\ Omitted In the quartos. STEEVEN-*. 

W?jo, man, fpeak f} The folio -reads, Who dead? fpeak 

' Tins judgment, &c.] If Shakefpeare had ftudied Anftotle all 
his life, he \vould not perhaps have been able to mark with more 
precifion the diiunct operations of terror vaApity. TTRWHIT'fv 

a Here comet Kent, Jir.] The manner in which Edgar here 
mentions Kent, feems to require the lines which are inlerted from 
the firft edition in the foregoing icene. JOHNSON-, 


KING LEAR. $ 59 

Speak, Edmund, where's the king ? and whore's 

Cordelia ? 
See'ft thou this object, Kent ? 

Kent. Alack, why thus ? 

Edm. Yet Fdmund was belov'd : 
The one the other poifon'd for my fake, 
And after flew herfelf. 

Alb. Even fo. Cover their faces. 

Edm. I pant for life : Some good I mean to do, 
Defpight of mine own nature. Quickly fend, 
Be brief in it, to the cattle ; for my writ 
Is on the life of Lear, and on Cordelia : 
Nay, fend in time. 

Alb. Run, run, O, run 

Edg. To whom, my lord ? Who has the office ? 

Thy token of reprieve. 

Edm. Well thought on ; take my fword, 
3 Give it the captain. 

Edg. Hafte thee for thy life. [Exit Mffinger* 

Edm. He hath commifHon from thy wife and me 
To hang Cordelia in the prifon, and 
To lay the blame upon her own defpair, 
* That.fhe fordid herfelf. 

AW. The gods defend her ! Bear him hence awhile. 

{Edmund h borne of. 

Enter Lear, with J Cordelia dead in his arms. 

Lear. Howl, howl, howl, howl ! O, you are 
men of ftones ; 


* Give it the captain.'} The quartos read : 

Take my fword, the captain, 
Give it the captain. STEEVENS. 

* That fie fordid her/elf. \ To forJo t lignifies to deftroy. It 
U ufed again in Hamlet, aft V : 

" : did, with defperate hand, 

" Fordo his own life. 1 STEEVENS. 

5 Corddia dead in bit arms.'] This priucefs, according 



560 K I N G L A &. 

Had I your tongues and eyes, I'd ufe them fo 
That heaven's vault Ihould crack : O, Ihe is gone 

for ever ! 

I know when one is dead, and when one lives ; 
She's dead as earth : Lend me a looking-glafs ; 
If that her breath will mill or ftain the ftone, 
Why, then ihe lives. 

Kent. Is this the promis'd end ? 

Edg. 6 Or image of that horror ? 

M. 7 Fall, and ceafe ! 

to the old hiftorians, retired with viftory frorfi the battle which 
fhe conduced in her father's caufe, and thereby replaced him on 
the throne : but in a fubfequent one fought Bgainft her (after 
the death of the old king) by the Ions of Goneril and Regan^ 
flic was taken, and died miferably in prifon. The poet found 
this in hiflory, and was therefore willing to precipitate her 
death, which he knew had happened but a few years after. The 
dramatic writers of this age fuffercd as fmall a number of their 
heroes and heroines to efcape as pofiible ; nor could the filial piety 
of this lady, any more than the innocence of Ophelia, prevail on, 
Shakefpeare to extend her life beyond her misfortunes. STEEVENS. 

6 Or image, &c.~] Thefe two exclamations are given to Edgar 
and Albany in the folio, to animate the dialogue, and employ 
all the perlbns on the ftagej but they are very obfcure. JOHXSON. 

Or image of that horror?] In the firll folio this fliort ipeech of 
Edgar (which feems to be only an addition to the preceding one 
of Kent) has a full ftop at the end. Is this condition, fays Kent, 
fuch at the prefent turn of affairs fcemcd to promfe ? Or is it only, 
replies Edgar, a reprcfentation of that horror ivaich ivefuppofe to be 
real? A fimilar expreflion occurs at the beginning of the play. 
/ have told you nubat 1 have fcen and beard, but faintly ; nothing 
like, the image and horror*?/"//. STEEVEMS. 

7 Fall, and ceafc /] This exclamation of Albany, like the 
other, may have a meaning affixed to it. He is looking with at- 
tention on the pains employed by Lear to recover his child, and 
knows to what miferies he muft furvive, when he finds them ta 
}>e ineffeftual. Having thefe images prefuit to his eyes and ima- 
gination, he cries out, Rather fall, and ceafc to be, at once, than 
continue in exigence only to be wretcbcd. So, in All's Well, &c. to 
teafe is ufed for to die : and in Hamlet, the death of imjeily is 
called " the ceafe of majcity." 

Again, in AW* Well t bat Ends Well: 

** Or, ere they meet, in me, O nature, ceafc ! 

" Both 

K I N G L E A R. 56! 

Lear. This feather flirs 8 ; flie lives ! if it be fo, 
It is a chance that does redeem all forrows 
That ever I have felt. 

Kent. O my good maflcr ! [Kneelin<r t 

Lear. Pr'ythee, away. 

Edg. 'Tis noble Kent, your friend. 

Lear. A plague upon you, murderers, traitors all ! 
I might have fav'd her ; now ihe's gone for ever I- 
Cordelia, Cordelia, flay a little. Ha-! 
What is't thou iay'il ? Her voice was ever foft, 
Gentle, and low ; an excellent thing in woman : 
I kill'd the ilave that was a hanging thee. 

Gent. 'Tis true, my lords, he did. 

Lear. Did I not, fellow ? 
I have feen the day 9 , with my good biting faul- 


I would have made them fkip : I am old now, 
And thefe fame crofles fpoil me. Who are you ? 
Mine eyes are none o' the beft : I'll tell you ftraight. 

Kent. If fortune brag of two fhe lov'd and hated, 
One of them we behold. 

" Both fuffer under this complaint you bring, 
" And both (hall ceqfe t without your remedy." 


* 77.ns feather fiirs ; ] So, in Vittoria Corombona, 1612: 
*' Fetch a looking-glafs, fee if his breath will not {rain it ; or 
pull fame feathers from my pillow, and lay them to his lips." 

9 I have feen the day, ivitb my good liting faulcbion 

I would have made tbemjkip ] 

It is difficult for an author who never perufes his firft works, to 
avoid repeating fome of the fame thoughts in his later productions. 
What Lear has juft faid, had been anticipated by Juftice Shallow 
in the Merry Wives of Wmdfor : " I have feen the time with 
my long fword I would have made you four tall fellows Ikip like 
rats." It is again repeated in Othello: 

" I have feen the day 

*' That with this little arm and this good fword 
" I have made my way, &c." STEEVENS. 

VOL. IX. O o Lear'. 


Lear. l This is a dull fight : Are you not Kent ? 

Kent. The fame ; your fervant Kent : 
Where is your fervant Caius ? 

Lear. He's a good fellow, I can tell you that ; 
He'll ftrike, and quickly too : He's dead and rotten, 

Kent. No, my good lord ; I am the very man ; 

Lear. I'll fee that ftraight. 

Kent. That, from your firft * of difference and decay, 
Have follow'd your fad fleps. 

Lear. You are welcome hither. 

Kent. Nor no man elfe; all's checrlefs, dark, and 


Your eldeft daughters have 3 fore-doom'd themfelves-, 
And defperately are dead. 

Lear. Ay, fo I think. 

Alb. He knows not what he fays * ; and vain it is 
That we prefent us to him. 

</-. Very bootlefs. 

Eater a Meflenger, 

Mef. Edmund is dead, my lord. 
AW. That's but a trifle here. 

1 Tils is a dull fight. ] This pafiage is wanting in the 

quartos. STEEVENS. 

z of difference and decay,] Decay for misfortunes. 

The quartos read : 

That from your life of difference and decay. STEEVENS. 

3 fore-doom'd tbemfel'ves,] Thus the quartos. The 
folio reads, fordone. 

Have fore-doomed themfelves is have anticipated their own doom. 
To fordo is to deitruy.. So, in Taylor, the water-poet's chanidtcr 
of a & rum pet : 

** So defperately had ne'ctfortbne themfelves." 
Again, in A Warning for feilre Women, &c. 1599 : " Speak ; 
who has done this deed ? thou halt \\otfordone thyleu, hail thou ?" 


4 /.* fays.] The quartos read heyi-, which may be 

light. STEVENS. 



You lords, and noble friends, know our intent. 

5 What comfort to .this great decay may come, 
Shall be npply'd : For us, we will refign, 
During the life of this old majefty, 

To him our abfolute power : You, to your rights ; 

[To Edgar. 

6 With boot, and fuch addition as your honours 
Have more than merited. All friends Ihall tafte 
The wages of their virtue, and all foes 

The cup of their defervings. O, fee, fee ! 

Lear. "' And my poor fool is hang'd ! No, no, 

no life : 

Why fhould a dog, a horfe, a rat have life, 
And thou no breath at all ? O, thou wilt come no 


Never, never, never, never, never ! 
8 Pray you, undo this button : Thank you, fir. - 


5 M^at comfort to this great decay, may come,'} Decay, for dc- 
fohtion. A\ T AR BUR TON. 

This great decay is Lear, whom Shakefpeare poetically calls 
fo, and means the faire as if he had faid, t&is piece of decayed 
royalty, this ruin \l majefiy. STEEVENS. 

6 With bool\ ] With advantage, with increafe. JOHNSON. 

7 And my poor fool is hang d! - ] This is an expreffion of 
tendernefs for his dead Cordelia (not his fool, as Ibme have 
thought) on whofe lips ht is ft ill- intent, and dies away while 
he is fearching for life there* STESV^NS. 

8 Prayyou^ undo this button.- ] The rev. Dr. J. Warton ju- 
dicioufly obferves, that the twelling and heaving of the heart is 
defcribed by this moil expreffive circuaiftance. 

SD, in the Honejl Lawyer, 1619: 
oh my heart !- 



It beats fo it has broke my buttons." 
L A'. Richard III : 

Ah, cut my lace afunder, 

That my pent heart may have fome fcope to beat, 

Or elfe I fwoon with this dead-killing news !" 
i The