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O F 


VOL. X. 



O F 








Printed for C. Bathurft, W. Strahan, J. F. and C. Rivingtcn, 
J. Hinton, L. Davis, W.Owen, T. CaGon, E. Johnfon, S. Crowder, 
B. White, T. Longman, B. Law, E. and C. Dilly, C. Corbett, 
T. Caiieli, H. L. Gardner, J. Nichols, J. Bew, J. Beecroft, 
W. Stuart, T. Lowndes, J. Robfon, T. Payne, T. Becket, 
F. Nswbery, G. Robinfon, R. Baldwin, J. Williams J. Ridley 
T. Evans, W.Davies, W. Fox, and J. Murray. 


R O M E O 



VOL. X. 


*~T* > WO ban/holds , both alike in dignity , 

In fair Verona, where we lay our fcene, 
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, 

Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. 
From forth the fatal loins of thefe two foes 

A pair of ft ar -croft lovers take their life ; 
Wbofe mifadventur'd piteous overthrows 

Do, with their death, bury their parents' ftrife. 
T'he fearful pajjagc of their death-marked love, 

And the continuance of their parents' rage, 
Which, but their children** end, nought could remove, 

Is now the two hours' trajpck of our ft age ; 
The which if you with patient ears attend* 
What berejhall mifs, our toiljhallftrive to mend*. 

* This prologue, after the firftcopv was published in 1597, re- 
ceived feveral alterations, both in reipCiTtof correchiefs and rerli- 

fication. In the tolio it is omitted. The play was originally 

performed by the Right Honourable ibz Lonl of Hunfdon bisfervants. 

In the fir'ir. of K. James I. was made an ad of" parliament for 
fome reftraint or limitation of noblemen in the prote&iou oi" 
players, or of players under their fan&ion. STEEVENS. 


Perfons Reprefented. 

E S C A L U S, Prince of Verona. 

Paris, Kinfman to the Prince. 

Montague, ~\ Heads of two Houfes, at variance with 

Cap u let, J each other. 

Romeo, Son to Montague. 

Tybalt, Kinfman to Capulet. 
An old Man, his Coufin. 
Friar Lawrence, a Francifcan. 
Friar John, of the fame order. 
Balthaiar, Servant to Romeo. 

Sampfon,| Servants to Capulet. 


Abram, Servant to Montague. 

Three Mujicians. 


ady Montague, Wife to Montague. 

Lady Capulet, Wife to Capulet. 

Juliet, Daughter to Capulet, in love with Romeo. 

Nurfe to Juliet. 

CHORUS,- Page, Boy to Paris, an Officer, an 

Citizens of Verona, fever al Men and Women, relations 
to both Houfes ; Majkers, Guards, Watch and other 

The SCENE, in the beginning of the fifth ai, is in 
Mantua j during all the reft of the play, at Verona. 



Enter Sampfon, and Gregory, two fervants of Capukt, 

Sam. Gregory, o' my word, * we'll not carry coals. 
Greg. No, for then we fhould be colliers. 


1 The ftory on which this play is founded, is related as a true 
one in Glrolamo de ia Cortes Hiftory of Ferona. It was originally 
publi(hed by an anonymous Italian novelift in 1549 at Venice; 
and again in i3, at the lame place. The firft edition of Ban- 
dello's work appeared a year later than the laft of thefe already 
mentioned. Pierre Boifteau copied it with alterations and ad- 
ditions. Belleforeft adopted it in the firft volume of his collection 
1596; but very probably fome edition of it yet more ancient 


* we'll not carry coals.} Dr. Warburton very juftly obferves, 
that this was a phrafe formerly in ufe to fignify the bearing injuries', 
but, as he has given no inflances in fupport of his declaration, I 
thought it neceflarv to fubjoin the following : 

Nafh, in his Have ivitb you to Saffron WaUen, \ 9^, fays : 
" We will bear no coles, I warrant you." So, Skelton : 

_ , y ou> i f ay> Julian, 

" Wyll you be are ho coks?" 

So, in Marfton's Antonio and Mellida, 2nd part, 1602: " He; 
has had wron^, and if I were he, / would bear no coles.' 1 
SOfinLavj Tricks , or, H7jo would have thought it? a comedy, 
by John Day, 1608 : " I'll carry coals an you will, no horns." 
Again, in May Day, a comedy by Chapman, 1610: " You 
muft Iwear by no man's beard but your own, for that may 
breed a quarrel: above all things, you muft carry no coals.'" 
And again, in the fame play : " Now my ancient being a 
man of an vn-coal-tarryir.g Ipirit, &.** Again, in B. JonfonV 
B 3 Every 


Sam. I mean, an we be in choler, we'll draw. 
Greg. Ay, while you live, draw your neck out of 
the collar. 


had found its way abroad ; as, in this improved ftate, it was tranf- 
lated into Englifh, and publifhed in an octavo volume 1562, but 
without a name. On this occafion it appears in the form of a 
poem entitled, The tragicall Hiftorie of Romrus ami Juliet. It was 
republifhed in 1587, under the fame title : *' Conforming in it a 
rare Example of true Ccnft ancle: with the fubtill Counjels andPrac- 
tifes of an old Fryer, and their Event. Imprinted by R. Robinfon" 
Among the entries on the Books of the Stationers' Company, I 
find Feb. 18, 1582. M. Tottell] Romeo and Julctta." Again 
Aug. 5, 1596: " Edward White] a new ballad of Romeo and 
Juliett? The fame ftory is found in The Palace of Pleafure : 
however, Shakelpeare was not entirely indebted to Painter's 
epitome ; but rather to the poem already mentioned. Stanyhurft, 
the translator of Virgil in 1582, enumerates Julietta among his 
heroines, in a piece which he calls an Epitaph, or Commune 
Defundtorum : and it appears (as Dr. Farmer has obferved), from 
a pailage in Ames's Typographical Antiquities, that the ftory had 
likewiie been tranflated by another hand. Captain Breval in his 
Travels tells us, that he law at Verona the tomb of thefe unhappy 
lovers. STEEVENS. 

This ftory was well known to the Englifh poets before the time 
of Shakefpeare. In an old collection of poems, called " A gorgeous 
i ' galley of ' gallant Inventions, 1578," 1 find it mentioned: 
" Sir Romeu* annoy but trirle leems to mine." 


Every Man out of bis Humour : " Here comes one that will 
carry coals \ ergo, will hold my dog." And, laftly, in the poet's 
own Hen V : " At Calais they llole a firefhovel ; I knew by 
that niece of fervice the men would carry coals" Again, in 
t'ie Malcontent, 4604., 

" Great ilaves fear better than love, born naturally for a 
coal-bajket." STECVENS. 
- cany coah^ 

This phrale continued to be in ufe down to the middle of the 
laft century. In a little iatirical piece of Sir John Birkenhead, 
intitled, " Two centuries [of Books] ot St. Paul's Church- 
yard, c." publilhed after the death of K. Cha. I. N 22. 
page 50, is inferred " Fire, Fire! a fmall manual, dedicated to 
Sir Arthur Hafelridge; in which it is plainly proved by a 
whole chauldron of icripture, that John Lilburn will not 
coals" By Dr. Gouge. PERCY. 


.Sam. I ftrike quickly, being mov'd. 

Greg. But thou art not quickly mov'd to ftrike. 

Sam. A dog of the houfe of Montague moves me. 

Greg. To move, is to ftir; and to be valiant, 
is to fland to it : therefore, if thou art mov'd, thou 
runn'ft away* 

Sam. A dog of that houfe (hall move me to 
ftand : I will take the wall of any man or maid of 

Qreg. That ftiews thee a weak flave; for the 
tveakeft goes to the wall. 

Sam. True; and therefore women, being the weaker 
vefTels, are ever thruft to the wall : therefore I will 
pufti Montague's men from the wall, and thruft his 
maids to the wall. 

Greg. The quarrel is between our m afters, and us 
their men. 

Sam. 'Tis all one, I will mew myfelf a tyrant: 
when I have fought with the men, I will be s cruel 
with the maids ; I will cut off their heads. 

Greg. The heads of the maids ? 

$am. Ay, the heads of the maids, or their maiden- 
heads; take it in what fenfe thou wilt. 

Greg. They muft take it in fenfe, that feel it. 

Sam. Me they lhall feel, while I am able to (land ; 
and, 'tis known, I am a pretty piece of flefn. 

Greg. *Tis well, thou art not filh ; if thou hadft, 

And aejain, Rovxus and jFuIiefare celebrated in " A poor Knight 
his Palace of private Pleafures, 1579." 

I quote thefe paflages for the fake of obferving, that, if Shake- 
fpeare had not read Painter's tranflation, it is not likely that he 
would have altered the name to Rot?ieo. There was another novel 
on the fubjeft by L. da Porto ; which has been lately printett at 
Venice. FARMER. 

The two entries which I have quoted from the books at Sta- 
tioners' Hall, may poffibly difpofe Dr. Farmer to retracV his 
obfervatioo concerning Shakefpeare's change in the names. 

3 cruel vuit/j the maids :] The firit folio reads civil with t' e 
JOHNSON. So does tbe 410, 1609. STEEVEN-S. 

B 4 thou 


thou hadft been Poor John. Draw thy tool ; here 
comes of the houfe of the Montagues. 

Enter Abram, and Baltbafar. 

Sam. My naked weapon is out ; quarrel, I will 
back thee. 

Greg. How ? turn thy back, and run ? 

Sam. Fear me not. 

Greg. No, marry ; I fear thee ! 

Sam. Let us take the law of our fides ; let them 

Greg. I will frown, as I pafs by j and let them 
take it as they lift. 

Sam. Nay, as they dare. 4 1 will bite my thumb at 
them , which is a difgrace to them, if they bear it. 

Abr. Do you bite your thumb at us, fir ? 

Sam. I do bite my thumb, fir. 

Abr. Do you bite your thumb at us, fir ? 

Sam. Is the law on our fide, if I fay ay ? 

Greg. No. 

4 / 'will bite fry thumb at them ; which is a (It/grace to them, if 
they bear it.~\ So it fignifies in Randolph's Mufes Looking-Glafey 
aft 3, fc. 3, p. 45. 

Orgylus. " To bite his thumb at me. 

Argus. " Why mould not a man bite his thumb r 

Orgylus. "-At me? were I fcorn'd, to fee men bite their 

thumbs ; 

- ' Rapiers and daggers, &c." Dr. GR AY. 

Dr. Lodge, in a pamphlet called Wits Mijerie, ike. 1596, 
has this pailage. " Behold next I fee Contempt marching forth, 
" giving mee the fico with his tbombe in his mouth? In a tranf- 
lation from Stephens's Apology.for Herodotus, in 1607, page 142,. 
I meet with thefe words: " It is faid of the Italians, if they once 
'* lite their fingers' ends in a thnatning manner , God knows, if 
** they fct upon their enemies face to face, it is becaufe they 
" cannot aflail them behind their backs." Perhaps Btn Jonfon ri- 
dicules this fcene of Romeo and Juliet, in his Ne<w Jan : 
Huff. How, frill it? 

" Spill it at me? 
Tip. I reck not, but I^:////. M STEEVZNS. 



Sam. No, fir, I do not bite my thumb at you, fir ; 
but I bite my thumb, fir. 

Greg. Do you quarrel, fir ? 

Abr. Quarrel, fir ? no, fir. 

Sam. If you do, fir, I am for you j I ferve as good 
a man as you. 

Abr. No better. 

Sam. Well, fir. 

5 Enter Benvolio. 

Greg. Say better; here comes one of my matter's 
kinfmen 6 . 

Sam. Yes, better, fir. 

Abr. You lye. 

Sam. Draw, if you be men. Gregory, remember 
thy fwaming blow 7. [They fght. 

Ben. Part, fools ; put up your fwords ; 
You know not what you do. 

5 Enter Benvolio.'} Much of this fcene is added fince the firft 
edition ; but probably by Shakefpeare, fince we tind it in that of 
the year 1 599. POPE. 

6 " Here comes one of my Maker's kinfmen." Some miftake 
has happened in this place : Gregory is a fervant of the Capulets ; 
and Bejtvolio was of the Montague faction. FARMER. 

Perhaps there is no miftake. Gregory may mean Tybalt, who 
enters immediately after Benvolio, but on a different.part of theftage. 
The eyes of the fervant may be directed the way he fees Tybalt 
coming, and in the mean time, Benvolio enters on the oppoute 
fide. STEEVENS. 

7 tly fiuajbing blow.'] Ben Jonfon ufes this expreffion in his 
Staple for News : " I do confefs *. fivafaing blow" In the Three 
Ladies of London^ \ 584, Fraud fays : 

" I will flaunt it and brave it after the lufty Sixajb? 
Again, in As you like it: 

" I'll have a martial and kfaajblrg outfide." 
To fixajb feems to have meant to be a bully, to be noifily valianr. 
So, Green, in his Card of Fanc\\ 1608, " in fpending and 
" fpoiling, in fwearing and ftdajkutg." Barrett, in his Ahcarie, 
1580, fays, that " lojwafl: is to make a noife with fwordes againil 
" tergats." STEEVENS. 



Enter Tybalt. 

Tyb. What, art thou drawn among thefe heartlefs 

hinds ? 
Turn thee, Benvolio, look upon thy death. 

Ben. I do but keep the peace ; put up thy fword, 
Or manage it to part thefe men with me. 

Tyb. What, drawn, and talk of peace ? I hate 

the word, 

As I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee : 
Have at thee, coward. 

Enter three or four citizens > with clubs. 

Cit. Clubs, bills, and partizans ! ftrike ! beat them 

down j 
Down with the Capulets ! down with the Montagues! 

Enter old Capulet, in his gown ; and lady Capukt. 

Cap. What noife is this ? 8 Give me my long 
fword, ho ! 

La. Cap. A crutch, a crutch ! Why pall you for 
a fword ? 

Cap. My fword, I fay! old Montague is come, 
And flourilhes his blade in fpight of me. 

Enter old Montague, and lady Montague, 

Mon. Thou villain, Capulet, Hold me not, 

let me go. 

8 Give me my iongf-word.~\ The lan^fwofd was the fword ufed 
in war, which was lornetimes wielded with bpth hands. JOHNSON, 
This long fivord is mentioned in The Coxcomb, a comedy by 
JSeaumont and Fletcher, where the juftice fays : 

" Take their confeilkms, and my longfvoord; 
" I cannot tell whrir danger we may meet with." 
It appears that it was once the faihion to wear two fworjs of 
different fizes at the fame time. 
So in Decker's Sftiromaftix : 

" Peter Salamander, tie up your^ratf and your little fiverd." 


La. Mon. Thou (halt not ftir one foot to feek a foe. 

Enter Prince, f joitb attendants. 

Prin. Rebellious fubjefb, enemies to peace, 
Profaners of this neigh hour- ft ained fteel, 
"Will they not hear? what ho! you men, you 


That quench the fire of your pernicious rage 
With purple fountains iffuing from your veins,- 
On pain of torture, from thole bloody hands 
Throw your mif-temper'd weapons 9 to the ground, 
And hear the fentence of your moved prince. 
Three civil brawls, bred of an airy word, 
By thee, old Capulet, and Montague, 
Have thrice difturb'd the quiet of our flreets ; 
And made Verona's ancient citizens 
Caft by their grave befeeming ornaments, 
To wield old partizans, in hands as old, 
Cankred with peace, to part your cankred hate: 
If ever you difturb our ftreets again, 
Your lives fliall pay the forfeit of the peace. 
For this time, all the reft depart away : 
You, Capuiet, (hali go along with me ; 
And, Montague, come you this afternoon, 
To know our further pleafure in this cafe, 
To old Free-town, our common judgment-place. 
Once more, on pain of death, all men depart. 

[Exeunt Prince, Capulet , &e. 

Man. Who fet this ancient quarrel new abroach ? -- 
Speak, nephew, were you by, when it began ? 

Ben. Here were the fervants of your adverfary, 
And yours, clofe fighting ere I did approach : 
I drew to part them ; in the inftant came 
The Hery Tybalt, with his fword prepared j 

* ' nuV-An^kerVweapom are angry weapons. So in K. Job** 
'* This inundation of mis- temper d humour, &c." STEEV^.VS, 



Which, as he breath'd defiance to my ears, 
He fwung about his head, and cut the winds, 
Who, nothing hurt withal, hifs'd him in fcorn : 
While we were interchanging thrufts and blows, 
Came more and more, and fought on part and parr, 
'Till the prince came, who parted either part. 

La. Men. O,where is Romeo! faw you him to-day? 
Right glad I am, he was not at this fray. 

Ben. Madam, an hour before the worihipp'd fun 
Peer'd forth the golden window of the eaft ', 
A troubled mind drave me to walk abroad ; 
Where underneath the grove of fycamour, 
That weftward rooteth from the city' fide 
So early walking did I fee your fon : 
Towards him I made; but he was 'ware of me, 
And dole into the covert of the wood : 
I, meafuring his affections by my own, 
* That moft are bufied when they are moft alone, 
Purfu'd my humour, not purfuing his, 
3 And gladly munn'd who gladly fled from me. 

Men. Many a morning hath he there been feen, 
With tears augmenting the frefh morning's dew, 
Adding to clouds more clouds with his deep fighs : 
But all fo foon as the all-chearing fun 
Should in the furthefl eaft begin to draw 

1 Peered forth the golden window of the eaft.] The fame 
thought occurs in Spenfer's Faery >ueen, B. 2. C. 10. 
" Early before the morn with cremofin ray 
" The Wmdo-M of bright heaven opened hr.d, 
' Through which into the world the dawning day 
Might looke, &c." STEEVENS. 

* That moft are bufed, Sec.] Edition 1597. Inltead of which 
it is in the other edition thus : 

' . by ray own, 

Which then rnoft foughr, where moft might not be found, 
Being one too many by my weary felf, 
Purfu'd my humour, &c. POPE. 

' 3 And gladly Jlninn V, &c.] Tl\2 ten lines following, not in 
edition 1597* but in the next of 1 599. POPE. 



The fhady curtains from Aurora's bed, 
Away from light fteals borne my heavy foe, 
And private in his chamber pens himfelf; 
Shuts up his windows, locks fair day-light out, 
And makes himfelf an artificial night : 
Black and portentous muft this humour prove, 
Uniefs good counfel may the cauie remove. 

Ben. My noble uncle, do you know the caufe ? 

Mon. I neither know it, nor can learn it of him. 

* Ben. Have you importun'd him by any means ? 

Men. Both by myfelf, and many other friends : 
But he, his own affe&ions* counfellor, 
Is to himfelf I will not fay, how true 
But to himfelf fo fecret and fo clofe, 
So far from founding and difcovery, 
As is the bud bit with an envious worm, 
Ere he can fpread his fweet leaves to the air, 
5 Or dedicate his beauty to the fame. 
Could we but learn from whence his forrows grow, 
We would as willingly give cure, as know. 

Enter Romeo, at a diftance. 

Ben. See, where he comes: Sopleafeyou,ftepafide; 
I'll know his grievance, or be much deny'd. 

4 Ben. H^rje jca import a? d^ &c.] Thde two fpeecbes alia 
omitted in edition 1597, but inserted in 1 099. POPE. 

5 Or dedicate Us beauty to the fame,] When we come to con- 
fider, that there is fome power die befides iahy air, that brings 
forth, and makes the tender buds fpread themfekes, I do not think 
it improbable that the poet wrote, 

Or dedicate his beauty to the S*M. 

Or, according to the more obfolete fpeuing, &aue; which brings 
it nearer to the traces of the corrupted text, THEOBALD. 

I cannot but fjfpect that fome lines are loft, which connected 
this fimile more clolely with the foregoing fpeech : tbefc lines, 
if fuch there were, lamented the danger that Romeo will die of 
his melancholy, before his virtues or abilities were known to the 
world. JOHN sox. 

I firfpeft no lofs of conneftLag lines. The fame expreffioa 
occurs in Tmn^ Aft. 4. Sc. 2. 

A didicettd beggar to the air* STEETEN*. 


Mon. I would, thou were fo happy by thy flay, 
To hear true flirift. Come, madam, let's away. 


Sen. Good morrow, coufin. 

Rom. Is the day fo young 6 ? 

Ben. But new ftruck nine. 

Rom. Ay me ! fad hours feem long. 
Was that my father that went hence fo faft ? 

Ben. It was: What fadnefs lengthens Romeo's 
hours ? 

Rom. Not having that, which, having, makes 
them Ihort. 

Ben. In love ? 

Rom. Out 7 

Ben. Of love ? 

Rom. Out of her favour, where I am in love, 

Ben. Alas, that love, fo gentle in his view, 
Should be fo tyrannous and rough in proof! 

Rom. Alas, that love, whofe view is muffled ftilJ, 
Should, without eyes, fee path-ways 8 to his will ! 


8 Is the day fo young? i. e. is it fo early in the day? The 
fame expreffion (which might once have been popular) I meet with 
in AcolaJluS) a comedy 1529: " It is yet young nygbte^ or there is 
yet moche of the nyghte tocoine." STEEVENS. 

7 Rom. Out ] I take oat not to be an imperfect part of a 
fentence cut off by apofiopefis ; but rather the interjection itill ufed 
in the north, where they fay Out! much in the fame fenfe as we 
fayjfyc! Romeo indeed afterwards tags a fentence with it, hut 
that he is led into by Benvolio's fupplement to the firlr. Qttt. 
So,in another fceneof this play: Out alas! (he's cold. PERCY. 

Why ftiould Romeo &y,fye! on being afked if he were in love? 
Does he not acknowledge his being fo, in the very next line ? 
Would he, a character all made up of love, ufe fuch terms of re- 
fentment or fhnme, as Out! wfye! on being fufpcdted of a paifion 
in which he gloried? STEEVEN'S. 

8 to bis <iw'///J Sir T. Hanmer, and after him Dr. Warburton, 
read, to his ill. The prcfent reading has fome obfeurity ; the mean- 
ing may be, that love finds out means to purfue his dejire. That 
the Mind ihould find paths to ill is no great wonder. JOHNSON. 

I fee no obfcurity in the text. It is not unufual for thofe who 
are blinded by love to overlook every difficulty that oppofes their 
purfuit. NICHOIS. 



Where fhall we dine ? O me ! What fray was 

here ? 

Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. 
Here's much to do with hate, but more with love : 
9 Why then, O brawling love ! O loving hate ! 

The quarto 1597, reads 

Should, without laws, give path-ways to our will! 
This reading is the raoft intelligible. STEEVENS. 

JVTy tken, O brawling lave, &c.] Of thefe lines neither the 
fenfe nor occafion is very evident. He is not yet in love with an 
enemy \ and to love one and hate another is no fuch uncommon 
ftate, as can deferve all this toil of antithefis. JOHNSON*. 

Had Dr. Johnfon attended to the letter of invitation in the 
next fcene, he would have found that Rolaline was niece to 
Capulet. ANONYMOUS. 

Every (bnnetteer characterises Love by contrarieties. Watfbn 
begins one of his canzonets : 

" Love is a fowre delight, a fdgred griefe, 

" A living death, an ever-dying life, &:c." 
Turberville makes Reafbn harangue againft it in the lame 
manner : 

*' A fierie froA, a flame that frozen is with ife ! 

" A heavie burden light to beare ! a vertue fraught with 

" vice! &x." 
Immediately from the Romaunt fftbe Rofe: 

*' Loaf it is an haterull pees, 

" A free aquitaunce without reles 

* An heavie burthen light to beare, 

** A wicked wawe awaie to weare : 

" And health full of maladie, 

" And charitie full of envie 

" A laughter that in weping aie, 

" Reft that trauaileth night and daie, &c." 
This kind of antithefis was very much the rafte of the Provencal 
and Italian poets ; perhaps it might be hinted by the ode of Sap- 
pho preferved by Longinus. Petrarch is full of it : 

" Pace non trovo, e non ho da far guerra, 

" E temo, e ipero, e ardo, e fen un ghiaccio, 

" E volo fopra'l del, e ghiaccio in terra, 

" E nulla Itringo, e tuttol mondo abbracdo, &c.** Son. IO. 
Sir Tho. Wyat gives a tranflation of this Ibnnet, without any no- 
tice ot the original, under the title of, Dejlr'tption of the contrarious 
Paffums in a Louer, amonglt the Songcs and SometUs, by the Earle 
ef Surrey, and others, 1574. FARMER. 



O any thing, of nothing firft created ! 

O heavy lightnefs ! ferious vanity ! 

Mif-fhapen chaos of well-feeming forms ! 

Feather of lead, bright fmoke, cold fire, fick health 1 

Still-waking deep, that is not what it is ! 

This love feel I, that feel no love in this. 

Dofl thou not laugh ? 

Ben. No, coz, I rather weep. 

Rom. Good heart, at what ? 

Ben. At thy good heart's opprefTion. 

Rom. l Why, fuch is love's tranfgrefiion. 
Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my bread; 
Which thou wilt propagate, to have it preft 
"With more of thine : this love, that thou haft mown, 
Doth add more grief to too much of mine own. 
Love is a fmoke rais'd with the fume of fighs ; 
~ Being purg'd, a fire fparkling in lovers' eyes ; 
3 Being vex'd, a fea nourifh'd with lovers' tears : 
What is it elfe ? a madnefs mod difcreet, 
A choaking gall, and a preferving fweet. 
Farewel, my coz. [Going. 

Ben. Soft, I will go along ; 
An if you leave me fo, you do me wrong. 

Rom. Tut, I have loft myfelf ; I am not here; 
This is not Romeo, he's fome other where. 

1 Why, fucb is love's tranjgrejfion. "] Such is the confequence 
of unfkilful and miftaken kindnefs. JOHNSON. 

* Being purg'd, a fire fparkling in lovers' eyes;~\ The author 
may mean being purged of fmoke, but it is perhaps a meaning never 
given to the word in any other place. I would rather read, Being 
urg'd, a fire fparkling. Being excited and intorced. To urge the 
fire is the technical term. JOHNSON. 

3 Being vcx'd, &c.] As this line ftands fingle, it is like- 
ly that the foregoing or following line that rhym'd to it is 
loft. JOHNSON. 

It does not feem neceflary to fuppofe any line loft. In the 
former fpeech about Love's contrarieties, there are leveral lines 
which have no other to rhime with them ; as alfo in the following, 
about Rofalird's challity. STEEVENS. 

S Ben. 


Sen. 4 Tell me in fadnefs, who fhe is you love ? 

Rom. What, fhall I groan, and tell thee ? 

Ben. Groan ? why, no ; 
But fadly tell me, who. 

Rom. Bid a fick man in fadnefs make his will : 
O word ill urg'd to one that is fo ill ! 
In fadnefs, coufin, I do love a woman. 

Ben. I aim'd fo near, when I fuppos'd you iov'J. 

Rom. A right good marks-man ! And {he's fair I 

Ben. A right fair mark, fair coz, is foonefl hit. 

Rom. Well, in that hit, you mifs : lhe'11 not be hit 
With Cupid's arrow, (he hath Dian's wit ; 
5 And, 6 in ftrong proof of chaflity well arm'd, 
From love's weak childifh bow me lives unharm'd. 
She will not (lay the fiege of loving terms, 
Nor bide the encounter of availing eyes, 
Nor ope her lap to faint-feducing gold : 
O, fhe is rich in beauty ; only poor, 
That, when fhe dies, 7 with beauty dies her ftore. 


4 7/fl me infadnefs,] That is, tell me gravity, tell me \ajeritnf- 
tufs. JOHNSON. 

5 And in jlrong proof &:c.] As this play was written in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, I cannot help regarding thefe fpeeches 
of Romeo as an oblique compliment to her raajeity, who was not 
liable to be difpleafed at hearing her chaflity praiied after fhe was 
fufpected to have loll it, or her beauty commended in the 67th 
year of her age, though (he never pofiefled any when (he was 
young. Her declaration that fhe would continue unmarried in- 
creafes the probability of the prefent fuppofition. STE EVENS. 

6 in Jlrong proof] In chaftity of proof, as we fay in armour of 
proof. JOHNSOX. 

i with kavty dies her Jlore.} Mr. Theobald reads, IHtb 
" her dies beauty's jforc ;" and is followed by the two fucceeding 
editors. I have replaced the old reading, becaufe I think it at leait 
as plaufible as the correction. She is rich, lays he, in beauty, and 
onlj poor in being fubject to the lot of humanity, that her jlore, or 
riches, can be dcjirsycd by d;atb, who fhall, by the fame blow, put 
an end to beauty. JOHXSO.V. 

VOL. X. C Theobald'* 


Ben. Then (he hath fworn, that Ihe will flill live 
chafte ? 

8 Rom. She hath, and in that {paring makes huge 


For beauty, ftarvM with her feverity^ 
Cuts beauty off* from all pofterity 9. 
She is too fair, too wife ; ' wifely too fair, 
To merit blifs by making me defpair t 
She hath forfvvorn to love ; and, in that vow, 
Do I live dead, that live to tell it now. 

Ben. Be rul'd by me, forget to think of her. 

Rom. O, teach me how I mould forget to think& 

Ben. By giving liberty unto thine eyes ; 
Examine other beauties. 

Rom. 'Tis the way 

To call hers, exquifite, in queflion more : 
Thefe happy mafks % that kifs fair ladies' brows, 
Being black, put us in mind they hide the fair ; 
He, that is ftrucken blind, cannot forget 

Thetibald's alteration may be countenanced by the following 
pafwge in Swetnafn Arraigiid, a comedy, 1620 : 
'* Nature now ftiall boaft no more 
" Of the riches of her ftore ; 
" Since, in this her chiefeil prize, 
'* All the itock of beauty dies." 
Again, in the i4ih SonnGt of Shakefpeare : 

" Thy end is truth's and beauty's doom and date." 
Again, in Mdilinger's Virgin-Martyrs 

" with her dies 

" The abftracl of all fweetnefs that's in woman/' STEEVEVS* 

* Rom. She bath, and in tbatjparing, &c.] None ot the tollow- 
tng ipeechee of this fcene are in thefiril edition of 1597. POPE. 

* For bcauty^JJarv'tl voitb her jewri/y^ 

Cuts beauty off from all pofterity, ,] 
So in our author's Third Sonnet* 

" Or who is he fo fond will be the tomb 
" Of his felt-love, to Q.vp pi>/?eritj ?" MALONE* 

1 too wifely fair . ] HANMER. For wifely too fair. JOHNS dv* 

* Thefe bafjy majks^ &c.] i. e. the mafks worn by female 
fpectators of the play. Former editors print tbofe iuilsad ot thrfe^ 
but without aathority. STEEYENS* 



The precious treafurc of Jus eye-fight loft : 
Shew me a miftrefs that is paffing fair, 
What doth her beauty ferve, but as a note 
\Vhere I may read, who pats'd that paffing fair ? 
Farewel ; thou caoft not teach me to forget . 
Ben. I'll pay that docbine, or elfe die in debt. 



. Enter Copula, Paris, and Servant. 

Cap. And Montague is bound as well as I, 
In penalty alike ; and 'tis not hard, I think, 
For men fo old as we to keep the peace. 

Par. Of honourable reckoning are you both ; 
And pity 'tis, you liv'd at odds fo king. 
But now, my lord, what (ay you to my fuit ? 

Cap. But laying o'er what I have laid before : 
My child is yet a flranger in the world, 
She hath not feen the change of fourteen years j 
Let two more fummers wither in their pride, 
Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride. 

Par. Younger than (be are happy mothers made. 

Cap. 4 And too foon marr*d are thole fo early made. 

3 T!** OUfl *X lead *f t*f~pt.] 

- Of aD afflttioas aught a km? y, 

* TIs fuie the bank! fck^*>^.Pbpe3 EXj*. 


'Arfto.yi-riMn'd-T* A/&^iMfe.3 The 410, 1597. 
leads : And too fooo mmrfdm tfaofe fo early married. 

Puttenham, in his Art j'Ptctjy, 1589, ufes tbis cxprdEon, wbick 
Seems to be proverbial, as aa inliaccc of a figure which he cafls tLc 

The : :- .:= --re^i ^---d *^ r.^ u Bkotifi EcmcBi 
fbcoUwmcn. So Sidney: 
Oh! beb Mr rV 

k FCTJ often m his dLacrcaitxjtais, STEETEWS. 
C 2 


The earth hath fwallow'd all my hopes but fhe, 

s She is the hopeful lady of my earth : 

But woo her, gentle Paris, get her heart, 

My will to her confent is but a part ; 

An me agree, within her fcope of choice 

Lies my confent and fair according voice. 

This night I hold an old accuftom'd feaft, 

Whereto I have invited many a gueft, 

Such as I love; and you, among the {lore, 

One more, moft welcome, makes my number more. 

At my poor houfe, look to behold this night 

6 Earth-treading ftars, that make dark heaven light : 

5 She is the hopeful lady of j)ty earth.} This line is not in the 
fit ft edition. POPE. 

The lady of bis earth is an expreflion not very intelligible, unlefs 
he means that flie is heir to his eftate, and I fuppofe no man ever 
called his lands his earth. I will venture to propofe a bold 
change : 

She is the hope and flay of my full years, JOHNSON. 
She is the hopeful lady of my earth. This is a Gallicifm : Filk dc 
tcr-rc is the French phrafe for an helrefs. 

King Richard II. calls his land, i. e. his kingdom, his earth: 

<; Feed not thy fovereign's foe, my gentle earth" 

" So weeping, foiling, greet I thee, my earth" 
Earth, in other old plays is likewife put for lands, i. e. landed 
eftate. So in a Trick to catch the old one, 1619 : 

" A rich widow and four hundred a year in good earth." 


' Earth-treading Jiars, that make dark heaven light:} This non- 
fen fe fhould be reformed thus : 

Earth-treading ftars that make dark even light : 
i. e. When the evening is dark, and without ftars, thefe earthly 
itars fupply their place, and light it up. So again in this play: 
Her beauty hangs upon the cheek of night, 
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear. WARBURTON. 
But why nonfenfe? Is any thing more commonly laid, than 
that beauties eclipfe the fun ? Has not Pope the thought and 
the word ? 

" Sol through white curtains {hot a tim'rous ray, 
" And op'd thofe eyes that muft cclipje the day? 
Both the old and the new reading are philosophical nonfenfe ; but 
they are both, and both equally, poetical lenfe. JOHNSON. 



Such comfort, as ? do lufty young men feel 
When well-apparel'd April on the heel 
Of limping winter treads, even fuch delight 
Among frefh female buds (hall you this night 
Inherit at my houfe ; hear all, all fee, 
And like her moft, whole merit mofr. (hall be : 
8 Such, amongft view of many, mine, being one, 
May (land in number, though in reckoning none. 


7 do lufty young men fiel} To fay, and to fay in pompous 
words, that a young man Jball feel as much in an aflembly of beau- 
ties, asyoung men feel in the month of April, is furely to wafte found 
upon a very poor fentiment. I read : 

Such comfort as do \\ittyyeomen feel. 

You {hall feel trom the fight and converfation of thefe ladies, fuch 
hopes of happinefs and fuch pleafure, as the farmer receives from the 
fpring, when the plenty ot the year begins, and the profpeft of the 
harvelt fills him with delight. JOHXSOK. 

The following paflage from Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rofe, will 
fupport the prefent reading, and fhew the propriety of Shakeipeare's 
comparifon : for to tell Paris that he (hould feel the fame fort of 
pleafure in an afTembly of beauties, which young folk feel in that 
ieafon when they are moft gay and amorous, was iurely as much as 
the old man ought to fay : 

" That it was May, thus dremid me, 

* In time or" love and jolite, 

' That al thing ginnith waxin gay, &c. 

*' Then^>wrgr folke entendin aye, 

** For to ben gaie and amorous, 

" The time is then fo favorous." 

Romaunt of the Rcfe t v. 5 1 , &c. 
8 Such, amongjl vifM of many, mine, being one, 

Mayjiand in number, though^in reckoning none.] 
The tuft of thefe lines I do not underftand. The old folio gives no 
help ; the paffage is there, Which one more vi&.\ I can otter no- 
thing better than this: 

Within your cv'nu of many, mine being one, 
May ftand in number, &c. JOHNSO.V. 

A very flight alteration will reftore the deareft fenfe to this 
paflage. Shakefpeare might have written the lines thus : 
Search among view of many: mine, being one, 
May irand in number, though in reckoning none, 
i, e. Amongft the many you iviU view there, jlarcb for one tic: 
C 3 


Come, go with me : Go, firrah, trudge about 
Through fair Verona ; find thofe perfons out, 
Whole names are written there , and to them fay, 
My houfe and welcome on their pleafure flay. 

[Exeunt Capulet, and Paris* 

Serv. ' Find them out, vvhofe names are written here? 
It is written that the fhoemaker mould meddle 
with his yard, and the tailor with his laft, the fifher 
with his pencil, and the painter with his nets i but 
I am fent to find thole perfons, whofe names are 
here writ, and can never find what names the writing 
perfon hath here writ. I muft to the learned : 
In good time. 

Enter Benvolio^ and Romeo. 

Sen. Tut, man! one fire burns out another's burning, 

One pain is leflen'd by another's anguim ; 
Turn giddy, and be holp by backward turning; 

One defperate grief cures with another's languim: 
Take thou fome new infection to thy eye, 
And the rank poilon of the old will die. 

Rom. l Your plantain leaf is excellent for that. 


fleafe yon. Chufe out of the multitude. This agrees exa&ly with 
what he had already faid to him : 

Hear all, all fee, 

And like her moft whofe merit moft (hall be." 

Jl/v (laughter (he proceeds) w///, it is true, le one of the number, but 
h r r beauty can le of no reckoning (i. e. eftimation) among tboj'e whom 
you will fee here. Reckoning for eftimation^ is ufed before in this 
very fcene : 

" Of honourable reckoning are you both." STEEVENS. 
Find them out, whofe names are written here ?~\ The quarto, 
1597, adds . '* And yet I know not who are written here : I muft 
to the learned to learn ot them; that's as much as to fay, the 
tailor, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 Tour plantain leaf is excellent for that."] Tackius tells us, that 
a toad, before flic engages with a fpider, will fortify herfelf with 
fome of this plant; and that, it fhe comes off wounded, fhe cures 
herleif afterwards with it. Dr. GRAY. 

i Thg 


Ben. For what, I pray thee ? 

Rom. For your broken fhin. 

Ben. Why, Romeo, art thou mad ? 

R^m. Not mad, but bound more than a mad-man is; 
Shut up in prifon, kept without my food, 
Whipt, and tormented, and Good-e'en, good fellow. 

Serv. God gi' good e'en. I pray, fir, can you read ? 

Rom. Ay, mine own fortune in my mifery. i 

Serv. Perhaps you have learn'd it without book ; 
But I pray, can you read any thing you fee ? 

Rom. Ay, if I know the letters, and the language. 

Serv. Ye fay honeftly -, Reft you merry ! 

Rom. Stay, fellow ; I can read. 

[He reads the lift.] 

Signior Martino, and bis wife, and daughters ; County 
Anfelm, and bis beauteous Jtfters ; kc lady widow of 
yitruvio ; Signior Placentio, and bis lovely nieces-, Mer- 
cutioy and his brother Valentine \ Mine uncle Capukt, his 
ivife, and daughters ; My fair niece Rofatine ; Livia ; 
Signior Valentio y and bis coujin 'Tybalt ; Lucia, and (be 
lively Helena. 


A fair aflembly j Whither fhould they come ? 
Serv. Up. 

Rcm. Whither? tofupper 1 ? 
Serv. To our houfe. 
Rom. Whofe houfe ? 
Serv. My mafter's. 

The fame thought occurs in Albumazar, in the following lines : 
" Help. Armellina, help ! I'm fall'n i* the cellar : 
> * t Bring a freih plantain leaf, I've broke my fhin." 
Again, in The Cafe is Alter d t by Ben Jonfon 1609, a fellow who 
has had his head broke, fays : " 'Tis nothing, a fillip, a device : 
fellow Juniper, prithee get me ap!ax?ain." 

The plantain leaf is a blood-ilauncher, and was formerly applied 
to i;reen wounds. STEEVEMS. 

> tofupperf} Surely thefe word?, to /upper, niuft belong to 
fi$ fervant's anAver in the next fpeech : 

To fupper, to our houfe. STE E v E .vs. 

C 4 Rom! 


Rom. Indeed, I fhould have afk'd you that before. 

Serv. Now I'll tell you without afking : My Mafter 

is the great rich Capulet; and if you be not of the 

houfe of Montagues, I pray, come and crufh a cup 

of wine ?. Red you merry. 

Ben. At this fame ancient feaft of Capulet's 
Sups the fair Rofaline, whom thou fo lov'ft ; 
Vvhh all the admired beauties of Verona: 
Go thither ; and, with unattainted eye, 
Compare her face with fome that I fhall mow, 
And I will make thee think thy fwan a crow. 

Rom. When the devout religion of mine eye 

Maintains fuch falfliood, then turn tears to fires ! 
' And thefe, who, often drown'd, could never die, 

Tranfparent hereticks, be burnt for liars ! 
One fairer than my love ! the all-feeing fun 
Ne'er faw her match, fince firft the world begun. 

Ben. Tut ! tut ! you faw her fair, none elfe being by, 
Herfelf pois'd with herfelf in either eye : 
But in thofe cryftal fcales, 4 let there be weigh'd 
Your lady's love againft fome other maid 
That I will mew you, mining at this feaft, 
And me mail fcant (hew well, that now mews beft. 

3 crufli a cnp qfivine."] This cant expreffion feems to have 
been once common among low people. I have met with it often 
in the old plays. So in the Two Angry Women of Abington, 150,9 : 

" Fill the pot, hoftefs, &c. and we'll crvjl) it" 
Again, in Hoffman's Tragedy, 1631 : 

" we'll crujb a cup of thine own country wine." 
Again, in the Finder of Wakefield, i 99, the Cobler fays : 
" Come, George, we'll crujli a pot before we part." 
We ftill fay in cant language to crack a bottle. STEEVENS. 
4 let there Ic vjeig/Sd 

Tour lady's love again/I fon:c other maid] But the com- 
parifon was not betwixt the love that Romeo's miftrefs paid 
him, and the perfon of any other young woman ; but betwixt 
Romeo's miftrefs herfelf, and fome other that mould be matched 
againft her. The poet therefore muft certainlv have wrote : 

Your lady-love againft forae other maid. WAR BURTON*. 
Tour lady's love is the love you bear to your lady, which in our 
language is commonly ufed for the lady herfelf. REVIS At. 



Rom. I'll go along, no fuch fight to be fhewn, 
But to rejoice in fplendor of mine own. [Exeunt. 


A room in Capulefs boufe. 
Enter lady Capukt, and Nurfe. 

La. Cap. Nurfe, where's my daughter ? call her 

forth to me. 
Nurfe. Now, by my maiden-head, at twelve 

year old, 

I bade her come. What, lamb ! what, lady-bird ! 
God forbid ! where's this girl ? what, Juliet ! 

Enter Juliet. 

Jul. How now, who calls ? 

Nurfe. Your mother. 

Jul. Madam, I am here , what is your will ? 

La. Cap. This is the matter: Nurfe, give leave 


We muft talk in fecret. Nurfe, come back again ; 
I have remember'd me, thou {halt hear our counfel. 
Thou know'ft, my daughter's of a pretty age. 

Nurfe. 'Faith, I can tell her age unto an hour. 

La. Cap. She's not fourteen. 

Nurfe. I'll lay fourteen of my teeth, 
And yet, s to my teen be it fpoken, I have but four,* 
She's not fourteen : How long is't now to Lammas- 
tide ? 

La. Cap. A fortnight, and odd days. 

Nurfe. Even or odd, of all days in the year, 

5 tony teen ] To my forrow. JOHN-SON. 
So, in Tancredand GuifmunJ, 1592 : 

'* And on his cinders wreak my cruel teen." 
Again, in Spenfer*s Faery >neen, B. i. C. 9. 

** for dread and doleful teen. 

This old word is introduced by Shakefpeare for the fake of the 
jingle between teen, and four, and fourteen. STEEVENS. 



Come Lammas-eve at night, mall me be fourteen. 
Sufan and (he, God reit all Chriftian fouls ! 
"Were of an age. Well, Sufan is with God ; 
She was too good for me : But, as I laid, 
On Lammas-eve at night mail me be fourteen 5 
That (hall me, marry ; I remember it well. 
*Tis fince the earthquake 6 now eleven years ; 
And fhe was wean'd, I never mail forget it, - 
Of all the days of the year, upon that day: 
For I had then laid wormwood to my dug, 
Sttting i' the fun under the dove-houfe wall, 
My lord and you were then at Mantua : 
Kay, 1 do bear a brain 7 : but, as I faid, 
When it did tafte the worm-wood on the nipple 
Of my dug, and felt it bitter, pretty fool ! 
To fee it teachy, and fall out with the dug. 
Shake, quoth the dove-houfe : 'twas no need, I trow, 
To bid me trudge. 
And fince that time it is eleven years : 
For then fhe could ftand alone 8 ; nay, by the rood, 


* // is fince the earthquake now el*oH.ynrrt\\ But how comes the 
jiurfe to talk of an earthquake upon this occafion ? There is no 
fuch circumftance, I believe, mentioned in any of the novels from 
which Shakeipeare may be uippofed to have dravn bis ftory ; and 
therefore it feems probab'e, that he had in view the earthquake, 
which had really been felt in many parrs of England in his own 
time, viz. on the 6th of April, 1 $80. [See Stowe's Chronicle, and 
GabriclHqrvey's \tttex in the preface to Spenfer's <works t ed. 1679.} 
if fo, one may be permitted to conje&ure, that Romeo and Juliet, 
or this part of it at leaft, was written Ja 1591 ; after the 6th of 
April, when the eleven years fines the earthquake were completed; 
and not later than the middle of July, a fortnight aad odd dqyi 
fcefo re Lammas- tide. T y R w H i T T . 

* Well, I do bear a brain,} So, in Ram-ally, of Merry Tricks^ 
l6n ; 

*' Dajb, we muft bear fame brain" 
Again, in Marlton'a Dutch Courtejan, 1604: 

V nay an I bear y,ot a brain" 
i in Heywood's Gokktt jfge t 161 1 : 

' As I can tear a pack, ib I can bear a Iraln* STEEVENS. 
The /, 1537* reads : " could fta 


She could have run and waddled all about. 

For even the day before, fhe broke her brow : 

And then my hufband God be with his foul ! 

'A was a merry man ; took up the child ; 

Tea, quoth he, daft tbou fall upon thy face ? 

Then wilt fall backward, when tbou haft more wit' 9 

Wilt tbou not, Jule? and, by my holy-dam, 

The pretty wretch left crying, and laid Ay : 

To fee now, how a jeft mall come about ! 

I warrant, an I mould live a thoufand years, 

I never mould forget it ; Wilt tbou net, Jule? quoth he: 

And pretty fool, it ftinted, and laid Ay* 

La. Cap. Enough of this ; I pray thee, hold thy 

l Nurfe. Yes, madam-, Yet I cannot chufebut laugh^ 
To think it mould leave crying, and fay Ay: 
And yet, I warrant, it had upon its brow 
A bump as big as a young cockrel's ftonej 
A par'lous knock; and it cried bitterly. 
Tea, quoth my hufband, /<2//|/? ufor.tby face? 
Tbou wilt fall backward when tbou ccm'ft to age ; 
Wilt tbou net, Jule ? it ftinted, and laid Ay. 

ligh lone, \. e. quite alone, completely alone. So in another of our 
anchor's plays, higbfantaftical means <vvfc';Wyfantaftical. STEEYENS. 
* itjiinted.\ i. e. it flopped, it forbore from weeping. So 
Sir Thomas North, in his tmnflation of Plutarch, fpeakitig of the 
wound which Antony received, fays : *' for the blood Jiinted a 
little when he was laid." So in Titus Andronicui : 
" He can at pleafure^/W their melody." 
Again, in The Revenger's Tragedy, 1607 : " a !** 
" New bleeding from their pens, fcarce /tinted yet." 
Again, in Cynthia's Revenge^ by Ben Jonfon : 

" Stint thy babbling tongue." 
Again, in Wbatjou adu\ by Marilon, 1607 : 

" Pi(h ! tor fliame//*/ thy idle chat.** 
Again, in the Misfortune; of King Arthur, an ancient drama, 1587; 

" Fame's but a blaft that founds a while, 
'* And quickly Jliitr, and then is quite forgot." 
Bpenfer ufes this word frequently in his Faerie gueene. STEEVENS. 
1 Nurie. Tes, madam ; vet I cannot cbufe, &c.} This fpeech) 
and tautology is not i Uie'firft diiion, 


Jul. And flint thou too, I pray thee, nurfe, fay I. 

Nurfe. Peace, I have done. God mark thee to his 


Thou waft the prettied babe that e'er I nurs'd : 
An I might live to fee thee married once, 
I have my wifh. 

La. Cap. Marry, that marry is the very theme 
I came to talk of: Tell me, daughter Juliet, 
How (lands your difpofition to be married ? 

Jul. * It is an honour that I dream not of. 

Nurfe. An honour ! were not I thine only nurfe, 
I'd fay, thou hadft fuck'd wifdom from thy teat. 

3 La. Cap. Well, think of marriage now ; younger 

than you, 

Here in Verona, ladies of efteem, 
Are made already mothers : by my count, 
I was your mother much Upon thefe years 
That you are now a maid. Thus then, in brief;. 
The valiant Paris feeks you for his love. 

Nurfe. A man, young lady ! lady, fuch a man, 
As all the world Why, he's a man of wax 4. 

La. Cap. Verona's furnmer hath not fuch a flower* 

' It is an honour] The modern editors all read, it is an honour. 
1 have reftored the genuine word, hour, which is more feemly 
from a girl to her mother. Teur^fire^ and fuch words as are vulgarly 
uttered in two fyllables, are ufed as diflyllables by Shakefpeare. 


The firft quarto reads honour ; the folio hour. I have chofeu 
the reading of the quarto. 

The word hour feems to have nothing in it that could draw from 
the Nurfe that applaufe which (he immediately beftows. The word 
honour was likely to ftrike the old ignorant woman, as a very elegant 
and difcreet word for the occafion. STEEVENS. 

3 Inftead of this fpeech, the quarto, 1597, has only one line : 
Well, girl, the noble County Paris feeks thee for his wife. 


4 a man flfwax.] So, in Wily Beguiled: 

** Why, he's a man as one mould picture him in wax" 


- Nurfa 


s Nurfe. Nay, he's a flower ; in faith, a very flower. 

6 La. Cap. What fay you ? can you love the gen- 
tleman ? 

This night you fhall behold him at our feaft: 
Read o'er the volume ^ of young Paris' face, 
And find delight writ there wkh beauty's pen ; 
* Examine every feveral lineament, 
And fee how one another lends content; 
And what obfcurM in this fair volume lies, 
Find written in the margin of his eyes >. 
This precious book of love, this unbound lover, 
To beautify him, only lacks a cover : 
The filh lives in the fea ; and 'tis much pride, 
For fair without the fair within to hide : 
That book in many's eyes doth fhare the glory, 
1 That in gold clafps locks in the golden ftory j 


> N*rf e .] After this fpecch of the Norf^LrfyCapulet In tbc 
old quarto fays only: 

Well, Juliet, how like you of Pan*' love ? 
She anfwers, " 111 look to Eke, Ac." and fo condoles the fcene. 
without the intervention of that fiuff to be found in the later q aarnn 
and the folio. STEETENS. 

6 La. Cap. What fa? jm? be.] This ridiculous fpeech is en- 
tirely added fince the firft edition. POPE . 

i Readoer tire vahame &c.] The lame thought occurs in Pr-i-it 

* Her face the book of praifes, where is read 
** Nothing but curious pfcafures." STEEVESS. 
9 Examine afry feveral luuantmt^ The quarto, 1599, read.% 
every married lineament. Shakefpeare meant by this but phrafe, 
Examine how nicely one feature depends upon another, or accords 
with another, in order to produce that harmony of die whole face 
which feems to be implied in content. In Traltu autCrejUt, he 
fpeaks of " the married calm of ftates ;" and in his 8th Sonnet 
has the lame allufion: 

" If the true concord of well-tuned founds, 

** By unions married, do offend thioe ear." STEEVENS. 

9 ttemargi* of bis eyes.] The comments on ancient books 

were always printed in the margin. So Haratu in Hamlet feys: 

' Iknewyoumuftbeedify > dbythepj<,&c.' > STEEVEWS. 

* natiMgaUc&tftlKkiMtlxffMen&afy;-! The^^fo. ft*? U 

perhaps the^ifrw legend^ a book in the darker ages of popery much 

s ' ----> 


So fliall you mare all that he doth pofTefs, 
By having him, making yourfelf no lefs. 

Nurfe. No lefs? nay, bigger ; women grow by men. 1 
La. Cap. Speak briefly, can you like of Paris' love? 
Jut. I'll look to like, if looking liking move : 
But no more deep will I endart mine eye % 
Than your confent gives ftrength to make it fly* 

Enter a Servant, 

1 Serv. Madam, the guefts are come, fupper ferv'd 
up, you call'd, my young lady alk'd for, the nurfe 
curs'd in the pantry, and every thing in extremity. I 
muft hence to wait ; I befeech you, follow ftraight. 

La. Cap. We follow thee. Juliet, the county ftays. 

Nurfe. Go, girl, feek happy nights to happy days. 




Enter Rcmeo, Mercutio 4, Benvolio, with five or fix 
Majkers, Torch- bearers, and others. 

Rom. What, fhall this fpeech be fpoke for pur 

excufe ? 
v Or 

read, and doubtlefs often exquifitely embellifhed, but of which 
Canus, one of the popifli dodors, proclaims the author to have 
been homo ferret oris, plumbei cord'u. JOHNSON. 

The poet may mean nothing more than to fay, that thofe books 
are moft efteemed by the world, where valuable contents are embel- 
lifted by as valualk binding. STEEVENS. 

4 endart mine eye,] The quarto, 1597, reads: *' engagt 
mine eye." STEEVENS. , 

3 To this fpeech there have been likewife additions fmce the 
elder quarto, but they are not of fufficient confequCnce to be 
quoted. STEEVENS. 

+ Mercutio. ] Shakefpeare appears to have formed this character 
on the following flight hint in the original (lory : " another 
gemletnau called Mercmio t which was a courtlike gentleman, very 



Or {hall we on without apology ? 

Ben. 5 The date is out of luch prolixity : 
"We'll have no Cupid hood-\vink*d with a fcarf, 
Bearing a Tartar's painted bow of lath, 
Scaring the ladies 6 like a crow-keeper -, 
7 Nor no without-book prologue, faintly fpoke 
After the prompter, for our enterance : 
But, let them meafure us by what they will, 

wel beloved of all men, and by reafon of his pleafant and curteous 
behavior was in al companies wel intertained." Painter's Palace tf 
Plea/are, torn. 2. p. 221. SxEEVENS* 

5 The date is cut cffucb prolixity.'] i. e. Alafij are nott out of 
faftiion. Thar Shakcipeare was an enemy to thefe fooleries, ap- 
pears from his writing none ; and that his plays difcredited luch 
entertainments, is more than probable. But in James's time, that 
reign of falfe tafte as well as falfe politics, they came again in 
fafhion; and a deluge of this ageaed nonfeafe overflowed the 
court and country. WARBURTO.V. 

The diverfion going forward at prefent is not a mafqce but a 
rtaftpteroJt. In Henry VIII. where the king introduces himfelf to 
the entertainment given by Wolfey, he appears, like Romeo and hi* 
companions, in a mafk > and fends a meffenger before, to make aft 
apology tor his intrufion. This was a cuftom obferved by thofe 
who came uninvited, with a defire to conceal themfelves 'for the 
lake of intrigue, or to enjoy the greater freedom of converfation. 
Their entry on thefe occafions was always prefaced by fome 
fpeech in praile of the beauty of the ladies, or the generofity of 
the entertainer; and to the prolixity of fuch introductions I 
believe Romeo is made to allude. 

So, m HiftrioTKcfiix> 1610, a man exprefi& his wonder that the 
mq/kers eater without any compliment : 

" What come they ia fo blunt, -vntbout etevice?* 
In the accounts of many entertainments given in reigni antece- 
dent to that of Elizabeth, I find this cuftom preferred. Of the 
fame kind of mafquerading, fee a fpecimen in Timwr, where Cupid 
precedes a troop of ladies with a fpeech. STEEVENS. 

Shakefpeare has written a wafque which the reader will find in- 
troduced in the 4* aft of the Tempeft. It would have been diffi- 
cult for the reverend annotator to have proved they were difcon- 
tinued during any period of Shakefpeare's life. PERCY. 

8 like a crovj-kecper ;] The word crtw-hcfer is explained itt 

7 Xor no ivitfjout-look prologue, &c.] The t\VO fbUowiog lines 
are inferred from the firit edition. POPS, 



We'll meafure them a meafure, and be gone. 

Rom. 8 Give me a torch, I am not for this 

ambling ; 
Being but heavy, I will bear the light. 

Mer. Nay, gentle Romeo, we muft have you 

Rom. Not I, believe me : you have dancing fhoes, 
With nimble foles ; I have a foul of lead, 
So ftakes me to the ground, I cannot move. 

o Mer. You are a lover ; borrow Cupid's wings, 
And foar with them above a common bound. 

Rom. I am too fore enpearced with his fhaft, 
To foar with his light feathers ; and x fo bound, 
I cannot bound a pitch above dull woe : 

8 Give me a torch,] The chara&er which Romeo declares his 
refolution to aflume, will be beft explained by a paflage in Wejl- 
ward Hoe, by Decker and Webfter, 1607: " He is juft like a 
torch-bearer to maflcers ; he wears good cloaths, and is ranked in 
good company, but he doth nothing." A torch-bearer' feems to 
have been a conftant attendant on every troop of maflcs. So, in the 
fecond part of Robert Earl of Huntingdon^ 1601 : 

" - As on a mafque ; but for our torch-bearers, 

" Hell cannot rake fo mad a crew as I." 
Again, in the fame play : 

, a gallant crew, 

" Of courtly mafkers landed at the flairs ; 

*' Before whom, unintreated, I am come, 

" And here prevented, I believe, their page, 

" Who, with his torch, is enter'd." 
Again, in the Merchant of Venice ; 

<c We have not fpoke as yet of torch-bearers" 
Again, in Marfton's Infatiate Countefe, 1603 : 

** Night, like a mafque^ is enter'd heaven's great hall, 

" With thoufand torches ufliering the way." STEEVENS. 
Mer. Ton are a lover, &cc.] The twelve following lines are 
not to be found in the firft edition. POPE. 

I cannot bound, &c.] Let Milton's example, on this occafion, 
keep Shakefpeare in countenance : 

" in contempt 

" At one flight bound high over-leap'd all bound 
" Of hill, &c." Par. Loft, bookiv. 1. 180. STEEVEXS. 



Under love's heavy burden do I fink. 

Mer. And, to fink in it, fhould you burden love? 
Too great oppre&on for a tender thing. 

Rcm. Is love a render thing? it is too rough, 
Too rude, too boiil'rous ; and it pricks like thorn. 

Mer. If love be rough with you, be rough with love; 
Prick love for pricking, and you beat love down. 
Give me a cafe to put my vifage in : 

[Putting en a majk. 
A vifor for a vifor ! - what care I, 
What curious eye doth quote deformities - ? 
Here are the beerlc-brows, (hall blufli for me. 

Ben. Come, knock, and enter ; and no fooner in, 
But every man betake him to his legs. 

Rcm. A torch for me : J let wantons, light of heart, 
Tickle the fenfcleis rullies with their heels 4 ; 
5 For I am proverb'd with a grandfire phrde, 


* doth quote Deformities*] To quote is to clferve. So, in 
Hamlet, Ad 2. Sc. i". 

I am ibrry, that with better heed and judgment 

I had not quoted him. See a noie on this pafiage. 

3 Let ivaatans tight of hfart, &c.] Mid Jleton has borrowed this 
thought in his p!ay or Blurt ^laftcr Conftob e , 1602: 
" bid him, whofe heart no forrow feels, 
'* Tickle the ruihes with his vranron heels, 
** I have too much lead at mine." STEEVEXS. 
* Ticlte the fenfclrfi rufhes <xith their beds ;] It has been already 
obierved, that it \\ as anciently the cuffcom to ftrevv rcorvs with 
rujbesy before carpets were in uie. So Htntzner in his Itinerary, 
fpeaking or" Q. Elizal>et : j> preience-ehamber ar Greenwich, fays : 
44 The floor, aner the EngliQi fa(hion, was ftrewed with hay" 
meanidg rulbcs. So, in the Dumb Knight, 1653 : 

'* i huu cancel! on my hean, laicivious queen, 
** Even as upon thefe rujlxs which thou tieadeii." 
The Jtage was anciently ftrewn with ruflxs. So, in Decker'* 
GuTs Hornbook, 1609 : " ~~ on tn C1 7 r *^ when the cororoedy 
is to daunce." STEEVENS. 

5 The gmr.dSre phrafe is Toe Black ox has trod upor. ay 
foot. JOHNSON. 

The proverb which Romeo means, is contain'd in the line im- 

mediately tblkwing : To bold the candle, is a very common pro- 

VOL, X. D ^erbial 


I'll be a candle-holder, and look on. 
The game was ne'er fo fair, and I am done. 

Mer. 6 Tut ! dun's the moufe, the eonftable's own 
word : 


verVial expreflion, for being an Idle fpeftator. Among Ray's pro- 
verbial fentences, is this" A good cand.e-boldcr proves a good 
gamefter." STE EVENS. 

6 'Tut ! duns the moufe, the coiiftablei own word:"] This poor ob- 
fcure fluft (hould have an explanation in mere charity. It is an 
anfwef to thefe two lines of Romeo : 

For I am proverb 'd with a grandfire phrafe ; and 
The game was ne'er fo fair, ami I am done. 

Mercutio, in his reply, anfwers the lail line tirir.. The thought of 
which, and of the preceding, is taken from gaming. Pll lie a can- 
dle-bolder (fays Romeo) and look on. It is true, if I could play 
inyfelf, I could never expect a fairer chance than in the company 
we are going to : but, alas ! / am done. I have nothing to play 
with ; I have loft my heart already. Mercutio catches at the word 
done, and quibbles with it, as if Romeo had faid, The ladies indeed 
we fair, but I am dun, i. e. of a dnrk complexion. And fo replies^ 
3"ut! duns the moufe ; a proverbial expreliion ot the fame import 
with the French, La nult tous Its chats /out gris : as much as to 
fay, You need not fear, night will make all your complexious alike. 
And becaufe Romeo had introduced his obfervations with, 

I am proverb' d tvltlt a grand/ire phrajf, 

Mercutio adds to his reply, the eonftable's awn word: as much as ta 
fay, If you are for old proverbs, I'll fit you with one ; 'tis the con- 
Ji cable's ov:n word; whole cuitom was, when he iumrnoned hi 
watch, and afiigned them their feveral llation=, to give the.!, what 
the ibldiers call, tie word. But this nighr-guard being diftin- 
guidied for their pacific character, the conilabte, as an emblem of" 
their harmlefs difpofition, chofe that domeitic arfuruil for his word: 
which, in t'une, might become proverbial. WAR BURTON. 

A proverbial faying, ufed by Mr. Tho. Heywood, in his play, 
intitled The Dutch/* of Suffolk, aft 3. 

*' A rope for Biiriop Bonner, Clunce run, 
" Call help, a rope, or \ve ave all undone. 
** Draw aun out of the ditch. 1 * Dr. GRAY. 
Draw dun out of the mire, teems to h;ive been a game. In aw 
old collection of Satyrcs, Epigrams, &c. I find it enumerated 
among other paftimes : 

, ' ** At (hove-groate, venter-point, or crofTe and pile, 

*' At leaping o'er a Midibmraer bone-fier, 
*' Or at the droving dun out of the vyer." 

I So, 


If thou art dun, we'll draw ihee from the mire, 

7 Or (fare your reverence) love, wherein thou ftick'ft 

Up to the ears. Come, we burn day-light 8 , ho. 

Rom. Nay, that's not fo. 

Mer. I mean, fir, in delay 
We wafte our lights in vain, 9 like lamps by day* 

So, Stelton. in his Crtrvme tf Lavtru: 

* Da trim ibcmtTt % dame, reach pie mjr {pur." 
Again, in Hurneia- **t tf Snath, a comedy, 1607 : 

" ImuftpIayA., vaA3r<rx them Mart tftktaert? 
Again, in&. Patrick fir brio*!, by Shirley, 1640: 

" Then Jraza At* emt eftJxxhr^ 

A=d throw the dog into the 6re." 

Dnfs the mnfe is a proverbial phrafe, which I have Siewife 
reel with frequently in the old comedies. So in E'~ry WHZOM. at 

. - :-: . . -. \ -. - ; 

If my hoft % the word, the ***ftjtaji k <&." 
Tt is allb found among Ray's proverbial 6mite>. 
Again, in the Tr^ mmy Miitmaai^ 1620 : 

"' Why then 'tis done, and Aafs the sx*Je y and undone aB die 

Of this cant expre^on I cacnot determine theprrcHe meaning. 
It is ufed again in Wepaaanl^ Oft, by Docker and Webfler, 1^07, 
but apparently in a fenfe clccrenr from that which Dr. Warbuncc 
v.-oold 2ffix to it. STEEVKNS. 

7 Or (jerc'jesr rertmcf) lovr, ] The word tr obfctnts the 
fenrence ; we (hould read Of lor or her. Mercudo hating caUed 
the afedioa with which Romeo was entangled by fo difreVpectiui 
a word as mlrt t cries out, 

T your reverence, love. Joans OK. 

' Mercutio's meaning is io if we cii'mifs the word er. tl Well 
draw thee from the mire (lays he) *r ra:ixr horn this love wherein 
thou ffickfi. w 

Dr. John r cn has imputed a greater (hare of po'henefs to Mer- 
cutio than he is found 10 be potitrfled of in the qjano, *59? 
Mercutio, as be paes through different editions, 

Works huafclf dear, and as he rans refines-.* 
tor ia the former he is made to lay, 

from the mire 

Cf this fir-reverence krre, whereia thou flick'ft. ST 1 1 . 
* we l>xrn Jey-Pgbt, ho.] To far* co^llgbt is a prorerbial 
esprefficn, afed when candies &c. are ^gb:ed in the Ly rime. 


9 . : ii^frf ^ rW.] Z**// the reading or the oldcit 

qoano. The folio and fub&quens ^i^aos icad %ow, %6 67 4? 

D Take 


Take our good meaning; for our judgment fits 
Five times in that J , ere once in our line wits. 

Rom. And we mean well, in going to this malk , 
But 'tis no wit to go. 

Mer. Why, may one afk ? 

Rom. I dreamt a dream to-night. 

Mer. And fo did I. 

Rom. Well, what was yours ? 

Mer. That dreamers often lye. 

Rom. In bed afleep j while they do dream things 

true *. 

Mer. * O, then, I fee, queen Mab hath been with 


1 Five times in that."] The quarro, 1597, reads: " Three times 
a dayf and right wits, inftead ofjine wits. STEEVENS. 

1 In the quarto is 97, after the fir it line ot Mercutio's fpeech, 
Romeo fays, Queen Mab t what's Jbe? and the printer, hy a blun- 
der, has given all the reft of the fpeech to the fame character. 

3 O, then, I fee, Queen Mai hath been with you.. 

She is the FAIRIES' midwife,'] Thus begins that admirable 
fpeech upon the ettecls of the imagination in dreams. Bur, Queen 
Mab the fairies mid-wife ? What is fhe then Queen of? Why, the 
fairies. What ! and their midwife too ? But this is not the greateft 
of the abfurdities. Let us fee upon what occafiou (lie is intro- 
duced, and under what quality. It is as a being that has great 
power over human imagination. But then the title given her mull 
have reference to the employment (he is put upon : Virft then, (he 
is called Queen; which is very pertinent, for that denVns her 
power : then fhe is called the fairies' ntid-v:'fe ; but what has that 
to 'do with the point in hand ? If we would think rhac Shakt-fpeare 

wrote fenie, we mult fay, he wrote the FANCY'.; miilivfe; aiul 

this is a proper title, as it introduces all that is laid atterwards of 
her vagaries. Befides, it exactly quadrates with theie lines : 

. I talk ot dreams, 

Which are the children of an idle brain, 
Begot ot nothing but vai n fantajie. 

Thefe dreams are begot upon fantajie, and Mab is the midwife to 
bring them forth. And fancy s midwife is a phrafe altogether in 
the manner of our author. WAR BURTON. 

AH the copies (three of which were publifhed in our author's 
life-time) concur in reading^/VvVj' midwife ^ and Dr. Warburton's 



She is the fairies' midwife; and fhe comes 
In fhape no bigger than an agat-ftone 
4 On the fore-hnger of an alderman, 
Drawn with a team of little atomies s 


alteration appears to be quite unneceflarv. The fairies' midwife 
tioes not mean the midwife to the tairies, but that fhe was tifie per- 
fon among the tairies, whole department it wasjo deliver the fan- 
cies of deeping men of their dreams, thofe children of an idle brain. 
When we iay the king's judges, we do not mean perlons who are to 
judge the king, but perions appointed by him to judge his fub- 
jefts. STEEVENS. 

4 On the fort-finger of an aUtrman} The quarto, I 97, reads, 
cf a bu r The alteration was probably made by the poet 
himlelt, as we find it in the fucceeding copy 1599 ; but in order 
to familiarize the idea, he has diminished us propriety. In the 
pictures ot burgo-mafters, the ring is generally placed on the fore- 
finger ; and from a paffage in The Firji Part of Henry IV. we may 
fuppoie the citizens in Shakefyeare's time to have worn this orna- 
ment on the thumb. So again, Glapthorue, in his comedy of Wit 
in a Conjlabk, 1639: 

" -I. and an alderman, 
*' As I may fay to you, he has no more 
" Wit than the reil o' the bench ; and that lies in hi 
" thumb-ring? STEEVENS. 

5 of atomies] Atony is no more than an obfolete fubftitute 
for atom. So, in the Ikva Merry Milkmaids, i6::o: 

" I can tear theq 

" As fmall as'atomies, and throw thee off 
" Like dull before the wind." 
A^ain, in Hey wood's Brazen Age, 1613 : 

" I'll tear thy limbs into more atomies 
" Tha in the fummer play before the fun," 
In D>:?\ fen's Nimphidia there is likewile a deicription of Queen 
3JWj thurior : 

F. ur nimble Gnats the Horfes. i-jcre, 
Tkiir Hwnefffs of GojTamere, 
Fly Cranion, her Charioteer, 

Uf>an the coach-box getting : 
Her Chariot of a Snail's fine Shell^ 
Which far the Colours did excel!, 
'The fair S^ueen Mab bei-ming --.'.r//, 

So Hvcly ivas the l< inning : 
Toe Seat, the foft Wool of the Bee t 

D 3 ^^*" 


Athwart men's nofes as they lie afleep : 
Her waggon- {pokes made of long fpinners' legs; 
The cover, of the wings of grafhoppers ; 
The traces, of the fmalleft fpider's web ; 
The collars, of the moonfhine's watry beams ; 
Her whip, of cricket's bone ; the lafh, of film : 
Her waggoner, a fmall grey-coated gnat, 
Nor half fo big as a round little worm 
Prick'd from the lazy finger of a maid: 
Her chariot is an empty hazel-nut, 
Made by the joiner fquirrel, or old grub, 
Time out of mind the fairies' coach-makers. 
And in this ftate (he gallops night by night 
Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love: 
On courtiers' knees, that dream on court'lies ftraight: 
O'er lawyers' fingers, who ftraight dream on fees : 
O'er ladies' lips, who ftraight on kifles dream ; 
"Which oft the angry Mab with blifters plagues, 
Becaufe their breaths with fweet-meats tainted are. 
6 Sometime (he gallops o'er a courtier's nofe, 


7'he C<mer (gallantly to JeeJ 
?he Wing efapy'd Bxtterjkc, 

I tro~M, 'fiuas jimple trimming : 
The wheels cotnpofd of Cricket's Bones, 
jAnd daintily made for the nonce, 
For Fear of rattling on the Stones, 

Vf'lth Tbijlle-a'o-jjn they food it* STEEVEN3. 

e Sometime ftte gallops o'er a L AWYER'J na/e, 

Jlnd then dreams he 0/Ymelling out a fuit :] The old editions 
have it, COURTIER'.* nofc ; and this undoubtedly is the true read- 
ing : and for thefe realons : Firft, In the prefect reading there is 
a' vicious repetition in this fine fpeech ; the fame thought having 
been given in the foregoing line: 

O'er lawyers' fingers, who itrait dream on fees : 
Nor can it be oSjeded that there will be the fame fault if we read 
courtiers', it having been faid before : 

On ccurtirrs' knees, that dream on curtfiea ftrait ; 
becaufe they are (hewn in two places under different views: in the 
firft, their fippcry; in the fecond, their rapacity is ridiculed. Se- 
condly, lu our auihur's time, a court-foiidtarioii was cuJed, fim- 


And then dreams he of fmelling out a fuit : 


ply, ay/V; and a procef?, a./uit at Icrx, to diftinguifh it from the 
other. " The King" (lays an anonymous cotemporary writer of 
the lire of Sir William Cecil) " called him [Sir William Cecil] and 
** after long talk with him, being much delighted with his anfwers, 
" willed his lati er to FIND [i.e. to fmell out] A .SUIT for him. 
** \Yhereupnn he became SUITER tor the reverfion of the Cuftos- 
*' brevium office in the Common Pleas : which the king willingly 
" granted, it bein^ the firlt SUIT he had in his lite." Jndted our 
poet has very rarely turned his faure againft lawyers and law pro- 
ceedings, the common topic or later writers : tor, to obferve it to the 
hciioui of the Englifh judicatures, they preferved the purity and 
{implicit}' of their firft inftitution, long atter chicane had over-run 
all t>e other laws of Europe. WAR BURTON'. 

Ir thefe' lines Dr. Warburton has very jullly reftored the old 
.reading ccnrtitr's nofe, and has explained the pafiage with his ufual 
learning j but J do not think he is Ib happy in his endeavour to 
juftify Shakefpeare trom the charge of a vicious repetition in intro- 
ducing the courtier twice. The lec^ond tolio, I obieive, reads : 

On COUNTS I ES knee?: - 

which has led me to conjecture, that the line ought to he read 

On COUN TIES knees, that dream on ftrait: 
Counties I uncierftand to iignity noblemen in general. Paris, who, 
in place, 1 think, is called earl^ is mofi commonly lliled the 
fount. ; e in this play. 

AnJ fo in Much Ado about Nothing, At 4. we find : 

" Princes and counties" 
And in Ail's <uv// fiat Ends <weG, Act 3 ; 

" A ring the County wears." 

The Ccuntic Egmond is fo called move than once in Holingihead, 
p. 1150, and in the Burleigh papers, vol. I. p. 204. See alfp 
p. 7, The Countie Palatine Lovvys. However, perhaps, it is as 
probable that the repetition of the Ccunicr, which pffends us in thij 
pailage, may be owing (not to any error of the prets, but) to the 
players having jumbled together the varieties or feveral editions, 
as they certainly have done in other pans ot the play. TYRV.'HITT. 
At the fivft entry of the characters in the Hillory or Orlando 
Furiofo, played before Queen Elizabeth, and published in 159^ 
and 1599, Satrifaxt is called the C?;::it:c Sacripant. 
Again. Orlando, Ipeaking ot" himtelf : 

' burnam'd Orlando, the Countie Palatine.** 
Cottntie is at leatt repeated twenty times in the fame play. 
This Ipecch at different times received much alteration and im- 
P $ provemept, 


And fometime comes fhe with a tithe-pig's tail, 
Tickling a parfon's nofe as a' lies afleep, 
Then dreams he of another benefice : 
Sometime (he driveth o'er a foldier's neck, 
And then dreams he of cutting foreign throats, 
Of breaches, ambufcadoes, 7 Spaniih blades, 
Of healths five fathom deep ; and then anon 
Drums in his ear; at which he fiarts, and wakes; 
And, being thus frighted, fwears a prayer or two, 
And fleeps again. This is that very Mab, 
That plats the manes of horfes in the night ; 
8 And cakes the elf-locks in foul fluttifh hairs, 

provement. The part of It in queftion, {lands thus in the quarto 
2597 : 

And in this for f flie gallops up and down 
Through lovers biaines, and then they dream of love : 
O'er courtiers knees, who ftrait on c'urlies dreame : 
O'er ladies lips, who dreame on kifl'es flrait ; 
Which oft the anyrie Mab with blifters plagues, 
Becaufe their breaths with fweetmeats tainted are. 
Sometimes fh.e gallops o'er a lawyer's lap, 
And then dreames he ot fmeiling out a Cult : 
And fometime comes fhe with a tithe-pig's taile, 
Tickling a parfon's nofe that lies aileepe, 
And then dreaines he of another benefice. 
Sometimes {he gallops o'er a fouldier's nofe, 
And then dreames he of cutting forraine throats, 
Of breaches, ambu'cadoes, countermines, 
Of healths five fadome deep, &c. 

Shakefpeare, as J have observed before, did not always attend to 
the propriety of his own alterations. STEEVENS. 

7 Sptin'Jb blades,] A fword is called a toledo, from the excel- 
lence ot the Toletan fteel. So Grorius : 

__. Knfis Toletnnus 
" Unda Tagi non eft alio celebranda metallo, 
" Utilis in cives eft ibi lamna fuos." JOHNSON. 
The quarto 1597? inftead of Spaiiijb Hades, reads countermines. 


* And cakes the elf-locks, &c.] This was a common fuperftirion ; 
and feems to have had its rile from the horrid diieafe called the 
Plica 1'olonica. WARUUR TON. 

All the old copies that I have feen, concur in reading, '* and 
kti^ &c." Mr. Pope firft made the alteration, which 'does not 
appear to be abiolutely neceffary. STEEYENS. 


R O M E O AND J U L I E T. 41 

Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes. 
This is the hag, when maids lie on their backs % 
That prefes them, and learns them firft to bear, 
Making them women of good carriage. 
This is (he 

Rcm. Peace, pesce, Mercutio, peace; 
Thou talk'ft of nothing. 

Mer. True, I talk of dream?; 
Which are the children of an idle brain, 
Begot of nothing but v.;in phantaly ; 
Which is as thin of fubftance as the air; 
And more inconftant than the wind, who wooes 
Even now the fiozen bolom of the north, 
And, being anger'd, puffs away from thence ', 
Turning his face to the dew-dropping fouth. 

Ben. This wind, you talk of, blows us from our 

felves ; 
Supper is done, and we fnall come too late. 

Rcm. I fear, too early : for my mind mifgives, 
Some confequnrrce, yet hanging in the ftars, 
Shall birterlv hegin his fearful date 
With this night's revels; and expire the term 
Of a deipifed life, clos'd in my breaft, 
By fome vile forfeit of untimely death : 
But He, that hath the lleerage of my courfe, 

9 -j:hen ma:ds, Src.] So, in Drayton's Nympbidia: 
Atul Mab, hi* merry J^wr, by 'Night 
Rfftrid s youii Folks that He upright 
(In eufer Ti,.tes the Mare that high') 
'. -.V" ?:-.igucs them out of measure. 

So, in Ger-ja/e of Tilbury, Dec. i. C. \"j. Vidimus quofclam 
daemones tan^a zt'.o ir.iiiiercs amare, quod ad inaudita prorumpunt 
Jucibria, et cum ad concubitum earum accedunt, mira mole eas oj>- 
fri;nunt, nee ab aiiis vitfentur. 

rfgood carriage-] So, in Love's Labour's Loft, Act i. Sc. 2. 

*' let them be men of good repute and carriage. 
Tffo/b* Sampion, mailer ; he was a man of good carriage ; great 
farriage; tor ne carried the town-writes, &c. !> STELVENS. 

The ipaito 1597, reada: " in hade.* 


* Diredt my fail ! On, lufty gentlemen. 
Ben. Strike, drum ? . 


A Hall in Copula's Houfe. 
Enter Servants. 

1 Serv. 4 Where's Potpan, that he helps not to 
take away ? he ftiift a trencher 5 ! he fcrape a trencher ! 

2 Serv. When good manners {hall lie all in one or , 
jwo mens' hands, and they unwafh'd too, 'tis a foul 

i Serv. Away with the joint- ftools, remove the 
6 court-cupboard, look to the plate: good thou, 


* Direft my fail !] I have reflored this reading from the elder 
quarto, as being more congruous to the metaphor in the pre- 
cte.iing line. Suit is the reading of the rolio. STEEVENS. 

Dircfi. my fait !] Guide tiizfyuel of" the adventure. JOHNSON. 

3 Stride drum.'} Here the folio adds : They march about tbeftage, 
and jerquing men come forth with their napkins, STEEVENS. 

4 This icene ib added fmce the lull copy. STEEVENS. 

s hejbifta trencher, &c.) Trenchers were ftili ufed by per- 
fons of good fafhion in our author's time. Jn the houlhold book 
of the earls of Northumberland, compiled at the beginning of the 
fame tent'.ry, it appeal s that they were common to the tables of the 
firft nobility. PERCY. 

The\ continued common much longer in many public focieties, 
particularly in colleges and inns of court ; and are ftill retained 
iat Lincoln's-Inn. NICHOLS. 

6 court- cupboard,} . 1 am not very certain that I know the. 
exaft 'igaification ot court- cupboard. Perhaps' it is what we call at 
pre'ent thejjdt-boafd. It is however frequently mentioned in the 
old plays : 10, in a Hutfinrous Day.s Mirth, i 599 : ** fhadow thefe 
tables with their whue veils, and accomplilh the court- cupboard"' 
/igain, in Maipcur D'Olivc, 1606, 'o>- Chapman : 

" Here fhail Hand rn y coyrt-cupboard with us furniture of plate.'' 
Again, in the Roaring Girl, ibi i : 

" Place that m tne court cnp'ward" 
Again, in Decker's Hontjt H hjre, 163^: 

' i hey are together on the cupboard of the coyrt, or the ceurl- 

A^am. in Chapman's May Day, 161 1 : 

u Ctiurt-cupbuardi planted vy uh tiaggons, Cans, Cups, Beakers, &c. ? 



7 fave me a piece of march-pane; and, as thou lov'ft 
me, let the porter let in Sufan Grindftone, and Nell. 
Antony ! and Potpan ! 
2 Seru. Ay, boy ; ready. 

1 Seru. You are look'd for, and call'd for, aik'd 
for, and fought for, in the great chamber. 

2 Seru. \Ve cannot be here and there too. Cheerly, 
boys ; be brifk a while, and the longer liver take alt. 

Enter Capukt, &c . with tbf Guejls and the Majkers. 

i Cap. Welcome, gendemen ! ladies, that have 

their feet 

LJnplagu'd with corns, will have a bout with you : 
Ah ha, my rmftrefTes ! which of you all 

Two of thefe court-expboardt are fHH in Stationers' Hall. 


The ufe which to this day is made of thole cut-boards is exactly 

defcnbed in the above-quoted line of Chapman; to difptey at 

c feftivals thejf/rggwM, cans, cuff, beakers^ and other antique filver 

elfc.i of the comply, ibme ot which (with the names of the 

donors infcnbed on them) are remarkably tars^e. NICHOLS. 

7 Save me a piece f nutrcb-tane ;] March-pane was a confection 
made of pillacho-nuts, almonds, and fu^ar, &c. and in high 
efteem in Sbaket'peare's rime ; as appears rrom the account of 
Queen Elizabeth's entertainment in Cambridge. It is faid that the 
univerfity prelented bit \\ iiliam Cecil tr.eir chancellor with two 
pair of gloves, a marcb-pznf^ and two fugar-loavci. 

Peek's DrfiJerrta Cttri^ vol ii. p. 29. GRAY. 

March-pane was a kind of iweet bread or bitcuit ; called by fome 
almcnd-cJce. Henxclaiu barbaru* rerrns it taaxapanif, vulgarly 
martins panis. G. macrpain and maffipoitt It. mafzapan:. H. ma^a- 
fax. B. learcsfiyn, i. e. jnajja para. But, as tew underitood the 
meaning of rhis tertn,- it began tb be generally though corruptly 
called majjepeyr., marccpnn, martjtpeym ; and in confequence ot this 
miftake of theirs it ibon <ook the name of martzus panis^' an ap- 
pellation transierred aftenvaids into other languages. See Jvnius. 


Marcb^ense was a conftant anicle in the deferts of our an- 
ceftors. So, in Acoutfius, a comedy, 1529: " feeing that the 
iffue of the table, rroirs and chde or \varers hypocras and 
marcbpaacs or comiyture,, be brought in." 
'- See Dugdale's Orig. Jurid. p. i ;j. STEEVE:;S. 


44 R O M E <> AND JULIE T. 

Will now deny to dance ? fhe that makes dainty, flie, 
I'll fvvear, hath corns ; Am I come near you now ? ' 
You are welcome, gentlemen ! I have feen the day, 
That I have worn a vifor ; and could tell 
A whifpering tale in a fair lady's ear, 
Such as would pleafe ; 'tis gone, 'tis gone, 'tis gone: 
s You are welcome, gentlemen. Come,rnulicians,play. 
9 A hall ! a hall ! give room, and fooc it, girls. 

[Mufick plays, and they dance. 
More light, ye knaves ; and turn the tables up, 
And quench the fire, the room is grown too hot. 
Ah, firrah, this unloQJi'd-for iport comes well. 
Nay, fit, nay, fit, ' good coufm Capulef. ; 


* Tou re welcome, gentlemen,'} fhefe two lines, omitted by the 
modern editors, I have replaced from the folio JOHNSON. 

9 A hall! a /jail!] ' Such is the old reading, and the true one, 
though the modern editors read, A ball ! a ball! The former ex- 
clamation occurs frequency in the old comedies, and iignifies, 
make room. So, in the comedy of DoRar Dodjj>oll, 1600 : 

" Room ! room ! a hall' a. ball 1 ." 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Tale of a Tub : 

" Then cry, a ball! a hall! 

Again, in an Epitnalamium by Chriltopher Brooke, publiflied at 
the end of England's Helicon, 10114: 

" Cry not, a bail, a ball', but chamber- roome ; 

*' Dancing is lame, &c." 
Again, in the W}do>vjs Tears, a comedy, by Chapman, 1612 : 

" A hall! a I- all! who's without there-'" 

" A hall', ic hall! let no more citizens in there." 
Again, in Herod and Antipater, 1(322: 

" A ball, a ball! let all the der.dly fins 

" Come in, and here accufe me ! '. 
Again, in t?cker's Satiroina/lix : 

" His grace corner A hall, varlets ' Where be my men ?" 
Again, in the T-wo Maids of Mare-clacke, 1609 : 

" Hall, a bail there, in ti lick found." 
Again, in Woman will l>ave her <:.wV/, 16:51 : 

" She comes, Ihe comes ; A ball, a hall! n STEEVEXS. 

Mr. Steevens reads -\ery figlirly : " A ball!, a hall! So, in 

Marfton's Satires : " A ball, a ball! Room tor the 1'pheres ! &c." 

And.I)avies, in one of his Epigrams : " AJiall! my maiteis, give 

Rrtundus room." FARMER. 

1 good <;aufip Capjflct,'] Thij coufin Capulet is unkle iq the 

paper of invitation ; but as Capulet is c'efcribed as old, ccufitt 

6 ie' 


For you and I are pad * our dancing days : 
How long is't now, fince laft yourfelf and I 
Were in a 'mafk ? 

2 Cap. By'r lady, thirty years. 

1 Cap. What, man ! 'tis not fo much, 'tis not fo 

much : 

J Tis fince the nuptial of Lucentio, 
Gcme pentecoft as quickly as it will, 
Some five and twenty years ; and then we mafk*d. 

2 Cap. 'Tis more, 'tis more : his ion is elder, fir ; 
His Ton is thirty. 

i Cap. 2 Will you tell me that? 
His IOQ was but a ward two years ago. 

.Rom. What lady's that, which doth enrich the hand 
Of yonder knight ? 

Serv. I know not, fir. 

Rom. O, fhe doth teach the torches to burn bright ! 
Her beauty hangs upon the cheek of night * 
Like a rich jewel in an ^thiop's ear : 

is probably the right word in both places. I know not hew 
Oipuiet and his lady might agree, their ages were very diipropor- 
rionate ; he has been pair malking for thirty years, and her age, as 
Ihe tells Juliet, is but eight-and-twenty. JOHNSON. 

1 our dancing dayi .] Thus the folio : the quarto reads, 
" our JfatjJiitg days." STEEVENS. 

J vi'.'//_>-,8 tell me t &C.J This fpeech {rands thus la the firft 

Will you tell me that it cannot be fo r 
His fon was but a ward three years ago ; : : i.'- 
Good youths i'faith ! Oh, youth's a jolly thing! 
There are many trifling variations in alrnoic ever)- fpeech of this 
pLv; b - at when they ate of little conlequence I have foreborn to 
encumber me page by the infertion of them. The laft, however, 
c:"the;e three lines is natural, and worth preferring. STEEVENS. 

cheek ofnight.~\ Shakefpeare has the fame thought in his 


Which, like a jewel hung in eaftly night, 
" ^Jake black night beauteous, anu her old face new." 
The quartos, 1597. 1599. 1609, I ^37 ^nd rhe ;olio 1613, read: 

It fcemsjhe hangs upon the cheek ot night. 

It is to the tolio 1632, that we are indebted for the piefent read- 
ing ; but I know not dut it is the true or.c. bTEEVE.vs. 



Beauty too rich for ufe, for earth too dear ! 
So fhews a fnowy dove trooping wich crows, 
As yonder lady o'er her fellows mows. 
The meafure done, I'll watch her place of ftandj 
And, touching hers, make happy my rude hand. 
Did my heart love 'till now ? forfwear it, fight ! 
For I ne'er faw true beauty 'till this night 5. 

Tyb. This, by his voice, mould be a Montague:^ 
Fetch me my rapier, boy: What! dares the Qave 
Come hither, cover'd with an antick face, 
To fleer and fcorn at our folemnity ? 
Now, by the ftock and honour of my kin, 
To ftrike him dead I hold it not a fin. 

i Cap. Why, how now, kinfman ? wherefore ftorrri 

you fo ? 

" tfyb. Uncle, this is a Montague, oiir foe ; 
A villain, that is hither come in fpight, 
To fcorn at our folemnity this night. 
i Cap. Young Romeo is't? 
yyb. 'Tis he, that villain Romeo. 
i Cap. Content thee, gentle coz, let him alone, 
He bears him like a portly gentleman ; 
And, to fay truth, Verona brags of him, 
To be a virtuous and well-govern'd youth : 
I would not for the wealth of all this town> 
-Here in my houfe, do him difparagement : 
Therefore be patient, take no note of him, 
It is my will ; the which if thou refpecl:, 
Shew a fair prefence, and put off thefe frowns, 
An ill-befeeming fembhnce for a feaft. 

<Tyb. It fits, when fuch a villain is a gueft ; 
I'll not endure him. 

i Cap. He mail be emhir'd ; 

What, goodman boy ! I fay, he mail : Go to ; 
Am I the mafter here, or you ? go to. 

* for 1 ne'er faw true beauty till this frgbt.] Thus K. HenryVIH. 

o be:iuu' f 
Till no;/ 1 never knew thee ! STEEVENS. 



You'll nor endure him! God (hall mend my foul 
Y _:'.! rr-.ake a mutiny among my guefts ! 
You will fet cock-a-hoop! you'll be the man! 

'Tyb. Why, uncle, 'tis a mame. 

i Cap. Go to, go to, 

You are a iaucy boy : Is't fo, indeed ? 
This trick may chance tofcathe you -; Iknowwhat. 

You rruft contrary me" ! marry, 'tis time 

"Well laid, my hearts : s You are a princox ; go : 
Be, or More light, more l^ghr, for lhame ! 
I'll make you quiet; What 1 Cheerly, my hearts. 

Tyb. 9 Patience perforce, with wilful choler meeting, 
Makes my flelh tremble in their different greeting. 
I v/ill withdraw : but this incrufion (hall, 
Now feeming ftveet, convert to bitter gall. [Ex//. 

* To icathe ycu^ i. e. to do vou an injury. 
So, in The Photr pfH r akffahi t 1599 -. 

" They fhali amend tfce fcatb, or kifs the pound.* 
Again, ia the interlude Qijs&ib and E/ax, i^65: 

*' Aias, what wretched villain oath done me fachjfa^?" 


* Teu imjf contrary' m.~\ The ufe of rhk verb is common to 
our old writers. So, in TJK^J Love by Grease, 16:6 : " rather 
wiftiing to die thaa to contrary her refolurion." Many intiatces 
more might b felcficd t^oru Si.fyys Arcod.a. 

Again, in Warner's A&ioi^ England^ 1602. B, 10. Chap. 59. 

*' his countermand fhould have ctntrariui fo." 

The fame vAb is uied in Sir Tho. Noriii*s ftanilation of Plu- 
tarch. STEEVEN-S. 

* Tauai-e a. princes, go:- } &.friiu*x is a coxcomb, a conceited 

The word is ufed by Ben Jonfon in The Cap is &rV, 1609 ; by 
;,-man in his comedy ol JMy-Day, 1610; in the Rau-n frera 
Parjajpa, 1606: " Yc-jr proud univerfity Princcx-" again, in 
Fuinaa frees, 1603 : " That Priatox proud;" an^. indeed by mofi 
of i he oid dramauck ivriters. CorgraTe renders aa jime eftondeau 
fmffi-bf a young pr'm nx boy. STE 

9 P.n'-act perforce,} This e?preflk>Q is in pan prover: '. 
Ok adage is, 

" Fatiexe fe-forct is a medicine for a mad dog/* SrErr, 



Rom. * If I profane with ray unworthy hand 

[To Jutief. 

This holy mrine, the gentle fine is this 
My lips, two bluihing pjgritns, ready Hand 

To fmooth chat rough touch with a tender kifs. 
Jul. Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too 


Which mannerly devotion fhews in this ; 
For faints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, 

And palm to palm is holy palmers' kifs. 
Rom. Have not faints lips, and holy palmers too ? 
Jul. Ay, pilgrim, lips that they muf't uie in prayer. 
Rom. O then, dear faint, let lips do what hands do j 
They pray, grant thou, lelt faith turn to deipair. 
Jul. Saints do not move, though grant for prayers* 

Rom. Then move not, while my prayer's efTecl I 

Thus from my lips, by yours, my fin is purg'd. 

[Kiffing her. 

Jul. Then have my lips the fin that they have took- 
Rom. Sin from my lips ? O trefpafs fwectly urg'd I 
Give me my fin again. 

Jul. You kifs by the book. 

Nurfe. Madam, your mother craves a word with 


Rom. What is her mother ? 
Nurfe. Marry, bachelor, 

1 If I profane witb my univorfLy bar.. t 

y"l.ris holy Jhrine^ the gentle fin is /'!'/.*', 

My /i/>s, two Uujlring pilgrims, &c.] All profanations ;ire fup- 
pofed to be expiated either by feme meiitorious a&ion, or by funie 
penance undergone and punifhment fubmitted to. So Romeo 
would here fay, It I have been pvotane in the rude touch of my 
hand, my lips ftand ready, as two bluihing pilgrims, ro take oft' that 
offence, to atone for it by a fvveet penance. Our poet therefore 
muii have wrote, 

<' the gentle fine is this. WARBURTON. 



Her mother is the lady of the houfe, 
And a good lady, and a wife, and virtuous : 
I nurs'd her daughter, that you talk'd withal ; 
I tell you he, that can lay hold of her, 
Shall have the chink. 
Rom. Is fhe a Capulet ? 

dear account ! my life is my foe's debt. 
Ben. Away, begone ; the fport is at the beft. 
Rcm. Ay, fo I fear ; the more is my unreft. 

i Cap. Nay, gentlemen, prepare not to be gone 5 
\Ye have a trifling foolilh banquet towards 2 . 
Is it e'en fo ? Why, then I thank you all -, 

1 thank you, honeft gentlemen 3 ; good night: 
More torches here ! Come on, then let's to bed. 
Ah, firrah, by my fay, it waxes late ; 

I'll to my reft. [Exeunt. 

Jul. Come hither, nurfe4: What is yon gentleman? 

Nurfe. The fon and heir of old Tiberio. 

Jul. What's he, that now is going out of door ? 

Nurfe. That, as I think, is young Petruchio. 

Jul. What's he, that follows there, that would not 
dance ? 

Nurfe. I know not. 

Jul. Go, aik his name : if he be married, 
My grave is like to be my wedding bed. 

* V,'t lavt afool'Jb trifling lanqvet towards.] Ymardi is ready-, 

at hand. So, in Hamlet; 

" What might be towards* that this (weary hae 

" Doth make the night joint labourer with the dav?'* 

Again, in the PhcentXy by Middleton, 1607 : 

'* here's a voyage towards, will make us all. 

3 boneji gentltmen ;] Here the quarto, 1597, adds: 

" I promife you, but ror your company, 
" I would have been in bed an hour ago : 
*' Light to my chamber, ho-!" STEEVEXS; 

4 Come hither i nttrfe: ffbat is yon gentleman ?] This and the 
following qucluons are taken from the novel. STEEVENS. 

VOL. X, E 


Nurfe. His name is Romeo, and a Montague ; 
The only fon of your great enemy. 

Jul. My only love fprung from my only hate ! 
Too early feen unknown, and known too late ! 
Prodigious birth of love it is to me, 
That I muft love a loathed enemy. 

Nurfe. What's this ? what's this ? 

Jul. A rhyme I learn'd even now 
Of one I danc'd withal. [One calls within, Juliet. 

Nurfe. Anon, anon : 
Come, let's away ; the flrangers all are gone. 


Enter 'CHORUS. 

Now old defire doth on his death-bed lie, 

And young affection gapes to be his heir ; 
That fair, for which love groan'd fore, and would die, 

With tender Juliet match'd, is now not fair. 
Now Romeo is belov'd, and loves again, 

Alike bewitched by the charm of looks ; 
But to his foe fuppos'd he muft complain, 

And fne fteal love's fweet bait from fearful hooks : 
Being held a foe, he may not have accefs 

To breathe fuch vows as lovers ufe to fwear; 
And fhe as much in love, her means much lefs 

To meet her new-beloved any where : 
But paffion lends them power, time means to meet, 
Temp'ring extremities with extream fweet. 

[Exit Chorus. 

* CHORUS.'] This chorus added fmce the firft edition. POPE. 

Chorus. The ufe of this chorus is not ealily difcovered; it con- 
duces nothing to the progrefs of the play, but relates what is already 
known, or what the next fcene will (hew ; and relates it without 
adding the improvement of any moral fenument. JOHNSON. 



A C T II. S C E N E I. 

?be STREET. 
Enter Romeo atone. 

Rom. Can I go forward, when my heart is here ? 
Turn back, dull earth, and find thy center out. 


Enter BenvoliO) with Mercutio. 

Ben. Romeo ! my coufm Romeo ! 

Mer. He is wife , 
And, on my life, nath (lorn him home to bed. 

Ben. He ran this way, and leap'd this orchard wall : 
Call, good Mercutio. 

Mer. Nay, I'll conjure too. 

Why, Romeo! humours! madman! paffion! lover! 
Appear thou in the likencis of a figh, 
Speak but one rhyme, and I am fatisfied ; 
Cry but Ay me ! couple but love and dove 6 ; 
Speak to my goflip Venus one fair word, 
One nick-name to her purblind fon and heir, 

6 Cy lut ,fv me! couple lu'. lwe and <&**.] The quarto, 
1 597, reads pronounce^ the t'.vo iuccecding cjuarros and the firlt tolio, 
frovant: the 3d, 3d, and 4iii loliua. cout^-\ and Mr. R'J- .e, who 
printed from the laft of tliefe, formed the preftnt i-eading. Pro- 
vant, in ancient language, iignihes prtr^tfion. So, in ** The 
Court and Kitchen of Elizabeth, cal.ed Joan Cromwell, the *ite 
of the late ufurper, truly deicrib^d a..d reprefented," 1664, p. 14. 
"* caTying inme dainty provant tor her own and her daughter's 
repatL" To provaitt is to pr<rj'uk ; and to provide is to furnijb. 
14 frovant but love and i!o\e," may thererbre mean furnijh but 
fuch hackney 'd rhimes as tliefe are, the trite effufions of lovers. 


E 2 Young 


7 Young Adam Cupid, he that mot fo trim, 

When king Cophetua lov'd the beggar- maid. 

He heareth not, he ftirrerh not, he moveth not ; 

The ape is dead, and I muft conjure him. ' 

I conjure thee by Rofaline's bright eyes, 

By her high forehead, and her fcarlet lip, 

By her fine foot, ftraight leg, and quivering thigh, 

And the demefnes that there adjacent lie, 

That in thy likenefs thou appear to us. 

Ben. An if he hear thee, thou wilt anger him. 

Mer. This cannot anger him : 'twould anger him 
To raife a fpirit in his miftrefs' circle 
Of 4bme ftrange nature, letting it there Hand 
'Till fhe had laid it, and conjur'd it down ; 
That were fome fpight : my invocation 
Is fair and honeft, and, in his miftrefs' name, 
I conjure only but to raife up him. 

Ben. Come, he hath hid himfelf among thofe trees, 
To be conforted with the humorous night ? : 


? Young Adam Cupld^\ Alluding to the famous archer Adam 
Bell. GRAY. 

1 When king Copbetua, &c.] Alluding to an old ballad. POPE. 
This ballad is preferved in the firft volume of Dr. Percy's Re- 
liques of ancient EngliJJj Poetry. STEEVENS. 

" her/r-//Wfon and heir, 

" Young Adam Cupid, he that (hot fo trim, 
' When, &c." 

This word trim, the firft editors confulting the general fenfe of the 
pafiage, and not perceiving the allufion, would naturally alter to 
true, yet the former feems the more humourous expreflion, and, 
on account of its quaintnefs, more likely to have been ufed by 
Mercutio. PERCY. 

So trim is the reading of the oldeft copy, and this ingenious con- 
jecture is confirmed by it. In Decker's Satiromajlix is a reference 
to the lame archer : 

" He (hoots his bolt but feldom ; but when Adam lets go, 

he hits :" 
" He (hoots at thee too, Adam Sell-, and his arrows flick 

here." STEEVENS. 

* the humorous night,] I fuppofc Sbahfpeare means humid, 



Blind is his love, and beft befits the dark. 

Mer. If love be blind, love cannot hit the mark, 
Now \vill he fit under a medlar tree, 
And wifli his miftrefs were that kind of fruit, 
1 As maids call medlars, when they laugh alone. 
Romeo, good night ; I'll to my truckle-bed ; 
This field-bed is too cold for me to deep: 
Come, (hall we go ? 

t moift dc-jy night. Chapman ufes the word in that fenfc in 
hi tnmdation of Honicr, book II. edit. 1598 : 
* The other gods and knights at arms flept all the humorous 

Again, in Drayton's Polyolbion, fong 3 : 

" Such matter as {he takes from the grofs humorous earth/' 
Again, fong I3th: 

" which late the humorous night 
*' Befpangled had with pearl " 
Again, in his Barons'" Wars, canto I : 

" The humorous fogs deprive us of his light." STEEVENS. 
Again, in Meafure for Meafure : tt The valorous night ap- 
proaches." MA LONE. 

1 As maids, &c.] After this line in the quarto 1^97, I find two 
other verfes, containing fuch ribaldry, that I cannot venture to 
inlert them in the text, though I exhibit them here as a proof that 
either the poet or his friends knew fometimes how to blot: 
O Romeo that (he were, O that fhe were 
An open Et ctetera* thou a Poprin Pear! 
This pear is mentioned in the Wife Woman ofHogsdm, 1638. 
" What needed I to have grafted in the flock of fuch a choke- 
pear, and fuch a goodly Poprin as this to efcape me ?" 
Again, in A Woman never njex'd, 1632 : 

" I recjuefted him to pull me 
" A Katherine Pear, and had I not look'd to him 
" He would have miftook and given me a Popperin" 
In the Atbe'JPs tragedy, by Cyril Turner, 1611, there is much 
conceit about this Pear. I am unable to explain it, nor does it 
appear indeed to deferve explanation. 

Thus much may fafely be faid ; viz. that our Pear might have 
been of French extraction, as Papering was the name of a parifli in 
the Marches of Calais. So, Chaucer's Rime of Sire Tlofas, edit., 

!77j> ver - J 3 6 5 : 

" In Flandres, al beyonde the fee 

" At Papering in the' place." STEEVENS, 

E 3 Be*. 

54 R O M E O AND J U L I E T. 

Ben. Go, then , for 'tis in vain 
To feek him here, that means not to be found. 



Capukt's Garden. 

Enter Romeo. 

Rom. * He jefts at fears, that never felt a wound. 
But, foft ! what light through yonder window breaks? 
It is the eaft, and Juliet is the fun ! 

\jfuliet appears above, at a window. 
Arife, fair fun, and kill the envious moon, 
Who is already fick and pale with grief, 
That thou her maid art far more fair than me ; 

3 Be not her maid, fmce fhe is envious ; 
Her veftal livery is but fick and green, 

And none but fools do wear it j caft it off. 

4 It is my lady ; O, it is my love : 
O, that fhe knew fhe were ! 

She fpeaks, yet fhe fays nothing ; What of that ? 

Her eye difcourfes, I will anfwer it. 

I am too bold, 'tis not to me it fpeaks : 
Two of the faireft flars in all the heaven, 
Having fome bufmefs, do intreat her eyes 
To twinkle in their fpheres 'till they return. 
W 7 hat if her eyes were there, they in her head ? 
The brightnefs of her cheek would mame thofe liars, 
AS day-light doth a lamp; her eye in heaven 
Would through the airy region ftream fo bright, 
That birds would fing, and think it were not night. 

* He jffls at fears, ~\ That is, Merc utio jefts, whom he over- 
heard. JOHNSON. 

3 Re not /'IT Maid,] Be not a votary to the moon, to 
P'uina. IOHXS ox. 

* // is ?ny latfy;'} "JV'S line and half I have replaced. JOHNSON. 



See, how (he leans her cheek upon her hand ! 
- ; O, that I were a glove upon that hand, 
That 1 might touch that cheek 6 \ 

JuL Ay me ! 

Rom. She fpeaks : - 
7 O, fpeak again, bright angel ! for thou art 
As glorious to this night, being o'er my head, 
As is a winged mefienger of heaven 
Unto the white-upturned wond'ring eyes 
Of mortals, that fall back to gaze on him, 
When he beftrides 8 the lazy-pacing clouds, 
And fails upon the bofoin of the air. 

JuL O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo ? 
Deny thy father, and refufe thy name : 
Or, if thou wilt not, be but fworn my love, 
And I'll no longer be a Capulet. 

Rom. Shall I hear more, or (hall I fpeak at this ? 

5 O that Ivxre a glove upon ibat band,] This paflage appears 
to hare been ridiculed by Shirley in Tb: School of Compliments, a 
comedy, 1637 : 

** Oh that I were a flea upon that lip," Sec. STEEVEVS. 

* touch that cljftt .'] The quarto, 1597, reads; " tifs that 
cheek." STEEVEXS. 

7 Ob^Jpeak again, bright angel! for tbou art 

As glorious to this night,] Though all the printed copies 
concur in this reading, yet the latter part of the firnile feems to 

As glorious to this^/'/ ; 
and therefore I have ventured to alter the text fb. THEOBALD. 

I have reftored the old reading, for furely the change was un- 
neceffary. The plain fenfe is, that Juliet appeared as fplendid 
an object in the vault or" heaven obfcured by darknels, as an 
angel could feem to the eyes of mortals, who were falling back 
to gaze upon him. 

As glorious to this nlgbt t means as glorious an appearance in ibis 
ftarl night, &c. It ftould be obfervea, however, that the fimile 
agrees precifely with Theobald's alteration, and not fo well with 
the old reading. STEEYEXS. 

8 - tbe lazy-pacing clouds,] Thus correded from the firft 
edition, in the other Ury-p*j}ing. POPE. 

' " 


Jul. 'Tis but thy name, that is my enemy j 
1 Thou art thylelf, though not a Montague. 
"What's Montague ? it is nor hand, nor foot, 
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part : 
What's in a name ? that which we call a rofe, 
By any other name would fmell as fweet ; 
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd, 
Retain that dear perfection which he owes, 
Without that title : Romeo, doff thy name ; 
And for that name, which is no part of thee, 
* Take all myfelf. 

Rom. I take thee at thy word : 
Gall me but love, and I'll be new baptiz'd ; 
Henceforth I never will be Romeo. 

Jul. What man arc thou, that, thus befcreen'd in 

So ftumbleit on my counfel ? 

Rom. By a name 

I know not how to tell thee who I am : 
My name, dear faint, is hateful to myfelf, 
Becaufe it is an enemy to thee ; 
Had I it written, I would tear the word. 

Jul. My ears have yet not drunk a hundred words 
Of that tongue's uttering, yet I know the found ; 

1 Thou art thyfelf, though not a Montague.] i. e. you woukj 
be juft what you are, although you were not of the Houfe ot 
Montague. WARBURTON. 

I think the true fading is, 

Thou art thyfelf, then not a Montague. 

Thou art a being of peculiar excellence, and haft none of th$ 
malignity of the family from which thou . haft tky name. 
Haainer reads ; 

Thou r't not tJjyfelffa, though a Montague. JOHNSON. 

This line is wanting in the elder quarto; all the other edi- 
tions concur in one reading. I think the paffiige will fupport 
Dr. Johnibn's fenfe without his propofed alteration. Thou art 
thyfelf (i. e. a being of diilinguifhed excellence) though thou 
art not what thou appeareli to others, akin to thy family in ma- 
lice. STEEVENS. 

z : fob pU nJX/effl The elc-er [quarto [reads, Take all I have. 




Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague ? 

Rom. Neither, fair faint, if either thee diflike. 

JuL How cam'ft thou hither, tell me ? and where- 
fore ? 

The orchard-walls are high, and hard to climb; 
And the place death, confidering who thou art, 
If any of my kinfmen find thee here. 

Rom. With love's light wings did I o'er-perch thefc 

walls ; 

For flony limits cannot hold love out : 
And what love can do, that dares love attempt; 
Therefore thy kinfmen are no flop to me. 

Jul. If they do fee thee, they will murder thee. 

Rom. Alack ! there lies more peril in thine eye, 
Than twenty of their fwords ? ; look thou but fweer, 
And I am proof againft their enmity. 

Jul. I would not for the world, they faw thee here. 

Rom. I have night's cloak to hide me from their 

fight ; 

And, but thou love me, let them find me here ; 
My life were better ended by their hate, 
Than death prorogued 4 , wanting of thy love. 

JuL By whofe direction found'ft thou out this place? 

Rom. By love, who firft did prompt me to enquire; 
He lent me counfel, and I lent him eyes. 
I am no pilot ; yet, wert thou as far 
As that vaft more vvafh'd with the farthefl fea, 
I would adventure for fuch merchandife. 

JuL Thou know'ft, the mafk of night is on my 
face ; 

3 there lies more peril in thine eye f 

Than twenty of their fixords ; ] 
B. & Fletcher have copied this thought in The Maid in the Mill: 

'* The lady may command, lir ; 
" She bears an eye more dreadful than your weapon." 


4 Than death prorogued,] To prorogue has not, in this place, 
its common fignification, but means to delay, STSEYENS. 



Elfe would a maiden blufh bepaint my cheek, 
For that which thou haft heard me fpeak to-night. 
Fain would I dwell on form, fain fain deny 
What I have fpoke ; But farewel compliment ! 
Daft thou love me ? I know, thou wilt fay Ay ; 
And I will take thy word : yet, if thou fwcar'ft, 
Ttiou may'il prove falfe ; at lovers' perjuries, 
They fay, Jove laughs. O, gentle Romeo, 
If thou doft love, pronounce it faithfully : 
Or if thou think'ft I am too quickly won, 
Til frown, and be perverfe, and fay thee nay, 
So thou wilt woo 5 but, elfe, not for the world. 
In truth, fair Montague, I am too fond ; 
And therefore thou may'ft think my haviour light : 
But truft me, gentleman, I'll prove more true, 
Than thofe that have more 5 cunning to be ftrange. 
I mould have been more ftrange, I muft confefs, 
But that thou over-heardft, ere I was ware, 
My true love's pafllon : therefore pardon me ; 
And not impute this yielding to light love, 
"Which the dark night hath fo difcovered. 

Rom. Lady, by yonder blefled moon I vow, 
That tips with filver all thefe fruit-tree tops, 

Jul. Q, fwear not by the moon, the inconftant moon 
That monthly changes in her circled orb, 
Left that thy love prove likewife variable. 

Rom. What mall I fwear by ? 

JuL Do not fwear at all ; 
Or, if thou wilt, fwear by thy gracious felf, 

s coying to le Jlrangc J\ For coying^ the modern editions have 
cunning. JOHNSON. 

Cunning is the reading of the elder quarto, and I have reftored 
it. To cry is neverthelefs an old verb. So, iu A li'oman never 
vexJ, 1632 : 

'* Love is fo young, it coy;, but cannot fpeuk." 
ID lejlrangc, is to put on afitf&ed colduefs, to appear fiiy. So, in 
Greene's Mamittia, 1593 : " Is it the tafliion in Padua to be fo 
firanzc with vour friends ?" STE E v ii x ? . 



Which is the god of my idolatry, 
And I'll believe thee. 

Rom. If my bean's dear love 
Jul. Well, do not fwear ; although I joy in thee, 
I have no joy of this contract to-night : 
It is too raib, too unadvised, too fudden ; 
Too like the lightning, which doth ceafe to be, 
Ere one can fay It lightens 6 . 7 Sweet, good night ! 
This bud of love, by iummer's ripening breath, 
May prove a beauteous flower when next we meet. 
Good night, good night ! as fweet repofe and reft. 
Come to thy heart, as that within my bread ! 
Rom. O, wilt thou leave me fo unfatisfied ? 
Jul. What fatisfaction canft thou have to-night ? 
Rom. The exchange of thy love's faithful vow for 


Jul. I gave thee mine before thou didft requeft it : 
And yet I would it were to give again. 
Rom. Would'ft thou withdraw it ? for what pur- 

pofe, love ? 

Jul. But to be frank, and give it thee again. 
And yet I wifh but for the thing I have : 
My bounty is as boundlefs as the fea, 
ftly love as deep ; the more I give to thee, 
The more I have, for both are infinite. 
J hear feme noife within ; Dear love, adieu ! 


6 Ere OK COM Jay It lightens.] So, in the Mracks of&Lfis, by 

f! - lightning ceaflefsly to bum, 
'* Swifter than thought from place to place to pals, 
" And being gone, doth fuddeoly return 
** Ertjou cmddfty precifcly -astral it was." 

The fame thought occurs in the MMjamaxr Sight's Dream. 


7 &rac*, good night.'] All the intermediate lines irom &nrr/, 
good K-ght, to Star but a iiuJe, &c. were added after the fcrii 
c py. SrzV:;s.,, 


Anon, good nurfe ! Sweet Montague, be true 
Stay but a little, I will come again. 

Rom. O blefifed blefled night ! I am afeard, 
Being in night, all this is but a dream, 
Too flattering-fweet to be fubftantial. 

Re-enter Juliet, above. 

JuL Three words, dear Romeo, and good night, 


If that thy bent of love be honourable, 
Thy purpofe marriage, fend me word to-morrow, 
By one that I'll procure to come to thee, 
Where, and what time, thou wilt perform the rite ; 
And all my fortunes at thy foot I'll lay, 
And follow thee my lord throughout the world. 

[Within: Madam. 

I come, anon : But if thou mean'ft not well, 
I do befeech thee, \JVithin : Madam.] By and by, 

I come : 

To ceafe thy fuit, and leave me to my grief: 
To-morrow will I fend. 

Rom. So thrive my foul,- 

JuL A thoufand times good night ! \_Exit. 

.Rom. A thoufand times the worfe, to want thy 

JLove goes toward love, as fchool-boys from their 

books ; 
But love from love, towards fchool with heavy looks. 

Re-enter Juliet again, above. 

JuL Hift ! Romeo, hid! O,for a faulconer's voice, 
8 To lure this taflel-gentle back again ! 


8 To lure this taffel-gentk lack again /] The tajjel or tiercel (for 
fo it fhould be fpelt) is the male of the gofshawk ; Ib called, becaufe 
it is a tierce or third lefs than the female. This is equally true of 



Bondage is hoarfe, and may not fpcak aloud ; 
Elfe would I tear the cave where echo lies, 
And make her airy tongue more hoarfe than mine 
With repetition of my Romeo's name. 

Rom. It is my foul, that calls upon my name : 
How filver-fweet found lovers' tongues by night, 
Like ibfteft mufic to attending ears ! 

Jul. Romeo! 

Rcm. My fweet ? 

JuL At what o'clock to-morrow 
Shall I fend to thee ? 

Rom. By the hour of nine. 

JuL I will not fail; 'tis twenty years 'till then. 
J have forgot why I did call thee bacl^. 

Rom. Let me (land here 'till thou remember it. 

JuL I mail forger, to have thee ttill ftand there, 
Rememb'ring how I love thy company. 

Rom. And I'll ftill (lay, to have thee ftill forget, 
Forgetting any other home but this. 

Jul. 'Tis almoft morning, I would have thee gone : 
And yet no further than a wanton's bird ; 
Who lets it hop a little from her hand, 
Like a poor prifoner in his twifted gyves, 
And with a filk thread plucks it back again, 
So loving- jealous of his liberty. 

all birds of prey. In the Bocke cf Falconry, by George Turbervi'e, : 
gent, printed in 1575, I find a whole chapter on the falcon-gentle, 
&c. So, in The Guardian, by Maflinger, 

*<- then for an evening flight 

*' A tiercel-gentk. n 

Taylor the water poet ufes the fame expreffion. " By cafting 

" out the lure, (he makes the taJTel-gentle come to her fifi." 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Queen, b. 3. c. 4. 

" Having tar oil" efpyde .a tajfil-genf, 

' ; Which after her his nimble wings doth.ilraine.? - ,;o I 
Again, in Decker's Match me in London, 1631 : 

" Your tafiel-gentlc, fhe's lur'd off ana gor.. " 
This fpecies or hawk had the epithet of gentle annexed to if, 
from the eafc xvith which it was tamed, and its attache:. c to 

r Rcm. 


Rom. I would, I were thy bird. 

Jul. Sweet, fo would I ; 
Yet I mould kill thee with much cherifhing. 
Good night, good night ! parting is fuch fweet forrow, 
That I fhall fay good night, 'till it be morrow. 


Rom. Sleep dwell upon thine eyes, peace in thy 

bfeaft ! 

'Would I were fleep and peace, fo fweet to reft ! 
Hence will I to my ghoftly father's cell ; 
His help to crave, and my dear hap to tell. [Exit. 


Enter friar Lawrence, 'with a bajket. 

Fri. 9 The grey-ey'd mom fmiles on the frowning 


Checkering the eaftern clouds with flreaks of ligftt ; 
And flecked darknefs like a drunkard reels 

9 The grey-ey'd morn, &c.] Thefe four firft lines are here re- 
placed, conformable to the firft edition, where fuch a defcription is 
much more proper than in the mouth of Romeo juit before, when 
he was full of nothing but the thoughts of his mittrefs. POPE. 

In the folio thefe lines are printed twice over, and given twice 
to Romeo, and once to the frier. JOHNS ox. 

The fame miftake has likewife happened in the quartos, 1599, 
1609, and 1637. STEEVENS. 

1 And flecked darbiefs} Flecked is fpotted, dappled, ftreak'd, or 
variegated. In this feme it is ufed by Churchyard, in his Le- 
gend of Tbo. Mmubray Duke of Norfolk. Mow bray, fpeaking of the 
Germans, fays : 

" All jagg'd and frounc'd, with divers colours deck'd, 
" They iwear, they curfe, and drink till they be^fr^W." 
Lord Surrey ufes the fame word in his tranflation of the 4th 
./Eneid : 

" Her quivering cheekesjfrofo/ with deadly ftaine." 
The fame image occurs in Much ado about nothing at. . fc. 3. 

" Dapples the drowfy eaft withfpots of grey." STEEVEKS* 



From forth day's path-way, made by Titan's wheels : 

Now ere the fun advance his burning eye, 

The day to chear, and nights dank dew to dry, 

1 muft up-fill this ofier cage of ours * 

With baleful weeds, and precious-juiced flowers. 

? The earth, that's nature's mother, is her tomb ; 

What is her burying grave, that is her womb: 

And from her womb children of divers kind 

We fucking on her natural bofom find ; 

Many for many virtues excellent, 

None but for fome, and yet all different. 

O, mickle is the 4 powerful grace, that lies 

In plants, herbs, ftones, and their true qualities : 

For nought fo vile that on the earth doth live V 

But to the earth fome fpecial good doth give; 

Nor ought fo good, but, ftrain'd from that fair ufe, 

Revolts from true birth, (tumbling on abuTe : ' 

Virtue itfelf turns vice, being mifap'plied ; 

And vice fometime's by action dignify'd. 

Within the infant rind of this fmall flower 

Poifon hath refidence, and med'cine power : 

For this, being fmelt, with that part chears each part ; 

1 I muft up-fill this ozier cage of curs^ &c.] So, in the 1 3th Cong 

of Drayton's Polyolbion : 

" His happy time he fpend. f1> e works of God to fee, 
** In thofe fo fuu,:i v herbs which there in plenty grow, 
" Whofe fundry ftrange effects he only feeks to know. 
" And in a little maund, being made or ozicrs fmall, 
" Which lerveth him to do full many a thing withal, 
*' He very choicely forts his fimples gut abida'd." 

Drayton is fpeaking of a hermit. STEEVENS. 

3 The earth, that's nature's mother , is her tcml : ] 

" Omniparens, eadem rerum commune fepulchrum." 


" The womb of nature, and perhaps her grave." Milton. 


4 . powerful grace ?\ Efficacious virtue. JOHNSON. 

5 For nought Jo vile that on the earth doth l:vc.] The quarto, 
1597, reads: 

For nought fo vile that vile on earth doth live, STEEVENS. 



Being tafted, flays all fenfes with the heart. 
* Two fuch oppofcd foes encamp them (till 
In man as well as herbs, grace, and rude will j 
And, where the worfer is predominant, 
Full foon the canker death eats up that plant. 

Enter Romeo. 

Rom. Good morrow, father ! 

Fri. Betiedicite ! 

What early tongue fo fweet faluteth me? 
Young fon, it argues a diftemper'd head, 
So foon to bid good morrow to thy bed : 
Care keeps his watch in every old man's eye, 
And where care lodges, deep will never lie ; 
7 But where unbruifed youth with unfluft brain 
Doth couch his limbs, there golden fleep doth reign; 
Therefore thy earlinefs doth me aflure, 
Thou art up-rouz'd by fome diftemp'rature ; 
Or if not fo, then here I hit it right 
Our Romeo hath not been in bed to-night. 

Rom. That laft is true } the fweeter reft was mine. 

Fri. God pardon fin ! waft thou with Rofaline ? 

' Two fuel oppofeJ FOES ] This is a modern fophiftication. 
The old books have it oppofed KINGS. So that it appears, Shake- 
fpeare wrote, Ttuojitcb oppofcd KIN. Why he calls them kin was, 
becaufe they were qualities refiding in one and the fame fubftance. 
And as the enmity of oppofed km generally rifes higher than that 
between Grangers, this circumftance adds a beauty to the expref- 

Foes may be the right reading, or kings, but I think kin can 
hardly be admitted. Two kings are two oppofite powers, two cpn- 
rcnding potentates, in both the natural and moral world. The word 
tncamp is proper to commanders. JOHNSON. 

Foes is the reading of the oldefl.copy ; kings of that in 1609. 

7 _ with unftiift brain &c.] The copy, 1597, reads: 

" with unftuff'd brains 

" Doth couch his limmes, there golden fleep remaines." 




Rom. With Rofaline, my goodly father ? no ; 
f have forgot that name, and that name's woe. 

Fri. That's my good fpn : But where haft thoq 

been then ? 

Rcm. I'll tell thee, ere thoa alk k me again. 
I have been feafting with mine enemy; 
Where, on a fudden, one hath wounded me ? 
That's by me wounded ; both our remedies 
Within thy help and holy phyfick lies : : 
I bear no hatred, blefied man ; for, Io, 
My interceffion like wife fteads my foe/ 

Fri. Be plain, good fon, and homely in tby drift ; 
Riddling contefuon finds but riddling fhrift. 

Rom. Then plainly know, my heart's dear love is 


On the fair daughter of rich Cappiet ; 
As mine on hers, fo hers is let on mine; 
And all combin'd, fave what thou muft combine 
By holy marriage : When, and where, and how, 
We met, we woo'd, and made exchange of vow, 
Fll tell tbee as we pals ; but this I pray, 
That thou content to marry us this day. 

Fri. Holy faint Francis ' what a change is here ! 
Js Rolaline, whom thou didft iove' fo dear, 
So foon forfaken ? young men's love then lies 
Not truly in their hearts, but in their eyes. 
8 Holf faint Francis ! what a deal of brine 

wafiVd thy fallow cheeks for Rofaline ! 
How much fait water thrown away in waRe, 
To feafon love, that of it doth not tafte \ 
The fan not yet thy fighs from heaven clears, 
Thy oki groir.s nng ye: IB my accient ears | 

here upon thy cheek the fern 'doth fit 
Of an old tear, that is not waOi'd off yet : 
If e'er thou waft tbyfelf, aod tbefe woes thine^ 
7 :. : a and the: . Rol!ine > 

raxJif] CXd copy, Jgs itri*! STEI 



And art thou changed ? pronounce this fentence then- 
Women may fall, when there's no ftrength in men. 

Rom. Thou chidd'ft me oft for loving Rofaline. 

Fri. For doating, not for loving, pupil mine, 

Rom. And bad'ft me bury love. 

Fri. Not in a grave, 
To lay one in, another out to have. 

Rom. I pray thee, chide not : Ihe, whom I love 


Doth grace for grace, and love for love allow 5 
The other did not fo. 

Fri. O, (he knew well, 

Thy love did read by rote, and could not fpell. 
But come, young waverer, come go with me, 
In one refpect I'll thy afilftant be ; 
For this alliance may fo happy prove, 
To turn your houfholds* rancour to pure love *. 

Rom. O, let us hence ; I fland on fudden hafle. 

Fri. Wifely, and flow ; They ftumble, that run faft. 




Enter Benvolio, and Mcrcutio. 

Mer. Where the devil mould this Romeo be ? 
Came he not home to-night ? 

Ben. Not to his father's ; I fpoke with his man. 

Mer. Why, that fame pale hard-hearted wench, 

that Rofaline, 
Torments him fo, that he will fure run mad. 

Ben. Tybalt, the kinfman of old Capulet, 
Hath fent a letter to his father's houfe. 

Mer. A challenge, on my life. 

9 The two following lines were added fince the firft copy of this 
flay. STEEVENS. 7 



Btn. Romeo will anfwer it. 

Mer. Any man, that can write, may anfwer a 

Ben. Nay, he will anfwer the letter's mailer, how 
he dares, being dartL 

Mer. Alas, poor Romeo, he is already dead \ ftabb'd 
with a white wench's black eye, (hot thorough the ear 
with a love-fong , the very pin of his heart cleft with 
the blind bow- boy's but-fhaft; And is he a man to 
encounter Tybalt ? 

Bfn. Why, what is Tybalt ? 

Mer. l More than prince of cats, I can tell you. 
O, he is the * courageous captain of compliments : 
he fights as you fing prick-fong, keeps time, diftances, 
and proportion ; he refts his minim, one, two, and the 
third in your bofom : the very butcher of a Clk button^ 
a duellift, a duellift 5 * a gentleman of the very firft 

houfe ; 

1 Mare than prigce if cafs, ] Tj&erf, the name given to the 
Cat, in the ftoiy-book of Reymard tbe Fox. W AX BC* TO y . 
So, in Decker's Satiroma/iix : 

** tho* you were Tyfcrt, the long-tail'd prince of Rats." 
Again, in Have loitbjat to Saffrtm Warden, Sec. 1 598 : 

not Ttlatdt prince of Cats, &c." STEE VEX*. 
* ctnaragtma captain tf compliments ;] A complete mailer of 
all the laws of ceremony, tbe principal man in the dcctriae of 

* A man ffcMaflintexts, whom right and wrong 
" Have chofe as umpire;" 

lays our author of Don Armodo, the Spaniard, in Loris Lf Zoo's 
Loft. Jo HNS OK. 

3 kaptontidlJtaMce.aidpropartim.] So Jo**' ; Bdadll : 

" .Noce your AJLuKt^ keep your ducfrtpmim fftuu." 


4 t fc very backer of a fik batUm,] So, in die Retmfm* 

Strikes his poinado at a founts breadth." STEE VEKS. 

i. e. one who pretends to be at the bead ot his ramilv, and quar- 
rels by the book. See a note on As jn tike if, Aft 5. Sc. 6. 


Tybalt cannoi: pretend to be at die head of his family, z* borh 
fz Capukt 


houfe ; of the firft and fecond caufe : Ah, the im? 
mortal pafTado ! the punto reverfo ! 6 the hay ! 

Ben. The what ? 

Mer. The pox of fuch antick, lifping, arTecling 
fantafticoes 7 ; thefe new tuners of accents! By 

a very good blade! a very tall man! - 

a very gaod whore ! 8 Why, is not this a la- 
mentable thing, grandfire, that \ve fhould be thus 
afflicted with thefe itrange flies, thefe fafhion-mongers, 
9 thefe Pardonnez-moy's, who fland fo much on the 
new form, that they cannot fit at eafe on the old 
bench ? O, their Ms, their ban's ! 


Capulet and Romeo barr'dhis claim to that elevation. " A gen- 
tleman of the firjl -boujl; of the Jirjl and fecond caufc" is a 
gentleman of the rirlt rank, of the firft eininence among thefe duel- 
hits ; and one who underftancls the whole fcience of quarrelling, 
and will tell you of thejfry? cau/i; and ihc JecaaJ caufe, tor which a 
man is to fight. The CVVrw/, in As you like it, talks of the Jivenib 
caul's in the fame fenfe; STEEVEN'S. 

c tie bay!} All the terms of the modern fencing-fchool 
were originally Italian ; the rapier, or fmall thrtilting fword, being 
firrt ufed in Italy. The bay is the word bai, YOU have it, ufed 
when a thrult reaches the antagpmit, from which our fencers, o;i 
the famjs occaiion, without knowing, I fuppcfe, ai>y leafon for it, 
ay out, ha* JoiixsON. 

7 aft'efting fantajlicoes.] Thus the old copies, and rightly. 
"The modern editors read, pbantajks. Nafli, in his Have ivith you 
to Saffron WaUen, 1596, fays "Follow fome ot theie new- 

with humorifts," & STE EVENS. 

* Wky y is not tbis a lamentable ih.'ng, ^randjlre^ tlnmourouily 
apoilrophiung his anccilors, whofe fober times were unacquainted the fopperies here complained of. WAKBUT-TOK. 

9 . tl.nfe pardonnez-mois,] P'ardoknez-mel became the larj- 
gviage ot doubt or hentation among men ot the fword, wlien the 
point of honour was grown fo delicate, that no ot^er modeofcon- 
uadtJtion would be endured, JOHKSON-. 

1 O, tutir bones, their bones!] INIerciuio is here ridiculing 
thofe frenchified fantafttcal coxcombs whom he calls farJamuz" 

opts i 


Enter Romeo. 

Ben. Here comes Romeo, here comes Romeo. 
Mer. Without his roe, like a dried herring : O 
flefti, flelh, how art thou fifhified ! Now is he for the 
numbers that Petrarch flowed in : Laura, to his lady, 
was but a kitchen-wench , marry, fhe had a better 
love to be-rhyme her : Dido, a dowdy ; Cleopatra, 
a gipfy; Helen and Hero, hildings and harlots; 
Thifbe, a grey eye or fo, but not to the purpofe. 
Signior Romeo, ban jour! there's a French falutatiqn 
to your French flop z . You gave us the counterfeit 
fairly laft night. 

Rcm. Good morrow to you both. What counter- 
feit 3 did I give you ? 

Mer. The flip, fir, the flip ; Can you not conceive? 

moii : and therefore, I fufpecl here he meant to write French too. 

O, their Ions '. their Inn's ! 

i. e. how ridiculous they make themfelves in crying out gooJ t and 
being in ecftafies with every trifle; as he had juit defcribed them 

" a very good blade !" &c. THEOB. 

They ftand fo much on the ncwfsr.v:, that they cannot fit at esfe 
on the old bench ."] This conceit is loft, if die double meaning of 
the word form be not attended to. FARMER. 

A quibble on the two meanings of the word form occurs in 
Love's Labour's Loft, Aft- I. Sc. i: fitting with her on the 
form, and taken following her into the p.irk ; which, puc together, 
is, in manner and form following." STEEVENS. 

2 Tour French JJopJ] Slops are large loofe breeches or tryvj/ers 
worn at preient only by faiiors. They are mentioned by Jonibu 
in his Alchymift: 

" fix great JIops 

" Bigger than three Dutch boys." 
Again, in Ram-alley, or Merry Tricks, 161 1 : 

" three pounds in gold 
" Thefe./70/j contain." STEEVENS. 

Hence evidently the tcrmJlof-JeHer for the venders of ready-made 
ploaths. NICHOLS. % 

3 What counterfeit, &c. ? 

Mer. 75k flip, Akflip, fir\\ To underftand this play upon 
the words counterfeit and./?;)>, it fnould be obfevvcd tiiat in our Au- 
thor's time there was a counterfeit piece of money diiiinguiflied by 
the name of zjlip. This will appear in the following inftauces : 
- ** And therefore he \vent and got him certain jbfs t which are 
VOL. X. F 3 " cow..crfcit 


Rom. Pardon, good Mercutio, my bufinefs was 
great , and, in fuch a cafe as mine, a man may (train 

Mer. That's as much as to fay fuch a cafe a 
yours conft rains a man to bow in the hams. 

Rom. Meaning to curt'fy. 

Mer. Thou haft moft kindly hit it. 

Rom. A moft courteous expofition. 

Mer. Nay, I am the very pink of courtefy; 

Rom. Pink for flower. 

Mer. Right. 

Rom. Why, ' then is my pump well flower'd. 

Mer. Wellfaid : follow me this jeft now, 'till thou 
haft worn out thy pump ; that, when the fmgle fole of 
it is worn, the jeft may remain, after the wearing, 
folely fingular. 

Rom. O fingle-fol'd jeft, folely fingular for the 
finglenefs ! 

Mer. Come between us, good Benvolio j my wit 

Rom. Switch and fpurs, fwitch and fpurs ; or I'll 
cry a match. 

Mer. Nay, if thy wits run the wild-goofe chafe, I 
am done ; for thou haft more of the wild-goofe in one 

'* counterfeit pieces of money, being brafle, and covered over with 
" fiber, which the common people call flips? Thieves falling 
out, True men come by their goods ; by Robert Greene. 

Again, *' I had like t'have been 

" Abus'd i' the buTir.ef?, had the flip flur'd on me, 

" A counterfeit? Magnetick Lady, A. 3. S. 6. REED. 

7heflip is again ufed equivocally in No Wit like a Woman* S, a 
comedy, by Middleton, 1657: Clown. " Becaufe you (hall be 
fure on't, you have given me a nine pence here, and I'll give you the 
flip for it. {Exit. MALONE. 

5 then is my pump well flowered,} Here is a vein of wit too 
thin to be eafily found. The fundamental idea is, that Romeo wore 
jft/wtft/ pumps, that is, punched with holes in figures. JOHNSON. 

See the ftioesof the morris-dancers in the plate at the conclufion of 
the firft part of K.Henry IV, with Mr. Toilet's remarks annexed to it. 

It was the cuftom to wear ribbons in the {hoes formed into the 
(hape of rofes, or of any other flowers. So Middleton, in the 
Ma/'que, by the Gent, ot Gray's-Inn, 1614: " Every marker's 
pump was fafteii'd with ajlowcr iuitable to his cap." STEE v E N s . 



of thy wits, than, I am fure, I have in my whole 
five : Was I with you there for the goofe ? 

Rom. Thou waft never with me for any thing, 
when thou waft not there for the goofe. 

Mfr. * I will bite thee by the ear for that jeft. 

Rom. Nay, good goofe, bite not 5. 

Mr. Thy wit is 6 a very bitter fleeting ; it is a 
moft fharp iauce. 

Rom. And is it not well ferv'd in to a fweet goofe ? 

Mar. O, here's ' a wit of cheverel, that ftrctches 
from an inch narrow to an ell broad ! 


4 I wffl top tb'at ear ] So Sir Epicure Mammon to Face 

In Jonibn's^Wjw^. 

" Slaie, I could Kit tbuu tor? STEEVEXS. 
1 GW*yf, fc/TM*,] Is a proverbial exprcffioo, to be found 
in Ray's Colkdion ; and is ufed in The Two Angy Wmat j 
Abi*gt*^ 1599. STEEVEXS. 

* a <vay Utter faceting ;] A bitter faaatug^ is an apple of 
that name. So, in Summers loft Will and Trftamnt, 1600 : 

** as well crabs as faaeetagi for his fummer firuiis." 
Again, \^FairEm^ 1631 : 

* what, in difpkafore gone! 
And left me fjch a *::.vr /".-.vf.- to gr.-w jp^n :" 
Again, in Gower, DC Gn$$o*e Ama*tis^ fib. 8. foL 174. b: 
" For aU fucfa tyme of love is lore, 
And like unto die Utter foaett 
For though it tbinke a man fyrft fwcte 
* That u is fower, &c." 

An anufion to fhiit remains unexplained in Ben Jonlbn's Bartbo- 
itmew Fair, A i : 

A foft velvet head like a M&ct~? 

i. e. a Mabcato*, a fpecies of peach, at that time newly imported 
from France. STEEVENS. 

~ a urit of cbevcrd,] Cbeocrd is (oft JCTthrr for gloves, 

So, in the Tw Maids of Mon-flaJu, 1609 : 

" Drawing on lore's white hand a gfove of warmth, 
" Not cbroeril ftretching to fuch pTophanarion." 
From Cbcvnai^ a KM, Fr. So again, in TEXNOF-^MIA, or The 
Marriages ifibeArt^ 1618 : 

44 Thequiltingof Ajaxhismieldwasbut athin^Awm/toit.** 
F 4 

> - R O M E O AND J U L I E T. 

Rom. I ftretch ic out for that word broad ; wlilcfr 
added to the goofe, proves thee far and wide a broad 

Mer. Why, is not this better now than groaning 
for loVe ? now thou art fociable, now art thou Ro- 
meo -, now art thou what thou art, by art as well as 
by nature : for this driveling love is like a great na- 
tural, that runs lolling up and down to hide his bauble 
in a hole 8 ; 

Ben. Stop there, flop there. 

Mer. Thou defireft me to flop in my tale sgainft 
the Hair 9. 

Ben. Thou would'tt eife have made thy tale large. 

Mer< O, thou art deceiv'd, 1 would have made ic 
mort : for I was come to the whole depth of my tale J 
and meant, indeed, to occupy the argument no 

Rom. Here's goodly geer ! 

Enter Nurfe, and Peter* 

Mer. A fail, a fail, a fail ! 

Ben. Two, two ; a (hire, and a fmock. 

A'gain, in the Cotter's Prophecy, i 94 : 

'* To day in pumps a n&cheveri! gloves to walk fhe will be bold.'' 
Again, in The Owl, by Drayton : 

" A cbfverett confidence, and a fearching wit." STEEVENS. 

Che-veritis from Chevreuil, Roebuck. MUSGRAVE. 

8 to hide his bauble / a /?ok.~\ It has been already obferted 
by SirJ. Hawkins, in d note on All's Well, &c. that ;i bauoie was 
one of the accoutrements of a iicenfed fool or jefter. So again, in 
Sir H'. D' d-ve.'iaiit's All&vinc, 1 629 : " For fuch rich widows there, 
love court fools , and ule to play witii their baubles" 

Again, in The longer ib.:u livcft, tht greater Fool tbou art, 1570 : 
" And as ftaik an idior as ever bare bable? 

See the plate at the end of K. Henry IV. P. j. with Mr; Toilet's 
obfei vations on it. STEEVENS. 

' dgaihft the hair.~\ A conircpoil: Fr. An expreffion equivalent 
to one whicn we now uic " againft the ^raiu," STEEVENS. 



Nurfe. Peter! 

Peter. Anon? 

Nurfe. My fan, Psttr . 

Mer. Do, good Peter, to hide her face , for her 
fan's the fairer of the two. 

Nurfe. God ye good morrow, gentlemen. 

Mer. God ye good den, * fair gentlewoman. 

Nurfe. Is it good den ? 

Mer. 'Tis no lefs, I tell you; for the bawdy hand 3 
of the dial is now upon the prick of noon. 

Nurfe. Out upon you ! what a man are you ? 

Rom. One, gentlewoman, that God hath made 
himfelf to mar. 

Nurfe. By my troth, it is well faid ; For himfelf 
to mar, quoth'a ? Gentlemen, can any of you tell 
me where I may find the young Romeo ? 

Rom. I can tell you ; but young Romeo will be 
older when you have found him, than he was when 
you fought him : I am the youngeft of that name; 
for fault of a worfe. 
Nurfe. You fay well* 

4 My fan, Peter.] The bufinds of Peter carrying the Nurfe* s 
fan, feems ridiculous according to modern manners j but I find fuch 
'was formerly the practice. In an old pamphlet^ called " The 
*' Serving-man's Comfort," 1598, we are informed, *' The mif- 
rt trefs mult have one to carry her cloake and hood, another her 
*' fan>ie" FARMER. 

Again, in Love's Labour's Loft: 

To fee him walk before a lady, and to lesr bcr fan. 
Again, in Every Man out of bis Humour: " If any lady, &c. 
wants an upright gentleman in the nature of a gentleman uftiei, 
&c. who can hide his face with her fan, &c." STEEVENS. 

1 Godye good den,"] i. e. God give you a gpod even. The 
firft of thefe contractions is, common among the ancient comic 
Writers. So, in R. Brome's Northern Lafs, 1633 : 

" Godjou good even, lir." STEEVEN'S. 

3 -the hand of the dial ] In the Puritan Widow, t6o, 
Which has been attributed to our author, is a fimilar expreilbn . 
*' .*- t>.e ftlkewe of the diail is Upon the chriife-crofle of noon;" 




Mer. Yea, is the worft well? very well took; 
i'faith ; wifely, wifely. 

Nurfe. If you be he, fir, I defire fome confidence 
with you. 

Ben. She will indite him to fome fuppcr. 
Mer. A bawd, a bawd, a bawd ! So ho ! 
Rom. What haft thou found ? 
Mer. 4 No hare, fir ; unlefs a. hare, fir, in a 
lenten pye, that is fomething ftale and hoar ere it be 

An old hare boar *, 
And an old bare boar, 
Is very good meat in lent : 
But a bare that is hoar, 
Is too much for a fcore y 
When it hoars ere it be fyents 

Romeo, will you come to your father's ? we'll to din- 
ner thither. 

Rom. I will follow you. 

Mer. Farewelj ancient lady; farewel, lady, lady, 
Udy 6 . 

\JLxeunt Mercutio, and Benwlio. 

4 No tare, fr ;] Mercutto having roared out, So ho ! the cry 
of the fportfmen when they ftart a hare ; Romeo afks what be has 

found. And Mercutio anfwers, No hare, &c. The reft is a feries 
of quibbles unworthy of explanation, which he who does not un- 
derftand, needs not lament his ignorance. JOHNSON. 

5 An old bare 'hoar ,] Hoar or hoary, is often ufed for mouldy, 
as things grow white from moulding. So, in Pierce Pennylefs's Sup- 
plication to the Devil, i 9$ : " as hoary as Dutch butter." 
Again, in F. Beaumont's letter to Speght on his edition of Chaucer, 
1602 : " Many of Chaucer's words are become as it were vinew'd 
and hoarie with over long lying.'' Again, in Every Man out of his 
Humour: " mice and rats 

" Eat up his grain ; or elfe that it might rot 
** Within the hoary ricks e'en as it Hands." STEEPENS. 
8 lady, lady, lady."] The burthen of an old fong. See Dr. 
Farmer's note on TiKclftb Night, p. 196. STEEVENS. 



Nurfe. I pray you, fir, what faucy merchant " was 
this, that was fo foil * of his ropery ? 

Rom. A gentleman, norfe, that loves to hear him- 
felf talk ; and will fpeak more in a minute, than he 
will (land to in a month. 

Nurfe. An *a fpeak any thing againft me, HI take 
him down an 'a were loftier than he is, and twenty 
iuch Jacks ; and if I cannot, I'll find thole that flialL 
Scurvy knave ! I am none of his flirt-gills ; I am 
9 none of his fkains-mates : And thou muft ftand by 
too, and fuffer every knave to ufe me at his pleafure? 


7 'otatjamey merchant mes t&a, tec.] The term mentamt 
which was, and even now is, frequently applied to the kyweft fort 
of dealers, feems anciendy to hare been ufedon rhefc familiar oc- 

faliy in CTpffa^BiKi^inn tn trrmfbmtam - figni firing rKaf rl^ DCT- 

fon tewed by his behaviour he was a low fellow. The term 
eta, L e. eli+mHw, a word of die fame import widt mcnJumt ia 
its left refpectable fenfe, is infl in common ufc among the vulgar, 
as a general denomination for any potion of whom they mean to 
(peak wida freedom or dHrefpect. STEETSHS. 

* of his nffyf] Ktfay was anciendy ufed in die fame 
ienfe as r^rry is now. So, in the Une Laa JLnJn, 1584; 

' Thou art very pkafant and full of dry nferpe" 
Rafie-trida are mentioned in another place. STEETEKS. 

* N*K if bis fkains-JMBfef.] The word Jbums-matr, I do not 
underfland, bet . fuppofe that/ai was feme low play, and>bu- 

TT' ? ^PT 00 * ** P^\ J?" i0 

the nurfe means none of his loofe companions who 
the feccing-fchool with him, where we may fuppofe die cccrcife 
cf this weapon was taught. 

The word is ufed in the old tragedy of S&aa* aJ PerJiJg, 

Againfi the fight-foot IrHh have I fer^d, 
" Aad in my km bare tokens of 

Again, in the comedy called Lagma, Sec. 1607. At die i 
of dte piece Lagma is rep retented as apparelled in a particular 
manner, and among other things having ** a iiitkjfcw tied in 
** a purple Icart** 

Green, in his J^ far am mjfian Ctmrtar, defcribes " an JD- 
' fJTOur'd knave, who wore by his fide ajtea* Ukc a brewer's 
* bung-knife.- 


Pet. I faw no man ufe you at his pleafure ; if -I 
had, my weapon fhould quickly have been out, I war- 
rant you : I dare draw as loon as another man, if 1 
lee occafion in a good quarrel, and the law on my fide. 

Nurfe. Now, afore God, I am fo vext, that every 
part about me quivers. Scurvy knave ! Pray you, 
fir, a word : and as I told you, my young lady bade 
me enquire you out; what fhe bade me fay, I will keep 
to myfelf: but firfl let me tell ye, if ye fhould lead 
her into a fool's paradife, as they fay, it were a very 
grofs kind of behaviour, as they fay : for the gentle : 
woman is young ; and, therefore, if you fhould deal 
double with her, truly, it were an ill thing to be of- 
fered to any gentlewoman, and very weak dealing. 

R.3m. Nurle, commend me to thy lady and mif- 
trefs. I proteft unto thee, 

Nurfe. Good heart ! and, i'faith, I will tell her as 
much : Lord, lord, me will be a joyful woman. 

Rom. What wilt thou tell her, nurfc ? thou do'fl 
hot mark me. 

Nurfe. I will tell her, fir, that you do protefl T j 
which, as I take it, is a gentleman-like offer. 


Skein is the Iriih word for a kii'fe. Again* in the Fatal Contra:^ 
by J. W. Hemings, 1653 : 

" How eafily tnisj&tin is fheatli'd in him.'* 
\;, in the Merry Devil of Edmonton, 1626 : 

fi with this frantic and untamed pafiion, 
To whet their jieiiis." 
A^'m, in Drayton's Mi/cries of ^, Margaret : 

" Carac in the van-guard, with his Iriihmeii, 
" \Viih darts znAJkains" 
Again, in Drayton's Pclyolbio*, fong 4 : 

' i- tlio e crooked Jiaiurs they us'd in war to bear.** 
Again, in Warner's j-tiljiom Expand, 1602, book 5. chap. 26 : 
" And hidden ^tvV/fj hojn underneath :!;cir forged garment 
drew." STEEVE.VS. 

h;;s the uord in his dcfcription of an Irifli feafl : 
" A ci'bit at leart the length of t\\e\\-JJ:a!ns." NICHOLS. 
* proirft.~\ Wheth-.T the repetition of this word conveyed 
i peculiarly coaii-' to Slukdnoait's audienw, is not at pr*- 



Rom. Bid her devife fome means to come to Thrift 
This afternoon ; 

And there fhe (hall at friar Laurence' cell 
Be fhriv'd, and marry'd. Here is for thy pains. 

Nurfe. No, truly, fir ; not a penny. 

Row. Go to ; I lay, you fhall. 

Nurfe. This afternoon, fir ? well, me mall be there, 

Rcm. And ftay, good nurfe, behind the abby-wall : 
Within this hour my man mail be with thee; 
And bring thee cords made z like a tackled ftair, 
' Which to the high top-gallant of my joy 
jVluft be my convoy in the fecret night. 
Farewel ! Betrufty, and I'll quit thy pains. 
Farewel ! Commend me to thy miftrefs. 

Now God in heaven blefs thee! Kark 
you, fir. 

Rom. What fay'ft thou, my dear nurfe ? 

Nurfe. Is your man fecret? Did you ne'er hear 

Two may keep couufel, putting one away ? 

Rom. I warrant thee; my man's as true as fteel. 

Nurfe. Well, fir; my miftrefs is the fweeteft lad} - 
Lord, lord! when 'twas a little prating thing, 
O, there's a nobleman in town, one Paris, that 

fent to he determined. The ufe of it, however, is ridiculed iu the 
old comedy of Sir G'Ifs Gnricap, 1606 : 

" Inhere is not the belt duke's for. in France dares <~:y, 7/""O < S 
ti',1 he be one and thirty years old at leait ; for the inheritance of 
that \vcrd is not to be pofieiled before." STEEVENS. 

2 like a tacUeiljialr^ Like flairs of rope in the tackle of a 
f:-.:p. JOHN-SON. 

3 __ trp-gallant qfrrr.' yv] 

The top-gallant is the highcfl: extremity of the nail c: 

The exprellion is common to many writers ; among the : 
^lurklism in his Et!gl[ib A.'cacJln, 1607 ' 

" beholding in the high top-gauant of his valour." 

gain, in Elloflo Llliillnofo, 1606 : 

" '." that, vaihj^ ioc-^a!.'a^ <he returned, &c.*' 



would fain lay knife aboard; but fhe, good foul, 
had as lieve fee a toad, a very toad, as fee him. I 
anger her fometimes, and tell her that Paris is the 
properer man ; but, I'll warrant you, when I fay fo, 
Ihe looks as pale as any clout in the varfal world. 
Doth not rofemary and Romeo begin both with a 
ktter ? 
4 Rom. Ay, nurfej What of that? both with an R. 

4 Rom, Ay, Nurje ; iubat of that f loth with an R. 

Nurfe. Ab y mocker ! that's the dogs name. R is for the no, I 
Inovj it begins luitb no other letter;] I believe, I have rectified this 
odd ftuff ; but it is a little mortifying, that the fenfe, when found, 
Ihould not be worth the pains of retrieving it. 

" fpiflis indigna theatris 

" Scripta pudet recitare, & nugis addere pond us." 
The Nurje is reprefented as a prating filly creature ; fhe fays, flie 
will tell Romeo a good joke about his miftrefs, and aflcs him, whe- 
ther Roferaary and Romeo do not begin both with a letter : He fays, 
Yes, an R. She, who, we mult fuppofe, could not read, thought 
he had mock'd her, and fays, No, fure, I know better: our dog's 
name is R. yours begins with another letter. This is natural enough, 
and in character. R put her in mind of that found which is 
made by dogs when they fnarl ; and therefore, I prefume, (he fays, 
that is the dog's name, R in the fchools, being called The degs 
letter. Ben Jonfon, in his Engtijh Grammar t fays, R is the dog's 
letter, andbirretb in the found. 

" Irritata canis quod R. R. quam plurima dicat." Lucil. 


Dr. Warbutton reads : R. is for Thee ? STEEVENS. 

This pafTage is thus in the old folio. A mocker, that's the dogs 
name. R is for the no, / know it begins with fame other letter. In 
this copy the error is but fmall. I read, Ah, mocker, that's the dog's 
name. R is for the nonce, I know it begins with another letter. For 
the nonce, is for fome dejign,for a fly trick. JOHNSON. 

For the nonce is an expreffion common to all the ancient writers. 
For the nonce is for the prefent purpofe. So Holinfliead, p. 953: 
*' (he withdrew into a little place made for the nones. ," So 
Phaer, in his tranflation of Firgil, B. ii. fpeaking of Sinon : 

" That^r the nonce had done himfelf, by yielding to be took." 
Again, one of the ftage-diretions in Alphonjus Emperor of Germany, 
fays : " They muft have axes m&defor the nonce, to fight withal." 
Again, in M. Kyffin's tranflation of the Andria of Terence, 1588: 
*' doft thou think but fmall difference between that one doth in. 
good earneft, and that which is done for the nonce ?" STEEVENS. 



Nurfe. Ah, mocker ! that's the dog's name s . R 
is for the dog. No; I know it begins with fome 
other letter : and fhe hath the prettieft fententious of 
it, of you and rofemary, that it would do you good 
to hear it. 

R&m. Commend me to thy lady. [Exit. 

Nurfe. Ay, a thouland times. Peter ! 

Pet. Anon ? 

Nurfe. Peter, take my fan, and go before. [Extunt* 


Copulas Garden. 
Enter Juliet. 

Jul The clock ftruck nine, when I did fend the 

nurfe ; 

In half an hour fhe promis'd to return. 
Perchance, fhe cannot meet him : that's not fo. 
O, fhe is lame ! love's heralds 6 mould be thoughts, 
Which ten times fader glide than the fun's beams, 
Driving back fhadows over lowring hills : 
Therefore do nimble-pinion'd doves draw love, 
And therefore hath the wind-fwift Cupid wings. 
Now is the fun upon the highmoft hill 
Of this day's journey j and from nine 'rill twelve 

Ah mocker! tbats ttx dog's name. R is fir Ae No, &c.] 
I bdicve we fcould read, R is for the ^. No j I know it begins 
with fome other letter. TYKWHITT. 

I have adopted this emendation. STEEVE.VS. 
* Jbnddbt thoughts, &c.] The Ipeech is thus continued in 
the quarto, 1597 : 

fliould be thoughts, 

And run more fwirt than hafty powder fir'd, 
Doth hurry from the fearful cannon's mouth. 
Oh, now Ihe comes ! Tell me, gentle Nurfe, 
What &y* my love? 

The greatcit part of die fceae is likewife added nce that edition, 




Js three long hours, yet (he is not come. 

Had me affe&ions, and warm youthful blood ? 

She'd be as fwift in motion as a ball ; 

My words would bandy her to my fweet love, 

And his to me : 

But old folks, many feign as they were dead j 

Unwieldy, flow, heavy and pale as lead. 

"Enter Nurfe, with Peter. 

O God, flie comes ! O honey nurfe, what news ? 
Haft thou met with him ? Send thy man away. 

Nurfe. Peter, ft ay at the gate. \Exit Peter, 

Jul. Now, good fweet nurfe, O lord ! why 

look'ft thou fad? 

Though news be fad, yet tell them merrily; 
If good, thou fham'ft the mufick of fweet news 
By playing it to me with fo four a face. 

Nurfe. I am aweary, gjve me leave a while ; 
Fie, how my bone? ache! What a jaurjt have I had ! 

Jul. I would, thou hadft my bones, and J thy news: 
Nay, come, I pray thee, fpeak; good, good nurfe, 

Nurfe. What haite ? can you not flay awhile ? 
Do you not fee, that I am out of breath ? 

Jul. How art thou out of breath, when thou haft 


To fay to me that thou art out of breath j* 
The excufe, that thou doft make in this delay, 
Is longer than the tale thou doft excufe. 
Js thy news good, or bad ? aniwer to that 5 
Say either, and I'll ftay the circumftance ; 
Let me be fatisfied ; Is't good or bad ? 

Nurfe. Well, you have made a fimple choice; yovf 
Jcnow not how to chufe a man : Romeo! no, pot hej 
though his face be better than any man's, yet his leg 
excels all men's; and for a hand, and a. foot, akid'4 
J3ody, though they be not to be talk'd on, yet they 


are pafl compare : He is not the flower of courtefr, 
but, Til warrant him, as gentle as a iamb, Go thy 
ways, wench ; ferve God : What, have you din'd at 
home ? 

Jut. No, no : But all this did I knew before; 
\Vhat fays he of our marriage ? what of that ? 

Nurfe. Lord, how my head akes ! what a head 

have I ? 

It beats as it would fall in twenty pieces. 
My back o' the other fide, O, my back, my back! 
Befhrew your heart, for fending me about, 
To catch my death with jaunting up and down ! 

JuL I'faith, I am forry that thou art not well : 
Sweet, fweet, fweet nurfe, tell me, what fays my 

Nurfe. Your love fays like an honeft gentleman, 
And a courteous, and a kind, and a handfome, and 
I warrant, a virtuous : Where is your mother ? 

JuL Where is my mother f why, (he is within ; 
Where fhould (he be ? How oddly thou reply'ft ? 
Tour love fays like an boneft gentleman, 
Where is your mother? 

Nurfe. O, God's lady dear ! 
Are you fo hot ? Marry, come up, I trow ; 
Is this the poultice for my aking bones ? 
Henceforward do your meflages yourfelf. 

JuL Here's fuch a coil-, Come, what fays Romeo? 

Nurfe. Have you got leave to go to fhrift to-day ? 

JuL I have. 

Nurfe. Then hie you hence to friar Laurence* cell, 
There ftays a hufband to make you a wife : 
Now comes the wanton blood up in your cheeks, 
They'll be in fcarlet ftraight at any news. 
Hie you to church ; I muft another way, 
To fetch a ladder, by the which your love 
Muft climb a bird's neft foon, when it is dark \ 
I am the drudge, and toil in your delight ; 

VOL. X. G ' But 


But you (hall bear the burden foon at night. 
Go, I'll to dinner ; hie you to the cell. 

JuL Hie to high fortune! honeft nurfe, farewel. 



Friar Laurence's cell. 
Enter Friar Laurence, and Romeo 7. 

Friar. So fmile the heavens upon this holy ad, 
That after-hours with forrow chide us not ! 


7 This fccne was entirely new formed : the reader may be 
pleafed to have it as it was at firil written : 

Rom. Now, father Laurence, in thy holy grant 

Confirts the good of me and Juliet. 
Friar. Without more words, I will do all I may 

To make you happy, if in me it lie. 
Rom. This morning here (he 'pointed we fliould meety 

And confummate thofe never-parting bands, 

Witnefs of our hearts' love, by joining hands ; 

And come {he will. 
Friar. I guefs fhe will indeed : 

Youth's love is quick, fvvifter than fivifteit fpeed. 

Enter Juliet fomewbat faft, ami embraced Romso* 

Sec where ihe comes ! 

So light a foot ne'er hurts the trodden flower ; 

Of love and joy, fee, fee the fovereign power f 
Jul. Romeo ! 
Rom. My Juliet, welcome ! As do waking eyes 

(Clos'd in night's mifts) attend the frolick day, 

So Romeo hath expected Juliet ; 

And thou art come. 
Jul. I am (if I be day) 

Come to my fun ; fhine forth, and make me fair. 
Rom. All beauteous fairnefs dwelleth in thine eyes. 
Jul. Romeo, from thine all brightnefs doth arile. 
friar. Come, wantons, come, the Healing hours do pafs ; 

Defer embracements to fome fitter time ; 



Rom. Amen* amen ! but come what forrow can, 
It cannot countervail the exchange of joy 
That one mort minute gives me in her fight : 
Do thou but c!ofe our hands with holy words, 
Then love-devouring death do what he care, 
It is enough I may but call her mine. 

Friar. Thefe violent delights have violent ends, 
And in their triumph, die-, like fire and powder, 
Which, as they kits, confume : The fweeteil honey 
Is loarhfome in his own delicioufnefs, 
And in the tade confounds the appetite : 
Therefore, love moderardy ; long love doth foj 
* Too fwift arrives as tardy as too flow. 

Enter Juliet. 

9 Here contes the lady : O, fo light a foot 
\Vill ne'er wear out the everlafting iat: 
A lover may bcftride the gofiamour l 

Part for a time^ " you (hall not be alone* 
" Till holy church hath join'd you both in one." 
Rom. Lead, holy father, all delay ieems long : - 
Jfl, Make halte, make haile, thi H-igVing doch us wrong. 
friar. O, foft and fair makes fvveeteit work they fey ; 

Haile is a common hind'rer in crofs-way. {Exeunt. 


* Toafxlfi arrives'} He that travels too faft is as long before he 
comes to the end of his journey, as he that travels flow. Precipi- 
tation produces mifhap. JOHNSON. 

9 Here come* tbe ledy, Scc.j However the poet might think the 
alteration at this fcene on the whole to be neceflary, I am afraid, 
in refpect of the palTage before us, he has not been very fuccefsfuL 
The violent by perbole. of never <uxaring out ite everJafttug jfi*t ap- 
pears to me not only more reprehentible, but even lefs beautiful 
than the lines as they were originally written, where the lightnefe 
of Juliet's motion is accounted for Ircm fie cheerful cfiscb the 
patfion of love produced in her wind. . STEEVENS. 

1 A Ic*cr may kjiriJe tbe golTamoun] The Gunner is the 
long white filament which fiies in the MX in fummer. So, ia 
aiiSffie, 1637, byN*Ues: 
Fiat a* Ara^hne's web, 

* Whofe curls when garn"ui.'ul>y their dre'2ing, fhe\r 
44 Lake thai iyua vapour when 'as peari'd with de^v t" 


G ^ That 


That idles in the wanton fummer air, 
And yet not fall ; ib light is vanity. 

Jul. Good even to my ghoftly confefTor. 

Friar. Romeo fhall thank thee, daughter, forus both. 

Jul. As much to him, elfe are his thanks too much. 

Rom. Ah, Juliet, if the meafure of thy joy 
Be heap'd like mine, and that thy (kill be more 
To blazon it, then fweeten with thy breath 
This neighbour air, and let rich mufick's tongue 
Unfold the imagin'd happinefs that both 
Receive in either by this dear encounter. 

Jul, Conceit, more rich in matter than in words, 
Brags of his iubftance, not of ornament : 
They are but beggars that can count their worth ; 
But my true love is grown to fuch excefs, 
I cannot fum up half my fum of wealth *. 

Friar. Came, come with me, and we will make 

fhort work ; 

For, by your leaves, you fhall not (lay alone, 
'Till holy church incorporate two in one. [Exeunt. 



Enter Mcrcutio, Benvolio, Page, and Servants. 

Ben. I pray thee, good Mercutio, let's retire ; 
s The day is hot, the Capulets abroad, 

* I cannot fum up i.jJf ?; fun of wealth.'] The old copies read : 

I cannot fum up fan rf half my wealth, 

I cannot fum up fo:m of half my wealth. STEEVEXS. 
3 The day is hot,] It is obferved, tint in Italy almoit all afliif- 
filiations are committed during the heat of fummer. JOHNSON. 

' And, 


And, if we meet, we (hall not 'fcape a brawl ; 
For now, thcie hot days, is the mad blood ftirring. 

Mer. Thou art like one of thofe fellows, that, when 
he enters the confines of a tavern, claps me his fword 
upon the table, and fays, God fend me no need of tbee! 
and, by the operation of the fecond cup, draws it on 
the drawer, when, indeed, there is no need. 

Ben. Am I like fuch a fellow ? 

Mer. Come, come, thou art as hot a Jack in thy 
mood as any in Italy; and as foon mov'd to be 
moody, and as foon moody to be mov'd. 

Sen. And what too ? 

Aler. Nay, an there were two fuch, we Ihould have 
none fhortly, for one would kill the other. Thou ! 
why thou wilt quarrel with a man that harh a hair 
more, or a hair lefs, in his beard, than thou haft. 
Thou wilt quarrel with a man for cracking nuts, 
having no other reafon but becaufe thou haft hazel 
eyes; What eye, but fuch an eye, would fpy out fuch 
a quarrel ? Thy head is as full of quarrels, as an egg 
is full of meat ; and yet thy head hath been beaten as 
addle as an egg, for quarrelling. Thou haft quarrell'd 
with a man for coughing in the ftreet, becaufe he hath 
waken'd thy dog that hath lain afleep in the fun. 
Didft thou not fall out with a taylor for wearing his 
new doublet before Eafter ? with another, for tying 
his new fhoes with old ribband ? and yet thou wilt 
tutor me for quarrelling ! 

* Ben. An I were ft apt to quarrel as thou art, any 
man fhouid buy the fee-fimple of my life for an hour 
and a quarter. 

Mer. The fee-fimple ? O fimple ! 

4 Thefe two fpeeches have been added fiace the firft quar*o,* 
together with fome few circumltances in the reft of the :ce t, a 
wefl as in the enfuing one. STEEVI 

G 3 Enter 


Enter Tybalt, and others. 

Ben. By my head, here come the Capulets. 

Mer. By my heel, I care not. 

c Ty. Follow me clofe, for I will fpeak to them.-' 
Gentlemen, good den : a word with one of you. 

Mer. And but one word with one of us ? Couplfc 
it with Ibmething , make it a word and a blow, 

*yb. You (hall find me apt enough to that, fir, if 
you will give me occafion. 

Mer. Could you not take fome occafion without 

Tyb. Mercutio, thou confort 'ft with Romep, 

Mer. Confort! what, doft thou make usminftrels? 
an thou make minftrels of us, look to hear nothing 
but difcords : here's my fiddleftick; here's that fhaH 
make you dance. 'Zounds, confort ! 

Ben. We talk here in the publick haunt of men : 
Either withdraw into fame private place, 
Or reafon coldly of your grievances, 
Or elle depart ; here all eyes gaze on us. 

Mer. Men's eyes were made to look, and let them 

gaze , 
I will not budge for no man's pleafure, I. 

Enter Romeo. 

Tyb. Well, peace be with, you, fir ! here comes, 
my man. 

Mer. But I'll be hang'd, fir, if he wear your livery; 
Mi 1 .'}', go firft to field, he'll be your follower; 
Your worfhip, in that ienfe, may call him man. 

'Tyb. Romeo, the hate I bear thee, can afford 
No oettcr term than this Thou art a villain. 

Rom. Tybalt, the reafon that I have to love thee 
Doth much excufe the appertaining rage 



To fuch a greeting : Villain I am none ; 
Therefore farewel j I fee, thou know'ft me not. 

Tyb. Boy, this fhall not excufe the injuries 
That thou haft done me ; therefore turn, and draw. 

Rom. I do proteft, I never injur'd thee ; 
But love thee better than thou canft deviie, 
'Till thou malt know the reafon of my love : 
And fo, good Capulet, which name I tender 
As dearly as my own, be fatisfied. 

Mer. O calm, difhonourable, vile fubmiffion! 
s A laftoccata carries it away. 
Tybalt, you rat-catcher, will you walk ? 

Tyb. What wouldft thou have with me ? 

Mer. Good king of cats, nothing, but one of your 
nine lives ; that I mean to make bold withal, and, as 
you (hall ufe me hereafter, dry-beat the reft of the 
eight. 6 Will you pluck your iword out of his pil- 
cher by the ears ? make hafte, left mine be about 
your ears ere it be out. 

Tyb. I am for you, [Drawing. 

5 A laftoccaia ] Stoccata is the Italian term for a thruft or 
{tab with a rapier. So, in the Devil's Charter t 1607 : 
" He makes a thruft ; I with a fwift paflado 
" Make quick avoidance, and with this ftoccata, &c." 


* Will you pluck your ficord out of Hi PILCHER ly the ears?] 
We (hould read pilcbe, which fignifies a cloke or coat of {kins, 
meaning the fcabbard. WARBURTOX. 

The old quarto reads fcabbard. Dr. \Varburton's explanation 
is, I believe, jufr. Na(h, in Pierce Paaylefs bis Supplication, 1595, 
fpeaks of a carman in a leather pikbe. Again, in Deckers Satire 
tnajlix : 

" I'll beat five pounds out of his leather pikb? 

" Thou haft forgot how thou ambled'fi: in a leather pUcb, by a 
play-waggon in the highway, and took'it mad Jeronimo's part, to 
get fervice among the mimics." 

It appears from this pafiage, that Ben Jcnfon aGed the part of 
-Hieronimo in the Spanish tragedy, the fpeech being addrelfed to 
i?, under which character old Ben is ridiculed. STEEVENS. 

G 4 R 


Rom. Gentle Mercntio, put thy rapier up. 

Mer. Come, fir, your paflado. [They fight* 

Rom. Draw, Benvolio; 

Beat own their weapons : Gentlemen, for (hame 
Forbear this outrage ; Tybalt Mercutio 
The prince exprefsly hath forbid this bandying 
In Verona Itreets : hold, Tybalt; good Mercutio. 

[Exit Tybalt. 

Mer. I am hurt ; 

A plague o' both the houfes ! I am fped : 
Js he gone, and hath nothing ? 

Ben. What, art thou hurt ? 

Mer. Ay, ay, a fcratch, a fcratch ; marry, 'tis 

Where is my page ? go, villain, fetch a furgeon. 

[Exit Page. 

Rom. Courage, man ; the hurt cannot be much. 

Mer. No, 'tis not fo deep as a well, nor fo wide as 
a church door; but 'ds enough, 'twill ferve : afk for 
me to-morrow, and you (hall find me 7 a grave man. 
I am pepper'd, I warrant, for this world : A plague 

7 a grave man.'] After this, the quarto 1597 continues Mer- 
cutio's fpeech as follows : 

: A pox o' both your houfes ! I flaall be fairly 

mounted upon four men's (houlders for your houfe of the 
Montague's and the Capulets : and then fome peafantly 
rogue, fome fexton, fome bafe Have, (hall write my epitaph, 
that Tybalt came and broke the prince's laws, and Mer- 
cutio was flxin for the firft and fecond caule. Where's 
the furgeon ? 
Roy. He's come, fir. 
Mer. Now he'll keep a mumbling in my guts on the other 

fide. Come, Benvolio, lend me thy hand : A pox o* 

both your houfes ! STEEVENS. 

" You will rind me a grave man" This jeft w2s better in old 
language, than it is at prefent j Lidgate fays, in his elegy upon 
Chmicer : 

" My mafter Ckauttr'ixvn is grave* FARMER. 
I meet with the fame quibble in the Revenger's Tragedy t 1608, 
where findici dreiles up a lady's fcull t and obfei ves : 

" fhe has a tomewhaTfnfttflook with her." STEETENS. 

o> both 


o* both your houfes ! What ! a dog, a rat, a moufe, 
a car, to fcratch a man to death ! a braggart, a 
rogue, a villain, that fights by the book of arithme- 
tick ! Why, the devil, came you between us ? I was 
hurt J Under your arm. 

Rom. I thought all for the beft. 

Mer. Help me into fome houfe, Benvolio, 
Or I mail faint. A plague o' both your houfes! 
They have made worm's meat of me : 
I have it, and ibundly too : Your houfes ! 

[Exeunt Mercutio^ and Benvolio. 

Rom. This gentleman, the prince's near ally, 
My very friend, hath got his mortal hurt 
In my behalf; my reputation ftain'd 
With Tybalt's (lander, Tybalt, that an hour 
Hath been my kinfman : O fweet Juliet, 
Thy beauty hath made me effeminate, 
And in my temper foften'd valour's fteel. . 

Re-enter Benvolio. 

Btn. O Romeo, Romeo, brave Mercutio's dead $ 
That gallant fpirit hath afpir'd the clouds *, 
Which too untimely here did fcorn the earth. 

Rom. 9 This day's black fate on more days doth 

depend ; 
This but begins the woe, others muft end. 

Re-enter Tybalt. 
Ben. Here comes the furious Tybalt back again. 

batb afpir'd tie clouds.'} So, in Greene's Card o 


" Her haughty mind is too loft}' for me to afore." 
We never ufe this verb at prefent without fome particle, as, to and 
after. STEEVENS. 

9 T/jii clay's bUttk fate on more Jays Joes depend \\ This day's 
Unhappy deitiny bangs over the days yet to come. There will yet 
foe more miichief. JOHNSOX. 



Rom. Alive ! in triumph I and Mercutjo (lain \ 
Away to heaven, respective lenity, 
And fire-ey'd fury be my conduct now ! 
Now, Tybalt, take the villain back again, 
That late thou gav'ft me ; for Mercutjo's foul 
Is but a little way above our heads, 
Staying for thine to keep him company ; 
Or thou, or I, or both, ihall follow him. 

fyb. Thou, wretched boy, that didft confort him, 

Shalt with him hence. 

Rom. This Ihall determine that. 

VTbcyfgbt, Tybalt falls. 

Ben. Romeo, away, be gone ! 
The citizens are up, and Tybalt (lain : 
Stand not amaz'd : the prince will doom thee death, 
If thou art taken : hence ! be gone ! away ! 

Rom. l O ! I am fortune's fool ! 

Ben. Why doft thou flay ? [Exit Rome*. 

Enter Citizens, &c. 

Cit. Which way ran he, that kill'd Mercutio ? 
Tybalt, that murderer, which way ran he? 

Ben. There lies that Tybalt. 

Cit. Up, fir, go with me ; 
I charge thee in the prince's name, obey. 

Enter Prince, Montague, Capulet> their Wives^ &c. 

Prin. Where are the vile beginners of this fray ? 
Ben. O noble prince, I can diicover all 
The unlucky manage of this fatal brawl : 

1 O! I am fortune's fool!} I am always running in the way 
of evil fortune, like the tool in the play. 'Thou art death's fool, in 
Meafure for Meafure. See Dr. Warburton's note. JOHNS ON 7 . 

In the firft copy, O! I am fortune's Jlave. STEEVENS.. 



There lies the man, (lain by young Romeo, 
That (lew thy kinfman, brave Mercutio. 

La. Cap. Tybalt, my coufin ! O my brother's 

child ! 

O prince! O hufband' O, the blood is fpill'd 
Of my dear kinfman ! Prince, z as thou art true, 
For blood of ours, Ihed blood of Montague. 
O coufin, coufin ! 

Prin. Benvolio, who began this bloody fray ? 
Ben. Tybalt, here (lain, whom Romeo ? s hand did 


Romeo that fpoke him fair, bid him bethink 
3 How nice the quarrel was, 4 and urg'd withal 
Your high difpleafure : all this uttered 
With gentle breath, calm look, knees humbly bow'd, 
Could not take truce with the unruly fpleen 
Of Tybalt deaf to peace, but that he tilts 
With piercing fteel at bold Mercutio's bread ; 
Who, all as hot, turns deadly point to point, 
And, with a martial fcorn, with one hand beats 
Cold death aficle, and with the other fends 
It back to Tybalt, whofe dexterity 
Retorts it : Romeo he cries aloud, 
flold, friends ! friends, part / and, fwifter than his 


His agile arm beats down their fatal points, 
And 'twixt them rufnes j underneath whole arm 
An envious thruft from Tybalt hit the life 
Of flout Mercutio, and then Tybalt fled : 
But by and by comes back to Romeo, 
Who had but newly entertain'd revenge, 

z astlou art true,'] As thou nftjuft and upright. JOHNSON. 

3 HO--V nice the quarrel ] How flight, how unimportant , how 
petty. So in the lait act, 

The letter was not :Yvr, but full of charge 
Of dear import. JOHNSON. 

4 and ur^divitbal ] The reH of this Ipeech was new writ- 
ten bv the puet, as well as a part of what ioiiows in tiie fame 
fcene. STEEVEXS. 



And to't they go like lightning ; for, ere I 
Could draw to part them, was flout Tybalt (lain ; 
And, as he fell, did Romeo turn and fly : 
This is the truth, or let Benvolio die. 

La. Cap. He is a kinfman to the Montague, 

5 Affeflion makes him falfe, he fpeaks not true : 
Some twenty of them fought in this black ftrife, 
And all thofe twenty could but kill one life : 

I beg for juftice, which thou, prince, muft givej 
Romeo flew Tybalt, Romeo muft not live. 

Prin. Romeo flew him, he flew Mercutio ; 
Who now the price of his dear blood doth owe ? 

La. Mont. Not Romeo, prince, he was Mercutio's 

friend ; 

His fault concludes' but, what the law mould end, 
The life of Tybalt. 

Prin. And, for that offence, 
Immediately we do exile him hence : 

6 I have an interefl in your hates' proceeding, 

My blood for your rude brawls doth lie a bleeding 5 
But I'll amerce you with fo ftrong a fine, 

5 Affc&ion makes him falfe,] The charge of falfhood on Benvolio, 
though produced at hazard, is very juft. The author, who feems 
to intend the character of Benvolio as good, meant perhaps to 
fhew, how the beil minds, in a ftate of faction and difcord, are 
detorted to criminal partiality. JOHNSON. 

6 / have an intereft in your hearts' proceeding,"] Sir Thomas 
Hanmer faw that this line gave no fenfe, and therefore put, by a 
very eafy change, 

I have an intereft in your heats proceeding : 

which is undoubtedly better than the old reading which Dr. 
Warburton has followed ; but the fenfe yet feems to be weak, and 
perhaps a more licentious correction is neceflary. I read there- 

I had no intereft in your heats prm-ding. 

This, fays the prince, is no quarrel of mine, I had no intcrefi 
in your former Difcord ; I fuffer merely by your private ani- 
mofity. JOHNSON. 

The quarto, 1597, reads bales' proceeding. This renders all 
emendation unnecellary, I have followed it, STEEVENS. 



That you fhall ail repent the lofs of mine ; 

I will be deaf to pleading and excufes ; 

Nor tears, nor prayers, {hall purchafe out abufes 7, 

Therefore ule none : let Romeo hence in hafte, 

Elie, when he's found, that hour is his laft. 

Bear hence this body, and attend our will : 

Mercy but murders, pardoning thofe that kill 8 . 



An apartment in Cofulefs boufe. 
Enter Juliet. 

Jid. Gallop apace, you fiery-footed fteeds, 
Towards Phosbus* manfion ; fuch a wagoner 
As Phaeton would whip you to the weft, 
And bring in cloudy night immediately S - 
= Spread thy clofe curtain, love-performing night ! 


No- tears m prayers, JbaB fercbaf' out aktfis-] This was 
probably defigned as a ihoke at die church of Rome, by which the 
different prices of murder, inceit, and all other crimes, were 
minutely fettled, and as {hamelefsly received. STEEVEXS. 

* Mertj fat nnerdtri, fardnuig tbafe that telL] So, la Hole's 
Memorials: u When I find myielf fwa jed to mercy, let me r^ 
member likewise that there is a mercy due to the country." M A LONE. 

9 PA**w' maxfin;] The lecond quarto and folio reid, 

:~.>aeaiauy.'] Here ends this fpeech in the eldeit quarto. 
The reft of the fceoe has likewife received confiderzble alterations 
and additions. STEEVZ 

* fynaJ dy dofe cmrtaa^ lotx-faftnmag ngbi^ 

Jfxtt run-away** eyes may -ximk\\ What run-awors are thefe, 
whofe eyes Juliet is wifhing to have ftoptr Macbeth, we may 
remeinber, makes an invocation to night much in the feme flrain ; 

1 Come, feeling night, 
c< Scarf op the tender eye of pitiful at& t " 
So Juliet would hare night's darknefs obfcuie the great eye of the 

. J_ _1 _ .- 1 tf- 1 " - _ 1 t- -1 _ * T>/ > 

Scarf up the tender ejt of pitiful J&," Sx. 
would have night's darknefs obicure ihe gr 
day, tbeyirx; whom confidering in a poetical light as 
drawn in his car with jUy^otttd fbeeds, and 'fofiitg through the 

94 ROMEO Aftfj J U L ! E f . 

That run-away's eyes may wink * and Romeo 
Leap to thefe arms, untalk'd of, and unfeen! 
Lovers can fee to do their amorous rites 
By their own beauties : or, if love be blind, 
It bed agrees with night. ; Come, civil nighty 
Thou fober-fuited matron, all in black, 
And learn me how to lofe a winning match, 
Play'd for a pair of flainlefs maidenhoods : 
Hood my 4 unmann'd blood bating in my cheeks, 


heavens, {he very properly calls him, with regard to the fwiftnefs of 
his courfe, the run-ar.uay. In the like manner our poet fpeaks of 
the night in the Merchant of Venice: 

" For the cloie night doth play the tbx*muqy? WA R BU R TON. 
I am not fatisfied with this explanation, yet have nothing better 
to propoie. JOHNSON. 

The conftrudtion of this pafTage, however elliptical or perverfe, I 
believe to be as follows : 

May that run-away' s eyes ivink ! 
Or, That run ai^ay's ryes, may (they) wink! 
Thefe ellipies are frequent in Spenfer ; and that For oh! rtjai 13 
not uncommon, as Dr. Farmer oblerves in a note on the firit 
icene of the Winter's Tale. So, in Antony and Cleopatra, Act 3. Sc. 6. 

That ever I fhould call thee cart-away ! 

Juliet firrt wifhes for the abfence of the fun, and then invokes die 
night to fpvead its curtain clofe around the world : 

Spread thy clofe curtain, love-performing night ! 
next, recollecting that the night would feem fhort to her, fhe fpeaks 
of it as of a ntn-aivay, whole flight fhe would wifli to retard, and 
whofe eyes (he would blind left they fhould make diicoveries. The 
tycs of night are the ftars, fo called in the MiJj'ummcr Night's Dreamt 
Dr. Warburton has already proved that Shakefpeare terms the night 
a run-aivay in the Merchant of ycnlsc: and in the Fair Maid of the 
Exchange, 1607, it is fpoken of under the fame character : 
" The night hath play'd the fwift-foot run -away? 
Romeo was no: expected by Juliet 'till the fun was gone, and 
therefore it was of no conference to her that any eyes fhould 
wink but thofe of the night; tor, as Ben Jonibn fays in Sejanus : 

** night hath mary eyes, 
*' Whereof, tho' molt do fleep, yet fome are fpies." STEEVENS. 

3 Come, civil ni^ht,] Civil \sgravc, decently fole/nn. JOHNSON. 

4 . unmann'd blood ] Bkiod yet unacquainted with man. 


Hood my unmann'd U*M?fadng in my cheeks,} Thefe arc terms 

of falconry. An unmanned hawk is one that is not brought to 

j endure 


Vv'ith thy black mantle ; 'till ftrange love, grown bold, 

Thinks true love acted, fimple modefty. 

Come, night ! Come, Romeo ! come, thou day in 

night ! 

For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night 
Whiter than new fnow on a raven's back.-^ 
Come, gentle night; come, loving, black-brow'd 


Give me my Romeo : and, when he mail die, 
Take him and cut him out in little ftars 5, 
And he will make the face of heaven fo fine, 
That all the world (hall be in love with night, 
And pay no worlhip to the 6 garilh fun. 

endure company. Bating (not baiting^ as It has hitherto been 
printed) is fluttering with the wings as driving to fly away. So, 
in Ben Jonfon's Sad Shepherd : 

" A hawk yet half fo haggard and unmanrfd? 
Again, in the Booke of Haukyng, &c. bl. 1. no date : " It is called 
laiing, for (he lateth with herlelte moft often caufelelle." STEE VENS. 
5 Take him and cut him into little Jlars, &cc,'] The fame childifh 
thought occurs in The IVifdome cf Doflor DodypoU, which was acted 
before the year 1 596 : 

*' The glorious parts of fa'ue Lucilia, 
" Take them and joine them in the heavenly fpheres ; 
** And fixe them there as an eternal light, 
" For lovers to adore and wonder at." STEEVENS. 
* the garifh fun.] Milton had this fpeech in his thoughts 
when he wrote R Penfertfo: 

" Civil night, 

" Thou fober-fuited matron." Shakefpeare. 
' Till civil-fuited morn appear." Milton. 
" Pay no worfhip to thej-ar/^ fun." Shake/peare. 
" Hide me from day's garifa eye." ^Tihon. JOHKSOK. , 
Garijh is gaudy, ihowy. So, in Richard III : 
A dream of what thou waft, zgarijb flag. 
Again, in Mario w's Edward II, 1622 : 

" march 'd like players 
" With garljb robes." 

It fometimes fignifies wild, flighty. So, in the following 
initance : " ftarting up and gairijtjty ftaring about, efpecially 
<on the face of ElioJ}*.* Hindc'a Eliojlo Libidimfo, 1606, 



O, I have baught the manfion of a love, 

But not pofTefs'd it ; and, though I am fold, 

Not yet enjoy'd : So tedious is rhis day, 

As is the night before fome feftival 

To an impatient child, that hath new robes, 

And may not wear them. O, here comes my nurfe, 

Enter Nurfe, with cords. 

And (he brings news ; and every tongue, that fpeaks 
But Romeo's name, fpeaks heavenly eloquence. 
Now, nurfe, what news? What haft thou there? the 

That Romeo bid thee fetch? 

Nurfe. Ay, ay, the cords. 

JuL Ay me ! what news ? why doft thou wring 
thy hands? 

Nurfe. A h well-a-day ! he's dead, he's dead, he's dead ! 
We are undone, lady, we are undone! 
Alack the day ! he's gone, he's kill'd, he's dead ! 

JuL Can heaven be To envious? 

Nurfe. Romeo can, 

Though heaven cannot : O Romeo ! Romeo ! 

Who ever would have thought it? Romeo! 

JuL What devil art thou, that dolt torment me 

thus ? . 

This torture mould be roar'd in difmal hell. 
Hath Romeo flain himfelf ? fay thou but /, 
7 And that bare vowel / mall poifon more 


7 And that I are vowel yy Jhall poi /on more 

Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice.] I queftion much 
whether the grammarians will take this new vo-wl on truit from 
Mr. Pope, without fufpecTing it rather for a diphthong. In fhorr, 
we mult reftore the fpelling ot the o!d book?, or ->ve loie the poet's 
conceit. At his time of day, the affirmative adverb ay was gene- 
rally written /: and by this mea:u it both becomes a vm:fl t and 
anfwers in found to eye, upon which the conceit turns in the 
fccond line. THEOBALD. 


Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice : 

I am not I, if there be fuch an /; 

Or thofe eyes (hut, that make thee anfwer, 1. 

If he be flain fay /; or if not, no : 

Brief founds determine of my weal, or woe. 

Narfe. I law the wound, I law it with mine eyes, 
God fave the mark ! here on his manly breaft : 
A piteous corfe, a bloody piteous corfe ; 
Pale, pale as afhes, all bedawb'd in blood, 
All in gore blood ; I ibwnded at the fight. 

JuL O break, my heart ! poor bankrupt, break 

at once ! 

To prifon, eyes ! ne'er look on liberty ! 
Vile earth, to earth refign ; end motion here ; 
And thou, and Romeo, prefs one heavy bier! 

Nurfe. O Tybalt, Tybalt, the beft friend I had I 
O courteous Tybalt ! honeft gentleman ! 
That ever I mould live to fee thee dead ! 

death- darting eye of cockatrice.'] The ftrange lines that 
follow here in the common books, are not in the old edi- 
tion. POPE. 

The ftrange lines are thefe : 

I am not I, if there be fuch an I, 
Or thefe eyes fhot, that makes thee anfwer 1 ; 
If he be flain, fay I ; or if not, no j 
Brief founds determine of my weal or woe. 
Thefe lines hardly deferve emendation ; yet it may be proper to 
obferve, that their meannefs has not placed 'them below the malice 
of fortune, the two firii of them being evidently tranfpofed ; we 
fhould read : 

That one vowel / (hail poifon more, 
Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice, 
Or thofe eyes Jbot, that make thee anfwer, I. 
I am not I, ike. JOHNSON. 

I think the tranfpofition recommended may be fpared. The 
fecond line is corrupted. Read Jbut initead of Jbot, and then the 
meaning will be fufficiently intelligible. 

Shot, however, may be the fame as Jbut. So, in Chaucer's 
Miter's Tale, late edit. ver. 3358 : 

" And drefied him up by zjbot window." STEEVEXS. 

VOL. X. H 7/. 


Jal. What ftorm is this, that blows fo contrary t 
Is Romeo flaughter'd ? and is Tybalt dead ? 
My dear lov'd coufin, and my dearer lord ? 
Then, dreadful trumpet, found the general doom f 
For who is living, if thofe two are gone ? 

Nurfe. Tybalt is gone, and Romeo banifhed ; 
Romeo, that kill'd him, he is banifhed. 

JuL O God ! did Romeo's hand ihed Tybalt's 

blood ? 
. Nurfe. It did, it did ; alas the day ! it did. 

JuL O ferpent heart, hid with a fiow'ring face f 
Did ever dragon keep fo fair a cave ? 
Beautiful tyrant ! fiend angelical ! 
8 Dove-feather'd raven ! wol vim- ravening Iamb I 
Defpifed fubftance of divined mow ! 
Juft oppofite to what thou juftly feem'ft, 
A damned faint, an honourable villain ! 
O, nature ! what hadft thou to do in hell, 
When thou didft bower the fpirit of a fiend 
In mortal paradife of fuch fweet flem ? 
Was ever book, containing fuch vile matter, 
So fairly bound ? O, that deceit mould dwell 
In fuch a gorgeous palace ! 

Nurfe. There's no truft, 
No faith, no honefty in men ; all perjur'd, 

* Dove-feathct'd raven ! &c.] In old editions, 

Ravenous dome, feathered raven, &c.] The four following' 
lines not in the fiiit edition, as well as fome others which I have 
omitted. POPE. 

Rave/mis dwc, feathered raven, 

Wohijb-ravcniug lamb!} This paflage Mr. Pope hat 
thrown out of the text, becaute thelc two noble hem.fticbs are in- 
harmonious: but is there no fuch thing as a crutch for a labour- 
ing, hairing verfe.? I'll venture to reifore to the poet a line that 
is in his own mode of thinking, and truly worthy of him. Ra~ 
venous was blunderingly coined out of raven and ravening ; and, if 
we only throw it out, we gain at once an harmonious verle, and a 
j roper coniraft of epithets and images : 

Dove- rear her' J raven! U'olvilh-rav'ning lamb ! THEOBALD. 



All forfworn, all naught, all diffem biers 
Ah, where's ray man ? give me fome aqua vita : 
Thefe griefs, thefe woes, thefe forrows make me old. 
Shame come to Romeo ! 

Jul. Bliiler'd be thy tongue, 
For inch a wifli ! he was not born to fhame : 
Upon his brow ftiame is afham'd to fit ?; 
For 'tis a throne where honour may be crown'd 
Sole monarch of the univerfal earth. 
O, what a beaft was I to chide at him ! 

Nvrfe. Will you fpeak well of him that kill'd 
your coufm ? 

Jul ShaH I fpeak ill of him that is my hutauid ? 
Ah, poor my lord, what tongue (hall fmooth thy name, 
When I, thy three-hours wife, have mangled it ? 
But, wherefore, villain, didft thou kill my coufin ? 
That villain ccufin would have kill'd my hufband : 
Back, foolilh tears ', back to your native fpring ; 
Your tributary drops belong to woe, 
Which you, miftaking, offer up to joy. 
My hufband lives, that Tybalt would have (lain ; 
And Tybalt dead, that would have (lain my hufband: 
All this is comfort j Wherefore weep I then ? 
Some word there was, worfer than Tybalt's death, 
That murdered me : I would forget it fain ; 
But, O ! it preffes to my memory, 
Like darhned guilty deeds to Tinners' minds : 
Tybalt is dead, and Rcmeffbailijbtd ; 

torn. ii. p. 223 : " Is it poilible :tw under fcch 
*:e and rare eonr.dinefie, difloyaide and treafon may have their 

1 Bi:* toolifli tears, &c.] So, in the Tcmfcft' 

I am a foal 

To ~eep at what I am glad of. 

Et, in this fpeech of Jc!iet, the i".d jy fcould 

. Tonclufivc. 

H z That 


That banijhed, that one word bani/hed, 

* Hath flam ten thoufand Tybalts. Tybalt's death 

Was woe enough, if it had ended there : 

Or, if four woe delights in fellowfhip, 

And needly will be rank'd with other griefs, 

Why follow'd not, when fhe faid Tybalt's dead, 

Thy father, or thy mother, nay, or both, 

3 Which modern lamentation might have mov'd ? 

But, with a rear-ward following Tybalt's death, 

Romeo is banijhed, to fpeak that word, 

Is father, mother, Tybalt, Romeo, Juliet* 

All Qain, all dead : Romeo is banijhed, 

There is no end, no limit, meafure, bound, 

Jn that word's death ; no words can that woe found.-*- 

Where is my father, and my mother, nurfe? 

Nurfe. Weeping and wailing over Tybalt's corfe 5 
Will you go to them ? I will bring you thither. 

Jul. Warn they his wounds with tears? mine ftiall 

be fpent, 

When theirs are dry, for Romeo's banimment. 
Take up thofe cords : Poor ropes, you are beguil'd. 
Both you and I ; for Romeo is exil'd : 
He made you for a highway to my bed 5 
But I, a maid, die maiden- widowed. 
Come, cords; come, nurfe ; I'll to my wedding bed} 
And death, not Romeo, take my maidenhead ! 

Nurfe. Hie to your chamber : I'll find Romeo 
To comfort you ; I wot well where he is. 
Hark ye, your Romeo will be here at night ; 
I'll to him ; he is hid at Laurence* cell. 

Jut. O find him ! give this ring to my true knight, 
And bid him come to take his laft farewel. 


* Hath Jlain ten tboufand Tybalts."] Hath put Tybalt out of my 
mind, as it out of being. JOHNSON. 

3 W7.ncb modern lamentation^ &c.] This line is left out of the 
later editions, I fuppofe becaufe the editors did not remember that 
Shakefpeare ufes modern for common, m flight : I believe it was in his 
time confounded in colloquial language with moderate. JOHNSON. 




Friar Laurence's cell. 
Enter Friar Laurence, and Romeo. 

Fri. Romeo, come forth ; come forth, thou fearful 


Affliction is enamour'd of thy parts, 
And thou art wedded to calamity. 

Rom. Father, what news? what is the prince's 

doom ? 

What forroiv craves acquaintance at my hand, 
That 1 yet know not ? 

Fri. Too familiar 

Is my dear fon with fuch four company : 
I bring thee tidings of the prince's doom. 

jf&tn* What lefs than dooms-day is the prince's 

Fri. A gentler judgment vanifh'd from his lips, 
Not body's death, but body's banifhment. 

Rom. Ha ! banifhment ? be merciful, fay death , 
For exile hath more terror in his look, 
Much more than death : do not fay banifliment. 

Fri. Here from Verona art thou banifhed : 
Be patient, for the world is broad and wide. 

Rom. There is no world without Verona walls, 
But purgatory, torture, hell itlelf. 
Hence-banifhed is banifh'd from the world, 
And world's exile is death ; then banifhment 
Is death mif-term'd : calling death banifhment, 
Thou cut'ft my head off with a golden axe, 
And fmil'ft upon the ftroke that murders me. 

Fri. O deadly fin ! O rude unthankfulnefs ! 
Thy fault our law calls death ; but the kind prince, 
Taking thy part, hath rufti'd afide the law, 

H 3 And 


And turn'd that black word death to banifhment i 
This is dear mercy, and thou iecft it not. 

Rom. Tis torture, and not mercy: heaven is 


Where Jives; and every cat, and dog, 
And 'little moule, every unworthy thing, 
Live here in heaven, and may look op her, 
But Romeo may not. 4 More validity, 
More honourable (late, more courtfhip lives 
In carrion, than Romeo : they may leizc 
On the white wonder of dear Juliet's hand, 
And (leal immortal bleffings from her lips ; 
Who. even in pure and veital modefty, 
Sn 11 blufh, as thinking their own kiiles fin : 
Flieo may do this, when I from this muft fly ; 
They are iree men, but I am bammed. 
And fay'ft thou yet, that exile is not death ? 
But Romeo may notj he is banifhed s . 
Irhdit thou no poifon mix'd, no (harp-ground knife t 
No fudden mean of dearh, though ne'er fo mean, 
But banimed to kill me ? banifhed ? 
O friar, the damned ufe that word in hell ; 
Howlings afend it: How haft thou the heart, 
Being a divine, a ghoftly confefTor, 
A fin abiblver. and my friend profeft, 
To mangle me \vith that word banifhment ? 

Fri. Thou tond mad man, hear me but fpeak a 

Rom. O, thou wilt fpeak again of banimment. 

* Wore validity, 

Msr hnfuratde ft ate, m->rc c'mrtfViip lives 

In carrion jilts, than Romeo, ,] Validity feems here to mean 
worth M dignity : anJ ccintflrp the (late ot a courtier permitted to 
approach the highcft pMcnce. JOHNSON. 

* But Pv-.mro mew n:it ; be is ianijhed.] This line is very ank- 
wanliy introduced hei , and nii^ht i>cuer be iniened aiter their 

01VK kljfts fit, S T E V K S . 



Fri. FH give thee armour to keep off that word ; 
Adverfity's fweet milk, philofophy, 
To comfort thee, though thou art baniflied. 

Rom. Yet banifhed ? Hang up philofophy ! 
Unlefs philofophy can make a Juliet, 
Difplant a town, reverie a prince's doom ; 
It helps not, k prevails nor, talk no more. 
Fri. O, then I fee that madmen have no ears. 
Rom. How fhould they, when that wife men have 

no eyes ? 

Fri. Let me difpute with thee of thy eftare. 
Rom. Thou canft not fpeak of what thou doftnot 


Wt thou as young as I, Juliet thy love, 
An hour but marred, Tybalt murdered, 
Doating like me, and like me baniflied, 
Then might'ft thou fpeak, then might'ft thou (ear thy 


And fall upon the ground, as I do now, 
Taking the meafure of an unmade grave. 

Fri. Arife ; one knocks ; good Romeo hide thy- 
felf. <[Kncck -witlnn. 

Rom. Not I; unlefs the breath of heart-ljck groaiuy 
Mift-like, infold me from the fcarch of c\ es. 

Fri. Hark, how they knock! Who's there? 

Romeo, arife ; 
Thou wilt be taken :^-Stay a while : ftand up ; 


Run to my ftudy : By and by : God's will ! 
What wilfulncfe is this 6 ? I come, I come. : 


"Who knocks Jb hard? whence come you? what's 
your will? * 

f What fcJ The folio reai- 


H 4 Nmfe. 


Nurfe. [within.'] Let me come in, and you (hall 

know my errand; 
I come from lady Juliet. 
Fri' Welcome then. 

Enter Nurfe. 

Nurfe. O holy friar, O, tell me, holy friar, 
\Vhere is my lady's lord, where*s Romeo ? 

Fri. There, on the ground* with his own tears 
made drunk, 

Nurfe. O, he i ; s even in my miftrefs* cafe, 
Jufl in her cafe ! 

Fri. O woeful fympathy 7 \ 
Piteous predicament! 

Nurfe. Even fo lies (he, 

Blubbering and weeping, weeping and blubbering : 
Stand np, ftand up ; {land, an you be a man : 
For Juliet's fake, for her fake, rife and ftand j 
8 Why fhould you fall into fo deep an O ? 

Rom. Nurfe! 

Nurfe. Ah fir ! ah fir '.death is the end of all. 

Rom. Spak'ft thou of Juliet ? how is it with her? 
Doth me not think me an old murderer, 
Now I have flain'd the childhood of our joy 
With blood remov'd but little from her own ? 
Where is me ? and how doth me ? and what fays 
My conceal'd lady to our can'cell'd love , ? 

' OiuoefuljfympatJy! 

Piteous predicament!] One may wonder the editors did 
BOt fee that this language muft neceilarily belong to the Friar. 


Dr. Farmer's emendation may juflly claim that place in the 
text to which I have now advanced it. STEEVENS, 

8 lVt.y fnouldyou f all into fo deep an oh?~\ Ham'ner reads : 

Wly Jbouldyou fall into fo deep an 
Rom. Ob nurfe! J o H N s O N . 

9 cancell'd love ?] The folio reads conceaTd love. JOHNSON. 
The quarto, canceled lov. STEEVENS, 


R O M E O AND J U L I E T. 105 

Nurfe. O, fhe fays nothing, fir, but weep? and 

weeps j 

And now falls on her bed ; and then darts up. 
And Tybalt calls ; and then on Romeo cries, 
And then down falls again. 

Rom. As if that name, 
Shot from the deadly level of a gun, 
Did murder her ; as that name's curfed hand 
Murder'd her kinfman. O tell me, friar, tell me, 
In what vile part of this anatomy 
Doth my name lodge ? tell me, that I may fack 
The hateful manfion. [Drawing bis fword* 

FrL Hold thy defperate hand : 
Art thou a man ? thy form cries out, thou art ; 
Thy tears are womanilh ; thy wild a6ts denote 
The unreafonable fury of a beaft : 
J Unfeemly woman, in a feeming man ! 
Or iU-befeeming beaft, in feeming both ! 
Thou haft amaz'd me : by my holy order, 
I thought thy difpofition better temper 'd. 
Haft thou (lain Tybalt ? wilt thou flay thyfelf ?. 
And flay thy lady too that lives in thee, 
By doing damned hate upon thyfelf? 
Why rairft thou on thy birth, the heaven, and earth ? 
Since birth, and heaven, and earth, all three do meet 
In thee at once j which thou at once would'ft lofe. 

1 Unfeemly oma n, &c.] This ftrange noafenfe Mr. Pope 
thre^ out of his edition for deiperate. But it is eafily reftored as 
Shakefpeare wrote it into good pertinent fenfe. 
Unfeemly luoman in a feeming man ! 
An iU-be feeming beaft in feeming groth. 

i. t. you have the ill-btjieming paffions of a brute beaft in the well- 
fceming fliape or a rational creature. For having in the^r/? line 
{kid, he was a woman in the ftape of a man, he aggravates the 
thought in the fecond, and fays, he was even a brute i; e 
ihape of a rational creature. Seeming is ufed in both places iur 
ftemly. WARBURTON. 

The old reading is probable, fbou art a beafl of itt quaSties t 
linacr the appearance botkcfa iv&fian and a man, JOHNSON. 



Fie, fie ! thou fham'ft thy fhape, thy love, thy wit - 9 

Which, like an ufurer, abound'fl in all, 

And ufeft none in that true ufe indeed 

Which mould bedeck thy fhape, thy love, thy wit. 

Thy noble fhape is but a form of wax, 

pigrefiing from the valour of a man : 

Thy dear love, fworn, but hollow perjury, 

Killing that love which thou haft vow'd to cherifh. 

Thy wit, that ornament to fhape and love, 

Mil-fhapen in the conduct of them both, 

Like powder in the jfkill-lefs foldier's flafk % 

Is fet on fire by thine own ignorance, 

3 And thou difmember'd with thine own defence. 

What, rbufe thee, man ! thy Juliet is alive, 

For whofe dear fake thou waft but lately dead ; 

There art thou happy : Tybalt would kill thee, 

But thou flew'ft Tybalt ; there too art thou happy : 

The law, that threaten'd death, becomes thy friend, 

And turns it to exile; there art thou happy : 

A pack of bleffings lights upon thy back ; 

Happinefs courts thee in her beft array 5 

But, Jike a mis'hav'd and a iullen wench, 

Thou pout'ft upon thy fortune and thy love : 

Take heed, take heed, for fuch die miferable. 

Go, get thee to thy love, as was decreed, 

Afcend her chamber, hence and comfort her; 

But, look, thou ftay not 'till the watch be fet, 

* Like powder in thejkill-lef3 foldicrs fiajk, &c.] To underftand 
the force of this allufion, it ftiould be remembered that the ancient 
Englifh foldiers, uling %vz/<n6-locks, inftead of locks with flints as at 
prefer.r, were obliged to carry a lighted match hanging at their 
belts, very near to the wooden fiajk In which they kept their 
powder. The fame allufion occurs in Humor s Ordinary^ an old 
collection of Englifh epigrams : 

" When me his fiajk and touch-box fet on fire, 
*' And till this hour the burning is not out." STEE VEN'S 
3 dnd thou difmemlerd ivlth thine own dcfence^\ And thou torn 
to pieces with thy own weapons. JOHNSON. 



For then thou canft not pafs to Mantua ; 
Where thou ihah live, 'nil we can find a time 
To blaze your marriage, reconcile your friends, 
Beg pardon of the prince, and call chee back 
With twenty nundred thoufand times more joy 
Than thou went'ft forth in lamentation. 
Go before, nurfe: commend me to thy lady; 
And bid her haften all the houie to bc'd, 
Which heavy forrow makes them apt unto : 
Romeo is coming -. 

Nurfe. O Lord, I could have (laid here all the 


To hear good counfel : O, what learning is ! 
My lord, I'll tell my lady you will come. 

Rom. Do fo, and bid my fweet prepare to chide. 

Nurfe. Here, fir. a ring (he bid me give you, fir : 
Hie you, make hafte, for it grows very late. 

Rom. How well my comfort is reviv'd by this ! 

Fri. 5 Go hence. Good night : and 6 here ftands 

all your (late, 

Either be gone before the watch be fet, 
Or by the break of day dilguis'd from hence : 
Sojourn in Mantua ; I'll find out your man, 
Anci he fruli ligrnfy from time to time 
Every good kzp to you, that chances here: 
Give me thy hand ; 'tis late : farewel ; good night. 

Rom. But that a joy pad icy calls out on me, 
It were a grief, fo brief to part With thee : 
Farewel. [Examt. 

4 Romto is erasing } Much of this fpeech has likcwife been 
suited fmce the tiiit edition. STEEVENS. 

5 Go bout. Goot/nig/jt, &.c ] are omitted IB 
all the modern editions. IOHNSOX. 

6 berejlandr ail your jfatt ;J The who.e pf your for. 
pends oa thi=. JOK.N 5 ON. 

s c E :; E 


7$ C E N E IV. 
A room in Capulefs houfe, 

Enter Capukt, lady Capulet, and Paris. 

Cap. Things have fallen out, fir, fo unluckily, 
That we have had no time to move our daughter : 
Look you, fhe lov'd her kinfman Tybalt dearly, 
And Jo did I ; Well, we were born to die.- 
s Tis very late, fhe'll not come down to-night : 
I promife you, but for your company, 
I would have been a-bed an hour ago. 

Par. Thefe times of woe afford no time to woo: . 
Madam, good night : commend me to your daughter. 

La. Cap. I will, and know her mind early to- 
morrow ; 
To-night fhe's mew'd up 8 to her heavinefs. 

Cap. 9 Sir Paris, I will make a defperate tender 
Of my child's love : I think, fhe will be rul'd 
In all relpects by me ; nay more, I doubt it not. H 
Wife, go' you to her ere you go to bed ; 
Acquaint her here with my fon Paris' love ; 
And bid her, mark you me, on wednefday next- 
But, foft ; What day is this ? 

Par. Monday, my lord. 

7 SCENE IV. Some few unneceffary verfesare omitted In this 
fcene according to the oldefl editions. POPE. 

Thefe verfes are fuch as will by no means connedl: with the laft 
and moft improved copy of the play. STEEVENS. 

8 mevJd up.] This is a phrafe from falconry. A mew was a 
place of confinement for hawks. STEEYENS. 

9 Sir Paris, I <u>/7/ make a defperate tender 

Of my child's lwe.-~\ Defperate means only bold, advent 'rows, 
as if he had faid in the vulgar phrafe, Iwillfpeak a bold woidf 
and venture to promife you my daughter. JOHNSON. 
So, in Tie Weakrjl goes to the Watt, 1618 : 

Witnefs this Derate tender of mine honour." STEE VENS. 



Monday ? ha ! ha ! Well, wednefday is too 


O' thurfday let it be ; o' thurfday, tell her, 
She mall be married to this noble earl: 
Will you be ready ? do you like this hafte ? 
We'll keep no great ado ; a friend, or two : 
For hark you, Tybalt being flain fo late* 
It may be thought we held him carelefsly, 
Being our kinfman, if we revel much : 
Therefore we'll have fome half a dozen friends, 
And there an end. But what fay you to thurfday ? 

Par. My lord, I would that thurfday were to- 

Cap. Well, get you gone: o' thurfday be it 

then : 

Go you to Juliet ere you go to bed, 
Prepare her, wife, againft this wedding-day.--. 
Farewell, my lord. Light to my chamber, ho ! 
'Fore me, it is fo very late, that we 
May call it early by and by : Good night. [Exeunt. 


Juliet's chamber. 
Enter Romeo, and Jiflief. 

JuL Wilt thou be gone ? it is not yet near day : 
It was the nightingale, and not the lark, 
That pierc'd the fearful hollow of thine ear ; 
Nightly Hie fmgs I on yon pomegranate tree : 
Believe me, love, it was the nightingale. 

1 Nightly ./&? Juigs on yon pomegranate tree :] This is not merely 
a poetical fuppofition. It is obierved of the nightingale that, if 
undiiturbed, (he fits and lings upon the feme tree for many weeks 
together, STEEYEXS. 


no R O M E O ' AN* J U L I E t, 

Rom. It was the lark, the herald of the morn, 
No nightingale : look, love, what envious ftreaks 
Do lace the fevering clouds in yonder eaft : 
Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day 
Stands tiptoe on the mifty mountains' tops ; 
I muft be gone and live, or flay and die. 

JuL Yon light is not day -light, I know it, I ; 
It is fome meteor that the fun exhales, 
To be to thee this night a torch-bearer, 
And light thee on thy way to Mantua : 
Therefore ftay yet, thou need'il not to be gone, 

Rom. Let me be ta'en, let me be put to death 5 
I am content, if thou wilt have it fo. 
I'll fay, yon grey is not the morning's eye, 
"Tis but the 2 pale reflex of Cynthia's brow; 
Nor that is not the lark, whole notes do beat 
The vaulty heaven fo high above our heads : 
3 1 have more care to ftay> than will to gci . 
Come, death, and welcome ! Juliet wills it fo. 
How is't, my foul? let's talk, it is not day. 

Jul. It is, it is, hie hence, be gone, away ; 
It is the lark that (ings fo out of tune, 
Straining harm difcords, and unpleafing [harps. 
Some fay, the lark makes fweet divifion4; 
This doth not fo, for (he divideth us : 
Some fay, the lark and loathed toad change eyes ; 
5 O, now I would they had chang'd voices too ! 


a __ the pale reflex ] The appearance of a cloiid oppofed to 
the moon. JOHNSON. 

3 I have more care to J? ay, than will to go.~\ Would it be better 
thus, I have more will tojlay. than care to go? JOHNSON*. 

4 fweet divl/ion \~\ Divifion feems to have been the technical 
term for the paufes or parts of a mufical competition. So, in K. 
Henry > IV. P. i : 

Sung by a fair queen in a rummer's bower, 
With ravifhing divifion to her lute. STEKVENS. 
O, now I would they had changed voices too!\ The toad 
ery fine eyes, and the lark very ugly ones, was the occafion 

of a common faying am ngll the people, that the toad and lark bad 
changed ejes. I'o this the Ipeaker alludes. But fure (he need not 
i have 


* Since arm from arm that voice doth us affray, 
7 Hunting thee hence with hunts-up to the day. 

0, now be gone; more light and light it grows. 

have <wijbed that they bad changed voices too. The lark appeared t* 
her untunable enough in ail confidence ; as appears by what Ihe 
fcidjuft before, 

It is the lark that fags fo out of tune, 

Straining harfli difcords and unpleafing ftarps. 
This directs us to the right reading. For how natural was it foe 
her after this to add, 

&nrtf Jay the lark and loathed toad change yes ; 

O, ftK'J I wot they barje chaxgd voices too. 

1. e. the lark fings fo harftly, that 1 now perceive the toad and fte 
have changed voices as well as eyes. WARBUKTOX. 

This tradition of the toad and lark I have heard exprefled in a 
rullkk rhyme, 

But that the toad ieguil'd me of mine eyt. JOHNS ov. 
* Since arm from arm, &c.} Thefe two lines are omitted in the 
modern editions, and do not deserve to be replaced, but as they 
may (hew the danger of critical temerity. Dr. Warburton's change 
of I would to I itvtf was fpecious enough, yet it is evidently er- 
roneous. The fenfe is this, The lark, they /ay, has toft her eyes to toe 
toad, and now I would the toad had her veice toe^jmct Jbe u/es it to 
the difiurbance of lovers. JOHNSON. 

7 Hunting thee up <xith huntfup to the day.] The bunifup was the 
name of the tune anciently played to wake the hunters, and collect 
them together. So, in the play of Orlandt Furiojb, 1594 and 1 599 : 
" To play him bunifup with a point of war, 
** 111 be his minUrdl with my drum and fife." 
Agaic, in 72* Seven Champions of Chriftendjm, a comedy, 1638 : 

" When Calib's concert plays 
A bvntfup to.her.'* 
Again, in Wtft-'jcard Hoe, 1607 : 

" Make a noife, its no matter ; any luntfup to waken vice." 
Again, in the Return fromPamajfiu, 1606 : 

" Yet will I play a hunts-uf> to my Mufe." 
Again, in Ariftiffxs, or the JoTial Philofopher, 1650 : 

" Heyday! there goes the buutfup " 
Again, in Monfieur Thomas, 1659 : 

.pipe you fuch a buxtfup? 
Again, in the Four Prent-ces of London, 1632 : 

"a drum 
" To gfve me a 

Again, in Drayton's Pofyfloiett, fong i3th : 

' But rjitnts-uf to dse morn die ieaifcer'J fylrans fing." 


Rom. More light and light ? more dark and dark 
our woes. 

Enter Nurfe. 

Wurfe. Madam! 

Jul. Nude? 

Nurfe. Your lady mother's coming to your cham- 
The day is broke j be wary, look about. 


Jul. Then, window, let day in, and let life out. 

Rom. Farewel, farevvel ! one kifs, and I'll defcend. 

[Romeo defcends. 

Jul. Art thou gone fo ? Love ! lord ! ah, huiband ! 

friend ! 

I muft hear from thec every day i' the hour, 
For in a minute there are many days : 
8 O ! by this count I mail be much in years, 
Ere I again behold my Romeo. 

Rom. Farewel ! I will omit no opportunity 
That may convey my greetings, love, to thee. 

Jul. O, think'ft thou, we mall ever meet again ? 

Rom. I doubt it not ; and all thefe woes mall ferve 
For fweet difcourfes in our time to come. 

Jul. 9 O God ! I have an ill-divining foul ; 

1 O! ly this count I Jball le much in year s t 
Ere I again behold my Romeo. 
" Ilia ego, quse fueram te decedente puella, 

" Protinus ut redeas, fa&a videbor anus." Ovid. Epift. i. 


9 O God! I have an ill-divining foul, &c.] This miferable pre- 
fcience of futurity I have always regarded as a circumltance parti- 
cularly beautiful. The fame kind of warning from the mind 
Romeo feems to have been confcious of, on his going to the enter- 
tainment at the houfe of Capulet. 

" my mind mifgives, 

" Some confequence yet hanging in the ftars, 

" Shall bitterly begin his fearful date 

" From this night's revels." STEEVENS. 

5 Methinks 3 


Methinks, I fee thee, now thou art fo low, 
As one dead in the bottom of a tomb : 
Either my eye-fight fails, or thou look'ft pale. 

Rom. And truft me, love, in my eye fo do you : 
Dry forrow drinks our blood '. Adieu ! adieu ! 

[Exit Romeo \ 

Jul. O fortune, fortune ! all men call thee fickle : 
If thou art fickle, what dofl thou with him 
That is renown'd for faith ? Be fickle, fortune ; 
For then, I hope, thou wilt not keep him long, 
But fend him back. 

La. Cap. [within.] Ho, daughter! are you up? 

Jul. Who is't that calls ? is it my lady mother r" 
Is (he not down fo late, or up fo early ? 
What unaccuftom'd caufe * procures her hither ? 

Enter Lady Capulet. 

La. Cap. Why, how now, Juliet ? 

Jul. Madam, I am not well. 

La. Cap. Evermore weeping for your coufin's death ? 
What, wilt thou wafh him from his grave with tears? 
An if thou could'ft, thou could'fl not make him live ; 
Therefore, have done : Some grief (hews much of 

love ; 
But much of grief (hews dill fome want of wit. 

Jul. Yet let me weep for fuch a feeling lofs. 

La. Cap. So (hall you feel the lofs, but not the 

Which you weep for. 

Jul. Feeling ib the lofs, 
I cannot choofe but ever weep the friend. 

La. Cap. Well, girl, thou weep'ft not fo much for 
his death, 

1 Dry forrcrM drinks cur Wood.] This is an allufion to the pro- 
verb " Sorrow's dry." STE^VENS. 

' procure; -] Pwturef for firings. WARBURTOX. 

Vot. X. I As 


As that the villain lives which flaughter'd hirh. 

Jul. What villain, madam ? 

La. Cap. That fame villain, Romeo. 

Jul. Villain and he are many miles afunder. 
God pardon him I 1 do, with all my heart ; 
And yet no man, like he, doth grieve my heart. 

La. Cap. That is, becaufe the traitor murderer 

JuL J Ay, madam, from the reach of thefe my 

hands : 
'Would, none but I might venge my coufin's death ! 

La. Cap. We will have vengeance for it, fear thou 

not : 

Then weep no more. I'll fend to one in Mantua, 
Where that fame banifn'd runagate doth live, 
That mall beftow on him fo fure a draught % 
That he mall foon keep Tybalt company : 
And then, I hope, thou wilt be fatisfied. 

JuL Indeed, I never (hall be fatisfied 
With Romeo, 'till I behold him dead 
Is my poor heart fo for a kinfman vext : 
Madam, if you could find out but a man 
To bear a poiibn, I would temper it ; 
That Romeo fhould, upon receipt thereof, 
Soon fleep in quiet. O, how my heart abhors 
To hear him nam'd, and cannot come to him, 
To wreak the love I bore my coufin Tybalt, 
Upon his body that hath flaughter'd him ! 

3 Ay> madam, from "J Juliet's equivocations are rather too art- 
ful for a mind difturbed by the lofs of a new lover. JOHNSON. 

4 That JbaH lejtovj on him fo fure a draught^ Thus the elder 
quarto, which I have followed in preference to the quartos 1599 
and 1609, and the folio .1623, which read, lefs intelligibly, 

" Shall give him fuch an unaccuftom'd dram." STEEVENS. 
unaccitftonid dram^\ In vulgar language, Shall give him a 
-dram which he is not ufcd to. Though I have, it' I mi flake not, 
obferved, that in old books uuaccujlomed figniiies wonderful, power- 
ful, efficacious. JOHNSON. 



La. Cap. s Find thou the means, and I'll find fuch 

a man. 
But now I'll tell thee joyful tidings, girl. 

Jul. And joy comes well in fuch a needful time : 
What are they, I befeech your ladyfhip ? 

La. Cap. Well, well, thou haft a careful father, 

child ; 

One, who, to put thee from thy heavinefs, 
Hath forted out a fudden day of joy, 
That thou expecYft not, nor I look'd not for. 

Jul. Madam, 6 in happy time, what day is that ? 

La. Cap. Marry my child, early next thurfday 


The gallant, young, and noble gentleman, 
The county Paris % at faint Peter's church, 
Shall happily make thee there a joyful bride. 

Jul. Now, by faint Peter's church, and Peter too, 
He mall not make me there a joyful bride. 
I wonder at this hafte ; that I muil wed 

5 Find then, &c.j This line in the quarto 1597, is given to 
Julier. STEEVENS. 

in hapy time, ] A la lame beure. This phrafe was in- 
terjefted, when the hearer was not quite fo well pieafed as the 
ipeaker. JOHXSOX. 

7 Tfje County Paris^ ] It is remarked, that " Paris, though in 
" one place called Earl, is moft commonly Itiled the Countle in this 
*' play. Shakefpeare feems to have preferred, for fome reafon or 
*' other, the Italian Comte to our Count: perhaps he took it from 
'* the old Englifli novel, from which he is faid to have taken his 
*' plot." He certainly did fo: Paris is there firfl Itiled a young 
Ear.'r, and afterward Canute, Conntec, and County; according to the 
unfettled orthography of the time. 

The word however is frequently met with in other 'writers ; 
particularly in Fairfax : 

" As when a captaine doth befiege force hold, 

" Set in a marifh or high on a hill, 
" And trieth waies and wiles a thoufand fold, 
" To bring the place iubje&ed to his will ; 
w So tai'd the Caintie with the Pagan bold," &:c. 

Godfrey of Buiioigne, Book 7. Stanza 90. 


I s, Ere 


Ere he, that ftiould be hufband, comes to woo. 
I pray you, tell my lord and father, madam, 
I will not marry yet ; and, xvhen I do, I fwear, 
It (hall be Romeo, whom you know I hate, 

Rather than Paris : Thefe are news indeed ! 

La. Cap. Here comes your father ; tell him fo 

And fee how he will take it at your hands. 

Enter Capukt, and Nurfe. 

Cap. When the fun fets, the air doth drizzle dew ; 
But for the fun-fet of my brother's fon, 

It rains downright. 

How now ? a conduit, girl ? what, ftill in tears ? 

Evermore Ihowering ? In one little body 

Thou counterfeit'il a bark, a fea, a wind : 

For ftill thy eyes, which I may call the fea, 

Do ebb and flow with tears ; the bark thy body is, 

Sailing in this fait flood ; the winds, thy fighs ; 

Who, raging with thy tears, and they with them,- 

Without a fudden calm, will overfet 

Thy tempeft-tofied body. How now, wife ? 

Have you deliver'd to her our decree ? 

La. Cap. Ay, fir; but Ihe will none, fhe gives 

you thanks : 
I would, the fool were married to her grave ! 

Cap. Soft, take me with you, take me with you, 


How ! will (he none ? doth fhe not give us thanks ? 
Is Ihe not proud ? doth me not count her bleft, 
Unworthy as fhe is, that we have wrought 
So worthy a gentleman to be her bridegroom ? 
Jul Not proud, you have; but thankful, that 

you have : 

Proud can I never be of what I hate ; 
But thankful even for hate, that is meant love. 



Cap. How now ! how now ! chop logick ? What 

is this? 

Proud and, I thank you and, I thank you not- 
And yet not proud Miftrefs minion, you 8 , 
Thank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds, 
But fettle your fine joints 'gainft thurfday next, 
To go with Paris to faint Peter's church, 
Or I will drag thee on a hurdle thither. 
Out, you green-ficknefs carrion ! 9 out, you baggage ! 
You tallow-face ! 

La. Cap. Fie, fie ! what are you mad ? 

JuL Good father, I befeech you on my knees, 
Hear me with patience but to fpeak a word. 

Cap. Hang thee, young baggage ! difobedient 

wretch ! 

I tell thee what, get thee to church o* thurfday, 
Or never after look me in the face : 
Speak not, reply not, do not anfwer me ; 
My fingers itch. Wife, we fcarce thought us bleft, 
That God hath fent us but this only child ; 
But now I fee this one is one too much, 
And that we have a curfe in having her : 
Out on her, hilding ! 

Nttrfe. God in heaven blels her ! 
You are to blame, my lord, to rate her fo. 

9 Aadjet naiprmuL> &c.j This line is wanting in the folio. 

Out, jo* baggage! 

T* tallow-face!] Such was the indelicacy of the age of 
Shakefpeare, that authors were not contented only to employ the:e 
terms of abufe in their own original performances, bat even telr no 
reludance to introduce them in their verfions of the mod chafte 
and elegant of the Greek or Roman poets. Sianyhurft, the tranf- 

lator or Virgil in 158?, makes Dido call ./Eneas UtJ^e- 

brat, culUoiL, and tar-lretcb^ in the courfe of one fpeech. 

Nay, in the Interlude of the Repentance tf Mary Magdaleme^ 
1567, 3ay Magdak* lap to one of her attendants : 

' Htre/tn, I bdhrowe your heart, are you here?" STEEYEXS. 



Cap. And why, my lady wifdom ? hold you? 

Good prudence ; (matter with your gofiips, go. 

Nurfe. I fpeak no treafon. 

Cap. O, God ye good den ! 

Nurfe. May not one fpeak ? 

Cap. Peace, you mumbling fool ! 
Utter your gravity o'er a goffip's bowl, 
For here we need it not. 

La. Cap. You are too hot. 

Cap. God's bread ! it makes me mad : Day, nighr^ 

late, early, 

At home, abroad, alone, in company, 
Waking, or fleeping, fiill my care hath been 
To have her match'd : and havin-g now provided 
A gentleman of princely parentage, 
Of fair demefnes, youthful, and nobly train'd, 
StufFd (as they lay) with honourable parts, 
Proportion'd as one's thought would wilh a man,- 
And then to have a wretched puling fool, 
A whining mammet, in her fortune's tender, 
To anfwer Til not wed, / cannot love, 
/ am too young, / pray you, pardon me -, 
But, an you will not wed, I'll pardon you : 
Graze where you will, you fhall not houfe with me j 
Look to't, think oa't, I do not ufe to jeft. 
Thurfday is near; lay hand on heart, advife : 
An you be mine, I'll give you to my friend ; 
An you be not, hang, beg, ftarve, die i' the ftreets, 
For, by my foul, I'll ne'er acknowledge thee, 
Nor what is mine fiiall never do thee good : 
Truil to't, bethink you, I'll not be forfwoKn. 


JuL Is there no pity fitting in the clouds, 
That fees into the bottom of my grief? 
O, fweet my mother, caft me not away ! 
Delay this marriage for a month, a week; 



Or, if you do not, nial^e the bridal bed 

In that dim monument where Tybalt lies '. 

La. C Calk not to ir.e, for I'U not fpeak a 

Do as thou wilr, for I have done with- thee. [Exit. 

JuL O G-:d' O nurfe! bow fhall this be pre- 
vented ? 

My hofband is on earth, 4ny faiih in heaven j 
How (hall that faith return again to earth, 
Unlefs that hufband fend it me from heaven 
By leaving earth r comfort me, counfel me. 
Alack, alack, that heaven fhouid pradife ftratagems 
Upon fo foft a fubje<a as myfelf ! 
Wh i : ^u ? haft thou not a word of joy I 

Some comfort* nurfe. 

Nurfe. * 'Faith, here 'tis : Romeo 
Is bonifhed ; and all the world to nothing, 
That he dares ne'er come back to challenge you ; 
Or, if he do, it needs muft be by ftealth. 
Then, fince the cafe fo ftands as now it doth, 
I think it beft you married with the county. 
Oh ! he's a lovely gentleman ! 
Romeo's a dilh-clout to him ; an eagle, madgm 3 
Hath not ? ib green, fo quick, fo fair an eye 

1 Jm that dim >/, &c.j The modern editors read <&z 

moDumeot. I hare replaced m from the old quarto i^qy, and 
die folio. STEETEXS. 

* Faitb, txre it-is: ] Tbc character of the norfe exhibits a 

juft picture of thole wbofe actions have co principles for their 

roondation. She has been ontaithlui to the traft rrpofed in her 

.er, and is ready to embi ace any expedient that ofiers, to 

avert Ae confequences of her && infidefitv. STE ETEKS. 

3 > gnn,-} So the firft coiricns. Homer reads, > 
iara. JoHXSOX. 

Perhaps Chaucer has g?rea to Emetraa, in the Ksigbti Tmk, 
eyes of the &me colour : 

His nofe was high, his eyin bright citrym: 
L e. of the hue of an unripe lemon or citron. 
- Agak, in the Tow AW* Khfvxs^ bv Fiexhicr and Soakdpeare, 
Aa s . So i. " ohTouchlkSe, " 

* With that thy tare ^rant eye, Sec. *" STEEVEXS. 

14 As 


As Paris hath. Befhrew my very heart, 
I think you are happy in this fecond match; 
For it excels your firft : or if it did not, 
Your firft is dead ; or 'twere as good he were, 
4 As living here and you no ufe of him. 

Jul. Speakeft thou from thy heart ? 

Nurfe. And from my foul too i 
Or elfe befhrew them both. 

Jul. Amen! 

Nurfe. What ? 

Jul. Well, thou haft comforted me marvellous 


Go in ; and tell my lady I am gone, 
Having difpleas'd my father, to Laurence' cell, 
To make confeflion, and to be abfolv'd. 

Nurfe. Marry, I will ; and this is wifely done. 


Jul. Ancient damnation ! 5 O moft wicked fiend ! 
Is it more fin to wifh me thus forfworn, 
Or to difpraife my lord with that fame tongue 
Which fhe hath prais'd him with above compare 
So many thoufand times ? Go, counfellor; 
Thou and my bofom henceforth fhall be twain. 
I'll to the friar, to know his remedy ; 
If all elfe fail, myfelf have power to die. [Exit* 

4 As living here, ] Sir T. Haunter reads, as living hence ; 
that is, at a diftance, in banifhment ; but here may figniiy, in this 
world. JOHNSON. 

5 Ancient damnation .'] This term of reproach occurs in the 


t out, you ancient damnation!" STEEVENS. 




Friar Laurence's cell. 

Enter Friar Laurence, and Paris. 

Fri. On thurfday, fir ? the time is very fhort. 

Par. My father Capulet will have it fo ; 
6 And I am nothing flow, to flack his hafte. 

Fri. You fay, you do not know the lady's mind ; 
Uneven is the courfe, I like it not. 

Par. Immoderately fhe weeps for Tybal:'., death, 
And therefore little have I talk'd of love , 
For Venus fmiles not in a houfe of tears. 
Now, fir, her father counts it dangerous, 
That fhe do give her forrow fo much fway ; 
And, in his wifdom, haftes our marriage, 
To ftop the inundation of her tears; 
Which, too much minded by herfelf alone, 
May be put from her by fociety : 
Jow do you know the reafon of this hafte. 

Fri. I would I knew not why it fhould be flow'd ". 

Look, fir, here comes the lady towards my cell. 

And I am, &c.] His Ltfe Jbatt tut le abated fy 
It might be read : 

And I am nothing flow to back his hafte : 
that is, I am diligent to abet and enforce his hafte. JOHNSOV. 

Slack was certainly the author's word, for, in the fir it edition, 
the line ran - 

" For I am nothing Jlack to flow his haile." 
JSack could not have ftood there. MALONE. 

7 be^ty'</.] So, in S-.r A. Gorges' tranflation of the (econc 
book of Lucan : 

" - will you overflow 
" The fields, thereby my march MoJlarxF STEEVENS. 

A Enter 


Enter Juliet. 

Par. Happily met, 8 my lady, and my wife I 

Jul. That may be, fir, when I may be a wife. 

Par. That may be, mull be, love, on thurfday 

Jul. What muft be mall be. 

Friar. That's a certain text. 

Par. Come you to make confeffion to this father? 

Jul. To anfwer that, were to confefs to you. 

Par. Do not deny to him, that you love me. 

Jul. I will confefs to you, that I love him, 

Par. So will you, I am fure, that you love me. 

Jul. If I do fo, it will be of more price, 
Being fpoke behind your back, than to your face. 

Par. Poor foul, thy face is much abus'd with tears. 

Jul. The tears have got fmall victory by that j 
For it was bad enough, before their fpight. 

Per. Thou wrong'il it, more than tears, with that 

JuL That is no ilarjder, fir, which is a truth j 
And what I fpake, I fpake it to my face. 

Par. Thy face is mine, and thou haft flander'd it. 

Jul. It may be fo, for it is not mine own. 

Are you at leifure, holy father, now ; 
Or mall 1 come to you at evening mafs ? 

Fri. My leifure ferves me, penfive daughter, now : . 
My lord, we muft intreat the time alone. 

Par. God fhield, I mould difturb devotion ! 
Juliet, on thurfday early will I rouze you : 
'Till then, adieu ! and keep this holy kifs. 

[Exit Paris. 

JuL O, fhut the door ! and when thou haft done fo, 
Come weep with me ; Paft hope, paft cure, paft help ! 

my lady and my wite!] As thefe four firft lines fcem in- 
tended to rhyme, perhaps the author wrote thus : 

- ,.., . my lavly and my lift! JOHNSON, 



Friar. Ah, Juliet, I already know thy grief; 
It ftrains me paft the compafs of my wits : 
I hear thou muft, and nothing may prorogue ir, 
On thurfday next be married to this county. 

Jul. Tell me not, friar, that thou hear'ft of this, 
Unlefs thou tell me how I may prevent it : 
If, in thy wifdom, thou canft give no help, 
Do thou but call my refolution wife, 
And with this knife 1*11 help it prefently. 
God join'd my heart and Romeo's, thou our hands ; 
And ere this hand, by thee to Romeo feal'd, 
Shall be the label to another deed, 
Or my true heart with treacherous revolt 
Turn to another, this mail flay them both : 
Therefore, out of thy long-experienc'd time, 
Give me fome prefent counfei -, or, behold, 
'Twixt my extremes and me this bloody knife 
9 Shall play the umpire, arbitrating that 
Which the J commifiion of thy years and art 
Could to no iffue of true honour bring. 
Be not fo long to fpeak ; I long to die, 
If what thou Ipeak'ft fpeak not of remedy. 

Friar. Hold, daughter; I do fpy a kind of hope, 
Which craves as defperate an execution 
As that is defperate which we would prevent. 
If, rather than to marry county Paris, 
Thou haft the ftrength of will to flay thyfelf ; 
Then is it likely, thou wilt undertake 
A thing like death to chide away this fhame, 
That cop'ft with death himfelf to fcape from it ; 
And, if thou dar'ft, I'll give thee remedy. 

Jul. O, bid me leap, rather than marry Paris, 

Shall play the umpire ; ] That is, this knife (hall decide the 
"firuggle between me and my diftrefles. JOHNSON. 

1 commifjion of thy years and art] Commijjion is for authority or 
jftnw. JOHNSON. 



From off the battlements of yonder tower ~ ; 
3 Or walk in thievifh ways ; or bid me lurk 
Where ferpents are ; chain me with roaring bears 5 
Or hide me nightly in a charnel houfe, 
Q'er-cover'd quite with dead men's rattling bones, 
With reeky fhanks, and yellow chaplefs fculls ; 
Or bid me go into a new-made grave, 
And hide me with a dead man in his fhroud, 
Things that, to hear them told, have made me 

tremble ; 

And 1 will do it without fear or doubt, 
To live an unftain'd wife to my fweet love. 

Fri. Hold, then ; go home, be merry, give confent 
To marry Paris : Wednefday is to-morrow ; 
To-morrow night look that thou l;e alone, 
Let not thy nurfe lie with thee in thy chamber : 
Take thou this phial 4, being then in bed, 


2 e f yonder tower;"] Thus the quarta 1597. AH other 
ancient copies of any tower. STEEVENS. 
^ Or chain mc t Sec.] 

Or walk in thieviih ways, or bid me lurk 
Where ferpents are ; chain me with roaring bears, 
Or hide me nightly, &c. 
It is thus the editions vary. POPE. 

My edition has the words which Mr. Pope has omitted ; but the 
old copy feems in this place preferable ; only perhaps we might 
better read, 

Where favagc bears and roaring lions roam. JOHNSON. 
I have inferted the lines which Pope omitted ; for which I muft 
offer this fiiort apology : in the lines reje&ed by him we meet 
with three diitinct ideas, fuch as may be fuppofed to excite terror 
in a woman, for one that is to be found in the others. The lines 
now omitted are thefe : 

Or chain me to fome fteepy mountain's top, 
Where roaring bears and favage lions roam ; 

Or {hut me STEEVENS. 

* Tile tbou this phial, &c.] Thus Painters Palace of Pleafure , 
torn. ii. p. 237. " Beholde heere I give thee a viole, &c. drink fa 
much as is contained therein. And then you fhall feele a certainc 
kinde of pleafant fleepe, which incroching by litle and litle all the 



And this diflilled liquor drink thou off 7 : 
When, prefently, through all thy veins (hall run 5 
A cold and drowfy humour, which fhall feize 
Each vital fpirit ; for no pulfe fhall keep 
His natural progrefs, but furceafe to beat : 
No warmth, no breath, fhall teflify thou liv'ft ; 
The roles in thy lips and cheeks fhall fade 
To paly afhes ; thy eyes' windows fall, 
Like death, when he fhuts up the day of life ; 
Each part, depriv'd of fupple government, 
Shall ftiff, and llark, and cold appear like death : 
And in this borrow'd likenefs of fhrunk death 
Thou (halt remain full two and forty hours, 
And then awake as from a pleafant fleep. 
Now when the bridegroom in the morning comes 
To roufe thee from thy bed, there art thou dead : 
Then (as the manner of our country is) 
6 In thy beft robes uncovered on the bier, 


parts of your body, wil conftrain them in fuch wife, as unmovea- 
ble they fhal remaine :- and by not doing their accufiomed duties, 
{hall loofe their natural feelings, and you abide in fuch extafie the 
fpace ot xl houres at the leall, without any beating of poulfe or 
other perceptible motion, which fhall fo aftonne them that come to 
fee you, as they will judge you to be dead, and according to the 
cuftome of our citie, you fhall be caried to the churchyard hard by 
our church, when you fhall be intombed in the common monument 
of the Capellets your anceftors, &c." STEE VENS. 

5 t/jrough all thy veins Jball run 

A cold and dro~M/y humour,'] The firft edition in 1^97, has 
in general been here followed, except only, that inftead of a cold 
and drowfr humour, we there find * a dull and heavy Jl umber! 


6 In thy left robes uncovered on the lier^\ Between this line and 
the next, the quartos 1599, 1609, and the firft folio, introduce the 
following verfe, which the poet very probably had ilruck out on 
his revifal, becaufe it is quite unneceffary, as the fcnfe of i: is re- 
peated, and as it will not connect with either : 

Be borne to burial in thy kindred's grave. 

Had Virgil lived to have reviled his jEneid, he would hardly have 
permitted both of the following lines to remain in his text : 

" At 


Thou (halt be borne to that fame ancient vault, 
Where all the kindred of the Capulets lie. 
In the mean time, againft thou malt awake, 
Shall Romeo by my letters know our drift ; 
And hither (hall he come ; 7 and he and I 
Will watch thy waking, and that very night 
Shall Romeo bear thee hence to Mantua. 
And this mall free thee from this prefent (hame j 
* If no unconftant toy, nor womanifh fear, 
Abate thy valour in the acting it. 

Jul. Give me, O give me ! tell me not of fear. 

Fri. Hold ; get you gone, be ftrong and profperous 
In this refolve : I'll fend a friar with fpeed 
To Mantua, with my letters to thy lord. 

JuL Love, give me flrength ! and ftrength mail 

help afford. 
FareweJ, dear father! \JLxeunt* 


Capulefs houfe. 
Enter Capulet, Lady Capulet, Nitrfe, and Servants. 

Cap. So many guefts invite as here are writ. 

Sirrah, go hire me twenty cunning cooks. 

Serv. You mail have none ill, fir ; for I'll try if 
they can lick their fingers. 

" At Venus obfcuro gradientes acre fepfit ; 
" Et multo nebulae circum dea fudit amidu." 
The aukward repetition of the nominative cafe in the fecond of 
them, feeins to decide very itrongly againft it. STEEYENS. 
7 i ' and he and I 

Will watch tf.y waking^ ] Thefe words are not in the 
folio. JOHNSON. 

8 If no unconftant try, ] If no fcUe freak, no light caprice, no 
change of fancy ^ hinder the performance. JOHNSON. 



Cap. How can ft thou try them fo ? 

Serv. Marry, fir, 'tis an ill cook that cannot lick 
his own fingers : therefore he, that cannot lick his fin- 
gers, goes not with me. 

Cap. G'p, begone. [Exit Servant. 

We (hall be much unfurnim'd for this time. 
What, is my daughter gone to friar Laurence ? 

Nurfe. Ay, forfooth. 

Cap. Well, he may chance to do fome good on her: 
A peeviih lelf-will'd harlotry it is. 

Enter Juliet. 

Nurfe. See, where (he comes from fhrift 9 with 
merry look. 

Cap. How now, my head-ftrong ? where have you 
been gadding ? 

Jul. Where I have learnt me to repent the fin 
Of difobedient oppofition 
To you, and your behefts ; and am enjoin'd 
By holy Laurence to fall proftrate here, 
And beg your pardon : Pardon, I befeech you ! 
Henceforward I am ever rul'd by you. 

Cap. Send for the county ; go, tell him of this ; 
I'll have this knot knit up to-morrow morning. 

Jul. I met the youthful lord at Laurence* cell ; 
And gave him what becomed love I might, 
Not ftepping o'er the bounds of modefty. 

Cap. Why, I am glad on't j this is well, Hand up : 

This is as't mould be. Let me fee the county ; 

Ay, marry, go, I fay, and fetch him hither. 

9 from fhrift, i. e. from coofeffion.] So, in the Mmy Devil 
of JLdmonton, 1 626 : 

" Ay, like a wench comes roundly to her^&r///." 
In the old Morality of Ewry Alan, bl. 1. no date, confeffion is 
perlbnified : 

44 Now I pray yQuJbrifie, mother of falvacyon." 



Now, afore God, this reverend holy friar, 
1 All our whole city is miich bound to him." 

Jul. Nurfe, will you go with me into my clofet, 
To help me fort fuch needful ornaments 
As you think fit to furnifh me to-morrow r ? 

La. Cap. No, riot 'till thurfday ; there is time 

Cap. Go, nurfe, go with her : we'll to church 
to-morrow. [Exeunt Juliet, and Nurfe. 

La. Cap. l We (hall be fhort in our provifion ; 
'Tis now near night. 

Cap. Turn ! I will ftir about, 
And all things (hall be well, I warrant thee, wife : 
Go thou to Juliet, help to deck up her ; 
I'll not to bed to-night ; let me alone ; 
I'll play the houfewife for this once. What, ho ! 
They are all forth : Well, I will walk myfelf 
To county Paris, to prepare him up 
Againtl to-morrow : my heart is wondrous light, 
Since this fame wayward girl is fo reclaimed. 

[Exeunt Capulet, and lady Capukt'^ 


Juliet's Chamber. 
Enter Juliet, and Nurfe \ 

Jul Ay, thofe attires are bed: But, gentle nurfe, 
I pray thee, leave me to myfelf to-night ; 

1 All cur ivbo/e city is much bound to him.] Thus the folio and 
the quartos 1599 and 1609. The oldeil quarto reads, I think, 
more grammatically: 

All our whole city is much bound unto. STEEVE>TS. 
* WeJbaUbeJkort "| That 5s, we (hall be Jrfeftive. JOHNSON'. 
3 Enter Juliet, andNurfe.~] In (lead of the next fpeech, the quarto. 
X S97 frppli 63 tne following fhort dialogue : 

Nur/c. Come, come, what need you anie thing elfe ? 
Juliet. Nothing good nurfe, but leave me to myfelfe. 
Nu'-Jc. Well there's a cleane fmocke under your pillow, and fa 
good night* STEEVENS, 



* For I have need of many orifons 

To move the heavens to fmile upon my fratt, 

Which, well thou know'ft, is crofs and full of fin* 

Enter Lady Capulet. 

La. Cap. What, are you bufy ? do you need my 
help ? 

Jd. No, madam , we have cull'd fuch neceffaries 
As are behovctul for our ftate to-morrow : 
So pleafe you^ let me now be left alone, 
And let the nurfe this night fit up with you ; 
For, I am fure, you have your hands full all, 
In this fo fudden bufinefs* 

La. Cap. Good night ! 
Get thee to bed, and reft ; for thou haft need; . 

[Exesnt La& and Nwrfa 

Jul. s Farewel ! ^God knows, when we (hall 

meet again. 

1 have a faint cold fear thrills through my reins, 
That almoil freezes up the heat of lifer 

I'll call them back again to comfort me ;- 

Nurfe ! What fhould (he do here ? 

My difmal fcene I needs muft a& alone. 

Come, phial. 

What if this mixture do not work at all e ? 


4 J>7A**r4ie.] Juliet php moft of ber pranks under 
the appearance of religion : perhaps Shabeiptsre meant to punifh 
her rypucnfy. JOHNSON*. 

s! ic.] This fpeech received confiderabfe 
af er the ewer copy w*s oubiitbed. STEEVEN s. 

6 H'kat if this maKtre a mt cwrl at ail? _ So, ia 
Palace tf Plrajiarr t torn. ii. fi 239. -^-^but what know I (&>d 
ihe) whetbcr the openuion of lias ponder wiH be to loone of to 
is-e, or not coneipundent to the due rime, and that rnv f : ulie bting 
difcovered, I fliall remayne a jefttng ftocke and lib'.e id :be pe> 
pie > what know I nxxeover, if the serpents and other venomous 
and crauliog womtes, which commonly frequent the graves and 
r---e? of the ear.h, will hurt me Jthinkyng that I am dead ? Sot 
bow fhail I intfure the facche of fo many canons and bones of 



7 Shall I of force be married to the count ? 

No, no; this fhall forbid it : lie thou there 8 . 

[Laying doin a dagger. 
What if it be a poifon, which the friar 
Subtly hath minifter'd to have me dead j 
Left in this marriage he mould be dimonour'd, 
Becaufe he married me before to Romeo ? 
I fear, it is : and yet, methinks, it mould not, 
For he hath ftill been tried a holy man : 

9 I will not entertain fo bad a thought. 

How if, when I am .laid into the tomb, 

I wake before the time that Rorneo , 

Come to redeem me ? there's a fearful point ! 

Shall I not then be {lifted in the vault, 

To whofe foul mouth no healthfome air breathes iny 

And there die ftrangled ere my Romeo comes ? 

Or, if I live, is it not very like, 

The horrible conceit of death and night, 

myne aunceftors which reft in the grave, If by fortune I do awake 
berore Romeo and trier Laurence doe come to help me ? And aJ 
{he was thus plunged in the deepe contemplation of things, fhe 
thought that {he fawe a certaine vifion or ranfie ot her coufin 
Thibault, in the very fame fort as (he fawe him wounded and im- 
brued with blood; &c." STEEVENS. 

7 Shall I of force be married to the count ?] Thus the eldeft 
quarto. Succeeding quartos and the folio read : 

Shall I be married then to-morrow morning? STEEVEN T S 
* lie thou there. Laying a dagger.] This ftage-diredtion 
has been fupplied by the modern editors. The quarto, 1597, 
reads: " Knife, lie thou there." It appears from feveral paf- 
fages in our old plays, that knives were formerly part of the ac- 
coutrements of a bride ; and every thing bchwefxl tor Juliet's ftate 
had juft been left with her. So, in Decker's Match me in London, 
1631 : 

" See at my girdle hang my vxdJing knives ! n 
Again, in King EJ:vard\\\. 1599 : 

" Here by my fide do hang my iwtJJing knives : 
*' Take thou the one, and with iikill thy queen, 
" And with the other, I'll difpatch my love." STEEVENS. 
9 7 tu'iU not entertain fa bad a thought.'} 'i his line I have re- 
ftored from the quarto, 1^97. STEVENS. 



Together with the terror of the place, 

f As in a vault, an ancient receptacle, 

Where, for thefe many hundred years, the bones 

Of all my buried anceftors are pack'd ; 

Where bloody Tybalt, yet but green in earth *, 

Lies feftring 2 in his fhroiud ; where, as they fay. 

At fome hours in the night fpirits refort ; 

Alack, alack ! 4 is it not like, that I, 

So early waking, What with loathfome fmells ; 

And fhrieks like mandrakes torn out of the earth, 

That living mortals, hearing them 5, run mad 

1 As in a vault, &c.] This idea was probably fuggefled to our 
poet b*y his native place. The charnel at Stratford upon Avon 
is a very large one, and perhaps contains a greater number of bones 
than are to be found in any other repofitory of the fame kind in 
England. I was furnifhed with this obfervation by Mr. Murphy, 
whofe very elegant and fpirited defence of Shakefpeare againft the 
criticifms of Voltaire, is one of the leaft confiderable out of many 
favours which he has conferred on the literary world. STEEVENS. 
* green in earth,] i. e. frefh in earth, newly buried. So, it* 
Hamlet : 

" of our dear brother's death, 
" The memory be green." 
Again, in the Opportunity ', by Shirley : 

"I am but 
" Green in my honours." STEVENS. 

3 TJies fearing ] Tofefter is to corrupt. Soj in K. Edward III. 

" Lillies tkatfefter fmell far worfe than weeds." 
This line likewife occurs in the 94th Sonnet of Shakefpeare; 
The play of E.d-j;ard\\\. has been afcribed to him. STE EVENS,; 

4 is it not like, that /] This fpeech is Con ruled, and incon-' 
fequential, according to the diforder of Juliet's mind. JOHNSON. 

5 run mad ] So, in Webfter's Dut chefs ofMalfy, 1623 ; 

" I have this night dig'd up a mandrake, 

*' And am grown mad with't." 
So, in The AtbeiJFs Tragedy , 161 1 : 

" The cries of mandrakes never rouch'd the ear 

" With more fad horror, than that voice does mine'.* 1 
Again, \nACbriftian turned Turk, 1612 : 

" I'll rather give an ear to the black fluieks 

" Of mandrake t" &c. 
in, in Ariftippus, or the Jovial Philofopher : 

" This is the mandrakes voke that undoes me." StKEVKtfl* 

R 2 Qj 


O ! if I wake, (hall I not be diftraught 6 , 
Environed with all thefe hideous fears ? 
And madly play wich my forefathers' joints ? 
And pluck the mangled Tybalt from his Ihroud ? 
And, in this rage, with fome great kinfman's bone, 
As with a club, dalh out my deiperate brains ? 
O, look ! methinks, I fee my coufin's ghoft 
Seeking out Romeo, that did fpit his body 
Upon a rapier's point : Stay, Tybalt, (lay ! 
Romeo, I come ! this do I drink to thee. 

[She throws herfelf on the bed. 


Capulefs hall. 

Enter Lady Capukt, and Nurfe. 

La. Cap. Hold, take thefe keys, and fetch more 

fpices, nurfe. 
Nurfe. They call for dates and quinces in the paftry. 

Enter Capulet. 

Cap. Come, ftir, ftir, ftir ! the fecond cock hath 

7 The curfeu bell hath rung, 'tis three o'clock : 

6 be JiftraugJjt.] Dljlraugh is diftrafted. So, in Dray ton's 
Polyoibion, Song 10: 

" Is, for that river's fake, near of his wits diftraught? 
Again, in SpenfcrV Faery S^ucen^ B. i. C. 9 : 

" What frantic fit, quoin he, hath thus dlftraugLt, &c." 


' The curfiu Ml ] I know not that the morning-bell is called 
the curfeu in any other place. JOHNSOM. 

The atrfav bell was runs; at ni:ie in the evening, as appears 
from a pafiage in the Merry Devi! of Eilmonto?i t 1626 : 



** well 'tis nine o'clock, 'tis time to ring curfew." 



Look to the bak'd meats, good Angelica : 
Spare not for coft. 

Nurfe. Go, you cot-quean, go, 
Get you to bed ; 'faith, you'll be fick to-morrow 
For this night's watching. 

Cap. No, not a whit ; What ! I have watch'd ere 


AH night for a lefs caufe, and ne'er been fick. 
La. Cap. Ay, you have been a moufe-hunt 8 in your 

Bu: I will warch you from fuch watching now. 

[Exeunt Lady Capukt^ and Nvrfe. 
Cap. A jealous-hood, a jealous- hood ! Now, fellow, 
What's there? 

Enter tbret or four, ivitbffits^ and legs, and bajkets. 

Scro. Things for the cook, fir ; but I know not 

Cap. Make hafte, make hafte. Sirrah, fetch dncr 


Call Peter, he will fhew thee where they are. 

Stru. I have a head, fir, that will find out logs, 
And never trouble Peter for the matter. [Exit. 

Cap. 'Mafs, and well faid ; A merry whorefon! ha, 
Thou fhah be logger-head. Good faith, 'tis day : 
The counry will be here with mufick ftraight, 

[Mufick within. 

For fo he fa id he would. I hear him near : - 
Nurfe ! Wife ! what, ho ! what, Nude, 1 fey i 

Enter Nurft. 
Go, v.-akea Juliet, go, and trim her up ; 

* a mevft-kmt 1 It appears from a pafTage in tLtm'.ft y that 
tmtfe was once a tenJf eriearment applied to a woman : 

M Pinch wanton on your cheei, call you his m~Je." 

K 3 I'll 


T\\ go and chat with Paris : Hie, make 

Make hafte ! the bridegroom he is come already : 

Make hafte, I fay ! 



Juliet's Chamber-, Juliet on the Bed. 

Enter Nurfe. 

Nurfe. Miftrefs ! what, miftrefs ! Juliet ! fail, 

I warrant her ;- 

Why, lamb ! why, lady ! fie, you flug.-a-bed ! 
Why, love, I fay ! -- madam ! fweet-heart ! 

why, bride ! -- 
What, not a word ?- - you take your pennyworths 

now ; 

Sleep for a week ; for the next night, I warrant, 
The county Paris hath ? fet up his reft, 
That you fhall reft but little. God forgive me, 
(Marry, and amen !) how found is me afleep ! 
I muft needs wake her : Madam ! madam ! madam ! 
Ay, let the county take you in your bedj 
J^e'll fright you up, i'faith. Will it not be ? 
What, dreft ! and in your clothes ! and down again ! 

9 Jet up bis rr/?,] This exprefiion, which is frequently em- 
ployed by the old dramatick writers, is taken -from the manner of- 
firing the harquebufs. Th/is was fo heavy a gun, that the foldiers 
were obliged to carry a fupporter called a reft, which they fixed in 
the ground before they levelled to take aim. Decker ufes it in his 
comedy of Old Fvrtunatus, 1600 : " fet your heart at reft, for 
I havey?/ up rny reft, that unlefs you can run fwifter than a hart, 
home you go not," The fame expreffion occurs in Beaumont 
and Fletchers Elder Brother : 

" - My reft Is /, 
* Nor will I go lefs - " 
See Montfaucon's Monarcbie Franpifc, torn. v. plate 48. 


I muft 


I rnuft needs wake you : Lady ! lady ! lady ! 

Alas ! alas ! Help'! help ! my lady's dead ! 

O, well-a-day, that ever I was born ! 
Some aqua-vits, ho ! My lord ! my 1;. 

Enter Lady Caputet. 

La. Cap. What noife is here ? 

Nurfe. O lamentable day ! 

La. Cap. What's the matter ? 

Nurfe. Look, look ! O heavy day ! 

La. Cap. O me, O me ! my child, my only life! 

Revive, look up, or I will die with thee \ 

Help, help ! call help. 

Enter Capttht. 

Cap. For (hame, bring Juliet forth ; her lord is 

Nurfe. She's dead, deceas'd, fhe's dead ; alack the 

LA. Cap. Alack the day ! (he's dead, fhe's dead, 
fhe's dead. 

Cap. Hal let me fee her: Out, alas ! (he's cold; 
Her blood is fettled, and her joints are ftiff; 
Life and thefe lips have long been feparated : 
Death lies on her, like an untimely froft 
Upon the fweeteft flower of all the field. 
Accuried time ! unfortunate old man 1 

Nurfe. O lamentable day ! 

La. Cap. O woeful time ! 

Cap. Death, that hath ta'eh her hence to make me 


Ties up my tongue^ and will r.ot let me fpeak. 

Enter Friar Laurenfe, and Paris, vritb Mujldans. 

Fri. Come, is the bride ready to go to church ? 
Cap. Ready to go ? but never to return : 

K 4 O fob, 


1 O fon, the night before thy wedding day 

Hath death lain with thy bride * i-^-See, there (he lies 

Flower as (he was, deflowered now by him % 

4 Death is my fon in law, death is my heir$ 

My daughter he hath wedded ! I will die, 

And leave him all \ life leaving, all is death's. 

Par, Have I thought long to fee this morning's 

face 5, 
And doth it give me fuch a fight as this ? 

La. Cap. Accurs'd, unhappy, wretched, hateful day! 
Moll miferable hour, that time e'er faw 
In lafting labour of his pilgrimage ! 
But one, poor one, one poor and loving child, 
But one thing to rejoice and folace in, 
And cruel deaih hath catch'd it from my fight. 

Nurfe. 6 O woe ! O woeful, woeful, woeful day ! 

1 Ojon, the night before thy wedding Hay 

Hath death lain with thy wife. ] Euripides has fported with 
this thought in the fame manner. Iphig. in Aid. ver. 460. 
*' T*)J' ail TXaitv ro-a^Qe'vo* (TI OTKJ Otvo ; 
" - A&K m, <tfj Eoxt, mp,$iv<Tet Tw^a.)" Sir W. RAWLINSON, 

* Hath death lain with thy bride ;] Perhaps this line is coarfely 
ridiculed in Decker's SatJromaftix : 

'* Dead : flic's death's bride ; he hath her maidenhead." 


3 Flower asjhe was, deflowered now ly him.] This jingle wa? 
common to qther writers; and among the reit, to Greene, in h'u 

Greene in Conctlpt. 1598: " a garden- houfe having round 

about it many ./Ww, and within it much ftcflowring" COLLINS, 

4 Death is my fon-in-Iaw t &c.] The remaining part of the 
fpeech I have reftored from the quarto, 1609. STEEVENS. 

5 morning's face,] The quarto, 1597, continues the fpeech of 
Paris thus : 

And doth it now prefent fuch prodigies ? 

Accurlt, Unhappy, miferable man, 

Forlorn, forfaken, deftitute I am ; 

B;irn to the world to be a flave in it : 

Diilreit, remedilefs, unfortunate. 

O heavens ! Oh nature ! wherefore did you make me, 

To live fo vile, fo wretched as I (hall ? 'STEEVENS. 
* O woe! ob ivoeful, c.] This fpeech of exclamations is not in 
the edition above-cited. Several other parts, unneceflfary or tanto- 
iogy, are not. to be tound in the faid edipop ; which occafions the 
variation in this from the common books. POPE. 


R O M E O AND J U L I E T. 137 

Moft lamentable day ! moft woeful day, 
That ever, ever, I did yet behold ! 
O day ! O day ! O day ! O hateful day ! 
Never was feen fo black a diy as this : 
O woeful day, O woeful day ' 

Par Beguil'd, divorced, wronged, fpighted, flain! 
Moft detdiaole death, by thee beguil'd, 
By cruel c~uel chee quite overthrown ! 

love! O life' not life, but love in death! 

Cap. Defpis'd, diftreficd, hated, rmrtyr'd, kill'd! 
Uncomfortable time! why cam'ft thou now 

1 o murder murder our lolemnity ? 

O child ! O child! my foul, .>nd not my child! 
Dead at thou! alack! my child is dead; 
And, with my child, my joys are buried ! 

Fri. 7 Peace, ho, for Ihame! confufion's cure 

lives not 

In thefe confufions. Heaven and vourfcl f 
Had part in this fair maid ; now he ven h:th all, 
And all the better is it for the rraiu . 
Your part in her you could not keep from ucuih ; 
But heaven keeps his part in eternal ILe. 
The moft you iought was her promotion ; 
For 'twas your heaven, fhe iho-M be auvanc'd: 
And weep ye now, feeing (he is a ^var.r'd, 
Above the clouds, as high as heaven ittelf ? 
O, in this love, you love vour child fo ill, 
That you run mad, feeing that (he is well : 
She's not well ma r ry'd, that lives marry'd long ; 

7 Peact^ bo, for Jbamf, confufions : care Eves n r t 

In t'jf/e co*fujumi.~\ This ipeecb, though t contains ^ood 
Chriftian dodrine, though it is perfectly in character ror the Friar, 
Mr. Pope has curtailed to little or nothing, becaufe it has not the 
function of the fir ft old copy. But there was another reaion : cer- 
tain corruptions ftarted, which fcould have required tde indulging 
hi; private fenfc to make them intelligible, and this wa* aa unrea- 
fonable labour. As I have reformed the pjaffage above quoted, I 
dare warrant I have reftored our poet's text ; and a fine lenfible 
reproof it contain* againfl immoderate grief. THEOSAID. 



But (he's beft marry'd, that dies marry'd young. 
Dry up your tears, and (tick your rofemary 
On this fair corfe ; and, as the cuftom is, 
In all her beft atray bear her to church : 
* For though fond nature bids us all lament, 
Yet nature's tears are reafori's merriment. 

Cap. All things, 9 that we ordained feftival, 
Turn from their office to black funeral : 
Our inflruments, to melancholy bells ; 
Our wedding cheat*, to a fad burial feaft ; 
Our folenih hymns to fallen dirges change ; 
Our bridal flowers ferve for a bury'd corfe, 
And all things change them to the contrary. 

Fri. Sir, go you in, and, madam, go with him ; 
And go, fir Paris ; every one prepare 
To follow this fair corfe unto her grave : 
The heavens do lour upon you, for fome ill ; 
Move them no more, by croffing their high will. 

[Exeunt Capulet, lady Capulet, Paris, and Friar. 

Muf. 'Faith, We may put up our pipes, and be 

Nurfe. Honeft good fellows, ah, put up, put up ; 
For, well you know, this is a pitiful cafe. 

[Exit Nurfe. 

Muf. Ay, by my troth, the cafe' may be amended. 

Enter Peter '. 

Pet. Nfuficians, O, muficians, Heart's eafe t heart's 

8 For though fome nature lids us all lament,"] Some nature ? 
Sure, it is the general rule of nature, or fhe could not bid us all 
lament. I have ventured to fubfHtute an epithe% which, I fufpeft, 
was loll in the idle corrupted wordjome; and which admirably 
quadrates with the verfe fucceeding this. THEOBALD. 

' All things, &c.] Inftead of this and the following fpeeches, 
the eMeft quarto has only a couplet : 

Cap. Let it be fo, come woeful fofrdw-mates, 

Let us together tafte this bitter fate. STEEVENS. 
1 Enter Peter.'] From the quarto of 1 499, it appears, that the 
jpart oi Peter was originally performed by William KemPc. MALONE, 
2 Q, 


0, an you will have me live, play learfs cafe. 

Muf. Why bearfs faff? 

Pet. O, muficians, becauie my heart itfelf phvs 
- My btart is full of woe : ? O, play me fbme 
mem' dump, to comfort me. 

Muf. 4 Not a dump we-, 'tis no time to play now. 

Pet. You will not then ? 

Muf. No. 

Pet. I will then give it you foundry ; 

Muf. What will you give us? 

Pet. No money, on my faith ; but the gleek 5 : I 
will give you the minftrel. 

Muf. Then will I give you the ferving-creature. 

Pet. Then will I lay the ferving- creature's dagger 
on your pace. I will carry no crotchets : I'll re you, 
111 fa you ; Do you note me ? 

* Mf heart it JmH of ar:] This, if I miflake not^ is Ac 
beginning of aa old bafiad. STEEVENS. 

3 O, piy ae fome *urry dianp, to cohort m.'] This is not in the 
folio, bat die anfwer plainly requires it. JOHNSON. 

It was omitted in the folio by miflake, for it is found in the quarto 
1609, rrotn which the folio was manireilly printed. M ALONE. 

* A dump anciently figniSed fane kimd of daxce, as well asjerrev:. 
So, in Hiuea*r eut of Breath, a cerofcdy, by joha Day, 1607 : 

* He lores nothing but an Italian du*p y 
Or a Freacb frwarf." 

But on this occafion it means a motttuftil fong. So, in the &* 
raigxmcxt of Paris, 1 584, aner the fhepherds have, fung an elegiac 
hymn orer the hearte of CoK*, Paua lays to Pans : 

** How cheera my lovely boy after this &a*p of woe ? 
* Paris. Such doKt^ Iweet lady, as bin thefe, are deauly 

Aajfr* to prcve.* STEEVESS. 
1 the gleek :] So, m the MJfmmxxr tfgbtt Dream: 

-". I . an^irai, upon occafion. 

To gleet is to icob. The term is taken from an ancient game at 
cards called gkek. STEEVESS. 

The game is mentioned in the beginning of the prefent century, 
by Dr. King of the Commons, in his Art of Love; 
" But whether we diverfion feck 
In tbefe, in Comet, or in Glut, 
Or Ombre, &c." NICHOLS, 



Muf. An you re us, and fa us, you note us. 

2 Muf. Pray you, put up your dagger, and put 
out your wit. 

Pet. Then have at you with my wit ; I will dry- 
beat you with an iron wit, and put up my iron dag- 
ger : - Anfwer me like men : 

When griping grief 6 the jbeart doth wound, 
7 And doleful dumps tbe mind opprefs, 

Then mufick^ with her filmr found, 
Whv fiher found ? vfhy,'mu/tck with herfiher found ? 


griping grief, c.] The epithet griping was by no 
rtjeans likely to excite laughter at the time it was written. Lord 
Surry, in his tranflation or the fecond book of Virgil's ^Eneid, 
makes the hero fay: 

" New grips of dred then pearfe our trembling breftes." 
Dr. Percy thinks that the queftions of Peter are defigned as a ridi- 
cule on the forced and unnatural explanations too often given by 
us painful editors of ancient authors. STEEVENS. 

In Commendation of Muficke. 
Where griping grief y hart would woud, (& dolful domps y e 

mind opprefie, 
There mufick with her filver found, is wont with fpede to geue 


Of troubled minds for every fore, fwete mufick hath a falue in 

In ioy it maks our mirth abound, in grief it chers our heauy 

The carefull head releaf hath found, by muficks pleafant fwete 

Our fenfes, what fhould I faie more, are fubjeft unto mufickf 


The Gods by mufick hath their pray, the foule therein doth ioye, 
For as the Romaine poets faie, in feas whom pirats would deftroye 
A Dolphin fau'd from death moft lharpe, Arion plaiyng on his 


7 And doleful dumps the tr.lnd fipprefs,] This line I have reco- 
vered from the old copy. It was wanting to complete the flanza 
as it is afterw ards repeated. STEEVENS. 


"What fay you, Simon Catling 8 ? 

i Muf. Marry, fir, becaufe filver hath a fweet found* 
Pet. Pretty ! What fay you, 9 Hugh Rebeck ? 
i Muf. \fay-Jiherfound, becaufe muficians found 
for filver. 

Pet. Pretty too! What fay you, James Sound- 

3 Muf. 'Faith, 1 know not what to fay. 
Pet. O, I cry you mercy ! you are the finger : I 
will fay for you *. It is muftck vntb ber filler 
found *, becaufe fueh fellows as you have no gold for 
founding : 

Oh heauenly gift that tomes the minde, tike as the fterne doth 

rule the (hip, 
Of mufick whom y Gods affignde to corafon uia, whom cares 

would nip, 
Sith thou both man, & beaft docft raoue, what wlfema the will 

thee reprove? 
From the Paradife of Daintie Richard Edwards. 

Deuifes, FoJ. 31. b. 

Of Richard Edwards and William Hunnis, the authors of fundry 
poems in this collection, fee an account in Wood's Alxiue Oxm. 
and alfo in Tanner's Billiotbeca. Sin JOE x HAWKIKS. 

Another copy of this fong is publiihed by Dr. Percy, in the firft 
Yolumeof his Reliques of ancient Englifli Poetry. STEEVEKS. 
* Simon Catling f] A catling was a (mall loteliring made of 
catgut. STEEVEXS. 

ILigb Rebtck />] The fidkr is fo called from an infoument 
with three ftrings, which is mentioned by feveral of the old writers. 
Rebec, rebeapum. See Menage, in T. Rebec. So, in Beaumont and 
Ffctchei's Knight <f the Bmmtg Pefile: Tis ^refent death for 
thele fidkrs to tune their relvcts before the Great Turk's grace." 
In England's Htfcn, 1614, is The Shepherd Arj&tu bis Scag to hi* 
REBECK, by Bar. Yong. STEEVEKS. 

* befamJefKhJeOtms asjmt] Thus the quarto 1 597. The 
others read becaufe mufdaiu. I fhoxdd falpeci that a aler made 
the alteration. STEEVENS. 

1 fiher /ma*/,] So, in the Retvnjrom Pdrjiaffus r 1606 : 

M Faith, fellow fidkrs, here's mfihtrfesad in this placet 
Again, in Wltf Beguiled: 

** what harmony is this 

" With fhcr JmJ that glutteth Sophos' ears F 
Spenfer perhaps is the firft who uted this phrafe : 

" hfihcrfovul&ai heav'n'y mufic ieeni'd to make." 

VOL. X. K c 


hcn mitjick ivitb herjilver found ^ 

With fpeedy help doth lend rcdrefs. \Exit, fmghg* 

1 Muf. What a ptftilent knave is this fame ? 

2 Muf. Hang him, Jack! Come, we'll in here; 
tarry for the mourners, and flay dinner. [Exeunt. 

3 A C T V. S C E N E I, 

M A N 5T U A. 

A s r R E E r. 

Enter Romeo. 

Rom. 4 If I may trufl the flattering truth of fleep, 
My dreams prefage fome joyful news at hand : 
5 My bofom's lord fits lightly on his throne ; 


9 Aft V.] The afts are here properly enough divided, nor did 
any better diftribution than the editors have already made, occur to 
me in the perufal of this play ; yet it may not be improper to remark, 
that in the firft folio, and I fuppofe the foregoing editions are in 
ihe fame ftate, there is no divifion of the ac~ts, and therefore fomp 
future editor may try, whether any improvement can be made, by 
reducing them to a length more equal, or interrupting the adion at 
more proper intervals. JOHNSON. 

4 If I may trujl the flattering truth pfjlcep^ The fenfe is, If I 
may only truft the honefty ofjkep, which I know however not to be 
fo nice as not often to practife flattery. JOHNSON. 

The oldeir copy reads the flattering eye ofjleep. Whether this 
reading ou^ht to iuperfede the more modern one, I {hall not pretend 
to determine : it appears to me, however, the moft eafily intelligible 
of the two. STEEVENS. 

5 My bofom's lord ] So, in King Arthur, a Poem, by R, 
Chelter, 1601 : 

' That neither Uter nor his councell knew 

" How his deepe bofome's /Wthe dutchefs thwarted." 
The Author, in a marginal note, declares, that by bofonh /Whe 
n^ans Cupid. Thus too, Shakefpeare (as Mr. Malone oblerves 
to me) in "Twelfth Night and Othello: 

It gives a veiy echo to the feat 

Where love is throtid. 
Again, ~ 

Yield up, o Love, thy crown and hearted throne. STEEVENS. 

My bofom's lord ] Thefe three lines are very gay and 

pleafing. But why does Shakefpeare give Romeo this involuntary 



And, ail this day, an unaccuftom'd fpirit 
Lifts me above the ground with chearful thoughts* 
I dreamt, my lady came and found me dead ; 
(Strange dream ! that gives a dead man leave to thin!;} 
And breath'd fuch life with kifies in my lips, 
That I reviv'd, and was an emperor. 
Ah me ! how fweer is love it-felf pofieft, 
When but love's ihadows are fo nich in joy ? 

Enter Baltbafar. 

News from Verona! -- How now, Balthafar? 
Doft thou not bring me letters from the friar ? 
How doth my lady ? Is my father well ? 
How fares my Juliet? That I afk again ; 
For nothing can be ill, if Ihe be well. 

Balib. Then (he is well, and nothing can be ill ; 
Her body ileeps in Capulet's monument 6 , 
And her immortal part with angels lives 5 
1 faw her laid low in her kindred's vault, 
And prefently took pod to tell it you : 
O pardon me for bringing thefe ill news, 
Since you did leave it for my office, fir. 

cheerfulnefs juft before the extremity of unhappinefs ? Perhaps to 
fhew the vanity of trufting to thofe uncertain and cafual exaltations 
or depreffions, which many confider as certain foretokens of good 
nd evil. JOHNCON. 

The poet has explained this paflage himfelf a little further on ; 
" How oft, when men are at the point of death, 
** Have they been merry ? which their keepers call 
*' A lightning before death." 
Again, in G. Whetikme's Caftlc ofDdight, 1576 : 

" a lightning delight againft his fouden deftruftion." 


* in Capulet's moxtoKent.'] The old copies read in Capei's 
rr.onumeiit; and thus Gafcoigne in his Flsnvers, p. 51 : 

" Thy s token whych the Mcuntacutes did beare ahwies, fo 


" They covet to be 
'* For ancient 
hoafes was. 


to be knowne from Captls where they palfe, 
grxitch whych long ago 'tweene thefe two 


Rom. Is it even fo ? tKen I defy you, ftars 7 ! 
Thou know'ft my lodging : get me ink and paper, 
And hire poft-horfes ; I will hence to-nght. 

Baltb. Pardon me, fir, I dare not leave you thus 8 i 
Your looks are pale and wild, and do import 
Some mifadventure. 

Rom. Tuih, thou art deceived ; 
I eave me, and do the thing 1 bid thee do: 
Haft thou no letters to me from the friar? 

Balth. No, my good lord. 

Rom. No matter : Get thee gone, 
And hire thofe horfcs ; I'll be with thee ftraight. 

[Exit Balthafar. 

Well, Juliet, I will lie with thee to night. 
Let's fee for means : O, mifchief ! thou art fwift 
To enter in the thoughts of defperate men ! 

I do remember an aporhecary, 

And hereabouts he dwells, whom late I noted 
In tatter'd weeds, with overwhelming brows, 
Culling of fimples; meager were his looks, 
Sharp mifery had worn him to the bones : 
And in his needy mop a tortoife hung, 
An alligator fiufPd, and other {kins 
Of ill-map 'd fifties ; and about his (helves 
9 A beggarly account of empty boxes, 

7 / defyjw, flan!] The folio reads deny you, ilars. 


8 Pardon me, fir, I dare not leave j>tu thus.] This line is taken 
from the quarto, 1597. The quarto, 1609, and the folio, read: 

** I do befeech you, fir, have patience." STEEVENS. 

9 A beggarly account of empty boxts\~\ Dr. Warburton woold 
read, a braggartly account j but legga r ly is probably right : it t e 
loxes were empty, the account was more ^'ggarly^ as it wus 
pompous. JOHNSON. 

This circumftance is likewife found in Pain'es's 
torn. ii. p. 241. " behoUyng an apotkaiics flu-ppe of lytle 
Jurniture, and lelit- ftoie of boxes a. d ,fher thyn.;es requifice for 
that fcicnce, thought that the verie p^tnie of the ma\ Her apothe 
carye vvoulde nukt- him vvyllyr^iy jxlde to that whjciihe pre j 
tended to dcraaunde." STEEVENS. 



Green earthen pots, bladders, and mufty feeds, 
Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of rofes, 
Were thinly Icatter'd, to make up a (hew. 
Noting this penury, to myfelf I laid . 
An if a man did need a poilbn now, 
Whofe fale is prefent death in Mantua, 
Here lives a caitiff wretch would fell it him." 
O, this fame thought did but fore-run my need j 
And this fame needy man mud fell it me. 
As I remember, this fhould be the houfe : 
Being holiday, the beggar's Ihop is ihut. 
What, ho ! apothecary ! 

Enter Apothecary. 

Ap. Who calls fo loud ? 

Rom. Come hither, man. I fee, that thou art poor$ 
Hold, there is forty ducats : let me have 
A dram of poilbn ; fuch foon-fpeeding geer 
As will difperfe itfelf through all the veins, 
That the life- weary taker may fall dead -, 
And that the trunk may be difcharg'd of breath 
As violently, as hafty powder fir'd 
Doth hurry from the fatal cannon's womb. 

Ap. Such mortal drugs I have ; but Mantua's law 
Is death, to any he that utters them. 

Rom. Art thou fo bare, and full of wretchednefs, 
And fear'ft to die ? famine is in thy cheeks, 
Need and oppreffion (tarveth in thine eyes J , 
1 Upon thy back hangs ragged mifery, 


1 Need and opprffim ftarveth in thine yes,] The firft quarto 
reads : 

" And ftarved famine dv/ei!eth in thy cheeks." 
The quartos, 1599, 1609, and the folio.* 

** Need aad oppreffion Jiarvetb in thine eyes." 
Our modern editors, without authority, 

Need and opprdBon fiare within thine eyes. STEEVEXS. 
* Ufxm tiy back bangs ragged mifsry,] This is the reading of 
VOL. X. L ' the 


The world is not thy friend, nor the world's law : 
The world affords no law to make thee rich ; 
Then be not poor, but break it, and take this. 

Ap. My poverty, but not my will, confents. 

Rom. I pay thy poverty, and not thy will. 

Ap. Put this in any liquid thing you will, 
And drink it off; and, if you had the ftrength 
Of twenty men, it would difpatch you ftraight. 

Rom. There is thy gold ; worfe poifon to men's 


Doing more murders in this loathfome world, 
Than thefe poor compounds that thou may'ft not fell : 
I fell thee poifon, thou haft fold me none. 
Farewel; buy food, and get thyfelf in flem. 
Come, cordial, and not poifon , go with me 
To Juliet's grave, for there muft I ufe thee. [Exeunt. 

Friar Laurence's cell* 

Enter Friar John* 
Join. Holy Francifcan friar ! brother, ho ! 

Enter Friar Laurence. 

Lau. This fame mould be the voice of friar John, 
Welcome from Mantua : What fays Romeo ? 
Or, if his mind be writ, give me his letter. 

Job*. Going to find a bare-foot brother out, 

the oldeft copy. I have reftored it in preference to the following 
line, which is found in all the lubfequent impreffions : 

*' Contempt and beggary hang upon thy back." 
In the Fir/I Part of *Jeronimo, 1 605, is a paflage fomewhat re* 
fembling this of Shakefpeare : 

" VVhofe famifh'd jaws look like the chaps of death, 
** Upon whofe eye-brows hang damnation." STEEVENS. 



* One of our order, to aflbciate me, 

Here in this city vifiting the fick, 

And finding him, the fearchers of the town, 

Sufpecling that we both were in a houie 

Where the infectious peftilence did reign, 

Seal'd up the doors, and would not let us forth 5 

So that my fpeed to Mantua there was ftay'd. 

Lau. Who bare my letter then to Romeo ? 

John. I could not fend it, here it is again, > 
Nor get a meflenger to bring it thee, 
So fearful were they of infection. 

Lau. Unhappy fortune ! by my brotherhood, 
The letter 4 was not nice, but full of charge 
Of dear import ; and the neglecting it 
May do much danger : Friar John, go hence ; 
Get me an iron crow, and bring it ftraight 
Unto my cell. 

John. Brother, I'll go and bring it thee. [#/'/< 

Lau. Now muft I to the monument alone j 

3 One oftKtr order, to officiate me,~\ Each friar has a' ways a com- 
panion affigned him by the fuperior whenever he alks leave to go 
out; and thus, fays Ba'retti, they area check upon each other. 


4 was not nice, ] i. e. was not wf itten on a trivial cr icle 

Nice fignifies foolljb in many parts of Goxver, and Chaucer. So* 
jn the fecond book De Confeffione Amanth, fol. 37 : 

'* My fonne, efchewe thilke vice. 

*' My father elles were I nice" 
So, in Chaucer's Scogan unto the lordes^ &c. 

" the moft complaint of all, 
*' Is to thinkin that I have be fo nice, 
*' That I ne would in venues to me call, &c." 
in The longer tbou livtfi the ihore Fool tbou art, 1^70 : 
" You muft appeare to be ftraunge and iyce." 
The learned editor of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, 1775, dV 
ferves, that H. Stephens informs us, that nice was the old French 
frord for n:j-s t one of the fynonymes offot. Apol. Herod. 1. i. c. 4* 

L a Within 


Within thefe three hours will fair Juliet wake * ; 

Sic will belhrew me much, that Romeo 

Hath had no notice of thefe accidents : 

But I will write again to Mantua, 

And keep her at my cell 'till Romeo come; 

Poor living corfe, clos'd in a dead man's tomb ! 



A church-yard ' t in it, a monument belonging to the 

Enter Paris, and his Page with a torch. 

Par. Give me thy torch, boy : Hence, and (land 


Yet put it out, for I would not be feem 
Under yon yew-trees lay thee all along, 
Holding thine ear clofe to the hollow ground; 
So (hall no foot upon the church-yard tread, 
(Being loofe, unfirm, with digging up of graves) 
But thou malt hear it : whittle then to me, 
As fignal that thou hear'fl fomething approach. 
Give me thofe flowers. Do as I bid thee, go. 

Page. I am almoft afraid to ftand alone 
Herein the church-yard; yet I will adventure. [Exit. 
* Par. Sweet flower, with flowers I ftrew thy bridal 
bed: [Strewing flowers. 

Sweet tomb, that in thy circuit doft contain 
The perfect model of eternity ; 

5 Within thefe tine hours will fair Juliet wake ;] Inftead of 
this line, and the concluding part of the fpeech, the quarto, 1597, 
reads only : 

" Lett that the lady ftioukl before I come 

" Be wak'd from deep, I will hye 

** To free her from that tombe of miferie." STE EVENS. 



6 Fair Juliet, that with angels doft remain, 
Accept this lateft favour at my hands ; 
That living honoured thee, and, being dead, 
Wit}i funeral praifes do adorn thy tomb ! 

[The boy wbiftks, 

The boy gives warning; fomething doth approach. 
What curfed foot wanders this way to-night, 
To crofs my obfequies, and true love's rices ? 
What, with a torch ! mufBe me, night, a while. 

Enter Romeo, and Baltbafar witb a torch, &;, 

Rom. Give me that mattock, and the wrenching 


Hold, take this letter; early in tire morning 
See thou deliver it to my lord and father. 
Give me the light : Upon thy life I charge thee, 
Whatever thou hear'ft or feed, Hand all aloof. 
And do not interrupt me in my courfe. 
Why I defcend into this bed of death 
Is, partly, to behold my lady's face : 
But, chiefly, to take thence from her dead finger 
A precious ring ; a ring, that I muft ufe 
Jn 7 dear employment : therefore hence, be gone : 


* Fair Juliet ^ that wita axgtL, &c.] Thefe four lines from the 
cU edition. POPE, 

The folio has thefe lines : 

" Sweet flower, with fiow'rs thy bridal bed I foew ; 

" O woe ! thy canopy is duft and ilones, 
*' Which with Iweet water nighdy I will dewy 

4 - Or, wanting that, with teais diftill'd by moans. 
" The obiequies which I tor thee will keep, 
" Nightly fiiail be, to ftrew thy grave, aad weep." 


Mr. Pope has followed no copy with e-- a&nefs ; but tock the firlr. 
and fourth lines from the elder quarto, omitting the two iotermediate 
series, which I have rcitored. STEEVENS. 

dear employment^ That i., aflio* of importance. Gems 
lyere fuppofed to hare great powers and virtues. JOHNSOH. 

L 3 Ben 


But if thou, jealous, doft return to pry 

On what I further fhall intend to do, 

By heaven, I will tear thee joint by joint, 

And ftrew this hungry church-yard with thy limbs J 

The time and my intents are favage-wild 8 ; 

More fierce, and more inexorable far, 

Than empty tygers, or the roaring fea. 

Balth. I will be gone, fir, and not trouble you. 

Rom. So (halt thou mew me friendship Take 

thou that : 
Live, and be profperous ; and farewel, good fellow. 

Baltb. For all this lame, I'll hide me hereabout -, 
His looks I fear, and his intents I doubt. [Exit Baltb. 

Rom. Thou deteftable 9 maw, thou womb of death, 
Gorg'd with the deareft morfel of the earth, 
Thus I enforce thy rotten jaws to open, 

[Breaking up the monument, 
And, in defpight, I'll cram thee with more food ! 

Par. This is that banifh'd haughty Montague, 
That murder'd my love's cou.fin ; with which grief, 
It is fuppofed, the fair creature dy'd, 
And here is come to do fome villainous fhame 
To the dead bodies : I will apprehend him. 
Stop thy unhallow'd toil, vile Montague; 

Ben Jonfon ufes the n'ord dear in the fame fenfe : 

" Put your known talents on fo dear a bufinefs." 

Catiline, Act i 
Again, in Chapman's verfion of the ioth book of the Odyfley: 

u full pitching on 

" The deareft joint his head was plac'd upon." STEEVENS. 
9 favagc-w!M ;] Here the fpeech concludes in the old 
copy. STEEVGNS. 

9 deteftabk ] This word, which is now accented on the 
fecond iyllable, was once accented on the firft ; therefore this line 
did not originally feeni to be inharmonious, bo, in the Tragedie of 
C)-ff/us, 1604: 

" Court with vain words and dctrftabk lyes." 
A^ain, inShakefpeare's K. John, Aft 3. Sc. 3 : 

" And 1 will kifs tevdiuftabk bones," STEEVENS. 



Can vengeance be purfu'd further than death ? 
Condemned villain, I do apprehend thee : 
Obey, and go with me ; for thou muft die. 

Rcm. I muft, indeed; and therefore came I hither. 
Good gentle youth, tempt not a defperate man, 
Fly hence and leave me ; think upon thefe gone ; 
Let them affright thee. I befeech thee, youth, 
Pull not * another fin upon my head, 
By urging me to fury : O, be gone ! 
By heaven, I love thee better than myfelf ; 
For I come hither arm'd againft myfelf: 
Stay not, be gone-, live, and hereafter fay-^ 
A madman's mercy bade thee run away. 

Par. * I do defy thy conjuration, 
And apprehend thee for a felon here. 


1 PmU not &e.] The quarto, 1^97, reads: bra} not. The 
quartos 1599 and 1609, and all the folios: Put not. Mr. 
Ro'.ve firft made the change, which may be discontinued at the 
reader's pkafure. STEEVEKS. 

* /4r^&.] The quarto, 1597, reads, / do dtfy tty rja- 
jmrotioxy'] Paris conceived Romeo to hare burft open the monu- 
ment for no other purpofe than to do femt vtSoomu Jbome on the 
dead bodies, fuch as witches are reported to have praftifeJ ; and 
therefore tells him he defies him, and the magic arts which be 
fufpe&s he is preparing to ufe. So, in Painter's tranflation of the 

novel, torn. ii. p. 244. ** * the watch of the city by chance 
paned by, and feeing light within the grave, fufpected ihaight 
that they were necromancers which had opened the tombs to ai-sji 
toe Jfod Mies for aide of their arte." 
The fofio reads: 

I do eifjy thy coromiferation. 
To <*/), anciently meant to nfti/c or Joy. So, in th^ Dcatti ff 

** Or, as I laid, for ever I aejy your company .** 

" Even from my ibid I villainy dfy." 
^pm | in the Miftries of *fanm Mimgut i f, by Dray ton : 

* My liege, qiioth he, all mercy now 4efc :.* 
Again, in R. Green's Plametamaebia, 1585: 

* I Jeff thae for ray father who haft fo di^lcafea Otf Gods." 

in Spenier's Faery %&*, fa. ii. c. 8 : 

* f oole (laid the Pagan) I thy s itt <**.* 


Rom. Wilt thou provoke me ? then have at thee, 
boy. [Theyfigbt, Paris falls. 

Page. O lord ! they fight : I will go call the watch. 

Par. O, I am (lain ! If thou be merciful, 
Open the tomb, lay me with Juliet. [ Dies. 

Rcm. In faith, I will: Let me perufe this face; 
Mercutio's kinfman, noble county Paris : 
What faid my man, when my betofied foul 
Did not attend him as we rode ? I think, 
He told me, Paris mould have marry'd Juliet : 
Said he not fo ? or did I dream it fo ? 
Or am I mad, hearing him talk of Juliet, 
To think it was fo ? O, give me thy hand, 
One writ with me in four misfortune's book ! 
I'll bury thee in a triumphant grave, 
A grave ? O, no; a Ian thorn, flaughter'd youth, 
For here lies Juliet, and her beauty makes 
This vault a feafting * prefence full of light. 
Death, lie thou there, by a dead man interr'd. 

\Laying Paris in the monument. 
How oft when men are at the point of death 
Have they been merry ? which their keepers call 
A lightning before death : 4 O, how may I 


Again, b. v. c. 5 : 

" She daily told her, love he did tltfye? 

Paris may, however, mean I rerufe to do as thou conjure/I me to 
do, i, e. to depart. STEEVENS. 

3 prrfencc ] A prefence is & public room. JOHNSON. 
This thought, extravagant as it is, is borrowed by Middleton in 
his comedy of Blurt Mafter Conjlatie^ 1602 : 

** The darkeft dungeon which fpite can devife 
" To throw this carcafe in, her glorious eyes 
" Can make as lightibme as the faireft chamber 
ts In Paris Louvre." STEEVEXS. 
* O, how may I 

Call this a lightning ? ] I think we fhould read, 

. O, now may 1 

Call this a lig btnlng ? JOHNSON. 

Th'S idea occurs frequently in the old dramatic pieces. So 
in the lecond part of The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington y 
6ot ; 

I "I thouht 


Call this a lightning ? O, my love ! my wife ! 

Death, that hath fuck'd the honey of thy breath, 

Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty : 

Thou art not conquer'd ; beauty's enfign yet 

Is crimfon in thy lips, and in thy cheeks, 

And death's pale flag is not advanced there *. 

Tybalt, ly'ft thou there in thy bloody flieet 6 ? 

O, what more favour can I do to thee, 

Than with that hand that cut thy youth in twain, 

To funder his that was thine enemy ? 

Forgive me, coufin ! Ah, dear Juliet, 

** I thought it was a Hgbtabsg lefcre death, 
** Too fudden to be certain." 
Again, in Chapman's tranflation of the i jth Iliad : 
* fince after this he had not long to live, 
" This Ugbtwxgjlez: lefart bis death* 
Again, in his tracflation of the i8th Odyfley: 

tc extend their chear 

* To th* utmoft Kgktnl*g that ftill ufcers death." 


Aid Jeat&s fakjlog, &c.] So, in Daniel's Comphutt ef R*fa~ 

" And nought-refpecting death (the laft of paines) 
Plac'd his fale cobun (th* enfign of his might) 
" Upon his new-got fpoil; &c." 
In the firft edition of ROHKO and Juliet, Shake(peare is Ie6 florid ia 
bis account of the lady's beauty ; and only favs : 

ohj dear Juliet, 

* * How well thy beauty doth become the grave !'* 
The fpeech, as it now ftacds, is firft found in the quarto, 1599. 


Azd death's pak fag r*twt advaitcid tbtre^ An ingenious fnend 
fome time ago pointed out to me a pafiage of Marini, which bears 
a very fht>ng relemblance to this : 

Mtrte la'ufegna fua paliida e bianca 
Fndlrice Jpego fifl aelto imo. 

Rime lugubri, p. 149, ed. Veser. i6o_J. 


fyalt, #Jt then there in tfy llofy Jb*t?} So, in Painter'* 
tranflation, torn. ii. p. 242. * what greater or more cruel fatis- 
fafticn canfte thou defyre to have, or henceforth hope for, than to 
fee hym which murdered thee. to be empoylbned wyth bys own* 
kandes, and buryed by thy fyder 1 * STEEVEXJ. 



Why art thou yet fo fair ? Shall I believe 
I will believe (come lie thou in my arms) 
That unfubftantial death is amorous ; 
And that the lean abhorred monfter keeps 
Thee here in dark to be his paramour. 
For fear of that, I will ftill ftay with thee ; 
7 And never from this palace of dim night 


7 And never from ibis palaee of dim night 
Depart again : (Come lie thou in my arms ; 
Here's to thy health. O true apothecary ! 
Thy drugs are quick).] Mr. Pope's, and fome other of the 
wovfer editions acknowledge abfurdly the Knes which I have put 
into parenthefis here ; and which I have expunged from the text, 
for this reafon : Romeo is made to confefs the effect of the poilbn 
before ever he has tafted it. I fuppofe, it hardly was fo favoury 
that the patient fhould choofe to make two draughts of it. And, 
eight lines after thefe, we find him taking the poifon in his hands, 
and making an apoftrophe to it ; inviting it to perform its office 
at once ; and then, and not till then, does he clap it to his lips, or 
can with any probability fpeak of its inflant force and effe&s. Be- 
iides, Shakefpeare would hardly have made Romeo drink to the 
health of his dead miitrefs. Though the firlt quarto in 1 599, and 
the two old folios, acknowledge this abfurd fluff, I find it left out 
in feveral later quarto impreffions. I ought to take notice, that 
though Mr. Pope has thought fit to flick to the old copies in this 
addition, yet he is no fairtranfcriber ; for he has funk upon us an 
hemiftich of mofl profound abfurdity, which poffefles all thole 

- Come t lie thou in my arms ; 
Here's to tljy health, where-e'er thou tumbleit in. 
O true apothecary! &c. THEOBALD. 

I have no edition but the folio, which has all the paffage here 
mentioned. I have followed Mr. Theobald. JOHNSON. 

I am forry to fay, that the foregoing note is an initance of difin- 
genuoufneis, as well as inattention in Mr. Theobald, who, relying 
on the fcarcity of the old quartos, very frequently makes them an- 
fvverable for any thing he thinks proper to aflert. 

The quarto in 1599, was not the firfr. It was preceded by one 
in 1597; and though Mr. Theobald declares, he found the pajjage 
left out in feveral cf the later quarto ijnprcjfions, yet in the lilt of thole 
lie pretends to have collated for the ufe of his edition, he mentions 
but one of a later date, and had never feen either that publiihed in 
1609, or another without any date at all ; for in the former of 
thefe, the paflage in queiHon is preferred (the latter 1 have no 
3. copy 


t)epart again : here, here will I remain 
Wiih wonns that are thy chamber-maids 5 O, here - 


capy of), art he has pbondrfur m ,63^ m the 
k* hti irjxtioQ is ibanded, among Jthale qmtn 

mtat he fe na% dfcw of fbtml, 

of tfabpbjtfcal hue he 
- nf, cmfefiaal he bad 

fcf gf 

a Ibncviac bencr danger; Uc 
l \ caaaoQed idk dot put oftfetfjpcecfc 
a lev Infilnacr, fcena 

pcnr eood 
CaKfanerandoa! aneBC&^-gmJe! 

M Hoe's to ray love! Q me 

tt Thy dns sre aakk. Thasi wiA a log I dfc.* 

dft^Mb^M>r, Ifeeficte to feem-ia-pSuafe, as b 
r >, and agiep vrkk Ac nlai'iiia to dhc pibccr the 
% lie {candaaing dae 

ifc then ckiiifa to the BCKKJ oi J^ikt's fcrc, adding 
he feds the potto -offi) a ftott apotofie ID Ac 

10 the o6gea ivft beloved, he dies (See 

The other hemc&kh (* d^poted of) n-v j be 
r Hatonitj, mm be fcat to the reader so dcmnuac. . Tac 
of 1609, ahiMs ihe 

* Anddmthe 

If fch an idea could h*e a-rfcaafarioo in intine, or be a|. 

J ; r r "tr- ""^ ^ "T '. '" ' "ft]iHiil ' iif Imiiji, i ^rif ~ J jr. 
B imaguann% jealous of deah, k wooid toao, that us his 

^^* e V""~?r- .""^ b ? n s ff>4.^ 



\Vill I fet up my everlafdng reft 8 ; 

And fhake the yoke of inaufpicious ftars 

From this world-wearied flem. Eyes, look your laft ! 

Arms, take your laft embrace ! and lips, O you 

The doors of breath, feal with a righteous kifs 

A datelefs bargain to engroffing death ! 

" Ah, dear Juliet! 

" Why art thou yet ib fair t Jhall I believe 

" I will believe (come lie thou in my arms) 

*' That unfubftantial death is amorous, 

* ; And that the lean," &c. 

The objet of difpute may perhaps be fuch as hardly to deferve 
this toil ot tranfpofuion, but one critick has jufl as good a right to 
attempt the infertion oi what he thinks he underftands, as another 
has to omit a pafiage, becacfe he can make no ufe of it at all. 
The whole of the conjecture is ottered with the leaft degree of con- 
fidence, and from no other motive than a defire of preferring every 
line of Shakefpeare, when any reafon, tolerably plaufible, can be 
given in its favour. 

Mr. Theobald has not dealt very fairly ia his account of this 
fpeech, as the abfurdity is apparently owing to the repetition of 
fome of rhe lines by a blunder of the printer, who had thereby made 
Romeo confefs the effefts of the poifon before he had tailed it. 
On fecond thoughts, it is not improbable, that Shakefpeare had 
written / ivill telicvc, and afterwards corrected it to Shall 
I 'believe, without erafing the former : by which means it has hap- 
pened that the printer has given us both, Thus, in what follows 
Came lie tbou in my arms, &c. might have been the poet's firft 
ftetch of the conclufion of Romeo's fpeech, which he forebore to 
obliterate, when he fubftittited here, here --Mill I remain, &c. This 
ieeir.s indeed to be evident from the edition of 1599, and the other 
eld editions after that, in all which Depart again, as the catch 
word, from which his amendment was to begin, is repeated. 
Let fome future editor decide. STEEVEXS. 

8 ny everlajling reft ;] See a note on fcene jth of the pre- 
ceding acl. So, in the Spanijb Gipjie, by Middleton and Rowley, 
1653: " could I fet up ny reft 

" That he were loft, or taken ptifoner, 

" I could hold truce with forrow." 

To fet up one's reft is to be determined to any certain purpofe, to 
reft in perfect confidence and refolution, to make up one's mind. 
Again, in the fame play : 

<s Set up t/y rejl ; her married thou. or none." STEEVENS. 



Come, bitter conduct ' come, unfavoury guide ! 
Thou defperate pilot, now at once run on 
The dalhing rocks thy fea-fick weary bark! 
Here' s to thy health, where'erthou tumbled in : 
Here's to my love ! [t rinks} O, true apothecary! 
Thy drugs are quick. Thus with a kils I die. [Dies. 

Enter Friar Laurence, with a lantborn, cr&w^ andfpade. 

Lau. Saint Francis be my fpeed ! how oft to-night 
Have my old feet ftumbied at graves l ? Who's 
thtre ? 

Enter Baltbafar. 

Baltb. Here's one, a friend, and one that knows yom 

Lau. Blifs be upon you ! Tell me, good my friend, 
What torch is yond', that vainly lends his light 
To grubs and eyelefs fculls ? as I difcern, 
It burneth in the Capulets* monument. 

Baltb. It doth fo, holy fir ; and there's my matter, 
One that you love. 

Latt. \Vho is it? 

Baltb. Romeo. 

Lau. How long hath he been there ? 

Cemu litter conduct] Mariton alfo in his fatires, 1599, ufis 

" Be them my cotulnS and my genius.* 
So, in a former fcene in this play : 

" And fire-ey'dfinybemyxiia?now.* 
1 &KU oft to-nigbt 

Box* ay tMJeet fturablcd at graves ?] This accident was 
reckoned ominous. So, in K. Ht*ry VI. p. 3. 

For many men ibstjlxmlle A the threfliold, 

Are well foretold, that danger lurks within. 
Again, in K. RxbanilU. Haftings, going to execution, (?.ya t 

Three times to-day nw tootcloth hode did fumble. ' 


Balth. Full half an hour. 

Lau. Go with me to the vault. 

Balth. I dare not, fir : 

My mafter knows not, but I am gone hence; 
And fearfully did menace me with death, 
If I did flay to look on his intents. 

Lau. Stay then, I'll go alone : Fear comes uporj 

O, much I fear fome ill unlucky thing. 

Balth. As I did (leep under this yew-tree here^ 
2 I dreamt my mafter and another fought^ 
And that my mafter flew him. 

Lau. Romeo ? 

Alack, alack, what blood is this, which ftains 
The ftony entrance of this fepulchre ? 
"What mean thefe mafterlefs and gory fwords 
To lie difcolour'd by this place of peace ? 
Romeo ! O, pale ! Who elfe ? what, Paris too ? 
And fleep'd in blood ? Ah, what an unkind hour 
Is guilty of this lamentable chance ! 
The lady ftirs. 

JuL [waking.~\ O, comfortable friar ! where is mjr 

lord ? 

1 do remember well where I mould be, 
And there I am : Where is my Romeo ? 

[Noife within."] 

Lau. I hear fome noife. Lady, come from that 

* I dreamt my mafter and another fought ^\ This is one of the 
touches of nature that would have eicaped the hand of any painter 
lefs attentive to it than Shakefpeare. What happens to a peribn 
while he is under the manifeil influence of fear, will feem to him, 
when he is recovered from it, like a dream. Homer, Book 8thj 
reprefents Rhefus dying faft afleep, and as it were beholding his 
enemy in a dream plunging a fword into his bofom. Eultathius 
and Dacier both applaud this image as very natural ; for a man in 
fuch a condition, lays Pope, awakes no further than to fee con- 
fufedly what environs him, and to think it not a reality, but a 
vifion. ST^EVENS. 



Of death, contagion, J and unnatural deep ; 
A greater Power than we can contradict 
Hath thwarted our intents *, come, come away : 
Thy huiband in thy bofom there lies dead ; 
And Paris too; come, I'll difpofe of thee 
Among a fifterhood of holy nuns : 
Stay rot to queftion, for the watch is coming ; 
Come, go, good Juliet, \_Noife again.~\ I dare ftay 
no longer. [Exit. 

Jul. Go, get thec hence, for I will not away. 
\V hat's here ? a cup, clos'd in my true love's hand ? 
Poifon, I fee, hath been his timelefs end : 
O churl ! drink all ; and leave no friendly drop, 
To help me after? I will kifs thy lips ; 
Haply, fome poifon yet doth hang on them, 
To make me die with a reftorative. [Ki/es bim. 

Thy lips are warm ! 

Watcb. [within] Lead, boy : Which way ? 

Jul. Yea, noife? then I'll be brief. O happy 
dagger ! [Snatching Romeo's dagger*. 

This is thy (heath ; [ftabs berfelf.~\ there ruft, and lee 
me dies. 

Enter Watcb* tnitb the Page of Paris. 

Page. This is the place ; there, where the torch doth 

J and maahtrtd >^;j Shakefpeaie alludes to the deep of 
Juliet, which was nxxatitraL, being brought on by drugs. 


4 Saatcb-g Rmeefs Jaggrr.] So, in Painter's tranlktion of 
Pierre Bcsficam, tool. ii. p. 244. Drawing out the dagger which 
Romeo ware by his fide, (he pricked herfclf with many blown 
againft the heart." STEEVEHS. 

5 there ruft mmd let me &e.] Is the reading of the quarto 
1599. Thar of 1597 gi*es the paflage thus : 

" I, noife? then mult I be rdblute. 

Oh, happy dagger! thou (halt end my fear, 

** Rtfi in my bofom, thus I come to thee." 

The alteration was probably made by the poet, when he introduced 
the words, 

This is \bj JbcoA? STEETENS, 


Watch. The ground is bloody ; Search about the 

church-yard ; 
Go, fome of you, whome'er you find, attach. 

{Exeunt fome. 

Pitiful fight ! here lies the^county flain ; 

And Juliet bleeding ; warm, and newly dead, 

"Who here hath lain thefe two days buried. 

Go, tell the prince, .run to the Capulets, 

6 Raife up the Montagues, fome others learch : - 
We fee the ground whereon thefe woes do lie; 
But the true ground of all thefe piteous woes, 
We cannot without circumftance defcry. 

Enter fome of the Watch> with Balthafar. 

2 Watch. Here's Romeo's man, we found him in 

the church-yard. 

j Watch. Hold him in fafety, 'till the prince come 

Enter another Watchman, with Friar Laurence. 

3 Watch. Here is a friar, that trembles, fighs, and 

weeps : 

We took this mattock and this fpade from him, 
As he was coming from this church yard fide. 
i Watch. A great fufpicion ; Stay the friar too. 

Enter the Prince ', and attendants. 

Prince. What mifadventure is fo early up, 
That calls our perfon from our morning's reft ? 

* Raife up tie Montagues. 'Some of hers fearcb: ] Here 
fccms to be a rhyme intended, which may be ealily reilored j 

" Raife up the Montagues. Some others, go. 
. " We fee the ground whereon thefe woes do He, 
" But the true ground of all this piteous ivoe 
" We cannot without circmmiance defcry." JOHN'SOX. 
"It was often thought fufficient, in the time or Shakefpeare, for 
the iecond and fourth lines in a ilanza, to rhhns with each other. 




Ester Capalet, and lady Capnlet y &c. 

Cap. What mould it be, that they fo {hack abroad ? 
La. Cap. The peppk in the ftreet cry Romeo, 
Some Juliet, and fome Paris ; and all run, 
With open out-cry, toward our monument. 

Prime*. 7 What fear is this, which ttartles in our ears ? 
Watch. Sovereign, here lies the county Paris flain i 
And Romeo dead ; and Juliet, dead before, 
Warm and new kiil'd. 

Prince. Search, ieek, and know how this foul mur- 
der comes. 
Watch. Here is a friar, and flaughter'd Romeo's 


With inftruments upon them, fit to open 
Thefc dead men's toaibs. 

Cap. O, heaven ! O, wife ! look how our daugh- 
ter bleeds ! 
This dagger hath miuVea, for, 8 lo ! his houfe 


* Wb*t fior a tixs t *x&cb ar&i im your ears?} Read, 

' What fear is this, which forties in ncr ears f* JOHNSOV. 

* It! tntbtrnfa &c.] The modern editors (contrary to toe 
authority of all the ancient copies, and without attention to the 
cfiiafreeable <l Ritg 1 ff of Jbeatb aadfifftceJ, which wa& fira i*- 
troducedbyMr.Popc) read, 

This dagger haihmifta'ea; for,!^! tbefrmA 
" Lies emptj on the back of Montague, 
Tbeftot mif-Jheatfaed in my daughicr's bofom.* 
The quarto, 1597, erroncouflj, 

* this dagger hath rriitook, 

* For (loe) the backc is empry of yong Moataepe, 
And it b fteathcd in our daughter's breaii.- 
The quarto, 1509, affords the true leading, 

This dagger hath mUboe, tor, loe! hisboufe 
ii canoe on the back of Mtmriawc, 
And it mif-lheathed in mv daughter's bofoaie." 
If we do not itadtfinAeadof^Capoletirifl be made to Jay 
The foU*rd f *t ma emfy * At A-c* ^J&iteae, **4Jbc*ibtl 
Jm&t tyim. The ronitniftioo even with dm cmcadation wiH 
be irregular. 

Voi- X. M Tl e 


Lies empty on the back of Montague, 
And it mif-meathed in my daughter's bofom. 

La. Cap. O me ! this fight of death is as a bell 
That warns my old age to a lepulchre. 

Enter Montague, and Others. 

Prince. Come, Montague ; for thou art early up \ 
To fee thy fon and heir more early down. 

Men. l Alas, my liege, my wife is dead to-night ; 
Grief of my fon's exile hath ftopp'd her breath : 
"What further woe confpires againft my age ? 

Prince. Look, and thou malt fee. 

Mon. O thou untaught ! 4 what manners is in this, 
To prefs before thy father to a grave ? 

The quartos, 1609, 1637, and the fo!i:> 1625, offer the fame 
reading, except that they concur in giving /i iaitcad of ir. 

it appears that the daggtr was anciently worn behind the bad. 
So, in The longer thou Uveft the more Fool thou art, I C/o ; 
' Thou mull: weare thy fworde by thy fide, 
" And thy dagger handfumly at thy lacke." 

Again, in Humors Ordinarie, c. an ancient collection of fatires, 
no date : 

" See you the huge bum dagger at bis lacke ?" STEEVE.VS. 
The paflage, as it Hands in the quarto of 1609, and iu the full 
folio, if regulated thus, is perfectly grammatical : 

" This dagger hath miftaen, (for lo ! his houfe 

" Lies epjpty on the back of Montague) 

" And is mii-fheathed in my daughter's bofom." 


9 for thou art early up, c.] This fpeech (as appears from 
the following paflage in The Second Part of the Downfall of Robert 
JLarl of Huntington, i6oi) has fomething proverbial in it: 
" In you i'faith the proverb's verified, 
" You are early up, and yet are ne'er the near." STEEVENS. 
1 jflas, my liege, toy wife is dead to-night ;~\ Alter this line the 
quarto 1 597 adds, 

" And young Benvolio is deceafed too." 

Eat this I fuppofe the poet rejected on his revifion of the play, as 
unnecefiary {laughter. STEEVENS. 

' * G, thou untaught! &c.] So, in The Tragedy <rf 'Darius , 1603 : 
*' Ah me ! malicious fates have done me wrong : 
" Who came fiiil to the world, fhould fiill depart. 
" It not becomes the old t*o'er-live the young ; 
*' This dealing is prepottrous and u'er-thv\": J .:L." STF. F: VE.VS. 



Prince. Seal up the mouth of outrage for a while, 

*Till we can dear thefe ambiguities, 

And know their fpring, their head, their true defceat ; 

And then will I be general of your woes, 

And lead you even to death : Mean time forbear, 

And let mifchance be flare to patience. 

Bring forth the parties of fufpicion. 

Lax. I am the greateft, able to do leaft, 

Yet moft fufpeded, as the time and place 

Doth make again ft me, of this direful murder ; 

And here I (land, both to impeach and purge 

Myfelf condemned and myfelf excus'd. 

Prince. Then fay at once what thou doit know in this. 
J Lax. I will be brief, for my fliort date of breath 

Is not fo long as is a tedious tale. 

Romeo, there dead, was huiband to that Juliet ; 

And (he, there dead, that Romeo's faithful wife ; 

I married them ; and their ftolen marriage-day 

Was Tybalt's dooms-day, whole untimely death 

BanifiVd the new-made bridegroom from this city j 
For whom, and not for Tybalt, Juliet pin'd. 
You co remove that Gege of gnef from her 
Betroth'd, and would have married her perforce, 
To county Paris : Then comes (he to me ; 
And, with wild looks, bid me deviie fome means 
To rid her from this fccond marriage, 
Of, in my cell, there would (he kill herfclf. 
Then gave I her, fo tutor*d by my art, 
A deeping potion ; which fo took effed 
As I intended, for it wrought on her 
The form of death : mean rime I writ to Romeo, 
That he fhould hither come as this dire night, 
To help to take her from her borrowed grave^ 
Being the time the potion's force would ceafe. 

* Lamreta.] It is much to be lamented, that the poet fid not 
conclude the dialogue with die acboo, sod avoid a airram c di 
ctcna which the audk&ce ahead? knew. JOHKSO.V. 

M 2 B 

1 64 R O M E O AND J U L I E T. 

But he which bore my letter, friar John, , 

Was (laid by accident ; and yefternight 

Returned my letter back : Then all alone, 

At the prefixed hour of her waking, 

Came I to take her from her kindred's vault ; 

Meaning to keep her clofely at my cell, 

'Till I conveniently could fend to Romeo : 

But, when I came, (fome minute ere the time 

Of her awaking) here untimely lay 

The noble Paris, and true Romeo, dead. 

She wakes ; and I entreated her come forth, 

And bear this work of heaven with patience : 

But then a noife did fcare me from the tomb ; 

And Ihe, too defperate, would not go with me, , 

But (as it feems) did violence on herfelf. 

All this I know ; and to the marriage 

Her nurfe is privy : And, if aught in this 

Mifcarry'd by my fault, let my old life 

Be facrific'd, fome hour before his time, 

Unto the rigour of fevereft law. 

Prince. We (till have known thee for a holy man. 
Where's Romeo's man ? what can he fay to this ? 

Balth. I brought my matter news of Juliet's death ; 
And then in poft he came from Mantua, 
To this fame place, to this fame monument. 
This letter he early bid me give his father ; 
And threaten'd me with death, going in the vault, 
If I departed not, and left him there. 

Prince. Give me the letter, I will look on it. 
Where is the county's page that rais'd the watch ? 
Sirrah, what made your mafter in this place ? 

Page. He came with flowers to ftrew his lady's 

grave ; 

And bid me (land aloof, and fo I did : 
Anon, comes one with light to ope the tomb ; 
And, by and by, my mafter drew on him 5 
And then I ran away to call the watch. 

5 Prince. 


Prince. This letter doth make good the friar's 


Their courfc of lore, die tidings of her death : 
And here he writes that he did buy a poiibn 
Of a poor 'pothecary, and therewithal 
Came to this vault to (fie, and fie with Juliet. - 
Where be thefe enemies ? Capckt! Montague! 
See, what a fcourge is laid upon your hate, 
That heaven finds means to kill your joys with love ! 
And I, for winking at your difcords too, 
Have loft a brace of kinimen : all are punifh'd. 

Cap. O, brother Montague, give me thy hand : 
This is my daughter's jointure, for no more 
Can I demand. 

Man. But I can give thec more : 
For I will raifc her flame in pure gold | 
That, while Verona by that name is known, 
There (hall no figure at fuch rate be let, 
As that of true and faithful Juliet. 

Cap. As rich Hull Romeo by his lady lie ; 
Poor iacrifices of our enmity ! 

Prince. A glooming peace 4 this morning with it 


The fun, for forrow, will not Ihew his head : 
Go hence, to have more talk of thefe fed things ; 
* Some (ball "be pardon'd, and fome puniihed : 


*^goomiog /-,&.} Tlie modem edttiomrcad-^fe-r; 
but ^-%, which b the old reading, may be the true one. So, 

_ night-" 
; and I meet with k 

This leans to be 

~ - _ . - .- - . . - - - . .". 

prnfarinns of Providence; far who was there that could jofth/ be 
poniihed by any human fcnr? EOWAKDS'S MSS. 

This Ene has reference to die ncrrf 6cm which die fcKe is 
taken. Here we read ibat JoBrfs female aoeooant was baniftcd 

M ; :.: 


For never was a ftory of more woe, 

Than this of Juliet and her Romeo 6 . [Exeunt ommsl 

for concealing the marriage ; Romeo's fervant fee at liberty bccaufe 
he had only ated in obedience to his mailer's orders ; the apothecary 
taken, tortured, condemned, and hanged; while Friar Laurence was 
permitted to retire to a hermitage in the neighbourhood of Verona, 
where he ended his lite in penitence and peace. STEEVENS. 

' Juliet and her Romec.} Shakeipeare has not effected the 
alteration of this play by introducing any new incidents, but 
merely by adding to the length ot the icenes. 

The piece appears to ha\e been always a very popular one. 
Mariion, in his iatiies, 159$, fays: 

*' Lufcus, -vhat's playVt to-day ? faith, now I know 

" I fet thy lips abroach, from w hence doth flow 

" Nought but pure Juliet and Romeo." STEEVEXS. 

THIS play is one of the molt pleafiug of our author's perform- 
ances. The fcenes are bufy and various, the incidents numerous 
and important, the catailrophe irrefiftihly affecting, and the procefs 
of the aftion carried on with fuch probability, at kail with fuch 
congruity to popular opinions, as tragedy requires. 

Here is one of the few attempts of Shakefpeare to exhibit the 
couverfation ot gentlemen, to reprefent the airy fprightlinefs of 
juvenile elegance. Mr. Dryden mentions a tradition, which might 
eafily reach his time, of a declaration made by Shakefpeare, that 
be was obliged t" kill Mercutio in ibc third afl, left bejbould have been 
killed by him. Yet he thinks him no J'uc h formidable pcrfon, but that 
he might have lived through the play, and died in his bed, without danger 
to a poet. Dryden well knew, hud he been in quell of truth, 
that, in a pointed fentence, more regard is commonly had to the 
words than the thought, and that it is very feldom to be rigoroufly 
underftood. Mercutio's wit, gaiety, and courage, will always pro- 
cure him friends that wiih him a longer life ; but his death is not 
precipitated, he has lived out the time allotted him in the con- 
flrucYion of the play ; nor do I doubt the ability of Shakefpeare 
to have continued his exigence, though fome of his fallies are per- 
haps out of the reach of Dryden ; whofe genius was not very fer- 
tile of merriment, nor ductile to humour, but acute, argumentative, 
compreheniive, and fublime. 

The Nuric is one of the charafters in which the author de- 
lighted : he has, with great fubtilty of diflincYion, drawn her at 
once loquacious and iccret, obfequious and infolent, trufty and dif- 

His comic fcenes happily wrought, but his pathetic {trains 
are always polluted with fome unexpected depravations. His per- 
ibns, howeier diUrefled, have a conceit left them in their tnifery t a. 
miter able conceit. JOHNSON. 



Perfons Reprefented. 

CLAUDIUS, king of Denmark. 

Hamlet, fon to the former, and nephew to tie prefen! 


, Fortinbras, prince of Norway. 
Polonius, lord chamberlain. 
Horatio, friend to Hamlet. 
Laertes, fon to Polonius. 
Voltimand, "| 

Rofencrantz, [ tour ' ter * 
Guildenftern, J 
Ofrick, a courtier, 
Another courtier. 
A prieft. 

Francifco, afoldier. 
Reynaldo, fervant to Polonius. 
A captain ; An ambajfador. 
Ghojt of Hamlet's father. 

Gertrude, queen of Denmark, and mother to Hamlet. 
Ophelia, daughter to Polonius. 

> ladies, players* grave-diggers, failors> meffengers, 
and other attendants. 

SCENE, Elftneur. 

H A M L E T'. 

*A C T I. S C E N E I. 


A platform before tie palace. 

Fratiafeo om bis f^. Eater to torn Bernardo. 

Ber. Who's there ? 

Fran. Nay, anfwer me * : ftand, and unfold your- 



* Homing Tin nriypJ inry na tittlta fiiji ii TniHi, imj 
be fbond in Szro Gf^wnancus the Daniflt hiftociac. From thence 
BdldwwAadopmlKiiihiscolfcaionofKm*, inibTCn Tolumec, 
which he began in 1564, and continued to pubfiflt through foe- 
coding yean. From thb wort, J^ ^SWi- -f J3Ate, quano, 
bU L was translated. I hare hithertD met with no tJtfc f 

of the play than one in die year 1604, though k arnft have been 
performed before that time, as I hate fcea a copy of Speghft 
efiDon of Chaucer, which fonnerhr banged ID Dr. Gabriel 
Hamy, (the antagonifi of Nafli) who, in his own hana-wriang. 
lias iet dos'n the pby, ** a pcrtonnance with which he was trs9 ac- 
quainted, in the year 1598. His wonfc arethefe: "Tbryo 

- fort take moch delight in ShAe^aje's Venus and Adonis; 

* his Lucrece, and his tragedy ot Hamkt Prince of Dmtnattr, 
haven in them to pkale die* wiier&rt, 1598.* 

In the books o* the Statieoos' Company dus play was entered 
by Jama Roberts, July 26, 1602, under die tide of A booLe 
cM91r3qfr/M*l**tf ^Ar^, asitwabaJy 


* 43 L] This play is printed both in tbe folio of 1625, aad in 
die quarto of 1637, more corrctiry, don aunod; any other of die 
works of Sbakefpezre. JOENSOS. 

5 aw.-] Le. ar who am already on the watch, and havca 
right to demand the watch-word. STEEYEVS. 

170 HAMLET, 

Ber. Long live the king ! 

Fran. Bernardo ? 

Ber. He. 

Fran. You come moft carefully upon your hour. 

Ber. 'Tis now ftruck twelve ; get thee to bed, 

Fran. For this relief, much thanks : 'tis bitter cold, 
And I am fick at heart. 

Ber. Have you had quiet guard ? 

Fran. Not a moufe ftirring. 

Ber. Well, good night. 
If you do meet Horatio and Marcellus, 

In EqftwardHoc by G. Chapman, B. Jonfon, and T. Marfrc:i, 
1605, is a fling at the hero of this tragedy. A footman natvcd 
Hamlet enters, and a tankard- bearer afks him " 'Sfoote, Hamlet, 
are you mail?" The following particulars, relative to the date of 
the piece, arc borrowed from Dr. Farmer's Ejjay on the Learning 
ty bbakefptnre, p. S$, 86, fecond edition. 

" Greene, in the Epiltle prefixed to his Arcadia, hath a lafh at 
feme " vaine glorious tragedians," and very plainly at Shakefpeare 
in particular. " I leave ail thele to the mercy of their matbcr- 
ionguc^ that feed on nought bat the crums that fall from the tranf- 
later's trencher. That could fcr-rcely latinize their neck verfe if 
they mould have neede, yet Rngl'ifa Scnec a read bycandlelightyeelds 
inui;y good fentences hec will uffoord you whole Hamlets, I 
fhoulu lay, banJfuh of tragicall fpccches.'' I cannot determine ex- 
aftly when this Ep[jlle UT.S firil pubiifhed ; but, 1 fancy, it will 
carry the original Hai>;'it ibmevvhat turther back than we have 
hitherto done : and it may be obierved, that the oldeit copy now 
extant, is faid to Ixi " enlarged to altnoll* as much ngaine as it was.'* 
Galriel Harvey printed at the end of the year 1592, " Foure Let- 
ters and certaine Sonnett:-, eiptfdaUy touching Robert Grectie ;" in- 
one of which his Arcadia :-; mentioned. Now NaJJSs Epillle mult 
have been previous to, thefe, ::- Gabriel is quoted in it with ap- 
plaufe ; and the Fcwe letters were the beginning of a quam-l. 
Naft replied, in "8 of the intercepting certaiue Let- 

ters, nnd a Convoy 01 Ver'.lv, ;'.s they were ynngprivllic to vidtuali 
;'.,. Lew Countries, 1 593- :> Ilarvry rejoined the fame year in 
*' P 'syce's Supei'e'rogation, or a new praife of the old Affe." And 
Najb again, in l; Have uiih you to Saffrou-Walden, or Gabrldi 
Harvry's Hunt is up; crntaining a full anfwer to the eldeft fonne 
of tlie haber-makor, 155^-" AV'^died before 1 606, as appears from 
an old comedy c. 1 : id u T!:e Return irozn par:?-.iras." brEEV^NS. 


4 The rivals of my watch, bid them make hafte. 
Enter Horatio, and MarceOms. 

Fran. I think, I hear them. Stand, ho ! Who is 

Hor. Friends to this ground. 

Mar. And liegemen to the Dane. 

Fran. Give you good night. 

Mar. O, farcwel, honeft foldier : 
Who hath reiiev'd you ? 

Fran. Bernardo hath my place. 
Give you good night. [Exit Francifco. 

Mar. Holla! Bernardo! 

Ber. Say, 
What, is Horatio there ? 

5 Hor. A piece of him. 

* fZ* rivals rfmy <axrir,] Rfxb, far paituos. WAXSTJKTOX. 
By nvfb tftte <va*tcb are meant thofe who were to watch on the 
next adjoining ground. Rivals, in the original fenfc of the word, 
were proprietors of neighbouring lands, parted only by a brook, 
which belonged equally to both. HAXMEK. 
So, in Heywood's Safe f Lacna, 1636 : 
* ?iffi*. Amns, afiboarc him. 
" Anas. A rival with my brother, &c.* 
Again, in the Tragafy j&fmax, 1637 : 

And make Atti^ in thofe governments* 
Again, in yfr-'*rr mmdOnprntrn^ Ad 3. Sc. 5 : having made ufc 
of him in die wars againfi Pompey, prefently deny'd him r:- 
vf&r* STEEVEHS. 

I &ould propofe to point and aher this paflage thus 
r YOU do meet Horatio, aodMarcettos 
The rKxJ of my watch 

Horatio is represented throughout the phy as a gentleman of no 
proteffioa. Marcellus was an omcer, and coniequenUy did that 
through duty, for which Horatio had no motive but cuiioflty. 
BcSdes, there is but one perfon on each watch. Bernardo comes 
to relieve Francifco, and Marcellus to fupply the pbce of fome 
other on the adjoining fiation. The reafbn why Bernardo as wjefl 
as the reft expect Horatio, was becauic he knew him to be in- 
formed of what had happened the night before. WAR Jf EX. 

Hor. Apiece-r*--] Butwfayaterrf He (ays mis as he 
'res his hand. Which direaion ihould be marked. WAJLB. 
Afua ofbus t is, I befiere, no more than a cant eapreffioo. 


i7i HAMLET, 

Ber. Welcome, Horatio ; welcome, good Marcellus, 

Mar. What 6 , has this thing appear'd again to- 
night ? 

Ber. I have feen nothing. 

Mar. Horatio fays, 'tis but our phantafy ; 
And will not let belief tike hold of him, 
Touching this dreaded fig! it, twice feen of us : 
Therefore I have intreated him along, 
With us to watch 7 the minutes of this night ; 
That, if again this apparition come, 
He may 8 approve our eyes, and fpeak to it. 

Hor. Turn ! tufh ! 'twill not appear. 

Ber. Sit down a while ; 
And let us once again affail your ears, 
That are fo fortified againft our ftory, 
' What we two nights have feen. 

Hor. Well, fit we down, 
And let us hear Bernardo fpeak of this. 

Ber. Laft night of all, 

When yon fame {tar, that's weftward from the pole, 
Had made his courie to illume that part of heaven 
Where now it burns, Marcellus, and myfelf, 
The bell then beating one, 

8 What, &c.] The quartos give this fpeech to Horatio. 


7 the minutes of this night ;] This feems to have been an ex- 
preffion common in Shakefpeare's time. I find it in one of Ford's 
plays, The Fancies > Aft . 

I promile ere the minutes of the night. STEEVENS. 

8 approve our eyes, t ] Add a new teftimony to that of 

our eyes. JOHNSON. 

So, in Heywood's Iran dge, 1632 : 

" I can by grounded arguments approve 

" Your power and potency." 
Again, in Antony and Cleopatra: 

I am full forry 

That he approves the common lyar, who 

Thus fpeaks of him at Rome. STEEVENS. 

9 What we two nights have feen.} This line is by Hanmer given 
to Marcellus, but without neceffity. JOHNSON. 



Mar. Peace, break thee off; look, where it comes 
again ! 

Enter Gbojt. 

Ber. In the fame figure, like the king that's dead. 
Mar. Thou art a fcholar, fpeak to it, Horatio. 
Ber. Looks it not like the king ? mark it, Ho- 
Hor. Moft like : it harrows x me with fear, and 


Ber. It would be fpoke to. 
Mar. Speak to it, Horatio. 
Hor. What art thou, that ufurp'ft this time of 


Together with that fair and warlike form 
In which the majefty of bury'd Denmark 
Did fometime march ? by heaven I charge thee, 


Mar. It is offended. 
Ber. See ! it ftaiks away. 
Hor. Stay -, fpeak ; I charge thee, fpeak. 

[Exit Gbcfi. 

Mar. 'Tis gone, snd will not anfwer. 
Ber. How now, Horatio ? you tremble, and look 

pale : 

Is not this fomething more than phantafy ? 
What think you of it ? 

Hor. Before my God, I might not this believe, 
Without the fenfible and true avouch 
Of mine own eyes. 

Mar. Is it not like the king ? 
Hor. As thou art to thyfelf : 
Such was the very armour he h^ on, 

1 It harrows me, &c.] To barrow is to conquer, to fubdue. 
The word is of Saxon origin. So, in the old bl. 1. romance of 
Syr Eglaxtoure efArtoys : 

" He fwore by him that barvyxd helL" STEEVEN-S. 


1/4 HAMLET, 

When he the ambitious Norway combated j 
So frown'd he once, when, in an angry parle % 
3 He fmote the 4 fledded Polack on the ice. 
'Tis ftrange. 

Mar. Thus, twice before, s and juft at this dead 

^ith martial ftalk he hath gone by our watch. 


* _ an angry parle,] This is one of the affefted words intro- 
duced by Lilly. So, in Two Wife Men and all the Reft Fools, 1619: 

" * that you told me at our lafl park" STEEVENS. 
3 He fmote the Jledded Polack on the ice.'] Pole-ax in the com- 
mon editions. He fpeaks of a prince of Poland whom he flew in 
battle. He ufes the word Polack again, Aft 2. Scene 4. POPE. 

Polack was, in that age, the term for an inhabitant of Poland : 
Polaque, French. As in F. Davifon's translation of Pafleratius's 
epitaph on Henry III. of France, publiftied by Camden : 

" Whether thy chance or choice thee hither brings^ 
" Stay, paifenger, and wail the beft of kings. 
<c This little ftone a great king's heart doth hold, 
" Who rul'd the fickle French and P clacks bold : 
" Whom, with a mighty warlike holt attended, 
" With trait'rous knite a cowled monfter ended. 
" So frail are even the higheft earthly things, 
" Go, pafienger, and wail the hap of kings." JOHNSON. 
Again, in Vittoria Corombona, &c. 1612: 

*' I fcorn him 
' Like a fhav'd Pollack " STEEVENS. 

* A.Jled, mjledge] Is a carriage without wheels, made ufe of in 
the cold countries. So, in famburlaine or the Scythian Sbepberd t 

" . upon an \\oryjled 

" Thou (halt be drawn among the frozen poles." STEEV. 
s _ ail d juit at this dead hour, ~\ The old quarto reads jumpe; 
but the following editions difcarded it for a more famionable 

The old reading is, jump at this fame hour ; fame is a kind of cor- 
relative to jump ', jujf is in the oldeft folio. The correction was 
probably made by the author. JOHNSON. 

Jump and jrift were fynonymous in the time of Shakefpeare. 
Ben Jonfon fpeaks of verfes made on jump names, i. e. names that 
ftlit exadtly. Nafh fays " and jumpe, imitating a verfe in As iu 
praefenti." So, in Chapman's May Day, 161 1 : 

" Your appointment was jump at three, with me." 
Again, in The Arcadia by Shirley, 1640. 

" fo even saxajusif with his defires." 



Hor. 6 In what particular thought to work, I know 


But, in the ' grofs and fcope of mine opinion, 
This bodes tome iirange eruption to our ftate. 

Mar. Good now, lie down, and tell me, he that 


Why this lame Uriel and moft obfervant watch 
So nightly toils the lubject of the land ? 
And why fuch daily calt 8 of brazen cannon, 
And foreign mart for implements of war ? 
Why fuch imprels of fhip-wrights, whofe fore talk 
Does not divide the funday from the week ? 
What might be toward, that this iweaty hafte 
Doth make the night joint-labourer with the day ; 
Who is't, that can inform me ? 

Hor. That can I; 

At lead, the whifper goes fo. Our laft king, 
Whole image even but now appear'd to us, 
Was, as you know, by Fortinbras of Norway, 
Thereto prick'd on by a moft emulate pride, 
Dar'd to the combat ; in which, our valiant Hamlet 
(For fo this fide of our known world efteem'd him) 
Did flay this Fortinbras ; 9 who, by a feal'd compacl, 


Again, in M. KvfSJs tranOation of the Austria, of Terrace, 1588 : 

** Comes he this day io jump in the Tery time of this 
marriage?*' STEEVEVS. 

at particular t'-ozgvt to zivr.l,] i. e. What particular train 
of thinkin g to f J low. S - z v z N s . 

7 Grefi axdfcogt } General thoughts, and teadeacy at 

large. JOK: 

* daily caft ] The quartos read caft. STE EVENS. 
9 -'J*> h a j^z?d;: 

Weilratt&J by LKU and txraUrj t ~\ The fubjed fpoken of is 
a duel betweea t . :br a wager, and entered 

into articles for : ;a of the terms agreed upon. 

Two ibn-i or law thea were nerciTar.- to regulate the dediion of the 
affair: the .: .'r.\j if arms; m, had there been a 

i been the dvil lav* axt> ; or a duel 

vrithoai a wager, the IOKU of arms onlj. Let us fee now how our 
author is ci_ . 


tl6 HAMLET, 

Well ratify'd by law, and heraldry, 

Did forfeit, with his life, all thofe his lands. 

Which he ftood feiz'd of, to the conqueror : ' 

Againft the which, a moiety competent 

Was gaged by our king; which had return'd 

To the inheritance of Fortinbras, 

Had he been vanquifher ; ' as, by that covenant, 

* And carriage of the articles defign'd, 

His fell to Hamlet : Now, fir, young Fortinbras, 

3 Of unimproved mettle hot and full, 


afeaTd compact, 
Well ratified by law and heraldry. 

Now law, as diftinguifhed from heraldry, fignifying the civilian; 
and this feal'd compact being a civil la-iv aft, it is as much as to fay, 
An acl of law well ratified by law, which is abfurd. For the nature 
of ratification requires that which ratifies, and that which is ratified, 
fhould not be one and the fame, but different. For thefe reafons I 
conclude Shakefpeare wrote : 

who by feal'd compact 

Well ratified by la~jj of heraldry. 

\, e. the execution of the civil compact was ratified by the law of 
arms ; which, in our author's time, was called the law of heraldry. 
So the belt and exacteft Speaker of that age : In the third kind, [i. e. 
of the Jus gentium] the law of heraldry in ivar ispofitive, &c. Hooker's 
Ecckjtajlical Polity. WARBURTON. 

Mr. Upton fays, that Shakefpeare fometimes exprefles one thing 
by two fubftantives, and that law and heraldry means, by the herald 
law. So Ant. and Chop. Act 4. 

" Where rather I expect victorious life, 

" Than death and honour, \. e. honourable death." 


Puttenham, in his Art of Poejie, fpeaks of the Figure of Tkvynnes, 
*' horfes and barles, for barbed horfes, venim & Danes, for venimous 
Danes, &c." FARMER. 
1 as, by that cov'nant, 

And carriage of the articles dejignd,'] The old quarto reads : 
as by the fame comart ; 

and this is right. Comart fignifies a bargain, and carriage of the 
articles, the covenants entered into to confirm that bargain. Hence 
we fee the common reading makes a tautology. WAREURTON. 
I can find no fuch word as comart in any dictionary. STEEV. 
z And carriage of the articles defign'd,] Carriage, is import : 
dcfigrfd, informed, draivn up between them. JOHNSON. 

3 Of unimproved mettle ] Unimproved, for unrefined. 



Hath in the flcirts of Norway, here and there, 

4 Shark'd up a lift of landlds refolutes, 

For food and diet, to ibme enterprizc 

* That hath a ftomach in't ; which is no other 

(As it doth well appear unto our ftate) 

But to recover of us, by ftrong hand, 

6 And terms compullatory, thole foreiaid lands 

So by his father loft : And this, I take it, 

Is the main motive of our preparations ; 

The fource of this our watch ; and the chief head 

Of this pod-hade and ronaage 7 in the land. 

Ber. [ 8 I think, it be no other, but even fo : 
Well may it fort , that this portentous figure 
Comes armed through our watch ; fo like the king 
That was, and is the queftion of tfyeie wars. 

Hor. A mote it is ', to trouble the mind's eye. 
In the moft high and * palmy ftate of Rome, 
A little ere the mighdoft Julius fell, 

F*BofsaaprvstJmettk t isfa& of fpirit not regulated or guided 
bv knowledge or experience. JOE.VSOX. 

'#r*Vupautt,&c.] I benerc to.Atri *fi means to pick 19 
without djftmflion, as the Jbark flh celled* his prev. The quartos 

] S*m*cb, in the tone of our 
author, was tried for ctmjtaxj, nfihaim. JOHKSON. 

] Theoiaquano, better, 

7 rtmaft ] Tamukuocs hurry. 

8 /i&i,&c.] Thefe.andill other liBesccnfin'd within crotchets 
throughout this piay, are oaiiraed i a the rblio edition of 1625. The 
omiffiom kave the play {bmctime* bencr and lomrtimr* wocie, 
and ieem made only for the &ke of abbreviation. JOHXSOK. 

It may be worth while to obferre, that the title pages of the firft 
quartos in 1604 aod l6 o>' dedare this play to be eJmrgtdt* *l**ff 
tu much qpime ms ii MS, mcar*% to tAe trme mmJfafoS affy. 


9 WiU m<y it j*m~\ ThccaufeaodtbedfcaaTCpiupuniooate 
and fuitable. JOHNS ox. 

Awaatitiii ] The Cri quarto reads, a aw*. STKEVEXS. 
fer ^ /?*r,] /*&gr } tor vtStrlm ; in the other 

VOL. X. N 

178 HAMLET, 

The graves flood tenantlefs, and the fheeted dead 
Did fqueak and gibber in the Roman ftreets ; 
Stars fhone with trains of fire ; dews of blood fell 3 j 
4 Difafters veil'd the fun ; and the moid ftar, 
Upon whofe influence Neptune's empire (lands, 
Was fick almoft to dooms-day with eclipfe. 
And s even the like 6 precurfe of fierce events, 
As harbingers preceding dill the fates, 
7 And prologue to the omen coming on, 
Have heaven and earth together demonftrated 
Unto our climatures and countrymen. ] 

3 Stars Jhone ivitb trains of fire, (Jews of Hood fell; &c.] Thus 
Mr. Rowe altered thefe lines, which have no immediate connexion 
with the preceding ones. The quartos read (for the paflage is not 
in the folio) : 

As ftars with trains of fire, and dews of blood, 
Difafters in the fun, 
Perhaps an intermediate line is loft. STEEVENS. 

4 Difafters veiVd the fun ; ] Difafters is here finely ufed in its 
original fignification of evil conjunction of ftars. WARBURTON. 

5 And even ] Not only fuch prodigies have been feen in 

Rome, but the elements have fliewn our countrymen like fore- 
runners and foretokens of violent events. JOHNSON. 

6 precurfe of fierce events,] Fierce^ for terrible. WARBURTON. 
I rather believe that/r? fignifies conjpicuous, glaring. It is ufed 

in a fomewhat fimilar fenfe in Timon. O the farce wretchednefs 
that glory brings ! STEEVENS. 

7 And prologue to the omen coming on,"] But prologue and omen 
are merely fynonymous here. The poet means, that thefe itrangc 
phenomena are prologues and forerunners of the events prefag'd: 
and fuch fenfe the flight alteration, which I have ventured to make, 
by changing omen to omen'd, very aptly gives. THEOBALD, 

Omen^ for fate. WARBURTON. 

Hanmer follows Theobald. 

A diitich from the life of Merlin, by Heywood, will ftiew that 
there is no occafion for correction : 

" Merlin well vers'd iti many an hidden fpell, 

" His countries omen did long lince foretell." FARMER. 

Again, in the rffQ&redktr: 

" And much I fear the weaknefs of her braine 

tt Should dra\v her to fome ominous exigent." STEEVENS. 



Re-enter Gbcjt. 

But, foft; behold ! lo, where it comes again ! 

I'll crofs it, though it blaft me. Stay, illufion ! 

s If thou haft any found, or ule of voice, 

Speak to me : 

If there be any good thing to be done, 

That may to thee do eaie, and grace to me, 

Speak to me : 

If thou art privy to thy country's fate, 

Which, hapily, foreknowing may avoid, 

O, ipeak ! 

Or, if thou haft uphoarded in thy life 

Extorted treafure in the womb of earth, 

For which, they fay, you fpirits oft walk in death, 

Cock crop's. 
Speak of it : ftay, and fpeak. Stop it, Marcellus. 

Mar. Shall I ftrike at it with my partizan ? 

Hor. Do, if it will not ftand, 

Ber. Tis here ! 

Hor. 'Tis here ! 

Mar. 'Tis gone ! \Exit Gbojl. 

We do it wrong, being fo majeftical, 
To offer it the mew of violence ; 
For it is, as the air, invulnerable, 
And our vain blows malicious mockery. 

Ber. It was about to fpeak, when the cock crew, 

Her. And then it ftarted like a guilty thing 
Upon a fearful fummons. I have heard, 
The cock, that is the trumpet to the morn, 
Doth with his lofty and mrill-founding throat 
Awake the god of day; and, at his warning, 

' If tbou baft my found,] The fpcech of Horatio to tke 
fpcftre is very elegant and noble, and congruous to the common 
traditions of the cautes of apparitions. JOHNSON. 

N 2 Whether 

i8o HAMLET, 

* Whether in fea or fire, in earth or air, 
1 The extravagant and erring fpirit hies 
To his confine : and of the truth herein 
This prefent object made probation. 

Mar. It faded on the crowing of the cock 2 * 
Some fay, that ever 'gainft that feafon comes 
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, 
This bird of dawning fingeth all night long : 

9 Whether in Jea, &c.] According to the pneumatology of that 
time, every element was inhabited by its peculiar order of fpirits, 
who had difpofitions different, according to their various places of 
abode. The meaning therefore is, that all fpirits extravagant, 
wandering out of their element, whether aerial fpirits viitting 
earth, or earthly fpirits ranging the air, return to their {ration, to 
their proper limits in which they are confined. We might read, 

And at his warning 

" Th* extravagant and erring fpirit hies 
" To his confine, whether in fea or air, 
" Or earth, or fire. And of," &c. 

But this change, though it would fmooth the conftruction, is not 
neceffary, and, being unneceflary, fhoutd not be made againft au- 
thority. JOHNSON. 

Bourne of Newcajlle^ in his Antiquities of the common People^ 
informs us, " It is a received tradition among the vulgar, that at 
" the time of cock-crowing, the midnight fpirits forfake thefe lower 
" regions, and go to their proper places. Hence it is, fays he, 
*' that in country places, where the way of life requires more early 
" labour, they always go chearfully to work at that time ; whereas 
" if they are called abroad fooner, they imagine every thing they 
** fee a wandering ghoft." And he quotes on this occafion, as all 
his predeceffors had done, the well-known lines from the firft 
hymn of Prudentius. I know not whofe tranflation he gives us, 
but there is an old one by Heywood. The pious Chanfons^ the 
hymns and carrols, which Shakefpeare mentions prefently, were 
ufually copied from the elder Chriftian poets. FARMER. 

1 Tb* extravagant ] i.e. got out of its bounds. WARBUR TON, 

So, in Nobody and Somebody, 1^98 : " they took me up for a 
'Jtravagant" STEEVENS. 

* It faded on the crowing of the cock.] This is a very ancient 
fuperftition. Philoftratus giving an account of the apparition of 
Achilles' fhade to Apollonius Tyaneus, fays that it vanifhed with 
a little glimmer as foon as the cock cmwd. Vit. Apol. iv. 16. 




And then, they fey, no fpirit J dares fBr abroad j 
The nights are wholefome; then DO planets ftrike, 
4 No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm, 
So hallowM and fo gracious is the nine. 

Hor. So have I heard, and do in part believe it. 
But, look, the morn, in nifiet mantle dad, 
Walks o'er the dew of yon 5 high caftan hill : 
Break we our watch up ; and, by my advice, 
Let us impart what we have fcen to-night 
Unto young Hamlet ; for, upon my life, 
This fpirit, dumb to us, will fpeak to him : 
Do you content we (hall acquaint him with it^ 
As needful in our loves, fitting our duty ? 

Mar. Let's do't, I pray; and I this morning 

Where we fhall find him moft convenient. [Exeunt. 

A room of ft ate. 

Enter Oft $yee*, Hamlet ; Polemics , Laertes* VeUimand, 
Conutius, Lords and Attendants. 

K&g. Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother's 


The memory be giccii ; and that it us befitted 
To bear our hearts in grief, and our whole kingdom 

3 Darts Jtir o*r Qaarto. Tbc fofio imli irfl : 

STZVI\ =. 

4 Xifauy takes,] No fciiy/rdw wkh lamcnefe or difeafes. 
This feafe oftmteit frequent In this author. JOHNSO*. 

bgb eafiern tiB:] The old quarto has it better <gf. 

The fuperioniy of the latter of thefe leadings is nor, to me at 
fcaft, very apparent. I find the former ufed in Lb&a, &c. 

* "Yonder gib agfaihife." 
^^e^hatr^tiaksSffafytta^rJ^E^. STEETEXS. 

N 3 To 

i2 H A M L E X, 

To be contracted in one brow of woe-, 
Yet fo far hath difcretion fought with nature, 
That we with wifeft forrovv think on him, 
Together with remembrance of ourfelves. 
Therefore our fometime fifter, now our queen, 
The imperial jointrefs of this warlike ftate, 
Have we, as 'twere, with a defeated joy, 
\Vich one aufpicious, and one drooping eye 6 ; 
"With mirth in funeral, and with dirge in marriage, 
In equal fcalp weighing delight and dole, 
Taken to wife : nor have we herein barr'd 
Your better wifdoms, which have freely gone 
,With this affair along : For all, our thanks. 

Now follows, that you know, young Fortinbras, 
Holding a weak fuppofal of our worth ; 
Qr thinking, by our late dear brother's death, 
Our ftate to be disjoint and out of frame, 
7 Colleagued with this dream of his advantage, 
He hath not fail'd to pefter us with mefTage, 
Importing the furrender of thofe lands 
Loft by his father, with all bands of law, 
To our moft valiant brother. So mqch for him. 

6 With one aufpicious, and one dropping eye ; ] Thus the folio. 
The quarto, with fomewhat lefs of quaintnefs : 

With an aufpicious, and a dropping eye. 

The fame thought, however, occurs in the Winter's Tale .< 
" She had one rye declined for the lofs of her huiband ; another 
elevated that the oracle was fulfilled." STEEVENS. 

7 Colleagued with this dream of bis advantage ,~] The meaning 
J3, He goes -to war fo indifcreerly, and unprepared, that he has no 
allies to fupport him but a dream, with which he is colleagutd or 
confederated. WARSURTON, 

Hanmer reads collegued^ and perhaps rightly, as this word is 
frequently ufed by Shakefpeare's contemporaries. So, in Marfton's 
Malccontent) 1604: "Why look you, we muft collogue fometimes, 
fovfwear foiuetimes." Again, in Green's Tu Quoque, 1599: 
" Collogue with her again." Again, in Hey wood's Love's Mtftrefe^ 
1636 : *' This colloguing lad." Again, in Svaetnam Arraign V 
16.20 : " For they are cozening, colloguing ungrateful, &c." 




Now for ourfelf, and for this time of meeting : 
Thus much the bufinefs is : We have here writ 
To Norway, uncle of young Fortinbras, 
"Who, impotent and bed- rid, icarcely hears 
Of this his nephew's purpoie, to fupprefs 
His further gait herein 8 ; in that the levies, 
The lifts, and full proportions, are all made 
Out of his lubjecl : and we here difpatch 
You, good Cornelius, and you, Voitimand, 
For bearers of this greeting to old Norway ; 
Giving to you no further perfonal power 
To bufinefs with the king, more than the fcope 9 
Of thele dilated articles allows l . 
Farewel ; and let your hafte commend your duty. 

Vol. In that, and all things, will we fhew OUF 

King. We doubt it nothing ; heartily farewel. 

[Exeunt Voltimand y and Cornelius. 
And now, Laertes, what's the news with you ? 
You told us of fome fuit ; What is't, Laertes ? 
You cannot fpeak of reafon to the Dane, 
And lofe your voice; What would'ft thou beg, 


That fhall not be my offer, not thy afking ? 
" The head is not more native to the heart, 


His further gait therein,] Gate or gait is here ufed in the 
northern fenfe, for proceeding, paffage ; from the A. S. verb gat. 
A gate for a path, paflage, or itreet, is ftill current in the north. 


9 more than the fcope] More than is comprifed in the general 
defign of theie articles, which you may explain in a more diffuie 
and dilated itile. JOH ys o .v. 

1 thtje diUted articles] i. e. the articles when dilated. 


* Ybe head is not mare native t the heart, 
Tb: band norc inftrwrieKtal to fix mouth, 

Than is the throne ofDcxmark to tly father.] This is a flagrant 

infhnce of the firit editor's itupidity, in preferring found to fenfe. 

N 4' But 

184 HAMLET, 

The hand more inftrumental to the mouth, 
Than is the throne of Denmark to thy father/ 
What would'ft thou have, Laertes ? 

Laer. My dread lord, 

Your leave and favour to return to France , 
From whence though willingly I came to Denmark, 
To fhew my duty in your coronation , 
Yet now, I muft confefs, that duty clone, 
My thoughts and wifhes bend again toward France, 
And bow them to your gracious leave and pardon. 

King. Have you your father's leave ? What fays, 
Polonius ? 

Pol. He hath, my lord, [wrung from me my flow 

But head, heart, and hand, he thought muft needs go together, 
where an honeft man was the fubject of the encomium : tho' what 
he could mean by the head's being native to the heart , I cannot con- 
ceive. The mouth indeed of an honeft man might, perhaps, in 
fome fenfe, be faid to be native^ that is, allied to the heart. But 
the fpeaker is here talking not of a moral, but zphyfical alliance. 
And the force of what is faid is fupported only by that diitin&ion. 
I fuppofe, then, that Shakefpeare wrote : 

The blood is not more native to tke heart, 

'Than to the throne of Denmark is tf.y father. 
This makes the fentiment 'juft and pertinent. As the blood is 
formed and fuftained by the labour of the heart, the mouth fup- 
plied by the office of the hand, fo is the throne of Denmark by 
your father, &c. The expreffion too of the Wood's being native to 
the heart, is extremely fine. For the heart is the laboratory where 
that vital liquor is digefted, diflributed, and (when weakened and 
debilitated) again reftored to the vigour neceffary for the difcharge 
of its functions. WAREURTON. 

Part of this emendation I have received, but cannot difcern why 
the head is not as much native to the heart, as the blood, that is, na- 
tural and congenial to it, lorn with it, and co-operating with it. 
The relation is likewife by this reading better preferved, the coun- 
J'ellor being to the king as the bead to the heart. JOHNSON. 

I am not certain that the part of Dr. Warburton's emendation 
which is received, is neceffary. The fenfe feems to be this, the 
head is not formed to be more ufeful to the heart, the hand is not 
more at the fcrvice of the mouth, thari my power is at your father's 
fervice. That is, he may command me to the utmoft ; he may 
do what he pleafes with my kingly authority. STEEVENS. 



By labourfome petition ; and, at laft, 
Upon his will I ieal'd ray hard content :] 
I do beieech you, give him leave to go. 

King. J Take thy fair hour, Laertes; time be 


And thy beft graces fpend it at thy will. 
But now, my coufin Hamlet, and my fon, 

Ham. * A little more than kin, and lefs than kind. 


3 Take thy fair bour^ Laertes ; time le thine^ 

And tby fair graces : jpend it at thy vtilL'] This is the pointing 
in both Mr. Pope's editions ; but the poet's meaning is loft by it, 
and the clofe of the fentence miferably flatten'd. The pointing, I 
have reftored, is that of the beft copies j and the fenfe, this : 
" You have my leave to go, Laertes ; make the faireft ufe you 
** pleafe of your time, and fpend it at your will with the faireil 
*' graces you are mafter of." THEOBALD. 

I rather think this line is in want of emendation. I read, 

- Time is thine, 

And my beft graces j fpend it at thy -Mitt. Jo H K s O X . 

4 Ham. A little more than kin, and Lfs tban kind.] The Tung had 
called him, coufin Hamlet, therefore Hamlet replies, 

A little more tban fc'g, 

i. e. A little more than coulm ; becaufe, by marrying his mother, 
he was become the king's fon-in-law : fo far is eafy. But what 
means the latter part, 

- and lefs tban kind? 

The king, in the prefent reading, gives no occafion for this reflec- 
tion, which is fufEcient to fliew it to be faulty, and that we fhould 
read and point the firil line thus, 

But nev:, my coufn Hamlet kind ryfan 

\. e. But now let us turn to you, coufin Hamlet. Kind my fon (or, 
as we now fay, Good my fon) lay afide this clouded look. For 
thus he was going to expofhilate gently with him for his melan- 
choly, when Hamlet cut him ftiort by reflecting on the titles he 
gave him; 

A little mare tban kin, and lefs tban kind, 
which we now fee is a pertinent reply. WARECRTOX. 

A little mare than kin, and lefs tban kind.] It is not unreasonable 
to fuppofe that this was a proverbial expreilion, known in rbrmer 
times for a relation fo confufed and blended, that it was hard to de- 
fine it. HANMER. 

Kind is the Teutonick word for child. Hamlet therefore anfwers 
with propriety, to the titles of am/in and fon, which the king had 


i86 HAMLET, 

King. How is it that the clouds (till hang on you ? 

Ham. Not fo, my lord, I am 5 too much i' the 

Queen. Good Hamlet, caft thy nighted colour off, 
And let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark, 
Do not, for ever, with thy 6 vailed lids 
Seek for thy noble father in the dud : 

given him, that he was fomewhat more than coujin, and Icfs than 
fan. JOHNSON. 

In this line, with which Shakefpeare introduces Hamlet, Dr. 
Johnfon has perhaps pointed out a nicer di function than it can 
juftly boaft of. To eftablifh the fenfe contended for, it (hould 
have been proved that kind was ever ufed by any Englifh writer for 
child. little more than kin, is a little more than a common re- 
lation. The king xvas certainly fomething Icfs than Kind, by having 
betrayed the mother of Hamlet into an indecent and inceftuous 
marriage, and obtained the crown by means which he fufpects to 
be unjuftifiable. In the th Act, the Prince accufes his uncle of 
having /0/tf in between the election and his hopes; which obviates Dr. 
Warburton's objection to the old reading, viz. that " the king had 
given no occafion for fuch a reflection." 

A jingle of the fame fort is found in Mother Bomlie 1594, and 
leems to have been proverbial, as I have met with it more than 
once : " the nearer we are in blood, the further we muft be 
from love ; the greater the kindred is, the lei's the kindnefs muft be." 
Again, in Gorboduc, a tragedy, 1565: 

** In kinde a father, but not in kindelynefs." 

As kind, however, fignities nature, Hamlet may mean that his re-, 
lationfliip was become an unnatural one, as it was partly founded 
upon inceft. Our author's Julius Cafar, Antony and Cleopatra^ 
King Richard II, and Titus Andronicus, exhibit inftances of kind 
being ufed for nature j and fo too in this play of Hamlet^ Act 2. 
Sc. the laft : 

Remorfelefs, treacherous, lecherous, kindlefs villain. 


5 too much z' the fun."] He perhaps alludes to the pro- 
verb, Out of heaven's lltjjing into the <warm fun. JOHNSON. 

too much i the fun. 

Meaning probably his being fent for from his fludies to be expofed 
at his uncle's marriage as his chiefeft courtier, &c. STEEVENS. 

I queftion whether a quibble between fun. and fan be not here 
intended. FARMER. 

* vailed lids,] With lowering eyes, call down eyes. JOHNSON. 



Thou know'ft, 'tis common ; all, that live, muft die, 
Faffing through nature to eternity. 

Ham. Ay, madam, it is common. 

guecn. It it be, 
Why feems it fo particular with thec ? 

Ham. Seems, madam! nay, it is; I know not 


J Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother, 
Nor cuftomary fuits of folemn black, 
Nor windy fufpirarion of forc'd breath, 
No, nor the fruitful river in the eye, 
Nor the dejected haviour of the vifage, 
Together with all forms, modes, fhews of grief ", 
That can denote me truly : Thefe, indeed, feem, 
For they are actions that a man might play : 
But I have that within, which paffeth (hew ; 
Thefe, but the trappings and the fuits of woe. 

King, J Tis fweet and commendable in your nature, 


To give thefe mourning duties to your father : 
But, vou muft know, & your father loft a father; 


* fcews fgnrf,] Thus the foBo. The firft quarto reads 
cbapal fappofe fajhatxs. STEEVENS. 
* - jnr father if . 

That father. Us; amd tbe Jmrve*gr tmuT\ 
oufl correded the fault coies. On which 

the editor Mr. 
thus defcants : <fbis fofcj/U r&emnt is frm Mr. 

That father bfi, 
7be reAa&atitm of vatncb ttMrJ here fives a* nergy mmd am A- 


PLAINED ix TEXMS. I befiere fo: tor when exfLameJ n 
terms it comes to this; That father after he had loft himfelfj 
loft his father. But the reading is ex fide axfois, and that is 
enough. WARBORTOK. 

I cio not admire the repetition of the word, but it has fo much 
of oar author's manner, that I find no temptation ID recede from 
the c!c ccries. T 


i88 HAMLET, 

That father loft, loft his ; and the furvivor bound 

In filial obligation, for fome term 

To do 9 obiequious forrow : But to perfever 

1 In obftinate condolement, is a courfe 

Of impious ftubbornnefs; 'tis unmanly grief: 

It (hews - a will moft incorrect to heaven i 

A heart unfortify'd, or mind impatient; 

An underftanding iimple and unfchooPd: 

For what, we know, muft be, and is as common 

As any the moft vulgar thing to fenfc, 

Why fhould we, in our peevifh oppofuion, 

Take it to heart ? Fie ! 'tis a fault to heaven, 

A fault againft the dead, a fault to nature, 

3 To reafon moft abfurd, whofe common theme 
Is death of fathers, and who ftill hath cry'd, 
From the firft corfe, 'till he that died to-day, 
This muft be fo. We pray you, throw to earth 
This unprevailing woe ; and think of us 

As of a father : for, let the world take note, 
You are the moft immediate to our throne ; 

4 And, with no lefs nobility of love 

The meaning of the paflage is no more than this. Tour fatber Infi 
a father, i. e. your grandfather, which loft grandfather , alfo loll 
his father.- STEEVENS. 

s obfequious forrow. ] Obfequious is here from obfequies or 
Juneral ceremonies. JOHNS ON4 
So, in Titus Andronicus : 

" To ihed obfequious tears upon his trunk." STEEVENS. 
Again, in our author's 51(1 Sonnet : 

How many a holy and objequious tear, 
Hath dear religious love ftoll'n from mine eye ! MALOKE. 
1 In obftinate condoleraent,] Condokmcnt^ for forrow. 

* a "Mill moft incorreft -] Incorre8 t for untutored. 


3 To reafon moft abfurd \ ] Reafon^ for experience. 


Reafon is here ufed in its common fenfe, for tine faculty by which 
we form conclufions from arguments. JOHNSON. 

4 And with no lefs nobility of lovt,~\ Nobility^ for magnitude. 

is rather gcnerojtty. JOHNS ON. 



Than that which deareft father bears his fon, 
5 Do I impart toward you. For your intent 
In going back to fchool in Wittenberg, 
It is mod retrograde to our defire : 
And, we befeech you, 6 bend you to remain 
Here, in the chear and comfort of our eye, 
Our chiefeft courtier, coufin, and our fon. 

Queen. Let not thy mother lofe her prayers, Ham- 

I pray thee, ftay with us, go not to Wittenberg. 
Ham. I fhall in all my beft obey you, madam. 
King. Why, 'tis a loving and a fair reply ; 
Be asourfelfin Denmark. Madam, come; 
This gentle and unforc'd accord of Hamlet 
Sits fmiling to my heart : in grace whereof, 
' No jocund health, that Denmark drinks to-day, 
But the great cannon to the clouds fhall tell ; 
And the king's rouze the heaven fhall bruit again, 
Re-fpeaking earthly thunder. Come, away. {Exeunt. 

Manet Hamlet. 
Ham. O, that this too too folid flelh would melt, 

* Do I impart tnaardyvt. ] Lnfart t far pnfift. WAR*U*TO*. 
I believe i*p*rt is, impmrt mjefo camrnvmiratt whatever I can bc- 

fiow. JOB x SON. 

Zfc / 'tmffrt toward JVB. 

The crown of Denmark was ekaire. So, in So- Cyoauu Krifbt if 
;i* &*&*&/, &c. 1599: 

M And me po&fs lor fpoufed wife, who in A3i m am 
" To have the cmo* $ Dnmarl here, as heir unto the fame," 
The king means, that as Hamlet Hands the faircft chance to be next 
tefted, he will drive with as much love to enfure the crown to him, 
as a father would (hew in the continuance of heirdom to a ion. 


tautjm to rtiaaim] i. e. fubdue your inclination to go from 
hence, and remain, &c. STES YENS. 

7 i\ jianJ beahb t .j The king's Jatempeiance is very 

ftrongh- imprefled ; every thing that happens to him gives him oc- 
cafior. to dri nk . JOHNSON. 

: Thaw, 

io.o H A M L E , 

Thaw, and refolve itfelf into a dew 8 ! 

* Or that the Everlafting had not fix'd 

His canon 'gainft felf-flaughter ! O God ! O God ! 
How weary, dale, flat, and unprofitable 
Seem to me all the ufes of this world ! 
Fie on't ! O fie ! 'tis an unweeded garden, 
That grows to feed; things rank, and grofs in nature^ 
Pofiefs it merely. That it mould come to this ! 
But two months dead ! nay, not fo much, not two : 
1 So excellent a king ; that was, to this, 
Hyperion to a fatyr : fo loving to my mother, 

* That he might not let e'en the winds of heaven 


8 refolve itfelf into a Jt--tu/] Refolve means the fame as dif- 
Jofoe. Ben Jonfon ufes the word in his Volfone, and in the fame fenfe. 

" Forth the refolded corners of his eyes*" 
Again, in the Country Girl, 1 647 : 

" my fwoln grief, refolded in thefe tears." STEEVENS. 
* Or that the Everlafting bad not fix'd 

His canon 'gainft Jelf-Jlaugbter /] The generality of the edi- 
tions read thus, as if the poet's thought were, Or that the Almighty 
bad not planted bis artillery, or arms ^vengeance, againft felf-murder* 
But the word which I reftored (and which was efpoufed by the 
accurate Mr. Hughes, who gave an edition of this play) is the true 
reading, i. e. that be had not reftrained fuicide by /j exprefs law and 
peremptory prohibition. THEOBALD. 

There are yet thofe who fuppofe the old reading to be the true 
one, as they lay the word fixed feems to decide very ftrongly in its 
favour. I would advife fuch to recoiled!: Virgil's expreffion : 

fixit leges pretio, atque refixit. STEEVENS. 
1 So excellent a king, that <was t fo tbis^ 

Hyperion to a Satyr: ] This limilitude at firft fight 

feems to be a little far-fetch'd ; but it has an exquiiite beauty. By 
the Satyr is meant Pan, as by Hyperion, Apollo. Pan and dpolb 
were brothers, and the allufion is to the contention between thofe 
gods for the preference in mufick. WAR BUR TON. 

All our Englifh poets are guilty of the fame falfe quantity, and 
call Hyperion Hyperion ; at leaft the only inflance I have met 
with to the contrary, is in the old play of Fuimus Trocs, 1603 : 

" Blow gentle Africus, 
" Play on our poops, when Hyperion's fon 
Shall couch in Weft." STEEVENS. 
* In former editions, 
That be permitted not the winds of heaven] This is a fophi- 


Vifit her face too roughly* Heaven and earth ! 
Muft I remember ? why, (he would hang on him, 
As if increafe of appetite had grown 
By what it fed on : And yet, within a month, 
Let me not think on't; - Frailty, thy name is 

woman ! 

A little month ; or ere thofe (hoes were old, 
With which fhe follow'd my poor fathers body, 
Like Niobe, all tears : why fee, even fhe, 
O heaven ! a beaft, that wants difcourfe of reafan, 
Would have mourn'd longer, marry'd with my 


My father's brother; but no more like my father, 
Than I to Hercules : Within a month ; 
Ere yet the fait of moft unrighteous tears 
Had left the Burning in her gaoled eyes, 
She marry 'd. O moft wicked fpeed, to pod 
With luch dexterity to inceftuous fheets! 
It is not, nor it cannot come to, good : 
But break, my heart ; for I muft hold my tongue ! 

ftical reading, copied from the players in ioroe of the modem edi- 
tions, for want of uaderibnding the poet, whole text is corrupt in 
die old impreffions : all of which that 1 have had the fortune to 
fee, concur in reading; 

- S, boimg t. mi 

Fzfo her fact t 
Betene is a corruption without doubt, but not fo inveterate a 
one, but that, by the change of a tingle letter, and the reparation of 
two words miiiakenly jumbled together, I am verily perfuaded, I 
have letikml the poet's reading - Tbtt be might mt let e'en the 
*oaJt f h', &c THEOBALD. 

So, in the Enterlude of the, Ljrfi and Refntann j Merit 
J&gJUane, &c. by Lewis Wagv, 1567 : 

li But ererroore they were unto me verv tender, 

- They would not/^r the **?& on me to blowe." 

S 711 VI VS. 

So again, in MarnWs Imfialate Cemmttfs, i6bt : 

- ftehadalord, 
Jealous that air JboaUaviih her chaftc look*. 11 MALOKE. 


I 9 2 HAMLET, 

Enter Horatio, Bernardo, and Marcellus. 

Hor. Hail to your lordfhip ! 

Ham. I am glad to fee you well : 
Horatio, or I do forget myfelf ? 

Hor, The fame, my lord, and your poor fervant 

Ham. Sir, my good friend j I'll change that name 

with you J . 

And * what make you from Wittenberg, Horatio ? 
Marcellus ? 

Mar. My good lord, 

Ham. I am very glad to fee you ; 5 good even, fir. 
But what, in faith, make you from Wittenberg ? 

Hor. A truant difpofition, good my lord. 

Ham. I would not hear your enemy fay fo ; 
Nor mail you do mine ear that violence, 
To make it trufter of your own report 
Againft yourfelf : I know, you are no truant. 
But what is your affair in Elfmour ? 
We'll teach you to drink deep, ere you depart. 

Hor. My lord, I came to fee your father's funeral. 

Ham. I pray thee, do not mock me, fellow- 

ftudent ; 
I think, it was to fee my mother's wedding. 

Hor. Indeed, my lord, it follow'd hard upon. 

3 Til change that na>ne~\ I'll be your fervant, you (hall 
be my friend. JOHNSON. 

4 ivbat make you ] A familiar phrafe for what are yon 
doing. JOHNSON. 

s g 00 d even, Jtr.J So the copies. Sir Th. Hanmer and 
Dr. Warburton put it, good morning. The alteration is of no im- 
portance, but all licence is dangerous. There is no need of any 
change. Between the firft and eighth fcene of this aft it is appa- 
rent, that a natural day mull pafs, and how much of it is already 
over, there is nothing that can determine. The king has held a 
council. It may now as well be evening as morning. JOHNSON. 



Sam. Thrift, thrift, Horatio ! the funeral bak'd 

meats 5 

Did coldly famuli forth the marriage tables. 
'Would I had met my 7 deareft v foe in heaven, 

Or ever I had feen that day, Horatio ! 

My father, Methinks, I lee my fethcr. 
Her. QwBerc,myIord? 
Ham. In my mind's eye*, Horatio. 


among die yeomanry. See 
i* j L~*m, 1598. - His 
tGodiediordi, andthore 

ux QIC old romance of Sjr ZXjwnr , bL L no da& 

A__ ^ _,Jf , * _^ L_ t J 
^ .._ : - : " . _ f ~ .It 

Upon his queues morajnge drr 
That was borrcd in an abbay.* 

So, ia 


Again, iaB. andFIodia's MmMmd* M&: 
Tim nmi jimn ^MiijTrBfiiii in Imi, 
WiA a3 ha hate about him. 


194 H A M L E T, 

Hor. I faw him once, he was a goodly king.' 

Ham. He was a man, take him for all in all, 
9 I ihall not look upon his like again. 

Hor. My lord, I think I faw him yeflernight. 

Ham. Saw ! who ? 

Hor. My lord, the king your father. 

Ham. The king my father ! 

Hor. l Seafon your admiration for a while 
With an attent ear ; 'till I may deliver, 
Upon the witnefs of thefe gentlemen, 
This marvel to you. 

Ham. For heaven's love, let me hear. 

Hor. Two nights together had thefe gentlemen, 
Marcellus and Bernardo, on their watch, 
In the dead wade and middle of the night, 
Been thus encounter'd. A figure like your father, 
Arm'd at all points a , cxaflly, cap-a-pe, 
Appears before them, and, with iolemn march, 
Goes flow and (lately by them : thrice he walk'd, 
By their oppreft and fear-furprized eyes, 
Within his truncheon's length ; whilft they, diftill'd 
Almoft to jelly 3 with the aft of fear, 


Telemachus lamenting the abfcnee of Uiyfles, is reprefented in 
like manner : 

'Ocrao/Aivof TO-ar/^' ly\cj m fyi<rl>, 'SrEEVENS. 
9 \Jbailnot look vfion bis like again. ~\ Mr. Holt propoies-to read 

from Sir Samuel's emendation : 

" Eye Ihall nor look upon his like again ;" 

and thinks it is more in the true fpirit of Shaketpeare than the other. 
So, in Store's Chronicle, p. 746 : " In the greateft pomp that ever 
eye behelde." Again, in Sana's Travels, p. 150: " We went 
this day through the moil pregnant and pleafant valley that ever 
(ye beheld." STEEV^NS. 

1 Seafimjwgr admiration ] That is, temper it. JOHNSON. 
z Am: 'dat all p?irits^\ Thus the folio; The quartos armed 
at point, SrEEVENSi 

s with the aft of fear,] Shakefpeare could never wrife fo 
improperly as to call fotpeffum of fear ^ the aft nffiar. \Vithout 
doubt the true reading is, 




Stand dumb and fpeak cot to him. This to me 
In dreadful fecrefy impart they did ; 
And I with them, the third night, kept tbe watch : 
Where, as they had defiver'd, both'in rime, 
Form of the thing, each word made true and good, 
The apparition comes: I knew your rather ; 
Tbde hands are not more like. 
Ham. But where was this ? 
Mar. My lord, upon the platform what- we 

Ham. Did you not fpeak to k ? 

Her. My lord, I did; 

But anfwcr made it none : yet once, rethought, 
It lilted up its head, and did addreis 
Itfelf to motion, like as it would fpeak : 
But, even then, the morning cock crew loud ; 
And at the found it (hrunk in hafte away, . 
And vani&'d from our fight. 

Ham. Tis very ftrange. 

Her. As I do live, my bonour'd lord, 'ds true ; 
And we did dunk k wrk down in our duty, 
To let you know of it. 

Ham. Indeed, indeed, firs, but this troubles me. 
Hold you the watch to-night ? 

AIL We do, my lord. 

Ham. Arm'd, iay you? 

M. Arm'd* my lord. 

Ham. From top to toe ? 

Hoc is an aftekdioa of fobc&y widurst aoCTnsrr. Ffjar is 
rrcry day coofidcral a- an -^/T'. Ffsrl: : 

*3jr. It k irene proper to be n^mroDs iis evjrrimn- sr fics, 

if he wrote by tiie sirettk'O 01 thucriiidL ; risej- <rcfe DOC 38^ 
wbatever tbe word 007 msx^ & six tfsS rfjimr-, for that f- 
iSiiti^ wtt\&K &e cj& -, foariigts tbe o.^":. t3>e aOtiTe cao^e, 
thar ^figfe/dm by that fenrce of oprtzuoo wfckfa we firiSV call 
*3 inTotjmanr, and /nanr in inToiaa*aiy a^nts, bac popaiactv 
csK A? in both. Bat of this EOO m^acn. JOKXSOX. 
The iblio icads -_**2*d. S 

t) : 

196 H A M L E T, 

AIL My lord, from head to foot. 

Ham. Then favv you not his face. 

Hor. O, yes, my lord ; he wore his beaver up. 

Ham. What, "look'd he frowningly ? 

Hor. A countenance more 
In forrow than in anger. 

Ham. Pale, or red ? 

Hor. Nay, very pale. 

Ham. And fix'd his eyes upon you ? 

Hor. Moft conftantly. 

Ham. I would, I had been there. 

Hor. It would have much amaz'd you. 

Ham. Very like, 
Very like : Stay'd it long ? 

Hor. While one with moderate hade 
Might tell a hundred. 

Both. Longer, longer. 

Hor. Not when I law it. 

Ham. His beard was grizzl'd ? no ? 

Hor. It was, as I have feen it in his life, 
A fable filver'd. 

Ham. I will watth to-night; 
Perchance, 'twill walk again. 

Hor. I warrant, it will. 

Ham. If it aflume my noble father's perfon, 
I'll fpeak to it, though hell itfelf mould gape, 
And bid me hold my peace. I pray you all, 
If you have hitherto conceal'd this fight, 
4 Let it be tenable in your filence (till ; 
And whatfoever elle {hall hap to-night, 
Give it an underftanding, but no tongue ; 
I will requite your loves : So,, fare you well : 

4 Let it be treble in your Jllence ftiU :~\ If treble be right, in pro- 
priety it fhould be read, 

Let it be treble inyour Jllence now : 
But the old quarto reads, 

Let it be TENABLE in yonr filence Jlill r 
And this is rkhr. WARBURTON.. . 



Upon the platform, 'twixt eleven and twelve, 
I'll vifit you. 

All. Our duty to your honour. 

Ham. Your loves, as mine to you : FareweL 


My father's fpirit in arms ! all is not well ; 
I doubt fotne foul play : 'would, the night were 


'Till then fit ftill, my foul : Foul deeds will rife, 
(Though all the earth o'erwhelm them) to men's eyes. 



An apartment in Poloniu? boufe. 
Enter Laertes, and Ophelia. 

Laer. My neceflaries are embark'd ; farewel : 
And, fitter, as the winds give benefit, 
And convoy is affiftant, do not deep, 
But let me hear from you. 

Opb. Do you doubt that ? 

Laer. For Hamlet, and the trifling of his favour, 
Hold it a falhion, and a toy in blood ; 
A violet in the youth of primy nature, 
Forward, not permanent, fweet, not lading, 
s The perfume and fuppliance of a minute ; 
No more. 

v/^w, / fuppliance fl/"afr:] Thus the quarto: 
io has it, 

the folio 

It is p^ain that/tr/kw is neceflary to exemplify the idea of fa 
not lajlixg. With the word fvpplicmce I am not fatisfied, and yet 
dare bai3ly offer what I imagine to be right. I fafpeSk that Jef- 
fance, or force fuch word, formed from the Italian, was then uied 
for the adt of fumigating with fweet fcents. JOHNSON. 

The perfu:ne, and fvppliamct of a minute ; i. e. what is fuppiied 
to us for a minute. The idea feems to be caken irora the fliott 
duration of regetabte perfumes. STEEVEXS. 

O 3 Opb. 

j 9 o HAMLET, 

Oph. No more but fo ? 

Laer. Think it no more : 
For nature, crefcent, does not grow alone 
In thews 6 , and bulk -, but, as this temple waxes, 
The inward fervice of the mind and foul 
Grows wide withal. Perhaps, he loves you now j 

7 And now no foil, nor cautel, doth befmirch . . 
The virtue of his will : but, you muft fear, 

His greatnefs weigh 'd, his -will is not his own; 
For he himfelf is fubjeft to his birth : 
He may nor, as unvalued perfons do, 
Carve for hunfelf ; for on his choice depends 

8 The fafety and the health of the whole ftate ; 
And therefore muft his choice be circumfcribM; 
Unto the voice and yielding of that body, 

6 In thews,] \. e. in finews, mufcular ftrength. STEEVENS. 

7 And now no foil, nor cautel, ] From cautela, which figuifies 
W&y * frude*t forefght or ca.ution; but, palling through French 
hands, it luft its innocence, and now fignifies fraud, deceit. And fp 
he uies the adjective in Julius Citfar : 

fhvtar priefts tad cowards^ and men cautelous, 
But I believe Shakeipeate wrote, > 

And now no fid of cauirl < 
which the following words confirm : 

doth befmirch 

The virtue of bis iw'//: 

For by virtue is meant the Jiwpliciiy of his will, not virtuous will: 
and both this and lefmcrch refer only to Joil, and to the foil ^craf't 
and infinceiiiy. WAREURTON. 

So, in the fecond part of Greene's Art of Coneycatching, 1592: 
*' and their fubtill cartels to amend the ftatute." To amend t'jc 
Jlatutc was the cant phrafe for evading the lavv. STEEVENS. 

Virtue feems here to comprife both excellence and^o^wr, and may 
be explained the pure ffftft. JOHNSON 

8 The fanctity and the health ef the whole Jiate\\ What has the 
JanSl'ty of the ibite to do with the prince's difpropprtioned marriage f 

We fhould read with the old quarto fafety. WARBURTON. 

Hanroer reads very rightly, faatty. Sanfii'ly is elfewhere printed 
for Janity, in th old edition of this play. JOHNSON. 

Sanity and health may have the fame meaning. I therefore reu't 
with all the quartos, 

The j'afi-y and the health, c. STEEVSXS. 



Whereof he is the head : Then if he lays, he loves 


It fits your wifdoin fo far to believe it, 
As he in his particular act and place 
May give his faying deed ; which is no further, 
Than the main voice of Denmark goes withal. 
Then weigh what lofe your honour may fuftain, 
If with too credent ear you lift his fongs ; 
Or lofc your heart ; or your chafte treafure open 
To his 9 unmafter'd importunity; 
Fear it, Ophelia, fear it, my dear filler; 
And ' keep you in the rear of your afiedion , 
Out of the (hot and danger of defire. 
The diariefr maid * is prodigal enough, 
If (he unmafk her beauty to the moon : 
Virtue itfelf fcapes not calumnious ft rokes : 
The canker galls the infants of the fpring, 
Too oft before their buttons be diicks'd; 
And in the morn and liquid dew of youth 
Contagious bhfhnents are moft imminent. 
Be wary then r beft fafety ties in fear ; 
Youth to itfelf rebels, though none elfc near. 

Opb. I (hall the efiea of this good leflbn keep, 
As watchman to my heart : But, good my brother, 
Do not, as fome ungracious paftors do, 
Shew me the deep and thorny way to heaven ; 
Whilft, like a puft and recklefs iibertine, 


L e. SaxAmx. Joaxsox. 
4* rear, &e.] Tin: is. da not advance fo r 
s jour afefHon would lead TOO. JOHXSOX. 
3 7%rcbaneftw<| Ce^j is cautious. So, in Greene's _wr 
jiv2^ 1616: ~ Lore requires not cnattijy, but that her loklkra 
be d*ay? Again, K Soe amh cnaulj cmos^, ttut liredi 

Thk reading giics us 
joj be i^r an ongracioas preacher, 
who is fe a carpets fihenice. Aad tbrre *e find, that be who is 
fo ir-a cocids ubeni-e, is the yyM^ Jibertiae hinifci. This 
coaid not come 6om Shakefptare. Tbeotdquuto reads. 

4 - 

200 H A M L E T, 

Himfelf the primrofe path of dalliance treads, 
And 4 recks not his own read. 

Laer. O, fear me not. 
I flay too long ; But here my father comes. 

'Enter Pcknius. 

A double blefling^ is a double grace ; 
Occafion fmiles upon a lecond leave. 

Pol. Yet here, Laertes ! aboard, aboard, for 

, Whiles a pnft and recklefs Jioerttitf^ 
which directs us to the right reading, 

Wbilft he, apitft and- recklefs libertine. 

The firft impreffion of thcfe plays being taken from the play-houfe 
copies, and thole, for the better direction of the actors, being writ- 
ten as they were pronounced, thefe circumfiances have occafioned 
innumerable errors. So a for be every where. 
'a VMS ft goodly king, 

'A was a man take him for all in all* 

/ warn't // w///, 

for /warrant. This (hould be well attended to in correcting 
Shakefpeare. WARBURTOK. 

The emendation is not amifs, but the reafon for it is very in- 
conclufive : \ve ufe the fame mode of fpeaking on many oc- 
cafions. When I fay of one, he fquanders like a fpendthrift, of 
another, be robbed me like a thief, the phrafe produces no am- 
biguity ; it is underftood that the one is yijpendtbrifi t and the other 
A thief. JOHNSON. 

4 recks not bis own read.] That is, heeds not his own 
leflbns. POPE. 

So, in Hycke Scomer\ 

" I reck not a feder." 

Ben Jonfon ufes the word reed in his Catiline^ 
" So that thou couldft not move 
" Again ft a public reed? 

Again, in Sir Tho. North's tranflation of Plutarch: " Dif- 
patch, I read you, for your enterprize is betray'd." Again, in. 
the old Morality of Hycke Scorner : 

" And of thy living, I reed amend thee." 
So the Old Proverb \n the Tivo Angry Women ofAbington, 1599 : 

**' Take heed, is a good reed? 

Again, iri Warner's Albion's England, 1602, book 5. chap. 27 : 
" and to his reed already bent." ST^EVENS. 

7 The 


The wind fits in the (boulder of your fail, 
And you are ftaid for : There, my bleffings with 
you ; [Laying bis band on Laertes* bead. 

And thefe few precepts in thy memory 
Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue, 
Nor any unproportion'd thought his act. 
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. 
The friends thou haft, and their adoption try'd, 
Grapple them to thy foul with hoops of fteel; 
6 But do not dull thy palm with entertainment 
Of each new-hatch'd unfledg'd comrade. Beware 
Of entrance to a quarrel ; but, being in, 
Bear it that the oppoier may beware of thee. 
Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice : 
Take each man's cenfure 7 , butreferve thy judgment. 
Coftly thy habit as thy purfe can buy, 
But not exprefs'd in fancy ; rich, not gaudy : 
For the apparel oft proclaims the man ; 
And they in France, of the bed rank and ftation, 
s Are moft felect, and generous chief, in that. 
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be : 
For loan oft lofes both itfelf and friend; 
And borrowing dulls the edge of huibandry. 

3 tbeJbaMtr fjmrjail,] This is a common fea phrafe. 

' But Jo jut dmtt fly palm tttb en'.rrtaiimm 

Of cacb nfvj-batcb'd, ntfedgd ccmraJe.'] The literal fenfe 
is, Do net make tbj palm callous fy jcaizng every max ty the band. 
The figurative meaning may be, De .?' ly frmai/ciams coifcerjatiat 
maif iby mind injfnj&le t9 the eGJjfirmKf ofc*Mxra&rrs. Jo H X s ON. 

7 eacb moat's cenfure,] Cenfxre is opinion. So, in King 
Rlcbard III : To give your cnftres in this weighty bufinefs. 

Are moftJeleS and gnerma^ cblff in ttxzt.'] I think the whole 
defign of the precept {hews we ftould read, 

Are mafl jelecL, a*d ge rrgtG cb : rf, in tb*>. 

Cbiff is an dk^o&Tv -ed adw T-tfA'y, rommon to our 

author. Chiefly generous. Yci it my ft be cwni that rhe punc- 
tuation recommended is very fiiff and harfh. STE E r E : s . 


202 HAMLET, 

This above all, To thine ownfelf be true;; 
9 And it muft follow., as the night the day, 
Thou canft not then be falie to any man. 
farewel ; r my blefling feafon this in thee ! 

Laer. Moft, humbly do I take my leave, my lord, 

9 And it mujl follow, as the night the day.~\ The fenfe here re- 
quires, that the fimilitude fhould give an image not of two effefts of, 
different natures, that follow one another alternately, but of a caufe 
and effeft, where the effect follows the caufe hy a p/yjical ncceffity 
For the aflertion is, Be true to thyfelf, and then thou muft neceffitrity 
be true to others. Truth to himfelf then was the caufe, truth to 
others the efffft. To illuftrate this neceflity, the fpeaker employs' 
a fimilitude : but no fimilitude can illuftrate it, but what prefents 
an image of a caufe and effect : and fuch a caufe as that, where the 
effect follows by af^v/tca^ not a moral neceflity : for if only, by a 
Twra: neceflity, the thirig ilht/tratlng would not be more certain than 
the thing ,itluftratcd \ which would be a great abfurdity. This 
being prem'rfed, let u& fee what the text (ays, 

And it mujt follow^ as fhf night the day. 

In this we are fo far from being preiented with an effeft following 
a caufe by a phyfical neceflity, that there is no caufe at all : but 
only two different effe&s, proceeding : from two different caufes, 
and fucceeding one another alternately. Shakefpeare, therefore, 
without quefticn xvrote, 

And it muft follow ^ as the light the day.. 

As much as to fay, Truth to thyfelf, and truth to others, are in- 
feparable, the latter depending neceflkrily on the former as light 
defends upon the day; where it is to be obierved, that day is uied 
figuratively for the/a. The ignorance of which, I foppofe, con- 
tributed to miflead the editors. WARBURTON. 

And it muft follow, as the night the day. 

This note is very acute, but the common fuc.ceflion of night to 
clay was, I believe, all that our author meant to make Folonius 
think of, on the prefent occafion. 

So, in the i45th Sonnet of Shakefpeare : , 
" That folluw'd it as gentle dny 
" Doth follow nighty &c." STEEVENS. 
3 iiiy blejjing leafon this in thee /] Sedfon^ for infufc. 


It is more than to infuje, it is to infix it in fuch a manner as that 
it never may wear out. JOHNSON. 

So, in the meek tragedy reprefented before the king : 

who in want a hollow friend doth try, 
Direclly fcafons him his enemy. STEEVENS. 


The time invites you; go, jour iervants 

tend 3. 

Laer. Farcwel, Ophelia; and remember weU 
hat I have faid to you. 
Opb. 'Tb in my memory locked, 

you 4yourfclf fliaJl keep the key of it. 
Laer. FarcweL [/ Laertes. 

PoL What is*t, Ophelia, be hath laid to you? 
Opb. So pleafe you, fomething touching the lorcl 


Pel. Many, well bethought : 
*Tis told me, he hath very oft of late 
Given private time to you ; and you yourielf 
Have of your audience been moft free and bounteous j 
If it be fo, (as fo 'tis put on me, 
And that in way of caution) I muft tell you, 
You do not underftand yourfelf fo clearly, 
As it behoves my daughter, and your honour : 
What b between you ? give me up the truth. 
* Opb. He nath, my lord, of lace made masr 

. tenders 
Of his affection to me, 

* Toe time invites jw.- ] This reading k as old ss Ac firt 
jU; bos^rrer,Ifd^ittDhaTCbii ftAfiwedbythcfacrs, 
who did not twdedbmd the torn which pofle&s die ddcr 

i. c. befieges, prc&s upoo. you oo cnsj fide. To asxp * 
team, is the m&toy pbraie firm which oar rathor borrowed his 

' trailing n&ty forte. MadKta H&* 
- I go, and u bdooe, dKbefl name.' 
3 jma- Javmmti uadL] i. c. jour fcrraoEs are waking tor 
you. JOHSSOS. 

tkiak on your lemons. JOHNS OK. 

The meaning is, due your counieb arc as ibxe of remaining 
locked op in my memory, as if you *,curfdf earned die key of it. 
So, mNirtit-vmrJH^ by Decker and Webuer, 6o 7 : V You 
&all do& k up Hke cnczfeie of yocar own, and yourfcfo JbaM tap 
^xtytfit* STEEV_ 

204 HAMLET, 

Pol. Affection ? puh ! you fpeak like a. green girl, 
5 Unfifted in fuch perilous circumftance. 
Do you believe his tenders, as you call them ? 

Opb. I do not know, my lord, what I mould 

PoL Marry, 111 teach you : think yourfelf a baby; 
That you have ta'en thefe tenders for true pay, 
"Which are not fterling. 6 Tender yourfelf more 

dearly -, 

Or (not to crack the wind of the poor phrafe) 
"Wronging it thus, you'll tender me a fool. 

Oph. My lord, he hath importuned me with love, 
In honourable fafhion. 

5 Unfifted in fitch perikus circumjlancc."} Vnjifted, for untried. 
Untried fignifies either not tempted, or not refined; unjifted, fignifies 
the latter on\y, though thefenie requires the former. WARBURTON. 

6 Tender yourfelf more dearly ; 

Or (not to crack the wind nfthe poor pbrafe) 

Wronging it thus, you II tender me a fool.~\ The parenthcjis 
is clofed at the wrong place ; and we muft have likewife a flight 
correction in the laft verfe. Polonius is racking and playing on 
the word tender, till he thinks proper to correct himfelt" for the 
licence; and then he would fay not farther to crack the wind 
of the phrafe, by trifling and contorting it, as I have done. 


I believe the word wronging has reference, not to the phrafe, 
but to Ophelia ; if you go on wronging it thus, that is, if you con' 
tinue to go on thus wrong. This is a mode of fpeakirg perhaps not 
very grammatical, but very common ; nor have the beft writers 
refufed it. 

To Jinner it or faint it, 
is in Pope. And Rovve, 

Thus to coy it, 

To one who knows you too* 
The folio has it, 

roaming // thus, 

That is, letting yourfelf loofc to fuch hamper liberty. But wronging 
feems to be more proper. JOHNSON. 

" See you do not coy it," is in Mailinger's New way to fay old 
Debts. Mr. Rowe had read this author, and borrowed from him 
the plan of the Fair Penitent, though without the raofl trivial ac-. 
kuowledgement. STEEVENS. 



Pol Ay, " fafhion you may call it ; go to, go to. 

Opb. And hath given countenance to his fpeech, 

my lord, 
With almofl all the holy vows of heaven. 

Pc,L Ay, fpringes to catch woodcocks s . I do 


When the blood burns, how prodigal the foul 
Lends the tongue vows : Thefe blazes, daughter, 
Giving more light than heat, extind: in both, 
Even in their promife, as it is a making, 
You muft not take for fire. From this rime, 
Be fomewhat fcanter of your maiden prefence; 

* Set your entreatments at a higher rate, 
Than a command to parler. For lord Hamlet, 
Believe fo much in him, That he is young; 
And with a x larger tether may he walk, 

Than may be given you : In few, Ophelia, 
Do not believe his vows : for they are brokers ; 
Xc: of that dye which their iaveftments fhew, 
But meer implorators of unholy fuits, 

* Breathing like fandified and pious bonds, 


' faffuonjiwr may catt it: ] She uksfejfo* for master, 
and he for a traxfient pro&ict. JoHXsex. 

* Jpra^" to catch vxoatotis.] A proreiiHal feying. 

" Every woman has a jjfringe it catch a wjoeetnct* 



vfr/atim, t'rom the French mritif*. JOHXSOX. 

1 krgcr tether ] A luring to tk hortes. POPE. 

Tether is that firing by which an animal, fee to graze in grousvcs 
urunclofed, is confined within the proper limits. JOHKSOX. 

So, in Greene's Card of Famy, 1601 : " To rye the ape and the 
bear in one tedder." yakrr is a firing by which any animal is 
iaitened, whether tor the fake of feeding or the air. STEE VE.VS. 

* Breatbimg Kite fa*a$ed and fins bonds,] On whkh the editor 
Mr. Theobald remarks, bt aU the tti**s S*ejn&uul this rtaJ- 
ing implicit}}, it is ctrtaay corrupt \ ami 1 have txt* fxrfrixed kern 
mat <rf gexha and icarnimg ctmU la it pafs <aritbnit 'foot fxjpldim. 
What ideas can <ax frame to mtrjavcs of a Ireathixg ~lmd~. *r if its 

But be was too haftj 


The better to beguile. This is for all, - 

* I would not, in plain terms, from this time forth 5 

Have you fo flander any moment's leilure, 

As to give words or talk with the lord Hamlet. 

Look to't, I charge you-, come your ways. 

Opb. I mail obey, my lord. [Exeunt* 


fbe Platform. 
Enter Hamlet , Horatio, and Marcellus. 

Ham. The air bites fhrewdly j it is very cold. 

Hor. It is a nipping and an eager air. 

Ham. What hour now? 

Hor. I think, it lacks of twelve. 

Mar. No, it is ftruck. 

Hor. Indeed ? I heard it not : it then draws near 

the feafon. 
Wherein the fpirit held his wont to walk. 

[Noife of mujick within. 
What does this mean, my lord ? 


before he understood thofe already framed by the poet, and ex- 
prefTed in very plain words. Do not believe (lays Folonius to his 
daughter) Hamlet's amorous vows made to you ; which pretend re- 
ligion in them (the better to beguile) like thofe fan&ified and pious 
vows \pr bonds'] made to heaven. And why {hould not this fa/s 
without fnfpicion ? WARBURTON. 

Theobald for bonds fubititutes bcewds. JOHNSON. 

* I<w0uUn6t 1 in plain terms, from this time forth, 

Haw you Jo flander any moment's leifure,] The humour of 
this is fine. The fpeaker's character is nil affectation . At lail he 
fays he \v\\\ fpeak plain, and yet cannot tor his lire; his plain fpeech 
oijlanelifing a moment's leifure being of the like fuftian fluff with the 

Here is another fine paffage, of which I take the beauty to be 
only imaginary. Polonius fays, in plain terms^ that is, not in lan- 

Hem, Hie kkg doth wake to-ragtsc, and takes Us 


Keeps wa0el, * and * Ac fwaggenng up-fpiing reds ; 
And, as he drains his draughts of Rbemfh down, 
The kettk-drosn, and trumpet, thus bray out 
The triumph of Iris pledge. 

Har. Iskaruftom? 

Htm. AT, many, is*t: 
But, to my mind, though I am native here, 
And to the manner born, it is a culmm 
More hoDoar' the breach, than the obfenrance. 
7 This- heavy-leaded- revel, eaft and weft, 


Aroofcisafeigc dofc of Bqiaor, a 

ACT fee ehai me a **& 
from i^ihAm^pi& 



% Croef JB Esxxe sal by 5is cae^ 

u W i^re - 1 ia 

4 M&fjznfgg?r~xg cp- : fiag J 



R . 

are ; 

And fnke fcis focJa nCw^r, _ " 

Tbc wtard k efed fcj C. Dc-^ki. EI tes era 
Ifhink, bfCfe.. 

.-cr wooM pL; - r jou sasae jrasr.pBpsa. 5 " JSTsai 

.jJxiarses ac - -^rsirg a EA 

. _ ; . - 

208 HAMLET, 

Makes us traduc'd, and tax'd of other nations : 

They clepe us, drunkards, and with fwinifh phrafe 

Soil our addition ; and, indeed, it takes 

From our achievements, though performed at height^ 

8 The pith and marrow of our attribute. 

So, oft it chances in particular men, 

That, for fome vicious mole of nature in them, 

As, in their birth, (wherein they are not guilty, 

Since nature cannot chuie his origin) 

By the o'er-growth of fome 9 complexion, 

Oft breaking down the pales and forts of reafon ; 

Or by fome habit, that too much o'er-leavens 

The form of plaufive manners ; that thefe men, 

Carrying, I fay, the ftamp of one defect ; 

Being nature's livery, or 1 fortune's flar, 

Their virtues elie (be they as pure as grace, 

* As infinite as man may undergo) 

Shall in the general cenfure take corruption 

From that particular fault : 3 The dram of bafe 


I fhould not have fufpected this paffage of ambiguity or ob- 
fcurity, had I not found my opinion ot it differing from that of the 
learned critic. I conilrue it thus, This heavy-headed revel makes KJ 
traduced eafi. and^Meft^. and taxed of other nations. JoHNSOjr. 

8 The pith and marrow of our attribute.] The beft and mofl 
valuable part of the praife that would be otherwife attributed to 


9 complexion,] /. <?. humour; as fanguine, melancholy, 
phlegmatic, CsV. WAR.EURTON. 

1 . fortune's fear,] In the old quarto of 1637, ^ ** 

fortune's flar : 

But I think fear is proper. JOHNSON* 
All the quartos read ftar. STEEVENS. 

a At infinite as ?nau may undergo,'] As large as an b'C accu- 
mulated upon man. JOHNSON. 
5 The dram of cafe 

Doth all the nolle fuljlance of a doubf, 

To his <nvn fcandal.] I do not remember a paffage through- 
out all our poet's works, more intricate and depraved in the 
text, of lefs meaning to outward appearance, or more likely to 
baffle the attempts of criticifm in its aid. It is certain, there i 



Doth ail the noble fubftance of worth out *, 
To his own icandat 

E*er Gbofi. 

Her. Look, my lord, it comes ! 
Ham. Angels and minifiers of grace defend as 5? - 


natter fcnfe nor grammar as it cow flands : yet withaffight al- 
ter^kn, FU cadearcar to cvre thofe dtte*, aad gire a fcarimmt 
too, that fell make dur poo's ihoo^hi cWc nobij. The dram of 
*0t (as I have canrflcd the tot) means the leaft alky of bafc- 
ne&orrice. It is *ny ireqarat with oar poet to ufc the *$e&c* 
offM^iofieadoftl^fiiba^m^fignityiiigtbethkg. Bcbdes. 
I bate obferred, Aar etfcwhoe, ipeakug of *f^ be defigbo to 
cocfider it as a qualiiy dot adds <on%f/ to a pezibc, and coancds 
die word with that idea. THEOBALD. 

A*dtfr^*fc>iba*^BW*fr*;] Various ajojeflmrs 
bare been employed aboct dii$ pafiage. The author of Tbt 
L- .:.--. :^ --. 

Dodi a3 die noble fcMbncc ^ otf *." 

Mr. Hok reads, 

"PMal tie MbfciofateaV 41*4*.* 
And Dr. Jotmfai thiiflks, tfatTIi rinMft ! rtu ffj 

(I.e. tbcfom of good qaSfities) # 
%, 7i its -a/W. Hand* 
are perpetoav cottMBd in the old ctopaes. 

As I ooderdiand the pa&ge, there k Imle difficnlrv in Ic. This 
is one of die low cnDoquial pkttfito wfckh prcfoit aic ndthrr 
emplovod ia wriang, nor perhaps are recoodfcahJe to die pro- 
priety of language. To J* * ifag *, is t aetagsgb if,oti* 
r*i^f or Metermte art Aemg imzmttj tr voiaa, 

In die irft of Acfe%piiatioit it i^M%gttwui, in tb 
jdi Canto of his .few' ^*j 

* 4 Wat taVn ic batrie, and bis eyes *-*.* StE t VE xs. 
JbyeUmmd^mftn JgmaJ&atms!} ffamkt's fpeech to rfw ~ 
pppannoa of bis lacher Seems to me to coafiil of tbire pa^ts, 
Srnrn nxft be fees de fpeflie, be ibrnfies biaa:Hi with an in- 

As the iccoic approaches, be ati&enfes wkkhiR&f, zaJ <w 
that wtmcTcr it be he vrifi \taxsfc to aoJic> u. 


Be thou a fpirit of health, or goblin damn'd 6 , 
Bring with thee airs from heaven, or blafts from hell, 
Be thy intents wicked, or charitable, 
Thou com'ft in fuch a 7 queftionable fhape, 
That I will fpeak to thee ; I'll call thee, Hamlet, 
King, father, royal Dane : O, anfwer me ! 
Let me not burft in ignorance ! but 8 tell, 


Be thou a fpirit of health, or gollin damrfd, 

Britig ivith thee airs from heaven, or llajlsfrom hell t 

Be thy intents wicked or charitable t 

Thou comjl in fnch a q^uejlionable faape, 

That I will fpeak to thce. P II call thee, &c. 
This he fays while his father is advancing ; he then, as he had 
determined, fpeaks to him, and calls him Hamlet, King, Father^ 
Royal Dane : oh ! anfiver me. JOHNSON. 

6 Be thou a fpirit of healthy or goblin damnd, &c.] So in Acolaftus 
his After-wit, 1600: 

" Art thou a god, a man, or elfe a ghoft? 
" Com'ft thou from heaven, where blifs and folacc dwell ? 
*' Or from the airie cold-engendring coaft? 
*' Or from the darkfome dungeon-hold of hell ?** 
The firft known edition of this play is in 1604. STEEVENS. 

7 queftionable J}}ape^\ By qv.eftionable is meant provoking 
queftion. HAMMER. 

So in Macbeth : 

Live you, or are you aught 
That man may queftion ? JOHNSON. 

$>ncftioiialle, I believe means only propitious to converfation, eajy 
And willing to be cowvcrfcd with. So in As you like it. <* An - 
ewftionabie fpirit, which you have not." Unqueftionable in this laft 
inftance certainly fignities unwilling to be talked to. STEE VENS. 

^neflionable, I believe, only means capable of being converfed with. 
To qiicftion, certainly in our author's time fignified to conwerjt. 
So, in his Tarquin and Lucrece, 1593 ' 

" For after fupper long he queftioned 

With modeft Lucrece ." 
Again, in Antony and Cleopatra: 

" Out of our quejlion wipe him." MALONE. 

Wly thy canonized bones, hcarfed in death, 

Have burji their cearments ?~\ Hamlet here fpeaks with wonder, 
that he who was dead fhould rife again and walk. But this, ac- 
cording to the vulgar fuperftition here followed, was no wonder. 
Their only wolider was, that one, who had the rites of fepulture per- 



,Why thy canoniz'd bones, hearfed in death, 
Have burft their ceannents ? why the fepulchre, 


termed to him, mould walk ; the want of which was foppofed TO 
be the reafon of walking ghofts. Hamlet's wonder then ffcouU 
hare been placed here: and fo Shakefpeare placed it, as we fhaU 
fee prefently. For bearfed is tried figuratively, to fignify repe/ae* 
therefore the place -cohere mould be deigned: but Jratb bema no 
flacf, but a private only, beared i death is nonfenfe. We 

Whj tty oomaVfaKS, bearfed in earth, 
Have bmrft tbtir cearmnts? 

It appears, for the two reafons given above, that earth is die true 
reading. It win further appear for thefe two other reafons. Fiif , 
From the words, onmezV hones; ky which is not meant (as one 
would imagine) a compliment for, made My or fainted \ bat for 
tnes to which the rites of iepuiture hare been performed; or 
which were buried according to the canon. For we are told he 
was murdered with all his fins frefh upon him, and therefore in 
no way to be fainted. But if this licentious ufe of the word 
caxoiBzd be allowed, then earth muft be the true reading, for in- 
huming bodies was one of the efienrial parts of fepukhral rites. 
Secondly, From the words, Have Imrjl their cearmaas^ which im- 
ply the preceding mention of inhuming, but no mention is made of 
it in the common reading. This "itffHrd the Oxford editor to 
improve upon the emendation ; fo he reads, 
Why thy bones beared in camemnid earth. 

I fuppofe for the fake of harmony, not of fenfe. For though 
the rites of iepukure/r^9riE^ canonizes the body tmried; yet it 
does not canonize the earth in which it is laid, unlefs every funeral 
ferrice be a new coniecration. WABUXTOX. 

It were too k>njg to examine this note period by period, though 
almott every period teems to me to contain fomething reprehen- 
fible. The critic, in his zeal for change, writes with ib little con- 
fideration, as to fay, that Hamlet cannot call his father commatA^ 
teMieKfcft4/At murdertdvMh all bis foujrejb *f*x him. 
He was not then told it, and had fo link the power of knowing 
it, that he was to be told it by an apparition. The long fucceffion 
of reafoBS upon reafons proves nothing, but what every reader 
difcovers, that the king had been buried, which is implied by fo 
many adjuncts of burial, that the dired meotion of earth is not 
Decenary. Hamlet, amazed at an apparition, which, though in 
all ages credited, has in all ages been confidered as the moft 
wonderful and moft dreadful operation of fupernatural agency, 
enquires of the fpeSre, in the moft emphatic terms, why he 
P 2 

212 HAMLET, 

Wherein we faw thee quietly in-urn'd ?, 
Hath op'd his ponderous and marble jaws, 
To call thee up again? What may this mean,- 
1 That thou, dead corfe, again, in complete fteel, 
Revifit'it thus the glimpfes of the moon, 
Making night hideous , and * we fools of nature 
So horridly 3 to ihake our difpofition, 

breaks the order of nature, by returning from, the dead; this he 
aflcs in a very confufed circumlocution, confounding in his fright 
the foul and body.. VVhy, lays he, have ttjy lones^ which with 
due ceremonies have been intombed in death, in the common ftate 
of departed mortals, burjl the folds in which they were embalmed ? 
Why has the tomb, in which we faw thee quietly laid, opened 
his mouih, that mouth which, by its weight and liability, feemed 
doled for ever ? The whole fentence is this : Why dojt tbou appear^ 
ivbont ivc know to be dead ? 

Had the change of the wcrd removed any obfcurity, or added 
any beauty, it might have been worth a itruggle ; but either 
reading leaves the lenfe the fame. 

If there be any afperity in this controverfial note, it rouil be 
imputed to the contagion of peevifhnefs, or ibme refentmeut of 
the incivility {hewn to the Oxford editor, who is reprefented as 
fuppofing the ground canonized by a funeral, when he only raeant 
to <,ay, that the lily was depoiited in holy ground, in ground con- 
fecrated according to the canon. JOHNSON. 

9 quietly in-urn'd.] The quartos read interred. STEEVEXS. 

1 That tbou, dead corfe , again, in complete ftccl^\ It is pro- 
bable that Shakefpeare introduced his ghotl in armour, that 
it miglu appear more fokmn by fuch a diicriminaticn from the 
other characters ; though it was really the cuftom or the Daniih 
kings to be buried in that manner. Vide Olaus 

cap. 7. 

*' Struem regi nee veftibus, nee odoribus cumulant, fua 
." arma, quorundam igni et equus adjicitur." 

" 'ed poilcjuam magnanimus ille Danorura rex collem 

" fibi magnitudinis confpicuas extruxiflet (cui poll obitum. 
" regio uiadeinute exornatum, armis iiidutum, inferendum eflet 
" cadaver," &c. bTE.EVENS, 

2 us fools of nature] The expreffion is fine, as inti- 
mating we were only kept (as formerly, tools in a great family) 
to make i port for nature, who lay hid oniy to mock and laugh at 
us, tor our vain fearches into her myiteries. WARBURTON. 

3 tojkake our diipolition] Dyj>ojiiion t iovframc. WAR*URTON. 



With thoughts beyond the reaches of our fouls ? 
Say, why is this ? wherefore ? what fliould we do ? 

HOT. It beckons you to go away with it, 
As if it forae impartment did defire 
To you alone. 

Mar. Look, with what courteous action 
It waves you to a more removed ground : 
But do not go with it. 

Her. No, by no means. 

Ham. It will not fpeak ; then I will follow it. 

Her. Do not, my lord. 

Ham. Why, what fhould be the fear ? 
I do not fet my life at a pin's fee 4 ; 
And, for my foul, what can it do to that, 
Being a thing immortal as itfelf ? 
It waves me forth again ; I'll follow it. 

Her. What, if it tempt you toward the flood, my 

lord ? 

Or to the dreadful fummit of the clifF, 
That beetles o'er his bale into the fea ? 
And there afiume ibme other horrible form, 
Which might 5 deprive your fovereignty of reafon, 
And draw you into madnefs ? think of it : 
[ 6 The very place 7 puts toys of defperation, 
Without more motive, into ever)* brain, 
That looks fo many fathoms to the fea, 
And hears it roar beneath.] 

Ham. It waves me ft ill : 

4 -p-nsfo:} The value of a pin. JOHN'S ON. 

5 -deprive your ibvereignty, &L\\ Dr. Warburton would 
read d^taMVI but feveral proots are given in the noces to 
Lear of Shakeipeare's uie of the word Jtprivc, w hich is the true 
reading. STEEVEXS. 

I believe eLfri&e in th's place Cgnifies limply to take arMoy. 


T?J< vnypl<xe] The four following lines added from the fcrft 
edition. POPE. 

1 pun ; toys of tuftxratif*,] T . WAS.BVATOX, 

P 3 Go 

2i 4 HAMLET, 

Go on, I'll follow thee. 

Mar. You fhall not go, my lord. 

Ham. Hold off your hands. 

Hor. Be rul'd, you fhall not go. 

Ham. My fate cries out, 
And makes each petty artery in this body 
As hardy as the Nemean lion's nerve. 

Still am I call'd unhand me, gentlemen ; 

[Breaking from them.. 
By heaven, I'll make a ghoft of him 8 that lets me : 

I fay, away : Go on, I'll follow thee. 

{Exeunt Gbojl, and Hamlet. 

Hor. He waxes defperate with imagination. 

Mar. Let's follow ; 'tis not fit thus to obey him. 

Hor. Have after: To what i flue will this come ? 

Mar. Something is rotten in the ftate of Denmark. 

Hor. Heaven will direct it 9. 

Mar. Nay, let's follow him. [Exeunt* 

r A more remote Part of the Platform. 

Re-enter Gboft, and Hamlet. 

Ham. Whither wilt thou lead me ? fpeak, I'll go, 
no further. 

Gboft. Mark me. 

Ham. I will. 

Gboft. My hour is come, 
"When I to fulphurous and tormenting flames 
Muft render up myfelf. 

Ham. Alas, poor ghoft ! 

1 that lets me :j To let among our old authors Cgnifies to 

prevent, to hinder. STEEVENS. 

9 Heaven will direft it ;] Perhaps it may be more appofite to 
read " Heaven will dcttft it." FARMER. 



Gbcjt. Pity me not, but lend thy ferious hearing 
To what I fnall unfold. 

Ham. Speak, I am bound to hear. 

Gbqft. So art thou to revenge, when thou (halt 

Ham. What? 

Gbcjl. I am thy father's fpirit ; 
Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night ; 
And, for the day, J confin'd to faft in fires, 
'Till the foul crimes, done in my days of nature, 
- Are burnt and purg*d away. But that I am forbid 


* __ c onfiJJ tofafl hi fires,] We (hould read, 

- too faft in fires. 

i. e. very clofely coaflned. The particle too is ufed frequently for 
the fuperiatire aJt, or very. WAREUZTOV. 

I am rather inclined to read, confix a t lafting fires, to fires ttn- 
raaitudsLud mncnfvmed. The change is flight. JOHN ox. 
Domrfd far a certain time to vaaik the night t 
Ad far the day confinti to faft in Jiffs. 

Chaucer has a fimuar pafiage with regard to the punifhments of 
hell. Parfons Tale, p. 193. Mr. Urry*s edition : "And more- 
over the mifele of hell, (hall be in dcfaute of raete and drinke," 


Xa(h, in his Pirr.ce Pevuk/s's Supplication t the Devil, 1595* has 
the fame idea : ** Whether it be a place of horror, ftench, and 
darknefs, where men fee meat, lut can git name, and are CTCT thlrfly, 
&c." Before I had read the Perftmes Tale of Chaucer, I luppofed 
that he meant rather to drop a tfroke of larire on facerdotal luxury, 
than to give a feriocs account of the place of future torment. 
Chaucer, however, is as grave as Shakefpeare. So liken Jfe at the 
conclufioa of an ancient pamphlet caikd The Wyil rf the Devyii, 
bl. 1. no date : 

" Thou {halt lye in froll and fire 

" With ficknefle and biutgeri &c. w STEEVEXS. 

* Art hmt andfutrgd away. :] Gawio Douglas really changes 
the Platonic hell into the *' punytion of Saalis in purgatorj- :" 
ar.d it is obferrable, that when the ghoft informs Hamlet of his 
doom there, 

** Tin the foul crimes done in his days of nature 


the erpretSon is very firaliar to the bifhop's : I will give you hU 
Terfion & contifcly as I can ; " It is a . -.g to fuiFer 

P 4 

216 HAMLET, 

To tell the fecrets of my prifon-houfe, 

I could a tale unfold, whofe lighteft word 

Would harrow up thy foul ; freeze thy young blood ; 

Make thy two eyes, like ftars, ftart from their fpheres j 

Thy knotty and combined locks to part, 

And each particular hair to (land on end 

Like quills upon the fretful porcupine J : 

But this eternal blazon muft not be 

To ears of flefh and blood: Lift, lift, O lift!- 

If thou did'ft ever thy dear father love, 

Ham. O heaven ! 

Ghoft. Revenge his foul and moft unnatural mur- 

Ham. Murder? 

Ghoft. Murder moft foul, as in the beft it is ; 
But this moft foul, ftrange, and unnatural. 

" panis and torment Sum in the wyndis, fum under the waiter, 
" and in the fire uthir fum : thus the mony vices 
" Contrakkit in the corpis be done avity 
*' jAud puryit" 

Sixte Book of EncadoS) fol. p. 191. 

3 fretful porcupine :] The quartos read fearful porcupine. 
Either may ferve. This animal is at once irafcible and timid. The 
Tame image occurs in the Romant of the Roje t where Chaucer is de- 
fcribing the perfonage of danger : 

" Like (harpe urchons his beere was grow." 
An ttrcbin is a hedge-hog. STEEVENS. 

4 Revenge his foul and moft unnatural murder. ~\ As a proof that 
this play was written before 1597, of which the contrary has been 
afl'erted by Mr. Holt in Dr. Johnfon's appendix, I muft borrow, as 
ulual, from Dr. Farmer. " Sbakefpeare is faid to have been no 

extraordinary aftor ; and that the top of his performance was 
the Ghoft in his own Hamlet. Yet this chef d'oeuvre did not 
pleafe : I will give you an original itroke at it. Dr. Lodgfc 
publifiied in the year 1596 a pamphlet called Wlfs Mi/erie, or the 
Worlds MadvJ}, discovering the incarnate devils of the age, 
quarto. One of thefe devils is, Hc.te virtue, or forro~v for an- 
other Mansgwd fucctjji; who, fays the doftor, is a fcule lubber, and 
looks as pale as the vizard of the Ghojl^ which cried fo mifefa- 
bly at the theatre. Hamlet revenge." STEEVENS. 


Ham. Hafte me to know it -, that I, with wings as 

? As meditation, or the thoughts of love, 
May fweep to my revenge. 

Gbcjl. I find thee apt ; 

e And duller Ihould'ft thou be than the fat weed 
T That rots itfelf in cafe on Lethe's wharf, 
\Vouldft thou not ftir in this. Now, Hamlet, hear i 
'Tis given out, that, fleeping in my orchard, 
A ferpent ftung me ; fo the whole ear of Denmark 
Is by a forged procefs of my death 
Rankly abus'd : but know, thou noble youth, 
The ferpent, that did fling thy father's life, 
Now wears his crown. 

* As me&tatim tr the *&/ of fe*, This firaHltude is 

tremeiy beautiful. The word medhatitm is confecrared, by the 
afg/fef, to fignify that ftretch and flight of mind which afpires to 
the enjoyment of the fupreme good. So that Hamlet, coniuier- 
ing with what to compare the fwiftnefs of his rerengr, choofe 
two of the rooft rapid things in nature, the ardency ot divine and 
fa., man paffion, in an aatat/ixft and a Jbwr. WARBUKTOH. 

The comment on the word me&tat'u* is fo ingenious, that i 
hope it is jufL JOHN-SOX. 

* A*ddmBerJbMjltb** k Aon the fat mtd 

That racli itfrtfi* eafe m LflbSi -adarf, &c.] Shakefpea^, 
apparenfly through ignorance, makes Roman Catholicks ot thefe 
Pa^an Danes ; and here gives a deicription of purgatory ; but vet 
mbes it with the Pagan fable of Lethe's wharf. Whether he d3 
it to infinuate to the zealous Protettants of his time, that the Pagaa 
and Popifh purgatory flood both upon the fame footing of credi- 
bility, or whether it was by the fame kind of licentious inad- 
vertence that Michael Angdo brought Charon's bark into his 
pI6hire of the Laft judgment, is not eafy to decide. WAKBITSTOS . 

i That rets itfelf, feV.J The quarto reads That roots itfelt. 
Mr. POPE follows it. OTWAY has the fame thought : 
" - like a coarie and ufe ! efs dunghill weed 
** Fix'd to one fpor, and rvt juft as I grow.* 

The fupcriority of the reading of the fcl-o is to me apparent : 
to be in a crefcent fbue (i. e. to root itflf) affords an idea of 

which the Gh:ft relers. Nererthelefs, the accti fat ive cafe (**Jelf) 
pay ieem to demand the verb roots. STEE . , 



O, my prophetick foul ! my uncle ? 
Gboft. Ay, that incefluous, that adulterate beaft, 
With witchcraft of his wit, with traiterous gifts, 
(O wicked wit, and gifts, that have the power 
So to feduce !) won to his fhameful luft 
The will of my mod feeming-virtuous queen : 
O, Hamlet, what a falling-off was there ! 
From me, whofe love was of that dignity, 
That it went hand in hand even with the vow 
I made to her in marriage; and to decline 
Upon a wretch, whofe natural gifts were poor 
To thofe of mine ! 

But virtue, as it never will be mov'd, 
Though lewdnefs court it in a fhape of heaven i 
So luft, though to a radiant angel link'd, 
Will fate itfelf in a celeftial bed, 
And prey on garbage. 

But, foft ! methinks, I fcent the morning air 
Brief let me be : Sleeping within mine orchard 8 a 
My cuftom always of the afternoon, 
Upon my fecure hour thy uncle ftole, 
? With juice of cur fed hebenon in a vial, 


* - -mine orchard^] Orchard for gar Jen. So, in Romeo and 

'* The orchard walls are high, and hard to climb." 


9 With juice ofcurfed hebenon in a vial)] The word here ufed 
was more probably deligned by a tnetathejis, either of the poet or 
tranfcriber, for hcnebon, that is, henbane ; of which the molt com- 
mon kind (byofcyamus niger) is certainly narcotic, and perhaps, if 
taken in a confiderable quantity, might prove poifonous. Galen 
calls it cold in the third degree ; by which in this, as well as 
opium, he leems not to mean an aftual coldnefs, but the power it 
has of benumbing the faculties. Diofcorides afcribes to it the 
property of producing madnefs (MCTKI^OC /*#nwJ!s). Thefe qua- 
lities have been confirmed by feveral cafes related in modern ob- 
fervations. In Wepfer we have a good account of the various 
effe&s of this root upon moft of the members of a convent in 
Germany, who eat of it for fupper by miilake } mixed with fuc- 



And in the porches of mine ears did pour 

The kperous diftiiment ; whofe effect 

Holds fuch an enmity with blood of man, 

That, Iwift as quick-ulver, it courfes through 

The natural gates and alleys of the body ; 

And, with a iudden vigour, it doth poflet 

And curd, like eager droppings into milk, 

The thin and wholefome blood : fo did it mine ; 

And a mod initant tetter bark'd about, 

Moft lazar-like, with vile and loathibme cruft, 

All my fmooth body. 

Thus was I, deeping, by a brother's hand, 

Of life, of crown, of queen, at once difpatch'd : 

* Cut off even in the bloflbms of my fin, 

3 UnhouielTd 4 difappointed, * unaneal'd ; 


co<y jr-heat in die throat, gHfifrH*, dimnefs of fight, and dcH- 
rium. C-cut. An*tx. c. 1 8. GRAY. 
So in Drayton s Born? JTors, p. 51. 

" The pois'ning benkau* and the mandrake drad.* 
Again, in the Philofopher'fi 4th Satire of Mars, by Robert Anton, 

" The poifon'd HexZxat whofe cold juice doth kifl." 
A.<raia t in Glapthorne's HeLandrr, 1640: 

*' theife are tears 

* ( Such as diftill from Hobmme full of poifon." 
Again, in the Note &&r, 1634 : 

** Habue and poppy, and that magical weed, &c." 
In HyzvoctTs Jew rf Mdta, I 6j5, the word is written in a 
diferent manner, 

- the blood of Hydra, Leroa's bane, 
u The juice of Hebo*, and Cocytos* breath." STEE VEKS. 
1 - a; net difpatch'd:] D#atctf<l,foi1xnft. WA&BDKTON. 
Cut tfttmtl*UtJjimstfm f fm,lc.'\ The very wonh f 
this pan of the fpeect are taken (as I hare been informed by a 
gentleman of undoubted veracity) from an old Ltgtd <f Santii, 
where a man, who was accidentally drowned, is introduced as 
making the fame complaint. STEEVEXS. 

3 Uabov/fTJ^ Without the facrament being taken. POPE. 

* Umaiunnted) J Without extreme unction. Po?fi, 

* Vnaitfd^] No knell rung. PC 
In other editions, 
Vmbcnzltd* **uo**J, tmatatd: 

The ghoii, having recounted the procds of his murder, proceeds 

220 HAMLET, 

No reckoning made, but Cent to my account 
With all my imperfecYions on my head : 


to exaggpi ;:re the inhumanly and unnaturalnefs of the fal, from 
the circumstances in which he was furprized. But thefe, I find, 
have been (tumbling V locks to our editors j and therefore I muii 
amend and explain th-'c >hree compound adjeftives in their order* 
Inftead of unhou-zzefd, ;ve muft reftore, unhoufefd^ \. e. without tfa 
facrament taken ; from the old Saxon word for the facrament, bou/el* 
In the next place, vnanoiniedis a fophiftication of the text : the old 
copies concur in reading, difappointtd, I correct, 

UnboufeFd, unappointed, 

i. e. no confellion of fins made, no reconciliation to heaven, no 
appointment ot penance by the church. Unawafd I agree to be 
the "poet's genuine word; but I muft take the liberty to difputc 
Mr. Pope's explication of it, viz. no knell rung. The adjective 
formed from knett, muft have been unknell\^ or unknolfd. There is 
no rule in orthography tor finking the k in the deflection of any 
verb or compound formed from knell, and melting it into a vowel. 
What fenfe does unaneal'd then bear? Skinner, in his Lexicon of 
old and oblblete Englifli terms, tells us, that aneaYd\* unflus ; from 
the Teutonic prepoiition a?t y and trie, i. e. oil: fo that unatieaCd 
muft confequently fignify, unanointed, not having the extreme unc- 
tion. The poet's reading and explication being afcertained, he 
Tery finely makes his gbnft complain of thefe four dreadful hard- 
Jhips : that he had been difpatched out of life without receiving 
ihe hofte^ or facrament ; without being reconcifd to henven and 
aofilvd; without the benefit cf extreme unction ; or without fo 
much as a confejjion made of his fins. The having no knell rung, 
I think, is not a point of equal confequence to any of thefe ; efpe- 
cialjy, if we coniider, that the Romifh church admits the efficacy 
o f praying for the deatJ. THEOBALD. 

This is a very difficult line. I think Theobald's objeftion to 
the fenfe of itnancaFd, for notified fy the Ml, muft be owned to be 
^ery ftrong. I have not yet by my enquiry fatisfied myfelf. 
Haamer's explication of unaneaTd by unprcpafd, becaufe to anneal 
metals, is to prepare them in manufacture, is too general and vague; 
there is no refemblance between any funeral ceremony and the 
practice of annealing metals. 

Disappointed is the fame as maMwintrd, and may be properly 
explained unprepared; a man well furnifhed with things ne;eflary 
for any enterprize, was fnid to be well appointed. JOHN-SOX. 

Dr. Johnfon's explanation of the word aifappointed may be coun- 
tenanced by the advice which Ifabella gives to her brother in 
Mcaj'ure for Meafurf. 

" Therefore your bed appointment make with fpeed, 1 ' 

1 nc 


6 O, horrible ! O, horrible ! moft horrible ! 
If thou hall nature in thee, bear it not ; 


The hope of gaining a worthlefs alliteration is all that can tempt 
an editor to prefer imappeinted 'or mnanobited to JiJafpointcJ. Mi LTON 
has the following fines, confifting of three words each, in which 
this childi/h practice is conftantly obferved. 

, urplticJ, vrnrfpriev'J. Par. Loft. B. 2. 

Dnjbakm, vnJftbc'J, vvdenijitd. B. 5. 
\JnbnmlIed, \iwepentaxt, unrr^nwV. Par. Reg. B. 3. 
Again, in Daniel's Civi/ fFars, &c. B. 2. 

" t/acourted, awrefpeded, *aobey'd. w 
Again, in Spenfer's Faery Gtutta, B. z. C. 10. 

'* t/jjpeopled, */rmanur'd, awrprov'd, *jrprais'd. w 
In the Tfxtus RoffcK/is we meet with two of tbeie wo*d; 
" The monks offering themfelves to perform all prieitly functions 
of boufclimg and avytiag." Aveyiir^, I believe, is mifprinted ibr 
anfi'i-xg. STSEVEXS. 

See Mart f Arthur, p. iii. c. 175. ** So when he was hntjcltd 
and axeleJ, and had all that a Chriilian man ought to hare, 

The fubfequent extract from a very fcarce and curious copy cf 
Fabian's Chronicle, printed by Pynlbn, 1516, feems to remove 
every poffibiiity of doubt concerning the true ugnification of the 
words vnbouftfd and ananefd. The hiftorian, fpcaking of Pope 
Innocent's having laid the whole kingdom or England under an 
interdict, has thefe words : " Of the raaner of this interdiction of 
this iaade have I feen dyverfe opynyons, as fome ther be that feye . 
that the knde was enterdyted thorowly and the church is and 
5 of rdygyon clolyd, that no where was uled mafle, nor 
dy vyne fcrvycc, by whiche reafon none of the VII lacramemis all 
this terme ihould be mynyftred or occupyed, nor chyld cr^fleaffl^ 
nor man conftjjid nor maryfJ; bat it was not fo lirayght. For 
there were dyverfe placys in Englond, whiche were occupyed with 
dyvyne ferf yce all that feafon by lycence purchafed than or before, 
alfo chyldren were cryiienyd 'thoroaghe ali the lacde and nieu 
lou/c/pt and <EM$U" Fol. 14. Septima Pars Jobannis. 

The Anglo-Saxon noun-lubitanuves int/il (die euchariit) and 
tie (oil) are plainly the roots of thefe kit-quoted compound 


6 O^barrioiel O, LtrrlUe! uofi Lwrrible /J It was 
hinted to me by a very learned lady, that this line feerns to belong 
to Hamiet, in whole mouth it u a proper and natural exclama- 
tion; and who, accordicg to the pracii.e of the ftage, may be . 
poied to interrupt io long a fpeech. JOK>.O:X. 

222 H A M L E T, 

Let not the royal bed of Denmark be 
7 A couch for luxury and damned inceflr. 
But, howfoever thou purfu'ft this act, 
Taint not thy mind, nor let thy foul contri v 
Againft thy mother aught -, leave her to he a n, 
And to thofe thorns that in her bofom lodge, 
To prick and fting her. Fare thee well at once ! 
The glow-worm fhews the matin to be near, 
And 'gins to pale his uneffectual fire 8 : 

adje&ives For the meaning of the affix an to the laft, I quote 
Spelman's doff, in Loco. " Quin et dirionibu3 (an) adjungitur, 
iiquidem vel majoris notationis gratia, vel ad Jingulare atiquid) vel 
unicum demonitrandum." Hence anelydfaould feem to fignify oiled 
or anointed by way of eminence, /'. e. having received extreme 
undlion. For the confirmation of the fenfe given here there is the 
ilrons^eft internal evidence in the paffage. The hiftorian is 
fpeaking of the VII facraments, and he exprefsly names five of 
them, viz. baptifm, marriage, auricular confeflion, the eucharilt, 
and extreme un&ion. 

The antiquary is defired to confult the edition of Fabian, 
printed by Pynfon, 1516, becaufe there are others, and I remember 
to have feen one in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, with a con- 
tinuation to the end of Queen Mary, London, 1^59, in which the 
language is much modernized. 

Jf^oeajfk upon Tyne. J. B. 

This note is taken from the St. James's Chronicle. STE EVENS. 

7 A couch for luxury ] i. e. for leiudnefs. So, in K> Lear ; 

Tot luxury pell-mell for, &c. 

Again, in The Revenger's Tragedy, 1607, where the old duke, 
who is remarkable for his incontinence, is repeatedly called 
. ..... a parch'd and juicelefs luxur. STEEVENS. 

8 uneffefiual fire.] i.e. Ihining without heat. WARBURTON, 
To pale is a verb ufed by Lady Elizabeth Carew, in her Tragedy 

of Mariam, 1613 : 

" Death can pale as well 
* A cheek of rofes as a cheek lefs bright." 

Again, in Urry's Chaucer, p. 368 : " The uerre /<?&/ her white 
cheres by the flambes of the fonne, &c." 

Uneffeftual fire, I believe, rather means, fire that is no longer 
fecn when the light of morning approaches. So, in Pericles 
Prince of tyre, 1609 : 

" like a glow worm, 

*' The which hath fire in darknefs, none in light." 




A<fieo, adieu, adieu I 'remember me. [/. 

Him. O all 700 hoft of bam I O earth! What 

And (banicoapfc hcfl ? O fie ! Hold, hpid, mf 


And you, my finews, grow not inftant old, 
Bat bear me ffiffiy op! Remember dice ? 
Ay, moo poor ghoft, while memory holds a (eat 
In mis diftraaed globe. * Remember thee ? 
Yea, from the table or nsy memoty 
m wipe away all trivial food records, 
AH laws of books, all forms, all prcflures paft, 
llbat yOdiik and obicivMua copied mere ; 

And thy rr*f*mat*imrnt all aloOC (hall llTC 

Within me book and volnmc of my brain, 
Unmiz'd with bafer matter : yes, by heaven; 
O moft pernicious woman ! 
O villain, villain, foiling, ^iitlB*^ villain 1 
My tables, meet it is, I fa it down % 


m !_ _ l_j_il_ f^r__ .1 * _Jt,, 



324 HAMLET, 

That one may fmile, and fmile, and be a villain 
At lead, I am lure, it may be fo in Denmark : { 
So, uncle, there you are. 3 Now to my word -, 
It is, Adieu, adieu ! remember me. 
I have fworn it. 

Hor. My lord, my lord, . Within. 

Mar. Lord Hamlet, [Within. 

Hor. Heaven fecure him I \Witbin. 

Ham. So be it ! 

Mar. Illo, ho, ho, my lord ! \WitUn. 

Ham. Hillo, ho, ho, boy ! 4 come, bird, come. 

Enter Horatio^ and Marcellus. 

Mar. How is't, my noble lord ? 

Hor. What news, my lord ? 

Ham. O, wonderful ! 

Hor. Good my lord, tell it. 

Ham. No ; you will reveal it. 

Hor. Not I, my lord, by heaven. 

Mar. Nor I, my lord. 

Ham. How fay you then ; would heart of man 

once think it ? 

But you'll be fecret, 

Both. Av, by heaven, my lord. 

Ham. There's ne'er a villain, dwelling in all Den- 
But he's an arrant knave. 

3 now to my word;] Hamlet alludes to the iuaicb*VMtd given 
every day in military fervice, which at this time he lays is, Adieu, 
jAdi(u, remember me. So, in The Devil's Charter, a tragedy, 1607 : 
44 Now to my watch-word." STEEVENS. 

* come, bird, come.] This is the call which falconers ufe to 
their hawk in the air when they would have him come down to 
them. HANMER. 

This exprdlion is ufed in Mar/ton's Dutch Ccurtefan, and by 
jnany otheis among the old dramatic writers. 

It appears from all thefe paflages, that it was the falconer's 
jail, as Hanmer has obferved. STEEYEXS. 

i ffor. 


HOT. 5 There needs no ghoft, my lord, come from 

the grave, 
To tell us this. 

Ham, Why, right; you are in the right; 
And fo, without more circumftance at all, 
I hold it fit, that we (hake bands, and part : 
You, as your buGnefs, and defire, (hall point you $-^ 
por every man hath bufinefs, and defire, 
Such as it is, and, for my own poor part, 
Look you, I will go pray. 

Hor. Thefe are but wild and whirling words, my lord , 

ffsm. I am forry they offend you, heartily 9 
Yes /faith, heartily. 

H&r. There's no offence, my lord. 
Ham. Yes, * by feint Patrick, but there is, Horatio," 
And much offence too. , Touching this vifion here,* 
I: is an honeft ghoft, that let me tell you : 
For your defire to know what is bcurtm us, 
O*er-mafter it as you may. And now, good friends j 
As you are friends, fcholars, and fokliers, 
Give me one poor requeft. 

Hsr. What is't, my lord ? we will. 

flam. Never make known what you have feen tp^ 

'Both. My lordj we will not. 
. Nay, but fwear it. 

HOT. In faith, my lord, not I. 

"Afar. Nor I, my lord, in faith. 

. 5 Tbtrt*N<L me gtyl, &c.] This piece of homafor is 
by our author ia Jima^ltc. Adj. Sc. 2. STEEPENS. 

" * b'St. Patri**, ] How the poet cocoes to make Hamlet 
Ijrear by St. Patrick, I know not. However, at this time afl the 
whole DOTthern world had their kamiag jrom Ireland; to whicK 
place it had retired, and there fiourifced under the aufpices of this 
Saint. But it was, I iuppdlt, only faid at taodam ; ibr he makes 
Hamkt a fiudem of Wiueaberg. ' WASEC - 

Dean Striit's . Vetfe on the fatten diring-up of St. Patrick's 
r * Wdl, 1726," contain many karped allutoas to tbecar-yeul- 
prsuon of literature in Ireland. NICHOLS. 

Vofc. X O 

S2 6 H. A M L E T, 

Ham. Upon my fword. 

Mar. We have fworn, my lord, already. 

Ham. Indeed, upon my fword, indeed. 

Ghoft. [beneath] Swear. 

Ham. Ha, ha, boy ! fay'ft thou fo ? art thou there, 

true-penny 7 ? 

Come on, you hear this fellow in the cellaridge, 
Confent to fwear. . 

Hor. Propofe the oath, my lord. 

Ham. Never to fpeak of this that you have feen, 
8 Swear by my fword. 


7 __ true-penny >.] This word, as well as fome of Hamlet's 
former exclamations, we find in the Makcontent, 1604 : 

'" Illo, ho, ho, ho ; art there old True-penny?" STEEVENS. 

8 Swear fy my fword.} Here the poet has preferved the manners 
of the ancient Danes, with whom it was religion to fwear upon their 
fwords. See Bartbolinus, De caufe contempt, men. apud Dan. 


I was once inclinable to this opinion, which is likewife well de- 
fended by Mr. Upton ; but Mr. Garrick produced me a paflage, I 
think, in Brantome, from which it appeared, that it was common to 
fwear upon the fword, that is, upon the crofs which the old fwords 
always had upon the hilt. JOHNSON. 

Shakeipeare, it is more than probable, knew nothing of the an- 
cient Danes, or their manners. Every extract from Dr. Farmer's 
pamphlet mutt prove as inltru&ive to the reader as the following: 
" Jn the Pajjus Primus of Pierce Plowman, 
" David in his daies dubbed knightes, 
*' And did themyswm on her fword to ferve truth ever." 
** And in Hieronymo^ the common butt of our author, and the 

*' wits of the time, fays Lorenzo to Pedringano: 

" Swear on this crofs, that what thou fay'ft is true, 
" But if I prove thee perjur'd and unjuft, 
" This very fwofd, whereon thou took'ft thine oatn, 
" Shall be a worker of thy tragedy." 

To the authorities produced by Dr. Farmer, the following may 
be added from Holinjhect, p. 664 : ** Warwick kifled the crofs of 
" K. Edward's fword, as it were a vow to his promife." 

Again, p. 1038. it is faid, " that Warwick drew out his fword, 
" which other of the honourable and worfhipfui that were then 
** prefent likewife did, whom he commanded, that each one mould 
** kifs other's fword, according to an ancient cuftom amongft men 


Gkojt. [beneath] Swear, 

Ham. Hie cr unique ? then we'll fhift our ground : 
Come hither, gentlemen, 
And lay your hands again upon my fword : 
Swear by my fword, 
Never to fpeak of this that you have heard. 

Gkqft. [hauatb] Swear by his fword. 

Ham. Well faid, old mole ! can'il work i'che earth 

A worthy pioneer ! Once more remove, good friends. 

H&. O day and night, but this is wondrous 
ftrange ! 

Ham. 9 And therefore as a (hanger give it welcome. 
There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, 
Than are dreamt of in your philofophy. 
But come ; 

Here, as before, never, fo help you mercy! 
How ftrange or odd foe'er I bear myfelf, 
As I, perchance, hereafter ihail think meet 
To put an antick difpofition on, 
That you, at fuch times feeing me, never {hall, 

" of war in time of great danger; and herewith they made a 
*' ibleran vow," &c. Again, in Green's fit qmatpu: 

" By the croft of thefe hiltes." 
Again, in Decker's comedy of Old Ffrttaatms, 1600: 

" He has fworn to me oa the croft of his pure Toledo." 
Again, in the Second Part of The D*u*faU f Robert Earl rf 
Htuaingtm, 1601 : 

- by the croft of my good blade, 
** An excellent mother to bring up a maid.'' 
Again, in Deckers Satinmaftix: " By the cnft of this (word and 
digger, captain, you fhall take it." 

in the tbliloquy of RoLvul addrefled to his fword, the croft m 
it is not forgotten : u capulo eburneo candidiHirat, enter anrea 
fpleadidiuime, &c." 

Turpini HilL de Geftis Caroii Mag. cap. 22. 

9 Axtl therefore as a Jtrangtr gnx it <airlanae.'] i.e. receive it to 

yourfeU; take it under your own roof; as much as to fay, Kttp it 

- jt^-ft. Alluding to the laws of hofpitaHry. 

VOL. X. Ct2 (With 

223 H A M L E T, 

(With arms encumber'd thus ; or this head-make i 

Or by pronouncing of fome doubtful phrafe, 

As, Well, well, we know ; or, We could, an if we 

would; or, If we lift to fptak\ or, There be, an if 

they might ; 

Or fuch ambiguous giving out) denote 

That you know aught of me : 2 This do ye fwear, 

So grace and mercy at your moft need help you ! 


Ghcft. [beneath] Swear. 

Ham. Reft, reft, perturbed fpirit ! So, gentlemen* 
With all my love I do commend me to you : 
And what fo poor a man as Hamlet is 
May do, to exprefs his love and friending to you, 
God willing, fhall not lack. Let us go in together 5 
And ftill your fingers on your lips, I pray. 
The time is out of joint; O curfed Ipight! 
That ever I was born to fet it right ! 
Nay, come, let's go together. [Exeunt, 

1 eKnote,"\ The old copies concur in reading to note. The 
alteration, which feems neceilary, is Theobald's. STEEVENS. 

If we read " Nor by pronouncing," the pailage as it Hands Jrt 
the folio, though erabarrafled, is flill intelligible, provided the 
punctuation be changed. 

That you, at fuch time feeing me, never fliall 
With arms encumber'd thus, or thus, head fhake ; 
Nor by pronouncing of fome doubtful phrafe, 
As, -itW/, vje knffiv, or, iw could and ifive woiilJ, 
Or, ffive lift to fpeake; or, there be and if there mighty 
Or iuch ambiguous giving out, to note 
That you know aught of me ; this not to do 
(So grace and mercy at your moft need help you !) 
Swear. MAI.ONE. 

* * this dojou /kra>', &;;.] The folio reads, this not to do. 



P R I N C E o r D E N M A R K. 229 
A C T II. S C E N E I. 

At apartment in Polonius* boufe. 
Enter Poionius, and Rsynaldo ? . 

Pel. Give him this money, and thefe notes, 

Rty. I will, my lord. 

Pol. You fhall do marvellous wifely, good Reynaldo, 
Before you vifit him, to make enquiry 
Of his behaviour. 

Rey. My lord, I did intend it. 

Pol. Marry, well faid ; very well faid. Look you, fir, 
Enquire me firft what Danfkers 4 are in Paris ; 
And how, and who, what means, and where they keep, 
What company, at what expence ; and finding, 
By this encorr.pafime.nt and drift of queftion, 
That they do know my fon, come you more nearer; 
Then your particular demands will touch it : 
Take you, as 'twere, fome diftant knowledge of him ; 
AS thus, 1 know his failer, and bis friends, 
Jind, in part, him, Do you mark this, Reynaldo B 

Rey. Ay, very well, my lord. 

Pol. And^ in fart, lim ;#/, you may fay, yet 


But, if't be be I mean, bs very wild; 
slddifted fo and fo ; and there put on him 
What forgeries you pleafe ; marry, none fo rank 
A r ni2y dilhonour him; take heed of that; 
But, fir, fuch wanton, wild, and ufual flips, 
As are companions noted and mod known 
To vouch and liberty. 

Rey. As garr. . ;rd. 

\ The quartos read, Eater nisi PoUnius vritl bis aum r fix*. 


' D.-'.: r:': r'-.-jet (in Warner's. Albions England^ is the 
.t naaae of Denmark. STEEVH N > . 



PoL Ay, or drinking, fencing, fwearing. 
Quarrelling, drabbing : You may go fo far. 

Rey. My lord, that would difhonour him. 

Pol. 'Faith, no ; as you may feafon it in the charge. 
You muft not put 6 another fcandal on him, 
That he is open to incontinency; 
That's not my meaning: but breathe his faults fo 


That they may feem the taints of liberty ; 
The flam and out-break of a fiery mind ; 

7 A favagenefs in unreclaimed blood, 

8 Of general aflault. 

Rey. But, my good lord, 

Pol. Wherefore mould you do this ? 

Rey. Ay, my lord, 
I would know that. 

PoL Marry, fir, here's my drift ; 
And, I believe, it is a fetch of warrant 9 : 
You laying thefe flight fullies on my fon, 
As 'twere a thing a little foil'd i' the working, 
Mark you, Your party in converfe, him you would 


Having ever feen, in the prenominate crimes ', 
The youth, you breathe of, guilty, be affur'd, 
He clofes with you in this confequence ; 

5 drinking, [fencing,] /wearing,] Fencing, an interpola- 

How fencing can be an interpolation, I know not. I find it ii$ 
all the old copies. STEEVENS 

I fuppofe, by fencing is meant a too diligent frequentation 
of the rencing-fchool, a refort of violent and lawlefs young 
men. JOHNSON. 

6 another ] Thus the old editions. Theobald reads, an 
'utter. JOHNSON. 

* y/ favagenefs ] Savagenefs, for ixildnefs. WARBURTON. 

9 Of general ajjauh.'] i. e. fuch as youth in general is liable 

9 And, 1 believe, it is a fetch of warrant :] So the folio. The 
quarto reads, a fetch ofivif. STEEVENS. 

> ~- prenominate crimes.] i. e, crimes already named. 



* Good fir, or fo; or friend, or gentleman* 
According to the phrafe, or the addition, 
Of man, and country. 

Rey. Very good, my lord. 

Pol. And then, fir, does he this, He does What 

was I 

About to fay ? I was about to fay 
Something : Where did I leave ? 

Key. At, clofes in the confequence. 

Pol. At, doles in the confequence, Jfy, marry ; 
He clofes with you thus : / know the gentleman \ 
I faw him ycfterday, cr father day, 
Or then, or then; vxtb fucb, or fucb; and, as you fay, 
There ow be gaming ; there o y ert6ok in bis roufe j 

* GW/r, or fo, *r jrint, &c.] We ftouM read, 

*r fire, /". e. father. WARBCXTOV. 

I know not that fre was ever a general word of compliment, as 
clilindt fromjir ; nor do I conceive why any alteration fhould be 
made. It is a common mode of colloquial language to afe, or fa 
as a flight intimation of more of the fame, or a tike kind, that 
might be mentioned. We might read, but we need not, 

Goo^Jir, fbriboth, orjrindt or gentlam. 

Forjitotbi a terra of which I do not well know the original mean* 
ing, was ufed to men as well as to women. JOHNSON. 

Goodfr, or fo, &c. Dr. Johnfbn would read Good fir, fir. 
, &c. 

orjoo&i which has been (bmedmes fuppofed to be a form of 
addrefs, and, fince its proper meaning has been forgot, may per- 
haps have been ibmetimes lo applied by vulgar ignorant people, 
originally had no fuch fignificatioo. It was a more inrorcing of 
an alTeverarion. Sooth is trxili, and atfottb of ferfatb ligniry ori- 
ginally and properly only i* truth and far truth. In Shakeipeare's 
time the proper fenle was not left out of ufe ; and therefore I 
think he could hardly have inicrted firfootb in the test, as a form 
of addrefs. PERCY. 
I believe we mould read, 

Good fir, or J forth^ friend or gentleman ; 

So, in Huaur's Qnfauru, a collection of ancient latires, no date: 
" Then tells him, brother, rriecd, txfofartb, heare ye," 
In the Wttcr's Tali, the fame earoremon occurs. Ad i. 

" Sicilia is a>>^. w 
Nay, Polonius ufes it again a little further on in this very fpeech. 


We might read Good jfr, or/r, &:c. TTRVTBITT. 

5^i HAMLET, 

cohere falling out at tennis: or, per -chance ', 

If aw him enter fucb a houfe of fate, 

(Videlicet i a brothel) or fo forth. See you now; 

Your bait of falfhood takes this carp of truth : 

And thus do we of wifdom and of reach, 

"With windlaces, and with aflays of bias, 

By indirections find directions put ; 

So, by my former lecture and advice, 

Shall you my fon : You have me, have you not J 

Rey. My lord, I have. 

Pol. God be wi'you ; fare you well. 

Rey. Good my lord, 

Pol. Obferve his inclination 3 in yourfelf. 

ftey. I fhall, my lord. 

Pol. And let- him ply his mufick. 

Rey. Well, my lord. 

Enter Ophelia. 

L Farewel. How now, Ophelia ? what's the 

matter ? 
. O, my lord, my lord, I have been fo af- 

frighted ! 

Pol With what, in the name of heaven ? 
Qpb. My lord* as I was fewing in my clofet, 
Lord Hamlet, with his doublet all unbrac'd ; 
No hat ' upon his head 9 4 his (lockings foul'd, 


3 in yaurjfjfj] Hanmer reads, e'en yourfelf, and is followed 
by Dr. Warburton ; but perhaps in yourlelf means, in your own 
Jxtrfox, not by fpies. JOHNSON. 
, * his Jlcckings foul'd, 

Ungarter'd) flW^iuw-gyved to bis angle S\ I have reftored the 
reading of the elder quartos bis ftockings loofe. The change, -I 
fufpeft, was firft from the players, who law a contradiction in hii 
ftockings being loq/e, and yet Jbackled down, at ancle. But they, in 
their ignorance, blundered away our author's word, becaufe they 
Uid not underftand it : 

7/gw/frV, and r/<?u'-gyre^, 
i. i. turned down. So, the oldcft copies \ and, fo his 


pngartefd, and down-gyved to his ancle ; 

Pale as his mirt; his knees knocking each other| , 

And with a look fo piteous in purport, 

As if he had been loofed out of hell, 

To fpeak of horrors, he comes before m 

Pel Mad for thy love ? 

Opb. My lord, I do not know i 
But, truly, I do fear it. 

Tel What faid he? 

Opb. He took me by the wrift, and held me bard \ 
Then goes he to the length of all his arm ; 
And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow, 
He falls to fuch perufal of my face, 
As he would draw it. Long ftaid he fo ; 
At laft, a little {baking of mine arm, 
And thrice his head thus waving up and 

were properly loofe, as they were xagarftrV and rva&'JJesut to the 
ancle. THEOBALD. 

Theobald is unfaithful in his account of this eMer qttorto. I hare 
all the quartos and the folios before me, and they concur in read- 
ing : 

- l>'is Jlockittgs foul'd. 

I believe gyrtd to be nothing more than a falfe print. Dw 
gyved means hanging down like the loofe dndure which confines 
the fetters round the ancles. Gyre always Sgnifies a cirde formed 
by a top, or any other body when put into motion. 
- It is fo ufed by Draytoif in the Black Prince's ktter to AUco 
{oante(s of Salifirory: 

*' In little circlets firft it doth arife, 
" Then fomewhat larger fcerneth in mine eyes; 
" And in this gjrixg compais as it goes, 
** So more and more my IQTC in greatnefs grows*" 
Again, in the Second Part of Heywowfs Ire* Age^ 1632 : 

** this bright and flaming brand 
" Which I fo often gyre about mine ears." 
Again, in Lingua, Sec. 1607 : 

" Firft I beheld him ho-rering in the air, 
" And then down ftooping with a hundred pres t Jb.'l 
in Barten Holyday's Poem, caUed the Woes rfEfiy: 
*' His chariot- wheels wrapt in the whirlwind's gyre, 
5 l Kis horib hoofd with fiint, a^d fliod with fire." 

234- HAMLET, 

He rais'd a figh fo piteous and profound, 
As it did feem to (hatter all his bulk, 
And end his being : That done, he lets me go : 
And, with his head over his fhoulder turn'd, 
He feem'd to find his way without his eyes ; 
For out o'doors he went without their helps, 
And, to the laft, bended their light on me. 

Pol. Come, go with me; I will go feek the king. 
This is the very ecftafy of love j 
\Yhofe violent property foredoes itfelf, 
And leads the will to defperate undertakings, 
As oft as any paflion under heaven, 
That does afflift our natures. I am forry,. 
What, have you given him any hard words of late ? 

Opb. No, my good lord ; but, as you did command, 
I did repel his letters, and deny'd 
His accefs to me. 

Pol. That hath made him mad. 
I am forry, that with better heed, and judgment, 
6 I had not quoted him : I fear'd, he did but trifle, 

s fortdoK itfelf,] Toforedo is to deftroy. So, in Otbctto : 

"" That either makes me, or foredoes me quite." STEEVENS. 

' Had not quoted him : ] The old quarto reads coted. It ap- 

pears Shakefpea re wrote noted. Quoted is noufenfe. WARBURTOV. 

To quote is, I believe, to reckon, to take an account of, to take 

t!he quotient or refult of a computation. JOHNSON. 

Since I propofed a former explanation, I met with a paflage in 
the IJle of Gulls, a comedy, by John Day, 1633, which proves 
Dr. Johnfon's fenfe of the word to be not far from the true one : 

" 'twill be a fcene of mirth 
" For me to quote his paflions, and his fmiles." 
To quote OH this occafion undoubtedly means to obferve. Again, 
in Drayton's Mooncalf: 

" This honeft man the prophecy that noted, 
" And things therein moft curioufly had quoted; 
" Found all thefe iigns, &c." 

Again, in The Woman Hater, by B. and Fletcher, the Intelligencer 
fays " I'll quote him to a tittle." i. e. I will obferve him. 
Again, in Certalne Satyres y i 98 : 

" But muft our moderne crittick's envious eye, 
41 Seeme thus to quote fome grofle deformity r" ST. EE VENS. 



And meant to wreck thee ; but, beflirewmyjealouf?! 

It feems, ' ic is as proper to our age 

To caft beyond ourklves in our opinions, 

As it is common for the younger fort 

To lack ducretion. Come, go we to the king : 

1 This muft be known ; which, being kept dole, 

might move 

More grief to hide, than hate to utter love. 
CO.T.C. [JSxonef, 

^bc palace. 

Enter Ki*g 9 fyee*, Rofiuramtz, CprtHb|jfrr*, *** 


King. Welcome, dear Rofincrantz, and Guiiden- 

Moreover that we much did long to fee you, 
The need, we have to ufc you, did provoke 

ifc < r 

jfs it is ammn for the J*a%tr Jirt 

T* Jadt Jijcrrtiim* ] TTm K not the remark of a weak 
The rice 01 age is too much firfpdoo. Men long 
the wiks of life cmft commoniy l^md /fa^fftri, kt their am. 

go farther dan icaiba can anead it. This ahrap the 

comment with she 

mind, made aitfol by kg 
worid. JOHHSOX. 

The quartos rod ^ Aorr it is a proper &c. 
Tfe^f Jel; M^hhfbftc&mi 

Jfirr ^r%f Aidfe, tbam bate t mtier Inc.] i". e. Tim muft he 
made known ID the king, tor (being kept fecret) <he hiding 
Hamlets lore might occanoo IIMJIC nufrhid' to us nom him ana 
the queen, than the unering or Treating of u win oocafion hate 

and refentmenc from Hamlet. The poet's ffl and oWhe ex- 

tfce fceoe whh a couplet. 
' " reads. 

hide bate, than t maxr lux. JOHXSOV. 


H A M L E T, 

Our hafty fending. Something have you heard 

Of Hamlet's transformation ; ib I call it, 

Since nor the exterior nor the inward man 

Refembles that it was : What it fhould be, 

More than his father's death, that thus hath put him 

So much from the underftanding of himfelf, 

I cannot dream of: I entreat you both, 

That, being offo young days brought up with him; 

Andjfmce,fo neighbour'd to his youth and humour 9, i 

That you vouchsafe your reft here in our court 

Some little time : fo by your companies 

To draw him on to pleafures ; and to gather, 

So much as from occafion you may glean, 

1 Whether aught, to us unknown, afflicls him thus, 

That* open'd, lies within our remedy. 

^ueen. Good gentlemen, he hath much talk'd of 

you ; 

And, fure I am, two men there are not living, 
To whom he more adheres. If it will pleafe you 
a To flhew us fo much gentry, and good will, 
As to expend your time with us a while, 
* For the fupply and profit of our hope, 
Your vifitation lhall receive fuch thanks 
As fits a king's remembrance* 

Rof. Both your ma jetties 

Might, by the fpvereign power you have of us, 
Put your drea<3 pleafures more into command 
Than to entreaty. 

Quit. But we both obey ; 
And here give up ourfelves, 4 in the full bent, 

9 and &OT0#r,] Thus the folio. The quartos read, 

1 TFhetoer augtjt,&c.~\ This line is omitted in the folio. SfjiEVENS, 

* To fociy us' Jo much gentry ~\ Gentry ^ for "canplaijance. 


3 For tbe fupply, &c.] That the hope which your arrival has 
talfed may be completed by the deilred etfetft, JOHNSON. 

* *-:/- the full betitjj JS'cKt, for 'cukavcur, application. 



To lay our fcrvice freely at your feet, 

. Thanks, Ro&ncrantz, and gende Gulden* 


Thanks, Guadcnftcra, and gemk Rolejh 

And I bcfcech you inftandy to vifit 

My n much changed foo, Go, feme of you, 

And bfing thefc gentdemen where Hamlet is. 

Gaul. Hcarens make our prefence, and our pradices, 
Pleaiant and helpful to him! 
Ay, amea! 

Enter Pdemu. 

PL The embafladors from Norway, my 

Are joyfully return'd. 

J&^. Thou ftill hail been the father of good DCTTS. 

PcL Have I, my lord ? Afiure you, my good bege, 
I hold my duty, as I bold my foul, 
Both to my God, and to icy gracious king: 
And I do think (or eHe this brain of mine 
Hunts not the * trail of policy fo lure 
As it hath us'd to do) that I have found 
The very cauie of Himfct's lunacy. 

Kag. O, ipeak of that; that I do long to hear. 

Pel. Give firft admittance to the embafikdors ; 
My news fhall be s the fruit to that great feafL 

Kae*. Thy i'df do grace to them, and bring them 

in. [Exit P 

He tells me, my dear Gertrude, be hath found 
The head and fource of all ycnr loo's diftemper. 

^Sea. I doubt, it is no orber but the main ; 
His Other's dearh, and our o'er-hafty marriage. 

; .-...'/as J Tlct* -anf. JOES j OK. 

/j 3 8 HAMLET, 

Re-enter Polonius, with Voltimand, and Cornelius. 

King. Well, we fhall fift him. Welcome, my 

good friends ! 
Say, Voltimand, what from our brother Norway ? 

Volt. Moft fair return of greetings, and defires. 
Upon our firft, he fent out to fupprefs 
His nephew's levies ; which to him appear'd 
To be a preparation 'gainft the Polack ; 
But, better look'd into, he truly found 
It was againft your highnefs : Whereat griev'd, 
That fo his ficknefs, age, and impotence, 
Was falfely borne in hand 6 , fends out arrefts 
On Fortinbras ; which he, in brief, obeys ; 
Receives rebuke from Norway ; and, in fine, 
Makes vow before his uncle, never more 
To give the afiay of arms againft your majefty. 
Whereon old Norway, overcome with joy, 
7 Gives him threefcore thoufand crowns in annual fee 8 ; 
And his commifiion, to employ thofe foldiers, 
So levied as before, againft the Polack : 
With an entreaty, herein further fhewn, 
That it might pleafe you to give quiet pafs 
Through your dominions for this enterprize ; 

borne in bandj] i. e. deceived, impofed on. So, in 
Macbeth, Aft 3 : 

" How you were borne in band, how croft, &c." 
See a note on this paflage. STEEVENS. 

7 Gives him three thou/and crowns in annual fee;] This reading 
firft obtained in the edition put out by the players. But all the old 
quartos (from 1605, downwards) read as I have reformed the 
text. THEOBALD. 

8 annual fee.] Fee in this place fignifies reward, recompenci*. 
So, in Alfs ivell that ends ivell: 

Not helping, death's my fee; ^ 
" But if I help, what do you promife me ?** 
The word is commonly ufed in Scotland for wages, as we fay 
r's fec t pbyfaians fee. SrEE VE N 8, 

r On 


On fuch regards of fafety, and allowance, 
As therein arc fet down. 

King. It likes us well ; 

And, at our more confider*d time, well read> 
Aniwer, and think upon this bufineis. 
Mean time, we thank you for your well-took labour : 
Go to your reft ; 9 at night we'll feaft together : 
Moft welcome home I [Exeunt Volt, and Cor. 

PoL This bufinefs is well ended. 
1 My liege, and madam, ' to expostulate 


* at Kgbt voiRJea/tl Tbe king's intemperance is never 
fuSbrsd to be forgotten. JOHNSON. 

* M,l^-Jm~L-, ftfbft>] The feokes of humour 
in diis ipeech air admirable. Polomos's changer is that of a 
freak, pedant, miinfier of ftate. His dedainanon is a fine irirc on 
the impertinent oratory then in rogue, which placed reafbn i* the 

of method, and wk in the gingfe and pity of words. 


Wkh what art is he nude to pride hinfcaf in hb 

rtM^hm^^tnu: 'tis mentis fr', 

A~l &*,'**: AfooHft figure, 

But farewdit - 

Aod haw oqoiferfv does the port ridicule the 
where be makes Polonius remark on Hamlet's i 

Tb^gb tkis le OBdne&, yet **t, method ^. 
As if menxid, which the wit* of that age UMMght t 

Suaoty of a eood difcouHe, woW make amends for the 
t was m+0 indeed, yet Poloeius eodd comfort himfelf with 
this reflcttioa, that at leaft it was w4*i It is certain Shakefpeare 
excels 13 nothing more tn^r. :r. :~f r'S'^rTincr. ;r r.:; cr.irsrtcri : 
TV^^-W^:^^,:^^^ (& our g:r p>r in his * 
mnabie ptence lo Shakefbeaic) tof MM/F aaa. toe vi vtif'/jml pff~ 
(*****. Wehanefinawhatisthecharaaerof Pobnios; andit 
is allowed oo all hands to be drawn with wonderful Hfe and fpiric, 
yet the iauty of k has been thought by feme to be grolslf violated 

u theexceOett^m^tt and imfMam which Shakdpcare makes 
ftisiattsma gfpe to bis fba and fbrvant in the middk of the Juf* 
and beginning of the >w/S. But I wffl renture to far, thefc 
oitks hare not emeied into the poet's art and addrefe in this par- 
tiodar. He had a mind to ornament his icenes with thofo fine 

* M expofiulate] To n&Srlrtr, forttem^rt or Ji/afs. 


What majefty mould be, what duty is, 
Why day is day, night night, and time Is time, 
Were nothing but to wafte night, day, and time. 
Therefore, -fince brevity is the foul of wit, 

lefibns of focial life ; but hid Polonius was too weak to be author 
of them, though he was pedant enough to have met with them irj 
his reading, and fop enough to get them by heart, and retail them 
for his own. And this the poet has finely ftiewn us was the cafe, 
\vhere, jn the middle of Polonius's inductions to his fervant, he 
makes him, though without having received any interruption, for* 
^et his leffon, and fay, 

And then, jir, does be this J 

He does* What ii'as I about to fey? 

I wot about to Jay fomething where did 1 leave f 
The fervant replies, 

.///, clofes m the conference. This fets PolQnius right, an$ 
he goes on, 

A^ clofes in the conference. 
'Ay marry ', 

He clofes thus : I know the gentleman, &c. 
winch (hews they were words got by heart which he was repeat? 
ing. Othervvife clofes in the confequence y which conveys no par- 
ticular idea of the fubject he was upon, could never have macffc 
him recollect where he broke off. This is an extraordinary in* 
ftance of the poet's art, and attention to the prefervation of cha- 
tacter. WARBURTON. 

This account of the character of Polonius, though it fufficiently 
reconciles the feeming inconliftency of fo much wifdom with fo? 
much folly, does not perhaps correfpond exactly to the ideas of 
our author. The commentator makes the character of Polonius* 
a character only of manners, difcriminated by properties fuperficial, 
accidental, and acquired. The poet intended a nobler delineation 
of a mixed character of manners and of nature. Polonius is a 
man bred in courts, exercifed in bufinefs, ftored with obfervation, 
confident of his knowledge, proud of his eloquence, and declin- 
ing into dotage. His mode of oratory is truly reprefented as de- 
figned to ridicule the practice of thole times, of prefaces that made 
no introduction, and of method that embarrafled rather than ex- 
plained. This part of his character is accidental, the reft is na- 
tural. Such a man is pofitive and confident, becaufe he knows 
that his mind was once ftrong, and knows not that it is become 1 
weak. Such a inaa excels in general principles, but fails in the 
particular application. He is knowing in retrofpect, and ignorant 
jn ibrefight. While he depends upou his memory, and can draw 


And tedioufoefs the fimbs and outward Bouriflies, 

I will be brief: Yoor noble foo is mad : 

Mad call 1 it -, for, to define true madceis. 

What is't, but to be nothing else but mad : 

But let that go. 

Quicm. More matter, v*ich lets art.- 

PL Madam, I fwear, 1 ue no a?t at all. 

That he is mad, *tis true : *ds true. 

And pity **> *ris true: a fooh'fh figure ; 

But farewel it, for I will irie to an. 

Mad kt us grant him then : and now remains, 

That we find out the caufe of rhis e 

Or 9 rather lay, the cauie of this detect ; 

For this effect, defe&ive, comes by caire : 

Thus it remains, and the remainder thus perpend. 

I have a daughter; have, whilit (he is mice; 

Who, in her duty and obedience, marie, 

Hath given me this : Now gather, and funniie. 


oi&e cMruntr cf 

, s :'I:-r; 

afl the copies; bos, I 


i&as, ekiaeral applied a 
cr to occ nek ID 
to ctsekin 

; I C-B= bazic dtat here he 
cept to tfee pbrJe, 

u 10 oekead to i'ucB aa 

what a Jie*tail 
a itmmr&J? Ota (he otber 

242 HAMLET, 

That's an ill phrafe, a vile phrafe ; beautify? & 

Is a vile phrale; bur you mall hear: 

<Tbefe in her excellent white bofcm y 4 thefe, &c.-^ 
Queen. Came this from Hamlet to her? 
Pol. Good madam, Hay a while j I will be faith^ 

Doubt tbou, the Jlars are fire ; [Reading, 

Doubt, that the fun doth move ; 

Doubt truth to be a liar ; 
But never doubt, I love. 

O dear Ophelia, lam ill at thefe numbers ; I have not 

hand, beatifitd\ as I have conjectured, raifes the image : but Polonius 
might very well, as a Roman Catholic, call it a vile phrafe, /'. e. 
favo'urihg of piofanaticn ; fince the epithet is peculiarly made an 
adjunct to the Virgin Mary's honour, and therefore ought not to 
be employed in the praife of a mere mortal. THEOBALD. 

Dr. Warburton hr.s followed Theobald ; but I am in doubt 
whether beauitfiefl, though, as Polonius calls it, a vile pbrafe, be not 
the proper word. Beautified feems to be a vile pbrafe, tor the am- 
biguity of its meaning. JOHNSON". 

The moil leautlficd Ophelia.] Heyward, in his Hi/lory of 
Edivard VI, fays, " Katherlne Parre, queen dowager to king 
Henry VIII, was a woman beautified with many excellent vir- 
tues." FARMER. 

So, in 7 be Il>g batb loft bis Pcarl^ 1614 : 

" A maid of rich endowments, beautified 
" With all the virtues nature could bellow." 

> Again, Nafh dedicates his C'jrijTs Tears over Jcfufalem, \ ^ . 
" to the moft beautified lady the lady Elizabeth Carey." 

Again, in Greene's MamiHia t 1593: " although thy perfon 
is 1b bravely leavtlfied with the dowries of nature." 

/// and vile as the phrafe may be, our author has ufed it again 
in the Two Gentlemen of yeronn : 

feeing you are beautified 
With' good (hape, &tc. STEEVEKS. 

4 Tbcfe to her excellent wtjitf bo/om^} So, In the T-VJO Gentlemen of 
Verona : 

Thy letters 

Which, being writ to me, fhall be deliver'd 
Even in tbe milk-white loj'am of thy love. 
Se6 u note on this paflage. STB t. v E x s . 


rt to reckon my groau: ha that 1 love the t&* 
O mofi t, 5 kScrx it. A&e*. 

this mtcbmeiito Km, 

This, la obedience, hath my daughter (hewn me \ 
And. ' more above, hath his ibiicmngs, 
As they fell out by rime, by means, and place, 
Ail given to mice ear. 

tjgv But how hath ihe 
Received his love? 

Pol What do you thick of me ? 

King. As of a man faithful and honourable. 

PoL I would faia prove fo. But what might yog 


When I had fees this hot love on the wing, 
(As I perceiv'd it, I muft tell you that, 
Before my daughter told me) what might you, 
Or my dear majefty your queen here, think, 
T If I had play'd the defk, or table-book; 
* Or given my heart a working, mute and dumb ; 
Or look'd upon this love with id fe fight ? 
What might you think^ TO, I went round Q> work, 

So, m Axbfiv, a comedy, i^t 
referorrcforaicr,i$God.- STEETE^^ 
ti/Hes. Josssoir, 

ymAi^f^l i f . If dtWr I fed 

444 H A M L E T, 

And my young miftrefs thus I did befpeak; 

fl Lord Hamlet is a prince : out of thy fpbers ; 

Vbis mufi not. be : and then I precepts gave her J , 
That fhe fhould lock herlelf from his refort, 
Admit no meifengers, receive no tokens. 
"Which done 2 , fhe took the fruits of my advice: 
And he, repulfed, (s a fhort tale to make) 
Fell into a ladnefs ; then into a faft ; 
Thence to a watch ; thence into a weaknefs ; 
Thence to a lightnefs ; and, by this declenfion, 
Into the madnefs wherein now he raves, 
And all we mourn for. 

King. Do you think, 'tis this? 

Queen. It may be, very likely. 

Pol. Hath there been fuch a time, (I'd fain know 

9 Lord Hamlet is a prince out of thy fphere,] All princes were 
alike otft of her fphere. I give it thus : 

Lord Hamlet is a prince : out ofdy fphere. 

Two of the quartos, :ind the firft tolio, read Jlar. STEEVENS. 
1 precepts gave her."} Thus the folio. The two elder 
quartos read, prefcripts. STEEVENS. 

1 Which done, {he took the fruits of my advice ; 

Antllje t repulJ'cd] The fruits of advice are the effects of 
advice. But how could flic be laid to take them ? The reading is 
corrupt. v -hake fpeare wrote, 

Which done, fee too the fruits of my advice j 

For, he repvljed W A R E u R T o N . 

She took the fruits of advice when fhe obeyed advice, the advice 
was then made fruitful. JOHNSON. 
3 ajbort tale to makt\ 

Fell into a fadnefs ; then into a fajl t &c.] The ridicule of 
this character is here admirably fuftained. He would not only be 
thought to have difcovered this intrigue by his own fagacity, but to 
have remarked all the ftages of Hamlet's diforder, from his fadneis 
to his raving, as regularly as his phyfician could have done ; 
when all the while the madnefs was only feigned. The humour 
of this is exquilue trorn a man who tells us, with a confidence 
peculiar to fmall politicians, that he could find 

ff'Txre truth VMS hid, though it ivere hid iudetd 
Within the centre. W ARBUR.TOK. 


P R I N C OF D N M A R K. 24$ 

That I have pofitively faid, 'Its fe, 
When it prov'd otherwife? 

A": g Not that I kno-A-. 

Pel. Take this from this, if this be otherwife : 

f Pointing to bis bead and Jb wider. 
If circumftances lead me, I will find 
Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed 
Within the centre. 

King. How may we try it further ? 

Pol. You know, fometimes he walks four hours 

together % 
Here in the lobby. 

Queen. So he does, indeed. 

Pol. At fuch a rime I'll loofe ray daughter to him: 
Be you and I behind an arras then ; 
Mark the encounter : if he love her not, 
And be not from his reafon fallen thereon, 
Let me be no afiiftint for a ftate, 
But keep a farm, and carters. 

King. We will try it. 

Enter Hamlet, reading. 

Queen. But, look, where fadly the poor wretch 
comes reading. 

Pol. Away, I do befeech you, both away; 
I'll board him preiently : O, give me leave. 

[Exeunt King, and Queen. 
HOTV does my good lord Hamlet? 

Ham. Well, god-a'-mercy. 

Pol. Do you know me, my lord ? 

Ham. Excellent well; 
You arc a fjfhrnonger. 

Pol. Not I, my lord. 

* four hours together,] Perhaps it would be better were we 
to read indefinitely, 

far hours together. TYRWHITT. 

R 3 Horn 

ii A M L fe * 

. Then I would you were fo honeft a rriah* 
Pol Honeft, my lord ? 
Ham. Ay, fir ; to be honeft, as this world goes, 
ts to be one man pick'd out of ten thoufand* 
Pol. That's very true, my lord. 
Ham. s For if the fun breeds maggots in a dead dog, 
Being a god, kifling carrion, Have you a daughter? 


5 For if the fun breed maggots in a deaddog^ 

Being a good biffing carrion 

Have you a daughter ?] The editors feeing Hamlet counterfeit 
hiadnefs, thought they mi^ht fafely put any nonfenfe into his 
mouth. But this ftrange paflage, when fet right, will be feen to 
contain as great and lublime a reflection as any the poet puts into 
his hero's mouth throughout the whole play. We mall firft give 
the true reading, which is this ; 

For if the fun breed maggots in a dead dog^ 

Being a god, kiffing carrion 

As to the fenfe we may oblerve, that the illative particle [for! 
fhews the fpeaker to be reafoning from fomething he had faid 
before : what that was we learn in thefe words, to be bonejl, as this 
ivor Id goes, :'j> to be one picked out of ten thoufand. Having laid this, 
the chain of ideas led him to refleft upon the argument which 
libertines bring againft Providence from the circumftance of 
abounding evil. In the next fpeech therefore he endeavours to 
anfwer that objection, and vindicate Providence, even on a fup- 
pofition ot the iac~t, that almoft all men were wicked. His argu- 
ment in the two lines in quettion is to this purpofe, But iv/y need 
We Wonder at tins abounding of evil ? Far if the fun bfecd maggots in 
<a dead dng^ vjbich though a god, yet futdding its beat and influence 

zpon carrion Mere hf ilops ihort, leil talking too confeqltentially 

the hearer fhouid fufpect his madnefs to be feigned ; and fo turns 
him off from the fui jeft, by enquiring of his daughter. But the 
Inference which he intended to make, was a very noble one, and to 
this purpofei If this (fays he) be the cafe, that the effect follows 
the thing operued upon [carrion] and not the thing operating 
a ged;~\ why need we wonder, that the fupreme caufe of all things 
ditiufing its bieffings on mankind, who is, as it were, a dead car- 
rion, dead in or.ginal fin, man, inftead o!" a proper return of duty, 
fhotild breed onl}- corruption and vices ? This is the argument at 
length ; and is as noble a one in behalf of Providence as could 
tome irom the fchools ot divinity. But this wonderful man had 
an art not only of acquainting the audience with what his afters 
fay, but with what they think. The feutijnent too is -altogether iri 



I have, my lord. 

Ham. Let her not walk i' the fan : conception is a 
bieffing ; but not as your daughter may conceive : 
friend, look to't. 

Pel. How lay you by that? O^Sfc.] ffill harping 
on my daughter : yet be knew me not zt firft ; he 
laid, I was a filhmonger : He is far gone, far gone : 
and, truly, in my youth I fufferM much extremity 
for love ; very near this. Fil fpeak to him again. 
What do you read, my lord ? 

Ham. Words, words, words ! 

PoL What is the matter, my ford ? 

Ham. Between who ? 

PL I mean, the matter that you read, my lord. 

Ham. 7 Slanders, fir : for the Jarirical rogue Uys 
here, that old men have grey beards; that their faces 


:.-:-;- -f. : - : r ;-. '. 

liaacts make this idJcQiuo ray natural. The lame -*u-'j:r, toaie- 
,. .r _; d:-. -.-..:.._. _:....- ; ..-.:: ;:^.". -. :.- . . "e : :^ 
;". -:/. ~ ,\' .: '. -. .-.'..'-..-....-- : -r.r . :;.".; . ..: ..... 
~ . ' : .::.-."-. - ::'.-. :_:"- 
}.' : ::.:.:... 

: .;; . . :/:;-...:. 

D* ms Aetmnitm Jta^mtimt fAf jfcnrr, 

C:- :- ' - .: ' - ' - - 

And tie unc land oitxprrjOm is mCfrp&nEiif, 
Cfmrnm I JTi^ 7it**. WAUOKTOX. 

This is a noMc eaoead&doo, which ahnoft ics she aide an 2 
Icrd with the author. JOHXSOX. 

* enaptumumUtf^i Sec.] ThustheAuo. Tbeqoanos 
read fas: 

- <Mo^feM is a beog ; 

But<pyoarda^htci may am&ft, firicad, look ttfe 
The raeamng feems to be, amafeii* (u c. ucdrfflandug) is a 
blrthng; but as jour dao^ner mzy CKUSTTV ^L c. be pHgaaatJt 
Jrietl So* tft^ L e. hare a care ol that. Tbe &me q nibble ocou* 
in drr firtt fceae of Zl ir.- 
** JS*^rf X ou 
M G&. Sir, this 

Jureiul in his acadi ^FC 
R 4 

248 HAMLET, 

are wrinkled ; their eyes purging thick amber, and 
plum-iree gum ; and that they have a plentiful lack 
of wic, together with moft weak hams : All which, 
fir, though I mod powerfully and potently believe, 
yet I hold it not honcfty to have it thus let down; 
for }our(elr, fir, fhall be as old as 1 am, if, like a 
crab, you could go backward. 

Pol, Though this be madnefs, yet there's method 
in't, [Afide* 

Will you walk out of the air, my lord? 

Ham. Into my grave ? 

Pel. Indeed, that is out o* the air. How preg- 
nant 8 fometimcs his replies are! a happinefs that; 

/)-' foci'- urn witte, muhos da Jupiter annns: 
tine rcSlo vuttu* folum hoc ct pallidus op fas. 
Sfti quam continuis et ti -tantis longa JcneClus 
Plena malls', deformem, et tetrura ante omnia vultum, 
Diffimilemque fui, faV. 

Nothing cmild be finer imagined for Hamlet, in his circumftances, 
than the bringing him in reading a delcription of the evils of long 
life. WAR BUR TON. 

Had Shakefpcare read Juvenal in the original, he had met 
with " De tctnone Brit anno ) Exridet ArviraguF 

" Uxorem, Pcjlbume, ducis?" 

We fhould nut then have had continually in Cymbcline, Arviragus 
and Pofthumm, Should it be faid that the quantity in \\\z former 
word might be forgotten, it is clear from the miilake in the latter^ 
.that Shakelpeare could not poilibly have read any one of the Roman 

There was a tranflation of the ioih fatire of Juvenal by Sir 
John Beaumont, the elder brother of the famous Francis : but I 
cannot tell whether it was printed in Shakefpeare's time. In that 
age or quotation, every clailic m.i^ht be picked up ty piece-meal. 

1 foii/ot ro mencion in its proper place, that another delcription 
of Old Jge in As you like it, has been called a parody on a paflfage 
in a Frerch poem ot Gamier. It is ttirling to lay any thing about 
this, utter the oblerva-ion I made in Macbeth: but one may remark 
oce for all, that Shakefpeave wrote tor iht/eople; and could not 
have been Ib ab:imi to biing forward an\ allufion, which Lad not 
been familiarized by Ibme accident or other. FARMER. 

* How pregnant &c.J Pregnant is ready, dexterous, apt. 


P R I N C E o F D E N M A R K. 249 

often madneis hits on, which re-U'on and fanity could 
not lb protperouflv be deliver'^. of. 1 will leave him, 
and fuddenly contrive c the means of meeting be- 
tween him and my daughter. My honourable lord, 
I will moft humbly tak- my leave of you. 

Ham. You cannot, fir, ta^e foam rre any thing that 
I will more wiliinglv part withal i except my Ufa, ex- 
cept my life, except my mr. 

Pol. Fare you well, my lord. 

Ham. Thefe tedious old tools ! 

Enter Rofencrantz* and Guildenftern. 

Pol You go to feek lord Hamlet j there he is. 


Rf. God fave you, fir ! 

Guil. Mine honour'd lord ! 

Rof. MY moft dear lord ! 

Ham. My excellent eood friend* \ How doft thou, 
Guil-Jenftern ? Ah, Ko-encrantz ! Good lads, how do 
ye both ? 

Rof. As the indifferent children of the earth. 

Guil. Happy, in that we are not over-happy; 
On fortune's cap we are not the very button. 

Ham. Nor the foals of her flioe? 

Rof. Neither, my lord. 

Ham. Then you live about her waift, er in the 
middle of her favour^ ? 

Guil. 'Jhaith, her privates we. 

Ham. In the frcrct parrs of fortune? O, moft 
true ; flic is a (trumpet. What news ? 

Rof. None, my lord ; but that the world's grown 
hor c . 

Hum. Then is dooms chv near : But your news is 
not true. [Let me quelbon more in particular: 

&c.l This, and the gn ,ieft part of the two 
are jmhtedinrhc EEVENS. 

' me SK ] All within the ^roichets, is wanting in the 
quant*. STEEVESS. 


250 HAMLET, 

What have you, my good friends, deferved at the 
hands of fortune, that me fends you to prifon hither ? 

Guil. Prifon, 'my lord ! 

Ham. Denmark's a prifon. 

Rof. Then is the world one. 

Ham. A goodly one ; in which there are many 
confines, wards, and dungeons; Denmark being one 
of the worft. 

Rof. We think not fo, my lord. 
- Ham* Why, then 'tis none to you , for there is 
nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it 
fo : to me it is a pr4fon. 

Rof. Why, then your ambition makes it one ; 'tis 
too narrow for your mind. 

Ham. O God ! I could 'be bounded in a nut-mell, 
and count myfelf a king of infinite fpace i were it 
not -that I have bad dreams. 

Guil. Which dreams, indeed, are ambition ; for 
the very fubftance of the ambitious is merely l the 
fhadow of a dream. 

Ham. A dream itftrlf is but a fhadow. 

Rof. Truly, and I hold ambition of fo airy and 
light a quality, that it is but a fhadow's fhadow. 

Ham. ? Then are our beggars, bodies ; and our 
monarchs, and out-Ttretch'd heroes, the beggars' fha- 
dows : Shall we to the court ? for, by my fay, I 
cannot realon. 

* the Jhadow of a dream."] Shakefpeare has accidentally in- 
verted an e.xpreflion ot Pindar, that the itate oi hurnanity is orx$ 
>?, the dream of afiadoiv. JOHNSON. 
So Davies, 

*' Man's life is but a dreame, nay, lefs than fo, 
" A Jlacio-u flfa dreame" FAUMEK. 
o, ;r. t'h? tragedy of Darius 1603, by Lord Sterline : 

'" Whofc'beft was but thcjfatdutv of a Jreatn." STEEVEN^. 
3 T''jfn ft'V our beggars, bodies ; ] Shakefpeare Teems here to 
iiffigfi n ridicule of rhefc declamations againft \vealth andgreatnefs, 
i:;at ;cci!i to nrakv happinefs coaiift hi poverty. JOHNSON. 

I Both. 


Both. We'll wait upon you. 

Ham. No fuch matter : I will not fort you with 
the refl of my fervants ; for, to fpeak to you like an 
honeft man, I am moft dreadfully attended.] But, 
in the beaten way of friendfhip, what make you at 

Rof. To vifit you, my lord -, no other occafion. 

Ham. Beggar that I am ; I am even poor in thanks 5 
but 1 thank you : and fure, dear friends, my thanks 
are too dear at a half-penny. Were you not fern for? 
Is it your own inclining ? Is it a free vifitarion ? 
Come, come; deal juftly with me: come, come; nay^ 

G-.'M What mould we far, roy lord ? 

Ham. Any thing but to the purpofe. You were 
fent for ; and there is a kind of confeffion in your 
locks, which your modefties have not craft enough 
to colour : I know, the good long and queen have 
fent for you. 

Rof* To what end, my lord ? 

Ham. That you muft teach me. But let me con- 
jure you, by the rights of our fellowfhip, by the con- 
fonancy of our youth, by the obligation of our ever- 
prcferved love, and by what more dear a better pro- 
poler could charge you withal, be even and direct 
with me, whether you were fent for, or no ? 

Rof. What fay you ? pb Cuildcn. 

Ham. 4 Nay, then I have an eye of you ; if you 
teve me, hold not oft. 

Guil. My lord, we were fent for. 

Ham. \ will tell you why ; fo fhall my anticipation 
prevent your difcovery, and your fecrecy to the king 
and queen moult no feather. 5 I have of late, (but, 


4 Ky, tit* 1 bave at eye cfyeu:'} An ye tfjfou means, I 
have a gliivpfe of your meaning. STEEVENS* 

5 I have ff lait, &c.j This is an admirable defcripdon of a 
rooted melancholy JJpruog from ihickneis of blood ; and art- 


252 HAMLET, 

wherefore, I* knovy not) loft all my mirth, foregone all 
cuftorp or exercifeV: and, indeed, it goes fo heavily 
with my difpofition, that this goodly frame, the earth, 
feems to me a fteril promontory ; this moft excellent 
canopy, the air, look you, this brave o'er-hanging 
firmament, 6 this majeftical roof fretted with golden 
fire, why, it appears no other thing to me, than a 
foul and pcftilent congregation of vapours. What 
a p'u'ce of work is a man ! How noble in reafon ! 
how infinite in faculties ! in form, and moving, how 
exprels and admirable ! in action, how like an angel ! 
in apprehenfion, how like a god ! the beauty of the 
worU ! the paragon of animals ! And yet, to me, what 
is this quinteflence of duft ? man delights not me, 
nor woman neither j though, by your milling, you 
feem to fay fo, 

Rof. My lord, there was no fuch (luff in my 

Ham. Why did you laugh then, when I faid Man 
delights not- me ? 

Rcf. To think, my lord, if you delight not in 
man, what lenten entertainment 7 the players mail re- 
ceive from you : we coted them on the way 8 ; and 
hither are they coming, to offer you fervice, 


fully imagined to hide the true caufe of his difordcr from the 
penetration ot thefe two friends, who were fet over him as 
fpiet. WARBURTON. 

6 this brave over -hanging firmament,] Thus the quarto. 
The folio reads, this brave o'er-hanging, this &c. STEEVENS. 

7 /## entertainment] i e. {paring, like the entertainments 
given in Lent. So, in the Duke's Miftrcfs, by Shirly, 1631 : 

" to maintain you with bifket, 
.*' Poor John, and halt a livery, to read moral virtue 
" And lenten lectures." STEEVENS. 

* We coted them on the ivay, ] To cote is to overtake. I 
meet with this Word in The Return from ParnaJJus, a com'edy, 
1606 : 

** marry we prefently coted and outHript them." 
1 I have 


Ham. He that plays the king, (hall be welcome-, 
his majefty (hall have tribute of me : the adventurous 
knight (hall uie his foil, and target : the lover (hall 
not figh gratis ; the humorous man 9 (hall end his 
part in peace: the clown (hall make thole laugh, 
whole lungs are tickkd o' the fere ; and the lady 

I have obferred the furc rerb to be- ufcd in fcreral more of 
the old plays. So, in the Second Fait el Manlons 

44 - quick obfervation icud 
* To c*e the plot." - 
Again, in our author's K. HttryVl. P. HI : 

** Whofc haughty fpiiit, winged with define, 
Will ctf my crown." 
Again, in the 2jd Song of Drayton's PfhoZln: 

Which dog firft turns the "hare, which firfl the other auto." 
i, e. outftrips the other in the courfe. 

Again, in Warner's A&ums Emglamd, 1602, book 6. chap. 30 : 
4 - Was of the gods and goddcfles tor wantcanefs out-cwd" 
Again, in Drant's tranflation of Horace's faiires, 1567 : 
' For he that thinks to coat all men, and all u>_orergoe." 
Chapman has iccre than once ufed die word in his Tcrtoa ot the 
23 dluad. 

In the laws of courfing, ftys Mr. Toilet, ** a ccte is when a 
greyhound goes endways bj the fide of his fellow, andgjies the 
hare a turn. This quotation feeros to point out the ttvicokgy 
f the verb to be from the French cete, the fide. STEEVEXS. 

JbaU nd bu fart a peace .-] A i ter thefe words the folio a<id, 
the ctesmJbaU mate tbofe l*mgb *A hays are tULed i :S frre. 

This paflage I hare omitted, for the fame realbn, I u ppoie, as 
the other editors : I do not underftand it. Joaxsox. 

The cl*x*Jk*n make ttxfc laxgb v.*efr Jmxgs are tickled tt frri, 
i. e. thofe who are aflhmatica!, and to whom laughter is iroii: 
uneafy. This is the cafe (as I am toid) with thofe w, hofe luc^s axe 
tickled by the fere otjcnm : but about this panage 1 son neither 
very confident, nor Tery felicitous. 

The woid_/&PTf occurs as unintelligibly in an ancient Diamgwe 
letvxou the &ma Setreiay <aJJ f !<rjL t tgmJymtf the aOatlaa if 
txrivtes, bLL nodate: 

** And wyll byde whyfpefynge in the eare, 

M ThjTjke ye'her tayle is not \ygAtftiejeare? 

The^rris tikewifei part about a hawk. STEEVEJJS. 
^/WrX&c.] *t*l a $Jlmt4 K < v , e 4,Jtr*&** t nlefs 
from the lafnemefi 4/tbe verfe. JOHN SON . 

7 (hail 

254 HAMLET, 

fhall fay her mind freely, or the blank verfe fhall hale 
for't. What players are they ? 

Rof. Even thofe you were wont to take fuch de- 
light in, the tragedians of the city. 

Ham. How chances it, they travel ? their refidence, 
both in reputation and profit, was better both ways. 

Rof. J I think, their inhibition comes by the means 
of the late innovation. 

Ham. Do they hold the fame eftimation they dicj 
when 1 was in the city ? Are they fo follow'd ? 

jR<7/!,No, indeed, they are not. 

* \Harn. How comes it ? Do they grow rufty ? 

1 I think, their inhibition} I fancy this is tranfpofed : Hamlet 
enquires not about an inhibition, but an innovation ; the anfwer 
therefore probably was, 1 think, their innovation, that is, their ne\v 
practice of ftroUing, conies by means of the late inhibition. 


The drift of Hamlet's queftion appears to be this. How 
chances it they travel ? i. e. Ho~v happens it that they are become 
Jlrollers ? Their refidence, both in reparation and profit, was better 
both ways. i. e. to have remained in a fettled theatre, luas the more 
honourable as well as the more lucrative Jhuation. To this, Rofen- 
crantz replies Their inhibition comes by means of the late in- 
novation. -i. e. their perm'Jjion to aft any longer at an ejlablijhed 
bouje is taken away, in confequence of the NEW CUSTOM of introducing 
perfonal abuje into their comedies. Several companies of actors in 
the time of our author were filenced on account of this licentious 
practice. See a dialogue between Comedy and Envy at the con- 
clufion of Mucedorus, 159?, as well as the Preludium to Arijlippus^ 
cr the Jovial Philofopher, 1630, from whence the following pairage 
is taken: " Shews having been long intermitted and forbidcea by 
authority, for their abufes, could not be railed but by conjuring,'* 
Sbnv enters, whipped by two furies, and the prologue fays to her ; 

" with tears warn oft' that guilty iir,, 
<f Purge out thofe ill-digeiled dregs of wit, 
*.' That ufe their ink to blot a fpotlefs name : 
" Let's have no one part 'cnlar man traduc'd 
* fpare theferfais ike." 

Alteration therefore in the order of the words feems to be quite 
unneceflary. STEEVENS. 

* The lines enclofed in crotchets are in the folio of 1625, but 
not in the quarto of 1637, nor, J fuppofe, in any of the quartos. 




Rof. Nay, their endeavour keeps in the wonted 
pace : But there is, fir, an aiery of children, s little 
eyates, that 4 cry out on the top of queftion, and 

3 an Aiery a/children, &c.] Relating to the pUv-hou&s then 
contending, the Baxjfix, the Fortxaf, &c. played by the children 
of his majefty' 8 chapel. POPE. 

It relates to the young finging men of St. PauFs, concerning 
whole performances and fuccefs in attracting the beft company, I 
find the following paflage in Jack Drrnxs Eatertaivmeat^ or 
Pafqvil and Katocrinf, l6oi : 

" I faw tbe cbiMre* <fP*soks kft night ; 

** And troth they pleas'd me pretty, pretty well, 

" The apes, in time, will handlbmely. 

I like the audience that irequenteth there 

* With mvfb afplauj'e: a man fhall not be choak'd 
" With the flench of gariick, nor be palled 
" To the barmy jacket, of a beer brewer. 

" *Tis a good^i/Zr ajuufxtr, &c." 

It is faid in Richard flecknoe's Short Djjcoarfe tf the Englifo 
Stage, 1674, that " botk the children of the chappel aad St. 
Paul's, acted playes, the one in White-Frier's, the other behind** 
the ConTocation-houfe in Paul's ; rill people growing more pre- 
ciie, and playes more licentious, the theatre or" Paul's was quite 
fuppreil, and that of the children of the chappel convened to the 
ufe of the children of the revels." STEEVEXS. 

Little Yafes, that ay nt en the top of qtufiuu^ - ] The 
poet here fteps out of his fubjeS to give a lafh at home, and (heer 
at the prevailing faQuon of following plays peribnned by the chil- 
dren of the chapel, aad abandoning the eilablifced theatres. But 
why are they called little Yafes? As he firft calls 'em an A'ery of 
children (now, an Alay or Eyay is a hawk's or eagle's nell) ; there 
is not the leafr quemon but we ought to reftore-^ little Ejafe ; 
i, e. young neftUngs, creatures juit outof the egg. TUEOEAUD. 
ia the Boost *f Hanfyng, &c. bl. 1. no date: " And fo 
bycauie the beil knowledge is by the w, they be calle<J tyrjeil. 
Ye may alfo kcowe an eyeje by toe palenefs of the leres of her 
legges, or the fere over the beake." STESV 

4 cry cttt cu tbe tfp tfqueftim, ] Th* meanjng feenis to be, 
they a& icomicon qucitioii in the highefi notes of the voice. 


I beliere qae^-m y 'vo. this place, as in manr others, lignines co*- 
ixrfati**y ^VOgae. So, in The Mcrcko*i fttutr: " ^ - 
*' you qutjiioa. with a Jew." The meaning of the 

tljeretoie be CbiUrc* tbct ferpetmoLy m//f T* the Qfcfi *r^j y 
. bt attend. STVb..v>. 

256 HAMLET, 

are moft tyrannically clapp'd for't: thefe arc riow 
the fafhion ; and lo berattle the common ftages, (fo 
they call them) that many, wearing rapiers, are afraid 
of goole quills, and dare fcarre come thither. 

Ham. What, are they children ? Who maintains 
'em ? how are they 4 efcoreu ? J Will they puriue 
the quality no longer than they cin fing ? will they 
not lay afterwards, if they fhould grow themielves to 
common players, (as it is moft like 6 , if their means 
are no better) their writers do them wrong, to make 
them exclaim againft their own fucctflion ? ? 

Rof. 'Faith, there has been much to do on both 
fides ; and the nation holds it no fin, to tarre them ori 
to controveriy 8 : There was, for a while, no money 
bid for argument, unlefs the poet and the player went 
to cuffs in the queftion. 

Ham. Is it poflible? 

Guil. O, there has been much throwing about of 

Ham. Do the boys carry it away ? 

Rof. Ay, that they do, my lord 5 9 Hercules and 
( his load too.] 

4 efcotfd?~\ Paid. From the French efcot, a Ihot or reckon* 
ing. JOHNSON. 

5 Will theypurj'ue the quality no longer (ban they can fing ?~\ Will 
they follow the prift-ffi^n ot players no longer than they keep the 
voices of boys ? So afterwards he fays to the player, Came, give us 
a tafte of your quality ; come^ a pajfionatc ffeech. JOHNSON. 

6 mofl like, ] The old copy reads, like mq/L STKE YENS. 

7 their writers do them wrong, &c.] I fhouid have been very 
much furprized it I had not found Ben Jonlbn among the writers 
here alluded to. STSEVENS. 

8 to tarre them on to controverjy l "\ To provoke any animal 
to rage, is to tarre him. The word is laid to come irom the Greek 
r^dffa-u. JOHNSON. 

9 Hercules and bis load too.'] i.e. they not only carry away 
the world, but the world-bearer too : alluding to the iron of Her- 
cules's relieving Atlas. This is humorous. WAREURION. 

The allufion may be to the Globe playhoule, on the Bankilde, 
the fign of which was Heivulet carrying the Globe. bTEEVENs. 



Ham. * It is not very ftrange : for my uncle is 
king of Denmark; and thofe, that would make 
mouths at him while my father uVd, give twenty, 
forty, fifty, an hundred ducats a-picce,for his picture 
-in link*. There a fbmething * in this more than 
natural, if philosophy could find it out. 

[Flsmrijb tf tnuep&s. 

GmL There are the players. 

Ham. Gentlemen, you are welcome to Elfinour. 
Tour hands. Come then : the appurtenance of wet- 
come is fafhion and ceremony : * let me comply with 
you in this garb; left my extent to the players, which, 
I tell you, muft Ihew fairly outward, Ihouid more 
appear like entertainment than yours. You are wel- 
come: but my uncle-father, and aunt-mother, are 

GmL In what, my dear lord? 

Ham. I am but mad north-BOrth- weft : when the 
wind is foutheriy 5, I know a hawk from a hand-law*. 


Tlw w a GOMKA 
provobial %ccdk T^e OxfaJ Ei& abas k 10, /&KBrAnt 
jfwe A Afr^j-r, as if tcbe oefcer bad Ues coctataan of d 
VOL.X. :.,; 

25 8 HAMLET, 

Enter Polonius. 

Pol. Well be with you, gentlemen ! 

Ham. Hark you, Guildenftern ; and you too; 
at each ear a hearer: That great baby, you lee there, 
is not yet out of his fwadling-clouts. 

Rof. Haply, he's the fecond time come to them ; 
for, they fay, an old man is twice a child. 

Ham. I vvill prophefy, he comes to tell me of the 
players \ mark it. You fay right, fir : on monday 
morning-, 'twas then, indeed. 

Pol. My lord, I have news to tell you. 

Ham. My lord, I have news to tell you. When 
Rofcius was an actor in Rome, 

Pol. The actors are come hither, my lord. 

Ham. 7 Buz, buz ! 

Pol. Upon mine honour, 

Ham. 8 'Then came each aftor on his #/},- 

PoL The belt actors in the world, either for tra- 
gedy, comedy, hiltory, paftoral, paftoral-comical, 
hillorical-paftoral, [9 tragical-hiftorical, tragical-comi- 

players ; whereas the poet found the proverb thus corrupted in the 
mouths of the people: fo that this critic's alteration only ierves to 
fhew us the original of the expreflion. WARBURTO.V. 

Similarity of found is the fource of many literary corruptions, 
In Holborn we have ftill the fign of the Bull etr.d Gate, which ex- 
hibits but an odd combination of images. It u-as originally (as I 
learn from the title page of an old play) the Biillog/ie Gate, /'. e. one 
of the gates of Bullogne\ defigned perhaps as a compliment to 
Henry VIII. who took that place in 1544. 

The Bullogne moutb, now the Bull and Moutb, had probably the 
fame origin, i.e. the mouth of the harbour ofBullogne . STEEVENS. 

i Buz, buz!*"] Mere idle talk, the buz of the vulgar. 


Buz, luz ! are, I believe, only interjections employed to inter-' 
rupt Poionius. B. Jonfon ufes them often for the fame purpofe, as 
well as Middleton in A Mad World my Majlers, 1608. STEEVENS. 

8 Then came, &c.] This feems to be a line of a ballad. 


9 tragical Sic.] The words within the crotchets I have re- 
covered from the folio, and fee no reafon why they were hitherto 

I omitted. 


cal, hiftorical-paftoral,] fcene undividable, or poem 
unlimited : * Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Plautus 
too light: *for the law of writ, and the liberty, 
theie are the only men. 

Ham. O jfcpbtba, judge of Jjfr what a trea- 
fare had ft thou ! 

Pol What a treafure had he, my lord ? 

Ham, Why, One fair daughter, and no more, 
The wbicb be loved p~jfing well. 

PoL Still on my daughter. 

Ham. Am I not i' the right, old Jephtha ? 

Pol. If you call me Jephtha, my lord, I have a 
daughter, that I love paffing well. 

Ham. Nay, that follows not. 

PoL What follows then, my lord? 

Ham. 5 Why, as By let, God wot, and then, you 
know, // came to fajs, sts mojt kke it w,-- 4 The 


omitted. There are many plays of the age, if not of Shakespeare, 
that anfwer to theie descriptions. STEE VE scs. 

x Santa aaatt te to* brtr*y, **r P!*itt*s t*> %&.] The tn 
gedies of Seneca were translated into Engiiih by Tho. Newton, 
and publifhed in 1581. One comedy of Plautus, viz. the Me- 
ffc^md^ was likewife tranflateri -jnd publiibed in 1595. STEEYEXS. 

* Ftr lle'uKuifvnt, ad the fbrt,, tty art the emfy mem.} AU 
the modem editions hare, the law ^"wit, amd toe $kcrty ; but both 
my old copies have, the law efwnf, I bdiere ri^idy. ffrit, foe 
voritmgt nmpejitMox. Wit was not, in cur -author's rime, taken 
either tor i'M|iH'ia t or aaaarfi, or k*tb together, boc tor vde^, 
Jlam*g t for the tacuky by which we otfrelxnd and /ngr. Tbofij 
who wrote of the human mind, diitinguilhed its-primary powers 
into -sail and vouL Afcham difnnguiihei; 6r?i of tardy and of adif^ 
faculties into qsick H/J and Jl<*o> <uzts. Joaxsox. 

^ Why, msbUt, G^'M^&c.} TlTC oU fong from whkh 
fhefe quotations are taken, I communict ited to Dr. Percy, who 
has honoured it with a place in the fecoi id and third editions of 
his Rei^itu tf *aemt Exglljh P*etry. la the books belonging to 
the Stationers' Company, there is a late en ry of this Ballad among 
Others. 4 Jtfm Jm%e jlfrael? p. 93. ^oL iii. Dec. 14. 1624. 


At funs cbiufr* ] It is perns r?fr in the firft fofio edi- 
. The oid ballads fang oa bridges,' ? md from thence calks} 
Hamk; is here repeataig q $4? of old tongs. Foys t 

a'6o HAMLET, 

firft row of the pious chanfon will fhew you more ; 
for look, where s my abridgment comes. 

Enter four or five Players. 

You are welcome, mafters ; welcome, all : I am 
glad to fee thee well: welcome, gocd friends. O, 
old friend ! Why, thy face is valacc'd fince I faw 
thee laft; Com'ft thou to beard me in Denmark ? 
What ! my young lady and miftrefs ! By-'r-lady, 
your ladyfhip is nearer to heaven, than when I faw 
you laft, 6 by the altitude of a chioppine. Pray 


It is pons cbanfons in the quarto too. I know not whence the 
rubric has been brought, yet it has nor the appearance of an ar- 
bitrary addition. The titles of old ballads were never printed 
red ; "but perhaps rubric may Hand for marginal explanation. 


There are five large vols. of ballads in Mr. Pepys's collection 
i:i Magdalen college library, Cambridge, ibme as ancient as 
Henry Vll's reign, and not one red letter upon any one of the 
titles/ GRAY. 

Tie firft row of the RUBRIC TU///, &c.] The words, of tie 
rubric were firft inferted by Mr. Rowe, in his edition in 1 709. 
The old quartos in 1604, 1605, and 1611, read/nww cban/bn, which 
gives the fenfe wanted, and I have accordingly inferted it in the text. 

The pious cbSnJotii were a kind ot Cbriflmas carols, containing 
fume fcriptural hiflory thrown into loofe ihimes, and lung about 
the ftreets by the common people when they went at that feafon 
to fplicit alms. Hamlet is here repeating Ibme fcraps from a fong 
of this kind, and when Polonius enquires what follows them, he 
refers him to the firfi ro~v (i. e. divifion) of one ot thefe, to- ob- 
tain the information he wanted. STEEVENS. 

5 my abrulgmz.:! JHe calls the players afterwards, the 

brief chronicles of t':e time ; but I think he now means only tbq't 
i-:fo v:lllj]:ertcn my talk. JOB K8OW. 

An abridgement is ufed tor a dramatic piece in the MiJfummer 
.Yg-iA Dream, Acl 5. So. i . 

'* Say what abridgment have you for this evening ?" 
bin it does not commodiouily apply to this paflage. STEEVENS. 

6 by the altituik of a ciiippi>ic.~\ A cbioppine is a hiiih fhoe 
worn by the Italians, as in 1 ho. Hvfy wood's Challenge of Btsuty, 
A5l c. " Song. 



God, your voice, like a piece of uncurrent gold, 7 be 
not crack'd within the ring. Matters, you are all 
welcome. We'll e'en to't g like French falconers, fly 
at any thing we fee : We'll have a fpeech ftraight : 

The Italian in her high 

Scotch lafs and lovely froe too ; 
The Spanilh Donna, French Madame, 

He doth not tea re to go to. 
So, in Ben Jonfon's Cynthia* Revels : 

" I do wifh myfelf one of my miftrefs'gC'^/*/." Another <fe- 
mands, why would he be one of his miftreis's Cleppixi? a third 
anfwers, "'becaufe he would make her higher? 

Again, in Decker's Match me in Lomion, 1631 : " I'm only 
taking initru<Hons to make her a lowei Ciofxeiu ; (he finds faulc 
that {he's lifted too high." 

Again, in Chapman's C<ejar and Pempey, 1631 :* 

" - and thou fhalt 

" Have Chopiius at comiBandement to any height 
44 Of life thou canil wifh." STEEVENS. 

^ bejtot eroded within the ring.~\ That is, craci'd too imecf> 
fir ufi. This is faid to a young player who aded the parts of 
women. JOHNSON. 

I find the fame phrafe in The Captain, by B. and Fletcher: 
" Come to be married to my lady's woman, 
" After (he's crack'd in tie ring? 
Again, in Ben Jonfon's Magnetic Lady: 

" Light gold, and crack'd within tke ring? 
Again, in Ram- Alley, or Merry pricks, 16 n : 

" not a penny the worfe 
'* For a little ufe, whole ivltbia the ring* 

Again, in Decker's HOM& Wbon, 1635 : " You will not let 
my oaths be crack'd in the ring, will you ? STEE VENS. 

* Use friendly falconer* ] Hanmer, who has much illuftrated 
the alluiions :o falconry, reads, like French falconers. JOHNSON.. 

French falconers is not a correction by Hacmer, but the readjng 
of the firft folio. 

The amulement of falconry was much cultivated in France. 
In AFs a.r// that ends ivell, Shakefpear has introduced an aftringer 
or falconer at the French court. Mr. Toilet, who has mentioned 
the tame circum&ince, likewife adds that it is laid in Sir Tho. 
Brtnvne's Tra&s, p. 1 1 6. that " the French leem to have been the 
firft and noblell falconers in the weitern pan of Europe ;" and, 
that the Fre-nch king fent over his falconers to Ihew that iport to 
King James tee fine." See Weidoa's Court ef Klxg James. 


S 3 Come, 

a'62 H A M L E T, 

Come, give us a tafte of your quality ; come, a paf- 

fionate fpeech. 

i Play. What fpeech, my good lord ? 

Ham. I heard thee fpeak me a fpeech once, but 
it was never acted -, or, if it was, not above once : 
for the play, I remember, pleas'd not the million ; 
'twas 9 caviare to the general : but it was (as I re- 
ceiv'd it, arid others, whofe judgments, in fuch 
matterSj l cried in the top of mine) an excellent 
play j well digefted in the fcenes, * let down with as 

9 Caviare to tbe general;] Caviare is the fpawn of fturgeon 
pickled, and is imported hither from Ruffia. Sir J. HAWKINS. 

The Caviare is not the fpawn of the/argvw, hut of the Jlerktl^ 
a fi(h of the iturgeon kind, which feldom grows above thirty inches 
long. It is foand in many of the rivers of Ruffia, but the Volga 
produces the belt and in the greateft plenty. 

S:e Bell's Journey from Peterjhurgh to Ifpaban. 
B. Jonfon has ridiculed the introduction of thefe foreign deli- 
cacies in his Cintbia's Kcveis. " He doth learn to eat Anchovies, 
Ma:aroni, B;;vo!i, Fagioli, and Caviare," &c. 

Again, in the Mufes Looking Glafs, by Randolph, 1638 : 

" the pleafure that 1 take in fpending it, 
" To feed on Caviare and eat anchovies." 
Again, in the While Devil, 1(312 : 

" * one citizen 

'* Is lord of two fair manors that call'd you mafter^ 
*' Only for Caviart'* 
Again, in Marilon's Wlatyou w/77, 1607 : 

" a man can fcarce eat good meat, 
" Anchovies, Caviare, but he's latired." 

Mr. Malone obferve that lord Clarendon ufes the general for 
tbe people, in the farre manner. And fo by undervaluing many 
particulars (which they truly efteemed) as rather to be con Tented to 
lhan that tbe general (hould futfer.** B. ^. p. 530. STEEVENS. 

^ cried in the top of mine ] i. i-. whofe judgment I had the 
higheft opinion of. WARBUSTON*. 

I think it means only that "Mere higher than mine. JOHNSON. 
Whofe judgment, in fuch matters, was in much higher vogue 
than mine. REVISAL. 

Perhap,; it means c-nly whofe judgment was more clamoroufly 
delivered than mine. We ftili fay of a bawling aftor, that he 
freaks on tbe top of his voice. STEEVENS. 

* fetdow* with as much modefty ] Mo&Jly* for jtmplidty. 




rftuch mudefly as conning. I remember, ooe fasd, 
there were no falkts J in the lines, to make the mat- 
ter UTOOTY; nor no matter in the phra&r, * that 
might indite the author of affection: % but cail'd , 
an honed method 5 [as * wholribme as fweet, and 
by very much mote handfeme than fine.] One 
fpeech in k \ chiefly Jor'd: 'twas Eneas' tale to 
Dido; and thereabout of it eipeciaflT; where he 
ipeaks of Pram's daughter : It it Ihr in your me- 
mory, begin at this line ; let me ice, let me fee 

The ngged Pjrrbms* Eke tte Bynxmam 
'tis not ib ; it begins with Pvrrhus. > 

The r^ged Pyrrbm^be^ mbofefsUt 

Slick *s to f*f*fc d ttcmgbt 

Wbem be l*j embed a tbe 

lUtb am this trealwmt tb& 

&c.] SoA is Ac icrfng of Ac o&i 
1 kmv not inr Ac ker CEN*S coviKBod ID adopt dbc 
or Mr. Pope; 'and read, mo >*, 

Mr. /W, dEcndao m-y iwked be ia Ibrae A^ite 
Moving - 

br Ac 

troop of gtfrett, vfao ftdl idb ctuj 

r. cnvraftchB 
Mscia csls MdroSa an 
d a 

.Aj^siiig m the fwjffr jiitiBi ot ^pE ^fBtBFf CdnWiKF^ by 

: " Among die cfaadc condEuons aad qoafi^cs im a vak^ 
^roBaan," is n fiec $& cc aEifka^r. 5 * &TEETESS. 

1- - 

j fia^f, ter c^ff. WAX SVXTOX. 

46*4 H A M L E T, 

With heraldry more difmal ; head to foot- 

New is be total gules i ; horridly trick 1 d 

With Hood of fathers, mother - j, daughters, fons j 

Bak'd and impjfted -with the parching ftreets, 

tfhat lend a tyrannous and a damned light 

<To their lord's murder : Roafted in wrath, and fire, 

And thus o'er-fized with coagulate gore, 

With eyes like carbuncles, the hellijh Pyrrhus 

Old grandfire Priam feeks : So, proceed you. 

Pol. 'Fore God, my lord, well Jfpoken ; with good, 
accent, and good difcretion. 
i Play. Anon he finds him, 
Striking tcojhort at Greeks', his antique fword, 
Rebellious to his arm, lies where it falls, 
Repugnant to command: Unequal match' d, 
Pyrrbus at Priam drives ; in rage, fir ikes wide ; 
But with the whiff and wind of his fell fword 
^he unnerved father falls. Then fenfelefs Ilium, 
Seeming to feel this blow, with flaming top 
Stoops to his bafi ; and with a hideous crajh 
Takes prifoner Pyrrhus' ear: for, lo ! his fword 
Which was declining on the milky head 
Of reverend Priam, feem'd i' the air to ftick : 
<S0, as a painted tyrant, Pyrrhus flood ; 
And) like a neutral to his will and matter? 
Did nothing. 

But, as we often fee, againft feme Jlorm, 
Afdence in the heavens , the rack ftand flill, 
'The bold winds fpeechlefs, and the orb below 
As bujh as death : anon, the dreadful thunder. 

7 Now is ke iota! gules;] Gales is a term in the barbarous 
jargon peculiar to heraldry, and fignifies red* Shakefpeare has it 
again in Timon: 

'* With man's blood paint the ground ; gules, gules." 
Hey wood, in his Second Part of the Iron Age> has made a verb 
from it : 

" old Hecuba's reverend locks 
" Be gul\i in flaughter." STEEVENS. 


Dotb rend the region : So 9 after Pyrrbitf paufe, 
A rotted vengeance fets him new a-work- 9 
And never did the Cyclops* hammers fall 
On Moris armour* forgd far proof etene, 
With lefs remorfe than Pyrrbus 1 bUedingfxord 
tf*w faUs a* Priam. - 
O*/, out* thm flrumptt Fortune I M you gcds, 
In general ffnody take away her power -^ 
Break aU the fpokes and feUies from ber wheel, 
- And bowl the round nave down the. bill of heaven* 
As low at to the fends! 
Pol. This is too long. 

Ham. It (hall to the barber's, with your beard. 
Pr*ythee, fay on : He's for a jigg, or a tale of baw- 
cjry, or he Qeeps : fay on ; come to Hecuba. 

i Play. But who, a woe ! bad fcen * the mookd 

Ham. The mobled queen ? 

* ^moWeaj ] MMJor mMed figm6es cUL So 
Sandys, fpeakia^ of the Turkifh women, fays, their bead amd facet 
anrmbkdn jr, that * mire is t lejiem f them tbax tUr 
yes. Trards. WAEBUXTON-. 

3f^%BJJg MM, grjAf C^xrtJ. JoHVSOM. 
The tolio reads the voided queea ; and in ail probability it is 
the true reading. This pompous but unmeaning epithet might 
be iiiliOHHOBB inuuy to make her Pnrygian majefij appear more 
ridiculous in the louowing lines, where {he is represented as wear- 
ing a clout OQ her head ; or, /mMft/qaeen may however tigniiy 
the queen tnmtllr f, i. e. diveiied of her former dignities. Mr. 
Upuwwouki read *a-&y queen: Magta axdtaxte cattrva. 

I am infonned that mab-Isd. in Warwickihire (where it is pro- 
nounced arf led) fignifies iedaftriy ly a vai the vriffr an zu 
fata*s. STEEVEXS. 

M The mMU qoeen." 
I meet with this word in Sbrrtyt Gaokmax ffFnict, 

" The moon does mMk up herfelf'." FA>MEK. 
In the latter end of the reign of King Charles II. the rsbble 
that attended the Earl of Shafrfcury's panizans was firft called 
rafale v*Jgv, and afterwards, by contraction, the mtb ; and ever 
fince, the word mob has become proper Engiilt. Coniequendj 
Mr. Upton's fuppoorion mult tall to the ground. TOILET. 


2 66 HAMLET, 

Pol. That's good ; mobled queen is good. 

i Play. Run bare-foot up and down, threatening tie 


9 With biffon rheum ; a clout upon that head. 
Where lajs the diadem ftood \ and^for a robe. 
About her lank and all o'er-teemed loins, 
A blanket, in the- alarm of faar caught up ; 
Who this hadfeen, 'with tongue- in venom jleep'd, 
'Gainft fortune's fiat e would tr-eflfon have pronounced: 
But if the gods thtmfefoes did fee her then y 
When Jhe fait) Pyrrbits make malicious fport 
In mincing with his fivord her hujband's limbs j 
The inftant burft of clamour that Jhe made, 
(Unlefs things mortal move them not at all) 
Would have made milch 1 the burning eyes of heaven. 
And pajjion in the gods. 

Pol. Look, whe'r he has not turn'd his colour, 
and has tears in's eyes. Pr'ythee, no more. 

Ham. 'Tis well ; I'll have thee fpeak out the reft 
of this foon. Good my lord, will you fee the players 
well beftow'd ? Do you hear, let them be well ufed ; 
for they are the abftracl:, and brief chronicles, of the 
time : After your death, you were better have a bad 
epitaph, than their ill report while you live. 

Pol. My lord, I will ufe them according to their 

Ham. Odd's bodikins, man, much better : Ufe 
every man after his defert, and who (hall Tcape whip- 
ping ? Ufe them after your, own honour and dignity : 
The lefs they deferve, the more merit is in your 
bounty. Take them in. 

9 K!rv biflbn rlcum ; ] Bffin or leefen, i. e. blind. A word 
(till in ufe in ibme parrs or the north of England. 

So in Coriohiiuis : " What harm can your bijjbn confpetuhies 
glean out of this character r" STEEVENS. 

1 made nrikh ] Drayton in the 13th Song of his Polyolbion 
gives this epithet to dew. " Exhaling the miLh dew, &c." 



Pel Come, firs. [Exit Polomus. 

Ham. Follow him, friends: we'll hear a play to- 
morrow. Doft thou hear me, old friend j can you 
play the murder of Gonzago ? 

i Play< Ay, my lord. 

Ham. We'll ha't to-morrow night. You could, 
for a need, ftudy a fpeech of fome dozer, or fixteen 
lines, which I would let down, and infert in't? could 
you not ? 

I Play. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. Very well. Follow that lord ; and look 
you mock him not. My good friends, [to Rof. and 
Guild.] I'll leave you 'till night : you are welcome 
to Elfinour. 

Rof. Good, my lord. [Exeunt Rof. and GuiL 

Ham. Ay, fo, God be wi* you : Now I am alone. 
O, what a rogue and peafant flave am I ! 
Is is not monltrous, that this player here % 
But in a fiction, in a dream of paffion, 
Could force his foul fo to his own conceit, 
That, from her working, * all his vifage warm'd ; 


sy that tlis p'jrper r,] It fcould (eem from 
the complicated nature of fuch parts as Hamlet, Lear, &c. that 
the time of Shakelpeare had produced many excellent performers. 
He would fcarce have taken the pains to form characters which 
he had no profpeS of feeing reprefen ted with force and propriety 
on the ftar,e. STEEVEKS. 

3 alibis ?v* warrn'd ; ] This might do, d:d not the old 
tjviarto lead us to a more exact and pertinent reading, which is, 

- vtfage wan'd; 

i. e. tura'd/oi or voaa. For fo the vifage appears when the mind 
is thus affeciiooed, and not <a*frVorfiu:li'J. WAXETTSTON. 

The working of the foul, and the effort to (hed tears, will give 
a colour to the aclorV face, inlreai of taking it away. The 
vifage is always 'saarafd and fluih'd by any unufjal exertion in a 
panlonate fpeech ; but no was ever yet found, I believe, 
whole .feelings were of fuch exquifite (euf:biilty as to produce 
palenefs in any fituation in which the drama could place him. 
But if players were indeed pofiefled of that power, there is no 


268 H A M L E T, 

4 Tears in his eyes, diftradtion in J s afpeft, 

A broken voice, and his whole function foiling 
With forms to his conceit ? And all for nothing I 
For Hecuba ! 

5 What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, 
That he mould weep for her ? What would he do, 
Had he the motive and 6 the cue for paffion, 

That I have ? He would drown the ftage with tears, 

And cleave 7 the general ear with horrid fpeech ; 

Make mad the guilty, and appall the free, 

Confound the ignorant ; and amaze, indeed, 

The very faculty of eyes and ears. 

Yet I, 

A dull and muddy-mettled rafcal, peak, 

fuch circumftance in the fpeech uttered before Hamlet, as could 
introduce the luanntfs tor which Dr. Warburton contends. 


* " Tears in his eyes, difr.ra6r.ion in 's afpett?} The word 
afafl (as Dr. Farmer very properly obfervcs) was in Shakefpeare's 
time accented on the fecond fyllable. The folio exhibits the paf- 
fage as I have printed it. STEEVENS. 

5 What* Hecuba to him, &c.] The expreflion of Hamlet, What's 
Hecula to him, or he to Hecuba, is plainly an allufion to a paflage 
in Plutarch's Life of PtlopiJas, fo exquifitely beautiful, and ib per- 
tinent, that I wonder it has never yet been taken notice of. 

" And smother time, being in a theatre where the tragedy of 
Troadcs ofEuripnles was played, he [Alexander Pheranis] went 
out of the theatre, and fent word to the players notwith Hand- 
ing, that they fhould go on with their play, as if he had been 
full among them ; faying, that he came not away for any 
mifliking he had of them or of the play, but beca'ufe he was 
attained his people (hould fee him weep, to fee the miferies of 
Hecuba and Androrqpiche played, and that they never faw him 
pity the death of any one man, of fo many of his citizens as 
he had caufed to be llain." Sir JOHN HAWKINS. 
This obfervation had been already made by Mr. Upton. 


* the cue for pafion.~\ The hint, the cfireEii.n. JOHNSON. 

7 the general ear ] The ears of all mankind. So before,' 
Caviare to the general, that is, to the multitude, JOHNSON. 



Like Jobn-a-dreams, ' un pregnant of my caufe, 
And can fay norhing ; no, not for a king. 
Upon wbofe piupcuy, and moft dear fife, 
1 A damn'd defeat was made. Am I a coward ? 
Who calls me^ilkin ? breaks my pate across : 
Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face ? 
Tweaks me by the nofc? gives me the lye i'the throat, 
As deep as to the lungs ? Who does me this ? 
Ha ! Why I mould rake it : for it cannot be, 
But I am pigeon-fiver'd, and lack gall 
To make oppreffioo bitter; or, ere this, 
I mould have fatted all the region kites 
With this toe's ofial : Bloody, bawdy villain ! 


Ukc Jdm-**:*m*^-\ Per^ps dus nane 

o hare fcer^ iocne irai] taoOT dradcr. ss 

feme met wkh tacse than Hoe attofon to him. So, 
ttf&jmm a Stfnm ifiMcz, mr G&ritl Omrnfs Exxt a a*, by 
Nafi:c, 1596 :* Tlie ddt^pnoo of dm poor 7IM%K> hk 
man, vhooi he had hived,* &-*' J*&m * Drwyna is StfTrlfe a 
foofife chaiader in Uljctsioae's P oc, ami C*Jja*r, i ^S, vho 
& taxed by izronaeis, has cot mach 10 fiy in 
is daeaoed out of hts 

Rather, *&&Ji~. Joaxsox. 

Tbc wwd 4/ h>r ** ^"^ ficcndodly ufed by the Sd wrkcxs. 
Shakdjpeare ia xaotoer pbcr rropuoj-s k T mome qaaiarir. 
* IM&tf my faroor wids an sfjapcJl beaid ;** and Mk*3kion, m 
his cott-cdr caDed Ay ffif fir * %gia L&, %3 * 1 h&rc 
lieanl of yppr^^naadc upon a merger.* 

in Ronoigejfrr Btumr^ by Cbapinsan : 
** Utair he might nbocrmeaufcc a iiar ^r?j* 
On oor^cd bdacrs ii;e.- 
Agnn, inthe JP^s by Sir W. IfA^m^t, 1637 : Ifat all 
oca prcsoaace hfan nee oi ' t&f JJS*t *fe* cy goU 

Agaia, in dae Ifle of GuJfc, 1635 : " My fate ft^pwncfc bas 
sovk 9 *pa boti* f mj friends aal ocafac.* 

H A M L E T, 

Remorfelefs,. treacherous, lecherous, * kindlefs villain! 
3 Why, what an afs am I ? This is moft brave j 
That I, the ion of a dear father murder'd, 
Prompted to my revenge by heaven, and hell, 
Mutt, like a whore, unpack my heart with words. 
And fall a curfing, like a very drab, 
, A fcullion 4 ! 
Fie upon't ! fah ! 

5 About, my brains ! Hum ! I have heard, 

6 That guilty creatures, fitting at a play, 
Have by the very cunning of the fcene 
Been flruck fo to the foul, that prefently 
They have proclaim'd their makfactions : 

For murder, though it have no tongue, will fpeak 
With moft miraculous organ. I'll have thefe players 
Play fomething like the murder of my father, 
Before mine uncle : I'll obferve his looks ; 
I'll 7 tent him to the quick ; 8 if he do blench, 

I know 

a liindlefi'} Unnatural. JOHNSON. 

3 Wl.y, vobat an afs am 1 ? This is moft brave,] The folio reads, 

" O vengeance ! 

" Who ? what an afs am I ? Sure this is moft brave." 


* AfiuIIionf] Thus the folio. The quartos read, zjtallicn. 


5 About, my brain .'] If7ls, to your work. Brain, go about the 
prefent bufinefs. JOHNSON. 

This expreifion occurs in the Second Part of the Iron Age, by 
Hcj-Moody ! 632 : 

" My Irani about again ! for thou haft found 
" New projects now to v/ovk on." STEEVENS, 

fve beard, 

That guilty creatures, Jilting at a pkty,~\ A number of thefe 
ftories are collected together by Tho. Hey wood, in his Aftor'i 
^indication. STEEVENS. 

t tent him ] Search his wounds. JOHNSON. 

if he lut blench,] If tejbrink t or flart. 

The word is ufed by B. and Fletcher in the WildGoofi C/jace: 

* Your filler, fir ? Do you blench at that ?" 
Again, in c fbe Night -iva tier : 

** Blench at no danger, though h be the gallows." 



I know my courfe. The fpirit, that I have feen, 

May be a devil : and the devil hath power 

To aflame a pleating (hape ; yea, and, perhaps, 

Out of my weaknefs, and my melancholy, 

(As he is very potent with fuch Spirits) 

Abufes me to damn me : I'll have grounds 

9 More relative than this ; The play's the thing, 

"Wherein I'll Catch the confcience of the king. [Exit. 



Enter l&Hg , Queen, Pcknius, Oplclij, Rofencrantz, 
and Gsuld&iftent. 

King. And can you by no drift of conference l 
Get from him, why he puts on this confuGon ; 
Grating fo harlhly all his days of quiet 
With turbulent and dangerous lunacy? 

Rof. He does confeis, he feels bihnelf cKftra&ed ; 
But from what caufe he will by no means fpeak. 

GuiL Nor do we find him forward to be founded ; 
But, with a crafty madnefs, keeps aloof, 
When we would bring him on to ibrne confeffioo 
Of his true ftate. 

Did he receive you well ? 

Again in Cover, De Ctxfrgoct Amamtis, lib. vi. foL 128 
u Without Ikmdrngeoi mine eie." STEEVEXS. 
relative tba* tbrf- 3 ] Reuttve, for 

is only the eonfequeorial fenfe." Rtlat&e is 
rdateJ, clcfo tmOeJ. JOHNSO.V 
TTe toiio 

*72 HAMLET, 

Rof. Moft like a gentleman. 

Guil. But with much forcing of his difpofitiofi. 

Rof. * Niggard of queftion ; but, of our demands, 
Moft free in his reply. 

Queen. Did you afiay him 
To any paftime ? 

Rof. Madam, it fo fell out, that certain players 
We 3 o'er-raught on the way : of thele we told him j 
And there did feem in him a kind of joy 
To hear of it : They are here about the court j 
And, as I think, they have already order 
This night to play before him. 

Pol. 'Tis moft true : 

And he befeech'd me to entreat your majefties, 
To hear and fee the matter. 

King. With all my heart ; and it doth much con- 
tent me 

To hear him fo inclin'd. 
Good gentlemen, give him a further edge, 
And drive his purpofe on to thefe delights. 

Rof. We mall, my lord. \_Exeunt Rof. and Guil. 

King. Sweet Gertrude, leave us too : 
For we have clofely fent for Hamlet hither ; 
That he, as 'twere by accident, may here 

* Niggard tf queftion ; lut t of our demands, 

Moil free in bis reply.'] This is given as the defcfiption of 
trie converfation of a man whom the fpeaker found not forward t<t 
be founded ; and who kept aloof when they would bring him to con- 
fefjion : but fuch a defcription can never pafs but at crofs-purpofes. 
Shakefpeare certainly wrote it juft the other way i 
Moft free of queftion \ &uf t of our demands^ 
Niggard in bis reply. 

That this is the true reading, \ve need but turn back to the pre- 
ceding fcene, for Hamlet's conduct, to be fatistied. WAR BURTONS 
J o'er-raught on the ivay: ] Over-raught is over-reached^ 
that is, over-took. JOHNSON. 

So, in Spenfei*f faery SZuccn, b. 6. c. 3 : 

'? Having by chance a clofe advantage view'd, 
** He oyer-raught him, &c." STEEVEXS, 

? Affront 


4 Affront Ophelia. 

Her feiher, and myfetf (lawful efpials s) 

Will fb beftow ourfeh-es, that, feeing, unfcen, 

We may of their encounter frankly judge j 

And gather by him, as he is behaved, 

IPt be the affiaion of his love, or no, 

That thus he fuffefs for. 

%uau I lhall obey you : 
And, for my pan, Ophelia, I do wife, 
That your good beaudes be die happy caofe 
Of Hamlet's wildnefs; fo (hall I hope, your virtues 
Will bring him ID his wonted way again, 
To both your honours. 

Opb. Madam, I wHh it may. [Eacit gsifn. 

PL Ophelia, walk you here : Gracious, fo pieafe 

We nil beftow ourielves : - Read on this book ; 

[To Opb. 

That ibow of fuch an exercife may colour 
Your lonelinels. 6 We are oft to blame in this. 
" *Tis too much prov'd, that, with devotion's viiage, 
And pious action, we do fugar o'er 
The devil himfelf. 

King. O, 'tis too true ! how fmart 
A lafli that fpecch doth give my conference ! \Af2e. 


. L*L S(^ ia die ZW^rOvnkr, 1607: 
JUhmaZmz dm pott where pn^ Charles AoaU 
Ajain, in Sir W. DT Aram's Crmd Srxter, 1650 : 

" *' TEE 


re wanting In the fcSo. 

ThsB the fofio. The &fl and fcomd 

, J It i, fxmd by too fitxjocat ot- 
periencc. Joaxsoar. 

VOL. X. T The 

274 HAMLET,. 

The harlot's cheek, beauty'd vvirh plaftVinr- art, 
Is no: 8 more ugly to the thing. <-'>n he!j 
Than is my deed to my inoft painted word : 
O heavy burden ! 

Pol. I hear him coming ; let's withdraw, m,y lord. 
{Exeunt King, and Polomus. 

Enter Hamlet. 

Ham. 9 To be, or not to be, that is the queftion : 
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind, to fuffer 


8 more vgly to tie tlhg that helps //,] That is, compared 
with the thing that helps it. JOHNSON. 

9 To be, or n^t to be? j Of this celebrated foliloquy, which 
barfting from a man diilracled with contrariety of delires, and 
overwhelmed with the magnitude of his own purpofes, is con- 
nected rather in the fpeaker's mind, than on his tongue, I fhall 
endeavour to difcover the train, and to {hew how one fentiment 
produces another. 

Hamlet, knowing himfelf injured in the moH enormous and 
atrocious degree, and feeing no means of redrefs, but fuch as 
mvitr. expofe him to the extremity ot hazard, meditates on his 
lit nation in this manner : Before I can form any rational fcheme of 
aftion under this freffure of diflrefe, it is necellary to decide, whe- 
ther, after our prcfcnt Jlatc, t'.'e are to be, or not to be. That is 
the qneftion, which, as it ftiall be anfwered, will determine, whe- 
ther 'tis nobler, and more luitable to the dignity of reaibn, to fuffer 
the outrages of fortune patiently, or to take arms againft them, and 
by opp. .ling" end them, though perhaps with the lofs of life. If 
to die^ were to Jltep, no more, and by a Jleep to end \\\<z miferies of 
our nature, fuch a flecp were devoutly to le luiflxd ; but if to Jlcep 
in death, be to dream, to retain our powers of 1'enfiUility, we mult 
pauj'e to confider, in that Jlecp of death iv/jai dreams may come. 
This coniideration makes calamity fo long endured; for who vcould 
bear the vexations of life, which might be emled fa a bare bodkin, 
but that he is afraid of fomething in unknown futurity? This fear 
it ii.that gives efficacy to confcience, which, by turning the mind 
upon toitregard % chills the ardour ot resolution., checks the vigour of 
enter^rize^ and makes the current of detire flagnate in inactivity. 

We may fuppoie that he would have applied thele geneial 
obfervatior.i to his own cafe, but that he dilcovered Ophelia. 


I cannot but think that Dr. Jobnfotfi explication of this palikge, 
though excellent on the whole, is wrong in the outfet. He ex- 


Tbe flings and arrows of outrageous fortune* 3 

m Or to take anus againft a lea of troubles, 

And, by oppofing, end tbeto ? * To die; tafleep; 

No more ? and, by a deep, to lay we end 

Tbe beart-acb, and tbe thoafend natural (hocks 

That fldh b heir to, 'tb a 

the wtmfc-r, fc, mr m* * fc Whether alter oar , 
. we ate to be, or not ; whenas the obcioos fcnfr of t 
T Sve^ a- 1 Smt ** aJtemy tifa feems dearly to be pointed oat 
' ' :fcHa^ words, which caniiey a paraphrafc oa the 

Wff_,mi_nr jw c A^^V im ita ^mJ *" ^ %. ^ _ - 

_^ '' it mam m^nmir, mC. r t JMT 

The train of HmtSas icafbanBi^i which AT. Jffatfmi has Ib 

- * ^. , __ 

f wmaicvcr way tnc wwui are 


nans, ut omnibas ft&>ar prapafiafic 

Tittnafira.- Oc. EpifL Fan.. T. 16. 

tic ftould be fo 
hob hi n- 
doe left 

5 r <Sc. &fc : 

- -:>-..; 7 V:; ;-. :-.j : 

T a 

276 HAMLET, 

Devoutly to be wifh'd. To die ; to fleep ; 

To fleep ! perchance, to dream ; Ay, there's the 

rub -, 

For in that fleep of death what dreams may come, 
When we have fhuffled off this 4 mortal coil, 
Muft give us paufe : There's the refpeft, 
That makes calamity of fo long life : 
For who would bear s the whips and fcorns of time, 


* mortal coil,] i.e. turmoil, buftle. WARBURTON. 

s the whips and fcorns of time,] The evils here complained 
of are not the product of time or duration (imply, but of a corrupted 
age or manners. We may be fure, then, that Shakefpeare wrote : 

the whips and fcorns of th' time. 

And the defcription of the evils of a corrupt age, which follows, 
confirms this emendation. WARBURTON. 

I doubt whether the corruption of this paflage is not more than 
the editor has fufpeled. Whips and /corns have no great con- 
nexion with one other, or with time: whips and fcorns are evils of 
very different magnitude, and though at all times jlorn may be en- 
dured, yet the times that put men ordinarily in danger of whips 
are very rare. 'Falftaff has faid, that the courtiers vwv^vhip him 
with their Jine wits ; but I know not that whip can be ufed for a 
feoff or infulty unlefs its meaning be fixed by the whole expretiion. 

I am afraid left I ftiould venture too far in correcting this paf- 
fage. If whips be retained, we may read, 

For who would bear the whips and fcorns i?/" tyrants. 
But I think that quip, a fneer, a jarcafin, a contemptuous jeft, is 
the proper word, as fuiting very exadtly with /corn. What then 
muft be done with time f it fuits no better with the new reading 
than with the old, and tyrant is an image too bulky and ferious. 
I read, but not confidently : 

For who would bear the quips and (corns ofl'itle. 
It may be remarked, that Hamlet, in his enumeration of miferies, 
forgets, whether properly or not, that he is a prince, and mentions 
many evils to which inferior flations only are expoled. JOHNSON. 

I think we might venture to read the whips and fcorns o'tb* 
times, i. e. of times iatirical as the age of Shakefpeare, which 
probably furnifhed him with the idea. 

In the reigns of Elizabeth and James (particularly in the former) 
there was more illiberal private abufe and peeviih fatire publifhed, 
than in any othe'S I ever knew of, except the prefentone. I have 
many of thefe publications, which were almoit all pointed at indi- 

P R I N C E o F D E N M A R K. 277 

The cppreflbr's wrong, the proud man's contumely, 
The pangs of defpis'd love, 6 the law's delay, 
The inlblence of office, and the fpurns 
That patient merit of the unworthy takes, 
When he himfelf 7 might his quietus make 


tbiiasy 1 599, has the feme complaint : 
" Do you not fee theie pamphlets, l&ds, rhimes, 
* Thefe Grange coafuied tumults -of the mind, 
* Are grown to be the tickle oftbrjt tiaies, 

" The great di,eaie infli<3cd en mankind r" 
ffTr'fs and fccr^s are furdy as infeparabk; companions, as pablk 
punifli r.ient and infemy. 

j>r, the word which Dr. Johnfim would introduce, Is derived, 

..>giih. frona -a&jk. 

Hamlet is introduced as reasoning on a. queiHon of general con- 
cernment. He therefore takes in all fuch evils as could befall 
mankind in general, without confideri.-.g himieif at preient as a 
prince, or wuhing to avail himieif ot tae tew exempdocs which 
high place might once have claimed. 

in part of K. James Li's Emtartmimmaa pajatg t Us Cmmataaty 
by Ben Jonlbn and Decker, is the following line, and note on that 

fiac : 

rt Jlmdfirji accent tfjemrs* J meads, OF TIME." 
u By time we under&md tbcfnjatt? This explanation a&rds 
the feme rbr which I have contended, and without alteration. 

of defpis'd Z? ,] The folio reads Of J&r&J love. 


T might his Qtuctxs make 

With a bare bodkix? ] The firft expreffion probably al- 
luded to the writ of diicharge, whicn was formerly gnuted to choie 
barons acd knights who peribnally attended the king on any foreign 
expedition. This diicharge was called a *>idttiu. 

it is at this rime the term for the acquittance which every fberiff 
receives on iertling his accounts at the exchequer. 

The word is uied for the diicharge of an account, by Webfler, 
m his D*tdxfi*fAbfait>2} : 

" You had the trick in audit tinie to be fick 
Till I had iign'd your JM*J." 

** And 'caufe you (hall not come to roe in debt ' 
** (Being now my ileward) here upon your lips 
** I fign your ^aietmsJ* 

A boeQuM was, I believe, the ancient term for a fxtS Jqgrr. * 
Gafcoigne, fpeakiag of Jiduu Gefir, lap, 

T, A 

97* HAMLET, 

With a bare bodkin ? who would fardels bear, 
8 To groan and fweat under a weary life ; 
But that the dread of fomething after death, 
The undifcover'd country, from whofe bourn 
No traveller returns * puzzles the will ; 

" At laft with bodkins, dub'd and douft to death 
' All all his glory vanifti'd with his breath." 
In the margin of S/oive's Chronicle, edit. 1614, it is fa:d, that 
.Czfar was (lain with lodkins ; and in The Mi/fcS Looking-glafs, by 
Randolph, 1638: 

" Apbo. A rapier's but a bodkin. 
" D7. And a bodkin 

*' Is a moft dang'rous \veapon ; fince I read 
" Of Julius Caefar's death, I durfl not venture 
" Into a taylor's fhop for fear of bodkins" 
Again, in The Cuftomof the Country, by B. and Fletcher : 

" Out with your bodkin, 

" Your pocket-dagger, your fHlletto." 

Again, in Sapbo and Pbao, 1591 : " there will be a defperate 
fray between two, made at all weaoons, from the brown bill to the 

Again in Chaucer, as he is quoted at the end of a pamphlet 
called the Serpent of Divijion, &c. wbcr citato is annexed the Tragedy 
of Gorloduc, &c. 1 59 1 : 

" With bodkins was Casfar Julius 

" Murdered at Rome, of Brutus Crafius." STEEVENS. 
8 To groan and fooe at~~\ All the old copies have, to grunt ami 
fivcat. It is undoubtedly the true reading, but can fcarcely be 
borne by modern ears. JOHNSON. 

This word occurs in the Death of Zoroas } a fragment in blanlf 
verfe, printed at the end of Lord Surty's Poems : 

" ; none the charge could give ; 

" Hersgrtitits ; here grones ; echwhere ftrong youth is fpent." 
And Stanyburjt in his tranilation of Virgil, 1582, for fupremum 
conveninit gives us : " for fighing it grunts" STEEVENS. 
9 7iat undifcover'd country, from whcj'e bourn 

No traveller returns j This has been cavilled at by Lord 
Orrery and others, but without reaibn. The idea of a traveller in 
Shakefpeare's time, was or" a peribn who gave an account of his 
adventures. Every voyage was a Difcovery. John Taylor has 
j' ADifcovery by fea from London to Salifbury.'' FARMER. 
Again, Marfton's Infatiate Countcfs, 1603 : 

" wreftled with death, 

' From whofe ftern cave none tracks a backward path." 

Qui nunc it per iter ter.ebricofum 

Jiluc unde negant redire quenquam. Cdtuflus. STEEVENS. 


P R I N C E o F D E N M A R K. 279 

And makes us rather bear thofe ills we have, 
Than y to others that we know not of ? 
Thus conference does make cowards of us all j 
And thus the native hue or refolution 
Is fickly'd o'er with the pale caft of thought; 
And enterprizes of great pith > and moment, 
With this regard, their currents turn awry % 

A d iofc the name of adion. Soft you, now ! 

[Seeing Ophelia. 

The fair Ophelia ? J Nymph, in thy orifons 
Be all my fins remember'd. 

Opb. Good my lord, 
How does your honour for this many a day ? 

Ham. I humbly thank you ; well. 

Opb. My lord, I have remembrances of yours, 
That I have longed long to re-deliver ; 
I pray you, now receive them. 

Ham. No, not I ; 
I never gave you aught. 

Opb. My honoured lord, you know right well, 

you did ; 

And, with them, words of fo fweet breath compos'd 
As made the things more rich : their perfume 16ft, 
Take theie again -, for to the noble mind 
F,ich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind. 
There, my lord. 

Hum. Ha, ha ! are you honeft ? 

Cpb. My lord ? 

Ham. Are you fair ? 

1 great fitb\ Thus the folio. The quartos read, of g^eat 
pitch. STEE. . 

* turn tfoffj,] Thus the quartos. The folio turn KI^T. 


3 A}-5ft*, / tby eri/ons, &c.] This is a touch of nature. 
Hamlet, at the fi._ht of Ophelia, does not immediately recol'ect, 
that he is tu perfonate madnefs, bat makes her aa addrefs grave 
and fukmn, fuch as the foregoing meditation excited ia his 
thoughts, JOKXSON*. 

T 4 

280 HAMLET, 

Opb. What means your lord (hip ? 

Ham. 4 That, if you be honeft, and fair, you fhould 
admit no difcourfe to your beauty. 

Opb. Could beauty, my lord, have better com- 
merce than with honefty ? 

Ham. Ay, truly ; for the power of beauty will 
fooner transform honefty from what it is to a bawd, 
than the force of honeity can tranflate beauty into 
its likenefs : this was fome time a paradox, but now 
the time gives it proof. I did love you once. 

Oph. Indeed, my lord, you made me believe fo. 

Ham. You Ihould not have believ'd me : for vir- 
tue cannot fo inoculate 5 our old ftock, but we fhall 
relifh of it : I lov'd you not. 

Oph. I was the more deceiv'd. 

Ham. Get thee to a nunnery ; Why would'ft thou 
be a breeder of finners ? I am myfelf indifferent ho- 
neft ; but yet I could accufe me of fuch things, that 
it were better, my mother had not borne me : I am 
very proud, revengeful, ambitious; with more of- 
fences 6 at my beck, than I have thoughts to put 

4 That if you be honeft and falr^ you fyould admit no difcourfe to 
your beauty.] This is the reading of all the modern editions, and 

is copied from the quarto. The folio reads, your honefty Jliould 
admit no difcourfe to your beauty. The true reading ieems to he this, 
If you be honeft and fair, you Jliould admit your honeily to no difcourfe 
with your beauty. This is the fenfe evidently required by the pro- 
ceis of the converfation. JOHNSON. 

5 in^culate\ This is the reading; of the firft folio. The 
firft quarto reads cuocutat; the iecond, euacuat; and the third, 
evacuate. STEEVENS. 

6 at my beck, J That is, always ready to come about me. 
With nwe offences at ?uy beck, than I have thoughts to put them 

in, imagination to give them jbape, or time to aR them /'.] What 
is the meaning oi: thoughts to put than in? A word is dropt out. 
We fhould read, 

. thaugbts to put them in name. 

This \v; s the prog 1 efs. The offences are firfr. conceived and 
pamed, then projected to be put in aft, then executed. 

tfo put a tling into thought^ is to think an it, JOHNSO-N, 



them in, imagination to give them fhape, or rime to 
a& them in : What fhould fuch fellows as I do 
crawling between earth and heaven ? We are arrant 
knaves, all ; believe none of us : Go thy ways to a 
nunnery. Where's your father ? 

OpJb. At home, my lord. 

Ham. Let the doors be (hut upon him; that he may 
play the fool no where but in's own houfe. Farewel. 

Opb. O, help him, you fweet heavens ! 

Ham. If thou doft marry, I'll give thee this plague 
for thy dowry ; Be thou as chafte as ice, as pure as 
fnow, thou (halt not efcape calumny. Get thee to 
a nunnery ; farewel : Or, if thou wilt needs marry, 
marry a fool 4 for wife men know well enough, what 
raonfters you make of them. To a nunnery, go ; 
and quickly too. Farewel. 

Opb. Heavenly powers, reftore him ! 

Ham. ~ I have heard of your paintings too well 
enough ; God hath given you one face, and you 
make yourfelves another : you jig, you amble, and 
you lifp, and nick- name God's creatures, and 8 make 

pointings to*,vaett tmmgb, &c.] This is 
according to the quarto ; the folio, for fazMfrig, hs&fraz&xgs, and 
for jfittr, has face, which agrees with what follows, jmr jig, jw 
m*AU. Probably the author wrote both. I think the common 
reading heft. JOHXSOX. 

I would continue to read, pointings, becaufc tide ddbucttre 
aids of beauty icon, in the rime of Shakefpeare, to hare been 
general objecb of fcrire, So, in Drayton's Sbmcmf: 

M No foooer got the teens, 
" Bat her own natural beauty (fee dUflrin ; 
* With oyls and broths molt venomous and bole 
She philters over her wdl-feTourM fece; 
' And thofe fweet veins by nature rightly plac'd 
Wherewith fheieems that white Jkin toharebc'd, 
M She foon doth alter; and with Jading blue, 
Branching her bofom, fhe makes others new. 1 ' 


* - mdte jwar wemfmmtjs jaar tgmtramct.] You mi&ake by 
afcclation, and pretebd to nujbake by ^avmor. JOHJC s ox. 


282 HAMLET, 

your wantonnefs your ignorance: Go to; I'll no 
more on'c ; it hath made me mad. I fay, we will 
have no more marriages : thole that are married 
already, all but one, mall live ; the reft mall keep as 
they are. To a nunnery, go. [Exit Hamlet. 

Cpb. O, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown ! 
9 The courtier's, folciier's, fcholar's, eye, tongue, 

fword ; 

The expectancy and rofe of the fair ftate, 
The giafs of fafhion, and ' the mould of form, 
The oblerv'd oi all oblervers ! quite, quite down ! 
And I, of ladies moft deject z and wretched, 
That iuck'd the honey of his muiic vows, 
Now lee that noble and moft ibvereign reafon, 
Like fweet bells jangled, out of tune 5 and harm ; 
That unmatch'd form and feature 4 of blown youth, 
Blafted with ecftaiy s : O, woe is me ! 


9 The c fur tier's, frl J f A, Scholar's, eye, tongue, fword \ ] The poet 
certainly meant to hn\e placed his words thus: 

i7v cvft //;>/'.>, fcbylar'lyfildufs, eye, tongue, fowrti . 
otherwise the excellence ot tongue is appropriated to 
and the flholar wears the f'Mord WARNER. 

This regulaiion is needlefs. So, in 'Tarquin and Lucrccc 

Princes are the^/a/}, t .\cfcbool, the 
" Where I'ubjefts eyes do learn, do read, do looL" 
And in Qu!>,ti!:an : " Mu!:um agit fexus, aetas, conditio ; ut in 
f:^:i:utjcfi:lus t pxpillis, liberos t parentes, conjnges, alligantibus." 


1 i'-c .v.'.\v:W offering. The model by \vhom all endeavoured 
to runn th-aveives. JOHNSON. 

- nioit dfjeSf\ So, in Hey wood's Silver Agc, 1613 ; 

- " What kn ; t;ht is that 
So paffionately JtjeSl .?" ST E E v E \ s. 

3 out ot tuui\ Thus the tolio. The cjuarto out of time. 


4 and ft at we] Thus the folio. The quartos re:id Jfature. 


5 w iih ecfui(\>.~*> The word ccjlafy was anciently ufed to 
./ignitv fume degree of alienation of mind. 

So G. Douglas, trunflaring^-^rc'// acri fxa More; 
^ In <v/r<7/; flie ilood, and mad almaitf." 

? So, 


To have leea what I have feen, fee what I fee ! 

Re-enter King, mud Pdauus. 

Sag. Love ! his a.ffeclions do not that way tend ; 
Nor what he fpake, though it lack'd fonn a little, 
Was not like madneis. There's iomethmg in his foul, 
O'er which his melancholy Gts on brood ; 
And, I do dour-t, the ha^ch, and the difclofc, 
Will be fome danger ; Whkh for to prevent, 
I have, in quick determination, 
Thus fet it down ; He fhall with fpeed to England, 
For the demand of our neglected tribute ; 
Haply, the leas, and countries different, 
\Vith variable objecls, fhall expel 
This fooiething-fcttled matter in his heart ; 
Whereon his brains ftill beating, puts birn thus 
From falhion of himfetf. Wtat think you oo't ? 

Pal. It (hall do well : But yet do I believe 
The origin and commencement of bis grief 
Sprung from neglected love. How cow, Ophelia ? 
You need not tell us what lord Hamlet laid ; 
We heard it all My lord^ do as you pleafe ; 
But, if you hold it fit, after die play, 
Let his queen mother all alone entreat him 
To Ihew his grief i let her be round with him * $ 
And I'll be plac'd, fo pleafe you, in the ear 
Of all their conference : If (he nnd him not, 
To England fend him ; or confine him, where 
Your wifdom beft (hall think. 

&*g. Jt ihallbefo: 
Madneis in great ones amft not -anwatch'd go. 

on tfce torture of die mind to fie 


reprimand him with frerdoen. So, in A IbJ IT 
by MkSdkton, 1640 : " She** nod iritii keri'&tli." 


284 HAMLET, 


A Hall 
Enter Hamlet, and two or three of the players. 

Ham. Speak the fpeech, I pray you, as I pro- 
nounc'd it to you, trippingly on the tongue : but if 
you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as 
lieve the town-crier fpoke my lines. Nor do not 
faw the air too much with your hand, thus ; but ufe 
all gently : for in the very torrent, tempeft, and (as 
I may fay) whirlwind of your paffion, you muft ac- 
quire and beget a temperance, that may give it 
fmoothnefs. O, it offends me to the loul, to hear 
a robuftious perriwig-pated 7 fellow tear a paffion to 
tatters, to very rags, to fplit the ears of 8 the ground- 
lings ; 

7 ^mrr.u/g'-pated] This is a ridicule on the quantity of falfe 
hair worn in Shakefpearc's time, for wigs were not iu common 
life till the reign of Charles II. In the T~c:o Gentlemen of P r crona y 
Julia fays " I'll get me fuch a colour'd perriwig" 

Gojf\ who wrote feveral plays in the reign of James I. and was 
no mean fcholar, has the following lines in his tragedy of the 
Courageous Turk> 1632 : " How now, you heavens, 

" Grow yen fo proud you muft needs put on curl'd locks, 
" And clothe yourfelves mfcrriivigs of fire r" 

Players, however, feem to have worn them moft generally. 
So, in Every Woman in her Humour, 1609: " as none wear 
hoods but monks and ladies ; and feathers but fore-horfes, &c ; 
noneperriwigs but players and pictures. STEEVENS. 

' the groundlings; ] The meaner people then feem to 
have fat below, as they now fit in the upper gallery, who, not 
well underftanding poetical language, were fometimes gratified by 
a mimical and mute reprefentation of the drama, previous to the 
dialogue. JOHNS OK. 

Beiore each ai of the tragedy of Jocafra^ tranflated from 
'Euripides^ by Geo. Gafcoigne and Fra. Kinwelmerih, the order 
ofthefedumb (hews is very minutely defcribed. This play was 
prefented at Gray's Inn by them in 1566. The mute exhibitions 
included in it are chiefly emblematical, nor do they difplay a 
7 picture 


lings ; who, for the moft port, are capable of no- 
thina but ' jyyynfif^jfr <Hl*l>^ ibews, anrl npf% : I 

r. 1621 1 

*.* . 'x -/-., 

< a mdyt*S aa **-. 

r; ^<or*ir* 


OB/y/u DPM> SHOW, ttSjmv mmuriin* 

_^* fmm M m 9 f. ^T - % * . . _T- f_ 

oaiCTSy oca up nc ipacc or imc WBV.A was M j w ID DBB 
whJkbufacfewasfappDiJtobemrfyWmfamgBi^a. Wkh 

- Tic I ll F j, ^litfi n of *KpmmI 

IB l^tf -^SBBBJ^ '^59 ** ^^ 7"" fiagc-OHlanss artt 

_ * .^ ^ m .. _ _m ^- - , 

j ana > oovanjf nnmeo vtat cue HJHIIIB <j 41 
ii '*? y not peqp in ^ IB ocr earlv pizj-hofa ibe & t 
had nesdier floor nor beacfaes. Hrnrr ifcr Tnri nf n ffn 1 i IJB 
ibBevk faHMd k 

; ^e, i i ^j (J iaig|'^iiii E|HiiMiiiiueaifcwfakfc 
always keeps at the bottom ot the wcr. STI 
ao^fiaitjWA^s,] IlxfincAe 
MlMfMvMb l afltim tttm, Joassos. 
Rather, I bdkre, ' 

in Hejwoocfspiajof tbeFrar P; 
1652, where the Prtfmx- Up, 
** I naoft entreat jw paiiexsoe to torbcar 

' z . . 'j *- 1 -Z- r^'i~! *-^_r ,~_ -^.^ .' '- ~^~ ~ " ~ ' ~ ',' . 
Forin^i^Aa^waich weredejwrk 


Ill OL--- 

?! iii HI r. - ii 

the ^** fcm ** -;- **r Ac 


Ftanca ridJf amrtd, C^^ 

_>*? S.c^.bk.^becrfkd*^ 

286 HAMLET, 

would have fuch a fellow whipp'd for o'eixknng 
1 Termagant ; it out-herods Herod 4 : Pray you, 
avoid it. 

i Play. 

1 Termagant ; ] Termagant xvas a Saracen deity, very cla- 
morous and violent in the old moralities. PERCY. 

Termagant is mentioned by Spcnfer in his Fairy ^>een, and by 
Chaucer in Toe Tale of Sir Topas ; and by B. and Fletcher in King 
or ao King, as follows : 

4i This would make a faint fwear Jike a foldier, and a foldier 
** like Termagant" 

Again, in Ram- Alley, or Merry Tricks, 161 1 : 

fwears, God blefs us, 
" Like a very Termagant." 
Again, in The Pifiure, by Maflmger : 

" a hundred thoufand Turks 
" Aflaird him, every one a Termagaunt" STEEVENS. 
* out- herods Herod:'] The character of Herod in the ancienr 
Hiyiteries was always a violent one : 

"See thzCoventrite Ludus among the Cotton Mlf. Vefpafian r>. vi 1 1. 
" Now I regne lyk a kyng arayd ful rych, 
" Rollyd in rynggs and robys of array, 
*' Dukys with dentys I dryve into the dych j 
" My deciys be ful dowty demyd be day." 
Again, in the Chefler Whitfun P/ays, Mf. Harl. 1013 : 
" I kynge of kynges non foe keene, 
" I fovraigne fir as well is feene, 
*' I tyrant that maye bouth take and teene 
' Caitell tower and towne. 

*' I welde this worlde wiihouten were, 

*' I beate all thofe unbuxome beene ; *"5 

*' I drive the devills alby dene 

" Deepe in hell a downe. 

" For I am kinge of all mankinde, 

I byd, I beate, I lofe, I bynde, 

*' I mailer the moone, take this in mynde 

** That I am molt of mighte. v ^ 

" i ame the greateft above degree 

" That is, that was, or ever (hall be ; 

" The fonne it dare not ihine on me, s^iT^. 

" And I byd him goe downe. 

*' No raine to fall {hall now be free, 

M Nor no Icrde have that liberty 

" That dare abyde and I byd fleey, 

But I (hall crake his crovvne."' 

See the Kattitr*s PIay t p. 67. 


I Play. I warrant your honour. 

Ham. Be not too tame neither, but let your own 
difcretion be your tutor : fuit the action to the word, 
the word to the action ; with this fpecial obfervance, 
that you o'er-ftep not the modefty of nature : For 
any thing Ib overdone is from the purpoie of play- 
ing, whofe end, both at the firft, and now, was, and 
is, to hold as 'twere the mirror up to nature ; to 
{hew virtue her own feature, fcorn her own image, 
and the very : age and body of the time his form 
and 4 preffure. Now this, over-done, or come tardy 
off, though it make the unfldlful laugh, cannot but 
make the judicious grieve; the ceniure of which 
one, muft, in your allowance, o'er- weigh a whole 
theatre of others. O, there be players *, that I have 
feen play, and heard others praiie, and that highly, 
6 not to fpeak it profanely, that, neither having the 


Chaucer defcribing a parifh clerk, in his Miller's Tab, favs, 

" He playirh He-sde on a fcaifold high." 

The pariih clerks and other fubordinate ecclefiafticks appear to 
have been our firll actors, and to have reprefented their characters 
on diitinft pulpits arjl-afi'olds. Thus, in one of the iiage-direcrions 
to the 2~th pageant in the Coventry" collection alreadv mentioned ; 
. * What tyme that proceilyon is entered into y l place, and the 
Herowdys takvn his jcbafaLJe, and Annas and Cayphas their 
/cbaffahfys, &." STE EVENS. 

3 age and body of the time, ] The agt of the t:we caa 
hardly pals. May we not read, the face and bcdy, or did the au- 
thor write, Aefage? The jxige i'uits well with term and prejjure, 
but ill with body. JOHNSON. 

To exhibit the form and prejjuri of \heagf of the //, is, to re- 
preient the manners of the time iui table to the period that is treated 
of, according as it may be ancient, or modern. STEEVENS. 

4 prejj'ure ] Refemblance, as in a print. JOHNS ox. 

5 O, there be ptaytrs] I would read thus: " There be 
players, thac I have ieen play, and heard others praife, and that 
highly (not to fpeak profanely) that neither having the accent 
nor the gait of Chriiiian, Pagan, nor M*jjuirtan, hare ib ftrutted 
and bellowed, that I thought tome of nature's journeymen had 
made the men, and not made ;re.i> '.veil, 3fc." FAX.MZS.. 

c (act t fpeak it priJarAj) ] Prcfune'y feoms 10 relate, not 
ta the prai.e which he ha> mvatiuneJ. bat to the ccclure which 


288 H A M L E T, 

accent of chriftians, nor the gait of chriftian, pagan, 
nor man, have fo ftrutted, and bellow'd, that I have 
thought fome of nature's journeymen had made 
men, and not made them well, they imitated hu- 
manity fo abominably. 

i Play. I hope, we have reformed that indifferently 
with us. 

Ham. O, reform it altogether. And let thofe, that 
play your clowns, fpeak no more than is fet down for 
them 7 : For there be of them, that will themfelves 
laugh, to fet on fome quantity of barren fpectators 
to laugh too ; though, in the mean time, fome ne- 
cefiary queftion of the play be then to be confidered : 
that's villainous ; and (hews a moft pitiful ambition 
in the fool that ufes it. Go, make you ready. 

[Exeunt Players, 

Enter Polonius, Rofencrantz, and Guildenftern. 

How now, my lord ? will the king hear this piece 
of work ? 

he is about to utter. Any grofs or indelicate language was called 
profane. JOHNSON. 

7 fpeak no more than is fet down for them.] So, in Tht 
Antipodes, by Brome, 1638 : 

' _-. you, lir, are incorrigible, and 
" Take licence to yourfelf to add unto 
" Your parts, your own free fancy, c." 

" That is a way, my lord, has been allow'd 
*' On elder ftages, to move mirth and laughter." 

" Yes, in the days of Tarlton, and \AKempe, 

*' Before the ftage was purg'd from barbarifm, &c.* 
Stowe informs us (p. 697, edit. 1615), that among the twelve 
players who werefworn the queen's fervants in 1583, " were two 
rare men, viz. Thomas Wilfon, for a quicke delicate refined ex- 
temporall ivitfe ; and Richard Tarleton, for a wondrous plentifull, 
pleafant extemporall iultt t &c." 

Again, in Tarhotis Netves from Purgatory : " I abfented my- 
felf from all plaies, as wanting that merrye Rofcius of plaiers that 
famofed all comedies fo with his pleafant and extemporall in- 
vention? STEEVENS. 



And the queen too, and that prefect)?. 
Htm. Bid the players make lomv [** 
Will jroa two help ID haften them ? 

J8iA. Ay, my lord. [**/ JtyC 

Htm. What, bo; Hondo! 

Ibr. Hefe, fwect lord, at your femce. 

fern. Horatio, them art e'en as juft a mail 
As e'er my converfttion cop'd withaL 

Hor. O, my dear lord, 

Bmm. Nay, do not think I fossa : 
For what advancement may I hope fnan thee, 
That no revenue haft., bat thy good Ipuits, 
To feed, and doath thee? Why flxrald the boor be 

No, let the candy'd tongue 5ck abford rlomp; 

And crook * the pregnant hinges of the knee, 
Where thrift may follow fkwnmg. Doft thou h 
Since 9 mr dear fool was miftrds of her cbc ice, 

And could of 

Ham feaTd thee for berfetf: for them haft been 

As one, in (offering all, that fuiers nothing ; 

A man, that fortune's buffets nd rewards 

Haft ta'en irkh equal thanks : and bleft are tKoie, 


290 H A M L E T, 

That they are not a pipe for fortune's finger 
To found what ftop me pleafe : Give me that man 
That is not paflion's Have, and I will wear him 
In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart, 
As I do thee. Something too much of this. 
There is a play to-night before the king ; 
One fcene of it comes near the circumftance, 
Which I have told thee, of my father's death. 
I pr'ythee, when thou fee'fl that a6t a-foot, 
Even with the very comment of thy foul 
Obferve my uncle : if his occulted guilt 
Do not itfelf unkennel in one fpeech, 
.It is a damned ghoft that we have feen$ 
And my imaginations are as foul 
As s Vulcan's ftithy : Give him heedful note : 
For I mine eyes will rivet to his face ; 
And, after, we will both our judgments join 
In cenlure of his feeming. 

Hor. Well, my lord : 

If he (leal aught, the whilft this play is playing, 
And fcape detecting, I will pay the theft. 

Ham. They are coming to the playj I muft be idle: 
Get you a place. 

Danijh march. A flourish. 

Enter King, Q^cen, Pohnius, Ophelia, Rofencrantz t 
Guildenftern> and others. 

King. How fares our coufin Hamlet ? 

3 F~u1can*s ftithy. ] Stithy is a fm\t\i's ami!. JOHNS oNt 
So, in Troilus and Crejjida : 

Now by the forge that Jlitbled Mars's helm. 
So, in Greece's Card of Fancy, 1608 : " determined to firike 
on tixtftitb while the iron was hot." 

Again, in Chaucer's celebrated defcripdon of the Temple of 
Mars, late edit. ver. 2028: 

the (mith 

** That forgeth ftiarpe fwerdes on his/^," STEEVEVS. 



Ham. Excellent, i' faith ; of the camelion's dim : 
I eat the air, promile-cramm'd : You cannot feed 
capons fo. 

King. I have nothing with this anfwer, Hamlet; 
thefe words are not mine. 

Ham. No, 4 nor mine now. My lord, you play'd 
once i' the univerfity, you fay ? To Pclcnius. 

Pol. That did I, my lord : and was accounted a 
good actor. 

Ham. And what did you enact ? 

PoL I did enact Julius Csefar : I was kill'd i' the 
Capitol ; Brutus kill'd me. 

Ham. It was a brute part of him , to kill fo ca- 
pital a calf there. Be the players ready? 

Ref. Ay, my lord ; 6 they ftay upon your patience. 

>ueen. Come hither, my dear Hamlet, fit by me. 

Ham. No, good mother, here's metal more attrac- 

PoL O ho ! do you mark that ? [To tbc king. 

Ham. Lady, {hall I lie in your lap ? 

[Lying down at Ophelia's feet ?. 

4 nor mixe aocu.] A man's words, fays the proverb, are his 
own no longer than he keeps them unipoken. JoHxsoy. 

s // was a brute part of A/w, ] Sir John Harrington, in his 
MetoMffrpboJir tfAjax, 1596, has the fame quibble : u O brave- 
minded Brtttts! but this I muft truly &y, they were two lmti/b 
parts both of him and you j one to kill his fons for treafon, the 
other to kill his rather in treafon." STEEVENS. 

* they Jtay nfmtjvtrr fatiexcf.} May it not be read more in- 
telligibly, 7by Jtay upon your plealure. In Macbttk it is : 

'* Noble Macbeth, we ftay upon your leifure." JOHKSON. 

1 at Opbeluts ftrt.] To lie at me feet of a miftrefs during 
any dramatic reprefentarion, ieems to hare been a act 
of gallantry. So, in the J^wr* <f Corusib^ by B. and Fletcher: 
" Ufters her to her coach, lies t her fiet 
*' A foleffmi&aiqjus, applauding what {he la.vhs at." 
Again, in Gafcoigne's Grene agb?t fareaxttlt Fancies 
** To lie aloag in ladits loupes, &c." 

This faihion which Shakefpeare probably defigned to ridicule 
by appropriating it to Hamlet during his difiembled rcadnete, i& 
likewiie ezpoled by Decker, in his GuIs Hardf&L, 1609. 

See an extract uoan k among the preiaces. STEEVEXS. 

U z 

292 HAMLET, 

Oph. No, my lord. 

Ham. I mean, my head upon your lap 8 ? 

Oph. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. 9 Do you think, I meant country matters ? 

Oph. I think nothing, my lord. 

Ham. That's a fair thought to lie between rnaioV 

Oph. What is, my lord ? 

Ham. Nothing. 

Opb. You are merry, my lord. 

Ham. Who, I ? 

Oph. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. O ! your only jig-maker *. What mould a 
man do, but be merry ? for, look you, how cheer- 
fully my mother looks, and my father died within 
thefe two hours. 

Oph. Nay, 'tis twice two months, my lord. 

Ham. So long? * Nay, then let the devil wear 
black, for I'll have a fuit of fables. O heavens ! 


/ mean, &c.] This fpeech and Ophelias reply to it, are omitted 
in the quartos. STEEVENS. 

9 Doyou think 1 meant country matters?] I think we muft read, 
Do you tbink I meant country manners? Do you imagine thai I 
meant to fir in your lap, with fuch rough gallantry as clowns ufe to 
their lafles ? JOHNSON. 

1 i-youronly jig-maker.] There may have been fome humou* 
in this pafiage, the force ot which is now diminished : 

" many gentlemen 

'* Are not, as in the days of underftanding, 

" Now fatisfied without a jig, which fmce 

" They cannot, with their honour, call for after 

" The play, they look to be ferv'd up in the middle." 

Changes, or Love in a Maze, by Shirley, 1632. 
In the Hog has left bis Pearl, 1614, one of the players comes to 
folicit a gentleman to ivrite a jig for him. A jig was not in 
Shakefpeare's time a dance, but a ludicrous dialogue in metre, 
and of the lowell kind, like Hamlet's conversation with Ophelia. 
Many of thefe ji^gs are entered in the books of the Stationers' 
Company: "Philips his Jigg of the flyppers, 1595. Kempe's 
J'gg f tne Kitchen-uufF-woman, 1^95."' STEEVENS. 

z A'/T) 1 , then let the devil ivcar black, for /'// have a fuit . of 
conceit of thefe words is not taken. They are an 



die two months ago, and not forgotten yet ? Then 
there's hope, a great man's memory may outlive his 
life half a year : Bur, by'r-lady, he muft build 
churches then : or elfe fhall he fuffer 3 not thinking 


ironical apology for his mother's cheerful looks : two months was 
long enough in conference to make any dead hufoand forgotten. 
But the editors, in their nonfenfical blunder, have made Hamlet 
fay juft the contrary. That the devil and he \vould both go into 
mourning, though his mother did not. The true reading is this, 
Nay, then let tie devil -jxtar black, 'fore PU have a full efface, 
'Fore, i. e. before. As much as to fay, Let the devil wear black 
for me, 111 have none. The Oxford 'EMtar defpiies an emenda- 
tion fo eafy, and reads it thus, Nay, d*n let tlx Jevll wear Mack, far 
Til have a j'uit of ermine. And you could expect no lefs, when 
fuch n critic had the dreffing of him. But the blander was * 
plea Hint one. The lenfelefs editors had wrote J'alks, tlg^ur fo 
called, for fable^ black. And the critic only changed tPKsfur for 
that ; by a like figure, the common people fay, You rejoice the 
: of K.y heart, for the mttjfin of my hearty an unlucky miilake 
of one ihell-fiih for another. WAREURTOV. 

I know not why our editors Ihould, with fuch implacable anger, 
perfecute their predeceflbrs. O n*ftl /*i XMUHO-H, the dead, it is 
true, can make no refinance, they may be attacked with gre^t 
fecurity ; but fince they can neither feel nor mend, the fafety of 
mauling them feems greater than the pleafure ; nor perhaps would 
it nun mifoefeem us to remember, amiditour triumphs over the 
xonfenfaal ajjd the fenfclefs, that we likewife are men ; that Jtltmnr 
nsrti, and, as Swift obferved to Burner, fliall foon be among the 
dead ourlelves. 

I cannot find how the ccmmon reading is nonfenfe, nor why 
Hamler, when he laid afide his drefs of mourning, in a country 
where it was Utter t.oU, and the air was nipping tuid eagtr, fhould 
not h.n-e zj'ult of fables. I fuppofe it is well enough known, that 
tlie fur of fables is not black. JOHNSON-. 

A fult of fables was the richeft dre& that could be worn in 
Denmark. STEEVEVS. 

Here again is an equivoque. In Ma/fingers Old Law, we have 

" A cunning grief, 

4i That's only faced wiibjal'ks for a fhow, 
** But gawdy-hearted." FARMER. 

3 J" K f' :r not t ^' l ^' i ' r 'g c "i '"'-' ilj tb e holby-borfe ] Amongft 

the country may-games there was an hobby-horfe, which, when 

the puritanical humour of thofe times oppoled and difcredited thefe 

games, was brought by the poets and ballad-maker* as an inftanee 

U of 

294 HAMLET, 

on, with the hobby-horfe ; whofc epitaph, is For, 0, 
for, O, the hobby -hprfe is J 'ergot. 

Trumpets found, tfhe dumb Jhpw follows. 

Enter a king and queen 4, very lovingly ; the queen em* 
bracing him, and he her. She kneels, and makes Jhew 
of i-roteftation unto him. He takes her #/>, and de- 
clines fas head upon her neck : lays him down upon a 
bank of ftswers , fhe, feeing him ajleep^ leaves him* 
A-ion, comes in a fellow^ takes off his crown, kiffes 
it, and pours poifon in the King's ears, and exit. 
'The queen returns j finds the king dead, and makes 

pf the f'dkuious zeal of the fe&aries: from thefe ballads Hamlet 
quotes a line or two, WARBURTON. 

O, the hobby -borfe is forgot.} In Love's Labour s Loft, this 
line is alfo introduced. In a fmall black letter book, intitled, 
Player Confuted, by Stephen pollon, 1 find the hobby-horfe enu-, 
merated in the lift of dances. * For the devil (fays this author) 
*' beeiide the beautie or the houles, a^id the ftages, fendeth in 
*' gearifli apparell, mafkes, vauting, tumbling, dauncing of gigges, 
*' galhrdes, moiifces, hobbi-ho>J'es" &c. and in Green's Tu quoque^ 
1^99 the iame expreilion occurs : 

" The other hobby-bvrj'e, I perceive, is not forgotten." 
In TEXtfOFAMIA, or The. Marriage of tie Arts, 1618, is the 
following fhige-direcHon. 

" Enter a hobby-barfi, dancing the morrice," &c. 
Again, in B. and Fletcher's Women Pleafed: 
, Soto. " Shall the bobly-borfe be forgot then, 

' The hopeful bobjy-borfe, (hall he'lie founder'd ?" 
The fcene, in which ihis palFage is, will very amply confirm 
all that Dr. Wafburton has faid concerning the hobby-borfe. 

Again, in Ben Jonfon's Entertainment for the <$ueen and Princt 
ft Aitbarpe : 

" But fee, the hobby-borfe is forgot, 
i' Fool, it mull: be your lot, 
r' T.o fupply his want with faces, 
*.' And lome other buffoon graces.'* 

See figure ^ in the plate at the end of the Firfl Part of King 
ffenry IV, w tli Mr. Toilet's obfervations on it. STEEVENS. 

4 Rnter, Sec j In our tormer edition feveral notes on this paf- 
fage u eve ailembled ; bur being all founded on a miitaken readingj 
|he are novv omitted. STEEVENS. 


paf.cnate aftion. The poifoner, with feme t"jco or 
tbree mutts, comes in again, fecming to lament with 
her. The dead body is carried away. The pcifoner 
wooes the queen with gifts ; Jbe feems loath and 
unwilling a <wbile t but in the end* accepts bis love. 


Opb. What means this, my lord ? 
Ham. s Many, this is miching malicho ; it means 


5 Azrry, this Is micbing roaUcho ; it meant mi/clirf] The Oxford 
Editor, imagining that the fpeaker had here englifhed his own 
cant phraie of micbing mlicbv, tells us (by his glefikry) that it 
fignifies mijcbief tying bid, and that maScbo is the Spanilh maibfco ; 
whereas it fignifies, Lying at <Moit far the pmfoner. Which, the 
fpeaker tells us, was the very purpofe of this reprefenuttion. It 
fcould therefore be read malbecbar Spaniiri, tbep&ftmtr. Se wticb 
iignified, originally, to keep hid and out of ^ght ; and, as fuch 
men generally did it for the purpofes of /y:*g in carV, it den 
fignified to rob. And in this fenfe Sbakefpeare ufes the nouc, a 
miflxr, when fpeaking of prince Henry amongft a gang of robbers. 
SbaU tbe lltjjcd fun tf heaven prove a micher r Shall the fan fff Eng- 
land prove a thief? And in this fenfe it :s ufed by Chaucer, in his 
tranfiation of Le Roman dc la R<*Jc, where he turns the word licrre 
(which is IOTTOH, vokxr) by mhber. WARBCITOK, 

I think Han trier's expofiaon moft likely to be right. Dr. War- 
burton, to^juftify his interpretarion, rcuft write, micbing tor mde- 
cbor* and even then it will be haiih. JOHNSON. 

Dr. Warburton is rigbt in his eiplanauon of the word micbing. 
So, in the Raging Turk, 1651 : 

" wilt thou, envious dotard, 

*' Strangle my greatnefs in a mkbing hole ?" 
Again, in StapyhurtVs rtrgH, 1 58: : 

** whererbre thus vainery in land Lybye mltcbe you r w 

The quano reads munching mallico. STEEVENS. 

"Mlcbing, fecret, covered, lying hid. In this fenfe Chapman, 
our author's corernporary, ufes the world in Tie W : Jta-.vs Tfartj 
Dodf. Old PL vol. iv. p/291. Lyfander, to try his wife's fidelity, 
dopes from her : his triendi report that he is dead, and make * 
mock funeral for him : his wire, to fhew excetEve fcrrow fur the 
lofs of her hufoand, (huts herfelf up in his monument ; to which 
he comes in difguife, and obtains her love, notwirbfland ng he 
had aflured her in the mean time, that he was the rn^n w-o mur- 
dered her huihgad. On which he eiclaims. 

U 4 Oit 

296 H A M L E T, 

Opb. Belike, this (how imports the argument of 
the play. 

Enter Prologue. 

Ham. We fhall know by this fellow : the players 
cannot keep counfel , they'll tell all. 

Opb. Will he tell us what this Ihew meant ? 

Ham. Ay, or any mew that you'll mew him: 
Be not you afham'd to mew 6 , he'll not fhame to tell 
you what it means. 

Opb. You are naught, you are naught ; I'll rnar-H 
the play. 

fro. For us, and for cur tragedy, 
Here ftooping to your clemency t 
We beg your hearing patiently. 

Ham. Is this a prologue, or the pofy of a ring 
Opb. 'Tis brief, my lord. 
Ham. As woman's love. 

: Out upon the monfter ! 

Go tell the governour, let me be brought 

To die for that moft famous villany ; 

Not for this mlcJjing bafe traufgreffiou 

Of truant negligence. 
And again, p. 301. 

My truant 

Was micbt, fir, into a blind corner of the tomb. 
In this very fenfe it occurs in the Philajlcr of Beaumont and 
Fletcher, vol. 5. p. 142. " A rafcal micbing in a meadow." That 
is, as the ingenious editors (who have happily fubfKtuted mitcbing 
for milking) remark, " A lean deer, creeping, folitary, and with- 
*' drawn from the herd." WAR TON. 

6 Be not you ajhamd to Jbeiv, &c.j The converfation of 
Hamlet with Ophelia, which cannot fail to difguft every modern, 
reader, is probably fuch as was peculiar to the young and fafhion- 
able of the age of Shakefpeare, which was, by no means, an age 
of delicacy. The poet is, however, blameable ; for extravagance 
of thought, not indecency of expreflion, is the charadteriflic of 
madnefs, at leaft of fuch madnefs as (hould be reprefented on the 
fcene. STEEVENS. 


Enter a Kag, aid m %*tas. 

P. Jtoj. Full thirty times hath Phoebus' can? gone 


Neptune's dt warn, and TettnV orbed ground; 
And thirty dozen moons, with borrowed i (been 
About the world have times twelve thirties been ; 
Since love our hearts, and Hymen did our hands, 

P. %*cem. So many journeys may the fun and moon 
Make us again count o'er, ere love be done! 
But, woe b me, you are fo fick of late, 
So far from cheer, and from your former ftaie, 
That I diftruft you. Yet, though I diftmft, 
Difcomfort you, my lord, it nothing muft : 
For wornen fear too much, even as they love. 
And women's fear and love hold quantity ; 
In neither ought, or in extremity. 
Now, what my love is, proof hath made you know; 
> And as my love is fiz*d, my fear is fo. 

U t 

] Spfcdor, bfcr. JOBKOV. 

_rW t^ ir.] Horfeomto be a Hue btf, viiidh 
old km riijiosa to lcr. JOHVSOX. 

Tbas iec B ocniaod in the loiiofc Foiins a tapiet was i5e- 

/8V; and, indeed, I do fo; becanfe, I oMer^e, bc qoano of 
l6oc reads, oeV; doc of 1611, cedf; d tobo in 1632, >c; 
in .6 25 ,>-f, and becuJe, befides, ftcwhofc moVf 
esfdeoands this reading: far Ac adj cndendf *!% 
ofifeqsnad^andpnifiarioaoffaerioic andiear; not 

.orfaia^. a-^c^fa 


298 HAMLET, 

Where love is great % the littleft doubts are fear 5 
Where little fears grow great, great love grows there, 

P. King. 'Faith, I muft leave thee, love, and fhortly 


My operant powers ? their functions leave to do : 
And thou flialt live in this fair world behind, 
Honour'd, belov'd ; and, haply, one as kind 
For hufband flialt thou 

P. Queen. O, confound the reft ! 
Such love muft needs be treafon in my breaft: 
In lecond hufband let me be accurfl ! 
None wed the fecond, but who kill'd the firft. 

Ham. That's wormwood. 

P. Queen. 4 The inftances, that fecond marriage 


Are bafe refpefb of thrift, but none of love : 
A fecond time I kill my hufband dead, 
When fecond hufband kifies me in bed. 

P.King. I do believe, you think what now youfpeak ; 
Bur, what we do determine, oft we break. 
Purpofe is but the flave to memory ; 
Or violent birth, but poor validity : 
Which now, like fruit unripe, flicks on the tree ; 
But fall, unfhaken, when they mellow be. 
Moft neceffary 'tis, that we forget 
To pay oui felves s what to ourfelves is debt : 
What to ourfelves in paffion we propofe, 
The paflion ending, doth the purpofe lofe. 

* Where love, &c.] Thefe two lines are omitted in the folio. 


3 operant fo-ivers"] Operant is ative. Shakefpeare gives it in 
Jimoa as an epithet to poi'flm. Hey wood has likcwife ufed it ia 
his Rtyal King and Lyal Subjcfl, 1637 : 

" may my operant parts 
" Each one forget their office 1" 
The word is now obfolete. STEEVENS. 

4 The inftance^ ] The motives. JOHN soy. 

s what to ourfdves is debt :] The performance of a refolu- 
tion, in which only the refolver is interefled, is a debt only to 
himlelf, which he may therefore remit at pleafure. JOHNSON. 

5 The 


* The violence of ekher grief or joy, 
Their own enactures with themfelves deftroy: 
Where joy moft revels, grief doth moft lament; 
Grief joys, joy grieves, on flender accident. 
This world is not for aye ; nor 'tis not ftrange, 
That even our loves mould with our fortunes 

change ; 

For 'tis a queftion left us yet to prove, 
Whether love lead fortune, or elfp fortune love. 
The great man down, you mark, his favourite flies; 
The poor advanc'd makes friends of enemies. 
And hitherto doth love on fortune tend : 
For who not needs, (hall never lack a friend 5 
And who in want a hollow friend doth try, 
Directly feafons him his enemy. 
But, orderly to end where I begun, 
Our wills, and fates, do fo contrary run, 
That our devices^lill are overthrown ; 
Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own: 
So think thou wile no fecond hufband wed ; 
But die thy thoughts, when thy firft lord is dead. 

P. Queen. Nor earth to give mefood, nor heaven light ! 
Sport, and repofe, lock from me, day, and night ! 
To deipesation 7 turn my truft and hope ! 
8 An anchor's cheer in prifon be my fcope ! 


6 The violence of either grief or joy, 

Their own enactures iv// tbcmjehxs deflroy :] What grief or 
joy enaft or determine in their violence, is revoked in their abate- 
ment. Enaflures is the word in the quarto ; all the modern edi- 
tions have rnaflors. JOHNSON. 

7 To defperatwn, &c.] This and the following line are omitted 
in the folio. STEEVEVS. 

9 An anchor's cheer in prifon be mv fcope !~\ May my whole 
liberty and enjoyment be to live on hermit's fare in a prilon. 
Anchor is for anchoret. JOHNSON. 

This abbreviation of the word anchoret is very ancient. I find 
it in the Romance of Robert the Devil, printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde: ' \Ve have robbed and killed nonnes, holy aunkcrs, 
nretftes, clerkes, &c." Again, " the foxe will be a&'aunker lot 
\& begynneth to preche.*' 


300 HAMLET, 

Each oppofite, that blanks the face of joy, 
Meet what I would have well, and it deftroy f 
Both here, and hence, purfue me lading ftrife, 
If, once a widow, ever I be wife ! 

Ham. If fhe mould break it now, [To Oph. 

P. King. 'Tis deeply fworn. Sweet, leave me here 

a while , 

My fpirits grow dull, and fain I would beguile 
The tedious day with fleep. [Sleep*. 

P. Queen. Sleep rock thy brain ; 
And never come mifchance betwixt us twain! [Exit. 

Ham. Madam, how like you this play ? 

Queen. The lady doth proteft too much, methinks. 

Ham. O, but the'll keep her word. 

King. Have you heard the argument ? Is there no 
offence in't ? 

Ham. No, no, they do but jeft, poifon in jeft ; no 
offence i' the world. 

King. What do you call the play ? 

Ham. The moufe-trap9. Marry, how ? Tropically. 
This play is the image of a murder done in Vienna : 
Gonzago is the duke's name , his wife, ' Baptifta : 
you mall fee anon ; 'tis a knavifh piece of work : But 
what of that ? your majefty, and we that have free 
fouls, it touches us not : Let the gall'd jade wince % 
our withers are u n wrung.- 

Again, in The Fifion of Pierce Plowman : 

" As anke.-s and hermits that hold hem in her felles." 
This and the foregoing line are not in the folio. I believe we- 
Ihould read anchor's chair. So, in the fecond Satire of Hall's 
fourth book edit. 1602, p. 18 : 

*' Sit feven yeares pining in an ancbore's cbeyre 
*' To win fome parched fhreds of minevere." STEEVENS. 
' 7/k moufe-trap."] He calls it the moufe-trap, becaufe it 

is __ the thing 

In which he'll catck the confcience of the king. 


1 Jiaptifta. is, I think, in Italian, the name always of a man. 
* Let ike gaWd jade wHzo 1 , &c.] This is a proverbial faying. 
So, in D^mon and Pythias, 1582 : 

" I know the galFd horfe will fooneft wince? STEEVENS. 



Enter L*atm*. 

This is one Luciacus, nephew to the duke. 

Opb. You are as good as a chorus, my lord. 

? Ham. I could interpret between you and your 
love, if I could ice the puppets dallying. 

Opt. You are keen, my lord, you are keen. 

Ham. It would coft you a groaning, to take off 
r.v ejge. 

Opb. 4 Still better, and worfe. 

Am. 5 So you miftake your hufbands. 
Begin, murderer. - Leave thy damnable faces, and 

Come The croaking raren doth bellow for revenge. 

3 Han. / c~U im^fra, Sec.] Th* refers to the 
wbo formeriy (k< 

So, in the ft 

** Oh exceBem maktm! 

Again, in Greece's tomttfrnmti tfWiL, 16*1 : * It was I 
that pena'd tbe nunl ox BOB'S vit, the Safague c 
fbr fcrcavean' fcewibfatar *n*iri tf " t& 


L c. better in ngsrd to Ac w < 
jour +*kf*m**^ bur TOT* in rcfpeft of tbe grtdnrii 'ot yoor 

Huaej^- fia*s3 Bead, &j nrfl ukc jmr 
i dacis,J5r Aetur, fir <zxr. JOHXSOX. 

be loft k aircnraicfs. STEETES*. 

I befirrctkistobcncht: the word b finedmes uftd ia thk 
dkroos muMcr. * Your true nkk, rafcal (fers ITrt-tk in 
tfUhMV ABT> muft be to be ever bufie, aod Mr anrav the 
Wtdes and cans, betere they be half drank ^' 

AgriminBcQooicm'sJUr .r,, ^-To -Jr fir 

toixics trocn 

Again, in the *tr rt<r of Fletcher 

" Ih^hcwOlperiindcuKioj^irhinv- STEET KS. 
I beUere the imning is vou dc anuis tor voariels BO ate 
for the warfe. Yea Saadd take tkaa Ky ter dx 

To I. LET. 


3 02 HAMLET, 

Luc. Thoughts black, hands apt, drugs fit, and 

time agreeing ; 

Confederate feafon, elfe no creature feeing ; 
Thou mixture rank, of midnight weeds collected, 
With Hecat's ban thrice blafted. thrice infected, 
Thy natural magic, and dire property, 
On wholefome life ufurp immediately. 

[Pours the poifon into his ears. 
Ham. He poifons him i' the garden for his eftate. 
His name's Gonzngo: the ftory is extant, and written 
in very choice Italian : You mail fee anon, how the 
murderer gets the love of Gonzago's wife. 
Opb. The king rifes. 
Ham. What ! frighted with falfe fire ! 
Queen. How fares my lord ? 
PoL Give o'er the play. 
King. Give me fome light : away ! 
AIL Lights, lights, lights 7 ! 

[Exeunt All but Hamlet, and Horatio. 
Ham. Why, let the ftrucken deer go weep, 

The hart ungalled play : 
For fome muft watch, whilft fome mufl fleep 5 

Thus runs the world away. 
Would not this, fir, and a foreft of feathers, (if the 
reft of my fortunes turn Turk with me 8 ) with two 


* What! frighted with falfe fire!] This fpeech is omitted in 
the quartos. STE EVENS. 

7 Lights, lights, lights'] The quartos give this fpeech to 
Foloniui. STEEVENS. 

8 turn Turk v:ith me\ This expreffion has occurred already 
in Much Ado about Nothing, and I have met with it in feveral old 
comedies. So, in Greene's Tu ^uoqite, 1599: " This it is to 
turn Turk, from an ablblute and moft compleat gentleman, to 2 
molt abfurd, ridiculous, and fond lover." It means, I believe, no 
more than to change condition fantaftically. Again, in Decker's 
tioneft Whore, 1635: 

" ->- 'tis damnation, 
" If you tufa Turk again. 1 * 

Perhaps the phrale had its fife from fome popular ftory like that 
of Wara and Danpker^ the two famous pirates; aa account of 



Provcncial rofes'on my rayed (hoes, get me afeltow- 
flkip in * a ay of players, fir? 

c9; aod,ini6i*, 

was wriaen OD die Cone fobjod oiled AOwi&M* t*rJ4 

Mdf *9&;i WbT Jkr*rffofe? Undoubtedly we 
read JWne-4 or (widi the Frcndi f ) Prw^a^L He 
ems rofeofPfwa^abea^ipixies of nrfe, and fconedj 
Hffprfr cJurjted. WAITOX. ' 

4xa K proTioehl rgjfe at jgr rayed /,] Wben Ifcoc- 

Incgs were worn, they woe covered, where they met in the 
miL3c,bv anbband,gadiardhiiDtbcfoonoianrfc. So, in SB 


ire -~:xs trmuHim End. 
2jc often n-'ffioopttl ov 
So, in ie>-ft i^, 1623 : 

WidMmr-brn r$iL o> bide yocr gmny andes. 1 
1611: " many 

flodanp hne TiDuns %byfeei, tor all their great 

the poet 
irra; fodiastaiifing 

ignkyoc Aepbycr. laSahbA f ' ^^^1595, 
k*a<aper on the oriW/^ in Etgfand, - whiA (he 
heare diem up two indies or mere from the ground, &c. fo 
blade, c.r-wJicahtn, cot, aad cached, ic. 

prf. blad 


in Wamo's ^BMV a< 1602, b. 9. du 47 : 

Stove's Chronicle, anno 1353, rtfiom women's hoods ryul or 
firipcd. /iWis die French wwdibr a iipc. JohnlbDi's GAOw 

$ Ei^ipij-a: LT-; i^:;n^.i -i, -^i=: i'-= ; 

: 3 ;, 
:. i: 

A *** of bovttds was once caEed a aytf bonds, bo, ia 

IBB VW fi^hif AJ^ftfOf^ Ot* PT-iffy B f M y*^' AUu J M lCtCt)Cr * 


" To a deeper^ of 
Again, in dkc 

" a cy saore raoabk 

WasiKna-ttalloodioorcfaeer'diddinom. 4 

3 o 4 HAMLET, 

Hor. Half a fhare. 
Ham. A whole one, I. 

For thou doft know, * O Damon dear, 

This realm difmantled was 
Of Jove himfelf; and now reigns here 

J A very, very peacock. 


that in difobedience of the canon, the clergy's (hoes were chec- 
fuerea'vrith red and green, exceeding long, and varioufly pinked. 

The reading of the quartos may likewife be fupported. 
j5/uvr, In his Artificial Changeling, fpeaks of gallants wild 
pink and raze their fatten damafk, and Duretto fleins. To 
raze and to race, alike fignify to fireak. See Minfliew's Diet 1 . 
The word is ufed in the fame fignification in Markham's Country 
Farm. p. 585. " baking all (i. e. wafer cakes) together be- 
tween two irons, having within them many raced and checkered 
draughts after the manner of fmall fquares." It fhould be remem- 
bered that ra^d is the conjecture of Mr. Pope. STEEVENS. 

* __ O Damon dear,] Hamlet calls Horatio by this name, in 
allufion to the celebrated friendfhip between Damon and Pythias. 
A play on this fubjed: was written by Rich. Edwards, and publifhed 
in 1582. STEEVENS. 

3 A wry, wry peacock."] This alludes to a fable of the birds 

choofing a king, inftead of the eagle, a peacock. POPE. 

The old copies have \i paiock, paicocke, andfajocke. 1 fuMHtute 
paddock^ as nearell to the traces of the corrupted reading. I have, 
as Mr. Pope fays, been willing to fubftitute any thing in the place 
of his peacock. He thinks a fable alluded to, of the birds choofing 
a king ; inftead of the eagle, a peacock. I fuppofe, he muft merfn 
the fable of Barlandus, in which it is faid, the birds, being weary 
of their itate of anarchy, moved for the fetting up of a king ; and 
the peacock was eledted on account of his gay feathers. But, with 
fubmiifion, in this paflage of our Shakefpeare, there is not the leaft 
mention made of the eagle in antithefis to the peacock ; and it mull 
be by a very uncommon figure, that Jove himfelf ftands in the 
place of his bird. I think, Hamlet is fetting his father's and 
uncle's characters in contraft to each other : and means to fay, that 
by his father's death the ftate was ftripp'd of a godlike monarch, 
and that now in his ftead reign 'd the moft defpicable poifonous 
animal that could be ; a m&z paddock, or toad. PA Z), bufo, rubeta 
major \ a toad. This word, I take to be of Hamlet's own fub* 
itituting. The verfes, repeated, feein to be from fome old ballad j 
jn which, rhyme being neceflary, I doubt not but the lait verfe 
ran thus : 

A very> very afs. THEOBALD. 

A peacock 


. You might have rhym'd. 

Ham. O good Horatio, I'll take the ghoft's word 
ftr a thoufand pound. Didlt perceive ? 
Hor. Very well, my lord. 
Ham. Upon the talk of the poifoning, 
Hor. I did very well note him. 
Ham. Ah, ha! Come, fome mufic; come, the 


For if the king like not the comedy, 
4 Why then, belike, he likes it not, pcrdy :'. . 

Enter Rofencrantz^ and Guildenftern. 

'Come, fome mufic. 

GuiL Good my lord, vouchiafe me a word with 

Ham. Sir, a whole hiftory. 

GuiL The king, fir, 

Ham. Ay, fir, what of him ? 

GuiL Is, in his retirement, marvelous diftemper'd, 

Ham. * With drink, fir? 

GuiL No, my lord, with choler. 

Ham. Your wifdom mould (hew itfelf more richer, 
to fignify this to the doctor ; for, for me to put him 

A peacock feems proverbial fof a fool. Thus 
Ms Wtcdt: 

*' A theefe, a cowarde, and zpc&ccke foole." 
I bdicve padJxk to be the true reading. In the lalt Icene of 
this aft, Hamlet, fpeakicg of the tir.g, uies the fame espreu^on: 
" Would from a^iwc* 1 , from a '.-at, a gib, 
** Such dear concernments hide ?* MALOKE. 

4 JfTy y tben^ btliie } Hamlet was going on to draw die con- 
iequenc?, when the courtiers eniered. JOH .vsox. 

5 be lika it not, perdv-] PerJy is aoorroption of far Dun, 
and is not uncommon in the old plays. So, ia 7 Puy of ibt 

" In that, you Palmer, as deputie, 
. " Maycleer!ydifchargeh:m/ar^." STEEVEKS. 
* With drink, fr?~\ Hamlet takes particular care tiiat his uncle's 
love of drink {hall not be iorgpitea. JOHNSOX. 

Vt. X. X tol 

306 HAMLET, 

to his purgation, would, perhaps, plunge him into 
more c holer. 

Guil. Good my lord, put your difcourfe into fomc 
frame, and ftart not fo wildly from my affair. 

Ham. I am tame, fir : pronounce. 

Guil. The queen, your mother, in molt great af- 
fiiclion of fpirit, hath fent me to you. 
Ham. You are welcome. 

Guil. Nay, good my lord, this courtefy is not of 
the right breed. If it mail pleafe you to make me 
a whollbme anfwer, I will do your mother's com- 
mandment : if not, your pardon, and my return, 
mall be the end of my bufinefs. 
Ham. Sir, I cannot. 
Guil. What, my lord ? 

Ham. Make you a wholfome anfwer; my wit's 
diieas'd : But, fir, fuch anfwer as I can make, you 
lhall command -, or, rather, as you fay, my mother : 
therefore no more, but to the matter : My mother, 
you fay, 

Rof. Then thus fhe fays ; Your behaviour hath 
ftruck her into amazement and admiration. 

Ham. O wonderful fon, that can fo aftonim a 
mother ! But is there no fequel at the heels of this 
mother's admiration ? impart. 

Rof. She defires to fpeak with you in her clofet, 
ere you go to bed. 

Ham. We mall obey, were (he ten times our mother. 
Have you any 7 further trade with us ? 
Rof. My lord, you once did love me. 
Ham. And do itill 8 , by thefe pickers and dealers. 
Rof. Good my lord, what is your caufe of dif- 
temper ? you do, furely, bar the door upon your own 
liberty, if you deny your griefs to your friend. 

7 further trade ] Further bufinefs ; further dealing. 


* by tbefe picker^ &c.] By thefe hands. JOHNSON. 



Bar. Sir, I lack advancemeat. 

-Rsf. How can that be, when you have the voice 
of the king himfelf for your fucceffion in 

Hum. Ay, fir, 
verb is (bmeihing muy . 

E*tcr the Pbyen, with Retsrlers . 

O, tke recorders : let me fee one. To withdraw 
with you : Why do you go about to recover the 
wind of use, as if you would drive roe into a toil ? 

GmL ' O, my Ion), if my duty be too bold, my 
love is too unmannerly. 

Ham. I do not well underfbod that. , WiB yea 
play upon this pipe? 

GmL My lord, I cannot, 

Htm. I pray you. 

GmiL Befieve me, I cannot. 

Jfcv4n.].i.e.aftiMldF Itffc. la fir Ams&Jks, a 
by Braac, 165*, i* - AfblevBk&Bm AemrArx.* 
*^fa- ^de other fcofcerfii-ffi 
ys, wfaidk poft&d the pboe of pipes, 
in the old CMBdUbtffihe tipmnn f 1C. 

" Ifthst jtKtcasijpfay paa 

T: -..-.. -.-.,: --. - -; -; -..--; : 

X Z 

308 HAMLET, 

Ham. I do befeech you. 

Guil. I know no touch of it, my lord. 

Ham. 'Tis as eafy as lying : govern theie * ven j 
tages with your fingers and thumb 5 , give it breath 
with your mouth, and it will difcourie moft eloquent 
mufic. Look you, thefe are the flops. 

Guil. But ihefe cannot I command to any utterance 
of harmony ; I have not the (kill. 

Ham. Why, look you now, how unworthy a thing 
you make of me ? You would play upon me ; you 
would feem to know my Hops ; you would pluck 
out the heart of my myftery ; you would found me 
from my -lowed note to the top of my compafs : and 

* ventages } The holes of a flute. JOHNSON. 

3 and thumb, ] The firft quarto reads with your fingers 
and the umbtr. This may probably be the ancient name for that 
piece of moveable brafs at the end of a flute, which is either railed 
or depveiled by the finger. The word umber is ufed by Stowe the 
chronicler, who, deici ibing a fingle combat between two knights 
fay?, " he brail up his umler three times." Here, the umber means 
the vifor of the helmet. So, in Spenfer's Fuciy ^eene t b. j. 
c. i. ft. i\ 2 : 

" But the brave inaid would not difarmed be, 
*' But only vented up her umbrierc, 
tl And fo did let her goodly viiage to appere." 
Again, b. 4. c. 4: 

" And therewith fmote him on his unibriere? 
Again, in the fccond book of Lidgate on the Trojan War, 1513 : 
" Thorough the umber into Troylus' face," STEEVENS. 

If a recorder had a brafs key like the German Flute, we are to' 
follow the reading of the quarto; for then the thumb is not con-' 
crrned in the government of the ventages or flops. If a recorder 
was like a favourer's pipe, which lias no brafs key, but has a ffop 
tor the thumb, we are to read Govern thefe ventages with your 
finger and thumb. In Cotgrave's Difilonary, ombre, omb-aire, 
ttopriftre, and ombrdk, arc all from the Latin umbra, and lignify a 
ii-.adow, an umbrella, or any thing that fhades or hides the iace 
Iiom the fun ; and hence they may have been applied to any 
thing rhat hides or covers another ; as for example, they may have 
been applied to the brafs key that covers the hole in the German 
flute.^ So Spenfer uied umbrierc for the vifor of the hc-lmer, a* 
Kous's hillory of the Kings of England uies umbrella in the fcmc 
itJiie. TOLLET. 



there is much mufic, excellent voice, ia this nttlc 
organ; yet* cannot you make it^fpeak. Why t -do 
you think, that I am eafier to be play'd on than a 
pipe ? .Call me what inftrament you wffl, though you. 
can fret me, you cannot play upon me. (Ester 
P*!ms.J God bids you, fir! 

PoL My lord, the queen would fpeak with you, 
and pceJendy. 

Ham. Do you fee yonder cloud, that's alaooft in 
fhapeof acsmcl? 
. PoL By the mafs, acd 'tis like a camel, indeed. 

Ham. Methinks it is tike a weszel*. 

PeL It is back'd like a weazel. 

Him- Or, like a whak ? 

PtL Very like a whale. 

Hem. Then will I come to my mother by zsd by. 
s They fooljne to the top of my bent. I- will come 
by and by. 

PoL Iwfflfcyfo. 

Ham. BY and by is eafil? faid. Leave me, friends. 
[xf Ref. G^L Hsr. &c. 
Tis now the very witching time of night -, 

*_'.'- ,".. ;. . . " J ; ; ; .~ . ; . ; ; : ; ; r _ - ; I -. ; _ ; - -. 

Mnhpiksk is Eir >-, te. P^ I: bJbilikeaawdr. 
The irft ^5o -eafe, J r Ek * ci 

-' .. I: ...:--./. .. : .-::.:."-:-:':-_.- 
thae wm, I cannot fimcr. The ^DaJEfis icaprtabie ice rbc 
~ of jbJMci; but Aoo^h I ixfirrc a J^H( caeaistt ^k uot eaiy 
feood, yet k is as fifcciy Am she dbod Aoold reacnir 5? a 

Me. Toifct obferres, dm ve might wad " it k feV iile a 
/. e. voB-ibooKdl So, in HoEofi^f s 
p. IJJ : if he be <o^Udw.* Queries 

maucl in his Fapf If^uKF : ct Go vo^> 


i~pirmnnmiirr buinf Le. praiHiicaiC3Kthe&aic4 : hkdL 

czacnQuscfotSokookjc^cr. JOXXSOK. 

X : 

310 H A M L E T, 

When church yards yawn, and hell itfelf breathes out 
Contagion to this world : Now could 1 drink hot 


" And do iuch bilfinefs as the bitter day 
Would quake to look on. Soft ; now to my rjiOr 


O, heart, lole not thy nature; let not ever 
The foul of Nero enter this firm bofom : 
Let me be cruel, not unnatural : 
I will fpeak daggers to her 7, but ufe none ; 
My tongue and foul in this be hypocrites: 
How in my words foever fhe be fhent 8 , 


6 And do fucb bitter bujtnefs as tl>e day 

'Would quake to bok on. ] The exprefiion is almoft bur- 

lefque. The oil quano reads, 

And do fuch bujinefs as the bitter day 

Wouldmireake to look on. 

This is a little corrupt indeed, but much nearer Shakelpeare's 
Avoids, who wrote, 

better day^ 

which wives the lentiment great force and dignity. At this very time 
(fays he) heli breathes out contagion to the world, whereby niqbt, 
becomes polluted and execrable ; the horror therefore of this feaibn 
fits me tor a deed, which the pure and facred day would quake to 
look on. This is iaid with grear clalTical propriety. According to 
ancLat fupeiftition, night was prophane and execrable ; and day^ 
pure aiid holv. WARBURTON. tl-> llich bitter bujlnefe~] The expreffion litter bujinefs is 
Hill in uic, and though at prefent a vulgar phrafe, might not have 
been Iuch in the age of Shakefpeare. The bitter day is the day 
rendered hateful or bitter by the commiffion of fome ad of 

Watts, in his Logic, fays : " Bitter is an equivocal word ; 
there is bitter wormwood, there are bitter words, there are bitter 
enemies, and a bitter cold morning." It is, in fliort, any thing 
Unpteftfing or hurtful. STEEVENS. 

7 / <u//; J'pcak daggers to her,~\ A fimilar expreffion occurs in the 
Return from Parnafjus : " They are pefHlent fellows, they fpeak 
nothing but bodkins." It has bt en already obferved, that a bodkin 
ancientK li. nifitd a Jbort dagger, STEEVENS. 

8 \)\tjbent,~\ To Jhend, is to reprove hardily, to treat with 
injurious language. So, in The Coxcomb of B. and 'Fletcher : 

--Wclhall \xjbeni foundly."> 


9 To give them feals never, my fool, contest! 

A TWM im ' 

EMUT Kng* Refamftx, 

Sag. I like him not ; nor Hands it (afc with us, 
To Ice his madneft range. Therefore, prepare you ; 
I* your commiffion will forthwith dtfpafcch, 
And he to Engfesd fhall along with you: 
The terms of our eftate may not endure 
Ml 1 *"* ib near us, as doth hourly grow 
* Out of his luces. 

GmL We wifl omielves provide : 
nfofi holy and religious rear it is 
To keep thole many many bodies (aft; 
That live, and feed, upon your majefty. 

of ibe fc* efinor^; as is d 

1 tdkc Jr^cs m IK, propofr n 
Bnacal d fari >.>: fai j ; 

3i* HAMLET, 

Rof. The fmgle and peculiar life is bound* 
With all the ftrength and armour of the mind, 
To keep itfelf from 'noyance ; but much more, 
* That fpirit, upon whofe weal depend and reft 
The lives of many. The ceafe of majefty 
Dies not alone ; but, like a gulf, doth draw 
What's near it, with it : It is a maffy wheel, 
Fix'd on the fummit of the higheft mount, 
To whofe huge fpokes ten thoufand lefler things 
Are mortis'd and adjoin'd ; which, when it falls, 
Each fmall annexment, petty confequence, 
Attends the boifierous ruin. Never alone 
Did the king figh, but with a general groan. 

King. Arm you, I pray you, to this fpeedy voyage; 
For we will fetters put upon this fear, 
Which now goes too free-footed. 

Both. We will hafte us. [Exeunt Rof. and Quit. 

Enter Polonius. 

Pol. My lord, he's going to his mother's clofet ; 
Behind the arras I'll convey myfelf, 
To hear, the procefs j I'll warrant, fhe'll tax hi s Ti 

home : 
And, as you faid, and wifely was it faid, 

underftood, was changed to lunacies. But of this I am not con- 
fident. JOHNSON. 

I would receive Theobald's emendation,, becaufe. Sh.ikefyeare 
ufcs the word limes in the fame fenfe in The Merry Wires of Windfar t 
and The Wafer's Tale. From the redundancy of the ineafure no- 
thing can be inferred. 

Since this part of iny note was written, I have srjet with an in- 
ftance in fupport ot Dr. Johnfon's conjecture : 

" were you but as favourable as you are f-o-Ml/Jj " 

Tulty's Love, by Greene, 1616. 

Perhaps, however, Shakefpeare defigned a metaphor from horned 
cattle, whole powers of being dangerous, encreaie with the growth 
of their brirws . S T E F. v E N S . 

a That fpirit, upon vJjofe weal ] So the quarto. The folio gives, 
That fpirit, upon whole fpirit Si E E v E j ; s . 

P R I N C E OF D E N M A R K. 313 

*Tis meet, that fome more audience than a mother, 
, J Since nature makes them partial, fhould o'er-hear 
The fpeech, * of vantage. Fare you well, my liege : 
FH call upon you ere you go to bed, . 
And tell you what I know. 

Kin*. Thanks, dear my lord. [;>./. 

O, my offence is rank, it fmells to heaven ; 
It hath the primal eldeft curfc upon't, 
A brother's murder ! Pray can I not, 
5 Though inclination be as rnarp as will ; 
My ftronger guilt defeats my ftrong intent; 
And, Eke a man to double buGnefs bound, 
I ftand in paufe where I fhall firft begin, 
And both neglect What if this curfed hand 
Were thicker than itfclf with brother's blood ? 
Is there 'not rain enough in the fweet heavens, 
To wafh it white as foow ? Whereto ferves merer, 
But to confront the vifage of offence ? 
And what's in prayer, but this two-fold force, 
To be fore-ftalled, ere we come to fall, - 
Or pardon'd, being down ? Then I'll look up ; 
My fault is paft. But O, what form cf prayer 
Can ferve my turn ? Forgive m,e my foul murder ! 

" 3 San maim mmks Atm farted, Sec.] 

** Matrcsoranesfiiiis 

. " In peccaro adjotrices, atft^i in pateraa injaria 

" Soientefle." ffr. Htaxt. AfL 5. Sc. 2. 

4 e'&tstoe.' By forne opportunity of fecret obierrarion. 


jtaf mi will ;] Dr. Warbunoa would 

Tlwagji inclination be Qarp as d? 3L 
The oU reading b as fcarp mi -adS. STEEVEXS. 

I hare tbOotred the eaer emendation of Theobald ittdved by 
Hrtmrr : i. e. as Vox/?. JOHNSON. 

mS isammagJ, &*&*. Thus, LvM^si. 16. " and ac 
his mS the ibuth wind blowetk." The kicg iap, his mind is in 
too great confofioa to pray,' em* though his ~Kt&emsu* wtre as 
gjung as the CMtnrtfa^ whkfa requires chat dutr. STEETEXS. 



That cannot be , fince I am ftill poffefs'd 

Of thoSe e.Tecls for which I did the murder, 

My crown, mine own. ambition, and my queen, 

6 May one be pardon'd, and retain the offence ? 

In the corrupted currents of this world, 

Offence's gilded hand may (hove oy juftice ; 

And oft 'tis feen, the wicked prize itfelf 

Buys out the law : But 'tis not fo above : 

There is no fhuffling, there the adtion lies 

In his true nature ; and we ourlelves compell'd. 

Even to the teeth and forehead of our faults, 

To give in evidence. What then ? what refts ? 

Try what repentance can : What can it not ? 

v Yet what can it, when one cannot repent ? 

O wretched ftate ! O bolbm, black as death ! 

2 O limed foul ; that, ftruggling to be free, 

Art more engag'd ! Help, angels, make aflay ! 

Bow, ftubborn knees ! and, heart, with firings of 


Be foft as finews of the new-born babe ; 
AH may be well ! \he King kneels* 

Enter Hamlet. 
Ham. Now might I do it, pat, now he is praying9; 

e May one be pardon d, and retain the offence ?] He that does 
not amend what can be amended, retains his offence. The king 
kept the crown from the right heir. JOHNS QN. 

7 Tet vjbat can it, <when one cannot repent .?] What can re- 
pentance do for a man that cannot be penitent, for a man who has 
only part of penitence, dirtrefs of confcience, without the other 
part, refolution of amendment ? JOHNSON. 

8 O, limed foul ; ] This alludes to bird-lime. Shakefpeare ufes 
the fame word again, Henry VI. P. ii. 

" Madam, myfelf have limd a bufh for her." STEEVENS. 

9 pat, novj be is praying ;] Thus the folio. The quartos 
read but now, &c. STEEVENS. 



And DOW I'll do't ; And fo be goes to heaven : 

And fo am I revengM? That would be fcann'd *: 

A villam kills my father ; and, for that, 

* I, his fok foe, do this Ume villain fend 

To heaven. 

Why, this is hire and (alary 5 , not revenge. 

He took my father grofely, fall of bread ; 

With all his crimes broad blown, as flufh as May; 

And, how his audit (lands, who knows, fave heaven? 

But, in our circumftancc and courie of thought, 

*Tis heavy with him : And am I then reveng'd, 

To take him in the purging of his foul, 

When he is fit and Jeafon'd for his pafiage ? 

4 Up, fword -, and know thou a more horrid hent : 

* The tffc /V.-] Le. tbar fcoold be confcfcred, 
efiimated. STE.ETEXS. 

f,t**itt*, + ABj***3bimfmf\ TbcfcBo reads ,^fc 
fca, a reading apparendv coriupied r-om the. qoarox Hie meaa- 
iag B plain. /, bis ce&j Jm^ who am bound ID poosfe Us mnr- 
dacr. JOHXSOX. 

3 hire M* lairr,] Thai tbc fafiau The tfoam read 
i*6 mAJfh. STEETEXS. 


mml twfaf d**mmare twrrij tisce.] Tba is a 
dEn& wavanaed by none of the ujfici of any aa- 
tnoniy. Mr. Pope ys, I nadco^aMaBy: 

mmtre horrid \XS3K. 

Idofi>; aodwfay? the two oldcft qonto^ a>dl 

isnofudiEngfiih . 

to mndnrir, dm with the change of a Sngfc leoer, our anchor's 
gnome mm! was, kmt; Le. 4ng|!r, 

Tbkidb^bfcowrdb y 
but bemt is probably die right word. To bat is ufed by Shake- 
fpeare rar, to Jeat, to t*tcb, to ixy t&m. Hat is^ thcctjrc, 
i^or>oarr. Z^7 W him, ftrord, at a more bomd 
time. JOHJISOX. 


316 H A M L E T, 

When he is drunk, afleep, or in his rage 5 ; 

Or in the inceftuous pleafures of his bed ; 

At gaming, fwearing ; or about fome act 

That has no relifh of falvation in't : 

Then trip him, that his heels may kick at heaven 6 ; 

And that his foul may be as damn'd, and black, 

7 As hellj whereto it goes. My mother flays : 

This phyfic but prolongs thy fickly days. [Exif. 

5 Whin he is drunk, ajleep, or in his rage ; 

Or in the incejluous pictures of his bed \\ So, in Marfton's 
Jnfatiate Countefs, 1603 : 

Didft thou not kill him drunk ? 

-Thou fhouldft, or in th' embraces of his luft. STEEVENS, 
* that his heels may kick at heaven ;~\ So, in Hey wood's Silver 
^gt, 1613: 

" \Vhofe heels tript up, kiclid gainft the firmament" 


7 As Ml, whereto it goes. ] This fpeech, in which Hamlet,, 
reprefen-ed as a virtuous character, is not content with taking blood 
for blood, but contrives damnation for the man that he would 
punifh, is too horrible to be read or to. be uttered. JOHNSON. 

The fame fiend-like difpofition is (hewn by Zdkjnurbt, ir^ 
Webller's Fittoria Corombona y 1612: 

" to have poifon'd 

" The handle of his racket. O, that, that ! 
' That while he had been bandying at tennis, 
** He might have fworn himfelf to hell, and itruck 
" His foul into the hazard!" 
Again, in The Hon/ft La-~\ycr^ 1616 : 

" I then fhould llrike his body with his foul, 
" And fink them both together." 

Again, in the third of Beaumont and Fletcher's Four flays in one: 
" No, take him dead drunk now without repentance" 


The fame horrid thought has been adopted by Lewis Machin, 
in the Dumb Knight t 1633 : 

" Nay, but be patient, fmooth your brow a little^ 
*' And you frail take them as they clip each other, 
" Even in the height of fin ; then damn them both, 
" And let them iHnk before they afkGod pardon, 
" Thatji-<7r rc-.'enge mayjlrctcb ur(to their Jauls 


The King rifes. 

King. My words fly up, my thoughts remain 

below : 
Words, without thoughts, never to heaven go. [Exit. 

<Tbe Queen's clofet* 

Enter Queen, and Pclomus. 

PoL He will come ftraight. Look, you lay home 

to him : 
Tell him, his pranks have been too broad to bear 

with ; 

And that your grace hath fcreen'd and flood between 
Much heat and him. 8 I'll Clence me e'en here. 
Pray you, be round with him. 

Ham. t'&itbin.'] Mother, mother, mother ! 

<$tucm..\'\\ warrant you -, fear me not. 
\Vithdraw, I hear him coming. 

[Ptlonius bides bimfelf. 

Enter Hamlet. 

Ham. Now, mother ; what's the matter ? 
Queen. Hamlet, thou haft thy father much of- 
Ham. Mother, you have my father much offended. 

8 PU filence me e'en Ixre: 

Pray you^ be rcuztl viifb bim^\ Sir T. Hanmer, who is fol- 
lowed by Dr. Warburton, reacU, 

" PJ fconce me here. 

Retire to a place ofjecsrity. They forget that the contrivance of 
Pulonius to overbear the conference, was no more told to the queen 
lhaa to Hamlet. FU jilcscs r:: ci-f: herr t is, 1'UnJe no more vyirds. 


318 H A M L T, 

Queen. Come, come, you anfwer with an idle 


Ham. Go, go, you queftion with a wicked tongue* 
Queen. Why, how now, Hamlet ? 
Ham. What's the matter now ? 

tieen. Have you forgot me ? 
tm. No, by the rood, not fo : 
You are the queen, your hufband's brother's wife ; 
And 'would it were not fo! you are my mother. 
Queen. Nay, then I'll fet thofe to you that can 

Ham. Come, come, and fit you down ; you mall 

not budge ; 

You go not, 'till I fet you up a glafs 
Where you may fee the inmoft part of you. 

Queen. What wilt thou do ? thou wilt not murder 

me ? 
Help, help, ho ! 

Pol. [Behind] What, ho ! help ! 
Ham. How now ! a rat 9 ? 
Dead, for a ducat, dead. 

[Hamlet Jirikes at Polonius through the arras. 
Pot. [Behind'] O, I am (lain. 
Queen. O me, what haft thou done ? 
Ham. Nay, I know not : 
Is it the king ? 

tteen. O, what a ram and bloody deed is this ! 
im. A bloody deed i almoft as bad, good mo- 

As kill a king, and marry with his brother. 
Queen. As kill a king ? 

' How n<KV, a rat? ] This (as Dr. Farmer has obferved) is 
an expreflion borrowed from The Hiftotye of Hamblett, a tranflation 
from the French of Belleforeft. STEEVENS. 

1 As kill a king?} This interrogation may be confidered as 
fome hint, that the queen had no hand in the murder of Hamlet's 
father. STEEVENS. 

K Ham. 


Ham. Ay, lady, 'twas my word. 

Thou wretched, ralh, intruding fool, farewd ! 

[*Tc Pdautu.' 

I took thce for thy better^ take thy fortune : 
Thou find'ft, to be too bufy, is fome danger. 
Leave wringing of your hands: Peace; fit you down, 
And let me wring your heart : for fo I fhali, 
If it be made of penetrable ftufiF ; 
If damned cuftom have not braz'd it fo, 
That it be proof and bulwark againft ienfe. 

Quten. What have I done, that thou dafft wag thy 

In noife fo rude againft me ? 

Ham. Such an ad, 

That blurs the grace and blufli of modefty ; 
Calls virtue, hypocrite ; * takes off the role 


* tMtrs fd* rafe] anoding to the cuft ra of weanrg ntes 
OD the fide of the face. See a note on a puLge in fag Jitm^ 
Aft i. WAMtriTOX. 

I befiere Dr. Warbonon is mifiaken; for it nvjfi beaDoired that 
there is a material lilfcuuu. between an ornament worn on the 
jbdMft and one exhibited on Atf* ftfxfma. Sonie hate an- 
^H^^ 1 thefe words to be only a metaphorical enlargement of the 
fcntiment contained in the preceding line : 

blurs the grace and U*fi> of modefly : 

but as tiucfmtxa* is no proper fitoation for a bimjb to be difpbjed 
in, me may JWTC recuurle to another expbcarioo. 

It was once the cuftom for rhoic who were betrothed, to Rear 
ibtne flower as an external and cocfpicuous mark of -their mutual 
So, in ^fcr% Sl*plxrKC*mJ*r fir AfriL: 


Lyte, in hi* Herbal, t 578, enumerates fifi im our among tie 
{mater kind of fingle giOifiowers or pinks. 

Figure 4, in the Marrice-Jact (2 pLfcr of which is acnexed to 
die Fuft Pan o( .H,*ylV.) has a flower fixed on his firckaJ, 
and feetns to be meant for the fxramzxr ot the lemaie ch^f acter.- 
The flower might be defigned lor a r*fe t as the colour ot it is red 
in the painted gbfi, though its form is exprefljed with at li tie ad- 
herence to iianreasdmofdteniaiy^wthchandotthe ady. 
It may, howerer. condud us to affix a new irjein'-nj to the lines 
in qaeft on. This flower, as I hare fince difcuTeied, is cxafiiy 


*io HAMLET, 

From the fair forehead of an innocent love, 
And fets a blifter there; makes marriage vows 
As falie as dicers' oaths : O, fuch a deed, 
As, s from the body of contraction plucks . 
The very foul ; and fweet religion makes 
A rhapfody of words : 4 Heaven's face doth glow 5 
Yea, this folidity and compound mafs, 
With trifcful vifage, as againft the doom, 
Is thought-fick at the act. 
Queem Ay me, what act, 

Sets a lllfler there, has the fame meaning as in Mcafure for 

Who falling in the flaws of her own youth j 
Hath Uifter'd her report. 

See a note on this paflage, A& 2. Sc. 3. STBEVF.KS. 
3 from the lady of contraction ] Contraction for tnarriagi 
contraft. WARETJRTON. 

4 Heavens face doth glg-'j ; 
Yea, this folidity and compound mafe, 
With triftful vifage^ as againft the doom, 

Is thought-fab at the at>\ If any fenfe can be found here, \i 
is this. The fun glows [and does it not always ?] and the very iblid 
inafs of earth has a triftful vifage, and is thought-lick. All this ij 
fad fluff. The old quarto reads much nearer to the poet's fenfe : 
'Heaven's face docs glow, 
O'er this folidity and compound mafs, 
With heated vifage, as againft the Joom^ 
Is thoiight-Jick at the aR. 

From whence it appears, that Shakeipeare wrote : 
Heaven s face doth glffvo, 
O'er this folidity and compound majs^ 
With triftful vijage ; ar.d, as 'gainjl the doovi) 
Is thought-fick at the aft. 

This makes a line fenfe, and to this effect. The fun looks upon our 
globe, the fcene of this murder, with an angry and mournful coun- 
tenance, halt hid in eclipfe, as at the day ot doom. WAR BURTON. 
The word heated, though it agrees well enough with glow, is, 
I think, not fo ftriking as trifful, which was, 1 luppofe, chofen at 
the revifal. I believe the whole paflage now Hands as the author 
gave it. Dr. Warlumon's reading reitoits two improprieties, 
which Shakefpeare, by his alteration, had removed. In the firlr, 
and in the new reading, Heaven's face glows with triftful vifage; 
and, Heaven s face is thought- lick. To the common reading there 
k no juft o'ojedion. JOHNSON, 


P R I N G E o F D E N M A R K. 32 1 

5 That roars fo loud, and thunders in the index ? 

Ham. 6 Look here, upon this picture, and on this; 
fhe counterfeit prefcntment of two brothers. 
See, what a grace was feated on this brow : 
Hyperiorr's curb 7 ; the front; of Jove himfdf ; 
An eye like Mars, to threaten and command ; 
A Nation 8 like the herald Mercury, 
New-lighted on a heaven-kifling hill; 
A combination, and a form, indeed, 

* y?*j/ r*ars -fo baa", &c.] The meaning is, What is this arrj 
of which the jfo?ay t or mfittioa, cannot be made, but with th?5 
rio'eoce of clamour? JOHNSON. 

and tinauiars in the index ?] Mr. Edwards obferves, 

that the Lukxn of many old books were at that rime inferred 
2t the beginning, initead of the end, as is now the caitorn. This 
obif rvation J have joften feen confirmed. 

So, in OthfJh, A& 2. Sc- 7. an index and obicure/rpi^ 

to Thc,hifteiy of laiVand foul jhoaghts. ^TSETEXE. 

* Lock or. tbiipi8*re y and an ibii ;] It is evident from the fol- 
lowing words, 

AJlotumj like the herald Mercury, &c, 

that thefe plchire?, which are introduced as miniatures on th 
jtage, were meant for whole lengths, beng part of the furniture of 
the queen's clofet. 

Kit Mala* fan h J-xd^ 

A-nd^jbaoiba pkitt.- Mikoa, B. V., STEEVEKS. 

7 Hfpcriais csr!i;~] . It is obicrrable that Hyfxriejt is ufed by 

wirh the fame erfor in avmtltf. ..\z .*JE2. 
1 have nerer met with an earlier edition or Marfton's Tn/ltt':ate 
Cavxirfi than that 'in 1605. In this the fallowing lines occur, 
which bear a cio:e reiembiacce to Hamlet's deicriptfoo 01 his 

'* A donative !^t of errry god ; 

' -^ciljgarehim/^cij, J-yve his highj^j/tf ." STEE^EXS. 

* j^ftaaon ] Station in this iafr.nce does not mean /ie. fpot 

'-. bat the a3 cfj*cszg.. So, ia ''--= 
cna Citotwra, j'tct . Sr. 5: 

Her mo;:on and her ^at.-.r.are as one. 
p| turDiog _ ^u he hov 

:: .; is^se :enjar', . .ted it by the iarae icUauce. The 

obfetvitlon is oec;3ary, for otherwife the coraplimeat ddigned to 
-ttitude of the king^ would be bellowed oo the place where 
>Iercury is ret rtiealed as jlsading. c '~ 

YoL x. y 

3 22 HAMLET, 

Where every god did feem to fet his feal, 

To give the world afiurance of a man : 

Thi? was your hufband. Look you now/what 

follows : 

Here is your hufband; like a mildew'd ear 9 , 
Blafting his wholfome brother. Have you eyes ? 
Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, 
And batten ' on this moor? Ha ! have you eyes? 
You cannot call it, love : for, at your age, 
The hey-day in the blood * is tame, it's humble, 
And waits upon the judgment , And what judgment 
Would ftep from this to this ? 3 Senfe, fure, you 



9 fife a mildew'd ear, 

Blalling his ivhalefome lrotber.~\ This alludes to Pharaotb's 
Dream in the 4ilt chapter of Gcncfis. STEEVENS. 

* _ batten ] i. e. to grow fat. So, in Claudius Tiberius 

:V;VY>, 1607.* 

" and for milk 

" I lattend was with blood." 
Again ? in Marlow's Jew of Malta, 1633 : 

" make her round and plump, 
*' And batten more than you are aware." 

Bat is an ancient word for Sncreafe. Hence the adjective latfu], 
fo often ufed by Drayton in his PolyoVjion. STEEVENS. 

2 'The hey-day in the Mood] This expreflion occurs in Ford's 
7?j PitrJke's a Whore, 1633 : 

" muft 

" The by -Ay of your luxury be fed 
" Up to a furfeit ?" STEE VE N s. 
3 Scnfe,fiirc,\-o:t. have, ] In former editions, 
Scuje, fife, you,ha-~'c 1 

Elfe, could you not have motion : ] But from what philo- 
fophy our editors learnt this, 1 cannot tell. Since motion depends. 
fo little upon/iv//'\ that the greateft part of motion in the uaiverle, 
is amoogft bodies devoid of fenfe. We ihould read, 

Elfe, could you not have notion, 

i. c. inrelleft, reafon, &c. This alludes to the famous peripatetic 
principle of, Nil Jit in intelleck), qiiod non fncrit in feni'u. And how 
Fond our author \vas ot applying, and alluding to, the principles of 
this poiloibphy, we have given feveral inftances. The principle 
in particular has been fmce taken for the foundation of one of the 
rks that thde latter ages have produced. WA RBU R TO^. 



Elfe, could you not have motion: Bur, fure, that fenfe 

Is apoplex'd : for rrradnefs would not err ; 

Nor fenfe to ecfhfy was ne'er fo thrall'd, 

But it rcferVd feme quantity of choice, 

To ferve in fuch a difference. What devil was't, 

That thus hath cozen'd you at hoodman-bimd * ? 

Eyes without feeling % feeling without fight, 

Ears without hands or eyes, imeiUng fans all, 

Or but a fickly part of one true fenfe 

Could not fo mope 6 . 

O lharae ! where is thy blufh ? 7 Rebellious hell, 


The whole paffage is wanting in the folio ; and whichioever of 
the readings be the true one, the poet was not indebted to thtt 
boaikd philofophy for his choice. S TEE YENS. 

Metlon is frequently ufed, by Shakefpeare and others, for impulfe 
of naiure,fiJ^nwarj iaedinatum* Taking it in this fenfe, the 
paflage is faffidentty intei'igihle without any aheranon. So, in 
OtbeUo: u we ha*e icafbn to cool our raging jostio^s^ oar caraaj 
iiings, our unbttted lufis." 
Again, in Oymbe&ie; 

** for there's nomrtias 
* That tends to vice in msn, but I affirm 
" It is the womsa's part. 1 * 

Again, in Brathwaite's Survey ef Hiftsr:es t 1614 : " Thefe earn* 
tlxtat relations will reduce thy flragiiag metiers to a more fettled 
an4 retired harbour." SI A LORE; 

' --.' kodauix-SHiul *] This is, I fuppofe, the fame as tiixd* 

So, in the Meny Devil cf EJsniu^ 1626 : 
*' Arr-d ever fince hith fcot at b& 
IvLtidi of Mscrdacic, 

*' was I bewitched, 
t! That thus at bafSzias-tenJ I dallied ?" 
Again, in the Jf^ IFoiaaa f&gjlk*, 1638 : 

*' ^hy ftould I pby at bscd-Kan-blind?* STEEVEXS. 
5 Ews s.-it&sfst ike.) This and the three following lice* are 
omitted in the folio. ST SEVENS. 

5 CsvLd xct fo rnope.j i. e. could not exhibit fitch marks of 
Sapidity. The iafce word b uioi in the 'Tcmpejt, Sc. ult.*-. 
And were brought A^/rj hither ." 

If then canjl mn':y in a jxatnat's bmet, &c.] Alluding tQ 
wpat he had t^-Id her beioie, that her ccors^cu* :oadui fct 
iind of poifciEon* 



If thou canft mutiny 8 in a matron's bones, 

To flaming youth let; virtue be as wax, 

And melt in her own fire : proclaim no ftiame, 

When the compullive ardour gives the charge , 

Since froft itfelf as actively doth burn, 

A nd ^ reafon panders will. 

Queen. O Hamlet, fpeak no more : 
Thou turn 'ft mine eyes into my very foul ; 
And there I fee fuch black and ' grained fpots, 
As will not leave their tindt l . 

Ham. Nay, but to live 
In the rank fweat of an 3 inceftuous bed ; 


What devil w/wV, 
That thus bath, &c. 

And again after wards : 

For vfe tan almnfi change the Jlamp of nature^ 

j4nd mafti-r even the devil, or throw him out 

With wondrous potency 
But the Oxford Editor, not apprehending the meaning, alters it ta 

rebellious heat, 
If thou canjl, &c. 

And fo makes nonfenfe of it. For rnuft not rebellious //# mutiny 
wherever it is quartered ? That it ftould get there might feem 
ftrange, but that it Jliould do its kind when it was there feeins to 
be natural enough. WARBURTON., 

I think the pvefent reading right, hut cannot admit that Hanmer*s 
emendation produces nonfenfe. May not what is laid of heat, 
be faid of hell, that it will mutiny wherever it is quarrered ? 
Though the emendation be elegant, it is nor neccflary. JOHNSON. 

8 mutiny] The old copies read mutiiic. Shakefpeare calk 
mutineers mutints, in a fubfequent fcene. &TEEVENS. 

9 reafon panders TO///.] So the folio, I think rightly; but 
the reading of the quarto is defenfible : 

rfc.fon pa i dons w/'//. JOHNSON*. 

* - grained j Dyed in grain. JOHNSON'. 

* As will not leave ihrir tinS.~\ The quartos rend : 

** As will leave there their drift." STEEVENS. 
3 inceftuous led;] The folio has cnfeamed^ that is, grcafy 

Beaumont ami Fletcher ufe the word ufevncdvo. the fame fenfe,. 
in the third of their Four Plays in one: 

u His leathery infant d upon h:u3" 


P R 1 X C E o F D E N M A R X. 

Ste'.v'd in corruption ; h .1 making . 

Over the riafty i*ye ; 

;. O, fpcak to me no more; 
Theie words like daggers enter in mine ears ; 
No more, fweet Hamlet. 

Ham. A murderer, and a v: 
A (lave, that is not twer.iierh part the tythe 
Of your precedent lord : a 4 vice of kings : 
A cutpurie of the empire 2nd the rule ; 
5 That from a fhelf the precious diadem dole, 
And put it in his pocket ! 

Qua::. No more. 

Enter Gboji. 

Ham. 6 A king of fhreds and patches : 

Save me, and hover o'er me with your wings, 
You heavenly guards ! What would your' gracious 
figure ? 

Queen, Alas, he's mad. 

Ham. Do you not come your tardy ion to chide, 
That, 7 laps'd in time and paffion, lets go by 
The important acting of your dread command ? 
O, fay ! 

In the BM* rf /*/**, &rc. bl. 1. no date, we are told that 
44 Exfame of a haake is t&grece." 

In moll p'aces it means the greafe or oil with which clothiers 
befinear their wool to make it draw cat in fpianing. 

Licr/liuns IS the reading of the quarto, 1611. STEEVEN*S. 

* ----- 'kings!] a low mimick of kings. The vice is the 
fool of a farce ; from whom the modern ptvicb is delcenciect. 


I Tbatjnm mjbrtf, &c.] This is faid not unrr.eaningh , but 
to (hew, that the ufurper came not to toe crown by any glorious 
wfflainy that carried danger with it, but by the low cowardly theit 
of a common pilterer. V.'A* =;r ^TON. 

* A king ifjbndi and patches:] This is laid, purfaing the 
idea of the via of irxg;. The vice was df efied as a tool, in u coat 
of party-coloured patches. JOHN'SOH. 

7 lap? din time mtuipajim^] That, h:.ving fullered tint to 
and pajsam to cw^ lets g, Sec. JOK N son. 

Y 3 Gfojl. 

H A, M L E T, 

Ghoft. Do not forget : This vifitatioh 
Is but to whet thy aimed blunted purpofe. 
But, look ! amazement on thy mother fits : 
O, Hep between her and her fighting foul; 
Conceit in weakeft bodies ftrongeft works \ 
Speak to her, Hamlet. 

Ham. How is it with you, lady ? 

Queen. Alas, how is't with you ? 
That you do bend your eye on vacancy, 
And with the incorporal air do hold difcourfe ?. 
Forth at your eyes your fpirits wildly peep ; 
And, as the fieeping foldiers in the alarm, 
Your bedded hair, 8 like life in excrements, 
Starts up, and ftands on end. O gentle fon, 
Upon the heat and flame of thy difcemper : 
Sprinkle cool patience. Whereon do you look ?. 

Ham. On him ! on him ! Look you, how pale 

he glares ! 

His form and caufe conjoin'd, preaching to denes, 
Would make them capable* Do not look upon me ; 
Left, with this piteous action, you convert 
My ftern effects : then what I have to do 
Will want true colour ; tears, perchance, for blood,, 

Queen* To whom do you fpeak this ? 

Ham. Do you fee nothing there ? 

Queen. Nothing at all , yet all, that is, I fee. 

Hzm. Nor did you nothing hear ? 

Qitcen. No, nothing, bur ourlelves. 

Ham. Why, look you there ! look, how it deals 

away ! 
9 My father, in his habit as he liv'd ! 


* lifts life in excrements,] The hairs are cxcrementitious, 
that is, without life or fenl'ation; yet thofe veryluirs, as if they 
had life, rtart up, &c. POPE. 

; 9 My father, in hh habit as he liv'Jf] Iftliepoet means by this 
expreiiicm, that his father appeared in his ov.-n -familiar habit, he 
IMS either forgot that he had originally introduced him in armour, ' 
or mull have meant to vary his dreis at Uiis his laiV appeal ance. 



Look, where he goes, even DOW, out at the portal ! 

[Exit Gbcjt* 

Quetn. This is the very coinage of your brain : 
This bodiiefe creation ec. 
Is very cv 

Ham. Ecftaiy ! 

My pulfe, as yours, doth temperately keep time, 
And makes as healthful mufic : It is not madaeis, 
That I have uuer'd : bring me to the teft, 
And I the matter will re-word ; which madnefs 
Would gambol from. Mother, for love of grace, 
Lay not that flattering unction to your foul, 
That not your trefpafs, but rr.y madnefs, fpeaks : 
It will but fldn and film the ulcerous place - y 
Whiles rank corruption, mining all within, 
Infecfcs unfeen. Confels yourfelf to heaven ; 
Repent what's paft ; avoid what is to come ; 
And * do not fpread the compoft on the weeds, 
To make them ranker. Forgive me this my virtue : 
For, in the fatnefs of thefe purfy nmes, ' 
Virtue itfelf of vice muft pardon begs 
Yea, ; curb, and woo, for leave to do him good. 

Queen. O, Hamlet ! thou haft cleft my heart in 

Ham. O, throw away the worfer part of it, 
And live the purer with the other half. 

The difficulty might perhaps be a fink obviated by pointing the 
line thus: 

My fatter im bis b&iai be r', STEE VE xs. 

1 E^Sa^!~\ Ecfcafr in this pioce, and many others, means a 
temporary aiienacion of mind, a fir. So, in E.'.*ojio .L&n$5, a 
novel, \fj Jtbm /&, 1606: " that buriliog out of an reHaft 
wherein fte bad long Ko^d, like one bchoLJlng Medala's heii, 
lamenting, iec." STEE 

* <i* **t fpnmJ &< ctmivfii tec.] Do nof, by any cr.v in- 
duigenve, heighten your ibraier oifsnces. JOHNS ox . 

j ctrl, ] That is, lad acd trzcte. Fr. cM-risr. So, ia 

' Then I cmrild on my knees, .c." STE VEJ:S. 

Y 4 Good 

3 2$ H A M L E T, 

Good night : but go not to mine uncle's bed $ 

AlTume a virtue, if you have it not. 

4 Thar monlter, cuftom, who all fenfe doth eat, 

Of habits devil, is angel yet in this; * 

That to the ufe of actions fair and gx)d 

He likewiie gives a frock, or livery, 

That aptly is put on : Refrain to night ; . 

And that (hall lend a kind of eafmels 

To the next 'abft'inence : the next, more eafy 5 : 

For ufe can almoft change the (lamp of nature, 

And either mafter the devil, or throw him out 

With wondrous potency. Once more, good night ( 

And when you are defirous to be bleft, 

I'll blefiing beg of you. For this fame lord, 

[Pointing to Poknius. 

I do repent \ But heaven hath pleas'd it fo, 
6 To punim him with me, and me with this, 
That I m'u'ft be their fcourge and minifter. 
I will bcftow him, and will anfwer well 
The death I g-ive him. So, again good night ! 
I mufl be cruel, only 'to be kind : 
Thus bad begins, and worfe remains behind. 

4 That mnnftc-* c>'ftm, <ru0 allfcnfc doth eat, 

Of bain? s devil, is angel yet in this^} This paflhge is left out 
in tVe two elJer folios : -it is certainly corrupt, and the players did 
the difcreet part to (lifle what the did not ufiderftnnd. Habl'fj 

part to (lifle what they 
Jcvil.Cbt\n\n\y arofc from fome conceited tamperer wilh the textj 
who tho'uj;ht it was neceflary, it: contraft to angel. The emenda- 
tion of ihe text I owe to the iagacify of Dr. Thirlby : 
. Tl'af moAflft ciifiom, who all fcnfe doth eat 

Of habits evil, h an^el, &c. THEOBALD. 
I iliink T-nirlby's conjecture wrong, though the fucceeding edi- 
tors havfc followed it ; an^cl and devil are evidently oppoled. 


5 tie ttrxt, more rajy ;] This pafiage, as far as patency ^ is 
oni'utod in the folio. SxEEVENd'. 

6 To puii'Jb him with me, &c.] This is Hannier's reading ; the 
other editions have it, 

Tofun'Jb :.\e vsith this, and tlii -tiv'//- me. JoKi:so^. 



fhic word more, good lady r . 

$*M*. What (hall I do ? 

Ham. Not this, by no means, that I bid you do : 
Let the bloat king 8 tempt you again to bed 
Pinch wanton on your cheek -, call you, his moufe ; 
And let him, for a pair of rcechy kifles , 
Or padliog in your neck with his daom'd fingers, 
Make you to ravel all this matter out, 
' That I efientially am not in madnefs, 


4c.] This pafiage I have reSorad from die 
quartos. STEEVEHS. 

* Let At food &xg ) The oid quano reads, 

L e. bloated, which is better, as more expreffire of the fpeaker's 
contempt. WAXECRTOX. 

* hisMU?;] M^ was once * term of enJmmiU. So, 
in Warner's Jtk-m\ E^lamJ, 1602, b. 2. chap. 10: 

u Gai bk.i : te ?a/ ; , the bridegroom fetd, tor. 1 * 
Agio, in the JAauectLau t 1595: * Shall I tell ihee, fwret 
amr/i f I never kxdc upon thee, bat I am quiie out of lore vrizh 
my wife." STKKVSXS. 

"i _ mc^ kifles,] ^m-rj? is fmoky. The author meant to 
convey a coarfe idea, &nd was net very icnipulous in his choice of 
an epither. The tame, howerer, is applied with greater pro- 
to the neck of a cook-maid in Ctritltaua. Again, in Hams 
ffsLniftUCn^f, 1618: 

" badeh:mgo 

" And wafh his race, he look'd fo necbiif, 
** tike bacon hanging oa die chimney's roof.* 

" Bmt m^im rtf.} The reader wSI be oieaied to fee Dr. 
Fanner's extrad from the old 311 ma gjfafi ^ fTMlir, of which 
be bad a rracmenc only in his ponemon. ** It was not without 
caufe, and jufie occafion, that my gethires, countenances, and 
words, feenjc to pr ceed fipom a rnadman, and that I deure to 
haue all men eflceme mee wholy depriued of fence and rea- 
ibnabk underftanding, bycaufe I am wcil afiured, that he that 
hath made no oxncience to kill his owne brother (accufluaied 
to raurthers, and allured with denre of gouernercent without 
controii in his trexfons) win not fpare to faue hunfelfe with the 
** like crueltie, in the blood, aitd fleih of the loyss of his brother, 
*' by him mafiacred : and therefore it is better for me to tayne 
then to life my right fences as nature hath befiowed 

33 o H A M L E T, 

But mad in craft. 'Twere good, you let him know \ 
For who, that's but a queen, fair, fober, wife, 
Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gib % 
Such dear concernings hide? who would dp fa? 
No, in defpight of fenfe, and lecrecy, 
3 IJnpeg the bafket on the houfe's top, 
Let the birds fly ; and, like the famous ape> 
To try conclufions 4, in the bafket creep x 

*' them upon me. The bright fhining clearnes thereof I am 
'" foiced to hide vnder this fhadow of diflimulation, as the fun 
*' doth hir beams vnder fome great cloud, when the wether in 
*, 1 fummer time ouercafteth : the face of a madman feruerh to couer 
" my gallant countenance, and the geftures of a fool are fit for 
" me, to the end that, guiding myfelf wifely therin, I may pre- 
** feme my lite for the Danes and the memory of my late de- 
" ceafed father, for. that the delire of rfcaengtng his death is fo 
inorauen in my heart, that if I dye not fhortiy, I hope to take 
fuch and fo great vengeance, that thefe countryes fhall for euer 
fpeake thereof. Neuerthelefie I muft fhiy the time, meanes, 
and occafion, left, by making oucr great hutf, I be now the 
cauie of mineowne fodaine mine and ouerthrou', and by that 
meanes end, before I beginne to effect my hearts deiire : hee 
that hath to doe with a wicked, ditloyall, crueil, and difcour- 
teous man, muft vfe craft, and poiitike inuentions, fuch as a, 
fine vvitte can beft imagine, not to difcouer his interprife : for 
feeing that by force I cannot effect my defire, reafon alloweth 
me by diffimulation, fubtiltie, and fecret praftiles to proceed 
therein." STF.EVENS. 
z a gib,] So, in Drayton's Epiftle from Elinor Cobbqm to 
Duke Humphry : 

" And call me beldam,^, witch, night-mare, trot." 
G'; 7 j xvas a common name for a cat. So, in Chaucer's Rom. of 
the R<]j'.', ver. 6204 : 

" gibbe our cnt, 

" That waiteth mice and rats to killen." S TEE VENS . 
3 Unpeg the Injket on the hcuje's top, 

Let the birds fly ; ] Sir John Suckling, in one of his letters 
may poflibly allude to the fame ftory. " It is the llory of the 
" jackanapes and the partridges ; thou ftareit after a beauty till it 
" i-, loft to thee, ai^l then lei'lt out another, and ftareit after that 
*' till it is gone too." WARNER. 

4 To try condnf.GHs^ i. e. experiments. So, in Antnny ancf. 
Cleopatra : 

" She has purfu'd co;icl>iji<>>ts infinire 
"Or ca ty v. 1 ays to die." S T v ic N s . 


And break your neck dc 

Quern. Be thou affur'd, if words be mads of 

And breath of : e no life to breathe 

: thou haft faid to me. 
H&WS I muft to England ; you know that ? 
Queen. Alack, 1 had forgot; 'cis fo concluded on. 
Ham. 5 There's letters feal'd : and my two fchool- 


\Vhom I will trail, as I will adders fang'd, 
They bear the mandate ; they mujt fweep my way, 
And marwal me to knavery : Let it work ; 
For 'tis the iport, to have the engineer 
HoiS: 7 with his own petar : and it Ihail go hard, 

I .vill delve one yard below their mines, 
And blow them - oon: O, 'tis moft fweet, 
:n in one line rvo crafts diredly meet! 
: man ftull fet me packing. 
1*11 lug the guts : into the neighbour room. : 
Mother, good night. Indeed, this counfellor 
is now moft foil, mod iecret, and mofl grave, 
~Wi. .-"e a fooliih prating knave. 

5 There's irtters JcaT J. See.] The nine following redes are ad- 
ded out of ile old editioc. POPE. 

' aJfirs fa*tg'd^\ That b, adders ivith their ft^pt or ftt- 
faux* itetbj ondrowa. It has been the practice of nmuatebanks to 
"boati the eficacy of their a.-.: jying wi^i Vipers, but 


ilbi/i&c.} Hs-ji taiixx/fJ', asfaft fazfajpj. STXETEXS. 

1 -the guts ) The word guts was net ancieatlv fo o5enllve 

. cacy as it U a: pre:ent ; but was uied by L?*y (who nut-re 

the jirji atceotpt to poliih our language) in his ierious Com- 

poGtioas. So, in his 3fo/, 1592: ' Could not die treafUre of 

phryvta, DOT the tributes of Greece, cor mountains in the . ~ , 

whose rti are gold, iatisfy thjr mind r" In ftcrt, g*ti \ras u:ed 

whej e we now uie emtrtdh. Stax^horji often has it in his rranlUdcn 

-gil, 1582: 
* Peotoribus iohiaos fpirantia confuli: exta. 

** She wceai icr lonuae by ; ..:: -atye to conGer." 


C ; r.~. e , 

332 HAMLET, 

? Come, fir, to draw toward an end with you : , 
Good night, mother. 

[Exit the gueen, and Hamlet dragging in Pohnius. 

'A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

A royal apartment. 

Enter King) Queen, Rojencrantz, and Guildenftern. 

King. There's matter in thefe fighs, thefe profound 

heaves ; 

You rnuft tranf]ate ; 'tis fit we underftand them : 
Where is your fon ? 

Queen. Bellow this place on us a little while *. 

[To Rvf. and Guil. who go out. 
Ah, my good lord s, what have I feen to night ? 
King. What, Gertrude ? How does Hamlet ? 
Queen. Mad as the fea, and wind, when both con- 
Which is the mightier : In his lawlefs fit, 

9 Come, Jir, to draw toward an end with you :~\ Shakefpeare has 
been unfortunate in his management of the ftory of this play, the 
moil itriking ci re urn (lances ot which arile fo early in its formation, 
as not to leave him room for a conclufion fuitable to the import- 
ance of, its beginning. Afrer this Inll interview with the GboJJ y 
the charafter of Hamlet has loft all its confequence. STEEVENS. 

1 A3 IV.] This play is printed in the old editions without 
any feparafion of the a>ls. The divifion is modern and arbitrary; 
and is here not very happy, for the paufe is made at a time when 
there is more continuity of adtion than in almoil any other of the 
flenes. JOHNS ox. 

* Bcftovj this place on us a little while.'] This line is wanting 1 in 
the folio. STEEV'ENS. 

3 , ///y good lord^\ The quartos read mine own lord. 




Behind the arras hearing fomething fUr, 

He whips his rapier out, and cries, A rat ! a rat! 

And, in this brainifh apprehenfion, kills 

The unfeen good old man. 

King. O heavy deed ! 

It had been fo with us, had we been there : 
His liberty is full of threats to all ; 
To you ) ourfelf, to us, to every one. 
Alas ! how (hall this bloody deed be anfwcr'd ? 
It will be laid to us ; whofe providence 
Should have kept fhort, reftrain'd, and 4 out of 


This mad young man : but, fo much was our love, 
We would not underftand what was moft fit ; 
But, like the owner of a foul difeafe, 
To keep i: from divulging, let it feed 
Even on the pirh of life. Where is he gone ? 

Queen. To draw apart the body he hath kill'd : 
O'er whom his very madr.efs, 5 like fome ore, 
Among a mineral of metals bafe, 
Shews itfelf pure ; he weeps fcr what is done. 

King . O, Gertrude, come away ! 
The fun no fooner (hall the mountains touch, 
But we will Ihip him hence : and this vile deed 
We muft, with all our majefty and (kill, 
Both countenance and excufe. Ho I Guildenftern f 

* t/ p/haunt,] I would rather read, e*/*niann. JOENSO.N. 
Qut f bojutt, means out cfcoztpeury. So, in AtecKy ana CUcpaira : 


Dido and her Sichae us (hall vrant tiaops, 
** And all the tzazt be c^is." 
Again, in Warner^ A*bun?i E^laad^ 1602, book 5. chap. 26: 

*' And from die fmiih oi heaven's wire aliiue the amorcui 

The place where men afiemble, is often poetically called the 
ieaunt tfjntn* So, in ROHKO a*d jxUe? : 

" We talk here ia the public bautt of men." STEE rr :. 5. 
5 lite fane m\ Shakefpeare ies^is to think ere to be r, 
c, geld. Bafe raetxs iuve tn< no lefs ih^i precious. 




Enter Rd/eniranfz, and Guildenfiern. 

tricnds both, go join you with fome further aid : 
Hamlet in madnefs hath Polonius (lain, 
And from his mother's clofet hath he dragg'd him : 
Go, feek him out; fpeak fair, and bring the body 
Into the chapel. I pray you 5 hatle in this. 

[Exeunt Rof. -and Quit 

Come, Gertrude, we'll call up our wifcft friends ; 
And let them know, both what we mean to do, 
And what's untimely done: for haply, (lander, 
6 Whofe whifper o'er the world's diameter, 
As level as the cannon to his blank, 
Tranfports his poifon'd (hot, may mils our name, 

6 Wbofe wlrfpcr <?er the vx/rJeTs 

ds level as the cannon to his blank, 
Transports its poiforidjhot, may mifs cur name, 
And hit the tuoidiMtfs air. O, come dv:ty !~\ Mr. Pope takes 
fiotice, that I replace fome verfes that were imperfect (and, though 
of z. modern date, feem to be genuine), by inferring two words. 
But to fee what an accurate and faithful collator he is, I produced 
thefe verfes in my Sbakefpeare Rcfrored, from a quarto edition of 
Hamlet, printed in 1637, and happened to fay, that they had hot 
the authority of any earlier date in print, that I knew of, than that 
qusrto. Upon the ilrength of this Mr. Pope comes and calls the 
lines modern, though they are in the quartos of 160^ and 1611, 
which I had not then feen, but both of which Mr. Pope pretends 
to have collated. The verfes carry the veiy itamp of Shakefpears 
upon them. The coin, indeed, has been dipt irom our h'til re- 
ceiving it ; but it is not fo diminifhed, but that with a fmull af- 
liitance we may hope to make it pals current. I am far from 
.affirming, that, by inferring the words, For bdj>^ t JIanikr, I hate 
tjiven the poet's very words ; but the fuppletr.-nt is iuch as the 
fefttiment naturally ii-ems to demand. The poet has the fame 
thought, concerning the ciiiTufive powers Q^Jlander^ ia another of 
hii plays : 

" - No, 'tis Jlantkr ; 

' Whofe edge is (harper than the fwo'rd, whofe tongue 

' Out- venoms all the worms of Nile, whole breath 

' Rides on the polling winds, and doth bely 

' All comers of the world." Cymbelin:. THEOBALD; 



And bit the woimdlefs air. O, come away ! 

My foul is full of difcord, and difinay. '[**** 


SI r .C ' '. :T "~~ ' 'Tt , 

Enter Hamht. 

- -Safely aosr'd, But fort V- 
Rof. fc?r. <antlnH. Hamlet ! Lord Hamlet ! 
Ham, What noifc? who calls on Hamlet? 
here they come. 

Enter RcfoKraxtz, 

Rgf. What have you done, my lord, with the 
dead be 

Ham. Compouaded it with duft> thereto 'tis kin* 

Rsf. Tell us where tis; that we may take it 

And bear k to the chapel. 

Ham. Do not believe it. 

A: ". EciL-ve what : 

Ham. That I can keep your counfel, and cot mine 
own. BeGdes, to be demanded of a ipunge ! what 
replication fhould be made by die Ion of a king r 

Rsf. Take you me for a fp unge, my lord ? 

Ham. Ay, fir ; that foaks up the lung's counte- 
nance, his rewards, his author-ties. But fuch omcers 
do the king beft femce in the end : He keeps them, 
* like an ape, io the comer of his jaw ; Sift moarh'd, 



* fr am ape,*] The qoano fcas ^*, viuck :. 
ralT toiltnred. Tlie fio has ***, uLka Haiisr ka rocea^ 
':txd with the foSowisg ncre. 

" I: is the way cf modkcys ia caring, to I^O-JF iii?-: 
** tbeir food, which they take op far, :~n? a psudi u 

2B 6 H A M L E T; 

to be laft fwallow'd : When he needs what you have 
glean'd, it is but fqueezing you, and, fjpunge, you 
fhall be dry again. 

Rof. I underftand you not, my lord. 

Ham. I am glad of it : A knavifh fpeech fleeps in 
a foolim ear. 

Rof. My lord, you muft tell us where the body is, 
and go with us to the king. 

Ham. 9 The body is with the king, but the king 
is not with the body. The king is a thing 

Guil. A thing, my lord ? 

Ham. x Of nothing : bring me to him. * Hide 
fox, and all after. \Exeiint', 


' vided with On the fide of their jaw, and then they keep itj till 
** they have dene with the reft." JOHNSON. 

Surely this fliould be " like an ape an apple." FARMER. 

9 7 he body is ivllk the king,- ] This anfiver I do not compre- 
hend. Perhaps it (hculd be, The lotly is not ivitb the klagj ioi the 
king is not 'jcith the body. JOHNSON. 

Perhaps it may mean this. The body is in the king's houfe 
(i. e. the prefenr king's) yet the king (i. e. he who fhould have 
been king) is not with the body. Intimating that the ufurper is 
here, the true king in a better place. Or it may mean the guilt 
cf the murder lies <with the king, but the king is not where tf:e bah 
lies. The affecled obtcurity or" Hamlet muft excufe fo many at- 
tempts to procure fomcthing like a meaning. STEEVENS. 

* Of miking. ] Should it not be read, Or nothing? Whep. 
the courtiers remark, that Hamlet has coa'emptuoully called the 
king a t 1 .':?:-, Hamlet defends himlelf by obferving, that the kin^ 
murt be a tlnmg, or nothing. Jo HNS ox. 

The text is right. So, in the Spanifh tragedy : 

** In troth, my lord, it is a thing of nothing? 

And, in one of Harvey's letters, " a lilly bug-beare, a fbrry pu& 
of winde, a thing of nothing^ FARMER. 


* Hide fix, ] There is a play among children called, HiJg 
fc.\) anil all after. H A N M 2 r. . 

The iamefpcrt is alluded to in Decker's atiroaujftui: *' ojf 
unhandfome-tnced poet does play at bo-peep with your grace, ar,^ 
r:e? All hid, as tys do? 

This paflage is not in the quarto. STEEVENS. 



Anotlitr room* 
Ente^ King. 

King. I have fent to feeJ?)him, and to find the body. 
How dangerous is it, thaythis man goes loofe ? 
Yet muft not we put the ftrong law on him : 
He's lov'd of the diffracted multitude, 
Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes; 
And, where 'tis fo, the offender's fcourge is weigh 'd, 
But never the offence. To bear all fmooth and even, 
This fudden fending him away muft feem 
Deliberate paufe : Diieafes, defperate grown, 
By defperate appliance are reliev'd, 
Or not at all. How now ? what hath befallen ? 

Enter Rofencrantz. 

Rof. Where the dead body is beftow'd, my lord, 
We cannot get from him. 
King. But where is he ? 
Rof. Without, my lord ; guarded, to know your 


King. Bring him before us. 
Rcf. Ho, Guildenftern ! bring in my lordi 

So, in Decker's Hatch me in Lo*dm, 163 r : 

** At what doit thou laugh ? 

" At a thing ofxotbixg, at thee." 
Again, in Look ofar/jmr, 1600 : 

** And believe a Uttk thing would pleafe her, 

" A very little thing, a tbag efxolbiKg? 
Again, in the Interlude or Jacob axd E-fa&t 1 568 : 

'* B > a uraw, and a thing efxavgbt* 

Again, in Ben Jonfon's Magtctlc Laefy : 

** A toy, a tbiag afrethixg? 

in Chapman's tnmilarion of the gth Book of the OJyflcy : 

" When no^-j a weakling came, a dwarfy thing, 

' A thing cf nothing? STEL 

VOL. X. Z Ent;r 

338 H A M L E T, 

Enter Hamlet, and Guildenflern. 

King. Now, Hamlet, where's Polonius ? 
Ham. At fupper. 
King. At tapper ? Where ? 

Ham. Not where he eats, but where he is eaten : 
a certain convocation of politick worms are e'en at 
him. Your worm is your only emperor for diet : we 
fat all creatures elfe, to fat us ; and we fat ourfelves 
for maggots : Your fat king, and your lean beggar, 
is but variable fervice j two dilhes, but to one table; 
that's toe end. 

King\ Alas, alas ? ! 

Ham. A man may fifti with the worm that hath 
eat of a king , and eat of the filh that hath fed of 
that worm. 

King. What doft thou mean by this ? 
Ham. Nothing, but to mew you how a king may 
go a progrefs through the guts of a beggar. 
King. Where is Polonius ? 

Ham. In heaven; fend thither to fee: if your 
mefienger find him not there, feek him i' the other 
pbce yourfelf. But, indeed, if you find him not 
within this month, you mail nofe him as you go up 
the Hairs into the lobby. 
King. Go feek him there. 
Ham. He will ftay 'till you come. 

[Exeunt Attendants. 

K:::. Hamlet, this deed, for thine efpecial fafecy, 
Which we do tender, as we dearly grieve 
] ; or that which thou haft done, mult lend thec hence 
\Vith-fiery quicknefs4: Therefore, prepare thylelf ; 
The bark is ready, and 5 the wind at help, 

3 Aias. ahs !~\ This fpeech, and the following, are omitted in 
the ro'io. STEEVENS. 

4 r/ith fiery quickxefis] Thefe words are not in the quartos. 


* tJic vi'nj. at help,"] I fuppofe it fh( uM be read,, 
The bark is rca<fy, and the ^\:i;.d at lit Ira. JOHN L ON. 



The affociates tend, and every thing is bent 
For England. 

Ham. For England ? 

King. Ay, Hamlet. 

Ham. Good. 

King. So is it, if thou knew'ft our purpofes. 

Ham. I fee a cherub, that fees them. But, come 5 
for England ! Fare we! , dear mother. 

King. Thy loving father, Hamlet. 

Ham. My mother: Father and mother is man and 
wife ; man and wife is one flelh ; and, fo, my mother. 
Come, for England. [Exit. 

King. Follow him at foot ; tempt him with Ipeed 

aboard ; 

Delay it not, I'll have him hence to-night : 
Away ; for every thing is feal'd and done 
That elfe leans on the affair : Pray you, make hafte. 

[Exewtt Rof. andGmL 

And, England ! if my love thou hold'ft at aught, 
(As my great power thereof may give thee fenfe; 
Since yet thy cicatrice locks raw and red 
After the Danifli fword, and thy free awe 
Pays homage to us) thou may'ft not coldly 6 fet 
Our fovereiga procefs ; which imports at full, 
' By letters conjuring to that effect, 
The prelent death of Hamlet. Do it, England ; 
For like the hectic in my blood he rages, 
And thou mult cure me : 'Till I know 'tis done, 

O*r jarfrrig* frccrfs,] So Hanmer. The others have 
only Jet. JOHNSON. 

Oacrfovcragm pracefs, ] I adhere to the reading of the 
<juarto and folio. T Jet 9 is an exprcfioa taken ihxn the gaming- 
ubie. STEEVEXS. 

* By litters conjuring ] Thus the folio. The quarto reads, 
** By letters aegndxg? STEZVEXS. 

'L 2 Howe'er 

34 o HAMLET, 

7 Howe'er my haps, my joys were ne'er begun. [Exit. 


The frontiers of Denmark. 
Enter Fortinbras, with an army. 

For. Go, captain, from me greet the Danilh king; 
Tell him, that, by his licence, Fortinbras 
Craves 8 the conveyance of a promis'd march 
Over his kingdom. You know the rendezvous. 
If that his majefty would aught with us, 
We fhall exprefs our duty in his eye, 
And let him know fo. 

Capt. I will do't, my lord. 

For. Go foftly on. [Exit Fortinbras, &c. 

Enter Hamlet, Rofencrantz, Guildenftern, &c. 

Ham. Good fir ?, whofe powers are thefe ? 

apt. They are of Norway, fir. 

Ham. How purpos'd, fir, I pray you ? 

Capt. Again ft fome part of Poland. 

Ham. Who commands them, fir ? 

Capt. The nephew of old Norway, Fortinbras. 

Ham. Goes it againlt the main of Poland, fir, 

7 Howler my haps, my jys |v/// ne'er begin."] This being the 
termination of a fcene, fhould, according to our author's cultom, 
be rhymed. Perhaps he wrote, 

Htwter my hopes, my joys are not begun. 

If haps be retained, the meaning will be, 'till I kno^v 'tis done, 1 
Jhall et miferable, whatever befall me. JOHNSON. 

The folio reads, in confirmation of Dr. Johnfon's remark, 

Howe'er my haps, my joys were ne'er begun. STEEVENS. 

8 Craves] Thus the quartos. The folio claims STEEVENS. 

9 Good fir, c.] The remaining part of this fcene is omitted in 
the folios. STKEVENS* 



Or for fome frostier ? 

Cspt. Truly to fpeak, and with no addition, 
We go to gain a little patch of ground, 
That bach m k no profit but the name. 
To pay five ducats, five, I would not farm ft 5 
Nor will k yield to Norway, or the Pole, 
A ranker rate, flrauld it be fold in fee. 

Ham. Why, then the Polack never will defend iu 

Copt. Ys, tis already garrifon'd. 

Ham. Two thouland 'fouls, and twenty thoufand 


Will not debate the queftion of this firaw : 
This is the impofthume of much wealth and peace; 
That inward breaks, and lbes no caufe without 
Why the man dies. I humbly thank you, fir. 

Copt. God be wi'ye, fir. [Exit Captain. 

Rof. Wffl't pfcafe you go, my lord ? 

Ham. I will be with you ftraight. Go a little before. 
[Exnmt Rtf. aid the rrfi. 
How all occafions do inform againft me, . 
And fpur my dull revenge ! What is a man, 
If his l chief good, and market of his time, 
Be but to fleep, and feed ? a bead, no more. 
Sure, he, that made us with fuch ' large difcourir, 
Looking before, and after, gave us not 
That capability and god-like reafon 
To fuft in us unus'd. Now, whether it be 
Beftial oblivion, or fome craven fcruple 
Of thinking too precilely on the event, 
A thought, which, quarter^ hath butone part 

And, ever, three parts coward, I do not know 

cbfgaoJavlmiria} If hii I^ghcft good, and tbctfir 
be Jeto bis tar, be to fleep and feed Jogxsox. 
* lory jimrfc\ Sadl fadnxJe of ccespreheafion, faA 
power of renewing the joft, and aokipzciag tBc taqflL 
^ JoHsrsox. 

Z 3 Why 

34* HAMLET, 

Why yet I live to fay, 'This things to do ; 

Sith I have caufe, and will, and ftrength, and means 

To do'r. Examples, grofs as earth, exhort me : 

Witnefs, this army, of fuch mafs, and charge, 

Led by a delicate and tender prince ; 

Whofe fpirir, with divine ambition puft, 

Makes mouths at the invifible event ; 

Expofing what is mortal, and unfure, 

To all that fortune, death, and danger, dare, 

Even for an egg-mell. 3 Rightly, to be great 

Is not to ftir without great argument; 

But greatly to find quarrel in a ftraw, 

When honour's at the flake. How ftand I then, 

That have a father kili'd, a mother ftain'd, 

4 Excitements of my reafon, and my blood, 

And let all deep ? while, to my Ihame, I fee 

The imminent death of twenty thoufand men, 

That, for a fantafy, and trick of fame, 

Qo to their graves like beds ; fight for a plot, 

Whereon the numbers cannot try the cauie, 

Which is not tomb enough, and continent 5, 

J Rightly to be great, 

Is not toftir without, &c.] This pafTage I have printed ac- 
cording to the copy. Mr. Theobald had regulated it thus : 

*Tis not to be grsat, 
Never tojllr without great argument ; 
But greatly, &c. 
The fentimtat of Shakefpeare is partly juft, and partly romantic, 

Right ly to be great, 

Is n?' to Jiir r J3ttbout great argument', 
is exactly philofophical. 

Bitl greatly to foul quarrel in ajlraiv, 
Wh;n honour is atjlake* 

is the idea of a modern he-o. But then, fays he, honour is an argu- 
ment, or Jubjeft of delate, Jltfficienfly great, "and when honour is at 
ftake, we : u ft fiml cauj'e of quarrel in aj!r a ~v. JOHNSON. 

4 2-. >, .w/z/j of my reafnn and my blood,'] Provocations which 
excite both myrwfon and mv paffions to vengeance. JOHNSON. 

5 <' ntlnent~\ Continent, in our author, means that which com. 
pieheudi or enclofes. So, in Ki-;g Lear: 

" Rive your concealing continents" STEEVENS. 


P R I N C E o F D E X M A R K. 343 

To hide the (lain ? O, from this time forth, 

My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth ! [Er7. 


Elfmour. A room in the palace. 

Enter Queen, and Horatio. 

Queen. - 1 will not fpeak with her. 

Hor. She is importunate : indeed, dlftrac"l ; 
Her mood will needs be pity'd. 

Queen, What would (he have? 

HOT. She fpeaks much of Jier father-, fays, me 

There's tricks i' the world ; and hems, and beats her 


6 Spurns envioufly at draws ; fpeaks things in doubt, 
That carry but half fenfe : her fpeech Is noihing, 
Yet the unfhaped ufe of it doth move 
The hearers to collection 7; they aim at it 8 , 

* Spurns envioufly at /nrrw;] EiKy is much oftener put by 
our poet (and thole of his time) tor (fired averjun, than fur 
malgiilty coacel'oed at the fgbt of Mathers exceJence or bappmei'^ 
So in Henry VIII. Ad i : 

" - No black e*y . 
** Shall make my grave." - 
Again, Act 3 : 

** You turn the good we ofier into toy" 
Again, in Herod and Antipafer t 1622 : 

" although his words 
" Accus'd my Mariam, it is his fin, 
** Not perfon, that I awjjr/* 

Again, in GaSs Reyasgt agoing MirJrr, 1621, Jfjt. VI. 
<* She lores the memory of Sypontus, add emits and deicih 
that of her two huibands." STEEVEXS. 

7 to colle&ion ;] i. e. to deduce conferences from fuch 
preniifea. So, in CysaZeSx?, Scene the lair : 
- whofe containing 
Js fo from fenle to hardnels, that 1 can 
Make no coUt&lon of it. 
See the note on this pafiage. STEEVN$. 
* tbty aim at it,} The quartos reau theyjv*nw at it. 
To <ust is to guefs. STEEVEXS. 

Z 4 And 

344 HAMLET, 

And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts 5 

Which, as her winks, and nods, and geftures yield 

Indeed would make one think, there might be 

9 Though nothing fure, yet much unhappily. 

Queen. l 'Twere good, me were fpoken with ; for 

me may ftrew 

Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds : 
Let her come in. [Exit Horatio. 

To my fick foul, as fin's true nature is, 
Each toy feems prologue to fome great amifs * ; 
So full of artlefs jealoufy is guilt, 
It fpills itfelf, in tearing to be fpilt. 

Re-enter Horatio* with Ophelia. 

Opb. Where is the beauteous majefty of Denmark ? 
Queen. How now, Ophelia ? 

9 Though nothing fure, yet much unhappily.] i. e. though her 
meaning cannot be certainly collected, yet there is enough to put 
a mifchievous interpretation to it. WARBURTON. 

That unhappy once fignified m/c6uvem t may be known from 
P. Holland's translation of Pliny 3 Nat. Hift. b. 19. ch. 7. " the 
fiirewd and unhappif foules which lie upon the lands, and eat up 
the feed new fovvne." We itill uie unlucky in the fame fenfe. 


1 "Iwerf goodjhe ivere fpoken ivith; ] Thefe lines are given 
to the Queen in the folio, and to Horatio in the quarto. 


* to fome great ami's :] Shakefpeare is not fingular in his 
ufe of this word as a fubftantive. So, in the Arraignment of 
Paris, 1584: 

" Gracious forbearers of this world's amifs. 1 ' 
Again, in Lylly's Woman in the Moon, 1597 : 

" Pale be my looks to witnefs my amifs" 

Again, in Greene's D imputation between a He Coneycatcbcr, fer. 
i 592 : " revive in them the memory of my great amifs" 



Oph. 3 H0f*UI}Mrtn 

*By biscocileb*, 

Alas, fweet lack, what imports this ibog? 
Ob. Say you? nay, pray you, mark. 

He is 
At bis bead * grift-great txtf, 

Jt bis beds * ft**. 
O, ho! 

$***. Nay, but Ophelia, - 
Opb. Pray you, mark. 

White Us /mad ms the 


Alas, look here, my lord. 

jmr trm &er, &r.] These is no pit of dfn 
, in ns icprefcatanoo on die iage, is mote psrhctic iboa thb 
wkkfa llofpofe popg^db fnm&e vocrnteibffity *r kas 

AgtcatfeflE^ > oraopeataB,feemstonBaJbcBifci fpai rjifl 
In die brter die audience ibppiy wha fee wants, and widt die 
ioraer they fcmuahire. Sir j. RETXOLDS. 

- ; .:.-,.-; :-.-, . .- 

^^*r teja&J*.*.] Ths is die ddbiptko of a pi- 
Wkik this load of deration was in favour, tore-intrigue* 
tnat maft. Hence the oid haibds and 
dc futjccii of tbcir pu5. TheoxUe- 
cflcmiii badges o: liiii rocsaioa : nr (he 
chkx pbces of icTodoa being h^d fea, of on die cnaib, die 

pilgrims was accnfcamed to pest rmHr iilii upoo their hats, to 

lw> '.I^.H^L. ^ r^ . , r _^_; 

OK uKmian or penomumce ot twir aewotaon. 

a FUgiim bddbibed: 
" A hat of inw like to a Ma, 
" ShdKr for the fim and lain, 
* Widt a/rf^/tg beJore, &c. 


346 HAMLET, 

Oph. 5 Larded all with fwset flowers ; 
Which bewept to the grave did go 6 , 

With true-love Jbowers. 
King. How do you, pretty lady ? 
Oph. Well, God 'ield you ! They fay, 7 the owl 
was a baker's daughter. Lord, we know what we 
are, but know not what we may be. God Be at 
your table! 

King. Conceit upon her father. 
* Opb. Pray, let us have no words of this; but 
when they alk you, what it means, fay you this : 
To-morrow is Saint Valentine's day 8 , 

All in the morning betime, 
And I a maid at your window ', 

To be your Valentine : 
Then up he rofe, and dotfd 9 bis doaths, 

1 And dupt the chamber door ; 
"Let in tbs maid, that out a maid 
Never departed more. 


5 LarJed all with fiveet Jiowers :] The expreffion is taken from 
cookery. JOHNSOV. 

* did go,~\ The old editions read, did not go, STEEVENS. 

7 the o'Ml'Mas a baker's daughter.] This was a metamorphofis 
of the common people, arifing from the mealy appearance of the 
owl's feathers, and her guarding the bread from .mice. 


To guard the bread from mice, is rather the office of a cat than an 
fl-.i-l. In barns and granaries, indeed, the fervices ot the owl 
are (till acknowledged. This was, however, no mttamorpbojli of 
:;~n pwple, but a legendary ftoty, which both Dr. Johnfon 
ur.j my/elf have read, yet in what book at lead I cannot recolleft. 
Our Saviour being refilled bread by the daughter of a laker, is 
Jeicribed as punilhing her by turning her into an owl. 


8 To-morrow is, c.] Without doubt, 

" Good worro-'v, 'tis Saint F~alcnt'nic^3 day. RA.RMER. 

9 don'd his deaths. To don t is to do on, to put on, as dojf\s to 
do off, put off. STEEVENS. 

x Jxw/dtipt the chamber -door ;] To dvp y is to do up; to lift the 
latch. It were eafy to write, 

And op'd JOHNSON. 


King. Pretty Ophelia ! 

Opb. Indeed, without an oath, I'll make an end 

* By G/J, and by Sain! Charity* 

Alack, and fie for Jbame / 
Tcung men will do't, if they fame /sV ; 
By cock ?, tby are to blame. 

To Jxpi was a common contraction of to <& up. So, in Damem. 
a=J Pp&as, 1382: " the porters are drunk, will they not <ty 
the gate to-day r" 

Lord Sum-, in his tranflatkm of the fecond jEneid. render* 
Portdioitifrport^ &c. ** The gates caft up, we ifiued out to play." 
The phraie feem* to have been adopted either from <Li*g up the 
Lttch y or drawing up the pertcttih. Again, in the Cooit's Ploy, in 
tr.e Chefter c my it cries, 34f. HarL 1 013, p. 140: 

** Gpea ap hdl-gares anon." 

It cppears from Martin Mark- alTs jffatogrf tf tl* Bel- mom tf Ln- 
Jhr, 1610, that in the cant of gjpScs, Sec. Dtp tbes^'t fcgnifioi 
ta fpem th< daart. STEE v 

* "By Gis, J I rather imagine it feouki be read, 


That is, by Sr. Cecily. JOHNSOW* -r?C 

by Sautt Charity,] Sxint Charity is a known faint among 

the Roman Catholics. Spenfar raenrioos her, Eclog. s* 2 55 : 

' Ah dear lord, and Iweet Salmt Cbaritj!" 

I fir.d, by G.^??, fed as an sdjarstion, both by Gafcoigne in t;s 
Poem=, by Preftr.n in his CasAyje^ and in the comedy of See sr, 
axd See me net, 1618. 

* By Gift I fwear, were I fo feirly wed." &c. 
, in K. Eefajarel\. 1599 : 

* By Gis, fair lores, ere many daies be paft, &c." 
Again, in Heywrooci's 23d Epigram, Foarth Hundred : 

* Nay, by G/T, he lookeUi on you maifter, quoth he." 
Again, in The Dovafitll <f Rib. E. *f H**ii*gto*, 1601 : 
'' Therefore, fireet raafier, for Sou* Charity.* 


.- G.-r 

There is not the ka3 mention of any faint wbofe name cor- 
retporxls with this, either in the Remam Caltiular, the lervice / 
Uj'um &z-. --: Benedicbonary of Biftop AtfcehvokL I 

bdiere the word to be only a corrupted abbreviation or Jffia, the 
letters J. H. S. being anciently all that was fet down to denote 
that facreti name, on altars, the covers of books, &c. RIDLEY. 

3 By mri.j This is likewise a corruption of the facred name. 
Many inuances or it are given in a note^at the beginning of the 5th 
Act of the Secocd Pan of K. Heay IV. Sr EE VEKS. 

I Suctb 

348 H A M L E T, 

Quoth foe, before you tumbled me, 

Ton promised me to wed : He anfwers 4. 
So would I ha? done, by yonder fun, 

Jin thou hadft not come to my bed. 
King. How long hath flie been thus ? 
Oph. I hope, all will be well. We muft be pa- 
tient : but I cannot choofe but weep, to think, they 
Ihould lay him i' the cold ground : My brother fhall 
know of it, and fo I thank you for your good counfel. 
Come, my coach ! Good night, ladies , good night, 
fweet ladies : good night, good night. \_Exit. 

King. Follow her clofe ; give her good watch, I 
pray you. \_Exit Horatio. 

O ! this is the poifon of deep grief; it fprings 
All from her father's death : And now behold, O 

Gertrude, Gertrude, 

When forrows come, they come not fingle fpies, 
But in battalions ! Firft, her father flain ; 
Next, your fon gone ; and he moft violent author 
Of his own juft remove : The people muddy'd, 
Thick and unwholfomein their thoughts, andwhifpers, 
For good Polonius' death ; and we have done s but 

6 In hugger-mugger to inter him : Poor Ophelia 


4 He tinfivers.'] Thefe words I have added from the quartos. 


5 ; lut greenly,] But unjkilfully, with grcennefs ; that is 

without maturity oi: judgment, JOHNSOX. 

6 In hugger-mugger to inter him ; ] All the modern editions 
that I have confulted, give it, 

In private to inter him ; 

That the words now replaced are better, I do not undertake to 
prove ; it is fufficient that they are Shakefpeare's : if phrafeology 
is to be changed as words grow uncouth by difule, or grofs by 
vulgarity, the hiftory of every language will be loft ; we (hall no 
longer have the words of any author ; and, as thefe alterations 
will be often unfkilfully made, we fhali in time have very little of 
his meaning. JOHNSON. 

This expreffion is uied in The Revengers Tragedy, 1 609 : 



Divided fiom fcofci tod her fair judgments 
Without tbe which we arc pictures, or mac bafts. 
Laft, and as much cootahung as all thdc, 
Her brother is in tact come fiom France : 
r Feeds on his wonder, keeps himielf in clouds, 
And wants not buzzers to infect his ear 
With p'ftiVnr fpeecbes of bis father's death ; 
* Wherein neceffirr, of matter beggarM, 
Will nothing ffick our perfoo to arraign 
In ear and ear. O my dear Gertrude, this, 
Like to a murdering piece, in many places 
Gives me foperfluous death! \A mife tsirlne. 

pJ^'ifVr ^SSb-k tr-fcrio. of 

* .*; t<W Me ttafr-frMlii I r WMMT 

35 o H A M L E T, 

Queen. Alack! what noife is this * ? 

Enter a Gentleman. 

King. Attend. Where are my Switzcrs? Let 

them guard the door : 
What is the matter ? 

Gen. Save yourfelf, my lord ; 
* The ocean, over-peering of his lift, 
Eats not the flats with more impetuous hafte, 
Than young Laertes, in a riotous head, 
O'er-bears your officers ! The rabble call him, lord ; 
And, as the world were now but to begin, 
Antiquity forgot, cuftom not known, 
3 The ratifiers and props of every ward, 


Like a murdering piece, ] This explanation of Dr. Warbur- 
ton's is right ; and a paflage in 5 'be Double Marriage of Beaumont 
and Fletcher will juftify it : 

" And, like a murdering piece t aims not at one, 

" But all that ftand within the dangerous level." 
Again, in Air 3 loft by L///?, a tragedy, by Cyril Turner, 1633 : 

" If thou fail'ft too, the King comes with a murdering piece, 

" In the rear." 
Again, in A Fair Quarrel, by Middleton and Rowley, 1622 : 

" There is not fuch another murdering piece 

" In all the flock of calumny." STEEVEXS. 
1 Alack! &c.] This fpeech of the Queen is omitted in the 
quartos. STEEVEXS. 

* The ocean* over-peering cf bis lift,] The Jifts are the barriers 
which the fpe&ators of a tournament muft not pafs. JOHNSON. 

3 The ratijiers and pr0ps of every word ;] The whole tenor of 
the contest is fufficient to fhew, that this is a miltaken reading. 
What can antiquity and cuftom, being the props of words, have 
to do with the bulinefs in hand r Or what idea is conveyed by it? 
Certainly the poet wrote : 

Ike ratifiers and props of every ward. 

The metfenger is complaining that the riotous head had overborne 
the king's officers, -and then fubjoins, that antiquity and cuftom 
were forgot, which were the ratifiers and props of every IIYWV/, 
i. e. of every one of thofe fecurities that nature and law place 
about the pcrfun of a king. Ail this is rational and confe- 
nuential. WARBUK.TQH, 



They cry, Cboofe toe ; Laertes Jbatt be king I 

Caps, hands, and tongues, applaud it to the clouds, 

Laertes Jkall be king, Laertes Jang I 

Queen. How cheerfully on the faife trail they cry ! 
4 O. this is counter, you falfe Danilh dogs. 

King. The doors are broke. [Neifc witbix. 

Enter Laertes, vritb ethers. 

Laer. Where is this king ? Sirs, (land you all 


AIL No, let's come in. 
Laer. I pray you, give me leave. 

With this emendation, which was in Theobald's edition, Han- 
saer was not fatisfied. It is indeed harih. Hanmer tranfpoSs 
the lines, and reads, 

figr cr7, ** Chuie we Laertes for our ting;* 
The racjfiers and props of every word, 
Caps, bands, amd ttagxet, cffLxd it to the tint!;. 
I think the fault may be mended at lefs expence, by reading, 
Jmtiqmit, fait, cmfica mit Awctar, 
7bc rotifers amd preps rf any weal. 
That is, of every gvserxiant^ JCHVS ox. 

Tbe rotifers and praps ef every word.] By -own/ is here meant 
a dedaratin, or propcla! ; it is ceterminen to this fenie, by die 
inference it bath to what had jufi preceded, 

yZr robUe coll him krd, &c. 

This acclamation, which is the votrJ here fpoken of, was 
made without regard to antiquity, or received cufiom, whofc 
concurrecce, howerer, is neceUarilv require*! to confer ralidiiy 
and ftability in every propcd of this kind. REVISAL. 

Sir T. Hanmer would tranfpoie the two hft lives. Dr. War- 
bunon propn'es to read, wrj; and Dr. Jobnfijn, n-eoi, iciic^d 
of --srJ. I thould be rather ior reading, -awl. TTKWHITT. 

7tx rotifim o*J preps of every word ] In the 6rit iclio there 
is only a comma at the cod of the above line ; an i wil! coc the 
paila^e bear this conitruction .' The rabbfe mi* rim lord, and 
as if the world were now but to be^n, and ss if the ancient 
cuftum of hereditary fucceibcn were unknown, they, ihe jatrSers 
and props of t*xrj *utre! be mttcrs, cry, Let us tEoke choice, lhat 
crits i^ll be king. TOLLET. 

* O. rlrii is ce*mcr y jm falje Dnijb dtgs.} Hr.usda ran caxxicr 
they trace the aall -backward;. Jo.-:;. SON. 


352 H A M L E T, 

All. We will, we will. [Exeunt. 

Laer. I thank you : Keep the door. O thou vile 

Give me my father. 

<j>)ueen. Calmly, good Laertes. 

Laer. That drop of blood, that's calm, proclaims 

me baftard ; 

Cries, cuckold, to my father ; brands the harlot 
Even here, between the chafte s unfmirched brow 
Of my true mother. 

King. What is the caufe, Laertes, 
That thy rebellion looks fo .giant-like ? 
Let him go, Gertrude ; do not fear our perfon ; 
There's fuch divinity doth hedge a king, 
That treafon can but peep to what it would, 

Acts little of his will Tell me, Laertes, 

Why thou art thus incens'd ; Let him go, Ger- 
trude 5 
Speak, man. 

Laer. Where is my father ? 

King. Dead; 

Queen. But not by him. 

King. Let him demand his fill. 

Laer. How came he dead ? I'll not be juggled 

with : 

To hell, allegiance ! vows, to the blackeft devil ! 
Confcience, and grace, to the profoundeft pit ! 
I dare damnation : To this point I Hand, 
That both the worlds I give to negligence, 
Let come what comes ; only I'll be reveng'd 
Moil throughly for my father. 

King. Who frail ftay you ? 

5 nnfm<rcled bro~vC\ i.e. clean, not -defiled. -To lefmircbi 
our author uies Aft i. Sc. 5. 

This feems to be an alluiion to a proverb often introduced in 
the old comedies. Thus, in the London Prodigal, 1605: " as 
true as the Ikin between any man's brtrxi" STEEVENS. 



Laer. My will, not 2'! the world's: 
And, for my means, I'll hufband them fo well, 
They (hall go far with little. 

King* Good Laertes^ 
If you define to know the certainty , 
Of your dear father's death, is't writ in your revenge, 
That, fweep (lake, you will draw both friend and foe> 
Winner and lofer ? 

Laer. None but his enemies. 

King. Will you know them then ? 

Laer. To his good friends thus wide I'll ope my 


And, like the kind life-rend'ring pelican ', 
Repaft them with my blood. 

King. Why, now you fpeak 
Like a good child, and a true gentleman. 
That I am guiltlefs of your father's deatbj 
And am moil fenfible in grief for it, 
It mail as level " to your judgment ' 
As day does to your eye. 

Crowd within. Let her come in. 
Laer. How now ! what noife is that ? 

ty-renfriiig pelican,] So, in the ancient Interlude if Nd- 
tvre, bl. k no date : 

" Who taught thecok hys watche-howres to obferve, 
* And fyng of corage wyth fhryll throte on bye ? 
* Who taught tbejxllycax her tender hart to carre ? 
* For Die nolde fuffer her bvrdys to dye r" 

It is almoft neediefs to add that this account of the bird Js entirety 
fabulous. STEEVENS. 

> to ymar jmdgment 'pear,] So the quarto ; the folioj and aU 
the later editions* read : 

toynrr jmJgmeai pierce; 

fcfs intelligibly. JOHXSOK. 

This eiilron of the verb to appear, is common to Beaumont and 
Fletcher. So, in 73* Maid in the MSI : " They >ar fo hahd- 
forneiy, I will go forward." 

" And where they 'par fo excellent tn little, 
" They will but flame in great," STEEVEXS. 

VOL. X. A a Enter 



Enter Ophelia, fantajlically drefs'd witl Jtraws and 

O heat, dry up my brains ! tears, &ven times fait, 

Burn out the fenfe and virtue of mine eye ! 

By heaven, thy madnefs Ihall be pay'd with weight^ 

'Till our fcale turn the beam. O rofe of May ! 

Dear maid, kind fitter, fweet Ophelia! 

O heavens ! is't pofTible, a young maid's wits 

Should be as mortal as an old man's life ? 

* Nature is fine in love : and, where 'tis fine, 

It fends fome precious inftance of itfelf 

After the thing it loves. 

Oph. They bore him bare-fac'd on the bier * ; 
Hey no nonny , nonny hey nonny : 
And on his grave raitfd many a tear ; 
Fare you well, my dove ! 

Laer. Hadft thou thy wits, and didft perfuade re- 

It could not move thus. 

8 Nature is fine in. love: and, 

It finds fame precious inftance of itfelf 

After the thing it loves. ] Thefe lines are not in the quarto-, 
and might have been omitted In the folio without great lofs, for 
they are obfcure and affected j but, I think, they require no emen- 
dation. Love (fays Laertes) is the paffion by which nature is moft 
exalted and refined '; and as fubftances, refined and fubtilifed, eafily 
obey any impulfe, or follow any attra&ion, fome part of nature,. 
fo purified and refined^ flies off after the attracting objeft, after the 
thing it loves. 

As into air the purer fpirUs flow, 
And (eparate from their kindred dregs below t 
So flew her foul. - JOHNSON. 

The meaning of the paflage may be that her wits, like the 
fpirit of fine eflences, flew oft" or evaporated. STEEVENS. 

9 They lore him lare-fadd on the bier, &c.] So, in Chaucer's 
Knigbtis Tale, late edit. ver. 2879 : 

" He laid him bare the vifage on the bere, 

*' Therwith he wept that pitee was to here." STEEVENS. 



Oph. You muft ling, D&xn a-dow* ', anycu call him 

" Q, how the wheel becomes it ! It is the fa'.fe Reward, 
that ftole his mailer's daughter. 

Latr. This nothing's more than matter. 

Opb. *> There's roiemary, that's for 
pray you, love, remember : and there is panfics, that's 
for thoughts. 


Perhaps Sbfrefpeareafludes to PlutSi 
by Tho. Lodge, which the reader may End in 
Htticen, 1614: 

PhHfis fung. 

By rancy once difrrefled : fee. 
And fo fing t I, with fcsxe a-drzxr, &rc. 
a-d*xn is ii*.ea'ife the burthen of a {bog in the TTrsr Laft 

1 584, and perhaps common to many other?. STL . 
O fc-v the wheel hornet iff] We ihould read arf. Sbe is 
now rambling on the ballad of the fteward and his kntf? daugh:er. 
And in thefe words fpeaks of the flaw he afluHM^. WAXBUKTOX. 
I do not ice why luea/ is better than toted. The fioiy alluded 
to I do not know ; but perhaps die lady flolen by the iteward was 
reduced to j^f'n. JOHXSOX. 

" O how the =arfM* becomes it!"] The ro?ae7 may mean 
no more than the hrtfx* tftlxjng y which (he had juft repeated, 
and as fuch was tbrmeiiy ded. I met with the fattening ob- 
fervation in an oki quarto bhct letter boot, publiihed berbre the 
time of Shakespeare. 

" The fong wa? accounted a good one, thogh it was not moche 
u graced by the -wAcfi-, which in no wife accorded with the fobjed 
' matter thereof." 

I quote this from memory, and from a book, of which I 
cannot recollect the exaft tide or date; but the 

in a preface to ibme fongs or fcnnets. I well remember to 
have met with the word in the ume fenfe in other old books. 

The balbd, alluded to by Ophelia, is perhaps entered on die 
books of the Stationers' Company. ** October 1580. Four balbdes 
of the Lord of Lorn and the F* Steso&d, ficc." STEEVEXS. 

3 TlerSs rtemo, thott r nmnAiWKt: ami 

rtjemoy, thott far nmnAiWKt: ami tixrfi 
tbaf> far thoughts.} There is probably feme mythology in the 
choice of thefe herbs, but I cannot explain k. Panics is for 
becauic of its name, Pafe$\ but why nftm**y indicates 
A 2 

356 H A M L E T, 

Laer. A document in madnefs ; thoughts and re- 
membrance fitted. 

Oph. There's fennel for you, and columbines 4 : 
s There's rue for you -, and here's fome for me : 


remembrance, except that it is an ever-green, and carried at funerals, 
I have not discovered. JOHNSON. 

So, in All Fools, a comedy, by Chapman, 1605: 
" What flowers are thele? 
" The Panjie this. 
" O, that's for lovers' thoughts /" 

Rofemary was anciently fuppofed to ilrengthen the memory, and 
was nut only carried at funerals, but worn at weddings, as appearsfrom 
a paflage in Beaumont and Fletcher's Elder Brother, Aft 3. Sc. 3. 
And from another in Ram- Alliy p , or Merry Tricks, 161 1 : 

" will I be toed this morning, 
" Thou (halt not be there, nor once be graced 
" With a piece of rofcmary" 

Again, in the Noble Spamfo Soldier, 1634 : " I meet few but arc 
ftuck with roj'emary : every one alked me who was to be married" 
Again, in Greene's Never too late, 1616: " (he hath given 
thee a nofegay of flowers, wherein, as a top-gallant for all the 
reft, is fet in roj'emary for remembrance? STEEVENS. 

4 There's tennelforyou, and columbines :] Greene, in his *uip 
for an Upflart Courtier, 1620, calls fennel, women's weeds : " fit ge- 
nerally for that fex, fith while they are maidens, they wifh wan- 

I know not of what columbines were fuppofed to be emble- 
matical. They are again mentioned in All Fooky by Chapman, 
1605 : 

" What's that ? a columlnne ? 

" No : that thanklefs flower grows not in my garden." 
Gerard, however, and other herbalitb, impute few, it any, vir- 
tues to them ; and they may therefore be ililed tbanklej}, becaufc 
they appear to make no grateful return for their creation. 
Again, in the I ^th Song of Drayton's Poholbion: 

" The columbine amongft, they fparingly do fet." 
From the Call ha Poetanim, 1 599, it ihould feem as if this flower 
was the emblem of cuckoldom : 

" the blew cornutetl columbine, 

" Like to the crooked horns of Acheloy." STEEVENS. 
5 There's rur fnr you; and here's fame forme: f i^e may call it 
Kerb of grace o' Sundays :] Herb of grace is the name the country 
people give to rue. And the reafon is, becaufe that herb was a 
principal ingredient in the potion which the Romifh prick's ufed to 
ibrce the pui.efled' to (wallow down when they exortifed them. 


we miy call it, herb of grace o' fundays : 6 you 
may wear your rue with a difference. There's a 
daify : I would give you fome violets j but they 
withered all, when my father died : They fay, he 
made a good end, 

" For bonny fattt Robin is all my joy, - 
Laer. Thought, and affliction, paffion, hell itfelf, 
She turns to favour, and to prettinefs. 


Now thefe otorcifms being performed generally on a Sunday, in 
the church before the whole congregation, is the reafcn why (he 
fays, we may call it btrb of 'grace o* &*%/. Sandys tells us, that at 
Grand Cairo there is a fpccies of rue much in requeir, with which 
the inhabitants perfume tbemfelves, not only as a prefervative 
againft infection, but as Tery powerful againft evil fpirirs. And 
the cabaliitic Gafiarel pretends to hare discovered the reaion of 
its virtue, La jememct tie rut eft faille 'mane via croix, et ctjt para- 
ventwre la aaftqitetie a taut de vertu c*tre lespoJfiJtz, .et qat PE S BJe 
fexjert em les exarcifut. It was on the fame principle that the 
Greeks called yi6r, SMO, became of its uie ia their" fuperfHtious 
purgations by fire. Which too the Romilh priefts employ to 
fumigate in their esorcifins ; and on that account hallow or con- 
fecrate it. WARBCRTON. 

Tbert 's rta far jrr; and tare's fame frr me, &c.] I believe 
there is a quibble meant ia this paflage ; rue ancienily fignifying 
the fame as Ruth, i. e. forrow. Ophelia gives the q'aeen ibme, 
and keeps a proportion or it tor berfelf. There is the lame kind 
of play with the fame word in King Richard tbe Second. 

Hfrb of graa is one of the titles which Tncca gives to William 
Rmfus, in Decker's Satirmiajlix. I fuppofe the firrt fyllable of the 
furname ^arus introduced the quibble. StEEvi 

* You may wear your rue vatb a diffrrtxct.} This feems to 
refer to the rules of heraldry, wtere the youn er brothers of a 
family bear the fame arras v,tb a Jffimce, or mark of dirindion. 
So, in Holinihed's Rti^mrf King Richard II. 0,443: " becauie 
he was the youngeit of the Spenfers, he bare a border gules for a 

There may, however, be fomewhat more implied here, than is 
exprefled. /, maJam (lays Ophelia to the Qaeen), way call 
jnr ROE fy its Smm&y fame, HERB OF GRACE, and Jo <3xar it *oiib 
a difference to dijliaguijb it from mine, *ssbicb con. never It any thing 
htmereif RUE, i. e. forme. STEEVENJ. 

i Fur Imaiyfzxet Robin, is ail nr: ;ty, ] This is part of an 
old long, mentioned likewife by Beaumont and RctcLer. 7av 
lc Kinf***, Ad 4. Sc. I : 

Aa 3 -I 

3 5 3 HAMLET, 

Oph. And will he not come again? 
And ivill he not come again ? 
No, no, be is dead, 
Go to thy death-bed. 
He never will come again. 

8 His beard was as white as fnow, 
All faxsn was his foil: 
He is gone, he is gone, 
And we cajl away moan ; 
God a? mercy on his foul 9 / 

And of all chriftian fouls ! I pray God. God be 

\Exit Opb. 

Laer. Do you fee this, O God ? 
King. Laertes, I tnuft common with your grief, 
Or you deny me right. Go but apart, 
Make choice of whom your wifeft friends you will, 
And they mall hear and judge 'twixt you and me : 

" I can fing the broom, 

** And Bonty Robin? 

In the books of the Stationers' Company, 26 April, 1^94, Js 
entered " A ballad, intituled, A doleful adewe to the lall Erie of 
Darbie, to the tune of Bomy fvjcet Robin" STEEVENS. 

8 His leard Vi-as as white as f now, &c.] This, and feveral cir- 
cumftiiuces in the character of Ophelia, feem to have been ridi- 
culed in Eaftward Hoe, a comedy written by Ben Jonlon, Chap- 
man, and Marilon, printed 1605, Act 3 : 
" His head as white as milk, 
" All flaxen "Mas bis Lair ; 
*' But uoiu he's dead, 
" A/ul laid in bis led, 

*' And never will come again. 
" God be at your labour ! STEEVEI*S. 
* God af/atrcy on bis foul! . 

And of all Cbriftian fouls !] This is the common conclufion 
to many ot the ancient monumental infcripdons. See Weever's 
Funeral Monuments, p. 6^7, 658. Berthelette, the publisher of 
Govvcr's Confejjio Amantis, 1554, fpeaking iirft of the funeral of 
Chaucer, and then of Gower, fays, " he lieth buried in the 
monafterie of Seynt Peter's at Weftminfter, &c. On wbofe faiks 
and all cbrlfte*) Jefu bave mercie? ST E V N S , 

P R I X C E o F D E N M A R K. 359 

If by dired or by collateral hand 

They find us tooch'd, we will our kingdom give, 

Our crown, our fife, and all that we call ours, 

To you in latisfac~tion ; but, if not, 

Be you content to lend your patience to us, 

And we fhall jointly labour with your foul 

To give it due content. 

Laer. Let this be fo ; 

His means of death, his obfcure funeral, 
1 No trophy, fword, nor hatchment o'er his bones, 
No noble rite, nor formal oftentation, 
Cry to be heard, as 'twere from heaven to earth, 
That I muft calTt in queftion. 

King. So you fliaU j 

* And, where the ofience is, let the great axe falL 
I pray you, go wkh me. 


Enter Htratw, vntb a Servant. 

What are they, that would fpeak with me ? 
Serv. Sailors, fir ; 
They fay, they have letters for you. 

1 AV tnffy,rJ, tr battbmnl} It was the coflom, in the 
times of our author, to hang a fword over the grate of a knight. 


feft^^Tt/hw^airArtclMt ,>&;,] This pnuftw: 
wilformlv kept up to thi$ daj. Not only the feoid, bat the 
nehiKt, gaunda, $un, and tabard (i. e. a coat whereon the 
armorial enfigns woe anciently depiaed, from whence the term 
oat rf armor) are hung orcr die grave of every knight. 

Sir J. HAWKIK*. 

* AJ mho* At tfemce is, kt tic gntt acfaJL] We flwuld 

i. e. penalty, pumftment. WAEBIHITOK, 

/oJ CC.T'C :-': -c j ber-s: ro ssi . J o :-: .v JON. 

A a 4 

360 H A M L E T, 4 

Hor. Let them come in. 
I do not know from what part of the world 
I Ihould be greeted, if not from lord Hamlet. 

Enter Sailors. 

Sail. God blefs you, fir. . 

Her. Let him blefs thee too. 

Sail. He fhall, fir, ah't pleafe him. There's a 
letter for you, fir : it comes from the embafiador 
that was bound for England , if your name be Ho- 
ratio, as I am let to know it is. 

Horatio reads the letter. 

HORATIO, when thou /halt have overlooked this, 
|wj thefe fellows fome means to the king ; they have 
letters for him. Ere we were two -days old at fea, a 
pirate of very warlike appointment gave us chace : 
Finding curfelves too Jlow cf fail, we put on a com- 
pell'd valour-, and in the grapple I boarded them: on 
the inftatt, they got clear of our Jhip \ fo I alone be- 
came their prifoner. . 'They have dealt with me, like 
thieves of mercy \ but they knew what they did ; / am 
to do a good turn for them. Let the king have the 
letters I have fent ; and repair thou to me -with as 
muc hafie as thou vould'ft fly death. I have words 
tojpeak in thine ear, will make thee dumb ; yet are they 
tyucb too light 3 for the bore of the matter, tfhefe 
good fellows it-ill bring thee where I am. Rofencrantz 
and Gtiildenfttrn hold tbcir courfe for England: of 
them I have much to teliihce. Farewel. 

He that thou knoweft thine ^ Hamlet. 

3 fur the bore ofth matter.'] The lore is the caliber of a gim, 
or the capacity of the barrel, ffo matter (fays Hamlet) would cany 
heavier 'xortis., JOHNSON, ,, , 



Come, I will make you way for thefe your letters ; 
And do't the fpeedier, that you may dired me 
To him from whom you brought them. 


Awtber Room. 
Enter Ki*g y and Laertes. 

Kng. Now muft your confcience my acquittance 


And you rouft put me in your heart for friend ; 
Sith you have heard, and with a knowing ear, 
That he, which hath your noble father flain, 
Purfo'd my life. 

Laer. It weH appears: But tell me, 
Why you proceeded cot againft thefe feats, 
So crimeful and fo capital in nature, 
As by your fafety, greatnels, wifdom, all dungs clfe, 
You mainly were ftirr'd up ? 

King. Q, for two fpecial reafons 

Which may to you, perhaps, feem much unfinew*d, 
And yet to me they are ftrong. Tfte queen, his 


Lives almoft by his looks ; and for myfelf, 
(My virtue, or my plague, be it either which) 
She is ib conjun&ive to my life and foul, 
That, as the ftar moves not but in his fphere, 
I could not but by her. The other motive, 
Why to a publick count I might not go, 
Is, the great love 4 the general gender bear him : 
Who, dipping all his faults in their affedion, 
f Work, like the fpring that turneth wood to ftone, 

The . r of tbc people. 


' Woifc, Ek dejfa] This fimSe is neither very fcafoo- 
able in the deep imereft of this axrerfeson, nor TOT accanttif 
applied. If the #n^ had chafed bafe metals to gdd, the 
thought had been mere proper, JOHKSO.V. 
*- Jhe foiio, iaficadof -air*, inili nwuUL SXXETEKS. 


362 HAMLET, 

Convert his gyves to graces ; fo that my arrows, 
Too (lightly timber'd for fo loud a wind 6 , 
"Would have reverted to my bow again, 
And not where J had aim'd them. 

Laer. And fo have I a noble father loft ; 
A fitter driven into defperate terms ; 
Whofe worth, ? if praifes may go back again, 
Stood challenger on mount of all the age 
For her perfections : But my revenge will come. 

King. Break not your fleeps for that : you muft 

not think, 

That we are made of fluff fo flat and dull, 
That we can let our beard be fhook with danger 8 , 
And think it paftime. You fhortly mail hear more ; 
J lov'd your father, and we love ourfelf ; 
And that, I hope, will teach you to imagine,- 
How now ? whajt news 9 ? 

Enter a MeJJenger. 

Meff. Letters, my lord, from Hamlet r : 
This to your majefty ; this to the queen. 

King. From Hamlet ! Who brought them ? 

Mejf. Sailors, my lord, they fay : I faw them not \ 
They were given me by Claudio, he receiv'd them 

6 for fo loud a wind,} Thus the folio. One of the quartos 
reads for fo lo<ved t armd. If thefe words have any meaning, it 
Ihould feem to be The inflruments of offence I employ, would 
have proved too weak to injure one who is fo loved and armd by the 
affedion of the people. Their love, like armour , would revert the 
arrow to the bow. STEEVENS. 

7 iff.aifes may go back againj\ If I may praife what ha$ 
been, but is now to be found no more. JOHNSON. 

8 That <tue can let our beard be Jbook with danger, "\ It is wonder- 
ful that none of the advocates for the learning of Shakefpeave have 
told us that this line is imitated from Perfius, Sat. 2 : 

Idcirco Jiolidamprabet tibi vettere barbant 
Jupiter ? STEEVENS. 

9 How now? &c.] Omitted in the quartos. THEOBALD. 
1 Letters^ &c.] Omitted in the quartos. STEEVENS. 


Of him that brought them . 

King. Laertes you feall hear them : 
Leave us. 

war kingdom. Tomorrow Jb*U I beg tecve 

ford** thereunto, recent tbc eccsfo* fwtyfmddin 
morefraMge retmn. Hamlet. 

What fhould this mean ? Are all the reft come back? 
Or is it fome abufe, and no fach thing ? 

Laer. Know you the hand ? 

King. 'Tis Hamlet's charader. Naked, 
And, in a pofHcript here, he feys, dene : 
Can you advife me ? 

Lacr. I am loft in it, my lord. But let him come; 
tt warms the very ficknefc in my heart, 
That I (hall live and tell him to his teeth, 
<Tb*s &Me]t tbn. 

fag. If it be fo, Laenes,*- 
As how fhould it be fo ? how othenrife ? 
Win you be rul'd by me ? 

Laer. Ay, my lord ; 
So you will not o'er-rufe me to a peace. 

Kng. To thine own peace. If he be now re- 

5 As checking at his voyage, and that he means 

^*j&*.] I fare tdbccd dm brtdffich 

] ThefbGo, 

r't ti|i/ ^B. 

the befi 

Cfcrfij b, I think, the befi reafing. The phrafe k from fet- 

corny; and mar be jufified from the own ac n 

For wbo knows not, quodifte, that 
this hawk, which comes now fi> fair to the fifL may to-morrow 

at the lure.'" 
Again, in 6. Whetfione's 

Bat as the hawke, to gad which knowes te way, 


364 HAMLET, 

No more to undertake it, I will work him 
To an exploit, now ripe in my device, 
Under the which he mall not choofe but fall : 
And for his death no wind of blame mall breathe j 
But even his mother mail uncharge the praclice, 
And call it, accident. 

Laer. * My lord, I will be rul'd ; 
The rather, if you could devife it ib, 
That I might be the organ. 

King. It falls right. 

You have been talk'd of fince your travel much, 
And that in Hamlet's hearing, for a quality 
Wherein, they fay, you mine : your fum of parts 
Did not together pluck fuch envy from him, 
As did that one ; and that, in my regard, 
s Of the unworthieft fiege. 

Laer. What part is that, my lord? 

King. A very ribband in the cap of youth, 
Yet needful too ; for youth no lefs becomes 
The light and carelefs livery that it wears, 
Than fettled age his fables, and his weeds, 
6 Importing health, and gravenefs. Two months 


Here was a gentleman of Normandy, 
I have feen mylelf, and fcrv'd againit, the French, 

4 Laer.~\ The next fixieen lines are omitted in the folio. 


s Of the unwortblejl fiege.] Of the loweft rank. Siege, toi'Jeat t 
placr. JOHNSON. 

So, in Oi hello: " I fetch my birth 

'* horn men of r> yal jjsge " STEEVENS. 
6 Imforting heai h atul xravtneff. ] But a warm furr'd gown 
rather implies fickr.e's 'ban health, Shakeipeare wrote, 

Importing weal 1 h a nd grax'encfs. 
i. e. that the wearers are rich burghers and maglltrates. 


Importing here may be, not inferring by logical confecjuence, but 
producing by phyiical 'effect A young maa regards {how in h'u 
drefs, au old man, health. JOHNSON. 

2 And 


And they can well on horfcback : but this gallant 
Had witchcraft in't; he TOW unto his feat; 
And to fuch wondrous doing brought his horie, 
As he had been incorps'd and demy-naturM- 
With the brave beaft: fo far he topp'd my thought, 
That I, : in forgery of fhapes and tricks, 
Come fhort of what he did. 
Lacr. A Norman, was't? 
King. A Norman. 
Laer. Upon my life, Lamond. 
King. The very fame. 

Lzir. I know him well : he is the brooch, indeed, 
And gem of all the nation. 

King. He made confeffion of you ; 
And gave you fuch a aaalterly report, 
For art and exercife * in your defence, 
And for your rapier moft efpecial, 
That he cried out, T would be a fight indeed, 
If one could match you : 9 the fcricrcrs of their 


He fwore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, 
It YOU oppos'd them : Sir, this report of bis 
Did Hamlet fo envenom with his envy, 
That he could nothing do, but wifh and beg 
Tour Hidden coming o'er, to play with him. 
New out of this, -- 
Leer. What out of this, my lord ? 
King. Laertes, was your father dear to you ? 
Or are you like the painting of a forrow, 
A face without a heart ? 
Latr. Why afc you this? 

* ixfirgaytffiiepn atd trick^ I coobd not contrive fo 
many proofs ok dtxterity as he could patetm. JOH x so x 

imjnr ***,] Tbat is, in theyCxu 

ttt feraxn ] The IRwan. JOHXSON. 
is not in the teiio. 

5 66 HAMLET, 

King. Not that I think, you did not love yovlr 

father ; 

But that I know, ' love is begun by time ; 
And that I fee, a in paffages of proof, 
Time qualifies the fpark and fire of it. 
There lives 2 within the very flame of love 
A kind of wick, or fnuff, that will abate it 5 
And nothing is at a like goodnefs ftill ; 

4 For goodnefs, growing to a pleurify, 

Dies in his own too much : That we would do, 
We mould do when we would j for this 'would changes, 
And hath abatements and delays as many, 
As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents ; 

5 And then \ti\s Jhould is like a fpendthrift figh 
That hurts by eafmg. But, to the quick o' the ulcer: 


1 __ love is begun by time ;] This is obfcure. The meaning 
may be, love is not innate in us, and co-eflential to our nature, but 
begins at a certain time from fome external caufe, and being always 
fubjedt to the operations of time, fuffers change and diminution. 


* inpajjages of proof,] In tranfa&ions of daily experience. 


3 fbere lives &c.] The next ten lines are not in the folio. 


4 For goodnefs, growing to a pleurljy^ I would believe, for the 
honour of Shakefpeare, that he wrote pktbory. But I obferve the 
dramatic writers of that time frequently call a fulnefs ot blood a 
fleurijy, as if it came, not from wXiwpi, but horn plus, pluris. 


I think the word mould be {peltpluri/j. This paflage is fully 
explained by one in Mafcal's treatife on Cattle, 1662, p. 187. 
" Againft the blood, or phtrife of blood. The difeafe of blood is, 
fome young horfes will feed, and being fat will increaj'e blood, and 
fogrow to aplurifie, and die thereof if he have not loon help." 


And then this mould is like afpendtbrifi's figh 
TAat hurts by eafing.] This nonienfe Ihould be read thu? 
And then this, (hould is like a fpendthrift^ fign 
lhat hurts by eafing ; 

i. e. though a Ipendthritt's entering into bonds or mortgages gives 
him a preient relief from his ftraits, yet it ends in much greater 
ditirefles. The application is, If you neglecl a fair opportunity 



Hamkt comes back ; What would 700 Doderabc, 
To fhew yourielf your father's ton in deed 
Mote than in words ? 

Lair. To cue his throat i* the church, 

King. No place, indeed, fhouid murder fanciua- 


Revenge fhould have no bounds. Bat, good Laertes, 
Will you do this, keep clofc widib your chamber : 
Hamlet, return'd, (hall know you are come home : 
We'll put on thole mall praile your excellence, 
And fee a double vamUh on the fame 
The Frenchman gave you ; bring you, in fine, to- 


And wager o'er your heads : 6 be, being retnifs, 
Moft generous, and free from all contriving, 
Will not perufe the foils -, fo that, with eaic, 
Or with a little {burning, you may choofc 

\ rr .1 T. "-" - . rr c - . *. . , : . ~. ~ .. ~ '.". ~.~-'. i ~ ~ i :: ~ ~ ~ ~ '. . ..~. ~ -t 3 
yoa ciuft put your whokforarac into hazzni WAHSCXTOX. 

This cunjeftuic. is fo ingenious, dot It am hardly be cayofed^ 
but with the fame reluctance as the bow is drawn agnail a hero 
wfaofe Tinnes Ac archer hoUs ia wnrrarvMv. Here jpay be ap- 
what VokaiTC writes to 

Yet the 

is, not 


the facngdi, an 
Heace Shakdpeare, in . BayVL caDs them 


M Why iaye you not in tyme the fixmx of jour totcbmg Jj, 
th have afaeady*ayixri TOOT body of he whokfome homouRX, 
appoynced by native to gyre facke to d>e entxals aad inward ponds 
r joa r" MA tost. 
*' ^fc^ra^] He bong not ^i#aat or carious. 



3 68 HAMLET, 

7 A fword unbared, and, in 8 a pafs of praflice^ 
Requite him for your father. 

Laer. I will do't : 

And, for the purpofe, I'll anoint my fword* 
I bought an unftion of a mountebank, 
So mortal, that, but dip a knife in it, 
Where it draws blood, no cataplafm fo rare, 
Collefted from all fimples that have virtue 
Under the moon, can fave the thing from death*' 
That is but fcratch'd withal : I'll touch my point 
With this contagion ; that, if I gall him flightly* 
It may be death. 

King. Let's further think of this , 
Weigh, what convenience, both of time and means, 
y May fit us to our fhape : If this mould fail, 
And that our drift look through our bad per- 

'Twere better not affay'd ; therefore, this project 
Should have a back, or fecond, that might hold, 

1 A fiuord unbelted^ ] i. e y not blunted as foils are. Or^ a's 
One edition has it, enibaited or envenomed, POPE. 

There is no fuch reading as emlaited in any edition. In Sir 
Thomas North's Tranflation of Plutarch, it is faid of one of the 
MeteUi, that " he fliewed the people the cruel fight of fencers at 
unrelated fwords." STE EVENS. 

1 apa/i of prattice^\ Practice is often by Shakefpeare, and 
other writers, taken for an injidious Jlratagcm, or privy treafon, a 
fenfe not incongruous to this paflage, where yet I rather believe, 
that nothing more is meant than a tbruft for exercife. JOHXSON. 
So, in Look about you, 1 600 : 

" I pray God there be no practice in this change.*' 
Again, " the man is like to die : 

" Prafiice, by th' mafs, pratfife by the, &c. 
" Prattife by* the L6rd,/ro#r, I fee it clear." 
Again, more appomely in our amhor's Twelfth Night , Aft 5;- 
Sc. ult. 

This praftfi hath moft flirewdly/<7/?V upon thee. 


' May Jit us to our Jhape: ] May tnallc us to ajjume proper 
(baraflerij and to act our part. JOHNSON. 



I: :his fhculd bkft in proof. Soft ; kt me fee: 

Well make a folenm wager od your cunning 

I ha't : 

When in your motion you are hot and d 

(As make your bouts more violent to that end) 

And that he caUs for drink, * III have prepaid him 

A chaHce for the nonce ; whereon but lipping, 

If he by chance efcape your venom'd ftuck, 

Our purpofe may bold there. But ftay ^ what noife * t 

Enter QMK*. 

How now, fweet queen ? 

*%Meat. One woe doth tread upon another's heel *, 
So iaft they foJlo*v : Your Oder's drown'd, Laertes. 

L*tr. DixwA'd ! O, where ? 

ttffK. There is a willow grows afcaunt the brook 5, 
That ihews his hoar leaves in the glafiy fiream 5 
Therewith fantafiic garlands did (he make, 
Of crow-fiowc Sj dailies, 6 and long purple*, 


1 yS:i?frs*f.] This, I belicrr, is a irctaplicr taken from 
fc mine, which, ia the proof or esecarioa, fbrneumcs bceaks out 
trith an ioeftfiusl Xc/L JOH 

The worJ/rap^flrews the metaphor to be rslea firom ti : e - j 
or proving fire-ancs or c^nc-js, which ones ft^f or txrtl ia the 

/-."-: ;T_ 

* Ttt best prepaid Km\ Thas the fbSo. The quartos read, 

PC haye/r^r'^ hi n. ST =. E . 

3 B*t far, vs&at aa^P?] I bare recoreted this fesa the 
quartos. STEEVEKS. 

* Otr -TOOT A'6 treaJ xj*x ouf&rr'j &?/, ] A um'rlaj though: oc- 
curs in Peridet Prvta tf 7r^' t 1609 : 

** Oce forrow aeri cease*, but brin^ an ictf 
** That nsaj fuccced 2s his inherror." STEEVESS. 
Tbus the qear os. The rouo 
inierprsted in the Gid^ry to Coaucc: 

long purples,] By A^ /orjSi is irfa-t a p5act, the 
modern botansc^ came of which is ri~j *. v# *&ir, incsea ;/ 
t*ini*f asrisas. The ^ra^r MK by which it polT-s B fuf- 
hr known ia maay pjrts of Eoglaad, awl panicala-Iy in ti* 
Voi. X B b * 

370 HAMLET, 

That liberal fhepherds give a groffer name, 

But our cold maids do dead men's fingers call them J 

There on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds 

Clambering to hang, an envious fliver broke ; 

When down her weedy trophies, and herfelf, 

Fell in the weeping brook. Her cloaths fpread wide; 

And, mermaid-like, a while they bore her up : 

i Which time, (he chaunted {hatches of old tunes ; 

As one incapable of her own diftrefs, 

Or like a creature native and indu'd 

Unto that element : but long it could not be, 

'Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, 

Pull'd the poor wretch from her melodious lay 

To muddy death. 

Laer. Alas then, is me drown'd ? 

Queen. Drown'd, drown'd. 

Laer. Too much of water haft thou, poor Ophelia, 
And therefore I forbid my tears: But yet 
It is our trick , nature her cuftom holds, 
Let fhame fay what it will : when thefe are gone, 
The woman will be out. Adieu, my lord ! 
I have a fpeech of fire-, that fain would blaze, 
But that this folly drowns it. [Ex//. 

King. Let's follow, Gertrude : 
How much I had to do to calm his rage ! 
Now fear I, this will give it ftart again ; 
Therefore, let's follow. [Exeunt. 

county where Shafcefpeare lived. Thus far Mr. Warner. Mr. 
Collins acids, that in Sull'-x it is iVilI called dead men's hands \ and 
that in Lyte's Herbal, 1578, its various names, too grols for re- 
petition, are preferved. ^TEEVEN'S. 

* Which time,jbe cbauntcd fnatcbcz of old tunes ;] Fletcher, in 
his Scornful Laffy^ very invidioufly ridicules this incident : 
44 I will run inad firlr., ami it that get not pity, 
" I'll drown myie'if toa moft difmal ditiy." WARBURTOJ*. 
The quartos read " iaarches oi" old lauds" i. e. lymns. 





A Qmrtb-jariL 

E*ter two Cfanu, vxtb Jfa&s, &c. 

. i Cfazo. Is (he to be boiy'd in chriftiin burial, 
that wilfully fecks her own falvadon ? 

2 C/ror*. I tell thec, (he is 5 therefore, make her 
grave ftraight: the crowner hath iat on her, and 
finds it chrifhan boriaL 

1 Cfavm, How can that be, unlds (he drown 'd her- 
fctf in her own defence? 

2 Cl&rm. Why, 'tis found ib. 
iC&n^Itm^be^^*faB&; itcanhotbeelfe. 

For here lies the point : If 1 drown myfclf wittingly, 
it argues an ad : and an ad: hath three branches j it 

* mJf tar gnat flragttf:] Mate bcr grave from eifi to 
Wftinadbea fine panBd to Ae church; not from ncxdi to 
footh, adiwaut the regular line, Tb, I think, is meant. 

thick dnt dus means a&j nscrc tt-^ teat- &r 
Sac is to be buried ia ^r^a jxr^ and cocfc- 
k to be nude as ufmL Mf iiMni|iiii' ....... iji 

tbe fbttaviog paSages ia K. Hay V. sod die 
before us: We cannot l%e and board a dozen or 

^ - "- * - " * ~ - " ~"._" "..i_" "' " - r 
k wiD be dna^ht we beep a bawdy- 
j. Sc. 

Fsicwd, mJrDeaesxMXB, I iriB cwne to 

Ridkofe o {Bbik divinom id; cLLo&un; aodot dii- 

Bb 2 is, 

372 H A M LET, 

is, to act, to do, and to perform : Argal, (he drown'd 
herfelf wittingly. 

2 Clown. Nay, but hear you, goodman delver. 

1 Clown. Give me leave. Here lies the water ; 
good : here ftands the man , good : If the man go 
to this warer, and drown himielf, it is, will he, nill 
he, he goes ; mark you that : but if the water come 
to him, and drown him, he drowns not himfelf: 
Argal, he, that is not guilty of his own death, 
ihortens not his own life. 

2 Clown. But is this law ? 

1 Clc-jcn. Ay, marry is't ; ' crowner's-queft law. 

2 Clown. Will you ha' the truth on't ? If this had 
not been a gentlewoman, Ihe mould have been bury'd 
out of chriltian burial. 

i Clown. Why, there thou fay 'ft : And the more 
pity ; that great folk fhould have countenance in this 
world to drown or hang themfelves, more than "- their 
even chriitian. Come; my fpade. There is no an- 

1 crowntrs queft-la-jj.'] I ftrongly fufpect that this is a ridi- 
cule on the cafe of Dame Hales, reported by Plovvdea in his com- 
mentaries, as determined in 3 Eliz. 

It feems her huftnnd Sir Hales had drowned himfelf in a 
river, and the queftton was, whether by this aft a forfeiture of a 
leafe from the dean and chapter or' Canterbury, which he was 
pollened of, did not accrue to the crown ; an inquiiition was 
found before the coroner, which found him fcl-i de fe. The legal 
and logical fjbtilties, arilingin thecourfe of the argument of this 
cafe, g*ve a very fair opportunity for a fneer at croiweSs qneft-laiv. 
The expreffion, a little before, that an al hail tbrcr branches^ &c. 
is fo pointed an allufion to the cafe I mention, tha; I cannot doubt 
but that Shakefpeare was acquainted with and meant to laugh at it. 

It may be added, that on this occafion a great deal of Yubtilty 
was ufed, to afcertain whether Sir Jaines W:;s the agent or .the 
fatlent \ or, in other words, whether I? went to the water, or the 
'Matir canK to him. The caufe of Sir James's maduefs was the cir- 
cumftance of his having been the judge who condemned I,aJy 
Jane Gray. Sir J. HAWKI MS. 

* thdr even cbrifiian.] So all the old books, and rightly. 
An old Eugliih cxprefiiou ioj fcllow-chrillians. THIRLSV. 



cient gentlemen but gardiners, ditchers, and grave- 
makers ; they hold up Adam's profeflion. 

2 Clown. Was he a gentleman ? 

i Clown. He was the firft that ever bore arms* 

3 2 O-t-ff. Why, he had none. 

1 Clcwn. What, art a heathen ? How doft thou 
underftand the Icripture ? The fcriprure fays, Adam 
digg'd ; Cor.ld he dig without arms ? I'll put an- 
other queftion to thee : if thou anfwer'ft me not to 
the purpole, confefs thyfelf 

2 Clow it. Go to. 

1 Clown. What is he, that builds flronger than ei- 
ther the mafon, the fhip'.vright, or the carpenter ? 

2 Clown. The gallows-maker j for that frame out- 
lives a thoufand tenants. 

i Clown. I like thy wit well, in good faith ; the 
gallows does well : But how does it well ? it does 
well to thofe that do ill : now thou doft ill, to fay, the 
gallows is built ftronger than the church ; argal, the 
gallows may do well to thee. To't again -, come. 

2. Clown. Who builds ftronger than a mafon, a 
fhipwright, or a carpenter ? 

i Clown. 4 Ay, tell me that, and unyoke. 

2 Clown. 

So, in Chaucer's Jack Upland: " If freres cannot or mow not 
cxcufe *hem of thefe quertions aflted of 'hem, it femeth that they 
be horrible giltie againft God, and thereven ch'ift:an ; &c." 

Again, in Gower, DC Confrfftonc Amantis^ lib. . fol. 102 : 

" Of beautie iighe he never hir envn." 

Again, Chaucer's Perfones Tale: '* of his ncighebour, that is to 
fayn, of his even crijIeH, &c." STEE VE xs. 

J 2 C^:i-.] Thisfpeech, and the next as far as -xitlaut arms t 
is not in the quanos. STEEVENS. 

4 4y, till me that, and uiytke.] z. e. when you have done that, 
I'll trouble you no more with thefe riddles. The phrafe is taken 
from hufban'dry. WAREURTOX. 

Alluding to what the Greeks called by one word BsXtTof, the 
time for nnyokinsr. Horn. 11. n. 779. 

Schol. js-i t 


Bb If 

374 H A W L E T, 

2 Clown. Marry, now I can tell. 

1 Clown. To'c. 

2 Clown. Mafs, I cannot tell. 

Enter Hamlet, and Horatio, at a diftance. 

I Clown. Cudgel thy brains no more about it ; for 
your dull afs will not mend his pace with beating : 
and, when you are afk'd this queftion next, fay, a 
grave-maker; the houies that he makes, lad 'till 
doomfday. Go, get thee to Yaughan, and fetch 
Hie a ftoup of liquor. [Exit 2 Clown* 

He digs, and fings. 

5 In yo.utb when I did love, did love, 

Methought, it was very faeet, 
*o contratt, 0, the time, for, ah, my behove 

0, methoughty there was 6 nothing meet. 


If it be not fufficient to fay, with Dr. Warburton, that the phrafe 
might be taken from hufbandrv, without much depth of reading* 
we may produce it from a dittie of the workmen of Dover, pre- 
fervedin the additions to Holinfhed, p. 1546. 
. , My bow is broke, I would unyoke, 

*' My foot is fore, I can worke no more," FARMER, 
Again, in Drayton's Polyo&ion, at the end of Song I. 

" Here I'll unyoke a while and turne my fteeds to meet." 
Again, in P. Ho&nd's Tranilation of Pliny's Nat. Hifl. p. 5^3 : 
" in the evening, and when thou doft *ay0/Jr." STEEVENS. 

5 , In youth when 1 did love, &c.] The three ftanzas, fung here 
by the grave-digger, are extracted, with a flight variation, from a 
little poem, called The Aged Lover renounceih Love, written by 
Henry Howard earl of Surrey, who flourished in the reign of 
Icing Henry VIII. and who was beheaded in 1547, on a {trained 
accuntionof treafon. THEOBALD. 
* nothing meet.] Hanmer reads. 

nothing fo meet. JOHNSON. 

The original poem from which this ftanza is taken, like the other 
fucceeding ones, is preferred amon^ lord Surrey's ppems ; though,' 
S$ Dr. Percy has oblerved, it is attributed to lord Vaux by George 
' " ' 


Htm. Has this fellow no fading of bis bafinefe? 
be DOBS at fejmy 

. Cuttom bath made it in him a property of 

TTs e'en fo: die hand of fitde employ- 


Clown fings. 

Jfctf *, witb Ms Je*S*g 
Hmtb d*wd me im bis 

As ifl bed areer beemfmcb 7. 

That icon had a toogoc in it, and could 
fing once : How the knave jowls it to the ground, 
as if it were Cain's jaw-bone, that (fid the fiift 
murder! This might be the pate of s a politician, 

f* * ... -,'_ 

ijAHotgBCh. ore MI cxnae ptfcsiiM o one cm us ppCB&i MI 
kkthcredo* hi*wwfa,i57 5 . By otfcers it b foppofai ID bi^ 

:- s:. 

Onr _ 

where, fixating df die death of 
zaia^&ctiaftteRcimc^lie%s, * The. 

- probably flradk wid die wander, if not due a^ony of dot 

;; as it he had 

- k 3, and hid k to heift, th < 
airorttopx^ ia Earofe 
i^.1.": _ -. . -:. 

3 ;6 H A M L E T, 

9 which this afs now o'er-reaches ; one that would 
circumvent God, might it not ? 

Her. It might, my lord. 

Ham. Or of a courtier; which could fay, Good- 
morrow, faeet lord! How doft thou, good lord? 
This might be my lord fuch-a-one, that prais'd my 
lord fuch-a-one's horfe, when he meant to beg it * ; 
might it not ? 

Hor. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. Why, e'en fo : * and now my lady worm's ; 
chaplefs, and knock'd about the mazzard with a fex- 
ton's fpade : Here's fine revolution, an we had the 
trick to iee't. Did thefe bones coft no more the 

9 ivbicb this afs o'er-nfucs: ] The meaning is this. People 
in office, at tha: time, we're ib over-bearing, that Shakelpearei 
ipeaking or infclcnce at the height, calls it, Infolence in office* 
And Donne fays, 
Who is be, 
Who officers' rage and furors' mifery 

Can vjrite in jeft, ' Sat. 

Alluding to this chii merer of minifters and politicians, the fpeaker 
obferves, that this inioicnt officer is now oer- officer* d\ty the fexton, 
'Vv'ho, knocking his fcull about with his fpade, appears to be as 
infolent in his office as they were in theirs. 'This is faid with 
much humour. WARBURTON. 

In the quarto, for over-offices is, over-reaches, which agrees better 
tvuh the lenience: it is a ftrong exaggeration to remark, that an afs 
'can over-reach him who Would cnce have tried to circumvent. I 
believe both the words were Shakt.ipeare's. An author in reviling 
his work, wheiV his "original idea.- nave laded from his luind, and 
new obfervutions have produced new fentiments, eafily introduces 
images which have been more newly impieflird upon -him, without 
obferving their want of congruity to the general texture of his 
orig : nal djfign. JOHNSON. 
; The fuiio reads o'cr-offices. STEEVENS. 

1 This might be my lord fuch-a-onc t that pro.:? d wv lord fuch-a-one s 
bflrfe) when be meant to brg it ;] So, in Tinibn if-Atbau t Ael i ; 

my lord you gave 

Good words the other day ot a' bay courfer 
I rode on ; it is yours, becaule you'liV'c! it. STEEVENS. 
z and now ny lady Warm's;] 'The fcull that was'wy' iorj 
8uch-a-on$i is uov; ' tty lady Worms. JOHNSON. 

I breeding, 


breeding, but to 3 play at loggats with them ? mine 
ache to think on'r. ' 

Clown Cngs. 

A pick-axe, and a fpadt, a fpade t 

Por a nd a Jhro-jjding Jbeet : 
O, a pif of day for to It wade 

For fucb a gu$ is met *. 

Ham. There's another : Why may not that t>e 
.the fcull of a lawyer ? Where be his quiddits 5 now, 
his quillets, his caies, his tenures, and his tricks ? 
xvhy does he fuffer this rude knave now to knock 

3 Ajy at ^.~:-:' 7 " A play, in which pins are fet up to be 
beaten down with a bowl. JOH N s o x . 

to flay at Ag~~a ?xltb VCT f ] This is a game played ia 
fereral parts of England even at tris ti~e. A flake is fixed into 
the ground; tbefe who play, throw loggais at ir, and he that is 
neareit the itake, wins : I have ieen it played in different counties 
at their {heep-fceering fealts, where the winner was entitled to a 
i>!ack fleece, which he afterwards piefented to the farmer's maid to 
fpin for the purpofe of making a petticoat, and on condition thtt 
fee knelt down on the fleece to be killed by ail the niftkks prefect. 
So Ben Jonfon, Tale tf a Tub, A<2 4. Sc. 6. 
** Now are they toffing his legs and arms, 
** Like bgats at a pear-tree." 
So in an old collection or epigrams, fatires, &c. 

*' To play at Icggats, nine holes, or ten pinnes" 
Again, in Decker's If this be rat a goad Pky t *?* Devil in //, 
^6i2i 4t two hundred crowns 1 

I've loll as much at bgots." 

It is one of the unlawful games enumerated in the flatute of 
33 of Hen. VIII. STEEVEN-S. 

4 Forfacb agtuft is ntet.] Thus ia the originaL 

Aput-ajct aaJ a 

For fucb agvjt meft meet. STEEVKNS. 
5 $*iMts t &c.] i. e, fubtilries. So, in SeOmm md PcrjMa i 

* I am wife, but $<&:/* will not anfwer death." 
Again, in RoK-AHey^ or Meny Tricks, 161 1 : 

* Nav, good Sir Throst, forbear your fdEttt now." 



57 8 H A M L E T, 

him about the fconce 6 with a dirty fhovel, and wijl 
not tell him of his aftion of battery ? Hum ! Thi3 
fellow might be in's time a great buyer of land, with 
his ftatutes, his recognizances, his fines, his double 
vouchers, his recoveries : Is this the fine of his fines 7 , 
and the recovery of his recoveries, to have his fine 
pate full of fine dirt ? will his vouchers vouch him 
no more of his purchafes, and double ones too, than 
the length and breadth of a pair of indentures ? T*he 
very conveyances of his lands will hardly lie in this 
bos 5 and muft the inheritor himfelf have no more ? 

Hor. Not a jot more, my lord. 

Ham. Is not parchment made of fheep-fkins ? 

Hor. Ay, my lord, and of calves-fkins too. 

Ham. They are Iheep, and calves, which feek out 
afifurance in that 8 . I will fpeak to this fellow ;-^ 
Whofe grave's this, firrah ? 

Clown. Mine, fir. - 

O, a fit of clay for to be made^ 
For fucb a gueft is meet. 

Ham. I think it be thine, indeed ; for thou ly'ft 

Clown. You lie out on't, fir, and therefore it is not 
yours : for my part,"I do not lie in't, yet it is mine, 

* the fconce} i. e. the head. So, in Lilly's Mother 

" Laudo ingenium, I like thy fconce? 
Again, in Merry Tr/ob, or Ram- Alley, 161 1 : 

" - 1 fay no more, 
'* But 'tis within this fconce to go beyond 1 them." 


7 Is this the fine of bis fines^ and the recovery of bis recover it s^\ 
Omitted in the quartos. STEEVENS. 

aflurance in that.} A quibble is intended. Deeds, which 
are ufually written on parchment, ^re called the common affurances 
tf the kingdom. MALONE. 

2, Ham* 

Thou doft lie in't, to be in't, and Uv k 
: 'tis for the dead, not for the quick ; there- 
fore thoa ly 'ft. 

Cfew*. Tis a quick fie, firs 'twill away again, 
from -netoyou. 

Bam. What man daft *oo dig k for? 
Cbav. For no man, fir. 
hem. What woman then? 
For none neither. 
Who is to be boned in't ? 
One, that was a woman, fir; but, reft her 
fool, fee** dead 

Hem, How abfalote the knave is ! we mcfr. {peak 
9 by the card, or equivocation win undo us. By the 
lord, Horatio, tbefe three years I hare taken note 
of it ; 'the age is grown fo picked, that the toe of 
the peafant comes to near the heel of the 

] Tbe <Wk topper on vk 

is, t* J it nrfM mnr \M\ <'". JOHSSOT. 

.^ .m 

aK UK Of 

MuJMaiuBfcloagjgoanieiBiyogof BanrilV. when it 
wakrai, ifcxtfae beaks or pyte of *oes .d boon feri* 
not p^ nro iadMS, upon p of cming by die dogf, a^ 


dae pykts of laces nad bods were of focfe la 

* .**" tt> IK t^d ifai 1O An \njjj. uy-ll- rlxnn; 

f* fk, cr Ji fejft galifiicn hcB.* STZZYZJTS, 

- - ' -M 

3 8o H A M L E T, 

he galls his kibe How long haft thou been a grave- 
maker ? 

Clown. Of all the days i' the year, I came to't that 
day that our lalt king Hamlet overcame Fortinbras. 

Ham. How long is that fince ? 

Clown. Cannot you tell that ? every fool can tell 
that : It was that very day that young Hamlet was 
^orn ; he that is mad, and fent into England. 

Ham. Ay, marry, why was he fent into England ? 

Clown. Why, becaufe he was mad : he fhall re- 
cover his wits there j or, if he do not, 'tis no great 
matter there. 

Ham. Why ? 

Clown. 'Twill not be feen in him there ; there the 
men are as mad as he. 

Ham. How came he mad ? 

Clown. Very ftrangely, they fay. 

Ham. How ftrangely ? 

lown. 'Faith, e'en with lofing his wits. 

Ham. Upon what ground ? 

Clown. Why, here in Denmark : I have been 
fextqn here, man, and boy, thirty years. 

Ham. How long will a man lie i' the earth ere he 
rot ? 

Clown. 'Faith, if he be not rotten before he die, 
(as we have many pocky corfes now-a-days, that will 
fcarce hold the laying in) he will laft you fome eight 
year, or nine year : a tanner will laft you nine year. 

Ham. Why he more than another ? 

Clown. Why, fir, his hide is fo tann'd with his 
trade, that he will keep out water a great while ; and 
your water is a fore decayer of your whorefon dead, 
body. Here's a fcull now has lain you i' the earth 
three-and-twenty years. 

Ham. W T hofe was it ? 

Clown. A whorefon mad fellow's it was ; Whofe 
do you think it was ? 



Ham. Nay, I know nor. 

Clots*. A pdfileace on him for a mad regoe! be 
poor'dmflaggofiofRlicmfliooroyhcadooce. This 
tune fcnll, fir, was Toners fedi; the king's jefter. 

Ham. this? 

Alas, poor Yorickl I knew him, Hondo; 
a fefloV of infinite jeft, of mcft cicellcnt fancy : be 
hiih borne me en his back a thoqfand dmcs; and 
'dis djio2gtEaik)oitis! my gorge 
ri&sst-L Here hung thofe Eps, that I haYC kl&d 
I know pot bow eft. Whetc be yocr gibes BOW? 
your gambols? year (bogs r your flames of merri- 
roent, that were vont to let the table oo a roar? Not 
one now, to mock TOOT own grinning ? quite chap- 
fallen ? Now get yea to my lady's chamber % and tell 
her, let her paint an lech thick, to this favour (he 
mgft come; make her laugh at that. IVytbee, 
Horatio, tdl IDC.ODS tli iag. "^.*P , 

^flf. W1^r*s thai, my laid"? 

HBB. Doft tbou thick, Akzander look'd o* xha} 
fafliibji i" the earth? 

Her. E'enifo. 

Hsm. And imelt fo ? pah! 

Ha-. E'en fo, my kmL 

Bet. To ivb2t bsfe nfes we may return. Hotabo ' 
Why may not imagiBation trace the noble daft of 
Alexander, 'til! he find it Sopping a bong-hole ? 

Hsr. Tarerc to caalkSer too cunoo%, tocoaEdcrib. 

Ham. No, 'fikh, not a jot ; but to follow him 
thither with modcfhr enough, and fikcfihood to lesd 
thus; Alexander dsed, Alexander was boned, 
AJez^Tider retnroeth to du& ; the duC: is canh ; of 
ea.-th we ncake loam ; And why of that Isasi, whereto 
he was COG veiled, m : =ght they cot flop a beer 

38s H A M L E T, 

Imperial Casfar, dead, and twrn'd to clay, 
Might (top a hole to keep the wind away : 
O, that that earth, which kept the world in awe," 
Should patch a wall to expel the * winter's flaw ! 
But foft ! but foft, afide; Here comes the king, 

Enter King) Queen, Laertes, the corpfe of 0$belia t 
with Lords and Priefts attending. 

The queen, the courtiers : Who is this they follow ? 
And with fuch 3 maimed rites ! This doth betoken, 
The corfe, they follow, did with defperate hand 
Fordo its own life 4. 'Twas of 5 fome eftate : 
Couch we a while, and mark. 

Laer. What ceremony elle ? 

Ham. That is Laertes, 
A very noble ybdth : Mark. 

Laer. What ceremoiiy elfe ? 

6 Prieft. Her obfequies have been as far enlarg'd 
As we have warranty : Her death was doubtful j, 
And, but that great command p'erfways the order, 
She mould in ground unfanclify'd have lodg'd 
'Till the laft trumpet ; for charitable prayers, 
Shards, flints, and pebbles, mould be thrown on her j 

* winter* sjlaw /] Winter's Haft. JOHNSON. 
So, in Marius and Sylla, 1594 : 

" no doubt this iiormy Jbrui, 
" That Neptune fent to caft us on this fliore." 
The quartos read to expel the water's flaw, STEEVENS. 
3 maimed rites ! ] Imperfect obfequies, JOHNSON. 

* Fordo Its 0ivti life.] To fordo, is to undo, to deitroy. So, in 
Othello : " this is the night 

" That either makes me or fordoes me quite." ; - 
Again, in Acclaftzu, a comedy, 1529: " vvplde to God it 
might be leful for me to fordoo mylelf, or to make an ende of 

s _ f om e eftaie : ] Some perfon of high rank. JOHNSON. 

* Prief*.} This Prieft in the old quarto is called Doftor. 




Yet here fhe is 7 alk>w*d her virgin cranes, 
Her maiden ftrewmcnts, and the bringing home 
Of bell andburiaL 

Laer. Muft there no more be done ? 
Priffi . No more be done ; 
\Ve (hould profane the fcrvice of the dead, 
s To fing a reputm, and fiich reft to her 
As to peace-paned fouls. 

L0er. Lay her i' the earth ; 
And from her fair and unpolluted flern 
May violets fpring! I tell thee, churlifh prieft, 
A m in ' <ft ""g angel (hall my fitter be, 
When thon heft howling. 

Ham. What, the fair Ophelia! 
%*&*. Sweets to the fweet : Farrsrl! 

[Scattering Jbwers* 

I hop'd, thou fhouldft have been my Hamlet's wife ; 
I thought, thy bride-bed to have deck'd, fweet maid, 

* j&ivV her vi*gi* rites,] The old qimtb rods 
ms, CTidesdy oomipied nom <&**, vfaidi k the trac 
rather than a pzzTir torn being hoe requiieA to 

I hare been informed by an JIUUU^UMJUS umtPpoBof ntj that 
motf b die German rod far^mHmJi] and I foppxe k was re- 
oined by as from die Saxons. To carjgmHmJk befcte die bkr 
of ft maidai, and to hang diem orer her grave, b 3 diepn&ke 

: was die original word, which dae ascnor, &- 
covering k o be provincial, and perhaps cot aoderiood, dk^pd 
to atom more imdEsibfe, bus kfi proper. M~*m ran ghr DO 
ceroia or definite image. He irigbr hare pot mtsJem c^ucfrf, or 
adbi gviMb, box he perhaps be&owed no thought upoa it, 
and nekher genius nor ptadice wiB ahrajs Ibpprj a * 
widi die moft proper diouo. JOH.XSOX. . 

la Minfcew'slUZ^K^, fee A-tfa, where ngg* 

yrtn* nftrimm-, aad fixh is die name of a c&ara&er in dib piaj. 


Popi& charches ior d^c rdt or the &u! of a person dcceaJai. 

i'r- -:.... -..." _-._.:._;. r_. ^:i_;.. 


3*4 H A M L E f , 

And not have ftrew'd thy grave. 

Laer. O, treble woe 

Fall ten times treble on that curfed head, 
Whofe wicked deed thy mod ingenious fenfe 
Depriv'd thee of ! Hold off the earth a while, 
'Till I have caught her once more in mine arms : 

[Laertes leaps into the gravt. 
Now pile your duft upon the quick and dead ; 
'Till of this flat a mountain you have made, 
To o'er-top old Pelion, or the fkyifii head 
Of blue Olympus. 

Ham. [advancing] What is he, whofe grief 
Bears fuch an ernphafis ? whofe phrafe of Sorrow 
Conjures the wandring flars, and makes them Hand 
Like wonder-wounded hearers ? this is I, 

[Hamlet leaps into tie grave, 
Hamlet the Dane. 

Lair. The devil take thy foul ! [Grappling 'with him, 

Ham. Thou pray'ft not well. 
I pr'ythee, take thy fingers from my throat ; 
For, though I am not iplenetive and rafh, 
Yet have I in me fomething dangerous, 
Which let thy wifdom fear : Hold off thy hand. 

King. Pluck them afunden 

Queen. Hamlet, Hamlet ! 

1 Jttl. Gentlemen, 

Her. Good my lord, be quiet. 

[The attendants pert thevi* 

Ham. Why, I will fight with him upon this theme* 
Until my eye-lids will no longer wag. 

Queen. O my fon ! what theme ? 

Ham. I lov'd Ophelia ; forty thoufand brothers 
Could not with all their quantity of love 
Make up my fum. What wilt thou do for her ? 

King. O, he is mad, Laertes. 

1 All. &c.] This is reftored from the quartos. STEEVENS* 



For love of God, forbear him. 
Ham. Shew me what thou'lt do : 
Woo't weep ? woo't fight ? woo't fail ? woo'c tear 

* Woo't drink up EG1 r eat a crocodile ? 


* W~t JrbJc up Efill? eat a craaxSle ?] This word has 
through all the editions been diitinguifhed by Italick characters, as 
if it were the proper name of forae river ; and fb, I dare fay, all 
the editors hsve from time to time understood it to be. Bu: then 
this mull: be fbme river in Denmark ; and there is none there fo 
called ; nor is there any near it in name, that I know of, but Tffel, 
from which the province of Overyflel derives its title in the German 
Flanders. Befides, Hamiet is cot propofing any impnfEbilittes f o 
Laertes, as the drinking up a river would be : but he rather feems 
to mean, Wilt thou refolve to do things the moil (hocking and dif- 
tafterul to human nature? and, behold, I am as refolute. 1 am 
perfuaded the poet wrote : 

Wikdriai*} Eifel ? tat a eroc*<Kkt 

/. e. Wilt thou fwallow down large draughts of ynugarf The 
proportion, indeed, is not very grand : but the doing it might 
be as dittafterul end unfavoury, as eating the fleih x>t a crocoJOti 
And now there b neither an imporBbiUfy, nor an anticlimax : and 
the tow nefs of the idea is in fome mealure removed by the uncoiu^ 
icon tera^ THEOBALD. 
Hanmer has, 

WUt dri*k # Nile? r eat a crtco&le? 

Hamlet certainly meant (tor he fays he will rant) to dare Laertes 
to attempt any dung, however difficult or unnatural ; and might 
fafely promiie to follow the example his antagonift was to fet, in 
draining the channel of a river, or trying his teeth on an animal, 
whofe fcales are fuppofed to t impenetrable. Had Shakefpeare 
meant to make Hamlet fay Wilt then drink vinegar? he probably 
would not have ufcd the term drinlt vp ; which means, tstaify to ex* 
baaji; neither is that challenge very magnificenr, which only pro- 
vokea an adverfary to hazard a fit ct the heart-burn or the cciic. 

The commentator's Tjjil wou?d lerve Hamlrt's turn or mine. 
This river is twice mentioned by Stowe* p. 755. u It ftandeth a^ 
good dittance from the river JJfci! y but hath a fconoe ofl Ijfei of 
iccredible Irrength." 

Again, by Drayton, in the 24th Song of his Pofyo&im 
. The one O'er Ijefft banks the ancient Saxons taught ; 

At Over IfeU rciis, the other did ap s 

And, in K. Richard II. a thought in part the fame, occurs, 
Aft z. Sc. 2 : " the tafk he undertakes 

' Is numb'ring iacda, and drinking eceaas dy* 
VOL. X, Gc Bur 


X'H do't. Dofl thou come here to whine ? 

To out-face me with leaping in her grave ? 
Be buried quick with her, and To will I : 
And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw 
Millions of acres on us ; 'till our ground, 
Singeing his pate againft the burning zone, 
Make Ofla like a wart ! Nay, an thou'lt mouth, 
I'll rant as well as thou. 

Queen. This is mere madnefs : 
And thus a while the fit will work on him ; 
Anon, as patient as the female dove, 
s When that her golden couplets are difclos'd, 
His filence will fit drooping, 


But in an old Latin account of Denmark and the neighbouring 
provinces, I find the names of feveral rivers little differing from 
EJil, or E/Jill, in fpelling or pronunciation. Such are the EJJa, the 
Ocfil, and fome others. The word, like many more, may indeed 
be irrecoverably corrupted ; but, I muft add, that no authors later 
than Chaucer or Skelton make ufe of eyfel for vinegar : nor has 
Shakefpeare employed it in any other of his plays. The poet 
might have written the Weifel, a confiderable river which falls into 
the Baltic ocean, and could not be unknown to any prince of 
Denmark. STEEVENS. 

Mr. Steevens appears to have forgot our author's mth fonnet : 
I will drinke 
" Potions of EyfeU." 

I believe it has not been obfervcd that many of thefe fonnets art 
addrefled to his beloved nephew William Harte. FARMER. 
I have fmce obferved, that Mandevik has the fame word. 


3 When that her golden, couplets ] We fhould read, E'er that- 
for it is the patience of birds, during the time of incubation, that 
is here fpoken of. The pigeon generally fits upon two eggs; 
and her young, when firft difclofed, are covered with a yellow 
Perhaps it (hould be, 

Ere yet 

Yet and that are eafily confounded. JOHNSON; 

To dlfelofe was anciently ufed for to hatch. So, in the Eooke of 
Huntyng, Hauking, Fyjhyng, &c. bl. 1. no date : " Firft they ben 
eges; and after they ben difclofed, haukes ; and commonly gof- 
haukes ben difclofed as fone as the choughes." To exclude is the 



Ham. Hear you, fir ; 

What is the reafon that you ufe me thus ? 
I lov'd you ever : But it is no matter ; 
Let Hercules himfelf do what he may, 
The cat will mew, and dog will have his day. [Exit. 

King. I pray thee, good Horatio, wait upon him. 

[Exit Hor. 
Strengthen your patience in our laft night's fpeech ; 

[To Laertes. 

We'll put the matter to the prefent pufh. 
Good Gertrude, let fome watch over your fon. 
This grave lhall have a living monument : 
An hour of quiet (hortly 4 (hall we ice ; 
Till then in patience our proceeding be. [Exeunt. 


A ball in tbf palace. 
Enter Hamlet, and Horatio. 

Ham. So much for this, fir : now (hall you fee 

the other ; 

You do remember all the circumftance ? 
Her. Remember it, my lord ! 
Ham. Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fight- 

technical term at prefent. I believe neither commentator has 
rightly explained this image. During three days after the pigeon 
has batched her nxplea (tor (be lays no more than i?:o eggs), (he 
never quits her neft, except for a tew moments in quelt of a link 
food tor herielf ; as ail her young require in that early date, is to be 
kept warm, an office which (he never entrufls to the male. 

4 Jbortty] The (econd and third quartos read, titrefy. Per- 

hapsngotly. STEEVEKS. 

Cc 2 That 

388 HAMLET, 

That would not let me Deep ; methought, I lay 
Worfe than the 5 routines in the bilboes. 6 Rafhly, 
And prais'd be rafhnefs for it Let us know, 


5 mutines / the bilboes.] Mutines, the French word for fedi- 
rions or difobedient fellows in the army or fleet. Bilboes, 
prij'on. JOHNSON. 

The bilboes is a bar of iron with fetters an- 
nexed to it, by which mutinous or difoiderly 
faiiors were anciently linked together. The 
word is derived from Bilboa, a place in Spain 
where instruments of fleel were fabricated in 
the utmoft perfection. To underftand Shake- 
fpeare's allufion completely, it fhould be 
known, that as thefe fitters conned the legs 
of the offenders very clofe together, their at- 
tempts to reft muft be as fruitlefs as thofe of 
Hamlet, in whofe mind there was a kind of 
fighting that ivnuM not let him Jleep. Every 
motion of one muft difturb his partner in con- 
finement. The bilboes are ftill Ihewn in the 
Tower of London, among the other fpoils of 
the Spanifli Armada. The following is the 
figure of them. STEEVENS. 


And prai?d be rajhnefi for It Lets us 
Our indifwetion jomcti/Mi Jer<vcs us *uifU t 
When, &c.] The fenfe in this reading is, Our r-afbnejs lets us 
kno--jp that our indifcretiou Jlrves us ivctt y ivbcn t &c. But this could 
never be Shakefpeare's fenfe. We fhould read and point thus : 


( And prats' d be rafonrfs for it) lets ui kntK&\ 
Or ijidijiretion jometimes Jerves us civ//, 
W7jen, &c.] /'. c* Rafhnefs acquaints us with what we can- 
not penetrate to by plots. WAR.BUHTON. 
Both my copies read, 

. Raftily, 

Andpraii'd If raflmcfi far if, let us -taw. 



Our indiscretion fometime iervcs os well, 

When our deep plots do fail: aad that fhookl teach 


There's a divinity that (hapes oar ends, 
Rough-hew them how we will. 

Her. That is mod certain. 

Hoot. Up from my cabin, 
My lea-gown fcarfd about me, in the dark . 
Grop d I to find out them : had my defire j 
FingerM their packet; and, in fine, withdrew 
To mine own room again : making fo bold, 
My fears forgetting manners, to unfeal 
Their grand commiffion ; where I found, Horatio, 
A royal knarery ; an exaft command, 
Larded with many ievcril forts of reasons, 
Importing Denmark's health, and England's too, 
7 With, ho! inch begs and goblins in my life, 

Hakt,<k&mn S a 
Tim he n+ 

<*K* --.. - 


i . '. - ' - ' - - . ' , 

aBosred Hr crrry hamaa being who fta& icflea on the cnvib 
his on E^. JOE s SOK . 

(And prabM Len^ae&, for k les IB koov, 

\l?en oor deep plott do fefl ; aiiddai Aoukl *oA B, 

-f .---;- -:-.- 

Horn. Up from BKT cabin, &c. So that r^B$r asj be MMoed m 
* ffr <farf enfJI tofmtf* ifam. TTJ^TKI TT. 

rinng tram my ckuachi and Jefiga*. JOHXSOJT. 
J^vasniHcfiaicniicbcsgdanagabira. So, ia Speafa** 
^jft*, B. a. 0.3: 

- As gha% % their hahr on cac does ICKC.* 
We cau it pabcm ^i^. STE 

Cc 3 

39 o HAMLET, 

That, on the fupervize, 8 no leifure bated, 
Mo, not to ftay the grinding of the axe, 
My head mould be (truck oft". 

Her. Is't pofiible ? 

Ham. Here's the commiffion ; read it at more ki- 

But wilt thou hear now how I did proceed ? 

Hor. Ay 'befeech you. 

Ham. v Being thus benetted round with villanies. 
Ere I could make a prologue to my brains, 
They had begun the play ; I fat me down ; 
Devis'd a new com million j wrote it fair : 

nn Ic'tfure hated,] Bated, for allowed. To abate, fignifies to 
declufl ; this deduction, when applied to the perfon in whofe favour 
it is made, is called an attowance. Hence he takes the liberty of 
ufiiig bated for alh-ved. WAREURTON. 

9 fiejng thus bf netted round with villains, 
E'-c I could make a prologue to my brains, 
They bad begun the play: ] The fecond line is nonfenfe. 
The whole Ihould be read thus : 

Being thus benetted round ivith villains ^ 
Ere I could mark the prologue to ny bane, 
They bad begun the play. 

i. e. they begun to 08 1 to my de(tru6Hon, before I knew there 
was a play towards. Ere I could mark the prologue. For it appears 
by what he fays of" }\\s foreboding, that it was that only, and not any 
apparent mark of villainy, which fet him upon jingertng their packet. 
Ere 1 could make the prologue, is abfurd : both, as he had no 
thoughts of playing them a trick till they had played him one; 
and becaufe his counterplot could not be called a prologue to their 

In my opinion no alteration is necefTary. Hamlet is telling 
how luckily every thing fell out ; he groped out their commiffion 
in the dark without waking them ; he : found himfelf doomed to 
immediate defiruclion. Something was to be done for his pre- 
fervation. An expedient occurred, not produced by the comparifon 
of one method with another, or by a regular deduction of confe- 
quences, but before he could make a prologue to his brains, thy had 
begun the play. Before he could fummon his faculties, and propofe 
to himlett what {hould be done, a complete fcheme of action pre- 
fented itfelf to him. His mind operated before he had excited it. 
This appears to me to be the meaning. JOHNSON. 

S I once 


I once did hold it, as our ftatifts do, 
A bafenefs to write fair, and labour'd much 
How to forget that learning ; but, fir, now 
It did me * yeoman's fervice : Wilt thou know 
The effect of what I wrote ? 

Her. Ay, good my lord. 

Ham. An earned conjuration from the king, 
As England was his faithful tributary ; 
As love between them like the palrn might floorifh, 
3 As peace mould ftill her wheaten garland wear, 
And (land a comma 'tween their amities ; 


1 */rfiamb/AvJ A/^isaAajSani. So, in Shirk's 
HxMtrtxs Cmrtier^ 1640 : 

" that he is wife, 
Again, in Ben Joofbn's JM^wfec 

WiU fcrcw you out a fecret from a./**/." STKETEIIS. 
JervL-r:] The meaning, I befiere, is, ttisjmmlj 
m, mmjf ^efmljervamt , trytsmax, if me; i. e. did me 
fenrke. The ancient jvwwv were famous for their mili- 
tary valour. Thefc were die good archen in dmes pair ({ays Sit 
Thomas Smith), and the gable troop of footmen that afedde all 
France.* STEEVI 

3 AstettJbemU/imixTvJxstemgerltmJ'axmr, 

AdfmmJt* comma 'ftaaex tbcr amities ;] Peace is here pro- 
pafyaodfiodj-peHonalized as the goddefc of good kague and 
finendfliip; and ver>- daflkailv dreffcd out. Grid tp, 

Pax Cermm mmtrit^fmcu tauam Canes. 
And TibuHus, 

At M&U, pax aioA ! vai,JpicamfK temet*. 

Bjt the placing bjpr as a OMOHT, or flop, between the omit-a of nro 
kingdoms, makes her rather flaad Eke a cypher. The poet with- 
out doubt wrote : 

Amf/buJ m comroeie ' no- *Kt : js. 

The tenn is taken from a trafficker in love, who brings people to- 
gether, a procuieik. And this idea is well appropriated ro the feti- 
rical turn which the fpeaker gives to this wicked adjuration ot the 

doms in the blood of the heir of one of the. Periers, in his 
noreb, gfes the word \mm\\\\ to ngnify a fee-tread. Atmajn 
gnu, cbocm* me commae. And Ben Jonfon, in hii Dfx?s **4&% 
cngi&Ses the word by a miJJKm* gA 

Or ** *!**& oSdEag gofip 

T *riK*jm together ? WAKB 
C c 4 

39t H A M L E T, 

And many fuch like 4 as's of great charge, 
That, on the view and knowing of thefe contents, 
Without debatement further, more, or lefs, 
He fhould the bearers put to fudden death, 
Not fhriving time allow'd. 

HOT. How was this feal'd ? 

Ham. Why, even in that was heaven ordinatU ; 
I had my father's fignet in my purfe, 
"Which was the model of that Danifh feal : 
Folded the writ up in form of the other ; 
Subfcrib'd it ; gave 't the impreflion ; plac'd it fafely, 
5 The changeling never known : Now, the next day 
\Vas our lea-fight; and what to this was fequent 
Thou know'il already. 

Hanmer reads, 

And Ji and a cement 

I am again inclined to vindicate the old reading, That 'the 
word commcre is French, will not be denied; but when or where 
was it Englilh ? 

The expreirion of our author is, like many of his phrnfcs, fuf- 
fkient'y cbnftrained and affected, but it is not incapable of expla- 
nation. The comma is the note of connexion and continuity of 
fentences; the period is the note of abruption and disjunction. 
Shakefpeare had ir perhaps in his mind to write, That unlefs Eng- 
land complied with ihe mandate, civzr fbould put a period to their 
ni>i ; ty; he altered his mode of diction, and thought that, in an op-, 
potite fenitr, he might put, that Pcacejbouldjianaa comma between 
their amities. This is not an eafy itile ; but is it not the ilile of 
Shakefrx^are ? JOHNSON. 

4 as's of great cbarge^\ Affcs heavily leaded. A quibble is 
intended between as the conditional particle, and afs the beaft of 
burthen. That cbarg'd anciently fignified loaded, may be proved 
irom the following pafiage in 2 'he Widtrjjs 7ears, by Chapman, 
1612 : 

*f Thou muft be the afs cfarg\d<witb crowns to make way." 


Shakefpeare has fo many quibbles of his own to an Twer for, 
that there are thofe who think it hard he fliould be charged with 
others which he never thought of. STEEVENS. 

5 The changeling never known : ] A changeling is a child which 
the fairies are luppofed to leave in the .room of that which they 
iteal. JOHNSON. 


Hor. So Guildenftern and Rofencrantz go to't. 
Ham. Why, man 6 , they did make love to this 

employment ; 
They are not near my conference ; their defeat 

7 Doth by their own infinuation grow : 

*Tis dangerous, when the bafer nature comes 
Between the pafs and fell incenfed points 
Of mighty oppofites. 

Her. Why, what a king is this ! 

Ham. Does it not, think thee, ftand me novr 

upon ? 

He that hath kill'd my king, and whor'd my mother; 
Popt in between the election and my hopes ; 
Thrown out his angle for my proper life, 
And with fuch cozenage ; is't not perfect conference, 

8 To quit him with this arm ? and is't not to be 


To let this canker of our nature come 
In further evil ? 

Hor. It muft be fhortly known to -him from 

What is the iflue of the bufinefs there. 

Ham. It will be (hort : the interim is mine ; 
And a man's life's no more than to fay, one. 
But I am very lorry, good Horatio, 
That to Laertes 1 forgot myfelf ; 
For by the image of my caufe, I fee 
The portraiture of his : I'll count his favours : 

* #%, man y &c.] This liae is omitted in the quarto*.' 


1 Dotb by tbdr a^va infinuation grew :] Infixuation, for corruptly 
obtruding themfelres into his fervice. WAREUETOK. 
1 To quit him ] To requite him ; to pay him his due. 


This paflage, as well as the three following fpeecbes, is not ia 
fhe quartos. STEHVEXS. 

9 ril count his fa-'ours /} Thus the folio. Mr. Raux firit 
made the alteration, wnich if unneceflary. IT1 cmatt his faroun 
b I will make account of them, i. e. rcdoa vfsn tkem^ valtie them. 


394 H A M L E T, 

But, fure, the bravery of his grief did put me 
Into a towering pafilon. 

Hor. Peace j who comes here ? 

Enter Ofrick. 

Of. Your lordmip is right welcome back to Den- 

Ham. I humbly thank you, fir. J Doft know 
this water fly ? 

Hor. No, my good lord. 

Ham. Thy itate is the more gracious ; for 'tis a 
vice to know him : He hath much land, and fertile ; 
let a bead be lord of beafts, and his crib (hall ftand 
at the king's mefs : * 'Tis a chough ; but, as I fay, 
fpacious in the pofleflion of dirt. 

Ofr. Sweet lord, if your lordfhip were at leifure, 
I fhould impart a thing to you from his majefty. 

Ham. I will receive it, fir, with all diligence of 
fpirit : Put your bonnet to his right ufe ; 'tis for 
the head. 

Ofr. I thank your lordmip, 'tis very hot. 

Ham. No, believe me, 'tis very cold ; the wind is 

Ofr. It is indifferent cold, my lord, indeed. 

Ham. 3 But yet, methinks, it is very fultry and 
hot ; or my complexion 4 

Ofr, Exceedingly, my lord ; it is very fultry, as 
'twere, I cannot tell how. My lord, his majefty 

1 Doft know this water -fly ?] A water -fy flcips up and 
down upon the furface of the water, without any apparent pur- 
pofe or reafon, and is thence the proper emblem of a bufy trifler. 


* -- It is a chough ; ] A kind of jackdaw. JOHNSON. 

3 But yet, metbinks, it is very fultry^ &c.] Hamlet is here play- 
ing over the fame farce with Ofrick, which he had formerly done 
with Polonius. STEEVENS.' 

4 or my complexion.] The folio read "for my com. 
plexion." STEEVENS. 



We me fignify to you, that he has bid a great wage? 
on your head : Sir, this is the matter, 

Hem. I beteech you, remember 

[Hamlet moves bim Ufnt n Ks bat. 

Ofir. Nay, good my lord ; for my cafe ;, in good 
frith. Sir *, here is newly come to court, Laertes: 
believe me, an abfolute gentleman, - fuU of moft 
excellent differences, of very loft locietv, and greac 
ftewing : Indeed, to fpeak. feelingly * of him, he is 
9 the card or calendar of gentry; ' for you (hall 
find in him the continent of what part a gentleman 
would fee. 

Ham. * Sir, his definement fuffers no perdition in 
you j though, I know, to divide him in ventorially, 

Nay, in good &kh-^Sr mime u] This loans n hare 
bcentheatieaedphiafcof the rime. 
tot, I befaBdt ^^fir,be 
mf**.* And in" other pbca 

^ jy, &c.] The foBo omits this and the ^Bowing fourteen 
ipeoches j and in tnen* phce uiMiiHim ocly, ** Sir, joa zre coc 
ignoonc of what rrrrikncr Laextes is at his weapon,* 


1 T y rf w&tf tfirtma^ ] FuU 
ezcdfendes. JOHSSOX. 
. ^-ilcefingfy] The fini 


&i cxrd tr emlcmfrr tfpmfty; ] The gcoeial preceptor 
af degree; the onr^ by which a gcnrieman is to dheihis afc; 
checdfewbrbj which he is to cboo* hi, time, that what he docs 
may he both cgrflrnt a^d ieadfoaable. Joaxsox. 

1 -rmrtV- bimtlKc-ti^vA 

* Sir, to Jfrmae, &c.} Thk is defigned as a 
and ndkc!e of the court-jaigon amoogft the/neaiflKr of thic doe. 
The fenfe in Jlugult "ij ** Sir, he uiwcn mith>ng in yew ac~ 
> count of him, though to enumerate his pood qualities pani- 
"ailiriy would he endk6;TCt when we had doc* oar heft, k 
* would fflii come ifcort of him. Horaer, in eridnefe of tnh, 
he i a gnat goons, and of a character fo rarefy to be met 

- with, 

396 H A M L E T, 

would dizzy the arithmetic of memory; * and yet 
but raw neither, in refpecl: of his quick fail. But, in 
the verity of extolment, I take him to be 4 a foul of 
great article ; and his infufion 5 of fuch dearth and 
rarenefs, as, to make true diftion of him, his fem- 
blable is his mirrour j and, who elfe would trace him, 
his umbrage, nothing more. 

Ofr. Your lordfhip fpeaks mod infallibly of him. 

Ham. The concernancy, fir ? why do we wrap 
the gentleman in our more rawer breath ? 

Ofr. Sir? 

Hor. 6 Is't not poffible to understand in another 
tongue ? You will do't, fir, really. 

Ham. What imports'the nomination of this gentle- 
man ? 

* c with, thnt to find any thing like him we muft look into his 
" mirrour, and his imitators will appear no more than his fhadows." 


3 and yet lut raw neither ] We ihould read ./tan. 


I believe ravj to be the right word; it is a word of great latii 
tude ; ra~M lignifies unripe, immature, thence unformed, imperfeft, 
'unjk'tful. The bell account of him would be imjvtftft, in retpedt 
of his quick fail. The phrafe quick Jail was, I fuppofe, a pro- 
verbial term for activity of mind* JOHNSON. 

4 a j ou i cf great article ', ] This is obfcure. I once 
thought it might have been, afoul of great altitude; but, I lyp- 
pofe, afoul of great article, means afoul of large comprehend on, of 
many contents ; the particulars of an inventory are called articles. 


s of fuch dearth ] Dearth is dearnffs, value, price. And 
his internal qualities of fuch value and rarity. JOHNSON. 

* Is't not pofjlljlc to undcrftand in another tongue ? you ivill *&V, 
fir, rcattv.~\ Or this interrogatory remark the fenfe is very ob- 
fcure. The queflion may mean, Might not all this be -underftood in 
plainer language. But then, you iviil do it, Jir, really, feems to have 
no ufe, tor who could doubt but plain language would be intel-" 
ligible ? I would therefore read, Is't poflille not to be underftood 
i n a mother tongue. You will do it, fir, really. JOHNSON. 

Suppofe we were to point the paflage thus : Is't not pollible to 
understand ? In another tongue you will do it, fir, really. 

The Ipeech feems to be addrefled to OJrick, who is puzzled by 
Hamlet's imitation of his own affected language. STEEVENS. 


P R I X C E o F D E N M A R K. 397 

Ofr. Of Laertes? 

Her. His purie is empty already; all's golden 
words are fpcnr. 

Ham. Of him, fir. 

Ofr. I know, you are not ignorant 

Ham. I would, you did, fir ; yet, in faith, 7 if 
you did, it would not much approve me : Well, fir. 

Ofr. You are not ignorant of what excellence 
Laertes is. 

Ham. 8 1 dare not confefs that, left I fhould com- 
pare with him in excellence ; bur, to know a man well, 
were to know himfelf. 

Ofr. I mean, fir, for his weapon ; but in the im- 
putation laid on him by them, 9 in his meed he's un- 

Ham. What's his weapon ? 

Ofr. Rapier and dagger. 

Ham. That's two of his weapons : but, well. 

Ofr. The king, fir, hath wager'd with him fix Bar- 
bar} 7 horfes : againft the which he has J impon'd, as 
I take it, fix French rapiers and poniards, with their 
aligns, as girdle, hangers % and fo : Three of the 


7 if ' ymt did, it vmiU not aatcb approve me.] If you knew 
I was not ignorant, your efleem would not much advance ray re- 
putation. To approve, is to recmmexJ ti affrtbatiem. JOHNSON. 

* / dart not confefs that, left I JbtuiJ compare vxt& him, &c.) 1 
care not pretend to knovr him, left I (houid pretend to an equa- 
lity : no man can completely know another, but by knowing him- 
felr, which is the utrnoft extent of human wifdom. JOHNSON. 

9 in bis mffd, In his excellence. JOHNSON. 
1 impcnJ, ] Perhaps it fhould be, defmld* So Hudibra*, 
" I would upon this caufe dtpo*t 9 
" As much as any I have known." 

But perhaps impened u pledged, impawned, fo fpelt to ridicule the 
affectation of uttering Englifh wqros with French pronunciation. 


* bangers^] It appears from feveral old piays, that what was^ 
called a Caji of Haxgers, was anciently worn. So, ia the R:rtb of 
Merlin, 1662: 

*' He h a fair fword, but his laagers are fallen." 


398 H A M L E f , 

carriages, in faith, are very dear to fancy, very re- 
iponfi ve to the hilts, moft delicate carriages, and of 
very liberal conceit. 

Ham. What call you the carriages ? 

Ear. I knew, s you muft be edified by the mar- 
gent, ere you had done. 

Ofr. The carriages, fir, are the hangers. 

Ham. The phrafe would be 4 more germane to the 
matter, if we could carry a cannon by our fides ; t 
would, it might be hangers 'till then. But, on : Six 
Barbary horfes againft fix French fwords, their affigns, 
and three liberal-conceited carriages; that's theFrench 
bett againft the Danifh : Why is this impon'd, as 
you call it ? 

Ofr. 5 The king, fir, hath lay'd, that in a dozen 
paffes between yourfelf and him, he mail not exceed 


" He has a feather, and fair bangers too. n 
Again, in Rbodon and Iris, 1631 : " a rapier 

" Hatch'd with gold, with hilt and bangers of the hew faflnon." 


3 you mvfl be edified by the margeni,~\ Dr. Warburton very 
properly obferves, that in the old books the glofs or comment was 
ufually printed on the margent of the leaf. So, in Decker's 
Honeft Whore, part ad, 1630 : 

I read 

" Strange comments in thofe margins of your looks.'* 
This fpeech is omitted in the folio. STEEVENS. 

* more germane ] More a-k'tn. JOHNSONS 

s The king, Jtr, hath laid, ] This wager I do not underftand. 
In a dozen paries one muft exceed the other more or lefs than 
three hits. Nor can I comprehend, how, in a dozen, there can 
be twelve to nine. The paflage is of no importance ; it is fuf- 
ficient that there was a wager. The quarto has the paflage as it 
Hands. The folio, He hath one twelve for mine. JOHNSON. 

The king hath laid that in a dozen pajjes t &c. This paffage com- 
pared with two others in which this wager is again mentioned, is 
certainly obfcure ; yet with a flight correction already made by Sir 
T. Hanmer in the laft of them, the three paflages may, I think, 
be reconciled. 

By a dozen paffes between yourfelf and him, I under ftand a dozen 
pailcs for each. The meaning then is" The king hath laid, 



you three hits : he hath lay 'd oo twelve for nine ; 
and it would come, to irrunrd'arr trial, if your lord* 
flrip would vouchlaie the anfwer. 

Hsm. Howiflanfaer, no? 

OJr. I mean, my lord, the oppofitaoa of yourper- 
fba in criaL 

Htm. Sir, I will walk hot in the hall: Ifitpleaifi 
his majefty, it b the breathing tune of day with roe ; 
let the foils be brought : the gentleman wilting, and 
die king hold his purpofc, I will win for him, if I 
can; if not, I will gain nothing but my flame, and 

OJr. Shall I defitcr yoafo? 

Ham. To this ee&, fir; after what Bourlfh you* 
nature wilL 

OJr. I commend my dorr to your lordihip. [Exit* 

Ham. TOOTS, yours. He does we'.I, 10 commend 
k himfeif; there are no tongoes eHe tor's turn. 

Har. * This lapwing runs away wkh the ihell on 
his bead. 

madam pofts apicc beam JM xod Laeres, befiafl 

-i e -: :;T.--i- ::'-.:.:-; :;..-- : -. Hi \ :. -Jr.: u r; 
r !/ Ac tenm of Laeres ookW t?de Ms ^ f 

trych joofaO make.* Or perhaps die btlr i 

k vffl rata ** A (TIL LJOHS) Imli lad OQ xnns of nak- 
^i tor ^r*hica)oafciI5 male" 

oceeds Haulers oDnber "07 Arte^If 

lofc IPoa tbe odaer hand, La- 

and Hanurt o. or Larras 1 1 acd 

400 HAMLET, 

Ham. ? He did compliment with his dug, before he 
fuck'd it. Thus has he (and many more of the fame 
breed 8 , that, I know, the drofiy age dotes on) only 
got the tune of the time, and outward habit of en- 
counter * ; ' a kind of yefly collection, which carries 
them through and through the mod fond and win- 

it , - and coachmen 

** To mount their boxes reverently, and drive 
Like lapwings with ajhell upon their heads 
* Thorough the ftreets." 

And I have fince met with it in feveral other plays. The mean- 
ing, I believe, is This is a far-ward fellow. So, in Vittoria Co- 
rombona, or the White Devil, 1612: 

" Forward lapwing, 
" He flies with the (hell on's head." 

Again, in Greene's Never too late, 1616 : " Are you no fooner 
hatched, with the lapwing, but you will run away with the jhtll 
tnyour head ?" 

Again, in Revenge for Honour, by Chapman : 

" Boldnefs enforces youth to hard atchievements 
' Before their time ; makes them run forth like lapwings 
" From their warm neft, part of the Jhellyet flicking 
" Unto their downy heads." STEEVENS. 

7 He did fo, fir, with his dug, &c.] What, run away with 
it ? The folio reads, He did comply with his dug. So that the 
true reading appears to be, He did compliment ivitb his dug, i. e. 
{land upon ceremony with it, to (hew he was born a courtier. 
This is extremely humorous. WARBURTON. 

Hanmer has the fame emendation. JOHNSON. 

I doubt whether any alteration be neceflary. Shakefpeare teems 
to have ufed comply in the fenfe in which we ufe the verb compli- 
ment. See before, Aft 2. Sc. 2. let me comply with you in this 
garb. TYRWHITT. 

8 the fame breed,] It is beavy in the firft folio, and there 
may be a propriety in it, as he has juit called him a lapwing. 


and many more of the fame breed. The firft folio has 
and mine more of the fame beavy. The fecond folio and nine 
more, &c. Perhaps the laft is the true reading. STEEVENS. 

9 outward hahit of encounter \\ Thus the folio. The quartos 
read out of an habit of encounter. STEEVENS. 

1 a kind of yefty colleflion, wbic/j carries them through and 
through the moft fond and winnowed opinions ; and do but blotc them to 
tkeir trials, the bubbles are out.1 The metaphor is ilrangely mangled 



nowed opinions ; and * do but blow them to their 
trial, the babbles arc out. 

ibe imioii of the word. /W, which undoubtedly Aottld be 
red>.V; thealHinon bein~tocara xparateri by the fan rroai 
doff and dug. Bat the editors feeing, from the cfen&r of this 

_- JT ____ .a ji_M.i.jTja- . 

flnVnttBy VQC DOC *jmJMluiJ 9 

in the moft obvious fcnfc, %nilying 

; they tlw^ht^rV mod needs be wroog, 

\ifn. vidt tml fignifiod, in oar author's cms, tbciifb, 

^ aifo a diflbcnt t^niCcaioB: for it rosy mean the 
opinions of gnat men and oouracn, men ieponicd by their ouafh^ 
iiom die njfear, * corn k iepontfti fiom dttC TTlis *gfy o^. 
ASM, %s Hijnfe, mfimates tifcf int people of the b- 
qoafity, m yeft into the ineft floor. The coortiers 
when he comes to the trial, &c. 

Thb is a rerj happy emendation; bat I knmrnot why me critic 
ftxmld fapfoSc thai yfiiarf was prinKd tar fmd in omlcaoeace of 
any reaibo or ifficrtton. Such errcr?, to srtticli there is EO tnjpta* 
tion but icfecefe, and of which there was no cau'e bat igrxraixe, 
are m erery page o: the old editions. Tbis paflage in the traano 
fian ^ thus: ** They hare got out of the babk of encounter, a 

" tbe mo pro&ne and trenttwracd opiniocs.' JftK-: i 

iiicfeiucd anr traces of the original, oar aamor wrote, " tbe mod 

f __J * Mm "I ' JLl.. . ^rkvk M lu.11^1 ! fmtmm^A ~^A 

BQC anu renowncfl TyMijniofi>j wmcn -is ULIH i T r nii n ana 

The meaning e, thefe men haxr got the cant of the day , a 

BH^'fef'^i fCAteiaVQS OJt ULrbC 3flfl C^BTiOty GD3VCTt3(lOBLp 8. Kdu 

w of ttothy ooOeaion of &mkmabfe prmic, which jx carried 
em through Ac moft fdt& and auptutcd tudgaiccts. This 
' .. i r/ ._.: _;. .... - 

Who has not feen this ohfervadon Denied? Joaxsos. 

JS^ is cridently opoofed to vn'mm+juiJ. T f in ilii 
of Sbakefpeare-s age, filmed >4A So, in the 

Thoanaaghty jailer, why an than tofiaJ, Sec. 

* -?,c. Tbefc men of Aow, whhoctibJifiry, 
are Eke buboie. raifed fiom fbap and water, whicn daace, and 
{rimer, aad pkafe the eye, bat if you exxnd ibem. br blowing 
W, feprcxu-oi pift; foif you'obfige thefc ipeciobs a&ers 
to extend their compaS of conver&rioa, they at oooe <fi&0fcr the 

-- -j -'-:.; .-.;:. j: .-;::.-. 

Yoi- X. D d 

402 HAMLET, 

Enter a Lord. 

Lord. My lord J , his majefty commended him to 
you by young Ofrick, who brings back to him, that 
you attend him in the hall : He fends to know, if 
your pleafure hold to play with Laertes, or that you 
will take longer time. 

Ham. I am conftant to my purpofes, they follow 
the king's pleafure: if his fitnefs fpeaks, mine is 
ready ; now, or whenfoever, provided I be fo able 
as now. 

Lord. The king, and queen, and all are coming 

Ham. In happy time. 

Lord. The queen defires you, to ufe fome 4 gentle 
entertainment to Laertes, before you fall to play. 

Ham. She well inftrufts me. [Exit Lord. 

Her. You will lofe this wager, my lord. 

Ham. I do not think fo ; lince he went into France, 
I have been in continual practice -, I fhall win at the 

Winnowed isffied, examined. The ienfe is then, that their con- 
verfation was yet fuccefsful enough to make them paflable not only 
with the weak, but with thofe of founder judgment. The fame op- 
pofition in terms is v^fible in the reading which the quartos offer. 
Profane or vulgar , is oppofed to trenowned, or thrice renowned. 


Fanned and tuinnvufd feems right to me. Both words winnowed, 
fand* and dreft, occur together in Markham's Englijb Hujband* 
man y p. 117. So do fan'J and winnowV, fanned and winnow^/ in 
his Hujbandry, p. 18. 76, and 77. So Shakefpeare mentions to- 
gether the fan and wind in Troilus and Crejjida^ hSi 5. Sc. 3. 


3 My lord, &c.] All that pafles between Hamlet and this Lord 
is omitted in the folio. STEEVENS. 

4 gentle entertainment ] 'Mild and temperate converfation. 


* So written without the apoilrophe, and eafily might in MS. be mif- 



odds s. But thou would'ft not think, how ill all's here 
about fay heart : bnt it is no matter. 

Her. Nay, good my lord, 

Ham, It is but foolery ; but it is fuch 6 a kind, of 
gain- giving, as would, perhaps, trouble a woman. 

HOT. ' If your mind diflike any thing, obey it : I 
will foreftal their repair hither, and fey, you are not fit. 

Ham. Not a whit, we defy augury, there is a 
ipecial providence in the fall of a fparrow. If it be 
no^ > 'tis not to come ; if it be not to come, it will 
be now ; if it be not now, yet it will come : the readi- 
nefs is all : 8 Since no man knows aught cf what he 
leaves, what is' leave betimes ? Let be. 


*.JJk*&'xi*et.tie-oc&.] By *4& arc generally ucderftood 
Cither nufxaljfatfs, arm* M&vartagrgivem t a* aikxrfiej. That no 
MUL- was laid in the fonncr fenie, appears from die bet itfelf, 
which has abeany been partic-jlaiiy menrionec. When Hamicr, 
therefore, %, IjfrB*M at j*ett, he means I (hall iucceed with 
the advantage which I am allowed, I {hail make more than mat hits 
:cr Laertes' /radsr. MA LOVE. 

8 a iimd tf gain-giring] GaJM-gm'jg is the fcme as mif- 

With thde pre&ges 

evils arifing in the mind, the poet has forerun many events 
which are to happen at the ccndufipns of hu plays ; and fbaae- 
nma fb panicubniy, that even the circumiances of calamity are 
minutely hinted at, as in the in&nce of Juliet, who teils her lover 
from the window, that he appears lib *u AaJ in tkr l#t*m J a 
MMJU The fepponrioB that the genius of the mind gave the alarm 
before approaching dtdhlutiao, is a very aocienr one, and perhaps 
can never be toeuiy driven out: yet it mail be allowed the merit of 
aaViuig beauty K> poetry, however injurious it may fbmeumes prove 
to the weakaad the fuperl'nrkMS. STEEVEXS. 

* Sort ** ma*, has ought of what be Jams, aobat tit ff leave 
iuaKsf} This the editors called reafixung. I mould have 
thought the premifes concluded juft otherwtfe: for fince death 
ftripsamaaofevery inir.g, h is bat fit be ftould Oiun and avoid 
<he defpoikr. The old qoano reads, &mct <, 0f <mgt* be 
kjr^ kocws, <pDtnar iff & !?xrt itzma ? Let it. This is the true 
tracing. Here the premiies ccxichide right, and the argument 
drawn-out at length is to this eficd : <: It t* true, that, by death, 
* webfe2lithegoodot;fe; yet feeing this iofc i* no otberwilc 
D d a * an 



Enter King, Queen, Laertes, Lords, Ofrick, and 
attendants with foils, &c. 

King. Come, Hamlet, come, and take this hand 

from me. 

Kingputs the hand of Laertes into that of Hamlet. 
Ham, " Give me your pardon, fir : I have done you 

wrong ; 

But pardon it, as you are a gentleman. 
This prefence knows, and you muft needs have heard, 
How I am punifh'd with a fore diffraction. 
What I have done, 

That might your nature, honour, and exception, 
Roughly awake, I here proclaim was madnefs. 
Was't Hamlet wrong'd Laertes ? Never, Hamlet : 

" an evil than as we are fenfible of it ; and fince death removes 
" .all ienfe of it, what matters it how foon we loie them ? There- 
' fore come what will, I am prepared." But the ill pointing in the 
old book hindered the editors from feeing Shakefpeare's fenle, and 
encouraged them to venture at one of their own, though, as ufual, 
they are come very lamely off. WAR BUR TON. 

The reading of the quarto was right, but in fome other copy the 
harfimefs of the tranfpofition was fofrened, and the paflage itood 
thus : Since no man knnvs aught of what he leaves. For knows was 
printed in the later copies has, by a flight blunder in fuch typo- 

1 do not think Dr. Warburton's interpretation of the paflage 
the belt that it will admit. The meaning may be this, Since * 
man knows aught c/rhe ftate of life which be leaves, fince he cannot 
judge what other years may produce, why mould he be afraid of 
leaving life betimes f Why fhould he dread an early death, of 
which he cannot tell whether it is an exclufion of happinefs, or an 
interception ot calamity. I defpife the fuperftition of augury and 
omens, which has no ground in reafon or piety ; my comfort is, 
that I cannot fall but by the direction of Providence. 

Hanmer has, Since no man owes aught, a conjecture not very 
repreheniible. Since no man can call any pojjeffton certain, what is it 
to leave? JOHNSON. 

9 Give me your pardon, Jir :] I wifh Hamlet had made fome 
other defence ; it is unfuitable to the character of a good or a brave 
man, to Shelter himfelf in ialiehood. JOHNSON. 



If Hamlet from himfelf be ta'en away, 

And, when he's not himiclf, does wrong Laertes, 

Then Hamlet does it not, Hamlet denies it. 

Who does it then? His mad eels : If c be fo, 

Hamlet is of the faction that is wrong'd ; 

His m^nels is poor Himlc! s encrr.'.". 

Sir, in this audience ', 

Let my disclaiming from a purpos'd evil 

Free me fo far in your raoft generous thoughts, 

That I have Ihot my arrow o'er the houfe, 

And hurt my brother. 

Lacr. * I am faasfyM in nature, 
Whofe motive, in this caie, ihould ftir me moft 
To my revenge: but in my terms of honour 
I ftand aloof; and will no reconcilement, 
'Till by fome elder matters, of known honour, 
I have a voice and precedent of peace, 
To keep my name ungor'd : But, 'rill that time, 
I do receive your offer'd IOYC like love, 
And will not wrong it. 

Ham. I embrace it freely ; 
And will this brother's wager frankly play. 
Give us the foils ; come on. 

Latr. Come, one for me. 

Ham. I'll be your foil, Laertes ; in mine ignorance 
Tour (kill (hall,' like a ftar i f the darkeft night, 
Sack fiery off indeed. 

Laer. You mock me, Or. 

Ham. No, by this hand. 

? Sr t &c.] This paflkge I have idtofcd from die foGo. 


* IsmjrtuftJ in nature. &c.1 This was a piece or fame oo 
fentattical hoooor. Though momrt is fiukfied, ytt he wifl a* 
adxke of older mo, of thcmwl, whether -*&** Ammr ought ID 
be contented with i&mkt's tubmiftoo. 

Tkcre is a pat&oe tootewhat imibr in the 3fc^i Tr^Jf: 
roc then ? 
A 1 rirfL- STEETEWS. 

D d 3 A nr, 

406 HAMLET, 

King. Give them the' foils, young Ofrick. Coufm 

You know the wager ? 

Ham.. Very well, my lord ; 
Your grace hath laid the odds o* the weaker fide. 

King. I do not fear it ; I have feen you both : 
But fmce he's better'd, we have therefore odds. 

Laer. This is too heavy, let me fee another. 

Ham. This likes me well : Thefe foils have all a 
length ? [They prepare to play. 

Ofr. Ay, my good lord. 

King. Set me the ftoups4 of wine upon that table : 
If Hamlet give the firft, or fecond hit, 
Or quit in anfwer of the third exchange, 
Let all the battlements their ord'nance fire; 
The king fhall drink to Hamlet's better breath ; 
s And in the cup an union fhall he throw, 


3 Tour grace hath laid upon the weaker file.] Thus Hanmer. 
All the others read, 

Tour grace bath laid the odds o the weaker Jide. 
When the odds were on the fide of Laertes, who was to hit 
Hamlet twelve times to nine, it was perhaps the author's flip. 


For the reafon given in a former note, I think we ought to read 
with Hanmer, 

Your grace hath laid upon the weaker fide, 

The king's anfwer is then pertinent and clear. " I have no ap- 
prehenlions, for I am acquainted with the Ikill of rach of you. 
However, as Laertes is improved by practice in his travels, we 
(viz. Hamlet and the King) have an advantage given us." 
The compofitor at the prefs probably caught the word odds from 
the line next but one, and inadvertently inferted it in Hamlet's 
fptech. MAI.ONE. 

* the Jlovfs of wine] A fioup is *.flavgo, or bowl. 

5 And in the cup an union jball he throw,] In fome editions, 

And in the cup an onyx. Jliall he throw. This is a various read- 
ing in feveral of the old copies ; but union feems to me to be the 
true word. If I am not mirtaken, neither the onyx, nor fardonyx^ 
are jewels which ever found place in an imperial crown. An union 
it the illicit fort of pearl, and has its place in all crowns and coro- 


Richer than that whkh four focceffive kings 

In Denmark's down have worn : Give me the cups: 

And let the ketde to the trumpet fpeak, 

The cannons to the heavens, t 

Jftv the kag irirnkst* H*mlet. Come, begin j 

And you, the judges, bear a wary eye. 

H*m, Come on, fir. 

LMO-. Come, my load. [They fa. 

EMM. One. 

Lr. No. 

H*m, Jodgment, 


r. Wdl, aga 

fag. Stay, give me drink : Hamlet, this peart is 6 
to LBV ucalth. Give niiTi t?.t cup. 

[rrn^tfrfiorf-, jfhr M& *f. 
IT! play this boot firft, ict k by a while. 

"rfntfji laniafin grc- 

r4ai. fl fa, /io pod isAim 

e /-r - a^^a 
in its MUC from *; tke k 

from /*; tke kn, 
I tttik, ans to a 

4 o8 H A M L E T, 

Come. Another hit j What fay you ? 

Laer. A touch, a rouch, I do confefs. 

King. Our fon mall win. 

Queen. He's fat, and leant of breath 7. 
Here, Himlet, take my napkin, rub thy brows: 
The queen caroules to thy fortune, Hamlet 8 . 

Ham. Good madam, 

King. Gertrude, do not drink. 

Queen. I will, my lord -, I pray you, pardon me. 

fang. It is the poifon'd cup; it is too late. [Aftde* 

Ham. I dare not drink yet, madam ; by and by. 

Queen. Come, let me wipe thy face. 

Laer. My lord, I'll hit him now. 

King. I do not think't. 

L,a$r, An'd yet it is almoft aga.inft my confcience. 

Ham. Come, for the third, Laertes : You do but 

dally ; 

I pray you, pafs with your beft violence ; 
I am afraid, 9 you make a wanton of me. 


* Queen. He's fat, and. fcant of breath. ] It feems that John 
who was the original Falfiaff, was no lefs celebrated for 
his performance of Henry VIII. and Hamlet. See the Hi/2 oria 
Hiftfionica, &c. If he was adapted, by the corpulence of his figure 1 , 
to 'appear with propriety in the two former of thefe characters, 
Shaketpeare might have put this obfervation into the mouth of 
her majeity, to apologize for the want of fuch elegance of perfon 
as an audience might expert to meet with in the reprefentative of 
the youthful Prince of Denmark, whom Ophelia fpeaks of as 
*' the g'.afs ot fafhion and the mould of form." This, however, is 
mere conjecture, as Jojeph Taylor likewife atted Hamlet during the 
life 'of Shakelpeare. STEEVENS. 

\ The queen caroufes to thy. fortune, Hamlet.] So, in David and 
Bethjabe, 1599: 

" With full caroufes to his fortune paft. M 

*' And bind that promife with a full carou/e". Ibid. 

" Now, lord Urias, one caroufelo me." Ibid. 


9 you make a wanton cf me.] A wanton was a man feeble 
pnd etjeminate. In Cymbtlinc t Irnogen fays, 

M I am 


Say you fo? come on. 
OJr. Nothing neither way. 
LMTT. Have at you DOW. 


Pait them, they ate incens'd. 
Nay , come again. 
. Look to die queen tfcere, ho! 

Jhr. They bleed on both fides : How is it, my 


OJr. How is% Laertes? 
XJKT. Why, as a woodcock to my own fpringe, 


I am juftly kffl'd with mine own treachery. 
&. How does the queen ? 
Kaig. She iwoons to ice them need. 
SMOK. No, no, the drink, the drink, O my dear 

The drink, the drink ; I am poilbo'd 


Ham, O villainy? Ho! let the door be locked : 
Treachery! leek it oat. 

*. ZJKT. It is here, Hamlet : Hamlet, thou art fLaia ; 
No medicine in the world can do thee good, 
In thce there is not iiatf an boards life; 
The treacheroos inftnunent is in thy hand, 
Unbared, and envenom d c the fool practice 
Hathtnra'didetironine; lo, here I tie, 
Kever to rife again : Thy mother's poifbn'd ; 
I can no more; the king, the king's to blame. 
Hmm, The point envruom'd too ! 
, venom, to thy nork, 
* Treaion! trcafen! 

4 io HAMLET, 

King. O, yet defend me, friends, I am but hurt. 

Ham. Here, thou inceftuous, murd'rous, damned 


Drink off this potion ; Is the union here l ? 
Follow my mother. [King did. 

Laer. He is juftly ferv'd ; 
It is a poifon temper'd by himfelf. 
Exchange forgivencfs with me, noble Hamlet : 
Mine and my father's death come not upon thee ; 
Nor thine on me ! [Dies. 

Ham. Heaven make thee free of it ! I follow thee, 
I am dead, Horatio : Wretched queen, adieu ! 
You that look pale and tremble at this chance, 
* That are but mutes or audience to this act, 
Had I but time, (as this fell ferjeant, death, 
Js drift in his arreft) O, I could tell you,- 
But let it be : Horatio, I am dead ; 
Thou liv'ft ; report me and my caufe aright 
To the unfatisfied. 

Hor. Never believe it , 
I am more an antique Roman than a Dane, 
Here's yet fome liquor left. 

Ham. As thou'rt a man, 

Give me the cupj let go; by heaven, I'll have it. 
O God! Horatio, what a wounded name, 
Things ftanding thus unknown, fhall live behind 

me s? 

If thou didft ever hold me in thy heart, 
Abfent thee from felicity a while, 

1 L the union here ?] In this place likewife the quarto reads, aa 
cnyx. STEEVENS. 

* Tljat are but mutes or audience to this aft^\ That are either 
mere auditors of this cataftropbe, or at moft only mute performer^ 
that fill the ftage without any part in the action. JOHNSON. 

3 jhaUlive behind me 7] Thus the folio. The quartos read 
{hall / leavt behind me. STEEVENS. 



And in this harih world draw thy breath in 

To tdl my ftory. [Mardttfar f, adjbct witii*. 

What warlike note is this? 

O>. Young Fortinbras, with oooqncft come from 


To the embafiadors of England gives 
This warlike *oBcy. 

jfcw. O, I die, Horatio; 
The potent poifcn qoitt o'cr-grows my fpvk ^ 5 
I caoootHre ID hear the news from Eogjbod: 
Botldoprophefy, the ekaioo Hghts 
OaFomnbras; be has my dying voice ; 
SotcUhim,wkhtheoccunents5, more and Icfs, 
Which haw fctidteoV-The reft iafilence. [Dies. 

HIT. 'Now cracks a noble heart : Good night, 
iwcet prince; 


Vr-<r:cj KT ^pirit; 


" : i . :'.- r: : .. i ^ 


her bngfadbne ipfcoe, 

BJEgrtnujimii^ and breadie wnhom lerenge?* 
ffldPr ifero, HK . fit. an 
Lie die Tain babbie of Iberian pride, 
Tlat*r^TF a rf afl die world beidc.* 
TUiptnfe often ocean in die cumtutu&i aeces of Gabriel 

4 i2 HAMLET, 

And flights of angels fing thee to thy reft ! 
Why does the drum come hither ? 


Horatio founds this eulogy, and recommends him to the patronage 
of angels. 

Hamlet, at the command of his father's ghoft, undertakes with 
feeming alacrity to revenge the murder ; and declares he will banifh 
all other thoughts from his mind. He makes, however, but one 
effort to keep his word, and that is, when he miftakes Polonius for 
the king. On another occafion, he defers his purpofe till he can 
find an opportunity of taking his uncle when he is leaft prepared 
for death, that he may infure damnation to his foul. Though he 
aflaffinaied Polonius by accident, yet he deliberately procures the 
execution of his fchool-fellows, Rofencrantz and Guildenftern, 
who appear to have been unacquainted with the treacherous pur- 
pofes of the mandate which they were employed to carry. Their 
death (as he declares in a fubfequent converfation with Horatio) 
gives him no concern, for they obtruded themfelves into the fervice, 
and he thought he had a right to deftroy them. He is not lefs ac- 
countable for the diffraction and death of Ophelia. He comes to 
interrupt the funeral defigned in honour of this lady, at which 
both the king and queen were prefent ; and, by fuch an outrage to 
decency, renders it {till more neceflary for the ufurper to lay a 
fecond ftratagem for his life, though the firir. had proved abortive. 
He comes to infult the brother of the dead, and to boaft of an af- 
fection for his fifter, which, before, he had denied to her face; 
and yet at this very time muft be confidered as defirous of fup- 
porting the character of a madman, fo that the opennefs of his 
confeffion is not to be imputed to him as a virtue. He apologizes 
to Horatio afterwards for the abfurdity of this behaviour, to 
which, he fays, he was provoked by that noblenefs of fraternal 
grief, which, indeed, he ought rather to have applauded than con- 
demned. Dr. Johnfon has obferved, that to bring about a recon- 
ciliation with Laertes, he has availed himfelt of a difhonefl fallacy ; 
and to conclude, it is obvious to the moil carelefs fpectator or rea- 
der, that he kills the king at lait to revenge himfelf, and not his 

Hamlet cannot be faid to have purfued his ends by very war- 
rantable means ; and if the poet, when he facrificed him at lair., 
meant to have enforced fuch a moral, it is not the worir, that can 
be deduced from the play ; for, as Maximus, in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Falentinian, fays, 

" Although his juitice were as white as truth, 
" His way was crooked to it ; that condemns him," 
The late Dr. Akinfide once obferved to me, that the conduct of 
Hamlet was every way unnatural and indcfenfible, unleft he were 


Eater Fortiitras, tic E*glijb Embajfadors, and others. 

Pert. Where is this fight? 

Hor. What is it, you would fee? 
If aught of woe, or wonder, ceafe your fearch. 

Fort. s This quarry cries, on havock ! O proud 


What feaft is toward in thine infernal cell 9, 
That thou fo many princes, at a (hot, 
So Moodily haft (truck? 

4mb. The fight is difinal ; 
And our affairs from England come too late : 
The ears are fenfelcis, that mould give us hearing, 
To tell him, his commandrr.ent is fulfilled, 
That Rofencrantz and Guildenftern are dead : 
Where mould we have our thanks? ^ , 

Hor. Not from his mouth , 
Had it the ability of life to thank you ; 
He never gave commandment for their death. 

I as a young man whofenttdhgi woe in fane degree 

by his own misfortunes ; by the death of his farher, the 
ofexpe&ed foreragnty, and a fenfe of fiume refulticg from 
tne afiy and inceftuous marriage of his mother. 

I hare dwdt the looger on this fubjeft, becaufe Ham!et feems 
to hare been hitherto regarded as a hero not ucdeferrmg the pity 
of the audience ; and becaufe no writer on Shakefpeare has' taken 
the pains to point out the immoral tendency of his chaiadcr. 

Hanmer reads, 

To cry M, was to exclaim *gai*Jf. I fuppofe, when unfair fportf- 
more f&ny or ^ttme nun was reasonable, the cen- 

fiuc was to cry, HfocJL JOBMSOK. 
9 Wbat feaft if t*xmrdi*tka 

ctM,~\ Shakefpeare h 

already employed this allnfion to the Cbo* y <K fcjii j the && 
which were ancieady cflflmtfil at Athens, and are mentioned by 
Plutarch in the life of v&tMr'w. Our author likewile make* TAt 
iky to his too in the Firft Pan of Xag Mary VI : 

Now art thou come onto a ^4?^* <&<.'* STEEVEKS^ 
1 tumfftb,l i.e. the king's. STEEVEXS. 


414 CAMLET, 

But fince, fo jump upon this bloody queflion, 
You from the Polack wars, and you from England 
Are here arriv'd ; give order, that thefe bodies 
High on a ftage be placed to the view ; 
And let me fpeak, to the yet unknowing world, 
How thefe things came about : So (hall you hear 
Of cruel % bloody, and unnatural ads-; 
Of accidental judgments, cafual (laughters ; 
Of deaths put on by cunning, and forc'd caufe ' ; 
And, in this upfhot, purpofes miftook 
Fall'n on the inventors' heads : all this can I 
Truly deliver. 

Fort. Let us hafte to hear it, 
And call the nobleft to the audience. 
For me, with forrow I embrace my fortune ; 
I have fome rights of memory in this kingdom, 
Which now to claim my vantage doth invite me. 

Hor. Of that I (hall have alib caufe to fpeak, 
* And from his mouth whofe voice will draw on more '- 
But let this fame be prefently perform'd, 


* Of cruel, &c.] Thus the more modern editors. The firft 
quarto, and the folio, readOf carnal, &:c. referring, I fuppofe, 
to the ufurper's criminal intercourfe with the mother of Hamlet. 


1 and forc'd caufe.] Thus the folio. The quartos read 
and for no caufe. STEEVENS. 

* And from bit mouth luhofc voice will dravJ no morc:~\ This is 
the reading of the old quartos, but certainly a miftaken one. We 
fay, a man 'will no more draw breath ; but that a man's voice will 
draw no more, is, I believe, an expreffion without any authority. 
I choofe to efpoufe the reading of the elder folio : 

And from bis mouth, whofe voice luill draw on more. 
jAnd this is the poet's meaning. Hamlet, juft before his death, 
aad faid : 

But I do prophejy^ the election lights 
On Fortinbras : he has ny dying voice ; 
So tell him, feV. 

Accordingly, Horatio here delivers that meflage ; and very juftly 
infers, that Hamlet's voice will be feconded by of hers, and procure 
them in favour of FortinbrasV fucf ' "c-^ ^IIECEALD. 



Even whik men's minds are wild j left more mif- 

On plots, and errors, happen. 

Fort. Let four captains 
Bear Hamlet, like a ibldier, to the ftage ; 
For he was likely, had he been put on, 
To have prov ? d moft royally : and, for his pailage, 
The foldiers' mufic, and the rites of war, 
Speak loudly for him. 
Take up the bodies : Such a fight as this 
Becomes the field, but here fhews much amils. 
Go, bid the foldiers fhoot. 

[Exeunt: after <a>bicb 9 a pea! eforfiuaut 

if the dramas of Shakefpepe were to be chara&erifed, each by 
lie particalar excellence which diitinguifhes it from the reit, we 
rauft allow to the tragedy of Hamlet the pnrifo of variety. The 
incident* art fo numeroas, that the argument of the play would 
make a long tale. The fcenes are interchangeably diversified with 
merrirnem and folemniry ; \rithroenimenttnat includes judicipcs 
andinlh-TJcavecWervations; and (bleumity, not ftrained by poetical 
violence above the natural iendments of man. New characters 

appear from time to time in continual fucceffion, exhibiting 
forms of Kre and particnlar modes of converikion. The pretended 
madnefs of Hamlet cauks nrach mirth, the mournful diilractioa of 
Ophelia fills the heart with tenderneis, and every pert on age pro- 
duces the efeft intended, from the apparidon that ia the firft aft 
chills the blood with horror, to tke fop in toe laft, dut expoft 
aicftation to juft contempt. 

The conduct is perhaps not whaOjr iecure againft objeaions. 
The adJoo is indeed /er the moil part in coadauai progretijua, but 
there are feme iccnes which Beither mrward nor retard it. Of tee 
feigned m**\i*+* of Hamlet there appears BO adequate caufe, for he 
does nothing which he might not have done wkb toe reputation of 
ianity. Heplays the ">adtimi mod, when he treats Ophelia with 
(b much rndenrft, which teems to be ufeiefs asd wanton cruelty. 

Hamlet is, throogh the whole piece, rather an inirrument than 
an agenr. After he has, by the ftratagem of fhe play, convicted 
the king, he rnairn no atteniuc to punifh him ; and his death u 
t laft efiected by an incident which Hamlet had no pan in pco- 

The caaSrophe is not TCTT happtly produced ; the exchange of 
^reapoas is rather an expedient of necefliry, than a ftroke of art. A 

416 H A M L E T; 

fcheme might eafily be formed to kill Hamlet with the dagger, and 
Laertes with the bowl. 

The poet is acculed of having (hewn little regard to poetical 
juflice, and may be charged with equal neglect of poetical probabi- 
lity. The apparition left the regions of the dead to little purpofe ; 
the revenge which he demands is not obtained, but by the death of 
him that was required to take it ; and the gratification, which 
would arife from the deflrucYion of an ufurper and a murderer, is 
abated by the untimely death of Ophelia, the young, the beautiful, 
the harmlefs, and the pious. JOHNSON. 

ACT II. Scene 2. 

The rugged Pyrrbus, he, &c.] The two greateft poets of this and 
the laft age, Mr. Dryden, in the preface to Troilus and Crejfida, 
and Mr. Pope, in his note on this place, have cone uned in think- 
ing that Shakefpf are produced this long patfa</e with defign to ridi- 
cule and ex pole the bombaft of the play from whence it was taken ; 
and that Hamlet's commendation ot it is purely ironical. This is 
become the general opinion. I think jut! otherwise ; and that it 
was given with commendation to upbraid the talfe talle of the au- 
dience of that time, which would not Hitter them to do juftice to 
the limplicity and fublime of this produ&ion. And I reaibn, firit, 
from the character Hamlet gives ot the play, from whence the paf- 
iage is taken. Secondly, trom the pafl'age itfelf. And thirdly, 
from the effecl it had on the audience. 

Let us coafider the chara&er Hamlet gives of it, The play, I re- 
member, pleafcd not the million, 'twas Caviare to the general ; but it -Mas 
(as I received it, and others, ivbofe judgment infucb matters cried in the 
topqf mine) an excellent play, well digcftcd in the fcenes, Jet down with 
as much modejly as cunning. I remember, one faid, there tvas no fait in 
the lines to make the matter favoury ; nor no matter in the phraje that 
might indite the author of affection ; but called it an bonejl method. They 
who fuppofe the paffage given to be ridiculed, muft needs fuppofe 
this character to be purely ironical. But if fo, it is the ftrangeit 
irony that ever was written. It pleafed not the multitude. This we 
muft conclude to be true, however ironical the reft be. Now the 
reafon given of the deligned ridicule is the fuppoied bombaft. But 
thoie were the very plays, which at that time \ve know took with 
the multitude. And Fletcher wrote a kind QfRefaar/al purpofely to 
expofe them. But fay it is bombaft, and that therefore it took not 
with the multitude. Hamlet prefently tells us what it was that 
diipleafed them. There tvas no fait in the lines to make the matter 
ja<vouiy ; nor no matter in the phraje that might indite the author of af- 
fection ; but called it an honcft method. Now whether a perfon fpeaks 
ironically or no, when he quotes others, yet common fenfe requires 



fcetooid^ootewlnttfeyfrv. Now h could not be, if this 
k^beoufeoftfaelxMnbat, that thofe *hbm it Afp 
Wgi*e this feafen for tbdr diffike. The feme inconfiflendei 

and abfordities abound in ewyotber part of Hamlet's fpeech, fup. 
pofing it to be ironical: bat take him as fpeaking his Jentiinenti, 
the whole is of a piece; and to this purpofe. The play, 1 remem- 
ber, pfea&d not the muktrude, and the reafon was, it? bdng wrote 
on the rutes of die ancient drama; to which they were entire 
inagers. Bat, in wy opinion, and in the opinion of thofe for 
wfcofc judginent I bare the higheft efteem, k was an excellent ptay 
**i tgejieJ i* tix jcttfs, ue. where rbt three unities were well 
preferred. Set Aa rt * mmcb m*k& *t CM}**, i.e. where 
ant only the art of compofirion, but the fimpliciry of nature, was 
carefully attended to. The characters were a faithful picture of 
fife and manners, in which nothing was overcharged into farce. 
Bat rhefe qualities, which gained my efteem, loft the public's. For 

/ -r- _ - * - - __^ S~-^J T*r'_ii J rmr fmh &* ^* - - -^ *W JL ^ 

* frHMHCr 9ifjmim^ i *j* r c -^jm* iW jd* *M /Or OJKS t0 9KUK tot mUtfur 

fovnry, i. e. there was not, according to the mode of that time, a 
fool or down to joke, qurobfe, and talk freely. V*r *t Matter im 
lie pbrtjc A* might n* tbemtdbtr f tftffM, i. e. nor none of 
thofe pawoiiJig^ pathetic lore fcenes, fo eflential to modern tragedy^ 
But be rmmte it * bfmefi aeraM, i. e. be owned, however trnfttttft 
this method of writing, on the ancient plan, was to our times, yet 
it was chafe and pure; the diftinguhning character of the Greek 
drama. I need onh/ make one obferration on aH this ; that, thus 
interpreted, it isthejuftelt pidureoia good) 
ancient rules. 
from whit we 

esfetrt, ttMAty'^Cr t ri 

* Baton! beauty, but 

is the jufieit pidure of a good tragedy, wrote on the 
And that I hare righdy interpreted it, appears farther 
find in the old quarlo, Am tt*# mabJ, V^J^-r 
ivaymmcbrnfrt BAXDSOXE &a* FIJTB, i. e. it had 

KASDSOMI tCG-. yiNE, L C. 1: hid 

none of thefiicurof fcdfcarr, 

a A iccond proof that this fpeech was given to be admired^ is 
from theimnnfic rnerh of the fpeeeh idtif; which contains the de- 
icnpooo of a arcumfiance T ery 
lUum and Priam's falling together, 

neUS/kPjrrtm^ fte. 

Tbt mmmeroeJfmtberfm&t t &c. 
To, - ^rJ>rW/*5f; 

Now this cbcumflance, illuftrated wuh .be fine fimXtuie of tie 
ftorm, is fo highly worked up, as to ha^e udl dr.erred - phce iM 
Virgir* fccond book of tne JEmtU, eren thou b h the work had 
been carried on to that perfection whkh the Roman poet had con* 

3. The third proof is, from the efbcb which foDowe" on the 
ratal. Hamiet, his befi cfcunaer, approTes it; the player is 
deeply affected in repeating it; and only the fbolift Pplocio* 
tired with it. We bare fiud eaooeh beiore of Hamkfi * 

VOL. X. Be 

4 i5 H A M L E T, 

As for the player, he changes colour, and the tears flart from hi 
eyes. But our author was too good a judge of nature to make 
bombaft and unnatural ientiment produce fuch an effeft. Nature 
and Horace both inftru&ed him, 

Si vis tttfjfai'd dolendum eft 

Primum ipjl titti, tune tua me infortuiiia ladent^ 

Telepbff, -velPdcu. MALE si MANDATA LOCVUERIS, 

Aut donnitabc nut ridebo. 

And it may be worth obferving, that Horace gives this precept 
particularly to (hew, that bombaft and unnatural fentiments are 
incapable of moving the tender pafficms, which he is directing 
the poet how to raife. For, in the lines juft before, he gives 
this rule, 

Telpbus ZstPekus, cum pauper & exul uterque^ 

Pro/if it Ampulla^ & jefquipedalia verba. 

Not hat 1 would deny, that very bad lines in bad tragedies hare 
had this effect. But then it always proceeds from one or other of 
thefe caufes. 

1. Either when the fubjecr, is domeilic, and the fcene lies at 
home ; the fpeftators, in this cafe, become interested in the 
fortunes of the diftreired ; and their thoughts are ib much taken 
up with the fubject, that they are not at liberty to attend to the 
poet; who, othenvife, by his faulty femiments and diction, 
would have ftifled the emotions fpring'mg up from a fenfe of the 
diftrefs. But this is nothing to the ca'.'e in hand. For, as Hamlet 

Wba?s Hecuba to him, or be to Hecuba ? 

2. When bad lines raife this affection, they are bad in the other 
extreme; low, abject, and groveling, inftead of being highly fi- 
gurative and fwelling ; yet, when attended with a natural iimpli- 
city, they have force enough to ilrike illiterate and limple minds. 
The tragedies of Banks will jufHfy both thefe obferv^ricms. 

But if any one will ftill fay, that Shakefpeare intended to repre- 
fent a player unnaturally and fantalticaiiy uScctcd, v.c muli appeal 
to Hamlet, that is, toShakefpeaie himfelf in this matter; who, 
on the reflection he makes upon the player's emotion, in order to 
excite his own revenge, gives not the leaii hint that the player was 
unnaturally or injudicioully moved. On the contrary, his fine dc- 
fcription of the ador's emotion (hews, he thought juit otherwife ; 

this player here, 

But In afiftion, in a dream ofpajjion, 

CouU force bis foul Jo to his cti'/z cfiticdt* 

ybatfrom her working all kis i-ila^e ^and: 

Tears-in his eyes, dlJlraSllon in his afp'cc}, 

A broken voice, &c. - 

And indeed had Hamlet eireemed tKis emotion any thing unna- 
tural, it had been a very improper circumilauce to fpur him to his 

2 A3 


As Shakefpcare has here (hewn the eifcct- which a fice defaip- 
tion ot nature, heightened with sll the ornaments of art, had 
upon an intelligent piaver, whofe bufinefs habituates him to enter 
intimately and deeply into the characters of men and manners, and 
to give natuie its free workings on all occafions ; fo he has artfully 
fhewn what effects the very iame fcene would have upon a quite 
different man, Polonius ; by nature, very weak and very artificial 
[two qualities, though commonly enougbjoined in lire, yet gene- 
rally fo much difguifed as not to be !een by common eyes to be to- 
gether ; and which an ordinary poet durft not have brought fo near 
one another] ; lydlfciflinc, practiced in a fpecies of wit and eloquence, 
which was ftiff, forced, and pedantic ; and by trade a politician, 
and therefore, of confequence, without any of the aifecting notices 
of humanity. Such is the man whom Shakef^are has judicioufly- 
chofen to reprefent the fahe caite of that auaience wh : ch had con- 
demned the play hete reciting. When the actor comes to the fineft 
and moft pathetic part of the fpeech, Polonius cries out, This is 
too long ; on which Hamlet, in contempt of his ili judgment, re- 
plies, It JbaU to the parotids with tfy beard [intimating that, by ibis 
judgment, it appeared that all his wifdom lay in his length of 
beard,] Pr^tbce, fay on. He* s for a jig or a tale ff ba-jcdy [the 
common entertainment of that rime, as well as this, of the people] 
or bejiteps, fay on. And yet this man of modern tafte, who liood 
all this rime periectly unmoved with the forcible imagery of the 
relator, no focner hears, amongft many good things, one quaint 
and fantailical word, put in, I iuppoie, purpciely tor this end. than 
he proteiles his approbation of the pro^rietr and dignity out. Tbafs 
good, kittled queen is good. On the 'whole then, I thi^k, it plainly 
appears, that *t he long quotation is not given to be ridiculed and 
laughed at, but to be admired. The charafier given of the play, 
by Hamiet, cannot be ironical. The pai&ge itfelf is extremely 
beautiful. It has the effort that all pather.c relations, nafuraliy 
written, (houldhare; and it is condemned, or regar^sa with ia- 
ditference, by one or a wrong, unnatural tafte. From hence (to 
obferve it by the wav) the actors, in their reprefectatioa of 
this play, may le^rr. how rnis Ipeecli ought to be fpokeu, and what 
appearance Hamiet ougnt to allume during the rec: 

That which fupports the ccrnmon opinion, concerning this pat- 
fage, is the turgid espretBon in tome parts of it ; which, they 
think, co'jld never be given by the poet to be :-. We 

fliallthe. :.esi place, examine the lines moit obnoxious 

to cenfure, and fee hovr much, allowing the cha;ge, this will 
make ror the induction of their concloiion. 

Pyrrbus at Prlan drzits, in ra-^'Jir-tt 
T-JC muervtd father fa. 
And again, 

Out, caij tin firiaspet fe* 
In general . .-jxr : 

E 2 

420 H A M L E T, 

Break all th'efpokes and fellies from her ivbeel^ 
And bowl the round nave down the hill ofheavtn t 
As low as to the fiends. 

Now whether thefc be bombaft or not, is not the queftion ; but 
whether Shakefpeare eikemed them fo. That he did not fo efteenl 
them appears trom his having ufed the very fame thoughts in the 
lame expreffions, in his belt plays, and given them to his principal 
characters, where he aims at the fublime. As in the following, 

Tfoilus, in Troifas and CrfJMa, far outftrains the execution of 
Pyrrhus's iword, in the character he gives of Hector's; 
When many times the caitive Grecians fall 
Even in the fan and wind or your fair fword, 
You bid them rife and live. 

Cleopatra, in Antony and Cleopatra, rails at fortune in the fame 
manner : 

No, let me fpcak^ and let me rail [b high, 
That the falfe hufwife Fortune break her wheel, 
Provok'd at my ojji-nce. 

But another ufe may be made of thefe quotations ; a difcovery- of 
this recited play : which, letting us into a civcumftance of our 
author's life (as a writer) hitherto unknown, was the reafon I hare 
been fo large upon this queftion. I think then it appears, from 
what has been laid, that the play in difpute was Shakefpeare's own; 
and that this was the occafion of writing it. He was defirous, as 
foon as he had found his ftrength, of reftoring the chaftenefs and 
regularity of the ancient ftage : and therefore compofed this tragedy 
on the model of the Greek drama, as may be feen by throwing fo 
much aftion into relation. But his attempt proved truitlefs; and 
the raw, unnatural taile, then prevalent, forced him back again 
into his old Gothic manner. For which he took this revenge upo 
his audience. WARBURTON. 

The praife which Hamlet beftows on this piece is certainly dit 
fembled, and agrees very well with the character of madnefs, which* 
before witnefles, he thought it neceflary to fupport. The fpeeches 
before us have fo little merit, that nothing but an affectation of 
iingularity, could have influenced Dr. Warburton to undertake 
their defence. The poet, perhaps, meant to exhibit a juft refem- 
blance of fome of the plays of his own age, in which the faults 
were too general and too glaring to permit a few fplendid paflages 
to atone for them. The player knew his trade, and fpoke the 
lines in an affecting manner, becaufe Hamlet had declared them to- 
be pathetic, or might be in reality a little moved by them : for, 
*' There are lefs degrees of nature (fays Dryden) by which fome 
" faint emotions of pity and terror are railed in us, as a lefe engine 
*' will raife a lefs proportion of weight, though not fo much as> 
" one of Archimedes' making." The mind of the prince, it 
mult beconrefled, was fitted lor the reception of gloomy ideas, 
S 4 


and his Kars were ready at a ffiefet fcfctarion. It is by no means 
proved, that Saakefpeare kWil^*/Mr>i i^A* cbatkJ .r. 
t!xfim*<xprrjkms, im his If dys. If he bids <V/a b*fa*ft 

treat ker &r/, he does HOC defire her to ' tn<* all its 
awry MT its fieri}**?, W matt mft if the mror aftrmarJs 

aimm^mnmUf caft. Though if what Dr. Warburtoa 
laid tfeooid be found io any inibnce to be exafthr true, what 
can we inter from thence, but that Shakefpeare was f metimes 
wrong ra fpite of oonvielrton, and in the harry of writing committed 
thpte very finite which bis judgment could deled in others ? Dr. 
Warbartoa is incontinent in hrs aflertions concerning the litera- 

tore of Shake:ptarer In a note on Tntims amJCreJHe, be affirms, 
that his want of teaming kept him from being acquainted with the 
of Homer ; and, in this innance, would fuppofe him ca- 

patie ot producing a comptete traged 

aad that the fpeech betofe us had ferarient merit to entitle it to a 

t that ferf&M* tw*wd tif AWwt ftrt baJ cmKeeord. 
Had Shakefpeare made one unfoccefehil attempt in the manner 
of the ancients (that he had any knowledge of cheir rules, remains 
to be prored) it would certainly Kave been recorded by contem- 
pwafY writers, among whom Bee Jonfon would have been the firir. 
i^d his darting ancients been un&'lfulh/ imitated by a rivu! poet, 
be would at leail hare preierved the memory of the fact, to (hew 
bow untate it was for any one, who was not as thorough a ichol-r 
ac himlelr, to have meddkd with their facred remains. 

** Whhin that ckde none duril walk but he." He has repre* 
tented Inigo Jones as being ignorant of the very names of thofe 
daffic authors, whofe arcbitefture he un.tertook to corral : in his 
Fteta/ter he has in fcveral places hinted at our poet's injudicious 
ufe of words, and ieems to have pointed bis ridicule more than 
ooce at fome of his defcriptions and characters. It is true that he 
has pntfed him, but it was not while that praife could have been 
of ay fa-rice to him ; and potthumous applaufe b always to be 
had on eafy coodirions, Happy it was for Shakefpeare, that he 
took nature ror hrs guide, and, engaged in the warm puriait of her 
beawtks, left to Jonfon the repofitories o ^ learning : fo has be efcaped 
a conteft which might have rendered his lite uneafy, and bequeathed 
to our poflefioa the more valuable copies from nature herfelf : 
tor Shike&eare was (fays Dr. Hurd, in his notes on Horace's Art 
" of Poetry)" * the firti that broke through the bondage of daflkal 
foperttition. And he owed this felicity, as he did tome others, to 
his want of what is called the advantage of a learned education. 
Thus, uninfluenced by the weight of early prepofleffion, he irrudr 
at once into the road of nature and common fenfe : and without 
ng, without knowing ir, hath ten us in has hittorical plays, 
their aaomaucs, an crater refemblance of the Athenian 
E e 3 ibge, 

with a 



ftage, than is any where to be found in its inoft profefled admirer* 
and copyilts." Again, ibid. " It is poffible, there are, who think 
a. want of reading, as well as vaft fuperiority of genius, hath con- 
tributed to lift this aftonifliing man, to the glory of being efteemed 
the moll original THINKER and SPEAKER, lince the times of 

To this extract I may add the fentiments of Dr. Edward Young 
on the fame occalion. " Who knows whether Shakefpeare might 
not have thought lefs, if he had read more ? Who knows if he 
might not have laboured under the load of Jonfon's learning, as 
Enceladus under ^Etna r His mighty genius, indeed, through the 
moll mountaious oppreffion would have breathed out fome of hi* 
inextinguiihable fire j yet poffibly, he might not have rifen up into 
that gianr, that much more than common man, at which we now 
gaze with amazement and delight. Perhaps, he was as learned as 
his dramatic province required; for whatever other learning he 
wanted, he was matter of two b:>oks, which the laft conflagration 
alone can deitroy ; the book of nature, and that of man. Thefe 
he had by heart, and has tranfcribed many admirable pages of 
them into his immortal works. Thefe are the fountain- head, 
whence the Caftalian llre;ims of original compolition flow; and 
thefe are often mudded by other waters, though waters in their 
dilHncT: channel, mod wholefome and pure : as two chemical li- 
quors, fepat mely clear as cryftal, grow foul by mixture, and offend 
the fight. So thar he had not only as much learning as his dra- 
matic province required, but, perhaps, as it could lately bear. 
If Milton had fpared fome of his learning, is mule would have 
gained more glory, than he would have loft by ir." 

Conjectures on Original Compofition* 

THE firft remark of Voltaire on his tragedy, is that the former 
king had been poifoned by his brother and bis queen. The guilt 
of the latter, however, is far from being ascertained. The Gholr. 
forbears to accufe her as an accefiary, and very forcibly recom- 
mends her to the mercy of her fon. I may add, that her con- 
fcience appears undifturbed during the exhibition or the mock 
tragedy, which produces fo vifible a diforder in her hufband who 
xvaa really criminal. The laft obfervation of the fame author 
has no greater degree of veracity to boaft of; for now, fays he, 
all the a&ois in the piece are fwept away, and one Monfieur Fort- 
enb' - as is introduced to conclude it. Can this be true, when 
Horatio Ofrick, Voltimand, and Cornelius furvive ? Thefe, toge- 
ther with the'\7vole court of Denmark, are fuppofed to he preient 
at the cataftrophe, fo that we are not indebted to the Norwegian 
chief fqi h-ivingkep; the rt.ige from vacancy. 

M-mlieiir de Voltaire has lince transmitted in an Epiille to the 
Academy of Belles Lettres fome remarks on the late French tranf* 
latjon, of Shakefpeare j but alas ! no traces of genius or vigour 


are difcowerabk in this create rtfrtui, which is notorious only 
for its infipidity, fallacy, and malice. It .ores uuked tofhew an 
ap|Mirnt decline of talents and fpirit in its writer, who no longer 

rival, but appeals in a 
of France fcr their af- 
flop the Anther circulation of Shakdpeare's renown. 

Impartiality, nerenhekg, muft acknowledge that his prbae 
correiVondeace difpkys a fuperior degree of animation. Perhaps 
an ague (hook him when he appealed to the pobfic on this fubiefi ; 
bat the dfeasofaferer feem to predominate in his fiiMequent 
letter to Monfieur IXArgenteuil on the fane occafion ; fbrfucha 
letter it is as our John Dennis (while his firenzy bfted) might be 
Joppofcd to bare written. ** Ceft moi qoi aotrefbis parhu k pre- 
nner de ce Shakcfpcare : c'eft moi qoi k premier montrai aux 
Frant is queboes perks qnds farob trouve dans loo enorme 
fo**r. Mrs. Montague, the juftly cdefarated autfaorefi of the 
fy m ibegmts omd veritags of our author, was at Paris, and in 
the cirde where thefe rarings of the Frenchman were firft pubfickr/ 
recited. On hearing the illiberal ezpreffiou ahead j q xxed, with 
no kfe ekgance than readineis fte repBed-- < Ceft on >wr qui 
a fertilize une terre bien ingrate." In ihort, the author of 2^77?, 
Almtvmrt, and Soartma^ pofafa afl die mhcfaJcrous qualities of a 
midnight felon, who, in the hope to conceal his guik, fets thehoofe 
which he has robbed on fire. 

As for Me&urs D* Akmbert and Marnvontd, they^night &fcly 
' with that negkcx which their impotence of cnocifin 


defares. Vohaire, in fpite of his natural difpofition to vilify an. 
ngliih poet, by adopting fentimenc, charaaers, and fituations 
fom Shatefpeate, has befiowed on him iafohnary praifc. Hap. 
pily* he has not been dngraced by die worthkis enconuonis or 
msnguzed by the ankward imitarions of the other pair, who * foflow 
in the chace not like hounds that hoar, bat like tboie who fill up 
die cry." When ITAkmbert declares that more flerfing fenie is 

tn V mj^ nr^rk \ n t*n Prw4t uj~_ Lr i rl*4n ir% rKirftr 1? tw^lWk nil i m 

Wo DC met wiui in ten jrrcQC** wcncs UBHL 10 OUITT jLogmn oncsj 
: is aU that he prorokes. foch conrempt as can only be 

exceeded by that which erery ichohr win erprets, who may chance 
to look into the prole tranflatkm of Lucan by Marmootd, with 
the rain expectation of di&orering either the fr"^, the ipirit, oc 
the whole of the original, STEETEHS, 

f 4 OTHELt 

Supplemental Note on Hamkt, p. 263 and 410* 

92* r^gtd Pjrrb^ &c.] 

Mr. Malone once obferred to me, that a lait e&ur fuppofcd 
the fpeech uttered by the Player before Hamit, to have been 
taken irom an ancient drama, entitled tt Dido Queen of Carthage.'* 
I bad not then the means of justifying or confuting his remark, 
the piece alluded to having eicaped tbe hands of the moft liberal 
and induftrioos collectors of fuch curiofities. Since, however, 
our hft fceet was printed of, I hawe met with this performance, 
and am therefore at liberty to pronounce that it did not rurniih 
our Author with more than a general hint fix his description of 
the death of Priam, &c : unleis, with reference to 
the whiff and -xbu/of his fell iVord 

The Bnnerred tather faik, 

we read, TCT. 23 : 

And with the CODB/ thereof the king fen down ; 
and can make oat a refembbmce bertreea 

So as a painted tyrant, Pyrrhus (rood; 
and rer. 52 : 

So leaning on his fword, he flood ftone ftill. 
The greater part of the following lines are furdy more ridiculous 
in themfclves, than even Sbakefpearc's happied vein of burkique 
or parogr could have made them : 

** At Uft came PirrhufeU and full of ire, 
* ; H:s haraefle dropping blood, and on his fpeare 
* The mangled head ffriam yongei tonne, 
" And alter him his band of Minnidoes, 
*' \Vith baltes of wiide fire in their murdering pawrs . 
* WHch made the faaerali flame that burni uire Tryt 
" All which head me about, crying, this is he. 
Ah, how could poore JEaeas fcape their hand* ? 
My modier Foots jealous of ray health, 
*' Convaid me irom their crooked nets and bands : 

* So I efcapt the hirious Pirrbtu wrath 

<l Who then ran to the pallace of tbe King, 

" And at Jrrfi A!tar finding PraMmr, 

' ; About uhofe withered necte hung H-cuba, 

c< Fouldiog his hand in hers>and joyntiy both 

' Beating their breads and failing on the ground, 

*' He with his faulchions point raifde up at once; 

*' And with Mrgerou eyes itared in their lace, 

* Thrratning a thoutand deaths at every glaunce. 

* To whom the aged king thus trembling fpoke : &rc. 

" Not mov'd at all, but failing at his teares, 

This butcher, whil'tf his hands woe yet hdd up, 

3 "Treading 

" Treading upon hw breaft, ftrooke off his hand's* 
*' Dido. O end ./Eneas, I can heare no more. 
* jEn. At which the franticke queene leapt on his face, 
" And in his eyelids hanging by the nayles, 
" A little while prolong'd her hufband's life : 
" At laft the fouldiers puld her by the heeles, 
" And fwong her howling in the emptie ayre, 
" Which fent an eccho to the wounded king: 
" Whereat he lifted up his bedred lims, 
*' And would have grappeld with Achilles fonne, 
Forgetting both his want of ftrength and hands ; 
Which hedifdaining, whifkt his iword about, 
And with the wound thereof the king fell downe: 
Then from the navell to the throat at once, 
He ript old Priam ; at whofe latter gafpe 
Jove's marble ftatue gnn to bend the brow, 
As lothingPirrhus for this wicked ad : 
Yet he undaunted tooke his fathers flagge, 
And dipt it in the old kings chill cold bloud, 
And then in triumph ran into the flreetes, 
Through which he could not pafle for flaughtred men : 
So Jeaning on his fword he-itood {tone {till, 
Viewing the fire wherewith rich Ilion burnt." Aft. 2. 
The exaft title of the Play from which thefe lines are copied, is 
as follows : The | Tragedie of Dido | Queene of Carthage. \ 
Played by the Children of her | Maiejiies Chappell. \ Written by 
Chriftopher Marlowe, and | Thomas Najh. Gent. \ Actors | Ju- 
piter. | Ganimed. \ Venus. \ Cupid. \ Juno. \ Mercurie, or \ Hermes. 
I JEneas. \ Afcanius. \ Dido. \ Anna. Achates, j Ilioneus. \ larlas. 
j Cloanthes. \ Strgejlus. \ At London, { Printed, by the Widdowe 
Oritv'w, for Thomas Woodcocke, and j are to be folde at his (hop, in 
Paules Church-yeard, at | thefigne of the blacke Beare. 1594. | 

In the Tcmpeft) p. 43. I had likewife imagined fome allulion to 
this piece ; but, on reading it over, have difcovered not the flighteft 
grounds for my fuppolition. 

In Macbeth, p. 448. [ unfeam'd him from the nave to the 
chops] I have idiy itrove to fupport Dr. Warburton, who reads 
nape inltead of nave ; the latter being juitified by a paflage quoted 
above, from Dido: 

Then from the navel to the throat, at once 

He ript old Priam. STEEVENS. 



Evades them, with a bombaft circumftance* 

Horribly ftufPd with epithets of war ; 

And, in conclufion, 

Non-fuits my mediators ; for t certes 5, fays he, 

/ have already chofen my officer. 

And what was he ? 

Forfooth, a great arithmetician *, 

One Michael Cafiio 7, a Florentine, 

A fellow almoft damn'd 8 in a fair wife ; 


J certes,] i. e. certainly, in truth. Obfolete. So Spenfer, ia 
the fltny $uffnt b. 4. c. 9-: 

*' Certes her lofle ought me to forrow mod."" STEEVEN-S. 

Forfantk, a great arithmetician,] So, in Romeo and-JuUct y Mer* 
$utio fays : " one that fights by the book of aritbmetick" 


7 a Florentine,] It appears from many paffages of this plajr 
(rightly underitood) that Caflio was a Florentine, and lago a Vene- 
tian. "HANMER. 

8 /'a a fair wife ;] In the former editions this hath been 
printed, a fair wife 1 ; but fureljrifrftuft from the beginnit7g have 
been a miltake, becaufe it appears from a following part of the 
play, that Caffio was an unmarried man : on the other hand, his 
beauty is often hinted at, which it is natural enough for rough 
ibldiers to treat with fcorn and ridicule. I read therefore : 

A' fellow almojl damnd in a fair phy z. HA N M E R 
a Florentine* 

A fellow almoft damn din a fair wife;"] But it was lago, and 
not Caffio, who was the Florentine, as appears from Aft 3. Sc. i. 
The paflage therefore fhould be read thus : 

' ' a Florentine's, 

A fellow almoft damnd in a fair iulfe ;] Thefe are the word 
of Othello (which lago in this relation repeats) and ligniry, that a 
Florentine was an unfit perfon for command, as being always a 
(lave to a fair wife ; which was the cafe of lago. The Oxford 
Editor, fuppofing this was faid by lago of Caffio, will have Caflio 
to be the Florentine ; which, he lays, is plain from many pajptges in 
the plcy> rightly/ underftood. But becaufe Caffio was no married maa 
(though I wonder it did not appear he ivas, from fome p<*JP*ts 
rightly underjlood) he alters the line thus : 

A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair phyz. 
A White-friers' phrafe. WARBURTON. 

As Mr. Theobald's note on this paffage appears to have been 
written in concert with Dr. Warburton, it were ufelefs to infert 
them both. The former, however, concludes his obfervations thus : 

" lag** 


Tkat nwer fa a iqdii in tbc fidd. 
Nor thedmfiooofabKdekixws 


JW vxG^m TO tic flm~; Jig. M OJh, vas ike 
Harriot ; JEg*wte*iisZlXft . <o^>t C^fap 
a fin there, a rimani iraapct; ao4 *g K& km i thf 

S g i* f sil 

wouid be abfrrd, irC^ tad beat already wrial 

. kb ^d 

Kr^w ( oar 

ill iITUiaiiBi riii|_" i fii ni^i * STEEI 

P^f far A* 


ooc&iwoc, ^opofe. I owxx A- M k ^ij 

c, . ..--.-.... - - 

SaPWSpcc CoaMes, b. 5 . c. i. 
AjOrtHi-f *mtJm* faire^] TTi/^,i*%di 

>a -aa. $&.* 

Use original test may neap a 
die damned with tsdooty of a &k ife. 

. Sv. i._-x: A^:> Sc. 5. ptp*< 

Doeh, Gke i pcMtbooos oanaal gnaw my inward*. 

Who doaa, yet 

TVe fft &akj is ID raferiM wM Ife^e any La 

&idbc*r-i V- ' 


poaod JMv fap. 

pofivdtat ekberdacooe or dte other hare been rrpaarf r be 
ia ao j icBrioe. The poet has *eti die fioK aodt 


my Aathoow, I *> koow of dwfe 
" bAtberetac o% sre r^aed nx, 
For fcjiag othMg; who, Tainaj 

- hrbcrfcoBUlpc^FouW^ 

Which, bearin ikeai, wooki c, 1 tb-ir 

430 O T H E L L O, 

More than a fpinfter ; uhlefs the bookifii theoric *, 


thofe, who call their brothers fools. I am therefore inclined to 
believe, that the true reading here is, 

" A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair //#;" 

and that Shakefpeare alludes to the judgment denounced in the 
gofpel againft thofe of whom all men /peak well. 

The character of Caffio is certainly fuch, as would be very 
likely to draw upon him all the peril of this denunciation, lite- 
rally underftood. Well-bred, eafy, fociabk, good-natured ; with 
abilities enough to make him agreeable and uferul, but not fuf- 
ficient to excite the envy of his equals, or. to alarm the jealoufy 
of his fuperiors. It may be obferved too, that Shakeipeare has 
thought it proper to make lago, in feveral other patfages, bear 
his teftimony to the amiable qualities of his rival. In Aft 
Scene i. he fpeaks thus or him j 

. * If Caffio do remain, 

" He hath a daily beauty in bis life, 

" That makes me ugly." 

I will only add, that, however hard or far-fetch'd this allufiort 
(whether Shakefpeaie's, or only mine) may feem to be, archbifhop 
Sheldon had exactly the fame conceit, when he made that fin* 
gular compliment, as the writer calls it, [Biog. Britan. Art. 
TEMPLE] to a nephew of Sir William Temple, that " he had the 
*' curfe of the gofpel, becaufe all men fpoke weil'of him." 


Mr. Tyrwhitt's ingenious emendation is fupported by a paliage 
in the Merry Wives of Windfor, where good life is ufcd for -A fair 
eharafter : " Defend your reputation, or bid tarewel to your good 
life for ever." MALONE. 

The poet, I think, does not appear to have meant lago to be a 
Florentine, which has hitherto been inferred from the following 
paflfage in Aft 3. Scene i. where Caffio, fpeaking of lago, fays, 

/ never knew 

^ Florentine more kind and bonefl. 

It is furely not uncommon for us to fay in praife of a foreigner, 
that we never knew one of our own countrymen of a more friendly 
difpofition. This, I believe, is all that Caffio meant by his ob- 

From the already-mentioned paflagc in Aft 3. Scene 5. it is 
certain (as Sir T. Hanmer has obferved) that lago was a Vet 
netian : 

" I know our country difpofition well, 

" In Venice they do let heaven fee the pranks 

" They dare not lliew their hulbands." 
. Again, 

* tbeoric, ] "Tbeoric, for theory. S T E E v N s . 


'Wherein the toged confuis can prc 
As mafterly as .he : mere prattle, without pradice, 


" Alas, my friend and nay dear tau&ymax 
** RaJtrif*. Sec." 

Gra. WhatofX'aa*? 
- * log*. Even he, &c. 

That Caffio, hcwerer, was married, is not fuffiriendy implied 
in the word?, ajellra} abmtft dam* dim a fair wjft fince they may 
mean, according to lago's licentious manner of ocprening Sim- 
fdf, no more than a man vrrjr war & married. This ieems to 
iafe been the cafe in rdped of Caffio, Ad 4. Scene i. lago* 
fpeaking to him of Bianca, lays Wby the ay pes that ytm jbatt. 
many bar. Caffio acknowledges that fuch a report has beea railed, 
and adds, This is the aumkns fxti gnn*g eat : Jbc u ferfuoJeJ 1 
aaS many her ma of her tvat lave amdJelf-JlattcTy^ mat nf rf mj 
premifi. lago then, having heard this report before, very natu- 
nBy circulates it in his prefect conversation with Roderigo. If 
Shakefpeare, howerer, defigned Blanco for a curtizan of Cjprms 
(where Caffio had not yet been, and had therefore never (een her) 
lago cannot be fuppofed to allude to the report concerning hi* 
marriage with her, and confequently this part of my 'argumea' 
zonft fall to the ground. 

Had Shakespeare, confiftently with lago's character, meant t^ 
make him fay that Camo was aSzaEy daialdim bcieg married if 
a bamafome ^nvmn, "be would have made him lay it emirlgbt, and 
not hare inrerpofed ths paffiative alaafi. Whereas what he fays 
at prefent amounts to no more than that (howerer near his raar- 
riage) he is not yet cantfSelely JaauJ, becaufe he is not a-jjilnii^f 
married. The fucceedbg parts' of lago's co.. -'ciecdj 

erioce, that the poet thought no mode cf ccncep3o M 
too br.ital for the ; 

* Wbereim tie tongued cnfdi ] So the g ;be im- 

prefEons read; but the cldelt cjarto has it ttg-3\ the C 
that afr&ed the date in council, in their proper g- 
tne explain why I have ventured to fubftiture cc 
room of cazfmts: the Venetian nobility conHitute" t. 
or" the feoare, and are a pirt of the adminifrrat: 
moned to affift and ; 
So that 'they may 

the goveTnir.e .r cytji^ 

and trUnairs ; Aat f : 
Doges have been r :.D. 




Is all his foldierfhip. But he, fir, had the election : 
And i t of whom his eyes had feen the proof, 
At Rhodes, at Cyprus ; and on other grounds 
Chriftian and heathen, * muft be be-lee'd and calm'd 
By debtor and creditor, this counter-cafter * ; 
He, in good time, muft his lieutenant be, 
And I, fir, (blefs the mark* !) his Moor-fhip's an- 
Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his 

lago. But there's no remedy, 'tis the curfe of fer-, 

Preferment goes 6 by letter, and affection, 

By togcd perhaps is meant peaceable, in oppofition to the warlike 
qualifications of which lie had been foeakmg. He might have 
formed the word, in allufion to the Latin adage Cedant arm* 
toga. STEEVENS. 

''-muft be led and calnfd] So the old quarto. The firft folio 
reads be-lee'd: but that fpoils the meafure. I read let, hindered. 


, Bt-lecd fuits to eatntd, and the meafure is not lefs perfect than ia 
tnany other places. JOHNSON. 

Be-kfd and be-calm'dzre, terms of navigation. 

I have been informed that one veflel is faid to be in the Lee of 
Another when it is fo placed that the wind is intercepted from it. 
lago's meaning therefore is, that Caffio had got the wind of him, 
and be-calm*dti\m from going on. 

To be-calm (as I learn from Falconer's Marine Diflimary) it 
likewife to obftruA the current of the wind in its paflage to a ftrip^ 
by any contiguous objeft. STEEVENS. 

* this counter-cafter j ] It was anciently the practice to reckon 
Up fums with counters. To this Shakefpeare alludes again in 
Cymbeline^ Ad 5. *' it fums up thoufands in a trice : you have 
no true debtor and creditor, but it : of what's paft, is, and to come, 
the difcharge. Your neck, fir, is pen, book, and counterf" &c. 
Again, in Acolajius, a comedy, 1529 : '* I wyl caft my countefj^ 
or with counters, make all my reckenynges." STEEVENS. 

4 * blefs the mark /] Kelly, in bis comments on Scots pro- 
terbs, obierves, that the Scots, when they compare perfon to per- 
fon, ufe th i s exclamation . STEEVENS. 

' ~*his Moorftiip's ] The firft quarto reads his voorjhifts 

" ] ty recommendation from powerful friends. 



" Not by the old gradation, v ':. lecond 

5:cxxi heir to the r. v, fir, be ju Jge yourfelf, 

- Whether I in any jut! term am affin'd 
To love the Moor. 

Rod. I would nc: m then. 

/jg*. O. -u; 

I follow him to ferve mr turn upon him : 
We cannot all be matters, nor all mafters 
Cannot be truly follow 'd. You fhall mark 
Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave, 
That, doting on his own obfequious bondage, 
Wears out his rime, much like his mailer's afs^ 
For nought but provender, and, when he's old, ca- 


Whip me iuch 9 honed knaves : Others there "arc, 
Who, trimm'd in forms and vifages of duty, 
Keep yet their hearts attending on themfelves ; 
And, throwing but mows of fervice on their lords, 
Do weil thrive by them, sad, when they have lin'd 

their coats, 

Do themfelves homage : thefe fellows have Come 
foul ; 

And fu : I orofefs mvfelf. 

'j graJat^^ What is # ra- 
n edii^ij explains graJafa* jttj properlv. But tbe idea of & 

ooe cot CGC.C k:o ir : 

u-vere eacb jecvxt 
5.'i*/ieer uttgfof.- 

T i. e. it &x$ cat go bjr gradation, 3s 

is the nadir. 

The lecond quarto and ^#the 
D IJittsJ jnthtft 
;.-^r te ior A/iw, f tibai it, is 
tcy Js$ & Lx.? Lim t JOHNSON. 

: .--.-is here for Jer^aat t bat with a 

ir.htorc c: :.r coaieipc. JOH^OK. 

VOL, X. F f For, 


For, fir, 

It is as fure as you are Roderigo, 

Were I the Moor, I would not be Tago : 

In following him, I follow but myfelf ; 

Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty, 

But feeming fo, for my peculiar end : 

For when my outward action doth dcmonftratc 

The native aft and figure of my heart 

1 In compliment extern, 'tis not long after 

But I will wear my heart upon my fleeve 

For daws z to peck at : I am not what I am." 

Rod. What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe ^ 
If he can carry't thus ! 

lago. Call up her father, 
Route him: make after him, poifon his delight, 
Proclaim him in the ftreets ; incenfe her kinfmen, 
And, though he in a fertile climate dwell, 
Plague him with flies : though that his joy be joy. 
Yet throw fuch changes of vexation on't, 
As it may lofe fome colour. 

Rod. Here is her father's houfe; I'll call aloud. 

lago. Do ; with like timorous accent, and dire yell, 
4 As when, by night and negligence, the fire 
Is fpy'd in populous cities. 


1 In compliment extern, ] In that which I do only for an out- 
w.ird fhew of civility. JOHNSON. 

So, in Sir W. TFAvenaufs Albovine, 1629 : 

" that in light extern 
" A patriarch feems." STEEVENS. 
a For daws ] The firft quarto reads, for doves STEEVENS. 

3 Wlmt a full fortune docs the thick-lips owe r] Full fortune 
is, I believe, a complete piece of good fortune, as in another 
fcene of this play a full foldier is put for a complete foldier. To 
owe is in ancient language, to 0wa, to poflefs. STEEVENS. 

4 As when, by night and negligence, the fire 

Is fpy'd in populous cities.} This is not fenfe, take it which 
way you will. It night and negligence relate to fpieJ, it is abfurd to 
fay, the fire ivas fpied ly negligence. If night and negligence refer 
only to the lime and occafion, it Ihould then be night, and through 



Rsd. What ho! Brabantio! figniorBnbac:io,ho! 

Is?o. Awake! what, ho! Brabacrio! thieves! 


Look to your houfc, your daughter, and your bags I 
Thieves! thieves! 

Brabantuiy above, at a vstmdow. 

Bra. What is the reafon of this terrible fummons ? 
What is the matter there ? 

Rod. Sigoior, is all your family within ? 

lago. Are your doors lock'd > ? 

Bra. Why ? wherefore afk you this ? 

Jagg. Sir, you are robb'd ; for (hame, put on you/ 

TOOT heart is burft 6 , you have loft half your foul ; 

jifriai Qtbenrifc die parade ty would be node to fi^niiy i : ar 
applied to one word, and tomfs appEed ID tbe bsber. We ibouli 
read thoefofc, ts fped, bv wbich aO Aefc fenks are 

But what is ofmoft wrighr, tfac tminraJe, thus en-ended, agrees 
beft wididie&aitKapp&dto. Hjd mis nocke been pira to 

Bulmilio hpfeig hk Ln^fclri ram a^ajafyl mayrj^ ir B^htlthcn 

indeed have been wefl enough comfaicd to the alann prea of a 
fire joft JpeJ, as fbon it as was begun. Bat being riven afiar rfr 
efiiiy CDB^ncd to a far^ra/ ^ 

The pamcle is nfed opiTOcsar ; die fine fibenjr is cakea by 


Dr. Watbanon (eons to hare forgot that die nmri.H,! was not 
mated iffl die penks arrived at Cyprus : 

Coose, my dear kwe! 

The pordoJe made, die fruits aie to eafoe; 
That profits jet to cooae 'ntiit me and jou. 

* Jrej-r &**!*&} The firft 4|u*ito reads, 


is burft,] L c. broken. Bmr fat lr* is trfcd in our 
* and then he l*f his bead 

s." T i v > i . 

F f z Ever. 

43 6 OTHELLO, 

Even now, very now, an old black ram 
Is tupping your white ewe. Arife, arife ; 
Awake the fnorting citizens with the bell, 
Or tile the devil will make a grandfire of you : 
Arife, I fay. 

Era. What, have you loft your wits ? 

Red. Mofl reverend fignior, do you know my 
voice ? 

Bra. Not I; What are you? 

Rod. My name is Roderigo. 

Bra. The worle welcome : 

I have charged thee, not to haunt about my doors : 
In. honed plainnefs thou haft heard me fay, 
My daughter is not for thee ; and now, in madnefs. 
Being full of fupper, and diftempering draughts, 
Upon malicious bravery, doft thou come 
To ftart my quiet. 

Red. Sir, fir, fir, 

Bra. But thou mud needs be furc, 
My fpirit, and my place, have in them power 
To make this bitter to thee. 

Red. Patience, good fir. 

Bra. What teM'il thou me of robbing ? this ia 

Venice ; 
My houfe i^not a grange 7 . 


7 Grange.'] this is Venice ; 

My ho'-iie is not a %mr.?c. 

That is, " you are in a populous city, not iu a L>?;e ///<% where 
a robbery might eafily be committed." Grange is ih5tly and 
properly the farm or a monaftery, where the religious repofited 
their corn. Gratia Lar. from Granu-n. But in Lincolnlhire, 
and in other northern counties, they call every lone houfe, or farm 
xvhich ftands folitary, a grange. WAR TON. 
So, in T. Hey wood's Exgujlj ^fravelkr, 1633 : 

" Who can blame him to ablent himieif from home, 
" And make his father's houfe but as ^.grange, &c. ?"' 
Again, in Daniel's Complaint of Roj'amond^ 1599 : 

" foon was I trainM trom court 
' To zfelttay gran^f, &c," 



- . ' .-['..'. i" "i ' r .L ~ i r : ~ : . ; , 
In fimpie and pore foul I come to TOO. 

-%. Sir, TOO arc one of thofc, that viQ oat fenrc 
Gocf, if tae devil bad yoa. Becanfc me come to do 
you fervice, yon think we are ruffians : YooTH have 
your daoghtcr om^d vth a Barbatr horic; youTI 
bsvc youi ccpjjort * ncign to vou : Toa*il Mkc coor- 
fcfs for coufias, and garnets for germans '. 
rm, What profine wretch ait tbou r 

I am one, fir, that comes to cdl yon. * TOOT 


-_- .; ;i .-: . : -: : : i - - V 

: "-"...-. :v:-;l: - . - .-. " . :.<- .:. -....- - 

^taMppr b te ibrft SWc%ei 

: -: 7 - - : - 1. : - : : x . 
b B ofed fcy okr WMOS f Ac &K Jt : 


. :. I - : -. :-,' 

- BT As flr jjdGo^md hb cibrkjH&-r." STS n . 
~ynr4mgitr/^i alar Mar m* m&vg Ae od ia two 
i.1 Tlik is m MOO* pwnadbid ojetiSao ia Ac Fsoadk 

frB^s^ wfcr=zr S!;,Ar%^^ pobAJy bscnarsa ; fer Ac 


daughter and the Moor are now making the bead 
wit;h two backs. 

Bra. Thou art a villain. 

lago. You are a fenator, 

Era. This thou fhalt anfwer ; I know thee, Rode- 

Rod. Sir, I will anfwer any thing. But I befeech 


[? If't be your pleafure, and moft wife confent, 
(As partly, I find, it is) that your fair daughter, 
At 4 this odd even and dull watch o* the night, 
Tranfported with no worfe nor better guard, 
But with a knave of common hire, a gondalier,- 
To the grols clafps of a lafcivious Moor : 

DiSlionaire dcs Proverles Fran$o!fes, par G. D. B. Bruflelles, 1710, 
i2mo, I find the following article: " Faire la Bete a deux Dos 1 ' 
pour dire faire 1'amour. PERCY. 

In the DiElionairc Comique, par le Roux, 17^0, this phrafe is 
more particularly explained under the article Bete. " Faire la Icte 
a dtux dos. Maniere de parler qui fignifie etre couche avec une 
lemme; faire le deduit." " Et faifoient tous deux fouvent en- 
femble la bete a deufc dos joyeufement." Rabelais, liv. I. There 
vyas a tranflation of Rabelais publifhed in the time of Shnkefpeare. 


3 If tie, &c.] The lines printed in crotchets are not in the lint 
edition, but in the folio of 1623. JOHNSON. 

4 tb; s odd even -] The cv en of night is midnight, the time 
, when night is divided into even parts. JOHNSON. 

Odd is here ambiguoufly ufed, as it lignifies Jlrange, uncouth^ or 
unwonted ; and as it is oppofed to even. 

This expretlion, however explained, is very harfh ; and the 
poet might have written At this odd jlevcn. Steven is an ancient 
word fignifying time. So, in the old ballad of Robin Hood and G:y 
of Gijborne : 

" We may chance to meet with Robin Hood 

" Here at' fome unfett J?evcn." 

Again, in the Booke of the mojle vlfloryous Prynce Guy ofJJ'^ar'JcUk^ 
1)1, 1. no date : 

" Nowe we be mette at unfette^f-vo?, 
" Therefore we (hall make xis even." 
Again, in Chaucer's Knight's Tale, late edit. ver. 1526 : 

J* For al day meten men at unfet Jleven\" STEEVENS. 


If this be known to you, and your allowance, 

:hcn hare done you bold and faucy wrongs ; 
But, if you know not this, my manners tell me, 
We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe, 
That, from die ienfc of all civility, 
I thus would play and trifle with your reverence : 
Your daughter, if you" have not given her leave, 
1. fay again, hath made a grofc revolt; 
Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes, 
To an extravagant 5 and wheeling ftranger, 
Of here and every where : Straight fatisfy yourfdf :] 
If {he be in her chamber, or your boufe, 
Let loofc on me the juftice of the ftate 
For thus deluding you *. 

Bra. Strike on the tinder, ho ! 
Give me a taper ; call up all my people : 
This accident is not unlike my. dream, 
Belief of it opprefies me already : 
Light, I lay ! light ! 

logo. Farewel ; for I muft leave you : 
It feems not meet, nor wholefome to my place, 
To be produced 7 (as, if I ftay, I fliaD) 
Againft the Moor : For, I do know, the ftate, 
However this may gall him with * iboie check^- 
Cannot with fafery ' caft him ; for he's embariSL 
With fuch loud reaibn to the Cyprus' war, 
(Which even now ftands in ad) that, for tkrir fouls', 
Another of his fathom they have not, 

&c.] The oU copes read, A an extra- 
dediii tltmt wJaAfefmtobeutxmAf 

B&M.fri Mr-P^* madediii tltm^jt t wJaAfefmtobeutx 
Fiftmtm^m* is hoe ufcd in k$ %! Jtfiiii Ut\m t far 

Jkrix. Taw in H*m*t : " The txxrvng** azd erring 

The firtt quarto rca&, 


ArprodacM] The foto na^ 

kxne^c*,] Some rebate. JOBSSOX. 

afi A-. } That k, * him; r^3 him. We flfl 


To lead their bufmefs : in which regard, 

Though I do hate him as I do hell pains, 

Yet, for necefiity of prefent life, 

I mutt (hew out a flag and fign of love, 

"Which is indeed but fign. That you (hall furely 

find him, 

Lead to the Sagittary the rais'd fearch ; 
And there will I be with him. So, farewel. [#/ 

Enter, below, Brabantio^ and fervants. 

Bra. It is too true an evil : gone me is ; 
* And what's to come of my defpifed time, 
Is nought but birternefs. Now, Roderigo, 
Where didft thou iee her ? O unhappy girl! 
With the Moor, fay'ft thuu ? Who would be a 

father ? 
How didft thou know 'twas fhe ? 4 O, thou deceiv'it 

Paft thought ' What faid me to you ? Get more 

tapers ; 

Raife all my kindred. Are they marry'd, think you? 
Rod. Truly, 1 thmk, they are. 

1 Aii-*iuha?s to come of my defpifed #Vw,] Why defpifed time ? 
We fhould read, 

defpited time, 
L e. vexac ; ou>. W^RBiiRTox. 

Dy fifed ti.,ic, i.3 :lme ,fno value ; time in \ybich 
' Then's nothing 1'eiious in mortality, 
' The wine ot life is drawn, and the mere dregs 
" Are let ihip vault to brag of." Macbeth. JOHNSON. 
Again, in Rcmcp a.*i.4 "Juliet: 

" expire the term 

" Of a dcfp' fed \.--t cios'd in my breall." STEEVENS. 
z O, tht,u dscch'Jl me 

Paf: tbt-.-^b-: ! Thus the quarto 1622. The folio 1625, 
and the q.'iartos ^630 aud 1655 read, 
Ojjhe deceives me 

I have chjiei: the apoftrophe to his abfent daughter, as the rnoit 
fpiritea oi the uvo readings. STEEVENS. 



Bra. O heaven ! How got fhe out ? O treaibn 

of the blood ! 

Fathers, from hence truft not your daughters' minds 
By what you be them act. Are there not charms, 
s By which the property of youth and maidhood * 
May be abus'd ? Have you not read, Roderigo, 
Of fome fuch thing ?* 

Rod. Yes, fir ; 1 have, indeed. 

Bra. Call up my brother. O, 'would you had 

had her! 

Some one way, fome another. Do you know 
Where we may apprehend her and the Moor ? 

Red. I thick, I can difcover him ; if you pleaie 
To get good guard, and go along with me. 

Era. Pray you, lead on. s At every houfe I'll call 5 
I may command at moft : Get weapons, ho ! 
And raife fome fpecial officers of might 6 . 
Qn, good Roderigo ; I'll defenre your pains. [Exxmt. 

"" Autler Jhrect. 

Enter Othello* lago, and attendants. 

lago. Though in the trade of war I have flain men, 
Yet do I hold it very ftuflf7 o' the conlcience 


L *$y Q*&-& t&C pTGbtTt} Of^pQXth fOui ttUUmDOQa 

May If abus'd ? } By which the faculties of a young virgin 
. znay be infatuated, and made fubject to iliufiocs and to tslie ima- 
gination : 

" Wkked dreams ebxji 

" The curtain'd fleep." "Msclab. JOHNSON. 

4 maul maittivod ] The quartos read and manhood* 


5 Pray you, lead on.] The firft quarto reads, Pay lead me on. 


^rai^iu] The firit quarto reads of might. STEEVENS. 

7 llufF*' the conlcience] This expreak>n to common readers 

appears harfij. Stnffoi the confdemc* is, fu&fiamce, or tffnce of the 



To do no contrived murder ; I lack iniquity 
Sometimes, to do me fervice : Nine or ten times 
I had thought to have jerk'd him here under the ribs, 

Oth. 'Tis better as it is. 

lago. Nay, but he prated, 
And fpoke fuch fcurvy and provoking terms 
Againft your honour, 
That, with the little godlinefs I have, 
I did full hard forbear him. But, I pray you, fir, 
Are you faft marry'd ? for, be fure of this, 
That the 8 magnifico is much belov'd ; 
And hath, in his effect, a voice potential 
9 As double as the duke's : he will divorce you ; 


. confcience. Stnjfh a word of great force in the Teutonic lan- 
guages. The elements are callecf in Dutch, Hoefd Jloffcn^ or head 
jtujfs. JOHNSON. 

Again, in King Hemy'VIll : 

You're full of heavenly./?^ &c. 

Frifch's German Dictionary gives this explanation of the word 
Jloff: materies ex qua aliquid fieri poterit. STEEVENS. 

8 the magnifico] " The chief men of Venice are by a pecu-. 
liar name called Magnifid, i. e. magnificoes" Minfliew's Dictionary. 
See too Folpone. TOLLET. 

9 As doubk as the duke's : ] Rymer feems to have had his eye 
on this paflage, amongft others, where he talks fo much of the im- 
propriety and barbarity in the ftile of this play. But it is an ele- 
gant Grecifm, As double, fignifies as large, as extenjivc ; for thus 
the Greeks ufe ^trXSj. Diofc. 1. 2. 0.213. And ' n tne *" ame 
manner and conftruction, the Latins fometimes ufed duplex. And 
the old French writers fay, La plus double. Dr. Bentley has been as 
fevere on Milton for as elegant a Grecifm : 

Tet virgin of Proferpina from Jove, lib. 9. ver. 396. 
It is an imitation of the ng6i ex Sa^a'^s of Theocritus, for an 
unmarried virgin. WARBURTON. 

This note has been much cenfured by Mr. Upton, who denies 
that the quotation is in Dipfcorides, and disputes, not without rea- 
fon, the interpretation of Theocritus. 

All this learning, it it had even been what it endeavours to be 
thought, is, in this place, fuperfluous. There is no ground of 
fuppofing, that our author copied or knew the Greek phrafe ; nor 
does it follow, that, becaufe a word has two fenfes in one lan- 
guage, the word which in another anfwers to one fer.fe, fliould an- 
5 fwer 


Or put upon you what rcftraint and grievance 
The law (with all his might, to enforce it oa) 
Will give him cable. 

Otb. Let him do his fpite : 
My fervices, which I have done the figoiory, 
Shall out-tongue his complaints. Tis yet to know, 
(Which, when I know that boafting is an honour, 
I (hall promulgate) I fetch my life and being 
From * men of royal fiege ; * and my demerits 


fwertobotb. Ja > inLatin,%nifiesbodia/and afr-rf^" 
but we cannot %, dm ttc cmftmmmrcbvl* tie head tf 

bis hand; or, dm At- teJ bis troop mftm bufaarJ. It is DOC sl- 
wap in books that die meaning is to be ibogbt of thk writer, 
who was much more acquainted widi naked rcaJcn and wida filing 

has here its natonl fenfc. Tbe prcfidect of ensr defi- 
Jof iiiniy luis 2 dwiMr TOIOC* ID our courtSy toe ci*!^^' 
d one ot" the inferior judges preraii over the ether two, 
the chief jn9ke has a Ufr mice* 

had, fc |&a, though not by law, jet brg& 
, a voice not9MlaadlanH^ IMCIMMM? and opeia- 
UTe, s Jmtlc, that is, a Toke that when a qoettkm was foliiuijtd, 
would turn die balance as efiechaDy rfr JUii. P*at*t*uScd 
in die feafe of Icieace ; a co^Cur is cafied Mastu/ fiie. JOHXSOT. 
IbefietehereUamiftake. The chief jaflice and one of the 
inferior judges do *^ preraU orer the other two. The kid major 
ia die coon of aldermen has a doobk voice. To i. LET. 

an ^ renege, ] Men who have tu upon royal 


is ufed tor ^tfbjr other 
M dwe was ict ima dttone orr wjMf ior die 

in Greene's AVcrr .'*> 2ir, 1616 : 
Thy wunted_/fejr or honour Btdr c&nb. 
Again, in Spenfer's F*r,Sy*m, b. z. c. a : 

"* Fiom kinj^i^ began diefe wonb akxn to iound. 
Again, b.2. 0.7: 

- Aflarfr^roffoferaignemajefiye.- STEETEXS. 
* admf demerits] ZVri^ has dK feme meaning in ocr 
ftthor, and many othen of that age, as merits : 
Opinion that fo ikfa on 
Of hb 


5 May fpeak, unbonnetted, to as proud a fortune 
As this that I have reach'd : For know, lago, 
But that I love the gentle Defdemona, 
I would not my 4 unhoufed free condition 
Put into circumfcription and confine 
5 For the tea's worth. But, look ! what lights corr.r 
yonder ? 


So, in Shirley's Humorous Courtier, 1 640 : 

" we have heard fo much of your demerits, 
" That 'twere injutlice not to cherim you." 

Again, in Dugdak's Wanuickjbire, p. 850. edit. 1730: " Henry 
Conway, efq. for his fingular demerits received the digni-ty of 

Mereo and demereo had the fame meaning in the Roman lan- 
guage. STE EVEN'S. 

3 'fpeak, unboimetted, ] Thus all the copies read. It 
fhould be unbonnetting, \. e. without putting oft" the bonnet. POPE. 
: and my ilcmcrits 

May fpeak unbonnetted to as proud a fortune 
As ibis that 1 have wac/j'd. ] Thus all the copies read 
this pailage. <But, to fpeak unbonncited, is to fpeak vaim the cap 
f\ which is dircclly oppoiite to the poet's meaning. Othello 
means to fay, that his b'nth and fervices let him upon Inch a rank, 
that he may fpeak to a ienator of Venice with his hat on ; i. e. 
without fhewing any marks of deference or inequality. I there- 
lore am inclined to think Shakefpeare wrote : 

.iT/V fpeak, and bonnctted, cfrV. THEOBALD. 
I do not fee the propriety of Mr. Pope's emendation, though 
:idoptcd by Dr. Warburton. Unbonticiting may as well be, not 
Cutting c#, as not putting ojj\ the borfnet. Hanmer reads een bon- 
netted. JOHN sov. 

fionr.ctcr (fays Cotgrave) is \opnt t-ff one's cnp. So, in Coriolanus : 
*' Thoie who are fupple ind court t-ous to the people, lonnctted 
xvirhout any further oeed to heave them at all into their eltima- 
ticni." Unlonne ted may therefore figniry, without taking the cap off. 
AVe might, I think, venture to read imlonncttcd. It is common 
xvith Shakefpeare to make or ufe words compounued in the fame 
manner. Such are intpa'vn, impaint t impale, and immajk. Of all 
tb.e readings hitherto propofcd, that of Theobald is, I think, the 
belt. STEEVENS. 

; unhnjid ] Free from domejlic cares. A thought natural 
to an adventurer. JOHNSON. 

s For the feas worth.'] I would net marry her, though fhe 
were as rich as the Adriaiic, which the Doge annually mnrries. 

i believe 


Enter Caffio, with ethers. 

lago. Thefe are the raifed father, and his friends : 
You \vere bed go in. 

Otb. Not 1 : 1 muft be found ; 
My parts, my title, and my perfect foul, 
Shall manifeft me rightly. Is it they ? 

lago. By Janus, I think no. 

Otb. The fervants of the duke, and my lieutenant. 
The goodnefs of the night upon you, friends ! 
What is the news ? 

Caf. The duke does greet you, general ; 
And he requires your hatfe, poil-hafte appearance, 
Even on the inftant. 

Otb. What is the matter, think you ? 

Caf. Something from Cyprus, as I may divine ; 
It is a bufineis of ibme heat : the gallies 
Have lent a dozen fequent meiTengers 6 
This very night, at one another's heels ; 
And many of the 7 conluls, rais'd, and met, 


I believe the common and obvious meaning is the true one. 
The fame words occur in Sir W. D'Avenant's Cruel Brother^ 
1650 : ** he would not lofe that privilege 

" For the faff vxrtl*." 
Perhaps the phraie is proverbial. 

Pliny the nsturaliit has a chapter oa toe ricbes of the fta . 
Again, in the Mima's Tale: 

for all the fun fees, or 
The clofe earth wombs, or tie frojotaui fta bides 
In uxkncrjcji faibcms, &c. 
Again, in King Hnny V. At i : 

as rich with praife, 
As is the ouzc, and ooitom of the fea^ 
With fucken wreck, and furaleis treafuries. STEEPENS. 
* ftqutnt mefiengers] The firit quarto reads -^rfquent moA 
fengers. STEEVEXS. 

' cotifult,] Hanmer reads, CJK.-/. ; . Theobald would have us 

read couxjctitrs. Venice was origioai'v gorerned \*\- confuis: and 

am/ids items to have been commonly ufeu for c?vn~Jfrf, as before 

12 this play. In A^Iva't Tilr-.: . :6$-., ths emperor 

i Alrtnaft 


Are at the duke's already : You have been hotly 


When, being not at your lodging to be foundj 
* The fenate hath fent about three feveral quefts, 
To fearch you out. 

Otb. 'Tis well I am found by you. 
I will but fpend a, word here in the houfe, 
And go with you. [Exit. 

Caf. Ancient, what makes he here ? 

lago. 'Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land- 

carrack ; 
If it prove lawful prize, he's made for ever. 

Caf. I do not underftand* 

lago. He's married. 

Caf. To who ' ? 

A!banat is faid to be attended 1y fourteen confuls : again, tic baliti 
of the confuls were after the fame manner. Geoffery of Monmouth, 
and Matthew Paris after him, call both dukes and earls, confuls. 


8 The fenate bath fent out] The early quartos, and all the 
modern editors, have, 

The fenate fent above three feveral quefts. 
The folio, 

The fenate hath fent about, cSV. that is, about the city. 1 havs 
adopted the reading of the folio. JOHNSON. 

>uefts are, on this occafion, fearches. So, in Hey wood's Brazen 
j4ge, 1613 : 

" Now, if in all his qucfts, he be witheld." STEEVENS. 

9 a land-carrack ; A carrack is a fhip of great bulk, and 
commonly of great value j perhaps what we now call a galleon. 

So, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb : 

' they'll be freighted ; 

" They're made like carracks, all for ftrength and ftowage;'* 


1 To who ?] It is fomewhat fingular that Caffio fnould alk this 
queftion. In the jd Scene of the 3d Aft, lago fays : 
Did Michael Caffio, when you woo'd my lady, 
Know of your love ? 
Otb. From Jirfi to lajl. 

He who was acquainted with the object courted by his friend, 
could have little reaion for doubting to whom he would be mar- 
ried. STEEVENS. 



Re-enter Othello. 

lago. Marry, to Come, captain, will you go ? 

Otb. Have with you s . 

Caf. Here comes another troop to feek for you. 

Enter Brabantio^ Roderigo, wstb Officers. 

lago. It is Brabantio : general, J be advis'di 
He comes to bad intent* 

Otb. Hola! ftand there! 

Red. Signior, it is the Moor. 

Bra. Down with him, thief ! 

\bcy draw on both Jidu. 

lago. You, Roderigo ! come, fir, I am for you. 

Otb. Keep up your bright fwords, for the dew will 

ruft them. 

Good fignior, you fhall more command with years, 
Than with your weapons. 

Bra. O thou foul thief ! where haft thou ftowM 

my daughter? 

Damn'd as thou art, thou haft enchanted her ; 
For Pll refer me to all things of fenfe, 
If (he in chains of magic were not bound, 
Whether a maid fo tender, fair, and happy, 
So oppofite to marriage, that (he Jhun'd 
4 The wealthy curled darlings of our nation, 


* MKO&JMV.] This expreffion denotes readincS. So, ia 
t&ttr^&^ArtCT, bL L no date: 
And fcw dot Gkxooy wold nedys be gone; 

ufi go wyth thee." STE 
3fcfcuV;] That is,be*/; bcaa&ns; 


He bad not the hair pankdariy in im 


On another ooafionShakdpeare employs the feme opreffion, 

If fhe *& meet tbc CM** Antony, &c, 



Would ever have, to incur a general mock, 
Run from her guardage to the footy bofom 
Of fuch a thing as thou ; to fear *, not to delight. 
[ 6 Judge me the world, if 'tis not grols in fenfe, 
That thou haft practis'd on her with foul charms ; 
7 Abus'd her delicate youth with drugs, or minerals, 


Sir W. D'Avenant ufes the fame expreffion in his Juft Italian^ 

" The rtrr/Vaod filken nobles of the town." 

" Such as the curled youth of Italy." 

I believe Shakefpeafe has the fame meaning in the prefent inftance. 

s __ t fiar^\ i. e. to terrify. So, in King Henry VI : 

For Warwick was a bug that fear* d MS all. S? SEVENS. 
* 3 u dg e me ^ je world, &c.J The lines following in crotchets are 
not in the firft edition. POPE. 

7 Alufd her delicate yotith with drugs, or minerals, 

That weaken motion :] Brabantio is here accufing Othello 
of having ufed fome foul play, and intoxicated Defdemona by drugs 
and potions to win her over to his love. But why, drugs to weaken 
motion ? How then could Hie have run away with him voluntarily 
from her father's houle ? Had (he been averfe to choofing Othello, 
though he had given her medicines that took away the ufe of her 
limbs, might (he not (till have retained her fenfes, and oppofed the 
marriage ? Her father, it is evident, from feveral of his fpeeches, 
is pofitive, that (he muft have been alufed in her rational faculties ; 
or (he could not have made fo prepoficrous a choice, as to wed with 
a Moor, a Black, and re f ufe the fined: young gentlemeh in Venice. 
What then have we to do with her motion being weakened ? If I un- 
derirand any thing of the poet's meaning here, I cannot but think 
he muft have wrote : 

Abufd her delicate youth <tvith drugs^ or minerals t 
That weaken notion. 

i.-e. her apprebenpon, right conception and idea of things, nnderjland* 
ing, judgment, &c. THEOBALD. 

Hanmer reads with equal probability : 

That waken motion. > JOHMSON.- 

Motion in a fubfequent fcene of this play is iifed in the very 
fenfein which Hanmer would employ it: " But we have reafon 
to cool our raging motions, our carnal flings, our unbilled lufts. 

Again, in Cytnleline .' 

' For there's no motion 
** That tends to vice in man, but I affirm 
' It is the woman's part/* 


That weaken motion : I'll have it difputed on ; 
*Tis probable, and palpable to thinking. 
I therefore apprehend and do attach theej 
For an abufer 8 of the world, a pra&ifer 
Of arts inhibited and out of warrant : 
Lay hold upon him ; if he do refill, 
Subdue him at his peril. 

Otb. Hold your hands, 
Both you of my inclining, and the reft : 
Were it my cue to fight, I mould have known it 
Without a prompter. Where will you that I go 
To anfwer this your charge ? 

Bra. To prifon ; 'till fit rime 
Of law, and courfe of direct feffion, 
Call thee to anfwer. 

Otb. What if I <k> obey? 
How may the duke be therewith fatisfied; 
Whofe meflengers are here about my fide, 
Upon fome prelent bufinefs of the ftate, 

Again, in A MaJ WirU ay Mt/*trs t by Middkton, 1640 : 
" And in myfelf {both up adulterous mzfifms, 
** And fuch an appetite as I tanar damns me." 
Again, in A Wanumg fir fain W&meiL, 1 599 1 

41 Pray God that captain Browne hath not been roov'd." 
" Byfcmeiilofc." 

Drags or love-powders, as they are fomerimes called, may 
operate as enflamers of the blood raay <xake* morion. But I 
believe no drugs hare yet been fcuad out that can faicLrate rhe uz- 
derftanding or afibSions ; that can <sxa&* the judgment wiihout 
entirely fubTening ir. Opiates, or intoxicating potions may let 
the ienies to fleep, but cannot diilcrt or perven the inreilecL but 
by dtilroring them for a time. However, it may be laid, tliit 
JiraboMti* beuered in the CuBcacy or fuch drugs, and therefore 
mioiu with propriety u!k of their ^owbcr^ fix mulrrjlaaJi*g. 
The reading prcpofed by Tbcoba! J :s, it mull be acknowledged, 
ibongiy fujippned by a paiJa <e in K-*% Lrcr, Ad 2. Sc. 4 : 
His lufzn ^LfoiffSj his dhccraings 
Are lethargy'd." M A LON E. 

For <n a*air, &c. J The r tt quarto reads, S*J> aa bufcr, 

. X. G g T9 

450 V H E L L Oi 

To bring 9 me to him ? 

Offi. 'Tis true, moft worthy fignior, 
The duke's in council ; and your noble felf, 
I am fure, is fent for. 

Bra. How ! the duke in council ! 
In this time of the night! Bring him away: 
Mine's not an idle caufe : the duke himfelf, 
Or any of my brothers of the ftate, 
Cannot but feel this wrong, as 'twere their own ; 
For if iuch actions may have pafiage free, 
1 Bond-flaves, and pagans, fhall our ftatefmen be. 



A Council- chamber. 

Duke, and Senators, fitting. 

Duke. * There is no compofitioa in thefe news, 
That gives them credit. 

9 To bring ] The quartos read To bear STEEVEXS. 

1 BonA-jlaves, ana pagans, ] Mr. Theobald alters pagans to 
pageants for this reafon, " That pagans are as ilrift and moral all 
the world over, as the moft regular ChrilHans, in the prefervation 
of private property." But what then? The fpeaker had not this 
high opinion of pa^an morality, as is plain from hence, that thi$ 
important difcovery, fo much to the honour of paganiim, was firit 
nihde by our editor. WAREURTON. 

The meaning of thefe expreffions of Brahantio feems to have 
been miftaken. I believe the morality of either chriflians or 
pagans was not in the author's thoughts. He alludes to the com- 
mon condition of ail blacks, who come from their own countty, 
both Jlavrs and pagans ; and ui'es the words in contempt of Othello 
and his complexion. If this Moor is now fuffered to efcape witk 
impunity, it will be fuch an encouragement to his black country- 
men, that we may expert to fee all the firir. offices of our llate filled 
up by \\\z pagans and bond-flaves of Africa. STEEVENS. 

a There is no compofitioa ] ^Comp^jiticn^ for conjjfteacy, cox- 

j Sen, 


1 Sat. Indeed, they are difproportion'd ; 
My letters lay, a hundred and (even gallics, 

Duke. And mine, a hundred and forty. 

2 &*. And mine, two hundred : 

But though they jump not on a juft account, 
(? As in tbcfc cafes where they aim reports, 
'Tis oft with difference) yet do they all confirm 
A Tarkiflh fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus. 

Duke. Nay, it is poffible enough to judgment j 
I do not Co iecurc me in the error, 
But the main ankle I do approve 
In fearful fenfc. 

Sa&ar mtbim.~} What ho 1 what ho ! what ho f 

Enter an Officer, with a Sartor. 

Offi. A mefienger from the galiies. 
Dub. Now? die bufinefs ? 
SaiL The Turkilh preparation makes for Rhodes j 
- So was I bid report here to the date, 
By fignior Angelo *. 

How lay you by this change ? 

3 Aismibc^**xixrt3ue*aiMTf**r*!^\ Tbde Vcnemas feon 
to hive had a very odd lo-rt of periods ia emp-oTnteat, who dJ all 
by hazard, as tosww/, and wo., trey fhou^d rcyorr ; ror th-s is 
the fenie of wmfc-asmog mfgrts,- ."lltt troc iradhi^ without 

die a 

i. e. -Jxn taere is * tatfr 

which not onir improves Ac mfc, bur, by cfcangi-q -be vcro ia:o 

a coon, and ;he aoon into a Ten/, menus die exprc&xt. 

The fo5o has, 

the vsa reports. 

E :r. ':" one nftrts, has a fefr fbfEctemH- ea(y and comn*ooas. 


\Vcere ctca r^rr not by oensia Laosrirdgs, but by <% 2nd coo- 

To JJ~3 is to coaje&ne- So, in llie TvotGat'ew ^ Pcnm*: 

* Bat tearing led my jcaioos aim angu tr ." STEETEXS. 
* Ej $&? ^S*b.] Thi* hcimlikh is fir^^ in the fink 
. :... T -.- '--: .. 



i Sen. This cannot be, 
5 By no aflay of reafon ; 'tis a pageant, s 
To keep us in falfe gaze : When we confider 
The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk ; 
And let ourielves again but underftand, 
That, as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes, 
So may he with more 6 facile queftion bear it, 
' For that it (lands not in fuch 8 warlike brace, 
But altogether lacks the abilities 
That Rhodes is drefs'd in : if we make thought of 


We mud not think, the Turk is fo unfkilful, 
To leiive that latefl, which concerns him firlt; 
Neglecting an attempt of cafe, and gain, 
To wake, and wage '), a danger profidefs. 

Duke, Nay, in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes* 

Offi. Here is more news. 

Enter a Mejfcnger. 

Mef. The Ottomites, reverend and gracious, 
Steering with due courfe toxvard the ifle of Rhodes, 
Have there injointed.them with an after fleet. 

i Sen. Ay, fo I thought ' : How many, as you 
guefs ? 

3 By no aflhy of reafon.''] Bring it ro the trft, examine it by 
re.iibn as we examine metals by the affay, it will be found coun- 
ter I cit by all trials, j OIINSON. 

8 facile queftion ] Queftion, is for the aft of fccki-g. With 
more caly e.-nii avoi/r. JOHN3ON. 

7 For that itftdvds not, &c.] The feven following lines arc ad 
tied ITnce the lint edition. POPE. 

8 ivartite bnice,] State of defence.. To arm was called to 
I race on the armour. JOHNS ox. 

9 To --Make, and wage, a danger frnfitlejs,'] To wage here, as in 
inany o'her places in Shakcipeare; litanies to fighr, to combat. 
Thus, in King Liar : 

To la.'^r ayainft the enmity of the a : r. 
It took its rile from the more common exprefilon, to ivage v:ar. 

ST E E v E N ? . 
,-/v, <~o t &c.] This line is in the firft quarto. brEEVENS. 



Mff. Of thirty fail : and now they do se-flem * 
Their backward coodc, bearing with frank appear- 

Tfecir purpoics toward Cyprus. Signaor Mer 
Tour truftv and moft vdiaM fervkor, 
With his free duty, recommends you thus, 
5 Aad prprs you to believe him. 

D&ke. Tis certain then for Cypru - . 
Marcus Lucchefe, is cot he in town ? 

He's BOW in Florence. 
. Write from as ; wifh him, poil, poft-h^s : 

. HcrccooiCiBrabar.iio, andthevalianiMoor. 

VaSant OtheSo, we muft ftraight employ* 

. J**. , 
Asatntt the general enemy Ottoman."' 

I did not fee you; welcome, gentle fignior ; p /*. 
We lack'd your counsel and your help to right. 

Bra. So did I yours : Good your grace, pardon me; 
Neither my place, nor aught I heard of bu&neis, 
Hadi rais'd me from my bed ; nor doth the 4 general 

Take hold s on me ; for my partkuhr grief * 

* t&y J ic-ficm] The qaastos oacaa to rcsJ 
gh ia the firit rf ihcatfae won! b raispek. Sxn 
jfa/fempjntobtiacvc feu.] Tie bee kanscd mad 

The word cnr, vlndi esansxSsos the TOrfis, 
by tbe pLiyoi- SfakHprne UK Krjnarm. M 

i- Aif-j The fidl quano itad^, Tale 

r 7 j. _-._.- F . 

4U 6 t H E L L O, 

Is of fo flood-gate and o'er bearing nature, 
That it cngluts and mallows other lorrowsj 
And yec is (till itielf". 

Duke. Why, what's the matter ? 

Bra. My daughter! O, my daughter! 

ben. Dead ? 

Bra. Ay, to me; 

She is abus'd, ftol'n from me, and corrupted 
* By fpells and medicines bought of mountebanks 2 
For nature fo prepofteroufly to err, 
Being not 1 deficient, blind, or lame of fenfe, 
Sans witchcraft could not 

Duke. Whoe'er he be, that, in this foul proceeding* 
Hath thus beguii'd your daughter of herfelf, 
And you of htr. the bloody book of law 
You ihall youriclf read in the bitter letter, 
After your own fenfe ; yea, though our proper for! 

8 By fpells and medicines bought of mountebanks :] E.ymer has ridi- 
tuled this circumftance as unbecoming (both for its weaknefs and 
fuperftition) the gravity of the accufer, and the dignity of the tri- 
bunal ; but his criticifm only expo es his own ignorance. The 
circumltance was not only exatly in character, but urged with the 
greateft addrefs, as the thing chiefly to be infilled on. For, by the 
Venetian law, the giving love-potions was very criminal, as 
Shakefpeare without queilion well underftood. Thus the law, 
Delii maleficii ct herbarie, cap. 17. of the Code, intitled, " Delia 
*' proiniffion del maleh'cio. S'atuimo etiamdio, che-fe alcun homo, 
" o temina harra latto maleficii, iquali le dimcindano vulgarmente 
" aniatorie, o verainente alcuni altri maleficii, che alcun homo o 
*' femina fe haveffon in odio, fia frufta et bollado, et chc hara 
*' confegliado patifca fimile pena." And therefore in the preced 
ing fcene Brabantio calls them, 

' Arts inhibited, a*d out of warrant. WAREURTON". 
Though I believe Shakefpeare knew no more of this Venetian 
law than I do, yet he was well acquainted with the edidts of that; 
fapient prince king James the firft, againfl 


Of arts inhibited and out of warrant. STEEVENS. 
P Eting nof, ix:c.j This line is Wanting in the firil quarto. 


* Stood in your adion. 

Bra. Humbly I thank your grace. 
Here is the man, this Moor ; whom now, it icons, 
Tour fpecial mandate, for the ftate affairs, 
Hath hither brought. 

AIL We arc very fony for it. 

Duke. What, in your own part, can you fay to this? 

[TV OtbtUo. 

Bra. Nothing, but this is Ib. 

Otb. Moft potent, grave, and reverend figniors, 
My very noble and approy*d good matters, 
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter, 
It is moft true ; true, I have married her; 
9 Toe very head and front of my offending 
Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my fpeech, 
And litdc blels'd with the fct phrafs of peace ; 
for fince thefe arms of mine hsd ievea years* pith, 
Till now, fome nice moons w^fi^d, they have usM 

* Their deareft action in the tented field ; 
And iitde of this great world can I fpeak, 
More than pertains to feats of broil and battle ; 
And therefore little lhall I grace my caufe, 

{n ipeaking for myielf: Yet, by your gracious pa- 

* SlteJiMjmr *&**,] Were the mm expo&d to rccr ekirgt 


JOB x sox. 

-nit* the faftpbrm/e /***;! TWs apologf , 
tf addreflbd to his raittrtte, bad been wcil CTprcf-J. But what be 
wanted, in ipeaksoj bcuxe a Yeaeian iraate, was aot i^e t"- n 
of ipeech, but the an aad r-c-fe.d of 

kxjaence. The old c)uara> reads it, thcretore, as I am periaded 
^hakdTpenie wrote: 

- it* *.ctp6n& ifftaa. WAXBIIKTOV. 
Sffi is tbe rsadin^ ot the Jtbuo. Joax^ox. 
* Their deared Wfo j That is dear, tor which tc jch is food, 
mooer or labour ; JrtrmSM, is adion perfixAcd great 

jpmcncr. either ot coi or lijcty. IOHXSOJC. 


4 5 6 OTHELLO, 

I will a round unvarnifh'd 3 tale deliver 

Of my whole courfe of love ; what drugs, what 


What conjuration, and what mighty magic, 
(For luch proceeding I am charg'd withal) 
I won his daughter with. 

Bra. A maiden never bold ; 
Of fpint fo ilill and quiet, that her motion 
4 Blufh'd at herfelf ; And me, in fpite of nature^ 
Of years, of country, credit, every thing, 
To fall in love with what (he fear'd to lock on ? 
It is a judgment maim'd, and moft imperfect, 
That will confefs perfection fo could err 
Againft all rules of nature ; and muft be driven 
To find out praftices of cunning hell, 
Why this mould be. I therefore vouch again, 
That with fome mixtures powerful o'er the blood, 
Or with fome dram conjur'd to this effect, 
He wrought upon her. 

Duke. To vouch " this, is no proof ; 
Without more certain and more 6 overt teft, 
Than thele 7 thin habits, and poor likelihoods 
Of modern feeming, do prefer againfl him. 

3 vmrarnlflxd ] The fecond quarto 


4 T>lit_fljdat herfelf; ] Mr. Pope reads at it/elfc but without 
necellity. Shakefpeare, like other writers of his age, frequently 
uies the perfonal, inileaii of the 'neutral pronoun. STEEVENS. ' 

5 To vouch, <S. c.] The firfl: folio unites this fpeeoh with th 
preceding one of Erabantio j and inllead of certain reads voider. 


6 overt tefl^\ Open proofs, external evidence. JOHXSOX. ' 
1 thin halits, - 

Of modern jeemin^ ] Weak fhew of flight appearance. 

The firft quarto reads : 

Tbcfc are thin habits, and poore Ukelyhoods 

Ot modern jl-emiugs you prefer againit him. STEEYENS. 

MOOR or VENICE. 457 

I Sen But, Othello, fpeak ; 
t)id you by indireA and forced courfes 
Subdue and poifon this young maid's affections? 
Or came it by requeft, and fuch fair queftion 
As iQul to foul afifordeth ? 
Otb. I do befeech you, 
Send for the lady to the Sagittary 8 , 
And let her fpeak of me before her father : 
If you do find me foul in her report, 
The truft, the office, I do hold of you ', 
Not only take away, but let your fentence 
Even tall upon my life. 

Dxke. Fetch DefJemona hither. 

[Exeunt Two cr Three* 

Otb. Ancient, conduct them j you beft know the 
place. [Exit lag** 

And, 'till the come, as truly 1 as to heaven 
I do confefs * the vices of my blood, 
So juftly to your grave ears Fll prefent 
How did I thrive in this fair lady's love, 
And (he in mine, 

Duke. Say it, Othello. 
Otb. Her father lov'd me ; oft invited me ; 
Still queftion'd me the (lory of my life. 
From year to year, the battles, fieges, fortunes, 
That I have pafs'd : 

I ran it through, even from my boyifh days, 
To the very moment that he bade me tell it. 
Wherein I Ipake of moft difaltrous chances, 
Of moving accidents, by flood, and field ; 
Of hair-breadth fcapes i* the imminent deadly breach; 

* the Sagittary,] Means the fign of the fictitious creature fo 
called, /". e. an animal compounded of man and bode, and armed 
with a bow and quiver. STEEVEXS. 

9 The iruji, &c.] This Une is wanting in the firft quarto. 

1 as truly] The fi r ft quarto reads, as_/S//4/. STEEVEXS. 

* J cs-ify'lj &c.] This line is caiitted in the ril quarto. 




Of being taken by the infolent foe, 

And fold to flavery ; of my redemption thence, 

3 And portance in my travel's hiftor 

4 Wherein of antrcs vaft, and defarts idle, 

3 And portance, &c.] I have reftored, 

And with it all my travel's hijiory: 
From the old edition. It is in the reft, 

And port ance in ny travels hijlory. 

Rymer, in his' criticifm on this play, has changed it to pof4 
tents, inftead of portance. POPE. 

Mr. Pope has reftored a line, to which there is little objection, 
but which has no force. I believe poriance was the author'| 
jyord in fome revifed copy. I read thus, 

Of lelng fold 

70 Jlavery, of my redemption thence, 

And parlance ir!t\ my travel's biftory, 

JHy redemption from flavery, and behaviour in it, JOHNS OH j 
Parlance is a word already ufed in Coriolanus : 
took from you 

The apprehenfion of his prelent portance, 

Which moft gibingly, ur.gravely, he did fafhion, &c f 
Again, in the comedy of Albumazar^ 1 610: 

" What a grave portance /" 

Spenfer, in the ^d Canto of the ad Book of the Faery Queen, like^ 
wife ufes it : 

" But for in court gay portannce he perceiv'd." 
Again, ibid. 

' And by her {lately portance, borne of heavenly birth.'^ 
Again, b. 2. c. 7 : 

" His portaunce terrible, and ftature tall." STEEVENS. 
* Wherein of aatres vajt, &c.] Diicourfes of this nature made 
the fubjeft of the politeft converflttions, when voyages into, and, 
clifcoveries of, the new world were all in vogue. So when the 
Bartard Faulconbridge, in King John, defcribes the behaviour of 
uptlart greatneis, he makes one of the eflential circumftances of 
5t to be this kind of table-talk. Tlie fafhion then running alto- 
g^ther in this way, it is no wonder a young lady of quality 
fnould be ftruck with the hiftory of an adventurer. So that 
Rymer, who profefledly ridicules this whole circumilaace, and 
the nobler author of the Char age rijlics, who more obliquely, 
fneers it, only expofe their own ignorance. WAR BURTON. 
. Whoever ridicules this account of the progrefs of love, fhews 
h'.s ignorance, not only of hiftory, but of nature and manners, 
Jt is no wouder that, in any age, or in any nation, a lady, rs~ 


Itcragh quarries, rocks, and bills whole heads touch 

* heaven, 
* It was my hint to fpeak, fuch was the procefs ; 

dirfe, timorous, and denote, fbenld defiic to bear of events and 
fcenes which (be could never lee, and fbould admire die man who 
had endured dangers, and performed actons, which, however 
neat, were vet magnified bv her timidity. JOEXSOX. 

iriern* f**^ Wdefere idle, &c.] Ibusitbrnafl 
the old editions ; but Mr. Pope has thought fit to change the 
epithet. Dr&rtsuOe; in rhe tonner Titiocs (fitys he) doabdds, a 
corruption fVta ^U^-But he muft parJon me, if I do not concur 
In thinking -his to doubtkte. I do not know whether Mr Pope 
has obterred it, but I know that Shakefpesre, efpeciafiy in do 
fcriptions, is fond - 1 ufi-jig the more uncommon word in a poetic 
faumdc. And /A, in fereral other pa&ges, he employs in thefe 
acceptations isiU. t&fa mmaMomt^, Kc. THEOBALD*. 

Every mine is fiabie to abfeoce and icadrerency, dfe Pope coald 
nerer hare rcjecled a word To poeticaHj beauctal. I& is an 
epitnet u ed to exprels die infernlstv of the chaotic fine, ia the- 
Saron tractlation of the Pentateuch. JOHXSOX. 

So, in ;he &*x$ef Emrs: 

Ufjrping vry y briar or iJle raof?. STEEVEXS. 
The fame epithet is confirmee by another pafiage in rbis ac* of 
Oibf&: Either have itfleril widiafagf^or manured with 
induftry." MALOXE. 

Mr.'Pope might hare found the epithet rcu/in all Ute three \a& 
folios. STEEVEKS. 

txtm-\ FfCQchy grottos* r o PE 

Rather cove* and sou. JOHXSOX. 

s It tturrr hint im fpeoL, ] This implks it as done by a tnp 
kid lor her : bat die old quarto reads best, i. e. ufe, cullom. 

Hmt is not ayC in Shaielpeare, nor, I bdiere, in any ocher 
Author. Hrxt, or cme, is commonh/ uied for occafion of fpcech, 
which is explained by, fach VMS ttffnofs^ that is, the coune of 
the tale required it. If lot be reSored, it may be explained by 
hack. I had a L*xf y or tffvtsKiy, to fpeak of cannibals. 

JOHN sox. 

But occurs at the cooduEon of the 4th At of Mufirtfir Mo+- 
It is derived from the Saxon HoooMy and means, to tote bdl 

the gnweft citizens 

" Have bemt the ges.* 
But in the *erj next pa ;c O'lrSt tys t 

- Upon this bimt I fpake. 
is cemia tfeeibtt riut chasge is uaowefftTy* 


And of the Cannibals that each other eat, 

The Anthropophagi, and 6 men whpfe heads 

Do grow beneaih their fhoulders. Thefe things tcj 


Would Defdemona ferioufly incline : 
But (till the houfe affairs would draw her thence ; 
Which ever as fhe could with hade difpatch, 
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear 7 
Devour up my cHfcourfe: Which I obferving, 
Took once a pliant hour ; and found good means 
To draw from her a prayer of earnett heart, 
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate, 
Whereof by parrels (he had fornething heard, 
* But not intentively ; I did confent j 



Do grow beneath their Jhoulden.* ] Of thefe men there is nq 
account in the interpolated travels of Mandeville, a book of 'that 
time. JOHNSON. 

The Cannibals and Antbropfpbagt were known to an Englifli 
audience before Shakefpeaie introduced them. In the Hij. my of 
Orlando Funofo % play'd for the entertainment of Qviee;. R'.i^a^eth ^ 
they are mentioned in the very firft fcene ; and Raleigh Ipeaks of. 
people whole heads appear not above th-ir ihou'uers. 
Again, in the Tragedy of Locrine, i 595 : 

" Or where the bloody Anthropophagi, 
" With greedy jaws devour the wandnng wights." 
The poet might likewife have read of them in Pliny's Nat. Hifti 
tranflated by P. Holland, 1601, and in StJWc'l Chronicle. 

7 and titl a greedy ear 
Devour up njy dificurfc :~\ So, in Marlowe's LuJ} J s Dominion: 
" Hang both your greedy earsopon my lips ; 
" Let them devour ny Ipecch" M ALONE. 
' But not intentively : ] Thus the eldeil quarto. The folio 
reads, bifllnHlvdy. Perhaps it ftiould be,^'cly. 

The old word, however, may rtand. Intention arid attention, 
were once fynonymou?. So, in a phy called the IJle of Gsft&y 
7633 : " Grace! at fitting down they cannot intend it for hun- 
ger," i. e. attend to it. Defdemona, who was often called out 
of the room on the fcore of houfe-affairs, could not have 'heard 
tale i^eniive^ t i, e. with aUdition to all its farts.' 



And often did beguile her of her tears, 
When I did fpeak of fome diftrefsfui ftroke 
That my youth iuflfer'd. My ftory being done, 
She gave me for my pains a vrorid of Cghs : 
She Iwrore, lr. iwas ftrange, 'twas pa 

ftrange ; 
'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful : 

viih'd, (he had not heard it; yet flic wi(h'd 
That heaven had made her fuch a ^nan : (he thank'd 


And bade ir.e, if I had a friend that lov'd her, 
I fhould but teach him how to tell my ftory, 
And that would woo her. Upon this hint, I fpakc : 
She lov'd me for the dangers I had paft ; 
And I lov'd her, that (he did pity them. 
This onlv is the witchcraft I have us'd ; 
Here comes the lady, let her witnefs it. 

Enter Defilement, lago* and Attendants. 

Duke. I think, this tale would win my daughter 



Take up this mangled matter at the bed : 
Men do their broken weapons rather ufe, 

Again, in Chapman's Verfion of the Iliad. B. 6 : 

* Hector intends his brother's will ; but firii, &c." 
n in the tench Book; " ill with imtrmtvoc ear 

" OjDTened to toe enemies* tents 
Again, in the eighih Book of the Odyfiey : 

" For our fcips know th* ezpretied minds of csen; 

" And will tc moil 'xt&uttfy retaide 

* Their fccpes appointed, that they nCTcr errr." 


* a axrla ^Jf^bs ] It was Hjfts in the later editions : 

but this is evidently the true reading. The Luiy had been for- 
w-ra indeed n> give hiai a <3j*rld ef kiis upon the bare reciui of 
. . ,ry ; cor due> k agree wuh che loliov, . 


462 O T H E L L O, 

Than their bare hands. 

Era. I pray you, hear her fpeak ; 
If (he confefs, that Ihe was half the wooer, 
Deftruftion on my head J , if my bad blame 
Light on the man ! Come hither, gentle mifirefs j 
Do you perceive in all this noble company, 
Where moft you owe obedience ? 

Def. My noble father, 
I do perceive here a divided duty : 
To you I am bound for life, and education ; 
My life, and education, both do learn me 
How to refpeft you ; you are the lord of duty % 
I am hitherto your daughter : But here's my hufband : 
And fo much duty as my mother fhew'd 
To you, preferring you before her father, 
So much I challenge that I may profefs 
Due to the Moor, my lord. 

Bra. God be with you ! -I have done : 
Pleafe it your grace, on to the ftate affairs ; 
1 had rather to adopt a child, than get it. 
Come hither, Moor : 

I here do give thee that with all my heart, 
"Which % but thou haft already, with all my heart 
I would keep from thee. For your fake, jewel, 
I am glad at foul I have no other child , 
For thy efcape would teach me tyranny, 
To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord. 

)uke. 4 Let me fpeak like yourlelfj and lay a 


* Defii-uRlon, &c.] The quartos read, deftrucHon light on mr. 


* You are the Isrd of cluty^\ The firft quarto reads, 

You are lord of all my duty. STEEVEVS. 

3 Which, &c,] This line is omitted in the firil quarto. 


4 Let tnr ffxak like your /elf; ] It ftiould be like our fe'f, i. c. 
Jet roe mediate between you as becomes a prince and: common 



Which, s as a grife, or ftep, may help thefe lovers 

* Into your favour. 

When remedies are part:, the griefs are ended, 

By feeing the worft, which late on hopes depended. 

To mourn a mifchief that is paft and gone, 

Is the next way to draw new mifchief on 7. 

What cannot be preferv'd when fortune takes. 

Patience her injury a mockery makes. 

The robb'd, that fmiles, fteals fomething from th$j 

He robs himfelf, that fpends a bootlefs grief. 

Bra. So let the Turk, of Cyprus us beguile ; 
We lofe it not, fo long as we can fmile. 
He bears the fentence well, that nothing bears 

* But the free comfort which from thence he hears ; 

father of his people : for the prince's opinion, here delivered, was 
quite contrary to Brabactio's femiment. WARBURTOX, 
Hanmer reads, 

I^ei ne now fpeak mart like your felf. 

Dr. Warbu or/s err.e::darion is fpecious ; but I do not fee how 
Hanmer's makes any alteration. The duke Teems to mean, when 
he fays he will fpeak like Brabantio, that he will fpeak fcnten- 
tioufly. j o H N ? o .v . 

Let r?:e ipcak l':ke yourfflf; ] i. e. let me fpeafc as yourfelf 
would fpeak, were you not too much heated with paffion. " 


s as a grize, ] Grixe from dcgreei. A grize is a itep. Su 
in T-Tion: 

" for every grizf of fortune 

" Is fmcoth'd by that below." 
Ben Jonfbn, in his Syams, giref the original word. 

4 * Whom u ben he law lie fpread on the dfgrcei" 
In the \viii ol K. Henry VI. where the dimenlions of King's 
College ch::ptl a: Cambridge are fet down, the woid occurs, as 
fpelt in forae of the oivl Cviitiors of Shakefpeare. ** From ;he pro- 
voit's Itull, unto the Greece called GradtttC&tri, 90 feet." STK VEXS. 
6 ln'j ji-our fa~.;oitr.~\ This is wanting in the folio, but round 
in the quarto. JOHXSOX. 

J Kfiv mifchicr on.] The quartos read more mifchief. 


1 Bui t'.: f--.f cprjOr* i\- } :'':b f--?m thence be bran:] But the 
moral precepts of confolation, which arc liber-iily bellowed on 
occafion cr the fentence. JOHNS o.v. 


4&4 O T H E L L O, 

But he bears both the fentence and the forrow, 
That, to pay grief, muft of poor patience borrow, 
Thefe fentences, to fugar, or to gall, 
Being ftrong on both fides, are equivocal : 
? But words are words ; I never yet did hear, 
That the bruis'd heart was pierced through the ear. 

I humbly 

9 But worth are ivnrds ; / never yet did bear, 

That the britiftt heart ivas pierced through the ear.~\ Th 
duke had by fage fentences been exhorting Brabantio to patience, 
and to forget the grief of his daughter's ftolen marriage, to which 
Brabantio is made very pertinently to reply to this effect : " My 
' lord, I apprehend very well the wifdom of your advice ; but 
*' though you would comfort me, words are but words ; and the 
*' heart, already bruis'd, was never piercd, or wounded, through 
" the ear" It is obvious that the text mult be reiloied thus : 

That the bruis'd heart ivas pieced through the ear. 
2. e. that the wounds of forrow were ever cured, or a man made 
heart-whole merely by words of confolation. WAREURTON. 

That the bruifed heart ivas pierced through the ear.] Shake- 
fpeare was continually changing his iirft expre ilion for another, 
cither ftronger or more uncommon ; fo that very often the reader, 
who has not the fame continuity or fucceffion of ideas, is at a lofs 
for its meaning. Many ot Shakefpeare's uncouth ilrained epi- 
thets may be explained, by going back to the obvious and fimple 
exprefficn, which is m .<il likely to occur to the mind in that Hate. 
I can imagine the firtt mode of expreilion that occurred to the 
poet was this : 

'* The troubled heart was never cured by words." 
To give it poetical force, he altered the phrafc: 

" The wounded heart was never reached through the ear." 
Wounded heart he changed to broken, and that to bruifed, as a 
more uncommon expveifion. Reach he altered to touched, and the 
transition is then eafy to pierced, i. e. thoroughly touched. When 
the fcntiment is brought to this ftate, the commentator, without 
this unravelling clue, expounds piercing the heart in its common ac- 
ceptation 'Mounding the heart r which making in this place nonfenfe, 
is corrected to pieced the heart, which is ve;y ftilr, and, as Polonius 
fays, is a vile fhrafe. Sir J. REYXOLPS. 

Pierced may be right. The coniequence sf a bruij'e is fome- 
t'unes matter collected, und this can no way be cmed without 
piercing or letting it out. Thus, in Hamlet : 

" It will but fkin and film the ulcerous place, 
** While rank corruption mining uii within, 
" luiccts uafeen,." 


I humbly befeech you, proceed to the affairs of date' 
Duke. The Turk with a moft mighty preparation 
makes for Cyprus: Othello, the fortitude of the 
place is beft known to you : And though we have 
there a fubftitute of moft allowed iufficiency, y*c 
opinion, a fovereign miftrefs of effects* throws a more 
fafe voice on you : you mull therefore be content to 
Hub her l the glofs of your new fortunes, with thi 
more ftubborn and boifterous expedition. 

Otb. The tyrant cuftom, moft grave ienators, 
Hath made the flinty and fteel couch of war 
My * thrice-driven bed of down : I do agnize * 
A natural and prompt alacrity* 
I find in hardnefs ; and do undertake 
This prefent war againft the Ottomites* 
Moft humbly therefore bending to your ftate, 
4 1 crave fit difpofition for my wife j 


" This : th*:rnpo5hurne of much wealth and peace, 
** That inward breaks, and iheurs no cauie without, 
* Why the man dies.* STEETENS. 

1 To flubber tbe gltf^ &c.] To Jlxfeer* on this occafion, is to 
bfcitre. So, in the Firft Part of" JCTOBJJOJ, ic. i6o| : 

tt The evening too begins \ojl*bbtr day.** STEEVEMS. 
tbricc-tex* M tfdsv*:} A Jrivt* bed, is a bed for 
which the feathers are feie&ed, by driving with a fan, which fepa~ 
rates the light jfrom the heavy. TOHNSOX. 

3 I da agnize] /. e. acknowledge, coniefsi avow* So, in the 
Id play of Camtyjts : 

"* The teaor of your princdy will, from you for to*g*izr* 

Ir. this inftance, howerer, it fignifies to know / as Hkewife in the 

fijllowing, from the fame piece : 

" Why fo ? I pray you let me agaive? 

4 I crave Ju dLffxfilax fir ay vxff ; 

Due reference of'fiacc, axd exhibition, &c.] I defire, that 
per ttypcfitim be made for my wire, that fhe may hare t 
and rfifnue^ accommodation, and compaty^ fuitable to her rank. 

for riprencc of place, the old quanos have nvcrtna, which 
Haamer has received. I ihould read, 

DM preference if place. - JOHXSOK. 
Exkibhiem is allowance. Toe word is at prefent uicd only a* 
the univerfiries. 
Yr. X* H k So, 


I>ue reference of place, and exhibition ; 
With fuch accommodation, and befort, 
As levels with her breeding. 

Duke. If you pleafe, 
Be*t at her father's. 

Bra. I will not have it fa. 

Otb. Nor I. 

Def. Nor I ; I would not there refide, 
To put my father in impatient thoughts, 
By being in his eye. Moft gracious duke, 
To my unfolding lend a gracious ear s ; 
And let me find 6 a charter in your voice, 
To affift my fimplenefs 7. 

Duke. What would you, Defdemona ? 

Def. That I did love the Moor to live with him, 
' My down-right violence and ftorm of fortunes 
May trumpet to the world ; my heart's fubdu'd 


So in the 7*w Gentlemen of Verona? 

" What maintenance he from his friends receives, 

' Like exhibition thou (halt have from me." 
Again, in King Edward IV. by Heywood, 1626 : 

" Of all the exhibition yet beftow'd, 

" This woman's liberality likes me beft." STE EVENS. 
s _ Moft gracious duke, 

7o my unfolding lend a gracious far ;] Thus the quarto 1622. 
The folio, to avoid the repetition of the fame epithet, reads : 
' your profperous ear ;" i.e. your propitious ear. STEEVENS, 

* a charter inyour <voicc\ Let your fa\ 'our privilege me. 


i To ajpft fay fimplenefs,^ The firft quarto reads this as an un- 
iiniflied fentence : 

Jfid if my fimplenefs STEEVENS. 

* 'My down-right violence and ftorm of fortunes] But what vio- 
lence was it that drove her to run away with the Moor ? We 
ihould read, 

My dffwn-rigfo violence to forms, my fortunes. 


There is no need of this emendation. Violence is not violence 
fuffered, but violence atled. Breach of common rules and obliga- 
tions. The old quarto has, fiorn of fortune, which is perhaps the 
true reading. JOHNSON, 



Even to the very quality of my lord >: 

1 1 faw Othello's vifage in his mind ; 

And to his honours, and his valiant parts, 

Did I my foul and fortunes confecrate. 

So that, dear lords, if I be left behind, 

A moth of peace, and he go to the war, 

The rites, for which I love him, are bereft me^ 

And I a heavy interim (hall fupport 

By his dear abfence : Let me go with him. 

Otb. Your voices, lords * : I do befeech you, let 
Her will have a free way. 
Vouch with me heaven, I therefore beg it not *, 
To pieafe the palate of my appetite ; 
4 Nor to comply with heat, (the young affeds, 
In me defunct) and proper fatisfaction -, 


I would rather continue to read Storm offorhaus on account of 
the words that follow, viz. May trumpet to the vxrld* 
So, bJS^fif-rrlV. P. i : 

the fouthern / 
Doth play the trumpet to his purposes. 
Again, in Yroihu and CrrfAt 

Doth valour's (hew and valour's worth divide 
" Injbrmseffrrtuif.* STEEVENS. 

* Even to the -very qtu&ty ofay lard:] The firft quarto reads,' 

Even to the utmoft pUffa-^ ice. STEEVENS. 

* Ifesn Otbe&fi vifage i* bis am*/;] It rauft raife no wonder, 
that I loved a man of an appearance fo little engaging; I few his 
face only in his mind ; the greamefs of his character reconciled me 
to his form. JOHMSOX. 

* l~:.r -:;:'-. lonfa :] The folio rea^;. I.*: '- fcwt'jM r -: : ;-. 

3 J'ovcb vtKtb me ] Thus the fecond quarto and the folio. 

4 Nffr to csarpk ooitb beat (tbeynag affifti, 

Ix wydefiina) axd proixr Jati^aSion ;] As this has been 
hitherto printed and Hopped, 'it items to me a period of as ftubbora 
mnienle, as the editors have obtruded upon poor Shakefpeare 
throughout his works. What a prepofterous creature is this 
Ochello made, to fall in love with and many a fine young lady, 
wken tffetttt and ierf, aad/njSer faiifiR'wm, are dtad and dtfL-*& 
H'h * i 

4 68 OTHELLO, 

'But to be free and bounteous to her mind : 


in him! (for, dffunft fignrfies nothing elfe, that I know of, either 
primitively or metaphorically:) but if we may take Othello's owa 
word in the aftair, he was not reduced to this fatal Hate. 

or, for I aai JccUrfd 

Into the -vale of years ; yet that's not much. 
Again, Why Ihould our poet lay (for fo he lays, as the paflage 
has been pointed) that the young affcft heat ? Youth, certainly, 
has it, and has no occafion or pretence of affcfting it. And, again, 
after dcfuiifl, would he add fo abfurd a collateral epithet as prnpcr? 
But Affects was not defigned there as a verb, and defunft was not de- 
figued here at all. I have, by reading diftinfl, for defunfl, refcued the 
poet's text from abfurdity ; and this I take to be the tenor of what 
he would fay ; " I do not beg her company with me, merely to 
" pleafe myfclf ; nor to indulge the heat and of eels (i. e. afFeftions) 
" of a new-married man, in my own diitincr, and proper fatif- 
" fucliou; but to comply with her in her requeft, and delire, of 
" accompanying me." Afefts for affcttions, our author in fevcral 
other paflages ufes. THEOBALD. 

Nor to comply with beat^ the young affefls 

In iny defunft and proper Jathfaflion .-] i.e. with that heat 
and new affeiftions which the indulgence ot my appetite has railed 
and created. This is the meaning of (fcfu)itt, which has made all 
the difficulty of the paffage. WARBU RTON-. 

I do not think that Mr. Theobald's emendation clears the tc>tc 
from embarraflment, though it is with a little imaginary improve- 
ment received by Hanmer, who reads thus : 

" Nor to comply ivitb heat, affects the young 

I it my diftinct and proper fathfa&ion. 

Dr. Warburton's explanation is not more fatisfactory^ what 
made the difficulty will continue to make it. 1 read, 

/ beg it fiot t 

To pleafe the palate of my appetite ', 

Nor to comply with beat (the young offers 

In me dtfunft) and proper J'attsfatfion ; 

But to be free and bounteous to her mind. 

Affc&s (lands here, not for love, but fa paffions, for that by which 
any. thing is afFecled. / ajk it not, fays he, to pleafe appetite, or 
fatisfy loojc fie/ires, the paffions of youth which I have now outlived, 
or for any particular gratification of myfilf, but merely that I may in- 
dulge the tuifoei of my wife. 

Mr. Upton had, before me, changed my to me ; but he has printed 
young cjfcfts, not feeming to know that ajfetfs could be a noun. 


Theobald has obferved the impropriety of making Othello con- 
fefs, that all youthful puflioni were defuntl in him ; and Hanmei's 


And heaven defend s your good fouls, that you think 
I will your ierious and great bufineis fc... 


reading ma}', I think, be received with only a flight alteration. 
1 would read, 

" - I beg it nor, 

" To pleafe the palate of ray appetite, 

'* Nor to comply with hear, and young affeSs, 

* la my diftixS and proper {attraction ; 

" But to be, &c." 

AjfcRs ftands far affcSians, and is ufed in that fenfe by Bea Jo&ibn 
in The Cafe is alter iL, 1 609 : 

* . I (hall not need to urge 

The facred purity of our ef 
So, in Middleton's loaf Temple -1/.T/W, 1619 : 

*' No doubt afcA will be lubdu'd by reafon.* 
Again, in Love's Lahufs Left : 

For even- man with his afftRt is born. 
Again, in Tit ifars ef QTXJ, 1 594 : 

** The frail ajffRi and errors of my yootb. w 
Again, in the Piaticr of WakrfidJ, 1 599 : 

" Shut up thy daughter, bridle her affrfff" 

There is, however, 'in Tie fmuhuu, bf Maffinger, a paffage 
which feetns to countenance and explain - the young at- 
:. me Jffxxfl, &c. 

youthful heat?, 

That look no further than your outward form, 

* Are long fince baruJ'in me." 

is the fpeaker. STEE- 
I would ve;are to make the two hut fines change places. 

' . I therefore beg it not, 

" To pleafe the palate of my appetite, 

** Nor to comply with heat, the )-oung affecb ; 

*' Bur to be free and bounteous to her mind, 

In my defunct and proper 
And would then recommend it to confederation, whether the word 
Jefa^H (which would be die only remaining difficulty) is not capa- 


s J:$vJ, S:c.] To Jffeiul, is to forbid. So, la Chaucei 
Jf 1ft f Ba. V> Pr&gxf, late edir. ver. 5641 : 

" Wher can ye feen in any maner age 

c That highe God Afexdid manage, 

" By expretfe word f * 
From %.',-.- t Fr, ST:.IV~:.S. 

H h 3 


For (he is with me; No, 6 when light-wing'd toys 

Of feather'd Cupid, feel with wanton dulnefs 

My fpeculative and adlive inftruments, 

That my difports corrupt and taint my bufmefs, 

Let houfewives make a fkillet of my helm, 

And all indign and baie adverfities 

Make head againft my eftimation ~> \ 

ble of a fignification, drawn from the primitive fenfe of its Latin 
original, which would very well agree with the context. 


I would propofe to read, In my defcnEl, or defencd, &c. i. e, 
I do not beg her company merely to pleafe the palate of my ap- 
petite, nor to comply with the heat ot luft which the young man 
(iffcftsy i. e. loves and is fond of, in a gratification which I have 
by marriage defined, or inclofed and guarded, and made my own 
property. Unproper beds, in this play, mean, beds not peculiar or 
appropriate to the right owner, but common to other occupiers. 
In the Merry Wives, ike. the marriage vow is reprefented by Ford 
as the ward and defence of purity or conjugal fidelity. " I could 
drive her then from the ward of her purity, her reputation, and a 
thoufand other her defences^ which are now too ftrongly embattel'd 
againft me." The verb affect is more generally, among ancient 
authors, taken in the conuruchon which I have given to it, than 
as Mr. Theobald would interpret it. It is fo in this very play, 
" Not to affeft many propoied matches," means not to tike, or be 
fond of many propoied matches. 

I am perluaded that the word defunft muft be at all events 
ejected. Othello talks here of his appetite, and it is very plain that 
Defdemona to her death was fond of him after wedlock, and that 
he loved her. How then could his conjugal defires be dead or 
defunft ? or how could they be dcfunft or difcharged and performedj 
ivhen the marriage was not contaminated? TOLLST* 
8 when light-wing d toys 
Gi feather 1 d Cupid, feel with wanton dulnefs 
My Speculative and offic'd inftrument ] Thus the folioj 
Thp quarto reads 

when light-wing'd toys 
And feather'd Cupid foils with wanton'dulnefs 
My fpeculative and aftiwe inftruments 

AH thefe words (in either copy) mean no more than this : Wlje* 
the pleafures and idle toys of love make me unfit either for feeing tb$ 
of my office^ or for the ready performance of them, &c. 


Thus the folio J the quarto reputation. 


Duke. Be it as you Ihall privately determine, 
Either tor her (lay, or going: the affair cries hafle, 
And fpeed muft anfwer it ; you muft hence to-night* 

Def. To-night, my lord? 

Duke. This night. 

Otb. With all my heart. 

Duke. At nine i' the morning here well meet agakk 
Othello, leave fome officer behind, 
And he (ball our commiffion bring to you ; 
And fuch things elfe of quality and refpeft, 
As doth import you. 

Oib. Pkaie your grace, my ancient j 
A man he is of honefty, and truft ; 
To his conveyance I affign my wife, 
With what elie needful your good grace fhal} think 
To be fent after me. 

Duke. Let it be fo. 
Good night to every one. And, noble fignior, 

* If virtue no delighted beauty kck, 

Your fon-in-law is far more fair than bkck 

* Ifvirttcf no delighted leant? lac,~] This is a fenfelefi eprthef. 
We ftiould read belighted beauty^ \. e. white and fair. WAXBUKTOS. 
Hanmer reads, more piaufibly, delighting. I do not know that 
blighted has any authority. I fhould rather read, 

If virtue w delight or beauty lack. 

Delight, for delectation^ or favuer tf pkajtng, as it is frequently 
uled. JOHVSOX. 

There is no fuch word as flighted. The plain, meaning, I 
believe, is, if virtue comprehends every thing in itfelf, then your 
virtuous fon-in-law of courie is beautiful : he has that beauty 
which delights every one. DeitgbttJ, for ttelegbtvtg ; Shakefpeare 
often uies the a-flive and paifive participles indilcriminatel}'. Of 
this practice I have already given many inltances. The lanse feati- 
ment feems to occur in Twelfth Night: 

In nature is no blemiih, but the mind ; 
None can be call'd deform 'd, but the unkind : 

Firtme is bcattj. STEEV EXS. 

Delighted is ufed by Shakefpeare in the ienfe of Jeiigfftag^ tm 
Jellgbtful. See Cymbeiine, Act 5: 

Whom bel^ I love, I crofs, to make my gift, 
The more deiay'd, deTtghted. TTKWHI TT, 

Hh 4 Sen 


Sen. Adieu, brave Moor ! ufe Defdemona well. 

Bra. Look to her, Moor ; 9 have a quick eye to 

She has deceiv'd her father, and may thee. 

[Exeunt Duke, and Senators. 

Otb. My life upon her faith. Honefl I ago, 
My Defdemona mud I leave to thee : 
I pr'ythee, let thy wife attend on her ; 
And bring them after in the l beft advantage. 
Come, Deldemona ; I have but an hour 
Of love, of worldly matter and direction, 
To fpend with thee: we muft obey the time. 
[Exeunt OtbeUe, an 

Red. Iago,-r 

lago. What fay'ft thou, noble heart? 

Rod. What will I do, think'ft thou? 

lago. Why, go to bed, and fleep. 

Rod. I will incontinently drown myfelf. 

lago. Well, if thou doft, I mail never loye thee 
after it. Why, thou filly gentleman ! 

Rod. It is fillinefs to live, when to live is a torment i 
and then have we a prefcriptiqn to die, when death is, 
our phyfician. 

lago. O villainous ! I haye look'd upon the world, 
for four times feven years : and fince I could diftin- 
guifh betwixt a benefit a,nd an, injury, I never found that knew how to love himielf. Ere I would 
fay, I would drown myfelf for the love of z a Guinea 
hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon. 


9 have a quick eye to fee \\ Thus the e'dcft quarto. The 
folio reads, 

- - iftbou baft eyes to fee. STEEVENS. 
i left advantage. ] Faireft opportunity. JOHN' soy. 
* _,_ a Guinea-ben^ ] A fhowy bird with fine feathers. 

A Guinea-ken, was anciently the cant term for a profiiune. 


Red. What fhould I do ? I confefs, it is my (hame 
to be lo fond; but it is not in my virtue to amend it. 

lago. Virtue ? a fig ! 'tis in ourfelves, that we are 
thus, or thus. Our bodies are our gardens , to the 
which, our wills are gardeners: fo that if we will 
plant nettles, or low lettuce ; fet hyffbp, and weed up 
thyme; fupply it with one gender of herbs, or 
diftradr. it with many -, either have it fteril with idle- 
nds, or manur'd with induftry; why, the power 
and corrigible authority of this lies in our wills. If 
the balance 3 of our lives had not one fcale of rea- 
fpn to poife another of fenfuality, the blood and 
bafenefs of our natures would conduct us to moft 
prepofterous conclufions : But we have reafon, to 
cool our racing motions, our carnal ftings, our un- 
bkted lufls; whereof I take this, that you call 
love, to be a feel, or fey on 4. 

Rod. It cannot be. 

lego. It is merely a luft of the blood, and a per- 
miiTion of the will. Come, be a man : Drown thy- 
felf r drown cats, and blind puppies. I have pro- 
fefs'd me thy friend, and I confefs me knit to thy 
defer ving with cables of perdurable tough nefs ; I 
could never better (lead thee than now. Put money 
in thy purfe : follow thou thefe wars ; 5 defeat thy 
favour with an ufurped beard : I fay, put money in 


So, in ABxrtxs WJknfieln, 1640 : 

" Tender's the cock o*the game 
** About to tread yon Guinea-btx' t they're billing.** 

s If the balance] The folio reads If the *ra. STEVE NS. 

4 a feet orjcyon.} Thus the folio and quarto. A Je& is 
what the more modern gardeners call a cutting. The modern 
editors read -^ Jet. STEEVENS. 

5 defeat thy favoxr with a* vfxrpeJ beard. ] This is not 
Engliih. We ftiould read djjiat thy favour, /". e. turn it out of its 
feat, change it fur another. The word ufurjxJ directs us to this 
Beading. WAJUURTON. 


thy purfe, It cannot be, that Defdemona mould 
long continue her love to the Moor, put money in 
thy purfe -, nor he his to her : 6 it was a violent 
commencement in her, and thou (halt fee an an- 
fwerable fequeftration ; put but money in thy 
purfe. Thele Moors are changeable in their wills ; 
fill thy purfe with money: the food that to him 
now is 7 as lufcious as locufts, fhall be to him 
fhortly as bitter as coloquintida. She muft change 

It is more EngTiih, to defeat ', than dijjcat. To defeat, is 
to change. J o H x s o y . 

Defeat is from dtfairc, Fr, to undo. Of the ufe of this I have 
already given fcveral inilances. STEEVENS. 

' it was a violent commencement in her % and thou Jbalt fee an 
anfacrable fequeftration. } There feems to be an opposition of 
terms here intended, which has been loft in tranfcription. We 
inay read, // ivas a violent conjunction, and tboujlmlt fee an anfiver- 
alrle fcquejtration ; or, what feems to me preferable,, it was. a violent 
eojnmcncemcnt, and thou Jbalt fee an anfivsrable fcquel. JOHNSON. 

I believe the poet ufes Jeqrtf/iration for fequel. He might con- 
clude that it was immediately derived from fequor. Scqucflration^ 
h'mvever, may mean no more than Jeparation. So, in this play 
" a fiquejler from liberty.'* STEEVE.VS. 

7 as lufcious as locufts, ] Whether you underftand by this 
tbe infedt or the fruit, it cannot be given as an initance of a de- 
licious m oriel, notwithftanding the exaggerations of lying travel- 
lers, The true reading is lobocl:.^ a very pleafant confection in- 
troduced into medicine by the Arabian phylicians ; and fo very 
fitly oppofed both to the bitternefs and ute of coloquintida. 


bitter as coloquintida. ~\ The old quarto reads as acerb as 

Dr. Wurburten, through his rage to introduce an uncommon 
word, is miftaken. ' At Tonquin the' infect Locujls are conlidereci 
as a great delicacy, not only by the poor but by the rich ; and are 
foKi in the markets, as larks and quails are in Europe. It may be 
added, that the Levitical law permits four forts of them to be 

An anonymous correfpondent informs me, that the fruit of the 
locuft-tree is a long black pod, wkich contains the reeds, among 
which there is a very fvveet lufcious juice of much the fame con- 
fiftency as frefli honey. This (fays. he) I have often tailed. 




for youth : when (be is fated with his body, {he will 
find the error of her choke. Sae moft have change, 
{he muft: therefore pot money in thy purfe If 
thou wilt needs damn thyiclf, do it a more delicate 
way than drowning. Mike all the money thou 
caoft : If fraCbimony and a frail vow, * betwixt an 
erring Barbarian and a fuper-f ubde Venetian, be not 
too hard for my wits, and all the tribe of hell, 
thou {halt enjoy her; therefore make money. A 
pox of drowning thyfelf ! it is clean out of the way: 
leek thou rather to be hang'd in compaffing thy 
joy, than to be drown'd and go without her. 

'Rid. Wilt thou be faft to my hopes, k" I depend 
on the iffue? 

Itp. Thou art fore of me 3 Go, make money: 
I have told thee often, and 1 re-tell dice again and 
again, I hate the Moor : My caofc is hearted ; thine 
hath no lefts reafoo : Let us be ooqjunftive l in our 
revenge againft him : if thou canft cuckold him, 
thou daft thyfelf a pkafiire, and me a fport. There 
are many events in the womb of time, which will 
be delivered. Traverfe; go; provide thy mooey. 
We wiD have more of this to-morrow. Adieu. 
Rod. Where fcall we meet i' the morning ? 
A* m J lodging. 

L :.' ;ir-:-r:--r.- : -.- '-':: >..::; 

trrag Jin tm ; ftdkapt mrming a 
d b^re Aid, YoBH kv *r dh 


Rod. I'll be with thee betimes. 

lago. Go to-, farewel. Do you hear, Roderigo ? 

Rod. What fay you * ? 

lago. No more of drowning, do you hear. 

Rod. I am chang'd J . I'll go fell all my land. 

lago. Go to ; farewel : put money enough in your 
purfe4. {Exit Roderigo. 

Thus do I ever make my fool my purie : 
For I mine own gain'd knowledge mould profane, 
If I fhould time expend with fuch a fnipe, 
But for my fport, and profit I hare the Moor; 
And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my meets 
He has done my office : I know nor, ift be true ; 
But I, for mere fufpicion in that kind, 
Will do, as if for furety. He holds me well j 
The better mall my purpofe work on him. 
Caflio's a proper man : Lee me fee now ; 
To get his place, and to plume up my will 5, 
A double knavery, How ? how ? Let me fee : 
After fome time, to abufe Othello's ear, 
That he is too familiar with his wife : 
He hath a perfon, and a fmooth difpofe, 
To be fufpected ; fram'd to make women falfe. 
The Moor is of a free and open nature 6 , 
That thinks men honeft, that but feem to be fo ; 
And will as tenderly be led by the nole, 
As afles are. 

I have't ; it is engender'd : Hell and night 
JVlufl: bring this monftrous birth to the world's light. 


- WJ^atfayjouf] This fpeech is omitted in the folio. STEE VEXS. 

3 I am cbang'd.] This is omitted in the folio. STEEVENS. 

4 Go to ; farewel : put money enough in jour purfe.] The folio 
omits this line. STEEVENS. 

s to plume */, &c.j The firft quarto reads to make up, 

* The Moor is of a free and open nature^} The firft quarto reads 

The Moor, a free and open nature too, 
That thinks, &c. STEEVENS. 



<fbc tafia! of Cjfrms. 

A fbtfarm. 
Exter MtntaMOi aid toco Gcxtltme*. 

. What from the cape can you difcern at iea? 

1 Gent. Nothing at all : it is a high- wrought flood) 
I cannot, 'twtzt the heaven and the main, 

Defcry a (ail. 

Ment. Methinks, the wind hath fpoke aloud at 


A fuller blaft ne'er (hook our battlements : 
If it hath ruffian'd fo upon the fea, 
What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them % 
Can hold the mortice ? What (hall we hear of this r 

2 Gent. A fegregation of the Turkilh fleet : 
For do but ftaod upon the foaming (bore % 
The chiding billow feems to pek the clouds ; 

The wind-fhak'd furge, with high and monftrous 

Seems to call water on the burning bear, 

i ale* mmmtma m& m item,] Teas die foSo. The 
r :ir:c :e^.-^ : 

when tie %r mmmtmm mrfa. 
This tcter irrinr im^t* trr "if"!** n^rorf ftjr ** 
fi^B in the Second Part of XagSay IV : 

/& faaming>rr,] The elder. 

which ofas the boUer image; i.e. thefeore that execnces the 
oftbewares. So, in ISv Vary VI. P. I : 


9 And quench the guards of the ever-fixed pole : 
I never did like moleftation view 
On the enchafed flood. 

Mont. If that the Turkifli fleet 
Be not infhelter'd, and embay'd, they are drown'd ; 
It is impoflible they bear it out. 

Enter a third Gentleman. 

3 Gent. News, lords ! our wars are done : 
The defperate tempcft hath fo bang'd the Turks, 
That their defignment halts : A noble fhip of Venice 
Hath feen a grievous wreck and fufferance 
On moft part of their fleet. 

Mont. How ! is this true ? 

3. Gent. The Ihip is here put in, 
A Veronefe : Michael Caflio, 


* And quench the guards of the ever-fined pole ;] Alluding to the 
ilar ArSlophyla x. JOHNSON. 

The elder quarto reads ever^ra/ pole. STEEVENS. 

1 The Jh'ip is here put in, 

A Feronefe', Michael Caffio, &c.] The author of The Re- 
vi/al is of opinion, that the poet intended to inform us, that 
Othello's lieutenant Caffio was of Verona, an inland city of the 
Venetian ftate ; and adds, that the editors have not been pleafed 
to fay what kind of fhip is here denoted by a Veroneffa* By a 
VeroneJJa or Veronefe (for the Italian pronunciation mull: be re- 
tained, otherwife the meafure will be defective) a fhip of Verona 
is denoted ; as we fay to this day of fhips in the river, luch a one 
is a Dutch-man, a Jamaica-man, &c. S T E E v E N s . 

FeroncJJa, a fhip of Verona. But the true reading is Veronefi % 
pronounced as a quadrifyllable. 

The fhip is here put in, 

A Veroneje. 

It was common to introduce Italian words, and in their proper 
pronunciation then familiar. So Spenler in the Faerie Queene, 
B, iii. C. xiii. 10. 

With fleeves dependant Albtnese wife. 

The author of the Revifal obferves, that " the editors have not 
*' been pleafed to inform us what kind of fhip is here denoted 
" by the name of A F'eraneJTu" But even fuppoiing that Fere, 
6 Met 


Lieutenant to the warlike Moor, Othello, 
Is come on fhore : the Moor himfelf 's at fea, 
And is in full commiffion here for Cyprus. 

Mont. I am glad on't ; tis a worthy governor. 

3 Gent. But this fame Caffio, though he fpeak 

of comfort, 

Touching the Turkifh lofs, yet he looks fadly, 
And prays the Moor be fafe ; for they were parted 
With foul and vioknt temped. 

Mont. Pray heaven he be ; 
For I have ierv'd him, and the man commands 
Like a full foldier. Let's to the lea fide, ho ! 
As well to ice the veffel that's come in, 
As to throw out our eyes for brave Othello ; 
Even 'till we make the main *, and the aerial blue, 

arjfa is the trae reading, there Is no fort of difficulty. He might 
juit as well hare inquired, what kind of a {hip is a Hamomrgtr^ 
This is exaftiy a parallel form. For it is not the ipecies of the 
{hip which is implied in this appellation. Our critic adds, ** die 
** poet had not a {hip in his thoughts. He intended to inform 
us, that Othello's heinenant, Caifio, was J'rima. We fcould 
** certainly read, 

'- ** The (hip Is here put in. 

' A Veroode, Michael Cafo t (Sec.) 

" Is come on {hore." 

This regulation of the lines is ingenious. But I agree with 
Hanrner, and I think it appears from many parts of the play, that 
Caffio was a Florentine. In this fpeech, the third ge*tlem*M, who 
brings the news of the wreck of the Turkifh fleet, returns his 
tale, and relates the circumftances more diirin&iy. In \mfermrr 
fpeech he lays, " A *Me Jbip ef Ffxlte &w the ditoefs of the 
Turks." And here he adds, ** The very (hip is juft now put 
into oar port, and {he is a Fersmrfc? That is, a (hip fitted 
out or furnilhed by the people of Verona, a city of the V'oieuaa 
ftate. WARTOX. ' 

I beliere we are all wrong. Ferna is an inland city. Every 
inconfiKCDcy may, however, be avoided, if we read Tfx Veronerla, 
i. e. the name of the {hip is the f^enmeffit. Verona, "however, 
might be obliged to furni4 {hips towards the general defence of 

f-Exxm y tm m *fcr tie man, &c.] This line aad half is 
waaticg in the eiddl quano. Sr^_ E 


4 8o OTHELLO, 

An indiftinft regard. *f; 

Gent. Come, let's do fo ; 
For every minute is expectancy 
Of more arrivance. 

Enter CaJJio. 

Caf. Thanks to the valiant of this warlike ifle % 
That fo approve the Moor ; O, let the heavens 
Give him defence againft the elements, 
For I have loft him on a dangerous fea ! 

Mont. Is he well Ihipp'd ? 

Caf. 4 His bark is Itoutly timbered, and his pilot 


3 xvarlike //&,] Thus the folio. The firft quarto reads 
worthy ifle. STE EVENS. 

4 His Lark is Jlontly timbered, 

Therefore my hopes, not forfeited to death, 
Stand-in bold cure.~\ I do not underftand thefe lines. I know 
not how hope can be furfc ited to death, that is, can be encreafed, till 
it is deftrnyed; nor what it is to Jland in bold cure; or why hope 
fhould be considered as a difeaie. In the copies there is no va- 
riation. Shall we read 

Therefore my fears, not forfeited to death t 
Stand in bold cure ? 

This is better, but it is not well. Shall we ftrike a bolder Itroke, 
and read thus ? 

Therefore my hopes l not forfeited to death t 
Stand bold, not fure. JOHNSON. 
Therefore tny hopes, not forfeited to death^ 

Stand in bold cure] Prefumptuous hopes, which have no 
foundation in probability, may be faid to furfeit themfelves to 
death, or forward their own diflblution. To Jtand in boLl cure y 
is to ere& themfelves in confidence of being fulfilled. A pa- 
rallel expreifion occurs in K. Lear, Aft 3. Sc. 6. 

** This reft might yet have balm d his broken fenfes, 
" Which, if conveniency will not allow, 
*' Stand in hard cure*' 

his life, with thine, &c. 
Stand in ajfiircd lofs. 
In bold cure means, in confidence of being cured. STEEVENS. 

A furfeit being a ficknefs arifmg from an exccflive over-charge 

tff the ftomach, the author, with his ufual licence, ufes it tor 

S an 7 


Of very expert and approv'd allowance ; 
Therefore my hopes, not forfeited to death, 
S^arid in bold cure. 

Witbin.~\ A fail,- a fail, a fail ! 

Caf. What noife ? 

Gext. The town is empty ; on the brow o' the fea 
Stand ranks of people, and they cry a fail. 

Caf. My hopes do (hape him for the governor. 

Gent: They do diichafge their fhotofcour : 
Our friends, at leaft. [GunS bend* 

t Caf. I pray you, fir, go forth, 
And give us truth who 'us that is arriv'd. 

Gent. I ft ail. [Exit. 

JVlont. But, good lieutenant, is your genera! wiv'd? 

Caf. Mod fortunately : he hath atchiev'd a maid 
That paragons description,- and wild fame; 
One that excels the quirks of blazoning pens, 
6 And, in the eflenfial vefture of creation, 


any fpc; ". The meaning, I thick, is 7?rr6.-* try 

tvpffi not l**xg dfjlreysd ly ffar <KVX cxcffs, but icing Ttsfyma&lt and 
moJiraU) arc kkefyto be fulju'jcd. 

The word Jmjtit haviug occurred to SSakefpsare, led Lira to 
confirfer hope as a Jea/e, and tc - cure. A pafiage in 

T-JXfftb ^'gkt, where a fimiiar phraseology is uied, may !cre to 
llrengthen this interpretation, whl'e at the fame time it fhews thai! 
there is here no corruption in the text : 

Give ;ne cxafs of it ; that Jarfelilmg^ 
The appetite rr.ay^i/w, and :b"r. MALCM. 

5 OJ <oay cxfcrt CM! appro?' J *&KM>UX {] I read, 

Fay expert^ and cf apfr -. . ::. JuHN'SOjf. 

fcxpert Magffrevd' aB&aoaxci is put foranuV and afpr+-'d AV- 
pertnfft. This mode of exprdfion is not untrcqucnt in Saake- 
Ipeare. STEEVI 

6 And) in the eflentiaf <oejfarc efcreatiax, 

Does bear aU cxctUany ] It is plain that Ibmething very 

hyperbolical was here intended. But what is there as it iiands ^ 
Why this, that in the eflence of creation {he bore all excellency. 
The expieiEon is intolerable, and could never come from cue who 
ib well underwood the force of words as our p*et. The rjjetiial 
rvjitirt is the fame as cj/catialfcrm. So that the expreffion is no^ 
fenfe. For the *yc$ure of crtatlcn fitrnifies the ivrim in whicn 
VOL. X. I i" created 

482 f H E L L O, 

Does bear all excellency. -How now ? who h& 
put in? 


created beings are craft. And ejfince relates not to the form, but to' 
the matter. Shakefpeare certainly wrote r 

And in terreftrial vejlure of creation. 

And in this lay the Bonder, that all created excellence fhould b6 
contained within an earthly mortal form. WARBURTON. 

I do not think the prefent reading inexplicable. The author 
feems-to ufe ejjcntial, for cxlfteht, real. She excels the praifes of 
inventipn, fays he, and in real qualities, with which creation has 
irivefted her, bean all excellency. JOHNSON. 

Does bear all excellency ] Such is the reading of the quarto? j 
for which the folio has this : 

And in the effential vrfturt of creation 
Do's tyre the ingeniuer; 
Which I explain thus, 

Does tire the ingenious verfe. 

This is the belt reading, and that which the furthor fubftituted 
in his revifal. JOHNSON. 

The reading of the quarto is fo flat and unpoetical, when 
compared with that fenfe which feems meant to have been given 
in the folio, that I heartily wifh fomfc emendation could be hit on,- 
which might entitle it to a place in the text. I believe the word 
tire was riot introduced to, fignify -to fatigue, but to attire, tcf 
Jrefe; The verb to attire, is often fo abbreviated. S'o, in Hol- 
land's Leaguer, 1633 : 

" Cupid's a boy,- 

" And would you tire him like a fenator :" 
Again, in the Comedy of Errors, Aft 2. Sc. z. 

" To fave the money he fpends in tiring, &c." 
The ejjcntial vcfture of creation tempts me to believe it was fo ufeJ 
on the prefent oecaliori. I Would read fomething like this : 
And in the cjjential vefturc of creation 
Does tire the ingenuous virtue. 

/. e. inverts her artlefs virtue in the fairefl form of earthly fubftance: 
In the Merchant of Venice, A6t 5. Lorenz,o calls the body i 
" the muddy vejlure of decay." 

It rtay, however, be obierved, that the word :gener did not 
anciently fignify one ivbo manages the engines or artillery of an arrn\j 
but anjr ingenious pcrfon, any majier of liberal fdence. 
So in B. [onfon's Sejanns, A<5t i. Sc. i : 
" No, Siiius, we are no good ingcners, 
" We want the fine arts," c. 

Ingenet therefore may be the true reading of thia pafia^e : and 
a finnlur thought occurs in the 1cmj>ejl t A6t 4. Sc. i : 



Re-enter Gentleman. 

Gent. 'Tis one lago, ancient to the general. 

Caf. He has had moft favourable and happy fpeed : 
Tempefts themfelves, high Teas, and howling winds, 
The gutter'd rocks, and congregated fands, 
? Traitors enfteep'd to clog the guiltlefs keel, 
As having fenfe of beauty, do omit 
Their mortal natures, letting go &fely by 
The divine Defdemona. 

Mont. What is (he ? 

Caf. She that I fpake of, our great captain's cap- 

Left in the conduct of the bold lago ; 
Whofe footing here anticipates our thoughts, 
A fe'nnight's fpeed. Great Jove, Othello guard, 
And fwell his fail with thine own powerful breath; 
That he may blefs this bay with his tall ihip, 
Make love's quick pants in Defdemona's arms % 
Give renew'd fire to our extincted fpirirs, 

For thou fcalr find fee will outftrip all praife, 
And make it halt behind her. 

In the argument of Stjanus, Jonfon likewife (ays, that his hero 
" workeih with all his ingene? appaready from the Latin /- 
gftiium. STEEVENS. 

1 Traitors enftcefi'd ] Thus the folio and one of the quartos. 

The firH copy reads enfctrptd, ot which every reader may make 
what he pleafes. Perhaps cnfctrjxd was an old Englifli word bor- 
rowed from the French cfcarpi, which bhakeipeare not finding 
congruous to the image of clogging the keel, afterwards changed. 

I once thought that the poet had written traitors afcarfd,\. e. 
muffied in their robes, as in Julius Carjar. So, in Hamlet : " My 
fea-gown fcarfd about me ;" and this agrees better with the idea 
of a traitor : yet whatever is gained one way is left another. The 
pact too often adopts circumftances from every image that arc.e 
in his mind, and employing them without attention to the pro- 
priery of their union, his metaphorical exprefioas become inex- 
tricably confufed. STEEVENS. 

1 Make love's fiiL-k paxii in Def&maufs arm,] Thus the 
folio. The quarto, with kfs animation : 

Atd jku-fdy came to Deldemona's arms. STEEYENS. 

I i z And 


And bring all Cyprus 9 comfort ! O, beholdy 

Enter- Defdemona, lago, Rsderigfo < 

The riches of the fhip is come on Ihore ! 
Ye men of Cyprus, let her have your knees : 
Hail to thee, lady ! and the grace of heaven, 
Before, behind thee, and on every hand, 
Enwheel thee round ! 

Def. I thank you, valiant Caffio. 
What ridings can you tell me of my lord ? 

Caf. He is not yet arriv'd ; nor know I aught 
But that he's well, and will be ihortly here. 

Def. O, but I fear; How loft you company ? 

Ctf. The great contention of the fea and fkiesr 
Parted our fellowfhip : But, hark ! a fail. 

Within.'] A fail, a fail ! [Guns heard. 

Gent. They uive this greeting to the citadel ; 
This likewife is a friend. 

Caf. See for the news r . \_An Attendant" goes cut. 
Good ancient, you are welcome; Welcome, miftrefs. 

[To /Emilia. 

Let it not gall your patience, good lago, 
That I extend my manners; 'tis my breeding 
That gives me this bold mew of courtefy. [KiJ/es her. 

lago. Sir, would flic give you io much of her lips, 
As of her tongue (he oft beflows on me, 
You'd have enough. 

Def. Alas, me has no fpeech. 

lago. In faith, too much ; 
I find it Mill, when I have lift to deep : 
Many, before your ladylhip, I grant, 

9 And Iring all Cyprus comfort .'] This pafiage is only found in 
the quartos. STEEV^NS. 

1 See for ihc nnv;.] The fiat quarto reads, So freaks this voice. 


~ Li fuitb, too mucb j] Thus the folio. The firft quarto thus : 
/ knov* u.0 much; 
I find it, /; for ivAea, c. STZEVJIVS. 



She puts her tongue a little in her heart, 
And chides with thinking. 

jEmiL You have little caufe to fav fix 

lagc. Come on, come on ; you are pidures out of 


Bells in your parlours, wild cats in your kitchens, 
5 Saims in your injuries, devils being offended, 
Players in your boufewifery, and houfcwives in your 

Dtf. O, fie upon thee, flandcrer* ! 

lago. Nay, it is true, or elfe I am Turk ; 
You rife to play, and go to bed to work. 

MmiL You (hall not write my praiie. 

lags. No, let me not. 

Dff. What wouldft thou write of me, if thou 
fcouldfl: praife me ? 

Ijgo. O gentle lady, do not put me to't ; 
For I am nothing, if not s critical. 

.] When you hare a mind to do 

, ycu pot oa 43 air of ianttity. JOHN so s. 

unenham's jfrs mfPtoty, 15891 I meet with almoft -be 
tax dvMjgbis: ** We limit die camdy parts of a mnaa CD 
44 coofifi in lour poiss; dat is, to be a fluev in the khcii-a, 
** a faint ia die church, an iiroil Imnil, and an ape in die 
K bed ; as die chronicle reports by caijtbris Shore, paiaaioar to 
M K. Edvsid the Fourth." 

Apin, in a pUy of Middlaca^ called .B^rt JU^r 
c-. j : ; :.- .- >".':-: ' :. : ::: 

** aooanding to dot wile tying of TOO, you be fidnts in tie 
* dundx, angds in die ibee-, deriis in die kiadhea, arx: xucs ia 
? :.-,.." 
Agaia, in the JJ^-iry ifofafj Jfai ay, 1607 : Wcsseaare 

Potteaham, who ox^moos afl other oonKSDpcmy wiiten, has 
got pace fpohen of Shatffprare ; ft> diat k a protwt4cbe hadnoc 
praierci aaj rfiing of to emj a daie. STEEVEXS. 

O,> ^ iijfiwfcrr/] This ftort fpeech ^ in die 
qc2-to, mapurepiaicd; and may as vett bekmg ID ^niii*a tt 
33^ -a* J. : 

5 ^rl/i37.] That ii, m*ra . joassoar. 

I i 3 


Def. Come on, aflfay : There's one gone to thtf 
harbour ? 

Jago. Ay, madam. 

Def. I am not merry ; but I do beguile 
The thing I am, by feeming otherwife. 
Come, how wouldft thou praiie me ? 

lago. I am about it ; but, indeed, my invention 
Comes from my pate, as bird-lime does from frize, 
It plucks out brains and all : But my mufe labours, 
And thus me is deliver'd. 

If me be fair and wife, fairnefs, and wit, 
The one's for ufe, the other ufeth it. 

Def. Well prais'd ! How if me be black and witty ? 

Jago. If Ihe be black, and thereto have a wit, 

She'll find a white that fhall her blacknefs fit 6 . 

Def. Worfe and worfe. 

Mmil. How, if fair and foolifh ? 

lago. i She never yet was foolifh that was fair ; 
For even her folly help'd her to an heir. 

Def. Thefe are old fond paradoxes, to make fools 
laugh i' the alehoufe. What miferable praife haft thou 
for her that's foul and foolifh ? 

Jago. There's none fo foul, and foolifh thereunto, 
But does foul pranks which fair and wife 
ones do. 

Def. O heavy ignorance ! thou praifeft the worft 

6 her blacknefs fir.] The firir. quarto reads bit. STEEVENS." 

7 She never yet ivas foolijb, &c.] We may read, 

She ne'er ivasjtt fo faolijb (bat ivas fair, 

But even her folly belt? d her to an heir. 

Yet I believe the common reading to be right : the law makes the 
power of cohabitation a proof that a man is not a natural; there- 
tore, fince the foolifheft woman, if pretty^ may have a child, no 
pretty woman js ever foolilh. JOHNSON. 



toft. Bat what praifc couWft thoa beftow an a de- 
ferring woman indeed? 'one, that, in the authority 
of her merit, did jjjftJy put on (he vouch of very 
xnafice iifctf ? 

She that was ever fair, and never proud ; 
Had tongue at will, and yet was never lourJf 
Never bck'd gold, and yet went never gay; 
Ffcd from her wifh, and yet laid, *o? /y; 
She that, being angrr'd, her revenge being 

Bade her wrong flay, and herfifpkafr %; 

She that in wifdom never was fo frail, 

To change the cod's head for the ialmon's 


T fifiili il 

bc todcoputontbc 
dunk, Mark v fo fife ia idcSi, itpd aadp^off att dm 
nEcc wi CBiy coiiM ^^AJBC aid Mpvi IB tfc n^^HHEu I hare 
raMuvedea icmtm the text m tins ymfiaPiur, by writing /a* 
Jt u, i M i; ffliijjn iliiiujjr ili< mjfcrii kijirli|JBir THEOSALD. 

-oaymAtit&T} Tbe 

deal of 


ftbff awAcr. So tkac Ac feafcafdejfacc k 
occ tdat we fo coBaatxaiB of sor ovn. ncnt, ana ( toe 
her chara^er tia viali every coe, riat fte dotft 

*ga TI, 

tb, T0fmtam tt**mat* #*****, kas aMocd tt a> 

ofaa^itfiiL JBSX^OX 

dgr j is 10 a&aaocbgai^er Touched ty 
ufelt, Jes 


ii 4 

4'8>3 O T H E L L O ? 

$he that could think, and ne'er difclofe her 


See fuitors following, and not look behind ' ; 
She was a wight, it ever fuch wight were, 

Def. To do what ? 

lago. z To fuckle fools, and chronicle frnall beer. 

Def. O mofi lame and impotent conclufion ! Do 
not learn of him, ./Emilia, though he be thy huf- 
band. How fay you, Cafiio ? is he not a moft ? 
profene and 4 liberal counfellor ? 


J- See fuitors following, and not laoi behind;] TLe firft quarto 
omits this line. STEEVENS. 

* To fuckk fioh, and chronicle fmall lccr."\ After enumerating 
the perfections of a woman, lago adds, that if ever there was fuch 
a one as he had been defcribing, (he was, Jit the beft, of no other 
ufe, than to fuckle children, and kc:p the accounts of a hoitfehold. The 
expreilions to fuckle fools, and cbronicle fmall leer, are only inftances of 
the vvant of natural affection, and the predominance of a critical 
cenforioulhefs in Ingo, which he allows himfelf to be poffeffed of, 
whc-e he- lays, O! I am nothing, if not critical. STEEVENS. 

* prtfane ] Grofs of language, of expreffion broad and 
brutal. So Brabantio, in the Hrft aft, cults lago profane wretch. 

JOHN so*;. 

* liberal cou;ifcJlor?~\ Lilerctl, for licentious. WAREURTON, 
So, in the Fair Maid of Briftow, 1605, bl. 1. 
*' But Valiengcr, moft like a liberal villain, 
" Bid give her fcandalous, ignoble terms." 
So, in Hamlet : 

" That //^/'Wfliepherds give a grofler name.'' 
Mr. M alone adds another inftance fi-om Woman's a fFeat&cr-cccf; 
by N. Field, 1612 = 

*' Next that, the fame 
" Of your negledt and liberal talking tongue, 
" Which breeds my honour an eternal wrong." STEEVENS. 
Hmu fajycu, Caffio, is be not a moft profane and liberal counfellor '.~\ 
But in what ,-ipeci was lago a counjellor ? He caps fentences, in- 
eced : but thty are not by way of advice, but defcription : what he 
fays, is, reflections on charader and conduct in life. For this 
i at;i very apt to think, our author wrote cenfurer. 



C*f. He fpeaks home, madam ; you may rdifh 
him more in the ibldier, than in the fcholar. 

lag*. [4^.] He takes her by the palm: Ay, 
well laid, wnjfper; with as little a web as this, will 
I enuiare as great a fly as Caffio. Ay, futile upon 
her, do ; s I wifl gyve thee m thine own courdbip. 
Yiu Say true; 'tis fo, indeed : if luch nicks as 
ik& ftrip you out of your lieutenantry, it had been 
better you had not kuVd your three fingers fo oft, 
which now again you are mo& apt to play the fir in. 
Very good; & well kiis'd! an excellent courtefy! 
'as to, inrirfd. Yet again your fingers to your lips ? 
'would, they were djficr-pipes lor your iake ! 

The Moor, I know his trumpet. 
Of TK truly fb. 

Dff. Let's meet him, and receive him. 
GjjC Lo, where he comes ! 

EMior Oik!]* <ud dttodoxts. 

Oth. O my fair warrior ! 

Dff. My dear Othello! 

QflBu It gives roe wccder great as my 
To lee you here before me. O my fbnTs joy ! 
If after every tempeft come fuch 

May die winds blow 'till they have ^skea'd dea$< 
And let the labouring bark climb hills of fcas, 
Olympus high ; and duck again as low 

Tie SrS 

I w33 

Tlae feSo as k is in die test. 
^^/zadcndhrav*^; ] THs I daisk iLqui: be 

-.- ,.KV.' aaoBdfetfoar.' SpoB-ca bea Caffio lifiK 

lisEd, assJ Pttfitfisonai coBSrteeE. csssoy, 
The dki qrato amfans Dr 

SeE. Jcss 
. Joimia^ 

O T H E L L 6, 

As hell's from heaven ! If it were now to die, 
*Twere now to be moft happy ; for, I fear, 
My foul hath her content fo abfolute, 
^That not another comfort like to this 
Succeeds in unknown fate. 

' J)ef. The heavens forbid, 
But that our loves and comforts fhould encrcafe, 
pven as our days do grow ! 

Qth. Amen to that, fweet powers ! 
I cannot fpeak enough of this content, 
It flops me here ; it is too much of joy ; 
And this, and this, the greateft difcords bt^Kiffingber** 

That e-er our hearts mail make ! 
lago. O ? you are well tun'd now ! 

Put I'll let down the pegs that make this mufic, 

As honeft as I am. 

Otb. Cqme, let us to the cattle. 

9 NewSj friends ; our wars are done, the Turks arc; 

Jrlow dp our old acquaintance of this ifle ? . 

Jipney, you mail be well defir'd in Cyprus, 

| have found great love amongft them. Q my fweet ? 

9 I prattle out of fafhion, and I dote 

Jn min,e own comforts. I pr'ythee, good lago, 

? .And tfcs, and this, Stc. K/ing far.] So, in Marlqw's Li.JT^ 
Qomlnien : 

" I prythee chide if I have done nmifs, 
f * JBut le^ my punilhment be this and this" 

f KiJJing the Moor" 


Marlow's Play was written before that of Sha^efpeare, W!KJ 
pight polfibly have adted in it. STEEVENS. 

? News, friends ; :] The modern editors read (after Mr. 
^lowe) JVotO, friends. I would obferve once for all, that (in num- 
berlers inltances in this play, as well as in others) where my pre- 
d.ece(Tors had filently and without reafon made alterations, I- have 
as filently reftoredthe old readings. STEEVENS. 

? I prattle out of faJ1ricn,-~] Out of method, without any fettled 
f difcourfe. JOHNSON, 



Go to the bay, and difembark my coffers : 

Bring thoa l the mafter to the ciradel ; 

He is a good one, and his worth inefs 

Does challenge much refpect. Come, Defdemoni," 

Once more well met at Cyprus. 

[Exeunt Otbelk^ Dtfdtmsna, and Attendants. 
lago. Do thou meet me prefently at the harbour. 
Come hither. If thou be'ft valiant ; as (they fay) bafe 
men, being in love, have then a nobility in their na- 
tures more than is native to them, lift me. The 
lieutenant to-night watches on the court of guard '-: 
Firft, I muft tell thee this, Defdemona is direfbl/ 
in love with him. 

Red. With him ! why, 'tis not pcfiible. 
logo. 3 Lay thy finger thus, and let thy foul be 
inftrufted. Mark me with what violence fhe firft 
lov'd the Moor, but for bragging, and telling her 
fantaftical li-s : And will Die love him ftill for pra- 
ting 4 ? let not thy difcreet heart think it. Her eye 
muft be fed ; and what delight fliall fhe have to 
look on the devil ? 5 When the blood is made dull 
with the acl: of fport, there Ihould be, again to in- 


1 the maflcr ] The pilot of the fljip. JOHNSON. 
* the cnrt of guard \ i. e. the place where the 
: : . So, in The Family of Lovr, 1 608 : 

" Thus have I pafc'd the round and court ifgnard^ 
Again, in the Beggar* t Eujb, by Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Vifit your charts of guard, view your munition.? 


3 Lav fb? fager tbus^ J On thy mouth, to fiop it while thou 
art iiuening to a wifer man. JOHKSOX. 

* AjuivxMJbt Ifpe him ftiU for prating?] The folio reads 
To fa* nim Jim fir prating ! STEEVENS. 

* Wbentbe Uood is aaJe dull with the aiifj^rt t tberi Jbn!J k 
a game to injlanu :t y ami to give Jatiety a Jrtfb appetite ; l*veUm$ in 
favcur, jfriafatly in jrars, manners ^ a** beauties ;] This, it i 

true, is the reading of the generality of the copies : but, methinks, 

is a very peculiar experiment, when the blood and fpirits are 

fiuiled and exhaufted with iport, to ralfe and recruit them by fpon : 

for fport smd gone are but two words for the tune thing. I have 



flame it 6 , and to give fatiety a fiTlh appetite,- 
lovelinefs in favour -, fympathy in years, manners, 
and beauties ; all which the Moor is defe&ive in : 
Now, for want of thefe requir'd conveniences, her 
delicate tendernefs will find itfelf abus'd, begin to 
heave the gorge, difreiifh and abhor the Moor ; very 
nature will inllruct her in it, and compel her to fome 
fecond choice. Now, fir, this granted, (as it is a 
moft pregnant and unforc'd pofition) who (lands fo 
eminently in the degree of this fortune, as Caffio 
does ? a knave very voluble ; no farther conicion- 
able, than in putting on the mere form of civil and 
humane feeming, for the better compafling of his 
fait and moft hidden loole affection ? why, none ; 
\vhy, none: A flippery and fubtle knave ^ a finder 
out of occafions ; that has an eye can ftamp and 
counterfeit advantages, though true advantage never 
prefent itfelf: A devilim knave ! befides, the knave 
is handfome, young ; and hath all thofe requifites in 
him, that folly and 7 green minds look after : A pe- 
ftilent complete knave ; and the woman hath found 
him already. 

Rod. I cannot believe that in her j fhe is full of 
moft blefs'd^ condition. 

Jago. Blefs'd figs* end ! the wine fl^e drinks is 
made of grapes : if me had been bleis'd, (he would 
never have lov'd the Moor : Blefs'd pudding ! Didft 

retrieved the pointing and reading of the elder quarto, which cer- 
tainty gives us the poet's fenfe ; that when the blood is dulled with 
the exerciie of pleafure, there Jhould be proper incentives on each 
tide to raife it agalti^ as the charms or' beauty, equality or -years, 
and agreement of manners and dilpolition ; which are wanting in 
Othello to rekindle Del'deinona's pauion. THEOAI.I>. 

* again t inflame it,] Thus, the c^uavta i6ii. It is the folio 
rends a game. STEE.VENS. 

7 grccu mln& ] Minds unripe, minds not yet fully formed. 


* _ cotxtiiiOtt.] QuuliiicSj difpoHuau of miad. JOHNSOW. 



thou not fee her paddle with the palm of bis hand ? 
didft not mark that ? 

Rod. Yes, that I did ; bat that was but courtefy. 

lagc. Lechery, by this hand ! an index, and ob- 
fcure prologue to the hiftory of luft and foul 
thoughts. They met fo near with their lips, that 
their breaths embraced together. Villainous thoughts, 
Roderigo ! when thefe mutualities fo marihal the way, 
hard at hand comes the matter and main ejfercife, 
the incorporate conclusion : Piih ! But, fir, be you 
rul'd by me : 1 have brought you from Venice. 
Watch you to-night ; for the command, I'll lay*t 
upon you : Caffio knows you not; I'll not be far 
from you : Do you find fome occafion to anger 
Caffio, either by fpeaking too loud, or l tainting his 
discipline -, or from what other courfe ' you pleale, 
which the rime fliall more favdurably minifter. 

Red. Well. 

lago. Sir, he is rafh, and very * fudden in choier ; 
and, haply, with his truncheon may (bike at you : 
Provoke him, that he may : for, even out of that, 
will I caufe thefe of Cyprus to mutiny ; * whofe qua- 
lification mail come into no true tafte again, but by 

mm uula? A/ tt^tn f**gm, *C.) iTfcat indexes were 
formerly *</ to books, appears from a paflage in Yrilu aid 

" And in fuch tm&xes thoagb bat (mall pricks 
To their ftAfajmemt volooKS, there is fcen 
The baby figure of the giant mais 
Qftbags ft caae at large.** MALOXE. ' 
1 ta-mi-Mg ] Throwing a fiar upon his difcipline. 


* ff^CT-courfe ] The firft qoarto reads, ctufe. STEEVEXS. 
3 j'*U,M U cklrr ;] &J&=, is precipitately violent. 


* v:be ^ualificarion Jfiaff cmae, &c.] Wbofe refentmeot fhaH 
cot be ioq*aicfie<I or temftriiL, as to bcvxS tafitd, as not to retain 
j'tme bitteruji. The phrafc is harib, at teaft to our ears. JoairsoN. 

Perhaps waufau** means fa*/* to frfrtx pri *r*r, or th 
rtytitrlty if aiKtay iKJcifKmc. STEE 



the difplanting of Caffio. So (hall you have a 
fhorter journey to your defires, by the means I fhall 
then have to prefer them ; and the impediment moft 
profitably removed, without the which there were no 
expectation of our prosperity. 

Rod. I will do this, if you can bring it to any 

lago. I warrant thee. Meet me by and by at the 
citadel : I mud fetch his necefTaries amore. Farewel. 

Rod. Adieu. [Exit* 

lago. That Cafiio loves her, I do well believe it j 
That Ihe loves him, 'tis apt, and of great credit : 
The Moor howbeit that I endure him not, 
Is of a conftant, loving, noble nature; 
And, I dare think, he'll prove to Defdemona 
A moft dear hufband. Now I do love her too -, 
Not out of abfolute luft, (though, peradventure, 
I ftand accountant for as great a fin) 
But partly led to diet my revenge, 
For that I do fufpect the lufty Moor 
Hath leap'd into my feat : the thought whereof 
Doth, 5 like a poifonous mineral, gnaw my inwards ; 
And nothing can or mail content my foul, 
'Till I am even with him 6 , wife for wife ; 
Or, failing fo, yet that I put the Moor 
At leaft into a jealoufy fo ftrong 

5 like a polfjnous mineral, ] This is philosophical. Mineral 
poifons kill by corrofion. JOHNSON. 

' 'Till I am even with hi;n t ~\ Thus the quarto, 1622 ; the fir ft 
folio reads : 

Till I am evert d with him. 
/. e. Till I am oh a. level with him by retaliation. 
So, hi Hey wood's Iron Age, 1632, Second Part : 

" The ilately wuils he rear'd, levell'd, and cvcrStf." 
Again, in Ta^-i-cd atuKilj'mund, 1592 : 

" For now the walls are eve>i& with the plain." 
Again, in -'.^nylurjfs tranllation of the firft book of Virgil's 
jEueu.1, 15^^: numeruin cum navibus gqvat. 

** \vith the (hips the number is evtuJf STEEVENS. 

2 'I'hat 


"f Tut judgment cannot cme. "* Which thine to do, 
If this poor tnUh of Yenke, 8 whom I 

Rr Ait mmkk 6m*t*g, JKaJ t^fmttaf J A- triflbg, m- 
fignlfiont fidkm ay, fefane idped*, *ey *dl beaded ^0; 
boe the oKaphork not prtfcrcrd. Far what agrecaieiK is there 

ID the 

/> Arr A-clocri b hooad Amt huoB, Jtf Mr 
^6^ Mr cry. 

I fuppofc tbotfoce dm the poet 

edesof ^M^ <dr <Ar, ad a termg 
: and this coin*e*es and crfeAi ri*e meta 

pcrfeAi ri*e metaphorical 
IJUJUJL TUOUS, in his votes 

Joft die contmy. He fid not 

bc'jte/ A <i, as be %5 iiiiiilrfirtij ifli i. The aid 
levk co the true Racing : 

Wit BTfKTo^. 

trace] It k a crm of hunrittg or 
to frr fooycoma igpiiies to >w, * Jfe^ VUL Aft 3. 
Scene 2: 

Jfct tf jy trace H* c^mmKm 

led a dog or a man fnwef * bare: but trEr Jk& in thofc fporti, 
tttopa/r^r, or /^r^^fe, upon him; aad fucfa a dog b fcd 
The lenfe, then, of 

is thk, whom I doaflbciate to me for h purpoie of reuuos Ctfo 
thefooner. T. Row. 

/ 1 

f*t^ ,] Dr. Warbor- 
nm, with his ufual happj %acitr, tamed the old reading 
r^ft into lnA. But it fcrms fo me, that tndb belongs to an- 
other part of the line, and that we fbould read trqfr far tratt. 
The uk quartos {ia UK tme fan sf tie feat; scad rr^*, tgnitr- 

" '' 


For his quick hunting, (land the putting on, 
9 I'll have our' Michael Cafllo on the hip ; 

ing indeed the fame as trajb, but plainly corrupted from jr.. 
To frajb a bound is a term of hunting ftill ufed in the north, and 
perhaps not uncommon in other parts of England. It is, to cor- 
reft, to rate. Cne/Jr was never the ttcbaical exprefiion on this oc-' 
caiion ; and only found a place here as a more familiar word with 
the printers. The ienfe is, " If this hound Roderigo, whom I 
rate for quick hunting, for over-running the fcent, will but 
Jland the putting on, will but have patience to be fairly and pro- 
perly put upon the fcent, &c." This very hunting term to trajb 
is metaphorically applied by our author in the Tc/npejt, V. I. Sc. 2, 
p. 13- 

Projp. Being once perfected how to grant fuits, 

How to dei>y them, whom t'advance, and whom 

To * trajb for overtopping. 

70 trajl) for overtopping; i. e. *' What fuitors to check for their 
too great forwardnefs." Here another phrafe of the field is joined 
with to trajb. To overtop is when a hound gives his tongue above 
the reft, too loudly or too readily ; for which he ought to be trajtid 
or rated. Topper, in the good fenfe of the word, is a common 
name for a hound. Shakefpeare is fond of allufions to hunting^ 
and appears to be well acquainted with its language. This expli- 
cation of trajb illuftrates a paflage in the Bonduca or Beaumont and 
Fletcher, which has been hitherto mifunderilood and mifrepre- 
fented ; and where the ufe of the word equally reflects light on our 
author. Act I. Sc. i. vol. vi. p. 274. 

Car. I fled too, 

But not fo fail : your jewel had been loft then, 
Young Hengo there ; he trqflfd me. 

Here Bonduca and Nennius are accufing Caratach of running away 
from the Romans. Caratach anfwers, " It is very true, Nennius, 
that I fled from the Romans. But recollect, I did not run fo raft as 
you pretend: I foou flood ftill to defend your favourite youth Hengo: 
He STOPPED my ./%/, and I faved his life." In this paflage, 
where trajb properly fignih'es check, the commentators fubftitute 
trace: a correction, which entirely deftroys the force of the con- 
text, and the fpirit of the reply. V\ T ARTON. 

To trajb likewife fignih'es to follow. So, in the Puritan W;d<K^ 
1 60$: " A guarded lackey to run before it, and py'd liveries tf? 
come trajlnng after it." The repetition of the word trajb is much 
in Shakefpeare's manner, though in his worft. In a fubfequent 
fcene, lago calls Bianca trajh. STEEVENS. 

9 /'// have our Michael Cajflo on the hip ;] A phrafe from the art 
of wrtftling. JOHNSON. 

* Sir T. H. reads plajb, which fee. 



Abaie him to the Moor in the rank gar 

For 1 fear Caffio with my night-cap too ; 

Make the Moor thank me, love me, and reward me, 

For making him egregioufly an afe, 

And pradifing upon his peace and quiet 

Even to madneis. 'Tis here, but yet eonfus'd ; 

* Knavery's plain face is never feen, r til! iis'd. {Exit. 


Enter Herald, tcitb a 

Her. It is OtheLo's pleafere, our nooie and va- 
liant general, that, tpon certain tidings now s;nv'd, 
importing the J mere perdition of the Turk: fh 8ct, 
ever? nan pot himielf into triumph i iome ro d^ce, 
feme to make bonfires, each man to what fp->rt and 
revels his addition * leads him ; for, be&des thefe 
beneficial news, it is the celebration of his nuptials : 
So much was bis pleafure (bouid be proclaimed. All 

1 im tic rig^t g**A The qsoitr, reads in Ac rami gwfc^ 
whkh I thinl: is right. Sttttntrt, I Befierc. acaufc, gnii T, i.e. 
i&mt miMthg Ae m**r. So, in MoAoo'c DfcA Cm*,, 

Whither, In the riaame of nadndi,wkirfie'r" 

^ r 1 1 .- r .- ? . 

* Rtftxrfi fte* f*x is woerjCn, ] An honeft man ads 
oponipbn, aad rorecaftb hbdefigm; bucakoave ckpmcs upotf 
temporary and kxal oppomim-riei, and cerer knows hu own par- 
bofe, HK st the tune ot'oecudon. JOHXSOJT. 

J mere/fcrtfei* ] Jfc? in this pbce fignifies a.-^. So, 

iz ;:'-- '- 



That mibe& Samticn is aw innoc^t.* MA LO!CK. 
bit adcBoiao] . The firft quano reads, his ^- 

YOL. X. K k Offices 

4 9 S O T H E L L O, 

offices are open ; and there is full liberty of featfing, 
from this prefer.t hour of five, 'till the bell hath told 
eleven. Heaven blefs the ifie of Cyprus, and our 
noble general Othello ! [Exit. 


tffe caftle. 
Enter Otbello t Defdemona, Cajjio, and Attendants. 

Oth. Good Michael, look you to the guard to- 
night : 

Let's teach ourfelves that honourable flop, 
Not to out-fport difcretion. 

Caf. lago hath direction what to do ; 
But, notwithstanding, with my perfon-al eye 
Will I look to't. 

Oth. lago is moft honeft. 

Michael, good night : To-morrow, with your earlieft, 
Let me have fpeech with you. Come, my dear love; 
The purchafe made, the fruits are to enfuc ; [To Dtfd. 
That profit's yet to come 'twixt me and you. 
Good night. [Exeunt Othello, and Defdewona* 

Enter lags. 

Caf. Welcome, lago: We muft to the watch. 
lago. Not this hour, lieutenant ; 'tis not yet ten 
o' clock : 5 Our general eaft us thus early, for the 

5 Our general caft us ] That is, appointed us to our Jlations. 
To caji the play, is, in the (Hie of the theatres, to affign to every 
adlor his proper part. JOH.N.SOX. 

Perhaps cvry? us only means di (rattled us, or got rid of our com- 
pany. So, in one of the following fcenes, " You are but now cafi 
in his mood ;"' i. e. turn (font ofyour office tbh anger;, and ill the' 
firft Icene it means to difmifi. 

So, in the WITCH, a MS. Tragl-comedy, by Middleton : 

She cajt off 
*' Jly company betunes to-night, by tricks, c." 



love of his Defdemona : whom let us no: therefore 
blame ; he hath not yet made wanton the night with 
her ; and (he is fport for Jove, 

Caf. She's a moft exquifite lady. 

logo. And, I'll warrant her, full of game. 

Caf. Indeed, (he is a moft frelh and delicate creature. 

logo. What an eye me has ! methinks, it founds a 
parley of provocation. 

Caf. An inviting eye; and yet, methicks, right 

lago. And, when flie fpeaks, is it not 6 an alarum 
to love 7 ? 

Caf. She is, indeed, perfection. 

lago. Well, happinefs to their meets ! Come, lieu- 
tenant, I have a (loop of wine ; and here without are 
a brace of Cyprus gallants, that would fain have a 
meafure to the heakh of the black Othello. 

Caf. Not to-night, good lago ; I have very poor 
and unhappy brains for drinking: I could well wife, 
courtefy would invent fome other cuftom of enter- 

lago O, they are out friends ; but one cup : 111 
drink for you. 

Caf. I have drunk but one cup to-rtight, and that 
was s craftily qualified too, and, behold, what inno- 
vation it makes here : I am unfortunate in the infir- 
mity, and dare not talk my weaknefs with any more. 

logo. What, man ! 'tis a night of revels ; the gal- 
lants defire it. 

Caf. Where tit they ? 

lago. Here at the door ; I pray you, call them in. 

Caf. I'll do't ; bu^it diflikes me. [Exit Cc/io* 

lago. If I can faften but one cup upon him^ 

* an alarum ] The mice may puna an alarm more pro- 
perly than the ye can food a parley. JOHN$O*. 

* it it not an alarum to iovcf] The quartos read, *//*-an 
alarm to love. STEEVEKS. 

cT&b 1 Slilv mixed w ha water. Toa.fsox* 

Kk 2 With 

5 co OTHELLO, 

With that which he hath drunk to-night already, 

He'll be as full of quarrel and offence 

As my young miftrefs' dog. Now, my fick fool, 

Whom love hath turn'd almoft the wrong fide 


To Defdemona hath to-night carouz'd 
Potations pottle deep ; and he's to watch : 
Three lads of Cyprus 9, noble fwelling fpirits, 
That hold their honours in a wary diftance, 
1 The very elements of this warlike iQe, 
Have I to-night fluttered with flowing cups, 
And they watch too. Now, 'mongft this flock of 


Am I to put our Cafiio in fomc action 
That may offend the iile ; But here they come : 
1 If confequence do but approve my dream, 
My boat fails freely, both with wind and ftream. 

Enter Caffio^ Montano, and Gentlemen. 

Caf. 'Fore heaven, they have 3 given me a roufe 


9 Three lads of Cyprus,] The folio rends Three dfc of Cyprus. 


1 The vsry elements ] As quarrelfome as the d>/cordia Jcmina 
rer/mi; as quick in oppoiition as fire and water. JOHNSON. 

a If confequenee Jo but approve my dream,] All the printed copies 
concur in this reading, but, 1 think, it docs not come up to the 
poet's intention ; I rather imagine that he wrote, 

//' conjetjiicnce do but approve nty deem, 

i. e. my opinion, the judgment I have formed of what mult 
happen. So, in Troilus and Crefiida : 
i Cref. / true ? bow no\u ? what wicked deem is this ? 


This reading is followed by the fucceeding editions. I rather 

If confequence do but approve mv fcheme. 

But why Ihotild dream be rejected ? livery fcheme fubfifting only 
in the imagination may be termed a dream. JOHNSON. 

3 g e!l me a roufe, ike.] A rou/c appeal's to be a quantity of 
liquor rather too large. 



Mont. Good .faith, a little one ; not paft a pint, 
As I am a foldier. 

lago. Some wine, ho ! [A?* 7 f rt &* 

And let me the canskin clink, clink* 
And lei me the canakin clink : 

A foldier' s a man ; 

A lifts but afpan*-, 
Wby tbfft, let a foldier drink. 

Some wine, boys ! 

Caf. TOFC heaven, an excellent for.g. 

lago. I learn'd it in England, where (indeed) they 
are moft potent in potting : your Dane, your Ger- 
man, and your fwag- bellied Hollander, Drink, ho! 
are nothing to your Englifh. 

Caf. Is your Englishman "5 fo exquifite In his drink- 

lagc. VAjj e drinks you, with facility, your 
Dane dead drunk ; he fweats not to overthrow your 
Almain -, he gives your Hollander a vomit, ere the 
next pottle can be 61Td. 

Caf. To the health of our general. 
' Man. I am for it, lieutenant; and I'll do you 

lago. O fwect England ! 

So in Hamlft ; and in Ttt Cbrijtia* t*rnd Tinf, 16 r 2 '. 

** our friends may tell 

" We crank a roufe to them." STEEVEXS. 
* Al[ftibit aff<ta ;] Thus the quarto. The folio reads : 

* Ob, moo's Sire's but a ipan.^ STEEVE ss. : 
5 ft txquifte ] The quarto leads fa expert. This accom- 
piiihmem in the Englifb is akswife mentioned by Beauiront and 
Fletchfr in The Caftalx : 

Led. " Are the EngUihnim 

" Such ftubjbom drinkers ? 


Can i'uck more liquor; you (hall have their children 
" ChriilenM in muli'd iack, and at five \-ears old 
** Able to knock a Dane down." STEEYENS. 

K k 


6 King Stephen was a worthy peer 7, 
His breeches coft him but a crown ; 

He held them fix-pence all too dear, 
With that he ca/l'd the taylor 8 lown* 

He was a wight of high renown* 

And thou art but of low degree : 
9< Tis pride that pulls the country down* 

Then take thine auld cloak about tbee. 

Some wine, ho ! 

Caf. Why, this is a more exqujfite Cong than the 

lago. Will you hear it again ? 

Caf. No ; for I hold him to be unworthy of his 
place, that does thofe things. Well, Heaven's above 
ail ; and there be fouls that muft be faved, and there 
be fouls mud not t>e faved. 

lago. It's true, good lieutenant. 
. Caf. For mine own part, no offence to the general, 
nor any man of quality, \ hope to be faved. 

lago. And fo I do too, lieutenant. 

Caf. Ay, but, by your leave, not before me; the 
lieutenant is to be faved before the ancient. Let's 
have no more of this ; let's to our affairs. Forgive 
us our fins ! Gentlemen, Jet's look to our bufinefs. 
Do not think, gentlemen, I am drunk -, this is my 
ancient j this is my right hand, and this is my left 

6 King Stephen, &c.] Thefe ftanzas are taken from an old fong, 
which the reader will find recovered and prefer ved in a curious 
work lately primed, intitled, Relicks of Ancient Poetry, confifting of 
old Heroic ballads, ibngs, &c. 3 vols. 12. JOHNSON. 

So, m Greene's Quip for an Upftart Courtier: " King Stephen 
wore a pair or cloth breeches of a noble a pair, and thought them 
P.I ing chilly." STEEVENS ' 

' a worthy peer,] z. e. a worth fellow. In this fenfe peer, 
f- e, .-in.! pbcere, are often ule^. by the writers of our earlielt 
jrjmances. STEEVENS. 

* lo-'Mn.'] Sorry fellow, paltry wretch, JOHNSON. 

hand : 


hand: I am not drunk now; I can (land well 
enough, and I fpeak well enough. 

AIL Excellent welL 

Caf. Why, very weft then : you muft not think 
then that I am drunk. [Exit. 

Mont. To the platform, mafters ; come, let's fee 
the watch. 

logo. You fee this fellow, that is gone before ; 
He is a foldier, fit to ftand by Czfar 
And give direction : and do but fee feis vice ; 
'Tis to his virtue a juft equinox, 
The one as long as the other : 'ris pity of him. 
I fear, the rruft Othello puts him in, 
On feme odd time of his infirmity, 
Will fhakt this ifland. 

Mont. But is he often thus ? 

2ago. 'Tis evermore the prologue to his deep : 
9 He'll watch the horologe a double fet^ 
If drink rock not his cradle. 

Mont. It were well, 
The general were put io mind of it. 
Perhaps, he fees it not ; or ins good nature 

* WU <crft4 fbe ton&gr * AmUe jfe,} If he have 
beli keep a -rake while the dock fmkes two rounds, or tbv-and- 
twenty boon. 

Chaucer ufes the wold JWai^i in more places than one. 
Wcfl Skerer was his crcwring in hi* toge ?- 
'* Than is a dock or abbey tmltyr* JOEXSOX. 
So Hcywood in his Efigrmxs em Prvaerk y 1562: 

" " The dirrll is in rtwra&g*, the houres to trye, 
u Sesrrhc hooies by the lunne, the detyTs draU iryil lye, 
** The e*\i is in i-*ntyr 9 OOJFC cheere in bow ks, 
u Let the 'derji kepc our dodoes, while God keepe oar 

Again, in Tic Btvifs Charter. i6uj : 
" - my gracious lord, 

in. in the Mtradn if M&s, by Drayron : 
44 The cod; the country tr*Lge that rings 
'* The dKartul framing to the faa's aw^tc. 

" X k 4 Prizes 

5 o 4 OTHELLO, 

Prizes the vitue that appears in Caflio, 
And looks not on his evils j Is not this true ? 

Enter Roderigo. 

lago. How now, Roderigo ? 
I p. you-, after the lieutenant; go. [Exit Rod. 

Mont. And 'tis great pity, that the noble iVioor 
Should hazard inch a place, as his own fecond, 
With one of an > ingraft infirmity : 
It were an honeft acTwn, to lay fo 
Unto the Moor. 

lago. Not I, for this fair ifland : 
I do love Caflio well ; and would do much 
To cure him of this evil. But, hark ! what noife ? 
[Cry within, Help ! help ! 

Re-enter Caflio, driving in Roderigo. 

Caf. You rogue ! you rafcal ! 

Mont. What's the matter, lieutenant ? 

Caf. A knave ! teach me my dutv ! 
I'll ' icat the knave z into a tvyiggen bottle. 

Rod. Beat me ! 

Caf. Dolt thou prate, rogue ? 

Mont. Nay, good lieutenant ; \t a f in l tyw* 

I pray you, fir, hold your hand, 

Caf, Let me go, fir, 
Qr 1*11 knock you o'er the rnazzard. 

Mont. Come, come, you're drunk, 

Car Drunk? \hey fight. 

lago. Away, I fay ! go out, and cry a mutiny. 

{Afide to Rod. 
[Exit Roderigo. 

1 ig r afi infirmity :~\ An infirmity rooted^ fettled in his con- 
ftitution. JOHNSON 

* into a 'iivig bin t e,} A tw',ggen bottle is a a.vV&rV 
petite; and to the quarto leads. STE&VENS, 



Nay, good lieutenant, alas, gentlemen, 
Help, ho! Lieutenant, fir, Montano, fir ; 
Help, matters ! Here's a goodly watch, indeed ! 
Who's that that nngs the bell ? Diablo , ho ! 

(Bett rings. 

The town will rile : Fie, fie, lieutenant ! hold j 
You will be fham'd for ever. 

Enter Otbflla, and Attendants. 

Otb. What is the matter here ? 

Mont. I bleed dill, 4 1 am hurt to the death ; he 


Otb. Hold, for your lives. 
lago. Hold, hold, lieutenant, fir, Montano, 


Have you forgot J all fenfe of place and duty ? 
Hold, hold' the general fpeaks to you i hold, for 

fhame ! 
Otb. Why, how now, ho! from whence arifeth 

this ? 

Are we turn'd Turks ; and to ourfelves do that, 
Which heaven hath forbid the Ottomhes ? 
For chrittian iname, put by this barbarous brawl : 
He that ftirs next to carve forth his own rage, 
Holds his foul light; he dies upon his motion. 

I meet .with this exclamation in Markw'? JGi^ 
** Diablo ? what patuon> call you thele f" 


* I tmbmrt to Jtatl he dies.] &l*taa<t thinks he is mor- 
tally lovinoec, 'ft by theie words he ieen c'etermined to continue 
the i. t :, and to' kill his antagoniit Cajb. So .r.en Ratkrigo runs 
^ G^-, in tr.e th Ad, he fcjs, Viliaui, ihou ay'it." t 


He ditty 5. c. he (fcall die. He may be fuppcfed to lay this as he 
renew i ihe fii;ht. STEEVENS. 

} ^IJaje eff*** a* *& ?] ^o Hanger. The refl, 
alt jJaa ef fenjl ami duty ? jOh\sON. 



Silence that dreadful bell, 6 it frights the ifle 
From her propriety. What is the matter, matters ? 
Honeft lago, that look'ft dead with grieving, 
Speak, who began this ? on thy love, I charge thee. 

lago. I do not know ; friends all but now, even 


7 In quarter and in terms like bride and groom 
Diverting them for bed : and then, but now, 
(As if fome planet had unwitted men) 
Swords out, and tilting one at other's bread, 
In oppofition bloody. I cannot fpeak 
Any beginning to this peevifh odds ; 
And 'would in action glorious I had loft 
Thefe legs, that brought me to a part of it ! 

Oth. How corr.c: It., Michael, you are thus forgot 8 ? 

Caf. I pray you, pardon me, I cannot fpeak. 

Oth. Worthy Montano, you were wont be civil ; 
The gravity and ftillnefs of your youth 
The world hath noted, and your name is great 
Jn mouths of wileft cenfure ; What's the matter, 
9 That you unlace your reputation thus,' 
And fpend your rich opinion, for the name 
Of a night-brawler ? give me anfwer to it. 

Mon r Worthy Othello, I am hurt to danger; 
Your officer, lago, can inform you. 
"While I fparc fpeech, which fomething now offends 

Df all that I do know : nor know I aught, 

* // frights the [fie 

From her propriety. ] From her regular and proper jlate* 

7 la quarter, ] In their quarters ; at their lodging. 

ja u are thus forgot ? ] i. e. you have thus forgot yourfelf. 


9 That you unlace ] Slacken, or Ion/In. Put in danger of 
dropping; or perhaps ftrip of its ornaments. JOHNSON. 

1 fpfndyour rich opinion, ] Throw a\vay r.nd fquander a re- 
putation fo valuable as vours. JOHNSON. 



By me that's faid or done amifs this night ; ^ 
Unkis * felf-charity be iometime a vice -, 
And to defend ourfelves it be a fin, 
When violence aflails us. 
Otb. Now, by heaven, 
My blood begins my fafer guides to rule ; 
3 And paffion, having my beft judgment collicd, 
Aflays to lead the way : if I once ftir, 
Or do but lift this arm, the beft of you 
Shall fink in my rebuke. Give me to know 
How this foul rout began, who fet it on 5 
And 4 he that is approved in this offence, 
Though he had twinn'd with me, both at a birth, 
Shall Jofe me. What ! in a town of war, 
Yet wild, the people's hearts brim-full of fear, 
To manage private and dcmeftic quarrel, 
In night, and on the court and guard of lafety ! 
'Tis monfterous. lago, who began't ? 

Alcn, If partially affin'd 5 , or leagu'd in office, 


-^M-r^-] Care of one's feif. JOHXSOT. 

* jtmJfaffi^ b*ongm,ty 7faf coined,} Tbos Ac fcfin 
reads, and I bdjeve rigfcflv. CrbeDo nqons, tejufion has fi- 
coloured his jsriHacaL The word is ufed la Yte Mi&mmmtr 

Eke Sghtning ia the tWSi/ night." 

Tn r-^r irrmTlj-fiiTiHfinir^h l^iif. ft ffatn n irfrf ini f Sc v 
in a coroedy oBod Mr Fopi? tf *rr, 1608.'* carrr thr 
link aVotber fide the war, thou alira?Jt me acd my rtrite.* 
The void (as I am afilired) is ffiil uled in the midland counties. 

Mr. TtCet intorros me that ff^ft /&>?. ^ AWaarwr.^^ 
p. 46. &ys, * in oar f*if^ ^pgft<i* it [/. t. a fine blade 
day or ochre] is commonly known by the mmr of C-Or_- or 
JG^KT, by which name it is known 'by Dr. Woodward. &cJ* 
The Doctor &ys it had is name nrosn Kcl*z.\ by which name, m 
the North, the >/ or ^riw <cr iacij if drimmsp is called. 
Cfc^r, bowcrcr, b from ow4 as 4 t -r. Hanmerreada <fofaW. 


4 ^/A/wapprov*d/A^^rr,j He that :s ocsnasd by 
proof, of hsTing been engaged in this offence. JOHXSOST. 
' * Jffarti^ afEnU J vj^rV is bcund by proximity of rela- 
nofAip ; bot here g means related by nearoefe of office. In the 
fM fccne it i& uied in the ibrmer oi tide icuis : 



Thou doft deliver more or lefs than truth, 
Thou art no foldier. 

lago. Touch me not fo near : 
I had rather have this tongue cut from my mouth, 
Than it mould do offence to Michael Caffio ; 
Yet, I perfuade myfelf, to fpeak the truth 
Shall nothing wrong him. Thus it is, general. 
Montano and myfelf being in fpeech, 
There comes a fellow, crying out for help; 
And Caffio following him with determined fword, 
To execute upon him : Sir, this gentleman 
Steps in to Caffio, and entreats his paufe; 
Myfelf the crying fellow did purfue, 
Left, by his clamour (as it fo fell out) 
The town might fall in fright : he, fwift of foot, 
Out-ran my purpofe ; and I return 'd the rather 
For that I heard the clink and fall of fwords, 
And Caffio high in oath ; which, 'till to-night, 
I ne'er might fay before : When I came back, 
(For this was brief) I found them clofe together, 
At blow, and thruft ; even as again they were, 
"When you yourfelf did part them. 
More of this matter can I not report : 
But men are men ; the beft fometimes forget : 
Though Caffio did fome little wrong to him, , 
As men in rage ftrike thofe that vvifh them beft,-- 
Yet, furely, Caffio, I believe, receiv'd, 
From him that fled, Tome ftrange indignity, 
\Vhich patience could not pafs. 

Qtb. I know, lago, 

Thy honeity and love doth mince this matter, 
Making it light to Caffio : Caffio, I love thee \ 
But never more be officer of mine. 

Enter Defdemona, attended,. 
Look, if my gentle love be not rais'd up; 

" If I, in nny iufl term, am ftffind 
* ' To iove the Moor.'' ST K E v i: N s . 


111 make thee an example. 

Dff. What is the matter, dear ? 
Otb. All's well now fweeting : Conce away to bed. 
Sir, for your buns, myfelf will be your furgeon : 
Lead him off. [To Mmtaxo, who is ltd of. 

lago, look with care about the town ; 
And filence thofe whom this vik brawl diftra&ed. 
Come, Defdemona ; 'tis the foldiers* life, 
To have their balmy flumbers wak'd with ftrife. 

\_Exitt3c. Mount lago* and Caffio. 
lago. What, are you hurt, lieutenant ? 
Caf. Ay, paft all furgery. 
logo. Many, heaven forbid ! 
Caf. Reputation, reputation, reputation ! O, I 
have loft my reputation \ I have loft the immortal 
part, fir, of myfelf, and what remains is beftial. 
My reputation, lago, my reputation. 

lago. As I am an honeft man, I had thought you 
had receivM fome bodily wound ; there is more of- 
fence * in that, than in reputation. Reputation is 
an idle and moft falfe impoStion ; oft got without 
merit, and loft withourdeferving : You have loft no 
reputation at all, unlefs you repute yourfelf fuch a 
loler. What, man ! there are ways to recover the 
general again : You are but no^v 6 caft in nis mood, 
a punifhment more in policy than in malice ; even 
fo as one would beat his oflfcnceleis dog, to affright 
an imperious lion : -iue to rfm again, and he's yours. 
Caf. I will rather fue to be defpis'd, than to de- 
ceive fo good a commander, with fo flight, fo drunken, 
and fo indifcreet an officer. Drunk ? 7 and fpeak 

parrot ? 

n ofirccr, &c,] Thus tbc quartos. The folio 
leads, ihcrc n man *, &c. STEETSXS. 

6 cajf im bis ***'* ] Eje3cd in his an^cr. JOHTSON. 
i amd tfeakfamtf ] A phiafe figDiJpDg to a^ toAUjr 
and iluHiii' So Skckoa, 

- Thdc 

5 >o d T H E L L O, 

parrot ? and fquabble ? fvvagger ? fvvear ? and dif- 
courle fuftian with one's own lhadow ? O thou in- 
vifible fpirit of wine, if thou hail no name to be* 
known by, let us call thee devil ! 

logo. What was he that you followed with yoitf 
fword ? What had he done to you ? 

Caf. I know not. 

lago> Is it poffible ? 

Caf. I remember a mafs of things, but nothing 
diftinctly j a quarrel, but nothing wherefore. O, 
that men fhould put an enemy in their mouths, to 
fteal away their brains ! that we fhould, with joy,- 
revel, pleafure, and applaufe, transform ourfclves 
into beafts! 

lago Why, but you are now well enough - 9 I^ow 
came you thus recover'd ? 

Caf. It hath pleas'd the devil, dfunkennefs, to give 
place to the devil, wrath : one unperfeclnefs mews me 
another, to make me frankly de^pife myfelf. 

lago. Come, you are too fevere a moraler : As the 
time, the place, and the condition of this country- 
(lands, I could heartily wifh this had not befallen ; 
but, fmce it is as it is, mend it for your own good. 

Caf. I will afk him for my place again; he mail 
tell me, I am a drunkard ! Had I as many mouths 
as Hydra, fuch an anfvver would flop them all. To' 
be now a fenfible man^ by and by a fool, and pre- 
fently a beail ! O ftrange ! Every inordinate cup 
is unblefs'd, and the ingredient is a devil. 

lago. Come, come, good wine is a good familiar 
^reature^ if it be well uied ; exclaim no more againfi: 

" Thefe maktene full mekcly with many a divers flonr,- 

u Freflily they drefs and make fweete my houre, 

" With /pake parrot I pray you full courteouily thei faye. 


So, in Lylly's Woman in the Moan, 1597 : 
" Thou pretty parrot /peak awhile." 
Thefe lines are wanting in the firft quarto. STE EVENS. 

h. And, good lieutenant, I think, you think I love 

Caf. I have well approved it, fir. I drunk ! 

lago. You, or any man living, may be drunk at 
fome time, man. I tell you what you (nail do. Our 
general's wire is now the general ; i may lay fo in 
this refpe&, 8 for that he hath devoted and given up 
himielf to the contemplation, mark, and denotement, 
of her parts and graces : confefs yourfelf freely to 
her ; importune her ; fhe'll help to put you in your 
place again : (he is of fo free, fo kind, fo apt, fo 
blefled a difpofition, that fhe holds it a vice in her 
goodnefs, not to do more than fhe is requefted : 
This broken joint, between you and her hufband, 
intreat her to fplinter ; and, my fortunes againft any- 
lay worth naming, this crack of your love fhall 
grow ftronger than it was before, 

Cff. You advife me well. 

lago. I proteft, in the fincerity of love, and Tioneft 

Caf. 1 think it freely ; and, betimes in the morn- 
ing, I will befeech the virtuous Defdemona to un- 
dertake for me : I am defperate of my fortunes, if 
they check me here. 

logo. You are in the right. Good night, lieu- 
tenant j I muft to the watch. 

fr tbat be bath Jnrtul, aafgrx* *p ba^tm the cnfvr- 
platwm, mark, m*d dcrotement, cf her parts amJgracrs. ] I re- 
member, it is (aid of Antony, in the beginning of bis tragedy, that 
be, who died to fix IBS eyes altogether on the dreadful ranges of 

'- now bends, now tunw, 

M The office and tbou* of tieir view 

* Upon a iinirapei's fiam.* 

This is finely exprefied ; but I cannot prrfrade myielf that our 
poet would ever have (aid, any one ttcyated himielx" to the ttryox- 
mewtof any thicg. AH the copies agree; but the miftake cer- 
taioiy aiofe irom a fingj letter beui j turaed uptide down at prefs. 


5 i2 OTHELLO, 

Caf. Good night, honeft lago. [Exit Caffio. 

lago. And what's he then, that faysI play the 

villain ? 

When 9 this advice is free I give, and honeft, 
Probable to thinking ', and (indeed) the courfe 
To win the Moor again ? For 'tis moft eafy 
The inclining Defdemona to fubdne 
In any honeft fuit ; die's fram'd as fruitful 
As the * free elements : And then for her 
To win the Moor, were't to renounce his baptifm, 
All feals and fymbols of redeemed fin, 
His foul is fo erifetter'd to her love, 
That die may make, unmake, do what fhe lift, 
Even as her appetite fhall play the god 
With his weak function. How am I then a villain, 
To counfel Caffio J to this parallel courfe, 
Directly to his good ? Divinity of hell ! 
When devils will their blacked fins put on, 
They do fugged at firft with heavenly fhews, 
As I do now : For, while this honeft fool 
Plies Defdemona to repair his fortunes, 
And fhe for him pleads ftrongly to the Moor, 
4 I'll pour this peftilence into his ear, 
s That (he repeals him for her body's luft ; 
And, by how much fhe drives to do him good, 

9 this advice is free ] This counfel has an appearance of 
honeft opennefs, of frank good-will. JOHNSON. 

1 Probable] The old editions concur in reading probal. There 
may be fuch a contraction of the word, but I have not met with it 
in any other book. Yet, abbreviations as violent occur in our an* 
cient writers. STEEVENS. 

a free elements :] Liberal, bountiful, as the elements, out of 
which all things are produced. JOHNSON. 

3 to this parallel courfe^] Parallel, for even ; becaufe parallel 
lines run even and equidiftant. WARBURTON. 

Parallel courfe; i. e. a courfe level, and even with his defign. 


* nipourtbispfjiiknce ] Peftilence, for poifon. WARBUR TON. 

* lhatjhe repeals him J That is, recalls him. JOHKSON- 



Sre fr.all undo her credit with the Moor. 

So will I turn her virtue into pitch ; 

And out of her own goodnefe make the net 

That (hall enmefh them alL How now, Roderigo ? 

Enter Roderigo. 

Red. I do follow here in the chace, not like a 
hound that hunts, but one that fills up the cry. My 
money is almoft fpent; I have been to-night ex- 
ceedingly well cudgell'd ; and, I think, the ifiue will 
be I (hall have fo much experience for my pains : 
and fo, with no money at all, and a little more wit 7, 
return to Venice. 

lago. How poor are they, that have not patience ! 
"What wound did ever heal, but by degrees ? 
Thou know'ft, we work by wit, and not by witch- 

And wit depends on dilatory time. 
Does't not go well ? Caffio hath beaten thee, -, 
And thou, by that fmall hurt, haft cafhier'd Caffio : 
s Though other things grow fair againft the fun, 
Yet fruits, that bloflbm firft, will firft be ripe : 
Content thyfelf a while. By the mafs, 'tis morning; 

* Tbct JbaS amefl) tbem aS. ] A mrraphnf from taking birds 
:n -r.eic;. Pon. 

1 aEakmtn'osf^ Thnsthefofio. Thfe firft quarto readi 
vu&'zoiibtbat^ii. STEEVESS. 

* TbiarbttbcT tbngs gr*x fair agaxmfl tlx Ji&i 

Tctfivts, that llffffm Jtfa toUljirJllc npt.~\ Of nosy dif- 
ferent things, afl planned with the lame art, and promoted with 
the fiune diligence, fome mull focceed fooaer than ethers, by the 
order of nature. Every thing cannot be done a: once; we muft 
proceed by the neceflary gradation. We are not to Jffpair of flow 
events any mm than of tardy fruits, while ie cauies are in regular 
progrefs, and the fruits ^rraj&zr^guzg? lixfitM, Hanmer has not, 
I think, rightly conceived the fenriment ; tor he reads, 

Ttyejn&vibu:I,U,ggmfrfi y are not firft rife. 
I have therefore drawn it out at length, for there are rew to who* 
that win be eafy which was difficult to Hanmer. JOHN sox. 

You X. L 1 Pleafure, 


Pleafure, and action, make the hours feem fhort. 

Retire thee j go where thou art billeted : 

Away, I fay ; thou (halt know more hereafter : 

Nay, get thee gone. [Exit Roderige. 

Two things are to be done, 

My wife muft move for Cafiio to her mittrefs ; 

I'll fet her on ; 

Myielf, the while, will draw 9 the Moor apart, 

And bring him jump when he may CafTio find 

Soliciting his wife : Ay, that's the way ; 

Dull not device by coldnefs and delay. [Exit. 


Before tbe cajlle. 

Enter Caffio, with Mufictans. 

Caf. Matters, play here, I will content your pains. 
Something that's brief j and bid good-morrow, ge- 

[Mufick plays ; and enter Clown. 
Clown. J Why, matters, have your inftruments 
been at Naples, that they ipeak i' the nofe thus ? 
Muf. How, fir, how ! 
Clowth Are thefe, I pray you, cail'd wind inftru- 

ments ? 
Muf. Ay, marry, are they, fir. 

will Jra-v] The oW copies read to dra\v, which may be 
tight, and conliftent with the tenor of this interrupted ipeech. 
lago is ftill debating with himielf concerning the means to perplex 
Orhello, STEEVENS. 

1 W7y, majlerS) have your iyiftruwents been in Naples, that tlfyfpeak 
? the nofe thus ?] The venereal dileale firil appeared at the liege oi 
Naples. JOHNSON, 



Clown. O, thereby hangs a tail. 

Muf. Whereby hangs a tale, fir ? 

Clown. Marty, fir, by many a vrind inftrument 
that I know. Bur, matters, here's money for you : 
and the general Ib likes your mufic, that he defires 
you, * of all loves, to make no more noife with it. 

M*f. Well, fir, we will not. 

Clown. If you have any mufic that may not be 
heard, to't again : but, as they fay, to hear mufic, 
the general does not greatly care. 

Muf. We have none fuch, fir. 

Clown. Then put up your pipes in your bagj * for 
I'll away : Go ; 4 vanifh into air ; away. 

[Exeunt Muf. 

Caf. Doft thou hear, my honeft friend ? 

Clown. No, I hear not your honeft friend ; I hear 

Caf. Pr'ythee, keep up thy quillet3. There's 
poor piece of gold for thee : if the gentlewoman 
that attends the general's wife, be ftirring, tell her, 
there's one Caffio entreats her a little favour of 
fpeech : Wilt thou do this ? 

Clown. She is ftirring, fir; if fhe will ftir hither, 
I fhall ieem to notify unto her. [Exit Clown. 

54lO(X>U-> j}Hu ^.'f!Ol *O ?" 

Enter lago. 

Caf. Do, good my friend. In happy time, lago* 
lago. You have not been a-bed then ? 
Caf. Why, no ; the day had broke 
Before we parted. I have made bold, lago, 
To fend in for your wife : My fuit to her 

] The folio reads-^Sr l*of* fait. 


3 fir TtteF&ay ] Han met reads, eaJbieauxy. JOHNSON. 

4 vanijb into air.] So the folio and one of the quartos. 
The ckieu quarto reads Vanifli avjay. STEEVENS. 

L 1 2 Is, 

5 i<5 OTHELLO; 

Is, that (he will to virtuous Defdemona 
Procure me fome accefs. 

lago. I'll fend her to you prefently : 
And I'll devife a mean to draw the Moor 
Out of the way, that your converfe and bufinefs 
May be more free. 

Caf. I humbly thank you for't. I never knew 
A Florentine more kind and honeft. 

Enter ^Emilia. 

Mmil, Good morrow, good lieutenant : I am forry 
For your difpleafure ; but all will foon be well. 
The general, and his wife, are talking of it ; 
And (he fpeaks for you ftoutly : The Moor replies, 
That he, you hurt, is of great fame in Cyprus, 
And great affinity , and that, in wholfome wifdom, 
He might not but refufe you : but, he protefts, he 

loves you ; 

And needs no other fuitor, but his likings, 
To take the fafeft occafion by the front *, 
To bring you in again. 

Caf. Yet, I beleech you, - 
If you think fit, or that it may be done, 
Give me advantage of fome brief difcourfe 
With Defdemona alone. 

ALmiL Pray you, come in ; 
I will beftow you where you (hall have time 
To fpeak your bofom freely. 

Caf. I am much bound to you 6 . [Exeunt. 

s To take tie fafeft occafion by the front,] This line is wanting in 
the folio. STEEVEMS. 

6 lam much bound to you*] This fpeech is omitted in the firfl 
.quarto. STEEVENS. 




Arwmm tbc cifile. 
Enter Otbdb, Iag*> ad Gaakmem. 

Otb. Thefc letters give, lagp, to the pilot ; 
And, by him, do my duties to the State : 
That done, I will be walking on the works, 
Repair there ID me. 

logo. WeO, my good lord, 111 deft. 

Otb. Timfenificatio^geBtkmei^-^haUweiee't? 

Gat. Well wait upon your lordlhip. [Exaat. 

5 C E N E ffl. 

Jhutber rotm i* tbe cajttt. 
Ester Defdmn* Cafa, ad MmiB*. 

Dtf. Be thoo affor'd, good Caffio, I wiD do 
All my abilities in thy behal 

mL Good madam, do ; I know, it grieves my 

As if the cafe were Ids 7. 

Def. O, that's an honeft fellow. Do not doubt, 


But I will have my lord and you again 
As friendly as you were. 

Cr/I Bounteous madam, ' ' 
Whatever maO bccooc of Michael Caffio, 
He's never any dung bet your true iervant. 

Def. O, fir, 1 thank you : Yon do love my lord ; 
You have known him long ; and be you well afiur'd, 
He (hall in ftraogenefs fiaad no father off 
in a politic diftancc* 

"&*-] T*c fc&o ita^- As if d* 
VdC hi*. STEE VE3TS. 

L1 3 


Caf. Ay, but, lady, 

8 Than policy may either lad fo long, 

Or feed upon fuch nice and warerifh diet, 
Or breed itfelf fo out of circumftarice, 
That, I being abfent, and my place fupply'd, 
y/[y general will forget my love and fervice. 

Dcf Do not doubt that -, before ^Emilia he 
I give thee warrant of thy place : allure thee, 
If I do vow a friend (hip, I'll perform it 
^To the laft article : my lord fhall never reft ; 

9 I'll watch him tame, and talk him out of patience j 
His bed fhall feem a fchool, his board a fhrift ; 

I'll intermingle every thing he does 

"With Caffio's fuit : Therefore be merry, Caflloj 

For thy folichor fhall rather die, 

Than give thy caufe away. 

Enter Othello > and lago> at a diftance* 
lm Madam, here comes my lord. 

8 1%at policy mey either laft fo long,] He may cither of himfelf 
think it politic to keep me out of office fo long, or he may be fatif- 
fed with fuch flight reafons, or Ib many accidents may make him 
think my re-admiffion at that time improper, that I may be quite 
forgotten. JOHNS ON. 

9 Tllivatcb him tame, ] It is faid, that the ferocity of beafts, 
infuperable and irreclaimable by any other means, is fubdued by 
keeping them from fleep. JOHNSON. 

Hawks and other birds are tamed by keeping them from fleep, 
and it is to the management of thofe Shakeipeare alludes. So, m 
Cartwright's Lady Errant: 

" - we'll keep you, 

" As they do hawks, "Matching untiU you leave 
" Your wikhiels." 

So, in Monficur DWve, 1616: " your only way to deal with 
women and parrots, is to keep them ivaking? 

Again, iiv&V IV. D'-dvenant's Jujl Italian^ 1630 : 

" They've wa/c/6Wmy hardy violence fo tame" 
Again, in the Booke of Haukyug, Huntyng^ &c. bl. 1. no date : 
?' Wake her all nyght, and on the morrowe all daye, and then me 
will be previ enough to be reclaymed." STEE YEN s. 


THI M O O R OF V E N I C E. 519 

Madam, Fil take my fcave. 
Drf. Why, ftay,and bear me ipeak. 
C*f. Madam, DC* now * I am very ill at cafe, 
Unfit for mine own i 

D: '. Well, do YOU: dhCTKfca. [ExtiCeib. 

Ha! I like not that. 
What doftthou fey? 

Nothing, my lord: or if-J bow not what. 
Otb. Was not that Caffio, parted from my wife? 
1*9. Caffio, ray lord ? No, far, I cannot think it, 
That he would ftali^f to gmhy-hke, 
Seeing you coming. 

Otb. I do believe, 'tuns he. 
Ity: How now, my lord ? 
J lave been talking with a rahor heir, 
A man that languishes in your difpkafure. 
Otb. Who is't, you mean ? 
Dtf. Why, your lieutenant Cafikx Good my lord, 
If 1 have any grace, or power to more you, 
* His prefent reconciliation take; 
]For, if he be not one that truly lores you, 
That errs in ignorance, * and not in cunning, 
I have no judgment in an honeft face : 
I pi*ythee caff him back. 
O/*. Went he hence now? 
Dtf. Ay, footh; fo humbled, 
That he hath left part of his grief with roe, 
To (offer with him : Good love, call him back. 
Otb. Not row, tweet De&emooa; tune other time. 
Def. But fliali't be ftordy ? 
Otb. The fooaer, tweet, for you. 

be to anxpc die fiitamiinH which 

5 20 OTHELLO. 

Def. Shall't be to-night at fupper ? 

Otb. No, not to-night. 

Def. To-morrow dinner then ? 

Oth. I fiiall not dine at home ; 
J meet the captains at the citadel. 

Def. Why then, to-morrow night; or tuefday 


Or tuefday noon, or night ; orwednefday mom j 
I pray thee, name the time 9 but let it not 
pxceed three days : in faith, he's penitent ; 
And yet his trefpafs, in our common reafon, 
(Save that, they fay, 3 the wars muft make examples 
Out of their bed) is not almoft a fault 
To incur a private check : When mail he come ? 
Tell me, Othello. I wonder in my foul, 
What you could alk me, that I mould deny, 
Or ftand fo mammering on 4. What ! -Michael Caflio, 
fhat came a wooing with you s ; and fo many a time, 
When I have fpoke of you difpraifingly, 
Hath ta'en your part ; to have fo much to do 

3 the wars muft make examples 

Out of their left, - ] The feverity of military difciplinc 
muft not fpare the left men of the army, when their puniihment may 
afford a wholefome example. JOHNSON. 

4 fo mammering on ?"] To helitate, to (land in fufpence. 
The word often occurs in old Englifh writings, and probably takes 
its original from the French M? Amour , which men were apt often 
to repeat when they were not prepared to give a direct anfwer. 


I find the fame wprd in Atolajlus, a comedy, 1 529 : "I ftand in 
doubt, or in a mamorynge between hope and fear." 

Again, in Thomas Dram's tranflation of the third Satire of the 
fecond Book of Horace, 1 567 : 

" Ye, when fhe daygnes to fend for him* then mammeryng he 
dothe doute." STE EVENS. 

s - Wh a t! Michael Caffio, 

'[bat c ame a wooing ivifA you ; ] And yet in the firil act 
Caffio appears perfectly ignorant of the amour, and is indebted to 
Jago ;or the information of Othello's marriage, and of the perion 
t whom he is married. STEEVENS. 



To bring him in ! Truft me, I could do much, 
Otb. Pr*ythee, no more : let him come when he 

I wi'ii cer- :hre nothing. 

Def. Why, this is not a boon ; 
*Ti$ as I fhould entreat you wear your gloves, 
Or feed on nourifhing dimes, or keep you warm ; 
Or foe to you to do a peculiar profit 
To your own perfon : Nay, when I have a firit, 
Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed, 
It (hall be full of poize 6 and difficulty, 
And fearful to be granted. 

Otb. 1 will deny tbee nothing : 
"Whereon, I do befeech thee, grant me this, 
To leave me but a little to myfelf. 

Dtf. Shall I deny you ? no : Farewel, my lord. 
Otb. Farewel, my Defdetcona : I will come to thee 

Def. ^Emilia, come : Be it as your fancies teach 


Whatever you be, I am obedient. [Exit with MmL 
Otb. ' Excellent wretch ! Perdition catch my foul, 

- fan j poize] /*. e. of weight. So, in The DmmA 


M But we are all prefi doom with other /." STEETEBS* 
7 EmOatimxb'^-PalUmmte&mrjU^ 

Smt Ida Jfx ttxt! &c.] The nieaoing of die woid ssrzfti, 
isnotgeneraUyunoerftood. It is now, in fame pans of Engbnd, 
a tenn of tie fotteu and tbndett u mlriMfi It expre&s the ut- 
raoft degree of amiahkneis, joined with an idea, which ucrhani 
aU teoderodi ibdudes, of feebkxe<, foftneS, aid want of pto- 
e3ion. Obdlo, cooJbderiog Deidemooa as endlicg in beauty 
and Tiitne, foft and timorous by her lex, acd bj her fituadon ab- 
folutdy in his power, calls her, ExaBnt acmcb! It may be ex- 

Dt^barmlrfi.WtlefsExc&mc,. JOHNSOX. 
Sir fF. ITAoemamt utes the fame espreSon in hi$Crrf Brrtber, 
1630, and wkh the tune meaniDg. It occurs twice : " Ejurtiat 
qojacb! with a timorous modefiy Ac ftiflch up her otterance," 




But I do love thee ! and 8 when I love thee not, 
Chaos is come again. 

lago. My noble lord, 

Oth. What doft thou fay, lago ? 

lago. Did Michael Caffio, when you woo'd my 

Know of your love ? 

Oth. He did, from firft to laft : Why doft thou afk ? 

lago. But for a fatisfa&ion of my thought ; 
No further harm. 

Oth. Why of thy thought, lago ? 

lago, I did not think, he had been acquainted with it. 

Oth. O, yes ; and went between us very oft. 

lagG. Indeed? 

8 i when I love tbee not, 

Chaos is come again. ] When my love is for a moment fuf- 
pended by fufpicion, I have nothing in my mind but difcorJ, 
tumult, perturbation, and confufion. JOHNSON. 
when 1 Iwe thee not t 

Chaos is come again.] There is arjother meaning poffible. 
ffhen I ceafe to love thee t the world is at an end ; i. e. there remains 
nothing valuable or important. The firft explanation may be 
more elegant, the fecond is perhaps more eafy. Shakeipeare 
has the fame thought in his Venus and Adonis: 

" For he being dead, with him is beauty flain, 
?' And, beauty dead, black Chaos comes again" STE EVENS. 
The pafiage does not Ihike me in the fame light in which it ap- 
peared to Dr. Johnfon ; as Othello had not at this time the fmalleir, 
doubt of his wife's fidelity. Muretus, a poet of the i6th century, 
has exactly the fame thought : 

" Tune meo elabi poffis de peftore, Lacci, 

" Aut ego, dum vivam, non meminifle tui 2 
" Ante vel iftius mundi compage foluta 

*' Terra in antiquumjit reditura Chaos ;" 

The meaning of Shakefpeare appears very clearly from the fol- 
lowing paflage in the Winter's Tale, where the lame thought is 
more fully exprefied : 

" It cannot fail 

" But by the violation of my faith and then 
" Let nature crufh the fides of the earth together, 
*' And Hiar the feeds within," MAJ.OKE. 

T :, i M O O R or VENICE. 523 

Otb. Indeed! ay, indeed; Diiccm'it thou aught 

in that? 
Is he not hand* ? 

lagg. Honeft, my lord ? 

Otb. Honeft! ay, honeft. 

lag*. My kxd, for aught I know. 

Otb. What doft thou think ? 

logo. Think, my lord ? 

O/. Think, my lord ! By heaven, he echoes me^ 
As if there were foine monftcr in his thought % 
Too hideous to be (hewn. Thou doft mean feme* 


I beard thee fay bat now, Thou lik'dft not that, 
When Caffio left my wife ; What dki'ft not like ? 
And, when I told thee he was of my counfel 
In my whole couiie of wooing, thou cry'dft, Jxdeed? 
And didil contract and purfe^thy brow together, 
As if thou then hadft (hut up in thy brain 
Some horrible conceit : If thou doft tave me^ 
fhf* me thy thought. 

logo. My lord, you know I love you. 

Otb. I think, thou doft ; 

And, for I know thou art full of love and hooeftv, 
And weigh'ft thy words before thou .giv*ft them 


Therefore theie ftops of thine fright me the more : 
For fuch things, in a falie difloyal knave, 
Are tricks of cuftom ; but, in a man that's juft, 
\ They are dole delariocs, working from the heart, 


9 By ttavn beeches me, 

Asiftbrrt-vxrtjimi rn^ftr irn ta tA-g&t, 8tC.l ThcJ tbe 
pifcft quarto. The fccood quirto reads : 

Why doit tbou xho me, 

As if there were fome moalkr in Ay thought, &c. 
Tie fcfio reads: 

Abs tboaedft me, 

As ifi 8c&i STEETESS. 

7r^rr cold dilations TO ri ? >.^ir/, 

mtnk.} i. c. tfaefe flop and breaks aie ail 


That paflion cannot rule. 

lago. For Michael Caflio, 
I dare be fworn, I think that he is honeft. 

Otb. I think fo too. 

lago. Men mould be what they feem ; 
* Or, thofe that be not, 'would they might feem none I 

Oth. Certain, men fhould be what they feem. 

lago. Why then, I think Cafiio's an honeft man. 

Otb. Nay, yet there's more in this : 
I pray thee, fpeak to me as to thy thinkings, 
As thou doft ruminate j and give thy worft of 

The worft of words. 

lago. Good my lord, pardon me ; 
Though I am bound to every acl: of duty, 
I am not bound to that all (laves are free to. 
Utter my thoughts ? Why, fay, they are vile and 


As whore's that palace, whereinto foul things 
Sometimes intrude not ? who has a breaft fo pure, 

dilations, or cold keeping back a fecret, which men of phlegmatic 
conftitutions, whofe hearts are not fwayed or governed by their 
paffions, we find, can do : while more fanguine tempers reveal 
themfelves at once, and without referve. But the Oxford Editor 
for cold dilations, reads diftillations. WARBURTON. 

I know not why the modern editors are fatisfied with this read- 
ing, which no explanation can clear. They might eafily have 
found, that it is introduced without authority. The old copies 
uniformly give, cbfe dilations, except that the earlier qtiarto has 
cbfe denotements; which was the author's firft expreffion, afterwards 
changed by him, not to cold dilations, for cold\s read in no ancient 
copy ; nor, I believe, to clofe dilations, but to clofe delations ; to 
occult aadfecrct accufations, working involuntarily from the heart, 
which, though refolved to conceal the fault, cannot rule its pajflo.i 
of refentment. JOHNSON. 

* Or, thofe that be not t 'would they might feem none ! } There is 
no fenfe in this reading. I fuppofe Shakefpeare wrote, 

^ 'Mould they might feem knaves. WAREURTON. 

I believe the meaning is, 'Mould they might no longer fcem, or bear 
thefhapeof men. JOHNSON. 


But fome uncleanly apprehenfions 

3 Keep leets, and law-days, and in feffion fit 

With meditations lawful ? 

Otb. Thou doft confpire againft thy friend, lago, 
If thou but think'il him wrong'd, and mak'ft his ear 
A ftranger to thy thoughts. 

lags. I do beieech you, 

* Though I - perchance, am vicious in my guefs, 


3 Ktfp bets tad Lrx-dap, j e. govern. A metaphor, 
wretchedly forced and quaint. WARBUSTON. 

Rather c-.^f than govern, but vifit with authoritative intrufion. 


Neither of the learned commentators feem to have explained 
thefe words properly. Leets* and Jaw-days, are fynonymous terms. 
Leet (fays Jacob, in his Lavj-Di&onary) is otherwife called a 
fax-Jay? They are there explained to be courts, or meetings of 
the byndred, " to certify the king of the good manners, and go- 
vernment, of the inhabitant,* 5 and to enquire of all offences that 
are not capital^ The poet's meaning will now be plain. Who has 
a breajl Jo little apt to form itt opinions of others, hit that foul fufpicins 
mUJomaiaies mix vnA his foireft and meft candid thoughts, and ereZ 
a court in bis mind, to enquire of the offences apprehended. STEEVEXS. 

4 Though I, per chance, am vicious in *y guefs,] Not to mention 
that, in tbis reading, the fentence is abrupt and broken, it is like- 
wife highly abfurd. I befeech you give yourielf no unealinefs from 
my unfure obfervance, though I am vicious in my guefs. For his 
being -an ill gueifcr was a reafoa why Othello (hould not be un- 
eafy : in propriety, therefore, it {hould either have been, though 1 
am eet virieus, or becguft / am vicious. It appears then we ihouli 

Think I, perchance, am victims in opgvrfs, 
Which makes the fenfe pertinent and peried. WAEBURTOK. 

Though I perchance, am vicious in ay gurfs t ~\ That abruptness : 
the fpeech which Dr, Warbunon complains of, and would alter, 
may be eafiry accounted for. lago feems deOrous by this ambigu- 
ous hint, Though /to inflame the jealoufy of Othello, which he 
kaew would be more effectually done in this manner, than by *ny 
expreffion that bore a determinate meaning. The jealous Othello 
would fill up the paufe in the fpeech, which lago turns off at lait 
to another purpofe, and find a more certain caufe of difcontent, 
and a greater degree of torture anting from the doubtful confidera- 
ricu hw it might hare concluded, tdaa he could have experienced 


526 O f H E L L ft 

(As, I confefs, it is my nature's plague 

To fpy into abufes ; and, oft, my jealoufy 

Shapes faults that are not) that your wifdom yet s j 

From one that fo 6 imperfectly conceits, 

Would take no notice ; nor build yourfelf a trouble 

Out of his fcattering and unfure obfervance :- 

It were not for your quiet, nor your good, 

Nor for my manhood, honefty, or wifdom, 

To' let you know my thoughts. 

Otb. What doft thou mean ? 

lago. Good name, in man, and woman, dear my 


Is the immediate jewel of their fouls: 
Who fleals my purfe, deals tram ; 'tis fortieth ing, no- 

Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been flave to thoufandsj 
But he, that filches from me my good name, 
Robs me of that, which not enriches him, 

had the whole of what he enquired after been reported to him with 
every circumftance of aggravation. 

We may fuppofe him imagining to himfelf, that lago mentally 
Continued the thought thus, Though I know more than I cboofe tt 

Viciow in my gucfs does not mean that he is an rl!-guffftr,but that 
he is apt to put the woril conftrudtion on every thing he attempts 
to account for. STEEVENS. 

5 that your inifdom yet,~\ Thus the folio. The quarto thus : 

I entreat you then 
From one that fd impferfeftlvrMpr&J, 
You'd take no notice 

To c9KJcfti i. e. to conjetfure, is a verb ufed by other writers^ 
So, in Acriajhu, a comedy, 1^29 : 

" Now reafon I, or conjeti with myfelf." 

" I cannot foi'get thy faying, or thy conjeRing word*." 

imperfectly conceits,"] In the old quarto it is, 

improbably conceits, 
Which I think preferable. JOHNSON. 

There is no iucU reading as improbably in either quarto. 




And makes me poor indeed. 

Otb. By heaven, I'll know thy thought. 

lago. You cannot, if my heart were in your hand ; 
Nor (hall not, whilft 'tis in my cuftody. 

Otb. Ha! 

ItgG. O, beware, my lord, of jealoufy ; 
It is the green-ey'd monfter, ? which doth mock 


Tie meat it Jee& *] L e. loath* that which nouriflitt and 
fdbuns it. This being a miserable flate, lago bids him bewarr 
fit. The OxfordEdimr reads: 

In a -.rord, the Tiftain is for fixing him jealous : and therefore bid* 
him beware of jealoufy, not that it was an m*nufima^le^ but a mi/er- 
*Ue fiate ; and this phmges him into it, as we ice by bis reply, 
which booh/ 

O imfo! WABTJ*TOX. 

I hare received Banner's emeadadon ; becaofe to wfrt t doctnor 
fignifv & iia^ ; and becaafe, when lago bids Othello besamn ff 
j*tl*fr At gr**-e*t mmfir, it is natural to teU why he ftould 
beware, and for caution he gires him two reasons, that jealoufy 
ifitx creates its own caufe, and that, when the caufes arc real, 
jealoufy is mifery. JOHNSON. 

IB this place, and forae others, to xud feems the fame withto 
a*mm*k. FARMER. 

If ShakeTpeaic had written green-eVd mocfier, we might 
have fuppoied him to refer to (ome creature exiitine ochr in his 

particular imagination ; but the green-eyM monfier leans to have 
reference to an object, as familiar to his readers as to himfelf. 

I : .- known that the ffger kind hare gncm tya* and always play 
r. -be victim to their hunger, before they devour k. So, incur 
Author's Yarqmin amd Lima : 

ke foul night-waking** he doth but *$t, 
While in his hold-feu toot the weak mcufe panteth " 
Thus, a jealous huihand, who discovers no certain caufe why be 
may be di* oroed, conrinues to iport wkh the woman whom he 
fufpech, and, on more certain evidence,, determines to punift. 
There is no beaft that can be literally faid to make its own food, 
and therefore I am unwilling to receive the emendation of Hanmer, 



The meat it feeds on : That cuckold lives in blifs, 
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger ; 
But, O, what damned minutes tells he o'er, 
Who dotes, yet doubts ; fufpeets, yet ftrongly loves 8 ! 

Oth. O mifery ! 

lago. Poor, and content, is rich, and rich enough 5 
9 But riches, finelefs, is l as poor as winter, 
To him that ever fears he fhall be poor : 
Good heaven, the fouls of all my tribe defend 
From jealoufy! 

cfpecially as I flatter myfelf that a glimpfe of meaning may be 
produced from the ancient reading. 

In Antony and Cleopatra the conteited word occurs again : 

. - tell him 

He mocks the paufes that he makes. 

z. e. he plays wantonly with thofe intervals of time which he 
fhould improve to his own prefervation. 

Should fuch an explanation be admiffible, the advice given by 
lago will amount to this : Beware, my lord, of yielding to a pajjion 
vjhich as yet has no proofs to jujlify it* excej's. Think how the interval 
between fujpicion and certainty mujl le filled. Though you doubt her 
fidelity, ycu cannot yet refufe her your bed, or drive her from your 
heart ; but, like the capricious favage, mujl continue to fport with one 
whom you wait for an opportunity to dtftroy. 

Such is the only lenfe that I am able to draw from the original 
text. What I have faid, may be liable to fome objections, but I 
have nothing better to propofe. That jealoufy is a monjler which 
often creates the fufpicions on which it feeds, may be well admitted 
according to Hanmer's propofition ; but is it the monfter ? (i. e. 
a well-known and confpicuous animal) or whence has it green 
eyes ? Tellow is the colour which Shakefpcare appropriates to jea- 
loufy. It muft be acknowledged that he afterwards characterizes 
it as " ' ' a monfter, 

" Begot upon itielf, born on itfelf." 

but yet " What damned minutes counts he o'er, &c." is the 

beft illuftration of my attempt to explain the paflage. To pro- 
duce Hanmer's meaning, a change in the text is neceflary. I am 
counfel for the old reading. STEEVENS. 

8 Jlrongly loves ! ] Thus the quarto ; the folio, foundty 
loves. STEEVENS. 

9 But riches, finelefs, ] Unbounded, endlefs, unnumbered' 
treafures. JOHNSON. 

1 as poor as winter,] Finely exprefieu : winter producing n 
fruits. WARBURTON. 



_ Otb. Why ? why is this ? 

Think'ft thou, I'd make a life of jealoufy, 

To follow ftill the changes of the moon 

\Vith freih fufpicions ? N"o , to be once in doubt, 

Is once to be refolv'd : Exchange me for a goat, 

Vv .en I fhall turn the bufinefs of my foul 

~ To fuch exfuffolate and blown furmifes, 

Matching thy inference. 'Tis not to make me jealous* 

To fay my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company, 

Is free of fpeech, fings, plays, and dances well ; 

s Where virtue is, thefe are more virtuous : 

Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw 

The fmalleft fear, or doubt of her revel: , 

For fee had eyes, and chofe me : No, lasro ; 

I'll fee, before I doubt; when I doubt, prove ; 

And, on the proof, there is no more but this,. 

Away at once with love, or jealoufy. 

lago. I am glad of this; for now I (hall have? 


To fhew the love and duty that I bear you 
With franker fpirit : therefore, as 1 am bound, 
Receive it from me : I fpeak not vet of proof. 
. to your wife ; obierve her well with Caffio j 

* T* f*ct> esfuflbfate axd Urza frrau*;^ This odd and fzr- 
vord was made yet more uncouth in all the editions before 
Hammer's, by being printed, exTuM^ati. The aliufion is to a bub- 
ble. Do not think, fays the Woor, that I ihail change die noble 
oefigns that now employ my thoughts, to fufpicions which, like 
bubbles Ursut inio a wide extent, have or.ij an empty (he* without 
foliditv ; or that, in ccofequence of fuch eaopry fears, I will ciofe 
with thy inference againit the vittue of my wife. JCHXSOX. 

3 Where virtme is, tb^e are moil vhrtmaa .-] An attion in kilf 
xadiScrenr. grows virtuous by its end and application. JOHXSOX. 

I know not why the modem editors, in oppoi';on to ibe firifc 
tjjirto scd folio, readaqffinftead o(a*re. 

A pafiage :: -Ajf adt <vxiL is perhaps the bcft corn- 

meet oa the fentunent of OcheUu : I na^e tnoie good hopes of 
her, education prod- . ihe inherits ; which makes 

J ;Lrcr~ Crailar e p*lclvo =saut*i et fjrpre yir^n. 

VOL. X. M m 


Wear your eye thus, not jealous, nor fecure : 

I would not have your free and noble nature, 

4 Out of felf-bounty, be abus'd j look to't : 

I know 5 our country difpofition well ; 

In Venice they do let heaven fee the pranks 

They dare not fhew their hufbands ; their beft con- 

Is not to leave undone, but keep unknown 6 . 

Otb. Doft thou fay fo ? 

lago. She did deceive her father, marrying you ; 
7 And, when (he feem'd to fhake, and fear your looks, 
She lov'd them moft. 

Otb. And fo (he did. 

lago. Why, go to, then ; 

She that, fo young, could give out fuch a feeming, 
s To feel her father's eyes up, clofe as oak, 


4 Out of felf-bounty be abu?d\ ] Self-bounty , for inherent ge- 
nerality. WAR BUR TON. 

s __ O ur country difpofition 
In Venice ] Here lago feems to be a Venetian. JOHN sow. 

9 Is not to leave undone, but keep unknown.] The folio perhaps 
more clearly reads : 

Is not to leave'/ undone, but keepV unknown. STEEVENS. 

7 And t when fie feemd ] This and the following argument 
of lago ought to be deeply imprefled on every reader. Deceit 
and talfehood, whatever conveniencies they may for a time pro- 
mile or produce, are, in the fum of life, obftacles to happinefs. 
Thofe, who profit by the cheat, dijtruit the deceiver, and the aft, 
by which kindnefs was fought, puts an end to confidence. 

The fame objection may be made with a lower degree of ftrengtfc 
againir, the imprudent generality of difproportionate marriages. 
When the firft heat of paSion is over, it is eafily fucceeded by fufpi- 
cion, that the fame violence of inclination, which caufed one irregula- 
rity, may ftimulate to another ; and thofe who have fhewn, that their 
pallions are too powerful for their prudence, will, with very flight 
appearances againft them, be cenfuied, as not very likely to reftraia 
them by their virtue. JOHNSON. 

To feel her fathers yes up, clofe as oak, ] There is little re- 
lation between eyes and oak. I would read : 

She feeVd her father's eyes up clofe as owl's. 
As blind as an owl t is a proverb. JOHNSON. 



He thought, 'twas witchcraft: But I am much 

to blame ; 

I humbly do befeech you of your pardon, 
For too much loving you. 

Otb. I am bound to thee for ever. 

lago. I fee, this hath a little dalh'd your fpirits. 

Otb. Not a jot, not a jot. 

Izgo. Truft me, I fear it has. 
J hope, you will confider, what is fpoke 
Comes from my love : But, I do fee, you are mov'd j 
I am to pray you, not to ftrain my fpeech 
9 To grower i flues, nor to larger reach, 
Than to iufpicion. 

Otb. I will not. 

lago. Should you do fo, my lord, 
1 My ipeech Ihould tall into fuch vile fuccefs 
As my thoughts aim not at* Caffio's my worthy 
friend : 

Yojetlbtr f ado's eyes ttf^d^eas oak, ] The eak is (I believe) 
the moft clofe-graiaed wood of general ufe in England. Ckje as 
M, means, clofe as the grot* tf the oak. I fee no caufe for altera- 

To Jed is an expreffion taken from falconry. So, in Ben Jon- 

" would hare kept 
" Both eyes and beak Jufd up, for fix fefterces. 5 * 


* Togrefirlffces,] Iffites^ for conclufions. WARBURrojf. 
1 Mfjj*tcl> iwddfaR into fitch vile fuccefs,] Saccefs, for fuc- 
effion, i.e. conclufion; not profperous iflue. WAS BURTON. 
I rather think there is a depravation, and would read : 

Mf Jfeecb would faU Into fuch vile excefs. 

Ifftutefe be the right word, it feems to mean confeqzenct or evezt t 
i&fuciijfb is ufed in Italian. JOHNSON. 

I think fuccrfs may, in this inilance, bear its common interpreta- 
tion. What lago means, feems to be this : " Should you do fo, 
my lord, my words would be attended by fuch an inhmous degree 
of fuccefs, as my thoughts do not even aim at." lao , who coun- 
terfeits the feelings of virtue, might have (aid faM into fucafe, and 
<snle fiuxefiy becauie he would appear to Othello, to v,ifb that the 
enquiry into Defdemona's guilt might prove fruidefe and unfuc- 
cefsfal. STEEVCXS. 

M m 2 My 

?3 2 O T H E L L O, 

My lord, I fee you are mov'd. 

Oth. No, not much mov'd : 
I do not think, but Defdemona's honeft. 

lago. Long live me fo ! and long live you to think 

Oth. And yet, how nature erring from itfelf, 

lago. Ay, there's the point : As, to be bold 

with you, 

Not to affect many propofed matches, 
Of her own clime, complexion, and degree ; 
"Whereto, we fee, in all things nature tends: 
Foh ! one may fmell, in fuch, a z will mod rank ? 
Foul disproportion, thoughts unnatural. 
But pardon me , I do not, in pofition, 
Diftinctly fpeak of her : though I may fear, 
Her will, recoiling to her better judgment, 
May fall to match you with her country forms, 
And (hapily) repent. 

Oth. Farewel, farewel : 

If more thou doft perceive, let me know more ; 
Set on thy wife to obferve : Leave me, lago. 

lago. My lord, I take my leave. [Going. 

Qth* Why did I marry ? This honeft creature, 

Sees and knows more, much more, than he unfolds. 

lago. My lord, I would, I might entreat your 


To fcan this thing no further ; leave it to time : 
And though it be fit that CafTio have his place, 
(For, fure, he fills it up with great ability) 
Yet, if you pleafe to 1 hold him off a while, 
3 You lhall by that perceive him and his means : 

* will mqft rank,] Will, is for vvilfulnefs. It is fo ufed by 
Afcham. A rank will, is fclf-<-jjill overgrown and exuberant. 

JOHN sov. 

3 Toujball ly that perceive him, and hh means,"] You fhall dif- 
covcr whether he thinks his belt means, his moft powerful inter eft, is 
by the felicitation of your lady. JOHNSON. 



Note, if your lady 4 drain his entertainment 
With any ftrong, or vehement importunity ; 
Much will be fcen in that. In the mean time, 
Let me be thought too bufy in my fears, 
(As worthy cauie I have, to fear I am) 
And hold her free, I do befeech your honour. 

Otb. $ Fear not my government. 

logo. I once more take my leave. [Exit. 

Otb. This fellow's of exceeding honefty, 
And knows all qualities, 6 with a learned fpirit, 
Of human dealings : 7 If I do prove her haggard, 

4 Jfraa bis entertainment] Prefs hard his re-admiffion to his 

of (bidiers. JOHXSOX. 

5 riai mif mfjjtnttmmf] Do not difiruS my ibility to contain 
mypafficn. JOHXSOX. 

~~ t 33ttMJ 4v? ICHCOBQ jWBTZfy I *fXF~9&) IOT TTnTftT'fffflffiT 


The cuufliafliott is, He knows with a learned fpirit all qualities 
of human dealings. JOHN; ox. 

7 IfHfprwoe her haggard,] A boggard hawk, is a -~'J 
flirt, fanJ iiiilifan/, nr M n \i\mM JOEXSOX. 

A g^J is a particular ipecies of hawk. Ii is falt t if rr- 

From a patBge in Pan OHOJMU, k appears dot b^erl 
was a term of reproach fbrnedrces spplied to a teuton : M la this 
jour perch, you L-*gerJ? fly to the ttews." 
, Tiriw^^' rays, rtot the Aj^&icomaie the mofr erccDent 
birds of aL other falcons. Lj*Smm g^res to the boggart only the 
fecond place in flic nnftm/jfli la HAmfs Lemper, a comedy, 
by Shakerry Bfannyon, 1635, is Ac following iQafiradTe paf- 
:- ,-:: 

* Before thefecotmkrs fick their Hps at her, 
** ni traft a wanton &fr^ in the wind. 

For fte is tkkfifh 
<* Andqukkh-loit.* 

Again, in T^fT^Iia, sdrtAe Rtfi AWr, 1619 : " the ad- 
cooqurft the faakooer maketh in a hawk's nature; bring- 
Uk&J b*vn*t*x eartb amJ f& tat*r KXT oen- 

**&, to 
pabr ienie, 

to ancnd and obey, So." fl^-rW; ho^er, had a po- 
pabr ienie, and was ufedf for^W by thofe who thooght*not on 
ifcc language of ^kooen. STEETESS. 

M m 3 Though, 


8 Though that her jeffes were my dear heart-firings, 

9 I'd whittle her off, and let her down the wind, 
To prey at fortune. Haply, for I am black -, 
And have not thofe ibft parts of converfation 
That chamberers ' have : Or, for I am declin'd 
Into the vale of years ; yet that's not much ;- 
She's gone ; 1 am abus'd ; and my relief 

* Though that her jefles were my dear heart-firings,] Jejfcs are 
ftiort itraps of leather tied about the foot of a hawk, by which flic 
is held on the fid. HANMER. 

In Hey wood's comedy, called A Woman killed with Kindnefs % 
161 7, a number of thefe terms relative to hawking occur together : 
*' Now (he hath feiz'd the fowl, and 'gins to plume her ; 
'* Rebeck her not ; rather Hand Hill and check her. 
" So : feize her gets, herjfffes, and her bells." STEEVENS. 
' rd -Jjhijile her off, and let her down the wind 

To prey at fortune. ] The falconers always let fly the hawk 
'jigainft the wind ; if fhe flies with the wind behind her, '(he feldom 
returns. If therefore a hawk was for any reafon to be dilmified, 
fhe was let down the wind, and from that time fliifted for herfelf, 
and preyed at fortu ne. This was told me by the late Mr. Clark. 


PH whiffle her off", &c.] This paflage may poffibly receive il- 
luftration from alimilar one in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 
P. 2. left. K mem. 3. " As a long-winged hawke, when he is 
*' firft whijlledoffthefift, mounts alorr, and f >r his pleafure fetcheth 
" many a circuit in the ayre, fliil fnaring higher and higher, till 
*' he come to his full pitch, and in the end, when the game is 
*' fprung, comes down amaine, and Jloupes upon a fudden." 

Again, in The Sfani/b Gipjie, 16^3, by Middleton and Rowley : 

" That young lannerd, 

*' Whom you have fuch a mind to ; if you can whiftle her 
" To come lofiji^ make trial, play the young falconer" 
A lannerd is a fpecies of hawk. Again, in Beaumont an4 
Fletcher's Bonduca : " he that bafely 

" WJnJlkd his honour off to the wind, &c." STEEVENS. 
1 Chambercrs] i. e. men of intrigue. So, in the Countefs of 
Pembroke's Antonius^ i ^90 : 

" Fal'n from a foaldier to a chamber -er." 
Again, in Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rnje, ver. 4935 : 

" Only through youth the chantberere" 
Thus, in the French F em : 

** Par U jeunefle la cbaa&eritre? STEEVENS. 


be to loath her. O curfe of marriage, 
That we can call thefe delicate creatures ours, 
And not their appetites ! I had rather be a toad, 
And live upon the vapour of a dungeon, 
Than keep a corner in t^e thing I love, 
Frr others' ufes. Yet, 'tis the plague of great ones j 
Prcrogativ*d are they lefs than the bale : 
'Tis deftiny unlhunnable. like death ; 
Even then this ' forked plague is fated to us, 
AYhen we do quicken. Defdemona comes J : 

Enter Dejdemcna, and ^Emilia. 

If (he be falfe, O, then heaven mocks itfelf ! 
I'll not believe it. 

Def. How now, my dear Othello ? 
Your dinner, and the generous iCanders 4 
By you invited, do attend your prefence. 

n aHufion to a ktrifJ or ftrM arrow, 
which, once infixed, cannot be extracted. JOH vsox. 

Or rather, the forked plagu is the cuckold's horns. PE*CY. 
Dr. Johnibn may be ri^ht. I meet with the lame thought in 
Middkton's comedy of, A Mod ff'orUary Mtfers, 1608 ; 
** Whik the broad arrow, \vith the forked beoJ t 
** Mifles his brows but narrowlir.* 
Again, in Kng Lear: though the^r-f inrade 

The region of my heart. - 

Mr. Malone fupports the explanation of Dr. Percy, by the fol- 
lowing pafTage in Machin's Dumb Knigbt, 1653 : 

** Women, why were you made for man's affliction ? 
* You devik, ftiap'd like angeis, through whole deeds 
** QurfirkeJ jba>*es are made moft vifibte.^ 

Again, from ^arba>ti Nfivrs nt ofPxrgatorie; " dub the old 
Squire Knight ot the farted order? STE VE HS. 

} Dffltmoma ameti} Thus the quartos. The folio reads: 
Look where Jbe COOKS. STEEVEXS. 

* the generous iflaruieri] Are the tflaoders of raai, ftia&on. 
So, in Mtjurtfcr Meofur,: 

1 be generous and grave ft crdzens 
Have hent the gates. 

GoovKi has here the power of genero/ia t Lat. This explana- 
tion, however, may be too particular. STEEYKNS. 

M m 4 Qtb. 


Otb. 1 am to blame. > 

Def. Why is your fpeech fo faint ? are you not weil 

Oih. I have a pain upon my forehead here. 

Def. Why, that's with watching; 'twill away again t 
Let me but bind it hard, within this hour 
It will be well. 

Otb. s Your napkin is too little ; 

[Ske drops her handkerchief. 
Let it alone. Come, I'll go in with you. 

Def. I am Very forry that you are not well. 

[Exeunt Defd. and Otb* 

Mmll. I am glad, I have found this napkin ; 
This was her firii remembrance from the Moor : 
My wayward hufband hath a hundred times 
"Woo'd me to Heal it ; but me fo loves the token, 
(For he conjur'd her, (he mould ever keep it) 
That (he referves it evermore about her, 
To kifs, and talk to. I'll have the work ta'en out, 
And give it lago : 

What he'll do with it, heaven knows, not 1 5 
6 1 nothing, but to pleafe his fantafy. 

Enter lago. 

lago. How now ! what do you here alone ? 
JEmiL Do not you chide ; I have a thing for you* 

5 Tour napkin, &c.] Ray fays, that a pocket handkerchief is ib 
called about Sheffield in Yorkfhire. So, in Greene's Never too 
late, 1616 : 

" I can wet one of my new lockeram napkins *vith weeping.'.' 
Napcry Signifies llnnen in general. So, in Decker's Honeft If/jare, 

1635 : " prithee put me into wholfome napery." 

Again, in Chapman's Mayday, 1611 : " Befides your munition, 

of manchet, nafcty^ plates, &c." 

Again, in Hide Park, by Shirley, 1637 : " A gentleman that 

loves clean napay?' Naperia, Ital, STEEVENS. 

6 / nothing, but to pleafe his faniajy.~\ Thus the -folio. The 
quarto, 1622, reads: 

I nothing faovj l:it for his fantafy. STEEVENS. 

IMS. You have a thing for me? it is a common 

MmL Ha 

To bre a foolifh wife. 

O, is thai all? What will you give me no w 
For that lame handkerchief? 

I*g*. What handkerchief ? 

JEmL What handkerchief? 
Why, that the Moor firft gave ID DdbVmooa; 
That which fo often you- did bid me fteaL 

logo. Haftflokn itfcxn her? 

ALmaL No ; bat (he let it drop by negligence ; 
And, 7 ID the advantage, I, being here, took it up. 
Look, here it is. 

lags. A good wench ; give it roe. 

sEmil. What will you do with k, that you have 

been fo eameft 
To have me filch it? 

Imgo. Why, what is that to you ? \Smatdxx* it. 

jEmiL If k be not for fome purpofc of import, 
Give k me again : Poor lady ! fhe'll run mad, 
"When fhe (hall lack it. 

logo. * Be not you known on't ; I have ufe for it. 
Go, leave me. " / . ~ . 

I win in Caffio's lodging iofe this napkin, 
And kt him find it: Trifies, light as air, 


Are, to the jealous, confirmations ftrong 

As proofs of holy writ. This may do ibmething. 

The Moor already changes with my poifon : 

Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poifons, 

Which, at the firft, are fcarce found to diftafte 5 

But, with a little ad upon the blood, 

Burn like the mines of fulphur. I did fay fo : 

Enter Othello. 

Look, where he comes ! Not poppy, 9 nor mandra- 


Nor all the drowfy fyrups of the world, 
1 Shall ever med'cine thee to that fweet fleep 


- nor mandragora,] The mandragoras or mandrake has a 

foporific quality, and the ancients ufed it when they wanted an opiate 
of the moil powerful kind. So Ant. andCleop. A6h I. Sc. 6. 

" give me to drink mandragora t 

* ( That I may fleep out this great gap of time 
'* My Antony is away." 
So, in Hey wood's Jew of Malta, 1633. 

" I drank of poppy and cold mandrake juice, 
** And being afleep," &c. 

Again, in Mukajfts the Turk, 1610 : 1 

" Image of death, and daughter of the night, 
" Sifter to Lethe, all-oppreffing fleep, 
" Thou, that amongft a hundred thoufand dreams, 
" Crown'd with a wreath of mandrakes, fit'ft as queen, 
" To whom a million of care-clogged fouls 
" Lye quaffing juice of poppy at thy feet, 
*' Refign thy ufurpation !" STEEVENS. 
' Shall ever medicine tbee to that fiveetjlccp, 

Which thou hzdilytfaraay.] The old quarto reads, 

Which thou owedft yejlerday. 

And this is right, and of much greater force than the common reacl-t 
ing: not to fleep, being finely called defrauding the day of a debt 
of nature. WARBURTON. 

To owe is, in eur author, oftener to poflefs, than to le indebted^ 
and fuch was its meaning here ; but as that fenfe was growing lefs 
ufual, it was changed unneceflarily by the editors to hadji \ to the 
fame meaning, more intelligibly exprefled. JOHNSON. 
So in The Revenger's Tragedy, by Cyril Tourneur, 1607 ' 
*' The duke my father'i murder'd by the vaflkl 
" Who owes this habit." 



Which thou ow'dlt yefterday. 

Otb. Ha ! ha ! falfe to me ? to me ? 

Ja*o. vV 7 hy, how now, general ? no more of that. 

Otb. Avaunt ! be gone ! thou haft fet me on the 

rack : 

I fsvear, 'tis better to be much abus'd, 
Than but to know't a little. 

logo. How now, my lord ? 

Otb. What fente had I of her ftolen hours of luft ? 
I faw it not, thought it not, it harm'd not me : 


SojinA&xmazari 1610: 

4i Who art thou? 

" Th* unfortunate pofleflbr of dm houfe. 

" Thou ly'fi, bafc fycophant; my worihip *aw it," 


* Wbatfetf bad /, &c.] A fimilar pafiage to this and what fol- 
lows it, U found in an uipalxJktJ oagi-comedy by Thomas Middle- 
ton, called THE WITCH. 

* I feek no eafe, the burthen's not yet off 
*' So long as the abuie flicks in my knowledge. 
** Oh, 'tis a paine of hell to know one's ftiame! 
. Had it byn hid and don, it bad ben don happy, 

*' For he that's ignorant li res long and merry." 

Had'ft thou byn fecret, then had I byn happy, 
'* And had a hope (like man) of joies to come. 
*' Now here I Itand a ftayne to my creation, 
*' And, -.vhich is heavier than all torments to me, 
< The underilanding of this bale adukery, to:." 
This is utter'd by a jealous hufband who fimpofes himielf to hare 
juft deilro/d his wife. 
Again, logo {ays: 

Dangerous conceits, &c.- 

with a little aci upon the blood 
Burn like the mines of fulphur. 

Thus SAaftuu* in Middkton's pJay : 

* 4 When a fufpeft doth catch once, it burnes maynely." 
A fcene between Fraacifca and her brother Aaanh t when (he 
firit excites his jealoufy, has Ukewiie feveral drcumftances in com. 
rnoa with the dialogue which pafles between log* and Othello OB the 
iarne fubjed., 

This piece contains alfo a paflage Tery firoogly refembling 
another in Haaitt t who iajs: " I am but mad ' north-north- 


I flept the next night well ', was free, and merry j 
I found not Caffio's kifies on her lips : 
He that is robb'd, not wanting what is (lolen, 
Let him not know it, and he's not robb'd at all. 

lago. I am forry to hear this. 

Oth. I had been happy, if the general camp, 
Pioneers and all, had taited her fweet body, 
So I had nothing known : O now, for ever, 
Farewei the tranquil mind ! farewel content ! 
Farewel the plumed troop, and the big wars, 
That make ambition virtue ! O, farewel ! 
4 Farewel the neighing deed, and the Ihrill trump, 


weft : when the wind is foutherly, I know a hawk from a hand- 
faw." Thus, Almachildes : ' There is fome difference betwixt 
ray joviall condition and the lunary-tfafe of madnes. I am not 
cjuightout of my witts: I know a bawd from an aqua-vitae (hop, a 
Itrumpet from wild fire, and a beadle from brimftone." 

For a further account of this MS. play, fee a note on Mr. Ma- 
i lone's Attempt to a/certain tlx order in which the pieces of Sbakefpeare 
ivere written : Article, Macbeth. ST E E v E N s . 

3 1 Jlept the next night well, was free and merry ;"\ Thus the 
quartos. The folio reads : 

I llept the next night well, fed well ; was free and merry. 

* Farewel the neighing ftecd, and the Jin-ill trump, 

The fpirit-Jiirring drum, the EAR-PIERCING ffij\ Dr. Warbur- 
ton has otfereAfear-jpefag, fa fear-difperjing. But ear-piercing is an 
epithet fo eminently adapted to the^/f/e, and fo diilind from the 
ihrillnefs of the trumpet, that it certainly ought not to be changed. 
Dr. Warburton has been cenfured for this propofed emendation 
with more noife than honeity, for he did not himfelf put it in the 
text. JOHNSON. 

Ike Jpirit-fiirring drum, th" 1 ear-piercing ffi,] In mentioning the 
fife joined with the drum, Shakefpeare, as ufual, paints from the 
life; thofe inltrtiments accompanying each other being ufed in 
his ages by the Englifh foldiery. The fife, however, as a martial 
inftrument, was afterwards entirely difcontin-.ed among our troops 
for many years, but at length revived in the war beipre the bit. it 
js commonly luppofed that our foldiers borrowed it from the High- 
landers in the lalt rebellion : but I do not know that thejrfe is pe- 
culiar to the Scotch, or even ufed at all by them. It wasfirft ufed 
Within she memury ot man among our troops by vhe Britim guards, by 



The fpirit-ftirring drum, the ear-piercing fife, 
The royal banner j and all quality, 


oidcr of the duke of Cumberland, whem they were encamped at 
Madbkfat, in the year 1747, and thence fopn adopted into other 
ngtifh regiments of infantry. They took it from the Allies with 
whom they (erred. This inflrumenl, accompanying the drum, 
if o cnefiderable antiquity in the European armies, particularly the 
Gennan. In a curious pidure in the Afhmokan Mnfetun at'Qr- 
ibrd, painted 1525, reprcfeating the fiege of Parla by the French 
king, where the cmycror was taken priibcer, we feejfifo and Jnau. 
In an old Engiiih treatife written by William Canard before 1587, 
andpubEfced by one captain Hichcock in 159^ indrkd Tbe&trf 
Jl'srrc, there arc fcrerai wood cutsof saifitary evolutions, in. which 
tfcete icitruments are both introduced. In Rjatr's Fmdtra, in a 
diary of king Henry's fiege of BuOoigae 1544, mention is made of 
the JnmmnwA vigors marching at the head of the kicg's army. 
Tom. XT. p. $3. 

The Jmt and & were alfo much ufed at andcaifefliwh, fecw^ 
and puKeftKB. Gerard Leigh, is his Adasx tfjrmrrit, printed 
in 1576, describing a Quiftmas magnificerjdycelebnued at the Ia 
ner TempJe, iays, * We entered the p^nce his haii, where anon 
* we heard the noyle of drsm and ffff p. 119. Ac a atery 
maique on Shrove-Suriday 1510, ia which Eecry VUL was an 
actor, Hofinffced mentions the enay '* cf a r*m and^& apparelled 
* in white damafrg and grcse bcnrjenes." Chron. iii. 805. col. z. 
There are many more inlioncei ia Hcliufhed, andS^owe's Ssrry tf 

From the old French word cr^ar, sbore-dted, camel 
word ^o&jjEr, which ancientry was u&d ia its proper kieral fenfe. 
Strvpe, Ipcaking of a gr^cd tilrirg beibre tie court ic queen M-ry's 
reign i$>-f, tars, frm an ckl joarns", that king Philip a^d the 
challengers entered the lifb, preceded by *' their v:tijkrs t ihcir 
** rootmen, and their armourers. 1 * EceleC Meraor. iii. p. 21 1 This 
exp!aios the u:e of :he word in Shakerpeare, where it is slfo lixnUy 
applied. lfa.V.A^.4.Sc,iilc. 

** beboic the Bnui beach 

s Pales in the food with men, with wires and boys, 
" Wboie fhoots a ad ckps out-roke the deep-moutii^ fea, 
Which like a JB% sakfer 'tote the king, 
M Seems to prepa*e fc ; s way." 

By degrees, the word ca&#er bence acquired the rcetapboncal 
ineanmg, which it ~: common ipecch. and be- 

came an appellation of coaierapt, . i ^ht trivial chazackr, 

*fturji blffti. .-.iiox. 



Pride, pomp, and circumftance of glorious war ! 
And O you mortal engines, 6 whole rude throats 
The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit, 
Farewel ! Othello's occupation's gone ! 

lago. Is it poflible ? My lord, 

Oth. Villain, be fure thou prove my love a whore ; 
Be fure of it ; give me the ocular proof ; 

[Catching hold on him 
Or, by the worth of mine eternal foul 7 , 
Thou hadft been better have been born a dog, 
Than anfwer my wak'd wrath. 

lago. Is it come to this ? 

Oth. Make me to fee it; or (at the leaft) fo prove it, 
That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop, 
To hang a doubt on : or, woe upon thy life ! 

lago. My noble lord,. 

Oth. If thou doft (lander her, and torture me, 
Never pray more : 8 abandon all remorfe ; 


In the old dramatic piece, intitled Wine, JSeer, Ale^ and Tolatte^ 
zd edit. 1630. Molucca fays to Beer : 

" it will become your duty to obey me.'* 
To which Wine replies : 

" You our fovereign ! a mere wbjjlerf* 
Again, in Ram- alley, or Merry Trieks, 1611 : 

' he was known 

" But only for a fwaggering wbiffler." STEEVEICS. 
5 Pride , pomp, and circumftance of glorious war /] Sir William 
TfAvenant does not appear to have been fcrupulous of adopting 
almoft Shakefpeare's own words. So, in Alltyvine, \ 629 : 
** Then glorious war, and all proud circumftance 
" That gives a foldier noife, for evermore farewell? 


whofe rude throats] So Milton, P. L. B. 6. 

" From thofe deep-throated engines," &c. 
The quarto 1622. reads " whofe wide throats" STEEVENS. 
7 mine eternal foul^\ Perhaps the quarto, 1622, more forci- 
bly reads : 

man's eternal foul. 

Shakefpeare might have deligned an oppofition between man and 

dog. &TEEVENS 

' abandon, all remorfe;] Remorfe^ for repentance. 

3 I rather 


On horror's head horrors accumulate ; 
Do deeds to make heaven weep % all earth amaz'd 5 
For nothing can ft thou to damnation add, 
Greater than that. 

lago. O grace ! O heaven defend me ! 
Are you a man ? have you a foul, or fenfe ? 
God be wi' you ; take mine office. O wretched fool, 
That liv'ft * to make thine honefty a vice ! 

monftrous world 1 Take note, take note, O world, 
To be direct and honeft, is not fafe. 

1 thank you for this profit ; and. from hence, 
I'll love no friend % fith love breeds fuch offence. 

Otb. Nay, flay : Thou fhould'ft be honeft. 

lago. I mould be wife ; for honefty's a fool, 
And lofes that it works for. 

Otb. J By the world, 

I think my wife be honeft, and think flic is not ; 
I think that thou art juft, and think thou art not; 
I'll have fome proof: Her name, that was as freih 
As Dian's vifage, is now begrim'd and black 
As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives, 
Poiibn, or fire, or fuffocaring ftreams, 
I'll not endure it. 'Would, I were fatisfied ! 

lago. I fee, Cr, you are eaten up with paffion ; 
I do repent me, that I put it to you. 
You would be fatisfied ? 

I rather think it is, Let go all fcruplcs, throw afide all reftraints. 


I believe, rtmarfe in this inftance, as in many others, iignifies 
fit?. STEEVEXS. 

' Do JeeJt to make ixavem <ur^,] So, in Meafiare for Meaftrt; 
" Plays fuch tantaltick nicks before high heaven 
** As m*ke the axgek <uxet. STEEVENS. 
1 That liVfi] Thus the quarto. The fbiio-/&* l*?ft-^ 


fab] The word anciently ufed inftead of><r; and f 
the quartos read. STEEVENS. 

* By tbt iwrUj &c.] This fpeech is not in the firft edition. 


544 O T H E L L d, 

Oil. Would ? nay, I will. 

lago. And may ; But, how ? how fatisfied, riiy 

lord ? 

Would you, the fupervifor, grofsly gape on ? 
Behold her tupp'd 4 ? 

Oth. Death and damnation ! O ! 

lago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think, 
To bring 'em to that profpedl : Damn them then, 
If ever mortal eyes do lee them bolder, 
More than their own ! What then ? how then ? 
What mail I fay? Where's fatisfadlion? 
It is impofiible, you mould fee this, 
5 Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys, 
As fait as wolves in pride, and fools as grofs 
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I fay, 
If imputation* and ftrong circumftances, 
Which lead directly to the door of truth, 
v Will give you fatisfaction, you might have it. 

Otb. 6 Give me a living reafon that fhe's difloyal, 

lago. I do not like the office : 
But, fith I am enter'd in this caufe fo far, 
Prick'd to it by foolifh honefty, and love, 
I will go on. I lay with Caflio lately ; 
And, being troubled with a raging tooth > 
I could not fleep. 

There are a kind of men fo loofe of foul, 
That in their fleeps will mutter their affairs ; 
One of this kind is Caffio : 

4 Behold her tupp'd ?] A ram in Staffonlflure and fome othe* 
counties is called a tup. So, in the firlt ad : 

an old black ram 

Is tupping your white ewe. STEEVENSJ 
3 Jffff they as prime as goats, ] Prime is prompt, from the 
Celtic or Britifti prim. H A N M E R. 

So, in the Vtrt9-]rT$aker % or the Fairs Maid of Clrftoti, 1636 : 
** More prime than goats or monkies in their prides." 


e Give me a living rcafun ] Living, for fpeaking, mani- 
feft. WARBU^TON, 



In deep I heard him fay, Sweet Defdemoxa, 
et us be wary^ let us bide our loves !" 
And then, fir, would he gripe, and wring my hand j 
Cry, O fweet creature! and then kifs me hard, 
As if he pluck'd up kifies by the roots, 
That grew upon my lips : then lay his leg 
Over my thigh, and figh, and kifs; and then 
Cry, Curjidfate! that gave tbee to the Moor I 

Otb. O monftrous ! monftrous ! 

lago. Nay, this was but his dream. 

Otb. But this denoted 1 a foregone conclufion ; 
* 'Tis a Ihrewd doubt, though it be but a dream. 

lago. And this may help to thicken other proofs, 
That do demonftrate thinly. 

Otb. 1*11 tear her all to pieces. 

lago. Nay, but be wile: 9 yet we fee nothing 

done ; 

She may be honeil yet. Tell me but this, 
Have you not fometimes lien a handkerchief, 
Spotted with {Irawberries, in your wife's hand ? 

Otb. I gave her fuch a one ; 'twas my nrft gift. 

lago. I know not that : but fuch a handkerchief^ 
(I am fure, it was your wife's) did I to-day 
See Caffio wipe his beard with. 

Otb. If it be that, 

lago. If it be that, or any, if Was hers, 
It fpeaks againft her, with the other proofs. 

Otb. O, that the Qave had forty thoufand lives ; 
One is too poor, too weak for my revenge ! 

1 a foregone conclufion :] Gwtds^on, for fah 


' OtheU Ta a JbrrxJ Jnlt, &c.] The old quarto gives this 
fine, with the two following, to i.'goj and rightly. 


I think it more naturally fpoken by Othello, who, by dwelling 
fo long upon the proof, encouraged lago to enforce it. JOHNSON. 

9 yet w fee mt&ay &*e ; J This is an oblique and fccret mode 

at Othello's faying, Give ate the tcular frivf. W AXB. 

VOL. X. N n Now 


1 Now do I fee 'tis true. Look here, lago ; 

All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven : 

'Tis gone. 

Arife, black vengeance, from thy * hollow cell! 

Yield up, O love, thy crown, and 3 hearted throne, 

To tyrannous hate ! 4 fwell, bofom, with thy fraught, 

1 NO--V do I fee 'tis true. ] The old quarto reads, 

No-.'j do I fee 'tis time. 

And this is Shakefpeare's, and has in it much more force and fo- 
lemnity, and preparation for what follows : as alluding to what he 
had faid before : 

No, Ia%o ! 

Til fee lefore I doult, when I doubt, prove ; 
And, on the proof, there is no more but this , 
Away at once with love orjealoufy. 
This time was now come. WARBURTOV. 

* bollavj hell!] This is a poor unmeaning epithet. The 

old quarto reads, 

Arij'e black vengeance from tfy hollow cell ! 

Which the'editors not knowing what to make of, altered it as above. 
It mould be read thus : 

Arift, black vengeance, frcm the unhallow'd cell! 
Meaning the infernal regions. WARBURTON. 

The hollovj hell is the reading of the folio. I do nor perceive that 
the epithet hollow is at all unmeaning, when applied te hell, ai it 
gives the idea of what Milton calls 

" the void profound 

Of unefTcntial night." STEEVEXS. 

3 hearted *ritr] Hearted throne is lhange nonfenfe. The 

old ciuarto reads, 

and harted throne : 

Which the editors took for a word mif-ft-clt, whereas it was a word 
tnifcalkd. We fhould read, 

Yield up, oh love, thy crown and parted throne : "' 
i. r. thy throne which was parted between me and Dei'demona : thi* 
preients us with a fine image. The union of Othello and Del- 
demona was fo perfecl, that love divided his throne between them : 
which he is now bid to refuine, and give to hatred. 


Hearted throne, is the heart on which thou wail enthroned. 
Parted throne has no meaning. JOHNSON, 

lago uies the lame word, though wirh a meaning fomewhat dif- 
ferent: " -My caufe is Leaned? STEEVENS. 

4 fwell, bofom, &c.J i. e. jh;ell t becaule the fraught is of poi- 



For 'ris of afpicks' tongues ! 

lago. Pray, be content. 

Otb. O, blood, lago, blood ! 

lago. Patience, I fay ; your mind, perhaps, may 

Otb. Never, lago : [? Like to the Pontic fea, 
Whofe icy current and compulfive courfe 
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on 
To the Proponric, and the Hellefpont ; 
Even fo my bloody thoughts, with violent pace, 
Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love, 
'Till that a capable 6 and wide revenge 
Swallow them up. Now, 7 by yond'marble heaven,} 
In the due reverence of a facred vow [He kneels, 
I here engage my words, 

5 ^Ukf t* tbf Pmaic fa, &:c.] This Smile is omitted in the 
firfi edition : I think it ihould be lb, as aa unnatural excurfion in 
this place. POPE. 

Like the Poetic Jem*] Every leader will I durft fay, abide by 
Mr. Pope's cerifure on this paflage. When Shakefpeafe grew ac- 
quainted with fuch particulars of knowledge, he made a difplay of 
them as foon as opportunity offered. He found this in the Second 
Book and q;th Chapter of Pliny's Ka. Iff, as tranfiated by 
Philemon Holland, 1601 : " And the fea Pon-us evermore flc^rcth 
and runneth out into Prcpontis, bat the fea nerer retireth backe 
agsine within Pontus.* 

Mr. Edwards, in his Mff. notes, conceives this fim;!e to al^ade 
to Sir Philip Sidney's device, whofe impre(s, Camden, in his 
Remai**, fays, was the Cafp:aa Tea, with this motto, SINE 

* a capable a*d=xiJc rvangi 
Cokoblt\ Ample; capacious. So, in As jam lite it; 
The cicatrice and cajobli imprelTure. 

So, in Plo-ce PnrJlys bh SeppHcotiax to lit Dft:7 t by Nafhc, 
1595: " Then belike, quoth I, you make this w-ri Dznicn, a 
jrfrrf*- name, of Gods, of men, and of devib.'' M A LO v E. 

i IgymJl marble btovts,] In SsUsxta oaJ PnfcJa? i ,'99, I 
find the fame expidEon : 

** NowbytbeorMrfaceoftheire!kia > ''ic. STEEVEXS, 

So ; in Mtntoa's^f*^ <uJMeida, 1602 : 

And pleas'dtheaur&r heaTens." M ALONE. 

N n 2 1 .-;:. 


I ago. Do not rife yet. {lago kneeU. 

Witnefs, you ever-burning lights above ! 
You elements that clip us round about! 
Witnefs, that here lago doth give up 
The execution 8 of his wit, hands, heart, 
To wrong'd Othello's fervice ! 9 let him command, 


* Tie execution] The firfl quarto reads excellency. 


' let hint command, 

And to ol'fy, Jball be in me remnrfe, 

What bloody bujlnefs ever.} Thus all the old copies, to tlie ira- 
nifcft depravation of the poet's fenfe. Mr. Pope hasaitempted :m 
emendation, but with his old luck and dexterity : 

Not to ol-y^ Jball be in m'f raaorfe, &c. 
I read, with the change only ot a iingle letter: 
Nor, lit obey, Jhallbe in me reinorji, &c. 

i. e. Let your commands be ever" fo bloody, remorfe and compaiTioR 
lhall not veil rain me from obeying them. THEOBALD. 

Let him command, 

And to obey ^Jhallbe in me rrworfc t 

IFhat bloody bufvxfs ever.] Thus the old copies read, but evi- 
dently wrong. Some editions read, Net to. obey ; on which the 
editor Mr* Theobald takes occafion to alter it to, Ner looby ; and- 
thought he had much mended matters. But he miitook the found 
end of the line for the corrupt: and fo by his emendation, the 
deetf-deCgning I^go is foolilhiy made to throxv otF his mafk, when 
he had moil occufion lor it; an.l without any provocation, ftand 
before his captain a villain confeflcd ; at a time, when, for the 
carrying on his plot, he fliould make the leaft (how of ir. For 
thus 31r. Theobald forces him to !:,}, 1 Jball have no ranorfe to ofay 
yi.'a'r commands, bow bloody 1'ievcr the bufinefs be. But this is not 
Shake! pea re's W.HV of preferving the unity of character. lago, till 
now, pretended to be one?, who, thoi'gh in the trade of war he had 
ilain men, yet held it the very iluff of thexonfcience to do no con- 
trived murder; when, oj a ludden, without caufe or occaiion, he 
owns himfelf a ruffian without rcmorjl, Shakefpeare wrote and 
pointed the pafl&ge thus : 

Let him command, 

And to eoyJbaU be in me. R E M o R D 
K'.'.-at bloody bujlnej} ever. 

i. e. however the bufinefs he fets me upon may (hock my honour 
and humanity, yet I piomiie to go through with it, and obey with- 
out referve. Here lago fpeaks in character, while the fenfe and 
made better by it. So Skeltoti '. 



And to obey (hall be in me remorfe, 


A*J[fj* b&frlmmtU 
Asjtmttxmu be mm/I Turt icmorae. 


Of thefc two coiesdaooas, I believe, Theobald's w ill bare toe 
greater number of fuffrages ; it has a: leait mine. The objst^oa 
againft Ac propiteij of the declaration in lago, is a cavil ; be does 
cot fay that he has no principle of rcmonfe, but that it fhall not 
operate againit Othdb's commands. T tkaJbtUbein me, far I 
ciJiAfyjwB, is a mode of expzdfcoa not worth the pains here 
taken to introduce it ; and the word rcmerJe has not in the quo* 
trion the-naeanicg of xxit*4 l or rsatr n&Zot, but ofnfr+ot, 
Of zafm ; nor do I know that k is uled bv any of the Gomera- 

I win offer an interpretation, wix, if n be receircs;, \vili make 
fc*T'ipm unnecefiar)-, but it a very harih aad violent. I-go 
devotes Hmfcif to wronged Otheflo, aaa fey 5 , 7-r/ /%< "trr j 
w&atpptr tmm Imfmjf^ and in me it fiiaH be aa a^, co: of crucify , 
but ff trmtrmfi. If mty L'^m ; not of maiice to others, but of 
trmdmf/s tor him. It this feafe be thought too violect, I fee 
nothing better than to follow Pope's reading ss it U ici r sored 
by Theobald. JOHXSOX. 

La fn'a mmmamf f 
Jt Jyjmtl ie i. me rcmerfe, 

Ht*timm **rt**->xr.] Mr. Upton, in his Cr^. O3~ 
p. 200, propaie- 10 read : 

Tins reading the aaibar or Tl-f Rr?;j*l approves ; and Mr. 
Edwards ieems to acqweke in that of Theobald. 

The tfi<g-;rat cxendarioos of di&reat cominenrarors are laid 
before the pub jc for its deaenuutarioo on their msrirs ; acd I 
beEere die preienr one, who is to throw ja his conjoctuie with die 
refl, may lay at bit with Deiphobus, 

- fxpid* mtmtrmm, nJJarqme lemAris. 

lago oners, in the tnott ibiemn manner, to riique himfeif for the 

ierrke of Oihelb. Let Ixm cvmmama, fays he, U6u.Vvvr &!*$, 

k*Jiar/}, and the remfffe that ibllows the perpetration or fuch a deed 

-&dlkatirebmjfs* r It fluul be rAr^ im me, im mt jiw. I 

cot only andenake to execute the bloody part or the bu duels, but 

like A i'e take upon myjeSf the berran of TCHK^JC inieparabie frorq 
the action. lago makes ufc of this fpecious argument, the bcncr 
to prevail oa Ochelia to enmiu the murder to bii hands. 

After aU, 1 bdicrc Dr. Johnfoa's iaterpretadoa to te the left; 
N n j an4 


What bloody work foever J . 


an 1 can only claim the merit of fupporting his fenfe of the word 
remorCe, i. e. pity, by the following inftances. 
Thus, in Meafitre for Mea/ure, Aft 2 : 

Biit yuii might do't, and do the world no wrong, 
If fo your heart was touch'd with that rcmorje 
As mine is to him. 
Again, Aft 5 : 

My lifterly remorfe confutes mine honour, 
And I did yield to him. 
Again, in Julius Cajar, Aft 2 : 

The abufe of greatnefs is, when it disjoins 
Remcrfc from power. 

In Lord Surreys Tranjlation of the \tb JEneid, Dido fays to her 
filler: " Sifter I crave thou have remorfe of me." 

Again, in King Ed-near d III, 1^99, that Prince fpeaking to the 
citizens of Calais : 

" But for yourfelves, look you for no remorfe? 
Again, in Sir Ciyowon Knight of tie Golden Shield, 1 599 : 

" Who taketh no remorfe of womankind." 
Again, in Sir John Oldcajile, 1 600 : 

*' Here ftand I craving no remorje at all." 

I could add many more inftances, but fruill content myfclf to ob- 
ferve that the fentiment of lago bears no fmail refemblance to tiiat 
o: Arviragus in Cymbeline; 

" I'd let a parifh cf fuch Clotens blood, 
*' And praife myleif for charity." STEEVENS. 
If I am not deceived, this pailage has been entirely miflaken, 
I read : 

" Let him command. 
" An' to obej'fhali be in me remorfe, 

" \Vhar bloody buiinefs ever- " 

dnd for if is fufficientlv common : and OttcLVs impatience 
breaks off the fencencej I think, with additional beamy. 


Before I faw Dr. Johnfon's edition of Shakefpeare, my opinion 
of this paflage was formed, and v/ritten, ar.d thus 1 underlloud ir ; 
" Let him command any bloody buiinefs, and to obey ihall be in 
me an aft of pity and compaffioa for wrong'd Othello. Remoril 
frequently figniries pi'y, mercy, compallion, or a tendernefs of 
heart, unattended with the ftiugs of a guilty conlcience. So, 5a 

1 What biootly -wark /orjer.'] So the r.-mrtos. The icliu : 
What bloody bujiacfi ever. T E E v E .v s . 


Otb. I greet thy love, 

Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteous,' 
And will upon the inftant put thee to't : 
Within thefe three days let me hear thee fay, 
That Caffio's not alive*. 

lego. My friend is dead ; 'tis done, at your requeft ; 
But let her five. 

Otb. Damn her, lewd minx ! O, damn her ! 
Come, go with me apart ; I will withdraw, 
To furnifh me with fame fwift means of death 
for the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant. 

logo. I am your own for ever, [Exaat. 


ifaprfrr apartment in tbe caftle. 

Ester DefdcmauL, ALmilia^ and 

Dtf. Do you know, firrah, where lieutenant Caffio 


down. I dare not fay, he lies any where. 
&;f. Why, man? 

Cfazn. He is a foldier; and for me to % a foldier 
lies, is dabbing. 

Jkf. Goto; Where lodges he ? 

72r T&a GfvtlememifFenm*, AA 4. Sc. 3. dae cnoide& g!aiaour 
So, in E** Rid~r* III, Aa 3. Sc. 7. 

fine Ac fcnrant had committed DO previous crime, bat toocbed 
wiih pity and onmpalfion (at Giouceiicr's lu&rings oppoied tbe 
jgnvatioa of than. So, in Hdin&ed's C^^ 0f IrAuA. 
p. 15. "to hare rnmji and compafion upon others difirtfies j" 
and m the ilndifarion, * to have rcgatd and rimer* to your fod 
land,"* TOJ.I.ET. 

N n 4 C..:;-;. 

55 2 OTHELLO, 

Clown. To tell you * where he lodges, is to tell you, 
where I lie. 

Def. Can any thing be made of this ? 

Clown. 1 know not where he lodges ; and for me 
to devife a lodging, and fay he lies here, or he lies 
there, were to lie in mine own throat. 

Def. Can you enquire him out ? and be edify 'd by 
report ? 

3 Clown. I will catechize the world for him; that 
is, rmke queftions, and make them anfvver. 

Def. Seek him, bid him come hither : tell him, I 
have mov'd my lord in his behalf, and hope, all will 
be well. 

Clown. To do this, is within the compafs of man's 
\vit j and therefore I will attempt the doing of it. 


Def. Where fhould I lofe that handkerchief, Emi- 

JEmil. I know not, madam. 

Def. Believe me, I had rather have loft my purfc 
Full of ^ cruzatloes : And, but my noble Moor 
Is true of mind, and made of no fuch bafenefs 
As jealous creatures are, it were enough 
To put him to ill thinking. 

JEvnil. Is he not jealous ? 

Def. Who, he ? I think, the fun, where he was 

Brew all fuch humours from him. 

* To tellyou, &c.] This and the following fpcech are wanting 
in the firft quarto. STEEVENS. 

3 Clown. / vjill catec bize the luorlel for hi,n ; that is, make qucjlicm, 
ttndby them anfw?r.~\ This Clown is a fool to fotne purpofe. He 
\yas to gofeek for one; he fays, he will afk for him, and by his 
own queftions make anfvver. Without doubt we fliould read, ap<l 
bid them anfuaer ; i. c. the world ; thofe whom he qiieitions. 


4 cruzadoes: ] A Portugueze coin, in value three 
fterling. GREY. 

o called from the crofs ftamped upon it. JOHNSON. 


ml Look, where he comes. 
Dff. I will not leave him now, 'till Caflio be 
Call'd to him. How is it with you, my lord ? 

Enter Othello. 

Qtb. Well, my good lady : [4&fe] O, hardnel* 

to diffemble! 
How do you, Defdemona ? 
Dff. Well, my good lord. 
Otb. Give me your hand: This hand is moift, my 

Def. It yet hath felt no age, nor known no for- 


Otb. This argues fruitfulnefs, and liberal heart ; r 
Hot, hot, and moift : 5 This hand of yours requires 
A fequefter from liberty, fairing and prayer, 
Much caftigation, exercifc devout ; 
For here's a young and fwearing devil here, 
That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good band, 
A frank one. 

Def. You may, indeed, fay fo ; 
For 'twas that hand that gave away my heart. 
Otb. A liberal hand : * The hearts, of old, gave 

hands ; 
But our new heraldry is hands, not hearts. 


5 ffaf, &f, axJae'j?:] Ben Jonfbn ieems to hare attempted a 
r.dicule on this paiiage, in Every man nl of his Haannr* Ad 5. 
Sc. 2. where Sogjiardo ^ys to Sariotina : * How does my fweet 
Jjdv? bet asJ maijit beau tins! and ioftv?" STEETEXS. " 
* fbt Aearts, * *U, gtm bonk .; 

Bat no- new heraldry is t>a*.is, mot hearts.'] It is evidect 
that the firft fine (hoald he